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Ontario County, New York 
and Its People 





Lewis Historical Publishing Co. 

New York 





R 1912 L 


Lewis Historical Publishing Company 


Times Presses, Caiiandaigua. New York. 


\\ licllicr llnon^h sonic fnrlnilous hut hcm-firi-iit ci nnhination 
of soil aiid walci' aiid climate, or on account of an adx'antaj^^e of 
location, or in tni'l licrancc of a l)i\inc plan, the people who liave 
jxissessed W estcrn New ^ Ork ha\e had a larj^'c and important 
inllucncc on the conntr\- as a whok'. This was tiau- when 
Lohnnbns discoxcrcd tiie continer.t, and a handful of lro(|uois 
sa\ai;"es domin.'ited the whole \a>t wildei"ness. it wa> true 
durm^- the ihi'ce centuries that followed when not c\en the 
'•alor of the hfench at the .\oi"lh, the enterprise of the l)uicli 
at New \ oi'k, or the chixalry of the Spaniards at the South. 
wUh swoid, or cross, or coin. C(;uld make jirogress toward the 
coiKjuest of the cox'eted land. it was trui' when at last Xew 
I'-n<>iand sol(lier\-. oneninL!' the wa\' for Xew Pjisjland thrift and Xew 
Kno-land cultuie. broke the ])roud spirit of the indian confederac}'. 
and w hen Xew I^n^iand from its new \-antai;"e orround in the Genesee 
<'()uiUry diffused its tongue, its ])olitical ])rinciplcs. and its religious 
faith to the uttermost ])arts of the land, it is true today, even 
it w hat some of the Xew ^ Ork ])apers used to call the "Canandaigua 
rule" in politics is broken, wlien a W estern Xew \'ork Congressman 
makes tlie tariff law for the coutitry. when the State governs its 
elections and controls and taxes the li(|uor irat'tic under the laws 
drafted i)\- an ()ntario county legislator, when the preachers in 
tamous i)ul])its. the editors of great metroi)olitan news])apers. and 
w oidd-eminent scientists claim W e.-^lern Xew ^'ork as their l)irtli- 
i)lace. and when its sons and grroidsons. its daughters ami grand- 
daughters, it ma\' truihfully be said, play a not insignificant part in 
shaping the destinies of the Great W'est. 

The author of this Histor\- of ()ntario C"ounty has made no 

iK' atLcm])t to glean the fields \\hich ha\e been co\ered by preceding 

' writers, or to repeat in detail the stor\- of discovery, settlement, and 

^ development. He has sought rather to give in narrative form 

^s«t> account of tlie ex'cnts which ha\e serxed to comiect the ci\il 

Sdivisi(ui known as (Ontario count\- with the larger world, and thus 
tt) emphasize the honorable part w hich it has had in the development 
i->\ Western XFew York and the important influence it has exerted 


upon the i)olilic;il b.istory of tlie State and Nation. For the facts 
upon which tlie narratixe is founded, he is largely indebted to the 
original historicin of the Thelps and Gorham Purchase, ]\Ir. O. 
1'urner, to Dr. Noah T. Clarke, to Mr. George S. Conover, to 'Sir. 
Ir\ing W. Coates, and to other writers of local history, and also to 
the county newspapers whose files form a mine of information as 
invaluable as it is inexhaustible. 

To those who ha\'e assisted in preparing this record, either 
through material furnish.ed, or in the writing of particular chapters 
or the several town histories, the author, or, more properly, editor, 
returns sincere thanks. 

Most of the portraits with which the volume is illustrated are 
reproductions of oil paintings which hang on the walls of the County 
Court room in Canandaigua, a collection of the greatest interest to 
the student of pioneer days and of the later political history of the 
county as well. The re]:)roductions. though in some cases exposing 
too plainly the ravages which time has wrought in the original 
pictures, depict the personal characteristics of the subjects with a 
faithfulness that no written description could equal. 


Canandaigua. N. Y.. September 15, 1911. 




Orij^iii of the Red Men Who Occupied Western New York at the Time 
of tlie Discovery of America an Unsolved Mystery — The Legend 
of Bare Hill — Three ICpochs — The Seneca Capital Kanadesaga and 
Otlier Principal Towns — Strength Broken by Sullivan's I^xpeditimi 
in 17W 1-11 


II. 'C( 

French Traders and Priests the iMrst White Men to Enter the Seneca 
Country — French Explorers and French Soldiers Followed — Sullivan 
Opened the Waj^ for the Pioneers — Settlement Delayed by Disputes 
as to Title — The Phelps and Gurhani Purchase — Sale of Land to 
Settlers 12-20 


A Party of Pioneers frcmi Massachusetts Enter the Genesee Country by 
an All-Water Route — Their Settlement at Canandaigua — Israel 
Chapin Appointed Indian Agent by President Washington — A Period 
of Apprehension- — The Pickering Treaty of 1794 • 21- 35 


The Organization of Ontario County Cotemporancous with the Election 
of Washington as President of the United States — Its Original 
Princely Domain — Unsuccessful ICfl'ort to Set It Off in a New State 
— Other Counties Erected from Its Original Territory — Rapid Settle- 
ment and Development 36- 50 

They Reflect the People's Respect for Law and Regard for the Unfor- 
tunate — In the Court House Centers the Count}' Consciousness — 
Successive Jails — The County .Vims House — The County Laboratory 
and the County Tuberculosis Hospital, the First Institutions of the 
Kind in the State 51- 61 

Her Politics and Politicians — Early Elections — Snap Methods — Ontario 
I'irm in the Federalist Faith — The County's Representation in Con- 
gress and the Legislature — Succession of County Officers — Oliver 
Phelps a Candidate for Lieutenant-Governor 62-69*" 


Ontario County in the War of 1812 — Building of the Erie Canal — Western 
New York Rejoices at Completion of the Great Work — Abduction of 
William Morgan — Resulting Excitement in the "Infected District".. 
The .\nti-Masonic Campaign — Francis Granger a Candidate for 
Governor 70- 7S 


William H. Seward Defeated as the First Whig- Candidate for Governor 
—"The Tippecanoe and Tyler Too" Campaign of 1840— The "Rais- 
ing" of a Log Cabin in Canandaigua — An Honored Ontario County 
Citizen Named as Postmaster-General in President Harrison's 
Cabinet 79-86 

Ontario County's Protest against Repeal of the Missouri Compromise — 
— Conscience Whigs Obtain a Newspaper Organ — A Roll of Honor 
— Call for County Anti-Nebraska Convention — Delegates Elected to 
State Convention — -Resclutions against Slavery Extension 87-96 


^Ir. Clark's First Public Ofifice That of Sheriff of Ontario County — Gained 
Prominence in the Senate as an Advocate of the Maine Law — 
Gubernatorial N^ominee of the Seward Whigs, Free Soil Democrats, 
and Prohibitionists — Beginnings of the Republican Party 97-107 


The X'ew Coalition of Free Soilers Adopt the Name Republican — Men 
Identified with the Movement — A Tangled Local Campaign — Union 
Ticket Put in the Field by Republicans and Democrats — Opposing 
Know Nothing Candidates for County Offices Win at the Election . 108-117 

Growing Strength and Confidence of the N^ew Party — Fremont the Stand- 
ard Bearer — Free Soil Democrats Unite with the New Political 
Organization — John C. Fremont Nominated for President — District 
and County Conventions — Republicans N^ame a Complete Ticket ..118-124 


The Campaign in Ontario County for "Free Speech, Free Press, Free 
Men, Free Labor, and Fremont" — Clubs Organized and Meetings 
Held — Joshua R. Giddings Speaks in Canandaigua, His Native Town 
— Success Won in the County and State, but the National Ticket 
Defeated 125-134 


Ontario County a Center of Political Interest — Organization of the 
'"Wideawakes" — One of the Candidates for the Presidency Formerly 
a Resident of Ontario County and a Student in the Canandaigua 
Academy — Speaks at a Rig Meeting near Clifton Springs — Loyal in ' 

the Hour of Defeat 135-141 


Twice Invaded by Armies of Civilized Powers. First by Denonville. then 

by General Sullivan and His Continentals — The Simcoe Scare » 

Ontario Militia in the War of 1812— The Whole County in a Tumult \ 

—Relief for the Refugees— The Troublous Days of 1861-5 142-148 ' 



A Palriotii I'lil])!! — Citizens Make LarKc I'inanfial C(intril)ntinn^ in Sii])- 
porl of the Union Cause — ReeruitinK llu- Annies — Canandai^ua 
Academy's Part — Treasonable Utterances — 'i'lif Ontario Volunteers 
and Tlu'ir (i.illant Kcrord — Tlu' Cnuiity Ke|)rcscnt'-(| in Tu entv-nine 
1 )ilY( mil KcLjinicuts 149-157 

xvii. vicToin' CROWNS 1111-: struggtj-:. 

( )ntario Conntx- Heroes — Tlu' i'.oy Who Xover KclunR-d to Claim His 
Scythe or His lielrnthed — The Hoard of Sui)ervisors in tlu- War — 
The Women's Aid Orjj;anizations — The Xevvs of Richmond'-^ h'all and 
How It Was Celebrated — Memorials of the Creat Strnj^^gle 15S-164 


(^ntarJM County's Inlluence in Slate and Xational I'dlitir- Perpetuated — 
The State Statutes Known as the Blanket I'.allol Law and Liquor 
Tax Law, and the National Tariff Act Known as the i^ayne Law, 
the W'lrk of Its Representatives — The Later County Ofticers ....165-177 


I!y Major f'liavlcs .\. Rioliaiilsoii. 
Tlieir ()r.t;ani/ation — h'irst Sessions Held at Patterson's Tavern in 
Geneva and at Sanhorn's Tavern in Canan(lai}.?ua — Anecdotes of 
Judges. Lawyers and Jurors — Tin Morgan Abduction — Eutiitive Slave 
Law Case — Conviction of Susan I!, .\nthony — Other Celebrated Civil 
and Criminal Trials 17.S-204 


I!y John 11. Jewett, M. D. 
Dr. Moses Alwater, the h'irst Physician ti> Settle en ihe Phelps and 
Gorhani Purchase — A Pioneer Physician Who Took Strong Ground 
.Against lUecding — A Piiysician's Diary — Dr. Ldsou Carr. .Skilled in 
-Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, and an Excellent .Musician as Well 
— The Later Physicians 205-220 


I!y William H. Warficld. 
( )ntario County Settled by Men Attracted by Its .\gricultural ( )pp' irtiuii- 
lies — The l-'irst Wheat Grown on the Genesee Tract — Pioneers 
Organize a County Agricultural Society in 1S19 — The First County 
F'air, Cattle Show, atid Plowing Match — Li>t of the Officers — The 
Grange 22\-22S 

XXII. THE TOWN OF F.RfSTOL. By Sarah G. P. Kent 229-242 

XXIII. rilh: TOWN of CANADICI':. P.y Albert H. Tibbals. . .243-253 

XXTV. 'illh: rOWX Ol" C AXANDAIGUA. P.y Charles F. Milli- 

ken 254-265 

XXV. Till-: VILLAGE (^1' CA XAX DAKil' A. P.y Charles F. 

Milliken 266-309 




Buell 310-320 

son 321-327 

XXVIII. THE TOWN OF GENEVA. By Sidney B. Reed 328-330 


Vail, L. H. D 331-379 

XXX. THE TOWN OF GORHAM. By Lewis C. Lincoln 380-393 

XXXI. THE TOWN OF HOPEWELL. By Irving W. Coates. .394-405 


-M. D 406-424 

XXXIII. THE TOWN OF NAPLES. By William R. Marks 425^440 

XXXIV. THE TOWN OF PHELPS. By Edwin F. Bussey 441-44Q 

son, Jr 450-463 

XXXVI. THE TOWN OF SENECA. By Levi A. Page 464-472 


Richards 473-483 

XXXVIII. THE TOWN OF VICTOR. By George Simonds 484-498 

ton W. Bates 499-505 



Bare Hill, Canandaigua Lake 3 

Talk with the Indians at Bufifalo Creek in 1793 25 

Pickering Treaty Memorial 3^ 

First Ontario County Court House 52 

Old Ontario County Jail 58 

Sullivan Memorial 143 


Map of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase 19 

The Original County of Ontario, 1789-1796 37 

The County of Ontario. 1796-1802 40 

The County of Ontario, 1802-1821 42 

The County of Ontario, 1821-1823 44 

Present County of Ontario, 1823-1911 46 

F"irst Plotting of Canandaigua Village. 1789 269 

CONTENTS ol' VOJ.L'Ml-: I. ix 


Page Pafje 

Adams. William M 161 l.amp.irt. William H 10.3 

Adams, William II., cddcr 1.S5 Lapham, lahriduc G 105 

Atwatcr. Dr. 206 Lincoln, Cyrillo S 175 

Barnard, Daniel D 1'97 Marks, Walter 159 

Barlow, Abner 222_ Mason, I'Vancis 176 

Beals, Thomas 59 Matthews, Vincent 179 

Bcmis, James D 289 Mattison, Jacob J 116 

Brooks, Micah 11 McLonth, Thomas J 95 

Brunson, Edward 122 Metcalf, Jabez H 199 

Bnrnett, Jean L 172- Milliken, Nathan J 88 

Callister, John 202 Murray, Albert G 85 

Church, Captain Philip 69 Parker. Stephen II 355 

Clark, Myron II 100 Parrish, Captain Jasper 27 

Clarke, Dr. Noah T 153 Phelps, Oliver 15 

Cole, Henry S 194 Porter, Augustus 22 

Comstock, Harlow L. 166 Porter, General Peter 1> 71 

Dewey, Jedediah 94 Pottle, Emory B 126 

Douglas, Stephen A 137 Raines, Jcdm 170 

Duncan, Alexander 274 Rochester, Nathaniel 75 

Dwight, Rev. Henry 361 Sa-go-ye-watha, or "Red Jacket". 31 

Fitzhugh, William 223 Shcrrill. Colonel Eliakim 155 

Folger, Charles J 168 Sibley, Mark 11 64 

Foot, Samuel A 115 Smith. James C 128 

Garyan-wah-gah, or "Cornplanter". 29 Smith. William H 131 

Gibson, Plenry B 282 Spencer, Ambrose 60 

Gorham, Nathaniel 17 Spencer, John C 73 

Granger, Gideon 76 Stoddard, Robert W 191 

Granger, Francis 81 Taylor, Henry W 119 

Granger, Gideon, 2nd 226 Wadsworth, James 145 

Greig, John 225 Wadsworth, William 224 

Hicks, Edwin 139 Welles, Henry 55 

Howell, Nathaniel W 65 Whiting, Bowen 189 

Howell, Alexander H 66 Williams. George N 163 

Howell, Thomas M 113 Williams. Dr. William A 209 

Howey, Joel M Ill Willson, Jared 84 

Hnbbcll, Walter 67 Wood, William 56 




Origin of the Red Men V/ho Occupied Western New York at the 
Time of the Discovery of America an Unsolved Mystery — The 
Legend of Bare Hill — Three Epochs — The Seneca Capital 
Kanadesaga and Other Principal Towns — Strength Broken by 
Sullivan's Expedition in 1799. 

"In the unrenicinberecl ages, 
Ages nearer tlie beginning. 
In the days that are forgotten, 
From a cloud above this mountain. 
Came the voice of Ha-wen-iie-j^a, 
Came the call of the Great Spirit. 
Greatly seemed the eartli to trein))Ic. 
Trembled in the tliroes of labor. 
From her womb sprang forth a people. 
Sprang the brave Nun-do-wa-o-no. 
On her bosom then he nursed them. 
Till they grew a mighty nation. 
Taught them words to form a language. 
Raised up great men for their chieftains. 
Gave them totems for their tribe signs, 
Gave them names by which he knew them. 
Called tiicni all the Great-Hill People." 

—Charles T. Mitchell. 

As to the origin of the i)eople who first possessed the land 
which is now comprised in Ontario county, we know nothing. 
These first inhabitants left no record in mysteriously carved monu- 
ment or on chiy tablet. We do not even know whether they came 
from []](_■ north and reaching whal is now tlie connly's geographical 
center cauglil the fust glimpse of Canandaigua lake and its beauti- 
ful environs from the lowlands at its foot: or from the east and 
through the portal of what is now Vine X'alley stood enraptured 
before the glories of a Canandaigua sunset; or perchance from the 
west or st)uth and from the foothilK of the Alleghanies had spread 
before their eyes the marvelously beautiful vista of lake and valley 
and undulating hill and plain which make up its diversified area. 


We do not know whence, these mysterious people came, or by 
what way they came, Init aac do know that the magic of the scene 
entered their souls as it has the souls of their pale-faced successors 
and that they afterwards made it their Chosen Spot. 

The only mementos we have of the red man's occupancy in this 
region are numerous fiint arrow heads, plowed up here and there in 
the nelds, remains of a numl)er of forts, specimens of uni(|uely dec- 
orated pottery, pi])e-l)owls, pots of red ochre, strings of wampum — 
from which we may read that the original inhabitants li\ed by the 
chase, fought in deadh' conflict one A\ith another, had ta>ted of the 
fruit of good and evil that grows on the tobacco stem, had the com- 
mon human weakness for adornment and sought to tone down their 
high cheek bones and ornament the coppery sheen of their com- 
plexions by adventitious means, had fond to store and wealth tn 

But it is doubtful if the oldest of these tri\'ial records go hack 
much before the time when the Spanie^h sovereigns, blind tn the 
misfortunes which the enterprise was destined to bring upon ihc'r 
country, employed the Genoese navigator to explore the realms of 
Far Cathay. 

Tradition, tlie onl}' form of history known to the red man. is 
unreliable as to dates, but the best authorities agree in i)lacing the 
organization of the famous Iroquois confederacy at not earlier than 
the discovery of America bv Columbus. Back of that was chaos — 
or, perhaps, the ]\Iound Builders. Following it was a development 
among the Indians of what is now known as Central and \\ cstern 
New York that was nowhere else paralleled by men of their race. 

It was not until the lieginning of the sixteenth century that the 
Irocjuois, or Five Nations, became known to the European ])ionecrs. 
They were then found occupying the whole of Northern New York, 
from the Hudson on the east to the Genesee on the west. Bv the 
year 1700, they had extended their dominion over half the continent, 
and, by the adoption of the Tuscaroras, had become the Six Nations. 
But, while we recognize the genius of the Iroquois for political 
organization, unique among savage peoples, and their ])rowess in 
war, we may safely douV^t whether they would have ever developed 
a civilization worthy the name. 

However that mis^ht have been, we know that after carvinof out 
an empire from the red peoples of the continent, and after having 
for a century played French against English and English against 



French with a skillful (liplomac3^ they easily succumbed to the 
white mail's gold and i1k- w liite man's rum. ;ind, within twelve years 
after the close of the Rcxolutionary \\ar. had hcen practically dis- 
possessed of their rich domain and were settled on widely scattered 

Nun-da-wah, the Great Hill from which, Legend says, the Seneca nation of Indians had their 
origin. Hence their name Nun-do-wa-o-no, or ("ircat Hill l'eo|>lc. Elevation, 855 feet above the 
lake, 1,540 feet above the sea. 

Western New York was possessed by the Seneca branch of the 
Iroquois confederacy, their dominion, following the conquest of the 
Neuter and Eric tribes by the Six Nations about the year 1650, 
extending to the Niagara ri\ cr at the west. They were the Keepers 
of the Western Door, 'idiev were the Xun-do-wah-oaah, or Nun- 
do-wa-o-no, the Great-Hill people, ascribing their origin to Nun-do- 
wah or Bare Hill, on the east shore of Canandaigua Lake, where 
their progenitors Ii\ed and wliere thc}^ were put in imminent peril 
of utter destruction In' n monstrous serpent, which circling itself 
about the fort ];iy w itii its months open at tlie gate. 

The legend 1)\- whicli they thus explained their birth as a nation, 
constitutes one of the most interesting of the stories by which 
primitive peoples have sought to explain the why and how of 
existence. Handed down from fatlier to son. and from father to 
son again, among the Senecas themselves, it has been as oft told by 
writers of the white race, in prose and in verse and with many 
variations. Some of the versions are romantic in the extreme, but 


that ui\eii Ijv Henrv R. Schoolcraft, the eminent American anti- 
quarian, in his "Notes on the Irofjnois," pnbh'shed in 1846. is 
vouched for !)}• that author as from a nati\e source and is probabh^ 
as near to the original as any that has been written. 'Mr. School- 
craft wrote : 

"While the tribe had its seat and council f-re on this hill, a 
woman and her son were living- near it. ^\-hen the boy one day 
caught a small two-headed serpent, called Kaistowanea. in the 
bushes. He brought it home as a pet to amuse himself, and put it 
in a box, where he fed it on bird's flesh and other dainties. After 
some time it had become so large it rested on the beam of the lodge, 
and the hunters were oldiged to feed it with deer: but it soon went 
out and made its abode on a neighboring hill, where ii maintained 
itself. It often went out and sported in the lake, and in 
time became so large and mischievous that the tribe were put in 
dread of it. 

"The}^ consttlted on the subject one evening, and deternn'ned 
to l^y next morning; 1)tit with the light of the next morning the 
monster had circled the hill and la\- with its double jaws extended 
ijefore the gate. Some attempted to pass out. but were driven 
back; others tried to clim1) o\er its boch. l)Ut \vere unable. Hun- 
ger at last dro\e them to desi)eration. and thev made a rush to 
pass, but only rushed into the monster's double jaws. All were 
devoured but a warrior and his sister, who waited in vain expec- 
tancy of relief. 

"At length the \varrior had a dream, in which he was showed 
that if he woidd fledge his arrows with the hair of his sister, the 
charm would prevail over the enemy. He was warned not to heed 
the frightful heads and hissing tongues, but to shoot at the heart. 
Accordingl)^ the next morning he armed himself with his keenest 
weapons, charmed as directed, and i)ol(llv shot at the serpent's 
heart. The instantaneous recoiling of the monster pro\-e(l that 
the wound was mortal. He began in great agony to roll down the 
hill, breaking down trees and uttering horrid noises, until he rolled 
into the lake. Here he slaked his thirst, and tried by water to mit- 
igate his agony, dashing about in fury. At length lie vomited up 
all the i)eoy)le whom he had eaten, and iimuediatelv expired rnul 
sunk to the bottom. 

"The fort was immediate!}- deserted, and all who had escaped 


went with their dehxcrer to, and iixcd their council lire on, the 
west shores of Seneca Lake, where Geneva now stands." 

There is usually added, in \ niiication of the lej:^-cnd, mention 
of the fact that the blackened trunk of the oak tree from which 
the Seneca youth fashioned the annw which was destined to save 
his people from entire destruction, stood .m mnmpeachable wit- 
ness (Ml the otherwise 1)arreu crest of the hill within the memory 
of men yet living- : that the path which the (King reptile cut through 
the forest as in his death struggles he rolled down its side has 
never since borne tree or slinib, whence the name "Bare Hill"; 
and that the i^etrified heads of his victims, fooli>hl\- called geodes 
i)y modern scientists, are found to this da\ along the shores of 
the lake. 

Mr. Irxing W. ("oales, ihc eminent Indiancdogist, divides the 
|)eriod ol the Seneca occu])ancy of the territory now embraced in 
( )ntario county into three se])arate epochs, w hich he designates 
as the .\ncient, the Middle and the Recent. 

W hat particular ])eriod of time A\as covered by the Ancient 
epoch he does not atlenijjt to state, but the fact of that epoch, he 
asserts, is attested b\ ruins of old fo!titication>, stranue and often 
elaborate burial places, rude weapons that almost partake of the 
lorms of the paleolithic, with faint traces of village sites in remote 
location--. To this epoch. sa\s Mr. t'oates. belong the old village 
site and burial ])lace of (ienundawah at the foot of IJare Hill on 
the east side of ( ".anaudaigua lake; the singular palisaded town 
on tile Aloifat farm on a. iiend ot the ("anaudaigua outlet in the 
town ot I'helps, where i-'oriions of a ditch and earthwtjrks \-et 
remain; the ancient \illage, which was also palisaded, a short dis- 
tance south of Llifton Si)rings; al-o the one .about one mile west 
on the Jackson farm, slight traces of \\ hich are left ; another, a 
small lishing \illage on the soutli bank of the outlet near the ham- 
let of Manchester ("enter in the town of ?.lanchester. Also must 
we class in this earl)- Indian ocv^upanc\' the wurk described b_\- 
.S(|uier. situated about three and one-half miles northwest of (le- 
ne\a, east of the i^i\<.l Castle road, A\hich was three hundred feet 
long, built on high ground and easily defended. In addition to 
these, irregular works called "forts." on ]-»rominent elevations in 
mau\' towns of the county, as well as man}- camp sites more or 
less pennaueut along uearl\- all the streams and lakes, have been 
discovered, while skeletons of an early age. including- many of un- 


usual size, have been unearthed from gravel beds, and flint 
arrows, celts, and stone gouges, as well as many ornaments of stone, 
bone, and shell, scattered over whole townships, attest the pres- 
ence of the early red men in this favorite hunting ground. 

The Middle epoch of Indian occupancy of the county dates 
from the beginning of the period in which European intercourse 
with the aborigines of the State began. It differs vastly from the 
Ancient epoch in the fact that we have actual knowledge of the 
red inhabitants of the region from accounts written by white men 
who visited them in their homes and villages. Wentworth Green- 
halgh, by some termed an Englishman, by others a Dutch trader, 
in the spring and summer of 1677, visited all the Five Nations and 
the Senecas in particular, and made minute observations, not only 
counting the houses in tlie different villages and noting their sur- 
roundings, but also numbering the warriors. His account gives 
the Senecas, who at this time mostly resided within what are now 
the limits of Ontario county, l.OUO warriors, and named their four 
principal villages situated in the western part, as Canagora, I'ioto- 
hatton, Canoenada, and Keinthe. Of these, Canagora, or, as it 
was called by the French Abbe Belmont, who accompanied 
DeNonville in his expedition of 1687, Gaensera, and by others Gan- 
nagaro, Gananagaro, or Canagora, according as different writers 
attempted to express or spell the Indian gutttirals, was the capital 
and was sitiuited on Boughton Hill ifi the present town of Victor. 
It had 150 houses and was the "St. James" of the Jesuit fathers. 
Totiakton, or Tiotohatton, or Tohaiton, or Sonnontonan, was on 
a bend of the Honeoye creek, where it makes a somewhat abrupt 
turn in a northeasterly direction, .'iud was in what is now the town 
of Mendon, Monroe county. This was the "La Conception" of 
the Jesuit fathers, and numbered 120 houses, "being ye largest of 
all ve houses wee saw, ve ordinarv beino- 50 to 60 foot lonsr with 
12 and 13 fires in one house." The town of Canoenada, Onnu- 
tague, or Gannogarae, was situated about four and one-half miles 
south of Gannagaro on the east bank of the Ganarcjua or Mud 
creek in the extreme northeast corner of the present town of East 
Bloomfield. It was peopled chiefly by captive Hurons, and was, it 
is believed, the original "St. Michael'' of the Jesuits, wdiere Father 
Fremin labored from 1679 to 1681. It had 30 houses, according to 
Greenhalgh, and was "well furnished with Corne." Keint-he, or 
Onnennatu, or Gannondata, or Gandachioragon, the other Seneca 


town spoken of by the French and l)uich traders of the period, was 
about a mile soutli of the present viUage of Honeoye Falls and had 
24 houses. Here was the Jesuit Mission of "St. John." 

Following the niva^iou of the Seneca country by J)e XcMuille 
in July, 1087, when lie destroyed ilir capital (iannagaro, the inhab- 
itants of that settlement migrated eastward, settling in what is now 
the town of Hopewell and e>tal)lishing there a town called Onna- 
ghee, the site of which has been given jjarticular study by Mr. 
Coates and has been a prolilic source (jf arrow heads, beads, Jesuit 
rings, crucifixes, and amulets and other interesting relics. Just 
north of this in the same to\\ii another small \illage sprang up, 
while Gannogarae, the village of the capti\e Hurons which De- 
Nonville also destroyed, was remo\ed, according to the best evi- 
dence obtainable, first to the W hite S[)rings, two miles southwest 
of Geneva, and became known as Ganechstage. This settlement 
was visited in 1720 by Schuyler and Livingston and in 1726 by 
Capt. Exert liancker. It in turn was broken up by an epidemic of 
smallpox in 1732, but later, in 1750, a New Ganechstage was found 
by the Moravian missionaries, Cammerhoff and Zeisberger, located 
at Slate Rock or lUirrell's Creek, fixe nnles ftirther south. 

It was a few years later, following the abandonment of the 
settlement or "castle," of Onnaghee, which must have occurred 
previous to 1750, the time of the \-isit of Cammerhoff and Zeisber- 
ger, that Kanandarcjue, "Place Chosen for Settlement," or poeti- 
calh' interpreted "The Cdiosen Spot." sprang into being at the foot 
of the beautiful lake of that name. Kanadesaga. or Ganundasaga. as 
given b)' Lewis FI. J\l organ, near the foot of Seneca Lake, the 
home of their most exalted chief. Sayencpieraghta, or "Old Smoke," 
as he was irreverentl\- called by the whites, succeeded Gannagaro 
as the Seneca cai)ital or "(diief Castle." This last settlement cen- 
tered about one of the palisade fcM'ts built b}' Sir W'm. Johnson in 
1756 to attach the Iroquois to the British interest. 

Thus the Senecas, who prior to the De Xonville invasion had 
migrated to the westward, seem afterwards to have retraced their 
steps and founded new settlements in what is now the eastern part 
of Ontario county and soon had large and fertile corn fields there 
that rivaled those which the French had found and destroyed at 
their former homes. 

Up to this time the Senecas, unlike the other nations of the 
Iroquois confederacy, had been inclined to side with the French 


in the contests which continually waged between that people and 
the English, but the victories gained by the latter in 1756 and 
1759 won their favor, the French intiuence over them rapidly 
declined, and by 1703 the devoted Jesuit fathers had been supplanted 
hv missionaries nf the Protestant faith. In 1765, the Rev. Sam- 
uel Kirtland. with the approval of the influential representative of 
the l-'-nsflish g-overnment. Sir William Johnson, settled at Kana- 
desasra. and survivino- many vicissitudes thereafter exerted a large 
and civilizing influence over the Senecas. 

r>ut while all of these missionaries, Jesuit and Protestant, 
labored zealously and at untold personal suffering and risk, and 
g-ained the respect and in some instances the full confidence of the 
chi'dren of the forest, they made little headwa}- in their efforts to 
turn the Iroquois from their savage ways or convince them that 
they stood in need of a change of religious faith. Indeed the red 
man felt that he worshipped the same Cxrcat Spirit as did his \\hite 

Mr. Coates dates the beoinuino- of what he calls the Recent 
epoch of the Indian occu])ancy of Ontario cotmt}' from the first 
efforts of the Colonies to throw off the \oke of the English king. 
In this great struggle, the iro(jU()i>. with the exce])tion of a jjortion 
of the Oneidas and Tuscaroras, \vere adherents of the king, and 
the land of the Senecas, ])reser\'ed as it had been from appropria- 
tion or settlement by either French or English, and suffering little 
permanent injury from the hostile incursion of De NonviHe's armv 
in 1687. was the grainery and the place of reiuge of the predatory 
l>an(ls of warriors that under the lead of Col. John Butler and 
cnher British officers ravaged the border towns in the eastern part 
of the State and in Pennsylvania, the fame of whose bloody deeds 
at Cherry Valley and Wyoming carried terror to patriot settlers 
and soldiers alike. 

It was to destroy this base of supplies for destrtictive incur- 
sions that General John .SulH\an. in x\ugust and Septeml^er, 1779. 
acting under orders from General \\'ashington. the commander of 
the Continental armies, led an in\ading force up the Susquehanna 
and Chemung \alle3's and into the very heart of the Seneca coun- 
try. Having united the division which he personally led with an- 
other that had entered the region by way of Schenectady and the 
Mohawk. Sullivan engaged and defeated an allied force of British 
regulars and Senecas. led by Col. Butler and the great war chief 


i^rant, in a pitcluil aiid dccisiNc haiiK- ai W-wlown (now lilmira), 
1)111 olhcrwisc Iio was al)!f lo cai'iw uiu |1]^ imrpose witlioui hloml- 
sIkmI, ilioii-^h n<»t till' k'ss i"iit lik'ssK'. 

In this hncl siiinim-)- t-aiii| )aiL;n Siilli\an and liis 5000 Coilti- 
iKMitals instilU'il into ilu' h-<i'|ui)is mind an a])])reciation <»f the 
strength of the I'atidot i-aiist' and taught the rc(l men that the arm 
ot' ( ieneial \\a>hini4ton was loni;- to reach and >tron<4 to punish 
ihos'. who chose to do the lilood\- \\(>rl< ot' the Tories. The 
destniclion of forty oi" more ])o])nloiis and widl Imih \illaL;e>, niinier- 
(His ripenint;- helds ot L^ram, and lari^e oichards, to say nolhin<^ of 
the loss in flight ini;- strength snltered at Xewtown. taught a lesson 
ne\er forj^otten. 

h'oreinost ainoniL; the \illa,L;es destroyed was Kanadesag'a, 
which is described in the diaries ot some of Snlh'van's officers as a 
place of some lifty houses, with thirty more at a little distance, ar- 
raiii^ed in an irregular mannei- with the stockade and the block 
honses erected l>\- Sir W illiam Johnson in 1756 in the center. In 
this xiliai^e, reached by the army on September 7, and like most of 
the others \isited found ik'serted. was located also the "council 
house"" spoken of b\' the Kew Sa.muel Kirtland on the occasion of 
his lirst \isit to the Senecas in 17^?. Ii was the capital or chief 
"( astle"' of the Seneca nation at this time, and sni'roundinm' it. to 
(piote the lain.;iia<j;e of the late Mr. (ieor^e .S. Conoxer. of (ienexa. 
the well known local historian, "were lar^e a])ple orchar<ls and 
extensive helds of i^'rowin^" corn, w hi!e halt a mile north was a larj^'e 
peach orchard. W ild ])lnms. mulberries, hickoiw nuts, walnuts and 
bntteniiits likewise i^rew in abundance."' h'rom this important In- 
dian town, which had been the rende/\-ons of inaiu' e.\peditit)ns 
sent out to pillaG'C the border settlements, led trails oivinsj easv 
communication with the .Sc-neca xiliaijes a.s far westward as the 
("icnesee and Niat^'ara and down the ("hemuni;- and .^Susquehanna 
\allevs, as well as to their settlements at the in>rth and east. 

The i^reat trail leading" westward followed substantially the 
coui\sc of Nvhat is now the "'rurn])ike,"' with the exception of a 
slii^ht xariation from the present villag'e of Flint C'reek to Canan- 
daig'ua lake, in which distance it bore to the south and came out 
on the east shore of the last named Crossing;" the out'et and 
continuino- along- the fo(^t of the lake, the trail wound up the hill- 
side in a northwest direction to what (leneral Sullivan called "the 
elegant town" or Castle of Kanandarime. I'his \illage consisted of 


some thirty houses, which like those at Kanaclesaga, together with 
the vegetable gardens near by and orchards in the vicinity, were 
"immediately burned" (Sept. 10), and the army marched on the 
next day to the west, to the foot of Honeoye Lake, where was 
located a village of ten houses ^^■ith its corn fields and orchards. 
General Sullivan extended his march and his work of devastation 
westward to the Genesee, and returning left behind him nothing 
but ruins and desolation. 

The order of General Washington "to lay waste all the settle- 
ments around, so that the countr}' may not onl}- be overrun but 
destroyed," had been faithfull}- carried out. 

It was a ruthless, cruel work, imt one absolutely necessary for 
the protection of the patriot settlements, and it was eflectual. 
\\ hile a few small Seneca ^•illages had been oxerlooked, the power 
of the Iroquois confederacy was forever broken. The spirit of the 
bloodthirst}- allies of the Tories was humbled by the destruction of 
their homes and the larger portion of them scattered to the west- 
ward and settled anew in \illages west of the Genesee, near the 
shores of Lake Erie, along the Alleghany and Xiagara. The period 
of the Indian occupancy of Ontario county had passed. 

But the territory now embraced in Ontario county was never 
"occupied" by the Indians in the sense which that word carries as 
applied to its present population. Although there is evidence of 
numerous Seneca settlements in the county, the fact should not be 
accepted as indicating any general occupancy of the land. The 
settlements heretofore mentioned anrl many others of lesser size 
were of different periods. The relics w hich are found on their sites, 
varying as they do from those exclusivel}- of the stone age to those 
that show an admixture of glass beads, iron hatchets and copper 
ornaments, with religious tokens and remnants of old muskets and 
sabers, all of European manufacture, prove to the discriminating 
student that some of these settlements A\ere of orreat acre, their 
w'hole history antedating the appearance of either the white trader, 
priest or soldier, while others clearly we're more recent and of \-arious 
periods. As it has heretofore appeared, the Iroquois was prac- 
tically a nomad. The severe climate in which lie lived necessitated 
somewhat substantial shelters, but his dwellings w^ere simple and 
quickly constructed out of the l^ark and branches that strewed the 
forest. He was a gregarious being, and for companionship with 
his kind or for protection against enemies, located his homes in 


groups of some size, but lii.- Iiousclioltl l)elongings were exceedingly 
limited and casiK' m()\rd and lie liad no d<imestic animal except 
the dog. Jle nioxc'd his liontc to new ground, a^ the game U])t)n 
winch lie largely existed rclrcated, the soil on which he raised his 
crops was exhanstcd b}- rc])eated harvests, or the forest was cleared 
of the lillcr with which Ik- hnill his lires. These remowils occurred 
every few years, averaging e\cr\ ten \ears i)erhaps, hnt the great 
forests that co\ercd the region of which this is written did nut at 
any one time shelter as many |)eo])le as now make tlieir homes in A 
single village or township. 

The part which llie lro(|nois ])la_\ed not onh' in the imagina- 
tion of the earl)- settlers. ])nt actually in their li\-cs and in the his- 
t(M-ic struggles that mai-ked the ad\ance of the rival forces destined 
finally to possess and use the land, nn'ghl lead to the conclusion 
that they were a large and organized ])eople. Organized they were 
in a confederation remarkably elfectixe for both offense and 
defense, but the entire Six Nations never ])robal)l\- exceeded 20,000 
souls, nor had a hghting force of more than 4,000. Of this force, 
the Scnccas constituted the larger nundjer. Wentworth Green- 
halgh in 1677, after careful ])ersonal in\estigation, said the Sene- 
cas had 1,000 warriors. Sir W illiam lohnson in 1763, reported they 
had 1050. j\Iissionar\- Kirtland in 17S3, followinti- their very disas- 
trous wars with the l''rench, estimated that the Senecas had no 
more than 600 warriors, h'ol lowing the wai' of the Revolution, in 
1794, the Goxernmcnt found that there were then, all told, 1780 
Senecas. In 1818 Jas]ier Parish said ofiicially. "ddie i:)opulation of 
the Six Nations of Indians is 4.''73." According to the United 
States census of 18^''0 the nnnd)er of h-oejucjis then living in the 
States had grown to 7387, while there were 8483 in Canada, mak- 
ing- a total of 15,870. Of this number 5,239 were li\ini>- in New 
York State, and 2767 of these were Senecas. 




French Traders and Priests the First White Men to Enter the 
Seneca Country — French Explorers and French Soldiers Fol- 
lowed — Sullivan Opened the Way for the Pioneers — Settlement 
Delayed by Disputes as to Title — The Phelps and Gorham 
Purchase — Sale of Land to Settlers. 

The first white man to enter the country of the Genesee was 
a I'rench trader or a French priest. 

Champhiin in his explorations of 1615 j^enetrated the Iroquois 
country, but did not come further west than Oneida lake. In 1669 
La Salle, with I'^athers De Casson and Galiuee. visited the principal 
Seneca Indian ^•illag■e, then tweiUy miles south of Irondequoit bay, 
and continued his journe)' to a burning spring', su])posed to i)e that 
which is located near Bristol Center, Ontario county. The Martpiis 
De Xonville. in July, 1687. in a campaign which was undertaken 
with the intent of punishing the Senecas for their alleged inhos])it- 
able treatment of French traders, and of stopping their warlike in- 
vasions into Xew France, marched down from Irondecpioit bav into 
the very heart of the Seneca country, and ambushed bv the Indians 
at Gannagaro (BoughtcMi Hill) engaged there in the onl\- actual 
battle between armed forces known to have occurred in what is now 
Ontario county. But before these French explorers had spied out 
the country or these French caxaliers had ])erformed their bloody 
task, white traders had followed the Indian trails and bought for 
beads and bullet^ and for that yet more seducti\e and destructixe 
medium of barter, rum, the ])cltries which they in turn exchanged 
in the eastern markets for good coin of the realm. 

Before the soldier also, and certainly close on his heels, marched 
the devoted Jesuit fathers. At least Father Chaumonot is known 
to have visited the Seneca towns as early as 1657, and in 1668 
J'\'ither Fremin became a resident missionary among them, built a 

coMiNc; oi'- Till' wiirri': man 13 

ciiapel ;il ( landon^-arae nn llie (iaiiar(|ua i Mud (reek), and lal)ori-d 
to teach llieiii tlie tnitli> of the (hristiaii rehL^iiiii. hi 1765. follow- 
ing the rise ol h^ns^iish inihK'nec, ihe l\e\. .Samuel Kirkland. the Hrst 
i'roteslaiit lui^sion.aiy to xiMt the .^euecas, had extended hi> laliors 
to Kanadesai;;!. At (leue\a some wliiu' iradei's had settled. an<l 
(emiiua Wilkinson and a h-w followers had estahlished themselves 
on the west hank of .Seneca lake. .\l ( "atharinestown at the hea<l 
of that lake ^\'ere oiu' or two white families. All else were Indians. 
Western Xew NOrk was \et a wilderness. 

.So tor nearly three hnmhxMl \ear'> followini^" the discover)' of 
America i)\' C Olumhus. W esteni Xew \'ork remaiiu'd in ])f)ssessi()n 
practically uudis])nted of the .Seneca hraiich of the lro(|unis con- 
federacy. Tradei's had bought what the Indian^ ha<l for >ale. Jesuit 
missionaries had ])reache(l and taught and nicidcnt all\- hurued. and 
hrench soldiers had d<.'stro\ed the homes and the stores of j^rain of 
the al)orii.;inal possessors, hut the "lono- house" of the .Six Xation> 
remained unshaken, and while the tides of con(|uest and settlement 
swuiiiL;' around to the north and turther to the west, this "dreat 
Western W ilderness." as it was s])okeii of in tlu' hooks of the time, 
remained ])racticall\ .i terra incoi^nita to the white man. 

W'estern Xew N'ork, thus jjrotecled aL;ainst a])propriat ion hy 
the hreuch. was sa\ed to huii^lish immigration, the ICiii^I'lish ton,!4'ne 
and the k'ni^lish faith. At U-ast the streni^th of the rrotiiu^is an<l 
their al)iiit\' to sa\e their h.deu from imaMon and appropriation hy 
the recurriuo- tides of imniii;r.'ition from the (^Id \\'orld remained 
unbroken until after the ( Olonie^ had declared tiieir independence 
and were in the throes of re\-(dutiou. Then in 177** the .Sullixan 
expedition forced its wa\ into the \ cry heart of the region and 
accomplished the douhle i)ur])ose of humhlin!.^ the power of the erne! 
allies of the Rn<;"lish kino- and of informing the hai'd)' ( "ontinentals 
of the i)ossihililies of the so-called "Wilderness" for new home 
making-. The men from the rocky hillsides of .Xew hjiiiland were 
oiil\- incideutalK soldiers. 1diev were tirst and liually farmers and 
home makers, and thev saw in the beautifully situated and fertile 
lauds of Western Xew ^ ork a lield that pr(^mised the laro^est 
rewards for indu>trv and euteriirise. As a consequence they carried 
back with them to their homes, after the war was over and the vic- 
tory won. livelv recollections of this laud of promise and hopes that 
could oul\- be satisfied bv the transfer of themselves and their fam- 
ilies to the west. 


But ten years elapsed after the strength of the Senecas had 
been broken and Sullivan's soldiers had gone back to their homes 
before the work of actual settlement could begin. Following the 
war of the Revolution came first the doubts involved in the rival 
claims of New York and Massachusetts. 

These were not settled until December 16, 1786. when under 
tlie terms of the agreemem ettected at a convention of commission- 
ers, representing- the two states, held at i-Iartford, Conn., Massachu- 
setts formal!}- acknowledged the sovereignity and jurisdiction of 
New York over all territory Ixing west of the ])resent east line of 
that state : and New York ceded to Massachusetts the preem])tiou 
rioht. or fee of the land, subject to the title of the natives, to all 
that part of the state lying- -west of a line beginning at the 82nd 
milestone m the PennsAlvania boundary and running due north to 
Lake Ontario. Tins was the l'reem])t;on line famous in the sub- 
sequent historv of AA'estern New York. The title to all land west 
of this hue. exce])ting onh' a twcnty-mde \\ ide strip east of the 
Niagara ri\er. was cedetl to Massachusetts, though thereafter to 
be a part of the State of New York. Massachusetts had it to sell. 
New York to goxern. In the tract thus disposed of was about six 
n-iillion acres of land. 

The interests of the region were involved later in the attempts 
of the so-called Lessee companies to ac(|uire possession of the Iro- 
quois lands by 999 vear leases, but the unlawful attempt was hap- 
pily foiled, and although the Massachusetts purchasers thought it 
wiser, or, perhaps, cheaper, to grant the "lessees" some concessions 
in compromise, they had only to secure the consent of the Indians 
in order to enter upon legal possession ruid begin the settlement of 
the lands for which they had contracted. 

Oliver Phelps, of ^fassachusetts, who had acted as a commis- 
sariat of the Continental forces during the Revolution and who had 
become interested in the stories told by the soldiers of Sullivan's 
arm\-, had the sagacitv to foresee that a land of such natural beauty 
and yielding" so bountifully under the rude agriculture of the Indians, 
was destined to be the seat of a vast civilized population. He 
accordinglv made arrangements with a number of friends to 
purchase a tract of a million acres. Later he became associated with 
Nathaniel Gorhruu, a prominent citizen of Afassachusetts. who had 
made plans to a similar effect. In 1788, yet more associates were 
admitted in order to avoid unprofitable rivalry, and the company 

roMTNG or Tiir wTrri"i' man 


agreed to purchase of Massachusetts all the laiuls t'nil)raccd in the 
cession of the preemption ri^lil fi-oni Xew ^'<)^k. the stipulated 
consideration l)ein^- o()(),()()(i ixmnds sterliuL:. or ahoul Sil.OOO.OOO 
in llie depreciated ])a])ei' cnn-ency 
of tiic state. 

Tlie purchase was subject to 
the Indian title, and with the pur- 

f extiniiuishinu' tlii^ 


riiel])s. in Jul}-, 1788, made his 
first \ isit to the Genesee conntrw 
In a treat}-, concluded at liutTalo 
creek, he linallx' succeeded in 
i^-ettini;' tlie red men to relinquish 
])ossessit)n of a tract of about 2.- 
600.000 acres. This tract was the 
eastern pai't of that for whose 
l)urchasc he and his associates 
had contracted with the State ot 
Massachusetts. It end^raced the 
land lyin^' between the Preeni])- 
tion line on the east, and, i^cn- 
crally speaking-, the (jcnesee river 
on the west, k'or this domain, 
which was thereafter known as 
the rhelps and (iorham Purchase, 
Mr. Phelps agreed to pay the 
Indians $5,000 in cash and an an- 
lun'ty of v$500 forever. 

Mr. Phelps found the country 
to more than meet his expecta- 
tions. As the officers of Sulli- 
\an's arm\- had described it in 
their sexeral diaries, it was a 
heax'ily tind)ered ccnintrw with 
occasional clearings and hcie ami 
there an Indian orchard, ami 


Oliver Phelps was a native of Windsor, 
Conn. He served in the commissary depart- 
ment of the Colonial .\rmy, and settling at 
Suffielcl. Mass., at the close of the Revolution, 
he held successively the offices of Nfcmbcr 
of .Assembly, State Senator, and Member of 
the (Governor's Council. He assisted in the 
organization of the Plielps and Gorham syndi- 
cate in 178S and acted as the representative 
of tliat company in the exploration of the 
• ienesce country and in negotiations for the 
extinction of tlie Indian title lo the land. He 
ri-moveil to Canandaigna in I80J. and though 
disappointed through the failure of the land 
enterprise to yield the cxpectcil returns, he 
had a large part in the development of this 
region. He served as First Judge of the Coun- 
ty from the date of its organization. 1789, 
until 179.^ and he represented the western 
district of the State in ilie Ninth Congress. 
1803-05. Jesse Hawley wrote of Mr. Phelps 
that he was "the Secrops of t!'- «"-■■•■ -^rc Coun- 
trv. Its inhabitants owe a r i to his 

memorv in gratitude for his '- >. ; loneercd 

cultivated fields on which the In- '>»• t'l^""'C «''<'"n.ess of this Canaan of 

the West. He died in Canandaigua in 1809. 

dians raised corn, beans, squash ^^ed 60 years. 

and watermelons. Mr. l'hel]>s wrote to his associates, '*Vou may 

rely upon it that it is a good country." Colonel Hugh Maxwell, who 


had come on with .Mr. I 'helps and had beg^iin under the latter's 
direction lo srirxev the newly accinired land into townships, wrote 
to his famiix- in Alassachusetts. "The land in this country is exceed- 
ing good, but it wants good inhabitants." 

The first stakes had thus been dri\ en in the white occupancy of 
Western Xew York. But at tliis juncture, after having settled with 
the Indians and set surveyors at work, and engaged choppers to cut 
a road through the woods from !-"ort Stanwix. Phelps and Gorham 
found themselves unable to carry out the contract the}- had made 
with the State of Massachusetts. The paper currency of the state 
w'as worth, at the time thev made the contract, only about 20 cents 
on a dollar, but before pay day arrived its value had risen to nearly 
par. and in 1789. with the consent of the ^lassachusetts legislature, 
thev relinquished their claim to all the original purchase, except 
that in which they had been able to extinguish the Indian title. 

In the running of the Preem])tion line, in 1788. a blunder, or 
more probably a fraud was comnu'tted which was the occasion of 
much >ubsef|uent controversy and embarrassment, and resulted in 
the selection l)v I'helps and Gorham for their head(|uarters, of "a 
beautiful situation and good ground for a town plot," west of Can- 
andaigua lake outlet, instead of at Kanadesaga as first intended. 
The line which was run from the xnith was deflected toward the 
west at a point south of Seneca lake. This was accomplished, at the 
instigation, it is belie\ed. of unscru])nlous lessees, during the tempo- 
rary absence of Col. Hugh Maxwell, the surveyor representing the 
Massachusetts purchasers, and ^^•hen the line was brought back to 
due north. ])revious to or at Col. Maxwell's return to the work, it 
had been shifted enough to the west to pass westward of Geneva. 
Though it is generally conceded that Col. Maxwell was entirely 
unconscious of the deviation in the line, it was early suspected. 
Oliver Phel])s. in a letter to William \\"alker. the agent who had 
been sent into the new country to open at Canandaigua what is 
entitled to be known as the first otfice for the sale of land to settlers 
ever established in America, wrote, September 19. 1788: "I am 
still dissatisfied al)()ut our east line. I am sure it cannot be right." 
But it vvas not corrected and Geneva brought back into Ontario 
county until 1793. 

The "gore" between the true and the fraudulent Preemption 
lines contained 85.896 acres of land, and as the State of Xew York- 
had promptly sold or granted the land up to the line which it 



supposed marked tlie liinii ol ilir Massachusetts j)reempti(^n. much 
trouble followed llie discovery of the surx'eyor's "mistake." The 
.State and Captain W dlianison acting;- for the association ol' .Massa- 
chusetts j)ut"cliasers cooperated to rxtin^uish the claims of the 
owners of the land in (|uestion, and 
later the State settled with tlir 
latter i)}' i.;i\in!L;' them from one 
and a half to six acres of public 
lands for each acre surrendered in 
1 lie "u'ore." 

Inthespring of 1789 Xathan- 
iel (^orham, Jr., Israel ("lia])in and 
a mimher of other ])ioneers en- 
tered the purchase, Agent Walker 
o-pened his land olTice, the sur\-ey 
was under \\a\-, an<l the inlinx of 
settlers had fairl\- begun. 

In their letter of instruction 
to Agent Walker under date of 
.\ugust 21. 17X8, the managers of 
the company wrote that thev ex- 
pected that the to\vnshi])s on the 
east line of the Purchase would 
sell at an average of Is 5(1 lawful 
money of Massachusetts ])er acre, 
"but," they added, "of that we 
cannot be quite competent judges 
until the townships are fm'thcr 
explored; therefore you are to 
disjiose of them fif an}' ptirchasers 
present) in the best manner you 
can, pro\ided that the jxiorest 
lownshi]) is not >old under one- 
sixth of a dollar per acre, referring 
the purchasers to us for the mode 
of payment uidess the\- ])a\ the 
money down, 'bhe lands uiion tlu' (ienesee ri\er are to be con- 
sidered as more \aluable, and we think that they will undoubtedly 
axerage one-third of a dollar i)er acre; but as those townships will 
probably differ much in their value, the price will accordingly differ. 


Xatlianiel (iorhatu, tlie elder, who was the 
associate of Mr. I'helps in ihe management of 
the IMiclps and Gorhani property, and acted 
for the company in conferences with the 
Massaclnisctis State authorities and in the 
iietfotiations for the establishment of the Pre- 
emption hne, was never a resident upon the 
I'lirchase. His home was in Charleston. 
.Mass.. where he was born in 17J8. He died 
in Uoston, Mass., in 1769. His son. Nathaniel 
("iorliam, Jr., of whom unfortunately no por- 
trait is known to exist, came to Canandaigua 
in 17S9 and acted as the agent of his father 
in the immediate management of the busi- 
ness of the company. He was an early 
Supervisor of the town, was President of the 
Ontario bank for a number of years, and 
held other important positions in the 


\\'e suppose the l)est elear flat will brin^" one dollar ])er aere. while 
some of the adjoiniiiii' land may be very ordinal"}-, but we c;innot 
entertain an idea but thev will average the one-third of a dollar ])er 
acre." He wrote that a great number of the best sur>-eyors could be 
obtained to go into the new country at 9s per day and take their i)a)- 
in lands, or at 7s 6d in cash. 

On October 5 of the same year. Agent A\"alker reported that 
he had sold "to (ien'l Chapin &. Capt. Dickinson No. 10 first tier 
at Is lOd per acre, to Ciend ChajMu & Capt. Noble No. 11 second 
tier at Is lOd, and to the same Gentlemen No. 10 second tier at Is 
8d, all N. \'ork currency; have likewise sold to Messrs. Talmage 
and Bartle in No. 1-4 in the first tier about half a townshii). at Is /d, 
all the cash to be paid 1st next May: a number of other towns are 
exploring by different gent'm in \iew of ptirchasing, in fine the 
prospects of a rapid settlement is as great as could l)e reasonably 

In the wild land speculations that marked the history of this 
region ten years later, good farm land brought as high as $r> i)cr 
acre, an enormous price considering the condition of the cottntrx' 
antl the lack of all means of transjiortation exce])t that afforded b\- 
ox teams OAer execrable roads or b}- bateaux on tuu-elial)'e water 

The speculators knew the land, howexer. It only needed their 
gift of imagination, or the exalted faith of a Col. Maxwell, to ])iclure 
the future realities of this countr}-. To the men from New 
England's rocky farms, the rich and tillable lands of W estern New 
York had possibilities that warranted the ]^aying of e\en S5 an aci-e 
for them. Col. Maxwell while engaged in the surveys of 17(S8 had 
written his ^vife back in Massachusetts: "I have no doubt that in 
the course of a \ery few A-ears there will be man\- w <)rshii>i)ing 
assemblies of Christians where now the wild lieasts howl, and that 
•he time is not far distant when this wildness shall blossom a< the 
rose." Col. Maxwell x.vas a veteran of the Rex'olution, ami 53 years 
old wdien he wrote thus enthusiasticallv. 

But before the value of the lands in their ])urchase came to be 
widel}^ appreciated, and l)efore, even, they could be adxantaged bv 
the wave of speculation referred to, Phel])s and Goidiam found them- 
selves unable from the proceeds of the sales to settlers to meet their 
maturing obligations and proceed with the allotment. Tliex- 
therefore availed themselves of the opportuinty that offered in 

COM l.\(, < )]• 

Wlliri- MAX. 


/' -l A /; / ' \ y  1 /? / ^ ' 


his map shows the I'lieli'.s ami l.orha.ii puichaM- as il was between ISUJ and •S*'^. It 
reduced fac-siniile of the rare original and is the n.ost correct map extant of the Fhelps 

IS a re 

an<l Ciorhani purchase. 


August, 1790, to dispose of the unsold part of their land, embracing 
something more than one-haU' the purchase, and reserving only two 
specified townships Xo. 10 of the 3d Range and Xo. 9 of the 7th 
Range, the two comprising about 47,000 acres, to Robert Morris, 
the great financier of the Revolution. Mr. ^lorris paid for the 
1,267,569 acres thus acquired at the rate of eight pence half penny 
per acre, Massachusetts currency, or between eleven and twelve 
cents per acre in I'. S. money. He sent his son, Thomas Morris. t<i 
Canandaigua to look after the ])ro])erty. but almost immediately hi< 
agent in London sold it entire to an English syndicate, com])Ose(l 
of Sir William Pulteney, John Hornl)y. and Patrick Colciuhoun. 
The latter paid 75.000 pounds sterling ^^about $333,000) for the land, 
a price that netted a good profit for Mr. Morris. The new owners 
placed the control and title of the property in the hands of Charles 
U'illiamson. a naturalized citizen, who settled in Bath and to whose 
wise and energetic management is due nuich of the credit for the 
subsequent development of the region. He was a member of the 
Legislature from Ontario count\- for three years following 1796, 
and in 1795 he was appointed a judge of the county. 

Almost simultaneously with this sale to the English company. 
Mr. ^Morris purchased of the .State of Massachusetts all the kind 
west of the Genesee river which was embraced in the original 
purchase of Phel]:>s and Gorham. but which the latter relinquished. 
He sold all but about 500.000 acres of the last mentioned tract to 
the Holland Company in 1792 and '93. conditioned upon the 
extinguishment of the Indian title. This last was l^rought about 
in 1797. 

Thus at last the title to all of ^^'estern X^'ew York had ])assed 
from Massachusetts to private ownership, and barring only about 
3,500 square miles of reservation, the Indians had surretulercd lo 
the same interests their claim upon the land. 

The era of the aboriginal in U^estern N'ew York had tinaM\- 
closed and that of the white man had opened. 

Twv. i-iKST sr/r'ri.i-.Mi'.XT. 21 



A Party of Pioneers from Massachusetts Enter the Genesee 
Country by an All-Water Route — Their Settlement at Canan- 
daigua — Israel Chapin Api)ointed Indian Agent by President 
Washington — A Period of Apprehension — The Pickering 
Treaty of 1794. 

Iiitd the (ireat Western Wilderness, as Central and Western 
W'w \ oik was then called. ear]\- in Ma\-. in 1 7SQ. there came a little 
]);irty <>t Xew I'^nglanders. l)ent npon spying out the land and making 
hollies <ind, mayhap, fortunes for themseh'es and their kin. Loading 
their goods into hateanx at Schenectad\-, the\- paddled and poled 
their rnde craft, ag.ainst the current, up tiie Mohawk to l-'ort Stan- 
wix ( ui \\ Rome): then carried boats and goods ox er a portage of a 
H'iie to W Ood creek: thence floated down this httle stream to 
( )nei(hi lake, and through the lake and down its outlet to the junc- 
tion with the Oswego ri\ei": then u]) stream again toward Onondaga into ;ind through the Seneca ri\er. ("lyde rixer. and finally into 
the Lanandaigua lake outlet. .\t Little Palls, the llatd)()ttonied 
hoats and their content'^ were cai'ried around hy wagons. They 
were again transported oxerland at the h'ort Stanwix portage, and 
at .Seneca I'alls and Manchester there were yet other mdoadings 
and carries. 

It was a picturesque and interesting, if an arduous, jc^urney. 
and we nia\- be sure that ihc^se who thus gained entry into the 
region through which .'^ullixan's army had ravaged ten years before. 
found in the forest that bordered the streams, the glades and 
n.arshes, tinged with the \ arming greens of bursting buds, and lighted 
1i\- the pussv willow and the ^had bush, and in the beautiful lake 
into which they finally floated, a panorama that met their fondest 
anticipations. Dr. labeK Campfield, of the Sullivan expedition, had 



not qvenlrawn the attractions of the country when he set down in 
his journal that it was ''equal to any in ye world." 

Thoueh this water route was deemed entirely practicable, or 
boatabie. as it was expressed in a letter written at the time, having 
been explored by General Chapin and Agent A\'alker the Septem- 

iDer previous, and a road having 
been cut vet later in the season, 
throuHi the woods, for a carry 
around the rapids at ^Manchester, 
vet this is believed to have been 
the only party of immigrants who 
ever ascended through the outlet 
into the lake itself. Boats there- 
after came only as far as Man- 
chester, and thence their contents 
were transported overland to Can- 
andaigua. Augustus Porter, who 
had contracted with some of the 
])urchasers of land to siU'vey the 
same, and who came on ten or 
fifteen days later than the party 
above described, relates that it 
was a year of universal scarcity 
amoncr the Indians. Indeed, he 
says, they were almost reduced to 
starvation, owing probably to an 
unusual fall of sno\v the winter 
previous and the consequent 
scarcity of game. Perhaps it was 
the flood following this snow tliat 
made the outlet, in the spring of 
1789, unusually navigable. 

The leader of this party of 
pioneers, which included, also. 
Nathaniel Gorham. Jr., Frederick' Saxton, Benjamin Gardner. 
Daniel Gates, and a number of others, was Israel Chapin, of Hat- 
held, Mass., the man who was destined to become the strong man 
of the projected capital of the Phelps and Gorham purchase. 

Israel Chapin was of ^\ elch ancestry, and belonged to a family 
that was numerously and prominently represented in Colonial life. 

-\uguslus Porter first entered the Phelps 
and Gorham purchase in 1789, when he was 
ahoiit 20 years of age, for the purpose of 
making a sur"ey of Township Xo. 10 in the 
Fourth Range (now East Bloomfield). A 
year later he entered the service of Oliver 
Phelps as agent in making surveys and sales 
of lands, and in 1792 assisted .\ndrew Elli- 
cott. United States Surveyor General, in re- 
surveying and correcting the Preemption 
hne. Mr. Porter moved to Xiagara Falls 
about the vear 1806 and died there in 1864. 

Ksr sryi'iij-iMKNT 


There wore no less than one hnnch-ed and imw Chapins who served 
in the W ar of llio UeNohilinn. Israel I'Jiapin was born in (irafton, 
Mass., Decendier 4, 17-1'). \\c snli>r(|nenlly hecanic a resident of 
ilallield. ill the same C(aiiUy. As to his earlier years, little can he 
ascertained, l»nt that they were sneh as to eonnnand the respect and 
confidence of his tow ns])eople. is evidenced h\' the fact that from 
\7()2. wlieii he was only 22 years of a^e, io 17X7. when he became 
interested in the I'hel])^ and ( lorhani purchase, there was hardly a 
year Imt what lie was elected to some town ofhce. W hen I'aul 
l\e\eia' carried tiie news from I rxinf^ton on a certain historic niji^ht, 
he was captain of a conipan\- of Minme Men who responded to the 
alarm, and tlioni;h it does not a])])ear that he stood amoni( the 
emliatt'ed farmers at Concord the next da\-, it ma\' be presumed 
that he wisiied he did. 

riiis irreLitd.'ir service lasted onh^ sex'en dax's, hnt he enlisted 
in tlie Patriot arm\- on the 27th of -\pril. 177.^. lie was at Sarat<»^a 
at I lie M'.i-render of lUirg-oyne, in 1777, and the same year attained 
the rank of Major. In Octoher of that year he became a Lieutenant 
Colonel, and, in hehruarx of the \'ear followin*''. Colonel in the 
Mas^achn^-etts militia' then he aded as Hri<;adicr (lenera', was in 
the cami)ai^-n against (Jnehec, and was Inniorably discharLi^ed 
.\o\emi)er 21, 1779. 

TiiriuM- says that in addition to his services in the field dnnn.i;' 
the l\e\ iilnlion. General C ha])in was occasionally a sub-contractor, 
or ai;enl of Olixer Pheli^s, in itnrchasing- supplies for the army. On 
one occasion he was re(pie:-ted h)' Mr. I^help^^ to obtain a "t'me yoke 
of fat catt'e for (ienera! \\'ashin,i;"ton's table." 

bollowim;- the i)nrcha.>-e of westeiai land from the State of 
Massaclmsetls, .\])ril 1, 17XS, Ceneral Cha])in was appointe«l by the 
associates in the enterprise to explore the countrw and upon the 
retinal of Mr. Phelps from his journey to Kanadesat^a and Xiai^ara. 
in the eaiK summer, and the i)nrchase by Mr. Phelps from the 
Indians (f the tract between tiie Preemption line and the ( ienesee 
ri\er (the so-called Phelps and Gorhaiu purchase), he came into 
the country for the first time. William Walker, appointed to the 
oflice of local a^ent, was here also, and the two men. in Se|)tember. 
explored the practicability of the outlet as a means of communica- 
tion with the East, beofan the cuttino- of a road throu.q:li the woods 
from Kanadesaoa to Canandaigua and thence to the Genesee. 
started siuwevors upon the work of mapping- the tract, located the 


site of what was to become the village of Canandaigua, and erected 
a small log house there for the storage of supplies. Then, as Agent 
Walker reported, "the season being so far advanced, and the 
difficulty of erecting- buildings in any degree comfortable for our- 
selves, and the large number of purchasers who present themsehes 
so great." they decided to return east and wait until the next spring 
before establishing themselves on The Chosen Spot. 

The founding of the settlement at Canandaigua \\"as made at a 
■lime of gravest danger. T'ressed further and further into the 
wilderness by the con^.tanth' augmenting influx of white settlers, 
the Indians \\ere naturally restless. As one of the squaws, per- 
mitted ro participate iri the Pickering Council, expressed it. the}- 
had l)een "pressed and 5(juee:<ed together until it gave them a great 
pain at their hearts." Their passions were inflamed by the rum 
dealt out to them in the clinching oi everv barg-ain and the negotia- 
tion of e\-ery treaty, as well as in the purchase of their peltry. They 
were confused by the conflicting claims of State and National 
governments. T'ley were dissatished with the amount of money 
received in payment for ihcir lands. They were urged In- the 
unscrupulous lessees to reinuliate their contracts with the whites, 
arid the}- were made arrogant and unmanageable 1)V ne\\> of the 
u])rising of their brothers iti the West. 

It was at this critical juncture, \vhen council after council had 
been held without a\ai!. and restlessness might at any time break 
out into open hostilities, that the Secretary of A\'ar. General Knox, 
selected General Cha|Mn, then the leading citi.zen of the settlement 
at Canandaigua. as the man for the luAir. and appointed him to the 
office of Deputy Superintendent of the Six Nations. His commission 
to this service was dated .\pril. 1792. 

The letter from Secretary Knox appointing General Chapin 
to this highly responsible position urged the latter to impress upon 
the Indians that it was the "hrm determination of the United States 
that the utmost fairness and kindness should be exhibited to them. 
That it was not only his desire to be at peace with all the Indian 
tribes, but to be their guardian and ]:)rotector against all injustice." 

In a subsequent letter of instruction, the Secretary wrote that 
it uas the ardent desire of the I'resident that a "firm peace should 
be established with the neigh.boring tribes of Indians, on such pure 
principles of justice and moderation as will enforce the approbation 
of the dispassionate and enlightened part of mankind." But. the 



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Secretary concluded, "if the hostile Indians should, after having had 
these intentions of the Government fully laid before them, still 
persist in their depredations in the frontiers, it will be considered as 
the dictates of humanity to endeavor to punish with severity so 
incorrigible a race of men. in order to ]irevent other tribes in future 
from a like conduct." 

How Avell the Superintendent carried out the desires of the 
President, and how successful!}' he avoided resort to the alter- 
native so emphatically set forth by the Secretary, may be understood 
from what follows. 

The first dut\- devolved upon Suiierintendent Chapin was to 
induce |ose])h lb-ant, the famous Seneca chieftain, to visit Phila- 
delphia, then the seat of Government. Brant had refused to 
accompanv a delegation from the Six Nations a short time before, 
deemine it beneath his dignity to go with a drove of Indians. But 
he yielded to the urging of the Sui)erintendent, came to Canan- 
daigua, and from here he was escorted by Israel Chajun, jr., and 
other attendants, \ia .\lbany and Xew ^"(M-k, to Philadelphia. The 
wi'y Brant, halting between his obligations to the British and his 
inc'iuation to all\- himsc'f with the go\ ernment of the I'nited J^tates. 
was careful to make no derinite iM-omises, and his visit fai'ed (»f the 
puri)Ose to secure his active mliuence in behalf of peace. 

Upon the return of the Brant party. Secretary Knox wrote the 
Superintendent regretting that he himself did not make tlie journey 
to Philadelphia, and adding: "As >ou at ])resent are regarded 
favorablv. as well for your zeal as your economy, it will be expedient 
to you tltat these princijiles be manifest in all your future conduct. 
and while von continue to make the pid)lic good the rule of your 
miction, you may ])r()ceed vith confidence as you may depend upon 
support." That he clid continue to make the pul)lic good the rule 
of his action is attested by the fact that he continued to the end of 
his life to have the support of the (government and that no word of 
disparagement or criticism of his work is to be found in the pul:)lic 

There followed a long ])eriod during which the Genesee country 
was in a state of constant a])prehensi()n. Time and again the 
settlers were alarmed by the report that the Indians had gone on 
the war ])ath. Dreams of massacre distm-hed the sleep of the people 
or. many a night. Throtigh it all, the calm, imperturbable, strong 
figure of General ("h;ii)in held its wa}-. and the settlement came to 


kST si'/r'rrj'.Mi^x'T 


reiy n])(>n liini ;is its (Icfciidcr, as be Iirul l)fcn from the hco-iiiniiii^ 
its leading citi/cii. Mi-^ rner^y \\a> uiilla_J4<4'in<;'. Ilis saj^acity never 
failei!. 'rinou^li his iniliuiice. confci-cncc- alter o inference was held 
with hostile liKhans at the \\\'st. 
He kept in closest touch with the 
Senecas neai" Iionie, and 1)\ (li])lo 
macy, h}- his th( in m.^ii nndt-i-stand- 
in<^" of their chai'actei", li\- assert- 
inti" on occasion the streniL^lh <if 
tlie (ioNcrnnn'iit he re])resented, 
by i^'ifts and entertainment, \\v 
succeeded in foibm;- the machina- 
tions of I'.ritish as^-ents bent on 
lonK-ntinL;' triinbU'. Ilis home in 
( 'anandai^na was e\er ojien to 
Indian (leputations. llis door 
\ard was the scene of almost 
d;iil\- councils, and hi.s bi'ead and 
n)eat and mm wei'e disi)ensed 
fi'eely. lie acte(l as arbitrator in 
e\e]"\' (hsi)nte that aro<e between 
hidians and white settlei"s. lint 
through all the anxious da\-s tlu' 
Sui)erintendenl succeeded in re- 
taining- the confidence and respect 
of the red men. Lar^'e sum> of 
public mone\- — lar:.;'e for those 
days — passed throui^h his hands, 
w'thout suheriuiLi' from attrition, 
an.d for all this and nmch more 
the (ieneral recei\ed the numih- 
cenl annual salary of $500. 

lie wrote the Secretary (^f War 
in 17^)3, L;"i\ini;- it as his opinion 
that the establishment of a pro])- 
erly e(pui)ped school for the In- 
dians west of the Genesee ri\-er 

.(;is,jci r.-irrish, wlio was the loyal assislant 
of ("leneral Israel Cliapin in Iiis work a^ the 
att'-'iit of tlie Ciovcninient. was horn near the 
hcail waters of the Delaware river in this 
State ill 1767 and died in Canandai^ia in 
iNxi. When only eleven years old, while 
working in a field with his father, he was 
siii|>riscd and captured by a band of Monscc 
Iii.lians. Me sjieiit the succeeding six years as 
a ca.itive in that tribe and among the Dela- 
wares .Tini the Mohawks, being finally re- 
leased in 17.S4 as the result of a treaty stipu- 
lation by which the Six .\ations gave n . .11 
v\hite ea|)tives. Retinning to his fain:' 
renewed llis ac(|uaiiitance with the Mi .. 
language, acted as interpreter at several 
councds with the Indians, and in April, 1792, 
uas appointed oflicial ("lovernment niterpreter 
and instructed to reside at Canandaigua. Was 
the priiici|ia! interpreter at the council held in 
I'ananilaigiin under direction of Colonel 
riinotliy Pirkeriuit in 1794, was i--- ' -'i. 

agent in ISd.'. an<l continued in • 

cial positions through successive a.: a- 

tions until President Jackson's second term. 

inii,;'ht be of iufinite serxice "both 
in concili.'.tin^ the affections of the Indian^ and in layino- the foun- 
dations for their ci\ ili/atiiui." 1 1 e asked also for directions as to how 


far he should distribute to the Indians, and added : 'T arrh 
continually surrounded by a crowd of them * * * They all expect 
to be fed from my table and made glad from my cellar. Some 
instances, too, of clothing, I have not been able to deny. I would 
suggest the idea whether a small store of provisions and goods to 
be distributed on necessary occasions might not be a saving to the 
public." This suggestion was favorably acted upon by the Govern- 
ment, and a depot of supplies established in Canandaigua. 

The season of 1794- opened v.ith particularly dark prospects. 
Upon General Chapin, the Government depended for preserving 
the endangered peace and the people for their ver}- lives. Had it 
not been for him, it is probable that there would have been a 
general desertion of the Genesee country. His apparent confidence 
quieted the apprehensions of the people, but he better than any one 
else appreciated the danger. In April he wrote the Secretary of 
V\ ar that he feared that the Indians, aroused by an inflammatory 
speech of Lord Dorchester, and by the declaration of another 
British agent that a second war between England and the United 
States was inevitable, were ripe for mischief. ''The expense of the 
Indians,*" he continued, ''increases with the importance they 
suppose their friendship to be to us. However, you may be 
persuaded that I will endeavor to make use of all the economy I 
can." The letter closed : **This part of the country, being the 
frontier of the State of New York, is very much alarmed at the 
present appearance of war. Destitute of arms and ammunition, the 
scattered inhabitants of this remote wilderness would fall an easv 
prey to their savage neighbors, shotild they think proper to 
attack ihem." 

In May of the same year. 1794. General Chapin wrote asking 
tiiat 1200 or 1500 stand of arm>; be provided "for the inhabitants of 
the frontier.'' The State appointed commissioners to take 
necessary steps for defense. Governor Clinton recommended that 
a deposit be made at "Canadaqua in Ontario Countv." of one 
hundred weight of powder and a proper quantity of lead, etc., and 
the commissioners directed that a block house be erected here and 
furnished with a piece of cannon. 

General Chapin represented the National Government in a 
council with the restless Indians at Buffalo, June 15, to consider 
vexed questions growing out of the controversy over the western 
boundary, and as a result he urged the negotiation of a general 



treaty as the only iikmiis wliicli could kcf]) the Six Nations from 
joining the dangerous Imliar. (■(Mifederacy in the West. 


Coniplantvr was a Seneca chief: born ni t'();ie\vauj;iis. on tiie (ieiiesee river, in I7i2; died on 
the Cornplanter reservation in Penns>lvania, l-'eLruary 17, 18,16; was a half breed, son of an 
Indian trader named John (''Hail. He was a warrior of inidoubtcd prowess, and led the Seneca 
allies of the British in the War of the Revolution in forays upon the patriot settenicnts in Xew 
York and Northern Pennsylvania, Init after its ciose became the firm friend of the Americans and 
aided in securing the Fort Stanwix treaty »( 1784; also took prominent part in the council at 
Au Glaize in 1792 and in that in Catiandaigua in 1794; was often a jealous rival of Red Jacket. 

To this letter from General Ciiai)in. the Secretary of War 
replied: "Y'our ideas of a conference are adopted. It will be held 
at Canandaigua on the 8th of September. Colonel Pickering will be 


the cc)nni]is>iuner, to be assisted 1)\- _\ou in all respects. Xotify the 
Six Xations that their father, the President of the United States, 
is deeply concerned to hear of any dissatisfaction existing- in their 
minds against the United States, and therefore invites them to a 
conference, for the purpose of removing all causes of misunder- 
standing and establishing a permanent peace and friendship between 
the Unired States and the Six Nations."' 

General Cha]:)in lost no time in >i)reading the news of the 
proposed council. He visited their villages in person and conferred 
with their chiefs, and he sent runners to Ruffalo creek and to 
Canada to counteract British interference. 

The council which was finally assembled in Canandaigua as the 
result of these eiTorts was one of the most important ever held in 
the countrv. It v>-as certainly the most notable event in the earlier 
historv of Ontario county, and as ])icturesque as it was notable. 
The Government made ample provision for the council. Great 
stores of food, trinkets, iicjuor and tobacco were gathered here. 
General Chapin spared no eli'ort to fulhll his promise to the Indians 
that he \\ould "hang on h\g kettles."' 

CoMnel Timothv Pickering, selected by President Washington 
to act as the Commissioner in behalf of the Government, was one of 
the most distinguished men of the time. A graduate of Harvard 
College, he had studied law, and had I^een active in the exciting 
events preliminarv to the Revolution. He led a Massachusetts 
regiment in that war. At its close he had risen to the position of 
Quartermaster General. In 1791 he became Postmaster General in 
President Washington's cabinet; the year following his service at 
the council in Canandaigua he was appointed Secretary of W ar. and 
in December of the same year he \vas transferred to the State 
Department. He also ser\ ed several years in Congress. 

The assembliu"- of the Indians here was retarded b\ their 
desire to learn the outcome of the contest then waging between 
General W a}ne and the hostiles in the West, but when the news 
came, as it did earh- in October, that \\^avne had been successful, 
the business of the council progressed with reasonable speed. 

Fortunately we have a graphic account of the proceedings of 
the Pickering Council by an eye witness, in the shape of the journal 
of William Savery, a member of the Society of Friends, present at 
the request of the Indians to see that they were fairly treated. The 
council, which was to have opened early in September, was not 



fnil\' orm-ani/.ed until tlic IStli of ilic following- niontli. and it 
conliiiucd in almost daily session until the litli of .\'i i\ c-niher, whcMi 


Red Jackcl, .so nanu'd because 'f U.c i icldy i ii.broidered scarlet jacket wliicli lie afTected. liorn about 1759, either near what i.s now Canv ga on the west bank of Cayuga I-ake, where 
a monument commeiiioratin<r the event has been erected, or at a Seneca village which was located 
on the west side of Lake Keuka, as stoutly maintained by some writers. Died at Seneca N'illage 
near lUiffalo, January JO, 18.30. His Seneca name, Sa-go-ye-wat-ha. being interpreted, means "He 
keeps them awake." In earlier life he was noted for his swiftness of foot and was called O-tc-ti- 
ani, "Always ready." Was famed as an orator and participated in various ln<lian councils, includ- 
ing thai held in Canandaigna in 1794. Went on the war-path for tlie British cause in 1779, ami 
in the struggle of 1812 look the American side, but in neither gained fame as a wiarrior. Wore 
with pride a large silver medal [ircsented to by I'resiaent Washington at I'hiladeljjhia in 1793. 
His remains now lie in Forest l.awn at lUiiTalo and abo\e them stands a marble monument, wliich is 
surmounted by a bronze statue of " Tlie Cicero of Indian Fame." 

a treaty satisfactory to all ])arties was dul_\ signed and the slathering- 

The treaty thus concluded brightened the two rusty places in 
the chain of friendship, as picturesquely described by the Indian 


arators. It restored to the Senecas the land west of a hue drawn 
(iiie south from the month of linfTalo creek and now embraced in 
Chautauqua and i)orti()ns of (Jaitaraugus and Erie counties. This 
made their western boundary the shore of Lake Erie and the Niagara 
river, the Go\ernment only reser\ing the use of a strip along that 
river for a road l)et\\een tlie lakes. The Senecas on their part 
surrendered claim to the triangle at Pres([ue Isle, which it appeared 
their chief Cornplanter had disposed of \\ itJKnU authority, and with- 
out accounting for the ])roceeds. to the State of Pennsylvania. 
They also had their annuit}- increased from $1,500 to $4,500, and 
there was distributed amon.g them, at the conclusion of the council, 
goods valued at $10,000. The result, as we know, was entirely 
satisfactory. From that on there was no serious disagreement 
between the Avhites and the people of the Six Xations. 

Throughrnit the dickering Council, General Chai)in was an 
important figure. He occupied a seat of honor beside the Com- 
missioner at every session. His home was the center of abounding 
hospitalit}'. He was the recognized almoner of the (io\ernme,nt. 
It is not recorded that he made a smgle speech, but at exerv stcji 
liis great influence o\er the Indians a\ as exerted to bring their 
vacillation to an end. to kee]:) them in goo<l humor, to straighten 
out their grie\';ince>. and fmall\- to secure their signatures to the 

As an instance of what was constaiub- taking ])lace in the 
Chapin door yard during the ijrogress of this council, the following 
is quoted from P'riend Savery's journal: 

"14th of the IVnth month— -The party of Senecas, headed by 
the Farmer's Brother, Little Billv, etc., bavin"- arrived, last evening;-, 
within four miles, ^\ ei-c expected this afternoon : btit ha\ ing to 
I)aint ar.d ornament iheniselx-es before their jjublic entrN', the\- did 
not arrive till 3 o'clock this afternoon. The ( )neidas, Cayugas, and 
Onondagas were diawn nj), drosed, and ])ainte(l, with their arms 
l)repared for a. salute, before General Cha])iirs door. The men able 
to bear arms marched in, assuming a good deal of importance, and 
drew Li]) in a line facing the Oneidas, etc. Colonel Pickering. 
General Chapin, ami many white people being ])resent. The 
Indians fired three rounds \\hich the other Indians ans-wered by a 
like number, making a long and loud echo through the woods. 
Their commanders then ordered them to form a circle around the 
Commissioner and General Chapin: then, sitting down on the 



ground. tlio\' (I(.-li\cro(l :i spcccli, tliv )u;l;1i llic l-'arnu-r's P.rotluT. ;in(l 
rctiiiiicd tlic sirni,L;.s nl waminini \^ liicli w ri'c sent tlicni wltcn llicx' 
w c 1 <-• i"r( iiu'sU'd 1(1 0(>nK' to tlu' ti'c.'itw ( (ihmc'l Pu-kciMiiL' an.swrrcd 


I Ins Wuuhltr iiU'iiiiinciil. coinnieiiujiatiiiy llit: coiux'il lielil l)y Colonel '1 imotliy Piclcering aiiil 
otiier representatives of tlie United States Governnitnt witii the Six Nations, at Canantlaigua, in 
the summer of 1794, was erected in 1902 by Dr. iHvight H. Burrell, an officer of tlie Ontario 
County Historical Society. It is a granit'e boulder weighing approximately 30 tons, and is located 
on the Court House Square. 

tlicip ill tlu' usii.'d CI iin])li!noiitar\ iiiaiiiicr, and ordered several 
kettles of rnni \i: l)e hron^lil. attei' drinking wliicli tliey dis])erse(K 
and went to ))re|)are their eanii). l^acli cliiet delivered a luindle ot 
Slicks. ans\\-eral)le to the iniinber of ])ei"S()ns. men. women, and 
enildren. under his eiDiiniand. wliich amounted to 4/2. Pliey made 
a irnl\- terrille and warhk'e a])i)earanee." Tlie follow iiii^- day I.OOO 
Indians had asseniMed, and this nnmher was atle]-wa]-(k inereased. 
It w.-'is indeed a i-emai-kahle ^allierin^- of red men. inclndini;- not 
onl\ those noted. Imt also Ked lacket. the fanion> orator: Corn- 
pianier. e(|nall\ famous as a wai" chief: Little I'.eard. h^ish Carrier. 
L dear Sk\-. and inan\- others, jemima \\ iikinson was drawn to the 
settlement hv the exent. and with Tolonel rickerinj;". William 
vSa\ery and others, was entertained by yonn^ Thomas Morris. 
Jasper Parrisli. as the of^cial interpi-eter. wri< .Superintendent 
Cha]")in s most efficient cnadint(n". 


The conferences of the Indians, clad in all their sava^g^e finer}-. 
about the bit;- conncil hres : the repeated adjournments made 
necessary l)v the drunkenness of the chiefs and sachems ; the denounc- 
ing by Colonel Pickering of a white man named Johnson as a 
British spy; the bursts of eloquence by Red Jacket and other gifted 
sons of the forest : their Aisits of ceremony upon each other and 
upon the distinguished officers of the Government ; the busy life in 
the camps that were pitched in the woods surrounding the village 
and that consisted of rough tepees of bark and botighs-; the horse 
racing, dancing, and other, sports that hlled in man\- of the leisure 
hours; the meetings for worship and praise conducted in the forest 
bv the Godly Quakers on e\erv First day: the falling of seven or 
eight inches of snow on the 25th of Octobei" : the killing of a 
hundred deer in one day within a few miles of the \illage — these 
were some of the picturesque events of the great council. 

The treaty was written on parchment and signed in du])licate 
by abotit fifty of the sachems and wdr chiefs. 

[n a letter to the Secretary of ^\ ar in the month following the 
signing of the Pickering treatv. December, 17^H, General Cha])in 
wrote: "-My journe}' to LeBoeuf. I shall e\"er believe, was the 
means of preventing the Six Nations from lending their assistance 
to their Western brothers, as thev term them : and in which I got 
ni}' present sickness, from which I am fearful I shall never recover. 
But. believe me. sir. to be useful to the frontier upon which I live 
and my country in general, has been the prevailing object of my 

The forebodings of the patriot in reference to his health proved 
too well founded. He continued to decline until the 7th of March. 
1795, when he breathed his last. He was 54 years of age. 

The news of his illness and death was receiA-ed with jirofound 
sorrow, not only throughout the region to whose interests he had 
devoted six strenuous years of his life, but at the Xati(^nal Cai)ital 
also, where his services to the conntrx- were known and ap])reciated. 
The Indians, too, grieved over his departure as that of a true friend. 
At a council held in Canandaigua soon after his death. Red Jacket 
made a speech, in the course of which, addressing Ca])tain Israel 
Chapin, the General's son. and Captain Jasper Parrish. his inter- 
preter, he said : 

'T wish you to pay attention to what T have to sav. We have 
lost a good friend : the loss is as great to us as to you. We consider 


that we of the Six Nations, as well as the I'nited States, ha\e met 
with a i^reat loss. A person that we looked np to as a father, a 
person appointed to stand between ns and the L'nited States, we 
ha\e lost, and it ^^i\es ns j^Teat uneasiness, lie has taken iL^^reat 
l)ains to keep the chain of friendship hrit^ht between ns and the 
ITnited States; now that he has gone, let ns ])revent that agreeable- 
ness and friendship, which he has held uj) between us and the 
United States, from failing-. 

"Brothers, it has been customary among the Six Nations, 
when they have lost a great chief, tf) throw a belt in his ]:)Iace after 
he is dead and gone. We have lost so many of late that we are 
destitute of a l)elt, and in its ])lacc present son with these strings 
of wampum. 

"Brothers, as it is a custom handed down to us by our fathers. 
to kee|) uf) the good old ancient rules: now we visit the gra\'e of 
our friend, we gather leaves and strew them o\er the grave, and 
endeavor to banish grief from our minds as much as we can." 

