(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "History of the Ohio state university"




^'^ o; c<^' 






BOOK 378.77 1.0H3 ZH v.8 pt. 1 c. 1 
OHIO » HISTORY OF OHIO STATE 
UNIVERSITY 



3 T153 DD120564 



OV\\t^. 'bip^-lt Uv^.O0^i\^^ eoUv>>low^. 



History of The Ohio State University 

VIII 



THE 
BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

1940-1956 



Part 1: The University in a World at War 

1940-1945 



by James E. Pollard 



THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY 

COLUMBUS, OHIO 

1967 



^ 






COPYRIGHT, 1967 
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY 







Howard Landis Bevis, S.J.D., LL.D. 

Seventh president of The Ohio State University 

1940-1956 



:t 



To 

Those thousands of Ohio State University men and 
women who shared the burdens and the fruits of 
World War 11, but especially to the 699 whose names 
are enshrined forever on the Honor Roll. 



Printed in the United States of America 



INTRODUCTION 

Much of what occurred on the Ohio State University campus 
during the first half of the administration of Howard L. Bevis 
has been dealt with in the so-called '75-year" history, entitled 
"History of the Ohio State University, 1873-1948." This was 
undertaken in connection with the year-long observance of three 
quarters of a century of the University's operation from its 
opening in September, 1873. 

As has been pointed out, there is some confusion in the 
University History series. Volume I was edited by Thomas C. 
Mendenhall, of the original faculty, from the manuscript of 
Alexis Cope, longtime secretary of the Board of Trustees and 
business manager. It covered the period from 1870 to 1910. 
Actually it dealt also with the years from the passage by 
Congress in 1862 of the Morrill or Land-Grant Act to the 
enactment by the Fifty-Ninth Ohio General Assembly in March, 
1870 of H.B. No. 29. This latter act was fathered by Representa- 
tive Reuben P. Cannon, of Aurora, Portage County, to "estab- 
lish and maintain a Mechanical and Agricultural College." 

Volume II, which appeared in 1926, was written by Prof. 
Osman C. Hooper and covered the years from 1910 to 1926. 
But Volume III, which was issued in 1921, was concerned 
with the observance of the University's fiftieth anniversary in 
October, 1920. Volume IV, now out of print, consisted actually 
of three volumes. It was the work of Profs. Wilbur H. Siebert 
and Edgar H. McNeil, especially the former, and had to do 
with the University's part in World War I. 

Volumes V, VI and VII were special ones limited to spe- 
cific events. Volume V contains the addresses and proceedings 
incident to the formal inauguration of President Howard L. 
Bevis on October 24-25, 1940. This volume appeared in 1941. 
Similarly, Volume VI bears the title, "Addresses and Proceed- 



VI INTRODUCTION 

ings of the Seventy-Fifth Anniversary, 1948-49." It was pubHshed 
in 1951. Volume VII came out in 1959 under the title, "Addresses 
and Proceedings of the Inauguration of Novice G. Fawcett — 
Dedication of Mershon Auditorium, April 29, 1957." 

The current volume, officially No. VIII, Part 1, in the series, 
was authorized during the war. It followed a recommendation 
made at the alumni war conference in June, 1943 that work be 
begun "at once" upon such a history. The project took shape 
in the spring of 1944. A three-man committee was named, of 
which the writer was a member. The work of gathering ma- 
terial got under way with Asst. Prof. Marlin K. Farmer, of 
history, as supervisor, working with O. Joe Olson, assistant 
editor, Alumni Monthly. Olson made a start on the writing 
but both he and Dr. Farmer left the campus before long. The 
project was dormant for a decade or more when it was revived, 
expanded to cover the entire Bevis administration — 1940 to 
1956, and assigned to the present writer. The Farmer-Olson 
material was turned over to him and some of it — clippings, spe- 
cial reports, memoranda, etc. — proved very useful. 

No such work would be possible without the help and 
assistance of many others. This is particularly true of portions 
of the manuscript which were read by persons who had taken 
part in certain major activities and therefore had first-hand 
knowledge of them. In this connection special acknowledgment 
is. extended to Howard L. Hamilton, former secretary, Col- 
lege of Arts and Sciences, in regard to the Navy Recognition 
School; to Prof. Karl W. Stinson, on the Civilian Pilot Train- 
ing Program and the School of Aviation; to Thomas E. Davis, 
associate executive director, Research Foundation, on wartime 
research; to Prof. Norval Neil Luxon, wartime coordinator of 
special training programs; and to Prof. Henry E. Hoagland, 
who served in several special capacities. The photographs came 
mainly from the photo history division with the help of M. Ruth 



INTRODUCTION Vll 

Jones, plus some from the U.S. Army Signal Corps. The layouts 
were made by Louis A. Treboni of the University Relations staff. 

Special thanks are due also to Milton Caniff for permission to 
use his poem "Homecoming." 

The Honor Roll (Appendix A) could not have been com- 
piled without the invaluable and continual help of the Alumni 
Records division, and especially of Mrs. Jan Jones, of that office. 
Further help in verifying names and other data was provided 
by the office of Dean O. Clark, University registrar. Still other 
valuable assistance of this kind was given by the Military Per- 
sonnel Records Center, St. Louis. 

Finally, the writer is indebted to Vice President John T. 
Mount, of Educational Services, and to Frederick Stecker, 
executive director. University Relations, for reading the manu- 
script in its entirety and for helpful suggestions. 

Part 2, to follow, will deal with the remaining eleven years 
of the Bevis administration. 

J. E. p. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 
Introduction v-vii 

I. A President Is Chosen 1-5 

II. Pre-Pearl Harbor 6-32 

III. Pearl Harbor and After 33-65 

IV. Acceleration and Change 66-85 

V. Special Training Programs 86-116 

VI. Staff and Other Changes 117-139 

VII. Wartime Research 140-184 

VIII. Money and Building Problems 185-197 

IX, Looking To the Post- War Years 198-228 

X. The Cost In Blood 229-253 

"Homecoming" 254 

Appendix A — (Honor Roll) 255-274 

Appendix B — (Staff Leaves of Absence) 275-284 

Index 285-291 



A PRESIDENT IS CHOSEN 



)owN to 1956, when it ended, the administration of 
Howard Landis Bevis, was the second longest in the 
history of the Ohio State University. Only that of 
Dr. William Oxley Thompson, the fifth president, was longer. 
Dr. Thompson was president from July, 1899 until his retire- 
ment at seventy on November 5, 1925. The Bevis presidency 
ran from February 1, 1940 through July 31, 1956, or sixteen 
years and six months. 

This was a momentous period. During the nineteen months 
between the retirement of President George W. Rightmire and 
the arrival of his ultimate successor, the University was in the 
capable hands of Dean Emeritus William McPherson, of the 
Graduate School, who, to his surprise, was brought out of 
retirement unexpectedly to serve as acting president. During 
those months the search for a new president went on. Since 
the details of this quest have been described elsewhere, it needs 
only to be summarized here.* 

An influential segment of the faculty wanted someone 
brought in from the outside, in short, a "name" president. 
Others strongly favored J. L. Morrill, '13, who in 1932 had 
become the first vice president the University ever had. He 
had been alumni secretary from 1919 to 1928 and from then 
until he was named vice president he had been junior dean 
of the College of Education. 

The presidency was actually offered to Dr. Arthur H. 
Compton, whom the Trustees met secretly at Marion, Ohio. 
Dr. Compton, a Nobel prize-winning physicist, was then on 
the University of Chicago faculty and was one of the three 

*Cf. History of the Ohio State University, 1873-1948, pp. 338-39, 344-46. 

1 



Z THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

famous Ohio-born Compton brothers. In the end, Dr. Comp- 
ton decHned the offer, saying in effect that he did not wish to 
be tied down with administrative work although six years later 
he became chancellor of Washington University, St. Louis. 

Although many names were screened that of Dr. Bevis had 
come under early consideration. He was a native of Ohio, 
had practiced law in Cincinnati from 1910 to 1918 and was 
professor of law at the University of Cincinnati from 1921 to 
1931. He was director of finance in the administration of 
Governor George White who then appointed him to a vacancy 
on the Ohio Supreme Court. He served again as state finance 
director during the first part of the administration of Governor 
Martin L, Davey. In 1935 he became Ziegler professor of law 
and government at Harvard University where in 1920 he had 
earned the degree of doctor of juristic science. During his years 
in Columbus he had become well and favorably known on 
the campus. The Trustees formally elected him to the presi- 
dency at their January 8, 1940 meeting. 

After a preliminary trip in January, Dr. Bevis arrived to 
stay on February 1, 1940. He spoke that noon at a luncheon 
meeting of the Ohio Newspaper Association in annual con- 
vention at a downtown hotel. After that he went to his office, 
hung up his hat and went to work. 

The 16-year Bevis administration proved to be a time of 
sweeping change, not only for the campus but, as it turned 
out, for the world. The formal Bevis inauguration took place 
on October 24-25, 1940. In less than fourteen months the 
disaster at Pearl Harbor plunged the United States into a global 
war that was to last for nearly four years more. But even 
before the shooting war ended plans were in the making for the 
campus changeover to peace time. Then came the veterans' 
"bulge" and a period of unprecedented University expansion, 
and, following that, the post-war phase of still more change 
and maturation, a sort of educational "growing up." 



A PRESIDENT IS CHOSEN 



By mid-summer of 1940 the new administration was well 
launched. At the July 27, 1940 meeting of the Trustees, Dr. 
Bevis reported the creation of a six-man Committee on Emer- 
gency Cooperation with the Federal and State Governments 
"to advise with him concerning matters arising from the emer- 
gency growing out of the European war." The committee con- 
sisted of himself as chairman. Vice President Morrill, Dean 
Charles E. MacQuigg (Engineering), Prof. Henry E. Hoagland 
(Commerce), Prof. Burrell B. Spohn (Agricultural Extension), 
and Secretary Carl E. Steeb. 

Dr. Bevis recommended that a Trustee be added to the 
committee and Carlton S. Dargusch was named. Deans Alpheus 
W. Smith (Graduate School) and Dr. Charles A. Doan (Medi- 
cine) were added later. This was because of the direct con- 
nection between their academic areas and the national defense 
and research picture. 

Dr. Bevis had been in oflfice just short of nine months 
when he was inaugurated. Two hundred and one other col- 
leges and universities, including thirty-nine from Ohio, along 
with thirty-three learned societies were represented at the exer- 
cises, held in the Men's Physical Education building. Under 
the general theme of "The Social Responsibility of the Uni- 
versity," five assemblies were held on Thursday, October 24 
dealing, respectively, with the University and agriculture, the 
professions, industry, social services, and humane living. The 
inaugural dinner was held that evening at the Neil House 
with speakers representing the student body, the alumni, the 
faculty, the Ohio colleges, the state universities, and the Land- 
Grant colleges. President Bevis made a brief response. The 
formal inaugural was held the next morning in the men's 
gymnasium with President Emeritus George W. Rightmire 
presiding. President Clarence A. Dykstra, of the University of 
Wisconsin, a former Ohio State faculty member, spoke on 
"The University's Responsibilities in Training for Citizenship." 



THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 



He was followed by President James B. Conant, of Harvard 
University, who discussed "The University and a Free Society." 

The new President was inducted formally into office by 
Trustee Herbert S. Atkinson, '13. In closing his charge, Atkin- 
son voiced "the earnest hope and the supreme confidence that 
your administration of this great office will be productive and 
successful and distinguished. For you I bespeak the generous 
loyalty of alumni and students; the inspiration and indispen- 
sable assistance of your fellows in the Faculty; the continuing 
concern of public officials and of the General Assembly of 
Ohio upon whose interest and support the institution must rely; 
the good will and understanding of the constituent people of 
Ohio to whom it belongs." He pledged "the firm support" of 
the Trustees "in the exercise of your difficult duties." 

In reply, Dr. Bevis accepted his responsibility, believing "this 
University to be an instrument of social progress and I accept 
its leadership in reliance upon that unseen Power which gives 
to Man his ceaseless yearning for a better life." He said he 
shared the belief also "that the door of opportunity must be 
kept as widely open to qualified students as our resources will 
permit." This was upon the further "conviction that the very 
preservation of democracy depends upon the wide diffusion of 
learning." On the problem of scholastic standards it was his 
opinion that while "We owe our entrants a fair chance to 
prove that they can do our work," the University's "glory . . . 
is in the steady purpose to elevate our standards and improve 
the quality of our work. To that purpose we shall adhere." 

Apart from formal education he touched on the Univer- 
sity's services to the state at large. "Both on and off the campus," 
he asserted, "we stand four square for constitutional free speech. 
We stand for academic freedom. We recognize, of course, that 
free speech may be bad taste or bad manners, and we feel 
no compulsion to provide halls or platforms for empty or 
offensive mouthings .... But we expect our teachers to 



A PRESIDENT IS CHOSEN 5 

present the full results of their studies and researches with 
no inhibitions save those of their own good judgment. . . ." 

He foresaw that "the demands upon tax supported institu- 
tions are bound to grow heavier, and the provision of tax 
revenues for their support more difficult." The University, he 
added, would welcome and "seek to merit private support" 
but would "have to rely chiefly upon the generosity of the 
people through the General Assembly." He emphasized that 
"the money put into education is the most productive invest- 
ment the State makes." On behalf of the University he pledged 
a "frugal administration." On the educational side, he went 
on, the problem was to know the student's aptitudes, tastes 
and capacities and then to "build programs to fit the require- 
ments of most if not all of our students." He closed on this 
note: 

For us who cherish the civilization wrought by the cham- 
pions of free spirits and free minds events now making may 
strike the hour of destiny. In that civilization I was bred, in 
it I want to live. In my firm belief its perpetuation depends on 
faith and knowledge, faith to keep us facing to the mark 
though mists obscure and mountains rise between; knowledge 
to implement that faith and multiply our powers. To that end 
I would dedicate myself. To that goal I would point this uni- 
versity. 




II 

PRE-PEARL HARBOR 
1. The Shadow Grows 

ORE than a year before Pearl Harbor the University, 
like the nation, began to take steps geared to the 
changing international situation. At the start of the 
Autumn Quarter, 1940, President Bevis announced that the 
Board of Trustees had authorized a refund of fees to students 
entering the Armed Forces during the quarter. At the same time, 
he emphasized, "Young people of college age and ability are 
being urged that their greatest contribution to national defense 
is to continue preparation for useful lives." 

The campus R.O.T.C. unit v^^as the second largest of its 
kind in the United States. But as instructors. Reserve officers 
were replacing Regular Army officers who were being assigned 
to the Army's newly mechanized field artillery units. Another 
sign of the times was that the number of applicants for ad- 
vanced R.O.T.C. training exceeded the University's quota of 
363 by 40 per cent. 

Vice President Morrill, Dean of Men Joseph A. Park and 
twenty-seven other members of the staff were assigned to 
assist with the Selective Service registration at the Armory of 
men students between the ages of 21 and 35. It was estimated 
that between 2000 and 2500 would register. President Clarence 
A. Dykstra, of Wisconsin and, as indicated, a former mem- 
ber of the political science faculty at Ohio State, was named 
national director of Selective Service. Lt. Col. Lewis B. Hershey, 
formerly on the campus R.O.T.C. staff, was deputy director. 
In time Col. Carlton S. Dargusch, w'25, a member of the 
Board of Trustees, became deputy director when Hershey suc- 

6 



PRE-PEARL HARBOR / 

ceeded Dykstra. The latter, who was on the Bevis inaugural 
program, was called away on that occasion by a summons from 
Washington. 

The lives and fortunes of the draft registrants were affected 
by the formal drawing of draft numbers by lottery on October 
29 in Washington. The first number drawn was 158. 

The Selective Service Act provided for automatic deferment 
for students until the end of the school year but made no pro- 
vision for college or university teachers or employes. Three 
questions arose: whether to seek deferment for the latter when 
requested by department or division heads, whether to decline 
all such cases, or whether to assess the "indispensability" of 
staff members or employes and then to ask for their individual 
deferment. The Board instructed Dr. Bevis, with the help of 
the deans and others, to "appraise comparatively the so-called 
'indispensability' of teachers and employes who request Uni- 
versity intervention in their behalf or for whom intervention 
may be sought by others familiar with the nature and impor- 
tance of their services, and in turn to make representations to 
appropriate local draft boards requesting deferment of military 
training under the Selective Service and Training Act for 
such teachers and employes as he may deem worthy of such 
action." 

There was a question also as to staff members and others 
holding Reserve commissions. On this the President was directed 
to follow "the same procedure of comparative appraisal" as 
above and to make "representations to the appropriate Corps 
Area Commanders requesting deferment of active duty for such 
teachers and employes as he may deem worthy of such action." 
Under Selective Service, moreover, local draft boards could 
place certain students in Class II-A if they were "necessary" 
men in preparation for industry, business, employment, an agri- 
cultural pursuit, governmental service, and other lines. 

While the nation and the University began to gird for 
national defense the Roosevelt-Willkie presidential election con- 



8 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

test moved toward its climax. The Roosevelt try for a third 
term had echoes on the campus. Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr. spoke 
October 17 in the Commerce Auditorium in his father's behalf 
under the auspices of the Young Democratic Club. The attend- 
ance was given as 400. 

But there were dissenting voices on the campus also. One 
was that of Mark Hopkins, Ohio district secretary, American 
Student Alliance, who addressed the campus chapter of the 
Alliance a few days later in the Social Administration audi- 
torium. "Our election has been reduced," he complained, "to 
a Hider-like plebiscite in which the people have only the choice 
of voting *ja' for war and fascism." The election of either 
major candidate, he asserted, would be in the direction of "a 
military dictatorship." 

Three points of views were presented at a "peace rally" 
held November 12, 1940 in front of the Library. One was 
that of the pacifists advocating complete non-intervention. A 
graduate student urged aid for the Allies. A spokesman for 
the American Student Alliance labeled the war an imperialistic 
struggle and called for isolationism. 

Late in the fall of 1940, the Thirty-Seventh Division, the 
Ohio National Guard unit, began training at Camp Shelby, 
Miss. In time it was to go to the South Pacific where it was 
to be engaged in heavy fighting and earned a distinguished 
record. It was under the command of Maj. Gen. Robert S. 
Beightler, w'13. Many of its officers and men were from the 
campus. 

Toward the end of November, 1940, organization of the 
49th Hospital Unit, U.S.A., was being completed on the campus 
with personnel from the Colleges of Medicine and Dentistry. 
Dr. John W. Means, a lieutenant colonel, was director of the 
unit. Many of the top men on the medical staff held commis- 
sions in it. 

Dr. N. Paul Hudson, chairman of bacteriology, on a year's 
leave of absence with the Rockefeller Foundation in France, 



PRE-PEARL HARBOR 



was transferred to England to help control the spread of influ- 
enza. While in London he went through some of the worst 
bombing the British capital suffered. Some months after his 
arrival there he wrote predicting that "The actual invasion of 
England can never possibly succeed." 

Two steps taken in November, 1940 reflected the rapidly 
changing situation. One was the announcement by Dr. A. Ray 
Olpin, director of the University Research Foundation, that 
the annual Industrial Research Conference would not be held 
because of "unsettled conditions." The other was the appoint- 
ment of Dean Charles E. MacQuigg, of the College of En- 
gineering, as adviser for the northern half of Ohio in connec- 
tion with an intensive program of technical training for na- 
tional defense. 

On the campus. Prof. Harry E. Nold, of mine engineering, 
was put in charge of a program of courses "of college grade 
but not carrying University credit." These courses, which hun- 
dreds of men and women were to take, were designed to 
train inspectors of materials, chemicals, explosives and power 
units, and to serve other related purposes. By December 10 
there were more than 180 applications for admission to the 
twenty-two courses proposed. 

An echo of the depression days carried over in the fall of 
1940 with the National Youth Administration, commonly 
known as N.Y.A., still in operation. The annual Federal allot- 
ment to the University for this purpose was $158,000 which 
was enough to employ 1280 students. William S. Guthrie, '32, 
in charge of student employment, was project director. Student 
applications were classified according to financial need, along 
with their academic records. Individual allotments were figured 
at a maximum of $15 a month. 

A student labor code submitted by die Student Labor Board 
called for 35^ an hour as the minimum wage for students work- 
ing in restaurants, fraternities and sororities. It was estimated 
that 5000 students worked at least part time of whom 1000 



10 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

were in the above group. To comply with the state code 
the minimum hourly rate was raised later to 38V4 an hour. 

A Works Progress Administration (W.P.A.) official estimated 
in December, 1940 that in the last five years that agency had 
spent $4.5 million on the campus and had employed 900 daily 
workers. They toiled on such projects as the hospital wing, the 
Social Administration building, the Derby Hall little theater, 
the Buckeye and Stadium Clubs, the Chemistry building addi- 
tion, and the Poultry Science building. In addition, they had 
painted nearly every building on the campus, had built more 
than five miles of campus roads, and helped with other major 
developments. 

A major step in closer and continuing cooperation among 
the five state-supported universities had been taken early in 
1939 with the organization of the Inter-University Council of 
Ohio. President A. H. Upham, of Miami University, was its 
first chairman. At its first meeting on January 17, 1939 the 
Council called the conclusion "inescapable and must be frankly 
faced by all concerned that the state should not embark upon 
the impossible purpose to build five equally large, highly spe- 
cialized, and all equivalent universities." At its seventh meet- 
ing on November 26, 1940 the Council agreed upon a sort of 
division of labor. Ohio State was to develop and prosecute 
graduate work at the Ph.D. level, along with "specialized tech- 
nological training" and professional education "such as Law, 
Medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary Medicine, Pharmacy, etc." The 
others were to "find their fields for constructive expansion, 
in response to public demand, in liberal arts . . . , education, 
business and commerce," with programs leading to the bach- 
elor's and master's degrees, 

Ohio State had taken a leading role in the organization 
of the Council and Vice President Morrill became its first sec- 
retary. In his first annual report, President Bevis foresaw that 
the recent move "in our earnest hope and belief, may have 
far-reaching and constructive significance for the state." This 



PRE-PEARL HARBOR 11 

proved to be the case. The Council served both as "an advisory 
and consulting body," helped the universities to make common 
cause in and out of the General Assembly, and made for the 
best cooperation among them that they had ever known. 

Early in the Bevis administration also the Trustees, aided by 
a faculty committee of which Prof. Hoagland was chairman, 
worked out a much improved plan for faculty retirement. 
Trustee Carlton S. Dargusch was a prime mover in this project 
which greatly improved the retirement benefits. In January, 
1941 the Board approved a related step in the form of group 
life insurance. To this end all faculty salaries were increased by 
$1 a month to meet the cost. Permanent members of the teach- 
ing staff were required to participate in the plan which replaced 
an earlier one adopted in 1939. 

On the student front a weekly Prexy's Hour in his office 
was begun January 23, 1941 by President Bevis. "Students are 
perfectly welcome to come to my office at any time," he 
emphasized, "for a discussion of any problem, whether it be 
a personal one or one of common interest. The purpose of 
this hour is to inject the personal element into my association 
with the student body." If any inducements were needed, re- 
freshments were served. Attendance ranged from 100 to 175. 

Although two dormitories for women, Oxley and Mack 
Halls, had been provided in 1908 and 1923, respectively, through 
state appropriations, the outlook from that source was dark 
for similar facilities for men except for some expansion of 
the Stadium Dormitories. This dilemma was solved by the 
passage of a law in 1938 to permit the University to issue 
bonds for dormitory and other self-liquidating purposes. As an 
early result what became Baker Hall, a dormitory for 550 
men, and Canfield Hall, to house 175 women, were completed 
in 1940. The former cost $791,250 and the latter $356,808, of 
which 45 per cent came from P.W.A. grants. The remainder 
was borrowed from the State Teachers Retirement System and 
was to be repaid by retirement of the bonds. 



12 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Early in 1941 there was still opposition from Columbus 
rooming house operators to any state help to meet the grow- 
ing need for more dormitories. One of their spokesmen was 
State Rep. Joseph Nailor who introduced a bill in the legisla- 
ture that winter to forbid the building of additional dormitories 
at the state universities, but especially at Ohio State. "If the 
University is permitted to continue dormitory building," he 
told the House committee on education, "it will become a 
menace to the city of Columbus." 

To this President Bevis replied that if the Nailor bill passed 
"it would be indeed unfortunate for the students of Ohio State." 
In a letter to the committee, Dr. Bevis called the bill "contrary 
to sound public policy" and said that its enactment would 
"constitute a disastrous reversal of the long continued policy" 
of the General Assembly. Early in March, fortunately, the 
bill was killed in committee. 

A few days later University officials were trying to identify 
the source of numerous mimeographed bulletins posted in cam- 
pus buildings asking students to support civil liberties and urging 
the defeat of the Nailor and Phillips bills. The bulletins were 
signed: "Communist Party, Franklin County." They strongly 
opposed also any part in "this imperialistic war," and called 
the conviction of Earl Browder, secretary of the Communist 
Party, "a flimsy technicality." 

2. Many Voices 

Many kinds of voices were heard on the campus, downtown 
and elsewhere as to the national policy to be pursued in the 
mounting international tension. One example was a debate 
downtown in January, 1941 on "Should Universal Military 
Training Be Made Permanent?" Prof. Harold J. Grimm, of 
history, took the negative. "A system of permanent universal 
military training is, in my estimation," he declared, "not only 
contrary to American traditions but it is incompatible with 
the democratic way of life." An opposite point of view was 



PRE-PEARL HARBOR 13 

taken by R. H. Stone, commander of the Ohio American 
Legion. 

That same month a bill was introduced in the legislature 
to withhold funds from all state universities that did not bar 
un-American activities from their campuses. The sponsor was 
Senator H. T. Phillips who had introduced similar measures 
in previous legislatures. The bill, if adopted, would make it 
unlawful to circulate literature tending to aid or abet the over- 
throw of the present form of government or the substitution 
of another form "by means other than the orderly processes." 
The proposed penalties were fines of $50 to $100 for the first 
offense and $100 to $500 for repeaters. 

A gloomy view of the effects of the national defense pro- 
gram on the nation's economy was taken by Prof. H. F. 
Walradt, of economics, in a talk at the downtown Y.M.C.A. 
"I cannot face the future with any optimism," he commented. 
"Whichever nation wins the war it will be in a weakened condi- 
tion. Tax revenues will fall off. War costs will continue, and 
we can expect a depression as bad or worse than the one we 
have just been through. We will then start recovery with a 
debt of probably 150 billion dollars. It will mean a lowering 
of the standard of life for the individual and the community." 

An unauthorized campus "peace strike," which was part of 
a nationwide protest by liberal or leftist students against being 
drawn into the European war, caused a stir in the latter part 
of April, 1941. A group of students formed a Committee for 
Democracy in Education. They claimed that the administration 
refused permission to hold the "strike" despite their willing- 
ness to modify their program. About 300 attended an unauthor- 
ized meeting at 10 a.m. April 23 in front of the Thompson 
statue at the head of the Oval. President Bevis held that the 
group had not complied with University rules governing such 
matters. He said further that any such meeting should present 
both sides of the issue. 

The distribution that morning of mimeographed handbills 



14 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

advertising the meeting and telling of the administration's 
"refusal" to permit it to be held complicated matters. Dr. Bevis 
insisted "there was no refusal." Those in attendance voted to 
send President Roosevelt a telegram protesting the sending 
abroad of any expeditionary force, or the use of U.S. ships to 
escort convoys. There were two speakers, a Columbus minister 
and a representative of the Southern Negro Youth Conference. 

Two students, a junior and a senior, were picked up by 
Columbus police and questioned after distributing the hand- 
bills at 15th Ave. and High St. City police said they acted upon 
complaint of campus police. Two other students were taken 
to the office of the Dean of Men that morning for helping to 
pass out the handbills. 

The Lantern of April 24 reported that six students faced 
disciplinary action before the Student Court for their part in 
the doings. After a meeting of the Council on Student Affairs, 
Dean of Men Park announced that University recognition of 
the campus chapter of the American Student Alliance was with- 
drawn immediately "because of defiance of University regula- 
tions Wednesday by a group using the name of the Committee 
for Democracy in Education." Bella Tracht, A-4, president of 
the A.S.A., disclaimed before the C.S.A. any connection between 
the A.S.A. and the committee. Prof. Cecil C. North, A.S.A. 
faculty adviser, insisted that all evidence that the A.S.A. alone 
had instigated the "peace strike" was purely "circumstantial" 
and that A.S.A. members taking part did so "only as individ- 
uals." But Dean Park replied that the C.S.A. inquiry had 
disclosed that "The Committee for Democracy in Education was 
appointed at a meeting of the American Student Alliance and 
that leaders in the committee are members of the Alliance." 

The same issue of the Lantern reported that the committee 
which circulated petitions incident to the "peace strike" dis- 
tributed another circular the same day accusing the University 
administration of "frequently violating civil liberties on the 
Ohio State campus." Dr. Bevis called the accusation "untrue" 



PRE-PEARL HARBOR 



15 



and pointed out that "no effort was made to prevent the meeting 
Wednesday" (the "peace strike"). Commented the Lantern: "In 
view of these facts, the action to strike seemed somewhat hasty. 
Perhaps tliere is need for a mediation board on the campus." 

A day later, April 25, the chief justice of the Student Court 
defended that body, pointing out that its "sole and only func- 
tion" was to determine whether the meeting violated the rules 
and whether the six students were implicated. This followed 
an A.S.A. meeting which voted to send a letter to Dean Park 
demanding immediate reinstatement. The group planned an 
appeal also to Governor John W. Bricker and to the faculty, 
denied responsibility for the "peace strike," and gave full sup- 
port to the Committee for Democracy in Education and the 
six students involved. 

The Student Court on April 28 recommended a reprimand 
for the six students but no further action. It remarked also that 
"certain members of the University administration, in turn, 
might have acted with more discretion." Dr. Bevis and Dean 
Park declined to comment on the finding. A Student Senate 
resolution two days later commended the Student Court for 
its handling of the case. 

President Bevis in an official statement May 6 approved the 
action of the Student Court in disposing of the "peace strike" 
case. "The only injury done," he remarked, "is that to the 
University due to the publicity resulting from false statements 
in the dodger calling the meeting. It is to be hoped that those 
responsible for these statements realize the harm they have 
done their Alma Mater." In a letter to one of the speakers, 
President Bevis emphasized: "That you were led to violate 
the legal University regulations is a matter of regret. That no 
issue of free speech or free opinion was involved is perfectly 
clear." 

That spring other dissident voices were heard on the issue 
of war or peace, many from the campus but some from among 
visiting speakers. A poll, conducted by Journalism students, 



16 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

among men of draft age, men under 21, and co-eds, showed 
an overwhelming majority opposed to U.S. entry into the war. 
About two-thirds were against U.S. convoys of war materials 
to Britain. Yet five-sixths of those polled believed that the U.S. 
would enter the war. 

Bolton Davidheiser, a fellow in zoology, was one of six 
conscientious objectors registered for Selective Service from Ohio 
ordered to report to Camp Richmond, Ind., to perform work 
of "national importance." He was a Quaker, whose home was 
in Pennsylvania. 

A pageant, "I Am an American," drew a throng of about 
4000 to the north end of the Stadium on May 19. The Univer- 
sity Band took part, the national anthem was sung, and there 
was a massing of the colors. President Raymond A. Kent, of 
the University of Louisville, the main speaker, talked on "The 
American Ideal." Four days later, Philip LaFoUette, of Wiscon- 
sin, speaking in the chapel under the auspices of the Student 
Peace League, declared "There is no question as to what the 
people of this country want — and that is no war." He added 
that he was opposed to the United States "fighting somebody 
else's war." 

But on June 4, Herbert Agar, Pulitzer prize-winning editor 
of the Louisville Courier-Journal, told an audience in the Com- 
merce Auditorium, "I believe we should go to war tomorrow." 
He was sponsored by the Student Defenders of Democracy. 
"I am not interested in the fate of the British Empire," he 
asserted, "but I am interested in the preservation of our demo- 
cratic ideals." 

A student move to bring ten refugee students to the campus 
the next year, meanwhile, was something of a fizzle. Of $2500 
sought for the purpose only $125 was collected, although out- 
side gifts later brought this to $290. 

University officials took stock early of the probable effects 
upon the enrollment and campus life of the operation of the 
Selective Service Act. Dean Park predicted correctly that the 



PRE-PEARL HARBOR 17 

law would result in a sharp decrease in enrollment in the fall 
of 1941. Of 9500 men students on campus in the winter of 
1941 it was estimated that 32 per cent were eligible for Selec- 
tive Service. 

Assistant Dean of Men Frederick Stecker warned the Council 
of Fraternity Presidents to "prepare for the worst in any ensuing 
emergency," that is, war. When it finally came many fraternity 
houses were vacated or were converted to other uses. Stecker 
urged each chapter to make an analysis to determine how 
many of its men would return in the fall of 1941, small chapters 
should try to fortify themselves, pledges should be trained so 
that they could take over major positions if necessary, and the 
fraternities should operate on a sound financial basis. 

Col. Otto L. Brunzell, R.O.T.C. commandant, said that all 
students completing the advanced military course would be 
called into active service in the Regular Army in the summer 
of 1941. But students not graduating in June, or those working 
in national defense industries, he added, were likely to be 
deferred. 

The shape-up reflecting the mounting involvement of the 
United States toward active participation in the war in the 
spring of 1941 was in two directions: the expansion of en- 
gineering courses cued to the national defense and in the effects 
of the Selective Service law upon men students. Early in May 
it was announced that five such engineering courses would be 
offered on the campus between June 18 and September 5. Three 
were to be basic engineering courses, one in the chemistry of 
explosives, and one in radio engineering. They were open to 
women as well as to men. The first such offerings were already 
in progress as evening courses. 

In regard to Selective Service, President Bevis named Dean 
Park coordinator of the University's program to help students 
registered under the act. About 3000 were so registered, 2096 
on the campus and the remainder with their local boards. To 



18 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

assist Dean Park there was a general advisory committee be- 
sides faculty committees in the various colleges. 

On May 6 some seventy-five deans, junior deans, college 
secretaries and members of college deferment committees dis- 
cussed procedures for students requesting deferment on occu- 
pational grounds. An announcement was read in all classes 
asking students registered for the draft, except graduating 
seniors not expecting to continue college work, to register with 
the Dean of Men's office. President Bevis and Vice President 
Morrill emphasized that not all students would be recommended 
for deferment just because they were studying in fields held 
essential for defense. Such recommendations would be made 
only for students having at least two years of college work 
beyond the high school, with average or better records, and 
"more than usual promise of effectiveness in their chosen occu- 
pations." 

3. Campus Changes 

A number of organizational changes were approved or oc- 
curred during the latter part of the 1940-41 school year. At 
their March 10, 1941 meeting the Trustees accepted the report 
of a special committee on the organization of a Faculty Coun- 
cil, but the minute gave no details. This was one of the most 
far-reaching steps the University had taken in many years since 
the new Council, in effect, supplanted the general faculty to a 
degree as a legislative body. 

A plan to establish a Faculty Council was presented in the 
fall of 1940 by a so-called Committee of Nine, appointed May 
28, 1940 by President Bevis, with Prof. Harlan H. Hatcher as 
chairman. The tentative proposal was submitted first to the 
Administrative Council, to the Conference Committee of the 
Teaching Staff, and to the Rules Committee. Later it went to 
the general faculty which approved the plan, after some revisions 
in the original, on February 11, 1941. 

The purpose was to give better representation to the faculty 
and to make for more efficient administration. The faculty had 



PRE-PEARL HARBOR 19 

grown somewhat unwieldy and, while it met monthly, interest 
in and attendance at meetings were at an ebb. It was difficult 
even to get a quorum although the minimum number required 
was only forty, or less than 10 per cent of the total. Of late 
years it was only on special occasions that as many as 100 faculty 
members attended. 

Basically the new plan called for a council of forty-five 
elected faculty members and fourteen ex-officio. The latter in- 
cluded the president, the vice president, the secretary of the 
faculty, and the deans of the ten colleges and the Graduate 
School. Elected members, representing fourteen interest "Areas," 
after die first election were to serve for three years. The reg- 
istrar, the librarian, the University examiner, and the college 
secretaries were to be corresponding members with the right to 
take part in discussions but not to vote unless elected as an 
area member. 

In support of the necessary rules changes, it was argued 
that they were "urgently needed," and "They will do much 
to restore democracy to the faculty. They will also promote 
efficiency in the administration of the institution. They are in 
the main current of the best tradition of administrative organi- 
zation and the most effective formulation of policy." 

Subject to the authority of the faculty and the approval 
of the Trustees, the Council was empowered to "establish rules 
and regulations for the conduct" of the University's educational 
activities, to "act upon all matters of routine faculty business 
in pursuance" of established policy, to "receive reports from 
all University Councils, Boards, Committees and Faculties and 
take appropriate action thereon," and to "present subjects for 
discussion and other matters of business to the University Fac- 
ulty for consideration and decision." 

But the Council was not to "exercise legislative functions 
in matters involving new educational policy for the University." 
It could initiate the discussion of new matters concerning such 
policy and "refer new questions with its own recommendations 



20 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

thereon" to the faculty for final action. It could also, "accord- 
ing to its discretion, act upon specific cases involving new 
questions of educational policy on which immediate action is 
imperative." In such cases it was to report its action to the 
next general faculty meeting "in order that the questions of 
educational policy may be determined." 

Once the new plan was in effect, the general faculty was 
to meet quarterly during the regular school year. Special meet- 
ings could be called by the president or through faculty petition. 

Among other changes an Occupational Opportunities Service 
was created in the President's division as of July 1, 1941. At 
their June 16, 1941 meeting the Trustees named the pathological 
museum founded by the late Dr. Ernest Scott, son of former 
President W. H. Scott, the "Ernest Scott Museum of Pathology." 
Dr. Ernest Scott was chairman of the department of pathology 
at the time of his death in 1934. They also approved the award 
of the Benjamin Lamme Medal to Harry C. Mougey, '11, '35, 
for his outsanding work in chemical research. 

At the July 26, 1941 meeting the Board approved a recom- 
mendation of outgoing Dean J. H. J. Upham, of the College 
of Medicine, for the establishment of a 3-year curriculum in 
nursing leading to a certificate of R.N. This was done "in 
the interest of national defense which has developed a grave 
shortage of nurses." Students enrolled were to have maintenance 
in dormitories — room, board, laundering of uniforms and re- 
mission of fees except matriculation. Early in November, 1941 
the Trustees authorized the creation of a department of pediatrics, 
effective at once, with Dr. Earl H. Baxter, '18, as chairman. 

For some time two special committees had been studying 
the complicated matter of standardizing faculty appointments, 
promotions and pay. Dean Walter C. Weidler, of the College 
of Commerce and Administration, headed the special Ad- 
ministrative Council (deans) committee. The faculty committee 
on Departmental Organization, Procedure and Control had 
Prof. Robert E. Mathews, of the College of Law, as its head. 



PRE-PEARL HARBOR 21 

President Bevis asked Dean Weidler and Prof. Mathews to 
suggest a joint plan for presentation to the Trustees. This 
they did on November 21, 1940. In a letter to the faculty 
February 14, 1941 Dr. Bevis said it seemed to him "the time 
is novv^ ripe for action." 

He presented the final report, entitled Academic Appoint- 
ments, Tenure and Promotions, to the Trustees at their July 
26, 1941 meeting. The introduction of the report emphasized 
"the imperative need for a united and constructive attack on 
the general problem with two objectives in mind. First, the 
formulation and adoption of sound criteria for the selection, 
retention and promotion of staff members and second, the de- 
velopment of procedures that will assure the Faculty and the Ad- 
ministration that the criteria adopted will be reflected in the 
administration of the affairs of this University." 

In the late 'Twenties a special Administrative Council com- 
mittee had begun work on a statement of faculty personnel 
policy and to fix criteria for appointments and promotions. 
After approval by the Council, the Trustees adopted this report 
on March 31, 1931. They amended this March 13, 1933 as to 
requirements for assistants and graduate assistants, and fixed 
the minimum salary for instructors at $1800. This action came 
about as a result of recommendations made by the so-called 
Klein Committee which went over the University with a fine- 
toothed comb in 1932-33. 

The 1940 faculty committee report pointed out that one- 
fourth of the instructors had been on the campus five years 
or more without promotion and that 9 per cent had not been 
promoted for ten years or more. Faculty sentiment was strongly 
against such a condition. The report conceded that "budgetary 
limitations and humanitarian considerations" were partially re- 
sponsible for these conditions. But it emphasized that "it is 
difficult to escape the conclusion that these unfortunate condi- 
tions are, in part at least, the more or less inevitable result of 
a failure to create a system or plan for their application." 



22 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

The report minced no words as to three other "specific 
conclusions": one that possibly "the claims of individuals, whose 
qualities merited promotion, have been neglected"; second, that 
persons of mediocre abilities and promise had been permitted 
to stay on the staff "with a resulting disservice to the University 
and to their own long run fortunes"; and third, the morale 
of the junior staff had been affected adversely "by long de- 
ferred promotions and by the uncertainties which surround the 
vitally important matters of tenure and advancement." With 
enrollment showing signs of leveling off because of the approach 
of war, the report added, considerations pointed to "the neces- 
sity of a more careful selectivity in matters of both retention 
and promotion than have obtained in the past." 

The University faced a two-fold task: one, "it is necessary 
not only to establish criteria for the selection, retention and 
promotion of the members of the staff, but also to set up a 
procedure or system which will offer a reasonable assurance 
that these criteria will be given effect," and second, "it is 
necessary to conserve not only the interests of the faculty but 
those of the institution as well." 

The report was fifteen printed pages long. After the Intro- 
duction and Statement of the Problem, Part III laid down 
fifteen principles as to Selection, Promotion, Privileges and 
Duties of Persons of Academic Rank. Part IV dealt with Ad- 
ministrative Implementation, and Part V with Application of 
Principles to Particular Ranks. Part V, among other things, 
set minimum faculty salaries as follows: instructors, $1800; as- 
sistant professors, $2750; associate professors, $3500; and pro- 
fessors, $4000. 

The Board at its July 26, 1941 meeting adopted the report 
in principle except as to minimum salaries because these were 
deemed "impractical" in the light of current conditions. The 
resolution provided further that "in so far as may be deemed 
feasible by the President, the provisions of the report be given 
immediate effect." The Board also declared the policy "of 



PRE-PEARL HARBOR 23 

putting the report into effect in its entirely whenever the finan- 
cial condition of the University may v^^arrant such action," and 
directed the President "to bring the matter to the later attention 
of the Board when, in his judgment, the University is in such 
financial condition." 

Five days before the Board meeting, Dr. Bevis sent a letter 
to the faculty to the effect that "The prospective decrease in 
our enrollment, with its attendant diminution of income, im- 
poses upon us an obligation to examine thoroughly the organi- 
zation and program of the University." Recalling that it was 
nine years since the Klein Committee had closely scrutinized 
campus offerings and activities, he named a new five-man 
committee "to investigate and make recommendations." The 
Council on Instruction had already begun a survey of courses 
and the Faculty Council had taken cognizance of the situation 
in late June. Dean Alpheus W. Smith, of the Graduate School, 
was chairman of the new committee. 

A related proposal by the Conference Committee of the 
Teaching Staff came to nought at this July 26 meeting. At a 
meeting nine days earlier, the committee voted to ask the 
President and Trustees to "consider the effects on the budget 
which a decrease in student fees will cause" and to counter 
this by declaring the resulting situation "a grave emergency and 
by requesting the State Board of Control to provide sufficient 
funds to make up the deficiency . . ." The committee hoped 
that the Board would "accept the suggestions made in the 
light of our desire to assist the University in adequately meeting 
its problems." By unanimous vote the Trustees laid the matter 
"on the table." 

The campus Student Refugee Committee sponsored four 
refugee students, two women and two men, in the Autumn 
Quarter, 1941. This was in cooperation with New York and 
Philadelphia agencies. The two men refugees were from Berlin, 
one girl was from Riga, Latvia, and the other from Kaunas, 



24 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Lithuania. Prof. Roland J. Stanger, of the College of Law, 
was chairman of the campus committee. 

Meanwhile the number of foreign students on the campus 
was down considerably that fall. In 1939 there were seventy-five 
such students. Now because of wartime conditions there were 
only twenty-five. 

A relatively small step that was to cast a much larger 
shadow twenty-five years later was approved by the Trustees 
at their November 8, 1941 meeting. This was to grant Franklin 
County certain parcels of land along the Olentangy River Rd. 
to permit the county, with W.P.A. help, to widen and improve 
the road. The improvement was in the vicinity of Lane Ave. 
and the River Rd. A minor provision was to permit the county 
to "enter upon the 6.15 acre tract," known as the Mary E. 
Hess tract along the east side of the road, to construct 1170 
feet of drain tile with catch basins. This was to extend "to 
a point in the flood channel of the Olentangy River." In 
1963-64 and later, the University, after adopting a new master 
plan which called for extensive development west of the river, 
was involved in a controversy over a county-state proposal to 
move the River Rd. westward close to the Chesapeake & Ohio 
Railroad. 

Another sign of the growing emergency in 1941 was the 
halt called to campus building plans. These involved nine 
projects, three of them major, for a total of $1,216,875. The 
only bids opened were well over the estimates. Not only were 
all bids rejected, but Washington officials asked everyone to 
hold construction in abeyance so that critical materials could 
be conserved for national defense. University officials were 
unable to obtain any certificates of priority. But Howard Dwight 
Smith, University architect, was authorized to go ahead with 
plans on all of the projects, instead of one building at a time, 
in the hope that the situation might clear up or some other 
solution would appear. 
In October, 1941, President Emeritus George W. Rightmire 



PRE-PEARL HARBOR 25 

returned to the campus voluntarily in a teaching capacity. He 
had a class of twenty-two, mostly juniors, in a course on 
democracy, a subject offered in the new General Studies pro- 
gram of the College of Arts and Sciences. 

4. The Annual Report 

An early innovation of the Bevis administration was a 
streamlined annual report. Such a report, technically by the 
Trustees to the Governor and the citizens of the state, is required 
by law. Actually the report is prepared by the president and 
his office. The one in question was the 71st Annual Report. 
In place of the earlier "stuffy" report by colleges, departments 
and other agencies, this was an attractive 50-page booklet with 
illustrations. 

This 71st report covered the school year ending June 30, 
1941. As the context showed, however, it went to press as the 
nation entered upon "a state of declared war with the Axis 
powers." As part of the University Bulletin series, it bore the 
date of February 14, 1942. (Some of the summary that follows 
is necessarily repetitious.) 

Dr. Bevis began the report with a special message to all 
alumni, to whom copies were sent. In explanation he said 
this was by way of "fulfilling a personal pledge to keep as 
close contact with graduates and former students as I can 
possibly manage." He voiced "a sincere conviction that the 
alumni are the University's front line constituency and that 
the outstretched hands in this relationship should reach in 
both directions." He called the alumni "the living manifestation 
of Ohio State," urged them "to help us" and cited ways in 
which the University was seeking to enable them to "keep in 
touch with the campus and 'keep up' in your field." 

He called special attention to the University's war effort. 
"We hope to write a very productive chapter in this emer- 
gency," he emphasized, "with our special research projects, with 
our accelerated program, with our adult evening training 



26 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

classes, with our R.O.T.C. regiment and with our civiUan, 
industrial, farm and labor institutes." He added that the Uni- 
versity was interested in alumni contributions to the war effort 
and invited the alumni to write to him personally. 

As to the declaration of war, he observed in a foreword, 
"In a very real sense we were at war before and our whole 
national policy was controlled by that fact." Yet after the 
Japanese attack, he added, "Unity came overnight." He put 
it in this vein: 

To the University too, the declared war has brought unity and 
increased tempo. The activities of faculty, students and University 
families are being channeled to national purposes. Systematic ef- 
forts are being made to give individual counsel to students in doubt 
as to their best courses of action. In the interests of the nation's 
defense, students are being urged to make the best use of their 
available time, so that they make take with them, when called to 
service, the best preparation they can secure. 

Ohio State University, alongside camps and factories, takes 
its place as an agency for arming the nation. 

While attention on the campus would be directed increas- 
ingly to the war effort in the months ahead, he noted in the 
introduction to the report that consideration would continue 
to "be given ... to advancing the frontiers of knowledge 
through experimentation and research, to disseminating that 
knowledge in the classrooms and off the campus, and to 
serving the citizens of the state." He stressed also the outreach 
of the University to the people of the state through extension 
work, the campus radio station, and "the on-campus and 
off -campus programs for people in many lines of endeavor, . . ." 
In this area he hoped that "even greater service" could be 
rendered. 

Dr. Bevis recalled the "important steps" taken during the 
year "to improve the effectiveness of the entire University 
program — its teaching, its research, its administration, and its 
public service." In this connection he cited the organization 
of the Faculty Council, the creation of the University Policy 



PRE-PEARL HARBOR 27 

Committee, and the extension of the work of the Council on 
Instruction. All of this, he went on, added up to how "the 
University is making a thorough self-appraisal of all its ac- 
tivities." This, in turn, reflected the belief that "there is always 
room for improvement" and that in return for the public 
investment the University accepted "without reservation its 
obligation to render service." 

In the months prior to Pearl Harbor, he recalled how the 
University entered into the government program of short en- 
gineering courses "of college grade" in the form of Engineering 
Defense Training courses directed by Prof, Nold. Between 
January and June 30, 1941 such classes were conducted under 
University auspices not only on the campus but in Middle- 
town, Springfield, Mansfield, and Martins Ferry. 

The University Research Foundation was another activity 
whose manpower and facilities were diverted largely to the 
needs of national defense. In particular it had the responsibility 
for negotiating and administering all government defense re- 
search contracts involving University personnel and equipment. 
As a beginning, during 1940-41 twelve such contracts were 
entered into. 

Other defense activities Dr. Bevis listed included: a co- 
operative plan devised by Dr. John W. Wilce in connection 
with aviation medicine; the Civilian Pilot Training program, 
begun in 1939, in which during the year ending June 30, 1941 
a total of 164 students were trained on the campus; a 3-year 
nursing training program, in addition to the regular curricula; 
assistance to the Army, Navy and Marine Corps in their 
recruiting programs, highlighted by a visit to the campus by 
Admiral Harry E. Yarnell as a result of which 97 out of 162 
men who todk the physical examinations were accepted. 

Other related items noted by Dr. Bevis, included: provision 
for a new military science building out of U.S. funds, expansion 
of the R.O.T.C. program, inauguration of a night school for 



28 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

non-college Army Air Corps* candidates, and assistance with 
the national Selective Service program. This last consisted in 
helping local Selective Service boards in reclassifying student 
registrants, with Dean of Men Park as campus co-ordinator 
and separate college committees to handle individual deferment 
applications and claims. 

On this last point the president emphasized that "The 
University has been careful to recommend deferment only for 
students preparing themselves as 'necessary men' in carrying 
on important civil functions, or in the defense programs. Stu- 
dents in the Colleges of Commerce, Arts and Sciences, and 
Education were seldom recommended for deferment since 
relatively few of them could qualify under the 'necessary man' 
requirement. The professional schools enjoyed a special status 
and almost all of their students doing satisfactory work were 
recommended for and received deferment." 

Apart from new activities related to national defense and 
to the regular academic program, the University extended its 
public service in 1940-41 in other ways. The Adult Evening 
School, for example, offered some seventy courses during the 
year with a total enrollment of 1400. In June, 1941 more 
than 450 alumni came to the campus for the annual Alumni 
College, a joint program of the Alumni Association and the 
College of Arts and Sciences. WOSU, the campus radio station, 
broadcast a wide variety of programs with a total of more 
than thirty-eight hours a week on the air. 

The professional colleges enlarged their outreach. In the 
College of Law the Legal Aid Clinic, in cooperation with the 
Red Cross, arranged to render legal service to men in active 
service and to members of their families. The College of Medi- 
cine held its eighth Post-Collegiate Assembly in Medicine with 
250 registrants. Similarly the College of Dentistry had its third 
Post-Collegiate Assembly with 367 in attendance at the two-day 

• Correct name of this arm. In the sources it appears variously as "Air Force" and 
ai "Army Air Forces." Such reference* have been corrected throughout. It did 
not become the U.S. Air Force until 1947. 



I>RE-PEARL HARBOR 29 

session. Both colleges also had special short courses. The Col- 
leges of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy likewise held Post- 
Collegiate Assemblies. 

In the area of the Graduate School and advanced research, 
completion during the year of the electron microscope was 
cited as "a most important advance in the research program 
of the University." This instrument, with a magnification of 
20,000 diameters, made it possible to observe large molecules 
and particles too small to be seen with an optical microscope. 
It used rays of electrons for magnification instead of the rays 
of light in the conventional compound microscope. The instru- 
ment was the gift of Julius F. Stone, longtime Trustee and 
benefactor of the University. 

This microscope was one of three major units in the Radia- 
tion Laboratory which, in turn, was the joint enterprise of 
four departments — physics and astronomy, electrical engineering, 
chemistry, and medicine. The two other major units were the 
cyclotron and a high voltage Van de Graafl generator. The 
latter was still under construction. Another area of inter- 
departmental pooling of scientific interests and facilities for 
research was in nutrition and food technology for which an 
advisory committee was set up. The University Development 
Fund was a major factor in making these activities possible. 

The cyclotron, completed during the year, had been under 
construction for two and a half years. Its purpose was to produce 
high energy bombarding particles to bring about the trans- 
mutation of known elements. At least six departments were 
using the cyclotron or materials it produced. In this connection, 
the report pointed out: "Important discoveries have been made, 
286 isotopes, never before known, have been synthesized. Im- 
portant applications of at least a few of these new isotopes are 
already indicated," as for example, two in the treatment of 
leukemia. 

Another major addition during the year was the acquisition 
by the College of Veterinary Medicine of a deep therapy X-ray 



30 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

unit. This, too, was made possible by the help of the Graduate 
School and the Development Fund. 

On the undergraduate level a major step was the adoption 
of a two-year program of General Studies administered by a 
University-wide council. It was designed to afford "a broad 
and systematic understanding of their social and natural envi- 
ronment" to students not planning to remain on the campus 
for more than two years. It was to become operative in the 
fall quarter, 1941. It was the result of seven years' study "to 
solve the problem of those students who do not desire or who 
are unable to follow the regular 4-year curricula." 

The dormitory picture brightened with the opening in Sep- 
tember, 1940 of Baker Hall, the first men's dormitory on the 
campus since 1906. This was made possible by a new law 
permitting the sale of bonds for this purpose, plus a Public 
Works Administration (P.W.A.) grant. Baker Hall now had 
a capacity of 550 students. Canfield Hall, a new women's 
dormitory, was opened also in September, 1940. It accommodated 
175 women students and raised the number of women housed 
in University dormitories to 734. The P.W.A. also helped to 
make Canfield possible. The Stadium Cooperative Dormitories 
continued to provide low cost housing for men with 180 in 
the Tower Club and 120 each in the Stadium and Buckeye 
Clubs. The Tower Club even issued a yearbook. 

The Inter-University Council of Ohio in late 1941 had come, 
as the report put it, "into full realization" of its aims and 
purposes. This marked a new stage in the relationships of 
the five state universities to each other and an acknowledgment 
that in matters of common concern they would stand or fall 
together. The purpose of the Council, as defined in 1939, was 
"To formulate, in the interest of emergency and economy, 
a coordinated program of nurture and support which will 
strengthen each of the five state universities within the limita- 
tions of their own best competence and reasonable public 



PRE-PEARL HARBOR 31 

demand." The germ of such an idea evidently began in two 
meetings as far back as 1914. 

At its meeting on November 26, 1940 the Council adopted 
a resolution which called the state's opportunities to meet the 
educational needs of Ohio youth "evident and compelling," pre- 
dicted a "steadily increasing demand of the people" for such 
training for their children, and warned that "unless met by 
the intelligent development of the existing institutions," a 
demand for new ones would result in expensive duplication of 
plant, equipment and personnel. It pointed to the favorable 
geographical location of the five universities and declared that 
"the necessity now" was for a coordinated program to enable 
them "to oft'er a unified program to the state as a whole." A 
need for reasonable expansion in some respects was clearly 
recognized, but the resolution warned, as noted, that the state 
should not undertake to build five identical universities com- 
parable with the Universities of Michigan, Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, and Illinois. 

To implement the principles laid down in the resolution, 
the Council "sat together for the first time in the history of 
the state in the formulation and the presentation to the General 
Assembly of Ohio of a jointly agreed upon request for building 
appropriations to meet the needs of the five state universities." 
This asking totalled $4,500,000 apportioned on the basis of 
their respective student populations. The amount subsequently 
granted was $2,215,510 of which Ohio State's share was 55 
per cent. 

The Council proved to be a two-way street. Late in February, 
1941 State Finance Director Herbert D. Defenbacher had advised 
the universities, through the Council, that the governor could 
not recommend more than an increase of $1,000,000 for their 
combined operation and maintenance. They were asked to 
"apportion this increase among themselves." 

This joint efTort on the part of the state universities was a 
long step forward in state-supported higher education in Ohio. 



32 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

The original five were joined later by Central State College. 
The recognition of the primacy of the Ohio State University 
in graduate and professional work was basically in reiteration 
of the policy laid down by the Ohio General Assembly in 1905 
in the Lybarger Act. This declared, in eflect, that Ohio State 
was the state university of Ohio and should have permanent 
priority in certain fields including technical lines and graduate 
work. But time altered things and despite the November 26, 
1940 agreement the other state universities in the postwar years 
began to grant the Ph.D. degree in limited numbers. 

Apart from the inauguration of President Bevis and the 
mounting national emergency, the year 1940-41 was notable 
on the campus for these events and developments: 

The appointment of Charles F. Kettering, '04, and the reap- 
pointment of Herbert S. Atkinson, '13, to the Board of Trustees; 
actually that of Mr. Kettering was a reappointment also since 
he had served earlier. 

The award of honorary degrees at the June commencement 
to Anne O'Hare McCormick, of the New York Times; E. G. 
Bailey, '03, engineer and inventor; and Lieut. Gen. Stanley H. 
Ford, '98, U.S. Army. 

The retirement of such faculty notables as Dean John H. J. 
Upham, medicine; William Lloyd Evans, '92, chemistry; Joseph 
A. Leighton, philosophy; and George H. McKnight, English. 

The appointment of two new deans: Arthur T. Martin, in 
Law; and Dr. Hardy A. Kemp, in Medicine. 

Gifts and endowments to the University for the year ending 
June 30, 1941 amounting to more than $315,000 and ranging 
from $2.75 to $55,500. 

Legislative appropriations of $8,008,955 for operation and 
maintenance and $1,216,875 for new buildings — nearly $1,900,000 
less than the amount sought. 



Ill 

PEARL HARBOR AND AFTER 
1. Signs and Portents 

IN THE fall of 1941 the war clouds were increasingly ominous 
but few persons on the campus realized how menacing they 
really were. On November 17 it was reported that the Japa- 
nese had announced their minimum terms for peace in the Pacific. 
Eleven days later a Lantern headline called the Japanese "com- 
promise" hopeless and it was added that U.S. merchantmen 
might be armed in the Pacific. Yet that same day, a Chinese 
woman speaker on the campus, who was the wife of the deputy 
commissioner of the Central Bank of China, declared that the 
Japanese were bluffing. 

On December 2, a leading member of the history faculty, 
speaking at the weekly Coffee Hour, predicted "There will be 
no sudden declaration of war or immediate naval operations 
in the Far East." At that very moment the Japanese fleet was 
on its way to Pearl Harbor. (Two days after the attack, the 
Lantern described this historian as explaining "with a wry 
smile" that the Japanese military clique had prevailed.) 

As tension mounted that fall most students, according to 
a Lantern poll, were opposed to U.S. entry into the war. The 
Lantern survey, on the question, "Should the United States 
declare war on Germany now?", reported that only 13 per cent 
of those questioned answered yes, 83 per cent no, and 4 per cent 
had no opinion. Three days later the Lantern said that results 
of the local campus poll were in line with those obtained in 
a nationwide campus poll. 

"Billy" Graves, longtime professor of English who since 
1900 had written the "Idler" column for the Lantern, expressed 

33 



34 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

himself strongly in his column. He criticized the United States 
and Great Britain for making "a mess of Iceland." The British, 
he said, had "dumped" 80,000 troops on the island and the 
United States had joined in, "using as a pretext one of those 
national hypocrisies which nauseate honest-minded men." Graves 
was criticized for his viewpoint. Old friends turned against 
him and the Lantern itself was criticized for letting him express 
such opinions. 

Another poll of student opinion at the time of Pearl Harbor 
indicated that students felt the defeat of Hitler was more 
important than staying out of war — 57 per cent to 43 per cent. 
Three days after Pearl Harbor, and long before the real extent 
of that disaster was known publicly, a Lantern editorial declared 
that "Japan is still only an incident in the Pacific." 

As indicated earlier, the University had shown a good deal 
of foresight as to the ultimate involvement of the U.S. in 
World War II. One step was the creation of the faculty 
Committee on Emergency Cooperation with Federal and State 
Governments to advise Dr. Bevis, as noted, as to "matters arising 
from the emergency growing out of the European war." The 
president had reported this to the Trustees as far back as their 
July 26, 1940 meeting. After Pearl Harbor the name of the 
committee was changed to the Committee on War Activities 
with Prof. Hoagland as chairman. 

Some weeks before Pearl Harbor the University had begun 
to take stock of itself in the light of an approaching but still 
undefined national crisis. To this end. President Bevis in Octo- 
ber, 1941, as noted, set up the University Policy Committee "to 
examine all offerings and activities of the University." Its mem- 
bers were Deans Alpheus W. Smith, (Graduate School), chair- 
man; and Arthur J. Klein, (Education), and Profs. Edison L. 
Bowers (economics), Laurence H. Snyder, (zoology and ento- 
mology), and Clyde T. Morris, (civil engineering), with Carl 
M. Franklin as secretary. 

There was a parallel between this committee and the three- 



PEARL HARBOR AND AFTER 35 

man Klein Committee which in 1932 similarly went over the 
University critically. The new committee was representative of 
the new Faculty Council, (which had its first meeting on May 
13, 1941), the Administrative Council, and the Council on 
Instruction. Its purpose, in Dr. Bevis's words, was "to conserve 
the benefits of the labors of the 'Klein Committee' which 
undertook a similar task nine years ago." 

2. The First Shock, 

Sunday, December 7, 1941 began about like any odier pre- 
Christmas Sabbath on the campus. It was near the end of the 
Autumn Quarter. The weather was slightly cooler than normal 
and a little snow was to fall the next day. In the afternoon the 
customary White Christmas was observed in the Men's Physical 
Education building with the traditional rendition of Handel's 
"Messiah." 

The war in Europe and North Africa raged on. Lend-lease had 
been in operation for some time. The nation was girding itself 
into a state of increased preparedness. Trouble was in the air, but 
there was still a faint hope that the United States might somehow 
draw back from the abyss of war. That very day the Sunday news- 
papers blazoned the news that President Roosevelt had made a 
direct appeal to the Japanese emperor and that the Japanese envoys 
in Washington had asked for an early afternoon appointment 
with Secretary of State Cordell Hull. As it turned out, the die 
was already cast and the issue was beyond negotiation. 

Only five days earlier, as noted, a campus authority, speaking 
at the weekly Coffee Hour on "Problems in the Pacific," had 
declared flatly that "The last thing Japan is likely to do is to 
declare war on the United States." He saw no "immediate likeli- 
hood of peace," however, and conceded that there was always the 
risk that Japan would gamble on a German victory in Europe. A 
colleague, three days before, in a talk over WOSU, the campus 
radio station, was of the opinion that Japan was stalling for time 
probably to mobilize troops in Indo-China or Burma. But he 



36 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

believed that a naval war between Japan and the United States 
was more than possible. 

It was about breakfast time in Honolulu and early afternoon in 
Columbus when the Japanese made their three bombing runs over 
Pearl Harbor and vicinity. Radio network programs were inter- 
rupted so that the stunning and incredible news could be an- 
nounced. Even then, between secrecy and confusion, there were 
only scattering details as to what really occurred at Pearl Harbor 
on what President Roosevelt the next day called a "date which 
will live in infamy." It was a year, in fact, before the government 
lifted the curtain of secrecy and the full extent of the disaster was 
known. 

Top Lantern headlines shouted the news on December 8: 

WAR VOTE PASSES CONGRESS 

and 

Campus Prepares 

To Aid War Effort 

First reports from Honolulu were meager and uncertain. One 
estimate said the number of casualties might reach 3000. An 
Associated Press summary reported that the Japanese attacks "had 
resulted in the capsizing of an old battleship." The White House 
admitted that such a vessel had turned over in Pearl Harbor and 
a destroyer was "blown up." Even the first Japanese reports 
claimed only two U.S. battleships sunk and four others damaged 
along with two destroyers sunk and four heavy cruisers damaged. 

All kinds of rumors quickly filled the air. From New York 
City on December 9 came word of an "official warning from 
Washington" that hostile planes were approaching the metropolis 
which actually had two alerts. And from the west coast that same 
day came a bulletin to the effect that the first hostile planes to fly 
over the continental United States had been "reconnaissance 
flights over industrial plants and the navy yard in the Golden 
Gate area" but had dropped no bombs. All of these and other sim- 
ilar rumors proved groundless. 



PEARL HARBOR AND AFTER 37 

Meanwhile the campus changed rapidly to a war footing. The 
Roosevelt war message to Congress was broadcast in the chapel. 
In quick succession President Bevis called a student mass meeting, 
another with the faculty, had a second message for students, set 
up the University War Activities Committee, and designated the 
office of the Dean of Men to handle Selective Service matters. 

Since the Autumn Quarter was nearly over, Dr. Bevis followed 
up the initial steps by sending a letter to parents of students and 
by taking to the radio during the Christmas vacation. He urged 
men students, in short, that they could serve their country best 
by remaining in school until called into service. 

