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Full text of "History of Oneida County, New York : from 1700 to the present time"

NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES 






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CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 
The Indians — Iroquois — Oneidas 1 

CHAPTER II 
French-English-Indian War 21 

CHAPTER III 
Revolutionary War 25 

CHAPTER IV 
Organization and Geography 40 

CHAPTER V 
Geology 42 

CHAPTER VI 
Mineralogy 47 

CHAPTER VII 
Botany 49 

CHAPTER VIII 
Forestry 54 

CHAPTER IX 
Animals — Birds — Pish 59 

CHAPTER X 
Political History 1698-1812 70 

CHAPTER XI 
1813-1823 82 

CHAPTER XII // 

1824-1839 87 / 

CHAPTER XIII / 

1840-1859 lot 

CHAPTER XIV 
1860-1869 118 

CHAPTER XV 
1870-1879 134 

vii 



viii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XVI 
1880-1889 141 

CHAPTER XVII 
1890-1899 149 

CHAPTER XVIII 
1900-1912 156 

CHAPTER XIX 
Public Officials and Statistics 167 

CHAPTER XX 
Municipal Corporations and Statistics 208 

CHAPTER XXI 
Courts, Bench and Bar 230 

CHAPTER XXII 
Financial Institutions 273 

CmVPTER XXIII 
Press and Publications 280 

CHAPTER XXIV 
Religious Institutions 297 

CHAPTER XXV 
Educational Institutions 354 

CHAPTER XXVI 
Libraries 377 

CHAPTER XXVn 
Medical Profession and Institutions 391 

CHAPTER XXVIII 
Eleemosynary and Charitable Institutions 428 

CHAPTER XXIX 
Reformatory and Penal Institutions 431 

CHAPTER XXX 
Industries and Commerce 433 

CHAPTER XXXI 
Transportation — Routes of Travel 457 

CHAPTER XXXII 
Fraternal Orders — Societies — Clubs 464 

CHAPTER XXXIII 
Historic Places and Buildings 505 

CHAPTER XXXIV 
Eminent Men and Women 513 



/ 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Aborigines of New York t 

Academy, Rome (old) 372 

Academy, Rome (new) 372 

Academy, Utica (old) 378 

Academy, Utica (new) 344 

Alden, Gustavus R 298 

Alden, Mrs. G. R 546 

Assumption Academy 344 

Bacon, William J 236 

Bailey, Alexander H 168 

Bailey, E. Prentiss 292 

Bagg, Dr. M. M 400 

Bagg's Hotel 510 

Baptist Church, Rome 348 

Barn of Colonel Sanger 300 

Barneveld Library 380 

Battle of Rosaca. Georgia 526 

Beach, Bloomficld J 274 

Beardsley, Samuel 244 

Beecham, Rev. William 304 

Bentley, Henry W 168 

Bethune, George W., D.D 334 

Bill, Dr. Earl 396 

Bissell, Dr. Daniel P 392 

Bleecker Street Baptist Church 312 

Brant, Joseph (the Great Mohawk Chief) . 14 

Brigham, Dr. Amariah 422 

Brown, E. D 542 

Brown, Dr. Matthew, .Jr 391 

Bussy, Mrs. Mary 546 

Butler, J. Milton 278 

Buttcrfield, Major General Daniel 526 

Butterfield, John 458 

Butterfield House 510 

Campbell, Samuel 434 

Canal at Forestport 112 

Carnahan. James 334 

Caswell, H. A 228 

Central New York Institute for Deaf 

Mutes, Rome 96 

Chamberlain, Ephraim 550 

Chancellor Square, Utica 502 

Childs, Silas D 460 

Christ Reformed Church 308 

Church of the Redeemer, Utica 308 

Church of Reconciliation 308 

Churchill, Dr. Aloiizo 400 



City Hall, Rome 108 

City Hall, Utica 104 

City Hospital, Utica 414 

City Hospital, Rome 420 

Clarke, H. S. N 304 

Cleveland, Grover 513 

Cleveland, Rose Elizabeth 546 

Coggeshall, Henry J 236 

Comstock, Calvert 226 

Comstock, Edward 226 

Conkling, Roscoe 240 

Conkling, Mrs. Roscoe 556 

Cookinham, Henry Jared 1 

Corey, Daniel G 304 

County Clerk's Office (old) in Utica 178 

Court House at Rome (before it was re- 
built) ^^^ 

Court House at Rome (after it was re- 
built) 232 

Court House in Utica (first) 212 

Court House in Utica (second) 212 

Court House in Utica (third or last) 216 

Coventry, Dr, Alexander 392 

Coventry, Dr. Charles 392 

Coxe, Alfred C 266 

Daggett, Gen. Rufus 126 

Dauphin of France 12 

Davis, John C 236 

De Angelis, Pascal C. J 266 

Delta Dam (the Great) 462 

Denio, Hiram 244 

Dering, N. H ^O" 

Devereux, John C 5.-j2 

Didymous, Thomas Library at Remsen. . .380 

Doolittle, Charles H 236 

Douglass, Dr. I. H 400 

Elmer, O. E '0 

Erwin Library at Boonville 380 

Ethridge, Alfred 274 

Farwell, Samuel 460 

Faxton, Theodore S 460 

Faxton Hospital, Utica 416 

First Methodist Episcopal Church, Utica. .308 

First Moravian Church, Utica 312 

First Presbyterian Church, Utica 308 

First Presbyterian Church, New Hartford. 297 



IX 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Fishor, Samuel W 304 

Flandrnu, Dr. T. M 422 

Floyd. Ocn. Williiim 520 

Ford, Dr. Willis E 422 

Fort Bull (site of) 24 

Fort Schuyler 24 

Fort Schuyler Club, Utica 500 

Fort Stnnwix (map of) 505 

Fort Stanwix (site of) 22 

Foster, Ilcnry A 246 

Foster. Mrs. Henry A 556 

Fowler, Philoman H 304 

Frazier, Dr. Robert 408 

Furbish, Edward B 298 

Ga-ka-ah, or skirt 18 

Gansevoort, Colonel 28 

Gaynor. William J 516 

Genesee Street, Utica 510 

Gibson. William, D.D 304 

Gillette, Samuel 226 

Glass, Dr. James H 422 

Golden. David V. W 550 

Grace Protestant Church of Utica 312 

Gray, Dr. John P 392 

Gridley, Philo 266 

Grindley. Gen. .J. G 126 

Group of Ministers of the first church 

organized in Oneida County 298 

Grove, Dewitt C 292 

Guiteau, Dr. Luther 391 

Guiteau, Dr. Luther, Jr 400 

Halloek. Major Goneral H. W 524 

Hamilton Academy 358 

Hamilton College. 1912 362 

Herkimer. General Nicholas 522 

Historic Stone of the Oneida Nation or 

their altar 8 

Holy Trinity Roman Catholic Cburch 318 

Home for Aped Men and Couples 96 

Home for the Homeless (for women) 428 

Homeopathic Hospital 416 

Homestead of Gen. Collins, New Hartford . 82 

Hopper, Thomas ^•''2 

House of the Good Shepherd 428 

Hunt. Montgomery 278 

Hunt. Ward 246 

Huntington. Edward 274 

Huntington, Henry 278 

Hutchinson, Dr. Edwin 422 

Iroquois Indian Young Man Daah-de-a 

in Costume 1 ^ 

Iroquois Girl Ga-hahno in Costume 18 

Iroquois Indian House Ga-no-sotc 18 

Iroquois Ornamental work Gos-to-wch or 
Headdress ^^ 



Jenkins, Timothy 168 

Jervis, John B 534 

Jervis Library, Rome 380 

Johnson. Alexander B 552 

Johnson, Alexander S 244 

Kellogg, Spencer 552 

Kelly, Jane, Preceptress of Utica Female 

Academy 546 

Kernan, Francis, U. S. Senator 250 

Kernan, Mrs. Francis 556 

Kessinger, A. R 228 

Kimball. Charles C 298 

Kingsbury. Oliver A 298 

Kingsley," W. J. P 228 

Kirkland, Samuel, D.D 354 

Knox. William E., T>S> 304 

Laird, Dr. Frank F 422 

Lawrence, Lewis 460 

Lynch, Dominick 554 

Lynch, Mrs. Dominick 554 

McCall, Dr. John 392 

McMillan, Andrew 370 

McQuade, Brigadier General James 126 

Making Charcoal at Boonville 56 

Map of Oneida Ck)unty showing Land 

Grants 40 

Matteson, Orsamus B 168 

Maynard, Isaac 460 

Merwin. Jlilton H 266 

Middleton, Robert 550 

Millar, Charles 550 

Miller, Addi-son C 552 

Monument of General William Floyd 520 

Mohawk River at foot of Genesee Street 

near old Ford 144 

Mohawk River at foot of Genesee Street 

as it now exists 144 

Morse, Jonathan B 542 

Murphy. Aloysius. D. D 304 

New Century Club 500 

New York Central Railroad Station, 

Utica 156 

New York State Hospital (approach) as 

it now appears 404 

New York State Lunatic Asylum as Orig- 
inally Built 404 

Nindc, Bishop W. X 334 

Nock, Thomas G 228 

Odd Fellows Temple 428 

Old Fashioned Surgical Instruments 396 

Old Horse Car of Utica 457 

Olmsted. Rt. Rev. Charles T 334 

Oneida County Hospital, Rome 96 

Oneida County Jail 431 

Oneida Historical Building, Utica 506 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



(linainont:il work of the Inxiuois Indians 

ii]ioii BucUskin IS 

Oriakany Battlefield (swamp of) 34 

Oiiskaiiy Battlotield (easterly ravine) ... 38 

Oriskany Battlefield (another ravine) 38 

Oriskany Monument on Day of Dedication 34 

Oriskany Monument Tablets 74 

Orphan Asylum, Utica 428 

I'ayson. Elliot 11 298 

IVabody, II. H., D.D 30t 

Tolice Office, Utica 100 

Pope, Dr. II. H 400 

Bostoffice, Rome 108 

I'ostoffice, Utica 13fi 

Presbyterian Church and Cemetery at 

Westernville ^^0 

Presbyterian Church, Rome 348 

Prescott, CjTus D 168 

Presidents and Mayors of Utica 230 

Residence of Senator Roscoe Conkling. . .508 

Residence of General William Floyd 82 

Residence of Senator Francis Kernan. . . .150 

Residence of Senator Elihu Root 82 

Residence of Governor Horatio Seymour. 508 
Residence of Vice President James S. 

Sherman 150 

llosidcnce of Baron Steuben 88 

Robert Fraser Store 118 

Roberts, Ellis H 392 

Rogers, P. V 278 

Rome Club 23 

Rome in 1802 224 

Root, Elihu 514 

Rutger Street, Utica 502 

Scripture, William E 266 

Scudder, Dr. Samuel 408 

Seiboth, Joseph 543 

Seymour, Dr. George 392 

Seymour. Horatio 260 

Seymour, Mrs. Horatio 556 

Sherman James S 256 

Sherman, Mrs. James S 538 

Sherman, Richard U 292 

Sicard, Rear Admiral Montgomery 530 

Skenandoah ^ 

Skinner, Adolphus, D.D 334 

Snowdon, Rev. E. H 298 

Soldiers' Monument, Rome 130 

Soldiers' Monument, Utica 130 

Soldiers' Monument, Verona 130 

Soldiers' Monument, Waterville 130 

Sprecher, Samuel P 334 

Spencer, Joshua A 168 

Spriggs. J. Thomas 168 

St. Elizabeth's Hospital, Utica 413 



St. John's Orphan Asylum, Utica 428 

St. Luke's Hospital, Utica 414 

St. Peters' Church, Rome 348 

St. Vincent's Industrial School, Utica... 96 

State Armory, Utica 490 

State Custodial Asylum, Rome 96 

State Custodial Asylum, Rome 428 

State Masonic Home -'6 

Statue of Colonel Gansevoort in park at 

Rome 3" 

Steuben, I'.aron ^0 

Steuben, Baron (monument) 88 

Stevens, Edvrard L 226 

Stevens, James 226 

Stevens, S. B 226 

Sutton, Dr. Harry 420 

Sutton, Dr. R. E 408 

Talcott, e ii i ti ' lea A 168 

Taylor, James H ^34 

Terry, Dr. M. 426 

Thorn, John 460 

Townsend, S. E 238 

Trenton Falls 44 

Trenton Gorge ■** 

Trinity Church, Utica 313 

Utica in 1803 208 

Utica City Library 380 

Van Deusen, Edward M., D.D 334 

Walcott, William D 434 

Walker, Colonel Benjamin 78 

Walker, Edyth, Opera Singer 546 

Wardwell, Samuel 274 

Waterville Library, interior view 380 

Watson, Dr. W. H 436 

Wells. John B 552 

West, Dr. M. C 420 

Wetzel. Andrew, D.D 334 

Wheelock, General Charles 126 

AVhite, A. S 228 

Wiley, George 550 

Willett, Lieut. Col. Marinus 28 

Williams, Rev. Eleazer 12 

Williams. E. Stuart 226 

Williams, Robert S 278 

Williams, Stalham 278 

Wilson, Dr. Claude 408 

Wolcott, Dr. Samuel 408 

Wood, Thomas 502 

Young Men's Christian Association Build- 
ing, Rome 496 

Young ]\Icn's Christian Association Build- 
ing, Utica 496 

Zion Episcopal Church. Rome 348 



7^^!:: 



,Vr.,_ 





(r-in<:Uy^..^U^c 



HENRY J. COOKINHAM 

Henry J. Cookinham, son of John U. and Diantha L. Cookinham, was 
born at Prospect, Oneida county, New York, October 1, 1843; was educated 
in the Prospect Academy and "Whitestown Seminary; was a student in the 
law department of Hamilton College, also in the law office of United States 
Senator Roscoe Conkling, at Utiea, and was admitted to the bar in 1867. He 
immediately formed a partnership with Arthur M. Beardsley for the practice 
of his profession in Utica. In 1874 Francis M. Burdick, now dean of the law 
school of Columbia College, was admitted to the partnership. This partner- 
ship was dissolved by the retirement of Mr. Cookinham in 1880, when he 
formed a partnership with James S. Sherman and John G. Gibson. Later Mr. 
Gibson retired from the firm and Richard R. Martin was admitted as a part- 
ner. Later the firm became Cookinham, Sherman & Cookinham, the junior 
partner being Mr. Cookinham 's eldest son. In 1908 Mr. Sherman was nominated 
and elected vice-president of the United States, and gave up his law practice. 
The firm then became Cookinham & Cookinham, consisting of the father and 
two sons, Henry J., Jr., and Frederick H., which firm has continued to the 
present time. 

In 1873 Mr. Cookinham was elected special surrogate of Oneida county, 
and in 1880 was a member of the Assembly of the State of New York, and served 
on important committees. In 1884 he was the candidate of the Republican 
party for representative in Congress, but was defeated, owing to a division 
in that party caused by the quarrel between James G. Blaine, then Republican 
candidate for the presidency, and Roscoe Conkling, of Utica, United States 
senator from New York who opposed Mr. Blaine's nomination and election. 
In 1894 Mr. Cookinham was a delegate to the New York State Constitutional 
Convention, and was a member of the committees of judiciary, suffrage, and 
privileges and elections. At the adjournment of the convention he was ap- 
pointed chairman of a special committee to prepare an address to the people 
of the state, explanatory of the new constitution. He was a member of 
the board of commissioners for the erection of a new court house in the city 
of Utica for Oneida county, and for several years served as its chairman. 
He is a member of the State Bar Association, the Association of the Bar of the 
City of New York, the Bar Association of Oneida County, the Utica Law 
Library Association, and for several years was its president, the Oneida 

xiii 



Historical Society, the Sons of the Revolution, the American Scenic and 
Historical Preservation Society, and was for many years a director of the 
Young Jlen's Christian Association, and is a member of several other clubs 
and organizations. He was for many years a director and counsel for the 
United Glass Company, and is at present a director of the Utiea Industrial 
Company, Troy Public Works Companj' and New Hartford Canning Company, 
Limited. He has been engaged in many important suits in the United States 
courts, and was retained to argue, in the Supreme Court of the United States, 
the case of the United States against Rothehilds, a test case involving duties 
upon leaf tobacco, and was counsel for the importers in the cases in the United 
States courts involving the question of countervailing duty on wood pulp 
imported from the Dominion of Canada. He is author of a memorial volume 
of President James A. Garfield, "Recollections of the Oneida County Bar" and 
"History of the Judiciary of Oneida County." 

In September, 1872, he married Mary Louise, daugliter of General Richard 
U. Sherman, and sister of James S. Sherman, vice-president of the United 
States. They have six children, one daughter and five sons. 



nv 



PREFACE 



The historian, who does not endeavor to impress his own opinions upon his 
readers, but records events as they actually oceui-red and leaves others to draw 
their own conclusions, writes the truest history. As history is, after all, little 
more than the record of men's deeds, the writer who admires his subject or 
who is a partisan in any cause, is liable to give unmerited praise to those whom he 
esteems, and he who holds adverse opinions censures too frequently when 
praise is merited. Would it not be wiser for all who undertake to write his- 
tory to endeavor to record only what men have said and done as the best 
means of transmitting to posterity a correct knowledge of past events? It has 
not been the intention of the writer of this work to embellish with figures of 
speech or flowery language, but to present, as far as possible a correct state- 
ment of the natural wealth and advantages of the county, and to record what 
the inhabitants of the county have done in all fields of thought and action. 

Few localities in the entire country have furnished more exciting history 
than Oneida county. Situated in the very heart of the great Empire State, 
having for its early settlers a people intelligent, industrious and of high moral 
character, it is not surprising that it furnished men who, by their capacity 
and energy, did their full share to make New York the Empire State of the 
Union. It is not extravagant to say that the sons of Oneida were foremost 
among the statesmen, lawyers, doctors, educators and merchants who worked 
out the problems that have given to the state its more than nine million inhab- 
itants and more than one-sixth of the wealth of the nation. 

It is not expected that this work will escape severe criticism, but, when all 
the critics have passed judgment upon it, the writer wishes to assure them that 
he can point out many other imperfections which have been apparently un- 
observed. It is true that much more could have been written on the subjects 
embraced in the work, and many more subjects might have been written upon, 
but the line was drawn according to the writer's best judgment, and, so far as 
this book is concerned, from that judgment there is no appeal. 

In explanation of the plan adopted the writer wishes to say that the en- 
deavor has been to treat quite fully the subjects which other writers have 



XV 



PREFACE 

passed lightly over, and to treat sparingly tliose which they have written upon 
elaborately. I\Iost sincerely does the author acknowledge his obligations to 
many friends wlio have rendered liim valuable aid in the enterprise. Among 
these are Hon. Andrew S. Draper, commissioner of education of the state of 
New York; Hon. Rudolf Ruederaann, state geologist; Dr. Tarlton H. Bean, 
state fish culturist; Hon. Ellis H. Roberts, Rev. Dana "W. Bigelow, D. D., 
Lieutenant "William G. Mayer, Rev. "William Harden Squires, Ph.D., of Hamil- 
ton College, Hon. Garry A. "Willard, Mr. Rudolphus C. Briggs, A. M., Mr. 
Egbert Bagg, Dr. T. "Wood Clarke, "Warren C. Rowley, Miss Caroline M. TJnder- 
hill, librarian of the Utica librar.y. Miss M. Elizabeth Beach, Miss Alice B. 
Jones and Miss Eugenie Stevens. 



m 



History of 

Oneida County 



CHAPTER I 

THE INDIANS — IROQUOIS — ONEIDAS 

The Empire State! New York! The most extraordinary civil division 
of the earth 's surface ! Can there be any doubt about the truthfulness of this 
statement 1 If so, why is it that we have grown so great ? 

Consisting of little more than 47,000 squares miles of territory. New York 
has one-tenth of the population and more than one-sixth of the wealth of the 
entire nation, and the United States is the richest nation in the world. 

It does not seem that there is any accounting for this extraordinary de- 
velopment in New York except upon the theory that the natural advantages 
of the state are superior to those of any other country, and that it is inliabited 
by an unusually able and energetic people. 

At the mouth of the Hudson river is one of the finest harbors in the world. 
On its sliores has grown up the second, and soon to be not only the first city 
in the world, but the greatest city that has ever existed upon the face of the 
earth. Northward and along the picturesque Hudson thrive many cities and 
villages, and the scenery is unsurpassed by any of its kind. Near the western 
shore are the Catskill mountains, and, although they are not so magnificent 
as many others, yet they are as picturesque as any mountains in the entire 
country. Farther northward are Saratoga Springs, which send forth their 
healing waters for many ills of the human family, and close by lies the peerless 
Lake George, by many called the most beautiful sheet of water on earth. Little 
farther northward lies Lake Champlain, into which could be poured the waters 
of all the Scottish and English lakes without raising its surface an inch. West- 
ward lie the Adirondack mountains with their many lakes and mountain peaks, 
and consisting of territory nearly equal to all of Switzerland. While north- 
ward on its way to the sea the magnificent St. Lawrence flows through its more 
than sixteen hundred islands. Stretching along the central part of the state 
are the valleys of the Mohawk and Genesee, teeming with the products of their 



2 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

fertile soil. Tlie iuterior is adorned by such lakes as Oneida. Onondaga. Cayuga, 
Skaneateles, Seneea, Chautauqua and others, any of whieh would be world 
famed if they were in any European country. On the northwest and westerly 
confines lie two of the Great Lakes, and between them is the natural wonder 
of earth. " Niagara. "" 

In the \i'ry heart of this most remarkable commonwealth lies Oneida 
county, one of the choicest gems of the state. It is to this subject that this 
volume is devoted. 

Whether or not there existed at some time in the past a prehistoric race 
in the territor\- uow called the state of New York it is not the purpose here 
to discuss, nor is it intended to give a complete history of the savage tribes 
which occupied this part of the country before the white man made his ap- 
pearance upon the scene of action in central New York. It is proposed, how- 
ever, to give a general history of the Confederation and of the tribes of aborigines 
more particularly identified with the territory from which Oneida county was 
carved and for one of which tribes it was named. 

Prior to the time that the white man made his way to this region it was the 
land of the Iroquois, — "People of the Long House" or "People of ^lany 
Fires." by them called Ilo-di-no-sau-nee. This was a remarkable race of sav- 
ages, far superior in many respects to any other of the American Indian. 

The term "Iroquois" was first used to designate the confederated five and 
afterwards six nations known as the i\Iohawks, Oneidas, Ouondagas, Cayugas, 
Senecas, and Tuscaroras. The Indian names of these nations were: 

Mohawks — Ga-ne-a'-ga-o-no. 
Oneidas — O-na'-yote-ka-o-no. 
Onondagas — O-nun'-da-ga-o-no. 
Cayugas — Gwe-u-gweh-o-no. 
Senecas — Nun-da'-M-a-o-no. 
Tuscaroras — Dus-ga'-o-weh-o-no. 

By the French they were called "Iroiquois. " by the English "The Con- 
federation." by the Dutch "]\Iaquas, " and by themselves "IMungoes, " all 
meaning the "L^nited People." 

Each nation was divided into tribes named as follows: Wolf, Bear, Beaver, 
Turtle, Deer, Snipe. Heron, Plawk, 

Bloomfield, in his work entitled "The Oneidas," states that this nation 
had only three tribes, the Wolf, Bear and Turtle. 

Reference is sometimes made to the nations composing the league as 
"tribes." This is not correct. The term "tribe" has reference to the sub- 
division of the nation, somewliat as the term "county" designates a subdivision 
of a state. 

The date of the formation of the Iroquois confederacy is unknown. Some 
place it as carlj- as 1459 ; others fix a much later period. Lossiug gives 1539 
jis the year when it was formed. There is no doubt that it had existed many 
years before white men came among them. Statistics attainable do not sus- 
tain the general impression as to the numbers included within the League. It 
is stated by Morgan that the confederation eonsisted of the greatest numbers 



HISTORY OF ONETDA COUNTY 3 

about the year 1650. Bloomfield says that it reached its cuhninating point a])out 
1700; but other writers with Morgan place it earlier, by, at least, half a century. 

At the beginning of the Revolutionary war it was estimated that, all told, 
they numbered between 9,000 and 12,000 ; that 1,580 warriors took sides with 
the British, and 230, mostly Oneidas, joined the colonists. Governor Tryon 
in 177-4 estimated their numbers to be 10,000, with 2,000 warriors. Dillon, a 
captain in the United States army, in 1786 estimated that 150 Oneidas joined 
the British. He also says that of all the Indian tribes in the country, 12,690 
warriors were the allies of the king. 

The country occupied by the different nations of the league was as follows: 
On the east were the Mohawks, next the Oneidas, then, in order, the Onondagas, 
Senecas and Cayugas. After the admission of the Tuscaroras into the eon- 
federation, that nation was given territory to the southward of the Oneidas 
and Onondagas. The Council House of the confederation was at Onondaga, 
and the general assembly occurred annually. 

In his book entitled "The League of the Iroquois," Morgan says that "by 
the year 1700 the Iroquois had subdued and held in nominal subjection all 
the principal Indian nations occupying the territory which is now embraced 
in the states of New York, Delaware, ^Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
the northern and western part of Virginia. Ohio. Kentucky, northern Tennes- 
see, part of Illinois, Indiana and IMichigan, a portion of the New England 
states, and part of Upper Canada." 

Halsey says that it was at about this time that the Confederation was at 
the height of its power. From that time \intil the English-French war began 
no great changes occurred among the people of the Long House. 

The Iroquois were loyal to the English, and they were an important factor 
m the struggle between England and France for supremacy in the New World. 
England still owes to them a debt of gratitude that it can never pay. Not until 
the war of the Revolution was the friendship between the English and the 
Six Nations broken, and, even then, all, save the Oneidas and a part of the 
Tuscaroras, remained the allies of the British crown. The Confederates had 
lost none of their glory until the introduction among them of fire arms and 
intoxicating liquors. 

When the colonies declared their independence, the question of joining 
the Americans or remaining loyal to the Crown came before the General Council. 
The Oneidas, supported in part by the Tuscaroras, favored neutrality, and as 
a unanimous vote was i-equired to decide such questions, no action was taken 
that committed the entire confederation one way or the other, but it was 
determined to allow each nation to act its own pleasure. The result was that 
all but the Oneidas and part of the Tuscaroras east their lot with England. 

JIany conferences were held in regard to the political situation between 
the representatives of the Six Nations and commissioners authorized by Con- 
gress to act on behalf of the colonies. A conference was held at German 
Flats, August 15, and another at Albany, August 23, 1775, but nothing definite 
was accomplished. In 1776, Governor Tryon wrote that all the Indians of the 
Six Nations were favorable to the king, but in this he was sadly in error. It 
is true, however, that, in 1780, a number of Oneidas and Tuscaroras w^ent over 



4 HISTORY OF OXEiDA COUNTY 

to the British. The decision made by the Oneidas at the beginning of the 
controversy between the colonies and the mother country cost that nation dearly, 
for in 1779 or 1780, their village and castle were entirely destroyed by the 
British troops and unfriendly Indians. At this time the Oneidas were driven 
down tJie IMohawk valley and remained near Schenectady, and were assisted 
by the United States government until the end of the war of the Revolution. 

Perhaps centuries before the government of the United States was formed 
by white men, these savages had formed a national government which challenges 
our admiratiou. and lias received high tribute by such writers as Lewis, Mor- 
gan, Halsey, Bloomfield, Beauchamp. and many others, and has attracted the 
attention of the foremost statesmen. 

The Honorable Elihu Root, in his address at the Tercentennial Celebration 
of the discovery of Lake Champlain, July 7, 1909, referring to this extraordi- 
nary confederation, said: 

"A century or more before the white settlement, five Indian nations of the 
same stock and language under the leadership of extraordinary political genius 
had formed a Confederacy for the preservation of internal peace and for com- 
mon defense against external attack. Their territories extended in 1609 from 
the St. Lawrence to the Susquehanna, from Lake Champlain and the Hudson 
to the Genesee, and, a few years later, to the Niagara. There dwelt side by 
side the I\Iohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, Cayugas, and the Senecas in 
the firm union of Ho-de-no-sau-nee, the Long House of the Iroquois. 

"The Algonquin tribes that surrounded them were still in the lowest stage 
of industrial life, and for their food added to the spoils of the chase ^^^ld fruit 
and roots. 

"The Iroquois had passed into the agricultui-al stage. Tiiey had settled 
habitations and cultivated fields. They had extensive oi'chards of the apple, 
made sugar from the maple, and raised corn and beans and squash and pumpkin. 
The surrounding tribes had only the rudimentary political institution of chief 
and followers. The Iroquois had a carefully de\'ised constitution, well adapted 
to secure confederate authority in matters of common interest, and local au- 
thority in matters of local interest. * * * 

' ' The government was vested in a Council of fifty sachems, a fixed number 
coming from each nation. The sachems from each nation came in fixed propor- 
tions from specific tribes in that nation ; the office was hereditary in the tribe, 
and the member of the tribe to fill it was elected by the tribe. The sachems of 
each nation governed their own nation in all local affairs. Below the sachems 
were elected chiefs on the military side and Keepers of the Faith on the religi- 
ous side. Crime was exceedingly rare ; insubordination was unknown ; courage, 
fortitude, and devotion to the conunon good were universal. 

"The territory of the 'Long House' covered the watershed between the 
St. Lawrence basin and the Atlantic. From it the waters ran into tlie St. 
Lawrence, the Hudson, the Delaware, the Susquehanna and the Ohio. Down 
these lines of communication the war parties of the confederacy passed, beat- 
ing back or overwhelming their enemies until the}' had become overlords of a 
vast region extending far into New England, the Carolinas, the valley of the 
Mississippi, and to the coast of Lake Huron. • • • 



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HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 5 

"Of all the inhabitants of the New World, they were the most terrible foes 
and the most capable of organized and sustained warfare, and of all the in- 
habitants north of Mexico; they were the most civilized and intelligent." 

Whoever became acquainted with the Iroquois in early days realized that 
they were an extraordinary people. Sir William Johnson, who knew them as 
well as any Englishman and had, perhaps, more dealing with them than any 
other officer of the crown, said of them: "They are the most formidable of any 
uncivilized body of people in the world." 

The nation for which the county is named consisted of about 3,000 in 1776. 
They are said to have been lovers of peace, were more refined in manners than 
the other nations, and were the diplomatists of the confederation. Long before 
the beginning of the 18th century, they had a fixed dwelling place on the west- 
ern border of what is now Oneida county. 

In 1904 the regents of the university of the state of New York caused a 
history of the New York Iroquois to be prepared by W. M. Beauchamp, S. T. D. 
The book is known as Bulletin 78, and it contains a map of the territory occu- 
pied by the different nations belonging to the league. Prom this, it appears 
that the territory of the Oneidas was bounded on the east by a line extending 
from the St. Lawrence river to a point about 25 miles below Ogdensburg; 
southerly to Trenton Falls; thence bending slightly easterly to Herkimer and 
to Oneonta ; thence along the northwesterly line of Delaware county to Broome 
county; thence along the northerly line of Broome county to the Chenango 
river; thence northwesterly about 15 miles; thence northerly to a point about 
3 miles from Oneida lake ; thence westerly about 3 or 4 miles ; thence northerly 
across the westerly part of the lake and bearing westerly slightly about 25 
miles; thence north bearing slightly eastward to Carthage; thence northwest- 
erly to the St. Lawrence river between Alexandria Bay and Clayton; thence 
along the river to the place of beginning, the territory being somewhat be- 
tween 7,000 and 8,000 square miles. 

A study of the life and manners of this most interesting people reveals 
the fact that their comforts were greater and they lived upon a higher plane 
than is generally supposed. Their food was more abundant and of greater 
variety than many other of the aborigines. In the spring they made, from 
the maple trees, their supply of sugar for the year. In the summer there were 
berries of many varieties and fish of the finest species. In autumn there were 
nuts, apples, plums, cherries, corn, potatoes, pmnpkin, squash and other vege- 
tables, and an abundance of such game as makes the sportsmen of our age 
most envious of their day. There were bear, moose, deer, wild turkeys, geese, 
ducks, grouse, wild pigeons, rabbits, squirrels and other game of which they 
could lay by a supply without serious effort, for their time of need. For cloth- 
ing, against the rigors of winter, they had the fur of the beaver, otter, fisher, 
sable, mink and other fur bearing animals, for which the wealthy of the present 
day pay such prices as would have purchased almost a kingdom in that early 
period. In fact, no part of the colonies presented better facilities for the com- 
forts of life to the savage than the Mohawk valley. 

Not until the ravages of war had swept their valley was want necessarily 
known among the Indians in this region. Their wigwams or houses were gen- 



6 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

erally built of bark, ami wcro comfortable even iu the severest winter weather. 
A fire was continually kept burning in them in cold weather, and these peo- 
ple, I'obed in their furs iu the daytime, and lying upon the skins of the moose, 
bear and deer at night, rested more quietly than the prince in his palace. Their 
musical instruments were the flute, kettle-drum, and various kinds of rattles. 
They used nets and bone harpoons, and sometimes lines and bone hooks for 
fisliing. Their boats were dugouts and bark canoes. They made baskets, mats, 
wooden dishes, including spoons, and many vessels of clay, some of which were 
ornamented. Some of their clay pipes were ornamented with a figure on the 
bowl facing the smoker. They used a wooden mortar and pestle for making 
their corn meal. The.y buried their grain in the ground, when it would keep 
for several years. "Wampum was used for money, ornaments and other pur- 
poses; it was made of shells and of different colors, white, black or dark 
purple. 

Their domestic relations were peculiar. Property was transmitted through 
the female line. A man was not permitted to marry a woman of his own tribe, 
and the marriage relations were sacred. jMarriage was not founded upon af- 
fection, but was recognized as a necessity, and was arranged usually by the 
mothers of the parties. Polygamy was unkno\vn among them. Although di- 
vorce was easily obtained, it was not frequent. Relationship was recognized 
as far as uncle, aunt and cousin. Sachems were the Head Chiefs, and had 
great influence among their people. 

They had religious leaders who were called "Keepers of the Faith.'" and 
they had charge of the festivals and religious services. They believed in a 
Great Spirit, the Creator of all things-, also in the immortality of the soul and 
an exclusive heaven for the Indians; but, in their admiration of Washington, 
they accorded him a place in their future celestial abode. The.y also believed 
in a place of future punishment for the wicked aud in an Evil Spirit who 
had created reptiles, noxious weeds and monsters. There has been much specu- 
lation as to the origin of their religious belief, whether from the Lost Tribes 
of Israel or otherwise, and it will, in all probability, remain a mystery. It is, 
however, a singular circumstance that these dwellers in the American wilder- 
ness should more nearly attain to the conception of the Christian God than any 
other nation untaught by revelation. It is stated by Rev. Thomas Donahue. 
D. D., in his book entitled "The Iroquois and the Jesuits," that "the first 
foundation of their religious belief is the same as that which formed the prin- 
cipal feature of the religion of the Barbarians who first occupied Greece, aud 
spread through Asia, and which forms the groundwork of all Pagan JFyth- 
ology." However this may be. it is not our purpose now to inquire, for the 
Iroquois are taken, for the purpose of this work, as they were in 1700. At 
this period the belief of these Indians was neither pantheistic, nor idolatrous. 
They held religious and other assemblies, and had many different modes of 
recreation. Many of these were called dances. There were about 33 of these 
dances, some of which were religious, some had reference to war. and some 
would seem to be solely recreative. ^Morgan gives a description of tliem in his 
work on the Iroquois. 

Their game which was held in highest esteem was la crosse. It was plaj'ed 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 7 

by chosen representatives from liifferent nntioiis or trilics witli as much enthii- 
siasni, and was enjoyed by the large audiences which assembled, as much as 
are the college football contests of the present day. Another game was called 
the peaehstone game, and was somewhat similar to the game of dice. These 
peach stones were of different colors, white, black or dark purple, letting on 
games was common, and the Indian at times found himself in as sad a plight 
as the college boy, who bet his last cent on his team and lost, without reserv- 
ing a sufficient amount of funds to pay his fare back to his alma mater. 

Crimes were seldom committed among these Indians. Witchcraft and mur- 
der were punished by death, unless the witch confessed and was forgiven, 
and unless the murderer made atonement to the tribe to which the victim 
belonged. Adultery was punished by the wliipping of the woman. The 
transgression, however, was very rare. Theft was substantially unknown, but 
after the white man introduced rum among them, drunkenness was not in- 
frequent. The best men among the Iroquois strenuously opposed the traffic in 
rum, and pleaded with the white men to desist from selling it to their people. 
Addressing several of the governors of the colonies, one of the Mohawk chiefs 
said: "We request of all governors here present that it may be prohibited 
to carry it (rum) among any of the Five Nations." They had no prisons, and 
in case of a first offense, if the culprit promised good behavior, he was allowed 
to go on parole. They had no locks to their houses, no secret places, and 
larceny was unknown among them. 

The Sacred Stone of the Oneidas demands special attention. The Oneida 
nation was called "People of the Stone." or the "Upright Stone," or the 
"Granite People," and there is one reference to them in the Indian legends 
as the "People who lean their backs against the Everlasting Stone." This has 
reference to their Sacred Stone or altar. The legend in regard to the Stone is 
as follows : A settlement was made by the Indians on the north shore of Oneida 
river at the outlet of the lake. One morning there appeared at their camp a 
granite boulder, which was unlike any other stone in that localit.v. The In- 
dians were informed that it should be their altar and that it would follow 
them forever. They moved their habitation to the moutli of the Oneida creek. 
The Stone, unaided, followed them, and appeared in their mid.st. Prom here 
they removed to near what is now Oneida castle, in Oneida county, and again the 
Stone appeared among them, unaided. Here it remained as the altar of the 
nation for hundreds of .years. It was around this Stone their great councils 
were held and their warriors, sages and orators resolved the great questions 
presented to them, and they here worshipped the Great Spirit. 

When the Oneidas left their home and took up their abode in Wisconsin, 
the Stone did not follow, but remained, a deserted altar. 

With the consent of the remnant of the nation which tarried at the ' ' castle, ' ' 
it was removed in 1849 to Forest Hill cemetery in Utica, where it now rests 
upon a substantial foundation as an everlasting memorial to the Oneida nation. 
Its weight has been estimated as somewhat less than a ton, and it bears an 
appropriate tablet. 

Beauchamp, in his history of the New York Iroquois, page 160, says that one 
of their early villages was on Cazenovia lake, but that the earliest village iden- 



8 HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 

tified with their name was a mile southeast of Perryville. N. Y., at a remark- 
able stone, now destroyed, but long venerated by them. He also says that it 
was from this stone they took the name of the "People of the Stone." How- 
ever this may be, it is certain that the Oneida Stone, now in the cemetery at 
Utica, is really all that is claimed for it — the altar of the Oneidas. 

Long before the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Catholics had es- 
tablished missions among the Iroquois, but they had not been successful. These 
early missionaries laliored under unusual difficulties. The Iroquois were friendly 
to the Dutch and English, and the early Catholic missionaries were Frenchmen. 
This fact was a barrier which was difficult to pass. 

There was later, also, another reason, which, to the present generation, may 
seem most extraordinary. The colonial legislature, on August 7, 1700, passed an 
act excluding Catholic priests, clergj-men and teachers of all kinds from the 
colonies, and requiring them to leave the country before the first day of No- 
vember of that year on pain of being " ad.judged to Suffer perpetuall Imprisonm't 
and if any person being So Sentenced and actually Imprisoned shall break 
prison and make his Escape and be afterwards retaken he shall suffer such 
pains of Death penalties and forfeitures as in Cases of felony." Anj' one who 
harbored a priest or other Catholic teacher was subject to a fine of two hun- 
dred and fifty pounds and to sit in pillory for three days and also to be bound 
to good behavior at the discretion of the court. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth centui-y, the Catholics had practically 
withdrawn their missionaries, as the circumstances seemed to be such that their 
efforts could not be successful. The fierce opposition did not, however, deter 
them from re-entering the field some j'ears after. 

Tlie first successful mission of the Catholic church during the 18th century 
was established by Abbe Francis Piquet at Fort Presentation, now Ogdens- 
burg. He was so effective that within two years he had won. from the Ononda- 
gas and Cajiigas, about three thousand of the Indians to his cause. The ef- 
fect of the English and French war was so disastrous to this work as to destroy 
what had been accomplished Iw the Frenchmen in evangelizing tlie Iroquois, 
and about 1760 this mission was abandoned. 

In his introduction to the "History of the Diocese of Syracuse," Monsignor 
J. S. JI. Lynch says, "Bishop Du Breiiil de Pontbriaud, of Quebec, visited the 
mission in May, 1752. He baptized one hundred and twenty and confirmed a 
large number. Tliis was, undoubtedly, the fii'st confirmation admirdstered 
within the limits of the state of New York." 

Morgan, in his work entitled "Iroquois Confederation," pays the highest 
tribute to these early Catholic missionaries. He sa.vs: "They traveled the 
forests of America alone and unprotected; they d\v(>11 in the depths of the 
wilderness, without shelter and almost wifhdiit raiment : llicy passed the perils 
of Indian captivity and the fires of the torture; they sulTemd from lumger and 
violence, but, in the midst of all of them, never forgot the mission with which 
they were entrusted." 

The first Congregational missionary among the Iroquois was Elihu Spencer, 
who began his work among them in 1748. One of his converts was Peter 
Ag^vrondougwas. or "Good Peter," who was an eloquent Oneida. 




'I-IIIO CKIOA'I' rillKF OF THE (INKIHAS, 
SKKNANDOAIl 




I 111: iiisiouic sioNi; of tiif onkida .naiimn m; iiii;!!; ai.iau 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 9 

In 1761 Reverend Samson Oceum came from the school of Dr. Wheelock at 
Lebanon to the Oneidas, and Samuel Kirkland, then a young man, accompanied 
him. In 1766 there were 127 Oneida and Mohawk hoys in the Wiieelock school. 
Reverends C. J. Smith, Theophilus Chamberlain, Eleazer Moseley, Peter and 
Henry Avery served as missionaries between 176-4 and 1774. 

Foremost among Protestant missionaries was Samuel Kirkland. He was 
educated at the school of Dr. Wheelock at Lebanon and at Princeton college. 
While at these institutions he had Indians as well as white men for his fellow 
students. Among them, at Dr. Wheelock 's school, was the renowned Joseph 
Brant. He became greatly interested in the welfare of the Iroquois, and, iri 
1764, Mr. Kirkland commenced his work first among the Senecas. In conse- 
quence of a famine among them, he returned East for a time, and during his 
visit was ordained a minister of the Congregational church. He then returned 
and took up his work among the Oneidas, and in 1769 he organized a church 
among them. The famous chief, Skenandoah, was among the converts to Chris- 
tianity. 

It was owing to the influence of Samuel Kirkland, more than to any other 
cause, that induced the Oneidas to take sides with the colonies against the 
mother country in the Revolutionary war. 

At a meeting of the Sons of the Revolution held February 22, 1911, Rever- 
end Dana W. Bigelow, D. D., in a speech referred to IMr. Kirkland as follows: 

"In 1763 one of the college boys at Princeton, a sophomore from Connecti- 
cut, son of a Congregational minister, was Samuel Kirkland. He had attended 
a preparatory school where Indians and white studied together. There he 
formed with Joseph Brant a friendship which lasted through life. At Prince- 
ton he was in a class with Indian boys and he learned something of the Mo- 
hawk language. Before his college course was finished, his fixed zealous pur- 
pose carried him out for his life work. In January, 1764, he called on Johnson, 
who gave him counsel and belt of wampum. He went on snowshoes to the most 
distant and warlike tribe, the Senecas. He did not meet with a warm recep- 
tion, but was adopted as a member of the tribe. Famine came, and he was 
obliged to return to the eastern settlements for a brief time. Then he went 
back to his post for another year. Having been ordained a minister in New 
England, he settled among the Oneidas for his life work, and here he lived 
and labored until his death in 1808. 

"For five years he received no financial aid; he built his own cabin and 
tilled his own field. The great enemy he had to fight was the white man's rum. 
Among the converts were some chiefs, the most noteworthy of all, Skenandoah, 
great in stature, eloquent in councils, faithful unto death. 

"When the Revolutionary war came on, the English tried to get the aid of 
the Iroquois. Sir John Johnson, Guy Johnson and Joseph Brant represented 
the British ministry in a mighty endeavor to win the Indian nations to their 
side. One rock sheltered the people of the frontier. It was the person and 
influence of Samuel Kirkland. He, too, attended council after council, far and 
near. He argued and pleaded. It was out of his own heart and his efforts were 
also in response to urgent requests from the colony that he sliould exert his ut- 
most influence for the cause of independence. His Oneidas and Tuscaroras fol- 



10 TTTSTORY OF OXETDA COUNTY 

lowed his leadership, and, as I'ar as possible, remained neutral. The stand they 
took broke the unity of ai'tion which was a fundamental law of the confederacy. 
How great aid he gave to the cause of the American patriots at this crisis of the 
war in this valley of the Mohawk where the battle of Oriskany was fought that 
the victory at Saratoga might follow, cannot be set down in figures or told 
in few words. Over against great forces of evil, ai^pealing to every motive, 
good and bad. in savage hearts, his inHucnce was on the right side, was exerted 
to the utmost, and was not in vain. 

■'After the battle and massacre at Wyoming, in 1779, he was a minister of 
eomfoi't to 150 widows and tiicir children. Under General Sullivan, in his 
famous expedition. Kirkland was brigade chaplain to his forces. 

"At the close of the war New York state united with his faithful Indians in 
appreciation of what had been wTought by him, and presented him with a most 
valuable tract of land or nearly 5,000 acres — the Kirkland Patent, as then 
known. 

"His strenuous life was not yet done. lie lived after this for 20 years and 
near Clinton, still ministering to his scattered people. His heart was not with- 
out hope that they might be gathered together and made part of the fabric 
of civilized society. With this in view, seeking counsel and co-operation with 
chief men of the state and of the national government, he gave freely of his 
lands, that on them might be founded an institution that would educate and 
uplift Indian and white youth. 

"On a beautiful September afternoon in the year 1793. a procession left his 
home and marched to the hill where the corner stone was laid of the Ilamilton- 
Oneida academy, a service rendered by Ma.ior-General Baron von Steuben. 

"His hopes for the Indians were not realized, for the fragments of the 
tribes not long after migrated to the distant "West. But he had builded wisely, 
for in 1812 the academy became Hamilton college, whose record in church and 
state is known to us. and whose future is bright in promise of greater results 
in promoting the interests of mankind of every land or everv I'ace. 

"In the college cemetery are the monuments to Kirkland and Skenandoah, 
who was the noblest trophy of victory over darkness, and we repeat the words 
once well spoken there: 'Brothers, here sleep the good and the brave.' " 

Foremost among the chiefs of the Oneidas was Skenandoah. This is Beau- 
champ's way of spelling the name, although it has been spelled several different 
ways by other writers. He is said to have been savage and intemperate in his 
youth, but he reformed in after life, and was called the noblest counselor among 
the North American Indians. - He was of powerful frame, but mild in manner. 
yet terrible in conflict. He became a Christian under the ministry of Samuel 
Kirkland. lived a noble life, and had great influence among his people. It was 
he, with Kirkland. who influenced the Oneidas first to be neutral, and then to 
take sides with the colonics against the mother country in the war for inde- 
pendence. He died at Clinton. March 11, 1816, at the age of 110 years, and 
was buried upon the land of Mr. Kirkland. He was dignified in his bearing, 
courteous, and a shrewd and able diplomatist. In conversation he avoided 
sa>nng anything to give offense. As a public speaker he was one of the most 
eloquent in the nation, and his words were potent in influencing his own peo- 




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PUBl 



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TlLDt: 

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HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 11 

pie. His speech 1o a I'ricnd slidiily hrforo liis ilciilli is one of tlir ihoice pieces 
of literature. lie said, "I am an aged lieiiilock; the winds of a Iniiidred win- 
ters have whistled through my branehes; I am dead at the top; the generation 
to which I belong have run away and left me ; why I live, the Great Spirit only 
knows; pray to my Jesus that T may liave patience to waif I'oi- my appointed 
time to die. ' ' 

In 1700, the Earl of iH'lloiiiont, tlien goverudr of the colonies, sent a com- 
munication to Queen Anne advising the establishing of the Church of Eng- 
land in the colonies to counteract the influence of the Catholics among the 
Iroquois. King William sent over plate and furniture for a chapel. 

Merrill, in speaking on the suliject of missions among the Iroquois, says: 
"The tribe (Oneidas) can boast of being the oldest of our church's Indian mis- 
sions, dating from the year 1702." 

The Reverend Mr. Smith and Reverend Mr. More were sent from England 
about this time. Mv. More renuiined for about three years, and was followed 
by Reverend Thomas Barclay, who remained from 1708 to 1712, and was suc- 
ceeded by Reverend William Andrews, who remained about six years. He 
found the work so discouraging that he gave it up in 1718. On returning from 
the field he said, "Heathen they are, and heathen they will be." 

About 1731 Reverend John Milner visited the Mohawks. In 1733 it was re- 
ported that there were "but few unbaptized among that nation." Reverend 
John Ogilvie also ministered to the Mohawks in 1750. Reverend John J. Oel 
also sei-ved the Mohawks, Oneidas and Tuscaroras. He was followed by Rev- 
erend John Stewart, who remained as a missionary among them until the 
breaking out of the war of the Revolution. Mr. Stewart, assisted by Joseph 
Brant, translated the Gospel of Mark, part of the Acts, and wrote a short his- 
tory of the Bible in the JMohawk language. 

After the Revolutionary war, missionaries were sent among the Oneidas. 
Bishop Hobert sent Eleazer Williams, who did very effective work among this 
nation. It was he who has been thought by many to be the renowned Dauphin 
of France. He was called the son of an Indian woman, Init his personal ap- 
pearance was such as to contradict the statement. As to his lineage there is a 
ro.vstery. By some he was said to be the son of Reverend Jlr. Williams of 
Deerfield, Massachusetts, and that he had been taken captive by the Indians 
while a child ; by others he was said to be the son of a squaw. Much has been 
written upon this subject on both sides, but Bloomfield, in his book on "The 
Oneidas," devotes many pages to the subject. He undoubtedly believed that 
Mr. Williams was the French prince. The pictures of the two persons that are 
here given certainly bear much resemblance, and it can safely be said that from 
their appearance there is better reason for believing that Mr. Williams was the 
Dauphin of France than that he was the son of a squaw. 

In 1750 the Moravians undertook to establish missions among the Six Na- 
tions, and sent John C. Pyrlaeus and his wife to work among the Onondagas. 
They, with Anton Seyffert, undertook to reach the Onondagas, but the Oneidas 
refused to allow them to pass through their territory. By other routes, some of 
the missionaries of the Jloravian church reached the Onondagas and Seneeas, 
but they made no progress in their work among the Oneidas. 



12 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

The Methodist church sent a missionarj- among the Oueidas in 1829, in the 
person of Reverend Dan Barnes. No great impression was made by j\Ir, 
Barnes among the Indians, and he was followed b.y Reverend Rosman Ingalls 
who, in turn, was followed by Reverend Daniel Paneher. A church was built 
in 18-il, but it was sold with the lands of the Indians, and another building was 
afterward constructed. The departure of the Onoidas for the west, however, 
ended the work of the Methodists among that nation in this state. 

At the approaeh of the war for independence, it was an exceedingly impor- 
tant question what would be the position of the Iroquois. The subject was 
mucli considered by the Indians, and council after council was held, for, upon 
its determination, hinged the very existence of the confederation. In a note to 
ilorgan's "League of the Iroquois," the subject is clearly presented. The note 
is as follows : 

"At Onondaga in January, 1777, the annual council tire of the Six Nations 
was extinguished, seemingly not without bloodshed. The Senecas and Cayiigas 
openly and unitedly espoused the cause of the king; the Mohawks and Ononda- 
gas were divided, some for the king, some neutral ; the Oneidas and Tuscaroras 
endeavored to remain neutral, but many of them were soon actively engaged 
on the American side. These allies gave much aid to the patriots in the border 
wars of the Revolution, and suffered greatlj' in consequence. Their faithful 
friendship and assistance were formallj' and gratefully recognized by the 
United States by treaty proclaimed January 21, 1795. If the league had been 
unanimous under its ancient laws in making war upon Americans it is quite 
likely that BurgojTie's campaign would have been a British triumph, and that 
the war would have ended in the success of the royal arms. On the other hand, 
if the league had espoused the American cause or had remained neutral, it 
would have been both ditficult and unjust to have taken from them an inch of 
their territory at the end of the war and the settlement of the West, the open- 
ing of the Erie canal and all the developments of the Empire state and its chief 
cit}- would have been long postponed, even if commerce and empire had not 
been divei-ted into other channels. Any attempt at the settlement of the co\in- 
try while still under Indian rule would have pi'odueed an unendurable state of 
affairs, much worse than any Transvaal problem. Being abandoned by the 
British government, the Iroquois had, at the end of the Revolution, no defense 
except the generosity of the American people. ' ' 

Too often, in the public mind, the Indian is set down as a cruel monster. It 
is true that words cannot portray the cruelty of many of their acts, but can it 
be said that white men are able to throw the first stone ? Go to the receptacles 
for relics of the dark ages in Europe. You will find there instruments of tor- 
ture, than which nothing can be invented more terrible. To come nearer home, 
we may find that there were no acts of the Iroquois more brtital than those 
of the whites who sided with the British in the struggle for independence. 

Over against the tortures wliich the Indians inflicted upon their captives, 
place the following examples of the white man's mode of warfare: Sir Guy 
Carlton, governor general of Canada, was commissioned to wage war on land 
and sea against "all enemies, pirates or rebels either in or out of the province, 
to take them and put them to death, or preserve them alive, at his discretion. " ' 




Kiev. KLEA/.EU WILLIAMS Al' IT VKAKS 
OF AGE 

( Siiiipnsed to lie tlie I >auiiliiii i>f France) 




'I'llE DAII'IIIX OF FUAXCK 

(I. oris XVll I 

I'l-uiii .1 iiaiiilin?; 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 13 

In connection with this it is to lie remembered that the Rritisli government paid 
live dollars apiece for scalps of men, women or children. On one occasion a 
British captain shipped to Albany 154 dried scalps, and demanded the reward. 

Take also a specilic act. In 1778, while the Indians were prowling around 
Schoharie, they killed and scalped a mother and several children. At this .junc- 
tion a party of loyalists came up to the place, and discovered an infant in its 
cradle. An Indian warrior, noted for his barbarity, approached the cradle 
with his uplifted tomahawk. The babe looked into his lace and smiled ; the 
tomahawk fell with his arm, and he was about stooping down to take the 
child in his arms, when one of the tories, cursing him for liis humanity, thrust 
his bayonet through the smiling child and held him up struggling in death, ex- 
claiming, "This, too is a rebel." 

Very much has been written in regard to the bad side of the Indian, but 
very little in his behalf. It would not be just to place the Iroquois, and particu- 
larly the Oneida nation, in the class with ordinary Indians. Many leaders 
among the Iroquois were great and good men. Foremost was Joseph Brant — 
Thayendanegea. His prominence, ability and character demand that he should 
receive a more extended notice than any other man among the Indians. He 
was the son of a ]\Iohawk chief. It has been claimed frequeutly, in consequence 
of the eminence of Brant, that he was at least partly white, but this is error. 
In one of his letters he expressly states that he was a Mohawk. His father's 
name was Tehowaghwengaraghln^'in, and he was born on the Ohio river in 
17'42, but the home of his father was the castle at Canajoharie. He was edu- 
cated at the school of Reverend Doctor Eleazer Wheelock at Lebanon, Connecti- 
cut. He acted as an interpreter for Reverend Charles J. Smith, missionary to 
the ^Mohawks, and was afterward private secretary to Sir John Johnson. He 
took part in the early wars in which the Mohawks engaged, and it is claimed 
by some that he was elected head war chief of the Six Nations. It has been 
claimed by others that he never was properly elected to that office, but that by 
his great ability he was accepted as the head war chief, and was the head com- 
mander of the war parties of the Iroquois. It was very largely through his 
influence that the great portion of the league took sides with England in the 
war of the revolution. 

Unlike many other chiefs he was humane in his treatment of prisoners, on 
many occasions saving the lives of captives in opposition to his own people, 
and frequently hazarding his own life to accomplish this end. He has 
been charged with being cruel and taking part in the massacre at Wyoming, 
but history establishes beyond any question that he was not present at that 
time. It is true that with his own hand he killed Colonel Wisner, but from his 
standpoint he did it as a merciful act, as Wisner had been mortally wounded, 
and, rather than to leave him upon the field to suffer. Brant struck him with his 
tomahawk and instantly ended his misery and life. It has been charged against 
him as an act of cruelty that he killed his own son. It is true that his own son 
died from a slight wound inflicted by his father, but the facts are as follows: 
The son was a degenerate, a drunkard and a murderer. He had frequently 
threatened his father's life, and in one of his debauches he attacked his father 
with a knife. In resisting the attack, the father drew his own knife, struck the 



14 HISTORY OF OXEIDA COUNTY 

son. aud cut him slightly ou top oi' the head. Several days afterwards blood 
poisouing set iu, and from the elfeet of this the mau died. Braut gave himself 
up, was tried, acquitted, and he received the condolence and sympathy of the 
court that tried him. This was a great source of sorrow through all the re- 
maining years of his life. It is said that he had been frequently known to 
weep over it. 

Brant was present at the Cherry Valley massacre, but did all he could to 
prevent cruelty. It is reported that on entering one of the houses Walter 
Butler ordered a woman and child, who were in l)ed, to be killed. Brant inter- 
fered and said, "\Yhat! kill a woman and child I no! that child is not an enemy 
to the king nor a friend to congress. Long before he will be big enough to do 
any mischief the dispute will be settled." 

After the war Brant settled in Canada, devoted his life to good works, and 
received marked attention from eminent men in England and America. He 
translated a portion of the Scriptures into the ^Mohawk language; was a mem- 
ber of the Episcopal church ; built a church for his people ; manifested a deep 
interest in charitable work, and contributed libei-ally of his means to all good 
causes. 

One would scarcely think of taking counsel on high moral subjects of an 
Indian, even in our day. but Brant, on one occasion, was asked to give his opin- 
ion ou the question of whether or not civilization is conducive to happiness. His 
answer is so remarkable that it is given in part below. It is scarcely surpassed 
in elevation of thought and power of expression by any philosopher, either 
ancient or modern. He said: 

"You ask me, then, whether in my opinion civilization is favorable to hu- 
man happiness ? In answer to the question, it may be answered, that there are 
degrees of civilization, from cannibals to the most polite of European nations. 
The question is not. then, whether a degree of refinement is not conducive to 
happiness: but whether you. or the natives of this land, have obtained this 
happy mediiun. On this sub.ject we are at present. I presume, of ver.v dif- 
ferent opinions. You will, however, allow me in some respects to have had the 
advantage of .vou in forming my sentiments. I was. sir. born of Indian pai'ents, 
and lived while a child among those whom you are pleased to call savages; 
I was afterwards sent to live among the white people, and educated at one of 
your schools : since whicli period I have beeu honored nuu>h beyond my desei'ts, 
bj' an acquaintance with a number of principal characters both iu Europe and 
America. After all this experience, and after every exertion to divest myself 
of pre.iudice. I am obliged to give my opinion in favor of my own people. I 
will now, as much as I am able, collect together, and set before you, some of 
the reasons that have influenced my judgment ou the subject now before us. 
In the government you call civilized, the liaiipiness of the people is con- 
stantly sacrificed to the splendor of empire. Hence your codes of criminal and 
civil laws have had their origin: hence your dungeons and prisons. I will not 
enlartre on an idea so singular in civilized life, and perhaps disagreeable to you, 
and will only observe, that among us we have no prisons; we have no pompous 
parade of courts ; we have no written laws ; and yet .iudges are as highly revered 
amongst us as they arc among you. and their decisions are as much regarded. 








THE GUKAT MOHAWK ClllIOF, .TOSKI'll I'.KAXT 



AST - 
TlUDtN iOUi^UAi:^. - j 



L 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 15 

Property, to say the least, is as well guarded, and crimes are as impartially pun- 
ished. W(' luive among us no splendid villains above the (control of our laws. 
Daring wickedness is here never sullercd to triumpli over helpless innocence. 
The estates of widows and orphans are never devoured by enterprising sharpers. 
In a word, we have no robbery under the color of law. No person among us de- 
sires any other rewnrd for performing a brave and worthy action, i)ut the 
consciousness of having served his nation. Our wise men are called Fathers; 
they truly sustain that character. They arc; always accessible, I will not say 
to the meanest of our people, for we have none mean but such as render them- 
selves so by their vices. 

"The i)ahi('es and prisons among you form a most dreadful contrast. Go to 
the former places, and you will see perhaps a (U formed puce of rarfli assum- 
ing airs that become none but the Great Spirit above. Go to one of your 
prisons; here description utterly fails! Kill them, if you please; kill them, too, 
by tortures; but let the torture last no longer than a day. Those you call 
savages relent; the most furious of our tormentors exhausts his rage in a few 
hours, and dispatches his unhappy victim with a sudden stroke. Perhaps it is 
eligible that incorrigible offenders should sometimes be cut ofT. Let it be done 
in a way that is not degrading to human nature. Let such unhappy men have 
an opportunity, by their fortitude, of making an atonement in some measure 
for the crimes they have committed during their lives. 

"But for what are many of your prisoners confined? — for debt! — astonish- 
ing!— and will you ever again call the Indian nations cruel? Liberty, to a 
rational creature, as uuich exceeds property as the light of the sun does that 
of the most twinkling star. But you put them on a level, to the everlasting 
disgrace of civilization. I knew, while I lived among the white people, many of 
the most amiable contract debts, and I dare say with the best intentions. Both 
parties at the time of the contract expect to find their advantage. The debtor, 
we will suppose by a train of unavoidable misfortunes, fails; here is no crime, 
nor even a fault ; and yet your laws put it in the power of the creditor to throw 
the debtor into prison and confine him there for life ! a punishment infinitely 
worse than death to a brave man ! And I seriously declare, I had rather die 
by the most severe tortures ever inflicted on this continent, tlian languish in one 
of your prisons for a single year. Great Spirit of the Universe ! — and do .you 
call j'ourselves Christians? Does then the religion of Him whom you call your 
Saviour, inspire this spirit, and lead to these practices? Surely, no. It is re- 
corded of him, that a bruised reed he never broke. Cease, then, to call your- 
selves Christians, lest yoii publish to the world your hypocricy. Cease, too, to 
call other nations savages, when you are tenfold more the children of cruelty 
than they." 

If space permitted much more could be said concerning the acts, ability and 
character of this remarkable man. 

Among the characteristics of the Iroquois chiefs and head men were dignity, 
self control and eloquence. 

About 1800, a religious reformer appeared among the Iroquois. He claimed 
a divine mission, and wrought a revolution among the Indians by his great 
personality and high moral teaching. He was called Ga-ne-o-di'-yo or "Hand- 



16 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

some Lake." He was a Seneca sachem of the highest class. He also had a 
descendant who was their great religious teacher and who was called So-se-ha'-wa. 
No better idea can be conveyed of the ability of those two men than to quote 
portions of their sermons. As the Indians had no written language, the teach- 
ings or addresses of their religious teacher were handed down by tradition, 
and the teachings of " Handsome Lake" were delivered to the league through 
a grandson, So-se-ha-wii. He recited these speeches precisely the same, as is 
reported by those who heard him, on many occasions. The following is So-se- 
ha-wii "s introduction to one of his speeches, in which he recites what he claims 
to have been the teachings of his grandfather : 

"Chiefs, warriors, women and children — "We give you a cordial welcome. 
The sun has advanced far in his path, and I am warned that my time to in- 
struct you is limited to the meridian sun. I must therefore hasten to perform 
my duty. Turn your minds to the Great Spirit, and listen with strict attention. 
Think seriously upou wliat I am about to speak. Reflect upon it well, that it 
may benefit you and your children. I thank the Great Spirit that he has 
spared the lives of so many of you to be present on this occasion. I retiirn 
thanks to him that my life is yet spared. The Great Spirit looked down from 
heaven upon the sufferings and the wanderings of his red children. He saw 
they had greatly decreased and degenerated. He saw the ravages of the fire- 
water among them. He therefore raised up for them a sacred instructor, who 
having lived and traveled among them for sixteen years, was called from his 
labors to enjoy eternal felicity with the Great Spirit in heaven." 

Sose-ha-wii then, at great length, presented the teaching of his grandfather, 
but we can only here give a very small portion of the address, and that only 
for the purpose of showing the eloquence and deep religious thought contained 
in it: 

"I have a message to deliver to you. The servants of the Great Spirit have 
told me that I should yet live upon the earth to become an instructor to my 
people. Since the creation of man, the Great Spirit has often raised up men 
to teach his children what thej' should do to please him; but they have been 
unfaithful to their trust. I hope I shall profit by their example. Your Creator 
has seen that you have transgressed greatly against his laws. He made man 
pure and good. He did not intend that he should sin. You commit a great sin 
in taking the fire-water. The Great Spirit says that you must abandon this 
enticing habit. Your ancestors have brought great misery and suffering upon 
you. They first took the fire-water of the white man, and entailed upon you 
its consequences. None of them have gone to heaven. The fire-water does not 
belong to you. It was made for the white man beyond the great waters. For 
the white man it is a medicine, but they too iiave violated the will of their 
Maker. The Great Spirit says that drunkenness is a great crime, and he forbids 
you to indulge in this evil habit. His command is to the old and young. The 
abandonment of its use will relieve much of your sufferings, and greatly in- 
crease the comfort and happiness of your children. The Great Spirit is grieved 
that so much crime and wickedness should defile the earth. There are many 
evils which he never intended should exist among his red children. The Great 
Spirit has, for many wise reasons, withheld from man the number of his days; 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 17 

l)ut he has not h'i't hiiu wilhoiit a t^iiidc, for he has jtointcd out 1o him the path 
in which he may safely tread the journey of life. 

"When the Great Spirit made man, he also made woman. Tie instituted 
marriage, and enjoined upon them to love each other, and he faithful. It is 
pleasing to him to see men ami women obey his will. Your ('reator ahhors a 
deceiver and hypocrite. 

"By obeying his commands >ou will die an c^asy and a liajjpy death. When 
the Great Spirit instituted marriage, he ordained to bless those who were faith- 
ful with children. Some women were unfruitful, and others became so by mis- 
fortune. Such have great opportunities to do nnicli good. There are many 
orphans, and many poor children whom they can adopt as their own. If you 
tie up the clothes of an orphan child, the Great Spirit will notice it, and re- 
ward you for it. Should an orphan ever cross your path, be kind to him, and 
treat him with tenderness, for this is right. Parents must constantly teach 
their children morality, and a reverence for their Creator. * * * 

"When a child is born to a husband and wife, they must give great thanks 
to the Great Spirit, for it is his gift, and an evidence of his kindness. Let par- 
ents instruct their children in their duty to the Great Spirit, to their parents, 
and to their fellow men. Children should obey their parents and guardians, 
and submit to them in all things. Disobedient children occasion great pain 
and misery. They wound their parents' feelings, and often drive them to 
desperation, causing them great distress, and final admission into the place of 
evil spirits. The marriage obligations should generate good to all who have 
assumed them. Let the married be faithful to each other, that when they die 
it may be in peace. Children should never permit their parents to suffer in 
their old age. Be kind to them, and support them. The Great Spirit re- 
quires all children to love, revere and obey their parents. To do this is highly 
pleasing to him. The happiness of parents is greatly increased by the affec- 
tion and the attentions of their children. To abandon a wife or children is a 
great wrong, and produces many evils. It is wrong for a father or mother-in- 
law to vex a son or daughter-in-law ; but they should use them as if they were 
their own children. It often happens that parents hold angry disputes over 
their infant child. This is also a great sin. * * * 

"All men w-ere made equal by the Great Spirit; but he has given to them a 
variety of gifts. To some a pretty face, to others an ugly one ; to some a comely 
form, to others a deformed figure. Some are fortunate in collecting around 
them worldly goods. But you are all entitled to the same privileges, and there- 
fore must put pride from among you. You are not your own makers, nor 
the builders of you own fortunes. All things are the gifts of the Great Spirit 
and to him must be returned thanks for their bestowal. He alone must be 
acknowledged as the giver. It has pleased him to make differences among 
men ; but it is wrong for one man to exalt himself above another. Love each 
other, for you are all brothers and sisters of the same great family. The Great 
Spirit enjoins upon all, to observe hospitality and kindness, especially to the 
needy and the helpless; for this is pleasing to him. If a stranger wanders 
about your abode, speak to him with kind words; be hospitable towards him, 
welcome him to your home, and forget not always to mention the Great Spirit. 



18 HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 

lu the inoruing give thanks to the Great Spirit for the return of day. and 
the light of tlie sun ; at night renew your thanks to him, that his ruling power 
has preserved you from harm during the day. and that night has again come, 
on which you may rest your wearied bodies.* * * 

"Speak evil of no one. If you can say no good of a person, then be silent. 
Let not your tongues betray you into evil. Let all be mindful of this; for 
these are the words of our Creator. Let \is strive to cultivate friendship with 
those who surround us. This is pleasing to the Great Spirit. * * * " 

He then ceases to quote from "Handsome Lake," and closes his own ad- 
dress as follows: 

"The four messengers further siiid to Handsome Lake, they were fearful 
that, unless the people repented and obeyed his commands, the patience and 
forbearance of their Creator would be exhausted : that he would grow angry 
with them, and cause their increase to cease. 

"Our Ci'eator made light and darkness. He made the sun to beat, and shine 
over the world. He made the moon, also, to shine by night, and to cool tlie 
world, if the sun made it too hot by daj'. The keeper of the clouds, bj' direc- 
tion of the Great Spirit, will then cease to act. The keeper of the springs and 
running brooks will cease to rule them for the good of man. The sun will 
cease to fulfil its office. Total darkness will then cover the earth. A great 
smoke will rise, and spread over the face of the earth. Then will come out of 
it all monsters, and poisonous animals created by the evil-minded ; and they, 
with the wicked upon the earth, will perish together. 

"B\it before this dreadful time shall come, the Great Spirit will take home 
to himself all the good and faithful. They will la.v themselves down to sleep, 
and from this sleep of death, they will rise, and go home to their Creator. Tims 
they said. 

"I have now done. I close thus, that you may remember and understand 
the fate which awaits the earth and the unfaithful and unbelieving. Our Creator 
looks down upon us. The four Beings from above see us. The.v witness with 
pleasure this assemblage, and rejoice at the object for wliich it is gathered. It 
is now forty-eight .vears since we first began to listen to the renewed will of 
our Creator. I have been luiable during the time alloted to me. to rehear.se all 
the savings of Ga-ne-o-di'-yo. I regret very much that you cannot hear tliem 
aU. 

"Counsellors, warriors, women and children — I have done. I thank you 
all for your attendance, and for your kind and patient attention. Jlay the 
Great Spirit, who rules all things, watch over and protect j'ou from every harm 
and danger, while you travel tlie journey of life. INfa.v tlie Great Spirit bless 
you all, and bestow upon you life, health, peace and prosperitx-; and may .vou, 
in turn, appreciate his great goodness. Naho'." 

The eloquence of the Iroquois was also frequently shown in conversation. 
It is related of Honc-yost, or Ilonaguwus, an Oneida chief, that when he heard 
the Revolutionary war was ended he said: "The Great Spirit spoke to the 
whirhrind, and it was still." 

In one of the councils called by Samuel Kirkland to further education 
among them, one of the chiefs said: "You, my friends, are increasing, and we 





Iriii|ui)is ( ;irl. (;:i-luili-ii(i. 
ill idsiiiiiic 



Iriiiiuois Inili;Mi yiiuii:; 111:111. 

I>M-m1i-iIi'-M. ill c■I^SlUllll■ 




IiiMliiois liidiMii iKHisf Ga-uo-sutc 




IriM|\i(iis iiriiiiiiiiMifiil \vnrl<. (ios-lo-wcli 
cir licnililrt'ss 



:^ 's^ • 













I irii.iiiiciitiil work of the Inxiiiciis 

Iiiiliniis ni)oii Inu-Uskiu with 

inudseluiir :mil iioi'eii|iiiie 

iiuills 




(;:i-k:i-.ili or skirt 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 19 

are decreasing. Our canoes were once on the rivei's ami lakes, vvliicii ai-e now 
full of your great ships. The land which you bought of us for a trifle you now 
sell for thousands of dollars. Your villages and groat cities cover the land 
where once rose the smoke of our wigwams. Why this difference? It is the 
curse of the Great Spirit resting upon us for some unknown sin." 

Much has been said and written upon the subject of the United States tak- 
ing the lands of the Indians without proper compensation. Undoubtedly there 
were many abuses in regard to purchasing land of the Indians, but there is 
one phase of the question which is rarely mentioned, and which presents the 
situation in a dift'erent light, so far as the government of the United States is 
concerned and the Iroquois nations. 

It must be remembered that all of the nations of the Irocpiois league, ex- 
cept the Oneidas and a portion of the Tusearoras, took sides with England; 
that by the treaty of peace between Great Britain and the United States all 
the territory controlled by the Iroquois was ceded by Great Britain to this 
govei-nmeut. The Five Nations, which had cast their lot with England and 
had been conquered in the war, had, according to the rules of war, forfeited 
their domain to their conquerers. The United States, therefore, had the right to 
insist on the forefeiture of all the land controlled l)y the ilohawks, Onondagas, 
CajMigas and Senecas. The Tusearora nation was divided, and if the imfriendly 
part controlled any territory, that, also, belonged to the United States govern- 
ment for the same reason. The Oneidas and a portion of the Tusearoras were in 
a very different situation, and were entitled to the greatest consideration on 
the part of the government. 

Largely through the influence of Washington and General Schuyler the 
unfriendly Indians were accorded merciful treatment. They had been aban- 
doned by their friends, the English, and were left without any protection from 
the United States government. After many negotiations between representa- 
tives of the Iroquois and the Federal government a settlement was made of the 
whole question, and the lands of the unfriendly Indians were ceded to the 
United States, except such reservations as had been agreed upon between the 
contracting parties. 

The services rendered by the Oneidas to the colonies cannot well be ovei*- 
estimated. As guides, scouts and spies they many times did what white men 
could not have accomplished. They also aimed to prevent cruelties, and ren- 
dered protection to the white settlers in the valley of the Mohawk. They carried 
on the war on the principle of civilized nations. 

Stone, in his life of Joseph Brant, says of them : ' ' They neither luirt the 
women, children or old men, nor took the scalps of those whom they killed. 
'We do not take scalps,' said one of their chiefs, 'and we hope you are now 
convinced of our friendship to you in your great cause.' " 

In 1823 a large number of the Oneidas removed to Green Bay, Wisconsin. 
They were opposed to the removal, but were helpless to resist. The government 
concluded a treaty with them and the Tusearoras, giving them aboiit 65,000 
acres of land near Green Bay, Wisconsin, in exchange for their territory in the 
state of New York. 

In opposing the removal the eloquent Oneida chief, Daniel Bread, among 



20 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

other things, said to the governor of this state: "Father, the white men are 
powerful and they are rich. You can turn the rivers of the waters ; you can dig 
away the mountains; why then do you want the little spot that we have? It 
is but a little time since, and we possessed the whole country ; now you have 
gained all but a few spots. "Why will you not permit us to remain?" 

The mai-ch of civilization, however, said that the Indian must go, and they 
sorrowfully took their departure for their home in the west, where, on Green 
Bay, they were accorded a strip of land about eight or nine miles wide and 
twelve miles long. A small stream flowed through it, and there were fish, game 
and wild fowl there iu abundance. Here they have made their home since, and 
have learned more tlioroughly the ;ii-t of husbandry than they had known it 
before. 

Peace between the United States and England was concluded in 1783. In 
1795 a treaty was made with, the Oneidas, Onondagas and Cayugas, and the 
bounds of the lands of the Senecas were specified. The Oneidas, Tuscaroras 
and Stockbridge lutliaus were paid for their losses during the war at the 
same time. 

In 1796 it was estimated that there were 1,031 Oneida Indians still in New 
York. 

In 1845 Henry R. Schoolcraft was employed by the state to take a census of 
the Indians. He reported 210 Oneidas in this state and 722 in Wisconsin. The 
government census of 1890 showed 212 Oneidas in this state, and the census 
of 1910 showed only 37 Oneidas within the county of Oneida, while at the pres- 
ent time, 1911, there are only about 100 still remaining within the state. 
These are all that now remain within this commonwealth of the once famous 
and powerful 0-na-yote-ka-o-no. 



CHAPTER II 

FRENCH-ENGLISH-INDIAN WAR 

In 1754 the controversy between Great Britain and France had taken such 
shape that it was evident war in America between them was imminent. The 
Iroquois Confederation was an important factor to be considered, and the Brit- 
ish ministry advised the Colonies to secure, if possible, the support of the Six 
Nations. 

The Colonies were notified to send representatives to a council to be held at 
Albany in 1754, but only seven of them responded to the call. It was to this 
council that the plan of confederation among the colonies, prepared by Dr. 
Franklin, was submitted and adopted by the council, but afterward rejected 
by the colonies themselves, acting independently of each other. 

An amicable agreement was made by the English and the Six Nations for 
mutual support against the French. With the English upon one side and the 
French upon the other there was continuous controversy and some armed con- 
flicts, although no declaration of war had been made, and this condition con- 
tinued for more than a year, without either side gaining any especial advantage 
over the other. 

Then followed the disastrous year of 1755, for the British. Braddock was 
defeated and slain at Fort Duquesne. General John Winslow, with 3,000 
men, sailed from Boston for the Arcadian country, landed at the head of the 
Bay of Fonda, and was joined there by Colonel Monckton and about 400 reg- 
ulars. He then took and destroyed the settlements of the Arcadians and car- 
ried away the people. This expedition of Winslow 's has ever been severely 
condemned, and lias furnished rich material for song and story. 

It was in this year that Governor Shirley of Massachusetts, then connnand- 
er-in-chief of the British forces in America, made his expedition to Oswego, 
intending to take Niagara and Frontenac, but failed. 

Sir William Johnson also undertook the capture of Crown Point, but failed, 
although he repelled the attack of Baron Dieskau, who, with about 2,000 Cana- 
dians and Indians had come from Montreal to drive the English from that 
part of the country. 

Up to this time no important military encounter between the English and 
French had occurred in the Mohawk valley. Forts Craven, Bull, Williams 
and Newport had been erected, in whole or in part, at Rome, and some prepa- 
ration had been made by the colonies for the impending arbitrament of arms. 
New York was destined to be the principal place of conflict. The colony, by 
its legislature, voted to raise a liberal sum to carry on the war and to raise 
2,680 men, and offered a bounty of 15 pounds for each volunteer. 

21 



•22 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

In 1756 M. De Lery, in command of about 362 men, of which about 100 
were Indians, having passed from jMontreal by the way of Ogdensburg and 
the Black river and thou by hind to what is now Rome, captured and destroyed 
Fort Bull. This fort was located on Wood creek near the westerly terminal 
of the "Carrying Place." De Lery reached this vicinity on March 27, early 
in the morning, attacked Fort Bull garrisoned by about 60 men. captured the 
fort, a large quantity of stores and ammunition, put nearly the whole garrison 
to death, and escaped with substantially no loss to himself. 

Fort AVilliams was situated on the ]\Iohawk, and was not attacked by De 
Lery. The distance between Fort Williams and P''ort Bull is supposed to have 
been between two and four miles. The history of Fort Williams is somewhat 
uncertain. It was said to have been much more formidable than Fort Bull, 
init little more is known about its early history. 

This incursion of De Lery's resulted in a loss of one soldier and one Indian 
killed and five men woimdcd. while tlie loss to the English is said to have been 
ninety men, of which only thirty were made prisoners. It was estimated by 
the French commander that be had destroyed about 40,000 pounds of powder. 

At about this time a conference of the Six Nations was held at the resi- 
dence of Sir William Johnson at Johnstown, with reference to the political 
situation. Sir William also visited the Oneida Indians in June, and met the 
representatives of the Iroquois League at Onondaga July 19, 1756. On his 
return fi-om the council he stopped with the Oneidas and heard their com- 
plaints against Captain Williams, who was the commander of Foi-t Williams, 
and the ofiScer in whose honor the fort was named. It does not aj^pear what 
the complaints were, but soon thereafter he was relieved from command and 
placed upon half pay. 

It was during this summer that Colonel Bradstreet made his ascent of the 
Mohawk for the purpose of re-enforcing and carrying mxinitions of war to 
Oswego. He left Albany in June with 200 men, a number of boats and 32 
cannon, together with ammunition and supplies, as it had then been deter- 
mined to fortify at Oswego. He reached his destination July 1, and three 
days after, started on his I'etnrn. He had proceeded only about ten miles 
when he was suddenly attacked at Battle Island, July 3, by a body of French 
under M. de Villiares, but he repulsed the assault with severe loss, and has- 
tened back through the IMohawk valley to Albany. Lieutenant, afterwards 
General Philip Schuyler accompanied this expedition. 

Sir William Johnson, Colonel Bradstreet and Cteneral Schuyler endeavored, 
in vain, to convince the Earl of Loudon, then the commaiuler-in-ehief, of the 
necessity of protecting the Mohawk valley by an armed force. Their warn- 
ing was unheeded for some time. They also used their endeavor to convince 
Loudon that Oswego was a strategic point, to be well fortified and guarded. 

Too tardily did Loudon awake to the necessity of doing what had been 
recommended by his subordinates, but at last he sent Colonel Webb, with a 
force of about 1,500 men, up the Mohawk valley to Oswego to re-enforce the 
garrison and to repel the threatened attack l)y tiie French. Assistance did not 
arrive, Oswego was attacked by Montcalm ; its commander, Colonel Mercer, 
was killed, and the garrison was compelled to surrender. The Frencli report 




SITE OF FORT STAXWIX. CAXXO.X MAKKI.\<; Till': SOI'TIIWKST I'.ASTIOX. 

THK i:rii,Tiix(; is xow tiik iiomk ci.nt 



FORT STANWIX. 



doale 




HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 23 

states that "the Indians perpetrated a multitude of horrors and assassinated 
more than a huudivd persons ineluded in the capitulation, without our heiug 
able to prevent or having the right to remonstrate." 

Colonel Webb had proceeded as far as Wood creek when lie heard that Os- 
wego had fallen. When he received this news he destroyed all the forts at the 
Carrying Place, caused trees to be felled across Wood creek to impede the 
progress of Montcalm's army should he, as was expected, make an advance 
from Oswego to the Moluiwk valley, and then hastened with all speed back to 
Albany, to the disgust of his Indian allies. 

Sir William Johnson had been ordered by Loudon to go to the assistance 
of Webb, but it was too late. Webb was already upon his retreat before John- 
son could render any assistance. For his conduct Webb has been severely 
criticised, as having been a coward or utterly incompetent. 

Up to this time the war had gone decidedly against the English. The 
French held Oswego, Niagara, Ticonderoga, Crown Point, and, after the re- 
treat of Webb, the Mohawk valley was virtually abandoned by the British. 

M. de Bellestre. with a body of French Canadians and Indians, made in- 
roads into the Mohawk valley in 1757. He passed down the valley in Novem- 
ber, and on the 12th destroyed the village of German Flats, took several small 
fortifications, and returned entirely unmolested. He destroyed much prop- 
erty, killed about 40 of the inhabitants, and carried away about 150 more. 

General Abercrombie, then in full command of the British forces, had 
been warned by Johnson and the Indians of the threatened attack by de Belles- 
tre, but paid no attention to the warning. 

In 1758 General Stanwix was sent to the Carrying Place to build a fort. 
Poniroy Jones, in his~^\nnals of Oneida County," says that this fort cost 
60,000 pounds, and that it was built on the most "approved scientific principles 
of military engineering, having four bastions surrounded by a broad ditch 
eighteen feet deep, with a covert way and glaees. In the center of the ditch 
was a row of perpendicular pickets, and a horizontal row from the ramparts." 
It is stated by Lossing (page 198), that Colonel Bradstreet, when on his 
return from Frontenac with his troops, assisted in building this fortification. 
Bradstreet had been sent with 8,000 men to take Frontenac, now Kingston, 
Canada. This he accomplished without serious resistance, captured the fort, 
garrison and shipping, losing only three or four men. Afterwards, however, 
he lost a large number of his men by sickness. It is estimated that about 500 
died, and the sickness is supposed to have been caused by bad water. 

The progress of the war during 1758 had been most favorable to the Eng- 
lish. In the next year, 1759, a determined efl'ort was made by the English 
government to drive the French from the continent. The commander-in-chief, 
Jeffrey Amherst, with a strong force, drove the French from Ticonderoga 
and northward into Canada. Wolfe defeated Montcalm at Quebec, and Gen- 
eral Prideaux, with Sir William Johnson as second in command, undertook 
the capture of Niagara. He had 3,100 soldiers and Indians, and on July 20 
he commenced the attack, and was killed the first day. Johnson immediately 
assumed command, and handled his forces most skilfully. He was attacked 
in the rear by about 3,000 French and Indians, but repelled the attack, and 



24 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

the next day, July 25, the fort, with its garrison aud about 700 mou and a 
large quantity of supplies, was surrendered. Johnson was not able to procure 
transportation for his army, in order to re-enforce Wolfe at Quebec, so he re- 
turned to the ;\Iohawk valley. 

It was in this year that Fort Schuyler was built near the ford, which is 
now near the foot of Genesee street, Utica. Dr. Bagg, in his "Pioneers of Utica," 
describes this fort as follows: "This fort, which was designated to guard the 
fording place in the Mohawk river above it, was situated on the south bank, 
a very little distance southeast of the present intersection of Second street 
and the Central Railroad. The left bank of Ballou's creek, which joins tlie 
river just below, was formerly much depressed a short distance above its mouth, 
so as to form, in high water, a lagoon that must have reached almost to the 
walls of the fort, and thus have facilitated the landing and embarkation of 
troops. The fort consisted of an embankment surrounded by palisades, nearly 
all traces of which had disappeared at the time of the arrival of the first set- 
tlers, although its site could still be distingui.shed less than thirty years ago by 
the presence of a large apple tree that had been planted within the inclosuro. 
It was named in honor of Colonel Peter Schuyler, an uncle of General Philip 
Schuyler of the Revolution. During and subsequent to this war it went by 
the name of Old Fort Schuyler, to distingiiish it from another fortress erected 
at Rome, and which was sometimes known as Foi't Schuyler, though it had 
been christened and was therefore more correctly called Fort Stanwix." 

At the opening of the campaign of 1760 there were undertaken three grand 
operations by the British military forces for the purpose of dealing a ci'ush- 
ing blow to the French on the American continent. 

Vaudreuil. the French commander, concentrated his forces at ^Montreal. 
Amherst, with 10,000 men and 1,000 Indians under Sir William Johnson, 
passed up the Mohawk valley and on to Oswego, and advanced on Montreal. 
General Murray, with 4,000 men (Wolfe's army), arrived in front of the city 
on the same day, September 6 ; on the very next day, Colonel Haviland arrived 
with 3,000 men, making a combined force of nearly 17,000. Against this for- 
midable army resistance on the side of the French was useless, and on Septem- 
ber 8, 1760. Vaudreuil surrendered the city and all the French territory in 
Canada to the British government. 

Thus passed away the Frencli power in tlie American colonies. A continent 
had been lost and won; and, although no more fighting occurred between the 
British, French and Americans, the treaty of peace was not concluded between 
the two great nations until February 10, 1763, in Paris. From the surrender 
of Montreal until the stirrincr events of the Revolutionary war peace reigned 
in the Valley of the Jlohawk. 




FORT SCHUYLEi; (COUXKIt TARK AVKMI': AND MAIN STREET) 




SITE OF FORT BULL AT THE WESTERLY END OF THE CARRY ON FISH C'UEEK 



CHAPTER III 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR 



From 1760 to July 4, 1776, there had been many acts of the British govern- 
ment oppressive to the American colonies. An act had been passed imposing 
a duty upon sugar, coffee and other articles imported from the West Indies. 
The "Writ of Assistance," which authorized the searching of any citizen's 
house or store to tind therein goods imported without the payment of duty, 
had given rise to fierce opposition, and the famous Stamp Act had been im- 
posed upon the Americans. 

The eloquence of Patrick Henry of Virginia, and James Otis of Massa- 
chusetts in denunication of these measures was the vocal expression of what 
was in every patriot's mind. Public meetings were held to denounce these acts 
of oppression, and a congress of delegates from several of the colonies was held 
in New York in October, 1765, to put its condemnation of them in formal shape. 

On the first day of November, 1765, the Stamp Act was to take effect. The 
feeling of opposition was so intense that the day was set apart as a day of 
mourning. Bells were tolled, funeral processions paraded the streets, ships 
lowered their flags to half mast, buildings were draped in mourning, and other 
evidences of intense opposition were manifested throughout the colonies. 

It was expected that in the accession of William Pitt to the office of Premier 
of England some remedies would be applied, and such was the case, but these 
remedial acts did not allay the excitement caused by the ill-advised measures 
of prior ministries. The Pitt government insisted upon the fundamental prin- 
ciple, with others, of former ministries, that the government had the right to 
tax the colonies without their consent. 

This was intolerable to the Americans, and, so long as this principle was 
insisted upon by the home government, no reconciliation was possible. Even 
a duty on tea would not be tolerated. New York and Philadelphia refused to 
allow ships laden with this commodity to land their cargoes, and the renowned 
"Tea Party" of Boston might have occurred at any other seaport in the col- 
onies had occasion afforded an opportunity. 

As if an intent existed in Parliament to add fuel to the fire, it had enacted 
a bill closing the port of Boston to imports. It was also provided that the 
trial of Americans should be had in England instead of iu the colonies, and 
British troops were sent to Boston to enforce these obnoxious laws. 

Anglo-Saxon could not and would not longer submit. Then came Lexing- 
ton, Concord, Bunker Hill and July 4, 1776, the day above all others, on which 
Liberty, civil and religious, came into the world. 

It is probable that the first public assembly held in what is now Oneida 

25 



26 HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 

county to eousidor the grave (luestioiis which had arisen between tlie colouies 
and the mother country, was held iu July, 177-i, in the district of Tryou county. 
A committee was appointed at tliis time to confer with others and to take 
charge of operations. 

The spirit which liad been manifested elsewhere in the colonies existed also 
among the sturdy Germans and Hollanders who had settled along the fertile 
valley of the Mohawk. Sir William Johnson, who had great inHuence with 
them, died in 177-i. His death was very sudden, and it is claimed by Camp- 
bell, in his Annals, that it was caused by his own hand, because of the threatened 
contest between the king and the colonies, and realizing that he would soon 
be called upon to decide between his government and the colonies, he pre- 
ferred to die. Colonel Stone. Iiowever, in his life of Joseph Brant, sa.vs that 
Sir William died of apoplex.v. 

He was succeeded b}' his sou. Sir John, and he, with a nephew, Guy John- 
son, exerted all their influence with the Iroquois Indians to hold tliem to the 
side of the king iu the impending conflict. 

Philip Schuyler, Reverend Samuel Kirkland and General Nicholas Herki- 
mer were equally persistent in their efforts to indiice the Indians to side with 
the colouies, or, at least, to remain neutral. 

Nicholas Herkimer was chairman of the Tryon couut.v committee, and he 
was afterwards created a brigadier general, placed in command of the militia 
in the ^lohawk vallej^, and won immortality in the bloody ravine at Oriskany. 
As an evidence of the unsettled state of the public mind at this time it is a 
notable fact that Washington passed through the city of New York, on his wa.y 
to take command of the Continental army then at Boston, and was received 
with great attention. At the same time Govei'nor Tryou, intensel.v British in 
his sympathies, who had been on a visit to England, returned, and was ac- 
corded a cordial reception. 

Even at this time hopes were entertained that some satisfactory settlement 
of differences might be made without resort to arms. This hope was, however, 
illy foimded, and the Continental Congress commenced preparation for war, 
caUed for 20,000 men, and appointed major and brigadier generals, Philip 
Schuyler being named as one of the former and placed in command of the 
nortliern district, which included central New York. 

In 1775 Colonel Guy Johnson, with his armed force, passed up the Mo- 
hawk valley. He held a council with the Indians at Fort Stanwix. then went on 
to Oswego, and finally settled at ilontreal. With him were Colonel Butler and 
his son, Walter Butler. Joseph Brant, with his Indians, also .ioined Johnson 
at Oswego. 

Sir John Johnson, although an ardent royalist, remained at Jolinstowu and 
made preparation to defend his opinions by force of arms. The loyalists also 
commenced arming themselves, and were ready to accept the wager of war. 

The National Congress recognized the importance of Fort Stanwix, and 
had ordered it repaired. This work was done under the direction of Colonel 
Dayton by the Tryon county militia. 

The meeting between General Herkimer and Joseph Brant at Unadilla 
had been productive of no result; and, although it is probable that Herkimer 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 27 

had hoped to induce Brant to juin the colonists, or, at least, to reiiiaiu neutral, 
his hopes were doomed to (lisai)poiiitiueut. It is most probable that, iiad the 
great Mohawk chief east his lot with the Americans, tlie liistory of the Mo- 
hawk valley would have been a ditt'erent story. His ability and his influence 
with the Indians were so great that, undoubtedly, the Mohawlv nation would 
have followed his leadership, and, perhaps, tlie entire Jrtxpiois eonfetleraey. 
It was after his conference with Herkimer that IJrant joined <iuy Johnson at 
Oswego. 

The Tryon County Committee required of Sir John to declare himself either 
for or against the king. October 26, General Herkimer, as chairman of that 
committee, addressed a letter to him requesting the right to form military 
companies according to the regulations of the Continental Congress, and also 
asked "if your honor would be ready himself to give his personal assistance 
to the same purpose?" He also asked if Johnson would "hinder" the use of 
the public buildings of the county in the interest of the colonies. Johnson 
addressed Herkimer in a lengthy letter, which was entirely unsatisfactory to 
the committee. 

Johnson promised neuti'ality, but, being suspected of violating his prom- 
ise, a regiment of soldiers was sent to arrest him, and he fled with his family 
and retainers to Canada. His property and effects were afterwards confiscated 
by the colonies. At about this time an armed conflict occurred between the 
Patriots and Tories in Schoharie, and Tory as well as Patriot was arming in 
the Mohawk valley ready for the coming conflict. 

Although the Iroquois Indians had pledged themselves to neutrality, all 
but the Oneidas and a portion of the Tuscaroras soon cast their lot with the 
king. This was unquestionably largely due to the influence of Joseph Brant 
— Thayendanegea. 

Discouraging reports came from other parts of the country. Washington 
had been defeated in the battles of Long Island and White Plains, lost New 
York City, and retreated southward through New Jersey. The patriot cause 
had also fared illy in central New York, and at the beginning of the eventful 
year 1777, the condition of the Americans was desperate, bordering on a state of 
general hopelessness. 

Alarming reports kept the inhabitants of the Mohawk valley in constant 
fear of Indian and Tory depredations. Some of the Tories of central New York 
were contemplating leaving their homes and joining the king's forces. Others 
of the inhabitants, fearing the final outcome, placed themselves under the pro- 
tection of the loyalists. From the Schoharie country came distressing accounts 
and a call for help. 

Momentous consequences depended upon what should be done within the 
next few months. It was recognized in England, as well as in America, that 
a crisis in affairs between the two countries was at hand. 

The British ministry had planned a campaign for the summer of 1777 that 
was intended to put an end to the revolution in America. This plan was as 
follows: Sir Henry Clinton, who was in New York City, was to ascend the 
Hudson river with a considerable force to Albany ; Burgoyne, an able soldier, 
who was in Canada with about 7,000 men, was to pass southward along the 



28 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

west shore of Lake Chaniplaiii. capture Fort Tieouderoga, sweep down the 
Hudson valley and join Clinton at Albany; Colonel Barry St. Leger was to 
leave Oswego, eut his way through the forest, capture Fort Stanwix, pass 
down the Mohawk valley, lay that beautiful valley desolate, rouse the Tories 
and Indians on the way. and join forces with Clinton and Bnrgoyne at Albany. 
Speaking of the plan, ilr. E. S. Creasy, in his book entitled "Fifteen De- 
cisive Battles of the World, ' ' in discussing the battle of Saratoga, says : ' ' With- 
out question, the plan was ably formed : and. had the success of the execution 
been equal to the ingenuity of the design, the reconquest or submission of 
the thirteen United States must in all human probability have followed, and 
the independence which they proclaimed in 1776 would have been extinguished 
before it existed a second year. No European power had as yet come forward 
to aid America. It is true that England was generally regarded with jeal- 
ousy and ill will, and was thought to have acquired, at the treaty of Paris, 
a prepouderauce of dominion which was perilous to the balance of power; 
but though many were willing to wound, none had j'et ventured to strike ; and 
America, if defeated in 1777, would have been suffered to fall unaided." 

The defeat and capture of Burgoyne's army at Saratoga was made possible 
by two other events, which, at the time, were not considered as important by 
any means as subsequent occurrences proved them to be. The battles of Oris- 
kany and Bennington made Gates's victory over Burgoyne possible. 

During the summer of 1777 the British government was making its prep- 
aration to prosecute the war in America with greater vigor, and it was ap- 
parent that the state of New York was to be the battle ground, not only for 
that state and America, but for Republican institutions in the world. 

One of the principal acts in the tragedj- about to be pla.yed was to be per- 
formed in the valley of the Mohawk and in what is now Oneida county. The 
scene opened July 17, when General Herkimer issued his famous proclamation 
calling the inhabitants of Tryon county to arms. He announced the gathering 
of St. Leger 's army at Oswego, and called on those in health between 16 and 
60 j'cars of age to prepare for active service, and those over 60 to prepai'e to 
defend the women and children ; the disaffected were to be arrested, placed 
under guard, and required to join the main bodj' of his army. 

The Oneida Indians were most excited over the threatened invasion, and 
requested General Schuyler to send troops to Fort Stanwix (at this time Fort 
Schuyler), to defend it against St. Leger. The importance of St. Leger 's at- 
tempt to capture Fort Stanwix and desolate the Mohawk valley appears from 
the fact that it was planned in England, and was a part of the grand plan to 
crush the rebellion in the East ; and it was thought by the ministry that if 
the plan was successful, resistance to the royal authority would cease in the 
South without further bloodshed. By the king's command Lieutenant Col. Barry 
St. Leger was given 675 trained soldiers and a large number of Canadians and 
Indians, the last under the famous Jfohawk chief. Joseph Brant. The total 
force of St. Leger was slightly over 1,700. He had also eight pieces of artil- 
lery. The fort was commanded by Colonel Peter Gansevoort, with Lieutenant 
Colonel Marins Willett second in command. 

Before the arrival of St. Leger in the Mohawk valley the Indians had been 





coi.o.xKi. rirnoK (iAxsiovooKT 

I 'nnnii.'iiKlcr :il l''iirl Sl;iii\\i\ diiiiiiL' llic 
sicuc Uv Si. I.cu'ci- 



I.IKriKXANT COLOXKI. MAIMXIS 

\vii,i,i:tt 

Secoiiil ill (■oniiiiMiid III I'i'ii St.iiiwix 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 29 

skulking about near the Fort and coiiiniilling depredations and murder. Cap- 
tain Gregg and Corporal Jladison, who had gone out of the i'ort to shoot birds, 
were attacked, and Madison, killed and scalped, Gregg, shot and scalped, but 
survived. Soon after this three girls were picking berries near the fort and 
were attacked by Indians, two of them killed and the other wouudod. Colonel 
Gansevoort described the conditions of affairs in and about the fort in a letter 
to General Schuyler on July 4, and called for re-enforecments and supplies. 
The crimes of the Indians increased until no one could venture from the i'ort 
except well armed forces, and even one of these parties was attacked, _several 
of them killed, and the officer in command taken prisoner. 

Lieutenant Colonel Mellon had reached the fort with a re-enforcement of 
about 200 men the day before Joseph Brant, with his Indians, and Lieutenant 
Bird arrived at the head of St. Leger's advancing forces. Brant was so close 
upon Colonel Mellon that his Indians captured the officers in charge of the 
stores brought to the fort by Mellon. 

Colonel St. Leger, with the main body of his army, invested the fort on 
August 3. His force was made up of British regulars, Hessians, New York 
Loyalists, called "Johnsou's Greens," together with a number of Canadians 
and the Indians under Joseph Braut — Thayendanegea, Sir John Johnson, 
Colonel Claus and Colonel Butler. A flag was sent into the fort on August 3 
by St. Leger, and a pompous demand for a surrender was made. He offered 
employment to those who would join his standard, securitj' to the infirm, and 
payment in coin for all the supplies the people would bring to his camp, and 
in conclusion he said: "If, notwithstanding these endeavors and sincere in- 
clinations to effect them, the frenzy of hostility should remain, I trust I shall 
stand acquitted in the eyes of God and man in denouncing and executing the 
vengeance of the state against the wilful outcasts. The messengers of justice 
and of right await them in the field ; and devastation, famine and every con- 
comitant horror that a reluctant but indispensable prosecution of military duty 
must occasion, will bar the way to their return" This manifesto, however, 
produced no ei3fect upon the commandant of the fort, and the demand to sur- 
render was promptly I'efused. 

It is sometimes in the world's history that momentous consequences hang 
upon minor events. Such was the case with the defense of Fort Stanwix. It 
was an event, not only important to Oneida county, to the state of New York, 
to the national government, hut to the world. Cowardice or incompetency 
within the fort might have changed the history of America and the world. 
Had St. Leger succeeded, the Mohawk valley would have been at his feet, the 
tide would have turned in favor of the king, Burgoyne's defeat would most 
likely have been turned into a victory, Fi-anee would not liave given its essential 
aid to the American cause, and British arms would have prevailed. But abil- 
ity and superb courage within the fort, aided by the same qualities among 
the yeomanry of Tryon county, worked out most important results and changed 
the "tide of times." 

The fort was fully invested on August 4, and hostilities commenced. The 
Indians were scattered through the woods so as to entirelj' surround the fort, 
and at night kept up their hideous yelling. Through the Oneida Indians the 



30 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

inhabitauts ol' the valley had Ixtu in formed of llie ap]iroaeh of St. Leger, but 
not until their houses ami families were threatened by the invading army 
were they aroused suffieiently to rally to Herkimer's support. 

There have been many drsrrijitions of the battle of Oriskany aud the siege 
of Fort Stanwix both in history and in fiction. All of these descriptions are, 
in substance, taken from Colonel Stone's "Life of Joseph Brant," aud none 
of them have improved upon the description given in that excellent book, and 
we, therefore, quote his description in full : 

"No sooner was the advance of St. Leger upon Fort Schu.yler known to 
the committee and officers of Tryon county, than General Herkimer, in con- 
formity with the proclamation heretofore cited, summoned the militia of his 
command to the field, for the pui-pose of marching to the succor of the garri- 
son. Notwithstanding the despondency that had prevailed in the early part 
of the sununer. the call was nobly responded to, not only by the militia, but 
bj' the gentlemen of the county, and most of the members of the committee, 
who entered the field either as officers or private volunteers. The fears so 
generally and so recently indulged seemed all to have vanished with the arrival 
of the invader, and the genei-al soon found him.self at the head of between 
eight hundred and a thousand men, all eager for action and impatient of de- 
lay. Their place of rendezvous was at Fort Daj-ton (German Flats), in the 
upper section of the Mohawk valley — and the most beautiful. The regiments 
were those of Colonels Klock, Yisscher, Cox, and one or two others, augmented 
by volunteers and volunteer officers, who were pushing forward as though de- 
termined at all hazards to redeem the character of the county. Indeed, their 
proceedings were by far too impetuous, since they hurried forward in their 
march without order or precaution, without adequate flanking parties, and 
without reconnoitering the ground over which the.y were to pass. They moved 
from Fort Dayton on the 4th, aud on the 5th reached the neighborhood of 
Oriskany, where they encamped. From this point an express was sent for- 
ward by General Herkimer to apprise Colonel Gansevoort of his approach, 
and to concert measures of co-operation. The arrival of the express at the 
fort was to be announced by three successive discharges of cannon, the I'eport 
of which, it was .supposed, would be distinctly heard at Oriskany — only eight 
miles distant. Delays, however, iiitervened, so that the messengers did not 
reach the fort until ten or eleven o'clock the following morning: previous to 
which the camp of the enemy being uncommonly silent, a portion of their 
troops had been observed by the garrison to be moving along the edge of the 
woods down the river, in the direction of the Oriskany creek. The concerted 
signals were immediately fired ; ajul as the proposition of Herkimer was to 
force a passage to the fort, arrangements were innnediately made by Colonel 
Gansevoort to effect a diversion of the enemy's attention, by making a sally 
from tlie fort upon the hostile camp, for which purpose two hundred men were 
detailed, consisting one half of Gansevoort 's, and one half of the Massachu- 
setts troops, and one field piece — an iron three pounder. The execution of 
the enterprise was entrusted to Colonel AVillett. 

"It appears that on the morning of that day, whicli was the 6th of August, 
General Herkimer had misgivings as to the propriety of advancing any far- 




ST niio i>K cin.dNKr, (iANSKVooiri' i.N riiK I'Ai;k ai' kume 




/ 



// 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 31 

tlier without first receiving I'l'iiiroict'iueiits. His ot'iicers, liowcver, were eager 
to press forwai-d. A consultation was held, in which some of the officers mani- 
fested much impatience at any delay, while the general still urged them to 
remain where they were until reinforcements could come up, or at least until 
the signal of a sortie should be received from the fort. High words ensued, 
during which Colonels Cox and Paris, and many others, denounced their com- 
mander to his face as a Tory and coward. The brave old man calmly replied 
that he considered himself placed over them as a lather, and that it was not 
his wish to lead them into any difficulty from which he could not extricate 
them. Burning, as they now seemed, to meet the enemy, he told them roundly 
that they would run at his first appearance. But his remonstrances were un- 
availing. Their clamor increased, and their reproaches were repeated, until, 
stung by imputations of cowardice and a want of fidelity to the cause, and 
somewhat irritated withal, the General immediately gave the order — 'March 
on ! ' The words were no sooner heard than the troops gave a shout, and moved, 
or rather rushed forward. They marched in files of two deep, preceded by an 
advanced guard and keeping flanks upon each side. 

"Having, by 10 o'clock, proceeded rapidly forward to the distance of only 
two or three miles, the guards, both front and flanks, were suddenly shot down, 
the forest rang with the warwhoops of a savage foe, and in an instant the 
greater part of the division found itself in the midst of a formidable ambuscade. 
Colonel St. Leger, it appeared, having heard of the advance of General Herki- 
mer, in order to prevent an attack in his intrenchments, had detached a divi- 
sion of Sir John Johnson's regiment of Greens, under Sir John's brother-in-law, 
Major Watts, Colonel Butler with his Rangers, and Joseph Brant with a strong 
body of Indians, to intercept his approach. With true Indian sagacity, Thay- 
endanegea had selected a position admirably fitted for his purpose, which was, 
to draw the Americans, whom he well knew to be approaching in no very 
good military array, into an ambuscade. The locality favored his design. 
There was a deep ravine crossing the path which Herkimer with his undis- 
ciplined array was traversing, 'sweeping toward the east in a semi-circular 
form, and bearing a northern and southern direction. The bottom of this 
ravine was marshy, and the road crossed it by means of a causeway. The 
ground, thus partly enclosed by the ravine, was elevated and level. The am- 
buscade was laid upon the high ground west of the ravine.' 

"The enemy had disposed himself adroitly, in a circle, leaving only a narrow 
segment open for the admission of the ill-starred Provincials on their approach. 
The stratagem was successful. Unconscious of the presence of the foe, Herki- 
mer, with his whole army excepting the rear-guard, composed of Colonel Vis- 
scher's regiment, found himself encompassed at the first fire — the enemy clos- 
ing up the gap at the instant of making himself known. By thus early com- 
pleting the circle, the baggage and ammunition wagons, which had just de- 
scended into the ravine, were cut off and separated from the main body, as 
was also the regiment of Colonel Visscher, yet on the eastern side of the ra- 
vine; which, as their general had predicted, instantly and ingloriously fled, 
leaving their companions to their fate. They were pursued, however, by a 
portion of the Indians, and suffered more severely, probably, than they would 



32 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

have done, had they stood liy tlieir fellows in the hour of need, either to con- 
quer or to fall. 