The chiefs then directed that a message be sent to the Presi- 
deiU informing him that the "person whom he had ai)pointed for 
us to communicate our minds to. has left us and g(jne to another 
world. He with greatest care communicated our minds to the 
great council tire." The message also asked that the General's son. 
Captain Israel Chapin, be appointed to the office made vacant by 
the former's death. This was done, and the son faithfully carried 
on the work laid down bv the father. 

36 HIS'^()K^' ()!•■ OXTARIO COUNTY. 



The Organization of Ontario County Cotemporaneous with the 
Election of Washington as President of the United States — 
Its Original Princely Domain — Unsuccessful Effort to Set It 
Off in a New State — Other Counties Erected from Its Original 
Territory — Rapid Settlement and Development. 

Tlie six lumdred rind f(irt\- sf|nare miles of territnrx' imw 
embraced in the connl}- of ( )nt;irio lias had a \-aried history. W hen 
hrst known lo white men. it \\a>^. as we ha\e seen, in the jealons and 
r.n(iisi)nte(i ])ossession of ihe Seneca Indians. Then when the dis- 
])iites ^Towin^i' ont of the conilictim; ^''ants of the h.n^lish kin^s had 
been settled, rnid the Indian title. 1)\ hook or crook, by --word or 
treaty, had been extin_i;nishe<l. which was cotem])oraneons with the 
adoption of th.e I'ederal conslitntion. it fcnind itself a ])ai"t of the 
sovereign State of Xew ^'ork. bnt owned bv a syndicate of Massa- 
chusetts cai)italists. th.e Pludps and (iorham L'om])any. 

In 178*), A\ithin three w<^eks after the election of ( ieorge 
Washington as the hrst President of the I'nited States, the region 
referred to assumed the name ()ntario and became the fifteenth 
county of the State of New N'ork. IJefore that and since the adop- 
tion of the State constitntion. it had been a i>art of Monlgomer)- 
count}", which, if ()ntario is to be known as the .Mother of C'onnties. 
shotild be hailed as the (irandniother of ("onnties. for it foi'nu'rlv 
constituted all the State west of the l)elaware river and a line 
extending north throngh Schoharie and .dong the east lines of the 
])resent counties of ^lontgomerx', I'tdton and Hamilton, continued 
in a straight line to Canada. It inchuled territor\- that is now 
com|)rised in not less than thin\-six counties. And to go back' 
another generation. .Mbany was the great-grandmother of coun- 
ties. U]) to 1772 it end)race(l everything within the colony of .\ew 

"TT1I<: Mo'nil'.K Ol" ("(H'XTIES." 



York north and west of its present limits, and at one time also the 
whole of Vermont. 

But to return to our subject. The ]Vlother of Counties. 
Ontario, contained in 1789, all the State west of the Preemption 
line, including- both the Phelps and Gorham and the Morris or 
Holland purchases. It had an estimated area of six million acres. 
and a year later, in 1790, the Federal census showed that it had a 
total white population of 1075, or something less than one five- 
thousandth of a man. woman and child to the acre. 

The legislative act by which Ontario county was organized 
provided that "Whereas the County of Alontgomerv is so extensive 
as to be inconvenient to those who now are, or mav hereafter settle, 
in the western part of the county," all that part described should 
thereafter be "one separate and distinct county, and be called and 
known by the name of Ontario." 

Whether there were heartburnings over this division of Mont- 
gomery county, or whether the citizens in its more thickly populated 
eastern portion resented the presumption of the handful of pioneers 
who had settled in Canandaigua and t)ther border towns and desired 
to set up by themselves, neither record nor tradition states. Prob- 
ably the easterners were cjuite content to let go a territory so 
remote, so clifficult of access, and so much of a wilderness. But 
General Chapin and the other men who were directing the organi- 
zation of government in these border towns were soon holding 
elections, levying taxes, and erecting public buildings. Within 
three years after the org-anization of the new countw provision had 
been made for raising the sum of 600 pounds for building a court 
house and gaol at "Canadagua," with the additional sum of "one 
shilling in the pound for collecting the same." 

One of the first and most threatening problems with which the 
organizers of the county of Ontario had to deal was that involved 
in the attempt to make it a part of a new and distinct common- 
wealth to be set off from New York State. 

This ambitious ])roject was involved, it is believed, in the 
original operations of the lessee companies alluded to in a preced- 
ing chapter. The jiarent of these companies, *'The New York 
Genesee Land Company," organized by men of wealth residing in 
liie eastern part of the State, first sought to nullify the agreement 
made at the Hartford conxention of December 16, 1786. through 
long term leases made with the unsophisticated sons of the forest 


then acknowledged to be in actual possession of the land. On 
November 30, at a council held at Kanadesaga, the land company 
induced tlic sachems or chiefs of the Six Xations to lease to it all 
the land in the State west of the Preemption line, for a period of 
y9y years, for an annual rental of two thousand Spanish milled 
dollars. By means of this le.ise the coni])any sought to acc|uire and 
hold possession of the lands to which Massachusetts had been 
accorded the preenii)tion right of i)urchase from the Indians. But 
the .scheme failed. The lease was at once ])ronounced null and void 
bv ("io\ernor Clinton, and he was empowered to use the force of the 
State if necessary to prexent intrusion or settlement upon the lands 
claimed by the lessees. 

It was following this miscarriage of their plot, and after they 
had thankfully accepted in compromise a ten mile square grant on 
the .Military tract in the northern part of the State, that the gentle- 
men of the land company re\'ealed or revived what from the start 
was probably their real purpose. Then agents of the company 
sought to enlist the residents in the Genesee tract, title to wdiich in 
tlie meantime had been lawfully accpiired bx" the Phelps and 
(iorham Company, in a mo\ement to set u]) a new State. John 
l.ixingston and Caleb Benton, two of the iiUriguers, issued a circular 
calling ui)on the people to hold meetings and sign petitions for the 
erection of a new State to eml)race the whole of central and western 
New N'ork, including the then existing counties of Otsego, Tioga, 
Herkimer, and Ontario. 

This attemi)t to organize a movement of secession met with no 
encouragement. At a meeting held at ''Canandar([ua,'' November 
8, 1793, at which ''all the judges and Assistant judges, and a large 
Majority of the justices of the i^eace, together with all the inhabi- 
tants, convened from different parts of the County on that 
Occasion," were present, and at which Hon. Timothy Hosmer, first 
judge of the county, acted as chairman and Nathaniel Gorham, Jr., 
as secretary, public sentiment found expression in the adoption of 
resolutions resenting "the ill timed and improper attempt." These 
resolutions set forth "the impossibility of the proposed State's 
defraying expenses of the most moderate government that can l)e 
devised," pointed out "the impolicy as well as injustice of raising 
by enormous taxes on uncultivated lands such a revenue or of 
devoting to those expenses property purchased under the faith of 
the States of New York and Massachusetts, and of drawing into 






O = 














our floiirishint^' county |)e<)i)lo that sucli iui(|uitous measures would 
attract," reconinien(lc<l to the promoters of the scheme "to persuade 
some more laudable mode of ^ratif^'in^- their ambition and to desist 
from proceedings altog-etlicr hostile to our interests and welfare." 
and uri;ed those intrusted witii the ruhninistration of the State to 
take "the most xi^orous measures to su])])ress any of the attem])ts 
made to destroy the peace and (juiet of this county." 

The attempt miserably failed, but naturalh' was for the time 
the subject of the most excited discussion l)oth at (jenex'a and 
Canandaigua, then tiie most imi)ortant villas^es in the western ])art 
oi the State. 

As mioht be expected on the ]^-dvt of men of their temperament 
;iu(l their enterprise, the Ontario politicians opposed strenuous]\- the 
attempts soon after luade to subdivide tlie countw but despite their 
efforts to this end. carried into the Leg"islature itself. the\' were 
com])elled to consent in 1 7Q6 to the setting ofT of Steid)en count \-. 
in which Williamson, the enterprising" agent of the l'ultene\' 
syndicate, had established his headquarters, and where he was 
laymg the foundations of what he planned to make tlie Aleiroi)olis 
of Western .Xew N'ork. Steuben count}- had a population at that 
tune of not much o\er 1,000. but doubled it within the next fnur 
\'ears. (Ontario's hrst ])oyu was a lust\' \-ouno-ster. and like her 
younger sisters has continued to grow in comeliness and stren-^th 
to this da\'. 

Ill March. 1S02. ( )ntario was again depri\ed of a big slice of 
territory, it being then enacted that all that part of the State situated 
west of the main stream c^f the (ienesee ri\-er and the western 
boundary of Steuben should constitute the count\' of (ienesee. 
Xeither the local histories nor the legislatixe journals, so far as 
examined, contain mention of opposition to this dismemberment, 
but op])osition there nmst have been, in the market place where 
tradesmen and politicians congregated, if not in more form.'d 
public assemblage. 

Here we may note the Avonderful rapidit\- with which the 
western wilderness was being settled. Ontario had a population of 
only 1075 the year following iier erection. Ten A'ears later, in ISOO. 
in spite of the loss of Steuben, she had 15.218. In 1802. as we ha\e 
seen, Genesee was set ofl'. but in 1810 what was left of Ontario's 
original territory bore a population of over 42.000 people, and 

















"THK MOTIII'.k Ol- (■( )l'\TTK.S." 43 

Genesee had 12,588. in ton years llic U'rrit(3ry embraced in the 

two couinics had imTt'ascd in | x )i)ulat ion iiearl)' 400 j)er cent. 

The next siiccessfnl ,it tei)i]ii \<) f\v\]\vv ()ntai'i() of a county 
was made in 1821, when hoth I .i\ iui^slon and Monroe w ei'c tornied 
from territiir\ t heiaii )iore enihraced in ( )ntari() and (jenesee, hut 
in the meaiUime (here had lieen one or nioi'e ahorlixe attemjjts. 
(Jne in 18()() ehcned mneh ihscnssion in the new si)ai)ers and at 
]inhhc meetings, and iii-e>nmahl\- in the streets. 

A correspondent who .sii^iied hiniseU' "('i\-is," in the ( )nlario 
Repositorx' of l)ecend)er ](>. that \ ear, ihscnssed a |)ro|)osed organ- 
ization of a new connt\- "to consist ])artl\ of territory winch now 
belongs to this,"" referred to tln' fact that neighboring towns take 
different sides of tlie question, and stated that such discnssitms, 
especially Avhen pnbhc, generad) become "intemi)erale and result 
in bickerings and hatre(h"" There was e\iilentl\' (Hscnssion as lo 
the most desirable sha])e for a count \ establishment, and "("i\'is" 
atlniittcd that a scpiare shajjc was the hesi, but argued that "circum- 
stances may exist in man\ cases of suhicient weight to render e)ther 
shapes most convenient."' It was proposed at this time that the 
western tier of towns of ( )ntario be sei>arated and together with 
the eastern tier of (ienesee be erected into a count}', to contain it 
was estimated a population of 4,650. "("i\is" referred to the fact 
that the \ear before a ])oriion of the counl\ api)lied to be incorpor- 
ated with Seneca, l)Ut he argued that it was "a misf(n-tune to the 
peace of <a free countr\- to ha\e those ol its ci\d divisions small 
which demand the appointment ol numerous officers who ha\e 
considerable authorit\ and salaries." "C'i\is"" went on to intimate 
that those who adxocated the change did so for the ad\-antage of 
the section where the court house is to be erected and count\' ofhces 
established, and said: "( )ne lights for it because the tnrni)ike 
crosses his lands, another because it does not cross his: one because 
he has a grudge against his ueiglibor who o])])oses it, and man\- on 
account of the affabilit\- and condescension of their snperiors who 
are interested in it." 

On the 23d of Decembei" in the same year, 1806. the Ref)ositor\-. 
under the heading "Anothei" .\ew bounty."" iei)orted that it was 
proposed to organi/e a countx of " W illiamson"' out of the towns of 
Sodtis and Phel])s, ()ntario connt\, and that ])art of Seneca hing 
north (^f the outlet of Seneca lake. 

In response to a published call, "a meeting of respectable 





^ a 
2 % 




















O .H 



inhabitants of Canandai^ua and se\ci-al other towns of tlic county 
of Ontario con\-C!K'<l at Katc^ Notch Cananchaii^ua, for the ]:)urpose 
of concerting- measures to o])|)ose the se\eral a])])hcation^ which 
were al)ont to he made to [\]v I ,ei;isKatnre tor (hvisions of said 
county. Tliaddeiis ( "hapin hein^' \oied chairman and .M \ron Ilohev 
clerk, it was resolved nnanimoushx that an\ (hxision of said conntx' 
would he highly ine\])edient and therefore e\er\- plan to efTect such 
di\-ision ou^iit to he opposed." Xathaniel \\ . I lowed, I'eter 1!. 
I'orter, and Mx'ron H'tlley were aiipointed a comnnttee to draft a 
renic:)nstrance to he presented to the Legislature. 

I-'or nearly two decades follow ini; theerection of (ienesee count}- 
in 18(^2, these attem])ts to further de])ri\-e Ontario count\- of terri- 
tory were unsuccessful. In 1821, \er\- likely throuj^h some har<i;ain 
or comhination of interests amonj;- the Rochester and Geneseo 
politicians, Monroe and Lixin^ston were set ofT, each taking- also 
some of the (ienesee county territor\ . It is noteworth}-. as indi- 
cating- the i)rohal)ility of a coml)ination, that the two enactments 
effectini;" this further shrinka^'e of ( )ntario"s area were ado]jted on 
the same day, hehruarx' 23. with the a])proval of the so-called 
C'otmcil of Re\'ision (the (Jovernor and the Chancellor and jtidges 
of the Su])reme Court). The Academy in Geneseo was desis^nated 
as the court house of Livino'ston county, hut the (ptestion of locat- 
ing the shire town, in Monroe count\ was left to commissioners. 

.\t this time, 1821, it appears from the legislative jcnirnals, 
there was yet another attempt to dejirive the county of territory, 
for w^e find that Assemblyman Charles E. Dudley, of Alban\-, chair- 
jiian of a select committee to which was referred a hill designed to 
erect a new county, to be known as "Hancock." re])orted fa\orahl\' 
to the proposition. Thi> report argued that after the cession of the 
towns on the w'est side embraced in Monroe and Livingston. 
Ontario still had a population of 60.000 and that "the time nuist 
come at son-ie ])eriod not distant if not here" \vhen "for the 
convenience and interest of the inhabitants" other new counties 
should be created from its territory. This report went on to declare 
that "whenexer a coiupact population, approximating 20,000 inhab- 
itants and with con\enient territory, are unanimously in fa\or (^f 
organizing a new count}-, a ])i-oper regard to the ])rinci])les of 
Republican government ;ind to the maxim that all citizens of such 
government are entitled to e(jual ])olitical privileges, requires that 
the Legislature should grant aid:" and, therefore, "the committee 















"THI" Mr)Tr!FR OF ("OUNTTES." 47 

being con\-ince(l in si)itc of llie remonstrances recei\-e(l that a 
majoritN- of the ])eoi)le (liiH'etlx- in!ei"e>tcMl want the erection of a 
new connt\," reconnnended that "the relief sou^ln f(,r -cxcral 
\-ears"' shonld then he i^rantei'. 

( iideon ( d'an^er. the senior, then one of tlie nunnhers of the 
State Senate from the wotern (hstrict. votech and ])resnmahl\- 
talked, "No," and the hill was defeated in the ni)])er hon>e i)\' a \"ote 
of 15 to 14 ( h'ehrnary 24, iSil ). 

In lS2,"). ho\ve\'er, two nioi'c secticn^ ot ( )iitario's shnmken 
area were cnt off, a ])art on the sonthe.ast hem^- erectt'd into the 
conntv (4 ^^■ltes, and the towns of L\-oiis, .Scxhis. Williamson, 
Ontario, r,alm\ra and Macedon. .-ind ;i i)ai't ot IMudps were nihtetl 
to the Seneca towns of W'olcott and ( ialen to form the new conntv 
of AVayne (.\])ril 11, 1S2,^). 

To make onr record of the snecessi\e cli.'in^'es in the coiifni-ma- 
tion of ()ntario conntv com])lete, we nnist not nei^lect to state that 
it had two s)nall accessions of territorx' in the eaidier vears of 
existence as an independent c-i\il dix'ision. ( )n h'ehrnaiw 21. 17*'], 
while it still had the ma^-nilicent i)ro])ort ions of the orii^inal Mass- 
achusetts cession, a stri]) of Aionti^omerx connt\ west of Seneca 
lake was annexed. This was the "( lore," which thron^h a fanlt in 
the original snr\e\' was omitted from the first i)lottini4' of the connt\'. 
The "Gore" now constitntes parts of Ontario, ^'ates and Sclunder 
counties. A small tract in the fork of Crooked, or Kenka lake, was 
taken hack from Steuben conntx. l"ebi-nar\ 2?, 1814. This .also is 
now a part of Yates county. 

Idle i)r(H'ess of disnunnberment, or di^■ision, so fai- as it related 
to the tei'ritory that had succeeded lhroui;h these man\- xicissitndes 
in retaining- the name of Ontario conntv, was sus])ended with the 
birth of Wayne in lS2.v Tdic ])rocess, for the time at least, had gone 
far enough. (~)ntario was mother to enough daughters. \u the 
period of thirty-fcmr years in which it had been going on. not less 
than six counties had bet'n erected directlw in whole or in jiart. 
from Ontario territory, anrl 1)\- 1854, when the xoungest grand- 
daughter, Schuyler, was organized, the family group that calls her 
mother and grandmother had gro^\•n to the proj-yortions it has since 
maintained — fourteen counties. 

That period of thirty-four years, ending with 1823. had been 
great with i^ronn'se for the region under consideration. Its popu- 
lation had increased from a little more than a thousand in the vear 


following its organization a? the cmnty of (Ontario to the great 
ao-rrrepfate of 217.000: the he£jinninii> of two of the country's great 
cities, Buffalo and Rochester, had been made within its limits, each 
being a village of something over 2.000 inhabitants in 1820; 
thri\ing villages, with churches, academies. ])ublic schools. l)anks. 
newspapers, and taverns, had sprung u]) in every part of the 
domain: the forest had made way for grass and grain fields of large 
extent: mills for the grinding of their ])roducts were erected: high- 
wavs were laid out : a thri-\ing. enter|)rising and growing ])(ji)nlation 
was established in comfortable iiornes : an<l the b^rie canal, which 
was to provide means of trans])ortation to the seaboard tor the 
people of those homes and for the products of their mills and fields. 
had been brought to uithin two years of completion. 

In those thirty-four years the Great Western Wilderness had 
been subdued and was a ^\ ildernes> no longer. l)ut after all they 
were vears of ])romise only, and the most piophetic eyes could 
hariih >ee in them the marvelous realization on which we look. 
In the ninet\- vears that ha\e since elapsed the po])ulation of what 
was the original ( )nl;irio county has grown tt) o\er a million and 
a (piarter of ])eoi)le. a ])opulation exceeding that of the whole State 
of .Mar\ land, and thnt of eithei one of eighteen other States of the 
L'nion : the two villages of FJuitalo and Rochester, with 2,00(^ 
inhabitants each, have become (1910) cities of 423.71.^ and 2 IS. 14^). 
respectively: the Erie canal has been com]>leted. and is now 
l)ractically superseded by a railroad system that better serves the 
public need, but that in turn is threatened l)\ the competition of the 
rapidly extending trolley lines: petroleum and electricity for 
lighting, the telegraph, the telephone, and a thousand other discov- 
eries and inventions, now so common ^tiral-N^e^. forget our grand- 
fathers were without them, have all come within these few years. 

The jiresent Ontario county, insignificant as are its proj^ortions 
as compared with those it had at organization, is not by any means 
unworthy of the name it bears. Though shorn of so luuch of its 
original territory, it is still the Chosen Spot of Western Xew ^'ork. 
and deserves the honorable fame it is accorded, its ])opulation 
being 522^6. according to the Federal census of 1910. 

"Till": MOTMI-.K (II- COrNTIKS."' 49 

The First Census. 

Under tlu' statute of jamiar\' 11 , 1~(S'), 1)\- whidi ()iitari() was 
.-.ct off from Monli^omcry. the justices ol the ( Oui't of Sessions were 
authorized to di\ide the ei)uut\ luto di^tiMi't^ as the\- sliould deeui 
e.\i)e(heiit. The ])riniiti\e division. Turner slates, constituted fi\e 
districts, as follows: "l)istrict d ( "anandai^ua." "District of Tol- 
land," "District of Sodns," "District of Seneca."" and "District of 
Jerusalem."" hor one ;)r two )-ears this dixision was little more 
than nominal, e\ce])t m the district ot ( auandai^ua whose or<;'ani- 
/ation in eltect included the eutii-e i"ount_\ . Al the time of the 
t'ensus of 17*^0. howe\er, accoidiuL;' to the returns of the .Assistant 
I'niled .State>- .Marshal, (ieneral .\mos llall. ( )ntario coinit\- 
mcludeil the tour "towns" of Canandai^i^ua. I'!i"\\in. (icnesee. and 
Jerusalem, and had a total |/oi)ulation ot 1()75. with an enumeration 
of 204 heads of fannlies. including" 11 sla\-es. ( )f this nund)er the 
town or district oi ( 'auaudaiL^ua. which must liaxe coni])rised the 
!L;i"eater part (if what is now the countx' of ()utario, had SS head^ of 
families, two slaxes, and a total |)oi)ulalion of MA. The heads of 
l.imilies as listed 1)\- (ieneral Ma.ll were as follows: 

l.atty. Janu'.s Day, ivus.sci, JmIih 

F>enton. David Sweet, Camstock, Xatliaii, 

WluH'tmi. Samuel Phelps, Ez/.a Reed, Israel 

Kioe, Giirliam, Xathaniol, Jr.. Allen. Reuben 

Sniitli, David I'^sq. Ilerard, W'ebli 

^^ Pierce, Phineas Sanhourue, Xatlianiel \\ hite. 

iMirsytli, Easther Eellows, Juhn Cunisluck. Daniel 

Sniitli. Thomas Smith. Joseph Sniitii, Jerem- 

Snn'tli. Harry Eish, James D. Wilder, Gamaliel 

r.arden, Thomas Chapin, Genl. Israel Wilder. Ephraim 

Reed, Seth, Esq. Clark, John Rice, Aaron 

Whitney, Jonathan Dudley, Martin Spencer. Aaron 

Warner, Srilonion P>ates, Phineas Goodwin, James 

Okes, Walker, Caleb Goodwin, William 

- Kilbourn. Jose])h Colt, Jndah, Es(|r. Eisher. Nathaniel 

Whitcond), John Barlow, Abner l"ellow>. Genl. Juhn 

Stevens, Phineas Brainard. i)aniel Rice, Epiiraini 

Tuttlc, Fienjamin Holcomb, Seth Rice, Lot 

Robinson, John D. Brocklebank. James Hubble. Matthew 

Granger. Pierce Castle, Lemuel liarns, John 

Rriggs, Erancis Wells, Benjamin ., Chapin. Oliver 

Pierce, Michael Ereeman, John -Norton, Nathaniel 

Tibl)et, Benjamin Lapum, .M^raham Addams, John 

Hall. William H;ilhaway. Tsaak Rogers. Michael 

Potter, Arnold Harrington, X^athaii, Allen 

Gates, Daniel ^IcCundier, John Bou.ghton, Se\-mour 

Sweets. Harrington, Joshua Boiighton, Gerard 

Warren, Thomas Smith, Elijah Norton, Zebulon 

Chapin, Israel, Jr. Pane, John Taylor, Elijah 

Piatt, Smith, Jacob 


Formation of the Towns. 

The county of ( )ntario as now constituted contains sixteen 
towns and a city, as follows: Bristol. Canadice, Canandaigua, East 
Bloomfield, Farmington, Gene\'a, Gorham, Hopewell, jNlanchester, 
Naples, Phelps, Richmond. Seneca, South Bristol, Victor, and ^\'est 
Bloomfield, and the city of tjene\a. 

The territory embraced in the present limits of the county was 
original!}' laid out in towns as follows: Bristol, Canandaigua, 
Bloomfield, Farmington. Jiaston, Burt. MicUUetown, Phelps. Pitts- 
town, and Seneca, all of which were formed under an act of the 
Legislature of 1789. 

Subsequent changes in the names and boundaries of the towns 
were as follows: hhe town of Easton became Lincoln in April. 
I8O0, and Gorham one year later. Middletown was changed to 
Naples, April (k 180S. Pittstown became Honeoye, April 6, 1808, 
and Richmond, April 11, 1813. Victor Avas formed from Bloomfield, 
Alay 26, 1812. Hopewell was formed from Gorham, March 29, 
1822. Burt was renamed Manchester, April 6, 1822. Canadice was 
formed from Richmond, A]>ril 1.^, 182^': a j^art of it was returned to 
that town in \^^<^k South Bristol was taken from Bristol. March 8, 
1838, and a part was annexed to Richmond in 1848. but restored in 
1852. West Bloomfield was formed from Ijloomfield. I'ebruary 
11, 1833. The town of CJenexa was erected by the Board of Super- 
visors from Seneca, November 15, 1872. The city of (ieneva was 
formed from the town of Geneva under act of the Legislature 
of 1897. 




They Reflect the People's Respect for Law and Regard for the 
Unfortunate — In the Court House Centers the County Con- 
sciousness — Successive Jails — The County Alms House — The 
County Laboratory and the County Tuberculosis Hospital, the 
First Institutions of the Kind in the State. 

As the record of chnrcli l)uilding- and school building in towns 
affords an index to the moral and intellectual progress of the 
people, so the story of the l)iiildings in which a county houses its 
courts. ])reser\es its archives, contines its criminals, or cares for 
its poor, evidences its consciousness of a conuiuuiity of interests 
and its apprehension of its responsibility to the unfortunate. 

About the court house especially centers the county conscious- 
ness. In the history of its development ma>' be found marks of the 
growing respect for law and order, respect for authority, respect 
for all that constitutes organized government. As the court house 
has fallen into decay or been enlarged or replaced, so is the attitude 
<if the people toward the administration of justice. 

In Ontario county, development along these lines has been 
marked in striking measure by the successive steps taken to provide 
an appropriate house for the courts. 

The coimty had need of a court before it h;ul time or money 
with which to erect a ])roi)er building for its use. The records 
show that the first court in the count ^• was held in an unfinished 
room in judge Atwater's house, in June, 1792. with Judge Oliver 
Phelps presiding. Subsequently and until a court house was 
erected provision was made bv lease for the use bv the courts, at 
a yearly rental of 10 pounds, of the chandjers in said house, which 
was located on the west side of Main street, on \vhat is now the 
the i^ostofTice corner. Previous to 1850, when the At water Hall 
building was erected on that corner, the old Atwater house was 



moved some rods to the west, and nt tlic demolition of that 
building in 1910. to the north, where faced around tcnvard the east 
it now stands. 

Erected in 179-1, in the iniMic '^((uait in C'anan.laigua. inniiediately >oulli of present court 
liousc. Was moved in 1825 to \. \V. corner of Main and Cross streets, where it stood when 
this picture was made, and was used as a postoffice ; was moved to Coach street in 1859. used as 
a store house and was demolished in 1899. Scene of the trial of many famous cases, including 
that of "Stiff Armed Cieorgc," whom Red Taci\et, the Indian orator, defended against the charge 
of murder. 

But the young county, moved by a spirit of enler])rise and 
liberality which has happily ever characterized its provision for 
public needs, lost no time in erecting a building to be devoted to 
the use of the courts, and within {\\c years after the first white men 
had settled in Canandaigna sncli a building, commodious, well 
proportioned and well furnished for that day, Avas completed and 
put into use. 

This was in 1794, when the entire population of the county did 


not much exceed a thousand souls and when the tax entailed, 600 
pounds, constituted a burden nuich lai'i^er in ])r()j)orti()n than that 
invohc'd in the recent vH^l ()(),()()() impruvenienl. ll marked the first 
step in the deteiMuinat ion of the ])ioneers to keep abreast — na\', 
ahead — of the time- in ma1tei"s of pnbhc im])ro\-ement. 

The hrst com"! house was a wooden structure and was located 
on the i)ublic S([uare. innnedi;itel\' scnilh of the present l)uildinL;". 
In it were held the courts of Common I'leas. ])resided o\'er by the 
tirst judges of the count)', ()li\er IMiel])S, Timotlu' liosmer, John 
Xicholas, and Xathaniel \\ . Ilowell, and at its bar practiced such 
lawxei's as John C. Spencei-. I'etei" !*>. Porter. .Mark II. .Siblev. 
jai'cd Wilson, hrancis (ir.'iui^i'r and John ( ireii;'. in it were cr)n- 
ductcd man\- of the famous trials ot the earlx' da\s. includin.L;' that 
of Jcnnma W ilkinson, the "Cni\ers;d i-'riend."" who was l)roug'ht 
here in the }'ear LSdO, from her "New Jerusalem" on Keuka Lake, 
to answer the charge of bias]:)hemy. Tlie grand jury failed to f]n{\ 
an indictment against liei'. and upon in\itation she deli\-ered a 
sermon before the presiding judge, And)rose Spencer, and the 
jm"oi"s and others in attendance on the court. 

In tins building also look ])lacc the trial of the Indian, "StifT 
Armed (icorge," on a ch:irge of nnn"dei', when the famous .Seneca 
orator. Red Jacket, m.'ide an eloi|uent plea for the defense. 

ddiis tirst court house ser\-eil the pur])ose thirty \-ears, and 
then to meet the deiuands of the county, rapidly de\-eloping in 
wealth and populati(Mi, though airead)' shrunken territorially to 
its preserit size, a new and more substantial building was erected. 
I his was in 1S24. the xcav following the county's last loss of lerri- 
itiry, that now cMnbrace(| in \\ a\'ne and ^';^tes counties. The corner 
stone was laid on Juh' 4 of that \-ear. 

This building marked the second step of ])rogress and cost 
$6,000. fotn- times as nnich as its i^redecessor. It was erected on 
the southwest corner of the ])ublic s(|uare, and there for the eig'hty- 
se\'en years \\-hicli ha\e since ela])sed it has stood unmo\ed, though 
b.arely a\"oiding collision with the intruding railroad. 

In it also were conducted maiiy trials famous in the State's 
history, the most n()table of which ])erhaps was that of the men 
implicated in the abduction of William AForgan. the renegade 
Mason. Today, as the town house of Canandaigna and maintained 
for the joint use of the town and \ illage, it remains a useful and 
handsome public building. 


Upon tlie completion of this more substantial and dignified 
building, as stated, in 1825, the "old" or first court house was 
moved across the street and located at the northwest corner of 
!Main street and Cross street, now \\'est avenue. While in this 
location it was long used as the postoffice and as lawyers' offices 
and its second floor as a lecture and concert hall. In July. 1859. 
after the completion of the third court house, and following the 
sale of the second court house to the town and \-illage for a consid- 
eration of $4,000, it was concluded that the old "Star Building." 
as it liad come to be called, had outlived its usefulness in the 
public service, and it was sold to Thomas Beals, the banker, for 
$100. and moved bv him to a vacant lot on Coach street, where it 
continued in use as a storeiiouse as late as May. 1899. when it was 
torn down to make room for Mr. .\nderson's big store building. 

After another thirty years, was taken the third step in the 
historv of the countv as marked by court house l^uilding. It was 
in Xoveml)er. 1856, after nuich discussion in the newspapers and 
otherwise, and after sharp criticism (<f the second court house as 
antiquated and inadc(|uate. that the supervisors finally residved 
uixm the erection of a new budding, appropriated S15.000 therefor, 
and ai)pointed as a buildmg committee, Evander Sly of Canan- 
daigua. lames Soverliill of Seneca and William Clark of \4ctor. 
Mr. Searles of Rochester was employed as the architect. At this 
juncture the cooperation of the Cnited States Government was 
secured and .-in a]i])ropriation of considerable amount obtained 
from Congress on condition that the new building should include 
quarters for the United States cotirt and the village jiostoffice. 

On h»)ruarv 12. 1857. ]dans and designs were adopted, the 
cost of the proposed building being estimated at $40,000, and a few 
days later a section of the Gorham lot. north of the original 
square, was purchased at a cost of $6,(X)0. 

There followed a serious contest over the question of just 
where the new building should be located and in which direction 
it should front. At first it \^as ])lanned that it should face to the 
south; then the supervisors, moved by the agitation of the citizens 
of the village, ordered the front juit to the west. Then followed 
threat of an injunction, public meetings and newspaper discussion, 
but in ?^lay. 1857. the matter was finally, and as it seems to us 
happily, settled by the adoption of a resolution at a special meeting 
of the board of supervisors, by a vote of 9 to 6, deciding that the 



hi.ildin.u' should front toward ^laiii street and be located parti)- on 

the s(|uarc and partly on the newly accpiired (iorhani lot. 
I Thci-eafter work on the third court house building- was ra])idly 

pushed, Kelsey iV Wells of Uanandaii^na ha\in<;- the contract for 

ihr wood work and Idionias C"rawford of (iene\;i that for the 
j masonry. I"he corner stone was laid with a])proi)riate ceremonies 

on |ul\' -I of thai \ear. and on June 24 ol the next year, 1858, the 

Structure was so far completed as to perr,nt the i)lacin<;- on to]) its 

handsomely proportioned dome of 

the statue of "Justice." which has 
j sincr remained a distini;uishint;- 

landmark, and which has been re- 
placed on the enlarged and tire- 

pi-oofed buildint;'. 
j ( )n 1 )eceml)er 26, 1858, the 

board of su])er\isors met and ac- 
cepted the new court house, the 

resolutions adopted .s^ivin^- es])ec- 

ial ci'edit to the chairman of the 

luiildiuj; committee, I^xander Slw 

who had per>onal chari^e of 

the construction work and to 

whose al)iht\- and faithfulness was 

c\vc its satisfactory and prompt 


Then followed, earl\- in the 

yeai- 185^>, the remo\al of the 

postotVice from the "old" or tirst 

com-t hou-e building- and the re- 
moval of the clerk's and surro- 
jH'ate's otVices from the building's 
formerl\- occupied b\- them on the 

west side of the s(piare. w Inch, it is interestinn' to note in ])assin(:", 
were sold to Joshua Tracv for ^22?. to be taken down and the 
maurial remo\-ed. 

On .\b>n(law Januar\ 10. 185'^ the court room in the new 
buildini;- was lirst put to its desio;ned use, at a term of the circuit 
court, at which Hon. Henrv Welles presided. It is reported that 
there was a large concourse of people present on this occasion and 
that Judge Welles made an api)ropriate address. Idie portraits 


UiMi. nc-iir\ W'lllcs. wild presiileii at Hist 
term in the "neu" court liouse, CanaiKJaigua, 
in lanuaiy, 1H.S9, was horn at Kiiiilcrhook, 
.\. v.. ()ctol)er 17, 1794, and died at lii.s 
liome in I'enii Yan in 1868. Distinguished 
liiniself as a soldici- in tlie W'ar of 1812. Dis- 
trict .\ttorney of Steul)en comity from 1824 
to 1829. Supreme Court Justice in the 
Seventh district from 1847 until his deatli at 
his lionie in I'enn \'an. in 1868. 



which had lieen l)roug"ht tog-ether in the ohl court house through the 
efforts OT the indefatigable ^^'illiam Wood were rehung in the 
count\- coiu't room in the new l)uilding and constituted tlie nucleus 
of the priceless collection Axhich has in later years made that room 
a galler\- mentioned widel\ in tlie i)ul3lic press and in historical 

])uldications, one that is viewed 
with interest b)' many visitors and 
with ])ride by all residents of the 
count\ . The collection contains 
the ])ortraits not only of men fa- 
mous as ]Moneers or for the jiromi- 
nent ])art the\' had in the later 
lii-tcrvof the counlw but of those 
also who, born in or otherwise 
identified with the county, attain- 
ed high |)lace in the State and 

A fourth great stc]) in the de- 
\eloi)mcnt of ( )ld (Ontario was 
taken in the >i)ring of 1^H)S. when 
the board of super\isors, in re- 
sj^onse to a general ])ublic de- 
mand, decided to enlarge and 
reconstruct the court house to 
meet the need of additional room 
for the county officers and to |)ro- 
\ ide a thorough!)' fire proof struc- 
ture for the safe keeping of the 
county's invaluable records. The 
resolution linall)' authorizing the 
im])ro\ement was adopted May 
2\. 1^)08. Messrs. Ralph M. Sim- 
mons. G. W . Powell. E. B. Rob- 
son. K. K. ("alman and K. E. 
Covkendall were named a^ a sj:)ecial committee to have 
charge of the work, and Architect 1. blister Warner of Rochester 
was employed to i)repare plans and specifications. After 
advertisement for bids, the contract was awarded- to A. W. Hope- 
man & Sons' Co. of Rochester. The corner stone of the recon- 
structed building was laid with due ceremony on September 2S, 


William W oo<l \\<is a l>ii)ther of Mrs. 
.Nathaniel (iorhani. Jr.. and was horn in 
Charlestovvn. Mass., in 1777. Was for many 
years a resident of CanandaiKua and it was 
tliionglr liis efforts tliat the foundation was 
laid for the imif|ue and valuable collection of 
portraits now hung on the walls of the County 
Court room. He devoted his life to philan- 
throjiic work, being particularly distinguished 
for the part he took in securing the establish- 
ment of the Mercantile Library in New York 
and of similar liliraries in London. Liverpool, 
and other cities. The Wood Library in Can- 
andaigua was named in his honor. He died 
in Canandaigua, in 1S57. 

TTii-: rorxTv buildings. 57 

1908, in ilic presence of a lari^'e concourse of coun(\ ollicials and 
citizens, addresses l)einL; de1i\ered 1)\ Lieutenants io\ernor Lewis 
S. Lhanlei". President ( liarles I*'. .Millil<eu of the ( )ntario County 
Historical Society, County Jud^e Walter II. Knap]), Hgn. John 
Colmey and others. The llrst court was held in the reconstructed 
building, June 7, LK)^), by Couuty judge Robert \\ Thompson, but 
the dedication exercises were not held until .\o\ember 8, L)09, 
when in the presence of a large and representati\ e audience this 
programme was carried out, with Supreme Court justice James .\.. 
Robson presiding: Prayer, Rev. A. 15. Tem])le ; historical address, 
Elisha W. (lardner; address, Hon. I'eter B. AlcLennan, Presiding 
Justice of the A[)pellate I)i\ision, l*"(mrth l)e])artment ; dedicatory 
prayer, Kew James T. Loughert}' ; benediction. I\e\-. W. W . W eller. 
The total cost of the reconstruction work' and a complete outfit of 
new furniture was SI 25,838.04. 

The first county iail, erected in the earl\' da}'s immediately after 
the organization of the county, was a log structure and was located 
on or near the southwest corner of the public scpiare in Canandaigua. 
its principal use probabb' was as a |)lace of detention for drunken 
Indians. It is said to ha\e had onl\- one door, two small windows 
on each side, a couple of great chains to which the prisoners 
were fastened and ])lent\' of straw on the iloor for bedding. .\s the 
population of the count\' increased, this make-shift for a jail was 
abandoned, and the sec(^nd story of the old Pitts taxern, afterwards 
the bVankbn house, at the cc^rner of Main and Coach streets, was 
fitted U]) with cells and used for that purpose, which does not 
a])pear to ha\e interfered with the business of entertaining i)a\ing 
and orderh' guests as conducted on the lower door. 

In 1815 the countx' had become rich enough to erect for itself a 
building s])ecificalh- designed for jail ])ur])oses and this was done 
on the site on Jail street c^n which the ])resent or "new" jail stands. 
The jail erected in 1815 was a substantial stone structure, with 
wards and cells for the prisoners, a high walled ward for their exer- 
cise and apartments for the famil\- of the sheriff. \-ny niaiu' }'ears 
it was considered a model jail, the most secure to be found in the 
State west of Utica, and was utilized by all the counties surrounding 
for the safe keeping of des]:)eradoes 

The new jail \\'as o]Tened b\- Sheriff Xathaniel .\llen. who was 
followed by Phineas P. I'ates and Samuel Lawrence, the last 
sherifY of the county to^iold office under the first constitutic^n. The 



first sheriff under tlie second constitution, adopted in 1821, was 
Phineas P. Bates, \\lio was followed l)y Joseph Garlinghouse, in 
1825. Garlinghouse. who li\-ed in Richmond, appointed a Mr. Hall 
as jailor. \vho resided in the jail and boarded the prisoners. 

It was from this jail on the 12th of September, 1826. that 
\\ illiam Morgan, who had published a book pretending to reveal 
the secrets of Free 2^Iasonry, was abducted, never to be seen again 
alive or dead In" his familv or hi> friends, and in the same jail were 

Erected in 1815; demolislieil in., 1.^95. llit liuilding from wliicli William Morgan, 
tilt renegade Mason, was kidnapped, September, 1826, 

confined for eighteen mnnths several jirominent citizens charged 
with beir.g guiitN' of the criir.e. 

Among other noted occupants of cells in this jail was William 
Lyon McKenzie. who was charged with violating the neutrality 
laws in the Canadian rebellion of 1837: a famous mail robber by the 
name of Raux. who was convicted and sentenced to Auburn for 
niteen years: the counterfeiter Sims and the murderers Charles 
Eio-hmev and John Kellv. The executions by hanging of Kighmey 
and Kelly took place in the jail yard, the first on September 8. I8/0. 
and the last on lul\- 10. 188^). and were the only executions that have 
taken place in the county. This jail building was extensively 
repaired in the early 30's at a cost of $12,000. 

The present jail was built on ground immediately west of the 
building just described and was completed in 1895 at a cost of 



$24,747.15. About tlic first of June of tlint \-ear tlie sheriff movcM 
his office and residence to the new brick and steel structure, and the 
old iail so long- an ol)ject of historic interest was torn down. From 
its wreckage was saved the iron framework of tlie C(dl in whicli, it 
was said, William Morgan was c<infine(l and the interesting relic was 
preserved for a time in the lodge 
room of the local Masonic hod)'. 
The lock of the cell is still exhibit- 
ed there. 

The several towns of the 
county made provision for their 
own i)oor until Octoljer, lcS25, 
when the board of supervisors a])- 
])ointed Thomas 15eals. Nathaniel 
1 ewis and Moses l'\'iirchild a com- 
mittee to purchase a cc^unty farm, 
hollowing an ad\ertisement for 
proposals and an examination of 
the i)roi)erties offered, a farm of 
loo acres in the town of Ho])eweIl, 
three miles east of Canandaigua. 
was purchased at a cost of 
$1,868.64. In the summer of 182f) 
a house for the accommodation of 
deiiendents and of the keei)er and 
his famiK' was erected, furniture, 
stock and implements purchased, 
iiia.king tlie total cost of the 
establishment at the time the 
house was opened, October 23, 
1826. $7,023.84. Later the farm 
was enlarged by the i)urchase of 
1 12 acres of additional land. 

-Vlthough the original alms- 
house still stands and is still in 
use, it has been enlarged and im- 
pro\ed, large 1)arns erected, orchards i)lanted and otlier betterments 
from time to time eff'ected, to a(la|)t the propertv to changing condi- 
tions and keej:) it as far as possible a safe and comfortable refuge for 
those whom misfortune has compelled to depend on jniblic su])port. 


'I'liomas Heals, eniineiit as a UankL'v, was 
1)1)111 in Hostoii, Mass., iXovembcr \i, 1783; 
settled in raiiandaigna in 180,^ and resided 
in iliat village until liis death, April 30, 1864. 
i ook charge of the t)ntario Savings Bank 
in 1S32 and upon its becoming a private hank 
in 1S.S5, oontiiuied as manager. In 1814 
succeeded 'I'haddeus Chapin as County Treas- 
urer and held that office for a period of 
tucnty-seveu years consecutively. Secretary 
of the Canandaigua .\cademy Board for 
nearly half a centuiy. Trustee ol tne 
Congregational Church society and niembei 
of the committee having charge of the erec- 
tion of the church building in 1812. Was 
chairman of the committee that purchased 
the county farm and erected the poor house, 
;ii:d acted as County Superintendent of the 
j'oor for several years. 



standards for public institutions. 

l"he establishment, howexer. is now considered out of date, unsafe. 
and unsanitary, and the county is facing^ the necessity of replacing 
it with a fire proof l)uil(ling which A\ill measure up to modern 

Sucli ;i Iniilding xx'ould more fitlv 
represent the country's standing 
in wealth and progressiveness and 
constitute a striking illustration 
of the ad\ancement made since 
the time when the county house. 
in addition to being a refug"e for 
dependent poor, was also the 
home of a considerable group of 
paujier cliildren (removed to or- 
])han asvlums about 1876), the 
|)lace of cnnlinement for insane 
peo])le and iml)eciles dependent 
on ])ul)Hc support, who were 
rcmoNcd to State institutions for 
the insane and feeble minded in 
18*'.>. and the home of pauper 
cpilei)lics. who were removed fol- 
lowing the estaldi>liment of Craig 
Colony in 18%. 

Xothing has shown the enter- 
])rise and liberality of spirit of the 
l^eople of Ontario coimty more 


Iiuis<^ .\inliiose Si>uncer, wlio presidci at 
the term of tnuit in the first Ontario co'inty 
court house at wliich it was sought to indict 
leminia Wilkinson for l)las(>heniy. was luirn 
at Sa'ishury. Conn.. December 13. 176.>. 
Cratluate.l from Harvard College in IT^i; 
represented Colunil)ia county in the .State 
\ssembly of 179-1: was a member of the State 
Seriate from 1796 to 1802; member of the 
Council of Appointment. 1797; .\ttorney tien- 
erai, 1802-1S04: Justice of the Supreme 
Court. 1819-1823: Representati\e in Congress. 
1x29-1831; Mayor of .VU-.any one term; men> 
ber ol Constitutional Convention, 1821 : 
chairman of .Vational Whig Convention at 
IJahimore. 18-44. Died at Lyons, March 13. 
l;-!4.S. Judffe Spencer was the father of John 
C. Spencer. Secretary of the Treasury under 
I'lesident Tvler. 

ihan the ])ro\'ision made m 


in response to the offer of Mrs. 
i-'rederick F. Thompson t(^ pro- 
\ide a suitable l)uilding, for the 
maintenance of a county labora- 
torv for the use of the |)hysicians 
and people in tighting preventable 
and epidemic diseases, the tirst 
countN- institution of the charac- 
ter to be established in the .State. 
The laboratory building was erected on the grounds of the Thomp- 
sr.n memorial hospital in Canandaigua. and is in charge of a bac- 
teriologist appointed by the board of supervisors and paid liy the 


THE COUNT\- f'.riLDINGS. 61 

In 1000 the county took another adxance step in provirling at 
a cost of $15,000 for tlic fstahli^hment of a county tul)ei-cuIosis 
hospital, a step in which it ai^ain led tlic State. A beautiful ^rove 
on an eminence in the town of I'.ast Dloonitield was selected as the 
site for this instituticui and its erection on i)laus a))pro\-ed by the 
State Commissioner of llealth was l)rou.uhi to completion in the 
summer of 1010. Both the>e ^tei)> for securiui;- and promoting the 
health of the people were altogether unpi'ecedented and so unicjue 
as to rec|uire specific action b\- the Legislature, action which was 
properly made general in its clia meter so as to ])ermit other 
counties of the State to follow the lead of Ontario. The l)oard of 
managers of the tuberculosis ho^])ital. officialh- named "Oak- 
mount," was ap])ointe(l b\- the board of su])er\isors, as follows: 
Dr. C. C. Lytle, of Gene\a, jjresident : Rev. James T. Dougherty, 
of Canandaigua. \ice lu^esidcnt : Heber V.. Wheeler, of I^ast 
Bloomfield, secretar\-: Dr. W'm. ]]. riap])er. of Victor; Le\i A. 
Page, of Seneca Castle. The hospital was opened to patients in 
January, 1011, \v\{h \)y. S. R. W'heelei-. of East Bloomfield. in 
charge as superintendent. 




Her Politics and Politicians — Early Elections — Snap Methods — 
Ontario Firm in the Federalist Faith — The County's Repre- 
sentation in Congress and the Legislature — Succession of 
County Officers — Oliver Phelps a Candidate for Lieutenant- 

The first settlement of Canandaigua was cotemporaneous \vit1i 
the adoption of the Federal constitution, in 1788. Ontario county 
was erected Januar}- 27, 1789. So that tlie county's first half cen- 
tury A\as practically the first half of the nineteenth century. 

In times of political (juiet, w hen the affairs of goxernment move 
on in the e\en tenor of their waw and turn upon questions c^f per- 
sona] or part} interest, the words and acts of men in each center 
of population, are but the retlex of those prominent in the puldic 
eye as leaders. This ^\■as especialU' true of the ])o1itical histor_\- of 
the earlier part of tlie period under consideration. Parties had 
names, it is true, in those davs. but the\- had no orfranization. and 
tiiey represented persons rather than ])rinciples. The ]:)oliticians 
were Clintonians. Le\visites. Burrites. or Jeffersonians. more than 
they were Federalists or Republicans. 

The restrictions on suffrage gave (inl\ a part of the ])eople the 
right to vote, and l)ut few of those ha\ing the right cared to exercise 
it. Only one voter in five reported at the polls at the first elections 
m the State, as compared with o\er 90 per cent, at our recent elec- 
tions. The simple but efficient system of caucuses and conventions 
which now enables every voter to exercise an influence, however 
distant it may sometimes seem. u])on the naming of candidates and 
the enunciating of party princijdes. had no comiterpart in those 
days. Nominations to Congress or the State Assem1)lv were made 
by the candidates themselves, or by open conventions or "respecta- 
ble meetings" of such electors as cared to attend. Nominations to 


the GoNcniorslii]) were left to nieml)ers of tlie Legislature to make, 
or to coteries of ])oIitici;ins pl the State capital, lilce tlie famous 
"Ahjaii}' Regency." It could not well ])v otherwise. Means of 
commum'eati<»ii were few. Travel was slow, diflieult, and expensive. 
It took longer to go from Canandaigiia to .\Il)an\- than it does now 
to cross the continent. 

Moreo\er. there wei'c no contests o\'er conntA' officers in the 
earlier i)art ot the ])erio(h Ikwond the cdection of town otVicers, 
nuMnhers ot Assenihh', and mend)ers of Congress, e\en the select 
few who had the right to vote had no xoice. All the rest was man- 
aged at Alhany — e^•en to tlie xote of the State for candidates for 
President. The \-(~)ters generally did not ha\e the i)ri\ilegc to vote 
for presidential electors until 1825. 

From the time of the adoption of the State constitution until 
the fn\st general re\ision of that instrument in 1S21. the a])])oint- 
ment of all State officers exce])t Co\ ernor, and for a part of the 
time Licutenant-CioN'ernor, and of all cit\' and countv officers, was 
in the hands of a Council of .\])point ment named h\' the Assemhly 
from the memhers of the State Senate, h^xen auctioneers receixed 
their authorit\- to do business from the Council. I'his j^owcrful body 
was often at ^•ariance \\\t\\ the ( ioxernor, and it used its power 
unblushingly to reward friends or punish enemies of the dominant 
faction in the Legislature. 

As often as the Assemblv changed its ])()litical com])lcxion, from 
Clintonian to Federalist, or from lUirrite to Lewisite, or vice \ersa, 
so often was every iin])ortant i)ublic office in the State, and some 
that were not so important, changed. So it came about, for instance, 
that Peter B. Porter was summarily remoAcd from the office of 
clerk of Ontario count\' in 1804, on account of his friendship for 
Colonel Burr, then just defeated of election for (Io\ernor. Mr. 
Porter's successor was Svh'cster Tiffany, a good Morgan Lewis 
Repul)lican. but e\ideiitl\- a i)oor si)cller. .\t least the Ontario 
Repository of that date records the fact that ])r()tests had been 
signed and forwarded to Alban\- against his api)ointnient as one 
which disgraced the county, and in a published address to the 
appointee, the Burr organ ad^•ised him to learn how to spell his own 
name before entering u])oii the duties of office. It added : 

"Know then. Clerk of Ontario, that the wa}' to s])ell }-our 
Christian name is S-y-1-v-e-s-t-e-r, and not S-i-1-y-e-s-t-e-r, as you, 
like a blockhead, write it." 



But it must not l)e liastilv concluded that because political con- 
trol was confined so exclusive]}- to the sa\ants at Albany, Ontario 
Qountv had no i)oliticians in the da}s when it embraced all of 
A\'estern Xew York from Geneva to the Niagara river. 

The founders of the settlement and the organizers of the county 
were doubtless j-'ederalists. AH ])atriots recognized in those days 

tlie leadership of President ^^'ash- 
ington in national affairs, but the 
party in ])o\ver at Albany was 
often in oi)position to those who 
carried the same name at Wash- 
ington. and when the State was 
rent in twain, as it was early in 
the centur\- b}- the contentions of 
.\lexander Hamilton and John 
Jay, on one side, and (iovernor 
George Clinton, who had up to 
that time retained the office of 
chief magistrate unopposed, on 
the other side, the echoes at least 
nmst ha\e reached the "folks in 
the woods" of Ontario county. 
I'.ut i)ictures of early politics must 
do \\itlu)ut much local color. W'e 
cannot tell e\en to which party or 
faction some of the first office 
holders belonged. 

The [ir>t political incident of 
note of which we ha\e record as 
occurring in Ontario county, grew 
out of the fact that although not 
entitled b\' its ])opulation to rep- 
was a Representative in Congress from 1837 reseUtatlOU iu tllC State legislature 
to 1839 ; a State Senator in 1841. and County . * 

Judge from 1847 until 1851. Was a brilliant at SO Carlv a pCflod. the COUtttV bv 
lawyer and an effective public speaker. Died - _ _ ".  

in Canandaigua. September 8, 1852. ^ SpCCial aCt WES given this right 

in 1791. The fact was not known in Canandaigua oi^ Geneva, but 
the politicians of a small settlement in what is now Steuben county, 
obtained possession of the secret, and. with an appreciation of the 
possibilities of snaj) methods not surpassed l)y their descendants, 
athered a few backwoodsmen, went through the form of an elec- 


Mark IJ. Sibley, prominent as a lawyer, a 
jurist, and a legislator in the early history of 
Otitario county, was born at (Vreat IJarring- 
ton, .Mass., in 1796. Coming to Canandaigua. 
in 1814, be studied law witli Dudley Marvin 
and was admitted to the bar. He succeeded 
( )Iiver I'helps as a member of the State 
.\ssembly in 1834 and was re-elected in 1835; 




lion, .111(1 cast llicir votes for ("ol. [•'Jeasor Ij'ndsley, of that settle- 
nicnl, for the oflice of Mcniher of Asscmhh. The ])r()ceediii,L; may 
ha\e been somewhat ii"reg"ulai', l)iit no one contested, and Mr. 
Lindsley tooI< his seat. The year foHowin^-, the jn'opK' of iIk' 
coniit)-. heini;- awake to their rights, elecied (ieiieral Israel (liapiii 
of Canandaio-ua to re])resent them at Ahjanv. 

The chief poh'tical interest of those (hays naliiralK- cenlt'reil 
about tlie election of Members of 
Assembly, for as we ha\e seen, it 
was the otiice through which 
alone the xoters conld ex])ress 
their will, thoni;li ex'er so indi- 
rectly, as to State politics or as to 
appointments to otiice, bnt the 
incidenl related is abont the on'\- 
knowledge we ha\e of the recnr- 
riiiL;- contests, except that ccjii- 
taiiKMl in the list of incnmbents of 
office. lAen the local papers, so 
far as can l)e juds^-ed from the 
defectixe files remaining-, throw- 
little liylit on the snbject. 

(ienera! Chapin was succeed- 
ed in the Assembly by Thomas 
Morris of Canandaigua, he by 
Lemuel Chipman, of hMttstown 
Oiow H(Tneoye ), and (diaries Wil- 
liamson, of Ihath ; and among those 
elected in the following years 
were Amcis Hall, of Canandaigua ; 
Nathaniel Norton, of Rloomheld; 
IVter R. Rorter, Augustus Rorter, 
and I haddeus Chapin, of Canan- 
daigua; Rolydore R. Wisner, of 
Seneca: Daniel \\'. Lewis, of Sen- 
eca; Philetus Swift, of Phelps; William Rumsey, of I'lath : Gideon 
Pitts, of Honeoye ; Israel Chapin, Jr., and Reuben Hart, of Canandai- 
gua ; Myron Holley, Phineas P. Rales, and John C. Spencer, of Can- 
andaigua; Rowen W'hiting, of Geneva ; Francis Granger and Walter 
Hubbell, of Canandaigua; John Dickson, of West Rloomfield; Oli- 


Fioni in Blooming C.iove. Orange county, 
January 1, 1770; removed to Canandaigua in 
1796; was elected Presiclent of tlie I'oard of 
rrustees upon tlie incorporation of the Vil- 
lage in 1815: Assistant Attorney (leneral 
for the Western Counties from 1799 to 1802; 
inemhcr of the L^egislature in 1804; 
Kcpresentativc in Congress in 1S13 and 
1814, and I'-irst Judge of Ontario county from 
1819 to 1833. Died in Canandaigua, October 
15, 1851. 



ver Phelps and Mark H. Sil)lev. of Canandaigiia : Henry Pardee, 
of Victor; Hcnr\ W. I'aylor. of Canandaigua ; Jonathan Biiell, 
Timothy Biiell. and Josiali Porter, of East Bloomlield : Alxah 
Worden, of Canandaigna; Lorenzo Clark and Emory B. Pottle, of 

In (he office of clerk. Xalhaniel Gorhani was succeeded by John 

Wickham. Peter B. Porter, Syl- 
vester Tiffany, James B. Mower, 
Mxron Holley, Hugh McNair, 
lohn X'anEossen. Gavin L. Xich- 
olas, Ralph Lester. Charles Crane, 
lohn L. Dox, Thomas Hall. Alex- 
ander H. Howell and Reuben 
Murray. Jr. 

Judah Colt, the first sheriff, 
was succeeded by Nathaniel Xor- 
ton. Roger Sprague, Benjamin 
I'.arion. Sle]dien Bates. James R. 
Ciurnsew James Rees, A\'m. Shc])- 
ard, Xathaniel Allen. Phineas P. 
IJates, Samuel Lawrence. Joseph 
(larlinghouse. Jonathan Buell. 
lonas M. U'heeler. Myron 11. 
Ciark. John Lamport, h'ri Dens- 
more, Phineas Kent, and William 
H. Lamport. 

01i\-er Phelps, the hrst count)- 
judge, was succeeded by Timothy 
Hosmer, John Nicholas. Xathan- 
iel \\". Howell. Bowen Whiting. 
Charles |. f\)lger, E. h'itch Smith 
and Mark H. Sil)ley. 

The surrogates were John 
Cooper. Samuel Mellish. Israel 
Chapin, Jr., Amos Hall, Dudley Saltonstall, Reuben Hart, Eliphalet 
Taylor, Stephen Phel]^s. Ira Sclby. Jared A\'ilson, Orson Benjamin, 
and George R. I'arburt. 

The first district attorney was John C. Spencer. He was 
followed by Abraham P. Vosburg, Bowen Wdiiting, Henrv F. Pen- 


Alexander Hamilton Howell, eldest son of 
Judge Nathaniel W. Howell, was born in 
Canandaigua. September 30, 1805, and died 
in that village on May 8, 1893. Officiated 
several terms as President of the Village and 
served a number of years as Chief of the 
Fire Department ; was Clerk of Ontario 
county from 1844 to 1849 inclusive, also acted 
as a member of the Board of Trustees of 
Canandaigua .\cademy and as President of 
the Board of Trustees of the Ontario Or[)han 


KST MALI' (■|':.\ri'RY. 


Tu'ld. (icoTi^x- W . (lintoii, .\;illi;iii I'ai-ki'. riidiiias M . Ilowrll, liar- 
/.illai Slossdii, jaiiU's ( '. Urown, and StcplK'ii l\. .Malli)rv. 

In llir Senate, llie (li>lricl nf wliicli ()ntai-iii was a i)art, was 
represented hy Tlionias More}', Lemuel ( Inpinan, I'liiletns Swifl. 
Amos Il.ill, Ste])lien liates, (iideon dianiLjer, John C Spencer, 
W dliam II. Seward. Mark II. Sil)le>', and .Mherl Lester. 

In C'oni^-ress, dnrinii- tlie lift}' years under examination, the 

lad aniomi' its 
liomas .Morris. 

•eter 1',. 



ollll C". 

( )ntario district 

rei)i'esentat i\(.'s 

()li\er IMiel])^, 

.Xatlianiel W . 

Si)encer. |ohn 

!\layer and Jolm (Ireig". 

Tln'oui^h succeeding' cam- 
paigns in winch ( ieor^'c ( linlon 
was retired from tlie ^"ox'ernor- 
shi)) in fa\-()i' of Jay, and a,i;ain 
elected to that office. John .\dams 
was succeeded 1)\- jeffersou as 
President, and the RepubHcans of 
the time, of wliicli cnir ]oresent da\- 
'Uemocratic ])art\' is the (hrect de- 
scendant, controlled the State 
les2'islature, Ontario remained firm 
in the Federalist faith ; and this 
continued true down to the excit- 
ing- campaign of L*^04. when there 
was a pretty general shifting" of 
party lines in preparation for the 
gubernatorial election of the next 
:\pril. Ontario rose to new ])rominence in this campaign, through 
the nomination of her distinguished citizen. ()li\er Lheliis. tor 
the office of Lieutenant-(io\ ernor. on the ticket headed hy the 
fatally ambitious Aaron iJurr. IJurr and Pheli)s had the su])port of 
a large section of the hVderalists and of many influential Republi- 
cans. But the Republican Legislative caucus, after much casting 
about, induced Morgan Lewis to accei)t its nomination for Governor, 
and almost to its own surj)rise carried the succeeding election. The 
same party elected also a majority of the Legislature, even including 
its candidates for the Senate in the Western district, Jedediah Peck 


Walter Huhbell, a proniinent member of 
the early bar of Ontario county, was born 
in Bridgeport, Conn.. February 25, 1795, and 
settled in Cauandaigua in 1814. Member of 
Assembly from (Ontario county in 1829, was 
prominently identified with the Canandaigua 
.\cademy, and active in church and Sunday 
school work. Died in Canandaigua, March 
2.^. IS 48. 


and Heiir_\- Ilunlington, ainl at least one of its candidates for the 
Assembly in Genesee and Ontario, then voting together in one 
Assembly district. 

That questionable methods were sometimes adopted to attain 
political ends in those days, is indicated by an address that was 
published in the Ontario Repository of March 20. 1804: 

To the Electors of Ontario County: 

A meeting of a few electors of the town of Phelps being called and held 
at the home of Samuel Oaks, inn keeper in said town, on Thursday evening, 
the 15th inst., in a very privat and clandestine manner with a view to make 
nomination of a character to represent this part of the county in the Legislature 
at the ensuing election, and the business conducted with so much secrecy as 
to preclude the attendance of the greatest part of the electors of the said town, 
we, the subscribers, being by accident present at the said meeting and witness- 
ing the irregularity with which it was conducted, think it a duty incumbent on 
us, in order that the general wish of the people should be known, to request 
that a general meeting of the electors of the town of Phelps and adjoining 
towns be held at the home of said Oaks on Thursday, the 29th instant, at 12 
o'clock noon, for the purpose of nominating proper characters to be supported 
at the ensuing election to represent this Co. in the Legislature. Deputations 
from all the towns of the Co. are requested to attend with a view to determining 
on the county ticket. 

This address was signed by Thaddeus Oaks, John Bigelow. 
Sam'l Shekell, David Cook, and lilias Cost. 

A spectator of the Phelps meeting wrote that it "was o])ened. 
conducted and finished in a manner peculiarly appmjjriate to that 
foul spirit of Democracy, which seems destined to prostrate at the 
feet of faction the glory, the happiness, and independence of our 

Out of this and the preceding campaign, which had resulted 
in the defeat of Col. Burr's ambition to achieve distinction in State 
or National politics, grew bitter animosity betw^een liini and Hamil- 
ton, the Federal leader. The latter had not hesitated to denounce 
Burr for his alleged treachery to President JefYerson. and the 
quarrel ended in tlie fatal duel at Floboken. Dee]) grief at the 
death of the brilliant Hamilton was expressed throughout the 
country. Myron Holley, on invitation of a committee of citizens, 
delivered an oration in eulogy of the great man in the court house 
at Canandaigua. 

The spirit of P. T. Barnum must have been abroad even in those 
days. At least no time was lost by one showman in availing him- 
self of the opportunity for profit afforded by public interest in the 



Hoboken trag-edy. As early as June 4, FSOS, he had [)enetrated the 

woods as far as Caiiaiidai^ua, and 
ladies and g-entlenien" (^f the vil- 
lage were notifu'd that there was 
that day opened at the house of 
Mrs. Gooding, near the court 
house, "a new and elegant col- 
lection of wax ligures, as large as 
life;'" among which it was ad\-er- 
tised that there was "a striking 
rei)resentat ion of the unfortunate 
duel hetween (ien. Alexander 
Hamilton and Col. Aaron Rurr;"' 
also Bonaparte, Nelson, a I'ius 
Mother Instructing Her Children, 
and Samson Asleep in the Lap 
of Delilah, etc. 

The Republicans maintained 
their supremacy in the State until 
\H(y\ when the l)ad effects of the 
hjubargo law funn"shed the l^'cd- 
eralists an opportunity to regain 
control, and for the iirst time 
since l/'')^ they elected a majorit)- 
of the legislators. The rei)resen- 
tatives of the Western district 
were Federalists, nominated in 
each case "at a res]:)ectable meet- 
ing of electors from xarious tow ns 

the Ontario Messenger "the 



_C"aiitaiii I'liilip C'liurch was Ijoni April 14, 
1778, in Boston; was a lawyer; acted as 
second to his cousin, Phil Hamilton, in the 
latter's fatal duel with' Kckert, on the ground 
at Weeliawken where (leneral Hamilton after- 
wai lis fell ni his duel with' Colonel Burr ; in 1801 
settleii in what is now Allegany comity; 
foviiuUd the village of Angelica, so named in 
Imncir of his mother; County Judge of Alle- 
gany coiinty from 1807 to 1821; died at Belvi- 
dere, lanuary 10. 1861. 

of the county." The Federalists, of 

course, made sweej)ing changes in county ollices, but the next xQ'dv 

the Republicans carried the electicMi and reinstated their frieiuls. 




Ontario County in the War of 1812 — Building of the Erie Canal — 
Western New York Rejoices at Completion of the Great Work 
— Abduction of William Morgan — Resulting Excitement in the 
"Infected District" — The Anti-MasOxnic Campaign — Francis 
Granger a Candidate for Governor. 

Fortunately for him who would attempt to write j^olitical 
Iiistory, there are crises \\hich rise ahoxc the dead level of office 
seeking- and ofrice getting. There were three of these that especially 
aroused the citizens of Western .\\\\ ^'()rk in the first half century, 
h'irst came the war of 1812. then the excitement over the ahduotion 
of Morgan in \H2(). and lastly the "'rii)i)ecanoe and Tn ler loo"' 
campaign of 1840. 

Canandaigua was unc(*mfortal)l\' near the frt^uier in the war of 
1812. Judging from the new s])apers of the (la\', the whole connt\' 
must have been in a ferment. Alarm committees were organized in 
the ^•arious towns. Troops were enlisted, it being mentioned that 
•ninety recrtiits had been enrolled in one month "in the small town of 
Canandaigua," and the \illage streets were the frecpient scene of 
])arades and other patriotic (lis])la}-^. On Septend)er 12, it is 
recorded that "a regiment of militia comjjosed of 400 or 500 of the 
best blood of the cotmtr}- marched throtigh the \-illage," also that 
four wagons loaded with arms and anuunnition frcun the arsenal 
here had been dispatched to the front. In 1814 tlie local committee 
of safety, ot which Thad(len.> Chapin was chairman and M \ ron 
llolley secretary, rejx'rted that it had recei\ed and distribiUed 
$13,473.10 for the relief of sufferers on the Xiagara frontier. And 
in Xo\end)er of the same }-ear, as a recognition of the fact that the 
war was over, a public diriner was given at Mr. Barnard's, in honor 
of Major (jeneral Peter 1). Porter, as a mark of the local ap))reciation 
of his services in protecting the frontier. 



Peter B. Porter may he fairly claimed as an Ontario county 
man. Pic came to Canandaigua with his brother Augustus in 1795, 
or thereabouts, and remained a resident of the village until 1806, 
when he remo\ed to Niagara balls, in the te]-rit(»r\- then recently set 
Oil from ()ntario and erected mto tlie countv of (Jenesee. lie had 
held the office of county clerk and was a member of .\ssend)l\ from 
this county, and after his removal 
ser\ed {\\o terms in Congress, 
lie was a major general of volun- 
teers in 1(S13, and connnanded at 
the deferise of Hlack lv(jck, now 
Bubfalo, in July of that year. In 
1815 he was offered, but declined, 
the post of Conmiander-in-Chief 
of the I'nited States Army. He 
was one cjf the commissioners 
under the treaty of Ghent, Secre- 
tary of State under Go\-ernor 
rom])k-ins, and Sccretar)- of War 
in the cabinet of the \dunger 

I'olitical feeling ran high in 
the \ea]'s ])receding, during, and 
tollowing the war. Phe l\ei>ubli- 
cans, as the es[)ecial cham])ions of 
I'j-esident Madison. fi"eel\- trumted 
their bederal enemies with being 
traitors. "The briends of Peace"" 
were accused of holding secret 
meetings. A Middlesex con\en- 
tion is re])orted as liaxing de- 
nounced certain ministers as 
''rebels against lleaxen and trait- 
ors to their country," because of 
lia\ing, ;is alleged, abused from theii- ])\d])its the chief magistrate 
and other goxernment ofiicials. 'bhe ("anandaigua Messenger 
charged ihat the W ashington Itenex-olent Societx' of the \-illage was 
"a ])olitical club of the most bitter and violent enemies of our 
government and countrw"' and a s(U"iety "composed ot some ot the 
most abandoned, desperate, and de])ra\ed ])oliticaI vagabonds in the 

(itucral IVler liuel I'orter, a brotlicr of 
.\iigustus I'oiter, tlie surveyor, was bom in 
SultifM. Conn., in 1773. Settled in Canandai- 
,L'i!a in 17',iS. Was Clerk of Ontario County 
from 1797 t'o 18(14, Member of -Assembly 
from Ontario county in 1S02, and after 
his removal to .Niagara Kails about tiie 
vear 1806 served tSvo terms in Congress. 
Was a Major (leueral of Volunteers in the 
War of 1812 and commanded at the defense 
of niack Rock, now I!ulTalo, in July, 1813. 
Was offered and <leclined the command of 
the I'nited States .\rmy made by President 
Madison. Was one of ilie United States 
Commissioners under the Treaty of (.hent, 
.Secretary of State under Governor Tomp- 
kins, and .Secretary of War in the cabinet 
of the vounijer Adams. He died in Xiagara 
I- alls in March, 1844. 


country." It is not strange, perhaps, that as one of the echoes of 
this fierce strife a suit was l^rought by Editor Bemis of the Reposi- 
tory against John C. Spencer, whom the plaintitt accused of being 
the author of an editorial in tlie ^iessenger referring to him as "a 
traitorous rascal.'" The incident was happily closed l)v the pul)lica- 
tion of a card in which Mr. Spencer said that the ofifensive epithet 
^^as never intended to apply to Mr. Bemis. 

Tliat the elections of these earlier years were often exciting, 
anrl in\o]\ed the pulling of wires, back room conferences, and (|uiet 
cooperation with State and National leaders, goes without 
the saying. 

The local election of 1812 resulted, as the ^ilessenger, the 
Madison organ, said, in the "election of two Federal lawyers to 
represent this agricultural district in the councils of the Nation." 
But the paper assumed to take comfort in the fact that the district 
would be well represented in the "glib of tongue." The Congress- 
men elect thus referred to were Samuel \\. Hopkins and Nathaniel 
\\'. Howell. Stephen Bates and Chaunce\- Foomis were their 
unsuccessful Republican opponents. 

It was soon after the close of the war, in 1816. that the canal act 
was passed, and a distinguished Canandaiguan. Myron Hollev, was 
named as a member of the commission to carry the great project 
into execution. The feeling in Western Ne\v York in favor of the 
proposed improvement was overwhelming, and upon its opening in 
October, 1825. ])ursuant to arrangements made at a meeting of 
citizens held in Blossom's "long room," a coiumittee of prominent 
citizens, headed by Nathaniel \\'. Howell. interce])ted the first boat 
thrcmgh from Buffalo and i^resented the congratulations of the 
people here to its honored ])assengers. Moreover a ball was given 
at the hotel in honor of the occasion and a national salute was fired 
from Arsenal hill. 

The next issue of the Ontario Messenger contained an adver- 
tisement of the "Merchants Fine for Freight and Passage." which 
announced that a boat belonging to that line "well fitted up for 
passengers and running night and day. with relays of horses every 
12 miles, will leave Rochester for .\ll)any every morning (Sundays 
excepted) at 7 o'clock, and ever}- e\ening at 8 o'clock and will run 
through in less than five days, or at the rate of 60 miles every 24 
liours." 'I'hink of that, ye people, who in this year of grace, 1911, 



^complain that it takes as nuich as five hours tcj make that same ti-ip 
from Rochester to An)aiiy! 

The h^rie canal was ])rimarily desii^ned as a means of transpor- 
tation for tlie pro(hicts of New 
\ ovk State farms as weU as those 
ot the h'ar West, and the ])hans of 
its projectors mchideil the con- 
struction of a mmd)er of laterals 
or feeders. ( )ne of these tliat was 
carried to completion was the 
Cayui^a and Seneca canal, and 
annthcr, tor the huildiu"" of which 
a couipauN' was incorporated in 
LS2i with a capital stock of $100.- 
()(~>n. hut which was ne\-er huilt, 
was to connect Canandais^ua lake 
with the iMMe at Palnu'ra. h'ol- 
lo\\in<4- the development of the 
r.'dlroad as a means of tra\el and 
trriusportation, this and other ])ro- 
posed extensions of the canal sys- 
tem were ^"ivcn u]) and later the 
laterals which had heen construct- 
ed, exceiitim;- the IJlack l\i\erand 
the Cayuj^a and Seneca lines, were 

In 1X17 sla\-cry \\-as aholished 
in the State hy leg"islati\e enact- 
ment, to lake effect July 4, lcS27. 
an act which probably somewhat 
affected Ontario, as the census 
just taken showed that the i)opu- 
lation of the county included 213 
persons in bondage. In 1819 
Gideon Granger was elected as a 
Ciintonian Senator from the 
Western district, and in 1820 
John C. Spencer was elected Si)eaker of the Assend)!}-. the first and 
only time when that oflice has been held 1)\- an ()ntario member. 
The comitv then had se\en members of Asseml)l\-, and included 

John Cantield Spencer, one of the most 
(listinsnislied figures in the history of early 
( )ntario county, was born at llnilson, X. V., 
in 1788. fie took up his residence in Can- 
andaigua following his admission to the bar 
and continued a resident here for thirty-six 
years. VVhen only 19, became private secre- 
tary to ("lovernor Tompkins; was a[)pointed 
.Master in Chancery in 1811; was Brigade 
Judge .\dvocate ott the frontier in 1812; was 
.•i|)pointed Postmaster at Canandaigua in 1S14; 
liccaiue .\ssistant Attorney Cieneral in 1815, 
and in 1816 was elected to Congress from 
the 21st district, of which Ontario county 
was a part. In 1821 he entered the State 
.\ssembly and became S|)caker of that body ; 
was Slate Senator, 1824-1828; was appointed 
by Governor Van Buren in 1826 Special At- 
torney General in the prosecution of those 
implicated in the Morgan abduction; was 
again elected to the .\ssembly in 1830, and 
in 1839 was appointed Secretary of State by 
Governor Seward, serving also as State Super- 
intendent of Schools; two years later was 
appointed a Regent of the .State University. 
In October, 1841, was appointed Secretary of 
War l)y President Tyler, and in March, 1843. 
was transferred to the office of Secretary of 
Ireasury, l)ut resigned the position the fol- 
lowing year because of op[iosition to the 
annexation of Texas. Died at .Mbany, May 
IS, 1855. 


territory now embraced in Monroe. Yates and Wayne counties. 

The Western district contributed materially to the reelection 
of Governor DeWitt Clinton in 1820 and in the years immediately 
succeeding made itself felt in the work of the Legislature by the 
election of Bowen W biting and Francis Granger to the Assembly 
and of John C. Spencer to the Senate. They were all Clintonians 
and rendered efficient support to that great man, who. thougli the 
object of tlie most \enomous opposition, gained for himself an 
enduring fame in tlie building of the Iirie canal. 

-Micali Brooks, John Price. I'hiletus Swift, David Sutherland 
and loshua \'an\']eet re])resented the county in the constitutional 
convention of 1821 and helped bring about the abolition of State 
lotteries, the extension of the electi\e franchise to all white tax- 
pavers, ministers, \eterans, and firemen, and to colored men 
possessing $250 worth of propertw and the abolition of the council 
of appointment. As an indication of the ])olitical methods or 
manners in vogue in Ontario count}' and e'sewhere at this period, 
the following address, which a]ii)eared in a Canandaigua ])a])er of 
182.\ is (if inlere^t : 

'I'm tlir I'.lcctors of tlic (^)Uiity "f ()niani): 

I'cllow Citizens: — l^e-^iroiis of ol)t.iininj.( a situaliou lliat will enable nic 
to earn the mean.s of supi)ortini^- a numerous family, f am induced to offer my- 
self as a candidate for your sutfraKes at the ensuiiiLi electicm for the oftice of 
Countj' Clerk. 

I am the less ditVident in soliciting;" such an office from the consideration 
that the correct (li>char.L;e of it> duli.-s tloes not require anj- peculiar experience 
or any letfJil <»r jirofessional <|ualificatiuns, and that the iirincipal rec|uisitcs are 
the faculty of vvritiiijr a .yood hand and a faithful and punctual attention to the 

To the most ze.ilous effort for the ])trformance of these duties, nu' char- 
acter, my necessities, and ni} yratitiule to my fellow citizens, are the best 
pledges that can be given. 

Of my old friends the h'armer> and .Mechanics, to whom I ;im known, 
and of the electors gener.illv, I res))ectfull}- solicit a cordial support. 

PU.VDF'.RSOX P.. uxni'.Riiri.L. 
Phelps, August 30, 1S25. 

-Mr. L'nderhill \\:'.s md elected clerk, but his failure to obtain 
the "situation"" cotild not ha\'e been due lo tlie publication of this 
card. Self-nomination was the common way of bringing a person's 
candidacy for office to pttblic attention, and was resorted to bv the 
most honored men in the conununit>'. 

The politics of Ontario cottnty was ne\er so stirred bv any 

roLrricAL crises. 


other event, either in the first or second hah' ccnlur}-, as it was by 

the Morgan ahchiction in 1S2(). Tliis took ])lace on September 12. 

from the jail in ( "anandait^'iia, in whicdi W ilh'am Morq-an, a resident 

of Bata\ia, had been incai'cerated on a trnniped uj) char^'e of petit 

iarceny. M origan's real offense consisted in the i)nbbcation of a 

book which t reachei'onsb' rexealed the secrets of the Masonic order. 

and the incident of his arrest and 

abchiction had no ])ossil)Ie ])oHti- 

cal l)earino-. Morgan disaii]:)eared 

ne\er to l)e seen again 1)\' fanhl\- 

or friends, and it cametol)e pretty 

generally behexed that lie had 

been drowned in the Niagara 


The trial and con\ictir)n for 
conspiracx" and abdnction of sev- 
ei"al mend)ers of the bar and other 
pionnnent I'^'ee M;isons, and snb- 
se(|nent judicial |)roceedings, fail- 
I'd to allav excitement in the so- 
calle(| "infected district," becanse 
they failed to jjcnetrate the mys- 
tery of Ab)rgan's nltimate fate or 
ade(|nately ])nnish those res])onsi- 
ble for his (lisaj)pearance and 
snspected inm'der. The {"io\ernor 
and Legislatnre were called n])on 
to assist in the matter, and finally 
an act was passed, framecl 1)\- the 
jndiciaiw conmiittee, of which Sen- 
ator John C. Silencer of ( )ntario 
conntx was chairman, and nnder 
which Daniel Moskyw of ( )non- 
daga, was made a special State 
agent with Mr. .Spencer as conn sel, to probe the mat ter to the bottom. 

bor three \ears the nuestigat ion was continued, bnt wilhont 
])ractical resnlt, and pid)lic feeling on the snbject contimied to 
extend and intensif)'. 

Those wdio had been pi"ominent in eft'orts to luring the abdnc- 
tors and snspected mnrderers to justice ne\er lield that the 

,\"ath;uiicl IxochtstPr was horn in West 
Murelaiid County, Viifjinia, February 21, 
l/.ij; moved into New York State in 1810, 
lirsl seltii'i;.? at Dansville, then in Ontario 
county. Tie later moved to the l-"alls of the 
(lenesec and there assisted in founding the 
settlement which was named after him, first, 
in 1817, as the Village of Kochesterville. then 
in 18_'_'. as the Village of I^ochester, and 
linally on April 28, 18.^4, as the City of 
iMicliester. lie died in Rochester, Mav 17. 



Masonic fraternity as a whole was responsible for the outrage, but 
rather attributed it to over-zealous and unscrupulous members of 
the order, and they had not contemplated political action in the 
matter. But at the town meetings in 1827, the citizens in some towns 

refused to vote for Masons as 
supervisors and justices of the 
peace, and the success of the 
]\Iasons in defeating the reelection 
of Dr. Frederick F. Backus, as 
treasurer of the village of Roch- 
ester, because of his opposition to 
the order, resulted in a Monroe 
county convention of Anti-Masons 
in September. 1827. and the nom- 
ination and election in that county 
of Anti-Masonic candidates to the 
Assembly. In the succeeding ses- 
sion. Francis Granger and Robert 
C. Nicholas of Ontario, and Mor- 
ris F. Sheppard of Yates, although 
not nominated as such, became 
identified with the movement. 

The Anti-Masons early be- 
came open and zealous supporters 
of the candidacy of President 
Adams for reelection. The Masons 
supported General Jackson. Mr. 
Weed and other influential Anti- 
Masons attemjjted to secure the 
nomination of Francis Granger for Governor by the National 
Republican or Adams State convention, but other counsel pre- 
vailed and Smith Thompson was nominated for the first place and 
Mr. Granger for Lieutenant-Governor. The Anti-Masonic paper 
at Canandaigua denounced the nomination of Judge Thompson, and 
feeling ran so high that an Anti-Masonic convention was held at 
Utica, and I'rancis Granger was nominated for Governor. Mr. 
Granger was thus placed in an embarrassing position. Both nomi- 
nations were from parties whose princijdes he supported and from 
political friends and associates. Finally, in a characteristically frank 
and manly letter, he accepted the nomination of the National Repub- 


Gideon (iranger, eminent among the early 
settlers in Canandaigua, was a descendant of 
Lanncelot Granger who came from England 
in 1652 and settled in the Massachusetts Bay 
Colony. He was born at Suffield, Conn., 
July 19, 1767; graduated from Yale College 
in 1787; attained distinction at the bar and 
in! politics, and in 1801 became Postmaster 
(ieheral, ser\ing in that capacity through 
both of President Jefferson's terms and most 
of President Madison's. On his retirement 
from Washington in 1814, Mr. Granger set- 
tled in Canandaigua. In 1820-1 was a mem- 
ber of the State Senate from the Western 
District. Died in Canandaigua, December 31, 



licans for Lieutenant ( idxenioi- and deelined that of the Anti- 
iVlasons foi" (ioxernor. Solomon Soutliwick- was tlieien])on jdaced 
in nomination hy the Anti-Ma- 

The election, as an outcome of 
this three-sided contest, resulted 
in the choice of the Jackson 
or Democratic candidate, Martin 
\'an I5in-en. The election of the 
following year. 1(S2S, streuLi'thened 
the .\uti-Masonic ])art\' in the 
Leo;islatin-e, John l)ickson, Wal- 
ter llubhell, and Robert C. Nicho- 
las beini;- elected as its exponents 
from ( )nlario conntx'. 

By iS32, the mo\'ement had 
l)ecome national in its extent, but 
the effort to unite the Anti-Afa- 
sonic ])arty with tlie National 
Republicans in favor of Henrv 
Clay for President failed, and, as 
a result, in the estimation of so 
good a. judge as Thurlow Weed, 
Mr. Clay was for a second time 
defeated of his supreme ambition. 
William ^^'irt was the third-party 
Anti-Masonic candidate. 

In the meantime, in 1830, Wil- 
liam H. Seward had come into 
public life as an Anti-Masonic 
State Senator from the Sex'enth 
district, h'rancis (iranger of ()ntario count\- was the Anti-Masonic 
candidate for Goxcrnor in that year, but b'nos T. Tln-oo]) was 
elected by a majority of something o\er eight thousand. In West- 
ern and Central New York, Mr. Granger was largely in majority. 
In 1832 he was again the Anti-Masonic candidate for Ciovernor, and 
was again defeated at the polls, this time by the treacher\- of im])or- 
tant interests in the Chenango valle\', which were bound by all hon- 
orable considerations to his support. 

In the Legislature of 1832, Mr. Granger was a member of 


Micah Brooks was born in Cheshire, Comi., 
in 1775, removing witli his parents to West- 
ern New York and settling with them on a 
farm in the town of Bloomfield in 1799. He 
was for tiventy years an .\ssociate Judge of 
the Ontario County C'ourt of Common 
Pleas : represented this county in the State 
Assembly in 1808 and 1809; was a member 
of the 1'"ourtcenth Congress, 1815-1817: was 
a delegate to the Constitutional Convention 
of ISJl, and in 1824 was clioscn a I'resiilential 
Injector. Me died in Livingston countv, Tuly 
7, 1857. 


Assembly and the camlidale of llic iliii'ty-one Anti-Masonic mem- 
bers for Speaker of that Ijody, l)nt was defeated ]>}• the Jackson 
Democratic candidate. 

With the Presidential election of 18vi2. Anti-Masonr\ as a polit- 
ical force began to disintegrate. The supposed necessity for the 
movement had been done awa}" with 1)\ the (|nite general surrender 
of the charters of lode^es of the }^Iasonic order in \\ estern Xew 
Vork. and in some other States. In 1833 the election showed that 
Anti-Mas()nr\ had lost its hold. The ])arty was ])ractically dissoK'ed. 
and. under the lead of Mr. Weerl. its elements, uniting with other 
forces opposed to the Jackson or Democratic ])arty. largely assisted 
in the organization of what was to become the W hig part\ . 





William H. Seward Defeated as the First Whig Candidate for Gov- 
ernor — "The Tippecanoe and Tyler Too" Campaign of 1840 — 
The "Raising" of a Log Cabin in Canandaigua — An Honored 
Ontario County Citizen Named as Postmaster-General in 
President Harrison's Cabinet. 

W c cannot follow. c\cn l)i-i(.'ll\-, the politics of the sncccc(lin,Li' 
few years. Tlie l\e])nl)lican ])ai-ly. now become Democratic in name, 
continned in ascendency, wliile the oj)]i()sition in 1834. assuminj; the 
name of "W'hii^."' nominated W ilHam H. Seward as its candidate 
for (io\ernor. but he was defeated at the i)olls. Mark 11. Siblev. of 
( )ntari(), was a ])rominent W hii;" m the Assenil)ly of that year and 
recei\ed tlie \\ hii^- \ote for S]5eaker. 1die Anti-Slavery feeling" 
began to tind expression thi'ongh i)nl)lic meetings in ( )ntario as 
elsewhere. In ]<S36, the }'ear in which Martin \'an I)Uren was 
elected President and Mr. Marc\ . (i()\ernor, l)oth as Democratic 
candidates, the Whigs of .Vcan' ^'o^k made little noise in tlie cam- 
paign and small showing at the polls, and in State and local elec- 
tions of succeeding \-ears the tide seemed to be rnnning in fa\-or of 
tlie Democratic partv, Init the W bigs rallied in 1X38 and elected 
U'ilHam H. Seward. Governor. He received large majorities in 
all the Western counties. Henr\' W . Taylor was elected Member 
of Assembly on the Whig ticket in ( Ontario that \ear. 

