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me Str€€t 

Hughes Oliphant Gibbons 

Eirihth Pastor of the Church 




Geo. W. Magee 


Accession No ^^-^"^ 

Class No. PS^lA-J 




Looking east on Fine Street, and showing Saint Peter's Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church in the background 


History of Old Pine Street 

Being tiie record of an hundred and forty 
years in the life of a Colonial Churcli 

With seventy-two full-page illustrations 



Eiglith Pastor of tlie Church 




Copyright, 1905, by 

To Mrs. Catkerine Jane Alburger whose liber- 
ality assured its publication ; to those who provided 
for its illustration ; to all the dear people of Old 
Pine Street; and to her whose love and wisdom 
and industry have made my pastorate in Old Pine 
Street possible, this history is inscribed. 


This is a brief historical record of one hundred and 
forty years in the hfe o{ Old Pine Street Church. 
There is at hand material for three such volumes. 
The disappointment that some may feel in finding 
many things omitted, or merely mentioned, will, we 
trust, he relieved by their realization that a larger 
work was impracticable, and that brevity of discourse 
is one of the necessities of this day of strenuous living. 

We are persuaded that the unique position of Old 
Pine Street among the churches of Philadelphia, and 
the wide historic importance of the events which have 
made her history, and the illustrations never before 
published that we have gathered here, will secure for 
our book more than transient interest. Indeed, we 
have been led to undertake the writing and publication 
of this history, with its attendant difficulties, chiefly 
because of the growing attention that has been given to 
Old Pine Street in recent years, on account of her 
intimate connection with the War of the American 
Revolution, and her position as the only Colonial 
Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia on the original 
foundation. This book goes forth with the prayer 
that it may be an inspiration to all who read it, and, 
in particular, to those who are to make the future of 
the church full of blessing. 



Introduction 9 

The Founding of the Church 17 

The Fight for Independence 33 

The Pastorate of George Duffield 55 

Old Pine Street Men in the Revolutionary War 81 

The Pastorate of John Blair Smith 95 

The Pastorate of Philip Milledoler 1 19 

The Pastorate of Archibald Alexander 135 

The Second Fight for Independence 155 

The Pastorate of Ezra Stiles Ely 175 

The Pastorate of Thomas Brainerd 199 

The Pastorate of Richard Howe Allen 233 

The Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons 247 

The Sunday-Schools 297 

The Churchyard and its Dead 309 

What of the Future ? 331 

Appendices 337 

Index 357 



The Church from Fifth Street Frontispiece. 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 


The Church Before Alteration of 1837 16 

(From an old print.) 

Subscription List to Building Fund (First Page) 24 

(Photograph of original MS.) 

John Ewing, D. D 26 

(From an oil portrait.) 

William Shippen, Jr., M. D 31 

(After portrait by Gilbert Stuart.) 

George Duffield, D. D 55 

(From portrait in Independence Hall.) 

John Adams 63 

(After portrait by Gilbert Stuart.) 

Three Memorial Tablets 68 

(From photographs taken for this book.) 

Tomb of Captain George Dawson 72 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

Colonel George Latimer 76 

(From an oil portrait.) 

Call to Dr. Duffield 80 

(Photograph of original MS.) 

Colonel Thomas Robinson 84 

(From portrait in Independence Hall.) 

Tomb of Captain Paul Cox 86 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

Colonel William Linnard 88 

(From an oil portrait.) 

Benjamin Rush, M. D 93 

(From portrait in Pennsylvania Hospital.) 

John Blair Smith, D. D 95 

(From portrait in Union College.) 




John Strangeway Hutton, Aet. io8 102 

(From an oil portrait.) 

Constitution (Last Page) no 

(Photograph of original MS.) 

Chain across Pine Street 113 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

Tomb of Dr. Smith 117 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

Philip Milledoler, D. D 119 

(From portrait in the church.) 

Ferguson McIlvaine 127 

(From portrait in the church.) 

Captain Stephen Decatur 130 

(From a miniature.) 

Archibald Alexander, D. D 135 

(From engraving by John Sartain.) 

Call to Dr. Alexander 142 

(Photograph of original MS.) 

Communion Service 148 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

Dr. Alexander's Letter Announcing His Intention of 

Going to Princeton Seminary 151 

(Photograph of original MS.) 

Scott and Pearson Gravestones 152 

(From photographs taken for this book.) 

Dr. Ely When He Came to the Church 155 

(From an etching.) 

General John Steele 159 

(From an oil portrait.) 

Hugh Stevenson 165 

(From a photograph.) 

Tabernacle Church 172 

(From a photograph.) 

Ezra Stiles Ely, D. D I75 

(From portrait in the church.) 

Six Ruling Elders of Days Gone I79 

(From photographs in the church.) 

Six Trustees of Days Gone 190 

(From photographs in the church.) 



Gable Window of Original Building 193 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

Ely-Brainerd Memorial Windows 196 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

Thomas Brainerd, D. D 199 

(From portrait in the church.) 

Dr. Brainerd When He Came to Old Pine Street 211 

(From steel engraving in the church.) 

The Pastor's Study 215 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

Samuel McClellan, M. D 217 

(From engraving by John Sartain.) 

Rear Gallery and Organ 220 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

The Upper West Hallway 224 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

Union Volunteer Refreshment Saloon 227 

(From painting by L. Moran.) 
Interior of Church Draped in Mourning for President 
Lincoln 229 

(From contemporary photograph in the church.) 

Dr. Brainerd's Grave Decorated for the Centennial 231 

(From contemporary photograph in the church.) 

Richard Howe Allen, D. D 233 

(From portrait in the church.) 

John C. Farr 240 

(From portrait in the church.) 

Hughes Oliphant Gibbons, D. D 247 

(From photograph by Hansbury.) 

Randall Trevor Hazzard 249 

(From photograph by Rau.) 

Joseph B. Detwiler 261 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

James F. Scott 263 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

Charles C. Lister 265 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

Philip H. Strubing 266 

(From photograph by Gutekunst.) 



The Present Diaconate 268 

(From photographs taken for this book.) 

Four Young Trustees 278 

(From photographs taken for this book.) 

Stephen D. Harris a8i 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

William North 285 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

The Main Sunday- School Room 297 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

Walter H. Rich man and Robert P. Andrews 300 

(From photographs taken for this book.) 

Ezra Calhoun 302 

(From a photograph.) 

The Infant Room (Miss Webb's) 306 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

The Church from Fourth Street 309 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

Two Ancient Gravestones 312 

(From photographs taken for this book.) 

A Quaint Inscription S'^S 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

Graves of Two Centenarians 316 

(From photographs taken for this book.) 

Graves of General Steele and Mrs. Nelson 318 

(From photographs taken for this book.) 

The Ross Monument of the First City Troop 321 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

Three Sextons 324 

(Hutton from portrait in the church.) 

Grave of William Hurry 327 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 

Rear Wall of Churchyard 329 

(From photograph taken for this book.) 


It is generally conceded that the rise of American 
Presbyterianism is involved in great obscurity. This 
fact is emphasized by the widely different views held 
by various authors of histories of Presbyterianism. 
We readily find the causes of this obscurity and differ- 
ence of opinion in the incompleteness of early records, 
in the partisan spirit of not a few authors of records 
in our possession, in the ambiguous use of the word 
Puritan, and in the difficulties of determining what 
was necessary to constitute a Presbyterian Church in 
the early history of our country. 

In examining the manuscript records of individual 
churches, we find that, in some cases, there were long 
periods during which no records of the proceedings of 
official bodies were kept; and that, in other cases, in- 
valuable records have been either lost or destroyed. 
One case has come under my notice where there seems 
to be conclusive evidence that a record book was 
destroyed by a zealous protector of the good name of 
her family. Fortunately the records of Old Pine Street 
Church are exceptionally complete. The first Session 
Book is missing, but the first Committee Book covers 
this entire period. The First Church also has records 
for that period. So that we have manuscript records 


lo History of Old Pine Street. 

for every year from 1768 to the present time, except 
four years of the Revolutionary period, when no entries 
were made in the Committee Book. In connection 
with these, the minutes of the Second Presbytery of 
Philadelphia, of the Presbytery of Philadelphia, and 
of the Synod of New York and Philadelphia have been 
diligently read. We have thus sought our information 
from original sources. 

In the early history of America, ecclesiastical con- 
flicts centered in the contrast between Puritanism and 
Prelacy. The remembrance of cruel persecutions 
burned in the hearts of all Puritans. The common suf- 
ferings which they had endured drew them together in 
the religious assemblies which were founded in the 
new settlements. Differences of opinion upon church 
government were held in abeyance. Presbyterians and 
Congregationalists sustained towards each other the 
most amicable relations. In the history of the early 
church they are described simply as Puritans. So the 
word Puritan came to be used ambiguously. We 
utterly repudiate the idea that the earliest Presbyterian- 
ism in the New World grew out of Congregationalism. 
Indeed, the Presbyterians in these earliest churches 
were numerous, and exerted a potent influence in 
their government. In most of them, the eldership was 
accepted and honoured, and their ecclesiastical bodies 
closely resembled the modern Presbyterian synod. The 
simple fact is, that these churches were composed of 

Introduction. n 

members holding different views on church govern- 
ment, and that in some churches and communities, one 
party prevailed, and the church in time became Con- 
gregational, while in other churches and communities, 
the other party prevailed, and the church became Pres- 
byterian. These facts must be our guide in determin- 
ing the origin of American Presbyterianism. 

It may therefore be maintained, that Presbyterian- 
ism first appeared in America in the Virginia Company, 
which we know was controlled by Presbyterians. This 
company was founded in 1610, and a church was in 
existence there about 1614. Some eleven years after 
this time, a Presbyterian colony was planted on Massa- 
chusetts Bay. This colony received its charter on 
August 6, 1629, and founded a church which from 
the description given of it was certainly Presbyterian. 
We cannot doubt that some of the many Puritan 
churches founded in New York between 1640 and 1687 
became Presbyterian. At least five of the Maryland 
Presbyterian churches date their origin before the 
eighteenth century. It is claimed that two of these, 
Rehoboth and Snow Hill, were founded before 1690. 
It would seem that Presbyterianism in New Jersey had 
its origin in four churches founded during the period 
from 1667 to 1697. These were located at Newark, 
Elizabethtown, Woodbridge, and Cohanzy. The Pres- 
byterian churches of Lewes and Newcastle, in Dela- 
ware, seem to have been founded at an earlier date 

12 History of Old Pine Street. 

than any of the colonial churches of Pennsylvania. 
These facts are not in accord with the popular impres- 
sion that Presbyterianism began in Pennsylvania. Our 
boast is not that we have the oldest churches, but that 
in no other colony did Presbyterianism find so con- 
genial a soil, and develop with such wonderful rapid- 
ity, and exert so powerful an influence as in Pennsyl- 
vania. Our living colonial churches are convincing 
proofs of this. 

In this brief statement of the origin of American 
Presbyterianism I have assumed what I think should 
be accepted as the true idea of the origin of our earliest 
churches. This idea is that a church was founded 
when the religious congregation which has had a con- 
tinuous existence and which has developed into a com- 
pletely organized Presbyterian Church was founded. 
The acceptance of this idea sweeps away a good deal 
of zealous discourse upon the question of priority of 
origin in the history of certain churches. Nevertheless 
it seems clear that this position is the only reasonable 
and tenable one. It settles the question of the date 
of the origin of the first Presbyterian church in Penn- 
sylvania, which stands in Philadelphia, and was 
founded in 1698. It now heads the long list of living 
colonial churches of the State. It is interesting to note 
that in Pennsylvania there are still standing fifty-eight 
colonial Presbyterian churches.^ 
* See Appendix A. 

Introduction. 13 

As early as 1690, the Presbyterians were getting 
together in Philadelphia. It is known that Francis 
Makemie was greatly interested in the organization of a 
church here, and that he preached in the city to the 
earliest assembly for worship where Presbyterians 
appeared in considerable number. This assembly in- 
cluded other Puritans and a number of Baptists. They 
met for public worship in a house situated on the 
northwest corner of Second and Chestnut Streets,, 
known as the Barbadoes Store. The temporary serv- 
ices of various ministers coming to town were secured, 
and they w^ere served for a time by a Baptist minister. 

While the Presbyterians were willing to enjoy Chris- 
tian fellowship with others, early events show that it 
was their deep desire to have a church of their own. 
This desire expressed itself in the summer of 1698, 
when Jedidiah Andrews, of Boston, was called to be 
their minister. Mr. Andrews was born under the 
pastorate of Rev. Peter Hobart, who was a Presby- 
terian, and was graduated in the class of 1695 from 
Harvard. It is claimed that he was ordained in 1701. 
His spirit is clearly indicated in the fact that he led in 
the organization of the first classical Presbytery in 
1706, which still bears the name of the Presbytery of 
Philadelphia. The meagre history of the pastorate of 
this man is sufficient to place him among the strongest, 
most scholarly, and most devoted of the Presbyterian 
ministers w^ho first served in Philadelphia. It was he 

History of Old Pine Street. 

who laid broad and deep the foundations of the First 
Presbyterian Church. As the result of some misunder- 
standing, there was a division in the congregation to 
which Mr. Andrews ministered. The Presbyterians 
w^ere left in sole charge of the Barbadoes Store. They 
at once proceeded to build a church, and, in 1704, they 
moved into their new church, erected on Market Street, 
above Second. This church was rebuilt in 1794, and 
in 1 82 1 the congregation moved into its present spa- 
cious house of worship on Washington Square. 

In 1739, George Whitfield came to Philadelphia. 
His labors here marked a new departure in Presby- 
terianism. He attracted to himself men of all creeds 
and many who had never shown any interest w^hatever 
in religion. Franklin says : 'The multitudes of all 
sects and denominations that attended his sermons were 
marvelous." The effects of his preaching were a reve- 
lation. The entire life of the city was revolutionized. 
All the churches were profoundly affected. It was at 
this time that a party grew up in the First Church, 
known as the New Lights, or New Side men. This 
was the beginning of the Second Presbyterian Church 
of Philadelphia, which was organized in 1743, with 
one hundred and forty members. 

The organization of this church was unique. It 
would seem that only a small portion of these charter 
members came out of the First Church. A number 
who had been converted under the preaching of George 

Introduction. 15 

Whitfield were united with the New Lights in the 
First Church, and it would seem that all submitted to 
examination of their faith in Christ Jesus. 

This congregation has been celebrated as builders. 
Their first place of worship was in the old Academy, 
which stood on Fourth Street, below Arch, the build- 
ing in which the University of Pennsylvania had its 
origin. In 1752, the congregation moved into the 
church which they had erected at Third and Arch 
Streets, where they worshipped for eighty-three years. 
Their third building was situated on Seventh Street, 
near Arch, and was dedicated in 1837. The congrega- 
tion entered the present beautiful church at Twenty- 
first and Walnut Streets in 1872. 

The third Presbyterian congregation organized in 
Philadelphia was Old Pine Street. It will be seen 
that this is truly a daughter of the mother church. 
Old Pine Street is the only living colonial church of 
the Presbyterian denomination, on its original founda- 
tion, in Philadelphia. In noble simplicity, this church 
looks down upon her blessed dead who cherished her 
courts before the nation was born. It is the place 
which Old Pine Street holds in colonial history, and 
in the Revolutionary struggle, and in the historic devel- 
opment of Presbyterianism in Philadelphia, that makes 
this history a debt of love to our communion. 

The Founding of tke Ckurcli. 

When the Pine Street house of worship was built, 
Philadelphia was a provincial town of some twenty- 
five thousand inhabitants. This estimate of popula- 
tion is made from a contemporary almanac/ which 
states that the dwelling houses in the city and suburbs 
numbered four thousand four hundred and seventy- 
four. The town extended somewhat over two miles 
along the Delaware River. The western boundary 
was very irregular. A line beginning at the Old 
Swedes' Church, touching at Fourth and Pine Streets, 
and running between Fourth and Fifth Streets to 
Vine, would perhaps fairly indicate the western limit. 
None of the streets running east and west below South 
reached farther than Fifth Street. The length of 
Queen Street was two squares. Where the town ex- 
tended furthest from the Delaware, houses beyond 
Sixth Street were suburban. Much of the district im- 
mediately west of the city limits w^as commons, where 
cows and sheep and swine roamed and fed, either in 
the open spaces which were covered with short grass, 
or under the briars and brush and trees. The Pine 
Street lot was the beginning of these commons, where 
^ T. Telescope's "Almaiiach of Philadelphia." 
■1 (17) 

i8 History of Old Pine Street. 

the children were accustomed to go berrying. The 
closely built portion of the city even at the business 
centre did not extend more than three or four squares 
from the Delaware. Many of the best residences were 
on Front and Water Streets, and it was the custom for 
the families of most respectable tradespeople and arti- 
sans to live over their stores and shops. The work of 
paving the streets had just begun. In front of the Pine 
Street lot was a sand road. Between this lot and the 
river were a number of houses built in large plots of 
ground. Many trees adorned the grounds of these 
houses, which seem to have been planted both for 
beauty and for utility, as we are told that from these 
trees wxre gathered a variety and an abundance of 
luscious fruits. 

In early days, a society of traders purchased the 
ground from the Delaware to the Schuylkill between 
Pine and Spruce Streets. From this ownership the 
district, and, indeed, much that lay southeast of it, 
came to be known as Society Hill. The most interest- 
ing spot on Society Hill was around Front and Pine 
Streets. On Front, just below Pine, was the cele- 
brated flagstaff wiiich marks the spot where George 
Whitfield preached to assembled thousands; and on 
Pine Street east of Second was the Quaker Hill Meet- 
ing House, which was erected fifteen years before Old 
Pine Street Church. The Court-House stood at Sec- 
ond and Market Streets, the prison at Third and Mar- 

The Founding of the Church. 19 

ket, and nearby were the pillory, the stocks, and the 
whipping post. 

The industrial and social life of the people at this 
period was primitive. Almost every kind of mechanical 
work was done by hand. Machinery was scarcely 
known. In all the trades, the apprentice was prac- 
tically sold to his master, and was required to render 
absolute obedience. Philadelphia was in overland com- 
munication with New York by stage. It required most 
of the week to make the trip. Public coaches in the 
city had not yet appeared. The newspaper was in its 
infancy. Few of what we regard as necessary modern 
conveniences were in existence. The ladies dressed 
and sat on the front porch in the evenings, which gave 
the chance for young men to see and be seen. Young 
people of respectability communicated with each other 
in the presence of their elders. The wedding feast 
among the well-to-do often lasted for several days. 
The gentlemen were treated to punch on the first floor, 
and ascended to the second to greet the bride, who was 
expected to welcome each with a kiss. It was not un- 
common for her to greet as many as one or two hun- 
dred in a day. 

From the founding of the colony the causes of edu- 
cation and religion were not neglected. Discipline by 
flogging was fully in vogue in the schools, and but few 
passed beyond the study of the rudimentary branches. 
But it must be acknowledged that the training of chil- 

20 History of Old Pine Street. 

(Iren was excellent. The Christian church occupied a 
first place in the early life of the city. The influence 
of the Quakers, who represented about one-seventh 
of the population, in developing the spirit of reverent 
worship and the virtues of tolerance, purity, integrity, 
sobriety, industry, benevolence, and neighborly kind- 
ness, gives them a first place among those who laid the 
foundation of true religion in Philadelphia. Nor was 
the work of the early Christians who builded these 
foundations without its most perplexing difficulties and 
its deep necessity, for every class of humanity entered 
into the community which constituted this provincial 
town. Plere w^ere not a few who had left their native 
land for their country's good, the haters of religion, 
the man of flesh in good society, the sharper in high 
places, and the profligate of every kind. But the body 
of the community was made up of intelligent, earnest, 
virtuous citizens. The leading influential men and 
women were sterling characters. The religious life 
was indicated by the thirteen churches^ that were then 
engaged in active Christian work, which the Old Pine 
Street came to join. 

Our church was well-born. She was not a child of 
faction, as some ignorant of her history have sup- 
posed. The fight for independence, as will be seen, 
was by no means factional. Nor did she appear as a 
weakling, but with the vigor that was needed and 

^ Frond's "History of Pennsylvania," Vol. II., page 280. 

The Founding of the Church. 21 

that was wanted. Before her hottse of worship was 
finished, she was organized as a Presbyterian church. 
She was a child of love — love for Christ, for humanity, 
for country, and for the coming of the kingdom of 
God. The missionary spirit of the mother church, and 
her courageous, persevering, self-denying work in 
planting a Presbyterian church on Society Hill, are 
above all praise. We should ever remember and be 
grateful for our heritage. 

The vacant pews of the members of the First Church, 
who joined in the organization of the Second Church, 
were soon occupied. Continuous immigration brought 
increasing numbers of Presbyterians to Philadelphia. 
At the same time the Presbyterian families in the south- 
western part of the city were multiplying. These facts 
led to a meeting of the Committee of the Market Street 
Church on August 10, 1761, at which there were 
present Dr. Allison, Captain Arthur, William Rush, 
John Wallace, John Coney, John Blakley, Alexander 
Houston, William Bedford, John Fullerton, George 
Bryan, George Sharswood, and John Johnson. The fol- 
lowing record of this meeting shows that it took the 
first step towards the founding of Old Pine Street 
Church : 

"Some of the congregation having mentioned that, consider- 
ing the great increase of this city, and the probabihty there was 
of the number of Presbyterians becoming much more consider- 
able in a few years, there would be necessity of having a third 
place of Divine worship for the people of that denomination ; 
accordingly, after some debate, it was 

2 2 History of Old Pine Street. 

"Resolved, That proper measures shall be taken to procure 
as much ground on Society Hill as will suffice for a church only, 
deferring till hereafter the procuring of a graveyard, and John 
Chevalier, William Rush and George Bryan are appointed to treat 
with Messrs. Shippen for some of their lots." 

Almost a year passed before another official step was 
recorded in the new enterprise. The negotiations with 
the Messrs. Shippen having failed, the committee was 
convened on June 23, 1762, to determine upon another 
effort to secure a lot. At that meeting it was decided 
to apply to the Proprietaries for help, and Dr. Allison 
and the Rev. Mr. Ewing were appointed to draw up 
an address to Thomas and Richard Penn, asking for 
the gift of a plot of ground upon which they might 
erect a Presbyterian church. The committee knew 
that their appeal was being made to broad-minded and 
generous men; and their hope was not disappointed. 

Just why things moved so slowly does not appear; 
but it was somewhat more than two years after the com- 
mittee had determined to appeal to the Proprietaries 
that a deed was obtained from Thomas and Richard 
Penn for a lot of ground facing one hundred and 
seventy-eight feet on Pine Street and one hundred and 
two feet on Fourth Street. The letters patent trans- 
ferred this lot ''to the congregation belonging to the 
old Presbyterian meeting-house, situated on the south 
side of High Street and near the Court House in Phila- 
delphia," October 19, 1764. This lot was afterwards 
enlarged by additions on the south and west sides. 

The Founding of the Church. 23 

The possession of so eligible a lot brought the ques- 
tion of building a house of worship squarely before 
the people. Upon this they seem to have reflected some 
nine months. 

A congregational meeting convened at the Market 
Street church June 4, 1765, and, attended by Dr. Alli- 
son, Rev. Mr. Ewing, and about sixty heads of fami- 
lies, discussed the question "whether, as a lot had been 
given by the Hon. the Proprietaries for the site of a 
church, it would be expedient at this time to build." 
The sentiment was generally in favor of building, but 
a minute of this meeting indicates that some opposition 
emerged. The more conservative feared the effect that 
the proposed new church might have in depleting the 
Market Street congregation, and some doubted whether 
the money could be raised. It was decided, however, 
to begin to make collections for the building. 

On the twenty-fourth of this same month another 
meeting was held, at which two commissioners were 
chosen to bear a letter and a carefully prepared propo- 
sition to the Second Church, asking them to join with 
the Market Street Congregation to build a third Pres- 
byterian house of worship upon the lot at Fourth and 
Pine Streets, v/hich had been given for that purpose. 

Within a week the Second Church convened its 
congregation to consider this proposition. The com- 
missioners from the Market Street Church, Messrs. 
George Bryan and John Wallace, were present, and 

24 History of Old Pine Street. 

delivered the letter and proposals.^ The Second Church 
people declined the proposition. Reasons for this are 
suggested in the difference between a New Light and 
an Old Light church, in the fact that the suggestion 
came to them three years after the move to build this 
third church had been put on foot, and in financial con- 
ditions which were soon afterwards made known. The 
rejection of this proposition stirred the Market Street 
people to immediate action. On July fourth the com- 
mittee put their men to work with subscription papers.^ 
When the securing of subscriptions had proceeded 
for about six months another congregational meeting 
was called. At this meeting a committee reported that 
in the Market Street Church two hundred and forty-five 
families and persons occupied one hundred and thirty- 
one pews, and that the building of a third church would 
take but a few of the pew-holders away. ''Many hours 
were spent in discussing the building question." It is 
evident that the builders finally won, for, within a week, 
the committee met, and, with six hundred pounds 
promised, determined that "the erection of a new 
Presbyterian church be undertaken with all convenient 
speed, not to exceed the dimensions of eighty feet long 
by sixty feet wide, and John Moore, William Rush, 
James Craig, George Bryan, and Samuel Purves, Jr., 
were appointed to agree with workmen to conduct the 

^ See Appendix B. 
^ See Appendix C. 


Shozcing names of prominent Fhiladelphians 
(First Page.) 

Original-. in possession of the churth 


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The Founding of the Church. 25 

business." Mr. Robert Smith was chosen architect. 
So that the building of the Pine Street house began 
soon after January 16, 1766. 

We cannot enter into the evohition of the house as 
it went up from its foundations, but when finished it was 
a monument to the generous devotion of the Market 
Street Church and to the wisdom, energy and skill of 
their building committee. For we must remember that 
this house was then regarded as one of the finest Pres- 
byterian buildings in the country. When, in July, 

1767, the committee's treasury was empty, one of 
their members, John Johnson, generously offered to 
advance a loan of three hundred pounds, and some of 
the Market Street people made additional contributions. 
Although the Market Street Church was carrying a 
debt, she willingly sold her temporary house of wor- 
ship, situated at Second and South Streets, in October, 

1768, ''to make the Pine Street house comfortable for 
the winter." 

The money to complete the church was raised by a 
lottery, which yielded twenty-live hundred pounds. 
The Second Church readily joined the Market Street 
Church in this enterprise, which was started December 
15, 1768. A lottery in those days was a common de- 
vice for raising money for any purpose whatever. Of 
this money the Market Street Church used two hun- 
dred pounds to pay her debts. The Second Church re- 
ceived twelve hundred and sixty-five pounds, and ten 

26 History of Old Pine Street. 

hundred and thirty-five pounds were devoted to the 
Pine Street building. 

The Market Street Church was faithful in holding 
on to the Presbyterian families on Society Hill, and in 
seeking to gather in others in that neighborhood. This 
is clearly indicated in the beautiful letter written to the 
Second Church,^ July i, 1765, to which reference has 
already been made. This letter w^as composed by the 
Rev. John Ewing, and indicates his missionary spirit 
and his profound interest in the founding of Old Pine 
Street. He no doubt was the leading spirit in the pur- 
chase and fitting up of a store house at Second and 
South Streets, where regular preaching services w^ere 
conducted, until the Pine Street Church was ready for 
occupancy. So that while the new church was build- 
ing a congregation was being prepared for it. 

It was no surprise that when, on February 23, 1768, 
the people met in Pine Street Church to select their 
pews, one hundred pews were at once taken, and that 
eighty of these were awarded to those attending the 
mission. It was a strong testimony to the loyalty and 
coherence of the mother church that only twenty pews 
were rented to her members. For we must remember 
that the Market Street Church was overcrowded, and 
that the new church was very attractive. Within three 
months of this memorable day, June twelfth, the first 
songs of praise and the first sermon were heard in the 
new church. 

^ See Appendix B. 

A. B. '(Princeton); D/D.' (Edinburgh) 

Provost of the.^ JJmversity afPctinsylvania; forty years Pastor of 

the First Church, ivJio is burled in the churchyard 
rty-six bc'illots, tnirty-e)giu I'.-r. 

From the jnirtrait in the Pennsylvania Hist(iri<;al Society. 

The Founding of the Church. 27 

The efforts of the pastors and officers of the Market 
Street Church to secure the complete organization of 
the Pine Street congregation were wise and faithful. 
As early as March, 1767, the Committee secured a 
congregational meeting to consider the subject of call- 
ing a minister to take charge of the work at the tem- 
porary house of worship, and to give especial attention 
to those who would likely enter the new church. This 
is described as a meeting of the congregation, and such 
as would belong to Pine Street Church. Either the 
number attending this meeting was surprisingly small, 
or only a part of those present took an active part, 
for when a vote was taken it was found that there were 
only forty-six ballots, thirty-eight for, and eight against 
calling a minister. Decision was postponed, and the 
meeting adjourned to convene on March twenty-third. 
At this second meeting the vote stood forty-two for, 
and thirteen against. Affairs were evidently in painful 
confusion, for the whole subject under discussion was 
referred to the Committee with instructions to take 
the necessary steps towards calling a minister for Pine 
Street Church. The Committee realized that they had 
reached the crucial point in organization. They saw 
clearly that two questions must be settled : what should 
be the future relations between the two congregations, 
and who should vote in calling a minister for the Pine 
Street Church. They held a number of meetings, and 
fully threshed out the answers to these questions. This 

28 History of Old Pine Street. 

work occupied about twenty days. The Committee 
then called for a congregational meeting, to be held on 
April sixth. They presented to this meeting the fol- 
lowing proposed articles of agreement to define tlie 
relations between the two congregations : 

1st. That there be one general committee chosen from the whole 
society that shall statedly assemble in both houses to transact all 
the secular business of the body. 

2d. That the minister to be settled in Pine Street shall be con- 
sidered as having the pastoral care of the people statedly as- 
sembling for public worship in that place. 

3rd. That the pastors of both houses shall preach alternately 
in both pulpits. 

4th. That as often as either our pulpits in Market Street or in 
Pine Street shall become vacant a new pastor shall be chosen 
by the members whose pastor he shall be, with the approbation 
of the members who statedly assemble in the other house. Or at 
least they shall study as far as possible to choose a minister that 
shall be generally agreeable to a majority of the members in 
each house. 

5th. That there be a sufficient number of elders chosen among 
the members assembling in Pine Street to assist their pastor in 
church discipline and in the management of affairs ecclesiastical. 

6th, That the burying-place in Pine street shall remain in 
common to the members of both houses. 

Here occurred the first seriotis mistake. The articles 
were discussed, but they were not put to vote, and there 
appeared upon the minutes of the meeting no record 
whatever of their adoption. From the constittttion of 
the congregational meeting called to elect Patrick Ali- 
son, it is evident that there was a general agreement 
that only the persons who should hold seats and form 
the congregation in the new church were to vote in 

The Founding of the Church. 29 

electing the minister. Most unfortunately the Commit- 
tee had discussed the Rev. Mr. Sproat,of Guilford, Con- 
necticut, and the Rev. Patrick Alison, of Baltimore, as 
candidates for the new congregation, and presented the 
name of the former to be elected as a minister. When 
this name was placed before the meeting confusion at 
once arose. A number unceremoniously left, and the 
choosing of a minister was postponed without day. If 
the Committee had refrained from proposing the name 
of Mr. Sproat until there was a clear separation be- 
tween those w^ho had a right to vote and those who had 
not a right to vote, the somewhat disgraceful ending of 
this congregational meeting would have been avoided. 

On the seventeenth of the following December, the 
indomitable Mr. Ewing proposed to the Committee "to 
consider the expediency of immediately looking out 
for a minister for Pine Street." The Committee 
promptly responded to this suggestion, and at a meeting 
appointed a special committee ''to go round among 
the people on the Hill and know whether it will be 
agreeable to them to join in a call to Mr. Patrick Ali- 

This canvass was followed by a congregational meet- 
ing, held in Pine Street Church, April 18, 1768, which 
was attended by "the persons who have taken seats and 
are to form the congregation in the new church." At 
this meeting the Rev. Patrick Alison was unanimously 
chosen minister of Pine Street Church. The Rev. Mr. 

30 History of Old Pine Street. 

Ewing moderated this meeting. When the meeting 
was called there was put into his hands a formal pro- 
test against the choice of Mr. Alison, signed by six- 
teen members of the Market Street Church. However, 
the call went to the Second Presbytery of Philadelphia, 
and was put into the hands of Mr. Alison. After 
prayerful consideration he accepted the call. Very 
soon, however, he again resigned the call to the Pres- 
bytery, no doubt as the result of the opposition to him 
by those who had protested against his election. 

On November twenty-eighth, the Pine Street congre- 
gation called Mr. Samuel Eakin, who came to the 
Second Presbytery as a licentiate. No opposition to 
this choice of the congregation was shown. The call 
went to Presbytery, was put into his hands, and ac- 
cepted on December twenty-seventh. It would seem 
that he at once began his work, although he was not 
ordained and installed until August 3, 1769. We can- 
not enter into the painful experience of the church with 
this young man. He forsook his charge, and was sus- 
pended from the ministry for serious cause, but was 
restored again, and became a useful minister of the 

Immediately after Mr. Eakin was called a session 
was chosen for the church. Of these first ruling elders 
of the church we have four names — Lile, Bailey, Moore 
and Armitage. Concerning the next step in the or- 

^ "Records of the Presbyterian Church," pages 418, 428, 440. 

s is clearh 
ongregation shall {< «: .verned 'iki 

^)2^rBtr(.Princeton); M. D. (Edinburgh) 

First Professor of Medicine in America, at the University of 
-''^'''Pennsylvania; Director-General of all hospitals in the 
Revoluti&nfiryWar; on^rof the original Trustees 
of Old Pine Street 

1led to- 

From the portrait by Gilbert Stuart. 

The Founding of the Church. 31 

ganization of the Pine Street congregation, there were 
widely different opinions. One opinion is clearly ex- 
pressed in the first article of the paper given above, 
which was presented to the congregational meeting of 
April 6, 176^, which reads as follows: "That there 
shall be one general committee chosen from the whole 
society that shall statedly assemble in both houses to 
transact all the secular business of the body." The 
other opinion is found in the proposals made to the 
Second Church, w^hen they were asked to join in the 
building of a third Presbyterian house of worship. The 
third of these proposals is clearly stated : "The 3rd. 
Congregation shall be governed like the other pres- 
byterian congregations in this city by their own Ses- 
sion and Committee, to be chosen out of the mem- 
bers of the said congregation." ^ 

Here begin the records of the Pine Street Presby- 
terian Church Committee Book. The first paragraph 
of these records reads as follows :' "At the request of 
the Session of Pine Street Church the congregation 
was called together on October 18, 1770, to consider 
making an addition to the Session and to choose a Com- 
mittee." As some difficulty was in the way of en- 
larging the session, that business was deferred. The 
congregation then proceeded to choose a Committee 
under the folowing regulations : "First, the Committee 
and Session shall act as distinct bodies. Second, the 

^ See Appendix B. 

3 2 History of Old Pine Street. 

members of the Committee shall not exceed twelve. 
Third, six new members shall be chosen annually on 
the last Monday of September in room of the six first 
on the list." This marked clearly the parting of the 
ways between the Market Street Church and the Pine 
Street Church. The Pine Street Committee was at 
that meeting elected, and assumed the control of all 
the temporal interests of the congregation. 

In this chapter we have described a three-fold work 
• — the building of the Pine Street house of worship, the 
mission work which gathered her congregation, and the 
painful process of organizing a congregation. Neces- 
sarily, we have been brief. The material before us is 
abundant to make a book in itself. 

The Fight for Independence. 

It was four years after the idea of building a third 
Presbyterian house of worship in Philadelphia had 
taken shape in the resolution to secure ground for that 
purpose that the proposition was made to the Second 
Church to join in this enterprise. No doubt their ap- 
prehension of the greatness of the undertaking and 
their need of funds were then the main reasons in the 
mind of the Market Street congregation for making 
their proposals to the Second Church. But there was 
another reason. The promoters of the new enterprise 
were already considering a plan for a unique collegiate 

"In America and Scotland, a collegiate Presbyterian 
Church is one served by two or more clergymen 
jointly."^ The Market Street Church already ful- 
filled this definition, but the church which these zealous 
Presbyterians proposed founding was to be a much 
more comprehensive and complex institution than any 
yet undertaken in the metropolis of the province of 
Pennsylvania. There was in it the principle afterward 
so effectively applied in the union of the colonies, and 
later in the union of the States, and which is at the 
present time advocated in the confederation of churches. 

^ Encyclopaedic Dictionary. 

3 (33) 

34 History of Old Pine Street. 

This scheme, so creditable to both the head and heart 
of its advocates, is clearly defined in the paper laid 
before the Second Church, July i, 1765, and in the 
charter secured in 1772 for "The Committee of the 
First and Third United Presbyterian Churches of the 
City of Philadelphia." Briefly stated, the plan was as 
follows : Houses of worship were to be built in differ- 
ent locations. The title to these properties was to be 
vested in one general committee, in which the several 
congregations were to have equal representation. This 
general committee was to conduct the secular affairs 
of all the congregations. Each church w^as to have its 
own Session and ecclesiastical autonomy. The min- 
ister called by each church was to have the complete 
pastoral care of that congregation. The pulpits of the 
several churches were to be occupied in rotation by all 
the pastors. As we shall see, the one thing not pro- 
vided for in this plan was grace. 

What proportion of the two congregations under- 
stood this plan or were especially interested in it, or 
approved of it, we have no means of determining. 
There is no evidence, however, that, at the beginning, 
there was any opposition to it shown by Pine Street 
people. The parting of the ways was reached by the 
two churches when, in the work of organizing the 
Pine Street congregation, the attempt was made to call 
a pastor. There can be no doubt that, when the com- 
mittee presented to the congregational meeting of 

The Fight for Independence. 35 

April 6, 1767, the articles of agreement which were to 
determine the relation between the two congregations, 
the essential point of difference was found in Article 
four.^ Here, perhaps, lies the reason that these articles 
w^ere not put to vote, and that no minute of their 
approval was made. We have seen that the first name 
presented for minister of Pine Street led, at this same 
meeting, to the indefinite postponement of the question 
of settling a pastor for the new church. Yet the dif- 
ference was not over the character or the respectability 
of the man in question, but over the mode of settling a 
minister in Pine Street. It is not difficult to see how 
the opposition which later developed against Patrick 
Alison, who was unanimously chosen by the Pine 
Street people, and w^hich led him to resign his call, 
would accentuate in the minds of the Pine Street con- 
gregation their right to decide who should be their 

For more than a year after Mr. Eakin was called 
most encouraging peace w^as cultivated between the 
two congregations. There had been no opposition to 
his call from the Market Street people ; and Pine Street 
did not blame them, but the Second Presbytery, for the 
delay in Mr. Eakin's ordination. Nor could Mr. Ew- 
ing's opposition to Mr. Eakin before Presbytery on 
moral grounds be regarded as against Pine Street. 
Just after the ordination of Mr. Eakin the heads of 

^ See page 28. 

36 History of Old Pine Street. 

families from both congregations met — August 14, 
1768 — to settle their accounts. This was an amicable 
meeting, and hearty thanks were unanimously voted the 
men who had so successfuly financiered the building 
of the new church. 

How the temporal affairs of Pine Street were con- 
ducted during the fourteen months from the settlement 
of accounts between the congregations until the elec- 
tion of the Pine Street Committee is not recorded. As 
the Pine Street Session was organized about the time 
of the joint meeting just mentioned, it is not at all 
improbable that the general management of the con- 
gregation during this period was in their hands. This 
is suggested by the fact that it was the Session that 
requested the convening of the congregation to choose 
a Committee; and, by this minute describing the con- 
duct of the church business just after the Committee 
was chosen, "the Session and the Committee frequently 
met together and transacted the business of the con- 
gregation in a friendly manner for many months as 
one body." It is significant also that the minutes of 
the Committee and Session were, for a time, kept in 
the same book. We must keep in mind that these 
were formative days when things that were wanting 
were being set in order. 

It is surprising that the election of a Committee of 
the Pine Street congregation for the management of 
its own aft'airs seems to have met with no opposition 

The Fight for Independence. 37 

from the Market Street Church. Indeed, this Commit- 
tee is officially recognized in the elahorate correspond- 
ence which took place between the two churches after 
the election of George Dtiffield to be the minister of 
Pine Street. The Market Street Church Committee 
addressed its various communications to "The Pine 
Street Church Committee." It does not seem to have 
ever occurred to the Market Street Committee, when 
claiming and pressing the validity of the fourth^ article 
of what they held to be a binding agreement between 
the two churches, that the first^ article had been com- 
pletely nullified by the election of its own Committee 
by the Pine Street Church. It is still more surprising 
that the able letters written to the Market Street Com- 
mittee by the Pine Street Committee never mention 
this point in their disclaimer of the validity of the 
fourth article. It would certainl}^ have been a conclu- 
sive argument against the claim of the Market Street 
Committee that, as they had not pressed the first article 
by allowing the election of a Pine Street Committee, 
they should not press the fourth article against the 
Pine Street people settling a pastor of their own choice. 
The events of the ten months from the completion of 
the organization of the Pine Street congregation to the 
election of George Duffield were not a propitious prepa- 
ration of Pine Street people for the conflict into which 

^ See page 28. 
' Ibid. 

38 History of Old Pine Street. 

the election of a pastor brought them. The congrega- 
tional meeting of October i8, 1770, was called not 
only to elect a Committee, but also to consider the 
question of making additions to the Session, although 
that question was postponed. The existing Session 
no doubt had been chosen according to the old method 
of naming certain persons from the pulpit who had 
been nominated by the Session, and giving a time for 
objections to be filed against the nominees, with the 
understanding that, if no objections were made, they 
should be enrolled as elders. 

The Market Street Church had held a congregational 
meeting just two months before, when this subject of 
enlarging the Session of Pine Street had been discussed, 
and had voted ''that the Session should be elected by 
the congregation by ballot." For some unexplained 
reason this new and proper plan was not adopted by 
the Pine Street congregation. The consequence was 
that the Session, which had not been elected by the con- 
gregation, continued to serve Pine Street Church. This 
no doubt explains the anomalous relation that existed 
so long between the Session and the people of Pine 
Street. These elders opposed the election of George 
Duffield, and joined the Market Street Church in their 
fight against him. Truly the odds were against Pine 
Street when the fight began. She was exposed to 
the charge of ingratitude in electing a minister who 
was not acceptable to the Mother Church. Her con- 

The Fight for Independence. 39 

gregation was worshipping in a church to which they 
had no legal title. Their treasury was practically 
empty. Their own Session was against them. 

The fight began with the election of George Duffield 
to be minister of Pine Street Church. This election 
took place at a congregational meeting held in Pine 
Street Atigust 5, 1771. The meeting was moderated 
by Dr. Francis Allison, senior pastor of the Market 
Street Church. The clerks were Andrew Porter and 
Dr. Samuel Duffield. At the opening of the meeting 
**the Session gave some cautions against their proceed- 
ing to the election, which were answered by a paper 
delivered in by a member of the Committee. The 
congregation then proceeded to a choice, when fifty- 
one voted for the Rev. George Duffield, of Cumber- 
land County, and twelve against him." Five of those 
present did not vote. Robert Knox, Alexander Alex- 
ander, John Snowden, Thomas Mushett, James Armi- 
tage, and William Henry were appointed commission- 
ers to prosecute the call, and wxre instructed to request 
an immediate meeting of the Second Presbytery of 
Philadelphia, that the business might be proceeded with 
at once. 

The request of the commissioners was granted. 
Presbytery met and received the call on August twenty- 
seventh. It was signed by one hundred and ten men. 
Presbytery required the Session of Pine Street to pre- 
sent their minutes, and marked the fact that there was 

40 History of Old Pine Street. 

a record that caution had been given the congregation 
not to proceed with the election of Mr. Duffield. The 
commissioners of Pine Street presented a paper con- 
taining a reply to the cautions given by their Session. 
Commissioners from the Market Street Church pre- 
sented a protest against the call to Mr. Duffield, alleg- 
ing that in his election Pine Street Church had violated 
a contract. This referred to the Fourth^ Article, 
which now became the storm centre of the fight. The 
following day Presbytery went fully into the case. 
Their conclusion was that while anxious to assist Pine 
Street in settling a pastor, Presbytery had no power to 
put the call into Mr. Duffield's hands while a dispute 
existed between the two congregations concerning a 
violation of an article of agreement, which described 
the method of electing a pastor in either congregation. 
Pine Street appealed to Synod. 

The congregation longed for Duffield. About four 
months after the appeal to Synod the Committee ap- 
pointed Robert Knox and John Snowden to see the 
elders and request them ''to make proper application" 
to secure Mr. Dufheld for a supply. The reply to this 
request was ''\\q know no Committee." The Commit- 
tee then made their request for Mr. Duffield to Pres- 
bytery. Presbytery sent a long reply denying the re- 
quest. The Committee replied to this paper, and still 
pressed their request, but failed to get Mr. Duffield. 

^ See page 28. 

The Fight for Independence. 41 

About six months after the appeal to Synod the Pine 
Street Committee, remembering that Presbytery had 
counselled the congregations to seek the things that 
make for peace, sent a letter to the Committee of Mar- 
ket Street, expressing their desire for full reconcilia- 
tion. In this letter Pine Street's view of the relations 
which should exist between the two congregations was 
fully presented, with the request that Market Street 
would withdraw its objection to the call to Mr. Duffield. 
Within ten days, the Market Street Committee replied. 
In their reply they express surprise that Pine Street 
should be "so ignorant" of the articles which specify 
the mode of calling a minister, and propose a confer- 
ence of both congregations to discuss these articles of 
agreement. They suggested, however, that Pine Street 
had it within their power to settle this whole matter 
by simply withdrawing their call to Mr. Duffield. Very 
soon Pine Street Committee sent a rejoinder, indicat- 
ing their willingness to join in a conference, but insist- 
ing that Market Street Committee should first definitely 
state their position in writing. They suggest, also, that 
it was most strange that Market Street should express 
their desire to have the call to Mr. Duffield withdrawn 
without giving any reasons whatever for such a step. 
They reminded Market Street that the articles re- 
ferred to were never voted uix)n by the united congre- 
gation and that there is no minute of their adoption on 
record. It was also stiggested that there is nothing in 

42 History of Old Pine Street. 

the articles at any rate which gives one congregation 
the power to veto the election of a pastor by the other 
congregation. To this the Market Street Committee 
sent their rejoinder saying that, as a conference of the 
two congregations had been practically refused, they 
would hold no further meetings upon the subject. 
They continue, however, in a long and argumentative 
letter. The important point in this letter is the con- 
cession that the articles under discussion were not put 
to vote, and that they had no minute of their adoption. 
Pine Street Committee made another long reply, claim- 
ing that their only aim in their first overture and in 
all that they have written is that peace between the two 
congregations may be attained. It is remarkable that 
this entire lengthy correspondence, including all the 
letters from the Market Street Committee, is spread 
upon the Pine Street Committee Book. It was between 
Scotch-Irishmen, and resulted in fixing the battle array 
more definitely and determinedly. 

But, a few days after the correspondence described 
above had ended, Synod decided the Duffield case in 
favor of Pine Street. The decision of Presbytery was 
reversed ''by a large majority." The commissioners of 
Market Street made an earnest, written protest against 
the decision of Synod. It was significant that the 
sixth point in this protest was that the decision of 
Synod ''tended to injure the civil property of the people 
of Market Street." The correspondence with Pine 

The Fight for Independence. 43 

Street and the decision of the highest ecclesiastical 
court against them stirred Market Street to make sure 
their civil title to the Pine Street house of worship, 
which they told the Synod they had built "at vast 
expense." It was now clearly evident to them that a 
serious mistake had been made in permitting Pine 
Street to elect its own committee without protest. 
Pine Street Committee must be retired, and the original 
plan of conducting the temporal affairs of both houses 
restored. And so, at the Sunday morning service of 
June twenty-second, at Pine Street, the Rev. Mr. Ew- 
ing read a notice instructing the congregation to meet 
in the Market Street Church on the morning of the 
following day to choose a joint committee. The Pine 
Street people were astonished. The short notice of less 
than twenty-four hours was ominous. The Committee 
met at two o'clock, and decided that the following 
notice should be read at the evening service : 

"The Committee of the church are of the opinon that the notice 
read here this morning desiring the congregation to meet at 
the Market Street Church to-morrow morning has nothing to do 
with Pine Street congregation ; and, therefore, they request that 
the congregation may not meet in consequence of it, or pay any 
regard whatever to it." 

The meeting was held on Monday morning. It is 
claimed that a few Pine Street people were present, but 
the body of the congregation obeyed the notice read 
at the Sunday evening service. The proposed joint 
committee, however, was elected, and, within a week, 

44 History of Old Pine Street. 

application was made for a charter of incorporation to 
include both houses of worship and to put the temporal 
affairs of both congregations under the control of a 
committee of twenty-four, twelve from each congrega- 
tion, to be known as 'The Committee of the First and 
Third United Presbyterian Churches of the City of 
Philadelphia." At once, a most able and dignified 
letter was sent by Pine Street "To the Honourable 
Richard Penn, Esq., Governor of the Province of Penn- 
sylvania." This letter was presumably written by Dr. 
Samuel Duffield, a brother of George Duffield, and 
concludes as follows : 

"Therefore, we humbly pray your Honour that in case such 
an apphcation for a charter has been, or shall be, made by our 
brethren of the Market Street meeting, and your Honour should 
approve thereof, that then your Honour will be pleased so to 
limit and confine the bounds of power therein as that our society 
and meeting-house may be exempt and excluded therefrom, and 
no power granted them to lord it over their brethren. That we 
may remain as we now are to enjoy our religious liberty by call- 
ing and supporting the minister Ave best approve, and who we 
think will render us the most efficient service. And your peti- 
tioners will pray, etc." 

The charter w^as granted; but it neither retired the 
Pine Street Committee nor dislodged her congregation. 
It seems that the Committee held meetings both in Pine 
Street and in Market Street Church, but there is no evi- 
dence that Pine Street ever recognized its jurisdiction, 
and the fight went on. 

It is to be noted that no mention in the whole process 

The Fight for Independence. 45 

of this important transaction is made of the Session, 
which recalls the fact that Pine Street began its organ- 
ized life with the Session against the congregation. 
This Session was constantly found opposing the con- 
gregation in Presbytery, and in joint meetings with 
the Session and the Committee of the First Church. 
It was no surprise, therefore, to find these elders after 
the decision in favor of Pine Street mentioned above, 
asking Synod whether they should continue to serve 
as elders of the Pine Street congregation. The answer 
of Synod was most judicious. It was that the elders 
could continue, if they could conscientiously do so, in 
obedience to the decision of Synod; but that, if they 
could not, they might resign, and allow the congrega- 
tion to choose another Session. It was most unfor- 
tunate that these elders did not resign. For if Pine 
Street had then been permitted to choose elders who 
were in fact "the representatives of the people," and 
had adopted the plan of electing ruling elders by vote 
of the congregation, much discord which occurred later 
would have been avoided. 

The way was now open for Pine Street to press its 
call to Mr. Duffield. Unfortunately, the minutes of the 
Second Presbytery of Philadelphia end at this point, ^ 
but, from the minutes of Synod and the Pine Street 
Committee Book and other sources, the events that led 
to the settlement of Mr. Duffield over his flock in Pine 

^ Also the First Church Records are wanting. 

46 History of Old Pine Street. 

Street are preserved to us. Mr. Duffield was dismissed 
from the Presbytery of Donegal, September lo, 1772. 
He appeared with his papers^ before the Second Pres- 
bytery, and requested to be received and recorded as a 
member. Presbytery refused to receive him. The ef- 
fect of this affront, offered to a man of Mr. Duffield's 
character and reputation, and to such a body of men as 
those who had signed his call, can better be imagined 
than described. 

Very soon there was a remarkable revelation of the 
effect of this act of Presbytery upon the Pine Street 
people. On September twenty-seventh, when the con- 
gregation assembled for morning service, they found 
that the newly-incorporated committee of Market 
Street had locked the doors of the church. The news 
spread rapidly and an immense crowd soon gathered. 
Those who had come to church that morning were men 
with the spirit and brawn of those who never turn 
back in the day of battle, and who yield only to what 
they believe to be rightful authority, and before whom 
locked doors are no impediment. They broke no locks 
upon that Sabbath morning, but gaining entrance to 
the house, opened the doors from within. So many 
of the crowd as could enter the church were soon in 
their places for worship. When the preacher arrived, 
he could not get near the door; but strong arms and 

^ These papers included the call which Synod had given Pine 
Street permission to prosecute before Donegal Presbytery. 

The Fight for Independence. 47 

willing hands lifted him bodily and passed him through 
a window, and he took his place in the pulpit. In the 
midst of the service the King's messenger appeared, 
pressing his way up the middle aisle. When he had 
reached a position just in front of the pulpit he as- 
sumed a commanding attitude, and ordered the con- 
gregation to disperse. Finding that his command was 
disregarded, he took from his pocket a copy of the 
Riot Act, and began to read. Mr. Robert Knox,^ one 
of the trustees, and afterwards a colonel of the Revolu- 
tionary Army, addressing the royal officer, cried, "Quet 
that, Jemmie Bryant !" The magistrate did not heed 
the commanding voice of Knox, but proceeded to read. 
Again he cried, "Don't come here to disturb the people 
in their w^orship of God !" Knox was a tall, powerful 
man of heroic spirit and nerve. Seeing that his voice 
had no effect, he left his pew, and taking the magis- 
trate with one hand by the nape of his neck and with 
the other by the breeches, lifted him above the heads of 
the crowd, and carrying him to the door, cast him 
forth unceremoniously, saying, "There, take that; be 
gone! And disturb no more the worship of God!" 
Then turning to the preacher, he added, "Go on, Mr. 
Duffield." ^ There was no further molestation of that 
morning's divine service. 

The next day Mr. Duffield was brought before 

^ See page 83. 

^ ''Leaves of a Century Plant/' page 45. 

48 History of Old Pine Street. 

Thomas Willing, the honored Mayor of the city. He 
was charged with having instigated and aided riotous 
proceedings at Pine Street Church. He was com- 
manded to plead to the charge. He said that he had 
no plea to offer, save that he was in discharge of his 
duty and privilege as a minister of Christ. The Mayor 
instructed Mr. Duffield that, if he took this stand, the 
Court would be greatly embarrassed. He suggested 
that he could plead not guilty, and offer his brother, Dr. 
Samuel Duffield, as bail, who would be at once ac- 
cepted. This was respectfully declined. The Mayor 
oft'ered to go bail himself that he might be relieved of 
the necessity of sending a minister to prison. Mr. 
Duffield thanked the Mayor for his kindness, and ex- 
plained that he would far rather go to prison than, by 
pleading to the Court, become a party to his illegal ar- 
rest. He reminded the Mayor that his commission to 
preach the Gospel was not a matter of civil, but of 
divine authority, and that he must resist with all 
earnestness the tyrannical spirit which had haled him 
before a civil court. After conferring more fully with 
the prisoner, the Mayor dismissed him with the re- 
mark that at a future time the matter would be in- 
vestigated.^ "He never afterwards was summoned 
to appear in Court in relation to the charge." 

With the bitterness awakened by the forcible en- 
trance of Mr. Duffield into the Pine Street Church, the 

^ Scharf-Westcott's "History of Philadelphia/' Vol. II., page 

The Fight for Independence. 49 

conflict between the incorporated and the Pine Street 
committees, the antagonism between the Session and 
the congregation of the new church, and with increas- 
ing expenses, the Pine Street people were in great dis- 
tress. But it was soon known that they had a leader 
of exceptional ability. There awakened in the hearts 
of the people full conviction that the day of independ- 
dence and peace would surely come. It had, however, 
to come with persevering endurance and activity. In 
this spirit, the body of Pine Street people was knit to- 
gether; with every new discouragement, they grew 
stronger and more determined. 

The next discouragement was at hand. Just as Mr. 
Duffield had got hold of his work, and was beginning 
to attract wide attention by his exceptional ability as a 
preacher, a suit of ejectment was instituted by the 
incorporated committee. This was directly against 
the advice of Synod, which had, at their meeting of 
1772, earnestly recommended that the two congrega- 
tions should settle their disputes about property by 
arbitration. There were men on the Pine Street Com- 
mittee who knew enough law to see that a contest in 
the civil court over the possession of Pine Street house 
might become an unequal battle. The whole case was 
explained to the congregation. They unanimously de- 
termined to stand by the church, and a special sub- 
scription was opened to meet all legal expenses. While 
this suit was pending, a letter was handed Mr. DufHeld 

50 History of Old Pine Street. 

to be read before the Pine Street congregation, invit- 
ing them to attend the joint annual meeting of the 
congregations, provided for in the charter of the in- 
corporated committee, to elect new members into that 
committee. Very wisely indeed Mr. Duffield at once 
referred the letter to the Pine Street Committee. After 
deliberation, the Committee concluded to call a congre- 
gational meeting, and lay it before the people. It was 
decided to send a letter to the Market Street Church, 
which, of course, was a declinature of the invitation; 
and so Pine Street did not meet with Market Street 
to elect new members for the incorporated committee. 
Suffering under the constant hindrances arising from 
conflicting claims of the two committees, and indignant 
at the civil action of Market Street against them. Pine 
Street determined to enter a complaint before Pres- 
bytery. Whether this complaint was sent, and Pine 
Street failed to find relief, or whether the decision of 
the congregation was reconsidered, we cannot deter- 
mine; but it would seem that the discussion of this 
complaint led to a congregational meeting to ask 
Synod to attach Pine Street to another Presbytery. 
Synod granted this request on May 2y, 1773; as also 
a similar request from Mr. Duffield. Both the church 
and her pastor were attached to the Presbytery of 

. With the civil suit between them not yet decided, the 
interests of both congregations occupied much time 

The Fight for Independence. 51 

of the session of Synod just mentioned. Their cases 
came up on the sixth day of Synod, so that much time 
had been given for conference and for the completion 
of preparation before the cases were called. Here we 
give the record of this historic case. 

"A complaint was brought in by the Rev. Mr. George Duffield 
against the Second Philadelphia Presbytery, that they had, by one 
of their members, obstructed his entrance into a church in this 
city under their care, to which he had accepted a call, and had 
also refused to receive him as a member, although he was dis- 
missed from, and recommended by, the Presbytery of Donegal, 
which was read. 

"The minutes of the Second Philadelphia Presbytery with 
respect to the complaint of Mr. Duffield were also read, assigning 
the reasons of their conduct. 

"A petition and remonstrance from the incorporated committee 
of the Presbyterian Church in Market and in Pine Streets in 
this city, was also brought in and read, setting forth that Mr. 
Duffield, by the assistance of a part of the congregation of Pine 
Street, had taken forcible possession of their church in Pine 
Street, on the 27th of September last, and praying we would 
take proper care to afford them such relief as the nature of the 
case required from us." ^ 

The Second Presbytery was fully heard. Then Mr. 
Duffield was given ample time for his speech. Noble 
and commanding in his presence, great in his intel- 
lectual endowments and spiritual power, thoroughly 
educated, clear and cogent in his thinking, eloquent 
and persuasive in speech, and absolutely sincere, he was 
the peer of any man on the floor of Synod. The Synod 
knew that his case grew out of conditions which dis- 

^ "Records of the Presbyterian Church," page 446. 

52 History of Old Pine Street. 

tinguished the formative period of a great community. 
They knew that he was standing at the beginning of 
things, and that he was, in an unselfish spirit, endeavor- 
ing to lay the foundations of a great Christian enter- 
prise. They heard him with awakened souls. After 
the noon recess, Synod again convened to pass judg- 
ment on the cases. After mature deliberation, they 
gave the following decision : 'The Synod judge that 
Mr. Duffield had just cause for complaint against the 
conduct and judgment of the Second Philadelphia Pres- 
bytery, who ought to have admitted him to membership 
with them, and allowed him a fair trial, wherefore we 
now declare him to be minister of Pine Street, or third 
Presbyterian congregation in this city, and order that 
he be put upon the list of the aforesaid Presbytery." ^ 

The incorporated committee had another remon- 
strance against Mr. Duffield which included the moral- 
ity of his conduct in entering the church as he did on 
September twenty-seventh. But, after hearing his 
speech and learning the decision of Synod, it was 
promptly withdrawn, with such reasons as Scotch- 
Irishmen are accustomed to give when they have met 
defeat, but have "just begun to fight." 

The civil court decided against Pine Street. The 
verdict was given March 15, 1774. That same day, 
the Pine Street Committee met, and unanimously 
agreed that the church should appeal their case to the 

^ "Records of the Presbyterian Church," page 448. 

The Fight for Independence. 53 

Supreme Court. Six days later, the congregation was 
convened, and readily agreed to the decision of the 
Committee. The description of the vote is ''that it 
was unanimous, excepting Nathaniel Graham, who 
opposed it." 

When a year had passed, Pine Street became uneasy 
about their suit in the Supreme Court. A meeting 
of the Committee was called to decide what should be 
done in case the suit again went against them. After 
full deliberation, the unanimous opinion was that, in 
case Pine Street should suffer defeat in the Supreme 
Court, an appeal should be made to the King in Coun- 
cil, and that ''care should be taken to have proper 
securities prepared for that purpose." 

In February, 1776, the verdict was again given 
against Pine Street. The Committee was fully pre- 
pared for this. At once proper securities were entered 
with the Court, and an appeal made to England. 

Greater questions were now stirring both congrega- 
tions. The American Revolution was at hand. Mar- 
ket Street and Pine Street were preparing to join hands 
against a common foe. George Duffield was among 
the foremost advocates of the absolute independence of 
the colonies. His' spiritual and patriotic fervor was 
poured forth in sermons of marvelous power and elo- 
quence, which stirred the whole city. Even his foes 
acknowledged him as a great leader of men. 

