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Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

1862 -- 1865. 



Published by the Author. 

Reporter-Jouenal Printing Company, - Towanda, Pa. 


tn e present work owes its existence to the enterprise of the editor of the Brad- 
ford Reporter. In the latter part of the year 1883, he wrote to the author in 
regard to a series of articles to be printed in that paper under the caption of the 
"Battles of the One Hundred Forty-first Regiment." After conferring with some of 
the officers of the Regiment, the original plan was enlarged to include a History, in- 
stead of a series of sketches. Immediately the work of collecting material com- 
menced, and the publication began in the June following. At that time only news- 
paper articles were contemplated, but friends suggested that the history of a Regi- 
ment that had done such gallant service ought to be in more permanent form, con- 
sequently the newspaper columns were changed to book pages, and the present work 
is the result. 

While no pains have been spared to secure accuracy of statement, and a reason- 
able fullness of detail, the manuscript was prepared amid a pressure of other work, it 
often happening that the last line was printed before another was written. Many 
infelicities of expression would have been corrected if a revision could have been 
made. Inexperience in proof reading which was usually done in the editor's office 
amid the hurry and bustle of getting ready for press, have caused numerous typo- 
graphical errors to be overlooked. 

Only enough of general army movements have been given to indicate the work 
the Regiment was expected to do, and no criticism has been attempted. In addition 
to the account of its doings as a separate military organization, it was contemplated 
to give a brief account of each man connected with it. This was soon found to be 
impracticable, but of the two hundred and fifty members of it who lost their lives ii 
the service, such sketches have been attempted Here the greatest difficulty has 
been experienced. In some cases the men were entire strangers to their comrades 
until they enlisted, and but little was positively known of them ; in others, friends 
have removed and after much inquiry no trace of a relative has been found ; in some 
others friends could furnish only approximate data, and in one or two instances near 
relatives have entirely neglected to answer the letters written. In these sketches 
slight errors will undoubtedly be found. 

The muster rolls have been revised with great care, and an attempt has been made 
to combine an index with it, which is hoped will be found satisfactory, as well as the 
tables appended. Only those who have had experience in this work know its diffi- 
culties. A few slight errors overlooked while the book was in press have been noted. 

The preparation of the work has been encouraged and its labor greatly lightened 
by the cordial interest manifested in it by the membersand hit rids of the Regiment. 
General Madid, in addition to giving me the use of his diary and private papers, has 
gone over the manuscript before it was given to the printer. Mrs. Colonel Watkins, 
Mrs. Major Spalding, and Mrs. Captain Atkinson, kindly allowed me to peruse both 
letters and diaries written by their honored and distinguished husbands. I have 


received the loan of diaries of Adrial Lee, of Company A, Captain Peck, Sergeants 
John II. Chaffeeand Josiah A. Bosworth, Corporal James P. Coburn, and private 
James H. Smith of Company B, Sergeants C. J. Eastabrook and William Heweti of 
Company D, Captain Lobb of Company G, Sergeants E. G. Owen and John D.Blood- 
good and Theodore Larrisonof Company I, and Levi T. Adams of Company K. other 
oflBicers and members of the Regiment especially adjutant Searle, Captain Kilmer, 
Captain Beardsley, Corporal Charles T.Hull and Richard McCabe, have promptly 
and at much pains aided in gathering valuable information. 

To Colonel John 1'. Nicholson, of Philadelphia, unspeakable obligations are ac- 
knowledged for free access to his unapproachable collection, and for the use of valua- 
ble material not otherwise obtainable, as well as for many excellent hints and sug- 

Swinton's History of the Army of the Potomac, Scribner's series ''Campaigns of 
the Civil War," and the Compte de Paris "Civil War in America" have been books 
of constant reference, 

To the publishers of the Bradford Reporter and Reporter-Journal sincere - thanks __ 
are due for their liberal and cordial co-operation, seconding all efforts in making the 
work as complete as possible. 

If this feeble effort will help to preserve to future generations the record of the 
deeds of men who at their country'scall left business, home and family to help defend 
her institutions and preserve her government, in winch one-fourth of them lost their 
lives and almost every other one bears the sears of the battles they fought ; and of 
those who survived the perils of camp and of field and lived to return after witness- 
ing the surrender of the armies arrayed against them, storm-beaten, battle-scarred, 
health-broken prematurely-aged, heroes of a hundred 1 tattles, and deserving their 
country's gratitude and blessing, if their names and their heroic deeds of glory and 
renown which are here recounted shall be deemed by them to have been told cor- 
rectly, the author will be more than repaid for his labor. 


r iT*n e 141st Regiment, of Pennsylvania Volunteers, whose history is given in this 
I: volume, was in many respects a remarkable Regiment. Recruited from the rural 
districts of its respective counties, composed mainly of young men, farmers and the 
sons of farmers, mechanics and those attending the different institutions of learning 
in their respective counties, of fair education, and many of them of a good deal more 
than ordinary intelligence. They were all men and boys of good character, and 
exemplary habits, and most of them left comfortable and happy homes to give 
their services, and their lives if need be, to their country in its hour of peril. They 
were true patriots, they loved their country and its institutions. 

Their attention was directed to the fact that their services were needed, by the 
proclamation of the President calling to arms the patriots of the land to resist the 
attempted overthrow of their government. Their patriotism was aroused by the pa- 
triotic and strong addresses made by the gentlemen who visited the different parts of 
the counties from which the Regiment was raised, many of whom afterwards became 
officers of the companies forming the Regiment. As an inducement to go with them, 
they promised that they would btand by their men until the end. How well most of 
them kept their promise the record will tell. 

The men and officers composing the Regiment had little or no experience in 
military affairs. They did not even have the benefit of a militia-man's experience. 
After completing their Regimental organization at Harrisburg, they were hurried to 
Washington, which place they reached amid the thundering of the artillery of Lee's 
victorious army, and among a people trembling in fear, believing that on the morrow 
Lee's victorious troops would be thundering at the doors of the Capitol. The Regi- 
ment was immediately ordered across the Potomac and put into the defences of 
Washington. Poorly armed and equipped, and without any particular knowledge 
how to use the poor and worthless arms in their possession, thev were expected to 
face the coming of, as was supposed, the veterans of the victorious army of Lee. 

I found the Regiment in the fore part of September, at the "Chain Bridge," 
where it had been sent from Arlington after the battle of Bull Run. I thought the 
Regiment was composed of the finest body of men I had ever seen, in most part 
young, vigorous and hardy, just the men to endurp the privation and hardships of 
the campaigns which were to follow. After the defeat of Lee at Sharpsburg, and 
he had turned Pack, abandoning his effort to take the Capital, it was determined to 
retain the Third Corps and place it in the defence of Washington. This Corps hav- 
ing suffered very much at. the battle of Bull Run, ils reorganization was determined 

When I returned to the Regiment and assumed command, on the 17th of Sep- 
tember, 1862, I found it associated in brigade with the veterans of a part of the old 
Kearney Division— the heroes of the Peninsular campaign. At the time I thought 
it unfair for the Regiment to be associated with these old veterans, fearing that they 


were green troops would be forgotten, and more expected of them than they would 
be able to perform. Up to the time of their brigade associations, the Regiment had 
never been drilled. After that time, the Company officers, under the direction of an 
officer appointed for that purpose by the Brigade Commander, commenced to drill 
their companies, and acquaint themselves with the tactics necessary to be understood 
and applied. 

What little time could be spared from outpost and picket duty, was devoted by 
the officers in instructing themselves and the men in their commands in the drill 
and maneuvers necessary to be understood by them in order that they might be able 
to be handled and moved on the field when necessary. The time for this prepara- 
tion was short ; the Regiment was soon called to march on that wild goose chase to 
Poolesville, in Maryland, in order to prevent Stewart from crossing with his cavalry 
the Potomac near that place. This was one of the hardest marches the Regiment 
ever made, and was the cause of the breaking down of more men than any other 
march during their service. The first campaign of the Regiment closed by the ford- 
ing of the Potomac and marching through Virginia to the banks of the Rappahan- 
nock, where they went into winter quarters near Fredericksburg 

At the time of the battle of Fredericksburg the Regiment had had the advantage 
of a few battalion drills, in which some of the simpler movements of the line were 
taught them, selecting those that would be used, if at all, on the battlefield, and 
when the order came to march, I had the satisfaction of knowing that the Regiment 
knew what a line of battle was, and that they knew how to form it from the march. 

It was known by the Regiment when the order to march came, that it was the 
purpose of Gen- Burnside to cross the river and occupy Fredericksburg if possible: 
that of course implied some fighting, for the enemy were strongly intrenched and 
had come there to stay. 

The Third Corps, to which the Regiment belonged, was in reserve, and was the 
last body of troops to cross the river. On their march they were halted in a field 
that overlooked the town. At this time Sumner with his corps was engaged with 
the enemy in his efforts to carry the heights and occupy the town. His several ef- 
forts were repulsed with fearful slaughter. The Third Corps witnessed these unsuc- 
cessful assaults of their comrades of the Second Corps to carry the works of the enemy. 
What effect was this scene having upon the minds of the troops witnessing it, and 
especially upon the minds of this neA- Regiment, who for the first time in their 
lives witnessed a scene like this, and they so soon to be subjected to the same fiery 
ordeal ? Fortunately, the thoughts and reflections of men and officers were soon 
directed to the appearance of an aid, accompanied by an orderly, riding at full speed 
across the field in the direction of the corps commander's flag. This officer was an 
aid of Gen. Meade, coming for assistance. The " Reserves," under their noble leader, 
made that grand charge, not an hour since, driving die enemy from their line at the 
railroad, back into the woods, and up the slope through the woods, and back upon 
the second line, and being unsupported, was being forced back again by the enemy, 
who had been strongly reinforced. The Corps was immediately put in motion, and 
the river soon reached and crossed, and the march over the flat ground be- 
tween it and the road made. At this point the enemy opened fire on the head of 
the column from a battery on the high ground in the woods, nearly in front of the 
line of march, and as the troops reached this point on their line of march, covered by 
the guns of the enemy, they entered a severe shower of shot and shell, which were 


shrieking and bursting in the air, over the heads and on the flanks, and among the 
brave men who were struggling to reach the road, in order to give succor to the retir- 
ing heroes. The Regiment which is the subject of this sketch came last, and, though 
the road was very heavy, caused by the rain of the day before and the marching of the 
troops who had previously passed over it, they kept well closed upon the men of the 
column, and passed through the shower of shot and shell that greeted them, without 
faltering, and passed on to the road where they met the retiring troops, the Reserves. 
Upon this point the enemy had concentrated all their guns in our front, and were do- 
ing fearful execution with solid shot and shell, and yet this green Regiment, upon its 
first battlefield, without faltering, passed through this vortex of fire, and formed their 
lines of battle on the right by filing into line as coolly and as quietly as if they had 
been the veterans of a hundred battles. Their coolness and courage and the ready 
manner in which they obeyed every command given them surprised me, and chal- 
lenged the admiration of the Corps, Division and Brigade Commanders who were watch- 
ing the formation of the lines. They had earned their place among the heroes of 
Peninsula with whom they were brigaded, and were entitled to wear the Army badge. 
No question as to whether they could be relied upon in an emergency in the future 
was ever again raised. They had established confidence in the minds of the old regi- 
ments with whom they were associated, and received the commendation of their supe- 
rior officers, for their courage and daring under the discouraging circumstances by 
which they were surrounded. In all the battles in which they were afterward engag- 
ed they showed the same cool, daring, courageous and patriotic spirit that character- 
ized them in their first engagement. 

To show the estimation in which they were held by the officers of the Corps, I need 
now but mention the fact that they were selected by the Division and Corps comman- 
ders in the celebrated " mud march" of Gen. Burnside, to cross the river alone, carry 
the opposite heights at the point of the bayonet, and hold the crest of the hill in order 
that the army might cross to the opposite side, for the purpose of attacking Fredericks- 
burg in the rear. Fortunately for them, the heavy rainstorm setting in that night 
frustrated the movement. 

They had earned a reputation for courage and daring that promised no good, in 
one sense, for the future, as the sequel shows. In the many severely fought battles 
that followed, they were often put into the imminent deadly breach, and expected to 
do what older and stronger regiments failed to do. Through the thirty-three battles 
in which they fought they never became demoralized, or willingly turned their back 
upon their foe. 

I said this was in many respects a remarkable Regiment. I much doubt if you 
can find many regiments in the service of which it could be said, they never disap- 
pointed the hopes, expectations or commands of their officers on the battlefield, which 
can be said of this, and their record sustains the assertion. 

The colors which were received from the hands of Gov. Curtin, before they cross- 
ed the Potomac into Virginia, in the fall of 1862, were kept and guarded by them with 
zealous care, and as they at that time promised him, they would guard them with their 
lives, and at the close of the contest turn them over to the State Department unsullied 
by dishonor, they nobly kept this and they hang to-day in the flag-room, at 
the State Capitol, tattered and torn by the storms of many a battlefield. I 
believe that no other regiment suffered so much in its color-guard as did this one. 
Twice it was entirely annihilated— at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg — not a single 
man escaping, and every one of the comrades coming to their assistance, were either 
killed or wounded. Around them seemed to be the favorite spot to die, for there 


always were found most of the dead and disabled. At Spottsylvania a hand to hand 
contest took place over the colors, with clubbed muskets. The colors of this Regi- 
ment, were never lost, surrendered, or trailed in the dust, though their surrender was 
often demanded by the closely pressing enemy, yet they were always carried over the 
head of those who bore them, and the brave men who followed and defended them. 

This grand old Regiment has a glorious history. A regiment that lost over two- 
thirds of the men on its rolls carrying muskets, in the service of their country, and of 
which it can be said, as shown by the records in the State Department, sacrificed 
more men upon the altar of its country's needs, than any other Regiment in the ser- 
vice save one, and that a regiment which went into the service with a good many 
more men, deserves, at least, to have its history carefully, fully and impartially writ- 
ten, as a means of perpetuating the memory of their deeds and sacrifices in the minds 
of those who come after. 

The officers and men who remained in the field, and stood by one another, deserve 
to be remembered, at least by each other, and they will he. 

The writing of a full and complete history of this Regiment was made necessary 
by the many partial and unsatisfactory attempts at so doing, by persons unac- 
quainted with its history, which appeared from time to time through the press. 
Who should undertake this task? was a question often asked, to which no answer 
came. At length Rev. David Craft, the first Chaplain of the Regiment, was induced to 
attempt the task. 

Where was the material from which this history was to be formed ; and how 
were the facts and incidents connected with its history to be gathered? The records 
of the Regiment, kept by the adjutants, which were full and complete were inaccessi- 
ble, being in the possession of the last adjutant, " Brainerd," and he in one of the far- 
ofl States or Territories. The sources of information remaining were the several de- 
partments of the Government and the State, the recollections of the surviving mem- 
bers of the Regiment and the memoranda of the officers and men who had recorded 
from time to time the facts and incidents which went under their observation. 

The author diligently set to work to gather from these sources the needed material, 
and after a great deal of time and labor spent in the effort, he succeeded in securing 
much of the matter necessary. Many of the officers and men promptly fur- 
nished their diaries and letters remaining accessible, and the wives and families of 
those who were dead kindly placed in his possession the letters and memoranda re- 
maining in their possession, made by their dead husbands, fathers or brothers. Out 
of the material so gathered, the author has, after much time and labor spent in its 
preparation and arrangement, given you the result of his effort. Taking into consid- 
eration the great difficulties surrounding him at every step in the progress of his lahor, 
I am surprised that it is as accurate and complete as it is. 

I was extremely anxious that the history of this grand cid Regiment should be 
complete and satisfactory. A Regiment which had done so much and suffered so much 
in its effort " to give to this nation a new birth of freedom, that the Government of the 
people, by the people, and for the people, should not perish from the earth," deserves at 
the hands of the persons who undertake to write its history, patience and fidelity in 
bringing to the knowledge of their friends the facts and incidents which cover their 
names with glory. 

I have carefully read each page as it came from the press through the Reporter 
and Reporter-Journal, and commend to the surviving soldiers of the Regiment, and 
their friends, this little volume, which contains the record of their endurance, their 
patience, their suffering, their patriotism, or, in other words, the record of their glori- 


ous deeds. I do this with greater pleasure, because the work has been prepared with 
rare fidelity, and is a full and complete record of their achievements. 

The author has honored the men who bore the brunt of the work, while he has 
not forgotten the officers of the Regiment ; and yet we must, as officers, remember 
that it was these brave men who endured without complaining all the hardships 
and privations of the camp and, field, and whose blood has enriched the soil of every 
battlefield on which the army of the Potomac was engaged, from Fredericksburg to 
Appomattox, who have made the reputations we have attained as such, possible. The 
private soldier fought the battles of the war and conquered a lasting peace, and the 
officers too often got the most of the credit. Honor to whom honor is due. All 
honor to the private soldier, all honor to the private soldiers of this grand old Regi- 
ment, to its dead who lie on every battlefield of the army of the Potomac, to the 
living, who by the good providence of God were spared, though torn by wounds and 
broken down by disease, to enjoy the fruits of their labor. 

H. J. M. 

Chapter I. 


VirHATEYER ideas may have been enter- 
tained in the beginning that the war of 
the Rebellion would be of small proportions 
and of short duration, they were most thoro- 
ughly dissipated by the battle of Bull Run and 
by McClellan's Peninsular campaign in the 
spring and summer of 1862. The South had 
exhibited such an unexpectedly enthusiastic, 
united, and truly martial spirit, such an 
abundance of means and skill in using them, 
as to convince thoughtful men all over the 
country that the time was not far distant 
when the resources of the loyal States in 
money and men must be heavily drawn upon 
if the war was prosecuted to a favorable 

In anticipation of demands which might 
soon be made, little companies of men in 
various neighborhoods — in Bradford county, 
at least — -were accustomed to meet on Satur- 
day afternoons during the summer, practice 
some of -the more simple evolutions of mili- 
tary drill, learn to keep step with the music 
of the fife and drum, and catch something of 
the spirit which animated their neighbors 
and kinsmen in the field. 

In consequence of the great losses suffered 
by the army of McClellan and the expiration 
of the short term of service for which many 
had enlisted, the President, at the suggestion 
of the Governors of the loyal States, who 
pledged him their cooperation and support, 
on the second of July, 1862, issued his proc- 
lamation calling for three hundred thousand 
men, to be enlisted to serve for three years 
or during the war. 

To devise measures for filling the quota 
assigned to Bradford county, which was 
something more than a thousand men, a 

meeting was held at Towanda, July 19th, 
presided over by Hon. Ulysses Mercur, and 
addressed by a number of the prominent 
citizens of the county. Resolutions were 
passed looking to the speedy enlistment of 
recruits, and it was suggested that companies 
be raised in the several neighborhoods, 
which should be joined in a regiment to be 
known as the Bradford County Regiment, 
and officered by Bradford county men. 

The advantages of this arrangement were 
obvious. Among them it was mentioned 
that the men coming from one locality would 
be much more liable to aid one another in 
the necessities of camp and field ; that the 
relations between officers and men would be 
to the advantage of each and there would be 
a closer bond of sympathy between the men 
in the field and those at home. 

At Terrytown a number of the young men 
had been in the habit of meeting occasion- 
ally to talk over the war news and engage 
in military drill. Early in August a public 
meeting was held in the church, at which 
Guy H. Watkins, Esq., of Towanda, was the 
principal speaker. The sincerity of his pur- 
pose, and the deep, almost pathetic, earnest- 
ness of his address made a profound impres- 
sion upon his audience. Among other things 
he said he had thought this whole matter 
over carefully, and had determined that for 
himself it was his duty to go to his country's 
aid in this hour of her peril ; that at the 
most a man could die but once, and he would 
prefer to die on the battlefield than to think 
he had shrunk from danger in the hour of 
his country's need ; that he had often thought 
how, when this war was over and he should 
be telling his children of its occurrence, he 


would feel should they ask him, " Were you 
there?" and he should be compelled to an- 
swer, " No." He was going to be able to 
say, " Yes, 1 was there and 1 tried to <lo my 

On the 4th of August a meeting was held 
in Wyalusing, addressed by Hon. George 
Landon and others, at which about fifty men 
were enrolled and nearly two hundred dol- 
lars were subscribed as a local bounty. En- 
listments were pushed rapidly forward. On 
Saturday, August 9, it was announced that 
the company was enrolled, and the Wednes- 
day following was ready to start for Harris- 
burg. The men were from the southeastern 
part of the county — Wyalusing, Herrick, 
Tuscarora, Terry and Wilmot townships. 
In addition to the small local bounty, each 
man of the company was presented with a 
Bible, and a well filled needle-hook, as a 
useful memento of the dear ones at home. 

Early on Thursday morning, August 11, 
the first company of this grand old regiment 
left their homes and bid adieu to friends, 
many of them for the last time, and started 
by private conveyances for the seat of war. 
At Towanda, where they stopped for dinner, 
a meeting of the company was held at the 
Court House and the organization effected 
George \V. Jackson, of Wyalusing, a local 
Methodist preacher, a blacksmith by trade, of 
ardent /.eal for the Union, and possessing' the 
confidence of the community, who though 
exempt by age from military service, was 
among the first to enroll himself in the com- 
pany, was chosen Captain ; Joseph H. Hor- 
ton, youngest son of Major John Ilorton, of 
Terrytown, who had inherited something of 
his father's martial spirit, was chosen First 
Lieutenant; and William T. Horton, who 
had been one of the most active in enrolling 
the company, and had made himself well 
acquainted with army tactics and drill, was 
the Second Lieutenant. In the afternoon 
the company proceeded to Canton, where 
they stayed the night, and the next day 
reached I [arrisburg and were quartered in 
barracks in Camp Ciirtin, awaiting the arri- 

val of the other companies that were to 
compose the regiment. While here the 
committee at a meeting held on the parade 
ground designated theii choice of non-com- 
missioned officers, viz: Sergeants Austin 
D. Jefters, Joseph II. Hurst, Thomas R. 
Miles, Nathaniel 1'. Moody, .lames Van 
Auken. Corporals — Martin B. Ryder, Fras- 
tus S. Gregory, Noble J. Gaylord, Edwin M. 
White, Jackson C. Lee, Geo. H. Birney, 
James W. Alderson, Isaac F. Johnson. 
Musicians — John O. Frost and Edward A. 
Lord. Including these seventeen the com- 
pany consisted of ninety-nine enlisted men, 
and being the first c impany of the regiment 
mustered was designated as Company "A." 
On the day after their arrival they passed 
their medical examination, and on the Mon- 
day following, August 18, were mustered 
into the service of the United States. 
Early in August, William T. Davies, 
formerly of Neath, in this county, who for a 
number of years hail been principal of the 
High School in Towanda, and subsequently 
a law student in the office of William H. 
Watkins, his father-in-law ; assisted by Hen- 
ry Keeler, of Wyalusing, at that time also a 
_student in the same office, began making 
enlistments in Warren and Tike townships. 
At the same time Guy II. Watkins, brother- 
in-law of Mr. Davies, and Benjamin M. 
Peck, who was then just entering upon the 
legal profession, were enlisting men from 
Towanda and North Towanda. A sufficient 
number having been enrolled to form a com- 
pany, they met in Towanda on Wednesday, 
August 13, and organized themselves by 
electing Mr. Watkins. Captain ; Mr. Davies, 
First Lieutenant; and Mr. Keeler, Second 
Lieutenant. Jesse P. (ail, who at Camp 
Curt in resigned in favor of Mr. Peck, was 
chosen First Sergeant ; the others were Jo- 
seph S. Lockwood, William Jones, Martin 
0. Codding and Ephraim I>. Robbins; and 
the corporals, Andrew St. John, Amasa 
Wood, George D. Crandall, James Goodell, 
John Keeney, Josiafa A. Bosworth, Homer 


II. Stevens, and Charles II. Crandall, with 
Frank J. Vanderpool and Henry W. Brown, 
musicians. On the following Monday, Aug- 
ust I8th, the company with "IC and "I" 
went to l'roy, and the next day arrived in 
< 'amp ( 'urtin. On Thursday the men passed 
their medical examination, and the next 
day, August 22d, were mustered into the ser- 
vice of the Government. Besides the three 
commissioned officers, the company consist- 
ed of ninety -eight men and was registered as 
Company "B" of the Regiment. 

COM I 'A NY ('. 

Rev. A. J. Swart, a minister of the Disci- 
ples' Church, a man of fine abilities and of 
great popularity not only in his own denom- 
ination but outside of it, was deeply inter- 
ested in the struggle of the war, after ;i con- 
ference with some friends at Liberty Cor- 
ners and Macedonia, determined to raise a 
company I'm- the Bradford Regiment, and at 
once Commenced enlisting men from Mon- 
roeton, where he resided, Franklin and Over- 
ton townships, while Win. ,J. Cole, of Mace- 
donia, enlisted from that neighborhood, and 
George W. Kilmer enlisted from other parts 
of Asylum and (rum Liberty Corners. ( >n 
the 7th of Augusl it was ascertained thai a 
sufficient number had enlisted to warrant 
the organization of the company, and ;t meet- 
ing was held at Monroeton, at which Mr. 
Swart was unanimously chosen Captain, Mr. 
Cole, First Lieutenant, and II. G. Goff, of 
Monroeton, Second Lieutenant. The next 
week they proceeded to Harrisburg, where 
most of the company was mustered into the 
United States service August 19th, but the 
full complement was not reached and the 
commissioned officers mustered until the 

25th. After the muster a meeting was held 
at Camp Curtin, at which G. \V. Kilmer, 
wdio thought himself too young for a com- 
missioned officer, W. W. Goff, George C. 
Beardsley, Bishop Horton and A. R. Cool- 
baugh were chosen sergeants; John Chap- 
man, < }eorge< >wen, Charles S. Brown, Hiram 
Cole, Daiiicd Schoonover, Muses Coolbaugh, 
John Rockwell, and Jerry Hakes were elid- 

ed corporals; Clarence Cole and Morris 

M'Lain were elected musicians. The com- 
pany then numbered, including both non- 
commissioned officers and privates, eighty- 
nine men, and was registered as Company 
"C" of the Regiment, and its color company. 


In the early part of August, Morgan Lewis, 
a tinsmith by trade, who for some years had 
been iii the employ of S. N. Bronson, Esq., 
of Orwell, having received a commission 
from Gov. Curtin to recruit a company, at 
once set about making enlistments, and soon 
had enrolled seventy men from the townships 
of Windham, Herrick, Orwell and Rome. 
Thomas Ryon, a young member of the 
Towanda bar, was also engaged in making 
enlistments, mostly from Burlington and 
vicinity, and had secured twenty-two men. 
On Friday, August 15th, the parties met at 
the Court House to organize the company. 
Mr. Lewis, by virtue of his commission and 
by the choice of the men, could have been 
the < aptain, but modestly declined the honor 
and responsibility. Isaac A. Lark, of 
Herrick, a well-to-do farmer, who had served 
in the regular army (First Regiment of I . 
S. I dragoons) five years, one of which was in 
the Mexican war and the others on the 
frontier, at the solicitation of Mr. Lewis was 
unanimously chosen Captain; Mr. Ryon 
was chosen First Lieutenant, and Mi-. Lewis, 
Second Lieutenant. In accordance with 
previous arrangement, the company assem- 
bled at Towanda on the following Monday, 
and with the Towanda and Wysox compa- 
nies went to Harrisburg, reaching ('amp 
Curtin Tuesday afternoon. The company was 
quite unfortunate before the board of med- 
ical examiners, who rejected nineteen. As 
showing the uncertainties of such hasty exam- 
inations, all or nearly all of these nineteen 
men connected themselves with other com- 
panies and were accepted tin- next day by 
the same board without a word of objection. 
Mr. Ryon secured an additional number of 
recruits from Burlington, to which a few 
were added from Orwell that brought the 


number up to the required standard. The 
non-commissioned officers were : Sergeants — 
Marcus K. Warner, Henry .). Hudson, Geo. 
Wilson, Charles J. Easta brook and David C. 
Palmer; Corporals, William Howe, Simeon 
G. Rockwell, Charles B. Hunt, Charles E. 
Seeley, Robert Nichols, Elijah A. Matiison, 
David Benjamin and William Hewitt; with 
Wilson S. Hill and William Lathrop, Musi- 
cians, and Isaac S. Clark, Hospital Steward. 
Including these, when mustered, Friday, 
Au-ust 22, the company consisted of eighty- 
five enlisted men, and became Company 
" D " of the Regiment. 

<i>M I'AXY E. 

Athens, settled by some of the heroes of 
the Revolution, whose memory she has 
fondly cherished and whose deeds she has 
delighted to commemorate, has never been 
behind her sister villages in maintaining 
military organizations or cultivating a mar- 
tial spirit. When the call was made for 
men to defend the integrity of the nation, 
she was ready to respond heartily to the de- 
mands made upon her. Joseph B. Reeve, 
a lawyer then in practice in Athens, began 
enlisting a company in Athens ami Litch- 
fiold. George C. Page, a farmer in Athens 
township, made enlistments in Athens, Uls- 
ter and Sheshequin townships ; while John 
F. Clark, formerly of Conesus, N. Y., but 
then residing in Burlington, secured a num- 
ber of men from that township. Enough 
having been enrolled to form a company, a 
meeting was held in Athens on Saturday, 
August 16, and an organization effected by 
electing Mr. Reeve, Captain ; Mr. Clark, 
First Lieutenant; and Mr. Page, Second 
Lieutenant. Stephen Evans, Tracy S. Knapp, 
Mason Long, William S. Wright and Will- 
iam Garner were chosen Sergeants ; Orlando 
Loomis, James W. Clark, Alonzo D. Beech, 
Otis A. Jakeway, Charles McNeal, William 
R. Campbell, Charles T. Hull and Russell 
R. Clallin were made Corporals ; Warren W. 
Powers and Byron Munn, Musicians; and 
Hanford D. Kinney, Wagoner. These with 
seventy-three privates made a total of eighty- 

nine enlisted men in the company. After 
the meeting, which was held at Carner's 
Hall, Col. C. F. Welles invited the boye to 
his office and gave each enlisted man live 
dollars as a token of his personal interest in 
the company. 

On Monday, August IS, they left Athens 
and the next day arrived at Camp Curtin, 
where having passed their medical exami- 
nation they were mustered into the service 
of the United States, August 2~>, and on the 
organization of the Regiment became Com 
pany " E." 


In the early days of August, Israel P. 
Spalding, a well-to-do farmer in Wysox, a 
member of one of the oldest and most influ- 
ential families of the county, and himself 
greatly beloved and trusted by his neighbors 
and friends, together witli his brother, then 
the Sheriff of Bradford county, commenced 
enlisting men in Wysox, Rome and Litch- 
iield townships. On Tuesday, the 12th of 
August, the company met in Towanda and 
organized by electing Israel P. Spalding, 
Captain ; Edwin A. Spalding, son of the 
Sheriff, First Lieutenant; and Charles Mer- 
cur, of Towanda, Second Lieutenant. On 
the organization of the regiment, Captain 
Spalding was made Major; the company 
was reorganized, and E. A. Spalding became 
Captain; Mercur, First Lieutenant; and 
John G. Brown, an employe of the Sheriff at 
the time of his enlistment, was chosen Sec- 
ond Lieutenant. The non-commissioned 
officers were John S. Frink, Wm. Bostwick, 
John D. Bloodgood, Truxton Havens and 
George F. Reynolds, Sergeants; John E. 
Gillett, F. Cortes Rockwell, Stephen L. 
Clark, John M. Dunham, Orrin C. Taylor, 
James Lunger, Eugene L. Lent and John 
Turnbull, Corporals ; and Daniel Lamphere, 
Wagoner. Besides these the company con- 
sisted of seventy privates, making a total of 
eighty-live enlisted men. On Monday, Au- 
gust 18, they again assembled in Towanda, 
and with Companies "B"and "D"' started 
for Camp Curtin, where they arrived the 



next day, and on Friday of the same week 
were mustered into the United States' service, 
and known in the records of the Regiment 
as < lompany " I." 


Jason K. Wright, of Smithfield, though 
considerably advanced in yeans and in feeble 
health, and who had three sons in the ser- 
vice of his country, began enlisting a com- 
pany from Smithfield and vicinity. Having 
secured the requisite number he started with 
them for Harrisburg. On reaching Troy 
they were met by parties from Elmira, who 
informed them of the larger bounty offered 
by some localities in New York, and in- 
duced about half of his company to leave 
him and east in their lot with the New York 
men. Nothing daunted, Mr. Wright deter- 
mined to go on with the number he had left, 
hoping to fill up his company in Camp Cur- 
tin. While waiting for the other Bradford 
companies, two small squads from Sullivan 
county — one enlisted in Laporte by Henry 
R Dunham, a rising young lawyer of that 
place, and the other by John S. Diefenbach, 
of Dushore — arrived, and arrangements were 
readily made for uniting these with Mr. 
Wright's company, and the organization was 
effected by choosing Mr. Wright, Captain : 
Mr. Dunham, First Lieutenant; and Mr. 
Diefenbach, Second Lieutenant. The organ- 
ization was completed by choosing Beebe 
Gerould, Aurelius J. Adams, Wallace Scot! 
and Daniel W.Scott, Sergeants; Charles W. 
Smith, Calvin C. Chamberlain, Gordon T. 
Wilcox, Wallace W. Farnsworth, George W. 
Pennington, William Rogers, Nathan S. 
Brown and William R. Smalley, Corporals; 
Elton M. Durfey and Alfred Hunsinger, 
Musicians; and Wm. H.D. Green, Wagoner. 
The company consisted of eighty-six men, 
including both non-commissioned officers and 
privates, and was mustered into the United 
States' service August "26-7, and was known 
upon the rolls of the Regiment as < lompany 

The Government at this time was in press- 

ing need of men. McClellan, by the imper- 
ative command of the President, was remov- 
ing his army from the Peninsula; Lee, 
relieved from the pressure of an enemy in his 
front, was massing his forces in overwhelm- 
ing numbers against Pope, then in command 
of the Army of Virginia, which was holding 
its position on the north bank of the Rappa- 
hannock, along the Orange and Alexandria 
Railroad, and while covering Washington 
was endeavoring to prevent the concentra- 
tion of Lee's forces; while the ranks of the 
Federal army were being rapidly thinned by 
the retirement of the troops enlisted for nine 
months or a year. Great anxiety was felt 
at the Federal Capital over the gravity of 
the situation, and most serious results were 
feared. The Governors of the loyal States 
were urged to forward all available troops 
with the least possible delay. The men in 
< lamp ( 'urtin were directed to complete their 
organization immediately. 

While enlistments were going on in East- 
ern Bradford, Daniel W. Searle, Esq., of 
Montrose, already a lawyer of some repute. 
but who was then preparing to exchange the 
forum for the field by enlisting a company 
in Susquehanna county, came to Towanda 
with the proposition that the companies then 
being raised in that county should unite 
with those of Bradford in a Regimental 
organization. The proposition was favora- 
bly considered, and the preliminary nego- 
tiations entered into in case the Regiment 
was not raised entirely from Bradford. 
Accordingly, under the urgent solicitation of 
the mvernor, without waiting for additional 
companies to be raised, the arrangements 
were completed with the two companies from 
Susquehanna, and one company from Wayne, 
already on the ground, to unite with the 
seven from Bradford into a Regiment, and 
the Regimental organization was speedily 
and satisfactorily effected. These Companies 
were known respectively as " V," " II." and 

The people of Susquehanna were not a 



wliii behind her sister counties in zeal for 
prosecuting the war, or readiness to furnish 
men and means for carrying it forward. A 
public meeting of tin- citizens of the county 
was held at the Court Mouse in Montrose on 
Monday evening, July 21, 1862, "to take 
steps to raise volunteers under the late call." 
Hon. Wm. II. Jessup was chosen chairman, 
and stirring addresses were made by him 
and by Win -I. Tuirell, B. S. Bentley, Esq., 
and others. Resolutions were adopted look- 
ing to promptly tilling up the old regiments 
which had been decimated by battle and 
disease, and raising the required new ones. 
A subscription was started by which a local 
bounty of tiny dollars was given to every 
enlisted man. Henry F. Beardsley, a gentle- 
man of considerable prominence, with the 
assistance of others began enlisting a com- 
pany principally from the neighborhood of 
New Milford. A sufficient number to form 
a company having been enrolled, a meeting 
was held at New Milford on Friday morn- 
ing, August 22, and the company organized 
by electing ELF. Beardsley, Captain; Albert 
\. Hemstead, first Lieutenant; and Elisha 
B Brainerd, Second Lieutenant. Richard 
Kent, Jackson B. Ferris, William II. Loo- 
little. Philip Peckens and Salmon s. Eager 
were chosen Sergeants; and Augustus Roper, 
Frederick I >. Young, William P. Brainerd, 
Levi Moss, Henry M. Stearns. Llias W. 
Stedman, John II. Green ami Price F. Mil- 
ler, Corporals; Nelson D. Coon and William 
II. Nun. Musicians: and George \.. Wilson, 
Wagoner. Besides these there were seventy- 
eight privates, making a total of ninety-four 
enlisted men. At New Milford the citizens 
gave the company a dinner; appropriate 
addresses were made and greal interest was 
manifested. In the afternoon the company 
went to Scranton, where they were joined by 
Company " 11." and the next day wenl to 
Harrisburg, passed their medical examina- 
tion on the 24th, and were mustered on 
Monday the 25th into the United States' 

service, and became Company "F" of the 


About the middle of .Inly, Casper W. 
Tyler and Daniel W. Searle, two young law- 
yers of Montrose, both of them gentlemen of 
much worth and influence in the community, 
commenced raising a company. Thinking 
to awaken deeper interest in their work and 
forward the enlistment, they suggested the 
calling of the meeting held the 21st. The 
men enlisted by them were almost entirely 
from the borough of Montrose and the town- 
ships of Bridgwater, Franklin, Liberty, Sil- 
ver Lake. Forest Lake. Push, Dimock ami 
Springville. They were joined by Aaron 
Bunnell, a large farmer and influential citi- 
zen of the township of Auburn, with a con- 
siderable number enlisted from that place 
On Saturday, August Li, the nun held a 
meeting at the Court House in Montrose, 
and proceeded to organize themselves into a 
company by choosing Mr. Tyler, Captain ; 
Mr. Searle, First Lieutenant ; and Mr. Bun- 
nell, Second Lieutenant. On the 22d the 
company reassembled at Montrose, where 
they were greeted by a large concourse of 
citizens, who in an appropriate manner 
demonstrated the public interest felt in the 
departure of the brave men who were about 
to imperil their lives for their country. Be- 
sides the commissioned officers, Logan 0. 
Tyler, John Harris, [saac G. Babcock and 
William Magee were chosen Sergeants; 
James H. Weaver, John Gyle, Jeremiah 
Hayes, Albert P.Gates, Picknell P. Atlicr- 
ton, Henry 11. Dougherty, Asa 11. Decker 
and Fredrick Fargo, Corporals ; George C. 
Hill and George W. Hewitt, Musicians. 
With the seventy-live priva'es the company 
consisted of eighty-eight enlisted men. 
or ninety-two in all On the afternoon 
of the same day, the "_'"Jd, they went 
to Scranton, where they joined Com- 
pany '• L," and with them proceeded to 
Harrisburg the next day. On the 25th they 
passed their medical examination, and on 
Tuesday, the 26th, were mustered into the 
military service of the United States, and 


were known as Company "II" of the One 
I [undred Forty-First Regiment. 


In the early days of A ugut i (o ■ about 

the 6th l, James L. Mumford, a student in 
the law office of Wm. II. and Samuel E. 
Dimmick, of fine parts, high social standing 
and brillianl prospects, commenced making 
enlist. incuts aboul Honesdale, in Wayne 
county. In iliis he was assisted by Charles 
M. Ball, also of Honesdale, who was one of 
three brothers in the service of his country. 
About the same time Joseph Atkinson, an 
active business man in the eastern p 
the county, assisted by William Muir, was 
'I in raising :i company from 
Hawley and vicinity. It \v;is subsequently 
arranged to combine the two enli bi 
into one company, giving the Honesdale 
men their choice of Captain and Second 
Lieutenant, and i he I [awley men First Lieu- 
tenant and First Sergeant. A meeting was 
accordingly held in Liberty Hall in Hone 
dale, Augusl 18, and Mr. Mumford was 
elected < laptain ; Mr. Atl- it Lieu- 

tenant; Mr. Ball, Second Lieutenant; and 
Mr. Muir, Fin ! ; also, William 

T. Lobb was elected Second, and J. 
T. R. Third Sergeant. On the 

21 t the company left Honesdale for Camp 
( iiiiin, u here aftei ig the usual medi- 

cal examination they were mustered into the 
service of the I United Stati i I 25th, 

and the remaining non-commissioned officers 
selected, viz : Richard F.Taggart and James 
X. Terwilliger, Fourth and Fifth 
and James I <ind ay, Linas I Sutton, Samuel 
M. Bates, Robert ' '. < lark, Franklin A. Dix, 
Theodore Fuller. ( leorgi \. Ti von and 
John Carr, Corporals; David •). Richmond 
and Fredrick Salmon, Musicians, The Corn- 
numbered, including non-commi 
officers and pi ivates, ninety eight enlii ted 
men— excepting Companie " \. " and "I'.,' 
the largest in the Regiment. Before li 
home the company had contemplated unit- 
ing with a "Bucktail" Regiment then being 

enli ted, but after reaching I [arrisbui - lh< \ 
decided to unite with the Susquehanna and 
Bradford companies, then in camp. This 
completed the nurabej nece ary to 
tute the Regiment, which was speedily 
i/.cd, of which this became < lompany 

< >n Thursday, August 28, thecommi ioned 
officers oi i he ever il companies met at ( lap 
tain Jackson's quarter and proc< eded to 
organize the Regiment. Henry J. Madill, 
a member of the fowanda bar who had en- 
li ted at the beginning of the war, was then 
Major of the Sixth Pennsylvania Ri 
and had di I ingui hed him elf in the battles 
in which that Regiment had engaged by his 
heroic valor and military skill, was made 
Colonel of the RegimenI ; I laptain Watkins, 
of < lompany B, was elected a Lieutenant 
l lolonel ; and < laptain Spalding, of ' lompan . 
[,a Major; Daniel W.Searle, I in I Lieuten- 
ant of < lompany II, as Adjutant ; Rob< <\ ' ■ 
of Honei dale, a Quartermai ter; Dr. 
Ezra P. Mien, of Uh< n , one of the mo t 
eminent, phy ician oi Northi rn P< nn 
nia, u:i cho en Surgeon, but owing to ome 
technicality in the Medical Department wa 
commi isioned A , istant Surgeon in itead 

and William Church, Ash ,, f 

the One Hundred Tenth Regiment, Penna. 

Vols., received the ;, | ,| „,i III men I .,|'Sl/l 

and Rev. David Craft, pastor of the Pr< 
byterian Church at W , appoint 

ed ' haplain. At the -.-one time Charli D. 
a private of Company B, and Henry 
1 • Jones of the ame < lompany, and Jo eph 
• •• Fell, al 10 a private in ' lompany < I, were 

rgeanl Major, and I 
Clark, of Company D i Ho pital Sti 
The Regiment consisted, be idi the field 
and 'ill offici i , of twenij even i od 
sioned officers of the Line (that is, I aptains 
and Lieutenant and nine hundred 
teen non commi ioned officer and pi i 
a total of nine hundred fifty-onemen, The 

ignified his readin 
i suetb tons for the everalol 


the persons nominated, on the 29th the Regi- 
ment was reported ready for service, accepted 
by the * rovernor of the Commonwealth, and 
known on the roster of the army as the One 
Hundred Forty-first Regiment of Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers. No Regiment of better 
men or better officered was put into the field 

during the war. It was the pride of North- 
ern Pennsylvania, from which much was 
expected, and whose subsequent history 

proved they were worthy of the trust reposed 
in them. It was the first Regiment enlisted 
under the call for the War. 

Note. — After this chapter was in type a note received from Rev. C. C. Corss, of Smith- 
held, contains the following : 

"Several members of Company K think the statement that one-half of the company 
left it at Troy and joined the New York boys, is a mistake. The Smithlield hoys all agree 
that not one who gave his name left at all." 

The statement made in the text was upon what was thought to have been good and 
reliable authority. 

Chapter II 


^IXTHILE, as we have said, the government 
was in great need of reinforcements for 
its depleted armies, the troops rendezvoused 
at Camp Curtin were as eager to get out of it 
and into the service. The location was nat- 
urally a beautiful one, on the left hank of the 
Susquehanna, a mile or more above the city 
of Harrisburg. The constant tread of thou- 
sands of feet had, however, not only destroy- 
ed every vestige of grass, but had ground 
the surface into dust which every puff of 
wind sent in clouds across the encampment. 
This with the pelting heat of an August sun 
and a prevailing drought, made that almost 
treeless plain seem cheerless as a desert. 
The barracks were dirty, the water poor, 
and the police arrangements of the camp 
defective; added to which was a prevalent 
diarrhoea among the men, brought on to a 
great extent by the change of food, drink 
and habits from their usual homes to the life 
of the camp. The inactivity and restraints 
to which they were subject, the feeling that 
they were doing nothing toward the accomp- 
lishment of the object for which they had 
left their homes, made them restive and un- 
easy ; when, therefore, on Thursday evening, 
August 28, the order cams to be in readi- 
ness to go to Washington the next day, it 
was hailed with universal joy. 

It was a busy day for the men of the Reg- 
iment to complete the arrangements neces- 
sary to enter upon the new life before them, 
and it was five o'clock in the afternoon be- 
fore they entered the train for Baltimore, 
reaching the city about four o'clock the next 
morning. The night's ride was a very try- 
ing one. The train was made up of twenty 
box cars, and soon the air inside became 

stifling hot and close, while those, who en- 
deavoring to escape that, rode on the top of 
the car, were soon chilled by the damp eve- 
ning air ; and as the train was an irregular 
one, it was delayed considerably in waiting 
for others to pass, thus making the journey 
still more tedious. Of rest there was none, 
and to sleep was impossible. The boys 
whiled away the long hours by telling sto- 
ries, singing songs, playing pranks upon one 
another and such like, until the tiresome 
ride was ended. At Baltimore they halted 
two hours, obtained their breakfast and 
marched to the station, where they took the 
train for Washington, arriving there about 
three o'clock in the afternoon of Saturday. 
Here everything was confusion and excite- 
ment. The second Battle of Bull Run was 
being fought, and the roar of eannon could 
be distinctly heard. After eating their din- 
ner at the Soldier's Rest, the Regiment was 
ordered to Arlington Heights. On reaching 
Long Bridge they were detained until dark 
by an ambulance train going to Bull Run, 
and did not reach their destination (Camp 
Wells) until nearly eleven o'clock. They 
had just nicely laid down and fallen asleep 
when the word came to fall in and march to 
Chain Bridge, a distance of eight or nine 
miles. The night was pitchy dark and the 
guide lost his way. The news of Pope's 
defeat had reached Washington, and the 
men did not know but any moment they 
would be confronted by an enemy. They 
were unaccustomed to their guns, Austrian 
muskets, and there was not a load of ammu- 
nition to tit them in the Regiment, nor a 
hundred bayonets that could be used, in 
this comparatively helpless condition, ex- 



hausted by their long ride from Harrisburg 
and the \v:m! of sleep, the men trudged on 
until sunrise, when they halted at Camp 
Sumpter, near their place of destination. 

Nol to exceed one-fifth of the Regiment 
were in line at the halt. The others, over- 
come by fatigue, fell out <>n the way and 
came straggling in during the forenoon of 
Sunday. The Regiment encamped near 
Fort Ethan Allen, a short distanee from 
Chain Bridge. To add still further to their 
discomfort, it began to rain about daylight, 
and continued all dav. A more forlorn 
company of men it would be difficult to find ; 
— tired, sleepy, footsore, wet, without tents 
or other shelter from the drenching rain, 
hungry and served with only quarter rations, 
it was a beginning of soldier life sufficient to 
dampen the ardor of the most enthusiastic. 

It may be of interest to have the story 
told by one of the Field officers of the Regi- 
ment. Under date of September 1st, Major 
Spalding wrote : — 

"On Thursday night we received orders 
to leave for Washington at five o'clock the 
next afternoon. Every moment of our time 
was t ikeu in getting ready to go. We work- 
ed nearly all night in writing our muster 
and pay rolls, and were finally obliged to go 
without getting them completed. We reach- 
ed Baltimore just before daylight, marched 
through the city, had our breakfast provided 
by the " Union Association," went on to 
Washington where we arrived about three 
o'clock. We were detained there in getting 
our men (vd and making arrangements with 
the proper department. We left the eating 
house about six o'clock, marclud through 
the city, making a line display and were 
much complimented by the citizens. * * 
We lay on the pavement until dark for the 
purpose of allowing ambulance wagons ami 
nurses to pass over to the battle field U>idl 
Run J which we knew was not more than 
twenty miles away. For two hours a steady 
stream passed along. After they had passed 
we crossed over in the direction of the battle 

The men were in fine spirits, saying they 
were as ready to tight then as ever. We 
marched some six miles and encamped. Be- 
fore I had laid down a messenger came into 
Camp with an order from Washington di- 
recting us to march to Chain bridge. Tired 
as the men were, they formed readily, leav- 
ing all baggage except what they could carry, 
and started. * * We reached Fort Ethan 
Allen about six (./clock and were at once 
posted upon a hill near Fort Marcy which 
commands the road leading to the bridge. 
It rained all day very hard and we hail no 
shelter hut our blankets. The men lay 
down by hundreds and slept all day in the 
rain, for they were much exhausted. The 
men all seem to be in good spirits and have 
stood their hard march well." 

' During the next day some tents were pro- 
cured and on Tuesday enough were had for 
the Regiment. These with clearing weath- 
er, a better supply of rations and more con- 
genial employment, brightened the spirits 
and increased the cheerfulness of the men. 
The Regiment continued here for a week, 
occasionally furnishing details of men to dig 
rifle pits and make slashings of timber, and 
resting from the fatigue of the journey from 

After the defeat of Pope at Bull Run, Lee 
began to move up the south side of the Po- 
tomac and crossed over into Maryland. The 
Army of Virginia commanded by Pope was 
merged into the Army of the Potomac and 
the combined forces under the command of 
General McCIellan were hastened forward 
to check the progress of the Rebels. For 
several davs the troops were passing the en- 
campment of the One Hundred Forty- 
First crossing the Chain Bridge into Mary- 
land, and during Tuesday and Wednesday 
the Regiment was kept under arms most of 
the time. 

On Tuesday suitable ammunition was pro- 
cured, bayonets were fitted to the guns and 
the arms were put into somewhat effective 
condition. Owing to the confusion in mili- 


1 1 

tary affairs always following great battles, 
and the inexperience of the officers of the 
I. 'raiment — Colonel Mad ill had not as yet 
assumed command, — for the first week or 
two the supplies were frequently short, but 
the weather was warm, the surroundings 
novel, and purchases could readily be made, 
so that little complaint was heard. 

Sunday, September 7th, was a beautiful 
day, and in the morning the whole Regi- 
ment gathered under a clump of trees to at- 
tend for the first time Divine service con- 
ducted by the Chaplain, but soon as the 
benediction was pronounced orders were 
read to pack up and march to Fort Lyon, 
below "Alexandria, said to be about twelve 
miles from Chain Bridge, and report to 
General Robinson. The Regiment got un- 
der way about one o'clock in the afternoon, 
but the day was very warm, the roads dusty, 
and the marching slow. It was nine o'clock 
before the destination was reached. The 
Regiment was halted alongside the Sixty- 
Eighth Pennsylvania from whom they expe- 
rienced the most generous hospitality. Find- 
ing that the One Hundred Forty-First 
were to encamp beside them, they brought 
buckets of fresh water for the several compa- 
nies, which were peculiarly grateful to the 
wearied, dust-covered, thirsty men, and as 
tents and camp equipage bad been left at 
Chain Bridge the officers and men of the 
Sixty-Eighth vied with each other in otter- 
ing to their new neighbors, whom they in- 
sisted upon receiving as guests, all the ac- 
commodation they could possibly hestow. 
The regiments were placed together in the 
same brigade, and ever after the remem- 
brance of that Sabbath evening was a bond 
of lasting friendship and the cause of many 
reciprocal favors. 

The immediate reason for the removal of 
the Regiment to Fort Lyon was to connect 
it with the brigade then under the command 
of General John C. Robinson, which was 
the First Brigade of the Kearney Division of 
the Third Corps of the Army of the Poto- 

mac, then under the command of Major- 
General Samuel I \ I leint/.leman. The Third 
Corps had already done sign d service, and 
had won an enviable distinction in the Fed- 
eral army. Its commander was a gallant old 
veteran who bore the laurels of many a hard 
fought battle. The corps was made up of 
two divisions — the Second of which was com- 
manded by Major-< ieneral Joseph Hooker, 
whose dash and bravery bad already earned 
him the sobriquet of " Fighting Joe Hooker." 
The First Division was under the command 
of that beau ideal soldier, Major-General 
Philip Kearney. No man ever succeeded 
better in thoroughly infusing into his men 
his own spirit than (ieneral Kearney, lie 
had brought his division up to a high stand- 
ard of discipline, and its fighting qualities 
were developed in the largest degree, until 
the fame of the division and of its stern old 
commander, and the story of its heroic deeds 
were known through all the land. When 
(Jeneral Pope was needing tried soldiers to 
enable him to resist the advance of Lee, the 
Third Corps was among the first pushed for- 
ward for his relief. In the battles which 
followed it suflered severely. Kearney was 
killed on the first of September while recon- 
noitering in front of his troops, and Briga- 
dier-General Birney took command of the 
division. The corps had been so badly cut 
up by the continuous service in which it bad 
been engaged that it was not sent on the 
Maryland campaign, but left about the 
defences of Washington. 

General Robinson's Brigade consisted ,ii 
that time of the Twentieth Indiana, the 
Sixty-Third, and the One Hundred Fifth 
Pennsylvania, and live companies of the 
Thirtieth Ohio Regiments, In the reorgan- 
ization of the brigade immediately on reach- 
ing Washington from the battle of Chantilly, 
the Ohio companies were transferred to 
another brigade, and there'were added the 
Sixty-Eighth, the One Hundred Fourteenth 
and the One Hundred Forty- First Pennsyl- 
vania Regiments. It was in pursuance of 



this arrangement that the removal of the 
latter to Fort Lyon was effected, and the 
Regiment was officially connected with the 
brigade five days after, September 12th. 

On Monday evening the Regiment, in 
company with the Sixty-Eighth, moved 
about three miles up the river to Fort Worth, 
near Hunter's creek, where the rest of the 
brigade had just encamped, and took its 
place in that organization whose fortunes it 
was to share and in whose labors it was 
henceforth to bear so conspicuous a part. 
The next day was a busy one for the men. 
Six hours were spent in drill and they had 
their first inspection. Unused to military 
matters they had a very imperfect concep- 
tion of the condition in which arms were 
required to be kept, and in consequence the 
guns were pronounced "bad" by the inspect- 
ing officer. To men of the spirit of the One 
Hundred Forty-First, no second admonition 
was needed. No sooner was the inspection 
over than every man was busy cleaning and 
polishing his gun and equipments. Intheeve- 
ning the Regiment had its first dress parade. 
The afternoon of the next day, Wednesday, 
the Brigade moved to the camp near Fair- 
fax Seminary. The men were still without 
their tents, and had to lie on the bare 
ground without other shelter than their 
blankets, but fortunately the rain which had 
been threatening did not come. 

On Tinirsday was the usual drilling. Ma- 
jor Spalding went back to Chain Bridge and 
superintended the transportation of the tents 
to camp, which opportunely arrived, for 
hardly had the boys got them pitched ere 
the rain began to fall, and continued all 
night. The next day the Regiment ex- 
changed the large tents with which they 
had been furnished, and the delay of whose 
transportation had been a source of so much 
discomfort, for what were called shelters, 
that is, a piece of canvas about six feet 
square, on two adjacent edges of which were 
buttons, and the other two button holes. 
Two of these fastened together and hung 

across a stick resting upon supports about 
four feet high would cover a space near six 
feet square with a roof; another piece fast- 
ened across the end would afford additional 
protection. From two to four soldiers, each 
with his shelter, which was carried folded 
on the top of his knapsack would join to- 
gether, and on going into camp would com- 
bine their shelters, and in five minutes 
would have a covering that would afford 
considerable protection against quite severe 
weather or hard storms. These shelters 
which at the first were designed only for ac- 
tive service in hot weather became the only 
tents furnished to the men. 

On Friday, September 12th, the Regiment 
went to Arlington Heights and pitched its 
camp just in the rear of Fort Albany, about 
four miles from Washington, which was in 
plain sight. An officer of the Regiment 
writing under this date says : " It will be 
two weeks to-morrow since we crossed into 
Virginia, and we have been encamped in six 
different places." This was known as 
" Camp Whipple," and was laid out in an 
orderly manner. In the neighborhood the 
whole of Birney's Division was encamped. 
An officer writes : '' The whole division 
came with us here to-day. Everything 
wears a warlike aspect, — long lines of troops 
as far as the eye can reach, immense trains 
of army baggage, and hundreds of cannon 
are moving in all directions. There is noth- 
ing but military movements to be seen or 
heard of here." 

The routine of camp life began here to be 
somewhat settled. There was " guard 
mounting" at nine o'clock in the morning, 
drilling in the manual of anus three times a 
day, two hours at a time, and dress parade 
in the evening. These with ordinary camp 
duties, and occasionally going on fatigue or 
picket duty, gave pretty constant employ- 
ment to the men and the discipline needed 
for the service in the field. On the follow- 
ing Sunday morning at eight o'clock came 
the usual inspection. One of the men writes 



with a commendable pride, " we were in- 
spected again this morning and this time 
our arms are pronounced good." In addi- 
tion to the regular morning preaching ser- 
vice, Captain Jackson invited the Regiment 
to attend a memorial service, to be conducted 
by the chaplain in the evening, of Thomas 
R. Miles, third Sergeant of his company. 
Mr. Miles, a wagon-maker by occupation, 
came from Susquehanna county to Wyalu- 
sing some two or three years before his en- 
listment ; was engaged for a time by H. S. 
Clark, who was then in business at Wyalu- 
sing ; afterward was in business on his own 
account in the village, where he was highly 
esteemed. While in Camp Cnrtin he was 
suffering from diarrhoea, and while the Reg- 
iment was waiting at Long Bridge in Wash- 
ington was seized with a chill, taken io a 
hospital and died September 5th. at about 
the age of twenty-nine years, and was buried 
in the Military Asylum Cemetery. He left a 
wife and two children. Thus early in its 
history the ranks of the Regiment began to 
be depleted by death. 

The selection of Captain Watkins as Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel of the Regiment left his 
company without the usual commissioned 
officers. On Monday a meeting was held, 
and William T. Davies, who had been in 
command of the company, was elected Cap- 
tain ; Henry Keeler, First Lieutenant, and 
Benjamin M. Peck, Second Lieutenant. 
The Governor of the Commonwealth in due 
time issued to them their respective commis- 
sions. Each company was now furnished 
with its proper complement of officers, and 
completely organized for its work. 

On the evening of Wednesday, the 17th, 
Colonel Madill was present and was warmly 
welcomed by the men. On receiving his 
appointment, the Colonel had visited the 
Regiment at Chain Ridge, but supposing it 
would remain in camp there at least until 
the conclusion of the Maryland Campaign, 
he had availed himself of a short leave of 
absence and made a hasty visit home, from 

which he had just returned. The next 
morning he reported to General Robinson 
and General Birney, and took command of 
the Regiment. Lieutenant-Colonel Watkins, 
who had until this time been in command, 
was not only inexperienced in military mat- 
ters, but expecting the speedy return of the 
Colonel, hesitated to do more than was nec- 
essary to carry out the instructions of his 
superior officers. Colonel Madill at once set 
to work to bring his regiment up to a high 
standard of efficiency. Company officers 
were instructed in their duties, the men were 
daily drilled in squads, companies and bat- 
talion ; camp guards were established, and a 
prettv rigid discipline enforced. A week 
after the Colonel writes, " the Regiment is 
getting along very well," and another week 
the men were highly complimented by Gen- 
eral Robinson at dress parade for their rapid 

A picket line had been established a few 
miles from the encampment, partly to pro- 
tect the camps from stragglers, but mostly 
for the purpose of giving the soldiers a prac- 
tical knowledge of the responsible duty of 
picket service. The line occupied by the 
Brigade was in the neighborhood of Falls 
Church. The following incidents occurred 
while the Regiment was on this service, as 
the stories were told at the time : 

' During the night of the 22d a strong 
detachment of the Regiment, nearly five 
hundred, while on picket duty, captured a 
rebel who attempted to run the guard. He 
was poorly clad, having a sack slung over 
his shoulder containing old boots and clothes, 
the common character of disguised rebels- 
This is the first rebel seen by any of the 
boys, and he is in limbo, for he was next 
day marched into camp and lodged in a 
guard-house near the headquarters of the 
Brigade, where he is now imprisoned." 
Captain Jackson claimed the honor of taking 
him, the first rebel captured by the Regi- 
ment. Under date of October 9, Corporal 
Walker, of Company " G," writes : " On the 



28th ult., a party of the One Hundred For'y- 
First, twenty-five in number, under Lieuten- 
ant Atkinson, held a picket station on Rose 
Hill, at a point where a road intersects the 
Columbia turnpike. About five o'clock in 
the afternoon, a private carriage approached 
the guard from the direction of Washington, 
and of course was brought to a " halt." Your 
humble servant was then acting as guard, 
and immediately after halting such a respec- 
table appearing party, demanded to see 
their pass, and was only answered by a min- 
isterial-looking personage with a pair of keen 
eyes, that " A Generals vants to pass." 
" Your pass first," replied the obstinate 
picket, holding his musket at a charge, which 
made the queer-looking little man really 
laugh, and hand out a paper which read, 
" Guard, pass General Sigel and lady, also 
General Schurz and lady." With a smile 
on his face the guard handed back the piece 
of parchment to its gallant possessor, and at 
the same time signalled the Lieutenant to 
approach, who held a brief conversation 
with the brave and sociable Sigel of a mili- 
tary nature." It is needless to add that the 
distinguished travellers were closely scruti- 
nized by the vidette, who had never before 
seen these already famous generals. 

On Friday, the 26th of September, the 
Regiment again moved camp, going about a 
mile farther south, near Hunt's Chapel 
where the men pitched their tents in a 
grassy meadow which had never been occu- 
pied by troops — a very great improvement 
over the places where they had heretofore 
encamped. This was known as Camp Pres- 
cott Smith. 

On the first of October the Division was 
reviewed at Baileys Cross Roads, about 
three miles from the camp, by Generals 
Heintzleman, Birney and Robinson. It was 
the first review the men had ever partici- 
pated in, and the first the most of them had 
ever seen. The Regiment, however, made 
so good an appearance and performed its 
part so well, that on dress parade the next 

evening General Robinson in person com- 
plimented it very warmly. 

As an evidence of the character of the 
men, the Adjutant in his report about the 
last of the month says: "During the stay 
of the Regiment in camp no soldier has been 
in the guard-house, and between officers and 
privates no insult has been offered." 

The hot. dry weather which prevailed 
through most of September and the early 
days of October, were peculiarly trying to 
the health of the men, and much sickness 
prevailed. At one time one-third of the 
Regiment was on the sick list. Some of them 
were sent to hospitals, but the greater part 
preferred to remain in camp and be cared 
for by their comrades. In fact, so many 
stories were afloat at this time, of the neglect, 
or worse, of patients in Government hospitals, 
that it was some time before the men were 
willing to avail themselves of the care and 
comforts which the Government provided 
for its sick and disabled soldiers. Hard 
marches, unaccustomed exposure, in many 
cases neglect of simple sanitary measures, a 
change of climate and mode of life, had 
already begun to thin the ranks of the Regi- 

On the first of October, Charles M. Mory 
was made Sergeant of the Commissary De- 
partment of the Regiment, by which and the 
addition of a clerk to the Quartermaster, the 
efficiency of this part of the service was 
greatly promoted. 

While the army under McClellan was 
resting on the north side of the Potomac, 
after the battle of Antietam, the rebel Gen- 
eral Stuart with eighteen hundred men 
started the 10th of October on a raid into 
Pennsylvania, and pushed up as far as 
Chambersburg, twenty miles in the rear of 
the army, spreading consternation in his 
path. General Stoneman was directed to 
take such portions of the Third corps as was 
available, hasten up the river and endeavor 
to arrest the dashing trooper before he could 
re-cross the Potomac. Taking Ward's and 



Robinson's Brigades, he thought by a forced 
march to reach the fords of the river below 
the mouth of the Monocacy creek and bold 
them against him. On the very day it was 
known that Stuart had gone on his raid, 
after a hard day's work in drilling, and dress 
parade after dark, orders came to pack up 
and march immediately. The tents were 
pulled down and knapsacks packed, but the 
marching was deferred until morning, on 
account of the threatening storm and the 
intense darkness of the night. Martin L. 
Ormsby, from New Albany, a private of 
Company C, died after a short sickness in 
camp this evening, at the age of twenty-five 
years. He had been a farmer by occupation, 
and left a wife and two children, a son and 
daughter, both since deceased. He was 
buried at Arlington Heights. 

The officers and men were up nearly all 
night. Tents were not put up and knapsacks 
remained packed, as at any moment the or- 
der to ''fall in" might be issued. The reveille 
beat at half- past three o'clock a. m., and 
with the first dawn the troops were put in 
motion. The Potomac was crossed at the 
Aqueduct, and the Regiment passed through 
Georgetown just as the sun came over the 
eastern hills. Leaving Washington to the 
right, the Brigade followed the pike up the 
Potomac thro' Darnestown, reaching Rock- 
ville. a distance of about twenty-three miles 
from Camp Prescott Smith, a little before 
sundown and encamped on the Fair ground. 
It was a wearisome march for the Regiment. 
The hard work of the day before, and the 
loss of rest at night, the roads made slippery 
from the rain which had recently fallen, 
and the position of the Regiment at nearly 
the rear of the brigade, * all combined to 
make unusually tedious what under the 
most favorable circumstances would have 
been a hard march. On Sunday morning at 
two o'clock the men were called up, and 
started at four o'clock for Poolesville. Every 
man in Company E was reported unfit for 
duty. The knapsacks of those most disabled 

were loaded into the wagons until they 
would hold no more, that the men might be 
relieved from as much burden as possible. 
Every mounted officer in the Regiment, ex- 
cept the Adjutant, whose duties would not 
admit of it, went on foot and put some tired 
soldier on his horse, the Colonel himself 
part of the time carrying a gun. When 
about half way there, orders were received 
from General Stoneman to hurry up, and 
the last ten miles were made without a halt. 
The Regiment bivouacked about two miles 
north of Poolesville at one o'clock in the 
afternoon. The men, completely exhausted, 
fell out by scores ; some flung aside their 
blankets, some their overcoats, and a few 
t'Vfii their knapsacks in their desperate 
struggle to keep in line. When the halt was 
called only ten of Company A were in line, 
and less than one hundred fifty from the 
whole Regiment. Colonel Madill writes: 
" A very hard march. A great many fell 
out ; the balance were tired out." 

When near Poolesville, the Regiment 
passed a "contraband" making his way 
toward Rockville with a yoke of oxen 
attached to a little cart. Sergeant Rought, 
of Company A, soon persuaded the owner of 
the team to about-face ; the boys piled their 
knapsacks upon the creaking cart until it 
would hold no more, and relieved of this 
incumbrance, were able to make the rest of 
the journey with comparative ease. On 
reaching camp the cart was unloaded, and 
its owner relieved from its impressed service. 

The troops in advance reached Poolesville 
just in time to see the rear of Stuart's force 
cross the river, and to experience the morti- 
fication that after all their efforts the wily 
Confederate had beaten them in the race, 
and slipped their fingers before they could 
close their grip on him. Later in the day 
the Colonel with one hundred fifty men 

♦The order of march was as follows : The lllth 
took the lead, followed by the 63d, the 105th, the 
68th, the Hist, Pennsylvania Regiments ; the 20th 
Indiana briuging up the rear. 



went to Conrad's Ferry, but finding no ene- 
my returned about 10 p. m. 

Some one has said " That severe marches 
are more destructive to armies than battles." 
The march of the One Hundred Forty-First 
Regiment to Poolesville was a ease in illus- 
tration. Under the fatigue of the journey 
the effort made to keep their places in the 
ranks, the loss of sleep, and the exposure to 
the chill night air, many of the men con- 
traded diseases from which they never re- 
covered, and never afterward were able to 
perforin active military service. The Sur- 
geon of the Regiment reported that more 
than one hundred cases of hernia alone were 
traceable to the Poolesville march. 

On Monday the Regiment occupied the 
road from Poolesville to within about two 
miles of Conrad's ferry, a distance of between 
three and four miles, as pickets, a company 
in a place. In the meanwhile the stragglers 
tame up. tents were pitched, rations were 
supplied, and " the boys went to bed quite 

The next day the Regiment was ordered 
to march at four o'clock in the morning. 
They went to Conrad's Ferry, a distance of 
about two miles, where they remained until 
about ten o'clock, when they marched up 
the river nearly to the mouth of Monocacy 
creek, but after a brief halt, returned a cou- 
ple of miles to White's Ford, which they 
were ordered to watch and guard. Compa- 
nies B, C and G were posted at the Ford 
almost directly opposite from Ball's Bluff, 
where about a year before (< >ctober 21, 1861,) 
the detachment under Colonel Baker bad 
been so disastrously routed, the gallant Col- 
onel slain and nearly half of his force, about 
two thousand men, butchered. At this 
point the greater part of Smart's cavalry had 
crossed the Sunday previous. The remain- 
ing part of the Kegiment was posted near 
the towing path of the Ohio and Chesapeake 
canal. The day had been warm, but the 
night was clear and frosty. Tents, knap- 
sacks and blankets were left at the camp near 

Poolesville; no fires were allowed and hav- 
ersacks were empty. The people about this 
part of .Maryland were at this time deeply 
in sympathy with the South ; it was the 
home of Major While, who had recruited 
some of Stuart's cavalry from this immediate 
neighborhood. Neither food nor forage 
could be had, but under the pressure of pretty 
strong arguments, and as the Stale was nom- 
inally loyal, foraging was forbidden under 
severe penalties. Without fire, tents, blankets 
or food, the temper of the men was not the 
most amiable, and the suffering would have 
been greater had not the officers been willing 
to put a very liberal construction upon the 
order. Some of the Field and Stall' officers 
alter fasting aiost of the day were just sitting 
down to supper, which they bad secured at a 
farm-house near by in the evening at "right 
smart dark," when one of the darkies came 
to the door, and with a broad grin upon his 
face said, " Kun'l ! Kun'l ! you'ah so'jers in 
Mass'r's hen- roost af'fr de chickens." "They 
are not my men," answered the Colonel, 
gruffly; "there are other soldiers here be- 
side mine." Perhaps five minutes had 
elapsed when this same darkey, accompanied 
by another, again came to the door. " Kun'l ! 
you'ah so'jers hab got all de tu'keys and 
most all de chick'ns." " They are not my 
men," again said the Colonel, sharply. " I 
t'ink dey be you'ah men," persisted the dar- 
key. "Send them in here and let me see ;" 
but none came. The next morning, how- 
ever, there were ominous little piles of feath- 
ers in certain places, which suggested the 
possibility that the Colonel might have been 

About nine o'clock in the morning of the 
next day, Wednesday the 15th, the Quarter- 
master succeeded in getting a wagon with 
rations to the Regiment, and empty haver- 
sacks and empty stomachs were soon filled 
with pork and hard tack. In the evening- 
all but two companies were moved across 
the canal and bivouacked in a ravine on the 
side of the hill and overlooking the Ford. 



The next day their knapsacks came, and the 
men made themselves comfortable in a very 
pleasant camping place. They remained 
here, doing picket duty, and keeping close 
watch at the Ford, until Saturday evening, 
when they were relieved by Ward's Brigade, 
and the Regiment returned to the old camp 
at Poolesville, reaching there about mid- 
night. The next day a new place was se- 
lected for the encampment, a grassy meadow, 
a fine spot, and before night the tents were 
up, the Regiment nicely sheltered, and a full 
supply of rations. Writing at this date Ma- 
jor Spalding says: 'We arrived here 
(Poolesville) the day Stuart's cavalry crossed 
back into Virginia, after being up at Cham- 
bersburg. They crossed at three places not 
far from here, in the forenoon of Sunday. 
We got here about two o'clock in the after- 
noon. We went on Tuesday to White's Ford, 
the principal crossing, and kept guard over 
the river until last night, when we were re- 
lieved by Ward's Brigade. Our brigade is 
now attached to General Stoneman's Corps 
of < )bservation." 

The Regiment continued in its cam)) at 
Poolesville until Tuesday, October 28th. 
The usual drills were again resumed, with 
inspection and reviews, except when inter- 
rupted by storms which now were of fre- 
quent occurrence. On Thursday, the 23d, 
Colonel Thomas, Assistant Secretary of the 
Commonwealth, presenting the Regiment 
with a stand of colors, gave the men a patri- 
otic address, to which the Colonel briefly re- 
sponded. The next day the brigade was re- 
viewed by General Stoneman. 

After the battle of Antietam and the re- 
treat of Lee to the south side of the Poto- 
mac, except the raid of Stuart, both armies 
spent a month in comparative quiet. Mc- 
Clellan relieved from the presence of a hos- 
tile force in his immediate front, seized the 
opportunity to thoroughly re-organize the 
Army of the Potomac, to procure necessary 
supplies of shoes and clothing and to give 
his soldiers a short rest preparatory to the 
active movements of the contemplated Fall 

campaign. On the 26lh of October, McClel- 
lan put his army in motion, crossing the Po- 
tomac at Berlin, five miles below Harper's 
Ferry, on a pontoon bridge, he moved by easy 
marches toward Warrenton, Virginia. The 
troops at Poolesville were ordered to join the 
main army in this movement. On the same 
day that McClellan crossed the river, Sun- 
day, October 26th, orders were read to the 
Regiment "to be ready to march to-morrow 
morning at four o'clock, with three days' ra- 
tions in haversacks," but a severe rain storm 
setting in that night, the movement was de- 
ferred until the storm passed over, Tuesday, 
the 28th. 

When the Regiment left (amp Prescott 
Smith, a considerable number were left behind 
sick, some of these recovered and rejoined the 
Regiment at Poolesville, on Sunday, October 

26th, some were sent to hospital, and John 
S. Deifenbach, Lieutenant of Company 
K, died. A young man of more than ordi- 
nary promise, he commanded the respect of 
his men and the esteem of his superior offi- 
cers. At < 'amp Prescott Smith he was seized 
with typhoid fever, and though apparently 
improving at the time the Regiment left, 
died the next day, October Pith, at about 
the age of twenty-three years. His remains 
were brought home and consigned to their 
last resting place in the Lutheran Cemetery 
near Dushore, where his parents reside. 

While at Poolesville a considerable num- 
ber of both officers and men suffered from 
typhoid and bilious fevers ; in addition to 
which the sick list was further swelled by a 
number of cases of measles which at one 
time became almost epidemic in the camp. 
When the Regiment left Poolesville a num- 
ber of these including Captains Davies, 
Reeves, and Beardsley, Doctor Allen, Lieu- 
tenant Page, who were quartered in private 
houses, and Lieutenant Brainerd who had 
obtained permission to remain with his 
sick brother then just at the point of 
death. There were besides twenty-two en- 
listed men, including a few sick soldiers, 
whom they were left to guard, a few guns 


and also a considerable quantity of clothing 
and commissary stores, which were stored in 
a log house, through which port holes had 
been cut, that rendered it quite a defensible 
work, and where the men were quartered. 

On the 22d of November, Major White 
with a detachment of Stuart's Rebel cavalry 
about one hundred in number, crossed the 
river, and early in the morning pounced 
down upon the little squad in whose care the 
sick men and stores had been left, and after 
a brief, weak resistance, captured them. The 
Confederates lost two killed and thirteen 
wounded, while the Union loss was one kill- 
ed (from the One Hundred Fourteenth) 
and one wounded — Corporal N. J. Gay lord, 
of Company A, One Hundred Forty-First, 
in the hand. Captains Davies and Reeves, 
aware of the great danger of remaining in 
the proximity of Poolesville, managed to get 
to Washington a day or two before the raid; 
Captain Beardsley escaped in the guise of a 
Quaker cattle buyer, by the aid ofhis Quak- 
er host, Lieutenant Brainerd had left soon 

after the death ofhis brother, Corporal Wil- 
liam P. Brainerd, which occurred November 
1st. He enlisted from New Milfordin Com- 
pany F, was a young man greatly beloved 
by his associates, and his early death was 
greatly lamented. His remains were brought 
back for interment near the home of his 

Doctor Allen and Lieutenant Page, 
though staying at the house of Mr. Young, 
on whose farm the Confederates exchanged, 
were not molested. The rest were captured, 
paroled and subsequently encamped. A de- 
tachment of Federal Cavalry was encamped 
near Rockville, who, learning of the raid, 
hastened to Poolesville so rapidly that the 
Rebels, unable to get away with their plun- 
der, destroyed it and beat a rapid retreat 
across the Potomac. 

On the 28th of November, Edwin A. 
Leonard, a private of Company F, who also 
had been left behind sick, was captured by a 
party of guerillas, paroled and subsequently 

Chapter III 

A FTER the battle of Antietam, McClellan 
determined to taken little lime/while giv- 
ing his army the rest it sadly needed, to reor- 
ganize his forces and equip them more thor- 
oughly for the fall campaign. This being 
accomplished, he put his army in motion on 
the 26th of October, but owing to bad weather 
it was the 2d of November before the entire 
army was on the south side of the Potomac. 
The line of march was by roads parallel to 
the Blue Ridge, along its eastern slopes, 
making Warrenton the point of direction 
and concentration, from which, if a favora- 
ble opportunity offered, he hoped to strike 
Lee a damaging blow, or, failing in this, 
" to adopt the Fredericksburg line of advance 
upon Richmond, or to be removed to the 
Peninsula, if as I [McClellan] apprehended, 
it were found impossible to supply it [the 
army] by the Orange and Alexandria Rail- 
road beyond Culpepper." 

In this movement he wanted all the "old 
troops that could possibly be dispensed with 
around Washington and other places," de- 
siring that their places be supplied by the 
new levies which then were pouring into 
Washington. The old Third Corps, whose 
valor had been so thoroughly tried and 
never found wanting, was a peculiarly desir- 
able addition to his army. Since the second 
battle of Bull Run it had been lying about 
the defenses of Washington, recuperating its 
strength, increasing its numbers, and becom- 
ing more thoroughly efficient for its work. 
It now consisted of three divisions — the 
First, or Kearney's old Division, now com- 
manded by Brigadier-General David B. 
Birney ; the Second, Hooker's Division, 
commanded by Brigadier-General Daniel E. 


Sickles; and the Third, commanded by 

Brigadier-General A. W. Whipple. The 
One Hundred Forty-First Regiment was in 
the First Brigade, Robinson's, of Birney's 
Division. To this division were also attached 
Batteries K and F, Third United States 
Artillery, commanded by Captain L. L.Liv- 
ingston, and Battery E, First Rhode Island 
Artillery, under Lieutenant P. S. Jastram, 
and the whole commanded by Captain G. E. 

In this forward movement the Third 
Corps was directed to participate, and orders 
were issued to Robinson's Brigade, on the 
afternoon of Sunday, October 26, to be ready 
to move at eight o'clock the next morning 
with three days' rations in haversacks. At 
five o'clock the call came to get up and pack 
up for the march, but the rain poured in 
torrents and the wind blew a gale. All day 
long the storm continued with great violence, 
ending in fitful gusts toward evening. 
Marching in such a storm was out of the 
question, but before the order was counter- 
manded everything was drenching wet. 
Tuesday morning the storm had cleared 
away and a cool, fresh breeze was blowing 
from the north, which, however, subsided in 
the afternoon. At seven o'clock all was 
ready and soon after started for White's 
Ford, a distance of four or five miles, reach- 
ing the river bank about noon. After wait- 
ing here between two and three hours, the 
order " Forward !" was given, and the Reg- 
iment waded the river. The stream had 
become considerably swollen by the recent 
rains, the water was cold and the current 
swift, yet the passage was made without 
accident. On reaching the south side of the 



river the road led up Ball's Bluff, a further 
march along which of about three miles and 
the men bivouacked in a wheat field. In 
one corner of the Held stood three large 
stacks of unthreshed wheat, which was freely 
used for beds. The night, however, was so 
cold that next morning the ground was fro- 
zen and a white frost covered everything. 
The men in their wet clothing and scanty 
covering suffered not a little from cold 
during the night. 

The following extract from a letter written 
by Lieutenant Lewis, of Company D, gives 
such a vivid and picturesque description of 
this day's march that I cannot forbear to 
quote a, paragraph or two: "On Monday 
last we broke camp in Eastern Maryland 
and crossed the Potomac at White's Ford. 
Our Regiment arrived at the banks of the 
muddy waters at two o'clock in the after- 
noon, and [.lunged in. It was a sight to lie- 
hold ! ( >ur boys dreaded to step in, but had 
to come to it. When we arrived on the hill 
overlooking the river, Ward's Brigade [the 
Second, of Birney's Division] was in ; and 
such a scene! — some naked, some with their 
pants pulled up around their thighs, s< me 
in drawers, some in shirts, and all seemed to 
be yelling like demons; and then across 
upon the opposite shore Berry's Brigade 
[the Third] were winding their way up the 
hills as far as the eye could discern their 
gleaming bayonets. At length our turn 
came. Our hoys began to strip. The air 
was cold and chilly. I advised them to 
keep on their clothes, hut everyone followed 
his own peculiar ideas. 1 was in command 
of our company. Captain Park was "officer 
of the day," and was not with us, but had 
the good luck to ride, and Lieutenant Ryon 
we left very sick at Washington. I did not 
move a garment, hut stepped oil' and in, the 
hoys following. Nothing like order could 
he maintained ; companies' and regiments 
were all mixed together, yelling and screech- 
ing like demons. Occasionally some one 
would slip on a stone and down he would go, 
plunging all under; others would catch him 

and set him 1 1 j > again. 1 myself came very 
near going under once. I stepped on a 
round stone, my foot slipped and away I 
went, hut two men of tl e One Hundred 
Fifth caught me just in time to save me 
from an immersion. They told me my legs 
were too short and offered to help me across, 
but, thanking them, 1 declined the proffered 
aid. The river was a fourth of a mile in 
width, and the deepest part up to my hips. 
When across 1 took oil' my hoots and wrung 
my socks, and resumed the march upon the 
bluffs. We had several cannon planted to 
cover us in case of an attack." 

After crossing the river a picket line was 
established, the left of which rested on the 
Potomac at Conrad's Ferry and the right at 
White's Ford. On Wednesday afternoon 
the Regiment was sent out on that part of 
the picket line which crossed the road lead- 
ing to Leesburg, where it relieved the Twen- 
tieth Indiana. It was a beautiful place, in 
a hickory and walnut grove, with an abund- 
ance of good water near by. Under date of 
November 1, Major Spalding writes : "We 
forded the river and camped about three 
miles from the ford, near the river. The 
next day we were put forward as pickets 
aboul a mile from the rest of the brigade. 
We kept fivecompanies and put five forward 
as guards from the river near Conrad's Ferry 
around our brigade, and connecting with 
General Berry's Brigade, which was en- 
camped next above us. General Ward's 
Brigade was next above Berry's and close by 
where we crossed." 

On reaching this place the three days' ra- 
tions taken from Poolesville began to get 
short, and the boys started out to replenish 
the failing stores. They were now on the 
south side of the Potomac, in an enemy's 
country, and the orders against foraging had 
a liberal construction. Lieutenant W. T. 
Horton was in command of Company A, 
Captain Jackson having been left sick at 
(amp Prescott Smith and Lieutenant J. H. 
Horton on the sick list, yet keeping along 



with the Regiment by riding in an ambu- 
lance. The Lieutenant in command went a 
few rods from where his company was sta- 
tioned to a farm house whose owner learning 
the near approach of the Federal troops was 
just herding a hue flock of sheep, one of 
which the Lieutenant offered to buy. "I 
have none to sell,' was the reply. " Well," 
persisted the oflicer, " there is a regiment of 
hungry soldiers just over the hill, and I ad- 
vise you to sell when you can. What will 
you take for the choice of the lot ?" " Five 
dollars," was the answer. Hardly had the 
words "I'll give it" escaped the Lieuten- 
ant's lips ere the sheep was being converted 
into mutton. On offering a five dollar 
greenback in payment the owner demurred, 
" I can do nothing with that ! Haven't you 
anything else ?" " Nothing but this," was 
the reply as he showed a facsimile of a Con- 
federate note which was then freely circu- 
lated through the army. " I can use that," 
said the farmer as his eye caught the bogus 
bill and handed a five-dollar greenback in 
change. The boys thought it a pretty good 
purchase and enjoyed a hearty laugh as they 
ate their mutton chops at dinner. In other 
parts of the regiment the men supplied 
themselves with food by an equally summa- 
ry method. One of them writes in his diary 
" Drew fresh pork and mutton to-night, and 
also drew apples to-day." Much complaint 
was made at the time of the manner in 
which Rebel property was protected by Fed- 
eral troops, but so far as our Regiment was 
concerned, the protection was more nominal 
than real. 

On Friday, the 31st, the Regiment was 
mustered for pay, after which it was relieved 
from picket duty, and in the afternoon went 
to Leesburg passing through the town a lit- 
tle before sundown, and encamping south of 
it in a meadow. Before the war this was a 
place of considerable wealth and refinement, 
but at this time everything seemed to be go- 
ing to decay. The colored population here, 
as everywhere through the South, hailed the 

coming of the Northern soldiers with evi- 
dent marks of delight, but the greater part 
of the whites, and especially the ladies, were 
not slow 10 express most emphatically their 
hatred of the Yankees. The boys returned 
the compliment by singing, as only soldiers 
can sing, that grand battle-song of the war : 

" John Brown's body lies mouldering in the 

But his soul goes marching on.'' 

There had been a report through camp 
that Rebel cavalry were hanging on the 
flanks and rear of the army, and that our 
cavalry had been skirmishing with them 
near Leesburg. W r hen the Regiment reach- 
ed an abrupt angle in the road about half a 
mile from the village, a few horsemen were 
observed a short distance away and at once 
some one called out that Rebel cavalry was 
about to attack us. In a trice half the Reg- 
iment had thrown off their knapsacks and 
were in readiness for the anticipated fight, 
when the Colonel, who had been riding in 
the rear of the column came up, and seeing 
they were our men, corrected the mistake 
and ordered the march to be resumed. 

The Regiment, although under orders to 
be ready to move at a moment's notice, re- 
mained in camp all of Saturday without any 
occurrence of special note. About twenty- 
five Rebel soldiers were found sick in the 
academy which was used as a hospital, and 
some of our men were also left here. 

On Sunday morning, about three o'clock, 
Jonas Fuller, a private of Company A, died 
suddenly in his tent. Though complaining 
somewhat while on the march, neither he 
nor his friends apprehended any serious re- 
sults. As the regiment was then under or- 
ders to move, his body was taken to an un- 
dertaker in the village, by whom he was 
buried in the cemetery of the town and his 
grave properly marked. He was the son of 
Ransom Fuller, Esq., of Camptown, a faith- 
ful soldier, ever at his post, and died in the 
twentieth year of his age. 

This was the third death from this com- 
pany since its muster ; the other was Wil- 



liana Blocher, of Herrick, and a near neigh- 
bor of Fuller. He was sick with fever in 
Camp Prescott Smith when the Regiment 
left there for Poolesville, and from there 
was son( to Cliff burn Hospital, in Washing- 
ton, where he died, October 25, 1862, at the 
age of twenty-five years and was buried in 
Military Asylum cemetery. 

Alanson Rowe, a private of Company B, 

who had enlisted from Warren township 
was also among those left at Leesburg, where 
he was seized with an attack of lever, and 
died on the 14th of November. The others 
were taken to Washington in a short time to 
escape being captured by the enemy's caval- 
ry, who were making frequent raids in the 
iear of the arm v. 

The order was to leave Leesburg at eight 
o'clock on Sunday morning, but it was four 
o'clock in the afternoon before the column 
got in motion. The Catoctin Mountain runs 
parallel to the Blue Ridge a few miles to 
the east of it. The several affluents of Goose 
Creek break through this range making a 
succession of gaps, that at Aldie being the 
most considerable, from which to Thorough- 
fare Gap, the range is called the Bull Run 
mountains. The route of the Regiment on 
this day (Sunday,) was westerly from Lees- 
burg through one of these gaps, to the west- 
ern slope of the Catoctin, thence southerly 
to Mount Gilead, a distance altogether about 
twelve miles, reaching this latter place about 
one o'clock on Monday morning, November 

The march had been a severe one, and as 
usual the canteens were empty, and a good 
prospect for going to bed without the cus- 
tomary cup of coffee. Corporal Hull, of 
Company E, who was usually ready for any 
emergency, gathered a back load of can- 
teens, and went out beyond the lines for wa- 
ter. The mountain was so steep that at 
places there were steps to get down to the 
creek. After going some distance he came 
to the stream and was tilling his canteens, 
when he heard the tramp of horses ami rat- 

tle of sabres, and on looking up to his sur- 
prise saw a detachment of White's Guerril- 
las ride into the stream to water their horses. 
The Corporal at once took in the situation, 
and before he was discovered, concealed 
himself behind some trees and as his unex- 
pected neighbors retired, beat a hasty retreat 
for camp, which he reached in safety. 

When the Regiment broke camp at Pooles- 
ville, several were recovering from measles, 
others from typhoid fever, who though ap- 
parently well at starting, were soon over- 
come by the fatigue and exposure incident 
to the march, and owing to defective trans- 
portation, were obliged to he left by the way. 
It was a rare thing that the Regiment left a 
camping place without leaving behind some 
one who had marched the day before. Major 
White with a small cavalry f>rce hovered over 
the rear of the retiring columns picking up 
stragglers, and such as were unable to march, 
and several of the men of the One Hundred 
Forty- First suddenly found themselves in 
the hands of the enemy, and hurried off to 
Libby prison. Among those who were thus 
left at Mount Gilead, were corporal 
George W. Owen and Clarence Cole, musi- 
cians of Company C,who AVere captured Nov. 
5th, evidently by the same party from whom 
Corporal Hull so fortunately escaped. Both 
were subsequently paroled and re-joined the 

The next morning was cold and frosty 
with a northwest wind. The Regiment re- 
mained here until three o'clock in the after- 
noon when the march was again resumed, 
still in a southerly direction, until nine 
o'clock in the evening, when they were or- 
dered to halt for the night, after traveling 
about eight miles. The encampment was on 
sloping ground, on the principal branch of 
Goose Creek, near Aldie, and called Mill- 
ville, from the fact that a gristmill was near 
the camp. Here the Regiment remained 
during all Tuesday. The mill was filled 
with corn and other grain, and was set in 
motion and the men were supplied with 



plenty of corn meal. The country round 
was scoured and sheep, hogs and poultry 
were taken wherever found. Officers and 
visitors shared with the rank and file in the 
rations not accounted for in the commissary 

The next morning three days' rations of 
hard bread, which was twenty-six crackers 
per man for three days, were distribu- 
ted, after which the Regiment again started 
on its march. The course this day was south- 
erly, through Middleburg, to White Plainson 
the Manassas Gap railroad, thence along the 
railroad to near Salem, where they went into 
camp. The day was cold, and although the 
roads were rough and hilly, the day's march 
was made with comparative comfort. 

The Regiment profited by the experience 
of Company A on the march to Pooles- 
ville. Captain Lobb, of Company G, writes : 
" I think it was soon after we left Goose 
Creek that I saw a yoke of oxen marching 
along in the rear of the One Hundred Forty- 
First Regiment, hauling a cart loaded with 
knapsacks. I had a good chance afterward 
to know they were a good team, and did good 
service for the Union during the winter. 
The next spring I think they were turned 
over to the butchers. 

Falling in with the One Hundred Fifth 
Regiment, the first thing that attracted my 
attention was that they had a yoke of oxen 
also. They were old soldiers, and were not 
going to be out-done by the One Hundred 
Forty-First, and so General Robinson had 
two regiments in his Brigade that had suc- 
ceeded in bringing oxen into the Union." 

Corporal Hull, of Company E, thus tells 
the story: "While the Regiment was at 
Millville, November 2d, a colored man came 
to the mill with a yoke of cattle and a cart, 
which the boys borrowed to draw rails and 
straw up to the camp. As they did not get 
through with their work that night, the dri- 
ver went home, but returned next morning 
for his oxen, when he was told that they 
were so useful the boys had concluded to 

keep them. The man said his master had 
nothing left but a three-year old colt. After 
describing the colt, three of the Company 
went with him to see it, but could nut catch 
him." The oxen and cart took their place 
in the Regiment, and were the pets of the 
boys, who showed them every attention. 
They continued with the Regiment until the 
battle of Gettysburg, when they were turned 
into the Quartermaster's Department. 

Thursday, November 6th, was bitterly 
cold, a raw north-easterly wind seemed to 
chill one through. The Regiment started 
on the march at daylight, in a westerly di- 
rection for a short distance, until Salem was 
reached, then turned southerly toward the 
Warrenton pike. Here they began to come 
up with the rest of the army. They found 
the Reserves encamped near Salem. The 
road through the mountains was very rough 
and hilly, tedious for infantry, and trouble- 
some for artillery and supply teams. The 
country was covered with a dense growth of 
scrub oaks and pitch pine. "Here," writes 
Captain Lobb, " it was wheretwoof Company 
G's men fell out as stragglers, James Ogden 
and William Short. Short was picked up 
afterward and sent to Alexandria, where he 
soon died, December 29th, 1862, and was 
buried in the Military Asylum Cemetery, 
near Washington. We do not know to this 
day what became of Ogden. We have ex- 
hausted all means since the war to find him, 
but yet no clue. I suppose I am the last 
person in the Regiment who saw him, when 
I told him that he had better keep in the 

"At Middleburg," says an officer writing 
of this march, " we met the Pennsylvania 
Reserves. It was where two roads crossed 
each other. As the Sixth came down one 
street and filed into another, they gave three 
hearty cheers for Colonel Madill, who had 
formerly been Major of that Regiment, and 
said, ' We will meet you again on the battle- 
field,' and sure enough, we did so meet at 
Fredericksburg, a few days after. At this 


place the women came oul when we were 
cheering, and said that we would not feel bo 
gay in a little while, for we would find :i 
' Longstreet' to march through, and two 
Hills' in climh over, and then we would 
come to a ' Stonewall,' thai would stop our 
enthusiasm, and we would be glad to roll up 
our Hags and go honie." 

The turnpike leading from Waterloo to 
Warrenton was reached a little after dark, 
and the Regiment was directed to picket the 
n>ad. During the night the outposts were 
drivenin by the enemy's cavalry. This road 
follows for a short distance west of Warren- 
ton one of i ho forks of the < ledar Run Creek, 
an affluent of the Occaquan, then crosses one 
of the upper branches of the Rappahannock, 
about halfway between Warrenton and Wa- 
terloo. The bridge over this stream, which 
at this point is narrow but deep, the enemy 
had destroyed the day before. It was about 
this point where the Regimen) was posted, a 
company in a place. 

On the morning o\ the 7th, just before day- 
break, tho cavalry pickets were driven in 
upon the line of infantry. Tho reserve por- 
tion of the picket line was called out and ad- 
vanced some distance, but found no enemy. 
The Twentieth Indiana was pushed forward 
on a reconnoissance but discovered nothing, 
and the picket line resumed its former posi- 
tion. This day was intensely cold for the 
season, and snow fell all day. Tho brigade 
was moved a short distance to a sheltered 
spot in tho woods, where it remained for the 
nest two or three days. Under this date, 
November 7th. the Major writes : " We left 
1 eesburg last Sunday afternoon, and march- 
ed until about two o'clock at night, and have 
marched every day but one since. We pass- 
ed through Middleburg, White Plains and 
Salem, crossed the Manassas Gap railroad 
about forty miles west of Bull Run, and are 
now about five miles from Warrenton, and a 
half a mile from the Rappahannock river. 
Tho rebels have retired steadily before us. 
\ esterday a small force was hero, that cross- 

ed the river, burning the bridge. Our Reg- 
iment was thrown out in pickets, a company 
in a place." 

While the Regiment was shivering over 
its camp-fires on the picket line, the com- 
mand of the Army of the Potomae, by order 
of the President, was passed over from Me- 
ridian to Major-* ioneral Amhrose l'.urnside. 
Swinton thus tells the story: "Late on tin' 
night of November 7th, amid a heavy snow- 
storm, General Buckingham, arriving post- 
haste from Washington, reached the lent of 
General McClellan, at Rectortown, He was 
the hearer of the following dispatch, which 
he handed to General McClellan : 

GENEE \1 ORDERS, NO. 182. 
W \i; Dept., A.DJT.-Gen'ls < >FFICE, | 
Washington, Nov. 5, 1882. J 

By direction of the President of the United 
States, it is ordered that General McClellan 

he relieved from the command of the Army 
oi the Potomac, and that Major C ioneral 
Burnside take the command of that army. 
By order of the Secretary of War. 

E. D. Townsend, 
Assistant Adjutant-QeneraL 

It chanced that General Burnside was at 

the moment with him in his tent. Opening 
the dispatch and reading it, without a change 
o( countenance or voice, McClellan passed 
over the paper to his successor, saying as he 
did so, " Well, Burnside, you are to com- 
mand the army." 

The army was now concentrated about 
Warrenton, from which place McClellan 
had designed to strike the enemy where he 
could deal the most effective blow. At the 
request ^( Burnside, ho continued in com- 
mand until the 8th, when he turned it over 
to his successor, and retired from military 

Says Swinton : " Upon assuming command 
o\ the army, General Burnside made at War- 
renton a hall often days, during which time 
lie endeavored to get the reins into his 
hands, and he carried into execution a pur- 
pose he had formed o\ consolidating the six 
corps of the army of the Potomac into three 
Grand Divisions o( two corps each" — the 

ri<a;/m/;nt, penn'A VOL'S. 


Right Grand Division, composed of tlie Sec- 
ond and Ninth Corps, being under General 

Sumner; the Center Grand Division, c - 

posed dl' the Third Corps, under Brigadier 
General George Stoneuian, who on the L6th 
of November, relieved ( General I [eintzleman 
of its command, and the Fifth Corps, under 
Butterfield, was commanded by General 
Hooker; and the Left Grand Division, com- 
prising the First and Sixth Corps, command- 
ed by Genera] Franklin. There were no 
other changes in the organization of the 
Tli in I Cjorps. 

While these changes were being made at 
headquarters, Robinson's Brigade was lying 
quietly in the friendly shelter of ihe woods, 
where it continued until the 1 < u li , when ii 
was ordered under anus, ami to march in 
the direction of Waterloo, in support I renei™ 
al Pleasanton, who, it was said, was being 
driven back by the enemy. Accordingly, in 
the morning, they crossed the river nn a 
temporary bridge, and advanced about 1 \\ > > 
miles further, when a hall was ordered, and 
the Regiment was put out on picket, where 
they remained to guard the roads until Wed- 
nesday, the 12th, when they were relieved, 
and marched back across the river, the Reg 
iment, with two pieces of artillery, covering 
the crossing until the other troops had pass- 
ed, and went into camp on (lie Sulphur 
Springs road, about four miles from Warren- 
ton, in a pitch pine grove, where it remain- 
ed until Sunday, the 16th, when il went lo 
Warrenton and encamped. 

The almost unprecedented had weather, 
heavy toads and eonstanl exposure, wen- he 
ginning lo ailed the new troops severely. 

Bad colds and rheumatism were prevalenl 

in the camps of the < >ne Hundred I'orly- 
First, and many were on the sick list. 

On assuming command of the Army of the 
Potomac, Burnside adopted the Fredericks- 
burg line of approach to Richmond, which 
Mel lellan had designed as a last contingency. 
Orders were therefore issued changing I he 
general direction of the vements of the 

army now concentrated about Warrenton, 
and using his cavalry to mask his positions, 

al once scl iil'l .in his route In Fredericks- 
bui'g, which he hoped lo occupy hcl'ore Lee 

could lie aware of Ins intentions. 
I >n Monday, the 17th, orders were issued 

to he ready lo march at six o'clock in the 
morning, but it was ten hcl'ore the Regiment 
began to move, Robinson's Brigade leading 
tin 1 division. The course was almost direct- 
ly south toward Bealton Station, on the < >i 

angH and Alexandria railroad, mar which 

they encamped for the night. About the 
middle of the afternoon (hey passed Liberty, 

a " hamlet of six or eight shanties." 

When Ihe urders to inarch were received, 

a number being sick and unable to travel, 

were left tO he taken to Warrenton ill the 

ambulances, and thence transported to 
Washington. Among these were Horace K. 
Smith, of Company K, who at the time of 
his enlistment was living in Burlington, 
where he left a wife and two daughters. It 

was a sad parting, as these hrave men were 

compelled to leave their comrades by the 
wayside sick, among strangers, and in an 
enemy's country, and ii was with a feeling 

almost bordering on despair, thai the sick 

men saw their friends take their departure. 
The Sergeant of C pany EC, speaking of 

M r. Smith, says : "I shall never forget the 
look he gave me, when 1 told him that we 
were obliged lo leave him." He died at 

Warrenton, November 18th, the day after 
ihe Regiment left there, at about twenty-five 
years of age, and was buried in the National 
Cemetery, Arlington. Elisha H. Bedford, 
Clarence Goff and George Delong, of Com- 
pany < i, were among those left here sick. In 
trying to reach the railroad, they were as- 
sailed by guerillas, and Bedford was cap- 

tuded. He has not heen heard from by 

his c pans since, and is supposed In have 

died in captivity. 'The others escaped. 

The next morning ihe Regiment resumed 
iis march toward Fredericksburg, and en- 
camped near a little church ahoul fourteen 



miles south of Bealton, which was reached 
aboul three o'clock in the afternoon, and soon 
after was detailed for picket near Kelly's Ford 
on the Rappahannock. Says Captain Lobb 
" we had strict orders not to shoot any game 
should any chance to cross our beat, nor to 
bring down a turkey should we see him in a 
tree overhead. Lieutenant Atkinson is in 
command of the One Hundred and Forty- 
Firsl picket line and Lieutenant Ball of 
Company G's pickets. We are posted along 
the edge of a piece of oak wood." 

The Regiment was relieved from picket 
duty about six o'clock the next morning 
and at nine again resumed their march to- 
ward Fredericksburg. About two o'clock in 
the afternoon they reached Hartwood where 
they halted for the night. Scarcely were 
the tents pitched when the rain began to tall 
which continued all night and the next day, 
rendering roads impassable, and keeping the 

men in camp here until the afternoon of 

Saturday, the 22d, when they struck camp 
and at eight o'clock in the evening went into 
camp near Falmouth, a village on the north 

bank of the Rappahannock, opposite to and 
a little above the city of Fredericksburg. 

The next day the camp was moved about a 
mile Southeast and nearly opposite the city. 

The Richmond and Fredericksburg Kail- 
road extends from Aquia Creek Landing on 
the Potomac, southwesterly aboul twelve 

miles crossing the Rappahannock at Fred- 
ericksburg, thence southerly to Richmond. 
'Phis road Burnside expected to make the 
base of supplies for his army upon reaching 

Falmouth, but the Rebels had so completely 
destroyed it that some time was required to 

put it in repair. As the Kappahannock at 
Fredericksburg is not fordable it had bom 
arranged that pontoon bridges should be at 

A(|uia Creek by the time the army reached 
Falmouth, but owing to a blunder some- 
where they did not reach the place designat- 
ed until several days after. The delay in 
the arrival of the pontoons, the difficulty in 
repairing the railroad prevented the occupa- 

tion nf Fredericksburg as had been contem- 
plated, and while the Federal army was 
wasting precious time in getting ready to 

move, the Confederates were busily at. work 
concentrating their forces, and fortifying 
their position so as to render the move, when 
made, abortive. TWO weeks were thus spent 
where success could only be hoped by rapid 
and prompt action. 

On Monday I he brigade was inspected by 
the Inspector from General Stoneman's 
Head Quarters, on Tuesday the division 
was reviewed by General Hooker, on Friday, 
the 28th, the railroad was opened from 

Aquia Creek to Falmouth, and the question 
of supplies, for the present at least, practi- 
cally settled. As soon as the Regiment was 
settled in camp, the daily drills in compa- 
nies, battalion and brigade, were resumed. 
These with frequent reviews and inspections 
kept the men employed whenever the weath- 
er would admit. A few minutes walk from 
the Camp WOllld bring one to the crest of 

Stafford Heights, as the hills on the north 
side of the Kappahannock were called, from 
which the lines of rebel pickets and the al- 
most impregnable heights on the other side, 
fortified with breastworks and rifle pits and 
defended by a powerful army, could be 
plainly seen, and the impossibility of success- 
fully assaulting them was freely discussed. 
Although cold weather was rapidly ap- 
proaching, yet the men occupied their shel- 
ters without any other protection from the 
inclement storms. 

On Tuesday, December 9th, there was 
brigade and division inspection, after which 
orders were received to he in readiness to 
march at an hour's notice after the next day. 

Before detailing the events of the next 
few days 'let US stop a moment to consider 
the condition of the Regiment. New regi- 
ments always sutler considerably from siek- 
ness until they become accustomed to the 
climate and inured to the life they are re- 
quired to lead. Several references to the 
general health o( the men already made 



would probably be sufficient to convince the 
reader that the < me Hundred Forty- 
First was no exception to the rule. Below 
are given the footings <>f the Adjutant's re- 
ports of the strength of the Regiment for 
September 30th and November 30th, 1862: 


Sep. tO, 

,, . ! For duty 

Present.. «• 1 





Nov. SO. 











( >n extra duty 














Prior to November 30th, three commis- 
sioned officers had resigned and onft hud 
died ; of enlisted men fourteen had been dis- 
charged for various sorts of physical disabil- 
ity, twelve had died and one, James Ogden, 
of Company G, was lost and never heard 
from. A loss to the Regiment of thirty-one, 
two of whom are counted in the above ag- 
gregate of November 30th, the notice of 
their discharge not having been received l>y 
the Adjutant — so that at this date the nomi- 
nal strength of the Regiment was nine hun- 
dred and seventeen, of all ranks. In the 
two months the number "present for duty " 
had decreased by two hundred anil eighty- 
eight, while the number absent sick was in- 
creased by two hundred and fifty-one, and 
the number sick in camp was increased by 
twenty. The reports freely circulated at 
this time of the wonderful amount of sick- 
ness in the Regiment were no doubt greatly 
exaggerated, but over forty-three per cent. 
was a large number. 

Besides the deaths already enumerated, 
George 1 lull', who enlisted in Company E, 
from Laurel Hill, in Dlster township, a 
young man, son of Isaac Hull, was taken 
sick at ( 'amp Prescotl Smith, and transferred 

to a hospital in Alexandria, where he died 
November 1st, about twenty-four years did. 
A 11 nit T. Watkins, also of the same com- 
pany, a single man, died at Falmouth No- 
vember 'J7th, after doing the usual duties 
of camp through the day, and so sudden 
and quiet was his departure ilia! his brother 

who was sleeping with him had no intima- 
tion thai anything was wrong until morning, 
when he awoke to find him dead. 

Moses Treible enlisted with Lieutenant 
Bunnell in Company II, at Auburn, Susque- 
hanna County, and was married the day the 
Company organized, August 16th. lie was 
granted a furlough to tarry with his bride a 

few days, after which he returned to his 
Company and remained with it until he was 
taken sick with typhoid fever at Waterloo, 
Y i rg in ia„ where he died November 1 0th, and 
was buried there, lie was twenty-live years 
of age at his enlistment. 

Peter 1 1. Treible, another of those enlisted 
by Mr. Bunnell from Auburn, was a single 
man, and brother of Moses Treible. He 

died in hospital at Washington, I). ('., No- 
vember 1 1th, at the age of twenty-one years, 
and was buried in the Military Asylum Cem- 

In addition io the losses by death, Captain 
Jackson and private George II. Richards of 
Company A, James Grannis and Ransford 
S. Sherman of Company B, Second Lieuten- 
ant Harry G. Coll of Company C, Corporal 
S. G. Rockwell of Company I), William I). 
Powers of < 'ompany K, Asahel Lord, Pardon 
T. Lindsey, W. P. Tewksberry and Jonathan 
II. Merrill, of Company F, Arthur O'llara 
of ('ompany (J, Second Lieutenant Aaron 
Bunnell, and Ethamer Conrad of Company 
II, were discharged on surgeon's certificate 
of such physical disability as rendered them 
unlit for military service. 

< laptain Jackson was unable to go with the 

Regiment when ii Lefl ''amp PrescOtt Smith, 

and soon was completely prostrated. ( )n 

the advice of the surgeons in Washington, 
he resigned Ids commission October 31st, 



came to his home :ii Wyalusing, for l\ few 
years engaged in business became the pal 
enteeofan improved platform scale, went i<> 
Clayton, Illinois, and finally to Burlington, 
[owa, where lie died at about the age of six- 
i \ yea] 

Lieutenant Gofl' resigned November 16th, 
returned i>> his home in Monroeton, where 
lii-- family had resided during his absence; 
afterward came to Towanda, w here for some 
years he kepi the Vmerican House, on 
Bridge street; went West 1ST I, where he 

still resides. 

\nioin; those who were so completely ex 
hausted and broken in health, by the night's 
march from Irlingtoil to Chain Bridge, as 
i.' render them until for military servici was 
Lieutenant Bunnell, who, finding himself 
unable to endure the fatigue and exposure 
of the field, resigned September '1'1k\. and 
returned to his home in Auburn, Subse- 
quently lie removed to Russell Hill, in Wy- 
oming county, where he now resides. 

Some of these were apparently as robust and 
healthful men as any in the Regiment, but the 
exposures of the camp and the march soon 
unexpectedly developed diseases which ren- 
dered them unfit for duty -while others, either 
from advanced age or naturally feeble health, 
soon (ownd themselves giving way under the 
fatigue incident to their new surroundings, 
and however reluctantly, were obliged to 

leave the service. 

The Vutimin of 1862 had been noticeably 
one of frequent storms and eold weather. 

Alter a lew days of pleasant sunshine, there 

followed on Friday, December 5th, a severe 
rainstorm Avith snow ai intervals, followed 

by clearing and cold weather again on Sun- 
day. Monday and Tuesday the ground was 
fro en, and the hoys were strongly reminded 

of (he winter to which they were accustom- 
ed among the hills of Northern Pennsylvania 

rather than what they expected to find in 

Virginia. On Tuesday, the 9th, after bri- 
gade and division inspection, orders were 

received directing the Regiment to be in 

readiness to march on the next t\.\y ;il a mo- 
ment's not lee. The w eal her w as SO Cold I his 

day that the guns were covered with frost, 

and (lie men's hands were ben imbed, \llor 

a delay of seventeen days, days on his part 
of comparative quietness, but on the part of 

his toe of ceaseless activity, General Burn- 
side found himself ready to attempt to cross 

the Rappahannock and drive the enemy 
from his fastnesses in (he heights south of 
Fredt ricksburg. 


At Falmouth, a village on the left hank 
about a mile abovt Fredericksburg, the Rap- 
pahannock, from running in an easterly li- 
rection, turns abruptly to a more directly 
southerly course, which it pursues about two 
and a half miles, when it makes a sharp 

bend to the cast, from which, with a more 
graceful sweep, ii resumes its former course. 
On the left bank are the Stafford Heights, 

whose steep slopes come in most places sheer 
down to the water's edge, and behind which 
the federal army had been encamped. On 
the i iu ' » i or southwest side of the river, there 
begins at the bank opposite Beck's Island a 

half a mile above Falmouth, a range of hills 
which lor nearly tour miles runs in a direc- 
tion almost due south, then bending toward 
the river, continues two miles further, to the 

Massaponax (feck. These hills are neither 
so high nor abrupt as the opposite Stafford 

Heights, and between tin- loot kA' them and 
the river is a broken plain o\ irregular boun- 
daries six or sever, miles in length and from 
three fourths o\ a mile to a mile and a half 
in width, and of deep alluvial soil. 

Beginning nearly a mile south of the bend 

in the river opposite Falmouth, and on its 

right bank is the citj o\ Fredericksburg, ex- 
tending nearly or quite a mile along the 
Rappahannock and back a half a mile or 
more to Marye's Heights, as that part of the 
hill opposite the city is called. At the south 
of the city is 11a e! Run, the main branch o\ 
w Inch, coming down a depression o( the hills 
on a course nearly perpendicular to the river. 


empties into it a little below the city. Two 
and a half miles south of Hazel Run, at the 
angle of the hills described above, is another 
depression, running down which in a north- 
easterly direction is Deep Run, which after 
cutting a deep channel through the sofl soil 

of the plain, reaches the Rappahan sk nol 

much more than half a mile below the city. 
It is al iliis poinl the river turns sharply to 
the east. The Richmond, Fredericksburg 
and Potomac Railroad crosses the river at 
the city and follows the first bench of hills 
for some distance southward. The crests of 
the hills were covered with woods part of the 
way, extending down to the railroad track, 
and al no place bui a shorl distance from it. 

AImiiii midway between the riser ami 

the railroad is the old stage road to 

Richmond, Avbout three and a half miles 
below Fredericksburg 1 his road is crossed by 
another at nearly hkI'I angles, which ex- 
tends southwesterly from the river, and 
crossing the railroad at what has been known 
as Hamilton's crossing, turns abruptly west 

mi ;i line parallel with the IWassaponax 
( leek, and Kill a short distance Iroin it. 1 lere 
the railroad runs at the fool of a wood-cov- 
ered hill thai juts a mumlcd shoulder out 
Inward the river, Called in some of the re- 
ports Hamilton Hill, and thai was thesouth 
eni limit of the battleground. From Freder- 
icksburg, running westerly up Hazel Run, 

was the bed of an unfinished railroad, and 
on the second hench of hills Leading for a dis- 
tance southerly and then southwesterly over 
the hills is what has been called the Tele- 
graph road, along which the enemy had 

creeled a line of strong fort ilical ions, pro- 
tecting them with rifle pits and so arranging 

! hem that an assault al almost liny poinl 
would he met Willi an enfilading lire. 

Burnside determined to span the river 
with five pontoon bridges, three of which 

were lo he laid opposite Hie upper pail of 
the city, and two lower down at a point mid- 
way on | he ea terly bend of the river below 
the mouth of Deep Run. To coverthecross 

inj4' and control the movements of ihceneniy 
mi I he plain, a powerful artillery force, con 

sisting ol twenty nine batteries of one hun- 
dred and forty seven guns, was placed in po 

siiion on the night of the i () i h, and before 
the dawn of Thursday the I Lth, the pontoon 
boats were silently unshipped al the river's 

brink, and the work of placing them in posi- 
tion was begin der cover of a dense fog 

thai idled the valley. Bui an unexpected 
delay occurred in laying the upper bridges, 

from (he destructive fire of sharp shooters 

whom it was found impossible to dislodge 
until late in the afternoon, when the bridges 
were quickly completed, and Howard's Di- 
vision crossed over and occupied the eily. 