"Being thrown into iri'etrievahle disorder by the suddenness of the sur- 
prise and the destructiveness of the tire, which was close and brisk from every 
side, the division was for a time threatened with annihilation. At every op- 
portunity the savages, concealed behind the trunks of trees, darted forward 
^\ith knife and tomahawk to ensure the destruction of those who fell; and 
many and fierce were the conflicts that ensued hand to hand. The veteran 
Herkimer fell, wounded, in the early part of the action— a musket ball having 
passed through and killed his horse, and shattered his own leg just below the 
knee. The general was placed upon his saddle, however, against the trunk of 
a tree for his support, and thus continued to order the battle. Colonel Cox, 
and Captains Davis and VanSluyek, were severally killed near the commence- 
ment of the engagement; and the slaughter of their broken ranks, from the 
rifles of the Tories and the spears and tomahawks of the Indians, was dread- 
ful. But even in this deplorable situation the wounded general, his men 
dropping like leaves around him, and the forest resounding with the horrid 
j'ells of the savages, ringing high and wild over the din of battle, behaved with 
the most perfect firmness and composure. The action had lasted about forty- 
five minutes in great disorder, before the Provincials formed themselves into 
circles in order to repel the attacks of the enemy, who were concentrating, and 
closing in upon them from all sides. From this moment the resistance of the 
Pro\-incials was more eflfective. and the enemy attempted to charge with the 
bayonet. The firing ceased for a time, excepting the scattering discharges of 
musquetry from the Indians; and as the bayonets crossed, the contest became 
a death struggle, hand to hand and foot to foot. Never, however, did brave 
men stand a charge with more dauntless courage, and the enemy for the mo- 
ment seemed to recoil — just at the instant when the work of death was ar- 
rested by a heavy shower of rain, which suddenly broke upon the combatants 
with great fury. The storm raged for upward of an hour, during which time 
the enemy sought such shelter as might be found among the trees at a respect- 
ful distance; for they had already suffered severely, notwithstanding the ad- 
vantages in their favor. 

"During this suspension of the battle, both parties had time to look about, 
and make .such new dispositions as they pleased for attack and defense, on 
renewing the murderous conflict. The Provincials, under the direction of 
their general, were so fortunate as to take possession of an advantageous piece 
of ground, upon which his men formed themselves into a circle, and as the 
shower broke away, awaited the movements of the enemy. In the early part 
of the battle, the Indians, whenever they saw a gun fired by a militiaman from 
behind a tree, rushed up and tomahawked him before he could reload. In or- 
der to counteract this mode of warfare, two men were stationed behind a 
single tree, one only to fire at a time — the other reserving his fire until the 
Indians ran up as before. The figlit was presently renewed, and by the new 
arrangement, and the cool execution done by the fire of the militia forming 
the main circle, the Indians were made to suffer severely; so much so, that 
they began to give way. when Major Watts came up with a reinforcement, 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 38 

consisting of another detachment of Johnson's Greens. These men were mostly 
loyalists, who had fled from Tryon county, now returned in arms against their 
former neighbors. As no quarrels are so bitter as those of families, so no wars 
are so cruel and passionate as those called civil. Many of the Provincials and 
Greens were known to each other; and as they advanced so near as to afford 
opportunities of mutual recognition, the contest became, if possible, more of 
a death struggle than before. Mutual resentments, and feelings of hate and 
revenge, raged in their bosoms. The Provincials tired upon them as they ad- 
vanced, and then springing like chafed tigers from their covers, attacked them 
with their bayonets and the butts of their muskets, or both parties in closer 
contact throttled each other and drew their knives; stabbing, and sometimes 
literally dying in one another's embrace. 

"At length a firing was heard in the distance from the fort, a sound as 
welcome to the Provincials as it was astounding to the enemy. Availing them- 
selves of the hint, however, a ruse-de-guerre was attempted by Colonel Butler, 
which had well-nigh proved fatal. It was the sending, suddenly, from the di- 
rection of the fort, a detachment of Greens disguised as American troops, in 
the expectation that they might be received as a timely reinforcement from 
the garrison. Lieutenant Jacob Sammons was the first to descry their approach, 
in the direction of a body of men commanded by Captain Jacob Gardenier — 
an officer who, during that memorable day, performed prodigies of valor. Per- 
ceiving that their hats were American, Sammons informed Captain Gardenier 
that succors from the fort were coming up. The quick eye of the Captain de- 
tected the ruse, and he replied — 'Not so; they are enemies; don't you see their 
green coats!' They continued to advance until hailed by Gardenier, at which 
moment one of his own soldiers, observing an acquaintance, and supposing 
him a friend, ran to meet him, and presented his hand. It was grasped, but 
with no friendly grip, as the credulous fellow was dragged into the opposing 
line, and informed that he was a prisoner. He did not yield without a strug- 
gle; during which Gardenier, watching the action and the result, sprang for- 
ward, and with a blow from his spear leveled the captor to the dust and lib- 
erated his man. Others of the foe instantly set upon him, of whom he slew the 
second and wounded a third. Three of the disguised Greens now sprang upon 
him, and one of his spurs becoming entangled in their clothes, he was thrown 
to the ground. Still contending, however, with almost superhuman strength, 
both of his thighs were transfi.xed to the earth by the bayonets of two of his 
assailants, while the third presented a bayonet to his breast, as if to thrust him 
through. Seizing this bayonet with his left hand, by a sudden wrench he 
brought its owner down upon himself, where he held him as a shield against 
the arms of the others, until one of his own men, Adam Miller, observing the 
struggle, flew to his rescue. As the assailants turned upon their new adver- 
sary, Gardenier rose upon his seat; and although his hand was severely lac- 
erated by grasping the bayonet which had been drawn through it, he seized 
his spear lying by his side, and quick as lightning planted it to the barb in the 
side of the assailant with whom he had been clenched. The man fell and ex- 
pired — proving to be Lieutenant M 'Donald, one of the loyalist officers from 
Tryon county. All this transpired in far less time than is necessarily occupied 

Vol. 1-8 g ijT, 



34 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

l)y tlu' rolatiiiii. Wliik' engaged in the struggle some of his own men called 
out to Gardeniur — 'i'or God's sake. Captain, you are killing your own men!' 
He replied — 'they are not our men — they are tlie enemy — (ire away!' A deadly 
fire from the Proviucials ensued, thiring wliicli al)ont thirty of the Greens 
fell slain, and many Indian warriors. The parties onee more rushed upon 
each other with hayonet and spear, grappling and lighting with terrible fury; 
while the shattering of shafts and the clashing of steel mingled with every 
dread sound of war and death, and the savage yells, more hideous than all, 
presented a scene which can be more easily imagined than described. The un- 
paralleled fortitude and bravery of Captain Gardenier infused fresh spirits 
into his men, some of whom enacted wonders of valor likewise. It happened 
during the melee, in which the contending parties were mingled in great con- 
fusion, that three of Johnson's Greens rushed within the circle of the Pro- 
vincials, and attempted to make prisoner of a Captain Dillenback. This offi- 
cer had declared he would never be taken alive, and he was not. One of his 
three assailants seized his gun, but he suddeulj' wrenched it from him, and 
felled him with the butt. He shot the second dead, and thrust the third 
through with his bayonet. But in the moment of his triumph at an exploit of 
which even the mighty Hector, or either of the sons of Zeruiah might have 
been proud, a ball laid this brave man low in the dust. 

"Such a conflict as this could not be continued long; and the Indians, per- 
ceiving with what ardor the Provincials maintained the tight, and finding their 
own numbers sadly diminished, now raised the retreating cry of 'Oonah!' and 
fled in every direction, under the shouts and hurrahs of the surviving Provin- 
cials and a shower of bullets. Finding, moreover, from the firing at the fort, 
that their presence was necessary elsewhere, the Greens and Rangers now re- 
treated precipitately, leaving the victorious militia of Tryon county masters 
of the field. 

"Thus ended one of the severest, and, for the numbers engaged, one of the 
most bloody battles of the Revolutionary war. Though victorious, the loss of 
the Provincials was very heavy, and Tryon county had reason to mouru that 
day. Colonel Paris was taken prisoner by the enemy, and afterward murdered 
by the Indians. Several other prisoners were also killed by the savages, after 
the}' had been brought into Colonel Butler's quarters; and, as it was said, bj' 
the Colonel's own tacit consent, if not permission in terms. lint the general 
character of that officer forbids the imputation. ]\Iajor John P^rey, of Colonel 
Klock's regiment, was likewise wounded and taken; and to show the more 
than savage fury burning in the bosoms of the men brought into conflict on 
this occasion, the disgraceful fact may be added, that his own brother, who 
was in the British service, attempted to take his life after he had arrived in 
Butler's camp. The Ma.ior saw his brother iip]iroaehing in a menacing man- 
ner, and called out — 'Brother, do not kill me! Do yon not Icnow me?' But 
the infuriated brother rushed forward, and the ^Ia.ior was only saved by the 
interposition of others. The whole number of the Provincial militia killed 
was two hundred, exclusive of wounded and lost as prisoners. Such, at least, 
was tlie American report. The British statements claimed that four hundred 
of the Americans were killed, and two hundred taken prisoners. 




i)i:iii('.\Ti(i\ OF Tin: iiKiiKiMioi; montment ox Tin: (Hmskanv 
I!attli:iti:li), aicjust c, i.ss4. 

Kri'ctfil ill tlie yi'iu' IS.Nt!, by the Oiit'idn Iliistoriwil Society to the memory of 

(ieiienil Nicliohis Herkimer iiiiil liis associ:ite piitriols, who fought 

ill the liattle Aiiiriist (i. 1777 




THE SWAiMP OF THE ORI8KANY BATTLEFIELD 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY Sf) 

"Retainiug possession of llic licld, the survivoi-s iiniiu'diatcly set tliciiiselves 
at work in const nii'tiiig nuie littci's, upon wliicli to hear oil' the \V()nn(l<'(l. Be- 
tween forty and tit't^' of these, among wlioni was the eoinnianding general, were 
removed in this manner. The brave old man, notwithstanding the imprudence 
of the morning — imprudent'e in allowing a premature movement at tlie dicta- 
tion of his subordinates — had nobly vindicated his ('haracter for courage dur- 
ing the day. Though wounded, as we have seen, in tlie onset, he hail borne 
himself during the; si.\ hours of contlict, under the most trying circumstances, 
with a degree of fortitude and composure worthy of all admii-ation. Nor was 
his example without effect in sustaining his troops amid the perils by which 
they were environed. At one time during the battle, while sitting upon his 
saddle raised upon a little hillock, being advised to select a less exposed sit- 
uation, he replied — 'I will face the enemy.' Thus, 'surrounded by a few 
men, he continued to issue his orders with firmness. In this situation, and in 
the heat of the onslaught, he deliberately took his tinder-box from his pocket, 
lit his pipe, and smoked with great composure.' At the moment the soldiers 
were placing him on the litter, while adjusting the blankets to the poles, three 
Indians approached, and were instantly shot down by the unerring rifles of 
three of the militia. These were the last shots fired in that battle. 

"The loss of the enemy in this engagement was equally, if not more severe, 
than that of the Americans. The Greens and Rangers of Sir John Johnson 
and Colonel Butler must have suffered badly, although no returns were given 
in the contemporaneous accounts. Major Watts was severely wounded and 
left on the field, as was supposed, among the slain. His death was reported 
by Colonel Willett in his letter to Governor Trumbell, and by others in au- 
thority. But such was not the fact. Reviving from faintness produced by 
loss of blood, some hours after the action, he succeeded in crawling to a brook, 
where, by slaking his thirst, he was preserved from speedy death, and in the 
course of two or three days was found by some Indian scouts, and brought 
into St. Leger's camp. But the Indians were the most roughly handled, they 
having lost nearly one hundred warriors, several of whom were sachems in 
great favor. Frederick Sammons, who had been detached upon a distant scout 
previous to the battle, returning some days afterward, crossed the battlefield, 
where, he sa.vs, 'I beheld the mo.st shocking sight I had ever witnessed. The 
Indians and white men were mingled with one another, just as they had been 
left when death had first completed his work. Many bodies had akso been torn 
to pieces b.y wild beasts.' 

' ' It has been affirmed that the Indians were persuaded to join in this battle 
only with great difficulty, and not until they had been induced to sacrifice 
their reason to their appetites. It was very manifest that during the action 
many of them were intoxicated. The consequence was, that they suffered more 
severely than ever before. According to the narrative of Mary Jemison, the 
Indians (at least the Senecas), were deceived into the campaign. 'They were 
sent for to see the Bi'itish whip the rebels. They were told that they were not 
wanted to fight, but merely to sit down, smoke their pipes, and look on. The 
Senecas went to a man; but, contrary to their expectation, instead of smoking 
and looking on, they were obliged to fight for their lives; and in the end of 
the battle were completely beaten, with a great loss of killed and wounded.' 



36 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

"The whole iiuliau foree was led 1)>- Thayeudanegea in person — 'the great 
Captain of the Six Nations,' as he was then called — and as the Cayugas had 
now likewise joined the ^lohawks in alliance with the arms of England — the 
Onondagas adopting a doubtful policy, but always, in fact, acting against the 
Provincials — he must have had a large force in the field. Of the Senecas 
about thirty-six were killed, and a great number wounded. Captain Brant 
was accustomed, long j-ears afterward, to speak of the sufferings of his 'poor 
Mohawks' in the battle. Indeed, the severity with which they were handled 
on that occasion, rendered them morose and intractable during the remainder 
of the campaign ; and the unhappy prisoners were the first to minister with 
their blood to their resentment. 'Our town,' says Mary Jemison, 'exhibited 
a scene of real sorrow aud distress when our warriors returned and recounted 
their misfortunes, and stated the real loss they had sustained in the engagement. 
The mourning was excessive, and was expressed Iiy the most dolefiil yells, 
shrieks, and bowlings, and by inimitable gesticulations.' 

"It was unfortunate that General Herkimer formed liis line of march with 
so little judgment that, when attacked, his men were in no situation to support 
each other ; aud more unfortunate still, that he marched at all, so long before 
he could expect to hear the concerted signal for the diversion to lie made in 
his favor by the sortie of Colonel Willett. The heavy rain storm, moreover, 
which caused a suspension of the battle, had likewise the effect of delaying 
the sally for nearly an hour. It was made, however, as soon as it was practi- 
cable, and was not only completely successful, but was conducted with such 
ability and spirit by the gallant officer to whom it was confided, as to win for 
him the applause of the foe himself. In addition to the two hundred men 
detailed for this service, under Colonel Willett's command, as before stated, 
fifty more were added to guard the light iron three pounder already mentioned. 
With these troops, and this his only piece of mounted ordnance. Colonel Will- 
ett lost not a moment, after the cessation of the rain, in making the sally. 
The enemy's sentinels being directly in sight of the fort, the most rapid move- 
ments were necessarj'. The sentinels were driven in, and his advanced guard 
attacked, before he had time to form his troops. Sir John Johnson, whose 
regiment was not more than two hundred yards distant from the adviuiced 
guard, it being very warm, was in his tent, divested of his coat at the moment, 
and had not time to put it on before his camp was assailed. Such, moreover, 
were the celerity of "Willett's movement and the impetuosity of the attack, 
that Sir John could not bring his troops into order, and their onl.y resource 
was in flight. The Indian encampment was next to that of Sir John, and in 
turn was carried with equal rapidit.v. The larger portion of the Indians, and 
a detachment from the regiment of Sir John, were, at the very moment of 
this unexpected assault upon their cpiarters, engaged in the battle of Oriskany. 
Those who were left behind now betook themselves, — ^Sir John and his men 
to the river, — and the Indians to their natural shelter, the woods — the troops 
of Colonel "NVillett firing bri-skly upon them in their flight. The amount of 
spoil found in the enemy's camp was so great, that Willett was obliged to 
send hastily to the fort for wagons to convey it away. Seven of these vehicles 
were three times loaded and discharged in the fort, while the brave little Pro- 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 37 

vincial band held possession of the encaininiu'iits. Aiiioiij; the spoils thus 
captured, consisting of ciniii) ciiuipaf;;!', clothing, hhiiikcts, stores, (!tc., were 
five British standards, the baggage of Sir John Johnson, with all his papers, 
the baggage of a number of other officers, with niciiioianda, journals, and or- 
derly books, containing all the information desirabh; on tiie i)art of the be- 
sieged. While Colonel Willctt was returning to the fort, Colonel St. Leger, 
who was on the opposite side of the river, attempted a movement to intercept 
him. Willett's position, however, enabled him to form his troops so as to give 
the enemy a full fire in fi'ont, while at the same time he was euPdaded by the 
fire of a small field-piece. The distance was not more tiian sixty yards be- 
tween them; and although St. Leger was not backward in retui'uing tlie fire, 
his aim was nevertheless so wild as to be entirely without effect. The a.ssail- 
ants returned into the fortress in triumpji, without having lost a man — the 
Britisli flags were hoisted on the flag-staff under the American — and the men, 
ascending the parapets, gave three as hearty cheers as were ever shouted by 
the same number of voices. Among the prisoners brought off by the victors 
was Lieutenant Singleton, of Sir John Johnson's regiment. Several Indians 
were found dead in their camp, and others were killed in crossing the river. 
The loss to the enemy, particularly in stores and baggage, was great; while the 
affair itself was of still more importance, from the new spirit of patriotic en- 
thusiasm with which it inspired the little garrison. For this chivalrous ex- 
ploit Congress passed a resolution of thanks, and directed the Commissary 
General of military stores to procure an elegant sword, and present the same 
to Colonel Willett in the name of the United States. 

"General Herkimer did not long survive the battle. He was conveyed to 
his own house near the Mohawk river, a few miles below the Little Falls; 
where his leg, which had been shattered five or six inches below the knee, was 
amputated about ten days after the battle by a young French surgeon in the 
army of General Arnold, and contrary to the advice of the general's own 
medical adviser, the late Doctor Petrie. But the operation was unskilfully 
performed, and it was found impossible by his attendants to staunch the blood. 
Colonel AVillett called to see the general soon after the operation. He was 
sitting up in his bed, with a pipe in his month, smoking, and talking in ex- 
cellent spirits. He died the night following that visit. His friend. Colonel 
John Rofif, was present at the amputation, and affirmed that he bore the op- 
eration with uncommon fortitude. He was likewise with him at the time of 
his death. The blood continuing to flow — there being no physician in innue- 
diate attendance — and being himself satisfied that the time of his departure 
was nigh, the veteran directed the Holy Bible to be brought to him. He then 
opened it, and read, in the presence of those who suiTounded his bed, with 
all the composure which it was possible for any man to exhibit, the thirty- 
eighth psalm — applying it to his own situation. He soon afterward expired; 
and it may well be questioned whether the annals of nmn furnish a more strik- 
ing example of Christian heroism — calm, deliberate, and firm in the hour of 
death — than is presented in this remarkable instance. Of the early history of 
General Herkimer but little is known. It has been already stated that his 
family was one of the first of the Germans who planted themselves in the 



38 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

Mohawk valley. And tlu' massive stoiu- mansion, yet standing at German 
Flats, l)es]ioaks its early oi)uleuee. lie was an uneducated man, with, if pos- 
sible, less skill ill letters, even tiiaii General Putnam, wliieh is saying much. 
But he was, nevei-tlieless, a man of strong and vigorous understanding — des- 
titute of some of the essential requisites of generalship, but of the most 
cool and dauntless courage. These traits were all strikingly disclosed in the 
brief and bloody expedition to Oriskany. But he must have been well ac- 
quainted with that most important of all books — The Bible. Nor could the 
most learned biblical scholar, lay or clerical, have selected a portion of the Sa- 
cred Scriptures more exactly appropriate to the situation of the dying soldier, 
than that to which he iiimself sj^ontaneously turned. If Socrates died like a 
philosopher, and Rousseau like an unbelieving sentimentalist, General Herki- 
mer died like a Christian hero. Congress passed a resolution requesting the 
Governor and Council of New York to erect a monument at the expense of the 
United States, to the memory of this brave man, of the value of live hundred 
dollars. This resolution was transmitted to the governor of New York, George 
Clinton, in a letter from which the following passage is quoted: — 'Every mark 
of distinction shown to the memory of such illustrious men as offer np their 
lives for the liberty and happiness of their country, reflects real honor on 
those who pay the tribute; and by holding up to otliers the prospect of fame 
and immortality, will animate them to tread in the same path.' Governor 
Clinton thus wrote to the committee of Tryon county on the occasion: — 'En- 
closed you have a letter and resolve of Congress, for erecting a monument to 
the memory of your late gallant General. While with you I lament the cause, 
I am impressed with a due sense of the great and .iustly merited honor the 
Continent has, in this instance, paid to the memory of tliat brave man.' Such 
were the feelings of respect for the services and memory of the deceased en- 
tertained by the great men of that day. Sixty years have since rolled away, 
and the journal of Congress is the only monument, and the resolution itself the 
only inscription, which as yet testify the gratitude of the republic to General 
Nicholas Herkimer." 

Strange to say, even the grave of General Herkimer remained substantially 
unmarked until Warren Herkimer, the grand-nephew of Captain Charles Herki- 
mer, who fought at Oriskany, erected a monument to the memory of his great- 
uncle. Since then, however, by the assistance of the government, the state 
and i)rivate conti'ilnitions, a substantial and beautifid shaft has been erected 
at the grave of the illustrious soldier. The village of Herkimer has also paid 
due respect to the hero for whom it is named, by placing in its park a bronze 
statue of General Herkimer by a son of United States Senator Warner Jliller, 
Burr Miller, who has won fame as an artist. The monument received honor- 
able mention at the recent Exposition in Paris, Finance. 

The result of the battle of Oriskany was such that both sides claimed a 
victory, but the Americans held the field. St. Leger continued the siege of 
the fort until, fearing the advance of Arnold with re-enforcements and through 
a stratagem instigated by Arnold, he was frightened into a hasty retreat, and 
made as rapid return to Canada as possible. 

Great suffering was endured by the prisoners who were captured by the 




OXE OF THE UAV'INES OF THE (lUISKAXV HAITI. EFIEM > L(KIKI.\(; WESTWAKD 





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■■■■ -^-wi^ 


-^— '■ "— ^"'t; 


■~ T^ 





THE EASTEraA' KAVIXE OF THE ORISKA.W HAT TEEFIEED 
LOOKING NORTHERLY 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 39 

English and Indians at tlie hattle of Oii.skaiiy. Moses Younglove, who was 
taken prisoner but al'lerwards ivturned to civilization, described it in a poem, 
and the horrors of the torture intlieted by the Indians upon some of the pris- 
oners is too dreadful to relate. 

It is claimed by all the writers of history and fiction, who have described 
the events occurring at Fort Stanwix during the War of the Revolution that 
the Stars and Stripes were first unfurU'd in battle on tiiis historic ground. 
The residents of several other localities have claimed the same for their re- 
spective locations, but it seems to be satisfactorily established that the honor 
of this important event is justly due to Fort Stanwix. 

Governor Seymour, who was most cautious in his statement of facts, and 
who gave much time to the investigation of this subject, in his address August 
6, 1877. at the Centennial celebration of the Battle of Oriskany said: "It is 
a just source of patriotic pride to those who live in this valley that the tiag 
of our country (with the stars and stripes) was first displayed in the face of 
our enemies on the banks of the Mohawk. Here it was baptized in the blood 
of battle. Here it first waved in triumph over a retreating foe. When the 
heroic defenders of Fort Stanwix learned in that remote fortress the emblems 
adopted by the Continental Congress for the standards to be borne by its 
armies, they hastened to make one in accordance with the mandate and to 
hang it out from the walls of their fortress. It was rudely made of such ma- 
terials cut from the clothing of the soldiers as were fitted to show its colors 
and its design. But no other standard, however skilfully wrought upon silken 
folds, could equal in interest this flag of our country worked out by the un- 
skilled hands of brave men, amid the strife of war and under the fire of be- 
leaguering foes. It was to rescue it from its peril that the men of this valley 
left their homes, and marched through the deep forest to this spot." 

No great events connected with the Revolutionary war occurred within 
Oneida county after the summer of 1777. After the battle of Johnstown the 
British and Tories retreated toward Canada. There is much uncertainty as 
to the course which they took, and the only very important event connected with 
it is that the famous Walter Butler was killed during this retreat. Historians 
disagree as to where the skirmish occurred in which Butler was killed, but 
the weight of authority seems to be that it was on the West Canada creek, a 
short distance below the forks of the West Canada with Black creek, and within 
the county of Oneida. 

At the close of the Revolutionary war the upper Mohawk valley was ab- 
solutely desolate. From authentic history it cannot be learned that any set- 
tlement of white people remained. It was actually returned to a wilderness. 



CHAPTER IV 

ORGANIZATION AND GEOGRAPHY 

The territory uow kuowu as Oueida couuty was originally part of Albany 
county, but in 1772 Tryou county was taken off from Albany and comprised 
all the state westerl.v of a line extending north and south through Schoharie 
couuty. This new county was named after Governor Tryou. In consequence 
of his unpopularity an act of the legislature was passed April 2, 17S4, chang- 
ing tlio name of the county to Montgomery, in honor of the American general 
who fell in the battle of Quebec. On ]\Iarch 7, 1788, an act was passed fixing 
the boundaries of the county, and on the same day another act was passed 
fixing the boundaries of the towns within the county of Montgomery. By 
this latter act "Whitestown was described as bounded eastei-ly by a line run- 
ning north and south to the confines of the state and across the Mohawk river 
at the ford near and on the east side of the farm house of AYilliam Cunning- 
ham, and which line was the west boundary of the town of Herkimer, German 
Flats and Otsego; southerly by the state of Pennsylvania, and west and north 
bj' the confines of the state. It will be observed that this town of "Whitestown 
comprised the state of New York westerly from Utica to the boimds of the 
state, and was nearly one half of its entire territory. 

On February 16, 1791, the county of Herkimer was created from Mont- 
gomery, and the present county of Oneida and much more territory was in- 
cluded in the new county of Herkimer. 

On the 15th day of ^larch, 1798, the eountj' of Oneida was formed from 
Herkimer. On March 3, 1802, St. Lawrence county was carved out of Oneida, 
and March 28, 180.5, the counties of Jeffer.son and Lewis were taken off from 
Oneida. An act was passed March 1, 1816, creating the county of Oswego 
from Oneida and Onondaga. This was done by taking from Oneida the towns 
of Constantia, Mexico, New Haven, Redfield, Riclnnond, Scriba, Volney and 
Williarastown, and the town of Hannibal from Onondaga county. 

By the last act mentioned the bounds of the county were fixed as they now 
exist, and tliis territory is divided into 28 towns, which were created as follows 
Annsville was taken from Lee, Florence, Camden and Vienna April 12, 1823 
Augusta from Wliitestown March 15, 1798; Ava from Boonville Jlay 12, 1846 
Boonvillc from Leyden ;\Iarch 28, 1805 ; Bridgewaler from Sangerficld JIarch 
24, 1797; r'amdcii from Mexico March 15, 1799; Dcorfidd from Schuyler 
March 15, 1798; Florence from Camden February 16, 1805; Floyd from Steuben 
March 4, 179G; Forestport from Remsen November 24, 1869; Kirkland from 
Paris April 13, 1827; Lee from Western April 3, 1811; Jlarcy from Deerfield 
March 30, 1832; Marshall from Kirkland February 21, 1829; New Hartford 

40 



iQNEiDA XjQUWn 

ORIGINAL FATENTS GRANTS <■:■■ 
SURVEYOR CLNFRAL'S Mi\r 




HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 41 

from Whitestown April 12, 1827; Paris from Whitestown April 10, 1702; Rem- 
sen from Norway March 15, 1798; Rome from Steuben March 6, 1796; Sanger- 
field from Paris Marcli 5, 1795; Steuben from Whitestown April 10, 1792; 
Trenton from Schuyler March 24, 1797; Utica from "Whitestown April 7, 1817; 
Vernon from Westmoreland and Augusta February 17, 1802; Verona from 
Westmoreland and Augusta February 17, 1802 ; Vienna was first called Orange, 
then Bengal, but in 1816 the name was changed to Vienna; Western from 
Steuben March 10, 1797. 

The county consists of 1,215 square miles, and is bounded on the east by 
Herkimer county ; on the south by Madison and Otsego counties ; on the west by 
Madison and Oswego counties, and on the north by Oswego and Lewis coun- 
ties. Through the county from the town of Western, first southerly then 
easterly to the Herkimer county line, flows the Mohawk river. Westerly and 
northerly of Rome the water flows mostly through Fish creek and ]\Iad river 
to Oneida lake, from the southwest the waters flow quite largely to Oneida 
creek and into Oneida lake; from the southern part the drainage is to and 
through the Unadilla river to the Susquehanna; from the northern portion 
of the county the water finds its way chiefly through Black river into Lake On- 
tario; and from the northeasterly portion through the West Canada creek to 
the Mohawk river at Herkimer, and on through the Hudson into New York 
bay. 

The Mohawk valley is one of the most picturesque and fertile valleys in 
the world. Its products are so numerous that it would be much easier to 
enumerate the few articles it does not produce, than the many which it does. 
What better could be said of any country than can be said of this — that ex- 
cept the products of a tropical or semi-tropical climate, there is produced along 
the Mohawk everything that is necessary to support life or desirable for the 
health and comfort of humanity. Northward of the valley the land is more 
rugged, the soil lighter, and the climate more severe than in the valley; the 
hills rise to an altitude of about 1,800 feet above tide water. In the southern 
part the country is less broken, the climate somewhat milder than north of the 
Mohawk valley, although the altitude of some of the hills is about the same as 
in the northern part of the county. 



CHAPTER V 



GEOLOGY 



The geology of Oneida county is controlled by the position of the county on 
the southwest corner of the mass of ancient rocks that form the Adirondack 
plateau. This Adirondack mass is but a small southern extension of the vast 
shield of Precambric rocks in Canada that hiis formed the nucleus of the con- 
tinent of North America. The Adirondack plateau was at times a peninsula 
and at other times an island in front of this old northern nucleus (so-called 
protasis) of the continent, and the sea in the course of the geologic history of 
the country advanced and receded many times on the flanks of this highland. 
We find, therefore, still today the great series of rocks that has been deposited 
in these seas outcropping in concentric bands around the edges of the Adiron- 
dacks and therefore crossing (or "striking" as the geologist saj's) through 
Oneida county in a NW — SE direction. 

After the sea had finally withdra'mi. a river system was developed on the 
continent. As the Adirondack plateau continued to form the mountain area 
of the region, all the courses of the rivers were controlled bj' its position in the 
northeast and by the bands of rock around it, and as in the final stage of our 
geologic history the county was buried uuder the immense masses of ice ad- 
vancing from northern Canada, the Adirondacks again formed a diverting 
corner stone for the ice-streams composing the ice-cap. 

The Adirondack area of Precambric I'ocks extends into the northeast corner 
of Oneida county. Its boundary runs there from West Canada creek above 
Hinckley to the Forestport reservoir and thence follows the Black river. The 
Precambric rocks — so-called because they are older than the oldest fossiliferous 
sj'steni. the Cambric — consist mostly of gneiss, a distinctly banded rock com- 
posed of the mineral, quartz, feldspar and mica, but also containing graphite 
and garnet. It is best seen in the county along the Black river below the ham- 
let Enos. and where the road crosses Little Black creek. The gneiss has for a 
long time been considered as representing the oldest or fundanicutal rocks of 
the earth's crust, but we know now still older rocks and have learned that the 
gnei.ss was once common sandstone and shale deposited in the first ocean of 
the earth, but then became buried iinder thousands of feet of later sediments 
and j'oungcr rocks, and by the heat and pressure in the depths of the earth 
it has become metamorphosed into its present condition. One calls the group 
of rocks to which this gneiss belongs today the Grenville rocks. To the same 
grovip belong al.so the great ma.sses of igneous rocks, that have eaten or melted 
their way everywhere from below into and through the Grenville gneiss while 
it was deeply buried under younger sediments. These igneous rocks are best 

42 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 43 

seen in the country ahoiit Forestport Station, on llif Adirondiirk railroad 
at Woodhull and Meekervillo. They are known as yenitu and coiii|)oscd largely 
of feldspar, quartz and liornl)h>nde. On aeciount of tlie latter eoustitutent this 
rock is much darker than the gneiss, and being igneous, it is also not so dis- 
tinctly banded. While the fresh rock is deep greenish-gray, it a|)pears mostly 
light brown through deep weatliering. 

The whole area of these most ancient I'ocks of the eouiity, the gneiss and 
yenite, has the true character of the north woods, partly on account of the lack 
of soil, the infertility of the soil these rocks furnish, and especially on account 
of the boulder masses whi(!h make farming unprofitable. 

The Precambrie or Adirondack area has been many times covered, to a 
greater or less extent, by seas that advanced from the south and southwest, 
and deep masses of sandstones, limestones and shales were deposited on the 
gneisses and yenites. All of these have been partly eroded away by the rivera 
in the millions of years that have elapsed since the final withdrawal of the sea. 
But not only this, but since the Precambrie area was uncovered it has been 
raised several times to greater heights than it is at present, and again leveled 
down by the atmospheric agents. 

The rocks that rest upon the so-called ^letamorphic or Precambrie rocks 
are called the Sedimentary rocks, because they were all deposited in the water, 
mostly in the ocean, and still contain the remains of marine animals, the fossils, 
as proof of their origin. Between their deposition and the formation of the 
gneisses an immense interval of time elapsed, of which we have record in other 
parts of the world. 

During this long time the Adirondacks were folded up into mountain, and 
the mountain folds again razed down to a plateau by the rivers and brooks, 
and upon this plateau advanced the sea. The fir.st band of sediments that sur- 
round the edge of the North Woods in Oneida county is the Trenton lime- 
stone. This would, hence, seem to represent the oldest sea that crept up upon 
the Adirondack plateau. If we follow, however. West Canada creek from the 
edge of the woods as far down as Cold Brook and Poland, we find there in 
the easternmost point of the county a still older rock exposed by the river and 
underlying the Trenton limestone. This is a dolomite (Little Falls dolomite) 
with an overlying limestone (Tribes Ilill limestone), the two forming the 
"Calciferous sandstone" of the older geologists. This older sea, the "Beek- 
mantown sea," that has deposited about 400 feet of rock about Little Falls, 
did in Oneida county either not reach as high up on the Adirondacks as the 
later Trenton sea, or its deposits have been abraded again in the long interval 
before the Trenton sea advanced again. The Trenton sea was warm and genial, 
it spread over the greater part of North America and left a great quantity of 
shells of many classes of animals in the rocks. These fossils have made famous 
the Trenton Falls localit.y, whence the formation derives its name. The Tren- 
ton sea left about 300 feet of more or less pure limestone in Oneida county, 
over which the West Canada creek forms its famous falls. 

On this limestone rests a shale formation about 700 feet thick, that in 
geology is known as the Utica shale. This shale is soft, and since rivers usually 
pick out the bands of rock where they can most easily work out their river beds. 



44 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

it is in this band that the ^lohawk i-iver flows through Oneida county. The 
deep Waek shaK» is best seen iu the hills about Utiea, as along Starch Factorj' 
creek, or Nine ^lile creek. It was deposited in an arm of the sea that came in 
from the Lower St. Lawrence region, passed over most of the Adirondacks, 
and returned to the Atlantic by a northern arm around Labrador. The fos- 
sils of this shale are peculiar, the most remarkable being graptolites, beautiful 
small floating coral-like colonies. Many fine fossils of the Utica fihale have 
been coiled ed about Jlarey, Floyd, and especially Holland Patent and South 
Trenton. Like most of the Trenton fossils, these Utica fossils have been de- 
scribed ])y Prof. James Hall, and later by C. D. Walcott. 

I'pou the Utica shale follows another shale about 300 feet thick, the Frank- 
fort shale, which is also exposed in the hills south of Utiea. It is a soft olive- 
gra.v shale, with very coarse sandstone beds, but practically without fossils in 
this region. 

The Frankfort sea withdrew westward, and Oneida county remained laud 
for some time, when the sea again advanced. This laid down a bed of con- 
glo!uerate, the Oneida conglomerate. This pebbly rock, which is about 25 feet 
thick, has received its name from Oneida county because of its fine exposures 
in the neighborhood of Verona. It marks the beginning of a new geologic era, 
the LTpper Siluric. while the underl^^ng sedimentarj^ formations belong to the 
Lower Siluric. No fossils are found in this coarse rock, which was made by 
the stormy sea advancing upon the country. 

As the sea grew deeper a formation of about 150 feet of red and green 
shales, limestone^ bands and sandstones at the top was deposited. This forma- 
tion again received its name from a locality in Oneida county, its name being 
the Clinton formation. It contains the two valuable iron ore beds that are 
mined about Clinton. The Clinton formation is full of many beautiful marine 
fossils, that can be easily collected on the mine dumps of Clinton. The best 
section of this formation in the county is probably found along Swift creek, 
that runs into Sauqiioit creek. 

The great Niagara formation, wliirli has caused the Niagara Falls, is 
represented in Oneida county b.v only about 25 feet of dark concretionary 
limestone and interbedded shales. These few feet of limestone are. however, 
the relics of a period in which the sea. as in Trenton time, spread far and \\ide 
over the American continent. It then shrunlv rapidly in the region of New 
York and formed a more or less inclosed sea. and, as the country was then a 
hot desert, this sea evaporated, forming the salt and gypsum beds of the Salina 
period in western New York. 

In Oneida county the Salina period is reju-esented by a great mass of red 
shales about L^O feet thick, followed by dark dirty colored shales, and finally 
by waterlime, all together more than 300 feet. One sees this belt of rocks best 
in the Sauquoit valley between Cla>-\-ille and Sauquoit. in the Oriskauy valley 
below Oriskany Falls, and about Vernon, where the red shales color the fields. 
This red shale has been called the "Vernon shale" from the hitler locality. 
The watcrlimes which form the top of the formation alone contain fossils. 
These, however, are of the mo.st remarkable kind. They belong to a class of 
extinct water-spiders, so-called Eurypterids. many of which were of gigantic 




TKKXTox G(.)i:(;k nk.m: i'iik foo'I' hk I'Ki;ki.\s s'I'aikwav 




TKKXTIIX FALLS 



PDi 



Aerr 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 45 

proportions. These strange fossils are found in Oiu'ida couuty about Paris 
Hill. Oneida county has also fiiniished I'l-oni this roniiation the only Siluric 
scorpion ever found in North America. It was ohtaiucd ;iO years ago by Mr. 
Osborn of Waterville, and caused a sensatiou among paleontologists. 

After the deposition of these waterlimes normal Jiiarine iMitidilions returned 
in the sea opening the Devonian era with a series of fossilil'erous limestones 
about 40 feet thick, which form the terrace or so-called Helderberg escarpment 
in the southern part of the county on Paris Hill and Prospect Hill. After the 
deposition of this limestone the country hereabouts emerged again for a con- 
siderable time from the sea, and then again became submerged, hence the next 
rock is again a coai'.se sediment or pebbly rock, the Oriskany sandstone, so 
well seen at Oriskany Palls. 

Again a warm, congenial sea extended far and wide over the land, with 
coral reefs and abundant life of every form, even early fishes. This sea formed 
the Onondaga limestone, the thickest bed of limestone in the county aside from 
the Trenton limestone. This bed (about 60 feet thick) forms a distinct plat- 
form that crosses the county from east to west, and upon it rest the immense 
masses of dark shales known as Hamilton shales. These a thousand or more 
feet thick, extend clear across the state to the Hudson ; the.y belong to a middle 
Devonic sea, that crossed the continent to the Pacific and Arctic oceans. They 
are very fossiliferous, and extend far beyond the southern boundary of the 
county. It is very probable that also the sea of the next following period, the 
Chemung, still extended northward over Oneida county, but its deposits have 
long since been eroded away. 

After that time the county was never again submerged under the sea, and 
it was terra firma throughout the immense time intervals in which the coals 
were deposited in Pennsylvania, during the Mesozoie or mediaeval age of the 
earth, when the dragon-like reptiles roamed over the continent, and again 
through the tertiary period, when the great mammals lived on this land. 

Of all this time we have no record in this region. We only know that the 
Adirondacks were then repeatedly elevated and again planed down, a river 
system developed, of which we still recognize some features, and the greater 
part of the rocks which once reached up on the Adirondack plateau were again 
carried away to the sea. 

But finally, just before our present period, enormous masses of ice moved 
south from Canada. One ice current came down the west side of the Adiron- 
dacks, another up the Mohawk valley, and finally, at the height of glaciation, 
the ice passed clear over the Adirondacks and reached as far south as Penn- 
sylvania. This ice-cap ploughed up the softer rocks, such as the Utica shales, 
plucked up the harder rocks of the Adirondacks and Canada and spread them 
as bovdders over the county, while it formed under the ice along water-courses 
and in its front, as it again receded across the county, enormous piles of un- 
stratified clay with boulders, so-called morainic till, or of sand and boulders, 
thus forming the hilly landscapes one sees, for instance, in the Oneida valley. 

Finally the ice withdrew again, leaving a mantle of glacial drift all over 
the country. A new river system established itself, which is still very young, 
since the old courses are filled and hidden by the glacial debris. To this cir- 



4ti HISTORY OF OXETDA COUXTY 

cvimstance we owe the beautiful cascades and waterfalls, Trenton Falls and 
Oriskany Falls. 

Before the glacial period the drainage of Oneida county ran northwest- 
ward towards Lake Erie, hence the deep drift buried valley under the present 
Jlohawk river that has been recognized by well-borings. 

For a considerable time, while the ice-barrier still lingered at the north 
side of Lake Erie, tliat lake or its predecessor, called "Lake Iroquois'' by the 
geologists, was dammed up so that it reached beyond Oneida lake as far as 
Rome, and the waters of the St. Lawrence river were forced to come dov\"n the 
present iMohawk valley. It was this mighty ice-cold stream that opened the 
way at Little Falls, and so forth, for the present ^lohawk river. 

Oneida county is a crucial area in the geology of New York, This is 
shown by the great number of formations named after localities in the county, 
by the important sections it has furnished, as that at Trenton Falls, and not 
least b}' the active interest of some of its citizens in the geology of the state, 
as evidenced by the names of Bagg. Rust. Hurllnnt. Whitfield. Dana, ^Villiam3 
and Waleott. 

The use of stone for building purposes and for the construction of high- 
ways vastly increased between 1907 and 1911. No large industries in the line 
of producing stone prior to 1910 existed in the county, but the construction of 
a railroad was beg\in in 1910 to connect the very large stone quarries at 
Prospect, in the town of Trenton, -with the Jlohawk & ilalone railroad near 
that village ; the road was completed in 1911. and machinery has lieen installed 
for the production of about 500 tons of stone per day. This Trenton limestone 
has been proved to be as good, if not better than any other stone, for the pur- 
pose of surfacing the state roads which are now being constructed throughout 
the entire state, and, where it is feasible to procure the stone, it is used ex- 
tensively for that purpose. It is also much used for other building purposes, 
and. although the quarries have been substantially idle for many years, the 
construction of the railroad has enabled the o^vners to transpoi't the stone at 
so much less cost, that it can be placed in any part of central New York as 
cheaply as an.v other stone of the same grade. The quarries are very extensive. 
The "West Canada creek flows through a ravine from fifty to one hundred feet 
perpendicular for miles, and the stone extends for a long distance on both 
sides of this ravine to a great depth, making the supply substantially inex- 
haustible. 



CHAPTER VI 



MINERALOGY 



In 1908 Honorable Andrew S. Draper, Commissioner of Agriculture, made a 
report to the legislature upon the subject of iron in the state of New York. 
In this report he said: "This is the report of the state geologist covering a 
painstaking investigation of the extent of deposits of iron ore in the state, and 
having particular reference to the territory, something like one hundred miles 
in length, extending through the central part of the state from Oneida and 
Otsego counties on the east to Wayne county on the west, for which a special 
appropriation was provided in the annual supply bill of 15)07. Having very 
earnestly recommended the appropriation, I find much satisfaction in the as- 
surance of the geologist that a conservative estimate, based upon this investi- 
gation, of the quantity of iron ore deposited in this region, places the amount 
at 600,000,000 tons. If this estimate is warranted. New York might yet eas- 
ily become the leading iron state of the union." 

Accompanying the report is a map showing, in red, the lay of the iron ore 
referred to. This map shows that Oneida county may become the very center 
of this tremendous iron industry. It is claimed by practical men engaged in 
the iron industry that the ore can be mined cheaper through Oneida county 
than elsewhere in the state. The mining industries about Clinton, in the town 
of Kirkland, started in 1797. The Norton mine, at the foot of College Hill 
west of Clinton, is the site of some of the earliest operations, and siipplied ore 
to the forges in the vicinity. 

The report of the geologist further says that charcoal furnaces soon super- 
seded the forges, and were operated until the erection of the larger furnaces 
using anthracite coal. The charcoal plants were located as far away as Taberg 
and Constautia, and they were also at Lenox, Walesville and Frankfort, in 
Herkimer county. Ore was also shipped by Chenango canal to Pennsylvania 
furnaces. In 1845 to 1850 the Scranton Iron Company engaged in this business 
on an extensive scale, and shipped ore fi-om New Hartford and Clinton by boats 
to Biughamton, and then to Scranton. 

In 1852 the Franklin Iron Works erected a plant on the site of the present 
furnaces of the Franklin Iron Manufacturing Company, and began operations, 
with an output of 150 tons of pig iron a week. An additional furnace was 
built in 1869-70, and the product then was 300 tons per week. 

The Clinton Iron Company was organized in 1872 to manufacture iron at 
Kirkland. The furnace was operated in 1872, the ore being brought from 
Westmoreland. This furnace has not been operated for about twenty years, 
while the Franklin furnace has been operated from time to time, depending 
upon the condition of the iron market. 

47 



48 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

Besides the ore that was \ised iu the county it has been shipped to other 
localities, and at tlie present time a considerable business is done by Mr. C. A. 
Borst. Jlr. Borst has not only operated the furnace at times and mined and 
shipped away ore, but has purchased a large amount of the iron territory about 
Clinton, lielicving that a great future is promised to the iron industry in that 
locality. This ore is of a low grade, and is used largelj' at the present time to 
assist in the melting of harder ores. 

It is claimed that peat at times has been mined and used in the county of 
Oneida, but I find no authentic data upon that subject. 



CHAPTER VII 



BOTANY 



Oneida county, with the exception of the nortliern part, is included in Dr. 
John Torrey's third hotanieal district of New York. The nortliern part helongs 
to his fourth district, which comprises all the northern part of tlie state. The 
third district comprises the whole western part of the state, and the central part 
extending east along the ilohawk valley to Little Palls. The county is divided 
by the Mohawk valley into two parts, the northern and soutliern. The differ- 
ences in altitude, and, far more, the ditTerences in the geological and soil char- 
acter give foundation for a varied flora and a great uumlier of species of plants. 
In Paine 's Catalog of the Plants of Oneida County and Vicinity about a thou- 
sand species are recorded for the county. That was published more than 40 
years ago. At the present time the number of known species is, unquestionably, 
considerably larger. The number of species found in a given locality affords 
a basis for estimating the capacity of the soil for producing a variety of useful 
plants. If the natural product is varied, the cultivated may be. Plants that 
would thrive in the fertile alluvial and sheltered valleys would not be likely to 
be as productive in the less fertile more exposed and rugged hilly districts. 

Among the early botanists of the county are some whose names stand high 
on the roll of honor. Dr. P. D. Knieskern, Dr. George Vasey and Professor Asa 
Gray are specially notable examples. They have been succeeded by such worthy 
and energetic followers as John A. Paine, Jr., B. D. Gilbert, Homer D. House 
and Dr. J. V. Haberer. 

Dr. P. D. Knieskern, for a time a resident of Oriskany, is the author of a 
Catalog of Plants of Oneida County, native and naturalized. This was pub- 
lished in the fifty-fifth annual report of the regents of the university for 1842, 
and records 748 species and varieties of plants, of which 711 are flowering 
plants, 37 are ferns and their allies. 

John A. Paine, Jr., at that time a resident of ITtiea, is the author of a 
Catalog of Plants of Oneida County and Vicinity. It was pu])lished in the 
eighteenth annual report of the regents of the university on the condition of 
the state cabinet of natural history. It is dated 1865, and records 1,008 species 
and varieties of plants belonging to Oneida county. Of these 958 are flowering 
plants and 50 are ferns and their allies. 

Mr. B. D. Gilbert, a late resident of Clayville and a specialist in the study of 
ferns, published in Pern Bulletin, October, 1903, a list of the ferns and fern 
allies of New York. He also specified a small swampy station near Clayville as 
one specially prolific in rare and interesting mosses. 

Mr. Homer D. House has published in Torreya. April, 1903, Notes on the 

Vol. 1—4 ^g 



50 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

Orchids of Central New York, iu whieh he records the occurrence of several rare 
and interesting species in Oneida county. Also in the November issue of the 
same. Notes on the Flora of Oneida Lake and Vicinity, in which some rare and 
interesting species of Oneida county plants are mentioned. 

Dr. J. V. Haberer, formerly of Utica, is among the most recent and most 
active of the investigators of the flora of the county. He has added much to our 
pre'^iouR knowledge of the flora, and increased materially the number of species 
now known to belong to the county. He has taken an active interest in the 
study of the Crataegus flora of the county, and Crataegus hahereri Sarg., very 
appropriately commemorates his discovery of it and his acti^nty in this line of 
botanical investigation. Dr. Haberer has greatlj' enriched the state herbarium 
by his generous contributions of most excellent specimens of several species 
of Antennaria, of sedges and other plants and especially of grape ferns, and 
the numerous and rare varieties of Botrychium ohUquum Jluhl., one of which 
bears the name oneidense, its native county, and another habereri, its discoverer. 
All these were collected in the \neinity of or not many miles from Utica. All 
botanists are specially indebted to him for his notes on Plants of Oneida County 
in Mn.v and June numbers of Rhodora, 1905. In these he adds 35 species to 
those contained in Paine 's catalog, and shows very clearly the close relation 
existing between the plants of the northeastern part of Oneida county and the 
Adirondack region farther north. 

"Wliile the great ma.iority of the species of plants of the county are common 
to it and ad.ioining counties, and occur in all parts of it, certain parts of the 
county are worthy of special mention because of the special prominence and 
abundance of certain species, or. on the other hand, because of the ver.v rare 
occurrence or local character of some species found in them. The alluvial banks 
of the Mohawk river, the pine plains west of Rome, the sandy borders of the 
eastern end of Oneida lake and the ad.ioining marshes, the high cliffs and ravines 
along Fish creek above Taberg, and the marshes and ponds in the northeastern 
part of the count.v are all places full of interest to the botanist. The small 
remnant of original forest at Trenton Falls is also an interesting though lim- 
ited locality, especially for the m.vcologist. 

Several varieties of the dotted friiit thorn tree. Crataegus punctata Jacq., 
occur along the banks of the ^lohawk near Utica. Tlie fruit of different trees 
varies so greatly in size, shape and color, that it is very unsatisfactorj' to a 
close observer to lump them all together under one name. This thorn tree is 
also abundant along the railroad between Remsen and Boonville. In the to\^"n 
of New Hartford the English ha^\-thorn, Crataegus oxijacaitlha L., an intro- 
duced species, is quite plentiful. This locality is also the home of the Haberer 
thorn and several other species. 

The creeping buttercup. Ranuuculus rcprus L.. was discovered near the 
Erie canal between Rome and Oriskanv by Profes-sor Amos Eaton in 1824. In 
1884 the writer, following the canal eastward from Rome, found this plant, 
probably in the same station, .still growing "near the Erie canal." It maj' be 
there yet. If so, it would show a wonderful case of pertinacity. 

The rare plant, earl.v collinsia or blue-eyed Mary, Colliusia verna Nutt., is 
reported to have been found by Dr. Knieskern and Professor Gray near Utica 
many years ago. It is doubtful if it still exists there. 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 51 

The region designated as Pine Plains lies west ol' Roiac iuul between it and 
the eastern end of Oneidii lake. It is similar to othci' sandy areas, with inter- 
mingled bogs or marshes, anil has a similar flora to that of the sand plains be- 
tween Albany and Schenectady. An occasional white pine and red pine still 
linger, and indicate the probable presence ol' a l)etter supply of these trees in 
former times. Such land is not regarded as having mucii value for agrieuitui-al 
purposes. It would be better to devote it to tree production. The following 
partial list of plants found there will sufficiently indicate the character of the 
flora: 

White birch — Bctula populifolia Marsh. 

Prairie willow — Salix hiimilis Marsh. 

Black scnib oak — Que reus ilicifolia Wang. 

Sweet fern — Myrica asplcnifolia L. 

Twayblade — List era cordafa (L.) R, Br. 

Hooker orchis — Habenaria hooltcri Torr. 

Northern clintonia — Vlintonia borcalis (Ait) Raf. 

Three leaved false Solomon's seal — Smilacina trifolia (L.) Desf. 

Hare's tail — Eriophorum cnUifri.v Cham. 

Slender cotton grass — E. gracilc Roth. 

Virginian bartonia — Bartonia virginca (L.) BSP. 

Butterfly weed — Asclepias iuherosa L. 

Upright bindweed — Convniviilus spithamaeus L. 

The rare ram's head lady's slipper, Cypripediuin arietinum R. Br., was 
formerly credited to this locality, but has not recently been found there, and 
has probably become extinct. 

The region around the eastern end of Oneida lake is a peculiar one, and is 
notable botanically for being a station of the white mullein, Verbascum lychnitis 
L., an introduced plant which has been established there for many years, but 
which does not appear to spread to other places. It was published in Dr. 
Knieskern's catalog in 1842, and it still exists there. With a single exception 
it does not appear to be listed in the local catalogs of the state as oeciirring else- 
where, and I have seen it in no other place. A hybrid between it and the com- 
mon mullein is found growing with it. Some interesting orchids and sedges 
have been credited to this locality. Mr. Homer D. House reports having found 
the yellow fringed orchis, Habenaria eiliaris (L.) R. Br., in the woods east of 
Sylvan Beach. This is a rare species, and is in danger of extinction in Oneida 
county. Dr. J. V. Haberer finds the two stamen spike rush, Eleocharis dianelra 
Wright, well developed and abundant in the sand of the lake shore here. The 
interesting thing about this plant is its close relationship to the ovoid spike 
rush, Eleocharis ovata (Roth) R. & S., by reason of which it appears to have 
been long confused with the latter species. Other intei-esting species hei'e are 
the beach pea, Lathy r us maritimus (L.) Bigel., a plant usually found growing 
on the seashore ; the slender rush, Juncus filiformis L., a species common farther 
north ; the Massachusetts fern, Aspidium simulatum Davenp., a species rang- 
ing farther eastward; and the sandy soil violet, Viola arenaria DC, a species 
ranging northward. 



52 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

The Iiigli sliadid aiul dripping cliffs that, skirt the east branch of Fish creek 
above TaberR are e.\(|uisitely deeoriited in June by tlie presence of two ehnnn- 
\ug little plants wliieli liere iind a eongeuial home near the most southern limit 
of their range. They are the yellow nioiiutain saxifrage, Saxifraga aizoides h., 
and the i\listassiiii or dwarf Canadian primrose. Primula mislassiniva "Six. Both 
were recorded in Paine "s catalog, and of liie last one it very properly says, "A 
whole eliflf side scattered over with these variegated primroses is one of the love- 
liest sij;bts in all our flora." Both plants extend far to the northward. The 
primrose takes its name from Lake Mistassiuie. one of its northern stations. 
This is also credited to a deep i-avine at the head of Crooked lake. Steuben 
county, and the yellow mountain saxifrage has also lieen found near Ithaca. 
Hut botii uniting in the Fish creek locality give it a botanical prestige which is 
probably unique in this country. 

The comparatively recent explorations of Dr. J. V. Haberer in Forestport, 
the northeastern town of Oneida county, have disclosed some interesting plants, 
and shown this to be a rich botanical field and one well worthy of further ex- 
ploration. IIci'c plants from farther south meet with plants from farther 
north, and it might not at once be easy to say whether the prevailing relation- 
ship is with the northern or southern flora. In the case of the water wort, 
Elatinc awcriraiia (Pursh) Arn., this appears to be the first discovery of it 
in Onedia county, notwithstanding the number of keen eyed botanists that 
have studied its flora. This is all the more remarkable because of the abundance 
of the plants in White lake. Drosera rofunclifolia L. var. cotnosa Fern., is an- 
other variety to enrich the flora of Oneida county by its occurrence here. It 
grows in company with two yellow eyed star grasses, Xyris carolimana Walt., 
and Xyris montaxa Ries, both rare species, but both of which, by their larger 
size, more showy flowers and great abundance attract the attention of the botan- 
ist more readily. His discovery of CoraUorrhiza muUiflora ftavida Pk., is an- 
other notable addition to the Oneida county orchids, which now number, accord- 
ing to Dr. Haberer, 40 known species. This is all the more worthy of notice, be- 
cause recently the name CoraUorrhiza maculafa Raf., has been substituted for 
the name C. muUiflora Nutt, formei-ly in use for the tA^pical form. The varietal 
form has no spots on the liji. aiul in this respect is strongly in contra.st with the 
typical form. 

The discovery of the short spiked club moss, Lycopodium clavafum brevis- 
picatum Pk.. on the rocla- slopes near Wliite lake adds another to the single 
station hitherto known for this peculiar variety of club moss, and another variety 
to the Oneida county flora. 

The lance leaved violet, Viola lancrolahi L. ; the round leaved winterberry, 
Ilexverticillala cycloplnjUa Robins; the large leaved golden rod, Solidago macro- 
phylla Pursh; the dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthohiiim pKsillum Pk. ; the brown beak 
rush, Jiyurhoxpnra fusca (L) Ait.; and the cluster fruited beak rush. Ryiieho- 
spura fliomrrala (L.) Vahl, are some of the other notable additions to the flora 
of this part of Oneida county recently made b.v Dr. Haberer. 

The flora of a county is by no means a jiermanent thing. Certain plants 
quickly yield to unfavoral)le changes in environment, others give way to the de- 
mands of agricultural progress, still others yield to the more hardy and aggres- 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 58 

sive species introduced froiu al)road. Two species of hawkweod, the orange 
hawkweed, Ilieracium auninliacum h., and the kiiij? devil, Ilieracium /lorcntinum 
All., are both comparatively recent introductions and were not known to the ear- 
lier botanists of the county. Both are pestilent weeds, and thrive well in the 
hilly northern part of the county and are active in crowding out other less 
vigorous weeds and also many useful plants. 



CHAPTER VIII 



FORESTRY 



For many years in the eai'ly liistory of the county the inhabitants, it would 
seem, made special eflfort to denude the hmds of wood and valuable timber, by 
the countless thousands of cords burned in log heaps to clear the laud for cul- 
tivation. This was usually done with very little judgment. The tops and sides 
of hills, wlierc soil was very light, were denuded of timber, and by this means 
many streams and springs were dried. The hills were frequently too steep for 
cultivation, and many of them furnished poor pasturage. It would have been 
immeasurably wiser to have left the siuumits of the hills covered with woods, 
so that the moisture would have been retained, and been distributed gradually 
in the drj' season down the sides of the hills into the valleys, and in this man- 
ner kept springs and streams alive. 

A revolution has been wrought in the jiublic mind in regard to forestry within 
the last ten years. "WTiereas at one tinu^" it was to destroy the trees, now the in- 
clination is to reforest the country, and this is a very sane state of the public 
mind. 

Within the last three years trees have been procured of the state of New York 
and transplanted in Oneida county to a considerable extent, and, as an incentive 
to others to do the same, the list of names with the number of trees set out by 
each is here given : 

1909 

Hon. Elihu Root. Cliutou 31,000 

J, S. Baker, Rome 4.000 

John Bliven, Bridgewater 1,000 

J. J. Russell, White Lake Corners 2,000 

Q. McAdam, Ftica 2,400 

T. W, Parkinson, Bridgewater 2.000 

II. II, Wicks, Utiea-Sauquoit 1,000 

C. E. Witchcr. Utica 500 

A. A, lleekert, SangerHeld 1,000 

Dr. C. T. Guillane, Boonville 2,000 

II. J. (^nkinham, Utica 3,000 

J. T. Durham, Oneida 300 

A. D. IT. Kelsey, Westdale 500 

H. F. Simmons, Sauquoit 500 

51,200 
54 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 56 

1910 

A. R. Eastman, Waterville 2,500 

A. D. H. Kelsey, Westdale 1,000 

City Water Board, Waterville 25,000 

Jos. J. Russell, White Lake Corners 2,500 

LeRoy J. Davis, Remsen 500 

Samuel T. Russell, Ilion-White Lake Corners 1,500 

H. J. Cookinham, Utica 6,500 

Wm. S. Wicks, Barneveld 500 

Wm. Stell, White Lake Corners 1,000 

Hon. Elihu Root, Clinton 8,500 

Dr. C. T. Guillane, Boonville 1,300 

Harvey H. Wicks, Utica-Sauquoit ] ,000 

Melville J. Oley, White Lake 3,000 

A. Heckert, Waterville 1,000 

S. H. AUston, White Lake Corners 1,500 

Mrs. Morris S. :Miller, Boonville 3,000 

J. DeP. Lynch, Remsen 5,500 

Nicholas E. Devereux, Whitesboro 6,000 

Mary L. Culver, White Lake Corners 5,500 

Marklove Lowery, Utica 52,000 

William Townsend. Utica 1,500 

130,800 
1911 

Walter D. Edmonds, Boonville 3,000 

H. J. Cookinham, Utica 5,000 

J. G. Kilbourne, Utica 2,000 

A. D. H. Kelsey, Westdale 500 

Nicholas E. Devereux, Whitesboro 4.000 

T. B. Dallarmi, White Lake Corners 2,000 

Francis K. Kernan. Porestport 17,000 

William Townsend, Utica 2,000 

F. H. Cookinham, Utica-Barneveld 1,500 

E. C. Smith, White Lake 1,000 

William Stell, White Lake Corners 1,000 

Oneida Community Ltd., Oneida 8,000 

Harvey H. Wicks, Utica-Sauquoit 2,000 

Melville J. Oley, White Lake 2,000 

A. A. Heckert, Sangerfield 300 

Edith M. Chargo, Verona 300 

M. E. Hastings, Porestport 200 

Fred E. W. Wagner. Rome 500 

Edmund W. Stradling. Utica 500 

Joseph J. Russell, White Lake Corners 3,000 

S. P. Russell, Ilion-White Lake Corners 3,000 



56 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

S. II. Allston, White Lake Corners 1,100 

S. G. Thomas. Cassville 1,000 

Board Water Commissiouei-s, Waterville 4,000 

John il. Gaus, Utica 2,500 

Charles E. Hooper, Rome 2,000 

J. J. Wheeler, Boouville 500 

William S. Wicks, Barneveld 1,000 

James A. Beha, Boouville 2,500 

Benjamin Hall, Utiea-Salisbury Center 1,000 

Chas. B. Gibson, AV hitesboro 1,000 

Hon. E. P. Kinkead, Porestport 6,000 

81,400 

The principal reason wh.y the quantity shipped to Oneida county in 1911 is 
less than in 1910 is because of the fact that it was necessary to reduce the quan- 
tity of the orders which the applicants made, as the supply was not suflScient to 
fill the orders in full. 

It will undoubtedly be of interest to the public to know just what trees are 
indigenous to the county of Oneida, and they are as follows: 

HARD WOODS 

Scientific Name. Common Name. 

Acer saccharum Sugar (or hard) maple 

Acer saccharinura Silver maple 

Acer rubrum Red maple 

Acer negundo Box elder or ash-leaf maple 

Fagus atropunicea Beech 

Salix nigra Black willow 

Salix amygdaloides Peach-leaf willow 

Fraxinus americana W^hite ash 

Fraxinus pennsylvanico Red ash 

Fraxinus lanceolata Green ash 

Fraxinus nigra Black ash 

Ulmus pubescens Slippery (or Red) elm 

Ulmus americana White elm 

Ulmus racemosa Cork (or Rock) elm 

Platanus occidentalis Sycamore 

Betula lutea Yellow lurch 

Betula populifolia White birch 

Betula papyrifera Paper (or Canoe) birch 

Betula lenta Sweet (cherry or black) birch 

Pninus serotina Black cherry 

Hiroria ovnta (carya alba ) Shag-bai-k hickory 

Hicoria glabra (carya porcina) Pignut hickory 

Hicoria minima (carya amara) Bitternut hickory 




i'liK MAKiNi; di' ciiAi;! I lAi, Ai' AN I '.A I; 1.1 1 >Ari-; IN •|iii: riiwN oi' ikkinn ii.i.i-: 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 57 

Hicoria alba (carya tomentosa) Mockernut hickory 

Juglans c'inerea Tiutternut 

Juglans nigra Black walnut 

Castanea dentata Chestnut 

Tilia aiiiericana Bassvvood 

Liriodendron tulipifera Tulip poplar 

Quercus alba White oak 

Quercus coccinea ■ ■ Scarlet oak 

Quercus acuminata Chinciuapin oak 

Quercus rubra Red oak 

Quercus velutina Yellow (or black) oak 

Quercus platanoides Swamp white oak 

Quercus prinus Chestnut (or rock) oak 

Quercus macrocarpa Burr oak 

Populus treniuloides (Trembling) Aspen 

Populus deltoides (Common) Cottonwood 

Populus grandidentata Large toothed aspen 

Populus balsamifera Balm of Gilead 

Nyssa sylvatica Black gum 

Celtis occidentalis Hackberry 

CONIFERS 

Scientific Name. Common Name 

Pinus strobus White pine 

Pinus rigida Pitch pine 

Pinus divaricata Jack pine 

Pinus resinosa Red or Norway pine 

Picea rubens Red spruce 

Picea mariana Black spruce 

Picea canadensis White spruce 

Abies balsamea Balsam 

Tsuga canadensis Hemlock 

Larix laricina Tamarack or Hackmatack or Larch 

Thuja occidentalis Arbor Vitae 

Juniperus virginiana Red cedar 

UNDERGROWTH 

Scientific Name. Common Name 

Rhus vernix Poison sumach 

Rhus hirta Stag-horn sumach 

Prunus pennsylvanica Wild red or pin cherry 

Prunus virginiana Choke cherry 

Prunus nigra Wild plum 

Pyrus coronaria Sweet crab 

Crataegus punctata Dotted hawthorn 



58 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

Crataegus crus-galli Cock-spur thorn 

Pyrus amerieana ^lountain ash 

Coruus tlorida Flowering dogwood 

Cornus alternifolia Alternate-leaved dogwood 

Sassafras officiuale Sassafras 

Ostrya virginiana Hornbeam 

Carpinus caroliuiana Blue beech 

Junipcrus communis Juniper 

Salix lucida Glossyleaf willow 

Salix discolor • Glaucous willow 

Salix liuviatilis Peach leafed willow 

Hamamelis ^^rginiana Witch hazel 

Amelanchier canadensis Service berry (or shad bush) (June berry) 

Viburnum lentago Sheep berry 

Acer spicatum ^lountain maple 

Acer pennsylvanicum Striped maple or moosewood 

SOME INTRODUCED SPECIES 

Scientific Name Common Name 

Robinia pseudacacia Black locust 

Gleditsia triacanthos Honey locust 

Picea excelsa Norway spruce 

Picea parryana Blue spruce 

Pinus austriaca Austrian pine 

Pinus sylvestris Scotch pine 

Acer pscudo-platanus Sycamore maple 

Acer platanoides Norway maple 



CHAPTER IX 



ANIMALS BIEDS — FISH 



The inland situation of Oneida county excludes from the list of its animal in- 
habitants all those which are entirely coutined to, or to the vicinity of the sea, 
but of the remaining animals occurring in New York state a large proportion 
are inhabitants of this county. 

Its central situation in the state, and varied topography, including forest 
land as well as cleared and cultivated districts, a fair number of lands, ponds 
and streams, are all favorable to a rich and varied fauna. The county lies, 
moreover, just on the boundai-y between two of the regions called life zones, into 
which the continent of North America may be divided on a basis of its land ani- 
mals and plants. A brief explanation of what these life zones are and of their 
distribution in New York state will contribute to a better understanding of the 
fauna of Oneida county. They are regions in which certain assemblages of 
species of animals and plants are the characteristic and predominating forms of 
life, though this does not imply that these species do not also occur beyond the 
limits of the life zone of which they are particularly characteristic. Climate be- 
ing the chief determining factor in the distribution of land animals and plants, 
the life zones form on this continent a series from north to south, though the 
boundaries between them are modified much by the altitude and other factors, 
the northern zones extending farther southward in mountainous regions, and the 
southern zones reaching northward in districts whose climate comes iinder the 
moderating influence of the sea or large bodies of water. 

New York state comprises parts of three or more such life zones, although 
but two of them need be considered in connection with this review of the zoology 
of Oneida county. These are the Canadian and the Transition life zones. In the 
former are included the northern and mountainous parts of the state, especially 
the Adirondack wilderness and the higher parts of the Catskills. The region is 
characterized by heavj' coniferous forests, where these have not been destroyed 
through the agency of man, and since its climate is a little too cold, and the 
summer too shoi't for many of the commonly cultival^d crops and fruits, it has 
not pi'oved attractive to the farmer, and mucli of it still remains wild country, 
though devastated b.v the lumberman and paper-maker and the fires which fol- 
low in their wake. 

The more southern of the two, the Transition life zone, in which Oneida 
county chiefly lies, is characterized by the predominance of deciduous forests, 
and, at the present time, by large tracts of open and cultivated land. It is 
the chief agricultural region of the state. Such familiar birds as the Baltimore 
oriole, yellow warbler, catbird, brown thrasher and wood thrush, when occurring 

59 



60 HISTORY OF OXEIDA COT'XTY 

as breeders, aiul anioiiL' inaiunials the cottontail rabbits and the eoniinon brown 
bat {Vcspt rlilio fuscus). are I'harai'teristie of this /.oue in New York state. Yet 
the position of Oneida eonnty on the northern border of this zone gives its fauna 
a considerable admixture of forms eharacteristic of the Canadian life zone. 
As exanqiles of this, the breeding within tlie eonnty of such Inrds as the white- 
tbroateil sparrow, slate-eolored suowbirtl. winter wren and red-breasted nuthatch 
may be cited. Undoubtedly this northern element in the fauna was greater in 
former times, when the country was still densely forested than it is to-day. With 
the clearing of the coniferous forests, the northern boundary of the Transition 
life zone has moved northward quite perceptibly. 

Passing from these general topics to a review of some of the more important 
groups of aninuds, the mannnals should receive the first consideration. No exact 
list, based on actual records of the mammals of the county, has been published, 
but from what is known of the distribution of animals of this group in the state 
and from scattered records that have appeared in print, it is probable that 
between fifty and sixty species or ■well marked varieties of mammals have been 
natives of, or more or less regular visitors to, the county within historic times. 
Of these, a considerable number, including most of the large species, must be 
removed from the list of its present inhabitants, having been exterminated by 
man. or having receded to wilder regions with the destruction of the forests. 

AVhile at the time of the settlement of the county the moose, elk, panther, 
Canada Ijtix, wolverine, wolf and beaver were regular inhabitants or frequent 
visitors to the county, at the present time the list of large mammals will be prac- 
tically covered by mentioning the Virginia deer, red fox and raccoon, and, es- 
pecially in the northern part of the county, an occasional porcupine, otter, bear, 
fisher, or common Ijtix. Yet, as long as a species occurs in the Adirondack 
woods, there is always a possibility of its wandering into Oneida county. Thus, 
although the wolf ceased to be a common animal in the Adirondacks as long 
ago as 1871, yet as late as 1882 bounties were paid on eight wolves in Oneida 
count.v. and in 1886 on one wolf. 

^Yitil the great increase in the number of beavers in tlie Adirondack region, 
which has lately taken place as a result of restocking and protection, the re- 
appearance of this interesting animal in the northern part of Oneida county 
becomes a i)ossibilit.v. If it does return, its establishment as a regular in- 
habitant will depend entirely on whether it receives protection, for the beaver 
is well satisfied to live in the vicinity of human beings if not molested. 

Although it has been the larger animals that have suffered chiefly from 
persecution by man, j'et the fox squirrel has also been exterminated. But most 
of the small manunals have been affected onl.v indirectl.v by the settlement of 
the county, and many of them find the changes produced bv man of great 
benefit and convenience, so that the.v live largely upon his crops, vegetables 
and poultrv, causing an annual loss difficult to estimate, but undoubtcdl.v of 
considerable extent. 

The hou.se mouse and black rat, as in other parts of the country, soon 
followed the .settlers, and the latter animal became verv abundant throughout 
thi.s section of the state, but has been practically exterminated b.v the subse- 
quent advent of the larger and more pugnacious brown or sewer rat. 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 61 

In concluding this notice of the mammnls some mention should he made of 
the bats, of which there are six or seven specfies. The discovery of the part 
that biting insects play in the transmission of diseases to human beings makes 
evident the value of these animals, which feed largely on mosquitoes and 
gnats, and they are quite as deserving of pr()t(^ction as any of the insectivorous 
birds. 

The birds of Oneida county have been more thoroughly studied than any 
other group of animals. In 1886 a carefully prepared list with notes on habits, 
abundance, breeding, etc., entitled "An Annotated List of the T5irds of Oneida 
County, N. Y., and its Immediate Vicinity," was published by William L. 
Ralph, M. D., and Egbert Bagg, in volume 3 of the Transactions of the Oneida 
Historical Society. In this list, however, a number of species were (as the title 
indicates), included because they had been recorded from neighboring dis- 
tricts, and since its publication a number of species not included in it have been 
observed in Oneida county. 

In the Birds of New York, Memoir 12, New York State Museum, by E. 
Howard Eaton (volume 1, 1910), the known distribution of birds in the va- 
rious counties of the state is presented in tabular form, and Oneida county 
is credited with 242 species, of which 129 are listed as having been knowTi 
to breed in the county. This is out of a total of 411 species recorded as having 
occurred in the whole state. Considering that a considerable percentage of these 
411 species are merely accidental visitors to the state, which are included only 
on the strength of their having once, or a few times only, strayed or been blown 
by storms to within its limits, and that Oneida county, from its geographical 
situation, is far removed from any of the principal migration routes of these 
birds, which in New York state follow the sea coast, the lake shores, the Hud- 
son and Champlain valleys, the list is a long one. 

Examining Eaton's tables more in detail, 84 out of the total number are 
water birds, and, as would be expected in an inland district, a ma,iorit,v of thera 
are accidental or only occasional visitors, only 28 being listed as common, 13 
as fairly common, and 14 as breeders. The birds of prey number 24, of which 
only 6 are rated as common or fairly common, and 13 as breeders. Of the re- 
maining 1 34 species a larger proportion are common and breed within the county, 
71 being recorded as common or abundant, 24 as fairly common, and 103 aa 
breeders. Taking all together, this makes a total of 142 species at least fairly 
common, and 130 known to breed. These figures evidently give a much fairer 
view of the birds of the county than a simple list of the species that have at some 
time occurred there, perhaps as stragglers in a single instance, with little proba- 
bility of a second visit from them taking place. 

As in the case of the mammals, the extermination of many birds has been pro- 
ceeding rapidl.v within the last few years. The passenger pigeon, the American 
egret, the Hudsonian godwit, and the long-billed curlew are not likely to be found 
again in this region. The golden plover is also approaching total extinction, and 
many of the larger birds are steadily becoming rarer. The small birds are now 
nearly exempt from direct persecution bv man, except by the irrepressible small 
boy and the lawless foreign element, but great numbers are destro.ved by the cats 
which are harbored in every country house, and many are unable to withstand 



62 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

the attacks of the English sparrow, which was uinvisoly introduced into this 
country. 

The native hirds of tliis county will soon have another introduced European 
bird to contend with in the struggle for existence. This is the starling, which is 
already very abundant in the southeastern part of the state and is rapidly 
spreading in different directions, so that its invasion of Oneida county cannot 
be long delayed. 

The reptiles of Oneida county form, as in most other regions where the win- 
ters are long and severe, only a comparatively inconspicuous part of its fauna. 
Except that one species of lizard has once been taken near Utica, the true rep- 
tiles consist entirely of turtles or tortoises, and snakes. Though a considerable 
number of species of these animals have a wide distrilnitiou in the eastern 
states, so that they may sooner or later be found in Oneida county, yet the list 
of common species is not a long one. It comprises six or seven turtles, all 
aquatic except the wood turtle, which is often found on land at some distance 
from water, and the box turtle, which is a true land tortoise and inhabits dry 
places. The last mentioned, though protected by law. is rapidly becoming 
extinct, as its slow movements make it a helpless victim of forest and brush 
fires, as well as of its human and animal enemies. 

Of the snakes there are but two venomous species, the rattlesnake and cop- 
perhead, which can be found in Oneida count.v. They are both such rarities 
that they need not be a cause of concern to human beings, and they should not 
be made an excuse for the war of extermination which most people, through 
ignorance and prejudice, wage upon the inoffensive species. Except the two 
rare species just mentioned none of the others are poisonous, though often incor- 
rectlj' reputed so. The.v are not merely harmless. Imt they constitute one of the 
natural checks on the multiplication of troublesome small manunals. such as 
field mice, and large insects, such as locusts and grasshoppers, and should be 
protected by the farmer instead of being destroyed at every opportunity. 

The amphibians of the county include the common toad, which, in spite of 
its unprepossessing appearance, is most useful as a destroyer of insects, worms 
and slugs ; tree toads ; frogs, salamanders and newts ; as well as the mud puppy. 
a large salamander-like creature, which attains a length of IS inches or more. 
Since the building of the Erie canal this animal has extended its range eastward 
through the county and into the Hudson valley, by means of that artificial water- 
course. 

For an inland district Oneida county is favorably situated for the occurrence 
of a large variety of fishes and aquatic invertebrates. The streams within its 
borders flow toward all the principal points of the compass, and form parts of 
the three great river systems, that of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence, the 
Hudson and the Susquehanna. In the first mentioned sj'stem of lakes and rivers 
a greater variety of fishes and other aquatic forms is found than in the Hudson 
and its tributaries, but the building of the Erie Canal opened a channel, not only 
for the commerce for which it was designed, but for some of the western species 
to invade the waters of the Hudson vallc.v. Of this, the case of the mud puppy 
already mentioned is a good example. The opening of this canal, together with 
the practice of stocking ponds and streams with fish, native or foreign, which 
were not previously found in them, the killing off of less hardy species by the 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 63 

destruction of forests that sliaded and cooled the streams, and by the pollution 
of the waters, and their replacement with other species better able to withstand 
the new conditions, have all contributed to so change the inhabitants of our 
waters that it is now impossible to say what was the original distribution of 
many of the fishes and other animals, or, in many cases, even whether a given 
kind is actually a native or an introduced si)ecies. 

The fish and fisheries of Oneida lake are naturally the most important in the 
county. In former times the Atlantic salmon {Salmo solar Linnaeus) occurred 
there in considerable size and numbers. De Kay, in the Natural History of New 
York (1842), states that he had "seen some from Oneida lake weighing from ten 
to fifteen pounds." The brook trout, {Salvelinns fontinalis Jlitchill) though 
found in streams tributary to the lake, is rarely found in the lake itself, and 
neither of these fishes is included in a list of the fish inhabiting the lake at the 
present time, which was prepared by ]\Ir. George F. Scriba, Superintendent of 
the Oneida Lake Fish Hatchery at Constantia, for tlie writer, through the kind- 
ness of the State Fish Culturist, Dr. Tarleton H. Bean. Thi.s list contains the 
common names of 48 fishes, not all of which can be identified in the absence of 
specimens for examination, as some of the names of the catfishes, shiners, 
suckers, and other less important forms are applied to more than one species. 
The list includes, however, the following fishes : 

Ling, Lota maculosa (Le Sueur). 

Silver bass, Boccus chrysops (Rafinesque). 

Johnny darter, Baleosoma nigrum olmsteadi (Storer), also one undeter- 
mined darter. 

Yellow perch, Perca flaveseens (Mitchill). 

Wall-eyed pike, (yellow) Stizostedion vitreum (Mitchill). 

Wall-eyed pike, (gray) Stizostedion canadense griseuin (DeKay). 

Black bass, (small-mouthed) Micropterus dolomieu (Lacepede). 

Black bass, (large-mouthed) Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede). 

Sunfish, (long-eared) Lepomis pallidus (Mitchill). 

Sunfish, (short-eared) Eupomoiis gibbosus (Linnaeus). 

Calico or strawberry bass, Pomo.ris sparoides (Lacepede). 

Rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris (Rafinesque). 

Trout perch, Percopsis guttatus (Agassiz). 

Mummy chog, Fundulus diaplianus (LeSueur). 

Pike, Lucius lucius (Linnaeus). 

Pickerel, (grass or Cazeno via) Lucius reticulatus (LeSueur). Two varieties. 

Picl;erel. (banded) Lucius vermiculatus (LeSueur). 

Tullibee, Argyrosomus tullihec (Richardson). 

Cisco, Argyrosomus sisco (Jordan). 

Common eel, Anguilla chrysypa (Rafinesque). 

German carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus). 

A number of species of shiners, dace and minnows, including the golden 
shiner, Ahramis crysoleucas (Mitchill) ; the spawn eater, Notropis hudsonius 
(DeWitt Clinton) ; the horned dace, Notropis cornutus (Mitchill) ; and buckeye 
shiner Notropis atheriuoides (Rafinesqiie). 

Chub or fallfish, Semotilis bullaris (Rafinesque). 

Creek chub, Semotilis Atromaculnius (Mitchill). 



64 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

Severnl species of suckers, inclmliiig the so-called Mullet, Erimyzon sucetta 
obhtigiis ( Milch ill ) . 

Several eat Hshes, iiiclmling the coiiiuioii Bullhead, Ameiurus neiulosua 
(LeSueur). 

Dogfish or lunvfin, Amia calva (Liiinaeus"!. 

Lamprey or Laiuper eel, rdronuizon murinus unicolur (DeKay). 

Among the more conspicuous atiuatie invertebrates several species of craw- 
fishes, and a greater variety of fresh water mussels inhaliit the waters of Oneida 
lake, than occur in those counties which are drained exclusively by the Hudson 
river and its tributaries. 

The study of the invertebrate fauna of this state has not. however, yet pro- 
gressed far enough to give more than scattered and incomplete records of the 
occurrence of the various species in the different parts of the state, and an 
attenijit. at the present time, to estimate the number of species in the various 
classes which occur in Oneida county would be based too much on inference and 
con.iecture to be of value. 

The fish that are found in Oneida county and known by their common names 
are as follows: 

Speckled or brook trout; lake trout; pike, or great northern jiike; pickerel, 
(Grass or Cazenovia) : pickerel, (banded) ; pickerel, (green and black) ; the 
back is black and the lower half of sides green; wall eyed pike (gray) ; wall 
eyed pike, (yellow) ; pikeperch; j'ellow^ perch; sucker, (black) ; sucker, (stone) ; 
sucker, (striped or June); sucker, (redfin) ; mullet: carp; tullibee; com- 
mon cisco; sunfish, (long ear); sunfish (short ear): ling or lawyer; bull- 
head, (black) ; bullhead, (yellow) : catfish, (black) ; catfish, (silver) ; dog- 
fish or bowfin; black bass, (small mouth) ; black bass, (large mouth) ; bass, 
(strawberry or calico) ; bass, (rock) ; bass, (silver) ; bass, (striped) ; eel. (com- 
mon) ; eel, (lamprey) ; salamander or lizai'd, (Icnown at Constantia as dogfish, 
two kinds, one with black ears and one with red ears) ; golden shiner; silver 
shiner; buckeye shiner; common chub; lake chub; horned dace; blunt nosed 
minnow; chub, (same as fallfish) ; white sucker; red sided minnow; red nosed 
minnow; creek chub; nunnm.v chog; stone fish, or stone pike; pin shiner; trout 
perch; .iohnny darter; crawfish or crab, (green, hard shell in lake onl.v) ; craw- 
fish or crab, (black) ; crawfish or crab, (brown). 

The following list of the birds has been prepared for this work by Mr. 
Egbert Bagg. of Utica, a member of American Ornithologists' T^nion. 

Colymbus holboelli — Holboell's Grebe. 

Colyml)us auritus — Horned Grebe. 

Podilymbus podiceps — Pied-billed Grebe. 

Gavia immer — Loon. 

Gavia stellata — Red-throated Loon. 

I'ria lomvia lomvia — Briinnielrs ^lurre. 

Rissa tridactyla tridactyla — Kittiwake. 

Lanis arpentatus — Herring Gull. 

liarus delawarenis — Ring-billed Gull. 

I>arus Philadelphia — Hoiiaitarte's Gull. 

Sterna hirundo — Common Tern. 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 65 

Ilydroclielidou nigra suriuiuiiensis — Black Tern. 

Ryncliops nigra — IMaek Skimmer. 

Aestrelata hasitata — Black-capped Petrel. 

Phalacrocorax carbo — Cormorant. 

Phalacrocorax auritus auritus — Double-crested Cormorant. 

Mergus americanus — Merganser. 

Mergus serrator — Red-breasted Merganser. 

Lophodytes cucullatus — Hooded Merganser. 

Anas platyrhynchos — Mallard. 

Anas rubripes — Black Duck. 

Chaulelasmus streperus — Gadwall. 

Mareca americana — Baldpate. 

Nettion carolinense — Green-winged Teal. 

Querquedula discors — Blue-winged Teal. 

Spatula elypeata — Shoveller. 

Dafila acuta — Pintail. 

Aix sponsa — Wood Duck. 

Marila americana — Redhead. 

Marila valisineria — Canvas-back. 

Mai-ila marila — Scaup Duck. 

Marila affinis — Lesser Scaup Duck. 

Clangula clangula americana — Golden-eye. 

Charitonetta albeola — Buffle-head. 

Harelda hyemalis — Old-squaw. 

Somateria spectabilis — King Eider. 

Oidemia americana — Scoter. 

Oidemia deglandi — White-winged Scoter. 

Oidemia perspicillata — Surf Scoter. 

Erismatura jamaicensis — Ruddy Duck. 

Branta canadensis canadensis — Canada Goose. 

Branta nigricans — Black Brant. 

Olor columbianus — Whistling Swan. 

Botaurus lentiginosus — Bittern. 

Ixobrychus exilis — Least Bittern. 

Ardea herodias herodias — Great Blue Heron. 

Herodias egretta — Egret. 

Butorides vireseens virescens— Green Heron. 

Nycticorax nycticorax naevius — Black-crowned Night Heron. 

Rallus virginianus — Virginia Rail. 

Porzana Carolina — Sora. 

Coturnicops noveboracensis — Yellow Rail. 

Gallinula galeata — Florida Gallinule. 

Fulica americana — Coot. 

Phalaropus fulicarius — Red Phalarope. 

Lobipes lobatus — Northern Phalarope. 

Philohela minor — Woodcock. 

Gallinago delicata — Wilson's Snipe. 



tjU HISTORY OF ONEIDxV COUNTY 

-MaiTorhamphus grisens griseus — Dowiti'hor. 

Triuga cauatus — Kuot. 

Pisobia inaculata — Pectoral Sandpiper. 

Pisol)ia fusoiollis — AVhito-rumiied Saiuliiiper. 

Pisohia bairdi — Uaird"s Sandjiipir. 

Pisobia iinmililla — Least Sandpiper. 

Pclidna aljiina sakhalina — Rod-backed Sandpiper. 

Ereunetes pusillus — Seiniiialinated Sandpiper. 

Calidris leucophaea — Sanderling. 

Liniosa haeniastica — Ilndsonian Godwit. 

Totanus nielanoleuens — Greater Yellow-legs. 

Totanus fla\'ipes — Yellow-legs. 

Ilelodronias solitarius solifarius — Solitary Sandpiper. 

Barlraniia longieauda — I'plaud I'lover. 

Aetitis niacularius — Spotted Sandpiper. 

Neunieniiis luidsonicus — Ilndsonian Curlew. 

Squatarola Sqnatarola — Black-bellied Plover. 

Charadrius dominicus dominicus — Golden Plover. 

Oxyecbus voci ferns — Killdeer. 

Aegialitis seniipalniata — Semipalniated Plover. 

Arenaria interpres interpres — Turnstone. 

Colinns virginianns \irginianus — Bob-white. 

Bonasa umbellus umbel Ins — Rullied Grouse. 

Eetopistes migratorius — Passenger Pigeon. 

Zenaidura maeroura carolinensis — ^lonrning Dove. 

Cathartes aura septentrionalis — Turkey Vulture. 

Circus Hudsonius — Jlarsh Hawk. 

Accipiter cooperi — Copper's Hawk. 

Accipiter velox — Sharp-shinned Hawlc. 

Astur atricapillus atricapillus — Goshawk. 

Bnteo borealis borealis — Red-tailed Hawk. 

Buteo lineatus lineatus — Red-shouldered Hawk. 

Buteo platypterus — Broad-winged Hawk. 

Archibuteo lagojnis sancti-.ioliannis — Rongh-legged Hawk. 

Aquila chrysactos — Golden Eagle. 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus lencocephalns — Bald Eagle. 

Falco pcregrinus anatnnii — Dnck Hawk. 

Faleo colnnibarius eolumbarins — Pigeon Hawk. 

Falco sparverius si^arverins — Sparrow Hawk. 

Pandion lialiaetns carolinensis — Osprey. 

Aluco i)i-atiiienla — Barn Owl. 

Asio AVilsonianns — Long-eared Owl. 

Asio flannneus — Short-eared Owl. 

Strix varia varia — I5arrcd Owl. 

Scotia ptex nebnlosa nebulosa — Great Gray Owl. 

Cryptoglanx acadiea aeadica — Saw-whet Owl. 

Otus asio asio — Screech Owl. 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 67 

Bubo virginiaiuis virginianus — Great Horned Owl. 

Nyctea nyetea — Snowy Owl. 

Surnia ulula caparocli — Hawk Owl. 

Coccyzus americamis amerieauus — Yellow-l)illi'(l Cuekoo. 

Coccyzus erjiihrophthalmus — Black-bilk'd Cuckoo. 

Ceryle alcyon — Bolted Kingfisher. 

Dryobates villosus villosus — Hairy Woodpecker. 

Deyobates pubescens medianus — Downy Woodpecker. 

Pieoides areticus — Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker. 

Picoides americanus amerieanus — Three-toed Woodpecker. 

Sphyrapicus varius varius — Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. 

Pliloeotomus pilcatus pileatus — Pileated Woodpecker. 

ilelauerpes erthoccphalus — Red-headed Woodpecker. 

Centui'us carolinus — Red-bellied Woodpecker. 

Colaptes auratus auratus — Flicker. 

Antrostonuis voeiferus vocit'erus — Whip-poor-Will. 

Chordeiles virginianus virginianus — Nighthawk. 

Chaetura pelagica — Chimney Swift. 

Archilochus colubris — Ruby-throated Iluminiugbird. 

Tyrannus tyrannus — Kingbird. 

jMjnarchus crinitus — Crested Flycatcher. 

Sayornis phoebe — Phoebe. 

Nuttallornis borealis — Olive-sided Flycatcher. 

Empidonax flaviventris — Yellow-bellied Flycatcher. 

Empidonax trailli alnoruni — Alder Flycatcher. 

Empidonax minimus — Least Flycatcher. 

Myiochanes virens — Wood Pewee. 

Otoeoris alpestris alpestris — Horned Lark. 

Otocoris alpestris praticola — Prairie Horned Lark. 

Cj'anocitta cristata cristata — Blue Jay. 

Perisoreus canadensis canadensis — Canada Jay. 

Corvns corax prineipallis — Northern Raven. 

Corvus brachyrhyuohos brachyrhynchos — Crow. 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus — Bobolink. 

Molothrus ater ater — Cowbird. 

Agelaius phoeniceus phoeniceus — Red-winged Blackbird. 

Sturnella magna magna — Jleadowlark. 

Icterus spurius — Orchard Oriole. 

Icterus galbula — Baltimore Oriole. 

Euphagus carolinus — Rusty Blackbird. 

Quiscalus quiscala aeneus — Bronzed Grackle. 

Hesperiphona vespertina vespertina — Evening Grosbeak. 

Pinicola euucleator leucura — Pine Grosbeak. 

Carpodacus purpureus purpureus — Purple Finch. 

Loxia curvirostra minor — Crossbill. 

Loxia leucoptera — White-winged Crossbill. 

Acanthis linaria linaria — Redpoll. 



68 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

Astragaliiius tristis tristis — Goldtiuch. 

Spinus pinus — ^Pine Siskin. 

Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis — Snow Bunting. 

Proecetes gramineus graniineus — \'esper Sparrow. 

Passereulus sandwichensis savanna — Savannah Sparrow. 

Aminodrannis savannaruni australis — Grasshopper Sparrow. 

Passerhorbulus nclsoui nelsoni — Nelson's Sparrow. 

Zonotrichia lencophrys leucophrys — White-crowned Sparrow. 

Zonotriohia albicollis — "White-throatwl Sparrow. 

Spizella monticola moutieola — Tree Sparrow. 

Spizella passerina passerina — Chipping Sparrow. 

Spizella pusilla pusilla — Field Sparrow. 

Jnnco hyemalis hyemalis — Slate-coloretl J unco. 

]Melospiza melodia raelodia — Song Sparrow. 

^Melospiza lincolni lincolni — Lineoln's Sparrow. 

Jlelospiza georgiana — Swamp Sparrow. 

Passerella iliaca iliaca — Fox Sparrow. 

Pipilo erythrophthalmus erj-throphthalmus — Towhee. 

Zamelodia ludoviciana — Rose-breasted Grosbeak. 

Gniraca eaerulea caerulea — Blue Grosbeak. 

Passerina cyanea — Indigo Bunting. 

Piranga erj't.hromelas — Scarlet Tanager. 

Progne subsis subsis — Purple ^Martin. 

Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons — Cliff Swallow. 

Hirundo erji:hrogastra — Barn Swallow. 

Iridoprocne bicolor — Tree Swallow. 

Riparia riparia — Bank Swallow. 

StelgidopterjTC serripennis — Rough-winged Swallow. 

Bonibycilla garrula — Bohemian "Waxwing. 

Bombycilla cedrorum — Cedar Waxwing. 

Lanius borealis — Northern Shrike. 

Lanius ludovicianus migrans — I\Iigrant Shrike. 

Vireosylva olivacea — Red-eyed Vireo. 

Vireosylva philadelphica — Philadephia Vireo. 

Vireosylva gilva gilva — Warbling Vireo. 

Lanivireo flavifrons — Yellow-throated Vireo. 

Lanivireo solitarius solitarius — Blue-headed Vireo. 

Mniotilta varia — Black and White Warbler. 

Vermivora rubricapilla rubricapilla — Nashville Warbler. 

Vermivora celata celata — Orange-crowned Warbler. 

Vermivora percgrina — Tennessee Warbler. 

Compsothlj'pis americana usneae — Northern Parula Warbler. 

Dendroica tigrina — Cape ^^fay Warbler. 

Dendroica acstiva acstiva — Yellow Warbler. 

Dendroica caerulescens caerulescens — Black-throated Blue Warbler. 

Dendroica coronata — Myrtle Warbler. 

Dendroica magnolia — Magnolia Warbler. 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 69 

Dendroiea cerulea— Cerulean Warbler. 

Dendroica pennsylvanica — Chestnut-sided Warbler. 

Dendroiea eastanea — Bay-breasted Warbler. 

Dendroica striata — Black-poll Warbler. 

Dendroica fusca — Blackburnian Warbler. 

Dendroica virens — Black-throated Green Warbler. 

Dendroica vigorsi — Pine Warbler. 

Dendroica palniaruin hypoehrysea — Yellow I'alm Warbler. 

Seiurus aurocapillus — Oven-bird. 

Seiurus noveboracensis noveboraeensis — ^Water- Thrush. 

Seiurus motaeilla — Louisiana Water-Thrush. 

Oporornis agilis — Connecticut Warbler. 

Oporornis Philadelphia — Mourning Warbler. 

Geothlypis trichas trichas — Maryland Yellow-throat. 

Icteria virens virens — Yellow-breasted Chat. 

Wilsonia citrina — Hooded Warbler. 

Wilsonia pusilla pusilla — Wilson's Warbler. 

Wilsonia canadensis — Canada Warbler. 

Setophaga ruticilla — Redstart. 

Antlius rubescens — Pipit. 

Dumetella carolinensis — Catbird. 

Toxostoma rufum — Brown Thrasher. 

Troglodytes aedon aedon — House Wren. 

Nannus hiemalis hiemalis — Winter Wren. 

Telmatodytes palustris palvistris — Long-billed Marsh Wren. 

Certhia familiaris amerieana — Brown Creeper. 

Sitta carolinensis carolinensis — White-breasted Nuthateb. 

Sitta canadensis — Red-breasted Nuthatch. 

Penthestes atricapillus atricapillus — Chickadee. 

Penthestes hudsonieus liudsonieus — Hudsonian Chickadee. 

Regulus satrapa satrapa — Golden-crowned Kinglet. 

Regulus calendula calendula — Ruby-crowned Kinglet. 

Hyloeichla mustelina — Wood Thrush. 

Hylociehla fuseescens fuscescens — Veery. 

Hyloeichla aliciae alieiae — Gray-cheeked Thrush. 

Hyloeichla ustulata swain.soni — Olive-backed Thrush. 

Hylociehla guttata palla.si — Hermit Thrush. 

Planestieus migratorius migratorius — Robin. 

Sialia sialis sialis — Bluebird. 



CHi\PTER X 

POLITICM, HISTORY 1698 — 1812 

The Earl of Bellomout was made Governor of the colony, and arrived in 
New York City in IfiDS. Tie was a man of ability, and rnled with fairness and 
good jndgment. 

Then followed several governors, good and had. until the arrival of "William 
Coshy in 1732. Governor Cosb.v is closely identified with the subject of this 
history, from the fact that in 1732 he acquired what is laiown as Cosby 's ]Manor, 
upon wliicli a large portion of the city of Utica stands. Rip Van Dam was the 
acting governor of the colony of New York when Cosby arrived, and. as he 
and Cosh}' held opposite views politically, two parties arose in the colony, one, 
the aristocratic party, siding with the governor, called the Tory party, and the 
liberal party, siding with Cosby, was known as the "Wliig party. Tliis distinc- 
tion existed before any of the colonists advocated independence of the colonies, 
but after the declaration of independence, the term "Tory" was used to desig- 
nate those who were with the King, and the term "Wliig" to designate those 
who cast their lots with the revolutionists. 

The Revolutionary war had substantially depopulated the upper Mohawk 
valley, and from the close of the war down to the organization of the connt.y 
no great events occurred within the territory which afterward became Oneida 
county. 

Sullivan's campaign was not strictl.v an affair of Oneida county, yet his 
army passed through the county, chastised the Indians, burned their villages 
and their grain, and it was said of this campaign that he found the Indian 
country a garden and left it a desert. 

In the year 1784 the Father of his Country visited Fort Stauwix, but there 
is notliing written that can be found concerning the particulars or ob.iect of 
liis visit. It is probable that the ^^sit was solel.v to see the grounds where so 
important events had transpired during the Revolutionary war as those within 
the upper Mohawk valley. A council between the officers of the state and of 
the general government and the Iroquois Indian Nations occurred in this 
year at Fort Stauwix. The great chiefs. Brant, Red Jacket, Cornplanter, and 
other of their chiefs, met Governor Clinton and the representatives of the gen- 
eral government, and a treaty covering some disputed points was made with 
the government, but no land was ceded either to the government or to the state. 
Another council was hold at Fort Stanwix in 1788. This is known as the Great 
Council with the Indians, and it resulted in the treaty with the Iroquois Nations 
hy which tliey ceded to the white men the territory', except the Oneida Reserva- 
tion, with other, now called Oneida county. Tliis Council occurred in August 

70 




O. E. ELMEU. AT THE TIME OF lllS DEATH. IIKI.". SIT'I'OSEI) TO BE THE OLDEST 
MAN IX AMERICA: IT IS CLAIMED HE WAS lUl YEARS OF ACiE 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 71 

and September of that year. Governor Clinton and a number of distinguished 
personages represented the state, and prominent chiefs of the Irociuois Nations 
and otlier prominent men cared for the interests of the Indians. A great num- 
ber of spectators from the Indian Nations assembled to witness the ceremony 
and join in the festivities which occurred; it is said there were thousands of 
Indians present upon this occasion. Before this, designing white men had 
planned to obtain long leases of the Indian lands, as title could not be obtained 
under the laws of the state. These designing men had sent their emissaries 
among the Indians, and by presents and tlie use of fire water had so far worked 
upon them as to require a great effort upon the part of the state authorities to 
prevent the accomplishment of their purpose. Governor Clinton determined 
to frustrate tlieir plans. He sent his agents among the Indians to counteract 
the influence of the others, and called this great Council to consummate his pur- 
pose of saving the Indians from fraud and the lands for the State of New York. 
For this he is entitled to great credit. His efforts were entirely successful, the 
treaty having been agreed upon and ratified at Fort Stanwix June 16, 1790. 

It was during the year 1790 that the county of Ilerkimer was created from 
Montgomery, and included the territory now Oneida county with much more 
territory. It was also during this year that the Genesee Road was begun, and 
the first mail route was established lietween Utiea and Canajoharie. A United 
States census was also taken during this year, and it showed that between the 
Fording Place at the foot of Genesee street, Utica, and the county of Ontario, 
there were 6,891 inhabitants. The Puritans, or as they were called, the Yankees, 
who had settled in the Valle.v, advocated the division of Herkimer eount.y, but 
it was opposed by the Dutch. The Yankee, howSver, prevailed, and the county 
of Oneida was formed March 15, 1798. Changes were made about this time 
in regard to towns, and St. Lawrence, Lewis and Jefferson counties were carved 
out of Oneida, as is noted elsewhere. There were some settlements made in 
different parts of the territory by those who had the courage to defy hardships 
for what they saw in the future. Hugh White and family of Middletown, Ct., 
settled in Whitestown as early as June 5, 1784. There had been some other 
settlements at Port Stanwix and in Deerfield, also in some other localities, but 
these were not permanent. Some of these settlers, having been driven out by 
the war, returned after peace was established. This was notably the case with 
George J. Weaver. Mark Damuth and Christian Reall, who settled in Deerfield 
in 1773, and returned in 1784. Courts had been held in New Hartford, (then 
Whitestown) and Port Stanwix, schools had been established to some extent, 
and something had been done in the way of the improvement of roads and 
the building of bridges. It is stated on the authority of Air. Jones, father of 
Pomroy Jones, author of "Annals of Oneida County," that as late as 1787 
there were at old Port Schuyler (now Utica) three houses, seven at Wliites- 
boro, three at Oriskany, four at Port Stanwix (Rome) and three at West- 
moreland, most of which were huts. It is evident that soon after this there 
was quite an increase of immigration to this locality, for soon after 1800 there 
were in Utica about 70 buildings and about 50 in Rome. 

It cannot be said that there was any political history of the county before 
its legal existence, yet there had been political divisions among the settlers 



72 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

from the earliest period. Soon after the United States government was fully 
established the political parties di\'idcd on different lines than those which 
existed before the war. The Tories, who remained in the \-ioinity, were dis- 
credited, and in some instances were ostracized to such an extent tliat thej' 
finally left the country. The terms "Wliig" and "Tory" were no longer used 
to designate the political parties, but they were known as the Federal party 
and the Republican party. The Federalists were the followers of Alexander 
Hamilton, and belioved in the concentration of power in the central govern- 
ment. The Republicans were led by Thomas Jefferson, and advocated the retain- 
ing of many of the powers in the people and in the states, as such, which the 
Federalists would give to the general government. This division existed be- 
fore Oneida county was organized, and at that time John Jay, a Federalist, 
was governor. Prior to the separation of the colonies from the mother country 
the people had very little to do with either the colonial or county government, 
but after the creation of the state of New York, and in 1777, the Provincial 
Congress adopted a state constitution. This was done without submitting it to 
the people. The Congress adopted the constitution, and it was accepted by the 
people as their act. This constitution left with the people many privileges that 
they did not have before, and these rights were general, except as restricted by 
the constitution of the United States and of the State of New York, although suf- 
frage was restricted to those having a property qualification. In the early 
history of the county the Federalists had a majority of the voters, but when 
St. La^\Tence count.v was taken off in 1802 the Republicans were in the ma.iorit}', 
but when Lewis and Jefferson counties were set off in 1805, the Federalists 
again found themselves in a ma.iority. The opposition of the Federal party 
to the war of 1812 greatly weakened that party, and it faded away until, in 
1819, it had virtuall.v disbanded. A portion of the party joined the Demo- 
crats, the other portion followed Clinton, and were called Clintonians, and 
they constituted a majority of the voters in the county. There were some 
political events between the close of the Revolutionary war and 1810. It 
seems that the village of Hampton in the village of Westmoreland was the 
political center of the county, and the important meetings and conventions of 
the respective parties were generally held there. At this time it is extremely dif- 
ficult to obtain reliable information in regard to events during that period, but 
from fragmentary files of ancient newspapers some facts worthy of record are 
attainable. The first state election in which Oneida county played an important 
part was in 1810. when Jonas Piatt, a resident of Whitesboro, was the Fed- 
eralist candidate for governor against Daniel D. Tompkins, who, at that time, 
filled the executive chair of state. ^Ir. Piatt was one of the foremost la\\yer3 
of the state, and a sketch of his life is found in another chapter. Altliough h^ 
was defeated in the campaign of 1810, he carried the county by a vote of 2,376 
against 1,890. It will be remembered that prior to 1822 general elections were 
held on the last Tuesday of April, and they might continue for five days. From 
that time until 1842 general elections were held on the first Monday of November, 
but on April 5, 1842. a statute was pa.ssed luaking the first Tuesday after the 
first Monday of November the day for holding general elections, although for 
some time afterward town elections were held in March. The fact that elections 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 73 

were held in the spring forced the political campaign to be carried on during 
the winter, and some of those early campaigns were intensely interesting. 

1801 — The first Constitutional Convention assembled in Albany, October 13, 
1801. The delegates from Oneida county were James Dean, Bezaleel Fish 
and Henrj^ Huntington. The most prominent of these men was Mr. Dean. He 
was one of the earliest settlers of the county, had acquired a large tract of land 
by patent, had much to do with the Indians, mastered the language of the Iro- 
quois and had great influence among that most remarkable people. Mr. Hun- 
tington was also prominent among business men in the early history of the 
county, was connected with the first bank organized in Utica, and finally became 
its president. 

1803 — The election of 1803, although there were no particular local differ- 
ences to make it more exciting than others, assumed great pi'oportions in the 
state by reason of the fact that it was the beginning of a life and death strug- 
gle between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr. Differences had arisen 
prior to this between these two great men, and the sequel of the election in the 
following year was the awful tragedy at Weehawken, when Hamilton, perhaps 
the foremost intellect among American citizens, was murdered by his unscrupu- 
lous rival. The state was in political turmoil during the year 1803. The Re- 
publican county convention was held at the house of Moses Bagg, in the village 
of Utica, on the 29th day of March, and resolved to support Caleb Hyde for sen- 
ator for the Western District, and Joseph Jennings, Thomas Hart, Walter Martin 
and Nathan Sage for members of assembh' ; it also appointed Francis A. Blood- 
good, Nathan Williams, Apollos Cooper, James Kip, Needon Maynard, Rufus 
Easton and Oliver Lucas a committee to correspond with different committees 
and prepare an address to the people. In their address, among other things, 
they said of their opponents, "Every day they blaspheme the name of Wash- 
ington, whilst the name of their idol, the name of John Adams is continuously 
avoided. The Republicans revere and follow Washington; but the administra- 
tion of Adams they hope will never be renewed." The records attainable do 
not show who the local opposing candidates were at this election. The returns 
of this election show that Vincent Matthews, the Federal candidate for senator, 
carried the county by 269 majority, and the Federal candidates for assemblj', 
Ostrom, Coffeem, Kirkland and VanEps were elected by an average majority 
of about 300. 