The Presidential cami)aign in 1840 was a milestone in the his- 
tory of Ontario count v. as it was in that of every other section of 
the countrw The nonn'nation of NA'illiam Henry Harrison for 
President, while a disa])pointment to the friends of Henry Clay. 
aroused the greatest ]:)opular enthnsiasm. The campaign was 
marked bv man\- nnnsnal featnres. the building of log caluns. the 
singing of cam])aign songs as thev had never been sung before and 


have never been sung since, and the assemliHng of great mass 

In Ontario county the feeling ran liigh ; and. not to l)e outdone 
in work for the cause, the U higs. as early in the campaign as the 
middle of April, arranged a great ratification meeting or "Raising" 
in Canandaigua. The following account of the affair, condensed 
from the report in tlie local W hig organ, the Repository, aiTords a 
graphic picture : 

The Log Cabin Raising. 

When Victory hung o'er our Flag proudly waving 
And the battle was fought by our valiant and true; 

For our homes and our loved ones our enem)- braving. 
Oh! then stood the soldier of Tippecanoe. 

The iron-armed soldier, the true hearted soldier, 
The gallant old soldier of Tippecanoe. 

—Old Song. 

Last Thursday was indeed a i)roud day for the Whigs of Canandaigua, as 
well as for Ontario county. Agreeable to previous invitation by the Tippecanoe 
Club, the Whigs of the neighboring towns assembled in this village, to assist in 
raising a Log Cabin, to be used as a committee room. 

The first procession which appeared was seen approaching from the southern 
part of the town and consisted of some thirty or forty wagons, loaded with 
material for the building, with banners flying; a fine canoe, well manned by the 
hardy friends of the old hero, exhibitmg a large flag with the word "Tippecanoe" 
painted on it. accompanied with a fine band of music. We extracted the following 
from some of the banners which were carried by the wagons: 

"He is honest"' 
"He is capable" 
"He is the man'" 
"Xo Sub-Treasury' 

The procession, made up of delegates from the south part of this town. 
Hopewell and Gorham. was joined near the Court House by delegates from East 
Bloomfield and Bristol and that from Manchester, and moved in fine style across 
the square to the site of the intended cabin. The side walks crowded with 
animated spectators — the air rending with cheers and shouts for the hero of 

Before eleven o'clock logs had been collected enough to build a cabin two 
or three times the size of the one planned. At 10 a. m., a numerous delegation 
from West Bloomfield came down Main street in admirable style with banners 
flying. The West Bloomfield delegation carried these mottoes: 

"West Bloomfield will give 230 majority for Harrison & Tyler." 
"William Henry Harrison, the Log Cabin Candidate for President — the 
string always out." 

"Fourth March, 1841— Matty, clear the Wliite House for old Tippecanoe." 

RISE ol'" ANTl-SLAVI^:in 



'I'hc l()ll(i\\in,L( \\a^ horiu- hy an old sailiir: 

'■W'illiani II. I larri-~>iii, llu' niaiii>ta\- — Matty, tlu' llyiny jih " 

'J"lu' I':innin,i4tt)n (Iclc-sation \\a> lari^c and furnished some of llu' lir-t limhcr 

on the ground. 

Tlic scone now I)fcanK- liij^jldy inttr''>tiiiL' an( 
llu' (.'ahin was to be (.'reeled was literally 
hlneked up w'itli teani.-> unloading the ina- 

an niatm; 

'Idle .street where 





I)()rne. The larjj;e 
))ia/.7as of the Ontario lloust' were 
crowded wiih >pectator,s, inan\- ni whom 
were ladies. The excellent hand <>[ 
n-n>ie helcnj^in.i.;- to this villa.^e eidiven- 
ed the scene with s])irited .strains. I'er- 
liaps never before has this \illage 
jiresented such a min.nled scene nf active 
Ini-tle, jiood feelin.u, and enlhu-iastic de- 
li,i;ht. as was exinccd on this occasion. 

.\t 11 o'clock, the Itrst lo.u;, wdiich was 
of live oak. and furnished 1)\- uur worthy 
friend, .Mr. Joel S. Hart, of Hopewell, 
was laid with aijprojjriate ceremonies by 
our \enerable and highly esteemed fel- 
low cili/en, .Xbner Barlow, Esq., assisted 
by ul (lur (ddest and most re- 
spected citizens. .Mr. I'.arhiw is now 
c'ghty-nine years old, and assisted in 
putting up some of the first log cabins 
ever erected in Ontarin county and i) 
ed the lirst tield of wheat west of Utica, 
whicli was some lifty years ago. 

The concourse was briefly addressed. 
in a l,ai)py manner, by E. P. Parrish. the 
marshal of the day, after which the 
building began ra])idly to rise. 

Let us look now into the dining 
room of our host, Mr. Powers, and watch 
the busy note of preparation going on 
there. Long tables were spread out 
groaning under the weight of substan- 
tial articles which had been sent by 
ladies from the several towns, consisting 
of boiled ham. pork and beans, acres of 
Johnny cake and mince pies, pickles, 
doughnuts, and other articles too numer- 
ous to mention. 

.\l the hour of 12, the dinner horn 
was heard at the door, and soon after the 
room was filled with the hardy sons who 
had been at work on the cabin, who 

partook bountifully of the fare and occasionally regaled themselves upon hard 
cider, the only beverage the use of which custom has sanctioned on such 


l'"raticis tiranger, .son of Gideon Granger, 
wa.s born in Suffield, Conn., December 1, 
1792; graduated from Yale College in l.Sll; 
removed with his father to Canandaigua in 
1S14; was a Member of Assembly from On- 
tario county from 1826 to 1828 and from 
18.>0 to 1832; the unsuccessful anti-Masonic 
nominee foi Governor of the State in 1830 
and again in 1832, and in 1836 was the can- 
didate for Vice President on the unsuccessful 
Whig ticket headed by General William 
H. Harrison: elected to Congress in 1835, 
and being returned at successive elections, 
continued to hold that ofifice until in 
1841. when he was called by President Har- 
rison to serve as I'ostn. aster General, a posi- 
tion which he filled until, upon the death of 
his chief, Tyler became President and the 
llarri.son cabinet was disrupted. Declining 
an ajiiiointment to a foreign mission and 
invitations to take other public ofifice, he 
spent the rest of his life in comparative 
retirement in Canandaigua. It was from Mr. 
Granger's beautiful gray locks that the 
ailministration branch of the Whig party 
deiived its name of "Silver Grays." Mr. 
Granger died in Canandaigua, August 31, 


occasions, and which had been abundantly furni>hed by the committees of 
arrangements. At one o'clock a long procession appeared from Naples. To the 
Democratic Whigs of Naples belongs the honor of furnishing the flag staff to 
the log cabin; and a noble one it is, being nearly one hundred feet in length. 
The building went up rapidlj' and by four o'clock was read}- to receive the 
flag staf?, etc. 

The Messenger, which was the Democratic or \'an Biiren org-an, 
in describing' the meeting, said that "One of the many odd contriv- 
ances to make up a show for the occasion was a large canoe, which 
was mounted on ^^•agon wheels and drawn np and down the street 
by four horses. It w^as filled, continued the opposition organ, "with 
some thirty or forty assorted specimens of ^^'higgerv." The 
Messenger saw a discouraging omen to the A\"higs in the breaking 
of the cord just as the flag was being run up on a fine liliertv po^e. 
Then after referring to the speeches, it said that "a Connecticut 
singing master" came out on the platform of the tavern, and taking 
a pitch pipe from his pocket, commenced a song as follows: 

"Come, all ye Log Cabin boys, we're going to have a raisin'. 
We've got a job on hand that we think will be pleasin'; 
We'll turn out and build old Tip a new Cabin, 
And finish it ofif with chinkin' and daubin'." 

In response to an encore, the singer then rendered a very 
classical parody on "Auld Lang Syne," beginning as follows: 

"Should gude old cider be forgot, 
.And never brought to mind." 

The canoe mentioned was afterwards carried all over the 
county, its passengers always including a glee club. Singing was a 
feature of all the meetings, and the songs had a swing and pepper 
that set the whole country afire and that earned fnr them immor- 
tality in the W'alhalla of campaign literature. 

The Democratic opposition \ainly attenijited to offset the 
Whig's singing cam])aign, and one of their efforts, written l)y a local 
I)ard, was a song. "The Gathering of the Factions," to be sung at 
Canandaigua, on the 23rd of \pril, the date of the log cabin rais-ing 
heretofore descril)ed. or. as the heading stated. ".At the Raising of 
the Grocery for retailin<r old Federalism and hard cider." It read 
as follows : 


The Gathering of the Factions. 

"Little vvat ye wlia's cf)iniiiK. 
Pierson's coming, Bemis's coming. 
Stunt is coming, Worden's coming, 
i'iiilpot's coming, Dwight is coming, 
Major General Granger's coming, 
Log Cabin Folks are a coming. 

"I.ittlc uat 30 wha's coming, 
I'arnnm's coming, Northrup's coming, 
John is coming. Panl is coming. 
Til and Jonas both are coming. 
Farmer Willson, too, is coming, 
A' tlic Working Men are coming. 

"Little wat ye wha's coming, 
Orson's coming, Kibbe's coming, 
Hall is coming. Clark is coming, 
Ilndson's coming. Jones is coming. 
Ottley's coming, Johnson's coming. 
Office Holders a' are coming. 

"Little wat ye wha's coming, — 
Codding's coming, Frisbie's coming. 
The Doctor o' the cloak's coming, 
Pitts and Garlinghouse are coming, 
Robinson and Roj-ce are coming. 
A' the Darkies sure arc coming. 

"Little wat v\c wha's coming. — 

I'^cds of cx'r}' hue arc coniiiiL;: — 

They gloom, they glower, they look sae big. 

At ilka lift, they'll take a swig. 

Till cider stills each Tory Whig: — 

Tlu'ir gude old fricn', the De'il's. coming." 

.\ 'ri])i)ccani le niitsc furnislicd the Repository the following;" 
a(i(Iitii)nal stanza to this song': 

"Ah, little wat we wha's coming. — 
Stanch <")ld Jackson men are coming, — 
With sturdy teams they onward jog. 
Each mounted on a hickory log; 
And what is more, they've tucked a slab in. 
To help the Whigs build Old Tip's Cabin." 

The yoimg- men's AX'liio- committee in this campaign was headed 
1)\- [olni S. Bates, and inchided All)crt G. Mnrrav, LeDran Brown. 



Si('mc\- S. Lampman. d. W . Bcniis. Geuroe L. W liilncw and E. B. 


Excitenicnt j^row as election day a])])r(>aclied. 'I'lie fact thai 

l-rancis (iranger and Jared Willson. the Whig and Democratic 

canthdates respectively for Congress, were both residents of Canan- 

daigua. and that Ahah W'orden. 
of C/anand.'iigna. whom the Mess- 
enger contem])tnonslv referred to 
as "the hrother-in-law- of W. II. 
Seward." the \\'hig candidate for 
Cioxernor. ran on the -anie ticket 
as a candidate for the Assend)ly. 
nui-i ha\e made the connl\' a 
\eritahle storm center. 

In tlie snccess thai crowned 
the '■ Tippecanoe and Tyler, too." 
cam])aign. Ontario had its share. 

1 1 i^a \ 

e Harrison 4.S2<S \otes. as 
com])ared with 3.4.^1 for \'an 
r.m-en and 152 f(^r the Aho'ition 
ticket. The connty ga\e \\'ilham 
11. Seward for (io\ernor 1.294 
]dnrality, and Mr. ( iranger led his 
popnlar opponent by 843 majority. 
L pon the inangnration of 
President Harrison in 1841. On- 
tario was again gixen notable 
recognition in National jjolitics by 
the appointment of its honored 
citizen. Francis Granger, as Post- 
master General in the cabinet of 
which hamcl Webster w a> at the head as Secretary of State. Mr. 
(hanger retired from olTice. with the otliei' mend)ers ot the cabinet. 
a few months later. n])on the death of President llanison. but in 
this distinction he was accorded an honor that ronnded ont a political 
career of great activity and nsefnlness. 'The son of Gideon Granger, 
who previons to his remo\al from C'onnecticnt to Canandaig'iia had 
served snccessi\el\ in the cabinets of Jefferson and Madison as 
Postmaster General, Francis Granger had a laudable political 
ambition, and, as we have seen, took a prominent part in the politics 

.lareJ Willson. a prominent meniljcr of the 
tally Ontario county liar, was born in West 
Stockbricigc, Mass., 'May 2i. 1786. Settled in 
CanantlaigMa in 1811. immediately after gradu- 
atioii from the University of Vermont, and 
studied law with John C. Spencer. Served as 
a lieutenant of militia in the War of 1812 and 
was taken prisoner at the IJattle of Oueens- 
town. Died in Canandaigua, April 8, 1851. 



of the cotinly and Stale, lie was a rccojyni^^ed leader in tlie 
(lintonian, Anti-Masonic, and W Ih'l^- parties, and was re])eatedl\' 
honored b\ his ])olitical associates with snppori tOr the hi<^hest 
l)n1)h'c ollices. inc1n(hn^' tliose of (io\ernor. I'lhled .States .Senator, 
and \ ice l'resi(k'nl. I 'ntOrtunateh- his can(h(hic\' was sc\'eral times 
nnsnccessfnl. thron^ii the niis- 
cliance ot exents or the ireachei'\- 
of ])reten(led friends, hnl tln'onj^h 
ah the \ears he maintained in 
enn'nent decree tlie confidence of 
the i)eo])le of the .State, as wtdl a< 
ol his imme(Hate constituents. 

President lAder. in his re- 
oi'^ani/ed cal)inet. had also an 
( )ntario connt\- statesman in the 
jx'rson of John C". .Sj)encer. whom 
he made .Secretar\- of War. and 
hater\' of the Treasnrw 
M r. S])encer had heen a i)ronnnent 
li^ni"e in W'estei'n Xew \i>yk and 
loi' a lonL;' time had a \c'i'\- lari^e 
iinlnence in slia])inL;- Slate |)olitics. 
lie was Secretary of .State through 
the two adnn'nistrations of ( lo\-- 
enioi" .Seward, and. as we ha\e 
^■een. was re])eatedl\- elected to 
the Legislature and ('ou^ress. 

The closiuu' \ears of the 


AHkiI (lUthrie Murray was born in I'oiiipey. 
( )iiiiii(la!j;a county, in 1810. Removed to Can- 
.uiii.iisua when a young man, engaged in 
iiitrcliaiuiise. anct took an active an<l intlucn- 
tial part in politics as an .\nti-SIavery Whig. 
Appoinleil I'ostmaster at Canandaigua liy 
I'resident Lincohi in 1861, and continued in office until succeeded hv Major 1'". ( ). 
I 'handi.-rl.iln in IST.S. Diid .\|iril 15, 1879. 

hlty-_\'ear pericxl which we ha\'e 

heen considering- saw the heL^innin^- of what was to he a comi)lete 
re-or!L;ani/ation of jiarty lines. Slavery had become an imminent 
issue, ddie h'ree Soil sloti-an raised hv Mr. Seward in this .State. 
and was wiimino- recruits from both the old i)arlies. The recentU' 
\ ictorious W hi.^s were irretriex abl\' di\ ided. the opposing" factions 
bcim;- know n as "'.Siher ( irax's" ;md "W oolK- 1 leads." the latter con- 
stitnliuL;- the .Seward wiui;-. The hh'ee .Soil Meniocr.ats became 
"ihaniburners" and the old liners became "ilunkers,"" "I lard" or 
".Soli" as their iirejndices or interests inclined. 

riie times were chauL^in^'. The leaders of neither of the old 
iiarlies seem to lia\f had the sauacitx to discern or the couraij'e to 


meet the ground swell of the more ag'gressi\e ])olitical force at 
hand. They were most of them patriots, and theirs likelv tlie 
wiser wa} to deal with the g^enerally recognized e\ils of slavery. 
But it was not to ])re\ail. Opposition to the "Institution" was no 
longer contined to the cranks or radicals. The young, forceful men 
all through the North, inspired by high princij)le, were impatient 
of delay. 'Jdie new occasion was breeding new leaders. Neither 
prestige nor birth could stand in the way. ddic day for temporiz- 
ing and compromising was almost passed, and be it said in honor 
of many of those w ho had held high positions in one or the other 
ot the old party organizations, that while they hesitated, with the 
conservatihm of experience, to make the plunge, forseeing perhaps 
the long train of war and sectional dissension that was to follow, 
they finally allied themselyes with the new ]jolitical moNement and 
gave loyal adherence to the ])(jlic>- enunciated 1)\- the Pittsburgh 
and Philadelphia conventions and to the new duties tyj^ified in the 
leadership of Seward, Fremont and Lincoln. 

So it was all through the North. So it was in Ontario county, 
and thus was ushered in the second half century of Ontario county 
politics, a half century fraught with new and moinentotis issues. 

POLlTirAI. K'I'.vOLl' riOX AT HAND. 87 



Ontario County's Protest against Repeal of the Missouri Compro- 
mise — Conscience Whigs Obtain a Newspaper Organ — A Roll 
of Honor — Call for County Anti-Nebraska Convention — Dele- 
gates Elected to State Convention — Resolutions against 
Slavery Extension. 

Through the refusal, in 1S51, of llie conserxatix-c or SilNcr r,ra\- 
wing of tlie Whig party to follow the leadcrshi]) of William II. 
Seward, and the consecinent defection of the Whig organ of 
( )ntario county, the l\e])ositor\% the way o])ene(l for the establish- 
nuMU in Canandaigua ol a new paper to xoice the sentiments of 
the Anti-Sla\er}- or Conscience W higs, and Xathan j. Milliken, of 
Seneca halls, was called to undertake the task. These wei-e hut 
the local expressions of a ferment that was permeating the .\orth. 
'i'he peojjle of the h'ree States, both Whigs and I )emocrats, had 
become determined to ])re\'ent the extension of the area of sla\erv, 
as had been shown as earl\' as l<S4r' by the \'otes of their represen- 
tati\es in Congress in support (jf the W'ilmot Proviso excluding 
sia\er\' from new acquisitions of territorw .\lthough those re])re- 
sentati\-es had supineh' retreated from their ])osition the following 
year and the Whigs had nominated (ieneral Taylor on a ])latform 
silent on the slavery question, public sentiment at the North w'as 
crystali/^ing and intensifying, tlie people of the Xorth were becom- 
ing imijatient and disgusted at the cowardl}- attitude of both the 
old ])arties, and, e\en as earh' as 1852, the portents hei'alded the 
complete reorganization of jjolitical forces. 

The editor of the new paper at Canandaigua aggressixely 
declared that "without seekinu- to enlist the interference of goxern- 
mcnt with the affairs of slavery, as now existing in the several 
States, it will firndx' and earnestly oppose its extension (n'cr terri- 
tor\- now free, and resist ])\ all honorable means the admission of 



new sla\e States and the encroachments of the slave power upon 
the rights and interests of the people. Regarding the present law, 
providing for the recovery of fugitive slaves, as iinnecessarilv 
stringent in its provisions, and nnjust in its practical operation, it 
will claim, and on all proper occasions exercise, the privilege of 
urging its entire repeal or essential modification, and of expos- 
ing to public condemnation the 
shameful and dangerous abuses 
by which its execution is often 

This editorial, expressing the 
sentiments of the Conscience 
\\ higs of 1852. shows that the 
young men of that time were ani- 
mated by a s])irit of liberty and 
supported i)rinciples of govern- 
ment that were not only destined 
\fg^^^^^^^^m^fglfts. j ^** ^I'^^te a new political organiza- 

tion, but that were to direct the 
policy of that organizatic^n for 
years to come. 

The election of General 
Pierce, the Democratic candidate 
for the Presidency in 1852. was on 
a i)latform that solemnly promised 
the country repose from slavery 
agitation, on the basis of the so- 
called Missouri compromise. l)ut 
Archibald Dixon, Henry Clay's 
successor in the Senate, appearing 
as the champion of the arrogant 
slave oligarchy of the South, in 
December. 1853. proposed that when the bill to organize the 
territory of Nebraska should come before that bodv he would move 
that "the Missouri compromise l)e repealed, and that the citizens of 
the several States shall be at liberty to take and hold their slaves 
\\ ithin any of the territories." 

The bill wluii rc])orted from the committee, of which Senator 
Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, was chairman, proposed the 
organization of the territories of Kansas and Nebraska. It specifi- 

Nathan J. Millikcii, founder of the Anti- 
Slavery organ at Canandaigua, was born at 
Keene, X. H.. September 27, 1821. Worked 
at liis trade of i)rinting at Hurlington, Vt.. 
and Keesville, X. V. ; editor and proprietor 
of the Seneca Falls Courier, 184.^-48; estab- 
lished The Times at Canandaigua in Janu- 
ar\. 1852; Ontario County Clerk. 186"5-67; 
postmaster at Canandaigua, 1890-94. Died in 
Canandaigua, Xovember 26, 1902. 


call\' declared the .Missouri r(im])r(iini^e iiK i])ei'ati\'e and xoid and 
ihal "its true intent and nieannii;- was n^t to les^'islate sla\-er\' into 
any Territory o]- State and not to exclnde it tlierefroin, bnt to lea\'e 
the |)eo])le perteetl)' tree to re^nlate their domestic in>titntion> in 
tlieir own way.'' 

This was a hre hr.-md that ai'on^ed tlie jieoplc of the h'ree 

To express t]ie feeling' <>f the ])eo])le in ()ntai"io conntw a ])nl)hc 
jneetini;" w;is hehh the caH tor which ,i].])eare(l in The limes of 
l"'ehruai'\- IS, IS.'^d, anij read as follows: 

Freedom to the Territories. 

TIk- ciuzrns ol ( )iilarii i count}', opix'scd to the Ivcpeal of tin- Missouri 
Cfjuipromisf .iiul tlic exteiisinii 'if Slruerj into tin- new territories of Nebraska 
and Kansas, as ct)ntemplatc(l l)y llic- hill lately inlroduced in the United States 
Senate, hy Mr. I)ous?!as. are invited, irrespective of party, to meet al the Court 
lliiu>e. in Canandai.uua. nn '["uesdaN. the 2.Sth of I-'eh. instant, for the ])uri)ose 
of ])roicsting- ai;ainst thai in'o])osed violation of ]diL(hted faith. 

llirani Metcalf, W'ni. Dcmniing, I.. B. Gaylord, 

J. P.. Sands. Jas. S. Cooley, llarry Ward. 

!■.. W. Gardner, Jr.. J. I'. l'".anrot. Orson I'enjaniin, 

(iideon Granger, jolm J. Lyon, .\. J. Milliken, 

John Reznor. S. \'. R. M.allory, 1 hnry W. Taylor, 

John S. P>ates, I). A. Kobinson, Jr.. Owen h'.dmonston. 

Win. llildreth, T. J. .\lcLouth. h'rancis Mason, 

llenry II owe, Renhen Mnrr.ay, Jr., Solomon Goodale, Jr., 

Win. 11. l^amport, .\. X. Hudson, Cieo. L. Wliitiiey. 

ll.irlow .Munson. T. E. fiart, W'm. V. l-ieed, 

S. R. Wheeler, A. G. Murr.ay, Win. (i. I.aph.iin. 

R. Simmons, 2(1. James \\. Hull, Wilniouth Smith. 

I'. 1'. P.ates. John 1'. Hudson. Xelson Parmalee, 

\. W. R;uulall, Ch;irles Coy, K. G. Lapham, 

P.enj. Gauss, W' I'ailing, Seth C. Mart. 

John B. Cooley, i'ldward P>ruiisoii, ,\mos J(jnes, 

II. N. Jarvis, S. Corson, Waldo Curtiss. 
David i'ieket. 

Of tiie men wliose names ai)i>ear on the a1)o\e roll of honor. 
onl\' one, \i. \\ . (iardner, l'si|., of C'anandaiqtia, stir\i\cs at this 
writint.;-. htit tliey cmhraced re]jresentati\es of l)oth W hio- and 
l)emocraiic ])arties, were from all ])arts of the count}', and for the 
most ])arl were ]>rominent in political moxements of the sticceedint;- 
monHis and in the oroani.^.ation ( d" the new i)arty. 

This first .Vnti-.Xebi'aska meetine;- mtist ha\'e been a notable 
i;'atherino-. It is recorded that it was attended by "a laroe mind)er 
of the most inlbiential and re s])ec table citizens « d' t lu* conni w"" I 1 on. 


Albert Lester, presided; and there were six vice presidents: Henry 
\V. Taylor, of Canandaigua : Amos Jones, Esq., of Hopewell ; Amos 
A. Post, Esq., of Seneca; Hon. John Lapham, of Farmington ; Z. 
Barton Stout, Escj., of Richmond; and Jndge Lyman Clark, of 
Manchester. T. Hinckley and J. C. Shelton acted as secretaries. 

A committee of h^•e, consisting of E. G. Lapham, Gideon 
Granger, Orson Henjamin, M. A. W ilson, and Peter S. Bonesteel, 
offered the following resolution ; 

Resolved, Tliat we, the citizens of Ontario county, standing upon all the 
compromises of the Constitution, and willing to abide by all the reserved rights 
of the States, have viewed with regret the proposition now pending before 
the American Congress to repeal the Missouri Compromise, and thus open the 
vast territories of Nebraska and Kansas to the incursions of slavery; and we 
enter our SOLEMX PROTEST against this violation of plighted faith. 

'J"he speeches which followed were evidently not couched in as 
moderate language as that of the resolution. Judge Taylor 
denounced the I^ouglas fraud; Hon. .\l\ah W'orden appealed to the 
audience whether they would submit if the bill became a law, and 
was responded to in a spirit and manner the most emphatic and 
enthusiastic; F. G. !,a])hani >])oke elo(|tientl\- and most earnestly 
against the Nebraska bill and m'ged all ])arties of the .North to 
utiite and resist the further extension of sla\ery; Al. ( ). Wilder 
urged the necessit}- of acting then, if the whole of the United States 
was not to be surrendered to sla\er}- ; Hon. Josliua A. Spencer, of 
Utica, present as a sj^ectator, declared that Canandaigua was the 
place of all others where a meeting of this kind should be held, it 
being the former home of Stephen .\. Louglas. he shoidd know of 
this meeting, and know what his early friends and neighbors thought 
of "fraud, dishonestv, and falsehood."' ( )ntario county shoidd speak 
out m such tones as to cause his knees to knock together with fear. 
So the speeches were mentioned in the succeeding issue of the local 
Anti-Slavery organ and the reporter added these connnents: 

"The meeting, composed as it was, of all parties, and nearly a 
third of it composed of grr;v-haired men who were xoters and acli\e 
citizens when the Missouri compromise was passed, was one of tlie 
most solemn and earnest protests against its re])eal that there yet 
has been. If it has no influence at W ;i-hington, it will have a good 
effect here. In response to the earnest and powerful api)eals of the 
speakers, the people will l)e aroused to act. They will hereafter 


prevent the election of 'Xorthein men with Southern [)rinciples,' 
and take the f(Ji"saken position of oni" forefatliers that slavery, 
instead ot heini;' extended, shall he aholisjied \\liere\er Lungress 
has the powei" to do it. So mole it he." 

Political revolution was in the air! The "domestic institution" 
ol the South had oxei-stepped the hounds of safet}'. 

The meetiui; held in ( "anandai^ua, hehruary 23, 1S.S4, was not 
a political convention in the usual sense of that term. Neither the 
men who called it nor those who partici])ated in Us ])i"oceedings had 
any clear conception ol what was t(j result from the moveniL-nt on 
which the}- had end)arke(l. They assemhied :^un])h- as citizens to 
protest ai.;ainst a threatened violation of what was considered 
throus^hout the .\ortli as the plighted faitii of the .Vation, hut that 
the issue was recognized as a momentous one and as likely to lead 
to a serious division he) ween the Xoi'th and South is evidenced in 
llie report we ha\e of the speeches madr at the meeting. 

The events of the succeeding weeks in that pregnant year of 
1S34 intensified the teeling of the ])e()])le. L'])on the ])assage h}' 
Congress oi the hill for the organization of the territories of 
Nebraska and Kansas, with the ])roviso that sla\er\- uu'ght he 
extended to those ten-itories, public indignation o\er the matter 
increased. The demaml for organized action 1)\- the friends of 
liberty became more and more insisteiU, and linalh' it was deter- 
mined to call an "Anti-Xebraska" State convention, to be held in 
Saratoga, August 16. 

"Jdiis was really the first step taken in X'ew York State toward 
tlie organization of the Ivepublican parts-. Similar con\entioiis w ere 
held in all the I'^ree States. In .Michigan, Wisconsin, .Maine, ( )hio, 
Indiana, Illinois, ;ind Iowa, the coalitionists adopted the name 
"Republican." lUit in X'ew \'ork the call was not for a conxention 
at which to organize a new ])art\-. It is true the X'ational W hig 
party was practically dead, "died of an atteni])! to swallow the 
Fugitive Slave law" acc(jrding to the i)o]>uIar \erdict. It conld 
neither speak nor keep silence on what had become the paramount 
issue, slavery extension. lint under the inspiring leadership of 
William H. Seward, its dominant or "WOolly Head" faction in this 
State was holding its forces together and its leaders were reluctant 
to surrender its orgam'zation or confess it a wreck. Ihex- \et hoi)ed 
to rally the opponents to sla\er\- extension under the W hig banner 
and so unite the North. 



The call for a county mass meeting at wliicli to elect dele^'ates 
to this proposed State comentitMi read as follows: 

Mass Convention, 

Tlic undersiyiu'd rc-spectfully iinitc tlie electors of the County of Ontario, 
without distinction of party, who disapprove of the late pro-slavery legislation 
of the present Congress, and who are in favor rif the repeal or modification of 
the Nebraska and Kansas hill, and likewise of the fugitive slave law of 1850, 
the rejection o\ new States apjilying for atlniission to the Uni(_>n with slaverj' 
tolerating constitutions, and the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia 
and in all the territories of the United States, to assemble in Convention at the 
Court ll()n>e in Canandaigua on Saturda_v, the tifth day <if August, at 12 o'clock 
.M., for the ]>nrp(;ise of appointing hve delegates from each Assembly district 
to the great Slate onvention, to be held at the village of Saratoga Springs, on 
\\'ednesday. the 16lh day of Augu,st next, and for the purpose of expressing 
their \-ie\\> in relation to the growing assumi)tions and aggressions of the sla\e 

Thos. Terry. 
J. F. Cue, 
A'len Wood. 

C. C. (ireen, 
11. I'adelford, 
J. Dewev. Jr., 
K. P. Cue. 
l)a\id Wood. 
Z. Paddleford. 
M. h'inley. 
Rob't Royce, 
A.'iron Pomeroy, 

\. Si>enccr Wolcott. 
W. Doolillle, 
I''. Swan. 
( 1. r.rown, 
J. .\. ileazlit, 
1.. B. Stout, 
[. Garlinghouse, 
I!. Ashley, 
John Ogden, 
G. Will son, 
S. Willson. 
M. Alunger. 
R. Stevens, 
Theodore E. TTart. 
John Warlicld, 
1). P. Alverson, 
J. C. Fairchild. 
Jesse Campbell. 
I'.dward C. Griffith, 
lolin Mosher, 
L. !'.. Antisdale. 
Jas .Anderson. Jr.. 

D, A. .Anderson, 

W. Hurd, 
J. S. Dunham. 
AL A. Robinson, 
Lorenzo E. Clark. 
Thos. PI. Stringham. 
\. J. Alilliken.' 
Chester Stoddard. 
Edwin Barnard. 
Enos Kent. 
W. E. Curry. 
.\ndrevv Merrell. 
Isaac Piatt. 

I. R. Peck. 

II. Kendall. 

P. P. Pomeroy. 
lojiii W". Tavlor. 
A. S. Bnel. ' 
Chas. C. AInri)ln'. 
\\'illiam P. Jndd. 
Andrew Peez. 
P'rederick Judtl, 
.\. Parmelc, 
Sanniel Hough, 
11. E. Bostwick. 
Josiah Porter. 
Abram Pierce. 
R. C. .Mimson. 
J. I). Thomi)S()n. 
V. E. AVils.^n, 
P. K. P.ctts. 
J. P. Salmon, 
R. C. Stiles, 
C. A\'. Pligby. 
.A. Bagley, 
IP S. Wilkinson. 

B. E. Adams, 
Luther Munson, 
Josei)Ii S. Steele. 
Joseph Butler, 
J. .\, Goss, 
"W. P. Speaker, 
( '. II. .Seymour. 
|ohn P.enient. 
IP IP 'Pitus. 
PC. Webster. 
P. 1). iiorton. 
Oliver IP Rovcc. 
S. \^ R. Mallorv. 
J. Morse. Jr.. 
Peter Pitts, 
G. W. Pitts. 
.\. i licks. 
\. IP Pee. 
L. II awes. 
X. Ashley. 
Gideon Pitts. 
W. C. Stout. 
D. .A. Pierivml. 
S. T. Seward. 
Orson Benjamin. 
John Lamport, 
"W. Childs. 
Charles Jones. 
J. PI. Bunnel, 
Cornelius Davis, 
Daniel Spring, 
Orrin Hart, 
W. M. Chii)man. 
Austin Persons, 
Wm. Tozer. 

i'( )Lrric \i. 

■;\()Liri()X A'l" iiwi). 


Si'iiL'ca Siiiilli. 
'J'lios. C. IJinliii.L;. 
Isaac O'Dc-ll, 
Rt'iibcii Murra}-, Jr.. 
.1. M. M.^ucy. 
I'"rancis J. l.aiiili, 
I lc'iir\- W . ra_\!iir. 
l-'roclcrii.- Munsdii, 
A. 1). I Matt, 
(i. C. Scelyr, 
Ahralian-, l''isli, 
W. N. Siuilli, 
n. W. Mart/., 
W 111. Collins, 
I I ( ifaci' SiiiiiiKins, 
C. 11. Marsh. 
Will. Woolston, 
I'liiiu'as l'"abcs, 
(;c(). T. Whcaton, 
llarlnw Munsdii, 
'IMiascr (laiiss, 
A. II. Ilradlcy, 
C. X. .Mien. 
.\nt;iistus r>nrll, 
l''.(l\\ ard lirnnson, 
I ,. II. riruiisoii, 
Iv J. r.rnii.^iMi, 
C'harK-s I.. Lcrtc. 
II. W. Hamlin. 
II. l-"i field. 
T. II. Kello.t-g. Jr.. 
M(irri- .Vcwton, 
Will. I I. .hart. 
Seely Serj;cnt, 
(oil 11 Moulton. 
"iv M. Bradley, 
ir. Beach, 
John Willcy, 
John C. Beach. 
Daniel T. Webster. 
William iiradley, 
Reuben Norton, 
Charles Williams. 
Tlinnias Smith, 
/. J. WHieeler, 
Cieori^e .\llen. 
Samuel Mow, 
M. Tooker, 
S. B. i'ond. 
I'raiiklin iMlii'erton. 
David Sherrell, 
C. W Barber, 
John I I. StothnlT, 
Milton luimonsldu. 
James Snow, 
.\lbert Banta. 
W. C. Shear. 

II. K. C.iniell. 
|o>eiili June, 
I'.dward Wilco.x, 
'i'inmthy I lowley. 
J. g. .\ da ins. 
I )aiii(.'l Stew art. 
( Ici ir.^c I Munier. 
Saiiiiu-I i'arker. 
I .iim-- M ( ii II kIw in. 
Jiilin J. Stiiiic. 
Isaac .\. Marl, 
II. O'Dcll, 
I ):i\ id Carh lU.yli. 
I I arri> .\iidrews. 
I.cwi.s Coller. 
!.. Mile. 

Richnicind C";isc. Jr. 
Isaac D, I'eck. 
Wm. I'ickctl. 
Saniuc' I I . I'.nsli, 
\. C. Wilson, 
J. II. Mason. 
S. I*', .\mblcr. 
John Wood, 
Slc])licn Saxton. 
.\. 1. i'ierce. 
J. \W ll.iwly. 
I R. I'arccli. 
J. i;. Sands. 
Jesse Mason, 
John S. Bates, 
lienry Pardee. 
Cnrtiss Bennett, 
William Smith. 
j\l. Lewis. 
Albert Simonds, 
Hezekiah k'eri;uson. 
Geo. W. Clark. 
Geo. X. West, 
T. Cronk. 
B>. B. Trask. 
Wm. I. Tromer. 
AT. A. Norton. 
B. Xcwman. 
II. I'cck. 
T. O. Smith. 
P. S. Richardson. 
S. I''. i'"owlcr. 
Win. Ci.illnp. 
A. L. Peet. 
C)liver If. Grow. 
R. W. iM-isbic. 
T. M. P.iddlecom. 
.\lvcr Warren, 
V. V. Draper, 
(\ S. W' right. 
V. R. W. Morton, 

M. U. Wilder, 
R. VanVranken, 
S. C. Mersey, 
Ciiarle.s Moiirue, 
C. S. Morris, 
(i. W. .\lcliley. 
Belli, (jates, 
I!, .\l. Padget, 
I oh 11 h'razer, 
('oMr;id Cline. 
J ohii W . June, 
Char!es J"^. Jones, 
Daniel I'pright. 
I. R. Snow. 
W. A. Smith. 
Zeiias Wluider. 
T. I-:. Ilurlrick. 
Thomas Paddeii. 
.\. ^•. i'eck, 
John .\rii(ild, 
W . ! )- ( iregory. 
.M. (J. McFarlaiid, 
John Depue. 
I larry (jregor\-. 
Jonathan Merriot. 
John B. Coller. 
Cliester A. Coller. 
Jolm Peck, 
Welcome Arimld. 
Liberty Hayden. 
George Dunkel. 
John S. Chapin. 
E. N. Green. 

C. Remington, 
Wm. W. W'arren. 
L. C). Lampman. 
Wm. McGines, 

K. K. Clark, 

W. G. Antis. 

L. J. Sntherland. 

J. L. Adams. 

L. C. .Aylsworth. 

P. P. Bates, 


James Walling. 

Marcus Bickt'ord. 

.\. II. Parks. 

jdhu Stockwell. 

D. W. I'ish. 
Joseph Bristol. 
Andrew {•iowle^'. 
.Ansel Perkins, 
W. D. Norton. 
T. R. Grow, 
Elijah Eaton, 
David Heath. 
Wm. B. Lynch. 



lunathan West, 
F. Sale. 

Wni. W. Marsh. 
J. y\. Beaver, 

J. Greenman. 
John Q. Howe. 
Chester Gaylord, 
Win. Whiting, 

Harvev Rice. 
H. W' Jones. 
James Covert, 
S. C. Brown. 

Not all those who sii^ned the call for the county mass meeting 
of I'ehrnarx 23. endorsed the ])rog"ressive step embraced in this 
sui)])lementarv nio\ement. Amonc;- the signers of the first call were 
a number of "Siher Grays," as that faction of the \^ hig- party was 
called which had taken the ground that to reopen the slavery 

agitation would Ije to disrupt the 
I'nion. Ahah W'orden. one of 
the local leaders of that faction. 
had s])oken eloquently in support 
<Tf the resolution adopted. But 
the Siher Cirays, many of whom 
w ere sincere opponents of sla\er}- 
extension, distrusted Sewartl's 
leadership, and refrained from 
identif)'ing themselves \\-ith a 
uKn-ement that had in it the possi- 
bih'ties of disunion. Some of the 
T^euKTcrats. too. who had partici- 
pated in the earlier meeting" held 
aloof from this. Tt was hard for 
the leaders of either party to take 
a step that meant the loosening of 
old political ties. 

Francis Granger and Alvah 
W'orden. like manv other Whig 


Jedc-fliali Dewey was born April 15. 1807, 
in l-'armington. now town of Manchester. 
A ^leniber of the Legislature from the East- 
ern District in 1843, member of the Board 
of Supervisors in 1852, and Loan Commis- 

t£"o^JarVrZuv'\n''tUvrA'-^^^'^^^ Icadcr s. uc vcr came into the Re- 

me Dutano county .\nti-.\el)raska convention 

Died October 2, 1876. " pnbl icau part y , t hough Mr. Grang- 

er at least rendered \ alianl service to the I'nion as a W^ar Democrat. 
E. G. La])liam. ( )r, the other hand, was a type of theyounger leaders of 
the Northern Oemocrac}- Avho, after a little natural hesitation at the 
lea]), identified thcmsehes with the new political organization and 
gained recognition as among its most earnest supporters and 

The Ontario county .\nti-Nebraska conxention was held in the 
court house at Canandaigua on the da}- appointed, Saturday. August 
:^. Ira R. Peck, of East Bloomfield acted as temporary chairman 



and ( )rs()ii llciiiamin, of ( 'aiiaiidaimta. as st'cr(.'tai"y. ( oinniitU'es 
were a|)i)i)intc(l as follow ^: ( )ii or^aui/.alion _U'<lc(liali l)c\\t'y, Jr., 
I'"rc(lerick W. Collins. John S. Hates, S. A. ("oddin;;- and Tlionias 
Slringiiani ; on rcsolnlions — X. J. Millikcn, Sila^ C. iirown. ( )rIando 
Morse, l^dward I'.rnnson, and I". W. Sinnnons. C])on recommen- 
dation of the coriimittee on ori;ani/.ation, permanent officers of the 
conxention were chosen as fol- 
lows: President, Henry Pardee, 
of Victor. Vice-Presidents, J. II. 
Mason, of Canandaiji^na ; 'i\ J. 
Mcl.onth, of h'armington ; Piatt 
KcN-nolds, of Manchester; Zebina 
I .ncas, of Canandaigna ; A. J. 
Shannon, of Seneca. Secretaries, 
M\-ron Adams, of Last l>loom- 
tleld : I''.. \\ . Simmons, of Bristol, 
and John Mosher, of Canandai- 
gna. Mr. Pardee declined to act 
as chairman of the meeting and 
Jedediah Dewey, Jr., of Manches- 
ter, was elected in his place. 
( 'onnnittees were appointed to 
nonnnate delegates to the Sara- 
toga conxention, as follows: Lor 
the Lastern district. William D. 
(Iregorv. Lncins How, and Alfred 
Dewey; and for the Western dis- 
trict. Joseph Carlinghoiise. A. G. 
Mnrra\\ and Silas C. P>rown. On 
recommendation of these commit- 
tees, delegates were elected as follow 
fohn M. Bradford. Charles \\'. Sahin 


Thoiiias J. McLouth was born in Fainiing- 
lon. ( )ctober 3, 1803. Was a member of the 
lioard of Supervisors in 1844. 1846, 1847, 
1848, and 1849. \\'as a member of the Legis- 
lature of 1851, and took an influential part 
in the events leading to the organization of 
iht Rt'publican party. Died in Farmington, 
Mav 16, 1876. 

For the Lastern district, 
Hiram ( )(lell, Thomas J. 
McLonth. and John O. Howe: for the Western district, L\-man 
Hawes. Asa Ball, L. \\\ Simmons, Ira R. Peck, and John Mosher. 
Resolutions were adopted declaring that the South, in ])rocur- 
ing an organization of the territc^ries of Nebraska and Kansas under 
laws desio-ned to elTect the establishment of slavery therein, had 
released the North from obligations to sustain or respect any com- 
promises save those of the Constitution ; pledging the members of 
the convention to use all constitutional means to defeat the unhal- 



Idwc'd jirojcct of sla\'CM'\- extensiiMi. to ensure llie re])eal or mollifi- 
cation ol" llie Xel)ras]<a anil Kansas hill, lo procure the repeal or 
moililicalion of the l'^ii;ati\e Sla\'e law ot lNo(\ the rejection of new 
Slates apphiuL;- for admission to the L nion with sla\er\- tolerating" 
constilutions. an.d the al)0:ition of s!a\-ery in the District of Colum- 
l)ia and in all the territories of the Lnited States; pledging" tlieni. 
irresi)ecti\e of partw to sui)port no candidate for Congress who 
was not fidl\ committed to an acti\e and \-igorous ad\'ocacy of the 
measures and ])ohc\- herewith set forth; tendering thanks to lion. 
Andrew ( )li\er. re])resentati\'e in I'ongress trom this district, for 
his manl\- and determined o|)position to the infamous Nehraska 
swindle; a])])ro\ing of the organization and ohject of the Emigrant 
-\id Societ\' : and dei^recating the prc^position to nominate a State 
ticket at the Saratoga convention. 

Tlie Saratoga conxention of the Irth of August was mttahle for 
the resolution.-- ado])ted upon the recommendation (^f a committee 
of which Horace (Ireelev was chairman, idiese resolutions declared 
the right of the general Goxernment to prohihit "the extension, 
estahlishment. or |ier]ietuation n\ human sla\-ery in any and e\ery 
territorx' of the L'nited States." denounced the doctrine of Popular 
Sovereigntx" as a surrender to the s!a\e power, asserted that "free 
lahor and slaxe lahor cannot co-exist on the same soil," and 
a]i])ro\ed the efforts then in progress for the colonization "with tree 
souls and strong arms" of Kansas and other territories. The con- 
\ention then adjourned until Seiiteml)er 26. for the pur])t)se o\ taking 
actit)n in regard to the nomination of candidates for Stale offices. 




Mr. Clark's First Public Office That of Sheriff of Ontario County- 
Gained Prominence in the Senate as an Advocate of the Maine 
Law — Gubernatorial Nominee of the Seward Whigs, Free Soil 
Democrats, and Prohibitionists — Beginnings of the Republican 

As pointed out in tlie last chaptcM'. tlic conxentions held in this 
wStatc in 1854, t<i xoicc the aroused sentiment of the peojile against 
slavery extension, were not called "I\ei)ul)lican." The only excep- 
tion to this was in the case of Allegany count}-, where it is claimed 
that, at a conxention held at Friendship in May of that year, the name 
Republican, first suggested by Horace lireeley. was formally adopted 
and at a subse(|uent date a count\' ticket \\as nominated and sup- 
ported under that name. 

James (i. P)laine. in a speech at Strong, Maine. August 1^, 1884. 
whei^e and when occurred one of the sex'cral celebrations of the 
thirtieth anniversary of the organization of the Republican party, 
aptly said: "The place and the time where the Republican party 
was first organized will, I presume, remain, like the birthplace of 
Homer, a subject of unending dispute. Se\en cities claimed the 
latter, and se\en States may claim the former. It could hardly be 
doubted that a great thought, conunon to the minds of a million of 
men. would find expression at the same time at jilaces widely 
separated." Rut it is j)rettv generally conceded now that the first 
Republican State convention, Re])ublican in name as well as in fact. 
was that held "under the oaks" at Jackson, Michigan. July 6, 1854. 
Republican con\entions were held and Rcptd)lican tickets ni)minated 
that year in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, and 

In New York State, as we have seen, as in all the Eastern 
vStates, except Maine, it was known as the Anti-Nebraska move- 


iiKMit, and its conventions made no in(le])en(lent nominations, hnt 
it represented here the same coalition and voiced the same princi- 
ples that in other states raised the Republican ilag, and in endorsing- 
Myron H. Clark, and his associates on the AN'hig ticket, it made 
them in fact the first Republican candidates for State otTice. 

Governor Clark recognized this in the following letter written 
to A. N. Cole, of Allegan}- county, known widely as "the leather 
of the Republican ])arty" from the fact that he called the Allegany 
county cornention above referred to: 

Hon. A. N. Cole, Canandaigua, August 12tli. 1.S84. 

Aly long time. Dear Friend: 

Your note of the 9th instant, and a copy of the Genesee Valley Free Press 
of the same date, were both received by me yesterday. You request me to give 
my recollections about the origin and organization of the Republican party; and 
to corroborate your statement in relation thereto, published in the paper you 
send me, so far as I am able. 

It affords me pleasure to comply with your request; and to vindicate "the 
truth of history," for the benefit of the present generation of our citizens; many 
of whom can have but little appreciation of the stirring times, politically, you 
and T passed through in those early days of the party. The organization of the 
Republican party in this State, was effected in 1854. It was made up of the 
old Whigs, in large part; Temperance men. or Prohibitionists; Free Soil Dem- 
ocrats; and the "Anti-Nebraska" party. The nominating State Conventions in 
this State of each of those parties were held as folhnvs: The Whig party, 
September 20, 1854, at Syracuse; the PVee Democratic, September 25, "54; the 
Anti-Nebraska party, September 26, and the Temperance, or Prohibition State 
Convention, September 21, '54. The last three at Auburn. .'Xt each of these 
four State Conventions. T received the nomination for Governor; each of which 
I formally accepted, as the platforms of princii)lcs expressed and passed by 
the several Conventions, taken altogether, were in accordance with my political 
principles. These nominations, and my acceptance constituted, in effect, the 
formation and beginning of the Republican party in this State; although not 
then designated as such, I believe, by any of tiieni. except the Free Democrat'c. 
There has been no Whig State Convention or party, in tiiis State, since that 
time. The Republican name may have been, and probably was, used in local, 
town, or county conventions, previous to that time; but not by any State or 
National conventions. 

My recollection coincides with your statenient, that the name for the now 
party, "Republican, no jjretixl no suffix; but plain Republican," was suggested 
by Horace Greeley. The name began to be used in the papers very soon; 
whether in the New York Tribune first, T do not remember. Rut the Evening 
Chronicle, a Temperance and Anti-Slavery newspaper, published at Pough- 
keepsie. dated October 3, 1854, six days after my nomination, published "the 
Republican Platform," upon which (in connection with the Temperance plat- 
form), I stood and was elected. I send you a slip from that paper containing 
the platform, and editorial comments upon the nomination, etc. 

My political platform of principles, like your own, then and ever since has 

MVRON II. CI AUK I'.!.!'.! ri-'.l) ( .' )\ I'.K .\( )K. ^J9 

consisted, mainly, of two jilaiiks; \i/: o])])ositioii to lU'^i'o Slavery in the Nation; 
and Anli-rnm, in the State. Ilenee I lia\e always been ()p])nscd to tlie I )enio- 
eiatie party, altliougli occasionally I lia\c sni)porte(l I )i'inocratic candidate-- for 
local ot'ticcs, when they liave been better men than their l<e])id)lican opponent >. 
The Republican party, thus made ii]) and or;.iani/;'d, on the principles and 
p'attorms oriKinally adoptefl, lia>. with the aid ol' I'rovidence made good begin- 
ning and mnch progre.s.s in the National hrancli of it-, work; wliil-t it ha^ almcjst 
wholly ignored the temperance <|Ucstion, in its suhseciucnt State Conventions; 
wliich I have very iiiitch regretted. 1)elieving it to he of paramount importance 
to (he people, and the i)arly. I have, however, advised against the I'rojiibition- 
ist i)arty making a National ticket, believing it wou'd be more practical, and 
nscfid. to conhne its ctTorts to h)cal. and State politics. 1 neverthe- 
less hope, and trust, that the Reiniblican nominees for President and Vicc-Prcsi- 
(h'nt. may be elected. 1 shall gi\e them my vote, and milucncc, to bring about 
that result. With sinciTc regard and respect, 1 am, 

Very truly ycnirs. 


(iovcnior Clark erred in saying' tltat tlic Republican name had 
n(d been u,'>e(l jjrior to tlie tiinc mentioned l)y any State con\en- 
tion. l)ut otherwise his review summarizes the 1S54 eampaiLiii in 
this State. Tlie cooperation of the several i)arties mentioned in 
sui)])ort of his candidacy for the o-c'vernorshi]) constituted in etiecl 
the hcL^imiing- of the I\e])ul)lican i)arty in this State. 

Mvron II. Clark was ser\in,L;' his second term in the State 
Senate, as the rei)resentative of the 2^hh. or ( )ntari()-LiviiiS4Ston. 
district, at the openin.i;- of the \ear 1854. P.orn in Maples. October 
23, 1806. ;in<l a merchant by occupation, he had been elected sherilT 
of ()ntario countv on the \\ hii;- ticket in 1837. and having- become a 
resident of Canan(lai,i.;-ua had been elected in 1851 and ai^ain in 18.~i3 
as State Senator. He had gained recognition as a competent, 
conscientious legislator. \\as one of the leaders of the Seward \ving 
of the Whig party, and as chairman of the special connnitlee which 
reported tlie Maine bill, designed to i)rohibit the sale of li(|uttr in 
the State except for medicinal i)m-i)oses. had gained .State 

The temperance cinestion was a burning one in the .State at that 
time, being hardlv inferior in po])ular interest to the slavery 
(piestion. It was the subject of heated debates in both hotisesof the 
Legislature. Senator Clark m:i(le a telling s]ieech in supi)ort of the 
Maine measure, and it was linalK- jjassed. but to the great disap- 
l)ointment of the mass of the i)eople it was vetoed l)y Goxernor 

Following the adjournment of the Legislature, the press con- 




tinned the discnssion, and almost immediately there were 
suggestions that Senator Clark would be an available candidate for 
the governorship. "The Carson League." published in Xew York, 
an organ of a State temperance organization of the same name, 
strongly urged his nomination. Xot only did The Times, the local 
Free Soil organ, commend the suggestion as gratifying to its editor 
personally and as pleasing to the community in general, but the 
Ontario .Messenger, an ultra Democratic paper, declared: "Since 
Mr. Clark has been a member of the Legislature, he has proved him- 
self to be one of the most able, 
consistent, and dignified temper- 
ance advocates in that bodv, and 
has won the confidence and esteem 
oi men of all parties." "Here at 
home." the Messenger continued, 
"where Mr. Clark is known, it 
need hardly be said that the com- 
pliment intended by such a nomi- 
nation is fully appreciated and 
could not be bestowed on a more 
worthy and deserving gentleman." 

The Carson League of On- 
tario county, which was an organ- 
ization for the enforcement of the 
then existing excise law and was 
officered by Jesse Campbell, of 
('anandaigua. as president ; Hiram 
H. Seelye. of Seneca, as vice presi- 
dent : A. D. Piatt, of Seneca : T. E. 
Hart, of Canandaigua. and Israel 
Washburn, of Phelps, as executive 
committee; John Raines, of Can- 
andaigua. grandfather of the late 
Senator John Raines, author of 
the present Lir|uor Tax law. as 

treasurer, and Francis J. Lamb, of Canandaigua (now of Madison. 

Wisconsin), as secretary and agent, sent delegates to the State tem- 

l^erance convention instructed to favor Senator Clark's candidacy. 
The \Miig convention for the Second Assemblv district, held 

at Hicks's inn, in Bristol. September 16. was presided over by 


Governor Mvron H. Qark was born in 
Naples, October 23, 1806. Elected Sheriff 
of Ontario county on the Whig ticket in 1837. 
At close of term engaged in the hardware 
business in Canandaigua. In 1851 and again 
in 1853 elected State Senator. Was an active 
Anti-Slavery or Seward NVhig. In 1854, 
elected Governor of the State on the Whig- 
Free Soil-Temperance ticket. Served as U. S. 
Collector of Internal Revenue under Presi- 
dent Lincoln. Died in Canandaigua. .\ugust 
23, 1892. 


Tfirani Ashlev, of Richmond, as cliairnian, and Alexander 11. 
lluwell, of Canandaii^ua, as secretary. N. J. Millikcn, editor of The 
Times, was elected delegate to the State convention and Solomon 
Lioodale, Jr., was nominated for member of Assembly. 

The First district convention, held at Clifton S[)rings the same 
day, nonnnated W illiam 11. Lamport, ii|) tt- that time a Silver (iray 
or anti-Seward Whig, for member of Assembly. There is no record 
as to who was the delegate elected to the State convention. 

At this last named conxention held in Syracnse, Se])teml)er 20, 
an informal l)all(»l dexeloped ten gnbern.'itorial candidates, bnt Mr. 
I lark led from the tirst and on the third formal ballot he received 
a majorit\- of the xotes cast and was dechired the nominee. llem-_\- 
1. Raymond, editor of the .\ew ^'ork Times, was nominated to the 
office of Lientenant-(io\-ernor. 'The resolntions declared that in their 
struggles against the princi])les invoKed in the Nebraska bill, the 
W higs of Xew York inxited "the cooperation, on terms of ecpialily 
and fraternity, of all sincere and earnest cham])ions of T'ree Labor 
and T'ree Soil." 

'The 'Tunes, xoicing the sentiment at least of the Seward Whigs 
of ()nt;irio county, said this in its issue of the following week: 

"M\ron 11. ("lark, the nominee for (io\ernor. is a citi/en of this 
])lace. with whom most of otu- readers are ])ersonally accpiainted. 
lie is a man of excellent judgment, and large experience in 
public affairs. TMain and unassuming in hi> language and deport- 
ment, he is vet possessed of great energy and decision of character — 
is sound to the core on ah the prominent ])olitical ([uestions of the 
day, and Tn-m :is a rock in support of whate\er he beliexes to be right. 
It has been truh' said that he is a self-made luan, but he is none the 
le>s well made for all that: and whoever has obser\ed his course in 
the Senate, where he now holds a seat on Tiis second term, will be a 
witness to the statesmanlike qualities he has (lis])layed in that bod)-, 
and to the enlar^-ed and liberal \iews which have ever governed his 
legislati\e actioti." 

It is interesting to note in i)assing that the kjcal W hig ticket of 
that \ear was completed by the nomination of James L. Seeley, for 
memlier of Congress, CiecM-ge Rice for su])erintendent of poor, 
L}-man Clarke for justice of sessions, and I'.uell S. Bartlett tor 

Mr. Clark's nomination to the governorshii) was immediately 
endorsed by the Anti-Xebraska convention at its adjourned session. 


and successi\'elv. as stated in Go\ernor Clark's letter above quoted, 
l)y the Free Soil Democratic con\ention and the Temperance 

The succeeding canvass was a bitter one and doubtful to the 
end. the Silver (Tray wing of the W big party being in open alliance 
with the Know Nothings in su])port of the latter's candidate, Daniel 
I'lljuan: the Soft Shell Democrats rallying to the sui)port of their 
partv candidate, Horatio Seymour, and the Hard Shell Democrats 
having a candidate, also, iii the person of Greene C. Bronson. 

The four-cornered fight ended in. the election of the W'hig- 
Anti-Xel)raska-lM-ee Soil-Temperance candidate by a small but 
sufficient plurality, th.e vote being as follows: Myron H. Clark, 
15(),804; Horatio Seymour, 136,495: Daniel Cllnian, 122,282: Greene 
C. Bron.^on, 33,850. Ontario county gave Clark 2.431, Seymour 
1,280. L'llman 3,14S. and I'ronson 348 votes. William H. Lamport 
was elected to the Assembh- in the h'irst district b\- 480 pluralitv, 
but Solomon (ioodale, the W hig candidate in the Second district, 
was defeated by ()li\er Case, his Democratic or Locofoco opponent. 
There was great rejoicing in Canandaigua when it was 
final!}- known that its distinguished citizen. Ahron II. Clark, had 
been elected ('.o\ernor of the .^tate. A celebration. o]>(.Mnng with a 
salute of one hundred guns, and closing w ith a banquet at the O'anan- 
daigua hotel, was held on the evening of November 29. About one 
hundred guests particij)ated in the ;ilTair, Orson Benjamin acting as 
toastmaster and chairman. S])eeches were made bv |. [. Chambers, 
of Albany: Fmor\ I',. I'ottle. of .\ai)ies: Stafford C. Cleveland, of 
I'enn \an, and li-;i R. Peck, of l-"ast llldomlield. Sc-ntiments were 
ollered b}- several of the guests. 

Thurlow W eed, the great .Mbany i)olitician, >eiu a letter of 
regret in which he ])roposed the following toast : 

Canandaigua — .\ village equally distinguished for its picturesque beauties 
and its social relinements. The executive honors so long anticipated by its 
eminent citizens have finally rewarded unostentatious personal worth and 
unswerving ])olitical fidelity. 

The opposition luade fun of the celebration, but it may be 
l)resumed that the Woolly Heads and their friends of the coalition 
read the jibes with ecjuanimity. They had won. Their candidate 
for (iovernor. standing on a ])latform declaring for i'ree Labor and 
I'Vee Soil, had been elected The Republican i)arty of New York 
State, in effect, had been liorn. though not \et tiamed. 




.^V 9^1 


Tlie political pot had boiled furiously in 1S34. W liik- ])arty 
leaders clung" to the old names, they partici])ated in coaHtion 
movements. The ])art\' \-oters di\ided into antagonistic and openly 
recognized factions — the Democrats into Hard Shells and Soft 
Shells, as thev resisted or accpiiesed in the (hs])osition nianite^ted hy 
their party organization to \ ield to the demands of the Southern 
slave power — the Whigs into \\<)oll\- Meads imd SiKer drays, the 
former being the appellation (lerisi\el\ gi\en tliose w ho s\'mpathize<l 
with William 11. Seward in his o])position tosla\e ])o\\er aggressions, 
and the latter that which was ap])lied to tho^e who, fo'lowing the 
lead of Francis Granger of Canandaigua, from \\ho;e beautiful siKer 
gray hair the faction derived its 
name, deprecated any reopening 
of agitation over slavery (pies- 
tions. The masses of the people. 
thort)ughly aroused 1)\' the heated 
discussions in Congress and in the 
])ress over the passage of the h\ig- 
itive Slave law and that admitting 
slavery t<» the territories of Kan- 
sas and Nelwaska. had learned to 
exercise the right of bolting the 
"regular" ])arty nominations. lUit. 
as we have seen, the men who in 
New York State opposed the ag- 
gressions of the slave ])o\\er. and 
who in 1854 had united to elect 
Myron If. Clark to the governor- 
ship on a Free Soil and h^ree 
Labor platform, had not as yet 
been willing to admit that they 
were anything" but W higs or 
Democrats or Prohibitic^nists. 

The year 1855 was to see 
another step in advance taken by 
the New York State Free Soilers 
— a step already taken, as we have seen, in se\eral other Xorthern 
States. Mr. Clark, for ixtlitical reasons, did not resign the ottice of 
Senator until the close of the year, and then a county ''People's 
Convention*' of electors wlio were "'in favor ot restricting s]a\ery 


William II. Lam|)ort was born in Bruns- 
wick, Rensselaer county, in May. 181S. 
Moved with liis parents to Gorliam in 1826. 
Ser\ed as Su|)ervisor in 1845 and 1846. and 
as Sheriff of tlie county for the term be- 
^inniiiff January 1. 1850. Mr. Lamport. 
i>rij{inally a Wilis, identified himself with the 
Republican iiarty upon its organization: 
in 1854. he was elected on the VVliig ticket as 
•Alendicr of Assembly for tlie Eastern district, 
r.ecanie a resident of Canandaisua in 1864; 
.Member of ("ontrress. 1871-75. Died Tulv 
-M. 1 8'; I. 


was called lo elect delegates to a district convention which would 
nominate his successor. It ^\ ill l)e noted that the Free Soilers had 
reached a point where they were ready to stand up and l)e counted 
independent of former party affiliations. 

This "People's Convention" was held in Canandaigua, January 
20. 1855. Officers were elected as follows: President. Charles H. 
Loomis : \ice presidents. Dr. Webster, ol East Bloomfield ; George 
Dunkle.. of Hopewell; Elnathan \\ . Simmons, of Bristol; E. 
Blodgett. of Gorham ; and F. S. Gregory, of Canandaigua ; secre- 
taries. Harvey Stone. Charles B. Johnson, and Sereno PYench. 
Eighteen delegates were elected "to confer with a like number from 
Livingston countw" as follows: First district — Staats Green, of 
Hopewell: Lebbeus Knapp. of Hopewell: Harry Gregorv, of Hope- 
well: Thomas J. McLouth. of Farmington : Cornelius Horton, of 
Phelps; Dr. J. H. Howell, of Phelps; E. Dickinson, of Seneca; 
Samuel Morrison, of Seneca: Hiram Axtell. of Manchester. Sec- 
ond district — Xathan I. Milliken. of Canandaigua ; Henrv Wilson, of 
Canandaigua; Ira R. Peck, of East Bloomfield; Lvman Hawes. of 
Richmond: Francis Mason, of Bristol: Asahel Gooding:, of Bristol: 
\Villiam C. Dryer, of \^ictor: Emory B. Pottle, of Xa])les; Silas C. 
Brown, of West FJloomfield. 

This county convention was held on Saturday. On the follow- 
ing [Monday, January 22. the Twenty-ninth district convention to 
nominate a candidate to the vacancy was held, this also in 
Canandaigua. Owing to a misunderstanding, the other county of 
the district. Livingston, was not represented by delegates, but S. C. 
Brown. William Carter, and Ira Godfrey, of that county, present as 
spectators, were invited to take seats in the convention. Lvman 
Hawes, of Richmond, was elected chairman, and J. O. Howe, of 
Phelps, and Ir-i R. Peck, of East Bloomfield. officiated as secretaries. 

Att inf(tnnal vote for candidates for the State senatorship 
resulted as follows: Chester Loomis received 7 votes: S. Foote. 2; 
E. W. Simmons. 4: Charles J. Folger. 1; blank. 1. On a second 
ballot, Judge Loomis received 1 1 votes, Dr. Simmons 3. and Judge 
Folger 1. 

Judge Loomis was thereupon declared the nominee, and ui)on 
motion the following resolution was adopted ; 

Resolved. That we regard all secret political organizations as anti-Republi- 
can in their tendency and dangerous to the institutions of our country, and 
that we will not hold political fellowship with those whom we have reason 
to believe are connected in any way with such orders; nor will we support 
for office any candidate who holds any connection with such organization. 


The resolution thus .'uhjpted 1)\- thi- reojjlc's eonventitju wris an 
indication of the h)cal rexulsicju ai^ainst the secret methods of tlie 
American or Know Nothing part}-, whicli had then reached tlie 
cuhiiination (»f its strength as a National political organization. 
This party had its origin in 1852, 
under the name of "The Sons of 
7()," or "The Order of the Star 
Spangled P)anner." and was an 
oath-hound society designed to 
exclude Koniau Catholics and all 
foreigners from |)uhlic office. Its 
real name and object were not 
revealed to a member until he 
took the higher degrees, and as 
a result when asked questions 
regarding the order he naturally 
and in\arial)ly replied, "I don't 
know." So in common ])arlance 
the uKuubers of the organization 
were called Know Nothings. The 
order increased with wonderful 
rapiditv. ddie general political 
unrest, the widespread disgust 
with the management of the 
Whig and Democratic parties, 
and the innate love of man for elbridge g. lapham. 

Elbridge (ierry Lapham \va> horn in tlif 

the mysterious, COntrd)Uted to Us town of Famiington, Ontario county, Octo- 

■^ . lier 18, 1814; educated in tlie C'anandaigua 

orOWth. It became a ]>OWer in Academy. Was admitted to the bar in 1844. 

'- and early won distinction as an ailvocate ; 

originally a Democrat in politics, helonging 
to the Harn limner or Anti-.Sla\ ery wing of 
tliat parly, hut in 1856 identitied liimself with 

the recently organized Kcpuhlican party. 
I'.lected to the Constitutional Convention of 
1867, to Congress in 1874. 1876, 1878, and 
1880, and in 1881 was chosen by the Legis- 
lature to the seat in the L'nited States Sen- 
ate from which Roscoe Conkling had resigned. 
Died at his summer home on the shore of 
Canandaigua lake. January 8, 1890. 

1854 in local and State elections, 

a fact that was exidenced by the 

122,282 votes cast for Daniel Ull- 

man, its candidate for Governor 

of New York, in that year. But 

the slave power was destined to 

l)e the cause of its disruption, as it had been that of other parties. 

When its National council at IMiiladelphia, June 5. 1835. adoj^ted 

resolutions supporting the Fugitive Slave law and the Southern 

contentions generally, its fate was sealed. 

The council thereupon split, and though the order lixed to 
embarrass Republican candidates in the National camj)aign of the 


next year and at various local elections intervening, it rapidly disin- 

As before stated, the election of a successor to Senator Clark 
in the Ontario-Livingston district took place at the time when the 
Americans, Know Nothings, or Hindoos, as they were variously 
known, were at the height of their power. Elisha W. Gardner, 
of Canandaigua. who was an active participant in the exciting 
political events of that year and assisted in the organization of the 
bogus lodges that were instituted to break the strength of that 
most un-American of parties and to disclose to the people the true 
inwardness of its promoters, states that the con\"ention or "coun- 
cil'" at \vhich it nominated a candidate in opposition to Judge 
Loomis was held in secret, the Saturday before the Tuesday on 
which election was held. He recalls that this council, as was the 
case with all meetings of the party, was called, not by public 
notice, but by means of pieces of paper, cut in cabalistic forms, 
whose meaning was known only to members of the order, and 
posted or scattered on the streets. 

Judge Loomis, the People's candidate, had already served one 
fnin-\ears' term. lS.v^-1838. in the State Senate, as one of the rep- 
resenlati\es (^f the old Seventh ijistrict. under the constitution of 
1821. and was a well known and highly respected citizen. 

The Know Nothing candidate was l\e\'. William H. Goodwin, 
a Methodist l^jiscopal clergyman then li\ing at Genexa. and 
though the (Jntario Messenger, the Democratic organ, and The* 
Times, speaking for the Seward W Ings. united in hurling hot >hot 
at his candidacy, he was elected o\ er Judge Loomis. The I\e])osi- 
tory. as the local organ of the Siher Cirays. su])ported the Know 
Nothing candidate, and it is manifest that most of that wing oi 
what had been the W big ])arty \oted for him. In Ontario county. 
Mr. Goodwin recei\ed 3,337 \otes as against 2,257 for Judge 

This si)ecial election was held on Tuesday, januarv 30. 18.^3, 
and under authority of a s|:iecial act of the Legislature the vote 
was canxassed and .^cnat"r (icnxiwin took his seat in time to vote 
against the reelection of William II. .Seward to the Lnited States 

On the night preceding tliis election, at a public meeting in 
the comt house in Canandaigua, Elbridge (J. Lapham. then a 
prominent Democrat, but destined to rise to prominence in tlu- 


Kepuhlican paitN, made a sti'oii,:^ speech in -upimrt of the People's 
candidate, the he^innin^-. it' we are correctly infoniieil, of the cus- 
tom that he afterward followed as a l\e])td)hcaii campaigrier in 
makini;- the closing- speech of each succeeding canii)aign lo his (nsii 
tow ns])eo])le. 

In the town elections held in this count\' m .\])ril of that \ear. 
the issue presented 1)\- the sin-prisiug gi"owth of Know Xothingism 
lunted wUh the e\er insistent (|uestion of slavery extension to make 
an extremeh' excitmg cam])ai<4"n. As an indication of the trend of 
])ul)Iic sentiment at that time, it is interoting to note that the call 
for the Cheshire, or Xo. ^K caucus, to he held at the home of X. U. 
i)OS\\ell. March JS. was for a meeting of "all citi/ens o])i)osed to 
the \iolation of solenni compromisers to the extension of s!a\er\', 
and to all secret and irres])onsil)le societies."' 

The calls tor caucuses to nonnnate candidates for town oClices 
in otiier towns were couched in e(iuail\- sigmlicanl language, 'i'he 
Know Xolhings won out m ( "anandaigua, their nominee, h'henc/er 
Male, being elected, hut the "Antis"" carried eight of the towns of 
the C()unt\' as com])ared with a Know Xothing. or Hindoo, list of 
six. In llristol the vote on su]>er\isor was a tie, and I'rancis .Mason, 
tlie Whig iuctimht'ut . held over. 

1'he coiuuy hoard n\ supervisors of that year was as follows: 

.\nti-l lindoos — Thomas R. Reck. West liloomlield : Ilenr\- W. 
Ilam'iu, J'.ast I'loonitield : hrancis Mason, liri^tol; l)a\id A. I'ier- 
])oin. Kichmond: Xathaniel (i. .\ustin. Lanadice ; David Co\e. South 
llristo]- |)a\id IMckett, < iorham ; I )auiel Arnold, l-'armington : X. K. 
Cole. Ma.nchester. 

Know Xcnhings — Rbcnezer Hale. Canandaigua ; William S. 
("lark, Victor; .\. T. Xelson, .Xaples : Kohert Chajjin, Hopewell; 
S. i;. I'ond, l'he!i)s; lames .M .<o\erhill, .Seneca. 




The New Coalition of Free Soilers Adopt the Name Republican 
— Men Identified with the Movement — A Tangled Local Cam- 
paign — Union Ticket Put in the Field by Republicans and 
Dem.ocrats — Opposing Know Nothing Candidates for County 
Offices Win at the Election. 

\\ itli the openino^ of tlie State campaign of 1853. the Free Soil 
coalitionists became a distinct political organization. The names 
with which they had l)een popularly christened, in entire disregard 
of their old-time ])arty affiliations as Whigs or Democrats, were 
dropped. BarnlniriRrs. Hard Sliclls. Woolly Heads, Sewardites, 
and Anti-Hindoos became Republicans. 

The work of ])arty organization under the Republican name, 
begun tlie year before in the West and in Maine, extended rapidly 
throughout the Xorth during 185.3. The struggle in which the 
emigrants from the Vree States had engaged to save Kansas from 
slavery, the fight which the obscure rail splitter of Illinois was 
making against Douglas and s(|uatter sovereigntv, his proclama- 
tion of the truth that this Xation could not exist one-half slave and 
one-half free, and tlie >;iiccess of the .\nti-Xel)raskans at the open- 
ing of the Thirty-fourth Congress in electing Xathaniel P. Banks. 
Speaker of the House of Representatixes. were under the Repub- 
lican banner. 

In Xew York State, steps were taken earl\- in the sunnner to 
organize the new ])arty. 1 he first Republican State convention 
was called to meet in Syracu-e, September 26. to nominate a ticket 
for State offices to be filled at the Xovember election. Each 
Assembly district was to be represented Ijy two delegates. The 
W hig party, dominated by its Seward or Free Soil wing, called its 
convention for the same date and citv. 

In the Ontario county districts, the same plan was pursued — 


the l\c|)ul)lir;m aiid W lii;^ C()ii\cnti(in> liciii;^ ciIKmI for the same 
(late, with the evident inlention ot nieriiin^ one in the other. 

The calls fur the Kepuhhcan (hstrict conxentions read as fol- 
lows : 

First District Republican Convention. 

The electors of the liastern Assembly l)istrict of Ontario county, whn are 
in favor of tlie i^ei)uhlican orj;anization. will meet at the Town Mail in the 
VillaK".' of I'lu'Ip^, (in Satur(la\-, Seiilcnihcr Sth, at 2 o'clock p. ni., for the pur- 
pose of selecting two delegates to rei)resent said district in the Republican State 
Convention, to be held at Syracuse on the 26tn September next, and to transact 
such other business as may legitimately come before the convention. — August 
25, 1855. 

Chauncey Musselnian, J. A. Wader, 11 K. Connell, 

Marry Robison. layman Catlin, 11. M. liopkins, 

James Robison, W. VV. VVoodvvorth, James Brown, 

Joseph Jane. Caleb Bainiister. Levi Case, 

Thomas Smith, lilihu Stone, Rial V. Wheeler. 

George Mack, Wm. Whiting, Jonathan Burt, 

V. V. Draper, M. B. Bannister. 

Second District Republican Convention. 

The Independent Electors of the several towns, in the Second Assembly 
District of Ontario county, who are opposed to the further subjugation of our 
government to the interests of Slave Power, to the extension of Slavery into 
our National domain, and to any further strengthening of the Slave Power by 
the admission of Slave States into the Confederacy, are requested to meet in 
their several towns, irrespective of former party associations, and select twice 
the usual number of Delegates to a District Convention, to rneet at Hicks's 
Hotel in Bristol on Saturday, the 22d of September, for the purpose of select- 
ing two Delegates to the State Republican Convention, to meet at Syracuse on 
the 26th inst., an.d to transact such other business as may be found necessary. 
September 6, 1855. By Order of the Committee. 

The calls (if three Rejitildican t(T\\n caticuses appeared in the 
Se])teniher ].■> issne of the h)cal hree Soil origan. That for Canan- 
daii^na was called to meet in the town hall and to it were invited 
"all citizens who ai-e ojijiosed to the agoTCSsions of the sla\e power, 
and in fa\-or of ])olitical action with reference to that (|uestion." 
That lor I'ristol was held at the house of S. C Hicks and inchided 
electors who were "in fax or of the Repiihlican organization." That 
for Richmond was held at Ha/.en's tavern in Floneoye, and included 
all wdio were "in favor of forming a Repttblican party, in opposition 


to the extension of s1a\erv on free soil and also opposed to seeret 
soeieties for i)olitieal pnrpose<.' 

The onlv report we have of these hrst gatherings of men who 
were wilhng- to be known as Ixej^nldicans is the following from The 
Times of September 20. 18o5: 

Town Convention. 

At a meeting of the Republicans of the Town of CanandaiKua, announced 
at the Town Hall on Monday, the 17th inst., according to previous notice. 
Stephen Parrish, 2nd. was elected chairman, and J. C. Fairchild. secretar\'. 

The following gentlemen were elected Delegates to the district convention 
to be held at Bristol on the 22d inst.: 

Evander Sly, W. W. McClure. Charles Hall, 

Edwin Hicks. R. B. Johnson, Joel M. Howey, 

Stephen Parrish. 2d, E. W. Gardner, Henry Willson, 

E. S. Gregory. Stephen Saxton. C. Remington. 

H. C. Lucas, M. Remington, 

On motion. Resolved that the delegates be authorized tn appi>int >ubsti- 
tutcs, in case of their inability to attend. 

On motion, Col. W. Millor, 1^. W. Gardner, and Joel M. Howey were 
appointed Town Committee for the enduing ^-ear. 

It is a matter to be nuich regretted that the rei)orter did not 
give more of the details of this t^rst Repnbliean cancns in the town 
of Canandaigna. that we ha\e no list of the xoters ])resent. or record 
of the speeches made. We ha\e bern informed by (»ne of those 
who was ])resent that there was a \ery small attendance. I)are1\' 
enough for otjicers of the meeting and to forward its btisiness. Not 
all of those elected delegates to the district conxention were pres- 
ent at the cancns. bnt it is fair to presume it was known that they 
were in sympathy with the moxenrent. Perhaj)s no speeches were 
made. Not always do the men who meet to initiate a moxement 
of such far-reaching signiticance make much noise. They act rather 
than talk. 

The only muw ixor of the delegates elected at this historic gather- 
ing is Elislia W. Gardner, of Canandaigna. Joel M. Howev, an 
honored agriculturist, snr\i\ed mitil 190Q, when he died at the ripe 
ageof91 years. Evander Sly. who headed the delegation, was then 
and for many years afterward one of the most prominent business 
men of the \ illage. Stephen Parrish was superintendent of the Canan- 
daigna Gas Light Com])any and later l)ecame a resident of Jersey City. 
Edwin Hicks, who had onlv been a resident of the villao-e since the 

Till': MRsr i-ki':!-: soil conventions. 


procfdin^ |aiinar\\ was a vouiil; atlonicy, whose ant i-sla\ cry senti- 
nuiUs, inil)il)C(l as a 1)()\' anions;' llu' lirislol lulls, naluially led to liis 
idc'iitificalioii with the new i)arty at its \ery he.^iiiiiiiii;-. l-^. S. 
Gregoi'y had ])een the jjartner of Myron II. (lark in the hardwai-e 
business and later engaged in hanking. 11. C. Lucas was for many 
years prominently identified with 
the produce business. Ste])hen 
Saxton was a lumber merchant. 
I\. L). Johnson w-as a farmer living 
at Centerfield. Henry Willson, 
son of Jared Willson, later met his 
death as a soldier while fighting in 
support of the principles which he 
espoused at this caucus. Charles 
Hall was a prominent farmer of 
Cheshire, and the father of 
Lorenzo C. and John B. Hall. 
Chauncey Remington was a lead- 
ing druggist and M. Remingtc^n. 
his nephew, was a farmer. \V. \\ . 
McClure was for a long time a 
leading stone mason. Willson Mil- 
lor was the man to whom "in an 
evil hour." as Mr. Milliken later 
told readers of the paper, the latter 
sold The Times in the summer of 
1(S54. and who remained its pro- 
prietor until February of the next 
year, when the office was Inirned 
out. The ])aper was reestablished 
by Mr. Milliken in May. 1856. 

The tirst "Republican" comention in the count) was that called 
as al)o\c noted for the h'irst or l^astern Assembly district and held 
at I 'helps on September <S. I^. \\ . l'risl)ie acted as its chairman, and 
Edward W. Henderson, and P.. H. Bartlett as its secretaries. 
Thomas McLouth. formerl\- a Whig, and Lyman Cathn, an 
ex-Democrat of the Hard Shell school, were elected delgates to the 
State convention. Delegates to district coinentions were elected 
as follows : 

Senatorial — Robert Royce. of Hopewell ; Thomas M. Terry, of 


jiiel M. Howey. elecleil a delegate at first 
l\e|)ulilican caucus in Caiiandaigua. -Septem- 
ber 17. 1855, and a nicnitier of the first 
I<epul)licau town ciininiittee. was horn in 
t"anandaigua, .January MK 1819. Commis- 
sioner of I^xcise of the town for a numher 
of years; a mcmher of I'oard of Supervisors, 
]SS7. Died in Canandaigua. October 1, 


Farmingtun; John McKay, of Seneca : R. X. Ferguson, of Phelps : J. 
Dewey. Jr.. of Manchester, and H. Metcalf, of Gorham ; C. Bannister, 
A. J- Shannon, and T. Pomeroy. at large. 

• judicial — G. ^^ . Duesburv. Jacob Wader, and Jonathan Pratt. 

The W'hie convention for the First district elected I. M. 
Bradford, of Geneva, as its representative to the Whig State 

The Republican convention for the Second Assembly district 
was held. ])ur>uant to the call, at the home of S. C. Hicks in Bristol, 
un the 22\u\ of September. 1855. 

The conxention organized li\- the election of fosiah Porter, of 
East Bloom field, as chairman, and Zoroaster Paul, of Richmond, 
and Edwin Hicks, of Canandaigua. as secretaries. 

The towns were represented by these delegates: 

Canandaigua — Edwin Hicks. Stephen Parrish. 2nd.. M. Rem- 
mgton. Charles Hall. Joel M. Howey. and W'illson Millor (not all 
those elected at the caucus abo\ e reported being present). 

Richmond — Zoroaster Paul. P. [.. Hamilton. Hiram .\shley. 
W. A. Reed. Willard Doolittle. Alfred Franklin. 

Victor — B. B. Trask. E. Dewe\'. 

East Bloomfield — J. Porter. Mvron .\dams, C. W. Higby. H. 
Gains. Thayer Gauss. 

West Bloomfield — O. W ade. Silas C". Broxvn. E. F. Eeech. G. 
A. W endell. Henry E. Taft. Sireno F"rench. 

Bristol — John Mason. \\ . S. Hicks. Stephen .\. Codding. Aru- 
nah Jones. W'. Scott Hicks. Orestus Case. 

South Bristol— S. Collins. C. E. Crandall. O. H. Sheldon. S. 
Powell. E. Eincoln. Isaac Trembly. 

A committee, consisting of Messrs. Ib'own. .\shlev. Jones. 
liamilt(jn. Higbw Codding, and French. re|K-»rted resohitions 
declaring that "we have to require of j)id)lic scrxants only intelli- 
gence, honesty and fidelity in the discharge of the duties confided 
to their care, without reference to the stars predominating at their 
birth, or the distance between their own and the natal ])lace of their 
neighbors :" that "to proscribe any of our fellow citizens on account 
of their religious faith and make a polemical doctrine the test of 
citizenship, is to attack the fundamental elements of our Republican 
form of government." and that the members of the convention, as 
Republicans, asserted unequivocally: "1st. That no more slave 
states shall be admitted into the L' nion ; 2nd, That no slavcrv shall 



he permitted under an\' pretence in any leirit< hv m the I'nited 
States; od, That shivery shall l)e alxilished in all ])lac-e-> within the 
jurisdiction of the h'ederal ( iox ei-nnient ; 4th. That the liii;iti\e Slave 
law shaU he re])ealed: 5th, That the inlluence ol' the general 
i^^-overninent shall, under all circninslances. be exerted to discounte- 
nance and restrain slaver)', and to 
extend and promote the blessings 
of i'Teedoni." 

The resolutions were adopt- 
ed, and W illson Millor and Zo- 
roaster I'aid were elected dele- 
!L;-ates to the State conxention, and 
I'.dwiu i licks, Elnathan W. Sim- 
mons, and Hiram Ashley delegates 
to the judicial conxention. Colo- 
nel Millor. Sireno French, and 
( )restus Case were appointed as 
the central committee. 

The l\e])ul)lican and W hig 
couxentious at Syracuse, Septem- 
ber 26, through conference com- 
mittees, united upon resolutions 
and upon a ticket of candidates for 
State oifices, and the Whig C(^n- 
xention dissolved and rei)aired in 
a body to the hall where the Re- 
publicans held their meeting. The 
kepublican ticket thus nominated 
uas headed by Preston King, of 
.'^t. Laxvrence county, as a candi- 
date for Secretary of State. 

Rut not all of those identified 
with the hTee Soil movement had 

yet enrolled themselves in the new^ party. Not all of those xxh 
expressed themselves as in s}'mpath\- \xith its i)ur])oses cared yet to 
commit their political fortunes to its keeping. Xt>t all of those xvho 
were destined to engage in its cause and participate in its early 
trium]-)hs were yet fighting under its banner. Old party ties xxere 
then, as they are noxv. diHicult to throw off. It was not until the 
next year that ])arty lines linallx adjusted themselxes to the nexv 


Tlionias Morris Hov\elI. second son of 
[mlge Natlianiel \V. Howell, was born in 
Canatidaigiia. December 7, 1811; graduated 
from ,'\mherst College in 1831 ; admitted to 
the bar in 1834; District .Attorney for On- 
tario eourty from 1840 to 1847 inclusive; 
unsuccessful as the Democratic nominee for 
Justice of the Supreme Court, Representative 
in Congress. and Member of Assembly; 
Police Justice of the V'illage of Canandaigua 
from 1871 to 1874. Died in Canandaigua. 
October 27, 1892. 



conditions. Tt required the hot fires of a Presidential contest to 
bring the men. wlio believed that th.e time for temporizing with tlie 
monstrous e\il of human slaxery had passed, to see that the_\- must 
make open profession of the faith that was in them, and, sinking 
])ersonal differences, pushing aside considerations of selfish interest, 
and forgetting past political associations, give to the cause t)f 
Freedom,' as represented by the Republican party, the support of 
their names and \otes as well as of their consciences. 

So through the later campaign, that for the nomination and 
election of county and district otiicers, as had l)een the case in that 
for the election (^f delegates to the State con\ention. the W hig 
leaders ke])! up their organization and many of the I'ree Soil Dem- 
ocrats continued in active affiliation with the ])arty to which they 
had so long acknowdedged allegiance. The local cam])aign, there- 
fore, was a tangled one, and it is difficulr, after tliis length of time, 
to follow its turnings. 