At the poini below, Franklin was able 

soon to disperse the sharp sh Miters, and by 

noon two bridges were available for the pas- 
sage of his troops, a pari of whom were sent 

over. The Center Grand Division, under 
Hooker, was held in reserve. ''The whole 
of the l-tli of December was consumed in 
passing over the columns and reconnoitring 
i he ( 'onfederate p tsition. The Iroopa lav on 
their arms for the night under that Decem- 
ber sky : then daw ned the m Lng of Satur 

day, the 13th, and this was lo l.e the day of 
the battle." 

\ nearly as can lie gathered, llurnside's 
plan of attack seems lo have heen lo divide 

his army into two columns, the righl under 

( J. nerd Sumner, with his own and a pari of 
1 looker's i I rand Division lo assault the ene- 
my's position on Marye's Heights, and the 
left under < ieneral Franklin with hi own 

and the remainder of Hooker's I roups lo at- 

lack and turn the Confederate right resting 
on Massaponax Creek; and at the same time 

each Column lo he held so c pletely in 

lunulas lo lie aide to support the other in 
case of nee, I 

It, is not here designed to describe or cril 
eisc the battle of Fredericksburg; this has 
repeatedly been attempted by abler pens and 
persons professing greater military knowl- 
edge than the writer, who will content him- 
self by describing only those operation in 



which the One Hundred Forty-First had a 
part, and such as are necessary to understand 
their movements. 

In the distribution of his forces, two Di- 
visions of the Third Corps— Birney's and 
Sickles' — were assigned to Franklin's col- 
umn to take part in the movements on the 
left or below Fredericksburg, These will, 
therefore, chiefly ciaini our attention. The 
point which Franklin was directed to attack 
was from two to three miles below the city. 
The plain is here at its widest, not much 
less than two miles, and is notched by spurs 
of hills less elevated than those in the rear 
of the town, and was covered with dark 
pines and leafless oaks. This was the right 
of the Confederate position, and was held by 
the corps of "Stonewall" Jackson, whose line 
extended from a point on Deep Run, a half 
a mile up the stream from where it is crossed 
by the railroad, obliquely down to Hamil- 
ton's ( Irossing, the division of A. P. Hill hold- 
ing the railroad with a brigade at the angle 
of the crossing and one on the north bank 
of the Massaponax, while his headquarters 
were south of the stream. Stuart's cavalry 
with three batteries of artillery continued 
the Confederate line from Hamilton's Cross- 
ing to the river. 

The morning of the 10th broke calm, clear, 
and crispy; all, however, was excitement 
in the camp of the One Hundred Forty- 
First. Every man felt that the day so 
anxiously waited for, when he was to meas- 
ure' strength with the enemy, when his 
courage, fortitude and endurance were to be 
put to a test which he had never before had, 
was breaking ; and what to him, personally, 
would he the result of the contest, he could 
not tell. All day the Regiment was kept 
under arms, and in the evening bivouacked 
in the woods near the railroad. In the 
meanwhile the sick were hurried off to 
Washington as fast as transportation could 
he pr icured. 

All the next day the brigade lay on their 
arms, moving down the railroad, about sun- 

down, a half mile toward the river, where 
again they bivouacked, expecting an order 
to cross before morning; hut none came, and 
the brigade remained quietly in camp until 
sundown, when it was moved about two and 
a half miles farther down the river, in the 
vicinity of Franklin's bridges, where again 
it went into bivouack, fait holding itself in 
readiness to move at a moment's notice. 
Although the days were warm and sunny, 
yet the nights were clear and frosty, and the 
men suffered not a little from the cold. 

Franklin had suggested the propriety of 
making an attack upon the enemy's right, 
early in the morning of Saturday, the 13th, 
hoping to turn his position and secure a firm 
hold upon the heights, and was anxiously 
awaiting orders from the commanding Gen- 
eral to that effect, and had disposed his 
troops accordingly. It was not until half- 
past seven o'clock in the morning, that he 
received the orders in purtuance of which 
the attack was made flis own Grand 
Division was already on the south side of 
the river, and the two divisions of the Third 
Corps were near by. At nine o'clock Meade's 
Division— the Pennsylvania Reserves— began 
to move. They had not gone far when they 
were met by a sharp fire from Stuart's bat- 
teries, which they were compelled to stop 
and silence. A little after eleven o'clock 
Reynolds, who was in command of the First 
Corps, composed of Meade's, Gibbon's and 
Sedgwick's Divisions, was compelled to 
develop his whole force, and Stoneman was 
directed to cross one division to support 
Reynolds' left, which was then held by 
Meade, with Gibbon on his right. 

AVhile these movements were going for- 
ward upon the battlefield, the Regiment had 
at eight o'clock marched from its ressing 
place the night before to a point on the hills 
near the approach to Franklin's bridges, 
where they stacked arms, and from which 
they had a full view of the battle which was 
then raging about Fredericksburg, where 
Sumner was vainly hurling his forces against 



the almost impregnable fortifications on 
Marye's Heights, only to fall back in bro- 
ken, shivered fragments, to be gathered np 
to attempt again the same fruitless experi- 
ment ; while down to the extreme left, 
Reynolds was striving to gain a foothold on 
Hamilton Hill by pushing back and turning 
Jackson's right wing. 

While the brigade is awaiting orders to 
advance, let us look over the Regiment as it 
contemplates with sober, earnest yet deter- 
mined spirit the firy ordeal through which 
it is so soon to pass. The men are mostly 
lying upon the ground in the warm sun- 
shine, but each intently watching the pro- 
gress of the fight. Near at hand the gallant 
Colonel is sitting quietly upon his horse, 
watching with eagle eye every moment on 
the plain below. Lieutenant-Colonel Wat- 
kins was left in camp in care of relatives. 
sick with typhoid fever. The Major and 
staff officers are gathered near the Colonel 
as he explains the various movements pass- 
ing before their eyes and comments upon 
the probability of success. In the Adju- 
tant's report of November 30th, four hun- 
dred and seventy-five enlisted men were for 
duty — about that number were now under 
arms. Company A was in command of 
Lieutenant J. H. Horton — Captain Jackson 
having resigned and Lieutenant W. T. Hor- 
ton having been left behind sick. Company 
B, which numbered only thirty men, was in 
command of Lieutenant Peck, the other com- 
missioned officers being absent, sick. Cap- 
tains S warts and Park were in command of 
their respective Companies, C and I), Lieu- 
tenant Clark commanded Company E, Cap- 
tain Reeves and Lieutenant Page being ab- 
sent, sick. Captain Beardsley, who having 
nearly recovered from his recent sick- 
ness had come to the Regiment a few days be- 
fore the battle, was in command of Com- 
pany F. Captain Tyler was at the 
head of Company H. Owing to the sick- 
ness of Captain Mumford, who was left . 
at the camp, Lieutenant Atkinson had com- 

mand of Company < i, which now had fifty- 
four men for duty, the most of any company 
in the Regiment. Captain Spalding com- 
manded his company ; but Company K not 
having a commissioned officer for duty Cap- 
tain Wright and Lieutenant Dunham being 
sick, and Lieutenant Deifenbaugh having 
died, Lieutenant Mercur of Company I, was 
appointed to command it. 

Returning to the movements of our forces 
south of the river, at twelve o'clock, noon, 
the batteries on Stafford Heights opened a 
heavy fire, shelling the woods in front of 
which Meade was advancing, while Rirney 
was getting his division into position for 
his support, and which he was ordered to 
deploy in the rear of Meade's. This he did 
by placing Ward's Brigade on the right and 
Berry's on the left in two lines, Robinson's 
being left in reserve still on the north side 
of the river. Meade now began to push for- 
ward with great vigor, the main line being 
preceded by a "cloud of skirmishers." 
Sweeping aside A. P. Hill's advanced line 
and pressing back the troops sent to its sup- 
port, he gained the line of the railroad, 
compelled the enemy to withdraw his bat- 
tery, and wedging in between the brigades of 
Archer and Lane, turning the flank of each, 
compelled them to fall back in confusion. 
Heavy reinforcements were at once sent to 
aid the flying Confederate brigades and to 
stay Meade in his victorious advance, who, 
before his supports reached him, was driven 
peeled and bleeding from the field he had at 
a great loss, so gallantly won. 

In his report, the Confederate General, A. 
P. Hill, speaking of the charge by which 
Meade was forced back says : " The contest 
was short, sharp and decisive. The rattling 
musketry and charging yell of the Fifth Al- 
abama battalion, the Forty-Seventh Virginia 
regiment, and the Twenty-Second Virginia 
battalion, and the withering fire from Ham- 
ilton's regiment, right in their faces was 
more than Yankee firmness could stand. In 
addition to this, that gallant old warrior, 
General Early, to whom I had sent, request- 


ing thai he would move down to my sup- 
port, came crashing through i lio woods at 
the double quick. 

" rhe enemy, completely broken, Bed in 
confusion. The two regiments of Brocken 
brough's brigade, Vrcher, with the First 
Tennessee ami Fifth Alabama battalion, ami 
i troops, chased them across the rail- 
road and back to their reserves." 

It was at this point that Robinson's 
Brigade came upon the field, just in time to 
join Birney's other brigades in hurling the 
yelling Southrons who were chasing Meade's 
Division, or what there was left of it, across 
the tield back upon the linos oftheir intreneh- 
monts. General Birney finding thai Meade's 
batteries had exhausted their ammunition 
replaced them with Randolph'sand 1 ivings 
ton's, belonging to his own division, sent for- 
ward the brigadesof Ward and Berry to check 
the advancing foe ami ordered Robinson's 
Brigade to follow in their support. They 
crossed aboilt one o'clock in the afternoon 
ami in about an hour reached their position. 
Although the men had been for three hours 
w etching the progress of the battle, had wit- 
nessed assault alter assault, and defeat alter 
defeat, had seen men marching boldly up to 
the cannon's mouth only to he shot down 
ami scattered, ami beheld time ami again 
the attacking columns of the Federal army 
melt away under the destructive tire of the 
exultant toe. yet no sooner w ns the command 
" Forward!" given, than every man sprang 
to his t'eet, ami at the double quick rushed 
down the slopes, over the bridge swaying 

and quivering under their rapid tread, on 
across the plain whose soft soil was a sea of 
mud which Came to their shoe tops, to the 

position assigned then', with scarcely a waver 
in the line, or a straggler from the ranks. 
Vfter crossing the river, the course o( the 
march was in a southwesterly direction, 
across the Richmond road, following in the 
path of Meade earlier in the day. to a line 
between the Richmond road and the rail- 
road. The Regiment had not advanced 

more than a halt' a mile from the bridge be- 
fore they were met by the Hying Reserves 

who rushed through the ranks toward the 

rear. Many of the Sixth were from Brad- 
ford County. The promise inade ai Warren- 
town that thej would next meet the One 
Hundred Forty-First on the battlefield had 
been made good. \s they eame running; 
through the ranks of the Regiment the hoys 

heard expressions like these: "You will 
have hot work up there!" " All ot' you will 
not cet back !" " You'll catch it !" and the 


It was here that Sergeant William Jones 
of Company B, was wounded, being struck 
by a s,.lid shot which, coming down the hill 
ricochet, hit him in the right side just upon 
his haversack, breaking several ribs and in- 
Dieting other injuries. He was the first man 
of the Regiment hurt in the battle. 

In his report General Birneysays: " Rob- 
inson's Brigade now arriving, 1 ordered im- 
mediately to the front and center his firsl 
two regiments, the One Hundred Fourteenth, 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel Col lis, 
ind the Sixty- Third Regiment Pennsylva- 
nia Volunteers, Major Dank — and they 
poured a most effective and gulling tire into 
the now i ing toe. 

The enemy being repulsed I formed new 

lines — Berry's Brigade on left, Robinson's 
Brigade in center, and Ward's Brigade on 
rightj with my two batteries on the crest of 
the hill, receiving also the efficient aid ot' 
the batteries of Captains Cooper and Leppi- 
en of General Reynold's command. During 
the remainder ot' Saturday the firing was 
eon-taut between the pickets and the ad- 
vanced line-, the enemy holding the edge of 
the wood, the railroad embankment, rifle- 
pits and ditches in our front." 

lor nearly a mile the Regiment marched 
under a heavy lire t'rom the enemy's artillery, 
yet they pressed forward without flinching. 
Colonel Madill says : "I think it was the 
hardest march the men ever made. The 
fiat was muddy and the men sank to their 


shoe-tops every step. Bach man curried his 
knapsack and all his accoutrements which 
added id the difficulty of marching. At this 
time ilif enemy discovered our advance and 
began to welcome us with solid Bhot, shell, 
grape and canister with which they gave 
us rather a warm greeting. Several shell 

anil BOlid shol fell among our ranks, lull 

providentially, did but little injury. I 
believe ihai Sergeant Jones is the only one 
who received any serious injury in our march 

from the river Id I lie mad 

Here we met ibe Reserves returning from 
the field. Ii was very hot al ibis point. 
The enemy hail brought two batteries i>> 
bear so that they enfiladed the road thai \w 
must cross i" gel upon the field but there 
was mi faltering by the men. Thej closed 

1 1 1 > in line Order anil crossid in ilmilile quick 

time, stepping aside only to avoid tramping 
mi the dead or dying body ol a fellow sol- 
dier who had jusl fallen from ibe ranks of 
the regiments in front, The shell ami shot 

fell at'OUnd us like hail, anil men fell as 

grain falls before the sickle. Ii was a terri- 
ble ordeal through which to pass a regiment 
of new troops who hail never been under 
lire; but they passed ii uohly, gallantly, Dot 
a man hesitated <>r faltered, but closed up 
and pushed on. Ii was at this point thai a 
man from Company <i, William Tamblyn, 
hail his bead taken off by a shell, ami anoth- 
er ni' the same company! Lafayette Smith, 

severely wounded. By this lime we had 

reached within a hundred yards of the Reb 

els' lines. They (Karly's Brigade) weiead 

vancing upon Randolph's Battery, for the 
purpose of charging upon ii ami would have 
captured it, but for the timely approach of 
division. The enemy were driven hack 

and we took possession Of the ride " 

( )n reaching this point < leneral Robinson 
deployed his men, arranging them in two 
parallel lines about eight or ten rod. apart, 
forming nearly the are of a circle ; i he first, 
composed of the < Ine 1 1 undred Fourteen! b 
Pennsylvania, on I he right, the Twenl iet h 

In. liana ne\l, and the Si \ly 'fluid IVim \ I 
vania on ihe lell ; ihe BeCOnd line had I he 

Sixty Eighth Pennsylvania on ihe led, ihe 
< >ne I [undred fin h Pennsj l\ ania next, and 

ihe ( hie llnndied folly first on ihe right 

supporting Randolph's battery. The poi ilion 
assigned the latter Regiment was u very try 

ing one. They were c flelled to lie Hal on 

their faces on the gr id, and could not (ire 

a shot, while they must receive the concen 
trated fire of the enemy who always seeks to 

silence ihe haltery of a Ine. A fler ( ieneial 

Robinson had made his dispositions, think- 
ing that the unusual trial to which the < Ine 
Hundred Forty-Firs! had been exposed had 

In snllie e\lenl delni ira li/.ed them, jllsl as 

I hey were going into position rode up in the 

Colonel, his horse Hecked With foam, and 

his countenance aflame with excitement, 
with the question, "Colonel, can you hold 
your men there?" i iting to the spot in t he 

rear of the hallerv. " Hold 'em in hell !" 

wus the short, incisive answer. Quick 

almost as an eleelrie Hash, question and 

answer Mew back from mouth I outh down 

Ihe line, and in murmurs of applause "and 

s i you can, I lob mel, so ) ian !" answ eri d 

back the men who from the first understood 
that going to war was no holiday excursion, 

and w bo if inclined LO W aver, would SOI m i 

be shol than falter, after such an expression 
of confidence from their beloved commander, 

The Colonel continues; " We marched on 
the field by the Hank. The vvjy was so 
crowded by the retiring troops thai it was 
i mpo sible io march on in any ol her w ay 

We formed our line of battle under a very 

heavy fire from the enemy's batteries in 
front of us, who opened on us with prrapeand 

shell. 'file men were ordered to ' eover,' 

thai is, to lie flat on the ground to avoid the 

missiles of ihe enemy. They lay lor three 

hours on their faces, during which time 

eight shells struck in I he ranks anion:', the 
mi ii, and had lliey exploded, the companies 
anion;; w 1 1 ■ .ill lliey fell would ha\ c 1m.ii I.iI 

tcrh decimated. < hie struck in the I me 



Hundred Fourteenth, a few feet in advance 
of us, and killed and wounded nine men. 
Our men lay in that position all the after- 
noon. The enemy never ceased their tire 
upon us till dark." 

eral Birnei - W three o'clock 

in the afternoon 1 ordered a line of skirm- 
ishers to advance and seize a ditch parallel 
with my front. They die. so gallantly, cap- 
turing in the ditch some sixty prisoners At 
half-past four in the afternoon the enemy. 
uncovering ten guns on the hill opposite my 
left, opened a constant tire on Doubleday's 

>n. My Chief of Artillery directed 
the fire of the two division batteries upon 
them. and. aided by Leppien's battery on 
my left, sileneed the guns in twenty minutes. 
The enemy then opened upon our left a bat- 
tery i f Whitworth guns, that enfilade 
command and annoved us greatly. At rive 
o'eloek General Key - 5 tne order- to 

; command of my front. During S 
day ;• g nday and Monday, my tired 

.".us remained without a murmur on 

the tield. lying on the damp ground without 

blankets, and ex st galling 

tire from the sharpshooters. During Mon- 

sfternoon an informal ar- 

leut was made at the suggestion of 
ral Ewell, commanding 3 posite, 

- u the picket firing. 

hin one hundred 


h ithout tiring a shot at pickets." 

5 passed 
from :. k, until the gathering 

darkness put an end to the conflict, and hid 
from sight the terrible carnage of that day of 
strife; and the men lay down upon their 
arms to rest, but the - - :' the 

OW any one 
3 .ep. 

Sunday was spei quiet. 

firing between the pi, kets was 
tinned to 

same position they took Saturday, until 
about ten o'eloek in the forenoon, when they 
fell back about forty yards to a line parallel 
to that first occupied, stacked arms, and the 
men gin a little rest. 

The suffering o\ the wounded lying be- 
tween the lines was intense, and their eries 
were distressing. Sergeant Lobb writes: 
" We could distinctly hear the groans of our 
wounded, calling, ' For God's sake, bring me 
a drink of water:' 'Oh, for God's sake, can't 
you help us off?* These were the sounds 
that fell on our ears hour after hour." Any 
one venturing beyond the line would be im- 
mediately tired upon by the enemy's picket. 
[\ ward noon a Bag of trace was sent within 
the Confederate lines, asking for 
of hostilities while each party could bury 
their dead and care for their wounded, but 
it was not accepted. 

In her history of the One Hundred Fifth 

the author qnotes from one oi' its 

8 ".day. while the flag of truee 

- .'.y to the enemy's line, hostilities 

for awhile: and. as if by magic, the 

two armies rose up, the piekets began to con- 

- and all seemed friends ; bu - - 
as the flag was returned, the sharps!' 
of both parties eommeneed tiring, and the 
two armies vanished from each other's sight 
- - Idenly as they had appeared to view." 
The - s brought over the 

river weit \ sted, but by dint of perse- 
ster Torrey sueeeeded 
after dark in eetting a supply to the Kegi- 
ment, which was distributed about ten 
at night. 

:-.g the evening two hundred men. 
twenty from each company, were detailed 
for pi< x M - 3 eived 

an on'.. »S to s n two 

hundred men and er in the 

ditch, in advance of our line and within 
- u* the enemy's line of { " 
jM S - s mmis- 

sionevi Beers _ .em. They 

arrived the: . I : ' 



ing. It was in and near this ditch that the 
Fifty-Seventh Pennsylvania Regiment suf- 
fered so terribly on Saturday. The ditch 
was still filled with the ilea.! and the wound- 
ed. Our men helped some of them oul 
during the morning. Our pickets occupied 
this ditch until three o'clock Tuesday morn- 
ing." One instance in which a wounded 
Federal soldier was helped over this ditch is 
so characteristic that 1 cannot forbear to give 
it in the language of Lieutenant Lewis, who 
was a witness of the incident, lie says: 
" Within a few yards and in front of US lay 
the helpless wounded of both sides. Their 

cries for assistance were heartrending, but it 

would have been death to us to have ven- 
tured to cross (lie ditch. One child-like 
voice was to me mo8l piteous. He pleaded 
with ns in mercy to venture to give him 
water or carry hi in oil'. "(), come! O, do 
come! Why will they not accept the flag? 
0, is there no mercy on earth ? Then, come! 
come under the protection of Grod, and give 
me water.' All this time hi' would crawl 
toward us, a few feet at a time. Our noble 
Colonel, who had crawled down to us in the 
night, bearing the lad's piteous moans, leaped 

the ditch. A rebel seeing him commanded 
him to halt, hut he took the youth in his 
arms and passed him to two of our men. A 

minie hall had broken his leg, making a 

painful wound. Two days and nights he 
lay on the field. We had him carried to the 
rear and his wounds dressed." Sergeant 
Lohh says that he was the man to whom the 
Colonel gave the lad, placing him upon his 
hack, and that he carried him to a place of 

That portion of the Regiment which re- 
mained in support of Randolph's Battery 
found Monday even more quiet than Sunday 

had been. They remained in the line occu- 
pied the day before until evening, when they 
fell back a little distance farther to a road run- 
ning nearly parallel with their former line. It 
was soon discovered that the object of this 
last movement was to facilitate their depast- 

ure from the field later in the evening — a 
measure which already had been determined 

on. About nine o'clock the order came to 
pack up and get oil' the ground as quietly as 
possible, and in about an hour they were on 
their way for the north side of the Rappa- 

'Phose who were On the picket line, except 
Major Spalding, were in utter ignorance of 
the movements going on in their rear. Their 

position was at best a dangerous one, owing 
to the close proximity of t he enemy's line, 
which was concealed in the woods a few 
yards distant, from which every movement 
on our line could be closely watched. Ser- 
geant Lobb thus describes the position: 
" We were posted two in a place, about four 
yards apart, on the bank of a ditch — a Vir- 
ginia fence ditch — running parallel with the 
railroad, witii strict orders not to lire except 
we were fired on. Between our line and the 
railroad which runs along the fool of the 
hill, lav a strip of land that 1 will call an 
Open meadow, covered with old coarse grass 

and young pines." General Early (Confed- 
erate) speaks of this place as "a small neck 
of swampy woods." It was a sag in the hills, 
one side of which our troops were occupying, 
while the opposite one was held by the ene- 
my. The army became well acquainted with 

" Virginia fence ditches," which were four 
or five feet in depth, with the earth usually 
thrown up in a ridge on one bank, on the 

top of which was frequently set a thick hedge 
of cedars. Lieutenant Lewis says: "We 
laid prostrate on the verge of a ditch live 

feet deep, with a little water in the bottom 

of it. Along this ditch the slaughter of Sat- 
urday had been terrible. Lead bodies and 
guns were in horrid profusion. There we 
lay from five o'clock Monday morning until 
two o'clock Tuesday morning, Hat on our 

As Major Spalding had command of this 
picket line, his own account is herewith 

given. He says : 

" We were left in quiet possession of the 

, , 

. bill tho Rebel ba 
lion in tho woods in front 
and their | inied ;v point of 


■ ^ ^ l >' 


\\\ la> . 




said tho field was 

that tho ni< - 

« inv men. Tho 

them their s We snocex U\l in 

SS - 







, tos - . 



hours and not be permitted to fire :i shot. 
[his is whal you seldom find old regiments 
willing to endure, Bui this Regiment bore 
it bravely, demonstrating beyond a question, 
thai they possess the courage that will take 
them any where in the face of the enemv." 

"On Monday night, ' says Genera] Birney, 
w under orders from General Stoneman, this 
division was withdrawn in good order and 
without loss of public property." That part 
of the Regiment not on picket retired with 
the rest of the division and bivouacked in 
the woods near the bridge and the next day 
joined by the others marched back near 
their former encampment on Stafford 
Heights. ■ 

The Colonel reported one killed and four 
wounded in the engagement. The one kill- 
ed Was William Tambiyn o( Company G 
He, his brother Richard, and his cousin, 
Sergeant Lobb, were Englishmen, who at 
the time of their enlistment had nol been 
naturalised, but with ardent zeal for the 
cause of human liberty, enlisted with Cap- 
tain Mumford, and William was the first in 
the Regiment to fall at the hands o\' the en- 
emy. He was a young man o\' excellent 
character and habits, taking an active pan 
1 1 1 he religious meetings in the Regiment and 
at the time of his enlistmenl was educating 
himself for the Christian ministry in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. On Sunday 
morning he was buried by his comrades on 
the field of battle. 

The tour reported wounded were James 
Nevins ^( Company A., in the side by a piece 
of shell, Sergeant William Jones ofCompa- 
n\ B, Lafayette Smith of Company G, and 
Charles Russell of Company I. 

As in every battle, there wore a number 

of narrow escapes. \ tninio ball out 
through the hoard of Captain Park. ''It 
didn't hurt any," said the Captain, " but it 
made a wonderfully uncomfortable singing." 
W. W. Miller of Company 1 had his pants 
out with a hall which passed so near the 
Besh as to burn it hnt did not draw blood. 

A number of the men found bullet holes in 
their clothes and in their knapsacks after 
reaching ramp hnt did not know when they 
they were made. The shells thrown by the 
enemy were mostly percussion, intende I to 
be exploded by the blow of striking upon 
the earth, but falling on the soft ground 
which the Regiment was occupying, the im- 
pact was nol sufficient t<> explode them, oth- 
erwise the loss wotdd have been much 

V flag of truce was sent into the enemy's 
linos on Monday. Sergeant Lobb savs 
" while the parleying was going on two uf 
of our doctors wont out and gave our wound- 
ed some water. Soon tin- flag of truce was 
withdrawn again leaving our wounded be- 
hind. In the afternoon the flag was finally 
accepted, and now those who had been ar- 
rayed in deadly combat were mingling to- 
gether. Each party left their guns within 
their own linos, and those sent out were for 
the purpose of bringing oil' the dead ami 
wounded, hnt once in a while Yankee Blue 
and Johnny Gray would stop and trade cof- 
fee or jack knives tor plug or Virginia leaf 
tobacco. A colonel in gray would yell out 
when the Blues and Grays stopped to trade*. 
The flag of truce, with tin- officers on each 
side> met so near my post that 1 saw and 
heard all of the transaction. The name of 
every wounded man was taken by both par- 
ties, company and regiment, also rank of 
any officer. The sixty or seventy dead that 
were brought in by my post were shamefully 
stripped of their clothing. Tin- officer on 
our sido made some remark about such con- 
ducl : the officer in gray turned it oil' by 
saying that it was contrary to orders. But 
what 1 saw tlu-n and many times afterwards 

showed it was not contrary to custom." 

During the cessation of hostilities the 

pickets met between the lines with the ut- 
most <j,ood nature, not only to negotiate the 
exchange <■>[' articles hut to talk over the oc- 
currences of the battle and the situation in 

which they were placed; and when notice 



was given that the time had expired for 
which the truce was granted the Blue and 
the Gray parted with mutual expressions of 
good will— "Good bye, Yank ! keep low be- 
hind that ditch — don't let us hit you." 
"Good bye, Johnny! keep out of sight and 
take care of yourself," were the parting sal- 
utations as each hastened to the cover of his 
own lines, and in a moment every head was 
out of sight. Mr. Lobb mentions three un- 
successful attempts to effect a truce. In his 
report General "'Stonewall" Jackson men- 
tions only the one that was granted. He 
says: " On the fifteenth the enemy still re- 
mained in our front, and in the evening of 
that day, sent in a flag of truce requesting a 
cessation of hostilities between his left and 
our right wing, for the purpose of removing 
his wounded from the field, which under 
previous instructions from the commanding 
General, was granted." 

The movements and incidents of the Regi- 
ment on this ill-starred field have been given 
with considerable minuteness of detail be- 
cause to the men it was a new experience 
and a new revelation. It was the first time 
they were under an enemy's fire, and it was 
here their first blood was shed. It afforded 
an index to their character and was an earn- 
est of their subsequent history. A letter 
from General Birney to Governor Curtin 
will be a fitting conclusion to this chapter: 
Camp Pitcher, 

Your Excellency : — It gives me pleasure 
to say to you that among the distinguished 
regiments of this old division in the battle 

ers First Division, ~k 
rHiRD Corps, \ 

i, Va., Dec. 19, 1862.) 

of Fredericksburg, were seven from Penn- 
sylvania, our patriotic old State. 

The Fifty-Seventh, Colonel Campbell ; Six- 
ty-Third, Major Danks; One Hundred Fifth, 
Colonel McKnight; Ninety-Ninth, Colonel 
Leidy, were identified with the glory of the 
command. But the Sixty-Eighth, Colonel 
Tippen ; the One Hundred and Fourteenth, 
Colonel Collis;One Hundred and Forty- 
First, Colonel Madid— new accessions— did 
much service, and withstood the enemy's 
charge with enthusiasm, driving him to his 
breastworks and cover. 

It was with peculiar delight, as a Penn- 
sylvanian, that I led so many Pennsylvania 
regiments to the support of the veteran " Re- 
serves," as that division was slowly and sul- 
lenly retiring before the overpowering foe ; 
that we relieved it from pursuit and repulsed 
the enemy with terrible slaughter. 

All of these regiments are fully entitled 
to have officially awarded to them, from the 
executive power, the right to add " Freder- 
icksburg" to the names already crowding 
their banners. May I ask you, amid your 
many duties, to have this compliment 
promptly paid them ? 

I regret to say that Colonel Campbell, 
Colonel Leidy and Major Hawksworth fell 
severely wounded while leading their com- 
mands. Many a brave Pennsylvanian gave 
his life for the glory of the old flag and the 
honor of our good State and country. 

I am your obedient servant, 

D. B. Birney, 
Brig. Gen. Com. Div. 

Governor Cvrtin, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Chapter IV. 


The Regiment returned on Tuesday, De- 
cember 16th, to its old camp, and after a 
short rest moved about a half a mile far- 
ther up the river toward Falmouth where 
the men laid down for the night. From the 
time of breaking camp to go to Fredericks- 
burg the weather had been mild. Early 
Tuesday morning there was a hard shower, 
followed by a warm, sunny forenoon which 
before the day closed was succeeded by a 
strong north wind, snow squalls and colder 
weather. The next day the order was re- 
ceived to build winter quarters and obeyed 
with alacrity. Every one in the camp was 
busy, some cutting poles for the body of a 
log-house, others fitting them to their places, 
others were plastering the sides with mud, 
and doing such parts of the house-building 
as convenience or taste might dictate. At 
the close of the week (he Regiment was com- 
fortably housed in their log cabins, each 
with a canvas roof, its fire-place, its bunks 
for sleeping, with rustic table and stools 
made usually of cracker boxes, — a great im- 
provement over toe little shelters under 
which they had been crawling for the past 
three months. Nothing else was attempted 
until Saturday, when the Regiment was out a 
couple of hours for inspection in order to as- 
certain what losses had been sustained on 
the battle field, and requisitions were needed 
to repair them, and make the men comforta- 
ble for the winter. The weather for the past 
two days had been extremely cold and the 
ground was frozen. 

This camp, was by the order of General 
Burnside called "Camp Pitcher, in honor 
of a true soldier who died (at Fredericks- 
burg) as the brave only die." 

Wednesday, the 24th, the weather was 
milder. At eight o'clock in the morning 
the Regiment was in readiness to march to 
the picket line, under command of Major 
Spalding, Colonel Madill being "Division 
officer of the day." As going on picket was 
with a single exception the only active mili- 
tary service in which the Regiment was en- 
gaged during the winter, a description of it 
as given by the officer in command may not 
be without interest. Major Spalding says: 

"On Tuesday night three regiments of 
our brigade were ordered to be ready at 
seven o'clock the next morning, to go out on 
picket, with three days' rations. Before we 
started an order came from General Hooker 
that General Robinson should add two more 
regiments and that he should go with us and 
take command. It is rather an uncommon 
thing for a General officer to be detailed 
upon this duty ; this, and the large force, 
showed that it was considered a matter of 
some importance. Colonel Madill being 
Division officer of the day could not go, so 
the command of the Regiment devolved 
upon me. We marched about six miles 
from camp and about three from the rail- 
road. Here the One Hundred Fifth under 
Colonel Craig, part of the Sixty-Eighth and 
the One Hundred Forty-First were ordered 
into a little valley to form a reserve, the 
balance were posted on the ridge in front. 
We were also ordered to divide the reserve 
into two parts or reliefs, one of which should 
at all times be under arms. Colonel Craig 
took command of one relief standing six 
hours, from three until nine o'clock ; I of 
the other from nine till three, alternately 
the day around. So we had " watch meet- 



ing," in which watching was the order of 
both the day and the night. [This was 
Christmas eve.] At nine o'clock our duties 
began. The men were called up, put on 
their belts and cartridge boxes, — guns were 
loaded, but stacked, the men staying close 
behind them until three o'clock in the 
morning. We had a guard to see that no 
one took a gun from the stacks without or- 

I passed the time comfortably walking 
back and forth along the line, or sitting 
down for a short time talking with the offi- 
cers and men of the different companies, yet 
all the time keeping a sharp look out for 
any alarm on the posts in front of us. At 
three o'clock I awoke Colonel Craig, who 
called up his men and we laid down and 
slept until morning. At nine in the morn- 
ing we took our turn again, and so we passed 
three days watching six hours, and resting 
six, until eleven o'clock Saturday morning 
when we were relieved by another brigade." 

The day after their return to camp was 
the customary Sunday morning inspection, 
when it was announced that General Robin- 
son had been assigned to the command of 
the Second Division of the First Corps, a 
just recognition of his military ability and 
services in the battle of Fredericksburg, and 
Colonel S. B. Hayman, of the Thirty-Sev- 
enth New York Volunteers was temporarily 
assigned command of the brigade. 

At dress parade, December 30th, General 
Robinson's address on leaving the brigade 
was icad, in which he praised the regiments 
for their conduct while under his command, 
and especially on the battlefield, and ex- 
pressed his regrets at being obliged to leave 

The next evening a circular was read 
from General Stoneman, commending in 
very warm terms the conduct of both officers 
and men in the late battle, and the timely 
arrival of our division, especially of our 
brigade, which saved the batteries and very 
probably the whole left wing of the army 
from destruction. 

I'or some days after the battle, the wound- 
ed demanded the entire attention of the sur- 
geons. Those left sick in camp, and others 
who became so either on the field or soon 
after, frequently suffered for want of proper 
care and attention. At this time two ladies, 
Miss ilattie R. Sharpless and Mrs. Charlotte 
E. McKay came to the Division Hospital as 
nurses, and at once with all a woman's tact 
and skill devoted themselves to the allevia- 
tion of the sufferings of the sick and wound- 
ed, and by their unwearied care many valu- 
able lives were saved. Miss Sharpless has 
resided in Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania, since 
the war. Mrs. McKay had a brother in the 
Seventh Maine Regiment, who was killed at 
Chancellorsville, and she while the battle 
was still raging went fearlessly upon the 
field to care for him, and others who were 
wounded. Many a soldier of the One Hun- 
dred Forty-First Regiment remembers with 
gratitude the kindly attentions of these de- 
voted and patriotic ladies in ministering to 
their needs, and their womanly sympathies 
in the hour of their discouragement and suf- 

On pleasant days there were the usual drills 
which with getting wood, policing the camp, 
and frequent inspections occupied a consider- 
able portion of the time. Friends of the boys 
began to avail themselves of the first prospect 
of quiet to visit the front, and learn from 
personal observation something of soldier 
life. On Wednesday, December 31st, the 
Regiment was again mustered for pay. As 
yet, although they had been more than four 
months in the service, they had received 
nothing but the twenty-five dollars bounty 
and two dollars premium paid by the Gov- 
ernment, together with what local bounty 
was given in some townships for volunteers. 
In many cases the men had left their fami- 
lies at home without sufficient provision for 
the rigors of winter, supposing of course 
that they would be paid every two months. 
The delay created uneasiness and some dis- 
content, but in the main, the long winter 



nights, and stormy days were spent if not 
pleasantly at least quietly. Sergeant Lobb 
secured candle wicking and molds from 
home, and out of the refuse tallow thrown 
away by the butchers, made candles which 
were supplied to the men at a merely nomi- 
nal rate, which with the open fire places 
and wood tires added much to the cheerful- 
ness of the log houses ami to the comfort of 
the men. 

The Adjutant's return for this date, De- 
cern her 31st, shows the strength of the Regi- 
ment as follows: 


D . /For duty 27 

present.. < Q . , ., 

( bick 2 

Absent 2 

Total 31 

A loss of six since the last return. 

f For duty 421 

p J On extra duty 2l> 

1 Sick 13o 

I Total 582 

as against 627 preseut November 30. 

Absent 255 

Making an aggregate of present and 

absent of 868 

a loss during the month of -in. 

Of the officers on the Colonel's staff. Dr. 
Allen had been promoted to surgeon of the 
Eighty- Third Pennsylvania Regiment, and 
Dr. John W. Thompson was appointed As- 
sistant Surgeon in his stead ; and Charles J. 
Eastabrook, Sergeant of Company D, was 
appointed Commissary Sergeant December 
31st, in place of Charles Mory, whose health 
had become so seriously impaired that De- 
cember 28th he was discharged on Surgeon's 
certificate of disability. 

In Company A, Second Lieutenant 
William T. Horton, after long contin- 
ued ill health, on the advice of the Surgeon, 
resigned December 22d, and was accordingly 
discharged. After coming home and par- 
tially recovering his health, Mr. Horton was 
appointed enrolling officer in the summer of 
1863, and the next spring became connected 

with the commissary department of the 
Army of Tennessee, with headquarters at 
Murfreesboro, where he remained until the 
close of the war, when he returned to Terry- 
town, engaged in business until 1881, when 
he was elected Sheriff of Bradford County, 
which office he now (1884) holds. 

The only change among the non-commis- 
sioned officers in the company was the pro- 
motion, November 18th, of Stephen Rought 
from private to sergeant. 

The Company lost by death George H. 
Babcock, who died December 15th. He 
was living in Tuscarora at the time of his 
enlistment, and was about twenty years of 
age. He was a son of William Babcock. 

He was buried in a little plot selected as a 
brigade burying ground on the farm and not 
far from the house of a well-to-do farmer nam- 
ed Walter Bay, on whose farm a part of Bir- 
ney's Division was encamped and the graves 
were marked with boards on which were writ- 
ten the name, company and regiment of the 
deceased. Mr Ray was sick when the army 
encamped there, and knew nothing of what 
was transpiring. He had a fine house sur- 
rounded with a peach orchard, a large pile 
of wood was in his yard, his farming imple- 
ments were well cared for. and everything 
bore marks of thrift and care. Our army 
first burned the wood, then cut down a grove 
near by, and at last cut down the orchard 
and finally dug out the stumps for fuel, be- 
fore they moved back to Potomac Creek. In 
the spring when Mr. Ray sufficiently recov- 
ered to go out of doors, he was perfectly be- 
wildered. In reply to the inquiries of some 
of the men, he said he did not know where 
he was ; the interior of the house looked like 
his ; but the grove, and the orchard he could 
not find, and he did not know there was a 
burying ground so near, — so completely had 
everything been destroyed. 

During the winter more than thirty from 
this Regiment alone were buried here. The 
bodies were subsequently removed, some be- 
ing brought home, others taken to one of 



the National cemeteries for permanent inter- 
ment. While in ramp, as far as possible the 
funeral ceremonies were observed with due 
solemnity by the Regiment, Pall bearers 
and a guard o\ honor were detailed from the 
company. The procession was led by the 
brigade band, and the corpse was followed 
by the company to whi :h the dead soldier 
belonged. The services at the grave con- 
ducted by the Chaplain consisted of reading 
a selection of Scripture, a brief address and 
appropriate prayers, after which the guard 
of honor tired the customary salute over the 
grave, and the procession was marched back 
to the Company Headquarters where it was 

There were also discharged from this 
Company, December 30th, as reported for 
physical disability on the Surgeon's certifi- 
cate, Corpora] .Martin B. Ryder, and pri- 
vates, Myron Mericle and George E. Mor- 

In Company 1'.. December 10th, Henry 
Keeler was mustered First, and Benjamin 
M. Peck, Second Lieutenant, although the 
appintments had been made at the organiza- 
tion oi the Regiment. 

On Surgeon's certificate of disability the 
following were discharged during the month 
of December, viz: Pearl C. Fassett, Oscar 
VV. Brown, Addison C. Arnold, John H. 
Kingsbury, Corporal Andrew A. St. John. 
Chester P. Hodge, Charles \Y. McCormick, 
James Mclntyre, Jesse A. Wilson. Eb< 
L. Silvara and Sergeaut Still man J. 1 i 

In Company C, John Chapman was pro- 
moted from Corporal to Sergeant, E 
Little and Charles Scott to Corporals. No- 
vember loth. 

On the 7th o( December, Edward H.Stine, 
son of George Stine, of Macedonia, since de- 
eeased, died of fever at Falmouth, at the age 
of twenty-one years. 

There were also discharged from this com- 
pany on Surgeon's certificate, Corporal Hi- 
ram Cole. Jacob MeXeal, James Salsbury, 
ami Nathaniel Hoiuiershot. 

In Company D, Chester Stewart was pro- 
moted to Corporal in place of Simeon G. 
Rockwell, who was discharged on Surgeon's 
certificate, October 6th. This company lost 
four men by death during the month oi De- 
cember, the first of whom was Amos ■■; .. son 
oi Isaac Barber o( South Hill. Orwell town- 
ship, a single man, who was taken sick with 
typhoid fever, while the Regiment was en- 
camped in the pines near Waterloo, and was 
carried in an ambulance to the encampment 
near Falmouth, where he died December 2d, 
at the age of twenty-nine yoars. Although 
apparently one of the most robust in health, 
he was the first in his company to yield his 
life a sacrifice to his country's need. Soon 
after receiving intelligence o( his death, fit- 
ting memorial services, conducted by Rev. 
Jeremiah Karnes, were held in the neigh- 
borhood o( his early home, in which a fitting 
tribute was paid to his memory. 

Davis Lathrop died on the 9th. 1! 
son o( the late Rev. William Lathrop, in 
Herriek. Bradford county. He died in camp 
near Falmouth, of typhoid lever, at the age 
of thirty-one yoars. On Sabbath, January 
L'oth, following, a vast concourse o{ people 
assembled in the Herriek church and 'listen- 
ed to a funeral discourse bv the Rev. .Mr. 
Stone, of Home. " Tearful were the eyes and 
sorrowful the hearts o\ those there assem- 
bled. He left a wife and one child." 

Mo- t >s Miller Carr contracted sickness 
from exposure at Chain Bridge, and was sent 
to hospital in Washington, and afterward 
transferred to Philadelphia, where he died 
December 20th, at the age o( about twenty- 
five years. His remains were brought home 
and interred at Hatch Hill, near New Al- 
bany, with appropriate funeral ceremonies 
conducted by Rev. George Williams. He 
left a wife and one child, the latter since 

The same day. December 20th, Percival 

F. lline, a young man about twenty-one 
years ol age, whose home was near Wind- 
ham, died in the Division Hospital, also of 



typhoid fever, and was buried in the Brig- 
ade burying ground. 

There were also discharged <>n Surgeon's 
certificate of disability, Franklin Babcock, 
Henry Buffington, and Sherman Shonp, and 
Fredrick M. Tingly was dismissed the ser- 

In Company E, Captain Joseph B. Reeve, 
who had never recovered from the sickness 
contracted at Poolesville, resigned Decem- 
ber 10th, and returned home. Mr. Reeve 
was born in Minnesink, Orange county, 1ST. 
Y.. March 24, 1825, came to Vthensin 1848, 
where he engaged in school teaching, read- 
ing law at the same time, lie was admitted 
to the bar in 1850, and continued in the 
practice of Ins profession until lie entered 
the service in 1862. After his return he 
was in the Provost Marshal's office some 
time in Troy, l'enna.. and then until the 
elose of the war at Baltimore. Md., when he 
returned to Athens, resumed the practice of 
law, and continued it until his death, May 
1 9th, 1879. He left two brothers, one since 
dead, the other resides in Missouri, and two 
sish'is, one of whom, Mrs. .1. E. Canfield, 
now resides in Athens. 

Second Lieutenant George C. Page, who 
was left sick at Pooleville, on the advice of 
his physicians, resigned December 29th, re- 
turned, and is now living in the vicinity of 

Thomas M. Gilmour died December 17th. 
lie was a farmer, on Moore's Hill, Ulster 
township, where he left his family. He was 
at his death nearly forty-three years of age. 
The Grand Army Post of lister is named 
in honor of his memory. 

Isaac C. Lane was discharged on Surgeon's 
certificate of disability. 

In Company F, besides Corporal Brain- 
erd, four had died, of whom account will be 
given at the end of this chapter. And on 
Surgeon's certificate of (Usability, Charles L. 
Seeley, Samuel Lindsey, Asa Green and 
Orange W. Tennant had been discharged. 

There were no changes in the organiza- 

tion of Company G, and only one death dur- 
ing the month of December, William Short, 
mentioned before. 

There were discharged on Surgeon's cer- 
tificate of disability, Frederick M. Reeves, 
Martin Reynolds and Sobiskie Tyler. 

In Company II, Logan o. Tyler was pro- 
moted from First Sergeant to First Lieuten- 
ant. September 22d, John L. Gyle from Sec- 
ond Sergeant to Second Lieutenant, Decem- 
ber 10th, Parker J. Gates was made First 
Sergeant, B. B. Atherion was promoted from 
Corporal, and Thomas Hickock was made 
t lorporai, September 23d. 

Lewis 1'". Harrow, a young man about 
twenty years of age, son of llerriek Harrow, 
of Liberty township, in Susquehanna Coun- 
ty, was taken sick and fell out on the march 
to the battlefield of Fredericksburg, was 
picked up and taken to Washington where 
he died December 18th, and was buried in 
Military Asylum Cemetery. 

There were discharged on Surgeon's cer- 
tificate of disability William 0. Markham, 
John McLeod, Elwood F.Gates, Harlan W. 
< iates, and John C ).\. 

On the 10th of December, in Company 1. 
First Lieutenant Edwin A. Spaldin . 

mustered as Captain, Second Lieutenant 
Charles Mcrcur as First Lieutenant, and 
First Sergeant John G. Brown as Second 
Lieutenant. At the same time John S. 
Frink was made First Sergeant, and George 
1'". Reynolds was made Sergeant. 

Three out of the company had died dur- 
ing the year. The first was Charles M., son 
of Charles .Taylor, of Standing Stone, an un- 
married man, about twenty-live years of age. 
was left sick at Camp Prescott Smith, when 
the Regiment went to Poolesville, whence 
he was sent to a hospital in Alexandria, 
where he died of inflammation of the bowels. 
November 24th, and was buried in the Na- 
tional Cemetery there, his grave being num- 
ber 1, 136. 

George W. Jakeway was born in Wash- 
ington County. N. J., but was living in 


Litchfield, Bradford County, at the time of 
liis enlistment. He died in camp near Fal- 
mouth, of typhoid lover, December, 27th, at 
the age of tliirty-eighl years. His remains 
were brought home and buried with appro- 
priate funeral services :tt Windham Summit. 
He K'i'i a wife and five children, one since 
dead, lo mourn his loss. 

David II. Schriver died at the Third 
Corps Hospital, near Falmouth, December 
26th, and was buried there. He was the son 
of John P. Schriver, who lived on Bullard 
Creek, and was about eighteen years of age. 

Joseph Towner, company musician, was 
discharged on Surgeon's certificate of disa- 
bility, as was also Moses Whaling; the lat- 
ter became exhausted on the march Septem- 
ber l-ili from Fairfax Seminary, and in or- 
der to keep along with the company flung 
away both blanket and overcoat, caught cold 
and was immediately taken sick with camp 
fever, was left behind when the Regiment 
weni to Poolesville, was discharged and 
reached home Sunday, December 7th, and 
died the following Friday, leaving a wife 
and a large family of children. A brother- 
in-law, Samuel (lore, was in Company 11. of 
the Fifty-Seventh Pennsylvania Regiment, 
was killed at Fredericksburg. Memorial 
services conducted In Rev. E. T. Dntcher 
were held in memory of both of them at the 
same time. 

Captain Jason K. Wright el' Company K, 
finding his health giving way from the ex- 
posure of active service, resigned December 
2d, ami returned to his home IK resided 
me time in Alliens, where he died 
several years since. His widow still sur- 
vives him. Mr Wright was a man greatly 
respected by his superior officers and greatly 
beloved by his men, but his advanced years 
and consequent physical infirmities made 
esiguation necessary. 

First Lieutenant Henry R. Dunham also 
resigned December 28th after being laid 
aside for some time on account oi' sickness. 
lie was from Laporte, Sullivan County, and 

enlisted a considerable number of men from 
tiiai county. "At a war meeting held in 
Au-nst, i.sol', after several speeches had 
been made, Henry R. Dunham, (then a 
member of the liar to which lie had been 
admitted the May previous, i arose and said 

' \ number of speakers have said Gol 1 say 
come!' And put his name down. Februa- 
ry 11, 1864, be was appointed Second Lieu- 
tenant of Company E of the Thirteenth Reg 
iment, United States colored troops, lie 
was in the Fort Fisher expedition, and serv- 
ed under General 'ferry until the close if 
the war, and was mustered out with his 
regiment. He was tor a lime after his re- 
turn in the employ of Welles and Aokley, 
of Dushore, afterward went to Kansas, re- 
turned to his home in Laporte where he died 
September 5, 1 > 7 7 , at the age of thirty- 
nine year-. 

This ( 'ompany lost by death, John ( rower, 
December 2d, in camp near Falmouth. He 
was the son of \udtvu Cower, a resilient of 
Davidson town-hip. Sullivan County, a far- 
mer by occupation, and about twenty-five 
years of age. He left a wife and two chil- 

John 11. Place died of typhoid fever, in 
hospital, near Falmouth, December 15th, a* 
about nineteen years of age. He enlisted 
with Captain Wright from Smiihfield. His 
commanding officer writes o( him, " He was 
one of tin best specimens of a man physical- 
ly, we had in our company. The stir-eon 
who examined him said he never examined 
a man of more perfect physique. We fell 
his loss very much." 

Oliver Quick, a married man. with no 
children, died in hospital at Washington, 
December 25th, at the age of twenty-three, 
of camp fever. He was buried in the Mili- 
tary Asylum Cemetery. 

Henry Quick was discharged, on Surgeon's 
certificate of disability, December 30th. 

The first of January. L863, was a beautiful 
day. One of the men writes : •' There is no 
frost in the ground, u is warm as April up 
in old Bradford." There luul been rumor- 



of another move upon the enemy, but they 
had blown over, and the R 'giment felt they 
were settled in their quarters until the end 
of winter] and were busy when not on drill, 
in arranging tilings in their little houses for 
their comfort, writing to friends, and occa- 
sionally indulging in a game of ball or in 
other amusements. 

On Friday, January 2d, Birney's Division 
was reviewed by General Stoneman. li was 
a bright, balmy day and the review was a 
very line one ; on the .Monday following the 
entire Third Corps was reviewed by General 
Burnside. The day was sunny and warm as 
a Mayday; the roads dry and dusty. A.bout 
fifteen thousand troops were in line. The 
Colonel in writing of it, says: "The review 
was a grand affair. The troops passed in 
columns by divisions, doubled on the center." 
General Burnside was attended by his staff, 
and accompanied by Generals Stoneman, 
Sickles, and Birney. The plain on which 
(he review was held was large and nave 
plenty, of room for display. The boys were 
ai their best, their uniforms neatly brushed, 
shoes blacked, and their arms polished until 
they shone like silver. Taken altogether, it 
was one of the finest reviews the corps had 
ever made, and (he men of the One Hundred 
Forty-First marched hack to their quarters 
with (he proud satisfaction (hat (hey had 
borne (heir part well in the grand pageant. 

In the few days of repose allowed the army 
they were served with a great variety of ra- 
tions, potatoes, cabbage, onions and pickles. 
Flour and corn meal were also issued, and 
hot cakes made of the meal or Hour mixed 
with water, which were made light by using 

vinegar and lie leached from the ashes of 
their tent fires for an alkali, instead of bak- 
ing powder, varied the diet from hard bread 
and were much more palatable. 

The place of the encampment was inti- 
mately associated with the early life of the 
Father of his Country, and on pleasant days, 

the men as opportunity offered, rambled over 

(he hills and along (he river bank to obtain 

what information (hey could of the country 
and its places of interest, \ letter written 
at this time by a member of the Regiment 
describes one of these rambles so vividly that 
1 cannot refrain from quoting it. He says : 
"1 got permission from the Captain to no 
down io the bank of the river opposite Fred- 
ericksburg, and view the city, and also the 
place of Washington's birth, and the home 
of his youth, [t is said that an old log house 
occupies the ground where Washington was 
born, but among ill those of whom we en- 
quired, we found none who could direct us 
to the spot, so we gave up (he search, satis- 
lied with being near the place. Next we 
walked out near the bank of the river, in 
front of the Lacy house, a very large brick 
mansion, about which the grounds aresplen- 
didly arranged, and everything bears the ap- 
pearance of its having once been the home 
of a wealthy Southerner, From one position 
we had a fair view of the city. It is evident- 
ly deserted. Only occasionally could a per- 
son be seen in the streets. Among the many 
buildings, there are but few that show signs 
of life. It had the appearance of death, and 
one could not look upon it without a shud- 
der. The tall church spires looked lonely, 
and the half-burned and shattered buildings 
tell hard stories of the destructive and deso- 
lating influences of war. The battle held 
opposite and below the city was plainly vis- 
ible. Hack on the hills, wherever good po- 
sitions could be obtained, lines of breast- 
works anil cannon are plainlyseen. Looking 
at these and the advantageous ground they 

occupy, 1 think it would be folly to try them 


The beautiful days which ushered in the 

new year were soon followed by rain storms 
and cold. Prills by company, battalion and 
brigade were had whenever tin' weather was 
suitable, and inspections were frequent. 

Although the health of the men had great- 
ly improved, yet considerable sickness slill 

prevailed in the Regiment. A member of 
Company I, writing under date of January 
1 1th, says : " This morning our company r< - 

\ ; ' i 

'i;t twenty men fordu y. We started 

from Harrisburg with eighh linen. 

Some captured and paroled, some 

have deserted, 

some h to their long home, and a 

good • - is the smallest 

number our company ' - 

- ire reduced as much." 

period now under i n was 

•my of the Potomac had e' 

e the judgment as to Mo- 

commander, that his 

high in their confidence 

and esl bt, and that 

rd with distrust and 

This sitied by the 

it that 

i ad made was a 

fruitless - ixnupe- 

md its 




tie, the 


- • 

•k, by 



that with a high regard f :n- 

side's person and character, his ud 

patriotism, his leadership itly dis- 
trusted and feared. 

It was noi ,e therefore that the 

men of the One Hundred Forty-First should 
have partaken of the spirit prevailing in 
army. The letters written hone, the enti 
in their diaries, all reflect the general tone 
of despondency. One of the officers iu the 
Regiment writes "everybody has got the 
Dt Lobb says the " winter oi 
is often spoken of as the 
moralized winter, but 1 prefer the term 
grumbling winter." This phras< 

as any characterises the spirit ot 
men. Disappointed and 

tritles and to grumbh 
e ry t 



: he 
- - 

iron on his right hip, 

- at the poii 


On Thursday, the 15th, 1 

uns s sh- 


I his health 



Virginia, then so prominent a theme o\ dis- 
cussion in the columns of newspapers, and 
by the public, such was the sentiment at the 
North, that he could not possibly afford to 
hold his army in camp. Meridian had 
been removed from command because he 

was SO slow — the new commander must not 
he liable to the same charge. A laudable 
desire to cover the stigma of defeat with the 
laurels t,>[ victory, to inspire his army with 

confidence and courage, as well as to do 
something to meet public expectation, for- 
bade his continuing idle or even giving his 

army a needed rest. Checked in his plan of 
attempting to turn Lee's right wing, he 
determined to take the only alternative left 
him. cross the Rappahannock above Fred- 
ericksburg and endeavor to turn Lee's left 
wing and compel the evaluation o( Freder- 
icksburg. In older to mask his movements 
roads were cut to various points on the river, 
by which the army, unobserved by the ene- 
my's picket-, could he marched to the point 
designated for crossing; pontoon boats for 
the bridges, ordnance and stoics were got in 
readiness tor the contemplated advance. 

On Thursday, January loth, orders were 
issued to send all who could not march ten 
miles to the hospitals, which was the first 
intimation received by the army that a 
movement was in contemplation. The next 
day was very rainy, and the roads, which 
luul become dry and hard, were covered with 
water. In the morning orders were issued 
to he in readiness to move at an early hour 
Saturday morning— toward evening the time 
was changed until one o'clock Sunday after- 
noon. Saturday the preparations lor the 
inarch were pushed forward. The weather 
had cleared and become much colder. The 
men were provided with live days' rations o\ 
meat and hard bread; all garrison and camp 
equipage, arms not in use and stores were 
turned over to the proper officers, and all 
arrangements made for an active campaign. 

t m Sunday the orders to inarch were coun- 
termanded by postponing the movement 

until Mon. lay, ami then it was deferred 
until Tuesday. The weather had In- 
come quite wintry and the ground was 

The center t I rand Division under ( lencral 
Hooker was designated to lake the advance. 
and the First Brigade (Robinson's) of the 
First Division was in the front. T« that 
brigade was assigned the duty o\' assisting 
to lay the bridge, of taking possession of the 
heights on the south side of the river and 
holding them until the army had crossed. 
It was to he the "forlorn hope" of the 

movement. The position assigned the One 

Hundred Forty-First was the most perilous. 
They were ordered to be ready at half-past 
three o'clock in the morning to cut loose 
from the brigade, cross the river in the 
boats, drive oil' whatever pickets or sharp- 
shooters of the enemy there might he on the 
hank, and take possession of the hill on 
which there was a slight breastwork over- 
looking the site selected for the bridge, and 
hold it until the bridge was fastened and the 
brigade passed over. It was no small com- 
pliment to the character of the officers and 
men of this comparatively new regiment, 
that for the second time it had been selected 
for a place i-( great danger and responsibility, 
w lure everything dep( nded upon their cool- 
ness and courage, where the cowardice i'f a 
single man or the blunder o( an officer 
might not only impi ril the Regiment, hut 
seriously embarrass the success of the move- 
ment. Other regiments might surpass them 
in parade or on review, in the glitter and 
show of military display, hut where pluck 
and skill and endurance were needed, the 
commanding officers of the army always felt 
the One Hundred Forty-First could he de- 
pended upon. 

About half-past ten o'clock on Tuesday 
morning, January liOth. the Regiment was 
in line, marched to the parade ground, 
stacked arms ami listened to General Burn- 
side's address to his troops, read by the Ad- 
jutant, lie said they were about to meet 
the enemy once more, assured them of his 



confidence in their courage and their unfal- 
tering readiness to perform their whole duty. 
This was followed by a brief but earnest ad- 
dress from the Colonel, directed mostly to 
the commissioned officers, when the men re- 
lumed to their quarters, strapped on their 
knapsacks, and at eleven o'clock the com- 
mand, " Forward !" was given, and the troops 
again -tailed for the south side of the Rap- 
pahahnock. The morning was frosty, the 
wind from the northeast, but as the day ad- 
vanced the weather became warmer, with 
more threatening indications of storm. The 
roads were in splendid condition, hard, dry, 
and smooth as a floor. The route was up the 
Warrenton road a distance of about six 
miles, from which point a road had just been 
'■ut to the river, about four miles further. It 
was so far behind the hills that the move- 
ments of the army on it were completely 
hidden from the enemy. Accompanying the 
brigade was a splendid train of artillery of 
about one hundred guns, many of them rifled, 
and following closely behind was the pon- 
toon train. The troops were cautioned to 
move as rapidly and as quietly as possible. 
About seven o'clock in the evening the bri- 
gade halted for the night, with orders to be 
in readiness to move at four o'clock next 
morning. The place of bivouack was about 
a mile from the river, in the direction of 
Bank's ford, five miles above Falmouth, 
near Scott's mills, in a thicket of {lines. 
Strict orders were given not to light fires 
lest the presence of the troops should be dis- 
covered by the enemy, and consequently the 
boys were obliged to go to bed without their 
coffee- Before nine o'clock officers and men, 
rolled up in their blankets on the bare 
ground on that mid-winter's night, with no 
covering but the heavens and no shelter but 
the trees, wearied with the march, had 
scarcely fallen asleep before the rain began 
io fall, gently at first, but rapidly increasing 
until it poured like a summer's shower, and 
- i continued all the night. 

Between three and four o'clock in the 
morning the men of the One Hundred 

Forty-First began to be aroused. Some in 
the Twentieth Indiana Regiment w< 
before them and bad lighted small fires and 
were cooking their breakfast. Cold, wet, 
hungry, human endurance could stand it no 
longer, and the Pennsylvania soldiers deter- 
mined to follow the example of their Indi- 
ana comrades. It had not yet begun 10 be 
light, everything was drenching wet, and 
the rain still pouring down, it was therefore 
no easy matter to kindle fires, and both pa- 
tience and perseverance were put to the test, 
but crowned with success at last. Breakfast 
was hastily prepared and eaten, and the men 
ordered out to assist in getting the boats to 
the river. 

The morning was now just beginning to 
dawn, and such a sight it is probable never 
before greeted the eyes of mortals. The 
ground was covered with water, which was 
soon transformed into a sea of mud. On the 
roads, horses and men had been floundering 
in it all night until from sheer exhaustion 
they had Hung themselves down wherever 
they happened to be, unable to go farther. 
The night before a battery of five or six guns 
had been got into position to cover the par- 
ties who were to lay the bridges, but the rest 
were scattered along the road from the War- 
renton Pike to the river. Of the pontoons 
which were to have been on the river's bank- 
before daylight, not one had yet arrived. The 
yielding frost, the peculiar soil and the con- 
stant rain had made the ground so soft that 
the wagons sank to their axles and the teams 
could not stir them. Colonel Watkins esti- 
mated the mud from fifteen to twenty-five 
inches deep, and no one who was there 
would think it over-estimated. Swinton says : 
" The nature of the upper geologic deposits 
of this region affords unequalled elements 
for bad roads, for it is a soil out of which, 
when it rains, the bottom drops, and yet 
which is so tenacious that extrication from 
its clutch is next to impossible." The same 
author continues : " Herculean efforts were 
made to bring pontoons enough into position 
to build a bridge or two withal. Double and 



triple teams of horses and mules were har- 
nessed to each boat, but it was in vain. 
Long, stout ropes were then attached to the 
teams and a hundred and fifty men put to 
the task on each. The effort was but little 
more successful. Floundering through the 
mire for a few feet, the gang of Liliputians 
with their huge-ribbed Gulliver, were forced 
to give over, breathless. Night arrived, but 
the pontoons could not be got up, and the 
enemy's pickets discovering what was going 
on, jocularly shouted out their intention to 
'come over to-morrow and help build the 
bridges.' " 

In a letter written immediately after the 
return of the Regiment to camp, Major 
Spalding says : " About daylight the Sixty- 
Third, the One Hundred Fourteenth and 
the One Hundred Forty First were ordered 
out to help the teams. Long ropes were 
attached to the pontoon wagons and a hun- 
dred or more men would take hoid of each, 
and with six or eight horses would drag 
them up the hill, which was about fifty or 
sixty rods across a field. We worked until 
about one or two o'clock, when we went back 
to our stopping place in the woods and oth- 
ers took our places; but the ground became 
so soft that it was hardly safe to ride over 
the field, and it was evident we must give it 
up, as we could do nothing with the artillery 
upon such ground, and we could not get half 
the boats to the top of the hill, which was 
about half a mile from the river." At night 
only fifteen boats had been dragged to the 
top of the hill, and twenty were required for 
a single bridge. 

All day the rain continued to pour with- 
out hardly a moment's cessation, and as 
night closed down upon the wet, mud-be- 
drabbled, tired, hungry troops everything 
came to a stand still from sheer inability to 
move. Literally and emphatically the 
Army of the Potomac was " stuck in the 
mud." Some of the men lay down in their 
wet blankets and slept, others sat about the 
smoky fires, while others tried to extempo- 

rize bed and shelter out of the pine boughs. 
Wednesday night was foggy, drizzly, and 
rainy, and those best protected slept but lit- 
tle. For the first time a ration of whisky 
was issued this evening. Thursday the 
question was not how to advance, but how to 
get back to camp. Details of men were 
made to corduroy the roads, and others to 
help up the supply wagons which were four 
miles distant, but the latter returned after 
finding all efforts to accomplish this fruit- 
less. This evening the picket lines of each 
army was on opposite banks of the river, 
and after a little banter over the situation, 
entered into friendly conversation, and after 
dark crossed from one side to the other ex- 
changing Federal coffee, sugar and salt for 
Confederate tobacco. 

On Friday morning, January 23d, orders 
were received to return to the old camp. At 
ten o'clock the army w;ts again in motion. 
One writes, "Our route back was much 
more direct, through the woods, fields, and 
over the hills, regardless of roads, rank or 
file. It was muddy at the best. We took 
our lime and got back to camp about five 
o'clock in the afternoon, the distance was 
about *six miles." 

The storm was over, a bleak northwest 
wind was blowing, and before morning the 
ground was frozen hard again. The men 
were very greatly provoked to find that 
stragglers ami convalescents from a Maine 
regiment had come to the camp in their ab- 
sence and had torn down some of their 
houses and cut up the logs for wood. The 
mischief however was soon repaired, and 
the Regiment took the next few days to rest 
from the march and get rid of the mud. A 
letter written by Colonel Watkins on the re- 
turn of the troops to camp and published in 
the Bradford Reporter of February 5th, 
1863, gives so vivid an account of the whole 
affair that a paragraph or two will be quoted. 
He says : 

" From the proposed place of crossing to 
our present camp, the roads were blocked 



up with wagons which could not be moved 
and the rain still falling. On the morning 
of the 21st our regiment with others was de- 
tailed to help these foundered wagons to the 
top of the bluff near the river. Passing and 
re-passing over the roads and fields, only 
serve. I to mortarize the roads ; and finally 
through sheer inability of men and horses 
to wade, the bridge contract was abandoned 
after we had succeeded in dragging some 
twenty pontoons and fifty guns to the top of 
the bluff. It was now noon of the 21st, and 
the rebel force was rapidly coming to the 
defense of the place which must have inev- 
itably fallen into our hands had not the ele- 
ments prevented. The bluff's upon the op- 
posite shore were higher than upon our own, 
affording such a natural defence that the en- 
emy had neglected increasing its strength 
except by a small breastwork which had 
been raised to defend a ford which exists at 
that point. By noon however the crests of 
their hills were covered with busy rebels 
digging all conceivable kinds of defenses, so 
that when we were reluctantly obliged to 
postpone the advance, their position had be- 
come absolutely impregnable. In addition 
to other difficulties, the river already consid- 
erably swollen, was rapidly raising. 

The next question was how to get "unset- 
tled,'' or out of our bad scrape. A large 
force was put to work building corduroy 
roads, and by dint of teams and men tugging 
and teamsters swearing, our guns, ammuni- 
tion and provision trains were got into a po- 
sition of safety. Many pontoons however 
still remain stuck or piled upon poles wait- 
ing for deliverance. * * We arrived in 
camp about dark last night, after a pleasant 
walk of ten miles through the mud and 
three nights sleep in the rain. We had 
been on short rations and our horses on no 
rations at all since noon of the day before, 
in consequence of our supply wagon being 
unable to reach us. * * That he [Burn- 
side] did not succeed was no fault of his. A 
vast army was silently and suddenly assem- 

bled within a few rods of the enemy without 
the least disorder or confusion. J Tow so 
great a number of men could inarch by so 
many different routes and arrive at a given 
point in such order, and go into camp in the 
prescribed place and yet make so little noise 
and let so little be known of their arrival is 
a mystery to me. That we failed is attrib- 
utable only to the elements. Yesterday 
morning the rebels had learned our condi- 
tion and displayed upon the opposite shore 
a large board marked ' Burnside stuck in the 
mud.' "' 

It was a costly experiment in both men 
and material ; much had been suffered and 
nothing gained, but the folly of attempting 
military operations upon a large scale in 
Virginia during the winter was completely 

Hardly had the news of this second disas- 
ter been flashed over the wires ere it was 
announced that the Army of the Potomac 
had again changed commanders; President 
Lincoln accepted the resignation of General 
Burnside, and January 20th, Major-rteneral 
Hooker was appointed his successor, and the 
same day the appointment was officially an- 
nounced to the army, and at dress parade on 
the olst, Burnside's address on relinquish- 
ing, and Hooker's on assuming command of 
the army was read. The new commader set 
to work at once to infuse a better spirit into 
the army. 

Leaves of absence for ten days were sys- 
tematically granted officers, to afford them 
opportunity to visit their homes, and deser- 
tions were greatly checked by granting fur- 
loughs to a certain number at a time of the 
enlisted men. courts of inquiry were estab- 
lished to examine all cases of alleged over- 
staying the time granted. Under this arrange- 
ment nearly all the officers and many of the 
men of the One Hundred Forty-First were 
enabled to visit their homes during the months 
of February and March. Hooker abolished 
the arrangement of the army into Grand Di- 
visions which had been found cumbersome 



and inefficient. Recognizing the efficiency 
of a suitable cavalry force, he at once in- 
creased largely this arm of the service and 
gave it a new organization placing it under 
the command of General Stoneman, who 
was consequently relieved of the command 
of the Third Corps, February 8th, by Gen- 
eral Daniel E. Sickles who had commanded 
the Second Division of the Corps. 

At the battle of Fair Oaks, General Kear- 
ney ordered the soldiers of his division to 
sew a piece of red flannel on their caps so 
that in the confusion and tumult of battle he 
could recognize them, from this they became 
known in the army as the " Red Patch Di- 
vision," and the red patch was a badge of 
honor among their comrades, and of respect 
among their foes. Hooker developed the 
idea and gave each corps a distinct badge, 
the divisions of which were designated by 
the prescribed color of the badge. Out of 
respect to the memory of General Kearney, 
the badge of his old division was the red di- 
amond, the other divisions of the Third 
Corps wore white and blue diamonds re- 
spectively. On the 23d of March orders 
were given the One Hundred Forty-First 
Regiment that hencefjrth each officer and 
enlisted man when on duty must have the 
" Red Patch " fastened upon his hat or cap. 

A question having arisen as to seniority 
in rank of the several Colonels in the Bri- 
gade, after due examination, January 26th, 
Colonel Van Valkenburg of the Twentieth 
Indiana was declared to be senior in rank, 
Colonel Collis of the One Hundred Four- 
teenth, next, Colonel Tippen of the Sixty- 
Eighth, third, Colonel Madill of the One 
Hundred Forty-First, fourth, Colonel Mc- 
Knight of the One Hundred Fifth, fifth, and 
Colonel Morgan, of the Sixty-Third, sixth. 

Storms of rain and snow were frequent, 
and much of the time the roads were ren- 
dered nearly impassable on account of the 
mud. The camps were frequently inspected 
and most thorough cleanliness was required. 
The sick were examined by a board of sur- 

geons and those likely to be for a time unfit 
for duty were ordered to be sent to the hos- 
pitals. Schools of instruction were institut- 
ed. The field officers were regularly exam- 
ined and instructed in their several duties 
and in army tactics by an officer appointed 
for that purpose, the commissioned officers 
of the Regiment were instructed by the Col- 
onel, and the non-commissioned officers by 
the commanding officers of the respective 
companies, and drills and inspections were 
required whenever the weather was suitable. 
On Thursday, February 5th, the Regiment 
was paid for the first time, receiving two 
months' pay, although more than five months' 
pay was due, yet the sum paid relieved many 
from considerable embarrassment and bright- 
ened materially the spirits of the men. 

On the 8th the Field and Staff' officers in 
Birney's Division called to take leave of 
General Stoneman, who had been promoted 
to the command of the entire cavalry force 
of the Army of the Potomac. 

On the 10th the whole brigade went out 
on picket and remained until the 13th. Fre- 
quent inspections enforced cleanliness both 
of the troops and the camps. Almost dailv 
policing, (as cleaning up the camp was call- 
ed,) and the weekly Saturday washing were 
the established regulations of the army. A 
greater variety of rations was also issued, 
potatoes, onions, cabbage, pickles, and dessic- 
ated vegetables were almost daily distribut- 
ed, and what perhaps was as great a luxury as 
any, soft bread took the place of the hard 
crackers. As indicating the practical 
strength of the Regiment on Wednesday, 
February 18th, five hundred and forty-nine 
loaves of bread, one for each man, were is- 

A good deal of uneasiness was felt among 
both the officers and men in the Regiment 
over rumors and orders of changes in bri- 
gade organization. On the 17th, Colonel 
"VVatkins writes, " We received lots of orders 
to-day regarding a re-organization of the 
Pennsylvania troops." On the 24th Colonel 



Mtvdill received an order to report with his 
Regiment to General Ward of the Second 
I le, but before night the order was tem- 

porarily snpended, and on the 3d of March 
to the great joy of all the proposed change 
was revoked by special order. The latter 
part of the month n number who bad been 
left behind sick at Poolesville, Leesburg and 
other places, and some who had been cap- 
tured, paroled and exchanged, returned, yel 
the actual strength of the Regiment was not 
materially increased. February 2Sth rations 
were issued to five hundred and forty-live 
men, and five were sick in field hospital, 
making the whole number of enlisted men 
present five hundred and fifty. 

Wood becoming scarce about Camp Pitch- 
< r, for this and other reasons it was thought 
advisable to select a now place for the en- 
campment. On Tuesday, March 3d, orders 
were received to be ready to move at nine 
o'clock the next morning. The weather on 
Wednesday was clear but cold. Early the 
camp was astir, everything was packed and 
the Regiment in lino at the prescribed hour, 
and at noon the now camping place was 
reached. It was about four miles northerly 
from their old quarters, and about three- 
fourths of a mile from Potomac Crook in a 
piece of beautiful oak timber; this was 
known as Camp Sickles. 

The lime for which the Twentieth Indiana 
Regiment had enlisted having about expir- 
ed, at a meeting hold February 19th, they 
resolved not to re-enlist, but ask to be sent 
Their request was complied with, 
and at the moving of camp the Fifty St v- 
enth Pennsylvania Regiment, commanded 
by Colonel Peter Sides, took its place. 

U'ter the promotion of General Robinson, 

i llavman commanded the brigade 

for a >liort time when he was transferred to 

ued to be some difficulty In deciding 
upon the name for this camp; li «.>.- "Camp in 
Woo Is, " I »inp near Potomac Creek," 

i overn >r Curtln It was called for a few 

I amp Curtln." On itio evening of A pill 

iitti tin were beaded "Camp Sickles" 

which name it retained while occupied by the 

aruij . 

another brigade, and the command devo'.ved 
lonel Van S T alkenburg of the Tweiti- 
eth Indiana. Uter this regiment was trais- 
ferred, Colonel Col lis of the One Hundred 
Fourteenth, took command in virtue ofsenkr- 
itv in rank. 

The next four days were spent in building 
now quarters. Considerable improvement 
was made over the old huts at Camp l'itei- 
or, being built larger and higher, and some 
of them floored with split logs. On the 9th 
the whole brigade worn on picket. Colonel 
Madill took three hundred and fourteen men 
all except camp guards and those on extra 
limy, belonging to the Regiment tit for ser- 
vice. Here the brigade remained until 
noon of Friday, the 12th. On the afternoon 
of the 11th ''intelligence was received that 
a raid was expected on the picket 
line at the time it begins to be day- 
light. The Regiment was kept under arms 
from an early hour in the morning until af- 
ter SUtltisO.' 

The monotony of camp lit'o, as the spring 
approached was varied and brightened by 
several incidents. On the 13th one o( the 
officers on General Sickles' staff was married 
at Headquarters, to which the field officers 
were invited and which was an occasion of 
rejoicing tor the whole corps. Later the 
wives of the field officers k( the Regiment 
naid them a visit, and enlivened the camp 
by their presence. Besides ball plays, am! 
sports o( various kinds as the weather would 
permit, a general gala day was planned to 
be spent at Division Headquarters mi the 
•27th of March. Races both of horses and 
men. of various kinds, saek races, climbing 
a greased pole, and such like were partici- 
pated in ami enjoyed. The officers of the 
brigade took part in the sports and Colonel 
Watkins won the prize at one o( the races 
much to the delight of the boys of his Regi- 

ng the reforms instituted in the bri- 

while under the command of Colonel 

Collis, was the organization of a Brigade 



Band. A very line band was connected 
with his regiment, the One Hundred Four- 
teenth, when it wont into the service, l>ut 
was unfortunately lefl behind on the return 
of the army from Fredericksburg and cap- 
tured by the enemy, since then the music 
in (lie brigade had been of a very inferior 
quality. Details of the best musicians wore 
made from the several companies by order 
of the Colonel commanding the brigade, and 
instruments procured, and the Brigade Hand 

Al dress parade in the evening of Satur- 
day, March 7th, the Colonel of the regiment 
informed the* men thai he had the promise 
of seventy- five Springfield rifles to be given 
as a reward to the company that was reported 
best at the next general inspection, and it 
any were left they should be given to the 
second best company. 'The inspection was 
held on the 15th of March, and Company < J, 
was awarded first, and Company K second 
In the order of excellence. < >n the follow- 
ing Thursday the successful companies were 
awarded the coveted prizes. An officer of 
one of the companies writes, "they are not 
much better than our Austrian guns, but the 
name is worth working for." 

On the 21st of March Brigadier-General 
( iharles K. < l-raham was assigned to the com- 
mand of the First Brigade, and on the" 26th 
arrived at headquarters. This day Governor 
Curtin, who had been spending a few days 
among the troops, in company with General 

Sickles, reviewed ( he di vision. Tin 1 display 

was very line, the men appearing at their 
best, very much to the gratification of their 
own officers by whom they were warmly 

The First Brigade was the last reviewed 
in the division. At this time it was com 
posed exclusively of Pennsylvania troops. 

After the other two were dismissed, this was 
formed in a hollow square with the Gover- 
nor and the officers in the centre, and were 
addressed by the Governor in a short, patri- 

otic speech, during which he was heartily 

cheered by the hoys sevcrai times. 

< >n the last days of the month orders were 

issued which looked as though another move 
of the army was imminent. Surplus bag- 
gage was directed to be turned over to the 
proper officers, and things weie beginning to 

be got in readiness lo break camp. The win 

ter had been used to thoroughly re- 
organize the army, and by frequent drills, in- 
spections, schools of instruction, and reviews 
the troops hail heen brought up to a high 

standard of discipline ami efficiency. " In 
I Cooker's grandiose style, ii was t he grandest 

army on the planet.'' Stormy weather ami 
had roads made il necessary to defer the 
movement for some days. In the early pari 
of April President Lincoln and family visit- 
ed tin- army and were received with every 
mark oi respect. »)n Wednesday, the 8th, 
he reviewed three corps of the army, the 
next day the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps, 
and on Friday the Third Corps. General 
Hooker accompanied him. These reviews 
were very brilliant affairs, and indicated the 
high discipline and drill which the troops 
had attained. 

A member of the Regiment thus describes 

the affair. The Regiment had returned 
from picket the night before, and many sup- 
posed they had missed the opportunity of 
seeing him. Orders were issued lo he ready 
for inspection at ten o'clock in the morning, 

and soon it was known that Birney's Divis- 

it'll was ordered out lo see I he President and 

parly start for Washington "The Division 

was formed in two lilies, on each side of the 
road along which the party was to pass. As 

far as the eye could reach the glittering 
lines of bayonets extended. It was an im- 
posing spectacle. About eleven o'clock the 

President and his retinue made their ap- 
pearance. I 'i rst were Mr. Lincoln's sons 

with an attendant, General Birney next, fol 

lowed by the President, Mrs. Lincoln, and 

I General Hooker in a carriage, then followed 
a long line of Generals, Colonels, stair oi'i- 



cers and others, and lastly a regiment of 
cavalry. ^s the party passed the heads ot 
brigades their respective bands played 
" Hail to the Chief," and as it passed each 
regiment nine rousing cheers were given, 
three for the President, three for General 
Hooker and three for General Birney. All 
were gratified with a sight of the great chief- 
tain and family. Tiny returned to camp, and 
were mustered in the afternoon by the Colo- 
nel to ascertain the number of men i 
to till the Regiment to its maximum num- 

Each company was also directed to build 
a cook house, and two men wore detailed to 
cook the rations for the remainder of the 
company. Tliis gave considerable dissatis- 
faction, and as soon as the army broke camp 
the men returned to their former custom, 
eaeli one to cook for himself, or associate in 
voluntary messes for that purpo 

The men were required to have on hand at 
all times eight days' rations, part of which 
shoul 1 be carried in their knapsacks. L T nder 
date of April 14th, Sergeant Owen, of Com- 
pany I. writes: " Last night the orders were 
as follows: That every man should have 
sixty rounds of cartridges, and that the fol- 
lowing articles should he packed in knap- 
sacks, viz: One shirt, one pair of drawers, 
and one pair ot sock- ; and tent 

strapped outside : in the pocket of knapsack 
should be neatly packed five days' rations of 
hard bread, coffee, sugar and salt. All 
blankets, extra clothing, hooks, portfolios, 
etc., should he tied up in bundles, each man's 
separately, marked and turned over to the 
Quartermaster. Besides the rations in the 
knapsacks, three days' rations of the same 
articles, with three days of cooked pork 
added, should he carried in haversacks." 

The sick were sent to the general hospi- 
tals. A knapsack drill was required every 
morning except Saturday and Sunday, and a 
thorough inspection everyday. 

On Monday. April 27, the roads had he- 
come suffieientlv drv and the weather settled 

to warrant the Commanding General to issue 
orders tor a forward move; accordingly, 
after a review of the Third Corps "orders 
were received to he ready to march to-mor- 
row morning at an early hour." Before fol- 
lowing the stirring events of the next few 
days, it may he well to pause a moment and 
note what changes the four months over 
which we have passed so hastily have wit- 
nessed in the condition of the Regiment. 
This will strikingly appear by comparing 
the Adjutant's returns of December 31, 
with April 30, 18 


^ Forduty 27 25 

P - Extra dutv 1 

I Sick ". 2 

Absent 2 3 

I : u 31 W 

- rED Ml'N. 

Forduty 421 477 

,, . Extra dutv 7 

i Sick 13o 19 

In arrest 3 

TOTA] 582 

Absent 2 •">■"■> 206 

Aggregate 868 741 

While only two commissioned officers had 
left the Regiment, the number of enlisted 
men had been diminished by one hundred 
twenty-five; yet the actual efficiency of the 
ation as represented by the number 
present for duty had increased by fifty-six. 
Of the one hundred twenty-five, thirteen had 
died and the others had been discharged on 
account of diseases ot various kinds, which 
in the judgment ot the physicians in charge 
would render them unfit for military service. 
rud other changes not indicated in the 
returns were distributed :<s follows : 

The Chaplain, on account of continued ill 
health, resigned and returned to his home in 
Wvalusing, where he has since resided as 
pastor of the Presbyterian church. 

In Company A. First Lieutenant Horton 
was commissioned Captain : Jos. II. Hurst, 
who had acted as First Serjeant since the early 



part of December, was made First Lieuten- 
ant, February 16; James W. Van Auken 
was made Second Lieutenant; Jackson C. 
Lee and .lames W. Alderson were made Ser- 
geants at the same date; and at dress parade 
the evening <>f February 20th, the announce- 
ments were made by the Colonel. 

Just as {lie Regiment was returning from 
the "Mud March," Jesse Hartwell Brewster, 
after a protracted sickness, died in Division 
Hospital, January "I'.'A. Two or three mem- 
bers of his company who had been left be- 
hind sick were with him in his last tours, 
and the next day he was buried in the Bri- 
gade burying ground, lie enlisted with 
Captain Jackson from Lime Hill, where he 
resided and where he left his family. He 
was a good, true man, and was about forty- 
three years of age. On receiving the news 
of his death appropriate memorial services 
were held at Lime Hill, conducted by Elder 
Lathrop. He left a wife and two children. 

February, Corporal N. J. Gaylord was 
discharged for wounds received at Poolei?- 
vjlle the November previous ; Philip ( Ironk, 
by special order, being exempt by age; First 
Sergeant Austin D. .Tellers, Sergeant Na- 
thaniel. P. Moody, privates Perry Donley, 
John M. Wells, Joshua Wells, Stephen 
Allen, Levi W. Heath, John W. Washburn 
and < (scar F. Parsons on surgeon's certificate 
of disability. 

In Company 1!, Lieutenant Keeler resign- 
ed February 9. After being sick for some 
time in camp, he went to the Corps Hospital 
when the Regiment started on the " Mud 
March," from which, on account of contin- 
ued disability, he was discharged. Returning 
to Bradford county he resumed his profes- 
sion, and in 1865 went to Oskaloosa, Kansas, 
where he was for live years District Attor- 
ney, and has acquired a large and lucrative 

Joseph S. Lockwood, the Orderly Sergeant 
of the company, died in camp after a sick- 
ness of a couple of days, April 1. He had 
formerly been a sailor, but at the time of his 

enlistment was residing in LeRaysville, 
where he was reading medicine with Doctor 
DeWitt. The knowledge and discipline ac- 
quired at sea were of great advantage in the 
army, so that when Mr. Peck was promoted 
to the Lieutenancy of the company, he was 
appointed first Sergeant, December L0. lie 
was ;i single man, twenty-four years of age, 

and his death was a loss to the , pany 

deeply felt, and by the community in which 
he had lived deeply mourned. 

James II. Smith was made fifth Sergeant 
March 7th. 

There were discharged for various disa- 
bilities on the usual surgeon's certificate, 
Wright Dunham, James Sibley, Charles 
Hand, Travel- Bosworth, Henry W. Brown, 
John N. Calili; Seneca C. Arnold and Jona- 
than 1!. Stevens. 

In ( lompanyC, Nicholas Wank wasappoint- 
ed Corporal, February I. 1863. and John R. 
Lancaster, April 28, in place of Reuben J. 
Hakes; Moses M. Coolbaugh was discharged 
on the surgeon's certificate of disability, as 
were also privates Lockwood II. Adams, 
Joel Rice, Barnard Vroman, Bethuel \V. 
Bradley, Clarence (I. GorT, Daniel W. Peck- 
ham, Almiran B. Cole and Ingles Mauley. 

( ieoige E. I >eLpng, son oft reorge DeLong, 
of Asylum, township, died i„ Washington, 
January 18, at the age of eighteen years, 
and was buried in the Military Asylum 

Christopher Barnes, of the same age, died 
also in Washington. February .'!, and was 
buried in the same cemetery. 

Charles ]<]. Nichols, a resident of Monroe 
township, died February 12, at the age oi 

twenty years. 

Michael Thoiupsoii. of Macedonia, acci- 
dentally cut off his thumb, was sent to hos- 
pital and died of lock-jaw, March 28, leav- 
ing a wife and two children. He was thirty- 
three years of age. 

In Company D. Captain Park, who had 
been suffering from sickness since the battle 
of Fredericksburg, resigned and was (lis- 

c WE 111 WPRED FOR 71 -FIRS T 

charged by special order April 22dj and re- 
turned to his borne where he has since resid- 
ed, enjoying a comfortable competency in 
the afternoon of life, and dispensing a gener- 
ous hospitality to hi> numerous friends. 

Lieutenant Morgan J. Lewis, who had en- 
tered with meat zeal into the military ser- 
vice, found his health failing from the ex- 
posures of camp life, which together with 
the infirmity o( increasing years, he being 
then at the age of fifty, resigned and was dis- 
charged by special order February 10th. Mr. 
1 ewis was of a family which has shown con- 
siderable martial spirit, his grandfather hav- 
ing been a soldier in the war of the Revolu- 
tion, his father in the war of ISIl'. and him- 
self and three sons in the war of the Rebel- 
lion. From the army he returned to his 
home in Orwell, in IS68 removed to Towan- 
da. working at his trade, that of a tinsmith, 
until his death in 1873, at the age oi' sixty 
years. His widow and several children still 
reside in Towanda. 

William D. Hewitt was promoted sergeant 
and Morton Berry, Mason 1.. Ellsworth Mid 
Elisha W. Parks to corporals January 7th 
when the announcements were made, and 
Samuel Petley February 10th. 

William R. Lathrop, another son of Rev. 
William Lathrop, of Herrick, died of fever in 
Division Hospital at the ace oi' twenty-two. 
leaving besides other relatives a wife to mourn 
his loss. "He was an exemplary member 
of the Baptist Church, manly, virtuous and 
patriotic, hut unobtrusive, loved and respect- 
ed by numerous friends." He wrote a few- 
days before his death. " 1 did not come here 
to dishonor my friends or ruin myself. My 
motives have been and now are to help sup- 
press this rebellion, and 1 have a still higher 
motive in view, and that is to suppress 
potism and dethrone aristocracy." And this 
was the almost universal sentiment of the 

There were discharged from this company 
Corpora] Robert Nichols, Privates Solomon 
Walborn, Alfred Strope. William B. Han- 

lev, George N. Johnson, Amos Bennett, Al- 
onzo 1!. Whitehead, lacob J. Fly, William 
C. Davis, Chester 1.. Parks, Owen Wright 
and dames Davis. 

In Company E, John F. Clark was pro- 
moted from First Lieutenant to Captain, 
January 7th. Stephen Evans from Firs 3 
geant to First Lieutenant February loth, 
and at the same time Mason Long from Ser- 
geant to Second Lieutenant, .lames Mustart 
was made First Sergeant and John M.Jack- 

ii> irge Lowers died in hospital at Wash- 
ington January 13th, and was buried in the 
Military Asylum Cemetery. He was broth- 
er of Marten Lowers, the musician of the 
company, an unmarried man. and before his 
enlistment was a day laborer about Lister 
and vicinity. 

Byron (Laran Munn was a son oi Hus- 
ton Munn. o( Litchfield. Laran and his 
brother Byron enlisted, and both were re- 
jected by the mustering officer on account of 
their age, but Byron was afterward accepted 
as musician. The evening after, the broth- 
ers held a consultation, and it was agreed 
that Byron should return home and Laran 
should go with the company which they ac- 
cordingly did. and Laran Munn was 
entered upon ■ the rolls and answered 
to the name of Byron until his death in 
Camp Pitcher January "J'Jd. at the aj 
nearly nineteen years. Miss Sharpless, the 
hospital nurse, was greatly attracted by his 
boyish face and became deeply interested in 
him during the few days he lived after she 

Charles G. Sawyer died in hospital in 
Baltimore, January ilSth. 

There were discharged on Surgeon's eer- 
tificate of physical disability Sergeant Tracy 
S. Knapp. February 27th, also Privates Cal- 
vin C. Alexander. Warren W. Wilson. Isaac 
M. Gillett, John Henry. Lorenzo D. Hill, 
James II. Harris. William Miller. Russell 
Hadloek. Addison B. Stone, and Alanson 
Miller. William Miller, though discharged, 



w;is unable to leave the hospital in Washing- 
ton where he was sick, and died eleven days 
after, February 22d, and was buried in the 

Military Asylum Cemetery. 

[n Company F, First Lieutenant A. \. 
Hempstead resigned, and was discharged on 
Surgepn ; s certificate of disability. 

Among those members of Company F, 
who bad died prior to the battle of Chancel- 
lorsville, the first was Simeon Van Horn, 
whose death occurred at Camp Prescott 
Smith, October 24th, of typhoid fever, lie 
enlisted from Thompson, Susquehanna 
County, was unmarried, and twenty-three 
years of age. 

Corporal William P. Brainerd, who it 
will be remembered died at Poolesville, No- 
vember 1st, was son of Lewis Brainerd, of 

Gibson, where he resided at the time of his 
enlistment, and where he was buried. lie 
died at tin 1 age of twenty-one years. 

Davis N. Philips died at Division Hospi- 
tal of typhoid fever, on the day of the battle 
of Fuedericksburg, December l.'ith. lie en- 
Listed from Lathrop township where he left 
his family. He was about forty years of 

Frederick D. Young also died of typhoid 
fever, the day after Philips, December 14th. 
He was a single man, living near Harford 
at the time of his enlistment, and at his 
death was about twenty years of age. 

There were discharged on the usual certi- 
ficate of disability, Corporal John II. Green, 
February 12th, also privates John W. Doli- 
way, .John M. Hobbs, Nathan Lewis, Myron 
Lames and Harvey M. Miller. 

There had been no changes in the organi- 
zation of Company (i, and no one had died 
during the period now under consideration ; 
Henry Smith, Robert King and Malcom 
Dodge had been discharged on account of 
physical disability, and La Fayette Smith 
was discharged April 6th on account of 
wounds received at the battle of Fredericks- 
burg, December 13th, 1862. 

In Company H no change in the officers 

had occurred. On the 26th of February, 
William Hotel, an unmarried man, who 
lived near Auburn Center, died in camp 
near Falmouth, of fever, at about twenty- 
three years of age. lie bad been iii the bat- 
tle of Fredericksburg December 13, 1862 
He was buried in the Brigade burying 

There were discharged from this company 
on Surgeon's certificate of disability, Isaac 
G. Bffbcock, George C. Hill, William S. 
Gates, Charles II. Marshall, Charles II. 

Vanness and John C. Rifenburg. 

In Company 1 on the 2d of January, at 
dress parade, Augustus S. Parks was an- 
nounced to have been appointed Second 
Sergeant in the place of William Bostwick, 
who had been discharged the day before for 
physical disability, Edwin G. Owen, First 
Corporal and Richard McCabe, Eighth. On 
February 1 4th, Corporal Owen was promot- 
ed to Fifth Sergeant in place of George F. 
Reynolds, discharged on Surgeon's certifi- 
cate, McCabe was promoted First Corporal, 
J. B. Ellsworth appointed Third, and Simeon 
Archer, Eighth. 

Besides those already mentioned there 
were discharged for various disabilities, Pe- 
ter Layton, Jr., William Vanderpool, Thom- 
as Van Deuzer, Louis F. Wickizer, George 
A. Westcott, Coryell Shores, Albert Smith, 
John 11. Allen, Harvey Johnson and Snover 
M. Layton. 

The commissioned officers of ( oinpany K 
having either died or resigned, Charles Mer- 
cur, Second Lieutenant of Company 1, had 
been temporarily in command, and was mus- 
tered as its Captain March 2d. John T. Brews- 
ter was appointed Third Sergeant March 
12th, and James L. Vincent Corporal Janua- 
ry 5th, Charles W. Converse March 3d. 

Corporal Charles W. Smith, William K, 
Smalley, William Wilson, and Rufus R. 
Child were discharged on the Surgeon's cer- 
tificate of disability. 

Were the means of information at band it 
would be of interest to know just how the 


.' ; l XDRED FOR T\ '-FIRS T 

uumK " for duty " was made up 

from t t companies, but probably, 

excepting Company G, which seems to have 
sses than either of the > 
g ; . about the same per- 

rhe following may be taken 
::nens: April il 
ed fori - - ginal number being 

eighty-five, and April 14th, Company B 
fifty-five, h finally ninety-eight. 

W this April 30th, Cap- 

sain Horton was in command of Com- 

pany A. Lieutenant Peek, owing to the con- 
tinued sickness - mand- 
ed Company B. Captain Swan Compai 

- a f Captain Park 

and Lieutenant Lewis, and the absence from 

sickness of Lieutenant Kyon. Lieutenant At- 

my Gr, was signed the 

command of Company D, - Clark, 

Mumford. . 
Mereur each commanded their rev. 

Chapter V. 


The important question whioli met Hook- 
er on assuming command of the Army of 
the Potomac was in what direction its next 
movement should be made, but this was a 
problem by no means of easy solution. Since 
the latter part of November the two great 
armies had been encamped on opposite sides 
of the Rappahannock, the one occupying a 
strong, practically impregnable defensive 
position, from which the other had sought 
in vain to dislodge him. The grand ulti- 
mate objective of the Army of the Potomac 
was the capture of Richmond, the capital of 
the Confederacy, and Lee had placed his 
army squarely in the way. To attack it by 
an assault upon its defenses would he mad- 
ness, and to surprise it at a weak point next 
to impossible. Lee had not been idle during 
the winter. Knowing that the Federal army 
would not be allowed to remain quiet long 
after the spring opened, he had been dili- 
gently preparing to repel anothei attack 
from whatever direction it might come. 

Posses-ing an intimate knowledge of the 
country, he had posted strong bodies of in- 
fantry and cavalry within supporting dis- 
tances of each other along the south bank of 
the river for a distance o\' twenty-five miles. 
Every fording place and bridge site in that 
distance was protected by strong earthworks, 
while videttes of -cavalry were stationed at 
favorable points of observation for many 
miles beyond. In addition to this the in- 
habitants were mostly in sympathy with the 
Confederacy, and generally found means to 
communicate to the enemy intelligence of 
every movement that was made. As an ex- 


ample of the ways by which this was done, 
on Sunday, April 26th, the Provost Marshal 

discovered hat a telegraph communication 
had been established between Falmouth and 
Fredericksburg, the wire being laid under 
the river and under ground to the instru- 
ments which were secreted in the cellar of a 
house near the bank. By this means the 
enemy were instantly apprised of whatever 
was going on in the Federal camp. 

About four miles above Falmouth the 
Rappahannock makes an acute angle, al- 
most like the letter V with the apex toward 
the south ; just in this angle is Banks' Ford. 
Six miles farther up is Scott's Ham at the 
point where Mine ('reek empties into the 
river; a mile above that is United States 
Ford, and a mile and a half above the ford, 
the Rappahannock receives its principal af- 
tluent on the south side, the Rapidan, a 
stream coming from the west and quite as 
large as the Rappahannock above the junc- 

Hooker had conceived a bold plan r( ad- 
vance. Sending a strong force down the 
river to threaten Lte's front, with the re- 
maining portion of his troops to make a wide 
detour up the river, crossing the Rappahan- 
nock and Rapidan above Lee's fortified posi- 
tion, come down upon the enemy's left flank 
and in his rear, compel his evacuation of the 
strongholds about Fredericksburg, and either 
fall back towards Richmond or accept the 
gage of battle on more equal terms with his 
antagonist. To still further embarrass Lee, 
Stoneman was directed to take a strong cav- 
alry force and operate against the communi- 
cations with Richmond, and since the Con- 
federate army could keep only four days' ra- 


; - 





- - 









_ ■ ■ 





-- , 




- - 



... . 




. - 



under the high banks of the river. The 
bridges as well as the troops were effectually 
protected from our artillery by the depth of 
the river's bed and the narrowness of the 
stream, while the batteries on the opposite 
heights completely commanded t ho wide 
plain between our lines and the river." 

This brief account of the general move 
ments of the army will aid in understanding 
the duty assigned to the One Hundred 
Forty-First Regiment. 

After the review on the 27th orders were 
received to be ready to march the next day 
at an early bour. 

Early the next morning, orders were given 
to pack up and be ready to '* fall 

in" at short notice. Blankets and all extra 

baggage were turned over to the Quarter- 
master, and even then with arms and accou- 
trements and eight days' rations all were 
heavily 1 >aded. " The old tents were taken 
down, and the hare barracks were all that 
wore left, and the camp had much die ap- 
pearance of a wrecked ami deserted city." 
The morning had been cloudy, and toward 
noon a drizzling rain set in, but was not al- 
lowed to impede the preparations tor the 
movement. About two o'clock in the after- 
noon General Birney was seen to ride up to 
Regimental bead quarters, soon after the bu- 
gle sounded "attention," and in ahout an 
hour the Regiment was on its way down the 

river taking the advance of the brigade. \ f- 
ter marching ahout six miles, tho men biv- 
ouacked in the woodsjust at dark, ahout a 
mile and a half from the river ami three 
miles below Fredericksburg. 

On Wednesday morning the troops were 
called up soon after daylight, ordered to 
hurry their breakfast, and he ready to march 
.at a moment's notice. The sky was overcast 
and the air heavy with fog. \hout nine 
O'clock the regiment went a mile toward the 
river. Here tin- brigade was halted in a 
piece o[ woods on a hill near the river hank. 
Stacked arms and remained all day. From 
this point a full view was had of the bridges 

and the old battle field whore they had 

fought the December before, and where they 

anticipated the conflict would again be 10 
newed. The Confederate troop-, could be 
plainly seen, their skirmishers occupying 
the old Richmond road, while our own line 

was drawn up only a lew rods from thorn \ 

second bridge was laid in the forenoon of 

this day, and was led by the movement 
of the forces On the north side o\' the river 

into the belief that all or the greater part of 
[looker's army was there. The clouded sky 
of the morning was followed by a day of al- 
ternate rain and sunshine, rain enough to 
keep clothing wet, and sunshine enough to 
inspire hope oi hotter weather. Ml the day 
long the Regiment was in suspense, every 
moment expecting orders to advance and 
wondering what the delay could mean. 

At night the men laid down in their wet 
clothing, without shelter from the rain which 
continued to fall until after midnight, 
drenching them completely, and preventing 

much of either rest or sleep Marly on 
Thursday all were aroused with orders to he 
ready to march at short notice. 1'he supply 
wagons had come up during the night and 
rations sufficient to keep good the eight days' 
supply to the regiment were drawn Sutlers 
and peddlers, the constant hut almost neces- 
sary nuisance of army lite, woio swarming 
about the camp. On the Friday before, the 
regiment had received four months' pay, and 

pay-day afforded an opportunity to reap a 
rich harvest ol gain from the soldier hoys, 
which could not he neglected. Paid as they 
had been and as it seemed unwisely just on 
the eve ol an important movement, and pro- 
bably of a severe battle, hut little opportuni- 
ty had been offered for sending money home, 
and most o\ the men had the entire sum tluy 

had received in their pockets, which just 

then there was peculiar temptation to spend. 

The men reasoned this way: We an- just 
going into a fight, if I fad the enemy will 
get all 1 have, 1 have no moans of sending 
anything home, if the sutler has anything 




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- - 


I - 



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ternoon. we took up our line of march for 
the Tutted States Fori). Bringing up the rear 
of the division. At half-past eleven in the 
afternoon, after a fatiguing inarch, we reach- 
ed our camping ground, a short distance be- 
yond Hartwood Church, and within about 
two miles of the United States Ford." 

Already it had been whispered through 
the camp that Lee was preparing to accept 
Hooker's offer of battle, that if a victory was 
trained, it would be won only after a hard 
titrht with a powerful foe who was already 
gaining strong positions which the Federal 
General had delayed to occupy. Tired as 
they were, many a brave man could scarcely 
close his eyes in sleep, in lively anticipations 
of the coming struggle and its uncertain re- 

Friday. May 1st. 

Two great roads lead easterly from Chan- 
sville to Fredericksburg — the turnpike. 
a broad, well built, macadamized highway, 
and the plank road: the former beiug al- 
most a direct Hue between the two places, 
while the plank road at Chancellorsville di- 
i - from it considerably to the south for 
about two miles, when it turns to a course 
almost due east and in about three miles 
farther unites with the turnpike at the " Ta- 
bernacle" or "Salem Church," which is 
about five miles west of Fredericksburg 

The plank road keeps on nearly the level 
crest of a ridge of considerable elevation 
above the river, and the divide between the 
uumerous streams having their sout- 
hs northern slope, which unite, some in 
forming Hunting, and others. Motte's Creek, 
the former emptying into the Rapidan, the 
latter into the Rappahannock, and of Mine 
Run or Mineral Spring (.'reek flowing be- 
tween the two. whose principle source is 
near Chancellorsville. and its dtbouchure 
a little below the junction of the two rivers: 
— while m the south side are the soui s 
he Ny river, an affluent of the Mattapony, 
and of the Massaponax Creek. 

The turnpike, although following a more 

direct course than the plank road between 
Chancellorsville and Salem Church. - 
the northern slope of the ridge, and crossed 
by a number vt' the branches o( Motte's 
-. whose depressions and the hills inter- 
vening render the surface broken, and the 
road more difficult for travel. 

Another called the river road, dh 
toward the north from the plank road at the 
Chancellor house, and after reaching the 
foot of the blurts, follows the general course 
of the river to Ranks' Ford. 

The "Mine Run" or "Old Mountain" 
road extends from the river near the mouth 
of Mine Run, in a southeasterly direction, 
crossing each ol' the above described high- 
ways, and passing near Salem Church. 

Westward from Chancellorsville the plank 
road extends to Orange Court House. On 
this road, about two miles from Chancellors- 
ville. is DowdalPs Tavern, or the 
Chancellor House, and a half a mile farther 
the old Wilderness Church. About half 
way between this church and Chancellors- 
ville a road called the Furnace road, branch- 
es off almost directly south through the 
-. running along or near a little stream, 
a couple of miles to Catherine or Welford's 
Furnace, and continuing in the same course 
dd's Tavern. A half a mile be- 
yond the furnace this road crosses the bed of 
the unfinished Fredericksburg and Gordons- 
ville railroad, which pa.~sing up Hazel Creek 
on the east of Fredericksburg takes a west- 
erly course, keeping south of the plank road 
but in some places running near to it. A 
short distance beyond the railroad bed. on 
the Furnace road, is the Welford nlansiou. 

Resides these there were numerous other 
roads oi less account to our narrative, some 
of them being mere bridle paths, of which 
were a description here attempted it might 
confuse instead of aid the reader to a Ixnter 
knowledge of the situation ofthii - 

Chancellorsville, or the Chancellor House 
consisted of a single, large, brick house 
standing on the north side of the plank road 

6 4 


and at its intersection with the turnpike, 
river and United States Ford roads, about 
ten miles west of Fredericksburg, and sur- 
rounded by a few acres of cleared land.* 
The country around it is an elevated plateau, 
of a considerably uneven surface, covered 
with thickets of black-jack oak and scrub 
pine growing so densely and the limbs so 
closely interlaced that it is with great diffi- 
culty a man can make his way through it, 
broken only by the limited open spaces about 
the houses sparsely situated on or near the 
principal highways. In the common par- 
lance this region is called the Wilderness, 
which extends from the Rapidan to some 
distance south and west of Chancellorsville, 
opening up into a cleared country from Sa- 
lem Church toward Fredericksburg. 

Scarcely half a mile southwesterly from 
Chancellorsville, between two small streams 
which unite at its southern point is a cleared 
(ield of somewhat greater elevation than 
that on which the Chancellor House stood, 
called '* Fairview," on the highest point of 
which and near the center there stood at the 
time of the battle a large white house, fre- 
quently referred to in the reports of the offi- 
cers and in the diaries of the men. A half 
a mile still further to the southwest, and 
about in line vi Chancellorsville and Fair- 
view, and between the latter place and the 
Furnace, and crossed by the Furnace road, 
situated also in the forks of two rivulets, one 
of which separates it from Fairview and is 
bordered by a narrow strip of swaley ground 
deepening into a ravine farther down the 
stream, is a similar elevation called "Hazel 
Grove," on the crest of which was a log 
dso referred to in the reports o( the 
battle. The streams which these knobs di- 
vide, unite to form the Ny river near the 
Catherine Furnace. Between Fairview and 
Hazel Grove is a narrow road or bridle path 

*" Chancellorsville is placed in the middle of a 

clearing some three hundred yards iu extent, and 
all around are the thickets of the Wilder: 
Swi>, i 

leading into the Furnace road about a mile 
from the plank road. 

Keeping in mind this brief description of 
roads and topography may aid in under- 
standing the movements and positions of the 
One Hundred Forty-First Regiment, as 
well as the general movements of the troops 
about to be related. 

Salem Church standing near the junction 
of the turnpike and plank road and their in- 
tersection with mine road, and in the open 
country beyond the Wilderness was a stra- 
tegic point Hooker should have occupied 
on Thursday night. Lee taking advantage 
oi the neglect pushed forward a force to seize 
and hold it. He says: — "Learning that the 
enemy had crossed the Rapidan and were 
approaching in strong force. General Ander- 
son retired early on the morning of the thir- 
tieth to the intersection of mine and plank 
roads, near Tabernacle Church and began to 
intrench himself." By eight o'clock on the 
morning of the first of May. Lee's entire 
army, except a small force left in the defen- 
ces of Fredericksburg, was in position to 
meet Hookers advance. 

Between ten and eleven o'clock of Friday 
forenoon, as preliminary to a general ad- 
vance ordered to be made at two o'clock in 
the afternoon, three columns were directed 
to move out. one on each of the principal 
roads leading eastward. Accordingly the 
left column consisting of two divisions of 
Meade's corps, (Griffin's and Humphrey's. 1 
moved five miles down the river road, 
to within sight of Banks' Ford, which if 
uncovered would have shortened the distance 
between Hooker and Sedgwick twelve 
miles : the ceu:re column consisting of the 
divisions of Sykes and Hancock advanced on 
the turnpike about two mile- or mure east of 
Chancellorsville and occupied one of the se- 
ries of ridges over which that road p - - 
the right column, composed of Slocum's en- 
tire corps advanced about two miles on the 
plank road and held a strong position there. 
The position- held by these several columns 



was " a ridge of some elevation, perfectly 
commanding Chancellorsville, out of the 

Wilderness, and giving a debouche into the 
open country in the rear of Fredericksburg, 
while the left column had practically uncov- 
ered Banks' Ford." These were hardly se- 
cured when, to the surprise of all, and against 
the remonstrance of his corps commanders, 
Hooker ordered the troops to fall hack to a 
line nearer Chancellorsville. 

In the meanwhile the Third Corps which 
had orders to come to Chancellorsville was 
early in motion. About four o'clock in the 
morning the reveille sounded in the camps of 
the One Hundred Forty-First and get- 
ting a hasty lunch the men were on the 
march by six o'clock. Crossing the pontoon 
bridge laid by Couch at United States Ford, 
at eight o'clock in the morning, and going 
about a mile farther they halted behind 
some rifle pits which the Confederates 
had thrown up to cover the ford, but were 
compelled to abandon on Honker's advance; 
alter resting here for an hour or more, the 
Regiment was marched up to the plank road 
and again halted nearly west of the Chancel- 
lor House. Here Sickles massed his entire 
corps except one brigade left on the north 
side to guard the ford against any cavalry 
raid from the enemy, having been ordered 
to hold all but Birnev's division in reserve. 

The men had scarcely stacked their arms, 
before they were ordered to go on picket 
near Dowdall's Tavern. 

In establishing his lines about the Chan- 
cellor House the troops were arranged as fol- 
lows : :; " Meade's Corps rested its left on the 
Rappahannock near Scott's Dam ; the line 
was continued in a southerly direction by 
Couch's Corps, facing east, French's Division 
being extended to a point near to and east of 
Chancellorsville, with Hancock's division of 
the same corps holding an outpost still far- 
ther east. Next came the Twelfth Corps 

*Doubleday's Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, 
Page 16. 

under Slocum, facing south, and then at 
some distance to the west, in echelon to the 
rear along the plank road, Howard's Corps 
(the Eleventh) was posted." Howard's line 
extended on the right some distance beyond 
the Wilderness Church with his right Hank 
" in the air," that is, resting on no natural 
defense. Hooker, aware of the weakness of 
this flank sent Graham's Brigade to strength- 
en it. The brigade reached Dowdall's Tav- 
ern, General Howard's Headquarters, about 
two o'clock in the afternoon, but General 
Graham upon reporting to him for orders 
was informed that his services were not 
needed. The men lay about in the road and 
in an oak grove near by until nearly live 
o'clock in the afternoon, when they were di- 
rected to rejoin the division which had been 
placed in the line between Slocum and How- 
ard's Corps having the former on the left 
and the latter on the right. 

Speaking of this movement General Dou- 
bleday says : — " Hooker was sensible that 
this Hank ( Howard's right, I was weak, and 
sent Graham's brigade of Sickles' Corps with 
a battery to strengthen it; hut Howard took 
umbrage at this, as a reflection on the bravery 
of his troops or his own want of skill, and 
told Graham that he did not need his ser- 
vices; that he felt so secure in his position 
that he woidd send his compliments to the 
whole rebel army if they lay in front of him, 
and invite them to attack him. As Hooker 
had just acquiesced in the appointment of 
Howard to be commander of the Eleventh 
Corps, he disliked to show a want of confi- 
dence in him at the very beginning of his 
career, and therefore yielded to his wishes 
and ordered the reinforcements to return 
and report to Sickles again.'' 

In his report of the proceedings of this 
day General Graham says: — "We marched 
again 1 Friday morning,) at five o'clock \.\i., 
towards the lord, and crossing it, halted in 
columns of regiments behind the rebel rifle- 
pits. After a brief halt we took up our line 
of march with the rest of the division, push- 


ONE HI TV / > A' A7; /< ( » A' / ) - FIRS T 

ing "ii toward the front, and halted on the 
left of the road near the Chancellor House 
— General Hooker's headquarters. The men 
had scarcely stacked arms when 1 was or- 
dered to proceed with my command via 
( lhancellorsville to Dowdall's Tavern, on the 
plank road to perform picket duty. My or- 
ders were to throw out a line of pickets well 
to the right and rear, holding the balance of 
my command well in hand near the tavern. 
Having arrived there I found the place oc- 
cupied by General Howard as his headquar- 
ters. He informed me that his command 
picketed the right and rear, and that as he 
had no orders to move and needed no assist- 
ance, he thought there must be some mistake 
in my orders. 1 at once sent my aid, Lieu- 
tenant Bullurd, to inform General Birney of 
the fact and ask for future instructions. 
During his absence Lieutenant Turnbull re- 
ported to me with his battery. In accord- 
ance with Major-General Howard's orders, I 
halted my cut ire command near the tavern 
lo await further orders. 

\i about live o'clock in the afternoon or- 
ders came for me to return as rapidly as pos- 
sible and rejoin the division near the Chan- 
cellor House. My column was at once put 
in motion, preceded by TurnbuH's battery, 
which 1 ordered to report to General Birney 
at i nee." 

[n attempting to execute the order to tall 
back upon the lines about Chancel lorsville, 
the troops on the turnpike and on the plank 
road found themselves confronted by a heavy 
force of the enemy who assailed them with 
ureal fury, following closely upon the retir- 
ing columns and taking possession of the 
ground as soon as our men left it. and press- 
ing the attack vigorously until the troops 
reached the intrenched position. In this 
movement General Anderson, of the Con- 
federates, directed the brigade of General 
Wright to diverge from the main line "to 
the left, (south) of the plank road, march by 
wa\ of the unfinished railroad from Freder- 
icksburg to Gordonsville and turn tin- ene- 

my's right. His whole line thereupon re 
treated rapidly, vigorously pursued by our 
troops until they arrived within about one 
mile of Cliancellorsville." (Lee's Report.) 