1804 — The election of 1804 was most interesting, as the candidate of the 
Federal party for governor was Aaron Burr, and of the Republican party 
Morgan Lewis. From an editorial in the Columbian Gazette of March 5, 1804, 
we quote the following: "To our Republican fellow citizens in this county and 
the western district, we would recommend the strictest unanimity and firmness 
in the approaching election. If any person mentions the name of Mr. Burr as 
governor observe the Meddler, you will certainly find the man to be a Federa- 
list, the policy of whose party (in this district) is to create confusion and to 
disunite us. Let such men be treated with that contempt which they so richly 
merit, and their assertions, upon this occasion, be classed with the numerous 
falsehoods and improbable rumors which have been propagated by the same 
industrious drudges on the eve of former elections. We can assure you, upon 



74 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

the most authentic information, tliat Judge Lewis will receive the unauimous 
support ol' the Rciniblicans throuirhout the state, that ?ilr. Burr can oul.v rely 
upon the votes of a few friends, who, though calling themselves Republicans, are 
secretly associated with many of the Federal party, and who, when united, 
will make hut a sorry show, either in number or responsibility, in short, we have 
no doubt that Judge Lewis will succeed by a vast ma.iority. We are confident 
that no Republican in the western district will disgrace himself so far as to be 
persuaded into a pitiful minority or forsake the great body of his fellow citizens, 
upon so important an occasion." This same paper gives an account of a meeting 
of the members of the legislature and other prominent citixens on February 20 
at the Assembl.v Chamber in the Capitol at Albany, when a comnuinicatiou was 
received from Chancellor Livingston, declining the nomination for governor 
that had been tendered him, and this meeting "Resolved unanimously that the 
Honorable JMorgan Lewis, Chief Justice of the state is considered by this 
meeting a suitable candidate for the office of governor, and that 'Mr. Taylor, ilr. 
Johnson, Mr. L'Hommedieu and Mr. Talmadge of the senate, and Mr. Peck, Mr. 
Few, ^Ir. Elmendorf and ilr. Mooers of the assembl.v be a committee to wait 
upon his honor, the Chief Justice, to know whether he will accept the nomina- 
tion. " The committee reported that the Chief Justice would accept the nomi- 
nation. He was, therefore, declared nominated, and John Broome was nomi- 
nated for lieutenant governor. This meeting then prepared and sent forth an 
address to the people, advocating the election of the candidates which it had 
nominated. Mr. Le^vis was elected governor, and carried the county against 
Mr. Burr by a ma.iority of 248. 

1805 — In the Columbian Gazette of April 8. 1805, wc learn that the Repub- 
lican county convention was held at the hotel in Hampton, April 2, and that 
the following ticket was nominated: For senators. John Nichols and Obadiah 
German: for members of assembl.v, Joseph Jennings, George Bra.yton, Thomas 
Hart. In the same paper appears an account of the organization of the two 
new comities, Jefferson and Lewis, and a statement of the officers of those 
counties. In the Columbian Gazette of April 22, is found a report of the 
convention of the Federal Republican electoi's held at Whitesboro, April 13, 
at which were nominated for the assembl.v David Ostroni, George Doolittle 
and Peter Schuyler. The Republican electors of Chenango county had met 
at Oxford, February 20, and ratified the nomination of John Nichols and 
Nathan Lock for senators: the same proceedings were had in Onondaga county, 
and also at Geneva. In man.y instances it is impossible to ascertain who the 
opposing candidates were, for the papers in those da.vs said very little about 
the opposite parties except in the wa.v of abuse, but from the civil lists of the 
state of New York covering this period the names of the successful parties can 
be ascertained, and it appears that John Nichols and Nathan Lock were elected 
to the senate. 

1806 — As this was the year in which a president was to be elected, the 
campaign was exciting, and the usual amount of bitter attacks on the opposite 
candidates was indulged in. James Madison was the Democratic candidate for 
president, and Charles Cotsworth Pinkney the Federal candidate. The legis- 




■rAi:i,i;i' (H' (ii:iskanv .M(i\r.\ii:.\"i' 

(;i;m;i;.\i. iii:i;kimi;i; Ai"ri:i; iik was 

\v(ir.\i>i;i) 




ONE OF TlIK TARLETS OF OKISKANY MOXUMEXT 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 75 

lature of New York elected that year was controllrd h.v the Iriciids oT -Mr. 
Madison, and Joshua Hathaway was appointed presidential elector for this 
congressional district. The vote in the legislature for president was as I'ollows; 
Madison 122; George Clinton 6; Pinkney 48: for vice president, Clinton 113; 
Rufus King -IS ; John Langdon !), and Madison and Monroe each one. The local 
ticket for that year ap|)ears in the Columbian Gazette for April 26, and was as 
follows: For senators, Francis A. Bloodgood, Sylvanus Smalley, Luther Rich, 
Silas Halsey and Walter Martin. At this time senators were elected by great 
districts, and Francis A. Bloodgood, of Utica, was the candidate from this 
county^ John Hathaway was the candidate for representative in Congress, 
and the candidates for assenibl.y were Nathan Pike, Leavitt Fox, Joseph Mott 
and Thomas H. Hamilton. The Republican county convention was held that year 
at Hampton in the town of Westmoreland, and this ticket was ratified in 
that convention. A local Republican ticket seems also to have been nomi- 
nated by a public meeting held in Utica on the third day of April, and the 
ticket consisted of John Nicholson for representative in Congress ; for senators, 
Jacob Gebhard, Nathan Smith, John Ballard and Samuel Buel; and for mem- 
bers of assembly, Thomas Hart, Joseph Jennings and George Brayton. A popu- 
lar meeting was also held in Utica, April 5, at which resolutions were passed 
adopting the above candidates for the assembly and the candidates for senator, 
with the exception that Evan Wharry was substituted in the place of Nathan 
Smith, and William Kirkpatriek was nominated for representative in Congress. 
There was still another meeting held at New Hartford on April 14, at which 
Col. Oliver Collins presided, and at which William Kirkpatriek was endorsed 
for Congress ; George Brayton, Charles Z. Piatt and Uri Doolittle for members 
of assembly, and Freegift Patchen, Evans Wharry, John M'Whorton and 
Joseph Annin were nominated for senators. The returns of this election show 
that for senators Wharry received 150 majority, Annin 150 majority, M'Whor- 
ton 127 majority, and Patchen 131 majority ; Kirkpatriek for Congress received 
about 400 majority; Doolittle and Piatt were elected to the assembly by about 
300 majority each, while Brayton seems to have had no opposition, receiving 
2,334 votes, and none cast against him so far as the record shows. It is worthy 
of remai'k here, that so slow were the facilities for procuring information, that 
not until June 3 did the newspapers announce the result of the election for 
the senate in the western district, and on June 24 the announcement was made 
through the Columbian Gazette that Kirkpatriek had been elected to Congress. 
1807 — An interesting incident occurred during the early part of the year 
1807. A meeting of Republicans was called to be held at the house of A. 
Loomis in Westmoreland on the 15th day of Januar,y. It was largely attended, 
and the object was to formulate an address to be presented to Thomas Jefferson, 
requesting him to stand as a candidate for election to the presidency. The 
address presented to Mr. Jefferson was a somewhat lengthy paper, laudatory 
of him and his party and bitterly condemning prior administrations, and 
closed as follows : ' ' We offer no adulatory praise ; we dedicate no fulsome 
panegj'ric. But, as men, anxious for the prosperity and happiness of the nation, 
we cannot forbear calling upon you to relinquish the idea of retiring from our 
counsel We, therefore, expect from you. Sir, that the public good 



76 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

will outweigh all in-ivate considerations, antl that yon will accept our suffrages 
and support and again preside over a people happy under your administra- 
tion." On the 16th day of Fehruary, at Alhauy, by a majority of the Republi- 
can members of the legislature, a number of prominent citizens from various 
parts of the state. Daniel D. Tompkins was nominated for governor and John 
Broome for lieutenant governor. The usual address was issued to the people, 
and signed by those who took part in the meeting. It was stated at this time 
that the legislature stood, as divided between the party, as follows: In the 
Senate 21 Republicans. 11 Lewisites, (as they were then called) ; and in the 
Assembly 48 Republicans, 3-4 Lewisites and IS Federalists, making the number 
of the assembly at that time 100. 

1808 — In 1808 the Federal Republican nominations were made April 1, at 
a meeting held at the hotel in Utica. This meeting was of electors and not of 
delegates. At this meeting a resolution was passed bj"^ which it was "Resolved 
unanimously that Thomas R. Gold be recommended to the electors of the con- 
gressional district in which the county of Oneida may be included, as a suitable 
character for representative in Congress." It was also resolved that Henry 
JI. Niel was a "suitable character" to stand as a candidate for senator, and 
that David Ostrom, Ben.jamin "Wright, James Dean, Joel Bristoll and John 
Storrs were "suitable characters" to stand as candidates for members of 
assembly in the county. There was appended to the report of this meeting the 
names of those who took part in it, there being several hundred, and the pre- 
siding officer was Benjamin "Walker. It seems that the politicians of that early 
day had a curious wa.v of presenting their candidates to the people. For in- 
stance, on jMareh 25, 1808, a meeting of electors was held at the house of A. 
Fairchild in the town of Remsen, and this meeting presented candidates as 
follows : For Senator, Enoch Hall ; for representative in Congress, John Easton, 
for member of assemblj', James Sheldon. Such meetings as these were evidently 
held to place before the people the candidate which a certain clique or mim- 
ber of men desired for the respective offices. As to how effective this meeting 
was in furthering the interests of the respective candidates there are no records 
to enable lis to tell. Froui the returns of the following election it appears, 
however, that 'Mr. Gold, the Federal candidate for representative in Congress, 
had a majority of 71.5, and that the Federal candidates for senator received 
an average majoritj' of about 300, while the assemblymen received a majority 
of about 600. Commenting upon the result of this election the Patriot said: 
"We do not exult; but we rejoice that this respectable county continues, not 
only firm and steadfast, but that it is increasing in strength." 

An unusual meeting assembled at I'tiea, September 3, 1808. This meeting 
was called for the purpose of addressing the Pi'csident of the L'nited States 
upon the subject of the relation between this country and foreign nations. The 
fni7ious Embargo Act was worlring great injury to the connnercc of this 
country, and the opposition of the Federalists to the government was intense. 
The meeting passed resolutions condemning the Embargo Act, and calling on 
the President for its suspension. A conimitlee was appointed from each towji 
of the count}', and an address was prepared to be forwarded to the President. 
Mr. Jefferson, the President, paid the inhaliitants of the county the respect of 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 77 

answering their eouiiiiuuit-ation, aud this is so extraordinary a pai)er that we 
give it in fiill : "To the inhabitants of the county of Oneida in meeting assem- 
bled: Your representation and request were received on the 11th inst., and 
have been considered with the attention due to every expression of tlie senti- 
ments and feelings of so respectable a body of my fellow citizens. No person 
has seen with more concern than myself, the inconveniences brought on our 
country in general, by the circumstances of the times in which we happen to 
live; times to which the history of nations presents no parallel. For years we 
have been looking as spectators on our brethren of Europe, afllicted by all 
those evils which necessarily follow the abandonment of the moral rules which 
bind men and nations together. Connected with them in friendship and com- 
juerce, we have happily so far kept aloof from their calamitous conflicts, by 
a steady observance of justice towards all, bj' much forebearance and multiplied 
sacrifices. At length, however, all regard to the rights of others have been 
thrown aside, the belligerent powers have beset the highway of commercial 
intercourse with edicts which, taken together, expose our commerce and 
mariners under almost every destination, a prey to other fleets and armies. 
Each party indeed would admit our commerce with themselves, with the 
view of associating us in their war against the other; but we have wished 
war with neither. Under these circumstances were passed the laws of which 
you complain, by those delegated to exercise the powers of legislation for you, 
with every sympathy of a common interest in exercising them faithfully. In 
reviewing these measures therefore, we should advert to the difficulties out of 
which a choice was of necessity to be made. To have submitted our riglitful 
commerce to prohibitions and tributary exactions from others, would have 
been to surrender our independence. To resist them by arms was war, without 
consulting the state of things or the choice of the nations. The alternative 
preferred by the legislature of suspending a commerce placed under such 
unexampled difficulties, besides saving to our citizens their property, and our 
mariners to their country, lias the peculiar advantage of giving time to the 
belligerent nations to revise a conduct as contrary to their interests as it is to 
our rights. In the event of such peace or suspension of hostilities between the 
belligerent powers of Europe, or of such change in their measui'es affect- 
ing neutral commerce, as may render that of the United States sufficiently 
safe in the judgment of the president, he is authorized to suspend the embargo. 
But no peace or suspension of hostilities, no change of measures affecting neu- 
tral commerce, is known to have taken place. The Orders of England, and the 
Decrees of France and Spain, existing at the date of these laws, are still unre- 
pealed, as far as we know. In Spain, indeed, a contest for the government 
appears to have risen; but of its course or prospects we have no information 
on which prudence would undertake a hasty change in our policy. I should 
with great willingness have executed your wishes had peace or a repeal of the 
obnoxious edicts, or other changes, produced the ease in which alone the laws have 
given me that authority: and so many motives of justice and interest lead to 
such changes, that we ought continually to expect them. But while these edicts 
remain, the legislature alone can prescribe the course to be pursued. Thomas 
Jefferson. ' * 



78 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

1809 — A meeting of electors of (^neida comity of great importance was 
lielil at Whitcsboro on tlie '2cl day of ^larch. 1S(I9. and it is stated that more than 
1,500 men attended. The object of the meeting was said to be to take into 
consideration the jn-esent state of the country as to suitable candidates for sen- 
ators of the western district and members of assembly of the county. The 
senatorial ticket, which had been nominated at a meeting held at Onondaga, 
January 25, was approved. This ticket consisted of Jonas Piatt of Oneida, 
Amos Hall of Ontario, and Seth Phelps of Cayuga. The meeting then nominated 
for members of assembly. David Ostrom, John Stori's. John Humaston, Samuel 
Chandler and Levi Carpenter, Jr. The meeting was addressed by Hon. 
Thomas R. Gold, and it adopted a series of resolutions. The result of the meeting 
was published, together with the names of the persons who participated. It 
is remarkable that a body of men so prominent and influential should have 
arrayed themselves in .so pronounced a manner against the administration in 
such a critical time as that proved to bo. The first resolution began as follows : 
"Resolved, that the powers given to the Congress of the United States for the 
purpose of protection and defense, have been turned against the country, 
whereby the charter rights of the citizens are subverted, and the fruits of our 
glorious revolution put in jeopardy." This indicates the spirit of the meeting, 
and tile remarkable part of the situation appears, in fact, that the measures 
taken by the government were productive of the rights of the United States 
against the insults of foreign countries. The comnuttee appointed at this 
meeting issued an address in which the administration was violently assailed, 
and the former Federal administrations inordinately lauded. The address 
closed as follows: "Is it not time to withhold our confidence from men who 
have drawn so thick a cloud of evil over the fair sunshine of our prosperity, 
who have blasted the rich harvest of blessings planted and erected by their 
predecessors ; who have been abundant in words but sparing in worlcs of iitility ? 
• • • We recommend to your suifrages candidates of the school of Wash- 
ington, who warmly approve of his principles and admire his example; men. who 
when their country calls for acts of energy, will not l)c found skulking behind 
a proclamation: who will not i|uit the highway of nations to seek for shelter 
beneath the fir trees of an embai-go; who, under the pretence of preserving 
property of the citizens, will not forbid tliem the use of it; and to en- 
force the preposterous mandate, deprive us of a trial by jury, and sub- 
ject our persons and the earnings of laborious industry, to the craving desires 
of angry caprice of every petly collector armed with the power of a military 
de.spot." It is a remarkable fait that this comniittcc was composed of many 
of the most prominent men residing in the county, the chairman being Ben- 
jamin Walker, and among the memliers were ^Morris 8. Miller, Krastus Clark, 
Charles C. Broadhead. Jedediah Sanger, Thomas R. Gold, William G. Tracy 
and others. It is noteworthy that a meeting was held at Oxford, Chenango 
county, on the 2nth day of March. 181)!), at which the senatorial ticket was ap- 
proved, and resolutions in the same spirit of those in Oneida count.v were 
adopted by the Federal Repnblicans. A number of bolting Whigs, calling 
themselves American Whigs, issued an address advising the sujijiort of the 
ticket nominated by the Federalists. The.v constituted what might be called 
the peace element of the Whig party, and it would seem as if they were for 




COLONEL BENJAMIN WALKER 

Aid to (ieoi-iie Wasliiii^jton 



^iLLa..-, .. 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 79 

"peace at auy priee. " 'I'lie Republican party accused tlie Dciuoci'ats in this 
election of nominating a Tory for the senate, and tiie otixM- party reiterated 
by makinji; the same charge; and, as no person couhi he in worse odor tiian a 
Tory, tiiis was supposed to be enough to dis(iualil'y any candidate from receiv- 
ing the vote of any citizen. The attack upon the respective candidates seemed 
to have little eit'ect, as the Federalists cari'ied the county l)y their usual major- 
ity. For senators, Piatt carried the county by 583 majority. Hall by iiU'Z, 
Phillips by 586, and the F'ederal assemblymen were elected by substantially 
the same majority. A meeting of the Federalists to rejoice; over the election 
was held Way 5 at Whitestown. After the adoption of resolutions denouncing 
Mr. Jefferson as president, declining to express opinion upon the differences 
between the United States and Great Britain, denouncing Napoleon, and fav- 
oring some amicable arrangement with Great Britain to settle the differences, 
they held a banquet, at which Colonel Benjamin Walker presided, and at which 
seventeen toasts were responded to. It would be interesting to give them all, 
but we will only occupy the space to give two or three. The second was as 
follows: "James Madison, president of the United States; we hail the first act 
of his administration, as a pledge, that unlike his predecessor, he will prefer 
the great interests of the nation to the gratification of foreign partialities or 
party prejudices." The third one was: " The constitution of the United 
States: the corner stone of federalism." The tenth was: "Thomas Jefferson: 
his retirement from office, the best act of his life ; and the only time all parties 
agree, was beneficial to his country." The 11th was: "Our fellow citizens 
on the northern frontiers: we congratulate them on their deliverance from the 
inquisition of the embargo and the vexations of military law^" The 16th w'as: 
"The state of Virginia the birthplace of Washington; the late election bears 
witness that she has not wholly forgotten his precepts." The 17th was: "The 
memor.y of Washington" (drank standing, band pla.ying and a discharge of 
musketry and artillery). 

1810 — It has been very difficult to get information in regard to the politi- 
cal history of the county during the year 1810. No authentic records in the 
count}' clerk's office can be found, and newspaper files are only fragmentary 
for that year. It appears, however, that on the 6th of February a meeting of 
the electors of Steuben, Remsen, Boonville and Trenton was held at the house 
of John Storrs at the village of Oldenbarneveld, for the purpose of making a 
choice of delegates to the respective conventions. Resolutions were passed 
favoring the candidacy of Moss Kent of Jefferson, Joel Thompson of Chenango, 
and Wilhelmus Mynderre of Seneca, and Freegift Patehen of Schoharie for 
senators, and Thomas R. Gold for representative in Congress. One of the 
resolutions adopted at this meeting was as follows: "Resolved, That we, as 
disciples of the great and good AVashington, are ready to make a tender of our 
property and lives in defense of our constitution and maintenance of our na- 
tional independence against any foreign or domestic foe." , 

1811 — The Republican county convention assembled February 28, 1811. at 
the house of Thomas Shepard in Whitestown, and adopted a resolution which 
read as follows: "Resolved, That Nathan Sage. Samuel Dill, Henr.y Wager, 
Thomas Skinner and William Hotchkiss be recommended to the electors of the 
county of Oneida, at their next election, as 'suitable characters to represent 



80 HISTORY OF OxMEIDA COUNTY 

them in the next assembly ol' this state.' " On the 20th of April a public 
incetiug was lieUl at the same place, at which resolutions were passed favoring 
the candidacy of DeWitt Clinton for governor and Casper il. Rouse for sena- 
tor. This meeting was presided over by ApoUos Cooper, and the secretary- 
was James Sherman. At the election the federal candidate for lieutenant 
governor carried the county by 287, and Jlr. Sanford, the federal candidate 
for senator, received a majority of 29-1. The federal candidates for assembly, 
Huntington, Bristol, Brayton, Storrs and Clark were elected by about 300 ma- 
jority each. 

1812 — For several years prior to 1812 the United States had submitted to 
insults from Great Britain, commercial relations between the two governments 
were suspended, and England sent her ships of war to cruise in American 
waters to intercept merchant vessels and send them to England as prizes. This 
caused intense feeling in this country against England, and most American 
citizens were willing to again accept war with tlie mother country instead of 
submitting further to such insults, although it was understood that this course 
was fraught with great hazard. The state convention assembled in Albany on 
the ITth of September, 1S12, of the party opposed to the war with England. 
The delegates from Oneida county were ilorris S. ]\Iiller, Jesse Curtis. James 
Dean, Adam G. Jlappa and James Lynch, and a committee was appointed to 
prepare a platform expressive of the sentiments of the Federal party con- 
cerning this grave subject. They passed a series of resolutions denouncing 
the war, and calling for a meeting of all persons opposed to the war to take 
into consideration a "common plan of operation, having for its object the 
restoration of peace to our degraded and afllicted country." The Federal party, 
calling itself the friend of peace, liberty and commerce, nominated for gover- 
nor Stephen Van Rensselaer, for lieutenant governor George Huntington and 
for senators in the western district Simeon Ford, of Herkimer, Robert Camp- 
bell, of Otsego, and Valentine Brother, of Ontario. It was a very serious 
matter for a country with but twelve large war vessels and a number of small 
crafts, carrj-ing all told 300 guns, to tight a government with about 900 war 
vessels manned by 144,000 men. England was again making effort to enlist 
the Iroquois Indians in the war which was deemed imminent. This question 
was before the people in the elections of 1810 and 1811, and, although the 
Federal party opposed the administration, Mr. jMadison. then president, was 
sustained, and his supporters still kept control of both houses of Congress. In 
the west and .south the feeling was very strong for war with England, but in 
New England the sentiment was the other way, and the president,- feeling the 
great responsibility, hesitated. This gave rise to the saying in England that 
the United States could not be "kicked into war.'' The American people finally 
verified the old adage that "it takes a long time to make Brother Jonathan mad, 
but when he gets mad he is awful mad." This time came, when John C. Cal- 
houn presented to Congress a bill declaring that war existed between the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the United States of America. This 
bill pa.ssed the house of representatives by a vote of 7!) to 40, and passed the 
senate by a vote of 19 to 13, and was signed by the president the same day, June 
17th. The first year of the war was disastrous to the Americans on land. Gen- 
eral Hull surrendered Detroit to the British. Captain Heald, who was in com- 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 81 

mand at Fort Dearborn (now Chicago), ordered liy Hull to abandon the fort 
and retreat to Detroit, was attaekcd and his party almost, exterminated; and an 
American force under General Renssehier was defeated and many of them tak(;n 
prisoners at Lewiston, Canada. The success of tlie Americans, however, u[)on 
the sea, where it was least exyiected, gave much encouragement to the adminis- 
tration party. The Constitution defeated and captured the Guerriere and the 
Java; the Wasp captured the Frolic; the United States defeated and captured 
the Macedonia ; and American privateers had wrought great havoc among British 
merchant vessels. In the election of that year Mr. IMadison was reelected, and a 
majority of Congress was still with him. The experiences of the people in the 
Mohawk valley were not to be repeated in the war of 1812 and, except for the 
passage of troops through the valley and the calling of men from this locality 
into the army, no important military events occurred within the county during 
the three years of the second war for independence. Oneida county, however, 
furnished its quota of men for the war, and some of the officers who took promi- 
nent part in that important event. Joshua Hathaway was appointed quarter- 
master general of the state militia, and went to Sackett's Harbor, and Colonel 
Bellinger commanded the first troops from the county that went to Sackett's 
Harbor. In his Annals of Oneida County, Mr. Jones says that "all the militia 
of the county was called to go to Sackett's Harbor, and that the 157th regiment, 
usually known as the Rome regiment, conunanded by Colonel Westcott, marched 
to that place. ' ' Among the officers of this regiment were Lieut. Colonel Joshua 
G. Green; Captains Rudd, Fillmore, Church, Grannis, Hinckley and Peck; the 
staff officers being Adjutant Sanuiel Beardsley, Paymaster Jay Hathaway, Sur- 
geon Henry H. Smith. The chief military officers from this county who took part 
in the war of 1812 were Brigadier Generals Oliver Collins, Joseph Kirkland and 
Henry ]\[cNeil. General Collins took the most prominent part in the war of any 
officer from Oneida county. He had settled in the town of Whitestown about 
1784, and bought a large tract of land about half a mile from Whitesboro. 
Before he was sixteen years of age and prior to his removal to the state of 
New York he ran away from home and enlisted as a soldier in the war of the 
Revolution, but on account of his age he was brought back home. About a year 
later, filled with a military spirit, he again enlisted in Captain Burbank's com- 
pany of artillery, and served during the war. He, therefore, had a military 
experience that was of great help when he was called into the service of his 
country the second time. At one time he had command of the post at Sackett's 
Harbor, and his order book on that occasion is among the valuable records in 
the Oneida Historical Society of Utica. He had a large family, and his de- 
scendants in many states have filled positions of great honor as governors, sena- 
tors, representatives in Congress, lawyers, doctors, and were men of character 
and influence wherever they cast their lot. From Charles D. Adams, the emi- 
nent lawyer, still living in Utica. who is grandson of General Collins, the 
writer learns that none of his descendants are residents of Oneida county at 
this time except Mr. Adams and his family, and, so far as he knows, there are 
no other descendants of General Collins within the state of New York. The 
wife of President Taft is a great granddaughter of General Collins. The writer 
has not been able to ascertain just what service General Kirkland and General 
McNeil performed during the war. 



CHAPTER XI 
1813—1823 

1813 — In this year a draft was ordered in Oueida and other counties in cen- 
tral New York. General Collins was idaced in oonniiand of the soldiers raised 
by this conscription. He was in command of the post at Sackett's Harbor, and 
this was so important a post that the governor sent his aide-de-camp, Colonel 
Washington Irvinp:, the eminent author, with orders to the commander to 
make such requisitions for militia as he might deem necessary, and the gen- 
eral called out the militia of Herkimer. Jefferson, Lewis and Oneida coun- 
ties. Oneida and Herkimer furnished 2.500 men. which with the others, gave 
Collins a force of about 6,000. 

1814 — In 1814 the situation at Sackett's Harbor was so desperate that by 
direction of the governor, Collins ordered out the brigade of Brigadier General 
Ellis and directed him "with all possible dispatch to march « * * ^y h^q 
most direct and convenient route to Smith's Mills, twelve miles from the Har- 
bor • • • and immediately on your arrival * * • report youi-self to 
the commanding general." This was caiised by a threatened attack by the 
British \ipon Sackett's Hai'bor, but it never occurred. Disease and a poor 
commissariat at the Post caused panic at one time, and there were many deser- 
tions. After Collins 's return from Sackett's Harbor to Utica he ordered a 
court martial of the deserters, and this court was held at the New England 
House, which stood where the Arcade now stands. The deserters were con- 
victed, and, despite threats of interference by violence, they were sentenced 
and drummed out of camp to the tune of the Rogue's March. In this year the 
United States government purchased lands in Rome for an arsenal, and it was 
completed in 1816. It was used for government purposes until about 1873, 
when it was sold for other purposes, and the occupation bv the government 
ceased. 

Two men of great ability and very high standing in the community were 
candidates for representatives in Congress in this year — Nathan Williams and 
Thomas R. Gold. The county, which at that time included part of what is 
now the county of Oswego, gave Mr. Gold a ma.iority of 638. The candidates 
for the senate in the district which inchided Oneida count.v were J. I. Pender- 
gast. B. Bicknell, C. Loorais and P. Swift of one party, and of the opposing 
party J. Sand ford. J. Forman. V. Brother and Joseph Kirkland. The five last 
named received a ma.iority in the county of about 600. The candidates for 
assembly were E. S. Salsbury, T. Hathaway. J. Grant, "W. Lord and Luther 
Guitenu. upon one side, and James Lynch, R. Pettibonc, J. Lay. J. Storm and 
Theodore Sill upon the other, the latter of whom were elected b.v 711 raa,iorit.y. 

82 




i;i;sii)i:.\cK of inithk sta'iks sknatoi; ki.iih itdor 





HOME OF OK NET! AT, COLLINS LN 

MOW UAirri'oun 



KESIDEXrE OF CE.X. WILLIAM FLOYD, 
WESTEILWILLE. WITH ItEAIl Ar>- 
MIKAL M().\T(;()MEltY SU'AUn IX 
THE YAItn ABOFT TO TAKE A 
HOIiSEKACK ItlDE 



PlIBi 



TILL. 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 83 

1815 — The senatorial candidates ol' the Federal Repuhlican partj' from 
Oneida county for the western distriet for the year 1815 wei'e George Hunting- 
ton of Rome, and Jared Sanford, and for members of asseiu})ly James Lynch, 
Richard Sanger, Isaac Brayton, Roderick Morrison and Jesse Curtis. It has 
been impossible to ascertain who all of the local candidates were at tiiis election. 

1816 — The convention of the Federal party was held in Albany, February 
15, 1816, and Rufus King was nominated for governor and George Tibbits for 
lieutenant governor. The county convention of this party was called for the 
6th of March at "Wliitesboro, but it has been impossihlc to ascertain what was 
done at that meeting, as no records of it are attainable. It appears later in 
the Utica Patriot of May 21st that King carried the county by a ma.jority of 
435 ; that the Federal candidates for senator, Samuel M. Hopkins, Valentine 
Brother and Theodore Sill received about the same majority; that Henry R. 
Storrs received 278 majority for representative in Congi-ess, and that Abram 
Camp, Martin Hawley, David Ambler, Wheeler Barnes and Newton March 
were elected to the assembly by about the same vote. The summer of 1816 was 
noted as being the coldest season ever Imown in tliis part of the country. Snow 
fell in the county several inches deep during the month of June, and crops 
were almost a total failure, 

1817 — One of the most important events which occurred in the county dur- 
ing the year 1817 was that pertaining to the Erie canal. Ground was broken 
for this great waterway at Rome July 4, 1817, and the first boat passed over 
the canal from Utica to Rome and return October 21, 1819. Governor Clinton, 
with a distinguished company of state officials and other invited guests, con- 
stituted the passengers upon this trip. It is well to state here that one of the 
chief scientific men who. as an engineer, had charge of the work, was John B. 
Jervis of Rome. Tliere entered into politics a man of unusual ability in this 
year — DeWitt Clinton. He was elected governor, and received in Oneida county 
2,428 votes against 43 votes, which were called "scatterings." 

1818 — The election of 1818 resulted in the Republican candidates carry- 
ing the county of Oneida by substantial majorities, but as the senatorial district 
consisted of more than Oneida county the Federal candidate, Jonas Piatt, was 
elected; Henry R, Storrs was elected representative in Congress by 2,329 ma- 
jority; the assembl.ymen elected seem to have been of both parties, as the suc- 
cessful candidates were L. Guiteau, D. P. Ho,yt, T. Woodruffe, Ezekiel Bacon 
and Henry Huntington. 

1819 — In the year 1819 it seems that the parties divided, at least locally, 
upon no particular issue, but one ticket was called the Republican, and the 
other was, by the newspapers, denominated the "Tammany ticket." It is 
notable that as early in the history of the state as this there was supposed to 
be some sort of odium attached to a ticket known as the "Tammany ticket," 
yet, it is also notable, that the candidates in Oneida county this year upon that 
ticket were some of the most respected, influential and able men who ever have 
resided within its limits. For senators in the western district the Republicans 
nominated Gideon Granger and Lyman Payne, and for members of the assem- 
bly George Brayton, Charles Wiley, Luther Guiteau, Theor Woodruffe and 
David Bates. The Tammany ticket consisted of Philetus Swift and Nathan 



84 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

Garrow for senators, aiul for nienibers of assembly Joseph Allen, Benjamin 
IIi<'kt'ox. Samuel Boardsley. Prosper Riiild and .lohn S. Davis. The Federalists 
nominated for members of assembly George Huntiujrton. Henry ilcNeil, John 
Stan's, James Dean, Jr., and Theophihis S. Morgan. The election returns 
show that the votes east for the respective candidates in Oneida county for 
senators were Granger 957, Payne SG5, Lansing 1,186, ilerrell 1,084, Swift 600 
and Garrow 558. The Federal candidates for members of assembly were all 
elected by a plurality of nearly 1.000. 

1820 — The Republican convention was held at the village of Hampton, 
February 2. 1820. and nominated delegates to the senatorial convention of the 
western district, and this convention passed a series of resolutions approving the 
state administration and recommending the electors to support DeWitt C. Clin- 
ton as a candidate for governor, and John Taylor as candidate for lie^itenant 
governor, and denounced the action of the portion of the legislature which had 
assembled at Albany in a convention and nominated Daniel D. Tompkins for 
governor. The opposition to Clinton was known as the "Bucktail party." The 
term "Biicktail" was known to designate the opponents of DeWitt Clinton, be- 
cause of the fact that Tammany Hall opposed him, and some of the chief mem- 
bers of that organization on certain occasions wore a buck's tail in their hats. 
During this year a large number of public meetings were held throughout the 
state, for the purpose of expressing approval of the acts of DeWitt Clinton and 
for the denunciation of Daniel D. Tompkins, as these really two great men at 
this time were arrayed against each other, as leaders of the great political organi- 
zations of the day. It had been claimed that Daniel D. Tompkins had misap- 
Iiropriated funds, which created intense feeling throughout the state, and he 
was denounced unquestionably unjustly. As an illustration of the feeling against 
him, we quote from a communication to the Albany Register of March 3, 1820: 
"The leaders of the Bucktail opposition, routed and diseoiiraged as they are 
by the steady and overwhelming reverses of the present winter, and determined 
to make one more bold and desperate push to retrieve their blasted fortunes, 
Daniel D. Tompkins and his .i^600,000 claim — Daniel D. Tompkins with his old 
muskets — his basket of vouchers and his double charges — Daniel D. Tompkins, 
with his unprecedented defalcation is to be run hard for the first office in the 
gift of the people." The Republicans nominated for senators for the western 
district Ephraim Hart. Elijah ^liles and Oliver Forward, and for members of 
assembl.v Ezekiel Bacon. Greene C. Bronson. Allen Frazer, Israel Stoddard and 
David S. Bates. The Federal candidates for members of assembly were Josiah 
Bacon, Allen Frazer, George Huntington, Joseph Kirkland ami ^Villiam Root. 
Fierce attacks were made upon i\Ir. Tompldns during the entire campaign, and 
his accounts were the subject of legislative investigation. In the Columbian 
Gazette of April 18th there is a violent attack upon Mr. Tompkins. The writer, 
among other things, says: "The i|ucstion Iheu for the electors to decide is, 
whether they will hurl .Mr. Clinton from power, to gratify the wishes of a can- 
didate who is his inferior in point of talents and qualifications, and who- besides 
this decided inequality, labors under the imputation of being a defaulter to a 
large amount I What excuse could there be for turning out Clinton and putting 
in Tompkins?" This seems to be rather severe language to be used against 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 85 

the vice-president of the United States. Clinton was elected by a majority of 
1,45-i, and he carried Oneida county by ],:31-i. For senators Hart, Miles and 
Forward carried the county by about the same majority. There seems to have 
been a third ticket in the field, and I\Ir. Frazer was upon two ti('kets, and there- 
fore received a much larger vote than any other of the candidates who were 
elected to the assembly; the other candidates of the Federal party, Bacon, Hunt- 
ington, Kirkland and Koot were elected to the assembly by a plurality of about 
1,000, as the district at this time consisted of Oneitla and a portion of Oswego 
county. 

1821 — An important event occurred in the year 1821 in the state, which was 
the holding of the State Constitutional Convention. The delegates to this conven- 
tion from Oneida county were Ezekiel Bacon, Samuel Sidney Breese, Henry 
Huntington, Jonas Piatt and Nathan Williams, three of whom were Clintonians 
and two were Democrats. At this time DeWitt Clinton was governor, and the 
Democrats had a majority in the Constitutional Convention. The constitution 
formulated by this convention removed the property qualification of voters and 
liberalized the constitution in many other respects, which constitution remained 
in effect until ISiS. The county convention, which was held at Whitestown dur- 
ing this year, was called so as to include all voters "without regard to former 
political distinctions," and Joseph Kirkland was nominated for representative 
in Congress; the candidates for senator in the western district were Stephen 
Bates and Samuel 'SI. Hopkins; and George Huntington, Greene C. Bronson, 
Israel Stoddard, Samuel Chandler and Peter I'ratt were nominated for mem- 
bers of assembly, Pratt being a resident of IMexico, in that portion of Oswego 
county which was a portion of an assembly disti'ict with Oneida county. The 
canvass was somewhat bitter, and charges of fraud were made against the Buck- 
tail party, then in power. One of the serious charges was, as it appeared to the 
electors of that day, that they had endeavored to "palm upon the community a 
statement to the effect that tlie.y had reduced the wages of members of assembly 
to three dollars per day," whereas, as a matter of fact, they actually received 
four dollars per day. jMr. Kirkland, for representative in Congress, carried the 
county by 1,030, and the district by 838. Hopkins and Bates, for senators, car- 
ried the county by about 900 majority, and for members of assembly, Hunting- 
ton, Bronson, Stoddard, Chandler and Pratt were elected by little less than 1,000 
majority in the district, and substantially the same majorities in the county. 

1822 — The local ticket for 1822 was nominated at a Republican convention 
held in Utica October 11th. This seems to have been the first county convention 
ever held in what is now the city of Utica. This convention resolved that George 
Huntington of Oneida, Westel Willoughby of Herkimer, Levi Adams of Lewis 
and Matthew McNair be nominated as candidates for the senate. On the 21st 
day of October a convention was held at Whitesboro which approved the nomi- 
nations of Joseph Yates for governor ; Henry Huntington for lieutenant gover- 
nor; the senatorial ticket as mentioned above; Ezekiel Bacon for representative 
in Congress; and nominated for members of assembly Israel Stoddard, Josiah 
Bacon, John Billings, James Dean, Jr., and Wheeler Barnes ; for sheriff. Simeon 
N. Dexter, and for county clerk Julius Pond. The opposing candidates of the 
county were for representative in Congress, Henry R. Storrs ; for members of 



86 UiaTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

assembly. ITeury "Wager. Thomas II. Hamilton. Saimicl "Wet more. Uri Doolittle 
aud James L>Tieh; I'or sheriff, Jehu E. Iliuman; for coimty clerk, Garrit G. 
Lansing and also Eliasaph Dorchester. For governor Yates carried the county 
by 2,653. while Hiintin.Lrtou. for lieutenant governor, carried it by only 95. and 
Storrs, for representative in Congress by only 55. The candidates for senator, 
Beardsley. "Wooster, Greenley and Bronson, carried the county bv about 200; 
Hinman. for sherifl', was elected by 1.193 ; Dorchester was elected county elei-k, 
while the assemblymen, Wager, Hamilton, Lynch, Doolittle and Wetmore, re- 
ceived a ma,iority of about 400 each. 

1823 — The Republican county convention assembled at "Whitestown October 
27, 1823. aud passed i-esolutions favoring what was knowu as the "Election Law." 
This convention nominated for members of assembly, George Huntington, John 
Storrs. John P. Sherwood. Theophilus Steele and Thomas E. Clark, candidates 
known to be favorable to such a law. The convention also recommended "\Yilliam 
Ford, of Jefferson county, as a suitable candidate for senator in the fifth sena- 
torial district. Perle.v Ke.ves had also been put in nomination as a candidate 
for senator in the same district. In this canvass the principal subject before the 
people was the election law. It is notable that the same principle was involved 
at that time in the people insisting that presidential electors should be elected 
by the people, as is involved at the present day in the issue much debated in re- 
gard to the election of United States senators by the people instead of by the 
legislature. The vote on senator in Oneida county gave Keyes 2,095 and Ford 
1,78-4; for members of assembly "Wager, Allen, Grant, Cooper and Ruger were 
elected by an average ma.iority of about 300. 



CHAPTER XII 

1824—1839 

1824 — lu 1824 au uuusual campaign occurred in the county. A bitter fight 
throughout the state was being waged on a very important question, which was 
this: Presidential electors had been appointed by the state legislature, and the 
Republican party took strong ground in favor of a la\\- providing for their elec- 
tion by the people. A bill had been presented in the legislature providing for 
such election, but had been defeated largely through the influence of Martin Van 
Buren. Through his influence, also, the members of the legislature had nomi- 
nated Samuel Young for governor and Erastus Root for lieutenant governor. 
This usurpation of power by the legislature, as it was called, was resented by 
the people, and there was a strong sentiment in favor of the nomination of ex- 
governor DeWitt Clinton for the office which he had so acceptably filled before 
that time. The Republican state convention was called to be held September 
21st at Utica. The Republican county convention, to elect delegates to the state 
convention, was held at the courthouse in Whitesboro September 14th. The 
delegates chosen to the state convention were George Brayton, David Pierson, 
David H. Hoyt, John "Wescott and Aaron Barnes. Resolutions were adopted 
favoring the "Election Law." By this was meant the bill providing for the 
election of presidential electors by the people. The state convention assembled 
at Utica September 21st, and John Taylor was made chairman. The nomination 
of DeWitt Clinton was made unanimous and by acclamation except one vote, 
and James Talmadge was nominated for lieutenant governor unanimously. A 
committee was appointed to draft an address to the people. It seems that this 
was the custom at that day, rather than to lay down what was known as a plat- 
form. This committee consisted of Gerrit Smith, C. G. Haynes and John Arm- 
strong. It made its report through its chairman, Mr. Smith, and the address 
was unanimously adopted by the convention. It may well be supposed that a 
committee with Gerrit Smith at its head would produce a paper worthy of seri- 
ous consideration, and this address consisted of a powerful denunciation of the 
usurpation of power by the legislature and of the Van Buren party, and of the 
candidate it said: "That Samuel Young is in the opinion of this meeting a 
mere political adventurer — a usurping demagogue — a fawning office seeker and 
servile tool of Martin Van Buren." The address then lauded Clinton and Tal- 
madge, and called "upon all fellow citizens to be vigilant at the polls and de- 
feat the vain professions of selfish and impudent office seekers and support the 
cause of 'Freedom and the People.' " Another resolution referring to the can- 
didates of the opposite party was as follows: "That one of these candidates is 
habitually intemperate, a scoffer at the Christian religion, and through his tal- 

87 



88 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

cnts aiul official iullueuce deplorably suceessl'ul iu contaminating public morals. 
And it is not more than the misfortune of the other candidate that he is found 
in such company." The campaign of 1824 was exceedingly important and 
bitter in the county. Henry R. Storrs had been nominated for representative 
in Congress by the Republican party, and for members of assembly the nomi- 
nations were Joseph Kirkland, Israel Stoddard, David Pierson, Samuel ^Yood- 
worth and Broughton White. The opposing ticket for Congress was James 
Lynch, and for members of assembly Thomas H. Hamilton, "William H. May- 
nard, Asabel Curtis, Fortune C. White and Benjamin Hyde. At this time po- 
litical discussion was not carried on through the medium of newspapers to any 
large extent, for the reason that the daily paper was then unknown, and other 
papers were few and issued at odd intervals, except, perhaps, a few weeklies. 
Under such circumstances the political parties and their candidates assailed 
each other on the rostrum and through the medium of printed circulars. Per- 
haps the best method of showing the exact condition which existed in this county 
during thi.s notable campaign is to set forth a few of the many circulars which 
were issued by the respective parties and their candidates. The supporters of 
Clinton held a meeting in Utica, October 12th, and after adopting certain reso- 
lutions adjourned the meeting to a future day, aud called the adjourned meet- 
ing by issuing the following circular : 

BEPUBLIC.VN MEETING OF YOUNG MEN 

"At a numerous and respectable meeting of the Republican j'oung men. of 
the town of Utica, convened pursuant to public notice at Col. Hooker's Long 
Room, on the evening of the 12th October, ilr. Sanuiel G. Walker was called to 
the chair and ]Mr. William Walker appointed secreta^}^ 

"On motion, it was resolved, that a committee of five be chosen to draft reso- 
lutions expressive of the sentiments of this meeting, on the nominations made 
at the state convention held in this to^vn, and on those made at the county con- 
vention held at Whitesborough. 

"Messrs. J. II. Ostrom, Seth Gridley, Charles R. Doolittle, J. P. Gould and 
J. G. Lundegreen, were then appointed as a committee, and after retiring for 
a sufficient length of time, returned and reported the following resolutions, 
which were unanimously adopted : — 

"Resolved, That it is the duty of Republicans and free men. at all times, 
to express fully their opinions of those who are entrusted with the administra- 
tion of public affairs, and especially so when they attempt to infringe upon 
those rights which have been purchased by the blood of our fathers, and secured 
to us by the letter and spirit of our Constitution. 

"Resolved, That the denial by the Legislature of the right of sufl^ragc, to Two 
Hundred and Sixty Thousand Freemen of this state, is an act of direct hostility 
to tiie rights of the people, and subversive of the free principles of our govern- 
ment. 

"Resolved, That we disapprove of national and state legislative Caucuses. 

"Resolved. That we disapprove of the nomination of Samuel Young and 
Erastus Root, because they received their nomination from a Caucus of that Leg- 




BAROX STEI"BEN'8 I!Esn>EX("E IX THE TOWN OF STET'BEX. 17!l() 




BAltOX STEIP.EXS MOXTMEXT IX THE ToWX OF STEUBEX 



T' 

PIJ P : 



IILL 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 89 

islature who defeated the electoral law, for the purpose of furthering the views 
of a favorite chieftain, who is driving a lucrative traffic in tiie suffrages of free- 
men at Washington. 

"Resolved, That we concur in the nomination made hy the State Convention, 
at Utica, of 

"DicWiTT Cmnton 

for Governor, and 

James Talmadqe 

for Lieut. Governor, 

And that we will unite our individual efforts, with the rest of our fellow 
citizens, in promoting their election. 

"Resolved, That we approve of the nomination riiade in this county of 

"Henry R. Stores, 

"For Congress, and 

"Joseph Kirkland, Israel Stoddard, David Pierson, Samuel Woodworth and 

Broughton White, 
"For members of Assembly, and that we will also support them at the Polls. 

' ' Resolved, That we recommend to the young men in the several towns in this 
county, to call similar meetings, to adopt measures to further the election of the 
above candidates. And that a corresponding committee of five be appointed 
from this meeting for the purpose of communicating with the several towns ; and 
that Jlessrs. Z. Piatt, A. C. Ellinwood, O. Whipple, J. E. Warner, and AVm. 
Bristol, compose that committee. 

"Resolved, That a committee of ten in each ward in this town be chosen, as 
a committee of vigilance, to further the wishes of this meeting, witli power to 
increase their number. 

"Resolved, That this meeting adjourn to meet at the same place, on the 
Friday evening previous to the election, at 7 o'clock. 

"Wm. Walker, Samuel G. Walker, 

Secretary. ' ' Chairman. 

"To THE Republican Young Men op Oneida. 

"The time is near at hand when the Electors of this state are again to exer- 
cise the boasted right of choosing their rulers. It is an era always interesting to 
freemen; but it is peculiarly so at this period. 

"A faction has gi'own up among us, which threatens the ultimate destruc- 
tion of our civil liberties. That faction is composed of unprincipled office 
holders and greedy office seekers, whose object is self aggrandizement ; and who 
would sacrifice their very country rather than fail in the accomplishment of 
their ambitious and wicked purposes. 

"Tlie present contest is literally between Republicans and factionists — 
between the people and the people's enemies. The people claim the right of 
nominating their own rulers. The factionists deny to them that right. The 
people demand the right of choosing their own presidential electors. The fac- 
tionists answer, "The people are not to be trusted." In such a warfare, it is 



90 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

uot only tlio privilege, but it is tiie duty of every good citizen to be up and 
doiug. To be inactive is to be criminal. 

"The constitution of these United States, that safeguard of oui- riglits. was 
purchased at too high a ])rice. to be surrendered now without a struggle. That 
constitution has been not only disregarded but insidted by our last state legis- 
lature. That legislature withheld from the people the choice of presidential 
electors; and in doing so, they violated their solemn pledges, and betrayed 
their constituents. A caucus of that same legislature have nominated a Gov- 
ernor and Lieut. Governor, who for their political sins and private vices, are 
obnoxious to tlie great mass of electors. 

"The caucus candidates for Congress and assembly, iu this county, have 
been brought forward to carry into effect the schemes of a favorite chieftain, 
who is driving a political traffic, at Washington, in the .sulfrages of freemen. 
Demagogues may tell you that they are friendly to the electoral law. But be on 
your guard! they are wolves in sheep's clothing. The people's candidates are 
known to you all — they have been long ti-ied — they are men of talents — they 
are honest and sober men — they are firm and ardent supporters of the people's 
rights — they are pledged to support and defend these rights, and will not violate 
their pledges. 

"Young j\len of Oneida 1 iluch is expected of us at the ensuing election. We 
can, and we ought to do much. Our national prosperity, and our national 
glory — our civil, institutions, which are deservedly our pride and our boast — 
in a word, all the blessings which we enjoy in this happy repiiblic, were won 
for lis by the labors, and sufferings, and blood of our fathers. Let it be the 
business of their sons to protect and preserve and perpetuate them." 

This circular, together with many others in the possession of the \\Titer which 
mil be hereafter referred to. was found among the valuable papers of Stalham 
Williams, who lived to he 99 years and 6 months of age. and was for fifty years 
treasurer of the Utica Savings Bank. 

The other party, not being backward in the issuing of circulars and in its 
assault upon its opponents, issued the following circular from Albany county, 
but it was distributed throughout the entire state 

" Gr.\ti:itous Servioks 
"To the People of the State of New York. 

"Fellow Citizens: Jluch has been said of the gratuitous services of DeWitt 
Clinton as a Canal Commissioner, especially since his removal from that station 
by James Talmadge. and others, who thought liim undeserving of the place. 
When the claims of Mr. Clinton in lliis respect, are examined, they will be found 
as flimsy as his other pretensions to the favor of the people. A plain statement 
of undeniable facts, derived from authentic sources, will ]ilaee this subject in a 
just light. 

"DeWitt Clinton was appointed a canal commissioner on the 13th of March, 
1810. As nothing further was then contemplated than the procuring of surveys 
and other sources of information, no salary was attached to the office, but .\ll 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 91 

THE EXPENSES OK THE COMMISSIONERS AND TUEIK AGENTS, WERE FULLY PAID BY THE 

STATE, and large sums were from time to time appropriated for that purpose. 
From 1810 to 181C, very little was done by the lioard. In 1816 a new board 
was organized, of which Mr. Clinton was appointed president, — (in which place 
he continued till April last) — and Twenty Thousand Dollars were appropriated 
to defray the expenses of the commissioners and their agents. In 1817 the 
legislature provided for the commencement of the canals, and i)rovision was 
subsequently made, fixing the salaries of the acting canal commissioners, while 
the expenses of the others continued to be defrayed as before. Mr. Clinton never 
was an acting conmiissioner ; and on this account, like Gouverneur Morris, Ste- 
phen VanRensselaer, and others of his colleagues, he received no salary, but his 
expenses while traveling, or otherwise engaged in the business, were fully paid 
by the state. As the monies appropriated for this purpose were generally paid 
to the whole board, and accounted for in gross, we have not been able, except in 
a few cases, to ascertain how much was paid to Mr. Clinton for his individual 
expenses. It appears by the accounts rendered to the state, that in a few in- 
stances he separately received compensation for his individual expenses, and on 
referring to them, the gross imposition of the clamor about Gratuitous Services 
will be clearly seen. Look at them, fellow-citizens, for yourselves. 

"On the 23d of January, 1812, he received Three Hundred Dollars for his 
own expenses 'in going to, staying at, and returning from Lancaster and Wash- 
ington.' This occupied him, according to his own account, thirty- five days, 
making a compensation of nearly Nine Dollars per day ! which is only three 
times as much as the pay of the members of the legislature ! ! ! 

"In 1814 he received Two Hundred and Sixty-one Dollars for his expenses 
in ' going to, staying at, and returning from Albany. ' This jaunt took, according 
to his own accoiuit, from the 27th of February to the 30th of March, 1814, being 
thirty-one days, and giving a compensation of only about Eight Dollars and 
Fifty Cents per day ! ! ! 

"In 1816 he received Two Hundred Dollars for his expenses in 'going to, 
staying at, and returning from Albany. ' This jaunt took him from some time in 
the beginning of February, 1816, to about the 15th of March, say at the most, 
forty days, giving the trifling compensation of Five Dollars per day! ! ! 

"From these instances, all of which appear on the public records, some 
idea may be formed of the liberal allowances made by the state to Mr. Clinton 
for his services as a canal commissioner, and instead of rendering them 
GRATUITOUSLY, as has been pretended, it is plain that he has received from 
the people of New York, a liberal equivalent. 

"But this is not all. While Mr. Clinton was a canal commissioner, he actu- 
ally received from the people of this state, the enormous sum of SEVENTY- 
SIX THOUSAND DOLLARS from the profits of OTHER OFFICES. The 
following calculation will show this. 

"The first canal board was organized, as has been said, in March, 1810. 
In 1810, DeWitt Clinton received for his services as state senator, at least $400. 

"In 1811 he was appointed Mayor of New York, an office which he had 
previously held for several years, and to which he was so much wedded, that 
although he held the office of state senator, the venerable Col. Marinus Willet 



92 IIISTORV OF UXEIDA COUNTY 

was removed from the mayoralty to make way for bim. This was then the best 
ofiice in the state, and one of the best in the Union. It was estimated to be 
wortli from FIFTEEN to TWENTY thousand dollars per annum! and so lucra- 
tive had it become, that in 1S13, the legishiture iirovided tliat the mayor should 
not be allowed more than $7,000 per anjium, and that the remainder of the fees 
of office should be paid to the city. To keep within boimds we put down the 
ofliee. previous to the fixing of the salary, at $15,000 per annum. By deserting 
the Republican party, and making terms with the federalists, he succeeded in 
holding this office until 1815, when he was removed by a republican council, upon 
the advice of Ambrose Spencer and others of his present supporters. 

"From ISll to 1813 is two years, at $15,000 per annum is $30,000 

"From 1813 to 1815 is 2 years, at $7,000 per annum 14,000 

"In 1811 he was elected lieutenant-governor, which ho held hro years, 

and for which he received at least 1,200 

"From 1815 to 1817 he held no office but that of canal coiumissioner, 
and for all his expenses in that capacity was fully indemnified, as has 
been already stated. 
"In 1817 he was elected Governor by the republican party, on his pro- 
fessions of repentance and promises of amendment, and he received 
for salary, from the 1st July, 1817, to the 1st April. 1820, 2 years and 

9 months, at the rate of $7,000 per annum 19,250 

"For salary as Governor from the 1st April, 1820, to the 1st of April 

1821. one j'ear, at $5,000 per annum 5,000 

"For salary as Governor, from the 1st April, 1821 to the 1st of January, 

1823, 1 year and months, at $4,000 per annum 7,000 

MAKING THE ENORMOUS SUM OF $76,650 

actually received by DeWitt Clinton, for public services, while he was a Canal 
Commissioner, besides being furnished, while governor, with a dwelling house, 
the rent and taxes of which were paid by the state ! "Well, then, might he afford 
to make an occasional visit to the line of the Canal, and to attend the sittings 
of the Board, especially when his expenses on all such occasions, were amply 
provided for by (he state. Away, then, with the pretence of his GRATUITOUS 
SERVICES! He has not only been munificently remunerated for every moment 
he has devoted to the public business, but he has actually received MORE 
MONEY from the people of New York, for the emolument of office, than any 
other man in the state. He has literally fattened on the i)ublie bounty. He has 
not only held the most lucrative stations in the gift of the pcojilc, but, for a great 
portion of his life, so greedy has been his appetite for power and wealth, that he 
has insisted on having TWO OR THREE OFFICES AT A TIIME. To prove 
these assertions still more clearly, let us carry our calculations a little farther 
back: 

The above statement shows that since the 13th JIarch. 1810. he has re- 
ceived, besides compensation for his expenses, etc., as canal commis- 
sioner, tlie sum of $76,650 

Previous to that time he had received as follows, viz.: Before 1707. 
as private secretary of the governor, secretary of the University, and 
of the Board of Fortifications, at least 2,000 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 93 

In 1797, as member of the assembly, at least 300 

From 1798 to 1802, as state senator, 4 years, at least 1 ,400 

In 1802, as United States' Senator, say 1,000 

From October, 1803, to March, 1807, as mayor of New York, 3 years and 

5 months, at $15,000 per annum 51 ,250 

Prom 1805 to 1809, as state senator, 4 years, about 1,600 

From March, 1808 to March, 1810, as mayor of New York,, 2 years, at 

$15,000 per annum 30,000 

In 1810, as state senator 400 

making the immense sum of $164,000 

164,600 Dollars! ! ! 

Paid to DeWitt Clinton out op the Pockets op the People of this State, 
for the Offices he has held, besides paying most liberally, all his expenses as 
Canal Commisioner, and besides fuimishing him with a splendid dwelling house, 
for 5 years and 9 months, at a rent, for a part of the time, of $2,000 and the 
residue at $1,200 a year ! ! ! He is now about fifty years of age, and has actually 
received from the public, since he was one and twenty, an average of nearly 
Five Thousand Dollars a year; a sum equal to the whole estate, for which 
many an honest elector toils for a whole lifetime. And yet, this is the man 
whose GRATUITOUS SERVICES are gravely put forth before the people, as 
entitling him to the first station in their gift! ! ! And this, too, is the man, 
who, two years ago, affected to decline a reelection as governor, on the republican 
principle of ROTATION IN OFFICE ! ! ! The history of his life shows that, 
in his opinion, ROTATION IN OFFICE, means DeWitt Clinton all the while, 
or at least every other time. 

"People of the State of New York! The facts we have stated are undeniable. 
We challenge our opponents to contradict them if they dare, to disprove them 
if they can. We have thought it our duty to lay them before you, in order to 
counteract the misrepresentations of those restless and aspiring demagogues 
who are now striving to prostrate the democratic party. Their object is not to 
promote your interests, or to extend your rights ; it is to secure their own 
aggrandizement. You found them faithless to you during the war ; they opposed 
the calling of a convention ; they resisted the extension of the elective franchise ; 
they were hostile to the new constitution. Their pretenses to republicanism are 
hj-poei-itical ; their pretended 'love of the people' is mere sound; their moving 
principle, 'UNCHASTENED AMBITION'; their sole aim, the attainment of 
POWER. All this you know, and knowing this, we trust you will give them, at 
the polls, the reception they deserve. Albany, October 15, 1824. 

"By order of the General Republican Committee of the City of Albany. 
Philip Phelps, Estes Howe, 

Secretary. ' ' Chairman. 



94 HISTOKY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

In answer to this the Clinton pai'ty issued the following eiroular: 

"Bewake op Fraud! 

"The Albany Regency and their coadjutors are making their last desperate 
effort to prop their tottering cause. Thej' have this day dispatched into every 
part of the county, loads of hand bills, fraught with the basest falsehoods and 
calumnies, and we already hear they chuckle in their sleeves at the anticipated 
success of their frauds, in imposing upon the People : Yes. Electors op Oneida. 
A People who are impudently told by these desperadoes "have not wisdom and 
virtue enough to appoint their electors of president or nominate their state 
officers. 

"Freemen op Oneida! One bold effort on your part will forever hereafter 
save j'ou from the insults of this proud Junto, and crush to atoms their fallen 
hopes. On Monday Next the Polls of Election will Open ; rally to a man, 
and by your united suffrages, quiet once more the tumults which have too long 
distracted and degraded this great State. 

"Wlio is so blind as not to see, that the dearest rights of the People have 
been basely assailed 1 Who so deaf, that he does not hear the cries of the People 
for a redress of their grievances? "Wlio so regardless of the cause of freemen 
that he will not make one effort to annihilate a corrupt combination of fac- 
tionists, whose motto is Self Aggrantjizement ! and who profane the hours 
allotted to repose, by their unhallowed machinations and secret plans, to foist 
themselves into power over the ruins of all that is pure in our excellent republi- 
can institutions, and who, the more effectuall}' to deceive the unsuspicious, have 
assumed our name and impudently pi-etend to profess our sentiments? Let the 
ballot boxes solemnly pronounce the answer, None! ! I Utica, October 24, 
1824." 

A very interesting incident occurred in this campaign at Hampton in the 
town of Westmoreland. It is somewhat difficult to understand the pi-eliminaries 
to the meeting that was held there, but it would appear that a meeting had been 
called at ITallock's in that village for the 23d day of October by the opponents 
of the Clinton party, or that Jlr. Dauby, then the political boss of the Van 
Buren party, had engaged the hall in which the meeting was to be held, and that 
the meeting had been called by the regular Republican party, which was in 
realit.v the Clinton party, and that ilr. Dauby engaged the hall to prevent the 
meeting being held. However that may be, the Clinton supportei's assembled in 
great numbers at the hall and took possession, which provoked a bitter contest, 
and the sheriff was called from Utica to bring peace out of the discord. The 
Utica Observer, which contained one side of the controversy, cannot be found, 
as the entire files were burned, but a circular was issued by the Clinton party in 
explanation of this meeting. It will be borne in mind that the intense feeling 
which existed between the parties at this time arose over the Election Law, that 
is, the Clinton party advocating the election of presidential electors by the 
people, and the other partj', which had opposed it, preventing the law being 
passed in the legislature, made pretence to be for it or against it. as the cir- 
cumstances required. The circular issued by the Clinton party in explanation of 
the Hampton meeting is as follows: 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 95 

"FALSEHOOD EXPOSED! 

"Under the editorial head, in the last 'Observer,' an account is given of the 
meeting of Republican young men held at Hampton on the 23d inst. That 
account is a tissue of falsehood, from beginning to end; and was designed for 
electioneering effect in the remote parts of the county. But we do not charge 
Mr. Dauiy as the author of these falsehoods; for although he is the ostensible 
editor, he has not the control of his own press;— and while we pity the man 
whose circumstances or feelings have induced him to assume a responsibility 
where he has no power, we cannot but denounce the malicious slanderers, who, 
protected by this disguise, ply their trade of calumny. But according to Noah 's 
code of ethics, "all is fair in politics." And everybody knows that a coward 
can print what he dare not utter. 

"The facts in relation to that meeting are as follows:— A notice was pub- 
lished in the 'Columbian Gazette' of a meeting at Hallock's, in Hampton, on the 
23d inst. of the 'Republican Young Men of Oneida, friendly to the Electoral 
Law.' "We supposed this invitation meant what it purported; we considered it 
as addressed to ourselves, and we attended accordingly. 

"On arriving at Hallock's, we told the bar-keeper, (the landlord being 
absent) that we had come to attend the meeting as advertised, and requested 
him to conduct us into the room designed for that purpose. He did so, and 
did not pretend that the room was otherwise engaged. The meeting then assem- 
bled in Hallock's large room to the number of 187. There were 36 from Utica 
and the remaining 152 were from the various towns in the county. 

"The friends of the Electoral Law, tlnis assembled, and just proceeding 
upon the business of the meeting, were interrupted by the intrusion of 15 or 20 
individuals, who, in a noisy and indecent manner, declared that the room was 
engaged to Mr. Dauby; and that the meeting must leave it. Mr. Hallock (the 
landlord) disgracefully lent himself to their views, and falsely stated that he 
had so engaged the room, and that it should not be used for a public meeting. 

At this moment two young men of their party, who had been sent to advise 
with Judge Enos, rushed into the room, and declared that unless the meeting 
surrendered immediate possession to Mr. Dauby, they would procure a warrant 
from a Judge, and we should be put out by force of law. They had, in the 
meantime, sent an express to Utica, for the Sheriff, who soon after arrived, with 
his trusty friend. Colonel Honicle, to carry this judicial threat into execution. 

"We expostulated, and we reasoned with them; we told them we had come 
as Bepublicans, to express out sentiments upon the Electoral Law ; and invited 
them to unite with us. They answered us with insults, and with threats of vio- 
lence. We then proposed having separate meetings, and appointing Committees 
of Conference ; and if it should be found that we accorded in sentiment upon the 
Electoral Law, that we should then unite our meetings; they would not listen 
to this fair offer, but persisted in their billingsgate abiise and threats of out- 
rage. 

' ' Despairing of eft'ecting a compromise, we organized our meeting, and peace- 
ably adjourned to the house of Mr. S. Ray, and there accomplished the biisiness 
for which we had assembled. 



96 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

"This is a simple and tnic statement of tlie facts. If we had gone to Hamp- 
ton (as the 'Ohserver' declares) for riotous purposes, we surely would not have 
yielded the possession of the room. AVe were six to one their superiors in num- 
bers: and our very forbearance towards them proves the .iustness of our cause, 
and the honesty of our intent. 

"They were turbulent, factious and insolent in the extreme. We had assem- 
bled as Republican Young Men to assert the rights of the people; and when we 
discovered that we could not do it at Ilalloek's, for the mub, we retired to Ray's. 

The Republican Young Men op Oneida. 
October 28, 1824." 

The Clinton party was successful in the county, carrying it against Young 
by 1329. and Clinton was elected governor of the state. The ma.iority for George 
Brayton, senator, was 1377 ; for Henry R. Storrs, representative in Congress, 
1052; and the vote of the town of Steuben was re.iected as defective; for mem- 
bers of Assembly, Joseph Kirkland, Israel Stoddard, David Pierson, Samuel 
W'oodworth and Broughton AVliite were elected by a majority of about 1,100. 

During this year Lafayette visited the United States, and was received every- 
where with great enthusiasm, and the gratitude of the American people for his 
services during the Revohition showed itself wherever the illustrious French- 
man went. 

1825 — The presidential electors appointed by the legislature at its 1825 session 
held the balance of power, and as they did not agree, great difficulty was encoun- 
tered in perfecting the election. The candidates were John Quincy Adams, 
William Crawford of Georgia, and Henry Clay. There being no election by the 
people, the election was thro^vn into the House of Representatives. There were 
di Republicans in Congress from New York, 17 of whom favored John Quincy 
Adams and 16 opposed him, while Stephen VanRensselaer was doubtful and 
would not declare himself in favor of any candidate. It was of the utmost im- 
portance how he should vote, because, if he voted against I\Ir. Adams, the Repub- 
licans would be a tie and the vote of New York could not be coimted, while, if 
he voted for Jlr. Adams, it would give him a majority of states and would make 
him president. It was not known uutil the vote was cast what ilr. VanRensse- 
laer 's position was, but on the appointed day he walked into the House of Rep- 
resentatives, took his seat among the New York Congressmen, cast the vote, and 
when it was counted it was found that he had voted for Mr. Adams, and ^Ir. 
Adams was declared duly elected president of the United States. The local cam- 
paign in this year was without special interest, and the Oneida Observer of 
November 20 says that its party did well, but it might have done better. This 
paper reports the election as follows: For .state senators, Gerrit Smith 3,831 
votes, and Charles Stebbins 2,960 votes; for assemblymen, Theodore Sill, Lorenzo 
Hull. Israel .Stoddard, Aaron Barnes and Russell Clark were elected bv about 
1,000 majority over Greene C. Bronson, Thomas H. Hamilton. Linns Parker, 
Theor Woodruffe and Samuel Jlott. 

1826 — The Whig state convention was held in I'tica in September of tliis 
year. The Bncktails held their convention at Herkimer. The principal issue 
in the campaign was for or against Clinton. The candidate of the Republican 




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HISTORY Oi^^ ONEIDA COUNTY 97 

party for governor was DeWitt Clinton, for lieutenant governor, Henry Hunt- 
ington; the candidate of the opposing party for governor was William 13. Kocli- 
ester, and for lieutenant governor Nathaniel Pitcher. The Republican county 
convention was held at Hampton on October 14, and the following ticket was 
nominated: For senators S. »Stoddard and James iMcMckar; for representative 
in Congress, Henry R. Storrs; for assemblymen, Theodore Sill, Winthrop H. 
Chandler, Benjamin P. Johnson, John Billings and .John Parker. Clinton carried 
the county by 1,108 and Huntington by 1,078. It has been impossible from the 
records to ascertain who the opposing local candidates were at this election. 
Truman Enos was the senator elected from this district. 

1827 — In 1827 the Republican convention was held at the house of S. Ray 
at Hampton. Nathan Adams presided and Charles P. Kirkland acted as secre- 
tary. A resolution was adopted approving the selection of Lauren Ford of Her- 
kimer as a candidate for senator from the fifth district, and for members of 
assembly the following persons were nominated : M^illiam Clark of Utica, Israel 
Stoddard of Camden, Gardiner Avery of Paris, Benjamin P. Johnson of Rome, 
and John Mappa of Boonville. A strong address was prepared and presented 
to the voters advocating the election of the candidates nominated at this con- 
vention. The opposing candidate for senator was Nathaniel S. Benton, and for 
members of assembly S. Sidney Breese, Gardiner Avery, William Clark, Eli 
Savage and Benjamin P. Johnson. Ford was elected senator by a majority of 
1 00, and Breese, Avery, Clark, Savage and Johnson were elected to the assembly 
by a majority of about 200. 

1828 — The national Republicans, or the party which favored the adminis- 
tration of President Adams, held its state convention at Utica, July 22, 1828. 
Smith Thompson was nominated for governor, and Francis Granger for lieu- 
tenant governor. The Anti-ilasonic convention met also in Utica, and nomi- 
nated Francis Granger for governor and John C. Crary for lieutenant governor, 
but Granger declined this nomination, and Solomon Southwiek was substituted 
on that ticket in Granger's place. The State Administration party met at Her- 
kimer and nominated Martin VanBuren for governor and Enos T. Throop for 
lieutenant governor. For the first time a nomination was made for a presiden- 
tial elector, as prior to this time presidential electors had been appointed by 
the legislature, and a law had been passed providing that they be elected by 
districts. This was only in operation for one election, and Ebenezer B. Sher- 
man of Utica was the elector nominated by the Republicans for that office. At 
this time there were two parties, known as the Republican party and the Jack- 
son party, and the contest between them was very bitter. A large meeting of 
young men was held at the inn of 0. Foot at Vernon Center on the 2d day of 
August for the purpose of sending delegates to the state convention of Young 
Men to be held in Utica, on the 12th of August. This convention passed a series 
of resolutions, among which was the following: "Resolved, That in our 
endeavors to promote the election of our candidates we will not circulate false- 
hoods as our opponents do. Nor will General Jackson threaten to cut off their 
ears." The Republican county convention was held at Whitestown on the 9th 
of October, and Henry R. Storrs was nominated for Congress, Kellogg Hurlburt 
for sheriff, John H. Ostrom for county clerk; and for members of assembly, 



98 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

Reuben Bacon of Sangerliekl, Fortune C. White of Wbitestown. John Parker of 
Vienna, Benjamin P. Johnson of Rome and Thomas II. Hamilton of Steuben. 
The nomination of "William 11. ]\Iayuard for senator was approved. There was a 
continuous attack upon Andrew Jackson through the entire campaign of the 
most bitter character. Directly \mder the Republican ticket there were given 
reasons why he ought not to be elected president, among which were the fol- 
lowing: He said "our government ought to be damned," and that we "ought 
to have a standing army of upwards of 100,000 men," and that in 1814 he had 
said that ilr. Jladison was unfit for president for the horrid reason that he was 
"too nuich of a philosopher to look on blood and carnage with composure." 
VauBuren was elected governor, but Thompson carried the county by G07, and 
the presidential elector, Ebenezer B. Sherman carried the county by about the 
same ma.iority. Storrs was elected to Congress, Maynard to the senate, and 
Bacon. Johnson. Savage, Tower and Fortune C. \Vhitc to the Assembly. The 
local fight centered principally upon the election of sheriff, and circulars were 
isued pro and con by John E. Ilinman and Kellogg Hurlburt. A personal 
attack was made upon ;\lr. Ilinman. and forgery, perjury and other crimes were 
set forth in these respective circulars. One of them, dated November 1, and 
signed by David Pierson. chairman of the Republican committee, among other 
things said: "Fellow citizens! If there ever was a ease which merited your 
indignation this is one. If you have never before understood the real character 
of John E. Hinman, this exposure presents him to yoiir view, and you who vrill 
yet vote for him, must reconcile it to your consciences and to your sense of 
propriety and decency as well as you can." It would appear that a large num- 
ber of voters of the county reconciled themselves to their consciences, as Mr. 
Hinman was elected by a substantial majority. 

1829 — During the year 1829 intense excitement prevailed throughout the 
state upon the subject of Free Masonry. So bitter was the feeling that the 
political parties divided upon that question, and candidates were nomiuated by 
the Anti-Masonic jiarty throughout the state. In the county of Oneida there 
were a great numlier of tickets in the field, as follows: For senator — Anti- 
Masonic ticket. Edward Bancroft of Lewis; Federal Jackson Anti-Tariff ticket, 
Aloin Bronson of Oswego; Mechanics' ticket, Edward Bancroft, For members 
of a.ssembly — Republican ticket, Benjamin P. Johnson of Rome, David Pierson 
of Verona, John Storrs of Trenton, John Ilumaston of Vienna and Aaron 
Barnes of Deerfield ; Anti-JIasonic ticket, Thomas R. Palmer of New Hartford, 
Stephen Bridgman. Jr., of Vernon, James Dean of I'tica, Benjamin Hyde of 
Annsville. and William Hubbard of Trenton ; Federal Jackson Anti-Tariff 
ticket. Eli Savage of New Hartford, Elisha Pettibone of Vernon, and Aaron Com- 
stock of Western; Mechanics' ticket, Aaron Barnes, Eli Savage, James Dean, 
Itha Thomson and John Ilumaston, The public prints attainable at this time 
do not give the remainder of the tickets nominated by the respective parties. 
It seems that William IT. ^laynard was elected to the senate, and Aaron Com- 
stock, Linus Parker, Elisha Pettibone, Eli Savage and Itha Thompson members 
of assembly. 

1830 — In this year the Whig party nominated Francis Oranger for governor 
and Samuel Stevens for lieutenant governor; S. Newton Dexter was nominated 



HISTORY OF OXKIDA COUNTY 99 

for representative in Congress. The Uucktails met at Herkimer and nominated 
Enos P. Tliroop for governor and Kdward 1'. Jjivingstoiie for lieutenant gover- 
nor. A convention of farmers, mechanics and workinginen of the connty met 
at Whitesboro, and nonunated for representative in Congress Fortune C. Wliite, 
and for assend)ly Gardiner Avery, John ,J. Knox, .lohn Storrs, Aaron iJarnes 
and David Pierson. Neliemiah Ilnntington, Ephraim Hart and Henry A. Foster 
were candidates for the senate. The Democratic candidate for representative in 
Congress was Samuel Beardsley, and for members of assembly Reuben Bettis, 
Aaron Comstoek, David Moulton, Riley Shepard and John F. Trowbridge. 
Throop carried the county for governor by a majority of 2,550, Foster by nearly 
the same majority for senator, and Sanmel Beardsley by about the same ma,iority 
for representative in Congress. The following candidates were elected to the 
assembly: Aaron Comstoek, Reuben Bettis, Riley Shepard, John F, Trowbridge 
and David Moulton, by about 1,300 plurality. 

1831 — In this year the Anti-]\Iasonic party felt strong enough to make a 
nomination for the presidenc.v for 1832, and named "William Wirt of Mai-yland 
for president, and Amos Ellmaker of Pennsylvania for vice president; Thomas 
Beekman of Madison for senator, Kellogg Hurlburt of Utica for sheriff, James H. 
Collins of Verona for county clerk, and for members of assembly, James Piatt, 
William Rollo, Alexander Whaley, Thomas R, Palmer and Eliphaz B. Barton. 
The opposing parties had nominated Robert Lansing for senator, Samuel M. 
Mott for sheriff, John H. Ostrom and George Brown for county clerk, and for 
members of assembly, Eliphaz B, Barton, David Moulton, Lemuel Hough, 
Nathaniel Fitch and Rutger B. Miller. The official canvass gave Robert Lansing 
for senator, 1,562 majority, Samuel M. Mott, for sheriff, 950 majority, George 
Brown for county clerk, about .500 plurality, and Daniel Twitehell, David Moul- 
ton, Lemuel Hough, Nathaniel Fitch and Rutger B. Jliller about the same 
majority. 

1832— The national campaign of 1832 is known as the one without an issue. 
The agitation of the slavery question had brought about the great debate between 
Webster and Hayne, and this was for the next thirty years to be the paramount 
question before the people of the United States, although for the time being it 
was held in abeyance. The Anti-]\Iasonic convention was held in Utica, June 21, 
1832, and nominated Francis Granger for governor, and Samuel Stevens for 
lieutenant governor. The American party adopted Granger and Stevens, and 
James Kent and John C. Spencer as presidential electors at large; the sena- 
torial candidate was Nathan Hall of Madison; for representative in Congress, 
Charles P. Kirkland of Oneida, and Peter Skeu of Oswego ; and for members of 
assembly James Piatt, Warren Converse, George Manchester, William Park and 
John Williams. The opposing candidates were Henry A. Foster for senator, Sam- 
uel Beardsley for member of Congress, and for members of assembly, Ichabod C. 
Baker, Levi Buckingham, John Dewey, Squire Utley and David Wager. The 
county gave a majority for William L. Marcy for governor of 546, and gave the 
same majority for the electoral ticket headed by Edward P. Livingstone; Sam- 
uel Beardsley was elected to Congress by about the same majority, and John G. 
Stower, for senator, carried the county by a vote of 569 ; Henry A. Foster car- 
ried the senatorial district, while Ichabod C. Baker, Levi Buckingham, John 



777653 A 



100 lllSTOKY OF UXEIDA COUNTY 

Dewey, Squire Utley and David Wager were eleeted to the asseuihly. The state 
gave ]\larey a majority of a little over 10,000, and the Jaekson presidential elec- 
toi-s carried the state bj' about the same majority. 

1833 — Durins; the jiolitieal eampaigu of 1S33 tlie Republicans and Anti- 
Masonic parties united, and nominated for senator in the lifth district AVilliam 
Williams. For members of assembly on the ticket of the Oneida Democrats were 
Chester ITaydcn, Benjamin P. .Tohnson, John Dewey, Robert I. Norris and Jona- 
than Hubbard. On the tieket known as the Utiea Regency were Pomroy Jones, 
Israel Parker. Itha Thompson, Aaron Stafford and Hiram Shays. A bitter 
fight w.'is made against wliat was Imown as the Utiea Regency, and in the Ehxci- 
dator of October 22 there is a proclamation, osteusiblj- issued in burlesque form 
by the Regency, reversing the excommunication of one George Brown, "who 
hath since then been languishing in spirit and hath manifested deep humiliation 
insonnieh that he hath implored our gracious pardon, and hath moi'cover con- 
descended to kiss the great toe of our chief autocrat." Francis Seger, candidate 
for senator, carried the count}' by 4,972, and Itha Thompson, Hiram Shays, 
Israel S. Parker, Pomroy Jones and Aaron Stafford received about 1,000 ma- 
jority for members of assembly. 

1834 — A convention was held in Syracuse in August, 1834, and the term 
"Wliig" was fii'st applied to the new party, which made the nomination at that 
time of William H. Seward for governor. This was the first entry of Mr. Seward 
into what might be called national politics, for, from this time forward, he 
became a very important element in conventions and in shaping the thought of 
the people of this country. He was a man of unusual acquirements, of great 
facilitj'' with the pen, an accomplished la\v}'er, who had commenced practice 
in the eitj- of Utiea, but after about a year he removed to Auburn and spent 
his days there. Silas N. Stillwell was the candidate of this partj^ for lieutenant 
governor. The candidates of the Democratic party were William L. jMarcy for 
governor, and John Tracy for lieutenant governor. The local ticket of the Repub- 
lican party at that time was for senator of the fifth district, Abijah Beckwith; 
for member of Congress, Samuel Beardsley; for sheriff, Erastus Willard; for 
count.v clerk, John D. Lelaud. and for members of assembly, Amos Woodworth, 
David Wager, Dan P. Cadwell, ^Merritt Brooks and Riley Shepard. During this 
campaign and on the 29th day of October a largely attended meeting of Irish 
Adopted Citizens was held in Utiea. It seems that handbills had been circu- 
lated throughout the city signed by a few Irishmen claiming to represent the 
sentiment of the Irish, and a.sking the support of the YanBuren ticket. This 
was resented by the large mass of Irishmen. ;\ui\ this meeting was called to 
denounce the procedure. Among other resolutions passed by this largel.v at- 
tended meeting was the following: "Resolved, That the Whigs have proved 
their confidence and friendship for the Irish citizens both in this city and else- 
where, by placing them in important trusts, and 7nore recentl.y by placing on 
their eongrcs-sionnl ticket, William Sampson, the co-patriot of Emmett, and a dis- 
tingui.ihed native of Ireland, resolved that the Irish electors did not wear the 
collar in their own country and will not in this." These resolutions were pub- 
lished and set forth in a flaming circular signed by a large number of Irishmen, 
with John Queal as chairman and James McDonough as secretary. 




I'Ol.K'K OFFICE, UTICA 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 101 

"William L. Marcy was elected governor ajiainst William IT. Seward, and car- 
ried the county of Oneida by a majority of 36(j; Samuel Heardsley was elected 
representative in Congress; Henry A. Foster, senator; Erastus Willard, sheriff; 
and Merritt Brooks, Dan P. Cadwell, Riley Shepard, David Wager and Amos 
"Woodworth were elected members of assembly by substantial majorities. 

1835 — It was during the year 1835 that the agitation of the slavery question 
assumed great proportions, and Utica was a center of the excitement. It was at- 
tempted to hold meetings at different places to further the cause of the freedom 
of the slaves, and meetings had been held in the First Presbyterian Church in 
Utica favoring the American Colonization Society. These meetings had created 
intense excitement, and a convention of the Anti-Slavery Society was called to 
be held October 21, in Utica. On September 3 a meeting of prominent citizens 
was held at the court house in Utica, and the Utica Observer of September 8, 
gives a report of this meeting. It states that the courthouse was crowded, and 
that many were unable to obtain admission. The meeting was addressed by 
Hon. Samuel Beardsley, Joshua A. Spencer and Ephraim Hart. A motion was 
made for the appointment of a committee to report the officers of the meeting. 
The committee reported Hon. Joseph Kirkland, as president ; Hon. Henry Sey- 
mour, Hiram Denio, Chester Playden, Gardiner Tracy, Rudolph Snyder, John 
C. Devereux, Thomas H. Hubbard, Kellogg Hurlburt, Thomas Goodsell and E. S. 
Barnum as vice presidents; Theodore Pomeroy, John M'Call, Joshua N. Church 
and David "Wager as secretaries. A committee was appointed to draft resolu- 
tions, which made its report, and the resolutions were unanimously adopted. 
The resolutions are too lengthy to be quoted in full, but one of them was as 
follows: "Resolved, that the relation of master and slave having been consti- 
tutionally recognized, can in no way be impaired or affected by the general 
government ; that, therefore, all attempts to dissolve their relations through the 
medium of public meetings and publications can onlj' tend to exasperate one por- 
tion of the union, and eventually to overthrow the glorious fabric of our national 
confederacy." The meeting also resolved that "we will in every lawful way, 
by public meetings, through the presses, and by our individual efforts oppose 
the measures of the Abolitionists, believing that if carried into effect the union 
of the states will be broken into pieces." Dr. Bagg, in his Memorial History of 
Utica, on page 224 gives an account of the meetings that were held, and attempts 
to palliate the acts of the citizens who undertook to prevent the holding of the 
Anti-Slavery convention, "^''e do not think he presents the situation in its true 
light, for, as a matter of fact, it is undisputable that the meeting to be held was 
for the sole purpose of the discussion of the ciuestion of slavery ; that no injury 
was threatened or thought of, so far as the facts show, to any person either 
north or south, but that, by discussion of the question, the people might be 
brought to a true realization of what slavery was, and that such means should 
be taken as woidd result in the freedom of the colored race in this country. The 
fact that the ma.yor of the city and prominent citizens of both parties opposed 
the holding of this convention does not in any way change the situation. Truth 
is paramount to position or social standing, and it was truth that actuated the law 
abiding citizen who undertook to hold a meeting for the expression of their 
views. This convention assembled at the Bleecker street church, and these 



102 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

"prominent citizens," wlio had taken part in the meeting, repaired, headed by 
the chairman of the committee, Samuel Beardsley, to the church, and demanded 
that tliis meeting lie abandoned. To quote from Dr. Bagg, who gives it as rosy 
a color as po.ssiblc for tlic "pi-omiueut citizens." he says alter the committee had 
carried out these instructions it returned, and "during the delay thus alluded to 
there were undoubtedly some lively scenes inside the church. The presence of the 
committee was an incentive to whatever rowdy element was in the church, as well 
nson the outside, to create a disturbance; there was nuich noise, and some threats 
of violence, hymn books and other missiles were tossed about, and some personal 
assaults, in one of which Spencer Kellogg 's coat was torn from his back * • • 
The excitement was intense, and it was remarkable that a destructive riot did 
not follow * • * Gerrit Smitli was a spectator. Wlien the necessity of 
breaking up the convention l)eeainc apparent, he invited the people to go home 
with him, wlicre they would iind a warm welcome. About four hundred 
accepted the invitation, ami the wm-k of the convention was finished at Peter- 
boro." Up to that time Gerrit Smith was not an ardent supporter of emanci- 
pation, Init, true to tlu» old saying that "the blood of the martyr is the seed of 
the church," the outrages at the Utica convention were the seed that resulted 
in the convereation of Gerrit Smith and made him one of tlie foremost champions 
of tlie cause wliich the prominent citizens of Utica would have smothered at its 
very birth. In the election of this year. Henry A. Foster was again elected to 
the senate, and Henry Graves. John W. Flale, William Knight, Jared C. Petti- 
bone and John Stryker were elected to the assembly. The palliating circiim- 
stance, it would seem, for the acts of these prominent and reputable citizens was 
they feared the disiMijition of the union in consequence of the agitation of the 
slavery question. Many of them liad, undoubtedl.v, experienced that which we 
of the present day know little of, and that is that slavery had existed in their 
midst. What would be tliought to-day of an advertisement like one in the Utica 
Patriot of April 18, 1815 — "For Sale. Two years and five months service of a 
female slave (a woman). Inquire at this office. Utica, March 21." 

1836 — The Democratic candidate for president in tjiis year was ilartin 
VanBurcn. Tiie Whig party was divided, and the northern wing of this party 
nominated William Henry Harrison, while the southern wing nominated Hugh 
L. White of Tennessee. The Democratic candidate for governor was William L. 
Marcy, and the Whig candidate was Jesse Buell, with Gamaliel H. Barstow for 
lieutenant governor. It was a foregone conclusion, when the Whig party 
divided, that VanBiircn would be elected and that the state of New York would 
give a Democratic ma.iority. Tiie county of Oneida gave Marcy 2,054 plurality, 
and the electoral ticket and the county officers generally about the same. The 
^'anBurcn ticket carried the state of New York liy 20.474. Samuel Beardsley was 
elected representative in Congress, and Levi Buckingham, John I. Cook, Lester 
N. Fowler and Andrew S. Pond were elected members of assembly. The presi- 
dential elector for this district was Parker Ilalleek. 

1837 — The financial panic had wrought havoc in the Democratic jiarty, to the 
great advantage of tlic Whigs. The Wliigs went into the campaign with much 
confidence, and tliis confidence was well placed. There were three tickets in the 
field for county offices. The Democratic-Republican nominated, for senator, 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 108 

Avery Skinner of Oswego; for .slierill', ('alvin Hall; for eouiily clerk, Israel S. 
Parker; for mem)>ers of assembly, Willard Crafts, Ebene/.er Kol)])ins. Amasa S. 
Newberry and Luke Hitchcock. The opposinji; candidates were Jonas Piatt for 
senator; for sheriff, Lyman Curtis (Whig) and Samuel Comstock, who was 
called an Irregular; for county clerk, James Dean (Whig) and Anson Knibloe 
(Irregular) ; for members of assembly, Whigs, Russell Fuller, Fortune C. White, 
James S. T. Stranahan and Henry Ilearsey; Democrats, Willard Crafts, Ebenezer 
Robbins, Clark Robbins, Luke Hitchcock; Irregulars, John P. Sherwood, Nathan- 
iel Sherrill, Ingham Townsend and Jared C. Pettibone. Jonas Piatt carried the 
county for senator by a plurality of 1,050; Lyman Curtis for sheriff by about 
400 plurality; James Dean for county clerk, by about the same plurality; Levi 
Buckingham, John I. Cook, Lester N. Fowler and Andrew S. Pond, for members 
of assembly, by about the same plurality. 

1838 — The canvass of this year opened with warmth all along the line. All 
the great Whig leaders were alarmed at the situation. Gerrit Smith, at the 
head of the Abolitionists, questioned Seward as to the propriety of granting 
fugitive slaves a fair trial by .I'ury, but Mr. Seward declined to make anti-elec- 
tion speeches. Seward had been nominated by the Whigs for governor, and 
Luther Braddish for lieutenant governor. Francis Granger had been the op- 
posing candidate for governor, but had been beaten in the convention. A branch 
of the Democratic party, under Nathan P. Talmadge, assembled at Syracuse, 
adopted Seward and denounced ]\Iarcy. The Democratic convention assem- 
bled at Herkimer, September 12, renominated Governor Marcy for governor, and 
John Tracy for lieutenant governor. Mr. Greeley, editor of the New York Tri- 
bune, was confident of the election of Seward, and the great political manipulator 
of the age, Thurlow Weed, was confident of success. This wizard of politics had 
for some time been influential in Whig circles, and but few men had exercised the 
power that Mr. Weed exercised in political affairs in any age, and at this time 
he was about entering upon his remarkable career. The Marcy local ticket was 
as follows : For representatives in Congress, John G. Floyd of Oneida and David 
P. Brewster of Oswego ; for senator, Joseph Clark of Madison ; for members of 
assembly, Ward Hunt, Israel Stoddard, Jesse Armstrong and Amasa S. New- 
berry. The Whigs nominated for representatives in Congress, Charles P. Kirk- 
land and Henry Pitzhugh ; for senator, John D. Ledyard ; for members of as- 
sembly, Fortune C. White, Patrick Mahon, John J. Knox and Philip M. Schuyler. 
The majority for Marcy for governor in the county was 1,040, but Seward was 
elected by a majority of 10,321 ; Floyd and Brewster were elected representa- 
tives in Congress by about 900 ; Clark, for senator, carried the county by about 
1,040 majority ; Hunt, Stoddard, Armstrong and Newberry were elected members 
of assembly by an average majority of 730. 

1839 — This year was an "off year" politically. It would seem as if the 
great parties were preparing for the unusual campaign of 1840. The county 
officers elected in this year were members of assembly, as follows: Nelson Dawley, 
Anson Knibloe, Charles A. Mann and John F. Trowbridge. 



CHAPTER XIII 

1840—1859 

1840 — The campaign of 1840 was perhaps the most extraordinarj' of any 
that has ever occurred in the country. The ^Yhigs nominated General William 
Henry Harrison for president and John Tyler for vice president; William H. 
Seward was renominated for governor, and the Democrats named William C. 
Bouck. The entire campaign was carried on upon national issues. The great cry 
of "Change of the Administration" was most effective. The Whig candidate for 
president was ideal, under the circumstances. He had performed valuable mili- 
tary services for the country, had been a successful general, and immortalized 
himself by the battle of Tippecanoe, which gave rise to the most ef- 
fective cry of "Tippecanoe and Tyler too." A Virginia paper had said that 
Harrison should remain in his log cabin. This was taken up by the Whigs, and 
log cabins were built all over the country; and Horace Greeley commenced the 
publication of a paper known as the Log Cabin. This was the entry of this 
great writer into national politics, and it is perhaps useless to say that he never 
had an equal as a newspaper writer. The state convention which nominated 
Seward was held in Utica, and, instead of being an ordinary convention, people 
came from all over the state in vast numbers. It is estimated that not less than 
twenty-five thousand people paraded the streets, and attempted to witness the 
proceedings of the convention. Wlien the parade was passing, a bvstander asked 
one of the marshals of the day how long the procession was. The marshal replied, 
"Indeed, sir, I can't tell you; the other end of it is forming somewhere near 
Albany." There was an attempt to ridicule General Harrison by suggestions of 
the log cabin, cider barrel and coon slrin cap. This was taken up by the Whigs, 
and marching parties carried the cider barrel, drew the log cabin, and wore 
coon skin caps. This spirit was most effective in drawing to the Whig candi- 
date the common people, and Harrison was elected by an overwhelming ma- 
jority. As a matter of fact General Harrison was a most cultured gentleman, 
the son of Benjamin Harrison, who presided in the Continental Congress, was 
one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, was governor of Virginia, 
and General Harrison, was the grandfather of Benjamin Harrison, one of 
the most able presidents who ever tilled the executive chair. Of this campaign 
Henry Clay said, "The nation was like the ocean when con\'ulsed by some ter- 
rible storm." Bouck for governor carried the count.v b.v 789 majorit.v, but 
Seward was elected governor by 5.203, John J. Knox was elected presidential 
elector; John G. Floyd was elected to Congress; Calvin Dawle.v, Joseph Hal- 
lock, Luke Hitchcock and Nathan Odell were elected to the. assembly, and 
David Moulton was elected sheriff, 

104 




CITY UAI.I,, ITKA 



f— 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 105 

1841 — The year 1841 was uneventful as a political year, as nciUier president 
nor governor were to be elected, and very little interest was manifested in the 
election. The death of President Harrison was a sad blow to the Whig party, 
as John Tyler abandoned the party that elected him and took sides with its 
0[>poneuts. This divided tlie party somewhat, and the Whig party really never 
was rehabilitated, although it had temporary sucicesses thereafter. The assem- 
blymen elected this 3'ear were Ichabod C. Baker, Ebenezer Bobbins, Horatio Sey- 
mour and DeWitt C. Stevens. This year marked the entry into state politics of 
one of the most prominent politicians upon the Democratic side in the history of 
its party. Horatio Seymour, from this time up to the day of his death, was a 
powerful element in Democratic circles, and at times swayed the entire party of 
the nation as well as the state by his unusual ability and high character. 

1842 — In 1842 the Whig party was really on the decline, for its prominent 
men, who were thought to be eligible, declined nominations tendered them for 
high office. Even Seward, who had twice been elected governor, declined to 
be a candidate. Luther Braddish was finally nominated for governor and 
Gabriel Farnam for lieutenant governor. The Democratic party was divided into 
two factions, the Conservatives and the Radicals. The division of the Wliig party 
made the triumph of the Democratic party this year easy, and under the lead- 
ership of such men as Edward Croswell, editor of the Albany Argus, Daniel S. 
Dickinson, Samuel A. Beardsley, Henry A. Foster and Horatio Seymour they 
were victorious, and elected Bouck governor by a majority of 21.981, he having a 
majority in Oneida county over Braddish of 1,397. The members of assembly 
elected were Dan P. Cadwell and Amos S. Fassett by an average majority of 768 
over Andrew Rockwell and Salmon Chase, and Evan Owens and Ezekiel Butler 
over David Murray and John II. Tower by an average majority of 230. Samuel 

A. Beardsley had a majority for representative in Congress over Charles P. 
Kirkland of 785. Henry A. Foster, being elected to the senate, was made its 
president pro tem, and, although he was not a stranger to office at this time, the 
wisdom of this choice was shown in his great ability as a presiding officer, and it 
is not extravagant to say that he had no equal as a delmter in the senate. In 
another part of this work we give a sketch of ]\rr. Foster's life, but we cannot let 
the occasion pass to pay our tribute to his great ability, and, had he the elements 
of suavity that Horatio Seymour possessed, he would have been in the front 
rank among our national leaders. 

1848 — The Whig county convention assembled at Rome, September 28, 1843, 
and nominated Palmer V. Kellogg for sheriff, Calvin B. Gray for county clerk, 
and for members of the assembly Warren Converse, George Bristol, Samuel 

B. Hinckley and Russell Fuller. The Loeofoeo or Democratic convention met at 
Hampton and nominated for sheriff Squire Utley, for county clerk Delos 
DeWolf, and for members of assembly Horatio Sejnnour, James Douglass and 
Richard Empey. The Locofoeos carried the county by about 800 majority. Kel- 
logg was elected sheriff by a pluralit.y of 525 ; DeWolf was elected count}' clerk 
by a plurality of 1,011; Horatio Seymour, James Douglass, Richard Empey and 
Justus Childs were elected to the assembly by an average plurality of about 1,100. 

1844 — In 1844 the National Democratic party nominated James K. Polk of 
Tennessee for president and George II. Dallas of Pennsylvania for \'ice presi- 



100 HISTORY OF ON K IDA COUNTY 

dent, but it was elaiinecl that VanBurcn had lu'eii defeated for the nomination 
l>y treachery. The AYhig convention nominated ITenry Chiy, the idol of the 
party, for president, and Theodori' I<'iclinghuysen for vice president. Silas 
Wright, resigned as United States senator, became the Democratic candidate for 
governor, allhongh tliis was not satisfactory to the Radical wing or the Soft 
Shells, as they were called, ol' the Democratic i)art.v. ^Millard Fillmore was 
nominated for governor and Samuel J, "Wilkin for lieutenant governor at the 
Whig convention, I'^illmoro had been defeated for the AVhig nomination of vice 
president on llic (lay ticket, and this was to assuage his sorrows. Fillmore was 
about entering on a distinguished career. He had been a successful mendier of 
Congress, and this was a contest between two of the most prominent men in their 
respective parties. But a new element entered into the contest. The Abolition 
party had nominated James G. Birney of ^licliigan for president and Ahnn 
Stewart of Utica for governor. Gerrit Smith and Briah Green, two of the 
ablest orators in the Abolition party, supported this last named ticket. The 
Wliig county convention assembled at Hampton in September, and nominated 
to till vacancy for member of Congress Salmon Chase, and for the full term For- 
tune C. ^Yhite; for members of assembly Josiah S. Kellogg, Harvey Brayton, 
Samuel B. Hincklc.v and Jeremiah Knight; at the senatorial convention Samuel 
Farwell received the nomination for senator. The opposing candidates for 
senator were Enoch B. Taleott and Isaac S. Ford; for representatives in Con- 
gress. Timothy Jenkins, Levi D. Carpenter and Bela Allen: for members of 
assembly Horatio Seymour, Andrew Billings, Calvert Comstock and Merritt 
Brooks. The canvass was carried on \\'ith great spirit, and much sorrow was 
manifested at the defeat of Islr. Clay. Oneida county gave 734 plurality for 
the Polk electors, and 821 plurality for Wright for governor; about the same 
plurality for Taleott for senator, and Timothy Jenkins had a plurality of 526 
for member of Congress for the full term, and Levi D. Carpenter about the 
same plurality. Andrew Billings, ilerritt Brooks. Calvert Comstock and 
Horatio Seymour were elected to the asscmbh' b.v a small plurality. 

1845 — The political campaign of 1845 was fought out largel.v in the legis- 
lature. This fight grcAV over the question of calling a Constitutional Conven- 
tion. The two wings of the Democratic party had a ma.iority in the assemlily, 
but the Hards and Softs were not united, and a remarkable young man 
appeared upon the Whig side, who made a determined fight for the convention. 
This was John Young. Prior to this time he had done nothing to attract atten- 
tion, nor was the public aware generall.v of his extraordinary talents. He was 
an excellent parliamentarian, and had set his heart upon carrying through the 
legislature the bill for a Constitutional Convention, and ultimately succeeded. 
This presaged his future career, and he at once pa.ssed into the front rank among 
young men of the Whig party. The Whig county convention met in Whitcstown 
September 7, and nominated for members of assembly Ben.jamin F. Cooper, first 
district. Channcey C. Cook, second district, Daniel G. Dorrance, third district, 
and Russell Fuller fourth district. There was nothing before the people to 
make the eanva.ss exciting beyond the ordinary struggle for precedence and 
the question of a Constitutional Convention, which tended to strengthen the 
Whig party, as fhey were entitled to the credit of having this bill pass through 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 107 

the leRisliiturc. The candidates for senator were Lj^man J. Walworlli, Demo- 
crat, Joshua A. Spencer, Whig, and flames I'rowu, Aliolitionist. Th(; Deinoeratic 
candidates for assembly were James Watson Williams, Henry Wager, Sciuire 
M.Mason, Nelson Dawlev; and the Abolition candidales were John .M. Andrew, 
William fl. Savage, Kdmund Allen and Freeman Wat(>rman. The Whig candiflate 
for senator, Joshua A. Spencer, had a plurality in the county of 811, and the 
Whig assend)lymen, Messrs. Cook, Coopei-, Dorianci' antl Fuller were elected by a 
plurality of about 500. 

1846 — 'i'he most important event in the state during the year 1846 was the 
work of the C'onstitutional Convention. The delegates to this convention from 
Oneida county were Harvey Brayton, Julius Candee, Edward Huntington and 
Charles P. Kirkland. Mr. Alexander, in his political history of the state, erron- 
eously mentions Ezekiel Bacon as one of the delegates to this convention. ;\Ir. 
Bacon was a delegate in the convention of 1821, but he was not in the convention 
of 1846. In speaking of Messrs. Bacon and Kirkland, I\Ir. Alexander refers to 
them as "the powerful leaders of a bar famous in that day for its famous law- 
yers." This convention liberalized the constitution, made nearly all offices elec- 
tive, shortened the term of senator from four to two years, and provided that 
members of assembly should be elected in separate districts. The Whig state 
convention met at Utica, September 23. The delegates from Oneida county 
were Salmon Chase, Palmer V. Kellogg, Elihu Storrs and Samuel Beach. The 
prominent candidates for governor were Millard Fillmore, John Young and Ira 
Harris. On the third ballot Young received 76 votes to Fillmore's 45, and was 
declared duly nominated. Hamilton Fish was nominated for lieutenant gover- 
nor by acclamation. The Whig county convention assembled at Rome on 
the 7th day of October, and nominated for member of Congress, Orsamus B. Mat- 
teson ; for sheriff, John B. Bradt ; for county clerk, George Tracy ; for members 
of assembly, Warren Converse, James J. Carley, Isaac Curry and Nathan 
Burchard ; also four coroners. The Barnburners met in convention at Rome, 
October 14, and nominated for Congress Timothy Jenkins; for sheriff, H. G. 
Everett ; for county clerk, Richard Hurlburt, and for members of assembly, 
John Dean, John B. Miller, Vincent Tuttle and Ira Lillibridge. Mr. Jenkins was 
the representative in Congress at that time, and had been renominated by the 
Hunkers before this convention was held. The candidate for sheriff had also 
been nominated by the Hunkers, and the two last named assemblymen were 
Hunkers, but were not on the Hunker ticket. A Mass Young Men 's Whig state 
convention was held in Syracuse, October 21st, was largely attended, and passed 
resolutions calling upon all Whigs to support the nomination of Young for 
governor. The delegates from Oneida county took a prominent part in that 
convention, the most prominent among them being Palmer V. Kellogg. The of- 
ficial canvass shows that Young carried the county for governor by a majority of 
1,337 ; that Jenkins received a plurality for representative in Congress of 1,325 ; 
that Nelson J. Beach carried the county for senator by a plurality of 1,174; 
that Lester Barker received a plurality of 217 for sheriff'; that Patrick iMahon 
received a plurality for county clerk of 360 ; that Nathan Burchard, Abel E. 
Chandler, Isaac Curry and John Dean were elected to the assembly by a small 
plurality. 



108 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

1S47 — In 1847 the Demooratio party was rent in twain, one branch being 
known as Hunkers and the other known as Barnburners. The term "Hunkers" 
was applied to the conservative element, because it was charged against the 
members of that wing of the party that they hankered after office, and this word 
was turned into "hunkers." The Barnburners were the radicals, and the term 
was applied to that branch of the party because it was said of them that they 
were like the farmer who burned his barn to get rid of the rats. The foremost 
leadere of the Hunker element were Horatio Seymour and Henry A. Foster. 
This division of the party was caused by the bolt of the Barnburners in the 
S\Tai'use convention September 7th. when the Hunkers had carried the con- 
vention against a resolution in favor of the Wilmot proviso. The Barnburners 
called a convention, declared in favor of free soil, but did not nominate a ticket. 
The effect, however, was to elect the Whig ticket by about 30.000 majority. The 
"Whigs nominated Haniillon Fish for lieutenant governor to till a vacanc.v; for 
comptroller, Millard Fillmore, for secretarj' of state. Christopher Morgan : for 
state treasurer, Albin Hunt: for attorney general, Ambrose L. Jordan; for 
state engineer, Charles B. Stuart; three canal commissioners and three inspectors 
of state prisons ; the candidate for senator for the nineteenth district was Thomas 
E. Clark: for members of assembly, first district. Luke Smith: second district, 
"Warren Converse; third district. Bloonifield J. Beach; fourth district, Russell 
Fuller. The Utica Gazette of the 22d of October, announces the nominations for 
the respective offices, and also contains a most interesting report from the Mexi- 
can seat of war. It is the report brought by steamer to New Oi'leans, and spread 
broadcast through the country, that General Scott had taken the city of Jlexico ; 
it also states that Generals Pillow and Shields had been wounded, but were doing 
well ; that the loss in killed, missing and wounded of our army up to that time 
was from three to four thousand ; that General Scott had issued a congratu- 
latory order re(|uiriiig the oflicers and men to return thanks to God for their 
triumph, and enjoining strict discipline and sobriety ; also, that an Amei'iean 
paper had already been issued in the city of Mexico, Clark carried the county 
for senator by 1,128. The "Whig majority in the first assembly district was 
739 ; second district, 330 ; third district. Beach was elected, and Henry Wager 
was elected in the fourth district by a small majority. 

1848 — The political campaign of 1S4S was intensely interesting. The "'A^hig 
convention had nominated General Zachary Taylor for president, who was one 
of the greatest heroes of the Mexican war, and Millard Fillmore for vice presi- 
dent. The Democratic candidates were Lewis Cass for president, and "William 
0. Butler for vice president. The Whig .state convention was held in I'tica Sep- 
tember 14th, and nominated Hamilton Fish for governor, and George ^Y. Pat- 
terson for lieutenant governor; for electors at large, ITenrv II. Ross and John 
A. Collins, The Free Soil Democrats nominated for governor John A, Dix, and 
for lieutenant governor, Seth N, Gates, The Hunkers nominated R, H, ^Yals- 
worth for governor, and "William J. Forman. for lieutenant governor. General 
Taylor had won great fame in the ifexican war, which had virtually commenced 
in 1846. Taylor had been ordered to invade i\Iexican territory; he had done so, 
and from the time he entered it, in the many engagements he had with the 
^Mexicans he had been successful. The declaration of war was made by Congress 




r]-v\ iiAi.i.. i;ii.MK 




I'O.STOFFICE. UO.MK 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 109 

on the llth diiy of May, 184G, and tlio efUeicncy of Taylor was illustrated by the 
fact that he, with a less body of men, in every engageiuent with the Mexicans 
had been successful. This was notat)ly true at Buena Vista, where he had de- 
feated Santa Anna with twenty thousand men, although Taylor had but five 
thousand. His war record became a prominent element in the political cam- 
paign, and, although his opponent had rendered important military service, 
Taylor was swept into the presidential chair by an immense majority. The Whig 
candidate for governor was elected by a large i)lurality, and carried Oneida 
county by 1,401. There appeared upon the scene of action in Oneida county a 
man of remarkable ability, who, from this time for twenty years was the con- 
trolling element in Whig politics in central New York — Orsamus B. Matteson. 
In another part of this work we have given a sketch of his life as a politician, 
but it is proper here to say that he excelled as a manipulator in politics, and, 
but for an unfortunate cloud upon his actions as a member of Congress, he would 
have gone down in history as one of the foremost citizens of this great coun- 
try. The Wliig county convention met at Rome and nominated for member of 
Congress, Orsamus B. ^Matteson; for county treasurer, Sanford Adams; three 
superintendents of schools; and the members of assembly nominated in their 
respective districts were as follows: first district, Oliver Prescott; second 
district, Nehemiah N. Pierce; third district, Junius Woods; fourth district, 
John M. Muscott. The result of the election in the county was that the Whig 
candidates were elected by more than 1,000 majority over the Free Soil party, 
and more than 2,000 majority over the Hunkers. The Taylor electors had a 
majority over the Cass electors of more than 2,000 ; Matteson was elected to Con- 
gress, and Prescott, Pierce, Elwell and Stevens were elected members of assembly. 
1849 — General Taylor became president March 4, 1849, but the country was 
shocked because of his untimely death, and political parties seriously disturbed 
because of the fact that Millard Fillmore had become president. It was sup- 
posed that the slavery question had been permanently settled by resolutions 
which had passed Congress known as the Clay Compromise, and the greatest sat- 
isfaction was manifested throughout the country; bells were rung, guns were 
fired, and great rejoicing occurred, because this question, which threatened the 
disruption of the Union, was supposed to have been finally disposed of. Biit the 
truth of the saying, attributed both to Lincoln and Seward, that the "Nation 
could not exist half free and half slave," arose and "would not down" until 
it was finally settled at Appomattox, when Lee tendered his sword to the great 
hero of the Federal armies. The Whig state convention met in Syracuse in 
September and nominated Joshua A. Spencer for judge of the Court of Appeals; 
Washington Hunt for comptroller; Christopher Jlorgan for secretary of state; 
Alvin Hunt for treasurer ; Samuel Stevens for attorney general, and some other 
state oiScers. By the constitution of 1846 Supreme Court justices were to be 
elected by districts, and the nominations were made this year; Joseph Mullin 
was the candidate for the fifth judicial district nominated by the Whigs, and the 
Locofocos nominated F. W. Hubbard. Both these candidates were from Jeffer- 
son county. The Whigs nominated for state senator, Joseph Benedict ; for sher- 
iff, John B. Jones ; for county clerk, Alexander Rea ; for members of assembly, 
first district, William J. Bacon; second district, John J. Knox; third district. 



no HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

William ITowes: fourth distrit-t, George Braytou. The Democrats uoiuiuated for 
sheriff. Edward Eanies; for county clerk, Richard Iliirlburt; for members of as- 
sembly, first district. Augustus ITurlburt ; second district, Ralph Mcintosh ; third 
district. Robert Frazier; fourth district. Luther Leland. The result of the elec- 
tion was that ^Ir. Mann received 111 majority for senator, Jones, for sheriff, 147; 
Rea, for county clerk, 4S0; and the members of assembly, first district. Bacon, 
Rep.. 625; second district. JIcTntosh. Dcm., 20; third district. Frazier, Dcm.. 84; 
fourth district. Leland. Dem.. 110 majority. 