By a coincidence the Board of Trustees held its regular 
monthly meeting on Monday, December 8, with five of the seven 
members present. It gave routine approval to the normal recom- 
mendations as to resignations, appointments, changes in title and 
other sundry items presented by President Bevis. It approved also 
the list of candidates for degrees at the December convocation 
and the creation of a Consumer Education Institute. But the only 
reference in the minutes to the war was very indirect. It was to 
the effect that "the Engineering Defense Training" the Univer- 
sity had been carrying on under a contract with the government 
"has now been superseded by the Engineering, Science, and Man- 
agement Defense Training," with Professor Nold continuing as 
director. 

If there was any Board discussion of the war, as there must 
have been, it was not of record. In fact, to anticipate, neither was 
there any direct mention of the war in the minutes of the January 
12, 1942 meeting. The only related reference concerned "a gen- 
eral statement" President Bevis made concerning "the matter of 
accelerating the work of the University in order to shorten the 
time required for students to complete their prescribed courses." 
He added that a special faculty committee had been named "to 
explore this matter." 

Less than fourteen months had elapsed between the prophetic 
peroration in Dr. Bevis' inaugural address, in which he referred 



38 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

to "the hour of destiny," and the actual blow at Pearl Harbor. 
The campus, like the nation, changed swiftly from a semi-war 
footing to one of full preparation and participation. Unlike the 
situation in World War I, twenty-four years earlier, the Univer- 
sity did not formally offer its manpower and facilities to the Fed- 
eral government. As a matter of fact, all of its resources were made 
available for the prosecution of the war. 

Perhaps the first question was what students should do, espe- 
cially men students. Dr. Bevis personally supplied the answer to 
this, as indicated, by urging them to continue their schooling as 
the best means of serving the government until officially called 
to duty. Machinery was established through the office of the Dean 
of Men to handle individual questions regarding Selective Service 
and induction. 

But there was a mounting exodus from the campus, slowly at 
first. From the Autumn Quarter, 1940 to the corresponding quar- 
ter of 1941 the enrollment fell from 13,007 to 11,730. In the Au- 
tumn of 1942 the figure still stood at 11,691. The following winter 
it dropped to 10,099 but, to anticipate, greater shrinkage came by 
the Spring of 1943 when it fell to 6754, a reduction of 48 per cent 
from the Autumn, 1941. A considerable number of faculty and 
staff left also, many of them for military service, others for war 
research or other activities related to the prosecution of the war. 

But if there was an outflow from the University there was also 
shortly an inflow. This was in the form of special training pro- 
grams set up for men in the armed services. As will be seen, they 
came and went after a time by the hundreds. Some stayed only 
briefly for special schools or other instructional programs of lim- 
ited duration. Others were in uniform but continued their accel- 
erated programs in professional colleges, especially Dentistry, 
Medicine and Veterinary Medicine. 

Life on the campus was changed sharply. The University now 
went on a full war footing, with accelerated programs and spe- 
cial courses and other offerings geared to the war effort. The mili- 
tary presently took over nearly all of the women's dormitory 



PEARL HARBOR AND AFTER 39 

facilities. The women, in turn, occupied fraternity houses, some 
of which were closed for the duration. 

The role the University, including its alumni, played in World 
War II falls into three major parts: special schools and training 
programs established and maintained on the campus, the taking 
on of numerous war research projects through the Research 
Foundation and other campus agencies, and active participation 
in the Armed Forces. The number of alumni and former students 
in uniform during the war ran well into live figures. The exact 
number will probably never be known despite efforts to maintain 
an accurate count with supporting records. The University's Roll 
of Honor of known war dead ran ultimately to 699. 

By 1940 and early 1941 the University, as indicated, had under- 
taken the Civilian Pilot Training program and had offered a short 
course on explosives, to name only two such activities. With the 
onset of the war much more ambitious programs were under- 
taken, as will be seen, such as the Navy Recognition School, and 
that in Engineering, Science, and Management Defense Train- 
ing, known as E.S.M.D.T. The peacetime R.O.T.C. programs 
were discontinued presently but accelerated advanced R.O.T.C. 
programs were maintained in Dentistry, Medicine and Veterinary 
Medicine. There was also what was known as the Navy V-7 
program. 

Research was intensified in a number of areas, especially 
chemistry, radiation, and medicine, to cite only three. A War 
Research Laboratory was built ultimately on the north edge of 
the campus. Industrial research gave way to government research, 
much of it secret. Even President Bevis and the Trustees, who 
approved the necessary contracts, often did not know the exact 
nature of the research involved. Each of these phases of Univer- 
sity war activity will be examined in some detail in the chapters 
that follow. 

The gist of what President Bevis told students December 10 
at the special meeting that filled the chapel was "stay in school 
while you can," and go when their country called. Individual out- 



40 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

looks, he conceded, were confused and students, in particular, 
"find their aims frustrated, their landmarks obliterated, their 
sense of direction gone. Some cannot work for sheer excitement; 
some, in the flush of patriotism, want to rush into personal action; 
some seek mental escape from the stark reality. Many doubt the 
possibility of completing their education; others doubt the utility 
of doing so." 

As to what to do, he said the question was "not collective, but 
personal." He admitted sharing the perplexity. But he pointed out 
that the declaration of war had "dramatized, but has not essen- 
tially altered, the existing situation." For the immediate future, 
he added, the war would continue to be one of production and 
the national task of the moment was "to speed the flow of weap- 
ons and machines" and increase production facilities. 

The situation, in effect, emphasized the need for college-trained 
people. "Schools take their places, alongside factories and training 
camps, as necessary agencies of preparation for war," he went on. 
The universities, then, were "an essential part of the training 
facilities for war," besides being necessary "to the cause of post- 
war reconstruction." Further training, he pointed out, would 
enhance the student's value to his country both during and after 
the war besides enhancing his own "powers and capacities, and 
increase your chances of success." 

The war, he commented, might prove to be a long one and it 
was "essential that we settle down for the long pull." He an- 
nounced that "friendly guidance for those who may wish help 
in choosing the best course" would be available starting the next 
morning. He closed on this note: "When your calls come for 
service in the public forces, I know you will be ready. Take with 
you the best training you can secure." 

Five days after his special meeting with them in the chapel. 
Dr. Bevis had another message for students. This was read in all 
classes. He promised students that the University would help 
them "to serve best." He called the University itself "an essential 
part of the scheme of warfare." 



PEARL HARBOR AND AFTER 41 

To the faculty he recalled his statement of "last spring" (1941) 
with regard to the University's financial outlook. In the Autumn 
Quarter, he noted, enrollment was down "nearly 10%" with a 
corresponding loss in fees "of roughly $100,000." He cited the 
appointment of the Committee on University Policy as part of a 
program of self-examination to prevent deterioration of the Uni- 
versity's services. It was faced, he said, with a shortage of funds 
to maintain the rate of expenditure for the biennium. But unless 
a further drastic loss in enrollment occurred, he added, it would 
be able "to finish the biennium without salary cuts or discharge 
of personnel." In fact, small increases were arranged "for our 
lower paid people" — assistant professors under $2400, up $10 a 
month, and those between $2400 and $2760 a year, up $5 a month. 

During Christmas week President Bevis in a letter to their 
parents reemphasized what he had told the students at the Decem- 
ber 10 meeting in the chapel. "It is my firm belief," he wrote, 
"that every man and woman has some job to do. For many it is 
in the armed forces; for many it is in industry; for many others it 
is in the home. For thousands of our young people the immediate 
task is to be found in preparing for the days that lie ahead." The 
added training, he pointed out, would pay dividends not only 
in the immediate future but after the war. He repeated this advice 
in two special broadcasts over WOSU. That his words had some 
effect was reflected in the fact that the Winter Quarter enrollment 
declined less than had been expected. 

In a way the University's transition to an accelerated program 
was made easier by the fact that for twenty years it had been on 
the Four-Quarter plan. It was, in effect, already on a year 'round 
basis. Most undergraduates could go right on with their schooling 
but readjustments were necessary in Agriculture and Engineering, 
and especially in Dentistry, Medicine, Pharmacy, and Veterinary 
Medicine. The freshman classes in Medicine and Dentistry were 
to be started in June instead of October, with new classes entering 
every nine months thereafter. R.O.T.C. courses were to continue 
during the summer. Winter Quarter, 1942 enrollment stood finally 



42 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

at 10,712, or about 8 per cent below the Autumn Quarter figure. 
In the Autumn of 1941 the R.O.T.C. enrollment reached 4261. 

On the negative side, Vice President J. L. Morrill left as of 
December 31 to become president of the University of Wyoming. 
Not counting his student days, he had been on the campus twenty- 
one years. During that time he had served successively as alumni 
secretary, junior dean of the College of Education, and as vice 
president. All the while he made himself increasingly useful and 
in some ways well nigh indispensable, both on and off the campus. 

The Trustees accepted his resignation "with the greatest re- 
luctance." He was honored by students at a meeting in the chapel, 
by the faculty with a formal dinner, and by campus and down- 
town friends at a stag dinner — "Morrill for Everything" — at the 
Columbus Club. 

3. On A War Footing 

The campus had shifted quickly, as indicated, to a war footing. 
More and more staff and faculty members were granted leaves 
for military or other service. By January, 1942 the number of these 
stood at thirty-three and it ran ultimately into the hundreds. 
Research facilities were made available for war purposes and all 
such research was placed in charge of Dr. A. Ray Olpin, director 
of the then Industrial Research Foundation. The Committee on 
Emergency Cooperation, as noted, became the Committee on 
War Activities. The program of night defense courses to train 
men and women for industries vital to the war was expanded 
and stepped up. 

Among the first of a number of new courses geared directly 
to war were two offered in the Winter Quarter, 1942, in electrical 
engineering. These were designed to help train students in design- 
ing and operating aircraft equipment. They were in charge of 
Prof. William L. Everitt. Students successfully completing the 
courses and graduating in electrical engineering were to be offered 
commissions as second lieutenants in the Army Signal Corps or 
as ensigns in the Navy. 



PEARL HARBOR AND AFTER 43 

Some facets of the wartime acceleration on the campus could 
be foreseen and determined but not all of them. In March, 1942, 
for example, the forecast was that in view of the speed-up in 
courses and curricula a summer enrollment of between 8000 and 
10,000 could be expected. It turned out to be 7026. This was up 
considerably, however, from the 1941 summer figure of 4500. 

In the eight weeks since he last addressed the faculty many 
changes had occurred and much progress had been made. Presi- 
dent Bevis told it at another special meeting Saturday noon, Feb- 
ruary 7, 1942. The student body, he reported, had "rallied mag- 
nificently to the nation's call for trained people." He referred to 
the work of the War Activities Committee, and declared that the 
University "is in its stride." But acceleration, the "most important 
war adjustment," was still ahead. And the war could be "won 
only by sacrifice," he asserted. 

While the government had established a policy of deferment 
to students in training to become "necessary men," he pointed out 
that the "inescapable corollary" to this was that college training 
"must be completed as expeditiously as possible." The Four-Quar- 
ter plan, in effect since 1922, he remarked, made the task relatively 
easy and the problem "was simply to rearrange our courses." Yet 
the task of arranging a full rotation of courses in nine instead of 
twelve months was one "of enormous complexity." Each of the 
ten colleges, he noted, had completed the revision of its schedule 
and in some cases "the Fall Quarter has been moved bodily into 
the summer." 

To accomplish this less vital courses were "starred," i.e., were 
not to be given for a time, the order of others was changed, and 
some personnel was shifted from one teaching area to another. 
What this would do to the budget remained to be seen but, he 
added, whether resources were augmented or not "we are called 
to carry on. The nation needs our product and we dare not fail." 
He went on: 

I know — you know, that this call to carry on is a call to sacri- 
fice. This war can only be won by sacrifice. Sugar and tires, jobs 



44 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

and small businesses, years out of our lives in camps and training 
ships, — these sacrifices we are making now. We shall make more, 
— more in money, more in comfort, more in blood. But in the 
name of human freedom we shall carry on, — in khaki, in denim, 
in sweaters, in our caps and gowns .... 

He lauded the faculty for its cooperation in the emergency. 
He said he saw "epitomized" in the democracy of scholarship 
"the democracy of the world. Our democracy will not fail." 

Another special course related to the war effort was a mechani- 
cal drafting class for women. This evening course, lasting six 
weeks, was asked for by Curtiss-Wright, and was part of the 
Engineering, Science, and Management Defense Training pro- 
gram. It was expected that the enrollment would be about fifty 
but nearly 150 showed up. 

Two other special offerings were a class in physical fitness 
and one in Russian. The former, offered by the department of 
physical education, was designed to improve the physical fitness 
of men expecting to go into the armed services shortly. The course 
in Russian was the first in that language ever offered on the 
campus. It was given by Dr. Peter Epp, a native of Russia, who 
had been in the German department since 1934. 

Courses in Japanese and Portuguese were added also. The first 
course in Japanese ever taught on the campus was sponsored by 
the Adult Evening School to begin April 6. In charge was Dr. 
Anna Berliner who had taught at the University of Tokyo for 
eight years. Another on Japanese culture was offered also. Both 
were designed to aid the war effort. 

Still another new course in the E.S.M.D.T. program was one 
in aerial bomb protection begun April 20. Registration was lim- 
ited to graduates in architecture or engineering or persons with 
practical experience in structural engineering or architecture. It 
dealt with theories and conditions underlying civilian protection 
against air raids in terms of protective procedures and construction 
for civilians and industries. The course was directed by Prof. Jacob 
R. Shank, of the Engineering Experiment Station, who in Feb- 



PEARL HARBOR AND AFTER 45 

ruary had attended a Civilian Defense Training School in New 
York City. 

The War Department early designated Ohio State as one of 
two Ohio centers in the new Army Air Corps Enlisted Reserve 
program to recruit college men for future army air service. En- 
listees were deferred for the time being but were subject to imme- 
diate call. They were to be trained as navigators, communications 
officers and ground crew men. Col. Brunzell, R.O.T.C. com- 
mandant, was the liaison officer between the Army and the 
University. 

Enrollment in the campus R.O.T.C. held up remarkably until 
the winter of 1943, after which it shrank considerably. In the fall 
of 1942 it was 4399 but the next quarter it dropped to 3380, and 
in the spring to 1232. In the fall of 1943 it was down to 751 and 
in the next three quarters hovered under 500. Between 1939 and 
1943, however, the number of advanced course enrollees com- 
missioned more than doubled — from 112 in 1939 to 238 in 1943. 

As of 1939 the training emphasis had been shifted from infan- 
try to field artillery, plus the Signal, Engineer and Medical Corps. 
The 6-week summer camp, which had been a regular requirement 
in the advanced program, was given for the last time in 1941. The 
advanced course program itself was terminated for the duration 
at the end of the Summer Quarter, 1943. 

With the completion of the new Military Science building in 
1942, field artillery training was shifted there. But the executive 
offices and the Signal and Engineer Corps units remained in the 
old Armory. 

On August 29, 1942 a detachment of 250 advanced course 
cadets, eleven officers and thirty-one enlisted men left on a 14-day 
march which took them from the campus to Ft. Benjamin Harri- 
son, Ind., to Ft.Knox, Ky., to Ft.Thomas, Ky., and home. The 
cadets volunteered for this extra duty which was devoted chiefly 
to field artillery work. 

The total number of commissions earned on the campus from 
1939 to 1943 was 826. They were divided as follows: Infantry, 3; 



46 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Field Artillery, 447; Signal Corps, 75; Medical Corps, 89; Chemi- 
cal Warfare Service, 7; Quartermaster Corps, 17; Corps of Engi- 
neers, 188. No Infantry commissions were granted here after 1939, 
none in the Chemical Warfare Service after 1941, and the few 
Quartermasters in 1940 and 1941. Most cadets completing the 
first year of the advanced course in 1943 got their commissions 
early in 1944 after taking their basic training and then attending 
officer candidate school. 

Not long after Pearl Harbor, meanwhile, a Student War Board 
was created. Its purpose was "to insure a better coordination of 
student volunteer activities during the war emergency." It served 
as an agency for the origination, development and assignment of 
war activities, and the promotion of group and individual projects. 
It sought also to prevent the unnecessary overlapping of such 
activities. As will be seen, the College of Education had a similar 
but somewhat more intensive program through its War Service 
Corps. 

The Student War Board was composed of six students and 
three faculty advisers. Norwin Brovitz, in charge of student war 
coordination, was chairman. The other five student leaders in 
the spring of 1942 were Jeanne Kelly, personnel; Barbara Waid, 
projects; William Cruickshank, publicity; Carol M. Jones, 
W.S.G.A. representative; and Robert Hamlin, Student Senate. 
The advisers were Miss Eleanor Collins, for the dean of women; 
William S. Guthrie, director, student employment; and Dr. 
Founta D. Greene, assistant director, student employment. 

Hundreds of students were recruited for war work, both on 
and off the campus. These workers were known as "Swaves" for 
Student War Activity Volunteers. By early 1942 the response for 
volunteers for Red Cross work was so great that not all of those 
enrolled could be accommodated immediately. Women students 
signing up for first-aid work numbered 550, for home nursing 
136, for elementary nutrition 141, and as staff assistants 200. 

Besides cooperating with related activities elsewhere on the 
campus, the S.W.B. had eight major projects of its own : the sale 



PEARL HARBOR AND AFTER 47 

of War Stamps and Bonds to students, community labor, social, 
the U.S.O. — which alone enlisted 700 women who served at 
dances, Pomerene Open House programs, and regular campus 
dances — , hospital, civilian defense, blood donors, and collecting 
scrap and salvage. 

One undated list of activities showed forty-two projects com- 
pleted or in process. Among these were such varied activities as 
helping residents to register for rationing, dances for refugees 
and men in the Armed Forces, U.S.O. poster-making, writing 
letters for servicemen, collecting Christmas packages, selling War 
Stamps, entertaining soldiers at dinner, beginning and advanced 
first-aid classes, training 400 junior and fifty senior U.S.O. host- 
esses, shows and other entertainment for servicemen, and settle- 
ment house work. 

In a salvage drive, conducted by Links, old keys and stockings 
were collected. A book drive, sponsored by the Lantern, was rated 
as "very successful." Every Tuesday and Wednesday booths were 
open in main buildings for the sale of War Stamps and Bonds. 
The purchase of War Stamps was a "must" at all campus social 
functions. With the cooperation of the Fraternity Affairs Office, 
appointments were made for blood donations. In several cases 
entire fraternities went to the blood center to give blood. 

As of the Winter Quarter, 1942, 806 Swaves were registered. 
Of these, 525 had been called for active service. Eleven men had 
helped nearby farmers to husk corn and with other chores on 
Saturdays. 

A small "flyer" was distributed which urged students to 
"JOIN THE SWAVES— Become a Student War Activity Volun- 
teer." It went on: 

American soldiers on the fighting fronts need your blood, the 
bandages that you can roll. American soldiers on the home front 
need the entertainment that you can give them. They want instruc- 
tion in bridge, dancing, geography, and languages. 

DO YOUR PART! Satisfy your desire to aid in the war effort. 
Register immediately with the Student War Board in Room 107, 
Administration Building .... 



48 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

In its recruitment program the S.W.B. used a form which 
listed twenty-seven kinds of activity for which a student could 
volunteer. All U.S.O. junior hostess applicants had to be screened 
and trained before going on such duty. 

By the spring of 1944, the S.W.B. had "shaken down" to three 
officers and three major committees, "and as many additional 
committees to carry out projects as the emergency needs of the 
campus and community may dictate." As of that time Elizabeth 
Babb was director, Frances Mathews secretary, and Mary Lou 
Lance treasurer. The major committees were personnel, pub- 
licity and projects. By then twelve projects were listed: Red Cross 
(blood donors, nurse's aides, first aid, nutrition, and hospital), 
War Stamps and Bonds, social, U.S.O. representation, share-the- 
ride, O.P.A. price panel, Minutemen, news letters to soldiers, 
flower day, May Hop, book drive, and awards. Miss Wanda 
Misbach, of occupational therapy, had been added as a faculty 
adviser. The current quarterly report showed 1039 "Swaves" par- 
ticipating out of 1500 registered. But a number took part in 
more than one activity. The U.S.O. led with 363 participants. 
Blood donations, including those by servicemen, numbered 301. 

Some of the individual projects achieved unique results. A 
campus paper drive on March 24, tied in with a city-wide effort, 
yielded more than six tons of scrap paper. In a parachute drive, 
sponsored that same month by Links, enough money was col- 
lected to buy three parachutes. In late April and early May about 
5000 books were collected to be sent to prisoners of war. In con- 
nection with the O.P.A. Price Panel, nearly 100 girls were trained 
to check prices in stores and restaurants. In April-May, the 
Y.W.C.A. held scrap yarn and old clothing drives. The May Hop, 
climaxing May Week, netted $268.32 which was given toward 
the purchase of an ambulance. Between March and May the sales 
of War Stamps and Bonds in fraternity and sorority houses and 
elsewhere totaled $2749.30. Total sales for the year, September to 
June, were $10,942.50. 

Curtailment of the A.S.T.P. program freed girls from social 



PEARL HARBOR AND AFTER 49 

duties for requests eleswhere, especially at Lockbourne Air Base. 
Chartered buses took co-eds there six times for dances, two of 
them formal. 

The campus U.S.O. was set up in September, 1942. Functions 
were held in Pomerene Hall which was open to servicemen 
from 8 to 11 p.m. on Saturdays and from 2:30 to 5:30 p.m. 
on Sundays. From eighty to 120 trained junior hostesses were 
in attendance. Besides dancing, there were facilities for music, 
card and other games, and reading. There was even a sewing 
corner to help with buttons and insignia. Sometimes floor shows 
and musical programs were given. "Mixers" every half hour 
helped the ushers and hostesses to "stir up" the crowd. By 
December, 1943 about 1500 women students had registered for 
U.S.O. work of whom 1350 had begun their training, 800 had 
completed it, 450 had received certificates and 130 had earned 
service pins. 

Separate units with which the S.W.B. collaborated included 
the U.S.O., the War Entertainment Board (Webs), the Women's 
Recreation Association, the canteen, and the War Service Corps. 
Where the U.S.O. was for servicemen only, the canteen, open 
on Friday evenings in Pomerene Hall, was for both civilians 
and servicemen. 

In 1942-43 the College of Education had two activities which 
paralleled other University wartime programs. One was its War 
Service Corps and the other was the Adult Evening School. 
The College continued, like others, to give Twilight School 
courses for credit. 

The president's annual report for that year noted some 
similarity between the work of the War Service Corps and 
that of the Student War Board. But the former, it pointed 
out, gave "greater emphasis to continuous service." 

The War Service Corps was organized in the Autumn 
Quarter, 1942. Education students who in a given quarter "per- 
formed a substantial amount of war work" were admitted 
to the corps. Such work was interpreted broadly as including 



50 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

either training or service "related to the work of the armed 
forces, civiHan defense, or other essential civilian activities." 
These included the Red Cross, first aid, blood donor, regular 
purchase of War Stamps or Bonds, and even service as a 
"Swave" — the University-wide group. Dean Arthur J. Klein, 
of Education, was director of the corps and Dr. E. E. Lewis 
associate director. 

Generally, a War Service Corps member had actually to 
carry on three kinds of war activity. The Swave, an Education 
report pointed out, had only to volunteer for one or more 
such activities. The W.S.C. member had to consult with and 
report to her adviser on her activities, and must have approval 
of such training or service for the next quarter. As of the 
end of the Spring Quarter, 1943, W.S.C. had 640 members out 
of a total College registration of 1172, or 52.6 per cent. 

The Adult Evening School, under the direction of the 
Bureau of Special and Adult Education, offered non-credit courses 
after regular hours. Its program was meant to extend the 
offerings of the College to persons who could not attend the 
regular daytime classes. It was in operation during the 1942-43 
Autumn and Winter Quarters, but was given up during the 
Spring Quarter because of wartime conditions. Thirty-four of 
forty-three courses announced for the Autumn Quarter were 
actually given. They had a combined enrollment of 440. 

The war was reflected on the campus in other ways. A 
"Morale Through Music" concert presented in March, 1942 
in the Men's Gymnasium by the music department drew an 
attendance of 1806. All admissions, except those of servicemen 
in uniform, were by purchase of U.S. War Bonds or Savings 
Stamps at the door. Sales amounted to about $400. This concert 
was dedicated to the Red Cross. Another, scheduled for April 
12, was for the U.S.O. which was to get the receipts from a 
"silver contribution" by the audience. 

Early in the war, Carl E. Steeb, longtime business manager 
and secretary of the Board of Trustees, was put in charge of 



PEARL HARBOR AND AFTER 51 

campus civilian defense. Ohio State was one of the first univer- 
sities in the Midwest to organize for the defense of property 
and personnel in the event of an air raid which, fortunately, 
never came. During the nearly four years of war, however, a 
number of air raid drills were held. The University published 
an 8-page Defense Manual which spelled out to the building 
volunteer corps how to handle emergencies and watch for 
sabotage. Dr. Bevis asked students to participate in these drills 
for their own safety. 

In March, 1942 a 3-day Institute for Civilian Mobilization 
drew about 1000 delegates to the campus from local defense 
councils throughout the state. Key state and national speakers 
discussed various aspects of the civilian "front." On the opening 
day of the sessions Governor Bricker called the nation's health 
and the people's spirit vitally important to the war. Another 
speaker was Jonathan Daniels, assistant director of the Office 
of Civil Defense. He defined civilian defense as "saving out 
of our former leisure, laxness and luxury to add to the striking 
power of the nation." The Institute was sponsored by the 
State Council of Defense in co-operation with other agencies. 

The first air raid drill was held April 27, 1942. On fixed 
alarm signals campus personnel — students, faculty and employes 
— evacuated supposed danger areas and went to pre-designated 
"safety zones" in various buildings. Some places such as Uni- 
versity Hospital, the animal clinics and farm buildings, presented 
special problems. But even for hospital patients "safety sanc- 
tuaries" were worked out, with secondary operating rooms 
provided in case of damage to or destruction of the regular 
facilities. Another surprise air raid drill was held at 9:45 a.m. 
May 25. The following week at the request of county civilian 
defense authorities the University cooperated in a surprise 
blackout. 

A flurry over racial discrimination, and a "riot" involving 
Baker Hall residents and fraternity men marked the Spring 
Quarter, 1942. Far away the U.S. defense of Bataan collapsed 



52 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

and Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson was quoted as fore- 
seeing an early Japanese attack on Pacific Coast cities. The 
Lantern editorially charged students with being too complacent 
but Prof. H. Gordon Hayes, of economics, denied this. Another 
Lantern "poll" disclosed that students looked for a long war 
— 43 per cent for longer than three years, as against 22 per cent 
nationally. 

About 600 men students took part in the Baker Hall incident 
in which fire hoses were used and the dormitory was partly 
flooded. Editorially the Lantern called this outbreak "evidence 
of a juvenile attitude." Damage and injuries were slight. 

Earlier the Lantern reported that the campus interracial 
council was meeting "to discuss plans concerning restaurant, 
theater and housing problems" and ways of ending racial 
prejudice "through the medium of education." Some weeks later 
a co-ed resigned from Chi Delta Phi, women's honorary 
literary group because of its alleged refusal to consider a Negro 
girl for membership. There were pleas, meanwhile, to continue 
the traditional "proms" and to elect campus "queens" on the 
argument that these were "some of the things we're fighting 
for." 

James Thurber, w'18, the author and humorist, was a campus 
visitor. The Lantern reported that he was bothered by photo- 
graphers and press agents. 

From time to time faculty members voiced their opinions 
about aspects of the war. Prof. C. L. James, of economics, 
predicted that "oil will defeat the Japanese." Prof. N. Paul 
Hudson, of bacteriology, speaking at an Arts College Coffee 
Hour, expressed the view that "According to logic, I would say 
that the war will not come to Ohio." At a University Hour 
program. Prof. Harlan H. Hatcher, of English, pointed out 
"There is a long-range duty of obligation upon us." 

As the school year 1941-42 ended six special events or 
programs relating to the war effort were being offered on the 
campus. These included: 



PEARL HARBOR AND AFTER 53 

A 5-day school for air wardens dealing with explosives, 
war chemicals and incendiaries, their uses and how to protect 
civilian life and property against them. Besides the University, 
co-sponsors of the school were the Ohio American Legion and 
the State Council of Defense, and the State Department of 
Education. 

A course in camouflage for industrial and military use. 
This was open to upperclassmen and was to be offered for 
the duration. 

The fifth in a series of night classes in the chemistry of 
explosives. Four women were among the 200 students who 
completed the first four such courses and many of them were 
working in ordnance and munitions plants. 

A new course in analytical chemistry techniques for women 
high school graduates who had had a year of chemistry. This 
was in addition to a new 9-month curriculum of regular Uni- 
versity work to train women for defense industry positions. 
The shorter course was designed to help train women for 
"sub-professional" helper posts in chemical laboratories. 

In the first course of its kind in the state, twenty-five students 
were studying pre-flight aeronautics at the University School. 
The course emphasized shop and laboratory activities and was 
designed to make advanced training easier in college or in 
the armed services. 

Finally, a two-day "Women in War Industry" conference 
was held June 20 and 21. Under the sponsorship of the Con- 
sumers' League of Ohio, it dealt with such topics as women's 
role in war production, problems arising from the growing 
employment of women in war industry, and community co- 
operation in solving such problems. 

Inevitably the June, 1942 commencement was tinged by the 
war. Two recipients of honorary degrees were Maj. Gen. 
Lewis B. Hershey, director of Selective Service, and Capt. 
Glenn S. Burrell, '04, U.S.N. Hershey at one time, as indicated, 
was a member of the campus military department. 



54 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Two special citations were awarded. For their part in obtain- 
ing the passage of the R.O.T.C. amendment to the National 
Defense Act in 1916, these went to Col. George L. Converse, 
Jr., w79, and Ralph D. Mershon, '90. Converse was commandant 
of cadets on the campus from 1900 to 1918. At his death in 
1953 Mershon, a New York consulting engineer, was to leave 
his estate of more than $7 million to the University. 

4. Enrollment Up 

The increased enrollment for the 1942 Summer Quarter was 
ascribed to two factors: the general program of acceleration 
and the policy of deferment granted by local draft boards to 
students in "essential" fields such as physics, chemistry, and 
Engineering, Dentistry, Medicine and Pharmacy. The armed 
services meanwhile had worked out a program of advance 
enlistment whereby qualified students were accepted for the 
Army and Navy Enlisted Reserve Corps. They could continue 
in school on an inactive reserve basis. 

This policy, as President Bevis pointed out, made it possible 
for students to "answer the call to the colors and at the same 
time complete their university studies, barring unforeseen emer- 
gency." This had the further effect of bolstering enrollment 
and increasing enlistments by students. The Navy program had 
been in effect for some time. Under it several hundred Ohio 
State students had enlisted. The corresponding Army program, 
including the Air Corps, was set up as the Spring Quarter 
neared its end. 

Under a further ruling from the head of the Army Air 
Corps, 30 per cent of students taking basic military training 
in the R.O.T.C. could be accepted in the Air Corps Enlisted 
Reserve while continuing their college work. Students already 
"under contract" to another branch of the service were not 
eligible but advanced students not "under contract" could be 
enlisted. 

In keeping with wartime conditions, a study had been made 



PEARL HARBOR AND AFTER 55 

of courses with low enrollments. At the June 15, 1942 Board 
meeting the annual report of the Council on Instruction stated 
that although some new courses had been added during 1941-42, 
a net reduction of credit hours had been effected. This was 
done by the Council working with the University Policy Com- 
mittee. An additional reduction of 696 quarter credit hours was 
to take effect during the 1942-43 school year. 

Working also with the campus War Activities Committee, 
the Council had approved some but not all of a number of 
proposals for specialized courses "direcdy related to the war 
effort." These were approved for limited periods and, if they 
proved satisfactory, probably would be continued "for the dura- 
tion." 

At the same time the Council adopted "what amounts to 
a war-time policy." In this it spelled out its philosophy not only 
for the duration but beyond. Its report declared: 

While fully recognizing the urgent need for speedy, specialized 
training for direct war purposes, the Council appreciates also the 
continuing need for general, peace-time education, not only to 
enhance our war efforts, but also to enable us better to prepare for 
the problems of the post-war period. There are many indications 
that the leaders of our armed forces wish to see the general pro- 
gram of education continued with a minimum of dislocation. The 
Council believes that the liberal traditions of the University must 
be maintained at all costs. There is no use fighting for the "Amer- 
ican way of life" if there remains no way whereby people can 
learn about it and be trained for it. 

The war continued to bring about further changes on the 
campus as the Autumn Quarter, 1942 began. Fruits of the 
adult defense training courses were evident in the report that 
so far 284 men and women had been trained in the chemistry 
of explosives course alone and were now employed in twenty- 
nine ordnance plants. But the annual fall conference for coop- 
erative work in agricultural home economics and 4-H Club 
work was discontinued for the first time since 1914 because of 
the "rubber situation," i.e., automobile tires. Attendance at a 



56 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

University Hour program was so poor the Lantern called it 
an insult to the speakers. 

With more and more male members of the teaching and 
administrative staffs going into the Armed Forces or into work 
in defense plants, women were moving in to fill the vacancies. 
Dorothy Holladay, Home Ec-4, for example, became the first 
woman editor of the Agricultural Student. Mrs. Gertrude Staker, 
mother of five children, was named director of men's housing and 
assistant to the dean of men. Mrs. Christine Y. Conaway, '23, 
a counselor in the College of Arts and Sciences office, presently 
filled in as acting secretary of the college. Later she became 
dean of women. 

The Civilian Pilot Training Program, as will be seen, 
was converted into a military pilot training course, with Prof. 
Karl W. Stinson, of mechanical engineering, still in charge. 
The Lantern that fall went to a tabloid format. Junior Dean 
C. W. Reeder, of Commerce, was appointed armed services 
representative to coordinate the Enlisted Reserve systems on the 
campus. At two meetings in November in the men's physical 
education building, 6000 men students were told that the gov- 
ernment could give no guarantee but that it planned to permit 
students in the Army Reserve and most other service reserves 
to complete their regulation 4-year courses. 

The war was brought closer home by two deaths, one of 
an assistant football coach, and the other of a former student. 
Assistant Coach Edward G. Blickle on duty at the Navy Pre- 
Flight School at Iowa City, was killed Oct. 22 in an automobile 
accident. Lt. Perry S. Fay Jr., w'40, became the first Ohio 
State man known to lose his life in North Africa. He was killed 
November 8. 

Meanwhile, the Navy Recognition School was in full swing. 
Among those assigned to it were three Army noncommissioned 
officers. A Navy Diesel Engine School was being conducted 
in Robinson Laboratory with an enrollment of thirty. 

In a matter of weeks the signals were changed for students 



PEARL HARBOR AND AFTER 57 

in the Enlisted Reserve. Early in December such programs 
were simplified by Washington and it was announced that 
a declaration of intent was no longer necessary. Students need 
not withdraw from the University to enlist in the Navy and 
Marine Corps. Freshmen could now enlist in the V-1 Naval 
Reserve. Yet the next day the situation was changed when, on 
announcement by President Roosevelt, all service reserves were 
closed. But enlistees who had applied before December 5 were 
given until December 15 to have their applications processed. 

Next it was announced that students who had entered the 
Enlisted Reserve Corps since October 1 and stated a preference 
for the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, or Naval Air Corps 
must report to the Navy recruiting station in the old Columbus 
post office for re-enlistment. Dean Reeder, armed services rep- 
resentative, remarked that "A lot of students have been caught 
short by the new order." An early call-up of these reservists 
was looked for. The men were told they must return for the 
Winter Quarter or face induction into active service. Near the 
end of the quarter. President Bevis told the faculty "to expect 
a considerable exodus from the campus soon." 

The campus R.O.T.C. numbered 4399 men. Col. Brunzell, 
the commandant, estimated that from 3000 to 4000 of the Uni- 
versity's graduates in advanced military were already serving 
in the Armed Forces. 

Dr. Bevis, in a statement "to University men," advised those 
in the Army Enlisted Reserve to follow the advice of the Sec- 
retary of War and proceed with their studies until called to 
active duty. "My advice to you," he repeated, "is to get all 
the education you can as rapidly as you are able." 

Other events that quarter included the presentation by 
alumni of a portrait of President Emeritus George W. Right- 
mire, done by Prof. Robert M. Gatrell, of fine arts; the opening 
of the new University airport on November 5; the completion 
by seventy "students" of another course in (manufacturing) 
plant protection, given by the Highway Patrol, with three 



58 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

more such courses scheduled; cooperation by students in a 
city-wide "blackout" on the night of October 31; the opening 
of a special meteorology course open to reservists; and the 
premiere of a University movie, "The University and the 
War." 

Thanks to the national Selective Service deferment policy 
and the University's accelerated program, Autumn Quarter, 1942 
enrollment, as noted, was virtually the same as for the fall 
quarter a year earlier — 11,205 as against 11,786. This was due 
in part also to the fact that the entering freshman class num- 
bered more than 3800, a campus record. There were other 
signs and portents: a definite trend among undergraduates 
toward courses directly concerned with the war, a strong 
likelihood that Enlisted Army Reservists might be called to active 
duty when they reached draft age, a modified R.O.T.C. program 
to bring it more into line with Army Enlisted Reserve require- 
ments, and increased enrollment in engineering. 

That fall also the Adult Evening School became the Twilight 
School. These night courses, carrying University credit, were 
intended to be permanent. But as the annual report em- 
phasized, "they immediately assumed an important war-time 
significance." The first few quarters, starting in 1941, were experi- 
mental. The first four quarters had a total enrollment of 1461. 
Those enrolled were almost evenly divided between those seek- 
ing degrees and those taking courses "of immediate interest" 
with no thought of a degree. It turned out also that day students 
"found a combination of day and evening offerings useful in 
avoiding schedule conflicts or in making possible outside employ- 
ment." This phase had not been anticipated. 

At the same time the number of E.S.M.WT. (formerly 
E.S.M.D.T.) courses grew from fifteen to forty-six. A 4-year 
physical education program for all students was considered but 
never adopted. 

The welcoming address of Dr. Bevis to the incoming students 
that fall was in line with what he had said to the student 



PEARL HARBOR AND AFTER 59 

body immediately after Pearl Harbor. "We recognize that you 
come to the campus at this time with many uncertainties as 
to your future plans," he told the new freshmen. "It is our 
purpose to help you in every way possible to solve your prob- 
lems. At the same time you will realize that even your elders 
do not and cannot know all the answers in times like these. 
Perhaps the military situation will be such that some of you 
won't be permitted to continue the college course you have 
started. If your studies are interrupted by a call to the armed 
services or to war industry, you will be a better soldier, a better 
worker, better prepared for life itself, as a result of conscientious 
work in the classes you are now starting." 

Another sign of change that autumn was in the ratio of 
men to women on the campus. In pre-war days it was about 
three to one. Now it was down to around two to one. The 
College of Engineering and the School of Nursing had enroll- 
ment increases but all of the others were down, especially 
Agriculture and Law. 

It was estimated that about 60 per cent of men students 
were in the Enlisted Reserve that fall. Of the others, 9 per cent 
had occupational deferments, 4 per cent dependency or physical 
disability deferments, and 7 per cent were still under draft age. 
In the health science professional colleges the enlistments were 
particularly heavy — Dentistry, 81 per cent; Medicine, 93 per cent; 
and Veterinary Medicine, 94 per cent. 

The E.S.M.W.T. had increased its usefulness in two ways: 
through 18-day refresher courses during the summer (August) 
to help meet Ohio's shortage of teachers in physics and math- 
ematics, and by tripling the number of courses in its regular 
program. The Federal government paid the tuition for the 
intensive refresher courses in algebra, trigonometry, mechanics 
and electricity. Certificates were given for satisfactory comple- 
tion of the courses for use in applying for temporary teaching 
certification. 

More specialized courses were included in the expanded 



60 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

campus E.S.M.W.T. program in industrial accounting, auditing 
and statistics, executive management, and traffic control besides 
others with emphasis on science. During the previous school 
year 3812 students were enrolled in one or more of these courses 
designed to train men and women for jobs in vital war indus- 
tries. Of the total enrolled 2345 completed the courses. Prof. 
Harry E. Nold was still in charge of the program which offered 
courses in seven other Ohio communities with more under 
consideration. 

Twenty-six departments of instruction were represented in 
the offerings of the Twilight School. By the first night nearly 
400 persons were registered. This program was in charge of 
Prof. A. E. Avey, of philosophy, and Prof. Thomas L. Kibler, 
of economics. 

As he had a year earlier, just after Pearl Harbor, President 
Bevis wrote a letter to the parents of the University's 11,000 
students during the 1942 holiday season. In it he suggested 
"calm family counsel" between parents and students. 

At the same time he urged that young people take advantage 
of "every day, week and month" to ready themselves "just 
that much more thoroughly, for their country's service and 
their own success." He pointed out that many students not 
in the Enlisted Reserves now came under the new draft rules 
covering 18- and 19-year-olds. Students in the various Reserve 
corps, he added, "MUST be enrolled in school next quarter or 
be subject to immediate call." 

As to the new Army-Navy programs, he wrote, "While 
we do not yet know all the implications of these programs for 
Ohio State and its students, we do know that our Army Enlisted 
Reserves in non-professional areas will not begin to be called 
to active duty until late in March. Those in professional studies 
will be permitted to finish the academic year — perhaps more. 
It is likely that Navy Reserves also will complete the year. We 
are thus assured that all of the Enlisted Reserves will have at 
least another full quarter in the University . . ." 



PEARL HARBOR AND AFTER 61 

He called attention to the fact that women were "being 
asked for larger and larger contributions to the war" and 
suggested that women students "give thought to the possibility 
of changes in their programs which may help to fit them for 
work where urgent needs exist." He lauded the general attitude 
of students during the Autumn Quarter and ended on this 
note: "To you, their parents, we give great credit; to you they 
must continue to look for calm counsel in our second year 
of the war." 

5. The Annual Report 

In the president's 72nd annual report for 1941-42, Dr. Bevis 
reviewed the dramatic circumstances under which, as he put 
it, war came to the campus.* He recalled that on the fateful 
afternoon of December 7, 1941 an audience of 3000 in the men's 
physical education building was sharing the annual "White 
Christmas" observance. 

But as early as July, 1940, he emphasized, the University 
had begun to prepare for the eventual emergency with the 
creation of a faculty-administrative Committee on Emergency 
Cooperation with the State and Federal Governments. With the 
outbreak of actual war, the concept changed from defense to 
war and the committee became one on War Activities. 

Dr. Bevis reviewed the efforts to reassure students and to 
encourage in them the belief that the best way to serve their 
country was to remain in school until called to active service. 
Another major step was to accelerate the academic program. 
The success in this quarter was reflected in the fact that summer 
enrollment in 1942 was up 70 per cent over that for the summer 
of 1941 and was at a record high. In his introduction to the 
report. Dr. Bevis spoke of "the wholehearted enlistment of our 
faculty and of our students in the nation's service." "Free edu- 
cation," he added, "is one of the stakes in this conflict." 

The task of accelerating the classroom program was two-fold: 

* Because it was dated Feb. 15, 1943, portions of this report overlap the 1942-43 
school year and are repeated here somewhat. 



62 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

of moving into the Summer Quarter much of the work normally 
taken in the fall, with the necessary adjustments and staffing; 
and to inform resident and prospective students of the changes. 
The former was in charge of Prof. George W. Eckelberry, 
summer session director, and the latter was handled by Prof. 
Harlan H. Hatcher, of English. 

Besides its regular program, virtually each college took on 
one or more activities related directly to the war effort. Capsule 
descriptions of these follow: 

Agriculture: "helping Ohio farmers ... to increase their 
production in the face of drastic wartime limitations on labor, 
equipment, and farm supplies of all kinds." 

Arts and Sciences: courses "sharpened" all along the line 
in terms of the war — bacteriology (training medical techno- 
logists and laboratory technicians) ; new courses in Russian, 
Japanese and Portuguese; in geology, new courses in aeronautical 
meteorology, military geology, topographic and geologic maps 
for military purposes; physics — celestial navigation and emphasis 
on the physics aspects of the conflict. 

Commerce and Administration — a course in retail merchan- 
dising for women, with 173 enrolled; special curricula for 
women in accounting, and industrial and engineering manage- 
ment. 

Dentistry — a record high in enrollment; nearly all dental 
students with Reserve Corps commissions; curriculum acceler- 
ated to permit graduation in three years. 

Education — creation of a new curriculum in occupational 
therapy in anticipation of greater needs in the field. 

Engineering — emphasis on the work of the Engineering, 
Science, and Management War Training Program, the Civilian 
Pilot Training Program, and the Research Foundation, plus 
new courses such as one in camouflage in the department of 
architecture and landscape architecture; some facilities and 
equipment used on a 24-hour basis, as in industrial engineering. 



PEARL HARBOR AND AFTER 63 

in connection with night training of airplane mechanics for 
the Army. 

Law — a special summer institute on public law. 

Medicine — acceleration and larger classes, with a 10 per cent 
increase in the size of the entering class; a stepped up program 
similarly in the School of Nursing. 

Pharmacy and Veterinary Medicine — accelerated programs, 
permitting the graduation of a class every nine months. 

Graduate School — many faculty members were now "work- 
ing on research projects pertaining to the war" especially in 
chemistry and electrical engineering, but also in physiology, 
physics, ceramics, psychology and other areas. 

Military Training — the report recalled the strong tradition 
of military training on the campus which had one of the 
largest R.O.T.C. units in the country; observance of "War 
Activities Day" on May 27, 1942 culminating in a parade of 
4000 cadets, when the Army granted commissions to 187 officers 
and the Navy to sixty-three; and for the first time in its history 
the University held military classes during the summer with 
1420 enrolled in basic courses and 542 in advanced. The Uni- 
versity participated in the new Army Enlisted Reserve program 
under which students could enlist but continued their studies 
until called up or graduated. In a short time 750 students 
enlisted. For the Army Air Corps Reserve 153 students success- 
fully passed examinations. 

Students in Medicine, Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine were 
appointed second lieutenants on an inactive status until graduated 
— 167 in Medicine, 139 in Dentistry, and 222 in Veterinary Medi- 
cine. The Signal Corps assigned a group of officers to the 
campus for training in electronics. Forty enlisted men from 
the Army Air Corps arrived in June for mechanical training. 

The office of Dean of Men Park was made the center for 
counseling students in respect to war service and for liaison 
between the University and local Selective Service boards. The 



64 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

average number of active Selective Service cases on file was 
1800 with a high of 2300. 

Where students decided to enlist in the middle of a quarter 
or Selective Service called them, the University met them more 
than half way. If a student went into service before com- 
pleting seven weeks of a quarter his fees were refunded. If 
he enlisted or was inducted after seven weeks in school and 
was in good standing he got full academic credit for the 
quarter, otherwise his fees were refunded. Provision was made 
also to give some credit for military service to those who left 
the campus in good standing and returned after completing 
such service. 

As was not surprising, there was a decline in enrollment: 
from 17,568 for the school year 1940-41 to 15,566 in 1941-42. 
As was to be expected, this was mostly in the men's enroll- 
ment—down from 12,006 to 10,265. 

The president sketched the many changes brought about in 
the first months of the shooting war, the close scrutiny of 
curricular matters, the help given by the Faculty Council, and 
the greater seriousness with which he said students took their 
responsibilities. As for the state universities, he noted that they 
"now find themselves in an age of new beginnings and to its 
conditions they must learn to adapt themselves." While he 
called the schools among the "indispensable agencies in the 
making of war," he said they needed to look well ahead to 
what was to come after the war. In those distant days, he 
foresaw, "we face the problem of the demobilization of 10,000,000 
men and the deregimentation of private enterprise." To these 
ends, he added, college offerings must be adapted "to the 
developing needs of a changing situation," the levels of college 
work must be maintained, a way had to be found "of demo- 
bilizing the military blocs that have been created in the time 
of war," and means must be devised "to kindle in the veterans' 
leaders a new light." 

In closing, he made these observations: 



PEARL HARBOR AND AFTER 65 

"We must I think, as state universities, maintain so far as 
possible, the open door to education. Democracy depends upon 
it ... . 

"While preserving the open door, we must also find means, 
not only to prevent the lowering of our standards, but actually 
to raise them. Our American educational system has become 
of age .... 

"We must, furthermore, I think, do what we can to pro- 
fessionalize more callings. Instead of the half dozen professions 
for which as universities we now attempt to prepare our stu- 
dents, there should be many times that number .... 

"Closely related to the university's participation in profes- 
sionalizing callings is the matter of expanding our graduate 
functions. In the more mature development of our university 
system we shall, I think, come more and more to differentiate 
between what I may call 'learning courses' and what I may 
call 'thinking courses' . . . ." 



IV 

ACCELERATION AND CHANGE 

A s part of the over-all program for national defense, 
/-\ two steps had been taken on the campus in the winter 
-A_ )\ of 1941 but they were only a beginning. To help 
meet the needs of the Army for more physicians, the freshman 
medical class, starting with the Autumn Quarter, 1941, had 
been increased from seventy-five to eighty-four. The Trustees, 
at their March 10, 1941 meeting, had authorized the Bureau 
of Special and Adult Education to enlarge the scope of the 
Adult Evening School by offering "refresher courses" for the 
preparation of young men in certain subjects to enable them 
to qualify through examination for enlistment in the Army 
Air Corps. 

The men's division, department of physical education, had 
been authorized similarly to offer "special classes in physical 
education for young men of draft age who will be shortly 
called for military service." These, as noted, were toughening 
or so-called "fitness" courses. 

At the Faculty Council meeting of January 13, 1942, 
President Bevis gave a lengthy summary of the University's 
defense and war activities. These fell rather naturally into 
two parts: those undertaken before Pearl Harbor and those 
set up after that date. The former were divided into nine 
categories and the second group into eight. 

The Committee on Emergency Cooperation with the State 
and Federal Governments, Dr. Bevis recalled, had been created 
in July, 1940 as a result of the repercussions of the war in 
Europe. "There began to appear the necessity," he remarked, 
"for some constructive thinking about emergency policy, and 

66 



ACCELERATION AND CHANGE 67 

for the coordination of emergency University activities." He 
touched on each of its nine chief activities as follows: 

Research Projects — "many of them are of a highly confi- 
dential nature." Dr. Olpin, director of the Research Foundation, 
became the University's contact man with agencies in Washing- 
ton and elsewhere. 

Selective Service — The enactment of this law "placed upon 
the University an onerous duty and a great responsibility." 
Student claims for deferment were based upon the premise 
that their continuance in the University "would improve the 
registrant's quality as a 'necessary man.' " 

Aviation — the Civilian Pilot Training program "as the war 
situation drew nearer its quasi-military aspect became plainer." 

Recruiting for Aviation — air service authorities, through Dr. 
J. W. Wilce, director of the University Health Service, modified 
the procedure for the physical examination of applicants. 

Sharpening Courses — training in schools and E.S.M.D.T., 
under Prof. Nold. These classes, he remarked, "have made a 
very large contribution in the proportion of workers for essential 
defense industries," with an enrollment of 1000 or more each 
quarter. 

Nutrition in Defense— each Land-Grant university was asked 
to organize a State Council on Nutrition in Defense. Prof. 
Minnie Price, of Home Economics, was the campus chairman. 
State and district meetings were held. 

Agricultural Extension Service— Ohio agricultural activities 
were coordinated with those of the national program. 

Civilian Morale — the University cooperated with both state 
and Federal governments in terms of community leadership, 
radio, public speaking, and other channels. 

Consumer Education — a skeleton organization, set up on the 
campus "a year ago," had attracted the attention of the Federal 
government. This led to the establishment on the campus of 
"a general center for consumer education throughout the Middle 



68 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

West" in the form of an Institute. The committee in charge 
consisted of Director Harry C. Ramsower, Prof. Price, Dean 
John F. Cunningham (Agriculture), Prof. Kenneth Dameron 
(business organization), Prof. Faith L. Gorrell (Home Eco- 
nomics), Dr. N. Paul Hudson (bacteriology), and Prof. H. W. 
Nisonger (special education). The Institute was to have a 
director apointed jointly by the Federal government and the 
University. 

After December 7, 1941 it had been a different story. "The 
declaration of war by Japan," Dr. Bevis commented, "quickened 
sharply the tempo of our thinking and activity. The prevailing 
mental concept changed from 'defense' to 'war.' Opinions as 
to national policy merged." His report on this phase of develop- 
ments had dealt with eight items: 

Student Enrollment — the declarations of war had "created 
much confusion in student thinking." At a student meeting 
in the chapel the president had sought to present "what I 
believed to be the national policy with respect to universities 
in war time." This was followed, as noted, by a meeting of 
the faculty, a letter read in classes, and two broadcasts over 
WOSU during the Christmas holidays. Counseling centers were 
set up on the campus, and a letter was sent to all parents of 
students. Dr. Bevis said "the combined effect of these measures 
appears to have been considerable." Perhaps as a result the 
decline in enrollment between the Autumn and Winter Quarters 
had been only a little more than normal. The essence of the 
advice to students and their parents was: stay in school until 
called. 

Physical Examinations — these were offered free to men stu- 
dents to indicate the probability of their being accepted for 
the Armed Forces. The men's division of physical education, 
as indicated, also set up a voluntary fitness program. 

Committee on War Activities — this replaced the earlier Com- 
mittee on Emergency Cooperation with the State and Federal 



ACCELERATION AND CHANGE 69 

Governments. Its purpose was to coordinate "all University 
activities growing out of the war situation." It had five sub- 
committees with chairmen as follows: 

Red Cross Activities — Mrs. Howard L. Bevis, honorary, and 
Mrs. Alpheus W. Smith. 

Civilian Morale— Prof. H. W. Nisonger 

Occupational Therapy — Dr. Charles A. Doan. 

Lectures and Discussions — Prof. H. G. Hullfish. 

Personnel Council — to advise individual students regarding 
personal problems and to explore the possibility for other services 
during the emergency. 

Air Raids— while the potential danger of these appeared 
less likely than elsewhere, "prudence enjoins upon us the necessity 
of taking precautions and making suitable arrangements 'just 
in case.' " Details were worked out through the Cabinet. 

Red Cross and similar activities — a University unit was 
established. 

Labor Conference — representatives of labor and government 
met to seek improvement in labor conditions during the war. 

Civilian Defense Schools — conferences of police, fire officials 
and others were arranged "to give instruction in the handling 
of wartime emergency situations." 

1. The Acceleration Program 

Acceleration of the University Program — called "by far the 
most important of our war efforts at present." This was acceler- 
ated instruction in general and in Dentistry and Medicine in 
particular. The purposes were to enable the student to make 
faster progress and to step up the output of graduates, especially 
in technical and scientific areas. Prof. George W. Eckelberry, 
of accounting, was chairman of this major subcommittee. Other 
members were Deans Smith and Klein and Prof. Hoagland. 

The Army offered an incentive of sorts, as noted, to men 
students in the spring of 1942 in the form of the Enlisted 
Reserve Corps, or E.R.C. as it became known. For this a tem- 



70 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

porary University quota was set at 1975 but the figure would 
be raised if more applications were received. Those who enhsted 
could "complete their University work before being called into 
active service, barring unforeseen military emergency and so 
long as the student does satisfactory classroom work." It was 
open to men from 18 years and up and had no relation to 
the R.O.T.C. although it was administered by the military de- 
partment. 

Meanwhile all men students, whether in the E.R.C. or not, 
would continue to take the first two years of basic military 
training. The two years of advanced training were still optional. 
The E.R.C. was part of an Army effort to enlist 80,000 college 
men a year on a deferred basis "to insure a continuing flow 
of officer and specialist material." 

The accelerated program of study, plus the creation of the 
E.R.C. program, bore fruit. The slogan behind it was "This 
Year College Starts in June." And so it did. Enrollment for 
the Summer Quarter, 1942, as indicated, was 7085 as against 
4500 a year earlier, a gain of 56.1 per cent. For the Autumn 
Quarter, 1942 it was substantially the same as a year earlier. 
Prof. Hatcher, who was shortly to go into Navy duty himself, 
had visited many Ohio high schools to emphasize the accelerated 
program by addressing their senior classes. One result of this 
was that 777 first-quarter freshmen were enrolled during the 
summer. 

At another general faculty meeting December 8, 1942 President 
Bevis reviewed the activities of the year and sketched the out- 
look for 1943. He praised the morale of the students and voiced 
his appreciation to the faculty. The building program for the 
biennium, he noted, was "out" because of the wartime shortage 
of materials. But much of this money had been transferred to 
other useful, and related, purposes: the erection of a war research 
laboratory, the construction of a University airport, and the 
purchase of Neil Hall for dormitory purposes, eliminating an 
annual rental of some $25,000. 



ACCELERATION AND CHANGE 71 

He cited as significant the success of the acceleration program 
and the opening of the Twilight School. These enabled the 
University to use its plant more hours each day. The University 
was pleased, he added, to ofiPer this additional opportunity to 
employed persons who needed and wanted college work. But 
he said he looked for a considerable exodus of regular men 
students starting about February 1, 1943 and in time, he pre- 
dicted, only about two-thirds of the current enrollment would 
be left. 

Students called to military service, he reported, would get 
from three to four months of basic training. Part of them 
would then be sent to various universities for further training. 
He estimated Ohio State's "share" of these at around 3000. 
In any case, he declared that the University was not going out 
of business although it might shift its emphasis considerably in 
the direction of training rather than education as such. "We 
want to make our contributions count," he concluded. "It is 
my belief that the Ohio State University will employ its facilities 
at the highest degree of usefulness to the war effort." 

2. Aeronautics and Aviation 

A. THE CIVILIAN PILOT TRAINING PROGRAM 

Ohio State was one of a number of universities that took 
part in the Civilian Pilot Training Program begun in 1939 
under the sponsorship of the Civil Aeronautics Administration. 
Its purpose was to foster private flying, but when the war 
came on it was tied in quickly with the war effort. Prof. 
Karl W. Stinson, of mechanical engineering, was the faculty 
co-ordinator. 

In a resume written in October, 1944, Stinson remarked 
that "It was a well-established fact that as of December, 1940 
the Civilian Pilot Training Program . . . had assumed a 
position of major importance alongside the Army, Navy and 
Coast Guard in the National Defense Organization." In support 
of this, he noted that as of June, 1941, 7403 C.P.T.P. trainees 



72 



THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 



had entered the Army or Navy and 1262 had become flight 
instructors in some phase of the national defense program. On 
December 7, 1941, the name of the service was changed to 
"Civil Aeronautics Administration — War Training Service." 

The campus C.P.T. program was administered originally 
by a committee consisting of Vice President Morrill, Business 
Manager Steeb, and Deans MacQuigg (Engineering) and Strad- 
ley (Arts and Sciences). Harvey M. Rice, of history, was assistant 
co-ordinator. At first both men and women students, chosen 
carefully, were admitted to the program. But from the spring 
of 1941 women were no longer accepted. By the next spring 
(1942), all enrollees had to enlist in either the Army or Navy 
air arm. In December, 1942 the University was designated as 
a Naval Aviation Cadet training center. On August 3, 1944, 
to anticipate, the Navy discontinued the C.A.A.-W.T.S. facilities 
on the campus and elsewhere. 

From 1939 to that date, 498 Ohio State trainees took the 
advanced course in both ground and flight training. In all, 
802 trainees had the elementary course. Of those enrolled in 
the elementary course, 462 were Naval Aviation cadets. Most 
of these continued through the advanced course. 

By mid-1942, as indicated, marked changes had occurred in 
the campus C.P.T. program. Earlier students enrolled in it had 
to sign a pledge "to enter the military service of the United 
States to take further flight training" if qualified. About twenty 
signed up for the Army and a like number for the Navy. 
Another twenty were rejected, at least temporarily, because of 
physical defects. One result was to reduce sharply the number 
of campus enrollees. 

Four flight contractors handled the flying instruction. They 
were the Lane Aviation Corp., the Miller Flying School, the 
Northway Flying Service, and the Sullivant Flying School. They 
supplied planes for flight training and both operators and planes 
were under rigid government inspection and approval. 

Much of the earlier instruction was given at Port Columbus 



ACCELERATION AND CHANGE 73 

until the Navy took it over, and at the Sulhvant Airport. The 
Lane Aviation Corp. transferred its training activities in August, 
1943 to the new University airport, later Don Scott Field. It 
continued there until the program was closed out. Students 
in the 1942 summer class used the Sullivant Airport where, in 
the words of Prof. Stinson, conditions were "very congested 
and dangerous." 

Students had to pass C.A.A. final examinations in order 
to complete the course successfully. Starting with the summer 
of 1942, trainees were housed in the Kappa Delta Rho and 
Delta Sigma Phi fraternities at first and later in the Sigma 
Nu and Delta Upsilon houses. 

Since the actual flying schools were at some distance from 
the campus, the University first hired private carriers to transport 
the trainees. Later it bought a 7-passenger car and a 36-passenger 
bus for this purpose. Stinson called the total program "one of 
the most important steps in preparation for World War 11" 
as well as "one of the great forces for the advancement of 
aviation in the history of this country." 

B. THE SCHOOL OF AVIATION 

Several years before World War II, Ohio State and three 
other Midwestern universities — Michigan, Purdue and Wisconsin 
— took part in a conference at which the question of aeronautical 
engineering was discussed. One decision was that Ohio State 
would not enter this field. But with the advent of the C.P.T. 
program on the campus in 1939, followed by Pearl Harbor, 
the University reversed its position considerably before the end 
of 1942. 

A major result of this was the creation on November 9, 
1942 in separate actions by the Board of Trustees of a Graduate 
Aviation Center at Dayton and a School of Aviation on the 
campus. A little earlier 382.5 acres were bought as the site 
for a University airport seven miles northwest of the campus. 
The Graduate Center at Dayton, to quote the Board minutes. 



74 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

was set up "to offer opportunity for qualified graduate students 
in that area to pursue advanced courses in aerodynamics, airplane 
structures, communication engineering, applied mechanics, theo- 
retical physics, mathematics, etc." 

The School of Aviation program was far more inclusive. 
In a prefatory statement to the Board, Dr. Bevis stressed "the 
importance of air power in war and the likelihood of a vast 
expansion of aviation in the post-war period. In these develop- 
ments, both in war and peace, the State of Ohio has and 
should continue to have a prominent place. Modern aviation 
had its birth in Ohio." He cited these further facts: many 
industries essential to aviation development, including several 
major ones, were based in Ohio; one-fourth of all expenditures 
for airplanes and their accessories was spent in Ohio; and air- 
ports and flying fields were being established throughout the 
state. 

All of this, he emphasized, indicated "the desirability of a 
centrally located School of Aviation with proper laboratories 
and other equipment," and that such a school "ought to be 
established at the Ohio State University" which already had 
many of the necessary component parts. In support of this 
contention, he cited a dozen favorable factors in terms of appro- 
priate courses, facilities and personnel. Besides these, he added, 
were "important" research programs in progress in high altitude 
physiology, meteorology, and psychological factors. Finally, "an 
excellent flying field" was being developed, providing unusual 
training, instructional and research opportunities. 

The Trustees thereupon adopted a resolution offered by Dr. 
Bevis that "a comprehensive program of Aeronautics" be devel- 
oped at the University. This was to include the establishment 
of a School of Aviation under a director, and with an advisory 
committee representing nine related departments. Undergrad- 
uate curricula were to be developed in five fields: aeronautical 
engineering, meteorology, air transport, photogrammetry, and 
aviation psychology and physiology. Provision was to be made 



ACCELERATION AND CHANGE 75 

also for graduate and research work in those fields, along with 
the necessary personnel, laboratories, equipment and apparatus. 

Contracts were let for the first two airport buildings, a 
hangar 80 by 112 feet, and a shops building 60 by 98 feet. 
These were completed in the early spring of 1943. Two hard 
surface runways, each 2200 feet long, were built along with 
the necessary taxiways and aprons. These were ready early 
in 1944. The first plane, piloted by Major George Stone, com- 
manding Wing 51, Civil Air Patrol of Ohio, landed at the 
field, however, on November 5, 1942 in the presence of Governor 
Bricker and other officials. Stone had as a passenger his father, 
Julius F. Stone, chairman emeritus of the Board of Trustees. 

The Board created the department of aeronautical engineering 
on March 8, 1943. The view of Dean MacQuigg was accepted 
that the development of aviation on the campus, including the 
related research and academic program, was "a University 
function and that the interests of the whole University must 
be considered" in future planning in that area. Col. Brunzell, 
retired R.O.T.C. commandant, was named acting director of 
the School of Aviation, effective January 1, 1944. A 21-man 
advisory committee was appointed also. 

In some ways the year 1943 saw the high and the low 
points of the effects of the war upon the University. In the 
March, 1943 Faculty Review, President Bevis summed up the 
University's war activities under three headings: teaching, service 
and research, as follows: 

Teaching — "The University is in the process," he reported, 
"of developing, in cooperation with the representatives of the 
armed services, a wide array of teaching programs, for men in 
uniform. Informal reports indicate that the Ohio State Uni- 
versity has been chosen as one of the schools for the training 
of men in aircraft recognition, the training of Naval Air cadets 
under the Civil Aeronautics Administration, advanced engi- 
neering training, language and area studies, basic engineering, 
psychology and pre-medicine." In addition, medical, dental and 



Id THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

veterinary medical students in uniform were continuing their 
regular but accelerated courses. Currently, the president added, 
"we have contracts covering only a small number of the above 
programs, but other contracts are confidently expected in the 
near future." And so it proved. 

Further, the program of teaching students not in uniform 
was being "constantly modified and additionally streamlined 
to meet the war situation." For example, student nursing pro- 
grams were replanned whenever possible so as to provide 
"essential hospital experience and teaching" in thirty months. 
Senior nurses could be assigned to duty in Army hospitals or 
other areas in their last six months of training. Similarly, at the 
request of the State Department of Education, the University 
developed a plan under which students could qualify for 
temporary certification in elementary and secondary teaching 
in nine quarters of college work. They were then expected to 
return to the campus in the Summer Quarter to qualify for the 
Education degree. 

In line with an American Council on Education recom- 
mendation, special pre-induction curricula were planned for 
men. These were intended to develop "a command of English; 
provide an historical background of the war; give a basic 
elementary foundation in mathematics; assure physical stamina; 
and develop keenness of mind and judgment." 