The em my on reaching the Furnace road 
pushed up a considerable force on Slocum's 
right, ami Limey's Division was ordered in 

and took possession of the heights of Fair- 
view in order lo hold him in cheek. In his 
report, Major General Anderson says.:— 
" Brigadier General Wright was directed to 
follow with his brigade, the line of the un- 
finished Fredericksburg and Gordonsville 
railroad, to threaten their right and compel 
them to fall back. ' General Wright 

continued to follow the line of the railroad 
without opposition until he arrived at the 
Catherine or Welford's furnace, where he 
had a sharp encounter with a superior force 
of the enemy. Darkness put a stop to this 
conflict without any decided results having 
bavin;;' been attained, and at ten o'clock at 
night, in obedience to orders from Lieuten- 
ant General Jackson, he returned to tin' 
plank road." 

As has been said, the One Hundred 
Forty-First with the brigade of which it was 
a part remained in the roads or the fields 
about Dowdall's Tavern' until five o'clock in 
the afternoon when it, in obedience to orders 
returned to Cliancellorsville and took its 
place in the division. In order to cheek the 
advance iA' Wright, a battery, the First < 'bio, 
was placed on the crest of Lairview and the 
brigade was massed behind it for its support, 
that is to repel any attempt the enemy mighl 
make for its capture, the One Hundred 
Fourteenth being in the first line, the One 
Hundred Forty-First in the second line 
ami twenty paces distant, the remaining reg- 
iments behind them, each regiment in line 
one behind the other. As soon as the bri- 
gade was in position the battery opened tire 
upon the enemy's force advancing from the 
Furnace, to which they replied with spirit. 
The field officers of the Regiment had dis- 
mounted and were standing on the right of 



the lint- watching the artillery duel going 
on. Mutters in another quarter demanding 
attention, the Colonel and Adjutant had re- 
mounted, and Lieutenant-Colonel Watkins 
was just in the act of doing so, having liis 
fool in tli" stirrup, when a solid shot struck 
his horse in the shoulder anil passed entirely 
through him lengthwise. A shell exploded 

nearly the same time, a piece of which lure 

off the top of the head of John I'. < rrant, 
and another piece wounded Sergeanl Jack- 
son ( '. Lee, cutting off the thumb of his right 
hand, both of Company A, which occupied 
the right of the Regiment,* at the same lime 
Major Spalding was bruised aboul the lace 
by flying gravel stones from the concussion 
of the explosion. The Major describes the 
killing of the Lieutenant-Colonel's horse a 
little differently from some of the others 

whose account I have followed. He says: — 

"The battery in from of us (after the Regi- 
ment got into position, ) began to shell the 
woods in front and was immediately replied 
to by a rebel battery about half or three- 
fourths of a mile to the right and in front of 
us. (the Regiment was facing nearly 
south). Colonel Mattill, Lieutenant- Colonel 
Watkins and myself rode up to the head of 
the line to watch the firing of the batteries. 
Watkins and I had dismounted. He was 
again getting upon his horse when a shell 
struck right among us. It struck the ground 
about ten feet in front of us, and exploding, 
killed Colonei Watkins' horse, and knocked 
me down by the concussion. 1 was only 
slightly hurt, having my face and the side 
of my head somewhat bruised, and was all 
right again in a few minutes. A second 
shell immediately following killed one man 

♦The companies of the Regiment which vere des- 
ignated by the fust letters Of the alphabet were ar- 
ranged as follows: — The Regiment being in line on 
the extreme right was Company A, then Compa- 
nies l'\ I). I. C, H, E, K, ft, B, in the eider given, 
that is the a on the extreme right, B on the left, 
(' on the right cinter, and the others arranged tor 
the purpose of bringing the Captains In certain po- 
sitions according to rank, in evolutions of drill, 

in Company A, and wounded another. <)ur 
brigade was i lien moved a Mule, (about fifteen 

rods) to the rear behind a knoll, when; the 
shells went over our heads " 

In describing this engagement General 
Graham says: — " After reaching the division 
and receiving several orders and counter 01 
ders, 1 finally formed my command in close 
column of regiments in rear of our batteries, 
ready to support them, or to advance to the 
aid of General Williams' division then mi 
gaged with the enemy to my front and right. 
Immediately on formation the brigade was 
ordered to lie down to escape tin- heavy lire 
of artillery to which we were then subject. 

Our loss (in the brigade) was one killed and 

live wounded." One of these was in the 
One Hundred Fourteenth, wounded se- 
verely by a piece of the same shell whieh 
killed Grant, George II. Capwell, who was 
Lying immediately behind Grant had his 
knapsack cut oil' his hack by another piece 
of the same shell, hut escaped without a 

John I'. < Irant was a young man who had 

reached his majority just a week before the 
battle, the only son of William Grant, resid- 
ing in the soul hern part of Wilmot township, 
where he was enlisted by Lieutenant Horton 
in August, 1862. He was a good soldier and 
never flinched when duly called. At Fred- 
ericksburg, as at < haneellorsvillo, he was in 
the holiest of the fray, and was the first in 
his company and the second in the Regi 
merit to fall by the hand of the enemy 

The cannonade was kept up in front of the 
brigade until aboul eighl o'clock, when 
darkness put an end to the conflict. The 
Regiment bivouacked on the ground to 
which it. had retired in the rear of the bat- 
tery, and remained there without hem- dis- 
turbed during the night. 

Saturday, May - j. 

Wearied as the men of the One Hundred 
Forty-First, were when they Bung them- 
selves down upon the ground to rot, they 
were permitted to enjoy only a pari of the 



night in (ho repose they so sadly nteded. 
Vi three o'clock in the morning the reveille 
sounded, rousing every man from liis slum- 
bei"s and co unianding him to lie in readiness 
for the duties of the coming day the tii 
whose morning were just beginning to 
brighten the eastern sky. Soon every- 
thing was packed and at daylight the Regi- 
ment was inarched * ut by the nay of the 
plank road, down the Furnace road into the 
pine woods, where it was halted and the 
nua> ate their breaklast. The Furnace 
inns for nearly a half mile after it leaves the 
plank road through thick woods, from which 
it emerges into the cleared space ^( Ha eJ 
Grove, where General Birney had establish- 
ed his headquarters. After passing through 
this clearing the descent is quite rapid to 
the stream which forms the western boundary 
of the elevation. The road along this s 
until the Furnace is reached, | 
ground in many places marshy and swampy, 
which in the latter part of the day proved 
to be an embarrassing obstacle to the move- 
ments undertaken. 

General Graham says:—" In this pi - 
(in bivouack on the field we remaiued un- 
til daylight, May 2d, when we marched to- 
ward IVwdall's Tavern on the plank road. 
tiling off to the left through the woods, until 
led ( iener. 5 head- 

quarters. Here I halo >rders, 

forming four of my regiments in two lines 
on each side of I 

Third and One Hundred Fifth 

[Pennsylvania Volunteers to the 1 - - - 

the skirmishers, and connecting the 

One Hundred Fifth Pennsylvania Vol- 

rs with the left of Colonel llayman's 

our right.'" Colonel Hay man 

was in command of the third brigade of Bir- 


>f the halt must have 

- half a mile from the 

Here in t 

the crest of the lull they remained until 
about twoo'clock in the afternoon. While the 
Regiment is lying in the friendly shade dur- 
ing that warm Ma) morning, some lazily 
resting and trying to catch a moment's sleep 
in the lull of the strife, others eagerly watch- 
ing the movements going on around them — 
others again speculating as to what may be 
the plans of the two commanders and the 
probabilities of their success ; and each man 
ready to spring to his feet at the call of " at- 
tention."' other movements were going on 
which were destined in a most remarkable 
manner to decide the fate of the conl 

The position of the Federal troops has al- 
ready been briefly noticed. On Friday night 
the Confederate army was drawn up in line 
ot" battle in front of Chancellorsville at right 
- io the plank road, his right resting 
on the mine road, and his left extending to 
Catharine furnace, McLaws on the right, 
Anderson in the center, and Jackson's corps 
on the left. Hooker's position wj s so s 
and his fore* - .hat any direct attack 

upon him would necessarily be attended with 
heavy loss. After carefully reconnoitring 
the position and finding that from some un- 
accountable blundering Howard's right wing 
was still unprotected and that he « - 
using even ordinary precaution to guard 
against surprise, Lee, at th« - __ - 
Stonewall Jackson, detached his corps from 
the main bod) of the ( army, that 

by a wide detour passing acr ss 
tire front, he should make a sudden attaek up- 
on the extreme right which ifsuccessful would 
nded with - - res s to the Fed- 
eral army. Early on the morning o( the 
set out on this hazardous 
undertaking. With his remaining 
made a series of tieree onsets on Hooker's 
ation frou 
- which were made along roads 
bordered with thick 3 covered by Fit/ 

where the column crossed the Fi 
south of the - 



lilt' from Hazel Grove. In a few minutes af- 
ter arriving at this latter place, Colonel Madil I 
called the attention of both General Graham 
and General Birney to the movement. At 
first it was thought Lee was retreating, and 
this delusion was strengthened from the fact 
that at this point the road on which Jackson 
was passing turns to the southward. Hook- 
er was apprised of what was going on, and 
to guard against a Hank attack directed 
Howard to strengthen his position, which 
with a seemingly blind infatuation as to his 
security, he entirely neglected to do. The 
batteries on Hazel Grove however opened on 
the column, causing the train to make a still 
wider detour to tlic south. 

Major Spalding says:— "In the morning 
we again moved up the plank road about 
hall a mile, and tinned short to the left on a 
road cut through thick pines about half a 
mile and were ordered to halt in the woods 
by the roadside. The Sixty-Third and < me 
Hundred Fifth were taken farther to 
the front as skirmishers, the other regiments 
remaining with us. We could see from here 
long lines of rebel teams about a mi'e and a 
half away, moving along a ridge road, evi- 
dently trying to get out of danger. A bat- 
tery of rifled guns was immediately thrown 
forward and shelled tie train for a long 

In order to determine what was the char- 
acter of the movement of ihe eremy, S'ekles 
was sent out with two divisions, Birney's 
and Whipple's, to reconnoitre and attack 
him. Says Swinton :- "At about three 
o'clock in the afternoon, he advanced 
through the Wilderness lor a mile and a 
half or two miles, reached the road on 
which Jackson had moved, struck the rear 
of his column, and began to cake prisoners." 
In describing the operations at this point 
Genera] Lee says: "As the rear of the 
train was passing the furnace, a large force 
of the enemy advanced from t hanccllorsville 

and attempted its capture. General Jack- 
son had left the Twentv-Third Georgia reg- 

iment under Colonel Best, at this point, in 
guard his Hank; and upon the approach of 
tin- enemy Lieutenant-Colonel J. T. Brown, 
whose artillery was passing at the time 
placed a battery in position, t" aid in check 
ing the advance. The enemy was 

kept back by this small force until the train 

had passed, hut his superior nu nbers ena- 
bled him subsequently to surround and cap- 
ture the greater part of the Twenty-Third 
Georgia regiment." Sickles was greatly 
pleased with his success and in communicat- 
ing to 1 looker tin' result of his reeonnoissance 

asked lor reinforcements; and at his request 

1'leasanton's cavalry, and Williamson's bri- 
gade of Slocum's, and Barlows brigade, of 
Howard's corps, were sent him. Lee, desir- 
ous of diverting attention from Jackson, who 
was at that lime just getting into position, 
reinforced Colonel Brown with two brigades, 
with whom Sickles' advanced lines became 
warmly engaged. 

The One Hundred Forty-First, al- 
though not occupying the front line took 
part in this movement against the rear of 

Jackson's column, I Jeneral ( iraham reports : 

— " About one o'clock in the afternoon we 
advanced to support Colonel Hayman's bri- 
gade across the open field and through the 
dense WOOds in front. When we had nearly 
reached the iron works we found a double 
line of halt'- Ztlong the road and on the right 
of llaymau. Soon after this the order came 
for another advance. The Fifty Seventh 
Pennsylvania Volunteers was ordered to re- 
main on the crest of the hill as support to 
Berdan's sharpshooters, and the Sixty-Third 
Pennsylvania Volunteers was taken from me 
hy Captain Walker, of (Jeneral Birney's 
stalk With my remaining regiments (the 
One Hundred Fourteenth, One Hundred 
Forty-First, Sixty-Eighth, and One 
Hundred Fifth,) I advanced on the 
double quick along the road ami into the 
open held beyond the cut for a railroad, 

near Welford's house. I hadscarcely form- 
ed my command as a second line lo Colonel 


llavnian. whep orders came to return at 
once. This order was complied with, and 
we followed the Third Brigade. At tin' iron 
works the Fifty -Seventh Pennsylvania Vol- 
unteers rejoined us. We marched hack to 
the field we had left in the morning, when 
we formed in rear of the batteries, with or- 
ders to act as their support in case of an at- 

Major Spalding lias so fully described the 
part the Regiment took in this advance o( 
Sickles that it will be given in substantially 
his own words. \Kuit two o'clock an order 
was received directing us to move forward. 
We crossed an open Held, (Hazel Grove,) 
where our battery was, went down through 
a hollow, and crossed a little creek across 
the ravine lying below the log house, went 
up the opposite hillside a short distance, and 
then were ordered to form in line of battle, 
our right resting upon the read; — the Sixty- 
Eighth was upon our right and the Fifty- 
Seventh behind us. The woods were verj 
thick and 1 left my horse in charge of one 
of i he men. Our prick horses were scut hack 
from here with instructions to keep in the 
war, Our brigade with [layman's brigade, 
and two regiments of Berdan's sharpshooters 
were in the woods. Tin sharpshooters went 
forward. We then moved forward, says Col- 
onel Madill, by the right of companies and 
formed another line parallel with the same 
road, and 1 sent out Company B in com- 
mand o( Lieutenant Peck, as skirmishers. 1 
then changed the line a second time, moving 
it by the tlank and forming it at right angles 
with the road. 

The Third Brigade during this time lay 
in our front. The line was changed for the 
third time, bringing us on a line parallel 
with the road, in which position we remain- 
ed until neai evening. The Major continues : 
- before sundowc we were marched at 
a double quick about a mile further in ad- 
vance, where we were formed in an opei 
field near a huge farm house, Welford's. 
The artillery came up and tired 

rounds, and the men stacked arms as they 
supposed for the night. Their stay here was 
short, for while Sickles had been pushing 
forward his lines depending upon Howard 
whose line was across the plank road to pro- 
tect his rear, and connect him with the main 
army, an unexpected calamity had befallen 
the Eleventh Corps and enabled the enemy 
to cut off his communication with Hookei 
for a time. 

After a long and fatiguing march the ad- 
vanced division of Jackson's corps reached 
the old turnpike about three miles west of 
Chancellorsville, and one mile west o( How- 
ard's headquarters at Dowdall's Tavern, at 
four o'clock in the afternoon. Forming his 
divisions as they arrived at right angles with 
the road, it was two hours before all were in 
position. During all this time Howard fail- 
ed to learn that an enemy was near him. At 
six o'clock .lacks, m ordered the advance. 
Howard was taken by surprise. His men 
were lying about on tiie ground, some of his 
officers were playing cards, guns were stack- 
ed, and all were abiding in perfect security. 
The Confederates rushed upon the unsus- 
pecting troops with the velocity of a whirl- 
wind. In an instant, men. horses, ambulan- 
ces, artillery, army wagons, all were huddled 
together on the plank road making for 
Chancellorsville. It was a panic, the like 
ot which had never been witnessed in tie 
Army ^( the Potomac before. The enemy 
rushed on sweeping everything before them. 
Scarcely any resistance was attempted, but 
men ran like frightened deer without even 
waiting to take their guns from the stacks. 
What would have been the consequence to 
the Federal army had not darkness put a 
cheek to the advance oi' the foe can hardly 
be imagined. As it was Jackson's forces- 
had pressed down below the junction o\ the 
Furnace road and on until their advance 
crested by the abatis in front yA the 
line of works near Hooker's central position 
at Chancellorsville. 

The position of Sickles was perilous in 



the extreme, and ii required all his skill to 
effect his junction with the main body of the 
army. His troops had scarcely got into po- 
sition at Welford's when heavy tiring heard 
in his rear, and clouds of dust and smoke 
arising from the woods he had just left be- 
tween the furnace and the plank road, told 
him that a serious attack was being made in 
an unexpected quarter. Pleasanton had 
been ordered to return to Hazel Grove, ami 
Sickles rode forward to ascertain the nature 
of the engagement when he met the flying 
fugitives of the Eleventh Corps. Pleasan- 
ton charged and drove the enemy out of the 
woods in his front, got possession of Hazel 
Grove, and a battery of twenty-two guns in 
position and poured double charges of can- 
ister into the advancing line of Jackson's 
men. Hooker rallied the troops near at 
hand and the first outset of the Confederates 
was cheeked. 

It was now dark. Jackson with a portion 
of his stall' rode forward beyond his own 
lines to reconnoitre the ground and ascertain 
exactly the federal positions, when on re- 
turning he was fired upon by his own men so 
it is said, who mistook his party for a Fed- 
eral cavalry force, and that most daring and 
efficient General fell, mortally wounded. 

Sickles upon ascertaining the condition of 
things in his rear ordered the immediate re- 
turn of his troops to Hazel Grove. Birney's 
division was entirely surrounded, facing 
his lines to the north and placing his guns 
in position he began to shell the woods in 
Iron! and to the right of him, and set out on 
his return, giving his men orders to mullle 
their canteens and carry their guns at trail, 
and move quietly as possible, to escape the 
attention of the enemy. 

Major Spalding's account here is so full 
that it will be given in his own words. lie 
says: — " 1, of course, did not know the na- 
ture of the firing we had heard, but my sus- 
picions were Btrong that there was something 
wrong. We met the boys with our horses 
in the woods, who told me that they had 

been Obliged to follow Us to keep out of tie 

enemy's hands, as they had seen them drive 
out the Eleventh Corps. We came back 
into the field where our batteries had shell- 
ed their train in the afternoon, Hazel 
Grove. It was nov some time after dark. 

Here the division was halted. Our Reg- 
iment, (and the One Hundred Fourteenth, 
but this was subsequently withdrawn,) was 
sent to picket around the right (east,) of the 
field. The posts were not over a rod apart, 
and three men upon each post. 1 noticed 
also that the line we were guarding was fac- 
ing where our friends ought to be. We had 
four companies in reserve — they were the 
four right companies, A, F, Hand I. After 
the pickets were all posted, I came back to 
the reserve and said to the Colonel, — " hid 
you notice how our guards are placed? We 
are evidently surrounded." He said "There 
is no doubt of that." No one bean' what 
was said and neither of us alluded to it 


It was now between ten and eleven o'clock 
— a blight, beautiful, moonlight night. 1 
gave my horse some water but did not take 
off either saddle, bridle or blankets. Tying 
the halter around my hand, without taking 
off sword or pistols, I lay down upon the 
ground, pulled t he cape of my overcoat over 
my head, and fell asleep. The Colonel's 
horse was also ready— the Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel had lost his the day before. 

About midnight we were aroused by a 
heavy firing on the opposite sice of the field, 
some thirty or forty rods from us. For a 
short time the roar of cannon and musketry 
was deafening, then all was still again. An 
aid came and directed us to call in our pick- 
ets. After getting them together and wait- 
ing for some time for orders but receiving 
none, the Colonel sent me to find General 
Graham and ask his orders, i found Gen 
eral Birney and staff and General Graham 
and staff on the knoll about the center of the 

field, all sitting upon their horses, ami was 
directed to bring our Regiment and join the 



brigade, but before 1 got back an order came 
to replace our pickets, which was done. 

The firing was caused by Ward's Brigade 
charging upon the rebel line to drive it back 
and open a road, which they successfully ac- 
complished. The roar of artillery, the sharp 
report of thousands of rifles, and the long 
lines of men standing still as statues, but 
each leaning upon his loaded rifle, the 
groups of officers sitting here and there upon 
their horses, the moon shining brightly 
upon all, and the shadows of the dark woods 
all around us, were a most imposing scene, 
and one which no man who beheld it will 
ever forget/' 

Although the One Hundred Forty-First 
was not engaged in the moonlight fight < t' 
Saturday night, they were under its tire, and 
shells and bullets flew like hail over their 
heads, fortunately without wounding any. 

In his report Colonel Madill says: — 
" During all the movements of the day (May 
2d) my Regiment was not engaged with the 
enemy, nor did they lire a shot, will the ex- 
ception of a leu tiled by the skirmishers sent 
out under Lieutenant Peck." 

It may he observed here that Lieutenant 
Peek pushed up his skirmish line to the 
west of Welford's and overlook some of the 
stragglers from Jackson's column who at- 
tempted to impede our line by setting tire to 
the brush in the field, and skirmished with 
them lor some time. Lieutenant Peck re- 
mained in this advanced position until some 
time after the division had left the Held, 
when a staff' officer informed him of his crit- 
ical situation, and directed Inn to return to 
the Furnace, wh re he would find the First 
Regiment of the United States Sharpshooters 
and to follow that regiment, which he did, 
reaching Hazel Grove between nine and ten 
o'clock where he rejoined his regiment. The 
( olonel continues : 

" During the evening I marched hack to 
a place mar the point from which we start- 
ed in the afternoon, when 1 was ordered to 
take my regiment on picket. 1 posted six 

companies on the ground pointed out to me 
l>\ the field-officer of the day and held four 
companies in reserve. 

By an order from Brigade Headquarters I 

withdrew my pickets when the attack was 
made on the left of our line by the enemy at 
two o'clock in tlu morning May .">d <. The 
attack being repulsed, 1 re-posted my pick- 
ets, and we remained there until six o'clock 
of Sunday morning, May 3d, when 1 rejoin- 
ed the division on the hill near the old log 
Ik use. Th< brigade was in close column by 
regiments, my regimei t being in the rear." 
The picket line occupied In the Regiment 
was to tin' left and rear of the line held by 
the brigade, in the edge of the woods skirt- 
ii g tic low ground, and in the immediate 

vicinity of where Jackson was shot. The 

One Hundred Fourteenth which also had 
keen ordered on picket was drawn in and 
formed part of the main line. The Sixty- 
Third Regiment, after rejoining the brigade 
was subsequently sent to aid Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Ward and was the only regiment in the 
brigade that participated in the night attack. 
The account of this day's movements may 
he fittingly coi eluded with the following 
quotation from Pates' " Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers :" — " J ust hi fore dark a terrible musket- 
ry lire opened to the right and rear of the 
advancing divisions. (Birney's and Whip- 
ple's). Jackson had unexpectedly attacked 
the Eleventh Corps, rolling it up like a 
scroll, anil crushing it wherever it offered a 
feeble resistance. These two divisions were 
in a critical position; hut they marched cpii- 
eth hack under cover of the darkness, brush- 
ing past the enemy without discovery. The 
Regiment finally halted in an open field, 
and was detailed tor picket duty. Captain 
Tyler in a letter uives the following account 
of the night's experience : — '' We picketed 
on the low ground between the two armies 
which were within musket range of each 
other. Suddenly the air was rent with 
cheers as Ward's Brigade charged down the 
Gordonsville plank road driving the enemy 



from a portion of his line. The crash of 
musketry and the screech of flying shot and 
shells made the night hideous. We were 
between two fires. Shells with their burn- 
ing fuses streamed in every direction over 
our heads. Occasionally one would hurst in 
its fiery course, and the sharp whiz and thud 
of the pieces as they struck the ground in 
our midst, reminded us of our mortality, 
ami gave us a foretaste of the struggle to be- 
gin with the dawn of the morrow." 
SUNDAY, may :;. 

The route of the Eleventh Corps on Sat- 
urday evening had greatly disconcerted 
I looker's plans, and discouraged him as to 
the result of the contest, lie determined, 
nevertheless, to continue the battle, hut con- 
tract his lines by bringing them nearer to 
Chaneellorsville. A new line was accord- 
ingly laid out by his order on a low ridge 
perpendicular to the plank road, opposite to 
and at right angles with Slocum's front, and 
was strongly supported by artillery massed 
on the heights of Fairview, in the rear and 
to the left. 

"On Sunday morning the Federal army 
held a position which covered the angle of 
roads at. the Chaneellorsville House. Sick- 
les' Corps, ami Berry's division of Slocum's 
Corps, and French's division of Couch-'s 
Corps, formed the right and faced westward 
to meet Stuart's attack — Major-General J. 
E. B. Stuart having succeeded for the time 
being to the command of Jackson's ( lorps — 
Hi ■ rest of Slocum's Corps and Hancock's 
division of Couch's Corps formed the center 
and left, covering the two roads from Chan- 
eellorsville to Fredericksburg, part of Han- 
cock's force being thrown hack, lacing east- 
ward, to guard the communications with the 
United States Ford." 

Says General Doubleday : — ''The real 
key of the battle- field now was the eminence 
at Hazel Grove, (held by Sickles' Corps). 
So long as we held it the enemy could not 
advance without presenting his right Hank 
to our batteries. If he obtained possession 

of it he could plant guns which would enfil- 
ade Slocum's line and lire directly into our 
forces below. Birney's division at this time 
posted in advance of Best's guns on the left, 
—Best was in command of the artillery on 
Fairview, and Birney was at Hazel Grove — 
Berry was on the right, with Williams' divi- 
sion of the Twelfth Corps behind Birney, 
and Whipple's division in rear of Berry. 

The position of Hazel Grove commanded 
Chaneellorsville where all the roads meet, 
and which it was vital to Hooker to bold. 
For if he lost that, he could not advance in 
any direction, and only his line of retreat to 
the Ford would remain open to him. Pleas- 
anton spent, the night in fortifying this hill, 
and placed forty guns in position there; but 
it was of no avail, for it was outside of the 
new line Sickles was directed to occupy at 
daylight, and Hooker was not aware of its 
importance. A request was sent to the lat- 
ter to obtain bis consent to bold it, but he 
was asleep, and the staff-officer in charge, 
who had had no experience whatever in 
military matters, positively refused to awak- 
en him until daylight, and then it was too 
late, for that was the time set for the troops 
to fall back tO the new line." 

In falling hack to this new line to which 
Sickles was ordered, Birney's division ex- 
cept Graham's brigade, led the way, and 
Whipple's division brought up the rear, 
Graham's brigade being at tiie extreme rear 
of the column following Whipple. 

Says Doubleday: — "When the movement 
began, Birney's division, on the left of 
Whipple, occupied the high ground at 1 [azel 
Grove facing the plank road, Graham's brig- 
ade being on the extreme left. This was a 
very aggressive position, since it took every 
column that advanced against Sickle's new 
line directly in Hank, and therefore it was 
indispensable tor the rebel commander to 
capture Hazel Grove before he advanced 
against the main body of the Third Corps, 
which held the plank road. The hill was 
not ip high as that at Fairview, but 



our artillery on it had great range, and the 
post should have been maintained at all 
hazards. The cavalry who had so ably de- 
fended it fell back, in obedience to orders, 
to the Chancellorsville House, to support 
the batteries in that vicinity, and 1 think 
one regiment was sent to report to Sedgwick. 
Whipple commenced the movement by 
sending ofl his artillery and thai of Birney, 
Graham's brigade was the roar guard. Its 
retreat was covered by the fire of Hunting- 
ton's battery on the right. The moment the 
enemy saw that Graham was retreating, Ar- 
cher's brigade of A. P. Hill's division, 
charged, attained the top of the hill and suc- 
ceeded in capturing four guns." 

This brief account of the positions of the 
troops and their movements on this part of 
the field may help make intelligible the op- 
erations of the One Hundred Forty- First 
Regiment on this eventful Sunday morning. 

The Regiment, which had been placed on 
picket the evening before, was called in 
about sunrise and joined the brigade, which 
was posted on the hill to the north o\ the 
log house on Hazel Grove, in "close column 
by regiments*'; that i-. each regiment in 
line, one behin 1 the other. At this time the 
columns - formed that the left of each 

reached beyond the left v\ the one in front 
of it. The One Hundred Forty-First formed 
the rear column, companies " B" and " K " 
extending farther to the left than the n - 
the brigade, the left ot Company "B' ro-t- 
ing within three or four nxls of the log 
house, and the right in the direction ot 
Chancellorsville, so that the line faced a lit- 
tle west of north. 

General Graham says ' V: this time 
tabor.: six ck in the morning) the ene- 

my opened a brisk tire on our whole line. 
The troops that had been in my front, and 
which 1 was ordered to follow from the field. 
were I _ hastily, leaving my lines 

exposed - 't the rapid ad- 

vance of the enemy. 1 now 

w vol- 

leys from the Fifty-Seventh, < me Hundred 
Forty-First and Sixty-Third Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, which formed my left and were 
most exposed. This served to check the 
enemy to some extent, and enabled me to 
bring oil my command in Inner order than 
1 otherwise could have done We now re- 
tired rapidly, closely followed and subjected 
to a hot tire. We followed the rear of Whip- 
ple's division, passing to the right i>l the 
batteries on the hill except the One Hun- 
dred Forty-First, which went upon the left 
of them), and forming again to the left o\ 
the Plank Road, and directly behind the 
graveyard near l'airvieu." 

The position of the One Hundred Forty- 
First by this movement subjected it to a 
very severe tire at close range. They had 
scarcely joined the brigade when a sharp 
firing was heard in the pine woods, on the 
left oi the field, and directly in front of the 
brigade as it stood. As soon as the K<_i- 
nunt got into position, the men were ordered 
to lie down. They had just obeyed this 
order when the enemy made a charge upon 
our line, advancing from the northwest. As 
soon as they came out of the woods the tiring 
became general on both sides. At thi* time 
a regiment belonging to another I 
lying in front of Companies " B" and " K." 
cave way ane. came running back over the 
Regiment, but rallied behind a breastwork 
made o\ rails just in our rear, and again 
opened tire. Between the place where the 
enemy came out oi the woods and where the 
Regiment were Ivingi there was a considera- 
ble depression in the surface of the field. As 
they ad vain ss this depression they 

were out of our sight, and when they came 
into view again they were only a few ro^is 
from our line. Here they were met I • - 
s volley from our men. that they fell back 
in i:: - ; - the depression, under 

f which they re formed and marched 
by their right flank, and passing around the 
ine in tlank and 



It was about the time the enemy made 
this first charge that Graham's Brigade was 

ordered to retire from Hazel Grove. In 
executing this order the regiments moved 
by the right flank, the regiment in front 
taking the lead, the One Hundred Forty- 
First being in the rear was the last to move. 
By som" means Lieutenant Peek, who was 
in command of Company " B," did not re- 
ceive the order to retire with the rest of the 
Regiment, and could not have executed if 
he had received it, since the regiment which 
had taken position in the breastworks at his 
rear were firing hut a few inches above the 
backs of his men, who were lying Hat upon 
the ground. To have called his company to 
their feet under such circumstances would 
have heen certain death to most of them. 
This company was therefore compelled to 
remain in this exposed position until the 
rear of the Regiment was just passing out of 
the cleared field they had heen occupying. 
The enemy in the meantime had gained a 
position in the rear and flank of the compa- 
ny, tired a volley into the backs of the men 
wlio were in the breastworks, at which they 
broke and ran. The company, relieved 
from the fire of their own men, was immedi- 
ately ordered to follow the Regiment— they 
being the last Union forces to leave the posi- 
tion at Hazel Grove. 

When the company began to retire the 
enemy was not more than six or eight rods 
from their left flank. In a single minute 
more the whole Company would have been 
captured. It was here that John H. Chaffee, 
George Ott and A. J. Horton, who were on 
the left of the Company, were captured and 
William Bunt lost his arm. 

The severity of the tire at this time may 
he inferred from the fact that when Lieuten- 
ant Peck sprang up to take his company 
out of its perilous position, he had scarcely 
gained his feet when his blanket, which 
rolled up in a strap lie was carrying in his 
hand, was carried away by a cannon shut, 
the tin cup cut from his haversack, the strap 

of his haversack (ait oil', and himself wound- 
ed in the neck and shoulder, the hall just 
missing the spinal cord and jugular vein, all 
in almost the same instant. Here he would 
aLo have been captured had ii not heen for 
the devotion and bravery of one of his men, 
Alvin Whittaker, who at the peril of his 
own life remained with him and assisted 
him off the field, escaping without a scratch, 
although several bullets passed through his 

It has frequently been remarked that un- 
der the indescribable excitement of a sudden 
and unexpected attack sometimes the brav- 
est and ordinarily the coolesf men will for a 
moment lose their heads. Such an instance 
occurred here. A member of Company K, 
whose courage was unquestioned, about the 
time the engagement became general, sprang 
to his feet and tired his rifle at the enemy 
in front, after loading tired to the left flank, 
loading the third time tired to the rear, 
when he called out to his comrades, "Get 
up, hoys! there is good fighting all around 
here." lie had scarcely uttered the words 
when he was struck by a hall on (he hack of 
the head near the base of the skull, and hit 
for dead on the field and so reported by the 
commander of his company. A few days 
later when the wounded were brought in all 
were greatly surprised and delighted to find 
their wounded comrade among them, lie 
recovered, returned to his company and did 
good service afterward. 

The northern limit of the clearing at Ha- 
zel Grove is a few rods west of the south line 
of the cleared space about l'airview. The 
stream which divides these two eminences 
has. at the point where these cleared fields 
approach nearest each other, worn tor itself 
quite a deep channel bordered by steep 
broken hanks — the men frequently speak of' 
this stream as a ditch— along this stream 
was a narrow strip of cleared space, not 
more than three or four rods in width, join- 
ing l'airview ami Hazel Grove. I town into 
this space on Saturday night, a brigade or 



more of Jackson's Corps had been pushed, 
connecting themselves with the Confederate 
forces nn the plank road and thus cut off 
Sickles completely from the rest of the Fed- 
eral army. Later, General Ward with the 
Second Brigade attacked this force and 
drove them out of the road which skirts this 
little stream, hack to the [dank mad, forcing 
them a half mile or more toward Dowdall's 
Tavern. The route by which the One Hun- 
dred Forty-First retired was to the east across 
Hazel Grove, across this brook, or "ditch," 
up the bridle path to the plank road, east- 
ward on this road until they reached the po- 
sition behind the batteries on Fairview, 
where it was again re-formed. 

While retiring across the clearing and un- 
til the shelter of the woods and the cover of 
•series was reached the Regiment, as 
has been said, was exposed to a terrific fire 
from Archer's entire brigade — the same 
force they encountered at Fredericksburg — 
who were pressing hard after them and yell- 
ing like demons. It was a race for life. 
Says an officer of the Regiment in speaking 
of it. '" 1 think I did the best running there I 
ever did in my life." It seems marvellous 
that any escaped. 

Colonel Madill says: — "About sis o'clock 
in the morning the enemv made an attack 
upon our brigade. Companies B, G and K 
received and returned the tire of the enemy 
and held them in check for a few minutes 
until the regiments in front of me filed off. 
I brought up the rear of the column. Dur- 
ing the engagement on the hill, (the past at- 
tack.) Companies B and K suffered quite se- 
verely. Company B especially. Captains 
Spalding (Company 1) and Tyler, (Compa- 
ny II and Lieutenants Peck, (Company B.) 
and Atkinson, commanding Company I), 
were wounded at this place. Lieutenant At- 
kinson, although severely wounded in the 
arm. continued in command of his company 
until the Regiment reached the Brick 
(Chancellor's II he went to the 


Iu regard to the movements at this point 
Swinton says:— "It will be remembered 
that Sickles from the movement he had 
made on Saturday afternoon to attack the 
rear of Jackson's Corps, reached a position 
on the right flank of that corps ; but a little 
before daybreak Sickles was ordered to retire 
from that position to his place in the new 
line. It was when the withdrawal had been 
nearly accomplished, that Stuart advanced 
his right, and in so doing engaged Sickles' 
rear, consisting of the brigade of Graham, 
who manceuvered his command with address 
and made good his escape." 

In his report Brigadier-General Archer 
gives this version of the affair: — "During 
the night I formed on the extreme rit;ht of 
the division, with General McGowan's bri- 
gade on my left. The next (Sunday) morn- 
ing, about sunrise, we moved forward to the 
attack, through dense pine timber, driving 
before us the enemy's skirmishers, and at a 
distance of four hundred yards, emerging 
into an open field in front of a battery, 
which was placed on an abrupt hill near a 
spring house. We advanced at double quick 
and captured four pieces of artillery, and 
about one hundred prisoners, driving the 
infantry supports in confusion before us." 

The enemy was not slow to avail himself 
of the immense advantage gained by the oc- 
cupancy of Hazel Grove. A strong battery 
under Major Pegram was at once got into po- 
sition, covering Chancellorsville, enfilading 
Slocum's entire line, and rendering Fairview 
untenable for the federal troops, while Gen- 
eral Anderson with his whole division has- 
tened to the support of the two brigades al- 
ready in possession of the heights. 

Hooker soon learned to his cost what an 
advantage he had given his foe without a 
struggle. After a weak, brief effort to re- 
tain Chancellorsville, orders were given to 
retire behind an interior line laid out the 
night before somewhat in shape like the let- 
tvhose right wing rested on the Rapi- 
eft on the Rappahannock near 



Scott's Dam, and the vertex near Bullock's 
Spring, less than half a mile north of Chan- 
cellorsville. To Graham, who had formed 
his brigade in close column of regiments 
behind the batteries, near the grave yard on 
Fairview, was again assigned the duty of 
holding the enemy in check until the bat- 
teries could be removed to the new line and 
the proper disposition of the troops effected. 
The enemy, whose movements at this point 
were now directed by General Lee in per- 
son,- pressed forward in the direction of 
Chanpellorsville. Halting a little on the 
edge of the Hazel Grove for the purpose of 
receiving a fresh supply of ammunition, lie 
advanced cautiously to the crest of the hill 
looking southward, where he was in full view 
and in the range of the batteries of Fairview 
which opened a severe fire upon him. The 
eastern side of Hazel Grove toward Fairview 
was covered with oak woods extending to 
the edge of the stream which divides the 
two hills, and is broken into a number of 
ridges by shallow valleys down which run 
rivulets in wet weather, but disappear when 
it is dry. The distance from the batteries 
to the edge of the wood was about twenty- 
five or thirty rods. As soon as the enemy 
made his appearance on the eastern crest of 
Hazel Grove, Graham was ordered to charge 
his line and hold him in check, and if possi- 
ble drive him back. Facing his brigade a 
little to the south of west, with his columns 
doubled on the center, at half distance, for 
more rapid movement, the One Hundred 
Fifth Regiment in front and the One Hun- 
dred Forty-First in the rear, he marched 
down the westerly slope of Fairview across 
the low ground that borders the stream at 
its foot, and to the edge of the woods where 
the enemy was found in strong force drawn 
up in line of battle ready to receive him. 
While passing down this slope Lieutenant- 

*ln a few minutes General Lee rule up ai.d soon 
directed me ro move forward with my own brigade 
and the three regiments of Dole's, which were un- 
der command of General Mericle. — A kciikr's Ke- 

Colonel Watkins was knocked ofl his horse 
by the concussion of an exploding shell, 
which for a moment stunned him, but from 
which he quickly recovered and pressed on 
with the Regiment. 

On reaching the edge of the woods ( len- 
eral Graham deployed his line on the dou- 
ble quick, the One Hundred Fifth being in 
front forming on the left, and each regiment 
as it came into line forming on the right of 
the one before it, so that in the line of bat- 
tle they stood as follows : the One Hundred 
Forty-First on the extreme right, and count- 
ing the others in order to the left the Sixty- 
Third, Fifty-Seventh, Sixty-Eighth, One 
Hundred Fourteenth, and the One Hundred 
Fifth. Here began a terrible fight. Graham 
had advanced his line in the open woods to 
within about twenty rods of the enemy, con- 
sisting of Archer's and MeGowan's brigades 
whose line was drawn up on one of the 
ridges before described, when they opened 
upon him a heavy fire. After delivering a 
few rounds in reply, Graham ordered his 
line to advance. With a cheer that made the 
woods ring, every man sprang forward up 
the ridge in the face of the enemy's fire, un- 
til they shortened the distance between the 
two lines about one-half, w-hen they poured 
into them another volley at this close range. 
The enemy recoiled a little but stood their 
ground. After a few minutes our fire be- 
came so hot they could stand it no longer, 
but broke and run, followed by our men, 
wdio with cheers that made the woods ring 
again, chased them behind their breast- 
works of logs* upon another ridge a short 
distance in their rear. Here they gave Gra- 
ham a most terrific fire. Bullets went whist- 
ling through the ranks, crashingin the tree- 
tops, and thinning the Federal lines with 
fearful rapidity. 

•In a letter written by L. F. Ward and publish- 
ed in the Bradford Reporter soon after the 
battle, this breastwork is described as an old log 
fence, through a gap in which the Confederates 
were hastening to find shelter when Captain Swart 
wis shot and himself wounded. 



Again the order was given to advance. 
Notwithstanding the terrible fire to which 
thej had been exposed and the fearful loss 
they had suffered, and that 

•• Bullets would sin;; by our foreheads and bullets 

would rain at our feet — 
Fire from fourteen thousand at once of the rebels 

that girdled us round "— 

the lines were pushed forward without a 
I. reak or a waver. The left and center of 
the brigade got up to that part of the breast- 
works in their immediate front, the Sixty- 
Eighth took quite a number of prisoners 
and captured the battle-flag of the Tenth 
Virginia Regiment, the Fifty-Seventh and 
One Hundred Fifth Regiments also took 
several prisoners, but from the point where 
the left of the One Hundred Forty-First 
joined with the right of the Sixty-Third the 
line of the breastworks formed an angle and 
the side opposite the One Hundred Forty- 
First led away from the line of the brigade, 
so that when this Regiment kept on a line 
with the others they were some distance 
from the work in their front, and if they 
closed up to the breastwork, the enemy who 
were in heavy force on their right, and were 
sending a storm of bullets into their ranks, 
would close in behind them, and take them 
both in flank and rear. 

Colonel Colgrove with his regiment, the 
Twenty-Seventh Indiana, was holding a line 
on the extreme front when Graham was or- 
dered to advance and hold the enemy in 
check, and gallantly volunteered to aid Gra- 
ham in his advance, and was engaging the 
enemy immediately in front of the < hie 
Hundred Fourteenth, who were directed to 
lit down ww\ await further orders. 

The position of the One Hundred Forty- 
First was now becoming extremely critical. 
Assailed in front, on Hank and in rear by 
the fresh troops the enemy was throwing 
intc his works, they nevertheless held their 
ground with the most determined resolu- 
tion. Says General Graham:— "In order 
to support the One Hundred Forty-First 

which was suffering severely, but nobly 
holding its ground, I ordered the One Hun- 
dred Fourteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers, 
whose place in the line was occupied by the 
Twenty-Seventh Indiana Volunteers, to 
move by the right Hank and aid the One 
Hundred Forty-First. They did this; 
formed and fired one volley, when they 
broke and fell back.' 

The brigade had captured a portion of the 

enemy's breastworks, and their troops be- 
hind them were in great confusion, when the 
Confederate General Colston who was in 
command of Trimble's Division, seeing the 
perilous position of his forces, huddled to- 
gether six or eight deep and mixed up in 
great confusion ordered forward bis entire 
division to their support. Says Major S paid- 
ding: — "A whole division of Jackson's 
army was now thrown upon our already ex- 
hausted and much weakened brigade. They 
marched along not more than ten rods in 
front of the breastworks, the whole length 
of our line without stopping to return a shot 
until they bad reached the proper position, 
our whole brigade at that short distance giv- 
ing them a steady ami continuous lire. They 
fell by hundreds, ami I firmly believe that 
in that short march they lost more men 
than we had in our brigade. When they 
reached the proper place they deployed and 
then commenced one of the most terrible 
musketry fires that ever was known. They 
were at least ten to our on?, for there were no 
other Federal troops there but our brigade 
and parts of two other regiments that joined 
us as we went in. and opposed to us in front 
and on both. Hanks, a solid mass of the ene- 

Ofcoursethe unequal contest could not 
long be maintained. Graham had success- 
fully assailed the advancing columns of the 
enemy and not only checked their advance, 
but had hurled them hack upon their in- 
trenchments and reserves, up the hill, 
through the woods under a storm of scream- 
ing shells and bullets that fell like rain 



drops in a summer shower. <>u over their 
breastworks lie had chased them, leaving 
the path behind him thickly strewed with 
the wounded and the slain, until now with- 
out supports, with fresh troops of the enemy 
massing in front and on either Hank, he was 
obliged to recall his tired and exhausted 
forces and retire his shattered and bleeding 
columns from the vastly superior numbers 
of the foe. 

If the brigade had met with heavy loss, 
so had the enemy, especially in officers. 
General Colston says: — " it was at and be- 
yond these breastworks that the division 
sustained the most severe loss, the nature of 
the ground being such that the enemy had a 
plunging fire upon us, and sent destruction 
upon all that occupied the slope of the hill 
on which we were." 

General Graham now retired his brigade 
to the edge of the woods where the fighting 
had begun nearly two hours before, having 
halted once or twice, to check the enemy 
who were following up his line a little too 
closely. Here, at the edge of the woods the 
brigade was again halted, fired two or three 
rounds when they were ordered to stop fir- 
ing and sat down a moment to rest. In his 
report General Graham says: — "This [the 
falling back of the One Hundred Fourteenth] 
and the increasing numbers of the enemy 
necessitated the retiring of the whole line. 
When the retreating line reached the crest 
of the hill where we had first opened the at- 
tack I ordered the colonels of regiments to 
halt their commands, face about, cease firing 
and lie down, as the enemy did nol seem to 
be pressing us very hard. All of the regi- 
incnls rallied in splendid Style, and a solid 
front was again presented to the enemy." 

" It was here," says Major Spalding, "that 

Colonel Madill did one of those things that 
borders somewhat on the romantic, and yet 
is strictly true. When the order was given 
to rally he was carrying the flag and I was 
carry : ng the banner, lie immediately stuck 

the flag-stafl in the ground and began to 

1 Bally 'round tie' flag, boy9 ! 
Bally once again,' 

and most nobly did the "boys" respond; 
for many of them joined in singing the stan- 
za, and without a word of command they 
formed their line, and faced the enemy as 
firmly as ever." Nothing could better il- 
lustrate the intrepid coolness and undaunted 
resolution of the men. With nearly half 
their number already dead or bleeding on 
the held, with the leaden hail of ten thous- 
and muskets falling among them, and the 
ranks of the victorious, exultant enemy (dos- 
ing around them, with the self composure of 
a company of school girls in a calisthenic 
drill, did these brave men again turn their 
faces to the foe, not at the word of command, 
but at the music of their own patriotic song, 
wheeled into position ready to charge back 
the advancing lines of the Confederates. 

After lying in this position some fifteen 
minutes, the enemy was seen advancing in 
force ,,n the right of the brigade. The men 
at once arose, ami for a few minutes a heavy 
lire was renewed on both sides, but the over- 
whelming numbers of the assailants, and the 
exhaustion of his men compelled Graham to 
order them to fall back, which was done 
with some confusion, across the low ground 
and past where the batteries had been on 
Fail-view. What was left of his command 
was soon re-formed in rear of the Chancel- 
lorsville House. 

The object of this last movement, and the 
reason why they were not reinforced was 
now apparent. The batteries had been safe- 
ly removed to the new line a half mile 
nearer the river, and the troops securely 
posted behind the contracted lines that cov- 
ered the United States Ford. For the sec- 
ond time on this day of terrible slaughter 
bad this brigade been interposed between 
Hooker's retiring troops and the advancing 
foe. Twice with unflinching courage it had 
braved the onset of the onward rush of the 
enemy, and like a rock it had for a time 



turned the tide of battle until overwhelmed 
by greatly superior numbers it had beeu 
compelled to yield the ground it had fairly 

Says Major Spalding: — " The battle so 
far as wr were personally engaged was now 
over. It was aboul ten o'clock in the morn- 
ing. We had been thrown forward in a 
pressing emergency and most fully had we 
met the expectation of the General. It was 
up to the most advanced line that Colonel 
VVatkins was wounded. He was with the 
Regiment up to the last line they reacbed, 
when he was hit in tin- breast by a minie 
ball and fell. He was carried to the rear 
by Lieutenant Brainerd, assisted by some of 
of the men. Captain Swart am! Lieutenant 
Tyler were both killed there. Two color- 
bearers had been shot when Captain Swart, 
who commanded the color company, took 
them himself and was instantly killed. 1 
then picked them up and carried them tor a 
few minutes, when the Colonel came ami 
wanted them. 1 gave them to him and took 
the banner which 1 carried a short time and 
gave it to one of the color guard, the only 
one who was unhurt— also both color bear- 
ers were wounded '* This was Sergeant .1. 
A. Bosworth of Company B, who bore the 
colors from the field. 

The brigade reaching the rear of the 
Chancellor House, was ordered to form on 
the left of General Ward, and in rear, or 
north, of the road from the Chancellor 
House to United States Ford. Here the 
brigade lav tor a lew minutes when it fell 
back according to orders and occupied the 
second line near the Bullock House and in 
rear of the rifle pits. The field around the 
Chancellor House was swept by a terrific 
tire of shell and canister from two directions 

Hazel Grove on the southwest and Ander- 
son's battery on the southeast. A number fell 
here, but the men fore 'he fiery ordeal un- 
flinchingly. It was herethat Captain Mum- 
ford fell mortally wounded. Says Double- 
day: — "The Third Corps left their last po- 

sition at Chancellorsville slowly and sullen- 
ly. I layman's brigade, not far from the 
Chancellorsville House, finding the enemy 
a good deal disorganized, and coming tor- 
ward in a languid and inefficient manner, 
turned — by Sickles' direction — and charged, 
capturing several hundred prisoners and 
several colors, and relieving Graham, who 
was now holding on witli the bayonet, from 
a most perilous flank attack, enabling him to 
withdraw in good order." 

In the afternoon the brigade was ordered 
to the front to support the batteries in which 
the One Hundred Forty-First lost one man 
killed and two wounded by the explosion of 
a shell. Here they remained all night. 
Says one of the men in his diary, " we were 
completely tired out and exhausted." and no 
wonder. All of Saturday night they had 
been on picket so near t he enemy that they 
could hear the conversation on his post-, on 
Sunday forenoon they had passed through 
the hottest part of the tight, in the after- 
noon they had been under constant lire, and 
now on the front line again. It was very 
trying indeed, especially as it was rumored 
that Lee designed to make a night attack 
upon this part of the line. Here we will let 
Major Spalding again tell the story: — "At 
lock on Sunday evening 1 was lying 
by the side of the breastworks, i nmediately 
behind our batteries. The moon was shin- 
ing brightly. We were every moment ex- 
pecting an attack. Colonel Madill, the Ad- 
jutant, Captains Mercur and Horton, were 
lying together close by our men. 1 had just 
been down to see < ienerals Graham and Bir- 
ney, to ask that our men might be with- 
drawn where they could sleep. Our Regi- 
ment were on picket the night before and had 
not slept at all. We had been through the 
most severe fighting all the day and were 
much exhausted. The GeneraJ said that it 
was too late to make any change that night, 
but be would withdraw us from the line of 
battle in tin' morning. 

" About midnight the expected attack was 


made. A single shot was first heard from 
a sentinel, then the scattering tire of the 
skfrmishers, and this was followed by an ex- 
plosion which seemed to shake the earth as 
our front line of battle delivered a volley 
upon the enemy. For a short time the roar 
of musketry was deafening, then all was 
quiet again. The enemy had been driven 
back witli heavy loss. For the balance of 
the night all was still. The contrast be- 
tween the terrible roar of battle and the 
death-like stillness that followed was so 
great that it was almost oppressive." 

The rest of the story is soon told. On 
Monday morning the Regiment was with- 
drawn from the front line of ri He-pits where 
it had been placed Sunday afternoon, and 
placed in the third line. Throughout the day 
there was not much but skirmishing on ei- 
ther side. Hooker had lost all heart for the 
fight and was thinking of only how he could 
make good his retreat. The campaign of 
such great promise, had by a series of most 
inexcusable blunders, to use no harsher 
word, resulted in the defeat of the Army of 
the Potomac and the demoralization of its 
commander. Monday afternoon and Tues- 
day every man in the Regiment was busy 
throwing up breastworks of brush, logs and 
dirt, the men using their tin plates in lieu 
of shovels. In the afternoon the artillery 
shelled the woods in front of the Regiment 
but elicited no reply. At four o'clock in the 
afternoon the rain began to fall in torrents. 
The past few days had been excessively 
warm, and the rain was accompanied with 
vivid lightning and heavy thunder. At nine 
o'clock in the evening orders were given to 
pack up quietly and be ready to march at a 
moment's notice. All night the men re- 
mained in the rain, when about daylight 
the order was received to " fall in " and they 
marched to the river in quick time, crossed 
the rapidly rising stream on the pontoon 
bridge, and drew up in the woods about four 
miles from the noith bank wheie they were 
halted for breakfast. The roads were very 

muddy and it was late in the afternoon be- 
fore the Regiment reached its old quarters 
in ('amp Sickles, on Potomac < reek. 

Whether by design or by accident this 
Regiment had been placed in a most re- 
sponsible position in every important move- 
ment made by the army since it had become 
a part of it. At Fredericksburg, and on the 
Mud March, and now at Chancel lorsville, 
both on Saturday when its skirmishers had 
advanced nearest the enemy at Welford's, 
and on Sunday as the rear guard of Sickles 
on Hazel Grove, and again later on the 
slopes of the hills, in all of which it had shown 
a coolness and courage (hat would have 
been expected only of troops drilled by long 
discipline, and tempered in the fires of many 
a strife, rather than of men who only eight 
months before were on their farms, in their 
workshops, and engaged in the various pur- 
suits of civil life. 

In his report of the engagement General 
Graham pays this Regiment and its grandly 
heroic commander the following high com- 
pliment : — " I would, however, mention for 
their coolness, enthusiasm, and gallant dar- 
ing, and untiring exertions in sustaining 
their men that brave soldier, Colonel Madill, 
of the One Hundred Forty-First Pennsylva- 
nia Volunteers." After mentioning other 
commanding officers, among them Major 
Spalding of our Regiment, he adds: — "I 
would give especial praise to the One Hun- 
dred Forty-First Pennsylvania Volunteers, 
a new Regiment, for the second time under 
fire. No men could have behaved better. 
Its thinned ranks are better proof of its 
steadiness under fire than any words can be, of 
four hundred and seventeen men taken into 
the fight it lost two hundred and thirty-four. 
* * * Lieutenant Colonel Watkins of 
the One Hundred Forty First Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, was also severely wounded while 
nobly urging his men forward to the ene- 
mv's works." 

General De Pevster, in his Third Corps 
address, in speaking of the heroic fighting 



of this corps al Chancellorsville, and 
mori particularly of the First Brigade of 
the First Division, says :—" Pretty much rill 
I lie real hard fighting done at Chancellors- 
ville proper, i. e., on the great battle Sun- 
day, was accomplished by the diamond 
patches. Had Graham, constituting the 
lance-head of the corps and the army, been 
properly supported, he would have transfix- 
ed Stuart, successor to Jackson, and to use a 
soldier's term, he would have 'bust up' 
Le« " 

Colonel Madill concludes his report as fol- 
lows : — 

" 1 feel it my duly to say a lew words in 
relation to the conduct of the brave officers 
and men of my Regiment during the hard 
marches and severe lire to which they were 

subject during the several movements of the 

" 1 left camp April 28th with four hun- 
dred and sixty men and twenty-lour officers. 
During the march but five were known to 
Straggle ; yet 1 regret to say, that some live 
or six men disgracefully left their compa- 
nies and fell out during the march to United 
States Ford. 1 took lour hundred and sev- 
enteen men into the fight on Sunday morn- 
ing. This number does not include the pi- 
oneers or musicians, who were left behind 
on Saturday afternoon, the musicians in 
charge of the surgeon, and the pioneers in 
charge of an officer of the brigade. Out of 
that number 1 lost two hundred and twenty- 
three in killed, wounded and missing, the 
missing, 1 am sorry to say, 1 believe to be 
among the killed and those wounded and 
left on the field. 1 think there were very 
few, if any, of my men taken prisoners. < >ut 
the twenty-four officers 1 had on Sunday 
morning, twelve are among the killed and 
wounded, Captain Swan of Company C, 
and Lieutenant Tyler, Company II, were 
killed, and 1 am afraid that Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Watkins and Captain Munifi rd of Com- 
pany G, are mortally wounded. 

ii istoi \ of the 105th Regiment, l>. V. 

" The officers of my Regiment behaved 
splendidly throughout the whole lime; in 
fact each one vied with the other to see who 
could best do his duty, and how well they 
ditl so the large list of killed and wounded 

but, loo clearly tells. There is scarcely ail 
officer in the Regiment who has not a bullet 
mark on his person. 

'"Of tjie lamented Watkins 1 cannot. 
speak too highly. lie had his horse shot 
under him on Friday evening and was se- 
verely stunned by the same shell, yet he 
marched with the Regiment on Saturday on 
loni and rendered very valuable services 
during that time. He was again, on Sun- 
day morning, knocked from his horse by the 
explosion of a shell, and though badly stun- 
ned, insisted on remaining with his Regi- 
ment, which he did, and went into the 

w Is with us. lie was shot through the 

breasl and borne from the field about eight 
o'clock, lie was a brave soldier and true 
patriot. 1 lis place in the Regiment cannot 
be replaced. 

Captain Swart was killed while holding 
tin colors ol the Regiment. He had just 
taken them from the color-sergeant, who 
had been shot. lie was a brave officer and 
a good man. 

Lieutenant Tyler was also killed. He 
was also a line officer. 

It would be useless for me to particularize 
any of my < fficers. They all acted with 
much spirit anil bravery during the live 
davs we were under lire. 

I am under great obligations to the Ma- 
jor and Adjutant for their coolness and 
bravery in assisting me during the several 
days we were under tin'. They proved 
themselves valuable and brave officers. 

Of the bravery ofthe men under my com- 
mand 1 need scarcely speak. I saw no de- 
position in any man while under lire to 
shirk or avoid his duty. The loss in non- 
commissioned officers was very severe. The 
color-bearers and color-guard were all killed 
or wounded but one, who was guarding and 

holding the colors. 



Sergeant Beardsley, the color-bearer, de- 
serves particular mention for the pertinacity 
witli which he clung to his colors, though 
severely wounded. In fact, all the non-com- 
missioned officers and privates deserve the 
highest praise in standing under one el* the 
most severe fires under which men could be 
plai ed. 

Particular mention is made of J. B. Ells- 
worth, of Company I, James M. Beach, of 
Company E, and Benjamin P. Oliphant, of 
Company A, who particularly distinguished 
themselves for coolness and bravery during 

the fight of Sunday 'ning. I think there 

can be no question of the discipline and 
bravery of troops who will stand and he shot 
down as they were on Sunday morning. To 
such men as stood under such circumstances 
too much credit cannot he awarded." 

The escapes were in some instances almost 
hair-breadth. The Colonel had his horse 
shot under him, and no less than seven bul- 
let-holes through his overcoat. Says the 
Major : — " I cannot speak in terms sufficient- 
ly high of the conduct of Colonel Madill 
upon the battlefield. 1 never saw him look 
so well. During all the terrible seems 
through which he passed, there was a smile 
upon his face, a pleasant encouraging word 
for every man. lie was proud of the con- 
duet of his men." 

One man had the vizor of his cap shot off, 
and another had a bullet pass under the top of 
his cap but diil not graze the scalp. In sev- 
eral instances halls penetrated the clothing, 
bruised hut did not cut the Mesh, and a 
number found halls lodged in their knap- 
sacks. Sergeant Owen, of Company I, bud 
the, -tuck of his gun shivered into splinters 
just as he was bringing it to his face to Inc. 
These arc hut few out of a multitude of sim- 
ilar instances. 

Most of those seriously wounded were left 
in the hands of the enemy. With hut little 
if any, care, their wounds in most instances 
undressed, and the greater part lying upon 
the ground without shelter from the sun or 

the storm, their sufferings were intense, and 
no doubl many precious lives were lost, that 
with decent care and the ordinary comforts 

of army hospitals might have been saved. 

Negotiations for their removal were not ef- 
fected until Tuesday, the I2ih, when a. lim- 
ited number of ambulances Were allowed lo 
enter tin: enemy's lines and bring oil' the 
wounded, greatly to the joy and comfort of 
their friends. 

Colonel Watkins was shot as has been re- 
lated, by a minie hall that penetrated the 
upper part of the left lung, coming out un- 
der the shoulder blade. He was carried to 
the rear as far as a log house near the While 

House on Fairview, in what was supposed 
lo he a dying condition, when he refused to 
he carried farther and ordered hack the 
men who had broughl him oil the field. 

Without knowing his whereabouts the Reg- 
iment passed him there on its retreat from 
the fight. lie saw his men rush by, hut ii 
his weak condition could not make himself 
heard in the tumult of that horrid strife. 
When the enemy took possession of Fair- 
view Colonel Watkins, with a number of 
wounded Federa{s, was taken prisoner, 

and his captors were about stripping him of 
his clothing and valuables when on making 
himself known to the Lieutenant of tin com- 
pany as a Free Mason, he also belonging to 
the same fraternity, he was scut to 1 he head- 
quarters of Genera] Longstreet, where he 
was placed under the immediate care of 
Doctors Guild and Breckenridge, and re- 
ceived the kindest attention. On Friday, 
the loth, to the delight and surprise of all, 
Colonel Watkins came to the camp, and the 
next dav accompanied by Colonel Madill, 
went to Washington, where he was granted 
leave of absence, reaching his home in To- 
wanda on the evening of the 20th. 

Captain Abram .1. Swart, who fell at 
Chancellorsville, was horn in Hamden, I >i I 
aware county, \. Y., in IS.'!.'!; was a teacher 
in Starkey Seminary from 1854 to L857, and 
principal of Watkins Graded School from 



1X">7 to 1859, In this latter yeai he com- 
menced his work in the gospel ministry in 
connection with the Disciples' church, and 
the ii" x t year re vol to Bradford county. 

In tlic summer of 1862, at the urgent call 
of his country for volunteers, he left his be- 
loved people and the work to which he was 
devoted, and used his personal influence to 
obtain recruits, succeeding where others 
tailed, and was unani noiisly chosen by his 

company to be their Captain, thus leaving 
his (|iiict study, his congenial work and the 
large circle of friends to whom he was 
greatly attached and I »> whom he was great- 
ly loved, for the unaccustomed and uncon- 
genial life of the camp and the field. While 
Captain Swart entered upon military life 
purely from a sense of duty, he brought to 
it the activity, zeal and whole-hearted devo- 
tion characteristic of the man. His numer- 
ous letters, while breathing a longing for 
home and for the society of friends, as con- 
stantly speak of his determination to con 
tinue in the service while his country need- 
ed him. 

The most cordial feeling existed between 
him and the other officers of the Regiment, 
many of whom volunteered words of regret 
at his untimely death and in praiee of the 
soldier, the comrade, and the man. He had 
also, to an unusual extent, the love and re- 
spect of his men. Although patient and 
forbearing, he was a rigid disciplinarian 
and required strict adherence to study. Win- 
ning in manners and frank in speech, he 
commanded the warmest love of his friends; 
while his devotion to principle and loyalty 
to duty disarmed his enemies and command- 
ed respect from those with whom he differed. 
One who loved him and knew him well both 
before and after he entered the service, says 
of him: "He had unlimited good nature, 
quickness of repartee, a keen sens- ot humor, 
a warm heart, purity of principles, and an 
absolute earnestness and sincerity, and no 
man has left a purer name or the memory of 
a more spotless integrity.' 

'finis died in the Hush of his early man- 
hood one whom many loved ; hut as he fell 
at the head of his men. enveloped by the 
folds of his country's Hat;', which he was 
bearing aloft in his own hands, his friends 
feel that could he have chosen the end it 
would have come as it did, while doing the 
work given him to do and faithfully stand- 
ing at his post. He left a wife and daughter 
to mourn tin ir unspeakable loss. 

Captain .lames L. Mumford, who tell mor- 
tally wounded near the close of the engage- 
ment, was horn at Starucca, Wayne County, 
on the 28th of May, 1836, and was educated 
in the town of Homer, X. Y. lie entered 
the law office of William 11. and Samuel E. 
Dimmick, in Honesdale, as a student, with 
every prospect of a brilliant career before 
him. On the organization of Company (!, 
which he was largely instrumental in enlist- 
ing, he was chosen Captain. He brought to 
this new position all the energy, tact and 
perseverance of which he was capable. He 
was tireless in bringing his company up to 
the highest possible degree of efficiency and 
drill, and of infusing into their minds a tru- 
ly heroic and martial spirit. How well he 
succeeded has already been indicated from 
the fact that in a contest they carried off the 
first prize. Between himself and his men 
there sprang up a strong bond of attach- 
ment; he looked after their welfare with al- 
most parental solicitude, while they in re- 
turn regarded him with great respect and 
esteem. By his superiors he was looked upon 
as a young officer of much merit, to whom, 
if spared, a brilliant military career was in 
store. His loss was deeply felt by both the 
officers and men in his regiment. 

first Lieutenant Logan O. Tyler was horn 
in Montrose June 22, 1836, of good New 
England stock, a cousin of Captain Tyler, 
had acquired a good academical education, 
and was by trade a carpenter and builder. 
Prior to his enlistment he had spent several 
years on the then frontier, in Minnesota, and 
afterward in business in Memidiis.Tennessie. 



ill- did not become connected with the corn- 
pan) until the day it left Montrose, but on 
completing its organization he was made 
First Sergeant solely on accounl of his pe- 
culiar fitness for the position. On the or- 
ganization of the Regiment, D. W. Searle, 
the First Lieutenant of the company was 
promoted to Adjutant, Second Lieutenant 
Bunnell resigned soon after, and Sergeant 
Tyler was promoted to the First Lieutenan- 
cy. When the Regiment left Leesburg, 
Lieutenant Tyler was detailed wilh a de- 
tachment of soldiers under command of a 
Captain of the Twentieth Indiana Regiment 
to guard the hospital and military stores left 
at that point, and rejoined the Regiment :i 
short time after the battle of Fredericks- 
burg. By reason of the close attention he 
paid to the duties of his position he was for 
a time dubbed by the men "Old Discipline 
on the brain." At the time of breaking 
camp to march to Chancellorsville he was 
suffering from rheumatism and was advised 
to go to the rear, but lie refused to be l< fl 
behind, insisting that as he missed the Fred- 
ericksburg battle by reason of detached ser- 
vice, he was determined to be in the next 
one. Here, on Sunday morning, while in 
the woods in front of the Chancellorsville 
House, on the left of the plank road, within 
a few minutes after the death of Captain 
Swart, Lieutenant Tyler was killed by a 
minie ball shot through his head. At the 
time he was in command of the company, 

Captain Tyler having been wounded earlier 
in 1 he action. One of his company had been 

badly wounded, and Lieutenant Tyler stoop- 
ed down on his right knee and raised the 
soldier up to give him a drink of water. As 
he was laying him gently down. Colonel 

Watkins passed along from the left towards 
the right of the Regiment, and a few words 
of pleasantry passed between them, Colonel 
Watkins hailing him by his nickname, " < >'d 
Mississip." Watkins pas-id on, and Lieu- 
ten on Tyler was in the act of raising up 
when hi' was struck by a bullet in the right 
temple, and he laid himself down on the 

ground as easily and quietly in "the sleep 

that knows no waking," as a mother lays 
her babe in its cradle, with the same smile 

that had greeted Colonel Watkins still lin- 
gering on his face in death. His loss was 
sincerely mourned in the Regiment, and ev- 
en man in his company fell he had Lpsl a 
friend and a brother. 

In the several engagements in which the 

Regiment participated on the od of May, 

fifty-three non-commissioned officers and en- 
listed men were either killed outright (in 
the battlefield, or died soon after from the 

effects of wounds received there; of which 
three were from Company A, live from Com- 
pany B, three from Company I >, seven from 
Company F, one from Company II, six each 
from Companies C and I, and eight each 
from ( 'ompanies E, » '< and K . 

Of Company A, Corporal Benjamin E. 
Sumner fell shot through the head in the 
beginning of the fight and was instantly 
killed. His loss was deeply felt in the Reg- 
iment and his death sent a pang of deepest 
sorrow through the heart- of his acquaint- 
ances at home. He was lovely in his life, 
died nobly, and his men ory will long he 
cherished. He was the third son of George 
and Lydia Sumner, unmarried, and in the 
twenty-third year of his age at the time of 

his death. 

John Dereamer was the only remaining 
son of Philip Dereamer, ofTuscarora town- 
ship, an unmarried man, twvni\ five years 
of age, a good soldier, who was in the battle 
of Fredericksburg, and fell in the beginning 
of the charge in the woods. 

Marvin Ely was living at Wyalusing on 

the farm of .Justus Ackley at the time of his 
enlistment. He had In en married hut six 
weeks to a very estimable young lid when 
he left all to go in defense of his country's 
flag. He was horn in Brooklyn, Susquehan- 
na County, September -'■'>. 1837. 

Company B nut wilh its seven-si loss 
when retiring from the Held, which was un- 
der the heavy fire and closely pursued by 



the enemy. Frank \\. Carey and James 
Savercool fell jus! as they were crossing tlie 
ravine or "ditch " that divides Hazel Grove 
from Fairview. Carey was a very bright 
young man, son of Henry A. Carey, then of 
Towanda, had taken a liberal course of study 
at the Institute in that place, bad taught 
school one or Ih'ii terms, and gave great 
promise of future usefulness. He fell mor- 
tally wounded in the arm and body as the 
company was retiring from the field of Ha- 
zel Grove. No-certain information was ever 
obtained by his friends as to the particulars 
of bis death, hut it was thought to have oc- 
curred within two or three days after the 
battle. lie was twenty years of age. 

James Savercool was also from Towanda, 
unmarried, about a year older than Care) 7 , 
and with him was enlisted by Colonel Wat- 
kins, and fell with him on the same fatal 
field, and like him the particulars of his de<<th 
were never certainly known. Both of them 
were in the battle of Fredericksburg. Sav- 
ercool was wounded in the foot. 

WiUiam H. Kingsbury was enlisted in 
LeRaysville, where he was employed in the 
foundry, a single man twenty years of age. 
He was also in the Fredericksburg fight, 
and was killed at the first volley on Sunday 
morning at Hazel Grove. Like some others 
he seemed to have had a presentiment of 
the fatal result to himself of the conflict. 
and as they were crossing the pontoon 
bridge on the morning of May 1st remarked 
to his comrades that be should never return. 

Set h C. Hamlin was reported missing, but 
was afterward ascertained to have been killed 
on Hazel Grove, a lew minutes after Kings- 
burv. He was a farmer, unmarried, living 
in West Warren at the time of his enlist- 
ment. He was twenty -seven years of : 

.Jacob Burger was a tanner by trade, a 
resident of Towanda, where be left his fami- 
ly when be enlisted with Watkins. lie was 
with his company in the battle of Freder- 
icksburg, wounded in the side at Chancellors- 
ville, from the effects of which he died in 

the Federal hospital, May 26th, at the age 
of twenty-nine years. 

In Company C, John R,. Lancaster, son of 
the late William Lancaster, of New Albany, 
entered the service as a private, and though 
a mere lad, being about twenty years of age, 
yet for good conduct and soldierly bearing 
was promoted to Corporal oh the 28th of 
April. He fell mortally wounded in the 
Com noon of May 3d, at the charge in the 
oak woods. His Captain said of him: — 
"Though young, he was a dutiful, faithful 
soldier, and highly respected by bis com- 

Charles S. Brojvn was the only son of 
Charles Brown, of Monroe township, where 
he was living at the time of his enlistment. 
He had been recently married, and was 
twenty-three years of age. His body was 
recovered and buried in the Military Asy- 
lum Cemetery at Washington, D. C. 

John Knickerbocker was enlisted from 
Franklin township by Captain Swart. He 
was a faithful soldier and did his duty well 
to the iast. He was about twenty-one years 
old when he was killed. 

Henry F. Strevy, of Overton, Lewis and 
Edward Rinebold enlisted together, were 
tentmates and constant companions. At 
Chanceliorsville Lewis Rinebold was wound- 
ed, Edward was reported missing, and Stre- 
vy was killed. Their Captain said of them 
they " were three boys always at their pi st 
and always ready for duty in camp or in 
field." Strevy was nineteen years of age. 

George F. Beardsley, a resident of Mon- 
roeton, a miller by trade, a true and faithful 
soldier, was made Corporal on the organiza- 
tion of the company, and was soon promot- 
ed to Sergeant. In the battle he received a 
severe wound ir. the thigh, while carrying 
the colors which were seized as be fell by 
Captain Swart, from which he died on the 
twenty-third of May, at the age of thirty- 
two years, leaving a wife and parents to 
mourn their loss. He was buried by his 
comrades with military honors on Sunday, 
the 2 1th. 



In Company I\ Samuel Petley enlisted 
in Orwell as a private, but was promoted to 
Corporal on the tent li of February — "effi- 
cient and prompt in duty a mere boy in ap- 
pearance, popular with the men ami a fa- 
vorite witli his Captain." lie was an Eng- 
lishman by birth, and about twenty-two 
years of age. 

William L. Taylor, also from Orwell, was 
reported missing, and was doubtless killed. 
"He was one of nature's noblemen, a good 
soldier and a good man, of excellent charac- 
ter and of tine soldierly bearing." He was 
an unmarried man about twenty-two years 
of age. 

George Wilson was the son of Heber Wil- 
son, a farmer residing near Potterville. 1 1 is 
wife was the sister of Albert Brainerd, of 
the same company. "On the organization 
of the company he was made Sergeant on 
account of his excellent and noble qualities." 
He received a severe wound in the leg from 
a musket ball, and was left on the field. 
The limb was amputated by the Confederate 
Surgeons, after which he was paroled, but 
died the 29th of May, in the Third Corps 
Hospital, at the age of about twenty-five 

In Company E, Charles McNeal, who at 
the time of his enlistment was a farmer liv- 
ing near Luther's Mills, in Burlington 
township, where lie left his family, consisting 
of his wife and one child. At the organiza- 
tion of the company he was made one of the 
Corporals. He was wounded in the thigh 
at Hazel Grove in the early morning at- 
tack, and left on the held where he soon 
died. lie was about twenty-live years of 

Charles A. Knapp, a farmer by occupa- 
tion, enlisted from Burlington where he was 
a. useful member of society. Possessing con- 
siderable musical ability his services were 
frequently sought, and he was the leader of 
several church crii i is in that vicinity. He 
had been sick and had returned from hospi- 
tal only three or four days before the battle- 

He fell mortally wounded about two o'clock 
Sunday morning. He was a brave, resolute 

man, and fearless of danger. lie remained 
on the field until he had been wounded live 
times, four of which were received alter he 
bad been ordered to the rear on account of a 
wound received in his leg. He was left on 
the field where he bled to death. He was 
twenty-four years of age. He was brother- 
in-law to Eli E Booth, whose sister he had 
married the Sunday evening before leaving 

Robert IE MeKinney enlisted from Litch- 
field. He had graduated at the Wyoming 
Seminary, Kingston, Pennsylvania, just as 
the war commenced, and had the offer of a 
good salary to teach school, but considered 
the claims of his country of paramount in- 
terest and enlisted as a private in the com- 
pany. He acted as Company Clerk until 
the Regiment reached Waterloo where he 
was taken sick, but returned to his company 
just before the battle of Cliancellorsville. 
He went into this battle with the conviction 
that he would be killed, but bravely did his 
duty. After the fight was over he went up 
to Lieutenant Clark, and placing his hand 
upon his shoulder said, "I had a kind of 
1 > 1 sentiment when I went into this fight 
that 1 should be killed, but I guess I am all 
right after all." Just at this moment he 
Stopped talking ami Lieutenant Chirk turn- 
ed and saw a hole entirely through his head 
made either from a stray grape shot or a 
piece of shell. It was so sudden, says Lieu- 
tenant Clark, that he did not fall at once, 
and 1 could hardly believe he had rec< ived 
his death hurt. He was about twenty-four 
years of age. llis parents arranged a mound 
in their family burial ground in Litchfield, 
which they marked with his name and as 
long as they lived yearly decorated in his 
memory. He was the last one of the Eegi- 
iiii nt killed in the I attle, having fallen after 
they had retired behind the intrenchments 
in the afternoon. 

Charle II . Packard was from Burlington, 


where he worked in his father's mill and 
where he left his family when he enlisted. 
He was wounded and seen to fall by his 
comrades, left in the hands of the enemy 
and was reported missing, but doubtless died 
from the effects of his wounds as he was 
never heard of afterward. He was a good, 
faithful soldier. 

John Sauster was a single man about 
twenty years of age, living in Waverly, 
New York, when he enlisted. His parents 
have since removed West. He was killed 
on that fatal Sunday morning. 

John Mustart was born in Perthshire, 
Scotland, in 1843, emigrated with his par- 
ents to America in 1857, and enlisted in 
Mulligan's Irish Brigade at the breaking 
out of the Rebellion, was wounded and taken 
prisoner at Lexington, Missouri, paroled 
and came home to Athens, where he again 
enlisted as a private in Company E of the 
One Hundred Forty-First Regiment. Feb- 
ruary 19th he was promoted to Sergeant. 
In the early history of the company he had 
been very efficient in drilling the men; on 
the march and in the field he was ever 
found in the line of duty. He was wounded 
in the arm and breast and left on the Held, 
but subsequently paroled, taken to Washing- 
ton, where he died May 24th, wanting but 
a few days of twenty years of age, and was 
buried in the Military Asylum Cemetery. 

David Dains was wounded in the hand, 
not seriously, but lock-jaw set in, and he 
died May 19th. He was originally from 
Milo, Yates < bounty, New York, but was liv- 
ing in Sheshequin at the time of his enlist- 
ment, where he left his family, consisting of 
his wife and four children, lie was nearly 
twenty-eight years of age. 

Orrin I >. Snyder was born in Sheshequin 
in 1835, and resided there with his family, 
consisting of his wife and two children, at 
the time of his enlistment. He was an ac- 
tive, brave soldier, ready for any duty to 
which he might be called. He was severely 
wounded in the body, but lived until May 

20th when he died in hospital at Potomac 
Creek, Virginia. 

The losses in Company F were severe, 
four were killed and three died in conse- 
quence of wounds received. The casualties 
for the most part occurred in the second en- 
gagement on Sunday morning. Henry Me- 
lody was enlisted from Great Bend, Susque- 
hanna County, was unmarried and about 
twenty-three years of age. 

Oscar Trowbridge was also from Great 
Bend, but further particulars have not been 

Linus N. Tiffany was a farmer in Jackson 
township, the son of Bernard Tiffany. He 
was fatally wounded by a musket ball in the 
charge on Sunday forenoon and left dying 
on the field. He was nineteen years of age. 

Melancthon McDonald, born in the Stale 
of New York, but living in New Milford at 
the time of his enlistment, a tinsmith by 
trade, was killed in the charge near the time 
that Tiffany fell, lie was fifty-four years of 
age, and left a wife, a son and a daughter. 

Roscoe S. Loomis, son of Dr. E. N. Loom- 
is, of Harford, enlisted with Captain Beards- 
ley, when a lad eighteen years of age, while 
attending school at Franklin Academy in 
the town, a young man of much promise. 
Young as he was he entered the service with 
all the enthusiasm of a veteran. In all of 
his letters home the cause in which he was 
engaged was uppermost in his mind. Just 
before the battle of (Jhancellorsville he 
wrote that were the time of his enlistment 
expired he would enlist again at the first 
call of his country, lie was wounded and 
left in the hands of the enemy where he was 
a prisoner ten days. After being exchanged 
he remarked that he tired twenty-three 
rounds before being wounded, and was only 
saved from instant death by the bullet strik- 
ing bis Bible which lay next bis heart. He 
lived until the 24tli of .May. His body was 
embalmed, brought home, and buried among 
his kindred on the slope of his native hills 
with appropriate funeral services. 



Christopher C. Wilmarth; son of Thomas 
Wilmarth, of Harford, by occupation a far- 
mer, enlisted with Captain Beardsley, and 
Was a faithful soldier. Pie was wounded in 
the leg with a musket ball, left on the field, 
and the leg was amputated by a Confeder- 
ate Surgeon. Like n .iy another left on 
that fatal held, exposure and want of atten- 
tion rendered wounds fatal which uimer 
more favorable circuin stances would have 
b^en otherwise. After he was brought with- 
in the Federal lines gangrene set in, and 
though the limb was amputated three times 
on that account, he died June 9th at the age 
of twenty-eight years. He never was mar- 
ried. Appropriate memorial services, con- 
ducted by Rev. L. F. Porter, were observed 
in the Universalist Church in Brooklyn, 

Richard Henrv Kent, of Brooklyn, enlist- 
ed first in a three months' regiment ; return- 
ing home with bis company, he re-enlisted 
with Captain Beardsley, and was made First 
Sergeant of the company. Suffering from 
lameness produced by the severe marches to 
which the Regiment was subject he was 
compelled to suffer some time in hospital, 
but had returned for duty just before the 
battle. Although at the time scarcely able 
to carry his musket he could not be dissuad- 
ed from his purpose to go into the engage- 
ment, in the early part of which his limb 
was shattered by a piece of a shell and he 
was left on the field in the hands of the ene- 
my. For two days he lay there without 
shelter and uncared for. His limb was final- 
ly amputated and he seemed to be recover- 
ing. On the 13th, he w ; as sent within the 
Federal lines, but exhausted by the long 
ride in the ambulance over a rough road, 
he died in four hours after reaching the hos- 
pital, on the 14th, at the age of twentv -three 
years. His remains were brought to Brook- 
lyn, where with appropriate services con- 
ducted by Rev. Mr. Porter, and attended by 
a large concourse of citizens, they were laid 
to rest near the home of his childhood. 

Just prior to leaving home, August 15th, 
he was married to Sarah Paulina, daughter 
of Nathan Lathrop, of Brooklyn. One who 
kuew 1 1 i 111 intimately writes: — "He was a 
very worthy young man, of correct habits of 
life, of high moral character, respected by 
all lovers of right, who had the confidence 
of all who knew him, both at home and in 
his company. He was good everywhere, 
and what he undertook was well done. He 
was a musician of rare ability, and at the 
time of his enlistment had made arrange- 
ments for a two years' course of study in 

Taken altogether Company G suffered 
most of any in the engagements about Chan- 
cellorsville. Six were killed, including the 
gallant Captain, on the tield, and two died 
of wounds received there. 

Corporal William Killam enlisted from 
Paupack township, and on the organization 
of the company was made Corporal. He 
was a single man about twenty-two years of 

Edward F. Farnham was a resident of 
Honesdale, also unmarried, and about twen- 
ty years of age. 

Johnson H. Schoonmaker and Orrin Wil- 
cox were both also single men, about twenty 
years of age, the former residing at Cheny 
Ridge and the latter from Clinton. 

Delos Woodward enlisted from Prompton, 
was a single man, and twenty-three years of 

Flenry W. McKane was a resident of Pau- 
pack, where he left his family at the time of 
his enlistment. He received wounds in the 
engagement from which he died May 7th at 
the age of thirty-five years. 

Daniel R. Frier enlisted from Hawley, 
where his family resided, lie survived the 
wounds received on the 3d until the 19th of 
May, when he died at the age of thirty-four. 

Company II suffered the least in fatal cas- 
ualties, having but one enlisted man killed, 
Jonathan C. Darrow, who was a brother of 
Lewis, who had died some months before. 



At the time <>t' his enlistment he was living 
in Liberty township, a single man, and at 
his death about nineteen years of age. lit' 
bad been with the Regiment in its marches, 
participated in the battle of Fredericksburg 
and was killed while retiring on the plank 
road near the Chancellorsville House. 

Nelson Harris of Company I, enlisted 
from Standing Stone, where for some time 
he bad been in the employ of the late Simon 
Stevens. lie was unmarried and about 
twenty-one years of age at the time of his 

Earnest F. Russell, a son of Dan Russell. 
belonging to one of the old families in that 
part of the county, was living on Park's 
( 'reek, in Rome township, at the time of bis 
enlistment, was shot through the head and 
instantly killed as the company was leaving 
Hazel Grove. His body was left on the 
field. He was about twenty-eight years old, 
and left a wife, since married to Henry 
Vought, living near Rome village, and a 
daughter who has since died. 

Morgan Russell, a younger brother of 
Earnest, also living on Park's Creek, was 
fatally wounded in the oak woods in the 
second engagement, Sunday morning, and 
left on the 'field where be died before be 
could be removed. He was twenty-four 
years of age and left a wife but no children. 

Jeremiah J. Nichols was wounded in the 
arm, which was shattered below the elbow, 
and was so prostrated from the effects of it 
that he died on the 19th of May in the hos- 
pital at Washington, and was buried in the 
Military Asylum Cemetery. He was living 
in Wysox at the time of his enlistment. His 
arm was three times amputated, and gan- 
grene having set in preparations were made 
to amputate it again when he was seized 
with lock jaw from which he died at the age 
of twenty years. 

Sergeant Augustus S. Parks was severely 
wounded in the thigh and the bone broken, 
and left on the field, where be lav for three' 
days without food or shelter; the enemy 

gave him water, and by parting with bis 
gold pen he induced them to carry him to a 
temporary hospital, where he remained un- 
til the fifteenth, exposed to the severe show- 
ers which passed over the field and to the 
pelting sun, his wounds undressed, and he 
suffering indescribable pain, until be was 
brought over to the hospital of the Third 
Corps where he received the unremitting 
care and attention of bis comrades and 
w here he lingered until the 12th of June 
following when he died. He was a 
young man of great promise and 
highly esteemed by his comrades. At the 
tunc of his death he bad been recommended 
to the Lieutenantcy of his company made 
vacant by the promotion of Mercur to be 
Captain of Company K. He left a wile ami 
two daughters. 

Jasper M. Brown, son of Ruel Brown, was 
living in the northern part of Wysox town- 
ship at the time of his enlistment, unmar- 
ried, nearly twenty-nine years of age, and a 
cousin of Sergeant Beardsley, of Company 
( '. He was left sick at Poolesville, Mary- 
land, having a sore foot which prevented 
him from marching, where he was captured 
by White's Cavalry, paroled and sent to pa- 
role camp at Alexandria, where he remain- 
ed until mid-winter. At length one day an 
order came declaring certain of the men 
who had been captured in Virginia duly ex- 
changed. Brown misapprehending the lim- 
itations of the order, supposed he was in- 
cluded in it joined the party going to his 
Regiment, where he arrived the "J 1st of 
February. He was wounded in the thigh, 
in the oak woods on the eastern side of Ha- 
zel Grove. He was left on the field by the 
side of a large oak tree, not more than fif- 
teen rods from the breastworks behind 
which the enemy was fighting. A number 
of Federal soldiers fell near that oak. Frown 
was sent to camp with the other wounded 
left in the hands of the enemy and died in 
the hospital on the 7th of June. 

In Company K eight were slain, one cap- 
tured and four reported missing. 



Gordon T. Wilcox was the son of Gordon 
Wilcox, of East Smithfield. He fell mor- 
tally wounded at Hazel Grove in the attack 
early on Sunday morning while the compa- 
ny was lying down to escape the missiles of 
the enemy. He was twenty-two years of 
aye. A member of his company, Henry 
Stalil, who was captured in the engagement 
and compelled to assist in burying the dead, 
repeatedly sought opportunity to secure his 
effects, including his diary and some money, 
unobserved by the enemy but failed. His 
body was subsequently secured, and brought 
home where it wis interred with appropri- 
ate memorial services. 

.lames McCally, son of Peter McCally, an 
unmarried man, a bright, intelligent Scotch- 
man, was living at the time of his enlist- 
ment on Moore's Hill, in lister township. 
In the battle lie was wounded in the leg he- 
low the knee, left on the field and died May 
6th in the hands of the enemy. He with 
others of his company was wounded in the 
first engagement on Sunday morning at Ha- 
zel ( Jrove. 

George J. Baumgartner owned and lived 
on a farm in Cherry township, Sullivan 
County, between Dushore and Overton. lie 
was one of four brothers who entered the 
Union Army, one of whom was in Company 
A of this Regiment. He left behind a wife 
and seven children, the eldest twelve years 
and the youngest five months of age. He 
was a good soldier, ever with his company 
and always ready for duty, lie was killed 
in the first attack in the morning at the age 
of forty-five years. His widow still resides 
on the homestead. 

Joseph HufI'master was a resident of ('ber- 
ry township, near Dushore. He was shot 
through the head and instantly killed in the 
early Sunday morning engagement. lie 
was about twenty-eight years of age, and left 
a wile and two children to mourn his un- 
timely end. 

Benjamin M. Dunham, a younger brother 
of the Lieutenant, also of LaPorte borough, 

was a young man of more than ordinary 
ability and character. Said one who knew 
him: "He was characterized by untiring 
energy and intense application to his stu- 
dies. No lesson or duty was ever assigned 

that he did not grapple with all his powers. 
He loved study. He was impetuous almost 
to a fault. Whatever he did, he did with 
all his might. His moral character was 
without reproach. He could he relied on 
implicitly in all he said or did. He was, in 
short, one of Nature's noblemen, an honest 
man. His dear remains rest in an unknown 
grave, on hostile ground, and his spirit has 
gone to ( hid who gave it. 

lie sleeps his lust sleep ; 

He has foughl his hist battle; 

No sound can awake him t<> f;lory again I 

We witnessed his earlier struggles and 
successes, and hesitate not to set him forth 
as a model student, teacher, patriot and gen- 

Memorial services conducted by Rev. 
Hallock Armstrong were held in the Court 
House at LaPorte on the 28th of June fol- 
lowing. He was unmarried and past twen- 
ty-three years of age. 

.lames Sperry and his brother Dorson 
were residents of Davidson township, in Sul- 
livan county, and both members of the same 
company. In the assault upon the enemy's 
position in the oak woods James was mor- 
tally wounded in the hack, and as the Regi- 
ment was compelled immediately to fall 
hack lie was left on the field. He was un- 
married and about twenty-four years of age. 
lie seemed to have a premonition of his 
death, for in Colonel Watkins' diary was 
this entry : — " James Sperry, Company K, 
shot by a ball in the hack in the spine, 
Chancellorsville, Virginia. His father's 
name is Christopher Sperry — resides in Da- 
vidson, Sullivan County, Pennsylvania. 
' He died a soldier and a Christian. If he 
never meets you on earth, will met you in 
heaven.' " 

Oliver G. King, a cousin of the Sperrys, 



and also of the Penningtons, and Converse, 
of the same company, enlisted from LaPorte 
township, was a sun of William King, ;i sin- 
gle man, and aboul the age of twenty. 

Henry Epler enlisted from Forks town- 
ship, in Sullivan County. He was the sun 
of Samuel Epler, unmarried, and twenty-two' 
years of age. 

Besides these the following were reported 
wounded, captured and missing: 


Lieutenant Joseph II. Hurst, thigh. 
Sergeant Stephen Rought, leg and breast, 
and captured. 
Sergeant Jackson C. Lee, hand and side. 
Cprporal William Mace, leg :.nd thigh. 

" George 11. Birney, both hips, 
left on the field. 

Private George Johnson, hip. 

" Jonathan D. Brown, thigh, lefl on 
the field. 

Private George V. Wells, In-east. 

". John < ). Frost, leg. 

" William U. II. Mitchell, chin. 

" Charles W. Potter, leg. 

" Adrial Lee, lace. 

" John J. Corbin, arm and body. 

" Isaac Allen, Leg. 

" ( Jharles M. Young, leg. 

" William Miller, leg. 

" Orrin Coleman, hack. 

" Edwin < 'leveland. 

" Joseph Dickson. 
Corporal George I!. Capwell, missing. 
Drummer, Edward A. Lord, missing. 
Private Allied Hammerly, captured. 


Lieutenant Benjamin M. Peck, neck and 

Private Robert I latch, leg. 
" Robert Sherman. 
" John Keeney, hand, wounded 
May 4th. 

Private William II. Hunt, arm off. 
" ( reorge W. * roodell, head. 
" George II. Granger. 

" Nelson ( !. Dyer, hip. 

" Abram Whittaker, thigh. 
Sergeant John II. Chaffee, captured. 
Private Andrew J. Horton, captured. 

" George < >tt, captured. 


Lieutenant William J. Cole, face. 
Corporal Ezra S. Little, leg. 

" I >aniel Schoonover, hip. 

" John Rockwell, wrist. 
Private Charles W. Cole, leg. 

" George E. (Well, hand. 

" David II. Carpenter, hand. 

" Josiah ( logensparger. 

" James Corby, hand. 

" D'Lanson Fenner, head. 

" Marshall Jennings. 

" James Piatt. 

" Lewis Piatt, leg. 

" Lewis Rinebold, thigh. 

" EleryC. Walker, leg. 

" Albert Chilson, missing. 

" Clarence W. Cole, captured. 

" Martin McKee, captured. 

'• Morris McLane, captured. 

" Edward J. Rinebold, missing. 


Private Daniel Shultz, hand. 

" Daniel F. Barton, hack. 

" Abram French, leg. 

" Robert Price, hip. 
Sergeant William Hewitt, arm. 

" Henry J. Hudson, thigh. 
Private Charles K. Canfield, shoulder and 

Corporal Mason L. Ellsworth, heel and 

Private I >avid Levis, arm. 

" Hubbell Pratt, face. 

" Chester Stewart, side. 

" Willis G. Sexton, arm off. 

'"' Albert Brainerd, shoulder. 
Private Benjamin Craridall, missing. 
Corporal Charles E. Seeley, captured. 
Musician Wilson S. Hill, captured. 




Lieutenant John M. Jackson, body. 
Sergeant William S. Wright, both legs. 
Private Charles A. Tibbits. 

" Alonzo D. Beach, leg broken, left 
on the Held. 

Private George Fredrick. 

" John Fredrick, thigh. 

" George Johnson, contusion. 

" John Lancaster, leg and breast, 
left on the field. 

Private John P. Snyder, hand. 

" James M. Beach, leg. 

" Abrain Fredrick, thigh. 

" John Adamson, captured. 

" A bram Crandall, captured. 

" Michael Finney, missing. 

" James Williams, missing. 

" E. Wandall, missing. 

" William Fredrick, missing. 


Sergeant George K. Resseguie, head. 
Corporal Ellis W. Steadman, neck. 

" William H. Doolhtle, leg. 

" Augustus J. Roper, leg. 

" Benjamin F. Barnes, arm. 

" Jerome Davison, foot. 
Private Jacob B. Adams, wrist. 
" Albeit J. Baldwin, face. 
" Philander J. Bonner, arm. 
" Julius H. Burr, shoulder. 
" Hiram Chrispell, arm. 
" Adelmer Doughty, groin. 
" Edson M. French, shoulder. 
" David S. Goss, hand. 
" Frances Hawley. 
" James M. McRoy. 
" George M. Sweet, head. 
" John V. Tennant, thigh. 

" Charles H. Tripp, leg and cap- 

Corporal Christopher C. Nicholas, cap- 

Corporal Nelson D. Coon, captured. 
Private Daniel Van Auken, captured. 

" Jacob Whitman captured. 

" Levi Moss, missing. 

" William E. Osman, missing. 


First Lieutenant Joseph Atkinson, arm. 
Second Lieutenant Charles M. Ball, leg. 
Sergeant J. T. R. Seagraves, arm. 

" James N. Thorp. 
Corporal David B. Atkinson, foot. 

" Edward Wells, wounded and 

Corporal Robert C. Clark. 
" Theodore Fuller. 
" Daniel Ballard. 
Private Lucius C. Barnes, leg and back, 
left on the field. 

Private George M. Day, foot. 

" Anson R. Fuller, wounded and 

Private William Harvey. 
" Bruce Jones. 
" William Stone, foot. 
'' Noah P. White, shoulder. 
" Charles H. Williams. 
" N. Belknap, missing. 
" James Dekin, missing. 
" Fred Salmon, missing. 
" George S. Wells, missing. 
" Albert Wagner, missing. 
" Thomas Walton, missing. 


Captain Casper W. Tyler, arm. 
Second Lieutenant John L. Gyle, back. 
Corporal Asa H. Decker, shoulder. 
Private Charles Avery, arm. 

" Adelbert Corwin, neck. 

" Charles Brookstaver, leg. 

" George W. Hewitt, arm. 
Corporal Jeremiah Hayes, leg. 
" Philip E. Quick, leg. 
Private Henry D. Carney. 

" Jonathan M. Eckert. 

" Charles Perkins, head. 

" W r illiam H. Peet, leg. 

" William W. Tarbox, abdomen. 

" William G. Thornton, abdomen. 

" Joseph Mackey, arm. 

" Horace A. Roberts, arm. 

" Theron Palmer, head. 
Corporal Fredrick Fargo, missing. 



Private David Tarbox, missing. 

" Jacob Palmer, missing, (deserted.) 
" Martin \\ iles, missing. 


Captain Edwin A.. Spalding, shoulder. 
Sergeant F. Cortes Rockwell, thumb. 
Private .John A. A lien. 

" Pitman Demarest. 
Corporal Richard McCabe, arm. 
Private John P. Taylor, arm oil'. 

" Frank L. Ward, both legs. 
Charles II. Potter. 

" ( reorge W. Smith. 
Sergeant Simeon Archer, missing. 
Private .lames L. Johnson, missing. 

" John E. < iillett, missing. 


Sergeant John T. Brewster, leg. 
" Daniel \V. Seott, arm. 

" Andrew VV. Seward, back. 
Corporal James L. Vincent, leg. 
John S. Darkness, leg. 
" Wallace VV. Farnsworth, hip. 
Nathan L. Brown, foot. 
Archibald Sinclair, knee. 
" Samuel Conklin. 
Private Henry A. Burlingame, head. 
" Charles E. Coleman, thigh. 

Porter Fosburg, arm. 
" Christopher Fraley, leg. 
" Albert Moore, hand. 
" William II. Crawford, side. 

D. S. Simmons, head. 
" George T. Phillips. 
" Alvin Smith. 
Private George VV. Pennington, captured. 
Tillman E. Bedford, missing. 
" Henry Bedford, missing. 
" Henry Stahl, missing. 
" Harvey Gregory, missing. 

The following table is a summary of losses 
in the Regiment arising from the engage- 
ments at Chancellors ville, May 1st and 3d: 







i . '- 

*e ^ 


? ^ 


^ is 

£| 6 


O § 

Field & Stall; 











• > 





























I 250 

It will be seen the aggregate of losses en- 
umerated is somewhat larger than that giv- 
en by the Colonel in his report. This may 
be accounted lor from the well known fact 
that in the active movements of a Regiment 
in the tield, men frequently became sepa- 
rated from their commands, and in some in- 
stances did not find them for several days. 
Phis may have been the case here, where 
the complicated and rapid movements of 
charge, retreat, and change of position made 
it very easy for a man to lose his regiment. 
In some instances without doubt men were 
reported missing at first who after two or 
three days found the Regiment and were 
unharmed. Those captured were paroled, 
most ol them on the field, others were sent 
to Libby prison, the seriously wounded were 
sent within the Federal lines, the others 
were subsequently exchanged and returned 
to their companies in the month of October 

Among the unwounded who were captured 
in the engagements of this day one deserves 
especial mention. Among those who came 
from Wayne County with Captain Mumford 
was a lad apparently not more than fifteen 
or sixteen years old, of light complexion and 
slight build, bent on going into the army, by 
the name of Edward A. Lord, lie was at 
once rejected by the mustering officer and 
told to go home. Nothing daunted, he 



stayed with the company until finding <':ip- 
tain Jackson was lacking a drummer, in- 
duced the Captain to enlist him as a musi- 
cian, in which capacity he was mustered 
August 27, 18(12. There was not a more 
courageous, faithful soldier in the Regiment. 
He was always in his place on the march, 
always ready for duty, kept at the head of 
his company at Fredericksbuig, and at 

Chancellorsville had been engaged in car- 
rying water and attending to the wounded. 
He had started with his pail to go for water, 
when he was surprised by a party of the en- 
emy and captured. The Colonel says he 
acted like a hero through all of that event- 
ful Sunday. He was paroled, and discharg- 
ed by a general order May 27, 1865. 



Ii will ho remembered thai tin- Regiment 
reached its old encampment on Potomac 
Creek, Wednesday evening, May Oth, after 
.in absence oi eight days; Imii those days had 
wrought n great chance in its numbers and 
condition, rhe men had started upon the 
campaign with high hopes and eager expec- 
tations. In their grapple with the foe they 
had 1'tvn left without supports once and 
again t<> he crushed by his superior numbers, 
compelled to retreat when they anticipated 
an advance, and experienced defeat where 
the} looked for victory, until leaving one- 
il ird ''i theii number either slain or severe 
l\ wounded in the hands of the enemy, 
through a drenching rain, and upon roads 
where the mud was oxer their shoe tops, 
they made theii way back to their disman- 
tled houses al Camp Sickles, whose dilapi- 
dated and cheerless walls were in perfect 
harmony with the despondent and gloomy 
spirit which overshadowed them. They 
had made fatiguing marches, they had borne 
exposure, they had fought with courage and 
suffered terribly, while more than one third 
of the federal army hail not tired a shot, 
they hail Becured a position from which they 
could not easily be driven, and now when 
there seemed to be no serious obstacle be 
tween them and victory, that they should be 
compelled to full back and all the sacrifice, 
toil and suffering they hail endured go for 
nothing was no very pleasant thing to con- 
template. One of the officers of the Regi- 
ment bitterly writes "so ii appeals we have 
again not been defeated but out-generaled ;" 
another says, " 1 cannot understand it. with 

an army superior to the enemy, occupying 
as we did a strong position where we could 

not be successfully assaulted, with nearly 
forty thousand fresh troops who had not 
pulled a trigger., that we should abandon all 
thai we had gained thus far at so great a 
eost, is incomprehensible to me." 

Perhaps no better indication of the feel- 
ings, spirit and e mdition of the men can he 
afforded than from the following quotations 
from the entries in his private diary of a 
Sergeant in the Regiment. Under date of 
May 6th he says: "We fell in, took arms, 
weie marched to the river in quick time, 

and crossed. The river is very high and 

rising rapidly. Drew up in the woods, four 
miles from the river, for coffee; breakfasted 

and started lor our old camp. The condition 
of the roads was awful, mud and water from 
shoe to knee de (p. The whole army appeals 

to be retiring so 1 chronicle it as a retreat 
and a defeat, however much we may have 

injured and hurl the enemy, but not a disas- 
trous or a disgraceful retreat. My feel be- 
came 80 sore that with many others 1 tell out 
to lake it more moderately. Reached Camp 

about five o'clock in the afternoon after a 

muddy march cl' aboui twenty miles. We 
left our poor wounded companions on the 

'• .May 7th Woke this morning still and 
sore. Hobbled around, found shirt, drawers 
and towel, washed them and mv pants, 
cleaned my gnn, and had brigade inspection 
at four o'clock in the afternoon 10 ascertain 
the condition of the men. The boys all feel 
down and discouraged. Several of the boys 
that we had not heard from came in this 
evening. The extras that we sent off before 
marching, came back. Have not had mail 
I since we started. M\ feet are very sore and 

/.!//■ \ /, /7.W.I I i>/.\\ 

badly swollen. We hear nothing of ihe 
missing the weather clearing oft, 
'"May 8th The camp is very quiet and 

loucs i', lull all arc recruiting munch lia I 

We have as yet heard nothing of our wounded 
miss in;;. The Col one I looks woe begone and 
dispirited, ami so do all the officers and men 
since the battle. We do nol hear thai any 
deans are taken to recover our wounded.'' 
We cannot wonder thai uiih heavy hearts 
the men sel about putting the camp in order 
Noi a mess from headquarters to private 
but had a vacant scat ; nut a icni hut one or 
more of its inmates was left wounded or 
dead on the blood drenched field, not an of- 
ficer or a man 1ml had lost a friend and a 
comrade. For a few days nothing was at- 
tempted in lie done, except uliai the utmost 
necessity demanded, Tin' next m ing af- 
ter reaching camp fresh provisions were is- 
sued io the men. " Before the battle," writes 
the clerk of the Commissary Department, 
" we issued rations lor live hundred men, on 
die siii of May our returns fall for only two 

hundred :uul Ion \ seven." 

( )n the afternoon after their return an in 
gpection was had to ascertain what the men 

had losl and what supplies were needed lor 
(heir Comfort* They were in want of al uosl 

everything. Sinus and clothing had been 

ruined; h;i \ ei ■• ..icl.s, eanleeiis and knapsacks 

had been shot away, and the arms of many 
had been rendered worthless, li was a piti- 
ful Bight io behold— this mere handful of 
wearied, haggard, mud-begrimed men, ami 
think that ihis was ;<!l thai was left unharm- 
ed ofthe fine Regiment that stood in line 
j,ust a few days before, and from thai very 
place stepped proudly forth to meet the foe. 

Quite a number, both of officers and men, 
who were wounded, escaped from the held, 
made their way across the river and were in 
the Division Hospitals of the Third Corps. 
These received the constant attention and 
care of their more fortunate comrades. <>n 
Friday, the 8th, the greater part of them 
were conveyed by boat to the hospitals in 

Washington where better care could be i\ 

en them than iii the camp. Ihe officers 

ami men of i he Regiment aided in remo\ 
mg them from the hospital and arranging 
matters for ih< u comfort during ihe tran 

As soon as the army was bacl io its old 
camps a picket hue was established on the 
north bank ol the Rappahannock, and on 
I rida j a detail of one hundred nun from 
the Regiment, with a similar detail from 
the Sixtj I'D'lith and the One Hundred 

Fifth, all under the command of ( aplain 
I loi Ion, was made lor that purpose; lluv 

did not, however, leave camp until about 

lour o'clock Saturday alien , when they 

marched about twelve miles ami laid down 

in the woods lor the night. The next morn- 

ing the detachmenl was called up at lour 

o'clock, and after a inaieh ol I h n 8 mile- 

farther reached their posts on the river 
bank, The enemy held a picket line <>n 
the south side of the river, which here was 
nol more than thirty rods wide. The two 

lines were within plain sight of each other. 

I'h' enemy had, according to their custom, 

Stl ipped <>n I dead and wounded left io their 

hands of most ol their clothing, and now, 
much to the indignation of our men, Confed* 
erate pickets were ecu . n their posts in 

Uniforms stolen I federal soldiers. The 

detachment remained here on picket until 

Tuesday w hen (hey were relieved and re- 
turned to camp 

The rainy weather which began liel'oie 

I looker retired from < lhancellorsville con- 
tinued lor several days, hul by Monday, the 
I Ith, the ground had become sufficiently 
dry to allow the movement ol troops, and in 
the after n of thai day a review of the 

Third ( lorps was had on the old parade 

ground. The One Hundred Fortj First wag 

consolidated ill live companies, and United 

with the < me 1 1 undred Fourteenth w huh 
had been consolidated in like mannei and 

c manded by Colonel Mad ill, alsothe I il 

ty Seventh and sixty-Third were united in 

9 8 


the same way, and the brigade was attached 
to Ward's. Every movement <>f this kind 
was :i sail reminder to the men of the terri- 
ble losses they had sustained. As they 
looked along their thinned ranks they could 
not refrain from thinking <>f their fallen 
comrades and officers, many of whom wound- 
ed were in the enemy's hands, and whose 
I'ati it was impossible to learn. 

( )n Wednesday, the 13th, a meeting of the 
Field Officers of the brigade was held at the 
Regimental Headquarters for the purpose 
of taking appropriate action regarding those 
of their number who fell in the recent bat- 
tle. Colonel Madill was chosen Chairman 
ami Lieutenant-Colonel Craig of the One 
Hundred Fifth, Secretary. A committee 
was appointed to prepare a suitable paper 
on the subject, and the meeting adjourned 
until the next day when the following reso- 
lutions were adopted : 

Resolved, That in the death of Colonel 
A. A. McKnight, of the One Hundred Fifth 
Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, the 
country has lost a brave, efficient and patri- 
otic officer, whose untiring energies were 
given to promoting the efficiency of his Reg- 
iment, who sealed his devotion to the cause 
in which he was engaged with his lite blood, 
at the head of his command, on the battle- 
field of Chancellorsville, Virginia, Mav 3, 

Resolved, That we condole with the rela- 
tives and friends of the deceased in their 
loss of a companion endeared to them by his 
many amiable virtues, and that we lament 
the loss the country has sustained by his un- 
timely death in the hour of her greatest 


Resolved, That in the death of the gallant. 
Major Joseph S. Chandler, of the < >ne Hun- 
dred Fourteenth Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, this brigade has lost one of its 
most brave, efficient, useful and devoted i ffi- 
i cis — a soldier whose chief care it was to 
] romote the efficiency of his command and 
secure the approbation of his superior offi- 
cers. Devoted to the holy cause for which 
he sacrificed his life, he never tailed by 
wcrd or Avvt\ to encourage others to emulate 
hi- own hoi nl example. 

Resolved, That, as Pennsylvanians, we 
shall forever cherish the memory of the 

many hours made joyous by the light of his 
social intercourse; as Pennsylvanians we 

shall honor the memory of his noble death, 
and as Pennsylvanians we pledge ourselves 
to devote our lives to sustain the glorious 
principles for which he gave up his lite. 

Resolved, That we ask the privilege of 
mingling our sorrows with the widow, the 
orphan, and the parents. 

And Whereas, Lieutenant-Colonel William 
S. Kiikwood. of the Sixty-Third Pennsylva- 
nia Volunteers, was wounded in two places 
in the battle of Chancellorsville, Sunday, 
May 3d, whilst leading his regiment in a 
charge on that evening, be it 

Resolved, Thai we have temporarily lost a 
good officer and brave soldier, who, although 
not fully recovered from a wound received 
at the battle of Groveton, Virginia, August 
29, 18(52, assumed the command of (he regi- 
ment January hist, and in this, the first en- 
gagement his regiment has participated in 
since that time, he displayed his devotion to 
the cause in which we are engaged, and, by 
his bravery, has won the respect and confi- 
dence of th£ officers and men of his own reg- 
iment and ol the brigade. 

Resolved, That we tender to him our best 
wishes and hopes for his speedy recovery 
from his wounds, as nothing would give us 
more pleasure than again to see him taking 
an active pail in field duties. 

Ami Whereas, Lieutenant-Colonel Guy II. 
Watkins, of the One Hundred Forty-First 
Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, was se- 
verely wounded and left on the battlefield of 
Chancellorsville; therefore, he it 

Resolved, That, while we believe he will 
soon recover from his wounds and return to 
his Regiment, we still desire to express our 
admiration and esteem lor him as a man 
and an officer. As an officer, his bravery, 
coolness and efficiency won our admiration ; 
as a man and friend, every quality of head 
and heart endears him to all with whom lie 
comes in contact. To his friends and fami- 
ly we would extend our heartfelt sympathy, 
and express our hope and confidence that he 
will soon be released from captivity and re- 
turn once more to gladden the hearts of his 

/.'(■ it also Resolved, That the customary 
badge of mourning be worn by the field offi- 
cers of this brigade in memory of the la- 
mented dead. 

These resolutions signed by the field offi- 
cers of the brigade, were sent to the officers 



.■mil families of those who wire mentioned 
therein, and also published in the public 

< >n the evening of this day, May 1 3th, the 
Regiment had dress parade for the first time 
since the battle. At this time there was 
read by the Adjutant a congratulatory order 
from Genera] Hooker, closing in these 
words : — 

"The events of the last week may swell 
with pride the heart of every officer and sol- 
dier of this army. We have added new Iuf- 
t ii' to its former renown. We have made 
long marches, crossed rivers, surprised the 
enemy in his intrenehmenls, and, wherever 
we have fought, have inflicted heavier blows 
than we have received. We have taken 
from the enemy five thousand prisoners; fif- 
teen colors; captured and brought off seven 
pieces of artillery; placed hors du combat 
eighteen thousand of his chosen troops ; de- 
stroyed his depots filled with vast, amounts 
of stores; deranged his communications; cap- 
tured prisoners within the fortifications of 
his capital, and filled Ins country with fear 
and consternation. We have no other regret 
than that caused by the loss of our brave 
companions, and in this we are consoled by 
the conviction that they have fallen in the 
holiest cause ever submitted to the arbitra- 
ment of battle." 

Negotiations which had been going on be- 
tween the commanders of the two armies re- 
lative to the removal of the wounded Feder- 
als were finally concluded, and, on the l.'Jth, 
two of Company G, the first in the Regi- 
ment, were brought over to the Division 

Hospital. Inac pie oi days all of our 

wounded were safely in our hands where 
they could receive all the comforts and care 
their comrades could bestow. They wen- a 
sorry looking company of men, haggard, 
emaciated, some of them robbed of their 
blankets and portions of their clothing, ex- 
posed to sunshine and storm, without shel- 
ter, without any but the coarsest food, with 
their wounds undressed, and themselves un- 

cared for, it was with unspeakable joy thej 
saw the Third < lorps ambulances, and learn- 
ed they were to bring them within our lines. 
The experiences of our men while in the 

hands of the enemv cannot heller be describ- 
ed than in the language of the men them- 

Charles K. Canfield, of Company D, was 
severely w ided in the shoulder in the oak 

woods after he had shot twenty rounds ;it 
the enemy, and while getting to :i place of 
safety was shot through the hip, hut man- 
aged to crawl to the ( haneellorsville House. 
This building look fire from the bursting of 
a shell, ami after a desperate effort, he says : 

— "I succeeded in getting out of the house, 
lint many of our brave hoys are said to have 
been burned in it. I hobbled along toward 
the woods amid showers of shot and shell 
.■mil laid down behind a. breastwork and 
could get no further. The enemy's skir- 
mishers came up and took me prisoner. I 
then crawled back to an old log house where 
I stayed during the rest, of the; day and 
night. The shells then began to come from 
our forces hut ceased after a short lime. The 
night was spent in restlessness. 

" Monday — It. was thought the place 
would he shelled by our men. and I Was ad- 
vised to gel farther to the ( Rebel's) rear, and 
with -real effort 'jut to a safer place. I was 

now in an old log house and almost helpless. 

We had no care as the enemy ueie husy 
with their own wounded. Some of our own 
I >octors ere with us, but they had no medi- 
cine or instruments. We had nothing to 
eat. I found my friend, L. I 1 '. Ward, of 
Company I, as helpless as myself. We 
were nut only wounded hut prisoners. 

"May 5th — We lay in the same helpless 
condition — were paroled by a Confederate 
officer. It was rainy and some of the poor 
fellows were out on the wet ground. 

"May 6th— There is very little prospect 
of our being removed. < lur wounds are not 
dressed, and we have hardly anything to 



eat. Rebel transportation is very limited 
and our men cannot gel through the linos. 

"May 7ih — Our condition is much the 
same wounds not dressed They do not 
pain very badly but are very sore. We are 
beginning to get a little more to eat. Bacon, 
hard-tack and Hour are our rations. The 
Doctors began to work. 

'• May Sib — Those who were badly wound- 
ed art' dying very fast. Ward and 1 are 
moved into a little shelter tent to make 
room in the house For those who have had 
limbs amputated. Slept rather cold on the 
ground with but one blanket to cover us 

' May 9th— The weather gets settled ami 
warmer. Time passes heavily and we wish 
to be removed. We are flattered that wo 
shall ho token through the linos. Some saj 
wo will have to go to Richmond. The R< b- 
ols are very civil to us. General Lee's 
headquarters are near us, ami wo see him 
frequently. Am anxious to know how 
many of our boys « 1 1 o killed in the fight. 

"May 10th — The weather getting warm. 
Tito Doctors look at my wounds for the first 
time. Many persons come to look at the 
battlefield. It is a week since we were 
wound* d. 