1850 — In 1850 the Whigs nominated Washington Hunt for governor, and 
George W. Cornwell for lieutenant governor. The convention, however, that 
nominated Hunt was a riotous one. and resulted in a split of the Whig party. 
Francis Granger headed the bolters, and with his dignified manner, elegant ap- 
parel and silver gray hair led the bolting delegates as they passed out of the hall. 
This gave ris(^ to the name "Silver Gray Whig" that was attached to that wing 
of the party thereafter. They called a convention to be held at Utica, October 
17th. but did not make any nominations. The Democratic convention nominated 
Horatio Seymour for governor, and Sauford E. Church for lieutenant governor. 
A great meeting of citizens w-as held in New York city under the management 
of the Democrats for the purpose of capturing the Silver Gray element of the 
Whig party, but this was not very successful, and, although Seymour carried 
Oneida county by a majority of 1,088, Hvmt was elected governor by a plurality 
of 262. The vote was so close that it required weeks to determine who was 
elected governor, although the other candidates upon the Democratic ticket were 
elected by substantial pluralities. The Whig county convention nominated for 
representative in Congress, Orsamus B. iMatteson; for district attorney, Roscoe 
Conkling; for members of assemblj', Joseph Benedict; second district, Lorenzo 
Rouse; third district. William Howes; fourth district, George Braj^on. The 
Democrats nominated Timothy Jenkins for representative in Congress; for dis- 
trict attorney, Samuel B. Garvin ; for members of assembly, first district. Nantis 
White ; second district, William H. Hubbard ; third district, Lewis Rider ; foiirth 
district, David ^lonltoTi. The result of the election was that Timothy Jenkins. 
Dem., received 117 majoritj- for representative in Congress; Garvin, Dem., for 
district attorney, 626; and Joseph Benedict. Lorenzo Rouse, Lewis Rider and 
George Brayton were elected members of assembly. 

1851 — In 1851 there was no governor to be elected and the campaign was a 
quiet one. Seymour dominated the Democratic party, and nominated a state 
ticket of his ovn\ liking. Charles A. ]\lann. a senator from this district, with 
other Democrats resigned their seats in the senate in order to prevent legisla- 
tion favorable to canals. This act was resented by the people of the county, 
and a Whig convention held at Rome, May 8th, denounced his conduct by reso- 
lution, and nominated Benjamin N. Huntington to fill the vacancy; Mr. Ilimt- 
ington was elected by nearly three thousand majority. The Democratic county 
convention wa.s lield at Rome and nominated P. Sheldon Root for county judge; 
Othneil S. Williams for surrogate; DcWitt C. Grove for treasurer; and Jesse 
Armstrong for senator; for members of assembly, first district. George Gra- 
ham; second district. James ;\I. Tower; tliird district. Henry Sanford ; fourth 
district, John J. Castle. The Whig convention nominated Benjamin N. Hunt- 



IIISTOKY OK ONEIDA COUNTY 111 

ingtou for senator; lor county jiuli^'c, rx'njjimin 1"'. Coopi-r; for surrogale, 
Amos 0. Osborne; for treasurer, I'ldiiuiinl !l. Shelley; lor mcinhers of assem- 
bly, first district, Geoi'ge D. Williams; sccoiul district, Cliauncpy S. Hiitler; 
third district, Robert TI. Jones; fourtii, George Brayton. 

Mr. Huntington was elected senator by 74!) majority; and tlie members 
of assein])ly, first district, Williams, Whig, 58^5; second district, Butler, Whig, 
93; third district, Sanl'ord. Deni., 205; fourth district, Castle, Dem., !)8. 

1852— The campaign of 1852 was an interesting one in the state, as the 
Whig national convention had nominated Gen(>ral Scott, tiie great hero of the 
Mexican war, for president, and William A. Graham for vice president. These 
nominations did not give satisfaction thi'oughout the state of New York, as 
Henry Clay, at this time, was the idol of the Whig party, and great disap- 
pointment was manifested everywhere because he was not nominated for the 
presidency. The Democratic national convention assembled at Baltimore, and, 
notwithstanding the fact that the state of New York pressed the candidacy 
of ]Marcy, its delegates were divided ; Seymour was the prominent figure in the 
Democratic party, and controlled the delegates to such an extent as to cast the 
majority of the vote for Marcy. Twenty-three supported Marey and 13 sup- 
ported General Cass. The result was that Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire 
was nominated for president, and William R. King of Alabama, for vice presi- 
dent. The Whig state convention met at Syracuse and renominated Governor 
Hunt, and William Kent, sou of Chancellor Kent, for lieutenant governor. The 
Democratic state convention met in Syracuse and was entirely dominated by 
Seymour, who succeeded again in obtaining the nomination for governor, with 
Sanford E. Church as lieutenant governor. The division in the Whig party 
over the nomination of General Scott was the overthrow of the party, and Pierce 
was elected president and Se.ymour governor, carrying the state by 22,596 
plurality, and the county by 1,632 plurality. The presidential elector for this 
district was Daniel Babcock. The Democratic county convention was held at 
Rome September 30th, and nominated for sheritf, Hugh Crocker, and for 
county clerk, Richard Hurlburt. The Whig county convention was held Octo- 
ber 1st, and nominated for sheriff, John Bradt; for county clerk, Alexander 
Rae; for members of assembly, first district, Ephraim Palmer; second district, 
S. H. Addington; third district, John O'Neil; fourth district, W. D. Rowley. 
Dissatisfaction had been manifested in regard to the representative in Congress, 
Orsamus B. Matteson. and a very generally signed petition by very prominent 
men was presented to Hon. William J. Bacon, asking him to become a candi- 
date for the nomination, who consented, but was not nominated in the con- 
vention. The fight against the nomination of Mr. Matteson for representative 
in Congress was led by Roscoe Conkling. The champion of Mr. Matteson in the 
convention was James ilcQuade, and it was finally determined that an informal 
ballot should be taken which resulted in Matteson 63, Huntington 9, Bacon 11, 
and one blank. Although this ballot was called informal, Mr. Conkling, after 
it was announced, arose and withdrew the name of Mr. Bacon. Mr. Conkling 
made a speech advocating harmony, and after speeches by others a formal ballot 
was taken which resulted in IMatteson, 69, Huntington 16, whereupon Mr. 
Conkling moved the unanimous nomination of ilr. ]\Iatteson. As a protest 



112 HISTORY OF ONKIDA COUNTY 

against this Joshua A, Spencer was put in nomination as an Independent can- 
didate for representative in Congress. The Daily Gazette, a "Whig paper, re- 
fused to support 'Sir. Matteson, hut phiced the name of Joshua A. Spencer in 
hirge type as its candidate for representative in Congress. The same paper, 
commenting upon the result of the election on the morning after, says: ''^Ye 
acknowledge beat, — whipped throughout. Some of tlie AVhigs had a little con- 
solation, amid the general overthrow of the AVliig party, in the election of 
Oneida "s favorite sou to Congress." Jlr. ^latteson carried the county by 306, 
Eae by 365, while the rest of the Democratic ticket was elected. The assembly- 
men elected were Dexter Gilmore, Amos 0. Osborne, Julius C. Thorn and Amos 
C. Hall. 

1853 — The Democratic state convention was held September 13, 1853, at Syra- 
cuse, and resulted in another split, and this time the Hunkers seceded from the 
convention and the Barnburners controlled the situation. The AVhig convention 
assembled October 5th, and Roscoe Conkling was a prominent candidate for 
attorney general, but was defeated for the nomination by Ogden Hoffman. 
The state oflficei-s nominated by the "Whigs were elected, with the exception of 
Hiram Denio of Oneida county and Charles H. Ruggles, who were elected to 
the Court of Appeals bench, because they were placed upon the tickets of both 
wings of the Democratic party. In this year "William J. Bacon was nominated 
by the ^Yhigs for justice of the Supreme Court in the fifth judicial district ; they 
also nominated for senator, Daniel G. Dorrance; for district attorney, Eaton 
J. Richardson. The Democrats nominated for senator, John E. Hiuman ; for 
district attorney, Henry T. Utley. i\Ir. Dorrance, Rep., for senator, had 1,298 
majority; Utley, Dem., for district attorney, 232 majority; and Joseph Bene- 
dict, A. P. Case, D. L. Boardman and James ^litchell were elected members 
of assembly. 

1854 — "WTien the respective conventions assembled in 1854 the country was 
again extremely agitated over the slavery question. ^Ir. Seward had stirred 
the country by his discussion of the subject, and the Democratic party in the 
south was pressing its views with great ^'igor and great ability. This subject 
was paramount all through the land. The Democratic party, still rent in twain, 
held two conventions. The Hards nominated Greene C. Bronson for governor, 
and Elijah Ford for lieutenant governor. The Softs nominated Horatio Sey- 
mour for governor, and "William H. Ludlow for lieutenant governor. This was 
a singular circumstance because, up to this time, Seymour was classed as a leader 
among the Hard Shells, but he had abandoned them and joined the Soft Shells. 
The AYhig state convention held September 20th nominated Myron H. Clark 
for governor, and Henry J. Raymond for lieutenant governor. The great news- 
paper king. Horace Greeley, advocated the dropping of the name "AVhig, " 
and substituting for it the name "Republican," as a proper name for the party 
that opposed tlie extension of slavery. This had been done in some of the 
we-stem states, and at Jackson, Michigan, it is claimed that the Republican party 
was formed. The platform that nominated Clark declared "for justice, temper- 
ance and freedom." Clark was supported by the Prohibitionists, and Roscoe 
Conkling. in referring to the idea of the new name for the party, said "this 
county belongs to the Republican party." In this year a new element entered 




KKi'AiKiNi; riiK (;i;i:at r.i;i:.\K in iiik r.i.ACK i;i\ ki; ianai. \v fokkstimikt 



HISTORY OF ONEIUA COUNTY 113 

into politics — the American party, tlicn known .is the Know Notliint^s, which 
nominated Daniel IJllman for governor, and Gustavus A. Scroggs for lieutenant 
governor. The term "Know Nothing" grew out of the fact that it was charged 
of the American party that they had certain secrets, and that it was in reality 
a secret organization, the acts of which were mysterious, and when any of the 
party were interrogated in regard to it they made no answer, and it was then 
said of them that they were Know Notliings. For weeks after the election it 
was supposed Seymour had been elected, but the complete returns showed that 
Clark was elected governor by 309 plurality. Seymour carried Oneida county 
by 349 plurality. The Democrats nominated for county treasurer Henry Arm- 
strong; for members of assembly, Henry R. Hart, Noah E. King, Spencer H. 
Stafford and Jesse Talcott. The "Whigs nominated for members of assembly, 
G. D. Williams, Levi Blakeslee, H. H. Baker and Daniel Walker, who were 
all elected. For representative in Congress the candidates were Orsamus B. 
Matteson, William C. Johnson, Naaman W. Moore and Ben.iamin N. Hunting- 
ton. Mr. IMattesou had a plurality of votes for representative in Congress of 
1,320. 

1855 — An important event in political affairs in 1855 was the election of a 
United States senator. The term of William H. Seward expired, and his posi- 
tion on the slavery question had drawn to him certain svipport, and alienated 
from him many of bis former followers. The north was intensely excited over 
the Kansas question. About five thousand Missoui-ians had invaded Kansas 
and had fraudulently carried the election. This outrage was resented in the 
North, and it became a political issue. After a bitter fight in the legislature 
Seward was re-elected. The Hards of the Democratic party met in convention 
at S.vracuse August 23rd, approved the compromise measures, and did nothing 
to satisfy the people of the North upon the slavery question. The Softs met in 
convention August 29th, condemned the Kansas outrages, and opposed the 
further extension of slavery. The Whig convention, and a mass convention, 
made up largely of the Softs, was held at Syracuse, September 26th. One of the 
ob,iects of these two conventions was to get together upon some basis under the 
name of the Republican party, and couunittees were appointed to agree upon 
a ticket. This was successful ; the Wliigs marched in a body to the Republican 
convention, were received with great rejoicing, cheers and shouts, and the 
coalition was effective. The American party and the Free Democracy and 
Liberty party met in Utica, September 12th, and nominated Frederick Douglass 
for secretary of state, and Lewis Tappen for comptroller. The result of this 
election was that although the new party did not have a plurality in the state, 
it cast 135,962 votes. The Democratic couuty convention was held at Rome 
October 4th, and nominated for senator Naaman W. Moore ; for sheriff, Marcus 
L. Kenyon ; for county clerk, Henry R. Hart ; for county judge, P. Sheldon 
Root; for surrogate, John G. Crocker; for members of assembly, first district, 
Peter Brewer ; second district, James J. Hanchett ; third district, Thomas D. 
Penfield; fourth district, Caleb Goodrich. The Republican county convention 
was held at Rome, October 10th, approved the action of the Republican state 
convention and the Whigs held at Syracuse, and appointed a committee to confer 
with what was known as the Matteson Wliig convention in session at Rome. 



114 lllSTOKY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

The same jiroeeedings were hail in the ^latteson convention, and in the even- 
ing the eomiuittee of the jMatteson convention reported that they had con- 
ferred with the committee of the other convention, and had agreed upon the 
following ticket: for senator, E. J. Richardson; for sheriff, Calvin Hall; for 
clerk, Israel S. Parker; for county judge, J. Wyman Jones; for surrogate, H. M. 
Burchard; for members of assembly, first district, Ben.iamin Allen; second dis- 
trict. Horace IT. Eastman ; third district, John B. Elwood ; fourth distinct, 
George AV. Smith. The result in the county upon the local ticket was as fol- 
lows: Richardson, Whig, for senator, 1,001 plurality; Hall, "Whig, for sheriff, 
1,950 plurality; Howes, Dcm., for county clerk, 400 plurality; Root, Dem., for 
county .iudge, 908 plurality; Burchard, Whig, for surrogate, 55 plurality; 
members of assembly, first district. Fowler, Dem.. 436 plurality ; second district, 
Ilanchett. Dem.. 643 plurality; tliird district, Penfield, Dem., 191 pluralit.v; 
fourth district, CTOodrich. Dem., 154 plurality. 

1S56 — Again a presidential canvass was upon the people. The Kansas con- 
troversy was still the excitement of the hour, and when the national conven- 
tions met in 1856 the country was in a ferment over this great question. The 
Democratic national convention was held at Cincinnati, and one of the most 
prominent men in this convention was Horatio Se^^nou^. In reality, he was the 
great moving spirit in shaping the work of the convention. The candidates 
for president were Franklin Pierce, Stephen A. Douglass and James Buchanan. 
The conservative spirit controlled the convention, refused to renominate Pierce, 
would not accept Douglass, as too advanced in his ideas upon the slavery ques- 
tion, and nominated James Buchanan for the presidency, and John C. Brecken- 
ridge for vice president. The Republican national convention met in Phila- 
delphia June 17th, and contained a vast ma.jority of northern Whigs, Soft 
Shell Democrats, Abolitionists, and men of almost all shades of opinion, pro- 
vided their sympathies were against the extension of slavery. John C. Fre- 
mont, known as the Pathfinder, was nominated for president, and two promi- 
nent candidates appeared for the nomination for vice president — William L. 
Dayton and Abraham Lincoln, and 'Sh: Da.vton was nominated. The Repub- 
lican state convention met in Syracuse, September 17th. and nominated John A. 
King for governor, and Henry R. Soldeu for lieutenant governor. The two 
wings of the Democratic party met in separate conventions, combined, and 
nominated Amasa J. Parker for govci-nor. and John Vanderbilt for lieutenant 
governor. The American party nominated Erastus Brooks for governor, and 
Lyman Odel for lieutenant governor. Tliis part.y had also nominated ]\Iillard 
Fillmore for president. Theodore S. Faxton of this county was the candidate 
for presidential elector on the American ticket : James T>>Tich on the Republican 
ticket, and John Stryker on the Democratic ticket. The Republican candidate 
for member of Congress was Orsanuis B. ]\lattcsou, and the Democratic candi- 
date. William C. Johnson; for district attorney the Democrats renominated 
Heniy T. Utley, and the Republicans nominated Jainis II. IMunger; the Repub- 
licans nominated for members of assembly, first district. Richard T'. Slierman; 
second district. Peleg P.. Babcock; third district. Jolin Ilalstead ; fourtli dis- 
trict, Ingham Townsend. The Democrats nominated for members of assem- 
bly, first district, TTenry R. Hart; second district. George H. Cleveland; tliird 



HISTOKY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 115 

district, William S. Parkhurst ; fourth district, John T. Thomas. Fremont 
carried the state of New York l>.v ;i i)lurality of 80,000, but I?uchanan, being a 
resident of the state of Pennsylvania carried that state, and that made him 
president. King, for governor, carried the state by ()5,784 plurality, and Onisida 
county hy the unprecedented plurality of 4,279. Matteson was re-elected to 
Congress, Munger was elected district attorney, and Messrs. Sherman, Bahcock, 
Halstead and Townsend were elected nicmhers of assembly by sul)stantial 
majorities. 

1857 — In the legislature of 1857 Ward Hunt, of Utica, Avas a prominent 
candidate for United States senator. There were several other candidates, hut 
the great wizard of politics, Thurlow Weed, had decided upon Preston King, 
and with his usual adroitness, when it became necessary to exercise his power, 
gave the nomination to Mr. King by a vote of fi5 to 17 for Hunt. No governor 
was elected in this year. There were three tickets in the field — Democrat, Re- 
publican and American, or Know Nothing ticket. It is a fact that many of the 
American party supported the Democratic ticket, and it was elected, as fol- 
lows: Gideon J. Tucker, secretary of state; Sanford E. Church, comptroller; 
Lyman Tremain, attorney general ; Iliram Denio, of Oneida county, judge of the 
Court of Appeals. The Repul)lican county convention nominated Richard U. 
Sherman for state senator, but he declined, and Aldrich Ilubbell was substi- 
tuted in his place; John J. Parry for county treasurer, and tlie assembly ticket 
was made up as follows: lirst district, George F. Weaver; second district, Will- 
iam J. I\IcKown; third district, Thomas G. Halley; fourth district, Reuben 
Knight. The Democrats nominated Othniel S. Williams for state senator ; 
Adam VanPatten for county treasurer; for members of assembly, first dis- 
trict, Henry R. Hart; second district, Charles D. Jones; third district, Will- 
iani S. Parkhurst; fourth district, Obadiah J. Owens. The result was that 
Hubbell, Rep., was elected senator by 107 ; Parry, Rep., county treasurer by 
157; for members of assembly, Hart, Dem., 359; second district. McKown, Rep., 
627; third district, Halley, Rep., 27; fourth district, Knight, Rep., 296. 

1858 — The Republican state convention was held in Syracuse, and the 
prominent candidates for governor were Timothy Jenkins of Oneida county, 
and Edward D. Morgan, of New York. This convention was manipulated by 
Mr. Weed, and he was able to nominate Morgan by a vote of 162 to 52 for 
Mr. Jenkins. Robert Campbell was nominated for lieutenant governor. A 
large ratification meeting was held in Utica during this campaign, and Jlr. 
Jenkins made one of the principal speeches in support of the ticket. The Demo- 
cratic state convention would have nominated Horatio Seymour for governor, 
but he declined, and Amasa J. Parker received the nomination, and John J. 
Taj'lor for lieutenant governor. The American party held its convention at 
Syracuse, and after two days of negotiations failed to unite with the Repub- 
licans, and nominated for governor Lorenzo Burrows. At the Republican 
county convention Roscoe Conkling was nominated for representative in Con- 
gress ; William J. McKown for sheriff ; J. Earl Ilulbert for county clerk ; for 
members of assembl.y, first district, Charles M. Scholefield ; second district, Ed- 
ward Loomis; third district, Patrick C. Costello; fourth district, Didymua 
Thomas. The Democrats nominated for representative in Congress P. Sheldon 



116 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

Root; sheriff, 'I'liomas D. Penfield ; county uleik, Zeuas M. Howes; for mem- 
bers of assembly, lirst district, ^Yilliam C. Cliurchill; second district, Pomroy 
Joues; third district, Enoch B. Armstrong; fourth district, Thomas B. Allanson. 

Hero entered into national politics a man who was destined to rank among 
the foremost in the country — Roscoe Conkling. The congressman from this 
district, Orsaiims B. Mattcson, had become unpopular in his own party, and a 
consultation of prominent Republicans was had at the house of Richard U. 
Sherman, which then stood on the corner of Eagle and Kemble streets, which 
house has since been removed from the lot. The persons who took part in this 
consultation were ^Vard Hunt. Richard U. Sherman. William Ferry, Palmer 
V. Kellogg, Roscoe Conkling, Joseph A. Sherman and several others. The 
question was, who should be nominated to redeem the district from ]\Iatteson'3 
domination. Several dilTerent persons were considered, but linally it was agreed 
that Mr. Conkling should be the candidate. He had made a reputation as dis- 
trict attorney, was a young man of whom there could be no fault found, and it 
was supposed that he would unite the party better than any other candidate 
that coidd be nominated. The ]\Iatteson element of the party, when the an- 
nouncement was made that Conkling was to be a candidate, were tremendously 
excited, and strained every eft'ort to defeat him. Charles H. Doolittle was the 
opposing candidate, was one of the foremost lawyers- of his age in central New 
York, and a man of very high character. The contest was bitter, as might be 
expected, but Mr. Conkling was nominated bj' a small ma.iority in the conven- 
tion, went into the canvass with his great ability, and manifested his wonder- 
ful faculty for organization. The disappointment of IMatteson, because of the 
defeat of his candidate in the county convention, caused him to support the 
nominee on the Democratic ticket for representative in Congress. The result 
was that Morgan was elected governor by a plurality of 17.440. and carried 
Oneida county by 2,735 ; Conkling was elected representative in Congress by 
2,833 ; McKown, sheriff, by 2,124 ; Hulbert, for county clerk, 824 ; all Republi- 
cans; members of assembly, first district. Scholefield. Rep.. 84; second district, 
Loomis, 1,314; third district, Costello, Rep., 308; fourth district, Thomas, Rep., 
by 596. 

1859 — As no governor was to be elected this year the campaign was not 
exciting, as the highest officer to be elected was secretary of state. In this year 
delegates were elected to the national conventions to nominate a president. 
The great question before the people was that of slavery, and it entered largely 
into the canva.ss, for it was understood that the delegates to the national con- 
vention would have the shaping of the position of the parties upon this great 
question. The Democratic state convention met at Syracuse, September 14th, 
to elect delegates to the national convention to be held at Charleston, S. C. A 
fierce fight occurred in this convention. A body of prize fighters had been 
brought there by Fernando Wood of New York, to control the convention by 
force, if it could not be controlled otherwise. Resolutions endorsing the admin- 
istration of I'rcsident Buchanan were adopted. The Republican state conven- 
tion as-sembled at Syracuse September 7th, and nominated a ticket made up of 
candidates of Democratic and Whig antecedents. Its candidate for secretary 
of state was Elias W. Leavenworth. The American party met September 22d, 



HISTORY OF ONl-:iUA COUNTY 117 

and cnclorsed five of the ciuididiites of the Democratic par'ty. Tieaveiuvorth 
was defeated by about 1,5U(), showing that this was aecoinplisiied by the vote 
of the Know Nothings. The Republicans nominated William H. Ferry for 
state senator; George W. Smith for county judge; for meiiil)crs of assembly, 
first district, James McQuade; second district, Benjamin A. Allen; third district, 
Thomas Evans; fourth district, George Williams. The Democrats nominated 
Lewis Rider for state senator; N. Curtis Wliite for county judge; for members 
of assembly, first district, Dan P. Cadwell ; second district, Charles B. Wilkin- 
son; third district, Charles Graham; fourth district, Alfred Buck. The result 
of the election was that Perry, Rep., was elected senator by 3,407 ; Smith, Rep., 
for county judge, 2,616; members of assembly, first district, McQuade, Rep., 
601; second district, Allen, Rep., 920; third district, Evans, Rep., 293; fourth 
district, Williams, Rep., 683. 

It was during this year that the famous John Brown episode occurred in 
Virginia, and intensified the feeling on the subject of slavery to an extent abso- 
lutely unparalleled. This was as much of an issue in this county as elsewhere. 
Brown was eulogized as a patriot and martyr, and condemned as a murderer, 
and his real position in history is problematical. 



CHAPTKR XIV 

1860—1869 

I860 — The oventl'ul year oi" I860 opened with tlie puhlie luiud greatly ex- 
cited over tlie approaching national conventions. The Democratic national 
eoiivenfiou was held at Chai'lcstoii. S. C, where a bitter eonti-oversy arose, 
and it was i'oiind impossible to harmonize the views of the Democrats of the North 
and the South upon the slavery question. It has been frequently charged that 
this was intentional on tlie part of the Soiitli, to give them an excuse for with- 
drawing from the Union, which, it was thought, was in the minds of the lead- 
ers of the South at this time. The Northern wing of the party adjourned the 
convention to assemble in Baltimore, and Stephen A. Douglass and Andrew 
Fitzpatrick were nominated for president and vice president; they declared in 
favor of what was known as Squatter Sovereignty, the meaning of which was 
that each territory should decide for itself on the question of slaver>'. The 
southern wing of the party met at Richmond, and nominated John C. Breck- 
enridge for president and Joseph Lane for vice president. Still another 
party was in the field with its candidates; it was known as the Constitutional 
Union and Old Line Whig party, the candidates of which were John Bell for 
president and Edward Everett for vice president. The Republican national 
convention met in Chicago 'Mny Kith. The foremost candidate for president 
was William H. Seward of New York, and there was b>it little question when 
the convention assembled as to his nomination. Horace Greeley had disagreed 
with Seward, and opposed his nomination, claiming that he was not the strong- 
est candidate. He appeared in the convention as the delegate of a western ter- 
ritory, and his influence was great in favor of the nomination of Abraham Lin- 
coln. Alt.liough Seward had led on the vote for two ballots, on the third ballot 
Lincoln was nominated by a vote of 231Vo against 180, and Hannibal Hamlin 
was nominated for vice president. Although it was claimed that Lincoln was 
not well known throughout the country, his nomination gave general satisfac- 
tion except to the supporters of Seward. The Republican state convention re- 
nominated Governor ^lorgan and Robert Campbell for lieutenant governor. 
The Democratic state convention nominated William Kelley for governor and 
William C. Grain for lieutenant govcimor. James T. Brady was also the Inde- 
pendents' candidate for governor. The Republican county convention nomi- 
nated for representative in Congress Roscoe Conkling; for county treasurer, 
John J. Parry; for meniliers of as.sembly, first district. James ^IcQuade; second 
district. Levi T. ^Marshall ; third district. George II. Champlin; fourth district, 
William Lewis. The Democrats nominated for representative in Congress, De- 
Witt C. Grove; tor county treasurer, Griffitli ^1. Jones ; for members of assem- 

118 




I'lii: i;<h!ki;t i'i;asi:k sidui; 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 119 

bly, tirst district, Francis Kenian; second district, (Jarrit 1. Bronson ; third 
district, Marquis Kenyon; fourth district, Daniel J. Druinmond. This cam- 
paign was a notable one in the history of the country. During tlie fall, business 
was almost suspended, and every one was giving attention to the political can- 
vass. Men were organized into what was known as Wide Awakes — which were 
uniformed marching clubs comiiosed of Republicans. Upon the Democratic 
side similar organizations existed known as Little Giants, in honor of Stephen 
A. Douglass, who was known as the "Little Giant." A general canvass was 
made throughout the state, and particularly in Oneida county, and public 
meetings were held in substantially every town and hamlet. The great demon- 
stration on the Republican side was on October 15th in Utica, when an immense 
mass meeting was held, and was attended very largely by the inhabitants of 
Central New York. Two gi-eat tents were erected between State, Hart and 
William streets, that property being void of any buildings at that time. The 
speakers were Carl Schurz, ex-Lieutenant Governor Noble of Wisconsin, and 
William A. Howard, who had been chairman of the committee to investigate 
the outrages in Kansas. The tents, which it was claimed would hold eight or 
ten thousand people, were entirely inadequate to hold the crowd, and an outside 
meeting was organized, and it was to this meeting that ex-Lieutenant Governor 
Noble delivered his address. In this campaign Roscoe Conkling spoke exten- 
sively and most effectively. The Democrats also held great mass meetings 
in Utica and in Rome during the campaign. On the night of election the ex- 
citement was so great that scarcely any one in the city of Utica slept, and the 
streets were filled with men awaiting the news. Before morning the news was 
of such character that it was reasonably certain Lincoln had been elected, and 
enthusiasm of the Republicans was unbounded. It appeared afterwards that 
Lincoln had carried the state by 50,136, and ilorgan had been elected governor 
by 63,460. The result in the county was that the Lincoln electors received over 
3,000 majority, Morgan for governor, 3,400; Conkling for representative in 
Congress, 3,563 ; Parry for county treasurer, 3,384 ; the following were elected 
members of assembly ; first district, Kernau, Democrat, 436 majority ; second 
district, Marshall, Republican, 1,389 majority ; third district, Kenyon. Demo- 
crat, 249 majority ; fourth district, Lewis, Republican, 883 majority. 

1861 — The enthusiasm and rejoicing over the election of Lincoln had scarcely 
subsided when the war cloud appeared in the South. Buchanan's vacillation 
and timidity was severely condemned by the Republicans and many Democrats, 
but what seemed evil at the time probably worked o^it the greatest good in the 
end. As soon as it was certain that war would come and the president called 
for volunteers, there was a hearty response, and war meetings were held 
throughout the country. The support of the president during the .vear 1861 
was most cordial. The Democratic state convention assembled at S.yracuse; 
Francis Kernan of Utica, was temporary chairman, and in his speech he fa- 
vored the prosecution of the war. The platform, however, was not satisfactory 
and the candidates nominated at this convention virtually repudiated the plat- 
form before election day. A convention called the People's convention, which 
consisted of Republicans and Democrats favorable to the national administra- 
tion, nominated a Union ticket headed by Daniel S. Dickinson for attorney gen- 



120 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUiNTY 

eral, also AVilliaiu B. Taylor of Oneida countj-, for state engineer. A great 
Democratic meeting was held in Utiea, October 2Stli, and was addressed by 
Governor SejTnour. His speech could not be said to have been patriotic under 
the existing circumstances, and the state gave a lua.iority for the Union ticket 
of 100,000. The local I'uiou ticket consisted of Alexander II. Bailey for sen- 
ator, Hugh Crocker for sheriff, and Dan P. Buckingham for county clerk; for 
members of assembly, tirst district, Charles N. Scholelield ; second district, Eli 
Avery; third district, Thomas D. Pentield. There was also a People's candi- 
date for member of assembly in the third district, Rensselaer Lament, uomi- 
iiatcd by those who were dissatisfied with the nomination of Mr. Penfield; 
Fourth district, Jeremiah Sweet. The Democratic ticket was made up of John 
F. Seymour for senator ; Giles Hawley for sheriff ; James J. Hanchett for county 
elerk; and for members of assembly, first district, Abram B. Weaver; second 
district, Bradford C. ilontgomeiy ; third district, Rensselaer Lament, the can- 
didate of the People's party, who was adopted bj' the Democrats; fourth dis- 
trict, John F. Thomas. The result of the election was that Bailey, Union, re- 
ceived a ma.iority of 3,069 for senator; Crocker, Union, 2,845 majority for sheriff; 
Buckingham, Union, 3,198 majority for county clerk; for members of assem- 
bly, first district, Scholefield, L^nion, 5 majority; second district, Avery, Union, 
1,325 majority; third district, Penfield, Union, 604 majority; foui-th district, 
Sweet, Union, 782 majority. , 

1S62 — During the year 1862 the war had been disastrous to the Union side, 
and a great depression existed throughout the country. The Democratic news- 
papers and public speakers severely condemned the administration, criticised 
]Mr. Lincoln and ridiculed him in every conceivable way. His proclamation, 
declaring that in the future if the South did not lay down its arms he should 
issue another proclamation declaring the slaves free, had caused intense feel- 
ing, and many who had supported him up to that time abandoned him and 
went over to the Democrats, upon the theory that the war was being prosecuted 
to free the slaves, and that it might cease if the government would compromise 
with the South upon the basis of union as it had existed prior to the secession 
of the states. This, however, was not the case, for Jlr. Lincoln communicated 
with the president of the Southern Confederacy, and the confederate states 
declined to even negotiate upon any basis except their independence. Horatio 
Sejanour was nominated for governor by the Democratic state convention, and 
David R. Floyd Jones lieutenant governor. The Republican candidate for gov- 
ernor was James S. "Wadsworth, who, at the time, was a general at his post in 
the army, with LjTuan Tremaine as lieiitenant governor. The contest was so 
bitter that it was proposed at one time to have both candidates withdraw, and 
to agree upon John A Dix. Dix, however, declined to be considered, as he was 
at his post doing most effective duty in the army. The discouraging condition 
at the seat of war, the feeling against the proclamation of the president on the 
slavery question, and general dissatisfaction with the administration caused the 
defeat of the Republican ticket, and Seymour was elected by a majority of 
11.571, although Wadsworth carried Oneida county by about 481. Great in- 
terest centered in the election of the representative in Congress. Roscoe Conk- 
ling had served four years, and, as is the case, had disappointed many in not 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 121 

procuring thoir appoiiitiiicnt to offieo. This militated against him, and his 
very prominent antagonist justly took advantage of all fair means to aecom- 
plish his own election. Kraneis Keriian liad lu-cii nominated by the Democrats, 
and the two went into the canvass with gi'eat vigor, hut Mr. Conlding's health 
was very poor, and it was ncc(>ssary for him to hai-tior his strength late in tiie 
campaign, and much of the time he was not able to he out of the house. The 
writer has heard him state that as the cause of his defeat in this election. The 
candidates for the assembly upon the Republican ticket were — first district, 
Charles H. Doolittle; second district, Daniel M. Prescott; thii-d district, Samuel 
P. Lewis; fourth district, Isaac McDougall. The Democratic caudidates for the 
assembly were — first district, Abram Weaver; second district, Barzilla Budlong; 
third district, Asa Sherman; fourth district. Thomas Bamber, Jr. The majority 
for Jlr. Kernan for representative iu Congress was 98, Weaver, Democrat, was 
elected to the assembly from the first district by a majority of 128 ; Prescott, 
Republican, second district, by 1,154 majority; Sherman, Democrat, third dis- 
trict, by 604 majority ; McDougall, Republican, fourth district, by 469 majority. 
1863 — The most extraordinary condition of atTairs existed in the legislature 
in the winter of 1863. The parties were so evenly divided and party ties so 
weak that it was impossible for weeks to elect a speaker. Chauncey M. Depew 
was in the legislature and a prominent candidate for speaker, but, after weeks 
of controversy, the Republicans united upon an Independent Democrat known 
as Timothy C. Callicot, and he was duly elected speaker amidst an unprecedented 
scene in the legislature. Threats of personal violence and substantially a riot 
existed during the proceeding. A prominent candidate for U. S. senator this 
year was Ward Hunt, of Oneida county, but, by the combination of opposing 
elements, Edwin D. Morgan was selected. At this time the sentiment of a por- 
tion of the Democratic party was so strongly in favor of the South that they were 
denominated as Copperheads, the significance of which was that they were likened 
to a snake called copperhead, which is said to attack its enemy in the rear. 
Governor Seymour vetoed a bill, which had been passed by the legislature, per- 
mitting soldiers to vote in the field under proper restrictions, and on the 4th of 
July he delivered an oration in New York, dwelt largely upon the subject of 
war, condemning the administration, and, in his adroit manner, intensified the 
feeling against the administration and against the prosecution of the war. 
About this time a pamphlet appeared, known as the New Gospel of Peace, which 
was a satire upon what were known as the Copperheads, in which Seymour was 
included. This pamphlet, among other things, said: "He is sometimes called 
Seemer, because he seems to be what he is not. Others call him Saymore, be- 
cause he can say more and mean less than any other man in the country. ' ' In 
Mr. Seymour's New York speech, he said: "When I accepted the invitation to 
speak, with others, at his meeting, we were promised the downfall of Vicksburg, 
the probable capture of the confederate capitol, and the exhaustion of the re- 
bellion. By common consent, all parties had fixed upon this day when the re- 
sults of the campaign should be known, to mark out that line of policy which 
they felt that our country should pursue. But, in the moment of expected vic- 
tory, there came the midnight cry for help from Pennsylvania to save its de- 
spoiled fields from the invading foe; and within sight of this great commercial 



122 HISTORY 01' OXKIDA COrXTY 

ineti'opolis. the ships of your iiiorch;iuts were burned to tlie water's edge." It 
is a remarkable fact that on the morning on whieh Governor Seymour delivered 
this speech Pemberton surrendered, with more tlian 27.000 men and great quan- 
tities of nujnitions of war, the city of Vicksburg to the commander of the union 
forces, Ulysses S. Grant. More than that, IMeade, on the afternoon of the 3d 
day of July, had driven Lee from Penns.vlvania and won the great battle of the 
war — Gettysburg. It is still more notal)le that Governor Se.vmo^ir's speech said 
that such things were promised upon that day. but little did he think that they 
had actuall.v been accomplished. It was claimed afterwards by Se.ymour's op- 
ponents that the famous riots in New Y''ork cit.y occurred in consequence of his 
Fourth of July speech, and lie was severel.v criticised for addressing the mob 
as his "friends." "We do not think that this criticism is well founded, for 
the writer has heard Governor Seymour many times deliver political speeches-, 
and he never heard him use a harsh term. It was his custom, in speaking of 
the Republican party, to i-efer to them as "our friends." As no governor was 
to be elected this year the Democratic state ticket was made up of David B. 
St. John, comptroller, Sanford E. Church, attorney general, and other minor 
offices. The Republicans nominated Chaunce.y M. Depew for comptroller. Will- 
iam R. Ta.vlor of Oneida, for state engineer, and the state was carried hy Depew 
by a ma.iority of 29,405. The Republicans were not idle during this year in 
Oneida county. At their convention, which was called the Republican Union 
convention, held on September 25th. they had nominated Alexander H. Bailey 
for senator, George W. Smith for county .iiidge. John J. Parry for county treas- 
urer, and for members of assembly, tirst district. Ben.jamin Shaw ; second dis- 
trict, Levi Blakeslee: third district. Aaron W. Kellogg: fourth district. John 
W. Douglass. The fifth .iudicial district had also nominated ITenrv A. Foster. 
of Rome, for justice of the Supreme Court, and at the time of his nomination 
it was undei-stood that if elected he would remove to Oswego. This he did 
after his election, and on the expiration of his term he returned to his old home 
in Rome, and died there at an advanced age. A sketch of his life is found in 
another chapter of this work. The Anti-Administration party, as it was styled 
at this time, nominated for senator, Othneil S. AVilliams; Griflith ]\1. Jones, for 
county treasurer ; and for membere of assembly, first district. Abram Weaver ; 
second district. Ednnmd Terry: third disti-ict. Chaunce.v Brodock : fourth dis- 
trict. William W. ITallock. Substantially the only issue in the campaign was 
the question of the war, the Republican L^nion party supporting the admin- 
istration, and the other party opjiosing substantiall.v evcr\-thing done by the 
administration. The result in the county was as follows: For senator, Bailey, 
Rep.-Union, 963 majority; for treasurer, Parry, Rep.-Union, 1,093 majority; 
members of assembly, first district. Weaver. Democrat. 212 ma.iority; second 
district. Blakeslee. Rep.-Union. L005 majority: third district. Brodock, Derao- 
erat. 313 majority: fourth district. Douglass. Republican, 393 majority. 

1R6-1 — There was much fault found with the national administration in 
1863-4, and Mr. Lincoln was criticised severely by the Radicals as being too con- 
ser^'ativc, and a like criticism was made by the Conservative.s because he was too 
radical. The Radicals called a national convention at Cleveland. Ohio, for 
May 31st. and John C. Fremont was nominated for president and John Cochran 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 123 

for vice president. Many j)rominent Republicans were opposed to the re- 
nomiuation of Lincoln, and (j(!neral Grant was talked of by many as the proper 
candidate to lead the Republican party in this campaign. The Republican 
convention held at Baltimore, however, unanimously nominated Jjincoln for 
president and Andrew Johnson for vice president. An attempt was made after 
that to induce Lincoln to withdraw, and it was proposed to hold another con- 
vention to agree upon somebody who would unite the party. The convention, 
however, was not held, Mr. Lincoln stood, and almost from the time of his 
nomination he grew in popularity with his party, and linally the Fremont ticket 
was withdrawn, and his supporters fell into the ranks of the regular Republi- 
can organization, 'i'he Republican platform declared for a vigorous jirosecution 
of the war, and sustained Lincoln in his pi'oclamation freeing the slaves. The 
Democratic convention was held in Chicago, and tlie prominent figure was Ho- 
ratio Seymour. He presided in the convention, hut declined to be a candidate 
for the presidency. His sincerity in declining was ((uestioned by some of the 
orators of the day. Francis Kernan was also a delegate in the convention, and 
it can be said without qualification that they were two of the leading spirits in 
shaping the policy of that convention. The platform condemned the national 
administration and demanded a cessation of hostilities "with a view to an ulti- 
mate convention of all the states or other peaceful means to the end that, at 
the earliest practical moment, peace may be restored on the basis of the federal 
union of the states." The convention then proceeded to nominate General 
George B. McClellan for president, and George II. Pendleton vice president. 
The Republicans nominated for governor Reuben E. Penton, and Thomas G. 
Alvord for lieutenant governor. The Democrats nominated John T. Hoffman 
for governor, and David R. Floyd Jones for lieutenant governor. The cam- 
paign in Oneida county was intensely interesting. Roscoe Conkling made a 
thorough canvass of the county, and he had such able assistants upon the 
stump as Ellis H. Roberts, Alexander H. Bailey and Henry A. Foster. The 
Democratic party was represented upon the stump by Horatio Seymour, Francis 
Kernan, J. Thomas Spriggs, and other able and eloquent speakers. The feel- 
ing was intense, and the chief subject discussed was the "war," the Republi- 
cans arguing that no quarter should be given to traitors and that the war should 
be prosecuted with the utmost possible vigor, the Democrats arguing for recon- 
ciliation with the South and a suspension of all hostilities until negotiations 
could be carried on to the end that peace might be established between the con- 
tending forces. The Republican county convention was held under unusual 
circumstances. A fierce attack had been made upon Roscoe Conkling by mem- 
bers of the Republican party led by George W. Smith, county judge, and they 
endeavored in every possible way to prevent his nomination. I\Ir. Kernan had 
defeated him two years before, and as a last resort Conkling 's opponents cir- 
culated diligently the report that the president did not wish him nominated, and 
this was having great effect in the canvass. The convention assembled at Rome, 
September 23d. Roscoe Conkling was put in nomination, and Judge Smith, 
who was a remarkable talker, made a bitter speech opposing his nomination, 
and stated in substance that it would be displeasing to the president to have 
Conkling nominated. This move had been anticipated and Ward Hunt, being 



124 III.STOKY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

a delegate in the convention, replied to Judge Smith, and. as a part of his 
reply, read the following letter from ^Ir. Lincoln: "Executive ^lausion, August 
16, 1864. Hon. Ward Hunt, my dear Sir — Yours of the 9th inst., vras duly re- 
ceived, and submitted to Secretary Seward. He makes a response which I here- 
with enclose to you. I add for myself, that I am for the regular nominee in 
all cases, and that no one could be more satisfactory to me as the nominee in 
that district, than ^Ir. Conkliug. I do not mean to say there are not others as 
good as he in the district; but I think I know him, to be at least good enough. 
Yours truly, A. Lincoln." This letter produced the desired effect, and ilr. 
Conkliug was readily nominated. The Republican local ticket, in addition to 
member of Congress, consisted of Daniel B. Dauforth, for sheriff; Oi-sou Car- 
penter, for county clerk ; and for members of assembly, first district, Samuel R. 
Campbell ; second district, Lorenzo Rouse ; third district, Hezekiah L. Wilcox ; 
fourth district, George W. Cole. The local Democratic ticket consisted of Fran- 
cis Kernan, for representative in Congress; Giles Hawley, for sheriff; James 
C. Bronson. for county clerk; and for members of assembly, first district, Abram 
B. Weaver; second district. Isaac T. Doolittle; third district, Thomas D. Pen- 
field; fourth district, Simeon Fuller. There was great excitement on election 
day. and the returns were received in Utica and read to crowds on the streets 
and around newspaper offices ; in fact, the city was kept all night in a state of 
excitement over the result, but before morning it was reasonably certain that 
Lincoln had been elected, although he lost the state of New York. There were 
crowds in the streets shouting and singing and rejoicing over what w'as deemed 
to be a great victory for the union cause. A humorous song was sung hundreds 
of times during the night, one verse of which was as follows : 

"Come, come, come. Jeff, come. 
Come with your old Beauregard ; 

Your niggers and your cotton will soon be forgotten. 
You can't go back on Abe so very hard." 

It is said that man.v men were moved to tears when it was determined that 
Lincoln had been re-elected. Fenton carried the county for governor by 1,152 
majority; Conkling received 1,150 majority for representative in Congress; 
Danforth for sheriff, 1,041 majority; Carpenter for county clerk. 1.070 ma- 
jority; for members of assembly, first district. Weaver. Dem., 113 majority; 
second district. Rouse. Rep.. 1.053 majority; third district. Penfield, Dem.. 675 
majority; fourth district. Cole, Rep., 635 majority. 

1865 — The year 1865 witnessed one of the most joyous events in the his- 
tory of the government, which was the termination of the great Civil War. It 
also witnessed one of the saddest days in the history of the country — the day 
on which Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. April 14th. When the news 
of the surrender of Lee reached Utica it was proposed to celebrate the event 
by a public demonstration. On Friday evening. April 14th. a meeting of citi- 
zens was held in the Common Council Chamber to make arrangements for the 
celebration, and a committee was appointed to consider the subject. At one 
o'clock that night the telegraph annonnced the sad news that President Lin- 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 125 

colu had been assassinated. Tlio celebration wns never liiul, Imt what occiiiTcd 
is described in one of the news[)apers, which siiid : "Nowhere did the terrible 
national calamity fall with more depressing eiTcct tliaii in lltica. It caine upon 
us in the midst of rejoicing for victories won. While we were assembled to 
devise means for a formal celebration, the assassins at Washington had foiTiicd 
a plan and waited an opportunity to bereave the nation of its great head. 
People read the telegrams and turned away from the horrid deed and sickening 
details with feeling well nigh bordering on despair. At 8 a. m., the wires 
flashed the last sad truth, that President Lincoln was dead. Our flags were 
not forbidden to float, but reasonably were lowered to half mast, while above 
their folds the black pennant of mourning symbolized the deep anguish of twice 
ten thousand hearts in Utica. Befoi-e the hour of noon Genesee street was robed 
in mourning. Heavy festoons of black drooped from window to window, and 
crape everywhere floated sorrowfully in the breeze. Neighbor met neighbor with 
a saddened look. The people crowded around the various bulletin boards, 
reading with the most intense anxiety the news dispatches, and many silent 
prayers ascended that God would spare that life, which although it had almost 
flickered to its socket, still seemed so essential to our nation's future." The 
following proclamation was issued by Mayor Butterfield: 

"Public Sorrow. Mayor's Office, Utica, April 15, 1865: A great calam- 
ity has befallen the nation in the murder of its chief magistrate and the at- 
tempted murder of the chief officer of his caliinet. Citizens are requested to 
close their place of business and suspend their usual avocations from 12 noon 
till 2 p. m., of today, during which hours all the bells of the city will be tolled. 
John Butterfield, Mayor." 

In accordance with their own feelings and sense of propriety not less than 
with the proclamation of the mayor, the business men closed their several 
offices and stores during the hours suggested. And for those two hours the 
bells of the city tolled slowly, sadly. 

"And so Utica, in common with the nation, demonstrated by every outward 
and inward manifestation her grief at the event which now paralyzes the coun- 
try. But we still keep the flag flying. It is an act which Abraham Lincoln 
would commend were he living." 

Sunday the churches were draped in black and the congregations were 
sorrowful. The texts of the discourses preached were expressions in which 
Christians of all ages have given utterance to the emotions of grief, and the 
discourses themselves reviewed the details of the awful event, the character of 
the illustrious deceased, and the greatness of our loss, expressing the foremost 
confidence in the future of the country and pledging the support of the peo- 
ple to the executive on whom the tremendous responsibilities of giving shape 
to the events of that future have so unexpectedly fallen. It was indeed a 
solemn day for Utica. No one remembers its like. 

Wednesday of the following week the funeral was held, and there was in 
this city a demonstration taking the form of a memorial parade of all the so- 
cieties. The grand marshal was Col. James McQuade, and his assistants were 
Col. C. A. Johnson and Col. J. Palmer. The procession was headed by the 



1:26 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

military Brig. Oeu. Dcring aud staff, the 21st Brigade, 4:5th, 53d and 101st 
regiments; a catafalque, officers of the armj^ and na^T; tlie colors of the 14th, 
25th and 2tith regiments home by wounded soldiers; veteran officers aud soldiers 
and wounded ofiicers aud soldiers in carriages; soldiers on furlough. The second 
division was commanded by Gen. Z. C. Priest, and it was made up of all the 
Jlasonic. Odd Fellow and Rechahite bodies of Utica, the Ililiernians, St. Vincent 
de Paul Society, the police, mayor and Common Council. The third division 
was made up of the 12 companies of the fire department. The procession moved 
from Broad to John, Bagg's Square. Genesee, Lafayette, State. Court, Hopper. 
Rutger, Howard avenue. South, Park avenue. Genesee, Whiteshoro, Wasliington 
to Columbia. All the societies wore badges of mourning and the apparatus 
was draped in black. A public meeting was held at the First Presbyterian 
church, at which there were present Dr. Campbell, Rev. P. II. Fowler, D. D.. 
Rev. Ashbel G. Vermilye. D. D.. Rev. D. C. Corey, D. D., and Rev. Mr. Whea- 
don. The pastor. Rev. Dr. Fowler, presided. There were addresses by Dr. 
Vermilye and Dr. Corey. Hon. C. H. Doolittle suggested that resolutions should 
be adopted, and Mayor Butterfield was called to preside. Judge William J. 
Bacon offered appropriate resolutions, which were adopted. 

Bishop Coxe issued a letter in accordance with which a meeting was held 
at Grace church the same day. The burial service was read by the rector of 
the church. Rev. Edwin "M. Van Deusen. Rev. Dr. S. H. Coxe, of Trinity church. 
Rev. Dr. W. T. Gibson, of St. George's church, and Rev. Dr. A. B. Goodrich, of 
Calvary church, and Rev. ilessrs. Perry and Baker, also took part in the serv- 
ice. Appropriate ser^^ces were held in all the Episcopal churches Thursday, 
the folloTisang da.y. 

A committee of prominent citizens of Utica went to Little Palls on the 
day of the funeral and escorted the remains of President Lincoln thronch this 
city. 

Immediately after the assassination the Utica Herald said editorially: 

"From the heights of joy to the depths of despair! On Friday the country 
rang with .jubilation over the victory of the Union arms and the speedy return of 
peace. The country awoke Saturday to the direst allliction, to woe tlie pro- 
foundest, to the alarm and terror which the assassin's arm carried to the bravest 
hearts. Tears How, strong men sigh, sorrow and anguish and lamentation fill 
the land. Tlie nation mourns as a mother mourns for her first born. But Mr. 
Lincoln is no longer mortal. The assassin has given him the honor of martyr- 
dom. The national grief enshrines his power, and he has passed to the white 
light of history. Alas, he is dead. But God still reigns and the republic lives. 
The fruits of the victories won nuist be secured. The work of pacification must 
go on." 

These meetings were not confined to the cities, but were general in all Ihe 
towns of the country. The terrible event, coming so soon after the surrender 
of Lee. seemed to impress the jicople more than if it luul come at any other 
time. Perhaps it is as well here as anyis'here to refer to the soldiers from 
Oneida county who took part in the great conflict. When it is considered that 
five regiments were made up in Oneida county, and that a large number of young 



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HISTORY OF ONE ID A COUNTY 127 

men had enlisted in other orgaui/.ations than the regiments organized in this 
county, it may be concluded that almost every household had its representative 
upon the battlefield, hundreds of whom sleep in unmarked graves. The regi- 
ments organized in this county were the 14th, 26th, 97th, 117th and 146th. 
When their shattered ranks returned they were received with every manifesta- 
tion of gi'atitude, and their memory has ever been and will ever be held sacred 
in this commuiuty. The principal officers in these regiments were as follows : 
14th — riames McQuade, colonel and Brev. Brig. General; Charles Skillin, lieut. 
colonel, killed at the battle of Gains Mills, June 27, 1862; Thomas M. Uavies, 
Lieut. Colonel. The majors were Charles B. Young and Lewis Michaels; ad- 
jvitants, John F. I\IcQuade and Thomas Manning; quartermasters, Thomas H. 
Bates and William Broadhead ; surgeon, Alonzo Churchill ; chaplain, Charles E. 
Hewes. 26th — Colonels, William II. Christian and Richard A. Richardson; 
lieut. colonel, Gilbert S. Jennings; major, Ezra F. Wetmore; adjutants, Will- 
iam K. Bacon and Charles Ackerman — Bacon died of wounds received in the 
battle of Fredericksburg; quartermasters, "William B. Blackwell and DeWitt C. 
Starring; surgeon, Walter B. Coventry; chaplains, Ira Smith and Daniel W. 
Bristol. 97th — Charles Wheelock, colonel and Brev. Brig. General — died in the 
service of disease ; John P. Spofiford, colonel and Brev. Brig. General ; Charles 
Northrup, major and Brev. Lieut. Colonel ; Charles Buck, Joel T. Comstock and 
N. D. Ferguson, majors — Ferguson died in the service; J. V. Ferguson, chap- 
Iain. 117th — William R. Pease, colonel and Brev. Brig. General; Alvin White, 
colonel; Rufus Daggett, Lieut. Colonel and Brev. Brig. General; Francis X. 
Meyer, Lieut. Colonel ; Egbert Bagg, major and Brev. Lieut. Colonel ; adjutants, 
James M. Lattimore, Augustus ]\L Irwin, Charles S. Millard and Charles H. 
Roys; quartermaster, William E. Richards; surgeons, Edward Loomis, Henry 
W. Carpenter and James A. Mowris; chaplain, J. F. Crippin. 146th — Kenner 
Garrard, colonel and Brig. General ; David T. Jenkins, colonel, killed at the bat- 
tle of the Wilderness, May 5, 1864 ; J. Neilson Potter, colonel ; James Grindlay, 
colonel and Brev. Brig. General; Peter Glaesgens, lieutenant colonel and Brev. 
Colonel ; majors, George Pomeroy, William S. Corning, Jesse J. Armstrong, 
Henry C. Curran and Isaac P. Powell; adjutants, Edward Comstock. William 
Wright and James P. Pitcher; quartermasters, A. Pierson Case and Marvin 
Eggleston ; surgeon, Thomas 'SI. Flandrau ; chaplains, Albert Erdman and 
Edward P. Paison. 

In 1865, the highest officer to be elected was a judge of the Court of 
Appeals. No great significance was attributed to the election, except that it 
was understood the Republican-Union party supported the national adminis- 
tration, and the other party opposed it. There does not seem to have been any 
other issue. The Republicans nominated for judge of the Court of Appeals 
Ward Hunt ; for senator, Samuel Campbell ; for members of assembly, first 
district, Charles M. Scholefield; second district, Alva Penny: third district, 
Benjamin N. Huntington; fourth district, Silas L. Snyder. The Democrats 
nominated John W. Brown for judge of the Court of Appeals ; John Butterfield 
for senator ; for members of assembly, first district, George Graham ; second dis- 
trict, Oliver B. Brown ; third district, William S. Parkhurst ; fourth district, 
William H. Owen. Ward Hunt was elected judge of the Court of Appeals 



128 HISTORY OF O.XEIDA COUNTY 

by a snbstanliiil majority; Campliell was elected seuator by a majority of 
2,196; the following nieiiibers of assembly were elected; first district, Graham, 
Dem., 242 majority; second district. Penny, Rep., 1.072 majority; third dis- 
trict, riimtingtoii. Rc]!.. 740 majority: fourth district, Snyder, Rep., 636 ma- 
jority. 

An incident of uniismil imiiortanco occurred June 10th, which was the 
receptioji of General Grant in I'lica. He had not returned to his home in 
Galena during the entire war, and he left Washington for the purpose of 
visiting his home, passing through New York city and along the Central and 
on to Chicago, and was i-eceived with unprecedented enthusiasm. His train ar- 
rived in IJtica at 4:40 a. m. It was Icnown that he would be upon this train, 
and the entire countrj' for miles around were at the station to see him. \Vhen 
the train arrived a salute was fired, all the bands in the city were on hand to 
enliven the occasion with patriotic music, all the bells in the city were rung, 
fire companies were on hand, and an immense concourse of people. He was 
aroused in his berth and appeared on the platform. The Utica Morning Herald 
of the next morning said: "Quietly opening the door of one of the sleeping cars, 
there appeared upon the platform Ulysses S. Grant, lieutenant general of our 
armies. He was dressed in a mulberry broadcloth coat, with woolen vest and 
pants, and carried in his hand a conmion black Kossuth hat. * * * For 
fully ten minutes he faced his Utica admirers. » » * 'fj^e same appearance 
of stubborn determination was there that we expected to see * * * 'bi- 
conditional surrender.' Not a word did he say to us; indeed, had he done so, 
we should have mistrusted that we had waked \ip the wrong man."' 

1866 — The political situation in the entire country in 1866 was most peculiar. 
Andrew Johnson had succeeded to the presidency, had abandoned the party 
that elected him, taken sides with the South upon many of the important ques- 
tions of reconstruction, and, in order to merit public opinion, made an ex- 
tensive trip through the country and made a numlier of speeches in which he 
undertook to vindicate himself in the position he had taken. He was received 
in Utica by a delegation of eminent men, and was welcomed by Mayor 'Mc- 
Quade, who, in a guarded speech, extended the freedom of the city to the ]n-esi- 
dent of the United States. This trip was known at the time as "Swinging 
Around the Circle," and it was during this trip that he made such an attack 
upon Congress that one of the charges made against him on his impeachment 
was that he had committed higii crimes and misdemeanors by a.ssaulting one 
branch of the government. Some of the prominent Republicans in the state 
and county sided with ^Fr. Johnson, and the line was r|uito sharply drawn be- 
tween Congress and the president. After President Johnson had made his 
speech in Utica, General Grant, who was in the party, was presented to the 
crowd by Hon. Charles H. Doolittle. The newspaper report says: "Hats were 
wildly tlung upward, handkerchiefs waved, and from the wild cheering which 
greeted him, it was plain to see who was the man Utica came out to see." The 
newspaper report also says: "With Farragut and Secretary Seward. General 
Grant stood upon the rear platform and waved his farewell to the crowd." 
The Union-Republican state convention renominated Reuben E. Fenton for 
governor, and Stewart ]j. AVonilfdnl for lieutenant governor. The same party 



HISTORY 01-' OXEIDA COUNTY 129 

held its couuty uouvcutiou at Koine Sopteiiiber lOtli, and rononiiiiated Koseoe 
Conkling for representative in Congress, and Charles Northrup for county 
treasurer; the same party also uoiiiiuated for members of assembly, first dis- 
trict, Levi Blakeslee; second district, Ellis H. Roberts; third district, Benjamin 
N. Huntington; fourth district, Leander W. Fiske. The Democrats nominated 
for governor John T. Hoffman, and Robert H. Pruyn, for lieutenant governor. 
In the county there was nominated an Independent Republican ticket, adopted 
by the Democrats, and it consisted of Palmer V. Kellogg for representative in 
Congress, and Griffith IM. Jones for couuty treasurer; for members of assembly, 
first district, Peter Clogher; second district, James G. Preston; third district, 
George H. Sanford ; fourth district, Nathaniel D. Bronson. It is doubtful 
whether there was ever a political canvass on local issues as exciting as this 
one, and the interest was centered in the congressional candidates. Palmer V. 
Kellogg was one of the men who had been instrumental in making Mr. Conkling 
the candidate for representative in Congress in opposition to Orsamus B. Matte- 
son. After the election of Mr. Conkling in 1860, JMr. Kellogg and certain other 
Republicans called upon Mr. Conkling in regard to the appointments which 
would be made by President Lincoln. He received them in an arrogant manner, 
and, instead of accepting any suggestions from them, he said to them that when 
he wanted them he would call for them. It is easy to understand that these 
men were offended, and from that time onward they sought for an occasion to 
get even with Mr. Conkling. It was thought by them that the year 1866 was 
a favorable time to accomplish this end. Mr. Kellogg, therefore, accepted the 
Independent Republican and Democratic nominations, with a view of defeat- 
ing Mr. Conkling. The writer was at this time a student in the law ofifice of 
Mr. Conkling, and had the privilege of learning the inside of the campaign. 
Mr. Kellogg was a man of great wealth, spent his money liberally in the canvass, 
and unquestionably believed that he was to be elected. The campaign upon Jlr. 
Conkling 's side was most effective. He threw himself into the canvass with 
great energy, addressed Republican meetings in nearly every town and hamlet 
in the county, procured the list of the names of every voter in the county, had 
them classified as Republican, Democrat or Independent, and literature was 
distributed with great discrimination to every voter in the congressional dis- 
trict. An incident of great importance occurred the week before election. A 
workingmen's organization had appointed a committee to communicate with 
every candidate in the county upon the subject of legislation to better the con- 
dition of the workingmen. It was claimed that this committee had been cor- 
ruptly controlled by Mr. Kellogg, or some of his followers, and on Thursday 
evening of the week before election a meeting was held in the city hall at which 
the committee made its report, recommending that the labor men support Mr. 
Kellogg for Congress, Mr. Clogher for member of assembly in the first district, 
Preston in the second district, Sanford in the third, all Democrats, and Fiske, 
Republican, in the fourth. This report produced a sensation in the meeting, 
and a number of workingmen, who were Republicans, pi-otested against it, and 
finally started a counter-movement in the interests of Mr. Conkling. On the 
day following the meeting, a petition was circulated calling a meeting for Sat- 
urday evening to protest against the action of the committee, and to take such 



130 lilSTOKY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

action as should be thought proper in the premises. This meeting was held in 
Concert Hall, which stood where the U. S. government building now stands, 
and an enormous crowd attended. The great number of people could not be 
accommodated inside of the hall, and a meeting was organized in the street. 
The tirst important speech of the evening was made by P. X. Greenia of Rome, 
and it was very effective in demonstrating to the workingmen that they had 
been sold out by the committee, and that they should not support the candidates 
recommended by the committee which had made its report at the city hall. A 
motion was then made that ilr Conkling be invited to address the meeting, but 
that he should conline himself entirely to a discussion of the questions pertain- 
ing to the workingmen. A coiiuuittee was appointed and he was brought before 
the meeting, and it is safe to say that he never made a more effective speech 
than he made on that occasion. At the opening of his address it was difficult 
to quiet the crowd in consequence of hisses and yells, but before he had tinislied 
he had so changed the sentiment that the meeting went wild with enthusiasm. 
He addressed himself that evening to the candidates of the two parties, and en- 
deavored to show that in every instance the candidates nominated on the ticket 
with him had been favorable to the workingmen 's interests, and those on the 
opposite ticket had been unfavorable. On the night of election both parties 
were extremely excited at their headquarters when the news of election came in. 
The ward in which J\Ir. Kellogg lived had given him an excellent vote, and hia 
friends were confident that he was to be elected, but other parts of the city were 
more favorable to Mr. Conkling. The Republicans had assembled in Concert 
Hall, and there awaited the returns. At that time there was no rapid means 
of communication between Utica and the northern part of the county, neither 
telephone nor telegraph existing there at that time, and the only means of get- 
ting the report was to run a special train upon the Utica & Black River rail- 
road from Boonville to Utica, to bring the returns to the city. This train ar- 
rived about 1 o'clock at night, and at that time it was believed that Mr. Conk- 
ling was elected, but when the train came in and the report was that he had 
carried the northern towns by about two thousand ma.iority it was then certain 
that he was elected, and the wildest enthusiasm existed. He was in the hall, 
and had been called out repeatedly to address the great crowd assembled. As 
soon as it was reasonably certain that he had been successful different ones were 
called upon to address the meeting, and also a Mr. John ^lorgan of Deerfield, 
an excellent humorist, was called out repeatedlj' to entertain the crowd. Among 
other things which he did was to sing a song, which he said he had composed 
upon the political situation. Two verses of this song were as follows: 

"I dreamed a dream the other night, when all around was still, 
I dreamed I saw the Kellogg ship a coming up a hill ; 
With all the Copperheads on board, all dreaming of the future. 
And wondering wbat their fate would be when landed up J^alt River. 

"The ship rode on, the storm prevailed, and Barber, he got ill, 
But Goodsell was on board in time, and Smith to make his will ; 
They held a council on his case, and told him not to die, 
For all the greenbacks were not gone they got of General Frye." 




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PP 






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SOLDIERS' MONUMENT IN KOME 



SOLDIERS' MONUXrENT IN 

WATERVTI.LE 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY VU 

The individuals referred to in the verses were those with whom Mr. Conkling 
hiul had a hitter tight, and had worsted them in every instance, Frye being the 
provost marshal general, who had been removed from his position largely 
through the influence of Mr. Conkling. Smith was Judge Smith, who had bit- 
terly attacked Conkling in the Republican convention of 1864. When it was 
finally determined that Mr. Conkling was elected John Morgan stepped to the 
front of the stage and said he had composed an epitaph to be placed upon the 
tombstone of the Kellogg party. It was as follows : 

"Stranger, lightly tread. 
For God 's sake, let them lie ; 
For since they're dead we live in peace, 
But Hell is in a Frye." 

At this the audience went wild with enthusiasm, and Morgan was compelled 
to repeat it over and over again. The crowd finally left the hall, and 
it was swelled by great numbers in the street ; a cannon and a band were pro- 
cured, and from five to ten thousand people went up Genesee street to Mr. 
Kellogg 's house; the cannon was fired, a dirge was played by the band, and 
one, Billy Phillips, delivered a funeral oration. If the proceeding might not 
be called disgraceful, to say the least, it was most extraordinary. Conkling 
had received a ma.iority of 1,417; Northrup for county treasurer, 161; for 
members of assembly, first district, Blakeslee, 88 majority; second district, 
Roberts, Republican, 550; third district, Sanford, Democrat, 490; fourth dis- 
trict, Fiske, Republican, 571. 

1867 — A constitutional convention w'as to be held in 1867. From Oneida 
county Francis Kernan, Democrat, was elected as one of the delegates at large. 
Both parties made nominations of some of their most worthy men as delegates 
in the senatorial district. Richard U. Sherman, Prof. Theodore W. Dwight, 
Benjamin N. Huntington and George "Williams were nominated by the Repub- 
licans, and ex-Judge of the Court of Appeals, Hiram Denio, ex-County Judge 
Othneil S. Williams, Thomas D. Penfield and George Graham were nominated 
by the Democrats. The Republican delegates were elected, and did excellent 
service in the convention, I\Ir. Sherman ranking with the leaders of the con- 
vention, and much of the time presiding, although William A. Wheeler, after- 
wards vice president of the United States, was president of the convention. It 
was in this year that Roscoe Conkling was elected to the United States Senate, 
and this left a vacancy in the office of representative in Congress. The Repub- 
lican convention nominated Alexander H. Bailey for this vacancy ; for state 
senator, Samuel Campbell; for sheriff, George F. Weaver; for county clerk, 
Arthur F. Brown, and for members of assembly, first district, John French ; 
second district, Alanson B. Cady; third district, John J. Parry; fourth dis- 
trict, Ambrose Nicholson. The Democrats nominated for representative in 
Congress, John Stryker ; for senator, George H. Sanford ; for sheriff, Giles Haw- 
ley ; for county clerk, James C. Bronson ; for members of assembly, first dis- 
trict, William H. Chapman ; second district. Oscar B. Gridley ; third district, 
James Stevens; fourth district, George J. Flint. The campaign was one of no 



132 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

special iuterest, aud the result was as follows: For representative in Congress, 
Bailey, 667 majority ; for senator, Campbell, Republican, 259 ; for sheriff, 
Weaver, Republican, 810; for county clerk, Brousou, Democrat, 75; for mem- 
bers of assembly, first district, Chapman, Democrat, 94; second district, Cady, 
Republican. 410: third district. Stevens. Democrat, 378; fourtli district, Nichol- 
son. Rcpublii'an, 434. 

1868 — The impeachment of Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, 
by the House of Representatives by a vote of 126 to 47, was the great event in 
the year 1868. The Republicans, gcuerall.v, in the country sustained the Repub- 
licans in the House of Representatives on the question of impeachment, al- 
though on the trial the Senate failed to convict him, because of the fact that 
two or three of the most prominent Republicans in the Senate voted against 
con^^ction, and they were virtually driven out of the Republican party by their 
acts. The issues between the parties were still those that pertained to the war, 
and the logical candidate for the presidency was General Grant, who was nomi- 
nated with great enthusiasm at Chicago, ^vith Schu.vler Colfax for \ice presi- 
dent. The Republicans nominated John A. Griswold for governor, and Alonzo 
B. Cornell for lieutenant governor, and in Oneida county the following ticket 
was nominated : For representative in Congress, Alexander H. Bailey ; for dis- 
trict attorney, Daniel Ball ; for members of assembl.v, first district, Eli Avery ; 
second district, Addison B. Tuttle; third district, ilyron G. Beckwith; fourth 
district, Erastus Ely. The Democratic national convention was held in New York 
city, and was presided over by Horatio SejTaiour. After three days of unsuccess- 
ful endeavor to agree upon a candidate and failing, ^h\ Seymour was nominated 
by acclamation, and reluctantly accepted the nomination. It is quite proba- 
ble he realized that his election was doubtful, but he had received great honors 
from the part}', and felt constrained to accept the nomination whether it would 
result in his election or defeat. Francis P. Blair was nominated for vice presi- 
dent. The Democrats nominated for governor. John T. Hoffman, and for 
lieutenant governor Allen C. Beach. The Democratic local ticket consisted of 
J. Thomas Spriggs for representative in Congress; Henry 0. Southworth for 
district attorney; for members of assembly, first district, DeWitt C. Ray; 
second district, James il. "Willard ; tliird district, James Stevens ; fourth dis- 
trict, Joel T. Comstock. Both parties went into the canvass with enthusiasm, 
and Governor Seymour, having established his headquarters at the Butterfield 
House in Utica, made that the mecca for the leading Democratic politicians of 
the country. It was, however, impossible to stem the tide in favor of the great 
hero of the war, and General Grant was elected by a large ma.iority of the elec- 
toral vote, and carried the county by 1,317, although Seymour carried the state 
of New York b.v about 10.000 ma.iority, and Iloffnuui. for governor, by about 
26,900. It has been claimed that the result in the state was procured through 
the election frauds in New York city. Griswold, Rep., for governor carried 
the county by 1,260; Bailey, Rep., for representative in Congress, bj' 1,302; Ball, 
Rep., was elected district attorney by 1,262 ma.iority; the Tiiembers of assembly 
were elected as follows: first district, Avery, Rep., 45 ma.iorit.v; second dis- 
trict. Tuttle, Rep., 651 ; third district, Steven.s, Dem., 304 ; fourth district, Ely, 
Rep., 709. 



HISTORY OF OxNKlDA COUNTY ];j3 

186f) — No riupstions of importance were before the people of the county in 
the politieal campaign of IS(ii). There was, however, a division in the Repub- 
lican party that continued from this time for many years; it consisted on one 
side of the friends of Roseoe Conkling, and on the other side of his politieal op- 
ponents in his own party. The Republicans nominated for state senator, Daniel 
B. Goodwin ; for county treasurer, Charles Northrup ; for members of assembly, 
first dislrict, Samuel S. Lowerv; second district, David B. Miner; third dis- 
trict, George A. Cantine; fourth district, James Roberts. The Democrats 
nominated for senator George H. Sanford ; for county treasurer, George Bar- 
nard ; for members of assemlily, first district. Thomas J. Griffith ; second dis- 
trict, Lewis II. Shattuck; third district, St. Pierre Jerred ; fourth district, 
Thomas B. Allanson. The result of the election was as follows: Sanford, 
Dem., was elected senator by 26 majority ; Northrup, Rep., treasurer, 791 ma- 
jority; the members of assembly, first district, Lowery, Rep., 448; second dis- 
trict, Miner, Rep., 408; third district, Jerred, Dem., 620; fourth district, 
Roberts, Rep., 787. 



CHAPTER XV. 

1870—1879. 

1870 — The Republican state convention assembled at Saratoga, September 8, 
1870. and iioniinated General Stewart L. "Woodford for governor, and for lien- 
tenant governor Sigismund Kauffiiian, and its county ticket was made up as 
follows: For representative in Congress, Ellis H. Roberts; sheriff, Lewis Gay- 
lord; county clerk, Linus R. Clark: for members of assembly, first district, 
George W. Cliadwick: second district, Sidney A. Bunce; third district, Eras- 
tus W. Graves; fourth district, Isaac McDougall. September 22 the Demo- 
cratic state convention was held in Rochester and nominated for governor, 
John T. Hoffman, and for lieutenant governor, Allen C. Beach. At the Demo- 
cratic county convention held at Rome. September 24, Abram B. Weaver was 
nominated for representative in Congress, Thomas D. Penfield for sheriff; 
James C. Bronson for county clerk; the Democrats also nominated for mem- 
bers of assembly, first district, Theodore P. Cook; second district, Joseph Bene- 
dict ; third district, Thomas ihilhall : fourth district. Nathaniel Bronson. The 
Democrats were successful in the state and elected their governor, but "Wood- 
ford carried Oneida county by a majority of 1,330 ; Roberts, Rep., was elected 
representative in Congress by a ma.iority of 1,716 ; Gaylord, Rep., sheriff by 941 ; 
Clark, Rep., county clerk, by 1,478 majoi'ity; membere of assembly, first dis- 
trict, Chadwick, Rep., by 648 ma.iority; second district. Bunce, Rep., 693 ma- 
jority; third district, Mulliall, Dem.. by 398 majority; fourth district. !McDou- 
gall. Rep., by 589 majorit.v. 

1871 — The year 1871 was an off year, and there was no particular issue 
before the people except as to who should hold office. Tlie Republicans nomi- 
nated for senator, Samuel S. Lowery, for district attorney, David C. Stod- 
dard, and for members of assembly, first district, ]\rartin T. Hungerford; 
second district, Eleazer Beckwith ; third district, "William Jackson ; fourth dis- 
trict, Albert L. Hayes. The Democrats nominated for senator, George H. San- 
ford; for district attorney. Lewis H. Babcock. for members of assembly, first 
district, William H. Barnett ; second district, Joseph Benedict : third district, 
George K. Carroll ; fourth district. Harry Weed. At this time Senator Lowery 
had become a potential factor in the Republican party of the county, and he 
carried the election by a majority of 1,457, while Stoddard, the Republican 
candidate for district attorney, carried the county by 845. The members of 
a.s.scnil)ly elected were, first district, Hungerford. Rep., by 540 majority; second 
district, Beckwith. Rep., 715; third district, Carroll, Dem., 152; fourth dis- 
trict. Hajes. Rep.. 658 majority. 

1872— A presidential election was to be held in 1872, and a large number 

134 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 135 

of Republicans, who had been disappointod generally in not getting office or 
controlling patronage, were dis])l('asod with the administration of General 
Grant. They formed themselves into an organization known as the Liberal 
Republican party, and their chief object was to prevent the renoniination of 
General Grant in this year. The foremost Republican to take this position 
was Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune. Greeley had become 
an old man, and had been greatl.v disappointed repeatedly in not obtaining 
that which he desired from the Republican party. Ilis ability as a newspaper 
writer has been acknowledged throughout the entire country, and it is probably 
Bafe to say that he has never had his equal as a clear, forcible writer upon polit- 
ical sub,iects. The power of the Tribune had been so great, that in all locali- 
ties of the state there were dovout followers of Horace Greeley, and this had the 
effect of drawing quite a percentage of Rciniblicans into the Liberal Republi- 
can movement. The popularity of General Grant, however, was so great, that 
he was unanimously nominated by acclamation in the Republican national con- 
vention held in Philadelphia, and Henry Wilson was nominated for vice presi- 
dent. The Liberal Republican party had held a convention at Baltimore, and 
had nominated for president, Horace Greeley, and for vice president, B. Gratz 
Brown. This ticket was adopted by the Democrats, and the canvass was, there- 
fore, between Grant, Republican, and Greeley, Liberal Republican, and in some 
respects it was quite peculiar. In 1864 the New York Tribune had been a pow- 
erful element in the canvass supporting General Grant, and among other 
things Mr. Greele,y had said in his paper, "General Grant, the man who was 
never beaten and never will be." Little did he think at that time that in four 
years he was to be the candidate against General Grant, and that his prophoc.v 
should be so eminently true. The Republican state convention was held in 
Utica, August 22, and when it assembled it seemed to be conceded that William 
H. Robertson was to be the candidate for governor. He was present until the 
evening before the convention assembled, but returned home with the under- 
standing that he was to be nominated. A number of candidates were presented 
to the convention, and the chairman arose and announced that the vote would 
be taken. Just at that instant Heui-y Clews advanced upon the platform and 
addressed the chair. The chairman, still standing, recognized the speaker, who 
stepped forward and in an elocpient speech presented the name of General John 
A. Dix as the candidate for governor. It was a thunderbolt in the convention. 
A delegate from Monroe arose and withdrew the name of Freeman Clark. Other 
delegates arose to second the nomination of Dix, and amid the greatest enthu- 
siasm all other names were forgotten and General John A. Dix was unanimously 
nominated. It has been claimed that this dramatic event was planned by 
Roscoe Conkling ; also that it was planned by Thurlow Weed ; but, whoever 
planned it, it was a master stroke of political engineering. John C. Robinson 
was nominated by the convention for lieutenant governor. The local ticket 
consisted of, Ellis H. Roberts, for representative in Congress; for county treas- 
urer, William McPherson ; for members of assembly, first district, Nicholas A. 
White; second district, Henry J. Coggeshall; third district, Patrick H. Cos- 
tello; fourth district, Daniel Walker. The Democrats and Liberal Republi- 
cans nominated for governor, Francis Kernan ; for lieutenant governor, Chaun- 



136 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

ccy M. Depcw ; for representative in Congress, Richard U. Sherman ; for county 
treasurer, Charles S. Griffin ; for members of assembly, first district, Lewis H. 
Babcock; second district. Reuben S. Bingham; third district. George K. Car- 
roll ; fourtli district, Charles B. Coventry. This campaign was as enthusiastic 
on the Republican side as any that has ever occurred within the county since 
that of 1840. Greeley was ridiculed because he had so often and so bitterly 
assailed the Democratic party, and now to be its candidate, the situation was 
peculiar. During the campaign he said, "I have been assailed so bitterly that 
I hardly know whether I am running for pi-esident or for the penitentiary." 
The result in the county was 3,248 for the Grant electors; 2,156 for Dix, Rep., 
for governor ; 2,803 for Roberts, Rep., for representative in Congress ; 2,609 for 
McPherson for county treasurer ; the Repa))licaus elected their members of 
assembly by the following majorities: first district. White, 135; second district, 
Coggeshall, 426 ; third district, Costello, 789 : fourth district. Walker, 1,000. 

1873 — Nothing of importance occurred in the political arena of Oneida 
county during the year 1873. The usual excitement over candidates was not 
sufficient to arouse the count.v to enthusiasm, Init the Republicans were gen- 
erally successful at the polls. Their ticket consisted of Sanniel S. Lowery for 
senator, George Benedict for sheriff, and James B. Paddon for county clerk; 
for members of assembly, first district, George W. Chadwick ; second district, 
Arthur F. Brown; third district, John J. Parry; foiirth district, GrilBth 0. 
Jones. The Democratic county convention met in Rome, October 8, and nomi- 
nated for senator Enoch B. Armstrong ; for sheriff, James C. Bronson ; for 
county clerk, Egbert Bagg; for members of assembl.v. first district, Harvey D.- 
Talcott; second district, George W. Cleveland: thii-d district. Plarvey S. 
Bedell ; fourth district, John 'SI. Whipple. The result of the election was that 
Lowery, Rep., for senator received 2,829 ma.ioritv; Benedict, Rep., for sheriff, 
948; Paddon. Rep., for county clerk, 2,006: and Republican assemblymen 
were elected by the following ma.iorities: first district, Chadwick. 764; second 
district, Brown, 17; third district. Parry, 244; fourth district, Jones, 635. 

1874 — In 1874 there entered prominently into the politics of the state of 
New York a man who was destined to be a veiy important element, not only 
in state but in national politics — Samuel J. Tildeu. He was nominated for 
governor by the Democratic state convention, September 18, and AVilliam 
Dorshcimer, for lieutenant governor. The Democrats named for supreme court 
judge, fifth judicial district, Albertus Perry; for I'cpresentative in Congress, 
Scott Lord; for district attorney, Henry T. Utlej'; for members of assembly, 
fir.st district. Richard V. Sh(>rmnu : second district, Silas T. Ives; third district, 
Edward Lewis; fourth district, Harry Weed. The Republican state convention 
met in Utica and renominated Governor John A. Dix, and John C. Robinson 
for lieutenant governor; Jlilton II. Jlerwin was nominated for Supreme Court 
judge, fifth judicial district: for representative in Congress, Ellis II. Roberts; 
for district attorney, M. D. Barnett; for members of assembly, first district, 
George Chadwick; second district. John W. Boyle; third district. Stephen 
Cromwell ; fourth district, Harrison Lillibridgc. There was also an independ- 
ent State ticket in the field, which was Myron H. Clark for governor, and 
James L. Bagg for lieutenant governor. For representative in Congress, Richard 




TTICA POSTOFFICE 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 137 

E. Sutton; for district attorney, Dean F. Curric; for members of assembly, 
first district, llarlow Skeels; second district, Silas Purdy ; third district, James 
C. Longland ; fourtli district, William E. Clark. It has always been claimed 
by the friends of General Dix that many of his supporters in 1872, who de- 
sired to control him while he was governor but failed, turned against him in 
the election of 1874, and that this resulted in his defeat at this election. He 
carried the county of Oneida by a i)lurarity of 747. The local canvass cen- 
tered upon the candidates for representative in Congress. Ellis H. Roberts and 
Roseoe Conkling had had political and personal differences, each accusing the 
other of acts that were unfriendly, and Scott Lord, the candidate of the Demo- 
cratic part.y in this election was the law partner of Mr. Conkling. It is scarcely 
susceptible to argument that had Mr. Conkling and his friends supported Mr. 
Roberts there would have been no doubt about bis election, but they found 
it a convenient time to punish him for ivhat they deemed ingratitude, and, 
therefore, supported Judge Lord, who was elected by a pluralit.v of 1,426; 
Merwin was elected to the Supreme Court bench, carrying Oneida county by a 
majority of 416 ; Barnett, Rep., for district attorney, was elected by a plurality 
of 167; and members of assembly, first district, Sherman, Dem., 255 plurality; 
second district, Ives. Dem., 175 plurality; third district, Lewis, Dem., 446; 
fourth district, Lillibridge, Rep., 525. 

1875 — It is doubtful whether an event more, imposing ever occurred in 
Utica than that which occurred in 1875 — the reunion of the Army of the Cum- 
berland. This was an immense gathering of the veterans of the civil war. 
There were present President Grant, Generals Sherman, Hooker, Slocum, Ful- 
lerton, and many others who had won fame during the great war, and the city 
received them with open arms. The decorations were profuse, and at night 
the cit.y was illuminated as it never had been before, and has never been since. 
The meetings were most impressive, and among the prominent civilians who 
took part were Horatio Seymour, Roseoe Conkling, Judge Doolittle, Francis 
Kernan and many others. Notable addresses were made by Governor Sey- 
mour and Roseoe Conkling, and a remarkable speech was made by General Sher- 
man. Again an off year came in polities, and there was little excitement attend- 
ing the conventions, and few candidates were anxious to be selected as the 
standard bearei^. The Republican convention at Rome, September 22. nomi- 
nated for senator, Theodore S. Sayre ; for county treasurer, \Yilliam McPher- 
son; for members of assembly, first district, Arthur B. Johnson; second dis- 
trict, Sylvester Gridley ; third district, Curtis J. AVright ; fourth district, George 
B. Anderson. The Democrats on September 25, nominated for senator Josiah 
K. Brown ; for treasurer Thomas B. Slingerland ; for members of assembly, 
first district, Richard V. Sherman; second district, Silas T. Ives; third district, 
James II. Flanagan ; fourth district, ^\^alter Ballon. There was also an inde- 
pendent or Prohibition ticket which nominated for senator, Charles Avery; 
country treasurer, George B, Law; for members of assembly, first district, 
Timothy Parker; second district, Silas Purdy; third district, James Longland; 
fourth district, Otis P. "White. The election returns showed that Mr. Sayre, 
Rep., for senator had received a plurality of 355 ; IMcPherson, Rep., for count.v 
treasurer. 4f)3 plurality : for members of assembly, first district, Sherman, Dem., 



Kid HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

36o plurality; second district. Gridk'v. Rep., 1,0G5 plurality; third district, 
Flauagau. Dem., 123 plurality; fourth district, Ballon, Dem., 221 plurality. 

1876 — The Republican national convention assembled at Cincinnati, and 
after an earnest canvass for candidates Rutherford B. ILn-es was nominated for 
president and William A. "Wheeler for vice president; while the national Demo- 
cratic convention at St. Louis nominated Samuel J. Tildeu for president and 
Thoniivs A. Hendricks for vice president. At the state convention the Rei>ub- 
licans nominated Edwin B. Morgan for governor, and Sherman S. Rogers for 
lieutenant governor. The Republican local ticket was nominated August 31 
at a convention held at Rome, and consisted of William J. Bacon, for repre- 
sentative in Congress; Frederick G. Weaver for sheriff; Taliesin Evans for 
county clerk; and for members of assembly, first district, James Corbett; second 
district, Everett Case; third district, Benjamin D. Stone; fourth district, J. 
Robert Jloore. The Democrats again nominated for governor Horatio Sey- 
mour. He was not at the convention, and when he was waited upon and the 
nomination tendered him he peremptorily declined. Lucius Robinson was 
named in his place for governor, and William Dorsheimer for lieutenant gov- 
ernor. Scott Lord was nominated for representative in Congress; for sheriff, 
James G. Preston; for county clerk, Thomas J. Griffiths, and for members of 
assembly, first district, Grove W. Bagg; second district, Joseph B. Cushman, 
2d ; third district, Spencer J. Upson ; fourth district. Walter Ballon. ;\Ir. Til- 
den made an excellent canvass of the state, and his great ability was manifested 
in the remarkalile detail of his work. This was a very eventful campaign, in 
that both parties claimed the election of their candidate for the presidency, and 
it all turned npon certain electoral votes from southern states. It will be re- 
membered that this was decided by a board consisting of cei'tain senators and 
representatives in Congress, and this board, having decided b.v a vote of 8 to 7 
that Mr. Hayes was elected, he became president, and ;\lr. Tilden ceased to 
be very active in politics from that time onward. The Republican presidential 
electors received a majority in Oneida county of 1,175. Morgan, Rep., for 
governor received 1.071 ma.iority; Bacon, Rep., representative in Congress, 
719; Weaver, Rep., foi- sheriff. 795; Evans, Rep., for count.y clerk, 1.435; and 
the Repuljliean assemblymen were elected bv the following ma.jorities: fir.st 
district. Corbett, 208; second district. Case, 247; third district, Stone, 638; 
fourth district. I^foore. 424. 

1877 — The divisions in the Republican jiarty that had been somewhat healed 
broke out anew in the campaign of 1877. The Republicans assembled at Rome 
in convention. October 3, and nominated for senator Sylvester Gridle.v; for 
district attorney, ^lilton D. Barnett; and the Republican candidates for mem- 
bers of assembly were, first district. William Jones; second district, Seth W. 
Peck ; third district. Cyrus D. Prescott ; fourth district. Se.vmour Jones. The 
Democrats nominated Alexander T. Goodwin for senator; James T>. Bennett 
for district attorney; and for members of assembly, first district, James V. H. 
Senvillc; second district. A. De Verney Townsley ; third district. James D. Cor- 
coran; fourth district. Robert H. Roberts. The Republican nominee for sena- 
tor was supposed to be a friend of Roscoe Conkling, but the division in the 
part.v was so bitter at this time that there were a large nniuber of Republicans 



HISTOKY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 139 

who would not vote for auy candidalc sii])posud to bo a warm friend ol' Conk- 
ling. The Denioerats, therefore, elected tiieir candidate for senator, Mr. Good- 
win, by a plurality of 1,145; wliile Mr. HiUMu^tt, Rep., carried the county by a 
plurality of 2,18!) for district attorney. The result on members of assembly 
was as follows: first district, Jones, Rep., 188 plurality; second district. Towns- 
ley, Uem., 192 plurality; third distri('t, I'rcscott, Rep., 148 plurality; fourth 
district, Roberts, Dem., 174 plurality. 

1878 — In 1878 the Republicans presented Cyrus D. Prescott, candidate for 
for representative in Congress; for county treasurer, John Kohler; for mem- 
bers of assembly, first district, Ben.ianiin Allen; second district, Frank Sang; 
third district, Henry R. Jones; fourth district, H. Dwight Grant. The Demo- 
crats nominated for representative in Congress, J. Thomas Spriggs; for county 
treasurer, John DeRyther; for members of assembly, first district, Richard U. 
Sherman; second district, R. Wilson Roberts; third district, Thomas D. Pen- 
field; fourth district, Robert Roberts. The canvass centered on members of 
assembly in the first district. It was conceded that the county would go Repub- 
lican, but the situation in the first assembly district was an unusual one. Jlr. 
Conkling resided in the district, and Ben.iamin Allen was a very strong friend 
of Mr. Conkling. Mr. Sherman, the candidate of the Democratic party in that 
district, had been one of Mr. Conkling 's warmest friends, and it was at Mr. 
Sherman's house that Mr. Conkling was brought forth as a candidate for Con- 
gress when he was .yet under 25 years of age. Both sides were determined to 
win in this election. The influences were so strong for ]\Ir. Conkling and his 
friends that the district gave a substantial Republican majority, and Mr. Allen 
was elected by 509 plurality. In the second district, Sang, Rep., received a 
plurality of 254; third district, Penfield, Dem., 393 plurality; fourth district, 
Grant, Rep., 649 plurality; and, as was expected, the county gave 1,068 plu- 
rality for Prescott, Rep., for representative in Congress, and 1,686 plurality 
for Kohler, Rep., for county treasurer. 

1879 — The Republican state convention met in Saratoga in 1879 and nomi- 
nated for governor, Alonzo B. Cornell, who was classed as a friend of Roscoe 
Conkling, which disappointed many Republicans, and the.y manifested no inter- 
est in the canvass. George G. Hoskins was nominated for lieutenant governor. 
The Democrats met in Syracuse, September 12, and nominated for governor, 
Lucius Robinson, and for lieutenant governor Clarkson N. Potter. The local 
Republican ticket was, for senator, George B. Anderson ; for sheriff, Francis 
X. IMeyers; for county clerk, Henry J. Coggeshall. The county ceased to have 
four members of assembly at this time, in consequence of a reapportionment 
giving Oneida county only three members, and the Republican candidates were : 
first district, Henry J. Cookinham ; second district, James A. Douglass ; third 
district, David Gray. The Democrats nominated for senator, James Stevens; 
for sheriff, Wilson Smith ; for county clerk, Martin S. Gotry ; and for mem- 
bers of assembly, first district, James V. 11. Scoville; second district, Martin 
V. B. Warner; third district, Lewis R. Powell; 'Sir. Scoville also was supported 
by the Labor party. There was also a bolting Democratic ticket for governor, 
which resulted in the election of Cornell, although the combined vote against 
him was greater than that cast for him. The rest of the Republican ticket in 



140 HISTORY OF OXEIDA COUNTY 

the state was elected. The result in the county was that Steveus. Dem., was de- 
clared to be elected by a plurality of 15-i. It was proposed by ^Ir. Anderson to 
contest the election, claiming that there had been fraud in the town of West- 
moreland and tliat he (Anderson) was elected by about 100 plurality. The 
writer was present wlien this matter was considered at a conference of legisla- 
tors held in Albany, and it was finally decided that the election should not be 
contested. The senator, who was chairman of the committee on privileges and 
elections, said in the hearing of the writer that there were too many Kepubli- 
cans in the senate already. Myers, Eep., for sheriff received a plurality of 
2,996; Coggeshall. Hep., for county clerk, 1.002; and the Republican assembly- 
men were elected by the following ma.iorities : first district. Cookinham, 137 ; 
second district, Douglass, 118; third district, Gray, 593. 



ClIArTER XVI. 

1880—1889. 

1880 — The year 1880 presented the Democratic party divided into two fac- 
tions, the Regulars and the Kelly or Anti-Tilden party, and two conventions 
were held in SjTacuse to elect delegates to the national convention. The Til- 
den element controlled, and the national convention nominated for the presi- 
dency General Winfield S. Hancock, and William H. English for vice president. 
The Republican national convention assembled in Chicago, and on the 36th bal- 
lot nominated for president James A. Garfield, and for vice president, Ches- 
ter A. Arthur. The Greenback party also had a ticket in the field consisting 
of James B. Weaver for president and E. J. Chambers for vice president. The 
Republicans nominated for representative in Congress Cyrus D. Prescott; for 
county judge, William B. Sutton; for district attorney, William A. Matteson; 
and for members of assembly, first district, James Armstrong; second district, 
David G. Evans ; third district, Thomas D. Roberts. The Democrats nominated 
Richard E. Sutton for representative in Congress; Thomas E. Kinney for 
county judge ; for district attorney, William Townsend ; and for members of as- 
sembly, first district, Joseph Joeressen; second district, Edward D. Evans; 
third district, Charles E. Eraser. This canvass was made almost entirely upon 
the tariff question. The Democrats declared in favor of a tariff for revenue 
only, and the Republicans declared in favor of the protection of home indus- 
tries. There was also a violent attack made upon General Garfield, it being 
claimed that he had acted improperly in regard to money transactions while a 
member of Congress. This, however, produced little effect, and the tariff ques- 
tion was the all-absorbing theme during this exciting campaign. Immense 
meetings were held within the county, notably a Democratic meeting on Sep- 
tember 16, in Utica, which was addressed by Governor Seymour, Francis Ker- 
nan, and other distinguished speakers. There was also an immense Republi- 
can meeting and torchlight procession at night on October 25. At this meet- 
ing General Grant was present, presided and made a brief speech. The meet- 
ing was addressed by Senator Conkling and Governor Boutwell of Massachu- 
setts. In the evening the torchlight procession was made of up of uniformed 
Republican clubs, and Senator Conkling gave a public reception to General 
Grant. At the beginning of this campaign Mr. Conkling was lukewarm, and 
probably would not have taken an active part in it had it not been for the in- 
fluence of General Grant. Conkling had been a delegate in the national con- 
vention, had advocated the nomination of General Grant, and Grant had re- 
ceived 306 votes in the convention, but a speech made by Garfield in nominat- 
ing John Sherman produced a tremendous effect in the convention, and was the 

141 



U-2 lllSTOKY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

means of the noiniiiatiou of Garlield. This disappoiuted Conkling, and he was 
always jealous of Garlield, and on his return from the convention he criticised 
Garfield severely. The result of the election was that Garfield carried the 
state, and carried the county by a majority of 2.053. Preseott, Rep., for repre- 
sentative in Congress had a majority of 2,052; Sutton for county judge, 2,213; 
Matteson for district attorney, 1,660 ; while the Republican members of as- 
seiubly were elected as follows: First district, Armstrong, 214; second district, 
Evans. 534; third district. Roberts, 1.255. 

1881 — The assassination and death of President Garfield changed the whole 
situation politically in the state of New York. The President had refused to 
make certain appointments desired by Mr. Conkling. Thomas C. Piatt had 
been elected to the senate, and took his seat trammeled by promises that he had 
made to certain prominent Republican legislators just prior to his election. 
Jlr. Conkling had asked, prior to election, that he should be allowed to name the 
secretary of the treasury and the collector of the port of New York. Mr. Gar- 
field had declined to make that promise, but stated that he would accord such 
political favors as he was entitled to in consequence of his very prominent place 
in the party. At Albany during the canvass for U. S. Senator, tlie prominent 
candidates were friends of Mr. Conkling — Thomas C. Piatt and Richard Crow- 
ley. Few, even, of ^Mr. Conkling 's friends knew which of the two he favored, 
but the writer knows that he favored ]Mr. Piatt, as he confided to some of his 
confidential friends. On the evening the caucus was to be held for the nomina- 
tion of senator, ilr. Piatt was asked to attend a conference at the Delevan 
Hotel. He did attend, and this conference consisted of the prominent Repub- 
lican members of the senate. He was there told if he would support Senator 
AYilliam H. Robertson for any position for which the President should nominate 
him, they would nominate him. (Piatt) for the United States Senate on the 
first ballot. Mr. Piatt made this promise, and he was nominated on the first 
ballot. It was at that time supposed that ^Ir. Robertson would be nominated 
as Jlinister to France, but, instead of that, the President nominated him for 
Collector of the Port of New York. ^Mr. Conkling violently opposed the con- 
firmation of !\rr. Robertson. ^Ir. Piatt informed IMr. Conkling of the promise 
he had made, and said to him that he could not live in the state of New York 
and not keep his promise. It was then suggested by Mr. Piatt that they should 
resign, that the legislature was favorable to them, that they could both go back 
to the legislature, be re-elected, and then come to the senate untrammeled by 
promises. This was finally consented to by Mr. Conkling, and resignations were 
forwarded to Governor Cornell, but they failed of reelection, after a desperate 
struggle. From this time onward ]Mr. Conkling took no active part in politics. 
President Arthur and I^Ir. Conkling did not agree, and the relations between 
them ceased to be friendly. 'Memorial services were held tbrougliout the coun- 
trj' on the death of General Garfield, and a notable gathering asscmblc<l in 
the First Presbyterian Church in TTtica, where addresses were made by Dr. 
Daniel G. Corey. Hon. William J. Bacon. Rev. Dr. Thomas Drown, and many 
others. The Republican party was rent in twain by this fight between the 
President and Mr. Conkling, and the Conkling party was known as the Stal- 
warts, while those who sided with the President were known as Halfbreeds. The 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY \4n 

Republic'un (•oiiiity cuuvculiou was held at lioiao, Oc,t,ul)ur 12, ami iioiiiiiiated 
for senator, Samuel II. Fox; for county treasurer, John Kohler; and for mem- 
bers of assembly, first district, Willard J. Scott; second district, J. Theodore 
Knox; third district, Frank A. Edgerton. The Democratic county convention 
was held in Rome, October 14, and Robert II. Roberts was nominated for sen- 
ator; Henry Ilopson for county treasurer; and for members of assembly, first 
district, II. Lee Babcock; second district, Morris R. Jones; tiiird district, Ciiarlea 
J. Edic. The result of the election was that the Democrats elected Mr. Roberts 
senator by a plurality of 791 ; the Republicans elected Kohler, treasurer, by 33 
plurality ; and for members of assembly, first district, Patrick Griffin, an In- 
dependent Republican, was elected by a plurality of 114; second district, Jones, 
Dem., 140 plurality; third district, Edgerton, Rep., 613 plurality. 

1882 — The year 1882 found the Republican party still rent in twain, and 
when its state convention assembled at Saratoga it met under great difficulties. 
It is stated by Alexander, in his "Political History of the State of New York," 
that James S. Wadsworth was made a candidate for governor in the interest of 
Judge Charles J. Folger, who was the national administration candidate for 
governor, but this is an error. Mr. Wadsworth was first favored for the 
nomination in Oneida county, and the writer drew the resolutions, which were 
adopted in the Oneida county assembly district conventions, instructing the 
delegates to the Saratoga convention to favor the nomination of Mr. Wads- 
worth. The writer also served as chairman of the delegation in that conven- 
tion. The meetings of the Wadsworth delegates were held in the writer's room 
in the United States Hotel, and the facts in regard to the case are that 68 dele- 
gates assembled in that room. There were several others favorable to the 
nomination of Wadsworth when the convention assembled, among whom was 
ex-Senator Madden. It was evident that these delegates had the control in the 
convention, provided they could be held together. A committee was appointed 
to meet the representative of Governor Cornell to agree upon organization of 
the convention, as the Cornell forces and the Wadsworth forces constituted a 
majority in the convention. The writer was chairman of the committee of the 
Wadsworth delegates, and he, with two others. Senator Lorin Sessions and 
Charles E. Ferrin, met U. S. Senator Warner ]\riller and Edmund Pitts, and it 
was agreed between them that Mr. Pitts .should be selected as the temporary 
chairman of the convention. This committee made a report to the Wads- 
woi'th delegates on the evening before the convention, and their report was 
unanimously adopted. It was then also unanimously determined that every 
delegate in the room should vote for Mr. Wadsworth as long as his name was in 
the convention. The national administration's influence then began to have its 
effect. Tremendous inducements were offered to delegates who were in the in- 
terest of Mr. Wadsworth to vote for Senator Madden for temporary chairman, 
and these infli:ences with others were so potential that twelve of the delegates 
violated their promise, refusing to vote for Pitts, and cast their votes for Mad- 
den, thus determining the policy of the convention. The result of this was that 
Charles J. Folger was nominated for governor, with B. Plaft Carpenter for 
lieutenant governor; but the feeling was so intense that it was from that day 
an assured fact that whoever should be nominated by the Democrats for gov- 



144 lllSTUKY OF OXEIDA L'OU.NTY 

ernor would be elected. It fell to the lot of Grover Cleveland to be nominated 
by the Democrats for governor, with David B. Hill as lieutenant governor. 
The result of the election proved the folly of the action of the national admin- 
istration party in controlliufr. in the manner that it did, the Republican Sara- 
toga convention, and placed a former resident of Oneida county in the execu- 
tive chair of the great state of New York. The local ticket nominated by the 
Kepuhlicans was for representative in Congress, Samuel H. Fox; for sherifif, 
Hugh P. Owens ; for county clerk, Arthur liallou ; and for members of as- 
sembly, first district, Albert P. Seaton; second district, Ira C. Jenks; third 
district, Oscar F, Hulser. The Democrats nominated for representative in Con- 
gress J. Thomas Spriggs; for sheritt', Thomas D. Penfield; for county clerk, 
Henry Hopson ; and for members of assembly, first district, William Town- 
send; second district, Clarence E. "Williams; third district, Thomas B. Allan- 
son. The division in the Republican party was manifested in the county as 
well as in the state, and Grover Cleveland, the Democratic candidate for gov- 
ernor, carried the county by 4,932 majoi-ity; Penfield, Democrat, was elected 
sheriff by 693 ma.iority ; Ballou, Republican, was elected county clerk by 225 ; 
and the Democratic assemblymen were elected by the following majorities: first 
district, Townsend. 765 ; second district. Williams, 2,087 ; third district, Allan- 
son, 195. 

1883 — The year 1883 presented no events worthy of great attention among 
the political controversies in the county. The Republican state convention wps 
held at Richfield Springs, but as uo governor was to be elected it was rather a 
tame affair. The local Republican ticket was. for senator, Ileury J. Coggeshall ; 
for district attorney, AVilliam A. ilatteson; and for members of assembly, first 
district, Joseph Joyce ; second district, Clarence E. Allen ; third district, T. 
James Owens. The Democrats nominated for senator, Thomas E. Kinney ; for 
district attorney, William To^vnsend; and for members of assembly, first dis- 
trict, Joseph ^larron; second district, Josei)h Ackroyd : third district, Thomas 
B. AUanson. The result of the election was that Coggeshall, Rep., received a 
plurality of 1,05-1; Matteson, Rep., for district attorney, received a plurality 
of 823 ; and members of assembly were elected as follows : first district, Joyce, 
Rep., 524 plurality; second district. Ackroyd, Dem., 150 plui-ality; third dis- 
trict, Owens, Rep., 538 plurality, 

1884 — The congressional district in 1884 consisted of Oneida and Lewis 
counties and was known as the 23d district. The first meeting of delegates in 
this district was held at Boonville, April 18, for the purpose of electing dele- 
gates to the national eonvention, and the delegates cliosen were William E. 
Scripture of Oneida and A. Jl. Lampher of Lowville ; William S. Bartlett was 
nominated for presidential elector. The state convention was held in Utica 
end nominated delegates to the national convention, resulting in the select ion 
of Andrew D. White, Tlieodore Roosevelt. John I. Gilbert and Edwin Packard 
as delegates at large, and the accrediting of the delegates selected by the dif- 
ferent districts. James G. Blaine was the most prominent Repuhlicnn candi- 
date for the presidency, and these delegates at large were opposed to ilr. Blaine, 
while a good number of the delegates selected from the respective districts were 
favorable to his nomination. The national convention nominated Blaine for 




MlilIAWK i;IVi:i; at TIIK foot of OFXKSKF STKKKT. I'TirA. 
XKAK rilK OLD FORK 



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.MOHAWK KIVEK AT THE FOOT OF (iK.NKSKK STKFFT. FTICA iTHF OLD FOliD), 

AS IT NOW EXISTS. THE ItlVEIt (TIAXXEL IIAVIXfJ BEEX EXTIKELY 

FILLED. THE XEW CHAXXEL IS XOW F.VKTHKi; XOKITIW.UM) 



HISTOliY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 145 

president, and Jolin A. Ij()fj;jin for vii'c ])rosi(lent. Henry J. Cookinliani was 
nominated by tlie Kepuljlicans for representative in Congress at a convention 
held at Booonville. September 17, and the Republican county convention nomi- 
nated for county treasurer, Jolin R. Edwards ; and the candidates for members 
oi' assembly were, first district, Benjamin Steber; second district, George P. 
Nock; third district, T. James Owens. Grover Cleveland was nominated by 
tlie Democrats lor president, and Thomas A. Hendricks for vice president. J. 
Thomas Spriggs was renominated for representative in Congress by the Demo- 
crats at the convention heUl in Booneville, September 11, and at the Democratic 
county convention Pierre Becker was nominated for county treasurer; the 
Democrats nominated for members of assembly, first district. Thomas J. Grif- 
fith; second district, Lewis B. Sherman; third district, S. Mason Smith. There 
was also a Prohil)ition ticket in the field, consisting of Dr. Henty, of Lowville. 
for representative in Congress. Dr. Henty was not a Prohibitionist, but was put 
in nomination by the influence of the Anti-Blaine element for the purpose of 
defeating Mr. Cookinham for Congress, as the bolting Conkling Republicans 
supported ilr. Spriggs. as well as they did ]\lr. Cleveland. The campaign was 
one of the most bitter in the history of the country. Grover Cleveland was 
violently attacked, and his character assailed in almost every possible way. 
Mr. Blaine was also attacked, charged with dishonesty, incompetency, and of 
using his office as speaker of the house of representatives corruptly. Roscoe 
Conkling never forgot that Mv. Blaine and he had disagreed in the house of 
representatives, and that Blaine had characterized him as having "the s^.rut 
of a turkey gobbler." Mr. Conkling, although at this time practicing law in 
New York City, came to Utica, called together his political friends, and en- 
deavored to induce them to support Cleveland instead of Blaine at the ap- 
proaching election. This appeal was not in vain, for in the Utica Press of Octo- 
ber 24, there appears a paper signed by about one hundred of Mr. Conkling 's 
friends styling themselves a "committee," which paper is a violent attack upon 
Mr. Blaine. One of the subdivisions of this paper reads as follows: "The lack 
of all statesmanship in his long congressional career which has failed to identify 
his name with any single affirmative act of well defined or conspicuous public 
importance, and in its negative character has contributed to the delay or defeat 
of many measures of wise legislation." When it is remembered that Mr. 
Blaine was the leader of the Republican side of the house of representatives, 
was one of the ablest speakers who ever presided over that body, that he was 
one of the best informed men in the entire countrj-. was one of the most ef- 
fective writers and speakers that the country has ever produced, to say the 
least, the statement of this committee is quite extraordinary. The countj' gave 
the Cleveland electors a plurality of 30, and the state gave him a plurality of 
1,034, which, it has been charged, were fraudulently obtained by the manipula- 
tion of the returns in New Y'ork City by one. John O'Brien, who was a Conk- 
ling Republican, and at the head of the election department in that great city. 
Edwards, Rep., was elected county treasurer by 340 plurality, and the mem- 
bers of assembly elected were, first district. Steber. Rep.. 22 plurality; second 
district, Sherman, Dem., 240 plurality; third district. Owens, Rep., 174 plu- 
rality. 