Besides the general pre-induction curricula, there were special 
curricula in mathematics and physics, chemistry, geology, and 
foreign languages — French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Rus- 
sian, and Japanese — and for those preparing for work as map 
and topographic draftsmen, for military police, and intelligence 
work. There were temporary programs also for trained personnel 
in commercial and secretarial fields because of heavy demands 
in those areas. 

Dr. Bevis attached "particular significance" to the training 
of women "for the various armed forces, for replacement of 
men in needed areas, for civilian occupations, and for the post- 



ACCELERATION AND CHANGE 77 

war reconstruction period." He noted also that the University 
offered "a wide variety of choice for those interested in training 
in specific areas of war significance, as well as in other fields." 

It was continuing to proceed, he observed, "on a Four- 
Quarter accelerated basis." Wherever possible it had streamlined 
its programs and curricula. In some instances there were 5 p.m. 
classes "to meet the needs of people in war industries." A 
number of additional short courses were made available as, 
for example, Rural War Production, special first aid training 
for pharmacists, special postgraduate laboratory and tropical 
medicine courses, and postgraduate refresher courses in dentistry. 

Service — about 200 staff members by now had gone on leave 
for military and non-military government service. Among the 
agencies represented were the Bureau of Economic Warfare and 
the Department of Justice. Under the E.S.M.W.T. program, Dr. 
Bevis noted, "the University had aided in the training and 
upgrading of thousands of people through essential war courses, 
not only in Columbus, but Mansfield, Marion, Newark and 
Dayton." Other contributions were through the Twilight School, 
and through Field Laboratory Workshops. 

The departments of agricultural engineering and agricultural 
education organized and conducted farm machinery repair 
schools, with refresher courses for vocational agriculture teachers 
and farm machinery operators. These resulted. Dr. Bevis added, 
"in the salvaging and servicing of thousands of farm imple- 
ments." The horticulture department similarly pooled its efforts 
"to see that every family in Ohio will have the benefit of the 
latest information on the establishment of a victory garden." 

In response to a nationwide call for all available quinine 
supplies Dr. Bevis said the University turned over 554 grams 
of bulk quinine sulphate, along with 100 5-grain capsules, and 
45 grams of the hydrochloride salt. Also in the field of public 
health. Dr. Charles A. Doan, of the College of Medicine, 
was medical director of the Columbus Blood Donor Center 
which was opened December 1, 1942. The first mobile unit was 



78 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

organized two weeks later to serve surrounding communities. 
The local quota of blood was 1500 pints a week. 

An oddity in the spring of 1943 was the change by Columbus 
to "fast" time while the University remained on standard time. 
To oiifset this classes were held an hour earlier. Yet clocks 
on one side of High St. in the campus vicinity showed 10 
o'clock, for example, while those on the University side were 
9 o'clock. President Bevis explained that the University, "as 
a state institution, is legally bound to maintain the time estab- 
lished by the State Legislature." 

As a result of the speed-up in courses, about 1000 graduates 
who normally would have gotten their degrees in June, 1943 
received them at the March 19 convocation. Another change 
was to combine the Junior and Senior Proms on March 5 under 
the joint sponsorship of Sphinx, Mortar Board, Bucket and 
Dipper, and Chimes. 

As its memorial, the senior class decided upon a "Victory 
Bell." It was to be set up on the oval and was to be rung 
after each athletic victory. For the time being the '43 Senior 
memorial fund was to be invested in War Bonds. The bell finally 
materialized in 1953 but atop the southeast Stadium tower. 

3. LooI{ing Both Ways 

In retrospect the University in 1942-43 might be said to 
have been looking both ahead and back. The end of that school 
year proved, in fact, to be the half way point in the war. 
But in his fourth annual report President Bevis noted that 
while the University continued to put all of its resources at 
the service of the nation, it began also to take a hard look 
at the post-war years even though they were not actually in 
sight. 

"Just as it has rapidly adapted its program to the war," 
he wrote, "so Ohio State will be prepared to reorganize speedily 
for the post-war period. Without any false optimism, we are 
already preparing for that happy day when the conflict is ended. 



ACCELERATION AND CHANGE 79 

However long or short the war may be, the University will 
have its post-war blueprint ready long before *the boys come 
home.' " So it turned out. His statement referred to the fact 
that since mid-May, 1943 the special faculty committee, headed 
by Prof. Hoagland, had been "closely scrutinizing the Univer- 
sity program in anticipation of post-war needs." 

This was of a piece with what had gone before. For 
Prof. Hoagland in the months before Pearl Harbor had headed 
the special committee which had begun to mobilize University 
resources for the impending war. Now Dr. Bevis called Dr. 
Hoagland the "connecting link" between the war and post-war 
programs. 

The committee for the latter, he noted, "has been asked 
to be concerned primarily with 'concrete recommendations for 
concrete developments at this University.' It was suggested that 
the group look both outward and inward — 'outward toward 
the activities sponsored by the state and national governments 
and other developments concerning our community conditions 
— inward at necessary curricular developments, organizational 
requirements, and personnel problems.' " 

He emphasized that plans were in the making also for a 
dual purpose post-war building program. "First is our own 
need," he explained. "The depression and then the war have 
prevented us from expanding, even maintaining, our plant to 
meet the needs of a growing student body and the increasing 
calls for other University services, particularly research. The 
second, and no less important, objective in preparing such 
a building program now is the very useful purpose this con- 
struction may serve in absorbing some of the surplus employment 
which the nation may experience for a matter of some months 
or years. . . ." 

He called the year 1942-43 again "one of very definite 
progress for the University." He cited "the wholehearted co- 
operation" of Governor Bricker, of other state officials, the 
legislature, and others. "We take increasing pride," he observed. 



80 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

"in the contributions of the thousands of our former students 
and of our faculty to the war effort, both in the miUtary 
service and in civiHan capacities. Their accomplishments testify 
anew to the usefulness of this state and federally-supported 
university in 'Education for Citizenship.' " 

He said the total enrollment of 14,137 "exceeded expec- 
tations" and indicated how "our young people have taken 
advantage of the accelerated program to speed their preparation 
for war work." He stressed "the splendid morale" of students 
in a time of war and attributed this in part to "the splendid 
cooperation from the parents," both individually and collectively. 

He cited the fact that during the year the Board of Trustees 
had become an all-alumni body for the first time. Dr. Burrell 
Russell, of New Philadelphia, and Lockwood Thompson, of 
Cleveland, left the Board. They were succeeded by James F. 
Lincoln, w'07, also of Cleveland, and Warner M. Pomerene, 
'15, of Coshocton. An unusual development in this connection 
was the naming by Governor Bricker of Donald C. Power, 
'22, '26, '27, his executive secretary and formerly on the 
Commerce faculty, as a Trustee for the term beginning May 13, 
1944 — a year hence. This was so that the legislature, then in 
session, could confirm the nomination, which it did. 

Bowing to wartime restrictions and other conditions, the 
conventional Alumni Day program was abandoned for 1943. 
Instead an alumni war conference was held June 12. About 
300 attended. Class reunions for all but the 50-year and 25-year 
classes, '93 and '18, were canceled likewise. 

A resume of the University's wartime activities and problems 
was presented at the conference in Derby Hall at which Dr. 
Bevis spoke. He touched on the fact that 300 staff members 
were on war leave and that the low enrollment of under 7000 
might go still lower. He told the alumni also that the campus 
had become an important center of war research, with some 
$3 million in such contracts, most of them for the government. 



ACCELERATION AND CHANGE 81 

But none of these could be described or identified except the 
Navy Recognition School. 

Three other events marked the day's program: a detailed 
report by an alumni War Activities Committee, of which Milo 
J. Warner, '13, of Toledo, past national commander of the 
American Legion, was chairman; dedication on the oval of 
a War Service Board, showing the number of University war 
dead, missing, prisoners, and total in service; and presentation 
to Mrs. Vera McElroy, of Columbus, of a memorial certificate 
in honor of her son, Lieut. Harry J. McElroy, Jr., w'44, who 
was killed in the crash of a pursuit plane. 

As of June 12, the Service Board showed 5586 Ohio Staters 
in all branches of service, 69 dead, 23 missing, and 29 prisoners. 

The alumni committee report compared the World War I 
setting with that of World War II and the steps the Univer- 
sity had taken to mesh with the all-out effort after Pearl Harbor. 
It cited the wartime research program, lauded the work of the 
Navy Recognition School, and noted that much of the research 
program had been made possible by alumni giving through 
the Development Fund Program. Chairman Warner said the 
committee's function was two-fold: to take stock of what the 
University was doing in the war, and "to explore directions 
in which the war program can be refined and extended." He 
cited also the Alumni Monthy Pearl Harbor edition, the Uni- 
versity war film, and other activities. 

The committee made five recommendations: that work be 
started "at once" on a new University war history; that "every 
possible device be used to keep in touch" with the University's 
men and women in war service; that an "overseas edition" of 
the "Combat Section" of the Monthly be sent at least quarterly 
to those in service not subscribing to the Monthly; that the 
University "make adequate preparation for assistance" to alumni 
needing help in getting employment after the war; and that 
the alumni, individually and through the association, "give 
serious consideration to ways in which they may continue to 



82 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

be helpful to the University in its big opportunity for service 
in the war and in the peace." 

The sound motion picture, "The University and the War," 
v^^as produced early in 1943. As of January, 1944 a total of 
106,319 persons, most of them Ohioans, had seen the film which 
ran 22 minutes. The State Department ordered four copies of 
it to be shown abroad, especially in Australia, New Zealand, 
South Africa and Egypt. 

As of January, 1944 the film had been viewed by 551 groups, 
including 284 high schools, luncheon and other clubs, fraternal 
groups, educational associations, civilian defense workers, and 
others. Nineteen colleges and universities borrowed copies for 
special showings on their campuses. 

The film was produced by Profs. William R. Parker, English; 
Frank J. Roos, Jr., fine arts; and Lloyd Reber, photography. 
Wilbert "Wib" Pettegrew, WOSU, was the commentator. The 
film depicted how the University was meeting the challenge 
of the war. 

4. Enrollment Far Down 

Although the Summer Quarter had become a "regular" 
quarter as a result of the accelerated program, enrollment in 
the summer of 1943 was far down, especially in terms of "regu- 
lar" students. As of July 13, the total was 7166, but of these 
2524 were in armed services programs, plus 153 in the Twilight 
School, leaving only 4489* students "in course." These latter 
included 644 dental, medical and veterinary students in uni- 
form. Armed services personnel were distributed as follows: 
A.S.T.P., 845; S.T.A.R., 846; Navy medical and dental, 83; 
Navy Recognition, 550; E.S.M.W.T., 200. Some fifty others were 
in the Navy Civilian Air Authority War Training Service. 

The count of "regular" students also included men in pre- 
professional Medicine and Dentistry exempted from Selective 
Service, as well as men classified in 4-F and other draft-exempt 

* Later figure given in Registrar's Annual Report as 4876. Other similar figures 
that follow are from this same official source. 



ACCELERATION AND CHANGE 83 

categories. The remaining male undergraduates were 17-year- 
olds and a few only sixteen. 

The enrollment shrinkage naturally had some bearing on 
the teaching load. But this was offset in turn by the fact that 
by now some 300 staff and faculty members had been granted 
leaves of absence for war service. 

Two wartime shortages were reflected on the campus that 
fall. One had to do with milk and the other with coal. Because 
of a severe shortage, University milk sales in mid-October, 1943 
were limited to 75 per cent of June sales. That same month 
President Bevis and Business Manager Steeb asked the faculty 
to help conserve coal by cutting the use of light, power and 
heat in classrooms, laboratories and offices to a minimum. The 
request was in the form of an official notice. 

Prof. E. L. Dakan, on leave from poultry husbandry for 
work with the War Relocation Administration, caused a small 
storm in December, 1943 because of statements taken as reflect- 
ing upon Ohio farmers. The W.R.A. was responsible for the 
resettlement of Nisei Japansese, born in the United States, 
who had been interned in western camps pending their transfer 
elsewhere in the country. Feeling — or suspicion — ran high against 
them for a time in the west. 

Dakan was quoted as saying — or was so understood — that 
Japanese-Americans then in relocation centers could teach Ohio 
and Michigan tenant farmers and seasonal workers the value 
of daily baths. Specifically, he wrote an article for a W.R.A. 
publication for distribution among the Japanese-American inter- 
nees. He insisted that he did not mean that Ohio tenant farmers 
never bathed but only that many of them did not bathe daily 
or as often as the Nisei. He was trying to tell the Nisei that 
they might find many Ohio and Michigan tenant farmer houses 
lacked the bathing facilities to which the Nisei were accustomed. 
At the time about 2500 Japanese-Americans had been placed 
in Ohio and Michigan. 



84 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Midwestern Congressmen denounced Dakan in Washington. 
The Cleveland area W.R.A. supervisor instructed all W.R.A. 
bureaus to stop further distribution of the article which had 
been mailed only to relocation centers where West Coast Japa- 
nese were interned. The Dakan article was published in a 
4-page bulletin, the Midwest Frontier. The tempest died out 
in time. 

Even during the war most campus undergraduate pub- 
lications continued to publish despite the literal manpower 
shortage. The Lantern, for example, had several women editors 
during the war years and even a woman sports editor. There 
was some difficulty over the latter in the fall of 1944 because 
of a long-standing rule that women were never admitted to 
the Ohio Stadium press box for football games. This was 
resolved by assigning to her a separate booth adjoining the 
press box. 

The Sun-Dial also had a woman editor. From time to time 
over the years it had been in trouble with the Committee on 
Student Publications over questionable material appearing in 
its pages — text, cartoons and even photographs. Early in Octo- 
ber, 1944 President Bevis personally suppressed the Sun-Dial's 
"Freshman Uplift" issue which he called "the filthiest issue" 
he had seen. He also ordered all unsold copies to be brought 
to his office. Some 3300 copies of the issue had been printed, 
and by then nearly all had been sold on the campus. 

Within a few days interested students met at the Alpha 
Phi sorority house to discuss ways and means of getting per- 
mission for the Sun-Dial to resume publication. The suspension 
was indefinite and, as it turned out, when permission finally 
was given to resume publication it was under strict assurance 
of better taste and closer supervision — and under another name. 
This turned out to be Scarlet Fever. 

Both the suspension and the discontinuance of the old name 
aroused some alumni such as James Thurber, w'18, the author, 



ACCELERATION AND CHANGE 85 

and Gardner Rea, '14, cartoonist, both of whom had served 
on the Sun-Dial in the "old" days. After about two years per- 
mission was granted to resume the use of the original name 
and "Sunny" was back in business although from time to 
time it was again in difficulty of one sort or another. 



O' 



V 

SPECIAL TRAINING PROGRAMS 

NE of the major wartime changes was the appearance 
on the campus of thousands of men in uniform, along 
with a few women in khaki or blue. This came about 
through the establishment of special training programs geared 
to the needs of the armed services. Some of these, as noted, 
applied to regular students, as in Dentistry, Medicine and Vet- 
erinary Medicine. They were sworn into military service but 
continued their regular education on an accelerated basis. 

From mid-1942, however, thousands of other service men 
from elsewhere were assigned to the campus for special programs 
of varying length and purpose. Three of these in particular 
were of major scope and importance: the so-called Navy Recog- 
nition School, the A.S.T.P. — Army Specialized Training Pro- 
gram, and the S.T.A.R. — Specialized Training Assignment and 
Reclassification. Between mid-1942 and the end of 1944 thousands 
of service men, already in uniform, came to the campus under 
one or another of these programs. 

For regular students, apart from those in the three profes- 
sional colleges, there were such service outlets as the Enlisted 
Reserve Corps, the advanced R.O.T.C, and several Navy pro- 
grams— V-1, V-2, V-5, and V-7. Initially, at least, these called 
for the student to remain in school but to go into active service 
upon the completion of his studies or upon call. 

At least two pre-war programs of importance were shifted 
quickly, as noted, to a wartime basis after Pearl Harbor. One 
of these was the Civilian Pilot Training program. The other 
was the Engineering Defense Training, begun in 1940, which 
next became Engineering, Science, and Management Defense 

86 



SPECIAL TRAINING PROGRAMS 87 

Training — E.S.M.D.T. — and finally Engineering, Science, and 
Management War Training, or E.S.M.W.T. 

In the months that followed a variety of shorter special 
courses was held on the campus, a few of a military nature, and 
the others civilian but war-connected. One of the former was 
a Diesel engine school. Among the others were courses in 
camouflage and plant protection. Even the new Twilight School 
and WOSU, the campus radio station, contributed to the war 
effort. 

Students also took a hand in related matters, as indicated. 
The Student War Board was set up along with the War 
Service Corps, both intended to facilitate student participation 
in war activities. In the spring of 1943 the University sponsored 
a series of lectures on various aspects of the war to afford a better 
understanding of the basic issues. 

On the civilian side, labor was in somewhat short supply 
during the war because millions of men and thousands of 
women were siphoned off into the armed services and because 
of the demands of war industry. To help offset this shortage, 
the University undertook two special projects other than the 
special war industry training courses referred to elsewhere. One, 
as noted, was to encourage hundreds of Victory Gardens by 
faculty and staff members. The other was a pioneer program 
to train several hundred Kentuckians and West Virginians for 
work on Ohio farms. 

By early 1943 five groups of nearly fifty each of these "hill" 
people had been given brief but intensive training on the 
campus. These "students," who were housed in trailers under- 
neath the Ohio Stadium, were recruited chiefly in Kentucky 
by the U.S. Employment Service, with the help of the Farm 
Security Administration. The "course" lasted only a week, of 
which a day and a half were outside, using tractors and other 
mechanical equipment with which the men were previously 
unfamiliar. 

Many Ohio farmers came to the campus in the early days 



00 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

of these "schools" to interview the men and there was some 
lively bidding for their services. The bidding stage passed and 
later requests or inquiries for the men were placed through 
the U.S.E.S. office in the county where the man would work. 
A good many of the men were placed on northern Ohio dairy 
farms. 

About a fourth of the Kentuckians became homesick even 
before the week was up and returned home. Some changed 
their minds, however, and returned to the campus to complete 
the work. The special teaching staff for them included Agri- 
culture faculty members, plus qualified farmers from central 
Ohio. 

Although Ohio State was chosen to pioneer in this type of 
training, at least one other such "school" followed on another 
Ohio campus, with others planned elsewhere. The work consisted 
of supervised training in the livestock barns, in the agricultural 
engineering laboratories, and on the University farm. Year-round 
workers were sought as "students." They ranged from young 
to middle age. 

1. E.S.M.W.T. 

The E.S.M.W.T. program, under Prof. Nold, took on added 
significance in 1941-42. It was begun as a defense training pro- 
gram to help meet the shortage of technically trained men and 
women in industry. As Dr. Bevis noted, a survey in June, 1941 
indicated that defense industries would need at least 70,000 
engineering graduates as against the anticipated output of fewer 
than 14,000 from the engineering colleges. The Army and the 
Navy were expected to take most of these. 

During 1941-42 a total of 2345 men and women completed 
one or another of these courses on the campus. Of this number 
1995, or 85 per cent, received certificates of satisfactory work. 
Nearly all of these "graduates" went directly into war industry. 
The courses were non-credit and were financed by the govern- 
ment. Most of these courses were given at night since nearly 
all of those enrolled were already employed. 



SPECIAL TRAINING PROGRAMS 89 

A breakdown of the certificates granted, by areas, was: 
accounting, 238; chemistry, 158; drawing and design, 428; inspec- 
tion, 114; management, 414; mapping and surveying, 20; math- 
ematics, 117; metallurgy, 84; radio and ultra high frequency 
techniques, 265; miscellaneous, 157. 

Of the total, 1149 certificates went to students on the campus. 
The others were scattered among fifteen other centers, mostly 
other Ohio colleges, cooperating in the undertaking. At Ohio 
State seventy faculty members took part in the program. An 
outstanding course was in the chemistry of explosives whose 
"graduates" went into the growing number of ordnance plants. 

Another significant University contribution to the pre-war 
and early war effort, already mentioned, was the Civilian Pilot 
Training program. Its purpose was to help build up the large 
force of pilots needed to maintain and expand the nation's air 
forces. Between October, 1939 and June, 1942 the number of 
"students" completing the primary course was 197. In 1941-42, 
110 completed the primary course and sixty the secondary or 
advanced course. By another year the need for pilots was so 
great their training on a mass basis was undertaken by the 
Armed Forces. But many of those who took the C.P.T. work 
continued their flight training in the Army Air Corps, the 
Navy, or the commercial air lines. 

At the start of the Autumn Quarter, 1942 the Army had 
ten men in an elementary section on the campus and fifteen in 
the secondary, with thirty Navy men in the primary and fifteen 
in the secondary section. As flying cadets the Navy men were 
to go to the pre-flight school at the State University of Iowa 
after leaving Ohio State and the Army men were to become 
instructors or ferry command pilots. 

In the fall of 1942, as mentioned, the University began a 
new type of public service in the form of evening classes carry- 
ing full academic credit. Although they were started as a 
permanent feature of the educational program. Dr. Bevis re- 
marked that they took on at once a major wartime aspect. This 



90 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

was because hundreds of men and women who normally might 
have been students were in war industry instead and quickly 
took advantage of the program. 

2. The Navy Recognition School 

One of the most important wartime contracts entered into 
by the University centered in the so-called Navy Recognition 
School. Through the Research Foundation the first such con- 
tract was signed 12, 1942, with a revised agreement on March 
8, 1943. By the terms of the first contract the Foundation and the 
University were to cooperate in conducting the school "for 
training officers of the Navy" and some other "nominees" in the 
split-second identification of aircraft and surface ships, both enemy 
and friendly. Upon graduation these trainees, in turn, were to 
become teachers at various Navy bases and schools in methods 
of identification devised and developed by Prof. Samuel Ren- 
shaw, of psychology, who was the supervisor. (Because of its 
close identity with research and with the Research Foundation, 
other aspects of the Recognition School are described in detail 
in Chapter VII, Wartime Research.) 

Early in 1943 the Navy asked that the number of trainees 
be increased from the original 120 to 550. The contract called 
for the use of one-third of Derby Hall and all of Baker Hall, 
for part-time use of athletic facilities, and such use of Starling- 
Loving Hospital "as required." The school began September 1, 
1942, was extended to June 30, 1943, but actually continued until 
the end of 1944. The contract had a 90-day waiver clause. By 
the time the school was closed some 3000 men had taken the 
60-day course for which Dr. Renshaw won national recognition 
and in time a special Navy commendation. 

By the opening of the Autumn Quarter, 1942 the school had 
101 men in residence. In time the total number enrolled in 
various stages of the course stood at 500 or more "aboard" at 
Baker Hall. Women students previously housed there were 



SPECIAL TRAINING PROGRAMS 91 

placed in fraternity houses otherwise closed for the duration 
and in private rooming houses under University supervision. 

Early that fall the school was beginning to grow rapidly 
and was attracting wide attention. More than 200 officers and 
men from seven Allied services were soon represented in its 
classes: the British Royal Navy, the Royal Air Force, the Royal 
Canadian Air Force, the New Zealand Naval Volunteer Reserves, 
and the U.S. Army, Navy, and Marine Corps. 

The methods developed by Renshaw enabled the men to 
recognize airplanes, battleships, tanks and other military equip- 
ment if seen for as little as 1/150 second. In turn the split- 
second recognition made it possible to cut the losses from 
friendly attack. A U.S. Navy officer accompanying a group of 
high-ranking British naval officers who inspected this training 
program disclosed that it was being adopted by all the AUied 
Nations. He added that of sixty U.S. colleges and universities 
with which the Navy had training contracts Ohio State was 
the most cooperative. 

Amazing results were obtained by using Dr. Renshaw's 
methods in making it possible to recognize instantly objects 
barely seen for a fraction of a second. Not only was such 
skill important in identifying enemy aircraft and ships but in 
recognizing U.S. and Allied ships and planes which at high 
speed and under limited visibility could be the unwitting targets 
of friendly forces. It was said that in aerial "dog fights" at 
the time as many as four out of ten planes on both sides were 
victims of friendly fire. 

The classes, using special equipment devised by Prof. Ren- 
shaw, were held in Derby Hall. The men marched to and 
from classes in formation and, of course, in uniform. This 
training period was for eight weeks with a new class of sixty 
arriving and another being graduated at two-week intervals. 

One of the later students in the course was Prof. Robert 
E. Rockwood, of Romance languages, who was on leave with 
the rank of lieutenant commander in the Navy. He was a 



92 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

veteran of World War I, in which he had been a naval aviator, 
and volunteered for service in the new war. He ultimately saw 
extensive service in North Africa. 

In addition to the A.S.T.P. and E.S.M.W.T. programs under 
which the University gave instruction to thousands in the war 
effort, there were occasional smaller special programs. One of 
of these Dr. Bevis reported on at the June 15, 1942 Board 
meeting had to do with the training of aircraft machinists for 
the U.S. Army Air Corps for which a contract was signed 
May 25, 1942. This was for the training of personnel detailed 
to the campus on or before June 30, 1943. It was a concentrated 
course since it was stipulated that no one class should exceed 
eighteen students and not more than three classes should be 
receiving instruction at any one time. 

Those assigned for this work were to receive up to 700 hours 
of academic training. They were housed in the Southwest tower 
of the Ohio Stadium and took their meals at the Ohio Union. 
The first group of these students reported on the campus June 
5, 1942. 

Supplementing the Recognition School in the summer of 
1942 was a Diesel engineers' school. This, too, was a Navy project. 
The first class of twenty-nine arrived July 6 and was graduated 
September 12. The "students," mostly ensigns, came to the 
school from sea duty and from naval training schools. Some 
had even had batde experience. Using a Diesel unit removed 
from the U.S.S. Plunkett, a destroyer, the men learned the 
operation, maintenance and repair of Diesel motors. The Navy 
provided one instructor but Prof. Stinson was coordinator and 
academic director for the course. This was in addition to his 
responsibilities for the C.P.T. program. 

In October, 1942, as indicated, C. W. Reeder, '06, junior dean 
of the College of Commerce and Administration, was appointed 
University armed services representative. His function was to 
coordinate the several Enlisted Reserve systems. An early an- 
nouncement from his office said that the opportunity to sign 



SPECIAL TRAINING PROGRAMS 93 

up for the Army Enlisted Reserve and the Army Air Corps 
EnHsted Reserve would end December 31, 1942. 

A "no enlistment" order went into effect as of December 6. 
At that time an earlier statement by Secretary of War Stimson 
still stood that Army Enlisted Reserve men on college campuses 
would be called at the end of the fall term. About 1500 Ohio 
State men were in this category. Meanwhile details of a new 
plan affecting men in certain universities were being disclosed. 
One was that men who qualified in Army tests would be 
assigned to college work in uniform with Army pay and under 
military control. The War Department would determine their 
curricula and the universities would intensify specialization. 

Indications were that the government would enter into con- 
tracts with certain universities for this work depending upon 
their being able to provide the necessary facilities, including 
dormitories. On the strength of this possibility University offi- 
cials were considering taking over all of the women's dormitories 
plus the Stadium, Buckeye and Tower Clubs for such purposes. 

A new National Service Curriculum for women students 
was begun during the Autumn Quarter, 1942. It was designed 
for women who had completed three years of college work and 
enabled them to concentrate in their senior year upon courses 
fitting them directly for war work. Four programs were offered: 
accounting, management aspects of industry, engineering aspects 
of industry, and statistics. Twenty were enrolled, seven in 
engineering, five in statistics, five in management, and three in 
accounting. 

Somewhat similarly. Dr. Herrick L. Johnston, of the chem- 
istry department, said that 264 men and women trained on 
the campus in the chemistry of explosives, were at work in 
twenty-nine U.S. ordnance plants in the making of munitions. 
Since June, 1941, when the program had begun, six such classes 
had been graduated. At first most of these special students were 
from Ohio but in time twenty-one states were represented. This 
course was part of the E.S.M.W.T. program. 



94 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

In October, 1942 also seventy men from industrial plants in 
Central Ohio attended a week-long course on plant protection. 
It covered twenty-two subjects bearing on the war emergency 
and included such matters as sabotage, personnel identification, 
and internal security. 

An oddity in the special course offerings related to the war 
in 1943 was one in camouflage, taught by Prof. Morris E. 
Trotter, of architecture and landscape architecture. The 3-hour 
course, an elective, was part of the National Service Course 
program. It attracted fifteen students in the Winter Quarter, 
1943. Besides the fundamentals of camouflage for military pur- 
poses the course covered methods for the concealment of indus- 
tries and cities in case of bombardment. 

A two-week safety and health training course was given 
during the Winter Quarter, 1943. Six officers and twenty-four 
civilians took the work. The course was designed to instruct 
representatives from stations within the Fifth Service Command 
(Ft. Hayes) on new safety precautions and devices, elimination 
of accident hazards, conservation of food and health, and 
medical treatment. Of the four men in charge of the course, 
two were from the campus. They were Howard Dwight Smith, 
'07, University architect, and Prof. Nold. 

To help students to a better understanding of war issues, 
faculty members from seven assorted departments arranged 
to give a series of lectures during the Spring Quarter, 1943. 
The departments were business organization, geography, eco- 
nomics, history, sociology, philosophy, and political science. The 
topics included "Geographic Background of the War," "The 
Rise of Hitler's Germany," "Ideas Behind the War," "Problems 
of die Far East," "Social Problems of War," "The Role of 
Government in War," "Financing the War," "Production and 
Consumption in War," and "The Next Peace." 

3, National Policy Clarified 
As the 1943 Winter Quarter began the national policy on 
manpower in the colleges was clarified. Ohio State was one of 



SPECIAL TRAINING PROGRAMS 95 

about 350 U.S. colleges and universities under the so-called 
Army-Navy plan for specialized technical training. It became 
clear that the 2000 men on the campus in the Army Enlisted 
Reserve would not be called until the end of the quarter. Even 
men eligible for the draft had a good chance of finishing the 
quarter. It became known also that the Navy V-1 and V-5 
Reserve classes would not be called until June and those in 
the Navy V-7 (deck and engineering officer Reserve) and the 
Marine Corps Reserve would not be called until graduation. 

Under this plan dental, medical and veterinary students 
in the Enlisted Reserve would be called to active duty at the 
end of the academic year and would then be detailed to 
continue their courses under contracts with the War Depart- 
ment. Seniors in advanced R.O.T.C. would go into active duty 
upon graduation. All other enlisted reservists would be called 
to active duty at the end of the Winter Quarter, would get 
their basic military training, and then could apply for further 
technical training. After these men had completed their inten- 
sified training — of from three to twenty-seven months — their 
future lay in one of five directions: officer candidate school, 
technical noncommissioned officer, troop duty, advanced tech- 
nical training in exceptional cases, and technical work outside 
the Army in rare instances. 

With minor modifications the Navy was to follow the 
same procedure. All of these men would be in uniform and 
would get regular service pay. Dr. Bevis estimated that Ohio 
State's "fair share" of these trainees would be 3000. 

Despite reassurances there were understandable unrest and 
uncertainty among men students in the winter of 1943. As of 
February 9, 401 students had withdrawn from school and the 
number was growing each week. Most of these men quit to 
enter the armed services — some because they were drafted, 
some because their friends were going, and some just to end 
the uncertainty. In this respect it was like the early months 
of World War I. In point of their numbers. Engineering stu- 



96 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

dents were most numerous, followed by Arts, and Commerce. 
By March 6 the number of male drop-outs was 1011, of whom 
908 were entering the Armed Forces. 

Meantime Ohio State was one of more than a dozen Ohio 
colleges and universities the War Manpower Commission ap- 
proved for specialized training of Army and Navy personnel. 
The War Department approved the University for training 
engineers and the Navy Department, as noted earlier, for air- 
craft and ship recognition. One change in policy was the 
elimination of deferred fields of study such as accounting, indus- 
trial management, statistics and economics. 

The year 1942-43 marked an advance in the use by the 
Army and the Navy of training on the campus for special 
duties. As many as 3000 Army men and 500 Navy men came 
to be in training there at a time. This helped to keep the 
campus at a nearly normal enrollment figure. 

The Navy Recognition School, under Prof. Renshaw, con- 
tinued to be the most unique campus contribution to the active 
war effort. It was at first the only school of its kind in the 
country. Following Ohio State's lead, President Bevis pointed 
out, the Army Air Corps had adopted its own version of the 
method. And twenty other U.S. colleges and universities had 
begun preparatory schools in which cadets received five hours 
a week of recognition training, followed by a like period of 
training at five pre-flight schools. 

"This recognition training," he added, "already is credited 
with the saving of many lives of our fighting men, enabling 
them as it does to identify approaching craft more quickly. 
The margin of time between slow and speedy recognition may 
be the difference between life and death, victory and defeat." 

An important research project, about which little could be 
said because it was confidential, was conducted by the psy- 
chology department. This was done for the National Research 
Council Committee on Selection Training of Air Craft Pilots 
operating in conjunction with the Civil Aeronautics Admin- 



SPECIAL TRAINING PROGRAMS 



97 



istration. The project had to do with the development of train- 
ing techniques aimed at producing a better quahty of pilots 
in the same or a shorter time. Expansion of the project, for 
which $30,000 worth of equipment was used, was anticipated. 
"Results of this research are confidential," Dr. Bevis said, "but 
where possible they are being adapted for use by the armed 
services." Prof. Floyd C. Dockeray, of psychology, was in charge 
of the project. 

The Army, of course, was the largest user of campus 
facilities for war purposes. It had ultimately some 3000 men in 
its A.S.T.P. units The Army contracted also with the Univer- 
sity in the spring of 1943 for the S.T.A.R. program. The first 
unit consisted of 600 men. Under new contracts signed by June, 
the size of the S.T.A.R. unit was raised to 1100. 

4. The A.S.T.P. 

Second major step in converting the campus to war purposes 
and to help offset the continuing shrinkage in male enrollment 
was the selection of the University as a basic training school 
for a large A.S.T.P. unit— Army Specialized Training Program. 
The contract with the War Department, signed in April, 1943, 
provided for up to 1500 such students. The curricula were 
arranged in 13-week terms with the Army students in uniform, 
under discipline, and drawing service pay, but with a civilian 
faculty. 

Occupants of the Tower, Stadium and Buckeye Clubs were 
notified that those facilities would be turned over to the 
trainees. The University agreed to provide the latter with housing, 
food, medical care, classroom space and recreational facilities. 
They were not to be mixed with civilian students. 

Ohio State was approved for the A.S.T. Program for engi- 
neering courses, for training in personnel psychology, for area 
and language training preparatory to service abroad, and for 
pre-Medicine, Medicine, Veterinary Medicine, and Dentistry, plus 
preparatory work for these last three. 



98 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Col. Brunzell, R.O.T.C. commandant, was commanding 
officer of the A.S.T.P. Dean of Men Park was in charge of 
housing. Prof. Norval N. Luxon, of the School of Journalism, 
was named coordinator for the entire A.S.T.P. set-up, including 
S.T.A.R. and other units. Assisting him was Prof. Lawrence D. 
Jones, secretary. College of Engineering. 

Meanwhile Selective Service, in Washington, issued a new 
"recommendation for deferment" list to guide local draft boards 
in considering the occupational deferment of college students. 
In order to qualify, the latter had to show continued promise 
and be able to complete their studies before July, 1945 in 
scientific and professional schools, in agriculture, forestry and 
optometry, and in critical engineering areas, or as interns. This 
policy had the effect of quieting some jittery students. 

The campus took on more and more the look and character 
of a large training camp by mid- 1943 as the number and scope 
of wartime activities were greatly expanded. This was especially 
true of the special programs related directly to training for 
the armed services. The A.S.T.P. was designed to help meet 
the Army's need for specialized technical training of men for 
certain Army tasks. The trainees were selected from enlisted 
men who had completed their basic training of thirteen weeks. 

Enlisted Army Air Corps Reservists qualified for aviation 
cadet training, it was learned, would be called for active duty 
as of April 1. In mid-February, Dean Reeder had announced 
that the deferred status of 269 students in the Army Air Corps 
Reserve had been canceled as of February 1 and their names 
were transferred to the list of those available for active duty. 
In February also the immediate selection of the freshman 
medical class for 1944 was authorized. 

The Navy was busy in other ways on the campus. The 
start of a new Navy college training program to produce naval 
officers on a wholesale basis was announced for July 1. Toward 
the end of February the Naval Reserve was established to help 
meet that service's need for engineers. 



SPECIAL TRAINING PROGRAMS 99 

Early in March, Dean Reeder reported that the Enlisted 
Reserve call-up might be delayed. He emphasized that all re- 
servists were expected back for the Spring Quarter. Another 
new war service course, Geology of Water Resources, was 
announced for the Spring Quarter. 

Further changes occurred early in that quarter. On March 
30 the Fifth Service Command, at Ft. Hayes, Columbus, indi- 
cated the immediate call to duty of about 800 members of the 
Army E.R.C. Students in advanced R.O.T.C. were also ordered 
to active duty. Qualifying tests for admission to the A.S.T.P. 
and to the Naval college training program were to be given 
April 3 in the chapel. Women were now eligible, moreover, 
for Navy and Coast Guard commissions. Advanced R.O.T.C. 
students could apply for active commissions but third-quarter 
seniors could remain in school. Both the basic and advanced 
R.O.T.C. programs were to be continued. 

All men in the Engineer Reserve Corps, however, were to 
be subject to immediate call. It was announced also that men 
in the pre-dental, medical and veterinary programs were the 
only ones excluded from the April 20 call. The Lantern reported 
"noticeable student relief" at this development. 

Men in two of the three Navy programs — V-1 and V-2 — were 
to remain in school until June 30, Dean Reeder reported. Those 
in the V-7 program with one quarter left were to continue 
on an inactive duty status. A few days later it became known 
that men in the advanced R.O.T.C. might get an abbreviated 
training program ranging from a minimum of three weeks 
to a maximum of three months before entering officer candidate 
schools. 

5. The S.T.A.R. 

Another major contract entered into with the War Depart- 
ment was for the training of a large S.T.A.R. — Specialized 
Training Assignment and Reclassijfication — unit on the campus. 
This was approved at the December 6, 1943 Board meeting, 
but was retroactively effective as of April 6, 1943, under author- 



100 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

ity granted to Dr. Bevis in such matters on November 25, 
1940. It called for approximately 1100 trainees. 

The president reported other similar contracts signed for 
special training, with their effective dates, as: Reserve Officers 
Training Unit, 48 trainees, April 17, 1943; Army Specialized 
Training Reserve Officers Training Unit, for 262 trainees, 
August 27, 1943; Army Specialized Training Basic, Advanced 
Engineering, Foreign Area and Language, and Personnel Psy- 
chology Unit, for about 735 trainees, June 13, 1943. This last 
was modified as of September 13, to cover about 1821 trainees. 

Other contracts with the Army, with effective dates, covered 
150 trainees for "Curriculum Advanced Phases," June 13; and 
for medical, dental and veterinary students assigned by the 
War Department, June 21. There was also a contract with the 
Navy Department effective July 1, for medical and dental 
trainees assigned by the department. Under the tight A.S.T.P. 
schedule it developed that only Christmas was recognized as 
a holiday. Extra pay for some janitors had to be arranged 
accordingly. 

The first group of S.T.A.R. trainees arrived April 13. The 
next day 175 of them took over the Tower Club in the Stadium 
Dormitories. The Army ran a truck shuttle service for them 
between the Union Station and the Stadium Dormitories. An 
S.T.A.R. testing program was set up with 12-day "refresher" 
periods in mathematics, chemistry, and physics. 

President Bevis took note of this development in a letter 
to the teaching staff. He reported that the University had been 
approved for specialized training through the S.T.A.R. unit 
and if all the programs materialized the campus would have 
about 2400 uniformed men, besides those in the Navy Recogni- 
tion School and medical, dental and veterinary medical students. 
He called the Spring Quarter, 1943 enrollment "gratifying" and 
noted that in some departments the loss of staff members for 
war service about offset the lower enrollment. 

By the end of the month new contingents of S.T.A.R, 



SPECIAL TRAINING PROGRAMS 101 

trainees were arriving on the campus each Wednesday and 
Saturday. They underwent testing and took refresher courses. 
Some 200 of the first arrivals were shipped out to other train- 
ing units at the University of Chicago and the University of 
Kentucky. 

Further changes in the training program were to become 
effective with the opening of the Summer Quarter, 1943. As 
of June 14 the University was to start 13-week training units 
in three fields — personnel psychology, foreign area and lan- 
guages, and advanced engineering, with a total enrollment of 
375 to 475 men. A week later dental and medical students 
were to be in uniform — either Army or Navy — as privates or 
apprentice seamen. Veterinary medical students similarly were 
to be in the Army. All were to draw $50 a month, plus tuition, 
books, instruments, and subsistence. 

Early in June the Army asked the University to increase 
the capacity of its S.T.A.R. unit from 600 to 1100. To house 
the additional 500 men, steps were taken to lease eleven frater- 
nity houses north of Fifteenth Ave. These men were to form 
the Second Battalion which was to be fed in the Ohio Union. 

Enrollment fell to its next to lowest point during the war 
in the Spring Quarter, 1943 when the figure was only 6754 as 
against 10,099 for the previous Winter Quarter. The record 
Spring Quarter low was to come in 1944. These were the lowest 
regular quarter enrollment figures since the end of World 
War I. 

By April 20, 1943 325 more male undergraduates were called 
up. The total called was 1325 of whom 800 were in the Enlisted 
Reserve Corps, 225 R.O.T.C. seniors and 300 R.O.T.C. juniors. 
The only exceptions to the call for Enlisted Reserves were those 
in pre-dental, pre-medical and veterinary medical students who 
were to remain until the end of the Spring Quarter. 

Dean Reeder, as armed services representative, told students 
in the V-1 and V-7 Naval Reserve groups to be ready to go on 
active duty about July 1. But those who then had only one 



102 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

quarter to complete their requirements for a degree would be 
permitted to remain. 

Toward the end of May the University had signed a second 
contract providing for the establishment of an A.S.T.P. unit 
in three sections. These trainees were to be housed in Neil 
Hall with a maximum of 575 men in advanced engineering, per- 
sonnel psychology, and foreign area and language study. Ac- 
tually there were 600 such trainees. Near the end of the month 
it was reported that 156 faculty and staff members were now on 
leave for active duty with the Armed Forces, with sixty-four 
others on leave with government departments in connection 
with the war. 

As the Spring Quarter neared its end there was a shift 
in the allocation of dormitories for use of the uniformed 
trainees. The Army took over Mack and CanlBeld Halls as of 
June 14 and Neil Hall was transferred to Army use. Student 
nurses formerly quartered there were shifted to Oxley Hall. 
Another new contract called for the training of 250 pre-dental, 
medical and veterinary students. The total of uniformed trainees 
was now 1825. 

The number of uniformed Army and Navy men on the 
campus rose considerably by the time the 1943 Autumn Quarter 
began. The figure stood at 3732, of whom 3340 were in the 
Army and 392 in the Navy. Regular enrollment was down 
to 7031. Faculty and staff members continued to leave the 
campus for active service and for work in war industry. 
Three-fourths of the civilian students were women. The sharpest 
drop was in the incoming freshman class. 

The University was hard put to find sleeping quarters for 
its uniformed students. They not only occupied Baker, Mack, 
Canficld, and Neil Halls, but thirteen of the larger fraternity 
houses. The University had 3 1/3 per cent of all the A.S.T.P. 
students in the nation. And every area of the Army curriculum 
was represented on the campus. 

The breakdown on uniformed students was: A.S.T.P., 1989; 



SPECIAL TRAINING PROGRAMS 103 

A.S.T.P. (professional), 660; A.S.T.P.— R.O.T.C, 191; S.T.A.R., 

500; Navy Recognition, 250; Navy Flight, 60; and Navy (pro- 
fessional), 82. 

Special efforts were made to have the thousands of A.S.T.P. 
men feel at home. Many w^ere from the west coast and to 
many the University was only a name prior to their arrival. 
As of January, 1944 it was said that about 6000 men had taken 
or were taking this work on the campus. Ohio State had one 
of the largest such programs among the 250 colleges and uni- 
versities where it was being given. 

Quite apart from the training, which was under direct Army 
control, the University sought to make friendly personal con- 
tacts with the men. One method was through a daily page in 
the Lantern devoted to A.S.T.P. and other activities and per- 
sonnel. Another was to send the next of kin, — wife or mother — 
of each A.S.T.P. soldier on the campus a personal letter from 
President Bevis. It said that the University was "doing every- 
thing possible to make his stay an enjoyable one, in order 
that he may carry away pleasant memories of his visit to 
Ohio State." This contact brought thousands of replies, espe- 
cially from parents. In addition a weekly campus social program 
"manned" by co-eds offered relaxation. This included dancing 
and games in Pomerene Hall. 

An illustration of the good will thus created was shown in 
an incident involving Prof. Frederic W. Heimberger, of political 
science. At the close of the Autumn, 1943 quarter when an 
A.S.T.P. class he was teaching met for the last time, his "G.I." 
students gave him a pipe, a tobacco pouch and a scroll signed 
by each man. They also "promoted" him to "sergeant." Heim- 
berger, later dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and 
then academic vice president, was a corporal in World War I. 

As of May, 1944, Eleanor R. Collins, assistant dean of 
women, estimated that in six quarters the campus U.S.O. had 
entertained more than 10,000 service men in Pomerene Hall 



104 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

and that 1500 co-eds had taken part in U.S.O. programs and 
entertainments. 

6. The Picture Begins to Change 

The various Armed Forces training programs in operation 
on the campus underwent much change during the school 
year 1943-44. As the war neared its later stages the training 
situation was altered greatly. 

The number of S.T.A.R. trainees went down from 1100 to 
500. In the 1552nd Service Unit 150 men were taking regular 
courses, with graduate students doing research. There were 
also 259 former students taking training, with 434 Army trainees 
in Medicine and Dentistry and 226 in Veterinary Medicine. The 
west half of Baker Hall housed 460 basic phase and advanced 
engineers, the other half being occupied by Navy Recognition 
School personnel. Another 500 trainees, as noted, were located in 
fraternity houses. As October, 1943 began ten WAVE's had 
arrived to attend the Navy Recognition School. 

That fall also some 650 students were putting in 12,000 
hours a week on a part-time basis in the Army Engineer 
Maintenance division in Ives Hall. This program was scheduled 
to last from four to six weeks under supervision of Columbus 
Depot personnel. 

By a tragic coincidence, two trainees committed suicide 
in the space of three weeks. One, a 44-year-old man studying 
in the foreign area and language courses (A.S.T.P.), hanged 
himself in Neil Hall November 7. On December 1, a 19-year-old 
A.S.T.P. trainee, hanged himself similarly in the basement of 
the Delta Chi house with a railroad ticket to Texas in his 
pocket. No explanation was given in either case. 

There were charges, meanwhile, of discrimination, waste and 
inefficiency in the national A.S.T.P. program. These came under 
investigation by the House Military Affairs Committee. As far 
as Ohio State was concerned, the program was defended by 



SPECIAL TRAINING PROGRAMS 105 

Students, faculty and officials. On this point Coordinator Luxon 
said "Ohio State University feels that this program is sound 
educationally or it wouldn't have undertaken it." The University 
at the moment had eight such contracts in operation and its 
A.S.T.P. unit was the third largest in the country, next to 
those at Yale and Stanford. 

Before the end of January, 1944, however, the A.S.T.P. quota 
was reduced from 2020 to 1870, divided as follows: A.S.T. 
reserve, 50; basic phase, 650; pre-professional, 50; advanced 
engineering, 670; foreign area, 150; 9-A, 100; S.T.A.R., 200. 
It was learned also that the foreign area and language program 
would be concluded June 3. This reduction made it possible 
to "mess" the medical, dental and veterinary medical trainees 
in the Ohio Union starting with the Spring Quarter. 

A second reduction in the A.S.T.P. quota was announced 
three weeks after the first. Nationally the drop was from 145,000 
to 35,000 men. It was said that this latest move would cut 
Ohio State's quota in half, possibly more. By mid-March the 
Spring Quarter quota was cut to 905 including reserve, 29; pre- 
professional, 68; advanced professional, 26; advanced engineer- 
ing, 144; medical, 229; dental, 207; and veterinary medicine, 202. 

There were changes also in the University calendar. Early 
in the previous fall there was talk of a shift in schedules but 
President Bevis, in a letter to the faculty, pointed out the 
possible disadvantages, hardships and conflicts this might create. 
Next he announced that civilian classes would not be altered 
to conform to military classes. A survey had showed most of 
the faculty opposed. Under the proposed change the Winter 
Quarter would have started December 14. In keeping with 
the times the A.S.T.P. held classes on November 11, then known 
as Armistice Day, and the Thanksgiving vacation was held to 
one day. 

The College of Engineering was an exception to the no- 
schedule change. Because of "war emergencies" and because its 
civilian enrollment was low, it altered its calendar. The Autumn 



106 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Quarter ended December 10 and die Winter Quarter began 
December 13. 

Not long after Engineering made this adjustment, the 
Administrative Council, by special action, set forward the 
Autumn Quarter closing date for Agriculture, Arts and Sciences, 
Commerce and Administration, Education, and Engineering to 
December 11 and for the Winter Quarter to March 11. Any 
changes were optional for Dentistry, Law, Medicine, Pharmacy 
and Veterinary Medicine. The annual commencement remained 
set as scheduled for June 17. Early in May, the decision was 
made to return to the old system, with Spring Quarter exam- 
inations to be given in the regular examination week, and 
a full return to the normal time schedule by the Autumn 
Quarter, 1944. 

By March, 1944 the campus Navy Recognition School had 
graduated more than 2000 officers and men. Most of these served 
later as instructors at ship and shore stations throughout the 
world. Although the war was beginning to approach its final 
stages, the Armed Forces were asking for more men trained 
in the split-second perception and recognition of planes and 
surface craft. 

Early in 1944 the School had an enrollment of about 300. 
Half of them were in the "lookout" division and half in recogni- 
tion training. The former were taught how to see, how to 
use the eyes to spot small objects at sea, and how to develop 
night vision. Navy enlisted men in this course were chosen 
for the special training on the basis of their educational back- 
ground. 

Late in February, 1944 the War Department decided to 
transfer 110,000 men then in A.S.T.P. units, such as those at 
Ohio State, to combat units. One immediate effect of this was 
to cut the campus unit about in half. Part of the explanation 
for the change in policy was that the war was being stepped 
up, and local Selective Service boards had failed to meet the 
Army's manpower needs. 



SPECIAL TRAINING PROGRAMS 107 

In an editorial the March, 1944 Alumni Monthly asked 
two questions: whether the 110,000 men in specialized train- 
ing would be much of a factor in strengthening an army of 
10,000,000, and whether important scientific and engineering 
categories would be "seriously set back by the action." The 
answer given to the first query was "No," and to the second 
"Yes." The editorial ended: "To us the new policy looks like 
hindsight indeed." 

The actual cut proved deeper than expected. More than 
half of the A.S.T.P. personnel was sent elswhere, mostly to 
Army camps. Only 905, as noted, were left for the Spring 
Quarter and 638 of these were in Dentistry, Medicine, and 
Veterinary Medicine. Another result was the lowest total enroll- 
ment in more than a quarter of a century. The official Spring 
Quarter figure was 6057, including nearly 4300 civilians, the 
A.S.T.P. group, 200 Navy Recognition School, 165 other Army- 
Navy trainees, and 500 in Twilight courses. At its height the 
local A.S.T.P. program had involved forty-eight different kinds 
of schedules but toward the end this was reduced to ten. 

Coordinator Luxon, in reviewing the A.S.T.P.'s first year on 
the campus, said that in that time 5195 soldiers were tested 
and classified. Of these 3451 were accepted and assigned to 
training, while 1695, or 32 per cent, were rejected. Oddly, many 
of those who failed had too much rather than too little education, 
but not enough of the right kind for the narrowly technical 
courses involved. One local side effect of this change in policy 
was to give up the thirteen fraternity houses the A.S.T.P. men 
had been using in addition to the dormitories. 

The campus Navy Recognition-Lookout School formally 
ceased operation as of December 31, 1944. It was said at the 
time that the University viewed the move "with mingled 
pride and regret (and some relief.)" The pride grew out of 
the fact that the school was the first of its kind in the nation, 
was the most outstanding, and for most of the twenty-seven 



108 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

months it was in operation the largest. There was regret because 
the campus had become not only accustomed but attached to 
the sight of the Navy men marching in formation four times 
a day between Derby Hall, where the classes were held, and 
the "U.S.S. Baker," otherwise Baker Hall, where the men 
were housed. The relief arose from the fact that the University 
badly needed the housing facility for other purposes — A.S.T.P. 
men and the growing civilian student body. 

Thousands of men, including other than Navy men, had 
been trained there in recognition techniques. There was a cordial 
exchange of sentiment between the Navy and the University 
at the close of the relationship. Rear Admiral L. E. Denfield, 
assistant chief of the Navy Bureau of Personnel, said: "The 
Navy regrets the termination of its relations with the Ohio 
State University Research Foundation and the University and 
is deeply appreciative of the contributions they have made to 
the war effort in recognition training." 

For the Research Foundation which administered the neces- 
sary contracts. Director Olpin responded that the Foundation 
and the University were "both proud to have aided the war 
effort through the recognition training program." He added 
that he understood that all branches of the Armed Forces were 
using Dr. Renshaw's methods in original or amended form. 
He noted that the training program had gone far beyond the 
experimental and developmental stages. 

After the departure of the Navy men. Baker Hall became 
entirely an A.S.T.P. housing facility. Some 450 A.S.T.P. men 
who had been quartered in the Stadium Dormitories were trans- 
ferred to Baker, making a total of 750 there. 

Dean Park left a memorandum on Army and Navy housing 
which had given rise to problems on the campus. It showed 
that in twenty-eight months the special units of the two services 
made eight moves involving dormitory and other facilities. 
To recapitulate: 



SPECIAL TRAINING PROGRAMS 109 

The first Navy Recognition School men moved into Baker 
Hall in September, 1942. Six months later the last of the civilians 
vacated that dormitory and the Navy took it over entirely. 

The next month the Army's S.T.A.R. unit took possession 
of the Stadium Dormitories. Two months later the Army's 
A.S.T.P. unit occupied Neil, Canfield and Mack Halls, plus 
thirteen fraternity houses. In September, 1943 this same unit 
took over a little more than half of Baker Hall. 

In April, 1944 the trend was reversed for the time being. 
That month the Army released Neil Hall, the Stadium Dormi- 
tories and the fraternity houses. Five months later it gave up 
Canfield and Mack Halls. But that same month (September), 
it again took over the Stadium Dormitories. In January, 1945 
when the Navy vacated Baker Hall the Army occupied it. 

7. The President's Report 

A major step that had been taken in 1942-43, to quote Dr. 
Bevis' fourth annual report further, was "the inauguration 
of a program intended to make Ohio State the nation's foremost 
college training center for aviation." This prospect was enhanced 
during the year, as noted earlier, by the purchase of land for 
the establishment of an airport seven miles northwest of the 
campus on which the first buildings in a long-range program 
were constructed. 

On the academic side, along with this physical development, 
as indicated, were the creation of a School of Aviation and a 
department of aeronautical engineering, plus curricula in aero- 
nautical engineering and air transportation management, and 
the Graduate Aviation Center at Dayton. The University, Dr. 
Bevis commented, was preparing to help Ohio to maintain its 
leadership in the aviation industry. 

The president reviewed at some length also the development 
and increasing usefulness of the campus radio station, WOSU. 
He recalled that it was started in 1910 "first as a receiving 
unit only," and that same year the first instruction in radio 



110 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

was given on the campus. With experience "showing the 
direction to be taken," he added, the University was "now 
seeking to coordinate all its radio activities — educational broad- 
casting, research in radio, and training for careers in radio." 
He emphasized that each year radio "assumed increasing 
importance as one of the means by which the University 
makes its services and its program available to all the people 
of Ohio." 

He recalled these further facts: that in the great Columbus 
flood in 1913 the station "was the only means of communication 
between Columbus and the rest of the world," that broadcasting 
from the campus had been "conducted regularly since 1922," 
that between 1922 and 1943 the station's power had been in- 
creased from 100 to 5000 watts, that WOSU, originally WEAO, 
had a wide following and as early as 1924 one program brought 
"fan mail" from forty-three states, and that in Ohio it covered 
"more of the state than any other one station," — all except "the 
extreme corners of the commonwealth." The station was a 
means of sharing the faculty with the public of Ohio. In one 
recent 6-month period, 140 members of the campus staff had 
taken part in WOSU programs. 

One popular offering in recent years, he pointed out, was 
the WOSU Radio College, presenting series of courses each 
quarter. The department of Romance languages was a pioneer 
in this area with non-credit courses in French and Spanish. 
During the current year the English department offered two 
literature courses by radio besides weekly book reviews. Other 
departments offering regular programs included chemical engi- 
neering, Journalism, and economics. Other colleges sponsoring 
regular programs were Agriculture, Education and even Den- 
tistry. A new development during the year was the University 
Forum, broadcast weekly. Meanwhile the Ohio School of the 
Air, run in cooperation with the State Department of Educa- 
tion, continued to be a special WOSU activity, supplementing 
the regular classroom work of the schools. 



SPECIAL TRAINING PROGRAMS HI 

Dr. Bevis cited the physical education department as affording 
"a good example of the manner in which the University pro- 
gram has been quickly adapted to wartime needs." Rather 
than curtailment, he pointed out, the department during the 
year had "met altered and intensified emphases." Some 3500 
trainees in the special military programs stressed "swimming and 
other aquatic skills, combative activities, military stunts and 
tests, and vigorous sports." Nearly the entire men's physical 
education and athletic staff had taken part in the military 
classes. 

For other students, he continued, the war had "brought 
a new realization of the importance of physical conditioning." 
To this end the department had responded "by discarding the 
milder, more recreative sports and emphasizing the more useful 
skills of swimming and boxing and the more rugged sports 
of basketball and soccer. Obstacle and stunt courses were built 
and during the year civilian men students have been put 
through their paces in a more vigorous program." 

The women's division had revised its program also but it 
was not "felt necessary to go to any bizarre and unusual 
lengths to provide a spectacular 'fitness' program for women." 
There was a continuation, rather, "of sound activities for 
women chosen for the merit of their contributions to the stu- 
dent's well-being and to her social adjustment and personal 
enjoyment." 

The year, as the president noted, had brought many changes 
in the student picture because of the war. The housing program, 
student organizations and student activities had all felt its 
impact. Women students had succeeded to posts usually filled 
by men such as president and secretary of the Student Senate. 

The olEce of the Dean of Men had continued to assist the 
dwindling number of men students with problems relating to 
Selective Service. In all more than 5500 such cases had been 
handled through that office. 

Students had become increasingly active in war work through 



112 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

their organizations and otherwise. The two major student war 
programs, as noted, were those of the Student War Board and 
the War Service Corps. 

As the president observed also the year had been an unusual 
one for student employment. In particular the number of jobs 
in industry had increased greatly. For the first time there had 
been more applications from women than from men students — 
1491 to 1468. The Student Employment Office had calls from 
1339 employers for men students and from 1471 for women. 
Of the men referred to jobs 88 per cent had been placed and 
84 per cent of the women. 

Both student and instructional ranks in the Graduate School 
had been depleted severely by wartime requirements. But already 
post-war plans were going forward under Graduate Council 
committees. One recommendation was for the establishment of 
a Bureau of Governmental and Legal Research. 

Despite the war the Radiation Laboratory, a cooperative 
research activity, had continued to make progress, especially 
in nuclear physics. A small laboratory to house the betatron 
and the 3,000,000-volt electrostatic generator had been completed 
but construction of the betatron and the generator was delayed 
because of the war. Several important war researches centered 
in the department of agricultural chemistry. 

The war had been responsible not only for draining many 
persons from the teaching staff but for unusual shifts of per- 
sonnel from one department or college to another to meet the 
teaching shortage. Mathematics, for example, already short- 
handed, had a gain of thirty-three sections or about 1000 
student registrations over the previous year. To meet this need 
faculty members from education, civil engineering and even 
philosophy had been transferred with a litde "brushing up." 
Similarly, classes of a member of the political science department 
who went into the Navy had been taken over by two men in 
the College of Law, and a geology instructor had helped out 
in physics. 



SPECIAL TRAINING PRCXJRAMS 113 

New courses, described as of "an emergency nature," intro- 
duced during the year came under the heading of National 
Service Courses. They were to be given for the duration only. 
They included Interpretation of Topographic and Geologic Maps 
for Military Purposes, Military Geology, Aeronautical Meteor- 
ology, Celestial Navigation, Epidemic Diseases in Warfare, and 
the lecture series on "The War and Its Significance." 

There had been wartime developments in the foreign language 
area also. Russian, Japanese and Portuguese, as indicated, had 
been added to the curriculum. But unlike the days of World 
War I, after which the Ohio Legislature abolished the teaching 
of German in the public schools, German courses had been 
continued. In the Romance languages department there had 
been a strong shift from French to Spanish courses. A unique 
offering was a "good neighbor" service course in English 
where all students in the first class were from Latin America. 

Wartime shifts and emphases had been reflected also in 
offerings of the College of Commerce and Administration. 
Despite limitations on travel its annual Accounting Institute, 
Personnel Institute, and Institute for Trade Association Execu- 
tives were described as "highly successful." Their programs had 
been keyed to wartime problems and attendance was up as 
much as 50 per cent. The college took pride in the fact also 
that its departments cooperated fully in the new Twilight School 
program under Prof. Thomas E. Kibler, of economics, chairman 
of the faculty committee which "guided this important new 
University venture through its first successful year of activity." 

The College of Pharmacy had completed successfully its 
first year under the wartime accelerated program. Medicine and 
Veterinary Medicine had operated similarly. The year was called 
especially difficult for the College of Medicine because seventy-five 
members of its teaching staff had gone into the armed services 
and few replacements were available for its stepped-up program. 

Like Arts and Sciences, the College of Education had added 
special wartime courses. In psychology there were two: Military 



114 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Psychology and Mental Hygiene for Professional Workers. A 
half dozen others were added for teachers of vocational trades 
and industries. The department of education had added one 
on Teaching Pre-Flight Aeronautics in the Secondary School 
to meet a request of the Civil Aeronautics Administration. This 
was taught also by Prof. F. C. Dockeray who, although past 
forty-five, took a refresher course in flying. 

Other Education offerings, different from the run-of-mine 
pattern, that had been continued included a conservation labor- 
atory begun in 1940, for elementary and secondary school 
teachers, field service projects, September field experience, and 
personnel courses. 

In Engineering, similarly, there were special wartime courses 
apart from those in the regular curricula. The E.S.M.W.T. had 
continued to offer non-credit courses on the campus and in 
several Ohio cities. Between July, 1942 and February, 1943 
more than 100 Navy officers had attended a 10-week Diesel 
Engine school. 

From June, 1942 to January, 1943, the Army Air Corps 
Technical School, in Illinois, had sent five classes of from sixteen 
to forty-eight men to the campus for shop training. The Army 
Engineering Maintenance Corps on one occasion had assigned 
thirty second lieutenants to the University for a five-day course 
in industrial engineering. More than 150 men from the Army 
Signal Corps had come to the campus for instruction in ultra 
high frequency work or in pre-radar studies. The photography 
department likewise gave a special course at Lockbourne Air 
Base. The industrial engineering department established a course 
in safety engineering. And the new A. F. Davis welding library, 
in process of development, was expected to be the most complete 
such library in the world. 

The College of Medicine, as noted, had been somewhat 
hampered by the fact that so many members of its teaching 
staff were in service and replacements in most cases were not 
to be had. Another blow was the sudden death on January 14, 



SPECIAL TRAINING PROGRAMS 115 

1943 of Acting Dean Leslie L. Bigelow. But progress was made 
nevertheless. One development during the year was the estab- 
lishment of a new department of physical medicine. 

Meanwhile the college research program had gone forward, 
especially in aviation medicine. Some of this research dealt espe- 
cially with the effects of high altitude flying in which medical 
students served as "guinea pigs." Another piece of research, 
sponsored by the National Research Council and related to the 
war, had to do with atabrine as a substitute for quinine. The 
college also set up an Ex-Service Men's Clinic to aid in the 
scientific rehabilitation of maladjusted men discharged from the 
Armed Forces for mental inadequacy. 

Like others, the College of Dentistry reflected strongly the 
effects of the accelerated wartime program. Of its 247 students 
enrolled during the summer only four were not in some branch 
of the Armed Forces. Of fifty-six seniors graduated in March, 
all except a few excused for physical disability, went directly 
into the Army or Navy with commissions. 

No meeting of the University Health Council was held 
between June, 1944 and June, 1945 because the time of most 
of the staff was taken up with A.S.T.P. and other trainees on 
the campus. During that year more than 68,000 medical and 
health services were given to A.S.T.P. soldiers and regular stu- 
dents. Three-fourths of this total service went to A.S.T.P. men. 

"For the first time in Ohio State history," it was reported in 
the May, 1945 issue of the Faculty Review, "an infirmary was 
established. It was used exclusively for A.S.T.P. soldiers. It was 
located in the basement of the newest wing of Baker Hall. It 
served 361 soldiers for 1300 hospital infirmary days between 
October 13, 1943 and March 16, 1944, when it was closed, as 
the A.S.T.P. unit was decreased from approximately 3000 to 
approximately 800." Physicians on the staff of the campus Health 
Service served as contract officers to the Army. 

Prof. Nold, director of the campus E.S.M.W.T. program, 
won official commendation for the way he and the University 



116 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

handled the assignment. George W. Case, director of E.S.M.W.T., 
in the U.S. Office of Education, praised Nold in October, 1945 
after receiving the latter's final report. "Your programs were 
well planned and most effective," Case wrote, "in providing the 
training that was badly needed in industry and I am glad 
to report that our records show that Ohio State University 
has enrolled 12,604 trainees, certainly an excellent contribution 
to the war effort." Case added, "Congratulations for the fine 
service the University has rendered." 