The sequel will show that the long and bitter con- 

54 History of Old Pine Street. 

flict between the two churches ended here. The ec- 
clesiastical question over which they had fought so long 
had been fully settled in the Synod of 1773. Although 
they waited long for their legal title, Pine Street people 
remained in undisturbed possession of the church into 
whose walls had been builded the love and devotion of 
the mother church. If the victory was for Pine Street, 
it was much more for the King who is above every 
King, whom mother and daughter served with equal 

1 he Pastorate oi 


ArB. (Frinciton)rb. D: (Yale) 

Cliafflain.^f^niinental Congress, aitd Pennsylvania Militia dur- 
ing the kevotutionary War; first Stated Clerk of Gen- 
I'^vn '^|.^/ \issemhly; first Pastor of the church, and 
buried in the churchyard 



From the portrait in Independence Hall 

: : ■ rveniv-tM 

The Pastorate of George Duffield 


George Duffield was descended from a Huguenot 
family, whose original name was du Fielde. The Duf- 
fields were refugees from England, from whence they 
went to Ireland. In the American family, English and 
Irish blood was co-mingled with that of the Huguenot 
stock. About the year 1725, George and Margaret Duf- 
field immigrated from Ireland, and settled in Pequea 
township, Lancaster County. There George, the third 
son, was born on the seventh of October, 1732. The 
conditions of the early life of this child of promise were 
most favorable. His father's farm was ample, fertile 
and beautiful. His first school was an intelligent, 
Christian home. His pastor. Dr. Robert Smith, was 
able, learned and spiritual. His young life was fed 
from these rich sources of nature and of grace. 

With rare preparation for entering upon a sys- 
tematic course of study, young Duffield was sent to 
Newark Academy, Delaware, where, under the best 
of teachers, he was fully prepared for college. It 
would seem that he went immediately from the Acad- 
emy to Nassau Hall, from which he was graduated 
in his twenty-first year. His class was the fourth of 


56 History of Old Pine Street. 

that college, which has become the celebrated Prince- 
ton University, and contained six men who were after- 
wards members of the Continental Congress, Dr. Wil- 
liam Burnett, Surgeon-General of the Revolutionary 
Army, and Supreme Court Justice Livermore.^ As a 
student Duffield was a strong, jovial, buoyant spirit, 
reverent and thoughtful, but not pious beyond his 
years. He was blessed with a character that would 
last, and which must inevitably grow. He studied the- 
ology under his pastor. Dr. Robert Smith, who edu- 
cated so many of the young ministers of his day, and 
was licensed to preach the gospel by New Castle Pres- 
bytery, November 11, 1756. Three days before his 
licensure, he was married to a daughter of the Rev. 
Samuel Blair, of Fagg's Manor. Near the time of 
his first settlement as a pastor he laid this yoimg 
wife and her infant child in the grave. On March 5, 
1759, he was again married, to Margaret, sister of the 
distinguished General John Armstrong, who was an 
elder in his church at Carlisle. This second wife was 
the mother of the third George Duffield, who was for 
many years Comptroller-General of the State of Penn- 
sylvania. In the fourth generation of this family, the 
ministry was restored in the Rev. George Duffield, 
D. D., who graduated in his sixteenth year from the 
University of Pennsylvania, and who gave the thinkers 
of the church of his day so much to do. He was also 

* Alexander's "Princeton College in the Eighteenth Century." 

Pastorate of George Duffield. 57 

truly a man of power. His son, known as George 
Duffield, Jr., D. D., was the author of the hymn, 
''Stand Up, Stand Up, for Jesus." This brief state- 
ment will answer many questions concerning the place 
of our George Duffield, D. D., in this remarkable 
family, which has done so great a work for the Pres- 
byterian Church. 

From the time that Mr. Duffield began his ministry, 
he was recognized as a man of exceptional gifts. His 
youth did not bar him from call to important duties. 
The first time he appeared in Synod he received ap- 
pointments to supply the pulpits of large congregations. 
He was then in his twenty-fifth year. Wherever he 
went, his sermons left a deep impression. When re- 
quests came to Synod for supplies, his name was espe- 
cially mentioned. An appeal was sent to Synod from 
the Hanover congregation of Virginia, where he had 
no doubt preached during one of his Southern tours, 
asking that he might be sent to them. His name is 
constantly mentioned upon the important committees 
of Synod. Very soon after his first settlement, he 
was made clerk of the Donegal Presb3^tery. In 1762, 
1779 and 1789 he was made clerk of Synod, and upon 
entering the Presbytery of Philadelphia he was made 
clerk of that body. He it was who made the motion 
in Synod for the union of the two Philadelphia Pres- 
byteries; and he w^as one of the leading spirits in the 
union of the Synods of Philadelphia and New York. 

58 History of Old Pine Street. 

Although a man of high spirit when fighting was 
needed, he was ahvays for peace upon reasonable and 
honorable terms. So far as we can discover his one 
publication is a sermon on peace, delivered on Thanks- 
giving day, December ii, 1783. The larger view of 
truth and duty, and the uniting of the forces of right- 
eousness for the coming of the kingdom of God, dis- 
tinguished his entire career. 

The first charge of George Duffield was Big Spring 
and Carlisle, to which he was called in September, 1757. 
Here he fought his first ecclesiastical battle with an 
able and experienced opponent. The New Light peo- 
ple had called Mr. Duffield to Carlisle. The Old Lights 
sent for Rev. John Steele, a very able and devoted 
man, with the expectation of preventing the settlement 
of Duffield, but they did not know the mettle of the 
young man who had come into their community. He 
won his victory, and was ordained, and installed over 
the two congregations, in September, 1759.^ In 1769, 
a change was made in his pastorate. Big Spring with- 
drawing from its association with Carlisle, and the 
newly-organized church of Monaghan becoming a part 
of his charge. This church was protected on all sides 
by fortifications, and during divine service sentinels 
kept watch against hostile Indians. John McDowell, 
LL. D., for sometime Provost of the University of 

* Norcross's "Centennial Memorial of the Presbytery of Car- 
lisle," Vol. II., page 41. 

Pastorate of George Duffield. 59 

Pennsylvania, attributed his conversion to a sermon 
preached by Mr. Duffield in this church from Zechariah 
II : 12 — '*Turn ye to the stronghold, ye prisoners of 
hope" — in vs'hich he skilfully used the fortifications as 
an illustration.^ Mr. Duffield was literally a man of 
war from his youth. He was quite as much at home 
at the head of a company of riflemen, protecting the 
homes of settlers, as he was drawing his apt and vivid 
illustrations in the pulpit. The perils of these early 
days, and the fatalities which were not uncommon, 
proved a remarkable preparation for this hero of the 

It was no doubt his exceptional fitness for a work 
that few would care to undertake that led Sy;iod to 
select Duffield to accompany the Rev. Charles Beatty 
upon one of the most remarkable and rqmantic mis- 
sionary journeys of the colonial church. At the meet- 
ing of the Synod of 1766, ''Messrs. Beatty and 
Duffield were appointed to go together, the first of 
August, and preach at least two months in those parts, 
and do whatever else is best for the advancement of 
religion." ^ "Those parts" were the extreme western 
frontier of the province, and the contiguous country. 
These brethren proved obedient servants of the church. 
Leaving their pulpits in charge of others, they under- 
took the journey with all its discomforts, fatigue and 

^ Sprague's "Annals of the American Pulpit," Vol. III., page 186. 
^ "Records of the Presbyterian Church," page 362. 

6o History of Old Pine Street. 

perils, held meetings at Fort Pitt, pressed on for a dis- 
tance of 130 miles into Ohio, and traversed the Vir- 
ginia and Maryland frontier.^ The message they car- 
ried from the East, their counsel and sermons and 
words of courage and good cheer and hope, were an 
unmeasured blessing to many, and gave a remarkable 
impetus to the frontier mission work. Duffield brought 
his elder brother and companion safely home. A manu- 
script record of this missionary journey is preserved in 
the Presbyterian Historical Society. 

By the time George Duffield had reached his thirtieth 
year, he had won a high place among the scholarly men 
of the church, was a leader in ecclesiastical assemblies, 
and was known as an able and attractive preacher. 
The eyes of the New Light men of Philadelphia were 
upon him. In 1763 he received a call to the Second 
Church of this city. Three years later, when the much- 
loved Gilbert Tennent was removed by death, this call 
was renewed. From these events it is readily seen 
with what intelligence and discrimination the Pine 
Street people gave the call to George Duffield to be- 
come their minister. They knew their man, and it is 
quite evident that he was well-informed concerning the 
Pine Street congregation and the new church. There 
was no spirit of faction whatever in the perseverance 
of these saints of Pine Street; and it is certain that 
Duffield entered upon his pastorate conscious of the 

* Gillett's "History of Presbyterianism," Vol. I., page 252. 

Pastorate of George Duffield. 6i 

deep responsibilities that he was assuming. He was 
then within ten days of his fortieth birthday. Can we 
doubt that his prophetic eye saw great possibiHties for 
the church and for the Kingdom of Christ in the forces 
which, by the grace of God, he was to direct ? 

The greatness of the difficulties which confronted 
the people of this new charge were, to a man of his 
spirit and experience, an inspiring call to duty and to 
joyful service. With masterful ability and skill he 
rose to the occasion and to the work before him. The 
halting spirit of an unwilling Session was hidden by a 
committee of twelve able, faithful, devoted men. The 
insistence of the incorporated committee of the mother 
church, that their authority should be acknowledged 
was patiently and quietly ignored. The decisions of 
the civil court against Pine Street were cause for 
greater self-sacrifice and fuller service. Financial dif- 
ficulties were a call to the endurance of hardness for 
Christ's sake. Many difficulties were skilfully avoided 
by obtaining a transfer of the church from the Second 
Presbytery to the Philadelphia Presbytery. It is a 
striking illustration of Duffield's character that he com- 
pelled the former Presbytery to recognize a funda- 
mental principle of personal right by receiving him 
and putting his name upon their rolls before he asked 
for his own dismissal. A complete system of col- 
lecting pew rents and offerings, with a single collector 
at its head, was adopted. The salary of the pastor was 

62 History of Old Pine Street. 

fixed within the abihty of the people to pay. Gladly 
did he share with his people their deprivations. Dur- 
ing these first years we have not a word from the pen 
of Mr. DufTield or the Session, not even a record. We, 
however, readily read betwen the lines of the minutes 
of the faithful Pine Street Committee. This royal com- 
mittee was for quite a while the staff of the leader of 
Pine Street. 

Very soon did George Duffield make himself felt in 
Philadelphia. His wisdom and manifest sincerity and 
loving kindness drew many to him. His eloquent ser- 
mons filled his church. Soon his pastoral care ex- 
tended far beyond his own fiock. Men of education 
and culture appeared in his church. The Stamp Act and 
the king's unconstitutional taxation had clearly defined 
the line between Whigs and Tories. No one knew bet- 
ter than this son of the Huguenots the deep meaning 
of the events w^hich had developed the spirit of patriotic 
devotion to the colonies. He realized, as his utterances 
clearly show, that a nation was ready to be born. His 
clear and aggressive thinking upon these questions of 
state, and his profound knowledge of their relation to 
religious liberty, made him an instructive and helpful 
teacher to the men who w^ere to be the leaders in the 
inevitable struggle which was at hand. 

A single illustration will indicate the influence which 
he exerted over the ablest, wisest and most thoughtful 
men of the period just preceding the Declaration of 



Signer of the Declaration of Independence; first minister to 
France-;, second President of the United States; a coin- 
the Hber: municayit in Old Pine Street 

From a portrait by Gilbert Stuart 

liO \fd ;tiBiJioq is moi'*i 

Pastorate of George Duffield. 63 

Independence, and the part which he had in shaping 
pubHc opinion. John Adams had been drawn to the 
Pine Street Church, and became a regular attendant 
upon the preaching of Duffield, and a commimicant in 
the church.^ We find several descriptions in the diary 
of Mr. Adams of preachers which he heard at "Duf- 
field's meeting."^ These indicate that he gave George 
Duffield a first place among the preachers of the day. 
He compares him with the pastor of the Second Church 
in these words : ''Mr. Sproat is totally destitute of 
the genius and eloquence of Duffield."^ The following 
indicates the value which he put upon the serrpons of 
the pastor of Pine Street : 

"The seventeenth of May was Sunday (1776). Mr. Adams 
went to hear the Rev. Mr. Duffield preach upon the signs of the 
times, who likened the conduct of George the Third to that of 
Pharaoh to the Israelites, and concluded that Providence in- 
tended the liberation of the Americans, as it had done theirs. 
The auditor returned home, and, writing to his wife, thus fol- 
lowed out the train of ideas occasioned by the discourse : 

'' Ts it not a saying of Moses, Who am I that I should go in and 
out before this great people? When I consider the great events 
which are passed, and those greater which are rapidly advancing, 
and that I may have been instrumental in touching some springs, 
and turning some small wheels, which have had and will have 
such effects, I feel an awe upon my mind, which is not easily 
described. Great Britain .has at last driven America to the last 
step, a complete separation from her; a total, absolute inde- 
pendence, not only of her parliament, but of her crown. For 

^ Gillett's "History of Presbyterianism," Vol. I., page 307. 
' "Life and Works of John Adams," by C. F. Adams, Vol. II., 
pages 424, 427, 430, et al. 
'^ Ibid., Vol. II., page 424. 

64 History of Old Pine Street. 

such is the amount of the resolve of the fifteenth. Confederation 
among ourselves or alliances with foreign nations are not neces- 
sary to a perfect separation from Britain. That is effected by 
extinguishing all authority under the crown, parliament, and 
nation, as the resolution for instituting governments has done to 
all intents and purposes. Confederation will be necessary for 
our internal concord, and alliances may be so for our internal 
defence.' " ^ 

Mr. Duffield's spiritual and patriotic fervor com- 
manded the earnest attention of great assemblies. This 
is illustrated by the following passage from Headley's 
"Chaplains of the American Revolution" : 

"The patriots of the first Congress flocked to his church, and 
John Adams and his compeers were often his hearers, for he 
preached as Jonas Clarke had before preached at Lexington. 

"In a discourse delivered before several companies of the Penn- 
sylvania militia and members of Congress, four months before 
the Declaration of Independence, he took bold and decided 
ground in favour of that step, and pleaded his cause with sub- 
lime eloquence, which afterwards made him so obnoxious to the 
British that they placed a reward of fifty pounds for his capture. 
He declared that Heaven designed this Western world as the 
asylum for liberty, and that to raise its banner here their fore- 
fathers had sundered the dearest ties of home, friends, and 
native land, and braved the tempests of the ocean and the terrors 
of the wilderness. Not through the fostering care of Britain, 
he said, had they grown and flourished, but by her 'tyranny and 
oppression, both civil and ecclesiastical,' had noble souls been 
driven hither 'to enjoy in peace the fair possessions of freedom.' 
"Tis this/ he exclaimed, 'has reared our cities, and turned the 
wilderness, so far and wide, into a fruitful field. And can it be 
supposed that that God who made man free, and engraved in 
indefaceable characters the love of liberty in his mind, should 
forbid freedom, already exiled from Asia and Africa, and under 

^ "Life and Works of John Adams," Vol. I., page 219; "American 
Archives," Fourth Series, Vol. VI., page 488. 

Pastorate of George Duffield. 65 

sentence of banishment from Europe — that he should forbid 
her to erect her baners here, and constrain her to abandon 
the earth? As soon shall he subvert creation, and forbid the sun 
to shine. He preserved to the Jews their cities of refuge, and 


OF REFUGE FOR THE WHOLE EARTH, until she herself shall play the 
tyrant, forget her destiny, disgrace her freedom, and provoke her 
God. When that day shall — if ever — come, then, and not till 
then, shall she also fall, slain with them that go down to the 
PIT.' In such strains of impassioned eloquence did he sustain his 
argument for liberty, and pour his own brave, glowing soul into 
his excited listeners, till they were ready, when he ceased, to 
shout, 'To arms ! to arms !' So great was his zeal in the cause 
of the colonies, and so wide was his influence known to be, that 
his services in the army were sought for at the earliest moment, 
and four days after the Declaration of Independence he received 
his commission as chaplain to the Pennsylvania militia." 

While Duffield was commanding public attention, 
and giving a large share of his time to the questions 
whose answers were to determine the fate of the colo- 
nies and of civil and religious liberty for America, no 
part of his pastoral duties were neglected. The press- 
ing claims which filled each long day are a sufficient ex- 
planation of the fact that there was no time for his 
pen to record passing events. Nor were those who 
labored with him given time to write current history 
that was being crowded into the life of Pine Street 
during these intense and anxious days. Only a few 
brief minutes were recorded in the Committee Book 
during the two years before the blank pages that cover 
the next four years. 

But this we know. Before the Revolution began, 


66 History of Old Pine Street. 

George Duffield had fully won the hearts of- all his 
people and had welded them into a united, devoted con- 
gregation. We nave no means of knowing just how 
the Session was constituted after Synod gave its reply 
to the question of the original Session of Pine Street 
Church. It will be remembered that the instruction of 
Synod was, that these elders could continue to serve 
in obedience to Synod's decision in favor of Mr. Duf- 
field, but that, if they could not acquiesce in this de- 
cision, another Session might be chosen. There is no 
record in our possession in reference to the choice of 
new elders, but we find Ferguson Mcllvaine in Pres- 
bytery as ''Mr. Duffield's elder," November 7, 1775; 
and William McMullin, April 8, 1777. If these w^ere 
members of the original Session their names do not ap- 
pear in the position which that Session took in opposi- 
tion to Mr. Duffield. We would like to believe that 
the elders who opposed the congregation were all fully 
won by the noble spirit of Duffield. Very deeply do 
we here miss the first sessional Minute Book, men- 
tioned both in the Pine Street Committee Book and in 
the minutes of the Second Philadelphia Presbytery. 

But we do not leave out of sight the unwritten his- 
tory of the able and faithful service of the consecrated 
men and women who were co-workers with their pastor. 
Without their loving devotion and help, even with his 
great ability, he could never have borne the strain and 
performed the labor and produced the splendid results 

Pastorate of George Duffield. 67 

of the four first years of his pastorate. But who could 
write the history of the conversions, of the feeding 
and protecting and leading of the flock, of the strength- 
ening of the weak, of the guiding of the erring, of the 
comforting of the sorrowing, and of all the precious 
fruits of the sermons and prayers and loving ministra- 
tions in which pastor and people had a common share ? 
These are indeed the elements w^hich constitute every 
faithful pastorate, where leader and people are of one 
spirit and of one purpose; btit that they should have 
been maintained and developed through these days 
that tried men's souls exalts the character of the men 
and the women who constituted the congregation of 
Pine Street Church. 

It has been said that George Duffield w-as "a man 
who seemed formed expressly for the times and lot 
in which his life w^as cast."^ This fact was fully recog- 
nized by the leaders of the patriots, as has been indi- 
cated by the testimony of Mr. Adams, and the sermons 
preached just before the Declaration of Independence. 
He fully grasped the deep relation between civil au- 
thority and the religious life of the people. He knew 
the perils of civil domination of the ecclesiastical and 
doctrinal life of the church. Nor did he entertain any 
narrow views about the separation between religion 
and politics. There was no confusion in his knowledge 
of the relations betw^een the things of Caesar and the 

^ Gillett, Vol. I., page 306. 

68 History of Old Pine Street. 

things of God. No one could ever think of him as 
merely "one of the cloth." His was the spirit of the 
great apostle: "But none of these things move me, 
neither count I my life dear unto myself, so that I might 
finish my course with joy, and the ministry which I 
have received of the Lord Jesus, to testify the gospel 
of the grace of God." For him the Gospel compre- 
hended the whole of human life. 

It was therefore the logic of events that made George 
Duffield "chaplain of all the Pennsylvania Militia" just 
two days after the official Declaration of Independ- 
ence;^ and that afterwards called him^ in conjunction 
with Rev. William White, to serve as Chaplain of the 
Continental Congress.^ These commissions immensely 
enlarged his pastorate. A hundred men from his own 
congregation were in the field. The next chapter will 
give a brief description of these heroes of Old Pine 
Street. The patriot pastor's heart w^as with the men 
who were enduring the deep privations and hardships 
and perils of the camp and of the battlefield. He real- 
ized that these were now his special charge. He was 
with them, gladly to share their trials and perils. 

"Although he had great influence with members of 
Congress, he was needed especially among the troops. 
This, too, was the place for him, for his heart was with 

^ Headley's 'Chaplains of the RevoUition." 

^ See inscription under Dr. Duffield's portrait in Independence 
Hall, Philadelphia. 


ace iji 


?■ - s ^ • <^ t t -. \l 1 

s= I ; 



i .f i -^ *r<^ f-,9 9-^f i-- ;?• !«" 



?«i iff ir Ji ,ii r?i Jr I'j 'I 

5ii^''«s '^«« r*« 111 1x1 »5g 5.H- 

fS; ='5.- ?«- ';!- !5- r-- f»- rS- 

o - • •» !• 5 

Pastorate of George Duffield. 69 

those struggling on the battlefield more than with those 
debating in Congress. Whenever any perilous under- 
taking was attempted, he could not remain behind. Ac- 
customed to the habits and peculiarities, as well as the 
privations of the camp life, he wielded great influence 
over the soldiers. He could infuse courage in the 
hour of danger, and cheer the disheartened in disaster, 
by example, precept and prayer. Bold and confident 
himself, he inspired confidence in others. He was well 
known in camp, and his visits were always welcome, for 
the soldier loved the eloquent, earnest, fearless pa- 

If all the incidents of his arduous and heroic service 
as chaplain w4th the Revolutionary Army could be writ- 
ten, we would have a volume full of romance. We 
cannot do better than to continue to quote : 

''When the enemy occupied Staten Island, and the 
American forces were across the river on the Jersey 
shore, he repaired to camp to spend the Sabbath. As- 
sembling a portion of the troops in an orchard, he 
climbed into the forks of a tree and commenced relig- 
ious exercises. He gave out a hymn, and as the sol- 
diers, like the troops of Cromwell at the battle of Dun- 
bar, 'uplift it to the tune of Bangor or some still higher 
score, and rolled it strong and great against the sky,' 
the British on the island heard the sound of the sing- 
ing, and immediately directed some cannon to play on 
* Headley's "Chaplains of the Revolution." 

70 History of Old Pine Street. 

the orchard, from whence it proceeded. Soon the 
heavy shot came crashing through the hranches, and 
went singing overhead, arresting for a moment the 
voices that were hfted in worship. Mr. Duffield, to 
avoid the danger and escape such rude interruption, 
proposed that they should adjourn behind an adjacent 
hillock. They did so, and continued their worship, 
while the iron storm hurled harmlessly overhead. The 
deep thunder of the heavy cannon, shaking the ground 
on which they stood, and the hissing shot filled the 

The heart of this pastor was constantly tried by the 
appeals made to him on the one hand by the struggling 
members of his flock at home, and on the other hand 
by the men in the field. Upon a certain Sabbath it is 
said that he ascended the pulpit for the morning service, 
and looking over the congregation for a moment, ex- 
claimed : ''There are too many men here this morning. 
I am going to the front." How deeply his heart is 
drawn to the "men at the front" is indicated by the 
following : 

*'When the army, reduced to a handful, fled through 
New Jersey, his great, sympathetic heart would not let 
him stay at home, and he kept with it, sharing its hard- 
ships and exposures, and striving in every way to en- 
courage the hearts of the soldiers. In this disastrous 
retreat he had a forewarning of his own fate, should 
' Ibid. 

Pastorate of George Duffield. 71 

he by chance of war fall into the hands of the British. 
In a skirmish near Trenton, John Rossburgh, a fellow- 
chaplain, lost his horse, and was taken prisoner. See- 
ing his prayer for life refused, he knelt down and com- 
mitted his soul to his Maker — and while in this atti- 
tude was thrust through with a bayonet, and left wel- 
tering in his blood. Mr. Duffield found his body, hur- 
riedly buried by the neglected wayside, and had it re- 
moved to a neighboring graveyard, and decently buried. 
Similar fate would be his own, should he be taken, for 
the British knew that every such rebel parson was more 
dangerous than a whole regiment of militia."^ 

We can have no doubt that very few of the perils to 
which Chaplain Duffield was exposed have come down 
to us. The fact already mentioned of the British offer- 
ing fifty pounds for his head leaves no doubt that 
m.any a trap was set for him, and that constant watch 
was kept to secure the reward. When Washington 
abandoned Princeton and Trenton the bridges were 
destroyed behind him to delay the pursuing enemy. 
**Mr. Duffield, worn out with fatigue, and not being 
apprised of this movement, had retired to a private 
house nearby to snatch a moment's repose. In the 
meantime the bridges were being rapidly destroyed. A 
Quaker, v/ho knew him (for he had once befriended 
him when in danger for his principles), seeing what 
was going on, endeavored to seek him out and warn 

' Ibid. 

7 2 History of Old Pine Street. 

him of his danger. He, by some means, ascertained 
that Duffield was not already with the army across the 
river. Alarmed at the imminent danger of his bene- 
factor — for he knew of the reward — he at last found 
him asleep, and ignorant of the army's departure. He 
just got over, galloping on horseback."^ 

These incidents of Mr. Dufiield's service as chaplain 
call attention to one of the strongest principles of his 
noble character. He was a man of phenomenal en- 
durance. This is manifest in his entire career. There 
does not ever seem to have been a time when his heart 
failed him. He was prepared for every event. Calam- 
ity never broke his spirit. We are to remember that 
while performing these arduous services in the field he 
was cognizant of the events taking place at home, when 
the British entered Philadelphia. We can imagine how 
his heart bled for the members of his congregation, 
scattered as sheep without a shepherd, robbed of all 
earthly possessions. The dear church where they had 
worshiped was in possession of the enemy. The fol- 
lowing from a letter to 'The Honourable the Senate 
and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania," indicates the extent of this distress : 
''During the time the British troops were in Philadel- 
phia they used the church as an Hospital destroyed 
the pews and buried upwards of one hundred Hessian 
Soldiers in the Church Burying Ground." ^ 

' Ibid. 

' See Appendix D. 

'nW:^^Mf'^-^' '/ 

.iUW rijurxi 


c events taking 
Of Tarleton's Dragoons 

South Walk. 

Pastorate of Geor2;e Duffield. 73 


The only historic data we have to guide us in de- 
termining the movements of Pastor Duffield from the 
time of his appointment as chaplain until near the 
close of the war are his baptismal records, which begin 
with February 20, 1775.^ These records show that he 
baptized children every month during the period of 
the Revolution, except August of 1776, and September 
of 1778, and the time of the British occupation of Phil- 
adelphia. It was not an uncommoii thing for him to 
baptize as many as ten or fifteen a month. During the 
war he baptized more than two hundred and fifty. 
Here we have the positive proof that during these years 
George Duffield performed a tremendous service both 
for his congregation at home and for the soldiers in 
the field, going and coming from one to the other. 
Excepting the period of the British occupation of Phila- 
delphia, the congregational life of Pine Street was 
therefore continuous. 

Consider for a moment the adverse conditions 
through which pastor and people carried the church 
during the Revolution. When Doctor Duffield re- 
turned to the city, after its evacuation by the British, 
he found the exiles returning. Almost his entire con- 
gregation that had remained at home was with them. 
Their homes had been destroyed ; their business was 
ruined; not a few of them were without a place to lay 

^ The Baptismal Records of the Church are complete from 1775 
to date. 

74 History of Old Pine Street. 

their heads; the new Pine Street Church was dis- 
mantled ; the pews and all available woodwork had been 
used for firewood; the graves around the church had 
been dug up and the entire burial grotind desecrated. 
Many of the brave men whom he had led to battle 
were already fallen, while more upon whom the weak 
would lean were still in the field. Bereft and grief- 
stricken hearts appealed for comfort and strength. Al- 
most every family was poverty-stricken. He himself 
was suffering with the poorest. But the pastor was 
there not to weep, but to meet these returning exiles 
with cheering, hopeful words. He saw the brighter 
side, for there was not a doubt in his mind of the final 
triumph of the right. 

When the war was over and Dr. Duflfield had re- 
turned to give his full attention again to his charge, 
he was met by conditions that are not easily described. 
His church had been robbed of much of its strength by 
the departure of those who had fallen in battle. Sol- 
diers had come home to bear burdens heavier than 
those of the days of conflict, even denied the poor 
wages that were due them for their noble service. But 
the spirit of the pastor was not broken. A fearful price 
had indeed been paid, but the victory won was far 
greater in its glorious fruits. Tyranny had again been 
defeated. A mighty step had been taken in Christian 
civilization. Suffering had again triumphed. Evil 
was again subdued by loving devotion. A glorious 

Pastorate of George Duffield. 75 

future was now open to all. That which was above all 
price was theirs. It was in this spirit that the pastor 
gathered about him his shattered flock to complete the 
rebuilding of the walls of Zion. Out of their penury 
the people brought their offerings to restore the church. 
The Committee faithfully met. There were no divided 

Much had evidently already been accomplished, and 
provision had been made for the pastor. On Monday, 
May 8, 1780, a congregational meeting was called, 
which "took into consideration the pay of their minister 
for the last half-year : when it was unanimously agreed 
that the minister's salary for the last half-year should 
be at the rate of two hundred pounds specie." 

The records that follow are interesting reading. 
They describe the painful work of collecting all arrears. 
This was done with all the tenderness and skill and 
fidelity with which the surgeon saves his patient. The 
struggle of many to raise their one or two or five 
pounds deserves a place among the most heroic annals 
of self-sacrifice. The spirit of enterprise shown by the 
people under these trying conditions was indeed re- 
markable. It was on April 12, 1782, that two lots of 
twenty feet front each were added to the south side of 
the church grounds. These lots were paid for at once. 
The clerk's salary was at the same meeting raised and 
the pew rents were advanced one-third. This accom- 
plished, the congregation took up the question of pur- 

76 History of Old Pine Street. 

chasing the ground west of the church. It was found 
that the Market Street Church also wanted this lot. 
We shall leave this for the chapter on the church-yard. 
In 1784 much attention was given to the grading 
of the church grounds ; and the following year "a 
decent crimson velvet cushion and hangings" were pur- 
chased for the pulpit and clerk's desk. In 1786 the 
church-yard was enclosed with ''red cedar posts and 
boards." It was in this year that the present mode of 
electing trustees by ballot was introduced. The trus- 
tees, however, were then still the ''Committee." The 
following year "a petition was prepared and presented 
to the magistrates and street commissioner" requesting 
that Pine Street should be paved "from Third Street 
as far as Pine Street Presbyterian Church." It seems 
that this matter was vigorously pressed from time to 
time until the work was accomplished. In 1787 the 
Geneva gown was introduced into Pine Street pulpit. 
"The Committee agree that a gown be provided for 
their minister and Mr. Latimer undertakes that busi- 
ness." In the year following an important congre- 
gational meeting was held to make a forward step in 
the matter of church music. The progressive spirit of 
the people is indicated in the fact that this was accom- 
plished without opposition. It was determined "that 
the version of Psalms commonly called Dr. Watts', 
as revised by Mr. Barlow, be used in public worship in 
the congregation, instead of the version heretofore 

iiioY io .79fnayiJ agfiijl, \o cioizz^zzoq ni JtBJiioq 6 moi'? 


A^. [>aved "froiTi Third Street 

A hero of the American Revolution; Speaker of ike ^ouse of 

Representatives of Pennsylvania; Collector of the Port 

of Philadelphia; a Trustee of Old Pine Street 

for a generation, who is buried in the 


From a portrait in possession of Judge Latimer, of York. 

Pastorate of George Duffield, 77 

used." Rouse's version had been used up to this 

It is said that Agassiz could from a single bone of 
the fish determine its species. So one may find the 
ministry of a pastor quite clearly indicated in his 
records. For quite a while, it \yas thought that Dr. 
Duffield's records were lost, but the spirit of research 
which distinguished the fourth pastor of Old Pine 
Street, Dr. Ezra Stiles Ely, secured, in part, these rec- 
ords to our church. From Dr. Duffield's son he ob- 
tained his baptismal records from February 20, 1775, 
to January 18, 1790. These records, made in Dr. Duf- 
field's own handwriting, are now in our books, as they 
were copied in the clean, clear handwriting of Dr. Ely. 
They show that during a period of fifteen years Dr. 
Duffield baptized 1340 persons. This would be an 
average of about ninety a year. Dr. Ely found another 
volume written by Dr. Duffield, which proved to be a 
part of his marriage register. The first leaves of this 
volume were evidently lost. The portion preserved, 
and which Dr. Ely also copied, includes the period from 
July 29, 1785, to January 21, 1790, which contains the 
names of seven hundred and twenty-eight couples mar- 
ried by the first pastor of Old Pine Street. This would 
be an average of one hundred and sixty couples a year. 
Now these facts clearly indicate the strength of the 
Pine Street congregation during the last years of Dr. 
Duffield's pastorate, as well as his phenomenal popu- 

78 History of Old Pine Street. 

The restoration of the church was evidently complete 
years before the pastorate of Dr. Duffield ended. Pine 
Street was in the van of the religious life of the city. 
The pastor was one of the first men in the Presbyterian 
Church. The experience through which he had been 
led had deepened all his convictions of truth, energized 
his love and compassion for men, quickened his zeal for 
the spread of the gospel, and increased his power in the 
pulpit. His church was full to overflowing. He was 
sought after by men of all conditions. 

We have already called attention to the fact that 
wherever Dr. Duflield went, he at once took a leading 
place in ecclesiastical assemblies. When the General 
Assembly was formed in 1789, with his faithful elder, 
Ferguson Mcllvaine, he was present, and was made 
the first Stated Clerk of this highest court of the church. 
There is but little doubt that he would have become the 
Moderator of the second Assembly had he lived. 

His scholarship was widely recognized. He did an 
important part of the work of reviewing and preparing 
for publication our church standards.^ In 1782 he was 
appointed by Congress to examine and report on Ait- 
kin's publication of the English Bible.^ The Rev. Wil- 
liam White, afterwards first Protestant Episcopal 
bishop in the country, was his coadjutor in this work. 

^Thompson's "Presbyterianism," pages 63, 349. 
' Dr. Robert Ellis Thompson, in the Sunday School Times, 
February, 1894. 

Pastorate of George Duffield. 79 

Evidently Dr. Duffield and Bishop White were drawn 
together by their common scholastic tastes and attain- 
ments. From 1777 until his death he was an interested 
and able trustee of Princeton College. In 1785 he re- 
ceived the degree of Doctor of Divinity from Yale 

Dr. Duffield knew and supremely loved the Prince 
of Peace. When the war was over, this man of many 
battles, with fervent spirit and eloquent lips, pleaded 
for peace. It is claimed that he founded the first con- 
gregational prayer meeting in Philadelphia. In this 
fact is suggested the deep secret of all his power and 
of all his success. 'It was as a Christian that he was 
most conspicuous, for the religion which he preached 
was exhibited in his own life. The spirit of the Gospel 
tinctured his whole mind. It rendered him the advo- 
cate of the poor, and the friend of the friendless." ^ 

His zeal to do good exposed him to a disease, from 
which he died, February 2, 1790. The funeral sermon 
was preached by the Rev. Dr. Ashbel Green. His 
body was laid to rest beneath the central aisle of the 
church which he had cherished with so great a love. 
The gifts which his soul received for humanity, and 
which were so faithfully bestowed, can never die. 

^ Dr. Ashbel Green's "Funeral Sermon," page 16. 


Of the one hundred and ten signers, sixty-seven served in the 
Revoltttionarv War 

Orifiinal in possession of the church . 

• ^ 










^ ^'v* 

•j^ 1. 

^ ,.;^#N:>r>? 





Z V 










Old Pine Street Men in tke 
Revolutionary War/ 

The part that George Duffield played in the War of 
the American Revolution was merely indicative of the 
service rendered by the men to whom he ministered. 
We might infer this from the power of his preaching 
and his example, as it is recorded, and also from the 
fact that the Pine Street congregation w^as made up 
largely of Scotch-Irishmen. 

Philadelphia and Philadelphians, to speak generally, 
played a small and inglorious part in the Revolutionary 
War. This cannot be gainsaid. When we think of 
the Continental Congresses, their meeting in Philadel- 
phia, the inspiration of their presence, and the ad- 
vantages enjoyed by Philadelphians for having the 
war spirit instilled into them, it is in one way a mar- 
velous thing that there was so little patriotic feeling 
evinced either by word or action on the part of the 
bulk of influential citizens in Philadelphia. The reason 
of this, however, is not far to seek. The Quaker and 

^ This chapter is compiled from articles by Herbert Adams Gib- 
bons in the "Old Pine Street Church News," April, 1905, and 
the "Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society," June, 1905, 
the information for which was, unless other reference is given, 
derived from the "PensylvaniaArchives." 

6 (81) 

82 History of Old Pine Street. 

Episcopalian influence was very strong, and, if not 
always actively Tory, was at least passively so. Phila- 
delphia was enthusiastic enough at the beginning, when 
it was merely a question of trying to have taxes cut 
down. But when the open rupture with England came, 
caution and danger and uncertainty of the outcome, 
combined with the Quaker distaste of fighting and the 
Episcopalian love for the Established Church and con- 
servative regard for rank, were influences too potent to 

Against this spirit of Toryism were found but two 
elements of the population arrayed, the Scotch-Irish 
Presbyterian, and the German Lutheran.^ Fortunately 
these comprised the greater part of the country popu- 
lation of Pennsylvania, and recruited the armies of 
Washington steadfastly, without any abatement of zeal 
in the darkest hours of Valley Forge. 

In Philadelphia, however, there were even many of 
these two elements that were more or less lukewarm in 
their devotion to the Colonial cause. This makes all 
the more remarkable the proud and unequalled record 
of Old Pine Street, which sent most of its able-bodied 
men into the field, many of them to serve throughout 
the war, and some never to return. 

From the fact that the Trustees' Minute Books are 
complete from 1770, and contain the record of every 

^ Lincoln's "The Revolutionary Movement in Pennsylvania," 
pages 26, 27. 

Old Pine Street Men in the Revolution. 83 

election, we are able to gather the names of all the 
officers of the church, without a break, up to the pres- 
ent day.^ Examinations of these names leads to the dis- 
covery of many heroes. 

In the first Board of Trustees, or Committee, as it 
was then called, were Samuel Duffield, M. D., William 
Shippen, Jr., M. D., Colonel Robert Knox, and John 
Tittermary. Other new trustees elected before 1776 
include William Henry, William McMullin, Colonel 
James Thompson, Colonel Thomas Robinson, and Elias 
Boys. After the war, at various times, there came into 
the Committee: Captain Paul Cox, Captain Nathan 
Boys, Francis Bailey, Colonel George Latimer, Captain 
James McClure, Colonel William Linnard, John W. 
Woodside, William Smiley, James McGlathery, General 
John Steele, and James C. Thompson. All of these 
men were Revolutionary soldiers, many of them of 
very high rank. Let us examine briefly their records. 

The first Trustee, whose name also heads the call to 
George Duffield, was Colonel Robert Knox, prominent 
in the organization of the Pennsylvania militia, who, it 
will be remembered, had thrown Dr. Duffield's inter- 
rupter out of the church in 1772.^ Of the first band 
raised in Philadelphia he was Major, and, on the day 
that the Declaration of Independence was being signed, 
represented "the City and Liberties of Philadelphia" at 

* See Appendix G. 
^ See page 47. 

84 History of Old Pine Street. 

a convention for the organization of a State Militia in 
Lancaster. He retained this rank in the City Battah'on 
and in the Philadelphia Brigade. On September ii, 
1776, he became Colonel of a regiment of four com- 
panies that he had collected himself, and which was 
known as ''Colonel Knox's Own.'' 

Dr. William Shippen, Jr., of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, the first professor of medicine in America, 
immediately tendered his services to the cause when 
the War broke out. He was chief physician to the 
Flying-Camp, July 15 to December i, 1776. On April 
II, 1777, Congress appointed him Director-General of 
All Hospitals, a position which he filled with enthusi- 
asm, energy and skill, four years. 

William McMullin, prominent in the history of the 
church tmtil his death, in 1797, was a Captain; James 
Thompson rose to the rank of Colonel. 

Thomas Robinson was prompt to enter into the 
struggle with England. We find him Captain of the 
Fourth Pennsylvania, January 5, 1776; Major of the 
Fifth, October 2, 1776; and as Lieutenant-Colonel of 
the First Pennsylvania, he was shot down while lead- 
ing his regiment in the Battle of Brandywine, Septem- 
ber II, 1777. After a long illness, he recovered, and 
entered the army again. January i, 1783, he was 
transferred to the Second Pennsylvania, and served 
until the disbanding. Colonel Robinson was wounded 
three times and had four horses shot under him. 


Lieutenant-colonel of the First Pennsylvania in the Revolutionary 
wlSVxv T^H^^^^:^f ^^^ ^^'^'^ Street 

From the portrait in Independence Hall. 



/^^ '?.^'' 

Old Pine Street Men in the Revolution. 85 

Dr. Samuel Duffield worked in the hospitals with the 
untiring energy and self-sacrifice that afterwards 
brought him lasting honor in the yellow fever epi- 
demics. In 1778 he was elected to Continental Con- 

John Tittermary was ropemaker to the Continental 
Army, and gave his sons to the War. When the city 
was threatened, he offered himself, and was accepted, 
as Matross in Captain James Lang's Artillery Com- 
pany. James McGlathery made gun carriages 
throughout the War. William Henry was Lieutenant 
in Captain Witherow's Company of the Eighth Bat- 
talion in 1777, and afterwards, in the position of Adju- 
tant, compiled the lists of Revolutionary soldiers so 
essential to many a Daughter of the American Revolu- 
tion of the present day. 

Paul Cox, who was on the Board four decades, and 
whose tomb lies under the shadow of the church, 
reached the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the Pennsyl- 
vania Militia, was Captain of the ''Barclay" in the 
Pennsylvania Navy, member of the State Navy Board, 
and, in 1777, was one of the six members of the Com- 
mittee of Safety which had charge of the defenses of 
the city. We have records of his purchasing fireships 
and ammunition in the "Pennsylvania Archives." He 
was delegate to the Pennsylvania Militia Convention 
in Lancaster in 1776 with Colonel Knox. In 1779 he 

^ Jenkins' "Pennsylvania, Colonial and Federal," Vol. I., page 50. 

86 History of Old Pine Street. 

was one of a committee with such men as Cadwalader 
Dickinson, Charles W. Peale, David Rittenhouse and 
Thomas Paine to banish Tories from Philadelphia. 

Francis Bailey, whose descendants are still hon- 
ored members of Old Pine Street, was printer to Con- 
gress. When the British occupied Philadelphia, he 
retired to Lancaster, and there published an almanac^ 
for 1779, in which Washington for the first time was 
called *The Father of His Country." ^ 

Mr. Bailey's son-in-law. General John Steele, lived 
to be an octogenarian in the active service of the 
church. A marble shaft marks his tomb in the church- 
yard, along the left side of the gravel path to Fourth 
Street. The bald record of General Steele's Revolu- 
tionary career is as follows : December 4, 1 776, First 
Lieutenant, Fourth Pennsylvania; May 27, 1778, Cap- 
tain-Lieutenant; March 21, 1779, Captain; Jantiary 17, 
1 78 1, transferred to First Pennsylvania, in which he 
served to the end of the War. But the details of his 
career read like a romance. We have space only to 
state that he was desperately wounded in the Battle 
of Brandywnne, having been left for dead on the field ; 
and that he was aide-de-camp to Washington in New 
Jersey, having charge of Madame Washington at Mor- 
ristown. At Yorktown, he had the good fortune to 

^ "Dcr Gantz Neue Ferbesserte Nord-Americanische Calender, 
anf das i78oste Jahr Christi. Ziim Fiinstenmalberansgegeben 
nnd verfertiget von Anthony Sharp, Philom." 

'"'American Historical Register, Vol. III., page 648. 

nerai joiw 
VA ULT ,QF P^ ^k49^ s 


'A patriotic soldier in the American RevoTulion, long a Trustee 
' . . . in the Third Presbvterian Church 

'ftast'W^t directly behind the hydrant. 

Old Pine Street Men in the Revolution. 87 

be field officer on the day of the surrender of Cornwalhs. 
Thirty years later, at the outbreak of the War of 18 12, 
this remarkable man formed a company of old people 
for the defense of Philadelphia, of which he was elected 
captain.^ His first lieutenant was William Smiley, who 
later became an elder of the church. It was General 
Steele who took the lead in the church's "second fight 
for independence." ^ 

Another octogenarian and prominent officer of the 
church, whose tomb is directly behind the church along 
the walk, was Colonel William Linnard, the faithful 
treasurer of the church for more than a generation, 
who built the galleries in 1793. William Linnard 
was commissioned Captain-Lieutenant in the Sixth 
Company of Colonel Jehu Eyre's Artillery Battalion, 
August 2y, 1777, which attempted to prevent the Brit- 
ish crossing the Brandywine at Pyle's Ford. On Sep- 
tember eleventh of the same year, he was transferred 
to the First Artillery, whose cannon, placed at the 
mouth of the Wissahickon, opened fire on the Hessians 
in the Battle of Germantown. June 14, 1779, he was 
promoted to the rank of Captain. At the time of the 
War of 18 1 2, Captain Linnard became Colonel Qtiar- 
termaster-General of the United States Army, at the 
Schuylkill Arsenal, Philadelphia. Lieutenant-General 
Scott speaks of him as follows : 

^ Campbell's "History of the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick," 
page 178. 

'See Chapter IX. 

88 History of Old Pine Street. 

"William Linnard, long 'military agent,' without rank, and 
only made quartermaster-general, with the rank of colonel, in 
1813, was a public servant of the rarest merit. For thirty-three 
years he made, at Philadelphia, all disbursements on account of 
the army, amounting to fifty odd millions, without the loss of a 
cent, and at the smallest cost in storage, clerk hire, and other 
incidental expenses, ever known. He personally performed dou- 
ble, if not treble, the amount of ordinary labour. His integrity 
at his death, in 1835, had long been proverbial.'" ^ 

Could there have been a better man for treasurer of 
a church? Our old account books show that Colonel 
Linnard was as faithful in his church duties as in his 
duties to the government. 

Still a third Revolutionary octogenarian was John 
W. Woodside, who died in 1835. He was a lieuten- 
ant in the Third Pennsylvania, and was taken prisoner 
at Fort Washington in the action of November 16, 
1776. For almost two years he remained a prisoner, 
and suffered all the horrors of a prison ship in New 
York harbor. It is probable that he saw six of the eight 
pastors of Old Pine Street. 

Another trustee, Nathan Boys, was one of the earliest 
American naval officers on record — perhaps the earliest. 
In 1775 he was First Lieutenant of the armed boat 
''Washington," and on December sixth of the same 
year was appointed Captain of the armed boat ''Frank- 
lin." In March, 1779, he was senior in command in 
the defenses of Philadelphia, and remained in the serv- 
ive of the State until Comte d'Estaing's arrival on 

^ "Autobiography of Lt.-Gen. Winfield Scott," Vol. I., page 34. 



I// omccr hf'dik American Revolution: Quartermaster-General 

of the United States Army: long Treasurer and Trustee 

of the church, and buried in the churchyard 

Mr. George B. Linnard. 

Old Pine Street Men in the Revolution. 89 

American shores removed all danger of another attack 
by sea. 

Lieutenant-Colonel James Ross would have done 
credit to a West Point education in tactics. He was 
noted among the Pennsylvania troops for his clear- 
headedness and insight, and his scouting reports were 
of the greatest value, as is indicated by the following : 

"The dispatch, which is a model for clearness in all details then 
needed, was sent by Lieutenant-Colonel Ross, and was for- 
warded by General Sullivan to the Commander-in-Chief: 

Great Valley Road, ii A. M. 
Dear Gen'l: — 

A large body of the enemy, from every account S,ooo, 
with 16 or 18 field pieces, marched along this road just 
now. This road leads to Taylor's Ferry and Jeffries 
Ferry on the Brandywine, and to the Great Valley, at 
the Sign of the Ship on the Lancaster Road to Phila- 
delphia. There is also a road from Brandywine to 
Chester by Dillsworth Town. We are close to their rear 
with about 70 men. Captain Simpson lay in ambush 
with 20 men, and gave them 3 rounds within a small 
distance, in which 2 of his men were wounded, i mor- 
tally. I believe General Howe is with this party, as 
Joseph Galloway here, who knoAvs parties with whom 
he spoke, was told by them that General Howe was with 


James Ross, L. C 

"General Washington at once ordered Sullivan to cross the 
Brandywine, and attack this Division of the British Army.'" 

Colonel George Latimer, an active soldier throughout 

the War, was so feared by the British, and so well 

^ Carrington's "Battles of the American Revolution," page 371. 

po History of Old Pine Street. 

known by them personally, that, as in the case of Dr. 
Duffield, they offered a reward for his capture, ''dead 
or alive." He brought out of the War an injured leg, 
which troubled him to his death, in 1825. After the 
War he became Speaker of the Pennsylvania House of 
Representatives, and preceded General Steele as Col- 
Ictor of the Port of Philadelphia. The Colonel was a 
great fox-hunter, and met his death from a fall while 
following the hounds. His tomb is in the back of the 
church-yard, near Colonel Linnard's.. 

But we do not need to stop our research with the 
names of officers of the church, for there is preserved 
in our archives a most precious manuscript — the orig- 
inal call to George Duffield, 1771, with one hundred 
and ten signers. When we study these names and the 
careers of the men that bore them, we can more fully 
appreciate and understand the preceding chapter on the 
''Fight for Independence." Of these one hundred and 
ten, we can find the Revolutionary record of sixty- 
seven — considerably more than one-half. Thirty-five 
of these sixty-seven were commissioned of^cers. 

It is impossible for us, with the space at our com- 
mand, to go fully into the records of these men. A 
number of them were afterwards trustees, and they in- 
clude most of those mentioned above. We can, how- 
ever, give a few of the more prominent. 

James Potter was Colonel of a Pennsylvania regi- 
ment, which he commanded in the Battle of Princeton, 

Old Pine Street Men in the Revolution. 91 

January 3, 1777. In this action he was seriously 
wounded. On his recovery, Congress promoted him 
to the rank of Brigadier-General, his commission dating 
April 5, 1777. Five years later, on May 23, 1782, he 
was raised to Major-General, which rank he held until 
the disbanding of the Army a year later. 

Thomas Craig entered the Pennsylvania Militia at 
its earliest formation as Second Lieutenant in Thomp- 
son's Rifles, June 25, 1775. On January 5, 1776, he 
rose to the rank of Captain, serving with the Second 
Pennsylvania. September 29, 1776, he became Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, and on August 3, 1777, was promoted 
to the rank of Colonel, and transferred to the Third 
Pennsylvania, in the command of which he succeeded 
Arthur St. Clair. 

Isaac Craig was Captain of Marines in 1776. He 
was Captain, and later Major, in the Fourth Artillery, 
which was prominent at the siege of Yorktown. Alex- 
ander Brown was appointed Captain in the Third Bat- 
talion, December 3, 1776; Lieutenant-Colonel in the 
Fifth Battalion May 14, 1778; and transferred with 
the same rank, to the Eighth Battalion, May 10, 

James Ross was Captain in Thompson's Pennsyl- 
vania Rifle Battery, June 25, 1775; and on January i, 
1776, was transferred with the same rank to the First 
Continental Infantry, of which he was made Major on 
the twenty-fifth of October of the same year. A sec- 

92 History of Old Pine Street. 

ond promotion, January i, 1777, made him Lieutenant- 
Colonel of this regiment. 

John Marshall entered the Second Battalion of Miles' 
Pennsylvania Rifles in April, 1776. He was commis- 
sioned Second Lieutenant of the Third Pennsylvania, 
November 11, 1776; First Lieutenant, June 10, 1777; 
Captain-Lieutenant, May 12, 1779; and Captain, Au- 
gust 13, 1779. He did not retire until the regiment 
was disbanded in 1783. 

Thomas McCulloch was Lieutenant in a regiment of 
riflemen, and died October 12, 1780, of wounds re- 
ceived five days before in the Battle of King's Moun- 

William Caldwell was paymaster of the Twentieth 
Continental Infantry; John Snowden, Jr., Andrew Mil- 
ler, John Wilson, James Rowan, John McCormick, 
Joseph Hunter, Thomas Nilson, Benjamin Marshall, 
Jacob Miller, Andrew Kennedy, Thomas Kennedy, 
George Hutton, Robert Allison, Wiliam Singleton, and 
James Sutter w^ere Lieutenants (Allison, Singleton and 
Thomas Kennedy afterwards reaching the rank of 
Captain) ; Joseph Fry was Captain of Scouts; Edmund 
Beach and John Spence, Ensigns; Hugh Nelson, Ma- 
tross; Alexander Crawford, James McNeal, John 
Wright, John Guy, Alexander McGriger, and Isaac 
Forsyth, non-commissioned officers. Among the pri- 
vates we have Michael Davenport, James Cochran, 
George Cotton, Robert Fergison, Robert Kennedy, 


Doctor of Medicine 

Signer of the Declaration of Independence; friend of the Pastors 
"^ of Old Pirie Street from Duificld to Ely; Dr. Rush's 
mother died after a long and glorious life in 
the communion of Old Pine Street 

From the portrait in the Pennsylvania Hospital. 

Old Pine Street Men in the Revolution. 93 

Robart Fulton, John Riddle, Archibald McCorkel, 
Thomas Clifton, Hugh Ferguson, John McCully, John 
Biggert, William Blyth, Cornels. Brown, Joseph Ran- 
kin, John Moodey, James Riddel, and William Christy. 
Their records will be furnished by the Old Pine Street 
Church at any time. 

Many of these men are buried in the churchyard, and 
other Revolutionary heroes are to be found resting 
around the old church, of whose membership we have 
no written record, so they are not included here. 

We do not doubt that Dr. Benjamin Rush at- 
tended the Old Pine Street Church, and that he, with 
President John Adams, of whose membership we have 
record, were the two signers of the Declaration of In- 
dependence in the congregation. On the communicant 
roll of the church is found the indomitable mother of 
Dr. Rush, to whom his success in life was so largely 
due. Of her it is written : 

"Dr. Rush's father died when Benjamin was only about six 
years of age. This afflictive dispensation placed him and a 
brother under the maternal guardianship of a fond and doting 
mother, who exhibited great anxiety to give Benjamin a class- 
ical education; but her means and income would not permit 
her to do so at the time. Subsequently she sold her little 
homestead at Byberry, removed to Philadelphia, and, with the 
money then in her possession she opened a store, which proved 
very successful. By this turn of fortune she was enabled to 
consummate her wishes in giving a liberal education to her 
eldest son. At an early day, young Rush evinced a strong pref- 
erence for the study and profession of law, but by the persuasions 
of his mother he consented to the practice of medicine." ^ 

' Belisle's "History of Independence Hall," pages 226, 227. 


94 History of Old Pine Street. 

Among the signers of the Duffield call, and the 
sleepers in the old churchyard, is a man, of whose war 
service we have no record, but who has come down to 
us as a hero of the Revolution, William Hurrie, who 
rang the old State House bell on the day that the 
Declaration of Independence was given to the world. ^ 

In the Committee Book of Old Pine Street Church 
there are blank pages between the entries of February 
7, 1776, and May 6, 1780, that are mute witnesses of a 
glorious unwritten history which this chapter suggests. 

^ "Leaves of a Century Plant," page 183. 


A. B. (Princeton) ; D. D. (Princeton) 

OMcer in the Jl'ar of the American Revolution; Moderator of 

General Assembly; first President of Union College; 

second Pastor of the church, and buried in the 


From a portrnit in possession of Union College. 


Pastorate of John Blair Smitli 
(1791-1795; 1799). 

The pastorate of Rev. George Duffield, D. D., cov- 
ered a period of seventeen years and four months. The 
error on the tablet to his memory in the Lecture Room 
of the church is evidently due to the fact that the time 
has been, inadvertently, reckoned from the date when 
the call was made, August 5, 1771, instead of from the 
time when he took pastoral charge of the church, which 
was September 27, 1772. 

After the death of Dr. Duffield, the church remained 
vacant one year and ten months. For this trying ex- 
perience the trained men in whose hands the church 
was left were fully equal. They had faced the most 
perplexing conditions of earnest duty in earlier days, 
and had, in later years, given themselves to the church. 
Not a few of them had seen leaders fall in battle, and 
at once knew their duty. The representative of the 
Session regularly appeared at Presbytery, the Com- 
mittee did its work, and the pulpit was faithfully sup- 
plied. The influence of Duffield did not cease when 
he suddenly fell at his post. The remembrance of him 
kept the people reverent, thoughtful, and diligent, until 
another leader took his place. The position which the 


96 History of Old Pine Street. 

church held in the estimation of Presbytery is indi- 
cated by the fact that the Session was permitted to 
look for supplies beyond its bounds. The coherent 
strength of Pine Street in her early history is impres- 
sively manifest during this long period that the people 
moved together without a leader. 

* The second pastor was John Blair Smith. This re- 
markable man was the fourth son of Robert Smith, 
D. D., who was forty-two years pastor at Pequea, Lan- 
caster County. He was born on June 12, 1756. If 
the history of the home life of this family were writ- 
ten, it would no doubt appear that its distinguished 
sons received quite as much from their mother as we 
know they did from their father. It has already been 
noticed that Robert Smith was one of the first edu- 
cators of his day, and that he was the pastor and teacher 
of George Duffield during his boyhood. Robert 
Smith's study was a veritable classical school. He pre- 
pared his own boys for college. What they received 
elsewhere we can imagine was but auxiliary to their 
father's thorough teaching. Here we find the explana- 
tion of the fact that John Blair entered the Junior 
class at Princeton when sixteen years of age, and grad- 
uated at eighteen. 

At college, many of the companions of this boy were 
talented students ; and his class, numbering twenty-nine, 
sent fourteen men into the ministry. One of these was 
the eminent educator, teacher, and patriot, Rev. Wil- 

Pastorate of John Blair Smith. 97 

liam Graham, who taught Archibald Alexander. Three 
of his class became governors, of whom one was Henry 
Lee, of Virginia. James Madison was in college with 
him. As a member of Whig Hall, he was thrown in 
intimate association with other bright men. It is to 
be remembered also that John Blair's father was for 
thirty-one years a trustee of Princeton; and that his 
distinguished brother, Samuel Stanhope Smith, was 
thirteen years treasurer, fourteen years secretary, seven 
years vice-president, and twenty-nine years president of 
this institution. Such associations as these were of 
immense value to a mind receptive, penetrating, and pro- 
found. Nor were his associations less fortunate after 
he was graduated. For he at once became tutor at 
Hampden-Sidney College in Virginia, under his brother 
Stanhope, who was then president of that college. 
Here he also pursued his theological studies until his 
licensure, which took place in Hanover Presbytery, 
April 29, 1778. 

The independent career of Blair Smith began about 
four months after he had passed his twenty-third birth- 
day. In this year, 1779, he was ordained to the min- 
istry, and elected President of Hampden-Sidney to suc- 
ceed his brother. The next year he became pastor of 
Cumberland and Briery Church. He conducted both 
lines of work for ten years, when some of the trustees 
became dissatisfied, because they thought he was de- 
voting too much time to pastoral work. But he was 

98 History of Old Pine Street. 

following his chief love, and readily relinquished the 
Presidency of the college to devote himself entirely to 
his pastorate. 

John Blair Smith is described as a man of medium 
height, slender, of delicate appearance, coal-black hair, 
and a large open blue eye which was so piercing that 
'it was common to say, 'Dr. Smith looked through 
you/ "^ He was quiet in temper, but full of vivacity, 
and remarkably quick in movement. He was a man 
of the deepest domestic affection, who looked well after 
his family. His wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Col- 
onel John Nash, of Templeton, Virginia. Five sons 
and one daughter blessed their home. One of the sons 
became a minister, and another a surgeon in the United 
States Army,^ and a grandson carried his spirit into 
the Civil War, rising to the rank of Brigadier-General. 

Blair Smith was an ardent patriot. He was of the 
same mettle as Duffield. While Duffield was stirring 
great assemblies in Pennsylvania by his appeals for in- 
dependence, young Smith was moving many by the 
same appeal in Virginia. It was then that he appeared, 
even at the beginning of his career, as a born leader. 
Men did not think of his youth, but were swayed by 
the power of his eloquence. Twice he offered himself 
as a soldier. While a tutor at Hampden-Sidney 

^ Alexander's "Princeton College in the Eighteenth Century," 
page 171. 

^ This son is buried in his father's grave in the churchyard. 

Pastorate of John Blair Smith. 99 

"Patrick Henry, first governor of Virginia, issued a 
requisition for militia, for the defense of the state. The 
students of the college (Hampden-Sidney), with full 
consent of the president, volunteered to answer this 
call of the governor, one of their trustees, and marched 
with their tutor, J. B. Smith, a student of theology, 
as their captain, to the defense of the capitol. With 
compliments from the governor he was sent back after 
the alarm was over, as able to aid more effectually in 
the college than in the camp." Again, "when Gen- 
eral Greene, covering the retreat of Morgan, with his 
prisoners, after the battle of Cowpens, entered Virginia 
in the early part of 1781, Captain William Morton, of 
Charlotte, in about two days, called a company of his 
neighbors, and set out for Greene's camp. President 
Smith felt it his duty to offer his services, and joined 
the company in Halifax, on the evening of the first 
day's march. The Captain, an elder of his church, 
with much difficulty persuaded him, exhausted in body 
and with blistered feet, to refrain from the fatigue of 
the camp."^ 

Before leaving Virginia he made a reputation for 
masterly ability in political debate. He was a man of 
affairs, keeping, himself fully informed of all great 
political movements that could in any way affect the in- 
terest of the church and the liberties of the people. His 
appearance as a political debater was in response to 

^Foote's "Sketches of Virginia," First Series, pages 411, 412. 

loo History of Old Pine Street. 

what he felt to be a call to duty. When the bill to 
provide for the support of religion — the General As- 
sessment bill — was engrossed for its third reading in 
1784 there was every prospect that it would become the 
law of the land. Patrick Henry exerted himself to 
carry it through the house, and made for it many 
friends. When the bill was taken up in the Commit- 
tee of the Whole, President Smith addressed the com- 
mittee in a most brilliant and commanding speech that 
carried the day, and the bill was defeated.^ Again, in 
the convention of the State of Virginia at Richmond, 
in June, 1780, Patrick Henry opposed with all his 
might the ratification of the federal constitution. Presi- 
dent Smith championed the adoption in masterly argu- 
ment, and wrote a refutation of the speech of Henry, 
as reported, that resulted in their alienation.^ Both 
these efforts of President Smith indicate his general 
position upon all questions where the principle of liberty 
was at stake. It is to be remembered that he was an 
anti-slavery man. As E>r. Eliphalet Nott said, "He 
was down on slavery." ^ When Dr. Smith came to 
Pennsylvania he found a most congenial environment 
in dealing with all questions that had to do with the 
personal dignity of humanity. 