110 IIISTOKY OF OXETDA COrXTY 

1885 — General Grant died in August, 1885, aiui inoiiiorial ser\'iees occurred 
in Utica on August 9, an iiiuncnse crowd asseinhling at the Opera House, and 
addresses wore delivered by lion. Ellis II. Roberts, Frederick G. Fincke, Charles 
H. Searli'. Ibm. Francis Kernan, and a letter was read from ex-Governor Hora- 
tio Seymour. After General Grant retired from jniblie office he received great 
honor, all feeling of bitterness that had existed during the political campaign 
seemed to have been laid aside, and ho was admired by the entire country, no- 
where more than in Oneida couut.v. He had visited the county on several oc- 
casions, had been the guest of Senator Conkling, and his genlleness, which was 
almost womanish, was most remarkalile in a man who had been so terrible a 
warrior. In this year the Republicans nominated Ira Davenport for governor, 
and Joseph B. Carr for lieutenant governor, while the Democrats nominated 
David B. Hill for governor; Mr. Hill had succeeded to the executive chair of 
state because of the election of ^Ir. Cleveland to the presidency. Roswell P. 
Flower was nominated for lieutenant governor, but declined, and Edward F. 
Jones was nominated in his place. The Republicans nominated for senator, 
Henry J. Coggeshall ; for sheriff. John Batchelor: for county clerk, JI. Jesse 
Braytou ; and for members of assembly, first district, Benjamin Hall ; second 
district. Robert W, Evans; third district. Israel J. "White. The Democrats 
nominated for senator, Abram "Weaver; for sheriff. Robert A. Jones; for count.y 
clerk, LeGrange E. Scrafford; and for members of assembly, first district, 
Charles K. Grannis; second district. Lewis B. Sherman; third district. W^illard 
T, Atwood. Hill was elected governor, and tlie result in Oneida county was 
that Coggeshall, Rep., for senator received a majority of 2,381 ; Batchelor for 
sheriff, 2,037 majority ; Brayton, Rep., for county clerk, 1,282 ; all of the Repub- 
lican members of assembly were elected, as follows: first district. Hall, 275; 
second district, Evans, 110; third district, "Wliite, 1,273. 

1886 — In 1886 the Republican congressional district convention met at 
Boouville and nominated James S. Sherman for representative in Congress, and 
this was the first appearance of JMr. Sherman in national politics. He had 
been elected !Mayor of Utica by a large majority, had been chairman of the 
Republican count.y committee, and was thoroughly equipped by education and 
training to fill the office for which he had been nominated, as future results 
have clearly demonstrated. The county convention met in Rome, October 1, 
and nominated for district attorne.v Josiah Perry; for members of assembly, 
the Republicans nominated, first district, Benjamin Hall : second district, 
Robert "W. Evans; third district. John C. Davies. The Democrats nominated 
for representative in Congress, J, Thomas Spriggs ; for district attorne.v, Thomas 
S. Jones, and for members of assembly, first district. Charles K. Grannis ; second 
district, Lewis B. Sherman; tliird district, Thomas D. Penfield. The resiilt of 
this election was that Mr. Sherman, Rep,, was elected to Congress by a plurality 
of 607; Jones. Dein., was elected district attorney by 129 plurality; and the 
Republican assemblymen were elected by the following pluralities: first dis- 
trict. Hall, 646; .second district, Evans, 210; third district, Davies. 1,023. 

1887 — There was nothing in the year 1887 to excite public interest in the 
election, and evervthing moved on in an ordinary way. The Republicans 
nominated for senator. Henry J. Coggeshall; for treasurer. John K. Edwards; 



IILSTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 147 

and for members of iissemhly, lirst distriet, Michael II. Sexton : second district, 
George G. McAdam; third distriet, George Beatty, Jr. The Democrats nomi- 
nated for senator John G. Gibson; for treasurer, George P. Russ; and for mem- 
bers of assembly, first distriet, ,1. Harry Kent; second district. Hdward Kcr- 
nan; third district, A. J. Sly. The result was as might have been exi)e(!ted, 
that the county gave a Republican ma.iority, electing Coggeshall senator by a 
plurality of 1,243; Edwards, county treasurer by 1,712; and members of as- 
sembly, first district, Kent, Dein.. 295 plurality; second district. McAdam, 
Rep., 265 plurality ; third district, Beatty, Rep., 357 plurality. 

July 14 President Cleveland, who had been recently marrie<!. visited Utica 
with his wife, and was entertained by Senator Kernan. In the evening a pub- 
lic reception was given at the Butterfield House, which was attended by a 
great number of people, and the impression made by Mr. Cleveland and his 
beautiful wife was most favorable. There was a particvilar interest manifested 
in the reception because of the fact that Mr. Cleveland had formely resided 
within the county at Clinton, and also at Holland Patent. 

1888— Roseoe Conkling died in New York, April 18, 1888. His residence 
had always been retained in Utica, but his law practice was in New York, and 
he spent most of his time there, only occasionally coming to Utica, and when 
there he mingled very little with his former associates. Tt is supposed that he 
contracted a severe cold by undertaking to walk up Broadway from his office 
to his hotel during the great blizzard of 1888. Traffic was virtually suspended 
in the city, and it was substantially impossible to travel except upon foot, and 
when he arrived at the hotel he was near collapse. He was taken sick, and it 
resulted in an abscess behind the drum of the ear, which proved fatal. A 
eonnnittee, consisting of prominent Uticaus, went to New York, accompanied 
the remains to l^tica and to the cemetery. As prominent as he had been in 
his day, he left little to make his name prominent in the annals of the nation. 
The Republican congressional district convention, including Oneida and Lewis 
counties, was held at Boonville, May 23, to elect delegates to the national con- 
vention, and the delegates selected were Samuel R. Campbell and Henry Phil- 
lips. They were iinpledged, but were supposed to be favorable to James G. 
Blaine, should he be a candidate for the presidency. The presidential elector 
nominated by this convention was J. S. Koster of Lewis county. The Repub- 
lican national convention nominated General Benjamin Harrison for president, 
and Levi P. Morton for vice president, and this gave great satisfaction to the 
Republicans of Oneida county. Harrison was favorably known throughout the 
country, and the family to which he belonged had been one of the most prominent 
in the history of the country, as his great-grandfather, Benjamin Harrison, 
presided in the Continental Congress, his grandfather had been three times 
governor of Virginia, his father a prominent politician and candidate for Con- 
gi'ess, himself governor of the state. United States senator, and general in the 
Union Army during the great Civil War. The Republican state convention con- 
vened at Saratoga and nominated Warner Miller for governor, and for lieu- 
tenant governor S. V. R. Cruger. The Republican congressional district con- 
vention met at Booneville, September 5, and renominated James S. Sherman for 
representative in Congress. The county convention nominated Thomas Wlieeler 



118 llISTOrJY OF OXKIDA COUXTY 

for sheriff, aiid for county clerk, Fred D. Ilaak. The Republicans nominated 
for niciulicrs of assembly, first district. Adelherf D. Risle.v ; second district, 
George G. McAdam ; third district. Abislia B. Haker. The Democratic national 
convention renominated Grover Cleveland for president, and Allen G. Tliur- 
man for vice president. Governor ITill and lieutenant governor Jones were 
renominated by the Democratic convention in Bulfalo by acclamation, and the 
Democrats in their congressional district convention nominated John D. McMa- 
hon for representative in Congress. In the Democratic count.v convention 
Richard E. Sutton was nominated for sheriff, and Charles II. Ballou for count,\- 
clerk. For members of assembly the Democrats nominated, first district, Joseph 
H. Kent; second district, Erastus Tiffany; third district, Frederick H. Thomp- 
son, who declined, and one Kuowlton, was a candidate, but received few votes. 
From the time Harrison was nominated he grew in public estimation, and his 
letter of acceptance was a masterly production. The campaign turned almost 
entirely upon the tariff question, and ]\tr. Harrison was elected, carrying the 
state of New York, his electors receiving a ma.ioritj' in the county of Oneida of 
1,966. Miller, Rep., was defeated for governor, but carried Oneida county by 
a ma.iority of 874. The result in the congressional district was the election of 
Mr. Sherman, and he carried the county of Oneida by 1,213 majority. Wheeler, 
Rep., was elected sheriff" by a ma.iority of 4,256 ; Haak, Rep., county clerk, by 
2,915 majority; for members of assembly, first district, Kent, Dem., received 216 
majorit}'; second district, jMcAdam, Rep., 426 majorit.v; third district. Baker, 
Rep., over Knowlton, 3,395 majority ; it appears that there was really no op- 
posing candidate to ilr. Baker. 

1889 — No particular importance attached to the political canvass of 18S9, 
and the primary elections and conventions were held with the usual routine of 
business, attended and controlled by the professional politicians. September 
13, the Republican county convention was held in Rome, and Henry J. Cog- 
geshall was nominated for senator, and MjTon "W. VanAuken for district at- 
torney. A political fight within the part.v was made against the nomination 
of Jlr. VanAuken, and the del'eated party resented the way the.v thought the.v 
had been treated, at the polls. The Republicans also nominated for members 
of assembl.v, first district, James H. O'Connor; second district, George G. 
McAdam ; third district, Russell S. Johnson. The Democrats nominated for 
senator, James H. Flanagan: for district attorney, Thomas S. Jones; and for 
members of assembly, first district, John S. Siegrist ; second district. James T. 
Dempsey; third district, the Democrats had no candidate, but the Proliibi- 
tionists nominated Andrew Hurlburt. The result was that Coggeshall. Rep., 
was elected .senator by a majority of 1,046, but the bolting Republicans against 
Jlr. VanAuken defeated bim for district attorney, and gave Jones, Dem.. a 
majority of 2,164; for members of assembly, in the first district, O'Connor. 
Rep., received a plurality of 323; second district, Dempse.v. Dem., received 297 
plurality; third district, Johnson. Rep., over the Prohiliition candidate, re- 
ceived 3,624. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

1890—1899. 

1890 — The Republican congressional district, consisting of Oneida and Lewis 
counties, nominated for representative in Congress James S. Sherman, and the 
Democrats nominated Henry W. Bentley. The Republicans also nominated 
Theodore B. Davis for county treasurer, and for members of assembly, first 
district, James K. O'Connor; second district, Geo. G. McAdam; third dis- 
trict, Russell S. Johnson. The Democrats nominated for county treasurer 
Charles F. Barnard ; for members of assembly, first district, Cornelius Haley ; 
second district, James L. Dempsey; third district, Leonard E. Adsit. In this 
campaign the interest centered largely upon the candidates for representative 
in Congress. Jlr. Sherman had been elected in 1888 over Mr. Spriggs, and had 
made changes in the post oiifices and other federal offices throughout the con- 
gressional district. This was accompanied by the usual disappointment of 
those who did not obtain positions, and it was resented by them at the polls. 
This feeling was manifested more strongl.y in the town of Westmoreland than 
in any other part of the congressional district. Mr. Sherman had been re- 
quested by some Republicans to appoint the wife of a deceased postmaster at 
Hampton, in the town of Westmoreland, who was a Democrat appointed by 
Mr. Cleveland, which he had refused to do, but made the appointment of one 
of the foremost citizens of the town. The result of the election was that where- 
as, the town should have given more than 100 Republican ma.jority, it gave 
a majority for Mr. Bentle.y, and Mr. Bentley was elected by a plurality of 399. 
Barnard, Dem., was elected eount.y treasurer by a plurality of 10, and the 
members of assembly, first district, Haley, Dem., received 715 plurality; second 
district, Dempsey, Dem.. 168 plurality; third district. Johnson. Rep., 136 
plurality. 

1891 — Governor David B. Hill, who had served as the executive of the 
state since the elevation of Cleveland to the presidenc.v, was elected to the 
United States senate at the 1891 session of the legislature, but did not take his 
seat in Washington until January, 1892. He was the chief manipulator of 
Democratic politics in the state, and used his power to the aggrandizement 
of himself and his friends against all opposition. He procured the nomina- 
tion in the Democratic state convention of Roswell P. Flower for governor, 
and for lieutenant governor William F. Sheehan. The Republicans nominated 
for governor J. Sloat Fassett. and for lieutenant governor John W. Vrooman. 
The local Republican ticket was for senator, Henry J. Coggeshall ; for sheriff, 
Samuel H. Budlong; for county clerk. Rouse B. Maxfield; and for members 
of assembl.y. first district. T. Solomon Griffiths ; second district, David C. Wal- 
cott; third district, C. Winfield Porter. The Democrats nominated for sena- 

149 



i:,0 IIISTOKY OF OXKiUA COUNTY 

tor, Thomas E. Kinney; for sheriff. John C. Sohroiber; for county clerk, 
Charles N. Pelton ; and for nienihers of assembly, first district, Cornelius 
Haley; second district, Harry S. Patten : third district, Leonard E. Adsit. The 
result of the election in the state was the success of the Democratic party upon 
its state ticket, aithou^li Fassctt, Rep., for governor received a pluraliy in tlie 
county of 266; Cog;p:esliall. Rep., for senator, received a plurality of 1,567, 
while Schreiher, the Democratic candidate for sheriff, was elected by 1.240 plu- 
rality ; Jlaxtield, Rep., for county clerk, received 91 plurality ; and the mem- 
bers of assembly, first district. Haley, Dem., received 786 plurality; second dis- 
trict. Patten. Dem.. ;121 plurality: third district. Porter, Rep.. 796 plurality. 
1S92 — On September 8. 1892, occurred the death of ex-Senator Francis 
Keruan. It is not extraordinary praise to say of him that, with a single ex- 
ception — Horatio Seymour — he was the most prominent Democratic politician 
who ever resided within the county of Oneida. A sketch of his life is given 
in another chapter of this work, but there was one thing about Mr. Kernan that 
should be said in this connection, which is this: He was an ardent partisan and 
never forsook his party, although he disapproved many times of its policy, 
and sometimes, also, of its candidates. During the reign of "William Tweed, 
when Democratic politics were dictated b.y him in the state of New York, and 
during the corruptions in the legislature. Jlr. Kernan was heard to say that, 
although he disapproved of the ticket and the policy man.y times, he thought it 
wiser to remain an active member of his own party or lie would lose his in- 
fluence for good. Perhaps this was a correct philosophy, and was exemplified 
in the life of Jlr. Keruan, who invariably was on the side of economy and hon- 
esty in public office. His funeral occurred September 10, was attended by 
members of the bar, and every mark of respect was paid to his memory. 

As 1892 was a year in which a president was to be elected, much interest 
was manifested upon the Democratic side as to the candidate. It was a fore- 
gone conclusion that President Harrison would be renominated, but it was 
also feared that lie could not be elected, not because of any fault of his ad- 
ministration, but liecau.se of the passing of what was known as the McKinley 
Tariff Bill, wliich. it was claimed by the Democrats, raised duties to such an 
extent as to be in.i'urious to the interests of the farmer and of the common 
people. President Harrison was renominated June 11. with AVliitelaw Reid as 
the candidate for vice president. Orover Cleveland was nominated for the 
presidene.v by tiie Democrats with Adlai E. Stevenson for vice president. The 
Democrats iiwidc an aggressive campaign upon the tariff question, the people 
were frightened by tlie discussion of the McKinley law. and from the begin- 
ning of the canvass it was reasonably sure that ]\lr. Cleveland would be elected. 
For state engineer aiul survcyiu- the Democrats nominated Richard AV Sher- 
man, of Utica : for representative in Congress. Heniy W. Bentley; for county 
judge. Charles A. Taicott ; for disti-ict attorney. Edward Lewis; for members 
of assembly, first district, Cornelius Haley; second district, Harry S. Patten. 
For representative in Congress the Republicans renominated James S. Sher- 
man ; and its county ticket consisted of Watson T. nunmore for county .iudge; 
George S. Klock for district attorne.v; members of assembly, first district, 
Samuel S. Lnwery; second district, C. Winfield Porter; by a re-apportionment 




KKSIIHOXCK OK VHi; TKl :SI I H.Xl' .lAMKS S. SIIKK.MAX 




RESIDKXCE (IF TM TKD STATKS SKXAToi; FKAXCIS KKKXAX 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 151 

of senators aud assemblymen in tlie state, Oneuhi county was assigned two 
members instead of three. The result of the election was that Cleveland, 
Dera., was elected president; Sherman, Rep., elected representative in Congress 
by a plurality in Oneida county of 5()'2 ; ]3unniore, Rep., county .judge, by 530 
plurality; Klock, Rep., district attorney, by 2,190 plurality; and members of 
assembly, first district, Haley. Dem.. by i:?8 plurality; second district. Porter, 
Rep., by 14:2 plurality. 

It was during this year that the 400th anniversary of the discovery of 
America was celebrated. A very large meeting was held in the First Pres- 
byterian Church in Utica to commemorate this notable occasion, and a very able 
address was delivered by the Hon. Ellis H. Roberts. 

1893 — The year 1893 was an uninteresting year for the politics of the 
county. The Republicans nominated for county treasurer, William E. Rich- 
ards, and for members of assembly, first district, Henry T. Hoeifer; second 
district, Joseph Porter. As this was a year for the election of delegates to the 
constitutional convention, and as the statute provided hat they should be elected 
by senatorial districts, the district consisting of Oneida, Lewis and Otsego 
counties required a convention of delegates from these three counties to make 
the nomination. The following ticket was nominated by the Republicans: 
Henry J. Cookinham, John C. Davies, of Oneida; Charles S. Mereness, of 
Lewis; and James W. Barnum and Abraham Kellogg, of Otsego. Henry J. 
Coggeshall was also nominated in this district for state senator. The Demo- 
crats nominated as delegates to the constitutional convention, Charles D. 
Adams, Thomas H. Stryker, Oscar F. Lane, Lowell S. Henry and T. Miller 
Reid; for state senator, Harry S. Patten; for county treasurer, Charles P. 
Barnard; for members of assembly, first district, Ernest J. Ellwood; second 
district, Charles N. Felton. No special interest was manifested in the election, 
although the most important part of it was the election of delegates to the 
Constitutional Convention. The convention of 1867 had submitted a revised 
constitution, but it was rejected by the people, except as to the judiciary article, 
which was adopted. A feeling was strong in the state in favor of a radical 
revision of the constitution, and the Republican candidates for delegates were 
elected and carried the county by more than 2,000 majority. Senator Cog- 
geshall received a plurality of 2.279 ; Richards, Rep., for treasurer, 2,143 : and 
the Republican assemblymen in both districts were elected, in the first district 
HoefHer receiving a plurality of 1,583, and Porter, in the second district, a 
plurality of 1,273. 

1894 — The Constitutional Convention assembled in May, 1894, and the dele- 
gates from Oneida county were well treated in the organization, ilr. Davies 
being made chairman of committee on railroads, and Mr. Cookinham being 
placed upon the committees of the judiciary, privileges and elections and 
suffrage. At the close of the convention Mr. Cookinham was appointed chair- 
man of a committee to draft an address to the people of the state explanatory 
of the new constitution. The constitution as revised made material changes, 
was adopted in the convention by a ^'ote of 95 to 45, and was ratified by the 
people by a large majority. One radical change in this revised constitution 
was made in the system of representation. The apportionment of senators 



152 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

was according to senatorial districts. Init a provision was placed in the con- 
stitution that no city, no matter how great its population or how many coun- 
ties it shouUl consist of. should have more than one-half of the senators. This 
provision, it is apparent, was intended to prevent the cit.v of New York ever 
having a ma.iorit.v vote in the senate. The Repuhlicau local ticket consisted 
of James S. Sherman, for representative in Congress; Van R. Weaver, for sher- 
iff: Garr.v A. "Willard. for count.v clerk; and fm- members of assembl.v. first 
district, Henry P. Hoeffler, second district, William Carey Sanger. The Demo- 
crats nominated for representative in Congress, John D. Henderson ; for sher- 
ifT. Adrian Lee; for county clerk. John C. Schreiber; and for members of as- 
sembly, first district, Thomas D. Watkins; second district. James L. Dempsey. 
The congressional district had been changed by a new apportionment, and 
Oneida and Herkimer counties now constituted the 23d district. The Repub- 
lican state convention had nominated for governor, Levi P. Jlorton, and for 
lieutenant governor, Charles T. Saxton. The Democrats again placed before 
the people as a candidate for governor David B. Hill, and for lieutenant gov- 
ernor Daniel P. Loekwood. Hill was in the ascendency in his party, and un- 
questionably desired another candidate for governor, but it was difficult for 
him to induce a candidate of his liking to accept the nomination, and he was 
compelled to fill the position himself to hold his part.y together. This, however, 
was not entirely successful, for the anti-Hill element of the party nominated 
Everett P. "Wheeler for governor, and adopted Daniel P. Loekwood for lieu- 
tenant governor. The result in the state was most disastrous to Hill, as he 
was defeated by an enormous ma.iority. The result in Oneida county was a 
pluralit.v for Jlorton. Rep., for governor of 3.717 ; Sherman, Rep., representa- 
tive in Congress, 4,478 plurality; Weaver, Rep., candidate for shei'iff, 4,387 
plurality; Willard, Rep., county clerk, 3,457 pluralit.v; the Republican mem- 
bers of assembly were elected as follows: first district, Hoeffler, 2,236 plu- 
rality; second district. Sanger, 2.213 plurality. 

1805 — The most important office to be filled locally in 1895 was that of 
justice of the Supreme Court. Irving G. Vanu of Onondaga, and William E. 
Scripture of Oneida, were nominated for this office upon the Republican 
ticket. The county ticket consisted of Frederick 6. Weaver for senator, and 
George S. Klock for district attorney. The revised constitution having been 
adopted Oneida county was allotted three assemblymen instead of two. and the 
Republicans nominated in the first district, Henry P. Hoeffler; second dis- 
trict, William Carey Sanger ; third district, William B. Graves. At the Re- 
publican county convention held at Rome, Senator Coggeshall appeared and 
was supported by a minorit.v of the convention. Having failed to obtain the 
coveted prize he bolted with others, and he was nominated for senator by the 
bolters, and adopted b.v the Democrats as their candidate for senator. The 
Democrats made no nomination against Yann for .iustice of the Supreme Court, 
but nominated Theodore L. R. Jlorgan against William E. Scripture. For dis- 
trict attorney. William J. Kernan ; for members of assembly, first district, 
Walter Emlily : second district. James L. Dempsey ; third district. D. Francis 
Searle. The canva.ss during this year centered upon the candidates for sena- 
tor. Mr. Coggeshall had received great favors from the Republican part.v — 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 153 

no charge was made against the party ])ecansc he was not nominated — he had 
been fairly defeated in the convention, hut, refusing to submit to the will of 
the majority, he seized the occasion, and, unquestionably having been prom- 
ised the support of the Democratic organization in case he should bolt the Re- 
publican convention, consented to this arrangement, and carried the countjj 
against Mr. Weaver by 4,763 majority. Scripture, for justice of the Supreme 
Court, received a majority in the county of 3,736, while Klock, Rep., for 
district attorney, carried the county by a majority of 3,794; the result upon 
members of assembly was, first district, Embly, Dem., 375 majority; second 
district, Sanger, Rep., 705 majority; third district, Graves, Rep., 1,141 

majority. 

1896 — The defeat of President Harrison in 1892 was accomplished by the 
efifective way the Democratic party had treated the McKinley tariff law, and 
after three years of Democratic control under Cleveland it would seem that 
the people came to the conehision that they had made a grievous error, and 
at the Republican national convention AVilliam McKinley of Ohio, chairman 
of the committee that had framed the McKinley bill and the man from whom 
it derived its name, was nominated for president, with Garrett A. Hobart as 
the candidate for vice president. In New York state Frank S. Black was 
nominated for governor, with Timothy L. Woodruff for lieutenant governor. 
James S. Sherman was again nominated for representative in Congress by the 
Republicans; William E. Richards was renominated for county treasurer, and 
the assembly ticket consisted of, first district, George B. Philo ; second district, 
William Carey Sanger; third district, William B. Graves. The Democrats 
nominated for president William J. Bryan, with Arthur Sewall for vice presi- 
dent ; for governor, Wilbur F. Porter, and for lieutenant governor Frederick 
Schraub ; for representative in Congress, Cornelius Haley ; for county treas- 
urer, Cliarles T. Hayden ; for members of assembly, first district, Walter Embly ; 
second district, Arnon G. Williams; third district, John J. Dooley. The can- 
vass was made entirely upon the tariff issue, and McKinley, being the em- 
bodiment of the protection principle, had enthusiastic support from manu- 
facturers generality throughout the country, and, as Oneida county is so largely 
interested in industries that require protection, he swept the county by the 
unprecedented plurality of 7,706, and Black received a majority of 5,607 for 
governor. Sherman was re-elected for Congress by a plurality of 7,283 ; Richards 
re-elected treasurer by 7,421 ; and the members of assembly, first district, Philo, 
Rep., received 1,101 plurality; second district, Sanger, 2,348 plurality; third 
district, Graves, 2,494 plurality. This unprecedented vote in Oneida county 
was due to the fact that after the election of Mr. Cleveland the Democrats had 
control of both branches of Congress and passed what was known as the Wilson 
tariff law, which was in principle a tariff "for revenue only" law, and it had 
caused a great financial depression, most favorable to the Republicans in the 
canvass, and inidoubtedly produced an extraordinary result in every commer- 
cial and industrial center. 

1897 — The excitement over the election of 1896 had passed over, and again 
there came an off year in 1897. Little interest was felt in the election, and 
again the politicians had their own way in nominating whoever they saw fit, 



154 lllJiTUKY OF O.NKiDA COUNTY 

aud the people aequiesced in their ehoiee. The Eepublieaus uomiuated for 
sheriff, ^Villiam 11. Keese; for eounty clerk, George D. Frank; for members 
of assembly, first district, John ^Yilliams; second district, Louis M. Martin; 
third district, John E. I\lason. The Democrats nominated for sheriff, ilichael 
Doll; for county clerk, Joseph Wurz; and for members of assembly, lirst dis- 
trict, Cornelius Haley; second district, Daniel D. McElheuny; third district, 
John Singleton. The returns of the election showed that the county had lieen 
carried by the Republicans by large pluralities, Keese, for sheriff receiving 
3,238 ; Frank, for county clerk, 3,665 ; and the members of assembly, first dis- 
trict, Williams, 430; second district, Martin, l.-ilO; third district. Mason, 1,719. 

1898 — The war between the United Stales aud Spain had brought to the 
front a man, of whom it could not be said that he was unknown in New York 
politics at that time, but who came forward with tremendous strides until he 
became in the public eye the foremost American of the times — Theodore Eoose- 
velt. He was nominated for governor by the Republicans in 1898, and Timothy 
L. Woodruff received the nomination for lieutenant governor. From this time 
onward ilr. Roosevelt was a potential element in the Republican party until 
the fall of 1910. The Republicans again renominated James S. Sherman for 
representative in Congress; and the Republican county convention apparently 
forgot the bolting of Mr. CoggeshaU two years before, and nominated him again 
for state senator; for county judge, Watson T. Dunmore; for district at- 
torney, Timothy Curtin aud for members of assembly the Republicans 
nominated, first district. John Williams; second district, Louis M. ilartin; 
third district. John E. ilasou. Tlie Democrats nominated Augustus Van- 
Wyck for governor, aud Elliot Danforth for lieutenant governor; for repre- 
sentative in Congress, Walter Balloii; for senator, Thomas D. Watkins; for 
county judge, D. Francis Searle; for district attorney. James W. Rayhill; for 
members of assemblj-, first district, William J. Sullivan: second district, Joseph 
B. Cushman ; third district. William S. Thomas. Mr. Roosevelt, who at the 
time was immensely popular in the state, made a canvass, and was received 
with every manifestation of enthusiastic support. ^Ir. VanWyck also made a 
canva-ss. and, although his party made a strenuous effort to carry the state, 
the Roosevelt ticket was successful. Jlr. Roosevelt carried the county by a 
plurality of 1,377; Sherman by a vote of 1.906 plurality, but Senator Cogge- 
shall's plurality dwindled down to 56: Dunmore. Rep., for county judge. 1.432 
plurality: Curtin, Rep., for district attorney, 312 plurality; members of assem- 
bly, first district, Sullivan, Dem., 1,176 plurality; second district, Martin, Rep., 
622 plurality; third district. Mason, Rep.. 1.370 plurality. 

1899 — Nothing of importance in the political field occurred in 1899, and 
a light vote was cast at the election. The Republicans nominated General 
Rufus Daggett for county treasurer, and the assembly ticket consisted of, 
first district, William E. Richards; .second district, Louis M. Martin; third 
district, Edward M. Marson. The Democrats nominated for county treasurer 
James II. Flanagan, and for members of assembly, first district. William Sulli- 
van ; second district, Joseph B. Cushman ; third district, Frank Z. Jones. 
Flanagan, Dem., carried the county for treasurer by 280 plurality; members 



PIISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 155 

of assembly, first district, Sullivan, Dein., G66 plurality ; second district, Martin, 
Rep., 1,110 plurality ; third district, Mason, Rep., 4,162 plurality. 

It was during this year that Vice President TTobart died suddenly. He 
was a man of great ability, and up to Ibat time there had scarcely been a 
vice president who had so impressed himself upon the public mind as Mr. 
Hobart. He died November 22, and due honors were paid to him because of 
his great worth and high position he occupied in the nation and in his party. 



CHAPTER XVIII 
1900—1912 

1900 — The administration of President MeKinley had been snch that no 
Eepubliean assumed to become a candidate against him for renomination. He 
was renominated at the Republican national convention, and Theodore Roose- 
velt was nominated for ^^ce president. The Republicans nominated Benjamin 
B. Odell. Jr., for governor, and Timothy L. AYoodruff for lieutenant governor; 
Robert ^MacKinnon was nominated for presidential elector; again James S. 
Sherman received the nomination for representative in Congress; and the Re- 
publican county convention nominated for senator, Garry A. Willard; for 
shcrifl'. Lincoln E. Brownell; for county clerk, Joseph Porter; and for mem- 
bers of assembly, first district, Michael J. McQuade ; second district, Fred J. 
Brill; third district, Edward ]M. Marson. The Democrats nominated for presi- 
dent, William J. Bryan, and for vice president Adlai Stevenson; for governor 
John B. Stanchfield, and for lieutenant govei'nor, "William F. Mackey; for 
representative in Congress, Henry ^Martin; for senator, Leonard E. Adsit; 
for sheriif, William J. Sullivan ; for county clerk, Robert Loekhart : for mem- 
bers of assembly, first district, Frank J. Bugental; second district, William J. 
Butler; tliird district, Omar R. Brayton. This campaign was very interesting 
because of the personality of Jlr. Bryan. He had the peculiar notions upon 
finance which were not approved of by many of the leading men in his own 
party. He was a brilliant orator, and one of the most successful campaign 
speakers in the entire country, had been nominated against the judgment of 
men of his own party who were interested in large financial institutions, and 
they feared, if elected, lie would undertake to carry out some of his, as tliey 
called them, visionary ideas. No question was ever made as to his honesty, 
and he was highly respected as a man. Tlu^ large financial centers, however, 
could not support him, and in Oneida county the result was wjiat iniglit have 
been expected, that the county gave a very large Republican majority, .and 
elected all of its candidates for minor offices. Mr. McKinley received a plurality 
in the county of 6.386; Odell. for governor, 5,066 plurality; Sherman, for 
representative in Congress; and the Republican county convention apparently 
sheriff, 3,367 ; Porter, for county clerk, 3,286 ; for members of assembly, first 
district, McQuade, 5,801; second district. Prill. 1.754; third district, ^lason. 
2,235. 

1901 — The greatest industrial event in the United States during the year 
1901 was the holding of the Pan American Fair at Buffalo. Early in September 
President McKinley visited the fair, and in the great hall prepared for such 
occasions he delivered a very eloquent, statesmanlike and excellent address. 

156 




Xi:\V YOUK CKXIltAI. SIAI'ION. IIK A 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 157 

A few moments after an assassin approached hiiii, having a pistol concealed 
in his hand, and shot him. It can be said to the credit of the police that 
the assassin would liavc been torn in pieces except for their interference. 
Altliough the president lingered for a few days he died at Buffalo, and this 
made Theodore Roosevelt president of the United States. The death of 
McKinley produced a tremendous effect throughout the country, as he was 
admired by every one and was a conservative and safe ruler. Mr. Roose- 
velt was considered erratic, and for some time uncertainty reigned in 
financial affairs. A series of memorial services were held throughout the coun- 
try, and a notable one in the First Presbyterian church in the city of Utica 
on September 19, which was addressed by Rev. Dr. Willard A. Bartlett, who 
was a personal friend of President McKinley. The political affairs in central 
New York, although nnicli disturbed by the death of McKinley, moved on in 
their usual way, and local politicians took charge of the conventions and pro- 
duced such results as they thought wise. The Republicans nominated for 
district attorney, Timothy Curtin : and the members of assembly were, first 
district, IMichael J. JlcQuade ; second district, Frederick J. Brill ; third district, 
Edward M. Marson. The Democrats nominated Seymour E. Spinning for 
district attorney, and for members of assembly, first district, Thomas A. 
Mortimer; second district, George H. Green; third district, John B. Cough- 
lin. No particular interest was manifested in this campaign, and the Repub- 
licans were successful, as they should be in a county which is so largely 
Republican, except in years when dissensions in that party hand over some 
of the offices to the Democrats. Curtin, for district attorney, received a plu- 
rality of 3,272; and the Republican members of assembly were elected as follows: 
first district, McQuade, 55 plurality ; second district. Brill, 861 plurality ; third 
district. Mason, 1,834 plurality. 

1902 — Benjamin B. Odell, Jr., had for several years been chairman of the 
Republican state committee. He was an ex-congressman, and was candidate 
for the Republican nomination for governor in 1902. Although he had bitter 
opponents in the party he succeeded in obtaining the nomination, and for 
lieutenant governor Frank W. Higgins was nominated. Higgins was a state 
senator, and a man of ability and high character. For representative in 
Congress James S. Sherman was again renominated. In the Republican county 
convention a bitter contest occurred over the nomination for senator, and Will- 
iam E. Lewis was finally the successful candidate, but his nomination was not 
received by a portion of the party with high favor. For county clerk the 
Republicans nominated Hai'ry G. Lake; for treasurer, Henry "W. Roberts; for 
members of assembly, first district, IMichael J. McQuade; second district, Fred 
J. Brill, third district, John C. Evans. The Democratic party nominated for 
governor Bird S. Coler, and for lieutenant governor, Charles N. Bulger; for 
representative in Congress, Edward Lewis; for senator, William Townsend; 
for county clerk, Herman Clark; for treasurer, Leonard E. Adsit; for mem- 
bers of assembly, first district, Thomas A. Mortimer; second district, Edwin E. 
Dorn ; third district, William H. Goetz. The campaign was carried on chiefly 
between the candidates for senator and clerk. 



158 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

A hitter contest over the ek'etioii of a justice of the Supreme Court in the 
Fifth judicial district occurred iu this year. John C. Davies of Camden, this 
county, was nominated hy the Republicans, which was distasteful to some of 
the party, who immediately took steps to put an independent candidate in 
the field. This was done bj' petition signed by, as was claimed, over two 
thousand electore. The independent candidate selected was Watson M. Rogers, 
of "Watertown, who was also a Republican. lie was endorsed by the Demo- 
cratic party, and was elected by a majority of about ten thousand, carrying 
Oneida county by a majority of 1,788. Mr. Rogers was a lawyer of good 
standing, and had been district attorney of Jeffei-son county. 'Mr. Davies had 
twice been attorney general of the state, was prominent in the Republican 
party, and his experience in public aiJairs was far greater than that of Mr. 
Roger.s. 

The result of the election was to place Governor Odell again iu the execu- 
tive chair of state, although he carried Oneida comity by only 163 plurality; 
Mr. Sherman, Rep., for representative in Congress, received 1,764 plurality; 
Towiisend, Dem., for senator, received 221 plurality ; Clark, Dem., for county 
clerk, 371 plurality; Roberts, Rep., for treasurer, 1,797 plurality; for mem- 
bers of assembly, first district, Mortimer, Dem., received 421 plurality; second 
district, Brill, Rep., 267 plurality; third district, Evans, Rep., 1,167 plurality. 

1903 — It was not all harmony in the Republican ranks as they approached 
their conventions in 1903. Sharp controversies were going on in regard to 
candidates, but the county convention settled this by the nomination of William 
T. Biuks for sheriff, and for membei-s of assembly, first district, Henry L. 
Gates; second district. Jay A. Pratt; third district, John C. Evans. The 
Democrats nominated for sheriff, Samuel H. Jones: for members of assembly, 
lii-st di.strict, Thomas A. IMortimer; second district, William H. Squires: third 
district, Charles J. Durr. As is frequently the ease some particular candidate 
upon the ticket concentrates the work of the different parties, which some- 
times occurs upon an office comparatively insignificant, but in this case they 
centered upon the office of sheriff, and the result was the election of Jones, 
the Democratic candidate, by a majority of 1.407; for memlicrs of assembly, 
firet district, Mortimer, Dem., received 73 majority ; second district, Pratt, 
Rep., 3 majority; third district, Evans, Rep., 886 majority. 

1904 — The administration of President Roosevelt, althonp:li disappointing 
to many Republicans, was of such a character as to commend him for renomi- 
nation, and he received a unanimous renomination at the Republican national 
convention, and Charles W. Fairbanks was nominated for vice president. The 
Republican state convention nominated Lieutenant Governor P>aiik W. Iliggins, 
for governor, and M. Linn Bruce for lieutenant governor. For representa- 
tive in Congress James S. Sherman was renominated ; for senator, Henry J. 
Coggeshall again appeared as the nominee of the Republican party ; Emerson 
M. Willis was nominated for district attorney, and the assembly ticket was 
made up as follows: first district, Henry L. Gates; second district. Jay H. 
Pratt; third district, John C. Evans. The Democrats nominated for presi- 
dent Alton B. Parker, and for vice president, Henry Gassaway Davis; for 
governor, D. Cady Herrick, and for lieutenant governor, Francis Burton Harri- 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 159 

son; for representative in Congress, Prof. William II. Squires; for senator, 
Howard C. Wiggins; for distriet attorney, V. II. Fitzgerald; for members of 
assembly, first distriet, Thomas A. Mortimer; second district, Albert C. Salis- 
bury; third district, Dwight H. Colgrove. Parker proved to be a weak can- 
didate, and made some mistakes by public utterances and communications to 
the press, and Mr. Roosevelt swept the country like a whirlwind. The Repub- 
licans elected their entire ticket in Oneida county by large pluralities. Mr. 
Roosevelt carried the county by 5,202; Higgins, for governor, by 2,084; Sher- 
man, for representative in Congress, 3,591; Coggeshall, for senator, 1,972; 
"Willis, for district attorney, 4,485; members of assembly, first district, Gates, 
128; second district, Pratt, 857; third district, Evans, 1,851. 

1905 — For many years the Prohibition party has had a ticket in the field 
in Oneida county, sometimes nominating candidates for every office, and at 
other times nominating only for certain offices. There have been also for a 
number of years other tickets in the field, but the votes given to the candidates 
of these minor parties have been so insignificant that it is thought wise not to 
enter into that question here. The Prohibition vote has decreased instead of 
increasing, but it is altogether probable that some of the other parties will in- 
crease in numbers, as, for instance, the Socialistic party, which is a new party 
in this part of the country, although it is probably destined to cut quite a 
figure in politics in the future. After the strenuous campaign of 1904, the 
political energy seemed to have spent itself, and in 1905 but little interest 
was taken in the election. The Republicans nominated for county clerk, 
Alfred J. Bromley ; for treasurer, Henr>' W. Roberts ; and for members of 
assembly, first district, Henry L. Gates; second district. Jay H. Pratt; third 
district, John C. Evans. The Democrats nominated for county clerk, Gervase 
M. Flower; for treasurer, Robert C. Fehrmann; for members of assembly, first 
district, Louis F. Vogel ; second district, John W. Spring ; third district, Willard 
J. Teelin. It would seem that the Republicans had not forgotten to vote this 
year, although they took little interest in the election, and they made a clean 
sweep in the county, electing Bromley clerk by a plurality of 3,743 ; Roberta 
treasurer by 3,380; meml)ers of assembly, first district, Gates, 571; second 
distriet, Pratt, 1,337; third district, Evans, 1,099. 

1906 — The year 1906 brought to the front a new man in state politics on 
the Republican side — Charles E. Hughes, a lawj'er of New York City, who 
had been selected to investigate the insurance companies, and had won quite 
a reputation in his work in that direction. He was Mr. Roosevelt's candidate 
for governor, and his selection was acquiesced in generally throughout the 
state, and he received the nomination, with M. Linn Bruce as the candidate 
for lieutenant governor. The Republicans nominated for justices of the Su- 
preme Court in the Fifth .iudicial district Peter B. IMcClennan of Syracuse, and 
Pascal C. J. DeAngelis of Utica. Again James S. Sherman was nominated 
for representative in Congress; John C. Evans was nominated for senator; 
Fred E. Swancott for sherii?; and for members of assembly, first district, 
Mer\vin K. Hart ; second district, Ladd J. Lewis, Jr. ; third district, A. Grant 
Blue. The Democratic party in the state was rent asunder by the prominence 
which had been obtained by William Randolph Hearst, the proprietor of the 



160 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

New Y'ork American. Many of the better class of Democrats opposed him as 
an improper man to be nominated for the office of governor, but, with his 
influence and with his paper at his back he succeeded in capturing the nomi- 
nation, with Lewis Stuyvesant Chandler as the candidate for lieutenant gov- 
ernor; for justice of the Supreme Court the Democrats adopted Peter B. Mc- 
Clenuan, because he was already a justice and had served fourteen years; and 
they nominated against Jlr. DeAiigelis. Owen I\I. Eeilly ; for representative in 
Congress, James K. O'Connor was nominated; for senatoi', Joseph C. Ackroyd; 
for sheriflE, Fredei'ick Gilmore; for members of assembly, first district, Louis 
F. Vogel; second district. John W. Bell: third district, Charles Knight. The 
canvass was intensely interesting. ^Ir. Hearst flooded the country with the 
most extraordinary literature. One of the most eventful circumstances in the 
campaign occurred at I'tica. Mr. Elihu Root, who was secretary of state in 
the cabinet of President Roosevelt, came to Utica for the purpose of making a 
political speech. It was understood that Mr. Root voiced the sentiment of the 
national administration, and his speech was printed, not onh- in the principal 
papers of the state, but throughout the entire nation. It was a most extraordi- 
nary effort, and was such an arraignment of Mr. Hearst that no answer could 
be made. The plan of Mr. Hearst, in distributing his literature, was to fol- 
low Republican speakers with his emissaries; this was done in Utica, and his 
paper, bitterly attacking Repiiblicau candidates, the president and Mr. Root, 
was distributed in the streets by the thousands upon the night that Mr. Root 
delivered his address. But his methods seemed to work against him instead 
of in his favor, and were resented by mauj' of the thinking Democrats. The 
result in the state was to give Hughes a large plurality, and he carried the 
county of Oneida by 3,420 ; DeAngelis, for justice of the Supreme Court, 
received 5,3-17 plurality ; Sherman, for representative in Congress, 2,508 plu- 
rality; Ackroyd, Dem., for senator, received a plurality of 485; Gilmore, Dem., 
for sheriff, 529 phirality: the Republican members of assembly were elected 
as follows : first district. Hart. 149 plurality ; second district, Lewis, 1,555 
plurality ; third district. Blue, 1,686 plurality. 

1907 — In 1907 the political situation had not been changed materially from 
the year before, and the canvass was carried on in its ordinary way in an 
off year. The Republicans nominated for district attorney, Emerson M. 
"Willis, and for members of assembly, first district, Merwin K. Hart; second 
district, Ladd J. Lewis, Jr. ; third district, A. Grant Blue. The Democrats 
nominated for district attorney "William M. Arthur; for members of assembly, 
first district, Monroe C. Teller; second district, Frank T. "Watson; third dis- 
trict, Charles Knight. As the Republican party was united in this election 
there was little hope for any of the candidates on the Democratic ticket, and 
Mr. "Willis for district attorney carried the county by a plurality of 4,042; for 
members of assembly the result was as follows : first district. Hart, 1,510 ; second 
district, Lewis, 1,834; third district. Blue, 1,066. 

1908 — Again in 1908 the people were confronted with a presidential elec- 
tion. On the Republican side there was but one name that was prominent 
as the probable candidate for this office, and that was "William Howard Taft 
of Ohio. Mr. Taft had ser\'ed as judge of the circuit court of U. S., and 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY Jfil 

presiding judge ol! tiic e'iri:uit. cuui't oi' appuals; liad been governor-general of 
the Philippine Islands ; was secretary of war in President Roosevelt's cabinet, and 
was in good repute. It cannot be said, however, that his candidacy met with 
the general approval of the Republicans throughout tlie country. Tiie Presi- 
dent, however, had selected him as the candidate, and all the influence of 
the national administration in the hands of Mr. Roosevelt was used to secure 
his nomination, and this was accomplished and was accepted hy the Repub- 
licans without serious disappointment. There were many candidates for the 
vice presidency. It cannot be said, however, that the successful candidate 
made himself a candidate at any time during the canvass. James S. Sherman 
of Utica had served five terms as representative in Congress, was among the 
most effective legislators in the house of representatives, extremely popular 
with his fellow members, and a majority of the Republicans of the House 
desired his nomination, although it was not desired by Mr. Roosevelt. The 
convention in making up the ticket, however, in its wisdom decided that 
Taft and Sherman would be the strongest combination that could be made, 
and Mr. Sherman, therefore, was nominated with great euthusiam. On his 
return to Utica he was received with every mark of respect, Democrats aa 
well as Republicans joining in the great reception tendered him. For Gov- 
ernor tlie Republicans renominated Charles E. Hughes, and for lieutenant 
governor Horace White, of Syracuse; the Republican congressional conven- 
tion assembled at Herkimer and nominated Charles S. Milliugton, a banker 
of Herkimer, for representative in Congress, a man of excellent standing in 
the community; the Republicans also nominated for senator, Frederick M. 
Davenport; county clerk, Charles A. G. Scothon; treasurer, James T. Somers; 
for members of assembly, first district, Merwin K. Hart; second district, Ladd 
J. Lewis, Ji". ; third district, Robert C. Edwards. Again in the Democratic na- 
tional convention Mr Bryan loomed up as the presidential candidate, and hia 
party, against the judgment of many of its foremost men, were compelled to 
accept him, with John W. Kern as the candidate for vice president. For gov- 
ernor the Democrats nominated Lewis Stuyvesant Chauler, with John A. Dix 
as the candidate for lieutenant governor; for representative in Congress, Cur- 
tis F. AUiaume; for senator, Joseph C. Aekroyd; for county clerk, John T. 
Evans ; for treasurer, Charles H. Sullivan ; for members of assembly, first 
district, John W. Manley; second district, George Benton; third district, Al- 
bert Kaufman. During the campaign the county was favored by a visit from 
the candidate for the presidency on the Republican side, and an immense 
crowd assembled at the Opera House in Utica to hear him, but it cannot be 
said that he added to his reputation by his address on that occasion. Mr. 
Sherman was called upon, and discussed the tariff question in a concise, well 
worded, short address, and after the meeting had ended the common talk 
in the audience was that the ticket would have been much stronger had it 
been reversed. Mr. Bryan also visited the county, spoke in Utica and Rome, 
and was received with enthusiasm. It must be said of him that he is one 
of the most effective speakers in the country, and invariably makes an excel- 
lent impression. The result of the election was a foregone conclusion in the 

state of New York, because the great industrial interests were disturlied by 
Vol. I— n 



162 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

the policies advocated by Mr. Bryaii, and Tat't and Sherman carried the 
county by a plurality of 4,192 ; Hughes, for governor, by 2,620 plurality ; Mill- 
iugtou, lor representative in Congress, by 3,165; Davenport, Rep., I'or senator, 
2,566 ; Scolhon, Kep., i'or county clerk, 3,845 ; Somers, Rep., lor treasurer, 5,072 ; 
and members of assembly, first district, Manley, Dem., 595; second district, 
Lewis, Rep., 2,153 ; third district, Edwards, Rep., 1,566. 

iy09 — The county of Oneida in 1909 was extremely agitated politically 
over the subject of nominating a justice of the Supreme Court. William E. 
Scripture had served for fourteen years, and he had given offense to the large 
corporate interests in the county by what they claimed was bias against their 
interests. It was also charged against him that he had given too much at- 
tention to politics, but no one questioned his integrity. A fierce attack, how- 
ever, was made upon him in the county, and some prominent Republicans bit- 
terly opposed his nomination. xVt the county convention held in Rome to elect 
delegates to the judicial convention Charles A. MiUer of Utica made a bitter 
attack upon Judge Scripture, and threatened that in case he was nominated 
there would be a bolt of Republicans, and that Scripture would not be sup- 
ported by the element which he represented. Judge Scriptui-e was nominated 
by the convention held in Sj'racuse, but the delegates from the coimty of 
Lewis refused to vote to make his nomination unanimous. Edgar S. K. Mer- 
rell of Lowville was selected as the candidate in opposition to Mr. Scripture, 
although he had written a letter advocating the renomination of Judge Scrip- 
ture. It can safely be said that it is the opinion of the bar that Mr. MerreU 
in no sense was the superior of Judge Scripture. The Republicans also nom- 
inated for sheriff Daniel P. Becker; for members of assembly, first district, 
Minard J. Fisher; second district, Herbert E. Allen; third district, James T. 
Cross. The Democrats nominated for sheriff, James T. Lockhard; for mem- 
ber of assembly, first district, John W. Mauley ; no assemblymen were nomin- 
nated in the second and third districts. The result in the county was that 
MerrcU, candidate for Supreme Court judge, received a plurality of 5,585, and 
was elected in the judicial district ; Becker, Rep., for sheriff a plurality of 
2,636; for members of assembly, first district, Manley, Dem., 1,081 plurality; 
as there was no Democratic candidate against Allen in the second district he 
received a plurality of 6,786 ; Cross, in the third district, also having no op- 
position, received 5,258 plurality. 

1910 — There were serious divisions in the Republican party in 1910. 
Vice President Sherman had been prominent in the councils of the party, 
and had not conceded to certain elements in the party the consideration they 
thought themselves entitled to, and an organization was effected known as 
the Republican league. The moving spirits in this league were ex-Attornej' 
General John C. Davies, Hon. "William Carey Sanger, Hon. Russell S. Johu- 
SOD, Hon. Merwin K. Hart, and others prominent in Republican local politics. 
It was claimed that tliis organization was for the purpose of purifying poli- 
tics and procuring the passage of a law in favor of direct primary elections. 
On the other hand, it was claimed that the sole object of the organization was 
to oppose what was desired politically by the Republican club of I'tica. The 
feeling between these factions was very bitter, and was manifested by the 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 163 

league in its opposition to Vice President SluTiiuui and ex-Mayor Wheeler. 
The Republieau state eoniniittee met in New York and selected the vice presi- 
dent as temporary cliairman of the approaching state convention at Sara- 
toga. In this meeting a member proposed that ex-l'resident Roosevelt sliould 
be nonunated instead of the vice president. Tliis motion was made after the 
vice president had been nominated. The vote, however, in the committee, was 
in favor of Mr. Sherman, and Mr. Roosevelt was highly indignant at his de- 
feat. He instituted a vigorous canvass to procure the election of delegates to 
the state convention who were favorable to him. It may be said that no 
more bitter contest for delegates ever occurred in the state of New York than 
that precipitated by Mr. Roosevelt. He put himself in communication with 
members of the Republican league in Utica, and sought to prevent the vice 
president being a delegate in the state convention. This combination placed 
an opposition ticket in the field in Mr. Sherman's own ward and also in his 
assembly district. The opposition ticket in the ward consisted of Charles H. 
Searle, William H. Start, Charles B. Tefft, George W. Miller, William G. Ed- 
wards, Edmund J. Wager, John P. Williams, George W. Chapman, E. L. 
Hockridge and Alfred J. Bromley. It was said at the time that many of 
these opponents to Mr. Sherman took the position they did because, during 
Mr. Sherman's long service in public life, he had not supported them in their 
political ambitions. However that may be, there were enough votes against 
him to carry the vice president's ward against him, and the assembly district 
convention also contained a sufficient number of opposing delegates to send 
a delegation to the state convention opposed to the vice president. Mr. 
Roosevelt, in a telegram, congratulated his supporters in Oneida county at 
their success. Mr. Sherman was sent as a delegate from the first district, in- 
stead of from the district in which he resided. When Mr. Sherman left Utica 
to attend the convention at Saratoga a large number of citizens, calling them- 
selves "Sherman's Friends" accompanied him, while the opponents of the 
vice president, calling themselves "Roosevelt's Boomers" went to the con- 
vention in considerable numbers. On reaching Saratoga the vice president 
was called upon for a speech, and he spoke to a crowd in the park in a 
happy vein, declaring himself to be a Republican, and virtually saying that 
he was willing to abide by a majority vote. Mr. Roosevelt, on his way to 
the convention, was greeted by a large number of people wherever he stopped, 
and spoke in bitter terms of his opponents. He declared that he had them 
"beaten to a frazzle." He also said that he was making the fight against the 
bosses. In commenting upon this the Utica Daily Observer of August 29, 
called attention to the fact that a large number of those Mr. Roosevelt called 
"bosses" had been appointed to the offices which they had filled by Mr. 
Roosevelt himself. The Observer said that Mr. Barnes was made surveyor 
of the port of Albany, Mr. Merritt was made postmaster at Washington, D. C. 
and collector at Niagara Falls, Mr. O'Brien collector at Platsburg, Mr. Hen- 
dricks superintendent of insurance, Mr. Ward a member of the national Re- 
publican committee, and Mr. Wadsworth speaker of the assembly by Mr. 
Roosevelt himself. All of these men were at the convention opposed to Mr. 
Roosevelt, and he, therefore, denominated them as "bosses." Mr. Roosevelt 



164 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

controlled this (.•ouvoiition and was elected temporary ehairmau by a vote of 
568 to 4:43 for ilr. Shenuaii. It had been charged tliat when Mr. Sherman 
was elected by the state committee as the temporary chairman of the conven- 
tion it was done through some misrepresentation, but at Saratoga, just prior 
to the meeting of the convention, there was a meeting of the state committee 
at which it was unanimously determined that such was not the ease, and the 
action of the committee in selecting j\[r. Sherman at the prior meeting was re- 
affirmed by a vote of 22 to 15. Mr. Roosevelt procured the passage of a reso- 
lution through the convention changing the method of selecting the members of 
the Kepubliean state committee. Prior to this time it was always accom- 
plished l)y the delegates from the congi-essional district selecting the member 
of the committee from each district. At j\Ir. Roosevelt's instigation a resolution 
was passed giving to the temporary chairman of the convention the right to select 
a committee from the delegates from each congressional district, which com- 
mittee was to name the members of the state committee. It was charged by his 
opponents that of all acts this was the most arbitrary of anything that had 
ever occurred in a Republican state convention. The selection of the state 
ticket was dictated entirely by Mr. Roosevelt, and was made up of Henry L. 
Stimson for governor, and Edward Schoeneck for lieutenant governor. Mr. 
Roosevelt procured his nephe\v, Douglass Robinson, whose father has a sum- 
mer home in Herkimer, to become a candidate for representative in Congress 
against him at the election. The Republicans nominated for county judge, 
without serious trouble in the Republican district congressional convention, 
but it was apparent from the beginning that the Roosevelt iniluence would be 
against him at the election. The Republicans nominated for county judge, 
George E. Pritchard ; renominated for senator, Frederick M. Davenport ; for 
district attorney, Bradley Fuller; comptroller, a new office in the county, 
Charles H. Watters; for members of assembly, first district, John C. Dillon; 
second district, Herbert E. Allen ; third district, James T. Cross. It was ap- 
parent from the beginning that the RepuWican party was sadly shattered by 
what had occuiTed at the state convention, and the prospects were gloomy 
for success in the state and in the congi'essional districts. The Democrats 
were harmonious, and after many consultations to tix upon a proper candi- 
date for governor they finally selected John A. Dix for that office, and for 
lieutenant governor Thomas F. Conway. They nominated for representa- 
tive in Congress, Charles A. Talcott; for county judge, Frederick H. Hazard; 
for senator, T. Harvey Ferris; for district attorney, William S. Mackie; for 
comptroller, Jeremiah H. Carroll; for members of assembly, first district, 
John W. Manley ; second district, Fred W. Wasmuth ; third district, Robert 
G. Jones. A vigorous campaign was carried on throughout the entire state 
by both parties. A special effort was made in Oneida county to hold up the 
Repul)lican vote, but it was uphill work, and, although Jlr. Sherman sup- 
ported the ticket, the feeling of resentment was so great in the cotmty that 
the Democratic party was substantially successful at the election, carrying the 
state and most of the congressional districts, and getting a majority in both 
houses of the legislature. Dix carried the county by a plurality of 882. and 
Tnlcott. for representative in Congress, liy a jilurality of 2.826. It was evi- 



HISTORY OB^ ONEIDA COUNTY 165 

dent that the Republican League supported Mr. Taleott instead of Mr. Mill- 
ington. Senator Ferris, Deni., received a plurality of 791 against Mr. Daven- 
port; Hazard, Dein., for county judge, received 580 plurality; Fuller, Rep., for 
tlistriet attorney carried the county by 919 plurality; Carroll, Dem., was elected 
comptroller by 768 plurality ; and the members of assendily, first district, Man- 
ley, Dem., was elected by 1,521 plurality; second district, Allen, Rep., by 1,106 
plurality; third district, Cro.ss, Kep., by 961 plurality. Mr. Roosevelt's con- 
gressional district and town gave a majority against his ticket, and when this 
was determineil the Democrats in his own town started the cry, "We have 
beaten him to a frazzle." 

1911 — The political situation in the county in this year was more favorable 
to the Republicans than in 1910. The differences between Vice President Sher- 
man and ex-President Roosevelt, which divided the party in 1910, were held in 
abeyance in the fall of 1911. The Republicans held their caucuses and the 
wing of the party favorable to Mr. Sherman was successful, carrying every 
town and ward in the county. The county convention was harmonious and 
made the following nominations: For county clerk, Charles A. G. Scothon, 
who had served in that office for three years, it being the first instance in many 
years when a county clerk was renominated. James T. Somers, who had 
served one term as county treasurer, was renominated ; for coroner, Price 
Lewis. For members of assembly, first district, Ralph Entwistle; second dis- 
trict, Herbert E. Allen, renominated; third district, James T. Cross, re- 
nominated. 

Allan S. Pirnie, a Republican, had been a candidate for the nomination of 
county clerk in the Republican convention, but was defeated by Mr. Scothon. 
He afterward accepted the nomination on the Democratic ticket for the same 
office. Jacob H. Bohrer was nominated for county treasurer by the Demo- 
crats, and Dr. H. J. Haberer for coroner. For members of assembly, first 
district, John "W. Mauley; second district, Charles J. Amrheiu; third district, 
John F. Clark. Two other county tickets were in the field, the Socialist and 
Independence league. The Socialists nominated for county clerk, Edward 
Stansfield; for comity treasurer, Frank VanAlstyne; for coroner, Herman 
Jacob ; for members of assembly, first district, Henry J. Grant ; second dis- 
trict. Max Jahn; third district, B. F. Ouderkirk. The ticket nominated by 
the Independence league was made up partially from the Republican ticket 
and partially from the Democratic ticket, as follows: for county clerk, Charles 
A. G. Scothon ; county treasurer, James T. Somers ; both Republicans ; for 
coroner. Dr. H. J. Haberer, a Democrat. This part.y made no nominations 
for members of assembly. 

The campaign was carried on enthusiastically by the Republicans, par- 
ticularly in the city of Utica, as the ticket which had been nominated was a 
popular one, and a sufficient amount of attention was given to the county 
ticket to get out a comparatively full vote for an off year. The result in the 
county was the election of the entire Republican county ticket, by the fol- 
lowing majorities: For county clerk, Charles A. G. Scothon, Rep., received a 
plurality of 2,105; for county treasurer, James T. Somers, Rep., received a 
plurality of 3,105 ; for coroner. Price Lewis, Rep., 2,036 plurality : for members 



166 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

of assembly, first district, Ralph Entwistle, Rep., 131 plurality; second dis- 
trict, Herbert E. Allen, Rep., 1,645 phirality ; third district, James T. Cross, 
Rep., 1,078 plurality. lu regard to the election of justice of the Supreme 
Court for the fifth .iudicial district, Oneida county gave Edgar C. Emerson, 
tlie Republican candidate, who resides in Watertown, a majoritj' of 1,771 over 
Henry Pun-ell, the Democratic candidate, who also resides in Watertown; 
and Henry Purcell received a plurality of 522 over Irving G. Hubbs, Repub- 
lican, who resides in Pulaski: l)ut in tlie judicial district Mr. Emerson and Mr. 
Hubbs were elected by substantial majorities. 



CHAPTER XIX 

PUBLIC OFFICIALS AND STATISTICS 

Oneida county from its organization has been one of the most important 
in the Empire state. National and state offices have been filled by her sons 
with marked ability and distinguished honor, from constable to the high po- 
sition of president of the United States, and from justice of the peace to 
governor of the commonwealth. Despite the probability of criticism for oc- 
cupying so much space with a list of names, but presuming that many will 
desire at times to examine it, the following list is given of men who have 
been residents of Oneida county, and who have filled important ofSces under 
the federal and state government and also within the county. The ofBces 
which pertain especially to the courts of the county are given in another 
chapter under the heading, "Courts, Bench and Bar." 

Member of Continental Congress and signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence — William Floyd. 

President of the United States — Grover Cleveland, elected in 1884 and 
1892. 

Horatio Seymour, Democratic presidential candidate in 1868, but not elected. 

Vice President of the United States — James S. Sherman, elected 1908. 

Secretary of State for the United States — Elihu Root, appointed March 
4, 1905. 

Secretary of War of the United States — Elihu Root, appointed August 1, 
1899; re-appointed February 1, 1903. 

Assistant Secretary of War of the United States — William Carey Sanger, 
appointed March 14, 1901-03. 

Postmaster General of the United States — Gordon Granger, appointed 
under Presidents Jefferson and Madison, and held the position prior to becom- 
ing a resident of Oneida county ; Thomas L. James, appointed, 1881. 

Treasurer of the United States— Ellis H. Roberts, appointed 1897 to 1905. 

Assistant Treasurer of the United States — Ellis H. Roberts, appointed 1889 
to 1903 ; Daniel Butterfield, appointed in 1869. 

UNITED STATES SENATORS 

Henry A. Foster, Rome, N. Y., Nov. 30, 1837; appointed in place of Silas 
Wright by the governor during recess of the legislature. 

Roscoe Conkling, Utiea, January 15, 1867 ; re-appointed January, 1873 ; 
1879. 

Francis Kernan, Utica, January, 1875. 

Elihu Root. Clinton, 1909. 

167 



168 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 



POSTMASTER OF GREATER NEW YORK 

Thomas L. James, 1873-81. 



CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS 

The United States constitution directs that a census of the inhabitants be 
taken every t«nth year, conunencing with 1790, and after each enumeration 
(.'ongress apportions the representatives pro I'ata among the several states. 
As soon thereafter as practicable the legislature divides the state into con- 
gressional districts. The ratio of apportionment and number of representa- 
tives for the state of New York since the adoption of the constitution in 1788, 
have been as follows: 

Years Ratio Representation 

1789 30,000 6 

1792 33,000 10 

1802 33,000 17 

1811 35,000 27 

1822 40.000 34 

1832 47,700 40 

1842 70,680 34 

1852 93,423 33 

1861 127,381 31 

1872 131,427 33 

1880 134.000 34 

1900 194,182 37 

1910 211,877 43 

The following are the districts, with their numbers, which have included 
Oneida county: 

Under act of .March 23, 1797: District No. 9, Chenango (1798), Herki- 
mer, Montgoraer>-, Oneida (1798). 

Under act of March 30, 1802 : District No. 15, Herkimer, Oneida, St. 
Lawrence. 

Under act of Marcli 20, 1804: District No. 15, Herkimer, Jefferson (1805), 
Lewis (1805), Oneida, St. Lawrence. 

Under act of March 8, 1808: District No. 11, Madison, Oneida. 

Under act of June 10, 1812 : District No. 16, Oneida, part of Oswego 
(1816). 

Under act of April 17, 1822: District No. 14, Oneida county. 

Under act of June 29. 1832: District No. 17, Oneida and Oswego, two 
members. 

Under act of September 6, 1842: District No. 20, Oneida county. 

Under act of July 19, 1851: the same. 

Under act of April 23, 1862: number changed to 21. 

Under act of June 18. 1873 : number changed to 23. 

Under act of May 16, 1883: District No. 23. Oneida and Lewis. 

Under act of April 27. 1901, District No. 27. Oneida and Herkimer. 





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HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 169 



REPRESENTATIVES 



Jonas Piatt, Wliitesboro, 1799-1801, Sixth Congress. 

Benjamin Walker, Ttiea, 1801-3, Seventh Congress. 

Nathan "Williams, Utica, 1803-7, Ninth Congress. 

Thomas R. Gold, WhitestowTi, 1809-11, Eleventh Congress; 1811-13, Twelfth 
Congress; 1815-17, Fourteenth Congress. 

Morris S. Miller, Utica, 1813-15, Thirteenth Congress. 

Henry R. Storrs, Whitesboro, 1817-19, Fifteenth Congress; 1819-21, Six- 
teenth Congress; 1823-25, Eighteenth Congress; 1825-27, Nineteenth Congress; 
1827-29, Twentieth Congress; 1829-31, Twenty-first Congress. 

Joseph Kirkland, Utica, 1821-23, Seventeenth Congress. 

Samuel Beardsley, Utica, 1831-33, Twenty-second Congress; 1833-35, 
Twenty -third Congress; 1835-37, Twenty-fourth Congress; 1843-44, Twenty- 
eighth Congress. 

Henry A. Foster, Rome, 1837-39, Twenty-fifth Congress. 

John G. Floyd, Utica, 1839-41, Twenty-sixth Congress; 1841-43, Twenty- 
seventh Congress. 

Timothy Jenkins, Oneida Castle, 1845-47, Twenty-ninth Congress; 1847-49, 
Thirtieth Congress; 1851-53, Thirty-second Congress. 

Orsamus B. Matteson, Utica, 1849-51, Thirty-first Congress; 1853-55, 
Thirty-third Congress; 1855-57, Thirty-fourth Congress; 1857-59, Thirty-fifth 
Congress. 

Roscoe Conkling, Utica, 1859-61, Thirty-sixth Congress; 1861-63, Thirty- 
seventh Congress; 1865-67, Thirty-ninth Congress. 

Francis Kernan, Utica, 1863-65, Thirty-eighth Congress. 

Alexander H. Bailey, Rome, 1867-69, Fortieth Congress; 1869-71, Forty- 
first Congress. 

Ellis H. Roberts, Utica, 1871-73, Forty-second Congress; 1873-75, Forty- 
third Congress. 

Scott Lord, Utica, 1875-77, Forty-fourth Congress. 

William J. Bacon, Utica, 1877-79, Forty-fifth Congress. 

Cyrus D. Prescott, Rome, elected 1878, 1880, district, Oneida. 

J. Thomas Spriggs, Utica, elected 1882, district, Oneida; 1884, district, 
Oneida and Lewis. 

James S. Sherman, Utica, elected, 1886, 1888, 1892, district, Oneida and 
Lewis.. 

Henry W. Bentley, Boonville, elected 1890, district, Oneida and Lewis. 

James S. Sherman, Utica, elected, 1894, 1896, 1898, 1900, 1902, 1904, 1906, 
district, Oneida, and Herkimer. 

Charles A. Talcott, Utica, elected 1910, district, Oneida and Herkimer. 

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTORS 

These were appointed by the legislature from 1792 until 1825, since which 
they have been elected by the people. They were elected under the district 
system at one election only. The legislature passed an act April 15, 1829, 
under which they have since been elected on a general ticket, made up of one 



170 HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 

from each congressioiuU district, and two to represent tlie state at large. In 
1S72 there were three at hirge, one to represent a congi-essman at large, be- 
fore redistricting the state. 

APPOINTED BY LEGISLATURE 

1804, William Floyd; 1808, Henry Huntington; 1812, Henry Huntington, 
James S. Kip; 1816, Montgomery Hunt; 1820, William Floyd, Henry Wager; 
1824, Samuel Hicks. 

ELECTED BY DISTRICTS 

1828, Ebenezer B. Shearman. 

ELECTED BY GENER^IL TICKET 

1832, David iloulton; 1836, Parker Halleck; 1840, John J. Knox; 1844, 
Thomas H. Hubbard; 1848, William B. Welles; 1852, Thomas H. Hubbard; 
1856, James S. Lynch ; 1860, Benjamin N. Huntington ; 1864, John J. Knox ; 
1868, James McQuade; 1872, Samuel Campbell; 1876, James McQuade; 1892, 
Alexander T. Goodwin; 1900, Robert MacKennon; 1904, Wilfrid Hartley; 
1908, William Gary Sanger. 

STATE OFFICERS 

Governor — Horatio Seymour, elected 1852 and 1862. 

Council of Appointment — Abolished 1821, Thomas R. Gold, Henry Hunt- 
ington, Jonas Piatt and Henry Seymour. 

Private Secretary of the Governor — Horatio Seymour, private secretary of 
Governor DeWitt Clinton ; John F. Seymour, appointed 1863 private secre- 
tary of Governor Horatio Seymour. 

Aide-de-Camp — Colonel James McQuade. 

Surgeon-General — William H. Watson, appointed 1880; M. 0. Terrj', ap- 
pointed 1895. 

State Engineer and Surveyor — John T. Clark, 1853 ; WiUiam B. Taylor, 
1861, 1871; J. Piatt Goodsell, 1865; Horatio SejTnour, Jr., 1877-79; Camp- 
bell W. Adams, 1893-95. 

Canal Commissioners — Ephraim Hart, 1818 ; Henry Seymour, 1819 ; S. 
•Newton Dexter, 1840. 

Canal Appraisers — Chester Hayden, 1843 ; Charles M. Dennison, 1880. 

Bank Commissioner — Hiram Denio, April 10, 1838. 

Inspector of State Prisons — Wesley Bailey, Nov. 4, 1856. 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction — Abram B. Weaver, April 7, 
1868. 

Regents of the University — Frederick William, Baron de Steuben, April 
13, 1787 ; Nathan Williams, January 28, 1817 ; George R. Perkins, January 
30, 1862; Alexander S. Johnson, April 12, 1864; Francis Kernan, February 
10, 1870; William H. Watson, 1880. 

Railroad Commissioners — John D. Kernan, 1883-7; Michael Rickard, 1887; 
Samuel A. Beardsley, 1902-7. 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 171 

Principal of State Normal School— George R. Perkins, January 12, 1848. 

Commissioner of Public Charities— John C. Devereux, February 11, 1874. 

Commissioner of Labor — John Williams, October 'S, 1907. 

State Civil Service Commissioner — E. Prentiss Bailey, January 10, 1893. 

Commissioner of Gas and Electricity— John C. Davies, July 1905. 

Member of Commission on State Survey— Horatio Seymour, August 29, 
1876. 

Commissioner of Quarantine — Horatio Seymour, 1859. 

Commissioners of Fisheries — Horatio Seymour, April 22, 1868; R. U. Sher- 
man, January 2, 1879. 

State Dairy Commissioner — Josiah K. Brown, 1884. 

Commissioner State Reservation at Niagara Falls — Daniel Batchelor, 
February 12, 1889. 

Commissioner State Agricultural Experiment Station at Geneva — Daniel 
Batchelor, 1891. 

Universal Exhibition Commissioner — Thomas R. Proctor, December 23, 1898. 

State Factory Inspector — John Williams, April 12, 1899. 

Commissioner of State Parks — Horatio Seymour, May 23, 1872. 

Trustee of New York State Soldiers' and Sailors' Home — Thomas R. Proc- 
tor, February 5, 1900. 

State Commissioner in Limacy— William Carey Sanger, February 10, 1910. 

Clerks of the Assembly— Richard U. Sherman, 1851-6; Joseph B. Cush- 
man, 1862-6. 

Chief Game and Fish Protector— Frederick P. Drew, 1900. 

Fish and Game Protectors — William P. Dodge, 1880; Nathan C. Phelps, 
1883; Frederick P. Drew, 1884; R. M. Rush, 1895; Pliny B. Seymour, 1906; 
H. Roberts, 1910. 

Major detailed to serve on Staff of Governor Frank Higgins — Henry J. 
Cookinham, Jr., 1904. 

Chief Engineer of Conservation Commission — Richard W. Sherman, 1911. 

Legislative 

SENATE 

Under the first constitution the senate consisted of 24 members, appor- 
tioned among four great districts. After the first election they were divided 
by lot into four classes, so that the terms of six should expire each year. An 
additional senator was to be added to each district whenever, by a septennial 
census, it was shown that the number of electors in the district had increased 
one-twenty-fourth. This increase was to be allowed until the number reached 
100. The census of 1795 made the number 43. In 1801, the rule being found 
unequal in its operation, the constitution was amended so as to fix the num- 
ber permanently at 32, where it remained until 1894. 

Under the first constitution the state was divided ino four great senatorial 
districts, entitled Southern, Middle, Eastern and Western Districts. The num- 
ber of senators from each district varied according to the acts of assembly passed 
at different times. 



172 HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 

Under the second constitution (1821) the state was divided into eight 
great senatorial districts, each of which was entitleil to I'cnr senators. 

Under the constitution of 18-46 the state wa.s divided into thirty-two sen- 
atorial districts, and this arrangement continued to 1894, the districts being re- 
arranged after eacli state census accortling to the population. Tlie term of 
service under the new constitution was reduced to two years. 

Senatorial Districts — Oneida county was a part of the Western di.strict, 
imder the tirst con.stitutiou. Under the second constitution it formed a part 
of the Fifth district. Under the constitution of 1846 it formed the Nineteenth 
district. In 1892, Oneida, Lewis and Otsego counties formed the 23d district, 
but by the constitution of 1894 Oneida county was agaiu made a district by 
itself, the 34th. and the number of senators in the state increased from 32 to 50. 

SENATORS — 1797-1847 

Thomas R. Gold, Whitesboro, Western District, 1797-1802. 
Jedediah Sanger, New Hartford, AVestern District, 1797-1804. 
Henry Huntington, Rome, Western District, 1805-7. 
William Floyd, Western, Western District, 1808. 
Francis A. Bloodgood, Utiea, Western District, 1809-16. 
Jonas Piatt, Whitesboro, Western District, 1810-13. 
Ephraira Hart, Utica, Western District, 1817-22. 
Samuel Beardsley, Utiea, Fifth District, 1823. 
George Brayton, Western, Fifth District, 1825-26. 
Truman Enos, Westmoreland, Fifth District, 1827-30. 
William H. Maynard, Utica, Fifth District, 1829-32. 
Henry A. Foster, Rome, Fifth District, 1831-34. 1841-44. 
David Wager, Utica, Fifth District, 1836-40. 
Joshua A. Spencer, Utiea. Fifth District. 1846-47. 

SENATORS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION OF 1846 

Thomas E. Clai-k, Utica, Nineteenth District, 1848-49. 
Charles A. JMann, Utiea, Nineteenth District. 1850-51. 
Benjamin N. Huntington, Rome, Nineteenth District, 1851-53. 
Daniel G. Dorrance, Florence, Nineteenth District, 1854-55. 
Eaton J. Richardson. Utica, Nineteenth District, 1856-57. 
Alrick Iluhbell, Utica, Nineteenth District, 1858-59. 
William H. Ferry, Utica, Nineteenth District, 1860-61. 
Alexander II. Bailey, Rome. Nineteenth District. 1862-65. 
Samuel Campbell, New York ilills. Nineteenth District, 1866-69. 
George H. Sanford, Rome, Nineteenth District, 1870-71. 
Samuel S. Lowery, Utica, Nineteenth Di.strict. 1872-74. 
Theodore S. Sayre, Utica, Nineteenth District, 1875-76. 
Alexander T. Goodwin, Utica, Nineteenth District, 1877-78. 
James Stevens. Rome, Nineteenth District. 1S79. 
Robert II. Roberts, Boonville, Nineteenth District, 1881. 
Henry J. Coggeshall, Waterville, Nineteenth District, 1883-96. 
Henrj' J. Coggeshall, Thirty-fourth District, 1898. 



HISTORY OF ONEIUA COUNTY 17a 

Garry A. Willard, Boonville, Thirty-fourth District, 1900. 
William Townseud, Utiea, Thirty-l'oui'th District, 1902. 
Henry J. Coggeshall, Watervillo, Thirty-fourth District, 1904. 
Joseph Aekroyd, Utica, Thirty-fourth District, 1906. 
Frederick M. Davenport, Clinton, Thirty-lourth District, 1908. 
T. Harvey Ferris, Utica, Thirty-fourth District, 1910. 

ASSEMBLY — 1798 TO 1847 

The assembly has iilways been chosen annually. It consisted at first of 
70 membei*s, vfith the power to increase one with every seventieth increase of 
the numbers of electors until it contained 300 members. Wlien the constitu- 
tion was amended in 1801 the number had reached 108, when it was reduced 
to 100, with a provision that it should be increased after each census at the 
rate of two annually, until the number reached 150. This increase was 12 in 
1808 and 14 in 1815. The constitution of 1821 fixed the number permanently 
at 128. Members were elected on a single ticket, which has been since con- 
tinued. 

No change can be made in the representation of counties between the period 
fixed by the constitution for the apportionment based upon the census taken in 
years ending in 5. Counties erected from parts of other counties, or em- 
bracing parts of dififei'ent election districts, between these periods cannot have 
a separate representation until the next apportionment. The Legislature ap- 
portions to each county its relative mxmber of members, and the boards of su- 
pervisors divide the towns and wards into assembly districts. 

The constitution of 1846 required the boards of supervisors of the several 
counties to meet on the first Tuesday of January succeeding the adoption of 
the constitution, and divide the counties into districts of the number appor- 
tioned to them, of convenient and contiguous territory, and as neai'ly equal 
population as possible. After each state census the legislature is recjuired to 
re-apportion the members and to direct the time when the supervisors shall 
meet for the purpose of redistricting. The constitution of 1894 increased the 
number of assemblymen of the state to 150, and the apportionment of a county 
entitled to more than one member of assembly was left with the board of su- 
pervisors, ajid under this apportionment Oneida county was entitled to three 
members. 

1798— Abel French, Henry McNeil, David Ostrom. 

1800— John Hall, David Ostrom, Nathan Smith. 

1800-1 — Jesse Curtiss, Abel French, David Ostrom. 

1802— Joel Bristol, Abel French, David Ostrom. 

1803 — James Dean, Sr., Abel French, John Lay, Aaron Morse. 

1804 — David Coffeen, Joseph Kirkland, David Ostrom, Abraham VanEps. 

1804-5 — Geo. Brayton, Jos. Jennings, Jos. Kirkland, Benj. Wright. 

1806 — George Brayton, Thomas Hart, Joseph Jennings. 

1807— George Brayton, Uri Doolittle, Charles Z. Pratt. 

1808— Thomas R. Gold, Henry McNeil, Ben.iamin Wright. 

1809 — Joel Bristol, James Dean, Sr., David Ostrom, John Storrs, Benjamin 
Wright. 



174 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

ISIO — Le-\T Carpenter. Jr., Samuel Chandler, John ITuniaston, David Os- 
trom. John Storrs. 

ISll — Isaac Brayton, George Doolittle, George Huntington, Henry McNeil, 
John Storrs. 

1812 — Isaac Brayton, Joel Bristol, Erastus Clark, George Huntington, John 
Storrs. 

1813 — Josiah Bacon, Erastus Clark, George Huntington, John Lay, Nathan 
Townsend. 

1814 — Isaac Brayton, Laurens Hull, James Lynch, Henry McNeil, Theo- 
dore Sill. 

1815 — Theodore Sill, John Lay, James Lynch, Rufus Pettibone, John 
Storrs. 

1816 — Isaac Brayton, Jesse Curtiss, James LjTich, Roderick Morrison, 
Richard Sanger. 

1817 — David I. Ambler, "Wlieeler Barnes, Abram Camp, Martin Hawley, 
Henry Huntington, Newton Marsh. 

ISIS — George Brayton, Henry lluntiugtou, Joseph Kirklaud, Nathan Wil- 
liams, Theodore "VVoodruffe. 

1819 — (Oneida and Oswego) Ezekiel Bacon, Luther Guiteau, David P. 
Hoyt, George Huntington, Theodore Woodruffe. 

1820 — (Oneida and Oswego) James Dean, Jr., George Huntington, Henry 
McNeil, Theophilus S. ]\Iorgan, John Storrs. 

1821 — (Oneida and Oswego) Josiah Bacon, Allen Eraser, George Hunting- 
ton, Joseph Kirkland, "William Root. 

1822 — (Oneida and Oswego) Green C. Bronson, Saml. Chandler, George 
Huntington, Peter Pratt, Israel Stoddard. 

1823 — (Oneida) Uri Doolittle, Thomas H. Plamilton, Jesse LjTich, Henry 
Wager, Samuel Wetmore 

1824: — Joseph Allen, Apollos Cooper, Joseph Graut, John Ruger, Henry 
Wager. 

1825 — Joseph Kirkland, David Pierson, Israel Stoddard, Broughton Wliite, 
Samuel Woodworth. 

1826 — Aaron Barnes, Russell Clark, Laurens Hull, Theodore Sill, Israel 
Stoddard. 

1827 — .Toliii P>illiiigs, W. H. Cliandler, Benjamin P. Johnson, John Parker, 
Theodore Sill. 

1828 — Gardiner Avery, S. Sidney Breese, Thomas E. Clark, Benj. P. John- 
son, Eli Savage. 

1829 — Reuben Bacon, Benj. P. Jolmson, Eli Savage, Reuben Tower, For- 
tune C. "UTiite. 

1830 — Arnon Comstock, Linus Parker, Elisha Pettibone, Eli Savage, Ithal 
Thompson. 

1831 — Reuben Bettis, Anion Comstock, David Moulton, Riley Shepard, 
John F. Trowliridge. 

1832 — Nathaniel Fitch, Lemuel Hough, Rutger B. ^Miller, David Moulton, 
Daniel Twitchell. 

1833 — Tchabod C. Baker, Levi Buckingham. John Dewey, Squire Utley, 
David Wager. 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 



175 



1834 — Pomro.y Jones, Israel S. Parker, Hiram Shays, Aaron Stafl'ord, Ithal 
Thompson. 

1835 — Merit Brooks, Dan P. Cadwell, Riley Shepard, David Wager, Amos 
Woodworth. 

1836 — Henry Graves, John W. Hale, William Knight, Jared C. Pettibone, 
John Stryker. 

1837 — Levi Biu'kinghani, John I. Cook, Lester N. Fowler, Andrew S. Pond. 

1838 — Russell Fuller, Henry Hearsay, Fortune C. White, James S T. Stran- 
ahan. 

1839 — Jesse Armstrong, Ward Hunt, Amasa S. Newberry, Israel Stoddard. 

1840 — Nelson Dawley, Anson Knibloe, Charles A. Mann, John F. Trow- 
bridge. 

1841 — Calvin Dawley, Joseph Halleck, Luke Hitchcock, Nathaniel Odell. 

1842 — lehabod C. Baker, Ebenezer Robbins, Horatio Seymour, DeWitt C. 
Stevens. 

1843— Dan P. Cadwell, Amos S. Fassett, David Murray, John H. Tower. 

1844 — Justus Childs, James Douglass, Richard Enipey, Horatio Seymour. 

1845 — Andrew Billings, Merit Brooks, Calvert Comstock, Horatio Seymour. 

1846 — Chauncey C. Cook, Benjamin F. Cooper, Daniel 6. Dorrance, Rus- 
sell Fuller. 

1847 — Nathan Burchard, Abel E. Chandler, Isaac Curry, John Dean. 



UNDER CONSTITUTION OP 1846 

First District 



1848— Luke Smith 
1849— Oliver Prescott 
1850— Wm. J. Bacon 
1851 — Joseph Benedict 
1852— G. D. Williams 
1853— D. Gilmore 
1854 — Jos. Benedict 
1855— G. D. Williams 
1856— G. F. Fowler 
1857— R. U. Sherman 
1858— Henry R. Hart 
1859— C. M. Scholefield 
1860— J. JIcQuade 
1861— F. Jernan 
1862— C. M. Scholefield 
1863— A. B. Weaver 

Warren Converse 
N. N. Pierce 
Ralph Mcintosh 
Lorenzo Rouse 
C. S. Butler 



1864r— A. B. Weaver 
1865— A. B. Weaver 
1866 — George Graham 
1867— L. Blakeslee 
1868— W. H. Chapman 
1869— Eli Avery 
1870— S. S. Lowery 
1871— G. W. Chadwick 
1872— M. L. Hungerford 
1873— N. A. White 
1874— G. W. Chadwick 
1875— R. U. Sherman 
1876— R. U. Sherman 
1877— Jas. Corbett 
1878— Wm. Jones 



Second District 



Amos 0. Osborn 
A. P. Case 
Levi Blakeslee 
J. J. Hanchett 
P. B. Babcock 



176 



IIISTOKY OF O.XEIDA COUNTY 



Wm. J. MuKo^m 
Edward Loomis 
Henjaiiiin Allen 
L. T. Marshall 
Eli Avery 
1). M. Prescott 
Levi Blakeslee 
Lorenzo Rouse 
Alva Penny 
Ellis IT. Roberts 
Alauson B. Cady 



1848— B. S. Beach 
1849-J. M. Elwood 
1850— R. Frazier 
1851 — Lewis Rider 
1852— Henry Sandford 
1853— .Julius C. Thorne 
1854 — D. L. Boardman 
1855— H. H. Beecher 
1856— T. D. Penfield 
1857 — John Halstead 
1858— Thomas G. Hailey 
1859— P. C. Costello 
I860— Thomas Evans 
1861— ]\r. L. Kenyon 
1862— T. D. Penfield 
1863— Asa S. Sherman 



Henry \Vager 
C. Stevens 
Luther Lelajid 
George Brayton 
John J. Castle 
Amos C. HaU 
James Mitchell 
Daniel AValker 
Caleb Goodrich 
I. Townsend 
Reuben Knight 
Didymus Thomas 
Oeorpe 'Willinms 
William Lewis 
Jeremiah Sweet 
Lsaac JfcDougall 



A. B. Tuttle 
David M. Miner 
Sidney A. Bunee 
E. Beckwith 
H. J. Coggeshall 
Arthur P. Bro^vn 
Silas T. Ives 
S. Gridley 
Everett Case 
A. DeV. Townslev 



Third District 



1864— C. Brodock 
1865— T. D. Penfield 
1866— B. N. Huntington 
1867 — George H. Sandford 
1868 — James Stevens 
1869 — James Stevens 
1S70 — St. Pierre Jerred 
1871— Thomas MulhaU 
1872— George K. Carroll 
1873— P. H. Costello 
1874r— John J. Parry 
1875 — Edward Lewis 
1876— J. H. Flanagan 
1877— Benj. D. Stone 
1878- Cvrus D. Prescott 



Fourth District 



J. W. Douglass 
George W. Cole 
Silas L. Snyder 
L. W. Fisk' 
A. Nicholson 
Erastus Ely 
James Roberts 
Isaac ilcDougall 
Albert L. Hayes 
Daniel Walker 
G. 0. Jones 
II. Lillybridge 
Walter Ballon 
J. Robert Moore 
Robert H. Roberts 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 



177 



First District 



First District 
1879 — Benjaniiu Allen 

Second District 
Frank Sang 

Third District 
1879— Thomas D. Penfield 

Fourth District 
II. Dwight Grant 
Second District 



1880 — Henry J. Cookinham 
1881 — James Armstrong 
1882— Patrick Griffin 
1883— William Towusend 
1884 — Joseph Joyce 
1885— Henry A. Steber 
1886— Benjamin Hall 
1887— Benjamin Hall 
1888— J. Harry Kent 
1889— Joseph H. Kent 
1890— James K. O'Connor 
1891 — Cornelius Haley 
1892— Cornelius Haley 
1893— Cornelius Haley 
1894— Henry P. Hoefiler 
1895— Henry P. Hoeffler 
1896— Walter Erably 
1897— Geo. E. Philo 
1898— John Williams 
1899— William J. Sullivan 
1900— William J. Sullivan 
1901— Michael J. McQuade 
1902— Michael J. McQuade 
1903— Thomas A. Mortimer 
1904 — Thomas A. Mortimer 
1905— Henry L. Gates 
1906— Henry L. Gates 
1907— Merwin K. Hart 
1908— Merwin K. Hart 
1909— John W. Manley 
1910— John W. Manley 
1911— Ralph Entwistle 



James A. Douglass 
David G. Evans 
Morris R. Jones 
C. B. Williams 
Joseph A'ckroyd 
Lewis B. Sherman 
Robert W. Evans 
Robert W. Evans 
George G. McAdara 
George G. MeAdam 
James L. Dempsey 
James L. Dempsey 
Harry S. Patten 
Chester W. Porter 
Joseph Porter 
Wm. Carey Sanger 
Wm. Carey Sanger 
Wm. Carey Sanger 
Louis M. Martin 
Louis M. Martin 
Louis M. Martin 
Fred J. Brill 
Fred J. Brill 
Fred J. Brill 
Jay H. Pratt 
Jay H. Pratt 
Jay H. Pratt 
Ladd J. Lewis, Jr. 
Ladd J. Lewis, Jr. 
Ladd J. Lewis, Jr. 
Herbert E. Allen 
Herbert E. Allen 



Tliird District 

David Gray 
Thomas D. Roberts 
Frank A. Edgerton 
Thomas B. Allauson 
T. James Owens 
T. James Owens 
Israel J. White 
John C. Da vies 
Geo. Beatty, Jr. 
Abisha B. Baker. 
Russell S. Johnson 
Russell S. Johnson 
Chester W. Porter 



William B. Graves 
William B. Graves 
John E. Mason 
John E. Mason 
Edward M. Marson 
Edward M. Marson 
Edward M. Marson 
John C. Evans 
John C. Evans 
John C. Evans 
John C. Evans 
Arthur G. Blue 
Arthur G. Blue 
C. Robert Edwards 
James T. Cross 
James T. Cross 



178 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

DELEGATES TO CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 

Convention of 1801 — James Dean, Bezaleel Fisk, Henry Huntington. 

Convention of 1821 — Ezekicl Bacon, Samuel Sidney Breese, Henry Hunt- 
ington, Jonas Piatt, Nathan ^Villiams. 

Convention of IB^G — Hervey Brayton, Julius Candee, Edward Huntington, 
Charles P. Kirkland. 

Convention of 1867 — Benjamin N. Huntington, Francis Kernan, Richard 
U. Sherman. 

Convention of 1872 — Commission for amending the constitution, Francis 
Kernan. 

Convention of 1894 — Heniy J. Cookinham, John C. Davies. These delegates 
were elected by senatorial districts, and the senatorial district at this time con- 
sisted of Oneida, Lewis and Otsego counties. The district was entitled to five 
delegates, and one was chosen from Lewis and two from Otsego. 

COUNTY OFFICERS 

County Clerks — Appointed up to 1847 ; elected for terms of three years since. 
The county clerks ai-e keepers of the county records, and clerks of all the courts, 
including the Supreme courts, for their respective counties. 

Jonas Piatt, 1798 ; Francis A. Bloodgood, 1802 ; Abram Camp, 1813 ; Francis 
A. Bloodgood, 1815; Eliasaph Dorchester. 1821-22; John H. Ostrom, 1825; 
George Brown, 1831; John D. Leland, 1834; James Dean, 1837; P. Sheldon 
Root, 1840 ; Delos DeAYolf, 1843 ; Patrick Mahon, 1846 ; Alexander Rae, 1849 ; 
Richard Hulbert, 1852; Zenas M. Howes, 1855; J. Earl Hulbert, 1858; Daniel 
P. Buckingham, 1861 ; Orson Carpenter, 1864 ; James C. Bronson, 1867 ; Linus 
R. Clark, 1870 ; James B. Paddon, 1873 ; Taliesiu Evans, 1876 ; Henry J. Cogge- 
shall, 1879; Arthur H. Ballon. 1882; M. Jesse Braytou. 1885; Frederick D. 
Haak, 1888; Rouse B. Maxfield, 1891; Garry A. AYillard, 1894; George D. 
Frank, 1897; Joseph Porter, 1900; Herman Clarke, 1902: Alfred J. Bromley, 
1905; Charles A. G. Scothon, 1908. also 1911. 

County Treasurers — These were appointed by the boards of supervisors until 
the adoption of the constitution of 1846, since which time they have been elected 
for terms of tliree years. The following list is from the record at Rome and 
goes back to 1830, anterior to which we have not been able to procure the names. 

Jay Hatheway. 1830-41; A. Bennett, 1842-45; W. Tracy, 1846; E. B. Arm- 
strong, 1847-48; Sanford Adams, 1849-51; E. H. Shelley, 1852-54; J. Thomas 
Spriggs, 1855-57; John J. Parry, Jr., 1858-66; Charles Northrup, 1867-72; Will- 
iam McPherson, 1873-78: John Kohler, 1878-81; John R. Edwards, 1884-87; 
Charles F. Barnard, ISOO; William E. Richards, 1893-96; James H. Flanagan, 
1899; Henry W. Roberts, 1902-05; James T. Somcrs, 1908, also 1911. 

SheriflFs — These oflGcers, under the first constitiitioii, were appointed by the 
council of appointment annually; but no person could hold the office for more 
than four successive years. Under the constitution of 1821 they were elected 
for three years, and were ineligible for a second term. These conditions still 
exist. 




TIIK OLD Cor.N-rY CLIOUK'S OFFICIO IX T'TICA. 

NOW Tin-: UTICA UAS .V KI.KCTKIC 

CO.MrAXVS OFFICES 



T' 
PUBLIl. 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 17'J 

William Colhratli, (written :ilso Colbraith) iMaix-li, 1798; Elizur Moseley, De- 
cember, 1798; Charles C. Brodhead, November, 1800; James S. Kip, 1804; 
Benajah Merrill, 1807; James S. Kip, 1808; Benajah Merrill, 1810; James S. 
Kip, 1811; Apollos Cooper, 1815; John B. Pease, 1819; John E. Ilinman, 1821- 
22; David Pearson, 1825; John E. Ilinman, 1828; Samuel M. Mott, 1831; Eras- 
tus Willard, 1834; Lyman Curtiss, 1837; David Monlton, 1840; Theodore S. 
Faxton, 1842; Israel S. Parker, 1843; Palmer V. Kellogg, 1844; Lester Barker, 
1847; John R. Jones, 1850; Hugh Crocker, 1852; Calvin Hall, 1855; William 
.1. ili-Kown, 1858; Hugli Crocker, 1861; David B. Danforth, 1864; George F. 
Weaver, 1867; Lewis Gaylord, 1870; George Benedict, 1873; Frederick G. 
Weaver, 1876; Francis X. Meyers, 1879; Thomas D. Penfield, 1882; John 
Batchelor, 1885; Thomas Wheeler, 1888; John C. Sehreiber, 1891; VanRens- 
selaer Weaver, 1894 ; William H. Reese, 1897 ; Lincoln E. Brownell, 1900 ; Sam- 
uel H. Jones, 1903 ; Frederick Gillmore, 1906 ; Daniel J. Becker, 1909. 

Superintendents of Poor — Originally five in number and appointed by board 
of supervisors. By the constitution of 1846 the number was reduced to three 
and made elective. Finally the number was reduced to one by resolution of 
the board of supervisors, and superintendents of the poor are now elected for 
terms of three years. 

Julius C. Thorne, 1861; Archibald Hess, 1864; Owen E. Owens, 1867-1870 
Roderick Morrison, 1873 ; Thomas J. Brown, 1876 ; Richard E. Hatfield, 1878 
Theodore S. Comstoek, 1880-86; Robert W. Evans, 1889; David Aldridge, 1892 
Louis Mittenmaier, 1895-98; DeWitt C. Smith, 1901-04; Walter W. Elden, 
1907-10. 

Coroners — This list is not entirely complete. The oaths of ofSce of many 
of them are lacking in the clerk's office, but we have made it as full as possible. 

1798 — ^April 1, Samuel Ensign, Lemuel Leavenworth, Eleazer House. 

1799 — April 30, Bill Smith, Lemuel Leavenworth, Samuel Ensign, Eleazer 
House. 

1800 — Lemuel Leavenworth, Eleazer House. 

1801 — Shadraeh Smith, Bill Smith. These were sworn before Hugh White, 
county judge. 

1803— Shadraeh Smith, Bill Smith, George T. Klock. 

1804— Shadraeh Smith, Wells Kellogg. 

1806— Elisha Spurr, John B. Pierce. 

1807 — Solomon Evarts, John B. Pierce, Joseph Butler. B. Spurr. 

1808— Shadraeh Smith, E. Spurr. 

1809 — Joseph Butler, Solomon Evarts, Smith and Spurr. 

1811— E. Spurr. 

1812— Jedediah H. Peck, John Herrick. 

1813 — John Hunter, John Pierce, John E. Hinman, Bela B. Hyde. 

1814 — Levi Green, Enoch Strong, John Pierce. 

1815— J. H. Peck, B. B. Hyde, J. E. Hinman. 

1816— Wm. Stone, E. Spurr, J. H. Peck. 

1818— B. B. Hyde, David Pierson. 

1819 — John Butler, Jr., Ezra S. Barnum, David Pierson, B. B. Hyde. 

1820— Ezra S. Barnum. 



180 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

1821 — Zenas Howes, Charles Granger. Samuel Jones, Seely Jewell. 

1822 — E. S. l>:irnuin, A. L. Wood, Freedom Tibbets, Stephen Wliite, Zenas 

Howes. 

1823 — E. Spuir, James D. Stebbins, Preston Hilgard, C. Halladay. 

1824 — P. H. Graves (or Groves). 

1825 — Benjamin Hyde, Jr. 

182G— Elipliali't Railey, Robert Jones. 

1832 — Linus Sauford, Martin Rowley. 

1837— Francis Bioknell. 

1640 — Willett Stillman, Abraham A. Barnes. 

1841 — Benjamin F. Brooks, Benjamin B. Hinkley. 

184.3— P. MeCraith, Abner B. Blair. Daniel Chatfield. 

1844— Elisha Fowler. 

1846— Aaron B. Bligh. 

1847 — Benjamin F. Brooks, A. B. Blair, William Tompkins. 

1849— H. H. Roberts. 

1850— A. B. Blair, John R. Everett, E. B. Harris. 

1851— S. M. Ferine, R. H. Francis. 

1852— William H. Green. 

1853— A. B. Blair, John H. Tower. 

1854 — James H. Frear. 

1855— S. M. Ferine, Clark A. Riggs. 

1856— John P. VanVleck, Alexander Gifford. 

1857— n. H. Roberts, J. M. Browne. 

1858— David Donaldson. 

1859— J. P. VanVleck. 

1860— H. H. Roberts. 

1861 — Newton Graves, Jabez V. Cobb, John H. VanNess. 

1863— H. H. Roberts. 

1864— Newton Graves, Saml. F. Meney, J. V. Cobb, E. A. Hunger. 

1865— W. B. Monroe. 

1866— Charles B. Teflft. 

1867— J. V. Cobb, E. A. Hunger, W. B. IMonroe. 

1869— Evan G. Williams. 

1870 — E. J. Lawton, E. A. Munger, Christian Weiss. 

1871— Charles B. Tefft, Wm. Meyer. 

1872— E. G. Williams. 

1873— Edward D. Taylor, James G. Hunt. E. J. Lawton. 

1874 — David Larrabee, James G. Hunt. 

1875 — Cha.s. E. Eraser, Jr., Francis T. Gorton. 

1876— James G. Hunt, E. J. Lawton. 

1877-78— E. J. Lawton, E. F. Gorton, C. E. Eraser, Charles Munger, Edwin 
W. Raynor. 

1879 — James G. Hunt, Elon J. r^awton. 

1881— Edwin W. Raynor, Hiram P. DuBois. 

1882— Albert G. Spencer. Henry C. Sutton. 

1884 — Henry W. Leonard, Herbert G. Jones, Edwin W. Raynor. 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY IHl 

1885— "Willis E. Millinsiton. 

1886— Lcauder Swiirlwout. 

1887— Herbert G. Joues, G. Massillon Lewis. 

1888— Willis E. Millington. 

1889— Matthias Cook. 

1890— Myron W. Hunt, G. Massillon Lewis. 

1891— Thomas G. Nock. 

1892— Charles B. Tefft. 

1893_G. I\Iassillon Lewis, Myron W. Hunt. 

1894 — Thomas G. Nock. 

1895— Charles G. Ward. 

1896— Howard G. Bartless, James W. Douglass. 

1897— Thomas G. Nock. 

1898— George R. Taylor, Robert Dodd. 

1899— James W. Douglass. 

1900— Howard F. Hubbard. 

1901— Robert Dodd, Robert B. Wilson. 

1902— George C. Morey. 

1903— Howard F. Hubbard. 

1904— Robert Dodd, G. Massillon Lewis. 

1905— George C. Morey. 

1906— Howard F. Hubbard. 

1907— Robert Dodd, G. IMassillon Lewis. 

1908— Edward N. Sparks. 

1909— Gilbert N. Lehr. 

1910— Robert Dodd, John D. Shipman. 

Couuty superintendents of common schools, appointed by boards of super- 
visors from 1843 to 1847, when the office was abolished. 

Elon Comstock, Julius C. Thome, Hosea Clark, Stephen Moulton, William 
S. Wetmore. 

In 1857 the office of school commissioner was established and made elective. 
First election held in November, 1859. Term of office three years. 

Abram B. Weaver, Harvey E. Wilcox, Mills C. Blackstoue, Grove W. Bagg, 
Peter B. Crandall, Charles T. Pooler, Julius C. Thorne, Joshua H. Tracy, 
Harvey S. Bedell, Homer T. Fowler, Merritt N. Capron. Silas L. Snyder, Eugene 
L. Hinckley, John R. Pugh, Charles T. Burnley, Henry S. Ninde, Horace 0. 
Farley. 

Mills C. Blackstone, Harvey E. Wilcox, Abrara B. Weaver, Grove W. Bagg, 
Peter B. Crandall, Charles T. Pooler, Julius C. Thorne, Joshua H. Tracy, 
Eugene L. Hinckley, Silas L. Snyder, Merritt N. Capron, Homer T. Fowler, 
Harvey S. Bedell. 

1872— John R. Pugh, Charles T. Burnley, Henry S. Ninde, Horace 0. Farley. 
1875— John R. Pugh, Charles E. Howe, Martin W. Smith, Milton W. George. 
1878 — Franklin P. Ashley, Julius M. Button, Jonas W. Armstrong, George 
Griffith. 

1881 — William D. Biddlecome, Julius M. Button, Martin W. Smith, Jerome 
F. Hilts. 



182 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

188-i Willimn D. Biddlecome, Edward A. O'Brieu, Everett E. Edgerton, 

Jerome F. Hills. 

1887 — ^William D. Lewis, Fred E. Payne, Everett E. Edgerton, William B. 

Graves. 

1890— Laura F. May hew, Fred E. Payne, Nellie K. Tibbits, James McCul- 

lough. 

1893— Cora A. Davis, Frederick B. Pierce, Selden L. Harding, James Mc- 
CuUough. 

1896 — Cora A. Davis, Everett E. Edgerton, Selden L. Harding, James Mc- 
Cullough. 

1899— Cora A. Davis, William J. Lewis, Daniel J. Covell, Frank E. Niess. 

1902 — ^William J. Lewis, Daniel J. Covell, Frank E. Niess, Charles A. Higley. 

1905— Ray P. Snyder, William J. Lewis, Ervin W. Claus, Frank E. Niess. 

1908— Ray P. Snyder, Harry C. Buck, John C. Evans, Benjamin F. Hughes. 

Each commissioner reports his own district separately and independent!}'^ 
to the state superintendent. 

LOAN COMMISSIONERS 

The list of these oflScers is imperfect, for the same reasons which apply in 
the case of coroners — the records are not complete. We give what names we 
have been able to find : 

Benjamin Hyde, 1824-26 ; James D. Stebbins, John Parker, 1838 ; Denio 
Babcock, 1840; David Babcock, 1842; (These names are obscure, and may be 
identical.) Parker Halleck, A. S. Newberrj^, A. Hazen, 1843; Clark Potter, 
1844; Denio Babcock, William Higby, C. C. Cook, J. P. Fitch, 1848; Ephraim 
Storrs, John W. Staft'ord, 1852; Mark Potter, 1854; Andrew Jones, 1855-58; 
William E. Griffith, 1860; Israel B. Spencer, Jason S. Ethridge, 1870; Benjamin 
D. Stone, 1871; Curtiss J. Wright. A. G. Willia7iis, 1873; Curtiss J. Wright, 
A. G. Williams, 1878-1879 ; Newton Sholes, Burlington Button, 1880-82 ; S. W. 
Patten, Charles B. Hitchcock, 1883-1890; H. S. Patten, Charles B. Hitchcock, 
1891; Jonas W. Armstrong, Charles B. Hitchcock, 1892-94; Luther G. Will- 
iams, James Brown, 1895-1903; John R. Watkins, James Brown, 1904-1908; 
Luther G. Williams, Robert A. Pritchard, 1909-1911. 