VI 

STAFF AND OTHER CHANGES 

1. Administrative Shifts 

IN the natural course of events, and not because of the war 
except in a few cases, a number of major changes occurred 
at the administrative level — University and college — between 
1941 and 1945. The number of vice presidents was increased to 
two, eight new deans or acting deans were named, and two 
veteran administrative officers — Edith D. Cockins, registrar, Uni- 
versity editor and secretary of the faculty, and Carl E. Steeb, 
business manager — both reached the mandatory retirement age. 
Steeb continued until his death in 1958, however, as secretary 
of the Board of Trustees. 

As noted earHer, J. L. Morrill, the first vice president the 
University ever had, resigned as of December 31, 1941 to become 
president of the University of Wyoming. He was succeeded in 
the vice presidency by Prof. Harvey H. Davis, chairman of the 
department of education. In a further shift of University organi- 
zation, with a realignment of some functions, another vice 
president was added in January, 1944 with the elevation of Dean 
Bland L. Stradley, of the College of Arts and Sciences. 

Within a comparatively short time the College of Medicine 
had a succession of deans and acting deans. Dean John H. J. 
Upham retired at the end of the 1940-41 school year. Dr. Hardy 
A. Kemp was named to succeed him as of September 1, 1941 
but before long went on military leave. Dr. Leslie L. Bigelow 
was then named acting dean as of March 1, 1942 but died in 
January, 1943. Dr. Rollo C. Baker, secretary of the college, next 
served as acting dean. In December, 1944 Dr. Charles A. Doan, 
head of medical research, became dean and director of Univer- 
sity Hospital. 

117 



118 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Dr. Doan, widely known for his research in hematology and 
tuberculosis, had been chairman of the department of medicine 
and director of medical research since 1936. Former Dean Kemp, 
still on military leave, was named professor of public health 
and hygiene. Actually he never returned to the campus. 

Similar changes affected the Colleges of Education and 
Veterinary Medicine and the office of the dean of women. Dr. 
Esther Allen Gaw, dean of women, and Dean Arthur J. Klein, 
of Education, both took voluntary retirement, the former as 
of February 1, 1944 and the latter as of September 1, 1945. Mrs. 
Christine Y. Conaway, '23, formerly in the College of Arts and 
Sciences office, as noted, became dean of women as of April 1, 
1944. Prof. Ross Mooney, of the Bureau of Educational Research, 
who was acting junior dean of Education, was made acting 
dean as of September 1, 1945. 

In January, 1945 Dean Oscar V. Brumley, '97, of the College 
of Veterinary Medicine, died after a long illness. He had been 
dean since 1929 and was a past president of the American 
Veterinary Medical Association. Dr. Walter R. Hobbs, '14, sec- 
retary of the college, was named acting dean. 

Several other changes occurred at the administrative level. 
In March, 1942, Carl M. Franklin, who had been secretary to 
President Bevis, was made assistant to the president. He left 
before long, however, for Navy service. 

Prof. Norval Neil Luxon, of the School of Journalism, also 
came into the administrative picture in 1943. He was first named 
coordinator of the special military programs on the campus. 
Later he became director of the Twilight School when that 
agency was given permanent status. After the war he was 
made assistant to the president in charge of budget matters. 

In another shuffle, the News Bureau, which had been in 
existence since 1922, was renamed the Bureau of Public Rela- 
tions. Additional functions were spelled out for it. Harold K. 
Schellenger continued as director, but with more responsibilities. 



STAFF AND OTHER CHANGES 119 

Despite this shift compHcations arose not long afterward as a 
result of somewhat hasty Board action that called for early 
correction. 

Further details of the foregoing and other changes are spelled 
out below. 

The vice presidency vacated when J. L. Morrill left remained 
unjfilled for only two months. At their March 19, 1942 meeting, 
the Trustees approved the recommendation of President Bevis 
that Prof. Davis fill the post. A member of the faculty since 
1928, he had been chairman of the department of education since 
1937. During his first three years on the campus he had served 
concurrently with the State Department of Education. 

It had become known early in February, 1941 that the name 
of Vice President Morrill was under consideration for the presi- 
dency of the University of Minnesota. Morrill would say only 
that he had had an interview with the Minnesota regents. It 
developed that another educator being considered for the posi- 
tion was President W. H. Cowley, of Hamilton College, but 
formerly of the Ohio State staff. 

A strange succession of events ensued. Cowley earlier became 
president of Hamilton after Morrill had turned down that 
position. In turn, Cowley was chosen for the Minnesota vacancy, 
subject to certain conditions. This fell through, Cowley remained 
at Hamilton, and in January, 1942 Morrill went to the Univer- 
sity of Wyoming as president. But two and a half years later 
he was chosen president at Minnesota and served there for 
sixteen years until his retirement in 1960. 

Announcement of Morrill's election as president at Wyoming 
was made October 2. President Bevis expressed regret at losing 
the vice president, but said he recognized "the opportunity for 
service presented by this call." He predicted that Morrill would 
do a great work at Wyoming. 

At the November 11, 1941 Board meeting the Trustees 
accepted Morrill's resignation "with the greatest reluctance" and 



120 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

in a formal resolution called him "an administrator of marked 
genius, a distinguished scholar, loyal public servant, wise coun- 
sellor, understanding friend, . . ." 

The University added another vice president two years later 
with the promotion of Dean Stradley, of Arts and Sciences, to 
the new post as of January 1, 1944. He had been Arts College 
dean for seven years. He was also University examiner in charge 
of admissions from 1919 to 1937. In his new capacity he was 
to deal with the entire area of student relations: matriculation, 
registration, campus organizations, student health service, and 
student employment. In other words, he would be responsible 
for the student's well-being outside of the classroom. Under 
him were the deans of men and women, the registrar, the 
examiner, the director of student health, counselling officers, and 
student employment. 

Vice President Davis continued in charge of academic affairs: 
faculty and curricular matters. President Bevis, of course, con- 
tinued to exercise general supervision. 

In line with these foregoing changes the president's office 
now had three main functions: 1) supervision of faculty and 
curricular matters; 2) supervision of student affairs; and 3) over- 
all supervision and management of public relations under the 
president himself. 

A month after Stradley 's elevation, Prof. Harlan H. Hatcher 
was elected to the Arts College deanship. The University asked 
the Navy to release him from duty at the Navy school at 
Chapel Hill, N. Car. Hatcher was later to succeed Davis as 
academic vice president when the latter returned to the State 
University of Iowa, his alma mater. 

A further appointment early in 1942 to help meet the 
growing administrative burden was that of Carl M. Franklin 
as assistant to the president. A former student under Dr. Bevis 
at Harvard, Franklin had been serving since the summer of 
1941 as secretary to the president. He was currently secretary 
of the Council on Instruction and of the University Policy 



STAFF AND OTHER CHANGES 121 

Committee which was restudying all University activities. Before 
many months, as noted, he accepted a Navy commission. 

In mid-1943 several other administrative changes occurred. 
Dr. Be vis reported that the Trustees at their May 10 meeting 
had changed the name of the News Bureau to Bureau of Public 
Relations. Harold K. Schellenger was made director. Its func- 
tions were spelled out to include : press relationships, promotional 
literature, speakers' bureau, general information, paid adver- 
tising, conferences, parents' associations, exhibits and calendars 
and publicity. The Bureau was to continue to serve as the 
office of the Twilight School. 

In April, 1944 President Bevis made three staff changes. 
Prof. Luxon, formerly of Journalism and more recently A.S.T.P. 
coordinator, was made director of the Twilight School. Greater 
emphasis upon the Twilight School program tied in with the 
University's postwar planning to enable it to serve more people 
on a broader scale. Prof. Lawrence D. Jones, former secretary. 
College of Engineering, succeeded Luxon as A.S.T.P. coordi- 
nator. He had been assistant coordinator. 

A major retirement in June 1944 was that of Edith D. 
Cockins, '94. She went on leave of absence as of April 1. She 
had not only served the University well for fifty years but 
she had made a place for herself on the campus unmatched by 
any other woman and equaled by few men in the long history 
of the University. She served under six presidents of the Uni- 
versity — William H. Scott to Howard L. Bevis. She was the 
University's first registrar and was secretary of the faculty and 
University editor. From 1929 to 1940 she served also as alumni 
recorder. 

Her influence, however, far exceeded the bounds of her 
office, especially in alumni and alumnae circles. She founded 
and for years ran the annual Sunset Supper on Alumni Day. 
Even in retirement, as it turned out, she was to be active in 
campus affairs. In time she became the biographer of Ralph D. 
Mershon, '90, whose multi-million dollar estate she helped to 



122 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

assure for the University. In addition, she was curator of the 
Mershon papers and was active to the day of her death, just 
short of ninety, in 1963. She was the first woman ever elected 
head of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars. 

One of the positions vacated by Miss Cockins was filled from 
on the campus and another by a newcomer. In October, 1944 
Dr. Ronald B. Thompson came from the University of Utah 
as registrar and University examiner. In February, 1945 Prof. 
Lawrence D. Jones, who had been secretary of the College of 
Engineering and A.S.T.P. coordinator, became secretary of the 
faculty and of the Faculty Council. 

Another University veteran retired as of July 1, 1945 from 
one major campus job after forty-six years but kept another. 
This was Carl E. Steeb, longtime business manager and secretary 
of the Board of Trustees, which elected him business manager 
emeritus but kept him on as its secretary. 

He had been business manager since 1909 and secretary of 
the Board since 1904. During his tenure he had signed 50,588 
of the 60,680 diplomas awarded up to then by the University. 
He continued as secretary until his death in 1959. One of the 
new high-rise dormitories was named for him in 1961. 

At the June 6, 1945 Board meeting Delmar A. Starkey, on 
behalf of the Alumni Advisory Board, appeared before the 
Trustees to express alumni views as to the position of business 
manager. The post remained vacant for some time but at their 
February 11, 1946 meeting the Trustees, upon recommendation 
of the president, elected Prof. Jacob B. Taylor to that post, 
Taylor, a member of the faculty since 1927, at the time of 
his new appointment was chairman of accounting. He had been 
in military service from January, 1943 to September, 1945 in 
World War II and was a veteran of World War I. 

At their December 4, 1944 meeting the Trustees took an 
action with respect to the University's public relations which 
they were to modify three months later. Upon motion of Trustee 
James F. Lincoln they voted unanimously to place Alumni 



STAFF AND OTHER CHANGES 123 

Secretary John B. Fullen "in direct charge of a program to 
properly inform the public, through pubHcity and otherwise, 
of the needs of the Ohio State University." This was on the 
understanding that "the cooperative help of the proper repre- 
sentatives of the other five state universities" would be sought 
in "the development of a comprehensive plan to cover" all six 
universities. 

On its face such a move was understandable but it failed to 
take account of two factors. One was that early that same year in 
the reorganization of the president's office and functions it was 
agreed that the president was to be in more or less direct 
charge of University relations. The other was that the latest move 
completely ignored Harold K. Schellenger, whose title had 
been changed in the Spring of 1943 to that of director of 
public relations. These facts were brought out in discussion and 
at the March 5, 1945 Board meeting the earlier action was 
amended upon motion of Mr. Lincoln. 

It was changed "to read so as to express the then intentions 
of the Board" and further that Dr. Bevis be "directed to coordi- 
nate and publicize a program of information as to the needs 
and requirements of the University." He was also to call upon 
Schellenger, Fullen, the deans and others "for information, sug- 
gestions and help in carrying out such program." The amended 
program again included a request for the help and cooperation 
of the other five state universities "in developing a comprehen- 
sive plan" for all six. 

The College of Medicine figured in several major develop- 
ments in the fall of 1944 and the early winter of 1945. At the 
October 9 Board meeting, Dr. Bevis recommended that the 
deanship of the College be declared vacant as a result of the 
continued overseas wartime service of Dean Kemp. It was said 
that it might be two years before Dr. Kemp returned to the 
campus. The Board authorized the President to hunt for a new 
dean. 

There was no November meeting but at that of December 



124 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

4, Dr. Bevis reported that committee consisting of Drs. Roy D. 
McClure, Verne A. Dodd, and Bruce K. Wiseman, and Trustee 
H. S. Atkinson had unanimously recommended the appoint- 
ment of Dr. Doan as dean. The Board approved the recom- 
mendation, effective at once. Dr. Doan was to get a salary of 
$15,000 and was to retain such consulting practice as was related 
to his medical researches, but all fees therefrom were to be paid 
to the University. 

2. Board of Trustees 

Four changes occurred in the membership of the Board of 
Trustees during the war years and two Trustees were reap- 
pointed in that time. In 1941 H. S. Atkinson, '13, was renamed 
to succeed himself for a fourth term on the Board. That same 
year Charles F. Kettering, '04, who had served from 1917 to 
1925, was named to succeed Miss M. Edith Campbell, of Cin- 
cinnati. Miss Campbell was the second woman to be a Trustee. 

Two years later Governor Bricker made three new appoint- 
ments. The first two were those of James F. Lincoln, w'07, of 
Cleveland, in place of Lockwood Thompson, also of that city, 
who had gone into the Army Air Corps. The other was that of 
Warner M. Pomerene, '15, of Coshocton, to succeed Dr. Burrell 
Russell. 

That same year the governor, as noted, also named Donald 
C. Power, '22, for the term starting May 13, 1944, to replace 
Dr. C. J. Altmaier when the latter's term expired. This gave 
the University for the first time an all-alumni Board. Earlier 
Power had taught for some years in the department of business 
organization. 

Col. Carlton S. Dargusch, later brigadier general, who was 
deputy administrator of Selective Service in Washington, was 
reappointed for another 7-year term effective May 13, 1945. This 
was his second. 

At its May 26, 1941 meeting the Board adopted a special 
resolution of greetings and recognition to Kettering in connec- 
tion widi "Charles F. Kettering Day" to be observed June 14 



STAFF AND OTHER CHANGES 



125 



in Dayton, his liome city. Atkinson, as chairman of the Board, 
was designated to convey the resolution in person. Of the Ket- 
tering appointment. President Bevis said it was "a deserved 
recognition of the achievement of a great Ohioan and also of 
the fact that the trusteeship of the nation's fifth largest Uni- 
versit is a responsibility of the first order." 

In connection with the Lincoln appointment a curious 
development occurred. He was a well known Cleveland indus- 
triaHst who had served the University in many ways. He had 
been president of the Alumni Association from 1927 to 1929. 
He was one of the five original incorporators of the Research 
Foundation in 1936. Betwen 1934 and 1936 he gave the Uni- 
versity $15,000 to get this new program launched. 

Despite his background and record, the Student Senate in 
an unprecedented move in the spring of 1943 undertook an 
investigation of his "fitness" to be a Trustee. The "charge," 
brought by Richard Funk, of Elyria, a senior, was that Lincoln 
had been "unfair to minority groups in his plant," the Lincoln 
Electric Co., of Cleveland, major manufacturers of electrical 
welding equipment. It was alleged also that he was "the 
advocator of an appeasement policy." 

The Student Senate named a committee to look into Lincoln's 
quahfications. It wrote to him and received a one-sentence reply. 
None of the specific questions it asked was answered. The 
inquiry ended when the Senate, by a vote of 12 to 11, defeated 
the resolution. 

The first two Board meetings in the school year 1944-45 
were held off the campus and one was omitted because of 
wartime limitations. The July 17, 1944 session was held at the 
country home of Trustee H. S. Atkinson, east of Columbus. 
No August meeting was held and instead of the usual annual 
meeting at Gibraltar Island in September, the Board met next 
at the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station at Wooster on 
September 11. It met again October 10, adjourned to November 
5 but did not meet again until December 4. 



126 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

3. Department Changes 

Upon recommendation of the Faculty Council in the fall of 
1942, the method of choosing and re-electing department chair- 
men was changed. Instead of staying on from year to year, or 
even indefinitely as before, they were now to have 4-year terms 
and their status was to be reviewed at the end of each such 
period. They were to be elected henceforth by the Trustees 
upon nomination of the president after recommendation of the 
dean of the college of which the department was a part. The 
dean, in turn, consulted members of the department staff indi- 
vidually before making his recommendation. Their duties were 
defined more specifically and their terms were to end June 30 
of any even-numbered calendar year between sessions of the 
legislature. 

A dozen changes were made in the heads of departments, 
schools or other agencies during the war years. In a few cases 
department heads retired and were replaced. There were shifts 
also in the names of departments and two departments became 
schools. 

To take the schools first, in 1942 Miss Frances McKenna was 
made director of the School of Nursing. By Board action in 
March, 1944 the department of fine arts became the School 
of Fine and Applied Arts with Prof. James R. Hopkins as 
director. In May, 1945 the department of music became the 
School of Music, and Prof. Eugene J. Weigel was made director. 
These two units remained in the College of Education. 

In June, 1945 the School of Aviation, which had been created 
in November, 1942, was transferred to the President's Division. 
Col. Brunzell, the former R.O.T.C commandant, was acting 
director of the School. Some months earlier, Lieut. Col. George 
A. Stone, commander of the Ohio Wing of the Civil Air Patrol, 
was named adviser to the director. Col. Stone was killed later 
in a plane crash. 

Toward the end of 1941 Prof. Albert E. Avey, a longtime 
member of the department, was promoted to chairman of the 



STAFF AND OTHER CHANGES 127 

philosophy department. He replaced Prof. Joseph A. Leighton, 
retired. Two such changes the next year elevated Prof. Dan 
Eikenberry to the chairmanship of the department of education, 
vice Dr. Harvey H. Davis, promoted to vice president, and 
Prof. Laurence H. Snyder, chairman, zoology and entomology, 
vice Prof. Raymond C. Osburn, retired. 

As of July 1, 1943 Prof. John L. Synge was brought in as 
the new head of mathematics- That same year. Dr. Thomas C. 
Holy became director of the Bureau of Educational Research 
in place of Dr. W. W. Charters, who took early retirement. 
Dr. Bevis, with Board approval, also named two acting junior 
deans: William S. Guthrie, for Arts and Sciences, and William 
R. Flesher, Education. 

In 1944 Dr. 1. Keith Tyler was made acting director of 
radio education. His function was to coordinate all of the 
University's "radio resources and activities into a more effective 
program" and to get it "underway." In January, 1945 Dr. Bruce 
K. Wiseman became chairman of the department of medicine 
to fill the vacancy caused when Dr. Doan became dean of 
Medicine. 

In November, 1941 a department of pediatrics, as indicated, 
had been established in Medicine with Dr. Earl H. Baxter as 
chairman. Another new department had been added in Decem- 
ber, 1942 when the Trustees approved the creation of the 
department of physical medicine. Its first director was Dr. 
Davd E. Jones. In the spring of 1945 the names of two de- 
partments in the College of Medicine were changed. The 
department of obstetrics became obstetrics and gynecology. What 
had been surgery and gynecology became simply surgery. 

Various changes in policy and personnel occurred or were 
approved in the final months of the 1944-45 school year. One 
such move by the Trustees was to instruct the president to 
"convey to the Athletic Board" the Trustees' policies as "to 
appointments, finances and all publicity relative to appointments 
and other activities" of the Athletic Board. In other words, the 



128 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

latter board could act upon policies and personnel but publicity 
would be withheld ordinarily until the Trustees had approved 
such action. This would also avoid possible embarrassment should 
an appointment to the coaching staff, for example, be turned 
down by the Trustees. Donald C. Power was named alternate 
representative of the Board of Trustees on the Athletic Board in 
place of H. S. Atkinson, '13, longtime Trustee member, who 
was unable to attend meetings because of illness. 

In a somewhat unusual action at their May 7, 1945 meeting 
the Trustees, upon recommendation of Dr. Bevis and the chair- 
men of their respective departments, extended the active service 
of six members of the Service Department and one other staff 
member for a year. All had reached the mandatory retirement 
age of seventy. Chief among them was William C. McCracken, 
chief engineer, who had been on the staff since 1886. The 
others included John Hussey, longtime landscape gardener, Allen 
H. Sipple, carpenter foreman, three janitors, and an assistant 
in industrial engineering. 

Only twice before had this been done. One was in the case 
of Tony Aquila, longtime custodian of the Ohio Stadium, and 
for "Bill" North, veteran campus police chief, known to genera- 
tions of students. North had been in campus harness for thirty-six 
years. 

Death and retirement removed quite a few long familiar 
names and faces from the campus scene during the early 
'Forties. At the end of the 1940-41 school years, Profs. William 
Lloyd Evans, '92, chemistry, Joseph A. Leighton, philosophy, 
and George H. McKnight, English, retired. 

Five top members of the faculty retired at the close of the 
1941-42 school year. They were: Profs. William L. Graves, '93, 
one of the "big four" of the English department and longtime 
"Idler" columnist in the Lantern; Thomas E. French, '95, out- 
standing chairman of the engineering drawing department and 
the University's first Big Ten faculty representative from 1912; 
Homer C. Hockett, American history and nationally known 



STAFF AND OTHER CHANGES 129 

authority on constitutional history; Raymond C. Osburn, '98, 
chairman, zoology and entomology; and W. W. Charters, direc- 
tor, Bureau of Educational Research. 

In 1943 Prof. Harry W. Kuhn retired after forty-two years 
in mathematics. Three other "oldtimers" who also retired at 
the end of the 1942-43 school year were Profs. Samuel E. Rasor, 
'98, mathematics; C.C. Huntington, '02, geography; and Dr. 
Andrews Rogers, '96, obstetrics. They and Prof. Kuhn collec- 
tively had served the University for a total of 156 years. 

Major retirements in 1945 included those of: Profs. E. L. 
Beck, English; M. B. Evans, chairman, German; C. C. Morris, 
mathematics; Charles S. Berry, adult and special education; 
Oscar Erf, agriculture; W. M. Barrows, zoology; F. E. Lumley, 
sociology; and Dr. R. J. Seymour, physiology. 

In October, 1941, Dr. Caroline Breyfogle, the University's 
first dean of women, died. She had retired in 1918. In Novem- 
ber, 1942, Prof. H. F. Walradt, of economics, died, and the next 
month so did Mrs. Edna G. Rightmire, wife of the president 
emeritus, after a week's illness. Early in January, 1943 the death 
of John Kaiser, of Marietta, a Trustee from 1915 to 1936, occurred. 
In April, 1943 Prof. John L. Clifton, of education, former state 
director of education, passed away. 

William Lucius "Billy" Graves, longtime member of the 
English faculty, died suddenly September 7, 1943 followed 
shortly by Prof. Emeritus Frank H. Eno, civil engineering, and 
Prof. George McClure, of soils. Dean Emeritus Alfred Vivian, 
of Agriculture, died October 25. He had been on the staff 
from 1902 to 1932. Former Dean David S. White, of Veterinary 
Medicine, died the following day. 

Another early member of the University family to die was 
Prof. Emeritus Joseph N. Bradford, '83, on December 13, 1943. 
He had served on the faculty from 1885 until his retirement 
in 1930. As the first University architect he designed fifty-two 
campus buildings. 

An off-campus death of note was that of John F. McFadden, 



130 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

of Cadiz, last surviving member of the first graduating class 
in 1878. He died January 6, 1944. He was 88. 

4. Leaves of Absence 

Even before Pearl Harbor the question of University policy 
as to military or other government-connected leaves of absence 
for staff members began to arise. In the months that followed 
the administration and the Board of Trustees adopted a rather 
liberal policy, both as to granting such leaves and as to assuring 
those who got them that they could return to University service 
when the emergency was over. 

In all, between 1941 and 1945 the University granted leaves 
of absence to 350 staff members. Most of these were for military 
service. Some areas — both colleges and departments — were hit 
harder than others. The College of Medicine, for example, at 
one time had about seventy-five members of its staff — teaching 
and University Hospital — away on leave. 

Two of the first leaves granted went as of January 1, 1941 
to Prof. H. Gordon Hayes, economics, as chief economist for 
the Consumers' Council, Bituminous Coal Authority, and Prof. 
Hermann C. Miller, accounting, for Navy duty. Then came 
calls for Reservists, both faculty and employes, for active duty. 
It had been foreseen that by the summer of 1941 a large number 
of these would be called. 

On July 13, 1940 President Bevis in a special communication 
to the faculty had cautioned that the program of normal instruc- 
tion must go on as far as possible and that emergency leaves 
would not be granted unless the persons concerned were spe- 
cifically ordered to duty or their services requested. He said: 

We want, of course, to keep intact our regular program of 
normal University instruction so far as supervening requirements 
will permit. But, in addition, the University may be called upon 
for various types of service to the government which can better 
be performed on the campus than elsewhere. It becomes important, 
therefore, that our staff be not unnecessarily depleted by temporary 
withdrawals from service. To this end, leaves of absence without 



STAFF AND OTHER CHANGES 131 

pay will not be recommended unless the person asking for leave 
has been specifically ordered or requested by goverment authority 
to engage in some definite service. 

He observed to the Trustees that "While this statement made 
no commitment that leaves of absence would be recommended 
to the Board for those in miHtary or naval service, it does give 
this implication. Meantime there seems to be a very strong 
disposition on the part of Deans and department heads to 
recommend such leaves for draftees and reserve officers — the 
leave to extend, presumably, until such military or naval service 
is completed." 

The Selective Service Act, he pointed out, "applies only to 
draftees and not to reserve officers. At the same time, from 
the standpoint of University policy, the philosophy of the Act 
w^ould presumably apply to such officers." The Board approved 
a resolution submitted by Dr. Bevis declaring its "intention to 
grant leaves of absence, without pay, upon recommendation of 
the President, to all employes of the University who are ordered 
into service with the land and naval forces of the United States, 
with the understanding that such employes may expect to 
return to their positions in the University upon the completion 
of such active duty." This was subject, however, to legislative 
appropriations and the fitness for duty of those granted such 
leaves. 

At its March 10, 1941 meeting the Board "amended and 
enlarged" the draft deferment action it took in November, 
1940. Under this President Bevis was to "formulate desirable 
policies and criteria for consideration by University deferment 
committees of cases of students, graduate and undergraduate, 
in whose behalf the University might properly make repre- 
sentation to local draft boards for occupational and 'necessary 
man' deferments" and was empowered "to make such 
representations upon recommendation to him by the proper 
campus deferment committees." 

In May, 1942 the chairmen of the college deferment com- 



132 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

mittees agreed upon two categories of teaching departments in 
regard to staff members and Selective Service. In the first they 
put those that trained personnel "for the actual war effort or 
for public services connected with health, interest, and safety, 
including those that provide training through indispensable 
courses for instructional areas that carry occupational deferment 
for the students." In the second they included areas that "have 
no direct or indirect relation to the training of men for the 
war effort." 

Even in the first group it was felt that "only a teacher who 
completely met the Selective Service requirements as an 'essen- 
tial man' might be recommended for occupational deferment 
since the University under no circumstances can do 'business as 
usual.' " It was emphasized that employes could be recommended 
for deferment "only when it could be demonstrated that a 
high percentage of their teaching load contributes directly to 
the war effort." It was unlikely, it was pointed out, that a case 
could be made for any employee in the second group. 

The policy of granting leaves to staff members was modified 
further at the April 13, 1942 Board meeting as to persons entering 
the Armed Forces voluntarily. Such leaves could be granted pro- 
viding "Proof of conditions rendering such persons liable to 
induction must be made to the satisfaction of the University 
Administration." 

The 1941-42 annual report carried the names of sixty-two 
faculty and other staff members who had been granted leaves 
of absence for military service. Twenty-six others received similar 
leaves for civilian war work. For the school year 1942-43 there 
were 142 more wartime leaves of absence. 

Meanwhile those who remained on the campus were serving 
in various ways: on Selective Service and rationing boards, buying 
War Stamps and Bonds, giving to the U.S.O., Red Cross and 
War Chest, donating books for camp libraries, and salvaging 
metal and fats for war purposes. In addition, as Dr. Bevis noted, 
many staff members were called to Washington and elsewhere 



STAFF AND OTHER CHANGES 133 

for consultation on matters connected with such government 
agencies as Selective Service, the War Production Board, the 
War Labor Board and others. 

One leave of absence that attracted wide attention involved 
Paul Brown, head football coach. The coaching vacancy caused 
by the "resignation" of Francis Schmidt in February, 1941 had 
been filled by the appointment of Brown, who came from 
Massillon High School and had a large public following. He 
brought five assistants with him. 

Early in the war Brown, at the University's request, was 
granted deferment from Selective Service. This was on the 
ground that his services were essential to the campus physical 
education program. 

His status changed several times after the close of the 1943 
football season. In the fore part of February, 1944 he was reclas- 
sified as 1-A by the Massillon draft board. Two days earlier 
Brown was quoted as saying that he would "do whatever the 
script called for." At that time a formal University request for 
his deferment had been made through President Bevis. At this 
point Brown reportedly told the draft board to disregard any 
request for deferment and just to "treat my case like any one 
else's." He added that he had asked no one to request deferment 
for him. 

In the meantime Brown had applied for a Navy commission. 
This came through in the fore part of April, 1944 and he was 
assigned to the Great Lakes Naval Training Station as football 
coach with the grade of lieutenant (jg). 

Upon Brown's leaving. President Bevis said, in part, "The 
University loses a great personality in Brown. His absence will 
be felt." Carroll B. Widdoes, one of Brown's senior assistants, 
was named acting coach. 

In a surprise move while still on leave. Brown resigned in 
February, 1945, to accept an offer to coach professional football. 
Brown notified Athletic Director L. W. St. John of the offer 
on February 3. Three days later Brown phoned an assistant 



134 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

coach to say that he was being pressed to accept the "pro" offer. 
St. John reportedly had told Brown that the University could 
not match the offer but that he (St. John) would recommend 
to the Athletic Board that Brown's salary be increased from 
$9000 to $15,000. 

The matter never got to the Athletic Board because forty-eight 
hours later Brown accepted the offer. Widdoes, who was acting 
coach in the 1943 and 1944 seasons, was named head coach on 
February 23. Widdoes' parents, the Rev. and Mrs. Howard W. 
Widdoes, were among Japanese prisoners of war, freed by 
American forces in the Philippines in the winter of 1945. 

Brown signed a 5-year contract as head coach and general 
manager of the Cleveland Rams, later and better known as 
the Cleveland Browns. A few days later the Lantern exclaimed 
editorially: "Good Bye, Paul Brown. And good luck!" 

Some weeks later Widdoes complained of alleged "tamper- 
ing" with star freshman football players, three in particular. 
One of these was Lou Groza who left the campus and quickly 
became a field goal and kick-off specialist with the Browns, 
where he still playing in 1966. 

5. Other Changes 

Apart from organizational and personnel shifts, three other 
major campus changes occurred during the latter part of the 
war. One was a series of recommendations as to University 
policy in regard to student and alumni relations. The second 
was a detailed study of the Twilight School. Last but not 
least was the formulation of plans, based on their own testimony 
and desires, to meet the needs of returning veterans whose 
numbers were growing appreciably by the end of 1944. 

The Twilight School, established in 1942-43, was the subject 
of special attention during the 1943-44 school year. Ralph L. 
Pounds, of the Bureau of Educational Research, made an exhaus- 
tive study of its first year's activities. This was based upon reports 



STAFF AND OTHER CHANGES 135 

of instructors in Twilight School classes and 1503 questionnaire 
forms returned by Twilight School students during the year. 

A breakdown of the occupations or other activities of the 
respondents showed these major categories: clerical workers, 334; 
fulltime University students, 248; teachers — other than Ohio 
State University, 188; war industries, 124; University clerical, 
54; University staff, 54; clerks (store, bank, &c) 50; home- 
makers, 43; state offices other than clerical, 36; engineers, 29; 
miscellaneous, 241. 

The department of education had the most students with 
356, followed by psychology with 332. Twenty-eight departments 
were represented. In size the individual classes ranged from one 
to sixty-seven. 

Students were asked whether they planned to attend the 
next quarter. Of these who said they so intended only 32.8 
per cent did so. But 39.6 per cent of those responding said they 
planned to work toward a degree. 

They also had specific suggestions for changes in or improve- 
ment of the Twilight School program as well as criticisms. Many 
of the former had to do with class scheduling and registration. 
Some three score wanted a wider range of course offerings. 

A special committe of five, headed by Prof. Ward G. Reeder, 
was named by Dr. Bevis to study procedures and the program 
of the School. The committee, in a report at the January, 1944 
Faculty Council meeting, made twelve recommendations which 
were adopted as follows: 

The School should be continued. 

Course offerings for the present should not present complete four- 
year programs but with as many courses as feasible counting to- 
ward degrees, particularly the first year requirements of degree 
programs. 

It should be in operation during the three regular Quarters, with 
a summer program when the demand justified it. 
It should not have a separate instructional staff. 
It should have a director, appointed by the President, to whom 
he should be directly responsible. 



136 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

A Twilight School Council should be named by the President 
advisory to the director with membership on a rotating basis. 
Courses in the School should be taught by the regular teaching 
staff, with members subject to teaching assignment at the discre- 
tion of their department chairman and dean. 
All School courses should be of college level; and carry full Uni- 
versity course credit. 

The Entrance Board, Registrar and Bursar should be asked to 
develop simpler registration procedures for Twilight School 
students. 

The Administrative Council was asked to get the necessary facts 
as the basis for a further study of the fee structure for part-time 
students and to make appropriate recommendations to the Trustees. 
Colleges and departments, at the request of the director, should 
prepare curricular programs for at least the three regular Quarters 
for inclusion in a separate all-year Twilight School bulletin. 
Twilight School course material was to continue to go through the 
usual channels. These agencies were asked to undertake to meet 
any emergencies in the School program. 

President Bevis named these six to the new School advisory 
council: Chester S. Hutchison, Edison L. Bowers, James F. 
Fullington, Harry E. Nold, Harold K. Schellenger, and Reeder. 
All but Hutchison comprised the committee making the fore- 
going recommendations. 

These preliminary moves were climaxed at the April 3, 1944 
meeting of the Trustees when, upon the President's recommen- 
dation, as noted. Prof. Luxon was named director of the 
School. He had been a member of the Journalism School stafT 
since 1928. When the war came on President Bevis, as indicated, 
drafted him to head the special wartime course programs. 

The University Policy Committee made three major recom- 
mendations dealing with student and alumni relations in a 
report made in 1943. These were that: 

The University assume full responsibility for developing alumni 
and student spirit and loyalty and for promoting the prestige of 
the University. 

An assistant in the President's office have charge of all activities 



STAFF AND OTHER CHANGES 137 

dealing with the general welfare of the student and coordinate 
those activities with the activities of the alumni bodies, and 

The president be authorized to appoint such an assistant with 
whatever specific title seems appropriate. 

Members of the committee were Profs. Laurence H. Snyder, 
Edison L. Bowers, Clyde T. Morris, Deans Alpheus W. Smith 
and Arthur J. Klein, Business Manager Steeb, Carl M. Franklin, 
assistant to the president, and Harry R. Drackett, '07, Dean 
Smith was chairman. Drackett represented the alumni. 

These recommendations had a bearing on the appointment, 
already noted, early in 1944 of Bland L. Stradley as an additional 
vice president. 

As the war moved into its final months, the University 
undertook large scale plans to receive the flood of veterans 
expected shortly. Dr. Ronald B. Thompson, the new registrar 
and University examiner, prepared a questionnaire to be sent 
to returning men and women asking for their help in planning 
postwar education. By December, 1944 there were 250 discharged 
veterans on the campus. 

The Veterans' Administration, meanwhile, had approved all 
of the University's schools and colleges for training under both 
Public Law 16, the Vocational Training Act, and Public Law 
346, the Servicemen's Readjustment Act, commonly known as 
the "G.I. Bill of Rights." Howard C. Ginn, '16, assistant Uni- 
versity examiner and a veteran of World War I, was named 
liaison representative between the University and the Veterans' 
Administration. Ginn resigned in January, 1945 and Dean of 
Men Park was named veterans' representative for the University 
along with his other duties. 

President Bevis, sent a heart-warming message of welcome 
to the returning veterans. It read; 

To Our Veterans 

You are constantly in our thoughts at the University as we, 
with you, look forward to the cessation of hostilities and your 
return to civilian life. 



138 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

The information on this page can only suggest the many hours 
of planning by the University staff to assist those of you who will 
be starting, resuming, or renewing your educational work at the 
earliest opportunity. 

To each of you Ohio State sends its warmest greetings and its 
gratitude for the service you are giving your nation in its time of 
need. 

(s) Howard L. Bevis 

The Entrance Board announced that it would follow a 
liberal policy in accepting credits for training in the Armed 
Forces. Dr. Thompson said that every effort would be made 
to "aid returning veterans to adjust to their work at Ohio 
State." 

An innovation in the spring of 1945 was to hold the first 
"recognition dinner" in honor of University faculty and staff 
members with twenty-five or more years of service. This was 
approved upon the recommendation of a special faculty com- 
mittee at the March 5 Board meeting. The Trustees were hosts 
at the dinner on April 16, 1945 for about 215 such guests. 

Despite the absence of many staff members to serve in the 
Armed Forces or in other ways, meanwhile, the University 
community had made a highly creditable showing in the various 
War and Victory Loan campaigns to sell War Bonds. The Uni- 
versity did not take part officially in the first War Loan but 
did in the Second through the Seventh, plus the final Victory 
Loan. In the Second and Third War Loan drives the College 
of Dentistry was included with downtown professional groups 
but thereafter with the campus sales. 

The total amount of bonds sold in these seven campaigns 
on the campus, at issue price, was $1,963,603.00. This total took 
no account of payroll deductions for bond purchases which 
averaged between $11 and $12,000 a month. Two bond sales 
campaigns were held each year and the number of campus 
purchasers ranged from 737 to 1450. A breakdown of the campus 
bond sales follows: 



STAFF AND OTHER CHANGES 139 





Amount Sold 


No. of Purchasers 


Second Loan (1943) 


$169,006.75 


111 


Third Loan (1943) 


136,131,75 


896 


Fourth Loan (1944) 


208,152,75 


1450 


Fifth Loan (1944) 


221,703.25 


854 


Sixth Loan (1944) 


329,755.25 


1203 


Seventh Loan (1945) 


349,213.50 


1108 


Victory Loan (1945) 


549,639.75 


942 




$1,963,603.00 





Prof. E. L. Dakan, of poultry husbandry, was campus 
chairman for the Second Loan drive and Prof. E. F. Donaldson, 
of business organization, for the others. 




VII 

WARTIME RESEARCH 
1. General 

SIGNIFICANT part of World War II was fought and 
won in research laboratories. In this achievement the 
University played an important role. Much of this 
work was of the hush-hush variety and the nature of it remained 
secret until after the end of the war. This was especially true 
of projects carried on in the War Research Laboratory built 
for this purpose in 1942. 

Many of these projects were undertaken for the government 
through special contracts. Prior to completion most of them 
were conducted under "letters of intent." While the contracts 
had to be approved by the Board of Trustees, as a rule neither 
it nor President Bevis knew their real nature. Most of the 
contracts were negotiated and administered through the Research 
Foundation which was established in 1936. Dr. A. R. Olpin, 
later president of the University of Utah, was its director during 
World War II. Government contracts continued to be a major 
part of the research program after the war. 

As one Foundation official observed later, time was always 
of the essence rather than funds. Priorities were another problem. 
Fractional horsepower motors for the antenna laboratory, for 
example, could not be obtained for this reason. The solution 
was to buy carpet sweepers, strip them of their motors, and 
junk the remainder. 

Information about wartime research centering on the campus 
derives from four main sources: the Board of Trustees minutes, 
the annual reports of President Bevis, the Research Foundation 
annual reports, and personal and other accounts. The first 
three do not always agree, especially as to the number or distri- 

140 



WARTIME RESEARCH 141 

bution of research projects or their dollar value. At some risk 
of overlapping, material from the Research Foundation reports 
is dealt with separately below. 

And while the work of Dr. Samuel Renshaw, of psychology, 
with the Navy Recognition School was an integral part of the 
over-all University war effort, it is also treated separately. This 
is because of its importance and because it was on such a scale 
and of such a unique nature as to be distinctive in its vast 
outreach and results. 

In its first five years of operation the Research Foundation 
had 114 contracts, all from industry. In 1940-41 it had fifty-four 
contracts, of which twelve were with the government. In 1941-42 
thirty of seventy-four contracts were with the government. All 
of this was summarized in a report made in 1948 by Director 
James S. Owens, who by then had succeeded Olpin:* 





Income from 


Number 


OF CONTRACTS 




Industry 


Government 


Industry 


Government 


1940-41 


$109,000 


% 20,000 


42 


12 


1941-42 


127,000 


190,000 


44 


30 


1942-43 


171,000 


1,426,000 


48 


26 


1943-44 


229,000 


1,252,000 


51 


30 


1944-45 


289,000 


584,000 


54 


23 


1945-46 


341,000 


560,000 


56 


46 



By request, Dr. Olpin on June 28, 1944 supplied a 4-page 
summary of major research projects then under way on the 
campus, especially those contracted for with the government 
through the Research Foundation. He emphasized that it was 
"impossible to divulge the nature and importance of our investi- 
gations because of military classifications of secrecy." Other 
projects were still in progress and their "ultimate value in the 
war effort will not be known until a later date," he added. 
(In September, 1946, as will be seen, he made a detailed report 
on the research program from 1942 to 1945). 

In his 1944 summary he grouped all of the projects under 

* Some of these data vary considerably from other official figures. 



142 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

four headings: "Instrumentalities of War," "Recognition of Air- 
craft and Surface Ships," "War Products and Materials," and 
"Food and Health." 

Under the first classification, he explained, "will be found 
most of the secretive investigations on the campus." For the 
most part, he went on, these were tied in with similar projects 
at other universities and research institutions and were largely 
in chemistry, physics and electrical engineering. Investigators 
had to be cleared by the F.B.I., he pointed out, before they 
could be assigned to work on such projects. 

As of then, he said, the government was spending about 
$135 million a year on such investigations at some 300 university 
and industrial laboratories. About 600 scientists were so engaged. 

The University, he remarked, had been "most interested in 
aeronautical research." Under this heading were projects related 
to engines and physical equipment, to aviation fuels, and to 
pilot selection and training. 

The second major item. Recognition of Aircraft and Surface 
Ships, is dealt with, as indicated, in detail elsewhere in this 
chapter. Dr. Olpin stressed the fact that this program had 
"grown to such proportions that now every U.S. Naval Training 
School and base throughout the world, and practically every 
large ship afloat, is equipped with a recognition training in- 
structor trained at the University and supplied with training 
equipment provided by the Ohio State University Research 
Foundation." 

In the third category, a large number of investigations having 
to do with war products and materials had been undertaken 
for the War Production Board and other government agencies. 
Surprisingly, still more had been underwritten with funds from 
corporations having government contracts to produce such ma- 
terials. Under this he listed such items as synthetic rubber, fuels, 
welding, armor plate, ceramic stoves, and mildew prevention. 

Under Food and Health, he cited productive research in 
three areas: new and improved insecticides for control of both 



WARTIME RESEARCH 143 

household insects and crop pests; contributions to the prepara- 
tion of new germicides, disinfectants, and repellents; and in 
"chemotherapeutics with particular reference to pencillin and 
other so-called 'wonder drugs.' " 

He said there was "romance in the story of our experience 
of doubling and tripling the yield of important field crops 
from the same acreage and in our efforts to produce compounds 
which when applied to the body will repel biting insects." For 
some years, he continued, "we have been making fundamental 
studies of heparin, an anti-coagulant which makes possible vascu- 
lar surgery and thus saves many limbs which otherwise would 
have to be amputated." He cited also the experimental work in 
aviation medicine which he called "a major contribution," and 
that in processing and preserving foods where "an interesting 
new development for dehydrating juices and other water solu- 
tions" had been achieved. 

Also of considerable importance, he went on, was "the 
development of methods for exploding skins from fruits and 
vegetables and the method developed locally for blanching vege- 
tables and fruits using small amounts of sulphur dioxide." The 
dehydration process had been patented and patent applications 
had been filed on the others. 

Finally, he said the University's "contribution to the develop- 
ment of hybrid corn is intensely interesting." In a related field, 
he labeled "the large program of research in hydro-ponies and 
aero-ponics, that is the growing of vegetables with the roots 
in water solutions or air rather than soil to better control their 
use of plant nutrients a fascinating story in itself." 

In closing, he repeated that it was too early to appraise the 
value of research projects still under way. He described research 
workers as "always groping ahead," and underscored the fact 
that research "is an attitude of mind, not an accomplishment." 

The Trustees' minutes between July, 1940 and June, 1945 
are replete with references to contracts approved for research 



144 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

projects for the Armed Forces or other government agencies 
in connection with the war effort. Most of these were of a secret 
nature and only the barest identification was given. One, for 
example, approved at the November 25, 1940 meeting was with 
the National Defense Committee of the Council of National 
Defense "for certain experimental investigations" by the chem- 
istry department. As noted elsewhere, this department through 
Prof. Herrick L. Johnston carried on extensive experiments with 
low temperature gases — liquid helium and oxygen. These were 
super-secret and, apart from their direct benefit to the war effort, 
contributed to U.S. progress in space as late as 1964. 

Another in physiology, reported at the January 12, 1942 
Board meeting, was for the OflSce of Scientific Research and 
Development (O.S.R.D.) This was probably in the area of what 
became known as space medicine. Still another, in March, 1942, 
was for the National Defense Research Committee. It had to do 
with an investigation of chemical problems. This was very likely 
also in the field of cryogenic chemistry or low temperature 
research. 

At nearly every meeting of the Trustees, the president 
presented special wartime contracts for approval. At the Sep- 
tember 12, 1942 meeting, for instance, there were three — one 
each in chemistry, physics, and physiology. At the December 14, 
1942 meeting eight such contracts were presented. Six were with 
the O.S.R.D. and two with the War Department. Four involved 
electrical engineering, three chemistry, and one welding. Those 
in electrical engineering had to do with investigation of radiation 
characteristics and aircraft antennas. 

The expedite the campus war program the government re- 
leased the necessary priorities for the construction of a war 
research laboratory on Nineteenth Ave. The building cost 
$255,801. Initially this was intended to accommodate projects 
related to the war effort that had their beginnings in other 
buildings and were crowded for space. A smaller structure was 



WARTIME RESEARCH 145 

going up nearby to house the University's new high frequency 
X-ray equipment. This cost $15,000 and this, too, was related 
to wartime research. 

Dr. Olpin, as head of the Research Foundation, was the 
official link between the University and Washington officials. For 
some of the research projects taken under contract with the 
government he could give only a hint of their nature and 
sometimes not even that. In some cases two and even three 
locked doors kept out unauthorized persons. 

Yet as Dr. Bevis pointed out in his 1941-42 annual report, 
"a surprising amount of 'pure research' continues," and not all 
of the war research had to do with the physical and material 
side of war. "The University," he remarked, "also has a great 
concern for what the war does to people and to their institutions. 
It also looks forwards to the problems of the post-war period, 
and some of its research is directed toward that time." 

He recalled that as early as January 15, 1941 he had authorized 
"the director of the Research Foundation to place research facil- 
ities and personnel at the disposal of the United States govern- 
ment in what was then a defense program." The "twenty or 
more" government contracts negotiated before the end of 1941-42 
involved six major government agencies: the National Defense 
Research Committee and the Medical Research Committee of 
the Office of Scientific Research and Development, the National 
Advisory Committee on Aeronautics, the National Research 
Council, the Army Air Corps at Wright Field, and the Navy. 

Investigations carried on under these contracts were classified 
as Restricted, Confidential, or Secret. One of the most important 
of these undertakings was the Navy Recognition School, referred 
to earlier and described in detail later, in which methods devel- 
oped by Prof. Renshaw were used to train thousands of men, 
and a few women, in the split-second identification of aircraft 
and surface ships. Another major project was an extension of 
research on pure hydrocarbons for which the campus for some 
years, through Prof. Cecil E. Boord, of chemistry, had been 



146 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

the center. This project was now classified as essential to the 
war ejffort by the Fuels and Lubricants Subcommittee of the 
National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics. 

The total research program, geared to the war effort, had 
a wide variety. One project was aimed at developing substitutes 
for critical materials and industrial uses of farm products. An- 
other research area had to do with food technology, especially 
the dehydration of foods and their packaging. 

In the fiscal year ending June 30, 1942, Dr. Bevis said the 
Research Foundation had entered into sixty-five contracts of 
which about one-third were with the government. But the 
amount involved in government contracts was $333,000 as against 
$160,000 for private contracts.* This, he added, "reflects the 
intensity and urgency of these investigations." He pointed out 
also that the director of the Foundation served as a member 
of the Science Advisory Committee of the National Association 
of Manufacturers and as a consultant in the Office of Scientific 
Research and Development, and in the Office of Technical 
Development. 

Individual research projects were being carried on, mean- 
while, in various teaching departments. Many of these were 
related directly to the war effort. In bacteriology, for example, 
special research was being conducted on influenza, wound infec- 
tions, food conservation, fabric preservation, cheese and milk 
production, typhus, and spotted fever. 

Capsule descriptions of some of the research in other areas 
follows: 

Education — cooperation with the staff of Wright Field in 
investigating the effects of high altitude, helping with the pre- 
paration of an intelligence test for use in naval aeronautics, 
and study of the psychological effects of a substitute drug for 
quinine. 

Engineering — ultilization of new materials, substitution of 
nonessential for essential materials, correction of products not 

* These figures and others, as noted, vary from the Owens summary of 1948. 



WARTIME RESEARCH 147 

meeting war requirements, and development of information as 
to properties of certain products as an aid to purchase specifi- 
cations; in mechanical engineering more than half of the staff 
was engaged in war research — flow measurement, tire and belt 
tests. Metallurgical problems provided another major area of 
engineering research. 

The varied program of the Agricultural Extension Service 
was geared similarly to the war effort. As the president's 
1942-43 annual report said, "Each day brought a new and fuller 
realization of the importance of food in the war." Increased 
food production by Ohio farmers was attributable in part to 
the help they got from the Extension Service. To take only 
three examples: a neighborhood leader system was developed 
to reach every farm family with information bearing on agri- 
culture. And Wartime Farmers Institutes, held at 625 points 
in the state, emphasized production and community effort. 
They had an attendance of more than 600,000 persons. The 
Service helped also with information about Victory Gardens 
of which it was estimated Ohio had 585,000 in 1942. 

During 1943 the University continued to enter into contracts 
with government agencies for a variety of wartime research 
and training such as mechanical transmissions (mechanical 
engineering), vocational training for rural war production work- 
ers (rural economics and sociology), and an investigation of 
insulating plastics (electrical engineering). In July, 1943 two 
especially important contracts were entered into with the "War 
Department, Manhattan District," as the Board minutes showed. 
The purpose was "not stated" but, in fact, these were part of 
the development of the atom bomb. Officially they were 
designated as "War Department, Manhattan District" Projects 
No. 155 and 158 — Chemistry. Two such projects were reported 
at the July 23, 1943 Board meeting. (They were reported again 
at the March 6, 1944 meeting as "investigation of a SECRET 
problem.") 

The flow of wartime research and other contracts continued 



148 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

that fall. One was for the use of the new University airport 
by the Lane Aviation Corp. for the flight training of naval cadets. 
A research project with the War Production Board had to do 
with the development of ceramic stoves for wartime use. One 
with industrial engineering centered around an investigation 
of welding problems and another with chemistry had to do 
with lubricants and war gases. Still others involved fluoride 
compounds and one in physics carried the simple label "secret 
problems." 

At the October 11, 1943 Board meeting, Dr. Bevis reported 
that the University was conducting "a very important research 
project in engine ignition for Wright Field" under a Research 
Foundation contract. Since the facilities of Wright Field were 
taxed it was suggested that the University construct an aviation 
torque stand with necessary equipment at its own airport as 
urgently needed. It was pointed out that it could be used later 
as an engine laboratory. The cost was estimated at $50,000 
and the Board authorized a further request to the Board of 
Control to release this amount from frozen appropriations. 

By early 1943 most research projects on the campus were 
directed toward the solution of wartime problems. They had 
to do with such varied items as the production of synthetic 
rubber and metallurgical studies "obviously war connected." 
Studies in the "areas of food production, preserving and proc- 
essing" and the production and improvement of insecticides 
and mildew-proofing compounds were described as offering 
"wide possibilities for aid to the war effort." Other major fields 
of research on the campus included the Psychology Vision Re- 
search Laboratory, the Electronics Laboratory, and the electron 
microscope. 

"Research on this campus," Dr. Bevis noted, "has led the 
Ohio hybrid corn program which was responsible in 1942 for 
the production of enough additional corn in Ohio to produce 
three hundred million pounds of pork." Research was in 
progress also, he added, to improve the quality and increafw 



Two Memorable Days 



Army unit passing 
University Hall, 1943 



Throng on V-J Day 





In front of Library on V'-E Da> 



Photography Dcpt. photc 



Other Wartime Activities 




Presentation i)f Jeep, 
Dr. Hcvis at "mikc" 



^1 




1^ 






War Research Laboratory 
under construction 





Military enj,Mneerin;,' clasi 
Iniildinj; pontoon |)ri(lj,'e 



I'lioKiKr.iiihy l'c|>l. plioli 



Noted Wartime Figures 





Gen. Curtis LeMay 

Army Air Corps Chief 



Lt. Gen. Robert Eichelberger 
Commanding, Occupation of Japan 




Maj. Gen. Robert Beightler 
Commander, 37th Division 





Ens. William I. Halloran 

Lost aboard .inzniia 



Lt. Leonard Thom 
Member, Kennedy P-T boat crew 



LeMay and Eichelberger photos from Photography Dept., Beightler from 
U.S. Army Signal Corps; Halloran and Thom from Aliimni Monihh 



Campus Wartime Activities 



,J:i 



I I I 



^ i liii 




S.T.A.R. unit (d ; n- 
Stadium Ddriiiitoties 



A.S.T.P. trainees jiracticing 
on obstacle course 




("olumn of A.S.T.P. trainees 
on Long Walk 




U..S. ;\rmy Signal Corps pliotc 



Into Uniform and Out 



First step, taking the 
oath of allegiance 





Later step, receiving awards, 
1. to r.. Gov. Bricker, Dr. Bevis, 
Col. Brunzell 



Final step, returning 

veterans lined up 

for registration 



M 


m 


.mmB ■ ^^^^^^1 




1 


r 


^ '■'""' ' 


^"' &^ j ' i^^^H 


mmi^B:. 


i!j&fejj 


JiOBil^^B 


Im 


>Ti 


If 


■— ' ^ f 


:i '^ % ^■P JL^ * 




1 


^< 


', .. * * 


v^ ^ Vtf 


k 


n 


i 


bIS 


^ t ^^^^ 


1 


w^ 


fi. 


|r ^ 


^H*^ 


F 


^ 9 


1 ■.; .| 

4 

1 


|,.' 




L 



Photo>;raphy Depl. photos 



War Research Leaders 





A. R. Olpin 

Research Foundation 



Samuel Renshaw 
Navy Recognition School 





HuRRicK Johnston 
Cryogenics Laboratory 



Cecil E, Boord 

Aviation fuels researeh 



Pliot(iKra[)liy Dept. photos 



Other Campus Wartime Leaders 





J. L. Morrill 
Vice President 



Carl E. Steeb 

Business Manager 





Karl W. Stinson 
C.P.T. program 



Harry E. Nolo 
E.S.D.T. and E.S.M.W.T. programs 



Photography Uept. photos 



Other Wartime Leaders 




Wt it 




^^^^^^H 






i 


^^^^' 


-~~^^ 


^' 



Dean Alpheus W. Smith 



Dean Joseph A. Park 





Henry E. Hoagland 



NoRVAL Neil Luxon 



Plioio>;r.iphy Dcpt. photos 



Examples of Plane and Ship slides 
USED BY Navy Recognition School 



RECOGNITION TRAINING 
U.S. NAVY 




t.9bi \n ttbi 'sz 3Nnr 

BHOIrNlilVa i£-v 

8/1 ■ Awav s n 



THREE DIMENSION COUP 
CHICAOO 






^ szst n ONViAtiVh 

^ NIIMWW 










• "EE Dimension coRf 

A ?8ci IN ornjkif 
^ AO .jvr ssvTO ornx!) 










Plioujuraphy Dcpt. photos 



Service Board at East End of Oval 
AS OF March 1, 1946 




Four Vice Presidents 





r"!'^ 




Harvey H. Davi^ 



Harlan H. Hatcher 





Bland L. Stradley 



Jacob B. Taylor 

Photography Dept. photos 



Governor and Some Wartime Trustees 




Gov. John W. Bricker 




Charles F. Kettering Herbert S. Atkinson Brig. Gen. Carlton Dargusch 




James F. Lincoln 




|. J5^^ 



Km 

Leo L. Rum.nulLL 




LocKwooD Thompson 

I'liotoKcaphy Dcpt. [ilioJos 



WARTIME RESEARCH 149 

the quantity of drug producing plants and to find ways to 
adjust formulas where ingredients had become unavailable be- 
cause of the war. 

One of the hush-hush campus activities of the time had 
to do with maps. There were at least two such projects, one 
involving Africa and the soft "under belly" of Europe, and 
the other Japan. Photostatic copies of many maps from the 
Orton Memorial Library were made by the Army in connection 
with plans for the successful invasion of North Africa, followed 
by those of Sicily and the Italian mainland. Prof. Guy-Harold 
Smith, chairman, geography department, worked similarly on 
a map project preceding the landings against the Japanese in 
the Pacific theater. Some of his work was done in Washington. 

As of June 30, 1943 the Research Foundation had $2,920,812 
in research projects listed, most of them connected directly with 
the war. Dr. Bevis noted in his annual report for 1942-43. He 
reported twenty-five government research contracts closed or 
still active during the year, and valued at $530,262 as against 
forty-seven in industrial research worth $265,550. Most of the 
projects having to do with the development of weapons were 
under prime government contracts. Little could be said about 
them except that a large number had to do with aeronautical 
problems. 

The aviation researches fell generally into four classes: engine 
studies, chemistry of fuels, pilot selection and training, and 
communications. In connection with the fuels studies, it was 
pointed out further that the petroleum industry curently looked 
to the University "as the center of its high octane gasoline 
research." 

Pilot training on the campus reflected several unique and 
significant developments. For example, the Ohio State Flight 
Inventory for the selection and rating of pilots had become 
standard for the C.A.A. National and even international attention 
was attracted to other confidential studies in aviation medicine, 
aircraft signaling and communication, and instrument design. 



150 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

But this was not all. In the fields of metallurgy and welding, 
investigations on the campus had a marked influence on the pre- 
paration and treatment of armor plate and on the design of 
ordnance materials. In chemistry several projects in operation 
during the year, the report said, "were so secretly classified that 
the subjects of investigation cannot be divulged." These were 
disclosed much later to have been in the field of cryogenics. 

Even research projects sponsored by industry had to do with 
the development of products "vital to the winning of the war." 
In the area of so-called civilian substitutes were such other 
items as wire-wrapped light gauge metal pipe and clay pressure 
pipe. A large share of this work was done for the War Produc- 
tion Board under government contracts. 

In the Engineering Experiment Station the emphasis had 
been shifted from fundamental and industrial research to war- 
time government research. Much of this work was in the field 
of ceramics. Two projects were under way, for example, to 
replace strategic metals with ceramic materials. In metallurgy 
a project was in progress to salvage alloy steel turnings and 
grindings. 

The total volume and variety of wartime research projects 
would have tested the imagination if they could have been 
identified or if the details could have been known at the time. 
The O.S.R.D. was a prime sponsor of many of these research 
contracts. These were handled mainly, as noted, through the 
Research Foundation but were carried out by individual depart- 
ments. Other co-sponsors included the National Research Council 
and private industries engaged in war work. 

Two projects at Wright Field, Dayton, had to do with 
rocketry and jet propulsion. One, begun in February, 1945, was 
concerned with ceramic bodies for high temperatures. This piece 
of research was regarded as highly significant. The other, started 
five months later, centered in the use of liquid hydrogen as a 
propellant for rockets and V-type bombs. 

Two others, also for the O.S.R.D., were the work of the 



WARTIME RESEARCH 151 

chemistry and optometry departments, respectively. The former, 
in the area of infra-red filters, led to the development of vi^hat 
became known as the "snooperscope" and the "sniperscope." 
The former was an infra-red telescope with which an observer 
could see in the dark for distances up to 30 yards. The latter 
was similar but had a range up to 175 yards. Long after the 
war still other uses were found for them as in police work and 
even for "snooping" by Internal Revenue Service agents, it was 
said. 

Initially about $32,000 a year was spent on the infra-red 
filter project which developed the "snooperscope" and the 
"sniperscope." The related project of the optometry department 
had to do with stereoscopic range finding. This was begun in 
July, 1942 and was really an extension of a previous study by 
this department. 

Two major rubber companies, B. F. Goodrich and Firestone, 
cooperated in the two rubber research projects. One, dealing 
with rubber chemicals, had to do with the improvement of 
military equipment. Specifically, it involved the preparation of 
compounds to be used as plasticizers with certain types of 
synthetic rubber since the sources of natural rubber were largely 
cut off by the war. The other project involved the vulcanization 
of synthetic rubber. 

Another pair of projects was concerned with medicine. One, 
with the Merrell Co., as the cooperator, was begun in July, 
1943. This was centered in penicillin and other antibiotics. 
The work dealt at first with the production, extraction, purifi- 
cation, and mode of action of penicillin. In 1944 the emphasis 
was shifted to problems growing out of the production of 
streptomycin. 

The other related project was undertaken in 1940 by the 
College of Pharmacy. It involved the growing of medicinal 
plants. The object was to find a source of supply of drugs for- 
merly imported from Europe but which were cut off or were 
in very short supply because of the war. 



152 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

In December, 1944 it was disclosed that Dr. John L. Syngc, 
new chairman of the mathematics department, was one of 
a group of U.S. scientists who had been flown to England to 
help checkmate the German buzz bombs. The group went 
over at the request of Maj. Gen. Hugh J. Knerr, commanding 
the Strategic Air Command. They were credited with notable 
help in developing the accuracy of Allied strategic bombing of 
the rocket coast across the English Channel. They devised intri- 
cate bombing tables for twenty-eight types of Allied bombs and 
from hundreds of tests worked out tables giving data on fuse 
setting, dropping points, wind drift and other information 
making for more accurate and effective bombing. 

The University's betatron, the third of its kind in operation 
in the United States, was put into service in February, 1945. 
The only other one then on a U.S. campus was at the Univer- 
sity of Illinois. The General Electric Co. had the other. The 
betatron was made possible by help from the University Devel- 
opment Fund. It was expected that the device would help to 
bring about spectacular gains in medical science and other areas. 
It was supervised by Prof. T. J. Wang, of electrial engineering. 

The 4,500,000- volt betatron went into actual operation on 
February 8, 1945. It was housed in a new radiation laboratory, 
with walls five feet thick, beyond the Stadium near the Olentangy 
River levee. It was said that the radiated energy from it was 
about equal to that produced by the world's entire supply of 
radium at that time. 

Not only was it expected to play an important role in medicine, 
especially in the war on cancer, but in other areas. Among 
these were physics and chemistry, veterinary medicine, dentistry, 
industrial engineering, biology and physiology, and the Engi- 
neering Experiment Station. The betatron was a type of "atom 
smasher" and complemented the University's cyclotron which 
was put into operation several years earlier. 

A great variety of wartime research projects for a wide 
assortment of government agencies was approved by the Trus- 



WARTIME RESEARCH 153 

tees during the school year 1944-45. On their face some of 
these appeared to have no conceivable connection w^ith the war 
effort but they did. Often the Board minutes gave no real clue 
to the nature of these projects except for the merest designation. 

One with the O.S.R.D., for example, was for an inquiry 
into insect behavior and insect repellents by the department of 
zoology and entomology. Another, with the Naval Research 
Laboratory, involved an investigation of fluorine compounds. 
Still another, for the Chemical Warfare Service, was identified 
merely as "investigation of a secret problem." Electrical engi- 
neering undertook an inquiry into radiation characteristics for 
the O.S.R.D. Another odd one, also for the O.S.R.D., was an 
otherwise unidentified "investigation of mammalian experiments" 
by the physiology department. 

Over the years the University has had a number of small 
fires but very few of any size. Two buildings which were 
so badly damaged by fire as to be no longer usable were the 
old English building — originally used by electrical engineering— 
which stood northwest of University Hall, and years later the 
Armory. Even University Hall, often criticized as a fire trap, 
has had its share of small fires. Hayes Hall had a basement 
fire one evening from an overheated ceramic kiln. 

But a fire and explosion that could have been troublesome 
occurred February 13, 1945 in the War Research building as 
the result of an overheated hydrogenator. A chemist, Thomas S. 
Hodgson, was slightly burned and windows were blown out 
but no serious damage occurred. The building was under tight 
security as the projects in progress had to do with secret re- 
search for the government. Much of this, it was learned later, 
was in cryogenics or extremely low temperatures verging on 
absolute zero. 

Because of the security regulations, unauthorized persons 
could not enter the building without a permit. The story was 
told later that the faculty member in charge insisted upon 
taking the names of city firemen going into the building when 



154 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

they responded to the alarm. A high University administrative 
officer quickly put an end to this. 

To sum up, between 1941 and 1945, according to the Trus- 
tees' minutes, the University entered into ninety-eight research 
contracts having to do directly with the war. All but one of 
these were with divisions of the Defense Department or with 
other governmental agencies. The lone exception, described 
below, was with the Standard Steel Spring Co. in March, 
1943 in connection with the treatment of steel for the pro- 
duction of armor plate. By years these contracts were divided: 
1941-42, twenty-seven; 1942-43, twenty-eight; 1943-44, twenty; 
and 1944-45, twenty-three. 

The greatest number of these was with the O.S.R.D. — fifty. 
Nineteen were with the Army Air Corps, nine with the War 
Department, and eight with the National Defense Research 
Committee. The other twelve were scattered among other 
agencies. The amounts of money involved in these contracts were 
not shown in the Trustees' minutes. Nine were labeled "secret" 
or the purpose was "not stated." There is no way to estimate 
precisely the total importance of the University's contribution 
to the national defense effort but it was widespread and con- 
siderable. 

2. The Research Foundation Story 

A different and more detailed account of campus wartime 
research projects is afforded from the annual reports of the 
Research Foundation, of which Dr. Olpin was then director. 
But there was a hiatus even in these reports of which the 
fourth, fifth and sixth were rendered for 1939-40, 1940-41, and 
for 1941-42, respectively. After a lapse came a cumulative three- 
year report late in 1946 for the period 1942-45. At the end of 
1945 Dr. Olpin had gone to the University of Utah as president. 