"May tlth— Weather getting hot. They 
still flatter us that we shall be taken away, 
but it has got to be an old story. Our 
wounded are getting along finely with the 
little care they have. 

'" "Wednesday, May 13th— The day of de- 
liverance has come at last. A train of am- 
bulances came over the river after us. We 
crossed the United Suites Ford in boats 
where we crossed on the pontoons thirteen 
days ago, but not exactly in the same spirits. 
I feel to thank God that 1 have got across 
the itver again alive."' 

Sergeant William S. Wright, of Company 
E, who was among the wounded captives in 
this battle, has written in brief the story of 
his captivity entitled '* Twelve Days on the 
Battlefield." Although not written for pub- 

lication, the following paragraphs are quoted 
with iiis permission : 

"' 1 will not recount any exploits of mine, 
1 simply marched ami fought until 1 receiv- 
ed a gunshot wound in my left thigh which 
at first, in the excitement of battle 1 thought 
hut a slight wound. Alter firing three 
rounds however, i ho numbness was followed 
by a ureal pain in my limb that caused me 
to lay down my musket :m '' look tor a place 
of safety. A small log laid about ton feet 
from where 1 was, a little to the roar of n.y 
company and parallel with the line of battle. 
By rolling my body on the ground, for 1 
could no longer walk. 1 got behind this 
log, which only served mo a few minutes, as 
our troops were obliged to fall back closely 
followed by the enemy. From the log 1 was 
taken by a Confederate who was wounded in 
the arm and a Federal who, though unhurt, 
was nearly scared to death, and carried just 
over the line of works previously occupied 
by Howard's troops, where 1 lay tor twelve 
days. Of the nun who guarded me 1 have 
no reason to complain. There were about 
three thousand wounded soldiers, (a Confed- 
erate estimate,) unable to walk, and . 
quently who escaped a worse fate — the hor- 
rors of a rebel prison. We wore guarded 
by the Third Georgia Regiment, a part oi 
nail Jackson's command. 

" Early in the evening of the 3d Jackson 
himself was carried by on a stretcher, 
wounded they said by one of his own men. 
On the morning of the 4th, the Surgeons 
improvised amputation tables— one made o( 
sixteen foot boards, placed about four rods 
from where 1 was lying. were used for ampu- 
tating the limbs of Union soldier-. My 
story may seem incredible and yet it is true, 
when 1 say that no loss than one hundred 
logs and arms were out off on this table 
alone for the first three or tour days, many 
of the poor fellows dying during the opera 
tion. Three times during one day they 
came for me. 1 quietly but firmly told the 
he would never get me on that table 

ri<j;/mi>\ /; rrw ./ voi:s. 


alive. A little pluck saved my leg and per- 
haps my life. The amputated limits were 
taken by the darkies in a wheel-barrow and 
buried near the roots of a peach tree. Manv 
died of their wounds. Some lingered eight 
or ten (lavs and then passed away. 

" On the 5th of May a short but very se- 
vere shower passed over us accompanied 
with hail. We were without dots and 
many with l>ui scanty clothinjj, as nearly all 
of our loose garments had been appropriat- 
ed by the enemy. About this lime 1 was 
found by Sergeants l>. W. Scott and A. W. 
Seward, of Company K, both of whom had 
been wounded, and to them more than to 
•any other two men 1 owe my present exist- 

"Our lady frit-rids often remark that they 
have not much to oat ; — 1 often thought of it 
while dining at the expense of the Confed- 
erates. Their rations were about as near 
nothing as can be imagined. < >nce every day 
our camp was visited by an old citizen who 
sold biscuit and bacon — a biscuit about the 
si/.c of an army cracker, made without salt, 
and a piece of good bacon for the sum of two 

"The morning of the 15th we heard thai 
our ambulances were coming alter us. 1 
was told by a Sergeant of the Third Georgia 
Regiment, as noble a specimen of manhood 
as 1 ever saw. lie gave me a hearty shake 
of the hand, took my address, and said that 
if he was living when the war ended he 
would write to me ; 1 have never heard from 

" About noon it was reported t hat our train 
was coming, and soon I heard the welcome 
voice of Harvey Cummins. 1 was one of 
the first loaded, and we were soon on our 

journey toward the happy land of freedom. 
Our route lay directly across the battlefield. 
The Stench from the dead horses was dread- 
ful, hut we were soon Out of it and within 
our own lines, glad indeed once more to be 
among our friends and see the familiar laces 
of our comrades in arms." 

\lmosi every regiment has iis story of 
some amusing or romantic incident in which 
the principal actor was of the gentler sex. 
The thrilling adventures and constant dan- 
gers of camp and field appealed powerfully 
to the sympathies of the ladies of the conn- 
try and called to the front, as most skillful 
and efficient helpers and nurses in hospital 
and camp, some ol the nohlest women of the 
land, while occasionally others were inspi red 
with a desire to share the rougher dangers 
of the field, and donning male attire were 

discovered SOUK times as servants to the olli- 
eeis, or as musicians, and sometimes even 
carrying a musket. While in (amp Cur- 
tin t here came into the quarters of ( onipany 

1<], a bright, black-eyed hoy who gave his 

name as Charles Notion, and desiring to go 
to the front offered his services to Captain 
Keeves as servant, The Captain was favor- 
ably impressed with the appearance id' the 
little fellow and employed him. lie was a 

faithful anil efficient helper at I leadipiarters, 
always marching with his company and 
keeping a sharp lookout for the officers' pro- 
perly. Among his other qualifications he 
was a splendid cook, preparing little dain- 
ties from the slender stock the commissary 
afforded, so that Captain Reeves' mess en- 
joyed many delicacies the other officers 
knew nothing of. The boy of course lie 
came a general favorite. When the Cap- 
lain became sick at Poolesville, Charlie staid 

at his side and tenderly cared lor htm, and 
returned to camp with him and resumed his 
duties at Headquarters where he continued 
until the battle of Chancellorsville, where 
an incident occurred that disclosed the fact 
that Charlie Norton was a woman. Captain 
Mereiir hail a delicate fool and wore a hoot 
unusually small for a man. One morning 
he awoke to find Ids hoots missing, lie 
could get i o trace of them for several days, 

hut finally discovered them on Norton's 
feet. lie had never seen a man before who 

could wear his hoots, and on questioning 
Norton accused him flatly of stealing which 
he at first denied hut afterward confessed 



In the course of the investigation the Cap- 
tain's <■< ok proved t<> be of the opposite sex, 
and it is needless to add was speedily mus- 
tered out of the service. Some of the mem- 
bers of that company have seen her since 
and talked with her in regard to this some- 
what romantic adventure. She said she was 
deeply interested in the war, and desired to 
serve her country in some way. and was 
obliged to assume the disguise she adopted 
in order to carry out her plans. 

A reference to the account of tho.-e who 
died from wounds received at Chancellors- 
ville will disclose the fact that fur a month 
after the battle deaths from this cause were 
of frequent occurrence. Besides a number 
died from disease brought on in some cases 
at least by the fatigue and excitement of the 

Indeed the Regiment had scarcely return- 
ed io their old camp before il was called to 
attend the burial of William F. Lewis. He 
was the son of James Lewis was living at 
Lewis' Mill, between Wyal using and Camp- 
town, when he enlisted in Captain Jackson's 
company. Just prior to breaking camp for 
the ChancellorSvilJe campaign, lie was taken 
sick and sent to the division hospital where 
he died May 10th. lie was an unmarried 
man nearly twenty-two years of age. 

On Saturday. May 16th, George W. Angle. 
of Company B, died in his tent, after a sick- 
ness of two (lavs, of inflammation of the brain 
brought on by the exertion and nervous 
strain incident to the battle. He was the son 
of Jacob Angle, of Dingman's Ferry, Pike 
County, hut at the time of his enlistment 
was learning the trade of blacksmith in 
North Towanda. He was nineteen year- of 
age at his death, and was buried the next 
day in the brigade burying ground. 

About this time regular drills by company 
and battalion were resumed more for the 
purpose of giving the men employment than 
for acquiring additional skill in military ev 
olutions. As the weather was becoming 
very warm, the hours lor this exercise were 

from half-past six until half-past eight o'clock 
in the morning, and from three until live 
o'clock in tlu' afternoon; followed by dress 
parade. Potomac Creek, near which the 
camp was pitched, afforded good opportuni- 
ty for bathing which was frequently indulg- 
ed in. Bakeries were also constructed and 
rations of soft bread regularly issued. The 
spirits and health of the nun also began to 
improve. It has been frequently observed 
in regard to the Army of the Potomac that 
no body of men ever met with so many re- 
verses, yet maintained such unwavering 
courage, and was ever as ready to light again 
as was this grand army — a condition of 
things without doubt due largely So the in- 
telligent patriotism and true courage of the 
rank and file of which it was composed. 
The One Hundred Forty-First Regiment af- 
fords an illustration of this. Recovering 
from the first shock of the conflict they are 
ready again to engage the enemy as I hough 
( 'hanci llorsvillo had been a victory instead 
bf a defeat. The despondency which mark- 
ed the correspondence of the men immedi- 
ately after the battle is followed by a bright- 
er tone and a more cheerful view of things, 
as well as a deeper determination not to lay 
down their arms until the rebellion is crush- 
ed out. 

General Graham having been assigned to 
the command of the Second Division after 
the death of General Berxy, who fell on 
Sunday morning mortally wounded by a ri- 
fle-ball, the command of the brigade devolv- 
ed on Colonel Tippen, of the Sixty-Eightb 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, who at this time 
was the ranking Colonel. Colonel Madill was 
so thoroughly exhausted by the anxiety ami 
and fatigue of the battle as to lie unable to 
do much active duty, and in consequence 
the command of the Regiment devolved 
largely upon tin Major. 

On Monday the 25th, Albert Corby, a pri- 
vate in Company c, died suddenly of con- 
gestion of the lungs, in his tent in camp. 
He was brother of James Corby, who was 



in the same company and wounded in tlie 
late kittle. At the time of their enlistment 
he was living with their widowed mother in 
Monroeton. " To say he did his duty as a 
soldier well anil was respected by every 
member of his company, is but a small part 
of the honor to which lie is entitled." He 
was twenty-three years of age. 

Badges of honor, peculiar marks of dis- 
tinction in recognition of acts of peculiar 
bravery or especial service, or distinguished 
heroism have frequently been bestowed liy 
officers, and societies and governments upon 
those who have dared to face great dangers 
or, for the sake of others, have exposed 
themselves to peculiar peril. It has been 
the case in almost every army of every civi- 
lized nation, that deeds of daring and of 
danger have thus been recognized as a fitting 
compliment to the men who have performed 
them and as an incentive to others to like 
acts of personal bravery. General Birney, 
after the battle of Chancellorsville, deter 
mined to try the effect of such a public rec- 
ognition of the men in his division, who in 
that engagement had by their conduct on 
the Held become worthy of this distinction. 
The several commanders of regiments were 
directed to designate not more than three in 
each companj who were most worthy of 
such distinction, and Wednesday, May 27, 
was I he day set apart for the badges to be 
conferred. Where all had done so well, 
and in most cases where one had done as 
well as another, and every man in the com- 
pany would have done the same thing had 
opportunity offered, it was a very difficult 
and delicate matter to select three who ought 
to be thus distinguished above their com- 
rades; and it would be nothing strange if 
the men in the ranks should not coincide 
with the judgment of the officers. 

The badge designed for this occasion 
called the " Kearney Cross," in honor of the 
former gallant commander of the division, 
was a bronze Maltese cross, bearing on one 

de the legend "Birney r s Division," on the 

other " Kearney Cross." suspended by a red 
ribbon bearing the word "Chancellorsville" 
from a bronze pin, 

It was determined to make the presenta- 
tion of these badges an occasion of great 
military display. On the afternoon of the 
appointed day the entire division was called 
out. The men were required to be in their 
best attire, with shoes blackened and arms 
well burnished. At two o'clock the troops, 
accompanied with their bands of music, 
were marched to the parade ground and 
formed in a hollow square, with the merito- 
rious soldiers in the center, arranged in the 
order of the brigades and regiments to which 
they belonged. 

The order of the Division Commander, 
by whom the badges were presented, was- 
then read, which among other things says : — 

The Brigadier-General commanding the 
division announces the following names of 
meritorious and distinguished non-commis- 
sioned officers and privates, selected for 
their gallantry as recipients of the " Kear- 
ney Cross," the division decoration. 

Many deserving soldiers may have es- 
caped the notice ot their commanding offi 
cers, but, in the selection after the next bat- 
tle, they will doubtless receive this honora- 
ble distinction. 

This cross is in honor of our old leader, 
and the wearers of it will always remember 
his high standard of a true and brave sol- 
dier and will never disgrace it." 

At the request of General Birney, Major 1 
< reneral Sickles, in a brief, apt and patriotic 
address, made the presentation. Each of 
the meritorious men was thereupon presented 
with a neat package, containing his particu- 
lar medal, together with a manuscript copy 
of the order. Says an eye witness: — "Any 
one who could have been present at that 
moment, and seen how the eyes of those 
brave men sparkled with delight, and how 
proudly they attached the decorations to 
their breasts, would be firmly convinced 
that such a comparatively trifling outlay 



would be tlic most valuable the Government 
could make." 

Among tlic recipients of this honor the 
following twenty-five were from the One 
Hundred Forty-First Regiment: — 

Sergeant Major Joseph (!. Fell. 

Sergeant Edwin M. White, Company A. 

Private Benj. P. Oliphaut, Company A. 
" Edwin Lee, ( 'ompany A. 

Corporal Josiah A. Bosworth, Company B. 

Private Isaae K. Potter, Company II. 

Corporal Charles Scott, Company ('. 

Private George W. Fell, Company C. 
Selden F. Worth, Company ( '. 

Sergeant David C. Palmer, Company D. 

Corporal Morton Berry, Company I). 

Private .lames M. Beach, Company E. 

Sergeant Salmon S. Hager, Company F. 

Private Albert .J. Baldwin, Company F. 
Orrin A. Oakley, Company F. 

Sergeant James II. Terwilliger, Compa- 
ny ( 1 . 

Private Marcus C. Rosencrantz, Company 

Private William O. McCreary, Company 

Private Jacob W. Palmer. Company 11. 

John J.Stockholm, Company 11. 
Joseph McSherer, Company 11. 

Corporal John N. Dunham, Company 1. 

Private Alfred Alhee, Company I. 

Corporal .lames 1>. Ellsworth, Company 1. 
Archibald Sinclair, Company K. 

The ceremonies of the presentation were 
of a very imposing character, ami no pains 
were spared to render them deeply impres- 
sive upon the spectators — to make the recip- 
ients of the decoration feel that they had 
been greatly honored, and inspire in their 
comrades an intense desire lor a like honor- 
able distinction. The results were not as 
beneficial as had been anticipated, and the 
ceremony was not repeated. It will be seen 
however, that the greater part of those who 
received the badges were subsequently either 
killed or wounded in battle. Of course those 
who were not recipients of the honor affect- 
ed to treat the matter with ridicule or con- 

tempt. Some of the men of the One Hun- 
dred Fourteenth cut crosses out of their 
army crackers, went strutting through the 
camp with them fastened to their coats A 
Sergeant in one of the companies wrote in 
large letters on his tent, "three brave men 
and sixty cowards." 

The camp had been occupied so long that 
with the approaching hot weather it began 
to be unhealthy and disagreeable. A new 
site was therefore selected, and Friday, the 
29th, the brigade moved to it. Major Spal- 
ding in a letter written the day after, gives 
the following description of the new loca- 
tion : — " We have moved our camp about a 
mile anil a half down the Potomac (feck 
upon the same side toward Belle Plain. 
Where the Regiment is encamped is a level 
field with good water, but rather too small. 
The whole brigade is here. There was no 
room for our Headquarters near the Regi- 
ment, so we got permission to go about forty 
rods above, upon a high piece of ground, an 
open field in front and a steep side hill cov- 
ered with huge oak trees on the side toward 
the creek. We went under the trees a few 
paces down the side hill, had places dug out 
and pitched our tents there. The Colonel 
and I each have a tent under a large tree 
and are well shaded. The Adjutant and 
Quartermaster have a tent under another 
tree a few feet away. We shall have a 
pleasant place when we yet it cleaned up, 
but that will take considerable lahor. 

" Potomac ( 'reek is very w 'ule at this place, 
and the tide from the river comes up here. 
( >ur camp is on a point of land that runs out 
into the creek which looks more like a bay 
than a creek. From my tent 1 can see down 
the creek to the Potomac River and Belle 
Plain landing, which is some three miles 
from here, and away in the distance on the 
opposite side of the river a dim blue line 
can be seen which 1 suppose to he the Mary- 
land shore " 

On Monday, June 1st, the Regiment was 
again inspected, after which orders were re- 



ceived directing it to go on pickel early the 
next morning. As early as four o'clock the 
men wore astir and about ten o'clock reach- 
ed their posts on the picket line. Colonel 
Madill being still unwell remained in camp, 
the Major taking command of the men. 
One-half the Regiment was posted along the 
river, and the other half under Captain 
Clark, of Company E, on the right of the 

main road to Warrenlon. The entire bri- 
gade was out. The wind blew a gale, the 
day warm, roads dusty, and the march out 
very disagreeable. In the evening the 
Dumber of each post was doubled, and at 
three o'clock the next morning patrols were 
sent out, hut, no discoveries made. Already 
some movements on the pari of the enemy 
were detected, which gave occasion for great- 
er watchfulness, but all of Wednesday pass- 
ed in quiet. On Thursday morning a patrol 
often nun under Captain Horton was again 
sent out but made no discoveries, and in the 
afternoon the Regiment moved up in the 
neighborhood of Hartwood brick church. 
A number of despatches from General 
Meade to General Hooker were sent through 
the lines, hut beyond this nothing of im- 
portance occurred until Friday when the 
brigade was relieved from this duty and re- 
turned in the afternoon to earn]). ( )n reach- 
ing here they learned the Colonel had ob- 
tained a leave of absence of ten days and 

had gone home to recover his health, hav- 
ing been unfit for duty since the battle. Sat- 
urday was spent by the men in preparing 
for the inspection, which was ordered for 
the next day, at which "General Jiirney 
complimented the Regiment on its appear- 
ance." Inspection over the men returned 
to camp to rest during the remainder oi the 
day. In the evening Major Johnson began 
paying the Regiment for two months, and 
finished this duty on the following day. 

Examinations and drills of the non-com- 
missioned officers, and by company and bat- 
talion were now of daily occurrence. The 
days were warm and the camp was becom- 
ing (pule dusty. The severely wounded 
men in the Division hospitals who could en- 
dure the travel were granted furloughs to 
return home, and at the same time applica- 
tion was made to have the men who had 
been sent away sick, had recovered and were 
employed in hospitals as nurses and helpers, 
returned to the Regiment. 

It had been a month since the men had 
returned from Chancellorsville. With re- 
invigorated strength, and renewed zeal, and 
revived spirits, they were ready to obey with 
alacrity the order to advance again against 
the enemy, and as far as in them lay en- 
deavor to bring to a successful termination 
the war in which they were engaged 

Chapter VII. 


From the newspaper accounts of the bat- 
tle of < lhancellorsville, and from the official 
reports which were widely circulated, the 
people of the North were led to believe that 
although [looker had failed to destroy Lee's 
;innv or dint" him in inglorious flight from 
his defences, yel lie had so roughly used 
him thai it would require many months for 
him to be ready lor active operations. It 
was therefore with utter surprise and incre- 
dulity thai on ilu- liist days of June they 
read of the appearance of the Confederate 
forces in the Shenandoah Valley, and a few 
days after that they were cautiously making 
their way noil h ward. A number of cir- 
cumstances combined to make it appear to 
the Confederate commander thai this was a 
feasible undertaking. lie had succeeded 
in concentrating the largest nrmy he had 
heretofore commanded, numbering nearly 
ninety thousand men, while the army under 
[looker had, by the expiration of the short 
terms of enlistment, been reduced to less 

than eighty thousand. The Confederate 
army was in highest spirits, ready to under- 
take anything, while as we have seen the 
mora/e of the Federals was low, So far the 

devastations t^' war had been experienced 

only on Southern soil. There was a feeling 
all through the South, in which the Rich- 
mond government was in full accord, that 

the theatre of the conflict should he trans- 
ferred to the Northern States, while the 
rich grain fields of Southern Pennsylvania, 

just then maturing for the harvest, were no 

doubl a prize that with their exhausted re- 
sources the enemy greatly covettd. Neither 
can it lie denied that while the Union army 

had lost much of its confidence and enlhnsi- 

asm lor its commander, l.ce and his army 
regarded him with supreme contempt, and 
hardly thought it worth while to attempt to 
conceal their movements or the object they 
were striving to reach. Although he was to 
leave [looker with an army nearly as large 
as his own in his rear, yet he moved his col- 
umns boldly forward without making much 
account of the foe he hail so lately flung 
from his position with hardly a serious ef- 
fort. As early as the 8th of .lime Lee's 
northward movement, which began on the 
3d, was unmasked by a cavalry engagement 
al Brandy Station, and on the 11 th, Ibokcr 
threw forward the Third Corps up the Rap- 
pahannock to prevent the enemy from cross- 
ing it. The story of the next three weeks is 
of the Confederate invasion and the federal 
pursuit, in which neither seemed to know 

the exact positions of the other, until they 

met in deadly grapple at Gettysburg. In 

these movements the Third Corps was kept 
well in advance lo he ready to join in the 
pursuit of the Confederates and at the same 
time to afford a cover to Washington from 
any marauding force thai might be sent out. 
Without attempting to follow in detail the 
various movements of all the troops, either 
federal or Confederate, the operations of 

our Regiment only will he described, 

The advance of Lee rendered il neeessarv 
for Hooker to extend the right wing of his 
army consisting of the First, Third and 
Eleventh Corp-;, under the direct command 
of General Reynolds, commanding the First 
Corps, ;v gallant and tried officer, along the 
upper Rappahannock ; accordingly on the 
11th, the Third Corps was directed to take 
position between Beverly ford and Kappa- 



bannock Station. General Graham, wlio 
had been in temporary command of the Sec- 
ond I division after the death of < reneral Ber- 
ry ;it Chancellorsville, had been relieved by 
Brigadier-General Humphreys, and had re- 
sumed the command of his old brigade — 
(Firsl Brigade of the First Division, Bir- 
ney's,)— and Major Spalding was in com- 
mand of the Regiment, the Colonel having 
been almosl prostrated since the battle, and 
no military movement being thought proba- 
ble during the extreme hoi weather, had ob- 
tained a short leave of absence, while Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Watkins had not yet recov 
ered from his wounds. 

On Thursday, June llih, there was bri- 
gade inspection in the morning ; ii was hard- 
ly over, when ill eleven o'clock orders were 
received to lie in re.nline s to in:ircli ;it a 

moment's notice. About one o'clock the bn 
gle sounded " pack up," and a little before 
two o'clock the Regimen! was on the march. 
The frequent showers of May had been fol- 
lowed by dry and very hot weather, the 

roads were dusty and the heat oppressive. 
The men had gone but little way before 
some of them became foot-sore and fell out 
by the roadside. All of the officers of the 

corps speak of the great number of Btrag- 

glers. It was after ten o'clock at nighl 
when a halt was called, the Regiment was 
drawn up in a Held about a mile ind a half 
above Hart wood Church on the Warrenton 
road, arms were stacked, and the men spread 
their blankets upon the ground and biv- 
ouacked for the night. They had traveled 
that hot summer afternoon fifteen miles. 

The next day's march was about as great, 

but the Regiment was on the move as early 

as seven o'clock in the morning. Ahout 
four o'clock in the afternoon they went into 
camp in an oak wood on the left of the road 

about a mile and a half from Bealton Sta- 
tion on the Orange and Alexandria Rail 
road. It should be remembered that the 
army was now faced northward, contrary to 
what it had hitherto been, consequently the 

right an I left had \»t ime rever ted. A Ser- 
geant of Company I writes under this date, 
"There is scarcely a, man without blistered 
feet. I think it was as hard a march as we 
ever made. Tin ■ Lieutenant with live oth- 
ers besides myself were all that Company I 
could muster when we halted, hut most of 
the men are heie now. I never saw so 

n h Straggling. The road was lined with 

exhausted men and several c;iscs of sunstroke 
were reported. Tin- finners Inn are trying 

to do something, but (heir crops look puny 
and are drying up for want uf rain. They 
all plead starvation." On the march this 
day, the One Hundred Forty-First was in 

the front, and as it came into camp w a ■; 

placed in support of a battery near the Cor| 
I [eadquarters. 

During the night most of the stragglers 

reached the Regiment. Before noon orders 

were again received tO be ready to rCS ! 

the march, and in the afternoon they went, 

about three miles and stopped a mile and a 
half south of Rappahannock Station. This 
evening a slight rain cooled the air and laid 
the dust. The men remained here taking a. 

little needed rest and receiving a fresh sup- 
ply of rat ions tint il live o'clock on Sunday 
afternoon when they marched for Catlett's 

Station, a distance of twelve miles, reaching 

it a little after midnight. At six o'clock in 
the next morning they were again on the 
road, stopping for a little rest at Bristoe's 

Station, they then pushed on ahout a mile 
beyond Manassas Junction, where, about 

four o'clock in the afternoon, they halted for 
the night. The commander of the Regi- 

meni writes: — "It has been the loudest day 
to inarch I have ever seen, The Weather 
has been very hot and the dust so thick I 
could hardly see the column ahead of me. 
The men aie very much worn out. Almost 
(•vrry man has blistered :i iw 1 scalded his fi el 
until they are verv sore, one of our men 1 
said to have died from the heal, and quite a. 

number in the corps." 

Hooker had thought that possibly Lee 



would repeat the movement of the year de- 
fore, push forward to Manassas and endeav- 
or to gel between him ai d Washington. He 
then-fore pressed rapidly forward until he 
had obtained a position in wli ich he 
euro against any such possible attack. The 
left u ing - it had formerly been the right 
wing — was advanced still further. In this 
movement, on Tuesday, the 16th, the Regi- 
ment joined, marching early in the morning 
a couple of miles anil halted at " Bull Run," 
where u is crossed by the Centreville road, 
and remained here during the day. The 
weather had become much cooler so that it 
was quite comfortable in the shade of the 
large trees along the creek. "Bull Run," 
writes :ui officer of the Regiment, "now fa- 
mous in history, is about as large as the 
Wysi x Creek, but the country around is 
more broken." ih\ Wednesday afternoon 
the Regiment wetil a coupie ol mihs farther 
am! encamped about a mile west of Centre- 
ville, a small village rendered conspicuous 
on account of its relation to the (irst an 
ond battles of Bull Run. The dust was ex- 
ceedingly annoying. It was drawn into the 
lungs with every breath, it filled their cloth- 
ing, penetrated their haversacks and c< i 
their trod, h had to be endured not only 
when on the march but there were i 
portunities of bathing or even washing their 
clothes. Notwithstanding the heat ami the 
dust the men kept in good spiritsaud though 
some of them were compelled to fall out 
yet they promptly joined their compai 
they came up. Under this date the Major 
wrius: -"Our Regiment is doing well, ami 
our General has complimented me on the 
promptness with, which the nun come in af- 
ter a hard day's march. Our whole corps is 
encamped here on the plain west of the vil- 
lage." The country about Centreville was 
under a good state of cultivation, and though 
considerably devastated by the armies in 
whose track it lay, and deserted by n. 
its inhabitants, it nevertheless everywhere 
gave evidence of fertility and productive- 

ness. The troops were greatly refreshed by 
the two days' rest 1 hey enjoyed hi re. 

Newspapers received in camp brought the 
startling news that Lee's army was invading 
Pennsylvania. Men in the army as well as 
the citizens of the Commonwealth could 
with difficulty he made to believe that it 
was any thin- more than a raid for the pur- 
pose of plunder ; they thought the enemy 
would disappear as suddenly as he Inn! come, 
but in this they were doomed to disappoint- 
iiu nt. 

\fter the death of Jackson, Lee had re- 
organized hi> army into three corps, each 
consisting of three divisions of from four to 
live brigades each. The first corps com- 
manded by Longstreet was made up of 
Hood's, McLaws ami Pickett's divisions; 
the second corps under Ewell was composed 
oi' Early's, ,1, Imson's and Rhode's divisions; 
the third corps under A. 1'. Hill consisted 
of the divisions of Anders n, render and 
lleth ; besides these there was a division of 
cavalry commanded by Major-General J. 1']. 
B. Stuart. In the movement northward 
Ewell took the advance with Rhode's divi- 
sion in front, Longstreel followed, while 
Hill was loi't at Fredericksburg until Hook- 
er should loosen his hold upon the Rappa- 
hannock when he was directed by rapid 
marches to concentrate about Winchester. 
On the 20th Rhodes had advanced as far as 
Hagarstown, and Ewell had orders to march 
to Harrisburg and obtain possession ><i the 
eapitol of Pennsylvania if possible. Gov- 
ernor Curtin had issued his proclamation 
calling for fifty thousand volunteers and the 
ent had called upon the Governors of 
New York and New Jersey to send all avail- 
able help possible. At Governor Curtin's 
request Major-General Couch was ordered 
to Harrisburg to organize and take com- 
mand of the militia who as the magnitude 
of the danger became apparent were flock- 
ing to the defence of their homes and pro- 

Hooker in the meanwhile was awaiting 



1 1 1 <■ developments "f Lee's pian, and holding 
his Cunts well iu hand to strike whenever 
the foe should throw oil his mask or could 
be forced to give baitle. On ihe afternoon 
of Friday, the 19th, the troops were again 
put in motion and the One Hundred Forty- 
First marched to < i 1 1 1 1 1 Springs, a distance 
of twelve miles, reaching thereabout eleven 

o'clock at night, The forei n had been 

sultry followed by welcome showers, dust at 
dark it began to rain again and continued 
inns! of the night. It was pitchy dark, black 
as Erebus itself. In the darkness the col- 
umn was cut in two and the Regiment sepa- 
rated from the rest, of the brigade. An er a 
short halt they again set out in thedarkness, 
came up with the oilier (loops and slopped 
for the night. Every man was wet to the 
skin and covered with mud, but the wet 
blankets were spread upon the wet ground 
and the men in their wet clothing (lung 
themselves down to rest, as best they could. 

The Regiment remained here live days. 
On the 20th, Major Spalding has the follow- 
ing entry in bis diary: — "Remained in 
camp all day. Every one wet enough this 
morning, having marched half the night in 
a hard rain-storm, and laid upon the wet 
ground with nothing but wet blankets the 
other half. It has been raining some dur- 
ing the day. Although wet I slept well. It 
is a beautiful country here but everything 
shows neglect and decay." 

The Confederate General Stuart with his 
cavalry was holding the passes of the Bine 
Ridge behind which Lee was moving his 
army northward. In order to unmask the 
enemy's positions, and at the same time to 
deprive him of the benefit, of ibis arm of 
the service, I'leasmton attacked the detach- 
ed forces of Stuart at every favorable point. 
On the 21st the Confederates who were 
holding the road from Aldie to Snicker's 
( lip, were attacked with great vigor by the 
Federal cavalry supported by a brigade of 
infantry. Aldie is only about four miles 
west-north-west from Gum Springs. In the 

morning as soon as (be firing indicated that 
Pleasanton had begun the attack, batteries 
were got into position and the whole of the 
Third Corps was drawn up in order of bai- 
tle, the brigade of Graham in column by 
regiments doubled on the center with de- 
ploying intervals — while the baggage ami 
ammunition trains were sent to the rear. A 
little afternoon tin' fight was over, and the 
Regiment after moving its camp to the 
north side of Broad Run along which Gum 
Springs is located, remained in quiet until 

Monday, the 22d, was spent in resting and 
cleaning up. The Major says:—" Went over 
to the wagon train and changed my clothes, 
the fust lime I have bad a chance to do so 
since we left Potomac Creek. The next day 

the wagons were .sent out to gather forage 
and Companies A and D of our Regiment 

were detailed as an escort. Many of the of* 
Seers went out with them taking their pack 
mules and attendants, and returned, the wa- 
gons loaded with forage for the horses, and 
the others bringing lambs, chickens, milk, 
butter, light bread, in short almost, every 
variety of eatables they could lay hands on. 
More than one mess enjoyed the luxury that 
night of bread and milk lor supper. 

On the 25th Lee had transferred bis en* 
tire army north of the Potomac. Ewell's 
Corps was already in Pennsylvania and had 
been several days. It was now evident that 
the enemy intended to make an invasion 
and not a raid, and Hooker must push for- 
ward with his. army to meet it. According- 
ly at live o'clock in the morning of this day 
orders were issued to be in readiness to 
march in one hour. The coins'.' was almost 

due north. About m they reached Farm* 

ville, a, distance of ten miles, where they 
halted for dinner ; about I no o'clock the Po* 
tom IC at Edward's Perry, which was crossed 
on a pontoon bridge, and about live o'clock 
encamped halfway between Pooleeville and 
the Monocacy Creek. The day had been 
ol ly and cool, the recent rains had made 



the dust solid, and the men made the inarch 
of twenty-five miles quite comfortably. They 
were now on ground made familiar by 
their occupancy of it eight months before. 
Early the next morning the march was re- 
sumed. Crossing the Monocacy on the 
aqueduct of the Baltimore and Ohio canal, 
they readied Point of Rocks, a distance of 
eight miles, about one o'clock in the after- 
noon, and here encamped for the night. 
The rain which had begun the evening be- 
fore, had continued all day and rendered the 
inarch both difficult and uncomfortable. A 
number who had been sent to hospitals hav- 
ing recovered, joined the Regiment about 
this time. These in the parlance of the 
camp were called convalescents. 

Leaving Point of Rocks about nine o'clock 
the next (Saturday) morning the march 
northward was continued. Jerlerson, a dis- 
tance of eight miles, was reached soon after 
noon. The division marched through the 
town in columns of companies, (that is each 
company in line one behind the other,) with 
music playing and colors flying. The men 
inarched well, but some of the companies 
were too long for the width of the streets 
which was somewhat annoying. 

Five miles farther and the halt was made 
for the night near Middletown. The day 
had been cool and the marching good. The 
troops were now among friends. The coun- 
try here is one of great fertility, and it was 
now at its best. The large wheat fields were 
either covered with the shocks of grain or 
were waiting for the sickle. Everywhere 
the inhabitants greeted them with joy and 
hailed them as their deliverers. It was a 
new experience to the men of our Regiment. 
They had hitherto been only in an enemy's 
country, had become accustomed to receive 
only expressions of hatred and scorn. Here 
all was changed. Ladies as well as men 
cheered them forward. At night they made 
the camps cheerful by singing patriotic 
songs. Stands were erected by the wayside 
on which bread and other supplies were 

placed that the men could take as they 
marched along. 

Sunday, June 28th, hnds the Regiment 
encamped near Middletown, through which 
it passed early in the day, when the line of 
march turns easterly to Frederick which 
was reached a little past noon. The whole 
population seemed to be in the streets, and 
cheer after cheer greeted the men during 
the short halt made in the principal street, 
while bells rang and flags waved all over 
the place. Here Colonel Madill, after a te- 
dious search, joined the Regiment to the 
great joy of both officers and men. It will 
be remembered he had obtained leave of ab- 
sence for a few days, but hearing of the 
movement of troops hastened before the ex- 
piration of his leave to Join his Regiment. 
He reached Washington on the '23d. Here 
he learned the Regiment was at Gum 
Springs and started to reach it, but on the 
road was told they had left there. He con- 
tinued the fruitless search until the 27th 
where he met the train belonging to the 
corps at Poolesville, wh^n he pushed for- 
ward and overtook the division just as they 
were entering Frederick. This day also 
General Sickles returned to the corps, re- 
lieving General Birney under whose com- 
mand it had been for a number of days. 
Corps, division, brigade and regiment now 
each had its regular commanding officer. This 
afternoon the march was continued as far as 
Walkersville, where they encamped for the 

Quite a number of the men from the Reg- 
iment had been sent to a hospital in Fred- 
erick. When the Regiment passed through 
that city, Gilbert Corwin and George Car- 
ney, both of Company H, and perhaps oth- 
ers, being unable to obtain their discharge 
from hospital, on account, in the opinion of 
the Surgeon, of their health not being suffi- 
ciently established to endure the fatigue of 
the campaign, deserted from the hospi- 
tal and joined the Regiment, declaring that 
if there was to be a fight on Pennsylvania 


1 1 1 

soil they were going to be there. Of course 
these men had no arms, and the Colonel told 
them as they had no guns, to go to the field 
hospital and assist the Surgeons ; Corwin re- 
plied they had run away from the hospital 
to fight, and it would be different from any 
he had ever seen if he could not get a gun 
soon after the battle commenced. In this 
manner they went upon the field and in a 
few minutes each man had his gun and 
equipments. It may be added the names of 
these men were sent to the Regiment from 
the hospital as deserters, but the prompt re- 
ply was they were present with their com- 
panies and doing duty in the field. 

Along with the order appointing Hooker 
to the command of the Army of the Poto- 
mac the President transmitted a private let- 
ter, the closing sentence of which, " Beware 
of rashness, but with energy and sleepless 
vigilance go forward and give us victories," 
expressed the desire of every loyal heart ; 
but Hooker in common with every com- 
mander of that Grand Army, while the 
country was demanding victories, found him- 
self hampered on every hand and his plans 
frequently fatally interfered with by the 
whims or prejudices of General-in-Chief 
Hal leek at Washington. As soon as Hook- 
er ascertained that Lee had taken his forces 
into Pennsylvania, he at once set to work to 
destroy his army. While depriving the en- 
emy of the use of Stuart's cavalry, he had so 
manceuvered his own as to conceal effectual- 
ly the movements of his troops, so that while 
Lee supposed him to be in the neighborhood 
of the Rappahannock he had removed to 
the north side of the Potomac, with the left 
wing pushed well up toward the west threat- 
ening Lee's communications with Rich- 
mond, while his right wing was in position 
to cover Washington, Baltimore and Phila- 
delphia. Hooker felt that now was the op- 
portunity to strike a deadly blow and desir- 
ed every available man to strengthen his 
position and add weight to the blow. Al- 
though on the eve of what all understood to 

be one of the most important battles of the 
war, yet his orders were countermanded and 
his plans essentially modified by the Gener- 
al-in-Chief to such an extent that on the 
27th of June he asked to be relieved from 
his command, and early on the following 
morning a mtssenger arrived from Wash- 
ington with the appointment of Major- Cen 
eral George C. Meade, then commanding 
the Fifth Corps, in his stead. General 
Meade retained the staff officers of General 
Hooker in their positions, and the move- 
ments of the army though in the face of the 
enemy and on the eve of a great and deci- 
sive battle were made without ajar. 

In regard to the change made General 
Doubleday says : — " As the new commander 
of the Union Army was a favorite of General 
Halleck, no notice was taken of his disre- 
gard of instructions in detaching the garri- 
son of Harper's Ferry. General Couch, 
who commanded the Department of the 
Susquehanna, was also placed under his or- 
ders, a favor which had been denied to 
Hooker. The troubles of the latter were 
not quite over, for on his appearing at 
Washington to explain his action, he was 
immediately put under arrest for visiting 
the Capital without his (Halleck's) permis- 
sion; a piece of petty persecution which 
might have been spared under the circum- 
stances. It was, however, a short and easy 
method of settling all complaints that were 
inconvenient to answer." 

The next morning the Regiment was on 
the march at seven o'clock. The route lay 
in a north-northeast direction through 
Woodsborough, Middleburg and a mile be- 
yond Taneytown, a distance of nearly twen- 
ty miles, where they went into camp. The 
Regiment was detailed as rear guard to the 
corps, whose duty was to pick up all strag- 
glers and help them forward to their respec- 
tive companies, a task both difficult and un- 
pleasant. This was particularly the case on 
this day's march, since a considerable num- 
ber of the men belonging toother commands 
got their canteens filled with whisky, be- 



came intoxicated and were left behind be- 
cause they were too drunk to travel. The 
Regiment remained here until two o'clock 
of tlie afternoon of the thiitieth when they 
again took up their march, this time after 
returning to Taneytown in a nearly westerly 
direction, and went into camp near Km* 
mettsburg, and not more than two or three from the smith line of Pennsylvania. 
A shower in the afternoon drenched the 
in 'ii and rendered the roads muddy, both of 
which increased the difficulty of inarching. 
While the Regiment is waiting hereon the 
eve of the great battle in which it is destined 
t i bear a conspicuous part, it will be proper to 
pause a moment and survey its condition 
and strength. 

In a letter written at this date, and the 
last that can he quoted, the Major pays: — 
■"Our men are in tine spirits and the long 
marches have only made them more hardy 
and strong than ever — very few have fallen 
behind since we left Aqnia Creek. The cit- 
izens here are highly pleased with our ap- 
proach. Crowns are gathered at every cor- 
ner to see and cheer us on. Our camp this 
morning is full of citizens with their fami- 
lies walking around. A carriage is now be- 
fore our tent with some little girls singing 
patriotic songs. Everything seems to be 
like civilization again 

The men felt they were going to defend 
their native Stale and drive back the invad- 
ders of their homes, and were cheered and en- 
couraged I'v the generous and hearty recep- 
tion they had received since crossing the Poto- 

The Adjutant's returns give the strength 
of the Regiment as follows, which for the 
sake of comparison are placed alongside 
those of April SOtll : 



M 1 







Present.. j 

Sic] '..... 

In arre-t 





Abs -Hi 


A<;;;t;i ( 




Apr SO. 

) For duty 




1 Sick '. 


1 1 

29 24 

In Company A there had been no further 
changes than those already noted. 

Captain \Y. T. Davies, of Company l'>, af- 
ter six mi nt hs' illness resigned and was dis- 
charged on Surgeon's certificate, May 23, 
1S63. He returned to Towanda where he 
resumed the practice of law ; in LSGo he was 
elected District Attorney for the county of 
Bradford ; in 1870 he was elected to the 
State Senate on the Republican ticket where 
his distinguished abilities gave him great 
prominence, and in 18S0 was re-elected to the 
same office; in 1882 he was die regular Re- 
publican nominee for Lieutenant-Governor 
of the Commonwealth. He was law partner 
with Hon. U. Mcreur until that gentleman 
was chosen one of the Justices of the Su- 
preme Court, when he entered into partner- 
ship with \V. II. Carnochan, Esq., which 
continued until the death of the latter, since 
which L. M. Hall, Esq., has been his law part- 
ner. The firm enjoys a large and lucrative 

Eli M. Parsons, a private in the same 
company, was discharged also on Surgeon's 
certificate June 1 1, 1863. 

Martin O. Codding was madeOrderly Ser- 
geant and Robert Sherman Corporal of the 
( 'ompmy. May 1, 1863. 

In Companies C and I) there were no 
changes except what have been previously 

In Company E, John M. Jackson was 
promoted to Orderly Sergeant, and James 
M. Beach to Sergeant June 1, 1863. 

Hanford I>. Kinney, a private of this 
Company, died in hospital at Alexandria, 
Virginia, June 28, 1863, of disease. He 
had been married before the war. but his 



wile had died leaving him one son, Charles, 
now living in Litchfield. 

In Company F, privates William II. 11. 
Bennett, Patrick Gallaher, and John Lord 
were discharged May Lo, 18(53, on Surgeon's 
certificate of disability. 

The following notices could not be insert- 
ed in their appropriate place for want of re- 
quisite information : 

John N. Reynolds, who was a son of Josh- 
ua Hatfield Reynolds, died of chronic diar- 
rhoea near Washington, I >. C, March 29, 
1863, at the age of forty-five years, and was 
buried in the Military Asylum Cemetery. 
lie left a widow and four song ti> mourn 
their loss. Appropriate memorial services 
were observed at Brooklyn, Susquehanna 

Cyrenius W. Hughes, a tinker by trade, 
a widower with a number of children at the 
time of his enlistment, died in camp, De- 
cember 2, 1862, at the age of forty-one years. 

In Companies G and II, there bad occur- 
red no oilier changes than those already no- 
ticed, except that < lharles W. Rice, a private 
of the latter Company, was discharged May 
L!~>, 1863, on Surgeon's certificate of disabil- 

In Company I, there had been no changes 
but those before mentioned. 

In Company K, Archibald Sinclair was 
made Corporal May 1, ISti. - ;, Private Wil- 
liam Weed had been discharged on Sur- 
geon's certificate of disability, May 1 1, ISii.'!. 

Lyman J). Chilson died in Division Hos- 
pital, near Falmouth, of disease, May 20, 
L863. At the time of his enlistment he was 
living with < ). K. Bird, of Smithfield, was 
unmarried, and at bis death, which occurred 
in consequence of exposure at the time of an 
attack of measles, was about twenty-three 
years of age. 

( lharles W. Grange, son of Joseph < rrange, 
of Elkland township, Sullivan County, died 
in Division Hospital, near Falmouth, June 
11th, the day the Regiment started on the 
Gettysburg campaign. He was an unmar- 
ried man about twenty-live years of age. 

At the battle of Fredericksburg, where 11 
will be remembered the Regiment was 
placed in support of Randolph's Battery, 
the men became acquainted with artillery 
practice, and the following were transferred 
to that arm of the service: Nathaniel W. 
Dodge, Company < ', to the Fourth New 
York Battery, April, 1863; Oliver Skinner, 
Company (I, to Randolph's Battery, Rhode 
Island Artillery, .January, 1863; William 
Ransom, Company H, to the same Battery, 
February 17.1863; Jesse Baker, Company 
A, to the Fourth New York Battery, date 
unknown, but early in 1863. 

A large number of enlisted men bad by 
wounds received in battle, or by some form 
of chronic disease, been rendered unlit for 
service in the field, yet were able to do gar- 
rison duty, to assist in provosl-marslials' of- 
fices, and in hospitals. In order to utilize 
this class of men by giving them suitable 
employment, and send to the front the able- 
bodied men who were in these several posi- 
tions, an act was passed April is, 1863, cre- 
ating an "Invalid Corps," and went into 
operation April 28th, by General Orders, 
March is, 1864, the name was changed to 
the " Veteran Reserve Corps." This Corps 
was organized in two battalions; the first, 
consisting of six companies, composed (he 
ablest-bodied men, armed with muskets, who 
had to do garrison duty in the towns, the 
arsenals, and various posts in the interior, 
and act as military police; the Second Bat- 
talion was composed of loin- companies of 
the tUOSl infirm, who were employed in hos- 
pitals, offices, etc. According to the records 
John Frederick, of Company E, was the 
fust man in the One Hundred forty-first 
Regiment transfer red^to this corps, the date 
given being April 28, 1st;:!, the very day the 
order was promulgated declaring its estab- 

The casualties at Chancellorsville had 
made some changes iu the commanding (di- 
cers of the several companies. Captain 
Horton commanded Company A. In Com- 

ii 4 

( WE III WD RED Ft 'A' / 1 -FIRST 

panies B, C Mini I>, every commissioned < >tli- 
cer had either resigned, been killed or 
wounded, and they were commanded by 
noncommissioned officers: First Seigeant 
M. O. Codding, Company B, First Sergeant 
George W. Kilmer, Company C, and 
Sergeant David C. Palmer, Company D. 
Captain John F. (lark had charge 
ot' Company E, Second Lieutenant E. B. 
Brainerd. of Company F, First Lieutenant 
Joseph Atkinson of Company G, Captain 
Tyler, of Company 11. Second Lieutenant 
John G. Brown, of Company 1, and Captain 
Mercur, of t !ompany K. 

To the careful researches and finely exe- 
cuted maps of the battlefield made by Colo- 
nel Bachelder, the student of the Battle of 
i tettysburg is under unspeakable obligations. 
In describing this field accuracy will be se- 
cured by following substantially the descrip- 
tion of this author. 

The country about Gettysburg is general- 
ly open, and the surface rolling, though 
deep forests, high hills and rocky ravines 
are not unfrequent. Commencing with the 
Blue Ridge is a succession of undulations 
running generally in a northerly and south- 
erly direction. 

The most important, east ol' South Moun- 
tain, as affects the history of the battle, is 
Seminan Ridge, previously called Oak 
Ridge, on which is situated the Lutheran 
Seminary, in the western suburbs of the 
'own. This ridge extends for several miles, 
mid is crossed by all the roads which diverge 
from Gettysburg toward, the northwest, west, 
and southwest. As a defensive military po- 
sition it possesses great advantages, and was 
held from the first night of the battle by the 
Confederate army, who constructed heavy 
earthworks alone its crest, and held every 
available position with artillery, lis alti- 
tude is not as great as Cemetery Hill, but 
its extended position, admitting of a con- 
verging tire upon any desired locality, more 
than balanced this difference. 

Cemetery Rid^e is next in importance to- 

ward the east. This is marked by three dis- 
tinct elevations, standing out in clear relief. 
Round Top, or Sugar Loaf Hill, its extreme 
southern terminus, is seven-eighths of a mile 
east from Seminary Ridge, and rises directly 
from the plains beyond, its wooded crest 
towering high above the surrounding coun- 
try. From its northern face a bold shoulder 
protrudes, separated from the larger hill by 
a gentle depression, heavily wooded, name- 
less before the battle, but since known as 
Little Mound Top. The western side was 
stripped of timber the year before the battle, 
which added materially to its advantages as 
an artillery position. The rough, rocky 
rid o connecting the two Round Tops has 
been given the name of Vincent's Spur, in 
honor of a gallant Federal officer who fell 
there on the second day of the battle. 

Plum Run, a small and unimportant 

stream, llows along the western base of these 
hills, and drains a marshy swale in front, 
(west) oi Little Round Top. West of this 
is a stony, precipitous undulation called 
Ilonek's Ridge. Between this and Little 
Round Top is a deep gorge known as the Dev- 
il's Den, which presents a scene of the wild- 
est character. Huge syenitic boulders are 
crowded into this narrow ravine, through 
which struggle the waters of Plum Run. 

From Little Round Top the ridge, de- 
pressed, yet well defined, rises gradually in 
its northern course to Cemetery Hill, where 
with a sharp curve to the eastward it termi- 
nates in Chip's Hill; thus leaving a broad, 
extensive basin, northward from the Ceme- 
tery Hill, in which, upon a gentle elevation, 
is situated the village of Gettysburg. Culp's 
Hill is irregular in shape, quite precipitous 
on its eastern face, and generally covered 
with a heavy open growth of hardy timber. 
Rock Creek separates it on the east from 
Wolf Hill. This, like the last is wooded, 
but exceedingly rough, and formed the east- 
ern boundary oi' the infantry operations. 
The general course of Cemetery Ridge has 
not inaptly been likened to that of a Limer- 



[ck lisli hook, of which Round Top would 
be the eye where the line is attached, the 
axis of the ridge, the shank, Cemetery Hill 
at the hend, and ('nip's Hill at (he barb. 
On the east side Rock Creek takes a gener- 
ally southerly direction among enormous 
boulders and through gentle fields until it 
unites with Marsh Creek, a few miles south 
of Gettysburg, to form the Monocacy. On 
the west Willoughby's Run is at the western 
slope of Seminary Ridge, also running south- 
erly into Marsh ('reek which it reaches at a 
point directly west from Round Top. 

An undulation shoots off from Cemetery 
Hill south-southwesterly, leading diagonally 
across the valley between Cemetery and 
Seminary Ridges, intersecting with the latter 
at a distance of nearly three miles. The 
Emmettsburg road is laid along this ridge. 
The historic peach and apple orchards are 
here, and on it General Sickles formed his 
line of battle on the second day. 

From Gettysburg as a center, eleven roads 
radiate at every point of the compass, like 
spokes from the hub of a wheel; three of 
these which chiefly concern this narrative 
coming from the south two unite at the 
north of Cemetery Hill and two cross near 
that point. These are the Taneytown road, 
running northerly from the latter place, 
twelve miles distant, passes at the eastern 
foot of the Round Tops, follows near the 
crest of Cemetery Ridge, on the west side of 
the cemetery and down its northern slope 
enters the town near its southwestern corner. 

The Baltimore Pike crosses Rock Creek 
at the southern point of Wolf's Hill, passing 
up Cemetery Ridge in a northwesterly di- 
rection is the eastern boundary of the ceme- 
tery and at its foot unites with the Emmetts- 
burg road. This latter road runs toward 
Gettysburg in a north-northeast direction, 
following the crest of the ridge connecting the 
Seminary and Cemetery ridges crossing the 
Taneytown road at the north foot of East 
Cemetery Hill. From the crest of Round 
Top it is just one mile west to the Emmetts- 

burg road. A mile and a half south of its 
intersection with the Taneytown road is 
what is called the Millerstown road crossing 
it almost at right angles, coming up from 
Willonghby Run, passing over the southern 
end of Seminary Ridge, bending farther to 
the southward until it crosses Plum Run 
when it turns in a northeasterly direction 
passing the northern foot of Little Hound 
Top, and intersects the Taneytown road. At 
the point where this last described road 
crosses the Emmettsburg is a considerable 
rise of ground — a knoll, from which the 
ground descends easterly to Plum Run. 
Down this descent the rains and travel have 
worn the path of the road considerably low- 
er than the ground on either side. In this 
sunken road the One Hundred Forty-First 
was sheltered in the early part of the light 
on the second. In the northeast angle of 
the intersection of these roads is the John 
Went/, house just in the rear of which is the 
oat field — in the southeast angle is the peach 
orchard, east of the peach orchard, also on 
the south side of the cross-road and near to 
Plum Run is the wheat field. 

One-fourth of a mile on the Emmettsburg 
road north of this crossroad, is another 
which takes a southeast course to the Abra- 
ham Throstle house, then a northeast course 
to the Taneytown road. The house of 
George Wickert is on the north side of this 
road, midway between Throstle's and the 
Taneytown road. On the west side of the 
Emmettsburg road and between the two 
crossroads is the house of Joseph Sherfy. 

Keeping in mind this brief description of 
the topography of the field which is soon to 
be the theatre of the most terrible strife 
ever witnessed on this continent, we will re- 
turn to our Regiment which we left in biv- 
ouack at Emmettsburg, a town about a cou- 
ple of miles south of the Pennsylvania line, 
on the evening of Tuesday, the 30th of June. 

The forenoon of Wednesday, July 1st, is 
rainy, but early in the morning orders are 
received to be in readiness to march at a 



moment's notice. Soon after 1 i the bugle 

sounded and the men started off in the 
midst of a drenching rain, but alter passing 
Emmettsburg about a mile 'were ordered to 
go into camp, where they remained until 
five o'clock, in the meanwhile events of 
the most serious character were transpiring 
a few miles to the northward. 

General Buford with a cavalry force held 
the ridges west of Gettysburg on the morn- 
ing of July 1st. The enemy, not aware of 
his presence, sent forward Heth's division of 
Hill's corps to occupy the town. General 
Reynolds, who it will be remembered com- 
manded the left wing, consisting of the 
First, Third and Eleventh Corps, made im- 
mediate dispositions to assist Buford, Gen- 
eral Doubleday being placed in command of 
the First Corps. At nine o'clock in the 
morning the first gun was heard, Buford 
gave the signal for his skirmish line to open 
on the enemy, and the battle of Gettysburg 

The enemy had encountered the militia a 
number of times and easily dispersed them, 
and supposing only militia were now before 
them advanced carelessly and confidently 
without anticipating any serious resistance. 
Buford fell back slowly, and soon General 
Reynolds was aide to re-inforce him with a 
division of the First Corps which was near 
at hand. All this hot, murky, July day the 
battle continued, the advanced forces meet- 
ing by accident, the troops of both armies 
considerably scattered, the Federals more so 
than their adversaries, each brigade and di- 
vision as it came upon the Held endeavoring 
to strengthen that part of the line where it 
was weakest until about four o'clock in the 
afternoon, when, owing to the greater prox- 
imity of the Confederates and their more 
rapid concentration, the Union forces were 
overpowered after having performed prodi- 
gi s of valor, and were forced to retire from 
their first positions. 

Early in the day the gallant Reynolds 
fell, shot dead by a sharp-shooter, and for a 

time the command rested upon Doubleday. 
Howard, who had been ordered by Reynolds 
to bring forward the Eleventh Corps, arriv- 
ed upon the field about eleven o'clock and 
by seniority of rank took the command. As 
he advanced along the Taneytown road lie 
left one division, Steinwher's, at the ceme- 
tery, with orders to strengthen the position, 
as a convenient point upon which the Fed- 
erals could rally if driven from their posi- 
tions west of ( rettysburg. The result show- 
ed the wisdom of the precaution, for, when 
overborne by superior number and forced 
from every defensible position on Seminary 
Ridge, Howard brought back his bleeding 
and shattered columns to this stronghold 
which nature had provided, where Provi- 
dence had led them, and where the enemy 
hesitated to follow. 

As lias beep said the enemy at first 
thought they had only militia to contend 
with. The First Brigade, of Wadsworth's, 
(First) division of the First Corps, which 
was early in the fight, and was known as the 
"Iron Brigade," were, however, soon recog- 
nized by their assailants, who then knew 
that severe work was before them, and were 

heard to exclaim, "There are those d d 

black-hatted fellows again! 'Tain't no mi- 
litia. It's the Army of the Potomac." 

( General Meade, whose headquarters were 
at Taneytown, on being informed of the 
death of Reynolds, and that the enemy were 
near by in force and pressing heavily the 
troops already on the ground, sent forward 
General Hancock, then in command of the 
Second ( 'orps, though a junior officer in rank 
to Howard, to represent himself uponthe field, 
take command of the forces there, and if he 
deemed that or any place near by suitable 
to fight the impending battle, to send him 
word. Hancock arrived on the field at half- 
past three o'clock in the afternoon, but the 
fighting was substantially over. The troops 
being ordered to retire to Cemetery Hill 
were formed, the Eleventh Corps on the 
right of the pike facing northward, the First 



Corps on the left, except Wadsworth's divi- 
sion, which took post on Culp's Hill; the 
enemy had been too roughly handled to be 

eager to renew the attack of so strong a po- 
stion, and awaited the arrival of the re- 
mainder of the army. 

Upon examining the ground pretty care- 
fully Hancock was impressed with the de- 
fensible position of Cemetery Ridge, and so 
informed his chief, advising him to fight 
there. Before receiving his report Meade 
had however issued orders to his corps com- 
manders to concentrate in the neighborhood 
of Gettysburg. 

Howard had in the meanwhile sent most 
urgent requests to both Slocum, command- 
ing the Twelfth Corps, and Sickles for aid. 
Slocum, not knowing the plans of his chief, 
hesitated, but finally pushed forward and 
went into position on the rid^e. and Han- 
cock turned over the command to him and 
hastened to Taneytown to confer with Gen- 
eral Meade 

Howard's messenger reached General 
Sickles at Emmettsburg about two o'clock 
in the afternoon. Meade's orders, dated the 
day previous, had directed him to make pre- 
parations to occupy this town, but the in- 
structions of the morning had marked out a 
retrograde march toward Pipe ('reek, where 
at first Meade thought to make his defence. 
After sending these instructions he learned 
that a battle had commenced in which two 
corps might have to contend with the whole 
Confederate army. In such an emergency 
Sickles was not a man to hesitate, and he 
determined to hasten to the assistance of his 
comrades. The corps of which he had re- 
sumed the command only three days before, 
was only two divisions strong. It had been 
terribly shattered at Chancellorsville, and 
had not yet recuperated its strength. 
Thi' first division, commanded by General 
Birney, was composed of the brigades of ( ira- 
ham (First,) Ward's (Second,) and De Tro- 
briand's (Third.) The Second Division, 
Brigadier-General A. A. Humphrey's, was 

made up of General Carr's Brigade (First,) 
Colonel Brewster's (Second,) ami Colonel 

Binding's (Third.) There was also an artil- 
lery brigade under command of Captain 
George E. Randolph, composed of Battery 
E, First Rhode Island; B, First New -Jer- 
sey ; D, First New York ; K, Fourth United 
States, and Fourth New York. Graham's 
entire brigade did not have the strength of 
two full regiments. 

Leaving the brigades of I)e Trobriand and 
Burling at Emmettsburg to cover the outlet 
of the mountains, Sicklesset out with the bri- 
gades of Graham and Ward at the earliest 
possible moment, leaving orders to Hum- 
phreys, who was out reconnoitering, to hasten 
forward with his division. It was five o'clock 
in the afternoon while the men were eating 
their suppers before orders were received at 
Regimental Headquarters to make all speed 
and reach Gettysburg as rapidly as possible. 
The roads were muddy and slippery from 
the rain in the morning, and the marching 
hard, but they arrived on the field and went 
into position before dark. General Birney 
says, " my command reached Gettysburg at 
half-past five in the afternoon, marching 
with enthusiasm and alacrity over roads 
rendered almost impassable by the mud aim 1 
the passage over it of the First and Eleventh 
Corps through the rain." The One Hun- 
dred Forty-First reached the field at a later 
hour — the Major says, "went into camp 
about dark " 

As has been said, Hancock placed the 
First Corps on Jhe left of the Taneytown 
road with its right at the cemetery and its 
left occupying the crests of the ridge between 
the Taneytown and Emmettsburg roads, but 
nearer the former. The Second Corps was 
placed on the left or south of the First, and 
the Third to the left of the Second, with 
Humphreys' division on the right, just north 
of the road near George Weikert's house, 
and Birney's on the left, Graham's brigade 
on the right of the division bivouacked in 
column by regiments, on a knoll in a field 



south of George Weikert's house between 
the road and ;i piece of wood, the Sixty- 
Third in front followed toward the rear by 
the One Hundred Fifth, Fifty-Seventh, One 
Hundred Fourth, Sixty-Eighth, with the 
One Hundred Forty-Firsl in the rear. 
Ward's brigade went into bivouac to the 
left and a little in Ironl of < rraham. Hie 
Sixty-Third a little later in the evening was 
put on the picket line. 

During the evening General Geary with 
his division of the Twelfth Corps formed on 
the left of Birney extending the line south- 
ward as far as Little Round Top which he 
occupied with two regiments, the Fifth Ohio 
and One Hundred Forty-Seventh Pennsyl- 
vania. General Meade anticipating the at- 
tack would be made on the right of his line, as 
that was nearest the enemy, and anxious to 
strengthen it as much as possible, ordered 
Geary to abandon his position near Sickles 
and occupy ( 'nip's Hill and directed Sickles 
to take the ground Geary had left. But 
Geary had moved about five o'clock in the 
morning, and Sickles did not receive his or- 
ders until an hour later, when, being ignor- 
ant of the position Geary had held, and no 
officer being left to direct him, the order 
was imperfectly carried out. From the po- 
sition Sickles, occupied the Round Tops did 
not appear to he of such commanding im- 
portance as subsequent events proved them 
to be. Colonel Meade, the General's son, 
who had first brought Sickles his order, vis- 
ited his headquarters between eight and 
nine o'clock to ascertain if the order had 

been executed) sickles answered that he 
could not distinguish the position in which 
he was to replace Geary. Without, however, 
waiting for more explicit directions, he gave 
orders to extend his line toward the left, or 
south, he was facing the westward, and before 
nine o'clock Birney wasdeploying Graham's 
ami Ward's brigades toward Little Round 
Top. About this time the two brigades left 
at Emmettsburg came upon the ground, and 
De Trobriand was placed between Ward 

and Graham, while Burling was sent on to 
Humphreys. The line as it then stood, at 
about nine o'clock in (he morning, was near- 
ly a direct one from Cemetery Hill to Little 
Round Top, Ward forming the left, his left 
resting at the foot <>! the last mentioned hill, 
then De Trobriand on his right, and Gra- 
ham on the right of him. 

Colonel Madill says: — " During the fore- 
noon of July I'd, we moved into a held be- 
yond a small house [George Weikert's,] and 
to the left of a road leading from the wood- 
en house near which General Sickles estab- 
lished his headquarters, [General Sickles' 
headquarters were to the southwest of Abra- 
ham Throstle's house,] to the Emmettsburg 
pike, and here by command of General Gra- 
ham we then formed line of battle, the Fif- 
ty-Seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers on the 
right of the line, the Sixty-Eighth Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers on the left, and my Regi- 
ment in the center, the Cue Hundred Fifth 
and the One Hundred Fourteenth Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers supporting. The line was 
doubled on the center, Clark's battery in our 

General Birney says: — "On the morning 
of Jufy 2d, about nine o'clock, the Third 
Brigade, Colonel De Trobriand, relieved by 
orders of the commanding General, rejoined 
the division. At seven o'clock in the morn- 
ing, under orders from Major-General Sick- 
les. 1 relieved Geary's division and formed 
a line resting its left on the Sugar Loaf 
Mountain, \ 1 ittle Pound Top.] and the 
right in a direct line toward the cemetery, 
connecting on the right with the second di- 
vision o\' this corps. My picket line was in 
the Emmettsburg road, with sharpshooters 
some three hundred yards in advance." 

About this time occurred one of those 
se< tningly unavoidable mistakes which 
sometimes turn the entire results of a battle. 
Buford's cavalry had been stationed on the 
let! to clear the ground and observe any 
movement- of the enemy in that direction. 

Meade being incorrectly informed that 


1 19 

Gregg's division had joined him, Buford 
was sent away to allow his men and horsesa 
little needed rest and not until after one 

o'clock did Meade ascertain his mistake and 
that his left was stripped entirely of cavalry. 

On being apprised of the departure of the 
cavalry Sickles advanced his skirmish line 
to the Emmettsburg road, and Colonel Ber- 
dan was ordered to push a reconnoissance 
along the Millerstown road where he was 
soon met by the enemy's skirmishers sup- 
ported by Wilcox's brigade and Poague's 
battery of Hills corps. Berdan fell back to 
the Peach Orchard, but the presence of the 
enemy in his front had been unmasked. 
Repeatedly Sickles had sent to Meade rep- 
resenting the danger he believed himself to 
be in, asking for reinforcements or instruc- 
tions and finally, about eleven o'clock, receiv- 
ing neither, went himself to head-quarters to 
obtain more definite instructions and sug- 
gested the Emmettsburg road as a defensible 
line. Meade however declined to go him- 
self or send General Warren upon the 
ground as Sickles desired. In fact the com- 
mander was so thoroughly possessed with 
the idea that the main attack would be made 
upon his right, that he did not consider 
Sickles in any danger, and regarded his 
fears as groundless, and is credited with 
treating his request almost with rudeness. 
Permission was at length obtained for 
General Hunt, Chief of Artillery, to accom- 
pany him. After making some suggestions 
but giving no directions. Hunt returned to 
head-quarters to suggest to Meade the pro- 
priety of going in person upon the ground 
In the meanwhile Sickles determined to take 
the responsibility of advancing his line to 
the Emmettsburg road. About noon or 
little after,* Humphrey was directed to 
post his men along this line with his right 
resting upon the Cordori house, connecting 
with a thin line across the low ground be- 
tween the ridges with Hancock's right, 

♦Bachelder savs "about noon" — Compte <le Par- 
is "a little before two o'clock. '" 

Graham formed on the left of Humphrey, 
the right of the One Hundred fifth listed 
on the cross road to the Throstle bouse, the 
nfty-Seventh on its left, then the One Hun- 
dred Fourteenth, while the Sixty- Eighth 
formed the left of the line with its left rest- 
ing on the Millerstown road at the Wen tz 
house, the line being formed on the east 
side of the road and facing westward, Bat- 
tery JS, First Rhode Island Artillery (Ran- 
dolph's Battery) in front and the Sixty-Third 
Regiment deployed as skirmishers. The 
Second New Hampshire was taken from 
Burling's Brigade and placed in the angle 
of the Emmettsburg and Millerstown road, 
while the One Hundred forty- first was 
formed on the left of the New Hampshire 
Regiment at first in the oat field, back of the 
Wentz house, afterward in the sunken part 
oftheroad along the Peach Orchard, Battery 
B, of the first New Jersey Artillery 
(( lark's Battery ) was placed on the south 
bank of this road, the Third Main (I'.er- 
dau's sharp shooters, Ward Brigade) and the 
Third Michigan (De Trobriand's Brigade) 
were posted along the south line of the 
Peach Orchard as skirmishers, Birney's line 
was extended with De Trobriand's and 
Ward's Brigades westward to Plum Run, 
near the Devil's Den at the foot of fit tie 
Round Top. 

This position of Sickles has been criti- 
cized by some military writers, but it is easy 
to see the weakness of a position after it has 
been disclosed by contact with the enemy. 
General Doubleday says : "Sickles however 
denies that any position was ever marked 
out for him. lie was expected to prolong 
Hancock's line to the left, but did not do si 
for the following reasons: First, because 
the ground was low, and second, on account ol 
the commanding position of the Emmetts- 
burg road, which ran along a cross ridge 
oblique to the front of the line assigned him, 
and which afforded the enemy an excellent 
position for their artillery ; third, because the 
ground between the valley he was expected 
to occupy and the Emmettsburg road consti- 

I -I I 


luted n ii Ige vi i \ lunch broken unci 

I'll I I ul luck ; 1111(1 lives, which ;illi>nle<l excel 

lent cover for an enemy operating in his im- 
tnedinle IVonl 

'I'lir dii mi \ .1 1 1 1 :i •■ • ■ of the position i ■ first, ii 
prci entcd ■> salient angle ni tlie I 'each < >r 
chard allowing ii concentrated attack of both 
artillery inn! infantry on ;i single point which 
Wfi i In- Lev in i he vvliole line ; second, il 
nearly doubled the lenglb of his line which 
was ii thin one :ii bcsl and made doubly so 
by this extension ; third, if left unprotected 
the I.'ihiihI Tops which were the key to the 
IV, h i il [>osii ion ul ( nil \ burg, und fourth, 
il allowed the enemy to iiiuhh their forces 
out of sight along Willoughby linn behind 
the hill :ii Wat field's, (which is a prolonga- 
tion ul Seminary Ridge I 

I pon In'. M ni" the report of < leneral 1 1 unl 
mid while Sickles was making this disposi- 
i ion ni Ii is forces, < loneral Meade called a 
council of his Corps Commanders, Sickles 
asked lobe excused us he expected every 
moment the attack to begin, bill the order 
being made peremptory, placing Birney for 

I he lime in coi and of i he corps, he an 

swered the summons. On reaching head- 
quarters and before he had time todismount 
the cannonade on the left had begun, the 
council was dismissed and Meade followed 
Sickles i" the field. He was quick to discover 
the weakness of the position. Sickles' pro- 
posil ion to fall back, he deemed impracl icn 
ble in the face of the enemy after the attack 
bad been made, Ii was now half-past three 
or four o'clock and the second day's battle 
had begun. Meade promised to reinforce 
Sickles sufficiently to withstand the attack 
:ili c ul y commenced, 

I ' i " army v, as arranged, 1 iongstreet on 
In ii' hi. oppo lite our left, 1 1 ill in the cen 
tor, ami Kuril on lii right, Ml ibis hot 
July day Longstreet hud been getting bis 
men into position i>> break sickle.' line and 
turn i li<' Federal left, I .in le Round fop 
w.i occupied il stal ion, and i he < Ion- 

federate general obsen ing the part} wa\ iug 

their Hags is t truck with its commanding po- 
sition, a nd orders II I I o occupy it. Law's 

Brigade followed by Robertson's, <>f Mood's 
Division, are pushed forward across the Dev- 
il's Den in thai direction. At. the Batne 
lime lhe reinforcements promised Sickles 
are ordered forward and General Warren, 
the engineer on Meade's staff, is directed to 
give them their positions. Ascending- Lit- 
tle Round Top he discovers iis defenseless 
position :iinl iis absolute necessity to the 
safety of the Federal army, and :ii once Bets 
mil in hasten to il a sufficient force for its 
protection. The battle is now inning along 
the win le of Birney's front. Ward and De- 
Trobriand are making desperate efforts to 
maintain their ground against the fierce as 
s;nilis of Hood's columns. Warren is strain- 
ing every nerve I" secure Little Round Top. 
McLaw's Division h;is in the meantime 
been coining up the Millerstown road to- 
ward the angle at the Peach Orchard, Ker- 
shaw's Brigade advancing against Graham's 
lefi and Barksdale's Brigade against bis 
front. De Trobriand is compelled to fall 
back, and the Eighth South Carolina of 
Kershaw's Brigade rush forward i<> cap- 
ture Clark's and Ames' guns which appear 
in lie poorly supported and are verj annoy- 
ing ; bui jnsi as they are about to seize them 
the One Hundred Forty-First, which has 
been lying concealed in the sunken road 
springs up, and delivers a murderous fire in 
i heir faces. The Confederates, appalled by 
i lie fearful slaughter of ibis unexpected fire, 
halt, and the Regiment clear the fence in 
their front with a bound, the Third Maine 
on their right, and Third Michigan on their 
left, push back the foe to the farther side of 
the Peach Orchard and succeed I'm- a time 
in turning Kershaw's riglu Hank and pre- 
venting him from uniting with Hood whose 
men were fighting like demons about iho 
sides of Little Round Top and the Devil's 


The Colonel thus desciibes iliis move- 
ment: -" The battery then moved up the 



lull ami :i little i<> the lefl and took a posi- 
tion in tin- Peach Orchard near the Em- 
inettsburg pike. In the meanwhile our line 
advanced up the slope and deployed in the 
oal field, some fifteen rodt east from the 
pike and were ordered to lie down. At ihis 
point we sustained a severe fire from artil- 
lery for some time, tin' enemy having ;i 
good range. Ifter remaining in this po i 
tiun for some twenty minutes or more I re 
ceiyed an ordei from General Graham, 
through the :i<-t i n<_c assistant adjutant-general 
(Lieutenant Graves,) i<> move my regimenl 
out mikI place it in front of Clark's battery. 
This order was in a few minutes counter 
manded, and I formed my regimenl in the 
rear of that battery, and while supporting 
that battery the Second New Hampshire 
was ordered up to my support. They took 
position in my rear. Here the fire from the 
enemy's artillery was very severe, and we 
sustained a considerable loss in killed and 

The enemy had planted powerful batteries 
along the south pari of Seminary Ridge 
about Warfield's, which concentrated a tei 
rible fire upon this angle of Sickles' line. 
While here, and lying in the sunken road, 
Captain Horton was stunned from 1 1 > « - con 
(Mission oi an exploding shell, ami picked up 

for (lead. lie sunn recovered from the 

.shock, remained with his company and ren- 
dered efficient, service through all thai terri 
hie afternoon. The fire to which the Regi 

nieiil was In re exposed is spoken of a . feai 

fully severe. Sergeanl Owen says:— "The 
enemy had a battery planted to rake us in 
front and on the left Hank. We changed 

fronts and covered (laid down flat) just in 

i he rear of our battery ; and ! such a can- 
nonading as we here were iniiler lor an hour, 
their cursed iron hail Coming from two ways 

and seeming to center on usl Fortunately 

I here was ;t slight rise of ground in 0111 front 

and there were uol many killed hy the 


The ( 'olonel continues : " A I this lime it, 

was observed that tin- enemy was advancing 
in strong force from across and down the 

E tettsburg pike. My regiment, together 

with two others, (the Third Michigan, Colo 

ne| Pierce, and Third Maine, (olonel Lake- 
man,) was ordered to the Iron! of the I '' tell 

Orchard, the battery occupying that position 
having withdrawn and left the field. We 

advanced, the Third Maine on my right, 

and the Third Michigan on my left. The 
enemy was advancing in two columns, one 
column, (Kershaw's South Carolina Brigade, 
composed of six regiments,) crossing the 

pike beyond the stone harn, (now known as 

the Rose barn,) and advancing in two lines 
in the direct ton of the positi occupied by 

the Second and Third Brigades, which were 
to Our left and somewhat tO our rear. When 
they advanced hclow the si • ham liny 

endeavored to extend their lines to the left. 
It was at this time t bat my regimenl with 

the I wo others spoken of Were Oldcicil |,,r 

ward. Weengaged the flank oftheenemy and 
prevented him from extending his line I hia 

side of the small c reel. I an afllileii! ,,f I'llllll 

I .'on, on the southern slope of the Peach Or- 
chard and emptj ing into the mam stream at 
the i mIi of the I >evil's I >en,) that runs 

t hrOUgh I he field near the stone harn. At. 

ihi time the other column i Barksdale's 
Brigade, composed of the Thirteenth, Sev- 
enteenth, Eighteenth and Twenty-;First 

Mississippi Regiments,) had advanced up 
the pike and deployed, and was marching 

on the point we were occupying. The bat 
tery in position near the road and immedi- 
ately tO the left Of the log house withdrew. 

The Third Maine, after exchanging a few 

shots with the enemy at. this point, u ilh 

drew. < olonel I'n n > regiment, (Third 
Michigan,) withdrew about the same time 
or a few minutes before. I found a 
alone with ;i small regiment of ahoui one 

I died and eighty men." Twenty had 

been either killed or wounded by the i evere 

cannonade lo which the regimenl had hcen 
exposed and in the charge made upon the 

Eighth South < larolina Regiment. 



General Doubleday thus describes this 
part of the battle:*— "The batteries under 
Major McGilvery, which lined the cross road 
below the Peach Orchard, were very effec- 
tive, but were very much shattered. Ker- 
shaw captured them at one time, but was 
driven oil temporarily by a gallant charge 
of the One Hundred Forty-First Pennsyl- 
vania of Graham's Brigade, who retook the 
guns, which were then broughtoffby hand." 

The regiments connected with the One 
Hundred Forty-First in this charge were in 
the reconnoitering party under Berdan ear- 
lier in the day and had been preltj roughly 

Wofford, commanding the Fourth Bri- 
gade of McLaw's Division, swings about his 
five Georgia regiments and comes swooping 
down upon the little handful standing in 
this exposed angle of the Teach Orchard. 
The regiment which had been lacing the 
south was now brought to face west, the di- 
rection from which the enemy was coming, 
but his force was so overwhelming and the 
batteries which were endangered having 
been secured, it would have been madness to 
remain there longer, and the regiment was 
retired, marching by its righl flank to a point 
on the Emmettsburg road near the Wentz 
house, and in the rear of the Sixty-Eighth. 
Between them and the Emmettsburg road 
was a board fence which afforded a slight 
shelter., who had gone to the support of 
Hood in his attack°on|Birney's left, had been 
flung loose from bis grapple with the Fed- 
erals, and severely punished, now prepared 
to concentrate bis entire force upon ( irahatn, 
break through his weak line, and take the 
Union \\<\ws now struggling to retain their 
hold at llouek's Ridge and the Hound Tops 
in flank and rear. Out of the woods, where 
they had retired to re-form, his veterans 
came pouring down the road in a solid mass. 
Like the resistless waves of the sea. with a 
veil as though all pandemonium hail brok- 

., ellorsT Llle and Gettj sburg.p. 171. 

en loose, they rush upon the devoted band 
at the Went/, house. The One Hundred 
Fourteenth break and run. Before our men 
can get into position, every regiment in the 
brigade except the Sixty-Eighth has been 
retired, and that soon follows the others. 
None but that handful of one bundled and 
eighty men are left to resist the momentum 
of that terrible charge, but there they stand 
immovable as the granite rocks about them. 
It is a critical moment, but not a man flinch- 
ed. " Hadn't we better get out of this? is 
Captain Clark's anxious inquiry of Colonel 
Madill; " 1 have had no orders to get out," 
is the imperturbable reply ; and looking with 
pride upon the little band of heroes, exclaimed 
enthusiastically, "If 1 had my old regiment 
back again, 1 could whip all of them !" 
Hardly have the words been uttered before 
the shock comes. More than thirty fall at 
the first volley. In a short time twenty- 
seven lie dead upon the field and a hundred 
more are bleeding from severe wounds, 
among whom are the gallant Major and the 
leave Adjutant, w ho have been as cool through 
all this baptism of lire as if on dress parade. 
The Major had lost his horse early in the 

engagement and the Colonel undertakes to 
bear him oil' the field in his strong arms, but 
he is hit again and rendered helpless — the 
enemy press too closely, and he is placed in 
as comfortable a position as possible under 
an ash tree, among his slain and bleeding 
comrades. The color-bearers and all the 
color-guard are killed or severely wounded, 
and the Colonel on foot his horse had been 
shot under him, takes up the rent, shot- 
pierced flag* and hears it from the field fol- 
* J.J. Stockholm, of Co. 11, s:iys '■] picked up 
the siuie colors when the second man was shot. 
.lu-t as 1 raised it, while it was gathering in un- 
hands, a musket ball cut about half of the staff 
away, made a line of holes the length of the flag 
and went through my hat rim. When we tell 
back, Corporal Horry who was carrying the stars 
and stripes was shot down. 1 was just behind 
him ami oaught the flag with my left hand, when 

Colonel Madill, Who w as a tew roils in advance f 
me. saw me coming, waited anil took the United 

States flag and carried it off the field." Mr S 
w a- w ounded before. 



lowed by only twenty* ->l' liis brave men, all 
the resl having been killed, wounded or 
scattered. General Graham has received a 
severe wound in the shoulder, and the < 'on 
federates are so near that they capture him 
before he can be taken from the Held. 

The reinforcements promised Sickles have 
been turned to thedefence ofthe Bound Tops, 
the key of the Federal position, where for 
more than two hours the tide of battle lias 
Keen raging with indescribable fury and word 
is sent him to hold on to the lael extremity. 
lie endeavors to cheek liis retiring troops 
and restore his broken lines. Meeting Colo- 
nel Madill and his twenty men, with a be- 
seeching cry rather than a command — says: 
"Colonel! for God's sake, can't you hold 
on?" With tearful eyes and a choking voice 
1 be Colonel replies, " Where arc my men?" 
A moment after and the gallant Sickles is 
hit with a musket ball, his let; fractured and 
he is carried from the field, while the com 
mand of the corps devolves upon General 
Birney, and of the division on General 
Ward. ( 'olonel Tippen, of the Sixty-Eighth, 
is a short time in command of the brigade, 
but during the evening it is turned over to 
Colonel Madill, and Captain Horton takes 
command of the Regiment. 

Me Laws continued to sweep on until he 
had driven Humphreysf from his position 
on the Emmettsburg road to hold which had 
cost so many lives, and the new line was 
formed on Cemetery Ridge, near thai held 
at nine o'elock in the morning. Here the 
enemy was successfully resisted and com- 

Tliere were just Nineteen, I line eomni is.sii.ned 

officers, Capt. Horton and Lieutenants Brainerd 

mi'i Atkinson, who ,though wounded, remained 
with the Regiment, and sixteen nun. 

I Humphrey's division fell back before Gra- 
ham's Brigade retired, which held its ground un- 
til the new line was formed on Cemetery Ridge, 

behind which they retired, after Beven o'clock in 
the evening. Capt .). II. Surst, U.S. A.., says 
Lieut- VanAuken, of Co. A , who was temporary 
in command ofOo. i>. after tin- death ofthe Ser- 
geant, was one ofthe heroes of that lie id, and the 
only officer of the regiment unharmed who fol- 
lowed its Man l>uek to the I'otomae. 

pel led to retire without having loosened the 

federal army from its strong positions. So 
far as our Regiment was concerned the hat 
I le lor this day was over. It may lie re- 
marked here that General Barksdale whose 
Mississippi troops had fought so furiously 
this afternoon, was mortally wounded in the 
charge, captured and died within the Feder- 
al lines. 

In his report Colonel Madill thus refers 
to this pari ofthe battle: — " I continued to 
hold my position 1 iii the Peach < Irchard,) 
for a short time, when 1 withdrew from that 
position and took a position in rear of the 
Sixty-Eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers, who 
were engaged with the enemy in front of the 
barn near the brick house. When 1 took 
this position the Sixty-Eighth withdrew, the 
balance of the brigade Inning previously 

withdrawn. 1 was thus leli alone on (he 
hill occupied by the brigade in the after- 
noon. The enemy after the falling back i<( 
the Sixty- Eighth advanced to the barn. I 
engaged them at this point and held them, 
in check twenty minutes or upwards, but be- 
ing overpowered by the large numbers of 
the enemy I was compelled to retire which 
I reluctantly did, (but not until the enemy 
had been compelled lo lear down I In- board 
fence.) It was at this point that my regi- 
ment suffered so severely : twenty live of my 

men were killed here (I went v-seven were 

subsequently found) and five of my officers 

severely wounded, besides a large number of 

non-commissioned officers. Among the se- 
verely wounded and who have since died. 
were the color-bearers and all of the color- 

The account of affairs on this position of 
the held cannot be better concluded than by 
the following id' the ( lom pte de Paris :* " At 
last McLaws, seeing Semmes and Kershaw 

forced back in disorder by Caldwell, decides 

to attack the orchard. Sickles has given to 
Graham the effectives of two brigades to de- 
fend it, but it would require strong intrench- 

ments tO cover a position so destitute of nal- 

< Jivil \\hi m \ mei lea in, ''-'•'; 



ural shelter on its two flanks. The Confed- 
erates slacken the fire of their artillery; the 
infantry is in motion Barksdale advances 
against that one of these two flanks which 
lies opposite, to the west. Wofford, placed 
in the rear of his right, conies l>y a half 
wheel to attack the south front by assisting 
some of the battalions of Kershaw's Brigade 
which have not joined in his retreat. Gra- 
ham, wrapped in a vortex of fire, sees his 
troops rapidly diminish around him. It is 
in vain that a regular battery has come to 
relieve that of Ames at the point exposed— 
that Randolph has silenced some of the ene- 
mv ' s guns— that all the federal -nns are fir- 
ing grape shot into the ranks of the assail- 
ants, f( r the Confederate infantry penetrates 
into the orchard and takes possession of it; 
Graham is wounded antl taken prisoner; his 
soldiers share his fate or are dispersed along 
the slopes of the hillock, which they rapidly 
descend ; Sickles hastens from the Throstle 
house, hut a bullet breaks his leg, and he is 
obliged to transfer the command to Bimey. 
The batteries posted on the right along the 
Emmettsburg road abandon positions which 
it is no longer possible to defend. Those on 
the left continue to lire almost at short range, 
causing the guns after each lire to he drawn 
hack a few paces. But nothing can prevent 
the defeat of Birney's Division, which out of 
scarcelv live thousand men, has lost two 
thousand. Barksdale followed closely by 
several batteries, rushes into the open breach 
between Humphrey's left and Barnes' right, 
and, leaving to the troops that are to sup- 
port him the task of Striking these divisions 
in the rear, he still pushes forward. The 
grape-shot thins the ranks of his soldiers, 
hut his example sustains their courage. < m 
his right, VVoflbrd, following his success, 
bears to eastward in order to take in Hank 
the enemy's regiments that are holding Ker- 
shaw in check. It requires less than an 
hour lor the Confederates to achieve this 
success, which changes the aspect of the 

General Sykes with his Fifth Corps, who 
had -one to the assistance of Sickles, formed 
a new line from Hoiick's Ridge which is on 
the west Hank of Little Hound Top, in the 
direction of Cemetery Hill, and behind this 
Bimey brought the shattered fragments of 
his corps. Night put an end to the conflicf 
and the wearied men were allowed a few 
hours rest. It was a sorrowful night for all. 
More than half of the number which Colo- 
nel Madill took upon the field were left 
there either slain or badly wounded and in 
the hands of a cruel enemy, lor it may here 
be remarked that in a number of instances 
were they so infuriated with their repulse 
that they shot in cold blood the wounded 
prisoners that fell into their hands. 

The twenty minutes during which our 
mere handful of a regiment held both Wof- 
ford's and Barksdale' i Brigades at hay were 
vital to Sykes who was thus enabled to es- 
tahlish his line with sufficient firmness to 
withstand the lieroe assaults of McLaws' 
maddened troops, Again that devoted band 
iiad stood in the " imminent deadly breach." 
and through practically for a time swept out 
of existence, its gallant survivors have the 
proud satisfaction of knowing that they ma- 
terially if not absolutely saved for us the 
day at ( rettysburg. 

The moon nearly at its full was shining 
out of a clear sky, making that calm July 
night beautiful as Eden ; as if it would con- 
ceal the very hell that human passions had 
made the Ileitis upon which it shone. The 
Union commander took advantage of the 
moonlight to rectify and strengthen his line. 
The fifth Corps takes the lirst line with its 
left extended so as to occupy the steep de- 
clivities of the Great Bound Top and thus 
guard against any Hank movement on the 
part of the enemy, with Caldwell's (First) 
Division of Hancock's Corps on his right. 
"The Third, which is the most disabled 
corps, is kept in reserve- it officers stop the 
progress of t lie stragglers, bringing together 
isolated commands and picking up those 


i 25 

that have strayed from the ranks." Each 
man takes his place in silence, for not yet 
have the men been able to forget their suf- 
ferings in the joy of victory, nor that the 
coming •day may be even more full of danger 
and suffering than the one just closed. " I 
wish 1 were already, dead," said the gallant 
Pirney. whispering to one of his lieutenants, 
at the sight of the small number of determin- 
ed soldiers who surrounded him. 

Before morning a few men of the One 

Hundred Forty-First found .'heir regiment 
and rations were issued to thirty. Sergeant 
Lobb, who was on duty at Brigade Head- 
quarters, and was with the wagons then 
parked on the Baltimore pike near Rock 
Creek, says: "Occasionally a squad of pris- 
oners were brought to the rear, hut as for 
straggling flunkies 1 did not see one. After 
night (of the 2d) 1 considered it my duty to 
report to the front with supplies, it being 
moonlight so that I could see the Hags. I 
found the Third Corps flag, tlm the First 
Division flag, and soon found the First Bri- 
gade Hag. I passed and re-passed it, but 
could see neither General Graham nor his 
staff officers. After awhile 1 found the bu- 
gler, he said General Graham is taken pris- 
oner, most of his stat)' officers are wounded, 
and Colonel Madill is in command of the 
brigade. I think the supplies brought us 
were very acceptable both for man and beast 
The horses had been without food since the 
morning of the. 2d, and the boys had shared 
their hard tack with their officers." 

The position of the Third Corps on the 
morning of the 3d was a few rods to the east 
of its position on the morning of the 2d, 
Humphrey's Division on the right occupied 
a wooded knoll just back (east) of George 
Weikert's house, his right resting on the 
road; Madill's Brigade occupying a wooded 
ridge toward Little Round Top on Hum- 
phrey's left, Ward's, now in command of 
Berdan on his left, and De Trobriand's on the 
extreme left of the corps, each brigade lying in 
column by regiments, the One Hundred For- 

ty-First as usual forming the rear lineofthe 

On the afternoon of Friday, -July 3d, oc- 
curred that terrible charge of the Confeder- 
ates, mainly Pickett's Division, on the left 
center of the Federal luns, occupied by 
Hancock's Corps, a (barge which decided 
the issue of the three days' lighting. As 
the enemy occupied positions in full view of 
the Union army, his movements wer< plain- 
ly seen and their object readily understood. 
The whole front which the enemy seems to 
be menacing is considerably strengthened. 
Stannard's Vermont Brigade of Doubleday's 
Division is formed in the lirst line in col- 
umn by regiments deployed, behind il the 
rest of the division is drawn up in the same 
order. In making hi.s lines more compact 
Doubleday has contracted his front about 
two hundred and fifty yards, and the Third 
Corps now organized under General Birney 

is ordered to lilt up the gap. This makes it 
necessary for him to move about a hail' of a 
mile to the northward, where he goes into 
position in the rear of Slannard. Birney's 
Division (now Ward's) on the right, and 
Humphrey's on the left. Berdan's Brigade, 
(formerly Ward's) is next on the left of 
Doubleday, and just behind the Sixteenth 
Vermont Regiment, Madill's (formerly Gra- 
ham's) Brigade on Berdan's left, in column 
by regiments, the One Hundred Fifth in 
front and just behind a post and rail fence, 
then towards the rear, the Fifty-Seventh, 
One Hundred Fourteenth, Sixty-Third, Six- 
ty-Eighth, and the One Hundred Forty- 
First. Carr's Brigade of Humphrey's Divi- 
sion was in the rear of Madill's, his left rest- 
ing at the •). Hammerbach house and his 
rear extending to the Taneytown road, De 
Trobriand's Brigade was on the left of Ma- 
dill's with the balance of Humphrey's Divi- 
sion on the left of him. In this position 
Madill's Brigade was supporting a battery 
which was engaged against Pickett's assault- 
ing column, and were the witnesses of that 
attack which challenged the admiration 
alike of friend and foe for its intrepid dar- 

1 26 


tag and imperturbable coolness under ihe 
most terrific lire to wbieli men wen 
exposed. The < me Hundred Forty-Flint, 
though under lire during tins terrible light, 
was not iietively engaged, and mel with no 
casualties. General Doubleday thus de- 
scribes the linal blow : :: " When Pickett 
the greal leader— looked around the top of 
the ridge lie had temporarily gained, lie 
saw it was impossible to hold the position. 
Troops were rushing in on him from nil 
Riots. The Second Corps was engaged in a 
furious assault on his front. Ilis men were 
fighting with clubbed muskets, ami even 
banner staves were intertwined in a tierce 
and hopeless struggle, My division (Third) 
i>i the Firs' Corps, were on his right Hank 
giving deadly blows there, and the Third 
Corps were closing up to attack. Pettigrew's 
forces on his left had given way, and a 
heavy skirmish line began to accumulate on 
thai Hank, lie saw his men surrendering in 
masses, and with a heart full of anguish, or- 
dered a retreat. ' 

In his report the Colonel says: "The 
movements of the Regiment on the third 
were unimportant and do not require a de- 
tailed statement. The brigade was gotten 
together in the morning of the third, and 
during the greater part of the day occupied 
a position in the second line. In the after- 
noon we went to the right near the ceme- 
tery, and mv Regiment reported in General 
Webb and here supported a battery." 

General Birney reports :— " During July 
3d ihis division under the command of 
General Ward, was held in reserve, and 
during the heavy artillery-fire of that day 
was brought up under it to support General 
Newton's line. The enemy were however 
repulsed without its assistance." 

Night put an end to the conflict, the bai- 
lie of lettysburg was ended, and victory 
perched on the Union banners. However it 
was not certain in the Federal camp what 
the next movement of the enemy would be. 

ncellarsville and Gettysburg, p. IU6. 

As soon as the dusk of evening settled down 
upon the field of carnage the officers set 
about re-forming their regiments, rectifying 

their positions and collecting their wounded. 

" Birney about nine o'clock, has made a portion 
of Ilis soldiers who are following Ihe tracks of 
Wheaton's troops advance toward the battle- 
field, which is still covered with their dead 
comrades. The night is cloudless, the lull 
moon cists iis quiet light upon the motion- 
less forms of those who are already enjoying 
the sleep of eternity, or who, too weak to 
complain, are awaiting death as a deliver- 
ance. But in spite of the horror of such a 
spectacle ibis calm night is chiefly employed 
by the exhausted combatants in resting safe- 
ly. Every one is waiting for daylight to see 
what the enemy will do." 

Madill's Brigade formed a part of the 
troops detailed for this danserous business. 
Quietly they pass over the hillside that but 
a few hours before bad rocked in the storm 
of battle. Now in I he shadow, one stumbles 
over a dead comrade and slarls back with a. 

shudder. Now one man stoops down to give 

a wounded man a drink of water from his 
.ante* 11, but t here is no time to wait. Soon 
with stretcher and ambulance parties will be 
scouring the field to pick up every wounded 
man, friend and foe alike, to give him a 
brothel's care and a soldier's honor. The 
picket line was on the marshy ground be- 
tween the two ridges drained by the left 
branch of Plum Hun, extending from front 
of the Sherfy house to the Peach Orchard, 
uear the ground fought over in the after- 
noon, and in close contact with the enemy. 
Lieutenant Vtkinson was in command of 
the One Hundred Forty-First on the picket 
The Colonel says : — "In the evening we 

went with the balance of ihe division to ihe 
front and picketed a part of the line. We 
were withdrawn on the morning of the 

The Regiment returned to its place in the 
line between the George Weikert house and 



the Little Round Top, where il remained 
under arms all day, and until it joined in 
the forward movement in pursuit of Lee. 

Ii is no pari of the plan of 'his history to 
attempt any general criticism of the military 
operations in which the Regiment had a 
share. Ii is the easiest thing to bee a mis- 
take after it has been committed, and to 
spec date as to what other combinations 
would have been more successful after a bat- 
tie has been fought. This, however, may be 
said of ihe battle of < Jettysburg, that the 

slieeessof Ihe Ihion arms was line ver\ 

much more to the intelligent patriotism and 
invincible courage and determination of the 
rank and file, than upon the plans or efforts 
of Generals The men felt they were on the 
sacred soil of the dear "I I Commonwealth, 
and there they would conquer or die. They 
were fighting for home and fireside, and 

here ;it whatever cos!, the inv.-idei' must be 

beaten back. " We have come tostay," Baid 

the nun aS they wheeled into line of battle, 

— meaning they would not retreat— and true 
enough many of them did stay, and enriched 
the \'wt' soil of the old < lommonwealth with 
their blood. "This is old Pennsylvania, 
hovs 1" said the wearied soldiers of the Penn 
sylvania Brigade as they flung themselves 
down upon the ground <>n the night <>f July 
1st," :md we must stand by her," and most 

nobly was thai pledge redeemed— they dill 

stand by her through all that death-dealing 
storm of Thursday afternoon, and their 

hones will rest in hallowed soil until the an 

fjel of the resurrection shall awake the dead. 

Before detailing the events which imme 

diately follow in the pursuit of the flying 

foe, we will slop ;i moment to recount in de- 
tail the incidents and casualties which befel 
ihe I {.i-iii ni'-nt. The casualties were noticea- 
bly great. General Birney in his report 
says: — " Several of my regiments hist more 

than fifty per cent, of their number, and al- 
most every officer engaged, One Regiment, 
One Hundred Forty-First, Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, Colonel Madill, lost out of two 

hundred taken into the fight, oiK' hundred 

and foi I \ nine nun and officers filled and 

"'Ihe First Brigade, composed of Penn- 
sylvania regiments, commanded by Briga 
dier 1 leneral < K. < rraham, tried with his 
skeleton ranks to even outdo Chancellors- 
ville." Mier naming the regiments which 
con posed the brigade with their command 
ing officers adds " they have made ii reputa 

talion equal to any in this army. < Jeuei al 

Graham showed the same coolness, daring 

anil endurance under the terrible fire that 

distinguished him at Chancellorsville." 
In his report the Col< nel says: -" I took 

two hundred men into the fight with nine 

officers. < >ui of that number I lost one hun- 
dred and folly live men and six commission- 
ed officers, the largest proportionate loss in 

the corps in that fight, and I think in the 
army, in this or any oilier battle." 

" Of the conduct of my officers and men I 

am happy tO Say that liny are all entitled 

io greal credit. Not one of my men failed 
me under the trying circumstances, ami to 
my officers I am under greal obligations for 

their coolness and efficiency under Ihe cir- 

In a letter accompanying a list of Ihe kill- 
ed anil wounded occur Ihe following para- 
graphs : — 

"Our brigade was, as usual, scut to the 
front to meel and check the advance of the 

" The loss of my regiment was terrible. 

The morning of (he second I ordered :t roll- 
call and found llier • were two hundred and 
o men with cjms lor duty — at three 
o'clock in Ihe afternoon it was found six- 
teen of them had disappeared 

"The loss is proportionately greater than 
ai ( hancellorsville, for there we fought a 
part, of the time under cover of a wood while 

here we were in an open field and expo ed 

to every shot of the enemy, 
"The list shows that twenty-five men were 

l.ilhd. I counted twenty-seven in n of the 
Regiment lying mar each other killed, hut 
they had heen so long exposed to tic 


ONE 11 ( INDR ED F( ) A' 7 ) - FIRS 1 ' 

that ii was impossible to recognize bul twen- 
ty-five oi' theru, everything by which their 
names could be ascertained baving been 
taken from them by the enemy. They were 
known to belong to the Regiment by the 
numbers on their cups, their names appear 
among the missing. 

"My belief is that must of those reported 
missing are either wounded in the hands of 
the enemy or killed and unrecognized, as 1 
think few or no prisoners were taken of the 
Regiment. Those killed were buried on the 
field, it being impossible to ve them. 

"The behavior ol the officers and men on 
that occasion requires no endorsement at my 
hands. By their coolness and determined 
courage they have excited the surprise and 
admiration of their fellow-soldiers of the 
brigade and division. 

•' The history of this Regiment is a short, 
sad, eventful, yet a glorious one. No regi- 
ment in the army lias done so much and 
sacrificed so much as this. In a less period 
than ten months it lias lost nearly seven 
hundred men, who have sacrificed their 
lives, shed their blood and ruined their 
health in the service of their country. 

" ( 'aptain Horton, though severely stunned 

by the concussion of a shell, remained on 
the field with his company. 1 am greatly 
indebted to him for his services. He was 
the only (aptain left with the Regiment. 
Lieutenant Atkinson, of < 'oiupany ( i, though 
wounded, remained with the Regiment. In 
fact all of the officers of the Regiment did 

l heinselves credit." 

Reference has been made to the brutality 
shown by some of the Confederates to the 
wounded who fell within their lines. Ser- 
geant J. \. Bosworth, of Company B, was 

wounded in the right leg below the knee, he 
says: "I went about thirty rods after 1 
was hit, got OV( r a sloiie wall and laid down 

(here. In a short time the enemy came over 

the wall where 1 lay. 1 asked one of them 

for a drink of water ; he gave it to me, but 
while I was drinking he was loading his 
gun. lie said he haled our men, then went 

oil about eight rods and shot at me, but 1 
happened to lav down so he did not hit me. 
lie was [he only one that, saw me. The 
bushes were so thick 1 kept out of their 
sight." Several instances similar to this are 
related where our men were shot at in cold 

An examination of the losses of tin- sever- 
al companies will show that the three on 
the left of the Regiment, II, <1 and K, suffer- 
ed the most, as they were in closest contact 
with the enemy when retiring from the 
Peach Orchard. Company li had twenty- 
eight men when they went into the engage- 
ment, and lost twenty-three, Charles Mc- 
( lumber alone following the colors from the 
field. Company G went into action with 
one commissioned officer ami twenty eight 
guns, its losses were twenty enlisted men 
and its Lieutenant wounded. Joel I.. Moly 

neux, of Company K, who was private or- 
derly to the Adjutant-General on General 
Graham's staff, says: — '" About midnight of 
July 2d, I came to our Regiment as they 
lay upon the field, Colonel Horton says, '1 
have only sixteen men left.' Upon inquir- 
ing lor Company K, Charley Webster raised 
upon his elbow and said ' here is Company 
K,' and sure enough, he was the only one- 
left of it. lie, poor fellow, was afterwards 
mortally wounded in one ol' the battles of 
the Wilderness." In Company 1 only lour 
escaped, Orderly Sergeant John S. Prink, 
Alfred Albee, George L. Forbes and Lemuel 
Robinson. Sergeant Owen came up that 

The loss of Major Spalding was deeply 
felt and deeply mourned by the Regiment, 
as it was indeed by the entire community 
where he had formerly resided. Modest 

and unassuming, it required some acquaint- 
ance with the man to discover those sterling 
traits of character which endeared him to 

bis friends, and commanded the respect and 
confidence of all with whom he was brought 

in contact. 

Israel Putnam Spaulding was born in 

Major i. P. SPALDING 


I !Q 

Alliens. Pa., January 22, lv. r >, where his seen how in more tin le instance he whs 

father, Colonel Robert Spaulding, was a placed in very responsible and delicate no 
prominent Parmer, In 1840 his father pur sitions and how well he mel them, \i 

chased the propert) in Wyox, known as the 
I u l >ai Btow estate, or '' Eenoelor Caslli 
and removed his family there in April of 
thai year, Athena al thai lime a Hording 

1 1' 'I i ii I sburg, though lei s i ban four 
monl lis in the Hervice, the pick el line w as 
placed in liis cnre and he \\ as inl i usted to 
b the lai i i wo hundred from i lie left Held 

the best educational advantage! to bei ecured in the face of the enemy, \ i < hancellorsville 

in Northern Pennsylvania, Putnam spenl 

there the « inter of I 8 1 1 I", acqi - a good 

English mid business education, after which 
In- returned home and assisted bis fat her in 
the management of the farm, in t!.<- store, 
and in i he manufacture and sale of lumber, 
becoming :i partner in the bin ine i in 18 10, 
mi reaching his majority, in which he con 

he received the i pecial <• mendal ion ol his 

superior officers for his coolni land bravery. 

1 m i he long march from the Rappalu ick 

0. ( Gettysburg, peculiarly trying to I he men 
"ii account of the great heal and cloud ol 
(limi, he acquitted himi elf so well a ■ i he 

commanding offici t ol hii Reg ni that b«' 

n ceived i he pen onal I ban! s of ( ieneral Gra 

tinued until his father's death in 1853. He 1 ham ; while at Gettysburg his conduct was 
married Ruth E. Cooley, ol Vlyei burg, De equally gallant and heroic, where he fell 
cember 2, 1852, and continued to live upon while fearlessly exposinu himself to ive his 
the homestead engaged in farming until his "" " 

enlistment in 1802. Extracts from bis letteri , to which ili<- au- 

thor bus kindly had free hi c< i s, ha ve rre 
quenl I \ enriclu 'I the foregoing pagei , and 
will be great ly mil ed by both \\ ritei and 

,\i the breaking out of the Rebellion his 
I'm i impul e wa i to respond personally to 
the. first call of his country for volunteer 
Inii the ties and responi ibiliiies of home, the 
demands of business fora time eemed to for 
lii<T the thought. The Government had 
been itruggling against its armed foes for .■< 
year, the first gush of enthusiasm was ovi r, 
:i fresh call for help had been made, when lay 
in^ aside every personal consideration he 
determined to go to his country's aid, and 
commenci >l enli ting the company which a< 
companied him, As has been related, at 
the formation of the Regiment be was chosen 
Major. 1 te entered upon i he work ol bii 
new vocation with great earnestness, detei 
mined to allow no personal con ideration 
whatever for one moment to interfere with 
in duly to his Regiment or his counti y. 
intelligent, patient, com cienl ioui he oon 

reader in l lie subsequent history oi his Reg 
i im ni . I ii I In: <• lei ten , whi If ex pre ing 
the most profound re ipecl and con (id i nee i" 
ward his wife and love for l>i childn n and 
relativi s, is also the a urance thai com< 
what may, he shall never fail in his dut y to 
the poi ition he occupied, I n the lasl lettei" 
written before the battle and just on its < ve, 
he ays i " The enemy are now in my nal ive 
Slate and I i hall not fail in my dutj to the 

Hi' w ' follow nor dii grace the unifi I 


A has been related he « as i w ice « i mnd 
(•ii, one ball sii iking hi Ihig h, and u hi 
u as I" ing helped from the Held another 
broke bii inkle and be was left in the hands 
of i be enemy, A II night be lay upon thi 
!i:ii tlefield, amid the dead, the 

mastered the intricacies of military evolu the wounded, entirely helph from his 

tions and became familiar with military ' vv ds which were indescribably painful. 

movements. His men soon learned to re The next day Colonel Humphreys, of the 

spect and confide in him, and his superior Eighteenth Mi i ippi Regiment, who held 

officers to trust and rely upon him. the ground, ordered him carried to Lli 

[n the course of this narrative i l has been where a surgeon dressed hi woui 



ii pnil of wuter to keep tlie bandages wet. 

The soldiers of the nu inv treated liini very 
kindly. On Sunday the ankle wiih found so 
badly shattered thai the leg was amputated 
below the knee. V week was spent in lone- 
mil pain. The enemy had been driv- 
en back and friends were ministering to his 
wants, but they were strangers. On the loth 
he writes in his diary, " 1 was gratified to-day 
more than 1 can express, by the sight of a fa 
miliar face, the first I have seen since I was 

hurt, ll was .lames M rKarlanc. (iod only 
knows how much trood ii did me to sec him. 

lie was looking for me and brought several 

lit lie things that were very acceptable. I 

shall not soon forget his kindness." 

The next day h is brol her I lanson, I »i . 

I, add and others from about Towanda reach- 
ed [he field, ami he was lovingly and faith- 
fully ministered to until his death, which 
occurred Tuesday, July 28th, in the thirty- 
ninth year of his age, leaving a wile, with 
two sons and a daughter 

llis remains were brought to WvsOX, 

where, on Sunday, August I'd, a large em 
course of citizens assembled with sympathiz- 
ing hearts while the lasl riles w ere soleiuni,' 

ed, and there, in the churchyard cemetery, 

his soldier e ades entombed thai form 

which in life had stood with ihem in the 
Held of battle strife. 

" There aro paleness and weeping and sijjhs be- 
Kor "in faith is faint and our tours will How, 
Hiii ili.- harps of I Ieu\ en arc rin^in 

( . lad i idioms .vim' to v.\ ii i urn , 
Ami hymns of joy are sinjj i i 
\\ Idle old friends press in meet him " 

Joseph < :. I'ell, Sergeanl Major of the 

uenl, was also fatally wounded here. 

lie was a son of Samuel 1*. fell, of Asylum, 

w hero he was horn in L 842, and where his 
early manhood was spent, some ol the lime 
as a teacher, and ai others in manual labor. 
On the breaking out of the war he enlisted 
in the sixth Pennsylvania Reserves, from 
which he was discharged on Surgeon's cer- 
tificate of disability. Recovering Ins health 

he re enlisted with the Asylum hoys in 
Company < ', of the One Hundred forty- 
first. ( >n the organization of the Regiment, 
his knowledge derived from former military 
service, together with his executive ability 
and rapid ami correct penmanship, secured 
him the appointment of Sergeant Major. 
I le was not only a competent ami efficient 
officer, hut greatly distinguished himself by 

his bravery on every Held ill which his reg- 
imeiil was engaged. IK' was one of the re- 
cipients of the " Kearney (ross," for gallant 
conduct af Chancellorsville. In his report 
of ( rettysburg the * iolonel saw, " I would es- 
pecially call attention to Sergeat-Major Jo- 
seph Q. fell for his good conduct on the 
field. The pari he look in fearlessly expos- 
ing himself during ihe whole fight, and es- 
pecially during the latter part of it, deserves 
to be particularly noticed." When he was 
wounded, our troops were so hard pressed 
that he could not be removed from the field 

ibis right thigh was broken) and he fell 
into the hands of the enemy, was left on the 

ground exposed not . illy |o [he enemy's lire, 

hui 10 our own when the forceS'Of Longstreet 

were driven hack. lie was then taken to a 
hospital, but died on the allcruoon of July 

17th, and was buried in the National Ceme- 
tery, Section P>, grave 16. 

Company A being on the extreme right 
of the Regiment, escaped with two killed 
and nine wounded. Of these one was Peter 
Yeitcr, whose father, Henry, was living in 
Terry township, where Peter enlisted under 
Lieutenant llorton. lie was a faithful sol- 
dier, an unmarried man, and about twenty- 
five years of age at his death, lie was 
among those mentioned by Colonel Madill 
who were beyond recognition when found by 
his comrades after the battle. 

Daniel Baumgartner, a brother of George, 
ofCompany K, who was killed at Chancel- 
lorsville, had since a lad been in the employ 
of J. T. Stalford, Esq., of Wyal using, where 
he enlisted with Captain Jackson, lie was 
a bravo soldier ami tell at his post severeU 
wounded in the thigh. \flcr the battle ho 


i \\ 

was removed ton hospital where lie lived 
until iln afternoon of Thursday, July 28d, 
dying at the age of twenty five years. He 
was buried in the National Cemetery, Sec 
tion < : , grave 24. 

Company l: lust three killed and four 
died of wounds. vVilliam EI. Clark and his 
brother Dennis were shoemakers in Towanda 
when they enlisted. William was an un- 
■ i ■ :i 1 1 1 » 1 1 man about twenty one j ea rs 01 age 
He was mi the lefl of his company and in 
lanilv killed when falling back from the 
Peach Orchard, and his brother was wound 

Amaoa Wood, a descendant of Lieutenant 
.lames Wells, slain in the Wyoming ma u 

ere, anil smi of Umer W I, of Pike tOWIl 

ship, near LeRaysville, a single man, and 
at his <leai h aboul twenty i hree j eai ol iige, 
was instantly killed by a minie ball striking 
his head. He was Color Corporal of the 
Ri - iment. 

Isaac R, Potter was living ai a farm hand 
with a Mr. While, near Stevensville, al the 
time of his enlistment. I te had distinguish- 
ed himself at < ihancellor ville and recei . ed 
i In- Badge "i I [onor, I [e was unmarried 
ami twenty nine years of age 

I ioren Bennetl was wounded in tin li a 
above the knee, the limb was amputated, but 
he died at the Third < 'orpi hospital on the 
9th ol. Inly, leaving a widow and six chil- 
dren to mourn his loss. He enlisted from 

Kihiel < '. Wood, a cousin of Amasn and 
sun of A.aron Wood, wa living near LeRays 
ville, at i he time <>i his enlistment. He was 
unmarried and about twenty twoyeai ol age 
I le was shot in the right leg below the km e 
which shattered the bone, making amputation 
necessary from the effect of which he died at 
Third < 'orp ho pital the 131 li of .1 uly. 

I >< -ii ii i- on ' Iregory wa a blacksmith by 
trade living in LeRaysville, where he lefl a 
family, consisting of wife and one child. He 
was shot through the hand and died in ho 
pital from the effects of the wound July 18th. 

1 1 is remain', were brought to LeRaysville 
for interment. 
John S hulk, enlisted wit h Captain I >a 

vie from Warren < lepter, I [e was w led 

in the lefl leg, suffered amputation and died 
in hospital mi Monday, J uly 1 7 1 h, Me left 
a wife to mourn Ins untimely end. lie was 
a very wort hy man, in civil life meeting its 
duties manfully, and as a soldier, pal ienl 

faithful and COlirageOUS. He died al llie 

age of about thii ty yea rs. 

I n I bmpany I ' t hree were slain outright, 
and one d ied I n im i he effects of w < mnds. 
Nicholas Wanck enli led from Monroeton 

wil li < 'aplain Swai I HI a pri \ ale, l.iil k elu n 

ary I, 18(53, was promoted < lorporal foi mi i 
itorious conduct. He was brother of B. k. 
Wanck in the same company, who wh al u 

Mounded in this engage it and of M rs, A . 

M, • oolbaugh of Liberty < !oi nee, I le was 

nearly I wenly years of age al Ids death. 

John I ""in parger was born and in ed 
ai Liberty I iorners whence he enlisted wii h 
< laptain Swart. His < laptain said of him, 
a quiet oldiei , bul al •■ a prompt for dut y, 
and always in his place." He wa eighteen 
year of age at his death. 

A . R. '. loolbaugh, on of William < !ool 
baugh, 8r., of Macedonia, and brother of J, 
I! ami William Coolbaugh, of Wilkei Barn?, 
u a among ike In i < ■ i > l ■ tin the Cotiipan 
" To say he wai a l>i ave and faithful soldier, 

would be giv I les praii e than he was 

entitled." I le wu al his dmith little pti i 
thirty one years of age, leaving a w ife and 
three daughters, one of whom is Mrs, W. S. 
Rickey, of Pon anda, Pa. 