Before coming to Philadelphia, Blair Smith was 
known as one of the most eloquent, spiritual, powerful 

* Foote's "Sketches of Virginia," First Series, page 432. 
^ Patton's History of the Presbyterian Church," page 238. 

Pastorate of John Blair Smith. loi 

preachers in the Presbyterian Church. The tributes to 
his greatness as a preacher are many. Indications of 
his gifts as a sermonizer and orator were clearly marked 
in his early ministry. It was, however, not until some 
six years after he became president of Hampden-Sid- 
ney that the spiritual power of his preaching was won- 
derfully revealed. Religion at the college had sunk 
to a low ebb, and the soul of the pastor-president was 
greatly burdened. His sermons delivered at that time 
awakened a mighty revival which began at his own 
school and extended far into outlying districts. Almost 
the entire body of students was brought into the church. 
Many young men were at that time converted, who 
became the strong preachers and teachers of their gen- 
eration. ^'President Smith's preaching was of the most 
animating, pungent, practical character, feeling close 
for the conscience, and applying truth home to the 
heart. He never would permit the least noise or dis- 
order, or crying out in the worship of God, although 
it was with difficulty sometimes he could repress it. 
If, at any time, there was something of the sort com- 
menced, he would instantly stop speaking, and say, 
'You must compose your feelings, my brethren. God 
is not the author of confusion, but of peace, in all his 
churches.' "^ Dr. Smith enjoyed an especial advantage 
in being an extemporaneous speaker. Although a dili- 
gent writer, he seldom used a manuscript. It does 
^ Foote's "Sketches of Virginia," First Series, page 424. 

I02 History of Old Pine Street. 

not appear, however, that in dehvering his sermons he 
was trammeled by the memoriter method. This gave 
full opportunity for the pouring out from the depths 
of his soul his own deep convictions concerning the 
great doctrines of grace, and his supreme love for 
Christ, and for all men. 

At the meeting of the General Assembly in 1791, at 
Philadelphia, President Smith appeared for the first 
time as a delegate. At that time he preached in Pine 
Street Church. He was well acquainted with its his- 
tory and character, for there his father's parishioner 
and pupil had served with distinction, and with Pastor 
Duffield, Blair Smith had sat in at least four Synods 
held in Philadelphia. The congregation had, no doubt, 
heard this friend of their pastor on previous occasions 
in their own church. But this invitation for him to 
preach had a very deep meaning for them. At a con- 
gregational meeting held on the twenty-second of 
the previous February, it had been unanimously voted 
that ''on the second Tuesday of June next" a meeting 
should be held for the election of a pastor. This time 
appointed for prayer, and for seeking a minister, was 
nearing its end. Other men had been before them, but 
none had reached the hearts of the people. That was a 
notable day when Smith preached in the vacant pulpit. 
His sermons completely captured the congregation; 
and when the appointed day, June fourteenth, came he 
was unanimously chosen pastor of Pine Street. At this 

•••^ ^ rf«~-,.;J 

#- P 

hne preparation for a Merry Chr 

(ic^i "^p.t^ ^{Philadelphia centenarian, who died in I7<)2, aged Jo8j 
and is buried in the churchyard 

From a portrait in possession of the late Elder James Fraiser. 

oome ■ 

the Con 


.io2ifii'5 aemBJ, lobia oisl ^d^ !< 

Pastorate of John Blair Smith. 103 

meeting, Rev. Dr. Sproat presided, and Dr. Ewing, of 
the First Church, who never lost his interest in Pine 
Street, was present. All arrangements were at once 
made for prosecuting the call. It was accepted, and 
on the twenty-first of the following December, John 
Blair Smith was received into the Presbytery of Phila- 
delphia from the Hanover Presbytery of Virginia. The 
next day he was installed pastor of Pine Street. Dr. 
Sproat presided. Dr. Ashbel Green preached the ser- 
mon, and Rev. Nathaniel Irwin "charged the parties." 
This was fine preparation for a Merry Christmas for 
the Pine Street people, for they had borne well the long 
months of their bereavement. 

The fact that the congregation could pay their new 
pastor a salary of fifteen hundred dollars a year to 
start with, indicates how well the church had been con- 
ducted during the long interregnum of twenty-two 
months. The beginning of this pastorate was alto- 
gether propitious. The right man had been secured. 
The people were delighted. The congregation was 
large, and there was an abundance of work to be done. 
It proved to be an intensely active pastorate. Blair 
Smith was in his thirty-sixth year, in the fulness of his 
prime. His ability, education, experience, and spiritual 
earnestness filled the four succeeding years in Pine 
Street with splendid service and with joyful results. 

Some time before the installation of President Smith, 
the Committee had perfected their plan for conducting 

I04 History of Old Pine Street. 

the finances of the church. This plan was practically 
the same that has continued to the present time. The 
congregation was fully prepared to give their new 
pastor a hearty welcome. Two days after his installa- 
tion, they paid him a quarter's salary in advance, dat- 
ing the beginning of the year a month before his 
installation ; and at Christmas he received a present of 
three hundred dollars. 

Within a year, it became evident that more room 
must be provided for the congregation. The church 
must keep pace with the rapidly-growing city, and 
give their pastor a fair chance. After much discussion 
it was determined to erect galleries. In 1793, this im- 
provement, which cost seven thousand five hundred 
dollars, was completed. This same year three hun- 
dred and seventy-five dollars were added to the pastor's 
salary, and pew rents were advanced. At this meeting 
it was moved that Mr. Smith should be requested **to 
wear a gown and band." The motion was defeated 
by a small majority. 

Before the close of the third year of his pastorate, 
friends of Mr. Smith saw that the work of the large 
congregation was seriously taxing his strength. A 
proposal was made to the Second Church that the 
two congregations should unite in calling an assistant, 
to serve the two churches jointly. After months of 
deliberation this plan was consummated, and the Rev. 
Mr. Abeel was installed in this position. So we see 

Pastorate of John Blair Smith. 105 

that the idea of an assistant in Pine Street is by no 
means modern. It was not long after this new insti- 
tution of an assistant, that a great light came to the 
church in the form of a splendid glass chandelier, which 
was brought from England, and cost more than three 
hundred dollars. With the new galleries finely painted, 
and this new light glistening in colors of the rainbow, 
like many immense diamonds, the auditorium of Pine 
Street was regarded as a very fine place for evening 

It was in the midst of this prosperity that there 
came to the city one of the most terrible scourges that 
this country has ever known. A yellow fever epidemic 
seized the community in its horrible grip of death. 
Five thousand were buried, and it was estimated that 
half of the population fled from their homes. ^ It is 
not possible to describe the heroism of John Blair 
Smith during these dark days, when men's hearts failed 
them. He stood at his post, ministering to the stricken, 
and helping to bury the dead. Deep in sympathy and 
faithful with him in this work was his devoted elder. 
Dr. Samuel Duffield, the municipal physician. So far 
as we can discern, his was the only church open dur- 
ing the entire period of the epidemic. He preached on 
Sundays, while enduring a tremendous strain through 
the entire week.^ There can be no doubt that this 

^ Scharf-Westcott's "History of Pennsylvania," Vol. I., page 495. 
' Patton's "History of the Presbyterian Church," page 238. 

io6 History of Old Pine Street. 

experience was responsible for the impairment of his 
health to such a degree as to render it absolutely peril- 
ous for him to endure longer the climate of Philadel- 
phia, and to continue to carry the burdens of his pas- 
torate. It was with much difficulty that he continued 
his pastoral duties until October 13, 1795, when Presby- 
tery dissolved his pastoral relation to Pine Street 
Church, and dismissed him to the Presbytery of Albany, 
New York. He had been called to the presidency of 
Union College, Schenectady, and went immediately to 
that institution. 

It is most fortunate that full records of this event, 
including the pastor's two beautiful letters written to 
the congregation, are preserved in the Committee Min- 
ute-Book. These letters reveal Dr. Smith's loving 
nature, clearness of intellectual vision, confidence in 
the divine guidance, and courageous sense of duty. He 
left Pine Street with the greatest reluctance. In his 
first letter, informing the congregation that he desired 
to ofifer his resignation to Presbytery which was to con- 
vene in two days, his reasons for the step are stated 
so concisely, clearly, and tenderly as to convince his 
unwilling people that they must give up their pastor. 
Nevertheless the congregation appointed a committee, 
with instructions to use every possible means to retain 
their beloved minister. He was offered a long vaca- 
tion for recuperation, and an increase of salary, and 
everything that a willing, devoted congregation could 

Pastorate of John Blair Smith. 107 

do to share and lighten his burdens. His reply to these 
generous offers was a wonderful revelation of the great 
soul and exquisite fineness of this man of God. No 
wonder his people loved him with supreme devotion, 
and that they in time won him back again. As he 
said good-by there was put into his hand an expensive 
and beautiful silver plate, appropriately inscribed, and 
a purse of two hundred dollars. 

The congregation now entered upon an experience 
which was to try thoroughly their faith, and their 
spirit of perseverance in well-doing. They were des- 
tined to be without a pastor for three years and eight 
months. But these good Presbyterians were well- 
grounded in the doctrine of the perseverance of the 
saints. The difficulty of finding a man who would 
measure up to the first two pastors of Pine Street is 
quite evident. The minutes of Presbytery clearly indi- 
cate that the congregation was in high favor with that 
body. They secured good supplies. All the work of 
the church was carried on systematically and ade- 
quately. A lengthy minute in the records of the Phila- 
delphia Presbytery, August 7, 1798, revealed the fact 
that the session of the church was not less alert and 
diligent in the discharge of their duties than the com- 
mittee. And here we have the names of the Session, 
as it then stood, for they appeared before Presbytery 
as an ecclesiastical body. They were Ferguson Mcll- 
vaine, John Pinkerton, John McMullin, Robert Mc- 

io8 History of Old Pine Street. 

Miillin, and John McCullough, whose bodies all rest in 
the church-yard. 

The most important event of this interregnum was 
the final legal settlement of the title to the Pine Street 
property. During the long period of eighteen years, 
this question had not been formally discussed by either 
congregation. A year before the close of Dr. Smith's 
pastorate, the First Church held a meeting to consider 
this matter. It will be remembered that the state of 
the question was, that the Supreme Provincial Court 
had decided that the ''Incorporated Committee of the 
First and Third Churches of Philadelphia" held title 
to the Pine Street property; and that Pine Street con- 
gregation had appealed from this decision to the King 
in Council, February 7, 1776. The First Church peo- 
ple decided at their meeting to offer Pine Street an op- 
portunity to settle this question amicably. To this end 
they sent a copy of the resolution, which they had unan- 
imously adopted at this meeting, September i, 1794, 
with a letter addressed to certain members of the Pine 
Street committee and ''others worshiping in Pine Street 
Church." The Pine Street congregation responded at 
once, appointing a committee with plenary powers to 
act for them. The negotiations proceeded for about 
a year, not without some lively incidents, and with 
the result that the First Church made a motion in the 
Supreme Court to have the old decision of the colonial 
Supreme Court confirmed. The Pine Street congrega- 

Pastorate of John Blair Smith. 109 

tion at once met, employed counsel, and prepared for a 
renewal of the old fight. Both parties could readily 
see that the complete change of government, and other 
essential conditions, would make the conflict before 
them intricate, tedious, and expensive. The financial 
burden which the First Church had assumed in building 
their new house of worship at this time no doubt had 
much to do with raising the old property question. 
Considering this fact, it is altogether creditable both 
to the heads and to the hearts of the First Church peo- 
ple that they determined not to press the legal fight ; 
and that, on December 3, 1795, they wrote another 
amicable letter to the Pine Street congregation, which 
resulted in two new committees from the respective 
churches meeting with full power to settle the whole 
question. Their work was most skilfully accomplished 
to the satisfaction of both churches. The basis of set- 
tlement recorded in the Pine Street Committee Book 
is as follows : 

"This congregation is to pay to the first Presbyterian Con- 
gregation in Market Street one thousand pounds currency in four 
equal payments, viz. : The first payment, in six months from this 
date, the second, in twelve, and the third in eighteen months from 
this date, and the fourth and last payment in fifteen years from 
this date, the whole without interest, — the security required for 
the last payment being an entry on the books of each congrega- 

"They further report that in consequence of the above agree- 
ment, made with the committee appointed agreeable to the fore- 
going minute, of the first Presbyterian Congregation of the 30th 
Nov. 1795, copy of which is on our minutes of the 4th inst., that 

no History of Old Pine Street. 

necessary preparations are taking place in concurrence with the 
said Committee for vesting the third Presbyterian Congregation 
with the legal and separate right of the House and lot occupied 
by the third Presbyterian Congregation, with provision on behalf 
of some few families belonging to the first Presbyterian Con- 
gregation, whose right of interment of their dead is reserved 
upon the same conditions as members of this congregation." 

This transfer of the Pine Street property to its con- 
gregation was fully effected with all legal details. Pine 
Street people readily met their financial obligation in 
the matter, but it subsequently occurred that the First 
Church generously cancelled the fourth and last pay- 
ment. The settlement between the two churches was 
consummated about the close of the year 1795. At the 
beginning of the following year, the congregation de- 
cided to secure a charter of incorporation. It is most 
interesting to read with what deliberation and patient 
care they proceeded in this work. When the first draft 
of the charter had been presented it was gone over para- 
graph by paragraph, and, in a number of points, 
amended. It is a significant revelation of the har- 
monious condition in the church at this time to find 
that the committee made no objections to the agree- 
ment that the "elders of this congregation should be 
a committee to make application to the Attorney-Gen- 
eral, etc.," for the charter. The charter was secured, 
and with this act the Pine Street Committee 
became the Trustees of the Third Presbyterian 
Church in the City of Philadelphia. It seems 
unfortunate that 'Tine Street" was not retained in the 


Original in possession of the church. 


r /I (ait A ri yv' //i4J tJv*rf/y/^^^//<-y// < c * -^^ 

,^i,/.//ic ,\/f^cA.- ?/ii oii^tt ru /Ac ff^i^iM^ptf ^,//it. a^^ 
j pCj/l(2iau€^/h ,s/7cu/ /ja-i^ i^j^<:tl fvr//tyMMicA ^^4/vu. aj ^ h j 

>fc- -z^- 


Pastorate of John Blair Smith. m 

name of the church, for it is now universally known as 
"Old Pine Street Church." The first meeting of 
the Board of Trustees under the new charter was held 
January 26, 1797. 

During his pastorate Mr. Smith had impressed upon 
the congregation his spirit of deep interest in the poor. 
One of the testimonies concerning him is that he was 
the poor man's friend.^ He had secured a special com- 
mittee from the officers of his own church to co-operate 
in the work of a Widows' Fund, which is now the 
Presbyterian Ministers' Fund. We shall have more to 
say in another place concerning this institution. It 
was soon after his departure, at a meeting held Decem- 
ber 19, 1795, that systematic provision was made for 
the poor of Pine Street congregation. The poor had 
not been neglected in former years, of course, but the 
organization of this work was one of the important 
events of the period of which we are now writing. In 
the minute of this same meeting we find the following, 
which indicates the church's care for both good order 
and hospitality : ''Mr. Allison, our sexton, is requested 
to be particular in notifying persons who make a prac- 
tice of sitting in the pews reserved for the accommoda- 
tion of the members of the Federal and State Legis- 
lature, that it is the particular desire of the Committee 
that they should discontinue said practice in the future." 

Just eight months after the pulpit became vacant the 

^Dr. Samuel Blair's Funeral Sermon. 

112 History of Old Pine Street. 

diligence of the church in seeking for a minister was 
indicated by a special congregational meeting to con- 
sider this subject, at which a meeting was appointed for 
June 28, 1796, "for the purpose of choosing a pastor." 
Again Dr. Green presided. When the vote was taken, 
it was found that Rev. Archibald Alexander had forty- 
seven votes, Rev. Robert Smith twenty-eight votes, 
and Rev. Samuel Miller two votes. The question was 
then put, "Will the congregation concur in the call to 
Mr. Alexander? which was carried without a dissent- 
ing voice." This call was put into the hands of Mr. 
Alexander on July seventh. With grateful thanks, in 
a most pleasing, thoughtful letter the call was declined. 
In this letter we find the remark, "You can generally 
obtain those ministers whom yoti choose from any 
part of the country." With deep disappointment the 
congregation tried to turn to some other man. But 
after six months, they sent another long letter to Mr. 
Alexander, begging that he would not think it im- 
proper for them "to intreat him to take their call under 
consideration again" ; but he could not be moved from 
his conviction that his post of duty was with the con- 
gregation which he was then serving. This was the 
congregation left vacant when John Blair Smith came 
to Pine Street. 

It was during this year of 1797 that the question of 
vehicles disturbing public worship was agitated. Pine 
Street Church appealed to one of the chief offenders 


Which was stretched across Pine Street to prevent the passing 
of vehicles dttring hours of worship 

Deposited with the Presbyterian Historical Society. 

nai Ycf297*I 9rfJ rfiiw fas 

Pastorate of John Blair Smith. 113 

in this matter without avail. The Trustees of the 
Second and Third Churches then held a joint meeting 
to consider means for preventing the disturbance of 
-jublic worship by the noise of teams passing the 
church during hours of service. These positive, per- 
severing Presbyterians secured an Act of Assembly 
prohibiting vehicles from passing the church during the 
hours of public worship.^ The following minute is 
recorded almost a year after the agitation of the sub- 
ject began: ''On motion agreed that John McMuUin, 
William Linnard, and Robert McMullin be a commit- 
tee to survey the fence around the burying-ground, and 
to provide and erect chains across the street, agreeable 
to the Act of Assembly in that case made and pro- 

While the Pine Street people were seeking for a 
minister, the pastor, whom they had given up with so 
deep a sorrow, was actively at work at Union College. 
He was the first president of that institution, wiiich had 
been a long-cherished enterprise. His high scholarly 
attainments, his long experience in educational work, 
and his genius for leadership and organization brought 
success to the infant institution. He unified the Pres- 
byterian, Congregational, and Reformed Dutch ele- 
ments of the region in which it was planted, so that the 
school became in fact Union College. His service as 

^ See MS. document in possession of Presbyterian Historical 


114 History of Old Pine Street. 

president of the institution bears out this sincere and 
beautiful tribute from one who was thoroughly ac- 
quainted with Dr. Smith : "His wisdom, moderation, 
and clearness of conception, added to a happy faculty 
and pertinence in speech, a force in reasoning, and a 
well-known and approved zeal for truth and duty, con- 
tributed to render his counsel always weighty, and for 
the most part decided."^ Many things in Dr. Smith's 
lifework prove the justice of this testimony. One of 
the most interesting is Dr. Smith's influence over 
Eliphalet Nott. It may be said that he discovered 
Nott, when on his way to take charge of a home mis- 
sionary appointment. That evening which this young 
man spent with Dr. Smith was indeed an epoch m his 
life. The Doctor introduced him to Presbyterianism, 
clearly presenting to his mind the fact that orthodox 
Congregationalism was precisely the same system of 
doctrine that had always been maintained by the Pres- 
byterian Church. He committed to Nott, as a leader 
of the younger ministers of eastern New York, the 
principles of the Plan of Union, which did so much 
not only for Union College, but also for the ecclesiasti- 
cal and evangelical life of the whole region in which 
the institution was founded, and into which there were 
coming then great numbers of the very best immigrants. 
The service of Dr. John Blair Smith, as president of 
Union College, deserves to be fully written. It was a 

^ Dr. Blair's Funeral Sermon. 

Pastorate of John Blair Smith. 115 

great and fruitful service for the cause of Christian edu- 

Dr. Smith held a high place among the scholars of 
his day, and was a master of assemblies. *'He was con- 
scientiously punctual in attendance upon the several ec- 
clesiastical judicatures with which he was connected. 
To his conduct in these, the Presbyterian Church of the 
United States is much indebted."^ He was delegate in 
the Assemblies of 179 1-2-4-7-8-9. The Assembly of 
1798 was held in Old Pine Street, and he was chosen 
moderator. The fact that his father had moderated 
the second General Assembly, and that his brother, 
Stanhope, was moderator of the Assembly of 1799, 
gives this family a high place in the ecclesiastical his- 
tory of the Presbyterian Church. The year that John 
Blair Smith became President of Union College, his 
Alma Mater, Princeton, conferred upon him the hon- 
orary degree of Doctor of Divinity. Few men in the 
Presbyterian ministry have more fully honored the title 
than he. 

When Dr. Smith left Pine Street he promised the 
congregation that in case his health were restored he 
would return and again become their pastor.^ How 
naturally would the people turn to this promise after 
their failure to secure Archibald Alexander! We can 

* Report of Semi-Centennial of Union College," pages 22-24. 

^ Dr. Blair's Funeral Sermon. 

^ Sprague's "Annals," Vol. III., page 398. 

ii6 History of Old Pine Street. 

imagine how this promise would be emphasized in 
the minds of both the minister and the people while 
he was moderating the Assembl}^ in his old church. 
Before he returned to Schenectady from that Assem- 
bly no doubt the matter of his becoming pastor of his 
former charge was practically settled. It was but a 
few weeks after the Assembly, that the congregation 
was convened, Dr. Green acting as moderator, and 
voted a unanimous call for Dr. Smith, at an annual 
salary of two thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars. 
The same month, August, 1798, the church obtained 
leave of Presbytery to prosecute their call before the 
Presbytery of Albany. Dr. Smith accepted the call 
upon condition that he should not be expected to enter 
upon his duties before the first of the following April, 
and that this proposal be laid before the congregation 
for consideration. The congregation at once met, and 
agreed to the proposition. We may be sure that the 
eight months which Dr. Smith asked were faithfully 
used in putting things in order for the college before 
his leaving that institution. 

The heart of Pine Street was buoyant with hope. 
The people renewed their diligence. A minute of the 
committee records that the treasurer had, near this 
time, invested a surplus of two thousand dollars in 
government bonds at eight per cent. This is a very 
significant sidelight. It leaves us in no doubt about 
the spiritual condition of the congregation. When peo- 







An^le of Sfiuth and Wfsi Walk' 

Pastorate of John Blair Smith. 117 

pie are mean towards Jesus Christ and His church they 
always have lean souls. But it is written, "The liberal 
soul shall be made fat." They were well prepared to 
receive again the pastor of their love. They gladly 
paid the expenses of bringing him back to Philadelphia, 
and treated him with the same royal liberality that 
marked the event of his first appearance among them. 
How little they thought of the preparation they were 
making for a more sorrowful generosity when they 
should build the tomb over his grave, and gi\c a purse 
of a thousand dollars to his bereft widow ! 

Dr. Smith was received again into the Presbytery of 
Philadelphia in April, and installed in June, 1799. It 
was on the twenty-seventh of the latter month that the 
installation services were held at ten in the morning. 
Dr. Blair presided, Dr. Tennent preached the sermon, 
and Rev. Mr. Irwin gave the charge. On the after- 
noon of the same day, by appointment of Presbytery, 
Dr. Smith delivered the charge at the installation of the 
Rev. John B. Linn over the First Church. This was in 
all probability his last ecclesiastical service for the 
Church of Christ. The dread yellow fever, which he 
had fought so heroically in 1793, and which he had 
escaped by the divine protection, returned to the city. 
This time it claimed the beloved pastor of Pine Street. 
He fell in the midst of the battle, in his forty-fourth 
year, August 22, 1799. So young, but his life w^ork 
was done ! We live in deeds, not years. So measured, 

ii8 History of Old Pine Street. 

his was a full, noble, triumphant life. With breaking 
hearts, the people whom he had loved so dearly and 
served so well laid his body to rest near the southern 
wall of the church. The inscription that marks his 
grave concludes with these words : *'Oh ! the uncer- 
tainty of human hopes ! Mysterious will of divine provi- 
dence! He was snatched from it and from earth on 
the 22d of August in the same year by that pestilential 
fever which so often hath scourged this afflicted city. 
The people of the Third Presbyterian Church in the 
City of Philadelphia, in testimony of his eminent serv- 
ices, and to express their affectionate and grateful re- 
membrance of a faithful and beloved pastor, have 
erected to his memory this tomb." 


A. B. (Columbia) ; D. D. (Pennsylvania) 

Moderator of General Assembly; Founder of American Bible 

Society; President of Rutgers College; third 

Pastor of the church 

From a poi trait in possession of the church. 

The Pastorate of Philip Milledoler 


There was a period of five years from the time that 
the broken health of Dr. Smith compelled him to give 
up the pastorate of Old Pine Street and leave Philadel- 
phia until the third pastor was settled. This period 
was, indeed, divided into two parts by the few weeks 
of Dr. Smith's second pastorate. But the Session and 
the Trustees, under the care of Presbytery, were re- 
sponsible for the congregation during all this time. 
The unity and strength of this leadership was found, 
no doubt, in the fact that the elders were members of 
the Board of Trustees. The special disadvantage of 
the vacant pulpit was that few came into the com- 
munion of the church during these years. During the 
pastorate of Dr. Smith, the yearly average accessions 
to the communicants' roll were thirty-two. During the 
third pastorate the average was thirty-three. Although 
Dr. Smith came back to the church during his stay 
at Union College, held communions, and received mem- 
bers, the average number received during this period 
of more than three years and a half was only eight. 
When we remember that there was no pastor to per- 
form marriages and to baptize the children of the 


I20 Histoiy of Old Pine Street. 

homes, we can see how much the congregation must 
have suffered for want of a regular pastor. And yet 
the church did not lose either its strength or standing. 
The third pastorate began with three hundred families 
m the congregation, and with a full treasury, easily 
providing a salary of twenty-seven hundred and fifty 
dollars for the minister. 

The death of Dr. Smith left a profound impression 
upon the hearts of the people. This was turned greatly 
to their profit by the faithful, spiritual, affectionate 
funeral sermon preached by Rev. Dr. Samuel Blair, a 
kinsman of the dead pastor. The congregation saw 
their deep necessity, and at once set to work with zeal 
to secure a minister. 

Within a short time, their attention was directed to 
Rev. Dr. William Linn, then in the Dutch Reformed 
Church, and in the New York Classis. He was a man 
of exceptional endowments, and ranked among the 
most learned men of his day. In patriotic fervor and 
in experience he was wonderfully like George Dtiffield. 
He thoroughly believed in bringing religion into the 
political life of the nation. It is written of him, "that 
he took a warm interest in the politics of the day, which 
gave offense to some."^ He was educated at Prince- 
ton, and ordained by Donegal Presbytery, and, for 
seven years, was pastor of Big Spring Church, which 

^ Corwin's "Manual of the Reformed Church in America," 
page 573. 

Pastorate of Philip Milledoler. 


had been a part of Dr. Duffield's first charge. He also 
served as chaplain in the Revolutionary Army, and in 
the first Congress of the United States. He had been 
principal of two academies, and president of Rutgers 
College, and was alike eminent as educator, writer, and 
orator. These facts and the following description of 
his preaching readily indicate why Pine Street desired 
him for their minister : "His glowing imagination con- 
ceived his object, and his language, of which he had 
an astonishing command, painted it to the minds and 
imaginations of his audience in such a manner that he 
often produced effects similar to what are said to have 
taken place under the preaching of Massillon and Bour- 
daloue."^ The church gave Dr. Linn a unanimous call, 
February ii, 1800. Their effort to secure him clearly 
indicates the determination of the people to keep their 
pastorate up to the high standard which had been so 
widely established by the first two pastors. 

The reason that Dr. Linn declined this call is not far 
to seek. He was then in his forty-eighth year, and knew 
that his health was permanently broken. His friends 
could not believe that his recurrence to this was cor- 
rect; but it was soon made sadly evident that he knew 
his condition better than they. His death occurred in 

The manner in which the prayers of Pine Street for 
a minister w^ere answered is a beautiful illustration of 


122 History of Old Pine Street. 

the conviction of Robert Hall, the greatest of Baptist 

preachers, developed in his celebrated sermon on 

^'Christ's Care Over Individual Churches." We have 

the description of this in the manuscript journal of Dr. 

Milledoler : 

". . . . At some time in the spring of 1800, a Merchant 
of Philadelphia, William Haslett, was passing on Sabbath noon, 
the German Reformed Church in Nassau Street on his way to 
the Brick Presbyterian, his attention was somehow arrested, and 
he stopped to enquire of a person at the door what church it was. 
On receiving information, and finding that the service was in 
English, he entered the house, and continued to the close of the 
service. After making some further enquiries, in the beginning 
of the week following he returned to Philadelphia, and informed 
the congregation of 'the Third Presbyterian Church,' of which 
he was an elder, that he had providentially heard a young man 
who might occupy the vacancy occasioned by the death of their 

deeply lamented Pastor, the Rev. Dr. John B. Smith 

Mr. H. advised sending for me to spend a Sabbath or two with 
them, which was done, and my visit finally issued in an unani- 
mous call to that Church, dated August 11, 1800. (One of the 
discourses delivered in Pine Street Church on this visit was from 
John 4 : 35-36, 'Say ye not there are four months and then com- 
eth harvest,' etc.) .... Called now to decide upon this 
important invitation, and unwilling to act precipitately, it became 
a subject of much anxious thought, prayer, and consultation. 
Having laid the matter at His feet whose council is ever most 
important, I consulted those venerable Fathers of the church, 
the Rev. Drs. Livingston and Rodgers. Both were decidedly in 
favour of my acceptance of the call ; and that acceptance was sig- 
nified in a letter to Mr. Mcllvaine under date of September 3, 
1800. ... I arrived with my family at Philadelphia, October 
24, 1800."^ 

Dr. Milledoler was born at Rhinebeck-on-the-Hud- 
son, September 22, 1775. He was reared in an ideal 

* In possession of the Beekman family, of New York, 

Pastorate of Philip Milledoler. 123 

Christian home. The description of his parents re- 
minds one of these words in the opening of the Gospel 
of Luke : ''And they were both righteous before God, 
walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the 
Lord blameless." As a child he w^as distinguished for 
his lovely disposition, teachable spirit, and obedience. 
As he advanced in years, he increased in wisdom and 
in favor with God and man. Dr. Gross was both his 
pastor and teacher, to whom, as w^ell as to the congre- 
gation, he greatly endeared himself. He graduated 
at Columbia College when nineteen years of age. His 
exceptional ability and diligence are revealed in the 
fact that he carried on his theological studies during 
his college course. He w-as ordained by the German 
Reformed Synod before he had reached his twenty-first 
birthday. He enjoyed the exceptional honor of being 
made the successor of the distinguished Dr. Gross. 
He became at once the much-loved pastor of the congre- 
gation who had known him intimately from childhood. 
It was from this church that he came to Pine Street 
when just entering his twenty-sixth year. 

While Dr. Milledoler possessed some traits of char- 
acter like those of the men w^ho preceded him, he was 
of a very different type. He possessed great courage 
and intensity of soul, but one could never imagine 
Philip Milledoler engaging in a fight. While writing 
this we think of the text, 'Thou hast given me the 
shield of Thy salvation : and Thy right hand hath 

124 History of Old Pine Street. 

holden me up, and Thy gentleness hath made me great." 
We see in him the Son of Thunder become the disciple 
whom Jesus loved. He was a strong man, of noble 
bearing. One who knew and loved him well writes of 
him : ''He was of commanding form, of pleasant mien, 
and attractive manners." His voice was natural, full, 
true and persuasive. His spirit of reverence seemed 
to be without a flaw, and it was said that it w^as felt 
even in the manner in which he handled the Bible. His 
chief power in the pulpit was in his inspired prayers. 
When he had prayed, he had won the absorbed attention 
of his hearers. ''The great Dr. Mason once said, 'There 
were three men who prayed as if they were immediately 
inspired of Heaven. One was Roland Hill, the other 
was a certain layman, and the third was Dr. Mille- 
doler.' "^ The following no doubt is the impression 
made upon the mind of the writer as he heard one of 
these prayers : "Such prayers," says Dr. Krebs, "as 
his I never heard. They subdued, they rapt, they 
brought you into the presence of the chamber of heaven, 
w^iere a saint was pleading, and a child was holding 
communion with his father, and a sweet awe fell upon 
you as you were led up to the mercy-seat and saw 
the divine mediator there, and the propitiated answerer 
of prayer. It was once said to me by an eminent pastor 
that it seemed to him as if Dr. Milledoler had been 
given to the church for the express purpose of teach- 
* Corwin's "Manual," page 629. 

Pastorate of Philip Milledoler. 125 

ing ministers how to pray." ^ It is related that Henry 
Clay, while suffering under sore bereavement from the 
loss of a son, was in a public assembly where Dr. Mille- 
doler led in prayer. He was so affected that he sought 
an introduction to the Doctor, no doubt feeling that 
such a man could certainly give him comfort.^ 

One cannot read such testimony without remember- 
ing that Dr. Milledoler chose the ministry in his child- 
hood, and that his soul was never scarred by sowing 
wild oats. Who can measure the blessing that comes 
to the man who reaches the pulpit without yielding to 
the baser influences of the things that are of the earth 
earthy? Can anyone doubt that the remarkable intel- 
lectual power and the spiritual unction which distin- 
guished this man of God found its origin in intimate 
fellowhsip with Him? His son-in-law, Hon. J. W. 
Beekman, testified that the impression which Dr. Mille- 
doler made upon him was that his whole life was lived 
in the most intimate communion with the Heavenly 

While Dr. Milledoler began his work in Pine Street 
about the first of November, 1800, he was not installed 
until April, 1801. It is possible that the installation 
was postponed that it might take place in his own 
church before Presbytery. That was a great meet- 
ing. Presbytery was in session in Pine Street Church. 

^ Sprague's "Annals," Vol, IX., page ill. 
'^ Corwin's "Manual," page 629, 

126 History of Old Pine Street. 

The youthful preacher had already attracted much at- 
tention. The congregation, after their trying experi- 
ence, were joyful in the possession of a minister so able 
and so winning. The days of blessing of former years 
had returned. The entire Presbytery, joined with the 
congregation, must have produced a profound effect, 
both upon the pastor and his people. 

The experience of Dr. Milledoler in coming to Pine 
Street was not unlike that of the great apostle which 
he describes in his letter to the Corinthians : "And I 
was with you in weakness, and in fear, and in much 
trembling." In his journal we read : 

"The day of our entrance to Philadelphia was a very serious 
one. When I reflected upon the whole character of my prede- 
cessor, it appeared to be the height of presumption, in a com- 
parative stripling like me, to attempt standing in his place. 
This had indeed occurred to me before, but was overruled, in 
part, by the encouragement of those venerable ministers of 
Christ, with whom I had consulted. In approaching the place 
of my future labour it returned, however, with accumulated 
force. I was going among strangers, who had perhaps been too 
precipitate in their call of me, to a congregation then said to 
number three hundred families : to a very intelligent people, who 
had long had the gospel preached to them in the demonstration 
of the Spirit and power. I apprehended that I might soon 
break down, with labour and anxiety. It was then too late to 
retreat. I entered the city, therefore, with strong emotion, much 
conflict, and prayer." 

But the young minister was greatly reassured when 
he, with his family, was conducted to the home which 
the officers of the church had prepared for him. It 
was just across from the church, the house still stand- 


Over thirty years Elder and Trustee of the chureh, zuho is 
buried in the ehurehxard 

Fiom a portrait in jjossession of the chuich. 

Pastorate of Philip Milledoler. 127 

ins: on the northwest corner of Fourth and Pine Streets. 
There he found fuel in the cellar for the winter, and 
abundant provisions for immediate home comforts. 
The welcome which he there received had no shadow of 
doubt in it. Extensive improvements were being made 
to the church and grounds. These evidences of devo- 
tion and enterprise gave courage and strength for be- 
ginning a work, the greatness and importance of which 
he had not failed to realize. The support and care 
which he received through his entire pastorate was 
simply that which Pine Street people have always ac- 
corded to their ministers. Pie writes in grateful re- 
membrance of this. "From the good people of Pine 
Street I continued to receive most unequivocal proofs 
of generosity and confidence. Elder Mcllvaine was a 
father to me and to mine during our continuance in 
Philadelphia not only, but to the day of his death : 
the whole Session appear to have been actuated by the 
same spirit, and what was true of these appeared to 
be true of all." 

The financial prosperity of the congregation was 
continuous, and, indeed, remarkable. The people gen- 
erally recognized their obligations to the church. When 
it was decided by the trustees that it would be to the 
advantage of the congregation to purchase a large and 
valuable lot lying just south of the church on Lom- 
bard Street, they voted unanimously to buy the lot, and 
to increase the pew rents twenty per cent, to pay for it. 

128 History of Old Pine Street. 

This was the lot which enabled the congregation to 
meet the surprisingly large assessment levied upon them 
by a committee of arbitration at the time of Dr. Ely's 
settlement. This was the most important event in the 
temporal affairs of the church during the third pastor- 
ate. Indeed, it was one of the most remarkable inci- 
dents in the entire life of the church. 

But this pastorate was chiefly distinguished for its 
spiritual history. It was a continuous revival. There 
was no upheaval, nor unnatural excitement, but a con- 
tinuous quickening of believers and conversion of sin- 
ners. The ingathering of souls was gradual; it was 
the coming one by one. This description of the entire 
long ministry of Dr. Milledoler is a fair representation 
of his pastorate in Old Pine Street : "There was no 
sudden or transient excitement like a passing shower, 
but rather like the spring, unfolding itself and spread- 
ing its streams onward, broader and deeper."^ Let us 
read again from Dr. Milledoler's pen. Referring to a 
stranger who had called to tell him of her conversion, 
from a sermon which he had preached, he writes : 

"That call was not long after followed by events never to be 
forgotten. Among other catechetical exercises, I had proposed 
to form a class of young ladies to attend a course of lectures 
on the Catechism. This invitation was accepted by somewhere 
about thirty unmarried persons, between the ages of 15 and 25 

"During these exercises it pleased God to pour out his Spirit 
upon them, if not upon all in one moment, as if by electric in- 

* Corwin's "Manual," page 628. 

Pastorate of Philip Milledoler. 129 

fluence; yet in such close continuity that I have never been able 
to consider it otherwise than simultaneous. . . . This was 
followed by an outpouring of the Spirit upon the Congregation, 
and extended not only upon the members of the Presbyterian 
Church, but also to Churches of other denominations." ^ 

This experience is a revelation of Dr. Milledoler's 
method in teaching the Word of God. Continually he 
stood close to the great essential doctrines of grace and 
to the supreme authority of the Word of God. It 
was while he was faithfully using the truth in its sim- 
plicity, that its power was manifest in the simultaneous 
conversion of these young persons. It was by this 
faithful dealing with the Word of God in perfect con- 
fidence in its searching power, that the church was 
strengthened mightily from centre to circumference. 
This pastorate was a glorious illustration of the deep 
meaning of the words of our blessed Lord, when He 
said : "Behold, the Kingdom of God is within you." 
It was perfectly peaceful. The leader was on intimate 
terms with the Prince of Peace. We find this record 
in the minutes of a congregational meeting : "Resolved, 
That a committee of three members be appointed to 
consider and devise the best mode of settling disputes 
relative to temporal concerns between members of the 
congregation and others, by arbitration ; and that they 
report at a subsequent meeting." The poor had the 
gospel preached to them. Dr. Milledoler took up the 
work of his predecessor in caring for the weak and 

^ Journal. 

130 History of Old Pine Street. 

dependent, adding much to it. Offerings for the poor 
were given a prominent place in the benevolent work of 
the church. Surely this young man fulfilled the apos- 
tle's exhortation to young Timothy: ''Study to shew 
thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth 
not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth." 
Dr. Milledoler testified concerning his ministry, that 
God had been far better to him than his fear that he 
should not be able to preach the gospel in demonstra- 
tion of the spirit and power, as his predecessor had 
done. This was after his remarkable experiences, in 
which conversions seemed to come as a sweet surprise 
to him. But his thought, 'T apprehended that I must 
soon break down," was partly fulfilled. We shall per- 
mit hi'm to tell the story of his leaving Pine Street. 

"The prayer meetings of Churches I have ever considered 
as the pulse of their spiritual state. If so, ours seemed indica- 
tive of health. We were often favoured in them with the 
presence of that man of God, Joseph Eastburn, who afterwards 
became the much-loved pastor of the Mariners' Church. Under 
these circumstances my attachment to the people grew daily; so 
that I not only had no thought of leaving them, but felt as if I 
could have given my life for them. Yet God in his inscrutable 
providence eventually suffered that separation to take place. 
Thus far I had been enabled to work in my Master's vineyard 
with a good share of physical health and strength ; but was now 
affected with a sudden rush of blood and strange affection of 
the head, presenting the idea of instant death. The occurrence 
of this symptom became more frequent. 

"I had taken a house for the summer near Frankford, op- 
posite the Mansion of Capt. Decatur, father of the late Commo- 
dore, who, with his family, had become connected with my 
church. Riding out with him one dewy morning, we entered a 



A member, of Old Pine Street 

;h s •,'.. 111! ':u - ^■ulilly_. n.jti 
Riding out with him on< 

From a miniature. 

Pastorate of Philip Milledoler. 131 

field and gathered mushrooms. In rising from a stooping posi- 
tion, I was so affected as to beheve I should not reach home alive, 
and was under medical treatment a week or ten days. On re- 
covering some strength, I took a fishing-rod, and was fishing 
on the Captain's premises, a few feet only from one of the 
powder mills then in operation. The Captain, coming out of his 
house, which was about 100 yards from the mill, beckoned me 
to come to him. I did so, and we had not yet entered the house 
when the mill was blown up. The explosion was such as to 
break windows at a great distance, in the direction of the wind. 
Its effect upon myself resembled the blow of a very strong 
man upon the breast. A high wind blowing from us toward the 
mill probably lightened the effect of the explosion, and may 
have saved us from being injured by the scattered materials of 
the building. 

"Dr. Rual was my physician w'hile at Frankford. In a letter 
to me, dated October 26, 1803, he observes, 'I have thought 
much of your case since I was first called to see you. As you 
are now in Philadelphia, and intend to avail yourself of the 
advice of my excellent friend, Dr. Rush, it may appear pre- 
sumptuous in me to say anything further upon the subject. But 
I should not feel that I had discharged my duty if I failed to 
adhere to your intention, and be guided by his counsel. It ap- 
pears to me so clear that your complaints have been brought on 
altogether too fast at the beginning of the race, that I have no 
doubt of your being perfectly restored to health by proper at- 
tention. But I think now, as I at first did, that nothing short 
of totally withdrawing for a season from the Ministry will 
answer your purpose. If I can in my way be instrumental in pro- 
longing your life it will be a source of continual satisfaction, for 
I shall think I have not lived in vain.' 

"The following letter, dated November 11, 1803, was received 
from Dr. Benjamin Rush: 

" 'Rev. p. Milledoler. 

" 'Dear Sir: From the history you have given me of your dis- 
ease, I am of opinion it has been induced by to much labour and 
fatigue, in discharging the sacred duties of your profession. I 
am of opinion further that your health can be restored only by 

13 2 History of Old Pine Street. 

declining your present charge for a season, and by such exer- 
cises and pursuits as will not fatigue your body and mind. I 
lament the sad occasion of this advice, but I am consoled when 
I reflect that it may be the means of saving your life, and thereby 
prolonging your usefulness for many years to come. 
" 'From, dear sir, your sincere friend, 

" 'Benj. Rush." ' ' 

While pastor of Old Pine Street, Dr. Milledoler was 
made stated clerk of General Assembly, and the secre- 
tary of its Board of Trustees ; and was associated with 
Dr. Ashbel Green as a member of the standing commit- 
tee on missions. He received, in 1805, the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Divinity from the University of 
Pennsylvania. His time of rest seems to have been 
brief, for, before leaving Philadelphia, a call came to 
him from Rutgers Street Presbyterian Church in New 
York. We find him soon settled as pastor of that 
church, which he served for nearly seven years ; and 
from which he went to the Collegiate Dutch Church, of 
the same city, where he was pastor for about twelve 
years. After Dr. Alexander left Old Pine Street the 
people were earnestly desirous of again caling Dr. 
Milledoler. We shall have occasion to refer to this 
later. The manner in which he was sought after is 
indicated by the fact that his first charge called him 
three times. Upon one of these occasions his father 
appeared as a commissioner. 

Dr. Milledoler never lost his interest in Old Pine 
Street. He returned frequently to preach, and on the 

^ Journal. 

Pastorate of Philip Milledoler. 133 

books of the church we find more than one record of 
his having performed a marriage "on a visit to Phila- 
delphia." Some years after he left the church, he mar- 
ried one of his former Pine Street parishioners, a 
daughter of General John Steele, the veteran trustee. 

During his years in the pastorate Dr. Milledoler 's 
fine executive ability was recognized. He was moder- 
ator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church in 1808, and of the General Synod of the 
Reformed Church in 1823. In 1816 he was a leading 
spirit in founding the American Bible Society. About 
the same time he became a trustee of Rutgers College, 
and an honorary member of the American Whig So- 
ciety at Princeton. 

Before Princeton Seminary was founded Dr. Mille- 
doler taught theology in New York. He was greatly 
desired as a successor of Dr. John Ewing in the provost- 
ship of the University of Pennsylvania, but the Epis- 
copal influence prevailed for one of their men.^ These 
were prophecies of the great work which his riper years 
were to bring to the cause of higher education. In his 
fiftieth year, which proved to be the fulness of his 
prime, he was called from the pastorate to become presi- 
dent of Rutgers College, which position he held for 
some sixteen years, at the same time teaching moral 
philosophy and theology. 

After a splendid, fruitful service, rendered almost 
* Journal. 

134 History of Old Pine Street. 

continuously through fifty-two years, he retired to 
Staten Island, where the close of his life was like the 
going down of the sun on a perfect day. ''His sick- 
chamber was the verge of Heaven." ^ On September 
22, 1852, his birthday, the door of the Father's house 
opened to him. The next day his wife followed him. 
Together their bodies were laid to rest. 
^Allen's "American Biographical Dictionary," page 578. 

D. D. (Princeton) 

Moderator of General Assembly; iirst Professor in Princeton 
Theological Seminary; fourth Pastor of Old Pine Street 

From an engraving by John Sartain. 

The Pastorate of Archibald 



The fourth pastor of Old Pine Street was Archibald 
Alexander. We are following the plan of describing 
each pastorate in its relation to the character and to the 
entire history of the minister who was for that time 
leader in the life of the church. Few men have held so 
commanding a position in the Presbyterian Church as 
Archibald Alexander. He was called to the great and 
exceedingly difficult work of formulating the doctrinal 
basis for the theological training of our ministry. His 
own training for this was unique and providential. It 
was of such a character as to call into fullest exercise 
his genius for original achievement. An ordinary 
training within the narrow bounds of the classical cur- 
ricula of his day would most likely have exerted a 
trammeling and not an enlarging influence upon his 
soul. His genius was sufficiently pronounced and 
great to enable him to freely choose the instruments 
of discipline for his exceptional endowments. It is 
the glory of Old Pine Street that, for even the com- 
paratively short period of six years, her congregation 
came under the influence of such a man, and that she 


136 History of Old Pine Street. 

had so large a share in giving this man to the whole 
church. For, while Archibald Alexander's pastorate 
in Philadelphia was in some respects less agreeable to 
his feelings than the service which he had rendered in 
the midst of the more genial social life of Virginia, it 
provided the opportunity and the essential conditions 
for the completion of his preparation for the im- 
measurably great responsibilities to which he was called 
when he went to Princeton. 

The Alexander family was originally from Scotland. 
Thomas Alexander went from Scotland to Ireland, 
from whence his son Archibald came to this country, 
and settled near Norristown, Pa., about the year 1735. 
This first Archibald, the grandfather of Archibald 
Alexander, was an educated man of strong and 
noble character. From what we learned of the home 
life, it is evident that his wife was a woman of the 
same standard. Before leaving Pennsylvania, he was 
deeply converted, and his whole after life was devoted 
to the principles of religion and of holy living. The 
family moved to a most fertile district in Virginia, the 
region about Lexington. William, the father of Dr. 
Alexander, was also a Christian man of repute; and 
his mother, Ann Reed, was a woman of meek and quiet 
spirit. Archibald was born April 17, 1772, and grew 
up in the open, enjoying advantages which no school 
can possibly give. ''He used to tell his children that 
his father gave him a rifle the day he was eleven years 

Pastorate of Archibald Alexander. 137 

old." He was then an expert horseman and swimmer, 
and was under the discipline of industry and of perfect 

When but five years of age we find him in school, 
considerably advanced. At seven he could repeat the 
w hole Shorter Catechism. When ten he was sent from 
home to the house of a relative, that he might enjoy the 
tuition of the best teachers of the day. At an early 
age he became a pupil of William Graham at Liberty 
Hall, afterwards Washington and Lee College. Mr. 
Graham was destined to lay the foundation of the 
education of Archibald Alexander, and to exert a con- 
trolling influence in the direction of his whole life. 
At the age of seventeen he was tutor in an old Virginia 
family, where his charge was three bright boys who 
had been well taught. There, to fulfill his duties, he 
was required to do the most intense study for prepara- 
tion. This was a fruitful period in his education. In 
this family he met a deeply religious and intelligent 
woman of large experience, who started him upon the 
most earnest study of personal and experimental relig- 
ion. From this time his religious exercises were deep 
and true and continuous. 

Finishing this service, he prepared to go to Prince- 
ton, having the hearty approval of his father in his 
purpose to seek a full classical training. It is quite re- 
markable that his preceptor, Mr. Graham, dissuaded 
him from this purpose, and that his father, apparently 

138 History of Old Pine Street. 

with reluctance, acquiesced. Immediately he was taken 
down with a fever which threatened his life. His re- 
covery was tedious, but, upon regaining a good measure 
of health, Mr. Graham induced him to enter at once 
upon the study of theology. A class had been formed 
for the education and the training of young men for 
the ministry, which Mr. Graham instructed himself. 
As a member of this class Mr. Alexander made remark- 
able progress. The principles that determined Mr. 
Graham's teaching were persevering application, orig- 
inal observation and investigation, and independent 
thought. To these the mind of Archibald Alexander 
responded with enthusiasm. 

There were four elements which entered into his 
education, a brief statement of which suggests much 
that was unfolded in his personal character and in the 
service of his long life. His early contact with men 
revealed to him the exceeding sinfulness of sin. At 
the close of the Revolutionary War, many soldiers ap- 
peared in the community where his father's home was 
situated. Among these were officers of whom, as a 
boy, he had heard, and from whom he naturally ex- 
pected much. But the conversation and conduct of 
many of these men was desperately wicked. He had 
daily testimony of what sin could do in debasing the 
human soul, and in destroying character and life. 
These things he took to heart, and was by them greatly 
repelled. Then there was his living sympathy with 

Pastorate of Archibald Alexander. 139 

the environment of Nature. His whole soul responded 
to the life and the beauty and the grandeur of the 
world of living things. But for its inhabitants plead- 
ing for help, the city w^as to him a prison. For him this 
was a world of inexhaustible beauty. Few men have 
ever looked through Nature up to Nature's God as 
did Archibald Alexander. This gave him a marvelous 
sense of direction and location, and the deepest at- 
tachment for places. In all these things his mind was 
remarkably like that of Wordsworth. Again, he was 
a far greater student of men than he was of books. 
His own account of the men he saw and heard, upon 
his first visit to General Assembly, which he attended 
in Philadelphia, before he was ordained, and of many 
others whom he met during the extended journey that 
followed, is one of the most vivid and pleasing ex- 
amples of descriptive discourse that could be found. 
His manuscript journal contains many such descrip- 
tions. This capacity for the study of men was one of 
his most remarkable characteristics. From this source 
he obtained a broad and deep knowledge of the true 
philosophy of human life. Speculative philosophy had 
indeed much of interest for him, but only as a discipline. 
He sought spiritual truth in its own true sources. 
While laying much stress upon religious experience, 
the truth and worth of all experience must for him and 
for all whom he taught be determined by the written 
Word of God. Here was the bed rock upon which his 

I40 History of Old Pine Street. 

system of theology was built. Can we doubt that God 
prepared this great man, in his own way, for the work 
which he accomplished with such signal success? 

When nineteen years of age, Graham urged him 
to apply to Presbytery for licensure. It was only his 
great confidence in this preceptor that caused him to 
lay aside his own scruples concerning this step. He 
writes : "It was then determined that I should be 
licensed in the public congregation on Sunday morn- 
ing, October i, 1791. This was indeed a solemn day. 
During the service I was almost overwhelmed with 
an awful feeling of responsibility, and unfitness for the 
sacred office." Having yielded to his elders in this 
matter, it was his determination to devote himself to 
study; but Providence overruled this, and he was at 
once put to work. His remarkable power as a preacher 
was at once revealed. When away from home for a 
considerable period, with no book except his Bible, he 
wrought his sermons without a pen, making the most 
thorough preparation. It is testified that some of these 
sermons were the best he ever preached. Upon a cer- 
tain occasion, after preaching a very long sermon, he 
announced the dismissal of the congregation by a 
hymn, but not a person moved. The whole congrega- 
tion was stirred with the deepest feeling, and he arose 
and spoke forty-five minutes longer. In one year at 
this beginning of his ministry he preached one hundred 
and thirty sermons. The next step was his appoint- 

Pastorate of Archibald Alexander. 141 

ment to make a six months' missionary itinerancy, dur- 
mg which he traveled long distances and covered an im- 
mense district, preaching continually. This training 
was precisely like that of the early Methodist ministers. 

He was ordained and settled in his first pastorate, 
which included Briery, one of the churches Dr. John 
Blair Smith had served, November 7, 1794. At this 
time he also served successfully as president of Hamp- 
den-Sidney College. He resigned both these charges 
in 1801 to recuperate his health. It was at this time 
that he made his second journey to New England and 
visited, with the greatest profit to himself, its schools. 
Upon his recovery he was recalled to both the college 
and the pastorate. It was no doubt his consciousness 
of the immense intellectual advantage which his work 
at the college had given him that attracted him to 
the old work. His pastorate also had been richly 
blessed, and had brought to him large and delightful 
experience. This is but the very briefest suggestion 
of the labors and achievements of Mr. Alexander dur- 
ing the period of fifteen years from his licensure until 
his settlement in Old Pine Street. 

It will be remembered that Pine Street called Archi- 
bald Alexander in 1796,^ and that six months after 
he had declined this call they importuned him to again 
consider the question of becoming their minister. He 
was then only twenty- four years of age, and just settled 
* See page 112. 

14 2 History of Old Pine Street. 

in his first charge, and was deeply feeling what he es- 
teemed to be his limited preparation for the ministry. 
All these he frankly gave as his reasons for not coming 
to Philadelphia at that time. But ten years had now 
passed, and conditions were such at Hampton-Sydney 
that he had come to feel that another should take 
charge of that institution. When a unanimous call 
from this church, dated October 20, 1806, reached him, 
it was accepted by a letter of November thirteenth. He 
reached Philadelphia on December eighth, and it would 
seem at once began his work. He was not, however, 
received into Presbytery until the following April. His 
installation took place May 29, 1807. 

The contrast between Virginia and Philadelphia was 
very great. Mr. Alexander at once felt this keenly. 
It seems that he was at first troubled with the thought 
that he had perhaps acted without wise deliberation. 
Pie experienced great difficulty in changing his home 
during the winter, although the people, as he testified, 
were exceedingly kind. They provided a house for 
him, arranged for all necessary home comforts, pur- 
chased such furniture as he desired, making him a 
present of three hundred dollars, and assuming for him 
until he could conveniently discharge them all debts in- 
curred in moving and establishing his family in their 
new home. They also dated his salary a month before 
his work began. 

Dr. Milledoler had left the church in excellent con- 


Original in possession of the church. 

— — ' >- ■■ — ' ""« — ' • "■ * ' — ^ '■ " " -^^z^ 

_ :-5^ - ^ / / 

^ : i<*l1i^ 





{^ U'/m'S caZC UAc'<* ^ »* /r<f< <r /mT 



Pastorate of Archibald Alexander. 143 

dition. The congregation was large. Many young 
people had been gathered in. The spiritual life of the 
people had perhaps never reached a higher mark, and 
the temporalities of the congregation were most en- 
couraging. But the following interregnum of more 
thaiii a year proved most disastrous. Dr. Milledoler's 
departure was a discouraging disappointment. Many 
of the young people whom he had won had not yet 
grown sufficiently into the life of the church to be 
anchored ; and it was during this vacancy of the pulpit 
that a new enterprise, which had been organized as a 
Congregational Church, opened the Ranstead Court 
Tabernacle. This house of worship stood below Mar- 
ket, just east of Fourth. It was announced as a peo- 
ple's church, which was to be conducted in the spirit 
of Whitfield. The fine music and the new and free 
method of conducting service proved most attractive. 
Perhaps no congregation in the vicinity suffered so 
much from this new church as did Old Pine Street; 
so that when Mr. Alexander took charge of his new 
field of labor he could find but two hundred and thirty- 
four communicants upon whom he could depend. There 
had been, of course, a corresponding decrease in the 
congregation. This necessarily greatly afTected the in- 
come of the church. More than five thousand dollars 
had yet to be raised to complete the payment on the 
Lombard Street lot. We here find the reason that 
Mr. Alexander began his pastorate upon a salary of 

144 History of Old Pine Street. 

sixteen hundred dollars, which was considerably below 
that of his predecessors. For the first time in many 
years we find the church borrowing money. For a 
considerable time very skilful financiering was neces- 

But this young minister, through years of discipline, 
had learned to endure hardness as a good soldier of 
Jesus Christ. He laid hold of the work with such in- 
telligence and quiet determination as to win the full 
confidence of the people. Very soon the accustomed 
life and energy of the church again appeared. Within 
about three years the five thousand dollars due upon 
the Lombard Street lot was raised and paid ; floors were 
laid in the aisles of the church, and other expensive 
improvements made ; and the pastor's salary was raised 
to eighteen hundred dollars. During this time a class 
for training the congregation in psalmody with a paid 
instructor had been conducted. The communicant roll 
of the church was increased some forty per cent., with 
a corresponding enlargement of the congregation. 

During his pastorate of six years, three hundred and 
six were baptized, one hundred and thirty-seven were 
received into full communion with the church, and 
ninety-one couples were married. Dr. Alexander's last 
annual report shows that he left a communicant roll of 
three hundred and fifty-three, a net increase of one hun- 
dred and nineteen ; for all the deaths, suspensions, and 
dismissals during his pastorate numbered only eighteen. 

Pastorate of Archibald Alexander. 145 

It should be remembered that this was not a period of 
large ingathering with the churches of the city, and 
that Dr. Alexander received members with the greatest 
care. Whde he was a man of broad mind and deep 
sympathies and hopeful spirit, he was at the same time 
thoughtful, observant, and serious. 

Statistics can never give more than a superficial view 
of the real strength and work of a church. One feels 
this deeply when the statistics given above are put 
alongside of the minutes of the session of Old Pine 
Street which cover this pastorate. These minutes 
clearly indicate that when persons were brought into 
the church the anxious care of the pastor had only be- 
gun. It was his chief concern that the disciples of 
Christ Jesus should walk worthy of the vocation where- 
with they were called, that there should be a clear dis- 
tinction between the church and the world, and that 
the older should faithfully care for the younger mem- 
bers of the congregation. How he fed the lambs of 
the flock is indicated by the testimony of Dr. John 
Hall, so long a prominent pastor in Trenton, whose 
childhood was blessed by the pastoral care of Dr. 
Alexander : 

"My first recollection of Dr. Alexander is as the catechist of 
the children of his congregation in Philadelphia. We assembled 
on Saturday afternoon in the main aisle of the church. Our 
seats were the baize-covered benches used by the communicants 
when sitting at the Lord's Table. The aisle was paved with 
bricks, and with the grave-stone of Dr. Duffield, a former pastor 
of the church. A large tin-plate stove in the main aisle was 

146 History of Old Pine Street. 

the only heater. Near it the pastor took his seat, by a small 
table, and put the class through the Shorter Catechism. The 
older children were required to bring written proofs of certain 
points assigned. ' ^ 

Dr. Alexander was heartily in sympathy with the 
idea that the unit in the congregation is the family. 
He was most fortunate in being himself at the head of 
an ideal Christian home. His wife was a woman of 
great personal beauty, of large intelligence, and of 
the sweetest, most hopeful piety. She was a daughter 
of James Waddell, the famous blind preacher of Vir- 
ginia, whom William Ware has immortalized.^ They 
gave three eminent sons to the ministry of the 
church.^ His baptismal register indicates his ap- 
preciation of the covenant relation of children 
through this holy sacrament. Parents were not less 
faithfully instructed in their duties to the children than 
were the children in the honor which they should show 
towards father and mother. His preaching was able, 
clear, scriptural, evangelical. It contained a large in- 
tellectual element which by no means lessened its spir- 
itual power. The glory of this minister's life was his 
great wisdom and his own example in holy living. 
Writes the celebrated scholar. Dr. Philip Schaff: "Dr. 
Alexander was distinguished for practical common- 

^ Sprague's "Annals," Vol. Ill, page 617. 

'^ Warner's "Library of the World's Best Literature." Vol. 
XXVIL, page 16097. 
" James Waddell, Joseph Addison, and Samuel Davies. 