In his last report he singled out two projects for special 
attention. One was the ongoing American Petroleum Institute 
project on hydrocarbons which was diverted in wartime from 
automotive fuels to aviation gasoline. The other was the Navy 



WARTIME RESEARCH 



155 



Recognition School under Dr. Renshaw. Because of its special 
nature, as indicated, this is treated separately here, combining 
material from the Olpin 1942-45 report with first-hand infor- 
mation from Dr. Renshaw, from Howard L. Hamilton and 
from the last Navy commandant, all of whom were closely 
connected with it. 

"Unprecedented expansion" of research activity in the year 
ending September 30, 1941, only sixty-eight days before Pearl 
Harbor, was ascribed in the fifth annual Research Foundation 
report to "the national emergency." On this point, Director 
Olpin continued: 

The value of University Research as a national asset has been 
emphasized by the call made on universities to conduct research 
projects for national defense. The National Defense Research 
Committee, now the Office of Scientific Research and Develop- 
ment in the Office of Emergency Management, the National 
Advisory Committee on Aeronautics, the Army and the Navy 
have all solicited the aid of American universities in research 
efforts for the national security .... 

The Research Foundation has tried to meet the challenge of 
both industry and government. It has managed to expand its 
program of Industrial Research in keeping with demands. It has 
also assumed the full responsibilities of negotiating and adminis- 
tering all Government Defense Research Contracts which call for 
the use of the personnel and equipment of The Ohio State Uni- 
versity. Authority to represent the University in all Defense Re- 
search matters was assigned to the Research Director by President 
Howard L. Bevis on January 15th of this year. 

Following this assignment, a fairly sizeable program of Defense 
Research was set up under a dozen contracts with the United 
States Government and its agencies. Because of the secretive nature 
of these contracts, it would be improper to discuss them in this 
report .... 

The dozen contracts referred to were not identified and this 
silence extended even to the identity of the departments involved 
in them. One of the first such government contracts, known as 
No. 74, was awarded in February, 1941 through the O.S.R.D. 
It was a project in chemistry under Prof. W. Conard Fernelius, 



156 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

of that department. This was only one of ten research projects 
in chemistry for that year. 

The marked change between the pre-Pearl Harbor Research 
Foundation report and the sixth annual report covering 1941-42 
was reflected in its appearance as well as in its contents. In 
red capital letters, the report for the year ending September 30, 
1942 was stamped "CONFIDENTIAL." As Director Olpin 
emphasized, it covered an "eventful year." What he called "The 
normal and healthy growth and expansion" of the Foundation's 
regular program, as he put it, "was abruptly upset by Pearl 
Harbor and subsequent happenings. Almost overnight we were 
faced with the importance of reshaping our plans and going 
all-out for war research." 

Some "valuable investigations," he reported, had to be 
abandoned for the duration of the war, but this loss "has been 
more than offset by a number of new projects started." During 
the fiscal year just ended, he noted, forty-four industrial and 
thirty government contracts were being administered by the 
Foundation. As of October 1, 1942 contracts amounting to 
nearly $2 million were in the Foundation's files. As Dr. Olpin 
emphasized, "This represents five or six times as much work 
as that conducted during all five previous years of the Founda- 
tion histories combined." Despite wartime restrictions on mate- 
rials and personnel, he added, "the amount of effort associated 
with the administration of each contract is up several hundred 
percent." A side effect of the sudden expansion was that for 
the first time in its history the Foundation had to borrow money 
to meet current obligations. This was because where industrial 
contracts called for payments in advance, the government paid 
only upon certification that the work was completed and, in 
some cases, after the submission and approval of a final report. 

There was not much the report could say about the thirty 
prime contracts entered into between the government and the 
Foundation during the year. "Most of these," Dr. Olpin reported, 
"were assigned military classifications of secrecy, and conse- 



WARTIME RESEARCH 157 

quently cannot be described in this report." A little more than 
half of these contracts were approved by the O.S.R.D. The 
others were mostly with the Army and Navy, the former 
outnumbering the latter but involving less money. 

In contrast with normal industrial contracts, those with the 
government raised several problems apart from the nature of 
the work. One was that they required full-time personnel which 
was often hard to find. Another was that the paper work 
involved was multiplied because of the much greater number 
of reports to prepare and file. A third was the procurement of 
equipment and supplies under high priorities. A fourth, as 
noted, was the method of payments. 

Still another was the matter of secrecy and silence on the 
part of staff members who seemed sometimes to be put into 
a bad light because they could not talk about their work. Dr. 
Olpin described this problem as follows: 

The administration of Government contracts and the conduct 
of war researches introduces personnel problems not found in 
most industries. In the laboratory individuals or groups employed 
on specific projects are placed under oath not to release any infor- 
mation concerning their work to any other individuals or groups. 
They may not even divulge the fact that they are engaged in work 
on confidential military subjects. Although all are cleared by the 
F.B.I, and the Army and Navy, no one is free to talk to anyone 
outside of his particular group concerning his findings. This some- 
times places the investigators under mental strain and may lead 
to worry. If they could only confide in others, the burden would 
often be considerably lightened. 

The secrecy which, of necessity, must surround military devel- 
opments in the laboratory often makes it appear that the investi- 
gators are not doing their part in the war. I sometimes think it 
takes more courage to stay in the laboratory as a civilian working 
on confidential war problems than to wear a uniform on the battle 
field. Not only are the efforts of the research men devoid of 
glamor during war time, but the men are constantly harassed by 
Selective Service officials' insistence that they cannot for long es- 
cape the vicissitudes of actual warfare. The inference is that they 
are not serving their country as effectively as they might if they 



158 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

were in the Armed Forces, Actually, they are far more effectively 
and loyally engaged than if they were in the front lines. When 
the whole story of the war is told it is quite likely that the scien- 
tists and engineers will be dramatized as the previously unheralded 
heroes of the conflict. 

In the remainder of Section B of the report, Dr. Olpin out- 
lined the scope of the work going on under government contracts 
by campus personnel. He touched first on projects in chemistry 
but, as he said, "Most of them are so secret, however, that the 
subjects of the investigations and their locations cannot be 
revealed." He added that since aviation was born in Ohio and 
"has been largely developed here." it gave him "a great deal 
of satisfaction" to report that "a large majority of the projects 
on the campus are concerned with aviation problems." As of 
the moment these involved "possibly a million dollars." As 
proof of the government's belief that they were "vital to the 
war effort," he cited the approval given to plans for a wing 
on the Engineering Experiment Station "to better house the 
work." The necessary priority for the structure, he added, was 
granted on the request of the Office of Petroleum Coordinator 
and the commanding general at Wright Field. 

Other aviation projects in progress on the campus had to 
do with engine design problems, fuel synthesis and testing, 
pilot performance, communication between ground and aerial 
crews, and high altitude flying. In at least two fields, he 
emphasized, the University "has now achieved national if not 
international leadership." One involved, as noted, the synthesis 
and testing of aviation gasoline, particularly pure hydrocarbons. 
This research had its beginning in 1938 with Prof. Cecil E. 
Boord under grants from the American Petroleum Institute. 
By October, 1942, however, it had reached such importance. 
Dr. Olpin noted, that the government had "taken steps to prevent 
the findings from falling into the hands of the enemy." The 
circulation of reports on this research was restricted for the 
duration. 



WARTIME RESEARCH 159 

The other field of notable achievement concerned the training 
of personnel to operate airplanes. This work was going on under 
contracts with several government agencies and the psychology 
department. Actually there were two major projects: one on 
determining criteria for flight competence or the selection and 
training of aircraft pilots, with Dr. Robert Y. Walker as super- 
visor. The other, as indicated, was the instant recognition of 
aircraft and surface ships, both friendly and enemy, with Dr. 
Renshaw in charge. 

The determination of the criteria of flight competence grew 
out of a project undertaken in December, 1939 for the National 
Research Council. A number of tests of mental ability, physical 
condition and muscular coordination were devised and these 
were developed further on the campus in 1940. They were 
revised again in 1940-41 and were tested by actual field use. 
In 1941-42 the National Research Council Committee set up 
the campus project as a field unit, using fifteen selective tests 
on all students in the Civilian Pilot Training courses. (Some 
of this was carried on at other universities.) For 1942-43 the 
Ohio State project was expanded to take in the problem of 
improving instructor training techniques. 

Besides the research projects under contract with the govern- 
ment, the Foundation, Dr. Olpin went on, had "a rather large 
number" of contracts with private corporations which had 
government contracts. These included problems relating to syn- 
thetic rubber, aviation gasoline, corn proteins, mildew-proof 
materials, dehydrated foods "and many other subjects." Even 
this did not tell the entire story. The funds provided by one 
cooperator shown as a New York firm actually came from the 
Kenya Farmers Association, of Nakuru, East Africa, and the 
Kenya Extension Service. This had to do with investigation of 
pyrethrum grown in that then British African colony. The 
synthetic rubber project was concerned with the processing of 
what was known as the Buna-S type of rubber, with the Fire- 
stone Tire & Rubber Co. as the cooperator. 



160 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Because of wartime conditions, and for other reasons, as 
indicated, no formal annual Research Foundation reports were 
issued at the time for 1942-43, 1943-44, or 1944-45. At the seventh 
annual Foundation meeting on October 29, 1943 Dr. Olpin made 
"a brief report" on Foundation activities during the year ended 
September 30, 1943. In that period, he noted, 113 projects were 
carried on the Foundation's books. Of these nineteen were 
with the O.S.R.D., fifteen with the Army and the Navy directly, 
two each with the National Research Council, the National 
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, and the War Production 
Board, and seventy-three with private industry. He gave no 
details on any of these projects. 

In his detailed report, dated September 16, 1946, for the years 
1942-45, Dr. Olpin explained that "Due to the pressure of war 
research, problems of administration, and the fact that almost 
all government-sponsored research was under secrecy classifica- 
tions, no complete annual reports have been made for three 
years. With restrictions lifted, we are prepared to outline some- 
thing more definite concerning the subjects of the investigations." 

The Foundation, he declared, was "proud" of its war record. 
In support of this he said "many letters and awards of com- 
mendation" had been received from high ranking Army and 
Navy officials as well as from civilian agencies involved in the 
war effort. These, he added, "acknowledged the debt of our 
country at war to the University for successful investigations 
administered through the Foundation office." 

Despite the increase in war-connected research projects, he 
noted that many projects sponsored by industry continued in 
operation during the war years. Others were held in abeyance. 
As he gave it, the project breakdown by fiscal years follows:* 





1942-43 


1943-44 


1944-45 


Industrial 


48 


51 


54 


Government 


26 


30 


23 


Value 


$1,600,509.76 


$1,522,978.74 


$897,955.93 



• These data vary somewhat from those of Owens cited earlier. 



WARTIME RESEARCH 161 

Dr. Olpin touched upon the difl&culties the Foundation 
encountered in carrying out its wartime commitments. Regu- 
lations and restrictions, he commented, "increased the burden 
of administration many times over that of previous years." He 
dwelt particularly upon the manpower problem. 

"Negotiations with Selective Service headquarters, deferment 
agencies and local draft boards in order to keep the young 
investigators on research work," he noted, "were constantly in 
process. It was hard for us to understand why the University 
should be asked to conduct such seemingly important investi- 
gations and then have to work so hard to secure preferment 
for the personnel assigned to the project. The secrecy classifica- 
tions of course compHcated the problem, for we were unable 
to report to the Selective Service boards the nature of the 
war work." It was often necessary, he went on, to appeal 
deferment cases to state headquarters and even to the Presidential 
Appeal Board before which high Army, Navy and other offi- 
cials could disclose "enough detail concerning the work to get 
a deferment." 

Security was another phase of the wartime program. Armed 
guards were maintained twenty-four hours a day at the War 
Research building or laboratory. A professional policing agency 
served similarly at the University airport. Special locks were 
provided on doors in many campus areas, with heavy screens 
on outside windows. Persons entering such areas had to be 
cleared properly and sign a visitors' register. Employes were 
screened by the F.B.I, and/or by Army agencies. They were 
also photographed, fingerprinted and had to wear identification 
badges. 

Many technical reports, Dr. Olpin wrote, "were of such 
a secret nature that they were not trusted in the hands of the 
administrative group but were submitted rather directly from 
the projects. Thousands of pages of report material were prepared 
and issued in this way." At the time he wrote most of them 



162 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

were still classified, but when they were declassified copies were 
to be assembled for the Foundation's master files. 

During this three-year period, research projects were active 
in twenty-seven departments. The chemistry department led in 
the number of contracts, ranging from twenty-two in 1942-43 
to twenty-seven the next year, and twenty-three the third year, 
with a total value for the three years of $798,072.95. 

Dr. Olpin stressed the fact that the Foundation was "the 
choice of a number of firms whose names are familiar 
household words throughout the country. That many of these 
great manufacturers maintain their own laboratories and spon- 
sor research in other universities, and still continue to underwrite 
the Foundation's investigations, bespeaks an attitude of esteem 
for the research administration by the Foundation." Over the 
years, he added, some sponsors had withdrawn projects from 
other locations and concentrated their research at Ohio State. 

He followed this with capsule descriptions of research projects 
undertaken for the government and went into great detail about 
two — the continuing and expanded research in hydrocarbons, 
especially in terms of aviation gasolines, under Profs. Boord and 
Albert L. Henne, and the Navy Recognition School under 
Prof. Renshaw. A few brief project summaries follow: 

Project No. 102 — for the O.S.R.D., a study, for the protection 
of the civilian population and military forces, of means by which 
chemical warfare agents (gases) might be detected. 

Project No. 149— for the O.S.R.D., infrared filters; in the 
course of this reports were prepared on captured German equip- 
ment, and Prof. W. R. Erode, the supervisor, spent considerable 
time abroad as head of the Paris end of the O.S.R.D. and on 
intelligence work for the Army and the Navy; it was known 
that the Germans had worked on similar systems. 

In March, 1945, Maj. Gen. H. C. Ingles, chief signal officer, 
wrote to Director Olpin to commend this major contribution to 
the war effort. Gen. Ingles commented: 



WARTIME RESEARCH 163 

Early in February of this year, an urgent request was received 
from the European Theater of Operations for special equipment 
needed for pending offensives. An appeal was made to your Foun- 
dation, and your immediate response in the emergency resulted 
in the completion of this vital equipment by 28 February. In ac- 
complishing this feat, I am informed, the Foundation found it 
necessary to operate as much as sixteen to twenty hours per day. 

In January of this year, I am told, your cooperation enabled 
the Signal Corps to ship to the Southwest Pacific Area by Feb- 
ruary 1 a consignment of similar equipment produced by a new 
process developed by your organization. 

I congratulate you for your patriotic services to your country, 
and commend you for a job well done. 

Two projects, Nos. 133 and 155, contributed to the develop- 
ment of the atom bomb.* These were in chemistry, under Prof. 
Herrick L. Johnston who had been engaged earlier in investiga- 
tive work in the field of cryogenics. The first Foundation 
project contract for work on what was known as the Manhattan 
District project, or atom bomb, was in connection with the 
program to produce "heavy water." Large quantities of this 
were required in the production of the new element, plutonium, 
"and in other ways in connection with the production of the 
atomic bombs." 

Original plans were to build a large plant for liquefying 
and distilling hydrogen on an industrial scale adjacent to the 
DuPont ammonia plant at Belle, W.Va. Up to that time the 
liquefaction of hydrogen was limited to "a strictly laboratory 
scale." Dr. Johnston and his associates were approached as 
early as November, 1942 not only to establish and direct the 
laboratory but to transfer it to Belle. This latter idea was finally 
abandoned and the laboratory was established on the campus 
in the new War Research Laboratory into which the project 
was moved before the building was completed. The covering 
contract was drawn up through the Research Foundation in 

• The Trustees' minutes of July 25, 1943 and March 6, 1944 identify the projects 
as Nos. 155 and 158. 



164 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

November, 1942. The first hydrogen Uquef action run was made 
February 2, 1943 in the new laboratory. 

No hydrogen liquefier buih up to that time had ever 
Hquefied much more than 50 liters of Uquid hydrogen at one 
operation. Within a few weeks, however, the new campus 
liquefier was able to liquefy 1000 Hters of liquid hydrogen in 
a continuous run of more than forty hours. This performance 
was claimed as a record. In two years nearly 10,000 liters of 
liquid hydrogen were produced — and without a single accident. 
Early in 1943 it was discovered that only about half as much 
of the normal proportion of deuterium was being made by this 
method and a shift was made to another process which was 
employed "to provide the heavy water eventually used in the 
production of atomic bombs." The second contract was in force 
for about two years. 

Foundation investigators, the report said, were able "under 
pressure to produce, in a few weeks, reliable results on re- 
searches that under normal academic conditions, would be 
spread over two years. The stakes involved in the Manhattan 
Project program — with which stakes the researchers were famil- 
iar — made this necessary." 

For Project No. 133 the supervisor was Prof. Johnston, with 
three regularly appointed investigators: C. B. Hood, G. E. Mac- 
Wood, and P. G. Wilkinson. For Project No. 155 Johnston was 
again the supervisor, with five investigators the first year, eleven 
the second, and twelve the third year. 

In several instances research was undertaken for the O.S.R.D. 
for the preparation of certain specified compounds without even 
the research teams knowing "the purposes for which they were 
desired or used." Two such projects were undertaken for the 
Naval Research Laboratory. Project No. 186, labeled "CON- 
FIDENTIAL," under Prof. M. S. Newman, had to do widi 
finding new insect repellents for the use of the Armed Forces, 
particularly in the Pacific theater. In this effort more than 500 



WARTIME RESEARCH 165 

compounds were made in the laboratory and shipped to govern- 
ment laboratories for further testing. Two other "SECRET" 
projects, Nos. 188 and 197, were also under Prof. Newman. 
"The results may prove," the 1942-45 report said, "to have been 
of great military value during the war and of great importance 
in peacetime. We are still prohibited from disclosing the nature 
of this investigation." 

A series of investigations having to do with nitrocellulose 
studies grew out of the first defense project on the campus, with 
Prof. M. L. Wolfrom as supervisor- The first contract in 1940 
was directly with the University but three others, Nos. 95, 170 
and 212, labeled "CONFIDENTIAL AND RESTRICTED," 
for the O.S.R.D. were administered by the Foundation. In the 
interim between the first and the later projects, to quote the 
report, "the problem was changed from previous work related 
to explosives to preparation of substances to be tested as possible 
chemical warfare agents." Both the Army and the Navy were 
interested in various phases of this work. 

Another major project, also under Prof. Johnston, had to do 
with high energy fuels. This project, not begun until July, 1945, 
had to do with the use of "liquid hydrogen as a fuel for aircraft, 
as a propellant for rockets and V-type bombs, and particularly 
as a fuel for jet propulsion engines and jet units." This was 
undertaken for Wright Field. 

A number of projects, mostly in electrical engineering, were 
concerned with aircraft antennas. One of these involved what 
are known as their "impedance characteristics." This one. Project 
No. 77, was requested by the Chief Signal Officer. Another, 
No. 129, had to do with airborne and shipborne antennas. Still 
another. No. 211, was concerned with vertical radiation (sky 
wave) patterns of all types of Signal Corps antennas. Three 
others, Nos. 122, 175 and 214, had to do with studies of the 
ignition systems of military aircraft. 

In connection with the research on antenna radiation char- 
acteristics, one important contribution was the measurements 



166 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

made on what were known as "counter measures search and 
jamming antennas on such planes as the B-24, B-17 and B-29." 
Search antennas were used to locate and determine the frequency 
of enemy radio and radar stations. In the case of the radar 
stations, which controlled searchlights and antiaircraft guns, 
the report said, it was possible to locate the radar before they 
could "see" the search planes. Counter-measures jamming anten- 
nas, to quote, "were used to blind the eyes of the radar and 
to deafen the ears of the radio stations that controlled the 
defenses of territories held by the Germans and the Japanese." 
Such antennas were used at the Normandy invasion and in the 
B-29 bombing of Japan. 

A "RESTRICTED" project, No. 210, centered on "Solid 
Ceramic Bodies for High Temperatures." The object was to 
determine the properties of available ceramic bodies usable at 
high temperatures in the manufacture of blades and rotors for 
gas turbines. It was hoped to find a ceramic that would stand 
up "in service at 2300 to 2500° F." 

An unusual Research Foundation project. No. 100, had to 
do with the "Physiology of Explosive Decompression." It was 
centered in the Aviation Physiology and Medicine laboratory 
under Dr. Fred A. Hitchcock, a pioneer in that field. The 
over-all purpose was to investigate the physiological and patho- 
logical effects of explosive decompression upon animals and 
men. It was designated as "Restricted" and was one of four 
government contracts the Trustees approved at their April 12, 
1943 meeting. It was described as for the "Office of Scientific 
Research and Development, Washington, D.C. — Investigation 
and experimental studies in connection with National Defense." 

A longtime project in this field had been in progress under 
Dr. Hitchcock since January, 1942. As the 1946 Foundation 
report explained, "With the use of pressurized cabins, the 
problem of the physiological effects of explosive decompres- 
sion has become of considerable importance." Experiments were 
carried out upon dogs and other animals such as rats, rabbits 



WARTIME RESEARCH 167 

and guinea pigs as well as upon humans. Some of the latter 
were conscientious objectors who volunteered for the purpose. 
Others were selected medical students. 

The main conclusion reached from these experiments was 
that explosive decompression did not represent a serious hazard 
to aviators. None of the subjects, human or animal, — except two 
guinea pigs — showed any really bad effects from rapid changes 
in pressure. X-rays of the chest before and after sudden shifts 
in pressure gave no evidence of heart or lung lesions resulting, 
nor was there any sign of hearing impairments having occurred. 
A slightly increased susceptibility to the bends was shown 
after exposure to explosive decompression and a few subjects 
had minor ear and nose hemorrhages. 

Experiments on both dogs and humans were carried out 
at exceedingly rapid rates of decompression. In the case of 
dogs a simulated altitude was raised from 5000 to 50,000 feet 
in less than .02 second. No dog suffered serious injury. Autopsies 
on dogs after repeated explosive decompressions showed only 
small lung or other hemorrhages. The two guinea pigs men- 
tioned died from ruptured stomachs. 

Up to September, 1945 more than 200 human subjects had 
figured in about 1000 explosive decompressions. During the 
previous year, changes in the apparatus used made it possible 
to carry out explosive decompressions upon human subjects 
over a range of from 8000 to 35,000 feet in .03 second. This 
was equivalent to a pressure change of 22 pounds per square 
inch per second. 

A major piece of apparatus used was a simulated decompres- 
sion tank. It had two chambers, one large and one small. 
Animal subjects were observed through portholes in the tank. 

To meet the need for human subjects, a number of conscien- 
tious objectors were recruited from camps in Michigan. There 
were seven in the first group, one of them a minister. They 
had to be housed and fed and their whereabouts supervised. 



168 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

To help with this two noncommissioned officers were assigned 
to the project. 

Some of the men changed their minds about taking part in 
the experiments. They were under no compulsion to do so and 
when they chose not to go on some of them were transferred 
to western forest areas at which Japanese fire balloons were being 
aimed at the time. 

Dr. Hitchcock was instrumental in the development of 
improved oxygen masks worn by pilots and others. He had a 
part also in the design and improvement of space suits used 
by later-day astronauts. 

Besides the insect repellent investigation made by chemistry 
personnel, another, No. 168, labeled "SECRET," was undertaken 
in zoology and entomology with Prof. Dwight M. DeLong as 
supervisor. A major part of this centered in the malarial mosquito 
and how to deal with it through repellents. One aspect of the 
research had to do with "the factors which might be responsible 
for the attraction of mosquitoes to human beings." It was 
learned, to quote the report, that "only when a temperature- 
humidity differential exists between the skin surface and the 
surrounding atmosphere do attraction and probing take place. 
Contrary to most textbook statements, it was also demonstrated 
that human blood, as such, is not attractive to mosquitoes." 

During the three years covered by the cumulative 1942-45 
report, ninety-nine projects were in progress for private coopera- 
tors or for government agencies other than the Armed Forces. 
Some of these projects were related directly or indirectly to 
the war effort. Twenty-six departments or other campus agencies 
were responsible, through the Foundation, for conducting these 
researches. Some were comparatively minor but a few others, 
like the one having to do with "pure hydrocarbons" or automotive 
fuels, were of major importance. 

A few, taken at random, illustrate the scope and diversity 
of the problems tackled: concentration of fruit juices, sponge 



WARTIME RESEARCH 169 

rubber, skin disinfectants, oral cold vaccines, penicillin and other 
antibiotics. Vitamin A synthesis, antimalarial compounds, milk 
bottles, tooth stain and tooth cleansing, high purity oxygen 
manufacture, armor plate, fish oils, shampoos — tested on white 
rats and long-haired dogs! — , frozen eggs, the selection and 
training of aircraft pilots, and household fumigation. 

The armor plate project, No. 136, was undertaken in Decem- 
ber, 1942 with the Standard Steel Spring Co. as the cooperator 
and Prof. J. O. Lord, of metallurgy, as the supervisor. The object 
was to get information as to the structure and heat treatment 
of rolled armor plate for use in tanks. Extensive studies were 
made on a plate that had failed in ballistic tests. Two particular 
conditions were studied. One, known as "black spall," was 
where a projectile penetrating the armor plate carried a ring 
of torn metal away from the plate. This ring, in turn, acted 
as a projectile and sometimes caused more serious damage in the 
tank turret than the projectile itself. The other was a condition 
known as "brittle fracture," indicating a low impact value. 

As indicated, a pair of projects, under psychology, was 
undertaken having to do with the selection and training of 
aircraft pilots. This investigation of "organized behavior with 
reference to flying" was begun in the fall of 1942. The purpose, 
in the murky language of the report, was "to determine the 
reliability of a test for predicting the degree to which indivduals 
can organize several tasks into a unit and to determine their 
judgment as to the time to eliminate certain tasks when these 
become too difficult. In a practical sense, will the pilot recognize 
that he cannot keep on in the face of a storm with a depleted 
gas tank?" Data had been collected at the time of the report 
on 140 candidates for flight training. The experiment was re- 
peated after a week with "reasonably high" correlations. 

Farther on in the report, Dr. Olpin remarked that one of 
the difficulties in preparing such a document was "the necessity 
of condensing fascinating stories of research into the few brief 
paragraphs" permitted by space limitations. The report, he 



170 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

added, had been "particularly hard to summarize, in part because 
Government classifications have not all been lifted from a 
number of investigations and in part because of the many 
significant accomplishments during these accelerated periods of 
intensive research." 

He chose two investigations for more extended treatment 
in the report. One, sponsored industrially, was the American 
Petroleum Institute project on pure hydrocarbon research which 
had been in progress during 1938. During wartime the project 
emphasis, as noted, had been shifted to the refinement of 
aviation gasolines. The other, government-sponsored, finally 
consisted of five projects and, as indicated, was what came to 
be known as the Navy Recognition School. 

The A.P.I, project, under Prof. C. E. Boord as supervisor 
and Drs. K. W. Greenlee and W.L. Perilstein as research asso- 
ciates, had been shifted to a larger hydrocarbon laboratory in 
the War Research building. On September 1, 1944 the former 
A.P.I, hydrocarbon project became A.P.I. Research Project No. 45. 

The immediate objective of the original project in 1938 was 
to make available approximately gallon quantities of individual 
gasoline hydrocarbons for determination of useful properties. 
The General Motors and Ethyl Corps, assisted in the work. 
With the onset of the war the objectives of the research centered 
in aviation gasoline hydrocarbons. At the same time, as the 
report noted, "many other important items were deferred for 
the duration." Because of its better facilities some of the work 
in purification was transferred to the National Bureau of 
Standards. Other phases of the work were carried on elsewhere, 
as at Princeton, Pennsylvania State College, and the U.S. Naval 
Research Laboratory. 

This extensive project was necessarily highly technical in 
nature. But "the experience gained with a few tenths of a liter 
of each hydrocarbon," the report noted, "determines the possi- 
bility and the best method of producing a gallon." Hundreds 
and even thousands of tests were run on various phases of the 



WARTIME RESEARCH 171 

investigation covering engine testing and purification. The end 
results were in the nature of a major contribution to the total 
war effort. 

Various alumni figured also in significant contributions to 
the war effort through research and technological advances. 
One of the foremost was Trustee Charles F. Kettering, '04, who 
played a major role in adapting the Diesel engine to submarine 
use. Another was Jack Heed, '25, whose company developed a 
timer which in less than two seconds could clock pursuit planes 
so accurately, flying at 400 m.p.h. or more, that an hour's flight 
could be estimated to within one-tenth mile. 

Harlan A. Messner, '34, received an Ordnance Department 
citation for his work in the processing of large caliber shells. 
It read in part: "He has made a marked contribution to the 
vital war production program to conserve critical material and 
machines." D. Adam Dickey, '16, was civilian chief and technical 
adviser of the A.A.C. Materiel Command's propeller laboratory 
at Wright Field. He was awarded the Emblem for Exceptional 
Civilian Service and was recognized as a world authority on 
propellers. 

Col. Rene Studler, '17, had a leading role in producing the 
new M-3 submachine gun. He was credited with being largely 
responsible for the development and production of this gun 
which Time Magazine called "a stark, crude, unlovely shooting 
iron" but which was "nevertheless rugged, light and easy to 
mass produce." 

3. The Navy Recognition School 
Big results often stem from what seem like small beginnings. 
So it was with the Navy Recognition School which was the 
end result of five wartime research projects on the campus. 
As it turned out, it had world-wide use and application. 

Separate accounts of the origin and development of this 
important program were given by three men who played major 
roles in it. They were Prof. Samuel Renshaw, of psychology; 
Lt. Howard L. Hamilton, secretary of the College of Arts and 



172 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Sciences, on leave with the Navy; and Lt. Cdr. G. W. Moyers, 
the last commandant of the school. Other pertinent information 
and comment were suppHed by Dr. Olpin in his University 
Research Foundation report for 1942-45. The accounts agree 
in their essential facts but differ somewhat in minor details. 

The school had its genesis in four or five things that were 
unrelated originally. One was the earlier research work in 
aural and visual perception carried on by Dr. Renshaw. Another, 
growing out of this, was its application to controlled classes in 
Romance languages on the campus, with Prof. Robert E. Monroe 
as the cooperator. 

A contributing factor was an amazing demonstration earlier 
of how memory could function as shown by Dr. Salo Finkle- 
stein, whom Dr. Renshaw had brought to the campus. 
Finklestein worked with numbers, but the idea of instant 
memorization was transferred to other shapes, geometric and 
otherwise, and finally to silhouettes of ships and aircraft. This 
last was the essence of the "recognition" principles Dr. Renshaw 
worked out for the Navy. This was important because up to 
then the Allies had suffered too many casualties from failure 
to distinguish between friendly and enemy planes and ships 
in actual combat. 

What set the foregoing in motion, according to Hamilton, 
was a somewhat chance dinner in January, 1942 in Columbus 
shared by the Renshaw and Hamilton families. The two men 
discussed the Navy's identification problem. It occurred to them 
that the visual perception methods developed by Renshaw might 
be adapted toward a solution. A way was devised to project 
shapes and figures rapidly on a screen, using a shutter. 

Out of this discussion came these developments: the basic 
idea was sold to Navy "brass" who visited the campus; under 
a modest pilot program two groups of Navy officers were 
given "recognition" training on the campus; they were then 
assigned to the four Navy pre-flight schools in North Carolina* 
Georgia, Iowa and California to teach the cadets the Renshaw 



WARTIME RESEARCH 173 

methods; in September, 1942 the main Recognition School was 
estabhshed on the campus where more than 3300 officers, mostly 
Navy, were trained. They, in turn, taught the system to Navy 
personnel aboard ship and ashore all over the world. 

At the time of the dinner Hamilton was on his way back 
to Washington from a trip on Navy business to the State 
University of Iowa. His younger brother, Lt. Cdr. Tom Hamil- 
ton, was in charge of the Navy's physical fitness program. The 
work at the four ground schools included other phases of 
pre-flight training, indoctrination, meteorology, navigation, and 
identification of ships and planes. At that early stage a British 
identification system known as W.E.F.T. was used, covering 
wings, engines, fuselage, and tail. This proved inadequate. 

Psychological methods involving "eye-stretching" and "ear- 
stretching" had been developed earlier on the Ohio State campus 
in connection with certain classes in Romance languages. This 
experimentation was under Dr. Renshaw and Prof. Monroe. 
Its use demonstrated that, with controlled sections, a normal 
section did the usual work in a regular quarter, but two other 
sections, using the Renshaw-Monroe eye-and-ear "stretching" 
methods were able to do two quarters' work in one, while 
a third section, trained still more intensively by these methods, 
did four quarters' work in one. Hamilton, as secretary of the 
Arts College, had been "in" on this project. 

Back in Washington, Hamilton broached the idea of adapting 
Renshaw's methods to the identification problem of the Navy. 
Fortunately he caught the ear of Capt. Arthur E. Radford, 
who rose after the war to be chairman of the Joint Chiefs 
of Staff. Radford helped to get an appropriation of $40,000 
for a pilot program to test the feasibility of the methods. Several 
Navy officers, including a medical officer, came to the campus 
meanwhile and saw a demonstration of Renshaw's work by a 
group of advanced students. The medical officer, in particular, 
was sold on the idea and the pilot program was set up in 
May, 1942. 



174 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

This consisted of two groups of newly-commissioned Navy 
officers who were brought to the campus in succession for an 
intensive two weeks' schooling in identification based upon the 
Renshaw methods. These officers upon "graduation" were as- 
signed to the pre-flight schools where they then taught the 
new methods of identification to the cadets in training at those 
places. Four Renshaw-trained psychologists, one at each of the 
four schools, served as resource persons and sent Renshaw 
weekly reports on the progress made. 

The major Navy Recognition School was established on the 
Ohio State campus in September, 1942. It began with 120 
officers as students, reached a peak of more than 500 at a time, 
and in all, as indicated, turned out more than 3300 "graduates." 
These men, in turn, were assigned to ship and shore stations 
all over the world where they gave similar instruction to Navy 
personnel. Spotters and gunners were trained on all battleships, 
aircraft carriers, and cruisers as well as many shore stations. 

New wrinkles and techniques were added from time to 
time to the basic methods to improve the "recognition" and to 
make it more efficient. Application of the Renshaw methods 
to the day-to-day needs of the Navy ashore and afloat met with 
great success. One measure of this emerged from the later 
stages of the war in the Pacific. In that theater the Japanese 
Zero warplane was regarded as generally faster and more 
maneuverable than the corresponding planes then in use by 
the U.S. Navy. But the ratio of loss of pilots was said to have 
been 16^2 Japanese to one American. This was due in large 
part to the efficiency and effectiveness of the superior "recogni- 
tion" methods the Americans used. 

On only two occasions, it is said, did the system appear 
to break down. In the U.S. landings on Sicily, several friendly 
planes were shot down by Navy gunfire. This was because 
they appeared at a time and place where they were not expected 
and should not have been. 

The other instance grew out of a German trick at Anzio. 



WARTIME RESEARCH 175 

There the Germans used a number of British Hurricanes they 
had obtained somehow. The Navy spotters identified them prop- 
erly as British planes but fired on them and drove them off 
after they began to drop bombs on the AlHed forces on the 
beachhead. 

In passing, while the Army appeared to adopt the Navy pat- 
tern of recognition methods, actually it did not and therefore 
had much less success with them. The Army used different 
equipment which was not nearly as effective as that developed 
for and used by the Navy. 

Another major phase of the over-all program on the campus 
involved the making, assembly and shipment of hundreds of 
sets of Recognition equipment for use elsewhere. The fourth 
floor of Arps Hall was the first site of this part of the under- 
taking. This proved difficult because there was no elevator and 
first the material had to be carried to the top floor for processing 
and then had to be toted back downstairs for storage and ship- 
ment. Later Page Hall, partially vacated for the time being by 
the College of Law, was used for this. Eventually this work 
was moved to the second floor of the new War Research 
building. All of this was a less spectacular but important aspect 
of the total Recognition program. 

Under a five-month contract between the Research Foun- 
dation and the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics, the improved 
Renshaw methods of teaching recognition were used, as indi- 
cated, at the four pre-flight schools. Instructors' manuals, record 
forms, and pictorial student manuals were prepared for this 
purpose on the campus. 

The first groups of cadet-pilots were graduated from these 
pre-flight schools after three months of training with "amazing" 
results. At one school, after ten weeks of training, a battalion 
of 223 cadets was tested on photographs and silhouettes of 
thirty U.S. Army and Navy planes flashed on a screen at 1/25 
second exposure. One of four cadets identified each plane at 
first glance and the other three were nearly as adept. Only 2 



176 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

or 3 per cent of those trained missed more than two or 
three of the craft flashed on the screen. 

As indicated, this initial phase gave way to the estabHshment 
of the main Recognition School on the campus. The program 
was expanded to include operational bases on shore and afloat. 
This attracted attention not only throughout the U.S. Armed 
Forces but those of the Allies. Trainees on the campus, as noted, 
included Navy, Army, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard officers 
as well as personnel from the Royal Air Force, the Royal 
Canadian Air Force, and the British fleet. Of this project, the 
1942-45 Research Foundation report said, "The Foundation 
is proud to have inaugurated and developed such an important 
program of training." 

In a memorandum on the school he wrote on August 30, 
1944, Dr. Renshaw told how for nineteen years a number of 
his graduate students had worked on various phases of the 
problem of "how we see things." In 1931-32, he added, he had 
begun a series of research studies "on tachistoscopic methods 
in the visual perception of forms," that is, perceiving by brief 
exposure to stimuli. In 1930, moreover. Dr. Finklestein, of the 
University of Warsaw, visited the campus experimental psy- 
chology laboratory. Renshaw called Finklestein "the greatest 
of the lightning calculators and rapid memorization the world 
had ever seen." 

Finklestein became interested in the work, agreed to stay 
for a few weeks to make experiments, and remained a year 
and a half. During that time daily observations were made 
and daily training sessions held. In Renshaw's words, "we were 
able to establish new world records on digits up to and including 
42 place numbers. Finklestein was trained to perceive and 
remember and reproduce large numbers so rapidly that to the 
untrained person his performance appeared incredulous." 

Between 1932 and 1935 Renshaw found, as he wrote, "that 
we were able to train average college students in a year to 
practically equal the world's record performance of Finklestein." 



WARTIME RESEARCH 



177 



This meant, as he put it, that "the performance of a genius 
could be approximated or equalled by ordinary individuals sub- 
jected to superior methods." It was these principles — refined 
and improved — that were applied a decade later in the Recogni- 
tion School and then put to use afloat and ashore all over the 
warring world. 

In his 1944 memorandum, Renshaw fixed the time of his first 
discussion with Hamilton as having occurred "in March pre- 
ceding Pearl Harbor." (But Hamilton was not then in the 
Navy.) First, Renshaw recalled, they discussed the possibility 
of extending such methods to industry. Then, he went on, 
"because we felt that World War II was inevitable and perhaps 
just around the corner that it would be wise to begin applying 
the same methods to other shapes besides digits, geometric 
forms, English and foreign words, sentences, etc." 

To this end photographic copies of a number of pictures 
of planes and ships taken from magazines were used. "We 
soon discovered," Renshaw wrote, "that our student observers 
who had been trained on digits very quickly mastered the 
shapes of planes and ships so that they experienced no difficulty 
in making correct identifications in exposures ranging from 
five-thousandths to forty-thousandths of a second." 

Renshaw said that in January, 1942 Hamilton showed him 
an outline of a proposed curriculum for Navy pre-flight training. 
Renshaw suggested expansion of the program "to give system- 
atic sense organ training" to the cadets. Within a week, upon 
request, he submitted a memorandum on such a program to the 
Navy Bureau of Aeronautics. Soon after this the group of 
Navy officers visited the campus to see the method demonstrated. 
As noted, the response was favorable, a letter of intent was 
issued, the first class — Renshaw puts it at thirty-five — came from 
Annapolis "to begin intensive training as officer instructors in 
recognition." When the first battalion of cadets arrived early 
in June, he added, "everything was in readiness and the program 
went forward smoothly ..." 



178 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

As the program grew the attendant details multipHed. At 
the peak, the campus staff, according to Renshaw, numbered 
thirty persons "doing various speciaHzed activities." From a 
single instructor at first, the teaching staff grew to sixteen. In 
January, 1943 the School was made a Navy command station, 
he added, "and the Navy policy of administration, instruction, 
etc., by Naval personnel was put into force." Civilian employes 
were dismissed. Instead of thousands of lantern slides, "millions" 
had to be made. It was necessary to turn to industry, in his 
words, "to produce material, apparatus, equipment, and supplies 
on a much larger scale than was possible here on the campus." 

"We have many reasons for believing," Renshaw wrote in 
conclusion, "that many boys are and will be alive because 
they were instantly and accurately able to identify the oncoming 
plane, ship, submarine, or tank and to determine friend from 
foe." 

Toward the end of November, 1944, shortly before the 
school closed, Lt. Cdr. Moyers, its commandant, gave a Navy 
version of its inception and growth. In the main, his account 
tallied with those of Renshaw and Hamilton. He put the 
number of officers in the first classes in May, 1942 at twenty-five 
and the number of such classes at three. Plans for the expansion 
of the school, he said, were made in September, 1942 and the 
Navy Department, he wrote, on November 1, 1942 set up "a 
complete indoctrination program for student officers coming 
directly from civilian life." These cadets got both the recognition 
training and a two-month indoctrination program. The Bureau 
of Naval Personnel took over the indoctrination and attached a 
commanding officer. Besides the regular quota of Bureau of 
Aeronautics trainees, the Bureau of Naval Personnel sent 154 
officer trainees to the school on February 15, 1943. The staff of 
instructors was greatly enlarged but the number of civilian 
instructors, Moyers noted, "gradually diminished." He reported 
that the School reached its maximum enrollment of 514 on 
March 15, 1943. But in July of that year, the Bureau of Aero- 



WARTIME RESEARCH 179 

nautics withdrew from the activity and assigned no further 
indoctrination students to the School. 

From the original purpose of training officer instructors in 
recognition, Moyers pointed out that as the war progressed 
"recognition has of necessity become bound up with other 
activities involved with offensive and defensive action." The 
program was expanded to provide training 1) "in the imme- 
diate and accurate identification of aircraft and surfacecraft of 
the major belligerent nations," 2) "to instruct in recognition and 
lookout," and 3) "to assume duties in connection with training 
and supervising lookouts." This meant that "the curriculum of 
this school has been broadened considerably." 

Up to November 1, 1944, according to Moyers' figures, 3000 
officer trainees had been graduated from the School while 
about 500 enlisted men had had a two-months' training course. 
The graduates included nine Wave officers, a class of Royal 
Navy officers, and regular monthly quotas of Coast Guard and 
Marine Corps men. In addition, the Army had both officers and 
men in the school in the winter of 1942-43. 

As of July 10, 1943, the V-12 medical and dental personnel 
on the campus were placed under the command of the Recog- 
nition School. Previously they had been under the V-12 activity 
at Ohio Wesleyan University. 

Moyers emphasized that graduates of the school "are now 
stationed aboard all major combat vessels of the U.S. Fleet as 
well as on Naval shore activities both in and outside the 
continental United States. The training techniques developed 
here have served as a basis for the development of similar 
training programs in the U.S. Army Air and Ground Forces 
and by some forces of the other Allied Nations." He noted also 
that "the basic techniques developed at the program's inception 
in the spring of 1942 are still used essentially in their original 
form." This specialized training, he observed finally, was "paying 
increasing dividends not only to the U.S. Navy but to other 
forces of the Allied Nations." 



180 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Further information as to the Recognition School and the 
related program is afforded from the three-year Research Foun- 
dation report for 1942-45. In many ways the School was the 
most dramatic and probably the most important research under- 
taking on the campus between 1942 and the end of 1944 when 
it was transferred elsewhere. It was the climax of years of 
experimental work in psychology by Prof. Renshaw, as noted, 
on the problem of "how to see things." Some of this stemmed 
also from the work of Dr. Finklestein, regarded as "a genius 
at lightning calculation and memorization." 

The next step, as noted, was to give this "systematic sense 
organ training" — visual perception — as part of the pre-flight 
training program the Navy was then establishing. Previously 
all such training had been done individually whereas the Ren- 
shaw methods permitted the simultaneous training of large 
groups. But the change required the redesigning of projector 
and shutter apparatus and the development of new types of 
filters and other apparatus. This was done in the University 
laboratory and shop. 

Where the A.P.I, hydrocarbon project, described earlier, was 
under one Research Foundation project and its renewals, the 
Recognition School operated under Letters of Intent, contracts 
and supplements thereto. The over-all program. Director Olpin 
pointed out, was "developed from a small beginning into the 
most highly priced group of contracts in the history of the 
Foundation. In addition to the large amounts of money involved, 
the name of the Foundation and of the Ohio State University 
were literally carried around the world by the graduates of 
this school." Several bureaus of the Navy Department sponsored 
diffierent phases of the work in its early stages until the Navy 
finally put all of its campus activities, including the Recogni- 
tion School, under a resident commandant. 

Around January 1, 1943 the enterprise was officially named 
"Naval Training School (Recognition)." It was established on 
the campus under the Ninth Naval District. In its earlier stages, 



WARTIME RESEARCH 181 

as indicated, some civilian instructors were used for training 
purposes. But by the early summer of 1943 all such training 
instruction was turned over to Navy officers previously trained 
at the School and assigned there now for teaching duty. The 
University provided space and services, housing and feeding 
the trainees along with instruction in physical education. 

From the outset until much of Derby Hall was finally 
assigned for the use of the Recognition School, space was a 
pressing problem. In succession portions of Arps Hall, Page 
Hall, the War Research Laboratory and finally Derby Hall were 
used to this end. School personnel, as noted, were housed in 
Baker Hall, or the USS. Baker as it was known in Navy 
circles. 

Classes and the instructional staff were moved from Page 
Hall to Derby Hall on December 12, 1942. By mid-March 
following the complete unit occupied the north half of the 
first and second floors of Derby. Early in February, 1943 the 
records, stock and supplies for the Recognition project had 
been transferred to the War Research building although the 
contractors there had not finished their work. 

The growing number of students being graduated from 
the School made it necessary to turn out equipment more 
rapidly. Because of wartime conditions, labor was hard to get 
but an announcement over WOSU, the campus radio station, 
had some effect. After the first day sixty-five persons applied 
for work. In April, 1943 as a result of the expanded operation 
375 sets of recognition training equipment were processed, of 
which 272 were shipped to other stations during the month. 

One of the early problems in connection with the School 
was to get good pictures of planes and ships. At first these 
were clipped from magazines, books, advertisements and news- 
papers. Before being used for slides the authenticity of the 
pictures was checked. The slides were made by a manufacturer 
who began to produce more in a day than he had previously 
turned out in a year. Army and Navy Intelligence helped con- 



182 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

siderably with this work. But even pilots, bombardiers, waist 
gunners, ground crews and other personnel would send back 
information as to a new ship or plane they had seen. 

Artists in the ofl&ce of Naval Intelligence would take the 
information and produce a drawing to correspond. As the 
Foundation report said, it was "almost unbelievable how closely 
the silhouette slides made from those drawings would resemble 
the actual photographs of the ship or plane when pictures of 
it later became available." 

In time Army and Navy Intelligence submitted all new 
material for lantern slides as soon as it became available. Gov- 
ernment photographic laboratories at Anacostia received the 
material, produced the negatives and the required number of 
prints of each item. The resulting film strip was forwarded 
to the slide producer in Chicago who cut the film, bound it 
in glass and sent the finished product to the School. 

In the spring of 1943 the Navy decided that Recognition 
training would be a valuable asset to Navy personnel not directly 
associated with aeronautics. In March, 1943 the Bureau of 
Aeronautics contracted for the delivery of 1000 sets of training 
equipment. This involved new problems. One was storage space 
aboard ships. Another was to design and produce a special 
trunk to protect the equipment against the heavy roll of ships 
in bad weather and even against concussion and explosion in 
batde. 

A special plywood trunk was designed to hold 3000 slides, 
a projector case with equipment, screen, teaching material, and 
even a few spare sparts. Yet it was made sufficiently strong, 
durable and water tight to protect the equipment against shock 
and still permit room for expansion instead of explosion in 
case of a near miss in combat. With the cooperation of the 
two bureaus in June and July, 1943, under two simultaneous con- 
tracts, 429 units were completed for delivery — 130 for aeronautics 
stations and 299 for personnel stations or ships. By November, 



WARTIME RESEARCH 183 

1943 a total of 1425 sets of Recognition equipment had been 
ordered under one of the contracts. 

On December 20, 1943 the Foundation received the first 
shipment of a new training device developed by the Bureau 
of Special Devices. Instead of slides this new machine used 
a 16-mm. film strip. Its chief feature was its portability since 
the machine, film and spare parts kit weighed only forty-five 
pounds. By the end of the program 690 such kits were received 
and were reshipped to Navy installations. 

In the twenty-nine months from the time the Recognition 
School program was begun on the campus there were many 
developments. From the first group of twenty-seven officers in 
May, 1942 to September 30, 1944 the total number attending 
classes was 3365. The largest number of trainees at any one 
time was 521 in April, 1943. 

In addition to taking care of the men, many services had 
to be provided for them. These included hundreds of shipments 
of personal gear ranging from a note book to household goods. 
Another task was to keep updating the mimeographed list of 
slides. The last and largest of these filled fifty-nine pages, with 
names, numbers and other information on the 3325 slides then 
contained in each equipment set. Thousands of new training 
devices, such as new rolls of film and range estimators, were 
shipped to Navy facilities throughout the world. All overseas 
shipments were sent in moisture proof sealed bags packed in 
white pine boxes and bound with two or more metal bands 
to protect against weather and stowage. 

The 1942-45 Foundation report gave the total of service 
and materials, under four contracts, as $1,639,202.70. Price 
negotiations and voluntary cash refunds made by contractors 
were responsible for reduced costs on the largest contract, NOp 
326. This had been estimated at $875,000 but when completed 
came to only $653,912. Another achievement was a marked 
reduction in the cost of slides. On the open market such 
slides had been selling for 50^ each. The first contract for 



184 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

this size slide was at the rate of 17^ each. With more efficient 
methods of production this was cut first to 12^ and with a 
greater output and further economies all slides produced after 
April 1, 1944 were to cost the Navy only 8'/4^ each. This was 
based upon a production schedule of 30,000 slides a day. 

A tabulation of Recognition materials the Research Founda- 
tion supplied to the Navy covered fifteen items. In all, 3132 
sets of Recognition equipment were shipped, along with 
7,191,066 slides, 4969 projectors, and 2616 screens. The Recogni- 
tion School continued in operation on the campus until 
December 31, 1944 when it was transferred to the Naval Train- 
ing Center at Gulfport, Miss, 

When the volume of Recognition School detals and paper 
work multiplied, President Bevis asked Prof. Henry E. Hoagland, 
of business organization, to take them over so as to relieve Prof. 
Renshaw of this phase of the work. Dr. Hoagland not only 
handled many of the business details, but occasionally took to 
the road to expedite certain aspects of the work. He helped 
the "3-D" firm in Chicago to streamline its operation so that 
its output of Recognition slides went as high as 30,000 a day. 
He succeeded also in getting a much larger supply of heat 
glass for the projectors from Libbey-Owens-Ford at 30^ each 
instead of smaller quantities from another maker at $2 each. 
From time to time he also made trips to Bausch & Lomb to 
speed up the supply of lenses. 

So what began in a small way as the outgrowth of experi- 
mentation in visual perception was adapted, greatly expanded 
and refined to meet a critical wartime need. No one will ever 
know how many U.S. and Allied pilots and others owed 
their lives to its use. It was by far the largest single wartime 
undertaking in which the campus figured, apart from the 
direct participation of thousands of its men and some of its 
women in the Armed Forces. And the results brought great 
credit and distinction to Dr. Renshaw, to the Research Founda- 
tion, and to the University. 



VIII 

MONEY AND BUILDING PROBLEMS 

IN terms of operating and building funds, especially the 
latter, the decade from 1930 to 1940 was a lean one for 
Ohio's six state-supported universities. This arose in part 
from the Great Depression and its aftermath. But even then 
substantial funds for construction might have been available if 
the state administration of Governor Martin L. Davey had not 
been feuding with the New Deal administration of Franklin D. 
Roosevelt. 

In other mid-Western states, for example, where this was 
not the case, state educational and other institutions benefited 
considerably from Federal funds in that decade. Indiana and 
Purdue Universities were among these beneficiaries as were 
Michigan State and others in the same "league" as Ohio State. 
On their campuses many new dormitory and other buildings 
sprang up, nourished substantially by Federal funds. 

Ohio State was helped in minor ways from this source but 
it was mostly from pick-and-shovel, hammer-and-saw, paint 
brush or white collar projects. The dike along the Olentangy 
River was built in this manner and so were thousands of feet 
of sidewalks. Classrooms and other areas inside buildings got 
badly needed renovation, especially repainting, and there were 
other similar improvements. 

But the only major buildings erected in the decade in 
question were Baker and Canfield Halls, the two newest dor- 
mitories. Some Federal funds, as noted earlier, were involved 
in these. In the main, however, they were built out of the 
proceeds of self-liquidating bonds authorized by the legislature. 
In all, six campus building projects in this period received 
some Federal funds. 

185 



186 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Two Other structures were the direct result of Federal grants 
during those years: the Stadium Dormitories and what later was 
named Stillman Hall. The Stadium Dormitories represented an 
outlay, down to mid-1940, of $165,785. Stillman Hall, housing 
social administration, cost $166,000. It came about largely because 
Prof. Charles C. Stillman, head of social administration, was 
a friend of Harry L. Hopkins, who administered the Federal 
Emergency Relief Administration (F.E.R.A.) program. Stillman 
had been F.E.R.A. administrator for Ohio. 

Some hope for easing the building drouth was tied in with 
the 1941-43 biennial budget. The six state universities, through 
the Inter-University Council, asked for $4.5 million for "Addi- 
tions and Betterments" — buildings and lands. But of this the legis- 
lature appropriated only $2,212,510 or not quite half. Of this 
amount, Ohio State's share, as noted, was $1,216,875. This was 
based upon a formula under which the University received 
55 per cent of appropriations, or basically in ratio of its enroll- 
ment against the combined total of the others. 

But this hope was short lived. As the war came on priorities 
were set up and general building was frozen. In time the State 
Board of Control released portions of these funds upon request, 
but for purposes other than those originally intended. Out of 
this, as will be seen, the University among other things pur- 
chased Neil Hall and bought the land and erected the first 
buildings at what was to become Don Scott Field. 

A Federal grant also made possible in 1939-40 the construction 
of a Faculty Assembly Building, better known as the Faculty 
Club. It cost about $165,000. The club itself, housed originally 
on the third floor of the Administration Building, put up 
$90,750 and the remaining $74,250 was a P.W.A. grant. The 
new structure, on the south side of the oval, was on the site 
of the old Botany building and greenhouse. It was opened 
in the fall of 1940. 

Another Federal grant helped to make possible a sizable 
addition to the Journalism building. This provided for a new 



MONEY AND BUILDING NEEDS 187 

U.S. campus postoffice on the ground floor and badly needed 
additional classrooms, new quarters for the Lantern, and a 
small department library on the second floor. The Journalism 
addition cost about $149,000, of which the Federal government 
provided $65,454 and the balance was state money. The govern- 
ment also ceded to the University 1.69 acres of land at Put-in-Bay 
— what had been the U.S. Fish Hatchery — as part of the facil- 
ities of the Franz Theodore Stone marine biological laboratory. 

In December, 1940, to go back, the Inter-University Council 
had urged upon Governor Bricker "the need for a joint state 
university building program." This was done after "repeated 
conferences." The amount involved, as noted, was $4.5 million 
of which Ohio State would get 55 per cent or $2,475,000- The 
letter to the governor was signed by the five university presidents. 
Dr. Bevis at the Trustees' December 16, 1940 meeting submitted 
a list of items in the foregoing amount as follows: agricultural 
laboratory, $350,000; Botany and Zoology addition, $75,000; field 
house, $450,000; food service building, $150,000; Journalism 
building addition, $75,000; library addition, $425,000; dental 
building, $300,000; recitation building, $400,000; and science 
laboratory, $250,000. The Board approved the list. 

Later developments again illustrated the difference between 
asking and getting. H.B. 665 carried only $2,212,510 for new 
construction for the state universities. Of this amount Ohio 
State's share was broken down mainly as follows: library, 
$300,000; agricultural laboratory, $350,000; recitation building, 
$350,000; addition to Journalism building, $40,000; medical 
library, $40,000; civil engineering field camp, $7000; research 
laboratory (entomology), $60,000; third floor, Robinson La- 
boratory, $70,000; and Botany greenhouse, $7000. The cabinet 
and the architect were directed to proceed with plans and esti- 
mates for these improvements. But when the shooting war 
came on all such projects, as indicated, were frozen for the 
duration and some of them never came about. 

From a physical plant standpoint the first war years brought 



188 



THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 



about three major changes upon which action was taken at the 
May 11, 1942 Board meeting. One was for the construction of 
a new laboratory, already noted, for wartime research, especially 
for the War and Navy Departments. Another was an addition 
to the Radiation Laboratory of a building to house a high 
voltage electrostatic generator. The third, and in some ways 
the most important, was the start on a University airport 
growing out of the taking over by the Navy of Columbus 
Airport which had been used by the University in its Civilian 
Pilot Training program. This, too, has been dealt with elsewhere. 

The growing number of wartime research projects called 
urgently for aditional space. Dr. Bevis told the Board that 
the War Production Board had agreed to issue priorities for 
the immediate construction of a building to house these activi- 
ties. The Trustees agreed to ask the State Controlling Board 
for $350,000 from available funds for the construction of a 
War Research Laboratory and to take certain short cuts to 
this end. This was done. 

The building to house the electrostatic generator. Dr. Bevis 
informed the Board, called for "a peculiar construction to 
protect the operators from the 3,000,000-volt X-ray machine" to 
be housed in it. The University had been assured that "because 
of the many important researches" under way in this field the 
necessary building priorities would be granted. 

The University took a long step forward in a new direction 
when in June, 1942 it undertook to acquire 382.5 acres of land 
for an airport about seven miles northwest of the campus. The 
original area was larger than Port Columbus at the time. The 
initial $100,000 cost of the airport site, including provision for 
a hangar, runways, shops, grading and fencing, came through 
the transfer of funds from building appropriations frozen because 
of priorities. Dr. Bevis told the Board at its May 11, 1942 
meeting that the University "cannot afford to lose the position 
it now occupies in the training of pilots and aeronautical engi- 
neers." 



MONEY AND BUILDING NEEDS 189 

Until the new airport was completed, C.P.T. students, as 
indicated, were using other Columbus airfields, including Nor- 
ton Field, named for the well known World War I alumnus- 
athlete-aviator who was killed in France in July 1918. The 1942 
Summer Quarter C.P.T. quota was for sixty students. At the 
time of the acquisition of the airport site President Bevis 
predicted that Ohio would play "a key role" in the development 
of aviation and said that after the war the University foresaw 
"a vast development in aviation." 

The airport figured in other developments in mid-1943. 
At its September 20 meeting the Board authorized a request 
to the State Board of Control to release $277,500 from frozen 
appropriations for buildings and equipment at the airport, of 
which $187,500 was for runways, taxiways and field drainage 
and $45,000 for building additions. 

Another major acquistion made possible by the release of 
frozen state funds was Neil Hall which the University had 
been leasing for use as a women's dormitory since 1928. The 
lease on the building was to expire in September, 1944 and 
the University was paying an average of $25,631 a year in rent. 
The owner, the Mid-State Realty Co., was asked whether the 
property could be bought and, if so, at what price. The answer 
was "Yes" and the asking price was $340,000. 

After an appraisal by the University architect an offer was 
made of $276,057.77, which was figured as the depreciated 
value of the building. This was accepted. The Trustees approved 
the purchase October 11, 1942, subject to the release of the 
necessary funds by the State Controlling Board. This was done, 
giving the University a fourth women's dormitory, with a 
capacity of 250 which could be increased to 270. Furniture and 
equipment were included in the purchase price. Replacement 
value of the building and contents was fixed at $467,457.77. 

Since Neil Hall, Dr. Bevis explained, "for all these years 
had filled a great need in helping to provide proper housing 
for women students in a most satisfactory manner, and as 



190 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

every room in it is now rented for the entire year, with a 
waiting hst, our Board of Trustees deemed it wise to negotiate 
for the purchase." 

Another physical plant development was action, taken at 
the January 12, 1942 Board meeting, looking toward a 330- 
bed addition to Starling-Loving Hospital. The Federal Works 
Agency, in Washington, decided that the number of additional 
beds required for defense needs in Franklin County was 100. 
The project was modified to this end. The new wing was to 
cost $450,000 of which the government was to provide $300,000 
and the University $150,000. 

The University's finances reflected wartime conditions and 
trends in the fall of 1942. In the previous spring the State 
Board of Control had granted an additional $139,410 to help 
meet the added teaching load resulting from the wartime 
accelerated program. But because enrollment was higher than 
expected in the summer and autumn quarters, student fees 
were up so that the University released $75,000 of the additional 
funds granted in May. 

That fall the government notified the University that because 
of the critical materials called for it could not approve the 
application for the proposed addition to Starling-Loving Hos- 
pital. The Board of Control, therefore, was asked to cancel the 
$250,000 that had been requested for this purpose. At the same 
time, bids for the War Research Laboratory were enough under 
the estimates so that $50,000 of that allotment of funds was 
canceled. 

Toward the end of 1942, Governor Bricker discussed the 
state universities' biennium budgets with the Inter-University 
Council. He told the Council, President Bevis reported to the 
Trustees, that in preparing their budgets "each University 
should carry the same grand total for operations and main- 
tenance as contained in the present appropriation bill." At the 
same time each university could adjust individual items within 
its budget as it saw fit. 



MONEY AND BUILDING NEEDS 191 

Two new facilities became available during the Autumn 
Quarter, 1942. One was the War Research Laboratory addition 
to the Engineering Experiment Station. One of its first uses 
was for research on the extraction of protein from farm crops 
along with a search for new industrial uses for farm products. 
Very soon it was being used for research connected directly with 
the war effort, especially in the field of cryogenics or low tem- 
peratures. Much of this, as indicated elsewhere, was highly 
secret and the building was under 24-hour guard. 

The other building was a new structure for the R.O.T.C, 
just south of Lane Ave. off Tuttle Drive.* This was a two-story 
concrete building housing the field artillery unit. It was enclosed 
by a fence and three-fifths of the ground space was given over 
to a garage for military trucks. Field Artillery cadets on guard 
duty at the gate were given credit in basic military science 
classes. 

At the December 4, 1944 Board meeting. Dr. Bevis reported 
on a conference held November 21 by Governor Bricker and 
the presidents of the six state universities. He said the governor 
told of his intention to recommend in his executive budget an 
item for a sufficient appropriation over and above the building 
needs set forth in the joint report of the Inter-University Coun- 
cil for expanded hospital facilities on the campus. These as 
defined by a College of Medicine faculty committee were a) to 
meet teaching needs and b) "to supply state requirements for 
hospitalization." This was the first major step toward a greatly 
expanded Health Center for which, before too long, a special 
appropriation of $5 million was made by the legislature. 

The Trustees approved unanimously "the purpose of Gov- 
ernor Bricker to request the appropriation of such funds . . . 
as will provide upon the University campus such buildings and 
equipment as will adequately supply the need; it being under- 
stood that such hospital and facilities be under the control" 

* Officially this was the Military Science Shop and Storage Building. But carved 
in its stone work is the recurring inscription "R O T C Building." This is ac- 
tually what it is but no official authorization for this designation has been found. 



192 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

of the University Trustees. This was to forestall the possibility 
that some of the proposed facilities might come under the 
jurisdiction of other state agencies. 

Three months after the adoption of the Board resolution 
of December 4, 1944 calling attention to the inadequacy of 
the facilities of the College of Medicine and agreeing to request 
a special appropriation to meet these needs, the Trustees took 
further action. At their March 5, 1945 meeting they agreed to 
ask specifically for an appropriation of $5 million for this pur- 
pose. The Inter-University Council had given its approval of 
such a project December 8, 1944. 

The Board resolution to this end pointed out that the 
state's health program would "require largely increased hospital 
facilities," that the University's current facilities were inadequate 
and "extensive additions" were necessary, and that the proposal 
had been approved in conference with Western Reserve Uni- 
versity and the University of Cincinnati — which had the other 
two medical colleges in the state. It was the "sense" of the 
Board therefore that such a program was "of vital importance" 
to the people of the state, that any appropriation should be 
in addition to the regular building program, that $5 million 
was "the minimum figure" needed during the next biennium 
— to come out of the state's surplus. Finally Dr. Bevis was 
"directed to take such steps as may be necessary to coordinate 
and present the facts" as to such a program to the governor 
and the legislature. 

By legislative action in the winter of 1944-45 cost-of-living 
pay increases were voted for all state civil service employes, 
including those on the campus. These were mandatory, effective 
January 1, 1945. This was under S.B. 1. Under H.B. 227 an 
increase of 10 per cent was voted but the Senate bill called for 
an additional 10 per cent, plus 2 per cent for each year up to 
five years of prior service. Not covered by these benefits were 
the teaching staff, the library staff, technicians, and research 
assistants. 



MONEY AND BUILDING NEEDS 193 

At the January 8, 1945 Board meeting, Dr. Bcvis informed 
the Trustees of the "urgent need" for funds to give similar 
benefits to those not covered. The Board directed him to request 
suflScient additional funds to provide comparable increases to 
the teaching staff and others. 

The matter of student fees in connection with the "G.I. 
Bill," Public Law 346, came up at this meeting also. Dr. Bevis 
recommended that "tuition fees be charged such students on 
the same basis as those charged other students," that is, with 
reference to resident vs. non-resident fees. He recomemnded also 
that the matter be brought before the Inter-University Council 
and that it be asked to adhere to a policy adopted in July, 1944. 
The Board approved both recommendations. Unlike some other 
colleges and universities, the University was pledged not to 
seek higher fees from the Veterans' Administration for return- 
ing "GIs" than it collected from other students. 