Both the Republican and Democratic county conxentions were 
held on October 13. with a view to l)ringing alxmt a union between 
the Republicans and Democrats in the nonnnation of a ticket of 
candidates for county offices. r])on recommendation of a confer- 
ence committee, it was decided that each convention >houl(l nomi- 
nate a full ticket and then appoint another committee of conference, 
with power to make up from the two sets of candidates a union 

The Re])ul)lican conxention thereupon nominated the following 
candidates, constituting the first ticket put in the field by the 
Re])ublican organization of Ontario county: For county iu<lge, 
Saiuuel A. Foot, of Gene\-a; for counl\- clerk, Xathan j. Milliken, 
of Canandaigua; for sheriff, \\'illiam A. Willson. of Manchester: 
for district attorney, EmorA- B. Pottle, of Naples: for county treas- 
urer, John ^Tosher, of Canandaigua: for justice of sessions. Arunah 
Jones, of Bristol ; for superintendent of the poor. George Dunkle, 
of Hopewell. 

The Democratic convention first nominated Charles J. Folger 
as county Judge, but he peremi)torily declined, and the ticket was 
made up as follows: For count\- judge, Albert Lester: for county 
clerk, hdnathan ^^^ Simmons: for sheriff. Dexter H. Hawks: for 
district attorney, Elisha \\\ dardncr: for county treasurer, Jacob 
J. T^klattison ; for surrogate. John X. Whiting: for superintendent 

THE FIRST \'\<\'.i: soil. ( () XVF.XTIOXS. 

(if jxior. ( ieors^o (nxxliiiL;: for justice of sessions, flcor^'c W. 

Mntoii it Peck. Fli)ri(l,<;e (i. Fapli.-ini, William C Hrver. Ivli- 
slia \\ (iardiiei" and llenr\- ( ). Cliesehro, aiipointed td confer witli 
a snnilar connnittee from tlie l\ei)nl)lican conx'cntion as to a nnion 
lickel. reported that tlie\- conid not reach a satisfactory agreement 
as to the matter. 

r.nt the effort tonnite on a tic- 
ket was not L;i\en nj) and linally. 
when onl\- one working' day 
remaine(l hetore election, there 
wa^ a coni])romi.'-e (.dlectiMl by 
which the followini;- nnion ticket 
Wc.s agreed npon: kor connty 
jndLje. k"mor\- l>. I'ollle ( Re]). ) : 
for sheriff. Xathan J. Mi'liken 
Mveji.): for connt\ clerk. Flna- 
ihan W . Sinnnons (l)em.): for 
distinct attornc}-. l)o'phin Stepli- 
enson ( Re]). ) : for surro^-ate, 
John \\ hiting ( Dem.) : for connty 
ireasnrer, Jacob J. Mattison 
(hem.); for snperintendent of 
poor. Henry Mott ( I )em. ) ; for 
justice of sessions, Ariinah Jones 

Tlie oi)i)osin;.;' Know X'othini;' 
ticket was made n]) as follows: 
J'\ir connty jndiL^e. Peter M. Dox, 
of (iene\a; for sherifl', liem-y C. 
Swift, of Phel])s; for connt\- clerk, 
John j. Lyon, of C'anandaii^na ; 
tor connty treasnrer, Georg"e W ilk 
son, of Canandaigna : for district 
attorney, T. O. Perkins, of C'an- 
andaigna : for snperintendent of poor, J. Q. Groesl)eck : for surro- 
gate. Samncl Salisliury. of Canandaigna : for jnstice of sessions, 
James M. Pnl\er, of Gorham. 

There was akso a "Hard Shell" ticket, on which Thomas M. 
Howell ran as a candidate for connt\- judge; Edgar W . Dennis, for 


.Samuel Alfred I'oot was born at Water- 
town, Connecticut ; grailuated from Union 
College in 1811; admitted to the bar in 1813; 
District Attorney of Albany county, 1819- 
1821 ; appointed to vacancy on C^ourt of 
Appeals bench, 1851. and was the Whig can- 
didate for the position that year, but was 
defeated at the polls. Having become a resi- 
dent of Cieneva, was elected Member of 
Assembly from the Eastern district of On- 
tario county in IS.S.S and was reelected to 
that office in 1856. Died at Oeneva, Mav 11. 



district attorney; Xathaniel K. Cole, for county clerk: Justus H. 
Dawley, for sheriff, and William H. Phelps, for county treasurer. 

The county election resulted in the success of the entire Know 
Xothing ticket, eNxeptin.s;' its canditlates for count\- treasurer and 
surrogate, to both of \\hich offices the coalition candidates (both of 
them Democrats) were elected by small majorities. 

At the Eastern or Second Assend)ly district Republican con- 
vention, held at the Canandaig-ua hotel. October 13. 1855. and at 

which Silas C. Brown, of West 
Idoomfield. acted as chairman, and 
Arunah Jones, of Bristol, as secre- 
tary. Judge Henry W. Taylor, of 
Canandaigua. was nominated to 
the ofTfice of member of Assenil)l\-. 
At an adjourned meeting of 
the First district Republican con- 
\enti(»n. held at Clifton Springs. 
October 6. Samuel A. Foot, of 
Genexa. was placed in nomination 
for the Assembly. 

Judge Foot was elected over 
his Know X'othing opponent, 
Corydon A\'heat. by 48 i)lurality. 
while Stephen H. Parker, the 
Hard Shell candidate, received 
745 votes. Judge Taylor was de- 
feated by Oliver Case, renominat- 
ed by the Know X'othings. bv 197 
])lurality. The Hard Shell candi- 
date. ]\lyron H. Peck, received 
202 votes. 

I'or Senator of the Twenty- 
ninth district, the Republicans had 
presented John \\ iley and the Know Xothings Sidney Sweet. The 
latter was elected. For Justice of the Supreme Court. E. Darwin 
Smith, the Know Xothing nominee, defeated Adflison T. Knox. 

Preston King, who headed the Republican ticket as a candi- 


Jacob J. Mattison. editor ami proprietor of 
the Democratic newspaper organ at the 
county seat for thirty-four years, was born 
in New Jersey, July 19. 1813. Recame a resi- 
dent of Canandaigua when seventeen years of 
age. and entered upon an apprenticeship in 
the ofTice of the Ontario Repository tlien 
owned by Cliauncey M. Morse: in 1845 be- 
came owner of the Ontario Messenger: in 
1862. bought the Repository and consolidated 
the two papers: was Ontario County Treas- 
urer. 1856-58. Died in Canandaigua, July 28. 


(late for Sccrclar\' of State, was defeated 1)\- a Miiall pluralit)- l)y 
Joel T. Ilcadleyj the Know NothiiiL^- or American ])art\- candidate. 
The other nominees were Aaron Ward. Xalion.d l)cmocrat, and 
Israel T. 1 latch. Soft Shell Democrat. 

Notwithstandini;" these successes in State .and local elec- 
tions, the da)' of Know X'othiniLja'sm had t-ndcil. Man\- of those 
who had x'oted its tickets had ne\er heconie mend)ers of the order, 
and had no s\in])ath\' with its secret ptii' d"he\ ha<l n^ed it as 
a \\ea])on with which to wre.ak \en_!^eance on the old leaders, d'hat 
accom])hshed, there was another shift of the political kaleidoscope. 
K\en in Xew N'ork State hope ot resuscitatini;' the W hi^ ])ai"tv was 
abandoned. I he \arions mo\ements that had niasipieraded nnder 
the ionise of Anti-.Xebraskaisni, I'eojjle's con\ention, Anti-Hin- 
dooism. etc., had become l\ei»id)lican in name— "Rei)ul)lican, 
no ])reh.\, no snfiix; but j)lain lve])id)lican."" Ihit l)\- one of those 
strange nmtalions that occnr in politics, not .all those who had 
identitied themsehes in the \;irions independent and ])rotestin>;" 
mo\ements wei'e to join the new ]);irty — some of thost- who opposed 
those mo\emeiits were to become acti\e and inlluential in its 

;lc ^ >!; ^ :(: 

In these imi)erfect sketches of the mo\ements out of which 
was <)rL;;ini/.e(l the kepnblican p.artx' in ()nt<ario connty. the writer 
has i^"one into ]).'ii'ticnlars ;is as ])ossible as to the niend)ers and 
officers ol coinentions and committees, re.ali/.inf^' snch det.ails 
ma\- not be mterestim;- to the i;eneral reader, bnt believinL;- in 
them is cont.ained the most xalnable record of the party's bei;innin^s 
liere. ddiex' embrace the names of some, not all l)\- .any means, of 
those to whom belong' the honor of ^tiidinq' and unitini;- the anti- 
sla\er\- sentiment of the time, .and to whom shonhl j^'o the credit 
for orjL;<ani/'n>4' .and setting in motion the party machinery. 




Growing Strength and Confidence of the New Party — Fremont the 
Standard Bearer — Free Soil Democrats Unite with the New 
Political Organization — John C. Fremont Nominated for Presi- 
dent — District and County Conventions — Republicans Name a 
Complete Ticket. 

The Republican party gained its first victory of a national 
character in the election oi the Speaker of the House of Represen- 
tatives, at the opening of the Thirty-fourth Congress in December. 
1855. After a protracted contest, in which no less than t\vcnt_\- 
candidates were voted for, the l\c])ublicans, Anti-Slavery W liigs, 
x\nti-Slavery Democrats, Ami-Slavery Americans, and other l'~ree 
Soilcrs. united and elected Natlianiel P. Banks to the office. lUeed- 
insT Kansas, through the settlement of emigrants from the l'',ast, 
was slowly materiahzing into a I-'ree and Republican State. The 
attack upon Charles Sumner in the United States Senate also 
lielped to make the men of the North who thought alike realize 
that the\- nuist act alike, if they were to successfidly o])pose the 
aggressions of the sla\-e power. 

The first mo\-ement toward the organization of a nation;d 
Republican cam])aign was that \-oiced in the call, signed by the 
chairmen of the r\e])ublican State conunittees of Maine. \'ermoiit. 
Massachusetts. New \'ork, Pennsyhania. Ohio. Michigan. Indiana. 
and \\'isconsin, for an informal con\ent!on of the i\ei)nblicans of 
the Union to be held at Pittsburg, l-"ebruary 11, 185C). Of the cau- 
cuses anil conventions held in Ontario county preliminar\- to this 
convention we ha\e no record, as the Times ofiice, then under the 
management of W'illson Millor, was biuMied out on Februarx- r)th 
of that year and the paper was not reestablished, exce])t through 
the occasional issue of leaflets, until the first of the followiner Mav. 
The other village papers did not attempt to report the primaries of 
the new part\ . the Repository being wedded to the Know Nothing 

ONTAkiO [N 'I'lili 1^56 CA.Aii'AiGX. 


cause and llic Messcn^-er thiiiL;' tin- I )ciiit)cralic colors. We 
Icani from the killer, ho\\c\cr, thai the delegates elected to re])i-e- 
sent the ( )ntario-.Seneca-Yates Congressional district in the Titts- 
hnrg con\ention were ex-State Senator Wilhani M .( )h\-er, of reini 
\'an, and ex-C(Migressnian W ilhani \. Sackett, of Seneca I'alls. 

The I'lttshnrg conventuMi named a national e.\ecnti\'e commit- 
tee of which I'.dwin I) Morgan, of \ew ^'ork. was chairman, and 
adopted resolutions demanding 
rei)eal of laws faxorahle to the 
extension of slaxery, fax'oring the 
admission ot Kansas as a I'rcc 
State, and deckariug the national 
adnnuisti-alion of I'resideul I'ierce 
to he identilied with the pi'ogress 
of the sla\e power lo national su- 

The executive comnu'tlee aj)- 
pointed at this con\ention i)ronii)t- 
1\ issued a call to the friends of 
fi"eedom lo send de'egates to a 
convention to he he'd at I'hilade'- 
])hia. June 17. "for the jjurpose of 
reconunending candidates to he 
supported for the oftices of I'resi- 
dent and \'ice Tresident of the 
I'm'ted States." Thus was inaug- 
urated the lirst national cam])aign 
h\- ihe i-'epuhlican ])arty. 

The Ivepuhlican State con- 
\'enti(ni was called to meet in 
Syracuse, May 2S. 

The convention for the W'est- 

Henry \V. Taylor, one of the Vice Presi- 
dents and a s[)eaker at the original Anti- 
.X'ebraska meeting, in Canandaigna, Febru- 
ary 2K. 1S.S4. liorn February 2, 1796, at 
Decrfiekl. iVIass. Hecame a resident of 
Ontario county in 1816. IMeniber of the 
New York .\isembly in 1837, 18.38, 1839, 

ern .\ssemhlv district of Ontario '■>"■' is^o- i<^>"oved to Michigan in i840; 

a member of the Michigan Senate in 

i-(iiint \- w-i< liclil -i1 (\illin^'< liotcl I'"*-*''- Keturned to Canandaigna in 1848. 

lOUnt) W.lSlKKi al C omns ^ noUl, Appoimed justice of the Supreme Court in 

;i, l.'-ict l^L^',,.!,! M-,\- lr> -111,1 '^5": County Judge, 1858-1860. Originally 
111 I'.clst l)10oniliel(l, Ala\ in, and ^ ^y,,,^ j,,e„ ^ Republican. Died in Can- 

• 1 1 1 A I andaigua, December 17, 1888. 

was presided oxer hy .Myron 

.\dams, of kw'ist riloomheld, as chairman. k'rancis J. Lamb, of 
Canaiidaigua, acled as its secretary. Roswell C. Munsoii, ot East 
Bloomfield, and Shotwell rowell. of South l>ristol, were elected 
deleuates to the Slate coiueiition. 


At the convention for the Eastern district, held atCHfton Springs, 
Mav 24. Tcdediah Oewev. Jr.. of Manchester, acted as chairman, 
and Dolphin Stephenson, of F'helps, as secretary. Thomas U. 
Bradburv. oi Farmington. and Curler F. Greene, of Gorham, were 
elected delegates to the State convention, and Dolphin Stephenson, 
of Phelps, and G. B. Sears, of Seneca, alternates. Resolutions were 
adopted declaring, in addition to opposition to slavery extension, 
that the tlelegates felt '"impelled to discard all former political 
differences and to unite for the common good," etc. D. Stephen- 
son. A. S. Crittenden, and William Johnson were named as a district 
commit tec. Thomas J. McLouth, of Ontario, John E. Seeley. of 
Seneca, and M. H. Lawrence, of Yates, were selected as delegates, 
and Henr\ \\ . Tavlor. James K. Richardson, and A. \\ Harpend- 
ing, as alternates, to represent the Twenty-seventh district in the 
National convention. 

The Times had been established in Canandaigua as the organ 
of that faction of the Whig party which hailed William H. Seward, 
then representing the State in the Senate of the United States, as 
their leader, and who supported liim in his effort to make the ])artv 
indepen<lent of slavery dictation. It had urged tlie importance of 
his reelection to the Senate ami rejoiced when he was reelected, but 
previous to that, at the time when the repeal of the Missouri 
Compromise had stirred the Xorth to indignation and protest, as 
early as June. 1854. it had put at the head of its editorial columns 
this legend : 

For President, 


of Xew York. 

And it had ke])t the declaration in ])lace all through the hVee 
Soil cam])aign of that year, through the campaign of the next vear, 
in w liich the i)arty was organized and adopted the name Republican, 
and into the Fresidential campaign of 1856. William H. Seward, 
able, statesmanlike, elociuent. who had led the van in the fight for 
Free Soil during the preceding years, became the leader of the 
Republican party in New York State as he had been the leader of 
the dominant faction of the old W hig party. He was the choice of 
the Xew York delegates for the Presidency in the National conven- 
tion at Philadelphia. June 17. 1856. He probably could have been 
nominated. There was no strife among candidates. It was too 


clearly shown that the contest must l)e fouL^ht for tlie sake of future 
good, not for present success. Thurlow WccmI and other Xew ^'ork 
admirers of the i^reat statesman wantrd in axoid his sacrilice. His 
name was therefore witluh-awn, and he recei\ed onlv one vote in the 
hallotini;- on the second day of that historic slathering. The lirst 
formal hahot determined the resuh. 

John C. Fremont, "the Pathfmder/" was chosen to lead the 
Repuhlican army, yet ignorant of its own strength, (hnd)tful of its 
future, hut inspired hy a nohle purpose, in its lirst campaign for the 
Presidency. William L. Dayton, of New Jersey, was selected as its 
candidate for Vice President. 

Though the leaders of the Re]nd)lican i)artv in the 1856 cam- 
])aign had little hope of electing their candidate for President, they 
helieved they could carry most of the Northern States and so 
organize and estahlish the new ])arty that the l-Vee Soil sentiment 
ot the Nation could successfully assert itself in succeeding contests. 

The Democrats who were o])posed to the extension of slavery 
into free territory and to the outrages committed u])on the free 
settlers of Kansas, had heen linally alienated from the Democratic 
party 1)}- the pro-sla\ery principles enunciated b\' the Cincinnati 
convention, which had nominated James Buchanan for the 
Presidency, and were ready now to take the step that should make 
them mend:)ers of the Repuhlican party in full and regular standing. 
In Ontario county the}- held a conxention, at the court house in 
Canandaigua, jid\- 19. Chester Poomis. of tk)rham, the year before 
the unsuccessful People's candidate for State Senator, acted as 
chairman, and E. \\\ Gardner, of Canandaigua, as secretarv. Rimes 
C. Smith, Elnathan W . Siiumons, David Paul, Chester Loomis, 
Charles J. Folger, and Thomas U. Bradbury, were elected delegates 
to a State convention of the 'Tlemocratic-Re])ublican" ])art\-. and 
James C. Smith and Elbridge G. Lapham made speeches, which, 
the secretary reported, were able and eloquent, and "served up the 
Cincinnati platform and its candidates in true Democratic style." 
The men mentioned as active participants in this meeting, like 
thousands of Free Soil Democrats throughout the North, immedi- 
ately took an active and intiuential part in support of the 
Republican party. 

In New^ York as in other States, that party nominated full 
State and local tickets and conducted a most aggressi\e and success- 



till campaign. The convention for selecting- candidates for the 
State offices to he tilled was called to meet in Syracuse, 
September 17. 

At the convention for the First Assembly district of this county. 
held at Clifton Springs on September 13. 1856. David Pickett, of 
Gorham. acted as chairman, and George B. Dusenberre. of Geneva, 
as secretar\-. Thomas Hillhouse. of Geneva, afterwards State Comp- 
troller. State Senator, and Assistant Treasurer of the United States, 

and Jedediah Dewey. Jr.. of Man- 
chester, already mentioned as 
most active and prominent in tlic 
earliest movements toward the 
organization of the party, were 
elected delegates to the State 
convention, and George B. Dusen- 
berre, of Geneva, county judge 
from 18r,l to 1868. and A. G. 
Crittenden, of Manchester, alter- 
nates. Delegates to the Congres- 
sional comention were elected as 
follows: Hon. John La|)ham. of 
harmington; Tlatt C. Iveynolds. 
of Manchester; Jonathan Pratt, of 
IIo])ewell: nol])hin Stei)hensoii. 
of I 'helps, and .\. J. Shannon, (jf 

The Second district conven- 
tion, held at Canandaigua. August 
^'^'. was presided over by Doctor 
Z. Taul. of Richmond, as chair- 
man, and Myron S. Hall, of West 
B'oomtield. as secretary. The 
Canandaigua delegates were 
Charles Coy. Exander Slw loel M. Howey. Elisha W. Gardner, and 
John H. Morse. Elbridge (j. I.ajiham. afterwards member of 
Congress and United States Senator, and Edward Brunson. after- 
wards member of Assembly, were elected delgates to the State 
convention, and Josiah Porter, of Naples; kichmond Simmons, ind. 
of Bristol; Z. Paul, of Richmond; Myron S. Hall, of West Bloom- 
field, and Charles Coy, of Canandaigua. delegates to the Congres- 

Kdward tirunson. imnihtr of CoiTiniittcc 
on Resolutions of the .\nti-.\'eljraska con- 
vention at Canandaigua, .\ugust 5, 1854. 
I';arly became prominent in the Republican 
l>aity and \va< for mat-y years one of its 
most inihiential county leaders. Horn in 
Kast nioomfield, .\ugust 14. 1824; repre- 
senteil that town in the Board of Supervisors 
in 1859. '60 and '61; Member of .Assembly 
in 1865 and 1866. Removed in 1879 to Solo- 
mon City. Kansas, and was postmaster at 
that place at the time of his death, .\ugust 
5. 1890. 


sion.'il convention. Chru-lcs Coy. iMlwni Micks and Lanson Dewey 
were named as a cani])aii:4n coniniiltee. I lie Slate con\ention made 
these nominations: I'Or ( loxernoi". John A. kini;'; tor Lieulenant- 
Goxcrnor, llenr\ U. Sehk'n ; for Canal Connnissioner, Charles H. 
Sherrill ; for Inspector of Slate I'risons, Wesley Bailey; for Clerk 
of the Couil of .\i)i)eals, knssell 1^ liicks. 

The Twenlx'-ninih Congressionad district v )n\ention was held at 
Genewa, in Linden Mall, i )ctol)er 4, lion. John l.apham acting" as 
chairman, and .\.'\\ Knox, and .M..'^. Mall, as secretaries, ddie three 
connties of thedistrict — ( )ntario, N'ates, and .Seneca — were fnlly rep- 
resented. ( )n the lirst formal hallot for candidates foi" mend»ei- ot 
Coni^ress, l'".mor\' 1!. I'ottle, of \a])les, receixed thirteen \-oles, to 
six cast for Addison I". Knox, and one tor J. IC Seeley, and was 
declared the nominee. J. V. Van Allen, of ^'ales: Isaac k'nller, ot 
Seneca, and llenr\- W . Ta\lor and Thomas llilihonse, of ( )ntario, 
were named as the centrad committee lor the campaign. 

The coitnlN' nominatini^- con\ention wa-, held at (Aanandai,Li'tia. 
( )ctol)er 14, \X?(\ Simri I'ollins acting' as chaii'man and William 
II. Snnth and William Larson, as secretaries. Candidates tor 
count \- ollices were nominated as lol'ows: I'or connty jnd^e. 
Ilemw W . 4\a\dor: justice of sessions, ( ieor^e W . Stearn- ; Mi])er- 
inteiulent of "poor, Jolm C<a])ham ; coroners. John (). llowe and 
Rollin Gregg'. An ap])ortionment of delegates to represent the 
several towns in future con\entions was maile as follow^ : Cauau- 
d.aigna. 7: Phel])S, 7; Manchester, .^ ; k'armingtou, ? : (iorliam, .^ : 
Victor, 4; k'.ast I'.loomfield, 4; r)ristol, 4; .\aples, 4: llopewell, 4; 
West Idoomrield, o; .South liristol, .•) ; Seneca, ^C l-'ichmond, 3; 
Cauadice, 3. Xatlian J. .\| illiken, J.ames C. Smith, Alhert (i. .Mtn'ray, 
Ira l\. Peck .and A. J. .Shannon, wei'e named as the count \' com- 
mittee for the ensuing" year. 

ddie nomin.ating con\ention for the Eastern district named the 
Hon. Samuel A. ]'V)ot. of (lenex'a, for reelection to the .Xssemhl}'. 
That for the Western district placed Zoroaster I'aul in the held as 
its candidate for memhersiiip in that hodw FJn.athan W . Simm<ms 
acted as ciiairman of the conx'ention last named and hdisha W . 
Gardner and Martin Kemingtcjii as secretaries, ddie delegates were 
as follows : 

Canandaigua — W'illson Alillor, hdisha W. (iardner. .S])eucer 
Gooding, .\nsel !)ehow, Martin kemingtou, llolmes C. Lucas. ;md 
(^diaries P. Johnson. 


Victor — Asa Wilson, Riifus Humphrey, Hiram LadcU Melanc- 
ton Lewis. 

East Bloomfielci — Nelson Parmeie, Henr\ W. Hamlin, Josepli 
Steele. Loren H. Brunson. 

West Bloomfield— James H. Hall. S. C. Brown. John Wood. 

Richmond — Parley Brown, D. L. Hamilton, Zoroaster Paul. 

Bristol — Elnathan W. Simmons. W illiam A. Reed. Seymour 
Reed, Richmond Simmons, 2d. 

South Bristol — Simri Collins, Theron Buell, Amos Crandall. 


•The work of this convention, held on the 24th of October, 

completed the Republican ticket. The ])art)- liad presented candi- 
dates for the Presidency. State offices, Cong^ress, county offices, 
and the Assembly. 

These were opposed bv twc^ full tickets, one nominated by the 
Americans or Know Nothings, who were trying- to save their now 
rapidly disintegrating party from complete extinction, and the 
other nominated bv the Democratic party. This last was made u]) 
of those members of the ohl Democratic party who had resistetl 
tlie call Id unite in the foriuation of a new political organization 
and was ileslnied e\entuall\' to absorb tlu- ruiti-Seward \\ liigs anil 
that portion of the American ]iart\- which deprecated any action 
that might lead to a break with the South.. 

The canvass of 1856 was a h\ely one. and be\'ond the substan- 
tial victories gained in State and local elections, served the all- 
important purpose of welding the di\erse Free Soil elements that 
had been theretofore clinging to their old ])arty names into one 
compact organization — "Republican, no i)retix, no suffix; but i)lain 




The Campaign in Ontario County for "Free Speech, Free Press, 
Free Men, Free Labor, and Fremont" — Clubs Organized and 
Meetings Held — Joshua R. Giddings Speaks in Canandaigua, 
His Native Town — Success Won in the County and State, but 
the National Ticket Defeated. 

"NeA\ occasions teach new duties" and discoxer ntw men. 'I'he 
crisis into wliich the country was i)lnn_<;e(l \)\' the repeal of the 
Missouri Comprnnnse hriui^lit new leaders to the fore in e\ery 
coninuinity. Men wlio like W iljiani H. Seward and Abi-ahani 
Lincohi. were '|ti'^"l< to feel the approach of the tidal wa\e of ])ul)lic 
indij^nation as;ainst the sla\er\' pro])aganda and had the courage 
ro cast off old ])arty ties for conscience sake, came in 1856 to the 
fi"(>nt of the new I\eptd)lican ])art\'. The o'd part\- leaders, many 
ot them not less i)atriotic, hut more timid, and perhaps less discern- 
ing, stepped one after another to the rear. 

As it was in the arena of National and State jiolitics, so it 
was in Ontario count}-. The older, more experienced, and u]) to 
that time most trusted leaders in both the Whig and Democratic 
parties failed to see, or, seeing, lacked the courage to gras]). the 
o])portunity presented in the new political organization. Men 
younger in _\'ears. untrained in ])artv management, and compara- 
ti\ely obscure, became the Repuldican leaders. Nathan J. Milliken, 
James C. Smith and Albert G. Murra}-. the Canandaigua members 
of the Reptd)lican central committee of the county in that \ear. were 
onl)- thirt\-five. thirty-nine and fort}'-six years old resj^ectix-ely. 
Myron H. Clark, elected Governor in 1854 bv a coalition of the 
political forces that were later destined to form the new party, was 
litt}' \'ears of age. l^lbridge G. Lapham. who became one of its 
first "spellbinders." was forty-five. Edward Brunson was thirty- 
two, Edwin Hicks was only twenty-six, and William H. Smith onlv 



twenty-seven. I".mnr\- 1). Pcittle, its first candidate tor Congress, 
was fortv-one. 

The cam])ai^n of the l\e])uhlican ])art)- in the nienioral)le vear 
of 1856 was one that appealed to the noblest emotions. Men 
ens'ap-ed ni it l)ecanse thev liated sla\•er^• and loved freedom. l)eoanse 
they felt that the destiny of tlie Xation was at stake, because tliev 

esteemed ])rinciple before part}-. 
Its rallyini4- cry — "Free Speech, 
Free Press. Free Men. Free La- 
I)or. and h'reniont" — was in itself 
an inspiration. 

In Ontario connt\- the lines 
were closelv drawn, and the tri- 
ano'ular contest fouo:]it ont with 
n.nlhnchin!:;- courag^e. 1die Repub- 
'ican ticket. luMcled by the names 
of hremont and Dayton, bore that 
of John A. Kini;-. as the candidate 
for (lo\"ernor of the State. Its 
local candidates, as we ha\e seen, 
were as follows: For Congress, 
l\mor\- W. I'ottle; for count}- 
judge, llenr\ W. Taylor: for jus- 
tice of sessions, (ieorge ^^^ 
Stearns: fo]- sn])erinten(lent of the 
])(>()r, John Fai)ham : for coroners. 
John {). Howe and kollin Oregg; 
for member of Assembl}-. b'irst 
district. Samuel .-\. I'oot : for 
member of .\ssembh'. Second dis- 
trict. Zoroaster i'aul. 
The Americ;in ticket, headed b\- the name of Millard l'"i'lmore, 
its candidate tor the l*residenc\ . carried that of b.rastus Ib-ooks. for 
(loxernor : Andrew ()li\er. for ("(tngress: \nd)ro>e L. \ an l)nsen. 
for .\ssembl}-. I'"irst cbstrict : and W illiam S. Clark, for Assembl}-. 
Second district. 

The Democratic candidate inv I'resident was James iUichanan; 
for Governor. Amasa I. I'arker: for Cono-ress, Darius A. Qo-den : for 
county judge. Ja1)ex 11. Metcalf: for Assembly, First district, Cor- 
nelius Horton ; for Assembly, Second district, Flenry Munson. 


Emory I!. I'ottle was l)orn in Xaiilcs, July 
4, 1815: elected to .Vs.-icnihly in 1S46 on the 
Whis: ticket ; elected to Congress as a Re- 
pnb'icaii in 1856; studied law witli .Sibley iS: 
Worden in Canandaigna and later engaged in 
practice -as a partner of Alexander II. 
llo'.vell ; died in .Naples, .\pril 18, 1891. 

tup: nm^w I'oLiruAL Li<:Anj':Ks. 


The wiirk ot llu' U'cpuhlic-aii caiiipaiL;!! was ])iirsiK-(l ahm^ three 
hues — through the new spajiei's, ihi'()UL;li the organization (jf c!ul)S. 
and thi"on^"h piihhc meetings. 

The Times at ( anandai^iia and the ( lentwa Coui'ier wcvr the 
loeal ncw\s|)a])er organs ot the i)aii\\ and it is nee(lless to sa\ that 
hoth were xi^ilant and a^j^ressiw in ai'i^unient and i"etoi"l. I'he 
htrnier lairl\ l)ristled with exhortation- to the xoter, de\-otin'_^ at 
least n]]v InM paLje and sometimes two t'nU ]>a^'es of e\'er\' issne 
(hn-iiiL;- the eampaii^n to the (.-an-e it had ^o (k-epK- at heai't, its 
edito]-ials hein^' i'mi)l'ia^i/.ed h_\' itahe and ea])ital t\-pe. (inite (hlT t 
ent Irom the 'inieter stxle of modern new,'- ];,"i)ei' t \'poi'ra]di\-. 

Tlie eall for the organization of a hreniont and l)a\ton cdnh 
in Canandai^na wa.s pnhhslied Jnne 2(), as follows: 

Meeting for Organization. 

All rli'ctnrs (t| the town <i\ Canand;ii,'-!;na, witlinut rcanl tn jiast ]> litioal 
(l-floii'iK-f:-. who arc (ippost'd tn the Slaxt-ry extcii-ii'ii Ix-rcUr rullian ])iircv df 
llu; I'icrrt' a(lniiiii>tratic >n, and in lavnr .if the rUclKiii nl' l'"n. •! .■ nt aiid 1 )a yl m. 
arc inxitcd to n cct at tlie Tnwn Hall, Saturday cveninM. June 2Sth, 1S,?6, for 
tlic i)iu-i)o<f of or.nanizin.u preparatory to tin- ojicnin';- of tin- I'l-fsicK'nlial can:- 

( >. I'>(,'iijaniiii, 
X. J. Alilliken, 
V. W. .Mverson. 
J. C. Fairchild, 
l,saac Parrish, 
1^. F. Alverson, 
Geo. Cook, 
A. (). Kellogg, 
(), M. Smith, 
M, .\. f)l<ls. 

I. W, Mitcludl. 
A. Hills, 

Joel Dailey, 
John I hTwcy, 
I., n. True. 

II. S, Touslcy, 
R. B. Crawford, 
Cornelius Davis, 
Addisou Stearns. 
T. C. Holmes, 

J. S. JJendershot, 
J. W. Barues, 

Wni, Tozer, 
J. J. Stchhin.s, 
\V. E. Williams. 
Charles Cov, 
R. C. Pratt," 
P.. R. Pratt, 
Levi Herendeen, 
L. R. Whittaker, 
J. 11. Chamberlain, 
Rdwin I licks, 
11. C. Lucas,  
L llotchkiss, 
L. Warrick, 
/china Lucas. 
Warren Brown. 
William Warrick, 
.\. A. Brown, 
W. Brown. Jr., 
Thos. Cochran, 
S. K. Doolittle, 
R. L. PTuntlev. 
Otis K. Parshall. 

John Johnson. 
John S. .Mullen, 
,\ndrew Van Wie. 
.\hram Van Wic, 
R. G. Cliamhcrlaiu. 
Stephen Harris. 
J(din llutchins, 
F. O. Mason, 
l-".. W. (jardncr. Ir.. 
S. S. P-ri,ugs, 
Wni 11. L.ennett, 
lohn AL'sher, 
T. E. Hart, 
S. Parrish. 2d. 
Joel M. llowey. 
.\nsel Dchow, 
Robert McP.ride, 
R. Stevens. 
Thos. C. Burlin,i4, 
Stephen Saxton. 

.\t tlu- meeting thus held. ( )rson Henjann'n was called to the 
chan- and hdihu M. Morse acted as secretary. JTisha W". Gard- 



ner. Juhii Mo>hcr. Riley Stevens. Joel M. Howey. and Holmes C. 
Lucas were named as a committee to arrange with the county com- 
mittee for a mass meeting, and Xathan J. Milliken. Stephen Saxton. 
Elisha W. Gardner. Willson Millor. and Chauncey Remington, a 
committee to draft a constitution and name permanent officers. 
Edwin Hicks made a happy and effective speech. At an adjourned 

meeting, upon nomination of the 
committee namerl. these officers 
w ere elected : President. Orson 
l^enjamin: \ice presidents. Chaun- 
cev Remington. George Cook and 
Robert McBride; treasurer. John 
Mosher; secretaries, Edwin Hicks 
and I'Jilui M. Morse. 

At a subsequent meeting, in 
Auirust, there was another shuf- 
tie. and the list of officers was 
revised as follows: President, 
James C. Smith: vice presi- 
dents. Evander Sly. Charles Coy. 
Holmes C. L-ucas, Charles P. 
Johnson. George Cook, H. X. 
larvis. Chauncey Remington, and 
Joel M. Howey: treasurer, John 
Mosher: executive committee, 
John Mosher, John Morse, and 
Allen Wood; secretaries, Elihu 
M. Morse and G. G. Cornell. 

The Canandaigua club raised 
a pole nn Sei)tcnibcr 24. IHie 
local i:)aper declared: "It is an 
undeniable fact that the l-'remont 
and Dayton flag in Canandaigua 
tloats from a taller pole, waves 
over a bigger party, and represents a nobler cause than any other 
in town." 

The clubV lR'ad(|uarters was established on the second Hoor 
of the Bemis l)lock. in the room now occupied by E. Chapin Church 
as an insurance office, and was open daily, Sundays excepted, with 






jHi^pji^^ t 


^^gj^^ _^ 



^^Byb^^^jflf^s. % 

Pr j| 



James C. Smith was horn at Phelps. X. Y., 
.\ugust 14. 1817; graduated from Union Col- 
lege, 1835; admitted to the bar in 1838. 
enter-iig upon the practice of his profession 
at Lyons; appointed Surrogate of Wayne 
county, April, 1842. Removed to Canandai- 
gua, 1854. becoming a partner of Elbridge G. 
r^apliam ; Stale Commissioner to the Peace 
Congress of 1861 ; Justice of the Supreme 
Court, 1863-1887. ^ir. Smith was originally 
a PVee Soil Democrat, but became a Repub- 
lican upon the organization of that party, 
and in 1856 and succeeding campaigns was 
one of its most persuasive "stumpers." Died 
at his home in Canandaigua, September 26. 


new s])a])c'rs and (hn-unicnts, a warm lire, and c<inil<>rlal)k' seals, 
for the use of "all true Kepuhlieans." 

Other I'lenioiii and l)a}lt)n clubs were noted as lia\ini^' been 
urs^anized as follows : 

kuslnille — I'residenl, ihester Loouiis: \ice ])resi(lents, |olin 
W isewell, iliram Torrey, Joseph JMods^ett, ( ieor^e W . Stearns. 
l)a\id Christie, (iuy Shaw, Smitli Rostwick. l)a\id Redout: secre- 
taries, S. S. C'a.tlin, 1). Morris, J. Saver. This club raided a white 
oak ])o!e. one hundred feet hi^h and onl\ ten inches in diameter 
at the base, and challenged the State to produce a liner one. 

Later the vouul;- Republicans of Ruslnille oi'^ani/.ed a club, 
with these officers: ['resident, h'ore^t llarwood: \ice ])residents. 
James J)ele\an. J. (). h'anniui;-. Lvman Washburn: secretaries. !■". 

B. Seelye and C. \\ Green; treasurer. S. S. Latlin. 'idiis club put 
up a Fremont cabin. 

Bristol — President. .Stephen A. Codding-: vice i)residents. i'dna- 
than W'. Simmons and Elijah Jones: secretary. Washington L. 
Micks; treasurer, B. T. Case. 

Gorham — President, Daxid T'ickett : \ice ])residents, Geors^e B. 
Cook. J- Bloomingdale, O. J. Rice: secretary, Isaac Moor; treas- 
urer, (). J. Rice; executive committee. J. H. Van Osdale. Jr.. Isaac 
Moor. A. Brown. Robert Moody, Henr\- [^oui^lass. William S(|uires, 
Jonathan F^hillips, E. Darwin Bainbridi^e, Henry Ma])es. 

Earmiui^tou — P^-esident, John H. Xichols; secretary, Elias H. 
KnijL^ht; executive committee. J. R. Dennis. J. Blackmore. and E. 
H. .Mdridge; treasurer, E. H. .Mdridtie. 

East Bloomfield — President. Myron Adams; vice presidents, 
r^dw^ard Brunsou and Roswell C. Munson ; secretary, R. C. Stiles; 
treasurer. A\illiam P. Judd ; business committee. Ira R. Peck. 
Edward Brunson, C. \\'. Hi^by, Henry W. Hamlin, llenrx Ciains. 
Da\ id A. Rainsford, and Elisha Steele. 

Cheshire — President, John Johnson : vice presidents. Holmes 

C. Lucas, Philander Stiles, and R. L. Huntley; treasurer. J. Ilutch- 
ens; secretary. R. L. Huntley; corresponding secretary. Holmes C. 
Lucas. Mr. Pottle was the speaker at a pole raising in Cheshire, 
September 13. 

Naples — President, Alfred Griswold : vice presidents. David G. 
Teets and S. H. Sutton; secretaries, A. T. Nelson and L. Sprague. 



Perhaps ihc iiujsi notable meeting of the campaign in this 
count}- was that adxertised as follows: 



A Convention of the 


In Ontario County, will be held at the 



on — — 



Of Ohio, tlie eltKjuent and faitlifiil clianii)ion of Human Lil)eny, will address 
the meeting. 


And several other speakers of celebrity have been invited and are expected 
to attenci. 

The ])eiii)le nf Ontario Count}' are in\ited to come ui) and hear thi-> di>- 
cussion of the great question of 


Freedom on our Great Highwaj-s of Commerce; P'reedom of the Ballot Box 
and of the Press; and Freedom of Conscience and Speech in the Senate of tlie 
Xation. They are invited cordially, without di>tinction of former party pref- 
erences, or present predilections, to hear a candid investigation of the great 
issues that aflfect the American People at the present crisis. 

The names of the Speakers announced guarantee a rare treat and good 
time. By Order of Com. 

This meeting was postjioned. on accotmt of the ])rolongation 
of the term of the (ongress of which Mr. (iiddings was a mendier, 
bnt it was tinally held in Bemis hall, October 22, and that eminent 
Anti-Slavery orator, himself a native of Canandaigua. spoke to a 



full house; Genera'l IV I'\ I'ruci' also (leli\crc'(l addresses, one in 
the afternoon and one in the evening. The alternoon nieeling was 
first organized in ihe i)a]"k, hut the weather was had and it was 
hnally adjourned to the haih 
Owing to these nnfaxorahle eir- 
cuinstances, the attendance failed 
to meet the expectations of tiie 
ar(k'nt Canandaigua Repnhhcans 

( )ther speakers from outside 
the count\- assisted in the cam- 
paign, hut it is e\i(k'nt that the 
main reliance was on home tal- 
ent. Led hy I'hnory 15. Tottle, of 
Naples, the nominee for memher 
of Congress, and truthfuHx- de- 
scrihed hy the local Kepuhlican 
newspa])er of that chiy as "one of 
the most accom])h'shed and forci- 
hle speakers in this ])art of the 
State," the county "spellhinders" 
included such speakers as Henrv 
W. Taylor. James C. Smith, 
Elhridge G. Lapham, Edwin 
Hicks. William H. Snnth, l*rancis 
J. Lamh and Elisha W. Gardner. 

The meetings were e\er\-- 
where well attended; great enthu- 
siasm was shown; h^-emont and 
Dayton poles were raised and in 
two mstances (in Gorham and Bristol) were cut down hy political 
opponents; glee clubs sano- 


William H. .Smith was horn in the town 
of l<"armington, Ontario county. January 23, 
1829 ; educated at Macedon and Canandaigua 
academies; studied law with Mark H. Sih- 
ky and entered practice in Canatidaigua in 
1X52; District .Attorney, 1858-63; County 
Judge, 1870-r2, 1879-84; secretary of the 
K'e.iublican County Nominating convention in 
1856; member of the Republican National 
convention that nominated .-\braham Lin- 
coln for a second term as President, 1864. 
nied in Canandaigua, November 30, 1902. 


Arise! Your coiiiitiy bids you rise. 

Her faithful champions be. 
And Iierald wide, "I'^rec Soil. Free Men. 

Fremont and victory." 

Or this: 

We go for Free Kansas, Free Press and l-rce Speech 
And ni;iny great tilings that i^'reedom doth teach— 
We want no old fogies to crush us with wrong, 
So clear out the way for Jesse and John. 


Thu^ tlie Republicans of ojd Ontario organized the first Nation- 
al campaign of their part}-. They fought a good fight, those fathers 
of ours ! They kept the faith. Alas, that so many of them have 
finished their course. 

The attack upon Charles Sumner in the United States Senate, 
in May, 1856, aroused the indignation of the North regardless of 
party, and Silver Grays, Democrats, and Know Nothings vied with 
Republicans in e\i:)ressing condemnation. Meetings were held for 
that purpose both in Canandaigua and Geneva, and man\- who had 
until then held aloof from the new organization, entered its ranks 
ne\er to return to their old part_\- affiliations. The outrages in 
Kansas pro^•ided constant food for public excitement. \'irulent 
attacks were made upon General Fremont, by Know Nothing 
(American) and Buccaneer (Democratic) newspapers. He was 
charged with being a Roman Catholic and a sla\e holder, but these 
canards had small efTect with the voters. Republican enthusiasm 
and Repidilican confidence increased as the campaign proceeded. 
Newspaper after newspaper came over into the Republican camp. 
Straw votes taken on the railroad trains, hereabouts as elsewhere 
in the .State, showed a large preponderance of Fremont and Dayton 
sentiment. And these wis])s proved correct indicators of the way 
the political wind was blowing. 

The Republicans carried the State for their National ticket by 
a vote of 276,007. as compared \\ith that of 195,878 for lUichanan 
and 124,604 for I^^illmore. They elected their candidates for State 
ofifices, and were generally successful in the local contests. 

In Ontario county and in the Ontario-Yates-Seneca congres- 
sional district, the party that a year before had struggled bravely 
for bare existence and. despite its cond)ination with political foes. 
had gone down in defeat at the polls, now developed coiKpicring 
strength, obtaining a clear majority over lioth the opposing tickets. 

The Times used five columns of its editorial ])age to report the 
local result, as follows: 

New York for Freedom! 
Fremont 2.437 ahead of Fillmore! 
Fremont 2,813 ahead of Ruchanan! ! 


The Republicans of this county have achieved a glorious triumph. Old 
Ontario once more stands proudly by the flag of Freedom, having given Fre- 


niniit and Daytuii an ovt'rwlulniiiij^ majority over tlie combined forces of 
Buchanan and I""illniore. 'Ilu- \<ilr in llio several towns for Presidential elec- 
tors was as follows: 

Fremont Fillmore Ruchanan 

CananciaiKna 57S 393 281 

Bristol 253 70 53 

Victor 230 153 84 

FarminH:ton 260 61 27 

Hopewell 180 132 42 

Sonth Bristol 136 87 24 

Richmond 223 36 49 

Canadice 1 29 48 20 

Naples 309 101 48 

Gorham 281 163 62 

Phelps 419 267 368 

Seneca 754 340 366 

Manchester 352 129 176 

West liloonifu-ld 197 XI 32 

East I'.h.onnield 250 133 56 

Total 4,551 2,194 1.638 

We have not done quite as well for the Ke])ul)lican State ticket, hut have 
I)rol)ahly fjiven it about 2,000 over its leading opponent. 

( )ur candidates fur county otVices ;md for Meinbers of Assem]il\- run alxiut 
even with those for State tjftices, and ><\ course 


Hon. S. A. Foot represents the 1st and Zoroaster Paul the 2d Assembly 
district, lion. Henry W. Taylor is the County Judge elect; John Lapham, Esq., 
Superintendent of the Poor; and Rollin R. Grey^- and J(din Q. Howe, Coroners. 
The Hinoos are completely "whipi)ed" and laid out L\ EVERY TOWN IN 

Mr. Pottle leads Oliver for Congress in this county about 2,000 and in 
^'ates about 2,100. He is likewise ahead in Seneca County. His i)lurality over 
Oliver will not be far I'roin 4,500. 


New York, true to her ancient faith and to the teachings of her patriotic 
statesmen, has declared for Freedom and h^remont with decided emphasis. She 
has given the Republican electoral ticket a plurality of many thousands, ami 


for State offices^ and likewise a large majority of Republican Members of .Vssem- 
1)1\'. which with the existing Republican Senate secures the election of a Rejjut)- 
lican United .States Senator. ( )ur noble I'.nipire .State is thus triumphantly 

I'-xideiitly llic new i)art\- had come to sta\' and to coii([tiei', l)iit 
for onre the L'nioii did not u"0 as did Xew \'ork. Ijiudiaiiaii receixed 


the electoral vote of all tlie slave States and also of Pennsylvania, 
New lersev, Indiana, Illinois, and California, and was elected. 

The Republicans were defeated in the National contest, but 
thev had gained such substantial victories throughout the North 
and had welded themselves into so compact a party organization, 
that thev could look to the future with confidence. 

As the Young Men's Fremont and Dayton club, of Canandai- 
gua. declared, in resolutions adopted at a meeting held immediately 
after election. the\- were determined to "fight on. fight ever" in 
defence of the principles enunciated in the ]:)latform adopted at their 
partv's first National con\ ention. The club reelected its officers at 
this meeting and appointed Francis J. l^amb. Chauncey Remington, 
and John Mosher a committee to arrange for a series of political 
lectures '"for the purpose of enlightening the public mind in regard 
to the principles and intentions of the ]^arty.'" 

PTemont. the gallant Pathfinder, had been defeated at the polls, 
but the cause of Free Speech. Free Press. Free Men, Free Soil, and 
Free Labor wa^ to march on to \ictory. 




Ontario County a Center of Political Interest — Organization of the 
"Wideawakes" — One of the Candidates for the Presidency 
Formerly a Resident of Ontario County and a Student in the 
Canandaigua Academy — Speaks at a Big Meeting near Clifton 
Springs — Loyal in the Hour of Defeat. 

Tlic campaign of 18')0 marked the culmination of llic ])olitical 
inoNcmcnt whose rise \vc have heen following. In the election of 
Lmcoln and ilamlin as against candidates representing every shade 
of dissenting political ojjinion. the ])eople saw their will in a way to 
he oheyed and the aggressions of the slave power at last fmally 

In the inter\ening years the Reptd)licans of Xew ^'ork had 
retained the control which they had won in IS.^T). Governor John A. 
King had heen succeeded in 18.^<X hy (ioNcrnor Edwin I). Morgan, 
for whom Ontario county gave a majority of \.(')M^. Truman Board- 
mail, of Seneca county, had heen elected State Senator froiu the 
Twenty-sixth district, consisting of Ontaricx ^'ates and Seneca 
bounties, over W. W. Wright (Democrat) and W illiam H. Lamport 
(American), and i-'mory B. Pottle had heen elected to Congress 
from a district having the same numerical nund)er and the same 
constituent counties. Memhers of Assemhly from OiUario county 
had heen elected as follows: 1857. Volney Edgerton (Rep.), of 
Manchester, and Ira R. Peck (Rep.), of East Bloomfield ; 1858, 
Ulysses Warner (Dem.). of Pheli)s. and Shotwell Powell (Rep.), 
of South Bristol; 1859. Lewis Peck i Rep.), of Phelps, and Shotwell 
Powell (Rep.), of South Bristol. In county offices, Elnathan W. 
Simmons had succeeded John J. Lyon as county clerk; Orson Benja- 
min had succeeded John X\ Whiting as surrogate; William Hildreth 
had succeeded Henry C.Swift as sherilT; Edwin Hicks, hy appoint- 
ment, and suhsecpientlv William H. Smith, hy election, had followed 
Thomas O. Perkins as district attorne)-; Spencer Gooding had 


succeeded Jacob J. Mattison as county treasurer, and Simeon R. 
\\ lieeler in 1857, Jonathan Pratt in 1858, and Daniel Arnold in 185Q, 
iiad been elected superintendents of the poor. 

The Republicans in the 1857 and 1858 canipaii;ns met two 
opposing- tickets, one nominated by the Democratic and one 1)y the 
American ]jartv. In 1859 the opposing forces fused and |)ut union 
tickets in the field for State, district, and county offices, l)ut even 
then could not defeat the Republican ticket or check the growth of 
that party. 

So the opening of the year 1860 found the Repul)licans in posses- 
sion of every county office and represented at Albany and at 
Washington ]i\ men of their own ])olitical faith. Confident of 
success at the ap]M'oaching National election and ho])eful that the 
bnlliant leader of their own State. \\ illiam H. Seward, would be 
the nominee for the Presidency, they entered u])oii that campaign 
with the greatest enthusiasm. 

They tired the first gun in \|)ril. when they carried twcKe (^f 
the lifteen towns of the comU\- 1)\- l.'irgely increased majorities. The 
super\isors elected were as follows: Canandaigua, Charles C"oy; 
Canadice. Walling Armstrong; Pristol, Stei)hen .\. Codding; f^a-t 
Bloomfield, Pdward Prunson; {"armington, (leorge S. Allen; 
(iorliam, James M. I'uKer; Hopewell, Robert Chapin : Manchester, 
Andrew J. Hanna ; Naples. Lester Sprague ; Kichmond, Willard 
Doolittle ; South Bristol, Charles .Sheldon; .Seneca, I'erez 11. j-'ield ; 
Phelps, Ambrose L. V'an Dusen; \'ictor, Lanson Dewey: West 
Rloomheld, Klisha 1"". Leech. The minorit\' members were Messrs. 
i'nl\er, Chapin and Sheldon. 

Charles J. Folger and ( 'h.arles P. Johnson, of the First district, 
and Nathan J. Alilliken and .Ste])hen .\. Codding, of the .Second 
district, represented the county at the State comention, held in 
Syracuse, and there assisted in electing a delegation to the National' 
convention pledged to the support of Mr. Seward's candidacy. Mr. 
Seward led on the first and second ballots, at the con\-ention held in 
Chicago, May 16. 17, 18. but on the third ballot his Illinois o])])oneiit, 
Abraham Lincoln. \\ho had sprung into i)rominence two years 
before through his debate with Ste])hen .\. Douglas, receixed a large 
majority of the xotes and was declared the nominee of the comen- 
tion. Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine, was named for the Vice 

The news of the nomination of Lincoln and Hamlin was 



receix'ed in ( )nlari(i coiinlN' niKl cIscwIrtc ihrouj^ii the State with 
feeling" of ^rcal (Iisa])i)(iint nu'iil, hut the nominees were recoo-nized 
as wortlu' cx])o]KMits of the Uepuhhcan cause and their nomination 
was ratified in a h)yal s])irit. 

The campaii^u was o])ene(l in ()ntario eouiU\- h\' a ]>'\i^ ratifica- 
tion meetini^- held in I'emis had, 
C"anandaiL;'ua, at which General li. 
\'. Ilruce and lion, hdhridge G. 
Laphain made the speeches, and 
resolutions were adopted endors- 
ing the ])latform and the candi- 
dates of the Chicago conxention. 
I\e])ul)lican cluhs were organized 
throughout the county, pole rais- 
ings took place in many places, 
and a new force in campaign work 
appeared in the shape of uniform- 
ed cluhs under a name destined to 
heccjme historic — "Wideawakes." 
Charles Coy acted as chairman 
and ( icorge N. W illiams as secre- 
tary of a meeting at which the 
hrst organization of this kind was 
formed in Cauandaigua, and Ly- 
man ( ). Lampman was elected as 
capt.'iiu. The Wideawakes made 
their first ai)pearance in the county 
at a meeting held in Canandaigua 
on August 10, at which Henry W. 
'f;iylor and James C. Smith were 
the s|)eakers. Idie new organiza- 
tion numhered one huudi-ed men, 
were uniformed in hlack oil cloth 
cai)es and caps, and carried 

At the Re])ul)lican State con\ention held in Syracuse, at which 
Goxernor h^dwin I). Morgan and Lieutenant CiO\-ernor Kohert 
Camiihell were nominated for reelection, James C. Smith, l^scp. of 
Canandaigua, acted as temporary chairman and made an o])ening" 
speech that was widely ((noted. 


Stephen ArnoUl Douglas, known .ts "The 
Utile Ciiant" in the political struggles pre- 
ceding the War of the Rebellion, was born 
at lirantion. Vermont, April 23, 1813; student 
at the Canandaigua Academy. 1831-33 : ad- 
mitted to the bar in Ulinois, 1834; .\ttorney 
C.eneral of that State, 1835; Member of the 
Legislature, 1836; Secretary of State of Illi- 
nois, 184(1; Judge of the Supreme Court of 
that State, 1841-43; Member of Congress, 
1844-47; United States Senator from 1847 
until his death, .\braham Lincoln being his 
opponent in 1858; candidate of the Northern 
1 )emocracy for President of the United States 
in 1800; die.l at Chicago, June 3, 1861. 


At the Republican county nominating con\ention, held in Can- 
andaigua on Thursday. September 27 ^ Hon. Charles J. Folger. of 
Geneva, acted as chairman, and W. S. Clark, of \^ictor, and Harvey 
Stone, of Gorham, as secretaries. 'Jdic ticket nominated was as 
follows: For county judge. George B. Dusenberre, of Geneva: for 
district attorney. William H. Smith, of Canandaigua : for county 
superintendents of the poor, Simeon R. Wheeler, of East Bloom- 
field, and Daniel Arnold, of I- armington : for justice of sessions, 
William Seavey. of X'ictor; for coroners, .\nson Wheeler, of Geneva, 
and Daniel P. \\ eljster. of East Bloomfield ; for member of 
Assembly in the First or Eastern district. Perez H. I'ield. of Seneca, 
and for member of Asseml)l}' in the Second or Western district, 
Stephen H. Ainsworth. of West Bloomfield: for school commis- 
sioners. Luther B. .Vntisdale, of Phel])s. and Da\id E. Wilson, of 
Bristol. The Republican nominee for Congress in the Twenty-sixth 
district was Hon. Jacob P. Chamberlain, of Seneca Falls. 

While there were four Presidential tickets in the field, the 
contest for local offices was between the Republican ticket as above 
named and a Democratic ticket made \\\) a.s follows: V(^\■ count\' 
judge, Jabez H. Metcalf: for district attorney. Charles W, (iulick : 
for superintendents of the poor, deorge Rice and Edward lleren- 
deen : for justice of sessions. l'>.ra Pierce: for meml)ers of Assend)l\-. 
Amo'^ Jones and William ( i. Lapham : for school commissioners. 
John W. Hosford and Horatio B. F'race. John L. Lewis was the 
.Democratic candidate for Congress in this district, and [ohn G. 
Clark was the candidrite of the lireckenridge faction for the 
same ofifice. 

The cam])aign was an exciting one from beginning to end. 
The Southern Democrats, enraged and alarmed b\- the growing 
anti-sla\ery feeling at the North, witlidrcw from the National con- 
vention of their ])arty when the\' foinid themsehes unable to con- 
trol its action. Two Presidential tickets resulted, one representing 
the Northern Democracy and headed by Ste])hen A. Douglas and 
Herschel \'. Johnson: the other representing the Southern wing 
of the party and headed by John C. Breckenridge and Joseph 
Lane. A fourth organization, styling itself the Constitutional- 
Union part}-, a.nd .assuming to re]iresent the old W higs and Amer- 
icans, nominated John PeU for President and Edward Everett for 
Vice President. 

The most noteworthv ilenionstration of the campaign in 



■^^TJTJsr^^ ift^v w^^^^. 

(3ntari() county was that held at Canan(hiigua, on the afternoon of 
Tuesday, October 23, when United States Senator DooHttle, of 
Wisconsin, made the principal speech in l)emis hall, in which were 
crowded, it was reported, oxer one thousand people. James C. 
Smith, h^s(|., presided, and .Albert Lester. Jedediah Dewey and 1\. 
C. Stiles were named as vice ])residents. Cooke's glee club led in 
singing- campaign songs. So many peojile were una])le to gain 
admittance to the hall that an overflow meeting was organized on 
the s(|uare in front of the court 
house, Hon. Henry W. Taylor 
acting as its chairman and Har- 
vey Stone, Marshall McLouth 
and Andrew J. Hanna as vice 
])residents. A handsome banner 
was then presented to the Wide- 
awakes of Canandaigua by Judge 
Taylor, speaking in behalf of the 
ladies, and Rlisha W. (lardner, 
jr., made the speech of accept- 
ance. Following this ceremony. 
Judge Jessup, of Pennsylvania, 
was introduced and spoke until 
a rain storm compelled the 
adjournment of the meeting. 

In the evening the Wide- 
awakes of the several towns pa- 
raded the streets under the direc- 
tion of Marshal Hildreth and his 
aids, .\mong the displays made 
by the paraders was a log cabin 
on wheels, draw^n by four horses, 
decorated wnth emblems of frontier life and the inscription "Uncle 
Abe at Home." and escorted by companies of Wideawakes from 
Rushville and Gorham. 

The local speakers of the campaign included James C. .Smitli 
Elbridge G. Lapham, Edwin Hicks, F.lisha \\\ Gardner, Eniorv B. 
Pottle, William H. Smith, and William H. Lamport. The latter 
had been affiliated with the .American party and in 1836 its unsuc- 
cessful candidate for the State Senate. 

At the election held on the memorable 6th of November, 1860. 



Edwin Ificks, one of the delegates elected 
at the first Republican caucus in Canandaigua, 
Seiiteniber 17th, 1855. Had been a resident 
of the village since January preceding; was 
Vice l^resident of the first Republican club 
organi^^ed here. Born in Bristol, February 
14, 1830. District .\ttorney of the county, 
1857, 1864-75 ; the Ontario-Seneca-Yates mem- 
ber of the State Senate in 1876-7; United 
States Referee in Bankruptcy from 1898 to 
date of his death, November 30, 1902. This 
portrait is from a photograph made about 


the Lincoln ticket carried every free State, with the exception of 
New Jersey, where there was a fusion of the opposition forces, and 
as a consfinence it secured only four of the seven electoral votes, 
the other three going to the Douglas ticket, which obtained beside 
these only the nine votes of Missouri. Mr. Breckenridge carried 
the Southern .States with the exception of Kentucky. Tennessee, 
and \'irginia, which went to Mr. Bell. 

Ontario county, doubling her majority for Fremont four years 
before, gave Lincoln 2.100 |)luralit_\-. Mr. Chamberlain was elected 
member of Congress in the Ontario-Yates-Seneca district by 3.800 
majority, and the entire Repul)Iican ticket for county offices was 
elected. In the National contest. i)arty lines had been forgotten 
and the people of the county had rallied magnificently to the su]v 
])ort of the cause of union and freedom. 

The news of the election of Lincoln was received in Ontario 
county with rejoicing, but the demonstrations were of a compara- 
tively moderate character, owing to the feeling of apprehension as 
to the future. During the campaign the ex])ressions of Southern 
newspajjers and orators had ])lain'y indicated that in the e\ent ot 
the election of the l'ieptd)lican ticket the .^(uithern States wou'd 
attfm])t to secede from the l'ni(Ui. and if this threat was carried 
out the ]ieople realized it wotdd mean nothing less than war. .\s 
a conset|uence the election was followed by an expectant Inish, 
wiiich was hrst disturbed b^■ the withdrawal of Southern members 
from Congress and by the action of Southern legislatures in assum- 
ing to withdraw their States from the I'nion, and w hich was finally 
broken l)y the attack upon b\)rt Sumter. 

Ste])hen A. Douglas, though winning onh- twel\e electoral 
votes, had recei\ed a sjjlendid endorsement, his po])idar \-ote 
exceeding that given Breckenridge b\' ?i'^ per cent, and falling 
less than 500.000 below Lincoln. His vote in ()ntario count\- was 
3,634 as compared to Lincoln's .^.704. That he did not recei\e a 
larger \"ote or carry the county shows how thoroughh' ])id)lic senti- 
ment had been aroused o\-er the cpiestion of slavery ami how con- 
vincingly the arguments of Lincoln had appealed to lo\al citizens. 
Mr. Douglas was personall}- known to many of the people of the 
county. He had been a student at the Canandaigua academy from 
1831 to 1833. spending his sj^are time in the law office of Walter 
Hubbell, Es(j.. and abs<)rl)ing there and in the court room where 
practiced such lawyers as bdin C. Spencer, Jared Wilson. Dmlley 

nil'. I,I\(T)T..\ IIAMI.IX (AAll'AlCX. 


Marxiii, and Marl< II. SiMcw niiu'li of the km )\\ It'dt^e of the law 
and of publiv- affairs that later made him an eminent la\\\er and a 
L;i"eat politieian. I lis mother h\ed at (lifton Spi'ini^s with her sec- 
ond Imshand, ( iahasa ( Iran^er. and there, in the eami)aiL;n of 1860, 
on Septemher 15, he addressed one ol llu' lai"L;est pnhlie meetings 
e\er assend)led in the connty. Ne\\s])apers of the time reported 
lliat there were at least six thonsand peojile present. 

lint while the ( )ntari() connty xoiers had followed .Mr. I )on^- 
las's career with nmch interest and a<hnired his hrilliancx' of intel- 
lect and his s^reat al)ilit\' as a pnhlie speaker. the\' were not misled 
I)}' his specions arg-nments in snp|')ort of "I'opnlar So\ereiL;nty." 
That the "Little (iiant," as he was aft'cctionateU' called, declined to 
follow the i-eactionary elements of his i)art\' in their efforts to 
embarrass the new administrati(»n. and i^eneronsh' ^axe his 
allei^'iance to his snccessfnl ri\al, M '". Lincoln, in fnrtherance of the 
latter's determination to save the L'nion. conlirmed their faith in his 
statesmanship and his patriotism. 




Twice Invaded by Armies of Civilized Powers, First by DeNonville, 
then by General Sullivan and His Continentals — The Simcoe 
Scare — Ontario Militia in the War of 1812 — The Whole 
County in a Tumult — Relief for the Refugees — The Troublous 
Days of 1861-5. 

Wartime, as the word is commonly understood, means the days 
of V)l-'65. But Ontario connt\- has lieen throiig-h other war times 
than that. Twice within the ])eri(nl of written history was the terri- 
tory now end: raced within its l)uundaries invaded by armies of 
civilized powers. 

First came the invasion hv the French General De Xonville. in 
1687. undertaken to punish the Iroquois for their incursions into 
Xew h ranee. Landing his force of two thousand men at Irondequoit 
bay, he penetrated the forest as far as Victor, and there fought a 
bloody battle with the red possessors of the soil, destroyed great 
stores of their grain, and marched back again to his ships, all within 
a few days. 

The territory referred to again echoed to the tramp of hostile 
forces in 1779. when the army led by (ieneral Sullivan, and commis- 
sioned l)y General W ashington to break the strength of the Irocpiois 
confederacy, then the cruel ally of King George, marched around 
the foot of Seneca lake, and proceeding westward visited and 
destroyed the Seneca villages of Kanadesaga, Canandaigua, and 
Honeoye. Xt) l)attles were fought in the territory on this or on the 
returning march. l)Ut the horrors of war are not confined to 1)attles. 
In the burning of well-built homes, in the cutting down of orchards, 
in the destruction of great fields of maize and vegetables, the cruel 
though necessary object of the invasion was attained, and no more 
did forces of red men issue from the lake-studded forests of Western 

UlJ) OXTAKKJ J\ \\.\R riML-:. 


Xcw \ uvk U) hairy and llla^^ac^c llic i)aln()t ,scU1ciikmU,s on the 

These were 'cheoiiK' oeeasions w hen I he ten'itor\- now enihraeed 
in the eonnl\' was aetnalK' the scene of wai^ike denionsl rat ions, and 
both were ])re\ions to the lime of while settleinenl, hnt the eonnty 
since its ori^ani/.ation, whirli was eoleni])oraneons witli lheado])lion 
of the I'Y'deral constitnlion in 17«S'^ has not heen entirely free from 
the ahirm of war. 


iMxcted by Dr. Dwight R. lUirrell, at corner of ISristol and Thail Qnapin streets, Canandaigua, 
in memory of (icneral Jolm 6^: Sullivan and the Continental army, who passed near the spot, 
Scptemht-r 11 and l.S, 177'). 

Ill .\uL;'nsl, \7^H. ( iovernor Simcoc, of Canaihi. in an interxiew 
with C'ai)lain ('harles W illiamson, the i^reat promoter ot enteri)rise 
and selllement in Western Xew N'ork in those early days, g^ave 
formal notice, in the presence of Ihomas Morris and Nathaniel 
(iorham, jr., the rei)resentatives of the pioneer settlement at Can- 
andaiii'iia. that tlie white settlers mnsi mo\e ont of the Indian 
territory in Western New N'ork. The country had heen excited for 
monlhs i)re\ ions on account of the acts of British officers and agents 
and with the alarmiui- conduct of the latter's former allies, the 


Indians. President W ashington protested through Minister John 
Jay against this "irregular and high handed proceeding," charging 
that the agents of the Crown kept "in irritation the tribes that are 
hostile to us. and are instigating those who know little of us, or we 
of them, to unite in the war against us. and whilst it is an undeniable 
fact that they are furnishing the whole with arms, ammtmition. 
clothing and e\"en provisions to carry on the war. 1 might go 
farther, and. if they are not much beHed. add. men also in disguise." 
\\ ar seemed to be at the \ ery gates of the young county. 
General Knox. Secretary of War. issued an order in favor of the 
Governor of Xew York for 1,(X)0 muskets, cartridge boxes, and 
l)ayonets. The Legislature, in appropriating money for fortifica- 
tions at Xew ^'ork city, made provision also to the amount of 12.000 
pounds for the building and equipping of one or more floating 
batteries, or other vessels of force, for the security of the western 
and northern frontiers of the State. Governor George Clinton, as 
early as May 29. ordered that ''one thousand weight of powder and 
a proportionate quantity of lead" be deposited at "Canadaqua" in 
Ontario county, also the same for Onondaga county, the militia of 
which counties, he stated, had been represented to him as destitute 
of ammunition. Lieutenant-Colonel Othniel Taylor was directed 
to take charge of the supply for Ontario count}', .\cti\c prepara- 
tions were made for the erection of jialisades and block liouses at 
Bath, Geneva, and Canandaigua, at the head of Canandaigua lake, 
and at Mud Creek, as witness the following proposals: 

Mr. John.-ion — I will contract to get rive Hundred Stickes of Palesades 13 

feet Long and one foot Square and Deliver them on the Hill at Geneva for 
Six pence per foot as Witness My hand. 

Geneva. July 11th, 1794. DEOD.VT ALLKX. 

Gentlemen — We will engage to git one Thouthan Stickes of Palleasadeas 
Thirteen feet Long and one feet Square and Deliver them on the Hill at Geneva 
for Six pence per feet and Will ask no pa}' till one half of the timber Is delivered 
on the Spot as witness our hands. 
Geneva, July 12th, 1794. 


The Charles Williamson, Thomas Morris, Esquires. 

Gentlemen — We shall contract with you according to your Advertisement 
for One Thousand Pallisades Thirteen futt in length one futt square at Sixpence 
Pr futt to be delivered upon the hill at Geneva. To bear inspection By two men 
which you shall chuse yourselves. 



II 3-oiu- llommrs lliiiiks tlial \vc arc capable of Serving you \vc will from 
time to lime have aealion td draw upon }ou for a i-ittlc Cash as the w ak is done. 
With I'.sleem we are your llu'ble Scrv't. 

Geneva, 15 July, 1/94. 

l')Ul so far as known tlie block houses were ne\-er built. 'Die 
lesson wlncli ( ieneral W a\ne adininislered to the Western Indians 
made the Senecas (|nite amenable 
to |)i"o])osals for peace, and at the 
conchision of the Pickering;- coun- 
cil, No\cmber 11, 17'U, which 
durini;' the six weeks ot its i)ro- 
loiiged deliberations nnist ha\e 
oiven C'anandaioua the ai)])ear- 
ance of a war-time camp, they con- 
cluded a treaty which was iie\-er 
broken, and the county after- 
\v ards remained secure from fear 
of invasion 1)\- the Indians. The 
Simcoe scare had hapi>ily blown 
o\ei-, but while it lasted the pio- 
neers endured real and constant 
a'arni ot war. 

In the w ar time of ISli, that 
alaiMu tt)ok yet more tangible 
shape. Most of the leading citi- 
zens, at the county seat at least, 
were l-'ederalists and being such 
were probabh' not over enthusi- 
astic supporters of the war. but 
having frankly expressed their 
scntinients bv the adoi)tion of resolutions I September 10. 1812), 
thev gave no further public signs of opposition. Canandaigua had 
been made a depository for military sujiplies. including arms and 
amnnmition, the vear before the outbreak of the war; an arsenal had 
been built on an eminence on the western boundaries ot the \ illage, 
and it is safe to assume that the annual muster of the militia in that 
year had particular interest. 

The forts at Niagara ami Oswego remained in the hands of 


.lames Wadswortli. iie|ilR-\v of Major General 
Jerciniali Wadswortli of the C'ontinental 
aniiv. was born in Durham, Connecticut, 
Apni 20, 1768; settled at C.cneseo, then called. 
i!ig 'I'ree, in 1790. as the manager of a large 
tract of land owned by his uncle ; the an- 
cestor of all the WadswoTths now living in 
the Cienesee valley; died at Gencseo in 1844. 


the English from the close of the Re\olution to 1796, and were 
naturally the center of much anxious thought to the i^eojile of 
Western New York, and made Ontario county not onlv the scene 
of much nulitary activity on the part of its own citizens, but a high- 
way for troops marching from the east to the front. At the out- 
break of hostilities, one of its own honored citizens. General Amos 
Hall, of Bloomfield. was for a short time in command of the forces 
on the frontier, as major general of this di\ ision of the State militia, 
and not a few of its yeomanry, as the old cemeteries of the county 
testify, saw active service in the succeeding campaign. 

General Hall, in 1S13. as the result of the review of his force 
at Buffalo, reported that it included one hundred and t\\ent\-nine 
mounted volunteers from ( )ntario county, under command of 
Colonel Seymour Boughton ; also four hundred and thirt\-three 
Ontario count}- \-olunteers commanded by Lieutenant Colonel 
Blakesle. The county then included the territory now embraced 
in Ontario. Livingston. Monroe. Yates and part of \\"a}ne. 

The Federalists were right in one respect, the country was 
totally unprepared for war, and on the Niagara frontier as else- 
where blunder succeeded l)lunder. The militia, at the battle of 
Black Rock, although unfitted and untrained for the realities of 
war, ac(|uitted themselves credital)ly, until, forced to retreat before 
the veteran Royal Scots, a cry of "Indians are coming!" filled them 
with terror and the}- tied in confusion. As a result, Buffalo \illage 
was burned and its inhabitants and those of the region about sought 
safety in llight to the villages at the east. Forty of Colonel 
Blakesle's regiment were cajiturcd. a number of the Ontario volun- 
teers were killed or wounded, and the \\hole county was thrown 
into a tunndt. Moreo\er. the refugees were suffering for w aiu of 
food and clothing, and it was incund)eiU u])on the people to 
relieve their necessities. They did so promptly and generously. 
The citizens of Canandaigua appointed a relief committee, throngh 
whose efforts a considerable fund was raised, and \\ith aid voted 
by the Legislature the needs of the refugees were relieved during 
the anxious winter of 1813-1814. One of the appeals issued read 
as follows : 

Canandaigua. January 8. 1814. 
Gentlemen — Niagara County and that part of Genesee which lies west of 
Batavia, are completely depopulated. All the settlements in a section forty 


miles square, and vvliicli contained more tlian twelve thousand souls, are effect- 
ually broken up. These facts you are undoubtedly acquainted with; but the 
distresses they have iiniduced iKine but an eye witness can thorMUKlily ;ii)])re- 
ciate. Our roads are I'lllcd with people, many of whom have been reduced from 
a state of competency and good pros])ects to the last degree of w\'int and sorrow. 
So sudden was the blow by which they have been crushed that no provision 
could be made either to elude or meet it. The fugitives from Niagara county 
especially were dispersed under circumstances of so much terror that in some 
cases mothers find themselves wandering with strange children, and children 
are seen accompanied by such as have no other sympathies with them than 
those of common sufiferings. Of the faniilits thus sep.'irated, .'ill the members 
can never again meet in this life; for the same violence which has made them 
beggars has forever deprived them of their heads, and others of their branches. 
Al'Hictions of the mind, so deep as has been allotted to these unhappy per)ple, 
we cannot cure. They can ])robably be subdued only by I lis power who can 
wq)e away all tears. But shall we not endeavor to assuage them? To their 
bddily wanis we can certainly administer The inhabitants of this village have 
made large contributions for their relief, in provisions, clothing and money, 
and we have been appointed, among other things, to solicit further relief for 
them from our wealthy and liberal-minded fellow-citizens. In i)ursuance of 
this appointiuent we may ask you, gentlemen, to interest yourselves particularly 
in their behalf. We believe that no occasion has ever occurred in our country 
which presented stronger claims upon individual benevolence, and we humbly 
trust that whoever is willing to answer these claims will always entitle himself 
to the precious reward of active charity. We arc, gentlemen, with great respect. 





Committee of Safety and Relief at Canandaigua. 

Ill tlie more skillfull}- managed and more sticcessful campaign 
of the succeeding summer, the Ontario county militia foniid them- 
selves members of the brigade of volunteers under General Peter 
B. Porter (a few years before a resident of Canandaigua). cooper- 
ating with the regulars under General W'inheld Scott, and had i)art 
in retrieving the blunders of the earlier campaign. ])articipating in 
the ca])ture of Fort Erie, the battles of Chip])ewa and Eundy's 
Lane, and the defense of Fort iM-ie. General Porter was accorded 
unstinted credit for the i)ersuasiveness of his eloquence in enlisting 
recruits, and for his gallantry and skill in leading them against the 
foe. The Governor made him a major general. Congress voted him 
a gold medal, and Canandaigua. according to the good old fash- 
ioned custom, gave him a baiKpiet. \\'ith the raising of the siege 
of l^ort Erie, September 17, 1814. the campaign on the Xew York 


frontier was ended, and soon after the great victory at Xew Orleans 
fmally closed the episode. 

But enough of these old time soldiers: 

"Their swords are rust, 

Their bodies dust; 

Their souls are with the saints, we trust." 

Although twice have armies of civilized States invaded the terri- 
tory now embraced in the cotinty of Ontario and swept its peaceful 
vales with war's besom, and although twice since the county has 
l)een recognized as a ci\il division of the State of Xew ^'ork have 
defenses been erected here and arms and amnumition assembled 
with which to repel the attack of hostile forces, neither the deeds 
of the French Cavaliers under De X'on\ille. nor those of the Ragged 
Continentals under Sullivan, constitute more than interesting catch 
words for study of aboriginal and colonial history. And Simcoe's 
scare was soon over, and the scars of 1812 were long ago obliterated. 

A\'hen we of the Twentieth century picture Ontario county in 
war time our thoughts inevitably turn to the troublous days of 
1861-65. Their poignant memories survive. Reminders of the pas- 
sions of those days, the joys, the griefs, are in every home. Here 
a picture on the wall or in an old album, there a sword or a nuisket. 
recalls deeds of sacrifice and valor in which children and grand- 
children take sacred pride. C)n Memorial day, empty sleeves, or (i. 
A. R. buttons, growing rapidly fewer now, tell us that some of those 
who had a part in the mighty struggle are still with us. 

TTTK COUX'^^■ iX TIIR iW]]. \V.\k. 140 



A Patriotic Pulpit — Citizens Make Large Financial Contributions 
in Support of the Union Cause — Recruiting the Armies — 
Canandaigua Academy's Part — Treasonable Utterances — The 
Ontario Volunteers and Their Gallant Record — The County 
Represented in Twenty-nine Different Regiments. 

Most of llu' local pulpits elo(|ueiUly su])])orte(l the cause of 
I'^reedoni in the years inuiUMliatcly preoediui^ the war. and when they 
(h(l not or were susj)ected of ])r()-sla\ery sympathy, the congTeg"a- 
tions dwindled. ;\s during- the war of 1(S12, Sheriff IMiineas Hates had 
severed lus connection with the Congregational church in Ciinan- 
daigiia because of the sentiments expressed by its bederalist 
ndnister, and took sittings in St. John".s where at least the rector 
was recpiired to ])Va\ for the President of the L'nited States and all 
associated with him in authority, so as ci\il war was threatened 
men of the intenser character transferred their church connection 
to the Congregational fold, where the scholarl_\- and elocpient I )r. 
()'!i\er E. Daggett let no .Snnday pass without enforcing a lesson of 
patriotism, or to the Methodist R])isco])al fold, where Rew K. P. 
Jervis was thundering forth such anathemas against the .South and 
those wh.o u])he!(l in an\- w a\' its peculiar institution as to bring 
down ni)on his head the sharp criticism of one of the conservati\e 
])apcrs of the village. \\diereu])on, the editor of a ri\al sheet, conu'ng 
to the ])reacher's defense with more vigor and passion than discre- 
tion, in\-ol\ed himself in a ])rosecution for libel. 

The people of ( )ntario county had not realized any more clearly 
than those elsewhere in the .\orth that the inauguration as 
i'resident of the rail splitter of Illinois would be followed b}' actual 
war, but thev met tlie crisis tirndy. They retreated not one wdiit 
from the i)osition thev had taken months before in o]:)position to the 
designs of the sla\e ])ower. Their stations on the Cnderground 
Railroad, never closed to the elxMU'-hued travelers who trudged in 


increasing numbers to freedom in the North, attempted little of 
concealment now. They assembled in many so-called relief meet- 
ings, and there expressed sympathy with their brothers in bleeding 
Kansas and adopted plans looking to the practical support of the 
cause for which they prayed and labored. 

But thev felt that the South would stop at actual rebellion, or 
at least delay the irrevocable step for yet other months. Perhaps 
thev thought that the peace con\ention called to meet in Wash- 
mgton in February. 1861. would solve the problem. Two of their 
most prominent citizens, the Hon. Francis Granger, a man then of 
National reputation, and the recognized leader among the Silver 
Gravs or Anti-Slaverv Whigs, and James C. Smith, in the prime of 
his young manhood and a leader in the six-year-old Republican 
part\'. had been chosen by the Legislature to represent the State 
in that I) xlv, Init the peace convention came to naught. 

Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated President of the United 
States, and then in the fa«t-turning kaleidoscope of time came that 
never-to-be-forgotten 12th of April. 1861, when Sumter was fired 
upon,. The shot was heard in Ontario countw a> it was in every 
lovai coninuiniix nf the North, with mingled feelings of surprise 
and dismav, but not of fear. The call of President Lincoln for 
75,U00 volunteers to aid in suppressing the rebellion met its prompt 
response here, as is evidenced by the following notice published in 
tlie local papers : 

Our Country Now and Ever. 

The citizens of Canandaigua and vicinity are requested to meet at the Town 
House in Canandaigua, Saturdaj' afternoon. April 20th. at 2 p. m., to adopt such 
measures as shall be necessary to unite with our fellow countrymen to sustain 
the government of the United States, defend our country and protect the honor 
of our national flag. 

The government calls upon us for aid in this hour of peril; patriotism, honor 
and duty demand that we respond to the call. 

The noblest, wisest and best government ever instituted by man, must not 

be struck down bj- rebellion, and the glorious memories of the Revolution 

effaced, without a struggle which shall be worthy of our Revolutionary fathers. 

The time for action has come. The government calls. Let every man 

respond. By Order of the Meeting. 



THE COUNT\- 1\ 'rill>: Ll\ii. WAR. 


At the mcctnii;- called as (icscriht'il. the town hall, it is re|)<»rlc(l 
in a newspaper of the time, was ernwded almost iu sult<;cati(Jii. 
Immense enthusiasm ])re\aile(i and a> one and anotlier went for- 
wanl and their snl)seri])li()ns were announced, had the building' 
been one ot modern date, it would certaiuK- ha\-e been shaken down 
I)\' the cheerin^;'. lA er\' one ])reseut scemeil anxious to do some- 
thing;'. iXoah '1. Clarke, the beloved ])rincipal of Canandai^ua 
Academw besides his own sid)>cii])iion of $100, maile a ])ro])osition 
to tile meeting;' to put down "something- for each one of his sous t(J 
l)e r(.'i)aid lo him by means of their own little eai"uim;-s, so that they 
uiiiL^hl lia\e it to remend)t'r that the first uioue\- the\' e\er t;-a\-e in 
their li\es was foi" the cause of h1)crty — fi >r the i^'ood of iheii- native 
countr}'." This ])roposilion was received with a])plause and was 
inuuediately acted u])on by others, some ]»uttinL;- down foi- their 
childi'cn and others for llieu" wix'cs. The suI)scription list was 
headed 1)\- hrancis ( ii'anu'cr, who put down his name for v'f^oOO, and 
llem-y 15. (libsou ^axe a like amount, John A. and Albert (iran^er 
^ave S.-iOO, and Mrs. Clarissa (irei^" $200. Chester Coleman. 
Thomas Heals, (Jideon (irauL;er, Alexander McKechnie, lames 
.\lc Ki'chnie, .Merrick arid .\l. I )vvi^ht .Mnm;er, .\. |. Messeno'er, 
James C. Smith, William II. .Snuth, George Cook, llii'am Metcalf, 
Nahum (irimes. Ilenr\' U. Chesebro. I^lbridge G. Laphaui. b'hn 
Johnson, h'rank C llennett. Thomas M. Howell, .Mbert Lester, 
Levi Tillotsou, Richardson c\; l)ra])er, William llildreth, and 
others, subscribed $100 each. Then followed a Ioul;- list of citi/ens, 
each pledging' himself .according to his abilit\. The whole stibscrip- 
tion amounted to the stim of $7,131.50. 

(ienerai John .\. Gi'anger presided at this meeting and 
were made l)y hrancis Granger, l-dbridge (i. La])ham, Alexander 
II. I lowed, I'dihu M. Morse, and James C. Smith. Resolutions were 
adopted .'vucl a comnuttee of fifteen appointed to look after the 
enrollment of \-oluuteers and raising of funds and all matters con- 
nected \\ith the pul)lic defense. 

This comiuittee of fifteen consisted of Alexander II. Howell. 
James Al. lUill. Gideon Granger. Albert G. Mmray. W illiam llil- 
dreth, l^lnathan ^^'. Simmons, llenry ( ). Chesebro, J. llar\ey 
Mason. L}iuan ( ). Lami)man. Henry C. .Swift, \\ illiam (i. La])ham, 
Charles Ccw, Dr. Matthew R. Carson, John W'. Ilolberton, and 
James L. Palmer. 

It is noteworthv that in the fir^t bui-st of enthusiasm party lines 



uere forgotten, and that indeed the men who were most prominent 
in tiiis meeting", while the natural leaders of the community, were 
men who in the political contro\ersies preceding the actual out- 
break of war. had taken counsel for compromise. 

At the close of the meeting, it is related, "Yankee Doodle" was 
played l)y the band, the "Star Spangled Banner" was sung bv [ohn 
S. Robinson, the audience joining enthusiastically in the chorus, 
and three cheers were gi\"en for the President and three more for 
"The Constitution and Enforcement of the Laws." 

'i'he military spirit of the people of the county was thoroughly 
aroused. The local newspapers reported that martial bands were 
constantly parading the streets, two companies of xolunteers were 
formed, and efforts were marie to establish a rifle ci)mpan\ and a 
company of flying artillery. The ])rincipal recruiting station was at 
the town house in Canandaigua and was in charge of Owen 
Edmonston. who a few \ears before had been sheriff of the countw 
Preparations were made to ha\e the recruits camp out on the fair 
grounds. The ladies were to assemble in the town house on Thurs- 
day to make bedding. \\ ar. it was said, ^^•as the only to])ic of 
comersation in the streets, iiearlx' exervbodv was readx' to enlist, 
the .National flag wa\ed from almost e\er}' accessible place, and 
1m»\s by the luindreds carried it in miniature in the streets. 

In the days following, the \illage streets were the scene of 
mam militar\- dis])'ays. a number of companies stopping over to 
change from the New ^'ork Central to the Northern Central rail- 
road, and other companies being organized from among the yc^ung 
men of the \illage and neighboring countrw .Meetings were held in 
(lene\a. I 'helps, .\aples. Clifton .'^])rings, Victor, and other towns, 
and steps were everywhere taken to give practical expression to the 
aroused i>atriotism of the people. 

The women, too, lost no time in organizing to provide hosi)ital 
comforts and necessities for the soldiers. Jdie \illages and towns 
were canvassed by them fcjr sup])lies and other steps taken to slunv 
their sympathy with the ])re\ailing moxement in defense of the 
Union. The women of Canandaigua made a beautiful banner. 7\4 
feet 4. of blue silk, wh.ich was to be j^resented to a \et i)r(^l)lem:itical 
Ontario county regiment. 

Rut the feeling of patriotism did not All all hearts. Treason 
presented its ugly head eyen in Ontario count \-, in the early days of 
the war. and one man at least earned general condemnation. 



It was rcportc'cl on tlic ex i<k*nc(.' ot citi/cns of uniiii]>eacliablc 
ri'Iiahilil \-, that a man of soiuc ])roniinc'ncc in I)iisincs.s circles at tlic 
coiint\' scat, upon licariiit^' ol the (k'ath ot the ^ahant Nounj^' Colonel 
h.ilsworlh, (lccl;irc(l that all who took np amis under the call of 
i'l'csidcnt Lincoln deserNcd a similar late. The nidij^nation aroused 
1)\ this expression ot treasonable st'ntinienl \\a^ intense. A ])ul)lic 
meeting;- was held, and resolutions were adojjled denonncino- as 
traitors all persons entertaining- such sentiments, hut some of the 
more impul.^i\e xouns^' ukmi of the xiliai^e were not satisfied with >-o 
orderly a procedure, and it re- 
(luired the counsel of older and 
wiser heafls to ])re\ent them from 
j^ettiniL;- out the hand lire ent^'ine 
and attempting- to soak the 
treason out of the man. 