William L. State , on of Captain 1 1 I 
Man- , i, iding in \ . luui in 1803, bul now 

in Wyalusing tow n hip, wa a ided in the 

i ight ii in id en to ho pital, and died from 
the wound A ugui i I 1 1 li. "A noble bo ha 
aerilieed iii life to i ve that ol hi com 
A pleasant companion a faithful soldier, and 
a 1 1 ui man I [e died in ho pital al Phila 
delphia al i he age ol i ighteen y ai 

In ( lompany l», I 'avid < Palmer, the 



Sergeant in command,* w;is killed early in 
the engagement, while the Regiment was ly- 
ing in the Millerstown road in support of the 
battery. The Adjutant thus relates the inci- 
denl : " Sergeant Palmer being in command 
of Company I >, had stated that he proposed 
to win his 'shoulder straps' in that fighl 
and <luring the shelling had refused to re- 
main covered, hut would raise up and take 
observations, lie was killed by a shell, and 
one of his men immediately called out, 'Ser- 
geant Palmer has got his shoulder straps. ' 
Gilbert Corwin who left the hospital at 
Frederick, at once took Palmer's gun and 
equipments saying as he took them, " I told 
the Colonel 1 would get a nun" Palmer 
was from Pike township and enlisted by Col- 
onel Watkins, but was transferred to Com- 
pany I). lie was an unmarried man, and 
not yet thirty years of age. 

Hiram Barnes, a young man of delicate 
physique, son of Nelson Barnes, of South 
Hill, was about nineteen years of age at the 
time of his enlistment. ( hi the march in 
the autumn of 1862, from Leesburg to Fal- 
mouth, he i;a\e out when the Regiment 
reached Warrenton and was sent to hospital 
in Washington, and only rejoined the Com- 
pany on the march to Gettysburg, and was 
killed in the engagement. 

Morton Berry was enlisted by Lieutenant 

Ryon from Burlington, and was Color Cor- 
poral. "He was a large, robust man, and 
as good a soldier as ever shouldered a mus- 
ket, lie was about twenty-five years of age. 
In his report the Colonel says:— "1 would 
especially call attention to Corporal Berry 
who carried the colors. Though wounded 
three times he refused to give up his colors, 

and did not yield the ntil helplessly 

stricken down the fourth time. Such men 
deserve particular notice." He died in the 
in the hospital July 10th from the effects of 
the wounds received. Both he and Sergeant 
Palmer had received the "Kearney Cross" 
for gallant service at Chancellorsville. 

* Lieut. VanAuken oi Co, V, commanded the com- 
pany on the field. 

Two were slain from Company E. Rob- 
ert E, Claflin, a farmer in Athens, enlisted 
with Captain Peeves, and made a Corporal 
in the Company, was horn August 8, 1824, 
was married and left a wife with one son. 
At Chancellorsville he received a flesh 
wound, hut not sufficiently severe to prevent 
him from remaining on duty. At Gettys- 
burg hi' was shot through the lung and fell ; 
as a comrade was lifting him up he was shot 
in the head with a minie hall and instantly 


Andrew Hull' with his family consisting 
of his wife and several children, was living 
on Laurel Hill, near Milan, at the time of 
his enlistment. IK' was a good soldier and 
didl at bis post, killed on the 2d of July. 
He was about forty-eight years of age. A 
Strange fatality seemed to follow this family 
-two had previously died in the army, and 
recently (autumn of 1884) a brother of An- 
drew was run over by a railway train at Mi- 
lan and killed. 

Company F suffered severely. Jackson 
P>. Penis was killed on the field. He had 
enlisted with Captain Beardslcy from Great 

Phineas Pierson was lost from his compa- 
ny during the movements on tin- afternoon 
of .Inly 2d, and was reported as a deserter, 
hut has never been heard of since, and was 
probably killed, of which there is pretty 
conclusive evidence. He left a wife, hut no 

Philip Peckeus was wounded in both legs, 
the left was broken and the right amputated. 
He died July 9th, and was buried in the 
National Cemetery. Section B, grave 16. He 
was residing near Montrose, enlisted with 
Captain Beardsley, was made Sergeant in the 
company, served faithfully as a soldier and 
gave his lite lor his country. He was mar- 
ried and left a family. 

George M. Sweet, a farmer of Harford, 
where he left his family consisting of his 
wife and one daughter, enlisted with ( 'aptain 
Beardsley. He was wounded at Chancel- 



lorsville, and again at Gettysburg severely 
in the thigh, from the effects of which he 
died al West Bospital, Maryland, July 20, 
L863. His remains were brought home for 
interment. He was a little past thirty years 
of age :it his death. 

William I). Osbom was born in Scott, 
Lackawanna County, October 17, 1841, but 
enlisted from Lathrop, Susquehanna ( Jounty, 
where he was engaged as a farmer. A friend 
writes of him : — " 1 fe was one of the many 
noble young men who loved to stand by the 
flag of his country as the emblem of freedom. 
lie fought at Fredericksburg and at Chan- 
Cellorsville. At the latter place two men 
were killed on his right hand and one 
wounded anil his own elolhes were perforat- 
ed with nineteen bullet holes. On his death 
bed he told his lather that he never stepped 
out of the ranks, although he had seen 
many larger and stronger men than lie do 
so, but until he fell he stood by his ( 'olonel 
and the flag, lie fell mortally wounded 
through the right lung, and died July 26th, 
L863, and was buried at Hillsdale Cemetery 
in Lathrop township. He was small in 
stature, his character was without reproach, 
his manners were genial, was respected and 
beloved by all." 

John E. Hempstead, a brother of Lieu- 
tenant Hempstead, of the same company, 
was born in Dimock, December 7, 1840, hut 
at his enlistment was engaged in farming in 
Brooklyn. lie received a very severe 
wound in the hip at the engagement in the 
Peach Orchard, and was left behind when the 
Regiment retired. 'The nexl day, while 
still lying upon the held he was again 

wounded by a spent hall ill the left shoulder. 

After the battle he was taken 10 the Corps 
Hospital, hut subsequently transferred to 
West Philadelphia, where he died August 
28th. I lis remains were brought home, 
where funeral services, conducted by Rev. 
L. !•'. Porter, were held, and attended by a, 
large concourse of relatives and friends were 
consigned to the dust in Brooklyn cemetery. 

•'In life beloved, in death lamented." 

The slain in Company <i were Alonzo 
Benjamin, Ellory Bunnell, Ezra Dexter, 
Jonathan I*]. Elmer, and Hanford Whitaker, 

the hitter shot through the bowels. 

Nicholas Wander was severely wounded 
in the left thigh, removed to the hospital, 
and died in about a week after. The surviv- 
ing officers of this company have been una- 
ble to give further information. 

The losses in Company II were heavy. 

George Chapman was killed on the Held. 
lie was about thirty years of age, and hit a 
family. Appropriate memorial services con- 
ducted h_\ h'ev. W. C. Tilileil, were held at 

Lawsville, in Liberty township. 

Oliver B. Hill, enlisted from Silver Lake, 
a son of Michael Hill, had two brothers in 
the same Company, George < '., a musician, 
and Michael G., who was mustered out with 
the Company. An officer writes of him 
that "he was probably the best physical spe- 
cimen of manhood in the Regiment, of a ge- 
nial disposition, a good musician, and a gen- 
eral favorite with the Company." lie also 
was killed on the field, was unmarried, and 
about twenty-two years of age. Memorial 
services were observed at his home al Silver 

I .ale, conducted by Key. W. < '. Tilden. 

Levi Dptegrove " seemed to be a stranger 
to the men of the ' Company, a stray man liv- 
ing in the county when the Company was 
organized and enlisted, but of whom no par- 
ticulars can be learned." 

" Jacob Delameter," says Adjutant Searle, 
" was reported missing in action. My own 

impression is that he was killed. 1 distinct- 
ly remember that he was hit in the arm ami 
seemed to he bewildered. I directed him to 
go to the rear, saw him throw down his gun 
and stall, and as near as can he ascertained 
has never been seen since. 1 think 1 am 
the only one who saw him alter he was 
wounded. I know nothing of his family or 
history, except that he left a widow to whom 

the Government has granted a pension." 

John W. Kunklc, son of John Kunkle, of 
Rush, was a single man about eighteen years 

of age. 1 le was wounded, fell into the hand 

• M 


of the enemy and was reported missing, 1 m t 
was subsequently found, taken to a hospital 
where he died of his wounds, August 8th. 
Memorial services conducted by Rev. II. II. 
• fray, « ere held ;it his home. 

In ( ompany 1 three were killed mi the 
Held, :niil two others died of the wounds re- 
ceived there. Stephen L., son of James 
('lark, was al the time of his enlistmenl liv- 
ing with I iliin Slums in Wysox township 
Mi- was unmarried :m<l about twenty-one 
years of age when he entered the service. 
Rev. E. T. Dutcher conducted suitable me 
morial services on Shores Hill. 1 1 < - left a 
brother and sister to mourn \\\< death. 

Silas, the sun of Silas Gore, who was a sol- 
dier in the war of 1812, bad three brothers 
in i lir I n i. in army anil one in the Confeder- 
ates, — one, John, in Company (i, Kiliieth 
remiss Ivania Regiment, died in South < laro 
Una ; another, Samuel, in Company II, of 
the I'ilty-Seventh Regiment, was killed at 
Fredericksburg. Silas was a blacksmith by 
trade, and at bis enlistmenl was living in 

( lenter Valley K e township, leav ing i 

wile and daughter. At bis death he was 
thirty -four years of age. Rev. E. T. Dutch- 
er conducted memorial services at Center 
Valley, His widow re married and lives in 
Litchtield, and the daughter has married 
ami moved lo the West. 

Oliver Morse was born July '2'J., 1841, and 
was living with his lather, William II. 
Morse, now deceased, a farmer, in Litch- 
tield, at the lime of his enlistment. lie was 
a young man of much promise and a good 
soldier. A cenotaph erected in the family 
burial place, bearing an appropriate inscrip- 
tion, comemorates his name and sen 

William Chamberlain was mortally 
wounded, but lived until July 7th. His 
remains were brought home by Hon. George 
Landon and John B. Ilimls, Esq., who were 
visiting the battlefield at the time of his 
death, and buried in the Block School 
Mouse Cemetery, on the State Road in Wy- 
sox, Mr. Landon officiating at the funeral, 
which occurred .lulv 25th. A large con- 

course of sympathizing neighbors and friends 
attended to pay the last tribute of resped to 
I he ih palled hero and martyr. Mr. I. an 
don's remarks were characterized by his 
usual earnestness and eloquence. He was 

son of Samuel Chamberlain, of Wysox, un- 
married, and twenty-one years of age at his 
death. He was woiinileil by a minie ball in 
the bowels, and lay two days on the battle- 

George Thompson Bishop was wounded 

by a rifle ball in the left knee, July 2d. The 
leg was amputated and doing well when he 
was taken with diarrhoea, died on the 22d, 

and buried there. Me rial services were 

conducted by the Rev. Jerry Barnes, at the 
Myersburg Church soon after. 1 1 is father's 
name was Israel Bishop, and lived on Pond 
[Jill, near the outlet. Thompson was single 
and about thirty-four years old, (the age 
is uncertain as they had no records at hand 
and memories w me defective.) 

Excepting Company B, Company K suf- 
fered the mosl severely, ii being one of the 
left companies exposed to the Hank at- 
tack made upon the Regiment as it retired 
from the Peach Orchard. Seven were slain. 
Ira Bentley resided in (berry township, 
where he was employed as a laborer at the 
time oi his enlistment, and where he lefl his 
family consisting of his wife and one child. 

Tillman E. Bedford was the son of Rich- 
ard Bedford, a farmer of Elkland, and was in 
his nineteenth year when he fell on that 
hotly contested spot, the Teach Orchard, he 
was barely seventeen when lie enlisted. At 
this time be had one brother in the army, 
and another put down his name. The par- 
ents would not consent that both should go, 

and Tillman was told he was too young. 
He, however, accompanied his brother to 
Laporte, where he succeeded in persuading 
his brother to return, and putting the fig- 
ures is in his boots, when enquired of as to 
his age said he was over eighteen. Asa 

soldier there were hut few better, and upon 

inspections and reviews he frequently receiv 


ed complimentai j notices IV In com 

manding office) for his cleanline and sol 
Wirilv appearance. 

William, Bon of I [enry < Irowl, w as al hi i 
enlistment living in < Iherrv township, near 

I >ushore, a plaster mason, n arried, and 

about twenty three years ol age al the time 
of his death. 

William II. K nicker kei « aB enlisted 

by < laptain Wright, a fi ir bj occupation, 

from Smithheld, where he l<-n a good home 
Mini family, consisting ol wife, son and three 
daughters. He was mortally wounded on 
i he field, and • 1 i * -< 1 aboul the age ol forty. 

Peier C, a son of Christopher Mcsier, \\a 
living in Colley where he worked at the 
trade of a carpenter, I [e was unmai i ied, 
and aboul twenty (i ve years of age. 

Samuel Molj neu » fell in i he thicke I ol 
the fight, when Lee made his last desperate 
truggle i" regain the day on the 2d, 1 [e 
was the son of John Molyneux, a farmei Ii' 
i ng al Mill \ iew, Fori ti iw n hip, Sullivan 
I ounty, a ingle man, I hirty lour yea] i ol a ;i 
by occupation a lumberman and milh ight, 
:i man of few words, but one of the first citi 
- en of the place. When i he call came for 
more men he i aid to i ome of his acquaint 
mci " Comi let us go, I have i tayed al 
home as Jong as I cbh." Twelve wenl with 
1 1 mi hum thai immediate vicinity, onl i 
of u horn lived Lo ret urn. < reoi ge I homa 

Phillips, of Davidson, si I by the side of 

Mul\ neu and aw him fall, Baid : "J imt 
as M"l\ ii' N s fell a ball pas ed throu) h m . 
arm and I slai ted for i he rear, but sei ing 

the dei perate need ouj bo^ we >i help, 

I picked up my gun and wenl al il 
when .- 1 1 1 < < i J i < • i ball pa ed through m 
< tin foil being di tven bach I laj helph 
■a ii Inn the reb( I lines until they retreated, 

witl i an kindly 

<li posed filled my canteen with water and 
brought ii tome." Phillips so far recovered 
:in to go into i he [nvalid < iorps, but his 
woundi becam< ivoi e and he died befori 
•'■ii in" hi dii chargi 

A i .i 1 1 nil I ,. Tracy w as one of the Smith 
field boys in ihi-- Company !!<■ was wound' 
ed in the leg, suffered amputation, and died 
July l.;i h I 'mill ;i notice in the [in * dfoh D 
I; i . i ■< ii: 1 1 i; i i in following \ mong i he 
i in in ands w ho have fa I len, few, we believi 
entered the serv ice with i ruer, noblei mo 
i ivei i ban he. Po i ing qualification 
which might have placed him in a bighei 
position, hi refused :ill offices and emolu- 
ments, shouldered lii l<i and entered 

the ranks as a private. Talented and public 

spirited, in him the con mil ■■ ha uflered 

a loss not easily repaired. Wounded nails 

in TI la '. ii lii in. a inn kel ball iii the 

\{ nee, he craw led aw ay to awail the a isl 
ance u hich came so tardily, < >ne, two, 
i hree weary dayi and nighl came and went 

and brought no relief to i he w led sol 

'ini the fourth day dawn , ami with il came 

peeled aid lull a'a , too lain ' In, 

tide had ebbed too low he survived atnpu- 
iai ion Inn a few days w hen he died, died lii i 
a oldier, calmly, hei oi< al ly. Kind friends 
bore In remain to I he pi ice ol hi nal 
I in. I hands laid him in i he quiel graveyard, 
by i he side of lovi 'I ones gone before, rela 
i ive and it iend i paid thi lasl tributi to hi 
memory, and left him to i lumbei unl il the 
< ,i ami i laptain i hall call i he roll of tin I ni 
■ I i 1 1 , v a on ol Or m al Tracy , a in 
gle nan, a farmer by ocupal ion and 
one years ol age 

In addition to those who were killed or 
ih I in the I' an le, i he follow ing wen n 
ported wounded 

l>. VV. Searle, Adjutant, in the lefi leg 

'"•II- , A. 

< lorporal El hel I uller, ankle, 

" Iln el Pt ' ail an "I. in, leg 

Private A lexander K i lefl side and 


I'm. an Edwin Lee, bai I 
" Elmer P. Lewi i i 

William II. II. Mitchell, shouldei 

.1" < | > 1 1 M ill' i Ii 

A llmii A . Stel I'l, hand. 

" I rank Ii. Si lli 



. i .in! \l inn i i ( ...1,1 .. knee. 

. I • • . . i : 1 1 1 \. Bosworth, below the 

i l-li! I n, , 

Si i •- lllll I I, in v I . .lour:., righl ill in 
1)1 ,.1 I'll, 

IVlVllte Slllil li I • I ',:n niini, I. II i I. 

Stephen B. ' 'aulield . eai 

I >. inn I Ink. I 

Wallaee M. Plliott, righl thigh 
.): is S. (Ji 113 , linek, 

I leorgc 111 lumphrey, right tinkle. 
JunieH II. Ilulse, lel'l leg and right 


Private IVTutt. V. ( ireening, left arm. 

II , 1 I) Millard, right thumb 


Pri\ nte Jamei 1 1, Smith, bowel 

Martin VV Smith, both legH 
I'hilip Showoi , buek, severely. 
A Kit. Whitlaker, lel'l U 


i Wportil Warren VV I loll', thigh and head 

Charles Seolt, righl shoulder. 
Private Charles Akloy, Hhonlder. 

CI. M.Irs VV. Cole. 

William () Lane, thigh 

Benjamin I'. Wanek. 


( lorporal < Hun lea !'■ I luni. 
Private Sylvonus Benjamin, arm and side 
Samuel Buttles, right arm. 
Byron < ihambei lain, lel'l thigh, 
Private Koborl 1'.. II. .11. 

\ u n in ft. I lamilton, shoulder 
I ,e\vollyn I larris, elbov . 
( In 1 K M, I .mi, righl nnn. 

Naphttili Woodburn, shoulder, 

..-\ ,'i eh 
i 'orporti I lli- tin VV ! '.irks, captured. 


Captain John !•'. Clark. 

Private ftpaphras W. Baker, righl thigh, 


\.-. ,.1. ui iUj kill. .1 m 1 oUuj * .ii.- July 1. 

Private ftli R. Booth. 

I ,\ 111:111 Dunn, 
Corporal William ft. Loring, missing, 
I'.i vato < >i is 1;. Jakevt ay, missing, 

I >ealmon Watkins, missing. 

, OMPANY i'. 

Sergeiml Salmon S, rlagar, righl hip, 

Corporal Price ft. Miller, lel'l leg, severely 

I'rivate Warren Burchel, lefl arm and 

Private Vietur A. Poller, leg. 
John I,. Kike,. 


Pirsi I .it-lit 1 n. mi Joseph Aukinson, back. 
ftirsi Sergeant William Muir, lel't knee 
Sergeant James N. Terwilliger, face. 
Corporal ftranklin A [)ix, baek. 
Ueorge 1 1. Tryon, loot. 
John < )gden, arm. 
Daniel Ballard. 
Private Thomas Bated, shoulder. 
William I,. Cole, leg. 
ftrancis ft. Holley. 
William C. MeCreary, baek. 
Kichard I'. Pierce, mouth. 
William li, Seagraves, lel'l leg 

( (liver Skinner, arm. 

Henry I'.. Williams. 


Captain C W Tyler. 

Setgeanl John I larris, left wrist. 

Parker .1. Cales, ankle. 

Pi ivate Nathan 1 loodsill, ankle. 
Leander Lott. 
Joseph MeSherer, face. 

ftgberl Sinsabaugh, wrial ami 

Private ftrederick W, Slade, neck, 

John .1. Stockholm, righl arm 
Lorenzo W. Sullivan, ankle. 
William Van Osdale, righ hip. 
ftlwo< <l ft. t laies, missing. 
( Jeorge Stare, missing. 


Lieutenant John *i. Brown, neck, 


' \7 

Sergean! John I >. Bl tg I, foot, 

< lorporal Fernando < '. Rockwell, bol l> li • 

Eugene \ Lent lefl thigh 
Pj ivate Edward A. Bennett, lefl l( g 

" I ,ciinnl 1 1 1 > \v < ■ 1 1 , thumb. 

" Edward W, W ids i&er, liand, 
'' S\l venter I lonk lin, missing. 


( laptuin < lharles Mercur, lefl leg, severely. 
Sergeant Aurelius J. Adams, Bhoulder. 

< lorporal Si lei < lonklin, face. 

" A rchibald Sinclair, arm. 
Private Edmund Bedford, leg. 

" 1 1. A. Burlingl •, Hide. 

" William II. < Irawford, hand. 
William Crowl. 
James L. I lowie, i ighl hip. 

I Inn y E, 1 1 h 1 1 s i 1 1 - . i . 

" < leorge T. Phillip , lung and arm. 

" A Kin B. Smith, face. 

" Jacob S. Stevenson, right arm. 

'lin- fol low ing table contains a summary 
>f i he losses in ii'i engagement 


A' . 


Field & Staff, 
































Ah was stated in the accounl ol the battli 
General Graham was wounded and • -: i j > t ■ 1 1 > < I 
early in the i ngagi menl of l uly 2d. Joel 
I, Molyneux, of Company K, was detached 
(December 27, 1862,) as Provosl Guard al 
I leadquartei , aftei ward as Private Ord< i ly 
to Lieutenant C. H. I Irave , tbi n ( Ordinance 

< Mil. .-i i.i.i pi i before the Gi ttysl ■ battle 

np| tod Adjutant ' General on Gi aham's 

staff, u ho related the pai ticulai i of I he < ten 
nil captun as follows "The horse of 

ili»- < General had been shol ler him eai ly 

in the (ighl ihe Adjutant ( General di 

mount ;, gave him lii ow n tak ing for him 

self one from an I Irdei ly, ^ ; i after tlii < 

line of ii was seen approai hing ii om the 

flank, who from their uniform and the fuel 
they were imi. tiring upon our men were mis 
taken by the < lenei b I for I nion soldiei 
Mini In- rode tow ards i hem i" ascertain i he 
regiment to which i hey belonged. I >i v.o\ 
ii ing i hem to be < lonfederate troop he 

wheeled his 1 i and started for Ii is i iw n 

lines when they called u] him to ui ren 

der, which he refu ling to do, they fired a vol 
ley al him, wounding him, and killing his 
hoi e, u lip li in falling ■ < » 1 1 « < I upon the < fen* 

era I. holding I < in a vise, in which con 

dition he wa captured by the enemy. The 
Adjutant General was severely wounded in 
the hip, picked up by a gunner and can led 
from the field on a i aii on Major Spaulding 

ci neai falling Into ili<- same trap thai 

i>i oved fatal to < General ' I rah am, He also 

mi took the advancing line foi I nil I 

dii i and ordered the men to stop firing 

• h ■or 'i- Forbes, of I lompany I , pointi d oul to 
him in mil take and the firing wa r< limed 
wiili hardly ;i moment's intei mil sion, 

i 1 1 1. 1. H i ■'• mi: i:m M S fO TH] <n in 
i i.i oi in i; rip i OM \< 
li will be remembered when we lefl our 
R( gimenl it had just ret ui ned from picket 

on the M "i ii f July lib, in bi i ouai I on 

the field near where the lasl great blow in 
i in tei rible battle had been sti ucl \ few 
■,\ ho had become epn rated from the Beg i 
i.i. ni in the movements "i i he second, had 
re joined tin ii companii , so I bat ergi int 

< >wi'n writes, ' the Regimi nl noti numbi i 
ilui i v two < lompany I . i " in n letle* 
u i itten al this date to I lieuti nanl ' loloni I 
Watl hi , ' 'olonel Madill ay "I fi eJ cor> 



fidenl from the information I have received 
this morning I cannot raite sixty nun. Ii 
is fearful to think of, and yet I am afraid it 
is too true. My heart bleeds for the fami- 
lies and friends of those brave men who fell 
on the second." Later in the day Lieuten- 
ant Atkinson writes : — " We have but fifty- 
five men left in the Regiment," including 
those oil detached service. 

The enemy had on the night of the third 
of July strengthened his lines on Seminary 
Ridge, and all of Saturday it was uncertain 
in the Union Army what would he his next 
movement. During the clay ii was ascertain- 
ed that he was falling hack toward the Po- 
tomac, yet he succeeded in maintaining such 
a hold front toward his victors that the com- 
manding General hesitated to leave his 
strong positions until certain that Lee was 
not preparing to make an attack at an unex- 
pected quarter. 

The Regiment therefore had received or- 
ders t" he in readiness to march at a, mo- 
ment's notice. During the early pail of the 
afternoon the rain began to fall in heavy 
showers, which continued through the even 
ing, and the hoys put up their shelters and 
spent the afternoon and night quietly resting. 

Sunday, the 5th, the rain continued to 
fall at intervals, breaking up the roads, 
transforming the soft soil into a moitar bed, 
rendering the movements of infantry diffi- 
cult, and of wagon and artillery trains al- 
most impossible. All day the Regiment re- 
mains under its shelters awaiting orders to 
start in pursuit of the foe whose retreal to- 
ward the Potomac is now ascertained. The 
day is spent in removing the wounded, bury- 
ing the dead and gathering the arms and 
accoutrements with which the field was 
Strewn. The officers and men availed them- 
selves of the opportunity to go over the field 
and carefully survey the scene of the terrible 
strife in which they had been engaged. On 
the sixth Lieutenant Atkinson writes: — 
" Yesterday I went over the battlefield. I 
will not attempt to describe it. I dread to 

think of it. I went on the ground where 
our Regiment did its hardest fighting. I 
there found twenty-seven of the dead of our 
Regiment on a very small space of ground — 
four of my company. ( >ur brigade of si x regi- 
ments numbers less than six hundred men. 
We are under marching orders and liable to 
move at any moment." The orders were, 
however, countermanded, and the Regiment 
remained in its position until Tuesday. 

The enemy had taken the direction of 
ITagerstown, Meade had determined to fol- 
low in a line parallel to that taken by his 
opponent. On Monday all hut the Third 
( 'orps were leisurely advancing towards 1 Jar- 
per's Perry, and on Tuesday morning, July 
7th, at tour o'clock in the morning the bri- 
gade set out, the One Hundred Forty-First 
Regiment bringing up the rear of the col- 
umn. The recent rains had made the whole 
country a sea of mud, and the roads had 
been made all the worse from the long col- 
umns which for two days had been tramp- 
ing over them. 'I he marching was necessa- 
rily slow and difficult. Emmettsburg, a dis- 
tance of eight miles, was reached in time for 
dinner. After an hour's rest the march was 
resumed, and the troops reached Mechanics- 
town, ten miles farther, at dark. The men 
were officially informed of tin- surrender of 
Vicksburg on the Fourth of July and re- 
ceived the news with cheers. 

All night the rain had been pouring down 
in torrents, and continued to fall until noon 
of the 8th. At six o'clock the Regiment 
was again on (he move. Taking the turn- 
pike in the direction of Frederick, at Lew- 
LStOWn they took a shorter road over the ( a- 
toctin Mountain toward Middletown, but 
found it so bad they were i ipelled to re- 
trace their steps and lollow the pike. The 
mini was deep and the roads were slippery, 
the marching hard, many became lame and 
foot-sort' and fell out. Passing through 
Frederick, they took a westerly course to- 
ward Middletown and encamped for the 
night about midway between the two places. 


Major-General French, who h-ad been in 
command at Harper's Ferry, l>m on the ad 
vance of the army was directed to occup; 
I iitl. rick with the bulk of the garrison, a 
division of four thousand men, was now or- 
dered to unite his division with the Third 
Corps. This was -effected when the Corns 
reached Frederick on the afternoon of the 
8th, and became the Third Division of the 
Corps, and General French by seniority of 
rank assumed the command of the corps. 

Early the next morning the march was 
resumed. After going a couch of miles 
tbey went into camp near Middletown, ex- 
pecting a night's march over the mountains. 
An inspection of the brigade was here or- 
dered and requisions made to replace the 
losses of material sustained in the engagement 

ami Kscertain (lie strength and c lit ion of 

the brigade. Immediately after inspection, 
orders were issued to continue the forward 
movement of the corps westward. Follow- 
ing the pike they crossed the < latoctin < !reek, 
the South Mountain, and in the evenin n 
camped at Fox's Gap near the Pike, They 
,veie now approaching the Antietam battle- 
ground, where it was thought Lee would 
mal - another stand. While he had 
been in Pennsylvania the Federal forces had 
succeeded in destroying his pontoons, and 
. Imost unprecedented heavy rains 
had r< nd sred I he Potomac unfordable. It 
was thought Meade ivould not allow Lee, 
hemmed in as he was, to escape without a 
batl le, and that it would b in the 

neighborhood of this historic battlefield. 
The place of their encampment was on the 
South Mountain battlefield, and they had 
passed by (lie place where General Reno 
was killed. Every man expected to bo 
aroused at any moment by tin' order to " fall 
in." A horse breaking loose and running 
through, had roused all to their feet, think- 
ing they were about to he attacked by rebel 


On Friday, the 10th, the men were called 

lip at daylight and ordered to be in readi- 
to move at any moment. A cavaly en- 

gagement had keen going on since <arl\ 
morning, and an advance was anxiously 
waited. Aboul eiglll o'clock the order 
came, and lh" men pressed forward in the 
direction of Williamsport, and went into 
camp near Keedysville where they remain- 
ed for three hours when they went on to tin 
\ nt ■ i ■ i ; ; i > i Creek, ami encamped on the bat- 
tle ground, expecting to remain all night, 
luit were again ordered on to the Williams- 
port turnpike where they finally rested loi 
the night. The march w:is a haul one 

Says Sergeant Owen: — "We have keen 
hitching along and changing camps all day. 
( 'rossed tic Antietam < reek, camped 
the Antietam battle-ground. Were roused 
no at eight o'clock in tic evening, wenl up 
the creek three miles, quick time, and came 

to a halt in a lield lor the night We have 
traveled eight miles hack and forth on the 

same road.'' 

The next day the mo a were about 

of the same character. Alter going (rotn 
place to place the Regiment wenl into biv- 

OUack al>. ml i WO mih from their encamp- 
ment the nii; hi before, on the ground occupied 
by the Fifth Corps which had been moved 
up to the fr. 

Sunday morning, < len< r il Meade 
an order saying he would attack the enemy 
thai day. The lines were advanced aboul a 
mile, the Third Corps supporting the Sec- 
ond. Monday was spent the same way. The 
Commanding General was approaching the 
enemy in line of battle which, while ii was 
very tedious to the men who were required 
to he under arms from five o'clock in the 

morning until after dark, was extremely 
-low, only aboul a mile a day being gained. 

On Tuesday a Strong reconnoissance was or- 
dered forward to feel the enemy am ascer- 
tain his position, when it was discovered he 
had succeeded in crossing the river and was 
on the friendly soil of Virginia, with the 

loss only of an inconsiderable part of one ul' 

his wagon trains and abort! three thousand 


f |M 


Wednesday, the 1 5th, was n ten ibly hot 
day — not a breath <>! hit moved i<> refresh 
the panting troops. At nine o'clock in the 

r 1 1 1 > 1 1 1 1 1 1 " llii' brigade WHS in line and the 

march resumed, The route lay across the 
Aniiciain battlefield, the men halting for 
[tinner near the little brick church, a well 
known landmark to those familiar with thai 
hard fought contlict, The hall was near 
where ili<- (bail bail been hn I ily and care- 
lessly buried. In several places the bones 
nf tiic slain wire seen scattered over llii' 
ground. <>n all sides were the evidences of 
ilir severity of the fight, the traces of the 
siuiiii of battle which a few months before 
bad raged and heal upon its hillsides. In 

the evening they encamped a mile bey I 

Bharpsburg The next day the brigade 
wont about a mile beyond Brownsville, and 
encamped nboul two o'clock in the afternoon, 
where the) remained until five o'clock, In 
■ 1 .1 \ afternoon, expecting to r< ceivc supplies 
of cloth in;', si iinr of w hich, especially shoes, 
ibr men began to be in great need. Some 
of the troops were actually bare footed, oth 
crs bad tan their shoes to relieve their feet 
which bad become sure from die heal and 
travel, until they aflorded very little protec 
tion. I nderclothing also bad become soiled, 
ami mi opportunity for washing being af- 
forded, the int'ii bad (blown il away, and 
were without a change. The hot weather 
an. I constant movements, bad in fact been 
very injurious to all clothing, The needed 
Biipplie! , however, did nut come, ami tin- ev- 
ening saw ibr men in line ready in take up 
i In ii inarch again into V irginia, 

1 1 bad been raining all the previous night, 
ami nearly all the day. The roads were 
,-, is muddy, ami the night which came on 
rarl\ vvas very dark. The Potomac was 
crossed on pontoons, al Harper's ferry, four 
miles distant from the camping place o I the 
night before, after dark, They continued 
i Inn journey thi ee or four mill's farther, 
crossing the Shenandoah ami going into 
"- . i s ouack on the hillside, 

Meade now began to press forward iftei 

Lee with considerable vigor. Tin- Third 
Corps was in the advance with the Second 
ami Twelfth Corps following. Tin- routt 
was along the eastern fool of the Blue Ridge 
mountains, in a general southerly direction 
while the enemy was going in the same di 
rection on the western slope of the rid",-. 

< )n Saturday, the 1Mb, the Regiment 

started at five o'clock in the ning and 

weni lo Hillsborough, a distance of eighl 
miles, and encamped there. The nexl day 
the line of march is in ibe direction <>' 
Snickers Gap. They go about six miles in 
the forenoon when they again go into camp 
until Monday, near Woodgrove. Here wai 
the ancestral mansion of one of the promi 
nent Virginia families, in which were a 
number of young ladies who were eager to 
display their sympathy for the Confederal 

cause. The boys replied lo their denionstra 

lion by the band playing Yankee Doodle. 
Leaving Woodgrove early the nexl morn> 
ing they still continued southward, passing 
Snicker's Cap ami reaching Upperville in 
the afternoon, where they camped for the 
night. The line of march bad been through 
a beautiful, fertile valley, well watered ami 
very productive. Evidences of thrift in 

well improved farms, and good buildings 

were everywhere apparent. Large slacks oi 
grain, the fruits of the last year's harvest 

doll,,! the fields. Upperville, a pleasant 

\ ill ige was i be business center of ill is fruit- 
ful region, but on the approach of the army 
all of its business places were dosed, and 

[be town seemed lo be deserted. " Through 

all this valley," writes the Colonel, "thus 

tar, we bave sou no person al work. The 

white population have either kepi within 
doors, or are in the enemy's lines. All are 
thoroughly in sympathy with the secession- 
ists." The Regiment remained at Upper- 
ville until Wednesday, (be 22d. 

Vs was frequently the case on a long 
march, the ration became scarce, in the 

camps and the Soldiers foraged freely from 

the Lrihabitants, While in Pennsylvania 

RHGIMIiNT, /'/• \ \ ' / / OIJS 

' M 

l ., , |i ud Lull un nut onlj I'" lmi nppli I'm 

bill | Kill II I lull I Willi 

■ • i 1 1 1 1 mid 1 1 ro v . ilt'i vt'ii till ! 

and lim i . ■ i ■ ' I ■ i 'Mi ill ni. i lunuu I'm lii 

urm i" 1 • ■ I taken IVorn llu Inliiil il 

• • w thai i In' Union form wen 

on the oil lho\ « il low lo 

take whatever I 1 1 hoi in i iii. required 

( In, -I onH, |'i" , il.. in. 'Hlio Li . 1(1 111(1 l.hi.l I. .1 

in i which were in iihnnd moo, holpud to 

ii ni i in- « . " lore 

'llu- ,i-\ unil oii.ll of the fn I'l'-ni I'm vol 
mil ' ii lo llll h|i I In- I ml ni i In 

I .1 . i .1 .11 nil. Ii. I II i -, III'- I.. • M|. r 
I.. :i ■ i - . I . I I'm I , I <mi| i . [Ill 

llmenl ol nil i he male 

i il i i n !.. I ■.,. i ii I lir ;rn" ... llll fill 

i v ii v \ i-;m i to he i. i.i.i. itid miliori 

III I Ill I.I l.l-l llll III I. .11 

for I" I., ill I'll lui ;i lii 

■ by \ oliinl i In- full 

II i ii. i| In lill n; Tlii- 
lii I i I llll llllll'll || I In- I inn- llu- 

• Ii ill wiin to ho made 'J'he ( Hcrtplod nun, 

;MI. i |. i in ' Ii IMOllil il i null, i 

linn were foi nip of rendi 

u I ili. . ■ i • , -,i i, ,1 to il,. 

.M un. to wliiuii tin I liitl I . .. 1 1 liy 

i In- milil ii 

\l HI] in |.. ■ I i. ,n ni' I In- In i- .:,,!. I,. 

ill. on Tin il»i ' ihiiicl i .-iiil ii 
i ,ii ,., ,i. i lo ni.. I i a detail Iron 

. nl in In III i-.;, nl' ll ,,iiiini 

(I '.Un ' i 1111(1 i lull I'll un ii nun 

1 1, un,, i n,in-ii unil |,i i utei i" i ' ...ii in iln- 
I'rovi I l n liitl (ienerul in tin 

I In i. i i,| .in, I rnnilin I the 

! mi II In I In ; , , ■ rill I 

.... Iii. I. il.. dclitil from 

llu- < III.- I I .-, ' I ,i I [{( ■In,. Ill 

tud of Clip) I I.. i Inn In ' I n nh n 

.-mi .In eph i\tl ■ .nil I < 

mill M. |'| ,n i. 

ii .ii Ii 

iii i i, I to return to tin 

- i in 1 1 i Tin 

found ! Ii ni in ' i. i 

' l 1 1 . . 1 1 . ' - I ' r 1 v ii 1 1 l ' . ,, i . i || 

I ,\l I I Mill I. . I , 

< ' |. ii I • ' Kiihtnhrool I 

I I ... 1 1 , nil, . i , ( 'l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II llu-, 

il until tlic* 

I Li HI i in I .il 

Urwiird in I'hihidi Iphin Phi 

t llll II I I Ml" 1 1 III «.h i ml ii I to 

nil-. i mi Tin 'ii Ii 

I. - I I. I I I, III , .- | l.lll, 1 

i ' I ,..,!. 

I I 

" We I 
| In |'h! ud Hi. i' 

V. I I 1 1 ' I . I 

\\ I I I I I . . . I . I I i . 

1'rmii ..hi 
for pull 

i nnli 
thnl ■ . died of I 

; .,! v. i. urn niii-n il in 

I in 

I n I In llftl 

ii- ni .!•-.. in hrol ■ 

l| Inl I'm iln, i, nl mi I I, 
i, H || I ||l 

I I 

in iln- mouth m . 

n i |.,i . imped on tli 

iuiiihImi;i lii of (I'oill'lll 

. ni ih. i ii, iln • 

.ill' i I Ii • I 

mi nl 



road was rough and muddy, and led across 
the headwaters of the < loose ( 'n ek, tin 
whose aflluents were considerable streams, 
and greatly swollen from the recenl rains. 
The men had tramped aboul twelve miles 
this afternoon and went into bivouack, tired, 
hungry, and wel from fording the creeks. 

Meade had followed up the enemy uith so 
much vigor thai he reached the Gap, upon 
which he had concentrated live of his army 
corps, before the Confederates had passed it. 
The opportunity for a Hank attack was so 
favorable thai the Union C< uander deter- 
mined in avail liiinself ofit. General French 
with the Third Corps was in the advance. 
Says Swinton :| -" The selection of the lead- 
er demanding the most energetic qualities 
»>f mind — seeing that it was necessary to 
force Lee to battle under circumstances in 
which he would naturally wish to avoid it- 
was very unfortunate; and by his misman- 
agement General French succeeded in de- 
priving the army of one of the few really 
advantageous opportunities it ever had to 
strike a decisive blow. A slight observing 
force had been left at the gap, but th : s was 
expelled and the corps passed through on 
the i vening of the 22d, prepared to advance 
on Front Royal in the morning. But on 
moving forward to strike the enemy's line 
of retreat, the Corps-Commander acted with 
such feebleness as to allow the rear-guard to 
delay him the whole day, so thai it was ev- 
ening before he penetrated to the Confeder- 
ate line of battle at Front Royal. Next 
morning, when Meade hoped to give battle, 
Fee had made good his retreat," and adds a 
fool from General Warren, "thai General 
Meade was more disappointed in thai result 
than in anything that happened." 

In the movements of this day, Thursday, 
.July 23d, the brigade was called up before 
four o'clock in the morning, and at five 
went to Linden Station, where they formed 
line of battle al noon, and marched oil' in 
the direction of Front Royal and went into 
ick on the hill, on the right or north 
'■ Arm} of tin' Potomac, \>. 374. 

of the Gap, resting on their arms. Berdan's 
sharp-shooters, supported by the brigade, 
were sent forward, and about two o'clock in 
the afternoon began skirmishing with the 
enemy who slowly retired before them. .Ma- 
dill moved forward and formed on the left 
of the Second Brigade — the Sixty-Third 
Pennsylvania was sent forward as skirmish- 
ers, the One Hundred Fourteenth and One 
Hundred Forty-First went on picket, from 
the point occupied by the Regiment a 
magnificent view was afforded. The She- 
nandoah Valley for miles was spread out be- 
fore them in beautiful landscape, and a good 
view afforded of the conflicl going on in the 
•.alley between one brigade of the Third 
Corps and Lee's rear-guard. Toward even- 
ing a charge was made on tie- enemy's posi- 
tion which was carried with slight loss, cap- 
luring two batteries and a lew prisoners. 
Our Kegiment was not actively engaged in 
this affair. 

As the enemy had made good his escape. 
nothing was to Ik- gained in the further pur- 
suit, and ( ieneral Meade determined to give 
nis troops a little rest during the hot weath- 
er, preparatory to opening the fall campaign 
with vigor. For (his reason and because 
both sides found it necessary to draw de- 
tachments from their armies in Virginia for 
other needs, a considerable period of repose 
followed, spein by our Regiment in the 
neighborhood of the White Sulphur Springs, 
a place which before the war had enjoyed a 
considerable reputation as a watering place. 

On Saturday, the 2oth, the Regiment 
started by way of Salem for Warrenton, 
which was reached without any incident 
worthy of note at half- past ten o'clock the 
following morning. All the able-bodied 
men of the place were in the Confederate 
army, only old men and negroes being found 
on the streets. The troops marched through 
the town, the column being formed by com- 
panies, our Regiment going into camp on 
i he Sulphur Springs pike, three miles south- 
west of Warrenton, al two o'clock in the af- 
ternoon. The Third Corps was in front, the 


First (Madill's) Brigade of the Firsl Divis- which had been anxiously looked for, arriv- 
ion being in the pan. The First, Second, ed and were distributed to tin troops iliis 
Fifth, Eleventh and Twelfth Corps were day. On Friday the Regiment moved to 
found encamped about Warrenton. The the immediate vicinity of (he Spring 
Regiment remained in camp here for several member of Company B, of the Regiment, 
days. On Monday, General Birney who says of this place:— "Sulphur Springs, a fa- 
had been absent a few day-, returned and mous watering place, is five mile 
took command of his old divisioi of from Warrenton. There were two lai 
the Third Corps.) On 'I'm -day the detail tels here— the largest one has been burned 
to escort the drafted men to the army took the other injured i . de 
their depart lire, The mppli < lothin 



I'm neat Iv nine months i lie A rmy of tlie 
f'i >t« >iu:i«- « ><-i it | »iii I the territory ill the head- 
waters of the Rappahannock and the Rapi- 
rlan, an<l ilH activity was directed rather to 
circumventing the plans of the enemy than 
to any decisive movemenl against him. It 
has not inaptly heen Htyled ■■> campaign 
of maneuvers rather than of engagements, 
in which Meade, | ■■• ed of the idea thai a 
defensive battle like < rettysburg was the 
most likely l<> he successful, was endeavoring 
I,, compel Lee to attack him, while Lee 
seeking to avoid a pitched battle until his 
army could recuperate itH strength, was 
threatening now one point and now another, 
compelling his over-cautious antagonist to 
hurry his forces first to one threatened posi- 
tion and then to another, and so wear out 
his strength in a I'ruitlesH chase after an enemy 
always ahle to elude him ; a campaign fruit- 
less of any valuable results, yet exceedingly 
annoying and v exatiotis to the men. 

The Regiment numbering about thirl) ef- 
fective men, exclusive of those on detached 
nnd special duty, went into camp at While 
Sulphur Springs, duly 31st, for a brief peri- 
od of rest, at ibis somewhat celehrated wa- 
tering place. Kxcepl pickel duty there was 
little or nothing done. Two or three times 

,. nil] week the men bad to lake their place 

on the picket line, which extended south al- 
most in the Rappahannock, and remain 
twenty-four hours a! a time. The 
g reil | heat of the weather made the least duty 
burdeni omi 

< 1,1 Wednesday, \ ugusl 5th, < !olonel Ma- 
dill sustained a severe injury by being 
thrown from bis horse. Remaining in camp 
until the 1 Ith and the propped of immedi- 

ate recovery being dubious, he ohtain 

sick lea ve and returnei I In ime. 

The Regiment bad been in service just 
one year, bill it bad been an eventful one. 
< lorporal .lames P. ( lohurn writes in bis dia- 
ry under date of August loth: "One yeai 
ago in day < lompany B mustered one hun- 
dred men, to-day it can muster only seven." 
Angusl I Ith, Ailrial Lee writes " < >ne 
year ago to-day Company A came to tlarris- 
burg with a hundred men, and now tin 
whole Regiment numbers only lifty live." 
About ibis time, however, a number who 
bad been in I he hospitals either from sick- 
ne or wounds bad sufficiently r< covered to 
return to their companies, and in a day or 
two after the entry of Mr. Lee the strength 
of the Regimen) was doubled. August I'.Uh 
Mr. < 'obi i n> again notes thai "sixteen of oui 
men arrived from convalescent camp, swell- 
ing our number to one hundred and fifty 
men all told," and on the 28ll) 
more convalescents cam* up to day. \\'v 
now have one hundred and sixty men in the 
Regiment," a strength which after the battle 
of Gettysburg those best informed did not 
think it possible could ever be mustered. 

The Regiment remained here without ;nn 
noteworthy occurrence until Tuesday after- 
noon of September I ith, when it broke 
camp and marched in a southwesterly direc- 
tion, the next day crossing the Rappahan- 
l'ord and halting for the 
night about three miles beyond, and reached 
Culpepper, on the Orange and Alexandria 
Railroad, on the afternoon of Thursday, Sep- 
tember 1 7 1 1 1 , where ii remaineo! in camp 
about a month longer. 

Several limes in the course of this nana- 



tive it has been nut iced that now and then a 
man was so unfortunate as to fall into the 
hands of the enemy. This occurred in a few 
instances on the march from Poolesville t<> 
Fredericksburg in the autumn of L862, a 
few of the wounded at Chancellorsville, in- 
cluding Sergeant Bought, of( lompany A, were 
captured and taken to Richmond, bul nearly 
all of these in a few weeks were released on 
parole and subsequently exchanged. In the 
movements of September L5th, William li. 
D.Green, then connected with the Corps 
wagon and supply train, was captured and 
remained in captivity until the close 
of the war, a year and a half, and 
had an experience so varied that his narra- 
tive, in substantially his own words will he 
given : 

"On the nighl General Meade broke 
camp 1 took the train to Fox's Ford, on 
the Rappahannock. The next morning 
Quartermaster Tall man ordered me back to 
Sulphur Springs to bring on some condemned 
stock that had been left there the night he- 
fore. When I got there the picket line had 
been cut and the stuck scattered I had 
been busy all day until" just, at night, had 
picked up seventeen and started to Warren- 
ton Junction to turn them user in the pro- 
per authorities. When I gol 10 I':' vet ley i lie, 

about half way between Warrenton and 
Warrenton .Junction, nighl came on, and as 

we supposed we were within our own lines, 

we halted, tied our stock in a little piece of 
woods and encamped lor the night, and that 
night, September L5th, !)-«;.">, we were cap 
lured by a party of Moseby's men under 
command of Lieutenant Smith. 

" We were immediately marched hack 
through Warrenton, over Flint Hill, ami 
for four days got nothing to eat hut a plate 
of cabbage and a piece of corn bread. Sep- 
tember 20.1 li, we reached < liaiiee I 0111 I 

House, where we were placed in the com- 
mon jail for two nights and the intervening 
day. From there we were sent in Rich- 
mond where we were examined ami every- 
thing we had taken from us, and then were 

[Hit into an old tobacco ware bouse, known 
as ' Libby Prison.' 

" We staid there aboul si\ weeks. A dif- 
ficulty having arisen between the prisoners, 
the New York conscripts and the regulai 

soldiers, the latter were sent to Belle Island, 
where we remained until February, 1864. 
Here we suffered terribly from the cold, lee 
froze twelve inches thick on I he .lames river 
The inhabitants said they had never seen 
such severe weather there before. Some 
froze t<> death, others froze their limbs and 
died from the effects of amputation. 

" It was rumored thai there were cases of 
small-pox in the prison, and the Confederate 
authorities issued an order that none should 
have rations except those who would allow 
themselves to he vaccinated. In a short 

time hundreds were dying from the effects 
of sore arms— the disease extending to the 
entire body and attended with great pain, 
proved fatal in a majority of cases. Matthew 
I [owe, l ( lompany E, captured < )ctober, 1 863,) 
Elisha W. Parks, (Corporal in Company l» 
captured at Gettysburg, July '-', L863,) and 

myself, as soon as we were vaccinated, Step- 
ped out of sight, scratched all the virus oil' 
our arms, causing the wound to bli ed freelj , 
consequently we suffered hut little inconve 
nience on thai account, hut did sufter severe- 
ly from the cold and short rations. Through 
the Sanitary ( mn mission several hah s of 

clothing and blankets were sen! to the pris- 
on for the use of prison.'!-., bul i he enemy 
kept the most of them. 

"Some of the Confederate officers had 

dogs which used |o come into our camp. At 

one time when rations were shorl we killed 
three of theee dogs, buried their heads ami 

skins, and ale the meat with a r« lish and 
looked lor more does. 

" About the L8th or 20th of February we 
were i oh I we were ahoui to be exchanged, tak- 
en nut of [prison and put in box cars and start- 
ed as we supposed toward the Federal lines, 

hul alas, instead of thai wife taken In An- 

dersonville, where we arrived aboul the first 



of March, and remained until the eighth of 

" During our stay here we were literally 
starved. The only shelters we bad were 
holes dug into the ground and covered with 
sticks. The camp was very filthy and the 
prisoners died al the rate of from forty to 
seventy-five per day. The long continued 
confinement and the want of vegetable diet 
brought on scurvy. In many instances men 
lost all of their teeth, and gangrene follow- 
ing ate the flesh oil their bones. Men were 
to be seen in whom the entire jaw-bone back 
to the ear would thus be exposed before death 
ca to the relief of the sufferer. 

" Among the conscripts from New York, 
drafted at the time of the riots, were a num- 
ber of desperate characters who allowed 
lives to be captured by the enemy at 
the first opportunity, and some of them were 
sent to Andersonville. They would steal 
the rations of their fellow prisoners, and In 
some cases men were found murdered and 
stripped of everything they had. Six of 
these desperadoes were arrested, and tried 
by a jury of thirty-six men, and formally 
convicted. The proceedings were sent to 
the President of the United States, who en- 
i the action and approved the verdict 
of the jury, and the men were hanged the 
eleventh of July, 1SG4. 

" We were k.pi at Andersonville until the 
Nth of September, when we were sent to Sa 
where we remained for about a month 
and then were plated in a stockade about 
half way between Savannah and Macon, 
known as the Milieu prison The enclosure 
contained about forty acres. About 1 ' 
1st Sherman drove us out of it, and the same 
night we w i out, his men burned the 

ide. The next morning we wei 
back to Savannah and up the t iull Railroad, 
and camped in the woods at various 
in Thomas County, but were returned to An- 
dersonville in time to take our Christmas 
dinner i n n very scanty allowance of boiled 

"A soldier by the name of Walker had 
been left sick at Andersonville, got better, 
and was allowed to go out on his parole not 
to escape until properly exchanged. He 
had some little chance to obtain corn meal 
which he used to smuggle into the prison 
for us, so that we bad a little more to eal for 
the rest of the time we remained there. 

"On the 17th of April, L865, we were (akin 
out for exchange. We were sent by cars to 
Albany, Georgia, then marched through 
Thomas County into Florida, turned loose 
and told to go to Jacksonville, where we ar- 
rived April 29, 1865. When about seven 
miles from Jacksonville we were met by a 
squad of our own men with a full supply of 
bread and coffee, and a reasonable amount 
of " commissary." It is needless to say that 
we ate with a relish. When we reached 

camp we had a hard struggle to keep from 
eating too much. Many of our nun Acre 
made sick, and some died from over-eating. 

" 1 was almost blind and went to the sur- 
geon in charge of the Government Post there 
and told him my story, lie inquired as to 
my usual weight ; 1 told him two hundred 
pounds. lie directed me to he weighed and 
my weight was one hundred and nineteen 
pounds. He said I was very much reduced 
in flesh, and the cause of my partial blind- 
ness was weakness of the optic nerve pro- 
duced by poverty of food and ordered me to 
drink a pint of fresh beef's blood each day. 
This I did. and my sight hegan to improve, 
hut ii brought on chronic diarrhoea, 
which I have suffer* d ever since. 

" We remained at Jacksonville until the 
first of June when we were put on ship- 
hoard for Annapolis, Maryland. After re- 
maining there a few days we were sent to 
[Iarrisburg where we received our discharge, 
dated June 10, 18(35, with thiee months' ex- 
tra pay, and sent home, satisfied that the war 
wa.s not a failure, that if the Confederacy 
were not good feeders, nevertheless this was 
a great and a glorious I Fnion." 

The Regiment remained at Culpepper un- 



til October 10th, withoul any occurre 
especial note. < m Sunday, September 27th, 
Captain Mercur and Lieutenant Brown had 
so far recovered from their wounds received 
al l rettysburg th il trned to the Reg- 

iment, and un the evening of Septi 
30th, twenty-seven arrived from conval 
camp, swelling tin- whole number present (<> 
two hundred and twenty. On the 1st of Oc- 
tober the camp was moved back from the 
mad to a dry, pleasant place, on the farm of 
a former member of ( longress, and a speaker 

of the House, Hon. Pendleton. The 

next dav, the long term of hot, dry weather, 
was followed by a severe rainstorm. About 
this time, also, drills, both company, regi- 
mental and brigade, were resinned. On 
Tuesday, October 6th, the camp was again 
I across the Pike, about three-fourths 
of a mile, and on the 8th, the Regiment re- 
ceived marching orders, which, however, 

werecounl anded until Satnrd ay, the 10th. 

Before recounting the movements of the 
liu ing this autumn campaign, it 
may be well to note some of the changes 
which had taken place in the strength of it 
since the last report. Comparing the Adju- 
tant's Report of June 30th with that of Sep- 
tember 30th, the figures stand as follows: — 


| For duty 

../.. > Extra dui v. 

) Sick '.. 

Absent .' 

TdTA I. 

nt.. ' 


Forduty 270 

Extradutv 3 

, Sick 

In arrest. 

Tut A L. 



li will thus be seen the Regiment lost in 
effecti ve si rength eighty-i ight, while its 
nominal strength had been diminish' 

Of the losses nol already enumerated 

was that of the Assistant Surgeon, John 

\V. Thompson, who died July I. 
He was a young man of pleasant manners, 
amiable disposition and upright life ; skillful 
in his profession, ever ready to expose him- 
self to alleviate the sufferings of the me'n 
whether-in camp or field, lie was greatly 
respected by both officers and men in the 
Regiment. Upon the promotion of Dr. Al- 
len to he Surgeon of tin- Eighty-Third Regi- 
ment, Dr. Thompson was appointed to lill 
his place in the One Hundred Forty-First, 
and name to the Regiment while it was at 
Poolesvilie in the autumn of 1862. lie was 
a resident of Philadelphia, and a graduate 
of Jefferson Medical College. He left the 
Regiment soon after the battle of ( hancel- 
lorsville, sick with fever, brought on by ex- 
posure on that ill-starred campaign, from 
lie effects of which he died at his home in 
that city, at the age of twenty live years. 

In Company A, there had been no changes 
in officers except those arising from the 
casualties of battle. 

Corporal Isaac L. Johnson enlisted from 
Tuscarora township where his family, con 
Sisting of wife arid one son, were living, lie 
was taken sick soon after the halt le of I han- 
cel lot sville, and died of lexer in hospital in 
Baltimore at tic age of twenty-four j e 

There had been discharged on the usual 
Surgeon's Certificate of physical disability, 
e Strr,ng ami John M. Vargison, and 
by special order NicholasEverett and I 
N. All 

In ( oni] any I!, the changes we: 
transfer to the Veteran Reserve Corps. Mel- 
ville Black, July 1st, Edmund W. Ch 
September It; John Keeney, Sep 
llthjAbram Whittaker, September 30th ; 
the two latter were wo.mded at Chancellors- 


In Company C. Icott was promot- 

ed from Corporal to Sergeant; Leu is Rine- 
bold was discharged September 1th, on ac- 
count of wounds received at Chancellors 
ville; — D'Alanson Fenner, July loth ; James 



Corby, September 1st ; and David II. Car- 
penter, September 30th, all wounded May 3, 
1863, were transferred to the Veteran Re- 

In Company I>, Sanford Diamond was 
promoted from private to Sergeant, Septem- 
ber 1st; and Willis ( 1. Sexton, who hail lost 
an arm Chaneellorsville, was discharged on 
that account. September 5*.h. 

In Company E, Serjeant William < 'aimer, 
August 30th, was discharged on the usual 
Surgeon's Certificate, and September 26th, 
John S. Miller was transferred to the Vet- 
eran Reserves. 

From Company F, John V.Tennant, Au- 
gust 27th, and September 4th, James M. Mc- 
Kov, both wounded at Chaneellorsville, were 
discharged, and Herman I. Potter was trans- 
ferred September 30th, to the Veteran lie- 

From Company (>, James Dekin was dis- 
charged on Surgeon's Certificate in July, 
and Thomas Walton, wounded at Chaneel- 
lorsville, in August, and Richard F. Taggart 
was transferred to the Veteran Reserves, 
September 7th. 

There were transferred from Company II 
to the Veteran Reserves, August 20th, John 
Conrad, James A. Peaseley. and John II. 

John 1*. Taylor, who lost an arm at Chan- 
eellorsville, was discharged from Company 
I, in August, and Theodore W. Wood bum 
was transferred, September 1st, to the Vet- 
eran Reserves. 

In Company K Clark S. Taylor was dis- 
charged on the usual certificate of disability, 
and Charles II. Phelps, July 2d, was pro- 
moted to Hospital Steward in the United 
Slates A i my. 

When Colonel Madill went home on sick- 
leave, August 10th, he turned over the com- 
mand of the brigade to Lieutenant-Colonel 
Craig, of the One Hundred Fifth Regiment, 
then the Field < )rficer of highest rank in the 
brigade. Subsequently, however. Colonel 
Coll is, of the One Hundred Fourteenth, re- 

turned to his regiment, and as the ranking 
officer took the command. As has been said, 
Captain Spaulding, of Company I, was in 
commandofthe Regiment; Lieutenant Jo- 
seph II. Hurst, wounded at Chaneellorsville 
had returned, and was in command of Com- 
pany A, in the absence of Captain Horton 
on detached service. 

Lee, aware of the reduction made in the 
force of Meade's army, determined on an of- 
fensive movement against it. Leaving Fitz 
Hugh Lee with a cavalry force to guard the 
south hank of the Rapidan, on the 9th of 
October, with the hulk of his army, he took 
"circuitous and concealed roads" by way of 
Madison Court House, passing quite to the 
right of the Federal army, pressed forward 
toward Culpepper, and Meade found that 
wing of his army turned before he was hard- 
ly aware that his enemy had left their 
camps. The Union commander at once be- 
gan a rapid retrograde movement and suc- 
ceeded in planting himself across the path 
of his foe. Owing to a misapprehension of 
Lee's plans, Meade countermarched the 
main body of his army toward the south 
bank of the Rappahannock, while his oppo- 
nent by parallel roads started in a north- 
ward direction to lay hold of the Federal 
communications with Washington. The 
Third Corps, which had been left to guard 
the line of the Rappahannock, took posses- 
sion at Freeman's Ford. By this misappre- 
hension on the part of Meade his retrograde 
movements to meet the ( onfederates were 
seriously compromised and " the Third 
Corps, remaining alone on the north hank 
of the Rappahannock, were thrown quite out 
of position ami exposed to destruction by an 
ovei whelming force."* 

In time to save himself from serious em- 
barrassment, Meade comprehended the de- 
signs of his antagonist, and bringing his Sec- 
ond, Fifth and Sixth Corps, which had been 
sent southward, hack, and joining lo them 
the Third Corps, determined to checkmate 

*Swinton, Army of the Potoruac, p. 379. 


him by a rapid northward movement The 
Federal army marched in two parallel col- 
umns, l lie Third Corps followed by the Sec- 
ond forming the left, and the Sixth followed 
by the Fifth, the right column. 

Returning now to the movements of our 
Regiment in these manoeiivers — on Thtns- 
day and Friday, October 8th and 9lh, the 
men are under orders to be ready to march 
at a moment's notice; on the latter day they 
•draw rations, but do not leave their camp. 
The next morning, Saturday, the 10th, they 
are hurried out about ten o'clock, drawn up 
in line of battle, changed about from place 
to place, and finally at dark went into biv- 
ouack on their arms about three-fourths of a 
mile north of the place where they had been 
encamped. The next morning early, the 
men were called up and started on the 
march, taking a course first nearly north un- 
til they crossed Hazel River, where a pon- 
toon bridge had been laid, then northwester- 
ly toward the Rappahannock, bivouacking 
after midnight within a mile of that stream 
and near Brandy Station. Several limes dur- 
ing the day the brigade had been drawn up in 
line of batlie, and once skirmishers were 
thrown out, but no enemy being found, the 
inarch was resumed. In reconnoitering the 
Federal positions a parly of Stuart's cavalry 
fell in with a detachment of Union cavalry on 
the slope of the hillside, and our Regiment 
deploying right and left were ordered at dou- 
ble quick to the support. Theenemv broke, 
and our men resumed the march, but did not 
overtake the brigade until evening. 

Monday the brigade was set to watch and 
guard the river. They were marched from 
place to place aiong the bank to observe any 
force of the enemy which might attempt to 
cross, and for the night remained on picket 
in that immediate vicinity. The next morn- 
ing the march was resumed. 

Stuart is again endeavoring to ascertain 
the movements of the Union army, for Lee 
is becoming anxious to know where the 
forces of his antagonist are. Starting on the 
road from Fayetteville to Greenwich, about 

four o'clock in the afternoon, he leaves Lo- 
max's Brigade at Auburn, a little hamlet on 
the north bank of Cedar Run, to watch this 
route, while be continued his movement to 
Catlett's Station, about five miles further 
south, in the meantime the Third Corps 
has continued its march, and Graham's Bri- 
gade, which forms the advance, has reached 
the vicinity of Auburn about an hour after 
Lomax, who has dismounted his men and 
placed them advantageously in a thick piece 
of woods on the slope of a dry ravine near 
the ford. 

French, believing himself far from the 
enemy, is marching carelessly without re- 
connoitering, and the advance of his column 
is unexpectedly welcomed by a sharp fire 
from Lomax's cavalry. The Sixty-Third 
Pennsylvania Regiment is in the advance of 
the brigade, and the One Hundred Forty- 
First in the rear. Collis immediately de- 
ployed his brigade and engaged the enemy. 
Says Ueorge W. Morse, of Company I, who 
lost his arm in this engagement: — "The 
bullets Hew around us like hail. Our boys 
were at once formed in line of battle and or- 
dered to lie down just back of a knoll which 
protected us somewhat from the enemy's 
fire. We loaded and fired while lying down, 
and a battery was placed in position in our 
rear which did good service in dislodging 
the enemy. After shelling the rebel line 
for some time, we were ordered to charge. 
As we raised the knoll behind which we had 
been lying, a murderous volley was poured 
into us. it was here that 1 was hit. Cap- 
tain Spaulding, who was in command of the 
Regiment, had just dodged, whirling nearly 
around, when I asked him what was the 
matter, he replied that he thought at first 
that a bullet had struck the side of his head. 
My gun falling to the ground I tried to pick 
it up with my right hand, but soon found 
my fighting days were numbered, and de- 
clining assistance, retired gracefully to the 
rear. Captain Spaulding captured a rebel 
sabre at this engagement." Lomax was 
compelled to leave the crossing and retired 

r 5o 


toward Warrenton, while the Regiment con- 
tinued its march to the vicinity of Green- 
wich, reaching its halting place about eleven 
o'clock in the evening. 

The loss from this engagement in the bri- 
gade in killed, wounded and missing was 
about fifty, of whom fourteen were from our 
Regiment, two being killed, nine wounded, 
of whom one died subsequently of wounds, 
and three were captured or missing. 

In Company A, Sergeant Franklin Kinne 
was killed. He, with his brother Asa, enlist- 
ed from Terrytown, where he left a wife and 
tour small children, and was killed the dav 
he was thirty-two years old. From a letter 
written by Lieutenant Hurst to Mrs. Kinne 
is the following extract: — " He fell in the 
skirmish at Auburn on Tuesday, the 13th T 
at about four o'clock in the afternoon, shot 
through the body, and died at nine the same 
day. He was a brave and good soldier, 
loved and respected by his comrades in arms, 
both officers and men, and died as he lived, 
a true patriot. The Regiment made a charge 
on the enemy and lost twelve men. Frank 
was the first to fall. He was immediately 
carried from the field to the field hospital, 
and had all needed medical attendance, hut 
it was of no avail. He was conscious to the 
last moment and spoke often of his wife and 
children. His last words were ' Tell them I 
died a soldier.' His body was brought along 
with us to Centerville and there decently 
buried. Be assured that yon have the earn- 
<st and heaitfelt sympathy of the entire 
company of which he was the highest non- 
commissioned officer. He had become en- 
deared to us not only by his soldierly bear- 
ing, but by his kind and amiable disposition." 
Memorial services conducted by Rev. George 
Landon, attended by a large concourse of 
people, were held in the Terrytown Church. 

Orlando E. Loomis, of Company E, was 
also killed. He was a son of the late J. 
Wright Loomis, and was born in Athens 
township March 5, 1836, from which place 
he enlisted with Captain Reeve. A comrade 

says of him : — " He was unmarried, had one 
brother and three sisters, a genial, social 
young man, of good habits and irreproacha- 
ble character." 

In Company I, Mervin Blend was shot 
through the mouth and severely wounded, 
sent to hospital in Washington, where he 
died October 30th, and was buried in the 
Military Asylum Cemeter}. He was son of 
William Blend, of Rome township, where 
he was living at his enlistment, was unmar- 
ried, and about twenty -five years of age. 

Besides these, the following were reported 
wounded and missing : 


Sergeant James Alderson, wounded. 


Sergeant Sanford Diamond, wounded. 


Alexander Lane, wounded. 
John Adamson, captured. 


David VanAuken, wounded. 
Elias W. Steadman, wounded. 


*LeRoy D. Goodwin, missing. 
Ausiin Welton, wounded. 


George W. Morse, right arm off. 


William A. Gavett, wounded. 
Wilmot W. Wheeler, captured, and never 
returned home. 

*Captain Lobb says : — '' The last I saw of Le- 
Roy Goodwin was October 10th, on leaving: Cul- 
pepper. In passing through the town he took 
the wrong road, and never has been seen by any 
of us since. He had the Regimental pack horse. 



The summary of losses is expressed in 
the following table : 



s "S»"a 



s ~s | 

tu ,°? 


^3 J 


1 =5 


=2^ = 


Sh "e 




c § 


Field & Staff, 




































The loss of the enemy in this engagement 
was considerable. 

Early the next morning the eastward 
march was resumed, crossing Kettle Creek, 
and the Bull Run, taking a route by the 
way of the Stone Bridge to Centerville, near 
which they bivouacked for the night. Sev- 
eral times during the day the column was 
alarmed by the cavalry scouts of the enemy, 
and the troops were drawn up in line of bat- 
tle, but no engagement occurred in which 
our Regiment took part. 

Thursday, the 15th, the brigade took a 
southeasterly route, and crossing the Orange 
and Alexandria Railroad, at Fairfax Sta- 
tion, went into camp, the One Hundred For- 
ty-First being put out on picket. The Third 
Corps reaches from the railroad northwester- 
ly toward Chantilly, and Meade had suc- 
ceeded in throwing his troops across the 
path of the enemy. While here, says Count 
de Paris, the former commander of the Third 
Corps, " General Sickles, mutilated and 
scarcely restored to health, comes to claim 
in vain the command of the soldiers whose 
love he has won." 

Lee finding the positions occupied by the 
Federal army to be very strong, and having 
succeeded in compelling Meade to loosen his 

hold on the Rapidan, and to fall back more 
than sixty miles, is now deceiving the 
Federal commander by a series of cavalry 
attacks into the belief that he intended an- 
other invasion, he held him there until he 
made good his retreat. The Regiment re- 
mained in the neighborhood of Fairfax Sta- 
tion until the morning of Monday, October 
19th. The rain which had fallen the 16th 
had raised the slreams and greatly impeded 
any movements, but at daybreak the troops 
are again turned southward and pushed for- 
ward in pursuit of the retreating foe. In 
this advance the army marches in two col- 
umns, the Third Corps again in the fronton 
the left of the railroad, and the Sixth Corps 
leading the column on the right. 

This day, October 19th, the Regiment 
marched to Bristoe Station on the Orange 
and Alexandria Railroad. In the route, 
which was near the railroad, they passed 
Union Mills, crossed Bull Run, reaching 
their camping place at dark. The next day 
they crossed Broad Run, passing through 
Greenwich at night, bivouacked at Auburn, 
near the scene of the skirmish on the 13th, 
and on Wednesday, the 21st, they reached 
Catlett's Station, where they went into camp. 

In his retreat Lee had as far as possible 
destroyed the railroad upon which Meade 
was dependent for supplying his army, 
burning the bridges and ties, tearing up and 
twisting the rails and blowing up the cul- 
verts. The Federal commander determined 
now to give his troops a few days' rest, while 
he repaired the railroad and re-established 
his communications. 

On the 22d was an inspection of the bri- 
gade to ascertain what losses the men had 
sustained in the late movements. The next 
day Colonel Madill returned to the Regi- 
ment and took the command of it, Collis re- 
maining in command of the brigade. A se- 
vere rainstorm set in this afternoon and 
continued all night and the next day, keep- 
ing the men inside their quarters and pre- 
venting the usual drills and inspections. 
Sunday was cool but pleasant. In the even- 



ing, after dark, the Regiment moved camp 
about forty rods to the higher ground near 
the railroad, with the front toward the river 
and bivouacked for the rest of the night. 

On Monday evening the enemy were re- 
ported at Brentsville, five or six miles cast 
O) Catlett's Station, and about eleven o'clock 

in the evening tlte Regiment was hurried 

out to meet the attack; alter remaining un- 
der arms until two o'clock the next morn- 
ing they bivouacked on Fox's farm, near ( 'e- 
dar Hun, about three miles from the station 
They remained here until noon the next 
dav, when they marched up to the Brents- 
ville road and went into camp with the bri- 
gade iu line of bailie, our Regiment on the 

let't of the line and resting on the Brents\ ille 
road. Here they remained until the 30th, 
when they were ordered to march to War- 
renton Junction, and went into camp a short 
distance beyond it and established a picket 
line near Bealton. The Regiment remained 
iu camp here until the <'>th of November, 
without anything of importance occurring. 
The party detaih d the last of July to es- 
cort the drafted men to their respective reg- 
iments having performed the duty assigned, 
returned to their companies on the the 26th 
of October. Sergeant Owen, writing under 
date of November 3d, says: — "We found 
the Regiment about two o'clock iu the after- 
noon in a disorderly temporary camp, in 
line of battle. It seems that the whole army 
is under marching orders all the time, for 
the boys say 'they are moved nearly eveiy 
dav, change fronts, form new defensive lines, 
move first to strengthen one point and then 
another. All have to carry eight days' ra- 
tions. That night 1 drew the required 
amount, and just nicely got laid down in a 
tent, about ten o'clock, when the 'pack up' 
bugle sounded through the whole division. 
Business was lively then till we started. 
We were marched about four miles, around 
through the woods and encamped in line of 
battle. We remained there until after eight 
,,', lock in the morning of the '27th when we 
were again ordered in line and inarched back 

toward where we started from, and a huge de- 
tail, of which 1 was one, was made to 
strengthen the picket line. We remained 
in camp on the picket line until seven o'clock 
iu the morning of the 29th, when the w I ole 
corps started as if a great deal depended on 
their getting somewhere in a very short 
I'm c. We marched down the railroad about 
eight miles where the whole corps camped 
in mass between Catleti's and Bealton Sta 

lions, and have remained lure ever since. 
The enemy's picket line is this (north) side 
of the Rappahannock, but ours advanced on 
Sunday and drove them back a mile." 

By dint of great energy Meade succeeded 
in repairing the railroad, so that cars were 
run to Warrenton on the 1st of November, 
and to Bealton the next day. On Thursday, 
the 5th of November, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Watkins again joined the Regiment. Friday 
were the usual drills, and al dark the Colo- 
nel received orders to go with his regiment 
as an escort, to the pioneers of the division 
as far as Bealton, a distance of lour miles, to 
repair a bridge in that neighborhood, and 
returned to camp near midnight, where or- 
dt rs were found to be in readiness to march 
the next morning at daylight. Tired and 
sleepy the men Hung themselves down for a 
little ic>t preparatory to the hard journey 
awaiting them on the morrow. 

The Confederate army bad fallen back to 
the right (south) bank of the Rappahan- 
nock, placing Hill's Corps on the let't and 
Ewell's on the right of the railroad. Here 
they had built quarters and hoped to spend 
the winter. There were only two practica- 
ble crossings of (he river at this place, one a 
bridge thrown across at the point where the 
two corps join by which communications 
were maintained, with a .small force station- 
ed on the north bank of the river near Rap- 
pahannock Station, and the other between 
four ami five miles below, known as Kellcy's 
ford, which was covered by Rhode's divi- 
sion of Ewell's Corps, consisting of twenty- 
two regiments in live brigades, besides four 
batteries of artillery. 

R)<j;/Mi>Nr, riiNN'A vols. 


Meade did nol wish to allow the fine 
weather then enjoyed to pass without at- 
tempting another forward movement. His 
plan was to turn Lee's righl flank al Kelley's 
Ford, push forward through Chancellors- 
idlle and gain the heiglits of Fredericksburg 
before bis antagonist could leave Culpepper; 
mil like nli previous commanders of the 
Army of the Potomac he found his plans 
thwarted by the authorities at Washington. 
I le next determined to make a dired attack, 
and on the morning of Saturday, November 
7th, moved his army forward in two columns, 
the right under Sedgwick consisting of the 
Fifth and Sixth Corps to cross the river at 
Rappahannock bridge, and the left column 
under French consisting of the First, Second 
and Third Corps to cross at Kelley's Ford, 
which was guarded by Rhodes, who bad 
massed his division a mile behind (south) 
the Ford on the Stevensburg road. *"The 
configuration of the ground does not permit 
him to defend the Ford itself, which is in 
the center of a curve described by the Rap- 
pahannock, The right (south) hank of a 

Convex form, is uncovered and low ; at a 

Bhort distance the ground gently rises, and 

does not afford any protection for the space 
of a mile, as Car as a grove, beyond which is 
the village of Kelleysville. On the opposite 
hank rugged and wooded declivities form a 
semicircle of heights which completely com- 
mand it." The Second and Thirteenth 
North Carolina Regiments of Rarnseur's 
Brigade, nearly nine hundred men in all, were 
guarding the Ford. 

The Third Corps formed the advance of 
the left column, Birney's division in front, 
which had orders to march to the Ford and 
force a crossing. The division reached the 
hills overlooking the Ford about three 
o'clock in the afternoon. De Trobriand with 
the Third Brigade and a regiment of sharp- 
shooters are to make the attack, supported 
by the other brigades of the division and 
the artillery which commands theslopes be- 
tween Kelleysville and the river. A little 

*Comptc De Paris, JI1., 7«8. 

alter three o'clock hi' Trobriand plunges 

into the water which is ahout three' ted 
deep, and reaches the opposite bank. The. 

Thirteenth North Carolina are brought for- 
ward to defend the pa jsage, hot on the ap- 
proach of the Federals break and seek ref- 
uge in a. neighboring farm house where 
most of them to the number of three hun- 
dred and fifty are captured. 

As soon as De Trobriand had effected a 
crossing the other brigades of the division 
were hurried over to his support as Rhodes 
was now bringing up his entire force to re 
pel this unexpected attack. Finding, how- 
ever, that our artillery commanded the 
ford, Rhodes withdrew and formed his line 
in a more advantageous position. In this 
engagement the One Hundred Forty-First 

was under fire, hut did not occupy (he first 
line. Colonel Watkins says, "we all lay 
down Hat, and hugged the ground closely to 
let the minies go over us. Our Corps was 
the only one that crossed that night. The 
skirmishers had a brisk time of it. The en- 
emy's sharpshooters at one time got on our 
Hank' ami killed two in our brigade, hut 
none in our Regiment. The nun suffered 
greatly that night. The weather was cold 

anil the night frosty, and they were com- 
pelled lo lie on the ground without lire with 
their clothing wet to the waist, and without 
their coffee, .lust after dark a portion of 
the Regiment was put out on pic 

Says Sergeant Owen : "Soon after dark 

there was made a detail of a hundred nun 

from our Regiment, in which I was includ- 
ed, to go on picket. We were hoping soon 
of having the privilege of building fires, 

hut now it was good-bye tires, and sleep too, 
until morning. Our skirmishers had driven 
out the enemy from the clearing into the 
woods, and we were posted along those 
woods within ten or fifteen rods of them. 
We could hear them cough, could hear the 
tramp of their horses and the rattle of their 
sabres very plain. I think I never suffered 
so much from the cold as I did that night. 



The air was not freezing but very penetrat- 
ing. Every man in the line shook as with 
the ague." 

Colonel Madill, now again in command 
of the brigade, was division Officer of the 
day, and ordered an advance of the picket 
line which was precipitated by the enemy 
about three o'clock in the morning, making 
an offensive demonstration to cover their re- 
treat. A squad of mounted horsemen came 
out in sight of our left as if to charge us. 
The Colonel on being informed of the move- 
ment, instructed the officers on the picket 
line to have the men deployed as skirmish- 
ers and move forward from the right at a 
given signal. An hour before daylight they 
entered the woods along which they had 
been posted, expecting every moment to be 
confronted by a hostile force, but on they 
went, a half a mile, through the woods, and 
into the clearing beyond, but not a Confeder- 
ate was to be seen. The men were then, 
about daylight, allowed to build tires, and 
" we had a chance to dry our clothing and 
make some coffee." 

The Regiment started soon after this 
movement, about seven o'clock in the morn- 
ing, and after marching about live miles 
formed line of battle, and the left wing- 
made a junction with the other under Sedg- 
wick, who had been even more successful at 
Rappahannock Station, than French at Kel- 
ler's Ford. Here Meade offered battle, but 
Lee retired across the Rapidan, the advanc- 
ed guards and cavalry of the Federals skir- 
mishing with the rear guard of the enemy 
all the way, but could not bring on an en- 

Colonel Watkins thus speaks of the ad- 
vance :r-" After marching about live miles 
we formed line of battle. Here the First, 
Second, Third, Fifth and Sixth Corps form- 
ed a junction and tried hard to bring on a 
general engagement, but the enemy tied. 
We started in pursuit and soon reached the 
railroad, when the whole live corps marched 
in parallel lines. 1 never saw so tine a sight 

in my life. From sixty thousand to seven- 
ty thousand men were marching side by 
side, at quick time, with their trains, am- 
bulances, and artillery. I never saw so line 
a line of battle — some five miles in length 
and in good order. Older soldiers than I 
ever expect to be say that they nev< r saw so 
large a force, so splendidly arranged, and 
marching to the attack." 

The troops reached Brandy Station, on 
the railroad that evening, in tine spirits 
and went into camp — Lee had been so sud- 
denly surprised that he could not destroy 
the road from Rappahannock to Brandy 
Station, so that as soon as that part from 
Catlett's to Rappahannock could be repaired 
Meade's communications would be restored. 
The Regiment encamped in a piece of woods 
near the Station where they remained until 
the evening of Monday, when they were 
moved about a mile and went into camp in 
an open field a short distance south of the 
railroad. The next morning the brigade 
had orders to put up winter quarters and 
moved into a piece of woods for that pur- 
pose, but before the camp was laid out the 
men were moved into the camp lately occu- 
pied by the Confederate General James IT. 
Lane's Brigade (Second Brigade of Pender's 
division, of Hill's Corps,) and the Regiment 
took the camp occupied by the Thirty-Third 
North Carolina. Regiment. As evidence of 
the sudden departure of this brigade, they 
left their quarters which had been newly 
built, standing, and in a good condition. 
The camp was conveniently located, on the 
plantation of Hon- John Minor Botts, a 
mile and a half from his residence, about a 
mile west of the Station, with plenty of wood 
and water near by, but the huts were built 
without any order, "haphazard." The 
camp, however, was remodeled by our men, 
regularly laid out, the log houses rebuilt 
and put in order for winter use. Sergeant 
Chalice notes that (his morning, Thursday, 
November 10th, the mountain tops are white 
with snow. On Sunday, the loth, was the 
usual inspection deferred until afternoon on 



account of a severe rain which began on 
Saturday and continued all night. And on 
Monday General French reviewed the ( lorps, 
this with a couple of details of fifty men 
each for picket duty, and the rebuilding of 
quarters were the only occurrences of note 
until Tuesday, the 17th, when the Sixty- 
Eighth Regiment was transferred from the 
First (Graham's) Brigade to the Third. (De- 
Trobriand's) and the One Hundred Tenth 
took its place. 

The next day the Regiment was gladden- 
ed by a visit from its old Brigade Command- 
er. He had been wounded and captured at 
Gettysburg, exchanged, and at his request 
transferred to a command in North Carolina 
where the service would be less arduous and 
the climate less severe, and now came to bid 
the men who were endeared to him, farewell. 
Colonel Watkins has written the following 
description of this reception of the General 
and his complimentary address to the men 
who fought under him at Chancellorsville 
and Gettysburg: — 

'* Colonel Madill was in command of the 
brigade and I of the Regiment. We were 
ordered out and formed line by battalion in 
mass, doubled on the center, to receive the 
General and bid him good-bye. Our Regi- 
ment took the center in line. As the Gen- 
eral appeared before the brigade colors Colo- 
nel Madill greeted him with a neat little 
speech in behalf of t lie brigade, and the bri- 
gade with three rousing cheers. The Gen- 
eral responded, bidding us 'farewell !' The 
General and Colonel with their staffs then 
went to the right of the line and dismount- 
ed. The Colonel then introduced the Gen- 
eral to the Commanding Officer of each regi- 
ment, who in turn introduced him to the 
Line Officers. 

"When he came to our Regiment we gave 
him three cheers more, and the General 
greeted me warmly and inquired as to my 
health. I then introduced him to the Line 
Officers, after which lie made us another fare- 
well speech, closing by saying, ' you are a 

noble little Regiment. You have sacrificed 
more lives on the altar of your country than 
any other regiment in the service of the 
United States. God bless' you ! farewell!' 

" lie then passed on to the left of the line. 
All say that he visited the One Hundred 
Forty-First with the honors of the occasion. 
Of course we felt proud. The boys and offi- 
cers of the Brigade, (leaving out the One 
Hundred Fourteenth,) are all sorry to lose 
him. He was always a friend of the One 
Hundred Forty-First, and always specially 
noticed us in bis reports of engagements. 

"As to our Regiment, I can assure you- 
that it stands as high in two respects, — or- 
derly conduct and courage — as any other in 
the division. General Birney says, ' I have 
often been tempted to reprimand the One 
Hundred Forty-First for its deficiency in 
drill, but when I think how much better it 
drills on the battlefield than on dress parade, 
I can't have the heart to do it.' Major Duff, 
now on Birney's staff, told me the other day, 
' That is a good fighting Regiment of yours. 
I saw you at Chancellorsville and never saw 
a regiment stand under such fire. When 
they commenced Hanking your left wing it 
looked like sticking a tallow candle into the 
fire and holding it there, it melted away so 
in line.' I thought he was about right." 

After a short visit at Headquarters the 
General started for Washington, bearing the 
hearty good will of the men who parted 
with him in genuine sorrow. 

On the 19th the Regiment had dress pa- 
rade, the first in a long time, and on the 22(1 
an order was received reducing the amount 
of rations to be carried by each man to five 
days, and the number of cartridges to forty 
rounds. On Monday, the 23d, the men re- 
ceived four months' pay. The next morn- 
ing orders were issued to be ready to march 
at once, but a severe rainstorm having set 
in. the order was countermanded until 

It should have been noticed that on the 
19th the railroad was opened to Brandy Ma- 

i ;6 


i ii ii, .111.1 U. ade had been hurrying ii| 
|ilii for his I mops preparatory to I he linal 
the yea) I (i : Tlml 

I in know ii as llie 

MINI III i ■•!<■- i 

Says Wwinton : " J ud ■■ 1 1 1-- from the cxpc 

lience ol ml mi lilury operul ions as had 

heen al tempted during pi evious yean nt the 

i now reached, ii might have heen in 

l(i nd that the army could d i hing hetter 

than t< ml" u inter quarters, and awail 

the coming Hpring, hefore entering upon n 
new campaign. Bui < ieneral Meade fell 
I hal I he condition of I In 1 public mind would 
hardly brook delay ; and being himself very 
Ii ir mi lion, he .in \ iously watched a fa- 
vorable opportunil y lo deliver battle. Such 
an opj)ortunity he thought he saw towards 
the end of November ; and he I hen planned 

peration known m the 'Mine Run ' 

move an opera! ion which deserved hetter 
I .11 it met." 
The Rupidun, n I the place w here I <ee had 
encamped a portion of his army, How. in 
nearly an easlerh direction. A few miles we i 
of w here il empl ies into i he Rappahannock 

Ii recei\ ch M iue linn, a large li '• rising 

in the plateau of the Wilderness and llowing 
north I Ii i mi Ii .i \ idley w ide and rnai hy, 

inten pen ed \\ iili clusters ol i rees and I) , 

between steep declivities crowned wil ii 
woods, Below, oi eai i of M ine linn, I he 
Rapidan is ci ossed b) i In- lacob's Mills 
I .nil, ihe < lerinanna, the < lulpcpper and 
! i . I 'ord, I. u! al the two former i he banks 
.1 m high and precipitous as to render 
them impracticable for wagons, Fust of 
Mine Run are tbe impenetrable thickets, 
deep i :i vines and decepti ve wood paths of 
the Wilderness. The two great roads eon 
necling Fredericksburg and Orange Court 
House, known as the Turnpike and the 
['lank lioad, and the unfinished Frederieks- 
...I Gordonsville Railroad ..... M ine 
1,'ui. Tin- former of i heso inn ning ;i little 
south ..I west from the old \V i Idernei Tin 
a 1 1 1 1 > Potomai 

t-rn lo I iocii i Gj;ove oi Robert on'a Tavi i n 
i w o miles east of Mine Run, crosi es i hal 
si ream -i x and ;i ha If ml Ies from its moul h. 
Tbe Plank Road and unlini hod railroad 
i lo. new i ly purul lel with i he Turnpike, bul 
about ili no miles Carl her south. A road 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 ■ almost directly south from Jacob's 
Ford, follow in.; nearly the crest ok tlie hill 

which I iln i ;i in ii boundary of M ine 

!; on valley, crosses the Turnpike ;ii Robert 
son's Tavern, and the Clunk Road al Hope 
Church. Half w a) bctw een the Ford and 

Tn vcrn ihi road passes throug Ii i In' far f 

the Widow Morris, where the One Hundred 
Fort) First had a sharp engagement in 
which thej losl :i number of men. 

I .cr had placed Hill's < lorps along the 
south hank of the Rapidan as far as Mine 
linn, which was on his east or i i" lit Hank, 
and Kw oil': < lorps along 1 1> i latter stream, 
forti lying hi po itions, which w ere nat ura I- 

ng, with rifle piis and breai tworl 
Meade designed by a rapid movement to 
strike Fwell on his righl Hank from the 
Flank Road, and crush him before Lee 
could strengthen his posil ion. 

Farly in i lie morning ol' Thuri day, No 
veinhei 2(ith, he put lit; army in motion, 
marching in three columns, French, with 
the Third Corps, w in to take the advance of 
iii column, in. in " i In- Rapidan al 
Jacob's Ford, a mile and ;i half east of the 
in. .mi I. of M in..- Run, follow ed by the Sixth 
Corps, and meel the center column consisting 
of i lir Sri -onil Corps which was lo cross at the 
(iermnnna Ford, ai Robertson's Tavern, 
w bile die lei'l column, consisting of the First 
and Fifth < lorps, w as to cross at ' lulpepper 
Mine Ford and proceed to Parker's Store on 
the Plank Road. The column led b) 
French comprised nearly thirty thousand 

men, almost one half of .Meade's ellcclive 
force 'The success of |he movement de- 
pended entirely upon each column reaching 
its prescribed position al the exacl time 

w i he < o anding < Ieneral had ar 

ranged with great particularity, and upon 
i he celerity of their mo\ emenl 



; i. i. ii v, i ordered to start ni daylight, 

,i ii ill pa i eight o'i locl< hefore our 

, . nil il, i In- roads w ere made 

heavy by the recenl rains, find the a 

in", difficult at li 

lays on the road ho thai Jaeob i I 'ord ii nol 

i eached until tw 'three o'clocl in ll 

lei noon. Here unforeseen diflieultii 

in w di I113 h The in." i o ivollen thul 

fordinj i , and a pontoon miiBt be 

i id, the ( nginci i i liave made u i 

the bri Lie st be 

l'n i h to i euch the hore the banki ol the n 
ver here are bo i teep thai ii would tuke .-i 
day i" make a road l\ u nd arl illery, 

bo I' i ' 1 1 < I ! "Hi tl ' • ri i i ■>!<(, 

w here ill" rivei ible. 

The Third < orp f i null ) ucceeded in gel 
'nr .mi i, . . i he river before dark, Prince in 
command of i he Third ( I rench s) Di 
in i he advani e Tlii division after croi 

in", the rivei lost i I and linally al i 

i I- hi or nine o'clock in i he e\ eniny thi 

' ivouacked neai i he oul h bank of i he 

Rapidan for the night. I rem Ii'h delays 

■ ' ioui ly interfered w itii hi command ■ 

i plan , but new orders were is iued and 

Meade hoped still thai by an enei 

mm., i mi iii he might i ompel Lee LO abandon 

in poi ition, and I rench was directed to 

pn li I'm ward i mI v 1 1- i I" and form 

;i junction with the Second < iorps at Robi rl 
■ in. 
I In in - hi w i bitterly cold and the mi n 
were ready to i tart i arly tin ni i mo 
I 'iimr a Divi ion again led the advan 
I he Third Corps, and about nine o'i loi I 
I ill.- Mori ho in a glade w here 

righl branch i unning 
almoi i direct ly we i reai hi M ine Run near 
I ..M 1 1, n' . Mill iii left continues to Robei i 
i ii. 
Mr I M mi I,, i of John on' Dii 
( KwiU'n < lorps) advance up the road from 
Bartlett's Mill. Prince on seeing them 
end to I' rench who was in the rear for in 
struct ions and wailed two hour foi a reply. 
Meade orden I 'rench foi ward to Robi 

T:i\ ii n, I. ni iii.- Inttei In i iti . \ aoillates 
and linally instead of obeying pu hi Prince 
iluu ii towards Bart letl M i lephy h 

I H vision on the lefi of the road 
in i In- ■ I . ■ . I . French hn ni\ en Johni on 
i ii. m to pn pan lor the attaol , II" til 
bad Prince to I he glade and pr< 
Second Division In wo\ er, 

deploj id In:, men, and lid' ing i he plai i ol 
iii. hard pr d troops, ucceeded In 

ing the enemy, The One Hundred 
in i was i he on 1) Regi menl ol th e 
I i ■ i Brigadi engaged in thi part ol the 
fight, "> hii li ■ a i very i h ii*ji here foi an 
hour, \\ hen i he enemy having accompl 
lir purpose, in pi eventing i he junction of the 
Iwo i "liinm , : low In ret m 'I followed by I'.il' 

i h rough ill" woods and to the 

i dge of a cleared field. The Regimeul was 

i tected by a rail f< nee and 

•Mil i ni" the everity of the (ire ll 

. omparatively liglit, three killed and len 

wo led. The Si icty Third relieved our 

i :ii dark, and the men retired ;i 

id and laid down for i he nighl, aflet 
replenii hing their empt y carti ii 
wondering wlial the moi row would reveal 
This engagement i I now n on Hi" records ol 
the Liegiraenl as ( he " Battle of Moi ri 

I ftl IM 

The next moj ning i he si irmishers were 
id before da flight, but i he enemy 
had withdrawn dm ing ill" night. I rencli 
now pushes forward loward Robert on I ■ ■• 
em. li had rained all the moi ning, but the 
. ni, (loundering i h rough the mud 
The road croi sei a number of small treams 
(lowing into Mine Run, which are epa 
rated Li f rom one o( 

] viiw of iii" < lonfedoratc posi 
btained. The mountain brool , 
i li\ iln- ruin had becomi h i"i rent 

inundal ing a large pari of the valh •■ i h u li 

which ii flowed ; and i oon, t<> m 

- eeable, an al i imi 

trabh fog ettled dow n upon i vei . thing 
.in, i ,i ; iii. • ii,,; iii.- Fed 



eral army occupies :i line facing Mine Run 
(westerly) and perpendicular (<> the Rapi- 
dan, Warren's (Second) Corps on the ex- 
treme left, his left resting upon the unfinish- 
ed railroad, and crossing the Plank Road, 
French on his right, Newton's (First) on 
the right of French, his right resting on the 
Turnpike, then Sykes' (Fifth) Corps and 
Sedgwick's (Sixth.) The day was spent in 
getting into position, there being im fighting 
except a little skirmish firing at times. The 
Regiment was placed on picket this evening. 
The Federal and Confederate picket lines 

were near each oilier, both Oil the east side 

of the Run, our line extending across Mrs, 
Kennedy's farm, at whose house the Colonel 
established his headquarters. The night 
was rainy and cold and the men suffered in- 

Sunday, the 29th, the Regiment still held 
the advanced line. They were deployed as 
skirmishers and compelled the enemy to 
withdraw to the west side of the Run. The 
entire day was thus passed. Ticket firing 
between the lines was kepi up constantly, 
but no general engagement. The enem} in 
the meanwhile was fortifying the west side 
of Mine Run until it became a line of great 
strength. Lieutenant Atkinson writes: — 
" Our Regiment was sent out on picket that 
(Saturday) night and remained out all day 
Sunday. Firing between the pickets was 
kept up all of Sunday ; and 1 venture to say 
that there was not an officer in the Regi- 
ment, except three with the reserves that 
was not fired ul several times during the 
day, and only one was hit, and he very 
slightly on the finger." 

Just when' our picket line was established 
the valley through which the stream runs is 
several rods in width, the creek running 
near the western bank. The videttes of the 
line were placed in a fringe of timber 
which bordered the stream, while the re- 
serves were stationed in a belt of wood at 
the foot of the hills that form the cash rri 
bound of the valley. Between the two was a 

strip of cleared ground. A party of ( lonfed 

crate sharpshooters occupied a position over 
looking this cleared space and sent a volley 
of minie balls after officer or man who at- 
1 impted to cross it. Several bad thus been 
shot at when Colonel Madill came down to 
visit the picket posts. Though warned of 
his danger he fearlessly strode across the 
dan) erous w ay unharmed, and told < laptain 
Atkinson he wanted sonic of bis best marks- 
men. Taking these they crossed the stream 
on one of the rail bridges which had been 

laid preparatory t aking a charge upon 

the enemy's position, clambered up the bank 
on the west side until he reached a point 
commanding the position of the sharpshoot- 
ers, and then elevating his hat on a stick to 
draw the fire and learn their exact hiding 
place, directed his men to watch for them. 

In this way the two parties watched each 
oilier for some time, each firing at the bid- 
ill"' place of I he other without damage to 
either, but making the sharpshooters a little 

more cautious about firing at persons cross- 
ing the cleared space lest they should < 
themselves to the fire of their assailants. 

The One Hundred Forty- hirst, relieved 
by the Fifty-Seventh after dark, Sunday ev- 
ening, retired on a ridge back of Birney's 
Headquarters for the night, where they biv- 
ouacked upon the ground, wet, cold and 

Warren was to have led the attack on 
.Monday morning, the 30th ; but finding the 
enemy so strongly in his front declined to 
do so, in which he had the approval of his 
commander, who determines if he can to at- 
tack the enemy's center. The First Brigade 
of Birney's Division is placed to support 
Sleeper's battery, but before Meade could 
make the proper dipositions his watchful 
antagonist divined his purpose and massed 
his fonis to repel the threatened attack. 
The Regiment was busy in the afternoon in 
strengthening its line by a series of rifle pits 
and breastworks. This evening clearing 
weather was followed by severely cold wind.-; 
which brought suffering to the men. 



< )n Tuesday morning, I (ecember 1st, the 
brigade moved farther to the rear and found 
shelter in a piece of pine woods, where they 
remained all day, while the artillery 
and trains were senl back across the Rapi- 
dan, Ai six o'clock in the evening orders 
were received to !><• ready to march at once, 
and in an hour the whole corps was in mo- 
tion, takin ■; 1 lie Plank Road toward Fred- 
ericksburg until they reached the road lead- 
ing to < rermanna Ford, 1 hen in '. he direct ion 
of Culpepper Ford, which after a long, hard 
march all night was reached and 1 
about five o'clock in the morning of the sec- 
ond of December. In this retreat Birney's 
Division was icar guar I to i he column. 
Upon reaching the north side of the Rapi- 
dan the division remained to guard the ford 
until Wednesday evening, when they started 
for their old camp which \\a reached with- 
out further incident about daylight of Thurs- 
day, after an absence of just one week. 

The campaign had been a very severe and 
1 rying one. Rain, cold weather, long night 
marches, proximity to the enemy, forbidding 
md thus depriving the men of their 
much needed coffee, all told badly for the 
m< u, w ho rejoiced once more to get into 
their log hut - and enjoy the shelter and rest 
they afforded. 

What was worse, the campaign was a fruit- 
ne. The loss entailed upon the enemy 
was trifling and the gain on our pari noth- 
ing, Meade was chagrined and laid the 
blame of failure largely on French whose 
dilatory movements and disobedience of or 
ders had thwarti d the plans of the com- 
mander, and thus turned what promised to be 
a successful movement to a complete failure. 

The loss of Second Lieutenant James Van 
\nl en, who was killed on the afternoon of 
November 27th, ( was deeply felt. He was 
born April 27, L840, and spent his boyhood 
on Lime Hill, acquiring a fair English edu- 
cation in the publin school, and was living 
iln re at the ti ne of his enlistment with < lap- 
tain Jackson iii Company A, in which at its 

organization he was made Si 1 
from \\ hich, February 16, 1863, he wa 
promoted to Second Lieutenant. In th< ab- 
sence of commissioned officers in Company 
I >, I ( ieutenant Van A.uken was placed in 
command of that company by ordei of < lolo 
nel iMailill, May L2th, continuing in that po- 
sition most of the time until his death. .Inst, 
al the do e of 1 he engagement at Morris 
Farm, he was standing in a group with 
three or lour other officen when he was shot 
by a sharpshooter, in the right side just be- 
low the shoulder, the ball striking his arm 
and passing into the lungs. He was assisted 
to the rear and died in about fifteen min- 
utes, lie was a good soldier, an efficient of- 

1 pleasant companion, possessed of a 

cheerful disposition, an even temper r< 
ed by his fellow officers and beloved by his 
men. He, with others who fell in thi en 
gagement, was buried in a plot in the Wi- 
dow Morris' garden. Al, Kelley's Ford 
Lieutenant Van A uken captured a < lonfed- 
erati officer, and retained his sword which 
is now in 1 he posi es ion of his brother. A f- 
ii r 1 lie Regiment retui ned from the M ine 
Run expedition a meeting of the officers wa 
held w hich adopted 1 he following minute, 

At a meeting of the officers of the ( me 
Hundred Forty-First Regii 1, Pennsylva- 
nia Volunteers, held in camp near Brandy 

Station, Virginia, December 8, 1863, lor the 
purpose of taking suitable action in regard 
to 1 he death of Lieutenant Van Vol.. n, of 
Company A, of that Regiment, the follow- 
li ilutions were unanimou l;> adopted 1 

Whereas, An A.ll-Wise Providence has 
removed from among us our esteemi d and 
valued friend and brother officer, Lieuten- 

ant James Van A uken, of < 'oinoaiiv A, a 

comrade possessing high social qualities, 
and an amiability of disposition thai endear- 
ed him to all with whom he was acquainted 

and 1 ociatl d, and who fell mm tally wound- 
ed in the kite battle of Mon is Farm, while 
gallantly defending his country's (lag; and 

We i:i; r: \ -, Words can but inadequately 
express the sorrow which we, his brother 
officers, lee] upon this sad occasion, and 
u bile humbly bowing to the dictate, of I Inn 
who doeth all things well, we would put on 



record evidence of the deep sense of the loss 
we have sustained, and as a slight mark of 
respect to the memory of our lamented com- 
rade, il is 

Ri solved, That in the death of Lieutenant 
.lames Van Auken, the < )ne I [undred Forty- 
First Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, 
lias li st a faithful and valued officer, his 
brother officers a dearly beloved comrade, 
and the service one of its brightest and 
noblest ornaments. 

Resolved, That our heartfelt sympathies 
are due and are hereby tendered to the sor- 
row-stricken family and relatives of the de- 
ceased, in this their hour of affliction. 

/,'. solved, That we, the officers of the One 
Hundred Forty-hirst Regiment, Pennsylva- 
nia Volunteers, in token of respect for our 
late brother officer, do wear the usual badge 
of mourning for the ensuing thirty days. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions 
be transmitted to the family of the deceased, 
and to the Bradford County papers for pub- 

II. J. Madill, Colonel, 141st, Pa. Vols. 
<;. Ii. Watkins, Lieut. Col., 1 list. Pa. Vols. 
1). W. Sea'rle, Adjutant, 141st, Pa. Vols. 
R. N. Torrey, Quar. Master, 1 list, Pa. Vols. 
William Church, Surgeon, Mist, Pa. Vols. 
■ F. C. Dennison, Asst. Surg., 1 list. Pa Vols. 
Joseph H. Horton, Captain, Company A. 
Joseph 11. Hurst, First Lieut., Company A. 
Benjamin M. Peck, Captain, Company B. 
Henry I*. Jones. First Lieut., Company B. 
"William J. Cole, Captain, Company C. 
GeorgeW. Kilmer, First Lieut., Company C. 
Marcus L. Warner, First Lieut., Company 1). 
John F. Clark, Captain, Company L. 
Mascn Long, First Lieut., Company E. 
E. B. Brainerdj First Lieut., Company F. 

I -ii Atkinson, Captain, ( lorupany ( I. 
< '. \V. Tyler, Captain, Company 11. 
John L. Gyle, First Lieut., Company II. 
L. A. Spaulding, Captain, Company 1. 
John G. Brown, First Lieut,. Company 1. 

Charles Mercur, Captain, Company K. 
! Gerould, First Lieut.. Company 1\. 

Hiram Bennett, a private in Company D, 
son of Enos Bennett, living in Burling- 
ton township at the time of his enlistment, 
was instantly killed having been shot 
through the head, lie was unmarried, and 
about twenty-two years of age. 

John I'. Snyder, was living in Sheshequin 

"'Appointed Assistant Surgeon in place of Dr. 
i Thompson, deceased. 

at the time of his enlistment, where he left 
a wife and one daughter, (since married and 
living in Stillwater, Minnesota,) joined Cap- 
tain Reeves" Company, was a good soldier, 
and fell in the ranks, lie was horn Decem- 
ber 24, 1830, and a brother of William Sny- 
der, Esq. 

There were wounded also in this engage- 
ment the following as reported : 


Sergeant Edwin White, severely in the 

Private Benjamin P. Oliphanl, severely 
in the right arm. 


Corporal Charles E. Seeley, slightly in 
the hand. 

Private Darius Bullock, severely in the 


Lieutenant John L. Gyle, slightly in the 

Private < tilbert Corwin. 

Jacob W. Palmer, thigh broken. 

•■Private Mill's Russell, slightly in the 

•Private William Heath, slightly in the 

i PANY' K. 

Private Wallace Scott, slightly in the fin- 

J he following table is a summary ol the 
looses : 


Killed or 
Died of 

and Missing 

Field <S 





























It is said accidentally. 



The men spent Thursday, the day of their 
return, in resting. In the afternoon a por- 
tion of the enemy's cavalry made demonstra- 
tions <m Meade's front, and the alarm spread 
rapidly through the camps. About half- 
past nine in the evening the bugle sounded 
from Brigade Headquarters to pack up, but 
the threatened attack was not made, and the 
soldiers, about two o'clock in the morning, 
sought the quiet of their couches. On Fri- 
day the division was called out to witness 
the execution of a deserter from the Fourth 
Maine Regiment, and on Saturday the Reg- 
iment moved camp about three-fourths of a 
mile nearer the Station, into some pine 
woods, that they might be more convenient 
to Division Headquarters. They had just 
begun to build their huts when orders were 
received to suspend work and he ready to 
move at a moment's notice. All day the 
Regiment anxiously awaits further orders, 
but at evening arc told "that the exigencies 
which required the contemplated movement 
had passed," and they might, again, go to 
work on their houses. 

( >n Monday, the 7th, Captain Atkinson 
with a detail of fifty men went on picket, re- 
maining until Wednesday, and thirteen ar- 
rived from Convalescent Camp. The week 
passed quietly, the weather was cold, high 
winds and rains were frequent, and the win- 
ter quarters proved to lie very comfortable. 

The Christian Commission erected a cha- 
pel-tent near Brigade Headquarters, and on 
Sunday, December l.'Jth, it was opened for 
public worship. George H. Stuart and the 
Secretary of the Commission, Dr. Patterson, 
conducted the public service which was well 
attended by men of the Regiment. Preaching 
services, prayer and conference meetings were 
held almost nightly, ami Bible class instruc- 
tion every Sunday. Members of the commis- 
sion remained with the brigade until the 
opening of the spring campaign. The efforts 
here made to improve the moral and spirit- 
ual condition of the men were warmly sec- 
onded by the officers of both brigade and 
Regiment, Quartermaster Torrey always giv- 

ing prompt transportation to their baggage 
and supplies. The meetings were largely 
attended, many became deeply interested in 
tin' great question of their spiritual well-be- 
ing, and began to lead a better life. In ad- 
dition to religious meetings the chapel was 
frequently used lor addresses on temperance, 
patriotism and the like. 

Wednesday, the Kith, was the monthly 
inspection. On the 23d General Meade re- 
viewed the corps, but the weather was cold, 
the ground covered with snow, and the dis- 
play was soon over. 

The vicissitudes through which the Regi- 
ment had passed since Chancellorsville had 
deprived the companies of many of their of- 
ficers, both commissioned and non-commis- 
sioned. In some of the companies not a 
commissioned officer was left, and in most, 
the few non-commissioned officers were 
obliged to serve in several capacities. As 
soon as the Kegiment returned from the 
Mine Run movement, arrangements were 
made to give each company its required 
number of officers, and at dress parade, 
Tuesday, December 211111, the announcement 
of the promotions was made. 

In Company A promotions were made 
November 1st, viz: .James W. Alderson 
from Sergeant to firs: Sergeant; Ethel Ful- 
ler from private to Sergeant; Isaac Yetter 
and Daniel B. Yose from privates to Cor- 

In Company B, December 5th, Benjamin 
M. Peck was promoted from Second Lieu- 
tenant to Captain; Henry ['.. .Jones from 
Sergeant-Major to First Lieutenant; Martin 
0. Codding, December 17th, from Sergeant 
to Sergeant-Major; Ephraim D. Robbins, 
December 3d, from Sergeant to First Ser- 
geant; Josiah A. Bosworth from Corporal 
to Sergeant ; .John H. Chaffee, Robert Hatch, 
Stephen B. Canfield, Nelson C. Dyer, Hi- 
ram L. Culver, Alvin Whittaker and ( leorge 
II. (i ranger to be Corporals. 

In Company C, December 5th, First L>' 
tenant William J. Cole was promote' 



Captain ; George W. Kilmer from First Ser- 
geant to First Lieutenant. 

En Company 1>, First Lieutenant Thomas 
Ryon was promoted to Captain, December 
26th; Marcus E. Warner, December oth, 
was promoted from First Sergeant to First 
Lieutenant; Henry J. Hudson from Sergeant 
to First Sergeant; Chester Stewart from Cor- 
poral to Sergeant; Lyman Beers, Jerome 
Chaffee, Daniel Shultz, and Rodney Brewer, 
from privates to Corporals. 

In Company E, Mason Lout;' was promot- 
ed, December 5th, from Second to First 
Lieutenant, in place of Stephen Evans- , re- 
signed, November 3d, and William R. 
Campbell was promoted Corporal, Novem- 
ber Is!. 

[n Company F, Elisha 1'.. Brainerd was 
promoted from Second to First Lieutenant, 
December 5th, ami Leander Brooks was 
made Corporal, December - _ > ">th. 

In Company ('<, Joseph Atkinson was pro- 
moted, December 5th, from First Lieutenant 
to < 'aptain ; ( 'liarles M. Ball from Second to 
First Lieutenant, and William Muir' 1 from 
First Sergeant to Second Lieutenant, Decem- 
ber 9th. 

In Company H, John L. Gyle was pro- 
moted, December 5th, from Second to First 

In Company I, John G. Brown, December 
5th, was promoted from Second to First 

In Company K, December 5th, Beebe 
Gerould was promoted from First Sergeant 
to First Lieutenant, and the first of January 
following Aurelius J. Adams from Sergeant 
to First Sergeant. 

In a letter of ( 'aptain Atkinson, under date of 
January 24, 1864, be says: — "I have had a recom- 
mendation sent for Miiir as Second Lieutenant, 
and hope to gel his commission so as to take it 
to him at Philadelphia on my way home" Mr. 
Muir was at that time in hospital suffering from 
his wound received at Gettysburg, shot by a re- 
volver, the ball passing through the knee, and 
for some reason never received his Lieutenant's 

amission to which he was entitled, but the 
■imciit subsequently recognized his right 

The year closed in quietness among the 
camps of the Grand Army. Under the or- 
der allowing a certain number of officers and 
enlisted men to be absent on furloughs, 
quite a number had availed themselves of 
the opportunity to make short visits home, 
the sick and wounded were recovering and 
returning to the Regiment so that altogethei 
the outlook was more hopeful than it had 
been since Chancellorsville. 

The period of enlistment of the Fifty-Sev- 
enth, One Hundred Fifth, and One Hundred 
Tenth Regiments having nearlj expired, 
the most of them re-enlisted as veteran 
volunteers, and December 29th were muster- 
ed for three years more, or until the < li 
the war. Those who thus re-enlisted were 
given furloughs of thirty-live days to return 
home as an organization. 

Wednesday and Thursday, December 30th 
and 31st, had been rainy, so that when in 
the afternoon of the last day of the year the 
Regiment was mustered by the Colonel, ev- 
erything was swimming in mud. 

John II. Chalice, of Company B, makes. 
this entry at the close of the year: — "One 
year ago to-day the One Hundred Forty- 
First numbered between six hundred and 
seven hundred. To-day we have two hun- 
hundred and forty-five present. Many of 
our absent ores lie buried in Virginia or on 
the bloody held of Gettysburg, while many 
more are absent in hospital, not having as 
vet recovered from their wounds. I believe 
the majority of those present have the 
marks of rebel bullets on their persons, while 
there are but three or tour officers thai have 
not been wounded." 

The severe experiences of the past two 
winters bad been sufficient to convince ev- 
ery one ol the folly of attempting active mil- 
itary operations during the bad weather. 
Meade therefore wisely determined to allow 
his army to rest in their comfortable winter 
quarters until the weather became settled in 
the spring. Luring the first four months of 
the year 186 1, the t roops remained encamped 



about the north bank of the Rapidan, our 
Regiment in the vicinity of Brandy Station, 
without the occurrence of much that is wor- 
thy of note. Details of fifty men or therea- 
bouts were required for picket duty, one de- 
tail relieving the other, so that about this 
number of men was constantly on the pick- 
et line; company, regimental and brigade 
drills were had in suitable weather; inspec- 
tions were frequent ; dress parade was ob- 
served on pleasant afternoons; the troops 
were occasionally reviewed by the Generals, 
while the leisure was mostly spent in such 
amusements as could be indulged in. 

The year 1863 closed with heavy rains, 
but before night of January 1st tin- weather 
became much colder and the ground was 
t'ro/.cn again. The day after, the One Hun- 
dred Fifth Regiment started for home on 
their veteran furlough. On Sunday, Janua- 
ry 10th, Captain Mercur, who, December 
24th, had been detailed Brigade [nspector, 
inspected the Regiment. 

The Regiment wns encamped upon the 
farm of Hon. John Minor Botts, but wood 
becoming scarce it was rumored that Mr. 
Botts had prevailed upon General Birney to 
move his division farther away; and on 
Monday, the 11th, the One Hundred Forty- 
First struck tents at eight o'clock, and mov- 
ed about four miles toward the Rapidan into 
a piece of line timber. That night the men 
were compel led to sleep upon the frozen 
ground with the snow three inches deep 
without shelter. The next two days they 
were busily engaged in building new quar- 
ters. The new camp was by order of Gen- 
eral Birney called Camp Bullock, in honor 
of a friend who had presented each man in 
the division with a pair of yarn mittens. 

The brigade was temporarily reduced to 
three regiments, the Fifty-Seventh having 
gone home on the 8th on veteran furlough. 
( !aptain ' ryle was in command of the Regi- 
ment for a (■-■w days, the Colonel having 

gone home on a short leave on the 6th, and 

Lieutenant-Colonel Watkins being also ab- 

sent on sick leave, the latter, however, re- 
turned on the 1-lth and took command. 

Sunday, .January 24th, was pleasant, and 
General Birney reviewed the troops of his 
division and inspected their camps, ordering 
the men in the First Brigade to build their 
houses somewhat higher and otherwise im- 
prove them, and the next two or three days 
were spent in making these improvements, 
policing the streets, and otherwise improv- 
ing the cam]). 

The first few days of February were spent 
in the usual quiet. General Butler, com- 
manding the Department of Virginia and 
North Carolina, believing that Richmond 
bad been snipped of its garrison, formed the 
design of swooping down upon the Confed 
erate Capital with a cavalry force by way of 
New Kent Court House, on the Peninsula. 
In order to distract Lee's attention and [ire- 
vent him from sending a force to aid the 
garrison at Richmond, in case the attack- 
should prove successful, Sedgwick, then 
temporarily in command of the Army of the 
Potomac, ordered two divisions of the Sec- 
ond ( oi-ps to cross the Rapidan at Germanna 
Ford, and the rest of the army to be in sup- 
porting distance. In this movement the 
One Hundred Forty-First fad a. part. 