The State of Ohio as well as the University began to move 
ahead actively with respect to funds as the war in Europe 
ended and that in the Pacific neared its close. This was reflected 
in legislative appropriations for the 1945-47 biennium which 
Dr. Bevis reviewed. The General Assembly, he pointed out in 
the July, 1945 Faculty Review, had given the University "the 
largest appropriations in its history." 

For personal service and maintenance, $11,923,266 was voted. 
This was an increase of $1,898,938. In addition, $9,413,923 was 
provided for capital improvements where there had been a long 
drouth. Of this total $5 million was for the new Medical Center. 
Major items for other campus improvements included provision 
for these: agricultural laboratories, physics, a recitation building 
(music), central service building. Botany and Zoology building 
adidtion, power plant remodeling and equipment, and industrial 
X-ray laboratories. Another item of $500,000 was for dormi- 
tories but this was in the nature of a loan and was to be 
repaid out of net operating revenues. 

The building needs were prepared. Dr. Bevis noted, as "a 



194 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

three-biennium program." About a third was provided for 
the new biennium. He said the University fared better in respect 
to personal service (salaries) than it did for maintenance. On 
the whole, he was optimistic. 

"We shall be able to provide for considerable growth," he 
remarked. "We shall, if priorities, etc., permit, secure a great 
deal of vital new classroom space and the indispensable power 
plant expansion to carry it. We are on the way to the possession 
of a medical college of first rank. 

"Much of our building program awaits suceeding biennia; 
but the grants were a part of that program. 

"When the facts of enlarged enrollment supplant estimates, 
there is good prospect of adequate addition to our personal 
service and maintenance budgets. 

"We shall doubtless face a good deal of post-war maladjust- 
ment between enrollment and staff, between space requirements 
and plant, between developing needs and funds. However, 
progress has been made and we have encountered much fair- 
minded comprehension in the General Assembly." 

With $100 million in a bulging state treasury, Ohio State 
asked for $12,664,000 or a little more than half of die $24,272,000 
sought by the six state-supported universities for new buildings 
in the 1945-46 biennium. As it turned out it got only a fraction 
of the amount asked. 

Quite apart from the flood tide of students soon to engulf 
it, the University was suffering from inadequate facilities in 
many areas. One of the worst was the Library, completed in 
1912-13 when the enrollment was just under 4000. Another 
was the chapel, the only sizeable assembly hall on the campus, 
which could hold at best around 1100. A third was a power 
plant whose output was stretched to the limit without adequate 
standby service. 

The Student Health Service was jammed into cramped 
makeshift quarters in Hayes Hall with a waiting room accommo- 
dating just twelve students. The School of Music was one of 



MONEY AND BUILDING NEEDS 195 

the worst off, using such ancient structures as the former 
president's house, buih around 1855, and the onetime Athletic 
House next door, originally a faculty residence. 

Outgoing Governor Bricker recommended a separate appro- 
priation of $5 milHon for adequate cHnical and hospital facilities 
as the first major step in the creation of a modern health center 
on the campus. Ultimately this came about, followed by much 
more. But at the outset the incoming administration recom- 
mended only part of what the University sought and much 
less than it needed. 

On behalf of the Inter-University Council, a statement was 
submitted to the 96th General Assembly in support of the 
state universities' joint budget request for the 1945-46 biennium. 
Their combined asking amounted to $23,090,461 for personal 
service and maintenance, or $6 million more than for 1943-44. 
Along with this they presented a combined building budget. 

"The work plan of the State Universities for the years 
immediately ahead," the statement declared, "must take account 
of accumulated shortages in buildings and facilities, temporary 
wartime shortages in students and in faculty, the imminent 
prospect of postwar student enrollment beyond all previous 
peaks, and the special mandate to serve these students because 
many of them will be veterans. 

"The several administrations of the State Universities feel, 
moreover, that Ohio's standing in wealth, population and 
importance among the states demands comparable standing of 
the State Universities. Demonstrably, that standing is being 
threatened." 

The budget recommendations Governor Frank J. Lausche 
sent to the General Assembly in March, 1945 were disappointing 
to the six state-supported universities. One was for an increase 
of only $2.2 million for general operating expenses as against 
the $6 million they had requested through the Inter-University 
Council. For buildings the governor's recommendation for Ohio 
State was for $2,659,440 as against the $12,664,000 the University 



196 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

had requested. Nor did he include the $5 million asked for 
the proposed public health center. But there was hope that 
the legislature would go farther. As it turned out it did. 

Legislative action on the budget was completed in July. Of 
the $13,624,328 the University had asked for personal service 
and maintenance $11,923,266 was granted. Of the amount sought 
for the building program $4 million was voted, plus $5 million 
toward the Health Center and $500,000 as a loan toward a 
dormitory. The building money was earmarked for these major 
items: agricultural laboratory, physics, recitation (music), cen- 
tral service, industrial X-ray laboratory, and botany and zoology 
addition. 

By contrast, the University of Illinois got $19,107,250, plus 
student fees, which were included in the Ohio State figures. 
In addition, Illinois got $16,809,000 for buildings. 

The first substantial upturn in Ohio State enrollment came 
with the Autumn Quarter, 1944 when it jumped to 8876 as 
against 7031 a year earlier. This was only the beginning for 
in another year it was to climb to 12,015 and by 1946 to the 
then unbelievable figure of 24,867. Much of this incredible 
increase, of course, was because of the tide of returning service 
men and women — a trickle at first and then a flood. 

Another drought that was broken finally had to do with 
buildings. As wartime priorities began to be lifted, with appro- 
priated but unspent funds in the state treasury, besides a fat 
surplus, the Inter-University Council set its sights on an exten- 
sive building program for all of the state-supported universities. 
This was to meet long overdue needs as well as those in 
anticipation of the high tide of enrollment that was now 
certain all over the country, Ohio included. 

Specifically, the state Post War Program Commission gave 
the green light to state university building requests and passed 
these along to the governor and the General Assembly. As of 
that time the surplus in the state treasury was put at $70 million, 
with a $24 million contingency fund. The six state-supported 



MONEY AND BUILDING NEEDS 197 

universities, as noted, submitted a joint building request amount- 
ing to $24,272,000 of which Ohio State sought $12,664,000. The 
University's asking requests were in two groups on the basis 
of priority, one with thirteen items and the other with fourteen. 

When funds were appropriated, finally, the first building 
to be built was so-called "Recitation Building," originally 
intended for fine arts and music but which actually was used 
to house the School of Music. The price tag was $850,000. 

In its report the Ohio Post War Program Commission, of 
which Lieut. Governor Paul M. Herbert, '12, was chairman, 
commented that on the basis of anticipated enrollments, "Con- 
servatively estimated, these universities and colleges can justify, 
in 1945 and 1946, an appropriation of approximately twenty-five 
million dollars, to be supplemented by later biennial appropria- 
tions." This proved to be only a beginning. 



M' 



IX 

LOOKING TO THE POST-WAR YEARS 

1. Committee on Planning 

ORE than two years before the shooting war ended, 
the University began to take steps toward a post-war 
program, with a hard look also as to how the post-war 
world would afTect the campus. On May 11, 1943 the Faculty 
Council authorized President Bevis to name a committee to 
this end. He promptly appointed Prof. James F. FuUington 
chairman, with these others: Deans Alpheus W. Smith, Gradu- 
ate School; Wendell D. Postle, Dentistry, and Arthur T. Martin, 
Law; and Profs. Henry E. Hoagland, business organization; 
Erwin E. Dreese, electrical engineering; and N. Paul Hudson, 
bacteriology. 

In a covering letter dated May 20, Dr. Bevis emphasized 
that the committee should "have a wide discretion" but, among 
other things, ought "to take account of the recommendation 
of the University Policy Committee and of recent developments 
such, for example, as the establishment of the School of 
Aeronautics, . . ," In his belief also, as noted, it should "look 
both outward and inward." 

He was anxious that the committee concern itself also "with 
concrete recommendations for concrete developments at the 
University. As a background for such developments, the com- 
mittee may be concerned to consider the post-war situation of 
higher education generally but such consideration, it seems to 
me, should be background rather than foreground." In his 
opinion also, "we should be prepared for the possibility that 
these recommendations be put into effect relatively early. No 
one can foretell the fortunes of war but we ought not to be 
taken unawares should it happily have an early termination." 

198 



LOOKING TO THE POST-WAR YEARS 199 

He suggested that the committee try to "have a first report 
by November 1, 1943." It missed this mark by a day. 

One of the first acts of the committee was to solicit faculty 
thinking on post-war recommendations to be submitted through 
the deans. Prof. FuIHngton outHned these two major problems: 
first, immediate ones arising from post-war conditions such as 
"the educational needs of discharged service men and women, 
the replacement of obsolete plant and equipment," and then 
"less pressing" ones such as "educational services and curricula, 
personnel, student welfare, administrative organization, buildings 
and equipment and public relations." 

The committee made headway during the summer and 
early fall of 1943. It was working on plans that would have 
two bases: that the educational needs of returning veterans, 
including the rehabilitation of the wounded, be met first; and 
that the new system be elastic enough to meet new demands 
because the committee felt certain that "our society is not 
likely to be the same." 

By October, 1943 the committee had finished the first phase 
of its general survey of coming educational demands and was 
ready to begin the second phase. This was to consist of con- 
ferences with deans and committees from the individual colleges 
to evolve specific plans for post-war work in each academic 
area. Chairman Fullington saw the problem as one involving 
"the whole position of the university in the community and in 
the nation." He doubted whether a final report would be 
ready before the end of the calendar year. 

The committee submitted a brief summary "report of prog- 
ress" on November 2, 1943. In it the committee sketched the 
complexity of its task, summed up its work to date, outlined 
the direction of its activity and, for an unexplained reason, 
suggested that "publicity in respect to this report be carefully 
censored." 

As to the complexity of the task, the report noted: "The 
problems which confront us are varied. Some arise directly 



200 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

from the circumstance of the war. Some may arise from social 
change, new demands and enlarged responsibilities which cannot 
be clearly defined at this time. Some arise from past and present 
conditions (or trends) which have been ignored, or for which 
solutions have been proposed but not effected, as with the 
Student Health Servce. 

"But the problems and their solutions are so interrelated 
that it seems unwise to consider them in isolation. As a con- 
sequence, the Committee has felt obligated first of all to survey 
the manifold activities and problems of the University and 
to acquaint itself with significant University opinion." 

To this end it had been meeting each week on Wednesday 
and Thursday afternoons. It had interviewed deans, administra- 
tive officers, and key faculty members. Upon invitation it had 
received written suggestions from members of the general faculty, 
college deans, and numerous college committees and University 
boards and councils. Chairman Fullington had met also with 
various college committees and had conferred personally with 
administrative officers and with faculty members. 

At this point the committee had "come to see three matters 
as worthy of early consideration." These were: A) a program 
for returned service men and women, war workers and others; 
B) the problem of getting needed equipment before or after 
the end of hostilities; and C) a reorganization of the president's 
office. On "A" and "B" the committee hoped to be able to 
submit recommendations or proposals shortly. 

As to the president's office, the report explained, "The aim 
of such reorganization would be two-fold: to enable the Presi- 
dent to delegate certain responsibilities; to improve the function- 
ing of certain agencies now responsible to the President, as 
the offices of the University Examiner, the Registrar, the Dean 
of Men, the Dean of Women, the Student Health Service, and 
related boards and councils." In this connection the committee 
suggested that the president "defer the appointment of a suc- 
cessor to the retiring University registrar until he had had 



LOOKING TO THE POST-WAR YEARS 201 

opportunity to study the Committee's forthcoming recommen- 
dations." (Much of the reorganization suggested followed the 
appointment of Dean Bland L. Stradley as vice president for 
student affairs as of January 1, 1944, described earlier.) 

A much more detailed committee report, dated February 8, 
1944, was aimed at giving the returning veteran as much 
academic leeway as possible. This was presented to the Faculty 
Council on February 28, 1944. It foresaw three categories of 
students the University could expect after the war, and made 
five related recommendations. As Prof. FuUington put it, the 
idea was "to make it permissive as opposed to prescriptive." 

The three sources of post-war students foreseen were 1) those 
direcdy from high school; 2) those from industry; and 3) those 
from the Armed Forces. 

The recommendations included: 1) appointment of a "Co- 
ordinator of Demobilized Student Affairs"; 2) a period of 
adjustment after enrolling as a student; 3) an option of retro- 
active cancellation of certain grades; 4) provision for refresher 
courses; and 5) departments, schools and colleges "to consider 
offering such short-term programs as appear educationally fea- 
sible and desirable." 

In summary, in terms of the report: 

The coordinator would have an advisory committee of five 
members. He would act as liaison ofiBcer between the University 
and all agencies concerned with the education and welfare of 
demobilized students. 

First quarter of residence would be considered a "provisional 
period" and, with the approval of the dean of a college, the student 
could elect to cancel any or all "D" and "E" grades received in that 
quarter. 

This provision also could be made retroactive, upon the stu- 
dent's petition, to any low grades received during the two quarters 
immediately preceding his withdrawal from the University to enter 
the Armed Forces. 

Each college, school and department should set up refresher 
courses "at the appropriate levels," to be offered without college 
credit. 



202 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

The committee recommended also that the University con- 
tinue its accelerated program, meanwhile, "as long as there is 
sufficient demand." A companion report on "Student Health 
Services" was also in the making. 

At a Faculty Council meeting on February 13, 1945 the 
committee rendered a third report. This was on "Individualized 
Plans for the Demobilized Student." The committee suggested 
that while most demobilized students might be expected to 
undertake or resume a regular educational program, many 
others would have special educational needs or desires. The 
committee said it had been confirmed in this opinion during 
the previous year. 

Various factors suggested, the new report commented, "that 
something more than the conventional four-year collegiate edu- 
cation will have to be provided." The committee foresaw that 
"a good many will demand short, practical vocational programs." 
It felt that "for the present, planning for this kind of education 
should be tentative." It made eight recommendations, namely, 
that 

1. The University establish "an administrative procedure to be 
known as the University Individualized Programs." 

2. Students thereunder to "be subject to the University regulations 
concerning admission and college registration; and that any 
courses devised for them to be proposed and authorized in the 
usual fashion." 

3. Each college to provide facilities for conducting individualized 
non-degree programs. 

4. Each dean to appoint a counselor to advise students and to au- 
thorize individual programs after consulting with the appro- 
priate departments. 

5. College counselors to confer upon the student's program and to 
determine the college of registration when two or more colleges 
were involved. 

6. Course prerequisites and college regulations to be "liberally ad- 
ministered." 

7. Six quarters of academic work to be regarded "as the probable 
limit of effective study" under the individualized programs, but 



LOOKING TO THE POST-WAR YEARS 203 

that "no specific limitation be placed on the time a student may 
spend in the program." 
8. As the colleges gained experience and discovered basic and re- 
petitive patterns of study, they were to "consider the advisability 
of special courses and special short-time curricula which may 
be established and publicized as regular offerings." 

Peering into the future extended off the campus. A two-day 
conference on post-war educational problems was held also. 
Leaders in agriculture, business, industry, labor, government, 
and the Armed Forces took part in this on February 29-March 1, 
1944. The conferees were told that 65,000 men were being 
discharged from the Armed Forces each month and that nearly 
1,300,000 had been released so far. Speakers predicted that at 
least 1,000,000 men and women still serving in the Armed 
Forces would seek further college education after the war. 

Other points brought out concerning returning veterans 
were to the effect that they would 

have had many significant educational experiences, particularly 
from specialized Army-Navy training schools and would have been 
taught in terms of clearly defined objectives, with no waste motion. 

expect college-university courses to "go somewhere" and to "get 
there fast." 

be in a hurry to complete their formal schooling, get married, and 
settle down. There probably would be a serious readjustment in 
our entire culture, along with a need for more technical or "sub- 
professional" training. Existing facilities in high schools and col- 
leges were inadequate. 

There was agreement that the over-all problem was statewide 
and was not confined to the campus. To this end a need was 
seen for a total state program, along with a survey of the 
state's resources and the probable demands upon them. It was 
the consensus that Ohio State needed a "picture" of its own 
surrounding culture in central Ohio, and of the state as a whole. 

Immediately after the conference, over which Prof. H. G. 
Hullfish presided. President Bevis named a faculty committee 
to consider ways by which the University could determine 



204 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

the probable demand for college training in various fields after 
the war. 

2. Survey of Veterans 

A unique publication sent free to the University's men and 
women overseas was an "Overseas 'Pony' Edition" of the 
Alumni Monthly. This was done for two reasons: because it 
was impractical to mail the Monthly itself overseas during war- 
time, and to keep those members of the University's family 
who were on foreign service in touch with the campus and, 
to an extent, with each other. The eight-page "pony" edition 
was sent by first class mail. 

Undated Volume IV, for example, was about 6^/4x8^/4 inches 
in size. Of this issue 14,000 copies were mailed. Half of this 
issue was devoted to athletics. This was understandable con- 
sidering the unbeaten 1944 football team, with Coach Widdoes 
named "coach of the year," and Les Horvath the Heisman 
Trophy winner as the best college player of the year. One 
page was devoted to University affairs, especially to plans 
being made for returning veterans. Another page contained 
Armed Forces news, a third carried editorials, and one was 
devoted to the "Victory Mailbag," with a Milt Caniff cartoon 
showing Terry reading the Monthly in Burma. 

Along with each copy of the "pony" went a concise 
questionnaire, with a return envelope. It was based upon four- 
teen questions concerning service personnel and was designed 
to help Registrar Ronald B. Thompson and others in the 
post-war planning of courses, curricula and other related mat- 
ters. As President Bevis said in a foreword: "Your help in 
formulating plans will be greatly appreciated. If you will 
indicate your reactions to the questionnaire, we will do every- 
thing in our power to be ready for you when you come back." 

Five weeks after the first of these questionnaires were mailed 
the replies began flooding back. The first 13,000 mailed drew 
2000 prompt responses. Dr. Thompson reported on the findings. 
More than half of the former students who replied said they 



LOOKING TO THE POST-WAR YEARS 205 

planned to resume their education, nearly all of them at Ohio 
State. A little less than a fourth of the replies indicated uncer- 
tainty as to the respondents continuing their education. Another 
fourth reported that they were not planning to do so. About 
half of the replies were from the 18 to 24 age group. 

The early responses indicated that more students were 
planning to enroll in Engineering than any other college. But 
Arts, Education and Commerce drew a good response. Heavy 
interest was shown in "refresher" courses, especially in law 
and medicine. Most of those planning to return to the campus 
had been students some time after 1940. Interest was heavy 
also in taking courses the year around, or four quarters instead 
of the normal three. 

About a fourth of those replying were married and many 
had children. This posed a housing problem which the Uni- 
versity in time tried to handle as best it could. Opinion was 
divided, however, as to whether the returning veteran should 
have special privileges. But the feeling was strong that such 
veterans should take classes with other students and not 
separately. 

The replies reflected some concern also about such matters 
as the University's academic standing, the University Health 
Service, the department of music, the Ohio Union, dormitory 
facilities and other problems upon which University officials 
were already working. The replies also mirrored a more liberal 
attitude as to race question. 

At a special faculty meeting in May, 1944, President Bevis 
reviewed his first four years in office and dealt with plans for 
the future. It was his opinion that the enrollment had passed 
its ebb and that the future curve would be up. A related fact 
was that, although as it turned out, the shooting war had 
fifteen months to go, discharged veterans were beginning to 
return to college campuses and Ohio State already had a 
hundred. 

In looking back. Dr. Bevis pointed out that the policy had 



206 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

been one of gradual change and improvement rather than of 
sharp changes. He cited four "forward steps" in the over-all 
program : 

Establishment of three divisions in the President's office — one 
for faculty and curricular matters, one for student relations, and 
a third for public relations. 

Organization of the Faculty Council as a legislative body. 

Start of a new program as to faculty salaries, promotions and 
tenure as recommended by a faculty committee. 

Development of a plan of 4-year tenures for department chair- 
men. 

As to future needs, he suggested a more complete coordina- 
tion of University services concerned with the physical well-being 
of students. He saw a need for continued study of plans for the 
post-war period and said that stimulation of student thinking 
should be a major objective. 

About this same time the University Personnel Council and 
the Junior Council held four meetings within a month to discuss 
problems relating to returning veterans. There was agreement 
that each re-enrolled veteran should be treated as an individual 
case and that it would be in the best interests of both the 
University and the veterans not to deal with them as a class 
apart. All veterans so far in school were medical discharge 
cases but the flood of others was just in the offing. 

It was agreed meanwhile to draw up a statement from the 
University outlining the duties, rights and resources for veterans. 
Dean of Men Park headed a committee to review the needs 
of returned veterans for special social activity programs. It 
was recognized that veterans' housing would be a major problem. 

With the shooting war nearly over a burning issue in the 
United States early in 1945 and for some time afterward was 
whether the nation should adopt a policy of universal military 
training. Many felt that it should do so as insurance for the future. 
Others felt equally strongly that as soon as practicable the 
country should demobilize and return to a peacetime status. 



LOOKING TO THE POST-WAR YEARS 207 

In February, 1945 President Bevis expressed the opinion 
that there was much doubt "whether we may not be premature 
at this time in attempting an answer to the basic question." 
He said there was "grave possibility of a kind of peace which 
would, in my judgment, make such training imperative." But 
he said he was not ready to give up hope "that a better 
kind of peace may be made which would render less necessary 
so decisive a break in American tradition." He foresaw that 
future war would draw more and more heavily "upon scien- 
tific, technical, industrial, and commercial skills as well as the 
strictly military skills." 

He ended on this note: "We ought to be sure that the 
urge for universal training is not another manifestation of the 
philosophy of mature economy — not, that is to say, simply a 
means of keeping a certain number of millions of man hours 
out of the labor market. The subtraction of this quantity of 
labor power from production, if necessary, should be regarded 
as a necessary evil and not as an economic goal." 

3. Students Loo/{ Ahead Also 

A Student Convention for Victory had been held on the 
campus in May, 1942. In retrospect, it had reflected a surprising 
amount of prophecy. Basically it was designed to disclose student 
attitudes toward critical problems of the war and the peace to 
follow. Senator Harold H. Burton, of Ohio, later a member 
of the U.S. Supreme Court, was the main speaker. The great 
benefit of the convention program, he declared, lay "in the 
preparation of the committee reports which show a great deal 
of forethought and planning." 

The most controversial report submitted was by the Inter- 
national Peace Machinery Commission providing for the organi- 
zation of an international governing body after the war. This 
was adopted after an hour's debate. Its major provisions were 
surprisingly like those of the United Nations, which was to 
be created in 1945. They called for an executive council. 



208 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

assembly, court, and international military force. Campus organi- 
zations represented the various nations. Again prophetically, 
to a degree, the delegate for India proclaimed that "India 
wishes to defend herself with non-violent direct action; action 
from the Allied Nations is not wanted." 

Delegates from seventeen Ohio colleges and universities met 
May 14-15, 1943 on the campus to discuss wartime student 
activities. The occasion was the first annual Ohio Student 
Conference on Wartime Activities. It was called at the sug- 
gestion of Governor Bricker. William S. Guthrie, director of 
student employment, was supervisor. Discussions covered an 
inventory of student wartime activities, war service committee 
organization, techniques of operation, major projects under way, 
and new projects contemplated. Agencies represented on the 
program included the Office of Price Administration, the Ohio 
Council of Defense, the War Production Board, the War 
Savings staff, the War Manpower Commission, the American 
Red Cross, the Department of Agriculture and Agricultural 
Extension. On the Ohio State campus, as noted, such activities 
were carried on by two volunteer groups. These were the Stu- 
dent War Activity Volunteers (Swaves) and the War Service 
Corps of the College of Education. 

4. Academic Wind Tempered 

Somewhat as had been done for students in World War I, 
the Faculty Council in 1942-43, as indicated, tempered the 
academic wind for students who had been called to the colors 
or to essential war work. It voted specifically to give full 
credit in all courses to students entering the Armed Forces or 
called to other necessary war work after at least seven weeks' 
work "in which he has a satisfactory record." This was to 
be upon the approval of the college executive committee. This 
applied also to any senior entering an "important war activity 
not earlier than one month before the normal date of gradu- 
ation." 



LOOKING TO THE POST-WAR YEARS 209 

In addition, the Council voted a sort of academic credit 
bonus to students returning from the Armed Forces. It agreed, 
as related, to grant up to fifteen hours of "K" (non-grade) 
credit in Agriculture, Arts and Sciences, Commerce and Admin- 
istration, Education, and Engineering "for related services in 
the armed forces of the United States to students who subse- 
quently return for the completion of the requirements for a 
degree." These actions were taken originally February 3, 1942 
and were amended March 9, 1943 and again September 2, 1943. 

Meanwhile regular enrollment, as noted, reached its ebb 
for the war years, with women outnumbering men. For the 
Winter Quarter, 1944 it consisted of 3697 women and 2710 
men, or a total of 6407. This included Twilight School enroll- 
ment, moreover, but with duplicate names excluded. 

In another step President Bevis toward the close of 1943 
had invited suggestions for the University's post-war building 
program. Except for two "relatively small projects," the Social 
Administration building and the Journalism building addition, 
he noted, there had been "no substantial addition to the 
'teaching space' " on the campus since 1925. In the interim 
several studies had been made and tentative "building programs" 
evolved. But all had been at a standstill because of wartime 
priorities and regulations. The Cabinet for several months, he 
reported, had been working over accumulated suggestions. He 
suggested that both immediate and long-range programs be 
developed. The guiding principle, he explained, was that "no 
improvement had been included for which cogent reasons do 
not exist." Fourteen items were projected for immediate con- 
struction "if and when." Further suggestions were invited. 

In April, 1944 in response to this invitation Dr. Bevis reported 
having heard from thirty-six faculty members. They represented 
six of the ten colleges and twenty-five of the eighty-two de- 
partments. These letters contained sixteen references to general 
University problems — eight to the main Library — and thirty-two 



210 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

to college or departmental problems. Among the suggestions 
were for a new chapel and a new Ohio Union. The president 
thanked "all who have responded to my appeal," and added, 
"Further suggestions are in order." 

In this connection, University Architect Howard Dwight 
Smith, in the same issue (April, 1944) of the Faculty Review, 
looked back over earlier attempts at campus planning, as fol- 
lows: 1908, Olmstead Brodiers; 1910, Prof. Charles St. John 
Chubb, of architecture; 1913, Prof. Joseph N. Bradford, first 
University architect; 1920, a modification of the 1913 plan 
when the Ohio Stadium was located; 1928, Harry J. Williams, 
consulting architect, for expansion outside the Oval. 

Finally, in 1932, came a plan to establish basic relationships: 
1, development of the Oval as the principal feature with a 
central vista from the entrance between two major buildings 
at 15th Ave. and High St., toward an enlarged library and 
concentration of large units outside of but adjoining the Oval 
wherever possible; 2, facilities for basic studies generally located 
about the library and inner periphery of the Oval — Physical 
Sciences to the north. Social Sciences to the east and southeast, 
Biological Sciences to the west and southwest; 3, miscellane- 
ous — large agricultural areas west of the Olentangy, recreation 
areas south of the Stadium, and residence areas at the south 
edge of the campus. 

In connection with the post-war building program already 
in mind intimate contacts were being maintained with the 
other state-supported institutions in Ohio and with the Uni- 
versities of Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. 

At the opening of the Autumn Quarter, 1944 there were 
faint signs of a return to more normal conditions on the 
campus. The war was still to be won but the Allies clearly 
had the upper hand both in Europe and the Pacific. Five 
fraternides were still inactive but twenty-one others were func- 
tioning in their own houses. The Army had released the 



LOOKING TO THE POST-WAR YEARS 211 

dormitories it had been using, but women's housing was still 
a problem. Five of the ten substitute residences used the pre- 
vious year were retained for women students. 

The flood of returning veterans was yet to come but Dean 
of Men Park reported 121 registered under the "G.I. bill." 
A related development was the organization of the Ohio State 
University War Veterans' Association in October. A resolution 
adopted was to the effect that they should be represented on 
all committees established to decide their future, especially the 
governor's recently created committee of fifty to deal with 
veterans' affairs. Another was that all veterans over twenty-five 
should be extended free educational facilities at Ohio State 
like those granted to veterans of World War I. (The latter, 
under what was known as the Jones Law, were excused from 
the payment of the so-called incidental fee, which was much 
smaller in those days, but they received no benefit payments 
hke those provided for World War II veterans.) 

Another index of the changing scene lay in the fact that 
by now the A.S.T.P. had only 588 men on the campus, of 
whom 223 were in the Reserve program. The others were 
in the advanced program. A lesser sign of a return to nor- 
malcy was that the Marching Band that fall was at full strength 
for the first time in three years. At the end of October it was 
announced that the A.S.T.P. would discontinue taking applica- 
tions after December 3. 

A feather in the University's hat was that in November it 
was called the only one in the country up to that time offering 
a comprehensive and coordinated curriculum in rehabilitation. 
The School of Social Administration had sixty-nine students 
enrolled in this program. Correspondence courses were set up 
for veterans through the Armed Forces Institute at the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin under a Land-Grant Association committee. 
The University, as noted, adopted a liberal policy on service 
credits for training in the Armed Forces in helping returning 
veterans to adjust their programs accordingly. Another major 



212 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Step in the direction of normalcy was word that the Navy Recog- 
nition School would cease operation as of December 31, 1944. 

5. Steady Growth Foreseen 

As 1944 gave way to 1945, President Bevis in a year-end 
statement, expressed confidence that the University would have 
a steadily growing enrollment and an ever-increasing opportu- 
nity for public service in the new year. Even if the war should 
not end in 1945, he believed that the University might face 
serious staff and building problems. The low point in enroll- 
ment, he noted, had been passed some months ago, with the 
Autumn Quarter enrollment up 23 per cent over a year earlier 
and the freshman class was up 75 per cent. 

"We must not forget," he warned, "that the University 
'post-war problem' has already started. Thousands of young 
people are being discharged from the services every month, . . . 
In the present student body are 650 men and women who 
have received honorable discharges from the military services." 

The University, he pointed out, had already submitted a 
post-war building program which had been approved by the 
Ohio Post War Program Commission. Members of the staflF 
on leave for active service or other war work numbered 346. 
The Navy Recognition School had been moved to one of the 
Navy's own training establishments. But the heavy program 
of war research on the campus, much of it still secret, con- 
tinued under the direction of the Research Foundation. 

Meanwhile, there were other and more immediate problems 
in the new year. Early in January the University library was 
forced to close daily at 5 p.m. because of insufficient heat. This 
was in compliance with the War Mobilization Board request 
that temperatures in homes and public buildings be no higher 
than 68 degrees. That same month the city of Columbus had 
a water shortage and the University was asked to hold its 
use of water to a minimum. "All steps short of actual closing 
of the University" were ordered by the president to reduce the 



LOOKING TO THE POST-WAR YEARS 213 

use of water and help reduce the city's shortage. This restric- 
tion covered drinking fountains, with no use of showers in 
the gymnasiums and dormitories, and only one toilet each for 
men and women in other campus buildings. 

Travel restrictions continued in force and a number of 
annual meetings sponsored by the University or its subdivisions 
were canceled. The Institute for Education by Radio, scheduled 
for spring, was called off for 1945 at the request of the Office 
of Defense Transportation. So was the annual Dairy Conference. 
Other University departments were advised to cancel confer- 
ences, short courses, institutes and conventions. One exception 
to this was Farmers' Week. Near the end of the Winter Quar- 
ter, Dr. Bevis urged students not to travel unnecessarily between 
quarters. 

The heat situation reached a climax on Sunday, January 28 
when the main Library was closed entirely and the campus 
power plant was "silenced" for four and a half hours. The 
fuel crisis reached a new peak on February 2 when Governor 
Frank J. Lausche asked all Ohio schools to close as of Feb- 
ruary 5. The University was only partly affected. Because of 
its patients. University Hospital had to be kept warm, along 
with thirteen campus buildings still used or occupied by Army 
and Navy trainees. But temperatures were lowered in all other 
buildings. 

Another sign of post-war things to come was a joint effort 
by twenty-four student organizations in the spring of 1945 to 
start a move for a new Ohio Union. They pointed out that 
the first Union, built in 1909, served an enrollment of a little 
more than 3000 and was long since outgrown. A committee 
was named to study the specific needs of the supporting groups 
in terms of the proposed new Union. 

New moves and activities geared to the rapidly approaching 
post-war future began to take shape that spring. In April, for 
example, Dean Harlan H. Hatcher, of Arts and Sciences, 
announced the adoption of a new curriculum in American 



214 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Civilization. Two days later President Bevis said in a statement 
that the University would need to expand its activities in 
many directions to meet the post-war needs of students and 
the state. As examples, he cited business research, professional 
fields, public health and psychiatry, dental hygiene, and more 
graduate courses in dentistry. 

The students were vocal in related matters also. The Lantern 
called editorially for action on housing for veterans. In mid-May 
some 500 students gathered in the Armory to voice their "demand 
for a new Ohio Union." Mildred Rankin, Student Senate 
president, declared: "We want this to be more than just a 
building. We want it to be a war memorial. We want it to 
be a student recreation center as well as a rehabilitation center 
for returning veterans." 

On May 28 the campus held a memorial service for veterans 
of both World War I and World War II. A V-E Memorial 
edition of the Alumni Monthly carried the names of 475 then 
known University war dead, with a brief biographical sketch 
of each. (This was to grow, as noted, to a total of 699.) 

That same month, a member of the history department, 
LeRoy P. Graf, in a "This Week" current events talk over 
WOSU, predicted that future relations with Russia might be 
a peacetime problem. He based his judgment on "the apparent 
worsening of relations between the Russians and the nations 
with whom she has won the European war." How right he 
was time was to tell only too well. 

6. Three Observances Held 

Three special observances were held on the campus in 
the spring of 1945. One was a memorial service for President 
Franklin D. Roosevelt, one was a celebration of a false report 
of V-E Day, and the third was that of the real V-E Day. 

The Roosevelt memorial service was held April 13 in front 
of the Library. Fifteen minutes' of chimes music was followed 
by talks by President Bevis, Arts College Dean Harlan H. 



LOOKING TO THE POST-WAR YEARS 215 

Hatcher, and A. Lovell Elliott Jr., senior class president. The 
program, broadcast over WOSU, closed with "Taps" from 
the balcony of the Library. 

All signs were that the beaten Germans were about to 
give up. The false V-E Day report was widely circulated April 
28 but this was denied quickly. It was reminiscent of the 
false World War I armistice report of November 7, 1918. Vice 
President Stradley re-emphasized May 1 that when the real 
V-E Day came the campus program would be "one of thanks- 
giving, not of celebration." On May 7, when the "real" day 
came the Lantern issued an "extra" crying "GERMANY 
OUT— HITLER'S WAR LOST," and telling of the Germans' 
unconditional surrender. 

"We properly rejoice at the news of victory in Europe," 
President Bevis said in a statement, "but our happiness over 
this historic achievement needs to be tempered by thoughts 
of our dedication to the tasks ahead. ... To the cause 
of 'education for citizenship,' to a better understanding of our 
problems, both domestic and international, we rededicate Ohio 
State on this day of victory." 

The next day a solemn crowd of students gathered at 9 
a.m. in front of the Library to hear the broadcast of President 
Truman's formal announcement of Germany's capitulation. On 
this occasion Dr. Bevis pointed out: ". . . this is not the 
end of the game. It's just the seventh inning." 

It had been announced that a special memorial-dedicatory 
edition of the Alumni Monthly would be published thirty days 
after V-E Day. The well-known alumnus-cartoonist. Milt Canifif, 
'30 promised to do the cover. Incomplete figures released several 
weeks earlier from the Alumni Records Division showed these 
current totals: in service, 14,332; dead, 375; missing, 89; 
prisoners, 83. 

Another small straw in the wind of changing times took 
form February 13, 1945 when the Ohio Union Board of Over- 
seers voted to relax the longstanding rule forbidding women 



216 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Students admission to the Ohio Union lounge. By contrast, 
Pomerene Hall, the women's building, had long since made 
its lounges available to men, especially servicemen. 

In the fore part of 1945 the campus was doing a good deal of 
soul searching and probing into the future. Under the heading of 
"Crystal Ball," the Lantern looked into the future editorially. 
Among other early items which it foresaw were a new student 
union, a better music building, more adequate space for the 
College of Agriculture, an enlarged library, and a field house. 
All of these things came about in the next decade or so, 
especially the badly needed union and the field house. As it 
turned out also, as noted, a new music building was the first 
major item in the post-war building program. 

Early in 1945 the University took further steps to ease the 
adjustment of returning GI's to campus life and academic re- 
quirements. To this end the Faculty Council recommended that 
Faculty Rule 304 be amended and the Trustees approved this 
at their March 4, 1945 meeting. Under the amended rule, as 
noted, a demobilized student who withdrew from the Univer- 
sity between September 16, 1940 and the end of hostilities 
could, with the approval of the dean of his college and the 
GI coordinator, elect to cancel "all D and E grades" he might 
have gotten up to two quarters prior to his withdrawal. 

Further, the first quarter back in residence, as indicated, 
was recognized as "an adjustment period" for each demobilized 
student. At its close, again with the approval of his dean and 
the coordinator, he could elect to cancel "all D and E grades 
which he earned during the period." The Trustees had approved 
this at their June 5, 1944 meeting. The so-called adjustment 
period ended automatically with the close of such a quarter, 
but could be extended for an additional quarter. 

It was provided, however, that these recommendations did 
not apply to "the Graduate School or professional colleges 
insofar so they conflict with established professional regulations 
and criteria." It was necessary also to define "demobilized stu- 



LOOKING TO THE POST-WAR YEARS 217 

dent." This was interpreted to mean any student who had 
served in the U.S. Armed Forces or the auxiliary services after 
September 16, 1940, or in the Merchant Marine, or in the armed 
services or merchant marine of U.S. allies. It applied also to 
anyone "whose academic education has been otherwise inter- 
rupted because of the war" for at least nine consecutive months 
immediately before he returned to or entered the University. 
Upon Faculty Council recommendation the Trustees took 
another "tempering" action at their April 16, 1945 meeting 
when they approved a further rule change permitting a student 
who had received a D or E in a course to repeat such a 
course for credit. For this he must have the approval of his 
college. In no case, however, could a student who had a 
B or C in a course repeat it to get a higher grade. 

7. Annual Reports for 1943-44 and 1944-45 

The seventy-fourth annual report, for 1943-44, was much 
briefer than that for the previous year — thirty-two pages as 
against fifty-two. As President Bevis said in the foreword, 
this report could have been as large as the former "But the 
narrative would largely be the same as the reports for the 
two previous years, except for new statistics and new names." 
During the year, he emphasized, the University had continued 
"to give first consideration to its responsibilities and its oppor- 
tunities to assist in the prosecution of the war." (Portions 
relating to most matters dealt with here earlier are omitted.) 

At some future time, added, "a full report of Ohio State's 
work in the war will be prepared and printed. Then it will 
be possible to include even the most important contributions 
which today still must be surrounded with secrecy, lest their 
revelation give aid to the enemy." 

Continuing a policy of underscoring "some one phase" of 
University activity in each annual report, the emphasis in the 
'43-44 report was on "the better coordination of all our agencies 
of student relationships." This was not only in terms of 



218 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

wartime conditions but in anticipation of the day when peace 
would return and with it a horde of new students on a scale 
undreamed of in earHer years. The report also stressed "deepest 
appreciation to the Governor, the members of the General 
Assembly, and other state officials for their constant interest 
and encouragement." It expressed gratitude to the members 
of the Inter-University Council "for their spirit of co-operation 
which is helping to carry forward state-supported higher educa- 
tion with increasing opportunities for our young people." Ap- 
preciation was voiced also to the Trustees, to other University 
officials, to members of the staff and to students and their 
parents. 

Major staff changes during the year, including an additional 
vice president, were made with a view to better coordination 
of student relations, including such phases as matriculation, 
registration, campus organizations, health service, guidance, and 
student employment. In turn, the president reviewed the func- 
tions of the agencies dealing with students: the Entrance Board, 
"the 'open door' through which the prospective student usually 
makes his first contact with the University"; the Registrar's 
office through which "run all the threads woven into the 
pattern which makes up the college life of a student at Ohio 
State University" — from admission to after graduation; the of- 
fices of the dean of men and of women, dealing with personal re- 
lationships, activities and housing; the Junior Council charged, 
collectively and individually, with the duty "of advising students 
on problems of many kinds"; the Personnel Council which 
correlates "the many and varied services of the University to 
its students"; the Health Service "responsible for medical serv- 
ice and personal health guidance" of students; the Occupational 
Opportunities Service designed "to aid the various campus 
personnel offices" in the educational and vocational guidance 
of students, and the Student Employment Office, actually a 
"financial aids" office dealing with employment, scholarships 
and loans. 



LOOKING TO THE POST-WAR YEARS 219 

Some of these functions and agencies were comparatively 
new or had expanded rapidly in recent years. All were affected, 
in one way or another, by the war or had to solve problems 
created by the war. For example, after June 13, 1943 the Reg- 
istrar's office had to handle the records of the A.S.T.P. unit, 
one of the three largest in the country. When the War De- 
partment in March, 1944 suddenly transferred these men to 
combat assignments, that office "in record time, reported the 
grades of each student, with copies for the coordinator of the 
program, for the student, and for Washington." Similarly a 
booklet prepared by the Registrar's office giving the University's 
evaluation of A.S.T.P. courses was "in great demand by AST? 
students all over the United States and by registrars of other 
universities." 

In addition to his normal duties Dean of Men Park served 
as Selective Service coordinator for the University. In three 
years his office had handled more than 6000 cases relating to 
student draft status. By the end of the 1943-44 school year 
the number of active cases was down to 450 "as Selective 
Service requirements grew more rigid." Many of these cases 
required personal conferences with the registrants and coopera- 
tion with state Selective Service headquarters as well as with 
local boards. 

When on June 12, 1943 the campus women's dormitories 
were taken over for Army use the dean of men's office had 
the responsibility of operating them as well as the regular 
men's facilities which also were converted to military use. Ten 
months later, when the number of A.S.T.P. men was reduced 
sharply, as noted, the thirteen fraternity houses which had 
been diverted to Army use were released along with several 
dormitories. Among other activities this office administered stu- 
dent loans, including those from the dean's emergency fund, 
participation in the operation of the International House for 
foreign men students, the monthly "Prexy's Hour," the student 
Veterans' Association, and the Men's Housing Bureau. 



Its 



THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 



The dean of women's office continued to have wartime 
problems also. A major housing problem had resulted from the 
three women's dormitories — Can field, Mack and Neil Halls — 
being diverted to Army and Navy use. Some of this need was 
met by University Houses, private homes accommodating five 
or more women students, and by taking over thirteen frater- 
nity houses called substitute residences. While all of this 
served a purpose the report called them "makeshift arrange- 
ments." There were also three co-operative houses — the Alumnae 
Scholarship House for women of high scholastic attainment 
and economic need; and the W.S.G.A. Club and the Ann 
Tweedale House "for good students of junior, senior, and 
graduate rank who have financial need." 

Because of the special wartime load the University Health 
Service program had to be modified accordingly. The dispen- 
sary was still housed in inadequate quarters in Hayes Hall. 
Nevertheless it serviced more than 68,000 calls to regular stu- 
dents and those in the Armed Forces campus units during the 
year. About three-fourths of these were for A.S.T.P. members. 
A 16-bed infirmary was set up in the basement of Baker Hall 
but this was closed in March, 1944 when the A.S.T.P. unit was 
greatly reduced in size. 

Despite the comparatively low wartime enrollment, the Stu- 
dent Employment office was busy. In eleven months it gave 
more than 5000 interviews and placed 2811 applicants in 2215 
jobs. The students' net earnings from this source were put at 
$433,845.16. In addition, the office referred 415 persons during 
the year to prospective employers. Of those referred 312 were 
placed. 

"War work of various kinds," Dr. Bevis said in reviewing 
the year, "reached new peaks, and to all of these projects our 
staff and our students have devoted themselves unselfishly and 
enthusiastically. But the pattern of our war activities had been 
set in the two previous years. With the routine established, we 



LOOKING TO THE POST-WAR YEARS 221 

have found it possible the past 12 months to devote our thinking 
more largely to the tasks ahead and to the postw^ar years." 

He cited two developments toward this end. One was the 
conference of off-campus leaders who, he said, "might assist 
us in our thinking and our planning." Participants, as noted, 
included authorities in agriculture, business, industry, labor 
and government. For two days they exchanged "ideas on the 
responsibilities of the University in the years ahead." The other 
agency was the University Post-War Committee. It continued 
"its exhaustive study of all University functions as they relate 
to future educational problems." 

The president called attention to the new curricula intro- 
duced during the year, "most of them having some implications 
for meeting needs arising from the war." In recognition of the 
mounting importance of radio as a tool in education he cited 
the creation of the position of director of radio education to 
which Prof. I. Keith Tyler had been appointed. His three-fold 
function was "to effectively coordinate the University's activi- 
ties in broadcasting, in providing preparation for careers in 
radio, and in radio research." 

The naming and expansion of the University's new airport 
were cited also. On recommendation of Dr. Bevis the Trustees 
on November 1, 1943 named it Don Scott Field in honor 
and memory of the former athlete who died in a bomber crash 
in England on October 1, 1943. 

The development and growth of the Twilight School as 
an "out-of-hours" activity were cited likewise. With evening 
and some Saturday classes. Dr. Bevis commented, "We expect 
that it will serve large numbers of returned veterans." 

On the personnel side there were many changes during the 
year, as indicated: a vice president for student affairs (Stradley), 
a new Arts College dean (Hatcher), a new dean of women 
(Mrs. Conaway), a new acting dean of Education (Mooney), 
and an acting head football coach (Widdoes). Seven new de- 
partmental heads and four acting chairmen were named while 



222 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

five former chairmen remained in teaching capacities. Six veteran 
staff members became emeriti and thirteen died, including sev- 
eral emeriti. 

As the shooting war neared its close during the school year 
1944-45, the University was looking definitely ahead rather than 
back. During those months, as President Bevis noted in the 
seventy-fifth annual report, the University "continued to devote 
its efforts whole-heartedly to the emergency needs of the nation 
— in the classroom, in research, and in public service." He 
pointed out that details of the University's war contributions 
were spelled out in the two previous annual reports and further 
description would "be largely repetitive except for changing 
figures." (Again references to most matters already dealt with 
are omitted here.) Some day, he promised anew, the Uni- 
versity would publish "a full and detailed report of its war 
service." (This volume is in part a keeping of that promise.) 

Just as the campus began to mobilize long before Pearl 
Harbor, he remarked, so was it "studying its peace-time respon- 
sibilities many months before the final shot was fired." In con- 
nection with the preparation for the current annual report the 
ten colleges and the Graduate School were asked to provide 
statements aimed at three questions: "1. In what activities are 
the departments of your college now outstanding, through in- 
struction, research or public service? 2. In what areas do your 
greatest needs and deficiencies exist? 3. What are your pro- 
posals for remedying these deficiencies and improving the work 
of your departments?" 

The replies were incorporated in the report "with only such 
editing" as space made necessary. Actually the report, as finally 
published, was dated August 31, 1946. So Dr. Bevis made this 
observation : 

This report should be read with the understanding that it was 
written while the nation was still at war. When that is done, it 
will be apparent that Ohio State's planning for its post-war role 
was well in hand at an early date. The fact that all of these plans 



LOOKING TO THE POST-WAR YEARS 223 

could not be carried into effect as promptly as might have been 
desired is the result of conditions of manpower and material over 
which the University had no control. The blueprint was ready! 

As of the time the report appeared, he noted, some of the 
deficiencies the colleges had reported were "already remedied, 
others are on the way to solution." Still others had to await 
their turn until finances and other factors permitted. Under 
the circumstances, no effort was made to bring the report up 
to date. Further, because the emphasis was "intended to be 
forward-looking, rather than historical," many campus activi- 
ties had to go unrecorded for the time being. In addition, 
those of some departments which in previous years had been 
described in detail were not reported "although their good 
work has continued." 

He ended the foreword with appreciation "to all who have 
helped to make this another year of achievement and progress" 
for the University — the governor, members of the legislature, 
other state officials, the Trustees, to students and staff members 
"for continuing understanding and support. With the help of 
all these, Ohio State will continue to move forward!" 

One by one, the individual colleges spelled out their sagas 
of the year. For Agriculture, for example, the year past was 
described as "unusual" in that military needs plus the demand 
for production had "taken the great bulk of former students" 
and there were only 156 men in the college during the year. 
In agricultural education, further, because of the war the year 
"saw the smallest attendance of students in the past quarter 
century." In agronomy the enrollment was down from 588 in 
1941-42 to fifty-three in 1944-45. The story was the same else- 
where, except that here and there the enrollment was beginning 
to recover. In botany it was 64 per cent greater than in the 
previous year. In home economics, total class enrollment reached 
"an all time high— 3349." 

With enrollments still down generally some departments 
devoted more time, as in rural economics and rural sociology, 



224 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

"to research and outside service." One result of this was a 
report on "A Post-War Crop and Livestock Pattern for Ohio." 
This was only one of several special studies. Agricultural Ex- 
tension reported a total of 865,454 Victory Gardens in Ohio 
during the year on which 361,221 tons of vegetables were 
raised. A little known fact was that it helped to recruit and 
place 54,205 persons for crop harvesting. Of these 2257 were 
Jamaicans, 200 native Mexicans, 2682 Texas Mexicans, 275 Ala- 
bamans, and 2650 prisoners of war. 

In Arts and Sciences wartime conditions prevailed both in 
terms of enrollment and of special courses geared to the war. 
Fifty-nine staff members were on war leave and only four 
had returned from such service. A special program was set 
up for eight Cuban students for work in languages, phonetics, 
U.S. history and civilization, and in teaching techniques. 

A share of the credit for significant war research, carried on 
by the Research Foundation and the War Research Labora- 
tory, belonged to this college. In chemistry alone five senior 
staff members "contributed heavily" to war research. A major 
part of this was in the expanded cryogenic laboratory. The 
U.S. Navy was also using on certain fighting ships materials 
developed in campus laboratories under Prof. Wallace Erode. 
In physics significant work was carried on in the radiation 
laboratory. Similarly, more than half of the geology staff was 
engaged in war work. 

A number of developments marked the year in the dental 
college. In October, 1944 it began a course for the training 
of dental hygienists with twenty-one girls enrolled in the two- 
year program leading to a certificate and three in the four-year 
curriculum leading to a degree. In June, 1945 the college offered 
eight postgraduate courses with a registration of sixty-one den- 
tists. The college also made its facilities available freely for 
refresher courses for dentists leaving the Armed Forces. It likewise 
entered into a cooperative program with the State Department 
of Welfare to meet the needs of inmates of state institutions. 



LOOKING TO THE POST-WAR YEARS 225 

In the College of Education the former departments of fine 
arts and music became schools. A new curriculum leading to 
the Bachelor of Music degree was adopted. In fine and applied 
arts plans were nearing completion for a ceramic production 
laboratory to train designers. During the year eleven students 
received degrees in occupational therapy, the first such in the 
University's history. 

Eleven major school-building surveys were completed with 
the cooperation of or under the direction of the Educational Re- 
search Bureau. Through its policy committee the college faculty 
developed a summary statement of policies "to give direction 
to the college and its administrative units in decisions on funda- 
mental problems." Because of the freeze on building the college 
was still using the onetime Athletic House and the old former 
presidents' house on High St. for teaching purposes. Fine arts, 
likewise, was still cramped in ancient Hayes Hall. Both areas 
were to get relief in the first of the post-war building program. 

Activities in the College of Engineering fell into four cate- 
gories: "a) giving adequate service to the teaching needs of 
the military, b) maintaining schedules for the upperclassmen 
enrolled in the several curricula, c) providing staff and facili- 
ties for the heavy program of war research, and d) planning 
in detail the new five-year curricula which will be mandatory 
... in the autumn of 1945." Of these, the impending shift to 
a 5-year program in all engineering curricula was perhaps the 
most significant. 

On this point the report commented: "After long considera- 
tion, the college faculty realized the impossibility of compressing 
the technical and the social studies within the framework of 
four years of undergraduate study . . ." The revised program 
would have "a base structure" of eighty-four hours of "funda- 
mentals" — mathematics, drawing, chemistry, physics, fifty-one 
hours of "broadening" such as economics, political science, 
psychology, history, etc., nineteen hours of "general," including 
military and physical education, and 120 to 126 hours of depart- 



226 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

mental specialization, for a total of 274 to 280 hours. But a 
student showing "special academic aptitude" could also earn 
a master's degree at the end of the five years. Other develop- 
ments included accreditation of the department of architecture, 
and a new ceramic curriculum in glass technology. 

Matters were somewhat different in the College of Law 
with a limited enrollment because of the war. The report 
noted that in recent years the college had "sought to integrate 
its work more effectively with both pre-law training and 
post-law school experience." It was desirous also of establishing 
a Bureau of Governmental and Legal Research in order to 
give all senior students "realistic experiences in research on 
governmental problems." This would supplement the experience 
in practice through the Legal Aid Clinic. And anticipating the 
heavy post-war enrollments tentative plans were to limit the 
number of beginning law students to 150 a year in accord with 
available facilities and resources of the college. 

The College of Medicine during the year underwent prob- 
ably the most extensive and far-reaching changes of any of the 
colleges. This centered in the creation of the new Medical 
Health Center to serve the entire state. It involved administra- 
tive reorganization, teaching and research personnel, curriculum 
changes, research and other matters. Besides a new dean (Doan), 
the college got a junior dean. This new position went to Dr. 
George H. Ruggy. Louis B. Blair was made superintendent 
of the hospital. 

A new department of obstetrics and gynecology was created 
with Dr. P. J. Reel as chairman. In other staff changes Dr. 
Jonathan Forman was made professor of the history of medi- 
cine, a new chair. Part-time faculty appointments went to 
Dr. Frank Tallman, commissioner of mental diseases in the 
Department of Public Welfare, to Dr. Roger Heering, the 
new state director of health, and to Dr. William L. Potts, 
new director of the Tuberculosis Sanitorium. 

A re-evaluation of the premedical and medical curricula was 



LOOKING TO THE POST-WAR YEARS 227 

being studied. The School of Nursing was returning to the 
four-year curriculum leading to a B.Sc. degree. Attention was 
already being given to the need for refresher courses for re- 
turning physician veterans. A Division of Cancer Research was 
created with Dean Doan as director and Dr. Herman Hoster 
as associate director. Ironically Dr. Hoster some years later 
was to be the victim of a form of cancer. 

Important research was going on in two other areas of 
medicine. One was the major study of high altitude physiology, 
already noted, carried on by Prof. F. A. Hitchcock, with a 
newly built decompression chamber. This was under contract 
with the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development. 
It was being done under close cooperation with the aeronauti- 
cal laboratory at Wright Field and other agencies. The other 
project was a continuation of studies by Dr. George M. Curtis, 
head of surgical research, in iodine metabolism and related 
fields. A major step, which portended great things for the 
future, as indicated, was the legislative appropriation of an 
initial grant of $5 million to create a medical health center on 
the campus. 

Like Medicine and Dentistry, Veterinary Medicine had been 
on an accelerated program during the war. Between the summer 
of 1942 and June, 1945 the college had graduated 242 veteri- 
narians. But anticipating that the needs of the Army would be 
met by those already admitted, the college began a deceleration 
program by not admitting a freshman class until the start of 
the Autumn Quarter, 1945. It developed also a refresher pro- 
gram for veterinarians returning from military service. 

The report of the Graduate School, it was pointed out, 

necessarily overlapped those of the colleges and departments. 

It stressed activity in six areas as follows: 

The Radiation Laboratory where "more and more cooperative 
investigations on the borderland between the physical and biologi- 
cal sciences" were in progress. Specific items included the construc- 
tion of a small betatron, creation of a special laboratory to house 



228 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

the cyclotron, a legislative grant of $180,000 to house the large 
betatron and million-volt X-ray unit, a gift of $25,000 from Re- 
public Steel Corp. to buy equipment for an industrial X-ray unit, 
another gift by Franz Theodore Stone for medical research by Dr. 
William G. Myers, using radioactive salts obtained from the cyclo- 
tron, and special fellowships in electron optics. 

The Cryogenic Laboratory, "significantly expanded and im- 
proved during the war," with its activities during the year "de- 
voted exclusively to war work" so that no detailed report could be 
made. This activity had developed into "one of the very best cryo- 
genic laboratories in America." 

Radio Optics — developed in electrical engineering for branches 
of the Armed Forces. Again, because of its secret nature, no details 
were available. But the program was described as "outstanding 
and very significant" with "peacetime as well as wartime meaning." 

Child Welfare Center — to investigate "the best methods of con- 
serving and developing child life; providing for the dissemination 
of information on child care and child welfare; . . ." 

Social Science Cooperative Research — a combined effort by in- 
terested departments in a complex field. 

Center for Research in Vision — cutting across departmental 
lines, intended as a cooperative undertaking, for which the Devel- 
opment Fund was seeking gifts, but hampered by interdepartmen- 
tal difficulties. 

Endowment for Research in Dairy Technology — for which the 
Development Fund had raised $100,000. 

Despite the fact that the shooting war was still on as the 
school year closed, Dr. Bevis called attention to the fact that 
"the enrollment had started to move upward" and that this 
"momentum" shortly would carry "the student body to new 
record proportions a few months later." He recalled also that 
this was the University's 75th year but "the anniversary passed 
without special celebration." It was also the 25th year for 
WOSU and a quarter of a century "of regular broadcasting." 
The year also saw the granting of the 60,000th diploma to 
Fenton J. West, of Huntington, W.Va. 



F 



X 

THE COST IN BLOOD* 
1. Pearl Harbor 

"^'ciiREs tell only part of the story, but they are a measure 
of the price in human blood and effort the University — 
students, faculty and alumni — paid toward winning the 
war. The first of hundreds of such payments were made, in 
fact, at Pearl Harbor when four Ohio State men went down 
with their ships in the Japanese sneak attack on the great 
Pacific naval base. They were the first of 699 in all who com- 
prise the University's Honor Roll in World War II. 

World War I was not in fact a global conflict while World 
War II was. For this and other reasons the number of Uni- 
versity men and women who took part was far greater in 
the latter war. The exact number may never be known but 
the total is estimated at 18,000 as against 6561 in World War I. 

The four who died at Pearl Harbor were Fl/C John T. 
Blackburn, w'42, of Columbus; Ens. William I. Halloran, '38, 
Cleveland; Ens. James Haverfield, '39, of Uhrichsville; and 
MMl/C Robert R. Scott, w'41, of Massillon. All four literally 
died heroes' deaths. 

Blackburn was serving on the U.S.S. Utah and had enlisted 
in the Navy fourteen months earlier. His commanding officer 
wrote of him later: "John died a hero. He stayed at his post 
until it was too late to save himself." 

Halloran, too, a member of the Naval Reserve, had re-entered 
the service voluntarily in September, 1940. He went down on 
the Arizona with 1000 or more of her crew. She never was 
raised and continues to be carried on the Navy's roster of active 

* A roster of the University's World War II dead follows as Appendix A. 

229 



230 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

ships. She is a permanent memorial to those who died at 
Pearl Harbor. 

Three days before that "day of infamy," Halloran posted a 
Christmas card to a faculty friend on the campus. It was 
marked "U.S.S. Arizona at sea December 4, 1941" and arrived 
three weeks after the attack. The trade paper Editor &- Publisher 
called Halloran the first U.S. newspaperman to die in the war. 

Word of Haverfield's death came on December 11. His 
parents received a telegram from the Navy Department to the 
effect that he was "missing in action" and had "gone down 
with his ship." This also was the Arizona. 

Scott was the only Ohio State man in either World War I 
or World War II to win the Medal of Honor. His station was 
in an air compressor room on the battleship California whose 
equipment was essential to firing her big guns. He was drowned. 

To anticipate, in time the Navy named new warships in 
honor of Halloran, Haverfield and Scott. In August, 1943 a 
Navy destroyer, christened the Haverfield, was launched at 
Houston, Texas. Late that year the Navy announced that a 
destroyer escort, then under construction, would be named the 
Halloran. Another destroyer escort was named similarly in 
Scott's honor. Long afterward, in 1963, these four men were 
among the dead of two wars in whose honor new dormitories 
were named in the new North Complex, north of Woodruff 
Ave. 

Five days after Pearl Harbor, Ens. William C. May, '39 
was killed in the crash of a Navy bomber in Virginia. He and 
Halloran were both graduates of the School of Journalism. 
May's home was in Detroit. 

The December, 1941 issue of the Alumni Monthly was ready 
for the press when the news of Pearl Harbor came. It was made 
over at once in an effort "to cover the war angle." It listed 
108 alumni in the Pacific war zone — eleven in Japan, thirty-one 
each in the Philippines, China and Hawaii, two in Malaya, 
and one each on Formosa and Guam. Of the eleven in Japan 



THE COST IN BLOOD 231 

nine were native Japanese. Many of those known to be in 
Hawaii were in military service. As a foretaste of what was 
to come, the Alumni office estimated that "at least 2500 gradu- 
ates" were in various brances of military service. The Monthly 
ran a complete list of alumni "known to be in the war 
zone." 

Its January, 1942 issue carried four names in the first "Roll 
of Honor." Three of them were those of Halloran, Haverfield, 
and May. The fourth proved to be in error. 

2. The Honor Roll 

In the early summer of 1942 plans were announced to erect 
a huge Honor Roll in the Administration Building lobby to 
carry the names of all Ohio Staters in the armed services. The 
list was to be revised regularly with new names added as 
they became available. This was reminiscent, in a way, of the 
giant service flag put together in World War I with a star 
for each Ohio Stater in service. This had been displayed on 
the east front of the Library. When this flag was dedicated 
on May 25, 1918, it contained 2640 stars. 

In time some 17,000 names comprised the known World War 
II list, and such a display proved impracticable in the Admin- 
istration Building. Instead, a bulletin board Honor Roll was 
erected at the east end of the Oval. This carried the legend, 
"Ohio State University In the Services," with a grand total 
figure and supplementary figures for the dead, the missing, 
and prisoners. This was updated from time to time as new 
information and figures reached the Alumni Records Division. 

As of July 17, 1946, the Honor Roll board showed these 
figures: Service Count, 17,198; War Dead, 677; Missing, 12; 
Prisoner, 2. 

As the real Honor Roll mounted in the autumn of 1942 
the University not only bent every effort to make its records 
of its men and women in service complete but added a personal 
touch. This was in the form of a printed memorial, signed by 



232 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

President Bevis, and sent to the next of kin in each case. The 
memorial read: 

THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY 

EXPRESSES TO YOU ITS PRIDE IN THE VALIANT SERVICE 
TO HIS COUNTRY OF 

ENSIGN WILLIAM I. HALLORAN 

HE WAS PREPARED TO ADVANCE ITS WELFARE IN 
PEACE; HE WAS READY TO DEFEND ITS HERITAGE 
IN WAR. THE SACRIFICE HE HAS MADE IN THE CAUSE 
OF FREEDOM BECOMES A PART OF THE TRADITION 
WHICH HAS INSPIRED AMERICAN CITIZENS AND 
KEPT OUR COUNTRY FREE. 

THE UNIVERSITY EXTENDS ITS DEEPEST SYMPATHY 
AS IT ENSHRINES HIS NAME ON ITS HIGHEST ROLL 
OF HONOR. 

Howard L. Bevis 

President 
(Seal) 

As of October, 1942, the war section of the Alumni Records 
division had the names of 2086 Ohio State men and women 
in service. This v^^as an increase of more than 500 since July. 
It was known, however, that many names were still missing 
and that the total then was probably in excess of 4000. 

Through September 24, 1942 the list of names on the 
Honor Roll had grown to forty-eight killed or missing in 
action. These casualties included the names of those lost in 
airplane accidents or otherwise in line of duty. One of the 
missing was Maj. A. B. Barrows, 36, U.S.M.C., son of Prof. 
William M. Barrows, of zoology and entomology. Maj. Barrows 
was at Pearl Harbor when the Japanese struck, had then gone 
to Alaska and was believed to have been on his way to the 
United States on a 15-day leave. He was on a plane carrying 
fourteen men which vanished August 16 between Kodiak and 
Whitehcrse. The first word had come, meanwhile, from four 
Ohio State men held prisoners by the Japanese. 



THE COST IN BLOOD 233 

As of April, 1943 fifty-nine Ohio Staters were known to have 
lost their lives in the war. The Records division meanwhile 
had 4989 authentic military addresses for alumni and former 
students in service. Of those listed, 3989 were in the Army, 
922 in the Navy, sixty-six in the Marine Corps, and twelve 
who did not indicate their branch of service. The total included 
thirty-one women in the WAACs, twenty-one in the WAVEs 
and the SPARs, and one in the Marine Corps. Officers in all 
branches outnumbered enlisted men 2922 to 2067. 

As of November 20, 1943 it was estimated that more than 
10,000 Ohio State men and women were in service. The 
Records division as of that date had 6394 official service ad- 
dresses, or within 200 of the grand total for World War I, 
and with thousands of names still to be added to the current 
roster. 

The current count as classified showed: Army, 4991; Navy, 
1290; Marine Corps, 102; Red Cross, 38.* Among the total 
were 184 women of whom 38 were nurses, 48 WACs, 50 
WAVEs, 7 SPARs, 1 Marine, 27 Red Cross, and 13 miscel- 
laneous, including dietitians. In addition, 295 faculty and staff 
members were officially on leave for war service. 

The final phases of the war were reflected in the mounting 
casualty lists, the growing number of missing and even the 
reappearance of some who had been reported missing. The 
February, 1944 Monthly reported a new total of 135 known 
University war dead, thirteen in the last month. The revised 
list named twenty-four men as missing in action, forty-six as 
prisoners of war, and 331 names added to the service roster, 
for a total of 7022. A re-check of those listed earlier as 
missing revealed that they were dead. Six others, previously 
missing, were alive but prisoners of war. 