Pastorate of Archibald Alexander. 147 

sense, profound knowledge of human nature, keen sym- 
pathies, and, above all, simple, child-like piety; which 
renders the study of his life a pleasure, as the life 
itself was a joy and an inspiration. It is not too much 
to say that he gave tone to the Presbyterian Church in 
America, and a high water mark to her piety. "^ 

The unity of his preaching and his life gave him 
commanding and unconscious influence over both old 
and young. Dr. George Duffield, grandson of the first 
pastor of Old Pine Street, at the centennial celebration, 
gave this beautiful and impressive tribute to him: 
''What at first was submitted to as necessary and un- 
avoidable, a duty not to be shirked or neglected on 
slight pretences, I doubt not, by God's blessing, proved 
a shield about me, and protected me from evil com- 
pany and evil ways, till, early becoming interested in 
Dr. Alexander's preaching, I needed not to be watched 
and warned to go regularly to church."^ 

Dr. Alexander had much to do with the discipline 
and the government of the church. He was favored 
with a splendid bench of elders. They were Ferguson 
Mcllvaine, Robert McMullin, John McMullin, Benja- 
min Wickes, William Haslett^ William Smiley, and 
James Stuart, the scriptural number. All these men 
are buried in the churchyard. Under his guidance, the 
Session was inducted more fully into their duties and re- 

^ Appleton's "Cyclopoedia of American Biography," page 53. 
^ "Leaves From a Century Plant," page 58. 

148 History of Old Pine Street. 

sponsibilities. He was not only their moderator, but 
also their instructor, in his own skilful way teaching 
them to rule well. It is interesting to read how mem- 
bers who '^walked disorderly" were invited to appear 
before the Session for conference; and of the blessed 
result of this watchful care over the lives of communing 
members. The description of the restoration of one 
of these no doubt illustrates what was accomplished for 
many. Those who held their membership in other 
churches were not permitted to be pewholders with the 
right to vote, although they were welcomed to a place 
in the worshipping assembly. All who came from other 
churches to the communion at Pine Street appeared be- 
fore the Session to receive their tokens. The token 
then was a small lead-piece, stamped with a heart. 

It is significant that after Dr. Alexander left the 
church, the congregational meeting to consider the call- 
ing of another minister was convened by the Session. 
From the time of the election of Dr. Duffield it had 
been the custom for the Committee, and afterwards the 
Trustees, to call these meetings. There are many indi- 
cations of his wise and skilful hand directing all things 
to be done decently and in order; and yet, there was 
not at any time friction between the pastor and church 
officers and people. This, as we may yet discover, was 
not because all the Scotch-Irish blood in the congrega- 
tion was perfectly sanctified. But the pastor had the 
power of keeping love aglow and the conscience awake. 

■Bar ,-.'131- .■i#S^£.-v;<Vii,-ji!«feite'*5. 



ill iead-piect^, -taitiped witr 

1 ijeopic. iliis, as we may yet 

.1 i>. -:,a^.e all the Scotch-Irish '-' -' - 
fi ns nerfcrMv sanctified. 
)ve agl( 

ieit tiie 

Pastorate of Archibald Alexander. 149 

We have this most pleasing tribute to his people from 
his own pen : ''They are remarkable for attachment to 
their minister, and for affection to one another. There 
is not a person in the congregation who is not friendly 
to warm, evangelical preaching, and this they must have 
fresh from the mint, for they are greater enemies to the 
reading of sermons than the Virginians themselves."^ 
This means that the pastor controlled his people through 
an educated conscience. 

The sessional minutes contain repeated descriptions 
of the Communion, which was still celebrated twice a 
year. When the Communion occurred at the time of 
the meeting of General Assembly, many members of 
that body were present. It can be imagined how this 
would increase both the size of the congregation and the 
impressiveness of the service. We regret that we have 
not space to give the pen-pictures that have been drawn 
of the church at that time, the tables spread with white 
linen, the sexton, a prominent figure, watchful for good 
order and reverent mien, present everywhere when 
wanted, commanding the respect of all. There were 
the aged of the church, objects of veneration, and of 
most pleasing acts of loving attention. There was the 
dignity felt in the presence of the ministers, then re- 
garded indeed as men of God. 

The very atmosphere of the house of worship on 
this day seemed to bring it close to Heaven. We quote 

' Dr. J. W. Alexander's "Life of Archibald Alexander," p. 280. 

150 History of Old Pine Street. 

one record from the minutes just referred to: *'The 
Lord's Supper was celebrated on Sunday, March tenth. 
The day was fine — all external circumstances favorable, 
and the divine influence sensibly felt by many. So it 
was a day long to be remembered. All glory and 
praise be to our God and Saviour. Amen. The num- 
ber of persons who sat down at table on this oc- 
casion as appeared by numbering the tokens re- 
turned, 240." 

There are many evidences of the influence of Dr. 
Alexander in the broad religious life of the city. He 
commanded respect and honor from all the churches. 
His influence over the mother church was very great. 
Through him there seems to have been developed the 
closest Christian fellowship between the First and Third 
Churches. A few months before the close of his pas- 
torate, an event occurred with which we believe his 
personal influence had much to do. It took place in 
December, 181 1. We shall let a minute in the records 
of the Board of Trustees describe it : 

"A communication was received from the First Presbyterian 
Church in Market Street relinquishing a claim of two hundred 
and fifty pounds against this congregation; whereupon, resolved 
that the said communication be entered on our minutes, and that 
the secretary be requested to acknowledge the receipt of the same, 
and to assure them of the high sense we entertain of their af- 
fectionate and Christian liberality, manifested on this occasion, 
and that we beg their acceptance of our cordial and hearty 


Read from the pulpUof Old Pine Street, announcing his intention 
to accept the Professorship in the new seminary at Princeton 

Original Manuscript in the possession of the church. 

_ C/C^A:^ ^^^4, ^.;h.^^ ^ ^A£*^ ^ ^«> ^z^^^^c,^ 

^.^at^.^^r:^^^^ M. C.M y^^^- ^^-^^^ r/^^^^<'^^-^'^ 

aJT^Ze^ /Al/-^.7y^^y^ o.^^^ ^^C^^./^ ^^/''^^ 
a4.,o^ olt/4^^»^^ t^*-t^^<o/e^A^6,^¥^ J^(7/ifA,^«>^^ ^ c^^^^-^-t^t'^^c/ I 

if . 

<^/»< <M^«, 


, J^c/lt^ ^^^A^»^^.,^i^ /Aa/^m^^ /^>u.^^c**^k> ^l^^UdlulC 
f^.^ ^/aZ£. c^/i.^.^^ (/ii^^atJLoC a^A/h^ .^^m5^/*»<^F" 

Pastorate of Archibald Alexander. 151 

While in Philadelphia, Dr. Alexander did a marvel- 
ous amount of study. The libraries of the city and of 
the friends whom he made provided him w^ith many 
books, which he had long desired to read and study. 
Under the tuition of a learned Rabbi he perfected his 
knowledge of Hebrew. It seems clear that his acquire- 
ments in learning were of providential directing in 
completing his preparation for the high position to 
which he was to be called. His election to this position 
came in the Assembly of 1812, and was one of the 
most impressive events in the history of our church in 
this country. It illustrates the impression which he had 
made upon the ministry. It had already been deter- 
mined that a classical institution should be founded for 
the education of the ministry. It was unanimously 
agreed that a man should be chosen at this Assembly to 
begin the work of laying the foundation of such a 
school. It was a solemn hour in the Assembly when this 
man was to be chosen. No nominations were made. 
All speeches or suggestions before the Assembly were 
excluded. With prayer and the deepest seriousness the 
members of the Assembly were asked to write upon 
blank ballots distributed the name of the man whom 
they believed the Lord would call to this most responsi- 
ble position. ''When the ballots were counted it was 
found that Archibald Alexander, pastor of Old Pine 
Street, had been chosen. His elder, a delegate with 
him in the Assembly, quickly arose, and attempted to 

152 History of Old Pine Street. 

speak. He burst into tears, could not utter a word, and 
resumed his seat weeping." ^ 

It is impossible for us to give even a brief description 
of the wonderfully full years of the remainder of Archi- 
bald Alexander's long life. The biography written by 
his son, Dr. J. W. Alexander, which is practically an 
autobiography, makes this indeed unnecessary. 

While in Old Pine Street Church, Dr. Alexander 
moderated the Assembly of 1807. He was a member 
of seven Assemblies. His honorary degree of Doctor 
of Divinity came to him in 18 10 from Princeton, and, 
in the same year, he was called to the Presidency of 
the University of Georgia, a fact which was never 
known until after his death. Through a young mem- 
ber of his congregation, John Welwood Scott, after- 
wards an elder in the church and a clergyman, he 
founded the first religious newspaper in America.^ He 
conceived and organized an association of Christian 
workers, whose splendid service, especially among the 
poor, was an anticipation of the Sunday School, the 
Home Missionary and Tract Societies, and the Dorcas 
Society. He was the father of the idea of our church 
boards. He introduced into the old organization, 
founded for the help of needy ministers, and now 
known as the Minister's Fund, the insurance idea, the 

^Lifc, page 328. 

* See inscription on Scott's tomb, reproduced in this volume 
on the opposite page. 



Elder of the Church: "the establisher of the first rehgious news- 
paper ever published." '' ' K'nc\ 

West Walk. 

.\l'_>\r. ur ui'j)i<i,i: I'll ARSON 

Trustee of the church, who "left, a lot for a church, a house for 
the poor, and a legacy for luissious" 

South Side. 

Pastorate of Archibald Alexander. 153 

application of which has developed this into one of the 
most splendid institutions in connection with the Pres- 
byterian Church. He was chairman of the Commit- 
tee, and did almost the entire work of constructing the 
idea of the plan for the theological education of our 
ministry, which he was destined to carry into effect. 
In a word, it is safe to claim that no man who has ever 
arisen in the Presbyterian Church of this country pos- 
sessed such constructive ability, or has ever accom- 
plished such achievements as must be referred directly 
to him for the coming of the Kingdom of God in this 
great country of ours. 

His service after leaving Old Pine Street covered the 
phenomenal period of forty years. Great wisdom, 
supreme devotion to Christ and His church, and a fruit- 
fulness which no words can describe, crowned this ser- 
vice. With clear mind and full preparation that awak- 
ened the liveliest interest in his pupils, he conducted 
his classes to within a few days of his death. This 
event, which was the glorious consummation of a won- 
derful life, occurred October 22, 1851. 

We have in our possession the original manuscript 
paper which he held in his hand as he announced from 
the pulpit of Old Pine Street his purpose of resign- 
ing. A part of this will clearly indicate the share 
which our church had in this supremely great and holy 

154 History of Old Pine Street. 

"This resolution has not been formed under the influence of 
any dissatisfaction with my present condition, nor from any want 
of affection to this people, for since I have been your pastor no 
event has occurred to disturb that peace and harmony which 
should ever exist between minister and people ; and I have no 
reason to doubt the sincerity and cordiality of the attachment 
of this congregation to me from the first day I came amongst 
them until this time. For all their respect and attention, and 
especially for that readiness with which they have received the 
word at my mouth, 'I give thanks unto God.' I, moreover, wish 
to say that I do not know a single congregation within the 
bounds of the church of which I would choose to be pastor in 
preference to this. No invitation, therefore, from any other 
would have ever separated us. I did expect to live and die 
with you." 

When he came to Old Pine Street 

From an etching in possession of Dr. Louis F. Benson. 

TKe Second Fight for Independence 


The title of this chapter is suggested by the remark- 
able parallel between the conflict in Avhich the church 
was born and that herein described. It may not be 
more than a coincidence that these two events syn- 
chronize with our two wars for national independence, 
and yet war does affect the temper of the social atmos- 
phere. When tribulation came again to Old Pine 
Street, it was not a favorable time for the cultivation 
of the spirit of peace. The parallel, however, is in the 
fact that, in both these events in the history of the 
church, the great majority of the congregation main- 
tained the God-given right to call the man of their 
choice to be their minister. 

Referring to the Pine Street congregation, the biog- 
rapher of Dr. Archibald Alexander wrote: ''The pre- 
dominating ingredient in the congregation was the old- 
fashioned Scotch and Irish Presbyterianism, with its 
salient points of good and evil, with which the new 
pastor was familiar."^ It was precisely Dr. Alexan- 
der's perfect knowledge of both the good and the evil 
that enabled him to cultivate the former and to sup- 
press or overcome the latter. We have called atten- 
^Dr. J. W. Alexander's "Life of Archibald Alexander/' p. 287. 


156 History of Old Pine Street. 

tion to the fact that he trained both the officers and 
members of the church in obedience to the apostoHc in- 
junction, ''Let all things be done decently and in order." 
When he left the church, it was in the hands of what 
had proved under his wise guidance an excellent Ses- 
sion. He had more clearly defined in their minds the 
form of government in the Presbyterian Church. The 
one thing which they lacked after he left was a wise 
leader. The member of the Session who undertook 
to fill this position, while a man of ability and great 
energy, was certainly lacking in the essential gift of 
practical wisdom. If the plan which now prevails in 
this same Presbytery of Philadelphia, of appointing 
a minister to be provisional moderator of all vacant 
churches, had been the rule when Dr. Alexander va- 
cated the pulpit of Pine Street, it is not likely that the 
regrettable events which fill the interregnum between 
1 81 2 and 18 14 would ever have occurred. 

When Dr. Alexander had gone, the body of the con- 
gregation turned as with one thought to their former 
pastor. Dr. Milledoler. They intreated the Session to 
convene the congregation that a call might be given 
to this minister, so dear to them. Four of the seven 
elders refused to grant this request, intimating ''that 
the people had nothing to do with these matters," and 
that it was exclusively the business of the Session to 
secure supplies for the pulpit, and to judge when it 
was proper for the congregation to proceed to an 

The Second Fight for Independence. 157 

election.^ The same writer who quotes this language 
of the Session adds : "To the operation of these prin- 
ciples, the people, on this occasion, silently submitted; 
and the hopes that they had fondly cherished, that they 
might again enjoy the ministrations of one who had 
so faithfuly, in former years, dispensed to them the 
Word of Life, was relinquished." What followed will 
make very clear, we think, that there is found the crux 
of the dispute which brought such disastrous results. 

This left a sting in the minds of many, and was an 
evident deep disappointment to the three elders who 
entertained very different views, as we shall see, upon 
the subject of the right of the electors in a Presbyterian 
congregation. Let it be marked that, in all references 
hereafter to the decisions of the Session, the meaning 
is the decision of four of the elders against three, so 
that, in all this discussion and the votes of the Session, 
the majority was one in a session of seven elders. 

In the home of Rev. Zebulon Ely, of Lebanon, Conn., 
there was born, on June 13, 1786, a son, to whom the 
father gave the name of Ezra Stiles, after his old pre- 
ceptor, the famous president of Yale. Zebulon Ely 
nurtured this son of his with devoted care, preparing 
him, no doubt, largely by his own teaching, for Yale 
College. Ezra Stiles Ely graduated from Yale when 

^ "History of Ecclesiastical Proceedings Relative to the Third 
Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, Dr. Ezra Stiles Ely, and 
Several of the Judicatories of the Church," page 5. 

158 History of Old Pine Street. 

but seventeen, representing the third generation in 
the akimni of that college. His father taught him 
theology so successfully that, within a year after his 
graduation, he was licensed and ordained by West- 
chester Presbytery. For two years he served a Con- 
gregational Church at Colchester, Conn. From this 
charge he was called to be chaplain of the New York 
City Hospital and Almshouse. He was then about 
twenty-one years of age. Dr. Milledoler took a deep 
interest in this young man. Ely grew to be a frequent 
visitor at his house. There he became acquainted with 
Captain Benjamin Wickes, an elder of Old Pine Street, 
who was accustomed to call upon his former pastor 
when he happened to be in New York. While Mr. Ely 
was on a visit to Philadelphia, Captain Wickes invited 
him in the name of the Session to preach in Old Pine 
Street. The people were greatly pleased with this 
young preacher, and this was his introduction to 

Mr. Ely was destined to become pastor of Old Pine 
Street, but between this delightful evening, when he 
was treated so cordially by the entire Session and the 
whole congregation, and the day when he should be 
installed pastor of the church, he was to pass through 
an experience of the kind that tries a man's soul. 

Here before us, in the Trustees' minute book, 
and in Session's minutes, and in the minutes of Pres- 
bytery, Synod, and General Assembly, and in numer- 


two nlunUis after Mr. Ely luid h^:xv\ ivn, ifC;! 
An officer of the American Reyqlution; Commanding the. defense 
of Philadelphia in the War of iSis; Collector of the '" 
Port of Philadelphia; long a Trustee of the 
church, and buried in the churchyard 

From a portrait in possession of Miss Ellen B. Foster. 

The Second Fight for Independence. 159 

Otis carefully preserved letters, and in a copy of 
extracts from the minutes of the Presbytery of 
New York, covering in minute detail the trial of *\ 
Mr. Ely before that body, we have a mass of material 
through which we have, with the greatest difficulty and 
patience, wended our way. It shall be our aim to give 
a clear, brief statement of the events which led to the 
secession from Old Pine Street and the founding of 
the Sixth Church, and to the installation of Ezra Stiles 
Ely as the beloved pastor of Old Pine Street. 

Some two months after Mr. Ely had been invited to 
Pine Street by the Session he came again to Philadel- 
phia in response to an invitation to deliver an address 
to the Philadelphia Missionary Society. At this time, 
Mr. Ely received such attention from Captain Wickes 
and~ other members of the Session that there was awak- 
ened a general feeling that the time for a harmonious 
meeting had come. Mr. John Welwood Scott called 
upon an elder "to express his opinion of the wishes of 
the people, and to enquire if the Session were willing 
to convene the congregation." The elder ''severely re- 
proved Mr. Scott for his presumption."^ 

A formal petition was now sent to the Session, signed 
by thirty persons, asking for a congregational meeting 
"to consider the propriety of taking the sense of the 
congregation on preferring a call to the Rev. Ezra Stiles 
Ely." This petition the Session considered November 

^Ibid, page 12. 

i6o History of Old Pine Street. 

8, 1812; and replied *'that, as the congregation were 
not united, the request could not be granted." 

After three months, the congregation sent another 
petition making substantially the same request. This 
was signed by one hundred and seventy-three pew- 
holders. The Session replied to this in a resolution, 
which stated that they had determined to open the 
pulpit to other candidates for a period of some four- 
teen weeks; ''and that then Rev. Mr. Ely should be 
wTitten to by Session, and requested to serve as a 
probationer for three months." 

Very soon after this reply to their petition a number 
of the people met, and appointed a committee to appear 
before the Session, and "to state that they considered 
themselves and other members of the church aggrieved 
by the neglect of Session to call a meeting of the 
congregation, agreeable to their previous request." 
After deliberation, Session resolved that they could 
not consistently renounce the ground which they had 
already taken. Ferguson Mcllvaine, William Smiley, 
and James Stuart dissented from this resolution. 

The people now appealed to Presbytery, sending a 
copy of their remonstrance and protest to the Session. 
The Session, by a majority vote, also sent a paper to 
Presbytery. In Presbytery's deliverance on these pa- 
pers three points are very clearly stated, namely, that 
credit should be given to both parties for sincerity in 

The Second Fight for Independence. i6i 

the course which they had pursued; that when a ma- 
jority of a congregation fairly express their desire to 
the Session for a congregational meeting, such meeting 
should be held ; and that in this case both Session and 
people should seek for the things that make for peace. 
But there were other statements of Presbytery that 
were very unsatisfactory to the commissioners of the 
people, who were seeking a fair chance for the congre- 
gation to exercise their constitutional right; and so an 
appeal was taken to Synod. That body referred the 
whole matter back to Presbytery. 

Shortly after this deliverance of Synod, a meeting 
of the Session was held. At this meeting a motion was 
introduced by the minority to write to Mr. Ely and 
request that he would preach as a probationer for three 
months. The majority had not called the meeting for 
this purpose, and at once laid the resolution on the 
table. The majority then introduced what was evi- 
dently a carefully prepared resolution condemning the 
people for their appeal to Presbytery, and repealing 
their former resolution that Mr. Ely should, at a definite 
time, be asked to preach as a probationer. The major- 
ity sustained and the minority opposed this resolution. 
A motion was then unanimously passed to call a con- 
gregational meeting. The minority soon discovered 
that the object of having a congregational meeting was 
to put an end to Mr. Ely's ministerial prospects in 
Pine Street. 

1 62 History of Old Pine Street. 

While these events were transpiring, Captain Wickes, 
who had given a confidential letter to the Session, writ- 
ten him by Mr. Ely just after he had first preached at 
Pine Street, was circulating statements that serious 
charges would be brought against Mr. Ely. The 
friends of Mr. Ely knew that should his name come 
before a congregational meeting as a candidate for the 
vacant pulpit, these indefinite and utterly false charges 
would be urged as reasons against him. We shall see 
from this the reason of the tactics of Mr. Ely's friends, 
for wiiich the majority of the Session were totally un- 
prepared. It will be remembered, too, that the rescind- 
ing of the resolution, by which the Session had pledged 
themselves to permit Mr. Ely to come as a probationer, 
was intended to cut the people off from any hope that 
the majority of the Session would ever give them 
another chance to have him in the pulpit. 

The congregational meeting, called by the Session, 
was held June 7, 181 3. When the question was put 
whether the congregation was prepared to appoint a 
time to go into an election for pastor, it was promptly 
tabled. Immediately it was moved that the Rev. Ezra 
Stiles Ely be forthwith invited to preach in Old Pine 
Street for three months, and provision was made for 
paying him for this service. This motion must have 
been a demoralizing surprise to the majority of the Ses- 
sion, for it was passed by a vote of one hundred and 
thirty-five to twenty-nine. Not willing to permit the 

The Second Fight for Independence. 163 

majority of the Session to prevent further congrega- 
tional meetings a motion was made to adjourn to meet 
on the first Monday of the next October, which was 
carried by the same vote. The friends of Mr. Ely 
had letters at hand, which they had procured, to read 
at this meeting, which would have defeated the object 
of his enemies in their purpose to smirch his character. 
But as no motion was made on the part of the majority 
of the Session to press this question, which they had 
undertaken to introduce at the beginning of the meet- 
ing, these convincing letters were not read. 

In accordance with the above decision of the people, 
a letter was written to Mr. Ely by commissioners ap- 
pointed for that purpose. This letter, which is before 
us, is signed by Ferguson Mcllvaine, Jacob Mitchell, 
and James Stuart. It contains a brief explanation of 
the action of the congregational meeting, which had 
been called by the unanimous vote of the Session, and 
earnestly requests that Mr. Ely will respond favorably 
to their appeal. Was minister ever put in a more try- 
ing position ? He knew that his character had been as- 
sailed in Philadelphia ; and yet he v/as a member of the 
New York Presbytery, and a majority of the ruling 
elders of the congregation that asked his services were 
opposed to his coming. For him to refuse to come 
would give his enemies opportunity to still further 
assail his character. On the other hand, if he should 
accept this invitation, he would be exposed to the 

1 64 History of Old Pine Street. 

charge of encouraging a church fight. After much 
mental anguish and prayer, he decided that it was his 
duty to go to Philadelphia. Time would fail to tell 
of the devices that were put forth to break this pur- 
pose. We are glad to escape entering into the records 
upon this subject. It is sufficient to say that he came 
to Philadelphia, and that he met with many delicate 
questions, and that he settled them with great wisdom, 
and that his service of eleven weeks as a probationer 
in the church was remarkably blessed. 

Mr. Ely left Philadelphia a week before his time had 
expired, and went on a missionary journey to Washing- 
ton. The evident reason for this is a revelation of his 
spirit and character. The annual meeting for the new 
Board of Trustees was at hand, and he could not have 
been ignorant of what was going on in the minds of 
the people. That meeting was held on September 20, 
1 81 3, and was the most largely attended of any similar 
congregational meeting in the history of the church. 
There were present one hundred and thirty electors, all 
of whose names are recorded in the minutes. 

Although the Session under Dr. Alexander had been 
more clearly defined as the first ecclesiastical court of 
the church, the custom of continuing to elect all the 
elders in the Board of Trustees had not been changed. 
All had served in the Board during many years. But 
now, not one of the four elders constituting the ma- 
jority of the Session was re-elected. It seems that 


•ws the 

A Trustee for half a century and President of the Board for 
nearly thirty years 


^^rrd nftenvnrds in 

•: of 


\»v\ •^o\ 

The Second Fight for Independence. 165 

the election was without nomination. When the secret 
ballots were counted it was found that twenty-seven 
men had been voted for. No one of the elders who 
were left out received more than twenty-four votes. 
The thirteen who were chosen, except one who received 
eighty votes, had from a hundred and eleven to one 
hundred and thirty ballots to their account. This was 
a perfectly free election. We could not imagine a 
more important providence than that which led this 
meeting to give us such an elaborate and complete 
record of its proceedings. We think it shows the 
exact attitude of the mind of the great body of the 

William Haslett, John McMullin, and Robert Mc- 
Mullin were men of fine Christian character, who had 
for years been faithful servants of the church. It 
would be ungrateful for us not to make this record, but 
their position could not be approved by a very large 
number of their devoted friends. Indeed, the de- 
scendants of William Haslett appeared afterwards in 
the congregation as its most devoted servants, one of 
whom served some thirty years as an able and honored 
president of the Board of Trustees of Old Pine Street.^ 
The ruling elders who stood against the people no 
doubt believed that they were sustaining an essential 
principle of Presbyterian government. Their failure 
was, not in maintaining the principle, but in their man- 

^ Hugh Stevenson. 

1 66 History of Old Pine Street. 

ner of applying it, and in their inability to see the sti- 
preme greatness of the principle for which the great 
body of the electors of the congregation were contend- 
ing. It is perhaps not out of place for us to state that, 
however sincere he might have been, Benjamin Wickes 
proved the evil genius of the Session during this bitter 
conflict. At this election of trustees it is a singular 
fact that not a single vote was cast for him. 

When the time approached for the adjourned con- 
gregational meeting, the Session was asked to procure 
a minister to moderate the meeting. They refused 
to have anything to do with the meeting further than 
to have their protest read before it when it should be 
convened. This lengthy protest had been adopted by 
a strict majority vote. The commissioners of the peo- 
ple, who anticipated that the Session would take this 
position, had been instructed that, if it should be 
necessary, they should secure a moderator. They ob- 
tained the Rev. George C. Potts, who consented to be 
moderator for them, and this indicates that the con- 
gregation was not without sympathetic friends in Pres- 
bytery. The people were careful to proceed in an 
orderly manner. At this meeting they simply decided 
the question that they would on the eleventh of October 
hold a meeting for the purpose of electing a pastor. 
For moderator of this meeting they secured Rev. John 
W. Doake. Mr. John McMullin read the protest of 
the majority of the Session at the first meeting, when 

The Second Fight for Independence. 167 

it was laid upon the table. It was not disturbed 
when the electors assembled to vote for a pastor. Mr. 
Ely was chosen pastor unanimously, having a vote 
of one hundred and forty-seven ballots. 

Within a short time after this election and the ap- 
pointment of commissioners to prosecute his call, Pres- 
bytery declared the call to be irregular, and refused to 
confirm it. An appeal was taken to Synod, and Mr. 
Ely was asked to continue to supply the pulpit until 
the question was decided. 

The people were looking straight through the dif- 
ficulties that arose in their path. On December twenty- 
first, a little over a month after the call had been made 
to Mr. Ely, there was held one of the most important 
congregational meetings to be found in the history of 
the church. As a most urgent necessity, this meeting 
changed the plan of electing ruling elders, which had 
obtained since the founding of the church, and at 
once, proceeding on the new plan of election adopted, 
voted four new elders into the Session. The old so- 
called Scotch plan, which prevailed when the first bench 
of elders was appointed, had been folowed up to this 
time. This plan was for the existing Session to nomi- 
nate persons for the ofhce of ruling elder. These 
names were then announced from the pulpit with the 
statement that a certain time would be given to hear 
objections against them. If, at the appointed time, no 
objections were made, the nominees were ordained and 

1 68 History of Old Pine Street. 

installed as members of the Session. The First Church 
had discarded this plan in 1771. It is passing strange 
that it should have continued in Old Pine Street. The 
new plan adopted by the people simply gave them the 
opportunity of electing by ballot their own ruling elders. 
The new elders chosen at this meeting were Dr. Wil- 
liam B. Duffield, William Nassau, John Welwood 
Scott, and Jacob Mitchell. Commissioners were ap- 
pointed to have these men constitutionally ordained. 
They found no difficulty in getting two ministers in 
Presbytery to attend at a Sunday service, and to or- 
dain the elders elected. The most momentous event, 
however, of this congregational meeting was a large 
majority vote requesting the four elders who had been 
opposing them to resign their office. The congrega- 
tion put upon record their solemn declaration that they 
could no longer receive sealing ordinances at the hands 
of these elders, giving six reasons, which are expressd 
with marked seriousness and ability. 

But Scotch-Irishmen seldom resign. Nor did these 
elders. They held the Session book, and refused to sit 
with the newly-ordained elders. The conflict in the 
church over this difference between the two parts of 
the Session would furnish in itself a long chapter. It 
is all written out in the fullest details. It is readily 
seen how this brought another complication into the 

It is not possible m this brief history to follow the 

The Second Fight for Independence. 169 

inextricable litigation through Presbytery, Synod, and 
General Assembly, recorded voluminously in the docu- 
ments before us. Escaping all the long and learned dis- 
quisitions upon law, it is sufficient for us to state that 
when General Assembly had reached the second point 
in the ''Case of the Third Church of Philadelphia," both 
parties were ready to arbitrate the whole question. Be- 
fore giving the final result reached as the award of 
the committee of arbitration, it is essential that we 
write very briefly of the trial of Mr. Ely before the 
New York Presbytery. 

This trial took place in New York, January, 18 14. 
It grew out of animosity in the minds of certain of 
Mr. Ely's co-presbyters, and in the use which these 
men made of Captain Wickes in his opposition to Mr. 
Ely as a candidate for the vacant pulpit of Pine Street. 
The cause of this animosity was the offended pride of 
a prominent minister, and the too keen and courageous 
thought of this young theologian and writer, in a 
book which he published, known as "The Contrast." 
This defined the Andover theology, in which was in- 
cluded what was known as Hopkinsianism, in the 
light of the orthodox reformed faith. It was an 
Andover student who later found it good to modify 
his own theology, who originated and steered the trial 
through a willing accomplice. It would be difficult 
to find a more shameful violation of the ninth com- 
mandment than is given in the history of this trial of 

lyo History of Old Pine Street. 

Dr. Ely, which occupied three days of Presbytery. It 
will be sufficient to give the unanimous verdict of the 
Court, from a certified copy from the minutes of the 
New York Presbytery: 

"On motion, resolved unanimously that all further proceedings 
in the case of Rev. Ezra Stiles Ely be arrested, and that he be, 
and hereby is, fairly, fully, and honourably acquitted of the 
charge brought against him. Ordered that Mr. Ely be furnished 
with a copy of the above resolution, certified by the Moderator 
and the Clerk." 

There has perhaps never been a case where false ac- 
cusers were more profoundly humiliated. The man 
who had been active and in the fore during the course 
of the trial came to Mr. Ely, acknowledged his sin 
to him, and begged that he would save him from the 
destruction of his ministerial standing. Then came 
out the princely character of this young man. Then 
was spoken the prophecy of what he was to become for 
the church and for humanity. Mr. Ely knew that his 
enemies had put in his hands a sword with which he 
could smite them to the earth. Instead, with a straight- 
forward, simple, and pitying expression, he said : ''Cer- 
tainly will I have mercy. You are forgiven." 

And so did Ezra Stiles Ely come to Philadelphia 
with clean papers, with a good conscience, the victor 
first of all over himself, and then over those who had 
so yielded to prejudice and passion as to seek the de- 
struction of his ministerial character. 

We are now ready to return to the point when the 

The Second Fight for Independence. 171 

litigation in General Assembly came so suddenly to a 
close, and the parties agreed to arbitrate their differ- 
ences. If Mr. Ely had been vindicated before the ap- 
peal was made from Synod, it is not at all likely that 
the case would ever have reached General Assembly. 
When we remember that the deliverance made by As- 
sembly added nothing whatever to the strengthening of 
the position of the majority of the Session who had 
taken the appeal, and that the complications of ques- 
tions yet to be decided rendered it impossible for any- 
one to see what might be the final issue ; and when we 
remember that this entire congregation had been earn- 
estly taught by Dr. Milledoler that Christians should 
settle their differences upon the principle of arbitra- 
tion, we readily see how this conclusion was so easily 
reached. The board of arbitration was constituted 
by General Assembly appointing six members, leav- 
ing these to choose a seventh. 

The parties interested stood in the following relation 
to each other. Those who were to perpetuate the life 
of Old Pine Street numbered two hundred and seven 
pew-holders. The minority that was willing to go out 
and found another church numbered sixty-five pew- 
holders. Neither party was to have the slightest inti- 
mation of what would be the award of the arbitrators. 

It was required first of all that each party should give 
a bond of thirty-four thousand dollars to insure the 
acceptance and carrying out of the award which should 

172 History of Old Pine Street. 

be made. The conclusion of the board led them to 
make the award as follows : The money that should be 
paid by the Pine Street congregation to those withdraw- 
ing was to be placed in the hands of Robert Ralston, 
Esq., who was to hold it until a sixth Presbyterian 
Church should be organized. When the organization 
was formed, the money was to be paid for the purpose 
only of securing a site and building a house of worship 
to be occupied by the congregation formed by the peo- 
ple who had withdrawn from Old Pine Street. Pine 
Street people were to deed their lot on Lombard Street 
to the new organization, and in addiiton pay them in 
cash twelve thousand seven hundred and twenty dol- 
lars. Certain families of the new church were to re- 
tain their right of burial in the Pine Street churchyard. 
On the other hand, those passing from Old Pine Street 
into the new organization were to renounce all claims 
whatsoever upon the entire remaining property of Pine 

Thus was the Sixth Church founded in the year 
1 8 14. It was situated on Spruce Street above Fifth, 
about two squares from Pine Street. The house still 
stands, and is now occupied by the Horace Binney Pub- 
lic School. The Sixth Church continued in existence 
until 1873, when it was united with the Seventh Church 
to form the Tabernacle Church, which has recently 
erected its fine house of worship at Thirty-seventh and 
Chestnut Streets. Old Pine Street has naturally felt 



Thirty-seventh and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia — a daughter 
of Old Pine Street 

Chestnut Str^ 


The Second Fight for Independence. 173 

the deepest interest in the building of this new sanc- 
tuary, which is so largely the monument of the long and 
splendid pastorate of Rev. Dr. Henry C. McCook. 

The body of Old Pine Street people, who were to 
perpetuate the church, were greatly surprised and deeply 
disappointed at the award of the arbitration commit- 
tee. They simply could not believe that it was equi- 
table. But they said : "It is the price of independence 
and of peace. We shall look for restitution from Him 
who has so faithfully kept and so greatly blessed our 
fathers." They did not look in vain. Within less 
than three months after the award was announced, 
the sixty pews vacated by the departing brethren were 
sold for five thousand three hundred and twenty-five 
dollars ; and within a year ninety-three persons were re- 
ceived into the communion of the church to take the 
place of the sixty-five who had withdrawn. 


A. B. (Yale); D. D. (Washington) 

Moderator of General Assembly; fifth Pastor of the church 

From a portrait in possession of the chiirch 

The Pastorate of Ezra Stiles Ely 


Dr. Ely's pastorate began September 7, 18 14, when 
he was installed, and extended to May 16, 1835, when 
Presbytery dissolved this pastoral relation that had 
been so full of peace and joy. He continued, however, 
to hold the position of pastor for about a year after 
his resignation. This is explained by the fact that he 
had offered his resignation to the church in order that 
there might be no interregnum between his retirement 
and the next pastorate. It is to be remembered also 
that he served as a probationer or supply almost con- 
tinuously for about fourteen months before his installa- 
tion. So that he really exercised pastoral care over 
Old Pine Street for twenty-three years. His service 
as supply, in the light of the years that followed, seems 
a remarkable providence. It put him in possession of 
thorough knowledge of the people, and of the peculiarly 
difficult conditions with which he had to deal. We here 
find the explanation, no doubt, of the remarkable be- 
ginning which he made in his new field. His wisdom, 
sweet spirit, and devotion during that trying year was 
a prophecy of what the prime of his life was to give 
to the church. No wonder that the spirit of God was 


176 History of Old Pine Street. 

manifest in the conversion of almost a hundred souls 
during these few months. The experience described in 
the previous chapter produced a most healthful awak- 
ening in the congregation. 

Such a conflict between brethren, who had walked 
together in Christian fellowship through so many years, 
necessarily produced much sorrow and heart-searching. 
If the people were surprised by the award of the 
committee of arbitration they were certainly no less 
surprised at their own spirit of self-denial and liberality 
which brought such quick deliverance from what at 
first seemed to be a crushing financial burden. A will- 
ing, united spirit, "a mind to work," and large, liberal 
self-denying giving unto the Lord, brought their legiti- 
mate fruits of spiritual gifts; and "the Lord added to 
them day by day those that were being saved." Dr. 
Ely was not called upon to face a discouraging, 
but rather a most inviting field of labor, when the 
second unanimous call of the people came into his 

Like all good fighters, Dr. Ely was a man of peace. 
He, too, knew and ever loved the Prince of Peace. At 
once he w^isely set to work to bring about a reconcilia- 
tion between the two parties to the recent conflict. He 
had a noble spirit to deal with in Rev. William Neill, 
D. D., pastor of the new church. There are indications 
that Dr. Ely and Dr. Neill were together deeply anxious 
that the people of their respective charges should bury 

Pastorate of Ezra Stiles Ely. 177 

all bitterness and again walk together in love. The 
healing process was slow, but in time proved effectual. 
About the beginning of the seventh year of his pas- 
torate, when the time had come that all were willing 
to join him in the act, the congregation revoked the 
resolution of 18 13, in which the people had declared 
that they could not longer hold Christian fellowship 
with or receive sealing ordinances from the hands of 
the majority of their Session. When Dr. Ely com- 
municated this act of the congregation in one of the 
sweet letters which it was his delight to pen, Dr. Neill 
responded in the same spirit, stating that his entire 
congregation were ready to enter into cordial fellow- 
ship with their brethren of Pine Street. No doubt, 
but for a few in both congregations, this would have 
been accomplished years before. It is the sad comment 
upon poor human nature that the bitterness of that 
conflict remained many years after the reconciliation in 
remarks dropped by certain brethren, while the de- 
lightful spirit of forgiveness and the loving devotion of 
members of the respective congregations towards each 
other was strangely overlooked. We are sure that 
Robert McMullin, John McMullin, and William Has- 
lett, who had served Old Pine Street so devotedly and 
ably through many years, were the leaders in the recon- 
ciliation. We mention this important incident here 
because it sounds the keynote to Dr. Ely's remarkable 
success in Old Pine Street, and because some of the 

178 History of Old Pine Street. 

most devoted members of our church in after years 
came from the Sixth Church. 

But Dr. Ely did not have to wait for this recon- 
ciliation to give full expression to his noble spirit, and 
to win the respect and confidence of his entire congre- 
gation. Although the militant spirit had been so 
strong, his pastorate opened in the full and inspiring 
spirit of the thirteenth chapter of first Corinthians. 
He clearly saw the day of his opportunity, believed that 
the love of the spirit would conquer all evil. He had 
not the slightest doubt that the Lord had led him 
to the rich field of promise that opened before him. He 
gave himself wholly to these things. The people were 
united, hopeful, and devoted. He began with a Ses- 
sion of able, spiritual men, whose worth he knew, and 
whose services he had the wisdom and skill to use to 
the full measure. These were Ferguson Mcllvaine, 
an honored father in the church; William Smiley, a 
man of gentle and exceedingly conscientious spirit; 
James Stuart, the friend of the poor, and a man mighty 
in prayer; William Nassau, ever ready for perils and 
endurance; Wiliam B. Dufiield, M. D., who possessed 
the spirit of his forbears ; John W. Scott, studious and 
progressive; and Jacob Mitchell, patient and ready to 
bear any burden. The Board of Trustees, including, 
indeed, most of these elders, was well organized, and 
the minutes clearly indicate that they were not at all 
below the Session in ability and fidelity to the church. 



IVilliam Nassau, Jacob Mitchell, Frederick A. Rayhold, Robert 
IJ\ Davenport, Levi Eldridge, Samuel Work 

From photographs in possession of the church. 

Pastorate of Ezra Stiles Ely. 179 

There was but one election of ruling elders during the 
pastorate of Dr. Ely, when the people, by their own 
free choice, added to the Session James Phyfe, John 
C. Farr, Robert W. Davenport, and John R. McMullin. 
Jr. We just here have the connecting links which bind 
together the pastorate of Dr. Ely with the three that 
have followed up to the present time. John C. Farr 
served for fifty-six years, and was the Nestor of the 
Session during the first years of the present pastorate, 
while the son-in-law of Robert W. Davenport is truly 
his successor in spirit and wise counsel and devotion 
to the church in the present Session.^ 

Dr. Ely came to his new charge splendidly equipped 
for the work before him. Born of the best New Eng- 
land stock, blessed wath commanding presence, both in- 
tellectual and spiritual, finely educated, experienced far 
beyond his years, and in manners thoroughly a gentle- 
man, though only twenty-eight years of age, he was 
fully prepared to take high place in any society or in 
any assembly of his brethren. If he was in anything 
at a disadvantage, it was in that unconscious superiority 
which is not altogether pleasing to some. He was of 
open, genial, and approachable disposition. He was in 
broad and thorough sympathy with humanity. Al- 
though surrounded with the comforts, and even luxuries 
of life, his heart and hand were always open to the full. 
To the poor, indeed, he had given six years of his 

^ Stephen D. Harris. 

i8o History of Old Pine Street. 

early ministry. Such a man soon endeared himself to 
all the people. 

The records of Dr. Ely's ministry are perfectly kept. 
He was a born chronicler. Here before us in his 
strong, legible, correct handwriting we have not only 
the record of his own ministry, including the Session 
Book, but also the carefuly-copied records of the first 
two pastorates, which had been imperfectly kept, or 
fallen into the hands of friends. These he had col- 
lected with careful research, and diligently copied, giv- 
ing in every case an explicit statement of where and 
how the records were secured, with a description of the 
original documents. It would be impossible to esti- 
mate the value of this work to the history of Old Pine 
Street. The Session has expressed its appreciation of 
them by having them recently bound in full turkish 

During his pastorate, Dr. Ely received into the 
church six hundred and sixty-six persons, five hundred 
and seventy-five on profession of faith, and ninety-one 
by letter. He left a roll of five hundred and twenty- 
eight communicants, which we do not think contained 
any dead wood. He baptized eleven hundred and 
sixty-three persons, and married seven hundred and six 
couples. He was a faithful shepherd. The minutes 
of the Session, which he kept during his entire pas- 
torate, are ideal. They describe the reverent care with 
which persons were received into full communion with 

Pastorate of Ezra Stiles Ely. i8i 

the church. It was the custom for the Session to hold 
devotional meetings with those Avho were considering 
the subject of confessing the Lord Jesus. One of these 
services, including conversations with those who were 
seeking Christ, occupied three hours. There were not 
a few cases of discipline. There are records of the sus- 
pensions of fifteen persons from the communion of the 
church. These represent but a small part of the Ses- 
sional care over the flock. Each member of the church 
was required to walk worthy of his profession. And 
this discipline was exercised with great practical wis- 
dom, and with the tenderest care. Hours were spent 
by the Session in considering how the erring ones 
could be brought back to the path of duty. The elders 
united in prayer for each one. There was the con- 
fident reliance upon the Holy Spirit in the work of 
reclaiming backsliders, which fully recognized the truth 
that Christ knows His own sheep by name. This was 
all done in the most quiet way. All publicity was 
avoided, except when open rebuke was necessary. Then 
scriptural severity was faithfully administered. 

Dr. Ely was an able teacher of the Scriptures. He 
knew the Bible through and through. It could be 
truthfully said of him that he was mighty in the Scrip- 
tures. Withal, he was a most interesting instructor. 
He kept up to a high standard the work of teaching 
the children, so ftilly established by his predecessor. Dr. 
Alexander. He instituted a Board of Education in the 

1 82 History of Old Pine Street. 

church to aid theological students before our church 
board for that purpose was founded. The women of 
the church did much for this work. Young men receiv- 
ing aid were carefully examined before the Session. 
Dr. Ely was the second secretary of our Board of Edu- 
cation, which had its initiation in a meeting in Old 
Pine Street.^ We can readily imagine that Dr. Neill, 
the first secretary, and Dr. Ely had many a conference 
upon this subject. It may be fairly claimed that these 
two men originated the Board. Few men have pos- 
sessed in so large a degree the spirit and the genius of 
the true and noble educator as did Ezra Stiles Ely. 
Much of his time and fortune were devoted to this 
cause. He left a monument which gives him a high 
place among the educators of our country. It has re- 
cently been rebuilt upon the lot which he purchased and 
gave, situated on the southwest corner of Tenth and 
Sansom Streets. Let the ''History of Jefferson Medi- 
cal College" describe the relation of Dr. Ely to that 
great institution. 

"It now became evident that for Jefferson Medical College to 
succeed, a more eligible site and more commodious building were 
necessary. Such an investment no mere stoical money-lender 
would look at. A man was needed who, while possessed of the 
money, had the mental elevation to rise above the cold and 
heartless calculations of the money-lender, one who could esti- 
mate properly what force of character, a determined will, and 
much enthusiasm, in carrying out a praiseworthy purpose, can 
accomplish. Such a man was found in Dr. Ely, a member of 

^ Speer's "Semi-Centenary Review of the Board of Education," 
page 4. 

Pastorate of Ezra Stiles Ely. 183 

the Board of Trustees. He purchased a lot of ground on 
Tenth Street above Walnut, erected a building, and thereby 
gave an impetus to the fortunes of the College, which placed it 
above the risk of failure. ... So long as Jefferson Medical 
College remains, the name of Ezra Stiles Ely, D. D., should be 
held in remembrance as one of its greatest benefactors." ^ 

Dr. Ely wielded the pen of a ready writer. His pow- 
ers of observation and of penetration were remarkable. 
He was a clear, distinct, logical, profotind thinker. 
His style was pure and perspicuous. His vocabulary 
abounded in good, strong, Saxon words, and was not 
without the elegance of the rhetorician. His published 
productions, during twenty-five years of his busy pas- 
torate, speak of his diligence and wonderful industry. 
Certainly no wasted time could ever be charged to his 
account. When we remember his genial, social nature 
and the appeals which society was constantly making to 
him, we can have no doubt concerning his courageous, 
conscientious devotion to duty. The spirit and habit 
of self-denial were marked characteristics of his entire 
life. Six of his most important works are in possession 
of the church. They are all books of merit, some of 
great merit. They are both interesting and profitable 
reading. We can make but the briefest mention of 
these books. 

The first, "The Contrast," we have already men- 
tioned. He wrote this scholarly theological work when 

^ Dr. Gayley's "History of Jefferson Medical College," pages 
18, 22. 

1 84 History of Old Pine Street. 

but twenty-five years of age. It is an able presentation 
and defense of Calvinism; and especially of our own 
Confession of Faith. It reveals a remarkable famil- 
iarity with the history of doctrine. One can readily 
see how Dr. Ely's incisive treatment of the Andover 
theology would awaken the animosity of students from 
that institution, w^ho were seeking pulpits in the Presby- 
terian Church. 

His next work, ''Visits of Mercy," is so similar to 
''A Pastor's Sketches," by Dr. I. S. Spencer, that one 
must think that Dr. Spencer got the idea of his cele- 
brated book from Dr. Ely. ''Visits of Mercy" was 
written while Dr. Ely was serving as chaplain of the 
New York City Hospital and Almshouse. It clearly 
reveals a genius for the study of men and for pastoral 
work. It recalls the testimony of Albert Barnes. 
"At prayer-meeting, in the social circle, at the bedside 
of the sick, he was the gifted minister, the good pastor, 
and the faithful friend." ^ These words are a fair 
description of what Dr. Ely was as a pastor in his 
earliest ministry, and of what he more fully became to 
Old Pine Street congregation. This book shows what 
exceptional training he enjoyed for pastoral service. 
It is really a fine work on pastoral theology. One is not 
surprised to learn that the popularity of the book 
called forth many flattering testimonials from ministers 

* Spoken at Quarter-Century Celebration of the pastorate of 
Thomas Brainerd in Old Pine Street. 

Pastorate of Ezra Stiles Ely. 185 

of various denominations, and for its enlargement and 
reptiblication in two volumes fifteen years later. It 
went through six editions, and was republished in 
England. It is not too mtich to claim that this book 
alone was sufficient to make the name of Ezra Stiles 
Ely celebrated. 

His next book, 'Ten Sermons on Faith," appeared 
in 181 6. It is dedicated 'To My Dear People," and is 
a striking testimony of the high character of Dr. Ely 
as a preacher. He published other sermons of the same 
excellence, notably those contained in his volume of 
"Life and Sermons." In his hands Old Pine Street 
pulpit continued to hold its place among the first in the 
country. Indeed the church w^as at this time not 
second to any in our communion. Dr. Ely was one 
of the finest expository preachers in the Presbyterian 
Church. His sermons were thoroughly evangelical. 
While he was a scholarly theologian, the didactic ele- 
ment of his discourses was never dry or tedious. His 
mental attitude was highly poetic. Indeed, one of the 
charges against him was that he had, in his youth, 
published a volume of poems. In those earlier days 
many regarded this in a minister of the gospel as 
an unpardonable sin, unless, indeed, he should write 
hymns. While he never failed to educate his people, 
there is abundant testimony that he was a most in- 
teresting speaker. The writer has met not a few living 
witnesses to this fact. The name of Dr. Ely was still 

1 86 History of Old Pine Street. 

green in Old Pine Street when he came to the city in 
1 88 1, and there are still a few who venerate his mem- 

Another book of Dr. Ely's which is at hand, is a 
unique work. Its title is "Conversations on the Sci- 
ence of the Human Mind." It follows the Socratic 
method. The conversation is between a professor and 
his pupil. The professor is a master in asking ques- 
tions ; and in answering them proves himself possessed 
of profound knowledge of his subject. His skill in 
drawing questions from his pupil is quite original and 
fascinating. We here find the explanation of Dr. 
Benjamin Rush's testimony to the scientific worth of 
"Visits of Mercy." ^ Evidently Dr. Ely began the 
study of the human mind in a very practical way, 
while he served as chaplain of the City Hospital and 
Almshouse in New York. He was a metaphysical 
thinker of no mean order. This was his method of 
intellectual gymnastics. 

In 1822 Dr. Ely issued a synopsis of didactic the- 
ology. The book contains over three hundred pages, 
condensing a mass of material. A few years later he 
issued the "Collateral Bible, or Key to the Holy Scrip- 
tures," which became immensely popular. We cannot 
but feel that these books indicate that their author 
cherished the hope that he might one day occupy a 
chair of theology and close his service to the church 
by having a part in the education of her ministry. 

^ See preface to second edition. 

Pastorate of Ezra Stiles Ely. 187 

Just at the close of his pastorate in Old Pine Street, 
a volume appeared containing a theological discussion 
between Ezra Stiles Ely, D. D., and Abel C. Thomas, 
pastor of the First Universalist Church of Philadelphia. 
This work is of especial historic value in the exhibit 
which it gives of the fine exegetical ability and skill of 
Dr. Ely. It shows what scholarly attention he must 
have given through long years to the Hebrew and 
Greek languages. All these books, save the first, were 
written during Dr. Ely's pastorate in Old Pine Street. 
And yet we find in them no marks of hasty thinking or 
writing. Nor did this immense labor of the author 
at any time lead him to neglect either his pulpit prepara- 
tion or his pastoral duties. When we add to this 
that he was the editor of the Philadelphian, for eleven 
years Stated Clerk of General Assembly, and that he 
gave his full share of attention to the general interests 
of the public, Ezra Stiles Ely stands out before us as 
a prince among his brethren. 

Dr. Ely won a high place among scholarly men of 
his day. He belongs to a family remarkable for its 
number of educated men. He was the seventeenth of 
his family in Yale University; and eighteen have fol- 
lowed him there. How early in life he became known 
as a scholar is indicated by the fact that Washington 
College, Tennessee, conferred upon him the degree 
of Doctor of Divinity before he had reached his twenty- 
sixth year. Such facts as these, which might be multi- 

History of Old Pine Street. 

plied, should relieve what we have written from any 
suspicion of over-statement. 

The ecclesiastical position of Dr. Ely was in the 
first rank. While pastor of Old Pine Street, he was 
delegate to twelve General Assemblies. He was mod- 
erator of the Assembly of 1828. This is the fourth 
General Assembly moderator from the pastors of Old 
Pine Street, and we shall find that there is another yet 
to be added.* 

There are many sidelights illustrating the life and 
the progress of the church during this long pastorate. 
We record a few of the more interesting. The house 
of worship was regarded as a very sacred place. Upon 
one occasion the officers of the church seriously con- 
sulted how the conduct of children in the congregation 
could be corrected. It was determined that the parents 
of these children should be solemnly warned to exercise 
their parental authority in training the yoimger mem- 
bers of their homes to show the due reverence at times 
of public worship. A certain w^oman was called to ac- 
count for her ''indecent conduct during public wor- 
ship." Upon another occasion there was a joint meet- 
ing of trustees and Session to consider a request that 
had been made for the church for the purpose of hold- 
ing a concert. After solemn deliberation it was decided 
that no concert should be held in the church where 
musical instruments are involved. 

^ Smith, Milledoler, Alexander, Ely, Brainerd. 

Pastorate of Ezra Stiles Ely. 189 

A prominent master of a steamboat, and devoted 
member of the church, was called to account for run- 
ning his boat on Sunday. He listened respectfully to 
the rebuke administered. In due time he came before 
the Session and confessed his fault, pleading strong 
temptation, and promising that the offense would not be 
repeated. The following letter we find in the Session- 
book, sent to a prominent matron of the congregation. 
Indeed, she was mother in one of the leading families : 

"It is with extreme pain that the Session of the Church to 
which you belong require you to abstain from participating in 
the communion of the Lord's Supper, until further notice, agree- 
ably to power given them by Chapter ivth, Section xviiith of the 
Book of Discipline. The reason for this requisition is, that 
common fame accuses you of being a notorious scold, of ungov- 
ernable temper, of indecent language, and peculiarly abusive to 
your husband, whose life can hardly be considered safe in your 
hands. On this subject you know what the truth is; and we 
do earnestly exhort you to repent and reform, lest you should 
come to a shameful death, and a woful eternity. We know there 
is mercy with God for the chief of sinners ; and to that mercy 
we prayerfully commend your soul, that it may be saved in the 
day of the Lord Jesus. Our desire is that your future conduct 
may not require us publicly to excommunicate you; but that 
by manifested repentance you may be restored to the fellowship 
of God's people. 

"By order of the Session, 

"E. S. Ely, Mod." 

Such illustrations of discipline might be multiplied. 

Through this entire pastorate the temporalities of 
the church were well sustained and skilfully adminis- 
tered. From the day that the congregation voted 

190 History of Old Pine Street. 

unanimously to add twenty-five per cent, to the pew 
rents, that all financial obligations to the Sixth Church 
might be fully met, until Dr. Ely bade the congregation 
farewell, not one backward step w-as taken. The re- 
port of the trustees to the congregation, in the full 
settlement of all accounts, July 11, 1816, is a remark- 
able document. It illustrates how completely the trus- 
tees were the servants of the people, and how fully 
every member of the congregation understood the exact 
financial condition of the church. This was about three 
years after Dr. Ely had become pastor. It was a time 
of new departure, in the matter of more fully separat- 
ing the trustees and the Session. At the previous elec- 
tion only two elders had been included in the new 
Board. This report was accompanied by the adoption 
by the Board of Trustees of a complete system of by- 
laws for the corporation. These by-laws indicate the 
high business character of the men who now had charge 
of the temporalities of the church. They were men of 
vision, and saw that there was before them a great 
work, which it would require years to accomplish. The 
large, fine lot on Lombard Street, w^hich they had pro- 
cured with such enterprise and self-denial, that they 
might have a new burying-ground, was gone. A house 
for social meeting and for the use of the Session was 
greatly needed. The church w^as calling for a num- 
ber of expensive improvements, including a new pulpit. 
In 1 8 19 a burying-ground w^as secured on Carpenter 

^i33982oq nx diUjet^oiodq moi^ 



CapfaM Slmcon toby, CUarlcs kohh. Captain IVilmon Whilldin, 
by th<£du'inGyeble, Oliver Harvey IVillardj Jacob 
Goodheart dc Turck 

A the men who 

1 -denial, that they 
. V . :^ ^ . - 1 u V . , vvas gone. A house 
nd for the use of the Session n- /• 
gre A-as calli 

ber of i )rovements, 

In 1819 a LHiiying-ground w. 

From photographs in possession of the church. 

Pastorate of Ezra Stiles Ely. 191 

Street, near Sixth. This lot was 210 by 240 feet. It 
has quite a history, which we cannot include here. The 
church first held this on a ground-rent, but in time got 
full possession of the ground. They instituted the plan 
of raising money to the amount of four thousand five 
hundred dollars upon five per cent, stock to pay for 
this property. The object, no doubt, was that the way 
might be opened for further necessary expenditures. 
Cancelled certificates of this stock, which was all taken 
by a few of the congregation, are in our possession. 
About the time that this property was secured a fine, 
new pulpit was erected in the church. It is possible 
that it was this improvement that suggested to the 
women of the congregation that the candles should be 
replaced by lamps. These enterprising ladies asked 
permission of the trustees to be permitted to secure 
the lamps. The privilege was granted with the dis- 
tinct understanding that the lamps might be purchased 
if the trustees would not be called upon to pay the ex- 
pense of keeping them in order. The ladies got the 
lamps, and the trustees paid the bill for keeping them 
in trim. 

The debt which the church had incurred did not deter 
the people from agitating the question of building a ses- 
sion house. A congregational meeting was called to 
discuss this matter, at which a committee was appointed 
to determine a site and estimate the cost. The com- 
mittee reported to an adjourned meeting, April 15, 

192 History of Old Pine^Street. 

1822, that the suggestion of building over the graves, 
at the south end of the church, should be abandoned; 
and that the most eligible location was a lot on Green's 
Court — now Lawrence Street — opposite the church, 
that could be purchased for two thousand dollars. For 
some reason the project was arrested at this point. 
Some years later we find the church in possession of 
the property on the northeast corner of Lawrence and 
Pine Streets, just across the street from the front en- 
trance. The records indicate that Dr. Ely purchased 
that property, and took a mortgage of about four 
thousand dollars on it, that the congregation might 
have its desired place for social and other meetings. 
We have no doubt that he forbade a record to be made 
of this generous act. It is certain that the property 
cost more than the mortgage, and there is no account 
of a dollar of it being paid by the people. We discover 
this only in the necessary mention of the mortgage and 
in the interest paid upon it, in the annual reports of the 
treasurer. That is the kind of thing which this dear 
pastor was accustomed to do. It is estimated that 
during his pastorate in Pine Street his benevolent gifts 
amounted to more than fifty thousand dollars. 

During the year 1834 a brick wall with iron gate was 
constructed around the Carpenter Street burying- 
ground at an expense of sixteen hundred dollars; and 
a brick wall was built around the south and east sides 
of the churchyard, and an iron railing on the north 



>e its (lesued place tor social aiul oum-i r» , 

Nozv seen only by ascending to the loft 

Pastorate of Ezra Stiles Ely. 193 

side. We find from the minute description of this 
work that the foundations of the brick wall were six 
feet deep and seventeen inches wide. This wall stood 
until 1903, when it was taken down and a new and 
stronger wall built upon the old foundation upon the 
south side, and a new iron fence upon granite base, 
of which we are now so proud, was erected along 
Fourth Street, to match the original fence still stand- 
ing along Pine Street. These beautiful improvements 
were the forerunners of the reconstruction of the entire 
house of worship. Dr. Ely left the old house as it 
appears in the old print on page 16. This was a sin- 
gle story, with gable ends. These gables were almost 
precisely the same as the Old Saint Peter's. A photo- 
graph of one of the windows that adorned this plain 
architecture is reproduced in this volume. The top of 
the church was not disturbed, but raised bodily, and 
these windows can be seen just as they were constructed 
by ascending to the loft to-day. The new and larger 
roof was built over the old one. The floor of the 
old church was raised one step above the level of the 
street, and was paved with brick. The pulpit was on 
the west side of the church, and the galleries extended 
round the other three sides. 

On the twentieth of June, 1834, there was held a 
notable congregational meeting. It was certainly as 
large, and perhaps larger, than had ever been held 
in the history of the church. The object of this 


194 History of Old Pine Street. 

meeting was to seek to have the Pine Street Church 
taken from under the old Presbytery of Philadelphia 
and put under the Second Presbytery. The resolution 
proposed was as follows : 

"Resolved, That it is the desire of this congregation to ap- 
pertain and belong to the Second Presbytery of Philadelphia, 
created by General Assembly in May, 1832 ; and to be under the 
care and guidance of said Presbytery, and that this congregation 
have no wish to be connected with, or in any manner under the 
control of, the old Presbytery of Philadelphia." 

It was also resolved that the Session be instructed 
to carry this wish of the congregation into effect. The 
vote was heartily unanimous, and the congregation, as 
moved by one spirit, rose and sang, ''Blessed be the 
tie that binds," which was understood to be a solemn 
and united pledge to stand together and to follow their 
leader. This meeting looked back to the first pastor- 
ate, which was distinctively New Light; and it was 
a prophecy of where the church should stand when 
the destined division of the Presbyterian Church into 
New School and Old School should come to pass. Can 
we not readily see, from what follows, that had the di- 
vision not taken place in 18 14, it certainly would 
have occurred at this period ; for those who went out 
and formed the Sixth Church were Old Lights, and 
took their stand staunchly with the Old School branch 
at the time of the division. We regret that we cannot 
give an entire chapter to this great historic movement 
in the life of our communion; for the occasion of its 

Pastorate of Ezra Stiles Ely. 195 

expression was the opposition of the settlement of Al- 
bert Barnes in the First Church, and Dr. Ely was fore- 
most among the leaders in the Presbytery in defending 
Mr. Barnes. The new Presbytery mentioned above was 
an ecclesiastical body of unstable equilibrium. The 
Assembly erected it upon the principle of elective af- 
finity, in the hope of bringing peace to the Synod of 
Pennsylvania. Synod, however, erected another Pres- 
bytery. It is impossible for us to follow this conflict, 
including the contest over the prerogative of erecting 
the Presbytery, and over the case of Mr. Barnes. These 
were full of unconstitutional proceedings, and must 
ever be regarded as a blot upon the fair name of Pres- 

"Very much do I owe to Dr. Ely; I cannot repay him in 
this world, or in the next either. Soon after I came to this 
city I was thrown into a fiery furnace of trial ; I should have 
sunk again and again but for Dr. Ely, then editor of the Phila- 
delphian, who became my warm friend, and admitted freely to 
his paper articles in my defense. He was, indeed, a warm, strong, 
personal friend. He made sacrifices for me — not, indeed, ex- 
clusively for me, but for the cause in which we were both en- 
gaged. He was a true friend — a life-long friend. I shall remem- 
ber his kindness till I lay my head in the grave." 