At five o'clock on the morning of Satur- 
day, February 6th, the men were ordered to 
pack up, and, leaving a guard totake care of 
the camp, be ready to march at seven, heavy 
cannonading meanwhile being heard in the 
direction of Culpepper. Owing to the great 
depletion of the First Brigade, most of its 
regiments being absent on veteran furloughs, 
it was divided between the other two bri- 
gades of the division, the One Hundred For- 
ty-First being placed in the Third, 1 De Tro- 
briand's) Brigade. The men remained 
ready to march until lour o'clock in the af- 
ternoon, when they fell into line and set out 
in the direction of Culpepper at quick time. 
The morning was cloudy, and about noon 
the rain began to fall which continued all 
the afternoon and evening, making the roads 



slippery and muddy. It was dark before 
Culpepper was reached, but the men contin- 
ued 1 brer miles farther, when about, ten 

o'clock they bivouacked in a piece of vv is 

for the night, with orders to be ready to 
march the next morning at daylight. 

The rain continued to fall nearly all night, 
drenching the men to the skin. At live 
o'clock the Regiment is again aroused, and 
after a hasty breakfast is in line and ready 
to move at seven. The roads by this time 
are terribly muddy, which with wet clothing 
render all movements slow and difficult. 
They, however, push on four miles farther 
when then' come to a halt, where they re- 
mained until afternoon. The clouds had 
broken away ami the sun shone during the 
afternoon. Later in the day the men were 
moved back about a mile into a piece of 
woods where they again bivouacked until 
night, when they returned to camp which 
they reached about ten o'clock, tired, wet, 
and hungry. It had been a muddy, hard 
march. The movement had accomplished 
nothing but weariness to the troops who 
were engaged in it. 

In a letter under date of February 11th, 
Sergeant Owen has so graphically described 
this movement, and his half mirth- 
ful style wili be so well appreciated by his 
comrades as giving a soldier's view of things 
that the following extract will be given: — 

" Early on the morning of the 6th we 
heard cannonading, and packing up our 
things ready for a move we lay in readiness 
awaiting orders until four o'clock in the af- 
ternoon, at which time the musketry could 
be heard very plainly. The bugle then 
sounded ' Fall in !' which was done in short 
order, every man with about as much on his 
back as he could stand under. It had rain- 
ed some in the night and drizzled all day, 
thus rendering things wet and nice, and 
making the going muddy and slippery. The 
First Brigade, (ours) was divided between 
lie Second and Third — the One Hundred 
Forty-First was put with the Third. We 
marched over to General Birney's Head- 

quarters where we rested a short time for 
the columns to pass. While there the artil- 
lery and musketry firing was very rapid, 
and appeared to lie not more than two miles 
off. Marching in the direction of the firing 
we passed through Culpepper, three or four 
miles from camp, at eight o'clock, mud shoe 
deep in all places and deeper if you happen- 
ed to get your foot into some other places, 
which I and the most of us did. The lain 
kept coining steadily and at times quite fast. 
It was as dark as it usually is when the sky 
is completely hidden by black clouds, and 
including everything it was delightful. 

"Our road was the broad common over 
rivulets, ditches, through liehls and hedges, 
interspersed with stumps and stones which 
would frequently run against the soldiers' 
toes, prostrating them at full length in the 
mud. I was fortunate enough to come that 
game twice. On we went, however, but the 
musketry which had slackened somewhat 
seemed no nearer than when we started. 
Three miles from Culpepper toward the Ra- 
pidan, and at the foot of Pony Mountain 
they ran us into a fine piece of woods where 
we were told to make ourselves comfortable 
until daylight. All that we could learn 
was that the Second Corps was fighting the 
enemy somewhere in hearing, but on which 
side of the river we could not tell. It was 
said the movement was merely a reconnois- 
sance in force to ascertain the strength of 
the enemy, but we all thought we would get 
a 'chance in' before it was done with. 
Guards had been left at all the camps to 
keep bummers and stragglers from destroying 
what could not be taken. Some of the troops 
left their tents up, but we were ordered to 
take everything as we might not return. 

" At daylight on the 7th we fell in and 
started again for the scene of action. Some 
artillery was playing, and the musketry fir- 
ing was as if on a skirmish line. After 
marching about three miles we came to a 
halt in a piece of woods where we staid near- 
ly two hours. Meantime the news came 



that the play was out, and we would return 
to camp. The report was soon confirmed 
by our taking the back track, and a general 
shout ran from one end of the line to the 
other when we were aerain sent to the woods 
on a middling dry piece of ground where 
we remained till night. At noon the sun 
came out, the clouds vanished, and it was 
■quite pleasant. We took advantage of it to 
dry our things. 

"At dark (he column started tor camp, 
and the marching we (lit! — well, we did not 
run all (he way, but we did some tall walk- 
ing, and did not make a halt in the whole 
distance, nearly or quite eight miles. Ami 
here I must say that I am not disposed to 
faultfinding, but I do wish that some of our 
leaders who have horses to ride were obliged 
to shoulder a soldier's burden and foot it 
just one day on some of our marches. I 
think it would make stragglers of them and 
teach them a lesson that any sensible man 
ought to know by reason without a resort to 
experience. The road from Culpepper to 
camp was lined with soldiers, worried out. 
A few of the strongest got through with the 
horses, but the ranks were completely brok- 
en, one regiment mixed with another. Some 
did not get in until the next day. I with 
iny tent-mates got in about ten o'clock in 
the evening just about whipped. When 
there is necessity for fast marching no sol- 
dier will grumble, hut where then- is no oc- 
casion to]- hurry one cannot help it. 

" Another point that I cannot see the rea- 
son for is why we cannot have daylight to 
move in? Completely hidden as we are 
from the enemy by distance, woods, moun- 
tains, etc., we often loiter away a nice day, 
and then pull up in the night and make a 
long hard march, when a man's eyes are of 
no use to him. There may be policy in it, 
but I cannot see it. The troops are all hack 
in their old camps. The papers say the 
Second Corps surprised and captured a good 
many prisoners, crossed the Kapidan, had a 
sharp engagement with the enemy, held 

their ground, retired in the night with the 
loss of ali lut two hundred men." 

Nearly all of the men of the Fifty-Sev- 
enth, Ninety Ninth, One Hundred Fifth and 
One Hundred Tenth Regiments had re-en- 
listed, but a few in each preferred to leave 
the army and return home. While their 
comrades were away on veteran furlough, 
those of the One Hundred Tenth who did 
not re -enlist were transferred to Company I 
swelling their number to nearly eighty men, 
those of the Ninety-Ninth were also assigned 
to two other companies of the Regiment, 
making for a time the aggregate as many as 
four hundred and eighty-nine men, from 
whom sixty-three men were daily detailed 
for picket service. The remnants of the 
Fifty-Seventh and One Hundred Filth re- 
mained by themselves. 

On the 12th of February, Colonel Madill 
returned on the expiration of his leave and 
again resumed command of the Regiment. 

On Sunday, February 14th, the woods 
look lire, endangering the camp, the Brigade 
Commissary and stores, and the men were 
all called out to put out the fires. The wind 
was high and for a time it was thou- hi 
doubtful i I anything could lie saved, hut the 
flames were got under control and the stores 

On Monday, Francis A. Spencer, a recruit 
in Company II, died in camp of- measles, 
and was buried the 16th — "The first funeral 
in the Regiment since last spring." He 
had heen mustered December 31, 1863, but 
reached the Regiment only the week before 
his death. He was a young man, "a mere 
lad," living at the time of his enlistment in 
Erie County, Pennsylvania, the son of Ben- 
jamin N. Spencer, (since deceased,) of the 
same company, who was aide to care for him 
in his sickness, and in whose anus he died. 
His being almost a stranger in the Regiment, 
his youth, and his sudden death enlisted 
much sympathy from his comrades. 

The weather during the month had been 
extremely unpleasant. Most of the time it 
bad rained or snowed, the storms being fol- 



lowed by high winds and cold weather, pre- 
venting any regular drills. The men, how- 
ever, amused themselves at playing ball 
whenever the weather would admit, and in- 
spections were frequent. On Sunday, the 
21st, the One Hundred Fifth Regiment re- 
turned to camp at the expiration of their 
furlough. Our Regiment turned out with 
guns and equipments to welcome them, 
standing at " present arms " while the vet- 
erans passed by. Says Adrial Lee, in speak- 
ing of this reception: — "Colonel Madill 
takes off' his hat and gives three cheers, ac- 
companied by the Regiment, and the salute 
is returned by the old veterans. We were 
mighty glad to see them returning. Com- 
pany A had a grand cotillion after roll call 
in their honor." 

On Monday, orders were issued for a 
daily thorough inspection, and to prepare 
for a review of the division. The next two 
days were spent in policing the camp and 
preparing for the review which took place 
on Wednesday, February "24th, at two o'clock 
in the afternoon, by Generals French and 
Birney, followed by dress paradein the even- 

Thursday, the Regiment received two 
months' pay. The Fifty- Seventh Regiment 
returned from furlough this day, and was 
received with the same honors as had heen 
accorded to the One Hundred Fifth. Six 
men also returned to the Regiment this even- 

< >n Saturday, the '27th, orders were re- 
ceived at Regimental Headquarters to he 
ready to march at seven o'clock the next 
morning, and the men to provide themselves 
with five days' rations in haversacks. The 
accounts of the ill-treatment of Federal 
prisoners at Richmond hud excited profound 
sympathy throughout the North, and led to 
fitting out a bold expedition under command 
of General Kilpatrick to effect their release. 
In this, as in other raids against the Capi- 
tal of the Confederacy, the Army of the Po- 
tomac co-operated by diverting Lee from the 
cavalry movements on the James and pre- 

venting him from reinforcing the Rich- 
mond garrison* 

The picket detail was immediately called 
in and the men were busy the remaining 
part of the day in getting ready for the con- 
templated movement. On Sunday morn- 
ing the reveille sounded at live o'clock, and 
at half-past six the men were in line ready 
to march. The tents were left standing with 
the halt and lame to guard them. The 
roads were good, in som-e places dusty, and 
the weather pleasant. The route was in a 
southwesterly direction toward Madison 
Court House, south of Robertson's river. 
The Sixth Corps, preceded by a division of 
cavalry, led the column, the Third Corps 
following within supporting distance. About 
ten o'clock in the forenoon the brigade 
reached Culpepper, through which the divi- 
sion marched in column by companies. This- 
town, which is so frequently mentioned 
in the accounts of the Army of the Potomac. 
is descrihed by one of the men of the Regi- 
ment as " about four miles west of Brandy 
Station, on the Orange and Alexandria Rail- 
road, on the south hank of the Rapid an, of 
about four hundred houses, somewhat scat- 
tered and built, some of wood, which are 
shabby, ami some of brick which are very 


The Regiment continued on its much un- 
til a little past noon, when it halted an hour 
for dinner, alter which the route was re- 
sinned, halting at two o'clock for the night a. 
little beyond .lames City, (dose to Thorough- 
fare Mountain, on the road to Madison 
Court House, which was about six miles dis- 
tant, dailies City consisted, says one, of two 
old houses, a tannery and a woodshed," and 
another describes it as "a city composed of 
four old dwelling houses, an old store-house, 
three hog-pens and two barns." By some 
means the dry grass in the fields had been 
set on tire and was rapidly driven by the 
wind, consuming fences and stacks, and endan- 
gering even the buildings. The men soon 
found that they were encamped near the 
residences of a general and a captain in tin- 



Confederate service. The family of the for- 
mer had removed, but that of the latter re- 
mained, the captain himself coming near be- 
ing captured, his muster roll and company 
papers falling into our hands. General Bir- 
ney refused his wife a safeguard and the sol- 
diers stripped the plantation of everything. 

Monday, February 29th, was passed in 
quietness. The Regiment was mustered for 
pay by the Colonel at eight o'clock in the 
morning. They found in the Confederate 
captain's house two carbines and a quantity 
of cartridges, which were taken, and the 
house pillaged. A sergeant truly remarked, 
" there are some half-civilized men in the 
army as well as at home." In the captain's 
house a negro child had died after the troops 
came, and the men assisted in burying it. 
The men were under orders to be ready to 
march at a moment's notice, but were not 
required to move. In the afternoon it had be- 
gun to be cloudy, and toward night it com- 
menced to storm, which continued with con- 
siderable severity through the night, and all 
of the next day. On the morning of March 
2d, the ground was covered with snow and 
the mud frozen. At seven o'clock this 
morning the Regiment started on its return 
to camp, which was twelve miles distant, 
reaching it about half-past one o'clock. The 
roads had become slippery and the march- 
ing bad before camp was reached, but the 
journey was made without casualty. 

In order to fill up the old regiments, and 
otherwise augment the military force in the 
litlil preparatory to the spring campaign of 
1864, February 1st, the. President of the 
United States issued his proclamation call- 
ing for live hundred thousand men, and in 
such districts as failed to make up by volun- 
teers the quota asssigned them, a draft was 
ordered to he made March 10th, to secure 
the required number ; and on the 15th of 
March another proclamation was issued, 
calling for two hundred thousand additional 
to make up deficiencies, and have a force 
ready for an emergency. As a further in- 

ducement for men to volunteer, the Govern- 
ment offered a bounty of four hundred dol- 
lars lor every volunteer for three years, or 
during the war, who had been in the service 
nine months or longer, been regularly dis- 
charged and was now fit for duty, and three 
hundred and two dollars for all volunteers 
of like terms and conditions. Besides 
this the State passed laws authorizing va- 
rious municipal authorities to offer 
local bounties tor volunteers, and issue 
bonds upon the cities, boroughs or townships 
therefor. Officers home on veteran furlough 
were also doing their utmost to enlist men 
to fill up the ranks in their own regiments. 
Captain Darling was enlisting for the Fifty- 
Seventh ; Lieutenant-Colonel Overton and 
Captain Telford were enlisting for the Fifti- 
eth, and Charles Mercur for the One Hun- 
dred Forty-First. The latter Regiment re- 
ceived recruits for the most part from the 
vicinities whence the several companies en- 
listed as follows: Company A, eleven, mus- 
tered March 15, 1864, and four who were 
mustered at other dates, all but one prior to 
May 1, 1864; neither Company B nor C re- 
ceived any before the beginning of the 
spring campaign ; Company I) received six. 
Company E two, Companies F and G none, 
Company H, eighteen mustered in March, 
1864, most or all of whom were enlisted by 
John B. Overfield, Esq.; Company I receiv- 
ed three in the fall of 1863, six in March, 
and one in April, 1864; Company K receiv- 
ed one in in January, and one in March, 
1864, making an addition of fifty-two to the 
strength of the Regiment prior to April 30, 
1864. From all sources the numbers had 
so increased that in the latter part of March 
the Regiment could muster about two hun- 
dred men. 

Wednesday, March 16th, was the month- 
ly inspection, after which Generals French 
and Meade reviewed the Third Corps. The 
day was cold, but clear and sunshiny. The 
Colonel spoke of the review as a very fine 
one. A considerable number of the officers 
were 1 visited by their wives and friends, si/ 

1 68 


that the number of ladies present was no- 
ticeably large. As the weather was becom- 
ing better drills began to be resumed. This 
was especially necessary for the benefit of 
the recruits which were daily expected, and 
on the 17th by general orders the various 
signals were to be at the following times: — 

Reveille, 5:30 a. m. 

Breakfast, 6:30 A. M. 

Sick Call, 7:00 " 

Company Drill, 8:30 A. M. 

Recall, 11:30 A. M. 

Battalion Drill, 2:00 p. m. 

Recall, 4:00 p. m. 

Dress Parade, 5:00 r. M. 

Tattoo, 8:30 i>. m. 

Taps, '.1:00 P. M. 

One of the men observes, " business for all 
hours, and wood scarce at that." 

in addition to the ball-playing which was 
the popular amusement, General Ward built 
a log theatre with such appointments as 
could be secured, and obtained a troupe to 
give a series of plays for the entertainment 
of the troops. This was opened March "21st, 
at which says one, they " had a good attend- 
ance and a poor performance." 

After a few days of pleasant weather, on 
the 22d oi March snow began to fall, and 
continued until the next day when it reach- 
ed the depth often inches, stopping all ac- 
tivity in the camp and shutting the men up 
in their log houses lor several days. 

From the commencement of the war the 
Federal government had suffered for the 
want of an intelligent control of all its mili- 
tary forces. Generals in the field were oft- 
en moving at cross purposes. The President 
by the Constitution is made the Commander- 
in-Chief of the Army and Navy, but nei- 
ther Mr. Lincoln nor his Secretary of War 
had enjoyed a military education, and even 
if otherwise qualified, other duties prevent- 
ed him from looking after the details of 
army organization or movements. To se- 
cure harmony in military operations, Major- 
General Halleck had been called to Wash- 

ington with the rank of General-in-Chief 
as the President's military adviser, through 
whom orders were to be issued to the Gen- 
erals in the field. But the folly of manag- 
ing campaigns on distant fields al Washing- 
ton, whether by Cabinet or Military Officers, 
was soon apparent. This was particularly 
true in regard to the Army of the Potomac. 
The largest, best equiped, and best disci- 
plined body of troops in the country, had 
been made a foot-hall to gratify the ignor- 
ance, the whims and the jealousies of men 
who were incompetent to use it. Every 
General who had commanded it had been 
compelled to submit to the mortification of 
having his own plans thwarted, and yet 
held responsible for want of success in mili- 
tary movements he could not control, and 
many times which were undertaken contrary 
to his judgment. The demand was loud 
and general that some man who by educa- 
tion and experience might be deemed com- 
petent, should he put in command of all the 
armies that there might he harmony of 
plans and of movements- 
Early in 1864 Congress revived the 
rank of Lieutenant-* Jenet al in the 
army, providing thereby that he whom the 
President should appoint, should rank next 
to the Commander-in-Chief in military au- 
thority'. Mr. Lincoln immediately nomi- 
nated Majnr-( ieneral Ulysses 8. Grant for 
the new office, and the nomination was 
promptly confirmed, and on the 9th of 
Match, in the presence of the Cabinet, he 
received the high commission at the bands 
of the President. 

The first act of General Grant in connec- 
tion with the Army of the Potomac where 
he had his headquarters, was its re-organi- 
zation, in which it was consolidated into 
three Army Corps. Meade was retained at 
the head of the army as Sherman was at the 
head of the Western Army — General Han- 
cock commanded the Second Corps, General 
Warren the Fifth and General Sedgwick 
the Sixth, while the First and Third Corps 
were broken up and united with the other 



three. In these changes, which were made 
the 25th of March, our Regiment was as- 
signed to the Second Corps, (General Han 
cock,) .the Third Division, (Major-General 
David B. Birney,) First Brigade, (Briga- 
dier-General J. H. H. Ward.) The brigade 
consisted of the following regiments: Third 
Maine, Fortieth, Eighty-Sixth, and One 
Hundred Twenty-Fourth New York, Nine- 
ty-Ninth, One Hundred Tenth, and One 
Hundred Forty-First, Pennsylvania, Twen- 
tieth Indiana, and Second United States 
Sharpshooters ; while the Fifty-Seventh, 
Sixty-Third and One Hundred Fifth Penn- 
sylvania Regiments, which had formed part 
of the Pennsylvania Brigade, were placed in 
the Second Brigade of this division. The 
onlcr was read to the several regiments on 
the evening of the 26th, and on Sunday, the 
27th, General Ward inspected the new bri- 
gade. The men who had been at the old 
Brigade Headquarters on special service, 
were remanded to their several regiments, 
on the breaking up of the old brigade. 

On tin' 29th, orders were issued that Gen- 
erals Grant and Hancock would review the 
army at Stephensburg, and the division had 
started for the review ground, when, on ac- 
count of a rainstorm in prospect and which 
soon began, the review was postponed. The 
Regiment moved camp, occupying the one 
used by the One Hundred Fifth New York, 
on the morning of the 31st, so the close of 
the month find* the Regiment in its new 
quarters, and new brigade and new corps; 
drills resumed, and the routine of duty es- 
tablished. The new camp was on low 
ground, near the railroad toward Bealton 
Station. The huts were small, not more 
than room enough for three in each, but 
in sufficient numbers for all. 

Rev. Andrew Barr, pastor of the Presby- 
terian Church in Wysox, Bradford County, 
had been invited by Colonel Madill to be- 
come Chaplain of the Regiment, which he 
decided to accept, and the latter part of 
March signified his purpose to the Wysox 

congregation. He left Wysox March 24th, 
took his family, consisting of his wife and 
three children, to Danville, and on the 30th 
started for camp; but inexperience in find- 
ing his way to the army, and heavy rains 
which had swollen the streams and made 
the roads heavy, so delayed him that he did 
not reach the Regiment until evening of 
Sunday, April 3d. He had walked twelve 
miles, carrying a heavy traveling sack, had 
forded a stream from which the bridge had 
been swept away, reaching camp in a state 
of complete physical and nervous exhaus- 
tion. The attack was so violent that he 
was taken directly to the hospital, and Ser- 
geant Hewett, of Company D, a former par- 
ishioner of Mr. Barr, was requested by Colo- 
nel Madill to lake care of him. Mis. Ma- 
dill, the Colonel's wife, was then visiting 
him in the camp, and was constant in her 
care and attentions to the sufferer, and sent 
her cook to prepare suffh delicacies as the 
sick man might need. But his disease ra- 
pidly progressed to a fatal termination, and 
he died Monday, April 11th. His body 
was embalmed and sent to Danville for in- 

Mr. Barr was a man of more than ordina- 
ry ability, and his sudden death made a pro- 
found impression upon the men of the Regi- 
ment. He was born in Columbus, Ohio, 
January 30, 1820, educated at Jefferson Col- 
lege, Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania, and 
Princeton Seminary, New .Jersey, and had 
been a successful and earnesl minister of the 
Gospel for fourteen years, six of which had 
been spent at Wysox. His brother, Dr. 
Barr. was during the war Surgeon-General 
of the State of < >hio. 

On the 9th, the Regiment went on picket, 
the reserve line being near Stephensburg, 
and the advance line a mile farther on, 
while the signal station was on Pony Moun- 
tain. Several of the men went up to it 
where a good view was obtained of the ene- 
my's lines south of the Rapidan. They did 
not return to camp until four o'clock in the 
afternoon of Tuesday, the 12th, where they 

i jo- 


found orders to be ready tor a review on the 
morrow. The experience of these three 
days' picket service wa.s the severest the 
men had ever seen. A participant in it 
says: — " They waded to the line and stood 
in the mud with the rain pouring down on 
them for three days and three nights. 

On Wednesday, April 13th, the weather 
was pleasant, and early the preparations 
were made for the appointed review. Clothes 
must be brushed clean, shoes blackened, 
overcoats neatly rolled on the top of the 
knapsack, arms clean and polished, and ev- 
ery man in white gloves. The troops made 
a fine appearance. The review took place 
on the farm of John Minor Botts. The di- 
vision formed in two lines, and was reviewed 
by Generals Birney and Hancock, General 
Meade joining them in time to see the col- 
umn pass in review. The men were excused 
from further duty until dress parade at even- 
ing. This afternoon overcoats and extra 
baggage were ordered sent to Washington 
preparatory to the active duties of the spring 

On the 16th, the Regiment received pay 
for two months, were inspected and had 
dress parade the next day, and on the 18th 
went on picket, returning to camp on the 
21st. At eleven o'clock of Friday, the 22d, 
General Grant, accompanied by Generals 
Meade and Hancock, attended with their 
staffs, reviewed the Second Corps. It was a 
brilliant affair, and the troops looked very 
fine. It was the tirst time many of the men 
had seen the General-in-Chief, whose fame 
had already filled the land, and with eager 
eyes they scanned that plain, quiet, unosten- 
tatious man, who wa.s destined to lead them 
on many a bloody field, and through many a 
hard-fought conflict, to glory and to victory 
in the end. 

On the 24th, the Colonel met with a se- 
vere injury from the falling of his horse, 
which confined him to his bed for a number 
of days, when, on the advice of a Board of 
Medical Examiners, he applied for and re- 
ceived leave of absence pending his recovery. 

The next few days were spent in the cus- 
tomary drills, target practice, picket duty, 
inspections and reviews. 

On Tuesday, the 26th, the Regiment mov- 
ed out of its winter quarters and encamped 
in tents in an open field, a mile and a half 
south of their old camp toward Mine Run. 
The Commanding General was anxious to 
have the army in perfect readiness to move, 
as soon as the weather would seem to admit. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Watkins was now in 
command of the Regiment, 

The next day the Regiment, under com- 
mand of Captain Horton, went on picket. 
The weather was pleasant, but the picket 
line was still damp and uncomfortable. One 
of the men writes: —'Some of our boys go^ 
up to the signal station where they see the 
enemy fortifying on the other side of the 
Rapidan. They are burning their winter 
camps and have set the woods on fire." On, 
Saturday, April 30th, they returned to camp. 

Before recounting the stirring events 
which are soon to be related, it will be well 
to stop a moment and see in what condition 
the opening of the spring campaign finds the 
Regiment. Companies A, D; H and I, each 
had received a number of recruits. The 
men were in good health and spirits. They 
had become accustomed to the climate, and 
felt that under the leadership of General 
< liant success was assured. 

In Company A there had been no promo 
tions since January 1st. Captain Horton 
was in command of the company, with Jo- 
seph H, Hurst First Lieutenant. 

Albert W. Mills, the first recruit the com- 
pany received, was mustered September 22, 
L 863, only son of John Mills, enlisted from 
Terrytown, and died of disease in "Emory 
Hospital," Washington, February 5, 1864, 
and was buried in the Military Asylum 
Cemetery. He was unmarried, and thirty 
years of age. 

Jonathan D. Brown was discharged Janu- 
ary 13, 1864, on account of wounds received 
at Chancellorsville, and Alexander Kinney 
for wounds received at Gettysburg, Februa- 



ry 27th. There were transferred to the 
Veteran Reserves, Orrin Coleman, Novem- 
her loth, John D. Corbin, and Orville W. 
Mushier, December, 1863, George V. Wells, 
and Charles M. Young, March 12, 1864. 
All except Moshier had been wounded at 
Chancellors ville. 

In Company B, Hiram L. Culver and Al- 
vin Whittaker were promoted, April 1, 1864, 
from Corporals to Sergeants ; Corporal Har- 
vey \Y. .J<mes, wlio had been wounded at 
Gettysburg, was discharged December 2, 
1863, for promotion as Lieutenant in the 
Tenth Regiment of Louisiana Colored 
Troops ; George D. Crandall, by special or- 
der, December 23d, for promotion in the 
same regiment ; Horner H. Stevens, date not 
given; Frank J. Vanderpool, January 9th, 
and James Sibley, January 16, 1864, were 
discharged for disability on the usual Sur- 
geon's certificate. Corporal Charles H. 
Crandall was promoted to a Lieutenancy in 
Company A, First Regiment of Mississippi 
Colored Troops, January 8th, and Private 
Smith D. Barnum, wounded at Gettysburg, 
was promoted March 12, 1864, to a Captain- 
cy in the Twenty-Third Regiment of United 
States Colored Troops. There were trans- 
ferred to the Veteran Reserves, Harmon D. 
Millard, November 15, 1863; William 
Jones, wounded at Fredericksburg, Decem- 
ber 28, 1863 ; Robert Sherman, wounded at 
Chancellorsville ; Perry L. Cobb, February 
16th, and George H. Granger, wounded at 
Chancellorsville, March 16, 1864. 

In Company C, January 26, 1864, Ezra S. 
Little was promoted from Corporal to First 
Sergeant; Frank W. Douglass from private 
to Sergeant, and Avery Eastabrook to Cor- 
poral ; George E. Cowell and Marshall Jen- 
nings, January 16th, and Elery C. Walker, 
all wounded at Chancellorsville, were trans- 
ferred to the Veteran Reserves. 

Hiram Kellogg, of this company, died of 
disease December 25, 1863, at the age of 
thirty-nine years. He enlisted from Frank- 
lin with Captain Swart. 

Edward J. Rinebold enlisted from Gver- 

ton township. He was a young man of most 
excellent character, highly esteemed by the 
officers and men of his company, and died 
February 27, 1864, at the age of eighteen 

From Company D, Darius Bullock was- 
discharged on the usual Surgeon's Certifi- 
cate April 20, 1864 ; and Charles B. Hunt, 
January 15th ; James B. Pitcher, February 
1 5th ; Samuel F Buttles, (wounded at Get- 
tysburg,) February 16th; Mason L. Ells- 
woith, (wounded at Chancellorsville,) March 
16th ; Daniel Barton, (wounded at Chancel- 
lorsville,) and Sylvenus Benjamin, (wound- 
ed at Gettysburg,) April 28, 1864, were 
transferred to the Veteran Reserves. Mr. 
Benjamin, although nominally transferred, 
died in hospital from the etleets of his 
wound, but the time of his death was not re- 
ported to his company. He was a son of 
Joshua Benjamin, of Durell, where he left a 
wife, since died, and three children, was en- 
listed by Lieutenant Ryon, and about twen- 
ty-seven years of age at his death. He was 
a brave soldier, prompt and faithful in duty. 

Company E had lost two by death in De- 
cember, 1862, of whom mention was not 
made in the proper place, on account of er- 
rors of the dates in the printed records.* 

Horace Howe died in Division Hospital. 
at Falmouth, Virginia, December 11, 1862, 
after a short sickness, at the age of forty-six 
years, being above the lawful age at his en- 
listment. He was a. resident of Athens 
where he left a family. 

John Huff, a younger brother of George> 
(who died November 1st,) was living with 
his father, Isaac Huff J on Laurel Hill, Uls- 
ter Township, when he enlisted, and died in 
Division Hospital, December 18, 1862. • He 
was unmarried and about twenty-two years 
of age. Corporal Hall says of these men: — 

*Bates' " Volunteers " lias been followed for 
names and dates, unless corrected by better au- 
thority — he gives Huff's death at Alexandria, 
Virginia, December 8, 1863, and Howe's Decem- 
ber 11, 1863, but tin- company officers give the 
' dates in the text. 



" Howe died just as we were going to the 
Wattle of Fredericksburg, and Huff just on 
our return." 

George W. Lord was .captured at , 

and died in Anderson ville prison, April 27, 
his grave being number 761. He was a 
married man, leaving a wile and two chil- 
dren now living in Athens township. 

In this company (harks A. Tibbits, 
George A. Rogers, (January 1st,) Franklin 
Granger, (January 17th,) Dealmon Wat- 
kins, and Everts Wandall, (February 1, 
1864,) were promoted Corporals; Alonzo D. 
Beach, wounded at Chancellorsville, was 
discharged December 31, 1863, and William 
Frederick, February 2(1, 1864. There were 
transferred to the Veteran Reserves, George 
Johnson, February 6th, Epaphras W. Baker, 
February Kith, and Lyman Dunn, March 
Kith, the first wcunded at Chancellorsville, 
and the others at Gettysburg. 

From Company F, there had been trans- 
ferred to the Veteran Reserves Herman J. 
Potter, September 30th ; Edson M. French, 
November 1st ; Christopher < '. Thayer, No- 
vember 13th; Corporal Jerome Davison, 
January 11th; Corporal Benjamin F. 
Barnes, January loth, and Jacob B. Adams, 
April 1-1. 1864. All but Potter and Thayer 
were wounded at Chancellorsville. 

Ormiel S. Davison, also of this company, 
who was wounded and captured at Gettys- 
burg, July 2d, died of starvation in Libby 
Prison, Richmond, Virginia, January 24, 
isi; I, when thirty-seven years of age. He 
was a mason and farmer, living in Mesbop- 
pen at the time of his enlistment, was en- 
gaged in the battles of Fredericksburg ami 
Chancellorsville. He left a wife and one 
daughter, (one Mary 1']., having died Janu- 
ary 1, 1863,) who died in the Soldiers' Or- 
phan School in Harford. October 5, 1875. 
lie was one of the bravest of soldiers, always 
ready to do his duty in every respect. 

[n Company G, February 1st, James N. 
Thorn was promoted to Sergeant, Joseph E. 
Williams, Charles Williams, and George E. 

Weaver, to Corporals, and on May 1st, J. T. 
R. Seagraves, was promoted to First Ser- 
geant, James X. Terwilliger, and Joseph E. 
Williams, Sergeants, and Hugh Brady Cor- 

There were transferred to the Veteran lie- 
serves on account of wounds received in bat- 
tle, William C. McCreary, January 22d ; 
George M. Day and Henry B. Wilbur, 
March 6th ; William L. Cole, March 7th; 
George II. Tryon and Lucius C. Barnes 
April 28th ; Thomas Bates, wounded July 
2d, and Albert Wagner, wounded and cap- 
tured May 3d, were discharged, the former 
February 1st, the latter February 17th. 

Corporal Theodore Fuller was discharged 
on special order, October 9th, and Bruce 
Jones for wounds received, December 17th. 

On the 9th of December, Lieutenant 
Charles M. Ball resigned on account of 
wounds received at Chancellorsville, and 
was honorably discharged. He had a com- 
mission of First Lieutenant but his physical 
disability was such that he was found unlit 
for active service and not mustered. A com- 
rade said of him, that " he was a soldier ev- 
ery inch and every ounce, and had he been 
spared would have made his mark in the 
army." He is a brick- layer by trade, and 
has at times as far able, worked at the busi- 
ness since his return. He was born in Or- 
ange, Sussex County, New Jersey, May 2 1, 
1831, the oldest of five brothers, two of 
whom beside himself were also in the active 
military service. Since his muster-out, 
Lieutenant Ball has resided in Honesdale, 
where he commands the respect of his nu- 
merous acquaintances as well lor his social 
as for his soldierly qualities. 

As indicating the closeness of the com- 
batants on the field at Gettysburg. Firs) 
Sergeant William Muir, of this company, 
was wounded in the left knee, as was after- 
wards ascertained by a revolver evidently in 
the hands of a Confederate officer, the ball 
passing through the joint. It attempting to 
assist him from the field, Alonzo Benjamin 



was shot through the head and instantly 
killed, tailing prostrate upon the wounded 
and almost helpless Sergeant, who only by 
dint of great exertion was able to disengage 
himself from his dead comrade. He was 
but a few feet from Major Spaulding, with 
whom he could easily converse, hut the lat- 
ter was taken to the hospital the next 1110m- 
iiit; by the enemy, while Sergeant Muir was 
left uncared for two whole days until our 
men again obtained possession of the field. 
He was subsequently sent to a hospital in 
Philadelphia where he remained until Feb- 
ruary, 1864. While in the hospital he re- 
ceived the commission of First Lieutenant 
jn recognition of his gallant services, but on 
examination was pronounced disabled on ac- 
count of his wound for active service, and 
was not mustered into the rank tor which he 
had been commissioned. He was honorably 
discharged March :26th. The Captain of 
this company having been killed, and the 
Lieutenant wounded at Chancellorsville, the 
command for several months devolved upon 
Sergeant Muir, and he performed the duties 
both of Sergeant and Commander of the 
company with entire satisfaction to both offi- 
cers and men. Mr. Muir was born in Phil- 
adelphia in the year 1837, of Scotch parent- 
age, a machinist and engineer by profession, 
is now residing in Honesdale in the employ 
of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, 
respected and esteemed as an upright citizen 
and a gallant soldier. 

In Company H, Philip E. Quick was pro- 
moted from Corporal to Sergeant, and Abram 
V. Alden was promoted to Corporal, March 
1, 1864. William G. Thornton was dis- 
charged March 10th, and David H. Tarbox, 
April 0th, both wounded at Chancellorsville, 
There were transferred to the Veteran Re- 
serves, William W. Tarbox, November 1st; 
Charles Perkins, and Christopher C. Pease- 
ley, November 15th ; Charles Brooksta ver, 
January 31st; Charles Avery, February 
15th ; Corporal Jeremiah Hays, and Cor- 
poral Frederick Fargo, March 15th. All but 
Peaseley were wounded at Chancellorsville. 

In Company I, F. Cortes Rockwell was 
promoted from Corporal to Sergeant, George 
L. Forbes, Lemuel Robinson, John C. Mc- 
Kinney, and Simeon Archer were made Cor- 
porals January 1st; Alfred Albee, April 
30th; George W. Smith and Fdvvard W. 
Wickizer May 1, 1864. For the wound re- 
ceived at Auburn, George W. Morse was 
discharged December 20th, and in the year 
1863, on the usual Surgeon's Certificate, 
Harry VV. Baxter, Frederick Furscht, Kd- 
ward Keene, Wallace W. Miller, Orrin C. 
Taylor, William B. Dunham, January 20th ; 
Isaac Armstrong, February 4lh, and Henry 
Bennett, by special order, February 22d ; 
Theodore W. Woodburn was transferred to 
the Veteran Reserves September 1st; James 
L. Johnson, John M. Russell and Sergeant 
John D. Bloodgood, December, 1863; Cor- 
poral James B. Ellsworth, John A. Allen, 
and Frank L. Ward, February, 1864. 

In Company K, May 1st, Archibald Sin- 
clair was promoted from Corporal to Ser- 
geant ; Joseph C. Pennington, James L. How- 
ie, H. E. Hunsinger, John S. Harkness, and 
William C. Brown were made Corporals; 
Charles E. Coleman was discharged Janua- 
ry 7th, and Corporal Nathan L. Brown 
March 1st, botli for wounds received at 
Chancellorsville; Sergeant Daniel W.Scott 
April 2d, was promoted Captain in the 
Twenty-Third Regiment of United States 
Colored Troops ; Peter Fosburg, November 
16, 1863, Albert Moore and Alviu Smith, 
January 1 jilt ; Hiram Eisner, January 25th; 
H. A. Burlin^ame, February 6th; George 
T. Phillips, February 2d ; (all except Kinner 
wounded at Chancellorsville,) and Jacob S. 
Stevenson, April 28th, wounded at Gettys- 
burg, were transferred to the Veteran Re- 

Captain Horton was in command of Com- 
pany A, Peck of Company B, Cole of Com- 
pany C, Ryon of Company D, Clark of Com- 
pany E, Lieutenant Brainerd of Company 
F, Captain Atkinson of Company G, Tyler 
of Company H, Spaulding of Company I, 
and Lieutenant Glerould of Company b K, Cap- 



tain Mercur being Brigade rnspector. 

The Adjutant's returns give the numerical 
condition of the Regiment for April 30 
1864, as In! lows: 

| For duty 1"> 

^^■4Sck". d ^:::::::::::::::::::::::: I 

J In artist 1 

Absent 2 

Total 25 


| For duty 309 

i, . ! Extra duty :'> 

/ ''-" / - j-si.k : io 

J In arrest 

Totai 322 

Abs( nt 165 

Aggregate 512 

Chapter IX 


Nearly two months had been spent by the 
Lieutenant-General in maturing his plans, 
re organizing his army and completing his 
preparations for what he hoped would be 
I lie final campaign of the war. That part of 
it about to be described is for continuous and 
severe fighting, loss of life, and hard service 
probably without a parallel in the world's 
history; in faci it is a series of campaigns 
following closely upon each other and form- 
ing several steps in the prosecution of the 
task set for himself bv the General-in-Chief 
— the destruction of Lee's army and the cap- 
ture of Richmond. 

"On the 3d of May the order went forth 
that the armv should that night launch forth 
in the great adventure. Tims was initiated 
;i campaign of unsurpassed severity, and in 
all that makes war grand, terrible, bloody 
awful, unequalled by any on record." The 
part taken in these momentous events by 
our Regiment will be briefly narrated in the 
following sections : 


At eighl o'clock in the morning of Tues- 
day, May 3d, a large detachment from the 
One Hundred Forty-First was sent three 
miles from the camp on picket. All day 
the frequent coming and going of swift-rid- 
ing orderlies, a noticeable excitement, about 
Headquarters convinced the soldiers that an 
important movement of the army was near 
at hand. About nine o'clock in the evening 
the < itlicer of the day came out and ordered 
the line taken in and the men to report at 
camp as soon as possible. Arriving at their 
quarters about an hour later they found ev- 
erything in a bustle of preparation. Sup- 
plying themselves with fifty rounds of am- 

munition and six: days' rations, they made :i 
hasty cup of coffee, and by eleven o'clock 
were packed and the Regiment ready to 

start on the march which was destined to be 
fraught with such momentous results. 

For some months Lee had been holding 
the strong position in which he was left af- 
ter the attack in the November previous; 
his right resting on the west hank of Mine 
Run, and his left on the south hank of the 
Rapidan, a position so well fortified that a 
direct attack was out of the question. Noth- 
ing was left to < reneral Grant but an attempt 
to force him out of tin- position by turning 
one of his Hanks. The Federal Commander, 
td'ter much deliberation, determined to 
move on the enemy's left, and thus while 
threatening his communications with Rich- 
mond preserve his own with the seaboard. 

The Union Army moved in two columns, 
the right, composed of the Fifth and Sixth 
Corps, were to cross at Germanna Ford, 
while the left column, consisting of the Sec- 
ond ( Hancock's) ( Wps, were directed to cross 
at Ely's Ford, six miles farther down the 
river. At eleven o'clock in t he evening the 
Regiment was in line and in a few minutes 
took up its march toward the Confedi 
Capital. The night was very dark and the 
traveling difficult, but by eight o'clock on 
the morning of the lih the ford was reach- 
ed and the crossing effeoted on two pontoon 
bridges which had been laid here. Every- 
thing conspired to bring vividly to mind the 
experiences of the year before. If then' was 
less of exultant joy there was a! least as con- 
fident expectation in ultimate victory now 
as then. 

Halting a short time at the ford for 
breakfast, the wearied troops pushed forward 



as far as Chaneellorsville, and encamped on 
the battlefield at Fairview, a little past 
noon. Here they rested until the nexl 
morning. The march had been a severe 

i in-. The distance was twenty-live miles, 
and for those on picket six miles farther, 
the weather was very warm but the roads 
unusually good. All were lame and foot- 
sore, but there were very few stragglers, al- 
though the roads were strewn with over- 
coats and blankets. While here the men 
took occasion to visit the places where they 
had fought a year ago. Everything appear- 
ed about as it was then left. In some instan- 
i is the rains had washed off the little dirt 
which had been cast upon the remains of 
their comrades, and others were found that 
had been left by the enemy unburied. These 
were carefully interred and the graves 

In his diary, Corporal J. P. Coburn, of 
Company 15, makes this entry : — " Here we 
are after a hard day's march on the old 
battle-ground. I visited the works I helped 
to build a yea:- ago to-day, saw the grave of 
my former comrade, Robert McKinney. 
The field lor miles around is strewn with 
iron and lend from the batteries. Our boys 
found the remains of sonic of the yet un- 
buried and interred them. What memories do 
these scenes awaken ! Blankets and cloth- 
ing are strewn all the way from here to 
Brandy Station." 

Captain Joseph II. Hurst, now of the 
United States Army, but at this time First 
Lieutenant of Company A, writes: — "On 
the morning of the 4th we arrived on the 
Chaneellorsville battlefield and remained 
until live o'clock in the morning of tin- 5th. 
We spent the day in sad remembrances and 
reminders of our presence there just one 
year previous. We went over the field and 
decently buried the bleached bones so thick- 
ly scattered over it. Faded caps, knapsacks 
and haversacks with the familiar ' 141 P. V .' 
still on them, identified to us the bone-- of 
many a comrade who had worn them, and 

who seemed to have so quietly waited our 
coming to bury them. How vividly we re- 
membered them as the) marched on to that 
field and into those woods with us exactly 
one year ago that beautiful May morning." 

Early Thursday morning the buglescalled 
the wearied troops From their bivouack to 
the duties of the day. Snatching a hasty 
breakfast they were ready for the march at 
live o'clock in the morning, and soon en 
nml, lor Spottsylvania Court House by the 
way of the Furnace* and Todd's Tavern, 
reac long the latter place about ten o'clock 
whin they came to a halt. Lee had been 
apprised af the first movements of the Fed- 
eral army, and as soon as its purpose was 
known issued orders to bis corps-command- 
ers to hasten up with all speed to intercept 
it, or if possible to strike it a withering blow 
upon its open flank on the line of march^ 
Soon the flankers of the Fifth and Sixth 
Corps began to feel the enemy while still in 
the forests of the Wilderness, and orders 
were issued to Burnside now in command of 
the Ninth Corps, which had joined the 
Army of the Potomac, but had been left 
north of the Rapidan, to hurry forward, and 
to General Hancock, while his men were 
resting at Todd's Tavern, to retrace his steps 
and connect his lines with those of theother 
corps now getting into positions to meet the 

The region where this battle was to be 
fought is known as " The Wilderness," ex- 
tending eastward from Mine Run, some dis- 
tance beyond Chaneellorsville. In describ- 
ing the Chaneellorsville battlefield, which 
was fought on its eastern margin, we have 
had occasion to mention its peculiarities. 
The whole region rests upon a belt of min- 
eral rocks where a hundred and fifty years 
before Hon. Alexander Spottswood,# then 

*At the Furnace, three companies of the Regi- 
ment were detailed to hold a cross road until the 
division passed. 

gThe first syllable of the name with the Latin- 
ized form of the last wood gives us the name of 
the county Syott-sylvania. 



i rovernor of Virginia, had :i smelting furnace 
and worked the mines. To feed the works 
the timber had been cut off for miles around 
and in its place had arisen a dense growth 
of low-limbed and scraggy pines, stiff' and 
bristling chickapins, scrub-oaks and hazel. 
It is a region of gloom, and the shadow of 
death. It forms a plateau of considerable 
elevation, in which are found the streams, 
swamps and rivulets that are the sources of 
the Ny river, and those that unite and form 
the Wilderness Run which traverses the 
northern portion, beside numerous affluents 
of Mine Run. The Orange Turnpike and 
-the Orange Plank Road— two great high- 
ways from Fredericksburg to Orange Court 
House, and the bed of an unfinished railroad 
traverse this region from east to west. These 
-are intersected by roads leading from the 
lords of the Rapidan, that from Jacob's* Ford 
intersects the turnpike at Robertson's Tav- 
ern or Locust Grove, and the Plank Road at 
Hope Church ; that from Germanna Ford 
known as the Stevensburg Plank Road in- 
tersects the Turnpike at " Old Wilderness 
Tavern," that from Ely's Ford intersects the 
Turnpike at Chaneellorsville, and the Plank 
Road near Piney Branch Church. About 
■one mile east from the Old Wilderness Tav- 
ern begins what is known as the Brock road 
running in a south-southwest direction, in : 
tersecting the Stevensburg road about half 
way between the turnpike and the Plank 
Road, and the latter about two miles east of 
Parker's store, which is at the intersection 
of a number of unimportant roads with the 
Orange Plank Road. A few houses, sur- 
rounded with small clearings, are sparsely 
scattered along these various highways. Such 
is a brief account of the field on which on 
that bright May day two hundred thousand 
men were to meet in deadly conflict. 

Grant greatly desired to push beyond 
these impenetrable thickets where the im- 
pact of numbers is lost and cavalry and artil- 
lery are almost useless, and meet his adver- 
sary on more even footing in the cleared 
country to the south, but in this he was foil- 

ed by his wily antagonist. The advantage 
was clearly on the side of the Confederates 
who knew every foot and every path of this 
Labyrinth, hut which was an unknown terri- 
tory to his enemy, lie could readily dispose 
of his forces whose gray uniform made them 
almost invisible in the dense dun woods, where 
they could strike unexpected blowsupon the 
foe and whose superior skill in woodcraft 
and Indian tactics would greatly outweigh 
the Federal preponderance in numbers. 

About eight o'clock on the morning of the 
oth the battle of the Wilderness began, 
Meade finding the enemy present in force 
upon his right flank, sent word to Hancock 
to hasten by the Brock road, to the point of 
its intersection with the Orange Plank Road, 
in order to support the attack then immi- 
nent. The messenger arrived at Hancock's 
headquarters about eleven o'clock in the 
forenoon. Birney's Division which formed 
the rear of the column was then resting at 
Todd's Tavern while the head of the column 
was two miles beyond. The countermarch 
was immediately begun, Birney's Division 
leading the van, with Ward's Brigade in 

The enemy was marching down both the 
Turnpike and the Plank Road, Hill's Corps, 
Heth's Division in the van, being on the 
latter. General (Jetty with his (Second of 
the Sixth Corps) Division was hastened tor- 
ward lo hold the intersection of the Brock 
and Orange Plank Roads, and soon became 
engaged with the enemy on the Plank Road 
in the direction of Parker's store. Wilcox's 
Division soon joined Heth's and pressed 
Getty closely. In his official report General 
Hancock says: — At a quarter past four p. M., 
finding that General Getty had met the ene- 
my in great force, I ordered General Birney 
to advance his command, [his own and 
pott's Divisions,] to support the movement 
of Getty at once. Although the formation 
I had directed to be made before carrying 
out my instructions to advance was not com- 
pleted, General Birney immediately moved 
forward on General Getty's right and left — 



one section of Rickett's Battery, Company 
F, First Pennsylvania Artillery, moving 
down the Plank K< ad just in rear of the in- 
fantry. The fight became very fierce at 
once, the lines of battle were exceedingly 
close, the musketry continuous and deadly 
along the entire line." Bhney's Division 
was on the left of (Jetty, the line facing 
westward with Ward's Brigade on the right, 
and Hays' on the left of it Ward's Brigade 
was formed in two lines, the One Hundred 
Forty-First being on the extreme right of 
the seeond line, and the right of Company 
A resting; on the south or left side of the 
Orange Plank Road.f The front line was 
about fifty rods west of the Brock road, and 
the seeond line about eight rods back of it. 
Beginning on the ridge, on which this 
road runs, and running neatly parallel with 
and about a fourth a mile from it, is a creek 
whose numerous affluents make depressions 
which are soft and swampy ; ibis stream was 
about midway between the two lines of bat- 
tle. About live o'clock in the afternoon, af- 
ter having gone a mile on the "double 
quick " the brigade got into position and the 
front line commenced the attack, while the 
second line began to throw up breastworks 
of logs and dirt. The second lice was then 
ordered to lie down, but the btdlets ilew like 
hail among them, killing and wounding a 
number. A half an hour later there was a 
slight lull in the firing and the second line 

fin the Virginia Campaigns of 1864 and 1865, 
General Humphreys (p. :.l ) says:—" Bhney's Di- 
vision arrived and was formed <>n Getty's left in 
two lines of battle along the Brock road. 
Mott's and Gibbon's Divisions coming up rapid- 
ly, took their position nn Birney's left in the 
same formation." On page 33 says: — "Genera! 
Eirney at once moved forward his own division 
on the right and Mott's on the left of Getty." In 
his latter statement General Humphreys is 
doubtless mistaken. The uniform testimony of 
the men of our Regiment is that they did not at 
any time change their relative position only to 
advance from the second into the first line, and 
that the right ol Company A rested on the Plank 
Koad in the beginning and at the close of engage- 
ment, and occupied that position the ne.xt morn- 

moved to the front, relieved the first line 
and the battle was renewed with great fury 
and continued without intermission until 
darkness put an end to the conflict. 

Just in the edge of the evening the Sev- 
enth North Carolina Regiment, (Lane's Bri- 
gade of Wilcox's Division.) finding a gap 
between the Second and Fifth Corps, slipped 
through unobserved and passed to the real 
of the line. They were discovered by Cap- 
tain Spaulding, who had just been wounded, 
and in going to the rear came near being 
captured by them. He informed Major 
Dull, Adjutant General on Ward's staff, who 
sent the Twentieth Indiana, then on the left 
of the One Hundred Forty-First, to drive 
them out. Discovering the Twentieth across 
their path they made a charge upon them. 
The former reserved their tire until they 
were within short range when they poured 
into them a deadly volley. The Seventh 
threw down their arms at once and came in 
bringing their colors with them. A strong 
line of battle was then formed, pickets post- 
ed and the men laid on their arms until 

The losses in this engagement were one 
killed, eighteen wounded and one missiDg 

An incident occurred in the morning. 
which came near entailing a greater loss to 
the Regiment than the casualties of the bat- 
tle. On reaching Chancel lorsville forty en- 
listed men were detailed for picket and sta- 
tioned on the line in a piece of woods about 
a mile from where the Regiment was en- 
camped. In the morning, by some over- 
sight, they were not notified of the departure 
of the troops, and remained on their posts 
until alter ten o'clock, when, becoming un- 
easy, an investigation was made and it was 
found the division had gone, but which way 
no one could tell. The party at once started 
in pursuit of their comrades, but instead of 
taking the Catharpin or Furnace road which 
leads to Todd's Tavern, they followed the 
Plank Road in the direction of Fredericks- 
burg. After going about two miles in this 
direction they became satisfied they were on 



the wrong mad, retraced their steps ami fol- 
lowed alter the Regiment. It was now after 
one o'clock in the afternoon and the division 
was countermarching in the direction 01 
Parker's store. About live o'clock they 
came near falling into the hands of the ene- 
my, who had pushed through the gap be- 
tween the Second and Fifth Corps, and were 
in the rear of our lines. Later they found 
Captain Spaulding, who had been wounded 
i:i the arm, making his way to the rear. He 
directed the men to remain near where they 
were until dark, as the Regiment was hotly 
engaged and could not be reached. As soon 
as the battle was over they joined their com- 
rades after a day of hard marching, of con- 
tinual fears and alarms. Theodore Larri- 
son, a recruit of Company i, who was one of 
the party adds: — "We lay on our arms all 
night in the hearing of the wounded." 

Perry D. Saunders, of Company F, was 
the only one of the Regiment killed in this 
engagement. A friend writes of him that 
he was living in Brooklyn at the time of his 
enlistment, unmarried, twenty-three years of 
age at his death, and that appropriate memo- 
rial services were held in the M. E. Church 
of that place, and adds: — "He was a good, 
honest boy, and what is left of his company 
say he was a brave soldier, always anxious 
to be in the thickest of the fight. He was 
wounded first in the hand and hips, and 
while being helped to the rear by one of his 
comrades was again shot and killed." 

The following companies suffered in 
wounded : 


Private Joseph H. McCafferty, shoulder. 
" Arthur T. Vose, leg. 
" Charles Viall, Jr., left arm. 


Captain Thomas Ryon, left leg. 


Private Abram Crandall, left hand. 
" Henry M. Chandler, thigh. 
" William Frederick, shoulder. 
" Michael Finney, leg. 


Corporal Charles H. Tripp, hand. 

Private Adelmer Doughty, head. 

" John L. Riker, In ad. 

Daniel Yanauken, hand. 


Sergeant John Harris, wounded. 
Private Gilbert Corwin, wounded. 

'' Joseph Mcoherer, wounded. 

" John Wiles, missing. 


Captain Edwin A. Spaulding, left arm. 
Corporal Kdward W. Wickizer. face. 
Private George W. Reppeth, linger. 

Swinton says: — "The action of the 5th of 
May was not so much a battle as the fierce 
grapple of mighty wrestlers suddenly meet- 
ing. But it had determined there should be 
a battle, and it had drawn the relative posi- 
tions of t'ie combatants." 

At dark a detail of about fifty men under 
command of Lieutenant Gerould was placed 
on picket in front of the Regiment. There 
were nine posts under his supervision, the 
line being about one hundred yards from 
the creek on the west bank of which was the 
picket line of the enemy. Mi-. Gerould 
says, that taken altogether it was a most un- 
comfortable night — the men were worn out, 
they were in woods so dark that nothing 
could be seen, in going and returning from 
the posts they would stumble and fall over 
the dead, while the groans of the wounded 
and the dying combined to invest that night 
with the most horrible surroundings. 

The troops spent the night of the 5th qui- 
etly resting on their arms in the line which 
they held at the close of the engagement, 
and in hearing of the enemy, who spent 
most of the night constructing .intrench- 
ments. Five o'clock the next morning was 
the hour fixed for an attack upon the Con- 
federate positions all along the line. At 
daylight the men are called up, and with 
hardly time to snatch a mouthful of food, 
are formed in line and ordered to the charge. 
The One Hundred Forty-First still holds 
the extreme right of the line, its right rest- 



ing on the Plank Road. It will be remem- 
bered Hancock's Corps was composed of four 
divisions. Says Humphreys* : — " General 
Gibbon was placed in command of the left, 
composed of his own and Barlow's Divisions 
and the artillery. General Birney was put 
in command of the right, composed of his 
own, Mott's and Getty's Divisions. At five 
o'clock General Birney's command advanced 
along the Orange plank road, his own and 
Mott's Divisions in the first line, Getty's in 
the second, supported by Carroll's and 
Owen's Brigades of Gibbons' Division. 
Wadsworth's command advanced at the same 
time on the right of Birney's. All attacked 
the enemy with great vigor, and after a des- 
perate contest the enemy's line was broken 
at all points, and he was driven in confusion 
through the forest, suffering severe loss in 
killed, wounded and prisoners." 

In the morning the front line held by our 
Regiment was about twenty rods east of the 
stream which runs nearly parallel with the 
Brock road, and the enemy were occupying 
an intrenched line on the opposite slope, 
Scales' Brigade of Wilcox's Division lying 
directly in front of our brigade, the flag of 
the Thirteenth North Carolina Regiment 
hanging lazily from the staff which was con- 
spicuously placed upon the crest of the ene- 
my's works, and directly in front of our Reg- 
iment. While "fixing bayonets" prepara- 
tory to the charge, Sergeant Stephen Bought, 
of Company A, who had been severely 
wounded at Chancellorsville, and had just 
returned to his company from hospital, 
found be had lost his bayonet from its scab- 
bard, so clubbing his musket, he remarked 
with a pretty strong expletive: — "I'll have 
that Hag!" Says Captain Hurst : — "Acheer 
— a run — the whiz of bullets in our ears — 
through the powder-smoke, and through 
the bramble-bushes, we found ourselves over 
the works, and the Thirteenth North Caroli- 
na Veteran Infantry, our prisoners before 

Virginia Campaign, p. .;7. 

breakfast, and for that matter without sup- 
per, and without sleep the previous night. 

Sergeant Rought, with some others, went 
straight for that rebel flag, and when over 
the works the rebel color-sergeant refused to 
surrender and tried to defend it. Rought 
with his clubbed musket split his head open 
and felled him prostrate at his feet, at the 
same time breaking his own musket oil' at 
the stock. Before the Hag had hardly touch- 
ed the ground he snatched it out of the dy- 
ing color-sergeant's hands, shouting ' I've 
got it! I've got it !' What a cheer went up 
from the victorious One Hundred Forty- 
First as he waved it, and we read on it in 
golden letters and figures, " loth North Car- 
olina Veteran Volunteers," and its long list 
of battles.f It was a new flag. The Sergeant 
was ordered to report with it to the Brigade 
Commander, and by him to General Birney, 
commanding the division. Such cheers as 
went up along the line as he carried it wav- 
ing to the rear made those old woods ring. 
While so doing he was again wounded. 

A congratulatory order was issued the 
next day by General Birney very compli- 
mentary to the Regiment, in which he gave 
us the honor of taking the first flag captured 
by the Army of the Potomac under the im- 
mediate command of General Grant. This 
flag was on exhibition at the great Sanitary 
Commission Fair held in Philadelphia that 
summer, and Rought who was in hospital 
there wounded, was regarded as quite a hero. 
It is now in the trophy room of the War De- 
partment, Washington, with this record at- 
tached : — "Captured by Sergeant Stephen 
Rought, Company A, 141st Reg't., Pa. Vols., 
May 6th, 1864. Battles of the Wilderness, 

Sergeant Ethel Fuller, of the same com- 
pany, took prisoner the Captain of the Rebel 
Color Company. 

While Sergeant Rought was engaged in 
the hand to hand struggle with the Color- 

tColonel Watkins says fourteen battles were 
iuscibed on it. 



Sergeant for the flag, another of the enemy 
drew his gun to shoot Ro'ight, but betore he 
could fire Captain Warner, of Company D, 
shot him dead with his revolver. The Ser- 
geant says: — ''I took the colors to General 
Ward, lit; gave me a word of praise and ot- 
tered me a drink from Ids flask, which I de- 
clined. He unfurled the flag and added 
more compliments, and told me totake is, to 
General Birney, who received it with many 
Mattering words for my courage and bravery." 

In addition to tiie battle-flag about forty 
prisoners were taken, which were passed to 
the Fortieth New York Regiment of the 
same brigade, and which has received un- 
merited credit for capturing them. Sergeant 
Lobb, who had lately returned to his com- 
pany from the Brigade Staflj to whom Colo- 
nel Watkins had given the prisoners in 
charge to convey to Brigade Headquarters, 
gives this explanation of it, and no one who 
knows Mr. Lobb will for an instant doubt 
the perfect truthfulness of his statement. He 
says: — "Early on Friday morning, May 
oth, we took forty prisoneis and a stand of 
colors, and during the forenoon we took 
more prisoners. Colonel Watkins asked 
Captain Atkinson to let me take them to the 
rear. I accordingly started with them with- 
out thinking to ask for a written order. 
When I came out on the Brock road 1 soon 
met an officer who said he was the Provost 
Marshal and demanded the prisoners. I 
asked him for a receipt. He answered by 
saying, 'Have you any papers to show that 
you must have a receipt?' As I had none 
this Marshal or pretended Marshal, took 
the prisoneis, and I returned to the Regi- 
ment and reported to Colonel Watkins, who 
replied he did not suppose such ' red tape' 
was necessary. The result was that this 
Marshal gave the Fortieth New York the 
credit that belonged to the One Hundred 
Forty- First. When Colouel Watkins learn- 
ed what had been done, he had an interview 
with General Ward who assured him that 
the matter should be corrected and our Reg- 

iment receive the credit it deserved, but I 
have since learned it was never done." 

Although on some parts of the Union 
lines Lee was the first to make the attack, 
the enemy in the immediate front of Ward's 
Brigade was evidently not expecting to be 
assailed so early in the morning, and unpre- 
pared for it. When our men came upon them 
thsy were just cooking their breakfast, and 
some of our boys seized pieces of their partly 
cooked corn bread, eating it as they ran. 

Halting but a moment in the first line of 
the enemy's works the victorious troops 
pushed on. over the second line, the Confed- 
erates flying before them. For more than a 
mile the brigade pressed forward in hot pur- 
suit, until they had penetrated the enemy's 
lines almost to their trains, and it was said 
the most advanced were in the rear of his 
headquarters.* Here they held their ground 
until their ammunition was expended. A 
detail with Captain Horton was sent to Bri- 
gade Headquarters for a fresh supply and 
for supports, and another detail was sent to 
gather up what ammunition could be found 
in the cartridge boxes of the dead and the 
wounded. Supports could net be hail at 
that moment, and the cartridges found on 
the field were exhausted, when the men 
were ordered to lie down, and a consultation 
of the Field Officers of the brigade was held. 
In the meanwhile the head of Longstreet's 
Corps was just reaching the field, who, ral- 
lying the panic-stricken Confederates again 
turned their faces toward their assailants. 
Without supports, without ammunition, with 
lines badly broken by the long distance 
t!i rough the thickets, the Regiment was 
forced to retire, and with fixed bayonets 
slowly and sullenly fell back to near the po- 
sition of the morning on the line of the 
Brock road, when there followed a short lull 
in the contest. 

*Hill's Divisions under Wilcox and Heth were 
driven for a mile and a half through the woods 
under heavy tire, and back to their trains and ar- 
tillery, and the Confederate headquarters. — 
Swinton, p. 1.31. 



It was now about eight o'clock in the 
morning. New supplies of ammunition 
were obtained, the lines readjusted and Gen- 
eral Hancock received reinforcements to aid 
the Second Corps in resisting the desperate 
assaults it was evident would soon be made 
upon it. He at once set about preparing to 
make another advance upon the enemy. Gen- 
eral Wadsworth's Division, (Fourth of the 
Fifth Corps,) which had been on the right of 
Birney, and on the north of the Plank Road 
and had participated in the charge early in 
the morning, with those of Mott and Birney 
and part (one brigade) of Stevenson's Divi- 
sion of the Ninth Corps, and Gibbons' Divi- 
sion of the Second Corps were designated as 
the force to renew the attack, Webb's Bri- 
gade of Gibbons' Division being on the left 
of Wadsworth. In arranging the line, a 
gap was found to exist between Gibbons' and 
Wadsworth's Divisions, and the One Hun- 
dred Fortv-First and another regiment were 
detached from the brigade and placed in this 
pap, and temporarily in command of Gen- 
eral Webb, the Regiment at first occupying 
the second line on the north side of the Or- 
ange plank road but in a few minutes, tak- 
ing their place in the first line which they 
held until they were relieved by Carruth's 
Brigade of Stevenson's Division. 

While Hancock was engaged with the en- 
emy in front where they were making a furi- 
ous attack upon his line, General Longstreet, 
whose corps was now on the field, sent a 
strung force on Hancock's extreme left, by 
the way of the unfinished railroad, where 
they formed facing north, and about eleven 
i advaned until they encountered the 
Hank and rear of Birney's command, which 
with Wadsworth's was now fiercely engaged 
with Kershaw's, Field's and Anderson's Di- 
visions. This movement concealed from 
view by the dense wood, through which 
General Hancock says one could not see- a 
hundred paces, was completely successful. 
The brigades on the left could not resist the 
impetus of the attack. In less than half an 

hour a portion of the divisions on the left 
gave way forcing back the remaining regi- 
ments in great confusion. The fighting here 
was desperate. The enemy pressed forward 
with great vigor, crowding the Federals back 
(northward) to a knoll where a Colonel had 
collected a large number of stragglers. Here 
the troops were again rallied and checked 
the Confederate advance. The ground was 
contested inch by inch with great stubborn- 
ness, and almost desperate valor. The ene- 
mv occupying lower ground their fire was 
very destructive. Small trees and bushes be- 
tween the lines were cut down as with a 
scythe, and the large ones were pierced and 
peeled. Wadsworth on the right was oppos- 
ing the most heroic efforts to the onset of the 
enemy, but after several ineffectual efforts to 
rally his men, fell mortally wounded in 
front of his command and very near the 
ground held by our Regiment. Our men 
having exhausted their ammunition were 
relieved bv the regular troops of Carruth's 
Brigade, (first of Stevenson's Division,) and 
fell back to the Plank Road again, and laid 
down. General Hancock consulting with 
General Birney, had deemed it advisable in 
order to restore the lines to fall back to the 
intrenchments on the Brock road, which 
was safely accomplished, and here the One 
Hundred Forty-First re-joined its own bri- 
gade. The troops were now re-formed in 
two lines of battle on the ground from which 
they had advanced to the attack in the 
morning. The enemy pushed forward to 
within a few hundred yards of the breast- 
works, but did not attempt to assaidt them. 
The One Hundred Forty First occupied very 
nearly the same position again it had the 
evening before. 

Longstreet had intended to follow up this 
success with what was. planned to he a most 
decisive blow, but at the time the Union 
troops were falling back in disorder, this in- 
trepid leader of the assault fell severely 
wounded, and the Confederate advance was 
checked. It was now a little past twelve 



It required about four hours for Lee who 
now took immediate command on this part 
of the field to get his forces well in hand so 
as to be able to renew the attack. This long 
lull in the conflict gave Hancock time to 
re-establish his lines and strengthen his po- 

At a quarter past four o'clock the enemy 
advanced a strong force against Hancock's 
line until they came w : 'hin a hundred yards 
of it when they opened a heavy but not very 
destructive musketry fire. The attack was 
the heaviest on that part of the line south of 
the plank road, was replied to with spirit 
and would have been easily repulsed, but 
for the fact that the log breastworks behind 
which the 1 ederal line was protected acci- 
dentally caught fire, and a strong westerly 
wind blowing at the time drove the fire and 
smoke from the blazing logs into the faces 
of the men behind them. The enemy tak- 
ing advantage of this pressed forward, and a 
portion of Mott's Division and of Ward's 
Brigade retreated in great disorder. Jen- 
kins' Brigade of South Carolina troops push- 
ed up and took possession of that part of the 
intrenchments from which our men had 
been driven, and the remaining part of 
Ward's Brigade being thus assailed in flank 
as well as front, joined in the retreat down 
the plank road toward Chancellorsville. For 
a time it looked like a general rout, but the 
Twentieth Indiana forming the right of the 
line clung to their position, and the enemy 
were speedily driven back, the retreat check- 
ed, order restored, and the integrity of the 
line established. By five o'clock the 
enemy was completely repulsed, and fell 
back with heavy loss in killed and wounded. 
A battery, (Dow's Sixth Maine,) on the 
plapk road which was well served enfiladed 
the breastworks and the enemy soon found 
it to be an unpleasant neighbor.* This 
practically ended the fighting on this part 

-Captain Lobb says the gunners broke open 
boxes of ammunition and loaded their pieces 
with musket cartridges, firing the leaden bullets 
into the enemy by pails' full. 

of the line, and for that matter the severe 
fighting of the Wilderness. 

General Meade had ordered an attack to 
be made by Hancock on the Confederate po- 
sition at six o'clock, but from the almost con- 
tinual fighting of the day, his men were 
nearly out of ammunition, and the ammuni- 
tion-wagons were some distance in the rear 
and there was not time enough to replenish, 
consequently the attack had to be given up. 
As an instance, our own Regiment had been 
in three engagements in the battles of the 
day, and had expended from one hundred 
and fifty to two hundred rounds of ammuni- 
tion per man. Hancock, who had borne the 
brunt of the fight, was now allowed a little 
rest. Lee's efforts to turn his left and thus 
force Meade back to the Rapidan had been 
unavailing, and if our men had not perm a" 
nently gained much ground, they at least 
had lost none, for the One Hundred and 
Forty- First we re at night occupying the same 
place at the intersection of the Brook and 
Plank roads they held in the morning. 

In a letter written a few days after this 
battle, Sergeant Owen has given so vivid an 
account of the movements of the regiments 
this day, that I cannot forbear to quote at 
length from it. He says : 

" At five o'clock in the morning of the Gth, 
the whole left of the line began an advance, 
charged the Rebs from their temporary 
breastworks and drove them half a mile, ["a 
mile and a half.] Simeon Archer, of Com- 
pany I, was killed in that charge. Our Reg- 
iment took about sixty prisoners and a set of 
colors. Our ammunition being out, we re- 
tired to the creek [Brock] road, filed up and 
were taken in on the Plank road farther to 
the right. There our Regiment was in the 
second line for a while, but were soon put in 
the advance again, where we peddled out 
the most of our cartridges and retired to the 
second line. The underbrush and woods were 
so thick that we could not see theirgray uni- 
forms half the time. In the meanwhile they 
were fighting desperately where we were in 

1 8 4 


the morning. The Liebs made a desperate 
, bi ike t hrough or turned the II ink 
and threw our forces into confusion, and ;i 
general skedaddle was the result. All fell 
b ick to the creek | Bro :k | ro.i I, « here there 
were two lines of breastworks, Our brigade 
was put in the front line on the lefl of the 
Plank road. It was getting near three 
| four | o'clock in the afternoon when the 
irmisherson the left were driven in, and the 
musketry commenced. Steadily it advance I 
up to us in one continuous roar, until they 
came in sight on our front, when it was our 
turn to begin. 1 had just discharged the 
third shot when a ball struck me over my 
right eye. I think I never heard such 
musketry as there was there for about twenty 
minutes. Finally the Rebs charged them 
uch force on the left that our men gave 
way and gradually the whole line broke for 
the rear. Those in tin second line with the 
Jli ick in c infusion for half a mi le, 
where they again rallied, funned new lines 
and charged them bad .in lo their old 
position." * 

Here the regiment again lay on their 
arms all night. 

Saturday, the 7th, was -pent in compara- 
tive quiet. Both armies were peeled and 
bleeding, and tired. The One Hundred 
Forty-First lay behind their intrenchments 
nearly all day. There was skirmishing on 
the front and some cannonading on differenl 
parts of the field, and some movements to 
determine the enemy' About live 

o'clock in the afternoon an advance was or 
and possession taken of the line of 
breastworks in front of that behind which 
the brigade was lying. Hardly had this 
been accomplished when orders were receiv- 
ed to " Fall in," and the hi out in 
quick time on the road to Chancellorsville. 
en at once interpreted this as a defeat 
and thought that the example of Burnside 
and Hooker was to be followed by Grant. 
After going about two miles they were as 
rapidly countermarched to their old posi- 

tions. \.t eleven o'clock at night the men 
were ordered into line and so continued till 

The enemy's cavalry had torn up the Or- 
ange and Alexandria Railroad, so the 
wounded had to he removed by way of Fred- 
ericksburg, thence to Belle Plaiu, and by 
boat to Washington At one time it was 
thought that some might fall into the hands 
of Confederates, but during the day mo I oi 
them were removed to a place of safety. 

The casualties were thirteen killed, nr 
died of wounds, fifty-nine wounded, and 
three captured or missing. 

Corporal Aaron F. Bender, of Company 
A, was mortally wounded on the charge 
made in the morning, by being shot through 
both hips, and died in the hands of the ene- 
my Sergeanl Fuller, ol the same company, 
who was wounded later in the day, tin; 
the story: "Alter capturing the enemy's 
second line of works we soon found them 
in strong force. Some of them swinging 
their hats told us they wanted to come into 
our lines, and if half a dozen of our men 
would come out, there were about twenty 
who would give themselves up. Half a 
of Company A :; went out a short dis- 
tance, and swinging their hats ordered them 
in. The miserable ' ( rraybacks ' then poured 
a volley into them, wounding Corporal i len- 
der, who afterwards died." He was a son of 
Jacob Bender, but at the time of his enlist- 
ment was working as a farm hand for Cyrus 
Shumway on Spring Hill. He was unmar- 
ried, and twenty-live years of age- 

John 11. Ford, son of J-ohn Ford, then 
living near LeRaysville. was at his enlist- 
ment living in Wyalusing, where he had 
learned the trade of blacksmithing of* reorge 
W. Jackson, with whan he was then work- 
ing, and with whom he enlisted. On the 6th 
of May he was wounded by a musket ball in 

Alfred Hammerly, of Company a. says only 
himself and Bender went out. After they were 
tired on the whole Regiment poured a i 
upon the treacherous foe and nothing further was 

seen of lllCIll. 



the small of the back, and died the 8th, un- 
married, at the age of twenty-three years, 
of his comrades from LeRaysville 
were standing by him when he fell, but were 
obliged i" move en and leave him to die 
alone. They speak of him as a brave sol- 
dier; ever read) to do his duty and always 
at liis post. 

William Miller was born in Germany, 
and enlisted when bul sixteen years old. At 
that time he was working as a farm hand 
for John Mahony on Spring Hill. He was 
wounded in the head in the afternoon of 
May 5th, ami died in Fredericksburg May 
13th, and was buried there. 

Edward Krouse was wounded and captur- 
ed, and died .11 Anderson ville prison on the 

23d of June following, Ids grave being num- 
bered 2,455. He was a recruit from Wilmol 
township (Elwell,) mustered March 15, 1864, 
son of Jacob Krouse, a < rerman, unmarried, 

and about tW< Uty-tWO years of age. 

Sergeant Hiram L. Culver, ol Company 

B, who was also killed in the charge of the 
morning, was a young man whose loss was 
greatly felt in his company. His Captain 
u r e of him : — " He was killed in a charge 

upon the enemy's breast works on the south 

side of the Plank Road in the Wilderness. 

I le lived to see their works, one stand of 

colors, ami a large number of prisoners in 

the hands of the Regiment when a ball 
struck him and he died without a struggle 
or a groan within the rebel works we had 
won. He sealed with his life his devotion 
to the country he hail so long and nobly 
served with his best energies. While we 
bow to the mandate of Him who doeth all 

well, we can hut mourn the cause 

which has deprived us of a brave and 
noble officer, an honored and esteemed 
friend and companion, and our country 
of a firm supporter and true patriot." En- 
tering his company as a, private he was pro- 
moted to Corpora] December 5, 1863, and to 
.hi April 1 , 1864. I le was a wagon- 
maker by occupation, a single man and thir- 
ty-one years of age. 

George A. Jennings, of Company C, en- 
listed from Macedonia with Captain Cole, at 
the age of twenty year . lie was the son •■(' 
Dr. Coe G Jennings, of that place, and was 
greatly be! ived and respected by his com- 
rades. He was killed in the engageraenl on 
the right of the Plank Road while the Regi- 
ment was temporarily under the command 
of General Webb 

Sergeant Daniel Shultz, of Company I>, 
was also killed in the charge in the morning, 
His home was near Danville, Pa. He was 
December5, 1863, promoted from private to 
Sergeant, an unmarried man about twenty- 
four years of age. 

Wells M. Warner was killed in the game 
charge with Sergeant Shultz. lie was mar- 
ried am! living in Rome at the time of his 
enlistment, and was killed by a gunshot 
wound in his breast. He was by trade a 
harness maker, and at his death about t bir- 
rs of age. 

John King was a recruit, enlisted from 
Asylum township, March 22, 1864, was 
wounded in the arm, suffered amputation, 
and died from the effects of the wound .June 

In Company G, John Ballard, brother of 
Daniel Ballard of the same company, was 
wounded while out in the woods on the 
right of the Plank Road. As illustrating 
the severity of the light here, Captain Lobh 
says Mr. Ballard hail Bred until his gun was 
SO hot as to blister his hand. While resting 
on one knee he was hit above the ankle with 
a minie ball, which so badly shatli red the 
limb that amputation was necessary, from 
which he never rallied, but died in field 
hospital May 12th. He was a farmer from 
Scott township, near Starucea, married, and 
about forty years of age. 

Corporal Simeon P. Archer, of Company 1. 

was killed in the early morning charge, lie 

was a -on of John T. Archer, now ofWysox, 

was born in Orange County, ,\. Y., Decem- 
ber I'i, 1839. II'' resided at his enlistment 
in ('cuter Valley, Rome township, when- be 

left his family consisting of a wife ami two 



daughters. lie enlisted as u private, l>ut on 
the Is: of .January was promoted to Corporal. 

Aimer W. Forest, in Company K, was 
color-bearer and shot, in the elbow while car- 
rying the flag, and death resulted from over- 
exertion in getting to the rear alter he was 
wounded, lie enlisted ('nun Sinithfield with 
Captain Wright, was unmarried, and died 
in Chestnut Hill Hospital, June 29th, at the 
age of twenty-three years. Sergeant Sea- 
graves, of Company G, took the colors, 
which were picked up by Lieutenant Brain- 
erd, and carried them for sonic time after- 

Charles Webster was wounded in the pri- 
vates, and died in consequence in hospital 
at Alexandria, duly 25th. He entered the 
service when only eighteen years of age, and 
had not yet reached twenty at his death, 
lie was living with his father, .Jonathan 
Webster, in Elkland township, where he en- 
listed, lie was a, good soldier, never absent, 
from bis company from the day of bis mus- 
ter until lie was wounded. 

The following is a list, of the wounded a s 
far as can now lie ascertained: 


Sergeant Stephen Rought, slight. 

" Ethel Fuller, right hip. 
Private Albert Baker, finger off. 

" George .Johnson, right side. 

" Edwin Lee arm. 

" John Lee, hand. 

" Albert Stetler, leg. 
" Moses Wheeler, face. 


Corporal Nelson ( '. Dyer, arm. 

" ( barles E. Met 'umber, arm. 

" Martin W. Smith, leg. 

Private Wallace M. Elliott, cheek. 

Matthew V. < rreening leg. 

" Andrew .). Horton, knee. 

< )rin A. Soper, leg. 


Lieutenant George W. Kilmer, leg, slight. 
Senreant Frank W. Douglass, bead. 


Sergeant Sanford Diamond, bead, slight, 
voluntarily returned to duty. 
Private Harry (Unison, band. 
" Robert Price, arm. 

Loomis Vargason, arm. 
'' John Whitaker, finger oil. 

Corporal Frank Granger, shoulder. 


Sergeant James N. Thorp, wounded. 
Corpora] George E. Weaver, wounded. 
Private Edward F. Boswell, 

" Michael Daly, wounded. 

" William Harvey, wounded. 

" William Stone, wounded. 


Private Joseph Gary, wounded. 
" Ashael Hobbs, wounded. 
" Benjamin C. Marshall, wounded. 


Sergeant Edwin G. Owen, eye. 
Private William P. Heath, wounded. 

" George K. Wagner, wounded. 

" John McQueeney, missing. 

com PANY K. 

Corporal dames L. Vincent, wounded. 
Private William Bedford, wounded. 

'' Albert ( base, wounded. 

James P. Howie, wounded. 

" Dorson M. Sperry, wounded. 

" Piter Miller, wounded. 

The losses iii the Regiment for the two 
days arc as far as can now be ascertained, 
comprised in the following tabular state- 
ment : 







and Missing 


Field & Staff', 





























While tin two armies were lying behind 
their intrenchraents in the thickets of the 
Wilderness on Saturday, the 7th, each 
watching the movements of the other, Gen- 
eral Grant determined to move smith by his 
lefl flank, and by thus threatening General 
Lee's communications with Richmond, com- 
pel him to move out of his fastnesses into a 
more open country. To effect this he pur- 
posed to plant himself at Spottsylvania Court 
House, fifteen miles southeast of the battle- 
field of the Wilderness, and about ten miles 
almost directly south of Chancellorsville. 


Of the four streams that unite in forming 
the Mattapony river, the two eastern ones, 
the Po and the Ny, have their sources in 
the southern slopes of the Wilderness pla- 
teau, the former near the Wilderness battle 
ground, and the latter about Chancellors- 
ville ; the Brock road follows in the main 
the crest of the ridge which divides the wa- 
ter-shed of each, to Spottsylvania, which is 
nearly midway between the two streams, the 
Po on the right or south, and the Ny on the 
left or north. About a mile south of the Po 
and running nearly parallel with the Brock 
road is the "Shady drove" road, the church 

The official report gives sis killed, sixty-seven 
wounded and two missing— aggregating- seventy- 

being about two miles west of Todd' Tav- 
ern. The I'<> runs for about three miles 
neai lv parallel to and about midway between 
these two roads, when it turns almost direct- 
ly south for about a couple of miles where it 
spreads out into quite a lake', from which it 
resumes its former southeasterly course un- 
til it unites with the Ny. Todd's Tavern is 
about eight miles on the Brock road from 
the Orange plank road; three miles farther 
south the road forks at a clearing known as 
" AIsop's farm," the two roads uniting again 
about a mile farther south. Haifa mile far- 
ther on the road again forks, the left, which 
is the continuation of the Brock road, fol- 
lowing the same general southeast course to 
Spottsylvania Court House, the right, or 
Block House road, running almost directly 
south crosses the Shady drove road at the 
" Block House" at a mile from the forks and 
two miles farther crosses the Po. The old 
court house is on this road about, half a mile 
north of the river. 

In this turning operation General Meade 
moved his army in two columns, the right by 
the Brock road composed of the Fifth Corps 
followed by the Second, the left column col- 
umn composed of the Sixth Corps, followed 
by the Ninth, took the pike and plank road 
to Chancellorsville by way of l'iney Branch 
Church, to the < lourt 1 louse. 

Early in the evening of the 7th, Saturday, 
the Fifth Corps were on the march for Spott- 
sylvania. After various unavoidable delays, 
about eight o'clock on Sunday morning, 
Warren emerged from the woods into the 
clearing at AIsop's about two miles north of 
Spottsylvania Court House, but Lee discov- 
ering the removal of the trains of the Union 
Army had anticipated the movement by 
sending Longstreel in the direction of the 
threatened point almost simultaneously with 
Warren's leaving the Wilderness, and 
Barksdale's Brigade closely followed by Mc- 
Laws' and Anderson's Divisions, by way of 
Shady Grove had met with less difficulty 
than Warren, and reached AIsop's just prior 

1 88 


to tin- arrival of Robinson's Division, which 
led t lie Federal column. The road here as- 
cends a considerable elevation, and just as 
the troops reached the crest of it they were 
met with an unexpected and terribly severe 
musketry fire from the enemy by which 
1 antral Robinson was severely wounded and 
his command thrown into considerable con- 

At Todd's Tavern the Catharpin road 
leading southwesterly from Chancellorsville 
to Shady Grove Church crosses the Brock 
load. After the attack at Alsop's Meade 
fearing the enemy would move up this road 
from the Shady Grove road, Ins principal 
line of march, against his open Hank while 
on the move halted Hancock at the Tavern, 
and directed him to prevent the enemy's ad- 
vance in that direction. 

It was about eight o'clock on Sunday 
morning when the One Hundred Forty- First 
Regiment left their breastworks near the Or- 
ange plank road and marched by their left 
Hank at the rear of the brigade down the 
Brock road toward the Tavern. The day 
was terribly hot and many suffered from 
sunstroke, and all were greatly overcome by 
the heat. Marching in the rear of the col- 
umn is always tedious, and was made doubly 
so by the heat and dust. 

They reached the vicinity of the Cathar- 
pin road about one o'clock in the afternoon 
where they were halted, and began throw- 
ing up breastworks preparatory to an antici- 
pated attack. Before dark a pretty heavy 
line was completed. This evening five days' 
rations were issued and the men secured 
some rest, although heavy firing was heard 
in the direction of Shady Grove, lien- the 
division bivouacked for the night. 

Says Swinton, speaking of this day's oper- 
ations, "The Confederates were in possession 
of Spottsylvania Court House. Lee, in fact, 
had succeeded in planting his army across 
Grant's line of march ; and having drawn 
upon the Spottsylvania Ridge a bulwark of 
defence, he was able, for twelve days, to hold 

the Army of the Potomac in check, and ex- 
act another heavy dole of blood." 

The position of the enemy was one of 
great strength, though of but little stratege;- 
ical importance- Hill's Corps occupied his 
extreme left extending from the Shady 
Grove road easterly across the Po to the 
folks of the Brock and Block House road, a 
distance of two and a half miles, then bend- 
ire; to the northward three-fourths of a mile 
farther to a small stream that empties into 
i be .\v, the line turns first to the east and 
then south, for a half a mile farther, then 
bearing southeasterly by the court house 
down to the Po at Snell's bridge, thus occu- 
pying a ridge from the Po to the Ny and 
back again to the former stream, the salient 
angle which includes an acorn shaped space 
a half a mile in breadth by nearly a mile in 
length, the base of which was joined to the 
intrenched lines was held by Ewell's Corps. 
A shorter line spoken of as the second line 
of works, extended across the base of this sali- 
er.t, and also connecting the main lines of 
Lee's intrenched position. Longstreet was 
on the Confederate right. 

On Monday, the 9th, Meade got his army 
in readiness to move against the enemy. 
General Hancock moved from Todd's Tav- 
ern and took position on the extreme right 
occupying high ground overlooking the Po 
and the Shady Grove road south and con- 
fronting the Confederate left. The Fifth 
Corps was on his left, and the Sixth Corps 
was on the left of Warren crossing the Brock 
road where the two branches come together 
south of Alsop's. The Union lines now were 
nearly the arc of a circle, considerably con- 
tracted, well intrenched and protected by ar- 
tillery, but the enemy's position was also too 
strong io he successfully assaulted. 

On Monday, the 9th, Ward's Brigade lay 
at Todd's Tavern until one o'clock in the af- 
ternoon, when it was moved to its assigned 
placein the line. In the meantime skirmish 
firing was kept up without intermission, and 
the skirmish line at some points crowded 



close to the enemy's works, capturing some 
of his pickets. Later Hancock made a con- 
siderable advance on the enemy's left. 

SaysSwinton: — "During the afternoon a 
Confederate wagon train was observed filing 
along the road leading into Spottsylvania, 
opposite Hancock's position. That officer 
was directed to make a movement across tbe 
Po, partly with the hope of capturing some 
of the train.* Accordingly, toward evening 
of the 9th, the Second Corps forced a cross- 
ing of the stream, the south bank of which 
was observed by but a small force. The 
passage was effected with entire success in 
the face of many difficulties of ground; but 
night came on before the movement could 
be brought to a head." The banks were 
steep and covered with bushes. 

Theodore Larrison, of Company I, makes 
this entry for the day : — " About two o'clock 
in the afternoon we were ordered to advance 
and went in a southwest direction. We were 
obliged to wait for the artillery which was 
shelling and trying to capture the enemy's 
wagon train. At three we were ordered to 
march. At six encamp with the artillery. 
Heavy firing was still going on. We took 
four pieces of artillery, part of the train and 
lots of prisoners. Crossed a river and went 
about two miles [less than one mile] south 
of it and encamped on the height of ground 
for the night. I was sent to picket in the 
rear." The portion of the Regiment not on 
picket bivouacked on the south side of the 
Po, occupying a portion of the ridge and in 
the edge of a piece of woods. 

The next morning, although the Confed- 
erate train had been safely retired, yet Gen- 
eral Hancock after bridging the stream 
where his troops had crossed, which was fif- 
ty feet wide and deep, pushed forward the 

*General Humphreys, p. 76: — "It was deter- 
mined that Hancock should cross the river in his 
front and make a reconnoissance in force along 
the Shady Grove road on the enemy's left, cross, 
ing the river again by the Shady Grove road 
bridge or below it, with a view of turning and at- 
tacking the enemy's left." 

development of his operations. The One 
Hundred Forty-First was thrown forward as 
skirmishers and advanced about two miles 
pressing back those of the enemy with whom 
they were constantly engaged, advancing be- 
low the mills. 

The Po, where Hancock crossed it, runs 
nearly eastward, but farther on turns sharp- 
ly southward for two and a half miles, and 
again crossed the line of his march. He 
was now on the Shady Grove road which 
crosses the river on a covered bridge, a mile 
west of the Block House, and two and a half 
miles west of the Court House, and is known 
as the Block House bridge, near which the 
enemy were observed in force behind in- 
trenchments, commanding all the approach- 
es to it, and the bridge itself. Brooke's Bri- 
gade (the fourth of Barlow's Division) was 
thrown across the stream a half a mile below 
the bridge and was moving down on that 
side of the river when the operation was 
suddenly suspended by order of General 
Meade, who had determined to attack the 
enemy on Warren's front, and ordered Gen- 
eral Hancock to send two divisions to assist 
in the proposed assault. 

The divisions of Gibbon and Birney were 
accordingly retired, the rear of the latter in 
which was our Regiment which had been 
supporting a battery, being sharply assailed 
in the act. Some of the men ha\te said that 
for the time it lasted, it was as hot as any 
fire they were ever in. It was now two 
o'clock, and the men had been engaged, or 
at least under fire, since daylight. 

In retiring the troops who had crossed the 
river, considerable loss was suffered, 
and the horses attached to one of the 
guns becoming unmanageable wedged it be- 
tween two trees in a morass, whence it could 
not be extricated — "the first gun ever lost 
by the Second Corps." Miles' Brigade 
crossed last, taking up the pontoon-bridge 
and destroying the other. 

This movement is known in the records 
of the Regiment as the " Po River Move." 



Although the Regimenl was under a very 
hoi fire for a time, and in the skirmish line 
on the morning of the 10th, and afterward 
were under a heavy fire of shut and shell in 
support of a battery near the river which 
covered the crossing of the rear guard, yet 
no casualties are reported as occurring here. 


"The poinl the attack (to assist in which 
the Second Corps had been retired across 
the I'o, i was designed to be made, was a hill 
marked on the maps as 'Laurel Hill,' held 
by the enemy in front of Warren's line. 
This was perhaps the most formidable point 
along the enemy's whole front. Its densely 
wooded crest was crowned by earthworks, 
while the approach, which was swept by ar- 
tillery and musketry fire, was rendered more 
difficult and hazardous by the heavy growth 
of low cedars, mostly dead, the long bayonet- 
like branches of which, interlaced and point- 
ing in all directions, presented an almost im- 
passable barrier to the advance of a line of 

At eleven o'clock in the forenoon an at- 
tack had been made iiih.ii ibis position by 
troops of the Fifth Corps, assisted by two 
brigades of Gibbons' Division of the Second 
Corps which had been repulsed with severe 
loss. An attempt made by a, part of the 
Fifth Corps at three o'clock in the afternoon 
to eleai- the ground in their front bad also 
failed. At five o'clock die assault, was re- 
newed with great energy, some of Warren's 
men even reaching the parapet of the ene- 
my's works, but were driven back with great 
slaughter. But for all this (lie attack was 
ordered to be repeated at half-past six, hut 
under orders was deferred until seven. Gen- 
eral Hancock was now in command of the 
storming party which consisted of Gibbons' 
and Birney's Divisions, with a pari of the 
Fifth Corps. The men regarded the effort 
as hopeless from the start, anil the officers 
fulled to secure any enthusiasm in tiieir 
troops. For the first time the old division 

fSwinton, p. 1 19. 

faltered. It exhibited a behavior very un- 
like what had heretofore characterized it. 
General Hancock says, " Ward's Brigade re- 
tired in disorder until rallied by my own 
stall' and that of General Birney." "Bir- 
ney's m< n," writes a stall offic< r, " in fail be- 
c i mc scared and ran back a quarter of a mile 
behind some old breastworks." SwintOQ 
adds, " It is only those who know little of 
the motives which influence troops that 
would mistake such conduct for pusillanim- 

The men speak of the charge in similar 
language. Sergeant Hewitt says : — " Our 
division made a charge just before dark, but 
our lines were broken on account of 1 he t hick 
woods, and the first lire from the rebel artil- 
lery caused us to fall back in great confusion. 
It was late before our scattered troops were re- 
organized." Another says: ''A little after 
live o'clock we were all massed for a charge 
mi the enemy's works. All went steady un- 
der a perfect shower of bullets until the 
grape and cannister began to come, when we 
broke and run in all directions. Our breast- 
works were nearly a half mile oil'.'' This 
ended tic operations for the day. 

Mr. Liriison has this entry in his diary 
for the day in regard to the movements 
south of t be Po: -— " J lay near a white house 
doing picket duty at the rear of the army. 
An hour later we were hurried on doable 
quick down to a saw mill, [Tinder's?] and 
put under a heavy lire of musketry which 
soon became artillery. The enemy seemed 
to be trying to Hank us. The engagement 
became quite severe am! numbers were kill- 
ed on both sides. A number of times dur- 
ing the day I was where shot and shell came 
so thick they killed men on each side of 

Sergeant Lobb's account contains a num- 
ber of additional facts, and though it is im- 
possible to locate all the positions he de- 
scribes with certainty, yet the experiences 
of the morning OUght to lie preserved as a. 
part of the historv of the Regiment. lie 



says : < in tlie evening of the 9th I was sent 
as the Sergeant of the One Hundred Fori 
First pickets. It must have been near mid- 
night before we got posted. Everything 
was quiet during the night. 

"The next morning we advanced the 
picket line to the banks of a little stream 1 
was told was the Po river. About noon a 
line of sharpshooters crossed the stream and 
engaged some rebel cavalry, and the squad 
from the One Hundred Forty-First was or- 
dered to support them. We crossed the lit- 
tle stream and kept in close supporting dis- 
tance until we reached a. bouse. The few 
cavalry that bad been retiring from us fell 
back to a. road, received reinforcements and 
a field-piece, rallied and soon drove us back 
across the Stream. By tbis time our battery, 
Stationed on the high ground in the rear of 
us, opened on them, and tin' sharpshooters 
went their way, and we took our p serve 
post again. We could not find the line, but 
posted ourselves along where the line had 


"By this time a pretty sharp cannonading 
was playing over the hollow we were in, and 

we SOOn became satisfied tbal the picket line 
bad been withdrawn while we were put with 
the sharpshooters, and no one left to give us 
instructions; we therefore concluded that we 
bad better get out of it in some way. The 
Corporal of the squad and myself held a 
consultation as to what was best to be done, 
and it was arranged that we would go in 
single file, keeping some distance apart to a, 
piece of pine woods where we would be shel- 
tered from both fires, the Corp' nil led the 
way and I brought up the rear. The move- 
ment was successful and all reached the 
woods in safety. We at length succeeded in 
attracting the attention of our own men and 
soon got safely within tiie Union lines, but, 
where Birney's Division was we could not. 
find out We finally met an officer who told 
us that the division bad been withdrawn 
and sent further to the left. 

" We seemed to be a long time going to 

the left when we noticed the blue clover-leaf 
in the red diamond*— it was the Sixty- 
Third Pennsylvania, which formerly was in 
our brigade, but now in the Second. As we 
drew near we were recognized as old friends. 
Here we learned that a charge was in be 
made and that we bad better join them. 
Soon the order 'Forward!' came, and we 
took part with the Sixty-Third in it. We 
went over an open field down toward smiir 
stream, but, did not cross it, when the enemy 
op( ued upon us from the next hill. We 
Soon learned the charge bad not been a suc- 
cess, and fell back to (be starting point. 

"We now bid adieu to our old friends, 
and followed along the line until we found 
our Regiment, which was then awaiting or- 
ders lor another charge. Both officers and 
men were greatly pleased on our arrival, as 
they feared we hail been taken prisoners. 
We lad scarcely time to give account of our- 
selves, before the order came ' Forward !' 

" General Ward's Brigade was formed in 
column by regiments, with other troops, in a 
piece of very thick pine and cedar woods — 
the One Hundred Forty-First Regimen! was 
the seventh from the front. The lines mov- 
ed forward very steadily until the first line 
was within a few rods of the enemy's works, 
when they opmed upon us with grape and 
canister such a lire as V> sweep the front 
lines completely away. We fell back- in 
some confusion. It si emed to me very much 
like a bull-dig fight, and 1 think the rest 
saw it as I did. Night soon came and with 
it a Utile much needed rest." 

The next day, the llth, the brigade re- 
mained behind the intrenchmeiits to which 
tin y had retired the evening before There 
was continual skirmish firing, but not much 
else. Once the enemy got the range and 
sent the shot and shells into the ranks, but a 
slight change, in position enabled them to 
escape further annoyance from this source. 
The only casualty was one wounded, Samuel 
Lee, of < 'ompany A. 

*This was the combination of the Second and 

1 Third Corps badges. 




Afier :i thorough and careful examination 
of the enemy's lines, General Granl deter- 
mined to assault them again. The poinl 
now fixed ii]»iti was the apex of the acorn- 
shaped projection at the salient. As this 
was the field on which the Regiment en- 
gaged in the terrible strife of the 1-th, it 
may not be amiss to give in detail the posi- 
tions and strength of the enemy at this point. 
In this the full description of General Hum- 
phrey will be substantially followed. Be- 
ginning on the cast of the Brock roid and a 
quarter of a mile south of its intersection 
with the Block house road the intrenchment 
ran through woods, which were slashed in 
part, in a northeast direction for the space 
of half a mile, entering then the open 
ground of Harrison's farm. Harrison's house 
was near the intrenchment. This part was 
occupied by Kershaw's Division of Ander- 
son's (First) Corps. The line now ran near- 
ly north for half a mile, chiefly through 
wood, which was slashed, some part being 
in open ground, where there were abatis. 
Rhodes' Division of Ewell's Corps occupied 
this part of the line, his right, Dodge's Bri- 
gade, resting on what was afterward known 
as the bloody angle. From this angle the 
line ran along the outer edge of a wood in a 
direction a little north of east for about four 
hundred yards, having in front of it, for a 
long distance, the open ground of Landron's 
and Brown's farms. Brown's house being a 
mile directly north, and Landron's half as 
far and a little to the east This latter line 
terminates at a high open point where six 
or eight guns were in position. This east 
and west, line is usually termed the salient, 
but should he called the apex. The mtrench- 
nients turned at this high open point, 
making a second angle and ran nearly south 
six or seven hundred yards, having fairly 
open ground in front, in the centre of which 
was the McCool house, and wood in the rear 
of the house. Johnson's Division of Ewell's 
(orps held the intrenchments from Rhodes' 
right, along the apex of the salient and along 

a part of its east face for the distance of six 
or seven hundred yards. Running in an 
easterly direction across Landron's farm and 
about midway between the dwelling and the 
intrenchments is a small stream that empties 
into the Ny. At the sources and along the 
holders of this stream the ground is soft and 
miry. From this marsh the ground ascends 
to the line of the intrenchments. 

On the evening of Wednesday, the 11th, 
the camp fires were built along and in front 
of the lines of Hancock's Corps, and the 
troops had orders to march with the greatest 
possible silence. There had been a heavy 
shower in the afternoon and a drizzling rain 
continued through the night which was 
dark as Krelus, and the ground was made 
soft by the rain. The line of march was in 
the rear of the Fifth and Sixth Corps in 
nearly an easterly direction, without regard 
to mads, through open fields, through heavy 
forests, fouling streams and floundering 
through swamps guided only by the com- 
pass, so dark that often one could not see the 
man in front of him, nor even his hand held 
before his face. About three o'clock on the 
morning of the 12th, the Regiment reached 
the high ground in front of Brown's house, 
and obtained a few minutes' rest, but DO fires 
were to be lighted or noise made. 

Just in the gray of the morning, a I 'out 
half-past lour o'clock, light coming a little 
later than usual owing to a heavy fog, the 
Second Corps was massed for the charge. 
The direction had been determined by point 
of compass from the McCool house. Bar- 
low's Division massed in two lines on the 
cleared ground extending to the enemy's 
lines formed the left of the Storming column, 
Birney formed in two deployed lines on Bar- 
low's right, Mod's Division supporting, and 
Gibbon's held in reserve. Birney's lines 
were formed in the shelter of some woods — 
from there the ground descended to the 
swale through which flows the little stream 
above noted, and thickly covered with al- 
ders. Here the ground was so soft the men 
went in to their knees. At the farther side 



of this swale the enemy ha 1 a vidette post. 
Beyond here was a narrow strip of clearing 
in which was posted the enemy's pickets. 

Simultaneously the columns were set in 
motion. Barlow having open ground in his 
front, marched fast until about half way to 
the intreuchmentswhen his men gaveacheer 
and broke into a run. Birney's men had 
the brush and swamp in their path, but they 
kept their lines up to Barlow and together 
they reached the works. Here they tore 
away the abatis with their hands and poured 
over the works in an irresistible mass. The 
men were in great confusion. The several 
commands mixed in great disorder, but such 
was the enthusiasm inspired that every one 
seemed bent on doing his best to make the 
dash successful. 

The works at this point were very strong, 
consisting of a double line of intrenchments 
of oak logs, banked up with dirt from six to 
eight feet in height, and connected at short 
intervals with transverse sections and well 
protected with artillery. Our own brigade 
pressed forward with fixed bayonets without 
firing a shot. The enemy's pickets were 
dispersed and some captured. Reaching the 
line of fortification a volley was poured into 
their faces but did not check the impetus of 
the attack. In another moment with a 
cheer and a bound the men were over the 
works. It was a complete success if not a 
complete surprise. Some of the officers were 
pulling on their boots and some of the men 
were asleep in their tents. Four thousand 
of the enemy were taken prisoners, twenty 
pieces of their artillery with their caissons, 
horses, etc., several thousand stand of small 
linns, and upwards of thirty colors were 
taken. Among the prisoners were Major- 
General Edward Johnson, and Brigadier- 
General George H. Stuart. Captain Peck 
captured a Colonel. 

General Birney's troops seem to have en- 
tered the enemy's intrenchments just west of 
the east angle, extending from that point to 
the west angle and down the west face of the 

salient some four hundred yards, encounter- 
ed Terry's and Walker's Brigades at the 
apex of the salient. In taking the intrench- 
ments the commands became still more dis- 
ordered and mixed up. Sweeping away or 
capturing these brigades the enthusiastic 
troops push on toward the south, our Regi- 
ment on the inside of the west line of the 
salient or acorn-shaped projection, until they 
reached the second line which had been 
thrown across the base of this salient, about 
six hundred yards -in the rear of the apex, 
where, in the rear of Harrison's house, < Gen- 
eral Cordon had collected a considerable 
force which he threw upon the disorganized 
troops who were assailing them. The main 
body of the One Hundred Forty-First push- 
ed up as far as the McCool house where they 
were halted in order to collect the men, but; 
Captains Peck, Kilmer, and some of the 
men had gone a half a mile farther, the for- 
mer to the left the latter to the right, when 
to their utter surprise they saw coming in 
just a few rods behind them a brigade of the 
enemy completely cutting off their retreat. 
Most of our men who were captured were 
taken here. Kilmer ran down into the 
woods near by, got outside the fortifications, 
and struck the line on which the advance 
had been made in the morning, and reached 
his command again later in the day. 

Captain Peck thus speaks of his own ad- 
ventures :— " In making the charge on the 
morning of the 12th all organization was 
lost. Soon after striking the works about 
five hundred men and a few officers turned 
to the left and followed down the enemy's 
works capturing a large number of prison- 
ers. After following the works down about 
or nearly a mile we struck a heavy body of 
the enemy who poured upon us a severe (ire. 
In a short time the enemy were reinforced 
and we began to lose men rapidly. On look- 
in- around I found Lieutenant H. W". Jones, 
First Sergeant Epbraira Bobbins, Sergeants 
Alvin Whitaker and Charles Scott, of Com- 
pany C, Color Sergeant, with the Regimental 



( ulni's, and three or four enlisted men. Know- 
ing the danger we were in, and fearing that 
by some accident we might lose our colors, 
1 directed Sergeants Whitaker and Scott to 
return with the flag to the point where we 
struck the works in the morning and rejoin 
the Regiment if they could find it. Sergeant 
Whitaker was killed in getting hack, but 
Scott escaped unhurt. They had been gone 
but a few minutes when Lieutenant Jones 
called my attention to a line of men just 
in my rear. Upon turning around I found 
the enemy had crossed their line of works 
and were shutting us in between their lines. 
They were so close we had no time to notify 
our men. We did some lofty tumbling and 
fast running through the worst slashing I 
ever saw, until we came to a small stream 
which we crossed and escaped. We, Lieuten- 
ant Jones and myself, were the only two of 
our party that were not captured. Sergeant 
Robbins afterward told me that he had no 
knowledge of the enemy being in his rear 
until one put his hand on his shoulder and 
ordered him to throw down his gun." 

While making his way back Captain Peck 
saw a Confederate sunk to his waist in one 
of the sloughs which abound there, who see- 
ing the Captain approach called out to him: 
— " For God's sake, Yank ! don't come here 
or you'll get stuck." 

The terrible fighting which occurred here 
in Lee's desperate efforts to re-take the 
works our men had won has passed into his- 
tory as the hardest lighting of the war. It 
was not only desperate but hand to hand. 
" Nothing but the piled up logs separated 
the combatants. Our men would reach over 
the logs and fire into their faces or stab over 
with their bayonets. Many were shot and 
stabbed through the crevices and holes be- 
tween the logs. Men mounted the works 
and with muskets rapidly handed them, 
kept up a continuous fire until they were 
shot down when others would take their 
place and continue the deadly work. Sev- 
eral times duriug the day the rebels would 
show the white flag about the works and 

when our fire slackened jump over and sur- 
render, and others were crowded dovn to 
fill their places. It was there that the some- 
what celebrated tree was cut off' by bullets, 
there that the brush and logs were cut to 
pieces and whipped into basket-stuff, there 
that the ditches and cross-sections were fill- 
ed with rebel dead several feet deep. * * 
General McGowan, of Wilcox's Division, 
Hill's Corps, says : — "Our men lay on one 
side of the breastworks, the enemy on the 
other, and in many instances men were pull- 
ed over. The trenches on the right of the 
bloody angle had to be cleared of the dead 
more than once. An oak tree, twenty -two 
inches in diameter in rear of the brigade, 
was cut down by musket balls and fell about 
twelve o'clock, Thursday night (of the 12th) 
injuring several men in the First South Car- 
olina Regimeni."" 

Says Swinton : — " Lee seemed to be deter- 
mined to retake, at any cost, the line wrested 
from him, and throughout the day made not 
less than five heavy assaults, each of which 
was in succession repulsed by the troops of 
the different corps now concentrated at the 
point assailed." 

Of all the struggles of the war this was 
perhaps the fiercest and most deadly. Fre- 
quently, throughout the conflict, so close was 
the contest that the rival standards were 
planted on the opposite sides of the breast- 
works. The enemy's most savage sallies 
were directed to retake the famous salient, 
which had now become an angle of death, 
and presented a spectacle ghastly and terri- 
ble. On the Confederate side of the works 
lav many corpses of those who had been bay- 
oneted by Hancock's men when they first 
leaped the intrenchments. To these were 
constantly added the bravest of those who, 
in the assaults to recapture the position, fell 
at the margin of the works till the ground 
was literally covered with piles of dead, and 
the woods in front of the salient were one 
hideous Golgotha. At midnight, after twen- 

*Humpl>reys\ pp. 99, 100. 



ty hours of combat, Lee drew back Jus bleed- 
ing lines and re-formed them on his interior 

Our own Regiment was in the thickest 
of this terrible strife. The oak cut down by 
minie balls, a section of which was on exhi- 
bition at the Centennial Exposition, in Phil- 
adelphia, and is now in the War Depart- 
ment, at Washington, was directly in front 
■of where it was lying. 

Captain Lobb says: — "Near the point 
where that oak was cut down, some of the 
One Hundred Forty-First helped to get out 
four brass pieces of the enemy's artillery and 
turned the captured guns upon them. They 
made a noise if nothing more. Men with 
ropes hauled these guns to the rear. The 
enemy soon brought their artillery to bear 
upon us from behind the McCool house — I 
had been near this house before we halted 
in the morning — but just at this time a sec- 
tion of our artillery came up at a full gallop 
and gave Johnny Reb. some hard tack in 
the shape of solid shot. The enemy soon 
rallied and tried many times through the 
day to regain the works." 

Sergeant William Hewitt, of Company 
D, says the fighting was terrible — an awful 
struggle. The enemy try to take their lost 
ground but are repulsed with great slaugh- 
ter — the trees are literally cut to pieces with 
bullets— Captain Lobb adds, one tree in par- 
ticular 1 noticed considerably riddled with 
bullets, but my opinion is that about half 
was purely accidental and the finishing 
was for fun. 

After the enemy retired and the firing 
ceased the men laid down in the trenches 
for a little rest, but it was a horrible place 
in which to rest. It had rained considera- 
bly during the day and the ditches were filled 
with water and everywhere was mud, while 
around were the dead and the dying. An 
officer in the Regiment says : — "1 think it 
is no exaggeration to say the dead lay as 
thick as pumpkins in a cornfield in autumn."' 
Another says, " the only place I could find 
to lie down was between two dead men who 

were so close together I could not turn over 
without touching one of them." 

In a letter written the morning after the 
battle, Friday, May 13th, Colonel Watkius 
says: — "Wo are lying in the mud. We 
have been fighting incessantly since the 5th. 
Yesterday we charged very heavy breast- 
works and carried them after some loss. 
The slaughter on both sides passes descrip- 
tion. We marched all night, night before 
last, attacked the works at daylight in three 
lines with fixed bayonets, fought over the 
works all day and all night in the rain and 
mud. Our men are wet to the skin and are 
now eating their first meal since night before 
last. My heart bleeds when I think of our 
sufferings and losses. I am unhurt, but ex- 
hausted with fatigue." 

In subsequent letters he thus speaks far- 
ther of this day's terrible strife: — "Our 
losses have been miraculously small for the 
number and obstinacy of the fights in which 
we have been engaged, and can be attributed 
only to the fact that we fought most of the 
time behind breastworks and were guarded 
by a kind Providence. The day we took 
the enemy's works was one of continual 
musketry such as has never been seen before 
in this war. You will not credit me when I 
tell you that I saw large trees — one eighteen 
inches through, of white oak — literally cut 
down by musket balls, yet such is the truth. 
Every live man in the Regiment can testify 
to the fact. Just at this point our own and 
the rebel dead lay in heaps, pierced some of 
them with hundreds of balls- So horrible 
and sickening a sight I never saw before. 
Here we fought almost hand to hand for 
twenty-four long hours in a heavy rain. Our 
Regiment has behaved nobly and has taken 
more prisoners than its numbers. The men 
and officers are completely exhausted. I 
have passed through what I did not think a 
man could without injury. The loss of the 
enemy has been as large, if not larger than 
our own. They are as well armed and 
clothed as our own men, and fight with per- 



feet desperation. History will record the 
tight as the longest, the most obstinate, fierce 
and bloody single engagement of the whole 
war. Hour after hour it seemed as if they 
must give way. Hour after hour I feared 
we would run out of ammunition and be 
compelled to fall back. But cartridges came 
in abundance, and finally we held the 
hard-won works, guns and prisoners. If we 
could deal them two or three more such 
blows. I should hope for an early end of the 

The 13th continued to be rainy. Heavy 
skirmish firing continued all day, and occa- 
sionally a little cannonading. The day was 
spent in burying the dead, strengthening 
the works, rectifying the position, caring for 
the wounded, and getting a little rest. Some 
of the men went out to look over the ground 
of the yesterday's battle. Corporal Coburn, 
Company B, writes, ' : I viewed a part of the 
scene of yesterday's conflict. In the woods 
beyond the works the dead were piled be- 
yond anything I ever saw before, in all 
shapes and shot in all imaginable ways. A 
few rebel dead still remain on the field. 
There are many vacant places in our ranks." 

The men were exposed to the deadly aim 
of the enemy's sharpshooters as soon as they 
ventured beyond the rifle pits. The rain 
continuing they were compelled to pitch 
their tents upon the graves of the recently 
buried dead, where they continued also all 
of Saturday and Saturday night. Out on 
the right the dead lay unburied, the ene- 
my's sharpshooters preventing our burial 
parties from doing their work. Captain 
Lobb, who was thus engaged on Saturday, 
says: — " I never saw the dead lie so thick 
before. The One Hundred Forty-First 
buried the dead in the. vicinity of this oak 
tree. The enemy had constructed very 
heavy breastworks of oak logs filled with 
brush and earth, about five feet high from 
the bottom of the ditch. This ditch was lit- 
erally filled with the dead in their desperate 
struggle to regain their works. In many 
places we saw their bodies three deep, which 

with the water that had gathered there from 
the rains and the blood, was a sight too hor- 
rible for description. We shoveled the 
earth from the top of the works and buried 
them where they fell in the ditch they 
themselves had dug. I went through the 
woods for some distance and in many places 
saw the dead lying in heaps, especially near 
the trees." 