This was the onlv expression 
of disloxal sentiment, made 1)\- a 
ciii/en of the count\- durint;- the 
war. of which public notice was 
taken, and it is entireh' to the 
i-re(lit of the comnmnit\- that the 
sti^nia lixed u])on the man who 
utleied it b\- the meeting- referred 
to was ne\er remo\ed. lie was a 
])roduce buyer, and it is related 
that e\en in the years after the 
close of the war he was often re- 
buffed by sturdy farmers who had 
urain to sell but who wanted none 
r)f his money. On one occasion 
he approached a heavily loaded 
waq-on. askinu' the drixer what he 


>.-ojli T. Clarke, for twenty-nine years 
|iriiicii)al of tlie Canandaigua academy, was 
Worn in Naples, .-\pril 8, 1817; educated in 
tlie district schools and at the Franklin and 
( 'anandaifjua academies; devoted his life to 
leaching; succeeded Marcius Wilson as |)rinci- 
|ial of Canandaigua academy in 185.? and con- 
linued at the head of that institution until 
18S2: president of the New York State 
reachei s' .\ssociation, 1875 ; president of the 
\'illage of Canandaigua, 1865-66. Died at 
Canandaigua, September 16, 1898. 

had for sale. Keceixint;- no reply 

except a cold stare, he started to 

climb u]) on the wheel, asking". "Is 

it wheat?" At this the farmer arose and with uplifted wlii]) sternh' 

commanded, "(ie-e-t down-er-olT of that wa-a-a^"on! (iet down oil 

that wag-on!" He got down. 

No account of the way time ex'cnts of tlie county wouM be 
coni|)lete that did not include some worcL about the part which the 


Caiiaiidaigua Acadeni}-, then at the zenith of its fame, had in the 
work of fining the ranks of the Union army. Dr. Noah T. Clarke, 
the principal, in his morning talks in the chapel, could not refrain 
from voicing his ardent patriotism and the students were soon 
aroused lo the highest degree of enthusiasm. 

As early as June. 1861, that enthusiasm found expression in the 
raising of a National flag upon the Academy building and the holding 
of a meeting on the campus. General John A. Granger presided, 
"The Star Spangled Banner" was sung by a choir led by Dr. A. (j. 
Coleman, and Dr. Clarke made a stirring and patriotic address. 
Gideon (iranger. James C. Smith, and Elihu M. Morse also spoke. 
The ofirls of the Ontario Female Seminarv, with manv ladies of the 
village, graced the occasion l)y their i)resence. 

The Academy was pretty nearly closed l)y the enlistment of 
students and teachers. One class, which Dr. Clarke had formed 
w ith great satisfaction, enlisted bodily, with the exception of a single 
member, and he only stayed at his books because he was so young 
that he could not be accepted. The Academy catalogue of ]^CA 
contained a roll of honor, which end)race(l the names oi one hun- 
dred twent\-fi\e voung ukmi who had been students of the institu- 
tion during Dr. Clarke's princip:ilshi]) and who had enrolled 
thcmsehes in the Union armies, but these. Dr. Clarke wrote, were 
l)robablv not more than half of the total nund)er of soldiers who had 
at one time or another been students in the institution. 

Though temporarily crip])le(l 1)\- the enlistment of its young 
men, the close of the war saw the .\cademy fairly overwhelmed 
with pui)ds, two of the meml)ers of the faculty in 1866 and twenty- 
three of the i)upils being returned soldiers. 

New York responded promptly and cordiall\- to President 
Lincoln's first call for 75,000 volunteers, as it did to those succeed- 
iny. ( )ntari(j c<»mit\' was iirominent in the work done for the 
Union in the Legislature, Thomas lidlhouse. afterwards Adjutant 
General of the State. State C"on'.ptroller, and Assistant United 
States Treasurer at New ^'ork. being the re])resentative of this 
Senate district, and Lerez II. h'ield and Stephen H. Ainsworth 
representing the count\- ir, the .Assembly. Mr. Hillhouse was suc- 
ceeded in the Senate on January 1, 1862. by Charles J. Folger, and 
David Pickett and Francis O. Mason were tlie .\ssemblymen that 
year, and the follow ing year they were succeeded by Perez H. h^ield 
and Lanson Dewey, who were reelected and served through 1864 



known as the Xew \ ovk Stale 

also. In 1(SC)5, \'()lnc'\- l'"(li;ci-t< >n and I'^dward lirnnson represented 
the county in the .\ss(.'nd)l\ . All these were nominees of the Kepid)- 
lican party, then and later swelled hy the accession ol' many so-called 
"W ar I )emocrats." 

There is no exact record of the mimhi'r of men who enlisted 
from ( )ld ( )nlario. hut it ap])ears that the connt\- was i-epresented in 
at least twenty-nine diiTerent regiments, and ]irolial)l\ fnrmshed 
li\e thousand recruits. 

The l(Sth Regiment of lm'aiUr\' 
killes, contained one com])an\-, ()., 
that was recruited at ("anan- 
daigua early in l(S61. Henry 
l'"aurot was made its ca])tain, 
James H. Morgan, Inst lieutenant. 
and W illiam M. hdlis, Jr., ensign. 

Company E., of the 28tli l\egi- 
ment of Infantry, or the Niao-ara 
killes, was recruited at Canandai- 
gua. and hail for its otiticers. 'I'heo- 
dore I'itzgerald, ca|)tain : J. J. 
\\ hituey, hrst lieutenant, and 
llarxey i'adelford, ensign. 

Tlie 3^(\ Regiment of Infan- 
try, mustered in Jnh' 3, 1861. was 
known particularly as the "On- 
tario regiment." Its ranks includ- 
ed three companies recrtiited 
principally in Ontario county. 
()ne compaiu', U., was recruited 
at Canandaigua, under Captain 
John R. Cutler, and two at Cene\a, under Captains Walker and 

C()m])an^' H., of the 38th Ivegiment, was recruited at (_lene\a. 
with W . H. Ijaird as captain. 

The county furnished two com])anies to the 85th Regiment, 
mustered into service in the fall of 18()1. One company, B.. enlisted 
at Canandaigua. with William W'. Clarke, of Xaj)les. as ca])taiu, 
and C. S. Aldrich. and .\mos IJrunson as hrst and second lieutenants, 
and Company C, rit Ciene\a, with John Raines as captain, and 
George W. Munger and ddiomas Alsop as lirst and second lieuten- 


Eliakini Sherrill was born in Greenville, 
Greene county, .V. Y.. February 16, 1813; 
elected Member of Congress in the Ulster dis- 
trict, 1847; State Senator, 1855-56; removed 
to Geneva in 1860; became Colonel of the 
l_'6th Regnnent, .\e\v York Volunteers, in 
ISoi; led the Third corps at the battle of 
(icttysbiug, and there on the 3rd of July. 
18(>3, received a woinid which resulted in his 
deatii the following day. 


ants. This regiment \\as a part of the Third brigade that was 
compelled to surrender at Plymouth, in April, 1864. 

Company K., of the Q8th New York Infantry, of which George 
N. W illiams, of Canandaigua. was captain, and Company I., in the 
same regiment, of which William H. Adams, was captain, were also 
recruited in this county. 

Company B., of the iDOth Regiment Infantry, was recruited 
largely at \'ictor, late in 1861, and continued in service throughout 
the war. 

I'he IJhth Regiment is one of the two regiments to which the 
mind nio.->t c|nickly rexerts when reference is made to the part which 
( Ontario county had in the war. Recruited in Ontario, Seneca, and 
\ ates counties, it was mustered into ser\ice at Geneva. August 22, 
1862, for a term of tin-ee years, under command of Colonel Eliakim 
Sherrill. of Geneva. Companies i).. H., and K., were recruited 
wholl\ in this county: and E., I-"., and (j.. partly in tliis countv. 
Company 1). gained the prize for the first comj)an\- to he recruited 
for this regiment in Ontario county, and had for its officers. Philo 
I). Phillips, captain: L'harles A. Richardson, first lieutenant, and 
S])enccr 1'. Lincoln, second hcuicnant. t'oniprni)- II. was officered 
1)\ ( )rin J. Herendeen. cai>tain ; George \. Kedfield. first lieutenant. 
and Alfred R. Clapp. second lieutenant; and Compan\- K.. hy 
Charlc-- M. W lieeler, cai)tain : II. Clay Lawrence, first lieutenant, 
and l>aac A. Seamaiis, second lieut-enant. Henry P. Ki])p was 
captain of Company P.: Isaac Shinier, captain, and Ira Alunson and 
'IVn l-'yck ?^lunson. lieutenants, of Compan}- !•".. and John 1-". Aiken, 
captain of Company G. 

This regiment had a most notable rind romantic career.. Pro- 
ceeding to the front in \iign-t, 1862. ami InuTied to the defense of 
Washington, it was surrounded and captured with 11.000 other 
L'nion troops in the disaster of Harjier's Ferry: was charged with 
cowardice, paroled, exchanged, and then reentered active service, 
and later, as part of the Second army cor])s. bravely removed the 
stigma it had so unjustly borne. Its work at Gettysburg was par- 
ticularly fine. 

The other regiment especially remembered in this connection 
was the 148th. Ontariti furnished a larger proportion of its material 
than it did of that of anv other regimental organization. Its col- 
onel was \\'illiam Johnson: its lieutenant-colonel, George M. Guion : 
and its major, John B. Murray, all of Seneca Trails. Dr. Elnathan 

TllK LOU XT \ l.\ I 111' C1\1L WAR. 


\\ . Sininioiis. of ( ';iii;in<lai,iL:.iiii. \\;is its surgeon; ('. II. L arpeiilcr, (if 
riiel])s, its lirst assistant ^iiriiCM^i, and I'lank Scclew of Rusluillf. 
second assistant suri^x'on. Its hattlcs l)iL;an with (i\\\nn's Island, in 
Nox'CMnhri-, ISfj^. and it rcniaiiu-d in actixc and ini])( utaiit scr\icc 
until the surrender at Appornatox. in Ai)ril. ISh.S. 

Canandai^ua. I^^.ast l)loondield. Ilristol and (Iciu-wa cont riluitcd 
recruits to ("oinpan\- 1^., of the I'iCth ke^inient : llnpewcll and 
rheli)s, to C'onip,'in\- K.. of the 17"th : I'help-, Victor and .\'a])Ies. to 
C()ni])au\ r>. : l\ichnion(h larnnuL^t' in, and Seneca, to ('onipan\ Iv : 
Canandai^na, to C'oni])anv l'\ , and riiel])s to Conipanx' 1., of the 
184t]i, mustered in ( )ctol)er, ISfil. Men from these and other towns 
were ret^istered as nunnhers of the IH.Sth and l*Mth l\ei;inients 
Infantry, the Sth and *Mh Caxalrv, the 15th and 24th C'a\alry, the 
1st Mounted Ivitles, the Nt and ind CaNah-)-. the 4th, <hh, l.^th and 
loth !lca\\' Artillerw and in other re<'inienlal orijaui/ations also. 




Ontario County Heroes — The Boy Who Never Returned to Claim 
His Scythe or His Betrothed — The Board of Supervisors in the 
War — The Women's Aid Organizations — The News of Rich- 
mond's Fall and How It Was Celebrated — Memorials of the 
Great Struggle. 

Ontario county was not without its heroes in this war time. 
Not a few perished in the strixin^-. ()thers returned home to 
receive lionors and offices in recoo^nition of the part thev l)ravelv 
played. Yet others, as worthy, as hrave. and particijiants in actions 
as thrilling- and as romantic, have continued to f^o (|uietl\- in and out 
before us m their regular vocations w itluiut a claim on tlieir ])art to 
any mead of ])raise. without a thought on the part of others that in 
these matter-of-fact, hard working citizens is the stufY of which 
stern war created heroes. 

For instance. Herman F. Fox. recently representing the city of 
Geneva in the county board of supervisors, was shot from his horse 
in a mad charge at .'-Sutherland's Station, but. though siu-rotuided by 
the enemy, refused to surrender either himself or the l)rigade Hag 
which he carried, and only ga\e up the latter when forced to do so 
by blows and bayonet thrusts. He was rescued liy his comrades 
from death or capture, but sacrificed a hand. 

( )ntario boys fell into prison and died tliere, as did Lieutenant 
Albert M. Murray, or taking desperate chances, escajied as did 
Ca])tain C. S. Aldrich. 

Others, like A. Eugene Cooley, of Canandaigua. could if they 
would, relate exjieriences stranger than those of fiction. Mr. Cooley. 
wounded and disabled at the battle of Spottsylvania Court House, 
discovered that the youth who was helping him to the improvised 
hospital was a young woman attired in boy's clothing the better to 
facditate her work of relief. Then after two days of torturing pain. 

VIC'J()K\' CKOWXS Mil' SlkLcuJ.E. 


iK-ii t(i ])L-arli ni-c'liard. to 
•ci-lil oar to I'liiladclphia. 

Ik- Ik'I.I tiK- c-aiidU' ]>y li-lit ..f \\ Inch a Mir-c.n cul i1k- hiillcM ..ul of 
liis Ic--. and tor ten other day> was throw n, as it were, from i)dlar to 
post, from ho.spilal tent to ainhnhain-e. 
boat, to Washing-ton, and linalh in a i)- 
Anil hi' h\es to tcdl tlie story. 
Init — he married another ,L;ir] ! 

'I he lihre of the men is indi- 
cated hy the case of Edward II. 
h'rai-y, of Canandai<;na, who .snf- 
fered in the Wilderness a shot 
throm;h the Inn^-s. and not oid\' 
wilhont the aid of antiseptic 
surgery, hut withonl any skilled 
attention, and compelled to spend 
(lays and nio-hts on the gronnd or 
on a hard lloor. and then l)ear 
transportation in a i-on.L;h arnu' 
wag-on, yet snr\ives to act well 
his ])art as a citizen in the re- 
deemed Republic. 

,W hat days were those, when, 
as after the awful Gettysburg 
fight, succeeding mails brouirht ^ 
news of the death on the battle- 
field of fa\'orite sons like Colonel 
Shei-rill. Captain Wheeler, Ca])- 
tain llerendeen, and manv others, 
who at the call of their country 
had gi\en up comfortable homes 

and bright ])rospects to face the jierils of war. Many ( )ntario 
count)- homes were thus made desolate. 

.\ tree in fi'ont of a fai-ni house, on the highway east of 
(ieneva. bears a uni(|ue memoi'ial to the s\nv\[ that animated one 
of the voung sohliers who lost his life at ( lettysbiu-g. and. as it is 
ritly decorated with the Xational colors on each succeeding Memorial 
(lav. it typifies the i)atriotism whicli animated the sons of Old 
Ontario as they rallied in su])port of the colors at President Lin- 
coln's call. The memorial referred to is the ])oint of an old scythe 
which projects from the tree and which has been there ever since 
the implement was hung in the crotch 1)\- Tyler J. Snyder as he 


Waller -Marks, member of the County War 
( 'omiiiittee, was born in TIo|)C\vell. Ontario 
rounty. September 6, 1819; member of the 
l!oar(i. of Sujiervisors. 1862-69. and chair- 
man of the Board. 1869; County Clerk. 
1871-7.1. Died in Hopewell. October 12. 
189 5. 


came in Ironi the hav tield one dav in Aiiciust, 1862, and announced 
his purpose to enlist in the I'nion army. His request to his 
betrothed, the daughter of the liousehold. to let the scythe hangf 
there until hi> return, ha- not been forgotten, b^irml}- imbedded 
in the tree's fibre, it yet waits his home coming", which is never to 
be, for the gallant boy was killed at Gettysburg. 

The county board of supervisors was prompt, energetic, and 
generous in its efforts to raise the (piota of troops assigned to the 
county under succeeding calls of the President. Bounties to 
encourage enHstments and to a\oid the necessity of drafts were 
offered 1)y National and State Cio^■ernments and b\- the county, and. 
while starting at the modest sum of S20. rose in the last vears of 
the struggle to over SI. 000 per man. The county, to pay these 
bounties, sold its 7 ])er cent Ix^nds to the amount of a million and 
a half dollars, the war committee in charge of this work being G. 
^\ . Nicholas, of Genexa : Walter Marks, of HopewelK and William 
H. Lamport, of Canandaigua. The last of the war bonds were 
paid in ;i(l\ance of the date on which they came due. during the 
term of Captain George N. Williams as county treasmer. i)robably 
in 1871. 

Another efficient aid to the work of the soldiers was that 
afifoided by the organizations of patriotic and self-sacrificing 
women. Cotemporaneous with the first enrollment of recruits, 
there was organized at the county seat the Ladies' TL^sjiital Aid 
Society, of which Mrs. Margaret Rankine was the first president 
and Miss Antoinette Pierson. secretary. Later ^frs. ^^'illiam 
Hildreth became president of this organization. Mrs. Jabez H. 
Metcalf. Mrs. Nathan J. Milliken. Mrs. ^^■illiam M. McLaughlin 
acted successively as secretary, and Mrs. F. M. Lester was the 

This society, bv means of monthly dues paid l>y its members, 
contributions by generous-hearted citizens, and receipts from fairs 
and (jther entertainments, raised manv hundreds of dollars for the 
relief of the suffering on battlefield and in hospital. The ladies 
were given free use. at fair time, of the refreshment stalls in the 
wonderful old amphitheater building on the County Agricultural 
Society's grounds, and thereby made much money for the cause. 
Their fair in Bemis hall in l'>bruary. 1864. netted $1,893. to which 
was added a purse of $100 contributed by the village fire depart- 
ment, through its chief engineer, Bardwell Billings. Their fair in 

V'iCTom' CROWNS '11 ip: STRrCcil.l 


the tdwn hall in |;miiar\-. lXf)5, after (k'duct int^' e\i)cnscs and 842.76 
had moncw netted the L;('<)dl\ stun cf Sl/j.^X/'l. 

To these uioneN' eontiahntioiis were a(hled hoxt-s n])()n hoxes. 
haiTcls n])()n harrels. ot >neh hixniacs as >hirts, and sheets and (jiiilts, 
and ])illii\\s, dressinL;' i^owns. s!i])])('rs. hanilkeindiicfs and towe's. 
ct)ntrihuted 1)\' eiti/ens m all ])ai"ts ot the ennnt\'. nr made h\- the 
ladies of the soeietw Lart^e (|nan- 
tities of lint and handaj^'es also 
were forwarded, toi^i^ether with 
harrels of dried a])iiles, onions. 
eanned fiaiit. wine. ras|)l)erry 
^•inegar. jell\-. i)iekdes. and in faet 
cvervthin<;' that the generous 
hearts and ]-ead_\- wits of the wo- 
men eonld sngg'est for the eom- 
fort and welfare of the hoxs at the 
front. An out|)ourino" of siieh 
supplies was gathered and for- 
warded under eharge of I )i". W . 
I'iteh C"hene\' and his associates 
on the eoniniittee designated to g(i 
to the relief of the ANonnded after 
the hattle of Gettysburg, in July. 
1863. The ^'ou^g Ladies' Aid 
Society, of which Miss Susan 
Daggett was president, was a 
valuable ally of the older organi- 
zation of women and crowned a 
most efficient record by raising 
the money for the l)eautif\il me- 
morial tablet now affixed to a wall 
of the county court hcnise. 

The Rear Guard, as the peo- 
ple at home were often facetiously 
called, not onlv provided thus 

generously of money and sui)])lies. but they speeded the i)arting 
recruits with eifts of l^.anners, swords, and revolvers, and welcomed 
those returning with speeches, music, and dinners. l'])on tlie return 
of the 33i(\. the so-called Ontario regiment, on ^fay 25th. 1S()3. at 
the completion of its two years' term of enlistment, there was an 

William IL .Vdams was born at Lj'ons, 
Wayne county, in 1841 ; studieii law witli 
Smith & La|)ham in Canamlaigua ; enlisted 
in the I'nion army in 1861, serving first as 
Lieutenant, then as Captain, and then as 
iirigadier Adinlant General; married Miss 
C'harloite Laphani. <laughter of Uon. F.I- 
hridge C. T,a|)ham. in 1865: elected Supreme 
Court Justice in 1887: appointed a member 
of the Appellitc Division, Fourth Depart- 
ment, in lo96: and became its presiding 
officer on Tanuarv 1. 19U0. Died in Canandai- 
-ua. October 12. 1903. 


enthusiastic demonstration of this kind and tlie flao- was returned 
to the donors "stained, battle rent, and co\ered with oiorv," as 
Colonel Taylor said. 

Political feeling ran liigh throughout the war here as else- 
where, the new alignment of parties not yet thoroughly adjusted, 
resulting in strange coalitions and calling forth on occasion bitter 
criminations and recriminations. The Republicans were generally 
successful, but (li\ersions of Union men who trusted not the leader*^ 
of the new part}', nor liked its name too well, sometimes o\'erturned 
calculations and now and then gave their better organized oppo- 
nents a temporary advantage. The campaign of 1864. upon which 
depended the reelection of President Lincoln and the future conduct 
of the war, was fought between the "Union" and Democratic 
parties, the friends of the administration by the adoption of the 
name Union hoping to secure the support of all men of all parties 
who w^ere resolved to fight it out. And they did secure them. 
Lincoln was reelected by a tremendous vote, carrying every State 
that took part in the election except New Jersey. Delaware and 
Kentucky. Reuben E. Fenton was elected Governor of New ^'ork. 
The Lincoln majorit}- in Ontario county was o\-er 1,400. and the 
entire L^nion county ticket, including George B. Dusenberre. the 
candidate for county judge: John W'hitwell. for sheriff: Nathan J. 
Milliken, for county clerk: Charles A. Richardson, for treasurer; 
Ambrose L. Van Dusen. for superintendent of the poor: and Volney 
Edgerton and Edward P)runson. for members of Assembly, was 
elected. The Republicaii or Union "stumpers" in that notable cam- 
paign were Elbridge (r. Lapham, Charles J. h'olger, lulwin Hicks. 
William H. Lamport. Ca])tain Edgar W. Dennis, and Rev. L. A\ . 
Gage, all of whom are now with the majority. 

Then followed swiftly the closing events of the war. .The 
battles of the Wilderness, Cold Harbor. Petersl)urg. the capture of 
Savannah and Charleston. .Sherman's march to the sea. Earragut's 
victory at Mobile, and then TApril 0, 1865). Apjiomattox and 
the end ! 

Those last exciting, strenuous, joyous days at the front had their 
reflex at home. In Ontario county the people relaxed no effort in 
support of their l)elove(l Father Abraham and his great nnlitary 
lieutenants. Money and supplies were jn'ovided without stint. 
Recruiting was hastened to fill the quotas of the several towns under 
the President's last call. Hardly a day passed without its news of 

X'TCTOFn' (l^OW'XS THK S'l'KrGGl.?:. 

1 63 

\ict()ries j^aincd for the I'nion arms, thnnoli cacli dru^ alsn limnylU 
its list of (lead and won IK k'd — casual! ies, t]ic nc'\\^i)a|)(.TS calliMl t Iicm. 
And. tinallw on the .^d of April, tlic fall of l\icdiin(ind, and --ix 
daws later, the surrender of l.t'e. cdeet lalied the people. ( )ii Saturday 
the old i;uu was l)i"out;ht down fi'oni the arsenal, and, at iinnuuent 
risk to those who manned it, 
made to do ser\ice once ai.;ain in 
the lirui^ of a salute of tliirty-six 
i^^uns. in celebration of the e\eut 
first mentioned, and there were 
fireworks, illuminations, and a 
bonfire; but on Monday, when the 
news of Lee's surrender came, 
there was "a spontaneous out- 
burst of popular jollification of a 
most extraordinarx' and uproar- 
ious character," as one of the \ ib 
laioe papers reported. lUisiucss 
was stispeuded. stores. sho])s, and 
offices all beinc;- closed by common 
consent, while old and youni;-. 
m.ale and female (to ([uote ag-ain ) 
throniLied the sidewalks, extend- 
ing- mutual congratulations upon 
the glorious news. The enthu- 
siasm grew until it found vent in 
the blowing of horns, ringing of 
bells, somiding of gongs, raising 
of flags, and firing of guns. An 
impromptu procession, in which 

marched some of the most prominent and usu.'dly the most staid 
citizens, paraded the streets; and. fuiallw the people assend)led m 
front of the court house. A\here after a beautiful and imi)ressi\e 
prayer by Rev. Dr. Daggett, the venerable b'rancis ( Iranger ste])ped 
forward and voiced in elo(|ueut j^hrase his joy in the \ictory and his 
thankfulness that the cause of I'nion and b'reedom was at last 
triumphant. As his commanding and striking tignre stood torth 
upon the portico, and, his hat being remoxed, the glory of his 
famous crown of silver-gray hair was revealed, not a few in the 
throng, recalling the e\-ents of his distinguished career, reali/e^l that 


("leorge N. Williams was born in Canan- 
laigua, March 11, 1S37; served as Lieuten- 
ant and Captain of Co. K.. 98th Regt., X. V. 
Inf., 1861-63: admitted to the bar, 1864: 
|iracticed law for four years, then engaged 
HI the banking business ; Treasurer of 
( )nt;irio county. 1871-76; married .'\bigail 
Stanley Clark. daughter of ex-Governor 
.Myron II. Clark, in 1866. Died in Canan- 
daigna. January 13, 1907. 


here was a man who, ahlioti^h jirechuled 1)\- reason of arhanced age 
from active participati(ni in the i^ohlical moxements of war time. 
had ])layed a heroic part in the contro\ersies out of which the 
struucrle f|:reAv. Tliev must have recalled, too. that Mr. (jranger 
had sufifered not a little in the jnirsuit of Ids laudable ambition for 
pidiHc ser\ice. on account of conxictions fearlessly exj^ressed as to 
the iniquit}- of human bondage, for they could remember that the 
apologists for the institution had gone so far as to attempt to defeat 
in the Senate the conhrmation of his appointment to a p^ace in Tresi- 
dent Harrison's ca1:)inet. though happily without success. Xow 
living in the retirement of his home, he was the first and most 
beloved citizen of the coiunuinity. Other speakers at this impromptu 
meeting were Elbridge G. Tapham and Jaiues C. Smith. The 
occasion was fittingly celebrated, also. l)y the nailing of a flag to 
the statue of Justice on the court house dome, and in the e\ening 
there was a torch light procession and a general illumination. 

On Sattirda}" came tlie awful news that the night 
before President Lincoln had been assassinated. From the heisfht 
of joy the comnuinit}- was plunged into the profoundest depths of 
sorrow. The flags v.ere run ti]) again, but onh' to half mast : the 
beds that rang so recentb' in hap|)y discord, now solemnh- tolled. 
Business was again at a standstill. It seemed as if death had 
entered every home. On Stmdav a memorial service was held in 
the Congregational cluirch. Canandaigua. at which Dr. Daggett 
preached a characteristically timely sermon and paid a touching 
tribute to the dead statesman, whose greatness all now gladly 
recognized. And on Wednesday, at the hour of the ftmeral. the 
people uiiited in another solemn ser\-ice in the same church, and, 
forgetting the rancorous political differences that had distracted the 
community in the years before and during the war. expressed their 
common sorrow at the Nation's loss. 

A'Var time was at last over, and out of its passions, from its 
fadeless griefs, had come the compensation of a ([uickenecf 
patriotism, the consciousness of a real brotherhood. Then, after 
only a few days, was raised the memorial tablet in the court house 
for which the young women raised the funds. Then was realized, 
through the efforts of AFrs. Caroline P). C(^ok and her earnest 
associates, the beautiful thought that had had its birth in the 
stressful w^ar time and was now crystalized in the Ontario Orphan 
Asylum. There was a new, a higher, a better life in the community. 




Ontario County's Influence in State and National Politics Perpetu- 
ated — The State Statutes Known as the Blanket Ballot Law 
and Liquor Tax Law, and the National Tariff Act Known as the 
Payne Law, the Work of Its Representatives — The Later 
County Officers. 

hi tiic \-ears whioli lia\-c elM])se<l since the siii)])rcssii)n <>f the 
Ivchellion and tlic assassination of rrosidcnl Lincoln, no war alarni 
has (listnrl)cd tlic ])co|)k' of ( )ntario county. The lannors of war 
which I'eached its contented and i)ros])Ci"oiis \ales from the h'enian 
i-aid on Can.-uhi in 18^)7 and fi'oni the sinking- of the Maine in lla\ana 
hai-l)or in hS^S ll;l^dl^■ rnllled the e\en tenor of their hAes. 

A nund)er of the o\er zealous Irisli ])atriots were l)ronL;"lit to 
the ()ntario eonnt\- iail for safe keeping- and were inchcted at a 
session ol the LInited States Coiu't Iield here in June, 1S(>S. and there 
was an inspiring" rall\inL;' a.hout llie colors and a few enlistments as 
tiie .irnnes of the Xation were recnnted and marched awa\- to the 
rescue of Cuba. And as these martial e\'ents were hnt a whisi)er as 
com])ared with those which had aroused and excited the ])eople ot 
the connlv in 1S1_^ and ai^ain in iShl, the succeeding- political exents 
have been marked 1)\- little of the bitterness that in\-ol\ed the peo])le 
at the time of the anti-Masonic excitement, or in the Tippecanoe 
and 'lAler Too cami)aign of 1840, or through the contiaiversics 
between the Xorth and South that preceded the Civil war. The 
succeeding- elections have come and gone, arousing enthusiasm and 
elicitiuo- each its own measure of discord, bnt in each camiiaign the 
excitement has been of a temporary character and as the }-ears ha\e 
passed ha^ failed in intensil\- and somewhat in interest. The ajiiJcals 
of the campaigners ha\e been directed more and more to the reasc»n 
and less and less to the passion of \-oters. 

In ilu- main the Repnblican ])arty has maintained its control 



of the local offices, and through its policy of contiiuiing- in service 
representatives of ability and experience, tlie county, and the Sen- 
ate and Congressional districts of which it has been a constituent 
part, have continued to exercise an influence in the affairs of State 
and Nation hardly equalled by any other rural community in the 

For a number of vears following the close of the Civil war 
the honors of office were distributed generously among veterans 

of that conflict. Among these 
was Frederick \V. Prince, of 
Geneva, elected county clerk in 
1867; Washington L. Hicks, of 
Bristol, elected to the same office 
in 187v3. and Deroy J. Harkness, 
of Gorham, elected county clerk 
in 1891. Major Charles A. Rich- 
ardson was elected county treas- 
urer in 1864. and surrogate of the 
county in 1873. Sheriff William 
W . L'larke, of Naples, elected in 
18()7, and Sheriff Avery Tngra- 
ham. of South Bristol, elected in 
18'M. had served in the Union 
army, while County Treasurers 
(ieorge N. Williams, elected in 
1870, and Harrison B. Ferguson, 
in 1876, had similar claims to 
public consideration. The county 
elected and reelected John Raines, 
a veteran, to represent it in the 
Assembly, and accorded the same 
h(mor to Ca])tain Hiram Schutt 
and Major Frank O. Chamberlain. 
Jhe growing dixision between the followers of L'nited States 
Senator Roscoe Conkling and the leaders of the independent ele- 
ments of the l\e])ul)lican party found its most significant local 
expression in 1874. in the election of FIbridge G. Lapham, who was 
a most effective campaigner and a trial lawyer of great abilitv, to 
the position of l\e])resentative in Congress from the Twenty-sev- 
enth, or ( )ntarioT^ivingston-^'ates, district, and in his reelection in 


Harlow L. Comstock was born in Groton, 
Tompkins county, in 1821. Settled in War- 
saw, Wyoming county ; practiced law and 
was elected District .\ttorney and County 
Judge of VV'yoming county. In 1868, became a 
resident of Canandaigua, where he con- 
tinued the practice of his profession in 
partnership witli liis brotlier-in-law, Tliomas 
H. Bennett, until his death, September 24, 


1876 and at4ain in 1878 to the same office. Mr. Lapham was identi- 
lied with the ConkHno- wino- of the part}- and his nomination was 
stronoiy o]:)posed in the first two canipais.;ns mentioned. Tlie Ihm. 
W iUiam il. Lamport, while ser\inL;' Ins second term in ("om;ress. 
had earned popnhir (hsfa\dr 1)\- xotin^- for a sahir\- increase l)ill. and 
it was ex])ected that his snccessor wonld come from one of the other 
connties in tlie (h'slrict. Mr. I^ajjham's friends, howcwer, forestaIle(l 
snch a resnlt h\- a wcdi-phanned con]), anticipating- action in the 
])rnnaries hy means of a petition nri^in^ his can(h(lac\-, which was 
circnlated sinudtaneonsl y, withont pre\ions ann( inncemenl, in tlie 
se\t'ral towns. A hiri^e ])ro])ortion of l\ei)uhhcan xoters were thns 
committed to his su])])ort and his nonn'nalion assni'ed. in the lir^t 
campais^n, Mr. Lai)ham liad for his Democratic o])])onent, l)a\id ( ). 
I'ierpont, ot i\icl!mon(h Ontario connt\-, and in the second, tlu- lion. 
Harh)w L. Comstock. of Canandaigua. 

. Mr. Lapham was destined to rise to yet liigher lionors tin-ongli 
another inrn of the pohtical wheel. P'oUowing the inangm-ation 
of {'resident (lartield in 188], ()ntario comU\- was re])resented in 
tlie Assend)ly. which was called n])on to elect snccessors to Roscoe 
Conkling- and Thomas L. Piatt, resigned, 1)\- John Raines, then in 
his lirst year of Legislati\-e ser\-ice. \ssend)l\nian K'aines was 
identified with the Conkling or Stalwart wing of the partv, and in 
the preliminary skirnnshes of that year memorable in ])olitics had 
stood with that element in voting against resolntions conoratnlat- 
ing- the Hon. \\'illiam IL Robertson on his nondnation to the office 
of Collector of the Port of New ^'ork. 

Idle feeling among Reimblicans in ( )ntario conntv ran high 
and was almost nnanimons in snpjKjrt of President (larheld. Il 
linall)' found exprc'-sion in a ])nl)lic meeting held in the town hall 
in Canandaigna. on the afternoon of ^Liy 21. ddiis was attended 
by representative Reiniblicans from e\ery town of the conntv. 
Hon. Lyrillo S. Lincoln, of Naples, who had himself serxed the 
then nni)recedented term of four years (1872-75) in the Assembly, 
and had gained wide reputation as an aide debater and j)arliamen- 
tarian, acted as chairman of the meeting and made the opening 
speech. Other speakers were the iI(Mi. George R. Dusenberre. of 
Geneva, Prank H. Hamlin, William H. Adams. A'illiam H. Smith 
and Edwin Hicks, of C^-inandaigiia. Assemhlyman Raines was 
present and heard his course sharpK- criticized. \\ ith the fearless- 
ness characteristic of his public career, he took the floor to answer 
his critics, defending his course in regard to the Robertson resolu- 



tions. When interrupted by cjuestions, he declared that the New- 
York Senators were but exercising their rightful prerogative in 
votiner asamst Robertson's confirmation, and declared himself to 
be '*a stalwart Republican " and ready to ''stand by the decisions of 
the Republican party caucuses and vote uniformly for Republican 

candidates." He then stated that 
it was his intention to vote for 
Congressman Lapham as the suc- 
cessor of one of the retiring Sena- 
tors. Resolutions expressing con- 
fidence in the ability, integrity, 
and patriotism of President Gar- 
field, denouncing the course of 
Conkling and Piatt, and calling 
u])on the representatives of the 
count}' in the Legislature to vote 
for the election as their success- 
ors of men who would cordially 
coo])erate with the National ad- 
ministration, were unaniniouslx' 

Assemblyman Raines was as 
good as his word. He voted on 
the first ballot for Congressman 
La|)ham for one of the vacancies 
and continued to so vote through- 
out the prolonged contest which 
followed and which resulted 
finally, late in Jnlv. inthe election 
of Mr. Lajjliam to succeed Sena- 
tor Conklino- and in the election 


Charles T. Folger was born in Nantucket. 
Afass.. .Vpril 16. 1818; became a resident of 
(icneva, 1830: County Judge, 1844-55; mem- 
ber of tlie State Senate, 1862-69: delegate to 
the Constitutional Convention of 1867: 
elected Judge of the Court of Appeals in 
1870 and Cliief Judge of that Court in 1880; 
appointed Secretary of the Treasury by Pres- 
ident Arthur in October, 1881 ; unsuccessful 
Republican candidate for Governor in 1882. 
Died in Geneva. September 4, 1884. 

of Warner Miller to succeed Sen- 
ator Piatt. In the meantime, on July 2, President Garfield had 
been shot. 

The election of the Ontario Congressman to the United States 
Senate gave Assemblyman Raines, through whose efiforts largely 
it had been accomplished, immediate prominence, but the personal 
representatives of the new Senator, by whose clever aid he had first 
been brought into public life and had been assured of renominations 
and reelections in the face of much ]>o])ular opposition, had no dis- 


position to ])cniiit llu' anibiliinis Noiini^" Asseiiil)l\inaii to carr\' off 
any undue honor. At least, in the arrano-ements for the j)ul)]ic 
rece|)ti<»n held in the Senator's Ikmioi- id lleniis hall, the\- g"a\e him 
scant courtesy and ii^nored him in their succeeding' counsels. This 
led to another shifting ot' forces in the local political field and to the 
early assertion 1)\' ('a])tain Kaines ot the leadershi]) for whiidi his 
i^'enms f<'r ])olitical organization soon ;L;aiiu-(l recognition and which 
he held undisputed to the da\- of his death. 

A great re\ersal ol political control in the connt\' occurred in 
the cam])aii;n of the tollowing \ear, ISSJ, when ( iro\er Cleveland 
was elected (io\ernoi- of the State o\er Charles j. I'dlger, long an 
honored resident ot (iene\a, ( )ntario couiitw Mr. h'olger was a 
iirtn of great ability, had tilled the offices of count\- judge. State 
senator and that of Cduef jmlge of the Court of .\ppeals with 
dislinction, was tlu-n rilling the otlice of Secretar\' of the Treasury 
in I'resident .Vrthur's cahinet, and was well e(|uipped for the duties 
of the chief executi\e of the .Str.te. T.ut his nonnnation was effected 
.It a tinu' when feeling ran high between the so-called "Stalwart'" 
and "Half llreed" facti(»ns of tin,' ]);irty, and under circumstances 
that raisc'(l doubt as to the fairness o| those who b\' the narrow 
margin of eight votes controlled the State convention. The friends 
of the Hon. .\lon/.o W. (Ornell, who had tilled the oltice with abilit\' 
the ])receding term, controlled the Ontario countx' comenlion held 
in C anandaigua, .Se])tend)er lf>, 18S2, which was j)resided o\'er by 
l)r. W. Scott I licks, of Bristol. Cnited States Senator Laphani 
a])])eared in this coiuenlion to urge the endorsement of Mr. h\:>lger, 
and ap|)eals were made 1)\- others to the same ettect, but the con\-en- 
tion was tirm in its stand for the renomination of C'ornell. and a 
delegation, headed b\' h'dwin Tlicks and instructed to \'ote for the 
renominati»)n of the Co\ernor, was elected b\' a \ote of 50 to 2i^. 

.\t the succeeding election, ( )ntai-io county ga\e the Democratic 
nominee for (loxernor S^^6 majoritx- and elected e\er\- candidate on 
the Democratic ticket for count\' ottices, including the lion. Frank 
Rice as member of Assembly. 

Air. Rice, who had been elected district attorne\' in 187."^ anil 
again in 1(S~8, held the office of AssembKinan for two years and 
then was nominated and elected to the office of count\- judge, in 
which he was succeeded in ISQl l)y canother |)rominent mend)er of 
the Democratic orgam'/.ation, 1. I k'ln-}- Metcalf. judge Rice him- 
self was given a place at the head of the State ticket of his party in 



1889, as a candidate for Secretary of State, and was elected to that 
office and was reelected in 1891. He carried Ontario county by 759 
plurality in 1889. and in 1891 oidy lacked 102 yotes of accomplishing 
the feat again. Involved in the controversies growing out of the 
effort of Governor Hill to seize control of the State Senate for the 

Democratic party, Air. Rice re- 
tired from active politics and 
returned to the practice of his 
profession in Canandaigua, soon 
gaining and holding recognition 
as the leading trial lawyer at the 
county bar. 

Captain John Raines, who 
had been elected to the Assembly 
in 1880 and again in 1881 was in- 
duced to accept the Republican 
nomination for the office again in 
1883, when Mr. Rice was a candi- 
date for a second term, and as a 
consequence suffered defeat at 
the polls, but this campaign, 
gallantly though unsuccessfully 
fought, proved the stepping stone 
to a career of great public useful- 
ness and distinction. Taking the 
nomination for the Assembly 
again in 1X84. Captain Raines was 
elected o\er the Democratic can- 
didate. Hon. Xathan ( )aks, and in 
the follow ing year was nominated 
and elected to represent the 
( )ntario - Schuxlei' - \\ ayne - ^'ates 
district in the State Senate, lie 
was reelected to this office in 1887 and with the exception of a 
service of two terms in Congress, froiu 1890 to 1894. he continued a 
member of the upper house of the Legislature until his death, in 
Decemlier, 1909. Mr. Kaines not only surpassed all records for 
length of serxice in that body and al>o in his election for three 
'uccessive terms as the ])resident of the Senate. l)Ut his name is 
identified as author with ^oiue of the most valuable constructive 

John Raines, the thiril John Raines in line 
of descent, his father and grandfather, hoth 
.Methodist clergymen, liaving been so bap- 
tized, was born in Canandaigua, May 6. 1840: 
educated in the common schools, and the 
Albany Law School ; practiced law in (ieneva ; 
cautain of Com|iany ("■.. ,S5th .\. V. Inf., 
lS(>l-0.^; settle(l in Canandaigua, 1867; 
Member of Assembly, l<S81-82, and I88.S; 
Stale .Senator, 1887-90; Member of Congress, 
1891-94; State Senator, 1895 to the date of 
his death ; President Canandaigua Hoard of 
Kducation, 1887-1909; died in Canandaigua. 
December 16. 1909. 


legislation of the State, including- the blanket ballot law and the 
liquor tax law. He was for eight years the tbxjr leader of the Repub- 
lican majority in the Senate. 

The factional division in the ranks of the Republican party 
between the so-called Stalwarts, as the followers of Senator 
Conkling styled themselves, and the independent element, more 
commonl)' known as the Half lireeds, who were for the most part 
supporters of James G. Blaine, had had its reflex in Ontario county 
politics, as we have seen, as early as 1874. It reached its climax 
in 1<S80, wdien after a bitter contest, carried through county, dis- 
trict and State conventions over the odious "unit rule," James A. 
Garheld was nominated for the Presidency. Senator Conkling and 
his friends had urged the nomination of ex-I'resident Grant for a 
third term, and of the "Immortal 306" who \oted for him in the 
National convention to the end, two were from the Twenty-seventh 
Congressional district of this State, ex-County Judge Francis O. 
Mason, of Geneva, Ontario county, and (ieorge \. Hicks, of Yates 

The effect of the struggle between the factions was seen in 1884, 
wdien James G. Blaine was nominated for the Presidency in opposi- 
tion to the Democr.'itic candidate. (iro\er Clexeland. The office 
holders and others interested in securing a nomination for President 
Arthur made a (piiet but well-nigh successful canvass for delegates, 
and it was onlv i)v a cond)ination between the Blaine and Edmunds 
forces in the county C()n\ention that an opposition delegation, 
headed by Air. Frank H. Plandin, an ardent advocate of Mr. 
Edmunds's nomination, was elected to the State convention. There 
were bitter contests in the ensuing district conventions, and, Mr. 
Blaine having been nominated, there was undisguised indifYerence on 
the part of the Stalwart leaders in the ensuing canvass. Although 
it was known that many voters before affiliated with the Democratic 
party supported the Republican nominee, the county gave him a 
majority of only /S*^. Had Ontario county given its normal Repub- 
lican majority, Mr. Blaine might have been elected, the adverse 
plurality in the State being only 1149 and the election finally 
depending upon the vote of New York State. The Republican 
nominees for local offices were elected, except the Hon. William H. 
Smith, the candidate for count}- judge, who was defeated by his 
Democratic opponent, the Hon. Frank Rice. 

The career of another Ontario county representative that 



promised the attainment of the hig^liest usefuhiess and the highest 
honor wa> that u\ the Hon. Jean L. Burnett, which was suddenly 
cut off bv death. Mr. Burnett was elected member of Assembly 
from Ontario count v in Xovember. 1898. when he was only 27 years 
of age. and he continued a member of that body until his death, 
having been accorded eight successiAC unanimous renominations, 

and he was as often reelected by 
large majorities. He held posi- 
tions at different times during this 
long term of service on the Rail- 
road, Excise. General Laws. 
Ways and Means, and other im- 
])ortant committees, and for a 
number of years he heUl the posi- 
tion of chairman of the Cities 
committee of that body. 

(3ther Ontario comity citi- 
zens who have risen to ])romi- 
nence as public officials are the 
Hon. Thomas Hillhouse. of Ge- 
ne\a. who represented the 
Twentv-sixth ( Ontario- Seneca- 
Yates) district in the State Senate 
of 1860 and 1861. was appointed 
Adjutant General on the staff of 


Jean Lakue Uurnett was. born in Canan.lai- GovCmOr M OrgaU Ul .\UgUSt. 

ana in 1871: studied law with Hon. Walter 11. i o/' i i ^ 1 ^ ...i ,-,- „ .- 

Knapp; admitted to the bar in 1892: Member 18^)1. WaS elected tO tllC Othc C ot 

of Assemblv from Ontario countv. from Janu- ,, , . ..^ ii • x" i 

ary 1. 1S99. f. the lime of hisdeath. which State Comptroller m .\oveml)ev. 

occurred in .Mhanv, Feliruarv 26. 1907. ^ i-,^ - ii »i « i-ii 

18hn, and held the highly respon- 
sible office of Assistant Treasurer of the I'nited States at Xew York, 
from 1870 to 1881 ; jame> C. Smitli. of Canandaigua. who was a 
State Commissioner to the I'eace Congress in 1861. was ai)i)ointed 
a Justice of the Sui)reme Court in 1862. and held that office by suc- 
cessive elections until 1887. when he retired from the bench by 
reason ot the age limitation: William M. .\dams, of Canandaigua, 
who was elected a Justice of the Supreme Court for the Seventh 
Judicial district in 1887. was elevated to the bench of the Appellate 
Division of the iMiurth Department in January. 1896, and at the 
time of his death. October 12. 1903, was the presiding justice of that 
department; Iknry S. Pierce, who held tlu- office of L^nited States 


Intcnial Ktxcniu' (OlKn-toi' lor ihc Wcsle-ni dislrirt ol Xcw \ nik, 
Ironi iSSi to 1S,X(); Majoi- (liarlcs A. I\ irliai'<N( m. wild has been a 
itu'iiiher of tlie I'niliMl Slates ( Id 1 vslxir^- Hallldu'Id ( 'oiDiiiisvion 
since ISSh. .\nion<^' tlio^e who lia\e held res] )onsil)le Statt' olViee in 
I'ecent \ears are the lion, janies A. Uohson, of (iorhani. appointed 
Snprenie C'onrt jnstice for the Se\'enth jndieial district l)\' ( ioxfnio]- 
( )dell in l'^(!>->, and elected to ser\'e a fnll tt'nn of foni"teen \'eai-s in 
that posUionon \'o\end)erS, 1''<M: Ma\nard X. ( "'enieni . apjjointed 
|)epnt\' State ( 'oinnn'ssioner of I'.xeise iniiniMlia tel\- aft ei" t he passai^e 
ol the li(|nor tax law in lS')h, ;in(l appointed State ( 'onnni^sioner of 
l^xcisc !)}■ (Governor Hjo-o-ins in 1906. ser\ in^" in that oITuh' nmil 
Ma\' 1. I'M 1 : lion. William L. r.'ii'khnrst, aiijiointed a nienilx.'!" of 
the State Commission in Lnnac\' 1)\ (ioxernoi- I'.lack in hehrnarw 
1897, holding- that office nntil hehrnary. I'MO: Charles I". Milliken. 
appointed hy (loAcrnor Odcll a member of the State Ci\il Ser\ice 
Commission in May, IPOo. and elected ])resi(lent of thai ImkK in 
Jannary, 1903. serving as sncli nntil jannarw I'Ml: Albert 1'. 
Sackett, stenographer of the State Senate from 1**()() to 1<^()5. 

( )ntario connt_\'. dnring the WUv \-ears i)eriod which we ha\e 
Deen considering, has been re])resented in the Xational Congress as 
follows: In association with Seneca and \ates, constitnting the 
TwentN-sixth district. 1X61-^)2. by Jacob I'. Chamberlain. R.. of 
Seneca. With Li\ingston and \'ates. constitnting the Twenty-lifth 
district, from 1863 to 1867. bv Daniel Morris. R.,of ^'ates connty : 
1867-71, b^■ William H. Kelsew R., of Rivingston connty; and. 
1871-75, l)_\- W illiam II. Rami)ort, 1\.. of Ontario connty. With the 
same connties. in the r\\ent_\--se\enth district, from 187.^ to 1881. by 
I'dbridge G. Rapham. R.. of f^ntario conntw and from 1881 to 188ri. 
b\- James W. AXadswoiih. R.. of Ri\-ingston connt\-. W ith Stenben 
and ^'atcs connties. in the TwentN -ninth district. 1885-89. by Ira 
l)a\en])ort, R.. of Stenben connt\-. and 1889-93. by John Raines. R., 
of ()ntario conntv. With Ca\nga, Cortland. W a\ne . and ^'ates 
connties. in the Twcnt\--eighth district, from 1893 to R'9l ; and with 
Cayuga, W a}ne. and ^'ates, in the Thirtx-tirst district, from 1902 to 
1912. bv Sereno E. Payne, R., of Ca\nga connty. 

In the State Senate, the comity has been rei)rcsente(l as 
lollows : In association with Seiiec;; and \'ates. in the Twenty- 
sixth district, 1862-69, 1)\ 'diaries J. I'olger, R.. i)f ( )ntario connty; 
1870-71, by A. v. Harpending. K.. of Yates connty: 1872-75. by 
William Johnson, D., of Seneca connt\-; 1876-77, by Stephen H. 


Hammond, D., of Ontario county: 1878-79, by Edwin Hicks. R.. of 
Ontario county. With Schuyler, \\'ayne and Yates, in the Twenty- 
eighth district, 1880-83. by George P. Lord. R., of Yates county; 
1884-85. by Thomas Robinson. R.. of Wayne county; 1886-89, by 
John Raines. R.. of Ontario county; 1890-94, by Charles T. Saxton. 
R., of \\'ayne county. With W ayne county only, in the Forty- 
second district, from 1895 to 1909. and with Wayne and Yates 
counties, in the P^orty-second district, from 1908 to 1909, by John 
Raines, R.. of Ontario county; and in the same district, 1910-12. by 
Frederick W. Griffith. R., of Wayne county. 

Ontario count\- harl two representatives in the State Assembly 
until 1880. but since that date it has been only entitled to one. The 
list during- the hftv year period from 1860 has been as follows: 
First or Eastern district: 1861. Perez H. F'ield. R.. of Geneva: 1862, 
David Pickett. R., of Gorham; 1863 and 1864, Perez H. Field, R., of 
Geneva: 1865, \'olney Edgerton. R.. of Manchester : 1866 and 1867. 
Hiram Schutt. R.. of Manchester; 1868. 1869. and 1870. Henry Ray. 
R.. of Phelps: 1871. George W. Xicliolas. I)., of Geneva: 1872 and 
1873. Ambrose E. X'anDusen. R.. of Phelps; 1874 and 1875. 
Stephen II. Hammond. !)., of Cienexa: 1876. Seth Stanley, D.. of 
Seneca; 1877. Dwight P. Backenstose. R.. nf (;eneva; 1878. Davirl 
Cosad. Ir.. \).. of I'helps ; 1879. John Robson. R.. of Gorham. 
Second or Western district: 1861. Stephen H. Ainsworth. R.. of 
West Bloomfield : 1862. Francis O. Mason, Inision. of Bristol; 1863 
and 1864, Lanson Dewey. R., of X'ictor: 1865 and 1866, Edward 
Brunson, R., of I^ast Bloomtield; 1867 and 1868, Samuel H. Torrey. 
R., of Naples: 1869. (ieorge Cook. R.. of Canandaigua : 1870-71. 
David E. Wilson. R.. of Bristol: 1872-75. Cyrillo S. Lincoln, R., of 
Naples; 1876, Hiram Maxheld. 1).. of Napies ; \9<77-7S, Amasa T. 
Winch. R.. of Canadice ; 1879. Charles R. Case. R.. of West Bloom- 
held. Representing the whole county : 1880. Charles R. Case. R., of 
West Bloomfield; 1881-82, John Raines, R., of Canandaigua: 1883- 
84, Frank Rice. D.. of Canandaigua: 1885. John Raines, R.. of Can- 
andaigua: 1886-87. Edward P. Babcock. R.. of Naples; 1888-89. 
Robert Moody. R.. of Halls Corners: 1890. Sanford W. Abbey, D.. 
of Richmond: 1891-92. Frank O. Chamberlain. R., of Canandaigua: 
1893-94. ^^■i]liam L. Parkhurst. R.. of Clifton Springs: 1895. Walter 
A. Clark. R.. of Geneva: 1896, Charles A. Steele, R.. of Geneva: 
1897. Murray Benham. R.. of Hopewell Center: 1898. Robert B. 
Simmons, R., of Allen's Hill; 1899-1907, Jean L. Burnett, R., of 



Canaiidai.mia ; P'OSd'), ( icor^c I'.. I U'lnciiw a\ . I\., mI XaplcM I'Mn. 
Sanford W. Ahhcy, 1).. of Caiiamlaij^ua ; I'Ml, Tlioina^ W. Wilson, 
1\., of Seneca. 

The Countx- Clerks, with ihite of llieir election, ha\e heen as 
follows: Jefferson W hilnc}-, 
I'^ision, of Hopewell, l<^r)l ; 
Nathan j. Milliken, i\., of Canan- 
(laiVna. 18()4: r^-ederiek W. 
Prince. K., of (ieneva. 1867: Wal- 
ter Marks. R., of lloi)c\\elI. 1S7(): 
\\'ashin^t()n L. Hicks, K.. of T.ris- 
tol. 1873: Myron S. Hall, U., of 
West Bloomheld, 1876; William 
G. Dove, R.. of (KMieva, 187'): 
RoHvar Ellis, I)., of Victor, 1882; 
Martin 11. Smith, R.. of Geneva, 
1885: William R. Marks, K., of 
Naples. 1888; Deroy J. Harkness, 
R.. of Gorham, 1891 : Frederick R. 
Hoao-, R.. of Phelps, 1894-97; 
Porter F. Eeech. P., of West 
Bloomlield. 1900 and 1903; J. 
Morgan Stoddard, R., of Shorts- 
ville, 1905 and 1909. 

The Sheriffs, with date (^f 
their election, have been as fol- 
lows: Harlow ^Innson, Fnsion. 
of East P.loomfield. 1861 ; John 
Whitwell, R., of Geneva, 18(.4: 
William W. Clarke, R., of Nai)les, 
1867; Darwin Chene\'. R., of Gan- 
andaigna, 1870; Nathaniel R. 
Boswell. 1).. of Ganandaigna, \X7^ 
Chester, 1876; Orin S. Bacon, R.. of \iclor, 187^^: Hiram Peck, I), 
of Phelps, 1882; Robert H. Wheeler, R., of P.ast Ploomfield, 1885: 
Irving- Gorwin, R., of Pheli)s, 1888; \\cr\ Inyraham, R.. of Sonth 
I'.ristol, 18«)1 : William R.. Osborne, R.. of \iclor, 1S')4: Geor-e A. 
Peel, R., of (Ieneva. 1897; William G. h:dmonston, R., (»f Phel])s. 
1900; Francis Flynn, R., of Ciene\a. 1903: Get)roe L. \ an X'oorhis, 
P., of Victor, 1906; Elias J. Gooding, R., of Bristol, 1909. 


(■\rillo -S. Lincoln was born in South 
^.n^t>ll, Ontario county, July 18, 1830; 
graduated from Union college with honors 
in I8.t8; successful as a farmer, lawyer, 
and legislator; voted for Fremont in 1856 
.ind liecame prominently identified with tlie 
KeiiuMican party; rei)rese!Ued the Second 
district (if ( )iitario county in the Assembly 
lor four terms beginning in 187J. Died at 
Naiiles, August 17. 1900. 

)a\i(l \'. R)enham, P.. of Man- 



The Count V Judges, with date of their election. ha\e heen as 
follows: Georee B. Dusen1)erre. R.. of Geneva. 1860-64; William 
H. Smith. R.. of Canandaigua. 1869: Francis O. Mason. R.. of 
Geneva. 1872: A\"iHiam H. Smith, R., of Canandaigua, 1878; PTank 

Rice. D.. of Canandaigua. 1884; J. 
Henry Metcalf, D.. of Canan- 
daigua. 1890; Walter H. Knapp. 
R.,of Canandaigua, 1896 and 1902 : 
Robert F. Thompson. R.. of Can- 
andaigua, 1908. 

The Surrogates, with date of 
their election, have been as fol- 
lows: Elihu M. Morse, R., of Can- 
andaigua. 1861 : Isaac R. Parcel]. 
R.. of Canandaigua, 1869; Charles 
A. Richardson. R.. of Canandai- 
gua. 1873; Edward P. Babcock, 
R.. of Xaples. 1879; David G. 
Lapham. R.. of Canandaigua. 
1885 : Oliver C. Armstrong. R.. of 
Canadice, 1891 : John Colmey. I)., 
of Canandaigua, appointed vice 
Armstrong, deceased, 1892 ; David 
G. Fapham, R., of Canandaigua, 
1892; George F. Ditmars, R.. of 
Geneva. 1898andl904: Harry I. 
Dunton. R., of Canandaigua, 1910. 
The District Attorneys, with 
date of their election, have been 
as foPows: William H. Smith. R.. 
of Canandaigua, 1860; h^dwin 
Hicks. R.. of Canandaigua. 1863. 
1866. 1869. and 1872; Frank Rice. 
D.. of Canandaigua. 1875; Oliver C. Armstrong, R., of Canadice. 
1881 and 1884: Maynard X. Clement. R.. of Canandaigua. 1887 and 
1890; Royal R. Scott. R.. of Canandaigua. 1893 and 1806; Robert 
F. Thompson. R.. of Canandaigua. 1899 and 1902; Myron \). Short, 
R.. of Geneva, 1905 and 1908. 

The County Treasurers, with date of their election, have been 
as follows: Spencer Gooding, R., of Canandaigua. 1861: Charles 

Francis O. MaMjii wa> lidrii in the town 
of Bristol. Ontario county. May 12. 1832; 
hecame a pro.niinent n-.ember of the bar : 
Member of Assembly, 1862: Assistant Adjut- 
ant General of the State during the closing 
years of the Civil War. at the close of which 
lie engaged in the practice of his profession 
at Geneva; County Judge. 1873-78; delegate 
to National Republican Convention of 1880 
and one of the 306 who \ oted for Grant ; sup- 
ported Grover Cleveland for President in the 
campaign of 1884. and was thereafter allied 
with tlie Democratic partv : died at Geneva, 
lulv 25. 1900. 



A. kicliardson, l\., nt ( ';man(l;ii<4u;i. l!^'i-4 a]i<l 1X67; ricoi'L^c X. 
Williams, K., of ( aiiainlai^ua, l.SjC and IS".-!: llari'iMMi 11. I'd'^u- 
son,l\.,()f C'anandaimia. 1876 and 187^-'; Ira I!. IJowc. I)., of ( aiian- 
(laigua, 1882; !•".. ('liai)in ( Inircli. I\., of ( anandaii^ua. 1885 and 
1888; jesso 1'.. (oiitaiil, U.. iA (icncva. 18')]; (icoro-e N. I'aniiclc, 
R., of C"anandai-ua. 18^-1. 1,X<)7, and I"J(H); Hchcr I^. WliccdcT. K., 
of East r.I.xMnlicld. I"(i.> and 1^)06; I'clcr R. Cole. R.. of Geneva, 

The Sui)crintcndfnt s of ihe I 'oor, with date of theii' eleetion. 
ha\e heen a.s lollows: Simeon K'. Wheeler. I\., of I iloondield. 
18()(1, '()^, Y)6, '69, '72, and '7i<: l)aniel Arnold. R.. of I'.arniin^ton. 
18()(); Anihrose I.. \'an Dusen, R.. of I'liel])^. I8hl, 7)4. "67. and 70; 
l.nman I'. Mille]-. R.. of \ ictor, 18(m. 7)6. and 7),S: John II. I>en- 
h.ani. K., of Hopewell. 1871. "74. and '77: Wan-en I'.. Whitter. R.. 
of (, 1873. "7'> and '7''; Charles 1^. .Shepard. I)., of Canan- 
.lai.una. 1875; Eenni<d Herendeen. R., of Ceneva. 1880. '83. '86. 
.and "8'); j,,lin I'. I'ra/er. R., of X'ietor. 1881 .and "84: (dniton Wat- 
kins. I)., of llo])e\\ell. 1882: j.aines R. (iaialner. R.. of Hc^pewell, 
188.5 and '88; Daniel Short, R.. of Richmond. 1887: Elkanah 
.\ndrews. R.. of Rristol. 188^) and '60; Levi .\. Paoe. R.. of Seneca. 
I8^M. '^U. "^)7, and 1600; Ralph S. W isner. R.. of \'ictor. l')03 an<l 
"00; iM-ed AW Mollis. K.. of Hopewell. 1909. 




Their Organization — First Sessions Held at Patterson's Tavern in 
Geneva and at Sanborn's Tavern in Canandaigua — Anecdotes 
of Judges, Lawyers and Jurors — The Morgan Abduction — 
Fugitive Slave Law Case — Conviction of Susan B. Anthony — 
Other Celebrated Civil and Criminal Trials. 

By Major Charles A Richardson. 

Tlic count}- of Ontario was organized out of the county of 
Montgomery, l)y act of the Legislature passed the 27th of l-'ebruary, 
1789. whereby it was enacted. "Tliat all that part of the Count\- of 
Montgomery which lies to the westward of a line drawn due north 
to Lake Ontario from the mile-stone or monument marked 82. .and 
standing on the line of division between this State and the C'onuuon- 
wealth of I'ennsyhania. shall be one se]KU'ate and distinct count}- 
and called and known by the name of Ontario." 

The third section of the act provided that, uiuil other legislation 
should be had in the premises, it "shall be lawful for the Justices of 
tlie Court of Sessions for the said County of Ontario to di\ide the 
said county into two or more districts, as they shall deem expedient 
and convenient to the inhabitants." 

Under the provisions of this act. the districts of Bristol. Bloom- 
field, Canandaigua, Farmington. Gorham. and IMiddletown (Naples), 
were established, each containing more territory than the present 
towns so named. The following county officials were appointed: 
Oliver Phelps, judge of the Common Pleas; John Cooper, surrogate: 
Nathaniel Gorham, county clerk: and, the following year (1790). 
Judah Colt, sheriff. Judge Phelps was so wholly absorbed in the 
business connected with the settlement and sales of land in the new 
county that no courts were held by him. 

The first term of Oyer and Terminer and general gaol delivery 



was held at I'atterson's tavern, in (ieneva. on Tnesday, llie iSth of 
)unc. 17*>.v I'resent: lion. John Storrs 1 lohart. one ot 1 lie jnst ices 
of the Snprenie Conrt of Indicatnre of ihe State of New \'oi-|<. 
IChene/.er Lindlev and 1 iniotlu' llosnier were Assoeiate jusliees at 
this couil. Othniel Taylor was appointed foreman ol the strand 
jury, but there being no business for that body it was discharg-ed 
the next day. No jury trial was 
had at this term. 

The next court held in the 
count}- was the court of Common 
Pleas and General Sessions, held 
at Canandaigua, in November. 
1794. bv Judge Timothy Hosmer, 
a physician, father of George Hos- 
mer, afterwards a distinguished 
lawyer of Livingston county, and 
grandfather of the *'Bard of 
Anoii." 1diis term was held at 
the tavern of Nathaniel Sanborn, 
situated on the west side of Main 
street, where the Atwater block- 
was later erected. The principal 
business was the organization of 
the court. The Associate Justices 
were Charles Williamson and 
Enos Boughton. The lawyers 
present were Vincent Matthews, 
Tames Wadsworth, John Wick- 
liani. and Thomas Morris. Sever- 
al causes were on the calendar. 
but no jury cases were tried. Silas 
Marsh was admitted to practice 
in this court on production of a 
license from the Supreme court. 
Peter B. Porter and Nathaniel W. Howell were also admitted to 
practice in this court, they having previously been admitted to ])rac- 
tice in the Supreme court. 

The next term of Common Pleas was held in June, 1705. At 
this term, the first jury trial west of Herkimer county took i)lace, 
that of the People vs. Luther Haskins ; indictment for stealing a 

Vincent Afatthews. associated with Thomas 
.\Ii)ii-is. Peter P>. Porter, and Xathaniel W. 
Howell in tlie practice of law at the first 
terms of court held in Ontario county, in 
l/'94 and 1795, was liorn in Orange county, 
lie reiirescnted the Western district in the 
State Senate from 1797 to 1803, and in 1826 
uas elected to tlie lower house of the Leg- 
islature from Monroe county, having- in the 
meantime hcconie a resident of Rochester. 
Was nistrict .\ttorney of Monroe county in, ami died at his home in Rochester in 


bell (said to have been a cow-bell). The culprit was defended by 
X'incent Matthews and Peter B. Porter. The prosecution was con- 
ducted bv Nathaniel A\'. Plowell. The accused was acquitted. 

It may not be amiss to make a digression here to show the 
character of the judge who presided at the first jury trial in 
Ontario countv. ludge Hosmer. or Doctor Hosmer. as he mav be 
called with equal propriety, was not bred to the l)ar, but his good 
sense and general information well qualified him for his judicial 
])osition in what was then the wilds of Western New York, and 
his decisions were always respected by the bar and the public. 

The following case illustrates his character and sense of jus- 
tice. During one of the terms of his court, a woman was on trial 
under an indictment for assault and battery upon a man l)y the 
name of Scrope. The man had intruded himself into the kitchen 
of the woman and grossly insulted her. Seizing an old splint broom, 
which was usually a hickorv club with splints at one end, she drove 
him from the house, inflicting severe blows on his head with con- 
siderable injury. The District Attorney proved the assault and 
battery, and the injury resulting from it. and rested. Her counsel, 
taking the same ^■iew of the case, made little effort in her behalf, 
ludee Hosmer, refined and chivalrous, believed the woman was 
fully justified, and charged the jury substantially as follows: 

"Gentlemen of the iurv. the evidence in this case clearly shows 
that an assault and batterv has been committed upon tliis man. an<l 
unless there is some justification for the assault, you must convict 
the defendant. 

"But, gentlemen, there are. in mv view, extenuating circum- 
stances in the case which you must take into consideration, among 
which are the sex of the defendant, the place where the assault was 
committed, and the circumstances which led to the assault. 

"Gentlemen, bear in mind that the kitchen is a woman's empire, 
the broom-stick the legalized and therefore her legitimate weapon, 
her honor the corner-stone of society, nay. its superstructure. The 
wretch who invades her empire and there wantonly insults her 
should never complain if quick, heavy, repeated blows, given with 
her proper weapon, should in fury descend upon his head. If he 
escapes with his life, he should make no other demonstration than 
thanking God for it. 

"But when he goes further, as in this case, and asks redress 
from a jurv, if there is a juror in the box who has a wife, mother. 


(laui^lUcr, or otlier female friend, w liu cannot see in the provocation 
a justilicalion of this act, and of liie wliole act, his name (jui^ht to 1)C 
stricken from the jnrv roll forexer. Go out, gentlemen, and return 
with >uch a \erdict a-^ will n(.i, when you ,^o to your homes, bring 
upon you the condemnation ot c\er\' \irtuous woman."' 

This cliarge, ihouuh not in accord with lei^al rule^, rcndereil 
the iud^e very po])ular, especial!)' with the ladies. 

Indite Hosmer's son, (leor^e. studied law m the ot'ticc of lion. 
Xatlianiei W. Jlowell, was admitted to the har, and conmu'ucecl the 
])ractice of law in CanandaiL;ua. He tried his lii-st cau-e hefore his 
fiilher, will), during the trial, soiuetimes forgot the newly acipured 
dignit\- of the \-oung barrister and would <ay. "(leorge. you are 
wrong." "(ieorge, see here! ^'ou misap]»reheiid the ])oint."' And 
]\ the \duiig lawNcr i)ecame [)ersistenl, the Judge would say, 
"George, sit down!" 

(ieorge llosiuer became distingttished as a laww'er, and was 
engaged in man\ noted trials m tlie coui'ts of W esteru .\ew ^'ork. 
lie was noted for his earnestness and eK«(|uence in defending the 
persons charged with, tlie abduction of Morgan, and the editor of 
the "Craftsman." a Masonic jom'nal. indicted for libel. 

\i the h\d)rnai-\- term, 17'^5, a rule was made re(|uii-ing lawyers 
residing out of the couul\- to ha\-e agents within the couutv on 
whom pa])e;"S could be ser\ed, and ])ro\iiling that, in defatilt thereof, 
])a])ers to be ser\'e(l on them could be lett at the Clerk's otiice, and 
tile ser\ice would l^e good. 

The second term of the court of Oyer and Tenuiuer held in the 
count\- was held in the court house at Canandaigua. .Septend)er 1, 
17*).^ — the comM house ha\ing been erected in 17''4 — lion, b'hu 
Lansing, [r., one of the jtulges of the .Supreme court, ])residing. 

A term of the court of Coiuiuon Plea.s was lield on the first 
Tucsdax- in Time, 17V'C), ;md the tirst jury trial held in the ('ommon 
Pleas. The defendant wd ap])eariug, the plaintiff ])rocee(led to 
jirove his case. 

The next term of the court was held at the court house in 
Canandaigua. on tlie ^th of June, 1797. Present: lion. Egbert 
Iiensou, one of the ludges of the .Sni)i"eme court. At this term the 
first tri;d in the Oyer and Terminer in this county was had: The 
People \'S. lolin Xelson : indictment for forgery; AX'illiam ."stuart, 
AssistaiU .\ltorney General, for the i)rosecutiou. The jury rendered 
a \erdict of "not guiltv." At this term a line of $.^ was imposed on 


Epenetus Hart, of Seneca, gentleman, and William Aloons, of 
Bloomfield. yeoman, for not attending as grand jurors. On Friday, 
June 19, 1798, the court of Common I'leas fixed the jail limits. 

The fourth term of the court of Oyer and Terminer was held 
at the court house, June 19, 1798, Hon. James Kent, one of the 
Justice ot the Supreme court, presiding. The Associate Justices 
were TiuiOthy Hr>smer. Moses Atwater. and William A. Williamson. 
Two indictments were found. One of the prisoners was tried and 
found not guilty. \\ illiam Stuart acted as Assistant Attorney 

The fifth term was held June 18, 1799, Hon. Jacob Radclift", 
Justice Supreme court, presiding". Augustus Porter was foreman 
and Nathaniel W. Howell, Assistant Attorney General, he ha\ing 
been appointed February 9, 1797. 

Nothing of special interest occurred at the sixth and seventh 
terms of the court. 

At the term of the court of Common Pleas, held on the 7th of 
June. 1799, a license was granted to Polly Benny, to erect and keep 
a ferr}- across the Genesee river at the town of Hartford, on the 
State road from Canandaigua to Niagara, for one year. The fees 
from A])ri] 1st to December 1st were fixed as follows: For every 
man and horse, 6/4 C- : for exery footman, 3c.; for every wagon, cart, 
sleigh, with one span of horses or one yoke of cattle, 25c. : for other 
horses and horned cattle, oc. : for sheep or swine. Ic. From the 1st 
of December to the 1st of .\i)ril. double these rates. 

At this term of the court, the Clerk was ordered thereafter to 
prepare a calendar of the cases. 

At the eighth term of the court of Oyer and Terminer, held 
June 15. 1802, Hon. James Kent, Justice, presiding; Timothy 
Hosmer and Moses Atwater. Associate Justices: William .Stuart. 
District Attorney. In the People vs. William Stuart; indictment 
for neglect of duly in the office of Assistant Attorney General. The 
deiendant. being arraigned, pleaded not guilty. He then "produced 
and read a writ of certiorari for removing the proceedings in this 
cause to the Supreme court. Allowed by his Honor. Judge Kent. 
1'hereupon, ordered, that the said certiorari be received, and that 
the indictment and other ])roceedings be accordingly certified to 
the Su])retue court." 

The nmth term was held I'ebruarv 21. 1803. Hon. Brockholst 


Li\ingst()ii, Justice, presiding; Associate Justices, Timothy Hosmer 
and Aloses Atwater, Judges of the court of Common Pleas. 

On the next day the grand jury presented the following indict- 
nicui : The People \s. George, a Seneca Indian, otherwise called 
"StitY-arnicd George;'' for tlic murder of John Hewitt, of North- 
ampton, Ontario county. 'Jdie indictment charges that the said 
George, a Seneca Indian, otherwise called "Stiff-armed George," 
"not lia\ mg the fear of (jod before his eyes, hut heing mov^ed and 
seduced l)\ the instigation of the dexil. on the 2?\h dav of |ul)'. in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and two, with 
force and aruis, at the town aforesaid, in the county aforesaid, in 
and upon one John Hewitt, in the Peace of ( lod and of the People 
of the State of New ^'ork, then and there heing felonioush', wilfully, 
and of his malice aforethought, did make an assault, and that he 
* * * * wiih a certain knife, which in his right hand he then and 
there held, the said John llewitt, in and u])on the right side of the 
heart of him, the said John Jlewitt, then and there feloniously, 
wilfully, and of malice aforethought, did strike and thrust, giving 
to the said John lle\\itt then and there with the knife aforesaid, in 
aud upon the right side of the breast of him, the said |ohn Hewitt, 
one mortal wound of the breadth of two inches and of the depth of 
six inches, of which said mortal wound the said John Plewitt from 
the hour of seven o'clock of the said 2?[h d;i\' of Juh' aforesaid until 
the hour oi seven o'clock and t\\o minutes of the same day * * * 
did languish, and languishing did lixe, on which said 25th dav of 
Jidy and at the day last mentioned * '^ the said John Hewitt * * 
ot the said mortal wound died, and so the jurors aforesaid ui)on 
their oaths aforesaid do say that the said George, otherwise called 
Stilt-armed George, the said John Hewitt in manner and foiMU 
aforesaid, feloniously, \\ilfulh-, and of his malice aforethought, did 
kdl and nun-der against the peace of the ]^eo]de of the State of Xew 
^'ork and their dignity." 

' )n the following day, Fe1)ruary 23, the prisoner being arraigned, 
.and William John being sworn to inter]M-et tlie indictment truK' to 
the ])risoner in the Indian language, which was accordingU' done, 
l)leaded "not guilty." On motion of Mr. Stuart, District .\ttornev, 
it was ordered that the Sheriff return the \enire and that the 
prisoner be brought to trial, whereupon, the prisoner being assisted 
by counsel, the jm^ors were called and s\vorn. Witnesses sworn for 
prosecutuni : Hcn-atio Jones, Joseph T'almer, W^'lliam A\^ard. Tohn 


Palmer, Vincent Grant. The jury, after being charged by his 
Honor, Judge Livingston, and having retired a short time under 
the charge of a sworn constable, returned into court and said that 
the prisoner was guilty of the felony whereof he was charged. 

The defendant was remanded to prison, and afterwards being- 
brought into court and called upon to show cause, if any, why judg- 
ment should not be passed upon him, and having nothing to show 
against it. the Court thereupon gave judgment that the said George, 
a Seneca Indian, otherwise called Stiff-armed George, be taken from 
hence to the ])lace whence he last came, and that he be hanged by 
the neck by the Sheriff of the county of Ontario, on h^riday, the 
fifteenth day of April next, between the hours of one and three in 
the afterrioon of that da}', until he be dead. It has been said that as 
a matter of policy the Goxernor ])ardoned him. 

In 1(S05, Augustus Porter was indicted and found guilty of a 
miisance in niaiiuaining a dam oxer the outlet. In ISOC). Samuel 
l)ungan was indicted for nnu^der and a nolle ])rosequi was entered. 
Ir. lSn7, .\elson. a negro siaxe. xxas indicted for nuirder and con- 
victed o( manslaughter. In iSlo, lolm 1 )ecker xxas indicted for 
nuirder and conxicted ot" nianslanghlcr. and -entenced to four xeai^s 
in Auburn prison. 

In 1S14. at the Max- term. Xathaniel W. Howell being the i)rosc- 
cuting attorney, Sanford W illiams xvas indicted for challenging to 
fight a duel : and a xx'oman named Cassa \\'aters was indicted for 
nmrder, and in June conxicted and sentenced to be executed on the 
foin-th dax' of Xoxembcr then next, and at the September term of 
the same year, this xerdict xvas set aside for some irregularity on 
the i)art of the jury during their deliberations and a nexx- trial 
ordered. The prisoner xxas again conxicted and sentenced to be 
hung in b>l)ruary folloxving. 

I'erhaps in all the annals of the State of New York no one 
ex-ent created so widespread interest or so embittered public feeling, 
or darkened political and social relations, or so dixided and 
distracted i)artics. churches, .and families, as the abduction of 
W iiliam Morgan in 1826. 4die mxsterv of his takiu"- oft', like the 
fate of the beautiful Theodosia T.urr, the abduction of Charlie Ross, 
or the murder of Dr. Purrell, and many others, xvill never be sohed. 

This is not the i)lace to discuss the singular circumstances that 
surrounded the violation of the sacred rights of citizenshi]), or to 
speculate upon the exhibition of fanaticism that involved so many 



|)e()i)lc or so (listnrl)C(l tin- t-k'HU'iils, political and social, in this 
and some nci^hliorin^' Slates. Tlio>c who were con\-ersant with the 
circiinistanccs ol this most cxt raordiiiarv case ha\e all departed. It 
would he out ot place to reler at length to the niaiu' iiitei"e>tiii^' 
circumstances connected with the case, liii'ther than to refer to the 
trials, conducted in ( 'an;ind;uL;ua, that L;rew out of the abduction. 

The case that created the ])i-oh aindest intei-est was tried on an 
indictment found l)\- the i^rand 
jur\- ol ( )ntario countw in Xoxem- 
her, bSif), ajyainst Nicholas (i. 
Chesehro, l^dward Sawyer, Loton 
I.awson, and John Sheldon, for a 
cons])irac\' to kidnap W illiam 
.Morj.;an and to carr\' him to 
foreign ])arts and to secrete and 
confine him there; and, on a 
second indict nn'Ut , for carrying' 
the cons])irac_\' into execution. 

The court of ( )\'er and Term- 
iner convened on the fourth day 
of |anua]"\'. 1S27, for the trial of 
these indictments. ( io\ernor De- 
Wilt Clmt(tn re(|iiested the .\t- 
torne\- (ieneral, Sanuiel A. lal- 
cott. to he present and assist in 
the trial, hut he declined to attend, 
lion. I'.nos 1. Throo]). one of the 
Circidl Iu(li4e.s of the State, [)re- 
sided. lion. Nathaniel W. I low- 
ell, I'drst jtidge of the count \-, and 
Aaron \'oung"lo\e, Micah IJrooks, 
and Aloses Atwater were .\sso- 
ci.ate Judges. The prosecution 
was conducted hy Bowen \\diit- 

iuL^, histrict .\ttorue\-. assisted hy |i>hu l)i\on, W il!i;im II. Adams, 
jared Wilson, Theod.)re 1\ Talhert, llenrx W . Tayloi", and 15. tS: C. 
iUitler. The counsel for the defendants were John C. Spencer, 
Mark 11. Sihley. Henry \\ I'enfield, and Walter Huhhell. Certainly 
an array of eminent lawyers such as few counties in the State 
coidd eijual. 


\\ illi.'ini II. .\ilams was lioni in Berkshire, 
.\la--s., ill May, 1787. He began the prac- 
tice of the law in Canandaigua ; served as 
an officer through the War of 1812, and 
moving to Lyons, served successively as 
District .-\ttorney and County Judge of 
Wayne county. He died while in .\lhany on 
husiness connected with his (»rofession, .\|)ril 
7, 1S6.S. 


More than one hundred witnesses and a great number of 
people crowded the court house. On being arraigned, the defend- 
ants pleaded not guilty: Init, on the fifth day of January, when the 
trials \\ ere moved, nnich to the surprise of the Court and those in 
attendance, three of the defendants, Nicholas G. Chesebro, Edward 
Sawxer, and Loton Lawson, withdrew their plea of not guilty to 
the indictment for conspiracy and pleaded guilty to that indictment. 

Sheldon alone defended, on the ground that, admitting- the 
facts charged in the indictment to be true, he did not participate in 
the crime. The case was submitted, and the jury, after some hours' 
deliberation, retin^ned a xerdict of guilty, d'he Court sentenced the 
defendants as follows: Loton LaA\son, to imprisonment in the 
county jail for two _\'ears : Nicholas G. Chesebro, one year; John 
Sheldon, three months, and Edward Sawyer, one month. As to 
the indictment for kidnapping against the same persons, and also 
against one James Gillis, the Court directed a nolle prosequi to be 
entered. It subsequently appeared that Sheldon was innocent. 

One of the most atrocious crimes ever committed in the cotmtN' 
was that of Paul B. Torrey, a merchant of Naples, in whipping his 
son to death, in Jul}", 1831. The excitement it created and the h(^r- 
ror with which it struck the comnmnitv exceeded anvthiu"' which 
occurred before or since. 

Torrey was indicted for nnirder on the 12th of June, 1832, and 
on the next da}- the prisoner \\as arraigned for trial in the court 
of 0}er and Terminer. lion. Daniel Mosel}-, L'irctiit judge; 
Nathaniel \\". Howell, V\x<\ Judge of the county: Jolni Price. Ches- 
ter Loomis, Samuel Rawson. l)a\i(I McNeil, Associate Justices; 
11. I". Penheld, Histrict Attorney, for the people, and John C. S])en- 
cer, jared Wilson, and Mark H. Sible}', for the prisoner. 

The nature of the crime can be judged from the indictment, 
wiiich contained six counts, or six different ^\•ays of stating the 
facts constituting the crime. I will gi\ e the substance of two of the 
counts, which \\\W show the facts: The first count states that Paul 
\\. Torre}-, late of the town of Xa])les. in the coimt\' (^f ()ntario. mer- 
chant, "not ha\ing the fear of God before his eyes, btit being moved 
and seduced b}- the instigation of the devil, on the 15th dav of \\\\\\ 
in the year 1831, with force and arms at the town of Naj)les. in and 
uj)on Jedediah 1.. Torrey, in the Peace of God and of the Peop'e 
of the State of New York, then and there being felonioush-. wil- 
fully, and of malice aforethought, did make an assault, and that the 


said J'aul 11. Toncy * * did strike, heat, and kick the said jede- 
(liah L. d'orrc}-. with liis h.'Mid^, lists, and feet, in and upon the 
head, hreasl, hack, hcll\, and >i(h-s, and other parts of the l)o(l\- of 
Inni, tlie said je(h'(hah L. dOrrey, and (hd then and there * * cast 
and throw the said jeih'(hah L. Torre\' (h)\\n unto and upon tlie 
tloor and against the sides and walls of the room in which the said 
jedeihali L. d'orrey then and iliere was, with L;reat force and \i()- 
(cnce, there i;i\in_u- unto the said Jedevdiah 1,. Torrew then and 
there, as wed hy the heating", striking-, and kickin<^" of Idni, the said 
jedechah 1.. I'orrey, in manner and term af()resai(K as h\- the cast- 
ing and throwing'; of liim, the said Je(h'(hah h. d'orrey, down against 
the sides and wads oi tlie room aforesaid, several mortal strokes, 
wounds, and hruiso in and u])on the head, hreast, hack, hellw 
sides, and other parts of the Ijody of him, the said jedediah L. 
d'orrey, to-Nvit : ()ne nmi-tad womid in the to]) of the head * * of 
the len<>-lh of six inches, of the hreadth of six inches, and of the 
depth of one inch — one other wound on the left side of the head 
* * of the lens^th of six inches, of the hreadth of four inches, and 
of the depth of one inch — one other mortal wound on the forehead 
and face * "^^ of tlie length of six inches, of the hreadth of six 
inciies, and ot the de])tli of one inch — and one other mortal wound 
on the hack '■' * r)f the length of twelxe inches, of the hreadth of 
six inches and of the depth of two inches; of which said mortal 
strokes, wounds, and hruises, he, the said Jedediah L. d'orrev, from 
tlie 15th da\- of Jnl\-, in the year aforesaid * * * until the IStli 
da)' of July, in the _\'ear aforesaid, did languish, and languishing did 
li\e, on which said eighteenth da\' of Jnl\\ in the ^■ear aforesaid, the 
said Jedediah J. d'orrey * * * of the said mortal strokes, 
wounds, and hruises, aforesaid, died. 

"And so the jurors aforesaid, upon their oath, aforesaid, do 
say that the said I'aul \\. I'orrey, him, the said Jedediah I., d'orrew 
in manner and 1)\' the means afoi-csaid. felonioush-, wilfullw and of 
malice aforethought, did kill and murder, against the ]^eace of the 
l'eo])le of the State of New \ ork and their dignitw" 

In other counts the i)risoner was charged with striking, wound- 
ing and hruising the \ictim with a l.'irge stick, and therel)\- indicting 
mortal wounds. 

ddie sixth and last count charged that the prisoner, on the IStli 
day of Jul\-. ISol. '"with force and arms, feloniouslw wilfullw and 
of his malice aforethought, did m;ike an assault, and that the said 


Paul B. Torrey, a certain cotton cambrick half handkerchief of the 
value of twenty cents, about the neck, nose and mouth of him, the 
said Jedediah L. Torrey, then and there, feloniously, wilfully and of 
his malice aforethought, did fix, tie, and fasten, and Paul B. Torrey 
with said half handkerchief, him, the said Jedediah L. Torrey, then 
and there, feloniously, wnlfuhy, and of his malice aforethought, did 
choak, suffocate, and strangle, of which said suffocating, choaking, 
and strangling, he, the said Jedediah L. Torrey, then and there 
instantly died." This count then closes with the charge of killing 
and murdering in the manner aforesaid by the means herein stated. 

To the surprise of most people, the jury failed to find the pris- 
oner guilty of niunlcr. l)ut found him guilty of manslaughter, and 
he was sentenced to the State prison at Auburn for seven years. 
It is apparent that the prisoner's eminent counsel, Spencer, Sibley, 
and \\ ilson. must have exercised most extraordinary power over 
the jury m behalf of their client. 

Many years ago, soon after Hon. Alfred Conkling had l)cen 
appointed United States Judge for the Northern District of New- 
York, a Inited Slates Circuit conrl was held in Canandaigua, Judge 
Thompson ])residing. witli judge Conkling as Associate Judge; at 
which Icrui a xouui; uiau. son of judge Ciilbert, postmaster at 
Albion, was liied for robbuig llic uiail. iu lrd<iug one hundred dol 
lars iu ui n^ked ten dollar bills therefroui. One of the bills was fouud 
on tlu- i)erson of the young man. judge Gilbert stood high in the 
estimation of the ])eoi)le of his \illage. and it is said that his friends 
to the number of three hmidred attended the trial, which lasted 
three or four days in the hot month of July. 