This tribute was spoken by Albert Barnes thirty 
years after the close of Dr. Ely's pastorate in Old 
Pine Street.^ 

"In 1835 ^^' Ely reluctantly resigned the pastorate 
of Old Pine Street Church because he felt that his duty 
'Life of Thomas Brainerd," page 284. 

X ii-l 

196 History of Old Pine Street. 

called him to the west. He had, with all the enthusi- 
asm of his nature, conceived the idea of founding a 
Presbyterian city at Marion, Missouri, which should 
contain a theological seminary, a college, and industries 
that were sorely needed in the development of the 
west, then an almost unknown country. Dr. Ely un- 
doubtedly felt that it was duty's call, and for the realiza- 
tion of this dream he was willing to sacrifice his fortune 
and the pleasant, cultured life of Philadelphia. Many 
of his congregation were involved in this scheme, and 
forsook their homes to follow him. Marion was a fail- 
ure, and Dr. Ely was broken in health and irretrievably 
ruined. But his spirit was not broken, nor his zeal for 
the Master's service abated. After struggling against 
fate for several years, he returned to Philadelphia ; and 
with a courage that had in it all of heroism, he put his 
hand again to the plough, and for eight years served 
as pastor of the First Church of Northern Liberties. 
In 1852 he reached the limit of endurance, and broke 
down completely. But death was not merciful, and he 
lived on, bearing his cross until June 18, 1861. 

"A man of gigantic intellect, indomitable courage 
and energy, and withal of humble spirit and unfailing 
courtesy, he lived a true and wholesome life. Born 
and raised and launched into manhood with fortune 
ever smiling upon him, before his prime he became one 
of the eminent men of his day. With the means to 
gratify his every wish, and the breeding and education 



felt tha; 
THE Eir-BRAiMERD -Memorial Wmvoivs 

■'vea life nf ph 
Erected in 1886 

\Z npOT; 

wish, ai 

Pastorate of Ezra Stiles Ely. 197 

to enjoy the good things of life, he wanted for nothing. 
Then, when the misfortunes of Job came upon him, and 
he was assailed on all sides, wounded by those he loved, 
and disappointed in the work to which he had given 
his life and soul, he drank of the bitter cup of heartache 
and failure without a murmur, for the Lord was with 
him, and he knew it." ^ 

^Herbert Adams Gibbons in the Old Pine Street Church News, 
May, 1904. 

to contni:K i' 

D. D. (Amherst) 
Uoicmor of General Asse>nbly;siM Pastor of Oldfh,e^Sireet 

From a photograph in possession ■ ' 'l^- ■ nurch. 


iq n"r riqui 

The Pastorate of Tnomas Brainerd. 


In the letter informing his dear people of his deter- 
mination to accept a call to become Professor of The- 
ology in Marion College, Missouri, Dr. Ely writes : 'T 
have thought it best to give you the earliest intimation 
of my intentions, that I could with propriety, in hope 
that you may immediately seek some suitable person to 
supply my place among you. This is almost the only 
subject of painful solicitude which now occupies my 
mind. I beseech you, seek to continue a congregation 
united and happy in your ecclesiastical relations." It 
was the aim of the departing pastor to assist his people 
to carry out this instruction. His earnest prayer and 
wise counsel and pastoral watchfulness over the con- 
gregation after the dissolution of his pastoral relation 
led to the desire of his heart. 

Within six months the church gave a unanimous call 
to Dr. John Clark Young, the president of Centre 
College, Kentucky, and the father of William C. 
Young, D. D., LL. D., who served the college with such 
conspicuous ability until his death. Dr. Young could 
not be induced to give up his work at Danville. The 
people at once proceeded to realize the desire of Dr. 
Ely by another effort. Within a short time, they sent 
a unanimous call to Dr. George Washington Blagden, 


200 History of Old Pine Street. 

of Boston, one of the ablest preachers of his clay. Dr. 
Blagden wrote a most appreciative letter, in which he 
stated that he was ready to accept the call, when the 
Old South Church persuaded him to remain in Boston, 
and become their pastor. Seeking a pastor from among 
men of this class clearly indicates that the people were 
determined to take no backward step. 

It was only four months after Dr. Blagden had de- 
clined the call that Thomas Brainerd, of Cincinnati, 
was chosen pastor. He was then in his thirty-fourth 
year, and was already widely known, but had not yet 
attained to the full measure of his power as a preacher. 
He was a leader among those who were so soon to be 
known as the New School Presbyterian Church. We 
find here, no doubt, the reason that the call to Mr. 
Brainerd was not unanimous. Sixty-one voted for 
him, and twenty-nine against him. At first the opposi- 
tion threatened to be formidable. But it soon became 
known that Mr. Brainerd was not seeking a call from 
Old Pine Street, nor indeed from any church. His 
whole soul was enlisted in the work of giving the gospel 
to the frontiers of our country. Cincinnati was then a 
centre of influence in the westward march of the church. 
It seemed for a time that Old Pine Street was again 
to be disappointed by another refusal of their call. 
But the Great Shepherd had better things than they 
knew for this people. After much persuasion and 
the counsel of older men, in whose judgment he con- 

Pastorate of Thomas Brainerd. 201 

fided, he yielded, and accepted the call. There is evi- 
dence that Dr. Ely's counsel did much to turn the scale 
in favor of Old Pine Street. 

Dr. Brainerd was installed on the first Sunday of 
March, 1837. The circumstances which gave the 
church this sixth pastor were very similar to those 
which had brought them the same good fortune upon 
two former occasions. For it was Dr. Brainerd's pres- 
ence as a commissioner at General Assembly that 
brought him to the attention of the Pine Street people. 

Thomas Brainerd was from an old Connecticut fam- 
ily. The Brainerd name first appeared at Haddam, 
Connecticut, in 1649, i^ the person of a little boy bear- 
ing the royal name of Daniel. Daniel Brainerd was 
the grandfather of the missionary brothers, David and 
John Brainerd. Thomas Brainerd was descended from 
James, an uncle of these missionaries. He was the 
fourth generation from James. The father of Dr. 
Brainerd was Jesse Brainerd, a man of the highest 
Christian character, and of remarkable energy and 
force. In a beautiful graveyard on the hill near 
Haddam, Connecticut, can be seen the tombs of five 
generations of this thoroughly good New England 
family. Jesse Brainerd moved to Leyden, Lewis 
County, New York, where Thomas was born, June 4, 
1804. The character of Thomas Brainerd's mother is 
indicated by the blessing she gave him as he stood 
by her death-bed, when but nine years of age. "It is 

20 2 History of Old Pine Street. 

hard for me to give you up, my boy. You need my 
care more than the others. I wished to live on your 
account, but it seems to be the will of God that I must 
die and leave you. When I am gone, remember how 
I have taught you to pray and read your Bible. Don't 
forget God, and He will take care of you." ^ These 
are deeply significant words when we remember that 
they were spoken by a mother to the youngest of her 
twelve children. 

When we come to consider the education which pre- 
pares a man for his life work, the first, and by far the 
greatest, factor is to be found in the original endow- 
ments of body and soul with which he begins life. The 
advantage to a child, born into this world, of a Chris- 
tian heritage extending through six generations is be- 
yond all possible computation. For we are to remem- 
ber that godliness is profitable unto all things, having 
the promise of this life as well as of that which is to 
come. The Brainerds were a hardy race. Dr. Brain- 
erd's comparatively early death was not due to the in- 
heritance of a naturally weak body, but to that in- 
tensity of nature which puts two years of life into each 
year that comes. His soul endowments were of a 
very high order. He was intellectual, morally sound, 
and strong of will. As a child he was alert, observant, 
of remarkable memory, sensitive, sincere, courageous, 
and obedient. His spiritual tendencies were clearly 

^ Mary Brainerd's "Life of Thomas Brainerd," page 25. 

Pastorate of Thomas Brainerd. 203 

marked in early childhood. And yet he was a genuine 
boy ; at times overflowing with mischief. 

He was a member of a through and through Chris- 
tian home. His country environment was full of in- 
terest and of energetic, health-giving activity. He 
walked several miles to school when but three years of 
age. His precocity was deeply interesting to those who 
made him the pet of the household; and brought him 
many a deliverance from the severities of his Puritan 
home. These influences were present with him dur- 
ing- his entire life. His own children never tired of 
hearing over and over again "his life." The rigor and 
hardships of the winter, the beauty of the spring and 
summer and autumn, with their changing scenes, the 
sugar-making, the ploughing and planting, the har- 
vesting, the characteristics of the domestic animals, the 
sheep-shearing, and the entire world of living things, 
he described in his own inimitable way of talking to 
children. His telling his life was like taking them on a 
visit to the old home where he was a boy. This abid- 
ing fellowship of his childhood with his maturity was 
the crowning beauty of Dr. Brainerd's education. It 
kept his soul ever fresh with the purest poetic sentiment. 
No school that man could ever devise could possibly 
give a boy what his country home gave Thomas Brain- 
erd before he began the earnest disciplinary work with 
books. ^ 

^ See page 139. • • ' '. 

204 History of Old Pine Street. 

The school education of Thomas Brainerd was much 
hke that of Archibald Alexander. Neither were strictly 
college-bred men. It would seem that for persons of 
their type they were all the better for that; although 
Dr. Brainerd enjoyed a theological education in a 
classical atmosphere. From the common school he 
went, when fourteen years of age, to Lowville Acad- 
emy, where the boy who afterwards became the emi- 
nent President Stearns of Amherst was one of his 
classmates. At this academy he began his studies 
in the classics. Three years later we find him teaching 
school at Boonville, and then at Lee, where he suc- 
ceeded Albert Barnes. When twenty years of age he 
had decided for the law. He went to Rome, and began 
preparing for his profession, continuing his classical 
studies also. About the close of his second year at 
Boonville, the first crisis of his life occurred. Most 
fortunately he had already yielded himself to Christ, 
and united with the church under the pastoral care of 
Rev. Moses Gillett. This was a preparation indeed to 
meet his second great sorrow. Suddenly his heart's 
idol and the inspiration of his life died. She was the 
beautiful and accomplished daughter of Pastor Renal 
Kimball, of Leyden. He was utterly crushed. For 
him the light of life seemed to have gone out. He 
came to Philadelphia, and taught for a time in Trenton 
Academy. This was the crucial year of his life. His 
heart was saying, "Lord, what wilt thou have me to 

Pastorate of Thomas Brainerd. 205 

do?" The Lord answered this sincere cry of his soul. 
He entered Andover Seminary, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1 83 1 in a class numbering fifty. During his 
theological course he exercised his gifts frequently in 
the pulpit. He also engaged in Sabbath-School work, 
at one time acting as general superintendent, traveling 
over an extensive district in eastern Massachusetts. 
In Andover he superintended a Sabbath-School num- 
bering seven hundred and fifty, from which many be- 
came communicants in the church. Here his evange- 
listic spirit was clearly and most impressively manifest. 

In estimating Dr. Brainerd's education two deter- 
mining influences should be considered. He was an 
extensive and most discriminating and thoughtful 
reader ; and he was blessed with the intimate friendship 
of a number of truly great men. Henry Clay, Dr. 
Stearns, Professor O. M. Mitchell, the distinguished 
astronomer. Dr. Lyman Beecher, Horace Bushnell, and 
Albert Barnes were among those with whom he en- 
joyed intimate felowship. 

Dr. Brainerd began the regular work of the minis- 
try in Cincinnati, whither he went as a home mis- 
sionary. He was ordained as an evangelist in New 
York, October 7, 1831. A few days later he was 
married to Miss Sarah J. Longstreth, a woman of su- 
perior character, who entered fully into his spirit and 
purpose. They were not looking for an easy place. 
Cincinnati had at that time a population of about thirty 

2o6 History of Old Pine Street. 

thousand. This was made up of every class, and 
offered a great field for mission work. He was called 
to a suburban church, the Fourth Presbyterian, on a 
salary of seven hundred dollars. So cheap was living, 
and so wise were these young people, that they con- 
ducted a home on this, and, in two years, paid out of 
it three hundred and fifty dollars, which Dr. Brainerd 
owed at Andover. Describing his parish, he notes that 
there were in it sixty grog shops. He realized that he 
had been called to serve where the church was deeply 
needed. He served well, and soon commanded the at- 
tention and affection of some of the best men in the 
city. In 1833, he became editor of the Cincinnati 
Journal, and at the same time assistant to Dr. Lyman 
Beecher. During these days of journalistic work he 
gave much attention to writing for the children, which 
was by no means a failure. When he had filled this 
position a little over two years, he was called upon to 
meet his third great sorrow, which he describes. "In 
June, 1835, my wife died of cholera one day, and 
her cherished domestic, almost an adopted daughter, 
the next. My house was literally left desolate. I con- 
tinued to labour until May, 1836."^ It was at this 
point that he appeared for the first time in General As- 
sembly. When he left Cincinnati, he employed Henry 
Ward Beecher to take his place temporarily.^ There 

^ Life, page 103. 

^ New York Independent, February 27, 1862 

Pastorate of Thomas Brainerd. 207 

was not then a thought in his mind of leaving Cincin- 
nati. But the Lord was directing his steps. This 
work at Cincinnati was a splendid preparation for his 
thirty years' pastorate in Old Pine Street. 

One of the most important facts in connection with 
Dr. Brainerd's work in Old Pine Street was his mar- 
riage October 29, 1836, at New Haven, to Mary Whit- 
ing, a daughter of a distinguished family. It was the 
writer's good fortune to know this intellectual, spiritual, 
noble woman. Some time after coming to Old Pine 
Street, she was one of my helpful, delightful corre- 
spondents. One could never think of her as being 
of a past generation. Very fully was she awake to 
the spirit and progress of the age. She possessed the 
rare combination of high intellectual gifts, fine educa- 
tion, and the sweetest gentleness. Her life in Old Pine 
Street deserves to be written. She called out and di- 
rected the great forces of Dr. Brainerd's character. 
There is not the slightest doubt that her wisdom and 
love added years to his life. 

Dr. Brainerd began his new pastorate in troublous 
times. The opposition to his settlement from those 
who had voted against him was, however, compara- 
tively insignificant. He had back of him the splendid 
work of Dr. Ely. Here^ we think, is the explanation 
of his accepting the call with twenty-nme votes against 
him. He knew that he had become pastor of a con- 
gregation that was bound together by years of edu- 

2o8 History of Old Pine Street. 

cative, spiritual preaching. Some of those who had 
refused to make his call unanimous were indeed im- 
portant men ; but they were manly Christian men. The 
robust manliness, the clear sincerity, the able, earnest, 
serious sermons, and the wise, gentlemanly bearing of 
Dr. Brainerd soon bound the entire congregation to 
him. The very few who stood against him dropped 
out of sight. He was from the beginning the master- 
ful leader of his people. 

It must be remembered that Dr. Brainerd had al- 
ready been called to a much wider field of activity and 
of responsibility than that over which he had now been 
made pastor. He had already become one of the 
leaders among his brethren in taking sides in defense 
of the Home Missionary Society and of the American 
Educational Society against what seemed to him a 
narrow ecclesiasticism. He believed that the abroga- 
tion of the Plan of Union was both unconstitutional 
and very unwise. He believed that this Plan of Union 
had brought strength to the Presbyterian Church by 
uniting the forces of Presbyterians and Congregational- 
ists in many important mission districts. It seemed 
clear to him that these two branches of the church, 
holding the same standards of doctrine, should unite 
their forces in aggressive efforts for the coming of 
the kingdom of Christ. He entertained very clear and 
decisive views of the tremendous mistake that was 
being made by many excellent ministers in so con- 

Pastorate of Thomas Brainerd. 209 

founding the orthodox and unorthodox New England 
men as to estimate the doctrinal position of all by the 
New Haven theology. He was unquestionably clear- 
headed and correct in this last position, however friends 
might differ with him concerning his other convictions. 

Dr. Brainerd had already enjoyed what to him was 
an unspeakable privilege in defending his father in 
Christ, Lyman Beecher, against false charges of heresy, 
and had enjoyed what to him was a great triumph for 
the right and for the spirit of Christ in the acquittal of 
Dr. Beecher. It is certain that nothing so interested 
him in the Assembly of 1836 as the case of Albert 
Barnes. There can be no doubt that he rendered royal 
service in the defense of Mr. Barnes upon that oc- 
casion, and that no one rejoiced more sincerely in the 
victory of Mr. Barnes and in his full restoration to the 
ministry. Had Dr. Wilson not withdrawn his ap- 
peal to Assembly against Dr. Beecher, he would cer- 
tainly have met the same defeat there that he had al- 
ready experienced both in Synod and Presbytery. He 
felt deeply the anomalous and exasperating position of 
some of the best men in the church, who, while tram- 
pling upon good order in our ecclesiastical courts, were 
seeking, by indirect methods, to accomplish the con- 
demnation and ruin of such men as Lyman Beecher 
and Albert Barnes. 

He threw his whole soul with the Assembly organ- 
ized in the First Church, May 17, 1838. Dr. Brainerd's 


2IO History of Old Pine Street. 

knowledge of law, and perfect acquaintance with all 
the events that had entered into the conflicts in the 
church since his ordination, enabled him to estimate the 
profound significance of the decision of the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania that made this the constitutional 
assembly. The fact that the Old School Assembly 
never went further in their contention than to secure 
the privilege of a new trial from Chief Justice Gibson, 
of the Supreme Court, naturally confirmed Dr. Brain- 
erd in his conviction that his position throughout had 
been entirely sound. The difificulties in constructing 
the Presbyteries were perplexing enough to have justi- 
fied any man in losing his patience. But Dr. Brainerd 
was a man of the same spirit as the pastor of the 
First Church, and met all these annoyances with perfect 
equanimity. We can have no doubt that it was their 
oneness of spirit that bound the hearts of Albert Barnes 
and Thomas Brainerd together in love like that of 
David and Jonathan. With the history that these two 
men have made before me, I cannot but regret that 
my Old School forbears, from w^hom I received so 
excellent a training for the ministry, were so intensely 
devoted to ecclesiastical order, and to the severities 
of Calvinism, and gave me so little light upon the 
great principles that developed such preachers and 
pastors as these men. 

Dr. Brainerd was eminently practical and aggressive. 
Upon beginning his work in Old Pine Street, his coun- 


When he came to Old Pine Street. This reproduction of an 

old engraving shoivs the church as it appeared before 

the alteration of 183^, and St. Peter's, in the 

background, before the steeple ivas built 

he pu 

j^ |7^g:::'r '-*i;:^::'t^rY :^:if^' 

Pastorate of Thomas Brainerd. 211 

sel at once settled the question of enlarging the church, 
which had been discussed for so many years. He 
showed the cautious men, who had the interests of Old 
Pine Street at heart, that the debt on the church w^as 
an argument for, and not against, the proposed im- 
provements. This judgment, which he then so posi- 
tively ventured^ was fully confirmed by the sale of 
new pews, after the completion of the improvements. 
From thirty-nine of these pews ten thousand dollars 
was realized. It is understood that this was payment 
which enabled the person to hold the pew perpetually 
by an annual pew-rent. He took the sound position 
also, that it would be very poor policy to dwarf the 
congregation, and impede its work, simply for the 
sake of preserving the exact form of the original build- 
ing. Before a year of his pastorate had passed the 
single story gave place to a two-story church, upon the , 

original foundations and walls. The pulpit was re- \>>^'a 
moved from the east side to an alcove built in the south ' €' 
end. About forty new pews were added. The con- 
gregation thus found themselves in possession of abun- 
dant room for all meetings, and for every department 
of church work. These improvements cost nineteen 
thousand dollars. 

Twenty years after this, the pastor led in further im- 
provements. A front entrance, a vestibule, a hall lead- 
ing to the Lecture Room, a Pastor's Study, and a Ses- 
sion Room, were constructed on the basement floor. 

212 History of Old Pine Street. 

The Corinthian pillars were erected, a vestibule was 
made to the main audience room, and a roof was 
built over the entire church, enclosing the gable ends 
and roof of the original building. These old gable 
ends, as we have already noticed, with their circular 
windows, can be seen by ascending to the loft.^ These 
improvements cost eleven thousand five hundred dol- 
lars, which was promptly raised by subscription, fif- 
teen hundred dollars of which the pastor secured from 
his friends outside of the congregation. Dr. Brainerd 
had made full provision for the improvements of 1867 
before he went upon his last vacation, although his 
plans seem to have been much enlarged. 

One secret of the pastor's influence in the financial 
interests of the church may be found in the fact that 
during a period covering several years he relinquished 
fourteen hundred dollars of his salary. He never said 
to the people, "Go," but always, "Come." It is good 
to read that in 1854 this fourteen hundred dollars was 
returned to Dr. Brainerd; and that, two years later, 
his salary was raised to twenty-five hundred dollars; 
and that, in 1864, a donation of fifteen hundred dollars 
was made to the pastor and his wife. During that 
year the entire offerings of the congregation amounted 
to twelve thousand five hundred dollars. It may be 
fairly claimed that during the entire pastorate of Dr. 
Brainerd Old Pine Street stood in the first rank of the 

^ See illustration facing page 193. 

Pastorate of Thomas Brainerd. 213 

Presbyterian Churches of Philadelphia in the grace of 

When Dr. Brainerd wanted money for a definite pur- 
pose, it was his custom to make out a list of persons 
from his roll, affixing amounts to each name, and then 
simply go out and collect the money. Upon one oc- 
casion it was related that he called upon the husband 
of a member who sold beer in his eating-saloon. The 
husband, knowing the Doctor's temperance princi- 
ples, said, as he handed out ten dollars, ''Here it is, 
Doctor. Liquor made it." Dr. Brainerd promply re- 
plied, "Yes, Mr. A., I am now going to put it to a good 
use." One Sunday morning, when he had made an ap- 
peal for a large offering, he looked over the pulpit into 
the collection boxes, and after contemplating their con- 
tents for a time, looked up and said: ''My friends, 
Alexander the coppersmith hath done me much harm 
this morning." It was his fearless words to wealthy 
men at a crucial point that raised the subscriptions for 
the building of Calvary Church from hundreds to 
thousands, and won the day, by securing seventy-five 
thousand for that splendid new enterprise.^ The sav- 
ing of Clinton Street Church, when it was under the 
hammer, and of Tioga Church, when it was helplessly 
involved, and the founding and building of Green Hill 
Church, and large offerings for the building of other 
churches in Philadelphia are to be put to his credit. ^ 

* Albert Barnes' "Funeral Sermon," page 19. 
'Ibid., page 20. 

2 14 History of Old Pine Street. 

He founded the Forest Church, of Lyons Falls, Forest 
County, New York, raising the money and pushing the 
enterprise until he was called to preach the dedicatory 
sermon, August 6, 1854. This was a monument of 
loving remembrance to his old home neighborhood.^ 
His largeness of soul was phenomenal. He made the 
perplexities and enterprises of his neighbor in the 
work of extending the Kingdom his own. His efforts 
for church extension were untiring unto the day of his 

Dr. Brainerd shrank with pain from applying the 
principle of exclusion to any who sought the truth, 
or who gave their service for humanity. A single in- 
cident from many that might be given illustrates this 
trait of character. ''Dr. Thomas Brainerd, of Phila- 
delphia, was one of those who offered a courageous op- 
position to the extravagance of excitement against 
Romanism, while R. J. Breckenridge and Nicholas 
Murray were especially prominent in antagonizing the 
pretensions of American Romanism." ^ The present 
pastor of the church heartily sympathizes with this 
trait of character in his predecessor. However much 
he may differ theologically or ecclesiastically from his 
Roman Catholic brethren, the fact remains that one of 
the most loving helpers with whom he has ever joined 
hands in fighting organized crime in Philadelphia was 

^Lifc, page 231. 

^Thompson's "Prcsbyterianism in America," page 131. 

aid tiic ■ 
ion of tiii- 

)i term; 

. .-iunatioii. ■ . -.:■ m-hi .'^ 

the means ^ 
i and 


s?f:f^ ^r-jK 'rfyt^'i-: 

Pastorate of Thomas Brainerd. 215 

a Jesuit priest, Rev. John Scully, until lately rector of 
St. Joseph's Church ; and the man who sent the largest 
check for the illustration of this book, one of his old 
pupils, is a prominent layman in the Catholic Church. 

But no man grasped more clearly than did Dr. 
Brainerd the distinction between ends and means. He 
never thought of regarding the temporalities of the 
church as an end in themselves. In the whole spirit of 
his ministry, self-congratulation, or unseemly compe- 
tition with other churches, was absolutely excluded. 
He was on the best of terms with neighboring minis- 
ters of every denomination. Dr. Richard Newton, 
the distinguished Episcopalian child's preacher, and 
the brilliant Baptist minister. Dr. Wheaton Smith, 
were as close as brothers to him. When Old Pine 
Street was being renovated. Spruce Street Baptist 
Church was delighted to give Dr. Brainerd's people a 
place to worship. 

Dr. Brainerd saw in the temporal possessions, influ- 
ences, and operations of the church, the means to the 
one end of saving men from sin and death, and of 
building them, as living stones, into the glorious tem- 
ple of Jesus Christ. Eminently successful was he in 
attaining this end. During his thirty years in Old 
Pine Street, he received over twelve hundred members, 
an average of over forty a year; baptized more than 
eight hundred persons; attended ten hundred and 
eighty funerals; and solemnized over eight hundred 

2i6 History of Old Pine Street. 

marriages. Add to this the able, spiritual sermons and 
lectures delivered, which could not have been far from 
five thousand; and the pastoral visits he made, which 
would number, perhaps, some twenty thousand, for he 
was a most diligent, painstaking pastor; and you have 
a suggestion of the service rendered to his own people 
and to the religious interests of the community. He 
gladly accepted the truth that every man was his neigh- 
bor. He never neglected the duties of his own ap- 
pointed field, but often did he enter other avenues of 
ministerial service. His voice was heard upon the 
street, and in the old Second Street Market House, 
where he sought to reach the ears of those who did 
not appear in the Sabbath congregations, and yet who 
needed so deeply the glad tidings of salvation. 

Dr. Brainerd was thoroughly a Presbyterian. He 
knew and fully accepted the polity of the Presbyterian 
Church. Few pastors have equaled him in the skilful 
application of this polity for the control and develop- 
ment of the life of a church. He fully realized the 
difficulty of holding an even balance in the exercise of 
the two great principles of liberty and order. He was 
fully in accord with the people in their historic strug- 
gle for their personal and constitutional rights. And 
yet he was a strong advocate of representative govern- 
ment in the church. He believed in the due constitu- 
tional exercise of ecclesiastical authority in the higher 
courts of the church : his contention had always been 

.'P;i Im, ^><>^^inn, ati<l the ; 
Uncle of General George B. McClellan, and Professor in Jeffer- 
son Medical College; a Ruling Elder in Old Pine Street 


id Sam I 

From a steel engraving in possession of the church. 

Pastorate of Thomas Brainerd. 217 

against the irregular and tyrannical pressing of such 
authority. He taught his people that the Holy Spirit 
dwells in the body of believers. In the congregational 
meetings of the church, perfect harmony did not always 
exist. He had a number of turbulent, crooked spirits 
to deal with. But his firm, kind hand always won 
confidence and respect. These facts we readily read 
in the records of the church. 

He honored his Session, and the ruling elders hon- 
ored him. Nor did he show less respect to the body of 
trustees in their sphere of duty. When his pastorate 
began, the Session consisted of John C. Farr, R. W. 
Davenport, William Nassau, and John R. McMullin, 
Jr. There were ordained during his pastorate the fol- 
lowing elders: In 1838, Samuel McClellan, M. D., 
James H. Eaton, and Charles H. Dingee; in 1841, 
Thomas C. McLeod, Levi Eldridge, and Alexander 
Whilldin; in 1848, Frederick A. Raybold and Thomas 
MacKellar; in 1854, John Aikman and Samuel Work; 
in i860, George Young, William Ivins, and James 
Fraiser. This choice of ruling elders and the time and 
manner of their election is in itself a study and would 
make a most interesting chapter. During the pastorate, 
there were twenty-five cases of discipline before the 
Session. Nearly all were reclaimed. These elders did 
faithfully take heed unto themselves and unto all the 
flock over which the Lord had made them overseers. 

If Andover was teaching any unsound doctrine while 

2i8 History of Old Pine Street. 

Dr. Brainerd was in that institution, it is certain that 
he was not affected by such instruction. Soundness in 
doctrine was one of the elements in his greatness. It 
is true that his mind did not run in the mould of sys- 
tematic theology and metaphysical subtleties. But he 
knew Christianity, in its history, in its power, and 
in its adaptation to the human sotil in all its deepest 
necessities. His hope for himself and for humanity 
was in the absolute sovereignty of God, in the atoning 
death and glorious resurrection of the Christ, and in 
the gracious regenerating power of the Holy Ghost. 
He knew and accepted the great formulated principles 
of Augustinianism. He accepted and taught and de- 
fended the Westminster standards; but longed for the 
day which has now come to the church in the revision 
of these standards. He was faithful in grounding his 
young people in the catechism; but distinguished 
sharply between the doctrinal standards of the church as 
a bond of union, and the Holy Scriptures as the supreme, 
infallible rule of faith and practice for the individual 
and for the church. Reverently, faithfully, hopefully 
did he preach the Word. He taught the true Calvin- 
istic doctrines of sin, of justification by faith, of the 
new birth, and of the resurrection of the just and of the 
unjust; but he emphasized very strongly the truths that 
'*he that doeth righteousness is righteous," and that 
* 'whosoever hath this hope in him purifieth himself 
even as He is pure." He was a born teacher as well 

Pastorate of Thomas Brainerd. 219 

as an awakening and stirring preacher. When the 
present pastor came to Old Pine Street he heard one 
speak of the "Brainerd element" in the congregation. 
This he afterwards learned had a deep significance. 
A few of those remain to this day.^ What men and 
women and church members they are! Scattered far 
and wide, scores of Christian men and women in other 
churches are perpetuating the spirit of Thomas Brain- 

Originality was a trait strongly marked in the char- 
acter of Dr. Brainerd. He was not afraid of ''in- 
novations," if they were good for the time, and were 
needed to accomplish the best results. A number of 
institutions were evolved in the church during his 

From the beginning of the church, praise occupied 
an important place in the worshipping assemblies of 
Old Pine Street, but the simplest and plainest methods 
of singing were in vogue. The progress in the music 
of the church was very slow. The people were wedded 
to the precentor, known as the clerk of the church, who 
occupied a most honorable position. At a congrega- 
tional meeting, March 11, 1846, the minutes conclude 
with this record : ''A proposition was offered to take 
the sense of the meeting upon the propriety of intro- 
ducing instrumental music in the church service, where- 

^ There are on the roll of the church, August, 1905, more than 
twenty whose membership dates back to Dr. Brainerd's pastorate. 

2 20 History of Old Pine Street. 

upon a considerable majority of the meeting mani- 
fested their approbation of the same, but after some 
consideration, all further action thereon was deferred 
for the present." Even after nine years of service Dr. 
Brainerd must needs step very cautiously in dealing 
with this matter. Just two years after the above meet- 
ing, the Board of Trustees adopted the following: 
''Resolved, That permission be granted to have an or- 
gan put in the church, the cost of which being pro- 
vided for without any debt being incurred by the trus- 
tees therefor." By voluntary offerings, seventeen 
hundred dollars was secured, and the organ was placed 
in the church. This seemed to have inspired the trus- 
tees to do considerable repairing and to thoroughly 
paint the church. The trustees then voted two hun- 
dred and fifty dollars for the music of the church, one 
hundred and fifty for the clerk, and one hundred for 
the organist. Lewis H. Redner, who wrote the im- 
mortal music to Phillips Brooks' "Little Town of Beth- 
lehem," was the first organist, although it seems that 
Charles G. Borhek rendered gratuitous service for a 
time before Redner's election. Not until 1855 was a 
woman's voice introdticed into the choir, when Miss 
Linn was employed at a salary of one hundred dollars 
per annum. In the minutes of a congregational meet- 
ing the following year we read : ''The motion to dis- 
pense with the services of the choir and the clerk placed 
before the desk, after some discussion, was referred 


Pastorate of Thomas Brainerd. 221 

to the Session of the church." The next step forward 
was in 1855, which is described as follows: ''On mo- 
tion, resolved that Mr. William Ivins be, and is hereby 
elected clerk for one year from the first of November 
next, at two hundred and twenty-five dollars per an- 
num, payable quarterly; he paying his assistants." 
From this time the music of the church was practically 
in the hands of William Ivins, whose services extended 
over forty years. It was under his care that the quar- 
tette choir was developed. 

Systematic work for the distribution of the Bible in 
the church was initiated under this pastorate in 1839. 
A Bible Society was then founded in connection with 
the Sunday-School, which has done a notable work, 
continuing to the present time. It is worthy of note 
that in 1855 Dr. Brainerd delivered the annual ad- 
dress before the American Bible Society in New York. 
He was in the forefront of this work of publishing 
and distributing the Holy Scriptures. 

Dr. Brainerd was one of the early and most con- 
spicuous apostles of the doctrine of total abstinence 
from intoxicants as a beverage. He was a delegate to 
the World's Temperance Convention which was held 
in London, England, in 1846.^ His stirring eloquence 
made a profound impression upon that assembly. 
When he returned, he told his people about the con- 
vention, and no doubt made good use of what he had 
^Life, page 203. 

2 22 History of Old Pine Street. 

seen and heard. He told them of his astonishment 
and grief upon finding that the clergymen of Scotland 
were accustomed to social drinking. That seemed to 
stir his soul more than any incident in his years of ser- 
vice in the temperance cause. He established a total 
abstinence society in Old Pine Street, which at one 
time had a large membership. Many leading men in 
the church refer their strong temperance principles to 
that society. 

Dr. Brainerd's work for Sunday-Schools will be de- 
scribed in the chapter upon that subject. But im- 
mediately in connection with the education of the young 
was one of the most remarkable institutions in the life 
of the congregation during Dr. Brainerd's ministry. 
It was the prophecy of the Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation and of the Christian Endeavor movement. 
There was no formal organization, and no pledge save 
the covenant which each person had made with his 
Lord and Master upon becoming a communicant in 
the church. It was simply a young men's meeting on 
Sunday evening, which was conducted with reverent 
reliance upon the Holy Spirit. There was no doubt 
preparation upon the part of those who took active 
part, but it was wonderfully like a Quaker meeting. 
These meetings often overcrowded the Lecture Room. 
They were always open, and invitation given to any 
one to say a single word. Not a few of the best Chris- 
tian workers, not only in Old Pine Street but in other 

Pastorate of Thomas Brainerd. 223 

churches, there first learned to speak for Christ. The 
pastor was ahvays present. At the close of the meet- 
ing he made a short address. In this not one who had 
spoken was omitted. We are told by those who passed 
through these experiences that he sent everyone home 
feeling that he had added something to the service. 
But the great and precious fruit of these meetings was 
the spiritual development of personal character which 
they gave to so many. From these meetings many 
young men w^ent out to homes around the church and 
held cottage meetings for prayer. Who can improve 
upon this method of going out into the highways and 
hedges and compelling them to come in? The vener- 
able Andrew Culver, an Old Pine Street boy, who has 
rendered so long and so noble a service for the Presby- 
terian Church, speaks tenderly of the experiences and 
the services of this period. 

Rev. John McLeod, another Old Pine Street boy of 
these days, for years pastor of the Southwestern 
Church, who, together with his wife, spent the latter 
years of his ministry in thoroughly consecrated mission 
work in London, was another trained in these meetings. 
Time would fail us to speak of the men still living in 
Philadelphia, ruling elders and superintendents of Sun- 
day-Schools, who received their early inspiration from 
this source. Two members of the present Session, 
Stephen D. Harris and Randall T. Hazzard,^ frequently 
refer to those blessed days. 

^ Mr. Hazzard died July 3, 1905. 

2 24 History of Old Pine Street. 

The name of Thomas Brainerd stands in the first 
rank of the patriots of our cotintry. He possessed the 
spirit of George Duffield. From his boyhood he was 
a deeply interested and close student of the political 
conditions of the nation. He saw with great clearness 
the incongruity of human slavery in a free nation that 
had been built upon the Declaration of Independence. 
He saw the possibilities of a gigantic conflict between 
the North and the South. But in dealing with the 
question of slavery he was always wise, patient, and 
conservative. There was in his attitude and deliver- 
ances none of the fanaticism of the extreme abolition- 
ist. In our ecclesiastical assemblies he always coun- 
selled moderation. This was from no half-hearted sym- 
pathy with the black man, for the colored people were 
devoted to him. They came to him constantly for 
counsel, for protection, for help; and he never turned 
them away. He longed for their emancipation from 
slavery. He counselled with Henry Clay and others of 
like character upon this great subject. He visited the 
South, and sought to know the true condition and spirit 
of her people. Up to the time of the Civil War, his 
position was in favor of some method of gradual eman- 

But from the attacks upon Fort Sumter until the sur- 
render of Lee he never wavered in the position that 
the appeal to arms must be met, that the rebellion must 
be subdued, that the American Union must be pre- 

Shozving Tablet to the dead of the Civil War 

Pastorate of Thomas Brainerd. 225 

served. It was his hope that the issue of the conflict 
might bring indeed the emancipation of the slaves. 

From the beginning of the war he enhsted as truly 
as any man who went to the front, and w^e believe laid 
down his life for his country as really as any officer who 
fell upon the field of battle. His prophecy that "this 
war should kill him" was sadly fulfilled; but not until 
he had rendered loyal service for his country. 

He was the great patriot pastor of Philadelphia. 
Many others stood with him, but none before him. 
There went from his own congregation into the Union 
Army one hundred and thirty men. Among these was 
his only living son, a graduate of Yale, and a physician, 
who enlisted as a surgeon and served with distinction 
until the close of the war. He still lives in Montreal, 
and has never lost his interest in the old church.^ One 
of the last acts of Dr. Brainerd was to erect in the 
upper vestibule of the church the marble tablet bear- 
ing the names of the eighteen sons of Old Pine Street 
w^ho gave their lives for their country. But during 
the entire service of the men from his congregation in 
the army, he bore them all upon his heart. His prayers 
for them always melted the congregation to tears. His 
patriotic sermons w^ere never written. They could not 
^**^ written. They were poured out w^ith an amazing 
/ -Tvor from his overflowing heart. They fired men's 
souls. A few, including important members, did not 

Thomas Chalmers Brainerd, M. D, 

2 26 History of Old Pine Street. 

respond to the appeals of their patriot pastor, and left 
the church. But even personal friendship was not so 
dear as his country. From a few of his ministerial 
brethren, Southern sympathizers, he was completely 
separated. Opposition to the government during these 
perilous days was to Dr. Brainerd very near the unpar- 
donable sin. His restless, intense, continuous activity 
during the entire period of the war completely wrecked 
his physical constitution. 

He was constantly sought in counsel. When the 
news of the Battle of Gettysburg and the flight of Lee 
reached Philadelphia, he was one of the two ministers 
who led the procession from the Union League, of 
which he was a founder, to Lidependence Square. We 
will permit the North American of that date to describe 
him upon that occasion : 

"Amid more profound silence, we verily believe than an equal 
number of people ever kept before, Dr. Brainerd gave praise. He 
thanked the Almighty for the victories that were now crowning 
our arms. He had chastened us in His displeasure, and alike in 
that chastening as now in the blessing upon our work he 
recognized the hand of the Omnipotent. He implored the divine 
blessing upon the country and its people — that religion, and truth, 
and justice might take the place of pride, and arrogance, and 
vainglory, and that this people might recognize in every event 
of life the ruling of divine power. He prayed for the President 
and cabinet ; for the continued success of our arms, and for the 
restoration of our national unity ; for liberty to the oppressed ; 
for freedom to worship God everywhere; and for the coming of 
that day when His kingdom shall be exalted over the whole 
earth." ' 

^North American, July 5, 1863. 


The greatest Civil WarHnstitution in Philadelphia. Dr. Brainerd 
on horseback 

From a painting by L. Moran. 

iJmsq is moi' 

Pastorate of Thomas Brainerd. 227 

At the subsequent meeting, at the close of the war, 
unquestionably the greatest ever held in this city, Dr. 
Brainerd appeared as one of the most prominent figures. 
The multitudes seemed to look to him, as though they 
were conscious that no man was drinking a larger share 
of joy than he. 

The most remarkable institution in Philadelphia dur- 
ing the Civil War was the Union Volunteer Refresh- 
ment Saloon, at the foot of Washington Avenue, which 
was originally started for the incidental relief of hun- 
gry soldiers landing in Philadelphia. This resting place 
grew into an emergency hospital for the relief of 
wounded men, and a reading-room where the men could 
meet each other and write letters to their dear ones. 
The most important part, however, was the department 
where the men were provided with first-class meals. It 
is claimed that about a million of these meals were 
given to hungry men. During long periods. Dr. Brain- 
erd divided his time between his home and this saloon. 
Upon one occasion, when many soldiers were landing, 
he stood three hours talking to the men. His view of 
this work and the spirit of his words may be found in 
a brief address made at the funeral of Lieutenant Gre- 
ble, the first of his men who fell in battle. Attention 
has been called to the fact that these words wxre very 
similar to the memorable speech of Abraham Lincoln 
at the dedication of the Gettysburg battlefield two years 

2 28 History of Old Pine Street. 

"This young man has fallen in the beginning of the conflict 
to preserve this country — our Constitution, our prosperity — the 
liberty of men everywhere, from treason, anarchy, aristocratic 
oppression, and final ruin. He died, that his country might not 
die. He died, that the great experiment of self-government in 
this land might not fail." ^ 

The most notable event in the pastorate of Dr. Brain- 
erd was his twenty-fifth anniversary. Coming just at 
the time when he was feeling the tremendous strain that 
was put upon him, and filled with the forebodings as 
to the issue of the war, it was like an oasis in the 
desert. The old church could not hold the throng 
that gathered about him. The evening assembly was 
held in a public hall. Many and sincere were the con- 
gratulations which he received. Perhaps none were 
more grateful to his heart than the tribute of Albert 
Barnes. He must also have cherished greatly the ac- 
count of this event from the pen of Henry Ward 
Beecher in the Independent. The record of this event 
from Mrs. Brainerd in his biography would indicate 
that Dr. Brainerd received from this anniversary a 
strength and an inspiration for many days that lay 
before him. 

Dr. Brainerd did not delight in writing. He was a 
man of action rather than of the pen. His life of the 
missionary, David Brainerd, is an important addition 
to biographical literature. During his pastorate at Old 
Pine Street he published about twenty sermons in 

^Life, page 253. 

"^r+ainef Vlexanc 


Draped in mourning for.Abrqham Lincoln, April i6, 1B65 

tne same occas 

From a photograph in possession of the church. 



.in inmortpnt a= 
Hiringf h 

Pastorate of Thomas Brainerd. 229 

pamphlet form. He was associate editor of the Pres- 
byterian Quarterly Reinezv, of Philadelphia. This 
would seem to cover all writings that he left. 

In 1848 he received the honorary degree of Doctor 
of Divinity from Amherst College. He was commis- 
sioner to seven Assemblies, and moderator of the New 
School Assembly, which met in Dayton, Ohio, in 1864. 
He was one of the founders of the Evangelical Alliance 
at the convention held for that purpose in 1846 in 
London, England. He made this trip with his elder, 
John C. Farr, and traveled through several countries 
on the Continent. Together with Dr. Lyman Beecher, 
he was entertained by G. W. Alexander, President of 
the British Anti-Slavery Society. In 1848 he opened 
the Whig Convention with prayer; and the following 
year delivered the annual address to the Young Ladies' 
Institute, Pittsfield, Mass., Oliver Wendell Holmes 
reading a poem, and President Tyler delivering another 
address on the same occasion. He made a number of 
other important addresses on stated occasions, always 
winning his audience and leaving a deep impression. 
He was chairman of the New School Committee ap- 
pointed at their Assembly of 1849 to make overtures 
to the Old School Church for re-union, and had the 
painful experience of being rebuffed. The spirit of 
the man comes out beautifully in the fact that when 
he died he was laboring as a member of another com- 
mittee for the same great end, and it is pathetic to 

230 History of Old Pine Street. 

reflect that he passed away so soon before the con- 
summation of the re-union. He was a corporator 
of the American Board of Foreign Missions, trustee 
of the Presbyterian House, and corporator of the 
Women's Medical College. These brief statements 
suggest the breadth of his sympathies and the large- 
ness of his work outside of his own pastoral charge. 

While at Cincinnati he received three calls, and dur- 
ing his time at Old Pine Street four that are known. 
One important church called him twice. 

His last public appearance was at Easton, where he 
delivered the annual address before the Brainerd Mis- 
sionary Society of Lafayette College.^ That w^as a tre- 
mendous effort, from which it is likely he received fatal 

No experience told so severely upon Dr. Brainerd 
as sorrow. He was called to drink deeply of this cup 
from childhood. The death of his mother, when he 
was so young; the death of his fiancee, when he was 
so full of hope for his life's work; the death of his 
wife, when he had just begun his earnest work; the 
death of two of his own dear children, the eldest 
daughter in her seventh year, and the youngest son 
in his fifth, left deep shadows in his heart. One of his 
bright anticipations, as he left Philadelphia in 1866 
for Scranton to spend his vacation with his daughter, 
was the delightful companionship which he should en- 

^ Published in pamphlet form by Samuel Loag, 1866. 

:m when Heaven opens U<r n^-'' 
Decorated for the Centennial of the Church, May, 1868; taken 
before the monument was erected 

From a photograph by O. H. Willard. 




Pastorate of Thomas Brainerd. 231 

joy with his two httle grandchildren. Soon after he 
reached that home, these children suddenly died. This 
was more than he could bear. On the evening of 
August twenty-first, striving to hide his aching heart, 
he bade the family good-bye, and retired. He did not 
rise again. His remains were brought to the old 
church, and after a service never to be forgotten, were 
laid in the churchyard in the spot now marked by the 
beatitiful granite shaft which his devoted wife erected 
to his memory. 

I never saw Dr. Brainerd in the flesh, but I have 
felt his influence a thousand times, and am sure that 
I shall know him when Heaven opens for me. 


A. B. (Centre); D. D. 

Secretary of the Freedman's Board; sez'CHth Pastor of Old Pine 

Street ' ' 

From a photograph in possession (>{ the church. 

The Pastorate of Rickard Howe 



It is remarkable that the longest and greatest pastor- 
ate in the history of the church was followed by the 
shortest interregnum. It was but a few days over five 
months after the death of Dr. Brainerd that a new pas- 
tor was called. There were reasonable causes for this 
apparent haste. The centennial of the church was ap- 
proaching ; extensive improvements to the church build- 
ing had been long contemplated; and the profound 
influence which the deceased pastor had exerted 
over the life of the congregation was wholly against 
exposing them to the disadvantages of the vacant 

There seemed to be a settled conviction in the minds 
of many of the strongest members in the church that 
Rev. Dr. George Wiswell, of Wilmington, Delaware, 
should be the successor of Dr. Brainerd. It was known 
that Dr. Brainerd had expressed the opinion that this 
minister would be his logical successor. But Richard 
Howe Allen, of Nashville, Tennessee, had been strongly 
recommended for the vacant pulpit, and many were 
drawn to him. When the congregational meeting was 


234 History of Old Pine Street. 

convened, January 30, 1867, for the choice of a pastor, 
the people balloted for these two ministers. Dr. Allen 
received fifty-eight and Dr. Wiswell twenty-seven votes. 
After full conference the vote for Dr. Allen was made 
unanimous. A call was immediately sent to him, and 
by him accepted, on February twelfth. He was in- 
stalled April twenty-first. Dr. T. J. Sheppard pre- 
sided, Dr. F. L. Robbins preached the sermon, Albert 
Barnes delivered the charge to the pastor, and Robert 
Adair to the people. The constitution of this pastorate 
was one of ihe many examples of the increase of the 
spirit of unity, w4iich was so soon to bring the two 
branches of the church again into one body; for Dr. 
Allen was an Old School man, and came to this New 
School church from one which stood strongly upon the 
other side. 

Dr. Allen was born at Greenville, Kentucky, May 14, 
1 82 1. His father was General James Allen, who was 
for fifteen years a member of the Kentucky Senate, 
and who, in the War of 181 2, commanded the Ken- 
tucky troops. Dr. Allen was a graduate of Centre 
College. He also took his degree from a law school, 
presumably in Saint Louis. He was admitted to the 
bar in that city in 1844. He soon gave up the law, 
however, for the ministry, and studied theology in 
what was then New Albany Seminary. Upper Mis- 
souri Presbytery licensed him to preach in September, 
1847. The following November he was ordained and 

Pastorate of Richard Howe Allen. 235 

installed pastor of a church in Jefferson City, Missouri, 
where he was the successor of Dr. Goodrich. From 
this church he resigned, after a short pastorate, to un- 
dertake home missionary work. He possessed special 
gifts as an evangelist, thoroughly enjoying travel, and 
preaching to different congregations. Beginning this 
work in 1849, he served three years before he was 
again settled as a pastor. During this time it is said 
that he founded a church by his own efforts. It is 
written of him that '*he stopped not to consult with 
flesh and blood, nor to ask aid of any missionary board, 
but purchased a horse, filled one side of his saddle- 
bags with Bibles and tracts, and started out as an 
evangelist, preaching wherever God in his providence 
opened a way." ^ This spirit runs through his entire 
ministry. He was a man of action rather than a 
student. It is said that he chafed under being confined 
much to the study. He was settled in Jeffersonville 
and Lafayette, Indiana, nine years. In 1861 he was 
called to New Orleans, but the war cut short his work 
there. The following year he was called to the Second 
Church, Nashville, Tennessee. It was from this church 
that he came to Old Pine Street. 

Dr. Allen began in Philadelphia with a splendid 
foundation upon which to build. Dr. Brainerd's last 
annual report, which his Presbytery sent to the Gen- 
eral Assembly of 1866, shows a communing member- 

^ Nevin's "American Presbyterian Church," page 25. 

236 History of Old Pine Street. 

ship of five hundred and ninety-eight. There are evi- 
dences that these, for the most part, represented trained 
church members. The educative element in the pastor- 
ate of Dr. Brainerd, we have seen, was quite remark- 
able. And then the church was well organized for 
aggressive work. There was a shock, however, in the 
change of pastorates, stich as is always likely to occur 
where a minister follows a long pastorate. Dr. Allen's 
first report shows a net decrease of about forty com- 
municants, although he had made considerable addi- 
tions to the roll during the year. This is scarcely as 
large a decrease in membership as one might expect, 
when all the conditions of the change through which 
the church passed are taken into consideration. 

Dr. Allen possessed some strong points as a minister. 
He was a man of good physical endowments; large, 
erect, and commanding in appearance. Few men have 
ever possessed a finer, more sympathetic voice. He 
had in large measure that indefinable magnetism which 
draws large congregations. The genius of good fel- 
lowship was manifest in his character. He must have 
been an ideal fraternity man when in college. He was 
a devoted Mason, and made many acquaintances out- 
side of his own congregation. He was most approach- 
able, and loved to hear or tell a good anecdote. He 
was remarkably apt in choosing his themes for dis- 
course. His first sermon in Old Pine Street was from 
the text, 'T ask therefore for what intent ye have sent 

Pastorate of Richard Howe Allen. 237 

for me." When he appeared before the Sunday- 
School he took the children at once. He began his 
talk to them by saying, "Now I am going to be good 
to you, and I want you to be good to me." The con- 
trast between his massive frame and the little tots that 
sat before him looking so earnestly into his face made 
a remarkable stroke of thoroughly good humor. 

The following testimony from one of the great pas- 
tors of Philadelphia is worthy to be recorded here. 

"I think I may fairly and frankly say that when I 
came to Philadelphia in 1868 Dr. Allen was the most 
popular preacher in the city : popular as regards draw- 
ing the people, and I have often wondered what this 
man's power was. We wonder why one man can take 
an audience and by his words seem to hold them, and 
another cannot do so. There was one thing peculiar 
about him, he had what was called native oratory. 
Those of you who knew Dr. Allen and Dr. March will 
remember that Dr. March was a scholarly man, with 
wondrous power of stating the truths of the Bible. 
Dr. Allen came to us from Kentucky with his peculiar 
Southern oratory. While it is true that cultivation can 
make a man a good speaker, it is true that the speaker 
is born and not made. What a voice he had, and how 
much of pathos he could put into his speech ! It would 
be impossible for you to keep back the tears. With it 
came that strange something which we sometimes call 
magnetism. When Dr. Allen arose, the first word he 

238 History of Old Pine Street. 

spoke, he had his audience. With it all he had a 
very fine command of language; how beautiful and 
chaste his diction was !" ^ 

As a natural consequence of this kind of preaching, 
the accessions to the church under Dr. Allen's pastorate 
were large. In the thirteen years of his service he re- 
ceived about six hundred and fifty persons into the 
communion of the church by profession and by letter, 
an average of fifty a year. He solemnized three hun- 
dred and fifty-four marriages, and baptized one hun- 
dred and fifty-three children. He attended a cor- 
responding number of funerals, no doubt ; although we 
have no record of these. 

At the beginning of this pastorate there was kept a 
record of the whole number of communicants, the num- 
ber present, and the number absent, at each communion. 
This was accomplished by the excellent system of com- 
munion cards which were then introdticed. March, 

1869, the whole number is given as six hundred and 
twenty-five; the number present at communion, three 
hundred and forty-seven ; the number absent, two 
hundred and seventy-eight. Passing down to March, 

1870, we find the whole number to be six hundred and 
seventy-five; the number present at communion, three 
httndred and twenty ; the number absent, three hundred 
and fifty-five. At the corresponding communion of 

' Dr. Stephen W. Dana in the Old Pine Street Church News, 
November, 1892. 

Pastorate of Richard Howe Allen. 239 

1 87 1, the whole number is five hundred and sixty- 
nine; present, three hundred and twenty-six; absent, 
two hundred and forty-three. The last record made 
was in September, 1871, when the whole number was 
five hundred and seventy-six; the number present, one 
hundred and ninety-five ; the number absent, three hun- 
dred and eighty-one. The large absenteeism, however, 
was certainly partly due to the absence of some who 
had not returned from their summer vacation. At 
the close of the third year of this pastorate, the roll of 
communicants was revised by the Session. This 
showed one hundred and thirty-four names of per- 
sons who could not be found, leaving on the roll five 
hundred and thirty-six. One cause of this remarkable 
fluctuation was undoubtedly the character of this down- 
town field, as it was thirty years ago. Even then, a 
large portion of the community was like a flock of 
pigeons, here to-day, to-morrow gone. The report 
made to Presbytery six months after Dr. Allen left, and 
while the pulpit was still vacant, gave the whole num- 
ber of communicants as four hundred. When the new 
pastor came, in September of that year, he could find, by 
diligent search, only about three hundred and twenty- 
five; and a number of these were not attending church. 
The Board of Trustees during this pastorate was 
always strong and able, not a whit behind the boards 
that had preceded them. There were in this official 
board a number of active, aggressive young men; and 

240 History of Old Pine Street. 

there were older men full of experience and wise in 
council. Those in charge of the temporalities of the 
church, when Dr. Allen came to Old Pine Street, were 
Messrs. H. K. Bennett, William Campbell, James 
Fraiser, George Griffiths, William Ivins, Samuel 
Logue, William Maclntire, Dr. W. H. Pile, Randolph 
Sailer, Hugh Stevenson, L. M. Whilldin, O. H. Wil- 
lard, and George Young. During the thirteen years 
there were elected into the Board thirty-five men, whose 
names are given elsewhere.^ Evidently the distribu- 
tion of responsibility and service was wisely and justly 
made among the half hundred men in the congregation 
who were called to official positions. Great practical 
wisdom was shown in keeping in continuous service a 
few persons who possessed exceptional gifts for the 
positions which they held. This had been done in 
previous pastorates, where we find men like Robert 
Davenport serving through the greater part of active 
life. Hugh Stevenson served continuously in the 
Board of Trustees for forty-nine years, and was its 
president for twenty-seven years. John C. Farr was 
a ruling elder for fifty-four years. Stephen D. Harris, 
still serving actively, has held office for thirty-six years. 
Dr. Allen began with a Session of five members : 
John C. Farr, Samuel Work, George Young, James 
Fraiser, and William Ivins. During his pastorate there 
were five added to the Session : in 1870, Burkitt Webb, 

^ See Appendix G. 



into th»* Konr*! 
Beloved Ruling Elder for fifty-six years, who rests in the church- 

From a portrait in possession of the church. 




Pastorate of Richard Howe Allen. 241 

Edward R. Hutchins, M. D., and John Elliott; in 
1874, John Moore and O. H. Willard. The history of 
the service of these men is fully written. They were 
wise and faithful rulers over the spiritual interests of 
the church. It is remarkable, however, that there is 
record of but one case of discipline. This occurred in 
1^70, when a member was suspended from the com- 
munion of the church. There may have been others 
which were not recorded. Btit the indications are 
that the idea of discipline, which had prevailed in 
former times, was held in abeyance. This would be in 
accord with the change which has taken place in many 
of our Presbyterian churches. In all other respects they 
kept close to the constitution of the church. Their 
contest with the Board of Trustees, upon the question 
of beneficial offerings, was persistently pressed, until 
an unconstitutional by-law of the Board was repealed, 
settling a most important question. They were much 
occupied in the practical and joyful work of examining 
and receiving communicants into the church. During 
this pastorate they dismissed one hundred and ninety 
to other churches. One of the most important records 
in the Session Book is two fraternal letters, which 
passed between the Sessions of Old Pine Street and of 
the Sixth Church, upon the occasion of the uniting of 
the latter with the Seventh Church. The mother and 
daughter at this time exchanged appropriate sentiments 
of Christian fellowship. 

24 2 History of Old Pine Street. 

There was no better work done during this pastorate 
than that which was in the hands of the women of the 
church. Indeed, this is no doubt true of every pas- 
torate, but the work of Mary Allen was exceptional in 
its extent and character. She w^as the daughter of a 
Presbyterian minister, and had enjoyed special train- 
ing for her position as pastor's wife. She was a 
woman of fine natural ability, and of solid education, 
gifted with qualifications for leadership in the public 
assemblies of Christian w'omen. She enjoyed oppor- 
tunities for large spiritual influence. Self-possessed, 
strong in character, eloquent in speech, her leader- 
ship was universally recognized. Her home was provi- 
dentially so ordered as to enable her to give most of 
her time and attention to church work. She entered 
fully into her opportunities. She organized the Ladies' 
Re-union Foreign Missionary Society, which, even with 
its greatly depleted ranks, is yet doing splendid work. 
She also established young ladies' bands, and the chil- 
dren's band for missionary instruction and work, which 
continues to this day. These were ably conducted, 
and their fruits for foreign missions were abundant. 
The congregation of Old Pine Street owes much to 
these untiring services of Mary Allen. 

The first great event in this pastorate was the elab- 
orate renovation and beautifying of the old house of 
worship. Dr. Brainerd had planned and tirged this 
step for several years, and had estimated that it would 

Pastorate of Richard Howe Allen 243 

cost about seven thousand dollars. But the congre- 
gation went far beyond that in closing the first century 
of the history of Old Pine Street. They spent six- 
teen thousand five hundred dollars in improvements. 
When this work was completed both the interior and 
exterior presented the picture of a new and beautiful 
church. The opening service in celebration of this 
event was held on the first Sunday of November, 1867. 
On the same week there was a notable and memorable 
social gathering of Pine Street people. This was in- 
deed a joyful week. The effort to get a new organ at 
this time failed. We may not be surprised at this, 
when it is remembered that the Brainerd Memorial 
Sunday-School building, costing, with furniture and 
library, about eight thousand dollars, was erected this 
same year. It is true that the trustees did not pro- 
vide the funds for this new building, but, at the same 
time, the financial burden fell upon the members of the 
congregation. Expenses amounting to about twenty- 
five thousand dollars in a single year is a record worth 

In May of the foUow^ing year the Centennial of the 
church was celebrated. Elaborate and expensive prep- 
arations were made for the great event. The church 
was artisticaly decorated^ in which attire it continued 
for a week. The symbols of patriotism, so expressive 
of the life of the church from its beginning, were 
handsomely displayed. The hospitality of the congre- 

244 History of Old Pine Street. 

gation was overflowing. The children of Old Pine 
Street, who were scattered far and wide, came up from 
all the land. It was like the coming up of the people 
to Jerusalem. Descendants of two of the pastors, Dr. 
Duffield and Dr. Alexander, were present and took 
part in the services. Rev. John McLeod, a son of 
Pine Street, gave the most distinctively historic ad- 
dress. The reminiscent discourses of all the speakers 
and the great sermon of the new pastor were full of 
the deepest interest. The spirit of a century was awak- 
ened. The children of Old Pine Street felt that the 
fathers and the mothers of departed days were looking 
down upon them. These events exerted a tremendous 
awakening influence upon the congregation, and the 
entire community. Friday, May twenty-ninth, cele- 
brated as Centennial Day, was the great occasion of 
the week. The remarkable event and the discourses 
and religious exercises of this week of service are pre- 
served in '/The Leaves of A Century Plant," published 
in 1870, which was widely distributed. 