VOTES FOR PRESIDENT 

Presidential electors were selected by the legislature of the state of New 
York until 1828. In that year they were elected by the people, but no record 
can be found of the vote in Oneida count}'. Search has been made in the office of 
secretary of state at Albany, the Oneida county clerk's office, and the file of 
every newspaper published in that period in Oneida county, but no record can 
be found. This is also true of the year 1836. The following table gives the vote 
for presidential electors, with the names of the candidates of the groat parties 
for president, and the vote cast in each town and ward, where the figures 
were attainable. In a few instances towns and wards are missing, and where 
they are not given in the tables the records cannot be found. 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 



183 



1832 



1838 



ej, ;':'"«Md_: 2M Rj tiM CLj rtM u,^ a- 

^^ *& «a ^i wg 3i g| ^1 ^g si ^1 

S9 i? mg dS wfe =9 ^fe ^9 S^ ^9 a9 

Annsville 154 128 . . . . 179 189 175 208 173 143 73 

Augusta 300 250 . . .. 207 250 173 232 172 149 103 

Ava 70 15 71 

Boonville 269 211 ... . 343 449 304 336 226 94 209 

Bridgewater 125 169 ... . 160 153 134 158 131 118 39 

Camden 165 201 . . . . 283 169 213 197 163 45 224 

Deerfield 231 147 ... . 175 260 146 227 101 99 190 

Florence 98 60 . . . . 82 125 84 177 59 27 196 

Floyd 214 100 . . . . 86 215 80 192 57 121 49 

Kirkland 217 288 ... . 322 283 305 261 272 123 189 

Lee 380 119 . . . . 154 442 188 433 155 205 190 

Marey 161 95 ... . 125 211 106 204 63 57 78 

Marshall 185 222 ... . 208 233 202 215 137 58 167 

New Hartford ... 194 329 ... . 392 230 403 225 340 156 96 

Paris 219 317 . . . . 315 240 319 260 290 109 241 

Remsen 76 154 . . . . 216 88 198 114 146 32 111 

Rome 429 356 ... . 522 570 495 592 487 393 196 

Sangerfield 235 220 ... . 253 277 222 283 171 177 103 

Steuben 143 147 ... . 196 135 189 141 70 55 73 

Trenton 258 322 . . . . 352 309 333 288 253 61 259 

Utiea (1) J477 1692 .... J883 |784 152 137 133 98 74 

Utica (2) 226 121 181 58 102 

Utiea (3) 312 218 344 89 224 

Utiea (4) 373 365 129 90 105 

Utica (5) 255 98 203 

Vernon 268 352 ... . 328 264 312 288 231 108 151 

Verona 353 252 ... . 395 477 449 493 416 194 198 

Vienna 267 108 ... . 148 333 107 368 

Western 384 45 . . . . 113 463 100 377 63 271 81 

Westmoreland 273 311 ... . 300 303 278 290 199 137 218 

Wliitestown 338 395 ... . 419 316 405 317 353 151 220 

Total 6,413 5,989 7,156 7,768 6,983 7,717 5,830 3,531 4,533 

tTotal vote in Utica. 



184 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 



I860 



Is f£ ^1- S-: i- ■^- ■ 3^ ^~ 

^1 = e| a ^^ si "^s 6 ^i 

, ll I ?5 'zi o5 M le I gs 

i I 1 i i 5 2 E s I 

Annsville 193 292 24 181 280 322 308 301 360 

Augusta 188 205 5 141 302 316 191 312 203 

Ava 108 133 23 100 107 136 112 145 147 

Boonville 264 318 128 175 539 641 341 583 410 

Bridgewater . . . 132 141 12 80 177 200 113 197 106 

Camden 258 248 65 148 453 519 232 498 291 

Deerfiold 120 234 24 1S2 233 258 233 238 281 

Florence 149 217 9 127 158 185 332 123 424 

Floyd 67 213 13 139 133 147 177 139 181 

Kirkland 293 217 50 261 399 530 394 496 424 

Lee 259 375 27 237 346 351 357 325 374 

Marcy 81 173 15 106 185 203 157 186 186 

Marshall 166 228 1 116 289 281 146 289 211 

New Hartford . . 359 487 43 161 503 575 218 557 260 

Paris 320 255 31 155 520 617 266 526 289 

R<?mseu 170 114 30 99 345 409 213 374 253 

Rome 632 839 231 846 650 837 934 768 1,239 

Sangerfield .... 223 257 8 194 286 265 230 251 278 

Steuben 161 102 5 72 211 255 81 232 102 

Trenton 301 262 10 120 554 600 194 586 228 

Utica (1) 138 148 39 127 117 128 161 106 203 

Utica (2) 196 177 51 158 232 278 275 290 330 

Utica (3) 276 178 81 151 342 384 255 447 280 

Utica (4) 333 260 88 252 414 428 290 474 291 

Utica (5) 229 299 54 394 389 191 388 163 479 

Utica (6) 198 206 66 282 252 365 423 343 532 

Utica (7) 373 257 380 338 

Vernon 274 240 56 135 416 429 224 414 252 

Verona 479 496 180 178 402 692 345 663 624 

Vienna 225 378 23 118 291 322 235 434 398 

Western 117 362 40 250 235 250 288 254 288 

"Wfstnioreland . . 292 262 72 130 479 464 214 427 280 

Whitestown 460 335 98 186 525 436 196 523 384 

Total 7,661 8,473 1,6.32 6,009 10,064 12,387 8,780 12,044 10,924 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 



185 



Annsville . 
Augusta . . 

Ava 

Boonville . 
Bridgewatei- 
Camdeu . . 
Deerfield . 
Florence . . 
Floyd .... 
Forestport 
Kirkland . 

Lee 

Marcy . . . 
Marshall . . 
New H 'rtf 
Paris .... 
Remseu . . 
Rome (1) 
Rome (2) 
Rome (3) 
Rome (4) 
Rome (5) 
Sangerfield 
Steuben . . 
Trenton . . 



Utica 

Utiea 

Utica 

Utica 

Utiea 

Utiea 

Utica 

Utica 

Utica 

Utica 

Utica 

Utica 

Vernon . . . 

Verona . . . . 

Vienna . . . . 

Western . . . 



(1) 
2) 
3) 

:4) 

5) 
6) 
7) 
) 

9) 
(10) 

(11) 
(12) 



o 

03 d 

s§ 

B 

282 
316 
131 
624 
192 
557 
246 
163 
148 

531 
327 
175 
302 
562 
516 
399 
I860 



so 

3- 



350 
208 
127 
428 
106 
289 
241 
387 
162 

478 
350 
178 
210 
291 
317 
235 
1 1,307 



280 
289 
131 
633 
180 
554 
270 

139 
141 
500 
*2 
202 
253 
590 
486 
275 
11,115 



g 

303 
194 
90 
331 
104 
281 
182 
*159 
125 
126 
503 

116 
229 
270 
272 
39 
|1,196 



287 337 ... *13 

222 92 215 58 

624 199 562 164 

12,409 12,912 |3,027 12,791 



284 
*39 
74 
635 
181 
540 
270 

145 

570 
316 
197 
268 
555 
494 
264 
222 
153 
217 
232 
375 
342 
199 
648 
140 
307 
636 
440 
54 
141 
696 
272 
465 
216 



372 

94 
429 
156 
349 
264 
*278 
155 

488 
*356 
170 
306 
314 
357 

54 
330 
300 
453 
277 
278 
433 

98 
182 
158 
463 
442 
236 
244 
270 
585 
429 
482 
243 



455 257 412 266 

652 507 692 333 

149 112 372 231 

252 310 307 238 



155 104 

480 349 

*12 

277 317 






310 
321 
138 
686 
186 
574 
400 
184 
124 
185 
496 

184 
283 
616 
210 
551 
234 
160 
254 
223 
406 
351 
198 
644 
144 
341 
394 
463 
88 
163 
335 
326 
471 
208 
279 
421 
448 
639 
335 
323 



II 



315 
253 
128 
385 
128 
309 
223 
274 
145 
169 
586 

76 
175 
236 
367 
360 

63 
336 
252 
411 
268 
260 
399 

92 
189 
119 
424 
277 
249 
254 
252 
372 
468 
550 
258 
208 
327 
336 
565 
331 
280 



299 
303 
127 
574 
160 
579 
278 
202 
121 
210 
537 
221 
198 
295 
517 
405 
204 
263 
150 
223 
234 
425 
324 
151 
528 
164 
345 
404 
446 
85 
156 
378 
367 
530 
209 
317 
463 
430 
539 
294 
255 



£ 
a 

301 

273 

123 

472 

164 

333 

241 

261 

140 

168 

600 

337 

158 

288 

423 

402 

67 
392 
311 
431 
303 
282 
423 

97 
227 
120 
501 
341 
308 
249 
306 
388 
576 
574 
271 
235 
371 
354 
647 
314 
289 



186 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 



1884 



|| 






o 



11 



p- 



n 















« 


g_ 




Si 


<,g 


1=Q 


ai- 


CO 


N 





Westiuor'l'nd 438 266 407 254 431 261 442 253 353 221 
Whitestown . 546 365 307 177 631 387 644 407 529 528 



Total . . 


.12,36511,02112,475 


9,629 12,561 11,415 14,382 12,329 13,790 1 


3,809 


•Majority 
tTotal 






ISSS 


1S92 




189C 




1000 


1804 


J 


1^ 

>*« — 

1 


a 

Is 

> 
£ 

■J 


s 

■c- 

II 


3 

5 


^ a 
5 — 


c 

He 




c 
t 

a — 


p 


1 

5 


AnnsviUe . . 


. 350 


292 


225 


236 


268 


223 


257 


160 


259 


187 


Augusta . . . 


. 303 


274 


249 


200 


295 


191 


337 


205 


335 


200 


Ava 


. 126 


119 


94 


101 


93 


109 


107 


93 


66 


32 


Boonville . . 


. 669 


429 


549 


357 


652 


301 


657 


288 


582 


345 


Bridgewater 


179 


141 


167 


118 


213 


63 


222 


82 


186 


81 


Camden . . . 


. 602 


319 


543 


313 


751 


184 


766 


227 


680 


333 


Deerfield . . 


. 294 


223 


213 


162 


267 


160 


284 


166 


254 


170 


Florence . . . 


. 188 


252 


157 


179 


172 


164 


189 


160 


175 


160 


Floyd 


. 150 


124 


114 


115 


117 


91 


131 


90 






Forestport . 


. 238 


149 


222 


113 


283 


126 


239 


94 


242 


110 


Kirkland . . 


. 597 


617 


491 


532 


585 


486 


653 


498 


641 


423 


Lee 


. 262 


291 


241 


249 


263 


175 


277 


202 


222 


214 


Marcy 


. 219 


153 


*25 


• . • 


235 


135 


223 


140 


224 


152 


Marshall . . 


. 314 


252 


259 


256 


220 


171 


289 


217 


309 


185 


New H'rtf'r 


d 655 


467 


495 


323 


618 


281 


750 


413 


760 


405 


Paris 


. 465 


398 


395 


382 


457 


305 


428 


302 


390 


269 


Remsen .... 


. 226 


82 


205 


65 


230 


55 


231 


55 


206 


55 


Rome ( 1 ) 


. 356 


476 


299 


394 


390 


335 


477 


398 


200 


267 


Rome ( 2 ) 


. 226 


313 


196 


284 


243 


212 


271 


261 


254 


279 


Rome ( 3 ) 


. 269 


483 


230 


379 


277 


341 


330 


406 


349 


419 


Rome ( 4 ) 


. 306 


333 


283 


314 


397 


204 


400 


284 


417 


365 


Rome ( 5 ) 


. 492 


288 


438 


294 


574 


209 


598 


284 


333 


184 


Rome ( 6 ) 




. - . 


> • ■ 


■ > ■ 






... 




346 


155 


Rome ( 7 ) 






. . . 


. . . 


• • > 








252 


243 


Sangerfield 


. 388 


403 


358 


363 


407 


230 


377 


281 


346 


264 


Steuben . . . 


. 180 


73 


164 


65 


144 


72 


157 


73 


142 


61 


Trenton . . . 


. 505 


201 


452 


169 


569 


134 


551 


143 


511 


138 


Utica ( 1 ) 


. 182 


106 


166 


110 


189 


101 


187 


155 


160 


140 



HISTORY OF ONKIDA COUNTY 



187 



1892 



1900 



1904 



H 




a 

s 

a 


11 
1 


a 

o 

Kg 

t~ 
a 


•o 
a 

!i 

1 

o 


i 


d 

CO 

t 

ie 
a 


d 

|5 
1 


d 
t 

IB 

1 


f 


£ 

< 


Utica 


'2) 


. 426 


492 


386 


490 


618 


402 


508 


461 


472 


513 


Utica 


'3) 


435 


336 


397 


351 


524 


255 


517 


292 


521 


351 


Utica 


'4) 


516 


351 


433 


281 


527 


223 


516 


263 


492 


302 


Utica 


'5) 


110 


273 


76 


245 


145 


172 


166 


153 


165 


208 


Utica 


6) 


202 


314 


184 


296 


296 


225 


260 


275 


275 


341 


Utica 


7) 


497 


450 


564 


507 


810 


418 


846 


492 


985 


551 


Utica 


'8) 


525 


784 


575 


908 


1,074 


982 


797 


985 


896 


1,137 


Utica 


'9) 


646 


773 


545 


825 


914 


611 


602 


659 


669 


685 


Utica 


10) 


261 


281 


226 


301 


334 


248 


298 


283 


338 


351 


Utica 


11) 


431 


277 


442 


287 


539 


263 


579 


347 


564 


410 


Utica 


12) 


657 


424 


690 


545 


956 


443 


563 


405 


636 


460 


Utica 


13) 


. . . 






. . . 




. . . 


294 


257 


368 


305 


Utica 


14) 


. . . 








. . . 


. . . 


293 


224 


377 


251 


Utica 


15) 




. . . 




. . . 




. . . 


516 


250 


544 


284 


Vernon 




474 


345 


425 


297 


500 


237 


513 


288 


531 


322 


Verona 




4,674 


562 


489 


495 


431 


269 


596 


413 


574 


429 


Vienna 




320 


335 


268 


282 


356 


211 


351 


217 


311 


234 


Wester 


u . . . 


276 


252 


242 


234 


282 


175 


263 


191 


254 


194 


Westm 


or'l'nc 


I 391 


229 


323 


250 


361 


175 


394 


160 


342 


181 


Whites 


town 
al .. 


657 


537 


665 


570 


895 


426 


922 


504 


924 


578 


Tot 


16,241 14,275 14,150 13,297 18,471 10,793 19,182 12,796 19,079 ] 


3,923 


•Majori 


ty 





1908 



(-6. 
at 

I I 

Annsville 254 

Augusta 320 

Ava 76 

Boonville 595 

Bridgewater 159 

Camden 596 

Deerfield 242 

Florence 148 

Floyd 147 

Forestport 77 

Kirkland 665 



a~ 

184 
210 

75 
349 

94 
327 
199 
160 

83 
105 
477 



188 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 



B a 



Lee 244 208 

Marcv 212 158 

Marshall 289 224 

New Hartford 835 517 

Paris 442 286 

Remseu 210 63 

Rome (1) 220 244 

Rome (2) 275 239 

Rome (3) 340 423 

Rome (4) 442 373 

Rome (5) 382 211 

Rome (6) 311 209 

Rome (7) 278 287 

Saiagerfield 325 292 

Steuben 123 67 

Trenton 414 160 

Utica ( 1 ) 110 181 

Utica ( 2 ) 435 489 

Utica ( 3 ) 548 349 

Utica ( 4 ) 477 279 

Utica ( 5 ) 176 168 

Utica ( 6 ) 258 368 

Utica ( 7 ) 1,032 613 

Utica (8) 1,044 1,126 

Utica ( 9 ) 654 763 

Utica (10) 345 324 

Utica (11) 647 452 

Utica (12) 606 534 

Utica (13) 423 399 

Utica (14) 395 336 

Utica (15) 601 338 

Vernon 522 340 

Vfi-ona 540 340 

Vienna 320 228 

"Western 237 176 

AVestmorelaiul 347 186 

Wliitestown 837 679 



Total 19,155 14,963 

VOTES FOR GOVERNORS 

The votes for governors in the several towns and wards of Oneida county from 
1801 to 1912 are given in the followiiifr taWo, so far as the snmc are attainable. 
It will aj)pear that certain towns, originally a part of Oneida county, ai'c dropped 
when they ceased to be a part of the county. ha\'ing been taken off in the organi- 
zation of St. Lawrence, Lewis, Jefferson and Oswego counties. 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 189 



1801 



s 


s" 




•g 

o 

(■5 


ij 

it 

< 


a 


a- 


s 

si 
1 

o 


1 


1 

e 

g 




Adam8 


. . . 




89 


41 


. . . 












Augusta 


22 


175 


131 


87 


139 


176 


150 


200 


74 


126 


Boonville .... 










11 


74 


15 


52 


11 


80 


Bridgewater . . 


5 


130 


41 


63 


52 


67 


63 


88 


65 


72 


Brownville . . . 




. . . 


26 


65 




. . . 










Bengal 














46 


25 


37 


43 


Camden 


11 


36 


84 


65 


64 


88 


68 


110 


44 


129 


Champion . . . 


17 


29 


30 


61 






. . . 








Constantia . . . 












. . . 


7 


19 


6 


23 


Deerfield .... 


20 


41 


45 


55 


52 


41 


62 


55 


70 


65 


Ellisburgh . . . 




. . . 


. . > 


. . • 




. . , 


. . . 








Floyd 


38 


34 


88 


22 


125 


17 


99 


28 


151 


55 


Florence 










27 


25 


33 


29 


20 


22 


Fredericksburgh 








. . . 


2 


5 


5 


6 






Harrisburgh . 






33 


100 














Leyden 


14 


59 


74 


43 








. . . 






Lo^v^'iIle 


28 


7 


140 


29 






. . . 




. . . 




Lee 
















. . . 


89 


26 


Mexico 

Martinsburgh . 


17 


8 


27 
64 


10 

1 


53 


33 


62 


61 


43 


73 


Paris 


47 


612 


128 


403 


143 


412 


187 


465 


158 


500 


Rutland 


• • > 




85 


49 








. . . 






Remsen 


1 


32 


32 


9 


16 


22 


19 


14 


15 


17 


Redfield 


24 




50 




53 




54 


3 


57 


2 


Richland .... 










37 


25 


73 


79 


71 


125 


Rome 


84 


60 


96 


33 


138 


68 


100 


82 


116 


76 


Steuben 


3 


47 


74 


27 


89 


42 


83 


57 


45 


58 


Scriba 


• • > 


• * . 


• ■ * 




. . . 




. . . 


. . . 


23 


6 


Sangerfield . . 


. . . 




40 


89 


34 


118 


44 


133 


42 


137 


Turin 


1 


48 


60 


47 




. . . 






. . . 




Trenton 


1 


51 


14 


47 


31 


66 


45 


82 


55 


103 


Verona 






68 


15 


81 


36 


98 


53 


91 


76 


Vernon 






73 


93 


102 


78 


88 


102 


142 


213 


Volney 


. . . 








. . . 


. . , 




. . . 


5 


26 


Watertown . . . 


29 


27 


105 


58 


. . . 




. . > 


. . . 






Westmoreland . 


23 


149 


35 


63 


54 


101 


48 


93 


64 


143 


Whitestown . . . 


27 


485 


128 


278 


144 


322 


161 


372 


161 


364 


Williamstown . 










37 


11 


34 


48 


30 


56 


Western 


91 


12 


248 


7 


295 


1 


255 


20 


210 


15 



503 2042 2108 1860 1779 1828 1899 2276 1895 2631 



190 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 






3- 






Augusta 73 134 

Boonville .... 40 62 

Bridgewater . . 63 81 

Bengal 30 21 

Camden 53 97 

Constantia ... 5 11 

Deerfield 78 48 

Floyd 109 27 

Florence 14 19 

Lee 97 35 

Mexico 19 21 

New Haven . . 33 31 

OnveU 

Paris 186 433 

Hemsen 16 9 

Eedfield 38 ... 

Kichland 139 115 

Rome 116 108 

Steuben 41 54 

Scriba 15 9 

Sangerfield ... 58 125 

Trenton 83 100 

Utica 

Verona 104 73 

Vienna 

Vernon 80 127 

Volney 15 19 

Westmoreland . 65 155 

WTiitestown ..140 355 

'Williamsto\\7i. 43 44 

Western 140 14 



Q 

105 

54 

104 



86 
17 
72 
97 
28 
95 
42 
45 
24 

340 
31 
28 
51 

124 
35 
15 
96 
95 



101 

75 

106 

2 

154 

293 

38 

129 



2 66 104 183 14 

. . 24 36 54 44 

1 35 86 95 102 



69 88 221 
59 15 90 
87 65 181 



3 
17 



89 166 
30 25 



33 

72 
16 
123 
17 
20 
54 



97 
61 
41 
32 
64 
12 
15 



74 

91 

103 

162 

40 

136 



129 430 
... 31 



41 
66 



9 
64 



96 140 

44 51 

16 108 

26 142 

41 133 

25 122 

78 95 

20 149 

20 196 

61 21 

95 135 

103 260 

64 32 

134 24 



62 
241 



64 47 111 253 
3 72 10 . . . 



81 95 

47 140 

17 31 

19 126 



84 210 

41 176 

18 59 

27 185 



126 

68 8 

272 409 252 269 621 

29 9 16 23 58 



391 

354 22 222 
122 3 74 



44 412 
5 115 



121 97 

122 167 
244 64 
180 50 

80 71 

140 151 

147 35 

207 104 

359 141 



26 
13 



72 89 321 

108 122 221 

90 448 

S3 262 

58 164 

164 219 

39 ... 

154 109 352 

294 120 600 

12 ... 

5 263 



139 

134 

73 

67 

108 



51 
197 



14 



2 
1 



1893 2327 2387 43 1638 2881 4205 1761 2687 1691 5431 34 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 191 



1824 



■35 t^ 



6 e I 

Annsville .... 76 116 

Augusta 126 222 

Ava 

Boonville .... 120 92 
Bridgewater . . 113 135 

Camden 54 161 

Deerfield 149 204 

Florence 45 34 

Floyd 154 90 

Kirkland 

Lee 193 77 

Marcy 

Marshall 

New Hartford 

Paris 287 704 

Remsen 47 52 

Rome 277 257 

Sangerfield ... 91 228 

Steuben 116 49 

Trenton 117 250 

Utica 150 384 

Vernon 52 391 

Verona 178 187 

Vienna 80 139 

Western 310 41 

Westmoreland. 250 230 
Whitestown . . 255 516 



15 


1 


§1 

.as 


u 
li 

aS 

a| 


si 

.a 

S9 


n 

OS 

11 






58 


145 


96 


157 


142 


75 


150 


129 


188 


164 


243 


225 


247 


208 


305 


248 


115 


126 


163 


180 


188 


29 


263 


217 


93 


130 


127 


112 


132 


167 


124 


174 


50 


183 


90 


186 


146 


167 


175 


194 


132 


169 


291 


213 


272 


147 


230 


145 


43 


44 


77 


42 


71 


49 


99 


60 


122 


92 


183 


125 


206 


77 


217 


97 






251 


505 


215 


171 


222 


284 


160 


92 


323 


107 


242 


14 


383 
160 


113 

97 








. • • 


140 


117 


192 


219 






163 


328 


188 


264 


200 


325 


233 


511 


165 


319 


205 


261 


214 


317 


26 


75 


45 


132 


77 


74 


77 


153 


297 


235 


448 


299 


354 


192 


434 


353 


63 


199 


151 


235 


196 


173 


235 


221 


103 


42 


127 


114 


115 


130 


139 


152 


122 


201 


169 


353 


229 


212 


259 


323 


246 


460 


470 


715 


501 


323 


470 


689 


76 


343 


196 


367 


290 


277 


289 


331 


160 


162 


351 


206 


295 


232 


358 


255 


100 


166 


165 


142 


181 


113 


265 


110 


236 


33 


380 


50 


346 


15 


387 


41 


205 


199 


253 


276 


266 


252 


281 


301 


244 


409 


203 


349 


292 


247 


342 


378 



3240 4559 3072 4180 5130 5737 5536 4086 6470 5926 

In 1828, Solomon Southwick, the anti-Masonic candidate for governor, re- 
ceived 136 votes in the county. In 1824 the votes of Steuben were rejected by 
the county canvassers on account of an error in the date of returns (1823 in- 
stead of the right year) by a vote of 9 to 8. 



192 HISTORY OF ONETDA COUNTY 



1834 



i 



S3 «S i§ IS BQ ll g= °J 



a — ' 



a- s 



Aunsville .... 153 99 133 73 159 115 191 177 189 126 

Augusta 314 231 236 101 227 117 257 204 229 176 

Ava 

Boonville .... 247 172 196 113 218 227 460 333 290 268 

Bridgewater . . 135 159 134 66 146 121 154 158 149 120 

Camden 171 223 138 168 161 176 173 279 169 165 

Deerfield 247 150 193 71 226 104 271 167 183 102 

Florence 113 74 107 23 113 41 127 82 135 47 

Floyd 191 82 162 40 159 56 219 86 172 56 

Kirkland 267 323 220 215 258 241 284 323 264 290 

Lee 335 135 286 88 317 97 453 149 392 136 

Marey 168 104 151 27 140 66 211 126 157 67 

Marshall 222 206 161 104 190 130 235 210 176 139 

New Hartford. 191 344 163 248 162 331 231 391 203 307 

Paris 219 297 146 204 237 197 244 315 225 229 

Remsen 72 163 85 71 67 163 94 214 91 140 

Rome 497 295 465 104 464 359 578 519 569 410 

Sangerfield ... 236 222 182 141 236 190 281 248 268 192 

Steuben 152 154 137 60 116 141 138 195 124 117 

Trenton 265 310 212 216 242 237 311 348 268 277 

Utica 472 776 461 503 603 658 785 877 776 796 

Vernon 309 302 254 125 318 309 270 326 254 264 

Verona 364 261 259 149 227 256 485 391 415 351 

Vienna 252 121 233 32 273 86 334 152 339 99 

Western 373 47 357 8 358 52 475 104 373 57 

We.stmoreland. 243 286 217 179 240 237 315 305 280 268 

Whitestown . . 315 415 223 238 244 354 322 424 265 359 



6523 5951 5511 3367 6101 5061 7898 7103 6955 5558 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 



193 



18»0 



Aiinsville . . 
Augusta . . 

Ava 

Boonville . . 
Bridgewater 
Cainden . . . 
Deerfield . . 
Florenee . . 

Floyd 

Kirkland . . 

Lee 

Marcy .... 
Marsliall .. 
New Hartford. 

Paris 

Renisen 

Rome 

Saugerfield . . 

Steuben 

Trenton 

Utiea 

Vernon 

Verona 

Vienna 

Western .... 
"Westmoreland 
Whitestown . 







o 


















£ 

o 
c 


-J .a 








■? 


E 

C 


3 
c 


a 

3 






h 


1- 


c 


£q 


'^_ 


pE 


11 






Ig 


mi 




il 




Is 


E5 




11 


'£ 


s 


^^ 


7J 


g 


«a 


to 

n 


•3M 

1-3 — 


n 


fe 


210 


173 


23 


194 


152 


143 


175 


72 


245 


165 


233 


173 


52 


169 


166 


152 


177 


102 


221 


195 








34 


94 


15 


71 


72 


98 


88 


336 


305 


16 


145 


255 


96 


231 


206 


349 


324 


164 


131 


22 


129 


103 


120 


130 


39 


152 


115 


210 


209 


59 


135 


190 


56 


183 


251 


292 


249 


23.3 


142 


54 


166 


108 


99 


99 


193 


256 


101 


179 


86 


45 


49 


117 


30 


60 


195 


298 


86 


193 


80 


16 


151 


58 


125 


57 


46 


191 


71 


, 266 


311 


28 


220 


292 


125 


283 


180 


276 


268 


432 


188 


31 


269 


158 


210 


163 


178 


368 


222 


, 212 


104 


15 


116 


66 


57 


62 


100 


174 


73 


. 221 


199 


27 


183 


133 


54 


138 


170 


167 


194 


. 240 


399 


33 


169 


342 


166 


345 


87 


237 


340 


. 264 


316 


66 


228 


272 


112 


299 


241 


272 


385 


. 120 


202 


31 


63 


156 


32 


158 


116 


132 


196 


. 577 


516 


35 


382 


433 


410 


479 


198 


677 


560 


285 


222 


7 


210 


183 


169 


189 


111 


271 


178 


140 


190 


37 


53 


142 


58 


124 


94 


141 


141 


293 


337 


79 


202 


292 


64 


271 


256 


271 


344 


. 852 


1,034 


109 


530 


1,087 


449 


1,034 


703 


1,201 


1,059 


, 301 


304 


36 


240 


244 


113 


243 


143 


270 


295 


494 


451 


25 


332 


417 


200 


420 


200 


436 


517 


371 


108 


38 


292 


88 


46 


119 


315 


419 


173 


354 


116 


25 


37 


266 


281 


67 


72 


325 


137 


296 


282 


48 


213 


235 


137 


210 


207 


301 


291 


325 


404 


94 


183 


382 


149 


372 


212 


290 


465 



7,903 6,982 1,051 5,094 6,431 3,768 6,059 4,759 8,430 7,232 



194 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 



§ i i « I « I III 

ga &a "a "-3 -= la '^e £5 "2 '■s 2 = 

§? mg uS ^3 W3 ai ^S -H= c" -= -S 

=* oa oQ -s =a 5a an <= c" «° S" 



8! 



S a 5 £ J3 S 2 



S -5 ■= E 



s 

I 

Aimsville 21-i 2SG 1 178 199 36 183 268 2-19 294 23 

Aiigiista 190 223 26 217 261 8 151 292- 2-46 164 2 

Ava Ill 130 11 98 100 23 105 99 88 64 4 

Boouville 270 323 138 175 529 558 256 55 

Bridgewater 130 144 5 100 147 31 78 159 153 109 1 

Camdou 265 269 2 215 188 67 149 452 444 267 13 

Deerfield 112 272 22 110 322 215 201 14 

Florence 145 258 . . 61 173 10 125 149 135 323 41 

Floyd 67 213 130 84 39 12 144 129 13S 154 9 

Kirkland 299 320 51 293 239 62 274 384 434 336 26 

Lee 269 373 1 274 257 32 243 334 333 275 7 

Marey 72 195 7 98 120 9 117 182 264 119 10 

Marsiiall 1G6 232 1 106 241 . . 128 278 219 158 14 

New Hartford 12 382 261 45 166 499 548 170 2 

Paris 325 269 29 327 250 43 155 503 469 226 14 

Remsen 233 183 . . 170 120 30 87 358 314 155 4 

Rome 646 845 68 604 715 220 890 651 680 930 39 

Sangerfield 219 265 14 125 285 3 204 277 237 216 22 

Steubeu 171 108 2 136 128 5 72 211 217 72 1 

Trenton 308 292 7 176 149 11 12S 545 520 172 3 

Utica (1) 116 170 12 81 171 32 129 114 124 143 3 

" (2) 164 228 7 172 194 56 174 212 135 226 7 

" (3) 233 229 12 288 190 92 158 321 363 196 43 

" (4) 279 356 10 367 306 95 255 408 397 229 39 

" (5) 167 371 5 259 407 72 406 359 136 364 13 

" (6) 187 220 6 182 327 65 297 234 382 394 19 

" (7) 296 192 8 

Vernon 258 304 13 211 263 54 112 418 366 182 32 

Verona 507 491 42 516 371 123 161 399 608 388 50 

Vienna 231 3S3 23 123 290 374 260 3 

Western 125 369 26 217 255 48 256 222 251 261 . . 

Westmoreland .... 300 285 31 298 236 81 140 460 15 147 25 

Whitestown 452 353 35 369 323 102 190 517 45S 2.50 31 

Total 7.231 8,859 576 6,604 6,915 1,650 6,105 10,575 10,342 7,674 655 



HISTORY OF ONETDA COUNTY 



195 





a 

S 

o 




f 


3 
o 


c 
o^ 

If 




c 
o 

11 


s 

1- 


2 


c 

1 


i 


a— 


"^d 

wB 


^1 


op 


. o 

SB 


=5 


|B 

3 


E-iS 


% 


Ȥ 
f^9 


§ 


1- 




i" 


o 


£1 




1 


1 


1 




S 


i-s 


»-) 


w 


a 


K 


^ 


" 




^ 


Auusville . . . . 


317 


314 


... 


44 


303 


353 


312 


322 


279 


353 


Augusta 


316 


191 


275 


166 


317 


197 


311 


204 


317 


207 


Ava 


133 


115 


113 


127 


145 


148 


144 


120 


131 


126 


Boonville 


639 


342 


476 


383 


582 


426 


584 


407 


620 


433 


Bridgewater . . 


198 


111 


176 


106 


195 


108 


198 


105 


189 


109 


Camden 


513 


236 


435 


255 


496 


297 


559 


286 


553 


303 


Deerfield 


257 


234 


207 


270 


240 


280 


235 


269 


242 


244 


Florence 


179 


343 


112 


363 


125 


422 


137 


424 


159 


391 


Floyd 


148 


177 


111 


172 


140 


180 


143 


168 


148 


156 


Kirkland . . . . 


528 


385 


415 


372 


497 


423 


528 


436 


531 


478 


Lee 


347 


361 




*51 


333 


367 


333 


357 


316 


353 


Marey 


201 


160 


167 


181 


183 


189 


182 


202 


170 


182 


Marshall 


275 


152 


231 


180 


290 


214 


293 


193 


296 


214 


New Hartford 


577 


215 


492 


244 


557 


261 


589 


273 


563 


292 


Paris 


515 


260 


482 


248 


530 


286 


557 


296 


515 


317 


Remsen 


408 


214 


332 


213 


376 


252 


402 


248 


401 


241 




816 


971 


596 


1,061 


769 


1,240 


804 


1,195 


858 


1,309 


Sangerfield . . 


264 


230 


232 


260 


246 


285 


253 


317 


284 


339 


Steuben 


254 


82 


203 


97 


234 


101 


146 


102 


221 


94 


Trenton .... 


603 


292 


538 


200 


588 


227 


532 


187 


626 


199 


Utica (1) ... 


128 


162 


94 


189 


105 


205 


123 


227 J2,413 t2,913 


" (2).... 


278 


278 


223 


305 


292 


331 


271 


372 






" (3).... 


382 


251 


231 


245 


445 


282 


404 


374 






" (4).--. 


433 


279 


400 


278 


463 


301 


483 


324 






" (5).... 


192 


385 


136 


402 


161 


480 


220 


511 






" (6).... 


363 


429 


287 


462 


342 


532 


379 


562 






" (7).... 


372 


258 


332 


275 


376 


340 


418 


361 






Vernon 


425 


228 


311 


129 


427 


251 


432 


260 


459 


253 


Verona 


695 


306 


499 


530 


667 


622 


636 


608 


647 


511 


Vienna 


315 


242 


352 


330 


438 


392 


356 


368 


147 


114 


Western .... 


250 


296 


• . < 


• • > 


257 


287 




*49 


251 


310 


Westmoreland 


461 


218 


351 


276 


434 


278 


482 


263 


439 


265 


Whitestown . 


435 


159 


419 


323 


520 


364 


544 


396 


547 


364 


Total ..1 


2,218 

n Utica. 


8,786 


9,328 


8,737 12,073 10,931 11,995 10,846 12,312 ] 


11,072 


• Majority. 
tTotal vote 1 





196 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 



a 



f 

Annsville .... 264 

Augusta 295 

Ava 122 

Boouville .... 593 

Bridgewater . . 169 

Camdeu 553 

Deerfield 241 

Florence 168 

Floyd 136 

Forestport ... 122 

Kirkland 518 

Lee 309 

Marcy 182 

Marshall 266 

New Hartford. 498 

Paris 478 

Remsen 260 

Rome (1) 74 

" (2) 99 

" (3) 151 

" (4) 155 

" (5) 390 

Sangerfield . . . 256 

Steuben 198 

Trenton 578 

Utica (1) 118 

.. 273 

,. 499 

,. 529 

.. 129 

.. 145 

,. 437 

.. 140 

.. 306 



(2).. 

(3) . . 

(4).. 

(5).. 

(6).. 

(7).. 

(8).. 

(9).. 

(10) 

Vernon 424 

Verona 532 

Vienna 369 

Western 215 

"We.stmoroland . 427 
Whitestown . . 520 



273 

288 
127 
625 
179 
550 
251 

144 
130 

491 

# 

196 
254 
580 
479 
269 



327 
193 
103 
446 
100 
322 
227 
346 
152 
158 
471 
330 
142 
194 
265 
294 

62 

157 tl,041 
259 
353 
222 

311 ... 
330 • 

80 211 
201 575 
192 +2,720 
342 
334 
298 
358 
153 
360 
290 
338 






317 
206 
105 
347 
107 
305 
212 
212 
118 
140 
516 
15 
125 
238 
282 
285 
46 
tl,290 









e 

o 



210 316 
276 219 



*213 
165 
431 
221 
123 
121 
135 
459 
243 
174 
226 
470 
407 
241 

t967 



130 
301 
232 
343 
125 
150 
497 
308 
135^ 
217 ' 
328 
284 
54 
tl,450 



75 

60 

191 

t3,044 



248 
584 
316 
327 
264 
368 



410 
674 
361 
309 
406 
297 



273 
365 
257 
243 

254 

187 



271 
186 
547 
147 
219 
484 
389 
44 
104 
501 
208 
330 
202 
368 
810 
289 
194 
340 
573 



373 
60 
171 
151 
402 
409 
222 
233 
215 
461 
350 
385 
212 
285 
622 
317 
288 
223 
385 



280 
*39 
75 
556 
282 
536 
271 

147 

567 
315 
199 
267 
535 
485 
262 
218 
154 
214 
234 
372 
340 
203 
645 
136 
310 
635 
444 
58 
139 
696 
293 
463 
213 
154 
471 

267 
425 
613 



:S. ?s 



377 

95 
340 
156 
356 
264 
273 
156 

492 
356 
169 
306 
351 
358 

54 
335 
297 
453 
276 
282 
434 

94 
187 
162 
402 
442 
231 
239 
266 
590 
410 
484 
247 
105 
358 
•16 
318 
273 
394 



218 
229 
124 
598 
166 
436 
246 
135 
104 
148 
390 
223 
151 
220 
464 
399 
207 
171 
120 
160 
181 
332 
287 

57 
516 
129 
297 
577 
392 

75 
155 
578 
231 
370 
220 
358 
535 
284 
289 
332 
486 



SB 
3 = 



259 
228 
134 
407 
128 
319 
211 
213 
135 
145 
264 
331 
176 
145 
360 
358 
65 
329 
233 
392 
249 
242 
340 
6 
200 
110 
355 
411 
218 
163 
227 
557 
369 
501 
201 
298 
437 
275 
275 
127 
334 



Total . . . .11,874 10,288 11,840 9,815 11,258 10,853 12,510 11,398 11,590 10,727 



• Majority. 

IT'^tnl %*olc In I'dCft. 



HISTORY OP ONETDA COUNTY 197 

B2 1886 1888 1891 1804 



S s - „ s _ I I I _ 

s^ s- 9- 9- 3- 3~ 5- ^~ f- 3' 

^^ Sd S- ™fl G- "fl S^ *'ri 5-- He 

s^ "9 S§ ?S tS 29 "5 39 aS 2? 



a 



Annsville 207 335 298 234 346 297 154 170 230 223 

Augusta 146 255 254 254 292 281 240 227 257 221 

Ava 101 118 118 92 127 118 92 104 95 87 

Boonville .... 411 423 535 426 673 420 555 353 621 323 

Bridgewater . . 86 140 147 142 180 139 138 120 169 113 

Camden 364 392 482 265 633 288 418 298 617 250 

Deerfield 193 215 267 211 288 228 202 172 242 146 

Florence 143 241 144 224 190 248 139 192 156 172 

Floyd 89 140 122 114 144 130 110 123 121 110 

Forestport ... 123 157 219 122 247 141 190 106 235 101 

Kirkland 224 583 470 529 576 639 421 494 508 450 

Lee 171 360 193 306 253 296 222 241 245 188 

Marcy 121 191 164 129 214 158 163 183 191 164 

Marshall 136 192 248 209 291 277 245 217 195 190 

New Hartford. 241 490 462 370 619 497 539 415 422 307 

Paris 238 372 356 284 465 394 337 337 372 270 

Remsen 163 85 198 62 232 75 187 55 203 56 

Rome (1) 178 333 252 351 350 485 316 401 326 387 

" (2) 122 274 149 271 160 374 187 259 209 240 

" (3) 159 120 186 361 250 502 225 379 227 355 

" (4) 178 296 216 249 305 330 276 302 309 269 

" (5) 274 318 376 239 500 285 419 311 492 224 

Sangerfield ... 188 341 323 377 366 422 332 358 356 302 

Steuben 156 80 153 63 178 67 125 65 156 52 

Trenton 327 270 477 205 502 196 432 136 517 138 

Utiea (1) 137 141 135 92 161 127 160 110 174 106 

(2) 164 515 362 358 397 526 407 462 477 452 

(3) 236 348 360 281 399 371 382 326 450 300 

(4) 304 322 438 256 511 349 316 299 475 267 

(5) 58 226 78 250 89 294 100 229 126 203 

(6) 103 267 163 254 119 392 176 274 238 266 

(7) 213 401 376 327 489 457 585 466 662 448 

(8) 211 489 286 555 472 834 474 866 737 945 

(9) 328 619 490 565 572 840 488 822 669 617 

(10) .... 160 273 204 245 245 297 229 295 269 294 

(11).... 233 263 339 204 412 292 393 274 451 324 

(12) ... . 275 334 437 296 636 448 635 465 786 478 

Vernon 263 345 358 277 468 352 387 297 459 25^ 

Verona 480 602 488 478 665 562 452 484 526 413 

Vienna 240 349 236 242 325 330 243 294 264 273 

Western 181 304 222 209 275 252 260 224 279 185 

Westmoreland. 120 315 282 190 381 234 275 237 319 204 

Wtitestown . . 291 536 520 482 658 536 620 543 695 474 

Total 8,736 13,770 12,583 11,650 15,660 14,786 13,236 13,074 15.527 11,880 



198 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 



180G 



I ^s ^1 

£ g 

Aimsville 269 228 

Augusta 286 202 

Ava 92 112 

Boonville 639 292 

Bridgewater 207 67 

Camden 724 201 

Deerfield 243 ISO 

Floreuce 164 164 

Floyd 114 99 

Forestport 280 129 

Kirkland 515 482 

Lee 260 177 

Marcy 227 146 

Jlarsiiall 304 187 

New Hartford 571 305 

Paris 438 316 

Rerasen 229 57 

Rome (1) 356 358 

" (2) 216 244 

" (3) 231 384 

" (4) 353 250 

" (5) 528 241 

Sangerfield 386 245 

Steuben 144 71 

Trenton 566 139 

Utiea (1) 186 95 

" (2) 520 488 

" (3) 473 312 

" (4) 479 236 

" (5) 124 192 

" (6) 229 302 

" (7) 762 467 

" (8) 944 1,073 

" (9) 771 816 

" (10) 304 277 

" (11) 500 297 

" (12) 877 500 

" (13) 

" (14) 

" (15) 

Vemon 484 246 



si 

•§5 


c 

il 

< 


i 

1 


1 

i? 

1 


C 

c — 

- & 

"= 




223 


197 


273 


147 


186 


209 


244 


249 


330 


216 


251 


203 


95 


110 


107 


94 


69 


110 


579 


415 


620 


325 


425 


349 


183 


92 


221 


84 


155 


88 


694 


255 


749 


247 


691 


266 


219 


185 


279 


172 


232 


157 


130 


180 


184 


163 


166 


184 


104 


101 


130 


91 


115 


80 


203 


152 


216 


117 


165 


132 


551 


481 


635 


515 


556 


498 


230 


215 


269 


210 


207 


207 


173 


164 


219 


147 


211 


159 


257 


204 


283 


221 


253 


179 


526 


332 


729 


430 


388 


346 


361 


309 


424 


323 


318 


286 


187 


57 


230 


58 


193 


57 


351 


456 


455 


420 


318 


479 


197 


274 


265 


268 


185 


297 


256 


416 


307 


417 


240 


396 


332 


294 


378 


304 


280 


352 


513 


308 


564 


318 


449 


382 


290 


317 


357 


305 


264 


276 


146 


57 


157 


73 


130 


69 


484 


187 


544 


154 


478 


174 


159 


124 


187 


71 


184 


39 


310 


555 


495 


474 


360 


532 


408 


328 


504 


304 


372 


338 


439 


282 


474 


306 


355 


335 


111 


192 


156 


163 


120 


167 


214 


335 


250 


285 


196 


351 


451 


293 


788 


548 


646 


632 


526 


972 


779 


1,008 


584 


1,122 


452 


726 


587 


682 


470 


690 


244 


296 


277 


308 


225 


349 


466 


374 


549 


300 


348 


389 


458 


427 


548 


422 


444 


477 


221 


314 


288 


265 


284 


256 


207 


228 


279 


236 


245 


292 


451 


266 


507 


258 


418 


320 


393 


299 


503 


296 


434 


302 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 



199 



1Si)(i 1888 11)00 1902 

H I ^ 9 I 3 

I I I S I S 

■3- B,- S~ >j m- S- (o_ •- 

S& bi E© 3? 5f "i 5§ £i 

s 2s sa ^s Is is «s |s «ie 

I I i I I I I I I 

Veroua 411 293 510 455 575 430 * 22 

Vienna 352 212 289 287 347 221 284 255 

Western 266 191 245 225 254 205 259 187 

Westmoreland 353 179 284 187 383 169 295 186 

Whitestown 859 455 763 563 899 528 693 661 

Total 17,236 11,901 15,129 13,739 18,554 13,493 14,028 13,982 

♦Majority. 



-9 

5 § 

o »- 

Annsville 244 

Augusta 316 

Ava 64 

Boonville 536 

Bridgewater 174 

Camden 651 

Deerfield 241 

Florence 169 

Floyd 

Forestport 230 

Kirkland 609 

Lee 213 

Marcy 215 

Marshall 299 

New Hartford 687 

Paris 375 

Remsen 195 

Rome (1) 175 

" (2) 232 

" (3) 325 

" (4) 367 

" (5) 306 

" (6) 304 

" (7) 236 

Sangerfield 307 



h 

5 

(0 

203 


i6 

M 
1 

265 


Kg 

IS 
3 

e 
169 


Si 

223 


6s 

SQ 
t 

197 


s 
1 

c 

w 
161 


■<S 

o 

193 


219 


290 


163 


318 


212 


247 


261 


34 


80 


65 


79 


76 


61 


72 


380 


522 


265 


574 


376 


500 


355 


92 


165 


60 


154 


100 


124 


91 


361 


690 


244 


599 


334 


453 


324 


185 


255 


162 


231 


208 


212 


192 


169 


152 


135 


148 


160 


107 


137 




116 


83 


120 


81 


83 


78 


119 


191 


85 


64 


136 


108 


104 


472 


607 


395 


639 


512 


563 


488 


226 


214 


182 


244 


213 


198 


196 


163 


217 


103 


213 


161 


169 


147 


200 


261 


161 


278 


237 


214 


196 


475 


729 


447 


815 


564 


700 


545 


282 


396 


212 


423 


303 


349 


221 


65 


210 


43 


208 


68 


183 


72 


292 


168 


216 


181 


263 


111 


223 


304 


169 


217 


264 


253 


180 


257 


445 


276 


334 


335 


432 


220 


380 


415 


329 


303 


446 


372 


366 


407 


211 


291 


186 


386 


212 


323 


250 


199 


277 


152 


318 


205 


277 


208 


259 


220 


234 


270 


295 


237 


271 


304 


332 


197 


302 


317 


188 


275 



200 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 



■s 



s 



"B^ w-^ S^ ." 3^ £* K" -^^ 

"d He EQ SS Bi US .c QS 

2« §0 SS is SS is fe -«B 

Steubeu 1-iO 64 123 41 126 65 95 67 

Trenton 492 153 501 97 527 153 419 183 

Utica (1) 39 200 82 164 76 216 44 203 

" (2) 423 561 396 380 401 521 203 554 

" (3) 478 397 523 267 516 398 331 413 

" (4) 441 350 452 211 436 320 321 359 

" (5) 153 219 133 174 162 187 105 184 

" (6) 241 377 206 292 225 399 192 360 

" (7) 870 664 951 484 1,017 631 801 360 

" (8) 832 1,198 715 1,006 956 1,201 668 1,259 

" (9) 593 763 533 618 601 812 442 777 

" (10) 295 395 321 267 315 353 134 336 

" (11) 509 465 555 354 620 486 509 507 

" (12) 582 513 546 412 577 571 513 516 

" (13) 337 335 325 313 387 432 377 442 

" (14) 337 288 278 279 348 386 301 338 

" (15) 485 334 488 283 579 359 486 380 

Vernon 515 344 474 257 526 346 438 314 

Verona 550 470 519 340 549 417 345 332 

Vienna 298 247 287 181 319 236 145 121 

Western 233 217 225 167 234 180 208 177 

Westmoreland 328 200 313 167 352 188 272 190 

Wliitestown 849 648 780 574 808 715 681 642 

Total 17,527 15,476 17,154 12,140 18,499 15,859 14,372 15.313 

POPULATION 

The following table gives the population ol' the county from its organization 

to the census of 1910. It will appear that certain towns, originally a part of 
Oneida county, are dropped from the tables when they ceased to be a part of the 

county, having been taken off in the organization of St. Lawrence, Lewis, Jeffer- 
son and Oswego counties. 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 



201 



1790 



1800 



1810 



1814 



1820 



1825 



Annsville 

Augusta 

Ava 

Boonville 

Bridgewater 

Camden 

Deerfield 

Florence 

Floyd 

Forestport 

Kirkland 

Lee 

Marcy 

Marshall 

New Hartford 

Paris 

Remsen 

Rome 

Sangerfield 

Steuben 

Trenton 

Utica 

Vernon 

Verona 

Vienna 

Western 

Westmoreland 

Whitestown 1,891 



1,598 2,004 2,377 2,771 



1,061 

384 

1,048 

767 



4,721 
2,254 
1,497 
1,143 
552 
624 



1,493 
1,542 
4,212 



393 

1,170 

1,132 

1,232 

396 

970 



5,418 
489 
2,003 
1,324 
1,105 
1,548 

1,519 
1,014 

t454 

*2,416 

1,135 

4,912 



812 
1,322 
1,340 
1,921 

394 
1,324 



6,535 
655 
3,069 
1,917 
1,082 
2,128 

2,308 

1,987 

547 

1,557 

2,480 
5,148 



1,294 
1,533 
1,772 
2,346 
640 
1,498 



6,707 
912 

3,569 
2,011 
1,461 
2,617 
2,972 
2,707 
2,447 
1,307 
2,237 
2,791 
5,219 



1,161 
2,911 

2,071 
1,525 
1,598 
3,331 
678 
1,557 



1,724 2,186 2,077 



6,810 
1,070 
3,531 
1,986 
1,674 
2,233 
5,040 
2,807 
2,845 
1,479 
2,190 
3,270 
6,003 



Total 1,891 20,839 30,634 45,627 50,997 57.847 



•Western and Lee. 
tFormerly Bengal. 



202 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 



1830 1835 

Ajinsville 1,481 1,352 

Augusta 3,058 3,347 

Ava • • • . 

Boonville 2,746 3,012 

Bridgewater 1,608 1,449 

Camden 1,945 2,114 

Deerfield 4,182 2,536 

Florence 964 1,106 

Floyd 1,699 1,795 

Forestport .... 

Kirklaud 2,505 3,497 

Lee 2,514 2,618 

Marcy 1,730 

Marshall 1,908 2,579 

New Hartford 3,599 3,909 

Paris 2,765 2,849 

Remsen 1,400 1,498 

Rome 4,360 4,505 

Sangerfield 2,272 2,242 

Steuben 2,094 2,159 

Trenton 3,221 3,220 

Utica 8,323 

1st ward 1,633 

2d ward 1,755 

3d ward 2,731 

4th ward 4,064 

5th ward .... 

6th ward .... 

Total Utica 10,183 

Vernon 3,045 2,827 

Verona 3,739 4,155 

Vienna 1,766 2,172 

Western 2,419 2,502 

Westmoreland 3,303 3,140 

Whitestown 4,410 5,022 

Totals 71,326 77,518 



1840 



1845 



1850 



1855 



1,765 


2,192 


2,686 2,715 


2,175 


2,117 


2,27 


1 2,383 






1,03 


7 1,242 


5,519 


3,653 


3,306 4,424 


1,418 


1,351 


1,315 1,203 


2,331 


2,434 


2,820 2,900 


3,120 


2,347 


2,28 


7 2,257 


1.259 


1,994 


2,575 2,812 


1,742 


1,592 


1,495 1,443 


2,984 


3,014 


3,421 3,809 


2,936 


2,963 


3,033 3,020 


1,799 


1,769 


1,85 


7 1,767 


2,251 


2,148 


2,115 2,147 


3,819 


4,043 


4,84 


7 4,517 


2,844 


3,097 


4,283 3,695 


1,638 


1,903 


2,40 


7 2,684 


5,680 


5.955 


7,918 10,720 


2,251 


2,272 


2,371 2,424 


1,993 


1,924 


1,744 1,592 


3,178 


3,543 


3,540 3,987 


1,738 


1,574 




1,443 


2,392 


1,963 


. . , 


2,799 


3,781 


3,490 




3,111 


4,871 


5,163 




4,827 
5,380 
4.609 



12,782 12,190 17,565 22,169 



3,043 


3,074 


3,093 


3,005 


4,504 


4,942 


5,570 


6,923 


2,530 


2,867 


3,393 


3,248 


3,488 


2,523 


2,516 


2,546 


3,105 


3,072 


3,291 


3,279 


5,156 


5,797 


6,810 


4,838 


5,310 


84,776 


99,566 


107,749 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 



203 



1860 

AunsviUe 2,837 

Augusta 2,213 

Ava 1,260 

Boouville 4,212 

Bridgewater 1,261 

Camden 3,187 

Deerfield 2,249 

Florence 2,802 

Floyd 1,440 

Forestport 

Kirkland 4,185 

Lee 2,796 

Marey 1,687 

Marshall 2,134 

New Hartford 4,395 

Paris 3,762 

Remsen 2,670 

Rome city : 9,830 

1st ward 

2d ward 

3d ward 

4th ward 

5th ward 



1865 



1870 



1875 



1880 



1890 



2,685 


2,716 


2,626 


2,554 


2,068 


2,061 


2,067 


2,233 


2,171 


1,984 


1,121 


1,160 


1,022 


1,039 


860 


4,228 


4,106 


4,063 


3,996 


3,509 


1,252 


1,258 


1,307 


1,218 


1,073 


3,533 


3,687 


3,538 


3,392 


3,991 


2,071 


2,045 


2,098 


2,082 


1,954 


2,467 


2,299 


2,181 


2,073 


1,489 


1.227 


1,209 


1,142 


1,115 


920 




1,276 


1,280 


1,358 


1,519 


4,044 


4,912 


4,749 


4,984 


4,852 


2,714 


2,656 


2,413 


2,360 


1,845 


1,517 


1,451 


1,418 


1,413 


1,213 


2,141 


2,145 


2,215 


2,276 


2,145 


3,654 


4,037 


4,382 


4,394 


5,005 


3,595 


3,575 


3.593 


3,573 


3.211 


2,650 


1,184 


1,166 


1,195 


1,099 


9,478 






.... 


.... 




1,196 


2,492 


2,370 


3,348 




2,141 


2,296 


2,651 


2,698 




2,724 


2,573 


2,721 


3,069 




1,803 


2,274 


2,145 


2,566 




3,136 


2,616 


2,807 


3,310 



Total Rome city. 



11,000 12,251 12,194 14,991 



Sangerfield 2,343 

Steuben 1,541 

Trenton 3,504 

Utica city 

1st ward 1,431 

2d ward 2,695 

3d ward 3,388 

4tli ward 3,674 

5th ward 3,096 

6th ward 4,839 

7th ward 3,406 

8th ward 

9th ward 

10th ward 

11th ward 

12th ward 



2,357 


2,513 


2,913 


3,171 


3,017 


1,416 


1,261 


1,220 


1,223 


1,005 


3,199 


3,156 


3,118 


3,097 


2,709 


1,309 


1,329 


1,171 


1,025 


1,141 


2,733 


3,383 


3,530 


3,345 


4,054 


3,190 


4,038 


4,670 


2,900 


3,048 


3,667 


3,866 


3,093 


2,703 


2,988 


3,246 


2,532 


1,582 


1,593 


1,668 


5,527 


1,938 


1,962 


1,962 


2,297 


4,014 


4,583 


5,932 


3,469 


4,625 




2,454 


3,425 


3,901 


6,354 




4,681 


5,098 


5,393 


7,224 







2,033 


2,289 
2,099 
3.235 


2,322 
3,135 
5,151 



Total Utica city 22,529 23,686 28,804 32,496 33,914 44.007 



204 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

1860 186.') 1870 1875 1880 1890 

Veruon 2,908 2,931 2,810 

Veroua 5,967 5,964 5,757 

Vienna 3,460 3,408 3,180 

Westeni 2,497 2,352 2,423 

Westmorelaud 3,166 2,978 2,952 2,752 2,744 2,313 

Whitestown 4,367 3,984 4,339 4,368 4,498 5,155 



3,007 


3,056 


3,016 


5,476 


5,287 


4,535 


3,064 


2,834 


2,220 


2,244 


2,264 


1,817 



Total 105,202 102,713 110,008 114,335 115,475 122,922 



1892 1900 1905 



Annsville 1,963 

Aiig^ista 1,983 

Ava 828 

Boomnlle 3,512 

Bridgewater 1,053 

Camden 3,675 

Deerfield 1,611 

Florence 1,415 

Floyd 842 

Forestport 1,604 

Kirkland 4,636 

Lee 1,900 

Marcy 1,458 

Marshall 2,069 

New Hartford 4,935 

Paris 3,166 

Remsen 1,233 

Rome city: 

1st ward 3,157 

2d ward 1,912 

3d ward 2,774 

4th ward 2,427 

5th ward 3,204 

6th ward 

7th ward 

Inmates of institutions 164 



1,744 


1,621 


2,029 


2,032 


706 


609 


3,332 


3,167 


931 


961 


3,745 


3,750 


1,756 


1,615 


1,205 


1,086 


782 


739 


1,565 


1,457 


4,541 


4,543 


1,578 


1,485 


1,397 


1,385 


1,804 


1,762 


5,230 


5,463 


2,626 


2,430 


1,208 


1,059 


3,860 


2,438 


2,469 


2,242 


2,881 


3,039 


2,738 


2,979 


3,395 


1,985 




1,723 


.... 


1,978 




178 



Total Rome city 13,638 15,343 16,562 



HISTORY OP OiNEIDA COUNTY 205 

1892 1900 1905 

Saugeriield • 2,836 ~2;44(r ^246 

Steuben 946 902 788 

Trenton 2,629 2,628 2,562 

Utica city : 

1st ward 1,252 1,267 1,274 

2d ward 4,629 4,748 5,460 

3d ward 3,289 3,179 3,120 

4tli ward 3,279 2,890 2,977 

5th ward 1,613 2,086 2,855 

6th ward 2,329 2,455 2,592 

7th ward 4,757 5,577 6,404 

8th ward 7,348 8,316 10,355 

9th ward 6,526 5,520 6,049 

10th ward 2,439 2,598 2,750 

11th ward 3,303 3,870 4,368 

12th ward 5,413 4,185 4,446 

13th ward 2,826 3,444 

14th ward 3,648 3,204 

15th ward 3,218 3,376 

Inmates of institutions 431 . . . 260 

Total Utica city 46,608 56,383 62,934 

Vernon 2,937 2,784 3,072 

Verona 4,532 3,875 3,636 

Vienna 2,303 2,218 1,958 

Western 1,773 1,621 1,442 

Westmoreland 2,333 2,192 2,067 

Whitestown 5,225 6,235 6,895 

Inmates of institutions 113 .... 15 

Total 123,756 132,800 139,341 

1910 

Annsville town 1,449 

Augusta town, including Oriskany Palls village 1,959 

Oriskany Falls village 892 

Ava town 563 

Boonville town including Boonville village 3,191 

Boonville village 1,794 

Bridgewater town including Bridgewater village 832 

Bridgewater village 245 

Camden town including Camden village 3,426 

Camden village 2,170 

Deerfield town 1,660 

Florence town 936 



206 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

1910 

Floyd town 697 

Forestpoit town iucluding Forestport village I.IOQ 

Forest port village 507 

Kirldaud town including Clinton village 4.333 

Cliutou village 1 .236 

Lee town 1.379 

Marcy town 1,301 

Marshall town including Waterville village 1,744 

W^nterville village (part of) 242 

Total for AVaterville village in Marshall and Sangerfield to-v\Tis 1,410 

New Hartford town iucluding New Hartford -valla-ge 5,947 

New Hartford village 1,195 

Paris town, including Claj^'ille village 2.659 

Clayville viUage 649 

Kemsen town including part of Remsen village 1.087 

Remsen village (part of) 395 

Total for Remsen village in Remsen and Trenton towns 421 

Rome city 20,497 

Ward 1 3,066 

Ward 2 3,564 

Ward 3 3,556 

Ward 4 3,285 

Ward 5 2,631 

Ward 6 1,910 

Ward 7 2,485 

Sangerfield tovra, including part of Waterville viUage 2,086 

Waterville %'illage (part of) 1,168 

Steuben town 785 

Trenton town including Holland Patent, Prospect, and Trenton villages 

and part of Remsen ^^llage 2,402 

Holland Patent village 337 

Prospect village 278 

Remsen ^'illage (part of) 26 

Trenton \allage 289 

Utica city 74,419 

Ward 1 1.391 

Ward 2 6,674 

Ward 3 3,225 

Ward 4 3,207 

Ward 5 3,312 

Ward 6 2,645 

Ward 7 6,980 

Ward 8 14,471 

Ward 9 6,237 

Ward 10 3,245 

Ward 11 5 471 



HISTORY OF OiNEiUA COUNTY 207 

1!)10 

Ward 12 4,675 

Ward 13 4,25;J 

Ward 14 4,84:i 

Ward 15 ;{,7!)0 

Vernon town including Oneida Castle and Vernon villages 3,197 

Oneida Castle village 393 

Vernon village 451 

Verona town including New London village 3,456 

New London village 108 

Vienna town, including Sylvan Beach village 1,904 

Sylvan Beach village 169 

Western town 1 355 

Westmoreland town 1,995 

Whitestown town including Whitesboro and Yorkville villages 7,798 

Wiitesboro village 2 375 

Yorkville village 691 

Total Oneida county 154,157 



CHAPTER XX 

MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS AND STATISTICS 

Board of Supervisors and other County Officers — Although the board of 
supervisors has existed probably since 1777, there is uo pro\-ision of constitution 
or statute that prescribes the powers and duties of that board until a much later 
date. The constitution of 1777 made no reference to such a board, and the con- 
stitution of 1821 recognizes the fact that there are supervisors, but makes no 
provision for a board of supei'visors. Sectiou 7 of article 4 of the constitution 
of 1821 pro\'ides what officers should be appointed by the super\asors, and makes 
some other provisions in regard to the conduct of the affairs of the county. The 
first legislation of importance upon the subject was the act of April 8, 1810, 
which fixes the duties of the supervisors in a town. The election of town officers 
was provided for by the act of ilarch 27, 1801. The first constitutional pro- 
^^sion in regard to the board of supervisors, as such, is section 26 of article 3 
of the constitution of 1894, and is as follows : 

' ' There shall be in each county, except in a county wholly included in a city, 
a board of super\nsoi's, to be composed of such members and elected in such a 
maimer and for such a period as is or may be provided by law. In a city which 
includes an entire coxinty, or two or more entire counties, the powers and duties 
of a board of supennsoi-s may be devolved upon the municipal assembly, common 
council, board of aldermen or other legislative bod.v of the city." 

Thorp had been legislation upon the subject of the powers of the boards of 
supervisors from time to time prior to the adoption of the constitutional pro- 
vision above referred to, notably in 1875, when, by the act of June 5 of that year, 
the board of supervisors was given manj' additional powers to those which it 
had possessed prior to that time. A general revision of the law was made and 
adopted as the countj' law in 1909. This statute is known as chapter 11 of the 
consolidated laws passed Fobruaiy 17, 1909, and contains general provisions for 
all the powers of the board of supervisors. The statute is quite complete in itself, 
and extends the powers of the board beyond those which it had possessed prior 
to the enactment of the law. The election of super^'isors was for many years 
held in the spring, and the supervisor was elected for one year, but this was 
chantred by the act of 1901. One supervisor was elected for each town, and 
one for each ward, and for many years the number in the county has been even 
so that it frequently occurs that the board is divided evenly between the two 
great partie.s, and it is often extremely difficult to organize the board, as required 
by law. At the present time there are 48 supervisors in the board, which is un- 
fortunate, as it would be much better if the board were uneven, so that one 
or the other of the great parties would have control of it and be responsible to 
the people for its acts. 

208 



Ik |J 




I ■ r ; r' I I . M I. I. Ii U-Ai. 



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ASTOR, L 
TILDEN FC 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 



209 



The county officers from time to time have been changed, and the number 
occasionally increased. At present they consist of sheriff, county judge, special 
county judge, county clerk, county treasurer, surrogate, special surrogate, eor- 
onei's and county comptroller, the last named office being new, having been estab- 
lished in 1910, the first comptroller being elected at the fall election of that 
year. There is a county sui)erintendent of highways, but he is appointed by 
the board of supervisors, and Paul Sehultze occupies that position at the present 
time. 

The following list contains the chairmen and clerks of the boards of super- 
visors from 1878 : 



Chairman 

1878— Griffith M. Jones, Utica. 
1879 — Joseph B. Cushman, Utica. 
1880— Eli S. Bearss, Lee. 
1881— Robert W. Evans, Kirkland. 
1882— Julius C. Day, Marshall. 
1883- Frederick A. Goff, Utica. 
1884— John F. Gaffney, Utica. 
1885 — William J. Cramond, Rome. 
1886 — James H. Flanagan, Vienna. 
1887 — James H. Flanagan, Vienna. 
1888 — Francis X. Salzman, Forestport. 
1889— Carl T. Seibel, Verona. 
1890— David A. Barnum, Paris. 
1891 — Lewis D. Edwards, Sangerfield. 
1892 — Francis X. Salzman, Forestport. 
1893 — James A. Douglass, Augusta. 
1894— Albert P. Seaton, New Hartford. 
1895— Albert P. Seaton, New Hartford. 
1896— John W. Potter, Marey. 
1897— John W. Potter, Marcy. 
1898— John W. Potter, Marcy. 
1899— John W. Potter, Marcy. 
1900— John W. Potter, Marcy. 
1901— William J. Brown, Utica. 
1902— Oswald P. Backus, Rome. 
1903 — Frederick E. Swaneott, Utica. 
1904 — Frederick E. Swaneott, Utica. 
1905— Frederick E. Swaneott, Utica. 
1906 — Fred F. Lorin, Westmoreland. 
1907 — Fred F. Lorin, Westmoreland. 
1908— Harry J. Moss, Utica. 
1909— Theodore Chrestien, McConnells- 

ville. 
1910— Albert P. Seaton, New Hartford. 
1911 — ^William Walsh, Bridgewater. 



Clerk 

Albert N. Borst, Bridgewater. 
Joseph Porter, Rome. 
Joseph Porter, Rome. 
Burt I. Waldo, North Western. 
Rouse B. Maxfield, Annsville. 
Charles B. Howe, Waterville. 
Charles E. Howe, Waterville. 
Rouse B. Maxfield, Utica. 
Joseph B. Cushman, Jr., Vernon. 
Leroy F. Shepard, Utica. 
Fred W. Lobdell, Rome. 
Fred W. Lobdell, Rome. 
Thomas W. Mulford, Rome. 
Fred W. Lobdell, Rome. 
William H. Wratten, Utica. 
William H. Wratten, Utica. 
Fred W. Lobdell, Rome. 
Fred W. Lobdell, Rome. 
Stuart F. Day, Utica. 
Stuart F. Day, Utica. 
Stuart F. Day, Utica. 
Stuart F. Day, Utica. 
Stuart F. Day, Utica. 
Stuart F. Day, Utica. 
James H. McGarrity, Utica. 
James H. McGarrity, Utica. 
Gervase Flower, Westmoreland. 
Gervase Flower, Westmoreland. 
A. H. Vandawalker, Camden, 
A. H. Vandawalker, Camden, 
F. E. Niess, Boonville. 
Margaret H. Ward, Utica. 

Margaret H. Ward, Utica. 
Grover C. Flint, Lee Center. 



210 HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 

UTICA ^^ 

rrior to tlio organization of Utica as a village it had existed as a considerable 
hamlet known as Fort Schuyler, and, 1(> distingiiisli it from Fort Schuyler 
(Fort Stanwix) at Kome. it was frcfiuently called Old Fort Schuyler. Having 
a population which was deemed sufficient for a more formal organization than 
had previously existed, application was made to the Legislature for a special 
charter incorporating the hamlet imder the name of the Village of Utica. An 
act was passed April 3, 179S, entitled "An act to vest certain powers in the 
freeholders and inhabitants of the village commonly known by the name of 
Old Fort Schuyler." The first section of the act described the territory to 
be incorporated as follows : ' ' That the district or country contained within the 
following bounds, to wit : Beginning at a point or place on the south side of 
the Mohawk river where the division line between lot number 97 and 98 in 
Cosby 's Manor strikes the said river, thence running southerly in the said di- 
%asion line to a point in the same forty chains southerly of the great road lead- 
ing to Fort Stanwix, thence east 37 degi-ees south to the easterly line of the 
county of Oneida, thence northerly in the said county line to the Mohawk 
river, thence westerly up the waters thereof to the place of beginning, shall 
hereafter be known and distinguished by the name of the Village of Utica." 
The act also pro^-ides who the qualified voters should be at the meeting to be 
held for the election of officers of the village ; provided also for the election of 
five freeholdei-s, residents of the village, as trustees. It will be noticed here 
that the officei's were confined to freeholders, in other words, those who owned 
real estate. The right of suffrage was somewhat broader, as a man 21 years 
of age and paying a certain rent was entitled to vote, but under this charter, 
could not be a trustee. The trustees were given general powers over the vil- 
lage, and the right to appoint a fire c-ompany. The officers for the respective 
years that this charter was in effect cannot be ascertained, for the reason that 
all the records were destroyed by fire in February, ISOi. 

The inhabitants of the village were not satisfied for many years with their 
charter as it existed, and in 1805 presented a petition to the legislature for a 
more comprehensive charter. After setting forth the reasons for desiring the 
change the petition dosed as follows: "For tliese and other rea.sons your pe- 
titioners therefore pray, that your honorable body will grant to the freeholders, 
inlialiitant.s and trustees of the said village, powers similar to those enjoyed by 
the village of Poughkcepsie ; in order that the above and man}' other existing 
e\ils may be avoided; that the bounds of .said village may be extended, and 
that the annual meetings of the inhabitants of said village may be hereafter 
on the fir.st Tuesday in April in each year." 

The trustees of the village for the first year were Jeremiah VanRensselaer, 
Jr., Nathan Williams. Francis A. Bloodgood. Jerathinel Ballon and Era.stns 
Clark. Mr. VanRensselaer was elected president, and D. W. Childs, clerk, 
Isaac Coe was elected treasurer, and Worden Hanunond collector. 

At this time officers of the village were elected annually, and at the second 
election, held in 1806, all of the trustees were re-elected. 

The following year, 1807, Mr, Bloodgood was not reelected, but John Hooker 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 211 

was elected in his stead, and lOrastus Clark was made president. Under the 
charter no persons eould vote except rrceholders, and the office of trnstee was 
also eonlined to freeholders. This excluded a large number of the inliabitants 
from participation in the village government. 

In ISOS the freeholders elected as trustees Morris S. Miller, Jerathmel Bal- 
lon, John Hooker, Nathaniel Butler and John Bellinger, and Mr. Miller was 
elected president of the board. 

The annual freeholders' meeting was usually held at the hotel, and in 
1809 the board remained the same, except that Talcott Camp and Solomon 
Woleott were elected in place of Morris S. Miller and Nathaniel Butler, ami 
Mr. Camp was made president. 

Considerable change was made in the board of trustees for the year 1810, 
and it is difficult to determine upon what lines the freeholders divided, whether 
politically or whether with regard to local improvements. In this year Mr. Camp 
remained in the board, and the other members were John C. Hoyt, John C. 
Devereux, Rudolph Snyder and Abraham M. Walton. 

In 1811 Mr. Camp and Mr. Devereux were re-elected, and the other trus- 
tees were Jeremiah VanRensselaer, Frederick "White and E. B. Sherman. Mr. 
Camp was made president, John C. Hoyt treasurer, and Nicholas Smith col- 
lector. 

The following interesting facts concerning the life of Nicholas Smith may as 
well be given here as elsewhere. In one of tlie Indian raids on the Lower Mo- 
hawk his grandfather and grandmother were massacred, and his aunt fled to 
the woods carrying Nicholas, who was then about one year of age, in her arms. 
Discovering that she would be overtaken by the Indians, she concealed the 
baby in the woods and continued to flee, but was overtaken, scalped and left 
for dead. She, however, recovered, was found by the whites, and remembered 
where she had placed the child. He was found, and, although left an orphan 
he was cared for, and was the Nicholas Smith who was well known in the early 
history of the city of Utica. The above incidents were received by the author 
from his son, William B. Smith, who is still living in Utica at the age of 88. 

A controversy arose at the election of 1812, but it is difficult to ascertain 
just what the trouble was. There seems to have been a dispute about who had 
been elected, and a second ballot was had, when it was declared that Talcott 
Camp, Jeremiah VanRensselaer, E. B. Sherman, Morris Miller, Byron John- 
son and Thomas Skinner were elected. Mr. Miller declined to serve. Mr. John- 
son also declined to serve, and Arthur Breese was elected to the vacancy. The 
same officers were elected collector and treasurer who had served during the 
previous year. 

During the year 1813 a market had been erected in the public scjuare. This 
was a source of controversy, and it entered into the political situation. The 
candidates for trustees were supported or opposed upon the ground of their 
being for or against the market. The result of the election was the selection 
of Moses Bagg, Montgomery Hunt, Seth Dwight, E. B. Sherman and Talcott 
Camp. A special election was called upon the subject of selling the market, 
and it was determined in the negative. 

In 1814 the board of ti'ustees consisted of Talcott Camp, Jeremiah VanRens- 



21-2 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

selaer, Nathan "Williams, Killian Winne and Samuel Stocking. Mr. Camp was 
made president, John II. Ostrom, clerk, with the same treasurer and collector 
as of the previous year. 

In the election of 1815 the board of trustees consisted of Abram VanSant- 
voort, Aujrustus Iliekox, Gurdon Burchard, Jason Parker and William Geere. 
Mr. VanSanvoort was made president, and Mr. Parker refused to serve. 

In 1816 the board of trustees was changed materially, acd consisted of 
Rudolph Snyder, Ezra S. Cozier, Augustus Hickox, Gurdon Burchard and 
WiUiani Geere. Jlr. Snyder was made pi'esident, and the other officers remained 
the same as the previous year, so far as the record shows. 

In 1817 the village asked for a still more extensive charter, which was 
granted April 7, 1817, and was known as "An act to incorporate the village of 
Utica. " The village was, at this time, divided into three wards, which were 
described as follows : All that part of the said village contained within the 
following bounds, to wit: Beginning in the northerly line of said village, 
where the center or middle of Genesee street extended would strike the said 
northerlj' bounds, running thence through the center or middle of Genesee 
street to the center or middle of John street ; thence along the center or middle 
of John street, to the center or middle of Broad street ; thence easterly from 
the center or middle of Broad street, to the center or middle of First street; 
thence southerly on a direct line through the center or middle of First street 
to the southerly line of the said village; thence easterly along the southerly 
bounds of said village, to the easterly line of said village; thence northerly 
along the said easterly line of said village to the northerly line of said village ; 
thence along the northerly boimds of the said village to the place of beginning, 
shall constitute one ward, and shall be denominated the first ward ; and all that 
part of said village, contained within the following bounds, to wit: beginning 
in the northerly line of said village where the center or middle of Genesee 
street extended would strike the said northerly bounds, thence southerly along 
the westerly line of first ward to the southerly bounds of said village ; thence 
westerly along the southerly bounds of said village to the center or middle of 
Genesee street; thence northerly through the center or middle of Genesee 
street to the center or middle of Hotel street ; thence through the center or 
middle of Hotel street to ^Yhitesborough street; thence across Whitesborough 
street to the southeasterly corner of the York House ; thence along the easterly 
side of said York House in a direct line to the northerly bounds of the said 
village ; thence along the northerly bounds of said village to the place of be- 
ginning, shall constitute one ward, and be denominated the second ward; and 
all that part of said callage contained within the following bounds, to wit: 
Beginning at the northwest comer of the second ward, running thence north- 
erly along the westerly line of said second ward to the southerly bounds of said 
village; thence westerly along the southerly bounds of said village to the west- 
erly bounds of said village; tlience northerly along the westerly bounds of said 
village to the northerly bounds of said village; thence easterly along the north- 
erly bounds of the said village to the place of beginning, shall constitute one 
ward and be denominated the third ward. 

The fourth section of the act incorporating the village had an unusual pro- 












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mi 



i.j»W!W4»"l»*'' 



FIltST ('Ot'UTIlOT'SK I\ t'TICA 

Also used ;1S .-111 ;l(;lilclll\ :lll(l |illl)li.- liall 




SECOND corirriKirsio ix i'I'ica 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 213 

vision. This provision was "That the person adniiiiistcritiK tlie government of 
the state, by and with the eonsent of the eoiineil of appoint ineiit, sliall annually, 
during the session of the legislature, or at sudi time as the said eouncil shall 
be assembled next after tlie first day of iMay in every year, nominate and ap- 
point, out of the inliabitants of said village, one fit and disereet freeholder to 
be trustee of said village, v/ho shall be president of the board of trustees of said 
village, whieli said president shall be ex-offieio a justiee of the peace." It would 
seem as if the eoutroUiug element in the state had not yet got far enough away 
from the idea that all power came from the king to trust even the inhabitants of a 
large village to manage their own affairs. It was provided by this statute that the 
trustees should appoint certain other village officers, the provisions of the stat- 
ute upon that subject being as follows: "The said board of trustees shall an- 
nually meet at some place in said village on the third Monday of May, in each 
year forever, and by plurality of votes, appoint one clerk, one treasurer, one 
or more collectoi's and overseers of the poor, one or more poundmasters, fence 
viewers, porters, carriers, carters, truckmen, packers, beadles, bellmen, common 
criers, scavengers, measurers, surveyors and gangers, or such of them as they 
shall think proper." It was also provided by the thirtieth section of the act 
that all that portion of the to\\^l of Whitestown which was included in the limits 
of the village of Utica, as described in the act, should be from that time for- 
ward a separate town by the name of Utica. This was the last village charter, 
and under it the inhabitants had realized a degree of prosperity greater than 
that in any other part of the county. It was said by Dr. Josiah Strong that 
all localities take their character from the early settlers, and if this applies to 
Utica, it is probably an explanation of the progress that was made by the early 
inliabitants in this part of the country, as, it is safe to say, no better class of 
people ever took up the development of a country than those who settled in 
this favored locality. 

The first election of trustees under the new charter resulted in the selection 
in the year 1817 of Ezra Cozier and William Williams, first ward; second 
ward, Jeremiah VanRensselaer and Abram VanSautvoort ; third ward, Erastua 
Clark and John C. Hoyt. The governor appointed Nathan Williams one of the 
trustees, and by tlie statute he became president of the board. The assessors 
were Moses Bagg, David P. Hoyt and Thomas Walker. Benjamin Walker was 
elected supervisor; Ezra P. Barnum and Joshua Ostrom were appointed con- 
stables, and the following additional officers were elected : Clerk, John H. Os- 
trom ; overseer of the poor, Jeremiah VanRensselaer ; treasurer, Judah Williams ; 
poundmaster, Frederick W. Potter; fence viewers, Benjamin Hinman, Jason 
Parker and Aaron Eggleston; ganger, James Hooker; superintendent of high- 
ways, Benjamin Ballou. Truly a great array of officers to care for the inter- 
ests of a small village. 

It would seem that about this time politics entered into the selection of trus- 
tees of the village, and it resulted in the setting aside of some of the prominent 
citizens and choosing others in their stead. The board elected in 1818 con- 
sisted of Ezra S. Cozier, John E. Hinman, tirst ward; second ward, Abram 
VanSantvoort and Enos Brown; third ward, Rudolph Snyder and Marcus 
Hitchcock. John C. Devereux and Jeremiah VanRensselaer were candidates 
for office at this election, but were defeated. 



214 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

Jii 1819 the boai-d elected consisted of, tirst ward, Ezra S. Cozier. Johu E. 
ninmau; second ward, David P. Hoyt, Gurdon Burchard; third ward. Wil- 
liam Alvei-son, Rudolph Snyder: the other officers remained the same as dur- 
ing the previous year. 

In 1820 the board consisted ol': lirst ward. Ezra S. Cozier, Johu E. Hinman; 
second ward. Abram E. Culver. James Hooker: third ward, Ezekiel Bacon, 
Thomas Walker. The governor appointed Rudolph Snyder president of the 
board. 

In 1821 the board of trustees consisted of: tirst ward, Benjamin Ballou, Jr., 
John Baxter; second ward, James Hooker, John H. Hardy; third ward, Thomas 
Walker. David P. Hoyt ; Ezra S. Cozier was appointed president. 

In 1822 Mr. Cozier was again designated as president, and the board of 
trustees consisted of : tirst ward, John Baxter, Benjamin Ballou, Jr. ; second 
ward, Ezekiel Bacon. Richard R. Lansing; third ward, Thomas Walker. David 
P. Hoyt. 

For the fii"st time the subject of paving the streets seems to have been se- 
riousl}- considered, and it was voted to pave from the Canal to the south 
line of A\Tiitesboro and j\Iain streets. For the information of those who have 
never seen the first pavement used in this part of the country, it is well to 
state that the pavements consisted of cobble stones, ranging from four inches 
in diameter to a foot, and, although these pavements for a time prevented the 
streets becoming deep with mud. they were uneven, and the stones did not re- 
main in place for a long time because of the poor foundation ; when the stones 
were out of place the pavements were horrible to drive over, and at best they 
were very noisy. 

In 1823 the board of trustees consisted of: fu'st ward, James Hooker. Ben- 
jamin Ballou, Jr. ; Daniel Stafford, Ezekiel Bacon, second ward ; third ward, 
Thomas Walker, Jesse W. Doolittle. 

In 182i the board of trustees consisted of: fii'st ward, Benjamin Ballou, 
James Hooker ; second ward, Ezekiel Bacon, James Lynch ; third ward, Thomas 
Walker, Nicholas Smith. 

In 182-5 the board of trustees consisted of: tirst ward, Benjamin Ballou, 
Riley Rogers; second ward, William H. Jlayuard, Charles Morris; third ward, 
Nicholas Smith. John R. Ludlow; William Clark was appointed president. 

During the year 1825 the Erie Canal was completed, and a great celebra- 
tion occurred in the city in honor of that event. It was also in this year that 
General LaFayette paid a visit to this country, and was received with great 
demonsti'ations wherever he appeared. The reception of LaFayette in Utica 
was in June, and Judge Nathan Williams was chairman of the committee of 
reception. 

In 1826 tlie board of trustees consisted of: first ward, John E. Hinman, Riley 
Rogers; second ward. Abram E. Culver, Amos Gay; third ward. Nicholas 
Smith, Jolin R. Ludlow. Ezra S. Cozier was appointed president of the board. 
It is stated that the clerk of the board had up to that year acted without salary, 
but tliat by resolution of the board he was to rceive .^50 per year for his ser 
vices. 

In 1827 the board of trustees consisted of: first ward. John H. Ostrom, Au- 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 215 

gustus G. Dauby; second wanl, Al)r;iiu E. Culver, Thomas Colling; tliird 
ward, Amos Gay, Chester Griswold; fourth ward, Augustus Hurlburt, Nicholas 
Devereux ; the president appointed by the governor was Ezra S. Cozier. An at- 
torney for the village was appointed for the first time during this year. 

In 1828 the board of trustees consisted of: first ward, John Ostroni and 
James Piatt; second ward, Al)rahaiii Culver, Tiiomas Colling; third ward, 
Chester Griswold, Augustus Hurlburt ; fourth ward, Nicholas Devereux, Robert 
R. Lansing. William Clark was appointed by the governor as president of 

the boai'd. 

In 1829 the board of trustees consisted of: first ward, John Williams, Kut- 
ger B. Miller; second ward, Abraham E. Culver, Thomas Colling; third ward, 
Andrew S. Pond, Sylvester Doolittle; fourth ward, Robert McBride, Asahel 
Seward. The president of the board was William Clark. The clerk and vil- 
lage attorney was John G. Floyd. 

In 1830 the board of trustees consisted of: first ward, John Williams, Ches- 
ter Griswold; second ward, Thomas Colling, Rudolph Snyder; third ward, Syl- 
vester Doolittle, A. S. Pond ; fourth ward, Robert McBride, Rutger B. Miller. 
The other important officers remained substantially as in the previous year. 

The last village election ever held was that of the year 1831, and the board 
of trustees consisted of E. S. Comstock, John Williams, first ward; second ward, 
Thomas Colling, Theodore S. Faxton; third ward, A. S. Pond, Sylvester Doo- 
little; fourth ward, Robert McBride, Rutger B. Miller. The other important 
officers of the village were substantially the same as in the year previous. 

There are no means of ascertaining to what extent politics entered into the 
election of village officers — whether the two great parties divided and made 
separate nominations, or whether the citizens, as such, and irrespective of party, 
elected the village officers. From the character of the men who filled these 
places in early days it would seem as though the very best element in the com- 
munity took charge of public affairs, and this being the case, unquestionably 
the best interests of the inhabitants were subserved, and the village, from its 
first incorporation until it became a city, was well governed. 

The village of Utiea was merged into the city of Utica by act of February 
13, 1832, known as chapter 19 of the laws of that year, and entitled "An act 
to incorporate the city of Utica." The territory included within the limits of 
the city at that time is described in the charter as follows: Beginning at a 
point on the south side of the Mohawk river, where the division line between 
lots number 99 and 100 in Cosby 's Manor strikes said river; thence running 
southerly in the said division line, to a point 50 chains southerly of tlie great 
road leading to Fort Stanwix ; thence south 53 degrees east, to the easterly line 
of the county of Oneida ; thence northerly in the said county line to the Mo- 
hawk river; thence westerly up the middle of said river to the place of be- 
ginning. Section 3 divided the city into four wards, as follows: That part 
which lies easterly of the middle of Genesee street and northerly of the center 
of the Erie canal, shall be the first ward : That part which lies westerly of the 
middle of Genesee street and northerly of the center of the said canal, shall 
be the second ward: That part which lies westerly of the middle of Genesee 
street, and southerly of the center of the said canal, shall be the third ward : 



216 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

And that part which lies easterly of the middle of Genesee street, and south- 
erly of the center of said canal, shall be the fourth ward. It was provided by 
the charter that there should be a mayor, twelve aldermen, that is, three from 
each ward, four justices of the peace, one clerk, one surveyor, one treasurer, 
one or more collectors, four assessors, three constables, and such other officers 
as should be provided for thereafter. The coiiiinon council was authorized to 
appoint three persons, residents of the respective wards, as inspectors of elec- 
tion. It was also provided that the trustees of the village of Utica, or such 
persons as they should appoint, should be inspectors of the fii-st election. The 
common council was to consist of the mayor and the aldermen, and the mayor 
was to preside at the meetings of that body. By the 38th, 39th and 40th sec- 
tions the common council was given general authority over the city's affairs. 
From time to time this charter was amended, until it became one of the most 
troublesome pieces of patchwork that ever existed for the government of a 
city. Although the municipality thrived under a very poor charter, it was a 
relief when the population of the city was such that under the general statutes 
of the state Utica became a city of the second-class, which occurred in the year 
1907. 

Records have not been attainable to show the elections from the time of the 
organization of the city down to 1842. It appears that after the incorporation 
of the city the lines were more sharply drawn between the political parties 
than before that date, and Whig and Democrat became tlie dividing line. 

Joseph Kirkland was the first mayor in 1832 ; Henry Seymour was the sec- 
ond, in 1833 ; Joseph Kirkland in 1834-35 : John II. Ostrom in 1836 ; Charles 
P. Kirkland in 1838 ; John C. Devereux in 1839-40, and Spencer Kellogg in 
1841. I'rom this time to tlie close of 1911 we are able to give the vote at every 
election of mayor in the city of Utica. 

It would seem that party spirit induced the two gi'eat parties to nominate 
a candidate for mayor at every election, except on certain occasions, when the 
citizens put forth their efforts to control the election, and were at times suc- 
cessful. There is nothing of general interest in regard to the elections except 
in a few instances, but it is noteworthy that the parties were so evenly divided 
both sides could go into a contest with assurances of victory, and the control of 
the city shifted from one party to the other quite fre(|uently. On one occa.sion, 
in 1859, the candidates were John C. Hoyt, Republican, and Charles S. "Wilson, 
Democrat. Mr. Hoyt was born in Utica, his father being one of the early set- 
tlers, was a man of high standing, and commanded the support of his party. 
Mr. "Wilson was cashier of tlie city bank, a Scotchman by birth, an active poli- 
tician, and was frequently a candidate for the oflBcc of mayor. The result of 
the election was a tie, and Roscoe Conkling, who had been elected in 1858, held 
over, but before the year 1859 expired he resigned, and the common council ap- 
pointed Charles S. "Wilson mayor. 

During the civil war, when party spirit ran high, the Republicans (or Union- 
ists, as they were then called), .succeeded in electing Theodore S. Faxton.in 
1864, John Butterfield in 1865, and James McQuade in 1866. 

After the war the city became more Democratic, and the candidate of that 
party usually was sucres.sful in the election for several vears. The first Re- 




OXKIDA COUNTY COUKTIlorSE 

t'ouipleli'd ill ions, loented nt T'tic;i, X(>\v Ynvk 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 217 

publican to be elected after the war was Theodore F. Butterfield, who succeeded 
against Charles K. Granuis in 1872. Theodore S. Sayre also defeated Miles 
C. Comstock in 1874. The next Kepublican to be successful was David H. Gaf- 
fin in 1877. A three-cornered fight occurred in 1878, and James Benton was 
elected by a plurality over Theodore F. Butterfield, Republican, and Charles E. 
Barnard, Democrat. ]\Ir. Benton, who was a prominent builder and contractor, 
was nominated by the Workingmen. A lively canvass was made, and, although 
Mr. Benton was a rich man, being one of the largest owners of real estate in the 
city, he commanded the respect of the \yorkingraen and they supported him gen- 
erally, no matter to what party they belonged. 

The Democrats were successful afterward until 1881, when James Miller, 
Republican, defeated J. Thomas Spriggs, Democrat, by less than 100 majority. 

In 1882 three tickets were again in the field. The citizens' ticket was headed 
by Francis M. Burdick, who was a lawyer, and who, at the present time, is 
dean of the Law department of Columbia College in New York city. He was 
a Democrat in politics, but a conservative man of high character. The Repub- 
licans nominated Isaac P. Bielby, and the Democrats nominated Charles A. 
Doolittle. Mr. Burdick was supported generally by the Republicans, and was 
elected by something over 200 plurality. 

In 1883 ex-Mayor James Miller was again nominated by the Republicans, 
and Charles A. Doolittle by the Democrats. Mr. Miller had been a soldier in 
the ci\il war, had once been elected mayor, but in this contest he was defeated 
by Mr. Doolittle, who was a son of Judge Charles H. Doolittle, a lawyer by pro- 
fession, but who never practiced at the bar, as it was distasteful to him in con- 
sequence of a lack of robust health to endure the rough and tumble of that 
profession. 

In 1884 the Republicans nominated James S. Sherman and the Democrats 
LeRoy H. Shattuck. Mr. Shattuek was a business man of good standing, but 
he did not have the backing of his own party at this election. Mr. Sherman, 
now Vice President of the United States, was a young attorney, active in poli- 
tics, and, having ability and character, as subsequent developments showed, 
entered into the contest with great vigor, and succeeded in carrying the city 
by a very large majority. This was Mr. Sherman's entry into politics. It is 
scarcely necessarj- to say that since that time he has given his life to the public, 
and the record, which he has made seems to justify his choice. 

In 1885 there were again three tickets in the field. John L. Earll was nom- 
inated by the Republicans, Patrick F. Quinlan by the Democrats, and Thomas 
E. Kinney by the Citizens. Although j\Ir. Earll was a man of great culture 
and excellent standing in the community, he could not command the support 
of the Republican party, a large portion of that party supporting Mr. Kinney, 
and, with the Democratic vote which Mr. Kinney received, he was elected by'a 
substantial plurality. At the election of 1886 Jlr. Kinney was nominated' by 
the Democrats and elected over James Miller. :Mr. Kinney was again elected 
in 1887 virtually without opposition. 

In 1890 there were three tickets again in the field. Willard D. Ball was 
nominated by the Republicans, Alexander T. Goodwin by the Democrats, and 
Thomas W. Spencer by what was known as the People's party. Mr. Goodwin 



218 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

rei'oived a plurality of votes at this election. He was elected for two years 
instead of one, because of an amendment to the statute extending the term, but 
in 1892 the term of office was again changed to one year. In that year 
Thomas "Wheeler was the Republican candidate, and Nicholas E. Kernan was 
nominated by the Democrats. Jlr. Wheeler had been a soldier in the civil war, 
and was a coal dealer at this time. Mr. Kernan was a member of the law firm 
of Kernan & Kernan, and was also engaged in manufacturing, being connected 
with several of the large industries in the city. Mr. Wheeler was elected by a 
substantial majority. 

In 1893 the tenu of office was changed to two years. Thomas Wlieeler was 
the Republican candidate, and John G. Gibson, who was a practicing attorney 
of high standing, was nominated by the Democrats and elected. 

It is a remarkable fact that some of the candidates for mayor were nom- 
inated at one time by one party, and at another time by another party, but 
no one seems to have been more fortunate in his political aspirations than 
Thomas E. Kinney, who was twice elected by the Democrats, once elected with- 
out opposition, and in 1897 he was nominated and elected by the Republicans 
against John G. Gibson, Democrat. 

From 1897 down to 1907 the Democrats were uniforml.y successful in elect- 
ing the maj'or, but Thomas Wheeler was again nominated by the Republicans 
in 1907, and Thomas S. Jones was nominated by the Democrats. Mr. Jones 
was a prominent lawyer, had twice been district attorney of the county and 
was head of the law firm of Jones, To\vnsend & Rudd. The canvass was a very 
exciting one, and resulted in the selection of Mr. Wheeler by a substantial ma- 
jority. 

In 1909 Mr. Wheeler was renominated, but was defeated by Frederick E. 
Gillmore, Democrat. 

The year 1911 was rather a peculiar one in the politics of Oneida county. 
The county had given a Democratic majority for governor because of the con- 
troversy between Vice President Sherman and ex-President Theodore Roosevelt. 
The Republican party was rent asunder, and it required some time to heal 
the wounds of the battles, but in 1911 the party was so far reconciled that a 
city ticket was substantially agreed upon before the convention was held, and 
was carried through by a unanimous vote of the convention. The Republican 
candidate for mayor was Frank J. Baker, who was at the time president of 
the common council ; had been an alderman ; was a florist and held a prominent 
place among the business men of the city. The Democratic convention was 
made up to renominate Mayor Gillmore, but he refused to be considered as a 
candidate, and gave them to understand that if nominated he would not accept. 
This resulted in the nomination of James D. Smith. 

The political canvass in the city of Utica for mayor was an enthusiastic one, 
because of the popularity of Mr. Baker, the Republican candidate. The Demo- 
cratic organization made a determined fight for its candidate, James D. Smith, 
hut it was absolutely nntrankod. and the resnlt was an unusual victory for the 
Republican party. For the first time in many years the Republicans succeeded 
in electing their mayor and a majority of the common council. Mr. Baker 
was elected by a plurality of 354. The result upon the other candidates in the 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 219 

city was the election of Clarence Stetson, Rep., president of the eonunoii coun- 
cil, by a plurality of 154 over- Curtis F. AUiaunie; Fred G. Reussvvig, Rep., 
comptroller, by a plurality of 260 over John H. Newman; James J. Devereux, 
Dem., city treasurer, by a i)lurality of 618 over Robert 0. Morris; James K. 
O'Connor, Ind. Dem., city .iudge, by a plurality of about 2,337 over John T. 
Buckley, Rep., and a plurality of 2,736 over John F. Gaffney, Dem., Christian 
Bodmer, Rep., assessor, by a plurality of 350 over Frank Andes; T. William 
Arthur, assessor, by a plurality of 723 over Henry Lanz ; Joseph Hopkins, Dem., 
justice of the peace, by a plurality of 54 over Benjamin F. Roberts; Leon L. 
Ai'thur, Rep., justice of the peace, by a plurality of 383 over AVoodward Guile. 

VOTE ON MAYORS OP UTICA 
1842 1S43 1844 184,'') 1846 



I s 



1^ i- l._ ,_ '^^ S.- ^.-r= ^ ShS 



Sa Is 3$ Is is |g <$ il <§ i^ 1^ 12 
M Is K| ^|S || &6 || ie IS" i^. 



B = 



& E 3 K 



I 113 142 142 172 166 180 139 183 107 49 106 5 

2 143 138 190 127 193 114 175 118 164 43 77 14 

3 198 185 248 227 241 231 285 234 274 91 99 18 

4 191 310 285 323 291 387 312 366 298 147 216 32 

Total ... 645 775 865 849 891 912 911 901 843 330 498 69 



s a s s - s 

i- i s~ i ,_ i- fi ._ I- L .1 

ii §1 1^^ ^ |i ti H U «l ^i If H 

1 95 160 35 148 84 152 40 117 170 132 163 147 

2 126 126 43 185 95 154 49 81 201 120 92 244 

3 199 179 161 360 207 322 80 167 216 149 119 283 

4 179 346 176 382 394 344 174 255 282 231 207 348 

5 150 208 164 242 

6 155 130 114 207 

Total 599 811 4151,075 780 972 343 6201,174 970 8591,471 



220 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 



1855 



S S 5 -2 3 = 



s 



Si ^1 II =i |i i| a| ^1 i| Eg || 

pjO E& ^tf Eq ?q ^> ^'o -S kQ k^ ^^ 

I I i I I I I s I I I 5 

1 165 114 12 152 98 138 64 193 64 100 174 

2 ISl 167 185 154 60 33 153 211 178 223 146 

3 195 217 227 184 56 195 182 306 163 216 211 

4 320 253 307 258 58 229 305 445 194 259 332 

5 265 183 207 289 180 141 246 389 223 259 421 

6 218 141 81 206 17 153 262 204 309 270 204 

Total 1,344 1,075 1,019 1,243 469 989 1,212 1,748 1,122 1,327 1,488 



s 



I 



s_ s- l_ 5- |_ %~ £- |_ 5- |_ 5r 

is "ig £| «i ~i tni |g ^i 5= -Ji 2a yS 

Ss S9 gS IS o5 sa c5 =3 Ss SS B= SS 

1 162 102 150 116 n9 157 141 133 129 132 106 180 

2 237 164 258 174 249 210 207 217 226 274 231 286 

3 346 160 362 177 334 179 335 205 307 220 334 235 

4 362 208 409 211 326 272 393 226 356 256 376 292 

5 182 249 130 351 145 330 148 332 209 323 145 380 

6 221 295 303 270 278 412 258 429 323 430 295 457 

7 225 200 253 202 288 179 345 198 307 244 318 282 

Total . . . 1,735 1,378 1,865 1,501 1,739 1,739 1,827 1,740 1,857 1,879 1,805 2,112 



J 3-1 :== = 2~ i 

S_ s- •= s- cc ■i~ =c *- 

5* -d Wo . d SS «d ^» .d 

af Mg gd ^S i'a |g £c Kg 

a =- S3 12 SS a5 sS C*5 zS 

I 1 « I ^. I ^ ^ ^ 

1 87 192 81 183 95 160 149 139 

2 214 309 267 279 273 261 230 274 

3 291 251 397 210 336 233 334 200 

4 364 276 413 255 432 218 322 234 

5 117 410 173 370 190 349 227 333 

6 238 479 317 418 291 427 296 439 

7 281 281 369 252 307 261 348 272 421 





s 




1 


?? 


s_ 


■ec 


a 

03 'r 




13 


11 


13 


i 


S 


"S 


t- 


ii3 


y 


< 


-1 


104 


190 


85 


171 


257 


330 


199 


381 


377 


301 


392 


335 


426 


261 


409 


254 


174 


467 


189 


435 


355 


460 


318 


505 


421 


273 


344 


342 



Total . . . 1.592 2,198 2.017 1,967 1,924 1,909 1,906 1,891 2,114 2.282 1,936 2.423 




I'KESIKKXTS AM) MAYdUS OF riUA. 1T'.)S-Iim 



PUBLL 



AS! 

llLLit-.. 

K 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 221 

1801) IS70 1871 1H72 IR7.1 I«7) 



3 5- E S_ a a_ ■£_ o- a o_ 

li 5s §g "& ^§ S9 «§ ^S wg £ 



Q" §w n§ ^"S i« "° Hi^ 8° ■i^i^ 8* a- ^° 

I l" S" fe~ |~ I I" u.~ I' I" ?~ «" I" 

1 "79 202 107 176 125 190 161 114 133 100 ^92 203 

2....- 177 354 250 321 244 351 276 339 101 422 210 353 

3 390 363 484 240 469 316 499 275 106 450 614 257 

4 391 297 460 227 493 279 397 152 112 208 364 177 

5 146 495 121 309 135 362 157 213 107 160 70 179 

6 284 546 88 182 144 212 151 213 48 251 177 165 

7 394 374 384 275 453 388 448 329 169 420 532 376 

8 123 289 156 304 189 337 165 325 220 326 

9 281 305 307 367 287 352 131 480 452 259 

10 195 182 107 172 212 225 

Total . . . 1,861 2,631 2,298 2,324 2,526 2,769 2,660 2,516 1,179 2,988 2,943 2,520 

1.S75 1876 1877 1878 1879 



55 - ■;; C - 5 S 

■-^2 ~a S2 afi °l sa Sd ll ^d ^9 =1 

g| wS SS Is w| wS IS »| %& l& SS 

1 r r ^' r r e:- ^- i^ r I 5 

1 62 169 130 158 147 124 104 41 103 85 163 

2 233 365 249 390 356 230 246 233 235 180 472 

3 538 340 405 474 540 301 219 486 227 507 405 

4 354 216 300 234 353 178 220 266 90 359 244 

5 51 202 97 198 75 177 67 125 130 49 252 

6 159 198 127 200 156 198 58 155 178 111 252 

7 503 494 582 485 599 449 303 718 225 500 621 

8 149 391 262 384 263 292 245 306 144 233 502 

9 391 329 343 450 408 381 140 505 186 253 515 

10 210 222 197 230 207 201 161 185 114 197 240 

Total 2,650 2,926 2,690 3,203 3,104 2,531 1,763 3,020 1,634 2,473 3,666 

ISSO ISSl 1S,SL> 1S83 1884 



S_ s. ,?_ o| % o- .-_ a- S_ 2- 



d "B 56 "S ^- 06 -.S 3ti oS "'a gS 

■- «§ GS ^» '^ti 5? ^C "S^ oflj ,/« jrj 

go Sg B(5 ^S PUK jO «»2 OQ "K 'r.i 



I S= s- s- 5- 

5 g ^ a ^ t 

6 (3 ►^ 5 ►; £ 



I 93 165 97 126 70 2 180 77 186 167 66 

? 252 369 275 391 266 10 323 350 345 400 198 

3 337 246 364 216 410 3 178 358 174 368 257 

4 340 266 369 232 402 20 213 322 264 423 165 



222 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

ISSO 18S1 ISS:; 18S3 1SS4 



I 



5 f r 



8 S £ 



f^? ii ii ii "I ii.i "=§ ii li ^i li 

s- g- 8- §~ a- u- -E- S- <~ J- H- 

5 59 266 115 165 66 :? 207 43 202 146 180 

6 145 230 173 217 108 21!) 109 259 196 158 

7 259 329 264 328 353 4 263 289 280 373 250 

8 242 372 307 382 270 1 ] 407 242 473 376 358 

9 358 513 458 323 381 49 469 229 555 505 391 

10 214 241 198 234 228 2 179 189 230 264 176 

11 231 189 255 182 360 6 123 282 160 301 188 

12 327 297 323 311 366 15 243 315 289 453 200 

Total 2,857 3,483 3,198 3,107 3,280 105 3,004 2,805 3,417 3,972 2,587 

18S.' IS. SO 1SS7 18SS 1SS9 



:d a 



I s 1 = ^ i 



3ti i;2 E- Sd E^ K'a •§ aa =B 

s 



a J5 tO S3 '-= so SB ^ 2- '■= "^-- ■2?'- 

■g -~ -S" S" S 3 E .»! 

fe ££=" = = 



1 "86 Too 50 193 75 139 °. . 46 173 113 94 

2 173 171 326 266 351 417 3 200 489 250 483 

3 219 149 227 294 343 194 32 344 340 264 281 

4 278 137 253 293 285 255 21 456 239 379 194 

5 14 210 77 106 246 222 1 64 292 49 232 

6 110 211 143 109 259 318 10 77 359 113 333 

7 318 111 282 306 416 315 27 443 398 398 339 

8 201 291 354 228 577 695 2 328 676 222 804 

9 318 382 230 400 619 586 13 376 784 356 631 

10 146 151 150 137 287 267 11 243 225 212 233 

11 196 89 151 260 272 129 14 310 308 326 209 

12 327 103 303 329 393 397 20 491 364 542 331 

Total 2,386 2,105 2,546 2,927 4,123 3,934 153 3,378 4,647 3,324 4,164 

I S !) n 180 2 1 s !i :i I s !i .-. 1 s n 7 1 S n '■< 

g & S I 

o_ I- «i |_ 2- |_ I- S_ I- 2„ I- ^ '".- 

oi If 5=1 Si ^i si c§ ai =1 Kii =1 »i '^i 

a 5= "5 95 S« --to ae oQ jcs (jO je ^£ Se cO 

1 = "^ I i " I 5 s . J r i" i' r 

1 89 180 42 192 109 181 121 134 163 158 122 156 133 

2 173 491 62 457 374 440 435 328 509 311 432 299 467 

3 267 355 97 472 290 409 307 312 418 447 380 477 345 

4 279 248 127 352 333 366 318 338 324 394 255 348 295 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 223 



1800 IS II 2 isil.-i ISO 5 1897 18B8 



'I ^i n 'i li !| "i 4 "^ "i °i "i ^'i 

5 . . . . 59 244 40 176 159 206 166 157 206 166 188 130 210 

6 . . . . 99 250 83 299 174 256 271 184 269 222 278 242 262 
7.... 377 342 186 407 545 495 581 543 614 591 466 618 550 
8.... 314 682 219 727 679 673 885 708 988 553 738 603 842 
9 . . . . 342 682 235 655 687 683 735 574 846 490 674 561 612 

10 ... . 228 194 74 227 302 249 252 231 321 251 290 208 302 

11 ... . 305 244 135 379 303 368 377 378 392 436 352 434 423 

12 ... . 526 310 172 599 490 624 556 579 583 414 397 435 371 

13 414 397 274 267 

14 214 189 267 201 

15 415 298 421 280 

Total . 3,058 4,222 1,482 4,932 4,445 4,950 5,013 4,476 5,633 5,364 5,283 5,473 5,560 

moi 1003 1905 1907 1009 



Si 
% 



Eh-, S>_ H_ 



<l |g <§ Is ^i ^i '^'l ==s -gi 

«« SS 5« so «« 'Ha SiS so SOS ~a 

■H V, ■= |- -T^ ?- s- a- s- E~ 4~ 

'l "62 217 "53 221 "82 "185 117 165 I2I 114 

2 385 394 261 546 430 407 430 481 356 505 

3 434 338 387 486 497 346 562 306 457 351 

4 320 344 273 378 387 310 441 277 366 348 

5 170 217 174 230 223 247 216 196 191 256 

6 248 268 183 369 214 328 259 329 234 374 

7 566 724 478 876 776 691 866 692 776 717 

8 601 946 696 1,038 742 1,090 1,071 973 783 1,272 

9 512 705 377 899 585 717 699 656 614 725 

10 206 354 188 400 274 366 342 279 245 340 

11 446 441 466 534 436 504 527 470 509 511 

12 397 450 325 592 506 456 600 453 534 520 

13 308 300 301 326 352 312 444 343 413 429 

14 242 243 221 332 311 281 352 303 328 400 

15 441 329 325 440 474 337 606 289 427 414 

Total .... 5,338 6,270 4,606 7,667 6,289 6,577 7,532 6,212 6,354 7,276 



224 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 









^ 




i- 

8- 

s 


1 

a 

1 


8 

e 

5 


i- 

9 


1 


197 


84 


3 






524 


329 


30 






331 


492 


18 


8 


5 


279 


366 


11 


4 


3 


212 


220 




1 


1 


313 


252 


21 


2 


5 


601 


993 


37 


9 


11 


1,258 


752 


54 


12 


9 


626 


643 


100 


5 


3 


314 


311 


11 


4 


3 


436 


652 


34 


2 


5 


545 


549 


15 


5 


5 


472 


459 


31 


7 


15 


324 


427 


61 


2 


3 


318 


558 


14 


4 


3 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

Total 6,750 7,097 440 65 72 

ROME 

The village of Rome was incorporated in 1819, with the following boundaries, 
to-wit: "Commencing at the junction of the Erie canal with Wood creek, near 
the white house called the 'Clark house,' and thence do\ni the canal to the west 
line of George house; thence on a line of said farm to a poplar tree south of 
the old canal; thence to the east corner of Fiero's barn; thence to the north 
corner of Jacob Tibbits's barn; thence north to the east corner of Bloomficld's 
garden ; thence northward to Wood creek ; thence down the creek to the place 
of beginning." 