The case was sunnned u]) by enunent counsel on each side, 
consuming in their efforts several hours until night, when judge 
Thompson began his charge to the jury. W hile on the point of 
identifvin"- the monev, which he said was so clear that there could 
scarcely be any doubt, he was so overcome with the heat and 
exhaustion that he fainted. Restoratives were applied and he began 
again. Again he fainted, and w as taken near a window, where he 
asain retrained enoueh consciousness to he;ir fudge Conkling, con- 
tinuine the charsfe. take ui) the (luestion of identifving the money, 
which he made difticult. As he was on this point. Judge Thompson, 
who thoroughly believed in the guilt of the young man. exclainu'(|. 
m a deprecating tone: "Oh. <lear! ilear that charge; he will 
surely be acquitted. Oh, dear!" 



riu' i.-asc was iL^ixcn to the jiir\' ahout H' o'clock, Salurday nij;li(. 
( Ml i^oiiiL; to cliurcli Sundr.y moi'niniL;', a wai;" reported that the jury 
had ac(Hiitted the \'oini^ man, hut told him not to (hi it a^ain. 

In the earl\- forties, a man h\ the name ol liootli was inchcted 
I'oi hii^aniy. and the case was hroiiLiliL to trial 1)\- the District 
Attorney. Thomas M'. Tlowell. I^s((., in the court of Sessions, Judije 
I'.owt-u W hiling- presiding'. Ah'ah VVorden, Escp. ai)peai"ed for the 

Mr. Howell had made a 
ihorounh ])reparatiou of the case, 
and wrote the name of the first 
wife in the indictment as it a|)- 
peared in the marriag'e certificate, 
"Mary Ann." when, in fact it was 
"Mary Angeline." 

The jury was em])anele(l, and 
the trial proceeded until the i)ros- 
ecuting- attorney had made out a 
case. At this point, Mr. WOrden, 
coiuisel for the defendant, mo\ed 
that the indictment be cjuashed, 
on the ground that the defendant 
could not he held, on account of 
the mistake in the name of the 
tirst \\ife in the indictment. 

The ])oint was argued per- 
sistently by both sides, Mr. How- 
ell insisting that the law did not 
regard the middle name in the de- 
scription of a ])erson. The Judge 
decided that he could not hold the 
defendant. The District .\t- 
tttiMiey asked until morning t(^ 

produce authorities, as it was then nearly 6 o'clock. This the 
judge refused, and directed the jur\- to acipiit and the clerk to 
demand the verdict. 

To the (juestion by the cderk. "Clentlemen, ha\e vou agreed 
upon a verdict?" The fcu'eman res])onded, "Xot guillv!" Here. 
the District Attorney, rising, said: "Please the Court. 1 re(|uest 
that the iur_\- be polled." To this request the Judge said: "Please 


I'owou Whiting, a prominent nienihcr of 
lli>-' early ( )ntario county l)ar, was born in 
.Norwich, Conn., January 16, 1790; moved to 
(leneva, (Ontario county, in 1816; District 
Attorney from 1823 to 18.^2; a member of 
tlie f.egislature in 1824 and 182.t; County 
Judge from 1838 to 1844, and appointed a 
.Supreme ("ourt Judge for the .Seventh dis- 
trict, .\pril 7. 1844. He died in (icneva, 
December 28, 1850. 


take your seat, sir. The question is a legal one and has been 
decided by the Court."' And turning to the clerk, he said: "Take 
the verdict from the full jury." The clerk responded, "So say you 
all?" There was a feeble "Yes" from the foreman, when the voice 
of Edward Herendeen, a Quaker from Farmington, was heard, 
"Not my verdict." 

Judge AMiiting. turning m an excited manner toward the jury. 
stated again: "Gentlemen, the question as to the error of the name 
is a question of law. not of fact, and the jury is bound to follow the 
direction of the Court, which is, that it must find a ^•erdict of not 
guilty." And he again directed the clerk to take the verdict. "Not 
guilty," was the response of the foreman. 

At the question. "So say you all?" the District ' Attorney, 
again rising, said : "If it ])lease the Court, the District Attorney 
has the legal right to, and does, demand that the jury be polled." 
Judge W'hiiing exclainnMl, "Take your seat, sir! Mr. Clerk; take 
that verdict." 

The clerk: "So say you all?" Then suddenly the short but 
very broad figure of Edward Herendeen was seen rising, and. stand- 
ing on ti])toe, he exclainuMl. bringing his fist down on the front of 
his seat. "Not mv \erdict. and I want to go out." "\\ ell." said the 
Judge, "if the juryman takes that stand, the trial must proceed," 
and thereupon he adjourned the court till morning. 

Tn the morning, on the cause being called, the District Attorney, 
with authorities on the table before him, requested permission to 
submit them. Judge Whiting then frankly stated that on exami- 
nation he had ascertained he was wrong, and. commending the 
stand taken by the juror. Herendeen, directed that the trial proceed 
and witnesses be examined for the defendant. 

Friend Herendeen was proud of the stand he had taken, and 
afterward said to the District Attorney : "Friend Howell, I stood 
by thee on the Booth trial, and T think I taught the Judge and 
Lawyer Worden that, while man made common law, God made 
connnon sense." 

The trial of Henrv Wooden, in January. 1851. for the murder 
of his wife, on the 17th or 18th of August. 1844. at Victor, created 
a good deal of interest, and was hotlv contested. S. V. R. Mallory 
and Mr. Chatfield appeared for the People, and Alvah W^orden, 
Elbridge G. Lapham. and Jacob P. Faurot for the prisoner. The 
trial began January 19, 1851. 



1 1 ;i|i|)i';irc(l ili;i( tlir deceased was the prisfiiier's secoml wife, 
and lu' her beeoiid linshaiid: that tliey had niarried the fall before; 
that lioth l)a(l some proijerlx-; that thev iiad (|narreled : that mi the 
17lh 111 August Ihey were seen sittiiiL;' at a tahie in theii" I'diun. one 
on one side and the otluT on the other side; that in the moi-nin<; her 
body was fotnid Moating in the well, and liiat from the appearance of 
the bed wliei'e both nsnalb skpt there was the appern"ance of on]\- 
one person ha\in^- lain there. The 
trial lasted till tlie 24t1i, when the 
jury disagreed, and the case was 
never again tried. 

The People vs. Esmond V. 
DeGraff — The defendant was in- 
dicted in 1858 or bS59 for an 
assault and l)attery n])on (~»ne Mil- 
ler, both highly esteemed in the 
town of (iorham, both teachers 
and both \"er\ nnich in love w'xXh 
a \ei"y intelligent young lad\- in 
the same town. Miller was found 
o-agged and bound b\' strong 
cords, in his bedroom at the W eb- 
ster Mouse, Canaudaigua, and 
while in this condition he swore 
that he was compelled to re- 
nounce all claim to the hand of 
the 3'oung ladx- 1)\- a paper pre- 
sented to him for that purpc:)se 
and which he signecl. liis ]-i\al 
was one of the persons engaged 
in it. at least so he swore at the 
trial. The paper, it was said, was 
mysteriously found, and the 

young lad\' was \er\- kiudl\- so informed; no delav was made in 
l)uttiug her in possession of the storv of the outrage that had been 
done by the defendant. This settled, the matter against the defend- 
ant m the mmd of the )dung ladv, and she subse(|uentl\- married 

The trial lasted over a week, and the court house w^as crowded 
all the time \\ith Gorham j^eople. The most prominent people of 


KuNtrl W. Stoddard, a mcmbt-r of the 

early Ontario county bar, was born in Con- 

i;ccticut in 1777; came into the (lenesee 

country when quite a young man, settling 

at (ienc\a; attained (hstinction as a lawyer; 
.UkI at Geneva, March 16, 1849. 


that town took sides, and did so ^\•ith qreat l)itterness. In the early 
morningf the liiorhAvav as far as could be seen from this village was 
black with carriages filled with excited people. DeGraff was ably 
defended bv Hiram ]\Ietcalf and 'Sir. Raymond, of Rochester. 
Elbridge G. Lapham assisted the District Attorney. The senior 
opposing counsel almost came to blows, and the trial waxed hotter 
and hotter to the end. The jury disagreed, standing nine for 
conviction and three against. 

The cause was not retried. Miller sul)sequently confessed that 
there wa^ no truth in his stor}-. told luider oath on the trial, and 
that the defendant was in no wise guilty. He had tied the cords and 
arranged the gag himself. 

Several important ejectment cases created much general 
interest at the time they were pending, and locally caused great 
excitement. One was that of Packard against Wilder, a Bristol case, 
which was tried first at the February. 1856, Circuit. The trial lasted 
six days. The jury disagreed. Hon. Elbridge G. Lapham for the 
plaintift'. and Hon. S. \'. R. Mallory for the defendant. The case 
was again tried at the May. 1856. Circuit, at which ^fr. Lapham 
was assisted by Hon. James C. Smith, then his law partner. This 
trial lasted five days, resulting in a verdict for the defendant. A new^ 
trial was granted and the case was again tried at the November 
Circuit, in 1857. after the death of Mr. Mallory. Thomas ^f. Tlow^ell 
appearing for the defendant. The trial lasted three days, and 
resulted in a verdict for the plaintiff. The defendant, ^^'ildcr. died 
soon after. 

On the trial the giving of a certain deed of the property w^as 
most positively denied by the person who gave it. The plaintiff 
could not procure the deed, but produced witnesses who swore 
positively that they had seen it. Some years after the death of the 
defendant, a copy of the deed was found spread on one of the books 
of record in the County Clerk's office, but the certificate of record 
had not been signed by the County Clerk, nor had it been indexed, 
for the reason that it was not entitled to record by reason of an 
imperfection in its acknowledgment or execution. 

Another ejectment suit which was quite sensational was tried 
at a Circuit in 1855 or 1856. The f|uestion involved was whether a 
child, who had died some years before, inherited the property from 
his reputed father, who died before the child w^as born. If he so 
inherited, then, on his death, his mother inherited from him, and her 


qraiitee, the plaintiff, was c'iititk'(l id the tann. a \ahiahlc ])icre of 
hand lU'.ii' (lene\a If the cliild was not the real hen'; then the 
hrothers and sisters of the decedent were the heirs. 

'I'he real (|uestion inxohed came fu'st hefore tlu' court of Ses- 
sions in .\n_t;nsl, IS-K), when William Kimher, l)oll\- ( 'i"ittenden. 
Sally Kimhall, Fanny I'ulton, and .\i)ijah llawle\- were indicted for 
producing" a pretended heir. The case was tried in .May, 1S41 . l)efore 
lion. Daniel Mosely. Circuit Judije, and lion, liowen Whiting", 
County judiie ; John Lapham, I'eter .Mitchell, Jei'emiah !'.. Tarrish. 
and .\mos Jones, Associate Jndijfes. Hdie trial lasted two days. The 
facts hrouiLi'ht out were as st.artlin^" and sensational as if found in a 
work of fiction. The prisoners, W illiam Kimher, l)oll\- Crittenden, 
and Sally Kimhall were found guilty, and the other two were 
ac(|uitted. Sentence was suspended, and their l)ail was estreated 
the following- year. 

It was after the lapse of nearly hfteen years from the time the 
criminal case was tried, when suhstantialh- the same (piestions came 
before the C^ourt to he tried in a ci\il suit. lion. S. V. R. Mallory 
conducted the case for the ])laintiff, and Hon. h^lhridge G. La|)ham 
f(^r tlie defendant, resulting in a xerdict for the defendant, suh- 
stantially the same ilnding as to the facts as in the criminal case, 
fifteen years before. 

In .\ugust. 1856, a remarka1)le case was tried in the court of 
Sessions, Hon. John M. Bradford, County Judge, i)resi(ling'. Asahcl 
Gooding, of the town of Bristol, had been indicted for forgery. He 
was charged with forging the names of George Gooding, Klnathan 
W. Simmons, and others, as endorsers on certain ]')romissor\' notes 
given 1)\- him to certain banks for a large amount. Suits against tlie 
persons w hose names were signed on the notes had been commenced 
to enforce collection, but the defense of forgery had been interposed 
by tlie indorsers, and the trials had been ])ost])oned to await tlie 
result of the criminal prosecution. 

The District Attorney, Thomas O. F'erkins, Ks(|., was assisted 
in the prosecution by Hon. Klbridge G. Lai)ham and Hon. James C. 
Smitli. who were the attorneys of the defentlants in the ci\il cases 
in which forgery was alleged. Hon. S. V. R. Mallory and Hon. E. 
VanlUiren defended the ])risoner. I'he trial lasted si.x days. Every 
l)oint in issue and e\ery material fact was fought o\er l)y the 
attorneys most fiercely and with nnich bitterness. "Fhe material 
witnesses were subjected to the most searching and perplexing 



cross-examination, one of tliem 1)eing" kept on the stand for nearly 
two days. 

Two of the witnesses ^^•l^o alleged forg.erv were shown signa- 
tures, ])urporting- to i)e tlieir own. on papers folded in envelopes, 
with a slit cut out just large enough to disclose the signature without 
revealing" any other portion of the paper. It is said some of them 
denied the genuineness of their signatures to official papers dulv 

acknowledged, and admitted hc- 

titious ones to be genuine. One 
of them admitted endorsing notes 
in blank, to be hlled up as to 
amount, date, and time of pay- 
ment. The ordeal they were sub- 
jected to was most tr\ing. The 
character of the witnesses for the 
])r()secution was beyond ((uestion. 
They were among the best citi- 
zens of the town of Bristol, and 
their honest}- and \eracit\ were 
uncjuestioned. The iur\- exidcnlK' 
belie\'ed them to be nnstaken and 
ac(|uitted the jirisoner. As a con- 
se(|uence, the civil suits were 
thereafter settled b\- the defend- 
ants therein. 

.\t the l'"el)ruarv. 1S53. term 
of the ()ver and Terminer. .\sa !>. 
Smith was indicted with W illiam 
HENRY s. COLE. ^^ 5,.,^i^l^ ,^,.,,l Thouias \\"right for 

Henry S. Cole was born in Canandaigua, '^ 

September 23, 1800; admitted to practice at kidnappinir his OWU daUullter. 
the Ontario county bar, 1821; removed to i i o o 

-Michigan, where he became prominent in ElizR BcIl Bennett. wllO WES 
the practice ot lus profession and held the 

office of Judge of the Probate Court; died claimed bv OHC AddisOU j. BcU- 
at Detroit, June 10, 1836. 

nett to be his wife, and the case 
was sent to the court of Sessions for trial, .\nother indictment 
against the same parties was found at the Aj^ril term of the court 
of Sessions, in the same year, for assault and battery upon Addison 
J. Bennett and Eliza Bell Bennett. Both indictments were based 
on the same transaction. 

The facts were, in 'substance, that Bennett, a young man of 
little education and no refinement, was a farm hand working by the 

Till': oxTAKio c6uN'^^■ (oirts. las 

month for :\sa \\. Sniilli, a wcll-lo-do faniu-r and mcmhcr of llic 
Societ\- of P'ricnds — ooniiiionh' calliMJ (juakcrs — rcsidiiiL;' in the 
town of Maccdon, whose dan,L;hlcr, an innocent, simple-minded i^iid. 
ahonl sixteen \ears old, ke])t in child-like ii^norance of neaid\- e\er\- 
thing" ontside the monoton\- of home life on her father's fai'm. 
became impressed with what she ihon^ht was manliness and woi'th 
in the ])erson of this hired, man. who had ac(|nire(l nmch inllnencc 
o\er her, nnsns])ected Iw her parent^. 

( )ne Snndaw or h'irst l)a\', as the lia\'nds call it, the pai'eins 
went to meeting', lea\ing their danghter a1 home. liennett indnced 
the girl to go with him in a l)ng■g^' to some magistrate or preacher 
and get married, ])i"omismg to bring her directh- back home to her 
parents. ( )n the retnrn of the ])arents. they learned that liennett 
had dri\en away with their danghler. The three men who were 
indided started after liennett and the girl, and soon met them, 
when the father and one of the other men jnm])ed from their 
carriage and seized IJennett's horse, and, with threats to liemiett, 
the lathei took his danghter from liennett's bnggw and. ])nttingher 
imo their carriage, drove home. I'ennett being determined to regain 
his wife, her father sent her to IMiila(lel])hia, to be kept bv some of 
the Society of hiaends there of his accpiaintance and placed in school. 
It ha\ing come to the knowledge of the father that Bennett had 
learned where his wife was, she \\as sent to Kngland, where she 
became an edncated and accom])!ished ladw 

The indictment tor ki(lnai)i)ing was (piashed on the (lav follow- 
ing the indictment b)r a^satdt and batterw and the parties, being 
immediately tried on the latter indictment and fonnd g"nilt^', were 
Imed v'flOO each. There was nnich .abont this trial that was sensa- 
tional, and the conrt room was crowded dnring the five days that 
it lasted. Jacob \\ h'anrol was District Attorney. Mr. Husbands, 
of Rochester, and llenry (). Chesebro. of Canandaigiia, appeared 
for the defendants. 

Bennett was still persistent, and commenced a ci\-il action 
against the same defendants for loss of services of his wife, 
alleging- the kidnapping, etc.. in aggravation. This was tried in 
Febrnary, 1854, and resnlted in a \erdict in Bennett's favor for 
$1,250. Joshna A. Spencer, of ITica. and S. V. R. "Mallory, of 
Canandaigna. two ver\' able lawyers, were for the plaintitT. W'orden 
and Chesebro were for the defendants. This trial lasted two days, 
and the pnl)lic interest in it kept np. 


A new trial was granted, and the case was retried. I think, in 
1855, S. V. R. JNIallory for the plaintiff, and Smith & Lapham for 
the defendants, and resulted in a verdict for the defendants. This 
ended the litigation between the parties. The daughter was a 
witness on this trial, and appeared ladylike, accomplished, and self- 
composed. She afterwards secured a divorce and was married to 
a gentleman in every way suitable to her character and station 
in life. 

Amonir the manv oelel)rated cavises which haxe been tried in 
Ontario county on the cixil calendar, the one that consumed the 
largest period of time in the actual trial, and created the greatest 
interest, local and public, was the case of Ross Wynans vs. the New 
York and Erie Railway Co., im])leaded with some other railroad 
corporations of the various ])arts of the Northern States. 

Ross Wynans, the ])1aintirf. was a millionaire inxentor and 
manufacturer of the city of Baltimore. Maryland. He had, before 
this, built the "reat raih-oad in Russia, extending from St. Peters- 
burg to the Crimea, under a contract by which he received a small 
per cent., as royalty, upon all freight transported over the road for 
a period of years. The unforeseen Crimean war required the trans- 
portation of immense su])plies for the Russian army, and the royalty 
received under this contract and paid b}- the Russian go\ernment 
amounted to a very large sum. He had secured \ aluable patents 
relating to the construction of railways cars, the |)rinci])al one l)eing 
what was known as the swinging bolster. Main- of the large rail- 
road corporations had appropriated his inxentions and were tising 
them in defiance of W^ynans's claims, and, as he contended, in 
violation of his rights. 

His cause of action was foimded upon the alleged infringement 
*if his patents. The action was brought in the United States Circuit 
court for the Northern District of New York. It came on for trial 
at the June term, in 1856, at Canandaigua, Hon. N. K. Rail, of 
Buffalo, District Judge, i)residing. ^l^hc trial occujiied six or seven 
weeks, and was conducted with singular pertinacity, as millions of 
dollars were involved. It brought into the court some of the most 
learned and eloquent lawyers of this country, as well as some who 
were famous for their knowdedge of mechanics and their skill in the 
technicalities of the patent laws. ;\mong them were Mr. Whiting, 
of Boston; Mr. Fxeller and Mr. Stoughton, of New York City; ]\Ir. 
Clarence Seward, of Auburn; and other eminent lawyers from 



ijaltiniore, IMiila(k'li)liia, and St. I.iniis, inakini^" an arra}' of Icj^al 
talent such as was ncvcM* seen in our old court house, before or 
since. Scienlilic men fi-oni all ])arts of the country were called as 
expert witnesses. Anioni;- them was Professor Mapes. of I'rinceton. 
.Such was the sex'cre cross-exannnation ot this distini^uished man 
1)\- Mr. Whitini;- that he actual!)' swooned in the witness box. 

"J'he case did not reach the 
jury, as it was determined hy the 
Court ai^ainst the ])laintirf on a 
(juestion of law, hut the lonj^' trial 
_i;a.\e an o])portunit\ tor some of 
the lawyers to enjo\- lln' pleasures 
of count r\ life. I'Lspecially Mr. 
Stou^'hlon, who hi"om;ht here his 
familx' and his horses, carriage, 
coachman, and took a(l\anta!L;e <>f 
the heanlitul drixes about Canan- 
dai^'ua in his slxlish tui'uout. 

Soon aftei" the l*'u^iti\e .Sjaxe 
lax\ was ])assed, a slaxe bx- tlu' 
name of jerrx' esca])ed and ^ot as 
bar north as Sxracuse on his way 
to Canada. He xvas caupht in 
.Syracuse by (ioxernment ofticers, 
and an eflort xxas made to return 
him to slaxery. as prtjxided bxthis 
law. This xxas too nuich for the 
Free Soil men of Syracuse. .So, 
x\ itli the determination of the men 
of lloslon xxho threxx' the tea over- 
board, they rescued Jerrx' and 
scattered the men who had stai't- 
ed xx'ith him for Dixie. 

The trial of the rescuers xxas attcm])ted here at our court house, 
in the United States Circuit court. Here xxas the iur\'. Ilere was 
the i^raxe and honorable Cnited .States (ud^e, xxith all the glamour 
and ponij) formcrl}- in exidence in that court. Ilere, too, was (ier- 
rit Smith and b>hn P. Hale, of Nexx' Hampshire. A stand xxas im- 
proxised where Dr. Reahan's hosjjital n(wx is. A meeting- xx'as called 
to be addressed by Gerrit Smith at 1 p. m., on the Fugitive Slave 


Daniel Dcwcy llaniaril, "a member of the 
Ontario county l)ar as early as 182.S," was 
born in lierkshire county, Mas.s., in 1797; 
graduatetl from XVilliams College in 1818; was 
adiniltcd lo the bar in 1821 ; in 1826 became 
District .Xttorney of Monroe county, then re- 
cently set off from Ontario county, anil later 
served in Congress and as U. S. Minister to 
Prussia. lie died at Albany, .\pril 24, 1861. 


law. AH the jurors, in some mysterious Avay. \\ere notified to l)e 
present, and they were there. 

Gerrit Smith, a man of larg-e wealth and magniticent presence, 
a world-renowned orator, held these jurors in breathless suspense, 
while with fer\id Avords and withering scorn he denounced that 
al:)ominal)le disg-race known as the Fugitive Sla\e law. and out in 
the middle of the highway stood Senator John P. Hale, with burlx- 
lorni. he who at one time was the onl}' anti-sla\"er\- man in Con- 
gress, shaking with laughter e\ery time Smith scored a i)oint 
agairist this law. 

Smith and Hale were here for business. Their act was one of 
the boldest in the annals of judicial historw It ma\- ha\e been 
unseemi)- and unwise. P-ut the)- \\ere read}- for ])rison and for 
death if necessary. It resulted in the adjcnirnment of the court and 
the failure of the Go\ernment ever to tr\- the Jerr\- rescuers. 

The hrst criminal case tried in the present court house was 
that of the People vs. Napolean P. \'an Tuyl. in the \-ear 1S59. 
\'an '\'u\\ was indicted for kidna])])ing iwo boys, Prue and I light, 
free negroes residing in Cenexa, and selling them into sla\"er\- in 
Kentucky. The late Cahin W alker, of Ciene\ a. was appointed b\- 
Clo\ernor John A. King, connnissioner to act in behalf of the Slate 
to rescue the bovs wlien t"ound. 

He found tln'm in a sla\e ])en in Kentuck\'. Hight, in his testi- 
mon\- on the trial, said: "l was feelin" \er\' bad. shut u\) in dat 
l)en one mornin", and I was ])ecking tho" de cracks of de logs and 
sot m\- eyes on Alassa W ahka comin' tow'ds de ])en. and," with a 
grin showing .all his white ivories, "den T feel bett.ah."" 

Governor King granted a reciuisition on the Ciovernor of Ken- 
tuckv for \'an Tuyl, which was executed b\' Henrv C. .^wift. then 
Sheritt of (Ontario count\\ \\ hen he reached Kentucky, he found 
A'an Ttiyl had been arrested there for false pretenses, in represent- 
ing that the boys were slaves, and the authorities refused to give 
him '!]) till after his trial there on that charge, which occurred a few 
da\s after the arrixal of our Sherifif. The Judge l)efore whom he 
was tried was an eccentric character. On the trial he called Sheriff 
Swift to the bench and invited him to sit by him, saying to him 
confidentially, "The i)unishment for false pretenses liere is \ei\' 
light. 1 will try to enlighten the jury in my charge so that they 
will accjuit the prisoner, and then you can take him back to New 
^'ork with you, where he can be punished as he deserves." The 



prisoner was tried, and, umU'r the Jii(1l;x'"s cliar^^'e, was ac(|uittc(l. so 
that Sherifl Swift returned to tiiis count}- witli X'anTuyl as 
Ins ])risoner. 

riiis ki(liiai)])nii^' was 'he first ci'inie he had e\er l)een known to 
connnit. lie was a \'oim<^ man ot ahont 1 w ent \-li\e x'ears, an onl\' 
ehihh and his con(hiet liad been e\enii)h'ir\- in e\cr\- wav. Hi- 
])aients were hit;hl\- respected, as 
well as wealthy. lie had s])ent 
])art of the money receixed on the 
sale of the l)o_\-s ;it Niai^^ara I'alls, 
where he was taken for h'.dwin 
r.ooth — the reseml)lance ])eini; 
ver\- strikinu". 

Mr. justice llenr\- Welles, of 
the Supreme court, presided al 
the trial. I Ion. William I I. Smith, 
till' Mislrict .\ttorne}', assisted l)\' 
lion, kufus W'. I'eckham. father 
ol Rufu^ W . Peckham. recenth' 
one ot the Justices ot the I'nited 
.Slates .Supi-eme court. ap])eare(l 
tor the l'eo])le. and lion. I'dhridLie 
( r. La])ham. late L'nited .States 
Senator, defended the prisoner. 
The ]ur\ disa^i'eed. standing' ten 
foi- con\iction and two a_<^'ainst. 

.\mon<4 the witnesses was 
judme (iraxx's, of Kenttick)'. w Ikj 
jirirchased Prue of the ])risoner. 
Jud^e (jraxes was the son of the 
mend)er of Cono-ress whn fouuht 
a duel with Scylla. ()n the next 

trial, judi^e Graves declined to come as a witness. The fiancee of 
Van d'u_\ I had begg-ed him not to come, and her ap])eal prox-ed 
successful. Dr. Georg-e Cook, then superintendent of r)righam Hall 
Canandaigua, xxas called as an ex])ert x\ itness in faxor of \ an fuyl. 
to prox-e insanity, but the doctor testihed that he xx'as sane. 

On this trial. X'auTuxl was conxicted and he x\as sentenced to 
txx'o years in the State j^rison at .\uburn. lie shoxxed no signs of 
insanity during- the txxo years he spent in i)rison. He died soon 


.ialiirz 11 olden Metcalf \va> born in the 
lovvn of Nai)!es. Ontario county, in 1813; 
studied law v\ith XX'illson \- I-ester in Can- 
andaigua and was admitted to the bar in 
184.) ; was associated in the [iractice of his 
profession with F.lbridge G. I-apliam and later 
with Ilenrv M. I'ield. Died in Canaixlaigua, 
April I'l. l'^8.?. 


after his discharge. Prue and Higiit afterwards enhsted in the war 
of the Rebelhon. and Ijoth were kihed in battle. 

One of the distingnished, Init (quaint, members of the Ontario 
bar was Jabez H. ^^letcalf, Esq., father of Hon. J. Henry Aletcalf, 
late County Jtidge of this county. Mr. Metcalf's great good sense 
won for him the reputation of being a wise and safe counselor. He 
despised what was mean, low. or dishonest. His humorous and 
pointed way of stating facts will long l)e remembered by those who 
knew him. He appeared for the appellant in the County court one 
time, before Hon. William H. Smith, who had just reached the 
county '^vool-sack." The case was an appeal froili a justice's judg- 
ment, rendered by one of the most worthy and able justices of the 
peace of the county. \\ illiam H. Adams, Es([., later a Justice of the 
Supreme court, appeared for the respondent. 

Mr. Metcalf arose and said: (The real names T omit for good 
reasons) 'Tf tlie Court please, — This case arises on an appeal from 
a judgment in a justice's court held by Squire Jones down in Phelps. 
The plaintiff is James K. Polk W atkins. a colored gentleman with a 
foot sixteen inches long, and heels to correspond. Richard R. 
\\'right, mv client, was defendant. He got beat. Tim Turner, the 
learned blacksmith, tried it for I'dlk. He don't know anything. 
And Daniel IX Tavlor tried it for m\- client. He don't know as nuich 
as the learned blacksmith. 'Squire Jones, the stupid critter, charged 
the jury, and the jury was stupider than the justice, for there was 
six of theiu to one of him." Mr. Metcalf then proceeded logically 
to argue the legal points in the case. 

Mr. Metcalf had a case in the Supreme court in which an 
amusing incident occurred, u))on the trial held before Hon. E. 
;Darwin Smith, justice, in the Ontario county court house. It was 
the case of George lirown vs. one James Parmely. A motion was 
made to postpone the trial until the next term of court on the part 
of the counsel for Parmely. on the ground that he had moxed to 
the State of Louisiana, and was unable to be in court until the next 
term. Mr. Metcalf was the attorney for Brown, who was a poor 
man residing a few miles from Parmely's residence, in the town of 
South Bristol, before he moved to Louisiana. Parmely was a man 
over six feet in height and liad given his note to Brown for 
borrowed money, and, as he had failed to pay it, the suit was 
brought. Mr. Metcalf said: "If the Court please, — I don't know 
whether Parmely has Pone to Louisiana or not. but if he has, he is 


a greater scourge to Louisiana than slavery ever was! My client 
has been \ery lenient with him. lie has lold me his stor)- about it. 
lie was so poor he liad to foot it e\'ery time he went to I'armelx- to 
get his pay. I took down the times he went, figured it u]), and 
made it just 4,869)-2 miles." W hile he was continuing in this strain, 
making more comments on tlie character of I'armely, to his sur- 
prise the tall form of rarmely ap])eare(l at the door of the couit 
room, and he walked in. Mr. Metcalf ha])])ene(l to see him as he 
entered, lie •urned to llie Court, and without a break in his speech, 
but pointing at I'armeU', said: "There comes the critter now, si.K 
feet, tw(» inches of elongated rascality!" 

The Court, as well as the bar and audience, was convulsed with 
laughter. Hie elongated rascal had to go \.o trird, and poor Urow u 
got his money. 

A trial that created considerable interest at the time was an 
action brought l)y the State of Xew ^'ork to recoxer of the P'ederal 
(jo\erumeul a large amount of money to reind)urse the State for 
recruiting during the war. The proceeding was heard in the ("ircuit 
court of the United States, before Judge Wallace, of S\'racuse. 

The State was represented by Roscoe Conkling. then a Senator 
in C(Migress, while the Ihiited States was represented by the Hon. 
Ivichard Crowlew The case was tried and submitted by the respec- 
tive attorncN's. Mr. Conkling, on behalf of the State, luade one of 
those powerful and elo(juent si)eeches for which he was distin- 
guished. His appearance in this case was criticised, at the time, from 
the fact that, being a United States Senator, he was taking sides 
against the Gox-ernment ; and, besides, it 'v\as supposed and l)elic\ed 
that both the Judge and District Attorney were practicall}- i)Ut in 
their ])laces through the instrumentality of Mr. Conkling, and 
would, on that account, be naturally influenced by him. At the time, 
the case created very great interest, both for the amount in\-o!\e(l 
and the high character of the ])arties who were engaged in the 

A criminal case thc'.t created wide-s])read interest because of 
the peculiar character of the question involved, was the trial of 
Susan B. Anthony, for illegal voting. 

Miss Anthony, now famous the cixilized workl over for her 
unequaled and masterfid advocacy of the rights of woman, claimed 
the right to vote for Federal officers under the provisions of the 
amended Federal Constitution, and with a few other women 



suffragists, appeared to vote for nienil)ers of Congress, in the voting 
district where she resided, in the city of Rochester. They had 
taken the ])reHminary step of being registered. 

rhe\ went to the polls on election day and oft'ered their ballots. 
Opposition and discussion at once arose in the board of inspectors. 
But \vh(\ on e(|ual grounds, could \anquish Susan B.Anthony? 

Her womanly presence and 
aggressive personality prevailed, 
and the votes of the brave women 
were received and deposited in the 
biiilot box: the first and last that 
have been cast in this State by 
women at a general election. 

riic antiquated male public 
sentiment was quickly aroused, 
and Mi>s Anthony and her co- 
conspirators against man's politi- 
cal su])remacy. together with sev- 
ci'al insi)ectors of election, were 
]>r(iiii])tl\- indicted. The trial caiiie 
oil, lo be heard at the June lenii oi 
I lie I'niKd States Circuit court, at 
( aiiandaigua. Mr. justice Hunt, 
of I'tica, presided. The ])rosecu- 
tion was conducted by Hon. Rich- 
ard Crowley, of I.ockport, and 
Miss Anthonv was defended by 
lion. Ilenrv 1\. Selden and lion, 
lohn \'aii X'oorhis, of Rochester. 

The court house was crowded 
with interested spectators, both 
\V:Qn and women. Little testi- 
monv was taken Miss .\ntliony. with the courage of her convic- 
tions, through lur emineni counsel, readily agreed upon the facts, 
therebx practicallv resolving the case into a cpiestion of law. 
Mr. Crowlev moved the Court to instruct the jury to render a 
verdict of guilty. 

Seldom, if e\er, has a more brilliant argument been made than 
that of ludge Selden. in opposition to this anomalous assertion of 
judicial ])Ower. \\u\ it was of no avail. The decision was already 

John Callister was horn in .\lbany. Febru- 
ary 22, 1828; moved to Canandaigua, where 
he was a student at the .\cadeniy and 
read law with Hon. I'~ll)ridge G. Laphain ; 
rontinued the practice of his profession until 
his death, which occurred in Canandaigua. 
August 23. 1888. 


in writing", and duriiiiL; liic r(.'])l\' of the I )istrict Attorncs. judge 
Jliiiit was rexirwing his ()])ininii, whudi was to he decisi\e of Miss 
• Vnthom's right to xole. The discussion closed and the Court 
(Mrected the jur\' to lind a \er(Hct of guiUw 

( )n the o])ening" of court the next inctrning, judge Selden made 
a motion in arrest of judgment, and in ^u|)])ort of it deh\ered a 
speech, which, for its arraignment ot the exercise of jmHcial 
autliontx' to de])ri\e his chent of an in(le])endent \er(hct of the ]uvy. 
was most eh)(|uent and masterluL I I is motion was o\erruled and 
Susan I'), .\nthon\-. in all the pride of hei' nohle womanhood, was 
called upon to stand as a common lelon and there receive the judg- 
nieni of the Court. 

The sentence was that she pay a line of $10(1. She inst;iml\- 
declared, "1 ha\e not got a dollar! 1 have not got a dollar!" To 
which, judge Hunt, with greatest suavity, re])hed, 'A On ohserve. 
Miss Anthoin-, that I did not add tiiat you he conlined in jail until 
the line he ])aid." This change from the sentence ordinai'ilv p]"o- 
nounced upon convicted criminals vva> (|uicklv resented hv the 
defendant, who. in a few caustic words, demanded that tlie sentence 
should he that usuallv ])ronounced in cases of like otiending. 

( )ne of tile verv signilicant circmnslance> associated with this 
trial was that at its close the arm that sup])orted the scales fed fiom 
the statue of justice, w hich ornanieiited the dome of the court hou^e. 

Ahout fifteen years ago, a gang of conspirators was organi/ed 
in Rochester, ostensibh- for the jiurpose of dealing in estate. 
Idieir real ol)ject was to accpiire the title to valuahle real estate in 
the cilv and surrounding country, without consideration, and hv 
fraud. The metliod was to enter into negotiations with ])erson> 
desirous of selling and make a hargain to ])urchase, agreeing to 
pay in cash, the bargain to be consummated in their offices in 
Rochester, at a given time, when the money was to be i)ai(l. \\ hen 
the time arri\-ed for perfecting" the ])nrchcise. through one ]ji"etense 
and another, no money would l)e produced and new proposals 
would be made, which generally restilted in an exchange c^f real 
estate in consideration of transfers of moi'tgages or other jjropertv 
represented to be lirst-class security. I hese mortgages and securi- 
ties ^vould in every instance turn out to be either entirely worthless. 
or were forged both in execution and acknowledgment, and usuall}- 
bv false personation. These frauds were carried on to an alarming- 


Finally two of the conspirators, Charles O. Peckens and Albert 
P. \\'icks, attempted to work their fraudulent scheme on S. H. 
Stewart, a resident of Shortsville, in this county. They succeeded 
in defrauding Stewart, but. with the courage of one determined to 
bring the thieves to justice, he consulted Roj-al R. Scott, the Dis- 
trict Attorney, who then became interested in the prosecution of 
the offenses. The result was that Peckens and Wicks were indicted 
and tried for grand larceny, and both were convicted and dul\- 
sentenced to terms in the State prison. Thereafter other members 
of this gang of conspirators were indicted in Rochester, on account 
of their operations there, and were convicted and sentenced to terms 
of imprisonment. 

Another recent case which created much interest was that of 
John F. Dorthy. an attorney of Rochester, who was indicted in 
Monroe county for several offenses, one of which was eml)ezzle- 
ment. He had previously been disbarred from practice on account 
of misconduct as an attorney. The trial was held in Canandaigua 
throtigh a change of ventie. 

jj; ;); :); j;; :jc 4^ 

The ])ioneers of Western Xew \'(irk were very nuich like those 
of other new cnuntnes — gooil. bad, and indifferent. The\' came 
from different sections, with the characters, to a certain extent, of 
the environment of the ])laces whence ihey came; hence, as they 
developed in the new habitat, there was a diversity and individu- 
ality quite unknown in an old settled comnumity. There was more 
lawlessness, and as a result, the court records show more crimes 
m proportion to the population, than at present. Murders and 
other felonies were (|uite common. Character was more intensified 
alone every line, so that while men of hii-h moral character attained 
high positions, men of morals that would not now be tolerated were 
often successful competitors for such jdaces. We are apt to ]iay 
homage to the great men of the past and to the good things they 
did, while in the dim distance we see not their vices and frailties 
which time has kindly covered with the mantle of forgetfulness. 




Dr. Moses Atwater, the First Physician to Settle on the Phelps and 
Gorham Purchase — A Pioneer Physician Who Took Strong 
Ground Against Bleeding — A Physician's Diary — Dr. Edson 
Carr, Skilled in Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, and an 
Excellent Musician as Well — The Later Physicians. 

By John H. Jewett, M. D. 

Tt was nearl\^ two years after tlie first settlers had eome into 
the couiitr\- actjiiired by I'lielps and Ciorhani in tlieir memorable 
])nrchase before serious illness liad bronglit forcil)ly to their minds 
the necessity of |)ro\-iding against such calamity. 

Tn tlie summer of 1790 Caleb Walker, l)r(^ther of the financial 
agent of Mr. Phelps, fell grie\'ousl\' ill at Kana(lar(|ue ( (/anandaigua ) 
of a bilious fex-er. The natural impulse was to send for the doctor, 
but, lo ' that useful person in an\' community was not to be had, for 
in the period of healthful prosperity the medical man had been 
entirel)' (n'crlooked. Iwjrtunately in the neighboring village of 
Ciencva there was a Dr. William Adams, a native of Pennsylvania, 
who responded to the urgent call and \isited Mr. W alker. W hen 
the doctor arri\ed, he had no medicine with him and it is related 
by Mr. Cono\er that a chest which had been left by some traxeller 
was broken open and medicine obtained therefrom. The narrati\e 
does not state whether the}- found the right kind of medicine, but 
presumably not, for Mr. \\'alker died on the l_'th day of August, 1790. 

This was the first death in the new settlement. The bod}- was 
interred in the old cemetery, the iuscrii)tion on the stone being as 
follows: "In memory of Caleb \\ alker, w iio died August IJth, 1790. 
Aet 38." 

An interesting circumstance in connection with the tuneral is 
that the physician in charge also officiated as clergyman and read 



tlie Episcopal service at the orave. It may be that thus early was 
laid the foiindatit)!! of tliat curioii^^ custom which so long- prevailed 
in Lanandaiijna that tlie attendmg- idnsician should head the funeral 
procession and take with him the ofticiatmg clergyman. Not until 
1880 was this custom abrogated by a resolution passed by the 
Canandaigua \'i!lage .Medical Society, which we copy from the 

minutes : "Resolved — That we. 
the medical profession in Canan- 
daigua. disapprove of the prevail- 
ing' custom of leading funeral 
{processions and henceforth are 
determined to discontinue thi^ 
inconvenient and unnecessary 

To Dr. Moses Atwater. how - 
ever, belongs the honor of beini;" 
the pioneer physician in the new 
cnmmunity. for. as stated before. 
Dr. .\dams was called from a 

for special 

neigliboring \illage 


iJr. -Moses .\t\vater, the first pliysiciaii to 
settle on the I'helps and (iorl^am I'urchase. 
became a resident of Canandaigua in 1790, at 
the age of 2i years. moving here from 
Cheshire, Connecticut : was a trustee of Can- 
andaigua .\cadeniy. .\ssociate Judge of the 
County Court, and held other important 
ofVices. Died in Canandaigua. 1847. 


Sometime in 1790. judge 
l'hel])s wrote to Judge Gorhani : 
"We ha\e suffered much for want 
of a physician. Atwater has not 
yet arrived. We have now a 
g^entleman from Pennsvl\ania to 
attend the ^ick who seems to un- 
derstand his business. The two 
Wa(ls^\■orths who came from l)ur- 
ham ha\e been \erv sick, but arc 

now rcco\ering. They are low- 
spirited. The} like the country, but their sickness has discouraged 

Dr. .Atwater arrixed soon after this letter was written, and for 
a ])eriod of about fort\- years actively practiced his profession in 
this village. He was born in Cheshire. Connecticut, in 1765. and 
died in Canandaigua in 1847. He had the advantage of a collegiate 
education at Yale, graduating in the class of 1787, and was twenty- 


the years ot ajL;e when iie hc^.'m ])i"aclice here. His wife was I'an- 
tiiea Tyler, a iiati\e of ( "onnecticiU. 

1 )i-. Alwater \\;is l)etter known a^ Jndi^e Atwalei" ti-om the fad 
thai m 17*'r lie was elected to the henoh. I)]'. Atwater was one of 
the ori^ani/.ers ol the ( )ntario ('onnt\- Medieal Societ\- in ISOf). h 
is recorded that at a meeting- of the medical men of Ontario connl\-, 
held in the court house, Jannary 1. 18(^6. Dr. Moses Atwater was 
chosen president and I )r. kichard Wells, secretarw And in the 
records of the same society, at a meetini;" held Jannar\- 11. 1S4(S. 
I)r. Ilarxey jewett in tlu' chair, the death of I )i'. Atwater was 
noticed, the last of those who hel])ed to ori^ani/e the societx. I )r. 
.\twater, soon after his coming- here, hmh a house heantiftil in its 
day, on tiie site where Atwater flail formerly stood, the site of the 
new I'nited States postofhce hnildin^;'. Here he ]\\<ji\ and had his 
of^ce. W hen Atwater Hall was hnilt in 1S4S, this house was mo\ed 
to the west, where it now stands in a somewhat chani^ed form. 

The Doctor tnay well he descrihed as a f^entleman of the old 
school, conrth' in his hearing', ha\'mL;' a most excellent opinion of 
himself, and (pieer and e])ij4"rammalic in speech, and, as Dr. Xoah T, 
(darke states, somewhat contentions. Dr. Clarke has i;i\en ns 
some interesting- reminiscences of the Doctor and his wondeiM'nl 
horse Rohm and his ^"ood doi^' Hose. Se\eral of onr oldest residents 
descrihe with \i\id recollection the erect h^nre of the (dd liidi;e as 
he rode throni^h the streets l)ehind his faithful steed, holdin;,; his 
whij) in the air. g-enerally with the hntt uppermost. 

In ])olitics the Doctor was a h'ederalist and stron^h- opposed 
to the war of 1812. He not onK- refused to illuminate his house, 
hut actuall}- i)ut out all the lights during the \ictoriou,s celehration 
at tile close of the war, and so offeusi\-e was this action that the 
house was stoned and man}- windows hroken. 1 ha\e heen told 
\f\' one who remembers his own feeling' at the time, that ino>t of 
the girls were afraid to go 1)\ the house, for it was said that he 
kept his coffin in one of the front rooms. 

This is an ap]jro])riate place to speak of Dr. Jeremiah .\twater. 
a brother of the Judge, who ])racticed here for a few years, but 
became blind early and retired from acti\e practice. He li\-e(l to 
be ninety years of age and died in 18C)1. He li\'ed f(^r iuan\' years 
in the house on the east side of up])er Alain street, where Rew .\. 
M. Stowe lived for a number of years. Some amusing anecdotes 
are told of Dr. Jerrv. as he was called. Being summoned to go into 


the country one bitter cold niglit in winter, he went to the barn, 
as his custom was, \\ithout a lantern, to harness his horse. He 
had great (Hfficuhy in getting tlie V)ri(lle on and finally gave up, 
and returning to the house told his \vife that it was so cold that 
the horse's ears were frozen stitt and it was impossible to get the 
bridle over them. His good wife, wishing either to verify or dis- 
approve this remarkable statement, went with him to the barn with 
a light, when it 1)ecame evident that the Doctor had gotten into the 
wrong stall and was trying to harness the cow. 

Dr. Moses Atwater, Dr. William A. Williams, and Dr. Samuel 
Dungan were nearly contemporaneous in their practice and should 
be noted in the order mentioned. 

Dr. William A. W illiams was also a graduate of Yale college, 
finishing his course at the early age of sixteen. He came originally 
from Wallingford, Connecticut, but practiced a short time in 
Hatfield, Massachusetts, whence he came to Canandaigua in 1793. 
at the age of twentv-three. He was twice married, first to Elizabeth 
Chapin. datighter of Gen. Israel Cha])in. and afterwards to Lucinda 
Barlow, daughter of Deacon Barlow. He purchased a lot just south 
of the Academy and built thereon a house and office, the house 
standing on the site of the present J. L. Burnett house, arid the 
office about where the W biting, now Fdson Case, house stands. 

Dr. Williams was one ot the original eighteen members of the 
First Congregational church. A neighbor has described him as 
follows: "A man of j^lain and sim]:)le manners, amiable and kind 
hearted. Mingling at tlie bedside of his patients the consolations of 
friendship with professional advice, in day or night time, in sunshine 
or in storm, with the rich or poor, he was the same indefatigable 
physician and good neighbor. He gave his services, ofttimes neither 
expecting or desiring compensation. Had he been more considerate 
of himself in this respect, he might have left more worldlv good?; 
when he died. The loss of a favorite son was a terrible shock to 
him and so disturbed him mentally that for a time he was incapaci- 
tated from work. That he was an advanced thinker in his profession 
is shown b\- a conversation which Dr. Dungan records in his diary 
under date of August 12, 1797. 

In this conversation he took strong ground against bleeding 
in bilious fever, as too much debility was produced by it, from which 
it took the patient too long to recover. In practice he was more 
associated with Dr. Dungan than with Dr. Atwater, as they had 

'illE Al!':hlCAl. iM<Ui'ESSlUX. 


more ])()iiUs in coiiininn. ( lenial and niodcsl in lii^ IteaniiL;', lie was 
nc\cr in a luirr\- and was ([nilc apt to 1)C dclil)cratc wlicn (jIIkts 
were excited. 

Mr. Alexandei- I lowed n^ed to tell how Dr. Williams ])nlled his 
leeth on the ste])s of Ids oftice. h\- means of the old fashioned 
turnkey with a liandkerehief wound about it. Quite a nnndiei- 
remember his fon(bie.s,s fori)is-eons 
and chickens, and the intimate re- 
lations which he sustained to jiets as they often shared 

is lod^inu 



some ot 

those bo_\'s and ,^irls tor^et the old 
Uoctor m his loni;' dressing' s^ow n 
and cai). either walkini;' throu,i;'h 
the Li'arden or sitting- stick in liand 
in the doorwa\- ot his othce. lie 
was fond of children and was ai)t 
to comnunn'cate to them more 
i^-eneak^g-y than tlieir ju\eni!e 
minds were ready to receix'C. lUit 
when it came to the delicious ad- 
mixture of i)e])i)ernunt essence, 
suerar and water, which he was 
accustomed lo deal out. there was 
no hesitation on their ])art. 

Dr. \\ illiams was buried in 
the okl cemetery, and the stone 
bears this inscri])tion : "l)r, Wil- 
liam A. Williams. 70, bS34. And 
his two \\i\es. Elizabeth. 3^) — 
1809; Lucinda, 22—1810." 

Dr. Sanuiel Duuoan. ^yho \yas kno^y^ as a surgeon throuL^'hout 
this section, came here in 1797 from Philadelphia, ha^■ing■ been a 
l)n])il there of the celebrated Dr. Wistar. Dr. Dungan ke]U a diary 
and to that, selections from which \vd\e been ])nblished by Mr. 
Thomas Howell, \ye are indebted for some valuable and interesting- 
data. From this diary it would api)ear that he \yas unmarried and 
quite susceptible to Cupid's dart when he came here. He boarded 
\yith the Sanborns, where also boarded among- others Dudley 
Saltonstall, first principal of the Academy, and his family. 

Dr. William .\. Williams, who was boni 
ill W'allingfoicl. Connecticut, settled in Can- 
amlaigiia in 1793; was long a prorniuent 
libysician at the county seat. Died in Canan- 
(laigua, 1834. 


Under date of July 22d, 1797, Dr. Dungan writes: "Spent the 
day and evening with the ^Misses Saltonstall alone. They daily 
increase my attachment to them and I think them all very agreeable 
girls." And later, "Rose at 6:30 A. ^I. to go to Sulphur springs 
with the beautiful and amiable ^liss Fanny Saltonstall." It appears 
that subsequently, however, he was married to some lady from 
Pennsylvania. It is evident that he did not have a very hard time 
and that he enjoyed social functions, for frequently it is recorded 
that he dined at the Morris (the old Judge Taylor) place, and met 
there distinguished men. or that he went ilri\ ing with Mr. Howell, 
or spent the e\'ening singing at the Sanborns, with Mrs. Sanborn 
and the Saltonstall girls. 

Mr. Thomas Howell relates also that Dr. Dungan had a wordy 
dispute with Deacon Abner Barkn\- in which he threatened to kill 
him. Our oldest resident informs me how he scolded the children 
when they came on to the steps of his house, and that it was a 
matter of common l)eHef that he locked his own children up in the 
duno;eon, which was another name for his medicine closet. His 
politics may be inferred from the following (juotation from his diary. 
August .^th. 1797. "In the exening went to Mr. Mon-isV. Mr. 
Thorn and Saltonstall were there and the}" had a long discourse 
on politics. They were vA] danming the poor Democrats. Supjjed 
there, returned home and went to l)ed at 10 o'clock." 

His opinion of Dr. At water is fully ex])ressed in his diary as 
follows: 'A\'ent out this exening as far as the Chapin's saw mill 
to see a little girl, stayed there all night : young Atwater was w ith 
me, a \ery insipid fellow, indeed. He stayed till 11 o'clock. 

Dr. Clarke and Mr. H(n\ell both state that in 1804 he purchased 
a house and lot on the east side of Main street, the house being 
about three feet south of Judge Howell's old law office. In this 
house, which stood in the south two-thirds of the space where 
Dungan street joins Main, and flush with the sidewalk. Dr. Dungan 
lived and had his office. As before stated, this s(|uare frame house 
was standing on the lot in 1804 when Dr. Dungan took possession. 
By whom it was built we cannot ascertain. 

In 1853, when Dungan street was opened l)y Samuel A. .\ndrews. 
he sold the house to Theodore Hart, who moved it to its present 
site after making some alterations. It is the double brown house 
just four doors south of Dungan street. Dr. Harvey Jewett lived 
there for seven vears and Dr. M. R. Carson followed him for seven 

Till'. M l<',!)IC \i. l'k()Fl-:SSl()\. 


ycnrs. all lln- iilnsiciaiiN lia\iii^- had the!]- olTicc's <m the imrth side. 

|)r. I )u]i^an (\\v(\ in ISIS accoi-ih'ni^ to <nu' anth(irit_\-. and in 
ISij acci iiahn^;- tu another, and was hnnetl ni the old cemetery. Xu 
.slone marks his re-^tim^- plaee. 

I am indebted to J )r. John !'.. (diapm I'oi" int'oi'inalion ahont a 
student ol" 1 )]•. l)nnean. a Dr. (damlins C (/oan. While he was a 
student, this Nonni;" man made two jonrncys to I 'hiladeli)h)a tor the 
l)nr])ose of attenchn^- lectm-es in that city, walking- fi'om ('anan- 
d;n!L;iia to I 'hiladel])hia on each occasion. 1 )r. ('oan was horn in 
i;*M and died in the town of ()\id, h'ehrnai-y iS. 1SS2. Tlis wife 
died the following- da\ of the same disease ( pnenmonia ) and was 
hnried in the same ^'rax-e. 

Dr. Kicliard Wells was tlie son of a i)hysician and was horn in 
r.r.ittlelx-ro, X'ermonl, in 1774. In 17''S he married a dans^-hter of 
Dr. Moses Ilaxden with whom lie ^tndied medicine. Xot sncceed- 
iiiL;- in the east, he left his wife and four dan^lUers and came to the 
western connti-\- to l)etter In's linancial condition. His fannly 
followed him in the antnnni of the same year, in a (wo-horse wa^on, 
with all their liousehold i^'oods. His creditors fonnd him in his new^ 
ahode the foljowiny' spring and he was promiJtly Iodised in jail, hnl 
ohlained hail therefrom and had the ])ri\-ilco'e of jail limits. 

We will not attempt to trace the \icissitndes of the tirst years 
of his practice. Suffice it to sa\- that after 1)ein,u- under-sheriff, 
keeping" a la\ern and li\in.'^ in \arious i)laces ahont town, he finally 
settled in a house on the north side of Bristol street, just west of 
Sucker hrook. Here lie resided till his death in 1S42. I*"or about 
ihirtv years he attended to an immense practice, meetint^- with threat 
success. He was g-enerous and free hearted, so that he did not lay 
up nuich. Dr. Kdsou Carr and Dr. E. A¥. Simmons were both 
students of his, .and when Dr. ("heney first came here he was in 
l)artuershi]) with Dr. Wells. He reared a family of ekwen children, 
two of his dau,g"hters marrxin^' i)h\sicians. \ix : Dr. I 'liny Hayes antl 
Dr. Matthews. He was said to ha\e l)een fond of society- and 
respected bv all who knew him. He was an active supporter of St. 
John's church. It is recorded somewhere that on the Fourth of 
Juiv. 1820. in the Methodist church in Canandai,Li'ua. Dr. Wells read 
the Declaration of Independence, ^klark H. Sibley delivered the 
oration, Mr. W^illiam P)arlow made the prayer. Rev. Air. Johns read 
an ode and Chauncev Morse sang- it. Dr. A\'ells died in 1842. Tn 
the nn'nutes of the Ontario County Medical Society, it is recorded 


that in honor of his memorv the society resolved to wear a badee 
of mourning for thirty days, inasmuch as he was one of the organ- 
izers of the society and its first secretary. 

Dr. Phny Hayes was l)orn in Massachusetts in 1789. He, too, 
was in the war of 1812, but in the navv. and had the o-ood fortune 
to serve as powder boy in the memorable engagement between the 
Hornet and Peacock. He studied medicine under Dr. Joseph War- 
ren of Boston. Soon afterwards he opened an office in Cananikii- 
"ua and also a dru"" store. This he carried on till his death in 1831. 
His wife, as l)efore stated, was a daughter of Dr. Wells. She died 
the folloAvinof vear. Two sons survi\'ed, \'iz : Charles iind Robert 
Hayes. One of my int(M-mants describes Dr. Pliny Hayes as tall 
and genteel, a^^■ays clean and nice: modest and unassuming, and 
altogether a \ery delightful man. He \\as a ver\- fine musician, 
plaved se^•eraI instruments and had a good \-oice, and led the choir 
in the Congregational church, for several )ears. He was president 
of the Handel and Hayden society, which, according to Dr. Clarke, 
was the "only well organized musical society- that e\er\- existed 
and flourished here." He \\as president also of a Philosophical 
Institute and ga\'e numerous lectures on scientific subjects. It is 
noted among other things that on February 21, 1821, at Mills hotel. 
Dr. Haves exhibited for the first time in the xillaq'e nitrous oxide 
or laughing gas. "Commodious seats,'" it is said, "were prei)ared 
for ladies." Dr. Hayes lived in the brick building which stood 
where the Congregational chai)cl now stands. This was torn 
down in 1872, when the cha])cl was built. His death occurred in 
1831, in New ^'ork, where he had gone to ])urchase drugs for his 

Dr. Nathaniel Jacobs was for more than sixty years a resident 
of Canandaigua. He was well educated, at one time a teacher in 
the Fairfield Medical College, an excellent reader it is said, but in 
his ])rofession more theoretical than ]:)ractical. Not finding nmch 
to do in a medical way lie became for two )-ears ])rinci])al of the 
Canandaigua Academy. Dr. Jacobs was present and took part in 
the organization of St. Matthew's F]:)iscopal church in this village, 
February 4, 1799, and Mrs. Jacobs was the first person confirmed 
in that church. 

Mrs. Jacobs, who was a daughter of the famous Mr. and Mrs. 
Sanborn, who kept the tavern in the frame house which stood near 
the Atwater block site, enjoyed also the distinction of being the 

THE MEDICAL i'RUl'"l':SSi(JN. 213 

lirst while female child horn in Cnnaiulai^ua. She was born Sep- 
tember 3th, 179''. and died October 25th, 1872, being the last of 
the Sanborn familw I )r. Jacobs li\-ed for man\ years in the house 
on Chapel street now occni)ied by Mr. lloai;- and died there in bS60. 
The last years of his life were sadly clouded b)' mental derange- 

Although Dr. .\. (i. liristol was in Canandaigua bnt a short 
time, it is proper to mention him among the early i)hysician>. lie 
came to ("anand.'Mgua from New Haven in 1(S3I. lie luarried Alary 
Goiham, daughter of Xathaniel (iorham. bnt afier foni- or five 
years spent in i)ractice here he mo\ed to Rochester, where he died 
in 1873. I lis medical education was ac<|uired in I'aris, where he 
spent npwards of li\e years. Jle lived lirst in the old (iorham 
house, where the Court TTouse now stands, and afterwards in what 
was known as the Jobson house on (Iorham street. 

Dr. John kosewarne \\ as identilied with the histor\- of the 
village of Canandaigua for a tuimber of years, though not as an 
actixe ])ractitioner. He was born in 178*-' in Cornwall, l*".ngland. 
was a ]mpil of Sir Astley Cooper, and came to Canandaigua in 1829. 
He came here a man hearlbi-oken by reason of domestic troid)le and 
lived a secluded life on the shores of Canandaigua lake, in the farm 
hotise connected \\\[h what is now known as (ien. Reynolds" ])lace 
He was extremely fond of the lake, was one of the original Black 
ixmuers, and a great friend of Captain Meuteth and Mr. Paton. 

He did not covet ])ractice, but went often in consulta- 
tion, as he was considered to l)e a very able physician. He died in 
Canandaigua, August 19, 1865, at the age of se\euty-six and was 
i)nried in what ^vas th.en kncwNU as the new cemeter}'. At the four 
coirners of the lot in which he is buried <are placed four stones, 
marked each with the name of one of the points on the lake and 
coniiibtited by the occupants of the cabins. 

Dr. I^jihraiiu W. Cheney was born in Sturbridge, Massachusetts, 
in 1793 or "^M. He had only a common >chool edtu\'ition and 
sltidied medicine with Dr. Amasa "rrowbridge, of Watertowii. N. 
\'. Dr. Cheney also had experience in the war of 1812, as he was 
with Dr. Trowbridge at Sackett Harbor. He was licensed to prac- 
tice in 1816 and came to Richiuond, ( )ntario county. He there 
married a daughter of Judge Renniel Chi]uuan. one of the leading 
men of the town and cotult^^ Practicing there tmtil 1832, he then 
mo\-ed to Can.andaigua. On coming to Canandaigua. Dr. Cheney 


was three years in partnership with Dr. ^^'ells, a short time also 
w'nh a Dr. Ransom, and later in life, for two years, \\ith Dr. AT. R. 

Dr. Chenev ^^■a> a \ery religious man, a regular attendant and 
active meml)er of St. John's church, genial and kind hearted in all 
Ins wavs. \ery fond of telling stories, and slow and deliberate in all 
his moAements. He was a very literal man. interpreting people 
according to iheir words, as. for instance, some one meeting him 
who had not seen him for some time exclaimed. 'Tt is reallv good 
to see vou. Doctor: it is a sight for sore eves." "Are vour eves 
sore, madam?" He had eight children, of whom Bisho]) Cheney, of 
Chicago, was one. .\nother son also entered the ministry, and 
one. Dr. W. Fitch Chenev. became a physician and practiced here 
for a time. occu]\\ing the \'oak hc:>use. corner of Brook and Main 
streets. Dr. W. Fitch Cheney moved to California and died there 
a num])ei- of years ago. Dr. J-^phraim Cheney built the house now 
occui)ied by Dr. Lot I). Sutherland, north of the Methodist church, 
having his ofhce in the wing, and lived there until his death in 1864. 

Both Dr. Cheney and Dr. I^dson Carr are well remembered by 
man\-. Dr. F(lsc»n Carr was born in NeruK^U. in 1801. His early 
education, also, was meagre, but he largely comjiensated for it in 
later vears by his indomitable energy and natural talent. He came 
here when nineteen }ears of age, su]:)porting himself for a time by 
teacliing school during the day and conducting a singing school at 
night. He entered a drug store as clerk and then studied medi-* 
cine in Dr. Wells's office. He was licensed to i)ractice in 182^1 by 
tiie Ontario County Medical Society. 

.\l)out 1824 or '25. when Mr. Fl. B. Gibson bought the .\bner 
Barlow farm and laid out Gibson street, he sold to Dr. Carr a lot 
from the same on which Dr. Carr built the house formerly occupied 
by Dr. J. B. Flayes and now l)y his son. Fdward G. Hayes. Dr. 
Carr married a daughter of Thomas Beals. in 1827. Dr. Carr was 
a most excellent dentist as well as physician. His natural mechan- 
ical skill aided him greatly in this branch, as well as in surgerw 

Dr. Clarke states that Dr. Carr wrote most excellent papers 
for the Medical Society and that one who was competent to judge 
said of him. "He was more observant of style, more discriminating 
m his choice of v.ords. than most persons who have passed through 
what is called a liberal education. His example shows how far 
good nati\e ]xnvers may go. with the help of careful observation. 


in the al)sence of academic discipline, to attain literary as well as- 
scientilic merit." 

He was a ii'enerous man. I'ixim'- lil)erall\- to all ij'dod canses, and 
was an influential niemlKT of the Con,q"rei:i'ational church for over 
fortN' }'ears. IJeiuL;' an excellent musician, he led the choii" in that 
church for many years. I he milled shirt and i-uddy complexion 
of the i^ood doctor as he led the nuisical serxices of the sanctuary 
aloide in the recollection of many of the oldei" memhers. .Mrs. Carr 
was a \ery religious woman, doins^- a i^reat deal of henexolent work, 
(hstrihutim;- tracts and rendering;- useful service in uiaii\- needy 
homes. I )r. C'arr's son, Dudley, was with him during the eaid\- 
N'ears ot his i)ractice, hut did not loui^" sur\-i\e. 

No histor\' of l)r. ( "arr would he com])lete without reference 
to his horses. In the latter i)art of Ins life he hecame \-er\' fond of 
blooded stock, liaxiui;" hy chance come into the ])Ossession of a \alu- 
ahle mare which he selected from a dro\e of western horses. The 
annual was sick at the Webster House stable and the doctor 
obtained her for a nonn'nal price. A strain of hordes which today 
is not extinct became widely known throughout this section as the 
1 )r. Carr stock. i\t one time, it is said, the doctoi' had sixteen 
horses in his stables. Dr. Carr died in bSol, .M i-s. Carr ])recedin<4- 
him by a tew moiUhs. He was L^reath- mourned b\' a lar»"e circle f)f 
friends and patients. Dr. Daggett jjreached a funeral sermon from 
ihe text, "The belo\-ed ])hysician." 

Dr. Joseph Byron Hayes was a student in Dr. Carr's office and 
at his death su.cceeded to a large j)roportion of his ])ractice, occupy- 
ing his residence and oflice. He was graduated from the l^niversity 
of Pennsyhania in IS'^iO and died in 18')(). He was born in Canan- 
daigua and hi> whole life was ckwoted to his ju^ofession and to the 
welfare ot his nati\-e town. He was a most acceptable secretarx' of 
the Ontario County Medical Society from 1863 to 1879. 

ddie Society of Physicians of the Village of Canandaigua, organ- 
ized in 1864, was known as the X'illage Medical Society until its 
incorporation in 1892. The ol)iect of the society, as stated in the 
original articles of association, was to promote the scientific 
inipro\ement and social fellowshij) of its members, to preserve the 
unit}' and to maintain the dignit\- and honor of the [irofession. The 
original members were John IC Chapin. M. P. Carson, W. Fitch 
Cheney,- George Cook, Haryey Jewel t, J. P>yron Haves, J. A. Rog- 
ers, Elnathan \V. Simmons, Joseidi T. Smith. W . T. Swart. ( )f 


these all are dead, with the exception of Drs. Chapin and Carson. 
Honorary members, elected soon after organization, were Drs. 
William S. Zant/inger, John Rosewarne, Alexander Murray, and 
Charles S. Hoyt. 

In the year 1853. Dr. George Cook came to Canandaigna and 
in compan\ with his brother. Robert D. Cook, and William G. 
Wayne, formed an association, purchased a site, and Iniilt Brigham 
Hall, a hospital for the insane. The first patient was received Octo- 
l)er 3, 1855. L'ntil May. 1860. Dr. Cook was alone in the medical of the institution, but from that time until (Jctober, 1869, Dr. 
John r>. Chapin was associated with him. 

Dr. Cook was well ])repared for the work which he tuulcrtook. 
having been in the serxice of the Utica State Hospital for six years 
under Dr. Brigham and haxing traveled for a year abroad studying 
the asylums of England. Scotland, and France. He was a most 
estimable man and his standing in the community and the respect 
in which he was held by his fellow citizens ma\- be judged l)^■ the 
fact that at xarious limes he held the offices of supervisor of the 
county, president of the \illage, ]:»resi(lent of the First National 
Bank, and member of the State Legislature. His imtimcK' death 
in June. 1876, at the hands of an insane ])atient. was a terril)le shock 
to the community. 

Dr. John B. Chapin went from Brigham Hall to be su])erin- 
tendent of the State Hospital at Willard. where he remained for 
about fifteen years, and then to his present position as superintend- 
ent of the Pennsyhania State Hospital for the Insane, at Philadel- 

For a short time Dr. Harvev Ie\\'ett ^vas in charge of Briirham 
Hall after Dr. Cook's death and then Dr. Dwight R. P.urrell suc- 
ceeded to the superintendenc}-. I )r. lUu-rell also was a man who 
impressed himself upon the community life, serving upon the board 
of trustees and ])rominent in e\er\- undertaking that looked t(> 
the welfare of the town or count}-. He died in June, 1910, and his 
place was taken l)y Dr. Kobert G. Cook, a son of Dr. George Cook, 
founder of the institution. 

Of Dr. Chapin's work at \\ illard .State Hospital some idea 
may be formed from the following nfinute, which is taken from the 
records of the Ontario County Medical Society, under date of Sep- 
tember 12. 1872. The entire Society, upon invitation of Dr. Chapin. 
visited the hospital on that date. We extract the following from 

TlII^ \!I-1)ICAL l'k(.)l'l<:SSION. 217 

the I'cport of the coiininttee: "We record willi ini(|ualirie(l satis- 
faction the inipoi"tant |)iihhc ser\ ice of I )r. John 11. ('liai)in in cai"r\- 
\\\g out the desis^ns of hiniseh" and others into ])ractical resnhs; in 
successfully ox'erconiini;' the (hlhcnhies inciiknit to the rece])tion 
and classihcation of so hir^e a nnnd)er of clironic insane in so hi"iet 
a period: in the estaWhshnient ot ordei" and hai"nion\- in the \ariotis 
(k'])artnients of this m'reat enter])rise; that in the ])lacc of the soh- 
tar\- cell and clankini; chain, we lind ti-eedoni from ])ersonal 
restraint. coni])arati\e order, and enjoNinent : that in the ample, 
clean, well \entilated halls, we find all ihe ap])lianccs for the hnmane 
cai'c and restoration of these nnfortiinate creatures to theii" rij^ht 

1 )r. h'.lnathan. \\ . .Simmons was horn in r.i'istol. ()ntario cotnitw 
jtine 2, ISll, and ])racticed meilicine in the connly ])rol)ahl\- as 
lon_i;' or longer than an\- other ph^■sician. lie was also widel\' and 
fa\-oral)l\ known throti^hout the cotmty as a consultant. I'oi- two 
vears he had his ofhce at Cheshire, for fi\e \'ears at Knslnille. and 
for a short time in liristoh The remainder of the time he was in 
C"anan(hn\^tia. He serx'ed also in the arm\- and after a useful life 
full of responsihilitv and heloxed 1)\- his townsmen, he died Ma\ hi, 

Dr. Joseph T. .Smith, another charter memher of the Canan- 
daii;tia Xilla^'e Medical Societ}', was horn in l'\'n'nn'n<4ton, ( )ntario 
cottnt}-, and received his medical diploma from Jefferson Medical 
Collei^e in 1S54. He ])racticed medicine for man\ \eai's, (knotini;- 
considerahle attention to sttrgery, haxdn^' also had experience as 
an army sitrgeoii diirino- the Civil war. 

Dr. Harvey Jewett \\as another of the "'roup of ph\'sicians who 
foi-med a connecting' link hetween the pioneers and the i)h\sicians 
of the ])resent generation. He hegan i)ractice at Allen's Mill in 
1832. at ahont the time that Dr. C"hene\- came to Canandaigtia. hen- 
twenty )'ears he led an arduous life, ridini;- a ^reat deal on horse- 
hack through that section. He did considerahle work in sm-ger\' 
and also in dentistry. Tn 1852 he came to Canandaigna and until 
the \'ery hour of his sitdden and nnex])ected death in .Septemher. 
1888, he ^\•as actively engaged in practice. He ser\ed the com- 
mtmity in many waws c^titside of his ])rofession and was for mrmx' 
years trtistee of the Academy and the ()ntario Or|)han .\s\lum. In 
188,5 lie was elected to the presidency of the Xew NOrk State Med- 
ical Society. Dr. Har\-ey Jewett was horn in Langdon, X>w 


Hampshire, in 1809. At the age of fourteen he was induced to come 
to the town of Seneca l)y his oldest brother, Dr. Lester Jewett. 
His brother encouraged him to study medicine and after about two 
years spent at Hobart college, Geneva, he entered the Fairfield 
Medical College, a then famous institution, and was graduated from 
there in 1832. He, also, as was the case with Dr. Cook, has been 
succeeded by a son practicing in the same community. 

Dr. Hilem F. Bennett was for many years a prominent prac- 
titioner in the village of Canandaigua. He was one of the original 
members of the Ontario and Vates County Homeopathic Medical 
Society, which was organized in 1861 at the otitice of Dr. O. S. 
\\ ood. Dr. Bennett afterwards renounced Homeopathy and 
became a member of the Ontario County Medical Society in 1866. 
He died in 1885, in Rochester, where he had recently moved to 
succeed lo the practice of his l)rother. 

Dr. J. B. Voak was a prominent member of the Homeopathic 
society. He came to Canandaigua in 1866 and occupied the house 
and office formerlv occupied 1)\' Dr. V. i-'itch Cheney. Prominent 
in the affairs of the church with which he was comiected and ready 
to resijond to the call of any who were need}-, his acli\e life tei'mi- 
nated in 1892. 

Of the phvsicians who i)racticed medicine in the immediate 
vicinity of the countv seat during the latter ])art of the Xineteenth 
century, three are li\ing and still engaged in i)vactice, \i/. : Dr. J. 
Richmond Pratt, who settled at Canandaigua in 1831, remaining 
there ten vears, and then removing to Manchester, where he is still 
located: Dr. M. K. Carson, a graduate of Albany .Medical Col- 
lege, who came to Canandaigua in 1859, and is still ])racticing; 
and Dr. James A. Hawley, who came to Canandaigua in 1861, 
after practicing elsewhere si.x years, and is still engaged in 
acti\e practice. 

It is unfortunate that tlie earliest records of the Ontario County 
Medical Society, which was organized in 1806. are either destroyed 
or lost. The first ;'vailable record of the transactions of that Society 
is dated Julv 12, 1842. A more complete record would greatly 
simplif\- and make possible a historical reference to many other 
physicians scattered throughout the count\- whose life work has 
been none the less useful and noteworthy than that of those already 


In Geneva a Dr. Spencer was one of the first physicians of 
whom au}' record is found. He was a professor in the Geneva 
Medical College which had been ino\C(l from l-airlield, X. Y. 

Dr. Joseph .Beattie was for many years a iMomincnt practitioner 
in Geneva. He came there from the town of Seneca, where he had 
succeeded Dr. Lester jewetl. lie was a highl)- educated man, hut 
left Geneva and died in Richmond, Va. He was in (ieneva in 1(S53 
and for some time prior to that date. 

Dr. G. N. Dox succeeded Dr. Ueatlie and occupied the same 
otTtice. He had also an e.\tensi\e i)ractice for a nund)er of years. A 
Dr. i'otter was a prominent surgeon in (lene\a, ha\ing his office 
in Washington street near the old water cure. 

A notice is found in the record of the county society, October. 
1873, of the departure of Dr. H. N. Eastman who had practiced at 
Geneva for a long time and who was about to go to Ohio. The 
notice states that he was eminent in his [)rofession and had l)een a 
teacher at different times in no less than three medical colleges in 
the State. 

Dr. N. B. Covert, who graduated in 1862 from the Homeopathic 
Medical College in Ldeveland, has been a well known practitioner in 
(iene\a for many years. 

In the town of Seneca. Dr. Lester Jewett, who has been referred 
to before and who was a gradujite of Dartmouth Medical College 
was a prominent and influential practitioner from 1822 to 1846, when 
he removed to Michigan. 

As stated l)efore, Dr. J. Richmond Pratt was in Manchester in 
1861 and has now a son associated with him in ])ractice. I"^>r a long 
time Dr. John Stafford was a practitioner in that town. 

In Clifton S])rings, Dr. A. G. Crittenden and Dr. W. W. Archer 
were for many years well known |)ractitioners and regular 
attendants upon the meetings of the count v societv. It is recorded 
of Dr. Crittenden that he was present at e\er\' meeting of the 
society from 1857 to 1891. the day of his death. 

No record of the medical history of the countv would be 
com])lete ^vlthout reference t(^ the life and work of Dr. Ilenr\- Foster 
of Cliftc^n .S])rings, who established there about the \'ear 1847 a 
Sanitarium (at fu'st called a \\ater cure). This under wise manage- 
ment has come to be one of the ren(n\iied samtaria of the Cnited 
States and draws its patrons from all ccnmtries of the world. 

In the western i)art of the county, at East P)loomtield, a Dr. 


Hall was one of the earlier physicians. He married a daughter of 
Dr. Hickok wlio preceded him by a number of years. 

Dr. Charles C. Alurphy was a student of Dr. Hall and began 
practice in East Bloomfiekl about 1844. Until 1874. when he died, 
he was interested in all the affairs of the village and was respected 
and loved bv all. 

Dr. Webster was also a prominent practitioner in East Bloom- 
field, having been born there and lived a large portion of his life 
there. He died some time after Dr. ]\lurphy. 

Dr. E. O. Hollister. who was a pupil of Dr. Clark of Batavia 
antl a graduate of Bellevue Medical College, came to East Bloom- 
field in 1874. soon after Dr. Murphy's death. He died in the year 
1887, in the jirime of life and mourned by a large circle of friends. 

At Victor, Dr. J. W. Palmer and Dr. James F. Draper were for 
many years well known physicians, as were also the two Doctors 

The name and life work of Dr. I". R. Bentley will not soon be 
forgotten in the vicinity of Cheshire. 

Dr. J. H. Allen, at Gorham. and Dr. John O. Howe and Dr. T. 
1). I'ritcliard. at Phelps. ])raotice(l long and extensively in their 
respective towns Hr. J H. .Mien was a pupil of Dr. Chambers and 
was graduated from the Albany Medical College. He practiced at 
Springwaler for one vear and in 1853 went to Gorham. where he 
resided and practiced until his death in 18%. Preceding Dr. .\llen 
at Gorham. were Dr. Deane and Dr. Buck. They were each there 
for a long time. 

Dr. John 0. Howe was graduated from the Berkshire Medical 
School in 1842 and practiced in T^hel])s for many years. Drs. .Allen 
and Howe have each been succeeded by sons practicing in the same 

Dr. F. D. \'anderhoof at Phelps, a graduate of the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons. Dr. D. S. .Mien, a graduate of Albany 
Medical College and a ])ractitioner at Seneca for over forty years, 
and Dr. E. F. A\'ilbur, over fifty years a member of the Ontario 
County Medical Society and located at Honeoye. are all still 
engaged in practice and should be mentioned among others who 
form a connecting link between the physicians of the earlier days 
and the present generation. 

T. .. ^- J . - ._ • . t Side) 




Ontario County Settled by Men Attracted by Its Agricultural 
Opportunities — The First Wheat Grown on the Genesee Tract 
Pioneers Organize a County Agricultural Society in 1819 — 
The First County Fair, Cattle Show, and Plowing Match — 
List ct the Officers — The Grange. 

By William H, Warfield. 

From its first org'ani/.ation in l/i^'^ the land cndtraccd in tlic 
county of ()ntari() was recognized as ])ectdiarl\- ada])ted to agricul- 
tural ])uri)oses. Indeed the niotixe wliicli led the xeoiuen who 
constituted the rank and tile of the arnu' which (jeneral Sidlixan 
led through the region in 1779 to tvuMi their eyes back with longing 
to this region and made them its first settlers, was the knowledge 
which they gained in that achentin-e of tlie fertilit}' of its soil and 
its adai)tation to i)urposes of cidti\ation. Colonel Hugh Maxwell, 
who had charge of the original sni'xeys for the purchasers, Phelps 
and Gorham, recognized its ])ossil)ilities in this respect when he 
wrote back to his wife in Massachusetts that the country exceeded 
his expectation "in richness of soil and pleasantness of situation" 
and that "the land in this countrv is exceeding good." 

The men who were associated with General Israel Chapin in 
founding the first settlement at Canandaigua. and the pioneers who 
entered the county in the succeeding years, came as farmers intent 
upon deN'eloping the agricultiu-al resources of the country, not as 
prospectors to discover and ex])loit suspected mineral wealth. 
Nor did they lose any time in setting about the task which the>' had 
essayed. Abner IJarlow. whose ])ortrait in the coiuity court room 
collection is appropriately adorned \\ith stems of wheat, enjoyed a 
well earned distinction from the fact that he harvested from his 
farm in Canandaigua in 1/90 the first wheat that was grown in what 



is now (Jntario county and the lirsl that was raisetl in all the 
" Purchase. " unless it was that raised on the territory of Jemima 
W ilkinson. which it is claimed was in 1789. Mrs. Hannah Sanborn, 
in her later vears, recalled the fact as one marking- an era that she 
had ser\ ed at a tea i)art\- in Canandaigua in 1794 the first disli of 
currants produced in the Genesee country. She had picked them 
from bushes planted in her dooryard upon her first coming to 
Canandaigua in 1790. 

The first formal eiTort to bring the farmers of the county 

together in an organization for 
promoting their mutual interests 
and elevating their calling, was 
that made on February 18th, 1819, 
when a meeting was held at the 
court house in Canandaigua for 
the ])urpose of forming an agri- 
cultural society. The count\- 
court adjourned to accommodate 
the agricultural meeting. 

A resolution was ])asscd to 
organize the ( )ntario C'ountx- 
Agricultural Society, whereupon 
ilu' lion. John .\icholas was elect- 
ed president : William Wads- 
worth, Darius Comstock, (lideon 
Crangci- and Moses At water, vice 
presidents: John (ireig, secretary; 
and Thomas Beals, treasurer. 

A committee of one member 
from each of the thirt\--four towns 
then included in ( )ntai-io county 
w as also elected, \iz. : Thaddeus 
Chapin. Canandaigua; Thaddeus 
Oaks. Phelps ; Daniel Penfield, 
I'entield: Mathew Warner. Lima: Thomas Spencer, Benton; 
W illiam II. Sj^encer. Ccnesee : Israel ^larsh, X'ictor; Thomas Burns. 
ItaK : William ratten. Fvons; Jonathan Smith, Farmingtou: 
William S. Floiuer. Avon: \\'illiam McCartney, Sparta;' Daniel 
White. Palnura: William iMtzhugh, Groveland ; Anthony Case, 
Rush; Oliver Culver, Brighton; Gideon Pitts, Richmond; Simeon 


.•\bner Barlow was born in (Manville. ^Tass., 
March 11, 17.SQ. Removed to Canandaigua in 
May. 1789, and that year sowed the first 
wheat ever |)ut in the virgin soil of Ontario 
county. Was one of the original trustees of 
the First Congregational Clinrch of Canan- 
daigua of much public spirit. lie died in 
the village, June 28, 1846. 

Tiiii cuuxrv AL.RiLi i;i"i RAi. socl]":'^^' 


l)rist(il, rciTiii^loii ; Benedict Kohinson, Milo; Jaiol) Strvens, 
llcnrictta; j(»sc])li (lark Naples : Ixiu'l I'.lakc, I>i\(»nia: Jacob W. 
Ilallett, W illianisoii : l)a\i(l Siillu'rland, Middlesex; John (Olliiis, 
Seneca; kinos .Morse, Sodns; Clark I'eck, I'loondkdd ; John I'rice. 
(loidiani; Timothy llarnard, Mcndon; ( icor^'e Codding, llristol; 
John llai'twell, I'itlsford; (leor^e lirown, Jornsalem ; Jonathan 
Boyinjn'ton. Ontario; AKah Sontherland, Si)rin|n;'water. 

At this nicetinj4 it was resohcd that any ])crson nn^ht become 
ati annnal member on the pay- 
ment of one dollar and a life mem- 
ber npon the payment of fifteen 
dollars to the treasurer of the 

The Lej^islature of the State, 
on the 5th of March. 1810. a])- 
propriated one thousand dollars 
to the ( )ntario County Aqricnl- 
tni'al Societ}-. to be ])aid out for 
premiums on farm stock and farm 

On October ISth. 1,S1<). the 
first fair and cattle show and 
plowing match of the Ontario 
C/ount}' Agricultural Society was 
held. All members of the society 
wore a badge made of heads of' 
wlieat tied together with ribbon 
and fastened on their hats. 

The plowing match was held 
■at ele\en o'clock A. M. Moses 
At water, John Greig, and 'idiomas 
P)eals w ere ai)])ointe(l aconnnittee 
of arrangements. At 2 o'clock P. 


William Fitzhugh, who was a third owner 
I wiih Colonel Natlianiel Rochester and 
Charles Carroll) of the Uundred .\cre Tract, 
on which the city of Rochester now stands, 
was horn in Calvert county, Maryland. Octo- 
ber 6, 1761. Ue came into the (ienesee 
country in 1799, resided for a time at (Geneva, 
anil in 181),? settled at Sodus, where he died 
in 1810. Was an early officer of the Ontario 
Connty Agricultural Society. 

in a \acaiit lot o])]iosite Hart's 

M., refreshments were served to 

members of the society. Cattle. 

sheep and swine were exhibited 

ta\ern. At o o'clock a procession a\ as formed of members of the 

society under the direction of W illiam H. .\dams and marched to 

the court house, and an address written by the [)resident of the 



societ}' was read by Nathaniel \\ . Howell. The amount ])ai(l out 
for premiums was one thousand dollars. 

Thus the first ag-ricultural fair held in Ontario count\- was 
pronoimced a grand success and it was \oted to continue the annual 
fair and cattle show. 

Officers for the second }ear were elected as follows: President, 
Gideon Granger: vice-presidents. A\'il]iam Wadsworth, Darius 
Comstock. I'hiletus Swift. X. Allen, and Piloses Atwater: secretary. 
John Greig: treasurer. Thomas Beals: and thirty-four town 

managers \\ ere appointed. 

On Noxember 1st. 181''. an 
exhibition of domestic manufac- 
tures \\as held in the court hottse 
and premiums awarded on woolen 
ch)tli manufactured in Ontario 

On .\pril 11th. 1S20. the 
premium list was rex'ised ;m(l a 
premium of ten dollars offered for 
the best cultixated farm in each of 
the thirt\-four towns in the 
county, and $190.00 was paid in 
l^remiums in this de])artment at 
the succeeding fair. Robert 
I roo]). of (leneva. made the soci- 
et \- a present of fiftx-four dollars 
toward ])a\ing the premiums on 
best cultixated farms in the 
covmt\-. The committee of award 
commenced examining the farms 
entered for premiums on the 4th 
of Jid}' and finished their exami- 
nation on the 1st (lav of October. 

The second fair was held in 
Jiulge .\twater's meadow. W'il- 
liam H. Adams acted as marshal. The president delivered an 
address at the court house. An agriculttiral ball was one of the 
attractions at this second county fair. 

The annual fairs were thereafter continued for twelve years, 

William Wadswortli. younger brother of 
James Wadsworth, and associated with him 
in the management of their uncle's estate in 
tlie (iene.see country, was born in Durham, 
Connecticut : settled at Big Tree on the Gen- 
esee, in 1790: one of the first vice presidents 
of the Ontario County .\gricultural Society; a 
Brigadier General of Volunteers in the War of 
1812: died at Geneseo in 1833. 



|()hn (ireii^- s(M'\inL; as president fnmi 1X22 to 1(S34. At itiie nt the 
fairs where toasts were t^ixeii, thi' fohowin^ was offered : 'A\ hat 
is wanted is more drainini"' of lands and less diainini' ot hotties." 

And also the 

strong' teams. 

lollow ni 
smart \vi\es." 

At the amnial fair ludd in 
1S21, I'^d^emont ('hai)i)el reeei\ed 
the lirst ])rennnm for the best 
\ield of wheat from one aere of 
land, which was eii;hty bushels. 
ele\en pounds. and thirteen 
ounces; and Mr. Raker, of liloom- 
lield, first ])remium foi- the largest 
vield ot potatoes trom one acre 
of laud, which was h\e hundred 
nine and one-half bushels. 

The at^ricultural society was 
reorganized in the year 1838. 
The lirst fair of the reorganized 
society was held at Canandaigua. 
October 20th. 1840. John Greig 
was ])resident. ( )li\er rheli)s and 
W illiam Gorham, secretaries, and 
James J). I'emis. treasurer. A 
large attendance of farmers was 
present. The society held annual 
fairs in vacant lots in the village 
of Canandaigua for stock and 
farm implements, and in the 
court house for needle work, 
butter, and cheese. 

John Greig was continued 

: "The fai"niei"'s cardina 
arms, and 

1 points, good tools. 


fohn Greig, a proniiiient resident of Canan- 
daigua from 1801 until his death, .\pril 9, 
IS.^H, was horn at Moffat, Dumfrieshire, 
Scotland, .August 6, 1779. A lawyer by pro- 
fession, his time was largely devoted to the 
management of the Western New York hold- 
ings of an English estate. Was actively inter- 
ested in the organization of the County 
.\gricultural Society and served as its presi- 
dent for many years. His wife was Miss 
Clarissa Cliapin. granddaughter of General 
Israel Cliapin. and with her aid he made his 
mansion, long the most notable private dwell- 
ing house in Western New York, a center of 
cidture and hospitality. 

president of the society until Jan- 
uary 1st. 1853, with Oliver IMielps and William Gorham as secre- 
taries, and James D. Bemis as treasurer. 