During Saturday, the 14th, there was- 
some skirmishing, but no fighting in the im- 
mediate front of the Regiment. Captain 
Peck went on picket this evening, and says: 
— "Up all night; a large number of the 
dead still lying about unburied ; in many 
places they are close by the side of the sen- 
tinels." The next day the pickets on the 
right were withdrawn, at which the enemy 
observing, poured upon the retiring line a 
perfect shower of bullets, but without doing 
much damage. The Captain says : — " I 
went to Spottsylvania Court House and then 
marched back and joined the Regiment and 
skirmished with the enemy until dark, when 
we were relieved by the Ninety-Third New 

The losses, most of which occurred on the 
12th. were eleven killed, died of wounds and 
died in captivity, twenty-five wounded, and 
seven missing. It may here be remarked 
that these figures fall short of the reports 
made soon alter the engagements, but are as 
complete as can now be obtained. In a re- 
port made by the Adjutant of the Regiment, 
under date of January 5, 1865, the losses in 
the Wilderness are given as seventy-eight 
killed and wounded, (two less than were 
given in our list,) and four missing — a total 
loss of eighty-two. Under date of May 1(3, 
1864, Colonel Watkins reports that since the 
Regiment broke camp eight had been killed 
in action, one hundred and four wouuded, 
and twenty-nine missing. In the Adjutant's 
report above mentioned the number is thir- 
ty-nine killed and wounded, and eight miss- 
ing, Colonel Watkins gave the figures soon 
after the action at Spottsylvania Court 



House, further investigation discovered some 
who were reported missing to have been 
killed, others to have straggled off and sub- 
sequently got back to their companies, as 
the Adjutant reports only twelve missing 
from the two engagements, instead of twen- 
ty-nine, one hundred and seventeen killed 
and wounded, instead of one hundred and 
twelve; so that it may be safely assumed 
twelve who at first were reported missing 
subsequently retured to the Regiment.* It 
will be observed the aggregate loss as given 
in our tables nearly corresponds with the 
aggregate given by the Adjutant, viz: — for- 

In Company B, as has been said, Sergeant 
Alvin Whitaker was killed while going back 
to his regiment from the extreme advance 
in the charge of the morning of the 12th. 
He was born in Warren Center November 
lii, 1836, and was working there at his trade 
— a blacksmith — when he enlisted with Cap- 
tain Da vies as a private. He was promoted 
to Corporal December 5, 1863, and Sergeant 
April 1, 1864. In a letter of Colonel Wat- 
kins, under date of May 17th, he says: — "It 
was in our last engagement that Sergeant 
"Whitaker. of Company B, was killed, hav- 
ing part of his head blown away by a shell, 
lie was an excellent soldier and a superior 
man, and fell in the very front. Davies 
thought much of him. Peck buried him 
upon the field." His parents were New 

*The official returns are somewhat less than 
either of the above— they are for the Wilderness 
May 5th and 7th. as follows: — Killed, six enlisted 
men ; wounded, two officers, 65 enlisted men, 
and two enlisted men missing, aggregating 75. 
For Spottsylvania, May 8th to 20th, three enlisted 
men killed ; two officers and 30 enlisted men 
wounded, and eight enlisted men missing, mak- 
ing an aggregate of43. This latter enumeration 
includes one killed May 20th, and places those 
who died of wounds and in captivity as among 
the wounded or missing. 

As an illustration, under date of May 13th 
Captain Atkinson writes: — "I have hut six men 
of my company here this morning; some are no 
doubt scattered in different places and may yet 
come up." 

England people and among the eaily settlers 
in Warren. A comrade writes of Alvin : — 
''He was always a favorite at home, and in 
the army, genial, true and brave." 

Charles Acl a, a private of Company C, 
son of. John Acla, of Asylum, where he en- 
listed with the party that went from that 
township. He is spoken of by his com- 
manding officers as a brave and faithful sol- 
dier, "who never shrank from duty or from 
danger." In the battle of Gettysburg he re- 
ceived a severe wound in the neck, which in 
healing drew his head to one side, and for 
which, had he desired, he could have been 
honorably discharged, but he preferred to go 
to the front. He was again severely wound- 
ed in the charge of Thursday morning, sent 
to Washington, where he died May 27th 
and was buried in the National Cemetery at 
Arlington, at the age of twenty-one years. 

Francis E. Patterson was among the party 
who was following Captains Peck and Kil- 
mer out to the extreme front, who with the 
most of that squad found their retreat cut off 
and obliged to surrender. Here young Pat- 
terson was captured and sent to Richmond 
where he died May -3d. at the age of twenty 
years. He was a brave, resolute soldier, of 
unexceptionable character and habits, and 
respected by both his officers and comrades. 
He was living in North Towanda at the 
time of his enlistment, going with the Com- 
pany B men, but transferred to Company ( ..', 
to fill up its numbers. 

Martin McKee was also wounded and 
captured at the same time and under the 
same circumstances as Patterson, and died 
in Andersonville prison, July 1*2, 1864. He- 
was a son of Robert McKee, of LeRoy town- 
ship, where he enlisted with Captain Swart, 
a man of excellent habits and soldierly qual- 
ities. His commanding officer says of him : 
— "That he had a mind which kept him 
above any of the vices into which many of 
his age are liable to fall. He was one of the 
bravest of soldiers, and died at the age of 



[n Company D, Ephraim Acla, reported 

missing, was found wounded, taken to hos- 
pital and died .June 3d. He was a recruit 
in the company, joining the Regimentin the 
March previous. A sou of Jonathan Aria, 
sit' Durell, and died at the age of twenty 

Wilson S. Hill, a farmer by occupation, 
and unmarried, enlisted with Mr. Lewis at 
a drummer, but when the regimental drum 
corps was broken up, lie voluntarily took 
up a musket and entered the ranks as a pri- 
vate, and cheerfully assumed the new duties 
cf his position. lie also was captured in 
the grand charge of the morning of May 
12ih, taken to Richmond and afterward to 
Andersonville, where he died October 25, 
1864. He was a son of Samuel H. Hill, of 
North Orwell, who died previous to his en- 
listment, about twenty-five years of age, and 
the only son of his widowed mother. He 
had been captured at Chancellorsville the 
year before, released, and returned to his 
regiment, but probably not exchanged. 

In Company F, a private, William J. 
Crandall, was wounded by a minie ball in 
the body, from the effects of which he died 
May 26th. lie was a son of Caleb Crandall, 
was a farmer in Brooklyn, where he enlist- 
ed, leaving a wile and two children to mourn 
bis untimely death, lie was twenty-four 
years of age.* 

In Company H, Sergeant Philip F. Quick 
was wounded in the thigh, and afterward 
shot in the mouth, the ball knocking out his 
front teeth, and passing so near the large fa- 
cial artery that it became uncapped in the 
sloughing off of the wound, causing death in 
a few moments. At his enlistment he was 
living in Dimock, where he was at work as 
as a farm laborer. He died in Lincoln 

Captain (now Rev.) N.J. Flawley. says :— " He 
was shot on the morning of the 12th while charg- 
ing the enemy's works, and feUnear me. I gave 
him a drink from my canteen, laid his head on 
his knapsack, bid him good-bye and left him, as 
tin- exigencies of the hour demanded every man 
in line and to his duty." 

Hospital at Washington, May 19th, at the 
age of twentv-six years, unmarried. A com- 
rade who knew him well, says of him : 
" He was as good a soldier as ever carried a 
musket, and as true a man as ever lived." 

Corpora] William Rogers, of Company K, 
was killed on the field, on the morning of 
the 12th of May, and buried in the Wilder- 
ness burial grounds. He wis from Forks- 
ville, where he was a farmer, a single man, 
and at his death twenty-seven and a half 
years of age. Until that fatal morning he 
had escaped unhurt. He was instantly 
killed. His comrades speak in the highest 
terms of his soldierly qualities, and of the 
esteem in which he was held by both, officers 
and men. 

Corporal George W. Pennington was 
among the captured on the morning of the 
12th, enlisted from Laporte with Lieutenant 
Dunham, and died in Andersonville prison 
September 15, 1864. From a letter of one 
of his company the following facts are taken : 
— "He was taken prisoner at Chancellors- 
ville, May 3, 1863, paroled, sent to parole 
camp near Alexandria, where he remained 
until September 30th, when he was ex- 
changed and joined his regiment. From 
the time he was taken at Spottsyl vauia noth- 
ing was heard of him until December 20th, 
when one of his comrades, taken at the same 
time, was exchanged, and informed the Reg- 
iment concerning his death. He died of 
starvation. In his diary he says: — "Tongue 
can never express, nor pen describe how we 
stiller." He was bold and fearless, and al- 
ways found at his post. At a meeting of his 
company the following was unanimously 
adopted : 

Whereas, It has pleased an All- Wise 

Providence to remove from our midst our 
fellow-soldier, Corporal George W. Penning- 
ton, who died while a prisoner in the hands 
of the enemy ; therefore 

Resolved, Although we bow to the will 
and behest of an Ail-Wise Providence, we 
sincerely regret to part with bin. 

Resolved, That the deceased was one y hi 
had won the confidence of his fellow-soldiers, 



by his Christian character and many kind 
and good qualities and gentlemanly deport- 
ment during the time he was among us. 

Resolved, That in his death we have lost 
a patriot and a soldier. 

Resolved, That we sincerely sympathize 
with his bereaved parents, and all who were 
endeared to him bv the lies of nature, and 
who will most deeply feel his loss. 

Byron Pierce, a private of this company, 
was also in the front charging column of the 
early morning attack, whose retreat was cut 
off by the enemy, was captured, taken to 
Andersonville, where he died, but the time 
or particulars of his death were never known 
by his comrades or friends, lie was a sun 
of Davis Pierce, from Smithheld, a single 
man, and about eighteen years of age. A 
comrade says of him : — "A good soldier and 
a very fine young man." 

Besides the above, the following casualties 
were reported, all of which except as other- 
wise noted, occurred on the 12th of May : 

Captain Joseph H. Horton, right arm. 
First Lieutenant Joseph H. Hurst, left 

Sergeant Stephen Bought, side. 
Private Elisha S. Keeler, side. 
" Samuel Lee (11,) head. 
" Delton Y. Caswell, wounded and 

Private James C. Crawford, wounded and 

Private James W. Crawford, wounded 
and captured. 


Corporal Stephen B. Canfield, lower jaw. 
Sergeant Ephraim D. Bobbins, captured. 


First Sergeant Ezra. S. Little, right leg. 
Sergeant Bishop Horton, shoulder. 
Private John Bockwell, captured. 

" Moses C. Johnson (10,) left side. 

Corporal Rodney Brewer, hand. 
Private Charles A. Chaffee, foot. 

Private Henry Walker, left thigh. 
Corporal Charles E. Seelev (Hi,) captured. 


Corporal Everts Wandall, left arm. 
Private William Campbell, head. 

company o. 
Private George S. Barnes, wounded. 
" Richard R. Tamblyn, wounded, 


Sergeant B. B. Atherton, wounded. 
Corporal Abram V. Alden, wounded 
Private Thomas Davis, arm oil'. 

" Stephen Millard, wounded. 

" John B. Overfield, " 
William II. Peet, 

" John J. Stockholm, wounded. 

" John Siillwell missing. 


Corporal F. Cortes Rockwell, wounded. 


Private Davis S. Simmons, wounded. 

The following table contains the usual 
summary of losses occurring about Spottsyl- 
vania from May 10-20, 1864 : 


Field & Stall', 












X V. * 



■- . - c 
























►** Or 


Including John Allen, Company A, killed May 

t Including Jeremiah S. Shores, Company I, 

died from wounds received May I'.'lh. 



On Monday, the 16th, the weather still 
continued showery, but much better than 
the past three days, and the roads were con- 
sequently improving. General Hancock 
was busy reconstructing his lines. Our 
Regiment was on the skirmish line, and 
busily engaged in building breastworks, 
Colonel Watkins writes under this date: — 
" 1 cannot describe and you cannot imagine 
the labors and sufferings we have undergone. 
We are now on a picket line, and this is the 
thirteenth day we have been under fire. 
Often we get a meal a day, but ofcener a 
meal in two days. I have not changed 
clothing in three weeks, and have had my 
boots off but once since we started." The 
next day be writes: — "Yesterday we had 
more rest than at any time since we started, 
as we had nothing to do but to build breast- 
works. ( >ur men are very much worn down 
and exhausted and the army is greatly de- 

During the forenoon of Tuesday all was 
quiet along the front of our brigade. Chang- 
es were made in the forces on some parts of 
the line owing to the departure of some Mas- 
sachusetts troops whose term of enlistment 
had expired, and whose places were lilled 
by the reinforcements now arriving. Late 
in the afternoon the skirmish line was driven 
in, and just before dark Rhodes' Division of 
Ewell's Corps charged the works held by 
the Regiment. " We held our fire until 
they came close up and then sent them 
howling back with a single volley. Some 
oi'the enemy were killed and wounded, and 
three were taken prisoners, hut. our Kogi- 
nient suffered no loss. The men slept on 
their arms, expecting a renewal of the at- 
tack the next morning!" 

At dawn next day ( reneral Hancock ordered 
his men up to charge the enemy's line, and 
the division moved up near the Harrison 
house, hut it proved unsuccessful, and they 
were soon compelled to retire. The brigade 
then moved hack and re-occupied the works 
taken on the morning of the 12th. Here 

they were under a heavy lire of shot and 
shells, hut no casualties were suffered by our 
Regiment. Our batteries returned the fire 
with spirit and soon silenced the enemy's 
fire. Under this date Colonel Watkins 
writes: — " p I am now sitting behind the very 
breastworks, and upon the very ground we 
fought so long and obstinately over on the 
12th instant. 1 have just eaten a supper 
from an old oil cloth spread over the buried 
remains of brave soldiers, amid the most noi- 
some smell one can imagine. I do wish we 
could get away from here. Six days ago we 
took this place and have not gained ground 
since. As I write 1 keep my head low to 
avoid the deadly missiles of the enemy's 
sharpshooters. We had a hard fight to-day 
in attempting to take one of the enemy's 
lines in front, but failed. We are expecting 
an attack to-night in return. We are in 
front where we have been almost all of the 
time, it does seem as if they ought to take 
us out and give us a little rest. The days 
are very warm, but the nights are cool and 
foggy. We are all so worn out and exhaust- 
ed that when we once get to sleep it is al- 
most impossible to get awake again. 1 hope 
we will move from this spot soon. The 
stench is intolerable and the associations by 
no means pleasing. Think of lying down 
among graves from which protrude the pu- 
trefying arms and legs of dead comrades 
with the whole atmosphere thick with the 
most offensive smells." 

Captain Atkinson writes under date of 
May 16th to the same import: — "Since the 
hard fought battle of the 12th, we have been 
skirmishing with the enemy continually, 
hut have had no hard lighting. Yesterday 
I had the Regiment on the skirmish line, 
and the hoys amused themselves by tiring at 
the Rebs. every lime they showed their 
heads. We were relieved last night, and 
this morning are taking (.air ease. Ti 
not a shot to be heard. We have whipped 
the enemy thus far, hut it is at a fearful cost. 
Over one half of our division have been 



either killed or wounded, and the whole 
army has suffered terribly. It seems as if a 
man must be made of iron to stand such a 
campaign as this. We have lost over one 
half of our Regiment, and strange to say 
have had but few killed, and the most have 
been only slightly wounded. We have done 
some of the most obstinate fighting of the 
war. Captain Peck and myself are the only 
Captains left with the Regiment. The Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel is in command of the Regi- 
ment this morning, and the acting Major is 
also present." 

This day some of the slightly wounded 
and convalescents came up, and a number of 
detached men returned to their companies, 
so that this evening one hundred and eigh- 
ty-six were reported present for duty. 

At ten o'clock in the evening the Regi- 
ment received the welcome order to evacu- 
ate the intrenchments. Quickly gahering 
up their arms and baggage they set out and 
marched east, (to the left,) about two miles 
and encamped near Anderson's mill, across 
the Ny, and a little east of the Fredericks- 
burg road. Here for the first time since the 
campaign opened, the men were not under 
fire. In the morning orders were issued to 
make themselves comfortable, wash their 
clothes and obtain what rest they could. 

It should have been stated, that owing to 
the losses in Mott's Division, (the Fourth,) 
from the casualties of battle and the expira- 
tion of the terms of service of many of his 
regiments, it had become so reduced in 
numbers that on the 13th of May it was con- 
solidated into a brigade and attached to Bir- 
ney's Division. 


General Grant, after a week of fruitless 
effort, determined to abandon the attempt at 
carrying the enemy's position, and by a 
turning operation compel Lee to relax his 
hold upon the Spottsylvania ridge. Prepa- 
rations were in progress for this movement, 
which was intended to be set on foot on the 
night of the 19th, but the enemy observing 

them, resolved on a bold move to delay if 
not to thwart them. 

The Federal line of communications with 
Washington was by way of Fredericksburg, 
which was held by Tyler's Division of foot 
artillerists. Ewell with a considerable force 
by a wide detour around the right flank of 
the Union army, moved down upon the 
Fredericksburg road, and attempted to seize 
the ammunition train then coming in. The 
attack was met with spirit by Tyler's men. 
and Birney's Division was ordered up to 
their support. 

Anticipating a day of rest, the men had 
taken the first opportunity in three weeks to 
wash their clothes, and when the order came 
to " Fall in " many were obliged to put on 
their wet shirts or pack them in their knap- 
sacks and march without one on their backs. 
It was about five o'clock when the order 
was received to march immediately. Two 
brigades of Birney's Division, one of which 
was Ward's, went into position on Ty- 
ler's right, but the severity of the action was 
already past. Mr. Lobb, whose diary has 
been so frequently quoted in these pages, 
thus recounts the particulars of the engage- 
ment: — "We were ordered out to support 
the heavy artillery, and soon got on their 
track, their heavy knapsacks being scattered 
along their path. After a while we came 
out into the cleared ground. A few of us 
who were in front came in sight of the 
smoke of the engagement — I was able at 
that time to keep up with any in the Regi- 
ment. The enemy had taken a position in 
the woods on a side hill, while the heavy ar- 
tillery were formed in an open field, and 
pressing forward to close range, were cut 
down fearfully. We saw the situation at a 
glance, and fell back to a cross road, for the 
rest of our Regiment to come up. In a few 
minutes Captain Atkinson, Major Tyler and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Watkins arrived, and I 
made known to them the situation of things. 
Colonel Watkins then formed the Regiment 
along this cross road, which was somewhat 
sunken so as to afford us considerable pro- 



tection, with instructions to the company of- 
ficers that at the command "forward" the 
Regiment should move at double quick over 
the brow of the hill, get through the line of 
heavy troops as best they could and make 
for the woods. The command was given 
and the run through the troops and into the 
woods was soon accomplished. There was 
pretty sharp firing for a while in the woods, 
but it soon became dark and put an end to 
the fighting. We were on low ground and 
advancing up the hill, the enemy fired over 
us. We drove them back from our front 
and lay on our arms all night. The next 
morning we advanced early, but found the 
enemy, except their dead, gone. A Colonel 
Boyd was among the dead, and Colonel Wat- 
kins had him buried where we found him, 
in the front yard of a small house. Our loss 
was only two, and our brigade took six or 
seven hundred prisoners. We were relieved 
by the Sixth Corps and moved back near 
the Anderson house again." 

Under date of May 20th, Captain Atkin- 
son writes: — "Our division was sent from 
the front night before last for the first time 
since the campaign commenced. We rested 
and washed up yesterday, and were expect- 
ing a fine night's rest, when about three 
o'clock in the afternoon the enemy made a 
fierce attack on our right flank and rear, en- 
deavoring to capture the wagon train. Our 
division was ordered out to meet them and 
we had quite a little fight after night, and 
succeeded in driving them back. We were 
in line of battle all night expecting an at- 
tack every moment, but none was made. 
Before daylight our brigade advanced and 
captured about seven hundred prisoners." 

Colonel Watkins adds: — "Alter supper 
we were hastily marched about three miles 
to meet Ewell's Corps, which was endeavor- 
ing to capture part of our train. We were 
most of the night under fire, and drove him 
back. We are now near Army Headquar- 

Another says: — " We surprised and cap- 

tured four hundred and eighty prisoners, 
who like ourselves were completely tired 

The following paragraphs from Swinton* 
are a fitting conclusion to this section of the 
history : — 

"Before the lines of Spottsylvania, the 
Army of the Potomac had for twelve days 
• and nights engaged in a fierce wrestle, in 
which it had done all that valor may do to 
carry a position by nature and art impregna- 

"In this contest, unparalleled in its con- 
tinuous fury, and swelling to the proportions 
of a campaign, language is inadequate to 
convey an impression of the labors, fatigues, 
and sufferings of the troops, who fought by 
day only to march by night, from point to 
point of the long line, and renew the fight 
on the morrow. Above forty thousand men 
bad fallen in the bloody encounters of the 
Wilderness and Spottsylvania, and the ex- 
hausted army began to lose its spirit. It 
was with joy, therefore, that it at length 
turned its back upon the lines of Spottsyl- 

Jeremiah S. Shores, a recruit in Company 
I, was severely wounded in the evening of 
the 19th, and died in consequence in hospi- 
tal June 27th. He was a son of Silas Shores, 
living near Black's Post Office, in Sheshe- 
quin township, a single man and about twen- 
ty-one years of age. 

Sergeant John Allen, of Company A, was 
killed by the accidental discharge of a gun 
in the hands of a member of his company, 
while lying down upon his knapsack, on the 
morning of the 20th. He was a fanner in 
Herrick, living near his brother-in-law, 
James W. Alderson, where he left his fami- 
ly, consisting of wife and three small chil- 
dren. He was a faithful soldier, and had 
taken part in every action in which his Reg- 
iment was engaged. After receiving the fa- 
tal wound which was just as flie Regiment 
was about to march, he was placed in an 

*P. 45S. 



fay, and was 

Jas thirty-two 

as says: — " We 

., Sergeant Allen, 


.nter with Ewell had the effect 
t jone the turning movement at Spott- 
.ia in which the Second Corps was to 
the lead, for twenty-four hours. On the 
1, however, General Hancock was direct- 
ly General Meade to move as soon at'ter 
,rk as practicable, by way of Guinea Sta- 
011 and Bowling Green to Milford Station, 
'bout twenty miles distant, on the Rich- 
mond and Fredericksburg Railroad, and 
ake position on the right or south bank of 
he Mattapony, if practicable, and attack the 
nemy wherever found. f 

The Regiment was aroused about mid- 
light of the night of the 20th and soon were 
in the march, reaching Guinea Station, 
light miles on the way just at daylight, 
["hence their route lay through Bowling 
Jreen, a little east of the railroad, which 
pas reached at three o'clock in the after- 
loon. The weather had come off exceed- 
ngly warm. After taking their dinner and 
•esting a little at the Green, they pushed on, 
■rossing the Mattapony at Milford Station", 
pd encamped on the south side of the 
yearn. The march had been an uneventful 
le. The cavalry force, which had preceed- 
3 the infantry column, had cleared the way 
if whatever force the enemy had stationed 
o observe the roads, and had secured both 
he wagon road and the railroad bridges, 
rhe country through which their journey 
ay was beautiful. They had emerged from 
he thickets of the Wilderness and the woods 
)f Spottsylvania into the cultivated fields of 
he central part of the State. Corn was six 
riches high, wheat was in bloom but not 
jromising, the clover fields were red with 
slossoms, the early fruits were ripening. It 

fHumplirev's Virginia Campaigns, 1SG4 and 
.865, p. 120. 

was also the first day since the 5th of Mas 
they had not been under the enemy's lire, 
and as they bivouacked for the night it was 
to sleep without being disturbed by the roar 
of cannon or the firing of pickets. 

The next day, (Sunday, the 22d,) the bri- 
gade moved out about a mile to a better po- 
sition and began intrenching, continuing un- 
til nearly noon when our Regiment was sent 
out on a reconnoissance about four miles to 
support a company of cavalry; but after 
vainly searching for indications of the ene- 
my until night, they returned to camp and 
rested quietly until morning. In a letter 
written by Colonel Watkins of this date, he 
says: — "We marched about twenty-two 
miles yesterday. We came through Bow- 
ling Green and are now intrenched about 
two miles out [south of the Mattapony.] I 
went with the Regiment to support some 
cavalry about four miles out on a reconnois- 
sance, but found nothing. This is a most 
beautiful country. Many fine residences and 
plantations. The male slaves are mostly 
gone. Chickens and turkeys are found quite 
abundantly, but they will not last long." 

Early Monday morning the Regiment 
again broke camp, and at six o'clock were 
on their way for the North Anna river. 
General Lee having been made aware of the 
turning movement in progress threw his 
army by the nearer and more direct routes 
across this stream, and thus again interposed 
the Army of Northern Virginia between the 
Army of the Potomac and Richmond. * Gen- 
eral Grant now determined to press forward 
with vigor. In this movement the Second 
Corps had been directed to move to Chester- 
field ford, near the Fredericksburg and 
Richmond railroad bridge. Chesterfield 
ford was where the Telegraph road from 
Fredericksburg to Richmond crossed the 
North Anna, and was by a bridge instead of 
a ford. 

" At eleven o'clock in the forenoon of the 
li -' • » 1 General Hancock reported from Old 
Chesterfield (about four miles from the 






North Anna, at the railroad and Telegraph 
road bridges,) that part of his infantry had 
passed that point, moving toward those 
bridges, his First Division massed at Old 
Chesterfield and the rest coming up. In 
accordance with his instructions, advancing, 
he took position on the north bank, about a 
mile from the river, his right across the Tel- 
egraph road, his left across the Fredericks- 
burg railroad, Birney on the right, Barlow 
in the center and Gibbon on the left. The 
enemy were seen in force south of the 
river. They had batteries in position on 
the high southern bank of the river, as well 
as infantry intrenchments. On the north 
side they had intrenchments covering the 
Telegraph road bridge, and on the south 
side, close to the bridges, similar works. 
The bridge-head works were held in force 
by a part of Kershaw's Division. After ex- 
amining them General Birney was of the 
opinion they could be taken, and about six 
o'clock General Hancock directed him to 
make the attempt."* 

General Birney detailed the First and 
Second Brigades to make the assault. The 
First (Ward's) Brigade was temporarily un- 
der command of Colonel Eagan of the Forti- 
eth New York, and the other under com- 
mand of Colonel Pierce. Our Regiment 
reached the vicinity of the telegraph road 
bridge about noon, and in connexion with 
the Ninety-Ninth and One Hundred Tenth 
Pennsylvania Regiments, was ordered to the 
front as skirmishers. A little stream, name- 
less on the maps,* running nearly parallel 
with the North Anna, on the north side, and 
about a half mile from it is crossed by the 
Telegraph road by a plank bridge. A little 
beyond, at the Chandler house, this stream, 
a mere brook, turns almost sipiarely south 
and empties into the river about midway 
between the Telegraph road and railroad. 
On the south side of this stream and about 
sixty or eighty rods from the enemy's re- 
doubt at the bridge was a knoll, and from 

"Humphrey's, pp. 12'.>-130, 

this knoll to 
of Chandler's 

The skirmish 
creek, crossed it, av 
posed to a severe fire, 
stump for protection, the . 
hind the knoll for cover until s 
in readiness. " While we waited hti 
Sergeant Lobb, " for our supports to ft 
the rear, we threw out a few expei 
sharpshooters ' to brush the fly oft JoIil 
cap' whenever opportunity offered." '. 
brigade was formed for the charge in soi 
woods on the north of the litte stream befo. 
spoken of, but remained under cover unt 
nearly six o'clock. At that time the ord( 
of " Forward " was given. With a shot 
that made the hills ring, the men spran 
forward for the redoubt that covered tl: 
north end of the bridge, the One Hundre 
Forty-First in the front. The ground w: 
swept with both artillery and musketry fir 
but with the irresistible force of determine 
men the column bore down upon the en 
mv's position. Says Sergeant Lobb:- 
" U'hen we reached the intrenchments v 
found them more difficult to scale than tin 
hail appeared while we were watching 
shoot flies off Johnnie's caps. We found 
ditch about five feet deep, and the heig^ 
from the bottom of the ditch to the top 
the earthwork was nearly ten feet. The fiii 
thought that came to my mind as J jump 
into the ditch, was what would be the b< 
way to scale the works. I said to Sergea 
Seagraves — 'mount my shoulders!' so 
leaned my hands and head against the bar 
and he was ,.oon on my shoulders, and 
tlie top of the fortifications. How ma 
went up that ladder I do not recollect, bu 
do recollect the colors of the One Hundr 
Forty-First were soon up — Sergeant S< 
graves at that time was carrying one of tht 
— and the stars and bars were soon dow 
When our Hag was up 1 preferred to be 
lieved, so Sergeant Seagraves reached doA 
and pulled up the ladder by which he h 
mounted the parapet." 



Some thrust their bayonets in the side 
of the ditch, and resting the breech of the 
guns upon their shoulders, made a support 
by which others were able to climb the sides 
of the redoubt. The enemy beat a precipi- 
tate retreat, except a few who were caught 
\ at such close quarters that retreat was im- 
possible and surrendered. 

Swinton says :f — " An hour before sun- 
down the assault was made by the brigades 
of Pierce and Eagan, that, under a heavy 
fire, swept across the open plain and at dou- 
ble-quick. As the menacing line approach- 
ed close to the work, the garrison fled pre- 
cipitately, and the men making a foothold 
in the parapet with their bayonets clamber- 
ed over it and planted their colors on the 
redan. Thirty men of the defending force, 
unable to escape, were captured in the ditch. 
The affair was exceedingly spirited and cost 
less than one hundred and fifty men." 

The One Hundred Forty-First claimed, 
ind is justly entitled to the honor of being 
irst in the works, their flag and that of the 
Second Excelsior (Fortieth N.Y.)were plant- 
ed on the works about the same time. The 
remaining part of the brigades was within 
supporting distance, but the work was done 
by our Regiment and the Fortieth New 
York. The force on the north side of the 
river fled across and joined their comrades 
on the other side and endeavored to burn 
the bridge, but were prevented by the vigi- 
lance of our men, who were occupied in 
throwing up intrenchments until two o'clock 
n the morning of Tuesday, the 24th. 

The loss in our Regiment was remarkably 
light. Corporal Henry E. Hunsinger, of 
Company K, who was wounded at Gettys- 
ourg, was also wounded here ; and private 
George Nichols, of Company D, was mor- 
tally wounded in the breast after the redoubt 
was taken, by a bullet from the south side 

of the river, and died a short time after dur- 


jng the same evening. He enlisted from 

*It is named in the text by Swinton Long Creek. 
1 fP- 476. 

the upper part of Wysox township where he 
left his family, consisting of his wife and 
several children. His wife died in the fall 
of 1862 while the Regiment was at Pooles- 
ville on account of which he went home on 
a furlough, but returned in the fall of the 
next year. He was the best target shot in 
the company, and at his death was about 
forty years of age. 

On Tuesday morning, the 24th, it was 
found the enemy had abandoned their works 
on the south side of the river in front of the 
Second Corps, and General Hancock crossed 
and occupied them. The Twentieth Indiana 
crossed in the forenoon and took possession 
of the first line, nearest the river, without 
opposition. The enemy had placed batteries 
where they kept a constant shelling upon the 
south approach to the bridge, as well as cov- 
ering the open space along the south bank 
of the river. Under fire from these batteries 
our Regiment crossed the bridge about noon, 
and went into position by the right flank in 
an open field, under a galling fire from the 
enemy. After a few moments the Regiment 
fell back under cover of a rise of ground, 
where they remained until all was quiet 
again, when they advanced, took position 
and constructed a line of works, " dodging 
the shells as they came along." Sergeant 
Lobb says:— "It was here that I saw for the 
first time earthworks thrown up without 
pick or shovel — bayonets were used for picks 
and tin plates for shovels, — but in that sandy 
loam in an incredibly short time, we had 
quite formidable works in three lines across 
that entire plantation. We lay in the second 
line for the night." 

Colonel Watkins says : — " We crossed the 
bridge under a raking fire of the rebel bat- 
teries, and formed in mass just in front of 
the rebel line of works which we had taken. 
Soon after we were ordered to advance, our 
regiment on the left ; we immediately struck 
upon an open plain about three-fourths of a 
mile in extent, when the enemy opened fire 
upon us with a large battery from directly 



in front, which threw shells with deadly 
accuracy. Several men of one company of 
the Fortieth New York, just in front of us, 
are reported to have been struck by a single 
shell. Our Regiment was immediately or- 
dered back under a knoll, where we stacked 
arms, and the men took oil' their accoutre- 
ments and advanced to throw up breast- 
works. We are now lying behind the in- 
trenchments. There is another line in our 
front, but we shall not probably be allowed 
to enjoy long the security we now have." 

In the affair of this day, although at times 
subjected to a severe artillery lire, the Regi- 
ment suffered no loss. 

The following day the men lay quietly 
behind their works until evening, when they 
advanced to the front line and relieved the 
Fourth Division. The picket lines were al- 
most in contact, and as night came on they 
laid aside the restraints imposed by military 
rules, and chatted with each other like old 
friends, and carried on quite a barter of to- 
bacco, which the Confederates had of fine 
quality in abundance, for the coffee and su- 
gar of the Federals. As the day began to 
dawn, after agreeing not to fire unless com- 
pelled to, and then to fire the first shots 
high as a warning, each man returned to 
his post to await the movements of the day. 

As usual the Union army had marched in 
two columns, the right under Warren had 
crossed the North Anna at Jerico Mills some 
four miles above Chesterfield bridge where 
Hancock had effected his crossing; between 
the two points the river bends considerably 
to the south, its general course being nearly 
eastward, and Lee had thrust his army be- 
tween the two Federal columns, holding two 
lines arranged like the letter V with the 
apex at the bend of the river, one line fac- 
ing Warren and the other facing Hancock. 
Grant was thus obliged to cross the river 
twice to communicate from one column to 
the other, and was thus completely check- 
mated by his antagonist, whose position 
was too strong to be successfully assailed. 

Hanover Junction, the intersection of the 
Virginia Central, and the Fredericksburg 
Railroads, was about three miles distant — 
Warren had reached the former road and 
Hancock had been holding the line of the 
latter, but between the two were the hosts of 
the enemy holding intrenched positions which 
it would be folly to attempt to assault. The 
Federals busied themselves in reconnoitering 
the Confederate positions, tearing up the 
railroads and throwing the rails into the 

All the day of Thursday the army re- 
mained in the pits until eleven o'clock at 
night when they quietly packed up and re- 
crossed to the north side of the river, and 
bivouacked about a mile back at two o'clock 
in the morning. The One Hundred Forty- 1 
First being in the front line was the last to 
leave, re-crossing near the railroad bridge, 
and then covering the crossing until the- 
train was over; it was nearly morning when! 
the men went to their bivouack. Corporals 
John Burns Walker, of Company G, did not\ 
keep up with his company, and fell into thelj 
hands of the enemy and remained in captiv- 
ity until the close of the war. 


General Grant determined by a long de- 
tour eastward to effect-'another turning opera- 
tion which, while bringing his own army 
nearer Richmond, would compel General Lee 
to release his hold on the North Anna. 
The North and South Anna unite and form 
the Pamunkey, which uniting with the Mat- 
tapony forms York river that empties intoj 
Chesapeake Bay. At the head of navigation 
on the York is White House. The success- 
ful crossing of the Pamunkey would there- 
fore bring the army into communication 
with a new and excellent water base, and se- 
cure fresh supplies of provision and ammu- 
nition, the want of which began to be felt. 

On the night of the 26th the Sixth Corps 
followed the cavalry which lead the advance 
to Hanover town, a little hamlet on the 
south side of the Pamunkey, a distance of 



twenty-two miles. They were followed by 
the Fifth and Ninth Corps, the Second 
Corps bringing up the rear of the column. 

It was noon of Friday, the 27th, before 
our Kegiment left their bivouack to join the 
advancing column, when they took up the 
line of march, going by the Concord Church 
road, and traveled until midnight without 
incident, halting about a mile from the Pa- 
munkey, and about four miles from Hanover- 
town, and encamped in a cornfield. The 
next morning at seven o'clock the march 
was resumed and continued until ten, when, 
after a rest of two hours, they again push- 
ed on, cross in thePamunkey near Hanover- 
town,* and took position on a range of hills 
on the south side of the river where they 
threw up intrench ments for the night. 

The surrounding country was beautiful 
The magnolias were in full bloom. Cherries 
were ripe, but the army was short of rations, 
meat both salt and fresh was exhausted, and 
the hard tack nearly consumed. 

Sunday morning dawned beautiful and 
bright. For once the army lay compara- 
tively still on the Sabbath, and as the fore- 
noon advanced the bands began to play, 
mostly sacred music, occasionally inter- 
spersed with patriotic and sentimental airs 
like " Star Spangled Banner " and " Home 
Sweet Home." Writes an officer of this 
date:— "It seems more like Sunday than 

*General Humphreys says : — " On the afternoon 
of the 27th, the routes of the army were changed ; 
the Sixth and Second Corps were directed to 
cross the Patnunkey at Huntley's, four miles 
above Hanover town, and the Fifth and Ninth 
Corps to cross at Hanover town." Our men all 
speak of crossing at Hanover town, and of forti- 
fying a line from one to two miles south of it; 
but the line was probably a ridge east of one of 
the branches of Crump's Creek along the road 
leading to Hawes' shop. " Not long after mid- 
day of the 28th, the Sixth Corps had crossed the 
Pamunkey and was in position across the Hano- 
ver Court House on river road, at Crump's Creek. 
The Second Corps followed the Sixth closely, and 
formed on its left, completing the cover of the 
road from Crump's Creek to Howes' shop." — 
Humphreys', p. 163. 

anything I have seen for a long while, but 
not as much as I would like to see it. How 
1 wish I were at home. T woidd go t<> 
church and feel much more happy than 

On this morning, the 29th, the command- 
ers of the Sixth, Second and Fifth Corps 
were directed to make reconnoissances in 
their front, in which General Hancock 
was to examine the roads southerly from 
Hawes shop. His leading division, Bar- 
low's, met only the enemy's videttes until it 
arrived at the crossing of the Totopotomoy 
Creek by the Richmond road. This creek 
is an affluent of the Pamunkey on the south 
side, running almost due east, and empties 
into the latter stream about midway between 
Hanover town and New Castle Ferry. On 
the south bank of the Totopotomoy Barlow 
found the enemy in force and strongly en- 
trenched. Here he encountered such stubborn 
resistance as to compel Hancock to bring up 
all of his corps. Our own brigade was ac- 
cordingly pushed forward about two miles, 
and encamped in the rear of Barlow in some 
pine woods. 

The next day, Monday, the 30th, Colonel 
Madill, who had left home the 24th, after 
being on the road a week, rejoined the Kegi- 
ment, greatly to the relief of Colonel Wat- 
kins, who had been in command thus far 
through this trying campaign. He found 
the Regiment occupying an intrenched posi- 
tion on a belt of high land running nearly 
parallel to and forming the north bank of 
the Totopotomoy Creek. 

Colonel Watkins writes under this date : 
— " We are lying on the north side, and the 
Rebs. on the south side of a creek, [Toto- 
potomoy,] and the sharpshooters are enter- 
taining each other. Net an officer or man- 
has hard tack or sugar. My supper last 
night was simply tea and boiled beef. I do 
not know what we shall do if we do not get 
bread soon. The water here is also very 
bad. Generals Meade and Hancock and 
their staffs were riding through the camp 



when the boys commenced halloing "Hard 
Tack! Hard Tack!" An order was at once 
issued putting the Commissary under arrest, 
and saying that we were not to move without 
rations; but later we got orders to move im- 
mediately and came here without them." 

In the afternoon the Regiment was ad- 
vanced until within about sixty yards of the 
enemy's lines, where they were sheltered 
in a ravine until evening, when they receiv- 
ed intrenching tools and threw up works of 
considerable strength. The much needed 
rations were also issued this evening, much 
to the relief of both officers and men. A 
considerable number of the Regiment, among 
whom was Sergeant Lobb, were on picket on 
the road to Hanover Junction, but were re- 
lieved about noon the next day. 

On the 31st a battery was got into position 
and after shelling the enemy's work's for 
some time, the skirmishers advanced and 
took the first Confederate line in our front. 
The brigade about two o'clock in the after- 
noon crossed the Totopotomoy Creek in 
their front, and occupied the line taken by 
the skirmishers, and at dark advanced forty 
or fifty rods farther and constructed a new 
line.- A portion of the time the men were 
exposed to a pretty severe fire and lost two 
severely wounded, Charles Angle, a recruit 
of Company A, and Sergeant Lobb, of Com- 
pany G, both wounded in the back, the for- 
mer while falling back to their intrenchments 
and the latter while working upon them. 
It was discovered the enemy held a position 

*In her history of the 105th Regiment, the au- 
thoress says on the morning of May 31st, that 
r< giment moved forward on the Richmond road 
close to Totopotomoy Creek, and occupied the 
line just vacated by the Firsl Brigade, which had 
driven the enemy from his first line on the SOUtb 
side of the creek and had occupied it. In a short 

time they crossed the creek and formed in line 
close in the rear of the First Brigade, and there 
lay all day under the enemy's artillery lire. The 
One Hundred Forty-First was in tin- First and 
the One Hundred Fifth in the Second Brigade. 
This would give a position a mile or more south 
of Hawes' store. 

enfilading our advanced line of works, con- 
sequently at three o'clock of the morning of 
June 1st, the Regiment had orders to fall 
back to a more sheltered place. 


The enemy's lines along the Totopotomoyf 
were too strong to be carried, and General 
Grant determined to move by the left and 
secure a foothold upon the Chickahominy. 
Accordingly dispositions to this effect were 
made on Wednesday, June 1st. 

" Cold Harbor," says Humphreys, " was 
an important point to us, as it was on the 
line of our extension to the left, and roads 
concentrated there from Bethesda Church, 
from Old Church, from White House di- 
rect, from New Bridge, and, directly or in- 
directly, from all the bridges across the 
Chickahominy above and below New Bridge. 
Some of these roads, and others connected 
with them, furnished great facilities to us in 
the movements and operations that took 
place here and those that followed." The 
place is not as its name would indicate on 
the border of a stream or bay, but entirely 
inland, being not even a village, but having 
importance only because of the confluence of 
important roads. The name is said to be 
common in England and was transferred to 
this locality probably from some fancied re- 
semblance to its English namesake. A mile 
west of it is New Cold Harbor, and north- 
west of this latter place a half a mile is 
Gaines' Mill. 

In order to seize and hold Cold Harbor 
the cavalry were sent forward in force on 
the 31st. General Butler commanding the 
Army of the James, had been ordered to for- 
ward all the reinforcements he could spare, 
and twelve thousand Cwe hundred men un- 
der General W. F. Smith were forwarded 
by transports to White House where they 
arrived on the afternoon of the 30th and 
were placed under the command of General 

fl have followed the orthography of Humph- 
reys. Swinton and some others have Tolopoto- 



The Sixth Corps was ordered forward to 
hold the roads about Cold Harbor, and Gen- 
eral Smith took position on their right, cov- 
ering the road to Bethesda Church. The 
enemy anticipating the movement had plant- 
ed a force which held a well intrenched line 
at right angles to the road between Cold 
Harbor and New Cold Harbor, facing the 
northeast. An attack was made upon the 
enemy's position without any decided ad- 
vantage to the Union army. On the after- 
noon of the 1st of June General Hancock 
was ordered to withdraw early in the night 
and make every effort to reach Cold Harbor 
by early morning to reinforce Wright's 
(Sixth Corps,) left. In the operations of 
this day, William Pope, a private of Com- 
pany G, was wounded. 

Early on the night of the 1st, General 
Hancock began to withdraw. The picket 
line under Colonel Madill, who was Division 
Officer of the day, was got off safely at half- 
past twelve o'clock. The route was neces- 
sarily circuitous, the night was pitchy dark, 
the roads were unknown, while the heat and 
dust were oppressive. It was half-past six 
in the morning before the heads of the 
columns reached Cold Harbor, and then the 
men were so exhausted that a little time was 
necessary to close up the ranks, get some- 
thing to eat and take a moment's rest. It 
was three o'clock in the morning before the 
First Brigade of Birney's Division got start- 
ed, and ten o'clock before they reached their 

From New Cold Harbor, which is a mile 
and a half north of the Chickahominy, a 
road runs nearly parallel with the river, 
crossing Flder Swamp Creek at Barker's 
Mills. About half way between New Cold 
Harbor and the mills this road is intersect- 
ed by one running almost directly south 
from Cold Harbor. Wright's left rested on 
this latter road. Hancock, who occupied 
the extreme left of the Federal line placed 
Gibbon on his right across this latter, called 
by Humphreys the Despatch Station road, 

Barlow on his left toward Barker's Mill, 
while Birney was sent to reinforce Smith 
who was on Wright's right on the road half 
a mile north of Cold Harbor, but in the af- 
ternoon our brigade went into bivouack in a 
piece of wood on Woody's farm," where 
they remained all night. This afternoon a 
very welcome shower fell and the rain con- 
tinued late in the evening. 

At six o'clock in the morning of the 3d, 
the division moved toward the front and to 
the lefr, a couple of miles to support l leneral 
Barlow, who made a furious assault upon a 
salient of the enemy's works, taking the first 
line, but unable to gain a permanent foot- 
hold. Gibbons made an attack at the same 
time with as little success. Both suffered 
heavily in killed and wounded. Birney 
was not engaged, although his men were ex- 
posed to a severe fire. The only casualty 
was one wounded, Daniel Hyna, of Company 
E. About noon the division was again sent 
to the right to till a gap between the Fifth 
and Eighteenth Corps, where the men went 
into bivouack on Woody's Hill and remained 
until the next day when they were relieved 
by Biirnside's troops, and in the afternoon 
returned to their place in the corps in the 
rear of Barlow's and Gibbon's Divisions. 

During this day an order was issued that 
further offensive operations would cease, that 
the seige of Richmond had begun, and the 
advance would be by regular approaches. 
The order was a welcome one, for the men 
were greatly exhausted, having for a month 
marched and countermarched, chopped and 
dug every day. The health of the Regi- 
ment was generally good. 

On Sunday, the 5th, everything was cmiet 
most of the day, but in the eveniag the bri- 
gade was moved to the iront and to the ex- 
treme left of the line where they intrenched 
and remained until morning, when the 
works were completed. A few extracts from 
letters written by Colonel Watkins at this 

*In their diaries the men call this Gaines' larin 
and Barker's Mill Gaines' Mill. 



date will best describe the position : — " We 
are in a magnificent country, and one would 
think it might be made the garden of the 
world if properly cultivated. The health 
of the Regiment is good, except diarrhoea, 
which plagues us all. Tyler is in hospital 
sick. He has not been well during the cam- 
paign, and has thus escaped the hard fight- 
ing and fatigue. Many of the soldiers are 
going home on account of the expiration of 
their terms of enlistment, but new arrivals 
keep the army as large as when we left Cul- 
pepper. We are now (June 6th,) lying near 
Gaines [Barker's,] Mills behind breastworks 
which we constructed last night in advance, 
and to the left of our front line. It is very 
quiet considering the proximity of the two 
forces. Our picket lines are but a few rods 
apart, and have, just in our front, agreed not 
to fire upon each other except in case of an 
advance. Some of our boys are trading 
with them coffee for tobacco— you see that 
General Orders have very little influence 
over a picket line. 

"Last night we had a pretty hard night's 
work, as we had to throw up strong breast- 
works for our Regiment with only ten axes 
and ten shovels, which took until nearly 
daylight, and we had to keep pretty quiet. 
The Rebels have a strong battery which 
partially commands our present line, and I 
should not be surprised if it became some- 
what warm before night. It was near our 
present position that Lee turned McClel- 
lan's left and eventually forced him back to 
the James. Our left is said to rest near 
Bottom's Bridge. The Chicka hominy is 
within a short distance of us. 

We had a pretty good night's sleep last 
night, (June 7th.) The pickets in our im- 
mediate front are getting along pretty well 
under their new arrangement. Their last 
bargain was not to fire upon each other un- 
less obliged to, and then shoot high the first 
time as a caution. Yesterday some of our 
boys went down to the point to wash when 
the enemy's pickets opened fire from both 

Hanks and sent them out in confusion, but 
those in our front kept their bargain and 
did not lire a shot. Yesterday they got up 
quite a trade in tobacco, coffee, etc. The 
Rebels desire to get writing paper, cofiee 
and newspapers more than anything else. 
They have plenty of tobacco of a good qual- 
ity, which our boys are anxious to get, so 
there is very little difficulty in fixing terms. 
We are now in the swampy region of the 
(hickahominy. When I lay down at night 
it is so warm I need no covering at all, and 
I go to sleep in a heavy sweat; in a few 
hours I awake cold and damp." 

Rations were now abundant, new supplies 
of clothing were issued, the boys foraged 
some vegetables, especially sweet potatoes, 
the weather was cooler since the showers, 
which with the few days' rest had greatly 
revived the spirits and improved the morale 
of the troops. 

Letters written by the men to their friends 
give so vivid pictures of the soldier's inner 
life that I cannot forbear to give the follow- 
ing from Captain Atkinson: — "On Monday 
evening, (the 6th,) I was sent with a detail 
of fifty men to strengthen the picket line, as 
a deserter had come in and reported that 
tin- Rebs. were intending to gobble up our 
pickets that night. I was posted on the ex- 
treme left and placed in command of Gen- 
eral Mott's Brigade (Third) picket line. 
Everything passed off quietly, the Rehs. not 
even firing a shot at us. I was left out for 
two days, returning to the Regiment last ev- 
ening. South Carolina troops were picket- 
ing in our front, were very friendly talking 
and trading with our men as if they had 
never been enemies. At a point between 
our lines I found five of them and five of 
my men sitting together and talking in a 
very friendly manner, a thing positively for- 
bidden. I got right upon them before they 
saw me, and the Rebs. looked quite sur- 
prised to see me there. They saluted me 
with 'Good Morning! Captain.' I ordered 
my men back to their posts and the Confed- 



erates to their. All immediately obeyed but 
one. I asked him if he was not going. ' No !' 
he said, 'he was posted there,' and showed 
me his gun, so I concluded to let him alone, 
and went back to my own lines. We are 
having quite peaceable times and are living 
very well. We get potatoes, dried apples, 
and pickled cabbage, all of which are great 
luxuries for soldiers." 

The position of the Regiment is thus de- 
scribed by Colonel Watkins : — "The left of 
our Division line is at or near Beaver Dam 
Creek, [Elder Swamp ('reek on Swinton's 
Map,] and the right of our Division line is 
near Cold Harbor; our brigade is on the 
right of our division. Our brigade line faces 
Richmond, and the road to Median iesvi lie, 
somewhat southwest. Our Regiment has 
been for several days a sort of reserve, the 
rest of the brigade occupying a line at an 
angle with the Mechanicsville road. A 
swamp is distant about thirty rods and the 
rebel pickets about fifty rods. The enemy's 
batteries are close and where they can make 
us hug our breastworks at any time. We 
are all enclosed by bushes set up to keep out 
the sun. The sharpshooters about seventy- 
five rods to our right are less friendly than 
the pickets, and are continually trying their 
skill on one another. Axes are heard all 
around plied by details at work upon the 
breastworks. Each day we are in pretty 
close proximity to pretty heavy shelling, and 
have to listen until they get tired and quiet 
down." It should be added the reports of 
Sunday morning, June 5th, give the number 
of the Regiment for rations, one hundred 
and eighty-seven. 

No changes occurred in the position or 
surroundings of the Regiment until the 
night of Sunday, the 12th. 


After spending more than a week about 
the defences of Cold Harbor, General Grant 
determined on the immediate execution of a 
plan formed at the beginning of the cam- 
paign that in case of failure to thrust his 

army between Lee and Richmond, to cross 
the James and invest the Confederate Capi- 
tal from the South. Accordingly, on Satur- 
day, the Kith, orders were issued for the 
transfer of the entire army across the James. 
In these orders " Major-General Hancock" 
was directed to " withdraw as soon after dark 
as practicable on the evening of the 12th in- 
stant, to the intrenched line in his rear from 
Allen's pond to Elder's swamp, and hold 
that line in conjunction with the Sixth 
Corps until the roads for the Second and 
Sixth Corps are well cleared when he will 
move by routes in his rear to the Despatch 
Station road, and Despatch Station and the 
shortest route to Long Bridge. After cross- 
ing the Chiekahominy, General Hancock 
will move toward < 'barles City Court House, 
by way of St. Mary's Church, Walker's, etc." 

Towards evening of Sunday, the 12th, 
Colonel Madill received an order to take the 
Regiment out on picket, and at eight o'clock 
in the evening started for the line, but lie- 
fore reaching the ground the order was 
countermanded and he was directed to march 
for Long Bridge. At nine o'clock the Regi- 
ment was ready for the march and in a few 
minutes the columns were in motion. The 
route was by a road nearly parallel with the 
Chiekahominy to Despatch Station on the 
York railroad, thence nearly south to Long 
Bridge across the Chiekahominy, arriving at 
Charles City Court House at dark of Mon- 
day evening. The Regiment was only three 
miles from the James river. The march 
had been rapid and severe, but was made 
without incident. The country was a most 
beautiful and productive one. The wheat 
was ready for the sickle. Corn, oats and 
clover were luxuriant. 

On Tuesday morning the men were called 
up early and under arms at four o'clock. 
After throwing up slight breastworks as a 
protection against a sudden attack, they got 
their breakfast and at ten o'clock started for 
the James. Here the brigade was crossed 
on a Hudson river steamer, the " Thomas 



Powell,'' which had been sent for that pur- 
pose, and landed at Windmill Point where 
they waited for the trains and the balance 
of the array to cross. The country was at 
its best, and the men availed themselves of 
what supplies it afforded for their wants. 
The Regiment encamped about a mile south 
of the James in a country of great beauty 
and fertility. Every heart beat high with 
hope, and every man looked forward to what 
he belived woidd be the speedy downfall of 
the rebellion. 

The official report of losses at North Anna, 
Totopotomoy and Cold Harbor, May 23d to 
June 5th, are one enlisted man killed and 
five wounded. In a table to which reference 
has been made heretofore the losses are given 
at North Anna, two killed, two wounded, 
two missing ; Totopotomoy, one killed, four 
wounded and one missing ; Cold Harbor, one 
wounded, making an aggregate of thirteen. 
The record from the diaries of the men give 
one killed, five wounded and one captured) 
an aggregate of seven. 

The following table will indicate the 
changes in the strength of the Regiment 
during the month of May: 


f For duty .. 
r> , 1 Extra duty 
Present " \ Sick 

1 In arrest... 



April SO 

May 31. 













! For duty I 309 I 176 




In arrest. 



Totai 322 

Absent 165 



Aggregate 512 


Very few changes were made in the or- 
ganization of the companies, except those 
occasioned by the casualties of the service 
which have already been noted. 

In Company B, Nelson C. Oyer was pro- 
moted from Corporal to Sergeant May 12, 
1864, and at the same time Matthew V. 
Greening, Wallace M. Elliott and James 
Cornell were made Corporals. 

In Company D, Lyman Beers was promot- 
ed from Corporal to Sergeant, May 6, 1864,. 
and at the same time Albert Brainerd to 

In Company E, May 13, 1864, Charles A. 
Tibbits was promoted from Corporal to Ser- 
geant, and Melvin Douglass was made Cor- 
poral, and the same date Sergeant William 
E. Loring was discharged. 

In Company F, Sergeant William H. 
Doolittle was discharged May 31, 1864, on. 
account of wounds received at Chancellors- 
ville, and on the 15th of May Moses B. Al- 
drich and Philander J. Bonner were trans- 
ferred to the Veteran Reserves. 

William K. Seagraves, of Company G, 
was in May, 1864, transferred to the United 
States Navy. 

Chapter X, 


As has been related, the Second Corps was 
ferried across the James from Wilcox's 
Landing to Windmill Point, and went into 
camp on the Wilcox Plantation, a mile south 
of the river on the afternoon of the 14th of 
June. Orders had been given General But- 
ler to send 60,000 rations from City Point, 
but alter waiting in vain for them until 
eleven o'clock the next day, General Han- 
cock, in obedience to orders issued from 
Army Headquarters, set out for an assigned 
position on the road to Petersburg. 

The " Cockade City," as it is frequently 
called, is twenty-two miles south of Rich- 
mond, the Confederate Capital, but for mili- 
tary purposes was included within the de- 
fences of the latter. In fact it is a great 
railroad center, communicating with all 
parts of the South, over whose great high- 
ways the Confederate army was dependent 
for its supplies, and maintained communica- 
tions with the country it was endeavoring to 
defend. On the east a railroad connected it 
with City Point on the James river, on the 
southeast was the Norfolk railroad, and on 
the south the Weldon railroad with their va- 
rious connections with the important towns 
of the South Atlantic States, while the South 
Side road coming from the west communi- 
cated with the most productive territory of 
the Confederacy. Besides these there were 
a number c.f pikes and plank roads, the 
most important of which are the Jerusalem 
Plank running midway between the Norfolk 
and Weldon railroads, the Halifax road 
running near to and parallel with the latter, 
Squirrel Level road farther to the west and 
the Boydton Plank still Farther to the west 
and the Cox road near to the South Side 

railroad. Petersburg was closely connected 
by railroad and wagon roads with Rich- 
mond. It was the purpose of General Grant, 
if possible, to wrest Petersburg from the 
hands of the enemy while it was compara- 
tively naked of defenders. In anticipation 
of such a movement, Beauregard, who had 
command of the defences of Richmond, had 
erected a cordon of strong works about it" so 
that with even a small force it was deemed 
impregnable. After Lee had drawn every 
man that could be spared from the Rich- 
mond garrison to reinforce his own army, 
General Butler in command of the Army of 
the James, shut up in the cul de sac of Ber- 
muda Hundred, was ordered to attemp' the 
capture of Petersburg, but the attack was 
only half made and repulsed. Again, be- 
fore Lee should occupy these strongholds 
with his army, General Grant hoped by a 
vigorous effort to take possession of them. 

With great energy the colored troops un- 
der the command of Butler assaulted some 
of the outer works and carried thern,f and it 
was hoped if the Second Corps could reach 
the field in time to support them the prize 
might be gained. In this, however, the 
Commanding General was doomed to signal 

*" The Petersburg- intrenchments encircled the 
city at the distance of two miles from it, and con- 
sisted of a series of strong redans or batteries 
connected by infantry parapets with high profiles- 
all with ditches."— Humphrey's, p. 206. 

fThe works were redans numbered from 5 to I I 
inclusive These redans or forts were numbered 
consecutively left of the Appomattox river, 1 to i 
covering the space between (he river and the 
City Point Railroad remained in the hands of the 
enemy as did those to the left of No. II, which 
was three-fourths of a mile south of the railroad, 
at the Dunn house. 



At four o'clock in the afternoon of the 
15th, General Smith in command of the 
troops investing Petersburg, was informed 
that the Second Corps was marching toward 
him on the road from Windmill Point, 
whereupon he sent word to General Han- 
cock requesting him to come up as quickly 
as possible. This dispatch General Han- 
cock received at half-past five, about a mile 
from Old (Prince George) Court House, and 
about four miles from Smith's left. The 
head of Birney's Division was just passing a 
country road leading directly to Petersburg 
when these dispatches were received and 
was at once turned toward Smith's line, Gib- 
bons' Division followed, and Barlow was or- 
dered toward the same point. The route 
which General Hancock was directed to 
take, through Prince George Court House 
was much longer than the direct road, and 
he did not reach his destination until nine 
o'clock in the evening, when his troops were 
so disposed as to relieve Smith's. It was 
two hours later before our Regiment biv- 
ouacked behind the lines. 

"The Petersburg intrenchments ran from 
the Appomattox river east, a mile to the 
City Point railroad (including redans one to 
four,) then south three miles to the Norfolk 
railroad, then west four miles to a point a 
mile west of the Weldon railroad ; then 
north two miles to the Appomattox river. 
The length of the intrenchments from the 
Norfolk railroad to the Jerusalem plank 
road was a mile and a half."J 

During the night Lee had been hurrying 
troops forward to hold the defences of Pe- 
tersburg, and lines which were comparative- 
ly naked the day before were this morning 
bristling with bayonets. 

The First Brigade, now under the com- 
mand of Colonel Eagan, awoke on the morn- 
ing of the 16th to find themselves near the 
city of Petersburg, whose steeples seeming 
not more than a mile and a half distant were 
glistening in the early sunlight. The ene- 
my at six o'clock opened upon our men a 
{Humphrey's, p. 216. 

heavy cannonade. Reconnoissances were 
made of his lines in the forenoon when it 
was found he had secured the commanding 
positions and strengthened his line at all 
points. " Eagan's (First) Brigade attacked 
and carried in a very spirited manner a 
small redoubt (Number 12,) occupied by the 
enemy opposite Birney's left, the brigade 
passing to the extreme left of the corps, and 
remained in the captured works." At four 
o'clock in the afternoon a general advance 
was ordered, but our brigade was not active- 
ly engaged, it being assigned as support to 
the first line. 

Three in our Regiment were wounded, 
said to have been by the bursting of a single 
spherical case early in the morning; — these 
were Corporal John H. Chaffee, of Company 
B, in the back ; Private Charles B. Salsbury, 
of Company P, in the side, and Corporal Al- 
fred Albee, of Company I, in the back. Col- 
onel Eagan was also wounded at ten o'clock 
in the morning, and Colonel Madill took 
command of the brigade and Colonel Wat- 
kins of the Regiment. 

During the day Redan, No. 4, on the 
right, and Nos. 13 and 14 on the left, togeth- 
er with their connecting lines, were cap- 

On the morning of the 17th, the attack on 
the enemy's position was renewed by Han- 
cock and Burnside, the former capturing the 
hill on which the Hare house stood, and 
where Fort Steadman was subsequently 
erected. Our own brigade was advanced at 
six o'clock in the morning to relieve a bri- 
gade of the Eighteenth Corps in the front 
line. In this position General Mott's Bri- 
gade was on the right, and Colonel Brewster 
on the left. The brigade was formed in two 
lines, the One Hundred Forty-First occupy- 
ing the front line. The troops were very 
much annoyed by the enemy's sharpshooters 
who had a good range and did considerable 
mischief. Private Adelbert Corwin, of Com- 
pany H, was killed ; Almarine G. Arnold, 
of Company B, was wounded in the leg, and 



Corporal George W. Smith, of Company I, 
in the face. 

Adelbert Corwin, son of W. T. acd Caro- 
line Corwin, was born in New Milford, hut 
at his enlistment was engaged in blacksmith- 
ing in Montrose. He was a single man, a 
good soldier, and highly spoken of by his 
officers for the promptness and readiness 
with which he responded to every call to 
military duty. He was shot through the 
neck, died on the field, and was buried at 
the City Point National Cemetery, Section 
D, lot 1, grave 81. 

Under this date Colonel Watkins gives 
the following description of the position of 
the Regiment : — " We are now in the front 
line again within one and a half miles of 
Petersburg. The rebel 1; .es are just across 
a ravine and near by. x ' * The sharp- 
shooters have a deadly range on us and we 
have to lay low. Every few minutes 
some one to the right or left of us is hit or 
killed. I have had several very close calls 
but am not touched. Petersburg is within 
perfect control of our siege guns when they 
come up. I was back at the first line which 
the Eighteenth Corps took before we came up. 
It is the strongest line of extended works I 
ever saw, and could not have been taken if 
the enemy had had any considerable force 
there. When we came up we were put in 
the front line as usual, afterward were put 
back in the first or rear line. 
Company B has five men left for duty now. 

"The line in our rear is only about eight 
rods distant. There is a knoll between it 
and us. We have to go over it for rations 
and water, and the officers for their meals. 
The sharpshooters fire at all that do so and 
are hitting a good many." 

Later in the day," he writes : — " We are 
still in the same pine woods, leading an idle 
life, but not at all anxious to be more busily 
occupied, if to do so we have to charge the 
enemy's breastworks or rifle pits." 

Having pretty thoroughly examined the 
enemy's position, and gained a permanent 

foothold within his lines, a general advance 
was ordered to be made early in the morn- 
ing of Saturday, the 18th. During the night 
of the 17th, General Beauregard determined 
to withdraw to an inner line laid out by his 
engineers, where his line of battle would be 
much shortened and his positions more ad- 
vantageous. This new line was across a ra- 
vine and from five hundred to a thousand 
yards in rear of the one he was occupying, 
and intersected the original line of intrench- 
ments at the Jerusalem plank road. Upon 
advancing to the assault on the morning of 
the 18th, the changes the enemy had made 
in position were discovered and General 
Meade ordered the troops to press forward 
and take the new line if possible before the 
intrenchments were completed or reinforce- 
ments could arrive. 

General Birney was in temporary com- 
mand of the corps, General Hancock being 
disabled on the evening of the 17th by the 
opening of an old wound, and General Mott 
was in command of the division. 

The assault in the morning, owing to the 
unfavorable positions of the several Federal 
Corps could not be made simultaneously, — 
and, after several abortive attempts the gen- 
eral advance was ordered to be made at 
twelve o'clock with strong assaulting col- 
umns. Birney carried out this order, Gib- 
bons' Division making two assaults at the 
time specified, both of which were repulsed 
with severe loss. 

General Meade again ordered assaults to 
be made by all the corps, with their whole 
force at all hazards, as soon as possible, 
without fixing the hour. 

At four o'clock in the morning, (of the 
18,) Captain Peck was ordered to take the 
Companies B, I and F, and advance them as 
skirmishers. He pushed his line up to the 
works in front of him and found the enemy 
had left. Advancing to the second line it 
was also found unoccupied, but a strong 
body of the enemy's skirmishers in front of 
it. Pressing forward he drove the enemy's 

2 I 6 


skirmishers before him until they reached 
the line where the Confederates were in 
force, mid unable to retire he remained in 
close contact with the enemy's pickets until 
the next morning. At live o'clock the re- 
maining companies of the Regiment joined 
the brigade in the contemplated advance- 
anil in half an hour were in the Confederate 
lines without opposition. Again they moved 
forward and seized an old line and held it 
for a time, but the movement was finally 
cheeked, and our troops forced to retire. 

Arrangements began to be made for the 
assault, which had been ordered by General 
Meade in the afternoon, General Birney 
using all of his available force. Mott was in 
front and to the right of the Flare house, on 
the left of the Prince George Court House 
mad, supported by one of Gibbons' brigades, 
with Barlow's Division on his left. 

At four o'clock in the afternoon the bri- 
gade under command of Colonel Madill,was 
massed in column by regiments for the 
charge, the One Hundred Forty- First being 
the rear column. Between where the bii- 
gade was massed and the enemy's works 
they were to attack, which were to the left 
of the Hare house, was a rise of ground 
which, while it sheltered and concealed the 
movements of the brigade, was found 
when the commanding officers of the regi- 
ments in company with Colonel Madill went 
upon it for the purpose of viewing the 
ground over which they would he required 
to pass and the works they were to assail, to 
be swept by a terrible fire of shot, shell and 
musketry. The reconnoissance completed, 
the order to advance was so >n given. Our 
Regiment with fixed bayonets pressing for- 
ward and keeping the lines before them sol- 
id. In passing over the ridge to reach the 
enemy's works they as well as the regiments 
in front of them, suffering fearfully. Here 
the lamented Watkins fell, at the head of 
his Regiment. The result was only the re- 
petition of the story so frequently told dur- 
ing this campaign — a dash against works 

strengthened by all the appliances of mili- 
tary skill and defended by men subjected to 
the severest military discipline, fighting 
with desperation and using the In si appli- 
ances of modern warfare, — a horrible slaugh- 
ter of the assailants, a disheartening repulse, 
a falling back of shattered and bleeding col- 
umns to a place of shelter to gather up the 
remnants of commands, perhaps to renew a 
like fruitless endeavor. 

Such was the story of the assault this Sat- 
urday afternoon. There was an exhibition 
of dauntless courage — a determination to do 
till that men could, but met with a blow that 
sent them back reeling and shattered under 
its withering force. Colonel Madill says:— 
" 1 soon saw the attack was a failure, and 
that to compel men to remain there and 
sacrifice their lives unnecessarily would be 
criminal, I ordered them back behind the 
crest of the hill, the place from which they 

The loss of Lieutenant-Colonel Watkins 
was deeply felt by both officers and men to 
whom he was strongly attached, and in 
whose gallant deeds he had had so large a 

Guy Hulett Watkins was born in the bor- 
ough of Towanda, March 19, 1831. Corri- 
pleting bis education, which had been ob- 
tained in the schools of his native village, 
and at t he seminary in Lima, Xew York, he 
entered the law office of his father, William 
Watkins, Esq., was admitted to practice in 
the courts of hi.-, county, September 9, 1853, 
and soon became the law partner of Hon. 
David Wilmot. His marked ability, indus- 
try and uprightness gave promise of unusual 
success in his chosen vocation. In 1859 he 
was elected District Attorney, his term not 
having expired when he entered the army. 

From the first outbreak of the rebellion 
Mr. Watkins took a lively interest in the 
men and measures employed for its suppres- 
sion, and its voice and means were always 
ready when either could be of use to the 
cause he had so deeply at heart. Profoundly 
impressed that next to his God his duty was 

LT.-COL. guy h. watkins. 



to his country, his large heart and fear- 
less nature chafed under the duties of civil 
life which prevented his sharing the toils 
and dangers of camp and of field. 

"In the summer of 1862, when President 
Lincoln's summons to arms appeared, Colonel 
Watkins' sense of duty overcame the enjoy- 
ments of a happy home and family, the al- 
lurements of peace, and the business pros- 
pects which were so brightly opening. He 
weighed his duty calmly and conscientious- 
ly, and determined to resign all at home, 
and offer his life upon his country's altar." 
He at once entered with great earnestness 
into the work of raising the quota of men 
called for in Eastern Bradford. On the or- 
ganization of Company B he was chosen its 
Captain, and on the formation of the Regi- 
ment was made Lieutenant-Colonel. The 
Colonel, H. J. Madill, being at the time in 
the Sixth Pennsylvania Reserves, the com- 
mand of the Regiment devolved upon Colo- 
nel Watkins for nearly three weeks. His 
duties at this time, peculiarly trying to an 
experienced officer, were doubly so to the 
young lawyer, who but a few days before 
had exchanged the quiet life of a civilian 
for the turmoil of the army. Everything 
relating to the supplies, discipline, and drill 
of his Regiment must be learned. In mili- 
tary circles all was confusion. Pope had 
just been defeated at Bull Bun, and McClel- 
lan was hastening to Antietam. But in the 
midst of all this hurry and rush of new du- 
ties and strange work, he displayed rare tact 
and energy. To the utmost of his ability he 
cared for the wants and supplied the neces- 
sities of bis men, who were as inexperienced 
as himself. 

At the battle of Fredericksburg Colonel 
Watkins was dangerously sick of fever, and 
with some other officers of his Regiment was 
removed to Washington amid the din of the 
coming strife. Recovering his health he 
returned to the Regiment the loth of Janua- 
ry following, just in time to take part in the 
"Mud March" on the 20th, where the ex- 
posure nearly prostrated him again. 

At the battle of Chancellorsville, May 1st, 
he had his horse shot with his foot in the 
stirrup in the act of mounting, and on the 
3d, after many hairbreadth escapes, was him- 
self shot through the right lung, left upon 
the field and captured by the enemy. Fort- 
unately he received immediate surgical at- 
tendance by the most eminent physicians in 
the Confederate service, and after a week of 
distressing anxiety in which he was mourned 
by his friends as dead, was sent under a flag 
of truce to our lines and brought home, 
where, severe as the injury was, (in most 
cases fatal) he recovered. 

About the last of June, learning through 
the papers of the invasion of Lee's army into 
Pennsylvania, in company with Captains 
Peck and Spaulding, who had also been 
wounded, he started to return to the Regi- 
ment. On reaching Harrisburg it was found 
the enemy had possession of the Northern 
Central Railroad at York, and they were 
ordered to proceed to Washington by way 
of Philadelphia. On reaching Washington 
the Surgeon-General of the Army found 
Colonel Watkins utterly unfit for duty in the 
field, and would not permit him to go farther. 
He was therefore placed in command of the 
camp of paroled prisoners. 

So firmly were his friends persuaded that 
he never would be fit for active service in 
the field, that they secured the appointment 
from President Lincoln which was immedi- 
ately confirmed by the Senate, of Paymaster 
in the Army. On mentioning this to the 
men of his command, which he had rejoined 
on the 5th of November, they expressed 
suich unfeigned sorrow at parting with him, 
that with the unselfishness which ever mark- 
ed his conduct, he determined to decline the 

On the 3d of May, 1864, Colonel Madill 
having been injured by a fall of his horse 
was obliged to go home, and the command 
of the Regiment fell upon Colonel Watkins. 
Although much of the time more fit for the 
hospital than the field, yet how nobly he 
bore himself throusfh all that terrible cam- 



paign, how bravely lie ever stood at the 
head of his men in the thickest of the fight, 
how readily he met privation and suffering 
with them, has in some measure been re- 
corded in these pages. 

It has frequently been observed that at 
times men on going into battle have seemed 
to be in possession of an impression of its fa- 
tal result which usually turns out to be true. 
This was noticeably the case with Colonel 
Watkins. In a letter written soon after his 
death Colonel Madill says: — "In my mind 
he was satisfied what his fate would be. 
When I received orders to make the charge, 
I sent for him and told him what order I had 
received, — that we were to make the charge 
at four o'clock of that day. He made a few 
inquiries as to the place, etc. I gave him 
all the information I had. I observed that 
his manner changed and he became sad. I 
tried two or three times 10 rally him, but 
utterly failed." Although his mind seemed 
to be preoccupied while the orders and di- 
rections were being given, yet as soon as the 
charge was ordered he became himself again. 
He was shot through the body while, at the 
head of his men, he was passing over the 
rise of ground between the place where the 
Regiment was massed and the line of works 
they were to assail. Captain Atkinson, who 
was near him, went back and raised him up, 
and with the aid of Lieutenant Gerould, 
carried him back a few rods out of the fire, 
when at Colonel Watkins' request and while 
the storm of battle was raging around him, 
read to him the fourteenth chapter of St. 
John. For two hours he lived after receiv- 
ing the fatal shot, expressing the assurance 
of his own hope of a blessed immortality 
through the Savior of men, and sending 
messages of love and affection to the dear 
ones at home, breathing his last amid the 
tears and prayers of his companions in arms 
with his head resting upon the arm of Cap- 
tain Atkinson, who never left him from the 
moment he fell. Loving hands bore the 
body back to the home of his childhood, 

whence with fitting solemnities it was laid 
to rest in Riverside Cemetery, where a brok- 
en shaft, bearing appropriate emblems and 
inscription, marks his resting place. 

One who knew him from his early life 
wrote of him: — " He was a true, constant, 
unselfish friend, an affectionate husband, a 
kind parent, a dutiful son, a devoted brother, 
but high over all, the bravest and noblest of 
patriots." More than twenty years have 
passed since he gave his country all he had 
to give, his life, but his memory is still green 
in the hearts of the men wdio fought by his 
side, and who always speak of him with a 
reverent respect, and the perfume of his vir- 
tues is still precious to those who loved him. 

He left his aged parents, a wife, a son and 
daughter to mourn an irreparable loss. 

Besides resolutions of respect and condo- 
lence passed by the Bar Association of 
Bradford County, and of the civic societies 
of which he was a member, the officers of 
his Regiment at a meeting held soon after 
his death unanimously adopted the follow- 
ing : 

Whereas, By a dispensation of Divine 
Providence, to which we meekly, though 
sorrowfully bow, Lieutenant-Colonel Guy 
H. Watkins, our brother, has been taken 
from us and gathered with the martyred 
dead ; therefore, 

Resolved, That in the loss of Colonel Wat- 
kins, we have lost a brave and efficient offi- 
cer; one whose high aim was unselfishly to 
discharge all the duties of his responsible 
position, however arduous or dangerous. 

Resolved, That it is not alone the loss of 
a brave officer we mourn, but the loss of a 
companion and friend ; one who has endear- 
ed himself to us by those manly, generous, 
social qualities, which he so eminently pos- 
sessed ; and which smoothed the hard march, 
— enlivened the lonely bivouac — and 
strengthened our wavering resolution in the 
hour of conflict. He was our counsellor and 
friend — undemonstrative, caring to govern 
only as he swayed us by a wand of love that 
all were proud to acknowledge — which made 
his slightest wish our law. 

Resolved, That we can pay no greater trib- 
ute to his memory than by endeavoring to 
emulate the noble patriotism of our brother ; 



who from a sense of duty preferred to share 
the hardships and dangers of the battlefield, 
than accept an honorable position tendered 
him by his Government for which his taste 
and education amply qualified him. 

Resolved, That to his afflicted family we 
tender our sincerest sympathy. Were it 
possible we would take a part of their great 
sorrow into our own hearts and share that 
grief which now overshadows the family al- 
tar. May our Heavenly Father, who " tem- 
pers the wind to the shorn lamb," sustain 
and comfort them in these dark hours of their 

Resolved, That these resolutions be copied 
into the Regimental Order Book, and that a 
copy be sent to the family of our late broth- 
er, Lieutenant-Colonel Guy H. Watkins. 


Henry J. Madill, Col. 141st Eegt., P. V. 
C. VV. Tyler, Major. 
Wm. Church, Surgeon. 
F. C. Dennison, Assistant Surgeon. 
E. B. Brainerd, Adjutant. 
K. M. Torrey. Quartermaster. 
Benjamin M. Peck, Captain Company B. 
Joseph Atkinson, Captain Company G. 
John L. Gyle. Captain Company H. 
Mason Long, 1st Lieut., Commanding Co. E. 
Beebe Gerould, 1st Lieut., Command'g Co. K. 
John L. Brown, 1st Lieut., Command'gCo. I. 
Marcus E. Warner, 1st Lieut., Com'd'g Co. D. 
Thomas Ryon, Captain Company D. 
Joseph H. Horton, Captain Company A. 
Charles Mercur, Captain Company K. 
E. A. Spaulding, Captain Company I. 

There were also the following reported 
wounded in the engagement, viz : 


Sergeant James W. Alderson, leg. 
Private Joseph Rosencrans, leg. 

company c. 
Sergeant Charles Scott, arm. 


Private Byron Chamberlain, neck. 
" Jesse D. Vargason, wrist. 


Private Eli R. Booth, arm. 


Sergeant David B. Atkinson, arm. 
Corporal Daniel Ballard, arm. 

In Company K, William Warren was 
j wounded in the arm, from the effects of 
which he died July 30th, at his home in 
Smithfield, and was buried in the family 
1 plot on his father's farm, but on Memorial 
Day, 1870, the Grand Army Post of that 
place removed his remains to the village 
cemetery. He left a wife and one or two 
children, and was about twenty-eight years 
of age. 

Henry U. Jones, of Company B, who had 
been promoted First Lieutenant and was act- 
ing as an aid on Colonel Madill's staff, was 
wounded in the breast. Bates relates that "his 
life was singularly preserved by a small 
memorandum book, which he carried in his 
breast pocket. A minie ball was found com- 
pletely buried in the book." 

Of those under the command of Captain 
Peck on theskirmish line, Larra Raymond, a 
recruit of Company I, is reported missing, and 
Pitman Demarest, of the same company, was 
killed. He was born in Lafayette, New 
Jersey, December 25, 1832, removed to 
Rome, in Bradford County, where he enlist- 
ed with Major Spaulding, leaving a wife 
(since died) and one son. He and Mr. Lar- 
rison had become somewhat separated from 
their company, and were in an oat field, near 
where Fort Steadman was afterward built, 
when Demarest was shot through the head 
by a sharpshooter and instantly killed. That 
evening he was buried where he fell. 

In addition to the casualties already enu- 
merated, David Benjamin, of Company D, 
who was serving in the Pioneer Corps, was 
slightly wounded in the ankle on the 15th. 

Captain C. W. Tyler, of Company H, now 
took command of the Regiment by seniority 
of rank. He had for some time acted as 
Major, and was commissioned to that office 
on the 22d of June. 

General Grant, at length convinced of the 
hopelessness of further attacks upon the 
strongly defended Confederate fortifications, 
determined to begin intrenching a systemat- 
ic line, which could be safely held by a 



small part of his army, allowing the rest to 
(iii loose for manoeuvers to the left. 

After the repulse of the assault upon the 
enemy's works on the afternoon of the 18th, 
Madill's Brigade fell back to the line in 
their rear where they remained until morn- 
ing, when the lines of the brigade were 
moved forward and strongly intrenched. 
The enemy in their front remained compara- 
tively quiet during the day, with but little 
picket tiring or cannonading on cither side. 
In fact both officers and men in both armies 
were completely exhausted, and a little rest 
was enforced by the demands of nature. 
Captain Peck had pushed his skirmish line 
so close to the enemy that he could not he 
relieved until dark, but at eight o'clock in 
the evening of the 19th other troops were 
directed to take his place, and he was al- 
lowed to return t<> his Regiment. On Mon- 
day the 20th, everything continued quiet 
along the line until midnight when the bri- 
gade was relieved by Burnside's colored 
troops, and moved to the rear and encamped 
for the night. 

While occupying the advanced picket line 
now under command of Captain Kilmer, 
on the 20th, Frederick F. Cole, of Company 
C, was wounded. Mr. Larrison, who was 
also on picket, thus relates the occurrence: 
— " On the night of the 19th we went on 
picket, my post being in a large oat field, in 
a pit, where we had to get wood and water 
in the dark, for in daylight we dare not 
show ourselves. There were six of us in the 
pit, until Fred, Cole was badly wounded by 
a shell, then 1 ran out to get help, but there 
was so much shooting at me they dare not 
go back until dark. At ten o'clock in the 
evening of the 20th we were relieved." 

Under this date, June 20th, Captain At- 
kinson writes :— " Yesterday it was quiet 
along the lines, although there was some ar- 
tillery tiring. Last night we shelled the 
Kebs. with mortars. It was a splendid sight 
to see the shells passing over in circles, but 
1 imagine the sight was more pleasing to us 

than to them. We are in the second line of 
works about four hundred yards from the 
enemy's position. Our lirst line is in some 
places within one hundred yards from them. 
Our artillery is up close to their works and 
firing quite sharp this morning. It seems 
that General Meade or General Grant must 
give our corps some chance to do the easy 
part of the work before long. Men and offi- 
cers are growing tired of seeing themselves 
put into all the hard work. We are willing 
to do our share, but think that is all that 
should be required." 

*"On the 21st the Second and Sixth 
Corps were despatched on the left (lank to 
effect a closer investment of Petersburg on 
the south side. The Second Corps having 
the lead, proceeded westward to the Jerusa- 
lem plank road, which runs southward from 
Petersburg nearly midway between the Nor- 
folk and Weldon Railroads. After some 
skirmishing it established itself in a position 
on the west side of that road, connecting 
with Griffin's division of the Fifth Corps 
which held post on the east side. During 
the night the Sixth Corps coming up ex- 
tended to the left and rear of the Second 

On Tuesday morning, the 21st, the bri- 
gade moved to the left or south and took 
position on the west of the Jerusalem plank 
road near where Ft. Sedgwick afterward was 
constructed. Oibbons' Division on the right 
the corps resting on the road, Mott who 
commanded the Second Division, (Birney's,) 
being on Gibbon's left, and Barlow on the 
left of Mott. General Grant intended to ex- 
tend his lines as far west as the Weldon rail- 
road, and General Birney who was still in 
command of the Second Corps, was ordered 
to push forward his left to support the 
Sixth Corps on that flank, but in the move- 
ment a gap occurred between the two corps, 
into which the enemy thrust a strong force, 
sending Barlow's Division back in disorder, 
compelling Mott, who had reached his as- 

*Swinton, p. 511. 



signed position and begun to intrench, to 
fall back not without considerable loss, and 
involving Gibbon in disaster. The corps 
was speedily reformed and early the next 
morning re-occupied its original line, and 
the enemy withdrew, carrying with them 
twenty- five hundred prisoners and many 

Our own brigade, having the second line 
in front, was not severely engaged, but lost 
one killed on picket, Warren Burchell, of 
Company F, the particulars of which are 
thus given by a comrade: — "He and one 
other of our company were out with a detail 
from the Regiment. About four o'clock in 
the afternoon, (of the 22d,) they got orders 
to advance as far as a road a few rods in 
front of them, which they did, but on reach- 
ing the road they found they were nearly 
into the enemy's lines; be and Humphrey 
Millard were together. As soon as they 
discovered this they made an eflbrt to 
retreat— Warren was shot dead, the other 
man escaped." Pie was a son of Samuel 
Burchell, then of Jackson, but himself was. 
living with W. Tiffany, of Harford, at his 
enlistment, a single man, twenty-two years 
of age at his death. He was wounded in 
the arm at Gettysburg, and while leaving 
the field was again hit in the back, the ball 
following a rib and coming out at his breast. 
He soon recovered and returned to bis com- 
pany. Both friends and comrades speak of 
him as a good soldier, a true man and a 
worthy citizen. Edward McAllister, of 
Company D, was captured at the time Bur- 
chell was killed. 

After retaking the line from which they 
bad been driven the evening before, the bri- 
gade moved to the rear where they threw up 
Lntrenchments, but toward evening again 
vent forward and relieved the right brigade 
of Harlow's Division. At nine o'clock the 
next morning the brigade was moved to the 
rear line which was about nine hundred 
yards to the rear of the second line, and be- 
gan constructing works, .in' Regiment re- 

mained here with slight changes in position 
for several days. The weather was intense- 
ly hot, the mercury at one time marking 
L08° in the shade, the roads were dusty and 
for a time water was scarce, but it was found 
in abundance by sinking wells. The Regi- 
ment for most of the time occupied a shel- 
tered position in some pine woods where 
they remained as quietly a§ possible during 
the intense heat, working a portion of the 
time on the fortifications with which General 
Grant was investing Petersburg, and taking 
their turn with the other troops in occupy- 
ing the picket line. 

Owing to the great losses in the brigade 
during the campaign some changes were 
made in its organization. The Seventy- 
Third New York Regiment was also attach- 
ed to it, and its commander, Colonel P 'tier, 
being then the ranking officer, took the 
command. A number of changes had also 
been made in the organization of the Regi- 
ment. Major 1 Tyler was commissioned Lieu 
tenant-Colonel, and Captain Horton was the 
Acting Major. The Adjutant, I). W. Searle, 
was discharged June 2d, on account of 
wounds received the year before at Gettys- 
burg, and Lieutenant Elisha P>. Brainerd 
was made Adjutant July 1st. 

In Company A, Corporals George H. Bir- 
ney and Russell R. Carrington were dis- 
charged June 18th, for wounds received, the 
former at Chancellorsville, the latter at Get- 
tysburg, and June 1st Elmer F. Lewis was 
transferred to the Veteran Reserves. 

[n Company R, Charles McCumber was 
promoted to Corporal February 10th, Ste- 
phen B. Can field from Corporal to Sergeant 
June 1st, and on the loth James IP Smith, 
James IP. Htdse and Philip Shower were 
transferred to the Veteran Reserves. 

In Company C, Captain William J. (oh. 
wounded at Chancellorsville, resigned and 
returned to hie farm in Macedonia, where 
he has since enjoyed the quiet of his pleas- 
ant rural home. Charles Scott was promoted 
to First Sergeant June 30th, and to Second 
Lieutenant July 4th, but on account of the 



small number of men in the company could 
not be mustered ; on the same date, June 
30th, George W. Fell, Dallas J. Sweet and 
Sclden F. Worth, were made Corporals. 

In Company I>, Lyman Beers was pro- 
moted from Corporal to Sergeant, and Al- 
bert Brainerd to Corporal, May 6th. 

In Company E, Captain John F. Clark 
resigned June 16th, the command of the 
company devolving upon Lieutenant Mason 

In Company F, Captain Henry F. Beards- 
ley resigned on account of impaired health. 
In June, after the battle of Chancellorsville, 
the Captain had been granted a twenty-day 
sick leave and went home. He, however, 
accompanied the militia who left Montrose 
in response to ( rovernor Curtin's call for aid 
in repelling Lee's invasion, tendered hisser- 
• vices to the Adjutant General of the State, 
was assigned to duty at Camp Curtin, re- 
maining on duty until the expiration of his 
sick leave. Unable to reach his Regiment, 
he reported to General Couch commanding 
the Department of the Susquehanna, who 
ordered him to Reading where a camp of 
instruction had been established, and shortly 
after he was appointed Acting Assistant Ad- 
jutant General on General Sigel's staff, then 
commanding the "District of Lehigh," 
where he remained until March 9, 1864, re- 
ceiving an acknowledgment from his chief 
in General Orders for faithful and able ser- 
vices, and leaving him in temporary com- 
mand until the arrival of his successor- 
Captain Beardsley continued to hold the 
same place on the staff of General Ferry, 
who succeeded Sigel in the Department. On 
the 18th of March he was ordered to Cham- 
bersburg, and was assigned to duty as Act- 
ing Assistant Adjutant General to General 
( ouch, where he remained until June 9th, 
when upon his resignation he was honorably 
discharged. Having to some degree regain- 
ed his health, in 1865, he accepted a posi- 
tion in the Quartermaster's Department at 
Washington, where he remained until its af- 

fairs were closed up. Returning to Mont- 
rose, he was elected Register and Recorder 
of Susquehanna County in 1875, and re-elect- 
ed in 1878, besides holding other important 
positions in that county, and for eight con- 
secutive years Chairman of the Republican 
County Committee. 

In this same company, Sergeant Salmon 
S. Hagar was commissioned First Lieuten- 
ant, David T. Salsbury was made Sergeant, 
Charles H. Tripp, Urbane F. Hall and 
Christopher C. Nichols, and Enoch W. Lord 
transferred to the Veteran Reserves July 3d. 

Noah White, of Company G, was transfer- 
red to the Veteran Reserves in July. 

In Company H, First Lieutenant John L. 
Gyle was commissioned Captain July 4th, 
H. H. Daugherty promoted from Corporal 
to Sergeant; H. J. Millard, Lorenzo W. 
Sullivan, and Horace A. Roberts to Corpo- 
rals, June 30th; Egbert Sinsabaugh and 
George Stare were transferred to the Veteran 
Reserves June 15th. 

In Company K, Corporal W. W. Farns- 
worth was discharged on account of wounds 
received at Chancellorsville, June 26th. 

Says Bates: — "On the 1st of July the Reg- 
iment numbered but one hundred and sev- 
enty, and of the thirty-nine original officers, 
only seven were left. ' The old division,' 
wrote an officer, 'is now principally in 
heaven and in hospitals.' " 

Two strong redoubts were built on the 
line running south of the Jerusalem plank 
road in front of the Second Corps, Fort 
Sedgwick near the road, and Fort Davis 
half a mile south of it. These were finished 
and occupied on the 11th. The next day 
the brigade, after destroying the works be- 
hind which they had been encamped, moved 
down the plank road a couple of miles and 
bivouacked for the night. The next morn- 
ing at seven o'clock they were sent farther 
to the right and encamped in a piece of 
woods in the rear of the Ninth Corps. Gen- 
eral De Trobriand having been assigned to 
the command of the brigade this day relieved 



Colonel Madill. A letter of Captain Atkin- 
son, dated July 13th, says : — " Monday night, 
the 11th, at eleven o'clock we were called 
up and ordered to tear down our works, and 
about three o'clock in the afternoon of Tues- 
day commenced moving. Only marched 
about two miles, then part of the corps was 
engaged all day in levelling down the old 
works for which we had no further use, our 
brigade supporting them. This morning 
we again commenced moving, and have es- 
tablished a camp about six miles from City 
Point, in a nice, shady piece of woods, out 
of range of the enemy's guns, the first time 
we have been out of range of their artillery 
since the 17th of June." 

On the 19th of July the first rain fell since 
the 3d of June, a period of forty-seven days. 
The earth had become very dry and the heat 
oppressive. Until the 26ih the men were 
engaged in strengthening the line of fortifi- 
cations, digging sunken roads, and building 
covered ways for the protection of troops 
moving from point to point on the line. 

July 23d, Captain Atkinson writes: — 
" Yesterday morning we were up early and 
ordered out on fatigue duty at five o'clock. 
T had command of the Regiment. We work- 
ed all day, and returned to camp a little after 
dark. Yesterday there was more firing along 
the lines than there had been for a week 
past, but this morning it is very quiet in- 

" General Bimey has been relieved of the 
command of this division and assigned to 
the command of the Tenth Army Corps; 
General Mott now commands the division. 
We are not sorry for the change, as we think 
it will make less fighting for us. General 
Birney has in several instances in this cam- 
paign asked for the privilege of putting his 
division into difficult positions, just for the 
sake of gaining a reputation for himself. 
General Mott is not so anxious for military 
glory and will only do what he is ordered 
to." " 

The opinion expressed by Captain Atkin- 

son of General Birney, whether correct or 
not, was generally entertained by both offi- 
cers and men of the division at this time. 


General Burnside had, with the consent 
of his commanding officers, run a mine un- 
der one of the principal redans of the ene- 
my, which being completed it was determined 
to spring it, and in the enemy's confusion 
make an assault upon the works in his front. 
The Second Corps, accompanied by two di- 
visions of Sheridan's Cavalry, was sent to 
the north of the James to threaten the ap- 
proaches to Richmond, and turn the enemy's 
position there, General Meade thinking that 
in protect it Lee would weaken materially 
his force in front of Petersburg. Our bri- 
gade had orders to move at three o'clock in 
the afternoon, but did nut get started until 
six. Taking the road to City Point, when 
within about two and a half miles of that 
place they turned to the left, crossed the 
Appomattox and thence to the James, which 
was reached at daylight. Lying in one of 
the long northward bends of this river be- 
tween Dutch Gap and Turkey Bend, and 
about twelve miles from Richmond, is Jones' 
Neck. On the north side of the river oppo- 
site the Neck, at the mouth of Bailey's 
Creek which comes down from the north, is 
Deep Bottom. General Foster, of the Tenth 
Corps, held two pontoon bridges which had 
been thrown across the James, one above 
and the other below the mouth of Bailey's 1 
Creek. General Hancock determined to 
cross by the lower bridge and turn the ene- 
my's left flank, while General Foster threat- 
ened them in front. The crossing was ac- 
complished early on the morning of the 27th. 
A considerable force of the enemy on the 
east side of the creek, with a battery of four 
twenty-pound Parrott guns, was captured by 
the skirmish line of Barlow's Division, but 
the force on the west side of the creek was 
found to be too strongly posted to be dis- 
lodged. Our Regiment was on picket as 



supports until ten (.'cluck in the foren 1 of 

the 28th, when an order was received trans- 
ferring the Regiment temporarily to the 
Sec, ml Brigade of the division. Colonel 
Madill being the ranking officer, now took 
command of the brigade, and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Tyler of the Regiment. This even- 
ing Mott's Division was sent back to relieve 
Ord's Corps in the intrenchments on the 
right of Burnside, and on the night of the 
29th Hancock and Sheridan re-crossed the 
.James to take part in the contemplated as- 
sault when the mine should be sprung. 
Aside from the fatigues of the march our 
Regiment suffered no loss. 

Captain Atkinson writes July 30th: — 
"We broke camp Tuesday afternoon, and 
commenced moving We had no idea, where 
we were going. We crossed the Appomat- 
viix river aboui midnight, and the James at 
•Jones' Neck at daylight. Part of our bri- 
gade and some of the First Division were 
immediately deployed as skirmishers, and 
had advanced but a short distance before 
they became engaged with the enemy and 
got up a brisk little fight which terminated 
in our men driving the rebels back and cap- 
turing four pieces of artillery. Our Regi- 
ment was not actually engaged, though we 
were under lire. We remained there until 
Thursday (28th) at dark, when we com- 
menced moving back toward Pet< rsburg 
where we arrived at daylight. We bad a 
very hard march both ways. Lastnightour 
division relieved a part of the Eighteenth 
Corps in the front line of works, and to-day 
a terrible battle has been going on. Just at 
daybreak one of the forts which had been 
mined was blown up and the artillery open- 
ed along the whole line. It was the most 
terrific firing I ever heard. Nearly all the 
rebels who were in the fort when it was 
blown up were killed or buried in the earth. 
" \\'e are to occupy the front line of works 
two days out of every six, the other four we 
will be encamped in the rear. We are very 
close to the enemy and a constant fire is kept 

up by the pickets on both sides, but it 
amounts to nothing as we keep down behind 
the works. Occasionally a man will become 
careless and get hit. Many bullets and 
some shells have whistled over head since 1 
commenced writing, but I feel as safe down 
here in the ground as 1 would at home." 

On Monday, August 1st, the brigade 
moved back to its old position on the plank 

Changes in the strength of the Regiment 
since May 31st, are indicated by the Adju- 
tant's returns for July :ilst : 


May SI, July :i. 
I Forduty ... 
Extra duty. 

Present., -j si( . k 

I In arrest 








| Extra dutv 


/w "'-- jsick : 








Asahel Hobbs, a recruit of Company II, 
wounded and captured in the Wilderness, 
died from the effects of his wounds in An- 
dersonviile prison July 28th, grave number- 
ed 4,137. 

Samuel Qard, a recruit of Company I , son 
of George Gard, on Shores' Hill, in Wysox, 
died of fever in hospital, in June. He was 
a single man and about twenty-two years of 


On the 5th of August, Colonel Madill bad 
the misfortune to be thrown from his horse 
and so severely injured that he was compell- 
ed to be absent from bis command until the 
Dih ol October, Colonel Craig, of the One 

Hundred Fifth, taking the command of the 


Just before dark, on the 5th, an alarm 

was given of some movement on the part of 



he enemy. The division had orders to 
nove with all possible despatch. Tn a few 
minutes the lines were formed and the troops 
in motion. Alter marching about a mile, 
jthey were ordered, much to their joy, to re- 
turn to camp as "the emergency had passed 
for which they had been ordered out." 

The remaining part of the year was taken 
[up with a series of manoeuvres in v hich the 
Commanding General sought to find some 
spot where the enemy was less watchful or 
his lines more weakly held, and where he 
might effect a successful lodgment for his 
troops. The first of these operations was a 


On the afternoon of Friday, August 12th, 
orders were received to be ready to march 
at a moment's warning, and it was given out 
the destination was for the defences of 
Washington. At two o'clock the column 
was in motion for City Point. The next 
morning four days' rations were issued, and 
in the afternoon the whole corps embarked 
on trans-ports and steamed two or three 
miles down the river, where the fleet an- 
chored until ten o'clock in the evening, 
when they moved up the stream to Deep 
Bottom, where, on the morning of the 14th, 
it debarked and our division moved out on 
the river road to the front facing the ene- 
my's intrenched line, behind Bailey's Creek 
where it remained all day, but was not act- 
ively engaged. Barlow in command of the 
other two divisions, mo/ed on Mott's right 
to assault the enemy's left near Russell's 
mill. The Tenth Corps, now under General 
Birney, accompanied General Hancock, and 
took position on Mott's left with orders to 
attack the enemy's right near the pontoon 
bridge above the mouth of Bailey's Creek. 

Dining the night the greater part of Gen- 
eral Birney's command was sent to the right 
' and massed in the rear of Barlow near Rus- 
sell's with Gregg's mounted division sup- 
ported by our brigade under Colonel Craig, 
on the extreme right. Says Captain Peck: 

—"At ten o'clock (of the loth,) our brigade 
moved up to the right and formed to support 
the cavalry. About two o'clock p. M- we got 
into position upon the left flank of the rebel 
line. We advanced and skirmished with 
the enemy, driving him through the thick 
woods about two and a half miles to the 
Charles City road. Having accomplished 
all that was wanted we returned at dark." 

At eight o'clock the next morning, the 
16th, the brigade again went to the assist- 
ance of Birney and skirmished with the en- 
emy all the forenoon until they came to his 
fortified Hire which Birney was ordered to 
attack. Terry's Division of Birney's Corps, 
with Craig's Brigade, charged the works and 
carried them, but with severe loss. In this 
attack our brigade was formed at right an- 
gles to the enemy's line, charging down 
upon their flank with the design of rolling 
them up, and captured about a hundred 
prisoners. But the enemy rallied and re- 
took their line, Birney retaining only the 
advanced line of pits, the picket line. In 
this action the gallant and beloved Craig 
fell mortally wounded. The next day the 
brigade re-joined the division and was not 
actively engaged. 

While General Hancock was engaging the 
enemy north of the James, General Meade 
determined to seize the opportunity and gain 
possession of the Wehlon railroad. This op- 
eration was confided to General Warren 
who was supported by the Ninth Corps, and 
on the 18th Mott's Division was detached 
from the Second Corps and sent back to re- 
lieve the Ninth Corps in the intrenchinents. 
Captain Atkinson reported the loss to the 
Regiment as thirteen, in the Adjutant's table 
of losses it is given as one killed, seven 
wounded and six missing, but in the official 
reports they are nine wounded and six cap- 
tured and missing, an aggregate of fif- 
teen. In one of the diaries is this entry :— 
"Some of the 'Yanks' were captured getting 
green corn between the lines." Our list, de- 
rived mostly from the imperfect muster out 



rolls, is very defective, aggregating only nine, 
of these three were fatal. 

Manzer L. Benson, a private of Company 
l\ was captured and died of starvation in 
Salisbury prison. Pie was a son of Austin 
Benson, of Jackson, where he was living at 
the time of his enlistment. He had been in 
all the battles in which the Regiment had 
been engaged, and his comrades speak in the 
highest terms of his bravery. At the battle 
of Gettysburg when volunteers were called to 
open the lence for the artillery to pass 
through, he with six others removed it, but 
uearly all except himself were either killed 
or wounded ; in the Wilderness he was hit 
with a ball which, passing through his cap- 
box and clothing, only bruised the flesh, 
dropping into his shoe- He was popular 
with his companions, who playfully called 
him "Joe Bowers" from his favorite sung. 
He was a noble, whole-souled boy, who died 
at the age of twenty-one, a priceless sacrifice 
upon his country's altar. 

George W. Rippeth, of Company I, was 
also captured and sent to Libby prison where 
be was nearly starved. He was subsequent- 
ly paroled and sent to hospital at Annapolis, 
Maryland, where he died October 22d from 
the effects of the sickness and exposure of 
his prison life. He was a recruit in the 
company, from Shores Hill, where he was a 
neighbor of the Gards, and where he left a 
wife and son. He was wounded in the Wil- 
derness and died at the age of twenty-four. 

Sergeant Archibald Sinclair, of Company 
K, was shot through the body when the bri- 
gade was compelled to retire from the ene- 
my's works, was removed to the field hospi- 
tal near the river, where he died and was 
buried. He was a young Scotchman, from 
Moore's Hill, where he was living at his en- 
listment. He was promoted to Corporal 
May 1, 1863, to Sergeant May 1, 1864, was 
wounded at Gettysburg, where he exhibited 
much heroism, and died at the age of twen- 
ty years. 

At a meeting of his company, held Sep- 

tember 5, 1864, among other resolutions wer 
the following: 

Resolved, That we as a company moun 
the loss of Archibald Sinclair as of om 
bound to many of us by the tenderest ties o. 
intimate friendship. 

Resolved, That while we lament that we 
shall no more see his manly form among us, 
we rejoice that we can recall so much that 
was noble, generous, frank, and true in his 

Resolved, That we tender our sincere sym- 
pathy to the mother, who in giving him up 
has made the greatest sacrifice she could 
have been called upon to make for her coun- 
try's salvation. 

Resolved, That while we cannot hope to 
console her or his many other relatives and 
friends for their and our great loss, we would 
remind them as well as ourselves of his de- 
votion and duty while in his country's ser- 
vice, his zeal in fighting his country's battles 
for the suppression of this uncalled-for re- 
bellion, his bright example of fearlessness 
and coolness on the battlefield, his patience 
and suffering, and the calmness with which 
he yielded up his life when his Heavenly 
Father demanded of him this extremest test 
of patriotism. 

There were wounded : 
John Farrel), Company C. 
David Benjamin. Company D, (15.) 
Corporal William C. Brown, Company K. 
There were captured : 
Abram Frederick, Company E. 
First Lieutenant [Salmon S. Hagar, Com- 
pany F. 

Corporal Edward F. Bennett, Company I. 

beam's station. 
Warren had effected a secure lodgemen, 
on the Weldon railroad at Globe Tavernt 
but up to a point of a day's hauling the Con- 
federates could still use the road as a means 
of supply. It was determined to destroy the 
road as far as Rowanty Creek, thirteen miles 
from the Tavern, which would compel them 
to haul at least thirty miles. General Han- 
cock, who had on the 20th withdrawn to his 
old position, was charged with the work. He 
set out on the 22d with his First (Miles',) 
and (Gibbon's) Divisions, and Gregg's Cav- 
alry — the Third Division (Mott's,) which 



went on picket immediately on its arrival at 
four o'clock in the afternoon of the 19th, at 
the Jerusalem Plank Road, was left in the 
lines they held. By night of the 24th Han- 
cock had accomplished the work assigned 
him to three miles below Ream's Station, 
which is five miles from Warren's position. 
But the Weldon road was of too much ac- 
count to the enemy to be surrendered with- 
out a desperate struggle. On the 25th a 
heavy force was sent against General Han- 
cock, which attacked him about two o'clock 
in the afternoon. Soon after five o'clock a 
vigorous charge was made by the enemy in 
force, and the Second Division, which con- 
tained many new and undisciplined troops, 
gave way, losing some of their guns and 
many prisoners. In the meanwhile Mott's 
Division, relieved from picket, was hastened 
to the support of Hancock. At two o'clock 
orders were received to march at once. The 
distance was about twelve miles. It had 
been rainy for several days, the weather was 
sultry, the roads heavy, and marching diffi- 
cult. The light was over before our Regi- 
ment reached the field. 

The next day, Friday, August, 26th, Cap- 
tain Atkinson, writes: — "Yesterday, about 
two o'clock in the afternoon, two brigades 
of our division were ordered to move at once. 
We moved toward's Ream's Station on the 
Weldon Railroad. On the way we heard 
very heavy firing, and learned that the other 
two divisions of our corps were engaged. 
Before we arrived within supporting dis- 
tance the fight was ended, so we were not 
engaged. We took up a position at an im- 
portant point and fortified. We remained 
there until about three o'clock this morning 
when we were ordered back to the position 
in the works we left yesterday. We are 
now about nine miles from City Point. This 
is a warm quiet day ; not a shot has been 
heard along our lines since seven o'clock this 

On the 28th of July, the One Hundred 
Forty-First Regiment was transferred from 

the First to the Second Brigade of the Third 
Division of the Second Corps. General 
Gershom Mott had been assigned to the 
command of this division on the 23d of July, 
and on the 26th of August General Byron 
Pierce wag assigned to the command of the 
brigade, which was composed of the follow- 
ing regiments, viz : — Fifth Michigan, Fifty- 
Seventh, Sixty-Third, Eighty-Fourth, One 
Hundred Fifth, and One Hundred Forty- 
First Pennsylvania, Ninety-Third New 
York, First United States Sharpshooters and 
First Massachusetts Heavy Artillery. In 
August the Sixty-Third was merged into the 
One Hundred Fifth. 

The brigade remained on duty near Fort 
Hell, as Fort Sedgwick was called, until the 
first of October, the officers having very little 
to do, while the men's duties were very hard, 
being on picket one day and on fatigue the 
next. The camp was moved to the eastward 
a fourth of a mile on the 8th of September, 
and other slight movements were made in 
position for the convenience of the troops. 
Some casualties were experienced on the 
picket line. 

On the 11th of September, Theodore Lar- 
rison, a recruit of Company I, was wounded 
in the arm by a minie ball, and Sergeant 
Augustus J. Roper, of Company F, was kill- 
ed by one of the enemy's sharpshooters when 
a little past twenty-five years of age. He 
was unmarried, a farmer in Gibson where he 
enlisted. At the battle of Chancellorsville 
he was wounded in the leg, sent to hospital, 
and re-joined his company in March, 1864. 
His body was taken home and committed to 
the earth with touching and appropriate fu- 
neral ceremonies on the 19th, attended by a 
large concourse of friends and acquaintances. 
In an appreciative sketch of him it is said : 
— "We always found him an interesting 
friend, possessing warm social feelings and 
good intellectual powers. His comrades 
speak of him as the ' bravest of the brave,' 
faithful in duty, and cool in action, much 
beloved by his company and Regiment who 
deeply mourn his loss " 



On the 26th the brigade movtd again a 
short distance and went into camp at Fort 
Prescottj a little east <A' the Jerusalem Plank 
Road, and near the military railroad which 
General Grant had constructed from City 

The next day, while on picket, Albert P. 
Birchard was shot, mortally wounJed. and 
died the next morning. He was a mere lad 
who had enlisted in one of the Susquehanna 
County Companies, at the muster had been 
rejected on account of his age, but had sub- 
sequently joined Company K. He was a 
great favorite with his company, and his 
death greatly lamented. 

Lieutenant Lobb, who re-joined the Regi- 
ment September 28th, says: — "Found the 
Regiment in camp near the Jerusalem Plank 
Road, under marching orders, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Tyler in command. It is surprising 
what earthworks are thrown up in every di- 

On the 30th of September, the Adjutant's 
returns show the strength of the Regiment as 
follows : 


n . ) Fordntv 13 

Present " J Sick....: 1 

Absent 6 

Total 20 

enlisted men. 

} For duty 174 

Present.. > On extra duty 57 

) Sick 18 

Total 249 

Absent 154 

Aggregate 4 23 

In Company A, J. H. McCafferty was dis- 
charged on account of wounds September 
15th, and John Lee for the same cause on 
the 30th, and Sergeant Jackson C. Lee was 
transferred to the Veteran Reserves. 

In Company B, Dennis Clark, wounded 
at Gettysburg, was discharged in August. 

August 8th, First Lieutenant G. W. Kil- 
mer was made Captain of Company C, and 

John Farrell was transferred to the Veteran 
Reserves September 16th. 

In Company D, Captain Ryon resigned 
on account of enfeebled health, August 6th, 
and was discharged by special order. 

In Company E, Henry M. Chandler was 
transferred to the Veteran Reserves August 

Ellis W. Steadman, of Company F, was 
promoted to Sergeant, and George Taylor 
Corporal, September 12th. There were 
transferred to the Veteran Reserves, Jona- 
than Squires, July 25th ; Hiram Chrispell, 
August 26th, and John L. Riker, August 

In Company G, Sergeant William T. 
Lobb was promoted to First Lieutenant Sep- 
tember 27th ; Richard T. Pierce w r as dis- 
charged for wounds received, September 6th. 

In Company H, Sergeant B. B. Atherton 
was promoted to First Lieutenant, August 
10th, and there were transferred to the Vet- 
eran Reserves September 10th, Joseph Mc- 
Sherer, Benjamin C. Marshall and Joseph 

In Company K, on the 1st of September, 
Joseph C. Pennington was promoted Ser- 
geant; William Bedford, Albert Chase and 
William H. Crawford, Corporals. 

Hiram Carter, a boy only sixteen years of 
age, son of Theron Carter, from Auburn, a 
recruit in Company H, died of camp fever 
in Brattleboro, Vermont. " He was a good, 
brave boy, who never flinched from duty, 
however difficult." 

Charles A. Chaffee, of Company D, died 
in hospital, in Washington, September 30th, 
of chronic diarrhoea, at the age of about 
twenty-eight years. He enlisted from Or- 
well, was unmarried, and his mother a 
widow. He had been wounded at Spottsyl- 
vania, May 12th. 

poplar spring church. 

The latter part of September Genera! 

Grant again made strong demonstrations 

upon the enemy's works north of the James. 

Waiting until Lee had weakened his lines 



on the front by reinforcing the point of 
attack, two divisions of General Warren's 
corps and two of General Parke's, now in 
command of the Ninth corps, were directed 
against an important point at the junction 
of tne Squirrel Level and Poplar Spring 
Church roads at Peeble's farm, a couple of 
miles west of Warren's position, where a 
redoubt terminated the Confederate intrench- 
ment, covering these roads which since the 
destruction of the Weldon railroad at Ream's 
Station were important avenues of supply to 
the beleaguered army. From that point an 
advance was to be made against the Boydton 
plank road and South Side railroad. Gen- 
eral Mott's Division was ordered to the sup- 
port of General Parke. As early as the 29th 
the division had received orders to be ready 
to march at a moment's notice, and remained 
in readiness until noon of October 1st, when 
they took the cars at Hancock Station, near 
their camp on the Military railroad, to the 
Yellow House, as far west as the cars ran, 
and then marched over to Warren's Head- 
quarters, about two miles distant, and re- 
mained all night. It rained and the men 
were wet to the skin. 

The next morning the division was placed 
on the extreme left of the line, and the 
fighting which had been going before was 
renewed. Our Regiment was deployed as 
skirmishers, and took the first line of works 
without opposition. About a mile farther 
on was another line of considerable strength. 
Four regiments, one of which was the One 
Hundred Forty- First, were selected to assault 
the works, but were repulsed with consider- 
able loss. The Regiment moved back to the 
headquarters, where they bivouacked for 
the night. 

The 3d and 4th were spent in construct- 
ing the fortifications by which this advanced 
position should be connected with Warren's 
line at the Globe Tavern, and on Wednes- 
day, the 5th, they returned near to their old 
place in the line at Fort Alexander Hays. 

In the charge at the beginning of this en- 

gagement, James Bagley, a Corpora! of Com- 
pany G, and one of the color guard, was 
killed, shot through the heart, and was 
buried by his comrades near where he fell. 
He was a moulder by trade, and at bis en- 
listment was in the employ of the Delaware 
and Hudson Canal Company at Honest! ale. 
He left a wife, who afterward married J. T 
Seagraves, also of Company G, and two chil- 
dren. Bagley was about twenty-eight years 
of age. 

Seven were reported wounded, of whom 
only the following can be given : 

Private Spencer B. Tupper, Company B. 

Sergeant Henry M. Stearns, Company F. 

Private Daniel D. Duren, Company F. 

First Sergeant Parker J. Gates, Com pa- 

Private John Stilwell, Company H. 

Stilwell was sent to hospital in Washing- 
ton, where he died November 2d. He was 
a single man about twenty-one years of age. 
He was buried in the National Cemetery at 

October 8th the men received six months' 

On the 10th the Regiment moved a short 
distance to the left to Battery Number Twen- 
ty-Four, which they were to hold, and which 
afforded a good camping place. 

The next day an election was held in the 
Regiment for county and State officers. < >ne 
hundred and ninety-six votes were cast, all 
but two of which were for the Republican 

On the 14th, Matthew Howe, of Company 
F, was captured on the picket line. 

boydton plank road. 

General Grant was anxious to make one 
more effort which, if it did not compel the 
evacuation of Petersburg, would at least 
make its tenure less secure and the labor of 
procuring supplies greater. Since Lee had 
been deprived of the Weldon railroad, the 
Boydton plank road and the South Side rail- 
road were the main avenues by which sup- 


plies reached his army. General Grant 
proposed to push forward a strong force, get 
possession of the Boydton mad, and then if 
possible secure a lodgment on the railroad. 
Hatcher's Run is a considerable stream, 
having its sources in the high ground to- 
ward Lynchburg, running southeasterly and 
unites with Gravelly Run at Monk's Neck, 
forming Rowanty Creek. It is crossed by 
the roads west of the Weldon railroad which 
run northerly toward Petersburg. 

As early as < >ctober 24th orders were is- 
sued preparatory to the movement. In or- 
der to divert Lee's attention a feint was 
made of an attack from the north of the 
James. The attacking forces on the left 
were to move in three columns, General 
Parke on the right, General Warren in the 
center and General Hancock on the left with 
Gregg's Cavalry on his left. 

The route marked cut for General Han- 
cock was down the Vaughan road in a 
southwesterly direction six miles to its inter- 
section with Dabney's mill road, one mile 
below Hatcher's run crossing, then up the 
Mill road in a northwesterly direction two 
miles to the Boydton road, up that to Bur- 
gess' mill on Hatcher's Run, thence by the 
White Oak and Claiborne roads, to the rail- 

In pursuance of this plan, on the 25th 
Mott's and Gibbon's Divisions — the latter 
under command of General Eagan— were 
withdrawn from the intrenchments and 
massed in the rear of the lines, and the next 
day were quietly moved to the vicinity of 
the Weldon railroad, our Regiment moving 
at two o'clock iii the afternoon to the Yellow 
House bivouacked one mile south of it, 
with orders to be ready to march the next 
morning, the 27lh. But it was dark and 
rainy, and the movement necessarily delayed 
somewhat. By nine o'clock General Han- 
cock had crossed Hatcher's Run on the 
Vaughan road. The ford had been obstruct- 
ed by fallen trees, but Eagan's Division 
which was in advance waded the stream 
waist deep, followed by Mott's, and gallantly 

carried the rifle pits on the south side of the 
of the stream. Dabney's Mill road was only 
a narrow lumber road through the woods — 
passing up this they emerged on the Boyd- 
ton road a mile below Hatcher's Run. At 
Burgess' mill, which is on the Run, the 
White Oak road comes in from the wist. 
At this point the enemy whose skirmishers 
had been on the road since daylight appear- 
ed in considerable force. Eagan was sent 
up the Boydton road to drive the enemy 
across the Run, and Mott's Division was sit 
in motion for the White Oak road. It was 
now about one o'clock. At this point Gen- 
eral Hancock received instructions to halt. 
In the meantime the Confederates got nine 
guns in position on the north side of the 
Run facing Eagan, who had deployed his 
division across the plank road, and live on 
the White Oak road facing Mott, from 
which an annoying tire was opened. It was 
seen the South Side Railroad, which was 
more than six miles distant, could not be 
readied, and General Hancock had orders 
to hold his position until morning, and then 
fall back by the route he had come. 