There seems to have been a local pride in having one of the largest incor- 
porated villages in the state, I'ather than to be one of the smallest cities, which 
evidently deterred the citizens of Rome for some time in making application 
for a city charter; but, after its population had reached more than ten thou- 
sand, it was thought advisable to incorporate it as a city. The last census taken 
of the village of Rome was that of 1865, when it showed a population of 9,478. 
There was from that time onward a gradual but not rapid growth, as is showni 
by the census, which has been taken generally every five years. There does not 
seem to have been anything of great importance to record in regard to the vil- 
lage corporation between its organization and its being incorporated as a city. 
Till- important events which occurred in the territory known as the "town and 
village of Rome" are mostly recorded in other parts of this work. The present 
chapter has to do especially with the corporate life of the village and city. 



rrr 



J.J ^ 
.- 



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li 
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At 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 225 

In 1853 the village was dividod into three wards, the portion east of Jamea 
street being the first ward; that west of Jauies street and south of Lil)erty the 
second ward; that west of James and north of Liberty the third ward. 

It appears from the history written by Mr. \Vaj,'er that the trustees of the 
village from 1820 to 1834, inclusive, were the following persons, viz: 

1820-21— George Huntington, Elijah Worthington, Stephen White, Elisha 
Walsworth, Numa Leonard. 

1822 — Same, except Wheeler Barnes was elected in the place of Stephen 
White. 

1823 — Wheeler Barnes, Joshua Hathaway, Simon Matteson, George Brown, 
Denis Davenport. 

1824-25 — Wheeler Barnes, Arden Seymour, Simon Matteson, George Brown, 
Numa Leonard. 

1826 — George Huntington, John W. Bloomfield, Jay Hathaway, Elisha Wals- 
worth, Henry A. Foster. 

1827 — John W. Bloomfield, George Huntington, Henry A. Foster, Martin 
Galusha, Jay Hathaway. 

1828— J. W. Bloomfield, Jay Hathaway, H. A. Foster, Seth B. Roberts, 
Arden Seymour. 

1829— J. W. Bloomfield, Jay Hathaway, Seth B. Roberts, Francis Bicknell, 
Lyman Briggs. 

1830 — Alanson Bennett, Bela B. Hyde, Noah Draper, James Men-ills, Syl- 
vester Wilcox. 

1831 — Bela B. Hyde, Henry Tibbits, James ^Merrills, Sylvester Wilcox, Jo- 
seph B. Read. 

1832 — A. Bennett, Alva Whedon, James Merrills, Francis Bicknell, Jay 
Hathaway. 

1833— No record. 

1834 — Jesse Armstrong, John Stryker, Alva Mudge, Samuel B. Stevens, 
Virgil Draper. 

From 1835 to 1849, inclusive, the records of the village have been lost or 
misplaced, and it is impossible to give the trustees for those years. From 
1850 to 1869 they were as follows: 

1850— Edward Himtington, Oliver J. Grosvenor, Andrew J. Rowley, Stephen 
VanDresar, Henry C. Mallory. 

1851-52— Enoch B. Armstrong, Roland S. Doty, Woodman Kimball, Sanford 
Adams, Marquis D. Hollister. 

1853 — President, Alanson Bennett. 1st ward, H. S. Armstrong, E. A. 
Gage, E. M. Hinkley ; 2d ward, Stephen VanDresar, J. Lewis Grant, Publius 
V. Rogers; 3d ward, M. L. Kenyon. Zaecheus Hill, Henry Hayden. 

1854 — President, B. J. Beach. 1st ward, Gordon N. Bissell, James L. Wat- 
kins, A. McCune; 2d ward, J. L. Grant, M. Burns, Richard Peggs; 3d ward, 
James Walker, S. Scofil, C. P. Williams. 

1855 — President, Marquis L. Kenyon. 1st ward, Harrison Jacobs, E. A. 
Gage, Moses Wingate ; 2d ward, Michael Burns, Henry T. Utley, Eri Seymour ; 
3d ward, R. G. Savery, J. H. Gilbert, M. L. Brainard. 

1856 — President, George Barnard. 1st ward, A. W. Cole, Joseph Higgins, 



226 HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 

Robert Whitworth ; 2d ward, II. H. Pope, J. J. Armstrong, John Ward; 3d 
ward, A. H. Edgertou, Edward Dickinson, John J. Parry. 

1S57 — President, George Barnard. 1st ward, Henry 0. Southworth, Robert 
Whitworth, Jacob P. Hager; 2d ward, John Ward, Thomas H. Pond, Daniel 
Ilager; 3d ward, A. H. Edgerton, George W. Taft, Edward Smith. 

1858 — President, George Barnard. 1st ward, Henry 0. Southworth, Paul 
Schneible, Robert Whitworth ; 2d ward, John Ward, Daniel Hager, Glen Petrie ; 
3d ward, A. H. Edgerton, G. W. Taft, Edward Smith. 

1859 — President, George Barnard. 1st ward, Alva Mudge, H. C. Case, H. 
C. Mallory ; 2d ward, H. H. Pope. John Ward. D. Hager ; 3d ward, A. H. Edger- 
ton, E. P. Wait, R. E. Lee. 

1860 — President, George Barnard. 1st M'ard, Charles F. Bissell, Henry C. 
]^Iallory, Nathaniel Ilazelton; 2d ward, II. H. Pope. Adam Kochersperger, John 
'Neil ; 3d ward, Robinson E. Smiley, N. Hyde Leffingwell, Zaccheus Hill. 

1861 — President, George Barnard. 1st ward, H. C. Mallory, Jason Rastizer, 
George Merrill ; 2d ward, A. K. Adams, H. H. Pope, Peter Quinn ; 3d ward, 
William J. Walker, Daniel Cady, Nicholas Moran. 

1862 — President, George Barnard. 1st ward, H. C. ilallory, ^I. W. Rowe, 
Peter Rothmund ; 2d ward, H. H. Pope, A. K. Adams. Peter Quinn ; 3d ward, 
Z. Hill, E. A. Allen, Jeptha Matteson. 

1863 — President, George Barnard. 1st ward, D. B. Prince, H. Edmonds, R. 
Wliiteworth ; 2d ward. H. H. Pope, A. K. Adams, Thomas Flanagan ; 3d ward, 
J. Matteson, Z. Hill, E. A. Allen. 

1864 — President, David UtleJ^ 1st ward, M. Maloney, Martin Seger, Daniel 
L. Ketcham; 2d ward, John Harrington, John Spellioy, Peter Quinn: 3d ward, 
James Walker, John D. Ely, Harvey D. Spencer. 

1865 — President, E. B. Armsti'ong. 1st ward, Joseph Higgins, Orson Knowl- 
ton, James Elwell ; 2d ward, John Reifert, John Hook, Thomas Flanagan; 3d 
ward, Samuel Wardwell, James Walker, G. H. Lynch. 

1866 — President, George Barnard, Jr. 1st ward, H. 0. Southworth, Orson 
Knowlton, Joseph Higgins; 2d ward, John Reifert, John Hook, Thomas Flan- 
agan; 3d ward, James Walker, Lewis Gaylord, Sylvester F. Tremain. 

1867 — President, James Stevens. 1st ward, LawTence Gaheen, James Elwell, 
Peter Rothmund; 2d ward, Nicholas Kapfer, Thomas Flanagan, John SpeUicy; 
3d ward, Griffith W. Jones, Lewis Gaylord, William Jackson. 

1868 — President, James Stevens. 1st ward. Peter Rothmund, James H. 
Carroll, George H. Brodock; 2d ward, Henry W. Tibbits, Fred Rostizer, Thomas 
W. Edwards; 3d ward, William Jackson, Lewis Gaylord, B. W. Williams. 

1869 — President, Edward L. Stevens. 1st ward, James H. Carroll; 2d ward, 
John Spellicy; 3d ward, Ackley B. Tuller. A portion of the old board held 
over tliis year, according to the new reguhitions for the election of trustees. 

Rome was incorporated as a city by an act entitled "An Act to Incorporate 
the City of Rome," passed February 23. 1S70. .Alunicipal elections were held 
in the spring from 1870 to 1903, when the two great parties would present their 
respective candidates; and, as Rome has naturally been Democratic, the Demo- 
cratic party has been in control most of the time .since it received its city charter. 
The first Rcpubli.\nn mayor clccfcd in Rome wa.s E. Stuart Williams, in 1891. 




Cihrrl ( 'oiiistcicU 







Eilwnrd I.. Stir-veus 
ISTT 



Edward Coiiistdck 
ISSl-lSSo 



James 8tevens 
1SS7-1SS9 





K. Slunrt \\'illiaiiis 
1 SI 1 1 



Saiiiin'l (iillette 

1 Sl:»3 



MAYOKS OF KoMK 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 227 

In 1895 Dr. W. J. P. Kiiigslcy, Kepiihliciin, was eleclwl, and re-elected in 1897. 
Tlionias G. Noek, Rcpiibliean, was elected in 19U3. In 1909 a curious political 
situation existed in Rome. Judge William E. Scripture had been renominated 
for justice of the Supreme Court by the Republicans, and it was desired that 
he should obtain as large a vote iu Rome as possible. To that end an arrange- 
ment was made by which A. R. Kessinger, the then Democratic mayor, should 
be renominated by the Democrats and nominated by the Republicans, which 
was done, and Mr. Kessinger was of course, elected. In 1911 the Republican city 
convention nominated Stewart E. Townsend for mayor and Adolph F. Moldt 
for pi-esident of the common council. The Democrats nominated Leon V. Jones 
for mayor and Alfred L. Eveuden for president of the common council. The 
Republican party was successful, Mr. Townsend receiving a plurality of 250 
for mayor, and Mr. Moldt a majority of 125 for president of the common council. 

Votes on Mayors of Rome. 

1870 IHT.i 1875 1877 1879 1881 



i~ 1-, t~ -c- »!- S~ !"- ■§_ =- ^ a- 5_ 

og ad SiB Sti Bja ^e jg sa «s ,q Ss Wd 

, „Q ■g- ~Q ^iS ■sQ MS -oa ^2 "g gK ■oo b.« 

I 5 S •! I I 5 3 § I ^ I '^ 

1 130 91 249 143 264 l'69 307 193 314 209 298 186 

2 256 223 200 127 264 100 267 140 260 170 247 106 

3 301 147 285 139 363 106 309 265 322 226 363 148 

4 231 150 179 192 275 103 220 237 229 214 232 209 

5 201 380 197 297 245 265 214 332 260 322 209 331 

Total 1,209 991 1,110 898 1,411 743 1,317 1,167 1,385 1,146 1,349 980 

1883 1885 1887 1889 1891 



■?.4 s- gj a- g^ s- s7 I- "- Sj &- 

i;s dd £h "d «a c6 £s "= =b 2a _d 

HQ -^H 'SQ °a =^Q ^Sh mq oa cfi .Q =i3 



HB< 



1 262 129 364 182 369 43 430 2I5O 19 366 358 23 

2 236 113 325 116 360 7 317 158 6 166 301 11 

3 336 109 398 167 349 26 490 115 11 271 361 14 

4 282 152 279 198 272 32 284 268 28 201 378 16 

5 210 252 213 336 184 119 180 361 31 164 496 21 

Total .1,326 755 1,579 999 1,534 227 1,701 1,152 95 1,168 1,894 85 



228 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 































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1 


351 286 


19 


286 


379 


340 


357 


23 


417 


424 


394 


387 


29 


2 


306 128 


9 


168 


286 


229 


213 


8 


273 


220 


262 


157 


56 


3 399 176 


12 


256 


306 


295 


272 


11 


437 


291 


321 


277 


54 


4 287 264 


14 


230 


328 


243 


328 


16 


322 


306 


255 


362 


37 


5 267 380 


25 


225 


428 


222 


471 


33 


355 


422 


251 


495 


37 


1.610 1.234 


79 


1,165 


1.727 


1.329 


1,641 


91 


1,804 1,663 


1,489 


1,678 


213 






1003 






1 (1 5 








1907 




















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1 . 


... 416 


444 


11 


237 


141 


13 


8 


188 


145 


23 


5 


4 


2 . 


... 306 


210 


2 


341 


196 


22 


3 


243 


173 


26 


9 


8 


3 . 


... 359 


307 


7 


348 


290 


27 


12 


361 


256 


16 


11 


11 


4 . 


... 301 


355 


20 


348 


311 


15 


20 


344 


305 


29 


11 


19 


5 . 


... 304 


570 


12 


178 


247 


11 


13 


206 


222 


40 


2 


20 


6 . 








189 


238 


11 


7 


201 


193 


21 


5 


8 


7 . 








223 


181 


30 


10 


289 


169 


25 


4 


14 



Total .1.689 1,886 52 1.764 1,604 129 61 1,832 1,463 ISO 47 84 



i 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

Totfll 1,269 1,425 

















1 


& 


I. 


— 


C 




•o 




■sG 


u 

li 


li 


ss 


=36 


s 




"5 ^ 


1- 


:]£a 


as 


ci 


oia: 


>a 


^X 


sS 


f:- 


c: 


= 


c 


a 




u: 


s 


i.- 


< 


< 




C 




■r 


f^ 


X 


157 


109 


6 


73 


164 


161 


15 


4 


167 


180 


6 


20 


225 


211 


19 


2 


282 


256 


12 


104 


366 


289 


29 


, 


192 


244 


32 


247 


328 


413 


36 


2 


146 


218 


6 


196 


192 


377 


10 


3 


130 


229 


11 


124 


196 


280 


]] 


1 


195 


189 


12 


99 


260 


230 


13 


3 



99 911 1.731 1.961 133 



15 



Town Officers — From time to time the officers of the towns have been changed, 
but all of the laws which preceded the consolidated laws of 1909 have been 





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is: I.- -IS! IT 



Al'iici- S. Wliili 





llcililiii- A. Cmsw.'II 

1'.!(I1 



A, U. Kpssiimer 
T.kC. 111(17-1 '.mil 




'riioiiins (i. XcH-U Stewart V.. ■ruwiisciul 

iMi:; T.iii 

jr.woKs or lidMi: 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 229 

repealed or superseded by this net. Tliis is the town law of the eonsolidated laws 
and is known as ehapter 60 of the laws of !!»()!), and is chapter 62 of ttie (ronsoli- 
dated laws, as enacted in that year. The town officers are now elected biennially, 
and they consist of supei'visor, town clerk, two justices of the peace, three asses- 
sors, one clerk, one or two overseers of the poor, not more than live constables, 
and one superintendent of highways. There are some provisions for an increase 
of officers in the large towns, it is also provided in the consolidated act that 
at any election for the raising of money by ta.x or assessment women who are 
taxed have the right to vote. 

Villages — Chapter 64 of the consolidated law ])rovides for the creation and 
control of villages. The requirement is that the territory shall not exceed one 
square mile, and that there shall be not less than 200 inhabitants. Villages are 
divided into four classes by article 3, section 40, of the act, as follows : First, 
those with 5,000 or more population ; second, 3,000 and less than 5,000 popula- 
tion; third, 1,000 and less than 3,000 population; fourth, less than 1,000 popula- 
tion. The officers of villages are president, treasurer, clerk and two trustees. It 
is also provided that in large villages trustees may be elected by wards. Many 
of the villages of the state have been organized by special charters, and this is 
true of some in this county. Under this general provision of the consolidated 
laws any village incorporated by special charter may re-incorporate under the 
general law, as provided in article 13 section 300. As a general proposition it 
is much lietter to be incorporated under the general statute than under any 
private act. One reason for this is that all the villages are controlled by the 
same officials and in the same manner, whereas, under special charters powers 
of officers might be very different, and a decision of the court in one ease would 
not be conclusive on the same questions arising vinder different charters. 

The incorporated villages within the county at the end of 1911 are as 
follows : 

Oriskany Falls Town of Augusta 

Boonville Town of Boonville 

Bridgewater Town of Bridgewater 

Camden Town of Camden 

Forestport Town of Forestport 

Clinton Town of Kirkland 

Waterville Partly in Sangerfield and partly in Marshall 

New Hartford Town of New Hartford 

Clayville Town of Paris 

Remsen Town of Remsen and Trenton 

Trenton Town of Trenton 

Holland Patent Town of Trenton 

Prospect Town of Trenton 

Vernon Town of Vernon 

Oneida Castle Town of Vernon 

New London Town of Verona 

Sylvan Beach Town of Vienna 

Whitesboro Town of Whitestown 

Yorkville Town of Whitestown 



CHAPTER XXI 

COURTS, BENCH AND BAR 

During Uio early liistory ol; the state of New York no locality in the state 
contributed more, according to its population, than did Oneida county in fur- 
nishing able and conscientious men for high official positions. These men were 
among the foremost in framing the constitution and statutes of the state, and, 
through the courts, in laying dovm those fundamental rules of law that have 
since been a guide to courts, legislators and lawyers. 

The county of Oneida was erected by an act passed March 15, 1798, by which 
act provision was made for holding courts in the county and for the erection 
of a court house and jail. The first court of record held within what is now 
Oneida county convened at the "Meeting House" in the town of Whitestown 
on the third Tuesday in January, 1794. Henry Staring was judge, and Jedediah 
Sanger and Amos Wetmore justices. The meeting house referred to was the 
Presbyterian church at New Hartford village. This was the only meeting house 
then existing within the county, and the village of New Hartford was then within 
the tovm of Whitestown. 

Soon after the formation of the count}' in 1798, Jedediah Sanger, Hugh 
A\niite, James Dean, David Ostrom and George Huntington were commissioned 
judges, and Amos Wetmore, Thomas Casety, Garret Boon, Adrian F. Vander- 
Kemp, Elizur ]\Ioselcy, Henry McNeil, Peter Colt and Needham Maynard assist- 
ant justices. John Lansing, Jr., chief justice, held the first circuit court in 
Oneida county at Fort Stanwix (Rome) on the second Tuesday in September, 
1798. James Kent, afterwards autlior of "Kent's Commentarios," a justice 
of the Supreme Court, held the first court of Oyer and Terminer at Rome, June 
5, 1798. Tlie first court of common pleas was held b.y Judges Sanger, Hunting- 
ton and Ostrom. At this term attorneys, who had been admitted to the bar in 
Herkimer county, were admitted to practice in Oneida county courts. They 
were: Thomas R. Gold, Joseph Kirklaud. Arthur Breese, Erastus Clark, Joshua 
Hatliaway. Jacob Griswold, Nathan "Williams, Francis A. Bloodgood, Jonas Piatt, 
Rufus Easton and Medal Curtis. 

From about 1802 sessions of the United States District Court have been held 
in I'tica, and the T^^nited States Circuit Coui-t has hold stated sessions here since 
July, 1851. 

The Supreme Court of Judicatory held sessions in Utica during its entire 
existence. A Ijiwj'er attending one of these sessions in 1820. in describing the 
court, mentions the eminent per.sonages who were present. He says: "Chief 
Justice Spencer presided, with Judges VanNess, Piatt, Yates and Woolworth 

230 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 231 

as associates. Among the emiiieiit eouiisel i>res(>iit were Aaron Burr, Thomas 
J. Oakley, Martin Vau Buren and Elisha Williams." 

By statute, provision for a court house was made to be built in Rome, to be 
loeated within one mile of the fort — Stanwix — and in 1800 Doininiek Lynch 
donated a site for the court house and jail. The buildinj^s were constructed on 
the site donated, and their location has never been changed. Hugh White do- 
nated the site for the same county buildings at AVhitesboro in the year 1801. 
The jail at Whitesboro was completed before that at Rome, and also before 
the court house at Whitesboro, and the first session of the court of common pleas 
was held in a schoolhouse at Whitesboro in May, 1802. When the jail at Whites- 
boro was completed the court ordered all Oneida county prisoners confined in 
the Herkimer jail transferred to Whitesboro. The Whitesboro court house is 
still standing, and is used as a town and village hall. The first court house built 
at Rome was burned in 1847, but was immediately rebuilt, and was enlarged in 
1897, and again in 1902-3. In 1806 an act was passed authorizing courts to be 
held alternately in Rome and Whitesboro. This arrangement continued until 
Utica had so far ovitstripped W^hitesboro in population that it was more con- 
venient for litigants to come to Utica than to Whitesboro, and provision was 
made for the holding of courts in Utica instead of Whitesboro. 

In 1813 the regents of the iiniversity granted a charter for an academy in 
Utica, and it was proposed by certain residents of Utica to erect a building for 
the purposes of an academy, a court house and a public hall. A portion of the 
money for the building was raised by subscription, and John R. Bleeeker and 
Charles E. Dudley gave "two village lots valued at five hundred dollars for 
the site." The building was erected on the site donated on the westerly side of 
Chancellor square. In 1851 a new court house was built on John street directly 
in the rear of the old one, and a new academy was built by the city on the lot 
formerly occupied by the old academy and court house. The John street court 
house was rebuilt about 1868, and was used by the county until a public demand 
was made for better aeconnnodations. The increase of population and of in- 
dustries caused a large increase of business in all the county offices; moreover, 
the county clerk's office was located on Genesee street, a long distance from 
the court house, was totally inadequate to the wants of the county, and was not 
a fireproof building, and it was realized that the valuable records of the county 
were liable to be destroyed should a fire occur in the building. This subject 
was taken up by the Utica chamber of commerce, and a resolution was adopted 
providing for the appointment of a committee to present the subject to the 
board of supervisors. The committee consisted of Henry J. Cookinham, Josiah 
Perry and Smith M. Lindsley. The committee performed its duty, and the 
board of supervisors, in the winter of 1901, took steps looking to the building of 
a new court house, and a resolution was passed appointing a committee to pro- 
ceed with the work. Just at this time, and principally through the influence 
of Hon. John C. Davies, then attorney general of the state, a special act of the 
legislature was passed creating a board of commissioners for the erection of a 
new court house in Utica. This commission consisted of seven Republicans and 
seven Democrats, seven commissioners being lawyers, and seven being business 
men. Their names were Henry J. Cookinham, W. Stuart Walcott, Edwin H. 



-2R2 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

Risley, Josiah Porry. VaiiEensselacr Weaver, Frederick T. Proctor, Alfred H. 
Munson, Albert R. Kossiuger, James P. Gluey, Heury W. Bentley, Byron A. 
Curtis, Leslie W. Kernan, Smith il. Liiidsley aud George E. Norton. Mr. 
"Walcott declined to serve, and AVilliam G. JIayer was elected in his place ; Leslie 
AY. Kernan died, and Thomas S. Jones was elected in his place; Henry W. Bent- 
ley, who luul acted as chairman of the commission up to the time of his death, 
also died, and Henry B. Belknap was elected a commissioner in his place, and 
Henry J. Cookinham was elected chairman. Sylvester Bering was the efficient 
clerk of the Commission. The hoard of supervisors, which, by general statute 
had the power to erect a court house, opposed the commission and refused to 
issue bonds of the county to furnish money for the building as the special act 
required. The Court of Appeals sustained the commission in a proceeding to 
compel the supervisors to issue the bonds, and. after a hitter legal fight, the work 
proceeded and the building was completed in ISIOO. The court house is located 
between Mary, Charlotte and Elizabeth streets, and with the lot and the fur- 
nishings cost nearly a million dollars. The plan was procured in the following 
manner. The commission selected fourteen different architects to prepare plans 
to be submitted to the board iinder tictitious names. These plans were first to be 
submitted to Prof. Ware, who was at the head of the department of architect- 
ure in Columbia University, He was to examine them and give his opinion as 
to their respective merits, and then the commission was to make the selection. 
After a most careful examination, lasting about three weeks, the commission 
voted unanimous]}- in favor of No. 9. AYhen the small envelope which contained 
the true name of the architect was opened, the name was found to be "Cutter, 
Turner & Ward" of Boston. The building was constructed according to the 
general plan submitted, but some changes were made, regretfully, by the com- 
mission, because thej' had not sufficient money to carry out every detail as 
planned. It is one of the most convenient and beautiful court houses in the 
entire country. The first session of the Supreme Court was opened in this 
building by Justice Irving R. Devendorf on the 21st day of September, 1908, 
before the building was entirely completed. 

For several years prior to 1875 an effort had been made by the lawyers of 
the county to induce the legislature to establish a Supreme Court library in 
Utica, but the effort had not resulted in success. In 1875 Richard U. Sherman 
was the member of a.ssembly froni the first district, and was also a member of 
the committee of ways and means. In that position he was able to have inserted 
in the supply bill an appropriation of $2,000 for the purpose of establishing a 
law library in Oneida county, on condition tliat tlic hoard of supervisors of the 
county would appropriate a like sum for tlie same purpose, or tliat the membera 
of the bar of the county would raise a like sum. The supervisors refused to do 
anything in that direction, and the required amount was raised by subscription 
among the lawyers of the county. The Utica law library as.sociation was incor- 
porated December 19, 1876, and is still in existence ; it has charge of the purchas- 
ing of books for the library, which, at the present time, contains between 16,000 
and 17,0(10 volumes. The officers of this a-ssociation since its organization have 
been as follows: 




(■(HIMIlurSF, AT Kd.MH .\l"l'i;i; IT WAS ItlOIilll, 




coritTiiorsE AT uo.Mi: iuofoki-: it was reiuilt 



THF '• 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 233 

PRESIDENTS 

Henry J. Cookinham 1876-79 

Charles D. Adams 1879-80 

William Kernan 1880-83 

George M. Weaver 188.'3-85 

E. A. Graham 1885-89 

P. C. J. DeAngelis 1889-08 

William E. Mackie 1908-11 

SECBETARIES 

Alfred C. Coxe 1876-79 

Smith M. Lindsley 1879-80 

P. C. J. DeAngelis 1880-84 

John G. Gibson 1884-89 

Robert 0. Jones 1889-91 

Charles A. Talcott 1891-95 

Julius A. T. Doolittle 1895-1900 

T. Harvey Ferris 1900-06 

James H. Merwin 1906-11 

On January 26, 1872, a special act of the legislature was passed organizing 
"The Association of the Bar of Oneida County." The charter members were 
the leaders of the bar, Horatio Seymour, Roscoe Conkling, Francis Kei-nan. 
Charles H. Doolittle, Arthur M. Beardsley and others. A meeting of the char- 
ter members was held soon after the organization and a constitution was adopted, 
and, so far as any record shows, that was the last meeting ever held. Why 
the organization died so untimely a death cannot be ascertained at this time. 

The Oneida County Bar Association was organized and called its first meet- 
ing February 17, 1906. This association has done something to elevate the stand- 
ard of members of the bar, and each year it has held an annual banquet, at which 
eminent judges and lawyers have responded to appropriate toasts, and these 
social gatherings have been most enjoyable to members of the association. The 
officers from the time of its organization down to 1912 have been as follows : 

PRESIDENTS 

Milton H. Merwin, from February 17, 1906, to December, 1907. 

William Kernan, from December, 1907, to December, 1908. 

Smith M. Lindsley, from 1908 to the time of his death which occurred May 
17, 1909. 

Thomas S. Jones, for the remainder of the term of Mr. Lindsley, and also 
from December 1909 to 1911. 

William K. Harvey has been secretary of the association from its organization 
to date. 

TREASURERS 

John S. Baker, from February, 1906, to December, 1909. 
Ward J. Cagwin, from December, 1909 to date. 
There are 126 members of the association at this time. 



234 HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 

To give an account oi' the numy iutcrcsting and important trials, both civil 
and criminal, which have occurred within the county, would extend this paper 
beyond reasonable bounds. A few of these trials would furnish material for 
a book, and it is difficult to select any of the civil cases that are of such paramount 
importance above others as to warrant even a short account of them. There 
have been, however, criminal cases of such character as to be of interest to the 
public. 

The first capital case tried in Oucida county was that of Sylvia Wood. She 
was indicted for the murder of her husband, was convicted and sentenced to be 
hanged, but committed suicide the night before the day set for her execution. 

The first execution for murder in the county was that of John Tuhi, an 
Indian, who was convicted of the murder of his cousin, Joseph Tuhi. This 
execution occurred Jul^' 25, 1817. 

In 1824, the court of oyer and terminer was held in the building in Utica 
used for a court house and academy, and the first important criminal trial 
which took place was that of a boy, Irad Morse. He was indicted for murder, 
having shot his companion while hunting. Samuel R. Betts, circuit judge, pre- 
sided, and Samuel Beardsley was district attorney. The boy was convicted, 
but the sentence was commuted to imprisonment for life. 

One of the most, if not the most important criminal trial which ever occurred 
in the United States was that of Alexander McLeod. He was indicted for the 
murder of Amos Durfree, who was kiUed bj' a pistol shot December 30, 1837, 
the night of the burning of the steamer Caroline, and sending her over Niagara 
Falls. The trial of i\IcLeod took place at Utica in October, 1841. Judge Philo 
Gridley presided, and Willis Hall, attorney general of the state, assisted John 
L. Wood, district attorney of Erie county, and Timothy Jenkins, district attor- 
ney of Oneida county, in prosecuting the criminal. The prisoner was defended 
by Gardner & Bradley, with Joshua A. Spencer as counsel. McLeod was a 
British subject, and, after his indictment, the British government demanded his 
release. Our government, Daniel Webster being then secretary of state, was 
favorable to granting the request, but William H. Seward, governor of New 
York, refused to deliver up the prisoner. A serious international controversy 
arose and war was threatened. The federal government, in reality, took charge 
of the defense of McLeod, backed by Great Britain, that government having 
appropriated twenty thousand pounds for his defense. On motion of the de- 
fendant's counsel the place of trial was changed from Erie to Oneida county. 
The excitement was intense in this country and in England, for it was believed 
that if the prisoner was convicted and the state of New York undertook to 
execute him, war would be declared by England. Mr. Spencer, then the fore- 
most advocate in the entire country, tried the case with matchless ability, and 
sumined it up with great power. The original manuscript of his minutes, taken 
upon the trial, are now in the possession of the Oneida historical society at Utica. 
Judge Gridley, in his charge, called attention to thie gi'eat importance of the case, 
and told the jury that if, in their judgment, the evidence warranted a verdict 
of guilty, to convict the prisoner, though it should "light up the land with 
the flame of war." McLeod was acquitted, and further international compli- 
cations in regard to the subject were averted. The writer was informed by 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 235 

Richard II. Morehouse, who, at the time, was a clerk in Mr. Spencer's office, 
that some months after the trial, the Britisli government sent Mr. Spencer for 
his services in the case ten thousand dollars, which, at that time, was considered 
a very large counsel fee. 

In 1850 a series of fires occurred in Utica, which were believed to be incen- 
diary. At this time intense rivalry existed between the volunteer fire compan- 
ies, and each company, in order to demonstrate its superiority, was anxious 
that there should be frequent fires, and they always occurred when desired. It 
was generally believed throughout the city that some one connected with the 
fire department was instrumental in bringing about the desired result. For a 
long time no discovery could be made of the perpetrators of the offenses. At 
length the First Presbyterian church, at that time one of the finest churches 
in the state, was burned. This so aroused the people that an extraordinary 
effort was made, and the culprits were finally apprehended. The principal 
offender was one Conkling. It was believed that he was a tool of those higher 
up in the social scale, and who, after his arrest, fled the country. Conkling 
was tried, convicted and hung, and another offender was sentenced to state's 
prison for life. 

Passing over the numerous civil and criminal cases which have been had in 
the county in .years gone by, and coming down to the present time, reference is 
made to a case of iinusual character Early one morning in the fall of 1909, 
two little children were found in a secluded spot in Utica murdered, and a third 
one seriously wounded. The living child, a girl of about six years of age, had 
been shot, and had lain on the ground all night. She could give very little in- 
formation in regard to the crime. For some time afterward no clue could bo 
obtained concerning the prepetrator of the terrible murder. After a few days, 
however, little by little, the authorities secured bits of evidence, and, putting 
them together, were convinced that an Italian named Rizzo was the criminal. 
He was arrested, and, although it was difficult to establish any motive for the 
crime, he was tried, convicted and electrocuted. 

In 1907, it was common report throughout the county that gross frauds 
had been perpetrated by members of the board of supervisors in dealing with 
public affairs. It was claimed that false accounts had been lodged against the 
county, and that certain supervisors had shared in the spoil. The district at- 
torney made an investigation, and the result was that indictments were found 
against John W. Potter, Democrat, of Marcy, who had been chairman of the 
board; Frederick E. Swaneott, Republican, of the third ward of Utica, who 
had also been chairman of the board; Robert MeCreary, supervisor from the 
first ward of Utica; Albert H. Vandawalker, of Camden, who had been clerk 
of the board; Samuel Jones, sheriff' of the county; Leonard Drake, under sheriff. 
John Collins, merchant of Utica, who had sold furniture which had been paid 
for by the county, but which furniture had been delivered to the house of Super- 
visor Potter, was also indicted for fraudulent practice with the board of super- 
visors, pleaded guilty, and was fined .$1,000. Leonard Drake, under-sheriff, was 
fined and imprisoned ; Potter, Swaneott and Jones were convicted, and sentenced 
to state's prison, while MeCreary and Vandawalker pleaded guilty and were 
fined. 



236 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

The story of the county, so far as the trial of law suits is concerned, both 
civil and criiuiual, is like that of auy other large eoimty in the state, and to 
record contests of this character, for life, liberty and property, would be the 
work of a lifotinio. The county, however, is rich in material for biographical 
sketches, and the most difficult task in preparing them is to distinguish between 
the many worthy iiicii wlio have honored the county by their eminent services. 
In selecting tlie following subjects for life sketclies it is not intended to infer 
that there are no others who are equally worthy, but as a line nuist be drawn 
it has been done arbitrarily, and the onlj'^ excuse is that life sketches of all the 
prominent lawyers who have lived in the county would extend this chapter 
beyond the limits prescribed for the work i^roposed. 

"William J. Bacon was born in "Williamstown, Massachusetts, February 18, 
1803, and graduated from Hamilton College at nineteen years of age. For a 
year he edited the Utica Daily Gazette, then commenced the study of law in 
the office of Joseph Kirkland. He w-as admitted to the bar in 1828, and at this 
bar, which numbered some of the foremost lawyers in the state, few sui-passed 
him in attractiveness and acquirements. During this same year he married 
Eliza, daughter of Mr. Kirkland. He was a second time married, after the 
death of his first wife, to Mrs. Susan S. Gillette. In 1850 he served as member 
of assembly, and was re-elected the following year. He served in the state 
legislature with gi-eat distinction, and so commended himself to the public 
and the bar that in 1853 he was elected .justice of the Supreme Court, and was 
re-elected in 1862. As the term of this office at that time was eight years, 
Judge Bacon served upon the bench for sixteen years. On his retirement a 
meeting of the bar of the comity was held in Utica to express its appreciation 
of the ability, integrity and fairness which had characterized him in his high 
office for so long a time. Yirtiaally w-ithout opposition in his own party, he 
was the candidate for representative in Congress in 1876, and served one term 
in the house of representatives. His standing as a lawyer and as a man was 
such that the opinion of no one in the central part of the state bad greater 
weight than his. He was a director in many of the most important business enter- 
prises; was a trustee of Hamilton College, a director and the president of the 
Savings bank of Utica. He always responded to the call of the public, and 
did his share in good works for the city, the county, for charitable institutions 
and the churches in his native city. Judge Bacon, as a lawyer at the bar, was 
near the front rank. He brought to the office of justice of the Supreme Court 
a ripe scholarship, broad culture, honest intentions, and, after serving two 
terms in that high office, he retired from the bench liaving the respect and con- 
fidence of the entire judicial district. His opinions in tlie appellate courts are 
models of English and, although they lack the strengtli of some others, none 
surpass them in elegance of diction and refinement. As a judge and citizen he 
left an enviable reputation. 

Bloomfield J. Beach was born in Taberg, Lewis county, June 27, 1820. 
He was educated in the common school. Rome select school, and entered Hamilton 
College as a sophomore in 1835. He remained there for two years, and Ibfii 




.mux c. iiANt,^ 

Allnriic\ (;ciicr:ii 





WILLIAM .1. r.ACdX 
Justice Supiviiic Cnurl 



CIIAKLLS II. I)()()I,ITTLK 

Justice Su|ifeine Cdurt 




IILXKV J. ((KiOESHALL 

StMlc Soinitor tor scvciitccii 
years 



Tnr 
PUB^ 

ASTOK, , 

n 



HISTORY OF OiNEIDA COUNTY 237 

went to Priuceton, from wliich institution he graduatod in 1888. He first took 
up the profession of civil engineer, and I'oi' two years was employed on tlie Erie 
canal. In 1840 Mr. Beach studied law in Koine with Calvin B. Gay, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1843, and was a. jjarlner with Mr. (Jay until 184G ; then 
he became a partner in the firm oT Stryker, Comstock & Beach. The next year 
Mr. Stryker retired from the linn, and it remained Comstock & Beach until 
1855, when Mr. Beach retired, and formed a partnership with the late Alexander 
H. Bailey under the firm name of Beach & Bailey, anil this firm existed until 
the death of Mr. Bailey in 1874. Then Mr. Beach formed a partnership with 
Daniel E. Wager, which firm continued up to Mr. Beach's death. In 1847 he 
was elected to the assembly, and was a prominent member of that body, serv- 
ing on important conunittees, and holding a prominent place among his fellow 
members. Mr. Beach was prominently connected with most of the industries 
and business institutions of Rome; was trustee of the Savings bank and of the 
Water Works company ; president of the Central New York institute for deaf 
mutes; trustee of the Rome Iron Works, Merchants Iron IMills, and the Rome 
Copper Company ; director of Fort Stanwix National bank and The F'irst Na- 
tional bank of Rome, and of the Rome & Clinton Railroad. He was president 
of the village of Rome in 1853-54 and 1863. He married Fannie Whittemore 
of Nassau, N. Y., and after her death and in 1874 he married Miss C. Elizabeth 
Bacon of Sing Sing. As a lawyer Mr. Beach ranked very high, as he had a 
thorough knowledge of the general principles of law. He tried few cases, but 
no man in the county w£is better counsel than he upon questions of law and 
business. He was ever honorable in his relations with men, and stood in the 
front rank of lawyers in the county for integrity. 

Samuel Beaedsley was born in Hoosick, Rensselaer county, N. Y., Feb- 
ruary 6, 1790. His parents removed from there to Otsego county. Mr. Beards- 
ley received a common school education, and for a time was engaged in teach- 
ing school. He read law with Joshua Hathaway of Rome, N. Y., was admitted 
to the bar in 1815, and located in Watertown ; he removed from there to Rome, 
and from Rome to Utiea. In February, 1821, he was appointed district at- 
torney of Oneida county, and served four years. In 1823 he was appointed 
United States attorney for the northern district of New York. In 1830 he was 
elected to Congress, and was three times re-elected. He was appointed judge 
of the circuit court in January, 1834, but declined the appointment. In 1836 
he was appointed attorney general of the State of New York, and in 1844 he was 
appointed justice of the Supreme Court, and was made chief judge in 1847. 
After retiring from the bench he resumed his practice in Utica, and for a 
time also had an ofSce in New York City. He was one of the foremost judges 
of the state. He died in Utica May 6, 1860. 

Arthur M. Beardsley, son of Judge Samuel Beardsley, was born in Rome, 
June 22, 1822. He prepared for college and entered Hobart, but left in his 
junior year. He then studied law with his father, was admitted to the bar, but 
did not commence practice at once. He purchased a half interest in the Utica 
Observer, at that time a weekly paper, and he and John F. Kittle started a 



238 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

Democratic daily paper under the name of the Utica Observer and Gazette. Soon 
he was classed as a hard sliell in the Democratic ranks, and was a bitter opponent 
to what was known as the Softs and to the Free Soil Democrats. His writings 
were vigorous, strong, clear, but occasionally bitter. Mr. Beardsley's tastes were 
more iu the line of his profession than as a newspaper man, and h&, therefore, 
sold his interest, and a new firm, known as Lj-on & Grove, assumed control of 
the Observer, and i\Ir. Beardsley returned to practice his profession with his 
illu.strious father. After the death of Samuel Beardsley the sou practiced his 
profession alone until 1S67, when he admitted as a partner Henry J. Cookin- 
ham. This partnership continued until 1874, when Francis M. Burdick. who is 
now a professor in Columbia College. N. Y., was admitted as a partner. In 
1880 this firm was dissolved, and the firm of Beardsley, Burdick & Beardsley 
was formed, the junior member being the son, Samuel A. Beardsley. As a 
lawyer Jlr. Beardsley ranked among the very highest in the county, was an 
honest and upright man, wrote a powerful brief, and stood very high at the bar. 
He died November 1, 1905, at Utica. 

Henry W. Bentley of Boonville studied law with his father, and com- 
menced practice at Boonville in the year 1861. He took a prominent place at 
the bar very soon after his admission, and had as partner at times Leander 
Fiske and Thomas S. Jones. He was appointed surrogate of Oneida county upon 
the death of "William H. Bright, and was nominated by the Democrats for the 
same position, but did not succeed at the election. He was nominated for repre- 
sentative in Congress in 1900 against James S. Sherman, and was elected be- 
cause of a division in the Republican party over the appointment of postmasters 
by Mr. Sherman. He was again nominated against Mr. Sherman in 1902, but was 
defeated. He was a member of the board of commissioners for the erection of 
a new court liouse in the city of ITtica, and was chairman from the organization 
of the commission down to the time of his death, which occurred at Boonville, 
January 27, 1907. 

His death was quite a tragedy. A reception had been given the evening 
before by Thomas R. Proctor to Judge DeAngelis, who had just been elected, 
and a large reception also occurred at the Fort Schuyler club in Utica. Mr. 
Bentley attended, was in fine spirits, left the club about midnight, went to 
Bagg's hotel in company with a friend, remained there all night, and took an 
early train for Boonville. This was a very cold morning. He walked from the 
station to his residence, a distance of perhaps half a mile, sat down to the 
breakfast table, and was almost instantly dead. Jlr. Bentley served in many 
cases as referee and commissioner, and had the reputation of being a man of 
liigh character and excellent ability. 

Greene C. Bronson was born in Simsbury, Connecticut, in November, 1789. 
He had only a common school education, but by great industry and study he be- 
came a man of unusual acquirements. For a time he taught school and studied 
law. He removed to Utica in 1824, was appointed surrogate, and sen-ed two 
years. He was elected to the state assembly, and was appointed attorney gen- 
eral February 27, 1829. Jlarch 5, 1845. he was appointed chief justice of the 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 239 

Supreme Court. On the adoption of the new constitution he was made one of 
the judges of the Court of Appeals. This office he resigned in 1851, and removed 
to New York City, where he practiced his profession. President Pierce appointed 
him collector of the port in 1853, but he held the oflice only a short time. He 
was nominated for governor in 1854, but was defeated. In December, 1859, 
Judge lironson was made corporation counsel for the City of New York, and 
served until 1863. He died at Saratoga, September 3, 1863. The opinions of 
Judge Bronsou while on the bench were clear, concise and strong, and placed 
him in the front rank among llie judges of the court of last resort in the state. 

Alexander Coburn died in Utica, N. Y., November 25, 1894. He was born 
August 18, 1807, at Woodstock, Wainman county, Conn., on a farm, and lived 
with his father, who was a farmer, until he was fourteen years of age. He then 
went to Bradford, Penn., and remained there with an uncle until he was seven- 
teen years of age. In summer he worked on farms, and taught school in the 
winter, until he was twenty-tive years of age. He then came to New York state 
and attended the Stockbridge academy at Mimusville. There he prepared for 
college, and entered Hamilton College in the class of 1833. He left, however, 
and taught one term at Stockport, Columbia county, and did not graduate 
until 1837. In the fall of that year he commenced studying law with Joseph 
Benedict, late of Utica, and who at that time was a lawyer at Sherburne, N. Y. 
In 1838 Mr. Coburn came to Utica, and was connected with Oliver M. Benedict, 
who was then practicing law in Utica. He was admitted to the bar in 1840, 
and for a time was a partner with Mr. Benedict. Afterwards he was a part- 
ner with the late Samuel B. Garvin, but Mr. Garvin removed to New York, 
and Mr. Coburn 's health was so poor that he was not able to practice law. 
He was, however, in 1845, made city attorney, and in 1850 he was justice of 
the peace, and held that office for some time, but in 1854 he resigned in con- 
sequence of ill health. In 1867 his health had so improved that he was able to 
practice his profession again, and he entered the office of Senator Roscoe Conk- 
ling as managing clerk, and remained there until 1870, when he entered the 
office of Spriggs & Matthews in the same capacity. After a short time he formed 
a partnership with 0. Arthur White, and practiced law under the name of 
Coburn & White for about a year, when this partnership was dissolved, and he 
entered the office of Spriggs & Matthews as managing clerk, and held this posi- 
tion to 1886, when he virtually retired from business. Mr. Coburn was a man 
of excellent acquirements, and as a lawyer he stood in the front rank for ability, 
learning and integrity. His almost morbid diffidence prevented his attaining 
the position in the public mind that he was entitled to, although lawyers who 
knew him recognized his unusual acquirements. Perhaps no one in the county 
was consulted privately by other attorneys more than he. He was always ready 
to advise younger attorneys gratuitously in regard to legal matters, and his 
opinion was highly valued by all who came in contact with him. During the 
time he acted as managing clerk for the different attorneys he held a very high 
place in the office. Although he did not take part in the trial of cases at the 
circuit, he very frequently argued cases in the general term of the Supreme 
Court and in the Court of Appeals. He was a fair antagonist, but one to he 



240 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

feared, unless the opposing counsel had mastered his ease. No law point escaped 
Mr. Coburn, and his briefs were masterpieces of work. He had a very retentive 
and accurate memory. He knew the text books, and was ready to turn immedi- 
ately to controlling cases upon almost any point called in question. I well 
remember the last time I ever saw him. It was a short time before he died, 
and after his eyesight had become so impaired that he could not read. He 
called at my office to ascertain whether or not he had remembered some statute 
law correctly. He stated what he thought the law was, and asked me to look 
it up and see whether or not he was correct. It was a pleasant duty to perform 
for Mr. Coburn, as I had frequently consulted him in his palmy days upon 
questions of law. When I turned to statutes which he inquired about, I found 
that he had remembered them absolutely and stated the law correctly. Mr. 
Coburn married Cordelia L. Wood, daughter of John K. Wood of Madison 
county in January, ISil. He had no children, and upon his death the family 
became extinct, at least in this part of the country. Mr. Coburn was, as a man 
and lawyer, highly respected; he was a modest gentleman of the old school and 
of character above reproach. 

RoscoE CoNKLiNG. Although it is as lawyers only, that this chapter treats 
its subjects, yet, with some trepidation, it presents for consideration, one of the 
most interesting characters that has ever appeared in this county. On October 
30, 1S29. at Albany, New York, Roscoe Conkling was born. His father was 
Alfred Conkling, a man of acquirements, a lawyer of eminence, and, at one 
time judge of the United States district court for the northern district of New 
York. His mother was Eliza Cockburn. When thirteen years of age the young 
man was placed in the Washington Collegiate Institute in New York, and re- 
mained there for one year. He attended the academy at Auburn, New York, 
for thre(» years, l)eginning in 1843. to which city his father had removed from 
Albany. Impatient of study in the schools and not electing a college coiirse, 
but rather desiring to be in active life, he commenced his law studies in the 
office of Spencer & Kcrnan in Utica in 1846, and was admitted to the bar in 
1850, about six months before he became twenty-one years of age. He was 
exceedingly fortunate in being .on friendly terms with the influential men in his 
political party, and on April 22, 1850, was appointed district attorney of this 
county. It is probable that he was the youngest man who ever held that 
office in the state of New York. The duties of this office are such that he 
obtained at once a varied experience. He was immediately called upon to try 
important criminal cases, and from the first he showed the metal in his com- 
position. Under the firm name of Walker & Conkling he practiced law for 
several year.s. In 1858 he was married to Julia, daughter of Henry Seymour, 
and sister of ex-governor and John F. Seymour of Utica. During that year 
he wa.s elected mayor of Utica, and in the fall was nominated by the Repnlilican 
party for tlie office of representative in Congress. This was brought about by 
a political conference held at the residence of General R. U. Sherman, in the 
house that stood upon the corner of Eagle and Kemble streets. (Several years 
since the house was removed from tlic lot and the lot has remained vacant 
since.) The conference was called to agi-ee upon a fiiiididate for representative 




ItOSCOE ( ■( )XKLI.\G 

United Stnles Seiintor 



]I1ST0RY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 241 

in Congress in opposition to Orsamus H. Matteson, who had served for several 
years in Congress, and was the political leader, and for years had held undis- 
puted sway in the county, but by reason of serious complications in his oftlcial 
life had provoked intense feeling and opposition. Thei'e were present at the 
conference Mr. Conkling, Wan! Hunt, Richard IJ. Sherman, Joseph A. Shear- 
man, Palmer V. Kellogg, William Ferry, A. 1). Barber, and some others. After 
considerable controversy Mr. Conkling was selected as the candidate to oppose 
the Maltese 1 element in the party. Charles 11. Doolittle was the oi)posiiig can- 
didate, and ,' bitter fight for the nomination followed. Mr. Conkling was nom- 
inated in the convention, and elected over P. Sheldon Root, the Democratic can- 
didate. Before the termination of his term of office the question of war between 
the states filled the minds of the people, and, in the exciting election of 1860, 
which made Abraham Lincoln president of the United States, Mr. Conkling was 
re-elected to Congress by an increased majority. In 1862 he was defeated by 
Francis Kernan, and in 1864 he defeated Mr. Kernan for the same office. Di- 
vision in the Republican party in 1866 threatened to defeat him, but within a 
few days before election the tide turned in his favor. Palmer V. Kellogg, who 
had been one of his stannchest supporters, had been nominated by a body of 
men calling themselves Independent Republicans, and he was adopted as the 
candidate of the Democratic party. Mr. Conkling, however, received a hand- 
some majority after one of the most remarkable campaigns ever experienced in 
the county. It has been said many times by the friends of Mr. Conkling, that 
the most effective speech of his life was delivered during this campaign in Old 
Concert Hall, which stood upon the lot now occupied by the post-office. This 
was a meeting of the workingmeu's party, a vast majority of whom, up to that 
time, were .supporting Mr. Kellogg. Mr. Conkling's address at this meeting was 
so convincing that he changed the sentiment of the audience, which was adverse 
to him in the beginning, to an overwhelming sentiment in his favor. In the 
winter of 1867 he was elected to the United States senate, and re-elected in 1873 
and 1879. Soon after his election to the senate in 1873, he was tendered by 
President Grant the nomination of chief justice of the Supreme Court of the 
United States. Still later in 1882. he was appointed by President Arthur and 
confirmed by the senate to the position of a.ssociate justice of the Supreme Court, 
but he declined both offices. 

It seems almost incredible that a lawyer who tilled such important positions 
as Mr. Conkling had, and who had never slighted the duties demanded, should 
have any time to devote to the practice of his profession. With ordinary men 
such would have been the case, but Mr. Conkling is not to be classed with or- 
dinary men. In his case, as in that of all others who have attained in the world, 
the story was ever the same, work, work, work. It would be a safe estimate to 
make that out of the twenty-four hours of the day, he worked eighteen. Up to 
the time of his election to the United States senate he made it a practice to at- 
tend every circuit court held in the county, and he was invariably retained in 
every important trial. His adversary was almost invariably Francis Kernan. 
The reason for this is apparent. The plaintiff on bringing an important suit, 
naturally retained one of the ablest attorneys in the county, and this forced the 
defendant to retain the other. When such a case was on trial the court house 



24-2 IITSTOKY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

was invariably crowded with spectators, not because of the interest in the case, 
but in the counsel at the bar. It was an event never to be forgotten by a lawyer, 
to attend court presided over by Foster or Doolittle, and hear Conkling and 
Kernan conduct a trial. The practice of Mr. Conkling was largely confined to 
the trial of civil actions, although occasionally he defeuded a criminal charged 
with some high crime, and in a very few instances he assisted district attorneys 
in prosecuting a criminal who was charged with a serious oifense. He argued 
few cases on appeal. The Court of Appeals reports show that he never appeared 
in that court more than four or five times, and the same is true as to the gen- 
eral term of the Supreme Court, lie occasionally, but not frequently, appeared 
in trials in the United States circuit court, and on some occasions he argued 
cases in the Supreme Court of the United States. 

After the dissolution of the firm of Walker & Conkling, Mr. Conkling was as- 
sociated with iVIoutgoiucry Throop. This firm existed from 1855 to 1862. After- 
wards he formed a partnership under the name of Conkling. Holmes & Coxe, 
niui on its dissohition the firm of Conkling. Lord & Coxe was formed; Scott, 
Lord and Honoralile Alfred C. Coxe being the partners. After i\Ir. Conkling re- 
tired from the senate, and in November, 1881, he opened a law office in the city 
of New York. Among those who sought his services almost immediately were 
Jay Gould, Thomas A. Edison and C. P. Huntington. The cases in which he 
was retained were of great interest and involved unusual and difficult questions 
of law. There were invariably arrayed against him in these litigations some of 
the leaders of the New York bar, and seldom, if ever, was he over-matched. 
Among other cases of importance which he argued in the Supreme Court of the 
United States were The County of San Mateo vs. The Southern Pacific Railroad 
Company, Cook County National Bank vs. The United States, and IMarie vs. 
Garrison. After his death there were many expressions of opinion in regard to 
Mr. Conkling as a lawyer, by prominent judges and lawyers who had known him 
during his career in New York city. Perhaps Judge Shipman. of the ITnited 
States circuit court, has given the truest estimate of his standing in the 
metropolis. He said : "I thought him a great and profound lawyer, and that 
he would have been in the front rank of his profession at any time or place. He 
did not liave the accurate learning of Judge B. R. Curtis, or the great wealth 
of legal knowledge of Mr. 'Connor, but I was exceedingly surprised to see how 
much he had retained after his long congressional career. His affluence of 
language and of illustration was great; but he had a wonderful power of state- 
ment, and he was an inventor in the art of decorating his statement so as to 
make it attractive." 

Mr. Conkling was, however, essentially an advocate. When at times he took 
part in important trials on the same side with j\Ir. Kernan. 'Slv. Doolittle. or with 
any other eminent counsel, in every instance he made the argument to the jury. 
This clearly shows that all associated counsel recognized him as their superior 
in that particular branch of the practice. Early in life Jlr. Conkling com- 
menced making the most thorough preparation for the trial in every case. It 
was his custom to take very full notes of the evidence on the trial. In this he 
was very proficient, as he wrote a very excellent liand, and very rapidly. As 
nearly all the trials in whicli he took part required several days, and some- 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 243 

times weeks, he occupied his lime at night in preparing to simi uj) llic case. He 
wrote out from time to time during the trial portions of his argument. This 
enabled him to be ready at the close of the evidence to present the case to the 
jury from his written argument, which he held in his hand much of the time 
while speaking. He once said that he would rathci' stand up before a jury and 
look the twelve men in the eye, than to do auy other thing iu the world. Many 
times during the trial of a case he would startle those upon his own side by the 
audacious way in which he would conduct the trial. This might occur in re- 
gard to the examination of a witness or in his method of presenting the case to 
the jury. Many trials, civil and criminal, might be mentioned to show Mr. 
Conkling's peculiar ability and tact before a jury. Perhaps in no case ever 
tried by him was this shown to better advantage than in North rup against 
Richardson. The action had been brought on the following facts: A woman, 
riding in a carriage, was approaching Utica from Marey. On reaching the 
bridge over the Mohawk river the carriage was struck by a milk wagon, over- 
turned, and the woman precipitated down an embankment. She claimed to be 
seriously injured. The milk wagon was owned by a farmer and was driven by 
his son. The woman lay upon a bed for two years after the accident. Her hus- 
band tinally brought suit against the father of the boy for damages. The trial 
was had in Utica ; Mr. Kernan and Mr. Spriggs for the plaintiff, and Mr. Conk- 
ling for the defendant, and it lasted about two weeks. The woman was brought 
into court upon a bed, and for two days gave her testimony. The scene was 
pathetic in the extreme. Mr. Conkling treated her with great kindness, but 
cross examined her carefully. When the evidence was closed the sentiment of 
the court, of the audience, and undoubtedly of the jury was very strong in the 
woman's favor. He took the startling ground that the woman was absolutely 
well ; that she could leave the bed and walk out of the court house ; that she was 
honest in the belief that she could not walk, but that she was mistaken. Against 
the strong argument made by Mr. Kernan on the other side, and a charge fa- 
vorable to the woman by Judge Bacon, the jury rendered a verdict in Mr. Conk- 
ling's favor. Now comes the sequel. Angered by the fact that she had lost 
the case, the woman arose from her bed that very day and walked the streets 
of Utica. Could even modern Christian Science have wrought a more complete 
cure? 

Mr. Conkling's method in presenting a case to a jury and also in arguing 
questions of law to the court, has been inordinately praised and severely criti- 
cised. Both his admirers and critics have at times been right. His speeches were 
always very elaborate, very ornate, and contained all manner of figures of 
speech. Some very good, and some very defective. Take for instance these: 
In the case of The People of the State of New York vs. Deunison, argued be- 
fore the Court of Appeals, he characterized the case as " a halcyon and vociferous 
proceeding." It might be asked what that phrase means? In summing up the 
ease of Smith vs. The New York Central Railroad, referring to a prominent wit- 
ness and official of the road, who wore a diamond pin on his shirt front, he said, 
"The time will come, gentlemen of the jury, when the diamonds wliich sparkle 
on Major Priest's bosom will buy less salvation than the merest pebble at the 
bottom of tlie spring of the poorest beggar." In another instance he referred 



244 HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 

to 11 witness who was addicted to ilriuk. as follows: "His mouth spread over 
his lace, a fountain of falseliood and a sepulchre for rum." 

Although as an advocate. Mr. Conklinj,' ranked among the foremost in the 
state, his success was not due so much to what he said, as the way he said it. 
The effect upon the jury was produced hy him much in the same way as George 
Whitfield affected his audiences, of whom it was said that he could pronounce 
the word "Mesopatamia" so a.s to hring his audience to tears. Mr. Conkling's 
splendid physicpie, graceful manner, round, full, melodious voice, and the power 
of his personal magnetism, was almost resistless. He did not persuade the jury ; 
he overpowered them, and made his will theirs. Give him the last speech to a 
jury, and if the case was anywhere nearly halanced on the evidence he would 
win a verdict. Although he was always listened to with close attention hy the 
appellate courts, he was not so effective here as at the trial. Had he devoted his 
entire lil'e to the .study and practice of law, he would have ranked as a lawyer 
among the foremost that the couutiy has ever produced, but no man can be so 
^•reat that he can gain the veiy front rank at the bar without devoting sub- 
stantially his lifetime to the profession. For a knowledge of law and the abil- 
ity to apply it to given facts, perhaps Hunt was his equal, and Foster and Ker- 
nau his superiors, yet, for all in all, had he an equal among lis? What one of 
all the lawyers who has lived in the entire country during the last twejity-eight 
years, except Roscoe Conkling, would have refused a seat on the bench of the 
Supreme Court of the United States, or to be its Chief Justice? 

Alfred C. Coxe was born at Auburn, N. Y., in 1845. His father, Rev. Han- 
son Coxe, moved to Utica while his sou was a boy. Young Coxe prepared for 
college at the Utica Free academy, entered Hamilton College with the class of 
1868, but left during his junior year and commenced studying law with his 
uncle, United States Senator Roscoe Conkling; was admitted to the bar and 
commenced practice as a partner with his uncle. In 1882 he was appointed 
judge of the district court of the Ihiited States for the northern district of New 
York, and in 1903 he was promoted to circuit judge for the second circuit. On 
the creation of the United States court of customs he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Taft its first presiding judge, but he declined to accept the office. For 
several years past he has l)ccn a member of the Circuit Court of Appeals for the 
second circiiit. 

Hiram Denio was lioni in Rome, N. V., May 21. 17!I9. Ilis education was 
obtained at the Fairfield academy, Herkimer county, and he studied law with 
Judge Hathaway of Rome and Storrs & White of Whitcsboro. He commenced 
practicing in Uoinc in 1821, was appointed district attorney in October, 1825, 
and served for nine years. In 1826 he removed to Utica. In ]834 he was ap- 
pointed circuit judge, and served for about four years. June 28. 1858, he was 
appointed tf) fill a vacancy in the Court of Appeals, and twice afterwards was 
elected to the same office, and served as one of the judges of that court until 
1866. He died in Utica on the 17th day of October, 1868. Judge Denio ranked 
ver.v high as a judge, and perhaps no one who ever sat in the court of last 
resort in the st-ate served the public better than he. His opinions rank with 
the best that were ever wi-itten in anv court in the entire country. 




SAMI i:i, ItEAUDSI.KV 

(liicl .luilui' lit' Siipreiiu' Cdurl nl 
.Inilii-.itiiry 





IIIKA.M KKXIO 
Juil,:;*' nf llie (/durt of A|i|ie:ils 



AI.KXAXDER S. .TdHNSOX 

Judge of tlie ruited States Ciri'tiit rotirt, 

Set-ond Circuit 



TRE I 
PUBLI 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 24-) 

CiiAULEs M. Dennison \v;is bom in Floyd, April :i, 1822, and died at Whites- 
boro, November 5, 1900. lie wjis tlie son ol' Sanmel Dennison, and was edueatod 
at Wbitestowu seminary, Clinton Liberal institute, and at the Holland Patent 
academy. He studied law with Ahuison Bennett at Rome, and was iidmitted 
to the bar in 1847. lie praetieed law alone in Rome until 1852, when he took 
as a partner George Harrison Lynch, and this i)artnersiiip continued until 1870. 
At that time Mr. Dennison removed from Rome to Utiea, whert; he resided for 
about one year and practiced law in Utiea. He then took uj) his residence in 
Whitesboro. In Utiea he formed a partnership with John H. Kno.x, and after- 
wards also took as a partner Charles J. Everett. This lirm existed only for a 
short time, when Mr. Knox retired. The firm continued und(>r the name of 
Dennison & Everett until 1881, when Mr. Everett retired, and Mr. Dennison 
took as his partner his son, George E. Dennison. In 1862 Mr. Dennison was 
appointed assistant assessor of internal revenue at Rome, and he held that ])osi- 
tiou as long as the office existed. After Congress enacted the law for the super- 
vision of elections Mr. Dennison was appointed chief supervisor of election for 
the northern district of New York, and be held this position down to the time 
of his death. Mr. Dennison was a prominent candidate for judge of the United 
States district court, and had a strong backing, but the president appointed 
William J. Wallace of Syracuse instead of Mr. Dennison to that position. In 
1874 Mr. Dennison was supported for the nomination of justice of the Supreme 
Court by many Republicans, but he did not secure the nomination. He married 
Cornelia Pond March 4, 1851. He was prominent at the bar during his entire 
career, although he rarely took part in the trial of cases. His time was given 
more to the settlement of estates, and he had also a large practice in bankruptcy 
under the act of 1867. His ability was such that had he devoted himself to the 
trial of cases he would have been eminently successful. 

Charles H. Doolittle was born in Herkimer, N. Y., February 19, 1816, pre- 
pared for college at Fairtield academy, and graduated from Amherst in 1836. 
He coiinnenced his legal studies in Little Falls, but soon after came to Utiea 
and studied with Denio & Hunt. He was admitted to the bar in 1839, and 
soon attained a position in the front rank at the bar. His acquirements were 
unusual, and his industry was almost unparalleled. No matter how trivial the 
case might be, he made the most thorough investigation and did everything 
possible to prepare his case for trial. He was very quick of pei'ception, a pro- 
found lawyer, and a courteous gentleman. He was a member of the city council 
in 1839-44-45, and was mayor of Utiea in 1853. In 1869 he was elected justice 
of the Supreme Court, and served until his death. He was one of the few men 
who have occupied a seat upon the bench of the Supreme Court in this state 
of whom it could be said he was really a great judge. Becoming absolutely worn 
out by overwork, he was advised by his physician to take a trip abroad. He 
sailed from New York in May, 1874, and was lost overboard. No account was 
ever given of liis disappearance, whether by accident or otherwise. The date 
of his death is given as May 21, 1874. 

Henry A. Foster. One of the most prominent lawyers of Utiea said recently 
that as "a clean cut lawyer" Henry A. Poster was the equal of any man any- 



246 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

where. This reiiuirkaliK' man was lioiii at Hartfoi'd, Connecticut. i\Iay 7, 1800, 
and died at Rome on the 11th day of :May, 18S9. 

His legal education was acquired in the office ot David B. Johnson of Caze- 
novia, B. Davis Noxon of Onondaga Hill, Onondaga coimty. Beach & Popple of 
Oswego, and James Sherman of Rome. He commenced trying cases in the 
justice court before he was admitted to the bar, and it was then said of him 
that when Foster was in a case "it meant business." In 1822 he was admitted 
to the bar; and. he had acquired such a reputation for the trial of the cases in 
the justice court that on the same day he was admitted he was assigned to defend 
a criminal against the famous Samuel Beardsley, who was at that time district 
attorney. The case presented some new and intricate questions of law which 
Foster argued with marked ability and procured an acquittal. In 1826 Mr. 
Foster was nominated for member of assembly, but failed of election. The 
next year, when he was only twenty-six years of age, he was appointed surrogate 
of the county, and held this office imtil 1831, when he relinquished it to become 
state senator, to which office he had been elected. He was during three years, 
beginning in 1826, trustee for the village of Rome, and supervisor of the towm 
for five years. In August, 1835, he was again appointed suri-ogate, and resigned 
the position in 1837 to take his seat in the United States house of representatives. 
In 1840 he was again elected state senator. Before his term expired he resigned 
to accept the appointment of United States senator. His failure of re-election 
to the United States senate, and the disappointments attending it, gave color 
to all his after life. From that time forth he was irascible and impatient. These 
characteristics frequenth' worked to his disadvantage. President Pierce ap- 
pointed him in 1853 United States district attorney for the northern district 
of New York, but he declined the office. Until the agitation over the slavery 
question assumed such proportions as to threaten the nation's life, Mr. Foster 
had been a Democrat, but soon after the formation of the Republican party he 
became a Republican. In 1863 he was nominated by his party for the office of 
justice of the Supreme Court, and elected. On his election he removed from 
Rome to Oswego, and resided there until his term of office expired, when he 
returned to his former home at Rome, and there he lived and practiced his pro- 
fession until a short time before his death. It is questionable whether there 
was ever an abler justice of the Supreme Court in this state tlian Foster. His 
knowledge of law was so great, his memory so remarkable, his perception so quick 
tiiat he seemed a very prodigj- when upon the bench. As an illustration of his 
marvelous memorj- it is related by an eminent lawyer that he met Judge Foster, 
long after his term of office had expired, and spoke of a case that he had tried 
before him many years before. He found that the judge remembered it to the 
minutest detail, and he then said to him, "Judge Foster, I am a,stonished to 
know that you remember this case." The judge replied. "I remember every 
case that was ever tried liefore me." 

At a court held by him in Utica an important case was tried by Roscoc 
Conkling on one side. Francis Kernan and J. Thomas Spriggs on the other. He 
had many difficult questions of law to decide on the spur of the moment, and 
he showed great ability in liis ruling.s. The evidence was completed; the case 
was summed up by Mr. Conkling on one side, and Mr. Kernan on the other. 




WAKI) lirXT 

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8t;ites 



iii:xi;v A. Fos'i'KU 

liiili'd St.ilcs Sciiatiir 



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TILL . 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 247 

Then the judge gave one oT his iiiiistei'l.v charges to the jury. .Mr. Coukling, after 
hearing the charge, turned to a friend and said, "Judge Foster knows every- 
thing.'' It was not ahine in the fieUl oL' hiw that his vmusual aequirenients 
appeared. He had an unusual knowledge of science, literature, mathematics, 
philosophy, geograpliy. almost everything. Not long before his deatii he ap- 
peared as counsel in an important case at a special term in this county. The 
judge who held the court and who has since died, after hearing Foster's argu- 
ment said, "He is the noblest Roman of them all." As a judge Foster was 
sometimes very impatient. This was always the case if a lawyer, addressing 
the coiirt, failed to make his point clear, or if he wandered from the point at 
issue or repeated an argument. He could not tolerate a repetition. He con- 
sidered it a reflection on his own comprehension. He would saj' sharply to 
counsel, "You have said that once, sir." On one occasion, when an attorney 
appeared before him and asked for an unusual and improper order, he said to 
him, in the hearing of the entire bar at court, "It is evident, sir, that you are 
a very poor lawyer." On another occasion, it is reported that an attorney, who 
had made a motion and saw tliat he was to be beaten, interrupted the court 
when it was rendering its decision by saying, "If your honor please, the fii'st 
of Barber is dead against .you." To which the judge replied, "The first of 
Foster holds, sir, that you sit down." It will readily be seen that Foster's 
court w'as an unpleasant place for a poor lawyer. It was also no place for a 
case which had no merit. His quick perception would soon distinguish the 
true from the false, and his endeavor was to so shape the trial that the right 
would prevail. He was sometimes, for this reason, pei-haps, justly criticised 
for undertaking to control the verdict of the jury. His ability, however, was 
so great, that if he chose he could charge a jury in such a way as to almost 
invariably pi'oeure the verdict that he desired. Judge Foster was utterlj' free 
from anything like pretense or assumption. He was always elegant and digni- 
fied in his bearing, but his impatience and irascibility made him dreaded as 
an adversai-y at the bar, and feared when upon the bench. Yet his high char- 
acter, great ability, and unusual acqiiirements placed him ver.y near, if not at 
the very top of the legal ladder in this county. 

Philo Gridley was born at Paris, Oneida county, N. Y., September 16, 1796. 
He graduated from Hamilton College in 1816, and for a time was a teacher 
in a classical school, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1820, and com- 
menced practicing law at Waterville. From there he removed to Hamilton, 
Madison county, was district attorney of that county, and in 1838 was appointed 
circuit judge for the fifth judicial district and removed to Utiea, where he 
afterward resided. Under the constitution of 1846, fixing the number of judges 
of the Supreme Court at 32, Judge Gridley was elected as one of the number. 
He also served in the Court of Appeals. He presided at the trial of Alexander 
McLeod, the mo.st important criminal trial that ever occurred in Oneida county. 
He died August 16, 1864, in the city of his residence. 

Ward Hunt. In March, 1886, there appeared in a prominent newspaper 
the following: "Utica has other sous adopted and resident here, and it has 



248 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

sent into other parts of the union those who have earned civil and judicial 
decoration. Of its sons, born and raised, and always making their homes here, 
it is not too much to say that the most distinguislicd, he who has won the rarest 
honors and occupied the most of the attention of his profession, lies now in the 
coffin of AVard Hunt." 

Passing through many judicial positions he linally attained the highest, save 
one, under the government. This prominence was not reached without unusual 
industry and character, most enviable. On Janviary 14, 1810, in this city Ward 
Hunt first saw the light of day. His father was ^Montgomery Hunt, cashier of 
the Bank of Utica, and his mother the daughter of Captain Joseph Stringham 
of New York. He prepared for college at the Oxford and Geneva academies; 
entered Hamilton College, but went from there to Union to be under President 
Nott, and graduated in 1828. In after j^ears he received from his alma mater 
and also from Rutgers College the degree of LL. D. His law studies were 
pursued at Litchfield, Conn., and at the ofdee of Hiram Denio of this city. After 
admission to the bar in 1831 he became a partner with his former instructor 
under the firm name of Denio & Hunt. Within a short time after admission he 
commenced the trial of cases in all the courts, and soon gained a prominent posi- 
tion among the trial lawyers of the county. He was also known throughout 
Central New York as a safe counselor. In 1838 Mr. Hunt was elected to the 
assembly, but only served one term. In 1844 he was elected mayor of Utica over 
Frederick Hollister. In the practice of his profession he so commended himself 
to his party and the public that in 1853 he was nominated by the Democratic 
pai-ty for justice of the Supreme Court, his opponent being "William J. Bacon. 
As there was a division in the Democratic party in the district Mr. Hunt was 
defeated. Soon after this the controversy over slavery which preceded the 
Civil "War arose, and many Democrats, including IMr. Hunt, gave their support 
to the new party in its fight against the extension of slavery and the claims 
of the South. 

Mr. Hunt never sacrificed or neglected his professional engagements for 
pleasure or for politics, but devoted his best energies first and always to his 
profession. His experience in varied and important litigations well fitted him 
for high judicial office, and so commended him that he was nominated by the 
Republican party for judge of the Court of Appeals in 1865. It is noteworthy 
that he was elected, and took the seat on the bench vacated by his former part- 
ner, Judge Denio. By the resignation of one judge and the death of another in 
this court he became tlie chief judge of tlie Court of Appeals. By an amend- 
ment to the state constitution this court was re-organized, and the old court was 
continued under the name of the commission of appeals. Judge Hunt served 
in this commission until January 7, 1873, when he resigned to accept the position 
of justice of the Supreme Court, of the United States, to which position he had 
been appointed by President Grant. For ten years he filled this high office with 
marked ability and luiquestioned integrity, then on account of failing health, in 
1882 he resigned. His health did not improve, and on March 24, 1886, he died 
in Washington. D. C. His body rests in Forest Hill cemetery in Utica. Through 
his long career as attorney and judge he received the respect of the public. 
With every instinct of a gentleman, with a broad culture obtained by study, 



HISTOKY OF ONKIDA COUNTY 249 

thought, and association with the best of the hind, willi a unirdrm courtesy and 
honesty of purpose, tofi;etlier with a (lit^iiily ever the same wlicther in his own 
ofSee, on the street, in the trial of eauses, or in Ihe hi<;li ofliees to wliich lie was 
elevated, Ward Hunt eonuiianded the respect and athuiralion of every iiu-iidjer 
of the bar who evei' came into his jjresence. 

Timothy Jenkins was born January 29, 171)9, at Jiarre, Massachusetts. He 
went from there to Washington county, N. Y., receiving an academic education, 
and afterward removed to IJtica and studied law. He was adnntted to the 
bar in 1825. In 1832 he removed to Vernon. He was appointed district attor- 
ney in 1840, and held that position for five years. In 184-4 he was elected a 
representative in Congress, and was re-elected in 1846 and also in 18.50. He 
died December 24, 1859. Mr. Jenkins has always been counted one of the ablest 
lawyers that Oneida county ever produced. He was a Democrat in politics, 
until the question of slavery became the paramount question before the people. 
He then left the Democratic party and supported Fremont for the presidency, 
and was ever afterward a member of the Republican party. 

Alexander Smith Johnson was born in Utica, July 30, 1817. His father 
was Alexander B. Johnson, and his mother Abigail L. S. Adams. He prepared 
for college at a private school in Utica, and entered Yale College in 1835. His 
room-mate was the late John F. Seymour of Utica. Mr. Johnson studied law 
with Judge Samuel Beardsley, and was admitted to the bar at the age of twenty- 
one. In 1839 he removed to New Y'ork city, and became a partner with Elisha 
P. Hurlburt, and afterwards with Charles F. Southmayd and Charles E. Butler. 
In 1851 he was elected judge of the Court of Appeals. It will be observed that 
he was at this time only thirty-four years of age, and it is worthy of remark 
that he was the youngest man who ever sat upon the bench of this court. In 
1852 he married, at St. Catherines, Canada, Catherine Maria Cryster. On retir- 
ing from the bench in 1860 he returned to Utica and resumed his law practice. 
In 1864 he was elected one of the regents of the university of the state of New 
Y'ork, and in the same year was appointed by President Lincoln one of the 
United States commissioners to settle the claims of the Hudson Bay company and 
Puget Sound company. In 1873 on the elevation of Judge W^ard Hunt, who was 
serving in the commission of appeals, to the Supreme Court bench of the United 
States, Judge Johnson was appointed by the governor to succeed Judge Hunt 
in the commission of appeals. The next year, on the death of Judge Rufas 
Peckham, of the Court of Appeals, Judge Johnson was transferred from the 
commission to the court. He was nominated by the Republican party for the 
full term of a judge of this court, but, as the state went Democratic, he was 
defeated. In 1875 Governor Tilden named Mr. Johnson as one of the commis- 
sioners to revise the statutes of the state. In October of the same year he was 
appointed judge of the United States Circuit Court for the second circuit In 
1877 he became ill, and for relief went to the Bahama Islands. Here he found 
no relief, and he died January 26, 1878, and was buried in Forest Hill ceme- 
tery at Utica. Judge Johnson was a man of broad culture, thoroughly versed 
in the principles of law ; conscientious, painstaking and faithful in all his duties, 



250 lllSTOKY OF OxNEIDA COUNTY 

and during his judicial fart-er he stood in the front rank among judges, state 
and federal. 

D. M. K. Johnson. For many years one ol" the foremost lawyers of Rome 
was D. M. K. Johuson. He was boru at Cazeuovia, November 7, 1815 ; prepared 
for college at the Cazenovia seminary, and entered the sopiiomore class of 
Hamilton College in 1S32. In consenuence of ill health he was obliged to give 
up his college course. He studied law in the office of his father, David B. John- 
son, and was admitted as a counselor in 1840. In 1844 he removed to Rome, 
and conmieuced his law practice there. In the same year he married Frances 
IMattcson of Rome. In 1859 he received the honorary degree of A. M., from 
Hamilton College. He was for a time a member of the law firm of Foster, Stry- 
ker, Johuson & Lynch. After the dissolution of this firm Mr. Johnson formed 
a partner.ship with D. L. Boardman. Afterwards the firm became Foster, John- 
son, Boardman & Lynch, and later Mr. Johnson did biisiness under the firm 
name of Johnson & Boardman, and later still \mder the firm name of Johnson 
& Prescott, the junior partner being the Honorable Cyrus D. Prescott. Mr. 
Johnson was careful in the preparation of his cases, was retained in many of 
the heavj' litigations in the county, and for many years was counsel for the 
New York Central Railroad company. He was a very positive man, and could 
scarcely tolerate the fact that men differed with him. He was intense, and 
entered into his side of the case with more than usual interest, making his client 's 
cause his own. It could be fairly said of him that his talent was greater than 
his tact, but for all in all he was a man of excellent standing at the bar, was a 
fair antagonist in the trial of cases, if somewhat arbitrarj', but his high standing 
was never questioned, and he left an honorable name to his posterity, 

Francis Kernan. Born of Irish parents on a farm in Tyrone, Schuyler 
county, N. Y., January 14, 1816, and trained in early life in the open air, the 
best school for giving perfect health and habits, Francis Kernan at the age of 
seventeen entered Georgetown College, District of Columbia, and in 1836 grad- 
uated and commenced the study of law with his brother-in-law, Edward Quinn, 
at Watkins, New York. In 1839 he removed to Utica, and entered the office 
of the famous advocate, Joshua A. Spencer, to complete liis law studies. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1840, and had determined to remove to the West when 
Mr, Spencer offered him a partner.ship. This offer he accepted, and the firm 
of Spencer & Kernan was formed, which was the foundation of the Kernan law 
office, that for more than fifty years has held one of the foremost positions in 
the county. Mr. Kernan was married to Hannah Devereux, daughter of Nich- 
olas Devereux, ]\Iay 23, 1843. It is said that in order to have the general prin- 
ciples of law fresh in his mind he read Kent's Commentaries through every 
year during his early life. His ambition was to excel, and he knew that the 
road to success lay through the old beaten track of hard work. In 1853 the 
firm of Spcneer & Kernan was dissolved, and that of Kernan & Quinn fonned. 
In 1857 Mr. William Kernan was admitted to the partnership, which was then 
known as Kernan, Quinn & Kernan. Still later, and after the death of Mr. 
Quinn, Mr. Kernan 's sons, respectively John D. and Nicholas E., were admitted 




FRANCIS KERNAX 

t'liitwl States Senator 




J 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 251 

to the firm. From 1854 to 1857 Mr. Kcriian watj the reporter of the Court of 
Appeals, and the five volumes of New York reports, commencing with the 11th 
and ending with the 14tli, are his work. The Democratic party made him its 
candidate for meniher of assembly in 1860, and he was elected over General 
James McQuade. In 1862 he defeated Roscoe Conkling for member of Con- 
gress, but two years thereafter was defeated by Mr. Conkling for the same 
office. He served as a delegate in the constitutional convention of 1867-8, and 
in 1870 was elected to the board of regents of the university of New York. 
The state Democratic convention of 1872 nominated him for governor, but the 
popularity of General Grant, who was the candidate of the Republican party 
lor the presidency, was such, that New York remained in the Republican column, 
and General Di.K was elected governor over Mr. Kernan. In the election of 
1874 the Democrats obtained control of the state legislature, and the logical 
candidate for United States senator was Mr. Kernan. He was elected without 
serious opposition to fill the office for six years from March 4, 1875. The county 
then enjoyed the unusual distinction of having both United States senators 
from the Empire state. Mr. Kernan was ever an enthusiastic advocate of free 
schools, and beginning in 1843 he served for twenty years upon the school 
board of this city. As eminent and successful as he was in other walks of life, 
yet it was as a lawyer that he was most conspicuous. His experience at the 
bar was second to no one who ever lived in this county. Long after he had 
reached the front he would try cases in the lower courts. One day he might 
appear in the county court in a case involving a few hundred dollars; the next 
day in the Court of xVppeals to argue some momentous question involving large 
sums of money, grave constitutional questions, or important corporate rights. 
He manifested the same singleness of purpose and devotion to the interest of 
his client in one case as in the other. Any case entrusted to his care received 
his best endeavor. He was always serious in the conduct of a trial. The in- 
terests of his client were not to be trifled with. His position was clearly stated 
by himself to a friend to be this : ' ' When I commenced practice I worried over 
the results of my cases, but I soon decided to do the very best I could in every 
case, and let the consequences take care of themselves." 

In eliciting evidence from a witness Mr. Kernan manifested great shrewd- 
ness, and in addressing a jury he showed the same characteristic. It was this 
more than eloquence or persuasiveness that won him verdicts. His voice was 
somewhat harsh, and he never indulged in flights of eloquence or figures of 
speech when addressing a jury. He resorted to no claptrap ; he relied on con- 
vincing the jury through their reason rather than influencing them by exciting 
their prejudices or sympathies. As an illustration of his shrewdness one in- 
stance may be cited. He was defending a man for murder. The defendant 
had killed a man by hitting him with a stone not much larger than a hen's 
egg. The district attorney had shown that at the time the defendant threw the 
stone he said with an oath he would kill his victim. This was relied upon to 
show premeditation and malice. In addressing the jury Mr. Kernan in a con- 
versational tone of voice called attention to the circumstances, stated the case 
clearly, presenting all the strong points which the district attorney could make, 
and then picking up the stone from the table he showed it to the jury, and 



252 UlSTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

still speaking in a conversational tone said: "Now, gentlemen, do you believe 
that defendant really intended to murder his friend when he threw that little 
stone and said he would kill him? Did he not use the expression in the same 
sense as any of us might \ise it, and without any idea of committing murder?" 
The jury evidently took this view of the case, as the conviction was for man- 
slaughter in the third degree instead of murder. As effective as Mr. Kernan 
was in a jury trial, he was yet more so in his legal arguments in the higher 
courts. A search through the reports will show that he was frequently before 
the apiiellate courts upon some of the most important questions ever presented 
to the courts of the state. His briefs were masterly; never unnecessarily long, 
and never contained citations of cases which did not apply to the facts. He 
first mastered the case so far as the facts were concerned, and made a most 
concise and clear statement ; then he applied the law to the facts. He cited 
few cases, but they were always on the question at issue, and were decisive of 
the point which he claimed for them. Every appellate court listened to his 
arguments with the closest attention, for it obtained from him great help in 
coming to a correct conclusion in the case. It is almost useless to sa.v that for 
more than twenty j-ears he was the leader of the Utica bar, and one of the most 
eminent lawyers in the entire eouutry. Francis Kernan died at Utica September 
8, 1892, and his body rests in St. Agnes cemetery in the city where he passed 
all the years of his manhood, and we bring our tribute to him in the words 
of Fitz Greene Halleck over his friend J. Rodman Drake, 

"None knew him but to love him. 
None named him but to praise." 

Smith M. Lindslet held a high position at the bar of Oneida coiinty. He 
was born at Monticello, Sullivan county, N. Y., April 11, 18-17; studied law at 
Wilkesbarre. Pa., and in the office of Kernan & Kernan in Utica, and after his 
admission formed partnership with Hon. AVatsou T. Duumore. This partner- 
ship did not last for man\- years, when JMr. Lindsley commenced practicing 
alone, but a short time before his death he had taken into partner.ship William 
S. Mackie. Mr. Lindsley was twice city attorney of Utica. was a police and 
fire connnissioner, and was nominated as an independent candidate for mayor, 
but declined the honor. He was retained in many important suits, and tried 
his cases well, but his propensity to fight many times led him to say unneces- 
sarily harsh things against an opponent, and also of opposing counsel. He 
was a statutory member of the board of commissioners for the erection of the 
new court house in Utica, and did efficient service upon the commission. He 
was president of the bar association at the time of his death, which occuri-ed 
May 17, 1909. 

Grs.amu.s B. :Matte.son was born in a log house August 28, 180."). in the town 
of Verona, in this county, and died in Utica December 22, 1889. His father 
was Silas ilatteson, and his mother was ITaiuiah Cogswell. When he was nine- 
teen years of age he entered the office of Creene C. Bronson and Samuel Beards- 
ley as a law student. He was admitted to the bar in 1830. One of his first 
clients was the late Alexander B. Johnson of Utica. who at the time was per- 



HISTORY OF ONKIDA COUNTY 253 

haps the I'oreinost business man ol' I he eity. Mr. Mattesoii was clcclcd city 
attorney in 1830. He became a partner with William J. liacon, and afterwards 
with P. Sheldon Root and the late Charles H. Doolittle, and afterwards with 
J. Wymnn .lones; also (i. H. Congor and Joseph Benedict. He was a Supreme 
Conit eoniniissioner early in HIV. His ability was such, as a business man, that 
he always had, while he gave his time to law practice, a very large and lucrative 
business. In 1846 he was first nominated for representative in Congress, but 
was defeated by Honorable Timothy Jenkins. He again was a candidate for 
the same office against Mr. Jenkins in 1848, and was elected, but was defeated 
in 18.50. He was again elected and re-elected in 1852, '54 and '56. While in 
Congress he held a very prominent position. His influence was second to no 
man in the house of representatives. He was an intimate friend of Benjamin 
Wade of Ohio, John P. Hale of New Hampshire, Joshua R. Giddings of Ohio, 
and Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania. He took a prominent part in the agita- 
tion against slavery. In this his very life seemed to be enlisted. His hatred 
of slavery was so great tliat it over-ruled him completely in his political actions. 
He seemed to have one great thought, and that was to do all in his power to 
eliminate this curse from the land. 

Actuated by revenge certain persons undertook his political destruction. He 
had written a letter to William C. Johnson of Utica, which it was claimed com- 
promised him to such an extent that charges were preferred against him in the 
house of representatives. This occurred on July 15, 1856. The substance of 
the letter was that a money consideration was necessary to carry a certain meas- 
ure through Congress. He also intimated that there were a sufficient number 
of congressmen that could be influenced by money to carry the measure. This 
letter it was claimed was stolen from the office of Mr. Johnson. An investigation 
in Congress was ordered, and on February 22, 1857, a committee reported in 
favor of his expulsion. This report was accompanied by three resolutions. The 
first charged that he had favored the use of money to influence legislation ; the 
second that he had charged that there were members who had associated to- 
gether and agreed not to vote for certain legislation except they were paid for 
it; the third resolution reconuuended expulsion. This investigation was made 
substantially without giving Mr. Matteson a fair hearing, and he saw that it was 
useless to defend himself against a prejudiced committee and a house in the 
state of iinnd that it was then in, because of his intimation that many of thera 
were corrupt. He therefore, resigned his seat in Congress. The first two resolu- 
tions were adopted by the house, but the third was never voted upon. Mr. 
jMatteson, after his retirement from Congress, gave much time to politics, and 
was for many years a potent factor in the Whig and Republican parties. It was 
he who led the fight against the first nomination of Roscoe Conkling to the 
position of representative in Congress, and it is notable that about this time 
he wrote a circular letter upon Mr. Conkling, in which be prophesied that 
Mr. Conkling would disrupt the Republican party. Strange to say this prophecy 
was fulfilled in that the influence of Mr. Conkling was the means of the defeat 
of James G. Blaine to the presidency in 1874. Mr. Matteson was tendered the 
nomination of mayor of the city of Utica in 1865, but he declined. This is the 
only time that he was nominated or tendered the nomination for any political 



254 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

position after his resignation from the house of representatives. He married 
Augusta Ilurllnirt. daughter of Kellogg Hurll)urt, IMay 17, 1830. Although he 
had a brilliant son. the late Henry C. ]Matteson, Mr. JIatteson left no descend- 
ants except two granddaughters, and the name of his branch of the family by 
his death heeanie extinct. ^Mr. Jlatteson was. for all in all, the ablest business 
man who ever appeared at the bar of this county. At one time he had aecmnu- 
lated a large fortune, but he became involved by the endorsement of his friends' 
paper, and lost it. He died, virtually dependent upon the bounty of his friends. 

WiLLLVM II. !M.\vx.vKD was boni in Conway, Massachusetts. Soon after his 
graduation from college he removed to New Hartford, Oneida county, N. Y., 
and commenced studying law with General Joseph Kirklaud. He also obtained 
an interest in the Vtica Patriot and contributed to its columns until 1824. For 
a time he was a partner with Samuel A. Talcott. He was not admitted to prac- 
tice in the Supreme Court until ISIS. In 1828 he was elected state senator, and 
continued until 1832. In 1828 he became a partner with Joshua A. Spencer. 
Among the members of the bar contemporary with Mr. Maynard he was counted 
their equal if not their superior in knowledge of the law. 

Charles Mason, although not a native of Oneida county, and notwithstand- 
ing he made Utica his home late in life, became identified with the Oneida bar, 
and was welcomed by it to one of the most important positions in the county. 
He had served as district attorney of ]\Iadison county, and for more than twenty 
years as justice of the Supreme Court, having been first elected in 1847. He 
had been a judge of the Court of Appeals, to which position he was appointed 
by Governor Fenton in 1868. Judge Mason was born in Plattsburg, New 
York : studied law in Watertown vrith. "William Ruger, and for a time practiced 
there as a partner with Jlr. Ruger under the firm name of Ruger & Mason. 
From Watertown he removed to Hamilton in 1838, where he passed most of his 
life, as he did not move to Utica until 1869. He died in Utica May 31, 1879. 
Immediately on his taking up his residence in Utica the advice of Judge 
Mason was sought in many important cases, and perhaps no one who ever 
commenced practice in Utica in so short a time gained so prominent a position 
at our bar as he. His advice was highly valued among laymen, and also by 
the profession ; and. as referee, in which position he frequently served, he was 
almost ideal. 

Addison C. Miller was born in Lowvilli-, N. Y.. November 12, 1831, and 
died in Utica December 18, 1894. He was the son of Dr. Sylvester Miller. He 
received a fair education, and when he was twenty years of age he came to Utica 
for the purpose of studying law. He entered the office of Mann & Edmunds, 
the senior member of which firm was Charles A. ]\rann, an uncle of Jlr. Jliller. 
Not long after Mr. Jliller was admitted to the bar ^Ir. JIann retired from the 
firm, and Mr. Edmunds took Mr. Miller as a partner, and the firm became 
Edmunds & ^Filler. Later James F. Mann, the son of Charles A. !Mann, was 
admitted to the firm. This firm did not exist for many years, and on its dis- 
solution Jlr. Miller carried on business alone until 1877, when he took as a 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 255 

partner Fredoi-ii-k G. Piiickc. On NovciiiIht 1, 1S87, llic tiriii became Miller, 
Pincke & Bramlegee. In 18i)2 Mr. Miller retired from tlie firm, and virtually 
from active practice. Prom that time on until his death he gave attention to 
his own affairs and to the advising of large corporations in and about Utica. 
He was trustee and vice president of the Utica Savings hank, general counsel 
for the Globe Woolen mills, a director of the Utica Steam Cotton mills and 
the Willowvale Bleaching company, and was interested in many otlier of the 
large business enterprises of Central New York. He was a member of the Fort 
Schuyler club, but gave little attention to club life or to social affairs outside 
of his own home. He very seldom took upon himself the trial of cases at the 
circuit, and never as leading counsel, although he sometimes tried cases at 
special term and before a referee. His ability, however, was shown in a busi- 
ness way rather than as a technical lawyer, and he excelled in his grasp o;f 
business propositions, and was a very able adviser in all such matters. He 
married Cynthia J. Brayton, daughter of Harvey Brayton, in 1863. In 1875 
after the death of Judge Charles H. Doolittle it was learned from Governor Dix 
that he would appoint to the position of Supreme Court .judge in the fifth 
judicial district any member of the bar of Oneida county that the Republican 
lawyers would agree upon. Several meetings of the Republican members of 
the bar were held for the pui"pose of agreeing upon a candidate. These meet- 
ings were held in the office of ex-Judge William J. Bacon, but after repeated 
efforts no candidate could be selected. The position was offered to Mr. Miller 
by substantially a unanimous voice of the Republican members of the Utica 
bar, but he declined, giving as reasons that he distrusted his own ability to 
fill the position to his own satisfaction, and also that it would be a large financial 
sacritiee to him. It is perhaps enough to say in regard to Mr. Miller's capacity 
and standing at the bar that he would have been almost the unanimous choice 
of the Republican members of the bar in the county for justice of the Supi'eme 
Court, had he been disposed to accept the position. 

Jonas Platt was born at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., June 30, 1769, studied law 
in New York, and was admitted to the bar in 1790. The following year he 
settled in Whitesboro, and in 1791 was appointed clerk of Herkimer county, 
which position he held to the organization of Oneida county, and then became 
the first clerk of Oneida county. In 1796 he was elected to the assembly, and 
in 1799 he was elected a representative in Congress. From 1810 to 1813 he was 
state senator, and in 1810 was the Federal party's candidate for governor, but 
was defeated by Daniel D. Tompkins. In the senate he and DeWitt C. Clinton 
were instrumental in procuring the necessary legislation which established the 
Erie Canal. Mr. Piatt was afterwards appointed one of the judges of the 
Supreme Court, and was legislated out of office by the constitution of 1821. 
This constitution was framed by a convention of which Mr. Platt was a mem- 
ber. He returned to the practice of his profession in Utica, and eventually 
went to New York, where he held a prominent place at the bar. On February 
22, 1834, he died at Peru, Clinton county. New York. 

Daniel C. Pomeroy was born in Franklin, Delaware county, N. Y., April 
1, 1813. He commenced life as a stage driver, and accumulated some means 



256 TTTSTORY OF ONKIDA COUNTY 

with which to educate himself aud to prepare himself for his profession. He 
studied law with a Mr. Gorliam at Burlington, Otsego county ; was admitted 
to the bar in 1843, and praifticed law for a time at Edmeston, Otsego county. 
In 1883 he came to Rome and became a partner of John R. Elwood. After the 
di.'^solution of this partnership he formed another with Henry 0. Southworth 
under the firm name of Pouieroy & Soutlnvorth. This partnership continued 
for sixteen years, and it enjoyed one of tlie best general law practices of any 
firm in Oneida county. The name of Ponicroy & Southworth for many years 
appeared upon the court calendars in more cases than the name of any other 
firm in tlic county. ]\Ir. Pomeroy was a trial lawyer, and upon questions of 
fact he was one of the strongest men in the county. In 1876 he moved from 
Rome to L'tica, and was a partner with his sou for about one year, but his 
health was shattered and he virtually retired from business in 1877, and died 
October 13, 1878. 

Cyrus D. Prescott was born August 14, 1836, in New Hartford, N. Y. He 
received his education in that town and in the Utica Free academy, and studied 
law in the oftice of 0. G. Kellogg of New Hartford and Ilurd & Brown of 
Utica. He was two years employed in the Oneida county clerk's office, after- 
ward in the office of Johnson & Boardman of Rome. He was admitted to the 
bar in 1859, and became a partner with ^Ir. Green, under the name of Green 
& Prescott. In 1867 he entered the emploj' of a mercantile house in New Y'ork 
as financial clerk, but returned to Rome in 1868 and formed a partnership with 
D. M. K. Johnson, which firm existed until the death of Mr. Johnson in 1886. 
For some years thereafter he did business alone, then with Mr. Titus until 
1895, when Jlr. Titus removed from Rome to Utica, and Mr. Prescott took his 
son into partnership with him. In 1867 he married Eliza F. Cady of JIadison 
count}'. 

Joiix Sav.vge was born at Salem. Washington county. N. Y., February 22, 
1779. He graduated from Union College in 1799, was admitted to the bar, and 
commenced the practice of his profession in "Wa.shington county. Soon after 
Fie was appointed district attorney for the northern district of New York. This 
position he resigned on account of ill health, but was re-appointed afterward. 
In 1812 he was elected to the assembly, and later served two terms in Congress, 
181-i-18. He was then appointed comptroller of the state, and occupied that 
position until 1822, when he was appointed chief .iustice of the Supreme Court. 
This office he held from 1823 to 1836. He resigned this position and practiced 
law for a short time at IMica, and also filled the position of clerk of the Supreme 
Coxirt. He had retiirned to Utica after an absence at his old home in Salem. 
He died at Utica October 10. 1863. 

John F. Seymour. One of the mo.st attractive men who has ever appeared 
at our bar wa.s John F. Seymour. He was born at Pompey Hill. Onondaga 
county, N. Y., September 21, 1814; wa.s the son of Henry, and a brother of 
ex-Govemor Horatio Seymour. In 1820 his father removed to Utica. and the 
young man attended a private school in that city until he was prc]iared for 




JAMES S. SlIEUMAN 

\'ice I'vcsidi'iii iif llic riiilcd Statt 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 257 

college. lie entered Yale College in the class of 18:^5, and graduated with his 
class. After this he became a law student with Judge William J. liaeon, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1839. During the same year he was married to 
Frances Tappan of New Haven. He spent some time in connection with busi- 
ness enterprises. At one time he was interested with Erastus Corning in the 
Sault St. Marie Shii) Canal, was a director of the New York Central Railroad 
company, president of the Fox & Wisconsin Improvement company, which had 
for its ob.jeet the eonueeting of the great lakes with the Mississippi River. This 
company also did the work of connecting the waters of Green 15ay, Lake jMiehi- 
gan with Lake Winnebago. In 1862 he became private secretary to his brother, 
who was then governor of the state. He received the appointment as state 
agent for the care of wounded soldiers during the war, and served until 1865. 
He was present at some of the great battles, and was instrumental in alleviating 
the sufferings of soldiers on these memorable occasions. In 1860 Mr. Seymour's 
wife died, and in 1865 he married Helen L. Ledyard, who died in 1880. In 
1881 he was appointed one of the tax commissioners of the state, and in 1883 
one of the commissioners to inquire into the condition of the Onondaga Indians. 
Mr. Seymour was one of the charity commissioners of Utica from 1873 to '77, 
and it was during this time the city hospital was built. Mr. Seymour gave much 
of his time to this enterprise, and to him is due, more perhaps than to any 
other man, the advance made in Utica for the care of the sick and indigent, 
in a building erected for that purpose. He was much interested in the sub- 
ject of perpetuating historic landmarks, and took active interest in commemo- 
rating the revolutionary events which occurred in this locality. No one did 
more than he to carry out the great celebration to commemorate the centennial 
anniversary of the battle of Oriskany, and it was largely through his endeavor 
that the splendid monument now stands upon this historic ground. In 1888 
his health failed, and he died in Utica on the 22d day of February, 1890. Mr. 
Seymour's time was so largely taken up with other affairs that he never devoted 
himself entirely to the practice of his profession. Yet he always enjoyed a 
fair amount of desirable law business. His cultured mind led him to investigate 
carefully all cases entrusted to his care, and no one was more conscientious 
than he in an endeavor to determine the right and to pursue it. For many 
years he was a pai-tner with George ]M. Weaver, of Utica, under the firm name 
of Seymour & Weaver. He was recognized as an able, conscientious and honor- 
able member of the profession. Would that all who practice at the bar pos- 
sessed the courtesy, fairness and honesty of purpose possessed by Mr. Seymour. 
It was always gratifying to claim Mr. Seymour as a friend, and all who knew 
him can but remember him as an unselfish, genial companion, and a friend 
of mankind. 

James S. Sherman was born in Utica October 24, 1850 ; prepared for college 
at AVhitestown seminary, and graduated from Hamilton College in 1878. He 
studied law in Utica iji the office of Beardsley, Cookinham & Burdick ; was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1880. and formed a partnership with Henry J. Cookinham 
and John G. Gibson under the firm name of Cookiuham, Gibson & Sherman. 
but the partnership lasted but one year, Mr. Gibson retiring from the firm, 
which then became Cookinham & Sherman, afterwards Cookiuham, Sherman & 



258 lllSTOKY OF ONEIDA COUiNTY 

Martin, and later CooUinliani, Shornian & Cookinham. He was mayor of Utiea 
in L^8-i; was elected representative in Congress in 1886, and was coutiuually in 
Congress from that time until IHOS, witli the exeeptiou of one term, when he 
was defeated by Henry "\V. lientley. In 1908 lie was the nominee of the Repub- 
lican party for viee president of the United States, was elected, and took the 
ofiSce the 4th day of March, 1909. Mr. Sherman has devoted his time to politics 
and financial aft'airs rather than the law, and in both he has been eminently 
suecessful. On the organization of the Utica Trust & Deposit company he 
was made president, and has ever since held the position. Had he devoted his 
time and talents to the practice of his profession he certainly would have been 
eminently successful. 

During Jlr. Sherman's service in the house of representatives he has been 
in the first rank among his fellow niembers. During the discussion on important 
bills when party feeling ran high, he was generally called to preside, because 
of his extraordinary ability as a presiding officer. He was an element to be 
counted with upon the shaping of the policy of the government and of the party 
to which he belongs. Since his elevation to the vice presidency he has been, 
perhaps, the most influential of the vice presidents in party councils. So satis- 
factorily has he presided over the senate that he has won the admiration, not 
only of every member of his ovm party, but of his opponents also. 

On January 26, 1881, he was married at East Orange, New Jersey, to Miss 
Carrie Babcock, daughter of Lewis H. Babcock, a prominent lawyer of Utiea. 
They have three children, Sherrill B., born in 1883; Richard U., born in 1884; 
and Thomas N., boru in 1886. Mr. Sherman is a member of a large number of 
social clubs, among which are the Union League, the Republican and the Trans- 
portation clubs of New York city, many of the golf clubs, and he is also a 
trustee of Hamilton College and many other societies and corporations. 

Josnu-V A. Spencer, perhaps the foremost advocate who ever lived in the 
United States, was born at Great Barrington, ^Massachusetts, May 13, 1790; 
removed to Lenox, Jladison county, and from there to Utiea. Justice Ward 
Hunt said of him, "He is like Saul among his brethren; head and shoulders 
above us all." He started life as a clerk in a country store. He enlisted in 
the war of 1812, and remained at Sackett's harlun- until his term of enlistment 
had expired. Upon his admission to the bar he commenced jiracticing law in 
Madison county. In 1829 he formed a partnership with "William H. JIaynard 
abd removed to Utica. AYilliam H. Seward once said to the son of Mr. Spencer 
— "Your father is as tall as a giant, has the eye of a hawk, a voice like a lion, 
and he seizes hold upon the witness and tears him in pieces.'" In 1841 he was 
appointed United States district attorney for the northern district of New York. 
The next year he was elected state senator. Li 1848 he was elected mayor of 
Utica, and about this time he said to his son on returning from a circuit, "I 
have now tried cases in every county in the state," Mr. Spencer was selected 
to defend Alexander ^FeLeod in his famous trial at T^tica. The ease was too 
easy for the defense to bring out Spencer's best powers, for he was always great- 
est in a hard case. As an illustration of the interest taken in England in this 
trial of McLeod, it will be remembered that parliament voted twenty thousand 



HISTORY OF ONKIDA COUNTY 259 

poxiiids for liis (lelVnsc'. No olluT la\\y<'i- ever lived in central New York who 
liad so great, an iiitlueuce as Mr. Spencer. It was said of him tiiat wh(!n li(!^ 
entered the courtroom all business was susi)ended and all eyes were tixed upon 
him until he had taken his seat. Judge Bacon says ol' him: " Wi; shall not 
soon, if ever, see his equal before that tril)unal w-liich ... it is said it is 
the object of all government to secure, 'twelve honest men in the jury box.' " 
He died at Utica April 25, 1857. 

Horatio Seymour was born at Pompey, Ouontlaga county, N. Y., May 21, 
1810. Soon after his father removed to Utica, where young Seymour attended 
scliool until he entered what is now Ilobart College. He renuiincd in this in- 
stitution only two years. lie then stuilied law in Utica with Greene C. Bronson 
and Samuel Beardsley, and was admitted to the bar in 1832. He did not devote 
himself to the practice of the law, but very soon became prominent in Democratic 
politics. In 1841 he was elected to the assembly. He was elected mayor of 
Utica in 1842, and in 1843-44 he was again elected to the assembly, and was 
speaker during his last year's service. In 1850 he was the caaididate of his party 
for governor, but was defeated. He was renominated in 1852 and elected. 
He was offered the nomination for governor in 1854, but declined. He was 
again elected Governor in 1862, and was the candidate of his party in 1864, 
but failed of election. In 1868 he was the Democratic candidate for president 
of the United States, but was defeated by General Grant. Governor Seymour 
was very highly esteemed, and although personally extremely popular, as a 
candidate for public office he never succeeded in getting the full support of his 
own party in the community in which he resided. He died Februai*y 12, 1886. 
It was as a politician and not as a lawyer that he won celebrity. 

John Thomas Spriggs was born in Northamptonshire, England, May 5, 1 820. 
He came to this country with his father in 1836, and settled in Whitesboro. The 
young man desired a college course, and he prepared for and entered Hamilton 
College, where he remained for two years. He then left, and for a time studied 
law at Holland Patent, but he decided to complete his college course, aud 
went to Union, and graduated with the class of 1848. He then studied law in 
Utica, and after being admitted formed a partnership with Thomas Flandrau. 
At that time Rome was relatively nuieh more important in the county than 
Utica, and Mr. Spriggs decided to remove to that town, which he did and 
formed a partnership with Thomas G. Frost. This bu.siness arrangement lasted 
until 1859, when the partnership was dissolved, and Mr. Spriggs returned to 
Utica. In 1862 lie formed a partnership with Richard Melnerow, and this 
partnership continued until 1870, when it was dissolved, and Mr. Spriggs took 
as a partner E. D. Matthews. This partnership lasted for several years, but as 
the son of Mr. Spriggs had become a lawyer the partnership was dissolved, and 
a new firm formed of J. T. and F. B. Spriggs ; this firm continued dowu to the 
death of Mr. Spriggs, which occurred in Utica December 23, 1888. Mr. Spriggs, 
aside from his law practice, gave a good deal of attention to politics, and was 
from the time he commenced active business life a potent factor in the Demo- 
cratic party of Oneida county. He was appointed district attorney in 1853 



260 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

to liU a viicauey. In 1854 he was elected county treasurer, and in 1868 he was 
elected mayor of Utiea, and in the same year he was the Democratic candidate 
for rciircscntative in Congress, hut was defeated hy Alexander II. Bailey of 
Koine. In 1878 he was the Democratic candidate for representative in Con- 
gross, and he was again defeated by Cyrus D. Prescott of Rome. In 1882 he 
was again a eaniiidate by the same party for the same position, and was elected 
over Samuel H. Fox, a glass manufacturer of Durhamville, N. Y. This election 
of Jfr. Spriggs was owing to a division in the Repuhliean party into the fac- 
tions known as the "Stalwarts" and "Half Breeds." The division arose in 
consequence of the opposition of Roscoe Conkling, then a United States senator, 
to President Garfield, over tlie desire on Coukling's part to control the Federal 
patronage in the state of New York. In 1884 Jlr. Spriggs was again renomi- 
nated for the same position, and was elected over Henry J. Cookinhani by reason 
of a split in the Republican party. James G. Blaine had 1)een nominated for 
the presidency, and was opposed by Roscoe Conkling because of an old quarrel 
between them. Oneida county was Mr. Conkling 's residence; the congressional 
district consisted of Oneida and Lewis counties at this time. Grover Cleveland 
was the candidate of the Democratic party for the presidency, and the friends 
of Mr. Conkling in Oneida county supported the Democratic ticket in that 
county. This resulted in Mr. Cleveland receiving a majority in Oneida county, 
wheresis it should have given a Republican majority of from two to three thou- 
sand and i\Ir. Spriggs was supported by the same persons who supported Mr. 
Cleveland. In 1886 Jlr. Spriggs was again the candidate for representative in 
Congress, but was defeated by James S. Sherman. I\Ir. Spriggs, although promi- 
nent in Democratic politics, never was what coidd be termed a leader. He was a 
manipulator of caucuses and conventions, possessed a good deal of shrewdness, 
but in his political discussions and speeches he never entered into argument 
of principles to any extent. Although he manifested shrewdness and ability 
in the trial of cases, yet he at times resorted to methods, in order to win verdicts, 
that would not be approved in a court of ethics. 