Dr. Allen was called on a salary of twenty-five hun- 
dred dollars. Before the close of the first year this was 
increased to three thousand dollars. In May, 1869, it 
was again increased to three thousand six hundred dol- 
lars. Soon after this the free use of a parsonage was 
added. This parsonage was 409 South Eighth Street. 
These facts recall the spirit of Old Pine Street in their 
treatment of every pastor who ever served them. It 

Pastorate of Richard Howe Allen. 245 

was simply the just recognition of services which had 
brought large increase to the income of the church. 
When the pew rents had decreased, in 1878, Dr. Allen 
willingly relinquished seven hundred and fifty dollars 
from his salary. 

From the time of the Centennial celebration, the 
choir of the church came more and more into promi- 
nence. In 1875 a new organ was introduced. With 
the expense of alteration to receive it, the cost was 
about six thousand dollars. This was raised by a com- 
mittee organized for that purpose, the trustees approv- 
ing the enterprise, but declining to assume any financial 
responsibility. The largest yearly amount appropriated 
for the music of the church during these thirteen years 
was considerably below the sum devoted to this object 
afterward. But it is to be remarked that, from the 
beginning of Dr. Allen's pastorate, William Ivins re- 
linquished his salary. He served from 1867 until his 
resignation in 1896 without pay. 

The congregation created the Brainerd Memorial 
Endowment Fund in December, 1872, adopting the 
charter and giving authority for the gathering of con- 
tributions. This fund grew slowly at the beginning. 
The sale of the parsonage in 1881 added five thousand 
five hundred dollars to it. The history of this saving 
institution for Old Pine Street, as well as that of the 
Burial Trust, which was also founded under Dr. Allen's 
pastorate, will be given in the next chapter. 

246 History of Old Pine Street. 

Dr. Allen resigned his pastorate September 2, 1880, 
to accept the position of Secretary of the Freedmen's 
Board. In this position he served ably until his death. 

On March 3, 1886, his wife, Mary Allen, died. The 
remains were brought to Old Pine Street, where a 
beautiful service was held. There, gathered about her 
casket, were many that had loved her deeply. It was 
an impressive and touching farewell. 

Dr. Allen died at his home in Pittsbtirgh, September 
28, 1892. His body was brought to this city and 
quietly interred in Mount Moriah Cemetery. His 
successor assisted at the committal service. At once 
the Session was convened and a memorial service 
arranged. This service was held on October ninth in 
the Old Pine Street Church, where Dr. Allen had led 
so many to the Saviour whom he loved supremely, 
and whom he had served in the gospel ministry for 
forty-five years. Before us are the beautiful tributes 
given in the addresses of Drs. W. C. Cattell, S. W. 
Dana, L. Y. Graham, and C. A. Dickey. The services 
were made more effective at the last by the deepening 
twilight. The sun, as it sank slowly in the west, cast 
its long shadows fitfully across the church, reminding 
one of the brief period during which the sacred spark, 
called life, rests within these earthly temples of ours, 
calling to mind the scripture which saith, *'For what is 
your life? It is even a vapor, that appeareth for a lit- 
tle time, and then vanisheth away." 


4 B ■ A M.; P. f)- (irashini^fon and Jefferson) 
■ s 

President of the Law and Order Socu^fy of Philadelphia; for- 
merly President of the Presbyterian Ministers' Fund; 
'eighth and present Pastor of Old Pine Street 

Photograph by Hansbury. 


Tke Pastorate of Hugkes Olipliant 



When Dr. Allen resigned to accept the secretaryship 
of the Freedmen's Board, he entered immediately upon 
the duties of his new position. On the first Sunday 
of September, 1880, he announced his resignation: on 
the fourth Sunday of the same month, the pulpit was 
declared vacant, and the church was without a leader. 
There was a body of young men, and some of the 
older heads, who felt that a long interregnum would be 
a calamity, owing to the critical condition of the church, 
which was suffering from a decline in financial and 
numerical strength that had set in about the year 1875. 

It is not surprising, then, that the Session received 
a communication signed by a number of the congrega- 
tion just three months after Dr. Allen left, suggesting 
that a certain clergyman be invited to preach a second 
time with a view to an early decision upon his eligi- 
bility. This was acceded to, and the Session expressed 
a hope that the way might soon be open for the choos- 
ing of a new pastor. Two weeks later a second letter, 
with twenty-one signatures, was received by the Ses- 

^ This chapter was written by two of Dr. Gibbons' sons, with 
the advice and help of the senior member of the Session. 


248 History of Old Pine Street. 

sion, requesting them to call a meeting for the election 
of a pastor. The Session responded that many of the 
congregation wished to hear more candidates, and that 
''the way w^as not clear." Hardly more than a week 
elapsed when they received a third letter, signed by 
seventy-six members, who declared that they consti- 
tuted "a majority of those entitled to vote in the elec- 
tion of a pastor," repeating the former request. By a 
vote of three to two it was decided to accede to the 
wishes of the petitioners. The meeting was held on 
February second, and a motion made "to proceed to 
the election of a pastor." Mr. William Ivins pre- 
sented a letter, signed by all the Session, pleading 
against haste in this matter, and begging that the 
choice of names to be presented to the congregation be 
left to a committee of nine, three from the Session, 
three from the trustees, and three from the congrega- 
tion, to be chosen by the respective bodies. There were 
evenly divided councils, and the meeting adjourned to 
February fourteenth without taking any action. At 
the second meeting, the motion to elect a pastor was 
withdrawn, and the suggestion of the elders adopted. 
The committee was composed of John C. Farr, John 
Elliott, and William Ivins, on the part of the Session ; 
James Campbell, Rudolph M. Schick, and Philip H. 
Strubing (secretary), on the part of the trustees; and 
Randall T. Hazzard, James D. Meguire, and William 
Notson, M. D., on the part of the congregation, 


Late President of the Board of Trustees, ivho died zvhile this 

volume zi'as in press, and zvhose service as Ruling Elder 

and Trustee covered the entire period of the 

present pastorate 






Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 249 

During these months many clergymen had been 
heard. Rev. Wilham Hutton, of the Greenwich Street 
Church, was moderator of the Session, and communion 
services were conducted and members received by Pro- 
fessor Robert Ehis Thompson, of the University of 
Pennsylvania, now the beloved president of the Central 
High School. 

At the request of the Committee of Nine, a congre- 
gational meeting was called for May 26, 1881, and on 
that date the Committee presented to the congregation 
one name, — the Rev. Plughes Oliphant Gibbons, of An- 
napolis, Maryland. The election w^as unanimous, and 
a committee consisting of John C. Farr, R. T. Haz- 
zard, and R. M. Schick was appointed to prosecute 
the call before Presbytery. The salary was fixed at 
twenty-five hundred dollars, and the Committee of 
Nine were delegated to sign the call. 

The call was accepted, and Hughes Oliphant Gib- 
bons w^as installed the eighth pastor of Old Pine Street 
Church on the evening of October 11, 1881. Dr. Hut- 
ton presided. Dr. Dunn preached the sermon, Dr. Har- 
per delivered the charge to the pastor, and Dr. Robbins 
to the people. As pastor-elect, however. Dr. Gibbons 
had begun his work in the church on the first Sunday 
of September. 

In 1798 John Oliphant, a son of one of the pioneers 
of Western Pennsylvania, founded an iron furnace near 
Uniontown, the county-seat of Fayette County. This 

250 History of Old Pine Street. 

smelting furnace, to which he gave the name Fair- 
chance, grew into an extensive foundry and rolling- 
mills. It was one of the first enterprises of that char- 
acter in a region now famous as the centre of the 
iron and steel industry of the world. They cast a 
quantity of shot, which was used by Jackson's Artillery 
in the battle of New Orleans.^ The raw materials 
for its products were taken from a tract of three 
thousand acres belonging to Mr. Oliphant. In time the 
works became celebrated for the manufacture of char- 
coal iron. The community included many families, 
flouring mills, twelve hundred acres of the finest arable 
land divided into small farms, a large general store, 
a school, and a Presbyterian Church built by John 
Oliphant, whose family was of that good old Scotch 
stock to which Presbyterianism owes so much. This 
church was served for forty-five years by the Rev. Dr. 
Archibald G. Fairchild, a man distinguished for learned 
and polemical writings. Fairchance was beautifully 
situated, and approached an ideal community. In the 
centre of one of these rich farms was the Oliphant 
homestead, Liberty Hall, which is still standing. 
There, on the sixteenth of March, 1843, Dr. Gibbons 
was born in the home of his maternal grandfather, 
John Oliphant, and was named for his uncle, Hughes 

^ Jenkin's "Pennsylvania, Colonial and Federal/' Vol. III., pages 
361, 362. 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 251 

His father, Joshua Vernon Gibbons, was of the sixth 
generation in Hneal descent from John Gibbons, the 
pioneer of the famil}^ in America. John Gibbons was a 
member of the Society of Friends, and intimate with 
WiUiam Penn. When the latter was granted the great 
tract of land which bears his name, and expressed his 
intention of making it a home for the fellow members 
of his Society, John Gibbons and his wife left their 
home at Warminster, Wiltshire, England, and came to 
America with the first shipload of Friends that emi- 
grated to this country. He purchased two large tracts 
of land from William Penn, and became one of the 
largest landowners in what was then Chester (now 
Delaware) County.^ In 1708 his younger son, James 
Gibbons, moved to the Westtown plantation, which re- 
mained the family homestead until it was sold by James 
Gibbons, 3d, in 1795, to the Society of Friends, at a 
low price, for a boarding-school.^ The Westtown 
Boarding School is now in its hundred and tenth year 
of active work amid the ideal surrounding of six hun- 
dred acres of farm and woodland, all its own. James 
Gibbons, 3d, was a distinguished scholar and educator. 
There are many interesting anecdotes of his long and 
useful life, which we cannot relate here.^ It is inter- 
esting to note that in 1780, just after the British evacu- 

^ Futhey's "A Chester County Family," page 4. 
"•Tatum's "Old Westtown," page 103. 

^ See Fiithey and Cope's "History of Chester County," pages 
564-569; also The Friend, Vol. LV., pages 195, 225. 

252 History of Old Pine Street. 

ation of Philadelphia, he moved to town for some win- 
ters, and opened a classical school on Pine Street below 
Second, which he taught for several years. James Gib- 
bons, 1st, 2d, 3d, were all members of the General As- 
sembly of this state under its pre-revolutionary con- 
stitution, and took an active part in legislative matters.^ 
The third James was the great-grandfather of Dr. Gib- 
bons, and laid the foundation for the education of his 

In 18 1 2 Joshua Vernon Gibbons, then a boy of nine, 
emigrated with his father, Joshua Gibbons, from their 
home between Westtown and West Chester to Fayette 
County, then virgin country in the southwestern part 
of the state, where he lived until his death, which took 
place in his eightieth year. For his education he 
crossed the state on foot, and lived for several years 
with his uncle. Dr. William Gibbons, a famous phy- 
sician of Wilmington, Delaware. This influence prob- 
ably led to his studying medicine at the Jefferson Med- 
ical College, in Philadelphia, but he never practiced, 
preferring the profession of teaching, at which he 
wrought effectually for fifty years. He established the 
pul)lic school system in Fayette County. ^ In 1842 he 
married Maria Louisa Oliphant, at Fairchance, and 
three years later moved from there to Brownsville, his 

' Benjamin Franklin's "Notes of Assembly," Vol. II., pages 
216, 218, 220, 264, et al. 

''* Hart's "History of Three Towns," page 326. 

Pastorate of Hughes Ollphant Gibbons. 253 

home until his death. Hughes OHphant was their old- 
est son, and his mother was his only teacher until his 
ninth year. She had received the finest opportunities 
in her own education, and was a capable instructor for 
her children in their younger days. Dr. Gibbons re- 
sembles her closely. 

About 1840 they moved to a farm a few miles from 
town, wdiich Joshua Vernon Gibbons had purchased, 
in order that his children might receive their growth in 
the open country. We have often heard descriptions 
of this early home, situated in one of the most beautiful 
spots of Pennsylvania. A finer school for the training 
of a boy could hardly be imagined. The land was rich 
and productive ; fruits were abundant and varied ; much 
of the region was covered with forests, filled with 
luxuriant and extensive flora, and fairly alive with 
birds, grey squirrels, and other wild creatures. The 
influence of such surroundings could not fail to leave 
its mark upon the lives of those who roamed among 
its hills and valleys during the impressionable years 
of childhood. Frequently Dr. Gibbons has referred to 
the free and happy days of his youth, and the blessed 
influence of close intercourse with nature.^ Although 
his lot has been a city life, his heart has always been 
in the open coiuitry, and the six or seven weeks that he 
spends yearly in Maine are looked forward to with 
the most earnest longing. In his earlier years Dr. 
^ See pages 136, 139, 203. 

2 54 History of Old Pine Street. 

Gibbons was a great hunter. For the past twenty- 
five years his principal recreation has been fishing. 

When a boy of fifteen, his family returned to Browns- 
ville. His mind not turning directly to study, he en- 
tered a commercial house, and in his two years' con- 
nection with the firm earned seven or eight hundred 
dollars. At the end of this period he began his col- 
lege preparation at Dunlaps' Creek Academy. During 
the summers of his three years there he made his ex- 
penses working on the farm. Then he went to Duff's 
Commercial College in Pittsburgh, graduating in 
March, 1864. At once a good business position opened, 
and in a little over a year the financial question of 
a college course was practically settled. A year of 
further study and teaching followed; and a btisiness 
enterprise netted five hundred dollars. 

The choice of a college was easily made, for in an 
adjoining county was an excellent institution, which 
has fitted hundreds of young men for their life's work. 
So in 1866 he entered the Sophomore Class of Wash- 
ington and Jefferson College on advanced standing. 
In college he became a member of the Delta Tau Delta 
Fraternity, and took great interest in athletics. During 
the last term of his senior year the faculty allowed 
him to take charge of a boy's school in Uniontown, 
meanwhile pursuing his studies by himself. At the 
end of four months he returned to graduate with his 
class in August, 1869. One of his classmates, the Rev. 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 255 

James D. Moffat, D. D., LL. D., is now president of 
the college, and was Moderator of General Assembly in 

Upon graduation he was elected principal of the 
Uniontown High School, a new institution, for which 
a building had just been erected. Dr. Gibbons organ- 
ized this school, and brought together six hundred 
pupils. He founded a flourishing literary society which 
still lives. This was in 1870, and twenty-five years 
later he received an invitation to attend a reunion of 
his old boys in this society at the home of one of their 
number, who is now president of the Frick Coke Com- 
pany, and high in the councils of the United States 
Steel Corporation. Another of them was the late Sec- 
retary of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. There, 
gathered around the table, were men whom he had 
left as boys a quarter of a century before, many of 
them prominent in various w^alks of life. 

After these years of rounded preparation, he was at 
last able to begin to study for the ministry, a goal to- 
wards which his face had been turned and his heart 
had been set since early boyhood, and from which 
the advice and urgent pleading of his father and 
friends, for his success in mercantile pursuits had 
evinced a remarkable talent for business, could not turn 
him. Determined to be a minister of the Gospel, all 
his opportunities, exceptional as they were even in 
that day and place of opportunity, were simply means 

256 History of Old Pine Street. 

to an end. Accordingly, in September, 1870, he en- 
tered the Western Theological Seminary, at Allegheny, 
where he had for preceptors such able men of the Pres- 
byterian Church as Drs. Archibald Alexander Hodge, 
Melancthon W. Jacobus, William H. Hornblower, and 
Samuel J. Wilson. At the end of the first year he post- 
poned the completion of his course to become principal 
of the Lawrence Schools of Pittsburgh. He held this 
position for three years, at a large salary, and succeeded 
in rounding into shape a collection of boys and young 
men who had been considered unmanageable and prac- 
tically incorrigible. His years on the farm and in the 
gymnasium stood him in good stead, for here violence 
had to be met with violence, and force was a better 
ruler than persuasion. Conviction of physical superi- 
ority brought respect, as is always the case in dealing 
with people of this class. ^ At the end of these three 
years, although urged to continue his work, he rettn*ned 
to the Seminary, and graduated in the class of 1876. 
During the vacation between his Middle and Senior 
years, he supplied the pulpit of the church in Charles- 
ton, West Virginia. 

Immediately after his graduation. Dr. Gibbons was 
married to Miss Cora Ida Johns, the daughter of a 
prominent Pittsburgh lawyer, Leonard Johns, Esq., on 

^The watch which Dr. Gibbons carries was presented to him 
in 1873, and bears the inscription, 'To Prof. H. O. Gibbons from 
his friends of the Fifteenth Ward." He also has a gold-headed 
cane with a similar inscription. 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 257 

June 13, 1876. The mother of Mrs. Gibbons was the 
daughter of Milo Adams, M. D., a member of the 
famous old Massachusetts family so prominent in the 
War of the Revolution.^ 

Of the two attractive calls that were extended to him, 
Dr. Gibbons decided to accept that from the Presby- 
terian Church in Annapolis, Maryland, where he was 
installed in October, 1876. Dr. and Mrs. Gibbons 
lived five years in this quaint old town where three 
of their children were born. The parsonage was a 
roomy, old-fashioned house on Duke of Gloucester 
Street, over a hundred years old. The United States 
Naval Academy is situated there, and the most potent 
factor in influencing Dr. Gibbons in the choice of this 
field was that there would be great opportunity for 
educational work among the cadets. Admiral Samp- 
son was a professor in the institution at that time, and, 
with his family, attended the Presbyterian church. 
Many other officers came there, and the class of cadets 
was increased from nine to more than fifty. In Dr. 
Gibbons' Bible Class were Captain McGifYen and Cap- 
tain Serata, who commanded opposing battleships in 
the Battle of Yalu, in the Chino-Japanese War; and 
Admiral Uriu, second in command to Admiral Togo 
in the present Russo-Japanese War, who distinguished 
himself by the sinking of the Variag and the Korietz 
at Chemulpho, and by his brilliant work in the Battle 

^ See the "Robert Adams Genealogy." 

258 History of Old Pine Street. 

of the Sea of Japan; and a nephew of the Mikado. 
During this pastorate of five years, the church was re- 
paired; a debt of three thousand dollars, which had 
encumbered it for many years, w-as raised; the num- 
ber of communing members was more than doubled; 
and, when Dr. Gibbons accepted the call to Old Pine 
Street, the congregation and income of the church had 
been increased tw^ofold. 

In the first years of Dr. Gibbons' ministry there was 
no feature of his pastoral work that was not in com- 
mon w^ith the problems that face the ordinary city 
clergyman, who is in a down-town church. He held 
on to those who were in the church, and found others 
to fill the places of those who died. The Sunday- 
School, in fact, reached a larger membership than it 
had ever before enjoyed. There was the deficiency, 
but that was always promptly met. Even when the 
older members died, and some of the best helpers 
moved away, it meant harder work, but that was all. 
The neighborhood was full of people who could be 
brought into the church, and Dr. Gibbons found them. 
Thanks to the loyal and generous men of the church, 
the financial question w^as not a problem for the pastor 
to solve, and he never desired or asked for an increase 
of salary. So the years passed by, peacefully and full 
of joy, in the work of caring for the souls of men. 
History cannot adequately write of this. 

Then, in the early nineties, came the Russian Jewish 

Pastorate of Hughes Ollphant Gibbons. 259 

invasion, which has increased year after year steadily 
and invincibly. For a decade many members of Old 
Pine Street withstood it ; but there were removals every 
year. In the last four years it has been a case of "get 
out of the neighborhood as soon as you can sell your 
house." To-day it is hard to find a Protestant family 
in the vicinity of Old Pine Street Church ; and Catho- 
lics are by no means plentiful. The following, al- 
though written nine years ago, when things were not 
as they are now, adequately describes the situation : 

''Within a radius of a mile from Old Pine Street Church, dur- 
ing the period from i860 to 1895, more than thirty Protestant 
places of worship were given over to secular uses, or sold to 
Roman Catholic or Jewish organizations. Among the nearest 
and more important of these are : Presbyterian — Old Scots', 
Spruce above Third; Sixth, Spruce above Fifth; First African, 
Seventh below Bainbridge ; Seventh, Fourth below Market ; Dr. 
Pott's, Fifth and Gaskill. Protestant Episcopal — Saint Thomas', 
Fifth above Locust; Redeemer, Swanson and Catherine. Metho- 
dist Episcopal — Mariners' Bethel, Penn and Bainbridge ; African, 
Lombard above Fifth. First Universalist, Lombard above Fourth. 
Southwark Evangelical, Fifth above Washington; Saint Mat- 
thew's Lutheran, New below Fourth; and the Friends' Meeting 
House, Pine below Second. 

" 'Sweet are the uses of adversity,' but some of the uses to 
which these abandoned churches have been put are otherwise, 
for instance: Old Scots', now a lard factory; Quaker Meeting 
House, now an oil warehouse ; the Cedar Street Presbyterian, 
better known to the slums as the Standard Theatre; the Trinity 
Methodist, from which emanates the missionary influence of a 
continuous theatrical performance. Less bitter, though, the pass- 
ing of the Mariners' Bethel, upon whose former site towers a 
sky-scraping sugar refinery. 

"The laws of Moses are expounded in a dialect constructed on 


2 6o History of Old Pine Street. 

a Tower of Babel model, and known as Yiddish, in the former 
Presbyterian Church edifice at Fifth and Gaskill streets, the 
Universalist Church, and the African Methodist; and to these 
houses of prayer each Saturday morning, all through the slum 
districts, from garret and cellar, through alleys choked with 
garbage and from courts reeking with vile odors — themselves 
not cleanly by our standard — come a people who, rather than 
have one jot or tittle of their traditions changed, would go once 
more to the uttermost parts of the earth, and starve, or die by 
violence, if must be; but change? Never !"^ 

It was even as this a decade ago. But Old Pine 
Street has stayed; and will ever stay. Only there are 
more phases to the work. Sunday services are as they 
were. Pastoral visits are as they were ; only the pastor 
now goes to the ends of a great city and its suburbs, 
even as his people come to him and to the dear old 
church. There are merely added duties, and new 
phases of church work. On Friday nights there is a 
prayer-meeting of Hungarians in the church, in their 
native tongue, with a native minister; the marriage 
register of Old Pine Street records a half dozen Hun- 
garian marriages ; and the roll of communing members 
contains the name of a Hungarian that was received 
by the Session through an interpreter. Dr. Gibbons 
and his assistant visit old aristocratic mansions, where 
twenty families live in as many rooms, and places 
where the police might go to the advantage of the com- 
munity. This is foreign missionary work at home. 

At the beginning of Dr. Gibbons' pastorate the Ses- 

^ James B. Thompson in the Old Pine Street Church News, 
February, 1896. 


A devoted Ruling Elder and Trustee of the present Session 
and Board 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 261 

sion consisted of John C. Farr, James Fraiser, George 
Young, Wilham Ivins, Burkitt Webb, and John Elhott. 
Since the election in 1876, Dr. Hutchins had moved to 
Iowa, Mr. Willard had died, and John Moore had re- 
signed. John C. Farr had been an elder since Dr. 
Ely's day, and James Fraiser, George Young, and Wil- 
liam Ivins, the Clerk, had served since i860. So it 
was Dr. Gibbons' good fortune to start his work in 
Philadelphia with a wise and experienced Session. All 
of these elders are dead, and three of them rest in the 
churchyard. In 1882 there were elected Ezra Calhoun, 
Philip H. Strubing, Rudolph M. Schick, and Randall T. 
Hazzard; in 1886, Charles E. MacKean and James 
Hewitt; in 1895, Edmond Beale, M. D., David White, 
and Joseph B. Detwiler; in 1901, Stephen D. Harris, 
James F. Scott, and Walter H. Richman, the present 
clerk. Mr. Schick, Mr. MacKean, and Mr. Hewitt 
W'Cre lost by removal; Mr. Calhoun, Dr. Beale, Mr. 
White, and Mr. Hazzard by death; so the Session to- 
day is composed of Philip H. Strubing, Joseph B. Det- 
wiler, Stephen D. Harris, James F. Scott, and Walter 
H. Richman. These men, and those that have gone, 
have been a tower of strength to Dr. Gibbons. They 
have been wise and faithful in the duties of their high 
office, and remarkable in their loyalty to the moderator 
and pastor. There has never been dissension or dif- 
ference, and with each other, their pastor, and the 
church the dealings of the Session during the present 

262 History of Old Pine Street. 

pastorate have been a proof of the excellence of the 
Presbyterian form of government. With such a Ses- 
sion as Dr. Gibbons has enjoyed throughout the twenty- 
four years in Old Pine Street, what church and pastor 
would not prosper and grow in grace and in favor with 
God and man? 

In churches of the age of Old Pine Street, which 
were constituted into incorporated bodies before Pres- 
byterianism in America had evolved a clear and distinct 
polity, conflict between the temporal and spiritual over- 
seers of the church is bound to come. What are the 
prerogatives of the Session? What are the preroga- 
tives of the Board of Trustees? These are questions 
which have caused many a bitter and unyielding church 
fight. According to the constitution of churches of 
the eighteenth century the legal prerogatives of 
the incorporated trustees include many prerogatives 
which church polity has awarded to the Session. The 
early assumption of rightful prerogatives by Sessions 
led to the swinging of the pendulum too far. This we 
have seen in the chapter on the second fight for inde- 

After the memorable struggle of 1813-1814, many 
minor points of Sessional prerogative slumbered with- 
out the establishment of precedent for over half a cen- 
tury. At some stages of the history of the church, 
if one of these questions had arisen, there might have 
been trouble, but they did not arise. Following the 

he Ses^ 

:ar bef< 

buildi;' 'iitained 

of God 

■i the church, this T>rerorntivc wsf^ their-- 

Hie a ^^MBS mx SCOTT 

\\\ iii5 ^Vi;i:i;::polis ch;irc;e, had ;x:e:i. i-u:-' , .: •:.::■ 
, . /4 jd^yoted Ruling Elder of the.pre^etij Session 

iwiirio.T .,i ;i^at churci; ;-t>, .- ,■ ■; - 

n as M' 

ereiice that might ai ise 
anci oc:vr>:0!i, iTom both points of view. 

imr^er Dr. Gibbons* leasier-hin. has 

teniDo- isserted 


Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 263 

ancient custom of the church, the Session was largely 
represented in the Board of Trustees, and no disagree- 
ment occurred between these two official bodies. 

In the year before Dr. Gibbons came to Old Pine 
Street, however, a question did arise. The trustees 
maintained that, under the constitution, they, as con- 
trollers of the church property, had the right to give 
or withhold permission for meetings in the church 
building. The Session, on the contrary, maintained 
that, inasmuch as the church was for the use of God 
in worship, and they had oversight of the spiritual in- 
terests of the church, this prerogative was theirs. After 
much friendly discussion the Session won the day. Dr. 
Gibbons had made a special study of church polity, and 
in his Annapolis charge, had been, under the con- 
stitution of that church. President of the Board of 
Trustees as well as Moderator of the Session. So he 
had enjoyed exceptional opportunities of looking at 
this, and other questions of difference that might arise 
between Board and Session, from both points of view. 

The Session, under Dr. Gibbons' leadership, has 
carefully and without friction drawn the line between 
temporal and spiritual guardianship. It has asserted 
its right to the direct control of the Sunday-School, 
and all societies in the church for the education of the 
young, by ratifying elections before they become valid, 
and by having an oversight of the money given to and 
spent by the Sunday-School. After an interesting and 

264 History of Old Pine Street. 

spirited discussion the right to name and collect all 
offerings in the church that are not for the temporal 
use of the church was yielded by the trtistees. In this 
connection the Session nominates all persons who col- 
lect money for any cause whatever in the congregation. 
The latest decision of the Session is in regard to the 
music of the church, which, as a part of the worship of 
God, is under their control to the extent of approving 
books and other music that it used in church or other 
religious services, and of ratifying the chorister's choice 
of singers. The establishment of these principles in 
the polity of the church has been gratifying to Dr. 
Gibbons, and has been accomplished through the ap- 
preciation of Presbyterian order on the part of his 

In the month of September, 1881, when Dr. Gib- 
bons began his work in Old Pine Street, at the annual 
congregational meeting the following Board of 
Trustees was elected : Hugh Stevenson, Stephen D. 
Harris, Jacob G. de Turck, Charles C. Lister, John 
Elliott, Peter N. Cruse, William H. Perpignan, Ru- 
dolph M. Schick, James F. Scott, Philip H. Strubing, 
John Detwiler, Randall T. Hazzard, and Paul H. 
Barnes. All except the last two were old members of 
the Board. Hugh Stevenson, the honored president, 
dated his membership back to 1844, ^"d had been presi- 
dent since 1866. This office he continued to fill for the 
first twelve years of the present pastorate, when his 


A Trustee since Dr. Braincrd's day, and the devoted Solicitor 
of the Board 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 265 

death occurred, February 5, 1893, after half a century 
of enthusiastic and faithful service. He was suc- 
ceeded by William H. Perpignan, who died in 1903. 
His successor, Randall T. Hazzard, died while this vol- 
ume was being prepared for press. Of this Board, 
Messrs. Harris, Elliott, de Turck, and Lister had held 
office since the sixties. Seven of these thirteen men are 
dead, one has resigned his membership, but is still in 
the church and a ruling elder. Only two have gone to 
other churches. The remaining three are still holding 
the same positions in the Board that they were ably 
filling when Dr. Gibbons came to the church. After 
twenty-four years, is this not a remarkable record of 
fidelity and consecration and loyalty to a pastor? Ste- 
phen D. Harris, Treasurer of the Endowment Funds 
and Chairman of the Interment Committee, has sa- 
credly guarded the trust funds of the church with zeal- 
ous care, and has willingly and without recompense, 
assumed the growing burden of their investment and 
interest collection, as they have doubled and quadru- 
pled in his hands. His care of the churchyard is men- 
tioned in another chapter. Charles C. Lister, attorney 
and solicitor of the Board, has given to the church legal 
services that would have cost thousands of dollars in 
safeguarding the property interests of the Board, and 
in helping Mr. Harris and Mr. Strubing in the care of 
the investments of the church, as they have multiplied 
with the growing endowments. Philip H. Strubing 

266 History of Old Pine Street. 

has been the treasurer of the church during the entire 
pastorate of Dr. Gibbons, and there has not been one 
month during the twenty-four years that the pastor's 
salary has been behind a single day, nor have there 
ever been unpaid bills outstanding against the church. 
In addition to the treasurership of the Board, Mr. Stru- 
bing has since assumed the duties of treasurer of the 
Session, and custodian of the Farr Funds, and the 
income from the German Street Fund. 

One of the most remarkable examples of fidelity in 
the history of the church is that of Jacob G. de Turck, 
a trustee from 1868 until 1902, when he died after 
thirty-six years of active service on the Board. When 
Dr. Gibbons came to Old Pine Street, Mr. de Turck 
was living in Tioga, then an inaccessible place, for 
the Reading Station was at Ninth and Green Streets, 
and there were only horse cars to the church, a half- 
hour's ride. Soon after, Mr. de Turck moved to 
Chestnut Hill, twelve miles from the city. And yet 
there was never a more faithful and regular attendant 
at the services of the church. Sunday after Sunday 
for over twenty years he was always in his place at 
divine worship. His fidelity and loyalty were an in- 
spiration and encouragement to his pastor and to his 

During Dr. Gibbons' pastorate there have been only 
seventeen new members elected into the Board, a re- 
markable record, unequalled in any previous pastorate, 




Treasurer \((f ihe^ehuYch for more than twe;nf;y^Hpl^r^^rSj' Jf^uUfig 

Elder and Trustee of the present Session .and ^oard 

;. v.,rrc- -,7i;-v j\orse (:;r- lo ^i^e chun:a. a ir- ;■ 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 267 

which shows how Dr. Gibbons has been strengthened 
by the love and constant service of the officers of the 
church. Most of these men have moved far away, sev- 
eral to suburbs, where they have to use both train and 
trolley to come to church, but at the meetings of the 
Board, and at the services of the church, they are the 
upholders of their pastor's hands. 

What is true of the Session and of the trustees is 
true of many who have no official position in the 
church, but who do not allow distances to come between 
them and their love for Old Pine Street. One Sun- 
day last spring a faithful member, who had been 
a communicant for over forty years, and lives 
some seven miles from the church, said as she came 
up the outside steps, "This climb is a tiring end 
of an hour's journey, but I could not worship else- 
where. My father and mother, my grandparents, my 
sisters and brothers, — they lie out there in the church- 
yard. I could not, nor would I if I could, worship else- 
where than in Old Pine Street." 

It is such sentiments and such people as these that 
have made Dr. Gibbons' long and successful pastorate 
worth while, and this spirit is perpetuating the life of 
the church. 

From time immemorial the Session of Old Pine 
Street had been custodian of the funds for the poor of 
the church and their disbursement ; but the increase in 
this line of church work, and the difficulties attendant 

268 History of Old Pine Street. 

upon its careful and discriminating administration, led 
the Session to call a congregational meeting on No- 
vember 26, 1886, to elect deacons for the church. 
Messrs. John Detwiler, David White, Paul H. Barnes, 
John S. Wilson, and William S. Watson were chosen, 
and constituted the first diaconate of Old Pine Street. 
Three of these men are now dead ; the other two have 
moved elsewhere. David White, Paul Barnes, John 
Wilson, those who have gone before, were truly con- 
secrated men, and their kindly advice and loving min- 
istrations still live in the memory of many an humble 
life. They departed one by one, until only Mr. White 
was left. After his death, in the spring of 1903, a 
new diaconate was chosen, consisting of Messrs. John 
Stinson, W. Charles Tweed, James W. Caldwell, and 
John Creighton, which is serving at the present time. 

There have been many organizations active in the 
life of the church during the present pastorate. Un- 
fortunately, we can only give a brief review of these. 
There was a Young Men's Society, which, in 1887, 
became the Christian Endeavor Society, and some 
years later added a Junior branch. Miss Ellen Webb's 
May Blossoms and Buds of Promise Mission Band 
has flourished throughout the pastorate, and holds its 
meetings regularly on the fourth Saturday afternoon 
of the month. For several years it has been under 
the care of Mrs. Robert P. Andrews and Miss Mary 
D. Harris. 


Ja:ncs B. Caldwell, 'varies 'Tweed, John 

Cr eight on 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 269 

But the glory of Old Pine Street^ in its auxiliary 
work, has rested largely in the three women's organ- 
izations, the Re-Union Foreign Missionary Society, 
the Dorcas Society, and the Home Missionary Society. 
The Re-Union Society was formed in the Pastor's 
Study in 1871, and for thirty-four years its voice 
has been lifted in prayer in that same room, some of 
its original members still being connected with it.^ 
In 1872, Miss Lydia Jones, a member of the Society, 
went to Gaboon, Africa, under the Presbyterian 
Board, and was supported wholly by the Re-Union 
Society of Old Pine Street, until her return to this 
country in 1888. Its support was then given to Miss 
Marion Janvier, now Mrs. Dr. M. B. Carleton, of 
Sabbathu, India. During the fall and winter the 
ladies are at the church the greater part of Thursday, 
sewing first, as the Home Missionary Society, for a 
box to a western Missionary, whose contents always 
exceed three hundred dollars, and later, as the Dorcas 
Society, for the poor of the neighborhood, without 
discrimination as to creed, race, or color. 

Throughout the pastorate of Dr. Allen, William 
Ivins, Clerk of the Session, remained the faithful 
chorister of the church. He had a quartette choir, in 
w^hich he sang bass. Mr. Ivins continued his services 
as leader of the music of Old Pine Street for the first 

*Mrs. Lydia F. Murray, Mrs. Catherine J. Albiirger, Mrs. S. 
D. Harris, Miss Ellen Webb. 


2 7C History of Old Pine Street. 

fifteen years of the present pastorate, and the year be- 
fore he resigned introduced the new Hymnal into the 
church, which has met with lasting favor. But the 
expense of the cjuartette choir grew yearly. The 
amount paid for the music of the church in Dr. Allen's 
pastorate averaged only one-fifth of the pastor's sal- 
ary. It increased in Dr. Gibbons' time until it had 
amounted to more than one-half the pastor's salary. 
With great reluctance the Trustees felt obliged in 
December, 1896, to make a retrenchment in the mat- 
ter of appropriation for music, and the expensive quar- 
tette was replaced by a chorus choir of the young 
people of the church, with a moderately-paid quartette 
for leading the different parts. Mr. James Wilson 
was elected organist and choirmaster, and has suc- 
cessfully filled that position ever since. 

One of the great institutions of Dr. Gibbons' pas- 
torate is the monthly publication of the church, the 
Old Pine Street Church News, which will soon enter 
upon its twenty-first year of consecutive publication, — 
a record which we believe is unequalled in the churches 
of Philadelphia. This publication was started by the 
Young Men's Association in December, 1885, a little 
over four years after Dr. Gibbons came to Old Pine 
Street. From that time to the present day we have in 
its file a practical and comprehensive history of the 
last twenty years of his pastorate. Every important 
event in the history of the church during two decades 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 271 

is here set forth. There are obituaries of all the people 
whom Dr. Gibbons has buried. There are complete 
baptismal, marriage, and church membership records. 
There are the Sunday-School and church society anni- 
versaries. There are removals, changes, and a thou- 
sand and one things that church records never show. 
On these Church News files we have articles from the 
pastor's pen that represent the cream of his thinking, 
clipped abstracts of his utterances in the public press, 
and many historical articles and reminiscences that 
have proved invaluable in the writing of this history. 

Church papers start and fail and start over again, 
and lead an uncertain and spasmodic existence. We are 
persuaded that this is due to two causes, the throwing 
of the burden of editing, and, indeed, writing all the 
articles, upon the busy pastor; and uncertain and ir- 
responsible business management. In Old Pine Street, 
however, there has been neither of these difficulties to 
seriously impede the regular and careful publication of 
the Church News, It has had enthusiastic and ener- 
getic editors, and systematic and untiring business 
managers. From the Young Men's Association the 
Church News passed into the hands of the Christian 
Endeavor Society, and has lately come under the direct 
control of the Session, which has always recognized its 
importance in the life of the church. The editors-in- 
chief have been, successively. Elder Charles E. Mac- 
Kean, Deacon William S. Watson, Elder James Hewitt, 

272 History of Old Pine Street. 

Dudley T. Richman, and the pastor's wife. The business 
managers have been G. B. Detwiler, Mrs. F. S. Gibson, 
W. H. Richman, G. W. Bricker, John H. Brearley, 
and, for the past eight years, Robert P. Andrews. 

As has been said above, the Session has always en- 
couraged the work of the Church Nezvs, and has stood 
behind the Business Manager as its financial guarantor. 
It is the official organ of the Session, and, during the 
past two years, has been edited under its direction by 
the missionary of the church. With the membership of 
Old Pine Street so widely scattered, the Church News 
has become invaluable. It contains the monthly bul- 
letin, announcing regularly to all the members of the 
church, wherever they may be, the church services, 
sermon, Sunday-School, and prayer-meeting topics, and 
special meetings of interest. It goes into many States, 
reminding Old Pine Street people who have moved far 
away that they are not forgotten, and bringing them 
every month a personal message from their old pastor. 
To the assistance and co-operation of his people, and 
to the wisdom of his Session, Dr. Gibbons owes the 
uninterrupted and invaluable work of the Church News 
in keeping him in touch with his scattered congrega- 
tion, and strengthening him for the work at hand. 

In the Church Nezi^s for July, 1890, appeared the fol- 
lowing important notice : 

"The German Street Congregation has, by a unanimous vote, 
decided to unite with us, and has asked Presbytery to consummate 
this union. We shall give these good, faithful members of Ger- 
man Street a hearty welcome." 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 273 

And in September of the same year : 

"The members of German Street are now worshipping with 
us, awaiting the final action of Presbytery before making a com- 
plete union. We are glad to greet them, and wish to do all in 
our power to make them feel at home. Their children are now 
in our Sunday School." 

The German Street Church, or, to use its legal title, 
the First Presbyterian Church in Southwark, was 
founded in the winter of 1818-1819 as a German 
Church, but soon became an English Presbyterian 
Church, in the midst of a splendid field. From 1840 
to 1855 it was large and influential, with two Sunday- 
Schools. At this time Rev. Andrew Culver, a son of 
Old Pine Street, was its pastor. In 1862 it had be- 
come so heavily involved in debt that its existence was 
threatened. Three members of Old Pine Street, Sam- 
uel Work, John C. Farr, and Captain Whilldin, saved 
the church, and transferred its property to the trustees 
of the Presbyterian House, having arranged the title 
in such a manner that the property should always be 
"held for the benefit of the church holding to the doc- 
trine and government of the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States." During the seventies Rev. Albert N. 
Keigwin was pastor for seven years, and built the con- 
gregation up wonderfully. He resigned in 1879 to 
accept a call from the West Church, Wilmington, where 
he remains to this time. The next decade, until the 
movement recorded above, marked an unsuccessful at- 

2 74 History of Old Pine Street. 

tempt to struggle against the overwhelming tide of for- 
eign immigration. 

For two years the abandoning of the German Street 
field had been considered by Presbytery, when, at a 
meeting on April 7, 1890, 

"the Committee on Church City Missions recommended that steps 
be taken for the removal or dissoUition of said church, the seUing 
of the property, and the application of the money realized to the 
erection of a church edifice in the neighbourhood of Tenth Street 
and Snyder Avenue, where a Presbyterian Church is imperatively 
demanded. The report was approved, the recommendations 
adopted, and the committee on Church City Missions was author- 
ized to carry the resolutions into effect." 

In this action Presbytery was merely consistent w^ith 
the attitude it has ever taken in regard to "down-town" 
fields. Will the Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia 
always be unable to see and cope with the great prob- 
lems of the city's social and economic life ? Time and 
effort and money is directed with lavish hand to the 
erection of new churches to compete with other denomi- 
nations in new neighborhoods, so that there will be a 
church around the corner for the incoming eminently 
respectable Christian population. The fields that are 
hard to till, the great work that the Master has brought 
to the door of a church, is ignored. The church is 
sold, or moved to a neighborhood where she can regain 
her position in the statistical reports of General As- 
sembly. There is no thought of what the church owes 
to the thousands upon thousands of immigrants that 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 275 

are pouring into the great city of Philadelphia, of the 
perils that menace our national life from these untu- 
tored, unassimilated hordes, that are without American 
ideals of religion and morality. There is no spirit of 
bitterness in these words, no unworthy reflection cast 
upon wise and consecrated men. But they are the 
truth. The gospel to the heathen in foreign lands! 
A glorious cry is this. But the foreigners of the low- 
est strata who are raising their Penates on our hearth- 
stones — what of these ? 

Fortunately, there were men of vision in the German 
Street Church, men who, by personal contact, knew the 
problems that were to be solved in the field which they 
had to relinquish. They were unwilling that Presby- 
tery should destroy in a day what they had built and 
cherished with many a struggle, and divert the fruits 
of their labors to the tilling of other fields. They 
held a meeting on April thirtieth to consider whether 
they should "join with the Old Pine Street Church 
with a view to perpetuating the already established en- 
dowment fund of that church, and consequently per- 
manently providing for church service in this section 
of the city, or to dispose of the present property and 
establish a new church in the lower section of the city 
in a field already open through a mission service.'* A 
Committee was appointed to deliver an opinion upon 
this subject, and the congregation adjourned to meet 
again to hear the report of the Committee on May 

276 History of Old Pine Street. 

fourteenth, when the following report was adopted 
without a dissenting voice : 

"Your Committee, after carefully looking over the field, have 
come to the conclusion that the best interests of the Church will be 
served to a greater degree by a union with Old Pine Street Church 
than could be affected by any other disposition of the property. 
We have arrived at this conclusion, feeling that the results of the 
union would be more profitable to the cause, both for the present 
and in the future. 

"We further recommend that all the property, both that held in 
trust for this congregation by the Trustees of the General Assem- 
bly, and the property on the premises, be given to Old Pine 
Street Church, the principal, when received, to be added to the 
Endowment Fund of said Church, and the interests to be used in 
supporting the preaching of the Gospel in the Old Pine Street 
Church. "John Stinson, Chairman." 

This action was officially communicated to the Ses- 
sion of Old Pine Street, who promptly responded as 
follows : 

"Mr. John Stinson. 

"Dear Brother: At a meeting of our Session, held May 31, 
1890, your letter informing us of the action of your church at the 
Congregational meeting, held May 14, 1890, was read, and the 
following resolution unanimously adopted : 

"Resolved, That the Clerk of the Session be instructed to 
answer the communication of May nth from the Committee of 
the congregation of the German Street Church, and to commend 
the action of the said congregation, and to assure the German 
Street people a hearty welcome to Old Pine Street Church. And 
may the great Head of the Church make you a blessing to us 
and make us a blessing to you, 

"Yours in Christian Fellowship, 

"William Ivins, Clerk of the Session." 

At the June meeting of Presbytery a communication 
was received from the German Street Church, stating 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 277 

their wishes in regard to the disposition of their prop- 
erty, and asking to be transferred to the roll of the 
Old Pine Street Church. There was a tiresome wait 
of a year and a half. In the meantime the trustees 
of the General Assembly, who were the successors to 
the trustees of the Presbyterian House, to w^hom the 
German Street property had been deeded in trust by 
the Old Pine Street donors, obtained permission from 
Court ''to effect a sale of the property of the First 
Presbyterian Church of Southwark, the proceeds to be 
held in trust for the Old Pine Street Church, and the 
income to be paid to the treasurer of the said church." 
Presbytery took final action as follows : 

"At a meeting of the Presbytery of Philadelphia, held Decem- 
ber 7, 1891, Elder Robert N. Willson presented the following 
paper, which was unanimously adopted : 

"Resolved, That in accordance with the request of the First 
Presbyterian Church of Southwark, the members of that church 
are hereby transferred to membership in the Third Presbyterian 
Church, which, by its Session, has expressed its approval of such 
union; and the Clerk of this Presbytery shall transmit to the 
Clerk of the Session of the latter church the names of the mem- 
bers of the former church as certified by the Clerk of the Ses- 
sion of the said First Church of Southwark, together with a 
certified copy of this resolution. 

"The Presbytery also recommends to the Trustees of the Gen- 
eral Assembly that they pay over to the Third Church the income 
which shall arise from the trust fund produced by the sale of 
the real estate lately occupied by the said First Church of South- 
wark, for the purpose of enabling mission operations to be con- 
ducted in the same neighbourhood under the direction of the 
said Third Church." ^ 

^ The complete proceedings of the German Street union were 
published in the Old Pine Street Church Neivs, December, 1891. 

278 History of Old Pine Street. 

So was the money, originally for the most part from 
Old Pine Street, and given for the purpose of maintain- 
ing church work in a certain specific vicinity, saved 
from diversion into other channels, and this income has 
been used in the ''German Street field" ever since. The 
total membership, transferred to the roll of Old Pine 
Street by this order of Presbytery, was sixty-five, of 
whom thirty-two — just one-half — came into active 
membership with the church. The others had moved 
from the neighborhood, and were given letters. But 
this German Street element, though small, has been 
a useful and faithful addition to the church. Edmond 
Beale, M. D., was elected into the Session, and served 
till his death. John Stinson, who was chairman of 
the Committee spoken of above, and through whose 
untiring efforts and unwavering purpose and belief in 
the ''eternal fitness of things" we owe the defeat of 
Presbytery's original intention, is President of the 
Board of Deacons of the Church. Frederick K. Uhde 
is a trustee. Two of the present teaching staff of the 
Sunday-School are from German Street. Thirty-two 
was not a large number, and some of them are now 
dead and some removed to other cities, but in the 
church to-day there are no more faithful and loyal 
people than the "German Street element," and they 
have always been a source of strength and comfort 
to Dr. Gibbons. 

The German Street income became operative in 1892, 



Representative young men of the church— Frederick K. UhUe, 
Harry B. Davi^y,C<^^l, Augustus ^if^erxxHgmy Johns 
, Gibbons . , 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 279 

and since that time the church has had a missionary to 
assist Dr. Gibbons in ministering to the large and dif- 
ficult field that has been left to Old Pine Street. The 
Rev. John Campbell was the first missionary, and he 
has been followed by the Rev. Dr. John C. Thompson, 
a former pastor of German Street, Rev. Frank H. Bur- 
dick, Holmes D. Eastburn, Rev. Wilson T. M. Beale, 
Rev. Frederick A. Walter, Rev. Edwin J. Russell, and 
Mr. Herbert Adams Gibbons. In announcing from the 
pulpit this new and great work which the German 
Street Fund enabled Old Pine Street to engage in. Dr. 
Gibbons said, "Let us seek the gift of the Holy Ghost, 
and apply earnestly and faithfully all instrumentalities 
within our reach to purify and elevate and save this 
part of our great city." It is in this spirit that the 
missionary work has been done. 

The Endowment Fund of Old Pine Street was 
started in 1863 by a bequest in the will of Mrs. 
Lydia Bailey, one of the first legacies to the church. 
But the idea of a fund whose income should be large 
enough to supplement the decreasing revenue from pew 
rents, when the older generation died away, and Old 
Pine Street became a "down-town" church, was not 
considered until after the Centennial in Dr. Allen's 
pastorate. It was then called the Brainerd Memorial 
Endowment Fund, and, in the year before Dr. Gib- 
bons came to Old Pine Street, amounted to only four 
thousand four hundred dollars. That year the sale 

28o History of Old Pine Street. 

of the parsonage brought it up to ten thousand dollars. 
From the beginning it was clearly defined as a general 
maintenance endowment, the income of which was to 
be expended for the expenses of the church at the dis- 
cretion of the trustees. But it Avas also decided that 
none of the interest should be used until the Fund 
could yield one thousand dollars from legal first mort- 
gage investments. When Dr. Gibbons became pastor, 
the Burial Trust Fund had also been started, and con- 
tained sixteen hundred and fifty dollars ; and there were 
the Pearson and Sparks Funds. The aggregate total 
was not twenty thousand dollars. 

Dr. Gibbons was at first opposed to church endow- 
ments, but he was soon convinced by the wise men who 
knew the needs of Old Pine Street and looked prophet- 
ically into the future, that the salvation of the church 
lay in its full and ample endowment. At a meeting of 
the Board of Trustees on December 5, 1882, a com- 
mittee was appointed to confer with the Session upon 
this question. The Session joined hands with the 
Board, a congregational meeting was held, and eight 
thousand eight hundred and fifty dollars was subscribed 
to the Fund, in sums ranging from ten dollars upwards. 
Since then it has steadily climbed, until it has reached 
the seventh notch out of the ten towards the hundred 
thousand dollar mark. In 1888 six thousand dollars 
came from the sale of the Brainerd Memorial School. 
All the rest has been raised by gifts and legacies from 


Treasurer of the Endozvment Fund, Ruling Elder, and Trustee 
since i86y 


bccu lett lo tlic church 

(•I her 

^ '^'Tf^^V 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 281 

children of the church. No money has ever been 
sohcited from outside sources. The Burial Trust Fund 
has increased fivefold, and other endowments have 
been established, which are enumerated below. 

At the present writing, the invested endowments of 
the church aggregate over one hundred thousand dol- 
lars. Of this sum only two-thirds, however, is in the 
Brainerd Memorial Endowment Fund, the income of 
which goes to the trustees for the general maintenance 
of the church. So it will be seen that this fund must 
be largely increased to make it thoroughly efficient, 
and it is the hope of the men who have given their life 
for the church and sacrificed so much for her welfare 
that this general maintenance endowment will reach 
in itself the sum of one hundred thousand dollars or 
more. The accomplishment of this within the next few 
years would be the crowning joy of Dr. Gibbons' 

Many legacies have rightly been left to the church 
for specific purposes. This is as it should be, and 
insures the invested funds of the church from the dan- 
ger of being directed in one channel to the detriment of 
others, and thus establishes independently different 
branches of church work. 

The Churchyard Trust Fund, now eleven thousand 
dollars, is spoken of in another chapter. The Deacons' 
Trust Fund, amounting to a similar sum, has grown 
from a small bequest of "r house for the poor," by 

282 History of Old Pine Street. 

George Pearson, a trustee, in 1848. The income from 
the rental of this house, 770 Swanson Street, has 
been used now for over half a century for the relief 
of distressed widow communicants of the church. The 
value of this house, which has been greatly reduced in 
the last twenty years by a changing neighborhood, is 
not included in the figures of the Deacons' Fund 
given above, nor is the one-half of the Sparks Fund 
of two thousand five hundred dollars, whose income is 
also used for the widows of the church. Included in 
the Deacons' Fund is the entire Shermer estate of some 
two thousand dollars. 

Next in size is the Sunday-School Fund, established 
lately by a bequest of five thousand dollars from the 
estates of Emma S. and George W. Farr, in memory 
of their step-mother, who served as an officer in the 
school for sixty years. Up to the time of her death 
in the present pastorate she was the active Directress 
of the school. In addition to this the Sunday-School 
has the interest from the other half of the Sparks 
Fund, making a total Sunday-School endowment of 
over six thousand dollars. To meet the growing needs 
of the school this endowment is insufficient, and should 
be increased as well as the Brainerd Memorial general 
maintenance endowment. 

Two of the most excellent societies of the church, the 
Dorcas and Home Missionary, are endowed to the ex- 
tent of four thousand dollars each, which furnishes a 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 283 

helpful supplementary income in their work. These 
societies have been mentioned elsewhere. 

The Richardson Fund of three hundred dollars is for 
the keeping of graves in the churchyard, and the in- 
come of the Corgie Fund of two thousand dollars is 
divided into five parts, and goes to the Ladies' Re- 
Union Foreign Missionary Society, the Sunday-School, 
the Bible Society of the Sunday- School, the Deacons' 
Fund, and the Session of the Church; the latter, also, 
holds for its own uses the Phillips' F*und of five hun- 
dred dollars. 

These endowment funds are the secret of Old Pine 
Street's hope for the future in her down-town field. 
This financial basis insures her permanency as a beacon 
light for salvation in the original field which the 
Lord has given her, and which her children have tilled 
with constancy and success amid the changing fortunes 
of the neighborhood. Just as the life of the individual 
and of the family must have a financial basis for ef- 
ficiency and stability, so must the church keep free 
from debt, and have an income, and live within that in- 
come, to do effective Christian work. The men who 
created the endowment funds of Old Pine Street by 
persistent missionary work in the face of well-grounded 
opposition had clear vision and inspired foresight. 
They builded even better than they knew. Their work 
and their gifts, and the gifts and legacies of those 
whom they persuaded, have been the salvation of Old 
Pine Street. 

284 History of Old Pine Street. 

A large portion of these endowments has only be- 
come operative within the past two years, just when 
they were needed. Of the rest that have accumulated 
largely in the present pastorate, it is the proud boast 
of the church that much of the income has not been 
needed, and has been added to the principal. It has 
only been within the past ten years that any portion 
of the Brainerd Memorial Endowment income has 
been used for the general maintenance of the church. 
To-day, with the break made by death in the ranks 
of the financial supporters of the church whose places 
can never be filled, those who have been spared do more 
than their share at the annual New Year Sunday de- 
ficiency collection, and the trustees of the church have 
always determined never to use more than is abso- 
lutely necessary from the income of the Brainerd 
Memorial Endowment Fund. There were many years 
during the present pastorate that the entire deficiency, 
amounting to more than a thousand dollars sometimes, 
was given on the New Year Sunday.^ In these years 
the whole annual income from the Fund was added 
to the principal. To-day the principal is increased 
yearly from a material saving in this way. This spirit 
on the part of the officers and people of the church has 
proved that in Old Pine Street at least the creation of 
an endowment has not lessened the spirit of giving on 

^ In 1889, $1,300 was given; in 1891, $1,600. 

An active Trustee of the present Board 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 285 

the part of the congregation, or of self-rehance and 
careful saving on the part of the Board of Trustees. 

The improvements and renovations made in the 
church in 1868 for the Centennial had been ex- 
tensive and costly, but after thirteen years there 
was much repair needed. The trustees were men 
who believed in keeping up with the advantages of 
the day. Unfortunately, the church had been hope- 
lessly altered from its colonial interior by the utili- 
tarians and comfort-seekers of the middle of the 
century. It was the part of wisdom, then, having 
a modern church interior, to enjoy the advantages of 
modern art and decoration. So, in the summer of 
1886, the interior of the church received the beautiful 
decoration which remains to this day; and the stained 
glass memorial windows. These improvements cost 
almost eight thousand five hundred dollars. The Stin- 
day- School and Lecture Rooms have several times 
been repainted, and twice carpeted during the present 
pastorate. A new and modern chandelier replaced 
the "great light" of earlier days in the main church 
during the summer of 1894. The outside of the 
church has always been carefully kept in order, and 
thousands of dollars have been expended on the church- 
yard. In 1902 three thousand dollars was spent in re- 
building part of the south and the east walls of the 

Nine years ago the following was written of Dr. 

286 History of Old Pine Street. 

Gibbons by a prominent newspaper editor of Philadel- 
phia :^ 

'"The Rev. Dr. Hughes O. Gibbons is a leader among the 
intellectual forces of Philadelphia, and a man of equal strength of 
mind and force of character. Though zealous in his work, he is 
not a fanatic, and rarely lets his zeal run away with his judg- 

None of the pastors of Old Pine Street have been 
more prominent in public life than Dr. Gibbons. Liv- 
ing in the Fifth Ward, by common fame the most cor- 
rupt ward of the city politically, he has had ample 
opportunity to see and to study the evils of munici- 
pal politics. He has never hesitated from the pulpit 
and in the public press to denounce organized crime, 
police protection of vice, and the prostitution of the 
ballot. Some years ago a sermon of his on the privi- 
leges and duties of suffrage was published for the 
Municipal League.^ His utterances on municipal af- 
fairs have always been eagerly sought by the press, 
and have given him a far wider atidience than the con- 
fines of his own pulpit. Twice he has figured as the 
principal in public differences with the city Department 
of Public Safety to establish the right of the private 
citizen.^ He has frequently addressed Christian citi- 
zenship meetings in different parts of the city. 

*L. Clarke Davis in the Public Ledger, May 21, 1896. 
='"What Is a Vote?" 

"See newspapers of December 12-19, 1895; and October 7-15, 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 287 

Dr. Gibbons has made a careful study of the Hquor 
traffic in Philadelphia, and has been an ardent advocate 
of the Brooks High License Law as the most feasible 
and most practicable legislation possible at the present 
time. At the fifteenth annual meeting of the Law and 
Order Society, in 1896, he said: 

"If the Brooks High License Law was faithfully and wisely 
administered, the political machine of Philadelphia would be 
hopelessly broken, and there would be an open door for our 
3^oung men of education and integrity to enter the field of hon- 
ourable politics. Moreover, the faithful administration of this 
law would do much to prevent the education of criminals, and 
would destroy many of the worst haunts of vice in our city. 
The Brooks High License Law is perhaps the best enactment 
that has ever been\ secured for regulating and restraining the 
sale of intoxicating liquor." ^ 

In 1894 Dr. Gibbons was elected one of the vice- 
presidents of the Law and Order Society of Philadel- 
phia, the first and only clergyman "^hat has ever held 
official position in that organization. On the death 
of the President, Arthur M. Burton, Esq., he was 
honored by election to that high and responsible office, 
and is now serving his seventh year in the presidency 
of the Society. During these years, his wise counsel, 
and the faithful and courageous work of the secretary, 
D. Clarence Gibboney, Esq., backed by the financial 
support of the best people of Philadelphia, have won 
for the Law and Order Society many notable victories, 
and made it a powerful factor in the life of the munici- 

^ Report of the Law and Order Society of Philadelphia for 

288 History of Old Pine Street. 

pality. It has striven successfully to gain the enforce- 
ment of the Brooks High License Law along the lines 
of Dr. Gibbons' policy; it has broken up slot-machine, 
pool-room, and policy gambling in the city; it has ar- 
rested and put in prison hundreds of speak-easy and 
disorderly house proprietors ; it has uncovered and de- 
moralized police protection of crime ; it has established, 
through the courts, precedents in decisions on criminal 
law that have made profitless and perilous vice syndi- 
cates in Philadelphia; and it has resisted successfully 
the efforts of a venal State Legislature to cripple its 
efficiency and limit its powers by statutory enactments. 

In other outside interests Dr. Gibbons has actively 
shared. He has served as trustee of the Presbyterian 
Hospital, director of the Presbyterian Historical So- 
ciety, and has been for fifteen years president of the 
Seamen's and Landsmen's Aid Society. He is a thor- 
ough believer and helper in the work of the Society 
for Organizing Charity. 

In church matters, Dr. Gibbons has been moderator 
of the Baltimore Presbytery, three times moderator of 
the Presbytery of Philadelphia, and delegate to Gen- 
eral Assembly in Minneapolis, 1886; Saratoga, 1896; 
and Minneapolis, 1899. In the first of these Assemblies 
he was chairman of the Committee on Freedmen; in 
the second, he prepared the report of the Committee 
on Temperance; and in the third, he was chairman 
of the Committee on Church Polity, a recognition of 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 289 

his special study and experience in this field. He is a 
member of the Board of Education, and, in the Presby- 
tery of Philadelphia, is examiner in theology, his favor- 
ite field of study. 

At college Dr. Gibbons was attracted especially to 
mathematics and philosophy, an interest which he has 
never lost. Besides his baccalaureate degrees in Arts 
and Divinity, his Alma Mater conferred upon him the 
degrees of Master of Arts in 1873 for special study 
on philosophical lines, and Doctor of Divinity in 1889. 

The influence of childhood and varied experiences 
of his earlier years have been of advantage to Dr. Gib- 
bons throughout his long and active career. His fond- 
ness for being out of doors leads him to avoid public 
conveyances in his city life, and he has always walked 
mile upon mile in the round of parochial duties. Simi- 
larly, in the summer time he has avoided ''conferences" 
and the conventional summer hotels, and taken himself 
off with his family to the woods of Maine, where long 
tramps and miles of rowing in pursuit of his favorite 
sport have made his vacations in reality outings. For 
this reason, at the age of sixty-two he is in perfect 
health, and feels that he has hardly more than reached 
the prime of his clerical life. 

Dr. Gibbons preaches entirely without notes, follow- 
ing the anciently-established precedent of his predeces- 
sors.^ Although the theological element is strong in 

^ See page 149. 

290 History of Old Pine Street. 

him, it is equally balanced by the influences of his prac- 
tical and rounded life. As a thinker Dr. Gibbons is 
scholarly, but he is not the product of the study. To 
the minds of his many friends he presents the ideal of 
a well-rounded clergyman. 