On the north side of Hatcher's Run, rear 
Burgess' mills, was high ground which Han- 
cock determined to possess witli Eagan's 
Division supported by McAllister's (Eirst) 
Bi igade of Mott's Division. De Trobriand's 
Brigade was nearly a mile below on the 
plank road, and Pierce's Brigade was sup- 
porting Metcalf's section of Beck's battery 
on the cast side of the Boydton road midway 
between Eagan and De Trobriand, and fac- 
ing the north. 

In the meantime the enemy had been ra- 
pidly gathering about Hancock's force, and 
Mahone's Division, concealed by the thick 
woods had crossed the run a mile below and 
taking advantage of a gap between the Sec- 
ond and Fifth Corps, advanced by an obscure 
road struck Hancock's on the right Hank 
The first intimation Pierce's Brigade bad of 
an enemy in that direction was a volley of 
musketry poured upon his little force about 
four o'clock in the afternoon. Mahone's Di- 


23 1 

vision broke out of the woods just where 
Matcalf's guns were placed, overrun the bri- 
gade and captured the guns. The brigade 
endeavored to change front, but was driven 
back to the plank road in confusion, from 
which, however, it soon rallied. Our Regi- 
ment was the last to leave the field, and 
then not until nearly surrounded. The 
fighting was almost hand to hand. Eagan 
quickly turned upon Mabone, swept him 
from the field in confusion and with consid- 
erable loss recaptured the guns taken from 
Metcalf and held the enemy at bay. Han- 
cock under orders withdrew in the night. 
Our own brigade left the field about mid- 
night and went to the Vaughan road, and 
on Saturday, the 29th, were up to the front 
line and the next day returned to their old 
camp. Our men gave the name of " Bull- 
Pen " to the place of this engagement. 

The casualties were four killed, five 
wounded and one captured.* 

John Ogden, ot Company G, was among 
the killed here, shot through the forehead, 
and buried on the field. The Regiment had 
been sent out on a reconnoissance. They 
went through the woods, out into an open 
field, where, being subject to a hot fire, they 
threw up a little breastwork with bayonets 
and tin plates. Here Ogden was killed. He 
was a brother of James in the same compa- 
ny, enlisted from Clinton township, and a 
farmer by occupation, left a wife and son. 
He was about twenty-eight years of age. 

In Company H, Gilbert Corwin was kill- 
ed. He was brother to Adelbert, killed in 
front of Petersburg, born in New Milford, 
but a resident of Montrose at his enlistment. 
He was wounded in the arm at Morris 
Farm, November 27, 1863, and like his 
brother, spoken of as a brave man and a 
good soldier. He was a single man about 
twenty-two years of age. 

*Mr. Lobb says Colonel Tyler's life was saved 
here by his horse shieing from a fragment of an 
exploded shell — the piece striking the ground 
near the position occupied by Mr. Lobb, — Ser- 
geant Seagraves dug it out and presented it to 
Colonel Tyler. 

Company C lost Avery Eastabrook killed. 
He had been promoted to Corporal January 
26, 1864, and to Sergeant August 1st. He 
was shot in the thigh and mortally wounded 
while assisting his wounded Captain from 
the field, and died in half an hour. He was 
a son of William Eastabrook, of North To- 
wanda, and twenty-four years of age. His 
character as a soldier, and the esteem in 
which he was held by his officers are indi- 
cated by his promotion in rank and the cir- 
cumstances of his death. 

William S. Margerum, of Company K, 
was also shot in the head and killed on the 
field. He had been a member of Company 
F of the Sixth Pennsylvania Reserves, been 
discharged at the expiration of his term, and 
re enlisted in Towanda and joined Company 
K, of our Regiment, September 14, 1864. 
After dark some of his company went out 
between the lines, found his body and buried 
it. He was a man of unblemished charac- 
ter, unmarried and about twenty-five years 
of age. 

Of the wounded were : 

First Sergeant Edwin M. White, Compa- 
ny A. 

Corporal Jerome Chaffee, Company D. 

Sergeant Wallace Scott, Company K, left 
arm off. 

Corporal William H. Crawford, Compa- 
ny K. 

Captain George W. Kilmer, of Company 
C, was severely wounded in the head and 
captured, and taken to Libby prison, where, 
nearly starved, he remained until the 21st 
of February, when he was paroled and sent 
to Annapolis. His captors took everything, 
the coat from his back, his hat, boots and 
four months' pay which he had just receiv- 
ed. At Richmond the party was greeted 
with hoots from the mob gathered at the 
station who received them with cries, "Good 

enough for you !" " Kill the d d 

Yanks!" and the like. After partially re- 
covering from his wound, his ration in com- 
mon with other prisoners was a piece of corn 



bread about two inches in width by three in 
length, given to each man :tt eleven o'clock 
in the morning. The wonder is how human 
beings can survive such treatment and ex- 
posure. The Captain was subsequently ex- 
changed and returned to his company. 

The Regiment, on reaching its old posi- 
tion at Battery Twenty-Four, was engaged 
most of the time in picket duty. The time 
not spent in the trenches was in a pleasant 
camp in the tear of the lines. 

November 8th, the Regiment cast its vote 
for President, giving Abraham Lincoln one 
hundred and ninety-rive and George I!. Mc- 
Clellan live votes. 

On the 24th was the National Thanks- 
giving, in which, through the agency of the 
Christian Commission, the men were ena- 
bled to enjoy a good dinner. 

On the 20th the brigade moved to the 
rear for the purpose of changing camp, 
which was accomplished the next day. The 
brigade went into camp on the Vaughan 
road, on the Davis plantation, where they 
remained until the 7th of December, when 
it took part in the 


Although General Grant had firmly es- 
tablished his position on the Weldon Rail- 
road near the Globe Tavern, it did not hin- 
der the enemy from receiving supplies by it 
as far as Ream's Station, whence they were 
brought to Petersburg on wagons. To de- 
stroy still further the usefulness of this road 
so essential to the enemy, it was determined 
to send a force a considerable distance down 
thi' road, who by tearing up the rails, de- 
stroying the bridges, and the like, should 
prevent its use altogether, f" During De- 
cember, General Warren having Mott's Di- 
vision of the Second Corps, and Gregg's 
Cavalry added to his own Corps, destroyed 
the Weldon Railroad as far as Hicksford, 
on the Meherrin river, about forty miles 
from Petersburg." 

tHumphrey's, i 

For two weeks the weather had been 
beautiful, and the men were well along with 
their winter quarters, when on the evening 
of Tuesday, December 6th, orders came to 
lie ready to march at eight o'clock in the 
morning. The Regiment was on the move 
at the appointed time. Going out to the 
Jerusalem plank mad they turned south 
down the road, crossing the Nottaway river 
on a pontoon bridge just after dark, and en- 
camped on the south side of it. The next 
morning at six o'clock the march was re- 
sumed. It rained a little during the day 
before, and this morning it was quite wet, 
but cleared away before noon. In the even- 
ing it became bitterly cold. The route this 
day was southwesterly toward the railroad, 
stopping a little before noon at Sussex Court 
House, and at night without the occurrence 
of any incident of note, bivouacked within 
three miles of the railroad, and near the 

The Regiment was again on the move at 
six o'clock in the morning of the 9th, going 
south, struck the railroad at Janett's Station. 
Mott's Division forming on the left of the 
Fifth Corps, began to tear up the road, de- 
stroying it thoroughly for a considerable dis- 
tance. Friday night was rainy, but the next 
morning the work of destruction was re- 
sumed, and continued until orders were re- 
ceived to return to camp, "the object of the 
expedition having been accomplished." 
About tw< nty-three miles of the railroad bad 
been destroyed. Saturday evening the Reg- 
iment went into bivouack when about three 
miles of Sussex Court House. The next day 
the Nottaway was reached at noon. After 
resting here some time they crossed the river 
at five o'clock in the afternoon and at night 
bivouacked four miles north of it. Near 
Sussex Court House some Guerrillas had 
killed and stripped of their clothing a few 
Stragglers from the ranks, in retaliation for 
which General Warren ordered all the pro- 
perty in the neighborhood to be destroyed. 

On Monday afternoon, when the division 
bad nearly reached its old encampments, it 


was sent farther to the west and bivouacked 
in the woods on the Halifax road. The 
next day, the 13th, the division went into 
camp on the line from the Vaughan to the 
Halifax road, near Poplar Spring Church, 
the First Brigade on the right, the Second 
in the center and the Third on the left, 
where our Regiment remained encamped, 
the One Hundred Fifth on its left until the 
fifth of February, doing camp and picket 
duty, and working by details on Fort Fish- 
er, and engaged in regular drills when not 
otherwise employed. On the 26th of De- 
cember they had their first dress parade 
since they set out on the spring campaign. 
The camping place was a pleasant one with 
plenty of wood and good water. 

Up to the first of February, 1865, some 
changes had been made in the Regiment. 
Colonel Madill had been commissioned 
Brigadier-Genera!, receiving his commission 
on the very morning the Regiment set out 
on the raid down the Weldon road, but re- 
mained with the Regiment until the 18th of 
January, when he was assigned to the com- 
mand of the First Brigade of the First Di- 
vision. While his men rejoiced that his 
gallant services had thus far been recogniz- 
ed, and the well earned promotion had been 
received, they parted with their beloved 
Colonel with regret. No officer ever was 
more loved, respected or trusted by his men. 
They looked up to him with the confidence 
and affection of children to a father, and 
well they might, for by his energy, bravery, 
consideration and care he had largely been 
instrumental in making the Regiment what 
il was. In the terrible battles which had 
swept its men from the field he had been at 
its head. In the camp he secured obedience 
without resort to the cruel punishments 
which were a disgrace to so many, and at all 
times was watchful for the interests of his 
men, at the expense of himself ; and to-day 
after more than twenty years have elapsed 
since he led them on the field, and cared for 
them in the camp, every man of the One 

Hundred Forty-First speaks of him with a 
loving respect, and the familiar title, "Our 
Old Colonel," is uttered with an affectionate 
regard by those with whom he shared dan- 
ger and privation, hardship and want. 
Henry J. Madill must always be insepara- 
bly connected with whatever glory or re- 
nown was won by the One Hundred forty- 
First, an integral part of its grand achieve- 
ments and of its imperishable history. 

Fearless of danger himself, he never ex- 
posed his men needlessly, and never sought 
a fight to promote his own interests — in fact 
at least at three several times promotion was 
offered him if he would attempt a desperate 
charge, when the answer, as self-sacrificing as 
gallant was:—" If I must gain a star at the 
expense of the lives of my men I will never 
have one." 

Although he had been three times slight- 
ly wounded, once at Gettysburg, and once at 
Petersburg, and had had six horses shot 
from under him, the General had escaped 
without serious injury until the 2d of April 
when in a charge upon a battery at Suther- 
lin's Station, while at the head of bis bri- 
gade, he was severely wounded by a sharp- 
shooter, the ball lodging in the groin, from 
the effects of which he has never recovered. 
As soon as his wound would admit he re- 
turned to his home in Towanda, and recov- 
ering in some measure his health, resumed 
the practice of law. Soon after, he was elect- 
ed Register and Recorder of his countv. In 
1879 he represented his district in the State 
Legislature for one term, and since then has 
been engaged in the practice of his profes- 
sion. On the 20th of April, 1865, the Pres- 
ident of the United States, " by and with the 
consent of the Senate," commissioned him 
Major-General by brevet, the commission to 
bear date from the 13th of March, " for gal- 
lant and meritorious services," but the boys 
of the One Hundred Forty-First can hardly 
call him anything but "Our Old Colonel." 
Lieutenant-Colonel C. W.Tyler, promoted 
from the Captaincy of Company II. took 
command of the Regiment. 



Robert II. Torrey, the Quartermaster, re- 
signed by the Surgeon's advice, on account 
of broken health, and was discharged Octo- 
ber 24, 1864; and on the 25th of the next 
January, Charles D. Cash was promoted 
from Quartermaster Sergeant to Quartermas- 
ter, and at the same date Lilburn J. Rob- 
bins, a private of Company It, was promoted 
to Sergeant-Major, and Martin ( ). Codding 
from Sergeant-Major to Quartermaster-Ser- 

Dr. William Church, on the expiration of 
his term of muster, was discharged by spe- 
cial order, September 22, 1804, and T)r. 
Denison was promoted from Assistant Sur- 
geon to Surgeon, December loth, and Wel- 
lington G. Beyerle was mustered Assistant 
Surgeon, December 27th. 

On the 31st of December, Michael G. 
Hill, a private of Company H, and Gilbert 
11. Stewart, a musician of Company G, were 
promoted regimental musicians. 

In Company A, Isaac Yetter was promot- 
ed from Corporal to Sergeant, November 1st. 

There were discharged Corporal William 
Mace, for wounds, December 18th; Adrial 
Lee ; by special order, December 29th; Cor- 
poral Asa J. Kinne, for wounds, January 
7th, and Samuel Lee, on Surgeon's Certifi- 
cate, January 26th. 

In Company B, on the 1st of January, 
.John H. Chaffee was promoted from Cor- 
poral to Sergeant, and Andrew J. Horton 
was promoted to Corporal, and on the 21st 
Robert Hatch and Charles E. McCumber 
were promoted from Corporals to Sergeants, 
and E. B. Eastabrook was promoted to Cor- 
poral ; December 10th, George H. Humphrey 
was discharged on account of wounds, and 
on the 21st Sergeant Stephen B. Canfield, 
Sergeant Nelson C. Dyer were transferred to 
the Veteran Reserves January 20th. 

In Company C, Selden F. Worth was pro- 
moted from Corporal to Sergeant, Novem- 
ber 1st, and Bishop Horton was made Cor- 
poral October 25th; Benjamin F. Wank was 
discharged on Surgeon's Certificate Decem- 
ber!8th; Warren W. Goff. Frederick F. 

Cole (January 18th,) and Jeremiah Ray- 
mond were transferred to the Veteran Re- 

In Company D, First Lieutenant Marcus 

E. Warner was commissioned Captain; By- 
ron Chamberlain was promoted to Corporal 
January 1st. There were transferred to the 
Veteran Reserves Frederick D'Victor, (De- 
cember 2d,) Charles K. Canfield, (January 
1st,) Sergeant William Hewitt, (January 
21st,) and Corporal Rodney Brewer. 

Edward McAllister, captured June 22, 
1864, died in captivity at Florence, South 
Carolina, November 5th. 

In Company E, First Lieutenant Mason 

F. Long was commissioned Captain Decem- 
ber 20th, and First Sergeant -John M. Jack- 
son First Lieutenant, January 24th; James 
M. Beach was promoted First Sergeant, and 
Dealmon Watkins to Sergeant, February 1st. 

Pierce F. Miller, of Company F, was 
trans feried to the Veteran Reserves, Decem- 
ber 25th. 

In Company G, Captain Atkinson, twice 
wounded, resigned on account of ill health, 
and was honorably discharged. He is a res- 
ident of Ilawley, where he was born October 
29, 1836, graduated from Claver Institute, 
Hudson river, in 1856, and at his enlistment 
was extensively engaged in the lumber busi- 
ness. On his return to Hawley he resumed 
the business, which, with the manufacture 
cf glass he carries on to a large extent. In 
1879 he was the Republican candidate for 
Sheriff of Wayne County, which ordinarily 
gives six hundred Democratic majority, but 
such is the Captain's personal popularity 
that he was elected by sixteen hundred ma- 
jority. He is now one of the prominent 
business men of his county. 

Daniel Ballard, William Stone and David 
B. Atkinson, (January 1st,) were transfer- 
red to the Veteran Reserves. 

In Company H, Jacob W. Palmer, (De- 
cember 17th,) and Thomas Davis, (Decem- 
ber 23d,) were discharged, and January 1st, 
Asa H. Decker and Leander Lott were 
transferred to the Veteran Reserves. 



In Company I, Captain Spanning, in con- 
qsence of wounds received in the Wilder- j 
3SS) resigned, returned home in Athens 
Lit soon became connected with the Second 
[ational Bank in Wilkes-Barre, was tor a 
umber of years cashier of that institution, j 
ut now in company with his brother is en- I 
aged in business at Forty-Fort, Luzerne 

Sergeant Richard McCabe, (October 19th,) 
or wounds received at Chancellorsville, and 
William P. Heath, on Surgeon's Certificate, 
;December 16th,) were honorably discharged. 
Theodore Larrison, a recruit in the com- 
pany, wounded September 11th, was trans- 
ferred to the Veteran Reserves January 27th, 
ind honorably discharged May 8, I860. 

November 1,-1864, George L. Forbes was 
promoted to Sergeant; January 1, 1865, 
Eugene L. Lent and Lemuel Robinson were 
also made Sergeants, John N. Dunham made 
First Sergeant, Eli Rolls and Trowbridge 
L. Smith made Corporals, and on the 24th 
of January, First Lieutenant JohnG. Brown 
was commissioned Captain, and First Ser- 
geant Join S. Frink was commissioned Sec- 
ond Lieutenant December 26th, and First 
Lieutenant January 24th. 

In Company K, Lyman T. Wheeler, who 
was suffering from pulmonary disease when 
mustered into the service, August 11, 1864, 
was soon sent to hospital in Washington, 
where he died the December following. He 
was the son of Thomas Wheeler, of Smith- 
field, unmarried, and about twenty-five years 
of age at his death. 

For November 30, 1864, and January 31, 
1865, the Adjutant's reports are as follows: 


fForduty I 17J 

! Extraduty | o<> 

Present.. -, gick 9 

^ In arrest \_ 

Total ?44 

Absent |_1£> 




Nov. SO^Jan. 31. 

[ For duty 
Extra duty 


dabney's mill or hatcher's run. 
After the destruction of the Weldon Rail- 
road at Hieksford the enemy brought sup- 
plies by the way of Dinwiddle Court House 
on the Boydton Plank road to Petersburg, in 
wagons. To intercept these trains and breaK 
up this route of supply a force consisting of 
the Second and Fifth Corps with Gregg's 
Cavalry was directed to get possession of 
the Bovdton Plank road, and if possible gam 
a foothold upon the South Side railroad. 
On the morning of the 5th of February the 
troops were set in motion. General Hum- 
phreys, now in command of the Second 
Corps, about three o'clock in the morning, 
issued orders to his troops to be ready to 
march at daylight. Although the weather 
was intensely cold yet with the first streaks 
of the dawn the camp was astir. Leaving 
his First Division to hold the intrenchments 
General Humphrey took the Second and 
Third Divisions down the Vaughan road 
the Second being in advance, to the crossing 
of Hatcher s Run, where a small force of the 
enemy was stationed for observation. This 
was quickly dispersed by the skirmishers ot 
De Trobriand's (First) Brigade, and Mott s 
(Third) Division was placed in position 
South of the Run and threw up intrench- 
ments, while Smythe's (Second) Division 
was sent a mile up the stream on the north 
side of it to Armstrong's Mill. A road 
nearly parallel with tne Vaughan road con- 
nects Armstrong's with Dabney's steam saw 
mill the latter being about a mile south- 
west of Armstrong's. A mile north at the 
junction of the Squirrel Level road with the 
Vaughan road is a road running westerly 
t0 the Boydton Plank road at Burgess's 



Mill. On this road, in front of Sniythc's 
position, i!ir enemy were discovered in 

General Humphreys anticipating an at- 
tack on Smythe's right in front of which 
the enemy were seen in force, detached Colo- 
nel McAllister's (Third) Brigade from 
Moil's Division to strengthen Smytlie. 
Aliont live o'clock the Confederates opened 
upon Smythe followed by tour divisions of 
Hill's and Ewell's Corps, who three times 
charged with headlong fury upon McAllis- 
ter's position, whose steady and firm bearing 
checked the enemy's advance and compelled 
him to withdraw. ( renral Mott at once sent 
the Second Brigade to support McAllister. 
Our Regiment which had been on the 
skirmish line all day took part in the move- 
ment, and with the rest of the Brigade fell 
back to the north side of the Run. Before 
our Brigade arrived, however the enemy's 
Infantry had retired, although the Artillery 
kept up a fire for some time. The Second 
Brigade was not actively engaged, although 
it was under a hot [ire. 

The casualties were one killed and three 

The one killed was Albert Phelps, of 
Company K, a son of William Phelps, of 
Smithfield, and a cousin of C. 11. Phelps, of 
the same company. Young Phelps had 
greatly desired to visit home, had made 
application for a furlough hut tailed to 
receive it, whereupon his mother wrote to 
President Lincoln, saying she had six sons 
in the service of the country and greatly 
desired to sec Alberl who had not succeeded 
in obtaining leave in the usual channels. 
The good President was touched with her 
motherly devotion and granted a leave of 
thirty days. Albert had returned to the 
Regiment only a short time before he was 
killed. Says a comrade " alter the battle 
was over a man came and told us that one 
of our company was killed ; be had been 
shot over the eye ami death was so sudden 
that he had not fallen, but was leaning 
against a stump. He was unmarried and 

about twenty-four years old," ami buried 
near where he fell. 

Corporal Charles Williams, of Company 
G, was wounded here. 

That evening a part of the Regimenl was 
placed on picket, and the rest lay behind 
the intren chments. A; three o'clock the 
next morning the pickets, relieved by men 
of the Fifth Corps, rejoined the Regiment. 

The next morning, Monday, the (iih,a 
reconnoissance showed the enemy was not 
outside bis intrenchments north of the Pun 
At one o'clock in the afternoon General 
Warren sent General Crawford's Division 
"ii a reconnoissance out to Dnbney's Mill. 
Here he was met by the Confederates in 
force and a severe engagement took place. 
Warren's line at length gave way and fell 
hack rapidly with hut little loss. The 
Federals reinforced by detachments from 
the Sixth and Second Corps checked the 

farther advance of the enemy. The First 
mid Second Brigades of Mott's Division 
were ordered up to support Warren, but 
before they reached i he scene of action the 
fight was over and they were ordered hack 
to their former position and bivouacked for 
the night in a little piece of pine woods. 

Toward evening a severe storm of rain, 
snow and sleet set in, the weather was in- 
tensely cold and some of the men almost 
perished. The next day came clearing 
weather hut no abatement of the cold, a 
reconnoissance revealed the fact thai the 
enemy had retired to his works. 

The line of intrenchments was now ex- 
tended to I lately r's Run, on the Vaughan 
road, the Second Corps occupying the ex- 
treme left, the sixth taking the intrench- 
ments at Fort Fisher, an. I the Fifth Corps 
massed in rear of the Second. 

Wednesday the weather moderated some- 
what. Everything was quiet along the lines, 
and the day was spent in establishing the 
new line of works ami the next day the 
troops were located upon this new line, the 
First Division on the right, the Third the 




ft, and the Second (Mott's) the center. In 
le division line De Trobriand held the 
ght, McAllister the left and Pierce 
Second) Brigade the reserve. Part of the 
regiment was on picket and part was cut- 
timber for corduroy roads. The work- 
jig party bivouacked in the pines again at 
ight. On Friday the Second Brigade was 
ent to slash the timber between McAllister 
nd the Fifth Corps, while the rest of the 
I i vision was engaged on the fortifications. 
', On Saturday, the 11th, the camps were 
located and for the fourth time since the 
pommencementof cold weather the regiment 
began to build winter quarters. For a few 
days the weather was intensely cold and 
much suffering experienced by the men in 
their unfinished houses, but nothing espe- 
cially noteworthy occurred until the 25th of 
March. The monotony of camp was broken 
by occasional reviews, brigade dress parade 
and regimental drills. The usual inspec- 
tions were had and the army kept in condi- 
tion to move at a moment's notice. Before 
recounting the events of the final campaign 
we will stop a moment to notice the 
changes which had occurred in the Regi- 
ment during the winter. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Tyler resigned on 
account of continued ill health and was 
honorably discharged March 1, and Major 
Horton was commissioned Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel and mustered on the 18th, Captain Mer- 
cur being Commissioned Major. Sergeant 
Alderson made First Lieutenant April 22, 
was in command of Company A. 

Company B, was in command of Lieuten- 
ant Henry U. Jones, Captain Peck had on 
the 8th of October, 1864, been assigned to 
the command of the First Regiment of 
United States sharp shooters, holding that 
position until the close of the year when the 
Regiment was consolidated with others and 
the Captain returned to his company. On 
the 14th of January he was appointed by 
Major-General Humphrey, assistant com- 
missary of musters and became a member of 
Genera] Mott's staff where he remained 

until the close of the war, when he returned 
home, resumed the practice of his profession, 
was six years Prothonotary of the county 
and now a prominent lawyer in Towanda. 

March 11, Corporal Almerine G. Arnold 
was transferred to the Veteran Reserves and 
Corporal Mathew V. Greening, at a date 
not given. 

Sergeant Ezra S. Little commanded Com- 
pany C, Daniel Schoonover and George \V. 
Fell were promoted from Corporals to 
Sargeants, March 1, and Dallas J. Sweet, 
March 20. 

Company D was commanded by Captain 
Marcus E. Warner. First Sergeant Henry 
J. Hudson was promoted to First Lieutenant 
February 14; Sanford Diamond to First 
Sergeant, March 1. On the 19th of March 
David Lewis was transferred to the Veteran 
Reserves, also Clark M. Lent, date not 

Joel Allis, a private in this Company 
died at his home in Orwell, February 3. 

Captain Long was in command of Com- 
pany E ; Michael Finney was discharged on 
Surgeon's certificate February 10; James W. 
Clark transferred to the Veteran Reserves, 
February 20, and Edward J. Sweeney, no 
date given. 

Truman Galusha while at home in Athens 
sick, was picked up by a person anxious to 
secure the reward offered by the Govern- 
ment for deserters, and died at Alexandria 
before reaching the Regiment December 25, 
1864. It is needless to add that his com- 
rades condemn the arrest in the strongest 

John A. Snell was a recruit from Athens, 
enlisted January 13, 1865, but before reach- 
ing the Company became insane, left the 
squad, was arrested, tried by court-martial, 
acquitted and sent to hospital in Alexandria 
where he died March 5. His friends lost 
all trace of him until the facts were ascer- 
tained through the perseverance of Corporal 
Hull, of that Company. 

In Company F, on the 14th of February, 
Nelson J. Hawley was promoted Captain ; 



George R. Resseguie, First Sergeant ; John 
A. Brown, Sergeant, and Elisha M. Skinner, 
Corporal; on the 23d, Henry \Y. Kenyon 
was discharged on Surgeon's certificate. 

Company G. was in command of Captain 
William T. Lobb, promoted from First 
Lieutenant, February IS. The same day John 
A. Smith was discharged, and Linus F. Sut- 
tOn, March 17. 

Captain John L. Gyle commanded Com- 
pany 11; Benjamin N. Spencer was dis- 
charged by special order March 1. 

Captain John G. Brown commanded Com- 
pany I; Sergeant Edwin G. Owen was 
discharged on account of wounds February 6. 

Company K, was commanded by First 
Lieutenant Beebe Gerould ; Captain Mercur 
having been made Brevet Major of the 

The Adjutant's Report gives the strength 
of the Regiment, March .">lst, 1865, as 
follows : ' 


!For duty 13 
On extra duty 6 

Absent 2 

Totai 21 


| For duty 1 

,, , On extra duty 

i oick 

1, In arrest 

Totae 27 

Absent 9J, 


The Second Corps was commanded i.« 
Major-General A. A. Humphreys, the Thin 
Division by Brigadier-General Gersharr 
Mott, the Second Brigade by Brigadier- 
General Byron Pierce. The Brigade was 
composed of the following regiments: 
Seventeenth Maine, (Lieutenant Colonel 
William Hobson;) First Massachusetts 
Heavy Artillery, (Major Nathaniel Shats- 
well ; Fifth Michigan (Colonel John Pul- 
ford ;) Ninety-Third New York (Lieutenant 
Colonel Haviland Gifford;) Fifty-Seventh 
Pennsylvania (Colonel George Zinn ;) One 
Hundred Fifth Pennsylvania, (Major James 
Miller; One Hundred Forty-First Pennsyl- 
vania (Lieutenant Colonel Joseph H. 

Chapter XL 

General Lee, as fully aware of the strength 
f the Federal forces as of the weakness of 
lis own, had, on consultation with the Con- 
ederate authorities, determined to evacuate 
*etersburg and Richmond, and by a rapid 
narch on the Cox road to Amelia Court 
louse, endeavor to form a junction with 
r ohnston's Army, and thus prolong the war 
ndetinitely. The strong Federal force at 
Catcher's Run was a serious obstacle to this 
movement. In order to compel General 
jiant to weaken this wins of his army, an 
ssault was planned on Fort Ste.adman for 
he morning of the 25th of March. -In this, 
hough the Confederate arms were at first 
M-owned with success, the result was terribly 
disastrous to them. 

As soon as the attack opened, General 
Humphreys ordered his corps under arms 
and strong reconnoissances to be made in his 
front to ascertain if Lee had not stripped his 
defences for the attack on Fort Steadman. 
he intrenched picket line of the enemy 
as captured, and the Federal lines were 
arther advanced notwithstanding repeated 
efforts on the part of the Confederates to re- 
ake them. This is known upon the records 
of the Regiment as 


The evening before, the 24th, a large 
picket detail was made from our Regiment 
under the command of Lieutenant Gerould, 
while Captain Lobb was in command of the 
brigade picket line, Captain Gyle of the di- 
vision, and General Madill was corps officer 
of the day. Until the affair at Fort Stead- 
man was decided the troops were kept under 
arms ready to move to the right if needed, 

but as soon as the fort was re-taken, the 
pickets were ordered to the front. Says 
Captain Lobb: — " I was on my waj to the 
front when I met General Madill, who said, 
' I have just ordered Captain Gyle tocharge 
on the enemy's pickets, and you will take 
the reserves out as quickly as possible. We 
shall press close up to the enemy's works 
and see what can be done.' Similar instruc- 
tions were given along the line. We moved 
forward through the woods. When I came 
to the clearing I saw that Captain Gyle was 
in possession of the enemy's picket line, 
some of whom he had captured, the others 
lied. I reported with the reserves to Cap- 
tain Gyle, who ordered me to take them to 
Lieutenant Gerould farther to the left. 

" The enemy's line was in a southeast to 
northwest direction through a cleared field of 
slightly rolling ground, our pickets were in 
the woods on the next ridge. To the left, 
where Lieutenant Gerould was stationed, the 
clearing was much wider and was in range 
of the enemy's battery in the rear of their 
picket line. Lieutenant Gerould had charg- 
ed the enemy's line and taken some prison- 
ers, the rest fell back behind their intrench- 
ments, when their battery opened and soon 
drove him' back to the shelter of the woods, 
just as I came to his support with the re- 
serves. Meanwhile Captain Gyle's men 
were giving the Rebs. hot lead from the rifle 
pits that his part of the line was hugging 
closely. Quicker than I can write it we 
were ready for the charge, and strangely 
enough we crossed that field under fire of 
their battery and gained their rifle pits with- 
out losing a man. But our stay was short, 
for we soon saw the enemy approaching us 



in force, and we made for tlie woods in our 
rear, where the ground was lower and where 
we had a good range on the advancing ene- 
my, and checked their farther progress. 

The fusillade had been heard in camp* 
and the brigade was ordered out for our sup- 
port. Soon the cheers of our advancing 
line were heard and we were allowed to fall 
back and let the battle-line charge, and 
charge they did — and drove back the en- 
emy. Entrenching tools were now brought 
and a line of works thrown up to connect 
the ground gained with Fort Fisher." A 
hundred or more prisoners were taken with 
the loss of one slightly wounded in the fin- 
ger and one missing. It was the last time 
the boys of the One Hundred Forty-First 
were led by their old gallant Colonel, Gen- 
eral Madill. 

George Stage, of Company C, reported 
missing in the above action, and probably 
killed, was enlisted by Captain Swart from 
Monroeton, about thirty-seven years of age. 

This advance of the picket line, which 
was nearly or quite a mile from the old 
picket line, was due largely to the gallantry 
of the officers and men of the One Hundred 
Forty-First, and was a material advantage 
to the Federal positions, and rendered pos- 
sible the successful assault on the enemy's 
lines a few days afterward which compelled 
the evacuation of Petersburg. 

The next day, Sunday, March 26th, the 
pickets were relieved, and our men returned 
to camp where they remained until Wednes- 
day, the 29th. 

The time had now come, in the expres- 
sive language of the Commanding General, 
" To finish up the business." Sheridan's 
Cavalry were to operate on the extreme left, 
supported by the Fifth Corps, while the 
Second Corps should connect with the right 
of the Fifth. Early in the morning of the 

*Our canip at this time was near where the 
military railroad crossed the Vaughan Road, and 
we were picketing on the north side of Hatcher's 

29th the troops were in motion, Pierce's 1 

gade moving down the Vaughan Rq 

across Hatcher's Run, the division formiij 

on the right of the road, the right resting 

the Myer house and connecting with t 

Second Division, (Hays,) and the left w 

the First, (Miles') Division. At elev 

o'clock the lines advanced so that Pierc 

Brigade rested near the Coleman house, a 

in the afternoon pushed up near Dabne; 

steam saw mill. The men were now 

ground made familiar by the expedition 

the 27th of October last. 

The day had been very fine, but at nig 
a severe rain storm set in which continue 
for two days, rendering roads a sea of mi 
Hooding the swamps and low grounds, ar 
swelling the runs to torrents. 

At six o'clock in the morning of the 301 
the line commenced advancing, and the ei 
emy's works at the Crow house were seize 
without opposition, and his skirmishe: 
forced back to his main line north of Hatcl 
er's Run. The next day the enemy made 
fierce attack upon Warren, but was finall 
repulsed with considerable loss. A demoi 
stration was made against his works by th 
Fifth Michigan and First Massachusetts ui 
der Captain Peck, but was repulsed. Th 
division moved to the left, crossing th 
Boydton road early in the morning and fo 
tifying its positions. The ground occupie 
by our Regiment was the famous Bull Pei 
Saturday, April 1st, but little movemei 
was made by our division. The weatln 
had cleared, but the men were retired to tl 
cover of the woods, a most uncomfortab 
position in the wet ground. Farther to tl: 
left the fighting had been desperate, the ei 
emy assailing the Fifth Corps and Sherida 
furiously. Miles' Division which had gor 
to support Warren, had also suffered, bi 
our brigade had not been engaged. In tl: 
evening the lines were moved forward i 
connect with Madill's Brigade of Miles' D 

Early in the morning of April 2d, a su 




iik was made upon the enemy's 
1 runt of Fort Fisher by the Sixth 

advance of the picket lines on the 
X made tliis feasible. This was 
a general forward movement of 
s. Miles' Division on the ex- 
shed up the Claiborne road to 
$ Station on the South Side Rail- 

i \n an assault upon the enemy's 

•*, gallant Madill was severely 

/ [ays' Division on the right as- 

carried the works at the Crow 
uile Mott's Division at half-past 
^,en carried the first line of the Confederate 
fortifications at Burgess' mill under a severe 
artillery and musketry fire. In an hour the 
enemy abandoned them, pursued as he was 
moving out by the victorious Federals. Hays 
and Mott, in pursuance of orders from Gen- 
eral Meade, then pushed up the Boydton 
. -"1 Pierce's Brigade reaching the South 
Side Bailroad at noon. Our Regiment, 
chough under a severe fire for an hour, met 
with no loss. The enemy's retreat was pre- 
cipitous. Sergeant Chaffee says : — " I was 
in a rebel camp this afternoon, they left ev- 
erything — their tents standing, knapsacks, 
haversacks, everything." 

Captain Lobb tays : — "About five o'clock 
we had orders to march. We struck the 
Boydton plank road a little nearer the run 
than we were last October. The troops in 
advance cleared away all opposition, and 
the order was passed down the line ' Onward 
for Petersburg.' We went up the Boydton 
road about three miles to the railroad, then 
swung around behind Petersburg Heights in 
an easterly direction, the route of the Regi- 
ment from its starting point, near Ward's 
Station resembling a semicircle. Thus far 
the Regiment had not fired a shot. In pass- 
ing where General A. P. Hill's headquarters 
had been we found two or three colored ser- 
vants ; one said he belonged to General Hill 
and his master was killed ; another that he 
was General Lee's boy, and his master staid 
at General Hill's quarters the night before 

and felt so bad. Our Regiment was now 
put in position to support a battery playing 
on a fort, I think Fort Gregg. I never saw 
guns so well worked as they were by the 
Captain of this battery. We camped near 
here for the night." 

General Lee evacuated Petersburg during 
the night of the 2d, giving orders for his 
troops to rendezvous at Amelia Court House; 
each corps reaching there by the best roads 

Early the next morning that city and 
Richmond surrendered to the Federal troops. 
The news was received with great rejoicing 
by the investing army, which was at once 
started in vigorous pursuit of the retreating 
foe. Sheridan with the Fifth Corps led in 
the chase, the Second and Sixth Corps fol- 
lowing close after. At eight o'clock our 
Regiment was on the march, and at eleven 
o'clock in the evening bivouacked on the 
west side of the Namozine Creek, making a 
distance of eighteen miles, where it was 
placed on picket on the road to Birksville. 

On the 4th the pursuit was continued. 
Mott's Division in the advance starting at 
seven o'clock. Roads were heavy and bad- 
ly cut up from the recent rains, and our men 
were hard at work keeping them in repair 
for the passage of the trains. Great num- 
bers of prisoners, cannon, caissons, and 
quantities of all sorts of equipments were ta- 
ken through the day. The Brigade halted 
for the night at Deep Run where they were 
compelled to repair the bridge destroyed by 
the enemy. The next day the columns were 
in motion at two o'clock in the morning, but 
were detained several hours by a troop of 
cavalry, when they pushed forward, striking 
the Danville Railroad near Amelia Court 
House later in the evening. Here Sheridan 
had had a severe fight earlier in the day, 
and Pierce's Brigade frequent skirmishes 
with the enemy all day. 

sailor's creek. 
On the 6th, the morning broke cloudy and 
rainy, but cleared about noon. All the night 



long Lee's army had been on the march en- 
deavoring to escape the encircling forces of 
the Federals. General Humphreys soon dis- 
covered the retreating columns of the enemy, 
and was directed to move toward Deatons- 
ville, the Fifth Corps on his right, and the 
Sixth on his left. The Second Corps began 
crossing Flat ("reek and a sharp running fire 
commenced with Gordon's Corps, which was 
continued over a distance of fourteen miles, 
and several intrenched positions carried. 
Woods with a dense undergrowth, swamps 
alternating with cleared fields covered the 
broken country ; but the lines of battle fol- 
lowed close on the skirmish line with a ra- 
pidity and good order unexampled. 

About three miles west of Deatonsville, at, 
J. Hott's house, which is on high ground, 
the road forks, one branch turning to the 
right runs down to Sailor's Creek, a consid- 
erable stream running northerly and empty- 
ing into the Appomattox at the apex of a 
sharp bend, the other road leading to Rice's 
Station. Upon arriving at the Forks at 
Hott's about half past four o'clock iu the af- 
ternoon, Ewell's troops were found in Hue of 
battle on the north side of Sailor's Creek. 
General Humphreys however continued the 
pursuit of Gordon's Corps, who in their haste 
left tents, camp equipage, baggage, forges, 
limbers and wagons. At last they made a 
final stand at Perkinson's mills, near the 
mouth of the creek, where a sharp contest 
ensued with the First and Second Divisions 
of the Second Corps, routing the enemy and 
capturing thirteen flags, three guns, several 
hundred prisones and a large part of the 
main trains of Lee's army which were hud- 
dled together at the creek crossing. The 
country being unknown to the Federals pur- 
suit was checked by the darkness. General 
Mott was among the wounded and General 
De Trobriand took command of the Division. 

Captain Lobb relates the following inci- 
dent: — "When we came out of a piece of 
wood near the road and looked down the hill 
we saw the road and both sides of it blocked 

K 9- 

jh ; 
ti . 





with wagons. After leaving the \ 
hill, to the right and the left w 
land. The One Hundred Fort) 
ordered forward on the skirmh 
right being along the road bloel 
train. The enemy had also 
skirmish line along the creek i 
tery from the opposite hill was 
severely. At the creek most o 
skirmish line was captured. ( 
captured a Confederate Captaii 
he handed over his sword Captai. 
asked him where he got that Yankee, 
his reply was from a Yankee officer at Chan'- 
cellorsville. From the description he gave ' 
we are satisfied that it was Captain Mum- \ 
ford's. The Confederate Captain said he 
found the Yankee officer badly wounded in 
the edge of the woods near the plank road 
not far from where Jackson fell, and took 
his sword together with what 'greenbacks' 
were in his pocket, and the wounded Cap- 
tain was taken to their field hospital. 

'' We were ordered to burn the wagons, 
and no orders to take care of the plunder, so 
each one appropriated what he wanted. We , ' 
camped here for the night." 

Only two of our Regiment were wounded, 
and these slightly. 


At half past five on the morning of the 
7th ( ieneral Humphreys resumed the pur- 
suit of the enemy, keeping the river road 
along which the largest bodies of infantry 
seemed to have passed. About eight o'clock 
in the morning, High Bridge, the point 
where the South Side railroad crosses the 
Appomattox, a bridge of twenty-one spans 
and sixty feet high, was reached. This the 
enemy on their retreat during the night had 
attempted to burn, but by vigorous efforts 
all but three spans were saved and the 
wagon bridg;e secured. The railroad bridge 
was on fire when our regiment came up. 
General Humphreys with the divisions of 
Miles and De Trobriand continued the pur- 
suit on the old stage road to Appomattox I 



Court House, while Barlow's Division was 
sent to Farmville, three miles farther west, 
De Trobriand moved his division forward 
with some caution as sharp musketry firing 
was heard both in front and on the left. 
Pierce's Brigade was now deployed and 
moved around the hill where a body of the 
enemy was observed, but seeing the ap- 
proach of the Federals left, although a run- 
ning skirmish fire was kept up for some 

Five miles north of Farmville, General 
Humphreys found the remains of Lee's 
army in an intrenched position. Several at- 
tempts to turn this position were repulsed 
with considerable Federal loss. One of the 
One Hundred Forty-First is reported 

On the afternoon of this day at Farmville 
General Grant sent through General Hum- 
phreys the first proposition to General Lee 
for a surrender of the army of Northern 

Again, Lee used the night to place as 
great a distance as possible between his 
rapidly diminishing army and the Federals. 
The Second Corps resumed pursuit at half 
past five the next morning on the road to- 
ward Lynchburg and soon came up with the 
rear of the enemy. Pushing on at all speed 
they passed the town of New Store at half 
past seven in the evening. After a few 
hours rest the march was renewed at one 
o'clock the next morning and continued 
until four o'clock. 

The Brigade remained in line to advance 
but were held in position hour after hour 
They had planted themselves across the line 
of the enemys retreat. A little past noon a 
flag of truce came into the lines announcing 
that General Lee was about to surrender his 
entire army, which was done at four o'clock 
in the afternoon. Our regiment had reached 
Clover Hill when the joyful news was 
received. Words cannot describe the scene 
of wild excitement which ensued. Cheer after 
cheer made the woods ring. Men shouted 

themselves hoarse. All feeling of animosity 
was forgotten in the tide of joyous victory 
which swept through the ranks. Every 
man knew the end of hard marches and 
severe fighting was at hand and their homes 
and loved ones were near. With a soldier's 
generosity the victors, though themselves 
short of rations, shared their stores with the 
vanquished. That night the regiment en- 
camped at Clover Hill, where they remained 
until the 12th, when they set out on the re- 
turn to Richmond. That evening they 
! passed through Farmville and encamped a 
mile east of the town ; the 13th encamped 
within three miles of Birksville, where they 
remained until the end of April. Johnstcn 
having surrendered his army and all armed 
garrisons of the Confederacy having rapidly 
followed in yielding obedience to the 
general government, orders were issued for 
reducing the armies by mustering out the 
troops. While here a number of prisoners 
released by the capitulations of the enemy's 
garrisons returned to their companies. On 
this day the march to Richmond was re- 
sumed, Jettersville being reached that even- 
ing, Amelia Court House for dinner the 
next day and the Appomattox at night, and 
on the 4th bivouacked within ten miles of 

On the 6th the division marched through 
Richmond in column by regiments, our boys 
bearing aloft their tattered flags, the 
evidences of their valor and the symbols of 
their victory. Here the men guided by 
some of their comiades, who escaped from 
captivity on the surrender of Richmond had 
rejoined the regiment, went over to Castle 
Thunder, Libby prison and other places, 
scenes of indescribable horrors and un- 
speakable suflerings borne by their comrades. 

Crossing the Chickahominy, passing by 
Hannover Court House,Jacrossthe Pamunky, 
the Mat, the Ta. the Po and the Ny, 
Fredericksburg was reached a little after- 
noon of Wednesday the 10th, and that even- 
ing they halted five miles north of Falmouth, 
and on the loth encamped at Four Mile 



Run in a pleasant grove, near to Bailey's 
' 'ross Roads. 

The regiment had been passing over 
familiar ground and was now hack near its 
early camping place. On the 18th the order 
was received to muster out the regiment, 
and the commanding officers of the several 
companies were directed to make out the 
required rolls for that purpose. 

On Tuesday the 23d, the regiment took 
part in the grand review, breaking camp at 
,six o'clock in the morning, crossed Long 
Bridge at nine, passed up Maryland to 
Penusylvan a Avenue, where the brigade 
was halted an hour or more for other troops 
to pass. They were near the very spot 
where two years and nine months before 
they had waited to go to the front. But 
what eventful years they had been. One- 
fourth of their number then were now 
sleeping the sleep that knows no earthly 
wakinsr. Their skeleton ranks, their soiled 
and worn uniforms, their tattered Hags 
borne on so many fields of bloody strife, told 
a story of suffering, of toil and of hardship 
that no pen can describe. With mingled 
feelings of pride, joy and sadness these 
bronzed weather-beaten, battle-scarred vet- 
erans marched up at noon past the Grand 
Stand to receive the acknowledgement of 
their valor and victories alike from the 
Chief Magistrate to the humblest citizen, 
from the Lieutenant-General of the armies 
to the private in the ranks. They recrossed 
the Potomac on a pontoon bridge near 
Georgetown and reached camp about five 
o'clock in the afternoon. Some promotions 
and changes had been made in company A, 
prior to the muster out, and orders both 
general and special for the muster out of 
certain classes of disabled soldiers, paroled 
and escaped prisoners. First Lieutenant 
Joseph H. Hurst was promoted to Captain 
April 21, and the next day First Sergeant 
James W. Alderson was made First-Lieu- 
tenant, Sergeant Edwin M. White, first 
Sergeant, and Daniel B. Vose, Sergeant. 

Charles Yiall, Jr., was transferred to the 
Veteran Reserves, May 9. Thomas E. 
Quick was discharged by special order, May 
16, and James Nevins, August 25, 1863 
Lotrip Palmer dishonorably discharged 
January 20, 1864; Charles Bierly was trans- 
ferred to the Veteran Reserves, June 26. 

In company B, Spencer B. Tupper was 
discharged by General Order May 31, Ser- 
geant Josiah A. Bosworth, June 29, and 
Corporal Martin W. Smith, July 3. 

In Company C, Thomas Lapey was dis- 
charged by General Order May 15 ; James 
Piatt, June 2 ; First Sergeant, Charles Scott, 
on Surgeon certificate for wounds, January 
20; Sergeant Frank W. Douglass transferred 
to the Veteran Reserves, February 18, and 
Corporal George W. Owen, Enos H. Harris 
and Jackson Talada, date unknown. 

In Company D there were discharged by 
General Order Llewellyn Harris and Henry 
Walker, May 15; Robert Hall, May 30; 
John Whitaker, June 9 ; Corpoaal Elisha 
W. Parks, July 8, and John McNeal, date 
unknown. Edward W. Chilson, a drafted 
man was mustered out January 2^ at the 
expriation of his time. 

In Company E, there were discharged by 
General Order, Martin B. Phelps, June 2; 
Corporal Abram Frederick, June 27 ; 
Matthew Howe, July 8; Corporal Charles 
T. Hull by Special Order, July 17, and 
Edward P. Lenox, on Surgeon's certificate, 
date unknown. 

In Company F, Sergeant Henry M. 
Stearns, on General Order, and Adelmer 
Dougherty, on Special Order, May 15 ; on 
General Order, Daniel Van Auken, June 5 ; 
William H. Nutt, June 12, and Corporal 
Christopher C. Nichols, June 25, were 

In Company G, there were discharged on 
General Order, Nathaniel Belknap, May 15 ; 
Austin Welton, May 16; John B. Walker, 
May 26 ; Enos Williams, June 5. 

In Company H, there were discharged on 
General Order, Alpheus Snow and William 
S. Vanorsdaie, May 15; Stephen Milliard 



and Theron Palmer, May 17 . First Ser- 
jeant, Parker J. Gates, June 5 ; James EL 
Bay ley, June 30 ; and on Surgeon's certifi- 
cate, but dates not given ; John Ralston and 
Sidney Warner. 

Jonathan M. Fckert, of this Company had 
died in February and was buried in the 
Division Cemetery, at Poplar Grove, Divi- 
sion C, Section D, grave 34. He enlisted 
from Great Bend, was a single man, a car- 
penter by occupation, about thirty years old, 
and a good faithful soldier. 

In Company I, George K. Wagner was 
discharged on account of wounds April 30 ; 
Corporal Edward A. Bennett, on General 
Order, May 27 ; Lafayette Shay, June 12 ; 
an expiration of term, Seth T. Vargison, on 
Genera] Order, June 26, and on Surgeon's 
certificate, but dates not given, Charles Rus- 
sell and Morris Whaling. 

In Company K, W. H. D. Green was dis- 
charged on Special Order, June 20 ; on 
General Order, William A. Gavett, May 20; 
Edward Bedford, May 27 ; Daniel Taylor, 
May 24 ; First Sergeant, Aurelius J. Adams, 
May 25 ; Sergeant John T. Brewster, June 
1. Corporal James L. Vincent, June 10; 
Alfred Hunsinger, June 14 ; Sergeant 
Andrew W. Seward, June 15 ; Corporal 
William C. Brown, June — ; Heman H. 
Williams, July 7, and on Surgeon's certifi- 
cate, date not given, Salmon H. Gates. 

There were transferred to the Veteran 
Reserves, dates not given, Corporal Henry 
E. Hunlinger, Samuel Conklin and Chris- 
topher Fraley. 

John W. Loughead, a recruit in the Com- 
pany from Litchfield, a married man, leav- 
ing wife and a daughter, died of typhoid 
fever in Finley hospital at Washington, 
May 8, at the age of thirty-one years. 

Owing to the exertions of Captain Peck, 
;he assistant commissary of musters, the rolls 
were completed on the 26th of May and 
sent to the proper officers and were returned 
approved with the order for the discharge of 
;he Regiment on Sunday, May 28. Recruits 

and those who had unexcused absences from 
the service were transferred to the Fifty- 
Seventh, Pennsylvania Regiment as follows : 

Charles Angle, Josiah N. Smith, 

John P. Cline, Arthur T. Yose. 

Delton Y. Caswell, Nelson Vanderpool, 

James C. Crawford, George B. Capwel I , 

James W. Crawford, Perry O. Brown, 
Hathael Hoover, Joseph C. Dickersoh, 

George Johnson, George Wetmore, 

Elisha S. Keeler, William Von Deimar. 

Edward Britton, Edward Fowler. 

Riley W. Potter, Clark C. Hines. 

Judson English, George H. Gamble, 

Charles Stout, John Chapnr n. 

Levi K. Chapman, Albert Chilson, 

Samuel Corley, Simeon Mosier, 

James C. Ridgeway, Melvin Rice. 

Corporal — C. H. Warner. 
Francis Chilson, Thomas Dugan. 

Simeon Middaugh, Charles Monroe, 

Loomis Vargison, H. C. Carpenter, 

Oscar A. Bailey. 

William H. Fredrick, Otis A. Jackwaj 
Richard Lyons, Mark Michael, 

Simeon Titsworth, Jacob Wiles, 

James Williams. 

Charles B. Salsbury, John C. Austin, 
David S. Goss, William E. Osman, 

Phineas Pierson, Eldridge G. Ten nan t. 

Samuel M. Bates, Robert A. Couch. 

David Radcliff, Henry Row, 

Charles E. Smith, Joseph Stalker, 

George S. Wells, Henry Wilbur. 

Ahara A. Bonnell, Hiram V. Baker, 

Henry Baker, Hampton A. Conger, 

Joseph Gary, Henry N. Kellogg, 

Merritt Lillie, Jason Lemon, 

John B. Overfield, Almon N. Pickell. 

William A. Taylor, John AViles, 

Silas Winans, Stephen S. Beeman, 

Henry S, Hart, Jacob Palmer, 

Charles D. Sterling. 

Truxton Havens, Silas E. Kinner, 

Elwood Reeser, Daniel J. Shelly, 

Joel Bennett, John H. Bishop, 

Jackson Bennett, Sylvester Conkli'i 

Zelotus G. Doty, Lemuel Howell, 

Charles H. Porter. 



George Gorton, Joseph Mitchell. 

After making the transfers to the Fifty- 
lb Regiment, the One Hundred Forty- 
First was mustered out as follows : 

Lieutenant Colonel — Joseph H. Horton. 
Adjutant — Elisha B. Brainerd. 
Quartermaster — Charles D. Cash. 

rgeon — Fredrick C. Denison. 
Assistant Surgeon — Wellington G. Beyerle. 
Sergeant Major— Lilburn J. Robbins. 
QuarU rmasti r Sergeant — Martin O. Codding. 
Commissary Sergeant — Charles J. Eastabrook. 
Hospital Stt ward — Isaae S. Clark. 
Princ cians — Michael G. Hill, Gilbert 

B Stewart. 

Those who were mustered out with the 
Regiment were the following ; 
First Lieutenant — James W. Alderson. 
J irst St rgeant— Edwin M. White. 

eants — Ethel Fuller, Isaae Yetter, Daniel 
B. V( 

>ra*s— Erastus S. Gregory, Charles Daugh- 
erty, Perry Roberts, Frank R. Stone, Joseph 
Miller, Edwin Lee. 
John 0. Frost, Moses Jeffers, 

Isaac S. Allen, Amzi F. Mann, 

Albert A. Baker, Wm. H. H. Mitchell. 

Mallory D. Bramhall, Benjamin P. Oliphant. 
George Bennett, Charles W. Potter, 

James Carr, Napoleon B. Roberts, 

James H. Camp. Joseph Rosencrans, 

Edwin Cleveland. Nelson Ruj 

Alfred Hammerly, Albert M. Stetler, 

John F. Verbryck. 
lin Joseph H. Hurst was absent on 
detached service : Sergeant Stephen Rought and 
private Moses Wheeler were absent in hospital. 
— Benjamin M. Peek. 
First Lieutenant — Henry U. Jones. 
First Sergeant — Ephraim D. Robbins. 

ants — John H. Chaffee, Robert Hatch, 
Charles E. M'Cumber. 

Corporals — James P. Coburn, Wallace M. Elli- 
ott. James Cornell, Orrin A. Soper, Andrew J. 
Horton, E. B. Easterbrooks. 
Huston Coon, James II. Goodell, 

Jesse P. Carl, Peter M. Jacobus, 

Frank Canfield, Lawrence Holbran, 

William H. Coverdale, Stephen H. Lewis, 
James s. Gray, George Ott, 

George W. Goodell. Henry Pierce, 

Ezra Rutty. 
Henry W. Lyons absent, sick. 

Captain— George W. Kilmer. 
First Sergeant— Ezra S. Little. 

ants — Selden F. Worth. Daniel Schoonover, 
George W. Fell, Dallas J. Sweet. Bishop Horton 
Clarance W. Cole, Moses C. Johnson, 

Morris M'Lain, William S. Prentice. 

Elisha Cole, Lewis Piatt. 

Charles W. Cole, Dana Robinson, 

Harvey Cummins. John Rockwell. 

Aaron J. Edsall, Horace Spencer, 

Henry Harris, Fredrick II. Sehraeder. 

Alonzo Harrington, Reuben Sehraeder, 

Abram Williams. 
William 0. Lane absent in hospital. 

Captain — Marcus E. Warner. 
First Lieutenant — Henry J. Hudson. 
First Sergeant — Senford Diamond. 

ants — Chester Stewart, Lyman Beers, 
Jerome Chaffee, Albert Brainerd. 

Corporals— David Benjamin, Byron Chamber- 
lain, Charles E. Seeley. 
Alfred F. Burchard, Darius Gowin, 
Orrin Bennett, Augustus E. Hamilton, 

Tracy J. Chubbuck, William Howie, 

Bazaliel E. Chaffee. Elijah A. Matteson, 

Harry Chilson, Robert Price. 

Abram French, Hubbel Pratt, 

Napthali Woodburn. 
Captain— Mason Long. 
First Lit utenant — John M. Jackson. 
First "•• rgi nil — James M. Beach, 
Sergeants — William S. Wright, William R. 
Campbell, Charles A. Tibbetts, Dealmou Watkins, 
Corporals — George A Rogers, Franklin Grang- 
er, Melvin Douglass, Alexander Lane, 

Warren W. Powers, - Edward M. Jackson, 
John Adamson, James R. Martin, 

Eli R. Booth, Elias H. Merrilhevr, 

Abram Crandall. Frank B. Nickerson, 

Aaron Eddy. Riley Pruyne, 

George Frederick, Edward Pric'e. 

Daniel Hiney William Smith. 

Everts Wandell in hospital. 
Levi B. Rogers on detached service. 

Captain — Nelson J. Hawley. 
First Lieutenant — Salmon S. Hagar. 
First Sergeant — George R. Resseguie. 
Sergeants— David T. Salsbury. Ellis W. Stead- 
man, John A. Brown. 

Corporals — Edwin A. Leonard, Charles A. 
Tripp, Leander Brooks, Urbane F. Hall, George 

Elisha M. Skinner, James T. Ousterhout, 

Julius II. Burr, John Ousterhout, 

Nelson D. Coou, Orrin A. Oakley, 



Albert J. Baldwin, Victor A. Potior. 

Daniel D. D.uren, George A. Wilson, 

Nicholas M. Martin, Jacob Whitmore, 
Francis Hawley sick in hospital. 

c,i, tain— William T. Lobb. 
First Sergeant — J '. T. K. Seagraves, 
Sergeants — James N, Terwilliger, Joseph E 


Corporals— Charles Williams, Franklin A. Dix, 

George E. Weaver, Hugh Brady, Levi Thayer, 

Edward Wells.Thomas Marshall, Robert C. Clark. 
David J. Richmond, William Pope, 

Frederick Salmon, M. C. Rosencrantz, 

George S. Barnes, David Shannon. 

George E. Bahccck, Gilbert B. Stewart, 

Edward F. Boswell. Ri hard Tamblyn, 

John Cur. Charles H. Williams. 

Anson R. Fuller, Francis Wells, 

Issae'ier M. Haycock, Micaijab Wise. 
Sergeant James N. Thorp absent in hospital. 

Captain — John L. Gyle. 
Firsl Lieutenants. B. Atherton. 
S< rgeants — William Magee, H, H. Daugerty. 
Corporals — Albert P. Gates, Thomas Hickock, 

Abrnm V. Alden, H. J. Millard, Lorenzo W. 

Sullivan, Horace A. Roberts. 

George W. Hewitt, Samuel Gary, 

Horace Baker, Dutch Hyna. 

Henry D. Carney, Richard M.Kishbaugh, 

George D. Carney, Barney M'Shere 

Alexander DeWitt, Matthias C. Oliver. 

Patrick Daly, William H. Peet, 

Henry Grant, Fredrick W. Slade, 

John J. Stockholm. 
Sergeant John Harris, Corporal James H. 

Weaver, Nathan Goodsell, Warren Wiles and 

Martin Wiles absent, sick. 

Captain — John G. Brown. 
Firsl Lieutenant — John S. Frink. 
Sergeants — F. Cortes Rockwell, George L 

Forbes, Lemuel Robinson. 
Corporals — John C. M'Kinney, Alfred Albee, 

George W. Smith, Eli Rolls, Edward W. W T ick- 

izer, Trowbridge L. Smith. 

John Gillett, Mervin Mericle, 

Elijah Horton, 2nd, Miles Russell, 

Daniel Lamphier, John Trumble, 

James Lunger, Cornelius Vanderpool, 

First Sergeant John N. Dunham and Sergeant 

Eugene L. Lent absent, sick, and Nelson Corma 

on detached service. 

Capta in — Charles Mercur. 
First Lieutenant — Beebe Gerould. 
Sergeant — Joseph C. Pennington. 
Corporals — James L. Howie, John S. Haikness. 

William Bedford, William H. Crawford, Albert 

Chase. Calvin C. Chamberlain. 
Elton M. Durfey, Ghas. Fredri k Hoose, 

Levi T. Adams, William Lorah, 

Henry B dford, Pet. r Miller, 

David Bubb, Joel L. Molyneaux, 

James C. Burnside, James H. Pardoe, 

John Depew, Oliver Rogers, 

Thomas A Dent, Davis S. Simmons. 

Harvey Gregory, Henry Stahl, 

Francis M. Hill, Dorson M. Sperry. 

Sergeant Wallace Scott absent in hospital. 
Two hundred and sixty men all told. 

At three o'clock on Tuesday morning of 
May 30th, the bugle sounded to 1 pack up" 
and in an hour the men were on their way 
to Washington, where, after getting break- 
fast at the " Soldiers' Ketreat," they took 
the cars for Harrisburg at ten • 'clock, reach- 
ing the city at daylight the next morning, 
and again camped at Camp Curt in. Camp 
and garrison equipage, with ordinance 
stores, were turned over to the State author- 
ities, and on Saturday, Juue 3d, the men re- 
ceived their pay, and the next morning, 
bidding each other adieu, the several com- 
panies started for their respective homes 
and the remnants of this grand old Regi- 
ment resumed their places in the commu- 
nities from which they came, glad to be able 
to lay aside with honor the trappings of war 
for the arts of peace, and join their fellow- 
countrymen in their efforts to make the 
country they had defended with their lives 
prosperous and beautiful, a heritage for their 
children and children*' children for a thous- 
and generations. 

Under date of June 8th, the Bradford Re- 
porter said : — " The One Hundred Forty- 
First Regiment was mustered out of service 
last week at Harrisburg. On Sunday last 
about one hundred men of the Regiment ar- 
rived at this place on their way to their 
homes. The boys came home browned by 
exposure, and hardened by the toils they 
have undergone. It is now nearly three 
years since this Regiment left this county 
for Camp Curtio, nearly one thousand strong, 
composed of the very best blood and muscle 
of the county. They mustered, when dis- 



charged, but a few men over two hundred. 
< )f the officers first commissioned but few re- 
main. The brave General Madill,* brevet- 
ed Brigadier, is at home suffering from the 
effects of a severe wound ; the lamented 
Watkins and Spaulding sleep in soldiers' 
graves, dying for their country. Of the line 
officers and privates many a gallant soul has 
been yielded up on the field of battle. 

" The history of the One Hundred Forty- 
First Kegiment is a glorious one. It has 
suffered on many a hard-fought battlefield, 
and its tattered colors have been riven in 
many a desperate conflict. At Chancellors- 
ville, at Gettysburg, at the Wilderness, and 
in the recent battles before Richmond, it has 
been conspicuous for gallantry and for its 
heavy losses. 

"The returning members deserve to be 
honored and remembered for their bravery 
and the gallantry with which they have up- 
held the cause of their country. We be- 
speak for them the respect and attention of 
our people. Their proudest boast in after 
time will be, that they followed the flag of 
the One Hundred Forty-First Regiment 
through the battles of the Great Rebellion." 

On the Fourth of July, 1866. with much 
pomp and display, the military authorities 
transferred the flags of the Pennsylvania 
Regiments to the keeping of the State, and 
they are now deposited in the flag-room of 
the State Capitol. Conspicuous among them 
were the colors of our gallant Regiment, and 

*He had been breveted Major-General April 

there they will remain, the mute but truth- 
ful witnesses of the terrible strife through 
which they were borne, when the hands 
that carried them have yielded their vigor 
and the hearts then so full of courage have 
ceased to beat. 

The following table exhibits the losses of 
the Regiment in the several battles in which 
it was engaged— the figures after the date of 
the battle refer to the page in the history : 



Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, '62. 37 
Chancellorsville, May l-3,'63 94 

Gettysburg, July 2. '63 137 

Auburn, Oct. 17, '63 151 

Kelley's Ford, Nov. 7. '63... 153 
Morris Farm, Mine Run 

Nov. 27-29 .' 160 

Wilderness, May 5-6, '64 187 

Laurel Hill, May 11, '64 191 

Soottsylvania C.H., May 12. 199 
Fredericksburg R'd, May 19 202 

North Anna, May 23 205 

Totopotonioy, May 31 208 

Cold Harbor, June 3 209 

Petersburg, June 16-18 217 

Deep Bottom, Aug. 13 226 

Poplar Spring C'h, Oct. 2... 229 
Boydton Plank road, Oct. 27 229 
On the line, Aug. 20, Nov. 1 
Dabnev's Mill, Feb. 5-7, '65. 235 

Fort Fisher. March 25 239 

Sailors Creek, April 6 241 

Farmville, April 7 242 






S 1 -* 

u c 



O - 
























































Allowing for those wounded in more than 
one engagement, more than three-fifths of 
the men in the Regiment suffered from the 
casualties of battle. 


Muster Roll. 

The following abbreviations are used : abs. for absent; eaptd , captured ; co., company; cor., cor- 
poral ; des., deserted; dis.,, discharged ; fr.,from; G. O., General Order ; lit., Lieutenant ; mus., mus- 
tered ; pr., promoted; rec , received ; ret. returned ; sgt., serge mt; S. O., Special Order ; tr., trans- 
ferred; V. R. C, Veteran Reserve Corps; wd., wounded ; wds., wounds. 

Figures not dates refer to pages of the History. 


Mustered in August 29, 1862. except otherwise noted. 
Mustered out May 28, 1865, except otherwise noted. 



LtCol. . 







As Sur.. 





Sr Maj ... 

(.1 M Sgt.. 

Com Sgt 
fins Stew'd 
PI Muc . 

Henry J. Madill— 7 ... 

Guy H Watkins— 2 
Casper W Tyler — 6.. 

Joseph H Horton — 2 
Israel P Spalding— 4 

Daniel W Searle 

Klisha B Brainerd... 

Robert N Torrey 

Charles D Cash 

William Church 

Fred'k CDenison.... 

Ezra P Allen— 7 

John W Thompson.. 

Well n G Beyerle 

David Craft 

Andrew Barr 

Joseph G Fell 

Henry U Jones 

Lilburn J Robbins... 
Martin O Codding. 

Charles M Mory 

C J Eastabrook 

Isaac S Clark 

Michael G Hill 

Gilbert B Stewart.... 

Bv Brig Gen, Dec 2, '64. Br Maj Gen, Mar 13. '65. Wd at Suth- 
erland's Station, Ap 2. '65; dis June 11, '69—233. 

Wd and cap at Chancellorsville — 82; killed at Petersburg — 216. 

Pro fr Cap' Co H to Maj June 22, '64 ; to Lt Col July 4 ; dis on 
on s c March 1 , '65. 

Pro fr Capt Co A to Maj ; to Lt C'o\ March 18 ; mus out with regt. 

Died July 28 of wds rec'd at Gettysburg— 128. 

Dis June 2, '64, for wds rec'd at Gettysburg— 135. 

Pro fr 1st Lt of Co F July 1, '64 ; mus out with Regt. 

Dis on s c Oct 24, '64. 

Pro fr Q M sergt Jan 24, '65 , mus out with Regt. 

Dis by S O Sep 22, '64-234. 

Mus asst sur March 4, '63, ; pro surg Dec 13, '64— 234 ; mus out 
with regt. 

Pro to sur 83d regt P V. Dec 13, '62. 

Mus Sep 12, '62; died July 4, '63—147. 

Mus Dec. 27, '64; mus out with regt. 

Dissc Feb 11, '63—54. 

Not mus: died April 11. '64—169. 

Died July 17 of wds reed at Gettysburg — 130. 

Pro fr sgt Co B Aug 31, '63, to let Lt Co B, Dec 5, '63. 

Pro fr priv Co B, Jan 25, '65 , mus out with regt. 

Pro fr 1st sgt Co B to sgt maj, Dec 17. '63 ; to Q M sgt, Jan 
25, '65; com 2d Lt of Co C, Apr 19, '65, not mus; mus out 
with regt 

Pro fr priv Co D, Oct 4, '62; dis on surg cert, Dec 28, '62. 

Pro fr sgt Co D, Dec 31, '62: mus out with regt. 

Mus out with Regt. 

Pro fr priv Co H, Dec 31, '64 ; mus out with regt. 

Pro fr muc Co G, Dec 31, '64 ; mus out with rent. 




The company was mustered August 18, 1*02 ; the commissioned officers August 21, 1 s«iii. Mus- 
tered out May 28, 1865. 




1st Lt.. 

2nd Lt.. 


1st Sgt.. 
































... do 







... do 








George W Jackson- 
Joseph 11 Horton... 

Joseph II Hurst 

.lames W Alderson. 

William T Horton 

James Van Ankcn. 

Austin 1) Jeffers 

Franklin Kinne 

Edwin M White 

Thomas It Miles 

Nathaniel P Moody. 
Stephen Rought 

Ethel Fuller. 
Isaac Yetter. 

Daniel B Vose. 
Jackson C Lee. 

John Allen 

Martin 15 Ryder 

Erastus S Gregory 

Noble .1 Gaylord 

George H Birney 

Isaac I. Johnson 

Aaron K Bender 

George li Capwell 

Russell R Carrington.. .. 

William Mace 

Asa J Kinne 

Edwin Lee 

Joseph Miller 

Frank R Stone 

Perry Roberts 

Charles Daugherty 

John O Frost 

Edward A Lord 

Isaac S Allen 

Nathan N Allen 

Stephen Allen 

Albert A Baker 

Jesse Baker 

George Bennett 

George II Babcock 

William Blocher 

J Hartwell Brewster.... 

Jonathan I) Brown 

Mallory 1) Bramhall .... 
Daniel Baumgartner.... 

Perry () Brown 

.lames ( !arr 

James II Camp 

Edwin Cleveland 

Philip Cronk 

Orrin Coleman 

John I) < torbiu. 

Pel 1 y Donley 

Jos ( ' Dickenson 

John Dereamer 

Nicholas Everett 

Marvin Ely 

Jonas Fuller 

John II Ford 

John P Grant 


Resigned Oct 31, '62—27. 

Wd at Spottsvlvania (' II — 199; pro from 1st Lt, Dec 18, '62; to 

Lt Col, March 18, '65. 
Profr sgt to 1st Lt, Feb 16, '63 ; to Capt, Apr 21, '65; wd at 

Chancellorsville — 92; at Spottsylvaniar-199; absent on de- 
tached service at musout. 
Pro from cor to sgt, Feb 20, '63; to 1st sgt, Nov 1, '1,3; to 1st Lt 

Apr 22, '65; wd at Petersburg — 219; nius out with co. 
Dison so, Dec 22, '62-41. 

Pr IV sgt, Feb 16, '63; killed at Morris Farm— 159. 
Dis on s C, Jan 30, '63. 
Pro from priv ; killed at Auburn — 150. 
Pro fr cor to sgt, Feb 20, '63; to 1st sgt, Apr 22, '65; wd at 

Boydton plk road— 231 ; nius out with co. 
Died Sept 5, '03-13. 
Dis on s c, Jan 30, '63. 
Pr to Sgt, Nov 18, '62; wd and captd at Chancellorsville — 92; at 

Spottsvlvania — 199 ; ab in hospital at mus out. 
Pr to sgt. Nov I, '63; wd at Gettysburg— 135 ; at Wilderness — 

186 ; mus out with co. 
Pr to cor, Nov 1, '63; to sgt, Sep 1, '64; wd at Gettysburg; 

mus out with co. 
Pr to cor, Nov 1 '63; to sgt, Ap 23, '65; mus out with eo. 
Pr from cor to sgt, '62 : wd at Chancellorsville— 67 ; trans V 

R C ; dis at ex of term, Aug 21, '65. 
Pr from private ; killed on Fredericksburg road— 202. 
Dison sc, Dec 30, '62. 
Mus out with co 

Wd at Poolesville— 18; dis on s c, Feb 27, '63. 
Wd at Chancellorsville— 92 ; dis on s c, June 18, '64. 
Died July 17, '63—147. 
Prtocor; killed in Wilderness — 184. 
Pr to cor; tr to 57 reg P V, date unknown. 
Pro to eor ; wd'at Gettysburg— 135 ; dis on s c, June 18, '64. 
Pr to cor ; wd at Chancellorsville— 9 2; dis on s c, Dec 18, '64. 
Pr to cor; wd at ; dis on s e, Jan .', '65. 

Pr to cor. Sep 1, '64 ; wd at Wilderness — 106; mus out with eo. 
Pr to cor, Sep 1, '64 ; wd at Gettysburg— 134; mus out with co. 
Pr to cor, Sep 1, '64 ; wd at Gettysburg— 134 ; musout with co. 
Pro to eor, Sep 1, '64 ; mus out with co. 
Pr to eor. Mar 4 '64 ; nius out with co. 
Wd and captd at Chancellorsville— 92 ; mus out with co. 
Captd at Chancellorsville— 92; dis G O, May 27, '65. 
Wd at Chancellorsville— 92 ; mus out with eo. 
Dis SO, Aug 31, '63. 
Dis on s C, Fel> 27, '63. 

Wd at Wilderness — ISO ; mus out with CO. 
Trans to 4th N Y Battery, date unknown. 
Mus out with co. 
Died Dec 15, '02—41. 
Died Oct 25, '62-21. 
Died Jan 23, '63-55. 

Wd at Chancellorsville— 92 ; dis Jan 13, '64. 
Mus out with co. 

Wd at Gettysburg ; died July 12, '63—130. 
Tr to 57 reg P V, date unknown. 
Mus out with co. 
Mus out with co. 
Wd at Chancellorsville— 92 ; 
Dis S 0, Ap 22, '63. 
Wd at Chancellorsville— 92 ; 

Wd at Chancellorsville— 92 ; 

Dis on s c. Jan 30, '63. 

Wd at Chancellorsville— 92; tr to 57 reg P V, date unknown. 

Killed at Chancellorsville— 199. 

Dis by SO, Auk 27. '63. 

Killed at Chancellorsvi lie 85. 

Died at Leesfourg, Nov 2, '62—21. 

Died at Fredericksburg, May '64—184. 

Killed at Chancellorsville— 67. 

mus out with co. 

trans V R C, Nov 15, '63. 
trans V R C, Dec 7, '63. 






Captd at Chancellorsville— 92 ; mug out with 00. 




Wd at Wilderness— 186 ; tr to 57 reg P V 

Wd at Gettysburg— 1*5 ; dis on s c, Feb 27, '64. 

I lis on S O, Dec 29, '64. 

do .... 



Wd at Spottsylvania — 199 ; dis on s c, Jan 26, '65. 
Wd at Gettysburg— 135 ; tr to V R C, June 1, '64. 
Died Mav 10 '63— 102. 






Wm H H Mitchell 


Dis on s c, Dec 30, '62. 


Tr to V R C Dec, '63. 


Wd at Chancellorsville — 92 ; died at Fredericksburg, May 13, 

Wd Wilderness -179 ; dis Sept 15, '64. 
Wd at Fredericksburg- 37 ; dis S O, Aug 25, '63. 


Jos H McCafferty 





Dishonorably dis, Jan 20, '61. 
Dis by G O, May 16, '65. 



do .... 

Wd at Petersburg — 219 ; mus out with co. 


. do 

do ... 

Wd at Gettysburg — 134 ; in Wilderness— 186 ; mus out with co. 
Dis on s c, A ug 22, '63. 




Dis on s c, Aug 31, '63. 

Wd Wilderness— 179 ; tr to V R C, May 9, '65; dis G O, June 

27, '65. 
Wd and captd in Wilderness— 186 ; abs in hospital at mus out. 

. ... 




George V Wells 

Wd Chancellorsville— 92 ; tr to V R C, March 12, '64 ; dis on 


G O, June 30, '65. 
Dis on s c, Feb 18. '63. 


Wd Chancellorsville— 92 ; tr to V R C, March 12, '64. 


Killed at Gettysburg— 130. 

Recruits to Company A. 

Private Charles Angle 

Charles Bierly 

John P Cline .. .. 
Delton Y Casswell.. 
James C Crawford... 
James W Crawford.. 

Hethael Hoover 

Elisha S Keeler 

Edwin Krouse 

John Lee 

Albert W Mills 

Josiah N Smith 

Arthur T Vose 

Nelson Vandfrpool. 
Wm Von Deiman.... 
George Wetmore 

Wd at Totopotomoy— 208 ; tr to 57 reg P V ; dis by G O, June 

9, '65. 
Mus Sen 25, '63 : tr to V R C, Jan 26, '65 
Tr to 57 reg P V. 

Wd and captd at Spottsylvania— 199 ; tr to 57 reg P V. 
Wd and captd at Spottsylvania — 199 ; tr to 57 reg P V. 
Wd and captd at Spottsylvania — 199 ; tr to 57 reg P V. 
Tr to 57 reg P V. 

Mus Dec 5, '63 ; wd at Spottsylvania— 199 : tr to 57 reg P V. 
Captd in Wilderness; died in Andersonville, June 23, '64— 185. 
Wd in Wilderness— 186 ; dis Sep 30, '64. 
Died Feb 5, '61—170. 
Tr to 57 reg P V. 

Wd Wilderness— 179 ; tr to 57 reg P V. 
Tr to 57 reg P V. 

Mus June 7, '64 ; tr to 113 reg P V. 
Tr to 57 reg P V. 



( 'oMIW.NY B. 
Mustered into U. S. Service, August 22, L862. Mustered out U. S. Service, May 28, 1865. 



1st Lt. 

1st Sergt. 

Sergt . 

















William T Davies Dis s e. May 23, '63—112 


Benjamin M Peck. 

Henry Keeler... 
Henry U Jones. 

Joseph S Lock wood. 
Martin O Codding 

Ephraim D Robbins. 

William Jones 

Stillman J Legg.... 
Josiah A Bos worth. 

Robert Sherman. 
Hiram L Culver.. 
Alvin Whitaker.. 
Nelson C Dyer.... 

John H Chaffee 

Robert Hatch 

Charles E MeCumber- 
Stephen B Canfleld 

Andrews A St John. 

Amasa Wood 

James H Goodell 

John Keeney 

Homer H Stevens — 
Charles H Crandall... 

George D Crandall... 

Harvey W Jones 

James P Coburn 

George H Granger... 

Almerine G Arnold- 

Martin W Smith. 

Matthew V Greening- 
Wallace M Elliott 

James C Cornell 

Orrin A Soper 

Andrew J Horton. 

Emerson B Eastabrook., 

Henry W Brown 

Frank J Vanderpool 

Seneca C Arnold 

Addison C Arnold 

George W Angle 

Smith I) Barnum 

Traver Bos worth. 
William H Hunt . 
Oscar W Bo wen... 

Pr from 1st sgt to 2d Lt, Aug 29, '62 ; to Capt, May 23, '63 ; tr to 
division staff, Jan 21, '65; wd at Chancellorsville — 92; mus 
out with co. 

Pro from 2d Lt, Aug -29, '62 ; dis on s c, Feb 9, '63—55. 

Pro from private to sgt maj, Au? 31, '63 ; to 1st Lt of co, Dec 5, 
'63 ; wd at Gettysburg and at Petersburg — 219 ; mus out 
wit co. 

Died April 1, '63—55. 

Pr from sgt to 1st sgt, Feb 9, '63 ; to sgt maj, Dec 28, '63; wd at 
Gettysburg— 219 ; mus out with co. 

Pr from sgt to 1st sgt, Dec 5, '63; captd at Spottsyivania ; mus 
out with co. 

Wd at Fredericksburg ; tr to V R C, Dec 28, '63. 

Dis on s c, Dec 20, '62. 

Pr from cor, Dec 5, '63 ; wd at Gettysburg ; dis on G O, June 
29, '65 

Pr to cor, May 1, '63 ; to sgt, Jan 5, '64 ; wd at Chancellorsville, 
92 ; tr to V R C, Feb 15, '64 ; dis on G O. June 28, '65. 

Pr to cor, Dec 5, '63 ; to sgt, Ap 1, '64; killed in Wilderness — 

Pr to cor, Dec 5, '63; to sgt. Apr 1, '64; wd at Gettysburg; 
killed a Spottsylvania — 197. 

Pr to cor, Dec 5, '6? ; to sgt. May 12, '64 ; wd at Chancellors- 
ville— 92 ; wd at the Wilderness ; tr to V R C, Jan 20, '65 ; 
dis by G O, June 28, '65. 

Pr to cor, Dec 5, '63; to sgt, Jan 1, '65 ; wd and captd tit Chan- 
cellorsville — 92; at Petersburg — 214; mus out with co. 

Pr to cor, Dec 5, '63; to sgt, Jan 21, '65 ; wd at Chancellors- 
ville — 92; mus out with co. 

Pr to cor, Feb 10, '64; to sgt, Jan 21, '65 ; wd at Wilderness ; 
mus ou' with co. 

Pr to cor, Dec 6, '63; to sgt, June 1, '64 ; wd at Gettysburg ; wd 
at Spottsylvania ; dis on s c, Dec 21 , '64. 

dis on s c, March 14, '63. 

Killed at Gettysburg — 131. 

Mus out with co. 

Wd at Chancellorsville— 92; tr to V R C, Sep 11. '63; dis by G 
O, July 14, '65. 

Dis on s c, date unknown. 

Pr to 1st Lt 1st USC T, Jan 8, '64 ; to Capt, Oct 23, '65 ; mus 
out June 16, '66. 

Dis by S O. Dec 23, '63 : pr to Capt in 10th reg La C T. 

Pro to cor; wd at Gettysburg; pr to Lt in 1 0th reg La C T. 

Mus out with co. 

Pr to cor, Dec 5, '63 ; wd at Chancellorsville— 92 ; tr to V R C 
Mar 15, '64 ; dis by G O, June 29, '65. 

Pr to cor ; wd at Petersburg ; tr to V R C, Mar 11, '65 ; dis by 
G O, June 28. '65. 

Pr to cor, Feb 1, '64 ; wd at Gettysburg, wd at Wilderness— 
179 ; dis bv G O, July 3, '65. 

Pr to cor, Mav 12, '64 ; tr to V R C ; wd at Gettysburg, at Wil- 
derness— 179 ; dis by G O, June 26, '65. 

Pr to cor. May 12, '64 ; wd at Gettysburg, at Wilderness ; mus 
out with co 

Pr to cor, May 12, '64 ; captd at Chancellorsville ; mus out with 

Pr to cor, July 1, '64 ; wd at Wilderness ; mus out with co. 

Pr to cor, Jan 1, '65; captd at Chancellorsville: wd at Wilder- 
ness; mus out with c . 

Pr to cor, Jan 21, '65 ; mus out with co 

Dis on sc, Feb 21, '63. 

Dis on s c, Jan 8, 'fit 

Dis on s c, Jan 9, '63. 

Dis on s c, Dee 4. '62. 

Died May 16, '63-102. 

Wd at Gettysburg; pr to Capt 23 reg XT S C T, March 21, '64 ; 
mus out Nov 30,' '65. 

Dis on s c, Feb 16, '63. 

Wd at Chancellorsville- 92 ; dis on s e, Sep 15, '63. 

Dis on s c, Dec 2, '62. 



1; \\k. 




Melville Black 

Tr to V RC, July 1, '63. 

Died of vvds rec at Gettysburg — 131. 

Died of wds rec at Chancellorsville— •86. 

Des ; ret; tr 57 reg P V, date unknown. 

Mus out with co. 

Mus out with co. 

Mus out with co. 

Mns out with co. 

Dis on s c, date unknown 

Dis Aug 10, '64, for wds rec at Gettysburg. 

ProQ M sgt, Aug 29, '62. 

i> to V R C, Feb 13, '64; dis by G O, June *9. '65. 

Tr to V R O, Sep 1, '63 ; dis by G O, June 28, '65. 

Killed at Chancellorsville— 86 

Killed at Gettysburg— 131. 

Dis on s c, Jan 13, '63. 

Dis on s c, Dec 1, '62. 

Died fr wds at Gettysburg — 131. 

Des ; ret ; tr 57 reg P V, date unknown. 

Wd at Gettysburg ; mus out with CO. 

Wd at Chancellorsville — 92; mus out with co. 

Dis on s c, Nov Y0, '62. 

Died July 19 r'r wds rec at Gettysburg — 131. 

Dis on s c, Dec 27, '62. 

Wd at Gettysburg; dis Dec 10, '64. 

Dis on s c, Jan 21, '63. 

Wd at Gettysburg; tr V R C, Jan 15, '61. 

Killed at Chancellorsville— 86. 

Des; ret; tr to 57 reg P V, date unknown. 

Dis on s c, Dec 4, '62, 

Killed at Chancellorsville— 86. 

Mus out with co. 

Absent sick at mus out. 

Wd at Gettysburg ; tr to V R C, Nov 15, '63. 

Dis on s c, Dec '62. 

Dis on s c. Dec '62. 

Captd at Chancellorsville; mus out with co. 

Des ; tr to 57 reg P V, date unknown. 

Mus out with co. 

Dis on s c, Jan 11, '63. 

Killed at Gettysburg — 131. 

Mus out with co. 

Pr to sgt maj, Jan 25, '65. 

Died at Leesburg— 22. 

Dis on s c, Nov 18, '62 ; died Nov 29, '62. 

Dis on s c, Dec 30, '62. 

Dis on s c, Ap 24, '63. 

Dis on s c, Jan 16. '64 

Wd at Gettysburg; tr to V R C, June 15. '64. 

Wd at Gettysburg ; tr to V R C, June 15, '64 : dis by < i 

29, '65. 
Killed at Chancellorsville— 86. 

Wd at Poplar Spriwg Church ; dis by G O, May 31, '65. 
Dis on s c, Dec 22, '62. 

Wd at Chancellorsville— 92 ; tr to V R C, Sep 30, '63. 
Died July of wds rec at Gettysburg — 131. 


do .... 


Jesse P Carl 

do .... 




do .... 

do ... 


Prank BCary 

William HL Clark 


Wright Dunham 



John S Folk 


. rlo 






.. do 





John H KLingsbery 

. do 




CharJes W McCormick 


.. do 

... .do 

Riley W Potter 

.. .do 





Ransford Sherman 







... Ho 

EthielC Wood 

Recruits to Company B. 

Private (Lawrence Holoran IMus Aug 27, '64, a subs for Charles W Bixby ; mus out with co. 

. .. do |Peter M Jacobus |Mus See 3, '64 ; mus out with co. 


Company mustered in Aug. 19, 1862. Officers mustered in Aug 25, 1862 Co mustered out May28, 1865. 


Captain Ybram J Swart Killed at Chance lorsville-83. William .1 Cole 1'r fr 1st Lt, Dec 5, '63 ; wd at Chancellorsvilli — 92; dis on s c, 

June 27, '64—121. 

do George W Kilmer Fr fr 1st sgl to 1st Lt. Dee 5, '63; to Capt Aug 8, '64 ; wd in 

Wilderness; wd and captd at Boydton road— 230; m us out 
with co. 

2d Lt. M riy G Goff Dis on s e, Nov 16, '62—28 

1st Sgt Ezra S Little Pr to cor, Nov 13, '62; to 1st set, Jan 26, '64 ; wdat Chancellors- 

ville, iit Spottsylvania — 199; mus out with co. Charles Scott Pr to cor, Nov 13, '62 : to sgt, Sept, '63; to 1st sgt., June 30, '64 ; 

com 2d Lt but not mus; wd at Gettysburg and at Peters- 
burg — 219; dis on S c, Jan 20, '65. 

Sergeant.... Warren W Goff Wd at Gettysburg; tr to V R ( '. Oct, '64. 

... do George C Beardsley Died May K of wis rec at Chancellorsville— 83. Bishop Hortori Wd at Spottsylvania— 199 ; mus out with Co. *. R Coolbaugh 'Killed at Gettysburg- 131. Seldeu F Worth p r to cor, June 30, '64; to sgt, Nov I, '64 ; wounded at Chancel- 
lorsville; mus out with co. rohn Chapman Pr fr cor to sgt, Nov 13, '62; des; tr to 57 reg P V, date un- 
known. Frank VV Douglass Pr fr priv to sgt, Jan \!7i. '64; wd at Wilderness; tr to V R C, 

Feb 18, '65; dis on s c, July 14, '65. Avery Eastabrook Pr to cor, Jan 26, '64 ; to sgt, Aug 1, til; killed at Boydton 

road— '.'31. Daniel Schoonover Pr fr cor to sgt, March I, '65 ; wdat Chancellorsville; mus out 

with co, George W Fell Pr to cor, .Tune SO, '64 ; to sgt, March I, '65 ; mus rvut with co. Dallas J Sweet Pr to Cor. June 30 '64; to sgt, March 20. '65; mus out with eo 

Corporal.... < reorge W Owen Dis on s c, date unknown. 

do Charles S Brown Killed at Chaneelorsvill. Hiram Cole Dis on s c, Dec 6, '62. 

do Moses M Coolbaush Dis on s c, Jan 13, '63. John Roekweil WdTat Spottsylvania — 199 ; mus out with co. 

do Reuben J Hakes Dis on gfc, March 27. '63. 

do Nicholas Wauk Pr to eor, Feb 1. '63; killed at Gettysburg— 131. 

do John R Lancaster p r to cor.Ap is, '63; killed at Chancellorsville— 86. 

Muse Clarence W Cole Mus out with eo. 

do Morris McLane Mus out with eo. 

Private Lock wood H Adams Dj s on s c, Jan 1. '63. 

iio Charles Aela Wdat Gettysburg; died of wds re* 'kt Spottsylvania— 197. 

do Bethuel W Bradley Dis on s c, Jan 18, '63. 

do Christopher Barnes Died Fell 3. '03—55. 

do Elias H Bedford Missing Nov 17. '62; 

do Klisha Cole Mus out with eo 

. . ..(In Charles W Cole Wd fit Chatieellovsville. at Gettysburg ; mus out with eo. 

... do Frederick F Cole Wdat Petersburg— 220 ; tr to V R C. Jan 18, '65; dis by G O, 

Au- 19, •c.5. 

do Harvey Cummin's Mus out with <" 

do Almiran B Cole Dis on s c, Feb is, 53, 

do George E^Cawell Wd at Chancellorsville ; trtoYKC. Ian Hi. V.I. 

do David H Carpenter Wd at Chancellorsville: tr to V R C; Sep-80 'feS ; dis by G O, 

June 24, '('>,">. James Corby Wd at Chancellorsville: tr to V R C, Sep 1. 

do Levi R Chapman 1 >es ; ret : tr to r>7 reg P V. date unknown. Josiah Cogansparger Killed at Gettysburg-* ! 31. Albert Corby Died May 25. %3— 102. 

do Albert Chilson Tr to 57 reg 1' V, date unknown. *Samuel Corley Tr to V RC date unknown ; dis by G O, July 13. '65. Nathaniel W Dod^e .... Tr to t N Y battery, April. '63. Ceorge E Delong Died Jan 18, ! 63. 

.do Delanson Fenner Wd at Chancellorsville ; tr to V R C. July 16, '63. 

. Fr sgl maj, Aug 26, '62 
... Wd at Deep Bottom ; tr to V R C, Sep 16, '64; dis by (i O.June 

29, '65. 
... Dis on s c. Feb 9, '63. 
... Tr to 57 reg P V. 
.. Mus out with eo. 

.do Joseph G Fell. John Farrell. Clarence G Goff Oeorge H Gamble.... Henry C Harris Monzo Harriii'rton Mus out with eo. 

Phis name, given by Bates, is not on the muster-in roll of the company, nor the muster of April 
30, '63. 







Nathaniel Hendershot ... 
Enos H Harris 

Dis on s e. Dee 22, '62. 

Dis on s c, date unknown. 

Wd at Wilderness, and at Spottsylvania ; nms out with CO. 

Trto V TiC, Jan 16, 'P4. 

Killed at the Wilderness— 185. 

Died Dec 25 '63— 171. 

Marshall Jennings 

George A Jennings 

Wd at Gettysburg; ahs in hospital at urns out. 
Dis by G O, May 15, '65. 

Dis on s c. Ap 2, '63. 






Jacob M'Neel 

Martin M'Kee 

Charles E Nichols 

William S Prentice ....... 

Dis on s c. Dec 18, '62 

Wd and eaptd at Ohancellorsville ; died at Andersonville, July 

12. '64—197. 
Died Feb 12, '63. 
Died Oct 10. '62—15. 

Wd at Chaneellorsville ; dis by G (). June 2, '65. 
Mus out with cq. 







Cantd at Spottsylvania— 197 ; died at Richmond. May 26, '64. 

Mus out with co. 

Wd at Chaneellorsville : dis on s c, Sep 4, '63. 


Edward J Rinebold 




Died Feb 27 '64 — '71 


... do 



Mus out with co. 




Edward H Stine 

William L Stales... 


Died Aug 11 of wds recat Gettysburg — 1:>1. 
Miss, March 25. '65. 



Michael Thompson 

Kenj F Wanck 

Elerv C Walker 





Wd at Gettysburg ; dis on s o, Dec is. '64. 

Wd at Chaneellorsville : tr to V R 0, March 16, '04. 


Private Aaron J Edsall 

do Judson English 

do James C Ridgeway-... 

■ ■■• do Jeremiah Raymond 

do Charles Stout 

Recruits to Company C. 

Mus Aug 15, '64 ; mus out with co. 

Mus Feb 11. '65 ; tr to 57 reg P V. 

Mus Feb 1 , '65 ; tr to 57 reg P V. 

Mus not given ; tr to VKC; dis Aug 21, '65. 

Mus March 31, '65; tr to 57 reg P V. 



Company I). 

Mustered in Aug. 22, 1863. Mustered out May 28, 1865. 

( laptain. 



1st Lt.. 

2nd Lt.. 
Lst Set.. 


Isaac A Park 

Thomas Ryon 

Marcus E Warner. 

Henry .1 Hudson.. 


Morgan Lewis 

Sanford Diamond. 

Sergeant— . George Wilson 

do Charles .' Eastabrook. 

do David C Palmer 

do Daniel Shult/. 

<1<> William Hewitt 

do Chester Stewart 

<lo Lyman Beers 

<U> Jerome Chaffee 

do Albert Brainerd 

Corporal... Simeon (i Rockwell.. 

do William Howe 

do Charles B limit 


do . .. 


( lharles E Seeley. 

Robert Nichols 

Elijah A Mattison. 
I lavid Benjamin.... 
Rodney Brewer 

Byron < Jhamberlain. 

do.. .. 

do.. .. 


do.. .. 

do. .. 

Mason 1. Ellsworth.. . 

Morton Kerry 

Elisha W Parks 

Samuel l'etlev 

Wilson S Hill 

William R I, ithrop... 

Private In.'l A 11 is 

do .A lire. 1 F Burchard 

do k)rrin Bennett 

do Franklin Babcock .... 

<lo Henry BufHngton 

do \mos Bennett 

do Darius Bullock Samuel Buttles 

inns out with CO. 
to V R C; ills on 

do Sylvenus Benjamin I ) miel Barton 

do Hiram Bornes 

do Amos E 1> irber 

do Hiram Bennett 

do Tracy .' CHubbuck 

do Br.izaliel E Chaffee 

do Harry Chilson [saac S Clark Charles K Cantielii 

do M Miller Carr Charles a Chaffee 

ilo Benjamin Crandall Hiram c Carpenter William C Davis lames Davis 

... .do Frederick D'Victor laeoh.l Ely \hram French 

.. .do Darius Gowin Augustus E Hamilton Robert Hall 

.do Llewellyn Harris William" H Hartley 

Dis by s O, Ap22, '63—55. 

Pr IV 1st Lt. Dec 23, '63; wdat Wilderness; dis 1>\ SO. Ang6,'64. 

Prfrlstsgt to 1st Lt, Dec 5, '63"; to Capt Dec 20, '64 ; mus out 
with co. 

Pr IV sgt to 1st sgt, Dee 5, '63 ; to 1st Lt, Feb 1 I. '65 ; wd at Chan- 
cellorsville ; mus out with co 

Dis by s O, Feb L0, '63 55. 

Pr fr priv to s^t. Sep I, '63 ; to lst sgt, March 1, '65 ; \v<l at Au- 
burn and at Wilderness ; mus out with CO. 

Died May lit of wds neat Chancellorsville— S7. 

Pro commissary sgt, Dec 31, '62. 

Killed at Gettysburg— 131. 

Pr IV priv. Dee ".. '63; killed in the Wilderness -185. 

Pr IV cor, .inn 1, '63; tr V R c, Jan 21. '65. 

Pr to eoi , ()et r>, '(> ' ; to sgt, Dec 5, '63 ; mus o. it with co. 

Pr to cor, Dee .">, '63; to s.nt. May 6, 'lit ; mus out with eo. 

Prtocor, Dec5,'63; to sgt. May 1, '63; wd at Boydton plank 

road ; inns out with CO. 
Pr to cor. May 6, 'til ; to sgt, May 1, '65; mus out with co. 
I )is on s c, < >ct 6, '62. 
Mus out with co. 
Wd at Gettysburg; tr to V R C, Jan 15, '64; dis by G O, June 

29, T>-">. 
Pris fr May 3 to Oct 20, '63, and fr Mav !0, '64, to May 19, '65; 

wd at Morris Farm ; mus out with co. 
Di- on s e, Jan 9, 63. 
Mus out with co 

Wd at Petersburg and at Deep Bottom— 220; 
Prtocor, Dec 5, '63; wd at Spottsylvania ; t 

s «■, Maj 15, '65. 
Pr to cor. Jan I, '65; wd at Gettysburg and Petersburg; mus 

out witli ee 
Pr to cor, .'an 7, '63; tr to V R c, March 16, '64. 
Pr to cor, Jan 7. '63 ; died July 10 of wds rec al < tettysburg. 
Pr to cor, Jan 7, '63 ; captd at Gettysburg ; dis on G O, July 8, ,'65. 
Pr to cor, Feb 10, '63; killed at Chancellorsville 
Captd al Spottsylvania ; dud at Andersonville, Oct, •">. '64—198, 
Die.l April :. - 
Died Feb ; i '65. 
Mus out with CO. 
Mils out with CO. 
I lis on s e, I lee 6, '62 
Dis on I e. Dee 10, '62. 
Dis on s e. Jail 27. '63. 

w d ai Morris Farm ; dis on s e. April 20, '64, 
Wd at Geitvsburg; tr to V R C, Feb 15, '64 ; dis exp of term 

An- 21. '65. 
Wd ai Gettysburg; tr to V R C, Ap 28, '64—171. 
Tr to V R C, Apr 28, '64 : dis by G <>. June 26, '65. 
Killed at Gettysburg, July 2. '63—132. 

Died Dee 21, i'.2— 12. 

Killed al Morris Farm, Nov. 27, '63—160. 

M us out w ith eo. 

Mus out with eo. 

Wd al Wilderness; mus Out with CO. 

Pro to hospital steward, Aug 29, '62. 

Wd at Chancellorsville; tr to Y R C, .Ian 1. '65. 

Died Dee 20, '62- 12 

Wd ai Soottsylvania ; died Sept 30, '64. 

\l issed at Chancellorsville. 

Pr to 57 reg P V, date unknown. 

Dis on s e. March 19, '63. 
Dis on s e. April IS, '63. 
Tr to V R C, Dec 2, '64. 
Dis on s c. Feb 13, '63. 
Mus out with eo. 
M ii- out with eo. 

Wd at Gettysburg ; mus out with co. 
Wdat Gettysburg; dis by G O. May 30, '65. 
Wd at Gettysburg; .lis by G <>. May 15, '65. 

I >i- on - e. Jan 21 . '63. 







Died Dee 30 '62 42 



Clark M Lent 

Wd at Chancellors ville, tr (0 V K C, March 19, '05 : dis on s c 

June 23, '05. 
Wd at Gettysburg ; tr to V R C; dis by G O, July 14, '05. 
Died Dec 9 '62 -ii 

... do 

Tharles M Mory , 

Pr to commissary sgt Oct 1, '62. 
Dis Dee '62 

Edward McAllister 

Captd June 22, '64 ; died at Florence, S C, Nov 5, '04—234. 
Killed at North Anna River, May 23, '04—205. 

Hubbel Pratt 

Chester L Parks 

Mus out with co. 

Dis on s c, March 19, '63. 

Tr to V R C Feb 15 '04 

Dis on s c, Sept 5, '03. 

W111 LTaylor 

Dishonorably dis, Dec 14, '02. 
Tr to V R C Oct 15 '03 

.. .do 

Wd at Wilderness; dis by G O, June 9, '65. 
Wd at Spottsylvania; dis by G O, May 15. '65. 
Wd at Gettysburg; mus out with co. 

. .do ,,.. 

Wells M Warner 

Dis on s c, Feb 0, '03. 

Killed in Wilderness— 185. 

Recruits to Company IX 


... do 


do ... 

C H Warner 

Ephraim Ada 

Oscar A Bailey 

Edward Chilson.... 

Francis Chilson 

Thomas Dugau 

John King 

Simeon Middaugh. 

Charles Monroe 

Loomis Vargison... 
Jesse D Vargison... 

Mus March 12, '64 ; pr cor May 0, '05 ; tr to 57 reg P V. 

Mus March 2:!, '01 ; died ,.1'wiis at Spottsvlvania- 19S. 

Mus Jan 10, '05; tr to 57 reg P V. 

Drafted ; des; ret; mus out Jan 2. '05, at ex of term. 

Mus March 13, '64 ; tr to 57 reg P V. 

Mus Jan 10, '65 ; tr to 57 reg P V. 

Mus March 23, '01 ; died of wds rec at Wilderness — 185. 

Mus Feb 1, '05 ; tr to 57 reg P V. 

Mus Jan 31 , '65 ; tr to 57 reg P V. 

Wd at Wilderness ; mus March 13. '64 ; tr to 57 reg P V. 

Wd at Petersburg ; Mus Mar 23, '04 ; tr to 57 reg P V. 

: 5 8 


Company E. 

Mustered in Aug. 25, 1*62. Mustered out May 28, 1865. 




1st Lt. 

2nd Lt 

1st Sgt. ... 







.do . 
.do , 
.do. . 

Joseph B Reeve. 

John F Clark 

Mason Long 

Stephen Evans... 
John M Jackson. 

George C Page... 

John Mustart 

James M Beach.. 

Tracy S Knapp 

William 8 Wright. 
William Carner ... 
Wm R Campbell... 

Wm E Loring 

Charles A Tibbits. 







do ... ... ... 

Dealmon Watkins. 

Orlando E Loomis., 

James W Clark 

Alonzo D Beach 

Otis A Jakeway 

Charles McNeal 

Charles T Hull.... 
Russell R Claflin.. 
George A Rogers.. 
Franklin Granger. 
Melvin Douglass.... 

Alexander Lane 

Everts Wandall 

••••do. .. 
.. do.... 
... do ... . 

Abram Fredrick. 

Warren W Powers.. 

Byron Munn 

John Adamson 

Calvin C Alexander. 

Eli R Booth 

Epaphrus W Baker. 

Abram Crandall 

Henry M Chandler. . 

Elnathan "Crandall. 

Lyman Dunn 

David Dains 

Aaron Eddy 

George Fredrick — 

Michael Finney 

William Fredrick.. . 
John Fredrick ,. 

.do Isaac M Gillett. .... — Thomas M Gilmore.. Truman Galusha. Daniel Hiney Russell Headlock Lorenzo D Hill. James H Harris John Henry ( Jeorge 1 1 nil' John Huff Horace Howe Andrew Huff Matthew Howe Edward M Jackson. George Johnson Hanford 1) Kinney.. ICharles A Knapp. 

Resigned Dec 17, '02- V\. 

Pr IV I st Lt, Dee 17, '63 ; wd at Gettysburg ; resigned June 29, '64 

Pr fr 1st sgt to 2d Lt, Feb 16, '6.3 ; to 1st Lt, Dec 5, '63 ; to Capt, 

Dec 20, '64 ; mus out with co. 
Pr fr Isl sgt. Dee 20, '62; resigned Nov 5, '63. 
Pr fr pr to sgt, Feb 19, '63; to 1st sgt, June 1, '63 ; to 1st Lt, Jan 

24, '65; wd at Chancellorsville — 93; mus out with co. 
Resigned Dec 17, '61—43. 

Pr fr priv, Feb 19, '63; died of wds rec at Chancellorsville — 88. 
Pr from priv to sgt, June 1, '63; to 1st sgt, Feb 1, '65; wd at 

Chaneellorsville ; mus oui with co. 
Dis on s c, Feb 27, '63. 

Wd at Chancellors"ille — 93; mus out with eo. 
Dis on s c, Aug 30, '63. 
Pr fr cor, Nov 18, '63 ; wd at Wilderness and at Spottsylvania ; 

mus out with co. 
Pr fr priv to sgt, Jan 1, '63 ; dis on s c, May 13, '64. 
Pr to cor, Jan 1, '64; to sgt, May 13, '64; wd at Chancellors- 
ville ; mus out with eo. 
Pr to cor, Feb 1, '64 ; to sgt, Feb 1. '65 ; wd at Gettysburg ; mus 

out with co. 
Killed at Auburn — 150. 

Tr to V R C, Feb 20, '65; dis by G O, June 20, '65. 
Wd at Chancellorsvilk — 93 ; dis on s c, Dec 31, '63. 
Tr to 57 reg P V. 
Killed ai Chancellorsville — 87. 
Dis by S O, July 17, '65. 
Killed at Gettysburg — 132. 
Pr to cor Jan 1, '64 ; mus out with co. 

Pr to cor, Jan 17, '64 ; wd at Wilderness ; mus out v<rith co. 
Pr to cor, May 13, '64 ; mus out with co 
Pr to cor, Feb 1, '65; wd at Auburn ; mus out with co. 
Pr to cbr, Feb 1, '64; wd at Spottsylvania; abs in hospital at 

'mus out. 
Pr to cor, Jan 16, '63 ; wd at Chancellorsville ; pris fr Aug 16, 

'64, to March 1, '65; dis on G O, June 27, '65. 
Mus out with eo. 
Died Jan 22, '63—56. 

Captd at Chancellorsville and at Auburn ; mus out with co. 
Dis on s c, Jan 1, '63. 

Wd at Gettysburg and at Petersburg ; mus out with co. 
Wd at Gettysburg ; tr to V R C, Feb 16. '64 ; dis on G O, July 3, '65. 
Captd al Chancellorsville: wd at Wilderness ; mus out with co. 
Wd at Wilderness ; tr to V R C, Aug 31, '64 ; dis by (i O, July 

22. '64. 
Des, Oct 29, '62. 

Wd at Gettysburg ; tr to V R C, March 16. '64. 
Died of wds rec at Chancellorsville — 88. 
Mus out with eo. 

Wd at Chancellorsville; mus out with co. 

Wd at Chancellorsville and Wilderness; dis on s c, Feb 10, '65. 
Wd at Wilderness ; dis on s c, Feb 20, '61. 
Wd at Chaneellorsville; tr to V R C, April 28, '63; dis on G O, 

July 6, '65. 
Dis on s c, Jan 17, '63. 
Died Dec 17, '62—43. 
Died Dec 25, '64. 
iVIijg out with eo. 
Dis on s e, Feb 1.8, '63. 
Dis on s c, Jan 18, '63. 
Dis on s e, Jan 22, '63. 
Dis on s c, Jan 18, '63. 
Died Nov 1 . '62—27. 
Died Dec 8, '62—171. 
Died Dee 11, '62—171. 
Killed at Gettysburg— 132. 

Pr fr Oct 14, '61, to Ap 29, '65 ; mus out with co. 
Mus out with eo. 

Wd at Chaneellorsville: tr to V R C. Feb 6, '64 ; dis bv G O. 
Died Jan 28, '63—113. 
Killed at Chancellorsville— 87. 






Dis on s e, Dec 6, '62. 

Dis on s c, March 6, '63. 

Captd , died at Andersonville, 

Died May 7. '63. 

Tr to 57 reg P V, date unknown. 

Mus out with co. 

Mus out with co. 

Dis on s c, Feb 11, '63 ; died in hospital, Feb 22, 

Dis on sc, April 22, '63. 

Tr to V R O, Sep 26, '63. 

Tr to 57 reg P V, date unknown. 

Killed at Chancellorsville— 87. 

Mus out with co. 

Mus out with co. 

Dis by G O, June 2, '65. 

Mus out with co. 

Dis on s c, Nov 26, '62. 

Died Jan 13, '63—56. 

Killed at Chancellorsville— 87. 

Abs on detached service at mus out. 

Mus out with co. 

Dis on sc, Feb 11. '63. 

TrtoVRC; dis by G O, July 5, '65. 

Died Jan '8, '63—56. 

Died May 20, '63, of wds rec at Chancellorsville 

Killed at Chancellorsville— 88. 

Wd at Chancellorsville ; killed at Morris Farm 

Tr to 57 reg P V. date unknown. 

Dis on s c, Jan 1, '63. 

D : ed Nov 27, '62-27. 

Tr to 57 reg P V, date unknown. 

Tr to 57 reg P V, date unknown. 

Ap 27, 









Jo nS Miller 

. do 

Frank B Nickerson 

Martin V B Phelps 





. do 

.do ... 

U il liana Smith 

. .do 


.do . . 

John PSr.yder .... 

Albert T Watkins 


Recruits to Company E. 

|Wm H Fredrick IMus March 28, '64; wd at Wilderness ; tr to 57 reg P V. 

I John A Snell | Mus Jan 13, '65 ; died March 5, '65. 



Mustered in Aug. 25, 1862. Mustered out May 28, 1865. 


1st Lt 

Henry F Beardsley Dis on s c, June 8, '64 — 222. 

1st Sergt. 




Nelson .1 Hawley. 
Albert A Hernpsted. 
Elisha P> Brainerd. . . 
Salmon S Hagar 

Richard H Kent 

George H Rpsseguie. 
Jackson B Ferris . . . 

Philip Peckins 

William H Doolittle 
David T Salsbury. . . 
Ellis W Steadman... 

John A Brown 

Henry M Stearns. . . . 

Augustus J Roper. . 

Frederick I) Voung 

do Wm P Brainerd. ... 


Levi Moss. 
John II Green. 
Price F Miller. 

Edwin A Leonard. 

do Charles H Tripp. 





Leander Brooks 

Urbane F Hall 

Christopher C Nichols 

( George Taylor 

Elisha M Skinner 
Julius H Burr. . . . 












do, ■ . . 

Benjamin F Ban es... 

Jerome Davison 

Nelson D Coon 

William II Nutt 

Moses B Aldrich 

Jacob B Adams 

John C Austin 

Albert J Baldwin 

Wm II II Bennett 

Myron Barnes 

Philander I Bonner- 
Warren Burchell 

Manzer J Benson 

Hiram Chrispell ,. 

Wm J Crandall 

Daniel 1) Duren 

Adelmcr Doughty. 

John W Doliway... 
Ormiel S Davison... 

Edson M French. 

Asa t hreei 

Patrick G David S( . 



Francis Hawley.. 
.John M Hobbs.... John E Hempstead. 

Pr fr priv to Capt, Feb 14, '65 , mus out with co. 

Dis on s e, Feb 10, '63—57. 

Pr fr2d Lt. Dec 5, '63; to adjt, July 1, '64 

Prfr sgt, July 2, '64 ; wd at Gettysburg; pris fr Aug 16, '64, to 

Ap 11. '65; mus out with co. 
Died May 14 of wds rec at Chahcellorsville — 88. 
Pr fr sgt, Feb 14, '65 ; wd at < lhancellorsville ; mus out with co. 
Killed at Gettysburg— 132. 
Died July 9 of wds rec at < Gettysburg — 132. 
Wd at Chancellorsville ; d's by G O, May 31, '64. 
Pr to sgt, July 2, '64 ; mus out with co. 
Pr to sgt, Sep 12, '64; wd at Chancellorsville and at Vuburn ; 

mus out with co. 
Pr to sgt, Feb 14, '65; mus out with co. 
Wd at Poplar Spring Church ; dis by GO, May 15, '65. 
Wd at Chancellorsville , killed at Petersburg— 227. 
Died Dec 14, '62—57. 
Died N v 1, '62—18—57. 
KiUed in Wilderness 
Dis on s c, Feb 12. '63. 
Wd at Gettvsburg ; tr to V R C, Dec 25, '64 ; dis by G O, June 

28, '65. 
Pr to cor, July 2, '64 ; captd at Poolsville; mus out with co. 
Pr to cor, July ::. '64 ; captd at Chancellorsville ; wd in the Wil- 
derness ; mus out with CO. 
Pr to cor, Dec 45, '6 I ; mus out with co. 
Pr to cor, July 2, Y>l ; mus out with co. 
Pr to cor. July 2, '64; captd at Chaneellorsvilie; dis by G O, 

June 25, '65. 
Pr to cor, Sept 12, '64 ; mus out with co. 
Pr to cor, Feb 14, '65 ; mus out with co. 
Pr to cor. Feb 14, '65 ; wd at Cham ellorsville and at Gettysburg ; 

mus out with co. 
Pr to cor ; wd at Chancellorsville ; tr to V R C, Jan 15, '64. 
Pr to cor ; wd at Chancellorsville ; tr'to V R C, Jan 11, '64. 
Pris fr May ■'< to Oct 10, '&> ; mus out with co. 
Dis by G O, June 12. '65. 

Tr to V R C, May 15, '64 ; dis by < ! O, July 6, '65. 
Wd at Chancellorsville; tr to V R C, Ap 14, '64. 
Tr to 57 reg, date unknown. 
Wd at Chancellorsville ; mus out with co. 
Dis on s c, May 15, '63. 
Dis on s c, Feb 20, '63. 

Wd at Chancellorsvil'e ; tr to V R C, May 15, '64. 
Wd at Gettysburg ; killed at Petersburg. 
Killed at Deep Bottom— 226. 

Wd at Chaneellorsvilie ; tr to V R C, Aug 26, '64. 
Died May 21 of wds rec at Spottsylvania— 198. 
Dis on s c, Nov 18, '62; re-enlisted Aug 19, '64; wd