The first faculty member known to have been wounded 
was Maj. Herman C. Nolen, on leave from business organi- 
zation. He was on the staff of the U.S. Military Government 

* The slight discrepancy in total figures was not explained. 



234 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

in Sicily when German planes strafed a nearby ammunition 
dump. After the war he returned to the campus and subse- 
quently became president of an important pharmaceutical firm. 

As of October, 1944 it was estimated that one-third of all 
male graduates and former students of the University listed 
in the Alumni files were in the armed services. At that time 
the campus service figure stood at 12,292, of whom 357 were 
women. 

The first Ohio State alumna known to have died in service 
was Alice Rebecca (Becky) Raney, '39. She was an Army 
nurse and became ill in England. She returned to America 
and died June 20, 1944 in a military hospital in New York. 
Burial was at Eaton, Ohio. 

Eight Ohio State families each received two gold stars 
because of having lost two sons during World II. Similarly, 
four faculty and staff families each lost a son in combat. The 
double gold star families were: 

Mr. and Mrs. David H. Billups, Columbus: Capt. Harold 
Billups, Arts w'43, killed February 23, 1945 on a flight over 
the Egyptian Sudan, and Lt. Ralph E. Billups, Agr. w'41, who 
died in April, 1943 in aerial action in North Africa. Both were in 
the Army Air Corps. At the time of his death, Capt. Harold 
Billups was chief regional pilot at Aden. 

Mr. and Mrs. Warren Griffiths, Columbus: Pfc. Charles W. 
Griffiths, Com. '31, and T/Sgt. Warren D. Griffiths, Com. 
w'43. Both were in the Army. Charles Griffiths, who was 
married, was killed in an automobile accident near Marseilles, 
France, while serving with a tank battalion. He was very 
active as an undergraduate and was manager of the 1930 
Varsity football team. Warren Griffiths, with a medical head- 
quarters unit, was killed December 6, 1944 in southern England 
by the explosion of a flying bomb. 

Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Houck, of Columbus and Spring- 
field: Lt, Edwin R. Houck, Com. '38, A.A.C., and Lt. Ernest 



THE COST IN BLOOD 235 

C. Houck, Engr. '38, Navy. The Houcks were the first Ohio 
State family known to have lost tw^o sons in the v^'ar. Lt. 
Edwin Houck was the navigator of a Liberator bomber, based 
in Italy, which crash landed in the Gulf of Trieste after 
being shot up on December 9, 1944 on a bombing mission 
over Vienna. His brother died in the crash of a Navy plane 
on March 31, 1943 near Floyd Bennett Field, N.Y. Lt. Edwin 
Houck was married. 

Mr. and Mrs. Claude D. Mervyn, of Niles: 1st Lt. Richard 
C. Mervyn, Engr. w'44, A.A.C., and Lt. Robert D. Mervyn, 
Com. w'42. Army. The former died on April 14, 1945 near 
Mulhausen, Germany, when his Troop Carrier Command plane 
crashed into a moutainside. It was on a mission to evacuate 
American wounded. He had won the Air Medal with four 
clusters, seven battle stars, and two Presidential citations. Five 
months earlier, on November 20, 1944, his older brother Robert 
had been killed in Germay while serving as a battalion intel- 
ligence officer. Robert was married. 

Mr. and Mrs. Clarence G. Seeds, of Hilliards: Lt. George L. 
Seeds, Engr. w'46, Army, and T/Sgt. Robert C. Seeds, Agr. 
'38, also Army. Lt. George Seeds was killed on Christmas Day, 
1944 when a bomb exploded in his plane as it was about to 
take off from a base in France. His older brother Robert was 
killed some three months earlier on September 12, 1944 while 
leading his infantry platoon into action in Italy. Also surviving 
Robert were his widow and an infant son. 

Mr. and Mrs. Fred Sharpies, Warsaw, O.: Sgt. Robert P. 
Sharpies, Agr. w'44, and Lt. Russell M. Sharpies, Agr. '41. 
Both were in the A.A.C. Sgt. Robert Sharpies was engineer- 
gunner on a B-29 Superfortress which on June 6, 1944, on its 
way back to a base in China after its first bombing mission 
over Japan, crashed into a mountain. Sixteen days later and 
half a world away, his brother Russell died over Hungary. A 
bombardier, he was Hsted first as missing in action. He had 



236 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

flown thirty-one combat missions and held the Air Medal 
with clusters, a Presidential citation, and the Purple Heart. 
His widow also survived. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lester Stoneburner, of Columbus: Pfc. Earl 
R. Stoneburner, Arts w'45, Army, and Lt. William N. Stone- 
burner, Engr. w'43, A.A.C. The former was killed in action 
on April 8, 1945 while serving with the infantry in Germany. 
He had arrived overseas only four weeks earlier. His brother 
William was first reported missing on October 17, 1943 when 
his Flying Fortress failed to return from a bombing mission 
over Germany. He was declared dead ofl5cially a year later. 

Mr. and Mrs. George Zieske, of Geneva: 1st. Lt. Clarence E. 
Zieske, '42, A.A.C, and Lt. Vernon L. Zieske, Arts, '41, A.A.C. 
The former was pilot of a Mustang fighter plane and was 
killed on August 12, 1944 in action over France. He had been 
overseas only two months. A few days after his death his 
widow gave birth to a son. Lt. Vernon Zieske was pilot of a 
P-47 Thunderbolt. He died on January 26, 1945 in action over 
Belgium. Both brothers had been Varsity football managers, 
the one succeeding the other. 

The four faculty and staff casualties were: 

Maj. Arthur B. Barrows, Arts, 36, son of Prof, and Mrs. 
W. M. Barrows, Maj. Barrows was first listed as missing in a 
plane crash near Alaska in August, 1942. The Navy declared 
him dead a year later. His father was a senior member of the 
zoology faculty. 

Pfc. Robert M. Bennett, Com. w'44, son of Dr. and Mrs. 
Raymond D. Bennett. He was killed in action in Belgium in 
January, 1945. His father was secretary of the College of Edu- 
cation. 

Lt. Richard R. DeSelm, Edu. '40, son of Mrs. Helen DeSelm, 
librarian, Orton Memorial library. He was killed in action in 
Italy in September, 1944. He was previously wounded in action 
there in May of that year. . 

Lt. (j.g.) William A. Evans, Engr. '40, son of Prof. Emeritus 



THE COST IN BLOOD 237 

and Mrs. William Lloyd Evans. He was lost aboard die sub- 
marine Tullibee in October, 1944 in Japanese waters while on 
its fourth mission. Dr. Evans was the longtime head of the 
chemistry department. 

5. Honors and Awards 

The first University family known to have lost two sons in 
World War II, as noted, was the Houck family of Columbus 
and Springfield. Two of the three Houck brothers died in 
plane crashes — Lt. Ernest C. Houck and Lt. Edwin R. Houck, 
both '38. The third brother, Lt. (j.g.) Roger L. Houck, was 
on a Navy subchaser and served in both the Atlantic and the 
Pacific. Three Houck sisters were all in the Army Nurse Corps. 

By mid-1944, 138 Medals of Honor, the nation's highest 
award, had been won in World War II. One of the fifty that 
went to Navy men was awarded, as indicated, to Robert R. 
(Bob) Scott, w'41. He attended the University during part 
of the 1936-37 school year but lack of funds compelled him 
to withdraw. He enlisted in the Navy, attended specialists' 
school and won the rating of machinist's mate, first class 
(MMl/C). 

At Pearl Harbor, he was on duty below decks on the 
U.S.S. California. He was the first Massillon man to die for 
his country in World War II. His mother received the Medal 
of Honor and the citation, signed by President Roosevelt, from 
Navy Secretary Frank Knox. The citation read: 

For conspicuous devotion to duty, extraordinary courage, and 
complete disregard of his own life, above and beyond the call of 
duty, during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor, Territory 
of Hawaii, by Japanese Forces on December 7, 1941. The com- 
partment in the U.S.S. California, in which the air compressor 
to which Scott was assigned as his battle station, was flooded as 
the result of a torpedo hit. The remainder of the personnel evacu- 
ated that compartment but Scott refused to leave, saying words 
to the effect: "This is my station and I will stay and give them 
air as long the guns are going." 

. (Signed) F. D. Roosevelt 



238 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Two Regular Army officers who had served with the campus 
R.O.T.C. were among the Bataan casualties. They were Maj. 
Allan E. Smith, F.A., on duty here from August, 1937 to 
October, 1941, and Maj. Halstead C. Fowler, F.A., here from 
June, 1939 to February, 1941. Both had arrived in the Philippines 
only a few days before the Japanese struck Pearl Harbor. Maj. 
Smith was reported killed in action during the fall of Bataan. 
Maj. Smith was listed as wounded and captured there. 

Lt. Sidney P. Brooks, Com. w'42, was the first Negro fighter 
pilot from Ohio State to give his life. He died September 19, 

1943 in aerial action over North Africa. Previously he had 
won the Air Medal, with an oak leaf cluster. His home was 
in Cleveland. 

The wartime thoughts of young men and women turned 
to many things. While recovering from wounds in a hospital 
in the spring of 1944, those of Lieut. Richard R. DeSelm, '40, 
turned to the University. He was in the hospital for eight 
weeks and his mind went back to his student days, from 1935 
to 1940, when he was working for a degree in music. What 
gave him most satisfaction was his memory of having been a 
member of the original Symphonic Choir, especially when it 
won the nationwide CB.S. "choral quest." 

Six days after he was wounded in the "bloody crossing of 
the Minturn," he wrote to his mother asking her, in case he 
died, to give $1000 of his savings to the University. DeSelm, 
then 26, recovered from his wounds but was killed Sept. 18, 

1944 in later action in Italy. His mother carried out his wishes 
and the income from the money was to be used for an annual 
Richard R. DeSelm scholarship award to a member of the 
Symphonic Choir. He was said to have been the youngest 
person ever to make a bequest to Ohio State. His library of 
choral music was also given to the University. 

Capt. Don F. Scott, w'41, was one of the brightest stars in Ohio 
State's athletic firmament when he joined the Army Air Corps 
in March, 1941. He was a standout quarterback on the football 



THE COST IN BLOOD 239 

teams of '38, 39 and '40, was a guard in basketball, and a 
shotputter in track. Baseball was out because of a leg infection 
in his sophomore year. 

Nine months after he was sworn in he was commissioned 
at Kelly Field, Tex. Operational training at other A.A.C. bases 
followed before he finally went overseas. But late in 1941 a 
pursuit plane swooped low over the campus from the east 
and "buzzed" High St. and fraternity row. Later it was dis- 
closed that Scott was the pilot and this was his way of coming 
home after earning his wings. 

Trouble came to a U.S. bomber he was piloting in dirty 
weather over England on October 1, 1943. It crashed and its 
three occupants, including Scott, died in the crash. Exactly 
a week later his wife gave birth in a Columbus hospital to a 
son who was named Don Sands Scott. October 10 was the 
Scotts' first wedding anniversary. 

Scott, incidentally, was the 100th Ohio State alumnus or 
former student to die in World War II. As of October 20, 1943 
the dread list stood at 103, eleven names having been added 
in the previous month. In November, 1943, as noted, in tribute 
to Scott, the University's new airport was named Don Scott 
Field. 

There was a parallel between Scott and Lt. Fred Norton, '17, 
a World War I flier who died of wounds received in combat 
over the Western Front. Norton won his Varsity "O" in three 
sports, captained the 1917 basketball team and won the Run- 
maker's Cup (baseball) in 1917. He died July 23, 1918 from 
wounds received in action three days earlier. He was awarded 
posthumously both the Distinguished Service Cross and the 
Croix de Guerre with palm for heroism on patrol July 2, 1918. 
Norton Field, an Army Reserve airdrome, east of Columbus 
was dedicated on June 30, 1923. A bronze tablet was erected 
there in his honor and a Columbus American Legion post 
was named for Norton. Norton Field in time became a pri- 
vate field and was taken over later for private housing. 



240 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

In February, 1943 Capt. David Gaede, '40, received his 
diird decoration for "meritorious achievement" in the South 
Pacific. He won the Army Air Medal during the battle of 
Guadalcanal, the Silver Star for action at Midway, and the 
Purple Heart for wounds received in both actions. During the 
battle of the Solomons he jumped into a foxhole when an 
air raid siren sounded. Moments later a first cousin of the 
same surname, whom he had never seen, landed on his 
shoulders. The second Gaede was a Navy medical officer. By 
June, 1943 Gaede had received two more decorations — the oak 
leaf cluster and the Distinguished Flying Cross. The former 
was for his part in a photographic mission during which he 
was badly wounded. The latter was won through 200 combat 
hours in the Pacific area. Gaede was navigator on a B-17 
Flying Fortress. He later was awarded an oak leaf cluster to 
his D.F.C. This was his eighth decoration for bravery. 

From the far Pacific after his ultimate rescue from the 
later famous Kennedy PT-109, Ens. Leonard "Lenny" Thom, 
'42 (Sandusky), sent a pledge to the University Development 
Fund. In the accompanying letter the former Varsity player 
likened the war to a gigantic football game and declared he 
wouldn't have missed it for anything. Thom wrote: 

This is the greatest show on earth — like two great ball teams 
fighting it out — our boys against Tojo's Rising Sons. Service is 
really great for seeing the South Pacific and for action. I am 
enjoying this ringside seat — wouldn't miss it even to go to college 
again, as this too is an education and experience one will never 
forget. But once will be enough. Peace must be lasting and com- 
plete this time. 

The same issue of the Monthly that carried Thom's letter 
also reported his escape from capture by the Japanese. It said 
his "tremendous strength and stamina helped save his life 
after his PT boat had been sunk by a Japanese destroyer." It 
added that he was believed to have returned to active duty 
"after being rescued from a small island where he and 11 



THE COST IN BLOOD 241 

Others spent six days hiding from the Japs. . . . His skipper 
on that brush with death was Lt. John F. Kennedy, son of 
the former American ambassador in London. Kennedy also 
was saved." This was the later President. 

The Lantern of October 22, 1943 carried a somewhat different 
account of this. It said Thom recently had had uncomfortably 
"close brushes with death." It described him as being "in the 
southwest Pacific near the New Georgia islands." It went on 
to say that Thom "had his PT boat sunk from under him 
by a Jap destroyer. When their boat was run down, the gasoline 
ignited and several of the crew were painfully burned. Fortu- 
nately Thom was uninjured. He and eleven other survivors 
took refuge on a small island and spent six days hiding from 
the Japs. After being rescued, it is believed Thom returned 
immediately to active duty." There was no mention of Ken- 
nedy or of how the rescue was effected. 

The emphasis generally was on youth in World War II. 
Exemplifying this fact were two Army Air Corps colonels 
who were home in the fall of 1944 after strenuous tours of 
duty. Both were hardened veterans at twenty-six. One was Col. 
Robert Rowland, Phar, w'38, who had been in the Pacific 
theater. He joined the A.A.C. in 1938, had been on 169 mis- 
sions and had shot down eight Japanese planes. In so doing 
he had won the Silver Star, Distinguished Flying Cross with 
four oak leaf clusters, and the Air Medal with two clusters. 
He was a senior pilot. 

The other was Lt. Col. Robert Levine, Arts, w'39, who had 
been in air combat over Africa, Italy, and France. He had 
been in the A.A.C. for four years, had been on 160 missions 
and was credited with four German planes. His decorations 
included the Silver Star, Distinguished Flying Cross, the Air 
Medal with eleven oak leaf clusters, the Croix de Guerre, and 
a campaign ribbon with five major battle stars. His squadron 
won a Presidential citation. 

One of the alumni most decorated for war service was Lt. 



242 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Col. Thomas C. Chamberlain, '35. A year after graduation 
he entered West Point, and was graduated there in June, 1940. 
He went overseas with the 10th Armored Division, attached 
to Gen. Patton's 3rd Army, as a tank battalion commander. 
Simultaneously he was the recipient of the Silver Star, an 
oak leaf cluster, and the Bronze Star. He received the first for 
breaking through the Siegfried Line and the other two for 
bravery in Luxembourg. 

Not all eligible alumni and former students hurried to 
join the Armed Forces. There was Robert Hegler, '38, a quiet 
conscientious objector, who was relieved of his Selective Service 
obligation to serve as an attendant at Lyons State Hospital, 
in New Jersey. Items from a diary he kept alleging brutal 
treatment of mental patients helped lead to a 7-week official 
investigation which substantiated some of the charges and got 
nationwide publicity. Hegler was there eight months and later 
was charged with being A.W.O.L. He was convicted and re- 
ceived a 3-year sentence to a Federal prison at Danbury, Conn. 
Hegler was 28 at the time. 

A number of alumni were among prisoners of the Japanese 
and were freed with recapture of the Philippines. Among them 
were Dr. and Mrs. Stanton Youngberg who had been held by 
the Japanese since the fall of Manila. Dr. Youngberg, a veteri- 
narian, was a member of the class of '07 and Mrs. Youngberg 
of '08. As with other prisoners, both had lost much weight. 

Another who was liberated was Alva J. Hill, '06, law school 
dean at the College of Manila. His weight was down to 90 
ponuds. William C. Bryant, '02, after three years in prison 
camp, lost 60 pounds. 

4. Women, Families, Strange Meetings 

By the fall of 1943 growing numbers of women from the 
campus were engaged actively in war service in the Armed 
Forces and related agencies. After a year of special study the first 
class of dietitians with academic standing was graduated from 



THE COST IN BLOOD 



243 



University Hospital. Six were going at once into the Army, 
four had another quarter to go before joining the Army. Only 
one was an Ohio State alumna. The Army wanted 700 women 
with such training. 

A brother and sister were commissioned ensigns in the Navy. 
They were Jean Hershberger, '43, and J. P. Hershberger, '42. 
The latter was a former Varsity football player. 

Still another alumna, Dolly Heberding, '41, had the distinc- 
tion of being the first and, as of then, the only woman flight 
inspector of Curtiss-Wright Navy warplanes, Helldivers and 
Seagulls. Although she had 508 hours of flying to her credit 
she did not fly the warplanes. She began as an instructor in 
airplane mechanics for the C.A.P. on the campus, next was 
on active duty with the C.A.P. in Florida for ten months, 
and then became a pre-pilot inspector for Curtiss-Wright. 
Academically she was a bacteriology "major," but became in- 
terested in flying. 

Two other alumnae won their wings in the Army Air 
Corps Transport Command. They were Catherine M. Houser, 
'37, and Mary C. Wilson, w'43. After training in Texas they 
went on active service ferrying emergency plane parts or badly 
needed supplies to one of the five fronts where Americans 
were engaged, or bringing back U.S. wounded. 

And Martha Hart Morrison, w'42, whose husband, Capt. 
John A. W., '39, was killed in a plane crash in Egypt, enlisted 
in the WACs. She turned down a chance to enter a WAC 
officer candidate school, preferring to come up through the 
ranks. 

From incomplete records three Ohio State alumnae are 
known to have won the Bronze Star for meritorious service. 
One was Capt. Lois K. Grant, Edu. '38, chief nurse of the 51st 
Field Hospital. She was said to have been one of the first three 
Army nurses to cross the Rhine after the Remagen bridgehead 
was forced. She had five battle stars on her E.T.O. ribbon. 

The other two known Bronze Star recipients were WACs. 



244 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

They were Lt. Mildred W. Hindman, Arts '24, in France, and 
Sgt.' Eleanor Johnston, Arts w'43, in Italy. 

The James G. Lightburns, of Crestline, won attention in 
the fall of 1943 as an Ail-American family. This was because 
six of their eight children were in active war service. All four 
sons were in the armed services. Six of the eight were alumni 
or former students in the University. The four brothers were: 

Capt. James B. (Ben) Lightburn, '34, with the Persian Gulf 
Service Command. 

1st. Lt. Robert A. Lightburn, '37, Army Medical Corps, San 
Antonio, Tex. 

Lt. Joseph G. Lightburn, '42, on the U.S.S. Denver in the Pa- 
cific. 

1st. Lt. Willis (Bill) Lightburn, w'41, assigned to the Army Air 
Corps in North Africa. 

A younger sister, Jacqueline, was in her junior year in nurses' 
training in Toledo. Another, Mrs. Sara Lightburn Snyder, w'41, 
was the wife of Lt. (j.g.) William H. Snyder, U.S.N. His 
sister, Nancy, in turn, was the wife of Lt. Willis Lightburn. 
Ben's wife, Mary, had been with the overseas branch of the 
Office of War Information but returned home to have her 
first baby. 

Another major war service family was the Alfred M. Calland 
family, of Columbus. Seven of its twelve children were in 
the Armed Forces. Four were sons: 1st Lt. Robert M. Calland, 
w'41, in the Marines; Albert M. Jr., originally in the Ohio 
National Guard but transferred to the A.A.C. as a cadet; 
Pvt. Fred, w'46. Army; and Edward, in the Navy V-12 flight 
training program. One daughter, Dorothy M., '41, was an 
Army nurse in North Africa. Two others, Betty, w'40, and 
Jean, '41, were the wives of service men. 

Another entry for the title of the University's Number One 
service family was that of Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Clifford, of Co- 
lumbus. They had five sons, all in service. Three were graduates 
and two were former students. The sons were: Maj. John M., 
37^ thirty-one months with the Air Transport Command in 



THE COST IN BLOOD 245 

India; Lt. Robert G., '40, with an airborne artillery unit; Sgt. 
Paul W., w'43, in the Atlantic area with an A.P.O. address; 
Ens. Charles E., '43, on sea duty in the Atlantic area; and 
Rad. 3/C Richard J., w'46, in the Pacific area. 

All sorts of strange and unbelievable meetings of Ohio 
Staters occurred in far off places during the war. One of the 
strangest, however, was that of two onetime roommates on the 
campus who met in a German prison camp. They were Lt. 
Eugene Dornbrook, w'41, and Capt. James E. Garvey, '41. They 
met unexpectedly in Stalag Luft No. 3, a German prison 
camp about ninety miles from Berlin. Three other Ohio 
Staters were known to be in the same camp. They were Lt. 
Thomas B. Hobson, w'43, 1st. Lt. Robert B. Hermann, '41, 
and 1st Lt. James L. Cleary, w'36. All were members of the 
A.A.C. In April, 1944 it was learned that Lts. Henry W. 
Kennan, w'42, and Justin R. Jones, w'40, were prisoners in 
this camp also. 

Two brothers, both Ohio Staters, who had not seen each 
other for months and who were in different services, bumped 
into each other on the street in Honolulu late in 1944. One 
was Capt. Clarence Scarbrough, '41, who had commanded a 
tank battalion that had been sent back to Hawaii after heavy 
fighting. The other was Ens. Carroll Scarbrough, also '41. 

Another strange meeting rather late in the war brought 
together Sgt. John Thierman, '39, and Lt. Col. Theodore 
Golden, '31, '35. Thierman broke a collar bone landing with 
glider troops in France on D-Day, June 6, 1944. The glider 
hit a tree. As Thierman described it, he "landed smack in 
the middle of a first aid station" whose director was Dr. 
Golden. Earlier Thierman had broken the same collar bone in 
a parachute jump and still earlier was in a U.S. plane shot 
down in Sicily by American antiaircraft fire. His wife was a 
WAVE. 

An oddity of the war involved C. William O'Neill, a law 
graduate of 1942, who was to be governor of Ohio from 



246 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

1957 to 1959. He enlisted in the Army, was assigned to an 
Engineers' unit and was promoted to technical sergeant. In 
November, 1944 he was elected to the lower house of the 95th 
Ohio General Assembly as representative from Washington 
County. In the early winter he came home from Germany 
where he had been with Gen. Patton's 3rd Army and was 
to return to it at the close of the legislative session. 

5. Flag Officers 

As against three or four in World War I, Ohio State had a 
dozen or more flag officers in World War II, including several 
whose names became household words. Among them were one 
full general — LeMay — , three lieutenant generals, four major gen- 
erals, three brigadier generals, and two rear admirals. 

All had attended the University at one time and a number 
were graduates. All but one or two of them, it is believed, had 
their first military training on the campus. Some had gone 
from the University to West Point where they were graduated 
and received their commissions. A few were veterans of both 
World War I and World War II. 

The best known, of course, was Gen. Curtis E. LeMay 
who left the campus, won his wings, and returned to get his 
degree in 1932. He won world-wide fame as commanding gen- 
eral of the XXth Air Force and at the time of V-J Day was 
chief of staflF of the A.U.S. Strategic Air Forces. He played 
a major role in the heavy bombing of both Germany and Japan 
that hastened the end of the war and brought those foes 
to their knees. He served as commander-in-chief of the Strategic 
Air Command, then as commanding general of the U.S.A.F. in 
Europe, and finally as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. By 
1943 he had attained the permanent rank of major general. 

Alphabetically, by services, the Ohio State flag officers were: 

Army 

Lt. Gen. Robert L. Eichelberger, w'07, an outstanding figure 
in the war in the Pacific, where he commanded the U.S. 8th 



THE COST IN BLOOD 247 

Army. He wound up as commander of the U.S. and Allied 
occupation forces in Japan in 1946. He was on the campus 
from 1903 to 1905, then went to West Point. 

Lt. Gen. H. A. Nisley, w'll, also a West Point graduate, 
who was chief of ordnance, Headquarters, Ground Forces, in 
Europe, in 1945. 

Maj. Gen. Robert S. Beightler, w'13, who made an outstand- 
ing record as commander of the 37th Division, (Ohio National 
Guard), in the Pacific and especially in the Philippines. Gen. 
Beightler was on the campus from 1909-1911. 

Maj. Gen. Clovis E. Byers, w'21, who was chief of staff, 
U.S. 8th Army, associated with Gen. Eichelberger. Gen. Byers, 
also a West Point graduate, was on the campus in 1917-18. 
He won the Purple Heart and the Distinguished Service Cross. 
Upon retirement, after duty in Europe, he was a lieutenant 
general. 

Maj. Gen. Fred Walker, '11. He went into the Army as a 
career after graduation. He won distinction as commanding 
general of the 36th Division in the fighting in Italy. He was 
awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, and the Distinguished 
Service Medal. 

Brig. Gen. Charles M. Anckorn, w'18, a veteran of both 
wars. As a brigade commander, he lost a leg in a mine ex- 
plosion in Italy in World War II. He was in command of 
the 157th Infantry Brigade. He was wounded, received the 
D.S.C. and was promoted to brigadier general all on the 
same day. His commanding general called him "the best regi- 
mental commander I have known in two wars." 

Brig. Gen. Leo M. Kreber, w'19. He, too, was a West Point 
graduate and a veteran of both wars. He was the commander, 
under Gen. Beightler, of the 37th Division artillery. After the 
war he succeeded Gen. Beightler in command of the 37th. 

Other Army personnel who then or soon after had important 
roles included these: 

Maj. Gen. John B. Medaris, w'23, best known as commander 



248 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

of the Army Ordnance Missile Command, Redstone Arsenal, 
Ala. 

Maj. Gen. Clement F. St. John, '26 (Medical Corps). At 
the close of the war he was surgeon of the 1st Army and 
later was commanding general, Walter Reed Army Medical 
Center. 

Brig. Gen. Carlton S. Dargusch, w'25, longtime University 
Trustee. Throughout the war he was deputy director of Selec- 
tive Service under Maj. Gen. Lewis B. Hershey, at one time 
on the campus R.O.T.C. staff. 

Brig. Gen. Oscar Snyder, '16 (Dental Corps). He, too, served 
in both wars and in 1942-44 was chief dental surgeon in the 
Southwest Pacific Theater. After his retirement he was on 
the faculty of the College of Dentistry. 

Brig. Gen. Rex McK. McDowell, '16 (Dental Corps). 

Brig. Gen. Charles H. Deerwester, '05. In 1944 he was as- 
signed to the War Department general staff. He was promoted 
to colonel in 1943. 

Army Air Corps 

Lt. Gen. Barton K. Yount, w'06. Upon his retirement in 
1946 he was commanding general of the A.A.F. Training 
Command. He was on the campus in 1902-03. 

Maj. Gen. Kingston E. Tibbetts. 

Brig. Gen, Francis Griswold, w'28, promoted to major gen- 
eral in 1946. In 1944 he was commanding general of the 
8th Fighter Command in the E.T.O. 

Navy 

Commodore George Paffenbarger, '24 (Dental Corps). 

Coast Guard 

Rear Adm. Charles A. Park, '07. In 1942 he was made 
chief operations officer. 

Read Adm. Earl G. Rose, '10. In 1943-45 he commanded 
the Greenland Patrol, U.S. Adantic Fleet. 



THE COST IN BLOOD 249 

Honors began to come early in the war to Gen. LeMay, 
who was to achieve fame as America's top bombardier and 
in the post-war years as head man of the U.S. Air Force. The 
March, 1942 Monthly reported him to be the "first of Ohio 
State's 'flying fighters' to be cited for 'extraordinary achieve- 
ment.' " LeMay, then a Heutenant colonel, won the Distin- 
guished Flying Cross. He was a member of a 6-man crew which 
surveyed more than 26,000 miles of air routes over the United 
States, the South Atlantic, Africa and Asia Minor. This was 
to map the route over which U.S. planes were being ferried 
to the Middle East. LeMay was co-pilot of the four-engine 
bomber. 

Three months before he was to have been graduated in 
1929 he withdrew to join the Army Air Corps. He was com- 
missioned and later obtained a leave of absence to complete 
his graduation requirements in civil engineering in 1932. 

On January 27, 1943 LeMay commanded a group of Flying 
Fortresses in what was described as the first U.S. air raid over 
Hitler's reich. "It went pretty well," he was quoted as saying, 
"except that it was rather dull compared with some we've 
had. We managed to get a large number of bombs on the 
target and near the vicinity." 

LeMay was promoted to brigadier general in the fall of 
1943. At thirty-six he was one of the youngest to earn the star 
of a general. By then he had also led the first shutde bombing 
raid on Germany, from Britain to North Africa and return. 
At Bombardment Headquarters in England he was quoted as 
saying: "By spring we'll have destroyed enough Nazi industry 
so that it will be nearly impossible for them to continue. Their 
last hope is turning out enough fighter planes to hold us off." 

In January, 1944, Gen. LeMay received the Distinguished 
Service Cross in Washington from the hands of Gen. Henry H. 
"Hap" Arnold, head of the Army Air Corps. In March, 1944 
LeMay was nominated for promotion to major general. Only 
five months earlier he was an Army Air Force colonel. 



250 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

By a coincidence the two parts of the Eighth Air Force 
by the fall of 1944 had come under the command of two 
of Ohio's State's top military men, both under forty years of 
age. The bomber command of the Eighth Air Force had been 
under Gen. LeMay, who was transferred from that duty to 
direct the B-29 program against the Japanese. Soon after this 
the fighter section of the Eighth Air Force was put under 
the command of Gen. Griswold, w'28. LeMay at the time was 
thirty-seven and was said to be the youngest two-star general 
in the Army. Griswold was thirty-nine. 

When Griswold left the University to join the Air Corps 
in 1928 he lacked only ten credit hours toward his degree of 
B.Sc. in Bus. Admin. Sixteen years later his Army training in 
scientific fields was regarded as more than enough to offset 
this deficiency and he was awarded the degree in absentia at 
the Sept. 1, 1944 convocation. 

By another coincidence two former Ohio State men were 
thrown together in high places early in the war. One was 
Robert L. Eichelberger, w'07 and the other Clovis E. Byers, 
w'21. Both were graduates of West Point, where Gen. Eichel- 
berger was superintendent at the time of the attack upon 
Pearl Harbor. In November, 1942 President Roosevelt nominated 
Gen. Eichelberger for the grade of lieutenant general, assigned 
to the Pacific theater. For his chief of staff he asked for Byers, 
who was promoted from colonel to brigadier general in October, 
1942. Both men were members of the campus chapter of Phi 
Gamma Delta. Gen. Byers won the D.S.C. in combat on 
Buna in December, 1942, when a Japanese sniper's bullet 
smashed his trigger hand. Byers later received the Silver Cross 
also. 

Rex McK. McDowell, a 1916 Dentistry graduate and a career 
officer in the Army, became a flag officer in the spring of 
1945. He joined the Army, in November, 1916 as a 1st lieutenant 
in the Army Dental Corps. At the time of his promotion to 



THE COST IN BLOOD 251 

brigadier general he was deputy director of the dental division 
in the office of the Surgeon General in Washington. 

Two top combat divisions commanded by Ohio State men 
won high praise for their achievements in the Pacific and on 
the Itahan front, respectively, in 1944. One was the 37th Di- 
vision, commanded by Gen. Beightler, the other was the 36th 
Division, under Gen. Walker. 

Late in 1944 it became known that the 37th was engaged 
in the heavy fighting that followed Gen. Douglas MacArthur's 
invasion of the Philippines. Earlier the division was in the 
Bougainville fighting. Maj. Gen. O. W. Griswold, of the 14th 
Army Corps, declared that "The 37th Division need take a 
back seat to no other division in the United States Army." 
By November, 1944 it had been overseas for twenty-nine months. 

Mystery first surrounded the whereabouts of the 37th in which 
many Ohio State men served. It finally left from Indiantown 
Gap, Pa., en route through the Panama Canal to the South 
Pacific. It was in that theater that it distinguished itself, first at 
Munda and later in the heavy fighting in Manila. 

The November, 1943 Monthly led off its "Victory Mailbag" 
page with a letter from Gen. Beightler, its commander. One 
paragraph of it follows: 

By now you will have heard news of our recent action. It was 
rough going, but rain, Jungle, mud and laps were no match 
for our forces. The division performed magnificently. I lapse 
dangerously close to deep purple when I begin to describe what 
I think of our men. They have more than justified the high 
confidence we have all had in them. 

An earlier account, from another source, reported Gen. 
Beightler's headquarters as only 300 yards from the front lines. 
For his part in the Munda action on the New Georgia Islands, 
Gen. Beightler received the Distinguished Service Medal. The 
citation read: "Under his inspiring leadership . . . the objective 
was taken in a minimum of time. Gen. Beightler's repeated 



252 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

presence with the forward elements of his division during com- 
bat was largely responsible for the high morale of his command." 
Earlier that year the 36th had been in the heavy fighting from 
the landing at Salerno all the way up the Italian "boot" to 
Rome. In the fall of 1944 Gen. Walker was brought home 
to take command of the infantry school at Ft. Benning, Colum- 
bus, Ga. Two of his sons, Lt. Col. Fred J., and 1st Lt. Charles 
were also with the 36th Division. 



And so the Ohio State University emerged from World 
War II unharmed but not unchanged. In that struggle it 
played its part on the home front, in training areas and in 
battle. It gave freely and promptly of its resources, its facilities 
and, especially, of its manpower. Its way of life, like that of 
the country and indeed of the world, was disrupted and would 
never again be the same. 

Long before V-J Day, however, it was planning actively for 
a future whose outlines it could see only dimly at best. But 
its planners — administration and faculty — were sure of two 
things: that the future would be vastly different and on a scale 
beyond the wildest predictions of the pre-war years. So it 
proved. 

Eleven years were left to the Bevis administration. In the 
little more than a decade that remained to it vast changes 
occurred on and to the campus. Enrollment reached peaks 
undreamed of in the pre-war days. Even this proved only the 
beginning. The physical plant, thanks to larger but still inade- 
quate state appropriations, mushroomed in a number of major 
directions, but especially in the Health Center and in Agriculture, 
Engineering and Law, and the sciences. Some relief was afforded 
in the areas of Arts and Sciences, fine arts, and music. Before 
Dr. Bevis stepped aside in the summer of 1956, the St. John 
Arena, the French Field House, the Mershon Auditorium, and 



THE COST IN BLOOD 253 

the new Ohio Union were reaUties, giving badly needed reUef 
where pre-war facilities had really pinched. 

But while bricks, stones and steel gave outward and visible 
signs of progress, the major emphasis was upon improving 
the quality in all three major dimensions of the University's 
activities: teaching, research and public service. Curricula were 
updated and strengthened to meet the needs of the new day. 
More and more effort was given to upgrading the quality of 
the faculty. The momentum gained by wartime research con- 
tinued to grow as did the University's outreach to the state 
through a mounting list of major activities. Before long, the 
University literally took itself to the state with the opening 
of branch centers. There seemed to be no limit to the new 
day that was dawning by mid-1945. 



HOMECOMING 

by Milton Caniff in Memorial Edition Ohio State University Monthly, 
March, 1964 

At each remembered name on this long listing of our dead, 

I pause and try to reconstruct a mental picture of the being that 
I knew. 

Reverie often fails and must be jogged by pictures in long untouched 
Makios. 

Fresh faces, scrubbed to Spring Dance shine before the endless gray 
backdrop; 

Clothing of another era, reflecting the eager fad that gave each 
fraternity porch 

A look of carboned sameness as the girls strolled in review on 
fresh green Sunday afternoons. 

How then can names upon a somber listing tell of death when 
clocks of memory have already stopped? 

The stern-faced captain of Marines who fell that bitter day on 
Tinian 

Is not the dark young giant once I knew; it's just a slight coincidence 
in names. 

My friend was gay, soft-hearted, hated to paddle freshmen not his 
size; 

Thinking the scarlet sweater and the 'O' enough to speak his 
strength before all men. 

He shall be always as I knew him then; bright flash of color across 
a rival's goal. 

Long legs stretched before the Chapter hearth; unwilling burner of 
the student lamp. 

So, on those bright autumn Saturdays, when cars are mercifully 
stopped at campus gates, 

I will take my place in that friendly web of people moving ever 
west across the Oval. 

Unknown to me, for the most part, their colors join mine in the 
common plea for Ohio to do well today. 

Among those thousands he must surely be, that one with whom 
I laughed goodbye so many Junes ago. 

I'll not see him face to face; his seat is doubdess on the Olentangy 
side. 

I will have to wait until the game is done. 

(s) Milton Caniff 
254 



APPENDIX A 

The list that follows, comprising the University's Honor 
Roll for World War II, was compiled mainly from the volu- 
minous files of the Alumni Records division. These were 
supplemented in some instances by information from the Mili- 
tary Personnel Records Center, St. Louis, Mo., and other sources. 

Even as late as October, 1966, some information, especially 
as to the exact rank or rating of individuals, was still unobtain- 
able in many cases. In a few instances, somewhat arbitrary deci- 
sions had to be made as to service designations. This was 
usually because specific information was lacking or was con- 
tradictory. In reaching a decision in all such cases, ranking 
military officers on the campus were consulted. 



Summary Tabulation 

Service Officers Other Totals 

Army 136 

Army Air Corps 247 

(A.A.C.) 

Navy 64 

Coast Guard 1 

Marine Corps 18 

(U.S.M.C.) 

Merchant Marine 2 

Royal Air Force 3 

(R.A.F.) 

Royal Canadian Air Force 3 

(R.C.A.F.) 

American Red Cross 1 

(A.R.C.) 

Totals 475 224 699 



143 


279 


51 


298 


19 


83 





1 


10 


28 





2 


1 


4 





3 





1 



255 



256 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

HONOR ROLL, WORLD WAR II 

Name Class Service Awards* 

Abrahams, Lt. Sardou W., Com. w'41, A AC 
Ackerman, Pvt. William W., Engr. '43, Army 
Alexander, Sgt. Robert H., Agr. w'41, Army 
Alford, Lt. Charles E., Com. w'42, AAC 
Allen, Lt. Robert N., Arts, w'43, AAC 
Anderson, S/Sgt. Jack G., Engr. w'46, AAC 
Armbruster, Ens. George M., Jr., Engr., w'45. Navy 
Armstrong, Lt, Clarence A., Edu. w'45. Army 
Arnold, Lt. Eber J., Engr. w'44, AAC, Air Medal, clusters 
Arnold, 1st. Lt. Maurice V., Edu. w'40, AAC 
Atkinson, Lt. John W., Jr., Com. w'36. Army 
Axelband, Cpl. Sol B., Com. w'45, Army 

Bachrach, Lt. Alvin M., Engr. w'41, Army 

Baker, S/Sgt. Lieu E., Agr. w'46, USMC 

Baker, Ens. Robert D., Agr. w'44, Navy 

Baker, Ens. Walter B., Med. w'44. Navy 

Barber, Lt. Allan M., Agr. w'44, USMC 

Barnaby, 2d Lt. Albert J., Agr. w'43. Army, Silver Star 

Barnes, P/O Carl J., Jr., Arts w'44. Navy 

Barnes, Lt. James E., Jr., Com. w'38, Army 

Barney, Sgt. Dwight M., Edu. '32, USMC 

Barrows, Maj. Arthur B., Arts '36, USMC 

Barry, 2d Lt. Harry L,, Engr. w'44, AAC 

Barry, Lt. Thomas R., Com. w'40, Army 

Bartholomay, Pfc. Albert J., Arts '43, Army 

Bartz, Capt. Walter P., Vet. Med. w'42, Army 

Baster, Capt. Robert R., Arts '42, AAC 

Baumgartner, Ens. Robert W., Vet. Med. w'42, Navy 

Beatty, 1st. Lt. John B., Jr., Agr. w'40, Army 

Bedford, 2d. Lt. Corlys A., Com. w'43, AAC 

Behm, Sgt. Howard A., Com. w'45, AAC, DFC, Air Medal, 2 clusters 

Belch, Lt. George I., Engr. w'44, AAC 

Bennett, Pfc. Robert M., Com. w'44, Army 

Bergin, 2d. Lt. William P., Engr. w'44, AAC, Purple Heart 

Bickof?, Pvt. Donald., Agr. w'42, Army 

Bicksler, Lt. Edwin H., Arts w'42, RAF 

• Awards designations: Distinguished Flying Cross, DFC; Distinguished Service 
Cross, DSC. 



APPENDIX A 257 

Billman, T/5 Edward, Com. w'41, Army 

Billups, Capt. Harold, Arts w'43, AAC 

Billups, 2d. Lt. Ralph E., Agr. w'41, AAC 

Binne, Sgt, Howard W., Com. w'44, AAC 

Bird, Lt. Charles D., Com. '39, AAC 

Birnbaum, Cpl. Milton, Edu. w'41. Army 

Black, Sgt. Richard W., Arts w'44, AAC, Air Medal 

Blackburn, Fl/C John T., Com. w'42, Navy 

Blackmore, Maj. Ernest L., Engr. w'40, AAC 

Blair, Lt. Robert M., Com. '34, AAC 

Blickle, Lt. John E., Grad. w'42. Navy 

Bloch, Pfc. Jason P., Com. w'45, Army 

Boettcher, QM3/C Franklin E., Engr. w'45. Navy 

Bohlender, Capt. John E., Arts '31, Army 

Bohman, Lt. William J., Jr., Agr. w'40, AAC 

Bondy, Capt. Russell F., Arts '40, Army 

Boone, Capt. John T., Arts w'44, AAC, Silver Star, DFC, Air Medal, 

clusters 
Booth, Lt. (j.g.) William S., Jr., Engr. '43, Navy 
Borror, S/Sgt. J. Curtis, Jr., Com. w'42, AAC 
Bowman, Lt. Leroy C, Engr. w'40, AAC 
Bradfield, Lt. George E., Com. w'44, AAC 
Bramblett, Pvt. Paul D., Engr. w'46. Army 
Breon, Sgt. Eugene E., Agr. w'40, AAC 
Bringardner, Sgt. Edwin W., Jr., Com. w'46, AAC 
Brock, Capt. Royal J., Arts '38, AAC, DFC, Air Medal, 7 clusters 
Brodie, Midsn. Marvin W., Jr., Engr. w'44. Merchant Marine (USNR) 
Brooks, Lt. Sidney P., Com. '42, AAC, Air Medal, oak leaf cluster 
Brewer, 2d. Lt. Robert F., Arts w'40, AAC 
Brown, 2d. Lt. Carl E., Agr. w'44, AAC 
Brown, Lt. Col. Robert S., Agr. '23, Army, Legion of Merit 
Brownewell, Lt. Frederick M., Jr., Com. w'42, AAC, DFC 
Brownfield, Lt. Robert W., Com. w'41. Navy 
Buchman, Lt. DeForrest L., Arts w'41, AAC 
Buckler, Lt. H. Jack, Com. w'44, AAC 

Bunce, Lt. Gerard J,, Engr. w'40, Army, Silver Star, Purple Heart 
Bundy, 2d. Lt. Willis C, Agr. '42, AAC, DFC, Air Medal 
Buntz, Lt. Robert O., Edu. '38, AAC 
Burholt, Capt. Arthur V., Edu. w'30, Army, Silver Star 
Burrows, Ens. Ward H., Com. w'43. Navy 
Butenas, Cpl. Leonard, Engr. w'44, AAC 



258 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Butler, Lt. Don J., Com. w'43, RCAF 
Butterfield, Lt. (j.g.) David, Assoc, Navy 
Byerly, Capt. Leland A., Arts, Com. 39, Army 
Byers, SKl/C Robert L., Com. w'39, Navy 

Calavan, 2d. Lt. Harry M., Com. '41, Army 

Caravona, Capt. Dominic P., Arts '34, Army 

Carlson, Capt. Harold L., Arts w'44, AAC 

Carnes, Capt. John N., Phar. '35, Med. '40, USMC 

Carver, 1st. Lt. Richard G., Engr. w'45, AAC, Air Medal, 2 clusters 

Cary, Cpl. Martin P., Law '36, Army 

Casto, Pvt, William E., Edu. w'42. Army 

Catching, Ens. Richard M., Com. w'43, Navy 

Chapman, M/Sgt. M. Philip, Jour. '32, Army 

Chase, 2d. Lt. Leroy B., Arts '41, AAC 

Chessin, Sgt. Louis L., Edu. '37, Army 

Chovancak, Lt. Edward V., Engr. w'46, AAC 

Cimperman, Sgt. Frank M., Engr. w'37, Army 

Clark, Lt. Max D., Com. w'41, AAC 

Cleary, 1st. Lt. Thomas J., Com. w'45. Army, Purple Heart 

Cleary, T/5 William L., Phar. w'45. Army 

Clippinger, Pvt. Robert F., Arts w'44. Army 

Cochran, P/O Donald I., Com. w'42. Navy 

Coe, Lt. Frederick H., Agr. '39, AAC, Air Medal, cluster 

Coe, Pvt. Robert T., Arts w'44, Army 

Cohan, Lt. Frank D., Opt. w'44, Army 

Cohen, Pvt. Sheldon E., Com. w'46. Army, Purple Heart 

Constable, 1st. Lt. John S., Engr. w'45, AAC, Air Medal, cluster, Purple 

Heart 
Cook, Lt. Walter W., Engr. w'44, Army 
Cooper, A/C James H., Com, w'45. Navy 
Corbett, Lt. John E., Arts w'41, Army 
Corkins, Ens. William G., Agr. '37, Navy 
Correll, 2d. Lt. John B., Arts w'43, USMC 
Coward, Lt. Huey R., Engr. w'45, AAC, Air Medal 
Cowgill, 2d. Lt. Paul E., Jr., Engr. w'39. Army 
Craft, Capt. Floyd F., Phar. w'43, Army 
Craig, Capt. Howard E., Edu. '37, Army 
Craig, 1st. Lt. William C, Med. '35, AAC 
Crawford, Lt. Wayne L., Engr. '43, AAC 
Creger, Pfc. Ralph N., Edu. '41, Army 
Crick, Lt. George R., Opt. w'40, Army 



APPENDIX A 259 

Crossen, Lt. Col. Morris C, Com. '39, AAC, DFC, Air Medal, 8 clusters 

Crowl, Lt. Gordon S., Arts '35, MSc. '11, Army 

Curfman, Lt. Robert W,, Arts w'46, Army, Combat Infantryman's Badge, 

4 battle stars 
Curl, Lt. Col. James G., Jr., Com. '40, AAC, DSC, DFC, Silver Star, Air 

Medal-clusters, Purple Heart, DSO 

Dailey, Lt. Malcolm C, Agr. w'43, AAC 

Daily, Lt. Charles E., Arts w'41, AAC 

Danison, Lt. Homer R., Jr., Com. w'43, AAC 

Danner, 2d. Lt. James W., Jour. '40, Army 

Davis, 2d. Lt. Jack K., Edu. w'44, AAC 

Davis, Lt. Karl, Jr., Com. WM, USMC, Bronze Star 

Davis, Lt. Ralph D., Edu. w'43, AAC 

Davis, Pvt. R. Woodford, Edu. '37, Army 

Davis, Lt. William B., Arts w'42. Army 

Davis, Lt. William E., Com. w'42. Navy 

Day, 2d. Lt. Eric J., Arts w'42, AAC, Purple Heart 

Dehmer, Lt. Charles S., Com. w'39, AAC 

Delladonna, Lt. John V., Arts '41, Navy, Submarine Combat Insignia, 3 

gold stars 
Dennis, Lt. James W., Com. '37, AAC 
DeSelm, 2d. Lt. Richard R., Edu. '40, Army 
Detwiler, Pvt. Theodore A., Com. w'46, Army 
Dey, Lt. WiUiam R., Engr. '38, Army, Bronze Star 
Dickerson, Lt. Earl, Edu. w'44. Army 
Diehn, Cpl. Darrel A., Engr. w'44. Army 
Dittler, Lt. Donald C, Engr. w'40, AAC, DFC 
Doan, Sgt. Edward S., Com. w'45. Army 
Dobervich, 1st. Lt. Sam, Arts, Su. '42, USMC, Bronze Star 
Docton, 1st. Lt. Maurice L., Phar. '41, Army 
Domino, Pfc. Joseph, Phar. w'42. Army 
Donald, T/4 Theodis F., Grad. w'40. Army 
Donovan, Pfc. John D., Engr. w'46. Army 
Downey, Pfc. John H., Arts w'47. Army 
Drewes, Lt. Luther H., Arts '38, Army 
Duber, Cpl. Louis L., Arts '35, Army 
Dunbar, Pvt. William J., Engr. w'46. Army 
Dunn, Capt. Robert M., Arts w'42, AAC, Purple Heart 
Dupola, Lt. Robert C, Com. w'40, AAC 
Durant, Sgt. William H., Engr. w'45, AAC 
Durisko, 2d- Lt. John A., Arts '43, AAC 



260 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Duvall, A/C George M., Com. w'42, AAC 

Dyar, Capt. Roger B., Engr. w'43, AAC, Air Medal 

Ebright, Pvt. Mortimer W., Engr. '38, AAC 

Eckert, 2d, Lt. Ernest M., Edu. w'42, AAC 

Egbert, Lt. Robert E., Arts w'45, Army 

Eging, F/O Henry B., Jr., Engr. w'46, AAC 

Eldridge, 2d. Lt. Willis J., Com. w'43, Army 

Elliott, Pfc. Howard A., Arts w'47. Army 

Ellis, S/Sgt. Glenn R., Edu. w'46, AAC 

Ellis, Lt. John T., Edu. w'39, AAC 

Emerson, Lt. William L., Agr. w'41, Army 

Emick, 2d. Lt. Richard M., Edu. w'42, AAC 

Emrich, 1st. Lt. Herbert B., Com. w'41, AAC, Air Medal, cluster 

English, Capt. Leo K., Com. w'44, AAC 

Epstein, Pfc. Victor H., Engr. w'46. Army 

Evans, Lt. (j.g.) William A., Engr. '40, Navy 

Everett, 2d. Lt., John R., Arts w'42, AAC 

Eversole, Ens. James H., Arts w'39. Navy 

Ewing, Pfc. Robert E,, Arts '34, Edu. '36, Army 

Fann, Sgt. Harlan C, Com. w'46. Army 

Farver, Lt. Lester E., Com. '41, AAC, Bronze Star, DFC, Air Medal 

Fay, Lt. Perry S., Jr., Engr. w'40, Army 

Feldman, S/Sgt. Leroy S., Engr. w'41, Army, Purple Heart 

Fender, Maj. Wilbur G., Arts '27, Army 

Fenker, 1st Lt. William J., Arts w'45, AAC, Air Medal 

Ferenc, Pvt. Alexander J., Engr. w'45, Army 

Ferron, Lt. Donald J., Arts w'46, AAC 

Feucht, 2d. Lt. Charles F., Agr. w'41, AAC, Air Medal, oak leaf 

Fiecoat, Lt. Howard F., Agr. w'43, AAC, Air Medal, clusters 

Filko, Cpl. George G., Jr., Agr. w'46, USMC 

Fischer, 2d. Lt. David J., Engr. w'44, ACC 

Fisher, Lt. (j.g.) Harold E., Engr. w'42. Navy 

Fissel, Maj. Glenn E., Edu. '37, USMC 

Fleck, Cpl. Jack, Com. w'45, AAC 

Fleet, Lt. Col. Burton R., Agr. w'40, AAC 

Flowers, Capt. James A., Com. '41, Army, Bronze Star, French medal 

Fluhrer, Lt. J. Michael, Com. w'42, AAC 

Forrest, Lt. Robert E., Com. w'43, AAC 

Fox, Pfc. Glen L., Arts w'45. Army 

Fox, S/Sgt. John W., Opt. w'45, AAC 



APPENDIX A ■ 261 

Fox, Col. William L., Med. '17, Army 

Frank, Pfc. Louis, Com. w'46, USMC 

Franz, Capt. Albert J., Engr. '35, MSc 36, Army 

Frazier, Sgt. Billy, Engr. w'47. Army, Purple Heart 

Free, Capt. Gordon B., Engr. '34, Army 

Frey, 1st. Lt. Francis H., Agr. w'40, AAC 

Fritz, 2d. Lt. David C, Arts w'39, AAC, Air Medal, cluster 

Frost, A/C Robert E., Engr. w'45, AAC 

Fry, Pvt. John O., Jr., Edu. w'46, Army 

Fry, Capt. Richard E., Com. w'44, AAC, Air Medal, clusters 

Funk, Lt. John W., Jr., Com. w'37, AAC 

Furman, 1st. Lt. Irvin B., Phar. w'44, AAC 

Gahn, Lt. Richard R., Arts '41, Army 

Gaier, S/Sgt. Edward F., Engr. w'42, AAC 

Garwick, Ens. Earl E., Engr. w'45, Navy 

Gaspard, Pfc. Donald R., Engr. w'45, Army 

Gaston, Lt. James W., Engr. '38, AAC, Air Medal, Purple Heart, Good 

Conduct Medal 
Gate wood, 2d. Lt. James M., Agr. w'42, AAC 
Geary, Lt. William, Arts w'42, AAC 
Geiger, Pfc. Byron W., Agr. '41, Army 
Gcissman, 1st. Lt. Milton B., Edu. '30, AAC 
Gelsleichter, 1st. Lt. Edward C, Com. w'45, AAC, DFC, Air Medal, 

clusters 
Georgoulis, Pfc. Christopher G., Com. w'45. Army 
German, 2d. Lt. Darrell E., Agr. w'44, AAC 
Giflord, Lt. Howard E., Edu. w'44, USMC 
Gillespie, Capt. John B. Ill, Com. w'39, USMC 
Gipple, Lt. Donald R., Engr. w'39, AAC 
Gluntz, Lt. Daniel C, Opt. w'39, AAC 
Goldston, Lt. Marvin E., Agr. '42, Army, Purple Heart 
Gooding, Pvt. George H., Edu. w'42, AAC 
Goodrich, Lt. Cdr. Stanley W., Arts '29, Navy 
Gould, Maj. Campbell H., Com. w'38, AAC 
Graves, T/Sgt. Bruce L., Engr. w'47, AAC, Air Medal, clusters. Purple 

Heart 
Green, Sgt. Paul B., MA '30, Army 
Greene, Lt. Jack C, Agr. w'44, AAC 
Greene, F/O Richard L., Arts w'46, AAC 
Greenfield, Pvt. Eugene C, Com. w'41, Army 
Greenhouse, Lt. Wallace, Com, w'45, AAC 



262 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Griffin, Lt. John J., Jr., Phar. w'44, AAC 
Griffiths, Pfc. Charles W., Com. '31, Army 
Griffiths, T/Sgt. Warren D., Com. w'43. Army 
Grover, Ens. Albert E., Jr., Engr. w'41, Navy 
Groves, Cpl. Floyd L., Grad. w'29. Army 
Grunwald, Ens. Albert P., Com. w'44. Navy 
Guzik, Capt. John, Arts w'43, AAC, Air Medal 
Gwyer, Maj. Gwilym T., Com. w'23, Army 

Hager, Lt. Richard W., Arts w'43, USMC 

Haines, Capt. Robert H., Com. '25, Army 

Hall, Capt. Robert S., Engr. '38, Army 

Halloran, Ens. William I., Jour. '38, Navy 

Hammill, Capt. Gordon H., Med. '28, AAC 

Hanley, Lt. William J., Jr., Engr. '43, Army 

Hansen, Pfc. A. Dane, Arts w'46. Army 

Harmount, Lt. Harry T., Com. w'38. Army 

Harper, Lt. Col. Ralph S., Arts w'32. Army 

Harper, Sgt. Ted O., Arts w'43, Army, Combat Infantryman's Badge 

Harris, 2d. Lt. David F., Arts w'45, AAC 

Harris, Lt. Jack R., Com. w'43, AAC 

Harrold, Sgt. Joseph J., Com. w'44. Army 

Hart, Lt. David L., Arts w'43. Army, Silver Star 

Hartman, Capt. Leo H., Vet. Med. '31, Army 

Harwood, Lt. John H., Com. w'43, AAC 

Haskell, Lt. Everett E., Jr., Agr. w'41, AAC, Air Medal, oak leaf cluster, 

Purple Heart 
Haverfield, Ens. James W., Arts '39, Navy 
Hayes, Cpl. Fred G., Jr., Agr. w'44. Army 
Headings, S/Sgt. Boyd W., Agr. '41, AAC 
Heartwell, Maj. Robert H., Com. w'37, AAC 
Hedges, Lt. Richard A., Agr. '42, AAC 
Heffron, CSK Samuel R., Arts '37, Navy 
Held, Pfc. Ralph P., Phar. w'43, Army 
Hennick, GM3/C Harold R., Engr. w'40. Navy 
Hermann, Lt. Richard J., Agr. w'46, AAC, Air Medal, 3 clusters. Purple 

Heart 
Hess, SK2/C Donald J., Com. w'42, Navy, Purple Heart, honor citation 
Hess, Pfc. John T., Arts w'44. Army 
Heston, Pfc. Raymond L., Jr., Arts w'46. Army 
Heusch, Lt. (j.g.) Justus G,, Engr. w'42. Navy 
Higgins, 2d. Lt. William D., Engr. w'37. Army 



APPENDIX A 263 

Hilbinger, Lt. Conrad J., Engr. w'41, A AC, Purple Heart, Air Medal 

Hiles, Lt. Jack E., Engr. w'43, AAC 

Hillman, Av. Cad. Richard E., Engr. w'42, Navy 

Hines, Lt. William E., Jr., Engr. '40, AAC, DFC, Air Medal, 8 clusters 

Hobson, Ens. William F., Edu. w'42, Navy 

Hodges, Ens. Daniel P., Arts '42, Navy 

Hodges, Lt. Ralph E., Jr., Arts w'40. Army 

Hodson, 1st. Lt. Kenneth P., Arts w'42, AAC 

Hoff, S/Sgt. Henry, Arts w'37, AAC, Purple Heart, Air Medal, 4 clusters 

Hoffman, Lt. John B., Com. w'40, AAC 

Hoiles, Pvt. Richard C, Jour, w'45, Army 

Holderman, F/O Earl T., Com. '43, AAC 

Horney, Pfc. Raymond E., Jr., Engr. w'47. Army 

Horst, Sgt. William E., Engr. w'47, AAC, Air Medal, Purple Heart 

Hottois, A/C Allan W., Engr. w'42, AAC 

Houck, Lt. Edwin R., Com. '38, AAC 

Houck, Lt. Ernest C, Engr. '38, Navy 

Howell, 2d. Lt. John F., Engr. '39, AAC 

Howitz, Lt. Morris, w'42, AAC 

Hubbard, Lt. Robert M., Com. w'42, Army 

Humbert, A/C Robert D., Com. w'44, AAC 

Hunter, Ens. James R., Agr. w'44, Navy 

Huston, Ens. Walter D., Engr. w'46. Navy 

Ilger, S/Sgt. Charles P., Edu. '33, Army 

Ingram, Lt. J. W., Agr. '41, AAC 

Irvine, Ens. Clyde E., Jr., Com. w'44. Navy 

Irwin, Col. John W., Arts w'16. Army 

Ivanofl, F/O Jordan B., Engr. w'41, AAC, Purple Heart 

Jackson, Pfc. Robert L., Arts w'46. Army 
Jacobs, Cpl. Milton, Arts w'47, AAC 

James, 1st. Lt. Clifford L., MSc. '42, USMC, Air Medal, Purple Heart 
Janes, S/Sgt. Carl W., Agr. w'44, AAC 
Janson, Ens. Robert E., Arts w'44. Navy 
Jay, Lt. Herbert M., Com. '40, Navy 
Jefferis, Lt. Edward F. II, Com. '41, AAC 
Jenkins, Lt. William W., Com. w'40. Army 
Jennings, Lt. Harvey A., Edu. w'39. Army 
Johnson, 2d. Lt. Clarke T., Engr. w'44, AAC 

Johnson, 3/0 Gladden N., Arts w'23, Merchant Marine (Army Trans. 
Svc.) 