The success he has attained in the administration of 
the Presbyterian Ministers' Fund and the Law and 
Order Society are indicative of his tw^o strongest char- 
acteristics, practical business sense and tact, which were 
developed and strengthened in his long years of prep- 
aration for the sacred calling on which his heart was 
set. His ways are gentle, and yet firm. There is noth- 
ing of the fanatic in his nature, and he invariably sees 
the other man's point of view in dealing with a ques- 
tion or problem. He is slow to reach a decision, but, 
when he has once made up his mind, is most positive. 
His success in dealing with all classes of men has been 
wonderful, and in his reform work he has the admira- 
tion and respect of the men whom he is fighting. His 
popularity in the Fifth Ward is an evidence of this, 
and there is to-day the same acknowledgment of his 
physical strength and his disposition to be merciful 
in judgment and "p^^Y fair" as there was when he 
brought order out of chaos in the slum schools of Pitts- 
burgh thirty years ago.^ Herbert Welsh once said of 
him : "Dr. Gibbons has long been known in this com- 
munity as a worthy and able minister of religion, and 

^ See page 256 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 291 

as a citizen whose activity and good sense in the strug- 
gle for honest government have won him the esteem 
and affection of all men. On the basis of a long ac- 
quaintanceship we should be quite willing to take him 
for a model of good citizenship/' ^ During his twenty- 
four years in Old Pine Street he has always lived 
within a block of the church, where he has been acces- 
sible to Protestant and Catholic, Jew and Gentile alike. 
This has been out of preference, for the parsonage of 
the church had been sold before he came to Old Pine 

Dr. Gibbons was elected President of the Presby- 
terian Ministers' Fund in 1889, and threw his whole 
soul into the fight to save the Fund, which is the oldest 
life insurance company in America, from becoming 
purely a business organization. With its prestige, its 
outstanding assets, and its widening field, it had long 
been considered a tempting institution for the general 
life insurance field. There were influential men who 
were trying to accomplish this object by erecting an ex- 
pensive agency system and opening the Fund to all in- 
surers. The year after Dr. Gibbons' election, he suc- 
ceeded in having by-laws passed that were a safeguard 
to the Fund. But the matter was still agitated, and its 
leading spirits attempted to secure control of the Board 
of Directors. Dr. Gibbons appealed to the Corporators, 
in 1893, in a pamphlet containing concisely the his- 

^ 0/3' and State, October 12, 1899. 

292 History of Old Pine Street. 

tory of the Fund, the spirit in which it had been created 
and btiilded since 1759, and the peril to which the 
Fund was then exix)sed. He appealed for their proxy 
votes, secured them, and defeated the purposes of the 
enemies of the Fund. In this way the Fund was saved 
to the church. By economy of management and ab- 
sence of agents' commissions, and by the restriction of 
insurance "to Presbyterian ministers, including in that 
designation the ministers of all churches embracing the 
Presbyterian form of Church polity," ^ the Fund is 
able to insure clerg}anen at low rates, and encourage 
''Christian saving." ^ Having accomplished his pur- 
pose, Dr. Gibbons retired in 1896, after serving seven 
years as president, because of the pressure of other 
duties. The Fund had started on a career of phenom- 
enal success which has followed it to this day, largely 
owing to the ability of its Secretary and Actuary, Rev. 
Perry S. x\llen, D. D., whom Dr. Gibbons had picked 
out, and urged to assume the business management of 
the Fund, and with whom he felt that he could safely 
leave the future of the society for which he had striven 
against odds and with signal success. 

In the chapter of the pastorate of Archibald Alex- 
ander it was mentioned that he had introduced the in- 
surance element into the "Ministers' and Widows' Fund 

^ Gibbons' "Important Facts Concerning tlie Presbyterian Min- 
isters' Fund," page 10. 
' Ibid. 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 293 

of the Presbyterian Church," which is now the Pres- 
byterian Ministers' Fund.^ In 1808, the trustees of 
Old Pine Street made a deposit of four hundred dol- 
lars in this Fund, to remain perpetually, and the interest 
to be used in maintaining an insurance policy on the 
life of the pastor of the church. Dr. Alexander was 
the first nominee, and since then Dr. Ely, Dr. Brainerd, 
Dr. Allen, and Dr. Gibbons have enjoyed the benefit of 
the protection offered by this deposit. Decrease in 
interest rates, and increase in insurance rates, reduced 
what was originally but a small policy to insurance 
for seven hundred dollars. 

After Dr. Gibbons had been elected president of the 
Presbyterian Ministers' Fund, Messrs. George W. Farr 
and Stephen D. Harris, who were Corporators, brought 
up the question of increasing this deposit to a sum that 
would yield enough interest to pay the premium on an 
endowment policy for five thousand dollars. A com- 
mittee was appointed by the Session to take this mat- 
ter in hand. On October 7, 1892, they reported that 
almost one thousand eight hundred dollars had been 
raised, leaving about five hundred and fifty dollars to 
complete the amount which, in addition to the four hun- 
dred dollars of the deposit of 1808, would be necessary 
for maintaining the policy desired. They recom- 
mended that the Session appoint Easter Sunday for 
offerings to this cause, until the amount had been 

^ See page 152. 

294 History of Old Pine Street. 

raised. The church deposit on the books of the Pres- 
byterian Ministers' Fund now amounts to about two 
thousand live hundred dollars, which assures the suc- 
cess of this movement. The successors of Dr. Gibbons 
will receive the benefit of this deposit, which will give 
them of life insurance in the Ministers' Fund to the 
amount of five thousand dollars, or more, according to 
the nominee's age and the form of policy that he may 
choose. The interest on the sum deposited will pay the 
premiums of an endowment policy for five thousand 
dollars for a man at the age of thirty-five. This event 
is merely an indication of the thought that the people 
of Old Pine Street have always shown in the welfare of 
their pastors, — a spirit which had prompted Dr. Alex- 
ander to say, *T do not know a single congregation 
within the bounds of our church of which I would 
choose to be pastor in preference to this. No invita- 
tion therefore from any other would ever have sep- 
arated us. I did expect to live and die with you." ^ 

As in the instance above, this history has invariably 
recorded in the account of each pastorate the love of 
the pastor for the people, and the love of the people 
for the pastor which bound them so strongly together. 
It is remarkable to think of one hundred and forty 
years of church life with only eight pastors; it is 
more remarkable to realize that no pastor of Old Pine 
Street has ever left the church to accept a call to another 

* See page 154. 

Pastorate of Hughes Oliphant Gibbons. 295 

church. Two of the pastors accepted the call of duty 
and of the Church to fill positions in theological semi- 
naries, one a similar call to the secretaryship of a Board 
of the Church, and one resigned on account of ill- 
health : the other three rest in the churchyard. 

As it was with them, so is it with Dr. Gibbons. 
There have been strong temptations, there have been 
alluring prospects, there was once a church that would 
have dottbled his salary and more, and there was once 
a college presidency where he could have lived a studi- 
ous, peaceful, and happy existence in the beloved coun- 
try. But they were hardly even temptations to him, 
for Dr. Gibbons had come to Old Pine Street with a 
clear knowledge of the difficulties ahead of him. He 
preferred a hard fight to ease and comfort. The Lord 
had blessed him with a faithful and loving congrega- 
tion, with an excellent home for his family, with suc- 
cess in his pastoral work, and in his endeavors to in- 
crease the endowments of the church. He elected to 
remain. Then came the invasion of the Russian Jews, 
the change of field to virtual foreign missionary work, 
the depletion of his congregation. Again he chose to 
stay, and to-day he sees the church with an increase 
of a hundred thousand dollars in its endowments, a 
communing membership that is as large as when he 
came to it, a band of officers and workers around 
him that are undismayed, and, in one year, the twenty- 
fifth anniversary of his pastorate. 

296 History of Old Pine Street. 

Has it paid ? Let this be the answer : The Presby- 
terian Church has in a great city a colonial church, 
on its original foundation, surrounded by a large and 
beautiful chuchyard, in which rest the dead of seven 
generations, many of whom fought for the independ- 
ence of their country, and played a part in the creation 
of the Republic. It sees this church, these graves, 
inviolate, secured for all time from the hand of the 
despoiler and the irreverent march of modern progress 
by ample financial endowments. Has it any others? 
The Presbyterian Church has in a great city one old 
and influential congregation that has stayed where it 
was planted, and has cherished the altars of its an- 
cestors ; a congregation that has overcome the tide of 
time and circumstance effectually by loyalty and gen- 
erous giving, and has provided beyond a doubt of fail- 
ure for the maintenance of church services and the 
preaching of the Gospel and the saving of souls and the 
helping of the poor in a down-town field, not for five 
years longer, or ten years longer, or fifty years longer, 
but for all time. 

Showing DuiHeld and Hoge Tablets 

'-■ , M.^jWQ.^.^iLk'^£^m\^^i^&BM 


Tke Sunday-Scliools/ 

Sunday-Schools are a modern development among 
the churches of Christendom, and were not known un- 
til the nineteenth century. In the good old days of 
Duffield and Smith the children of Old Pine Street, 
like other children of the day, were supposed to get 
their religious education by assimilation out of environ- 
ment. Among the earliest feelings was the high- 
backed pew, among the earliest sounds the preacher's 
voice, among the earliest tasks the catechism. One 
was not supposed to understand all at once, or to re- 
ceive only so much as could be understood. Apprecia- 
tion and the grasp of religious truth came with the 
years, and was a natural process of mental develop- 

With the change of educational ideas in things 
secular came the natural demand for religious in- 
struction of the young. It took a long time to get 
rid of the old idea, which was tenaciously clung to, 
that a child's religious education was a duty of the 
home, and of the home alone. 

The modern Sunday-School had its birth in the 
mission school with religious teaching introduced. 
Then came the independent organizations for religious 

^ This chapter was prepared by the present missionary of the 


298 History of Old Pine Street. 

teaching alone. But they were confined largely to the 
poor, and those who had no opportunities for religious 
training in the home. In Philadelphia, the idea of a 
Sunday-School under the control of a certain particular 
church for the religious education of that church's 
young people, rich and poor alike, had its beginning 
in Old Pine Street. 

In the chapter on Dr. Alexander is quoted the 
reminiscences of the venerable Dr. John Hall about his 
boyhood in Old Pine Street, in which he states that 
Dr. Alexander assembled the children of the church 
for religious instruction on Saturday afternoons, ex- 
pounded to them the catechism, and required the older 
children to bring written proofs.^ Here, no doubt, is 
the inception of the church Sunday-School. It was 
Dr. Alexander who prepared the people for this seem- 
ing invasion upon one of the prerogatives of the home. 

Immediately after Dr. Ely's installation the church 
Sunday-School was started. On the first Sunday of 
May, 1814,^ Mr. Moss McMullen gathered together six 
or eight children of the church in the parlor of his 
home at 309 South Second Street.^ Rapid increase of 
scholars led to its removal to Southwark Academy, 
then to Southwark Hall. When the Session acquired 
the property at the corner of Green's Court, now South 
Lawrence Street, opposite the church, the Sunday- 

' See page 145. 

' "Leaves from a Century Plant," page 192. 

• Now 713 South Second Street. 

The Sunday-Schools. 299 

School was moved there. Lack of sufficient accom- 
modations even there led to its meeting in the galleries 
of the church, until the church was raised in 1837, 
when the rooms which it still occupies were made.^ 

There are not now available any written records of 
the school prior to 1842, from which date the records 
are complete. But at the time of the Centennial of 
the church in 1868, there were some living who had 
been in the school from its inception, and who for- 
tunately left a written record of its early history. Some 
of these, indeed, lived into the present pastorate, and 
two of them. Miss Lucy Collins and "Aunt Jane" Mac- 
Farlane, have often spoken to their pastor of these 
early days. ''Aunt Jane" was one of the original schol- 
ars, and a teacher from her girlhood. She was active 
in the women's societies of Old Pine Street until her 
ninetieth year. 

The first Superintendent was Miss Sarah McMullen, 
who resigned after four years to go as a missionary 
to South America.^ She was succeeded by Miss Susan 
Mitchell, then in her early twenties. Miss Mitchell 
Hved to send a greeting to the school on its seventy- 
fifth anniversary, being then advanced in her nineties.^ 
She was succeeded by William F. Geddes, who in turn 

^ Randall Trevor Hazzard in the Old Pine Street Church News, 
July, 1889. 
' Ibid. 
' Ibid. 

300 History of Old Pine Street. 

gave place to Elder John R. McMiillin.^ In 1837, on 
the removal of the school to its present quarters, Elder 
John C. Farr was elected superintendent, and served 
until 1849. This grand old man, however, did not 
leave the school, but continued as a teacher through 
the larger part of his long and useful life. At the time 
of his election he was a young man, and had already 
been an elder for one year. His second wife, then Miss 
McCorkle, served as an officer of the school sixty-two 
years until her death in 1887. 

During the rest of Dr. Brainerd's pastorate John 
Aikman and William Taylor were superintendents; in 
Dr. Allen's pastorate, E. R. Hutchins M. D., O. H. 
Willard, and Rudolph M. Schick, Esq. All of these 
men, except Mr. Taylor, were ruling elders of the 
church. Mr. Schick w^as superintendent at the begin- 
ning of the present pastorate, but resigned after two 
years on account of removal. He has been followed 
successively by Messrs. James Hewitt, Dudley T. Rich- 
man, David White, Philip H. Strubing, and Walter 
H. Richman, — all elders with the exception of Dudley 
T. Richman, who has since, however, become a ruling 
elder in the Emmanuel Church of West Philadelphia. 
Messrs. Dudley T. Richman, Hewitt and Strubing, like 
Mr. Schick, were led to resign owing to removal to 
neighborhoods distant from the church. Mr. White 
was compelled to resign the superintendency from ill 


\o ^><'i\':) 


Clerk of the Session; Secretary of the Boar^^^f ^ru.tees : Super- 
mtendent of the Sundtiy School 

Associate Superintendent and Ubrartan'onhe Sunday School 

The Sunday-Schools. 301 

health, and died shortly afterwards, a great loss to the 
church. For several years Mr. Strubing came in from 
his suburban home in Mount Airy. The present super- 
intendent, Mr. Walter H. Richman, and the associate 
superintendent, Mr. Robert P. Andrews, both come 
from homes more than five miles from the church. 

During Dr. Brainerd's day the Sunday-School be- 
came a powerful factor in the life of the church. Then 
the church was surrounded by many workers, there 
were young people without number, and they all lived 
in the neighborhood. The power of Dr. Brainerd over 
the young of the church, and the remarkable energy 
and activity in Christian work of the young men whom 
he had raised, has been mentioned elsewhere in this 
history. These young men, and, indeed, many young 
women, were endowed with a true missionary spirit. 
They held ''cottage prayer-meetings," they assisted in 
the meetings in the open market places that Dr. Brain- 
erd addressed with stich power and blessed results. 
There being so many of these workers — more than 
was necessary to supply teachers for the church 
school — the establishment of mission schools, un- 
der the care of the church, was a logical and natural 
thing. In those days, between South Street and 
Washington Avenue, and in the more sparsely settled 
parts beyond, there were, mingled with good neighbor- 
hoods, slums steeped in crime and ignorance, and worse 
than any section of the Philadelphia of to-day. It was 

302 History of Old Pine Street. 

into these regions that the Sunday-School work of 
Old Pine Street was carried. 

Back in the early part of Dr. Ely's pastorate, Elder 
John Welwood Scott, afterwards a clergyman, estab- 
lished a Union Mission School in Southwark. He 
gathered about him teachers from all denominations, 
and his stirring letters to the teachers and scholars, 
one of which we have before us,^ were full of enthusi- 
asm for the great future that his clear vision saw ahead 
for the Sunday-School movement in America. A col 
ored school was maintained for many years in Gaskill 
Street during the early part of Dr. Brainerd's ministry. 

But the great school for which the credit was largely 
due to the devoted men and women of Old Pine Street 
was the Robert Raikes School, on Sixth Street, near 
Fitzwater. The greatness of its work cannot be esti- 
mated. One of the leading spirits in this, and in all 
the missionary enterprises of the young people of Old 
Pine Street, was Ezra Calhoun, a truly consecrated 
servant of God, who came to Old Pine Street from 
the German Street Church in the late forties. He was 
quiet and retiring in manner, but a man whose leader- 
ship needed no assertion. He was a power in Old 
Pine Street as he grew in years and in favor with God 
and man, serving as trustee, and subsequently as ruling 
elder, until his death, November 26, 1885, ^" ^^^^ ^^^h 
year of the present pastorate. 

^ In Connell's "Memorabilia of Old Pine Street." 

iiers II 

Trustee ami Ruling Elder ' W ifiechurc'kf^ 

who zvas a leader of young people 




year of the pres 


The Sunday-Schools. 303 

With the growth of distinctively church schools, de- 
nominational lines were more closely drawn, and in 
time the Robert Raikes School was sold. Dr. Brainerd 
proposed the building of a church mission school to 
succeed it on the property of the church at Fifth and 
Carpenter Streets, which had been used for many years 
as a graveyard to relieve the churchyard of a too large 
number of interments. A committee was appointed 
by the Board of Trustees, with the power to erect a 
building for the Robert Raikes School on the Carpenter 
Street lot, provided surety was given that the Trustees 
be indemnified against any liability that might arise 
from the construction of the building. Captain Whill- 
din offered this surety, and was accepted. At this 
time occurred the sudden death of Dr. Brainerd, and 
of Captain Whilldin. At a meeting of the Board on 
October 29, 1866, the remaining members of the com- 
mittee stated that the death of Dr. Brainerd and Cap- 
tain Whilldin had made the carrying forth of the 
project seemingly hopeless. Then arose one of the 
Trustees, George Griffiths, who begged that the enter- 
prise be not dropped, and offered himself as surety for 
the building of the school. At the June meeting of 
the next year Mr. Griffiths reported that the school 
had been finished at a cost of six thousand dollars, over 
half of which was contributed by himself, that two 
thousand dollars more was needed for furnishing the 
building, and that the school contained at that time 

304 History of Old Pine Street. 

three hundred pupils with fifty teachers. The name 
had been changed to the Brainerd Memorial School. 
For some years, under the superintendency of Mr. Grif- 
fifths and of Dr. George W. Bailey, this school flour- 
ished, and did a great work for the evangelization of 
its neighborhood. 

In 1848 George Pearson, an honored trustee of the 
church, died, leaving, as his tombstone in the church- 
yard states, ''a legacy for missions, a fund for the 
poor, and a lot for a church." This ''fund for the 
poor" has for forty years afforded relief to the widows 
of the church.^ The "lot for a church" was on Green- 
wich Street, and the title was vested in the Board of 
Trustees of Old Pine Street. On June 20, 1865, the 
Missionary Society of the church made application to 
the Trustees to build a Mission School upon this lot, 
with the idea of making it immediately a chapel of 
the church, and ultimately an independent church, thus 
carrying out the purpose of Mr. Pearson. The Board 
granted this privilege with the understanding that the 
funds for the erection of the building were to be in 
the hands of the Society before they began to build. 
What wise trustees Old Pine Street has always en- 
joyed! Under the indomitable leadership of a mem- 
ber of the Board, Randolph Sailor, the necessary 
amount was raised — some six thousand dollars — within 
one month, and the chapel was built by a committee 

^ See page 282. 

The Sunday-Schools. 305 

of the Society, under the oversight of Hugh Stevenson, 
Morgan Griscom Pile, and Ezra Calhoun, of the Board 
of Trustees. This chapel was a great success, and in 
three years was organized as the Greenwich Street 
Church, with the Rev. William Hutton as pastor, and 
a Session from the devoted young men of Old Pine 
Street, to whom the church owed its existence. Dr. 
Hutton is still pastor of Greenwich Street, after thirty- 
seven years, and his church 'liolds the fort" for Pres- 
byterianism in the southeastern section of the city, 
when two other Presb3'terian churches are just moving 

The retrenchment along all lines of church work 
necessary in the latter years of Dr. Allen's pastorate 
led to the abandoning of the Brainerd Memorial School. 
The lot was sold, and the proceeds turned into the 
incipient endowment fund of the church. 

Under the succession of Messrs. Schick, Hewitt, D. 
T. Richman, White, Strubing, and W. H. Richman, the 
church Sunday-School has maintained an uninterrupted 
existence. In the earlier years of the present pastorate 
it reached, in numbers and enthusiasm and general 
activity, the zenith of its long and active life. By 
splendid effort of superintendents and teachers the 
numbers were maintained until the Jewish immigra- 
tion struck the neighborhood of the church in the early 
nineties. Since then there have been no new children 
to replace the wholesale removal of families. But there 

3o6 History of Old Pine Street. 

have been loyal children who come long distances to 
their old school ; there have been loyal teachers who 
have sacrificed their own convenience and comfort week 
after week, and stuck by the old school. With these 
consecrated hearts and hands to keep up the work of 
their fathers, the school, no more than the church, can 
die. Until the last two years, when sickness has kept 
her at home, the honored superintendent of the Infant 
School, Miss Ellen Webb, whose service has some years 
since passed the half century mark, w^as faithful and 
regular, and saw a succession of classes pass into the 
Main School, some of them containing the children 
of children she had taught many years ago. 

The present superintendent, Walter Hart Richman, 
is indefatigable in the service of the school in which 
he received his Christian training. His associate, Rob- 
ert Potts Andrews, who for years, as Librarian, placed 
on the shelves of the school library hundreds of books 
of history and adventure by the best authors to super- 
cede the so-called "Sunday-School stories," has also 
been a member of the school from early childhood. 
The Missionary and School Fund treasurers^ are both 
trustees of the church. In the teaching staff of the 
school are to be found the associate superintendent's 
wife, two elders' daughters, and two trustees' wives; 
four of whom entered the school with the "cradle roll." 
A brother of the superintendent and his wife are teach- 

^ Harry B. Davis and W. Charles Tweed. 

A VTl 

han'tbc c]v 

i the las ept 

-c. the liijnorea sup<irintendeni of the infant 

-s Klien \' d)i). whose ser\'ice ha- 

• Lc^l^ff;^ ifn&m\ "^he Main School - 

, jbraria' 



:s Twee. 


The Sunday-Schools. 307 

ers who have risen from classes. The latest addition 
to the teaching staff is a member of a large family, 
all of whom have been connected with the school since 
infancy. Mrs. Corbin, Miss Webb's devoted asso- 
ciate in the Infant School, measures her service in 
Old Pine Street by more than a generation. The secre- 
taries of the school are young men who have come up 
from the Infant School through the Main School to 
official position. 

The music has always been a prominent feature in 
Old Pine Street Sunday-School. In addition to the 
piano and organ, there have at times been a flute and 
cornet. The cornet is still used on festive occasions. 
There has also been a chorus choir of boys. At the 
present time the music of the school is in the hands 
of an experienced chorister, who is a member of the 
church choir. Special attention is paid to singing, and 
the vocal work of the school has always brought forth 
unqualified praise from visitors at the anniversaries. 

Rewards of books are given for perfect Sunday- 
School and church attendance,^ and Bibles for learning 
within one year five hundred Scripture verses. There 
are children in the school to-day who have not missed 
a Sunday-School session for years. 

The present conditions of the neighborhood of Old 

^ The idea of rewards for church attendance originated with 
the late Elder David White, who provided for these rewards up 
to the time of his death. 

3o8 History of Old Pine Street. 

Pine Street give the Sunday-School a more important 
part than ever to play in the work of the church. To- 
day the school comprises several nationalities, and 
among the children it is training must be found the 
leaders of the church in the days to come. 


Shozving i^'indow of original building in the rear, and Brainerd 



The Churcliyard and Its Dead/ 

The Christian world in the olden days buried its 
dead around the churches where they had worshipped 
God. It was a beautiful tribute to the hope in man 
of immortal life and the resurrection of the body that 
the churchyard was his resting-place, and that his 
feet were in\ ariably turned to the East, so that, when 
the Angel Gabriel blew his horn, he might face the risen 

The modern world has changed all this. In cities, 
land is too valuable for churchyards, and, even where 
it could be purchased, the abnormal conditions of city 
life would make interments a menace to the public 
health. Tn villages, the eyes of the people are on the 
future, when they, too, shall become cities. So have 
arisen the cemeteries, which now universally replace the 
old churchyards, and the family vaults under the shade 
of church walls. 

When Old Pine Street was founded, Philadelphia 
was but a village, and the churchyard for the dead was 
considered, in the creation of a new^ church, as im- 
portant as the house of worship for the living. 

The original lot on which Old Pine Street was 
founded was one hundred and thirty- four feet on 

^ This chapter was writen by Herbert Adams Gibbons. 

3IO History of Old Pine Street. 

Fourth Street, by three hundred feet on Pine Street. 
Just before the close of the Revolutionary War, two 
lots, fronting twenty feet each on Fourth Street, were 
added to the churchyard, and steps were taken to ob- 
tain an additional one hundred feet on Pine Street, 
both from necessity of provision for the future and 
from a desire to prevent the shutting off of light and 
air from the west side of the church. But the First 
Church acquired this upper lot, and re-interred in it 
the bodies of the dead from their old churchyard, 
which had been sold for secular purposes. 

These boundaries have not since been changed ; and 
the churchyard stands as it did at that time. Of the 
four hundred feet frontage on Pine Street, the upper 
one-fourth is still owned by the First Church, although 
there have been no interments there for many years. 
There have been other churches and other churchyards, 
but only six are left in Old Philadelphia from the 
colonial days. Old Swedes', Christ, Saint Mary's, Saint 
Paul's, Saint Peter's, and Old Pine Street. Indeed, 
most of the churchyards of later date, and even the 
earlier of the cemeteries, have been swept away by 
the march of time. The alluring temptation of easier 
and more favorable fields, and the offer of large sums 
of money, have led to this desertion of post and dese- 
cration of sacred ground. These six churchyards have 
been preserved for posterity, and the rest of their dead 
has been hallowed. They each have their heroes and 

The Churchyard and Its Dead. 311 

their famous men, and all are splendidly kept with 
the single exception of Saint Mary's, which is as rich 
in historical associations as any of the others. It 
would be to the lasting credit of the Roman Catholic 
Church in Philadelphia to care for this sacred ground 
as it should be cared for, and to secure its preservation 
by an ample financial endowment. 

From the reasons that have been set forth in the 
chapter on Old Pine Street Men in the Revolutionary 
War, we can claim for our churchyard the honor of 
being the resting-place of many Revolutionary officers 
and soldiers — many more, in fact, than have been 
enumerated in that chapter. But to look up and prove 
the records of names on the tombstones which we 
have gathered, as was done in the case of the hundred 
and ten men who signed the Duffield call, would be a 
task far beyond our power and time to accomplish. 
Frequently inquiries come to the Pastor of Old Pine 
Street concerning the graves of Revolutionary heroes 
from descendants, whose knowledge of their burial in 
the churchyard has come to them through tradition 
and family records that are, of course, not available 
to us. Among these we might mention William 
Churchill Houston, Member of Continental Congress 
from New Jersey, and Lieutenant John Linton, who 
served in the same company of the First Virginia 
Dragoons with President Madison. 

The first interments in the churchyard were in 1 766, 

312 History of Old Pine Street. 

two years before the completion of the church build- 
ing. There are still legible a number of inscriptions 
from that date until 1776. Evidently during the War 
not much attention was paid to the erection of tomb- 
stones — probably there were no stone-cutters, and no 
products from the quarries. In 1780 the records begin 
again, and continue without diminution until the Civil 
War, eighty years later. Since then the interments 
have not been numerous. In 1868, a number of bodies 
were brought from the Carpenter Street burying- 
ground, which had been used for forty years to relieve 
the churchyard from overcrowding. This was the last 
considerable number of interments. 

Three reasons led to the gradual closing of the 
churchyard as a burial-ground. The first and most 
important of these was lack of space. Then, the Board 
of Health had an ordinance of Councils passed, pro- 
hibiting the interment of persons who had died of 
contagious diseases in city churchyards, and of any 
burials whatever in crowded graves or vaults, or above 
a certain depth. Then, families began to acquire lots 
in the cemeteries in outlying districts. 

But there were some who held their lots in fee sim- 
ple, and tliese have since used them, subject to the 
restrictions of the Board of Health. To-day the num- 
ber who enjoy this burial right, as it is called, are few, 
and it will not be many years before the Old Pine 
Street churchyard opens its last grave. Occasionally, 


East Side 

The Churchyard and Its Dead. 313 

the Board of Trustees has permitted an interment, un- 
der exceptional circumstances. In 1883, for instance, 
the present pastor was granted the privilege of burying 
two of his children near the walls of the church that he 
was serving. During the past year there have been but 
three interments. They were all of octogenarian mem- 
bers of the dear old church, brought back to their final 
resting-place from other cities. 

The closing of the churchyard, however, did not 
mean the loss of a burying-ground for the poor of the 
church, who could not afford the expense of a cemetery 
lot. With their customary solicitation, the Session and 
Trustees secured a church lot in Mount Moriah Ceme- 
tary, large enough to make ample provision for com- 
muning members of Old Pine Street who might have 
no place for burial. The Deacons have guarded this 
with care, and give worthy Christian burial to all who 
need their services. 

It is impossible to estimate the number of the dead 
who rest in the churchyard. We cannot arrive at even 
an approximate number, for one hundred and forty 
years has brought about the effacement of many in- 
scriptions, and, indeed, the disappearance of many 
stones. There are in all forty-one rows of graves, 
the upper fourteen of which are in the First Church 
groimd. Eleven of these rovv^s, which are behind the 
church building, are only about seventy feet long. 
The others run the full depth of the lot. The First 

314 History of Old Pine Street. 

Church portion was never fully used, but we have 
reason to believe that there have been made in the 
Old Pine Street portion of the churchyard about eleven 
hundred graves, and in the First Church portion three 
hundred. Perhaps a hundred, all told, are vaults con- 
taining from two to ten interments. About a third 
of the stones extant record only one interment. Esti- 
mating conservatively, w^e could claim at least two in- 
terments to a grave, which would bring the total num- 
ber of the dead resting in the Old Pine Street church- 
yard up to three thousand. It cannot fall far short of 
that. It may be much more. 

On the east walk there are six lots, enclosed with 
iron fences, belonging to the Schellinger, McFarlane, 
Work, Young, Brainerd, and Pile families. A few feet 
south of the last named is the Bailey lot, also enclosed. 
On the First Church side is the Ross lot. To-day these 
are the only enclosed lots in the churchyard. 

The present interment register begins in 1846. Be- 
fore then we have unfortunately no record save that 
which the tombstones give us. A complete card index 
of the churchyard is now being made, and all the in- 
scriptions carefully copied. Systematic attention is 
now being given to the gravstones, and they are be- 
ing recut as the inscriptions fade, and the stones reset, 
as they give way to the stress of time and exposure. 
The publication of a volume containing the inscrip- 
tions, and an account of the dead fuller than we are 
able to present here, is being projected. 

The quaint inscription is legible 

South Side 

The Churchyard and Its Dead. 315 

One can find much of general interest in roaming 
through the Old Pine Street churchyard. It has its 
full quota of interesting and amusing inscriptions, and 
quaintly carved stones. The photographs in this vol- 
ume give only a suggestion of these. Many more pho- 
tographs have been taken, but we have not the space 
to include them here. On the First Church side there 
are stones set in the rear wall that were brought from 
the old Market Street churchyard, and some of the 
dates are as far back as 1740. 

The gravestones, vaults, and monuments in the 
churchyard are of all sorts and conditions. There are 
many forms that are never seen in the modern ceme- 
tery. Vaults are numerous, some raised, and some flat 
on the ground. The raised vaults have marble slabs 
outside of the brick walls, or merely the brick walls. 
Some of the surface vaults are surmounted by a ''table," 
or slab held up by four legs. The John Blair Smith 
monument is of this kind. The most handsome shaft 
is the Corgie monument of polished marble. The most 
massive is that erected by Mrs. Brainerd to the mem- 
ory of her husband. It is of New England granite, in 
the shape of a pyramid, and towers to the heighth of 
the church building. Other notable shafts are those of 
the Steele, Sutherland, Raybold, Clark, Linnard, 
Fraiser, McMullin, and Dutihl families. 

The Toby family vault is the only one built under 
the pavement surrotmding the church. It is on the 

3i6 History of Old Pine Street. 

south walk. Captain Simeon Toby was for many 
years president of the Board of Trustees of Old Pine 
Street. Like many others in the old churchyard he 
w^as a sea captain, and after the War of 1812 became 
commander of the Price-Morgan packet line to New 
Orleans. In 1823 he became president of the Fire In- 
surance Company of the State of Pennsylvania, and 
from that time until his death in 1861 he was a faith- 
ful and active member of the church. ''Captain Toby 
was widely known in commercial circles, throughout 
the United States, and was loved for his manly virtues 
and his Christian character." ^ 

One feels tempted to give a more or less detailed 
description of the quaint inscriptions and queer spelling 
and remarkable facts that are brought to light by a 
study of the gravestones. But they must be seen to 
be appreciated. The oldest Philadelphian on record, 
Samuel McCutchon, who was born in 1645 ^"^ ^^^^ 
in 1767, another centenarian, John Hutton, famous in 
Philadelphia in his day and generation,^ and more than 
a dozen nonogenarians are shown to the visitor. The 
number of octogenarians seems to indicate that the 
"threescore and ten" was often exceeded by the Pres- 
byterian saints of the olden days. There are whole 
families, parents and children, who lived beyond 

^ From contemporary newspaper clipping in the Scharf-West- 
cott collection. 

'See Watson's "Annals of Philadelphia," Vol. I., page 527; Vol. 
II., page 578. 


Hd J'in€ ^jtree; 

Sa>nui'l McCntchou, af^rd UJ, the oldest ■ Fhiladcltliian on rec-^S.dc. 

The Churchyard and Its Dead. 317 

eighty, buried in the same graves. Mrs. Lydia 
Bailey and Mrs. Isabella McLeod were laid to rest 
beside their husbands after a faithful widowhood of 
sixty years. But we cannot enumerate these. 

In the main Sunday School room are tablets to the 
memory of George Duffield, who is buried under the 
centre aisle of the room/ and of Moses Hoge, D. D., 
president of Hampden-Sidney College, and professor 
in the Theological Seminary of the Synod of Virginia, 
who is buried "near this monument." In the upper 
hallway are tablets to Thomas Brainerd and to the 
"Old Pine Street Martyrs in the Civil War." Memorial 
windows in the church are erected to the memory of 
George W. Farr, Jr., Emma S. Farr, William and 
Mary Richardson and family, Margaret and Elizabeth 
Brown, Ezra Stiles Ely, Thomas Brainerd, Ellen D. 
Hilt, Lydia R. Bailey, Robert W. Davenport, O. H. 
Willard, W. Kinley Stevenson, and Susan Lister — 
honored names in the history of Old Pine Street. 

In another chapter it was stated that during the 
British occupation of Philadelphia they "buried up- 
wards of one hundred Hessian soldiers" in the church- 
yard. ^ These w'ere buried in a long ditch that extended 
out to the street. Some years ago the skeleton of a 
Hessian soldier, recognizable by his clothing and brass 
buttons, was unearthed in excavating under the Pine 

^ See page 145, 

'' See page 72 and Appendix D. 

3i8 History of Old Pine Street. 

Street pavement. On the south walk is the vault of 
"George Dawson, late Captain in Colonel Tarleton's 
regiment of Light Dragoons in the service of His 
Brittanick Majesty." 

Side by side are the vaults of Ferguson Mcllvaine 
and Dr. Samuel Duffield, ruling elders and trustees, 
who, as members of the Session and the Board, literally 
lived their lives for Old Pine Street. Within a few 
feet from them are General John Steele, Nathan and 
Elias Boys, and others mentioned in a previous chap- 
ter. Behind the church lie Colonel William Linnard, 
Colonel George Latimer, John Tittermary, Revolution- 
ary heroes, and octogenarian members of the Board of 
Trustees. Directly behind the hydrant, on the east 
walk, is the vault of Paul Cox, of Revolutionary fame, 
whose inscription proudly proclaims that he was "a 
native of Ireland, a citizen of this free coimtry from 
his youth, a patriotic soldier of the American Revolu- 
tion; long a Trustee and Communicant in the Third 
Presbyterian Church; also an elector of the President 
of the United States; a noble husband, tender philan- 
thropist; died 1823, in the 84th year of his age." 

Directly beside the Cox vault is the grave of Colonel 
William Rush, one of the most active and enthusiastic 
spirits in the founding of Old Pine Street, who was 
custodian of the State House, and a "soldier in Wash- 
ington's Army, who won many laurels." ^ 

^ Belisle's "History of Independence Hall," page 8. 


$ .ix . .v.:-.',.:., ^--.-r^- 


Playmate of George IF., who had charge of .the Philadelphia 
Powder Magazine in the War df 1812 

East Side. 


Trustee of the church and hero of the Revolutioyiary War 

East Gravel Path 

The Churchyard and Its Dead. 319 

The reader of this book has noticed often after the 
name of a man, in the text and in the title matter for 
the ilhistrations, the phrase "who is buried in the 
churchyard." It is a great thing to have a glorious 
history, and a Colonial Church that stands where it 
was originally erected, but the greater glory still is in 
having around the church, sleeping their last sleep, 
the men who made the history, and who reared the 
church and nourished it. Duffield and Smith and 
Brainerd, and almost all of the Ruling Elders who 
lived and died in the service of the church, and a 
great number of the trustees, are buried in the old 

Many families can count three generations buried 
side by side. A notable instance of this is in the Farr 
lot, near the south wall. Here lie grandparents, pa- 
rents, children. No family has ever been a greater 
blessing to Old Pine Street. John C. Farr was an 
active ruling elder for over fifty years. Fie lived his 
long and fruitful life like Enoch, and always made the 
service of God and the church his first and most im- 
portant duty. Of the world's goods with which the 
Lord had blessed him so bountifully, he gave freely 
to the church, and from the two children who rest 
beside him the church has received its largest legacies. 

In the First Church portion of the churchyard, on 
the west side, interments in their ground begin in the 
third row out from the west w^alk, which is the line of 

3 20 History of Old Pine Street. 

demarcation. The first graves dug here were at the 
south end for the bodies removed from the old Market 
Street churchyard. The direct interments begin in 
1782, and end about i860. Thickly studding this part 
of the churchyard are the graves of many distinguished 
First Church families. We find here a frequent re- 
currence of the names of Caldwell, Allison, Fox, Sear- 
geant, Polk, Connelly, Ingersoll, Pettit, Purves, David- 
son, McLean, Flyde, Hamilton, Ritchie, Beale, O'Neill, 
Pepper, and Fullerton. In the Caldwell vaults are two 
members of the original First City Troop, who served 
in the Revolutionary War. Jared Ingersoll was a 
signer of the Constitution of the United States, and, 
with Charles Pettit, who lies in the next vault, attained 
prominence as a jurist. 

Beneath the shade of the hollyhocks which beautify 
this portion of the churchyard is an imposing vault, 
whose recently recut inscription reads : 

"Sacred to tlie Memory of Major David Lenox, of the Revo- 
lutionary army, who died April lo, 1828, aged 74 years. The 
Presidencies of the Pennsylvania Society of the Cincinnati and of 
the Bank of the United States were testimonials to the high sense 
entertained of his gallant bearing as a soldier and of his dis- 
tinguished virtues as a citizen. Generous, sincere and affectionate 
in the relations of domestic life; brave and intrepid in the field, 
he closed a long and honourable career in the care of his family 
and friends and in the distinguished regard of his country." 

About sixty feet west of the church stands the most 
imposing monument of the First Church section. It 

Cap^ctin 0} the First Cit^< f¥oop 

West vSide 

The Churchyard and Its Dead. 321 

is surrounded by an iron fence of good proportions, 
and marks the resting-place of Charles Ross, a former 
captain of the First City Troop of Philadelphia, who 
served with honor in the War of 18 12. A trooper's 
helmet, crossed sabres, and a wreath, all of bronze, and 
said to be the first bronze castings made in America, 
adorn it, and have stood well the eighty years since 
they were placed there. The inscriptions on the four 
sides of the monument are worth recording : 

"This Monument is erected by the Members of the First 
Troop, Philadelphia City Cavalry, friends and associates of 
their late Commander, Charles Ross, of which Troop he was a 
member 23 years and Captain 6 years. Consecrated by Friend- 
ship to departed Worth. The virtues of the Brave and Hon- 
ourable we cherish." 

"In Memoriam Caroli Ross Equitis Turmae Equitum Ducis 
Qui Natus est Vto. Octobris MDCCLXXII Obiit VIIIvo Oc- 
tobris MDCCCXVII Etatis suae XLVI." 

"In the field to the many virtues of the Soldier, he joined the 
discipline, honour and deportment of the Officer. In private life 
the urbanity of the gentleman, the valuable qualities of the use- 
ful citizen, dutiful son, affectionate brother, sincere friend, gov- 
erned his conduct. Noble, generous, honourable, intrepid, he 
departed in the prime of life. It is left to us to mourn his loss, 
to emulate his character, and by this testimony of our affection to 
show our respect for his talents and his virtue." 

"Sacred to the Memory of Charles Ross. How sleep the 
brave who sink to rest by all their Country's wishes blest ! The 
body decays, but the immortal soul awaits the last trumpet's 
joyful sound." 

Most precious of all the graves on the First Church 
side is that of Rev John Ewing, D. D., pastor of the 
First Church for over forty years and the distinguished 

322 History of Old Pine Street. 

Provost of the University of Pennsylvania for a like 
period. Dr. Ewing was, as the earlier chapters of this 
history show, the devoted friend of Old Pine Street, 
and equalled only by George Bryan and William Rush 
in his efforts for the founding of the church. It is 
peculiarly fitting that this great man of provincial 
Pennsylvania should rest in the shade of a church that 
his hand helped to rear, and in ground that his loving 
care and devotion secured to be the resting-place for all 
time for the people to whom he ministered. 

Early in the present pastorate there was a move on 
the part of some members of the First Church to dis- 
pose of their portion of the Old Pine Street church- 
yard, on the ground that it would bring a high figure 
at public sale, and that it was of no further use to them, 
as interments in the ground had ceased. Alarmed at 
this, the trustees promptly appointed a committee to 
try to secure title to this historic land, so that its dese- 
cration might be prevented. At the meeting of July, 
1886, the Committee reported that it was ''tiseless to 
press this matter." For almost ten years the project 
slumbered, and then, in December, 1895, we find a 
committee appointed by the Board "to investigate the 
proposed sale of the First Church portion of the bury- 
ing-ground." A letter was received from the First 
Church trustees, February 7, 1896, with the following 
statement : 

"You are aware that the burying-groiind belonging to the First 
Presbyterian Church has not been used as a burial place for a 

The Churchyard and Its Dead. 323 

considerable time, and is a continued source of expense by reason 
of the repairs and care-taking required thereon. It has been 
thought wise by the Trustees to effect a sale of the burial-ground 
if possible, removing the tombs and bodies still remaining there 
to another place to be provided for them. 

"Before taking any steps looking to such sale, the Trustees of 
the First Presbyterian Church would be glad to offer you the 
opportunity of purchasing the ground at a price considerably 
below that which could doubtless be obtained from an ordinary 
purchaser, upon condition that your Corporation continue to 
maintain the ground as an open space, as now maintained by us. 
It is thought that a fair and reasonable price for the lot in the 
market would be $21,000. The purchase of a new lot, and the 
removal of the tombs thereto, would cost about $9,000, leaving 
an equity of actual interest of the Trustees of a value of about 
$12,000. We are willing, subject to the approval of a congrega- 
tional meeting, if your Corporation will retain the grounds in 
their present condition, to sell the same to you for $8,000, thus 
remitting the sum of about $4,000, which could be obtained from 
an ordinary purchaser." 

In response, the following letter was sent : 

"In reply to the proposition of the Trustees of the First Presby- 
terian Church to sell their burying-ground to Old Pine Street, 
the following resolution was unanimously adopted : 

" 'Resolved, That we heartily commend the proposition of the 
First Church to preserve their burying-ground inviolate, as a 
landmark of the greatest value to Presbyterianism, forever ; that 
we will receive under our care this ground, consecrated to its 
present purpose and use forever, and will bear all expenses of 
keeping it in repair ; but we decline to make a contribution of 
$8,000, or any amount whatever, for the privilege of performing 
this duty for the Mother Church.' 

"Our church is not in possession of sufficient funds to make 
what you propose as a purchase. Indeed, we greatly need con- 
siderable addition to our endowment funds. Our income as a 
church is not now sufficient to meet our necessary expenses with- 
out calling upon certain members of our congregation to bear a 
double burden." 

3 24 History of Old Pine Street. 

The trustees of the First Church, fairly recognizing 
this position, dropped the question of the sale, and 
since that time Old Pine Street has assumed the ex- 
pense of caring for the entire churchyard. 

The guardian of the churchyard is, of course, the 
sexton, and there have not been many more changes in 
this office than in the pastorate. From the founda- 
tion of the church until 1788, William Carr was sex- 
ton, and from what is recorded in this history of the 
church of those troublous times, we can imagine his 
burdens. From 1788 to 1793 Thomas Mitchell was 
sexton, and clerk as well. He resigned after a discus- 
sion with the Committee concerning the opening of 
pew doors, a service which he thought was beneath 
the dignity of his position. Mr. Allison (we do not 
have the first name) followed him for six years, and in 
1798 was voted '*a neat, snug, comfortable wig'' by 
the trustees. Another period of six years was filled 
by Alexander Urquehart. These were short terms like 
the pastorates which came in that time. 

David Allen, elected in 1804, served for twenty-two 
years. It is said of him that ''he was small, bent with 
age, and literally tottering by the side of the grave." ^ 
The late Hon. W. C. Alexander, of New York, remem- 
bered ''old Daddy Allen every Sabbath with his cow- 
hide in hand, which he not infrequently used on dogs 
and unruly boys."^ Abraham Morrison (1826-38) 

^ "Leaves From a Century Plant," page 122. 
' Ibid., page 104. 

recogni - 


JVtlUam f^utton '(islfS-ti^f! ' i^illiam %auii ' (isko-^^) T Jacob 
Low <^/(?93^-^l^) 

The Churchyard and Its Dead. 325 

and William F. Vanbeck (1838-48) followed "Daddy" 
Allen. The latter is buried in the old churchyard 
which he had cared for with loving hands. The service 
of the sticceeding sexton, William Hutton, extended 
over a generation, covering the latter half of Dr. Brain- 
erd's pastorate and all of Dr. Allen's pastorate. Mr. 
Hutton w^as known and loved by two generations, and 
an excellent portrait of him hangs in the Infant Room. 
Like preceding sextons he died at his post of old age. 

In the year before Dr. Gibbons came to Old Pine 
Street, William M. Maull was elected sexton. Mr. 
Maull was a man of exceptional intelligence, the fruit 
not of college training, but of extensive reading and ob- 
servation in travel. He had a large acquaintance 
among the ministry of our church, and fully enjoyed 
their appreciation. He had his own peculiar way for 
ministerial relief. It consisted of a sum of money 
Avhich he had accumulated, and w^hich he w^as accus- 
tomed in an unobtrusive way to lend without interest 
to help poor ministers tide over times of financial dif- 
ficulty. Mr. Maull died in 1893, having resigned his 
position the year before on account of ill health. In 
1892, the present sexton, Jacob D. Low, who had been 
a communing member of the church for twenty years, 
took Mr. Maull's place. He has displayed a great 
interest in the churchyard and the dead that rest there, 
and is invaluable in show^ing the noted graves to 

3 26 History of Old Pine Street. 

As an illustration of the value of the research work 
that has been done recently in the churchyard may be 
cited the discovery of the grave of William Hurry, 
probably one of the most popular heroes of the Revo- 
lution. As has been mentioned elsewhere in this book, 
he was an original member of the church and one of 
the signers of the Duffield call.^ William Hurry was 
merely the bellman and janitor at the old State House, 
but he had the glory of ringing in the freedom of a 

"Early on the morning of the Fourth of July, 1776, there might 
have been seen an old man, dressed in a Continental suit, cross- 
ing the State House yard, Philadelphia. This man was janitor 
of the State House, who was on his way to ring the bell which 
convened Continental Congress. By his side was a little curly- 
headed, blue-eyed boy, who listened very attentively to the earnest 
words of his companion. . . . 

"The boy was stationed at the door below, with instructions to 
signal the bellman to ring if the Declaration was passed. The 
hours rolled by, the crowd became impatient, and as the shadows 
of the State House lengthened, the gray-haired veteran sighed, 
and said, 'They'll never do it!' Finally the door of the hall 
opened, and the sergeant-at-arms stepped out and whispered to 
the boy, who, nodding assent, bounded up the steps two at a time, 
and to the bellman in the tower he shouted the message, 'They've 
signed it, signed it! Ring! Ring! Ring!' Thrilled with emotion, 
the old man seized the iron tongue of the bell, and hurled it back 
and forward a hundred times, his long queue keeping time to its 
motion. And brave men listened gladly, for it rang out the heart- 
less and hopeless past, and rang in the promise of a helpful and 
hopeful future."" 

^ See page 94. 

''Rhoades' "Story of Philadelphia," page 215. 

.^tUbW liiuoH bns ize/d 

Bell-man of the State House, who rang in the liberty of a nation 

Junction of East and South Walks. 

The Churchyard and Its Dead. 327 

In late years the grave of William Hurry has been 
much sought for. It was known that he rested in the 
Old Pine Street churchyard, but it was feared that 
the hand of time had crumbled his stone. In the listing 
of the graves it was discovered, sunk some three feet. 
A glance at the photograph opposite this page will 
show the line of the ground. The inscription on the 
portion that was buried is as clear after a century as 
if it had been cut to-day. This stone and its foot- 
piece were raised immediately after the discovery. 
This is merely an instance of many stones that are 
probably similarly buried, but which will be raised 
again systematically and carefully. Tradition tells of 
famous people buried in Old Pine Street churchyard, 
whom we have not mentioned here. Only those whom 
the stones clearly record are claimed. 

The far-seeing men who initiated the Endowment 
Funds of Old Pine Street did not overlook the church- 
yard. They saw that it would require care and atten- 
tion in the years to come, and that this expense would 
grow to be a burden upon the trustees, unless a fund 
was set aside solely for the care of the churchyard. At 
a meeting of the Board, June 5, 1877, the following 
resolution was presented by the Endowment Commit- 
tee, and adopted by the Board : 

"Resolved, That whereas John C. Farr has paid over to the 
Third Presbyterian Church and congregation the sum of one 
thousand dollars, received by him from the following contribu- 

3 28 History of Old Pine Street. 

tors, to organize a 'Burial Ground Fund,' viz., John C. Farr, 
Charles J, Walton, George W. Simons, John Thompson, William 
M. Farr, George W. Farr, Jr., Mrs. H. C. Flickwir, Mrs. Eliza 
Whilldin and Miss K. M. Linnard. Now the trustees of this 
church do hereby agree and contract with the aforesaid contribu- 
tors to keep permanently invested as a Trust Fund in the name 
of the Trustees of the Third Presbyterian Church the aforesaid 
deposit, and any additions that may be made thereto, the income 
thereof only to be expended by keeping in good condition the 
graves and the grave-stones of the contributors and their relatives 
now interred in the grounds adjoining the church, and after that 
is done, which may be annually required, then and after that 
should there be a surplus of income, the same to be expended 
upon the churchyard to keep it in good condition, it being fully 
understood by the parties that the principle sum is to be kept 
intact, and the income alone to be expended on the burial grounds, 
and the surroundings, and for no other purpose whatever. It is 
also agreed that additions by like contributions may be made to 
the sum now deposited for the same purposes and benefits, and 
at any time hereafter." 

This Endowment Fund for the churchyard has 
grown by contributions and legacies until the principal 
is now between ten and eleven thousand dollars. From 
its inception Mr. Stephen D. Harris has been its treas- 
urer and chairman of the trustees' committee on the 
churchyard. It has been said in a preceding chapter, 
in referring to the services of Mr. Harris as treasurer 
of the general endowment funds, that his loyalty and 
fidelity and enthusiasm in the administration of these 
trust funds is beyond estimation of value. This ade- 
quate endowment of the churchyard is almost wholly 
due to his individual efforts. His care has not been 
m<?re]y the paying of bills for work done. He has 

Showing ancient stones; Alexander arms in the foreground 

West Side 

The Churchyard and Its Dead. 329 

given time and thought and personal attention to the 
expending of the income from this churchyard endow- 
ment fund to the best advantage. 

The preservation of Old Pine Street, v^ith its beauti- 
ful churchyard and lofty trees, should be a matter of 
great pride to Presbyterians throughout America. For, 
sad to say, its position is unique in the Presbyterian 
Church. There is none other in Philadelphia. There 
is none at all in New York. Old Pine Street has the 
only Colonial churchyard that the Presbyterian Church 
can boast of in a great metropolis. As the years go 
by, and more and more importance is attached to the 
days of the Nation's birth, and the heroes that brought 
her into existence, this resting-place in the heart of 
Philadelphia will grow more precious, until it is uni- 
versally regarded as a shrine of Presbyterianism in 

The trustees of Old Pine Street have always re- 
garded their churchyard as a spot inviolate. Children 
of Old Pine Street, who rest in its sacred earth, have 
provided liberally for its maintenance, so that it will 
never look forlorn or neglected. Indeed, the liberality 
of its endowment is such that the churchyard is bound 
to grow more beautiful as the years roll by. Inscrip- 
tions will not fade away, and be lost. Stones will not 
fall, and lie neglected. Old Pine Street will ever cher- 
ish God's acre. 

What of tke Future? 

When illuminating gas was introduced into Old Pine 
Street Church, the workmen encountered an obstacle 
that had not entered into their estimate of the work. 
They were required to cut through four feet of ma- 
sonry, which seemed like a solid rock. Upon this 
deep, massive foundation, walls of exceptional thick- 
ness and solidity were built. They are, after almost 
a century and a half, as perfect as the day they were 
erected. Can we doubt that the architect of this old 
Colonial church was guided by the Great Architect, 
who builds all things for the fulfilment of His own pur- 
pose? We believe that these walls will resist cen- 
turies of heat and cold and rain and storms. 

When twitted by an opponent in the House of Com- 
mons, who charged him with giving large place to 
sentiment in one of his great speeches, Mr. Gladstone 
replied that some sentiments are worth dying for. Of 
this kind is the sentiment which has prompted many 
hands and hearts to provide for the perpetuity of Old 
Pine Street Church and her historic churchyard, with 
its honored graves. Without solicitation, this en- 
dowment has grown to an amount which insures the 
future of the church for all time on its original founda- 
tions. Location is the anchor of history. This piece 


33 2 History of Old Pine Street. 

of earth is closely linked with Independence Square. 
George Duffield, whose portrait hangs in both buildings, 
performed his duties as a minister of Christ in Inde- 
pendence Hall as well as in Old Pine Street, and the 
men who made history there sat on the Sabbath day in 
the pews of this church. 

The endowments have been raised wholly in the 
large circle of Pine Street children ; and without doubt 
they will grow greatly. The question, *'How can the 
present work of the church be increased?" will find its 
answer in a large measure in the amount that is yet 
to be added to her financial foundations. 

The present work of the church is indicative of the 
great work of the future. The field of Old Pine Street 
has indeed been wonderfully changed. From the out- 
skirts of a Colonial town to the fashionable centre of a 
growing young city to the slums of a world metropolis 
— such has been the progress of the Old Pine Street 
field. Saint Peter's in the block below had its birth 
a few years before us. It has stayed. Twenty other 
churches have come into the immediate neighborhood. 
They have all gone. We say that location is the 
anchor of history. Is it not more than that? Can 
it not be made the salvation of an unenlightened neigh- 
borhood by the churches which have cherished the 
landmarks their fathers reared? 

The present work, and the future work, of this 
dear old church has come to it, and we do not shirk 

What of the Future ? 333 

the responsibiHty. Here are the untutored streams of a 
dozen ahen races pouring into our national hfe. Every 
day there pass the doors of Old Pine Street, Russians, 
Poles, Hungarians, Slavs of indistinguishable races, 
Italians, Germans, not by the tens or hundreds, but by 
THE THOUSANDS. Ignorant of the fundamentals of 
American civilization, they need us. We hear no cry, 
"Come over into Macedonia." Macedonia has come 
to us. 

The deep spiritual needs of the multitudes at our 
door are greater than ever before. Cultivation of this 
field does not attract those who lay stress on church 
statistics, and who anxiously count the number that 
assemble at the church services, and who carefully 
estimate the financial ability of the people; but there 
are not a few who believe that the Master is interested 
in precisely this kind of a community, and, too, that 
the "down-town church" is a potent and indispensable 
factor in our national religious life. Yes, it is more 
than that. It is a safeguard. Every withdrawal from 
this field adds to the peril of our future social and re- 
ligious life. 

The history written in this book cannot be repeated 
in the years to come; but many chapters, full of inci- 
dents that will cause joy in the presence of the angels 
of God, may be added. Our work to-day is largely of 
that peculiar kind which the Apostle James describes 
as "pure religion and undefiled." The future of the 

334 History of Old Pine Street. 

church is to be reahzed by continued and increased 
efficiency along the lines of work already established. 

We need two things, a large growth in the endow- 
ment funds of the church, and workers to gather in the 
harvest. There is no doubt in our mind on either of 
these points. In the matter of finances God has been 
good to us, and the children of Old Pine Street have 
been generous. We have no fear that the present 
generation will forget the church of their fathers. In 
the matter of workers God has been good to us, and 
there have always been faithful, consecrated men and 
women on wiiom the old church has a firm and un- 
yielding hold. The present pastor owes what measure 
of success has come to him to the goodly number of 
educated Christian men and women who have denied 
themselves the ease so inviting wdien Sunday comes, 
that they might have part in this "down-town" church 
work. These people come long distances by train and 
trolley from every section of this great city and its 
suburbs that Old Pine Street might be continued in 
her great service. Can officers and Christian workers 
be secured for the years to come ? We believe that the 
Spirit of Missions, which keeps filled the ranks at home 
and abroad, will raise up w^orkers for Old Pine Street, 
and there will always be able ministers, glad to live 
on a modest salary and endure hardness for the privi- 
lege of doing this kind of service for Christ Jesus and 
for humanity. 

What of the Future? 335 

We do not ask ourselves, "How shall the church be 
kept alive ?" But we are busy with the practical prob- 
lem of making the church useful in saving men and 
women and children, and a potent factor in solving 
questions that must be met. There is a deeply inter- 
esting future for Old Pine Street. Even so few as 
fifty earnest, self-renonucing, consecrated workers can 
fill this future with a service for Christ and for society 
beyond all possible estimate. For the salvation of 
our great cities must ultimately be found in the Gospel. 
All our social, political, economic, and industrial ques- 
tions must find their solution within the realm of the 
New Creation. 





which have had a continuous existence from the date of founda- 
tion to the present day. 

1698. First, Philadelphia. 

1705. Bensalem, Philadelphia North. 

17 10. Neshaminy of Warminster, Philadelphia North. 

Neshaminy of Warwick, Philadelphia North. 
17 14. Abington, Philadelphia North. 

Great Valley, Chester, 
1720. Upper Octarora, Chester. 
1722. Donegal, Westminster. 

1724. Pequea, Westminster. 

1725. Doylestown, Philadelphia North. 

1727. Chestnut Level, Westminster. 
Middle Octarora, Westminster. 

1728. New London, Chester. 
1730. Fogg's Manor, Chester. 

Middletown, Chester. 

1732. Market Square, Germantown, Philadelphia North. 

1733. Rocky Spring, Carlisle. 
Paxton, Carlisle. 
Derry, Carlisle. 

Forks of Brandywine, Chester. 

1734. Newtown, Philadelphia North. 

1736. Silver Spring, Carlisle. 
First, Carlisle. 

1737. Big Spring, Greencastle. 
Falling Spring, Carlisle. 

1738. Mercersburg, Carlisle. 

1739. Rocky Spring, Carlisle. 
Middle Spring, Carlisle. 


340 Appendices. 

1740. Great Conevvago, Carlisle. 
Gettysburg. Carlisle. 

Doe Run, Chester. 

174 1. Leacock, Westminster. 

Robert Kennedy Memorial, Carlisle. 

1742. Second, Philadelphia. 

1748. Lower Marsh Creek, Carlisle. 
1750. Slate Ridge, Westminster. 

1755. Oxford, Chester. 

1756. Hopewell, Westminster. 
1760. Monaghan, Carlisle. 

1762. York First, Westminster. 

1763. Lancaster First, Westminster. 
1766. Upper, Chester. 

Upper Path Valley, Chester. 

Shade Gap, Huntingdon. 

Upper Tuscarora, Huntingdon. 
1768. Old Pine Street, Philadelphia. 
1 77 1. Lost Creek, Huntingdon. 

1773. Round Hill, Redstone. 

1774. Dunlop's Creek, Redstone. 

1775. Sinking Creek, Huntingdon. 
West Kishacoquillas, Huntingdon. 
East Kishacoquillas, Huntingdon. 

1776. Charlestown, Chester. 
Mount Pleasant, Redstone. 
Lick Run, Huntingdon. 
Lebanon, Pittsburg. 

By reading the list one can almost follow chronologically the 
colonial development of Pennsylvania, for it is a fact of history 
that where settlers went in this state there soon appeared a Pres- 
byterian Church. 





Jan. 25, 1776. Jno. Bayard, Clerk. 