The annual fair for the year 1853 was held in Geneva, with 
James Monier as president, and William H. Lamport and TTenry 
Howe as secretaries. 

The fairs were only held for one day previous to the year 1853. 



At 4 o'clock P. M. the members and exhibitors would meet at the 
court house to hear the president of the society read the names of 
those who had been awarded premitims. and the article or animal 
on which the premium was awarded and the amount of the prem- 
ium, this being the tirst intima- 
tion which the exhibitors woidd 
receixe as to who had received 

It is said that as soon as John 
Greig. the president, had finished 
reading the list of premiums, he 
immediately left the court room 
by the rear stairway and went 
out the rear door of the court 
house, ^^•herc his carriage was in 
waiting, and drove away- The 
awarding judges had in the mean- 
time disappeared, so that the 
exhibitor who believed that he 
>hotdd \vd\Q received a ])reniium 
itn his exhil)it but had not, 
coiddn't find an officer of the 
society to hear his protest of the 
award made bv the iudcres. 

Tn the year 1853, the society. 
purchased seven and three-fourths 
acres of land lying between (iib- 
son and Gorham streets in the 
\illage of Canandaigua. for which 
it paid 5^2,412. In 1854 the 
society was incorporated so that 
it could hold real estate. 

During the summer and fall 
of 1854. an amphitheater building 
was erected that would seat 4,000 
persons, with standing room all 
the way around the circle back of the seats for as manv more, 
where every person would have a good view of the ring in the cen- 
ter, when the horses, cattle and sheep, one class at a time, were 
brought in to be judged. After the judges had decided which 


(".idtron Ciranger, iiid, son of Francis Granger 
and grandson of Gideon (iranger, was born 
in Canandaigua, August 30, 1821 ; graduated 
from Vale College in 1843 ; studied law and 
was admitted to the bar, but never engaged 
in practice. Declined many opportunities to 
enter politics, but took an active interest in 
public affairs, particularly during the Civil 
\Var. when, imable on account of ill health to 
serve in the army, he spent unstintingly 
time, strength, and means in support of the 
t'nion cause and in caring for the families 
of who went to the front to fight the 
country's battles. Was an official of the 
County Agricultural Society and otherwise 
prominently identified with movements for 
the public good. Died in Canandaigua, Sep- 
tember 3, 11868, five days following the death 
of his father. 


.' should li;i\c' tlu' prcininni, tlu' srrrct;ir\- would anuoinicc 
the (Uhmmou ;iud ask if there wcic any objection, and if no ol^jccliun 
was made the pieun'uni rihhon wduM he tie<l on. If any consiflcr- 
ahle uuniher ohjeetech then the dueslion would he put to a \ote, 
when e\er\ ])erson in the amphitheater, whether menibei" or \isitor. 
woidd ha\e the ])ri\ile,L;e of Noting- either for or against the decision 
of the judges. Ilie decision would neni-rally be sustained. The 
fair j^rounds and buildiuL^s and impi"o\ ement s cost over nine thoti- 
s.iud dollaivs and were all paid for from the sale of life memberships 
at ten doll.ars each. 

Anntial fairs were held on these liroirnds until 1S73. excepting 
in the \ear lSf)4, when owini;- to the war of the Rebellion but \ery 
few countv societies held fairs. 

In the ^•ear bX73. the society, feeling- the ncv(\ of more connno- 
dions aceommodati(Mis, sold the old fair grounds and purchased seven- 
teen acres of land on .\orth Pleasant street and l^'ort Hill a\enue. 
for which it paid seventeen thousand dollars, and on which the 
annual fairs ha\e since been held. The new buildings and the 
im])ro\ements which have been made ha\e cost fourteen thousand, 
six hundred dollars. 

The amount jjaid out for i)renn'nms has iticreased from one 
thousand dollars j^aid in the year bSP) to four thousand three hun- 
dre.I dollars paid in 1Q09. 

The following is a i)artial list of the officers since the year 181*): 
Presidents—John Nicholas. 181^^: C.ideon Grani^er. 1820 and 1821: 
Joiin Greig- from 1822 to 1834. and from 1838 to 1852 (26 years in 
all): James Monier. 1853: William Hildreth, 1854 and 1855; \\\\- 
iiam Johnson. 1856-7: William H. Pamport. 1858-9: W^ S. Clark. 
I860: Pindley W . Smith. 1861; Edward Brunson. 1862; David 
Pickett. 1863 :'A\illiam Johnson. 1864: E. B. Pottle. 1865 : S. H. Ains- 
worth. 1866-7. S A. Coddino-. 1868; Harvey Stone, 1869; Harvey 
Padelford, 1870-1; Cooper Sayer. 1872: Homer Chase, 1873-4-5; 
James S. Hickox. 1876-7-8; H. M. Boardman. 1879-80; Charles E. 
Shepard. 1881-2-3-4-5: S, D. Jackson. 1886-7: E. O. Chamberlain. 
1888-9 and 1890; George S. Hickox. 1801-2: William B. Osborne, 
1893-4: John B. Hall. 1805-6; Roswell M. Lee, 1897-8; C. P. WHiit- 
ney, 1899-1900; Eevi A. Page. 1001-2; Cholett Collins. 1003-4; J. 
AL Eadd, 1905-6: John L. McT aughlin. 1007-8; George A. WHieeler. 

Secretaries — John Greig-, 1810 and 1820; W'illiam Gorhani, 


from 1838 to 1852; Henry Howe. 1853-4; Gideon Granger, from 
1855 to 1863: ^Villiam H. Lamport. 1864: Thomas M. Howell. 
1865-66; Isaac B. Smith. 1867: H. ^L Davis, 1870-1: D. G. Lap- 
ham, 1872-3-4-5; Bradley W'ynkoop. \S76-7 : Jesse H. Mason. 
1878-9 and 1880; Augustine Cooley. 1881-2-3: ^^■. Allen Reed. 1884; 
William H. Warfield. from 1885 to 1897 and 1909; Homer J. Reed, 
from 1898 to 1904; ^lilton A. Smith. 1905-6-7-8: Clair L. Morey. 
1910 and 1911. 

Treasurers — Thomas Beals. 1819 to 1830: James 1). Rcmis. 
1838 to 1848; James S. Cooley. 1855 to 1865: A. S. Newman. 1870 
to 1878: L. B. Gaylord. 1879-80-81: F. O. Chamberlain. 1882-3-4-5: 
John B. Hall, 1886 to 1894; James S. Hickox, 1895 to 1906; O. J. 
Cooley, 1906-7-8; G. N. Nethaway, 1909-10-11. 

The first Grange in Ontario countv was organized at a meeting: 
of farmers of the south part of Canandaigua and South Bristol, at 
the Academy school house. June 19, 1874. The officers were as 
follows: Master, John B. Hall; overseer. Edson Haskell; lecturer. 
Lute C. Mather: steward. John A. Mcjannett : assistant steward. 
A. A. Stetson: chaplain, Gil1>ert I*^ Flaskell : treasurer. William M. 
Barnum ; secretary, Kelly \\'. Green. There are now twentv 
granges in the county. The Pomona Grange, of 1911, is organized 
with the following officers: Master, Walter Dorman. of Stanley: 
secretary, Charles G. McLouth. of Shortsville ; lecturer. A. B. Kat- 
kamier, of ]\Iacedon ; overseer, Eugene Webster, of Stanley ; 
steward, F. B. Ingraham, of Naples: assistant steward, Edwin Has- 
lett, of Seneca: chaplain. Mrs. A. B. Welch, of Victor: executive 
committee, Frank Rupert, of Seneca, Orion J. Cooley, of Canan- 
daigua, and Garrett AVheaton, of Bristol Center ; deputy. Jay J. 
Barden, of Stanley. 




La Salle's Visit to the Burning Spring — Incidents Showing Friendly 
Relations of the Indians with Early White Settlers — First 
Settlement by Gooding Brothers from Massachusetts — A Town 
of Many Churches — The Bristol Fair Association — Hop Grow- 
ing — Blooded Live Stock — "Muttonville" and Its Name. 

By Sarah G. P. Kent. 


Unlike many of the surrounding towns, Bristol does not teem 
with any startling Indian incident nor any especially renowned 
historical event. To be sure when Louis rhilii)i)e tied from the 
throne of l''rance and was a refugee in .\nicrica. it is (|uite likely lie 
may have been in hiding part of ilie time in this towusliip, as well 
authenticated data give an account of his sojourn in Richmond, 
the adjoining town on the west. Duke De Nemours, too, might 
have been a passing guest, as he visited Honeoye. 

However, one location in this town, the biuMiing spring, has 
called forth marked attention. History repeats that in the uiouth of 
August, b)69, La Salle, accompanied by l)e Casson and Galiuee, 
visited the Senecas. While the negotiations with the Indians were 
l)ending, the following event is recorded by (lalinee: "In order to 
pass away the time, 1 went with M. de la Salle, under the escort of 
two Indians, about four leagues (ten miles) south of the village 
(Victor) where we were staying, to see a very extraordinary spring. 
Issuing from a moderately high rock, it forms a small br.ook. The 
water is very clear, but it has a bad odor, like that of the nn"neral 
marshes of Paris, when the nnul on the bottom is stirred with the 
foot. I applied a torch and the water immediately took fire and 
burned like brandv and was not extinguished until it rained. The 
flame is among the Indians a sign of abundance or fertility, accord- 
ing as it exhibits the contrary qualities. There is no appearance of 


sulphur, saltpeter, or any other combustible material. The water 
has not even anv taste and I can neither oiler or imagine any better 
explanation than that it acquires this combustible property by 
passing over some aluminous land." 

The Earl of Belmont, Governor of the province of N^ew York, 
gave these instructions to Col. Romer whom he sent on a journey 
through the country of the Ironuois in 1700: "You are to go and 
view a well or a spring which is eight miles beyond the Snecks 
furthest castle, which they have told me blazes up in a tlame when 
a light coale or tire brand is put into it. You will do well to taste 
the said water, and give me your opinion thereof, and l)riug with 
you some of it." 

"This burning spring," as another writer has said, "is located 
near Bristol Center, about eight miles from the foot of Canandaigua 
lake, in a direct line south of Boughton hill. The spring is on the 
south side of a small brook which empties through a ravine into the 
west side of Ganargua or Mud creek. The banks opposite the spring 
are from eight to twenty feet high, the spring l)eing on a level with 
the bed of the brook. By applying a match, the water appears to 
burn and is not easil\- extinguished except b\- a heavy rain or 
high wind." 

While the Red man was the hrst possessor, there are few land- 
marks left of Indian occupation. One, of Sullivan's memorable 
march in 1779, on his way to devastate and destroy the Indian fields 
lest they furnish supplies to the British army, was discovered a few 
years ago on the Benjamin Hicks farm now owned by George 
Buckalew. In digging a drain at the rear of the house parts of an 
old corduroy bridge were un.earthed, showing that trees had been 
felled and closely laid together to enable the army to pass over a 
marshy place, on its westward journey to the Honeoye and Genesee 
country. There is still an old tree standing on John Greg'g's farm 
in the branches of wdiich it is said that Brant secreted himself and 
watched the passing of this army. 

Criticism is often expressed on the unnecessary cruelties of 
Sullivan's march. In some histories it is recorded that the Indians, 
after capturing Capt. Boyd, one of Sullivan's picked men. who had 
been sent ahead to reconnoiter, near Geneseo, submitted him to 
terrible tortures and finished bv making an incision in his abdomen, 
when a severed intestine was fastened to a tree. Then by sheer brute 
force he was dri\en around the tree until his entrails were literallv 


wound ui)oii its trunk. This cruelty, it is said, was incited by some 
British officers. 

On the other hand, in the annals of Indian history, this is (|uite 
oltsct !)}■ the following incident: Cjeneral SuHixan, in viewing a 
stalwart }Oung" Indian one day, was so marked in his admiration for 
the Ime physicjue displayed that he open!) remarked that "he would 
like the skin of that young buck ft)r leggins." And sure enough the 
life of this glorious type of the red man was sacrificed that the 
passing wish of the General might be fulfilled. W liiU' there were 
undoubtedly cruelties on both sides, the Indians aie united in 
affirming that their customary tortures were but simple compared 
to those which followed later with the connng of the I'ale hace. 

It is said that a small Indian \illage was at one time located oii 
the rise ot ground north-east from llristol ])oslotiice, on the land now 
owned by William yVndrevvs. The land throughout this countrv 
presented unmistakable e\idences of haxing been fre(|uentl\ burned 
o\er by the Indians. The i)ractice is still in xogue in the far west 
and has been adopted b\' heavy stock owners to i)ro\ide a fi'esh 
growth of herbage. The Indians undoubtedh resoi'ted to this 
method to retain the gaiui' in the \icinit\ of their homes. 

There were two Indian camping grounds on the lan<ls of l'"d\\ in 
Gooding and Norman W. Randall. The camjjs were often resorted 
to after the commencement of settlement 1)\' roxing bands of 
Indians, and these incursions of the primeval owners were viewed 
with uneasiness and annoyance. 

The plow of the settler and the farmer of subse(|uent \-ears 
ni)lurned many ;i relic of an early age. when ])i])e and hatchet and 
other ec|uipments of the Indians were fashioned with inci-edible 
patience from the hardest stone. Many of these are still in 
existence and greatly treasured in collections, l<'red H. Handin of 
East Bloomfield and h'lias I. S])ringstien of N'incent both owning 
xaluable collections. 

The pioneers had more or less experience with the Indians, 
though their intercourse was generall\ of a most peaceable 
character. This story is told by the John Mason descendants: It 
seems that their hrst abode was a rude lo^" calu'n a few vards east 
of the present farm house, now (H'cupied bv a lineal descendant, 
hrank H. Kent. One da\- while Mr. .Mason was awa\- and his good 
wife sat (piietly by the cradle in which her infant was sleeping, she 
was nuudi suri)rised and afrighted to see the blanket wdiich servi'd 


as a door pushed aside and two stalwart Indians stalk in. They 
immediately signified for her to come outside. There was nothing" 
to do hut obev. They soon made her understand that they wanted 
an axe. Axes were axes in those days, and her husband's \\as a new 
one. She was not sure of its return. However, to sho\\' that they 
had no iil intent and only wished to borrow the implement, they 
passed into the house and laid their guns on the bed. Then she 
gave her assent and soon she heard them, at some little distance, 
chopping away at a tree, and later they appeared with their co\-ete(l 
prize, a large fat coon. Returning the axe, they redeemed the guns. 
On this farm mentioned, there is a deer lick, where when meat was 
scarce Pioneer Mason and his sons used to repair with their guns 
and lie in wait for the game that was sure to appear. 

On the Richmond Simmons place, now owned and occupied by 
Lester Doosenbury, the Indians once lost a valuable horse. In com- 
mem()i"ation of this e\ent, a party of Indians would return annually 
and camp on the ground where the horse passed from this life into 
one in the Happy Hunting (iroiind. Upon the arrival, late one 
afternoon, of thi- little band, and as the)- were preparing their 
exening meal, the wife of Mr. .Simmons, being of a hospitable nature, 
sent one of her children to the cam]) with a generous piece of her 
liome-made cheese. I'he Indians accepted it with great pleasure 
and alacrit\- and, not being fastideous in their (piisine ap|)()intments. 
at once crumbled the cheese into their sou]) that was boiling over 
the fire. 

In 1788, elexen years after Sulli\an's campaign, the settlement 
of Bristol commenced. Some brothers named (iooding arrixed from 
Massachusetts. It is said that one brother had been a l\e\'oliitionar\- 
soldier and it is (|uite likel_\- that he had heard of this fertile country 
from some soldier ]ial, as man\- of the pioneers did seek homes from 
the interesting and glowing accounts of soldiers who had traxersed 
this territory. 

After clearing a few acres of ground, on which the brothers 
sowed wheat and jdanted tin-ni])s, all but F.lnathan Gooding returned 
to Massachusetts. He, in com]:)an\' with an Indian lad named Jack 
Beary, ]')assed the winter in the rude log cabin which had been 
erected before the brothers" de]:)arture. \\ bile history says they 
wintered on turnips and milk, it is still fjuite i^robal)le that they 
availed themselves of their op]:)ortunities and interspersed their 
menu with fish and game that abounded all about them. Unknown 


to Pioneer Goodins^-, I )aniel Wilder was s(jjourniii^- at Seneca Point 
and Aai'nn Spencer at liniht-c Hollow, each vvaitini^ the api)roach 
of spring- and the coming- of rcdati\es. 

In the early snninier W illiani (ioodini; returned with ]li^ family, 
accompanied h}' his brothers, and settk"(l on lot Xo. 1. As William 
was a blacksmith, he soon erected a shop and eng-ao-ed in rejJairinL; 
and mannfacturini;- tools for the settlei's, who now i-a])idl\- hei^an 
innnii^ratinm' to liristol. A third settler on lot Xo. 1. was Seth 
Simmons, who in 17*^(S huilt himself a house upon his purchase. He 
was useful as a carpenter and wrought at house huildiuL; until 
his death. 

As man)' of the earl\' settlers were from I'.rislol, ("onnectit-ut . 
the town was named in commemoration of their nati\e heath. 
Bristol was formed in January, 17S'), and orii;inaIl\' included all that 
which is now Bristol and South Bristol, or townshi])s eii.;"ht and nine 
in the 4th ran^e, as described in the Phelps and (iorham sur\evs. 
In March, 1S3(S, nund)er ei^ht, or South Bristol, was set off and 
separately organized. ( )n .March 23, 1S4S, ;i part of Bristol was 
annexed to Richmond, but on h\d)i"nar\- 23th, 1(S32, the strip was 

.\s has been stated, the town was formed in 178*), but it seems 
not to ha\e been fulK' organized until 17*^7, the lirst meeting for 
that ])urpose being held on April 4. The justices of the peace, 
Gamaliel Wilder and George Codding, presided, and the following 
oflix:ers were elected: Superxdsor, William (iooding; town clerk, 
John Codding; assessors, l^^annce Lodding, Nathan .\llen, and 
Nathaniel bisher; commissioners of highways. James Gooding. 
Jabez Hicks, and Aloses I'orter; constables, Amos Barber, X'athan 
Allen and xAlden Sears, Jr.; overseers of the ])oor, George Codding. 
Jr., and Steplien Sisson ; o\erseers of highways, Elea/er Hills, Peter 
(lanyard, Theophilus Allen, Elnathan Gooding. John Simmons, and 
Amos Barber: school commissioners, .\aron Rice, I^phraim W ilder. 
and Nathaniel b'isher; collectors, Amos IJarber and X'athan Hatch, 

In 17(S(S, George Codding and his family apjieared, locating in 
the north-east ])ortion. Pioneer Codding had ti\e sons in his fannl\- 
and their comino- oreatU' added to the little connnunitw The boxs 
were jcjhn, George, Farmer, liurt, and W illi;im. 

Other settlers of the same time or soon after were l)aniel 
Taylor, Fannce Codding, Alarcius .Marsh, .Xbijidi .Spencer. Dr. 
Thomas \'incent, Hezekiah II ills, John \\ hitm:irsh, F])hr;iim W ilder. 


Theophilus Short, Eleazer Hill. John Taylor, Samuel ]\IaUory, John 
Crow, John Trafton, Oliver Mitchell, Alden Sears, Aaron Wheeler, 
Samuel Torrence, Aaron Hicks, John Simmons, John Kent, Seth 
Jones. William Francis, Solomon Goodale, Luther Phillips, Job 
Gooding, Joshua Reed, Nathaniel Cudworth, Samuel Andrews, 
Benjamin Andrews, Zephaniah Gooding, John Phillips. Thomas 
Gooding, David Simmons, Ephraim. Simeon, Benjamin, Raymond, 
and Constance .Simmons, Jeremiah Brown, Asa James, Philip 
Simmons, Capt. Amos Barber, Nathan Fisher, Abijah Warren, 
Rutu> W hitmar>]i, Jonas and Joseph W ilder, James Case, John 
Case. James Austin, h^leakim Walker, Daniel Smith, Tizdell Walker. 
John Mason, Sylvanus Jones, John Crandall, Azer Jackson, Elias 
Jackson. George Reed, Ephraim Jones. 

The home of the pioneer was of the most i)rinutive nature. 
Idle house was built of logs, about twenty-five by thirty-tive feet in 
size, with large stone chimneys built outside the walls. There were 
uMKillv three rooms on the lower floor and one room above. There 
were no stairs but a common ladder was used for getting into the 
■■chamber." ddie largest room below was used as a kitchen, dining 
room, li\iiig room, and ])arlor. In each of the other rooms was a bed 
and one or two cheap chairs, ])erhaps a stand and chest, and in one 
of ihem was a trundle lied, which was occupied at night 1>\ from 
one to three children. 

The ■■chamber" had no jiartitions and contained several beds, 
li al-o usualh had from one to three occupants, so large were the 
families of that i)eriod. This room had but little other furniture. 
except at tunes the family loom and its necessary accom])animents. 
The Hoors of the rooms were of tlic most crude nature, and were of 
course without car])eis and rugs. The roof was made of long split 
shingles, not laid \er\- clo^eJ\- together, which afforded perfect 
ventilation and which in winter allowed the snow to sift through 
upon the beds and door. In addition to its other uses, the large 
room on the lower floor of the house was made to serve the purpose 
of a hospital, when there was sickness in the family, which hap])ily 
was not a common event. 

In addition io doing the necessary housework, the mistress did 
most of the spinning and weaving for the material frcun which the 
common clothing of the family was made. Several years ago, in 
writing some reminiscences of her early life. Polly Mason Morse, 
sister of the Hon. brancis O. .Mason, and mother of the late Hon. 

Tiili. LOW X OF liRiSTOJ.. 


hlilui W. Aldise, <>f Caiiaiulai_mia, told in an inlerestiiig" manner 
the following;: 

"M\' fiilhcr, jolin Maxni, \\a> one of \\\v lirst settlers of l>rist(jl. 
ile sat down on !ii> taini in the \car 1(S(H), Innlt a lionse ()f logs and 
tlicreni \)\\\ Ihn link' family. In l'S().>, i'olly Mason, the one who 
writes this, lirst saw the li^hl tvom that li)g hou>c. I was rocked in 
one-half of a hullow log, with head and loot hoards to kee]) the 
pillows and hahx' in order, and there J sle])t and dreamed m\- hahy 
dreams, and was as ha])])}' as if mv cradle had heen made of rose- 
wood, while the long-drawn howl ot the wi)lf was heard as he songht 
for ])re\. I was like all the danghtei'sof l'".\e, fidl of mischief, ])la\ing 
with rag hahies, making nMid pies, and man\' other ])ranks that a 
child is heir to; Iml m\ mother was ;i ])ractical woman, and when m\' 
eldest sisler was ten years of age, and I was nearly eight, she intio- 
dnced ns to the s])i]iiung whetd. We had onr stints. S\\ sister's 
was ten knots for a da\' ; m\- own was seven, as ] was not <pnte 
eight years old. 

"l>efore I was fourteen, I was ])nt in the loom to make cloth for 
the lamiK. in which I hec.ime an ;ide])t, and now I nuist Mow m\' 
own hngle. I don't know of one now li\ing hnt nuself who can 
relate the fad. The month was Octoher. m\' woi"k \\ea\ing: I 
started the shuttle as the snn came iij). working steadiK' on all daw 
and when the Min \\ ent down onl of sight 1 had wo\en hfteen xards, 
Si-t down e\ery yard as 1 \vo\'e it. 

"1 well remend)er the war of lS12-lo. ( )nr second neighbor 
on one side was a ca])tain in the militia. ( )ne morning as the day 
was coming, he rode to the door in hot haste, and told m\- father 
to get his hrench gnn and cartridge box reach' to goto West Idoom- 
lield. lie said tlu' I'ritish and Indians h;ul landed at lUitTalo. and 
wonld he in ("anandaigna l)eh)re night. The two ])olitical i)arties 
at that time were hemocrats and 1^'ederals. The J'"e(lerals, some 
of them, laid the war at the door of the Democrats. All the men 
hahle to do ini!it;ir\- dnt\' wei'e gone to idoondield, and we women 
and cdiildren were waiting for the Indians to come and take onr 
seal]) locks. 

"ddiey and the I'ritish hm'ned lUifi'alo. then little more than a 
handet. hut did not get to L'anandaigua, and on the K^th of Sc])- 
tendier the tars and marines on Lake F.rie were seen to m.ake the 
])rond llag of (ireat I'.ritia.n come d,own." 

It has heen s.aid that llristol is the town of man\' churches, and 


that there have been seven society organizations in the town since 
its first settlement. The oldest of these, and in fact one of the old- 
est m the county, is that known as the First Congregational church 
of Bristol, which was organized in January. 1779, although it is 
said Congregational services were held in the town at an earlier 
date and conducted by that earnest Christian worker. Rev. Zadoc 
Hunn. Mr. Flunn was followed by Rev. John Smith. The first 
members were Isaac Hunn, George and Sarah Codding. Ephraim 
and Lydia \\ ilder. Nathaniel and Hannah Fisher, Chauncey and 
Polly Allen, Marcins and Amerilus Marsh, William and Lydia 
Gooding, Samuel ,and Phebe Mallory, Selah Pitts, Mr. Foster, 
James Gooding, Alden Sears and Thomas Vincent. Rev. Joseph 
Grover was called to the pastorate, accepting and moving to the 
town in 1<S(X). Other early pastors and supplies were Revs. Ezekiel 
Chapman. Aaron C. Collins. A. B. Lawrence, Edwin Bronson, 
Warren Day, S C. Brown, Ebenezer Raymond, W. P. Jackson, 
Mr. Bryson, E. A. Piatt. Hiram Harris, E. C. Winchester. Timothy 
Stowe. H. B. Pierpont. Following are some of the names of 
the later ones: Pastors Randolf. Yeomans, Dewey, Woodcock. 
W lieelnck. Manning, Ostrander, Walton, and .Smith. 

Li INJ.T this church was under the charge of the Ontario Pres- 
l)yter\-, l)Ut in ltS44 it withdrew and became Congregational. The 
first ])rimiti\e meeting house of this society is said b\' James H. 
Hotchkiss to ha\e i)een "the iirst edifice exclusixely for the wor- 
ship of God in the Genesee country." It was built of logs and stood 
on lot 3, probabl}' between the present site and X'incent. The 
second edifice was erected in LS13-14. It is a large, imposing old 
structure, with a high steejde crowned by the angel Cial)riel as a 
weather vane. The building is in a good state of ])reservation. 
having laielv undergone thorough repairs. The church has an 
endowment fund from the estate oi George Codding, one of the 
])ioneers of the town. William Goodale T'rost. j^resident of Berea 
college, is the son of a former pastor of this church. Miss ^'eomans, 
a distintrtiij^hed teacher in a colored school in the South, is a daughter 
also of a former pastor. 

'l^he first Uni\ersalist church of Bristol dates its actual organi- 
zation back to the year 1837. though it is said that its teaching and 
l^reaching in the town antedated that time by nearly twenty years. 
The first church edifice was l)uilt in 1836 of cobblestones, and in the 
year following a society organization was effected, but the complete 


organi/alioii was dclavcd until l-'chiuar)- 2, 1872. tlir nanu', First 
Universalist Cliurcli of Bristol, being" then adopted. The edifice was 
built in ISC)!, and a decade ago was remodeled, making it a \ery 
complete building for church entertainments, etc. The pastors of 
the church were William (Juele, Samuel Golf, ()rin Roberts, j. k. 
Johnson. C". 1 )utton, U. M. Fisk, George W. Gag-e, J. M. I'.ailey. |. k. 
Sage, W. W . Lovejoy, L. C. Browne, L. P. Blackfoid, I Unix Jewell, 
j. h\ Gates, S. G. Davis, G. \V. Cole, V. W. I'eck. h". . i; . I'.arber, 
II. j. Orelup. T. F. May, F. F. Buckner, L. 1). I'.oynton. Ihe 
present i)astor is Rev. G. A. Babbitt. Miss Agnes Hatha waw who 
was born in the town and a mend)er of this church, went to japan 
as a missionai"y five \'ears ago. She has been stationed at Tokyo 
and has been in charge of the Blackmer Home for young Japanese 
girls. She is no^\• home on a \acation. 

The hirst l>aptist church of fJristol was organized hebruarx' 7, 
1805, numbering among its original mend)ers fortx-two of the 
leading families of the town. Howe\er. before the establi'-hment 
of the Baptist church of Bristol, the members had been allied with 
the Baptist church of Fast Bloomtield. For many years this church 
xvas a strong organization in town, and during its period of great 
actixity Flnathan G. [^hilli])s. an ordained minister, and a son of P>. 
h^\-mklin Fhilh'iis. a leading and influential member of the church. 
was sent as a missionary to India. He has translated the I'ible 
into one or two of the nati\-e languages and has been made a I). 1 ). 
by his denomination. He is at ])resent stationed in the Pro\ iuce of 
Assam, al)out one thousand miles from Bombay. 

Other histories have said that "Methodist preaching began in 
Bristol as early as the year 1800, when Indian missionaries of the 
church came here and conducted puldic serxices for the inhabitants. 
This kind of service was continued throughout many sul)se(|uent 
years and in bSlYi there were enough Methodists in toxxn to form a 
class, which xxas reorganized and strengthened in ISl.-^. In I84() a 
complete church and societ\' organization xxas elTected. h'phraim 
and George Gooding'. Abner and Alanson Keed and Ward Totman 
being the first trustees. The church ])ropert\' of this societx- is 
located at Bristol Center" and the society is actixely engaged in all 
good vx^ork. 

In the preparation of this chapter the xx riter was especially 
fortunate in having recovn"se to the first secretar\'s book of the old 
Bristol Fair Association. This association was organized in 


jatuirif}-. 1851. with a mciiibcrshi]) ni one luuulred and t\vent_\-cight. 
The first officers elected were: ['resident. I'^rancis Mason; \ice 
])residents. Elijah Jones and Norman Hills: recording' secretary, 
Norman W. Randall: corresponding secretary. ]\lyron O. Wilder; 
treasnrer. Arunah jone^. Besides the interests of the annual fair, 
the .\ssociation hatl something of the order of the Grange, with a 
literar^■ character. The members wotdd meet at stated inter\als 
choosing a dift'erent school district each time. A pa])er on some farm 
toi)ic. winch had been prepared by one of the nn.mber. wcndd be read, 
and then a general discussion on the sul)iect matter would follow. 
M\ron O. Wilder had the honor of making the first address. His 
subject was "The P'armer and His Position." Hie secretary records 
ihat"He alluded to a good education as one (^f thegreatest and most 
\alu.'ible resources of comfort and enjoyment to the farmer. That 
knowledge is found most valuable just in ]>roportion to the great- 
ness of the art to which it is applied. I he farmer occtipies a 
position which exerv da\" is commanding more and more im]H)rtance. 
The ])ro(hice of agriculture i> the first f(^rm of wealth. W here it is 
carried on most extensi\eh". the farmer is held in high estimation 
and exercises an influence to which all would justlx- as])ire. etc." 

'y\v. \\ ilder must ha\e been an advanced thinker for the 
farmers of that period, for in another addre.-s he urges the imiMirt- 
ance of the Go\-ermnent starting agricultm'al schools and 
experimental stations and rec<numends that the (ioxernment 
ptircha>e Mt. \ crm^i for such an instittitiim ; that it be made a 
model experimental farm and the course of instruction include 
physical sciences, architecttu'e. ci\il engineering. English branches, 
and an application of them to agricidture and its kindretl emi)lo\-- 
ments. He suggests that ap])ointments should be authorized from 
each Congressional district of such ^oting men of jiroper age. morals, 
a.bilities and re(|uirements as should be obligated under ceiMaiu 
l)onds with sufficient seciu'ities to ser\e as students and. after 
finishing the course, to dexote a certain length of time to the farms 
in their own districts. It might be a source of great satisfaction for 
Mr. Wilder to know that in a wav his wish had been gratified, and 
that there are unw fifteen hundred \-oung men and women stud\ing 
-Vgriculture in our State. 

"Fruit and Fruit Culture" was the topic of another meeting, in 
which General Sisson joined in the discussion. Over thirty diff'erent 
varieties of a])ples were exhibited. There was also a connntmica- 


tion read on "(irain Cradles." Solomon Goodale and P^lijah Jones 
discussed "Fences and I 'cnriniL;"" at another meeting". The (juestion 
arose as to tlic time of year that was considered tlie l)est for cnttin^ 
a post to insnre its lasting <|nah'ties. T.ewis Bentley liad nuicli to 
say concerning the (hiral)iht\- of Itntternnt posts. Scymonr Andrews 
gave his experience in constrnctin^ stone fences. "Shcc]) 
Husban(h'\'' was tlu- snhicct proposed 1)\ Alanson \\. Simmons. I 
S. Cornell, W ilh.'im I)oncNon and Mr. Sisson were ;icti\e in lln' 
debate. "TonhrN- Naisin^" was most ihoroui^'lih' talkecl ()\ er l)y 
riiineas Kent. \. C. I!athawa\'. Xorman Kandall. Kichard CooihnL;'. 
ivoyal .\. .\n(h-ews, i'ele^- Hicks, h. J. Micks, and Seth Smith. 

The first fair was held at I'.ristoj C enter, .Sei)tend)er ](>. IS.^2. 
Hon. hdnathan \\ . Simmons was marshal of the (hay and W . .Scott 
Hicks made an address. In taking' a cnrsory look at the indues, it 
is interesting" to note how their s|)ecialties ha\e been cari'ied (h>\\ii 
and even now we are familiar with man\- of the descend;ints inter- 
ested in these i)articnlar lines of stock. The jndg'es on horses were 
William j. l)on;dson. Thomas Thinn. .Seth Pank leremiah I'isher. 
Isaac Bentlew and Thomas (iilbert; on cattle. I'hineas Kent. Tdisha 
Mather, Billing's Ca^e. and .Xorman llilU; on shee]). I)arins Xewton. 
Horatio Sisson, Benjann'n I*". Phi!li])s. Isaiah C'ornell, ( )restes Case, 
and Royal Andrews; on swine, h'/.ekiel Cndworth. Jndah Sisson. 
AI])honso (1. T'isher. .Nniong the I'reminms otYered to women \\ei'e 
those for the best woolen cloth, "the best dressed flannel" (all home 
production). }arn carpets, rag carpets, bed cpiilts, bntter. cheese, etc. 

The following are some of the names of those who acted as 
judges: Mrs. Solomon Cioodale. Mrs. Richmond Sinnnons. Mrs. 
Elnathan Simmons, Mrs. Orestes Case. Mrs. Billings Case, Mrs. 
Francis Mason, Miss Mary J. P^anl. Mrs. Phineas Kent, Mrs. 
Norman Randall. Mrs. Elijah Jones. Mrs. ?kIoses Tnbl)s. Mrs. Henry 
Hnrd. Among the winners of discretionary premiums were: Miss 
Pheba Sears, for a "Onster of Peacock Feathers:" Mrs. I'j-astus 
Allen, for a bed (|uilt and flowers: Mrs. William Bailc)-. foi- a chaii' 
tidy; Mrs. Lnc\- Ciooding. for a hearth rug: Miss Adelaide Mason, 
lor a work stand : Miss Dora P.arnnm. for a card basket : Miss Addia 
Fisher, for a caji and Uncle Tom's Cabin cpnlt, etc. 

The town of Bristol has bein most wideh- known foi' its 
extensive hop fields, tlie raising c^f hops being one of its chief 
enterprises. Tt is said that at one time over two thousand acres 
of the twenty-three thousand composing the town area, Avere used 


in tlic cullure of hops*. Tradition has it that the first roots were 
Ijrought in town by a man named Brown, about 1835, but the first 
of which there is any authentic record were grown on the CHnton 
Sears farm from roots procured from Charles Page, of East Bloom- 
field, in 1853. These ho])s were picked at one cent per pole and 
sold in Chicago for thirty-three cents per pound. The oldest hop 
\ard in town is on the farm owned by the late Ouincey A. Smith. 
This vard was set in 1867. Among the prominent growers at 
l)resent are Cliauncey Tayloi". Mark Case, Mrs. O. A. Smith. Daniel 
Sisson. Daniel Taylor, George Buckalew, Earnest Parsons. Garrett 
W lieaton. and Louis Schaefer. Distinguished growers of past years 
were John T. Sisson. ( )restes Case. John Kent. Oscar Sisson. 
Thomas Hunn. \'()ungs W. Smith, and L. H. Jones. 

Stock raising has always been one of the foremost industries. 
I'or many years Bristol was the home of "Old Henry Clay." a horse 
of great distinction and renown. In 1854. a syndicate composed of 
Albert and Zepheniah Bailey, and Oliver Kent ]nn-chased him. 'I'lic 
horse was brought from Long Island in 1845. l)y Col. \\ . \\ . 
W'adsworth of Geneseo. who. it is reported, pm'chased him at a 
dollar a pound. In Randolph Huntington^ book on General (irant's 
horses, he s])eaks of this horse as follows: "Henry Clay was 
Arabian bred, strongly so; possessing the build, disposition and 
constitution of the Arab. His ears ^vere line and small, forehead full 
and broad, jaws deep, wide between and thin : eyes large and 
])rominent. nuiz/le small, with thin li])s and large thin nostrils; his 
Hmbs were fine yet ])owerful, while his \er\- handsome feet were 
tough enough to go for all time barefoot, a peculiarity of the Arab. 
He was the founder of the entire family of Clay horses, and his 
purity of blood was so great as to stamp his high physical qualities 
with instincts to a positi\eness. outlasting that of all other families 
today. He was foaled. June. 1837. and died. A])ril. 1867.'' 

Shee]) raising was an important industry also. Xathan 
Thomas. Billings T. Case, and V. J. Hicks were prominent in the 
breeding of registered Merinos for western trade in the early '70s, 
but previous to this date thousands of sheep were slaughtered 
annually. Asa Gooding was the leader in this and for years he con- 
ducted an extensive business. From the location of his enormous 
trade in mutton was derived the appellation "Muttonville." People 
drove their flocks to him from miles around. The fences on his 
own domains and on those of the surrounding farms were literally 

TIUl TOWX Ul' iJRlSTUL. 241 

Imed with sheep pelts. People oft remarked when a flock of crows 
were seen flyin,^ over, "There .^-oes some of Asa Gooding's liens," 
so man}- w^ere attracted there !)}■ the necessary accuinnlation of 
offal. Mr. (loodini;- ilid an immense hnsiness, slanj^'hterin^ sheei), 
shippinL^' the hams, ^elhnu' the pelts, and making' candles fi-om the 
tallow. lie was a pnblic spirited man and s^ood townsman, and 
prol)al)l\' did as nnich tor this localit\- as an\ other citizen of I'ris- 
lol. He erected the heantitnl (iolhic honse now owned 1)\' frank 
O. Case at Vincent. 

It is said th;it l'>ri.slo|, in ])roportion to its population, has fnrn- 
ished a lar^e nnnd)er of otiicials for hoth conntx and .State. AnuHio- 
these are fonr memhcrs of Assemhlw \iz: fdnathan \V. Sinnnons. 
()li\er C"ase, l)a\id \\. Wilson, and francis ( ). Mason, the latter of 
whom was also .Assistant .Xdjntant-Cjeneral of the State and ("onnt\' 
judg-e. It has furnished two sheriffs, Phineas Kent and the ])resent 
incnmbcnt. f^.lias J. Gooding"; one State Senator, fldwin 1 licks, who 
was also district attorne\- for fonrteen \ears : two connt\- clerks. 
l\lnathan \V. Sinmions and Washington 1.. I licks: one sniro^ate, 
fdihn M. Morse: one connty treasnrer. Siumcer Gooding- : a State 
Comnn'ssioner of Excise, Maynard N. Clement, besides a large 
mnnher of officials of lesser importance. 

'fhe f'rench e])isode of the hnrning spring nnght ha\-e paxed 
the way, as it \\ere. for the once renowned oil well of nuishroom 
fame, the Hasli-light illnmination of which ama/ed and startled the 
law abiding citizens of I'ristol, It proxed. however, to be the art- 
ful maneuvers of some promoters, who did not strike oil. but who 
in their desire to ra])idl\- enrich themsehes secretly brought sexeral 
barrels of kerosene from the count}- seat at night, which thev snr- 
re])titiously i)Oured into the well. Then, when the\- had exploited 
their great discover}- of oil, and the |)eople were reach' to believe 
(for always there had existed an opinion of the probability of oil), 
the promoters excited the citizens to the highest jiitch and proved 
their assertions by liring the well. The illumination was seen for 
miles around, hjithnsiasm kne\\- no boimds. This pro\ed the ps\-ch- 
ological moment, a com])an\- w;is formed, stock sold, and an oi)por- 
tunity given for every citizen in I'ristol to get rich, 'fhe promoters 
were on the eve of fulfilling tlieir wildest expectations, when, 
presto! suspicious talk was circulated, a conspiracy detected, and 
the promoters judiciously and secretly folded their tents and left 
for parts unknown. While oil was never discovered, years later 


this incident might be said to have borne fruit. Less than a decade 
ago lands in Bristol were leased to a corporation known as the 
Ontario County Gas and Alining Company that was successful in 
finding gas. There are now wells which supply fuel and lights to 
many citizens in town, and also to residents of East Bloomlield. 

At one time there were six or seven taverns in town, licensed 
to sell intoxicating liquors, Imt it is now sevent\-{ive years since 
the sale of liquor has been legalized. Bristol yet has no railroad, 
but greatly enjoys the advantages derived from the telephone and 
the rural free delivery. 

Bristol has a library located at the village of Bristol. This 
was established in 1900. through the efforts of the Bristol Women's 
Ckib, and Rev. F. F. Buckner, who was then pastor of the Univers- 
alist church. The charter members of the Board were Rev. F. F. 
Buckner, William H. Doyle, Mrs. Wells G. Martin, Mrs. John B. 
Gregg, IMrs. Frank O. Case, Miss Mabel Bliss, and Airs. Frank 11. 
Kent. The library holds a charter from the State and now contains 
between thirteen and fourteen hundred volumes. 

There are three small villages in town: Bristol Center, where 
the Bristol Center Creamer\- is located, and also the general mer- 
chandise stores of Doyle &' Sisson and Airs, l-'rank Simmons : \'in- 
cent, where Airs. Eugene Rood has a general supply store, and 
Bristol P. O., where W. H. Doyle does an extensive merchandise 
business. There are two resident physicians. Dr. ^^'. .Scott TTick^. 
at Bristol, and Dr. B. T. AIcDowell, at Bristol Center. 

Little is known of the early history of the schools of this town. 
It is a well authenticated fact, however, that Thomas Hunn taught 
the first school in town in 1790. At present there are twelve dis- 
tricts, all having good common schools. 

Bristol was not wanting in war-time patriotism, for the names 
of over one hundred soldiers were enrolled, who enlisted from the 
town to fight in the war of the Rebellion. 

The present town officials are as follows: supervisor. W illiam 
AL Simmons; town clerk, Francis AI. Pierce; justices, Isaac N. 
Kimber, Preston T. Case, Alark A. Francis, Frank Ferrin ; asses- 
sors, William R. Allen, Charles R. Simmons, Charles R. Ketchum ; 
highway superintendent, George Buckelew ; collector, Isaac N^. 
Kimber, Jr.; overseer of poor, William Alurray; constables, Isaac 
N. Kimber, Jr., John Rowley, George Clohecy, Roy B. Case; school 
directors, Clair R. Simmons, Clarienne A. I. Gregg. 




The Legend of Onnolee — First a Part of Richmond — Organized as 
a Separate Town in 1829 — The Pioneers — First School Houses 
and Teachers — Succession of Supervisors — Church History — 
Soldiers of 1812-14 and 1861-65— Without Drinking Resorts 
for Over Forty Years. 

By Albert H Tibbals. 

TIk- town of C'aiiadicc is tlie southwest coi'iier tow n ot ( )ntario 
count \ and is townshi]) N^). S of tlie 5th rani^c of townships of the 
Phelps and Gorhani rin-cliase ; with a triangular piece from No. 8 
of tlie f)lli ran^e Ivine' east of Hemlock lake added to its west side 
next to the north line, less the stri]) ahout a nn'le wide east of 
Honeoye lake and its inlet, taken from this town and added to the 
town of Richmond. Honeoye lake lies on its eastern honndary 
for half its leno'th and Hemlock lake hounds seven-eights of its 
western limits. Lyin^- wholl\- wiiliin the western central part of 
the town is Canadice lake, from which the town takes its name. 

All of this lake countr\' was early occupied l)y the Indians and 
manv evidences of the hunt and chase ha\e heen found e\en to the 
present time. Tradition t^ives the story of the captive Onnolee. the 
fast survivor of the Munsee nation, which dwelt on the west shore 
of Canadice lake during- the latter part of the fourteenth century, 
and met their death hv the hands of their supposed friendly 
neighhors, the Mengnees ; all except Onnolee, who was taken, 
hound to the helt of the famous leader, jNIickinac. and compelled 
to follow him. At their Hrst rest for dinner. Onnolee grasped the 
knife from her captor's helt, and with one nn'ght}^ thrust huried it 
deep in his side. She knew her life was forfeited and fled with the 
fleetness of a deer, while arrows whizzed In- her in all directions. 
She gained at last a crag overhanging the waters of Canadice or 


Hemlock lake, and. as beaiitifull}- rendered in rhyme by the poet 
W. H. C. Hosmer: 

"Regardless of the whizzing storm 
Of missiles raining round her form, 
Imploring eye she then upcast, 
And a low, mournful death hymn sang, 
On hill and forest looked her last, 
One glance upon the water cast, 
And from the high rock sprang." 

It IS said that, for more than three hundred years afterwards, 
the sainted form of tjie once beautiful Onnolee could be seen to 
rise from its watery grave and either vanish in upper air or return 
again to the bosom of the deep. 

Bald hill lies between Canadice and Hemlock lakes. King north 
and south wholly across the town. Iiast liill. or Kimball lull, the 
ridge of land between Canadice and Honeoye lakes, makes up the 
balance of the township territory, all gradually lessening in altitude 
toward the north. The highest altitude in the town is said to be 
about twenty-one hundred feet above tide, this on the southeast 
part of East hill. 

Under the act of January 27, 1789. a large district of territory 
in Ontario county was given an organization and named Pittstown. 
This organization was perfected in 1796, and in A])ril. 1806. the 
name was changed to Honeoye. Another change was made in 
April, 1815. nnd the town then became known as Riclinionfl. 
Within the boundaries of this town, under its various early names, 
and down to 1829. was included all that now comprises the town 
of Canadice. 

This town was formed under its present name as a distinct 
civil division of the county, on the I5th of April, 1829. although it 
was not until the next year that the organization was made com- 
plete. The town had its greatest population, 1386 inhabitants, at 
the time of its organization. 

It is assumed that General Sullivan crossed the northern end 
of the town when he passed through the Seneca country in 1779, 
crossing Canadice outlet about a mile north of the lake. Hiram 
Colegrove, residing on a farm at this point, found a hatchet in 1824, 
which was recognized by Rufus Gary, who accompanied the expe- 
dition, as one used bv Sullivan's men : also the remains of a cause- 


way made of logs was later plowed up hy Colegrove, which Gary, 
an early settler in this town, stated was made for the crossing of 
artillery and wagons, and that the army camped for a night at this 

The first settlers within the ])resent borders of Canadice located 
themsehes abo^•e the head of lloneoye lake, in 1703, when Aaron 
liunl made an improxement and was accomi)anie(l by Jacob Hold- 
ren. the latter afterwards gaining nuich proimnence at an early day 
as a i)udder of mills. At this time there were no .snr\e_\'s except 
those of townshi]) lines. Claim lines were run l)y axe and were 
limited b\' the similar rif^^iits of neighl)oi"s. I'^ronticr law >ecured to 
the lirst claimant his betterments, and this ruk- was strenuously 
adhered to. 

Jacob Hoklren married Hunt's daughter, Jane, and built a 
cabin on the west side of Honeoye inlet and m;ide a clearing. .\t 
this time the nearest postoffice was at Canandaigua and the nearest 
grist mill at Hopewell, h^iftv acres of the farm once owned l)y 
llfddren was ]iurf'hased bv a bachelor named Melow a noted hunter 
and fisherman, who had a cabin near the foot of a ])romineut ])oint 
standing boldh' out from the high ridge on the west >ide of the 
walley, a little south of the head of the lake, and known as Meloy's 

l-"oi- nine years the wdley knew no other occuixmts than the 
strolling bands of Senecas and occasional hunters, and these early 
pioneers had grown accustomed to their surroundings. ILarly in 
the fall of 1804, three men from A^ermont, Gideon and J(jhu W alker 
and Josiah Jackman, set out on foot, carrying ])ro\isions for the 
journey, to prospect in Ontario county for homes. At the foot of 
Canadice lake, they built a log house on ^\■hat was later the Henry 
McCrossen farm and partly built two others near by. Late in the 
following winter, after returning east, they set out with three ox 
teams and began a twent}' days' journey, bringing their goods and 
families on sleds. The three families mo\'ed into the finished house 
while the others were being completed. 

Simon Stevens came from Vermont in 1811 with ox team and 
sled. John Wilson came about the same time. Hiram Colegrove 
came from Oneida county in 1817. In 1813 John AX'alker built the 
first framed house in town. He sold later to Warren Freeman. 
Ezekiel and Frederick Wilson and their families came to town in 
1807 and located in Canadice Hollow. The same vear Ebenezer 


Kimball came and settled on East hill. John Phillips was also an 
early settler in the same locality, as were Seth Knowles, David 
Badgero, Reuben Gilbert, Justis Grout, and in 1808, to the same 
locality came Butler Lewis, John Leggett, James and Jesse Pen- 
field, the fiddler. Other pioneers who came to town about the same 
time were \\ illiani Gould, a X'ermonter and Revolutionary soldier, 
Sylvanus Stacy, Abram Stacy, James Button, Ebenezer Ingraham 
and his sons, Abel and Andrew, John Alger (another mill builder), 
John W ilson, and Ezra Davis, a cabinet maker and the town under- 
taker for a time. 

In the same connection may be mentioned the names of 
other heads of families; among them Ja:nes Anderson. Jolni Rioli- 
ardson. and Elmer Chilson (1810), Jesse Ballard, Samuel Bently, 
Cornelius Johnson, Hiram and Samtiel Hogans (1809), Albert 
Einch and Luther Gould (1810). Abotit the same time came Moses 
Hartwell, Samuel ^^'ilson. Bartlett Clark, Timothy Parker, Xathan 
Beers, Darius Finch, Tobias Finch, Rol)ert W ilson, S. B. Spencer, 
William Gould, C. Bailey. John Darling, Harr)- Vnnstrong, Homer 
Blake, John Edgett, and Harry Jones. 

Later and within a few \ears others came and made imi)rove- 
mcnts, among whom were: William I'tley, Cornelius llolden, 
James Hull. Elisha Hewitt, John Wheeler, Preston Thayer (1820), 
Joseph .S. Spencer, John W incli. James Bowker, Xorman and 
David Butler (181.^), Isaac Sergeant, Jehiel Spicer (1812), Heze- 
kiah Cole, W illiam Burns, \\'illiam .Sidlixan, Deacon Benonia 
Hogans (1812j, James Plyde. Amos Thornton (1813). Shadrack 
Ward. James Bemis, Henry Armstrong, John Keller (1813), Reu- 
ben Cole, John Cole. David Tibbals (1818). Daniel Knowles, Peter 
W'elch, Hiram and Samuel Hogans, John Green, Reuben Alann, 
George and James Adams, \\'illiam Clare, Jacob Cannon. Thomas 
Peabody, Asa Bushnell, Abram ?klcl\ee, Ralph Stanwood. Robert 
Paldwin, and Green Waite. 

b^illowing this time, -settlement became more rapid and within 
a few years the most desirable lands of the town were all occupied. 
In 1814 came Ebenezer and Samuel Knapp, James Seeley, h^-efl- 
erick Howland, Eli Darling. Dr. \\ illiams, John Reeves. Jabez 
Hicks, James Bennett. Charles Hyde, Amos Jones, John Bourn, 
Rufus Gary, Aldcn W heelock, Benjamin Jersey. Andrew AVemett, 
and the next year (181.^) there came Benjamin, Philip and Peter 
Snyder, Jonathan Waters, and Captain Granby. 


Other early settlers were Alvin Anderson, John Ray, Elisha 
Prior, E. Weed, Kev. Silas Reynolds, Abel Eastman, Mathew 
Standish, Luke ji)hnson, Abram 1). Patterson, Daniel I'calxxl)', 
Joshua Merrick, Reuben (jilbert, l)a\i(l i'hillips, Levi \\ aUiu^-, 
Robert Callister, John Sinnnons, Isaac and Robert Smith, 
Joseph Lobdell, Jesse Stewart. Thomas Johnson, Amos 
Peck, jenks Bagley, P!!noch Macomber, Orange Potter. Ephraiui 
Tucker, Nathaniel Bearmore, justis l)a\is, Anth'ew llain])i<in. 
Jonas Quick, Benjamin Conklin, Daniel Beardsley, Andrew lleek- 
wilh. Abiather f'hillips, Asa Farrer, James and lleury llewitt, 
James Hampton, and others whose names are as worthy of record 
as these, but undoubtedly ha\e I)een lost. 

The tirst school house was built in ISO** in Canadice I billow 
and tlie ln"st teacher was lletsey Walker, sister of Gideon and b'li'i 
Walker. The hrst school iiouse built on i\ind)all hill was in 1S12,. 
and the earliest teachers were Belinda Jackson, Eliza W ilds anil 
Abnira llubbai-(b In the same year a school house was built in 
the northeast [)art of the town and Abigail Root was tiie hrst 
teacher. Thomas Doolittle was an earl\' ])ostmaster. his connnis- 
sion bearing date KSi^. l^arh' car])enters of the town wen- Asa, 
I'liny, William, and Zai-hariah Ai-kkw and l)a\id Tibbals. 

Ira Kimball, before mentioned, had ten children. ( )ne, Betse\', 
married .\. G. Chesebro, of Canandaigua, mentioned as connected 
with tiie abduction of \\'illiam Morgnn. The Hon. Henry O. 
C'hesebro and Caroline Chesel)ro, the autln)ress, were grandchildren 
of I i-;i Kimball. 

Dr. Sylvester Austin came to Kiniball hill in IS.Vi, bought a 
large farm and pi'acticcil his jirofession. lie was a mendier of the 
State Legislature in bS-l.^. His son, Alanson W. Austin, was super- 
mtendent of schools. super\isor in l(S63-65, and later served as 
school connnissioner. /Xnother son, Nathaniel G. Austin, was 
su])er\i>or in 1835. Amasa T. Winch was supervisor of the town 
in 1870-76 and member of tlie State Legislature in 1877-78. Oliver 
C. Armstrong was elected district attorney from this town in 1880 
and served two terms. Later he w'as elected surrogate and died 
soon after assuuiing the duties of that oltice. Henrv ]. Wemctt' 
was elected and served a term as school commissioner, soon after 
his rtMurn from the \\ar of the r)Os. 

Canadice was set off from Liclini.. nd in 1829, and the first 


town meeting- \\as liekl April 6, 1830. at which time officers were 
elected. At that time the town was well populated. 

The succession ot super\isors of the to^vn from the year of 
organization, beginning with a veteran of the Revolutionarv war. 
is as follows: Keul-en Hamilton, 1830-32; John Winch, 1833; 
Andrew Ward. 1S34: lolm Shank. 1835-36; Hiram Coleo-rove. 
1837-40: Robert Armstrong, 1841; Hiram Colegrove, 1842-43: 
1845-40: 1852-5-4: Mark R. Ray. 1844: Joseph S. Secor. 1847; 
Maurice Brown. 1848-50; Z. C\ Amh-uss. 1851; Nathaniel G. Aus- 
tin. 1855: Jonas C. Putnam. 1856; W alHng Armstrong, 1857-62; 
Alanson W. Austin. 18f)3-65; (jcorge .\ndruss, 1866-69; Anuisa T. 
W'mch, 1870-76: O^car 1". Ray. 1877-79; Caleb B. Hyde, 1880-81; 
Horatio H. Hickok. 1882; 1). Willard r.eam, 1883; Albert H. Tib- 
bals, 1884-85; Birdsey H. lUirch, 1886-87: Thomas Eldridge. 
1888-89; Caleb B. Hyde, 1890-91; Lorenzo Winch. 1892-93; Marion 
J. Becker. 1894-1903; Everett E. Coyken.lall, RH)4-(H): Marcus C. 
Brown. RMO-11. 

Canadice Corners is llie onl\- ])usiness center of tlie town, at 
which is the Methodist Fi)iscopal church, the general store of 1\. R. 
Crooks, and twc oi" three >^ho])s. Business places in the surround- 
ing to\\'ns of kichniond. Ri\(Miia. and Springwater are eas}' of 
access. All mail is n(;w delixercd b\- i-ural carriers from these out- 
side towns, and a good share of the inhabitants are supplied with 
telephones, all of which hel|) to compensate for the incon\-enience 
of the people's geographical isolation. The lakes, especially Hem- 
lock and Canadice, ha\e been a great attraction for sununer visitors, 
and ha\-e been the scenes of many gala days, during upwards 
of three score years The most of that has passed and all is 
eioomed. The cit\- of Rochester has accpiired rights to both of 
these lakes, and not content with the use of the waters therefrom, 
is closing them round with city ownership of all contiguous territory 
and causing all cottages to 1)e removed and begiiuiing a return to 
])rime\al days by reforesting. 

Of the many religious organizations which have from time to 
time been established, but one is now in existence. During the early 
history of the t(nvn. the ])eoi)le worshiped in the old time school 
jiouses. having then no regular organization, but their gatherings 
were none the less sacred and worthy. Rev. Ebenezer Ingraham 
frequently held meetings as early as 1809, and later Elder Abijah 
Wright conducted a successful revival. Also Elder Ketchum 


performed some cliurrh scr\icc's and prcacdicd in the lo^^- school 
honse on the Xult laiMii. A hranidi ol ihe rreshvterian ehnrcli of 
kichniond was fornR>(l in (.'anachoe in iNirS, and in 1S3^ il took the 
name oi C anadiee. It ^]a(hiall\- deoHned. .Man\' of the mend)ers 
mo\cd, some joined \\\v Alethoch^t l'.|)isco])al chnrch. and it was 
dissolved in 1839. 

A societN' of the C'l<)se ("onnnnnion llaptist ehnrrh was formed 
by Elder Caleb ISri^^s of Kichniond, at the kindiaU school honse, 
on April 12, 18v'?4. The persons who conijjosed the chni'ch when 
formed were James Ilyde, l'"./.ra Smith. I)aniel rnrseh, l\ol)ert 
Armstrong- and their wi\'es, John and iMJmnnd I'nrsell, hdias \\\-lcli 
and Arnold (ireen. .Mendters were added fi'om time to time nntil 
it nnnd)ered t hirl \-nine. ( )n the last ThnrsdaN' of Maw 183.^, it was 
resolved by a conncil of this chni'cdi, composed of nunnbers fi'oni 
Lakex'ille, Xnnda, Bristol, and Richmond, with hdder IJri^-o's, 
Benjamin and Jose]:)li Ttdler of this chnrch, to "h'eljowshi]) this 
chnrch as a Chnrch of Cdirist in Clospel order." It was taken into 
liie ( ienesee l\i\er association on June 27, 183."'. Tts last res^nlar 
meeting- was in September, 1849, when it reported nineteen nunnbers 
in u()od standing-. John I'ursell was the first and only deacon. 

A Cong'reuational society was formed through the et'forts of 
Ucv. Isaac Sergeant. He preached at the l\ind)all school house 
and held a successfid re\i\al there. Idie societ\' was soon dissohed 
and no records exist. The "W eslevan Methodist Connection of 
America" org-anized a idiurch at the Bush school hoirse in Mai-ch, 
1845, after a protracted efior^ and re\i\al. conducted b\' Kev. Israel 
D. l'rend)l}-. The t)riginal members were .Xndrew Ingraham. 
Joseph Yost, William Smith, Eli Shaw .and wife. Jesse \\ eslbrook, 
John A\'inch. P)enjamin and Jane Hlake. Its greatest mendiershi]) 
was thirty-tour. -Another class of the same church was formed on 
Kimball hill and presided over by the same nn'nisters at a ditlerent 
hour. Of the ministers who labored with them, can be recalled the 
names of the Revs. Trembly, Kitchel, Bixbw IJooth, Havens, l)a\is. 
Finney, A^orks, Paine. Broadhead. Clark, Lewis, Barnetson. Bush, 
and Miller. 

The Christian church of the ttn\ns of Canadice and .Spvingw.ater 
held meetings for se\-eral }'ears in the A\"aite school house. .\ 
regular organization was effected in 1830. It was then formed by 
the Rev. Amos Chapman, who i)reached regnlarU- fur man\- \ears. 
Later a church edifice was erected in Springwater (1836-37) which 


was accessible to the Canaclice branch of this church and its attend- 
ance was transferred there. 

Adherents of the Methodist l^piscopal church were the tirst to 
liold rehgious services in town, which were presided over by Elder 
Walker in 1808. Elder Ingrahani in 1809, the Revs. Bartlett and 
Clark in 1811, Jehiel Spicer in 1812. Silas Reynolds in 1816. In the 
absence of further records prior to 1830, it cannot be stated when a\ 
Methodist class ^vas first formed at Canadice. At that time it was 
an appointment on a four weeks' circuit, including Lima and 
Livonia within its bounds. From 1830 to 1835 the class enjoyed 
an almost constant revival. Meetings were held in school and 
priw'ite houses and sometimes in barns, and the class and congre- 
gation became so large that a meeting house was necessary for their 
accommodation. On December 16. 1833, the members met pursuant 
to notice for the purpose of legal incorporation, preparatory to 
building a house of worship. .\t that meeting it was resolved to 
incorporate under the title of the J^'irst Society of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, in tlu- town of Canadice, and the following 
inend)ers were elected the first board of trustees: Elias Westfall. 
jolm .Shank, ( )rrin Ander^ou. llum])lirev Ibimp. and jolin W inoli. 
J'he articles of incor])oration are recorded in Ontario county clerk's 
ortice, ill Liber 1). of Miscellaneous Records, at folio 83. Tlu' 
trustees proceeded to raise funds by subscription, and had erected 
b\' contract, during the sunnner of 1834, a house 30\40 feet with 
galleries and steeple, in the prevailing style of that time, for the sum 
of $1,050. It \\as dedicatetl the following winter. Dr. .Samuel 
Lucky and I\e\-. John Co])elan(l preached on that occasion and a 
good revi\al followed. The deed of the church lot is recorded in 
the Ontario count)- clerk's office, in Liber 6(^ of Deeds, at page 422. 

In 1872 the church was enlarged and altered to the present form 
of the main part, and rededicated December 18th. Dr. Mulder, of 
Bulialo, assisted b\- Presiding Elder K. \\ Jer\is, conducted the 
services and the debt of $1.2(3<) was fully pro\ided foi- by pledges 
In LKX). the social rooms on the east were added at an expense of 
about $900. In 1882. the church bell was procured and put in place, 
for which thanks are due Harrison D. Nutt. who started the move- 
ment and circidated a subscription for that purpose. Since the first 
board of trustees abo^•e named, the follo^ving have been elected 
and served in that caj^acity. many of them for several terms, viz: 
Freman Warrick, 'Jliomas Doolittle, Henry Hoagland, Erastus 


Eggleston, E. A. Sli<'u\\ James H. Gay, jolin Brown, George I. 
Brown, John llurcli, Aniasa T. W iiicli, l)a\i(l Snook, Peter Walling, 
Joseph Tague, John Alyrcs. ( icorge Anderson, Joseph Strnble, 
I Icnry S. Ogden, 1 oren/o Winch, Isaac Stinhlc, J. 1\. Partridge, 
Ashcr B. Norton, (.. W . S!iai-])stoen, W. S. Doolittle, Noah Strnble, 
i;. 11. Bnrch, ( . I'.. M\(le, (). h". Kay. I). W. I '.cam, I-:. C.llnff, 
II. C. r.ranch, L. M. Dooliltk', I'rank Doohttic, A. II. Tihhals, .\l. 
J. r.ecker, (i. W . .Mioltcr, E. B. Henry, Scoli W. Bnsh, and 
VV. E. Winch. 

Pastors who ha\(.' nn'nislcrcd lo tlic nuMnbcrs and friiMids of 
this chnrch in consecnti\e order. l)eginning in 1<S.'^(), arc ihc l\c\'s. 
(j. Lanning, \\ . Jloag, kicliard Wright, Jonathan Ucnson. Jacol) 
Scott, JsracI Chanihcrlain, Dr. r.arllctt, W. Williams, A. Ilai'd, W . 
Jones, S. C. C"hin-ch, I'. Ihudl, ddiomas C'astlclon, Mr. Ilin^hani. 
C. Chapman, .Sannicl I'arker, Ahner Reid, .A. .\tciicson, John W ilcy, 
.S. R. ("ook, J. liall. William A. Barber, Jose])h l"ha])man, |. J. 
I'.rown, A. Maker, J. Robinson. J. K. Tinkham, J. L. S. (irandin, |. 
Al. I'ark, J. lienson, J. P)li\in. J. Armitage, W. Cochran. W illiam 
Sharj), J. Benson, R. 'W Hancock, G. W. Chandler, J. Easter, W . R. 
lienham, I). Hntchins, ( ). Trowbridge, J. Watts, S. Al. Alerritt, J. 
E. Tiffany, R. 'J\ Hancock, J. E. Tiffany, S. Al. Dayton, G. S. 
Watson, .\. 11. Alaryott, Thompson Jolly, b. D, Mather. II. O. 
.Abbott, J. A. Smith. J. T. Htnnphrey. J. h. I'.rown, \\. J. Cook, 
Walter Dynes, I. 1'.. Bristol, Arthnr ( )sbornc, O. .\. Retan. .\. W. 
.Decker, P. P. Sowers. J. \\\ I'.arncn. I". II. Dickcrson, (i. W . 
Rich mire, and Joseph Clarke. 

A list of soldiers of the RcN'olntion who later fonnd a home in 
Canadice, com])rises the names of llarrx' .Vrnistrong, William 
Gonld, Renben Hamilton, Xathan Mctrse, Isaiah Smith, W iDiam 
SulliN'an, and I )erl)y Wilds. 

Of the soldiers of the war of 1812, who went from this town or 
later made their homes here, were Albert b^inch, Lntlu-r (ionld. 
Captain Granb}-, Jnstns (jront, Laban Howland, C'ornclins Johnson, 
Tames Kelly, John Kelly, Ira Kind)all, |oseph King, Morris .\orth, 
Daniel Xorton, J(»nas Onick, Silas Reynolds, .\masa Richardson, 
Jonathan Richardson, Robert Smith, Sannicl .Smith. W illiam Smith, 
Horace Spencer, Orra .Sj)encer, Ira. Spencer, (icorge .Stnilde, Da\id 
Tibbals, Benjamin (i. Waite, Green W aite. Andrew Ward, 
Frederick W' estbrook, Da\id Badger(-», and Jesse l^.row n. 

in the war of 1861-65, the tow n of Laiunlice did its fnll .share in 


furnishing men to put down the rebelHon who served in these 
regfiments: Thirteenth X. Y. \'. Infantry — Orrin S. Brown, Thomas 
J. Burch. Ichabod McConnell, Steven H. Draper. James Evans. 
John M. Hyland. ^^'i]]iam McLeod, Donald McLeod, George O. 
Richardson. Eighty-fifth X. V. \'. Infantry — James Brogan. 
Francis M. Francisco. Pahner W. Lewis. Elhcott R. StiUman, 
Lendall H. Rowley. Elam A\'etmore, Horace Z. Shepard. Xinety- 
fourth X. V. \' Infantry — W'illard G. Shepard. One Hundred 
Fourth X. V. \'. Infantry — Jotham Coykendall, Harvey R. 
Coykendall. (J)ne Hundred Twenty-sixth X. Y. \\ Infantry — 
Daniel Rop. W ilHam L. Shepard, Martin L. Xuti. One Hundred 
Forty-seventh X. Y. \'. Infantry- -John Burch, Jr., Lafayette \\'hite. 
Lewis C. Crossen. Albert H. Tibbals. One Hundred Sixtieth X. Y. 
\'. Infantry — John O'Lahey. C)ne Hundred Eighty-eighth X. Y. Y. 
Infantry — Henr}- J. Wemett, George A. W'emett, John King. 
George King, George W. Case, Harrison E. Francisco, Peter C. 
Rop, AYesley Slout. Twenty-eighth X. V. V. Infantry — Henry S. 
Struble, Charles M. Struble. Fourth X. V. \\ Heavy Artillery — 
Henry S. Struble, Charles M. Struble. Fourteenth U. S. Infantry — 
Joseph H. Hyde. First X. V. \'. Mounted Rifles — William C. 
lucker. George Culver, Heman Cole, .Xrnold G. Coykendall, 
\\ illiam X. Simcuis, Harrison J. Babcock. Ira 1). l)urg\ , janie> V.. 
Cole, \\ illiam H. Hutchinson. William E. Thorpe, Henry S.Thorpe. 
W dliam I. Bishop, W illard I). Caskey, Thomas Mellody. First X. 
\'. Y. Dragoons — James H. Loveland. F.ighth X. ^'. \'. Caxalry — • 
Joseph A. W'emett. MilfcMxl C. W'emett. Twenty-first X. \'. \'. 
Cavalry — Orra S. Pursed. Ji)na> IJeardsley, Emery .\. Anderson. 
Thomas S. Doolittle, (ieorge F. Ray. Clinton .\. Owen. Michael 
Oliver, Donald McI eod. Stephen H. l)ra])er, Robert R. Ran- 
ney. Seventh 111. \'. Cavalry — -Hiram J. Coykendall. U. S. 
Xavy — Buel G. Burde. I^'ifty-eighth Xational Guards — Orlando 
E. Thorpe. 

^\ e have been unable to learn the regimental organizations 
to which the following list of soldiers belonged: George W. Heaz- 
lett, Sedrey M. Heazlett, Maurel \\'. Smith. Homer Smith. Dwight 
Coykendall. Jerry Coykendall. Thomas Claven, James A. Gowers. 
Joseph King, Luther C. Myers, George Casner. Elmer Bailey, and 
Alonzo G. W'emett. 

There are now living in the town seven veterans who served 
in the war of the TiOs. viz: W'illard D. Caskev, who served the last 


year of the war in the 1st N. Y. Mounted Kitlcs; Clark Rix. wIk) 
served a year and a half in the 21st .V. \. Cavalry; Henry Clark, 
who ser\ed a \-ear and a half in the 141st X. \'. Tnfantrx-; Albert 
H., who served tin- last two years of the war in the 147th 
M. Y. Infantry; Thonia^ Murray, who served nearly three years 
m the 148th N. \'. Jnfaniry; Peter C. ko]). who served the last 
year of the war in the 188th N. \'. Infantrx; and Bowman I-". Ciseo, 
who served in the 35th X. J. Infantry, and another regiment from 
the same State. 

The temperance (luestion in ("anadice was decided for no- 
license, o\er fort\' vears ajU'o, and so remains. In the earl\ da\'s. 
country taxerns, with their whiskey bars, were ])lenty. The last 
licensed hotel was kept by Joel Coykendall at the Corners, and was 
W'idel}' known as the ]iostelr\- of L'ncle Joel and Aunt Sally. An 
efTort was made in 1882 b\' l)a\enport Alger of Springwater. who 
built a summer liotel. called the l^ort House, at the head of Hemlock 
lake, to run a drinking place. After learning that tlie people of 
Canadice would not tolerate tlic traffic, he built a pier out in the 
lake with a cabin at the end and took out a license fi'om the adjoin- 
mg town of Conesus. in Tj\'ingston county, and began selling there. 
As the statutory l)oundar\- of the west side of the town along the 
lake shore ^vas somewhat ambiguous, he construed it to suit his 
pur])ose and contended that tlie boundar\' line was at the water 
line. An action was begun by Overseer of the Poor A. \\ . Doo- 
iittle, Ijefore Justice of the Peace .A. H. Tibl)als, for penalt\- under 
the Excise law. and was stubbornl}- contested for two days, with 
Attorneys O. C. Armstrong and Bradley \\'ynkoop, of Canan- 
daigua. counsel for plaintiff, and ludge Vanderlip. of l)ans\ille. 
and R. H. ^^^iley. Esq., of Springwater, foi* the defendant, judg- 
ment was rendered against the defendant for one penalty. $50. and 
costs. $18.40. An appeal \yas taken to the County court with like 
results. In the meantime application was made to Hon. Silas Sey- 
mour, State Engineer and Sur\eyor. to determine the said boundary 
line, which was inyestigated hv him and found to be across a por- 
tion of the lake, instead of along the shore. Soon after this the 
"Port House" went u]) in smoke and thus ended the issue. 

Note. — Credit is due the late D. B\ron ^^'aite. former Canadice 
historian, for material u>^ed h\ the ])resent Avriter. and to the late 
Hon. Amasa T. Winch, for church records left by him. 




Ga-nun-da-gwa, the Chosen Spot of Both the Seneca Indians and 
the White Pioneers — Rapid Growth and Propitious Develop- 
ment of the Town — The Highways — First Town Officers — 
The Succeeding Supervisors — Number Nine and The Acad- 
emy Tract. 

By Charles F. Milliken. 

Where tlic (original Canandaigua of the Senecas was located 
is hirgel}" a matter of speculation, ft was founded in all probability 
following the abandonment, on account of an epidemic of small- 
pox, of the large \illage of ( )nnaghee, which was located about two 
miles east of Canandaigua lake, on what is now the farm of Mr. 
Darwin .Mc("lure in the town of Hopewell. At the time of the 
\-isit of the .Mora\ian nussionaries to this region, in 175(', they 
rejjorted that the site of ( )nnaiihee was uninhabited, although it 
had been occupied as late as 172'^). .\ccording to the ("anuuerholT 
journal, the missionaries proceeded thence westward, crossing the 
outlet of Canandaigua lake on a rude bridge of sticks and poles, 
constructed by the Indians, and on imitation of an Indian whom 
they met at the crossing they ])rocceded to the Seneca town of 
''Ganataf|ueh." which thev found ''situated on a hill." The huts 
Avere ornamented with red paintings of deer, turtle, bears, etc., 
dcsignatnig to which clan the inmates belonged. 

The name in the Seneca dialect, according to the late lion. 
Le\i H. Morgan, a i-ecognized authority on Indian nomenclature, 
was Ga-nun-da-gwa, with accent on the third syllable. Hon. C. 
H. Marshall s])elle(l it Ga-non-daa-gwah. The meaning of the name 
was ".\ Place Selected for Settlement," or, according to a more 
poetical inter|)retation, "The Chosen Spot." 

The officers of the .'^ullixan expedition, which swej)t through 
this region of the State in 1770 and destroyed the principal Indian 
settlements, set down in their interesting journals the fact that 


the Indian \'illa,n"c of Canaiidaimia, llie name of wliieli liai'dly t\\n 
spelled alike, was located aliont a mile north or northwest of the 
lake, and that a hall mile fnrther to the north was a plot (tf enlti- 
vated L;i"()nn(l ^ome liftv aeres in extent. 

Even with this help it has heen fonnd impossible to exactly 
locate the site, th')n,L;h the writei' heliexes that the i-ecoi'ds establish 
the fact that it was on one of the elexations west of Sucker 
brook, perhaps on Arsenal hill, where were fonnd at one time 
many interesting' relics indicating; the site of an Indian settlement 
of considerable size. A few years a.^d there were jx-oplc Iixmil; 
who renuMubered that there was a small |)rehistoi"ic work jnst east 
of the village on the Chai)in\ille road. It was a fort, an o\al. 
ninety by one hundred and twenty feet. Schoolcraft (1<S46) 
describes and illustrates this ancient work, the remains of which 
indicated that it was located on an elexation. just east of the 
present x'iilage b'ne, throuiih which the road aboxe mentioned 
extends. He reports that in excavatiuL;- the ground for this road 
human bones wcve found in considerable (|uautities, together with 
some of the usual \estiges of ancient Indian art, as e\inced in the 
manufacture of stone and clay ]u'pes and implements. North of 
ilowell and just west of Itast street, Indian gra\'es, i)resui)posing 
the neighborhood of a settlement, \\'ere once found. A few Indian 
graves were also found north of West avenue, in what is now the 
cemetery ground. A few years ago remains of several skeletons, 
with pipe bowls and other Indian relics, were found in e\ca\ating 
in what was formerly the door \ard of the Morris house, on the 
w^est side of Main street, opposite the entrance to Gibson street. 
Vet more recently, remains of Indians were found in the neighbor- 
hood of the Garratt house on Lake street. 

Fortunately we may draw from the Sullivan journals referre<l 
to a very good picture of the Ganandaigua of 177^^ The armv 
a]iproached the lake, September 10, from the direction of Kanade- 
saga (now (ieneNa), through cleared land on which the grass grew 
higher than the soldiers' heads, and marched half a mile along the 
lake, the trees near which were festooned with luxuriant wild grape 
vines, then loaded with countless clusters of the si-)ic\- fruit. The 
army forded the shallow mouth of the outlet, and, turning north, 
presumably following the Indian trail indicated on the \\'alker ])Iot- 
ting reproduced on page 269 of this book, proceeded directK- to the 
village, ^vhich they immediately "sot fire to." 


To quote Lieutenant Colonel Adam Hubley. they '"moved up 
a fine country from the lake, and in a half mile came to Kanadala- 
gm. a beautifull\- .-situated town, containing- IjetAxeen twenty and 
thirt^• houses, ^\oll finished, chiefiy of hewn plank (or logs), which, 
we immediately Imrned, and proceeded about half a mile on our 
right, where we found a large field of corn, squashes, beans, etc. 
At this place ( supposed to l)e what was afterward the site of the 
Greig mansion), we encamped, but were yer\- badh- oft for water, 
hayinof none but what we sent a mile for. and that \ erv bad."" 'Tn 
this town." continues Colonel tlubley. "a dog was hung up. with 
a string of wampum round his neck, on a tree, curiously decoratecT 
and trimmed. On inquire-. I was informed that it was a custom 
among the savages before they went to war to offer this as a sac- 
rifice to Mars, the (jod of War. and praying that lie might 
strengthen them. In return for these favors, they promised to pre- 
sent him with the skin for a tobacco pouch." 

Alajor John Burrows notes the fact that the Indians had 
erected two posts in Kanandaigua. "to appearance for the exercise 
of their cruelty, as there was a war mallet at each of them."' Dr. 
Jabez Campfield writes the name Shannondaque and says it was 
"the liest built Indian town" he had yet seen, "the houses mostly 
new and mostlv log houses." Lieutenant Charles Nukerck suggests 
that some white people must have lived in the town, which he calls 
Kanandarque. because the houses had chimneys, "which the Ind- 
ians have not." Thomas Grant, a surveyor, having noted that the 
town. Anandacjue. was soon laid in ashes, records the fact that 
the army "encamped this eavening 1 'a miles north of Sd Town, 
neer several Large deer Cornfields which serxed for forrage for 
our Horses anrl (battle: tlie corn was likewise of Grate Sarvis To 
the vSoldicrs who are on half allowance.'' 

This was the Canandaigua of 17/0. Of the Canandaiguans of 
that day. we know little. Only three of them Avere at home when 
the soldiers arrived, and it is recorded that they incontinently fled. 
Tradition savs that the s(|uaws aiid children had been placed in 
hiding on the isl;;nd in the lake. Vv-hence the cognomen. "S(|uaw 
Island," wliicli tlic traditional place of refuge continues to bear. 
The battle of Newtown, a few days before, had taught the haughty 
Senecas that they were no match for the white army. 

The beginnings of the white man's Canandaigua were made 

THE 'l'(J\Vi\ ol'" CANAN1).\I(;UA. 257 

ill 17S8, a year l)cf()rc the ccninty dI' Ontario was erected. riK'li)s 
and (iorhani, as the lirst step towaiil (i|)cnin,<; up the iL;reat domain 
tor whicli they had har-ained witli the State of Massachusetts, 
directed their assent, W ilhiiin Walker, to enter tht- wilderness and 
lay out a town i)lot. It was desi,<;iu'(l that this lirst settlement 
should be located on the site of the Indian town of l\anadesa_o-a, 
at the foot of Seneca lake, where now the city of (Iene\a is located. 
"Here we propose l)uildin(;- the city." Mr. 1 'helps had written on 
the fourth of Jime. Unt. after his return to .Massachusetts, he 
was informed that the f'reemption hue ran west of the selected 
location and hence that the latter was not within the I'ni-cliase. 
rills. Mr Phelps thouL^ht. must be a mistake, but in ( )ct()ber of the 
same year he wrote to Ai^ent \\':dker that if it were true, as he 
heard, that the Yorkers claimed the command at Kanadesaga. "you 
had better make \-e outlet of Kennadarcnia lake your head(|uai-ters, 
as we mean to ha\'e you rule independent of any one." 

'J"he following- year, 1789, Nathaniel (ioidiam, jr.. the son of 
the Nathaniel (iorham of the rMiel])s and (iorham (■omi)any. with 
General Israel Chapin, I^^rederick Sa.xton. I'.enjamin (lai-dner, 
Daniel Gates, and a number of others, came on to establish the new 
settlement, and these g-entlemen became its founders and tirst ])er- 
manent settlers. Tf we except Joseph Smith, a tavern kee])er. who 
had moved from Kanadesaga l^efore the snow was off the around 
the same sprino^, they were the first white men to take up residence 
in the town, althouo-h General Cha])in and .X^ent Walker had been 
here the fall before and contracted for the erection of a lot^' house. 

The leader of these pioneers. General Israel Cha]n"n, who was 
of stalwart frame and in the ])rime of mature manhood, was natu- 
rally the most prominent fi.f^ure in the infant settlement. ()li\er 
Phelps did not settle here until after General Chapin's death. 
Nathaniel Gorham, his ])artiier in the imrchase. iie\er resided in 
Canandai^tia, nor did he ever \isit the land in whose de\elo])inent 
he had so important a part. His son. Nathaniel (iorham. Jr.. came 
here, as stated, with General Cha])in. but he was then only twenty- 
six years old and he did not mo\e his famil\- here until the year 1800. 
Thomas Morris, the son of Robert I\l orris, of Philadelphia, became 
a resident of Canandaigua in 1702, and at once took a prominent 
place in the communitv, l)y reason of his name and wealth, as well 
as on account of his own merit, but he was then only twentv-two 


years of age, and to tlie man of mature jiidgment and wider expe- 
rience naturally fell the task of organization. 

The settlement of the town of Cariandaigua was eti'ected under 
auspices that assured rapid growth in population, and under cir- 
cumstances that assured the development of a comnumit}' where 
education and culture should hold sway and ci\ic obligations be 
fully recognized. 

The company through which the lands in A\'estern New \'ork 
were opened to settlement did not meet the expectations of its 
promoters in the way of financial success, Imt it ser^•ed the \alu- 
able purpose of bringing nito the country tra\elers of distinction. 
and of widely ad\ertising its natural attractions and adxantages. 
As a result, the lands found ready sale and there poured into them 
from Alassachusetts and Connecticut, and in smaller measure fi-oni 
Pennsylvania, the first through the natural thoroughfare afforded 
b}' the ]\Iohawk valley, and the last through the portal which the 
Chemung and Susquehanna ri"\-ers opened from the south, such an 
influx of agriculturalists and artisans as to secure the rapid occu- 
pation and clearing of the soil and the founding of many prosper- 
ous settlements. Canandaigua was the first natural focus of this 
immigration and as a result grew rapidly in population. 

But, as intiniated. the community that centered here not only 
grew apace, but it was also singularly favored in the character of 
the people w^ho thus earlv made it their home. The circumstances 
which made Canandaigua rather than Kanadesaga the head(|uar- 
ters of Phelps and Gorham gave it an advantage from which it 
has ever since profited. AN'hiie it has been outstripped in popula- 
tion by numerous towns in the Genesee tract and has continued 
an agricultural community, with the limitations as well as the 
advantages which belong to such a community, it has inherited 
traditions wdiose fruition are seen in its unexcelled educational facil- 
ities, in its exceptionally handsome j)ublic buildings and residences, 
in the thrift and ptiblic spirit of its people, in the refinement and 
hospitality of its homes, and in the prominent part which its citizen- 
ship has asserted and maintained in affairs of State and Nation. 
Phelps and Gorham. the Chapins. the Grangers, the Howells. the 
Hubbells, the Porters, and the Spencers, and other prominent and 
influential families, which these circumstances served to make the 
first settlers in Canandaigua. left an impress which remains, not 
so much in the family names, which, alas! are fading from sight. 

'rill': TOWN' or CANAXDAICLTA. 259 

I)iil in tlic s^-ciicr;;! 'Hitlook- of tlio town and in tlic clirirruMcM- of its 

Witliont waiting- the rt'-stn-vey of tlic Prccmi)tion line, which 
was made al ihc instance of Ivohert ^Morris in 1 7V^2, by Anch-ew h'Jli- 
cott, United States Surveyor r.eneral, assisted by Judge Augustus 
Porter, the survey of the tract to tlie westward liad proceeded, and 
in the course of 1789 Col. Maxwell had laid out about thirty town- 
ships and begun the survcA' and allolment of Canandaigua. 

Canandaigua. the shire town of < )nlario connty, as originall)- 
laid out. comprised about seventy-two s(juare miles, being the so- 
called town lots Nos. 9 and 10 in the Third range. No. K) was 
one of the two lots which w^ere ])ariicularly reserved by Phelps and 
Gorham in their sale to Air. Morris in 17<'0, the other reserxed lot 
being- on the Genesee ri\er. In 1824 all that part of lot Xo. ^) l\iug 
east of the lake was annexed to (iorham. 

The iirst great task which faced the ])ioueers, coincident with 
the erection of the rude dwellings in which they of necessity shel- 
tered their families, was the opening of highways by means of 
which they could have feasible thoroughfare to and from the parent 
colonies at the east and the markets from which they nuist bring 
the implements of their work and to which they must take the 
products of their farms. The first settlers, as we have seen, made 
the larger part of the journev by l)oat and for a time this was the 
most practicable means of connection with the outside world. The 
canal, which a few years later was to furnish more reliable means 
of transportation, was a dream of the future, and the most daring- 
romancer had not so much as conceived of such a thing as a rail- 
road. So the building of the "State road" from Utica to Canan- 
daigua was a work of first uecessitv, and its completion in 1790 was 
an event in which the constautlv enlarging stream o^ imnu'grauts 
rejoiced and to wdiich they contributed not a little of time and 

This road, which followed the old Indian trail and was in fact 
hardly more than a widening of that primitive wnv through the 
forest, had bridges over the more difficult streams and was a most 
important adjunct to the settlement. But it was not until 1797 that 
the Legislature provided, bv means of lotteries, funds for "opening 
and improving certain great roads in this State," and that under 
the leadership of Charles Williamson and with the assistance of 


the settlers, the State officers charged \\ ith the enterprise were 
able to complete the great Genesee road, extending from Utica 
to the Genesee river. This was a highway of which the people 
were justly proud. It was sixty-four feet wide, with adequate 
bridges over rivers and creeks and corduroy crossing's throusrh 
swampy soil, and it o])ened the way for the establishment of a line 
of stages. 