264 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Johnson, Lt. Robert T., Agr. '39, Navy, Navy Cross, Purple Heart 

Johnston, Lt. Robert W., Edu. '43, AAC 

Jones, Sgt. Jon M., Com. w'44, Army 

Jones, Capt. Ralph R., Edu. '42, AAC, Air Medal, 3 clusters, DFC, Purple 

Heart 
Jordan, Lt. Hilary, Com. w'41, AAC 
Junkin, Lt. Eugene H., Jr., Agr. w'45, AAC 

Kallergis, Pfc. John N., Arts w'46, Army 

Kaminski, Pfc. Stanley B., Com. w'45, Army 

Kaplan, Pvt. Stuart A., Arts w'45. Army, Purple Heart 

Karg, Lt. Rollin W., Agr. w'43, AAC 

Karr, Cpl. George J., Engr. w'46, USMC, Purple Heart 

Kasse, Pvt. Robert A., Com. w'42. Army 

Katz, S/Sgt. Paul S., Arts '43, Army 

Kauffman, 2d. Lt. Edward A., Agr. w'46, AAC 

Kauflman, 2d. Lt. Harold P., Agr. '42, AAC 

Kellar, 1st. Lt. Richard C, MSc '37, Army 

Kelso, Cpl. Henry T., Com. w'37. Army 

Kersting, Lt. Richard A., Arts w'42, Army, DSC, Purple Heart 

Kestenbaum, Lt. Stuart D., Com. w'44, AAC 

Kevern, Lt. Cdr. Edward J., Edu. w'29. Navy 

Keys, Sgt. John W., Edu. '39, Army 

Khourie, Lt. Charles E., Arts w'43, AAC 

Kidwell, A/S Charles C, Opt. '32, Navy 

Kielblock, S/Sgt. Albert L., Engr. w'46, AAC, Air Medal, 2 clusters 

Purple Heart 
Kilgore, Lt. (j.g.) Maurice H., Engr. '39, Navy 
Kimmel, Lt. Charles J., Com. '40, USMC, Navy Cross 
Kindig, 1st. Lt. Robert R., Agr. w'44, AAC, DFC, DSC, Air Medal 
Kinnaird, Lt. Eugene W., Com. w'44, AAC 
Kinnaird, T/4 Robert J., Engr. w'45. Army 
Kinney, T/Sgt. James W., Agr. w'44, AAC 
Klick, Pvt. Robert B., Engr. w'47, AAC 
Knapp, Cpl. Fred W., Engr. w'41. Army 
Knight, Lt. (j.g.) Howard H., Grad. w'42, CG 
Knight, Lt. Robert S., Engr. w'46, AAC, Air Medal, Purple Heart 
Knisley, Lt. Ora F., Agr. w'45, AAC 
Kocher, 1/C PO Harry A., Com. w'31. Navy 
Kody, Lt. Richard C, Engr. w'42, AAC 
Kohn, Pfc Charles E., Arts w'45, Army 



APPENDIX A 265 

Kohr, Maj. Roland M., Engr. '22, Army 

Komaroy, Capt. Louis M., Edu. '38, Army, Combat Infantryman's Badge 

Korshuk, 2d. Lt. Alex, Engr. w'46, AAC, Air Medal, clusters. Purple Heart 

Kramer, Lt. Jack L., Engr. w'40. Army, Bronze Star, Purple Heart 

Kuehner, Pvt. Willard E., Com. w'36, Army 

Kulp, Capt. John A., Com. w'44, Army, DSC, Combat Infantryman's 

man's Badge, Purple Heart 
Kurtz, 2d. Lt. Stanley R., Jr., Engr. '46, AAC 

Labash, Lt. Theodore R., Com. w'44, Army 

Lakin, Lt. Sanford I., Com. w'31, Navy 

Lambros, S/Sgt. Peter D., Arts w'45, AAC, Air Medal, 2 clusters, Purple 

Heart 
Lane, Maj. Robert A., Agr. '34, Army 

LaPaze, T/Sgt. Robert P., Com. w'44, AAC, Air Medal, 8 clusters 
Lawrence, Lt. Charles H., Grad. w'42, USMC, Bronze Star 
Layton, 1st. Lt. Francis D., Edu. '39„ AAC, Air Medal, Purple Heart 
Leahy, Cpl. Walter R., Engr. w'41. Army 
Leatherman, Pfc. Edwin J., Phar. w'44, Army 
Leeks, Cpl. Herbert H., Arts w'39, AAC 
Leonard, Sgt. Edwin H., Arts w'45, AAC 
Levin, Pvt. Frank, Engr. w'47, Army 
Levy, Sgt. Lester B., Arts w'39. Army 
Lewis, 2d. Lt. Clair E., Arts w'44, AAC 
Lewis, 2d. Lt. Eugene A., Com. w'42, AAC 
Libhaber, Sgt. Sanford A., Agr. w'40, Army 
Lieb, Pvt. Robert R., Engr. w'43. Army 
Lieberman, 2d. Lt. Earle M., Com. w'44, AAC 
Lindeman, Cpl. William C, Agr. w'46. Army 
Lindsey, Lt. Jean M,, Com. w'42, USMC 
Line, 1st. Lt. James W., Engr. w'46, AAC, Air Medal, clusters. Purple 

Heart 
Link, Sgt. L. Woodrow, Agr. w'38, AAC 
Linker, Pfc. Oscar, Arts w'38, Army 

Linn, Capt. John R., Engr. '40, AAC, Silver Star, Air Medal, cluster 
Lisle, Sgt. John B., Com. w'38, RAF 
Locke, Capt. Frank E., Arts w'40, Army 
Logan, Lt. Elizabeth H., Nurs. w'34. Army Nurse Corps 
Long, F/O William D., Agr. w'44, AAC 
Loomis, Lt. John A., Jr., Arts w'39, AAC, Air Medal, clusters 
Louzecky, 2d. Lt. John J., Agr. '41, AAC 



266 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Lovctt, 2d. Lt. Joseph S., Jr., Arts w'41, A AC, Silver Star 
Lowe, Cpl. Eugene L., Engr. w'40, AAC 
Lowther, Lt. Col. Ralph L., Engr. w'38. Army 

McAllister, Lt. Francis K., Engr. w'41, AAC 

McElroy, Lt. Harry J., Jr., Com. w'44, AAC 

McGlinchey, Pvt. Paul C, Com. w'41, Army 

McKinlcy, Lt. Frederick T., Edu. '42, AAC, Air Medal, Purple Heart 

McMillen, Lt. John T., Engr. w'43, AAC 

McPheron, 2d. Lt. Emmett H., Edu. w'42, AAC 

Mabe, 2d. Lt. Raymond D., Com. w'45, Army 

MacCollum, Maj. Maxwell S., Com. w'28. Army, Soldier's Medal 

MacDonald, Lt. Warren G., Edu. w'45, AAC 

Mack, T/Sgt. James R., Com. w'41, AAC 

Mackie, Pvt. Robert D., Arts w'46. Army 

MacQuaide, A/C Walter F., Jr., Edu. w'45, AAC 

Maddox, S/Sgt. Albert B., Twi. Schl. w'40. Army 

Mallow, Lt. Robert E., Agr. '42, Army 

Mandley, Pvt. Richard E., Engr. w'47. Army 

Mann, 1st. Lt. Roy E., Agr. w'44, AAC, Air Medal, clusters. Purple Heart 

Marquardt, Capt. Erwin G., Jr., Arts w'37, Army 

Marsh, Pvt. Ned C, Agr. w'47. Army 

Marsh, Lt. William A., Com. w'40, AAC 

Marsico, Capt. John, Med. '30, Army 

Marthey, 2d. Lt. Clarence L., Arts w'43, AAC 

Martin, Pvt. Donald N., Agr. w'37, USMC 

Martin, 2d. Lt. Richard W., Edu. '42, Army 

Martin, Lt. Robert H., Com. w'41. Army 

Marting, Ens. William R., Com. w'43, Navy 

Maves, Sgt. John W., Engr. w'44. Army 

Maxwell, Maj. Howard D., Arts '28, Med. '30, Army 

May, Lt. Dan P., Agr. w'41. Army, Purple Heart 

May, Ens. William C, Jour. '39, Navy 

Mayhew, Pfc. Donald D., Arts w'46. Army 

Mead, S/Sgt. Carl J., Com. w'40, AAC 

Meeker, Capt. Robert F., Agr. w'44. Army, Air Medal, clusters 

Mellion, Lt. Rogert J., Com. w'45, AAC 

Mervyn, 1st. Lt. Richard C, Engr. w'44, AAC, Air Medal, 4 clusters, 7 

batde stars 
Mervyn, Lt. Robert D., Com. w'42. Army 
Miesse, Lt. John F., Engr. w'44, AAC 
Miller, Pfc. Bernard, Engr. w'46, Army 



APPENDIX A 267 

Miller, Lt. Charles L., Agr. w'46, AAC 

Miller, A/C David H., Com. w'47, AAC 

Miller, 2d. Lt. Donald L., Com. w'43, AAC 

Miller, 2d. Lt. Harold W., Com. w'45. Army, Purple Heart 

Miller, Pfc. Homer W., Jr., Arts w'46. Army 

Miller, T/Sgt. Marion B., Engr. w'43, Army, Purple Heart, Bronze Star, 

Combat Infantryman's Badge 
Miller, Lt. William S., Engr. w'40, Army, 2 Bronze Stars 
Mills, A/C Carl L., Com. w'46, AAC 
Milner, M/Sgt. James O., Com. w'36. Army 
Mitchell, Lt. Robert C, Jr., Arts w'43. Army 
Molen, Lt. John E., Arts w'44, AAC 

Moraine, Lt. Russell E., Com. w'42, Army, Bronze Star, Purple Heart 
Moran, S/Sgt. Jack E., Com. w'44. Army 
Morehead, Pvt. Emmett H., Com. w'41. Army 
Morgan, Lt. Col. Mont F., MSc '22, PhD '35, Army 
Morris, Lt. Robert H., Phar. '40, Army 
Morrison, Capt. John A., Engr. w'39, RAF 
Morrow, Lt. E. Richard, Jr., Arts w'43, AAC 
Morten, Pvt. Joseph A., Jr., Arts w'45. Army 
Moser, Lt. Herman L., Vet. Med. '36, Army 
Moyer, Capt. Robert S., Engr. '37, Army 
Muntean, Lt. Emery, Jr., Com. w'43, AAC 
Murphy, Lt. Daniel J., Agr. w'40. Army 
Murray, 2d. Lt. Donald C, Engr. w'44. Army 
Musil, Lt. Anthony J., Engr. '43, AAC 

Naddy, Sgt. Charles O., Engr. w'48. Army 

Neal, Pfc. James T., Edu. w'46. Army 

Neal, Lt. Lawrence L., Edu. w'43, USMC 

Niday, S/Sgt. Merrill E., Arts w'46. Army 

Niece, Capt. Norman L., Jr., Com. w'42, USMC, Silver Star, Purple Heart 

Noling, 1st. Lt. Lemoine W., Agr. '43, Army 

Norman, Lt. Amos A., Agr. w'40, AAC 

Norris, Lt. Eugene T., Engr. '33, Navy 

Nosker, Maj. William C, Agr. '42, AAC, DEC, Bronze Star, Air Medal, 

3 clusters 
Nunes, 1st. Lt. Joseph L., MSc '41, AAC 

Oeffler, Lt. Kenneth, Arts w'41. Army 

Ogden, Lt. Robert A., Com. '38, Navy, Air Medal 

Okcy, Lt. Robert E., Engr. w'42, AAC 



268 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Orahood, S/Sgt. Dwight H., Edu. w'43, AAC 

Orlowski, 2d, Lt. Howard J., Engr. '38, MSc '39, PhD '42, AAC 

Orr, Pvt. James E., Arts w'46, Army, Silver Star, Purple Heart 

Owen, 1st. Lt. Gerald G., Agr. '42, AAC 

Owens, Pvt. Otto J., Engr. w'42, Army, Purple Heart, 3 clusters 

Painter, 1st. Lt. Jack B., Edu. w'42, AAC 

Pappano, 1st. Lt. William A., Engr. w'43, AAC 

Papurt, Maj. Maxwell J., Edu. '28, MA '29, PhD '31, Army 

Paschal, 1st. Lt. John F., Jr., Arts w'39, AAC, Air Medal, clusters 

Patton, PhM2/C Parke D., Phar. w'45. Navy 

Pauko, 2d. Lt. Andrew, Jr., Com. '45, AAC 

Paulus, Cpl. Donald, Com. w'40. Army 

Peat, Lt. Frank W., Arts w'41, AAC 

Perrine, Pfc. Robert W., Agr. w'46, Army 

Peters, 1st. Lt. Robert O., Engr. w'45, AAC, DSC, DFC, Air Medal, 3 

clusters 
Peterson, Lt. Garrett E., Engr. w'46, AAC 
Peterson, Lt. Leonard D., Arts w'37, Navy 
Pettit, Sgt. Frank J., Jr., Com. w'46, Army 
Pierce, Lt. Francis R., Arts '29, Edu. '31, Army 
Pierce, T/5 Richard F., Edu. w'46. Army 
Pierson, Ens. John J., Engr. w'42, Navy 
Pierson, S2/C William H., Jr., Arts w'42, Navy 
Pietsch, Capt. Horace E., Arts w'42, AAC 
Pilliod, 2d. Lt. Leo J., Com. w'44, USMC 
Piper, 1st. Lt. Arthur J., Com. '39, AAC, DFC, cluster. Air Medal, 8 

clusters 
Porter, Capt. John L. Ill, Com. w'40, AAC 
Poscavage, Lt. Edmund W., Com. '41, AAC 
Posde, Lt. John W., Arts w'45, AAC, Air Medal, clusters 
Potts, Lt. Richard F., Arts w'43, AAC 
Price, Lt. Raymond W., Com. w'42, AAC 
Pugh, Lt. George L., Com. '42, Army, Purple Heart 
Pyle, Lt. Benjamin C, Com. w'42, Army, Purple Heart 

Quinn, T/Sgt. John O., Com. w'45, Army 

Ramsey, 1st. Lt. Herman G,, Com. '40, Army 
Randall, 2d. Lt. James S., Engr. w'44, AAC 
Raney, Lt. Alice R., Edu. '39, Army Nurse Corps 
Rank, Lt. John W., Agr. '42, AAC 



APPENDIX A 269 

Ranker, Lt. Charles E., Arts w'42, AAC 

Redinger, Capt. James F., Law '39, Army 

Reed, Ens. John M., Jr., Agr. '41, Navy 

Reed, Pvt. Perce S., Jr., Engr. w'46. Army 

Reel, S2/C Richard M., Engr. w'45. Navy 

Regenstreich, S/Sgt. Theodore, Com. '34, Army 

Regula, Lt. Richard E. A., Edu. w'42, AAC 

Rehker, Pfc. Donald W., Arts w'46. Army 

Reidenbach, Lt. Gerald C, Engr. w'45, AAC 

Reinicker, 2d. Lt. Donald A., Com. w'42. Army 

Renfrew, Lt. Rodney A., Agr. w'44, Army 

Reynolds, Lt. Richard W., Engr. w'40, AAC 

Reynolds, Capt. Robert B., Com. w'41, AAC 

Rhind, Sgt. Scott A., Arts w'45, Army 

Ricci, Ens. Joseph A., Com. w'45, Navy, Purple Heart 

Richards, Lt. Coleman C, Arts w'42. Army 

Richardson, Ens. James P., Com. w'40. Navy 

Rickcls, Lt. James W., Arts w'44, AAC, Air Medal 

Rieger, Ens. Robert E., Arts w'45. Navy 

Ritchie, Sgt. John E., Edu. '43, AAC 

Robinson, Capt. Alexander, Jr., Agr. w'42, AAC 

Robinson, Lt. Col. James S., Engr. w'15, Army 

Robinson, M/Sgt. Sidney P., Arts w'44, Army 

Rogers, Pvt. Warren, Jr., Arts '44, Army 

Roland, Ens. Virgil D., Arts '42, Navy 

Rosenblum, 1st. Lt. Leonard S., Com, w'42. Army, Purple Heart 

Rosenson, 1st. Lt. Bernard J., Jour. '41, AAC 

Roush, Pfc. Cleona D., Agr. w'42. Army 

Roush, Sgt. Jack E., Engr. w'46, AAC, Air Medal, clusters 

Rubins, Pfc. Zale R., Agr. w'45, Army 

Rubinstein, Pvt. Stanley, Arts w'46. Army 

Ruzzo, 1st. Lt. Walter L., Arts w'44, AAC 

Sandberg, Lt. (j.g.) Loraine A., Agr. w'35, Navy 

Sanders, 2d. Lt. Russell L., Opt. w'37, AAC 

Sanderson, Pfc. Herbert G., Com. w'45. Army, Silver Star 

Sargent, 2d. Lt. Mac J., Edu. w'42, AAC 

Satullo, Pvt. Joseph A., Arts w'46, Army 

Sauerbrei, Lt. Jess W., Edu. w'39. Army 

Schake, Ens. Paul W., Engr. w'45, Navy 

Schmidt, Sgt. John L., Arts w'41, Army 



270 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Schmitt, Lt. Max F., Com. '39, Law '41, Navy 

Schnabel, Cpl. Donald B., Engr. w'44, AAC 

Schneiderman, F/O Norman W,, Arts w'46, AAC, Air Medal, Purple 

Heart 
Schoenbaum, S/Sgt. Raymond D., Arts w'37, Army 
Schreiber, F/O Morton S., Arts w'46, AAC 
Schuster, Pfc. Kenneth O., Engr. w'46, USMC, Bronze Star 
Scott, Capt. Don F., Edu. w'41, AAC 
Scott, Lt. Duncan R., Agr. '42, USMC, Silver Star 
Scott, MMl/C Robert R., Arts w'41, Navy, Medal of Honor 
See, Fl/C Donald N., Edu. w'46. Navy, Sub. Combat Insignia, 3 stars 
Seeds, Lt. George L., Engr. w'46, Army 
Seeds, T/Sgt. Robert C, Agr. '38, Army 
Seegar, Pvt. Harold D., Engr. w'44, Army 

Shade, Lt. Col. William L., Com. '38, Army, Silver Star, Bronze Star 
Shaffer, AMM2/C Henry R., Jr., Arts w'43. Navy 
Shank, Pfc. Robert B., Engr. w'45. Army 
Shapiro, Pvt. Joseph, Edu. w'44. Army 
Sharpies, Sgt. Robert P., Agr. w'44, AAC 
Sharpies, 2d. Lt. Russell M., Agr. '41, AAC, Air Medal, clusters, Purple 

Heart 
Shaw, Lt. Spencer L., Engr. w'46, AAC 

Shearer, Capt. Karl K., Arts w'43, AAC, DFC, Air Medal, clusters 
Sheets, 2d. Lt. James H., Engr. w'44, AAC 
Sherman, Capt. Thomas A., Engr. w'41, RAF 

Shield, 2d. Lt. Vance I., Jr., Agr. w'43. Army, Silver Star, Purple Heart 
Sickafoose, S/Sgt. Melvin A., Edu. '32, Army 

Silsby, Capt. Charles W., Engr. w'39, AAC, DFC, Air Medal, 3 clusters 
Simon, Lt. Arthur A., Com. '42, Army 
Skillman, Cpl. Robert C, Engr. w'45, USMC 
Slanker, 1st. Lt. Eldon L., Agr. w'44, AAC, Air Medal 
Slaton, Pfc. Harold A., Arts w'45, Army 
Slusser, 2d. Lt. George C, Edu. w'45, AAC, Purple Heart 
Smalley, Sgt. Carvil H., Arts w'43, USMC 
Smith, Lt. Donald M., Agr. w'38, AAC 
Smith, Lt. John C, Arts w'43, AAC, DFC, cluster 
Smith, 1st. Lt. Joseph R., Agr. w'41, AAC, DFC, Air Medal, 3 oak leaf 

clusters 
Smith, Pfc. Kenneth R., Agr. w'35, AAC 
Smith, Lt. Ned E., Edu. w'44, AAC, Purple Heart 
Smith, Ens. Ralph E., Engr. w'43. Navy 



APPENDIX A 271 

Smith, Lt. Col. Robert E., Engr. '40, AAC, DSM, DFC, Air Medal 

Snow, Lt. Richard O., Agr. w'43, AAC 

Solomon, 2d. Lt. Harry, Com. w*43, AAC 

Sommers, Pfc. Frank A., Engr. w'46, Army 

Soomsky, Lt. Sanford, Arts w'43, RCAF 

Sorenson, Capt. Robert S., Arts w'24, Army 

Sosnoski, Lt. (j.g.) Chester P., Com. w'40. Navy 

Southworth, Maj. Billy B., Com. w'41, AAC 

Speiser, Ens. Walter C, Com. '35, Navy, Purple Heart 

Spellicy, S/Sgt. Richard N., Com. w'44. Army 

Spencer, Lt. Cleneth D., Arts w'38, Army 

Spreng, Lt. Robert P., Com. w'35. Army 

Spruiell, Lt. Melvin M., PhD '39, Army 

Stalter, Lt. (j.g.) Herman G., Law '39, Navy 

Steele, Lt. Wayne M., Phar. '41, AAC 

Steflens, T/5 John G., Arts w'44, Army 

Stein, 1st. Lt. Irving M., Vet. Med. '42, AAC, DFC, Air Medal, 2 clusters 

Stephenson, 2d. Lt. Herman W., Arts w'41, AAC 

Stephenson, Lt. Mac B., Engr. '39, AAC 

Sterling, F/O Vincent E., Com. '41, AAC 

Stern, Lt. Arthur, Arts w'45, AAC 

Stevenson, Capt. Charles W., Arts w'43, AAC 

Stoneburner, Pfc. Earl R., Arts w'45. Army 

Stoneburner, Lt. William N., Engr. w'43, AAC 

Stowe, S/Sgt. Harold F., Agr. w'45, USMC, Purple Heart 

Struble, Pfc, John E., Agr. w'44. Army 

Suchiu, Lt. John, Com. '41, AAC 

Swigert, 1st. Lt. Robert R., Edu. '40, AAC 

Taber, Lt. Gerald R., Com. '41, Army 

Tarini, S/Sgt. John P., Engr. w'41, AAC, Air Medal 

Teller, 1st. Lt. Donald S., Law '43, AAC, Combat Infantryman's Badge, 

Bronze Star, Purple Heart 
Temper, 1st Lt. Ernest L., Edu. w'42. Army, Combat Infantryman's Badge, 

Bronze Star, Purple Heart 
Tcmpkin, Gertrude, Com. '28, American Red Cross 
Templeton, 2d. Lt. Thomas E., Engr. w'41, AAC 
TePas, Lt. (j.g.) Paul E., Com. w'38, Navy, DFC, gold star. Purple Heart, 

Air Medal, clusters 
Testement, Cpl. Myron V., Arts w'41. Army 
Thieman, Pvt. William, Engr. w'46. Army 



272 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Thomas, T/Sgt. James A., Vet. Med., w'30, Army, Silver Star, Bronze 

Star, Purple Heart 
Thornton, Lt. Cdr. Maurice J., Arts w'40. Navy 
Tisonyai, Lt. Eugene T., Com. '40, AAC 
Toland, Pvt. Frank L., Com. w'47, Army 
Topson, Lt. Maurice K., Com. '34, Lavv^ '37, Army 
Toupin, S/Sgt. William A., Phar. w'43, AAC 
Townsend, Pfc. William E., Com. '41, AAC 
Tracht, Pfc. Joseph H., Arts w'43, Army 
Trebisky, Pfc. Elmer J., Arts w'42, Army 
Troendly, Pvt. Donald P., Agr. '39, Army 
Troyan, Ens. William E., Engr. w'45. Navy 
Turk, Maj. Herman M., Arts '28, Med. '29, AAC 

Uhl, S/Sgt. Robert B., Arts w'38, AAC, Purple Heart, Honor Citation 
Underbill, Pfc. Ted V., Agr. w'43. Army 
Ury, Lt. Arthur E., Com. '33, Army 

Vana, Lt. Clarence R., Engr. w'44, AAC, DFC, Air Medal, cluster 

Vance, Lt. Richard L., Com. w'44, AAC 

Vaughan, Lt. John E., Engr. w'44, AAC 

Vogel, Maj. John E., Arts w'41, AAC 

Volgares, Ens. Kenneth J., Com. w'43. Navy 

Volk, Lt. Howard A., Jour. '38, Army 

Waggoner, Lt. Robert B., Com. w'41, AAC, Air Medal, Purple Heart 

Walker, Lt. Col. Arthur H., Agr. '29, Army 

Walker, 1st. Lt. George S., Jr., Engr. w'42, AAC 

Walkey, Pfc. Harry J., Com. w'44. Army 

Walsh, A/C Richard F., Engr. w'46, AAC 

Walter, Lt. Donald A., Com. w'42, AAC, DSC, Purple Heart 

Walters, Lt. Nelson M., Com. w'42, Army, Bronze Star, Purple Heart 

Walton, Pfc. Robert W., Arts w'46, Army 

Waring, Sgt. John L, Agr. w'44, AAC 

Warmuth, Cpl. William H., Arts w'44. Army 

Wasserman, Lt. Robert, Com. w'46. Army 

Waters, Lt. William D., Com. w'44, AAC 

Watson, Ens. William R., Com. w'45, Navy 

Watt, Lt. Charles K., Agr. w'41, AAC, DFC, Air Medal, 9 clusters 

Weaver, Capt. Douglas C, Com. '40, AAC 

Weaver, AR3/C Forrest V., Engr. w'46, Navy 



APPENDIX A 

Weaver, Lt. Lee T., Arts '39, Navy 

Webb, 1st. Lt. John T., Edu. '40, Army 

Weed, 1st. Lt. Charles D., Arts '42, Army 

Weich, 1st. Lt. Edward T., Engr. w'45. Army 

Weiland, Capt. George, Jr., Engr. w'34. Army 

Weiss, 1st. Lt. Max, Arts '42, Army, Bronze Star 

Welch, Lt. John M., Arts w'41. Army 

Welde, Lt. Charles D., Phar. w'44, AAC 

Welsh, Lt. William E., Arts w'45, AAC 

Wenger, Pvt. Frank M., Engr. w'39. Army 

Werder, 2d. Lt. Albert B., Arts w'45, AAC 

Wetzel, Lt. Robert E., Arts w'41. Army 

Wheeler, Pfc. Edward A., Arts w'46, Army 

White, 2d. Lt. Dean R., Arts w'43, AAC 

White, Lt. Glenn A., Com. w'40, AAC 

Wiecking, Pfc. William E., Engr. w'46, Army 

Williams, Lt. (j.g.) Gayle V., Arts w'45. Navy, Air Medal 

WiUiams, Cpl. Lawrence J., Arts w'32, Army 

Williams, Lt. Robert C, Engr. '39, AAC 

Wilmore, Maj. Charles P., Arts w'21. Army 

Wing, Capt. Gardner B., Agr. '31, Army 

Winger, Lt. George W., Engr. w'39, AAC 

Wirtz, Lt. (j.g.) James R., Arts '43, Navy 

Wolstein, Lt. WilHam H., Engr. w'43. Army 

Wood, Lt. Charles C, Arts w'43, AAC 

Wood, Pfc. Morrison G., Arts '38, Army 

Wood, Lt. William R., Com. '38, Army 

Woolery, 1st Lt. Edward R., Law w'39, AAC 

Woolman, Lt. (j.g.) Alan D., Com. '38, Navy, Purple Heart 

Wright, Cpl. Preston S., Engr. w'45. Army 

Wurdack, Lt. James E., Engr. w'42, AAC 

Wylie, 1st Lt. Hugh W., Com. '42, Army 

Yeisley, Lt. William H., Edu. '36, Army 
Yoakam, 2d. Lt. Harold E., Com. w'44, AAC 
Yoakam, 1st. Lt. Wayne E., Engr. '43, AAC 
Yocom, Lt. Julian A., Engr. '42, Army, Silver Star 
Young, Maj. Donn C, Com. '27, AAC 
Young, 2d. Lt. Merrit E., Edu. '40, AAC 

Zachman, Lt. Roland A., Arts '37, Law '38, Navy 
Zapolan, Lt. Wolfe, Arts '35, Med. '39, Army 



273 



274 THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 

Zealand, P/O John H., Com. '11, RCAF 
Zech, Lt. John H., Edu. '39, AAC 
Ziegenbusch, Lt. Frederick G., Engr. w'43, AAC 
Ziegler, Ens. Donald R., Agr. w'44, Navy 
Zieske, 1st. Lt. Clarence E., Arts '42, AAC 
Zieske, Lt. Vernon L., Arts '41, AAC 
Zimmerman, Lt. Col. Harry J., Arts w'31, AAC 



APPENDIX B 

Staff members to the number of 350 went on leave of absence 
between 1941 and 1945 for war service. Leaves of absence for 
military service were granted to 246 persons, including fifteen 
women. Some were of comparatively short duration and others 
for the entire period of the shooting war. All branches of the 
service were represented along with all theaters of operations, 
overseas as well as domestic. A number were veterans also of 
World War I. Glenn W. Miller, of economics, first was granted 
civilian leave and then military. 

The number of civilian leaves of absence granted was 105, 
including eight women. Many of these were for work in war 
agencies in Washington and elsewhere. Some were for what 
was known at the time as the Manhattan Project, or the de- 
velopment of the atom bomb. 

The two lists, military and civilian, as taken from the 
Trustees' minutes, follow: 

Military Leave of Absence 

Sta-ff Member Department 

Allenbach, Dr. Theodore C. Health Service 

Alpers, Dr. Jacob J. Medicine 

Amrine, Harold T. Engineering Drawing 

Appleman, Dr. Robert M. Dentistry 

Armstrong, Paul Dean of Men 

Ashbrook, Willard P. Physical Education 

Aumann, Francis R. Political Science 

Baker, Richard H. Rural Economics 

Ballis, William B. Political Science 

Barnhart, William S. Agricultural Extension 

Batchelor, Harold W. Agronomy 

Baumer, Herbert Architecture 

Baur, Frederic J., Jr. Physiological Chemistry 

275 



276 



THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 



Bee, Robert S. 
Bell, Earl G. 
Biggs, Ernest 
Blakely, Paul G. 
Blakesly, Philip B. 
Blickle, John E. 
Blosser, Robert H. 
Borror, Donald }. 
Boucher, Dr. Howard E. 
Boynton, Violet C. 
Brickley, Dr. Daniel W. 
Briggs, Gordon 
Bright, Paul D. 
Brown, Forrest A. 
Brown, Dr. John E. 
Brown, Dr. John Q. 
Brown, Paul E. 
Bugno, Raymond 
Burr, James B. 

Carlut, Charles E. 
Cherrington, Ernest H., Jr. 
Clark, Dr. Thomas E. 
Cligrow, Frank M. 
Clodfelter, Dr. Harve M. 
Cobb, Samuel H. 
Coddington, Dr. Oscar L. 
Cornell, Merriss 
Coutant, Victor C. B. 

Davies, Dr. Drew L, 
Davis, Francis W. 
Davis, Ralph C. 
Dawson, Scott 
Dietrich, Donald H. 
Dub, Dr. Leonard M. 
Duflfee, Aden L. 
Dye, William H. H. 

Elliott, Edwin 
Evans, D. Luther 
Evans, Dr. Harrison S. 
Evans, Dr. Lloyd R. 



Physics 

Agricultural Extension 

Physical Education 

Hospital 

Fine Arts 

Athletics 

Rural Economics 

Zoology & Entomology 

Surgery 

Physical Education 

Ophthalmology 

Agricultural Extension 

Service 

Agricultural Extension 

Pediatrics 

Surgery 

Athletics 

Stores & Receiving 

Education 

Romance Languages 

Physics 

Medicine 

Agricultural Extension 

Medicine 

Physical Education 

Pediatrics 

Social Administration 

University School 

Surgery 
Photography 
Business Organization 
Laboratory Supply 
Psychology 
Medicine 

Laboratory Supply 
Athletics 

Stone Laboratory 
Arts & Sciences 
Medicine 
Medicine 



APPENDIX B 



277 



Fciber, Lewis J. 
Fischer, George F. 
Fleig, Wilfred J. 
Foley, Dr. James M. 
Forman, Dr. Wiley L. 
Foulks, James G. 
Franklin, Carl M. 
Frederick, Emerson C. 
Fuller, William 

Gatrell, Robert M. 
Green, Earl L. 
Griffin, Ernest R. 
Guthrie, Dr. Morris B. 

Hahn, Mary Jane 
Haines, Howard F. 
Hamilton, Dr. Frank E. 
Hamilton, Howard L. 
Hamrick, Charles E. 
Harding, Lowry W. 
Harding, Dr. Warren G. II 
Harris, Dr. Edward W. 
Harris, Dr. William B. 
Hart, John N. 
Hatcher, Harlan H. 
Headington, Robert C. 
Heimlich, William F. 
Heisler, Frederick K, 
Henderson, Mary W. 
Hicks, Dr. Warren W. 
Hodgson, Newton 
Hook, Ruth 
Horst, Dr. John V. 
Houghton, Dr. Ben C. 
Huffman, Gerald H. 
Hughes, Dr. James J. 

James, Dr. Arthur G. 
Johnstone, Don 
Jones, Dr. Richard C. 



Physical Plant 
Business Office 
Accounting 
Health Service 
Medicine 
Anatomy 
President's Office 
Agricultural Extension 
Physical Plant 

Fine Arts 

Zoology & Entomology 

Hospital 

Medicine 

Stores & Receiving 

Optometry 

Surgical Research 

Arts & Sciences 

Agricultural Extension 

Education 

Surgery 

Otolaryngology 

Medicine 

Economics 

English 

Rural Economics 

WOSU 

Athletics 

Stores & Receiving 

Medicine 

University School 

Physical Education 

Surgery 

Medicine 

Agricultural Extension 

Medicine 

Surgery 

Civil Engineering 

Surgical Research 



278 



THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 



Keating, Dr. Robert A. 
Kemp, Dr. Hardy A. 
Kidd, Dr. Robert A., Jr. 
King, Dr. James D. 
Kinsel, Delber E. 
Kinsella, John J. 
Kirk, Dr. Oilman D. 
Kirk, Dr. Robert C. 
Kirkendall, Dr. Edward T. 
Knies, Dr. Philip T. 
Kob, Walter 
Koutz, Fleetwood R. 
Kreitler, George W. 
Kroth, Earl M. 

Lacey, Dr. Henry B. 
Laird, Emerson B. 
Landen, Dr. C. C. 
Landin, Harold W. 
Larkins, Richard C. 
Lattin, Norman D. 
Leedy, Daniel L. 
LeFever, Dr. Harry E. 
Libecap, Dr. Irvin L. 
Liss, Dr. Emanuel C. 
Love, Leston L. 
Lucas, H. D. 

McCall, Dr. Edward W. 
McConagha, Glenn L. 
McCoy, James R. 
McCully, Harry M., Jr. 
McElhaney, Marian 
McGinnis, Donald E. 
McGrew, Chester N. 
McNicol, Elizabeth L, 
Mahorney, Smith 
Marion, Alonzo W. 
Marsh, Dr. Edward T. 
Martin, Wanda L. 
Medley, Joseph F. 
Meiden, Walter E. 



Surgery 

Medicine 

Medicine 

Surgical Research 

Dean of Men 

University School 

Surgery 

Medicine 

Surgery 

Medicine 

Music 

Veterinary Parasitology 

Agricultural Extension 

Electrical Engineering 

Surgery 

Bookstore 

Medicine 

History 

Physical Education 

Law 

Wildlife Research 

Surgery & Gynecology 

Surgical Research 

Pediatrics 

Education 

Laboratory Supply 

Medicine 

Education 

Accounting 

Engineering Drawing 

Agricultural Extension 

Music 

Agricultural Extension 

Entrance Board 

Stores & Receiving 

Agricultural Extension 

Veterinary Surgery 

Education 

Purchasing 

Romance Languages 



APPENDIX B 



279 



Mcndenhall, Charles B. 
Meyer, Allen L. 
Michael, Dr. Nicholas 
Miller, Francis 
Miller, Glenn W. 
Miller, Hermann C. 
Miller, Leslie H. 
Mitchell, Dr. William F. 
Moehlman, Arthur H. 
Mooney, Bernard F. 
Morse, Dr. Dan 
Moses, Elbert R., Jr. 
Mount, John T. 

Nicholas, Lester T. 
Nolen, Herman C. 

Obetz, Dr. Robin C. 
Oman, Galen F. 
Orr, Jack Edward 
Osborn, Clinton M. 

Penfield, Ruth A. 
Perry, Dr. Claude S. 
Poole, Harold M. 
Porteus, Homer S. 
Pounds, Ralph L. 
Preston, Roscell T. 
Pritchett, Dr. Clark P. 
Pumphrey, Dr. Gordon H. 

Quinn, Dr. Robert E. 

Rardin, Dr. Thomas E. 
Reeder, Eugene L. 
Rees, Trevor J. 
Reeves, Dr. James R. 
Renner, Dr. Wilbur W. 
Rettig, William 
Riffle, John R. 
Ring, Gordon C. 
Roberts, Cleo A. 
Rockwood, Robert E. 



Education 

Business Organization 

Medicine 

Agricultural Extension 

Economics 

Accounting 

Mathematics 

Medicine 

University School 

Physical Exlucation 

Medicine 

Speech 

Agricultural Extension 

Education 

Business Organization 

Medicine 
Architecture 
Pharmacy 
Anatomy 

Anatomy 
Ophthalmology 
Industrial Engineering 
Agricultural Extension 
Education 

Physiological Chemistry 
Medicine 
Ophthalmology 

Ophthalmology 

Medicine 

Physical Plant 

Athletics 

Medicine 

Ophthalmology 

Hospital 

Operation & Maintenance 

Physiology 

University School 

Romance Languages 



280 



THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 



Rodcnberg, Elmer J. 


Hospital 


Romero, Virginia M. 


Exlucation 


Rothcrmich, Dr. Norman O. 


Medicine 


Rusoff, Dr. Maurice B. 


Medicine 


Sage, Dr. Harry M. 


Ophthalmology 


Schlcich, Donald V. 


Photography 


Schmidt, Warren E. 


Rural Economics 


Schoene, Dr. Robert H. 


Medicine 


Scofield, Herbert T. 


Botany 


Scott, Gene B. 


Hospital 


Seyler, Paul J. 


Zoology & Entomology 


Seymour, Dr. Miner E. 


Pediatrics 


Shane, Harold G. 


Educational Research 


Share, Oscar E. 


Agricultural Extension 


Sheets, Dr. Maurice V. 


Surgery 


Shelden, Frederick F. 


Physiology 


Shepard, Dr. Joseph H. 


Medicine 


Shilling, Dr. R. H. 


Hospital 


Shinowara, Dr. George Y. 


Pathology 


Shupe, Hollie W. 


Engineering Drawing 


Simpson, Dr. Walter M. 


Medicine 


Sims, Dr. George P. 


Surgery 


Skinner, Blanche E. 


Hospital 


Smith, Dr. Frederick G. 


Surgical Research 


Smith, Dr. Robert G. 


Surgery 


Snyder, Laurence N. 


Athletics 


Sparrow, Eugene L. 


Agricultural Extension 


Srigley, Dr. Robert S. 


Surgery 


Stecker, Frederick 


Arts & Sciences 


Steele, Dr. Wendell M. 


Ophthalmology 


Stephens, Dr. Vernon D. 


Health Service 


Stevens, George N, 


Law 


Stillwell, Gardiner B. 


English 


Stout, Dr. Walter M. 


Medicine 


Studebakcr, Eldon 


Agricultural Extension 


Stultz, Richard E. 


Physical Education 


Sullivan, Martha G. 


Engineering 


Surington, Dr. Cyril T. 


Surgery 


Swain, John E. 


Laboratory Supply 


Swanson, Carroll A. 


Botany 



APPENDIX B 



281 



Taylor, Jacob B. 
Tcmplin, Wanda 
Thomas, Charles M. 
Thompson, Roy E. 
Timmons, William M. 

Vanneter, Dr. J. Clyde 
Vilbrandt, Robert A. 
Von Haam, Dr. Emmerich 

Walker, Charles F. 
Walker, Harvey 
Walters, Dale 
Walters, Jeannette 
Warner, Edward N. 
Warner, Robert W, 
Warner, William E. 
Wasson, J. Donald 
Waters, T. Bruce 
Watkins, Fairfax E. 
Watson, Dr. George B. 
Weed, John M. 
Weinberger, Adolph D. 
West, Dr. Paul G. 
Whitcomb, Manley R. 
Whiteside, George E. 
Williams, Robert M. 
Williams, William O. 
Wilson, Howard S. 
Wilson, Dr. Judson D. 
Wilson, Dr. Sloan J. 
Wittenbrook, Dr. John M. 
Woolpert, Dr. Oram C. 
Worstcll, Dr. Henry P. 
Wright, M. Erik 

Yost, Mary M. 

Zahn, Theodore D. 
Zollinger, Dr. Richard W. 
Zollinger, Dr. Robert M. 



Accounting 

Operation & Maintenance 

History 

Stone Laboratory 

Speech 

Dispensaries 
Laboratory Supply 
Pathology 

Stone Laboratory 

Political Science 

Hospital 

Hospital 

Zoology & Entomology 

Laboratory Supply 

Education 

Library 

Philosophy 

Engineering Drawing 

Surgery 

Engineering Experiment Station 

German 

Medicine 

Music 

Service 

Athletics 

University School 

Music 

Medicine 

Medicine 

Medicine 

Bacteriology 

Surgery 

Psychology 

Physical Education 

Library 

Surgical Research 
Surgery 



282 



Sta§ Member 

Almy, Emory F. 
Atherton, Carlton 

Bahn, Eugene H. 
Baker, Kenneth H. 
Bird, Charles F. 
Bitterman, Henry J. 
Bridgman, Charles S. 
Erode, Wallace R. 
Buck, Richard S., Jr. 
Burley, Orin E. 

Cabarga, Demetrio A. 
Campbell, Frank L. 
Caplan, Benjamin 
Carter, Marion A. 
Coffin, Robert M. 
Collicott, Esther 
Collins, Eleanor 
Copeland, Herman A. 
Cowell, Charles C. 

Dale, Edgar C. 
Dameron, Kenneth 
Davidson, Ralph H. 
Davis, Wells L. 
Dierker, Arthur H. 
Dorn, Walter L. 
Duffus, William M. 

Edgerton, Harold A. 
Egle, Walter 
Emery, Walter B. 
Erb, J. Hoffman 
Everitt, William L. 

Fisher, Sydney N. 
Folk, Samuel B. 
Foster, H. Schuyler, Jr. 



the bevis administration 
Civilian Leave of Absence 
Department 

Agricultural Chemistry 
Fine Arts 

Speech 

Psychology 

Civil Engineering 

Economics 

Physics & Astronomy 

Chemistry 

Architecture 

Business Organization 

Romance Languages 
Zoology & Entomology 
Economics 
Architect's Office 
Fine Arts 
News Bureau 
Dean of Women 
Psychology 
University School 

Educational Research 

Business Organization 

Zoology & Entomology 

Electrical Engineering 

Engineering Experiment Station 

History 

Business Organization 

Occupational Opportunities Service 

Economics 

Speech 

Dairy Technology 

Electrical Engineering 

History 
Mechanics 
Political Science 



APPENDIX B 



283 



Gaerttner, Erwin R. 
Green, Jerome B. 
Green, Wesley S. 

Harris, Jack S. 
Harris, Preston M. 
Harrison, David M. 
Hauck, Charles W. 
Heiby, Ernest P. 
Helsel, Robert G. 
Hendrix, William S. 
Hesthal, Cedric E. 
Hudson, Dr. N. Paul 
Hunter, Robert M. 
Hynek, Joseph A. 

James, Clifford L. 

Kellogg, Lester S. 
Knauss, Harold P. 

Lamey, Carl A. 
Lammel, Rose 
LaPaz, Lincoln 
Lassetre, Edwin N. 
Leonard, Russell B. 
Lewis, Ervin E. 
Luxon, Norval N. 

McBryde, F. Webster 
McClarren, Howard 
McCune, Shannon 
McDonald, William F. 
Mack, Edward, Jr. 
Mac Wood, George E. 
Markham, Floyd S. 
Marquis, Franklin W. 
Mathews, Robert E. 
Miller, Glenn W. 
Mitts, Harold A. 
More, Kenneth R. 



Physics 

Physics & Astronomy 

Agricultural Extension 

Sociology 

Chemistry 

Economics 

Rural Economics 

Agricultural Extension 

Mathematics 

Romance Languages 

Physics & Astronomy 

Bacteriology 

Law 

Physics & Astronomy 

Economics 

Business Research 
Physics 

Geology 

University School 

Mathematics 

Chemistry 

Laboratory Supply Store 

Education 

Journalism 

Geography 

Agricultural Extension 

Geography 

History 

Chemistry 

Chemistry 

Bacteriology 

Mechanical Engineering 

Law 

Economics 

Fine Arts 

Physics 



Nielsen, Harald H. 



Physics & Astronomy 



284 



THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 



Peattie, Roderick 


Geography 


Postle, Marjorie 


Dean of Men 


Rautio, Laurie J. 


Metallurgy 


Reber, A. Lloyd 


Photography 


Reed, Josephine B. 


News Bureau 


Rice, Harvey M. 


History 


Robinson, Walter 


Mechanical Engineering 


Rogers, Carl R. 


Psychology 


Rose, William H. 


Law 


Rowntree, R. H. 


Economics 


Shortley, George H. 


Physics & Astronomy 


Shaffer, Wave H. 


Physics & Astronomy 


Simms, Henry H. 


History 


Slatter, Walter L. 


Dairy Technology 


Spieker, Edmund M. 


Geology 


Stanger, Roland J, 


Law 


Stewart, Grace A, 


Geology 


Sufrin, Sidney 


Economics 


Telberg, Ina 


Sociology 


Tharp, James B. 


Education 


Thomas, Llewellyn H. 


Physics & Astronomy 


Toops, Herbert A. 


Psychology 


Trotter, Morris E., Jr. 


Architecture 


Tucker, LeRoy 


Mechanics 


Van Til, William 


University School 


Van Winkle, Quentin 


Engineering Experiment Station 


Walker, Robert Y. 


Psychology 


Watson, Virginia 


Hospital 


Wells, John A. 


Geology 


Welsh, Edward C. 


Economics 


Williams, Fred L. 


Laboratory Supply Store 


Wilson, Dr. E. Harlan 


Surgery 


Winter, Alden R. 


Agriculture 


Wylie, Clarence R., Jr. 


Mathematics 



INDEX 



Absence, leaves of 77, 130-31, 275-84 
Academic appointments, &c., report on 

21, 22 
Academic credit 64, 201, 208-09, 216 
Acceleration 37, 38, 39, 41, 43, 54, 58, 

69, 70, 71, 77 
Administrative Council 18, 21, 106 
Adult Evening School 28, 44, 49, 50, 

58, 66 
Aeronautical engineering, dept. of 74, 

75 
Aeronautics 74 
Aeronautics, Navy Bureau of 175, 177, 

178, 182 
Aeronautics, pre-flight 53, 114 
Agricultural Experiment Station 125 
Agricultural Extension Service 67, 147, 

208 
Agricultural Student 56 
Agriculture, College of 62, 106, 110, 

216, 223 
Aircraft antennas 165, 166 
Air Force, sec Army Air Corps 
Airport (see Don Scott Field also) 57, 

70, 148, 188, 239 
Air raid drills 51, 69 
Altmaier, Dr. C. J. 124 
Alumni Association 28 
Alumni College 28 
Alumni Day 80, 121 

Alumni Monthly vi, 81, 107, 204, 214, 

215, 230, 231, 233, 240, 249, 251 
Alumni Records Division vii, 215, 231, 

232, 233, 255 
Alumni War Activities Committee 81 
Alumni War Conference 80 
American Legion 53, 81 
American Petroleum Institute 154, 158, 

170, 180 
American Student Alliance 8, 14 
Annual reports, president 25 fl., 61 f?., 

78 fl., 109 ff., 217 fl., 222 ff. 
Appropjdations 31, 32, 193 



Armed Forces 47, 56, 57, 89, 96, 102, 
104. 106, 115, 132, 138, 144, 164, 
168, 201, 203, 208, 217, 220, 224 

Armor plate 142, 150, 154, 169 

Armory 6, 45 

Army 6, 17, 27, 54, 60, 66, 71, 72, 88, 
91, 96, 100, 101, 102, 115, 157, 160, 
161, 162, 175, 179, 210, 219, 220, 233 

Army Air Corps 28, 45, 54, 66, 89, 92, 
96, 98, 124, 145, 154, 249, 250 

Army Engineer maintenance unit 104, 
114 

Army Enlisted Reserve 58, 60 

Army Specialized Training Program 
(A.S.T.P.) 48, 82, 86, 92, 98, 100, 
102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 115, 211, 
219, 220 

Arts and Sciences, College of 28, 62, 
106, 113, 117, 120, 205, 224 

Arts, School of Fine and Applied 126 

Athletic Board 127, 134 

Atkinson, Herbert S. 4, 32, 124, 125, 
128 

Atom bomb 147, 163 

Avey, A. E. 60, 126 

Aviation 67, 109, 158 

Aviation fuels 170 

Aviation medicine 115, 143, 166 

Aviation psychology 74 

Aviation, School of vi, 73, 74, 75, 109, 
126, 198 

Baker Hall 11, 30, 51, 52, 90, 102, 
104, 108, 109, 115, 185, 220 

Barrows, Maj. Arthur B. 232, 236 

Baxter, Dr. Earl H. 20, 127 

Beighder, Maj. Gen. Robert S. 8, 247, 
251 

Bennett, Robert M. 236 

Betatron 112, 152 

Bevis, Howard L. election of 2; in- 
auguration 2, 3; response to charge 4; 
on academic freedom 4; draft defer- 



285 



286 



THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 



ment instructions 7; "Prcxy's Hour" 
11; re Nailor Bill 12; on "peace 
strike" 13, 14, 15; re Student Court 
action 15; names Park draft coordi- 
nator 17; re student deferment 18; 
names Committee of Nine 18; 71st 
annual report 25 ff; calls student 
mass meeting 37; writes to parents 
37; urges students to stay 38; research 
contract secrecy 39; second message 
to students 40; broadcasts over WOSU 
41; addresses faculty 41; again ad- 
dresses faculty 43; on Reserve Corps 
policy 54; statement to "University 
men" 57; welcomes new students 58; 
second letter to parents 60; 72nd an- 
nual report 61 ff; closing observations 
65, summarizes defense and war ac- 
tivities 66 ff; again addresses faculty 
70; on importance of aviation 74; 
again sums up war activities 75 fJ; 
73rd annual report 78 ff; request to 
conserve coal 83; suppresses Sun-Dial 
84; on ESMWT program 88; on 
Recognition School 96; re specialized 
training 100; 73rd annual report 
cont'd 109 ff; names Luxon coordi- 
nator 98; staff changes 117 ff; on 
University relations 123; on leaves of 
absence 130-31; authority on draft 
deferment 131; Paul Brown case 133; 
Twilight School committee named 
135; Luxon named director 136; wel- 
comes returning veterans 137; on war 
research 145; submits building items 
187; on War Research Laboratory 
188; Neil Hall bought 189; cites 
"urgent need" for funds 193; on 
building needs 193-94; names post- 
war program committee 198; query to 
veterans 204; reviews first four years 
205-06; on universal training issue 
206; invites building suggestions 209 
makes 1944 year-end statement 212 
at Roosevelt memorial service 214-15 
speaks on VE Day 215; 74th annual 
report 217 ff; 75th annual report 222 
ff; signs war memorials 232. 
Bevis, Mrs. Howard L. 69 
Bigelow, Dean Leslie L. 115, 117 



Blackburn, F 1/C John T. 229 

Blackout 51, 58 

Blood Donor Center 77 

Boord, Cecil E. 145, 158, 162. 170 

Bowers, Edison L. 34, 137 

Bricker, Gov. John W. 15, 51, 75, 79, 

80, 124, 187, 190, 191, 195, 208 
Brode, Wallace R. 162, 224 
Brown, Paul 133-34 
Brumley, Dean O. V. 118 
Brunzell, Col. Otto L. 17, 57, 75, 98, 

126 
Buckeye Club 10, 30, 93, 97 
Bycrs, Lt. Gen. Clovis E. 247, 250 

Calendar, University 105 

Camouflage course 53, 62, 94 

Campbell, M. Edith 124 

Cancer Research, Division of 227 

Canfield Hall 11, 30, 102, 109, 185, 

220 
Caniff, Milton vii, 204, 215, 254 
Charters, W. W. 127, 129 
Chemical Warfare Service 153 
Chemistry, dept. of 150, 155, 162, 224 
Child Welfare Center 228 
Civil Aeronautics Administration (C.A.A.) 

71, 72, 73, 96, 149 
Civil Air Patrol 75, 126 
Civilian defense, campus 51 
Civilian morale 67, 69 
Civilian Pilot Training (C.P.T.) vi, 27, 

39, 56, 62, 71, 72, 73, 86, 89, 92, 159, 

188, 189 
Coal shortage 83 
Coast Guard 57, 71 
Cockins, Edith D. 117, 121 
Coffee hour 33, 35, 52 
Collins, Eleanor R. 46, 103 
Commerce and Administration, College of 

28, 62, 106, 113, 205 
Compton, Arthur H. 1, 2 
Conaway, Dean Christine Y. 56, 118, 

221 
Conference Committee of the Teaching 

Staff 18, 23 
Control, State Board of 148, 186, 188, 

189, 190 

Corn, hybrid 143, 148 
Cryogenic laboratory 224, 228 



INDEX 



287 



Cryogenics 153, 163, 191 
Cunningham, Dean John F. 68 
Curtis, Dr. George M. 227 

Cyclotron 29 

Dakan, Everett L. 83, 84, 139 
Dargusch, Carlton S. 3, 6, 11, 124, 248 
Davey, Gov. Martin L. 185 
Davis, Vice President Harvey H. 117, 

119, 120, 127 
Dean of Men's Office 111, 219 
Dean of Women's Office 220 
Defense, State Council of 53, 208 
Deferment 7 
Democracy in Education, Committee for 

13, 14, 15 
Dentistry, College of 28, 38, 39, 41, 59, 

62, 106, 110, 115, 138, 224 
Department chairmen 126, 206, 221-22 
Derby Hall 90, 91, 108, 181 
DeSelm, Lt. Richard R. 236, 238 
Development Fund, University 29, 30, 

81 
Diesel Engine School, Navy 56, 87, 92, 

114 
Doan, Dean Charles A. 3, 69, 77, 117, 

118, 127, 226, 227 
Dockeray, Floyd C. 97, 114 
Don Scott Field 57, 70, 73, 148, 186, 

221, 239 
Donaldson, E. F. 139 
Dykstra, Clarence A. 3, 6, 7 

Eckelberry, George W. 62, 69 
Education, College of 28, 49, 62, 106, 

110, 113, 118, 126, 146, 205, 225 
Education, State Department of 53, 76, 

110, 119 
Educational Research, Bureau of 129, 

225 
Eichelberger, Lt. Gen. Robert L. 246-47, 

250 
Electron microscope 29 
Emergency Cooperation, Committee on 

3, 34, 42, 61, 66, 68 
Engineering, College of 59, 62, 105, 

146, 205, 225-26 
Engineering Defense training 27, 37, 86 
Engineering Experiment Station 150, 

152, 158, 191 



Engineering, Science and Management 

Defense Training (E.S.M.D.T.) 37, 

39, 44, 58, 67, 86 
Engineering, Science and Management 

War Training (E.S.M.W.T.) 58, 60, 

62, 77, 82, 87, 92, 93, 114, 115 
Enlisted Reserve Corps 45, 54, 57, 58, 

60, 69, 70, 86, 92, 93, 99, 101 
Enrollment 38, 41, 42, 58, 61, 64, 68, 

70, 71, 80, 82, 83, 101, 107, 194, 

196, 205, 209, 212, 228 
Entrance Board 136, 138, 218 
Evans, William Lloyd 32, 128, 237 
Explosives course 9, 53, 55, 89, 93 

Faculty Council 18, 19, 26, 64, 66, 126, 
201, 202, 206, 208, 209, 216 

Faculty Review 75, 115, 193 

Farmers' Institutes 147 

Fay, Lt. Perry S., Jr. 56 

Federal Works Agency 190 

Finklestein, Salo 172, 176, 180 

Fires 153 

Four-Quarter Plan 43, 77 

Franklin, Carl M. 34, 118, 120, 137 

Fraternity houses 17, 39, 91, 101, 102, 
107, 109, 210, 219 

Ft. Hayes 94, 99 

Fullen, John B. 123 

Fullington, Dean James F. 136, 198, 
199, 200, 201 

Gaw, Dean Esther A. 118 

General Assembly 11, 31, 32, 193, 194, 

195, 196, 218, 246 
General Studies 30 
Gibraltar Island 125 
"G. I. Bill" 137, 193, 211 
Ginn, Howard C. 137 
Gorrell, Faith L. 68 
Government Contracts 140, 141, 144, 

145, 146, 147, 157-59 
Graduate Aviation Center 73, 109 
Graduate School 19, 30, 62, 112, 216, 

222, 227 
Graves, W. L. 33, 34, 128, 129 
Greene, Founta D. 46 
Grimm, Harold J. 12 
Guthrie, William S. 9, 46, 127, 208 



288 



THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 



Halloran, Ens. William I. 229, 230, 231, 

232 
Hamilton, Howard L. vi, 171, 173, 177, 

178 
Hatcher, Dean Harlan H. 18, 52, 62, 

70, 120, 213, 214, 221 
Haverfield, Ens. James 229, 231 
Hayes, H. Gordon 52, 130 
Hayes Hall 153, 194, 220, 225 
Health Center 191, 193, 195, 196, 226, 

227, 252 
Health Council 115, 218 
Health Service 205, 220 
Heimberger, Dean F. W. 103 
Hershey, Maj. Gen. Lewis B. 6, 53, 248 
Hitchcock, Fred A. 166, 168, 227 
Hoagland, Henry E. vi, 3, 11, 34, 69, 

79, 184, 198 
Honor roll vii, 39, 229, 231, 255-74 
Honorary degrees 32, 53 
Hopkins, James R. 126 
Housing 30, 108, 205, 206, 211, 214, 

220 
Hudson, Dean N. Paul 8, 52, 68, 198 
Hullfish, H. G. 69, 203 
Hydrogen, liquid 163, 164, 165 

Individualized programs 202 
Insect repellents 143, 153, 164, 168 
Instruction, Council on 27, 55, 120 
Inter-University Council 10, 11, 30, 31, 

186, 187, 190, 191, 192, 193, 195, 

196, 218 

Japan 35, 36, 68, 149, 230, 246, 247 
Japanese-Americans 83 

Japanese language courses 44, 76, 113 

Johnston, Herrick L. 93, 144, 163, 164, 

165 

Jones, Lawrence D. 98, 121, 122 

Journalism building 186, 187, 209 

Kaiser, John 129 

Kemp, Dean Hardy A. 32, 117, 118, 

123 
Kennedy, John F. 240-41 
Kentuckians 87, 88 
Kettering, Charles F. 32, 124, 171 
Kibler, Thomas L. 60, 113 
Klein Committee 23, 35 
Klein, Dean Arthur J. 34, 69, 118, 137 



Lane Aviation Corp. 72, 73, 148 
Lantern 14, 15, 33, 34, 47, 52, 56, 84, 

99, 103, 128, 134, 187, 214, 215, 216, 

241 
Lausche, Gov. Frank J. 195, 213 
Law, College of 63, 106, 175, 226 
Legal Aid Clinic 28, 226 
Leighton, J. A. 32, 127, 128 
LeMay, Gen. Curtis E. 246, 249, 250 
Library 187, 194, 210, 212, 213, 214, 

215, 216, 231 
Lincoln, James F. 80, 122-23, 124, 125 
Links 47, 48 
Luxon, Nerval Neil vi, 98, 105, 107, 

118, 121, 136 

Mack Hall 11, 102, 109, 220 
MacQuigg, Dean Charles E. 3, 9, 72, 

75 
Manhattan District 147, 163 
Marine Corps 27, 57, 91, 233 
Martin, Dean Arthur T. 32, 198 
Mathews, Robert E. 20, 21 
May, Ens. William C. 230, 231 
McCracken, W. C. 128 
McFadden, John F. 129 
McKenna, Frances 126 
Medal of Honor 230, 237 
Medical Center, see Health Center 
Medicine, College of 28, 38, 39, 41, 59, 

62, 106, 113, 114, 117, 123, 127, 130, 

191, 192, 226-27 
Mershon auditorium 252 
Mershon, Ralph D. 54, 121 
Michigan, University of 73, 210 
Military Personnel Records Center vii, 

255 
Military Science building 27, 45 
Miller Flying School 72 
Monroe, Robert E. 172, 173 
Morrill, J. L. 1, 3, 10, 18, 42, 117, 119 
Morris, Clyde T. 34, 137 
Moyers, Lt. Cdr. G. W. 172, 178fl. 
Music, School of 126, 194, 197 

Naiior, Rep. Joseph 12 

National Defense Council 144 

National Research Council 115, 150, 159, 

160 
National Service curriculum 93, 94, 113 



INDEX 



289 



National Youth Administration (N.Y.A.) 

9 
Naval Research Laboratory 164 
Navy 27, 42, 54, 57, 60, 71, 72, 73, 

88, 89, 90, 91, 95, 96, 98, 102, 115, 

145, 157, 160, 174, 175, 182, 184, 

220, 224, 233, 237 
Navy Recognition School vi, 56, 81, 86, 

90 ff., 96, 104, 106, 107-08, 141, 145, 

155, 162, 171 ff., 212 
Neil Hall 70, 102, 104, 109 186, 189- 

90, 220 
Newman, M. S. 164, 165 
Nine, Committee of 18 
Nisonger, H. W. 68, 69 
Nold, Harry E. 9, 27, 37, 60, 67, 88, 

94, 115-16, 136 
Northway Flying Service 72 
Nursing, School of 20, 59, 126 

Obstetrics, dept. of 127, 226 

Occupational Opportunities Service 20, 
218 

Occupational therapy 69, 225 

Office of Price Administration (O.P.A.) 
48, 208 

Office of Scientific Research and Develop- 
ment (O.S.R.D.) 144, 150, 153, 155, 
160, 162, 165, 166, 227 

Ohio Stadium 16, 87, 92, 128, 152, 210 

Ohio Union 92, 101, 105, 205, 210, 
213, 214, 216, 253 

Olentangy River 24, 152, 185, 210 

Olpin, A. Ray 9, 42, 67, 108, 140, 141 
ff., 154 ff., 180 

O'Neill, Gov. C. William 245-46 

Ovi'ens, James S. 141, 146 fn., 160 fn. 

Oxley Hall 11, 102 

Park, Dean Joseph A. 6, 14, 15, 16, 17, 

62, 98, 108, 137, 206, 211, 219 
Peace strike 13, 14, 15 
Pearl Harbor 6, 27, 33, 34, 36, 46, 59, 
60, 66, 73, 79, 81, 86, 130, 177, 222 
229, 230, 232, 237, 238, 250 
Pediatrics, dept. of 20, 127 
Personnel, Bureau of Naval 108, 178 
Personnel Council 69, 206, 218 
Pharmacy, College of 29, 41, 62, 106, 
113, 151 



Phillips, Sen. H. T. 12, 13 

Physical education, dept. of 66, 68, 1 1 1 

Physical fitness program 44, 66, 68 

Physiology, dept. of 74 

Policy Committee 26, 34, 41, 120, 136, 

198 
Pomerene Hall 49, 103, 216 
Pomerene, Warner M., 80, 124 
Port Columbus 72, 188 
Portuguese language 44 
Post-Collegiate Assembly 28, 29 
Posde, Dean Wendell 198 
Post-war building program 79, 209 
Post-war program, committee on 198 fl., 

221 
Post War Program Commission 196, 

197, 212 
Power, Donald C. 80, 124, 128 
Prexy's Hour 11, 219 
Price, Minnie 67, 68 
Public Relations, Bureau of 118, 121 
Public Works Administration (P.W.A.) 

11, 30, 186 
Purdue University 73, 185 

Quinine 77, 115, 146 

Racial discrimination 51 

Radiation laboratory 29, 112, 152, 227 

Radio College 110 

Radio education 221 

Radio optics 228 

Ramsowcr, Harry C. 68 

Raney, Lt. Alice R. 234 

Recitation (music) building 197 

Recognition dinner, staff 138 

Red Cross 46, 48, 50, 69, 208, 233 

Reeder, C. Wells 56, 57, 92, 98, 99, 101 

Reeder, Ward G. 135, 136 

Refresher courses 59, 66, 205 

Registrar 136, 137, 200, 204, 218, 219 

Renshaw, Samuel 90, 91, 96, 141, 145, 

155, 159, 162, 171 ff., 176 ff. 
Research 42, 67 
Research contracts 27, 140 ff. 
Research Foundation, University vi, 8, 

27, 62, 90. 108, 140 ff., 154 ff., 212, 

224 
Retirement plan 1 1 



290 



THE BEVIS ADMINISTRATION 



Rightmire, George W. 1, 24, 25, 57 
Roll of Honor, sec Honor Roll 
Roosevelt, Franklin D. 7, 8, 14, 35, 36, 

185, 214, 237, 250 
R.O.T.C. 6, 27, 39, 41, 45, 54, 57, 58, 

70, 86, 95, 99, 100, 191 
Rubber research 151 
Rules Committee 18 
Russell, Dr. Burrell 80, 124 
Russian language 44, 76, 113 

Scarlet Fever 84 

Schellenger, Harold K. 118, 121, 123, 

136 
Scott, Capt. Don F. 221, 238-39 
Scott, MM 1/C Robert R. 229, 230, 237 
Scott, William H. 20, 121 
Selective Service 6, 7, 16, 17, 37, 58, 

62, 63, 67, 82, 106, 111, 124, 131, 

132, 133, 161, 219 
Seventy-fifth Anniversary 228 
Sharpening courses 67 
Signal Corps 163, 165 
Smith, Dean Alpheus W. 3, 23, 34, 69, 

137, 198 
Smith, Guy-Harold 149 
Smith, Howard Dwight 24, 94 
"Sniperscope," "Snooperscope" 151 
Snyder, Laurence H. 34, 127, 137 
Social Administration building 209 
Social Administration, School of 211 
Special and Adult Education, Bureau of 

50, 66 
Special Devices, Bureau of 183 
Specialized Training Assignment and Re- 
classification (S.T.A.R.) 82, 86, 98, 

ff, 104 
Stadium Club 10, 93, 97 
Stadium Dormitories II, 30, 100, 109, 

186 
Starling-Loving Hospital 90, 190 
Stecker, Frederick vii, 17 
Steeb, Carl E. 3, 50, 72, 83, 1 17, 122, 

137 
Stillman Hall 186 
Stimson, Henry L. 52, 93 
Sanson, Karl W. vi, 56, 71, 73, 92 
Stone George A. 75, 126 
Stone, Julius F. 29, 75 
St. John, L. W. 133 



Stradley, Vice President Bland L. 72, 

117, 120, 137, 201, 215, 221 
Strategic Air Command 152 
Student Affairs, Council on 14 
Student Court 14, 15 
Student Employment Office 218, 220 
Student Health Service 194, 200, 202 
Student Labor Board 9 
Student Refugee Committee 23 
Student Senate 111, 125 
Student War Activity Volunteers (Swaves) 

46, 208 
Student War Board 46, 48, 49, 87, 112 
Sullivant Airport 73 
Sullivant Flying School 72 
Sun-Dial 84, 85 
Synge, John L. 127, 152 
Synthetic fuels 142 
Synthetic rubber 42, 159 

Taylor, Vice President Jacob B. 122 

Thirty-Seventh Division 8, 247, 251 

Thom, Ens. Leonard 240-41 

Thompson, Lockwood 80, 124 

Thompson, Ronald B. 122, 137, 204 

Thurber, James G. 52, 84 

Time change 78 

Towrer Club 30, 93, 97, 100 

Trustees, Board of 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 19, 
20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 34, 37, 39, 66, 73, 
74, 75, 80, 117, 119, 121, 124, 126, 
127, 128, 131, 138, 140, 144, 154, 
166, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 
193, 216, 218 

Twilight School 49, 58, 60, 71, 77, 82, 
87, 113, 118, 121, 134-36, 221 

"University and the War" (movie) 58, 

82 
University airport (see Don Scott Field) 
University Bulletin 25 
University Hall 153 
University Hospital 51, 213, 243 
University Hour 52, 56 
University School 53 
Upham, Alfred H. 10 
Upham, Dean J. H. J. 20, 32, 117 
U .S. O. 47, 49, 103, 132 
U. S. S. Arizona 229, 230 
U. S .S. California 230, 237 
U. S. S. Utah 229 



INDEX 



291 



Van de Graaf, generator 29 

V-E Day 214, 215 

V-J Day 252 

Veterans Administration 137, 193 

Veterans, returning 193, 195, 199, 201 

205, 212, 216 
Veterans, survey of 204 
Veterinary Medicine, College of 29, 38, 

41, 59, 62, 106, 113, 118. 227 
Victory Bell 78 

Victory gardens 87, 147 

Vision, Center for Research in 228 

Vivian, Dean Alfred 129 

Walker, Maj. Gen. Fred 247, 251, 252 

Walradt, Henry F. 13, 129 

War Activities, Committee on 34, 37, 

42, 55, 61, 68-9 

War Bonds and Stamps 47, 48, 50, 132, 

138 
War Department 45, 93, 95, 106, 144, 

154, 188 
War Entertainment Board 49 
War loans 138, 139 
War Manpower Commission 96 
War Production Board 133, 142, 148, 

150, 188, 208 
War Relocation Administration (W. R. A.) 

83 



War Research Laboratory 39, 70, 140, 

144, 153, 161, 163, 175, 181, 188, 

190, 191, 224 
War Service Board 81 
War Service Corps 49, 50, 87, 112, 208 
War Veterans Assn. 211, 219 
Warner, Milo J. 81 
Warter shortage 212 
Weidler, Dean Walter C. 20, 21 
Weigel, Eugene J. 126 
West Virginians 87 
White Christmas 35 
White, Dean David S. 129 
Widdoes, Carrol! B. 133, 134, 204, 221 
Wilce, Dr. John W. 27, 67 
Wisconsin, University of 3, 6, 73, 210, 

211 
Wolfrom, M. L. 165 
Women, special training for 9, 17, 44, 

53, 55, 76, 93 
Women's Recreation Assn. 49 
World War I 95, 113, 122, 208, 211, 

214, 215 ,229, 230, 233 
Works Progress Administration (W. P. A.) 

10 
WOSU 28, 35, 41, 68, 87, 109-10, 181, 

214, 215, 228 
Wright Field 145, 146, 148, 150, 158, 

165, 227 



(T