Alvin Stewaut was born at South Granville, Washington county, N. Y., 
Si'ptcmlier 1, 1700. After his graduation from Vermont University he went to 
Canada, and taught school there for a time. IMr. Stewart was in his early life 
what might be called a "rover," going from place to place, teaching school or 
doing anything to obtain a livelihood, but finally he settled down to tlie practice 
of law. He was in Canada at the time of the breaking out of the war in 1812, 
and, as he could not remain there, came back to the states and found himself 
at ^liddleboro, N. Y., where lie was arrested as a spy. At the time a regiment 
of soldiers was located tlicrc, and Stewart thought liis arrest a joke played on 
him by the soldiers; he, however, soon ascertained that it was a very serious 
matter. A druinhend court martial was convened to try liim, and it was a very 
solemn court until Stewart was permitted to speak for himself. He said after- 
wards that he would give almost anything he had if he could reproduce the speech 
that he made to this court. He remembered beginning in the followitig manner: 
"I think myself happy, president of this court martial, because I shall an- 
swer for myself this day before thee, touching all things whereof I am accused 



1 
i 




IIOKA'no SKVMori! 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 261 

of these soldiers." lie then j)roeeeded to speuk i'or nu Jiour or iiioi'c, and so 
amused the court tliat it broke up in hilarious manner, and the result wiis not 
only his acquittal, but he was the hero oi' the occasion. lie finally settled in 
Utiea, and at once took front rank at the bar. He was not only a {^reat lawyer, 
but a great orator. His sense of humor was remarkable, and he used it to the 
very best advantage. He was an intense anti-slavery man, and his services were 
demanded wherever a legal (juestion arose touching tlie subject. Perhaps the 
greatest legal argument he ever made was before the Supreme Court of New 
Jersey in the case of the State against John A. Post. In this ease the constitu- 
tionality of an act of the state of New Jersey touching slavery was involved. 
Luther R. Marsh, speaking of the humor of Mr. Stewart, says: "1 have seen 
the Supreme Court room, with Nelson, Bronson & Cowen on the bench, in an 
uproar at his manner of reading a dry affidavit, and the judges themselves un- 
able to maintain their gravity." In the great excitement over the slavery ques- 
tion in Utica, Stewart was foremost in the advocacy of human rights. He 
presided at the Anti-Slavery convention that was held October, 21, 1835, and 
which was broken up by mob violence led on by some of the foremost citizens, 
because men dared to speak in favor of human freedom. The delegates to 
the convention were obliged to flee the town, Mr. Stewart's house was barricaded 
and armed men protected it from the mob. The services which he rendered to 
the cause of freedom cannot be well overestimated. He died May 1, 1841). 

Heney R. Stores was born at Middletown, Connecticut, September 3, 1787. 
He graduated from Yale College in 1804, and was admitted to the bar in 
1807. He practiced law first in Champion, afterwards at Whitesboro, and 
later at Utica, N. Y. He was judge of the court of common pleas for five years, 
and one year was chief judge. He was elected a representative in Congress in 
1819, and also served in the same capacity from 1823 to 1831. During his 
entire congressional career he ranked with the ablest men in either house of 
Congress. He was one of the best debaters in the house of representatives, and 
was classed among the foremost lawyers in the country. On the expiration 
of his la.st term in Congress he removed from Utiea to New York, and practiced 
law in that city, where he occupied a very prominent place at the bar. He 
died July 29, 1873, at New Haven, Connecticut. 

Samuel A. Talcott was born at Hartford, Connecticut, December 31, 1789. 
He graduated from Williams College in 1809, at the age of nineteen, and studied 
law with Thomas R. Gold of Whitesboro, this county. After his admission to 
the bar he removed to Lowville, N. Y., and in 1816 he removed to Utica, and 
from there to New Hartford. In February, 1821, he was appointed attorney 
general. After the expiration of his term as attorney general he removed to 
New York city, where he practiced law until his death in 1836. Mr. Talcott 
was, unquestionably, one of the greatest lawyers who has ever lived in 
this country. Chief justice Marshall said of him: "His argiunent before the 
Supreme Court of the United States in the Sailors Snug Harbor case has not 
been equalled in that court since the days of William Pinckney." 



262 lIiyTORY OF ONEIUA COUNTY 

Daniel E. Waoer was born iu Jefferson county, N. Y., on the 8th day of 
Juno, 1823. lie was educated in the common schools and Jefferson county 
institute at Watertown. He then read law with Joshua Moore at Watertowu, 
and afterwards with William and Charles Tracy at Utica, and later still in 
the ofliee of Comstock & Beach in Rome. He was admitted to the bar in 1850, 
and formed a partnership with H. T. Utley at Rome. This firm existed for 
some years, when Mr. Utley removed to AVaterville. In 1852 he was elected 
special county judge on the Democratic ticket. In 185-4 he was one of the 
editors of tlie Rome Sentinel, and in 1855 became one of its proprietors. In 
1857 Jlr. Wager was made postmaster of Rome, and held the office for four 
years. In 1860 he returned to the practice of his profession. In 1872 he 
became a partner with Mr. Beach and Bailey. Later Mr. Wager was a partner 
with Mr. Beach alone, and this firm existed down to the death of Mr. Beach. 
Mr. Wager was elected special county judge in 1880. He was in every sense 
an estimable lawyer, with a thorough knowledge of the fundamental principles 
of law; with good judgement and honesty of purpose he devoted himself to the 
practice of his profession. He was modest and retiring, and therefore did not 
attain such public po.sitiou as his talents and acquirements entitled him to, but 
he performed the duties entrusted to him with such ability and devotion to the 
ends of justice that all who Imew him had the utmost confidence, both iu his 
ability and in his judgement. He gave much attention to matters of local 
historj-, and was one of the best informed men in the county pertaining to the 
history of men and institutions in and about the county of Oneida. His name 
will ever be held in high esteem among the bar of this count}'. He edited 
a historj' of Oneida county, and also a history of Rome. 

Nathan Williams was born iu Williamstowu. I\lassachusetts, December 19, 
1773. He removed to Utica about 1797, and was the first lawyer to settle perma- 
nently in Utica. He was district attorney for the sixth district of the state from 
1801 to 1803. He also served in the same capacity for Oneida county from 1818 
to 1821. He was elected a representative in Congress in 1805, and was an 
as.semblyman in 181G-18-19; was a delegate to the constitutional convention iu 
1821, and was appointed judge of the circuit court iu April, 1823, but resigned 
that position .some years afterward, and removed to Geneva, N. Y. While re- 
siding there lie was appointed clerk of the Supreme Court. He died September 
25, 1835. 

Otiiniel S. Williams was the son of Othniel Williams, and was born at 
Kiilinp\vorth, Conn., November 22, 1813. He removed with his father to Water- 
ville, N. Y., in 1814, and to Clinton in 1820. In his fourteenth year he entered 
the sophomore class of Hamilton College, and graduated in 1S31. For two years 
he wn.s a tutor in the family of ^Ir. Gibson in Virginia. In the fall of 1S36 
he returned froin A'irginia. and was admitted as au attornex- in ISDT. and as 
a counselor in 1840. On September 6, 1843, he married Delia, the daughter of 
Profes-sor Cliarles Avery of Hamilton College. For a time he was an instructor 
in modprii languages in the college, and .showed great proficiency in French. 
Spani.sh and Italian. Mr. Williams was appointiil judge of the court of cotnnion 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 263 

pleas in 1846, and in 1847 he was made a trustee of Ilaiiiillun Collef,'e. After the 
new eonstitution of tlie state was adopted in 1848 he was elected surrogate 
of Oneida county, and re-elected in 1852. In 1850 he was made the treasurer 
of Hamilton College, and retained this position until his death. In 1871 he 
received the degree of LL.U. During many years of his life he was identified 
with many public charities, business corporations and enterprises for the ad- 
vancement of his town and county. He was a promoter of the Utica, Clinton 
& Binghamton Railroad, one of its directors, its vice president, and for many 
years, and up to his death, he was its president. He took gi-eat interest in 
college affairs, and was one of the founders of the Alpha Delta Phi society. At 
a meeting of the Oneida county bar held after the death of ]\Ir. Williams, Pro- 
fessor Theodore W. Dwight said of him, "He was not only honest, able and 
patriotic, but a good lawyer." Mr. Williams was a careful and painstaking 
lawyer, well versed in the principles of law, conscientious and fair in his prac- 
tice, and when called upon to render decisions as judge, surrogate or referee 
he did it intelligently, fairly, and was seldom reversed upon appeal. He died : 
having the respect of the entire bar of Central New York. 

John C. Davies was bom in Utica, January 19, 1858. He was educated 
in public schools and seminaries, and graduated from Hamilton College Law 
school. He was admitted to the bar, and opened a law office in Camden in 
1879, where he has since resided. In 1885 he was elected to the New York 
Assembly. In 1894 he was appointed Deputy Attorney General by Theodore 
E. Hancock, Attorney General of the State ; he held this position for five 
years. In 1898 he was elected Attorney General of the State and reelected 
two years thereafter. During his services as Attorney General many im- 
portant questions came up to be cared for in his department of the state. He 
was in close touch with Governor Roosevelt and Governor Odell. with whom 
he was associated as a state officer. He was nominated for justice of the 
Supreme Court in 1902, but was defeated in consequence of a division in the 
Republican party. In 1894 'Sir. Davies was elected a delegate to the State 
Constitutional Convention, and served on important committees in that dis- 
tinguished body. In 1905 he was appointed a member of the State Gas and 
Electric Commission. Mr. Davies married Elma B. Dorrance, daughter of 
John G. Dorrance, of Camden, September 8, 1890, and they have five chil- 
dren: Margery Ellen, born September 26, 1891; Gladys Esther, born Jan- 
uary 16, 1893; John Dorrance, born October 1, 1896; Russell Johnson, born 
March 30, 1902; and Theodore Roosevelt, May 29, 1903. 

William E. Scripture, one of the justices of the Supreme court of the fifth 
judicial district, was born November 2, 1843, in Westmoreland, Oneida county, 
N. Y., and was a son of Parker A. Scripture and Hari-iet Standish Snow. He 
was educated at Wliitestown seminai-y and Hamilton college, studied law at 
the Albany Law school, and was admitted to the bar in 1867. He then entered 
the office of Beach & Bailey in Rome as managing clerk. In 1868 he opened an 
office in Canastota in partnership with a Mr. Hutchins, but in the fall of that 
year he returned to Rome and commenced practice in that city. He afterward 
had as a partner Homer T. Fowler, and for a time he had as partners George 



■264 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

II. Weaver, E. M. Pavey, and Oswald P. Backus. He at once acquii-ed a large 
law practice, and was extremely successful in the trial of cases at the circuit. 
Any lawyer who had occasion to try a ease against him found very soon he had 
an antagonist worthy of the steel of almost any person at the bar. His ability 
to grasp the facts and to present the salient ones to a jury was remarkable. His 
memory was excellent, and, without making copious notes of the evidence, he 
was able to recall every important fact in a case, even though it might take 
days or even weeks to adduce the evidence. He was appointed postmaster of 
Rome by President Harrison, and served until he was nominated for Supreme 
court in 1895. He was elected and served fourteen years, was renominated, but 
defeated through the influence of the corporations of the district. Since he 
ceased to be judge he has practiced his profession in Rome. He was married 
to Emma C. Goodwin in August, 1867. and has had seven children, May Stan- 
dish, Jlina E., Ella G., Emma C, Ruth, Parker F., and William E., Jr., two 
of wlioin. Emma C. and Ruth are now dead. 

Pascal C. J. DeAngells was born in Holland Patent, January 27, 1850. 
He was the son of William W. and Elizabeth Burlingame DeAngelis, and grand- 
son of Pascal C. J. DeAngelis, one of the earliest settlers in the town of Tren- 
ton. His grandfather took part in the naval service of the Revolutionary war, 
was captured by the British and confiued in Dartmoor prison. Young De- 
Angelis was prepared for college at Gary seminary, Oakfield, and entered Ho- 
bart in the class of 1871. He left Hobart and entered Cornell university in 
the same class, and graduated from that institution in 1871 with the degree of 
A. B. He then read law at Towanda, Pa., and was admitted to the bar in 
1873. He was admitted in New York state in 1875, and commenced practice in 
Utica. He was for a time a law partner with William A. Matteson, under the 
firm name of JIatteson & DeAngelis. He acquired a good practice, was counsel 
for some large institutions, and so commended himself to the public that in 
1896 he was nominated and elected justice of the Supreme court. Judge De- 
Angelis was manager of the State Lunatic asylum, now the State hospital, for 
seven years, from 1886 to 1893 ; was one of the school commissioners of the 
citj' of Utica for two terms, 1900-1906. He married Annie, daughter of Wil- 
liam B. Jackson of Utica, and has four children : Pascal C. J. ; Charles, Mar- 
shall and Annena. 

In a class with these men who filled high official positions are many others 
who, perhaps, by reason of natural gifts, acquirements and conscientiousness 
were their equals, but who never sought, or, if the}' sought, never obtained high 
judicial office. Such were John G. Crocker, John H. Edmunds of Utica ; G. 
Harrison Lynch of Rome, and others. 

There was al.so a large class of lawyers who may be called all-round prac- 
titioners. They were well ecjuipped in most branches of the law, and having a 
general practice they had no time, and perhaps no inclination to devote energj' 
enough to any particular brancli to excel in it and thereby gain fame. They 
chose to cover a large field and stand well in many branches of the practice. 
In this class of honorable men are: George W. Adams, Daniel Ball, Joseph R. 
Swan, Peter Davies. Alexander T. Goodwin, Richard Mclncrow, Eaton J. Rich- 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 265 

ardson, Joel Willard, N. Curtis White, Robert 0. Jones and Leslie W. Kernan 
of Utiea; K. Carroll, Edward L. Stevens, Henry 0. Southworth, Charles 
N. White of Rome; Walter Ballon and Leander W. Pisk of 15oonville; George 
K. Carroll and Stephen Cromwell of Camden ; Joseph S. Avery and James Mc- 
Cabe of Clinton ; Sylas L. Snyder of Taberf? ; and Edwin Lamb of Waterville. 

After entering the profession most men soon discover that some certain 
branch of the law suits them better than others, and they seek its pursuit. This 
has in the past, and will in the future, cause a large numlior to devote tliem- 
selves to what may be called the commercial side of the profession. These at- 
torneys never devote themselves to study sufficiently to become very learned in 
the law. They, instead, give their time to business transactions, becoming ac- 
quainted with men, and looking up law business, and in these pursuits they are 
very effective. Their advice is sought as to the expediency of purchasing prop- 
erty, making investments, entering into contracts, undertaking business enter- 
prises, but not often upon difficult questions of law. Poremost in this class was 
Orsamus B. Matteson, who, in his prime, was one of the most efficient business 
men that the city of Utica has ever known. It is probable that the largest com- 
mercial law business ever done by any firm in the county was by Matteson & 
Doolittle, of which partnership Charles H. Doolittle was the junior member. It 
was a popular saying of the day that "Matteson knew how to get the business, 
and Doolittle knew how to do it." 

Then there were Edward Brayton, James W. Bond, George Clarence Church- 
ill, Charles M. Dennison, Henry A. Doolittle, Edmond A. Graham, Hiram Hurl- 
burt, Burton D. Hurlburt, Arthur B. Johnson, Nicholas E. Kernan. James F. 
Mann, Addison C. Miller and Andrew J. Mcintosh. Among this number are 
some of the most esteemed citizens of the community. Some of them, by their 
capacity in grasping business propositions, accumulated fortunes in a legitimate 
way, and not by blind pools, illegal combinations of corporate interests, or ac- 
cidental success in speculation. Who would ask for better advisors in ordinary 
business transactions than Addison C. Miller or Nicholas E. Kernan? So might 
I ask in regard to others of the number who acted well their parts as business 
men. 

In passing over the list, names suggest to us faces of those we once saw on 
our streets, but which no longer appear. They lived, as most men do, with- 
out accomplishing any great result, but some of them led conscientious and piire 
lives and are entitled to our lasting respect. There were William R. Anthony, 
Rufus C. Baker, Charles L. DeGeorgia, John D. Griffith, James F. Hurley, Mor- 
vin M. Jones, William J. Kernan, Rutger B. Miller, Jr., Eugene Stearns, Rich- 
ard Schroeppel, Elakin J. Stoddard, Isaac J. Tripp and J. Frank Rogers of 
Utica; James Parks, Stephen VanDresar, Joseph Porter and Delos M. White 
of Rome, and James W. Cummings of Clinton. 

There has been during the last quarter century a class of lawyers among us 
which may be called stii generis. Among these were 0. Arthur Wliite, Patrick 
P. Bulger, Charles J. Everett, Thomas E. Kinney and David C. Wolcott. 

We have had also another class of attorneys which may be called only trial 
lawyers. They were always at the circuit, and their business consisted largely 



260 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

of the trial of ordiuary cases and of iTiminal practice. No circuit or trial term 
of a criiuiual court was held during their respective lives except that couspicu- 
ous among the members of the bar in attendance were Dexter E. Pomeroy, J. 
Thomas Spriggs of Utica ; ]\Iiltoii T>. Barnett. Daniel C. Pomeroy and Joseph I. 
Sayles of Kome. Of these, in ordinary trials, particularly for the defense, Mr. 
Spriggs easily outclassed the others. Possessed of a genial disposition, great 
shrewdness, and having a fair equipment of general acquirements, but little 
knowledge of the law, he was always a dangerous adversary before a jurj-. He 
possessed the power to discern quicklj^ the weak points of his antagonist upon 
questions of fact, and used them to the very best advantage. For the plaintiff, 
or for the defense in a criminal case where the crime was murder or some other 
of great magnitude, Daniel C. Pomeroy ranked high in the class. He made no 
pretense of having a thorougli knowledge of the law ; he trusted this part of 
the practice to others, but in arousing the sympathies or pre.judiees of a .iury 
he was ever effective. In presenting his case to the jury he was always inter- 
esting, and at times his speech rose to real eloquence. 

From the fact that during the last thirty-six years four men have prac- 
ticed at the Oneida bar, who attained greater reputation than any others, we 
are constrained to class them by themselves. Three were United States senators, 
and the fourth a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, Francis 
Kernan, Ward Hunt, Henry A. Foster and Eoscoe Conl^liug. 

A marked change has occurred in regard to the practice of the law within 
the last quarter of a century. Many questions which gave rise to litigation 
have been settled, and business men have become wiser in the present da.v than 
they were in the past in regard to litigation. Lawyers of the first class advise 
settlement wherever it is possible, and this has had a marked effect upon the 
number of eases litigated. Many years ago assault and battery and other like 
cases were tried at almost every term of the court. Now tliey are substantially 
unknown, and litigation over such matters has almost ceased. There has, 
however, been a large increase of litigation in a direction that was not fre- 
quent until recent times, i. e., damage suits against railroad companies and 
other large corporations. I^Iany of tliese suits have little merit, and are fre- 
quently tried by lawyers who do not stand well at the bar. A new term has 
been invented to designate these lawyers, and llicy aie known to the profes- 
sion as "ambulance chasers." As an illustration of the metliods pursued by 
this class of lawyers one will suffice. A sliort time since a man was killed near 
Utica on the New York Central Railroad. He was a resident of Utica. and 
before his body was buried twelve lawyers called at the bouse and tendered 
tlieir valuable ( ?) services to the widow in her great distress. The lawyers 
came from as far west as Buffalo, and as far east as Albany. This was so an- 
noying that it was found necessary to deny admittance to tlie house any man 
unless he was known to the family of the deceased. The presiding judge of 
the appellate division of the Supreme Court invariably, before a class is sworn 
in after examination for admission to the bar, warns them against this kind 
of law practice. It can be said of the bar of Oneida county that it can con- 
gratulate itself upon the fact that few of its members can be placed in this 
class. It can also be safely said of the bar of Oneida county that at the pres- 





I'liii.o (;Kii>r-i:v 

Jiisf ice Sn|il-ciiic ( ■"ii 



Xni.TCtX II. .MKKWIX 
.Tllsl ice Siipl-ciiic ( 'dint 




ALFliKI) C. COXE 

.liidije of tlie I'liiteil States Cir- 

c/uit Ciiiirt. Seciiiid Cireiiit 





WILLIAM K. SCUirTriiE 
Justice Siiiiroiiie Court 



l'A8("AL C. J. I)E AX(;i:i.IS 
Justice Sniireme Court 



T.V 



« 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY • 267 

ent time, as well as in the past, it ranks among the foi-cniost of llie state both 
as to ability and moral worth. Tlic mrmlici-s of this nol)lc in-ol'cssion within 
our favored county have faithfully protected the rJKhls of the |)laintill' and de- 
fendant, and have endeavored, to the best of their ability, to iiave justice mclcd 
out to parties litisjant. At the close of this year, there are within the county 
207 practicing attorneys, who are located as follows: Hoonville, 6; Cam- 
den, 6; Clinton, 1; Holland Patent, 2; iiCe Center, 1; Remsen, 1; Rome, 40; 
Utiea, 144 ; Vernon, 1 ; Waterville, 5. 

Henry J. Coggeshall was born April 28, 184;'), at Waterville; was educated 
in the Waterville seminary; studied law in that village, was admitted to the 
bar and commenced practicing there. He very early entered politics, and gave 
very little attention after that to his profession. He was at first assistant dis- 
trict attorney; was elected to the legislature in 1872; to the office of county 
clerk in 1879, and in 1883 was elected to the state seiuite, in which capacity he 
served for about twenty years, having been a member of the legislature longer 
than any other person who ever resided in Oneida county. He was a Republi- 
can, and was elected by that party except on one occasion. He was defeated 
for the nomination for senator in the Republican convention ; bolted the con- 
vention ; was nominated by the bolters ; adopted by the Democratic party, and 
elected against Frederick G. Weaver, the regular Republican candidate. He 
was very successful in procuring the passage of bills concerning local affairs. 
He was personally friendly with his political opponents as well as with Repub- 
licans, and would do anything he consistently could for a resident of his dis- 
trict, whether friend or foe. He was one of the best platform speakers in the 
state, and his services were in great demand in every political canvass. He was 
eloquent and persuasive rather than argumentative, and had a view of humor 
that enabled him, if he so elected, to keep an audience in roars of laughter dur- 
ing an entire evening. He had not accumulated money, and died, virtually 
without means. 

Following is a list of all the judicial officers from Oneida count.y from its 
organization to 1912 : 

CHIEF JUSTICES SUPREME COURT OF JUDICATURE 

John Savage, January 29, 1823. 
(ireene C. Bronson, March 5, 1845. 

Samuel Beardsley, June 29, 1847. He served as puisne justice from Febru- 
ary 20, 1844. 

JUDGES OF THE CIRCUIT COURT 

Nathan Williams, April 21, 1823. 
Samuel Beardsley, April 12, 1834. 
Hiram Denio, May 7, 1834. 
Philo Gridley, July 17, 1838. 



268 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

JUDGES OF COMMON PLEAS AND COUNTY COURTS 

1798, March 22 — Jedediah Sanger of Wliitestown, first judge ; Hugh White 
and David Ostram of Whitestowii, James Dean of Westmoreland, and George 
Huntington of Rome, judges. 

1801, January 28 — Silas Stone of Lowville, judge. 

ISOl, August 21 — Messrs. Sangei', White, Dean, Ostram and Huntington, 
re-appointed, with Thomas Hart additional. 

1802, March 13 — Nathan Sage and Henry Coffeen of Redfield. 

1803, March 31 — Needham Maynard. 
1804:, April 3 — Chauncey Gridley. 

1804, July 3 — Messrs. Sanger, Dean, Ostram, Huntington, Sage, Coffeen, 
Maynard and Gridley, re-appointed. 

1805, February 15 — Messrs. Sanger, Dean. Sage, Majmard, Ostram. Coffeen 
and Gridley, re-appointed; March 25, Samuel Dill; April 8, Apollos Cooper, ad- 
ditional. 

1808, I\Iarcli 22 — Jlessrs. Sanger, Dean, Gridley, Sage, Dill, Cooper, re-ap- 
pointed, and Joseph Jennings and Jarvis Pike additional. 

1810, ilarch 5 — Morris S. ^Miller, first judge; Jedediah Sanger, Henry Mc- 
Niel of Paris, xVbram Camp of Whitestown, and Timothy W. Wood. 

1813, February 23 — Morris S. Miller, James Dean, David Ostram, Henry 
McNiel, George Brayton, Richard Sanger, Jesse Curtiss, Gerrit G. Lansing, 
Benjamin Wright, John Storrs and Peter Pratt. 

1814, April 5 — Messrs. jMiller, Dean, Ostram, McNiel, Curtiss, Lansing, 
Wright, Storrs and Pratt re-appointed ; and Le%d Carpenter, Jr., and Frederick 
Stanley, additional. 

1815, April 15 — ilorris S. Miller, Joseph Jennings, Solomon Wolcott, 
Prosper Rudd, Daniel Ashley, Peter Pratt, James S. Kip, Sherman Barnes, 
Thomas H. Hamilton, Asahel Curtiss, Charles Wylie and Joseph Grant. 

1818, April 24 — Messrs. ililler, Wj^lie, Grant and Hamilton, with Ezekiel 
Bacon additional. 

1821, March 21 — IMessrs. IVIiller, Grant and Hamilton, with Truman Enos 
and Joshua Hathaway additional. 

1823, February 3 — ^Messrs. Miller, Enos, Hathaway and Grant, with Samuel 
Jones additional. 

1824, November 22 — Samuel Beardsley, first judge, in place of ilorris S. 
Miller, deceased. 

1825, Jlarch 9 — Henry R. Storrs, in place of Samuel Beardsley, who de- 
clined the appointment. 

1826, April 5 — James Dean (son of former Judge Dean) in place of Tru- 
man Enos, who resigned upon his election to the state senate. 

1828, Fel)ruary 5 — Jlessrs. Hatliaway, Grant and Jones, re-appointed. 

1830, January 15 — Chester Hayden, first judge, and Israel Stoddard. 

1831, April 8 — Reuben Tower of Sangerfield. in place of James Dean, whose 
term liad expired.. 

1832, February 10 — Nathan Kimball of Augusta, in place of Reuben Tower, 
resigned. 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 269 

1833, February 6 — John P. Sherwood of Vernon, and Arnon Corastoek of 
"Western, in place of Messrs. Jones and Hathaway, whose terms had expired. 

1835, January 23 — Chester Hayden of Utiea, first judge, and Israel Stod- 
dard, rc-appointed. 

1837, Fel)ruary 21 — Nathan Kimball, re-api)ointed. 

1838, Februaiy 2 — Pomroy Jones of AVestinoreland, in plaee of J. i'. Shci-- 
wood, resigned; and Jlarch 9, Anion Conistoek, re-appointed. 

1840, February 2 — Fortune C. White of Whitestown, first judge, vice Hay- 
den; and April 14, Seth B. Roberts of Rome, vice Stoddard. 

1843, February 10 — Chester Hayden and Amos Woodworth of Florence, vice 
Messrs. Kimball and Comstock, whose terms had expired, and Pomroy Jones, 
re-appointed. 

1845, February 21— P. Sheldon Root of Utiea, first judge, vice White; and 
April 14. Ebenezer Robbins of Lee, vice Roberts. 

1846, May 12— Othniel S. Williams of Kirklaiul vice Hayden. 

.JUSTICE OF THE SUPREME COURT OP THE UNITED STATES 

Ward Hunt, September, 1872. 

JUDGES OP CIRCUIT COURTS OF THE UNITED STATES 

Alexander S. Johnson, October, 1875. 
Alfred C. Coxe, 1903. 

JUDGE OP DISTRICT COURT OP UNITED STATES 

Alfred C. Coxe, May 4, 1882. 

Clerks of the Circuit court of the United States for the Northern district of 
New York, and District court of the same district, resident in Oneida county. 
By an act dividing the Northern district the clerk of the United States Cir- 
cuit court was also made the clerk of the District court. 

Augustus C. Boyce, from June 14, 1849 to August 1, 1870. 

Charles Mason, from August 1, 1870 to his death. 

William H. Bright, from June 30, 1879 to July 1, 1883. 

William S. Doolittle, from July 1, 1883 to date. 

UNITED STATES DISTRICT ATTORNEY FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK 

Samuel Beardsley, 1823. 
Henry A. Foster, 1853. 

UNITED STATES MARSHAL, FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK 

VanRensselaer Weaver, 1910. 

JUDGES OF COURT OP APPEALS 

Alexander S. Johnson, appointed November 4, 1851. 
Hiram Denio, appointed June 23, 1853. 
Hiram Denio, elected November, 1857. 
Ward Hunt, elected November 7, 1865. 



•270 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

COMMISSIONER OF APPEALS 

Ward Hunt. July 5. 1870. 

Alexaiului- 8. Johuson, January 7, 1873. 

JUSTICES OP SUPREME COURT 

Philo Gridley, lSi7. 

William J. Bacon, 1853 aud 1861. 

Henry A. Foster, 1863. 

Charles 11. Doolittle, 1869. 

:\Iilton II. iMerwiu, 1874 and 1888. 

William E. Scripture, 1895. 

Pascal C. J. DeAngelis, 1907. 

ATTORNEY GENERAL 

Samuel A. Taleott, July 8, 1819. 
Greene C. Bronson, February 27, 1829. 
Samuel Beardsley, January 12, 1836. 
John C. Davies, November, 1898 and 1900. 



DEPUTY ATTORNEY GENERAL 



Charles J. Everett, 1880. 
John D. McMahon, 1892. 
John E. Mason, 1899. 
Louis M. Martin, 1900. 
Everett E. Risley, 1909. 
August Merrill, 1911. 



COUNTY JUDGES 



Jedediah Sanger, appointed 1798. 
Morris S. Miller, appointed 1810. 
Samuel Beardsley, appointed 1824. 
Henry R. Storrs, appointed 1825. 
Chester Ilayden, appointed 1830. 
Fortune C. White, appointed 1840. 
P. Sheldo?! Root, appointed 1845. 
P. Sheldon Root, elected 1847. 
George W. Smith, elected 1859. 
Joel Willard, elected 1867. 
Ale.xandcr II. Bailey, elected 1871. 
William B. Bliss, clerted 1874. 
William B. Sutton, elected 1880. 
Isaac J. Evans, elected 1886. 
Watson T. Dunmore. elected 1892. 
George E. Pritchard, elected 1904. 
Frederick 11. Hazard, elected 1910. 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 271 

SPECIAL COUNTY JUDGES 

In 1846 the constitution auMiori/.ed special county judges. 

David E. Wager, elected 1852. 

George Harrison, elected 1855. 

Kiron Carroll, elected 1861. 

George II. Jjyncli, elected 1867. 

William B. Bliss, elected 1870-1873. 

Robert 0. Jones, appointed to fill vacancy, 1874. 

Robert 0. Jones, elected 1875. 

William II. Bright, elected 1878. 

Daniel E. Wager, elected 1880. 

Isaac J. Evans, elected 1883. 

Watson T. Dunmore, elected 1886, 1889. 

Rudolphus C. Briggs, elected 1892-95. 

George T. Davis, elected 1898-1901. 

Willis W. Byam, elected 1904-1907. 

Walter G. Shankenbury, elected 1910. 

SUBROGATES 

Arthur Breese, March 19, 1798. 
Joshua Hathaway, March 23, 1808. 
Erastus Clark, February 23, 1813. 
Greene C. Bronson, April 13, 1819. 
Joshua Hathaway, February 19, 1821. 
Henry A. Foster, March 31, 1827. 
Alanson Bennett, January 12, 1831. 
Henry A. Foster, January 27, 1835. 
John Stryker, August 22, 1839. 
Othniel S. Williams, June, 1847. 
Henry M. Burchard, November, 1855. 
Joseph S. Avery, November, 1863-1869. 
Stephen H. VanDresar, November, 1877. 
William B. Bliss, November, 1883. 
William H. Bright, November, 1889. 
Henry W. Bentley, appointed 1894. 
Frederick M. Calder, November, 1894-1900. 
Michael H. Sexton, November, 1906. 

SPECIAL SURROGATE 

Ralph Mcintosh, elected 1852. 
Nelson B. Stevens, elected 1855. 
Ralph Mcintosh, elected 1858. 
David T. Jenkins, elected 1861. 
Eugene Stearns, elected 1867. 
Theodore Avery, elected 1870. 



■27-2 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

lleiiry J. L'ookiuham, elected 1873. 
ilareus D. Raymond, elected 1874. 
Elliott S. ^VilliaIns, elected 1877. 
Emmett J. Ball, elected 1878, 1881. 
John D. P. Stone, elected 1884. 
H. C. Sholes, elected 1887. 
James P. Gluey, elected 1890. 
Elliot 0. Wordeu, elected 1S93, 1S96. 
Willis AV. Byam, elected 1899, 1902. 
Elijah T. Garlick, elected 1905. 
Edward L. 'Donnell, elected 1908. 

DISTRICT ATTORNEYS 

Thomas R. Gold, appointed from February 26, 1797 to August 20, 1801. 

Nathan AYilliams, appointed 1801. 

Joseph Kirkland, appointed 1813. 

Thomas H. Hubbard, appointed 1816. 

Nathan Williams, appointed 1818. 

Samuel Beardsley, appointed 1821. 

Hiram Denio, appointed 1825. 

lehabod C. Baker, appointed 1834. 

Timothy Jenkins, appointed 1840. 

Calvert Comstock, appointed 1845. 

Calvert Comstock, elected 1847. 

Roscoe Conkling, elected 1850. 

Samuel B. Garvin, elected 1850. 

J. Thomas Spriggs, elected 1853. 

Henry T. Utley, elected 1853. 

Jairus H. Munger, elected 1856. 

Hiram T. Jenkins, elected 1859, 1862, 1865. 

Daniel Ball, elected 1868. 

Daniel C. Stoddard, elected 1871. 

:\Iiltoii D. Barnett, elected 1874-1877. 

AVilliam A. :Matteson, elected 1880-1883. 

Thomas S. Jones, elected 1886-1889. 

George S. Klock, elected 1892-1895. 

Timothy Curtin, elected 1898-1901. 

Emerson M. Willis, elected 1904-1907. 

Bradley Fuller, elected ]910. 



CHAPTER XXII 



FINANCLiX, INSTITUTIONS 



In the first settlement in Oneida county as elsewhere barter was the rule 
of trade. The farmer sold his products to the storekeeper for supplies for the 
family, and the like exchange was made by the retail dealer with the whole- 
sale merchant. Very little cash was in circulation, and this was in silver of 
either English or Spanish mintage. The more thrifty keepers of stores and 
a few farmers were able to lend in a small way to the needy to tide them over 
until harvest. They would receive deposits from any who had savings hoarded. 
Activities grew beyond reliance on such aids or on loans from Albany or New 
York. The Manhattan Company, for which Aaron Burr had secured a char- 
ter to supply water from New York but was from the outset a bank, saw here 
an inviting field, and in 1809 sent Montgomery Hunt to establish a branch in 
Utica, the first bank in the county. June 1, 1812, a charter was secured for the 
Bank of Utica, which opened with a capital of $500,000 out of $1,000,000 au- 
thorized, and wag practically the successor of the Manhattan branch bank. Mr. 
Hunt was cashier and the chief officer, with James S. Kip, president, and a 
board of directors of leading citizens. Henry Huntington of Rome was elected 
president at the close of the first year, and up to his death in 1845 drove from 
his residence regularly to meet with the directors. Then Thomas Walker was 
elected president, followed in 1863 by Benjamin N. Huntington. In 1876 
Publius V. Rogers, who had, as cashier since 1853 by his ability and command 
of the confidence of the business community, earned the promotion, was ad- 
vanced to the presidency. Until his death in 1895 he set a standard as a faith- 
ful, expert financier not surpassed in this part of the state, and built up the 
institution to the forefront of national banks of the interior. Charles B. Rogers 
has since served as president. Until 1865 the bank conducted its affairs under 
the laws of New York, but in that year took advantage of the national statutes 
under the style of the First National Bank of Utica. John A. Groodale was 
cashier after P. V. Rogers. Henry R. Williams is now a vice president and 
the cashier. 

Alexander B. Johnson, in 1814, was appointed a state director in the Bank 
of Utica, but was not in full accord with Cashier Hunt. He devised a rival 
institution, but it was not easy to secure a charter from the legislature, as was 
then necessary. For that reason Mr. Johnson projected the Utica Insurance 
company with capital of $500,000, and framed the law passed in 1816 so as 
to cover the right to carry on banking. That business was entered upon with 
Mr. Johnson as secretary and treasurer and real manager, with prominent men 
in the direction. The subterfuge aroused bitter opposition; the legislature 

273 



■274 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

amended the statutes so that the iiisuraiiee ooiiipany could not be a bank. It 
had put out notes for $100,000, some for fractions of a dollar, and its loans were 
$300,000. August 3, 1818, after re-insuring its policies and pro%iding for the 
paymeut of its obligations the company closed its affairs. 

Meanwhile in 1815 the Ontario Bank of Canandaigua had opened a branch 
in Utica, with Col. Benjamin Walker president, and next Arthur Breese. The 
capital was $300,000, later $500,000. In 1819 Alexander B. Johnson was 
chosen to the presidency and was supported by some of the most eminent Uti- 
cans, and so continued, until Edmund A. Wetmore was made receiver in 1857. 
On the end of the charter of tEe parent bank in 1855 the Utica branch became 
the Ontario bank. Mr. Johnson was the most literary of the bankers of the 
county, an author of wide repute on philosophical as well as financial subjects. 
Mr. Hunt and he were the pioneers in local banking, rivals while both lived, 
and men of mark in their profession. 

The Bank of "Whitestown was organized in 1839 with $100,000 capital un- 
der S. N. Dexter as president, who was succeeded by F. B. Henderson. After 
a generation its business was closed out on the expiration of the charter. Israel 
J. Gray was the last cashier. 

The Bank of Rome started in 1832 with a capital of $100,000, had for its 
first president John Stryker, and was fully liquidated when its charter expired 
in 1863. 

The application to the legislature for a charter for the Oneida Bank was 
strenuously opposed, but the act was passed May 13, 1836. A commission to 
distribute the stock among the subscribers was headed bj' A. G. Dauby, but 
the result did not please everybody, and the amount of capital, $450,000, was 
not equal to the demands. A robbery of $108,000 of its cash from its vaults 
before opening for business caused a shock, and only a part of the monej' was 
ever recovered. But the board of directors was composed of citizens who com- 
manded coTifidencc. and the bank starting with A. G. Dauby as president for 
three montlis, and then securing the services of Alfred Munson in that office, 
made firm its place in local finance. Until his decease in 1854 he was the con- 
trolling force in the institution. Charles A. Mann was selected to fill the va- 
canc}', and on his death in 1860 the position was conferred on James Sayre, 
wh6 served 17 years, dj-ing in 1877. A. J. Williams followed, and died in 
1888, when Robert 8. Williams, who had received training and experience as 
cashier, was called to the presidencj-, and filled the position until he died, in 
1899. W. S. Walcott and L. H. Lawrence held the office for a couple of years 
each. George L. Bradford was promoted from the cashiership January 10, 
1905, and still (1911) serves as president. Entering the national system in 
1865, the name was changed to the Oneida National Bank. George A. Niles is 
the present cashier. 

Joim C. Devereux and his brother Nicholas had received deposits of sav- 
ings from their neighbors, but desired to give more than personal duration to 
the busincs.s, and enlisted some of the strongest capitalists to join them in 
founding the Utica Savings Rank, which was chartered July 26, 1839. John 
C. Devereux was chosen president and serv'ed for ten years. On his decease in 
1849 Thomas Walker was chosen, and in 1863 TTirani Denio succeeded, and was 





KI'WAKD lirXllXC TON 
Capitalisl 



;AMri;i. waki i\\i;i,i. 

I'.aiiUt'r 





IiH)O.Ml'IKLD J. KKACll 
Lawyer and banker 



AI.FKEK KTIIIMIxiE 
.Mcnli.im 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 275 

followed by Edmund A. Wetmore, William J. Bacon, Epiirairn Chainberlain, 
William Blaikie, antl in 1910 by Charles A. Miller, tlie iiieumbeiit. The first 
secretary and treasurer was Stulham Williams, who was for some time also 
teller and bookkeeper. In 1840 the amount due depositors was $27,607, and 
the net proceeds were $65.82, which were paid to the treasurer for his services. 
The institution hail the benefit of the care and e.xjx^rience of Mr. Williams for 
thirty-four years. As his health failed and after his death in 1873, the assistant 
performed the tasks of treasurer, Thomas I'uchiinan from 1860 to 1866, and 
John E. Spofford from that date to ItSTi). Addi.sou C. Miller was elected treas- 
urer in 1878, serving up to the time of his death. Then Rufus P. Birdseye, who 
had been assistant since 1879, was in 1894 promoted to be treasurer, and is 
now serving his seventeenth year. 

The Utica Savings Bank has suffei-ed three runs by its depositors. The 
first begun in December, 1872, and 827 accounts were closed and $468,405 with- 
drawn, but the vaults held nearly $500,000 in eash when quiet was restored. 
The result was to restrict accounts to those of strictly savings character. Again 
in May, 1886, signs of a run appeared, but it continued only a week and the 
withdrawals were about $21,000. But at the close of July, 1893, more uneasi- 
ness was displayed, and on successive days sums of $30,000 and $26,000 were 
drawn out. The trustees deemed it wise to enforce the rule to require notice 
of sixty days for withdrawal of cash. The deposits fell nearly $400,000. But 
the institution has grown and broadened its resources and stands in the fore- 
front of its class. By its report January, 1911, it shows 34,425 open accoiints 
averaging $440.20, while its assets are $16,382,620, of which the surplus is 
$1,187,269. 

The Bank of Central New York was organized in 1838 with a capital of 
$100,000 and Anson Thomas served as president until his death in 1856, and 
Spencer Kellogg was chosen in his stead. A savings department was main- 
tained. The institution went into the hands of Joseph Benedict as receiver in 
1859. 

Waterville founded its own bank in 1838 with a capital of $130,000; Julius 
Candee was president. It accepted the national system in 1865. Daniel B. 
Goodwin served as president until 1888, when William B. Goodwin and next 
Samuel J. Goodwin followed him. George I. Hovey is now president and W. 
J. Butler cashier. 

In 1839, John J. Knox established the Bank of Vernon, of which he be- 
came president, and the capital was $81,700. He was succeeded by Josiah 
Case in 1862. There followed Warren G. Strong, A. Pierson Case, W. G. 
Strong again until 1908, when Fletcher A. Gary was chosen to the position. 
D. B. Case is now the cashier. 

The Bank of Camden started in 1847 with $100,000 capital under the presi- 
dency of H. J. Miner, who was succeeded by Lyman Curtiss, and gave way to 
private banks. The First National Bank of Camden with $50,000 capital be- 
gan business in January, 1880, and Daniel G. Dorrance was president until 
he died in 1896. With him was associated John G. Dorrance as cashier, who 
was promoted to the presidency and still serves in that ofBce. D. J. Dorrance 
is the present cashier. 



276 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

In 1847 iu Rome the Fort Stanwix Bank was organized under state laws 
and changed to the national system in 1865. The capital was $110,000, and 
David nicy was president. Under the cashiership of George Barnard it failed 
by his acts, and its affairs went to the courts in 1896. 

In 18-16 the Bank of Kirkland was opened in Clinton by 0. Gridley as 
president with $50,000 capital, and he was succeeded by A. G. Gridley. The 
institution for some years had a successful career. 

Tlic Utica City Bank began business September 1, 1848; with a capital of 
$125,000 and as president Hiram Dcnio. The capital was made $200,000 iu 
1849, and $400,000 iu 1888. It became a national bank in 1865. The presi- 
dents following Judge Deuio have been Jared E. Warner, Isaac ]\Iaynard and 
the present incumbent, Charles S. Symonds, who had earned the position by 
faithful service as cashier. Success led to the increase of capital by steps up 
to $1,000,000. The misconduct of a trusted clerk exposed in 1910 involved a 
considerable defalcation, but did not shake the strength of the institution. 
Putting itself under federal laws iu 1865, it took the uame of the Utica City 
National Bank. The present cashier is ^Meh-ille C. Brown. 

About the middle of the century a fever for the organization of fire insur- 
ance companies fell upon the couuty. Iu 1849 the Utiea Insurance was 
establi-shed with $150,000 capital and Henry R. Hart president ; tiie Aetna 
with $125,000 capital, John E. Hiniuau president, and the Farmers, capital 
$100,000, John D. Leland president. In 1851 followed the Globe with $150,000 
capital, C. B. Coventry president. The life of all these corporations was brief, 
and tlie loss to the stockholders, many of them active professional and business 
men, caused serious inconvenience. The American Union Health Association, 
capital $50,000 and Edward Eames president, survived not long from its birth 
in 1851. 

The Central City Savings Institution was established in 1851 in connection 
with the Ontario Branch bank, and managed by its cashier, James S. Lynch, 
until such relation l)etween savings and commercial banks was prohibited. Then 
the institution failed and was closed in 1873. 

Tlie Rome Savings ]-!ank has met a public ueed with success since it was 
founded in 1851 with Hervey Brayton as president and B. J. Beach secretary. 
Successive presidents were Edward Huntington. Gordon N. Bissell, Henry D. 
Spencer, W. R. Huntington, while Samuel H. Beach is the present incum- 
bent. Vp to 1896 the books of this savings bank were kept with the Fort Stan- 
wix National Bank, but since the failure of the latter the savings institution has 
been distinct and separate. After the decease of B. J. Beach in 1894, Charles 
F. Barnard served as secretary and treasurer until he died in 1905, and James 
T. Stone followed; in 1910 Mr. Stone was designated as treasurer, while Fred 
M. Shelley was made secretary. According to its report this bank had Janu- 
ary 1, 1911, as,sets of $3,272,171, of which $304,241 was surplus above liabilities, 
showing great strcngfli. The Rome Savings Bank is now the oldest bank iu 
that city. 

In 1851 thi- Rome Excliangc Biiiik was founded with R. B. Doxtatcr jiresi- 
dent and F. II. Thomas casliier. It pa.s-scd from the state to tiie national sys- 
tem in 1865 under the style of the First National Bank of Rome, with $100,000 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 277 

capital. .1. O. Bissell served as president lor inaiiy years after 1889. The 
present ofllcers are Thomas II. Stryker, invsidcnt, and V. M, Shelley, csushier. 

Under state laws the Oneida County i5ank with a eapital of $125,000 in 
1853 began the career which lasted for half a century. The presidents were 
Ira B. Carey for two years, Charles U. Oooiittle who died in 1874, Francis 
Kernau until 1887, J. M. Butler imtil his death in 18!)'.), and Charles A. Butler 
until the institution was taken over in 1!)()0 hy the older and stronger First 
National bank. Frank A. Boswoi-th acted as cashier from 1887. 

in 185-4 the Oneida Central Bank began business in Rome as a state institu- 
tion, became the Central National Bank in 1865, but failed in 1894. Its busi- 
ness was closed by Jim Stevens as receiver. 

The Second National Bank of Utica was incorporated December 10, 1863, 
opening for business the next February with a eapital of ,$300,000. The first 
president was William J. Bacon, who gave place in a few months to Theodore 
S. Faxton. "When the latter died in 1881 Edward S. Brayton was elected to 
the office. On his death in 1887, William M. White became president, serving 
until he died in 1896. Since then Thomas R. Proctor has been the head of the 
institution. George R. Thomas was the first cashier and tilled the position for 
twenty-four years, dying in 1887. Frank R. Winant is the present cashier. 

The National Savings Bank of Utica was established in 1865 and was man- 
aged by Thomas Buchanan treasurer. In 1868 it was merged with the People's 
Safe Deposit and Savings Institution, and later Levi Blakeslee was executive 
officer. In 1872 receivers took charge of its affairs. 

Rome added to its tinaneial institutions the Oneida County Savings Bank, 
May 1, 1869. Samuel B. Stevens was president until 1884, and has been suc- 
ceeded by Alfred Ethridge, John D. Ely, Harrison Hannahs, Lebbeus 11 El- 
mer, Owen E. Owens, John R. Edwards and Charles W. Lee. The treasurers 
have beeu G. Harrison Lynch, Charles S. Griffin, Cyrus D. Prescott, John R. 
Edwards, Albert W. Tremain and A. Edward Wethei-bee. The bank had Janu- 
ary 1, 1911, 7,457 open accounts, with a.ssets of $2,873,912, and a surplus of 
$124,960. 

In 1875 the title of the Bank of Rome was revived in a new state institu- 
tion with $100,000 capital and W. J. P. Kingsley president. January 14, 1879, 
it passed into the national system as the Farmers National Bank. Mr. Kings- 
ley has been the only president, while Samuel Wardwell, the original cashier, 
was succeeded in 1904 by G. G. Clarabut, who now fills the position. In Oc- 
tober, 1911, the capital was increased to $250,000, its .surplus now being 
$100,000. 

The needs of Boonville for banking facilities were served first two genera- 
tions ago by the Valley Bank of Ela N. Merriam. The Bank of Boonville fol- 
lowed in 1866, and its stockholders organized the First National Bank of Boon- 
ville, January 4, 1876, with $75,000 capital. The presidents have been Joseph 
R. Tharratt, Eugene C. Dodge, and the incumbent, B. C. Tharratt. Clark 
Dodge was cashier in 1876, succeeded by E. C. Dodge, and since 1896 by James 
P. Pitcher. From 1872 to 1906, S. C. Thompson & Company conducted a 
banking business in the village. 

Utica was selected as the headquarters of tlie Commercial Travelers' Asso- 



278 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

oiation incorporated llarch 19, 1883. Henry D. Pixley has been president 
from tlio outset; l<]d\\ard Trevett was the first secretary and treasurer; since 
his dcatii in 1903, George S. Dana has tilled that position. The association has 
gained a leading position in its class. Its members, January 1, 1911, were 66,- 
388. It has a surplus of $618,456, and a cash reserve of $32,203. Its income 
from members in 1910 was $584,591, while the claims paid amounted to $426,960. 

Edward Curran was the first president of the Homestead Aid Association of 
Utica, founded February, 1884. When he died after a service of ten years 
George I). Dimon became his successor. Since January, 1896, the presidency 
has been filled by Watson T. Dunmore. The secretary is Sherwood S. Curran 
and the treasurer Charles B. Rogers. Its receipts for 1910 were $1,213,277, 
with $44,885 cash on hand at the close of its fiscal year, and total assets amount- 
ing to $2,598,315. The members number 5,290, and the reserve fund is $54,716. 

Spring:ing out of the private banking house of A. D. ilather & Co., in busi- 
ness in Utica since 1886, a state bank was established in Utica in 1890, with a 
capital of $200,000. The ofiicers were Joshua Mather, president, and on his 
death Charles W. Mather, with Edward Bushinger cashier. On the death of 
C. W. Mather in 1899 Mr. Bushinger was made executive officer. Januarj- 15, 
1900, Jacob Ague was chosen president. August 3, 1903, the bank was trans- 
formed into the Citizens Trust Company with the same officers. "When Mr. 
Bushinger died in 1906, F. H. Doolittle was chosen secretary, and July 11, 
1906, AVilliam I. Taber succeeded Mr. Ague in the presidency, which he still 
fills. The capital was increased to $300,000 in 1910 to meet the exigencies of 
increasing business. 

For the southeastern jiart of Utica the Corn Hill Building and Loan Associ- 
ation was organized in February, 1891, with about a hundred members. Homer 
C. Townsend was president, William Howarth secretary, and Edward Bush- 
inger treasurer. On the decease of Mr. Townsend George W. Booth was chosen 
to the presidency, but resigned in May, 1902. J. Lewis Jones succeeded to the 
position and is still serving. In 1910, Jlr. Howarth died, and Owen F. Luker 
became secretary, as on the death of the first treasurer in 1906 Charles W. 
Bushinger became his successor. The present members are 680, who hold 9.428 
shares. The dividends have been six to seven per cent. The loans arc $300,340. 
The assets are the same, and the reserve fund $6,702. 

The Utica Trust and Dej>osit company has had one president, James S. 
Sherman, and one secretary and treasurer, J. Francis Day, (now also a vice 
president) since it was incoi-porated August 19, 1899. Its capital at the start 
was $300,000, but was increased in 1910 to $400,000. The company has grown 
to be among the strongest institutions of its class. 

Holland Patent had a state bank organized in 1895, which April 14, 1900, 
was converted into the First National Bank with $30,000 capital, George G. 
Chas-seli president and II. AV. Dinilap cashier. This organization was that of 
the original Bank of Holland Patent and it reinains unchanged. 

The First National Bank of Remsen dates from November 5, 1902. Its cap- 
ital is $25,000, and its president George E. Pritchard, with II. W. Dunlap 
cashier. 

The National Exchange Bank of Boon\nlle was organized January 1, 1906, 





J. .MILTON lU'TI.EK 
B.iiikei' 



S'lAI.IIAM Wll.l.lA.MS 





V. V. ro(;ei;s 

r.ankor 



IIKXKV IlINTlNMiTUX 
B.uiUer 




MONTGOMERY HUNT 
Banker 




ROBERT S. WILIJAMS 
Baiikei' 



HISTORY 01^' ONEIUA COUNTY 



279 



with $25,000 ('apitul. Eugeue N. Hayes is president and TIcrLct-t 1{. Tubbs 
cashier. 

The Utica Fire Insurance Company, a mutual organization, has been in 
business since 1903, has paid $22,87;") in losses, and lias $12,()!)3 assets. The 
first president was William Uowarth, secretary, A. A. Linck, and Jacob Ague 
treasurer. Their successors are George J. Whiffen jiresident, H. A. Ackroyd 
secretai'v and Frederick W. Owens trcasui-er. 

The opinion that Rome cau afford more than two commercial banks, with its 
growing population, led in March, 1911, to the formation of the Rome Trust 
Company, with Albert W. Tremain as treasurer. The capital is made $100,000 
with $50,000 surplus. The banking department refused to authorize this com- 
pany to transact business. 

In both cities and the larger villages private bankers have offered facilities 
to depositors and borrowers. Some of them have been long in business with 
considerable capital, and have served their customers acceptably. They are 
not, however, incorporated institutions. 

Commercial banks and trust companies reported according to their respec- 
tive charters to the State department February 28, 1911, and to the comptroller 
of the currency March 7, 1911, showing these results: 



Capital 

First National Utica $1,000,000 

Oneida National Utica 600,000 

First National Waterville 150,000 

First National Vernon 100,000 

Utica City National 1,000,000 

Farmers National Rome 100,000 

First National Rome 100,000 

Second National Utica 300,000 

First National Camden 50,000 

First National Boouville 75,000 

Utica Trust & Deposit 400,000 

Citizens Trust Utica 300,000 

Exchange National Boouville 25,000 

First National Holland Patent . . . 30,000 

First National Remsen 25,000 



Surplus 


Resources 


$1,406,084 


.$7,086,681 


761,764 


3,461,734 


79,447 


554,903 


44,458 


396,745 


234,973 


3,636,267 


156,412 


1,226,397 


127,665 


1,108,198 


342,833 


2,192,398 


57,884 


444,432 


16,304 


861,773 


515,734 


8,079,742 


263,556 


4,108,375 


22,028 


390,926 


20,346 


319,241 


9,715 


275,770 



CHAPTER XXIII 

PRESS AND PUBLICATIONS 

Five years before Oneida (.■ouuty was cut off from Herkimer county and 
orgauized, the tirst newspaper publislied west of Albany was issued in New 
Hartford. Its name was the Whitcstown Gazette, and its proprietors were 
leading citizens, Jedediah Sanger, Samuel Wells and Elijah Risley, with 
Richard Vosburg printer. The first number bore date July 11, 1793, but it 
lapsed the next winter, and was resumed in May, 1796, by Samuel "Wells, with 
^Yilliam McLean as printer, who soon after became proprietor, and removed 
the ofiSce to Utica in July, 1798, and added to its title, making the name Ga- 
zettean Cato's Patrol. 

January, 1794, a second paper was started by James Swordg of New York 
— the 'Western Sentinel — printed by E. P. Eton in Whitesboro; it survived 
about six years and was discontinued. A copy of the initial edition of the Ga- 
zette hangs framed in the museum of the Oneida Historical Society, and in its 
arcliives .are scattered numbers of the succeeding papers. The beginning can 
thus be traced of the stream of issues from the press, whieli have developed such 
enterprise and influence. 

From 180-1 to 1816, John H. Lathrop, a graduate of Yale, was editor and 
proprietor of the Gazette, with Merrell and Seward, pi'inters, and he changed 
the name to the Utica Patriot. January 1, 1815, Asabel Seward, William H. 
Maj-nard and William Williams started the Patrol, which the next year was 
united with the earlier paper, and the Patriot and Patrol was published by 
them for a year as a semi-weekly, then as a weekly. In 1821, ])y reason of 
political changes, this paper gave way to the Utica Sentinel, with William Wil- 
liams as editor and proprietor. 

Jleanwhile August 17, 1799, Thomas Walker and Ebenezer Eton began in 
Rome the publication of the Columbian Patriotic Gazette and March 21, 1803, 
the paper was removed to Uticia. The next cliange was the sale of the Sentinel 
to Sanmcl I). Dakin and William J. Bacon, who merged it May 6, 1825, with 
Mr. Walker's weekly under the style of the Utica Sentinel and Gazette. After 
throe years r\fr. Bacon retired, and in 1829, Mr. Dakin sold to Northway & Por- 
ter, the printers, but remained as editor until 1831. 

Next followed a series of newspapers, living for brief periods to be merged 
into a common center. In 1830 the A)ncrican Citizen, of which George S. Wil- 
son was the head in its brief career, led the way to the Sentinel and Gazette. 
William Tracy in 1832 made like transfer of the Intelligencer, six years old. 
The Ehiridnlfir followed these examples in 1834; it was bcsmn in 1829 bj' 
Beriah B. Hotchkin for the Anti-Ma.sons, pa.ssed in 1830 to William WiUiams, 

280 



HISTORY OP ONKIDA COUNTY 281 

and then with the others to lliifus Nortlnvay. All llu-sc represented the sev- 
eral elements of the Whig party, and naturally the consolidation was christened 
Oneida Whig, May 20, 18:34. For a i'ew months in 1831 the Co-operalor by 
Quastus Graves preached eo-operation. 

Tlie Democrats were not without an organ alter January 27, 1817, when the 
first number of the Utica Observer appeareil as a weekly. In a couple of years 
as the Oneida Observer it was printed in Rome, but after a few months came 
back to its first home and title. Eliasaph Dorchester was editor and proprietor, 
and was rewarded for his services by appointment as county clerk. lie showed 
skill as an editor, and iis a school teacher has a place in the local annals. Augus- 
tine 6. Dauby, in 1823, a printer in the office, became publisher and editor, 
under the auspices of the partisan leaders, and he won high credit as a writer. 
About September 18, 183-4, a daily issue was put out from the Observer office, 
for campaign purposes. Eli Maynard became his partner in 1826, and after 
a time became proprietor of the paper, while Mr. Dauby was made postmaster 
by President Jackson and served from May, 1829, until May, 1849. After Mr. 
Maynard followed John P. Bush and John F. Kittle, and then Arthur M. 
Beardsley became the editor, whose memory is among the leading writers. 

Copies in the public library prove that in the second year after its first 
charter the infant city had three rival daily i)apers. The first number of the 
Daily Observer was followed by the Oneida Wliig, a sprout of the weekly of 
the same name, which came from the press September 25. It was called out 
in the keen canvass for governor between William H. Seward and William L. 
Marcy, and was like the Observer, a sheet of I81/0 by 24 inches, with four pages 
divided into four colunms each. On September 30 of the same year Robert B. 
Shepard brought out the Morning Post, half the size of the other dailies, and 
offered it for $3 a year or a cent a copy, while the WJug and Observer sold for 
$5 a year each, or two cents a copy. The Post devoted itself to literature and 
news, leaving politics to the Whig. An early death was the fate of all these 
ambitious aspirants for daily existence. 

In 1833 the Oneida Standarel was begun in Waterville and changed its of- 
fice to Utica, where its style was the Standard and Demoerat. In 1835 it 
aroused anger by taking part with the abolitionists and favoring the anti-slavery 
state convention held here, so that its office at Liberty and Seneca streets was 
mobbed. John G. Floyd, noted as representative in Congress, brought out the 
Vtica Demoerat in 1836, which passed through the hands of several publishers 
to DeW^itt C. Grove, who. in 1852, merged it into the Observer, and in 1853 
John B. Miller took the editorial chair. Jlr. Grove was head of the concern 
until 1883, taking in as a partner in 1867 E. Prentiss Bailey, as the firm of 
Grove & Bailey, and later the corporation of E. P. Baile.y & Company took 
control, and Thomas P. Clarke became part owner, ilr. Bailey succeeded ilr. 
Grove as editor with a series of assistants and reporters, of whom in 1911, W^. 
W. Canfield is chief, with Lansing and Prentiss Bailey, sons of the senior. 

After the e.xperiments of Thomas Walker and E. Dorchester, Rome waited 
for a newspaper until 1825, when Lorin Dewey set up the Rome Republican, 
to which a rival Republican and a Telegraph were added after a while, and in 
1838 the title Democratic Sentinel was adopted by R. Walby, with Calvert Cora- 



282 HISTORY OF OXEiDA COUNTY 

stock as editor. In 1843, after changes of managers, the style was simplified to 
Bonu Scntinil. Calvert Comstoek aud Elou Coinstock beeaiue interested with 
A. J. Kowley in 1847, but three years later Mr. Rowley became sole proprietor. 
The first number of the 7^(1/7^/ Scniinil was issued July 15, 1852, by Calvert and 
Elon Comstoek. In 1854 Daniel E. ^Yager and D. C. Rowley bought half of the 
establishment. From 1861 to 1863 Wood & Larwill were the publishers, who 
were sueeeeded by Warren & Beers. From June, 1864, the present owners, 
Franklin B. Beers and Augustus C. Kessinger, date their long and successful 
career. In 1893 they formed a coi'poratiou with Mr. Kessinger as president, 
Jlr. Beers as secretary and treasurer, and Albert R. Kessinger as vice president, 
who for fifteen years has been managing editor. 

Vernon in 1835 started a paper, the Veruon Covrier, which in 1840 was re- 
moved to Rome, and from it arose the Roman Citizen as a Whig paper, then 
Republican, with C. B. Gay as editor and H. N. Bill as proprietor. Of seven 
who in course shared in control before Alfred Sandford became owner in Oc- 
tober, 1854, J. P. Fitch, A. D. Griswold and G. H. Lynch may be mentioned. 
From 1866 to February, 1884, E. E. Carr was associated with Mr. Sandford, 
who then gave way to Ernest F. Byam, and in 1887 Clark Briggs took the place 
of Mr. Carr, when the firm became Byam & Briggs until January 1, 1896, and 
then ilr. Byam retired and Mr. Briggs became sole proprietor. In July, 1899, 
he sold out to A. C. Ross, but in February, 1903, Mr. Briggs was compelled to 
take the paper back. Finding that it was no longer profitable he discontinued 
the publication in April of that year. 

Rome was presented with a third weekly in 1881 by J. J. Guernsey under 
the title of Rome Repuhlican. This was issued tri-weekly in 1895 and since. 
Mr. Guernsey has become (1911) the dean of publishers in his citj-. 

Besides the regular weeklies, keen contests at elections gave birth to docu- 
ments of various sorts and to campaign papers. The most notable marked the 
year 1840, when Richard U. Sherman and William Allen in the Democralic 
Rasp printed by R. W. Roberts advocated the claims of Harrison aud Tyler, 
while the Sledge Hammer struck its blows in behalf of Martin VauBuren. The 
latter was issued from the Observer office, and Luther R. Marsh and Jarvis M. 
Hatch were supposed to be the writers, although no editors were announced. 
These papers were types of the full developments of the partisau controversy 
of the period spiced with personalities. 

Religious publications from an early day had their full share of the field. 
The Christian Monitor and Sunday Morning Repast, issued in Waterville in 
1814. head the list, merged in the Civil and Religious Intelligencer by Joseph 
Tenny, and moved to Utica in 1833. The Christian Magazine was conducted 
by Congregational and Presbyterian ministers in 1814 and 1815. In 1822 the 
Christian Repositnrtf came from the prcs.s of Williaiii Williams under like in- 
fluences. Then was the Western Recorder, wliich began its career with Thomas 
Hastings as editor. After nine years in that post he was called to New York, 
where he won note as a leader and author in church music. 

Revs. E. F. Wiley and Elon Galusha in 1824 set on foot the Baptist Regis- 
tcr, of which Alexander M. Beebe took editorial charge in 1825 and .served until 
his death. Dolphus Bennett and Bennett. Backus & Ilawley were publishers 



HISTORY OV ONEIDA COUNTY 283 

for quite a period, and Edward Bright ac(|uin(l an iiilrrcst, who in is,").') trans- 
ferred tlie publication to New York City. In J82() and the next two years the 
Western Sunday School Visitant appeared. Tiie Universalists in 1827 were 
represented by the Evangdical Magazine, eondueted by Rev. Dolplius Skinner, 
and later by Rev. A. B. Grogh ; the Gospel Advocate, brought hither from Buf- 
falo, was joined to it in 18.'50. The Gospel Messenger, official organ of the Episco- 
palians, which was started in Auburn in 1827, and removed to Utica in 18.30 
under Rev. John C. Rudd. On his death Rev. W. A. IMatson conducted its col- 
umns from 1848 to 1860, and he was succeeded by Rev. W. T. Gibson until 
1872, when the publication was transferred to Syracuse by Bishop Hunting- 
ton. Dr. Gibson in 1873 brought out the Chi(rcli Eclectic, a monthly. 

Besides periodicals the earliest issues from the local press noted are a fourtlJ 
of July oration by Thomas Moore, published at Whitestovvn iu 1797 by Lewis 
& Webb, and next in June, 1803, by Thomas Walker at Utica, a Vindication of 
the Administration of President Jefferson written by Gideon Granger under 
the pen name of Algernon Sidney, and a treatise on Infant Baptism also ap- 
peared in that year. The same year Merrell & Seward began a series of al- 
manacs, and added a spelling book and selections for reading by Noah Webster, 
with three or four religious works, and the Gamut, a book of nnisic. Seward 
& Williams published The Farmer's Calendar for 1808 and fallowing years, and 
issued also several sermons, Divine Songs by Isaac Watts, an edition of Livy, 
Murray's English Reader, a collection of church nuisic entitled Mttsica Sacra, 
Thayer's Geography, the New England Primer and A Wanderer in Switzer- 
land, and the list might be prolonged. 

William Williams became the sole imprint first on the Utica Directory of 
1817. As a boy of 12 years he worked on the first newspaper in the county 
under his brother-in-law McLean. He was connected as editor or publisher with 
three of the branches grafted into that tree, and as partner he had been active 
in setting forward an active book publishing business. He engraved illustra- 
tions first in this part of the country wdiich appeared in 1810 in the New Eng- 
land Primer. Circulating notes issued by the village of Utica in 1815 were 
adorned by his cuts. 

He was chief of the pioneers of the press not only in Oneida county but in 
all this region, and by far the most prolific publisher outside the largest cities, 
and deserves comparison with the foremost of them anywhere. Pleasured by 
the scantiness of the neighboring population and the meager means of distribu- 
tion the products of his press were marvelous in number, variety and import- 
ance. Between 1817 and 1821 they counted no less than 51 books and pamphlets, 
and included the Greek Testament, Morse's Geography and a spelling book in 
the Iroqiiois language. From the latter date to 1838, when he retired from busi- 
ness, he issued as many as 130 publications. Among them were a quarto Bible, 
a Welsh hymn book, four tracts in Chotaw, a Hawaiian grammar, and the 
Douay version of the New Testament, printed at the instance of Nicholas Dev- 
ereux, a prominent Catholic of Utica. Light on Masonry, an octavo of 582 
pages, was a cause as well as an effect of the anti-masonic excitement of 1829. 
An edition of the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, begun in 181-1 in connection with 
a Philadelphia house and running on for twenty years, brought heavy loss, 
and was a large factor in the reverses which clouded his closing years. 



284 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

Other publisluTs were busy in this period. Ira Merrell put out a volume 
of sermons by Benjamin Bell in 1813. The name of Asabel Seward is im- 
printed as early as 1811 and in following years. An Astronomy by M. R. Bart- 
lett was issued by Colwell & Wilson in 1825. Hastings & Merrell and Gardner 
Traey published books. 0. Hutchinson in 1840 and following years, in the in- 
terest of the Universalists, published several volumes, among them A Voice to 
Youth in 1841. Dolphus Bennett and Bennett & Hawley in the same year pub- 
lished an Arillimcfic by Professor George R. Perkins and an Algebra by the 
same author followed in 1845. R. W. Roberts in 1848 brought out an English 
Grammar by Solomon Barrett and Sermons by Seth Williston. 

The Oneida IV/uV; had for editor for some yeai-s Theodore S. Gold, .tnd Feb- 
ruary 4, 1842. a daily was issued from its office, the Ulica Daihj Gazelle, edited 
at first by Richard l'. Sheniian. then for two months by Ezekiel Bacon. 

Alexanilcr Seward l)ecaiii(' a pai'tner with Jlr. Northway Jlay 1, 1843. assum- 
ing the eilitorial chair; with him Dr. II. C. Potter became associated in 1847, 
and later was sole editor, after Mr. Seward was called to conduct the Albany 
Pegish r. The establishment was sold October 12, 1853, to Lyon & Arthur, who 
made both dailj' and weekly democratic organs of the compromise school under 
the editorship of Joseph M. Lyon. In July, 1856, N. D. Jewell became pro- 
prietor with C. J. Radford as editor, and the political leanings were diverted 
to the Native American party. On January 29, 1867, the subscription list was 
bought by Ellis H. Roberts, and the Daily and Weekly Gazette were absorbed 
by the Utica Herald. 

The Oneida Morning Herald was projected to maintain the growing anti- 
slaver}' sentiment, and appeared November 1, 1847, under Roberts & Shernmn, 
with whom Edwin R. Colston was a partner for a few months. Robert W. Rob- 
erts was trained as a printer in the office of William Williams, and succeeded 
that veteran in job printing. Richard U. Sherman had edited the Gazette and 
was active in politics. In 1850 he was elected clerk of the New York Assembly, 
and his vacant chair on the paper fell to Ellis II. Roberts, who, when 'Mr. Sher- 
man withdrew the next year, became proprietor, and soon localized the name to 
Utica Herald. With an interval of two or three months owing to factional strife 
in 1854. ^Ir. Roberts was head of the concern, and the paper led in advocac.y of 
the Republican part.v; in April. 1880, he was appointed by President JIcKinley 
Assistant Treasurer of the United States in New York. He gathered a strong 
staff about him, and the paper gave voice to the intense popular loyalty in the 
period of the war for the Union. In 1872 he formed a corporation and ad- 
mitted as stockholders with himself George L. Roberts and S. N. D. North, under 
the style of Ellis II. Rolierts & Co. In October. lSf)0. the Utica Herald Puhlish- 
ing (,'e/mpany acquired yiossession with Joseph R. Swan as president, F. IT. Winke 
business manager. .Idlm H. f'iimiiiii,'li;iin I'ditnr, and William E. Weed and W. 
n. DeShon among his assistants. The cnmpany next chose Titus Sbeard as 
president, and a receiver took control in a few months. 

The Utica Morning Neivs preceded the Gazette as a dail.y, but was published 
for only almut three months in 1S42 l>y Lynn &• .\rthnr with C. Edward Lester 
as editorial writer. 



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 285 

The Morning Herald i'roin 1847 forward appealed to the eonstitueney of th<'. 
early day in all of Central New York. The (>lis(rvfr licfraii its daily issue A|>rii 
27, 1848, as an al'ternoou paper. 

In 184!) Thomas L. rJaines, afterwards postmaster general, promolrd llir 
Central City Vadel hy Lewis & James, as a temperance advocate. 

The Evening Tclcgrapli was conducted from May 1, 1851, to 18(i;!, hy T. R. 
ilcQuade & Co., with James Mclver as the first editor. F. A. Crandall and 1), 
F. Ritchie were successive managers until the publication ceased in 1875. 

The first number of the Ccnhadwr Americana, idd., an octavo monthly, was 
issued January, 1840, from the office of Robert W. Roberts, by Rev. Robert 
Everett, a Congregational minister, ilr. Everett was the best educated of the 
Welsh preachers who up to that time had nugrated to this region, and wielded 
a wider infiuence with his pen than in the pulpit. He had already in 1839 
published a collection of Welsh hymns for church use printed by Mr. Roberts. 
After two or three years Dr. Everett transferred his magazine to Steuben, where 
he resided, and published there editions of his hymn book and other religious 
works. He kept his press busy there uutil his death in 1875, and it was con- 
tinued by his sou Lewis and his daughter Miss Mary for six years. The Ccn- 
hadwr was bought in 1881 by Rev. Edward Davis, who after awhile took it to 
Waterville. On account of his failing health Hugh Hughes became practically 
the manager, and the magazine was discontinued in 1902. 

The Cyfaill, another Welsh monthly, was begun under the auspices of the 
Calvanistic Methodists in Utica in 1857. Rev. William Rowlands was the editor 
for many years, succeeded by Rev. AVilliam Roberts, and later for a long period 
by T. Solomon Griffiths. In 1811, the editorial mantle passed to Rev. Joseph 
Roberts of New York. 

The Welsh Baptists for two decades gave support from January, 1876, to 
Y Waivr, also a monthly, conducted by Rev. Owen Griffiths, and discontinued 
August, 1896. 

The physicians of the Utica State Hospital started in 1844 the American 
Journal of Insanity, an octavo quarterly, in which contributions by Dr. Amaziah 
Brigham, Dr. John P. Gray and other alienist experts have for two generations 
commanded the attention of the profession. The Opal was also issued from the 
same institution for the patients from 1852 to 1857. 

Y Drych, Welsh weekly, is the consolidation of four papers from several 
quarters. Started under tliat name in New York in 1851 by J. M. Jones, from 
1854 it was conducted by J. W. Jones, and was brought to Utica in 1860, where 
it was soon bought by J. ^Mather Jones. In 1860 John C. Roberts was charged 
with the management, and in 1874 by purchase Thomas J. Griffiths assumed the 
responsibilities of proprietor. 

In the meanwhile Y Gwylirdydd, edited by Lewis Jones for a company 
headed by William M. Owen and printed by R. W. Roberts ran its career at the 
middle of the century and gave up the field. Mr. Griffiths in 1877 brought 
hither the Baner America from Seranton ; in 1890 Y Wasg from Pittsburg, and 
in 1894 the Columbia from Chicago. 

The circulation of Y Drych extends to many states, and now (1911) continues 
with Thomas J. Griffiths as proprietor and John C. Roberts as editor. Jlr. 



286 HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 

Griffiths also publishes since 1886 the Cambrian, which was started in Cincin- 
nati in 1880 in English, but ai)poaliug to the Welsh people. 

October 22, 1877, to promote the partisan interests of Roscoe Conkling, Lewis 
Lawrence proinotod the Iicpuhlican, a daily paper, with Dennis T. Kelly as 
publisher. Of its editors John F. i\liues was the best known. The last number 
appeared February 4, 1879. 

In 1846 Clinton had its first paper, the Sif/nal, of which the initial number 
was dated July 10. L. AV. Payne was publisher. After two years the title 
was changed lo the Radiator, and the publication stopped in 1852. The Oneida 
Chief soon took its place under L. "W. Payne and Ira D. Browm. In 1856 Fran- 
cis E. ;Merritt became proprietor, who the next year sold out to Glen H. Osborne, 
who named it Chief and Courier, and in 1859 M. D. Raymond became proprie- 
tor, and so continued until 1875, when J. B. Sykes bought the property, styled 
the paper Clinton Courier, and J. B. and H. B. Sykes have beeu publishers for 
a quarter of a century. In 1899 the Clinton Advertiser entered the iield in 
charge of II. Piatt Osborne, and it was merged with the Courier in ]\rarch, 
1911. J. B. Sykes has retired, and H. B. Sykes is now the publisher. 

The genesis of Boonville's papers dates from March, 1852, when James H. 
Norton started the Boonville Ledger and soon sold it to E. Kent. L. C. Cliilds 
& Company bought the office in 1855, and rechristened the paper Black River 
Herald. In 1862 H. P. Willard assumed control as editor and publisher. On 
his death his sons took up the work, and since 1891 Garrj' A. "Willard has con- 
ducted the paper, localized as the Boonville Herald, and advocating the Repub- 
lican cause. 

As a Democratic weekly in 1892 C. J. Donnelly brought out the Boonville 
Record, which in 1895 he transferred to H. H. Griffith and I. G. Sawyer, who 
continue the publication. 

The record of papers in Camden is extensive for a village of its size. The 
Camden- Gazette by E. C. Hatton appeared in 1842, who passed it over to E. 
M. Higbie, under whom it died. Ira D. Brown in 1852 kindled the Northern 
Light, and after half a year passed it on to I\Ierritt & Stone. The Camden 
Courier by E. O'Farrell followed in 1853, which after a short life left the field 
to the Camden Freeman by Wesley Henderson, which suspended in 1863. The 
Journal under Jairus II. Munger from 1864 to 1878 was a notable publication. 
In 1885 W. C. Stone, who had foimded the Advance in 1873, merged the Jour- 
nal with its rival under the title of the Advance Journal, and it continues, a 
credit to the town and the publisher. 

Besides the earliest publications which, as has been mentioned in this chap- 
ter, were transplanted to other soil, Watcrville had the Advertiser in 1851. the 
Journal started in 1855 and stopped the next year, and in 1857 ]\IcKibbin & 
Wilkinson established the Watcrville Titnrs. J. H. Yale followed tbcm in 1860, 
and R. S. Ballard in 1866. James J. Guernse.v was proprietor from 1870 to 
1881, and Frank J. Cutter, for a year as partner of W. L. Histed and then 
alone, ronduftcd the paper until 1887. W. S. Hawkins in that year added the 
Reflex, whicii liad been run three years by Loftus and Bariium, and has given 
the Tiine.i character and influoucp up tn this da.v. He also is.sues a poultr.v 
paper. 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 287 

After the Vernon Courier was transformed into the Roman Citizen, the next 
paper in the former village was the Central New York Journal, projeirted in 
1851 by John li. llowlett, who gave it the name of the Vcrnuii Tranxcript in 
1855. Forty years later Rev. H. A. Howard brought out in December, 1895, 
a monthly called the Search Light, and a dozen numbers were printed. In 
May, 18!)6, Curry & Murphy started the Vernon Times, which appeared for 
some years. 

OrLskany Falls has had a local weekly, the News, for forty-two years, since 
May, 1S69. W. E. Phillips is editor and publisher. 

Notable publications in Utiea before 1850 were the Friend of Man, by Wil- 
liam Goodell, radical abolitionist, and the Liberty Press, by Wesley Bailey, 
which gave way to the Teetotaler. For awhile about the same time the Vti- 
carian by Squires & Soliss attracted local notice. 

In the same era 0. B. Pierce issued the Rome Vigilant, and N. D. Jewell the 
American Courier in Utica. About 1855 appeared the New York Farmer in 
Rome by Wager & Rowley, and the Northern Farmer in Utica by T. B. Miner, 
and the Rural American in Clinton also by T. B. Miner, which in 1887 he took 
away to New Brunswick, N. J. 

Hamilton College during all its history has allied itself closely to the print- 
ing press. The anniversary addresses and reports of notable occasions have 
been presented in pamphlets often of many pages and of especial value. Pro- 
fessor Henry Mandeville's book on Reading and Oratory, half a century ago 
when it came from the press of Rufus Northway, made a deep impression and 
has inspired all the classes to excellence in elocution. 

The German speaking population in 1853 felt the need of a paper using 
their own language, and a stock company was organized to print the Central 
New York Democrat, with Dr. Soden as editor. Two years later Paul Reiser 
became proprietor, and rechristened it the Oneida Democrat. John C. Schreiber 
took editorial charge in 1860, and became proprietor in 1865, adding Utica 
Deutche Zcitung to the title. In 1891 the control passed to a stock company 
with John C. Fulmer treasurer and Mr. Schreiber president, who remained 
editor until his death in 1910. He was followed in that capacity by Otto Poepel. 
The president of the company is Jacob Agne. After two decades of labor in 
that capacity Mr. Fulmer resigned as treasurer in March, 1911, and Richard 
Metzler was chosen his successor. 

The Utica Volkshlatt was conducted as a Republican German weekly by 
Henry Kruerapel from 1887 for about ten years. 

Bare mention can be made of issues about 1847, of the Central Washingtonian 
Neivs by Baker & Sanford in Utica; the Christian Contributor by Rev. C. P. 
Grosvenor, and the Gomerian Sun by Evan E. Roberts. To this list may be 
added about 1857 the Central Independent by G. W. Bungay and Ansel K. 
Bailey, which Mr. Bungay removed to Ilion. The paper was later merged 
with the Utica Weekly Herald. In 1868 the Temperance Patriot was started 
by William M. Ireland; somewhat earlier was the Model Worker by Samuel 
W. Green. Later the Women's Christian Association produced the Christian 
Worker. 

In 1870 Thomas F. Baker and Benjamin L. Douglas found the field of daily 



288 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

newspapers in Utica tempting and added to it the Utica Bee, an afternoon issue. 
Their experience did not satisfy them, and they passed it over to Seth Wilbur 
Paiuo the next year and he dropped it. Another short lived daily was the 
Viica Union, of which the tirst number came out October 12, 1895, started by a 
company of printers and sold for one cent. Andrew Keincr was president and 
then C. N. Gall'ney, with E. L. jMainwaring manager. 

The Sunday Tribune owes its origin to Thomas F. Baker and Dennis T. 
Kelly, who founded it in Slay, 1877; they transferred it to H. E. Devendorf 
in 1S83. He was followed by Patrick E. Kelly, who sold the establishment in 
December, 1895, to Jacob Ague and .loim C. Fulmer. They acted for the Utica 
Sunday Tribune company, which was incorporated January 31. 1896, and Jacob 
Ague was chosen president and John C. Fulmer secretary and treasurer, who 
both continue to serve as such. The Sunday Journal entered into competition 
in October, 1S94. and was bought aud absorbed by the Tribune company March 
4, 1907. 

The same corporation established the Evening Dispatch December 22, 1898, 
and bought the Morning Herald property i\Iarch 6. 18!)0. The latter paper was 
printed until March 28, but fi'om March 16 the morning and evening editions 
were styled Utica Herald-Dispatch. From the Herald a number of men were 
recruited, including "William E. AVeed managing editor, "William II. DeShon 
leading assistant, and F. H. "Wienke secretary. As an evening journal the con- 
solidated paper has gained a wide circulation and notable prosperity, as the 
lineal descendant of the original newspaper in the coiinty. 

William T. and Thomas F. Baker founded the Saturday Globe May 11, 
1881, and have conducted it vdth pictures as a marked feature, with conspicuous 
success. Thomas F. Baker has been from the first editor-in-chief with A. M. 
Dickinson as managing editor and a corps of assistants. The Globe made for 
itself a special field and for thirty years has filled it acceptably to its very 
large clientage. 

The Utica Daily Press was issued ^larcli 13, 1882, by a combination of 
striking printers, who gave way the next year to a new corporation. F. A. 
Eastman was editor for about two years. In February, 1885, George E. Dun- 
ham was made president and Otto A. Meyer secretary and treasurer, with F. 
W. Beusberg at the head of the printing rooms. Mr. Bensberg retired after 
a service of two decades, and jMr. Meyer in February, 1911, when the officers 
were George E. Dunham, president and editor, aud William V. Jones secretary, 
with Hugh Hughes as managing editor. The Press fills well its sphere as the 
only morning journal in the county. 

JIany trade journals go forth from our cities and villages. Several churches 
have regular bulletins printed, while school and business catalogs are numerous. 
The publications of the Oneida Historical society have permanent value. Since 
1894, with several changes of managers, the Advocate in Utica has stood every 
week for organized labor. 

The intelligence and a.spirations of the Italian community has found ex- 
pre.s,sion in well conducted weeklies within the last decade, while the Spiritual 
Hammer .since 1910 addres,ses our Polish residents. La Lure among the Italians 
s^^^•ives competitors. The Polish Eagle has folded it.s wings. 



HISTORY OF ONKIDA COUNTY 289 

In Reiusen the News, as a weekly, records the events of that hiisy village. 

From the press of the Morning Herald several books weie jjuhlislied; a 
Welsh Concordance by Rev. T. T. Evans and Presbyterianisiii in Central New 
York by Rev. P. H. Fowler were among the earliest. Curtis & Cldlds had 
their imprint on a Genealogy of the Childs Family, Ur. liagg's Pioneers of 
Utiea and other books. Their successors, L. C. Childs & Son, also belong to 
the guild of publishers. Thomas J. Criffiths has published many volumes, 
while George W. Browning of Clinton deserves mention among local publish- 
ers. Perhaps other names in Rome and the villages belong in this record. 

Lack of space alone prevents the recital of a score or more of papers of 
various classes which have strown the way in all the years, of which since 1887 
a score or more have fallen from sight leaving hardly a sign. 

The joy of opening the local mine was taken by Pomroy Jones, whose 
Annals of Oneida County issued in 1851, shows the rich ore. The Pioneers 
of Utica by Dr. M. M. Bagg published in 1877 and in an enlarged edition in 
1892 is a careful, scholarly tribute of local pride. An illustrated quarto His- 
tory of Oneida County edited by Samuel W. Durant bears the date of 1878. 
In 1896 Daniel E. Wager presented the result of long and painstaking research 
in Our County and Its People, a royal octavo with portraits. 

The newspapers of the county have always represented the best thoughts 
and activities of the people and have enlisted some of the most able and best 
educated of its citizens. In every period the weeklies and the dailies have 
ranked mth the most enterprising and influential in the country. In the 
printed word not only, but in public service the editors of Oneida county have 
proved their title to rank with the leaders of men. They have put worthy effort 
into their current work and the managers have used the shrewdest devices in 
production and distribution. In the early days they extended mail routes and 
employed their own postriders for daily delivery. They helped to organize 
fhe Associated Press. From the local staff managers and writers have been 
recruited for journals elsewhere. From the case and the editorial rooms have 
been summoned chiefs in national departments, representatives in the legis- 
lature and in Congress, presidents of banks, administrative officers, mayors of 
cities, postmasters, members of commissions and professors in colleges. Authors 
of books are numbered among the publishers, and the productions of the press 
are not the least honorable or beneficial of the contributions of Oneida county 
to the state and the nation. 

Ellis H. Roberts was born in Utica, N. Y., September 30. 1827. Plis parents 
were natives of north Wales and came to the United States, the father in 1816, 
and the mother in 1817, and they located in Utica. The father died when the 
son was four years old. The lad was trained as a printer. After attending 
Whitestown seminary for three terms he entered Yale College as a sophomore, 
working at his trade during vacations. In college he took prizes for English 
composition, was elected by his classmates first editor of the Yale Literary 
Magazine, and was? accorded the second highest honor of the class when he 
was graduated in 1850, after winning the Bristed scholarship. He was for 



290 HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 

awhile priueipal ol' the Utica Free aeadcmy, aud a teaelier of Latin in the 
I'tiea Female seininaiy. 

In 1851 he devoted himself to newspaper work, becoming editor of the Utiea 
Morning Herald, and, except for a brief period in 1854, continued his relation 
to that paper as editor and chief proprietor until 189i). The paper diiring 
the Civil "War period attracted much attention. 

Mr. Roberts was elected as a Republican to the New York assembly from 
the Second Oneida district in 1866, and was assigned to the committee of waj's 
and means, as well as to others. 

In 1870 he was elected to the national house of representatives from the 
Oneida district, aud re-elected in 1872, but was carried down by the Demo- 
cratic tidal wave in 1874. 

In Congress, Speaker Blaine accorded to him a distinction rare to a new 
member, — of a position on the ways and means committee. He gave mucli 
attention to financial measures, advocating the policy of the resumption of 
specie payment, the funding of the national debt by interest continually de- 
creasing, the redemption of bonds, and the reduction of war taxes, emphasizing 
his advocacy of protection to American industries. 

Among his addresses in the house of representatives were those on "Pro- 
tection to the Citizen," "Assaults on the National Credit," "The Revenue 
jmd American Labor," "Colorado as a State," "The Treasury and the Taxes," 
and "The Revenue and the Sinking Fund." 

During his service Mr. Roberts was a member of a sub-committee of ways 
and means which investigated certain matters in the treasury department, and 
led to the change of the secretary and an assistant secretary. He introduced 
the bill for the repeal of the moiety laws, and was chairman of a sub-conunit- 
tee of the ways and means to report it. The moiety system had prevailed since 
the foundation of the government, and gave large profits to many officials, and 
they and their friends naturally clung to the policy. The bill became a law 
June 22. 1874. 

In 1864 and in 1868 ^Ir. Roberts was a delegate to the Republican national 
convention. 

The degree of doctor of laws was conferred upon him 1\\- IlMiiiilton College 
in 1869, and by Yale College in 1884. 

President Harrison appointed Mr. Roberts assistant treasurer of the United 
States at New York on April 1, 1889. At their own request, twenty prominent 
citizens of Utica became his sureties, ([iialifying for .$800,000. He served in 
that position during the administration of President Harrison, and upon his 
retirement Secretary Carlisle wrote to him : "The department appreciates fully 
and commends the admirable manner in wliidi the affairs of the office have been 
conducted during your incumbency." 

In 1893, Mr. Roberts became president of tlie Franklin National hank of 
New York, and continued to serve in that capacity until he was appointed 
treasurer of the United States by President JIcKinley in 1897. 

In 1868 and again in 1873 Mr. Roberts traveled extensively in Europe, and 
gave the results of his ol)servations in a series of letters to his newspaper which 
were entitled, "To Greece and Bevond. " 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 291 

On tlic iKiiiiiiLMtidu of till' trustees of Cofncll I 'nivi-i'sit y in l"'rlii-u:ii-y ol' 1844, 
l\Ir. Kolici'ts (l('li\('r('(l ii scries ol' ten loclurcs brlore the two U|ii)i'r classes ill 
that uuivei'sity upon the protective i)o!icy ami tlie lofiical gi'ounds iii)oii wliidi 
it rests. A part of the same course, on the in\ italion of the authorities of llainil- 
ton CoUege, was rej)eateil there. 

Tlie lectures delivered at Cornell I'nivcrsity and Hamilton Collcfie were the 
basis of a volume published by Iloufihlon, i\liriliri ifc Coiiip;niy in issi. entitled 
"Government Revenue, L]s])ecially the American System." 

lie delivered addresses at Union College on "The Tariff Justified by Po- 
litical Economy," and at Syracuse University on "The Currency Problem." He 
has also addressed the Bankers' associations of ;\Iarylaiul, Virginia, the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, Georgia, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana 
on various financial topics; also on the invitation of the American Bankers' 
association, he has delivered addresses before that body at its annual session 
in Richmond, San Francisco and New York. 

In the American Commonwealth series Houghton, Mifflin & Company have 
published two volumes written by him, and entitled "The Planting and Growth 
of the Empire State." Included in addresses published by the state of New 
York on Centennial celebrations, are an address on the Battle of Oriskany, and 
on the Sullivan campaign in the interior and southern part of New York state. 

He served as treasurer of the United State under Presidents ^IcKinle}* and 
Roosevelt until July 1, 1905, when he resigned. He has since devoted him- 
self to study and literary work, has delivered addresses before the Oneida His- 
torical society, the Herkimer Count.y Historical society, the Utica Free academy, 
the Men's clubs of various churches, and before different associations and 
chapters, and his pen has been busy for magazines and journals and other- 
wise. His home is in his native town. 

Mr. Roberts has served as president of the Fort Schuyler club, the Oneida 
Historical society at Utica, of the Patria club, the St. David's society, and 
the Phi Beta Kappa Alumni association, New York ; as president of the Yale 
Alumni association of Washington, and of the Washington Economic society, 
and the Men's society of the Church of the Covenant. He is a member of the 
Cosmos club and the University club of Washington, the Archaelogical society 
of that city, and of the National Geographical society. In January, 1905, he 
was appointed by the president a member of the commission for the annual ex- 
amination of the mint. 

He was married June 21, 1851, to Elizabeth .Morris of Utica, New York, 
who died July 20, 1903. 

The potential influence of Ellis H. Roberts, editor of the Utica Herald, a 
paper of large circulation in northern and central New York, proved of great 
assistance to Conkling. Roberts was of Welsh origin, a scholar in politics, strong 
with the pen, and conspicuously prominent in the discussion of economic issues. 
When in Congress (1871-75) he served upon the ways and means committee. 
In 1867 his friends sent him to the assembly especially to promote the election 
of Utica 's favorite son, and in his sincere, earnest efforts he very nearly con- 
solidated the Republican press of the state in Conkling 's behalf. During the 
week's fierce contest at Albany he marshalled his forces with rare skill, not for- 
getting that vigilance brings victory. 



•292 HISTORY OF OXEiUA COUNTY 

After the elevation of Roscoe Coukling to the United States senate, Mr. 
Roberts became a candidate for the office of representative in Congress. The 
opposing candidate was Alexander H. Bailey of Rome. Mr. Conkling desired 
the election of Roberts, but as Bailey was also a friend of Conkling, the senator 
refused to use his power to elect i\lr. Roberts, and ^Ir. Bailey was nominated 
and elected. This ofTended IMr. Roberts, but afterward the differences of the 
two were somewhat ameliorated, and ilr. Roberts succeeded Bailey in Congress. 
In 1874 the candidate against ^Ir. Roberts was Scott Lord, the i)artner of Jlr. 
Conkling. At this time Conkling and Roberts were at swords points politically, 
because of .iealousies and offenses which each charged against the other Conk- 
ling and his friends supported Lord, and Mr. Roberts was defeated. The dif- 
ferences of these two prominent men was a great detriment to the state, and 
particularly to Oneida coiuity, and it has always seemed to their friends that 
thcie difl'erences should have been adjusted, that the public might have reaped 
the benefit of their valuable services. 

RiCHAKD U. Shermax was born in X'ernou. Oneida county, N. Y., in 1819. 
He was the son of Willit H. Sherman and Catherine Schoolcraft, who was a 
daughter of Lawrence Schoolcraft. He was educated at the common school, 
and graduated from the Utica Free academj- in his fourteenth year. He was 
trained for a merchant, but he had a taste for politics, and soon became in- 
terested in the famous campaign between Harrison and Van Buren. He con- 
ducted a paper in Utica during that campaign, and was editor of the Utica 
Gazette. In 1844 he conducted the Herkimer Journal, and in 1846 was editor 
of the Oswego Daily Times. In 1847, in company with Erastus Clark, he es- 
tablished the Daily Evening Gazette at Rochester. This was the only daily 
paper in the state of New York that supported General Zaehary Taylor for 
president. In the fall of the same year he returned to Utica, and in connection 
with Robert AY. Roberts he establisiied the I'tica r^Iorning Tlrrald. and was 
editor of that paper. In 1851 he was elected clerk of the assembly, which posi- 
tion he held until 1857, except for one year, when his party was in a minority 
ill tlie house. He was member of assembly in 1857. He was the author 
of tlie Clerk's JIanual, wiiich has ever since been an authority in 
the legislature at Albany. In 1856, when the assembly was about 
evenlj- divided l)etween Republicans, Democrats and Americans, there 
were several weeks' contest over the speakership, and it fell to Jlr. Sher- 
man's lot to preside (luring tluit time, and in a bitter light of this description 
his remarkable ability as a ju'csiding officer was made evident to every one. He 
had presided so satisfactorily that he was elected clerk, although his party had 
les.s than one-third of the votes in the house. In 1860 he was made assistant 
clerk in the house of iTprcsentativcs, and for ten years held that position at 
Washington, but resigned in 1870 to take charge of large estates as executor, 
administrator or trustee. lie had a political controversy with Senator Roscoe 
Conkling, and they became estranged. He was a great admirer and friend of 
Horace Greelej', editor of the New York Tribune, followed Greeley into the 
Liberal-Rcpublifnu movement, was nominated for representative in Congress 
in 1872, but was defeated by Ellis II. Roberts, the Republican candidate. In 
1874 he was elected to the assembly. He was candidate for speaker of the as- 





lUCIlAKI) U. SHKKMAN 
Editor 



K. PltKXTISS r.AILEY 
Editor 



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Ki.i.is 11. i;<)i:r:i;Ts 
Editor 



DEWITT C. (;i!()VE 
Eilitor 



IIISTOKA" OF ONKIDA COUNTY 293 

seml)ly, and would liavc hccti elected excej)! for the i'aet, that Francis Kernan 
was caudidate Tor United States senator, and it was thought nnvvise to press 
him for speaker as against Mr. Kernan 's ciianees for United States senator, 
and he, therefore, withdrew from tlie contest, lie was re-elected to the assembly 
in 1875, and was the unanimous choice of his party, which was in the minority, 
for speaker. lie served on iinportant committees, and was the leader upon 
the Democratic side. lie was appointed state fish commissioner to succeed 
Governor Horatio Seymour in 187!), and served until 1890. In this capacity 
he rendered the state great service in restocking the lakes of the Adirondack 
region with desirable fish, and protecting the forests from depredations by un- 
scrupulous luiidier dealers and others. He was piesident of the N(!w Hartford 
Canning Company, Ltd., and director in several other important industries; 
was trustee and president of the hoard of directors of the Butler Memorial hall 
in the village of New Hartford, several times president of the village, a promi- 
nent mason, and a member of several clubs and social organizations. He rep- 
resented the fourth ward of Utiea in the board of supervisors for several years, 
and was chairman of that body in 1854. 

While he filled the editorial chair of the Utica Herald his editorials ranked 
among those of the best writers in the entire country. As a sample of his 
editorial work we will quote from the first editorial he wrote, which appeared 
in the Utica Morning Herald November 1, 18-47, while he was yet a very young 
man: "To the public: We shall be the engine of no clique — the organ of no 
faction. Our aim is to promote the unity of the Whig party, to maintain its 
integrity, to disseminate and extend its principles, and contribute to the extent 
of our humble means towards its success, and the perpetuation of its policy of 
government. * * * Upon all questions which are foreign to the objects had 
in view in the establishment of this sheet, and which may threaten to distract 
and divide the Whig party and prevent its harmonious and vigorous action the 
Herald will, as in duty bound, avoid participation. To agitate and embitter 
the public mind with injudicious excitement and recrimination is not our pur- 
pose. We shall, therefore, endeavor to abstain from acts which are liable to 
produce such consequences. We believe that differences in sentiment, habits 
and employments, can be more easily harmonized or tolerated, where parties 
differing entertain mutual kindness, than where uncompromising hatred is the 
rule of action. With this exposition of our intentions, we submit ourselves to 
^he favor of the public, from whom we have already shared liberally, and a 
pledge of our individual and associated effort in promoting the welfare of our 
fellow citizens." 

Mr. Sherman died February 21, 1895, at New Hartford. January i:], 1845, 
he married ilary F. Sherman, a very distant relative, and they have had six chil- 
dren : Richard W., a civil engineer and twice mayor of the city of Utica ; Stal- 
ham W., who died in 1894 ; Jlary Louise, wife of Henry J. Cookinham of Utica ; 
James S., vice president of the United States ; Sanford F., president of the New 
Hartford Canning Company; Willet H., who died at New Hartford in 1868, 
aged about six years. 

Dewitt Clinton Grove was born in Utica, December 16, 1825. He was of 
English descent, and his father was a soldier in the war of the Revolution. On 



294 HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY 

his iiiothor's side ho was German. Mr. Grove received a limited education, and 
left school at the age of ten years. He was, however, a student, and became 
quite proficient in Latin, Greek and Hebrew. In recognition of his acquirements 
JIadison University (now Colgate University) in 1861 conferred upon him the 
degree of master of arts. At the age of 13 he became a printer, and, except for 
a few months in 1844 when he studied law, he followed the business of a printer 
and jniblisher all his life. In February, 1846, he became one of the proprietors 
and editors of the Utica Democrat, the organ of the branch of the Democratic 
party known as the "■liariiburners, " or the radical faction of that part}'. He 
became quite prominent in jiolitics before he was a voter. In 1852 Franklin 
Pierce was elected president, and the two wings of the Democratic party became 
harmonious in central New York. The two Democratic papers in Utica were 
consolidated in 1853. ^Ir. Grove becoming the chief proprietor of the Daily Ob- 
server, then the leading Democratic paper in central New York. In January, 
1867, he formed a partnership with E. Pi'entiss Bailey, who had long been his 
associate on the paper. In 1873 the partnership was changed to a corporation, 
the members of the corporation being Mr. Grove, Mr. Bailej^, and Theodore P. 
(.^ook. From 1857 to 1860 Mr. Grove was alderman; in 1860 was nominated 
and elected mayor, and was re-elected twice afterward. In the fall of 1860 he 
was the Democratic candidate for representative in Congress against Roscoe 
Conkling, but the district was republican and Mr. Conkling was elected. 
It is related of ^Ir. Grove that while he was maj'or the Abolitionists appointed 
a convention to be held in Utica, and that a mob had threatened to break it up. 
Although Jlr. Grove was a Democrat and opposed to the Abolitionists, yet he 
notified them that they would be protected in their meeting, and personall.v 
conducted the speakers to a place of safety to save them from a hostile demon- 
stration. He took ground with the Union on the breaking out of the Civil AVar, 
and presided at the first large patriotic meeting in Utica, at which such great 
statesmen as Roscoe Conkling, Francis Kernan and Hiram Denio took a prom- 
inent part. About 1883 his health failed, and he retired from the active man- 
agement of the newspaper, going to New York to be with his son and daughter. 
His health did not improve, and on March 17, 1884, he died in New York City. 
His funeral occurred in Utica, and he was buried in Forest Hill cemetery. Mr. 
Grove married Caroline L. Pratt and had two children, EdA^nn B. and Mrs. 
Frank ^I. Gregory, both of whom are dead, and there remains no one who 
bears the name at the present time. 

ELi.j.\n Prentiss Bailey was born in the town of ^lanlius. near Fayette- 
ville, Onondaga county. N. Y.. August 15. 1834, the eldest son of the Rev. "Wes- 
ley and Eunice (Kinne) Bailey. He inherited an inclination toward news- 
paper work, for his father, although a Methodist minister, devoted the greater 
part of liis life to newspaper work. In 1842 the Rev. ;Mr. Bailey removed with 
his family to Utica, where, at the request and with the support of Alvan Stewart 
and other prominent Abolitionists, he founded nn Abolition paper known as 
the Liberty Press. 

E. Prentiss Bailey's early education was received in a private school and 
in Hyde's Academy in Fayettcville : and after tlie family removed to Utica he 
attended the Advanced School and Barret's Latin Grammar School. At the 



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY 295 

age o\' 12 he loft school and ciilcrcd liis I'atlier's office, tliere to learn the trade 
of printer, lie remained in the olliee of the Liherty Press until lH7):i, when 
DeWitt C. Grove, then the publisher of the Utica Daily Observer, offered him 
an opi)ortunity in that office. At that time John B. Miller was editor of the 
paper. Mr. Hailey was reporter, telegraph editor and all 'round journalist in 
this office until in 1857 I\lr. Miller was appointed by President Buchanan, United 
States consul at llanil)urg. Mr. Bailey then assumed the duties that Mr. Miller 
had relinquished ; and, a singuhir comparison between the newspaper of that 
day and the ])uh]ication of to-day is offered in tlie fact that for a term of years 
he was practically the only man doing any of the strictly journalistic work on 
The Observer. 

In 1867 lie purciiased an interest in the paper, and the firm of Grove & 
Bailey was formed — a relationship that continued for thirty years, lacking 
three months. In that same year he became the managing editof of the paper; 
and since 1883 has been the editor-in-chief. In 1883 the corporate name of the 
firm was changed to E. P. Bailey & Co., as it still remains. 

Since that day in 1846 when he entered his father's office to learn the print- 
er's trade to the present time ilr. Bailey's interests and activities liave been 
centered in the newspaper business; and he is to-day regarded as the dean of 
the profession. It is not probable that there is any other man in the country 
who has had so long a connection with one newspaper as Mr. Bailey has con- 
tinued with The Observer. Under his guidance it has come to be a recognized 
power among the Independent Democratic papers not only of the state, but of 
the country, and to his personality this is cliiefly due. On the 9th of October, 
1903, the employes of The Observer signalized the arrival of Mr. Bailey's fiftieth 
anniversary in the office by tlie presentation of a loving cup, tlie presentation 
speech being made by Isaac Ryals, pressman, whose term of service in the office 
somewhat exceeded that of Mr. Bailey himself. It is a point not impertinent 
to the subject of this sketch, as a commentary on the manner in which he, as 
editor and chief owner, has conducted the constantly growing business of the 
concern, that tliere is probably to be found nowhere in tlie city an office or 
factory where there are to-day so large a proportion of employes who can point 
back to ten, twenty, thirty, forty or fifty years of service as may be found in 
The Observer office. To the credit of Mr. Bailey's management it can be said 
that he has not bowed to any demand for cheap, corrupt or questionable pub- 
lications. His constant endeavor is to hold full high the standard of clean 
journalism, and to present to the public a newspaper wortliy to be read around 
any fireside. As an editorial writer, in certain lines, Mr. Bailey has few equals 
in the country, and, perhaps, no superiors. 

Mr. Bailey was twice elected school commissioner of Utica; and in 1887 
President Cleveland, long his warm personal friend, appointed him postmaster 
of Utica. He served is this capacity four years, about half of the term being 
under President Harrison and Postmaster General Wanamaker. When Gov- 
ernor Roswell P. Flower reorganized the State Civil Service Commission he 
appointed Mr. Bailey a member. He was president of the board until his res- 
ignation, December 31, 1895. In March of 1896 he was again appointed post- 
master In' President Cleveland. 



296 lliyTORY OF ONTOIDA l- INTY 

He was early idontiliod witli that great news-gathering organization, the 
Associated Press, and was the president of the New York x\.ssociated Press from 
1887 to 1891 ; and for many years was a member of its executive committee. 
About the year 1860 he became a member of the Utica Jlechanics' Association, 
and was for seven years its president. He has been a member of the Masonic 
fraternity for about 45 years, is a charter member of Faxton Lodge P. & A. 
M., and is also a member of Yah-nun-dah-sis Lodge, A. & A. S. Rite. He was 
one of the incorporators and original managers of the Utica Homeopathic Hos- 
pital. 

Mr. Bailey has been twice married. On September 28, 1857, he married Miss 
Julia S. Wetherby of DeTVitt, Onondaga county, who died July 9, 1860, lea\'ing 
one daughter, now Mrs. Edward Hyde Wells of Albany. He married, second, 
Miss Hannah Chapman of Utica, June 24, 1868, who died July 17, 1907. Of 
this marriage there were born four children — Lansing Chapman, August 12, 
1869; Clinton Grove, July 24, 1871, (died July 21, 1872) ; Prentiss, October 19, 
1873, and Bessie Carlton, December 20, 1875. 



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