At a meeting of the Congregation (regular notice thereof be- 
ing given the Sabbath preceding) on Monday afternoon, July ist., 
1765. The Rev. Mr. John Murray our present Minster presiding 
as Moderator, Opened the Meeting with Prayer ; after which 
Messrs. Geo. Bryan & Wm. Alison as Commissioners for the first 
Pbn. Congregation delivered a Letter & proposals to the Mod- 
erator which were read as follows Viz. — 

Philadelphia, July ist. 1765. 
We have long Labour'd under a Considerable difficulty to 
Accomodate the members of our Society with Pews in our 
Church, our House not being able to hold them all, altho it has 
been lately enlarged, yet as our Congregation is daily encreasing 
& persons continually applying to be enroU'd as Members & ad- 
mitted to the priviledges of the Society, We are still greatly 
Straitned for want of room, this haveing been our case for some 
years past, has engaged us to use our best endeavours to accom- 
odate such persons with a new House for this purpose our Society 
applied to the Honble. Proprietaries for a Lott of Ground in the 
South part of the Town, on which we might build a new Church 
& they have generously granted our Request. We are of the 
Opinion that the Creation of a new Church with all convenient 
speed, will not only be the best Means in our power, to accomo- 
date such of our Society as have no Pews in any Church but 
will also be an Inducement to Others of the Pbn. persuasion who 
have not united themeselves to any Religious Society, but mis- 
pend their Sabbaths in Jolliness & Santering thro the Streets & 
Commons of this City to attend upon the Ordinance of the Gos- 
pel ; & we hope by the blessing of God that it may prevent many 


342 Appendices. 

of our peopel from being Seduced by Sectaries, who taking 
Advantage of our Situation are Endeavoring to rend & divide 
our Congregation — And we are further induced to attempt build- 
ing a new Church from the rational prospect we have of Strength- 
ening the Pbn. Interest in this City by a Closer Union, by en- 
creasing our members & by the more carefull cultivation of that 
truly Christian Spirit of Extensive Love and Charity which is 
Essential to the Character of the Sincere Disciples of the Prince 
of Peace & what we hope is daily growing amongst us. — These 
& these only have been & are the Motives which have carried us 
so far in the prosecution of our Present Plan. . . . 

And as we are sure that they cannot have less weight with 
3'our Society, Who we hope have a Laudable ambition to excell 
in whatever is apprehended to promote the redeemer's kingdom ; 
& kindness which ought to Subsist between our Societys, for us 
to begin to build a New Church in this City which as much con- 
cerns your Society as our Own, without communicating our 
Designs & Intentions to you for your Approbation & Concurrence 
We have Appointed some of our number, to wait upon your 
Congregation with the enclosed Proposals which fully explain 
our plan & to report your Answer. . . . 

Hoping & praying that the Great Head of the Church may 
preside in your Convention & Direct you to such Conclusions as 
shall terminate in the Advancement of the Redeemer's Kingdom. 

We are in the Name of the first Pbn. Congregation in this City 

Your Brethren in the Lord 
& very Humble Servants - - 


(Original MS. in possession of the Old Pine Street Church.) 

Appendices. 343 


Whereas the Number of Presbyterians in this City have so 
greatly encreased, that they cannot be accomodated so as to 
attend upon public worship with satisfaction without a Third 
Congregation & whereas the honorable Proprietaries have gen- 
erously given a lott of Ground for this purpose, on fourth & Pine 
Streets, we the subscribers being desirous to promote the Inter- 
ests of the Redeemer's Kingdom, & being convinced that no 
good work shall meet with more ample reward or be viewed with 
a more cordial approbation by the great Head of the Church, 
than what is done for the Promotion of Religion, for the Salva- 
tion of immortal Souls, & for the Honour & Glory of our exalted 
Redeemer, promise to contribute to so laudable a undertaking, & 
to pay the various Sums annexed to our Names in three differ- 
ent payments as the Exegency of Affairs may require, for the 
Erection of a new Presbyterian Church in this City upon the 
following Plan — 

First. That all the Members of the two presbyterian Churches 
in the City of Philada. shall voluntarily contribute according to 
their respective Abilities or Pleasure for the erection of a new 
Church on the Lot of Ground given by the honble. the Proprie- 
tors for that Purpose on fourth & pine Streets & that two Gen- 
tlemen from each of the Congregations be appointed to under- 
take and finish the said Church. 

Secondly. That as soon as said house is finished The present 
Trustees of the Lot on which it is to be built shall make a Deed 
in Trust of the said house & Lot to such members of the third 
Congregation as said Congregation shall appoint for said pur- 

Thirdly. That if any of the Contributors choose Pews in the 
said Church they shall have the liberty of a Choice in proportion 
to the money contributed by them yet so as not to exclude those 
who have no Seats in either of the other two Churches & then 
propose to become Members of yt. Congregn. 
Fourthly. That those who hold Pews in either of the three 
Churches shall be deemed & accounted Members of that Par- 

344 Appendices. 

ticiilar Church where their Pews are and contributing to the 
Support of the Gospel there shall be entitled to a Voice in the 
affairs of the Congregn. 

Fifthly. That the said third Congregn. shall be governed like 
the other two by a Session & Committee chosen by the Members 
of the said Congregn. 

Sixthly. That the present presbyterian Ministers in this City, The 
Revd. Dr. Alison The Revd. Mr. Ewing & the Revd. Mr. Murray 
shall preach in each of the three Churches in Rotation. Messrs. 
Ewing & Murray still Containing their pastoral Relation to their 
own particular Congregations & notwithstanding performing 
jointly the parochial Duties in the third Congregn. untill they 
shall have chosen & settled a Pastor for themselves. 
Seventhly. That if the foregoing sixth Proposal cannot be com- 
plied with in that Case Mr. Murray shall preach & perform 
the Duty of a Pastor only in his own Congregation & Dr. Alison 
& Mr. Ewing shall preach alternately in the first & third Con- 
gregns. & perform the other parochial Duties in them until a Min- 
ister is fixed in the third Congregn. 

Eighthly. That the third Congregn. shall be allowed & confessed 
to bear the same unalienable Rights with the other presbyterian 
Congregns. in the Synod of choosing & settling their own Pastor 
according to the presbyterian Plan of Church Government by a 
majority of Votes. 

Ninthly. That when a Pastor is fixed in the third Congregn. he 
shall continue to preach alternately there & in the first presby- 
terian Church unless it shall be agreed that the Ministers of 
the three Churches shall preach in Rotation in each of the three 

Tenthly. That each Congregation shall support their own Min- 

A true Copy Extracted from the Records of the Second Pres- 
byterian Church Committee Book. 1776 Jany. 25th. 

(Original MS. in possession of the Old Pine Street Church.) 



Actually received, in money or oflierzcise, to'u'ards building a Third 
Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, ivherein the donations of 
Members of the Market Street House are marked *, the Pine Street 
House t, the Arch Street Society of Presbyterians t, and other 
subscriptions §, zvith notes to shozv hoix' they were paid. 

£ s. d. 


*The Hon. Wm. Allen, 

*Capt. John Mease, 

*George Bryan, 

*Samuel Purviance, Jr. 

*Robert Taggart, 

fRobert Knox, 

*James Craig, 

*William Allison, 

*John Murray, 

$Samuel Pnrviance, Sr. 

*Andrew Caldwell, 

*John Fulerton, 

tWiliam Henry, 

*William Hodge, 

*Thomas Wallace, 

*William Rush, (a) 

*John Johnston, 

*John Maxwell Nesbitt, 

*Thomas Williams, 

*Samuel Caldwell, 

*John Corry, 

*William Humphreys, 

tjames Armitage, Car- 
penter, (b) 

*John Wallace, 

*Samuel Moore, 

♦Magnus Miller, 

*James Hunter, 

*David Sproat, 

(a) Iron work. 

(b) Had employment to a very 


(c) Furnished 300,000 bricks. 

(d) Cash 20s.. rest work. 






















































































* Robert Bayley, 

*Henry Neil, 

§John Coatts, Hiccory 

*Robert Gray & Co. 

fSamuel Lawry, Ma- 
son (d) 

^Robert Lawry, (e) 

*John Lawry, (f) 

*Capt. Benj. Ashly Al- 

tjohn Tittermary, 

*George Fullerton. 

4:David Thomson, Car- 

lIlAnthony Pearson, (g) 

*John Anderson, 

*Samuel Carson, Merch' 

tJohn Jones, Cooper, 

§John Nelson, 

*Philip Wilson, 

*Robert Corr}', 

*James Mease, 

*John White, 

§Percifer Frazer. 

*Janies McLaughlin, 

JWilliam Drewry, 

"William Miller, 

*William West, for wife 
I *Mathew Drason, 

Ce) Work as mason. 

(f) Work as mason. 

(g) Bricks laid in the wall, 

other work. 


S. d. 


00 00 


00 00 


00 00 


13 3 


6 8 
6 8 
6 8 


00 00 


00 00 


00 00 


00 00 


9 4 


00 00 

't 10 

00 00 


00 00 


00 00 


00 00 


00 00 


I 3 


00 oc 


00 00 


00 00 


00 00 


00 00 

, 10 

00 00 


00 00 

295,000, and 




*James Haldane, 

*John Murray, Merch't, 

*Hiigh Donaldson, 

*Mathew Dunlap, 

*James Longhead, 

*Thomas Duncan, 

*Dr. Francis Allison, 

*John Cameron, 

*Capt. Jeremiah Harkiss, 

*Leister Falkner, for his 

*Peter Chevalier, Sr. 

tDr. Samuel Duffield, 

tCapt. James Steel, 

*Alexander Huston, 

tCapt. Montgomery, 

*Giffin & Row, Carpen- 
ters, (h) 

*Capt. Samuel Young, 

*Daniel Montgomery, 
Painter, (i) 

*John Galloway, 

*William Glenholm, 

*Robert Ferguson, 

*James Foulton, 

*Robert Willson, Mer- 

*Robert Smith, Hatter, 

*James Alexander, 

*Capt. James Miller, 

*Randle Mitchell, 

*Samuel Jackson, 

*Capt. Alexander Hen- 

tjohn Snowden, Tan- 
ner, (j) 

tJohn Guy, Carter, (k) 

*William Forbes, (1) 

*Robert Lowry, Carp'r, 

*George Sharswood, 

*Andrew Wade, 

tWilliam Carson, 

tJohn Pinkerton, 

fThomas Clifton, Saddler. 

i s. d. 

£ 5. d. 

13 00 GO 

*William Salisbury, 

6 9 GO 

10 GO GO 

*George Dunlope, 

6 GG 00 

10 00 00 

$Thonias Nevill, Car- 

IG GO 00 

penter, (m) 

6 00 GO 

13 2 6 

*David Gregory, 

5 GO 00 


§Michel & Kinsley, Car- 

10 00 GO 

penters, (n) 

6 GG GO 

IG GO 00 

*Hugh Bowes, 

5 00 GO 

10 00 GG 

tjane Galbreath, 

5 00 00 

^Robert Harris, 

5 GG GG 


*John Bayley 

5 GO 00 

10 GO GG 

$Dr. William Shippen, Jr 

. 5 00 GO 


tMatthew Potter, Jr. 

5 18 GO 

10 GO GO 

§John Inglis, Esq. 

5 GG 00 


*James Reed, 

5 10 GG 

9 00 GG 

fCapt. John Robertson, 

5 GO GG 

tjoseph Frazer, 

5 00 00 

9 2 10 

*George Bartram, 

5 GG GG 

8 GG GO 

§Hugh Lenox, 

5 GO GO 

*John Hunter, 

5 GO 00 

8 GO GG 

*Capt. Johnston, 

5 GG 00 

8 00 GG 

tCapt. James Cooper, 

5 GO GO 

8 GG GG 

^Robert Montgomery, 



5 GO GO 

7 GG GG 

§George Graham, 

5 GO GO 

*David Herring, 

5 GO 00 

7 10 GG 

*William Olyphant, 

5 00 GO 

7 IG GG 

*Duncan Leech, 

5 GO GO 

7 10 00 

*Peter Sutter, Sr. 

5 GO GO 

7 00 GO 

*William Cannon, 

5 GO GG 

7 IG GG 

§Thomas Barclay, Mer- 

7 GO GO 


5 00 00 

*Paul Isaac Volo, 

5 GO GO 

7 GG GG 

tJohn Hall, 

5 GO GO 

*Capt. Francis Ferries, 

5 00 00 

7 GG GO 

*John Lyle, 

5 GO GO 

7 GO GO 

*John Mease, Jr. 

5 GO GO 

7 GO GO 

*Alexander Stewart, 

5 GO GO 

6 10 00 

§Robert Carson, Car- 

6 GO GO 

penter, (0) 

5 00 GO 

6 10 00 

-tLewis Grant, 

5 00 GO 

6 GO 00 

tGeorge Hutton, 

5 GO 00 

6 10 GO 

§Thomas Hale, Carpen- 

6 00 GG 

ter, (p) 

5 GO 00 

(h) Built pews, 
(i) Painted part, 
(j) £s in hair, 
(k) In carting. 
(1) Built pews. 

(m) Put on roof and ceiling, 
(n) Built pews, 
(o) Built pews, 
(p) Built pews. 




s. d. 

i S. d. 

*Andrew Taybout, 


00 GO 

§William Innis, 

2 GO 00 

*James Kerr, 


GO 00 

*Barbara Aberdeen, 

2 GO GG 

IJoseph Carson, 



$Hugh Means, 

2 GO GO 

§Francis Burchier, (q) 



*John Biggert, 

2 GG GG 

*Archibald McIIroy, 



JWilliam Houston, 

2 00 00 

*James Morrell, Smith, (r) 5 


*John James Barber, 

2 00 00 

JAllen McLean, 



*John Morton, 

2 GO 00 

*Robert Nicholson, 



*James Rose, 

2 00 00 

*Henry Dunn, 


GG 00 

§Mr. Goodwin, 

2 00 00 

tjohn Bayard, 


00 GO 

*Jane McGregar, 

I 14 GO 

§Philip Moser, Baker, 


GO 00 

JNath'l Donnall, 

I 12 6 

$Robert Smith, Merch't, 


00 GG 

*David Smith, 

I 10 00 

*Matthew Brace, Car- 

^Christian Riffits, 

I 10 GO 

penter, (s) 



§Capt. Edward Boggs, 

I 10 00 

*Robert Craig, 


00 GO 

tJohn Smith Porter, 

I 10 GO 

tjohn Spence, 


10 GO 

*William & Robert Gra- 

§Davell & Proctor, Car- 


I 10 00 

penters, (t) 



^Robert & Thomas Ken- 

*Thomas Callender, 


00 GG 



*James Chibb, 



*Hugh Henry, 

I 10 GO 

$Isaac Snowden, 


00 GO 

*James Cochran, 

I 10 00 

*John Ross, Merchant, 


GG 00 

§ Samuel Henry, 

I 10 GO 

*Robert Ritchie, 



*Charles Risk, 

I 10 GO 

$John Cobourn, 


00 00 

*Capt. Paul Cox, 

I 00 00 

*William Moore, Baker, 


00 00 

^William Henderson, 

I 10 GO 

*Capt. Mungo Davison, 


00 00 

§Joseph Dean, 

I 10 00 

*John Moore, Trader, 


00 GO 

iThomas Smith, Merch't, 

I 2 6 

*Ephraim Smith, 


GO 00 

fAlexander Crawford, 

I 10 GO 

§William Simmons, 



*Elliot Duncan, 

I 10 00 

llBenjamin Harbeson, 


00 00 

§Capt. James Mitchell 

I 00 00 

*Elizabeth Feariss, 


OG 00 

tThomas Mushett, 

I 00 00 

JGawin Kirkpatrick, 



tRobert Work, 

I GO 00 

jMrs. Charlton, 



*Mrs. • Steinmetz, 

I 00 00 

^Andrew McNair, 


GG 00 

*Jane Kirk, 

I 00 00 

*Mathew Jackson, 



*George Rowan, 

I GO 00 

*Mary M. Bean, 


00 GG 

*Randley McKillip, 

I 00 GO 

tJohn Jackson, 


00 GG 

*Mr. Rowhan, 

I 00 00 

*John Sutor, 


00 00 

fMary Barclay, 


*Henry Harper, 


00 00 

*Widow Sims, 


*James Potter, Carpen- 

*Joseph Rankin, 


ter, (u) 


00 OG 

*George Davidson, 

I GO 00 

tWilliam McMullen, (v) 


IG 00 

♦Robert Kerr, Dealer, 

I GO 00 

*Capt. William McKay, 


16 00 

*William Kerr, 

I 00 GO 

fSamuel McCormick, 


IG 00 

♦Archibald Young, 


§Simon Shirlock, 


00 GG 

*Ezekial Mirriam, 


(q) Did painting. 

(t) Built pews. 

(r) In iron work, 
(s) Carpenters' work. 

(u) Built pews. 

(v) Built pews. 









*Smith & Dean, 




^Uncertain as to the 

§Francis Gurney, 



sum, viz. : Robert 

*Widow Mease, 



Hardie, (w) 




|Mrs. Falkner or Thomp- 

*John Little, Innkeeper, 








*John Ruthven, 



tjames Ross, (y) 




§Eben'r Call, 




fAlexander Alexander, 

§Capt. David Brown, 







*Ricliard Porter, 



* £1555 9 10 

^Archibald McCorkel, 



t 205 14 00 

JJames McCraken, 




% 197 10 00 

*James McBeth, 




§ 105 5 00 

JSamuel Cheesman, 




§Blair McClenaughan, 




£2063 18 10 

*Thomas McFee, 




(w) Rum for the carpenters. 

(y) In lumber. 

(x) Carting. 

(z) Stone, &c. 

A true copy, 

(Signed,) David Jackson, 

October 3, 1794. 

(Original MS. in possession of Old Pine Street Church.) 





The Petition of the subscribers, Trustees of the Third Presby- 
byterian Church in the City of Philadelphia, 

Respectfully Sheweth : 

That your petitioners since the erection of their Church 
have had many difficulties to contend with, whereby they 
have been prevented from purchasing a Lot of Ground 
suitable for a Burying Ground, That some of the difficulties 
they have laboured under as a religious Socierty, They beg 
leave to lay before this Honourable House ; That during 
the time the British Troops were in Philadelphia they used 
the Church as an Hospital destroyed the Pews and buried 
upwards of one hundred Hessian Soldiers in the Church 
Burying Ground, That the Congregation have been obliged 
to repair their Church by subscription and under many 
discouraging circumstances. That in the year 1793 they 
erected Galleries in the said Church with Cost them up- 
wards of seventeen hundred Pounds, that in the year 1796 
the Congregation in Market Street revived an old dormant 
Claim against your Petitioners, And an Settlement thereof 
your Petitioners paid them Two Thousand Dollars; that 
your Petitioners are now endeavouring to raise by sub- 
scription fifteen hundred dollars for the purpose of new 
Roofing their Church and doing other necessary Repairs 
thereto, That their Burying Ground is very small and is 
now almost filled, That there is a vacant Lot of Ground 
delineated in the draft hereon endorsed situate within the 
City of Philadelphia Containing in breadth North and 
South seventy-eight feet and in length East and West 
three hundred and ninety-six feet bounded on the North 
by Lumbard street, on the East by Broad Street, and on 


350 Appendices. 

the South by ground formerly granted to the Heirs of 
William Penn, jnn., and on the West by the Eighth Street 
from the River Schuylkill, which lot now belongs to the 
Commonwealth and is well situated for a Burying Ground 
having never been sold or granted as a City Lot to any 
Person nor claimed as appurtenant to the Lands granted 
by William Penn to the first purchasers, Your Petitioners 
therefore Pray that this Honourable House will be pleased 
to grant them leave to Bring in a Bill to vest the said Lot 
of Ground in the Corporation of the third Presbyterian 
Church in the City of Philadelphia and their Successors 
for ever In Trust for the use and purpose of a Burial 
Ground, And your Petitioners will ever pray, etc. 

Phila., December i6th., 1801. 

Paul Cox Ferguson McElwaine 

Richard Tittermary Samuel Duffield 

Geo. Latimer 
Conrad Hanse 
Wm. Haslett 
J. McGlathery 
David Graham 
Ebenezer Ferguson 
William Smiley 
Robert McMullin. 

(Original MS, with autograph signatures in possession of Old 
Pine Street Church.) 



Among the many manuscript papers in possession of the church 
is a copy of "The Oath," which was taken by the patriotic sons 
of Pennsylvania to the State after the Declaration of Independ- 
ence had been declared. In the city of Philadelphia sympathy 
ran largely to the Tories, and many who really believed in liberty 
and secretly aided the cause, refused the oath, either through 
natural conservatism or fear and want of faith in the future. Our 
dauntless pastor, George Duffield, was the one clergyman of the 
city to urge the taking of the oath. He had pleaded for a Decla- 
ration of Independence long before it was finally adopted, and his 
eloquence drove many faltering members of the Continental 
Congress to its support, not the least of whom was John Adams, 
afterwards President of the United States. 

The ink on this paper has faded, but the words of the oath are 
still legible. Here they are : "I swear and affirm that I renounce 
and refuse all allegiance to George the Third, King of Great 
Britain, his heirs and successors, and that I will be faithful and 
bear true allegiance to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as a 
free and independent State, and that I w411 not at any time do or 
cause to be done any matter or thing that will be prejudicial or 
injurious to the freedom and independence thereof, as declared 
by Congress; and also, that I will discover and make known to 
some one Justice of the Peace of the said State all treasons or 
traiterous conspiracies which I now know, or hereafter shall 
know, to be formed against this or any of the United States of 
America." There could be no evasion to an oath like that! 

On the same paper below the oath, in blacker ink, but the same 
handwriting, which is believed to be that of Dr. Duffield himself, 
is the record : "20th August the mare went out in the Waggon in 
the Service."— 0/rf Pine Street Church Nezvs, Vol. XXL, No. 4. 


352 Appendices. 

On the death of the Rev. Dr. John B. Smith, late Pastor of the 
Third Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, written a fezv days 
after the nionrnful event — by one of his hearers: 

Come muse of melancholy lend thy aid, 
Friendship demands my song, — my plaintive song : 

Friendship for one, of whom not time itself 

Shall blot the remembrance from my breast. 

He's gone ! — the pious, faithful pastor's gone ! 

Friend to mankind he was, and friend to me. 

Often "We took sweet counsel, and went" oft 

With hearts united to the house of God. — 

Triumphant Death ! what conquest hast thou made ! 

How rich the spoil, when so much virtue fell ! 

The tongue which late proclaim'd a Saviour's love, ' 

That warned the sinner of his awful doom, 

And, in behalf of guilty man, pour'd out 

The language of his soul in prayer, now sleeps 

In dust. Mysterious providence ! Thy ways 

Are in the deep, yet righteous all: — then why 

Should man repine? Thou tak'st but what thou gav'st, 

And what thou leav'st behind, is bounty all. 

Then O my soul, suppress each murm'ring thought; 

Thy friend is gone to mansions in the skies; 

And now, in full fruition sees and knows 

What he but tasted, while he sojourn'd here. 

Yet still my grief (not hopeless) Fll indulge, 

Since 'tis a privilege to weep and pray. — 

A privilege, gold is too poor to buy 

The Saviour wept with weeping friends, and shew'd 

The sympathetic tear was friendship's due. 

In weeping join, ye people, once his charge. 

Your Pastor living, watch'd and wept for you. 

His death demands your tears — Yes, ye who've known 

His fervency and zeal, and felt that love 

Which he was wont to feel, must mourn a loss 

Whose full extent, may never be repair'd. 

In your affections, he unrivall'd stood, 

He fell lamented, as he liv'd belov'd. 




Philadelphia, 28th Dec. 1812. 
Dear Brethren, 

We the undersigned, as well for ourselves, as a great man)- 
Others of the brethren of our congregation, would, with becomiiig 
deference to the ofificers of our church, request to be heard. 

We have once more, by the dispensation of the great Head of 
the church, been visited by a privation of no common kind. The 
removal of an eminent preacher of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, is 
no ordinary event to those who feel an interest in the prosperity 
of Zion. The weight of this consideration, as also the belief that 
the Hearer of prayer is about to condescend to our united and 
individual prayers and return to us in forgiving mercy, is the 
cause of this address. 

This impression on our mind is more strongly fortified, by 
having recently enjoyed the visit of an eminent servant of God to 
our city, the Rev. E. S. Ely, whose ministerial labours we under- 
stand, have been greatly blessed, and on whom the eyes of many 
are anxiously fixed, as a suitable pastor for the Third Presby- 
terian Church. 

We must here pause to assure you, that in thus addressing you, 
we are free from any desire of dictating to you. Far be such a 
thought from us. No, Brethren; we are. on the contrary, im- 
pressed with an opinion, that ere now you would have laid this 
matter before the congregation had not delicacy interposed. One 
other reason for our preference of Mr. Ely results from his being 
entirely disengaged from any pastoral charge; and some of us 
are seriously of opinion, that no inducement w^iatever, should be 
sufficient to detach a pastor from his flock, where he is usefully 
and comfortably situated. A painful thought here obtrudes; 

23 (353) 

354 Appendices. 

may we not, in some degree, have been accessory to those melan- 
choly deprivations, again and again experienced, from having 
been the means of depriving other congregations of their pastors? 
This, however, is a subject we dare touch but slightly. 

Dear brethren, our earnest desire is, you would bear with us 
patiently; and by taking the foregoing under your immediate con- 
sideration, w^e hope you may be influenced by our request, to 
consider the propriety of taking the sense of the congregation on 
preferring a call to the Rev. Ezra Stiles Ely. 

And in answer to our united prayer with yours, may the Father 
of Lights be with you by his Spirit in your deliberations, so that 
you may continue a blessing to the church, and promoters of the 
Glory of our God. 

Signed on behalf of themselves, and others attached to the 
Third Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia. 

John H. Brown, D. Sutherland, 

Conrad Hanse, Wm. Wray, 

Jacob Mitchell, Wilman Whildon. 

George Barclay, George Pierson, 

James Wilson, P. M'Kell, 

John W. Scott, Charles Collins, 

John W. Thompson, Wm. M'Corkle, 

David Ray, Sim. Toby, 

W. B. DuFFiELD, James Martin, 

Wm. Dalzell, Robert Clark, 

Wm. Nassau, Joseph Robinson, 

Wm. Bryant, James Campbell, 

John Workman, Noah Simons, 

L. Sawyer, Wm. M'Farlan, 

Caleb Earl, B. Stratton, 

Robert Taylor, H. Tumbleson. 

[The above petition was published in May, 1814, by General 
John Steele in his book, "A History of the Ecclesiastical Proceed- 
ings Relative to the Third Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, 
the Rev. Ezra Stiles Ely, and Several of the Judicatories of the 
Church with which they are Connected."] 




Robert Knox 


David Sparks 

Samuel Duffield, M. D. 

John W. Woodside 


► Wm. Shippen, Jr., M. D. 


John McMullin 

Andrew Allen 

William Haslett 

>John Snowden 

William Smiley 

James Reed 

James McGlathery 

Alexander Alexander 


E. Ferguson 

John Pinkerton 

David Graham 

Thomas Mushett 


Jacob Mitchell 

Samuel Jackson 


Thomas M. Hall 

Samuel Purviance 


William Nassau 

John Tittermary 


John Steele 


William Henry 


George Barclay 

Joseph Frazer 

Samuel Carswell 

William McMullin 

George Pearson 

Matthew Potter 

John B. Duffield 


James Thompson 


Isaac Carpenter 

James McCutcheon 

William Ray 

Thomas Robinson 

John W. Thompson 


Henry Peterson 


William Bryant 

Elias Boys 

John Workman 

James Stuart 


James Wilson 


Samuel Lowry 

James C. Thompson 


John McCullough 


Robert Clark 

Paul Cox 

John R. McMullin 

Ferguson Mcllvaine 

James Robinson 

Lewis Grant 

James B. Mitchell 

Derrick Patterson 


John H. Fenner 

Nathan Boys 

Elijah Chester 


Francis Lee 


J. J. Robinson 

Jedediah Snowden 


Anthony Finlay 


Richard Tittermary 


Simeon Toby 

Francis Bailey 

Henry Tomlinson 


George Latimer 

James Boyd 


James McClure 


Joshua Raybold 

Robert McMullin 

William Linn 


William Linnard 


William R. Thompson 


Conrad Haines 


Robinson R. Moore 

William G. Bell 

183 1. 

Weston C. Donaldson 

Capt. Benjamin Wickes. 


Hezekiah Harding 






Robert W. Davenport 


P. V. B. Scott 

John C. Farr 

Randolph Sailor 


Charles Robb 


George Young 

Charles H. Dingee 

William Ivins 

Frederick A. Raybold 

0. H. Willard 


Joseph P. Hamehn 

George Griffiths 

Isaac B. Baxter 


Stephen D. Harris 


Lemuel Lamb 

John Elliott 

Robert O'Neill 

William McConnell 


John H. Dingee 


J. G. de Turck 

Joseph Hand 

Joseph W. Hartman 

William Worrell 


E. R. Hutchins, M. D. 


George H. Burgin 

Geo. W. Bailey, M. D. 

S. H. Trainer 

C. C. Lister 


William F. Geddes 


William Taylor 

John Allen 

187 1. 

George Richardson, Jr. 

Thomas McLeod 

John C. Parmenter 


Edwin King 

George McGill 


Thomas MacKellar 


James R. Calhoun 

Joseph Murray 

Peter N. Cruse 

Edwin Greble 

James Campbell 


Robert J. Mercer 

Charles W. Young 

Thomas E. Ashmead 


William H. Perpignan 

Hugh Stevenson 

R. W. Fitzell 


Thomas Craven 

John W. Kline 


David C. McCammon 


Rudolph M. Shick 

185 1. 

William Taylor 


James Scott 


James W. Queen 


Philip H. Strubing 


W. J. P. White 

John Detwiler 


Wilmon Whilldin 


R. T. Hazzard 

Samuel Work 

Paul H. Barnes 


Morgan G. Pile 


Robert C. Floyd 


John Aikman 

Charles Brown 

James Fraiser 


John Wilson 

S. Tustin Eldridge 

Erasmus Freeman 


Robert Clark 


Frank S. Gibson 

L. M. Whilldin 


James Wilson 

William Maclntire 

Joseph B. Detwiler 


John Kelley 


John R. Bowen 

Samuel R. Hilt 

Harry B. Davis 

R. Young 


Walter H. Richman 


Ezra Calhoun 

Harry C Thompson 

A. Getty 


W. Charles Tweed 


William Campbell 


Robert Brooks 

Samuel Loag 


William North 


John P. Sloan 

Henrv J. Gibbons 

H. K. Bennett 


Frederick W. Uhdc 

J. D. Meguire 

Carl A. Ziegler. 


John Moore 




Abeel. Rev. Mr., 104 
Adams, President John, 63, 67, 93 
Adams, Milo, M. D., 257 
Agassis!, Louis, 77 
Aikman, John, 217, 300 
Aitkin's English Bible, 78 
Alexander, Alexander, 39 
Alexander, Rev. Dr. Archibald, 

97, 112, 115, 132, 135-56, 164. 

181, 188, 204. 244. 292-93, 298 
Alexander, G. W., 229 
Alexander, Rev. Dr. J. W., 152 
Alexander, Hon. W. C, 324 
Alburger, Catherine J., 3, 269 
Alison, Rev. Dr. Francis, 21-23, 

Alison, Rev. Patrick, 28-30, 35 
Allen, David, 324-25 
Allen, Mary. 242, 246 
Allen, Rev. Dr. R. H.. 233-46. 247, 

270, 279, 293, 300. 305. 325 
Allen, Rev. Dr. Perry S., 292 
Allison familv, 320 
Allison, Capt. Robert. 92 
Allison, Mr.. Sexton. 324 
American Bible Society, 133 
American Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions, 230 
American Educational Soc, 208 
American Presbyterianism, rise of, 

Amherst College, 229 
Andover Seminary, 205-06 
Andover theology. 169. 184, 218 
Andrews, Emma Marx. 268 
Andrews, Rev. Jedidiah. 13, 14 
Andrews, Robert Potts, 272, 301, 

Annapolis Church, 257-58. 263 
Arbitration for disputes between 

church members, 129. 171 
Armitage, James. 30. 30 
Armstrong, Gen. John, 50 
Arthur, Captain. 21 
Articles of Agreement, 28, 40, 41 
Augustinianism, 218 

Bailey, Elder. 30 
Bailey, Francis. 83. 86 
Bailey. George W., M. D., 304 
Bailev lot. 314 
Bailey. Lydia. 279. 317 
Bank of United States, 320 
Baptists, 13 

Barnes. Rev. Albert. 184, 195. 
205-6, 208, 210-213 

Barnes, Paul H., 264, 268 

Beale, Edmond, M. D., 261, 278 

Beale family, 320 

Beale, Rev. Wilson T. M., 279 

Beatty, Rev. Charles, 59 

Bedford, William, 21 

Beecher, Rev. Dr. Henry Ward, 

200, 228 
Beecher, Rev. Dr. Lyman, 205-06, 

208, 229 
Beekman, Hon. J. W., 125 
Beneficial offerings, contest about, 

241, 264 
Bennett, H. K., 239 
Bible Society, 221, 283 
Big Spring Church. 58, 120 
Blagden, Rev. Dr. G. W., 199 
Blair, Rev. Dr. Samuel, 56, 117, 

Blaklev, John, 21 
Boards of Church, 152 
Board of Education. 181-82, 289 
Board of Foreign Missions, 269 
Borhek, Charles G., 220 
Bourdaloue, 121 
Boys. Elias, 83. 318 
Boys, Capt. Nathan. 83, 88, 318 
Brainerd, Daniel, 201 
Brainerd. Rev. David, 201, 228 
Brainerd, Jesse, 201 
Brainerd, Rev. John, 201 
Brainerd, Mary, 206, 228. 315 
Brainerd Memorial Endowment 

Fund, 245, 279, 280, 284 
Brainerd Memorial Sunday- 
School, 243, 280-82. 303-04 
Brainerd memorial tablet, 371 
Brainerd Missionary Society (La- 
fayette College), 230 
Brainerd monument, 315 
Brainerd. Rev. Dr. Thomas, 184, 
188. 199-231. 233. 242, 293, 
300-03. 317, 319. 325 
Brainerd. Thomas C. M. D.. 225 
Brandvwine. battle of. 84. 86 
Brearley. .John H.. 272 
Breckenridge. R. J.. 214 
Brick Church. New York, 122 
Bricker. G. Walter. 272 
Brierv (Va.) Church. 97. 141 
British Anti-Slavery Society, 209 
British bury in churchyard, 72, 

British enter Philadelphia. 72 
British evacuate Philadelphia. 73. 




British on Sttiten Island, 09, 70 
British reward for DuflBield's cap- 
ture, 71, 70, 90 
British use church for hospital, 

Bronze castings first made in 

America, 321 
Brooks High License Law, 287-88 
Brooks, Bishop Phillips, 220 
Brown, Margaret and Elizabeth, 

Brj-an, Justice George, 21-24, 322 
Bryant, "Jemmie," 47 
Burdick, Rev. Frank H., 279 
Burial Trust Fund, 280-81, 327-28 
Burnett, William, M. D., 56 
Burton. Arthur M., 287 
Bushnell, Horace, 205 

Caldwell family, 320 
Caldwell, James W., 268 
Caldwell, Samuel, 320 
Caldwell, William, 92 
Calhoun, P]zra, 261, 302 
Calvary Church, 213 
Calvinism, 184, 210, 218 
Campbell, James, 248 
Campbell, Rev. John, 279 
Campbell, William, 239 
Carlton, Marion Janvier, 269 
Carpenter Street Ground, 190, 

192. 303, 312 
Carr, William, 324 
Cattell. Rev. Dr. W. C, 246 
Cedar Street Church, 259 
Centenarians, 316 
Centennial of Church, 243-44, 279, 

Central High School, 249 
Centre College, 199, 234 
Chaplaincy to Congress, 121, 268 
Chevalier, John, 22 
Chino-Japanese War, 257 
Christ Church. 310 
Christian Endeavor Society, 22, 

268. 271 
Church assistants, 104-05, 209 
Church charter secured, 110 
Church, foundations of, 331 
Church galleries erected, 104 
Church, improvements to, 75-76, 

104-05, 127, 190-93, 211-12, 

242-43. 285 
Church lighting. 105, 191, 285 
Church manse, 126, 142, 244, 280, 

Church music, 76, 219-21, 245, 

269-70, 307 
Church, original lot of, 309 
Church polity, 45, 96. 164-65. 167, 

210. 216-17, 262-64, 288 
Church records. 9, 10. 31. 6.5-66, 

73. 77. 83, 89, 93-94, 106, 144, 

158, 180, 215, 219, 235-36, 238- 

39, 260 

Cliurch treasurer, 116, 266 
Church \rics. 270-72. 
Churchyard. 72, 76, 192-93, 265, 

285, 309-29, 331 
Churchyard trust fund, 281, 327- 

Churchyard, unique in America, 

Churchyards, desecration of, 10, 

City Board of Health, 312 
City courthouse, 18, 22 
City prison, 18 
(.Uncinnati Journal, 206 
Cincinnati, Society of, 320 
Civil War, 98, 224-28, 312 
Civil War martyrs' tablet, 317 
Clark family, 315 
Clarke. Jonas. 64 
Clay, Henry, 125, 205, 224 
Clinton Street Church, 213 
Cohanzy (N. J.) Church, 11 
Collegiate Church, 33 
Collins. Lucv, 299 
Colonial churches, 12, 296. 319 
Colonial education, 19, 20. 
Colonial State General Assembly, 

Columbia University, 123 
Committee of Safety, 8.5-86 
Commons, House of, 331 
Coney, John. 21 
Congregationalists, 10, 113-14, 

143, 158 
Connelly family, 320 
Constitution of U. S., 320 
Continental Congress, 56, 64, 68, 

78. 81. 85, 91, 311, 326 
Corbin, Ellen M., 307 
Corgie Fund, 283 
Corgie monument, 315 
Cornwallis surrenders, 87 
Cowpens, battle of. 99 
Cox. Captain Paul, 83, 85, 318 
Craig, James. 24 
Craig, Colonel Isaac, 91 
Craig. Colonel Thomas, 91 
Creighton, John. 268 
Cruse. Captain Peter N., 264 
Culver, Rev. Andrew, 223. 273 
Cumberland (Va.) Church, 97 

Dana, Rev. Dr. S. W., 237, 246 
Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution, 85 
Davenport. Robert W., 179, 217, 

240, 317 
Davidson family, 320 
Davis, Harry B., 306 
Davis, L. Clarke, 286 
Dawson, Captain George, 318 
Deacon's Fund, 130, 267-68, 281- 

Decatur, Capt. Stephen, 130, 131 




Declaration of Independence, 63- 

65, 67, 83, 93-94, 326 
Delta Tau Delta Fraternity, 254 
Department of Public Safety, 286 
de Turck, Jacob G., 264-66 
Detwiler, George B., 272 
Detwiler, John, 264, 268 
Detwiler. Joseph B., 261 
Diaconate created, 268 
Dickey, Rev. Dr. C. A., 246 
Dickinson, Cadwalader, 86 
Didactic theology, 186 
Dingee, Charles H., 217 
Doake. Rev. John W., 166 
Donegal, Presbytery of, 46, 57, 

Dorcas Society. 152. 269, 282 
Downtown field. 239. 258-60. 274- 

75, 279, 295-96, 307-08. 332-35 
Duff's Commercial College, 254 
Duffleld. Rev. Dr. George (1), 37- 

81, 90. 95-96, 102, 120, 143, 

148, 224, 244, 297. 311. 319, 

326, 332 
Duffield. George (2), 56 
Duffield, Rev. Dr. George (3), 56, 

Duffield, Rev. Dr. George (4), 57 
Duffield memorial tablet, 317 
Duffleld, Samuel. M. D., 39, 44. 

48. 83. 85, 105. 318 
Duffield, William B.. M. D.. 168, 

Dunlap's Creek Academy, 254 
Dunn. Rev. Dr., 249 
Dutch Reformed, 113, 120, 133 
Dutihl family, 315 

Eakin, Rev. Samuel. 30. 35 
Eastburn, Rev. Joseph. 130 
Eastburn, Holmes D.. 279 
Eaton. James H.. 217 
Eldridge. Levi, 217 
Elizabethtown Church. 11 
Elliott, John, 240, 248, 261. 264- 

Ely, Rev. Dr. Ezra Stiles. 77. 

157-97. 199, 201, 206, 293, 298, 

302, 317 
Ely, Rev. Zebulon, 157 
Emmanuel Church. 300 
Endowment Funds, 249, 265, 279- 

85, .327, 332 
Episcopalians." 82. 259 
Estaing. Comte d', 88 
Evangelical Alliance. 229 
Ewing. Rev. Dr. .Tohn. 22-23. 26. 

29, 30, 35, 43, 103, 133, 321-22 

Farr, Emma S.. 317 

Farr. George W., Jr.. 293. 317, 

Farr. John C, 179. 217. 229. 240. 

248-49, 261, 273, 300, 319, 327- 


Farr, William M., 328 

Farr Funds, 260 

Fairchild, Rev. Dr. A. G., 250 

Fairchance furnaces, 250 

Fifteenth Ward, Pittsburg, 256 

Fifth Ward, 286, 290 

Fire Ins. Co. of State of Pa., 316 

First Church, 9, 12, 14, 21-27, 32- 

34. 37-45, 50-52, 76, 103, 108- 

110, 117, 150, 168, 208, 210, 

310. 313-14, 319-24 
First Church, Carlisle, 56, 58 
First Church, Charleston, W. Va., 

First Church. Northern Liberties, 

First City Troop. P. C. C, 320-21 
First Universalist Church, 18 <, 

Flying Camp, 84 
Forest Church, Lyons Fals, N. Y., 

Fort TMtt. 17 

Fort Sumter, attack on, 224 
Fort Washington, 88 
Fourth Church, Cincinnati, 206 
Fox familv. 320 
Fraiser, James, 217, 240, 261 
Fraiser family. 315 
Franklin. Benjamin. 14 
F^reedmen's Board. 246-47 
P^rick Coke Company, 255 
Frontier Missions. 59-60, 141, 235 
Fullerton, John, 21 
Fullerton family, 320 

Geddes, William F.. 299 
General Assembly. 78. 102. 115- 
16. 132-33. 139. 149, 151-52, 
158, 169, 171, 187-88, 195, 201, 
206, 208, 229, 235, 255, 274, 
General Assembly, (O. S.), 210, 

General Assembly, moderatorship 
of, 78, 115. 133, 152, 188. 229, 
General Assembly, stated clerk- 
ship of. 78, 132, 187 
General Assembly, trustees of, 277 
General Assessment Bill. Va.. 100 
Geneva gown introduced. 76 
George III.. 63 
Georgia. Universitv of, 152 
German Reformed Church, 122-23, 

Gei-man Lutherans. 82 
German Street Fund. 266. 279 
(Jerman Street Church. 302 
German Street Union. 272-78. 
(iermantown. b-nttle of. 87 
Gettysburg, battle of. 226-27 
Gibbonev. D. Clarence. 287 
Gibbons. Herbert Adnms, 279 



Gibbons, Rev. Dr. H. O., 247-96, 
300, 313, 325 

Gibbons, James (i., ii., iii.), 251- 

Gibbons, John, 251 

Gibbons, Joshua Vernon, 251-52 

Gibbons, Dr. William, 252 

Gibson, Chief-Justice, 210 

Gibson, Dorothy K., 272 

Gillett, Rev. Moses, 204 

Gladstone, Premier, 331 

Goodrich, Rev. Dr. 239 

Gown, motion for wearing de- 
feated, 104 

Graham, Rev. Dr. L. Y., 246 

Graham, Nathaniel, 53 

Graham, Rev. William, 97, 137-38, 

Gravestones recut, 314 

Greble, Lieut. John T., 227 

Green, Rev. Dr. Ashbel, 79, 103, 
116, 132 

Greene, General, 99 

Green Hill Church, 213 

Greenwich Street Church, 249, 305 

Griffiths, George, 240, 303-04. 

Gross, Rev. Dr., 123 

Gun carriages for Revolutionary 
army, 85 

Hall, Rev. Robert, 122 

Hall, Rev. Dr. John (Trenton), 

143, 298 
Hamilton family, 320 
Hampden-Sidney College, 97-99, 

101, 141-42, 317 
Hanover Church, Va., 57 
Hanover Presbytery, Va., 97, 103 
Harper, Rev. Dr., 249 
Harris, Mary B., 269 
Harris, Mary D., 268 
Harris, Stephen D., 179, 223, 240, 

261, 264-65, 293, 328-29 
Harvard University, 13 
Haslett, Wm., 122, 147, 165, 177 
Hazzard. Randall T., 223. 248-49, 

261, 264-65, 299 
Henry, Patrick. 99, 100 
Henry, Lieut. Wm., 39, 83, 85 
Hessians. 72, 87, 317 
Hewitt, James, 261, 271. 300, 305 
Hill Meeting House, 18 
Hilt, Ellen D., 317 
Hobart, Rev. Peter, 13 
Hodge, Rev. Dr. A. A., 256 
Hoge, Rev. Dr. Moses, 317 
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 229 
Home Missionary Society, 152, 

208. 269. 282, 304 
Hopkinsianism, 169 
Horace Binnev Public School, 172 
Hornblower. Rev. Dr. W. H., 256 
Houston. Alexander. 21 
Houston. William Churchill, 311 
Hungarians, 333 

Hungarian Presbyterians, 260 
Hurry, William, 94, 326-27 
Hutchins, E. R., M. D., 240, 261, 

Hutton, John Strangeway, 316 
Ilutton, Rev. Dr. Wm., 249, 305 
Hutton, William, 325 
Hyde family, 320 

Hluminating ga» introduced, 331 
Independence Hall, 68, 94, 326, 

Independence Square, 225, 326, 

Ingersoll, Jared, 320 
IngersoU family, 320 
Irwin, Rev. Nathaniel, 103, 117 
Italians, 333 
Ivins, William, 217, 221, 240, 245, 

248, 261, 269, 270 

Jackson, President Andrew. 250 
Jacobus, Rev Dr. M. W., 256 
Jefferson Medical College, 182, 

Jews, 151, 258-59, 291, 305 
Johns, Leonard, 256 
Johnson, John, 21, 25 
.Tones, Lydia, 269 

Keigwin, Rev. Albert N., 273 
Kennedy, Capt. Thomas, 92 
Kentucky Senate, 234 
Kimball, Rev Renal, 204 
King in council, 53, 108 
King's Mountain, Battle of. 92 
Knox, Col. Robert, 39, 40, 47, 83- 

Lafayette College, 230 
Lancaster Almanac, 86 
Lancaster Militia Convention, 84- 

Latimer, Col. George, 76, 83, 89, 

Law and Order Society, 287, 290 
Lawrence Schools, Pittsburgh, 256 
Leaves from a Century Plant, 244 
Lee, Governor Henry. 97 
Lee, surrender of, 224 
Lenox, Major David, 320 
Lewes (Del.) Church, 11 
Liberty Bell. 326 
Liberty Hall, 137 

Liberty Hall (Oliphant home), 250 
liincoln, President Abraham, 227 
Linn, Rev. John B., 117 
Linn, Rev. Dr. William, 120, 121 
Linnard. Kate M.. 328 
Linnard, Col. William, 83, 87-88, 

90, 113, 318 
Linnard family. 315 
Linton. Lieut. John. 311 
Lister. Charles C. 264-65 
Lister, Susan, 317 




Livermore, Chief Justice, 56 
Livingston, Rev. Dr. 122 
Loag, Samuel, 230, 240 
Lombard street lot, 128, 143-44, 

172, 190 
Lottery for building church, 25 
Low, Jacob D., 325 
Lowville Academy, 204 
Lutherans, 82, 250 

Madison, President James, 97, 311 
Makemie, Rev. Francis, 13 
March, Rev. Dr. 237 
Mariners' Church, 130 
Marion College, 199 
Marion venture, 190 
Marriage in colonial days, 19 
Marshall, Capt. John, 92 
Mason, Dr. Allen a, 236 
Massachusetts Bay Colony, 11 
Massilon, 121 
Maull, William M., 325 
Meguire, James D., 248 
Memorial windows of church, 285, 

Methodists, 259 
Methodist practises denounced, 

Mikado, nephew of, 258 
Milledoler, Rev. Dr. Philip, 119- 

34, 142, 156, 15», 171, 188 
Miller, Rev. Samuel, 112 
Ministerial relief, 325 
Missions, spirit of, 334 
Mitchell, Jacob, 163, 168, 178 
Mitchell, Ormsby McK., 205 
Mitchell, Susan, 299 
Mitchell, Thomas, 324 
Mofifatt, Rev. Dr. J. D., 255 
Monaghan Church, 58 
Morrison. Abraham, 324 
Moore, John, 24. 30 
Moore, John, 240, 261 
Mount Moriah Cemetery, 246 
Municipal League, 286 
Murray, Lydia F., 269 
Murray, Nicholas, 214 
Mushett, Thomas, 39 

McClellan, Samuel. M. D., 217 
McClure, James, S3 
McCook. Rev. Dr. H. C. 173 
McCulloch, Thomas, 92 
McCullough, John, 108 
McCutchon, Samuel, 310 
McDowell, Provost John, LL. D., 

MacFarlane family, 314 
MacFarlane. Jane, 299 
McGiffen, Captain, 257 
McGlatherv, James, 83, 85 
Mcllvaine. Ferguson, 66, 78, 107, 

122. 127, 147, 160, 163, 178, 

Maclntire, William. 240 
MacKean, Charles E., 261, 271 
MacKellar, Thomas, 217 

McLeod, Isabella, 317 

McLeod, Rev. John, 223, 244 

McLeod, Thomas, 217 

McLean family, 320 

McMuUen, Moss, 298, 

McMuUen, Sarah, 299 

McMullin, John, 107, 113, 147, 

165-66, 177 
McMullin, John R., Jr., 179, 217, 

McMullin, Robert, 108, 113, 147, 

165, 177 
McMullin, William, 66, 83, 84 
McMullin family, 315 

Nash, Col. John, 98 

Nassau, William, 168, 178, 217 

Nature, a factor in education, 136, 

139, 203, 253 
Neill, Rev. Dr. Wm., 176, 177, 182 
Newark Church, 11 
Newark (Del.) Academy, 55 
Newcastle (Del.) Church, 11 
Newcastle Presbytery, 56 
New Albany (Mo.) Seminary, 234 
New Haven theology, 208 
New Lights, 14, 58, 60, 194 
New Orleans, battle of, 250 
New Orleans, packet line to. 316 
New School, 194, 200, 229, 234 
Newton, Rev. Dr. Richard, 215 
New York City Hospital and Alms- 
house, 158, 184, 186 
Nonogenarians, 316 
Notson, William, M. D., 248 
Nott, Rev. Dr. Eliphalet, 100, 114 

Octogenarians, 316 

Oldest Philadelphian, 316 

Old Lights, 58, 194 

Old School. 194, 210, 229, 234 

Old Scots' Church, 259 

Old South Church, Boston, 200 

Old Swedes' Church, 17, 310 

Oliphant, Hughes, 250 

Oliphant, John, 245-50 

"O, Little Town of Bethlehem," 

O'Neill family, 320 

Paine, Thomas, 86 
Peale, Charles W.. 86 
Pearson Fund, 280, 282 
Pearson, George. 282. 304 
Penn, Richard, 22, 24 
Penn, Thomas, 22 
Penn, William, 251 
Pennsylvania Archives. 81. 85 
Pennsylvania Militia, 65, 68. 85 
Pennsvlvania Militia Convention, 

Pepper family. 320 
Perpignan, William H., 264-65 
Pettit. Charles, 320 
Pettit family. 320 
Pew rents. 26, 75, 104, 127, 173. 

211, 244 



I'hiladelphlan, 187 

Phillips Fund, 283 

Phyfe, James, 179 

Physical superiority commands re- 
spect, 250. 290 

Pile family, 314 

Pile, Morgan G., 305 

Pile, William II., M. D.. 240 

Pine street chained off, 112, 113 

Pine street paved, 76 

Pinkerton, John, 107 

Plan of Union. 114, 208 

Poems, opposition to ministers 
writing, 185 

Poles. 333 

Polk family, 320 

Porter, Andrew, 39 

Potts. Rev. George C. 160. 259 

I*otter, ]Maj.-Gen. James. 90 

Prayer-meetings, 79, 130, 184, 222- 
23, 301 

Presbyterian Historical Society, 
60, 113. 288 

Presbyterian Hospital. 288 

Presbyterian House. 230. 273, 277 

Presbyterian Ministers' Fund. 152, 
290. 291-93 

Presbyterian Quarterly Review, 

Presbytery of Albany. 106. 116 

Presbytery of Baltimore, 288 

Pre^ytery of New York, 163, 169, 

Presbytery of Philadelphia. First, 
13. 50, 57. 103. 107. 126. 156, 
158. 160. 161, 167-69, 194, 274, 
277. 288. 289 

Presbytery of Philadelphia. Sec- 
ond. 30. 35. 39. 40. 45, 50, 51, 
57. 61, 66. 194, 208 

Presbytery of Philadelphia, Third, 

President of TT. S., elector of. 318 

Princeton, battle of, 90 

Princeton Seminarv. 133. 151. 154 

Princeton Universitv. 55. 79. 96- 
97. 115. 133. 136-37, 152 

Printer to Continental Congress, 

Proprietaries of Pennsylvania, 22- 

Puritans, 9. 11. 13 

Pnrvps, Samuel. Jr.. 24 

Purves family, 320 

Quakers. 20, 71. 81-82. 222 251 

Ralkes (Roberta School. 302-03 
Ralston. Robert. 172 
Ranstead Court Tabernacle. 143 
Raybold family. 315 
Raybold, Frederick A.. 217 
Reading sermons disliked. 101. 
149, 289 

Redner, Lewis H., 220 
Rehobeth (Del.) Church, 11 
Religious education of young, 297 
Religious newspaper first estab- 
lished, 152 
Reunion Foreign Missionary So- 
ciety, 242. 269, 283 
Revolutionary Army, 47, 81-94, 

138. 320 
Revolutionary Army retreats 

across Jersey, 70 
Revolutionary soldiers, Pennsyl- 
vania, list of, 85 
Revolutionary War, 15, 53, 64-76. 
81-94, 98-99, 138, 155, 310-12, 
317-18. 320, 326 
Richardson family, 317 
Richardson Fund, 283 
Richman, D. T., 272, 300, 305 
Richman, W. H., 261, 272, 300, 

301, 305-06 
Ritchie family, 320 
Rittenhouse, David, 86 
Robbins, Rev. Dr. F. L., 234, 249 
Robinson, Col. Thomas, 83-84 
Rodgers, Rev. Dr., 122 
Roman Catholic Church, 214-15, 

259, 291, 311 
Ross. Captain Charles, 321 
Ross, Lieut.-Col. James, 89, 91 
Ross lot in churchyard, 314 
Rossburgh, Chaplain John, 71 
Rush, Dr. Benjamin, 93, 131-32, 

Rush. Col. William, 21-22, 24, 818, 

Russell, Rev. Edwin J., 279 
Russian Jews, 258-59. 295, 333 
Russo-Japanese War, 257 
Rutgers College, 121. 132-33 
Rutgers Street Church, N. Y., 132 

Safety, Committe of, 85 

Sailer, Randolph. 240. 304 

St. .Joseph's Church. 215 

St. Mary's Church. 310. 311 

St. Paul's Church, 310 

St. Peter's Church, 310, 332 

Sampson. Admiral W. T., 257 

Schaff. Rev. Dr. Philip. 146 

Schellinger family, 314 

Schick, Rudolph "M., 248-49, 261, 

264 300 
Schuylkill Arsenal. 87 
Scott, James F., 261. 264 
Scott. Rev. Dr. J. Welwood, 152. 

159. 168. 178. 302 
Scott. Lieut.-Gen. Winfield. 87 
Scotch-Irish, 42, 81-82, 136. 148. 

155, 168 
Scully. Rev. John. S. J.. 215 
Sea of Japan, battle of. 258 
Seamen's and Landsmen's Aid So- 
ciety, 2S8 
Seargent family, 320 




Second Church, 14, 21-26, 81, 38, 

39, (JO, 63, 104 
Second Church, Nashville, 235 
Second Street Market-house, 216 
Serata, Captain, 257 
Session-house, 191-92 
Session, members of, 30, 107-08, 
146, 168, 178-79, 217, 240, 241, 
Session opposes congregation, 45, 

61, 66, 156-73, 248 
Session organized, 30, 36 
Sessional discipline, 148, 181, 18S- 

89, 241 
Seventh Church, 172, 259 
Sexton, wig for, 324 
Sextons, 324-25 
Sexton's dignity. 324 
Sharswood, Justice George. 21 
Sheppard, Rev. Dr. T. J., 234 
Shippen, Messrs., 22 
Shippen, William, Jr., M. D., 83 
Shorter Catechism, 128, 137, 146, 

Shot cast for battle of New Or- 
leans, 250 
Simons, George W., 328 
Singleton, Capt. William, 92 
Slavery question, 100, 224 
Slavs, 333 
Smiley, William, 83, 87, 147, 160. 

Smith, President Stanhope, 97 
Smith, Rev. Dr. John Blair. 96- 
118, 119, 122, 188, 297, 315, 
Smith, Rev. Dr. Robert, 55-56, 96 
Smith, Rev. Robert. 112 
Smith, Rev. Dr. Wheaton, 215 
Smith, Robert (Architect), 25 
Snowden, John, 39, 40 
Snowden, Capt. .John, Jr.. 92 
Snow Hill (Md.) Church. 11 
Society for Organizing Charitv, 

Society Hill. 18. 21 
Southern sympathizers. 226 
Southwark Academy. 298 
Southwark Hall. 298 
Sparks Fund. 280. 282 
Sproat. Rev. Dr.. 29. 63. 103 
Spruce Street Baptist Church, 215 
Stamp Act, 62 
"Stand Up, Stand Up for .Jesus." 

State House. 94. 318. 326 
Stearns. President, 204-05 
Steele family, 315 
Steele, Gen. John, 83, 86-87, 90, 

132 318 
Steele', Rev. John. 58 
Stevenson, Hugh, 165, 240. 264-65. 

Stevenson, W. Kinley. 317 
Stiles, President Ezra, 157 

Stinson, John, 268, 276, 278 

Strubing, Philip H.. 248, 261, 264- 
66, 300, 301, 305 

Stuart, James, 147, 160, 163, 178 

Sullivan, General, 89 

Sunday-school, 152, 221, 236, 263. 
271, 278, 283, 279-308 

Supreme Court, 52-53, 108, 210 

Sutherland family, 315 

Synod of New York, 158 

Synod of New York and Pennsyl- 
vania, 40-45, 49-51, 54, 57. 59. 

Synod of Pennsylvania, 167, 169, 
195, 208 

Synod of Virginia, 317 

Tabernacle Church, 143, 172 
Tarleton's Light Dragoons 318 
Taylor, William, 300 
Temperance question, 221-22, 287 
Tennant, Rev. Dr. Gilbert, 61, 117 
Thomas, Rev. Abel C, 187 
Thompson, Col. James. 83, 85 
Thompson, James B., 260 
Thompson James C, 83 
Thompson, John, 328 
Thompson, Rev. Dr. John C, 279 
Thompson, Rev. Dr. Robert Ellis, 78, 

249, 278 
Tioga Church. 213 
Tittermary, John, 83, 85, 818 
Toby family, 315 
Toby, Capt. Simeon, 316 
Togo. Admiral, 257 
Tories. 62, 82, 86 
Tract Society. 152 
Trenton Academy. 204 
Trustees adopt by-laws. 190 
Trustees organized. 32 
Trustees of Dr. Allen. 239. 240 
Trustees of Dr. Gibbons, 264-66 

Uhde, Frederick K., 278 
Union Army, 224. 227 
Union College, 106, 113-16, 119 
TTnion League. 226 
Union Mission School. 302 
Uniontown High School, 255 
Union Volunteer Refreshment Sa- 
loon. 227 
United States Armv. 87. 98 
United States Cong'ress. 121 
United States Constitution. 320 
United States Naval Academy, 257 
United States Navv. 85. 88 
United States Steel Corporation, 

Universalists. 187. 259 
I^niverslty of Georgia. 152 
University of Pennsvlvanla, 15. 

56. 58. 84, 132-33. 322 
Upper Missouri Presbytery. 234 
Uriu. Admiral S.. 257 
Urquehart, Alexander, 324 



Valley Forge, 82 
Van Beck, William, 325 
Virginia Company, 11 
Virginia State Convention, 100 

Waddell, Rev. James, 146 

Wallace, John, 21, 23 

Walter, Rev. Frederick A., 279 

Walton, Charles J., 328 

War of 1812, 87, 155, 234, 250, 

316, 321 
Ware, William, 146 
Washington and Jefferson College, 

254, 289 
Washington and Lee College, 137 
Washington College, 187 
Washington, George, 71, 82, 86, 

89, 318 
Washington, Madame, 86 
Washington named "Father of His 

Country," 86 
Watson, William S., 268, 271 
Watts' Psalms, 76 
W^ebb, Burkitt, 240, 261 
Webb, Ellen, 268-69, 306, 307 
Welsh, Herbert, 290 
Westchester Presbytery, 158 
West Church, Wilmington, 273 
Western Seminary, 256 
Westminster standards, 21 
West Point, 89 
Westtown Plantation, 251 
W^esttown Boarding School, 251 
Whig convention, 229 
Whig Hall, Princeton, 97, 133 
Whigs, 62 

Whilldin, Alexander. 217, 273, 303 
Whilldin, Eliza, 328 

Whilldin, L. M., 240 

White, Bishop William, 68, 78 

White, David, 261, 268, 300, 301, 

305, 307 
Whitfield, Rev. George, 14, 15, 18, 

Wickes, Capt. Benjamin, 147, 158- 

59. 162, 166, 169 
Willard. O. IL. 240. 261, 300, 317 
Willing, Thomas, 48 
Willson, Hon. R. N., 277 
Wilson, James, 270 
Wilson, John S., 268 
Wilson. Rev. Dr. S. J., 256 
Wiswell, Rev. Dr. George, 233 
Woodbridge (N. J.) Church, 11 
Woodside, John W'.. 83, 88 
Wordsworth. William, 139 
World's Temperance Convention, 

London, 221 
Work family. 314 
Work, Samuel, 217, 240, 273 

Yale University, 79, 157-58, 187, 

Yalu, battle of, 257 
Yellow fever plague. 105, 117 
Yorktown, battle of, 86, 91 
Young family, 314 
Young, George, 217, 240, 261 
Young, Rev. Dr. John C. 199 
Young, Rev. Dr. W. C, 199 
Young Ladies' Institute, Pittsfield, 

Mass.. 229 
Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, 222 
Young Men's Society. 222, 268.