The spirit shown by the pioneers in forwarding these road 
building enterprises, continued to animate them until Canandaigua 
and the other towns of the county were brought into business con- 
nection with each other and with the main arteries of travel by a 
system of highways laid out upon a liberal and for the most part 
wisely arranged plan. It has continued to animate their descend- 
ants and- successors with such effect that today the town of Canan- 
daigua is credited with possessing more miles of improved high- 
ways than any other rural county in the State. Canandaigua was 
in fact a pioneer in work of this character. Inaugurated in 1890. 
under the direction of Charles C. Sackett, supervisor, and Ira P. 
Cribb, highway commissioner, and carried forward without inter- 
rtiption, a special act of the Legislature giving it the right to raise 
double the sum whicli a to^\■n is authorized generally to devote to 
this work. Canandaigua has now riot less than thirty-five miles of 
])ermanent Macadam highways, built at its own expense, in addi- 
tion to a considerable quota of county and State Iniilt roads. 

The town has only one considerable village, Canandaigua. 
which is the county seat, but the hamlet of Cheshire in the southern 
part of the town is a pleasant and prosperous place of residence for 
several hundred people, and Centerfield in the western part of the 
town is a little farming hamlet that at one time had a number of 
prosperous shops. It was at Cheshire in the year 1800 that the 
first Baptist chtuxdi of the town was organized, which a few years 
later merged with the church of the same denomination in Canan- 
daigua village. A Free WW] Baptist society was organized at 
Cheshire in 1840 and built a church edifice. In 1832. there was 
organized at Centerfield a Congregational society, which erected 
a small meeting house, but which only remained in existence for 
a few years. About the same time the Baptist people of the vicin- 
ity organized a chinxh, but its support was inadequate and its 
property w^as sold to a company of Protestant Episcopal worship- 
pers. They, too. were numerically weak and after a struggle of 


several years gave up the attempt to maintain separate ecclesiasti- 
cal existence. 

The first town meetini;- in Canandar^uaw. as the town clerk 
of the lime wrote it, was held on the tirst Tuesday in y\pril, 1791, 
and was "opened and superintended" by Israel Chapin, Esquire. 
The officers elected were as follows: supervisor, Israel Chapin; 
town clerk, James D. h'ish ; assessors, John Call, h^nos Houghton, 
Seth Reed, Nathan Conistock, James Austin, AiMKild Potter, and 
Nathaniel Norton; collectors, Phineas Bates and John Codding; 
overseers of the poor, Israel Cha])in and Nathaniel (jorham ; com- 
missioners of highwa3^s, Othniel Taxlor, Jose])h Sniilh, Benjamin 
Wells; constables, Nathaniel Sanborn, jarcd Uoughton, and Phin- 
eas Pierce; overseers of highways, James Latta; Joshua Whitney, 
John Swift, Daniel Gates, Jabez h'rench, Gamaliel Wilder, Abner 
Barlow, Isaac Hathaway, Hezekiah Boughton, h^Uer3ioi't"n, W il- 
liam Gooding, and John D. Robinson. 

In April, 1792, the second town meeting was "opened antl 
inspected" by Israel Chapin and Moses Atwater respectively, and 
Israel Chapin was re-elected supervisor, as he continued to be until 
the year of his death, 1795. 

The supervisors of the town of Canandaigua froiu its organ- 
ization to the present tune have l)een as follows: Israel Chapin, 
1791-95; Abner Barlow, 1796-99.; Augustus Porter, 1800-1; 
Nathaniel Gorham, 1802-3; (no record of 1804 and 1805); Timothy 
Pnrt, 1806-7; Plugh Jameson, 1808; Ebenezer F. Norton, 1809; 
Hugh Jameson, 1810-11; Nathaniel Gorham, 1812; Reuben Hart, 
1813: Phineas P. Bates, 1814; Eliphalet Taylor, 1815-16; John A. 
Stevens, 1817; Nathaniel Gorham, 1818; Lott Rew, 1819; Harvey 
Sanders, 1820; Phineas P, Bates, 1821: Francis (iranger, 1822-25: 
Oliver Phelps, 1826-31; Phineas P. Bates, 1832; Oliver Phelps, 
1833; Phineas P. Bates, 1834-36; Russell B. Johnson, 1837; Charles 
Shepard, 1838-42: AVillinm \V. Gorham, 1843-47; Jabez H. Metcalf, 
1848; Gideon Granger, 1849-51; Henry AV. Taylor, 1852; Zebina 
Lucas, 1853-54; Ebenezer Hale, 1855; Evander Sly, 1856; Charles 
Shepard, 1857; Charles _Cpy, 1858-61; Jacob J. Mattison, 1862: 
George Cook, 1863; John Callister, 1864: J. Harvey Mason, 1865- 
67; Gustavus R. Fox, 1868: Frank O. Chamberlain, 1869-70; 
Charles E. Shepard, 1871-73: Frank O. Chamberlain, 1874; James 
S. Hickox, 1875; John B. Robertson, 1876-78: William L. Park- 
hurst, 187^i-81: Thomas H. Cost. 1882; Rollin L. Beecher, 1883-84; 


Marion P. Worthy, 1885; Mattison L. Parkhurst, 1886; Joel M. 
Howey, 1887; George B. Sackett, 1888; Frederick W. Bryan, 1889; 
Charles C. Sackett, 1890-92; Frank O. Sisson, 1893; Charles C. 
Sackett, 1894-95; Henry C. Sutherland, 1896-98; Ira P. Cribb, 
1899-1905; Ralph U. Simmons, 1906-09; Elmer Lncas, 1910-11. 

Early History of Township No. 9. 

By Robert M. McJannett. 

In giving- a condensed sketch of the early history of townslii]) 
No. 9, as originally surveyed for Phelps and (lorham. and now 
embraced in the town of Canandaigua, it seems best to begin with 
Cheshire, the only village and the commercial center of the district. 

Cheshire was first known as Rowley's School House, from an 
early school building erected on the lands of John Rowley, the hrsf 
settler on the site of the ^•illage. in 1795. His was the first house 
erected. The next to come were two young men, soldiers of the 
Revolution, Peter Atwell and TCpaphratus Nott, who purchased 
land and established homes here. Levi Beebe, Miltohi GiTlett', 
William Bacon, Jonathan Mack, and Stephen Ward were later 
settlers in the neighborhood. Mark Doolittle and Selma Hotchkiss 
were also early settlers near the farm of h'rank Odell. Jonathan 
Beebe opened the first store in 1812, in the house on the corn-er 
opposite the residence of Austin Huntley, now occupied by Peter 

In 1815, others moved in. among them Daniel Hotchkiss. 
Josej)h Tyrrill. and Amanda Hitchcock. Jesse and Da\id Parsliall 
and Joseph Shomaker were residents of the lake shore, near the 
white school house. Lacy Shomaker, of -\cademy, was a son of 
Joseph Shomaker. A tavern was opened by a Mr. Stiles at Tichenor 
point, on the lake shore. In 1806, Arsino Beebe came from Vermont 
with his family, one of A\hom was the late Mrs. Chamberlain of 
Cheshire. Jolm Rowley built a saw mill in 1814. Israel Parshall 
and Lorenzo Tillotson were early merchants, as were also Hanaan 
Cooley and Ral])h Huntley. The first blacksmith was John Adams. 
The first tavern was opened by Joseph Israel, in 1818. In the 
early school days. Jonathan Beebe was the only teacher for years. 
Levi Beebe. born, in 1806. was one of the first children to be born. 
One of the first burials was that of Rebecca Dodge. 


The first settled minister was Thomas Tiittle, and he was 
succeeded by Al)e] Haskell. 'J'he first Baptist society in the town 
of Caiirmdaigua was organized in tliis district in 1800, at the house 
of Lemuel Castle. The sermon was preached 1)y Elder Case. 
^■Vniong- the members were llugli Jameson, Lemuel Castle, John 
Rowley, Solomon Goold, Charil\' Castle, David LIurd, Jennette 
Jameson, and John Freeman and wife. 'Idicrc was only occasional 
preaching nnlil 1804, when Elder Silas IJarnes was engaged to 
]M"each for one year for the generous salary of ^75, this amount to 
be raised by assessment as other taxes; and a resolution allowed 
slisters to \ote at church meetings. The societ\- was without a 
church edilice until l8.-^2, when a house of wor--hip was erected on 
the inll on the farm of ihe late Zebina Lucas, l*",s(|.. next to X. !'>. 
W ea\'er's south line, b'dder \i\\ Haskell was the i)astor' then and 
preached there for nearly thirty years. After his death the society 
declined and the building was linally sold and the frame used for a 
barn west of Cheshire. 

A second Pjaptist societ)- was organized in Cheshire in 1840. 
Tiie hrst board of trustees was: Amasa Salisburw Justus Rose. 
Lester Hunt, ( ). I'.. Morse. Julias Huntley, William l'>. l'rout\-, and 
.Moses Ward. The \arions denonunations united in building the 
!irsl house ot worshi]). This scr\-ed until I87li, when was erected 
the c-diliee, now ulili/ed as a Luion church, in which .Snndax- ser\-ices 
ai'c regularl\- maintained without denonu'national bias or >u])porl. 
The old buildiuij" was sold to Mr. ( ". 11. W ilbui" and is now known 
as Lincoln hall. 

In lS,->4 j;d)e/ Prichard built a "corncracker" and carding null 
on the creek south of the \'illage. 

At Menteth ])oint, in 1800, lived one Whiting Ti-uman. who 
erected a nn'll in the gully — the only nn'll in the town to which the 
settlers (sometimes the women) went on horseback with prists — 
fre(|uentl\- going hMig distances in nian\' cases. 

( )n the hill a1)0\e the residence of Airs. I)urand, a log school 
house was built at an early day. This was used for a time for 
religious services. It is worthy of note that the first Methodist 
society in the town of Canandaigua was organized in that schc^ol 
district (No. 18) in 1796. As organized, the societv nundjered 
among its members Roswell Root and wife, Sarah Moore, And)rose 
lMiel])s and wife. Le\i Rowlev and wife, Talcott Reed and wife. 
Ciles I L'cox ;incl wife. I)a\id and Jesse I'arshall and their wi\es. 


Eliza Holcomb. Aaron Spencer and wife, and Isaac and Jesse 
VanOrman. In 1811 a house of worship was erected, and was 
known a:> No. 9 meeting house. It was a popular place of worship 
for many years. In 187.3 it was taken away. Services in Canan- 
daigua had then l^ecome much more attractive. 

It is e\ident from the foregoing that No. 9 took a prominent 
part in early days in the making- of the history of the township of 


The Academy Tract. 

In 1804, three thousand acres of the soutli end of township No. 
9 was given by Oliver Phelps to aid Canandaigua Academy, hence 
the name Academy tract. It extends from the lake to the Bristol 
town line at the top of the hill on the west, and from the north line 
of South Bristol to the road leading up the hill just south of the long- 
iron bridge that spans the Haskell gully, thence directly east to the 
lake. It was thought of little value, as the timber was stunted and 
the land covered with an undergrowth of huckleberry bushes. It 
was surveyed into lots of one hundred and fifty acres and these lots 
again divided in halves, so that each settler had seventy-five acres. 
The land was tliought to be \ery poor and settlers were looked 
upon as of the same character. When one of them appeared upon 
the streets of Canandaigua, it was customary for the residents of 
that village to say "Here comes one of those poor Academites." 

The first settlement was in 1810 at Bell's point, now the 
property of General Reynolds, l)y a Mr. Eaton. Three years later 
fourteen families had settled on the tract; John l*enoyer, James 
Courier, William W arren. Jonathan Crooker, Solomon Riggs, 
Widow Holmes, Elias Bascom, the Bullards, I. Dickenson, and 
Robert McGee. Soon a school house was built of pine logs, hew^ed 
inside and out, and pointefl with lime morter outside and in. and it 
had twelve windows of glass. This house was used for meetings 
until a church was erected in 1832. In 1820 there were about forty 
families settled on the tract and there were but two frame dwellings. 
In 1825 Jasper Housel located on what was deemed the poorest lot. 
near the center of the tract, ^^'hen cleared, a crop of seven hundred 
and fifty bushels of wheat was raised in a single harvest, besides 
other crops. This is now a principal part of Frank Housel's farm. 


And now the formerly despised Academy trad is as valuable and 
productive as any farm land in tlic town. 

There were strenuous times in those earl\- days to obtain a 
iitlle money. Huckleberries, in their season, were a money crop 
and whole families were en<j"ai;ed in ^atherino- the fruit. The late 
.\l\in I'enoyer u>e(l to tell that when he was a boy the famil\- hacf 
one day gathered a tine (|uantil\- of berries, and he had loaded them 
in the ox cart to carry to market, when the oxen becanu- nnrulx', 
ran awav and scattered the entire load. 




Located at "Ye Outlet of the Kennadarqua Lake" — The First Settle- 
ment — Incorporation of the Village — Its Hotels, Cemeteries, 
Churches, Schools, Newspapers, Libraries, Hospitals, Railroads, 
and Public Improvements — Lake and Business Interests — 
Municipal Organization. 

By Charles F. Milliken. 

We have seen bow the settieiiient which was thereafter destined 
to i)e known as the village of (Janandaigua came into existence, how 
l)y a foriuitoiis circumstance whicli deprived (ienc\a of the advan- 
tage it was made tlie l]ca(h|uai-ters of the I 'helps and (ioi-Jiani 
C"oni])an\ , and how it became the natural business and social center 
of that connnunity of eastern enterprise and eastern cnltnre which 
the emigrants from Massachusetts essayed to set np in the Genesee 
country or the Great Western Wilderness, as it was \ariously 
described by the tra\clers rmd |)r()spectors of the time. Let us now 
look more ]).'u-licul:irl}' into the beginnings of the settlement and its 
early development an.d trace as well as \\e may in the space allotted 
to the subject the growth of the \'illage, not into the metropolis 
which its founders planned, but into the Canandaigua of oiu" love — 
the "clean, cool,, captixating, Canandaigua." of this 
year of grace, 1911. 

The Massachusetts purchasers had appointed William W^alker 
of Lenox, Massachusetts, to act as their business agent in disposing 
of the lands to settlers. Mr. Walker, who was born Jul)' 3, 1751, 
and who nuist therefore ha\e been ihirty-seven years of age when 
he m.ade his entr\- on the Purchase, had been a Revolutionary soldier 
and was recognized as a man of sturdy worth, in conunissioning 
him to establish headcpiarters and begin the work for which he had 
l)een engaged, Oliver Phelps clearly indicated that it had been the 


intention of the associates to establisli tlicse headquarters at the 
site of the old in<Han capital. Kanadesaga, near the foot of Seneca 
lake, and he was instrnclcd in a letter dated August 21, 178<S, in 
view of the re])()rt that the sur\e\ had run the I 'reeuiptiou line west 
of that site, "to make tlu' most tliorough and exact in(|uir\ to tind 
whether that i)lace falls within oui' ])nrchase." In a letter of a later 
date, Octoher o, Air. rheli)S ad\ised Mr. W alkei". in order to a\()id 
contiict with the ^'orkers, to make "^'e ( )ntlet of the l\ennadarc|ua 
Lake" his head(|uarters. Agent Walker under date of Octoher 5, 
1788, i-eported to the effect that as in his judgnienl nothing was to he 
gained hy having the rreempticni line run again, he had selected, 
west of "C"anandar(|ua Creek," "a heautiftil situation and good 
ground for a town plot." So the site of the \ illage of Lanandaigua 
was determined. 

There was a])pareutly an effort made to give the name of 
"W'alkershurgh" to the new settlement, as a letter written hy Caleb 
Benton to Mr. Walker an.d dated (ienexa, ( )ctol)er 14, 1788, was 
directed to "W alkershurgh, alias Cananda(|ue." f^)rtunatel\- this 
attempt failed and the eu])honicjus name which the Indians had 
giveri the nearby lake, Canandaigua, or l\anandar([ue, or as other- 
wise \aru)usly spelled 1)\' the earlv wrUers, was wiseh' adopted l)\' 
those who had the say and it has ha])pily been handed down to us 
without further attempt to displace ii with one that might perpetuate 
the name of an individual, however worthy and however honorable, 
orbyoneof that medley of classical names with which Western .\ew 
York was at one time so liberally s])rinkled. J<\)rtunate it W(»nld 
ha\e been if the name Kanadesaga had been similarly ])reser\ed in 
the nammg of a cit\- that was to be at the foot of Seneca lake. 

Agent Walker at once took steps to provide for the erection 
of a budding on the site thus selected, to be used as his dwel'ing 
and as a land office. The contract for this building, which was 
erected on lot No. 1, east side of Main street, south of the scpnare, 
and which was the fn'st to be erected on the site of Canandaigua, 
will be read with interest: 

Memorancluiii of an agreonient between William Walker on tiie (»ne part 
and John D. Robinson the other pari, Witnesseth. that the .said Robin.son doth 
agree to Ruild ior the said Walker a house at Caiiadauque of the Same Dimen- 
sions, and in the same manner as the house now building by Captain Bartles 
at Geneva, with this Variation, viz; he is to build but one Chimney and is not to 
lay either of the Hoors, or make the 1 )oors or Winilow Shets, he is tn linard 


himself, and procure all the materials except nails, the building is to be com- 
pleted every way as well as the said Bartles, there is to be a twelve square, 
seven by nine Glass Window frame in the front and rear of each room, the 
work is to be completed this fall, for which the said ^\'alker doth agree to 
pay the said Robinson forty pounds X. York Currency in the following man- 
ner, viz: in provisions Sufticient for him the said Robinson's self and hands, 
while building said house, and the remainder in a Lot of Land in No. Eleven, 
first range, to be valued according to Quality and Situation, reckoning the 
whole Township at two Shillings per acre, and if the said Lot should be found 
to exceed the Remainder of the said forty pounds, said Walker agrees to take 
his pay in Said Robinsons Labour after the first day of June next, when the 
said Walker may demand it, witness our hands interchangeably Signed this 
twenty-Eighth Day of October, in the year of our Lord 1788 

Witnesses Present, Wm. Walker, John Dk'r Robison, Ezekiel Scott, Enos 

November 17th. 1788. 

Rec'd of William Walker live pounds. One Shilling and six pence in part 
pay for the within house. 

John Dk'r Robison. 

Houses of similar dimensions were built the same season for 
James D. Fish, on the lot afterward owned by James Ci. Smedlew 
and for Joseph .Smith on the east side of lower Main street. The 
latter was the first actual settler on the site, moving into his new 
dwelling early in the spring of 1789 while snow was on the ground 
and setting out at once to make preparations for entertaining the 
pioneers whom he had foresight to see would soon flock to the settle- 
ment. General Israel Chapin and his ])arty reached the village 
earl^' in Mav and the active work of building and settlement 
continued. By the time another \\ inter had come around the deputy 
marshal of the State reported that there were eighteen families in 
the villa""e, includin<>- sexentv-eight mak-s. t\vent\- females, and 
one slave. 

The heads of families were listed as follows: 

Gorham. Nathaniel, Jr. Clark. John P>rainard. Daniel 

Sanbourne, Nathaniel Dudley. Martin Holcomb, Seth 

Fellows, John Bates, Phineas Brocklebank, James 

Smith. Joseph Walker, Caleb Castle, Lemuel 

Fish, James D. Colt, Judah. Esqr. Wells, Benjamin 

Chapin, Genl. Israel Barlow, Abner Freeman, John 

Immediately following the decision to make Canandaigua the 
headquarters of the Purchase, and the plotting of the tract was 
under wav. Judge Phelps had the village location surveyed and 









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i(>o fait ^t'f^ /C, 

Dotted line probably indic;\tes the Indian trail wliich extenelcd west from Kanadesaga to 
Canandaigua and tlie Genesee — the trail which Sullivan followed in his expedition of 1779. 


lolled. In llie instructions to Agent Walker concerning the laying 
out of the location first selected at Kanadesaga, Phelps and Gorhani 
had directed that "the most suitable place within the Township and 
as near ihe Harl)our as will lie convenient for a town plot" be laid 
out into lots, and had specified that "the streets are to be wide 
and regular." and when Mr. Walker. ha\ing satisfied hiiuself that 
Kanadesaga was not within ihe Purchase, had located the [iroposed 
settlement at the foot of Canandaigua lake, he was careful to 
observe these (hrections of the proprietors, a fact to which ihe 
Canandaigua of the present day owes nuich of its beauty of situation, 
and the \vidth and regularity of its streets. 

Among the papers of Agent \\ alker, wdiich are in ihe custody 
of his great grandson. Mr. Robert C. Rockwell, of Lenox, Massachu- 
setts, is a preliminarv sketch of a "'Plan of Town Plot, Canadarcjua." 
Another more careful ma]) of a "Ploll of a Town or City on the 
North end of Canandarciua Lake, l)eing in the town Xo. 10, 
rhii"d range. Main .Street 6 rods wide, riming North 25 deg's west 
— the streeis ])arrellel to the Main is 4 rods wide, the other Main 
street at rite angle. 6 rods wide — all the other streets East and 
\Vestward 3 rods wd. l-'.ach Lot. P> rods by K', and Contains one 
Acre." The total number of lots laid out and numbered on this 
l^lotting is two lumdred and eighty. This jilotting is reproduced 
here\\ilh under permission of ^Fr. Rockwell, by whom the original 
is carefully preserxed. Another of the \\ alker i)aj)ers is endorsed 
"Draught of the Proi)rielors." h contains a "List of the Cit\- 
Lots," with the names and the numbers of the lots drawn by each. 
Gen'l Chapin. Capt. P)acon. ^\\'. Chaplin, Mr. Hamilton, Gen'l 
.\shley, and Mr. Lee. Major Judd, Mr. ]*"owler, Mr. Sedgwick, Mr. 
Strong, T'^hn L(w\cl. James Parker. Mr. Corbet, John \\'illiams & 
Saxlon, and .Saml. Thillips, Esq.. each drew two lots; \\'illiam 
Walker, I''s(|.. Judge Sullivan. Thompson J. Skinner, and Colo. 
lUitler, each had four lots: Sanuiel Street had thirty lots, and Phelps 
and (iorhani one hundred sixty-six lots. "Voted that the Main 
street be widened Two rods hx carrying all the Lots on the west 
side 2 Rods further to the westward." Another map is entitled "A 
Plot of 2nd Allotment in Town No. 10 in 3rd Range, Each lot con- 
taining 20 acres," the most of the lots being 80 by 40 rods. 

TTTR X'IfJ.ACK OF TA XA \' I ).\TGUA. 271 

Early Views of the Village. 

The hard (.■(Muhlioiis of life in ihr new settlement did not 
(liseonra^e the pioneers. They were o])tiniists. In 17*^5, 1 )ndley 
Sahoiistall wrote hack to his father in ( "onnect ient tliat "Canan- 
(laip"ua, named from a lake at the hollom of which it stands, contains 
sixty honses, more eleijant in their structure- tlian those of any 
\inaiLie I know in ( "onnect icnt , i.ilcldield exce|)te(k * * * * Tills 
ct>nntr\' is no long'er a wilderness; liere are s^ood inhahilants — far 
Wetter than those in New London — and line fai"nis, the cleareil ])arts 
of which are clothed with the most Inxuiiant herbage." 

Duke Lianconrt. in writing of his ramhles througli the Genesee 
coriutry m June. 1795, described the Canandaigua of that date as 
follows: "The honses, although built of wood, are nmch 1)etter 
than any of that description T hnvQ In'therto seen. The}' consist 
mostly of joiner's work, and are prettily painted. Tn front of some 
of them are small courts, siu'rounded with neat railings. There are 
two Inns in the town, and several shoiis, where commodities are 
sold, and shoes and other articles made. d"he price of land here is 
three dollars per acre without the town, and fifteen dollars witliin." 
Speaking of a visit to "Mr. Chipping" (Chai)in), he says he found 
him surrounded bv a dozen Seneca Indians (among whom was 
Red Jacket), who had conie to ])artake of his whiskey and meat." 

Some of the travelers who passed tliis way were not so fax'or- 
ably ini])ressed. "The settlement of this Town" (Canandaigua). 
says Mr. S]:)affor(l in liis Gazetteer, "commenced in 17*^0, and in 1797 
T found it l)ut feeble, contending with innumerable embarrassments 
and dihiculties. The spring of that vear was uncommonly wet and 
cold. Besides a good deal of sickness, mud knee-deep, musquetoes 
an<l gnats so thick that vou could hardly breathe without swalUwN-- 
ing them, rattle-snakes, and the ten thousand discouragements 
every where incident to new settlements, sun-ounded by all tliese, 
in June of that year, I saw\ with wonder, that these people, all 
Yankees, from Massachusetts, Connecticut, and ^''ermont. were 
perfectly undismayed, 'looking forward in hope.' 'sure and stedfast.' 
They talked to me of what the country would be. by and by. as if 
it were history, and I received it as all fable. Tn order to see the 
whole 'power of the countv,' a Militia Muster of all the men capable 
of bearing arms, T waited a day or two, and attended 'the training.' 
Major Wadsworth was the commanding officer, and, including the 


men who had guns, and wlio had not. the boys, women, and 
chiklren. it was supposed that near 200 persons were collected. 
This training", one of the first, was held at Capt. Pitts's, on the 
Honeoye. and lasted all day and all night.'" 

Time demonstrated that the j^ioneers' confidence in the future 
of Canandaigua was well founded, as the same writer made haste 
to acknowledge. In 1824. Mr. Spafford reported that "in point of 
heaut\" and elegance of position, as well as in the style of its build- 
ings. Canandaigua is excelled l)_\- no place of the same extent in the 
United States. It contains about 350 houses and stores, and 2000 

The Square and Streets. 

The \ illage stjuare as original!)" laid out was cjuartered l)v Main 
and Cross streets and contained six acres of land. Its south line 
was what is now the north face of the Hubbell block: on its east 
line the Canandaigua hotel now fronts: its north line was what is 
now the north line of the street known as Atwater place. Court 
street and .\twater ])lace. therefore, both occupy land and the New 
\'ork Central railroad tracks occu])\" land originally included in 
the s(|uare. The ])ro])erty was conveyed by Phelps and Gorham 
in 180(\ for a consideration of $1.(^\ to the county of Ontariti. it 
being ])ro\"ided in the (\t^f\ that nothing 1)ut a court house should 
be built in the northeast corner, that the southeast corner should 
be devoted exclusively to park purposes, and that that portion lying 
west of Main street should be occupied only by buildings used bv 
the county, exce])ting that no building should be erected that would 
obstruct the ligh.t or obscure the view of the school house then 
standing thereon. 

The extension of the s(|uare to the north, on the east side of 
Main street, where the ])resent court house stands, came into 
possession of the county at the time of the erection of that building 
in X?^"^! . the con\"e\ance lu'ning been from Samuel Brush, for a 
consideration of $6,000. The deed provided that no building should 
ever be erected on the land therein conveyed, within twenty feet of 
(lorham street. 

In the square have been grouped a succession of noble public 
buildings, beginning with the first court house erected in 1794, 
including the second court house erected in 1824 and now known as 

THE VILLACr- OF (A X.\ XI ) ATGIW. 27:^ 

the town house, and enlminatin^ in the sjjleiKhd count\- building 
erected in 1S5S and recent 1_\- rel)uih and eidar.^ed. 

I'acniL;' the S(|uare on the uoi"th and south w I're h)caled ori<^i- 
nally the dwelHni^s of four of the most ])ronnnent citi/.eus of tlie 
\"*illai;"e. On the south side, east of Main street, stood the liouse 
of ()]i\er Phelps, the head of the riiel])s and Gorham land c(jni])an\. 
This continued to be the residence of the fann'l\- until after the con- 
struction of the Canandai^ua and Jefferson raih'oad in 1X4*'. when 
it w as utilized for the business offices of that conipanw A few \ears 
later it w <is destroyed by fire, b'acin^' the s(|uare on the north was 
the dwellinj;" of Nathaniel dorhaiu. Jr.. which ui)on the opening;' of 
(iorhani street in 1(S4*) was nio\ed to a location on the north side of 
that street, where it now stands, the joint property of 1 )r. .\. 1 .. 
Beahan and John H. Hicks, l^s(|. Across Alain street, on the north 
side of the scpiare. stood the house of Dr. Moses Atwater, which, 
in 1X50, in preparation for the erection of the ofhce building;' known 
as Atwater hall, was nio\e<l to a site further west, and was for iuau_\' 
years the residence and studio of Marshall I'iuley, the ])ioneer 
])hotoi;rapher of the villag^e. On the south side of the scpiare. west 
of Main street, was located the house of 'Idiaddeus Cha])in, son of 
General Israel Chapin. This was later adapted to business uses, 
and about the year 1865 was destroyed by fire. 

Among' the buildings facing the s(|uare as now constituted are 
the Ued Jacket building, erected about the year 1812 by Nathaniel 
(iorham, Jr., long occupied by the Red Jacket Club, and n(n\- ser\- 
ing a useful purpose as an ofhce building; the stately Canandaigua 
hotel, erected in 1852-53, on the site originally occupied b\' the 
Blossom house; The Hallenbeck, an office building erected in 1895 
bv l^r. Orlando J. Hallenbeck, on ground where formerly stood 
!he historic Ontario hotel: the large High School building, erected 
in 1876, and the Canandaigua Hospital of Physicians and Surgeons, 
erected b\' Dr. A. L. Beahan in 18*^)8. To this grouj) is to be addetl 
a fine exam])le of modern architecture in the shape of a postoflfice 
building, now in course of erection on the old .\twatei' corner, 
which was purchased and donated to the goxernment for the pur- 
pose by Mrs. Frederick F. Thompson. The King Fund)er Com- 
])any. of Charlottesville, Virginia, has the contract for the construc- 
tion of this building on its bid of $67,225. 

Below the square, on Main street, ha^■e been centered the 
business interests of the village in a number of two and three story 



blocks that do credit to the enterprise both of the capitalists who 
erected ihem and of tlie merchants who occupy them. Along the 
street are located the Thompson Memorial hospital, the Canan- 
daio;ua Academy, and the handsome church edifices belongino- to 

the Baptist, Congregational, Pres- 
byterian, Roman Catholic, Meth- 
odist Episcopal, and Protestant 
Episcopal societies, and it is bor- 
dered on either side, particularly 
in its upper portion, l)y handsome 
private dwellings. 

Among these are many of 
historic interest. In the u])per 
part of the street there stands, 
restored to its original beautiful 
proportions, the Gideon Granger 
mansion built about the year 1814, 
later occupied by Francis Gran- 
ger, and now the home of the lat- 
ter's granddaughters, the Misses 
Granger; the Alexander Duncan 
house, which became the property 
of Judge Oliver Phelps (Sd), in 
1852 and which has since remained 
the family homestead, being now 
occupied by his daughter. Miss 
Elizabeth Pheli)s : the Jared Will- 
^ , , -, ,i ,„„. , son house, built in 1829, and re- 

Scotland, May 26, 1804. and coming to 

America when fourteen years of age made modelefl l)y \sSPmblvnian Tenn T 
his home in Canandaieua with his father's MUMlLIC(in\ . X^.SCIIII^I \ luau J cail 1.. 

liurnett : the house erected near 
the head of the street on the east 
side by Rew Timothy Field, the 
first pastor of the Congregational 
churcli. and now the property of 
the Stowe estate, and the house 
adjoining tn the north, built l)}- one of his early successors. Parson 
Johns; the hcnise erected by P*eter B. Porter about the year 1800, 
subsc(|uently occupied by the distinguished John C. Spencer and 
by United States Senator Elbridge G. Lapham. and now by Mrs. 
Tohn D. McKechnie: the Mark H. Sibley house, built in 1845. later 


.Mexander l)uiicaii. a prominent figure in 
tl-.e social and professional life of the county 
seat in early days, was born in Arbroth, 


friend, John (ireig; graduated from Vale Col- 
lege; stuilied law witli Natlianiel W. Howell; 
a<lmitted to practice at tlie bar in 1828; 
continued a resident of Canandaigua for a 
number of years, then removing to Providence 
and later, about 1855, to New Vork city, 
where in association with Henry B. Gibson's 
son-in-law. Watts Sherman, he founded the 
banking house of Muncan ^t Sherman ; re- 
turned to Kngland about the vear 1868, and 
.lied there in 1886. 



ihe homo of Lucius Wilcox aud uow of Alexander l)a\i(lsou : the 
General John A. (ir.'Mi^er mansion, now St. .\lar\'s conxent : ihe 
house built 1)\' James Sibley, jewelei", in ISi.S. .-md now owned and 
occupied l)_\' the Misses I'anl, the lii'st bi-ick' honsf built in the 
\"illai;"e : the house erected b\ .M\i"on llollew an eail\ count\- clerk 
aud later one of the State conmiissioners who had char<4"e of the 
building' ot the I'h'ie canal, now the i"esidence of l)i". ( ieoro-e W. 
McC'kdlan; the I'tica Dranch Hank building', now the home of the 
local \. .\1. C". .\. : the I )aniels hou'-e. credited with bein;^ one of 
the oldest frame structures in the xilla^e aud the \'\y>\ store. In 
the lower part of the street are still found, neai" the lake on the 
west side, the house built b\ one of the earl\- sur\e_\-ors. Janies 
Smedle\'. aud now the ])ro])ert\' of .Michael .\loran; on the east side. 
the ruins ot the l)iulle\- taxern, receutl\- known as the kOster house: 
at the north corner of Main aud I'arrish streets, the jasper I'arrish 
house, built in 1824. 

Other mansions of historic associations once stood alon^- this 
.Main street, but have been demolished to make room for structures 
of more modern, not more beautiful. ])rop()rtions. Auion^ the 
most notable of these were the Thomas Morris house. located at 
what is now the entrance of ^^'est Gibson street; the John (ireii^" 
place, which stood o])posite the Academ\- on upper Main street, and 
the Gibson house, next south of the Gon^re^ational church, where 
the Ontario bank x\as long located. 

Just of¥ jMain street, a short distance west on Go\- street, still 
stands the house of (ieneral Israel C"ha]>iu. the (TO\-ernmeut Indian 
ao-ent, and the old structure attached to the building on the north 
was tlie General's first home in Cauandaigua, the second (^r third 
frame building- to be erected here aud now undoubtedh- the oldest 
structure in the \-iIlage. Tn its front vard. where stand the Uenuett 
and Mag'gs blo(d<s. were held many of the ]')ow-wows with the 
Indians that characterized the earl\- davs of the settlement. 

On the lateral streets, which also are laid c^ut (Ui liberal jtlan. 
are to be found interesting landmarks in the shape of dwellings 
wdiose frame work at least constituted a j^art of some of the first 
houses erected in the \illage. but which as remodeled evidence 
little of the plainness of those earlier habitations. Added to these 
are handsome residences of recent construction, chief among which 
is that known as ^'Sonnenberg." the summer home of Mrs". 
Frederick F. Thompson, of NeA\- ^'ork city. This has been developed 


to the highest state of fruitfulness and beauty, and opened to the 
pubHc, as it is on stated days throughout the summer, is visited 
each season by people from all parts of the country. 

As the settlement grew, the ]\Iain and Cross streets were supple- 
mented, first, by the opening of streets along the lines of travel that 
led to the villages at the "east or west, or toward the north, and 
these were followed by those laid out for the purpose of opening 
the land to settlement. Among the first streets laid out were those 
bounding the village. East street. '\\'est street, and North street. 
Buffalo street was one of the first streets, being so named because 
it led to the village of Buffalo. The road opposite it, east of ]^Iain 
street, was first named Marvin street, after Dudley Marvin, an emi- 
nent lawyer, thus setting the example later followed of naming 
streets in honor of prominent citizens: but IMarvin street became 
Chapel street, when, in 1816, the IMethodists erected a sanctuary 
there. Fort Hill avenue, first known as Mechanic street, was 
opened previous to 1800. and Parrish street, opened about the same 
time, was named after the Indian interpreter, Jasper Parrish. 
Another street was that named after Dudley Saltonstall, the first 
principal of the Academy, and running through a farm owned by 
him. Granger street was opened, as Butcher street, previous to 1814. 
Bristol street was first called Antis lane, because of the fact that 
it led to the home of William Antis, the settlement's first gunsmith. 
The small street which now bears his name was opened about 1844. 

Gibson street was opened in 1828, by Henry B. Gibson, the 
banker, and first named Barlow street from the fact that it extended 
through the Barlow farm : Wood street named after William Wood, 
was opened the same year: Beeman street, named after Marvin 
Beeman, a merchant, was also opened about the same time: Gorham 
street was opened in 1849 by Nathaniel Gorham, Srd. Howell 
street was opened in 1852, through the center of the farm owned l)v 
Nathaniel W. Howell. In the same year. Dungan street was opened 
and named after Dr. Samuel Dungan : Hubbell street, named after 
Walter Hubbell, and Park street, so named because it started from 
the Gibson street park. Greig street, named for John Greig, was 
opened in 1839. Coy's lane was widened into a street in 1850 and 
called Coy stree<: in honor of Charles Coy, a prominent harness 
maker, who then occupied the Israel Chapin house on that street. 
Bemis street, opened previous to 1835. was named after James D. 
Bemis, the early printer; Clark street, opened in 1841 and named 


after Eldad Clark, the cabinet maker; Foster street, opened in 1849, 
and named after William K. Foster, shoe merchant; Phelps street, 
opened in 1846, and named after Judge Oliver Phelps; Chapin street, 
opened in 1850, and named after General Israel Chapin; Mason 
street, opened in 1S76, and named after Jesse Mason, the tanner; 
Beals street, opened in 1873, and named for I'homas Beals, the early- 
banker; Charlotte street, opened in 1873, named for a daughter of 
Governor Clark; Catherine street, oi)ened in 1849, named for 
Catherine Chesebro. 

The first public necessity for a pioneer settlement like that of 
Canandaigua, attracting as it did visitors and settlers who must 
perforce eat and sleep, were hotels or taverns, and then came a 
cemetery, for death would not delay in exacting toll. Schools 
were provided also in tlie first years of the settlement, fcir the 
people from the New England hills did not propose to allow their 
children to go long without instruction in the three r's, readin', 
"ritin', and 'rithmatick. The building of churches could wait a few 
years, the worship of God in the meantime taking jilace in the 
hospitable homes, or in the forest cathedrals that surrounded the 
settlement. Newspapers could wait a while, as nuist also libraries; 
but these all appeared in the earl\- de\elo])ment of the white man's 

The Hotels. 

The lirst entertainment for man and beast, as we have seen, 
was prcjvided by Jose])h Smith, who, with an eye to business, got 
his log house erected and in order earl\- in the season after the 
selection of Canandaigua as the headc|uarters oi Phelps and Gor- 
liam, 1788, and by the time (iencral Chapin and his company of 
pioneers reached here in May of the following spring he was ready 
to furnish bread and beds, such as they were, to all who needed 
and could pay the price. (General Chapin's own house, which u^as 
erected that season on his lot west of Main street, on the north 
side of what is noAv Coy street, was to all intents and pur])oses a 
public hostelry, for as the recognized leader of the little connnun- 
ity and the Government Agent he was called upon to entertain 
every visitor of influence, be his skin white or red. 

The first regular tavern, however, was that which was opened 
by Mr. and Mrs. Nathaniel Sanborn in 1790, in a house erected on 
the site recently appropriated for the new postoffice building. Here 


and at Captain ALartin Dudley's tavern, which was erected in 1796 
on the east side of lower Main street, and which was ])urued early 
the present }ear, 1911, were entertained tra\elers and prospectors 
HI large numbers and here gathered the belles and beaus of the 
tow'n for man}- a banqtiet and dance. 

Another earl}- ta\ern was that which was l)uilt on the west 
side of upper Main street, about the year 1791, by Phineas Bates, 
and which became ])articularly j)opular during" the war of 1812. 

The first ])ig hotel of the \illage was the Blossom House, 
which was built in 1814. east of the sciuare, on the site of the pres- 
ent Canandaigtta hotel. This was the fa\orite stopping ]dace for 
the CcMicord coaches that furnished coninmnication to and from 
the settlements at the east and those also tcj the westward. This 
hotel was destro}ed b\- tire on the night of December 2, 1851. 
Early the next }ear a stock com])any. consisting of John (ireig, 
Francis Granger, Henr}- B. Gibson. John A. Granger. .Mark 11. 
Sibley, Leander 11. l)nn\\-. and (iideon (jranger, ])ro\ided means, 
in conjunction with Thomas Ueals and John lienham. the owners 
of the I.'ind. for the building of a new hotel. This was com])leted 
and opened in the sununer ot l-'^.-^3 and constitutes the Canandaigua 
hotel of the present day. 

In 1827, Thomas Beals, who had recentK- ])urchased the i)rop- 
erty on the west side of Main street south of Coach street, the site 
of the ritts ta\ern in which was located the old jail, began the 
erection of the I'ranklin House, which was completed the follow- 
ing season. This l)u.ilding, which was of brick, was burned in 
March. 186'\ hut was immed:atel\- replaced ])\ what is now known 
as the Webster House block. 

The Northern Retreat. >tanding at the corner of upper Main 
and BufTalo streets, was built in the earl}- years of the centur}' and 
biu'ued in 1867: the Southern ketreat, now known as the Lake 
l>ree/.e hotel, at the foot of Main street, was an old time ta\-ern. 
The ()ntario 1 louse, on the east side of the public s(|uare, \»-as 
more notable among tliese early hostelries, but the date of its 
erection is not known be}ond the fact that it u\as in the first }'ears 
of the century. It was torn down in 1895 to make wa}- for the 
erection of the Hallenbeck office building. The Washington hotel, 
still standing on Ontario street, was built about the year 1814, and 
the old Niagara House, erected as an adjunct to the station of the 
Canandaigua and Idmira railroad, about the year 1851. Ilie Mas- 


setli House, now tlie Imperial hotel, \\as erected on contiguous 
ground in 1(S75. "fliis does not cdinplctc the list, hut it makes a 
record ot the hostelries best known in the historx' of the \illage. 

The Burying Grounds. 

Although no minute ol the fact appeals in ihe ofticial record, 
either in the \illage clerk's oflice or in tin- cciuntx' clerk's oftikre, it 
is safe to assume that the \illage ])lotting made 1)\' direction of 
the original purchasers, 1 'helps and (lorham, set a])art the ])iecc 
of ground on the south side of what was then Cross street, but is 
now known as W est a\enne. foi" the ])urposes of burial. It was in 
this lot, consisting of one acre, that the remains of the tirst white 
man who died in the infant settlement, ('a])tain Caleb W alkt'r, 
brother of Agent W illiam Walker, were interred. This was in 
.\ 1790. There were only eighteen fannlies in the settle- 
ment at that time, but as the (piaint old head-stones of thi> historic 
(lodsacre abnndanth' testif}'. the Walker gra\e did not remain long 
alone. W ithin a few \'ears it was surrounded i)\- a score or more 
ol memorials recording the death of othei' pioneers. 

In Ianuar\, 1826. the addition located innnediateb' east of 
what had e\'en then become the "old" burial ])lace was jjurchased 
and plotted for gra\'es by representatixes of prominent families in 
town. I'dfteen years later, August 14. 1(S41. the trustees of the 
village acquired possession of a ]:>lot of three and one-half acres 
h'ing north of Cross street "nearly opposite," the deed recites, "to 
the present burning ground." and laid it out foi' pur])oses of burial. 
To this "new" burying ground additions were made in l.ShO and 
m 1871. 

The Roman Catholic burial ])lace. now known as Cah'ary 
cemeter\'. was laid out in 18.^0 under the pastorate of h'ather 
iMlmund C)'(\jnnor. .Vdditic^ns to this were made in 1836 and 
in 1902. 

W'oodlawn cemetery was opened in 1884 b)- a pri\ate corjiora- 
tion kno\\n as th.e Canandaigna Cemetery Association, haxing the 
following named trustees: Oscar N. Crane. chairm;in : Harrison IC 
Ferguson, secretary; George B. Anderson. William llayton. Mugh 
King. John B. Robertson. Abel Richmond. Rollin L. Ueecher, llilem 
S. Bennett, John Gillette. Charles A. Richardson, and I'rank ( ). 
Chamberlain. W'oodlawn was laid out n]ion the most libei"al and 


artistic plan. "With the permanent improvements and additional 
lands, making the cemetery area no\\ include sixty-five acres, and 
counting in the expense of maintenance, the property has tost, 
from the organization in 1884 to June 1. 1911, the sum of $119,- 
224.40. which with the exception of an indebtedness of S3. 163.56, 
representing the cost of the boulder entrance recently erected, 
has all been met by the sale of lots, without the aid of bequests or 
contributions. The cost as thus figured, however, does not include 
the handsome stone chapel completed in 1910 at the sole expense 
of Airs. Frederick F. Thompson. 

The Schools. 

The village of Canandaigua has been famed from the earliest 
years for its educational facilities. These were comprised at first 
of neighborhood schools, housed it may be guessed in log buildings, 
and these were supplemented at a very early date by private 
schools of greater or less prominence. Whether as an actual fact 
one of these was conducted in a wing of the old Alorris house by 
Louis Philippe, afterwards the "Citizen" King of France, during 
the time he was a fug-itive in this country between 1746 and 1800, 
as tradition saith, it is a fact that William Williams conducted a 
school in Judge Howell's office, and that Miss Sybil Mosely, credited 
with ha\ing conducted the first Sundav school in the villao-e. Miss 
]\Iary Baker, who conducted a school for girls in the house since 
occupied by the Paul family, ]Mr. \\'arren Bundy, and others, 
acted as instructors in such schools in the early days. 

At the time the public square was deeded to the count\- in 
1800. certain reservations were made for the protection of the log 
school house then standing on the west side of Main street, which 
was evidently private property, as it was provided that the owners 
of said school might rebuild the same from time to time on 
said square. 

Following the estal)lishment of the public school system of 
the State, in 1813, the village was divided into three school districts, 
and brick school l)uildings erected as follows: In Xo. 11. chanoed 
to Xo. 10, on the west side of lower Main street just below the 
Walker blacksmith shop; in X'o. 12. changed to Xo. 11. on the north 
side of Cross street, or West avenue, about opposite the old burying 
ground, supplanted in 18.^1 by a larger building erected on Greig 
street, now used as the boiler house for the High School building; 


in No. 13, on Chapel street, on tlie site of tlie present l)rancli scliool 



Ihit the (lisiiosition of the fonnders of the \-illa<;-e in rej^'ard 

to the matter ot echication had its first significant manifestation 
when, as early as jannary, 1791, Xathaniel ( lorham and C)li\-er 
J^helps, for the ])nr])()se of establishini;- and .snp])i)rtinL; an Acadcnu 
or Seminary of learninj^, deeded to trnstees certain tracts of land 
ao-o-reg^atinp' six thonsand acres, sitnated as follows: o.UOO acres 
in lot No. 9 in the third ranj^e, 2, DUO acres in lot Xo. 7 in the fiftli 
ranj^e, 50(^ acres in lot Xo. 11 in the second ran<;c, and ?i)i) acres in 
iot No. 10 in the third ranL;e, "which said townshi]) lies at the north 
end of Canandaigiia lake and adjoining;" thereon," in which it was 
stipulated the proposed "Academy or .Seminar)- of learning" should 
be situated. In 179.5, the Canandaigua Academy was formally 
incorporated, and steps were taken to raise l)y subscription the 
funds needed to erect the Academy building", ddiis was of wooden 
construction and was completed and o]:)ene(l for use in 1<S()-I. d'he 
first board of trustees was made u]) as follows: l)ndle\' Salton-^tall 
(substituted for X^athaniel Ciorham), ()li\er riRd])S. X^athanicl W. 
Ho\\eIl (substituted for Isratd (hapin). Xathaniel (iorham, jr., 
ddiomas Morris, Arnold ]\_otter, John Smith, 'fimotlu- IJosnuT. 
Charles Williamson, James W'adsw orlh, ()li\er L. Phel|)s. I );inicl 
Penlield, Ambrose Hill. John Codding, John W'ickhain, Moses 
Atwater, Judah Colt, Israel Chapin, Jr., and Amos Mali. 

A separate paper, annexed to and recorded with the last deed, 
])ro\ided that the trustees should annually a])pro])riate the sum of 
twenty dollars as a ])renn!um to the student writing and pnb!icl\ 
deli\ering the best oration on "The d'ranscendent Excellence of a 
Genuine Representatixe Republican GoNernnicnt effectually secur- 
ing equal liberty founded on the Rights of Man,'" and that certain 
\)[\vt of the income should be expended in "educating such \-oung 
men as having bright intellect and amiable dispositions bid f;iir to 
be useful members of the comnuinit)', but from the incompetencx- 
of their resources are unable witluout assistance from the fund. 
hereby appropriated, to accjuirc a suitable share of literary informa- 
tion to enable them to do extensixe good to their felhnv men." 

Canandaigua Academy at once took a ]iosition as a leading 
educational institution and under a succession of able ])rinci])als 
rendered a service to the young men in this part of the State of 
incalcidable l)enefit and that enabled ni;in\- of them to attain high 



places in the world of business and politics. The tirst i)rincipal was 
Dudley Saltonstall. A few years later came Rev. James Stevenson, 
who received a yearly stipend of $800. but. not unlike his 
predecessors or successors in that resj^ect. was unal:»le to make the 
school pay its ^^■ay. Later canie Mr. CeorgT W'illson. who was the 
autiior of W'illson's Arithmetic and W illson's Class Reader. Henr\- 

Howe was the principal from 
1828 until 1849. and under his 
management the institution be- 
came self supporting- for the first 
time, and the building, in 1834-5. 
was entirely remodeled, being en- 
closed with l)rick and enlarged by 
s]:)acious additions. Afarcius A\'ill- 
son. w ho later won recognition as 
a historian of ability, became the 
l)rinci])al in 1849. and upon his 
resignation in 1853. Dr. Noah T. 
Clarke assumed the responsibility 
ot the management, a position 
which he continued tt^ hold to the 
great advantage of the school and 
its students for a period of thirty 
\ears. or until 1882. Finally, all 
HENRY B. GIBSON. eftofts to cudow the institution 

Henrv 1j Gibson was born in Reading. Pa., , . . ., , . n i 

.\i.ri! 13. 1783. F.ducated at Saratoga, X. V. liaXlUg Jailed, it waS Compelled tO 
He!»an business career at Cooperstown, then • i • • • i - 

moved to Utica, where on December 9, 1812. Xicld to tllC prOgreSSUe rivalr\' ot 
he married Miss .Sarah, daughter of Watts  i i • i • i i 

Sherman, the famous banker, with whom he tllC 15Ul)hC high SCllOol aud tiaUS- 
was afterwards associated in business. Came 

to Can.nndaigua in 1820 to take charge of the foircd itS I)rf)pert\'. W i t ll tllC trUSt 
Ontario I'.ank, which he managed with signal ' ' 

success until the expiration of its charter in fuuds heretofore mentioned, tO 
18,S6. when he retired with a fortune estimated 

at Sl.000.000 Was elected President of the j]^ . viHage board of cduCatioU. 
l^ochester and .\uburn Railroad upon us com- f^ 

pletion in 1840. Continued to reside in Can- \iiMfli.>r ( 'a na nd n icriin >;rlinol 

andaigua until his death, November 20, 1863. Vnoincr L ananCUUgUa SCUOOI 

in iTie 81st year of his age. ^^^^^ gained national reputatiou. 

and that was in fact a ])ioneer in the moxemcnt for higher education 
for women, was the Ontario l-emalc Seminar}-. This institution was 
incor))orated in 1824. and in 1825 the building was erected on land 
deeded b\ llenr\- 15. Gibson, .\fter sexeral years of \arying history, 
the princii^ialship in 1*^30 ])assed to Miss Hannah Ci)ham and Miss 
Arabella Smith, under w-hose managemenl the institution was 
greatl)- j>rospered. Miss Smith died in the summer of 1842. after 


which Miss Lph.-mi was in s(",le charge until Julw 1848, when she 
resii^"nc(l to return to hor Xew I'.ngland home. Miss l'])hani was 
succeeded by Mr. and Mr-- l.dw.'i'il (i. In ler. who came to Lanan- 
daiii'ua from I'lltslicld, Massachusetts, and under tlieii" manau'enient 
the capacit} of the Sennnar\- was euhir^ed so that it accommodated 
some eii;"ht\- l)oar(hn<4- pupils, with a do/.en or more teachers and a 
large day school. In 1854, Mr. and .Mrs. Ilenjamin Kichards became 
interested in the institution and continued associated in its manage- 
lucnt until the comi)elitiou ot richh' endoweil n\als l)rou^Jii about 
the suspension of its work, m the \ear 187.i. 

Idle traditions of the \ill.ige for educational work, especialb' for 
women, were destined. iiowe\er, lo be m:iiutauie(l tor a time. The 
\'ear 187f) saw the inauguration of two im])ortaiU nuderlakings in 
this line, ddie L"])ham .School lor (iirls, so named in honor <i\ ibe 
beloved Miss Hannah l'])ham. was founded m that \ear, b\ .Mrs. 
Sanuiel I). Ibackus, and entei'ed u])on a highh a])])reciated service, 
lirst as a da\- and then as a da\' and boarding school, that continued 
until bS')l. 

In the same xear, 187'), the (irauger IMace School was ojieued. m 
the old l^rauc's (irauger homestead. This institution wa^ organ- 
ized b\' a number of ex])erienced teachers, including Miss Caroline 
A. Comstock, .Miss Jane .M . Slocum. .Mrs. C harlotte 1*. Crocker, and 
Miss Harriet |. Ilasbrouck, and it did a large and useful work under 
their management and later undei" the ])rincipalshii) of .Mr. ScamucI 
Cole h'airley, but it was ncjt liuauciall}' successful and in June. 1*'()(). 
hnall\- closed its doors. 

I'dr se\-eral ^•ears beginning with 1884, the k'ort Hid .School, 
a boarding and da\' school for bo\s. was conducted b\ tlu' Kew I. 
Hatrick Lee. a former rector of St. John's cluu-ch, in the old Kan- 
kine place in the northeast ])art of the \illage. 

The histor\' of the public schools of the \illage has been one 
of constant progress. In 1874. school districts Xo. 10 and 11 were 
brouo'ht together in a union district and a niassixe school house 
erected on a lot near the public scjuare. This building was com- 
pleted in 1876. In 1886, after a struggle in which the interests of 
the private schools were a leading factor. Xo. 13 was brought into 
the union district, and as a result of another exciting contest, an 
academic department was added to the school system, which was 
thereafter de\eloi)ed on broad lines and included in the centi"al 
management |)rimar\- oi- branch schools located (ai Saltonstall 


street, Adelaide avenue, and Chapel streets. At last, in 1900, the 
old Canandaigua Academy trustees turned over the property and 
trust funds of that institution to the Union School and Academy, 
as heretofore stated, and the latter organization, in 1906-7, follow- 
ing a vote of the taxpayers authorizing an expenditure of $80,000 
for the purpose, built a magnificent new Canandaigua Academy on 
ground made historic as the site of the first "academy of learning" 
erected on the Genesee trcict. To the sum voted by the people, 
Mr. Grant Schley, a natixe of the village and a former student of 
the Academy, added $10,000 to enable the Board of Education to 
complete the building on the plan originally designed. 

The Churches. 

The first religious service held in the village of Canandaigua 
was that at the funeral of Captain Caleb Walker, in August, 1790, 
and consisted simply of the reading of the church of England burial 

In the same year meetings were held in the log barn on Judge 
Phel])s's place, an.d at these ser\iccs, it is rrhitcd. sermons were 
read I)}' John Call and the singing was letl b}- Mr. Xathaniel San- 
born, husband of ihe good mistress of the Sanborn ta\ern. it is 
als'o recorded that "at a meeting of a number of tlie inhabitants 
of the town of Canandar(|ua on the ex'ening of the 17th (la\- of 
December, 1792, for the purpose of taking the minds of the inhabi- 
tants whether it is their wish to liire a c1erg\-man to preach with 
us the ensuirig season, Othniel Ta\lor, Judah Colt, and Al)ner 
Barlow were appointed a committee to hire a clergyman," and it 
is probable that religious ser\'ices were thereafter held in the settle- 
ment with more or less regularity. 

But the first real step toward organizing religious work in 
the \illage. which sees its fruition in the strong church organiza- 
tions and the splendid houses of worship of the present (la\'. was 
taken when tlie hirst Confrreijational church of Canandaigua was 
organized, on February 25, 1799. .\ i'rotestant Episcopal church, 
known as St. Matthews, had been formed a few days earlier, but 
for reasons unknown it had only a short life and the peo])le of that 
and other denominations united cordially in supporting the Con- 
gregational organization. This had for its first minister. Rev. 
Timothy Ineld, at a salary of $500 per annum. In the interval 
bet\\een the retirement of his successor, Rev. Henr\- Channiniy, 

'rill'. \'IM.\(iI': Ol' C.WAXDAIGUA. 285 

"A man of learnino-, a great stickU-r for lihcrt}- and independence," 
wlio "came \\ Iicii lie pleast-d .-md wenl wlu-n he pleased," and the 
coming' to the pastorale of the l\e\. William T. Ton-ew thei'c was 
erected the meeting house which, with \aiions enlargements and 
improvements, has continued in service and now constitute a most 
characteristic and dignilied e\am])le of the Colonial ai-cdiitectnre 
for wliich the NiUage is (Hslingnished. The Tlothic cha])el, now 
iiiclnded in the \erv complete i)lant I)cd<inging to this church organ- 
ization, was erected in 1S72-73, durmg the pastorate of the Uew 
hrcderick B. Allen. Among tlie longer pastorates in the cdiiu"c1i 
were those of Rev. Ansel 1). ICddv, cxtomlini'" from 1SJ3 to 1<S,>3. 
and tliat of Rex. Oliver E. Daggett, whicli co\ered a ])eriod of 
twenty-two years, from 1845 to 1867. lltQ present pastor is the 
Rev. Lixingston L. Tavlor. 

The organization of this historic church, like that of the (On- 
gregational churches of East Bloomficld (17*'6). South Bristol 
(1796), Bristol (1799), West Bloomfield (17<)<)). Victor (1799). 
Naples (1800), Honeoye (1801), and Rnshville (1802). is to I)e 
credited largely to the work of the Rev. Zadock llunn. who had 
settled in the town in 1795, and who, though lacking, we are told, 
elements of popnlarit\' as a preacher, was most earnest and suc- 
cessful in forwarding the religious dexelopment of the region. 

St. John's Episcopal church was organized in 1814, its tirst 
rectors. Rev. Alanson W. We'ton and Rev. Dr. Onderdonk, con- 
ducting services in the town hall until the fall of 1816, when it 
entered into possession of its own clnirch edifice, a well i)roi)or- 
tioned wooden structure on ui)pcr Main street. The church con- 
tinued to increase in strength under a succession of devoted rec- 
tors until 1872, when the erection of the ])resent handsome stone 
edifice was undertaken. The consecration of the new building, 
which was delayed f(^r f(^urteen vears after its erection in order 
that it might be freed of indebtedness, took place on May 6, 1886, 
which by a singular coincidence was the se\entieth amii\ersary of 
the day on which the foundation of the llrst church building was 
laid. The present rector is the Rev. Blerbcrt L. (iaylord. 

A Methodist "class" had been formed west of the village as 
early as 1796, 1)ut it was not until 1816 that a fonual organization 
was effected by that denonn'nalion in either the \illage or the town 
of Canandaigua. Tn that year, under appointment o\ the ()ntario 
circuit, Rev. William Barlow set about raising funds for the erec- 


lion of a churcli. aiid. a lot on Chapel street having l)een pnrchased. 
the work of Iniilding- was begun. On July Kk ISIS, the "rha]icl"' 
A\as dedicated. On T'el)rnar\- 4. 1S23. the societ}- l)ecame an incor- 
porated body under the name of "The r'irst Society of the Meth.- 
odist Episcopal Church in the \illage of Canandaigua."" The soci- 
ety grew rapid]\ in strength and iuiml)ers and in 1S34 arranged 
to estal)lish itself ni a more central ])()siti()n. ])nrcha>ing the site 
on the west side of Main street where the present church is located. 
The old l)uiMing was mo\ed to this site from Chapel street the 
follo^\■ing smumer. In 1S55-5C) it was enlarged and impro\cd : 
during the j^astorate of K'ew John Allabaster. 186" to 18()9. it was 
further improved and a i)i])e organ ])rovided : yet again, under the 
pastorate of Rew Dr. L. C. CHieal. 1880-83. the church was reseated 
and refurnished and a |)arsonage built ; and. hnallw in 1902-3. under 
the pastorate of Rew William W. W ebb. the ])resent s])lendid stone 
edifice was erected at a co-t of S50.000. The ])resent jiastor is Kew 
Arthur Copeland. D. 1). 

A F^)a])tist church was organized at Centerheld. west of the 
\-illage. in 1S2C). but ihe working center of the denomination w a.'i 
transferred to Canaiulaigua in Januar\-, 1833. The first serxices held 
here were in the town house, but a lot centralh' located on the east 
side of Mam street, south of the s(|uare. was immediateK puv- 
ciiased and >te])s were t.'iken towarrl the erection of a lu)usc of 
worshi]\ This was completed and dedicated in December. 1833, 
the original building being of brick and 41 by 50 feet in size. In 
1879. under the ])astorate of Rev. W. H. Sloan, the house was 
rebuilt r.nd enlarged, and in 1906. under the j^astorate of Rew J. 
Scott Ebersole. it was further enlarged and im])ro\ed. at a cost of 
more than $12,000. the im])ro\ements including the building ')f now 
Simday school rooms and the thorough modernizing of the interior. 
The present pastor is Rew ( i. Rector D\e. 

The l'resl)\-terian church was organized, in 1870. 1)\- members 
of that faith who had formerlv been connected with the Congrega- 
tional church, the first public meeting in reference to the enter- 
prise being held in the court house on .\])ril 26. The first i)id)lic 
preaching service wa> held on Simday. Mav 8. and on Ma)- 1.^ the 
chiu'ch was formally organized with a membershiji of fifty-seven. 
In November. 1870. the Rev. Samuel H. Thompson became the 
pastor, and on. the 30th of May. Decoration dav. the following year, 
the corner-stone of the church edifice was laid, on the lot .at the 


corner of Main and Gibson streets. The church was completed and 
dedicated on January 26. 1872. L'nder a succession of able pastors, 
with men of prominence as leaders and a de\-oted membership, the 
Presbyterian church soon ,L^aiue(l and lias maintained an im])ortant 
place in the relii^ious life of the coninumil\-. I lu- .Snnda\ schocd 
chapel was built in the ^unnner of IS".^. and in P^IH) this was 
enlarged and the church edifice was redecorated and refurnished. 
The present ])astor is the Rev. (iuy L. Morrill. 

The 'T)lack Robes," as the Jesuit missionaries were called, 
were tin? In-st men to teach the Lhrisiian religion in the territory 
which is now embraced in Western New ^V)rk, but their dexoted 
and self sacrificing labors were among the Indians of the f(jresl, ])re- 
ceding by many years the condng of the white settlers. Tlie latter 
were for the nicest i)art Protestants in religion, and it was not tiiHil 
nearly the middle of the eighteenth century that the adherents of 
the Roman church had assembled here in mimbers to warrant effort 
to form an organization and erect a church building. Priests had 
visited the comnumity in earlier years and had held ser\ ices in 
private houses or other buildings, but it was not until 1S4S and '4'^ 
that the people of the church were prox ided with a house of wor- 
ship. The original building was of brick, but of small dimensions, 
and stood on the lot at tlie corner of lower Main street and .Salton- 
stall street, and after a few years it ^vas incorporated in a much 
larger structure. In 1S61-62 the clnu'ch was still further enlarged, 
l)nL with the ad\ancing growth in nund)ers and increase in ])ros- 
])erity of the ])eo])le who xxorshiped there, it in time became inad- 
equate in si/e and tuisuited to the needs of the congre- 
gation. The first settled juastor of the church was h'ather Edmund 
O'Connor, who served in that capacity from 1840 until 1858, and 
he was follow^ed in succession by Rev. Charles McMullen, 1858-59; 
Rev. Michael Purcell. 1859-61; Rev. James M. Earley, 1861-62; 
Rev. Joseph McKenna, 1862-69; Rev. Denis English, 1869-1901; 
Rev. James T. Dougherty. 1901-11. The St. Mary's Orphan As}'- 
lum and Academy, organized under the auspices of St. Mary's 
church, was incorporated in 1855 and first occupied houses on 
Saltonstall street. 1)ut in 1873, following the pm-chase for the church 
of the John A. Granger ])ropert\-, at the corner of Main and Gibson 
streets, it was transferred to the mansion there, wdiere it was con- 
tinued in connection with the comeut until, following the settle- 
ment of Rev. Father Dougherty as pastor, the children were trans- 


ftM-red to an institution in Rochester. In the meantime, in 1880. 
a school l)ui]ding was erected on the new property, and (hiring- the 
past year this has been enlarged l)y the erection of an addition, 
including a commodious public hall on the second tloor. In 1903. 
following- the paying off of the indebtedness incurred in the pur- 
chase of the Granger property, tiie congregation, under the leader- 
ship of Father Dougherty, erected the handsome l)ro\vn stone edi- 
fice in which the stately worshij) of the church is now conducted. 
This involved an expenditure of over $90,000. but the burden of 
indebtedness thereby incurred was l)eing so rapidly reduced thai 
in 1908 the handsome brick and stone rectory was erected, to be 
followed soon bv the addition to the school buildino- above men- 
tioned. completing a plant that, including the real estate, has cost 
more than $160,000. 

The \\ esleyan Methodist church, erected on Bristol street, in 
1888, through the generosity of John Carrington. houses a small 
but earnest congregation now under the pastoral charge of the 
l\e\-. Sanford D. Wilcox. .Ml Souls l'ni\-ersalist church, recenth' 
organized, holds regular Sunda\- afternoon services, with Rex". E. 
P. W^ood. of the V^ictur church of that denomination, officiating, in 
the Congregational chapel, and the same ^anctuar}-. on Sunda}' 
evenings, houses a small congregation of colored peoj)le. to which 
a visiting clergyman from Rochester ministers. 

The Newspapers. 

The earlier newsjiaper histor\- of Canandaigua is not easy to 
trace. The first attempt al printing a ])aper was made in 1799. 
when Lucius Car\- mo\ed here the "'( )ntario (iaxette and (iene- 
see Adxertiser," which hv had stai-ted at (ienexa a year or so 
before, '['his ])ul)licati()n did not long ^urvixe, but was succeeded 
early in 1802 b\- the "W estern I\e]K)sitory and ( ienesee Advertiser." 
I)ul)lished b\' James K. (ionld. 'I'he following year the name of the 
paper was changed to the 'A\ estern Repository." and in 1804 James 
D. Bemis became interested in its management. Mr. (iould dying 
in March. 1808, the enter])rise was continued by .Mr. Bemis. who 
soon developed a large puldishing business and made the paper 
the leading and most intluential publication of its kind in the 
western country, richly earning the title of the "Father of the 
Western New York Press." The earliest copies of the paper access- 
ible show that Morse & Bemis published the Repository in 1805; 

Till': \'ILI..\(iF. ()!• CWX.WDAKil'A. 


Morse. Ward (^' Co., in 1^30; Morse <v Tfarxt-N- in 1835; Geore'e T.. 

W liitiK'N' in 1 S4() : ( )r--on iK'njaniin in lX-1?. 'I lie naim- of tin- ])ai)C]' 

was clian_t;'C(l from "Western l\e])osiloi'\" to "I he ( )nlai"io l\ei)osi- 

lor\'" in 1S3(). In IS37, ( ieor^c I., \\hitne\- iK: Son l)eeaine llie 

])!■( t|)i"iet ors and llie\' were snc- 

ceeded in IS^)1 1)\- George W . 

I''i'eneli. 1)\- whom il was sold, in 

h"el)rnai-y, 1S^)2, to jaeol) |. Matli- 

son, who eonsolidate(| it with the 

.Messenger. TolitieaJK the l\e- 

l)ositor\- was a sn|)j)orlei" of l'"]!l 

more, the American rresidenlial 

candidate, in IS.S^, and Ikdl. the 

National I'nion nominee, in IS()(), 

holli rei)resentin^' the strnggles e)f 

the remnants of the .Si her (Iray 

\\ hi^s for a se])arate existence. 

The ()ntario Messenger, 
eslahlished in 1 S()3 as the ( )ntario 
I'reeman. 1)\- Isaac TittanN', was 
taken o\ er and rechristened in 
1(S(U), |)\- |()hn .\. .Stex'ens, who 
coiitimied in charge of the publi- 
cation nntil ahont IS3(>, following 
wiiich the ])ul)lishers were, first, 
l)ay ^v: Morse, then d\ B. Halm. 
then lluhhell (.\: Turner, again T. 
II. I I aim. and fmall)-, in \X4S. 
Jacob j. Mattison became inter- 
ested in the enterprise and al- 
though from time to time associated with others in th.e management 
continued at its head until his death, in .\ugust. IS"''. In the mean- 
time the ])a])er had al)st)rl)ed its old-time ri\al. the Kepositor}'. 
Politically the old Messenger was a straight democratic organ, as 
its successor, the l\e])ositor\' and .Messenger, has continued to be to 
this date. After Mr. Mattison's death, the Keixisitory and Messenger 
was sold to A\'illiam H. I'nderhill. of Hath, following whose death in 
1883 it was continued for a time by his father, .\. L. rnderhill. and 
then, in December, 1885, it became the ])ro])erty of Herbert Hunt- 
ington. The paper was contintied under the latter's management 


Jiinu's I), liemis \ born in Spencer, Massa- 
elui.setts. July 1. 17cS,3; learned the printing 
trade m llDston and Albany. Opened a book 
.•itore in C'anandaigna in 1804. Became editor 
and pro|)rietor of the Ontario Repository, and 
later .started papers and book stores in 
Wayne, Livingston. Erie, and Onondaga coun- 
ties, winning recognition as "The Fatlier of 
I he Western New York Press." Died No- 
,end)er 2. 18.S7. 


until January, 1907. when he retired and it became tlie p]-()])ert\- of 
the Messenger Printing- Company, of which \\ . A. Pat ton was 
president and general manager. On Deceml^er 9, 1907. it began 
publication as a daily. 

The Ontario County Times was established by Xathan ]. 
jMilliken, in januarv, 1S52. as the organ of the anti-slaverv wine 
of the A\'hig })arty. It took an active part in the events leading up 
to the organization of the Rej)ublican party, and under the manage- 
ment of its founder and his sons has continued an exponent of that 
party's principles. Mr. ]\Iilliken took his oldest son. Charles 1'. 
Milliken, into partnership on January 1. 1891, and upon the for- 
mer's death in December. 1902. the paper passed to the manage- 
ment of his two sons. C. F. cK: R. B. Milliken. bv whom its pid)li- 
cation \\as continued until the death of the junior member of tlie 
firm on January 2. 1911. Cliarles V. Milliken is now the editor 
and manager. 

The Ontario Ccninty Journal was established in 1874 b\- George 
D. A. Bridgman, as an Independent or Liberal Republican pa])er. 
but its policy was soon changed to that of a party organ and it 
has so continued under th.e management of successive pro])rietors. 
In May, 1886, it became the ])roperty of William G. David, but in 
September of the following year he sold it back to its founder. Mr. 
Bridgman, h\ whom it A\as conducted until Jtily, 1891. when it 
became the j)roperty of Edwin P. Gardner and \\'illiam 11. Ham- 
lin. In May, 1899, Mr. Hamlin retired and Mr. Gardner has since 
continued sole proprietor and editor. 

In addition to the papers which have survived the \icissitudes 
of the years as above related, there have been numerous unsuccess- 
ful ventures in the field. The Ontario Phoenix, which was 
established in 1827 by W. W. Phelps, and later conducted by R. 
Royce, was united with the Repository in 1836. The Clay Club 
was the name of a campaign paper printed at Canandaigua during 
the campaign of 1844. In April, 1882. the Ontario Independant was 
established bv William C. Ilydon and Edw^ard A. W'^ader. In 
December, 1883. Mr. Hydon retired, and the publication was 
continued by Mr. Wader until l'\^bruary. 1885. when it was 
discontinued and its subscription list sold to Mr. Bridgman of the 
Ontario County Journal. 

In August, 1898, the publication of a paper known as The 
Dailv Chronicle was undertaken bv A. R. Mickie, Init after a 

rill'. \1LI,.\<.I'. ()|' CANAXDAKiUA. 291 

l)i'ecari()iis cxislcncc ol loi-tx-six (l;i\s llu- \iMilin-c' was <^i\t'ii iij) and 
lilt.' press and olIitT matcnals ^lii|i])C(j i(i aiimln'i" Ik'M. 

In Au.<;ust. l'H)(). W. \. Urowii and W . I ). Towers lic-aii llic 
puhiioalioii ol [\\v ( 'aiian(laii;ua ('Iironick'. In jannar\-, l''n.\ Mr. 
I'Dwcrs r(.'ln"c(' lioni \]\v firn), and \h-. I'.i'own thereafter coiulucted 
the husiness until, in I )ecend)('i-. l''()o. he elTeeteil a sale to Leonard 
A. I'ai'k'!nn>; and John I.. .McLaughlin, 1)\ wlnmi it was continued 
until l)eccnd)ci-, l''n7, when n|)(iu the I'aihn-i' ot' the Llsk Maiui- 
lactnriuL'; ( ninpauw ol which the two jirdprit'tors were directors. 
It wt'iU into tin; hands nl a recei\ei" and soon alter sus])ended 
pul)lic;iii( »n. 

Library and Historical Associations. 

In a coninuiiul\- hke ( anaudai^na, where w a^ centere(l ;i po]iu- 
lation ol unusual inlidlii^^ence and educational institutions of hi^h 
staudui^', and where resided a citi/en hke William WOod who was 
inspired by an ambition to ])ro\ide the pe()])le means ol knowledge 
and liberal cidture. the foundiui;" of a public librarx' association could 
not ha\e been lou^- delated. As to just when the first step to this 
end was tak'eu there is no information at hand, but the records show- 
that in Xo\ember, ISiC), ])lans lor "the 1 anandai^na Merchants" 
I lerks Library, to consist of e\er\- merchant's clerk in the \illag"e 
who chooses to join,"" \\'ere laid, and the ori;ani/.ation started out 
with a uucletis of hft\' books contributed b\- .\lr. WOod. What 
became ol this lil)rar\- and \\hat was it^ histoiw is not known, but it 
a])pears that it had a short lile, for a new libraiw moxemein was 
inaui^u rated in 1859. ( )n Ma\ () in that \ear there was organized 
the A\'ood Library .\ssociation. so ii;imed in memory of the xilla^e 
])hilauthro])ist wdiose death had occurred two \ears before. The 
hrst otVicers were as follows: President, II. Uennett : \u'ce president. 
S. C ])ennelt: secretary J. (1. Lreeory : treasurer, 11. j. Messenger: 
Irtislees, h'rancis Lrau<;er. 11. (). C liesebro, Lucius W ilco.\. Chester 
Coleman, and O. H. Sun'tli, 

The Wood T>ibrar^' Association ^\■as incorporated in I SoS and 
was re-incorporated as a h'ree Tublic Libraiw in lS*)(i. d Ik i)resent 
ofhcers are as follows: T'resident, Miss lsa])hine \\ (iraui^er: \ice 
president, Afiss Ray Levy; secretarv. Miss Llizabefh G. Coleman: 
treasurer, Miss Grace E. Carson: trustees, ]\lrs. b"rank \V. Chesehro. 
Aliss Mary Voak, Mrs. LTenry Kelly. Mrs. l-"rauk L. Howe. Miss 
Frances M. Brunson, Miss Louise H. Field, ]\L\s. John Scott, Miss 


Jessie E. Freeman, Miss Isaphine P Grander. Miss Ra\- Lew. 
}kliss Grace Carson, and Miss Elizabeth G. Coleman. 

The Ontario Connty Historical Society, incorporated in \^K)2. 
established its ninsenm in the little office bniklin"- on the Atwater 
lot. hrst occupied by }ilark H. Sibley and later by John Callister 
and other eminent law vers, ft has since Q-athered a laree collection 
of relics illustrating- the Indian occupancy and the pioneer life of 
the region and has from time to time provided public lectures on 
subjects relating- to the early history of the western part of the State. 
The ground on which its museum Iniilding- stood was appropriated 
in 1910 by the (iovernmer.t as a part of the site for the new post- 
office, and the historic building, with its contents, was removed to 
a temporary location on Ontario street, east of the Can.andaigua 
hotel. The society is now seeking a location on which to erect a 
larger building which shall be hre proof and better adai)ted to its 
purposes. A bequest of Slr'X' from Walter S. Hubl)ell. ^\h() died 
on December 29. 1909. is contingent on the erection of sucli a l)uild- 
ing within a period of five years from that date. 

Many other associations designed to enlarge the knowledge 
of their members or to promote the welfare of the comnumity have 
characterized the development of the \illage. like "The Canan- 
daigua Societ\ of Literature and Science." orsranized in 184(L "The 
Ontario Literary and .Scientihc .Social I'nion." organized in 1S74: 
''The Canandaigua .Scientific Association." ors^anized as a Miscro- 
scopical Society in 1880; "The Young Men's Christian .Association." 
incorporated in 1904: '*The Canandaigua Improvement Associa- 
tion." organized in 1902. and several Board of Trade or Chamber 
Oi Cominerce organizations. 

The order of Masonry obtained an early foothold in C'anan- 
daigua. Ontario lodee X'o. 23. with Timotlu" Hosmer as master. 
receiving its warrant on October 12. 1792. In that and the Mark- 
masters lodge established in 1809 were included the most prominent 
men in the young settlement, but in the excitement following the 
Morgan abduction in 1826. the lodges here were dissolved, and the 
order had no local organization until the institution of the ])resent 
Canandaitrua lodsre, Xo. 294. on the 8th of lanuarx . 18.^3. since 
which time it has steadily grown in strength. The Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows organized C)ntario lodge here in 1844. ])ut 
this was disbanded in 1857. and that order was thereafter without 
a local organization until ^NTav 18. 1870. when its present Canan- 

THE \'! I, LAC I-: ol" CAXAX I ).\ K il'A. 293 

daigna lodge, No. 236. Avas institntcMl. Oilier secret and beneficial 
organizations ^^•ere formed in Canandnigua m the succeeding years 

and lia\e llonri-^hing lod^'cs here at the present time. 

Asylums and Hospitals. 

'Jdie first blossom of the s])len(iid fruitage which Canandaigua 
has come into in the way ot eleemos\nar\- institutions, exce])t the 
noble l)Ut hniited work in lliat direction b\- .St. .\lar\'>- clnu'ch in the 
establishment of its oi'plian asslum in lSr>3. was that coin])ri>ed in 
[he tounding of the ( )ntario Orphan .\s\h'.in. The mo\ement for 
this institution liad its incei)tion in the brain and heart of Mi's. 
Cieorge Cook and was prompted b\' tlie esi)ecial need that became 
appareiu as the ra\;igcs of the Ci\il war were felt in the connmmilw 
The tirst meeting at which >te])s were taken to organize "a societv' 
for the care of orph:m and destitute children of ( )ntario county" 
\\as held at the chai)el (d' the Congregational church. earl\' in Mae, 
1863. The Asylum was formal!)- incorporated in July. 18o3. and 
upon the ])urchase of the Sanuiel ( ireeideaf ])roi)erty at the head of 
.Main street entered at once u])on its beautiful work oi merc\-, the 
formal opening taking ])lace ( )ctober 27. 1<S()3. d'he first officers were 
as follows: President. Mrs. Caroliue lb Cook; treasurer. Miss 
.\ntoinette Picrson ; secretary. Miss Catherine Chesebro: directors. 
Mrs. jane Howe, Mrs. Jaiues \\ horrell. Mrs. Ivmily Smith. Mrs. A. 
II. Lung. Mrs. Cook was continued b\' successive elections ])resi- 
dent of the board of managers tuiti! her death. Xo\end)er 11. IS')1. 
Mrs. Charles S. Tlo}-t succeeded to the otiice the following \ear and 
was continued at the head of the institution until the rear L>n(), 
when she was succeeded by Mrs. I'rank 11. Ilamlin. The latter 
insisted u.jxni retiring from the office in PMH), and Miss Isa])hine P. 
Ciranger was elected as her successor, ddie ])resent ofificers are as 
follows: President, Miss Isaphine P. Cranger: \ice president. Miss 
L. Elizabeth Clarke: recording secretary, Mrs. Robert G. Cook; 
corres])on(ling secretary. Mrs. .\ugustine S. Cooley : treasurer. Mrs. 
.S;irah 1"^ Case; directors. Mrs. John Iveznor. Miss Antoinette P. 
Cranger, Mrs. Orlando J. Hallenbeck. Mrs. h\ J. Xichols. 

The Asyluiu from the start connnanded the interest and 
genercnis support of the peo])le of the county, its annual donation 
(la)s ])r(niding the oi)portunity for friends in the sex'eral towns to 
replenish its treasury and refill its larder. Sexeral generous bequests, 
including one of $80,000 recei\"ed from the estate of Commodore 


James Glvnn nf the Cnitecl States Navy, following" his death at New 
Haven, 3.1a}- 13, 1871. have given the institntion an endowment that 
happilv assures its support for the }ears to come. The Asylum's 
permanent funds ^^•ere reported at the annual meeting-, October 4, 
191U. as aggregating the sum of S130, 020.38. The famil}- had 
included during the preceding year an a\erage of tifty-four children. 

The board of trustees of which General John A. Granger, 
Alexander H. Howell. James C. Smith, Henry M. Field, and David 
G. Lapham ha\e snccessiveh' officiated as presidents, now consists 
of David G. Lapham. president: Charles .\. Richardson, secretary; 
Frank H. Hamlin, treasurer; I'rank A. Christian, Charles C. Sackett, 
rmd Robert h\ Thompson. 

The L'lark Manor House, founded in Julw 18*^^), 1)\- Mrs. .Mary 
Clark Thompson, in loxing memor\' of her parents. M_\ron Holley 
Clark and Zilpha W atkins Clark, proxides a home for aged men and 
women of the county that is supjiorted at the cost of its founder and 
is doing a most gracious work. Its original board of managers 
consisted of the folloxving named persons: Dwight R. Burrell. John 
H. jewetl. William II. Adams. George X. Williams. E(h\ard (j. 
Hayes, C/harlcs C. Sackett. Charles 1-'. Milliken. Harriet J. (iillette. 
Zilpha C. Backus, Charlotte K. Clark, Mary C. W illiams. I'di/.abctli 
C. IMielps, Clara. (!. Coleman. Clara 1-. Clement, and l.ouisc il. 
Field. Dr. Burrell was president of the board from its organization 
until 1908. when he was succeeded b\- Mr. Milliken. 

The k'rederick I'\M-ris Thom])Son Hospital was founded by Mrs. 
Thompson, in memor\- of her husband, the late Frederick Ferris 
Thom])son. It was o])cned for the reception of patients on 
Se])teml)cr 1. U)(U. The main hospital building, which is located 
on the site formerl)- occupied b\- the ()ntario lAunale Seminary, is 
a handsome three-storA- structtu'c built of ("anandaigua pressed 
lirick. with a steel frame, concrete and slate roof, and co])])er cornice, 
and is absolutely hre proof. Tt is ecpiipped v:\lh :\]\ modern ai)])li- 
ances for the treatment of disease and iniiu'ies and has acconunoda- 
tions for forty-fu'c patients. .\ paxilion for cases of contagit)US 
disease located on the same propert\- contains beds for ten patients. 

The hospital's original board of directors was made up as fol- 
lows: b^dward (i. Ha\es. Dwight R. Burrell. John H. lewett. 
Frank A. Christian, Clark Williams. Orlando J. Hallenl)eck. I'^rank- 
lin P. Warner. Matthew K. Carson. Albert L. Beahan. k'red Iv 
McClellan. Harrv C. I'ucll. lean L. IVjrnctt, Leonard A. Parkhnrst. 



Peter F. 'runier. Cliarlcs V. Milliken, jnlm II. I'rall, and Alfred 
M. Alead. Mr. Ila\i's lias hern president df tin,- hoard since its 
first ()rL;ani/at ion and .Mr. ("hrislian lia> held llie Dltice of secre- 
tarw The office ot treasnrer ha> hc-eii held snccessi\el\' h\' William 
\. I )ono\aii., l)i". Ilarr\- ('. lUiell. and finiotlu- W . L\ncli. In the 
^\vv^\ of i;ifl, Mrs. 'fhonipson ])ro\i(h-d that no discrimination sliouhl 
he show II in the admission oi ])atient> hecan>e ot their creed or 
peciiniarx' condition, and she has made i^eiierons ])ro\isioii toi' its 

.\ training" scdiool tor nurses wa.s opened in coimectiim willi the 
Thompson hospi'al on April I, l'H)S, and was re^isterecl h\ the State 
l\e<4"eiits. .\pril 1, l''(l'f It is under the direct Mipeiwi.sion ol the 
sn])erinteiident of the lio,s])ital, Miss fdiii karNoii kraenier. 

'file ( )iitario Connt\' Hacteriolo^ical Lahoralorw hnilt and 
e(|niiiped h\- .Mrs. ddiom]json in HHjf), is located on the hos])ital 
i^ronuds and is operated at pnhlic expense, for the henefit of the 
])h\siciaiis and i)eople of ()ntario coiintw 

'fhe Canandai^aia Hospital of riu'sicians and Sni'^eons. estah- 
lislicd as the Ifeahan Ilos])ital in 1<X*)S and incorporated under its 
l)resent name in ]')()4, was estal)lished 1)\ 1 )r. \. 1.. ISeaiian. and has 
het'ii c-ondiicted l)\- him in association with other plusicians of the 
\illa^"e and connt\'. I )r. Ileahan is the prcMdeiit and treasurer of 
the institution, and 1 )r. ( )rlando j . Iladenheck is its secretaiw. flie 
directors are as foll(^\\s: Hr. .Matthew K. Carson, 1 )r. ( )rlaiido |. 
iTallenheck. Dr. hrederick K. McC'lelian, Dr. S. R. Wheeler, and Dr. 
.\. L. lU-alian. Its nurses traiiiinj^' school was ori^ani/ed in l*>(f^ 
and is rei^'isterec! 1)\' the Ive^i'uts. 

I Iri^'hani llalf a hospital tor the ireaiinent of mental and nerv- 
c)us disorders, was founded in IS.-^,-^. hx' Dr. ( leor^e I'ook and Mr. 
Rohert D. Cook, in Mav, 180(\ 1 )r. John If ( lia])in hecame asso- 
ciated with the manaL'.emeiit. hut retired in ( )ctol)er, 1869. to become 
sn])eriiUendem of the newl}- established State lios])ital at W illard. 
Dr. I'ook Continued thereafter in charge until his death as the result 
of a murderous attack b\' a i)atieiit. June 1_\ 1S7(). Dr. Cook was 
succeeded by Dr Dwi-lit U, I'.urrcdl. and lie. in U'OS. by Dr. Kobert 
(f Cook, the ])reseiit resident ])li\siciaii. In its act of incor])oration 
the name "hos])ital" was a])i)lied for the first time in the State to 
an institution for the ins;me, and founded on the most liberal and 
progressA'e lines, and enlarged and imitiawed from time to time, it 
is recooiiixed as one of the most successful ])ri\ate hospitals 
in the country. 


Public Improvements. 

The men \\ ho m?(le tlie oriiJ,inal ]^lotting of the village of Can- 
andaigua acted perhaps wiser than they knew. The 8-rods wide Main 
street, which thev laid out through the woods, extending two and 
one-half miles from the foot of the lake in a northerly direction, 
and which, at its intersection midway with the 6-rods wide Cross 
street, had provision for a large public square, did not become the 
main arterv of the metropolis of their dreams, l)ut it has lent itself 
to a development that illustrates the taste and enterprise of the 
comnunuty and that has made it notable among the handsomest 
village streets in America. 

The first systematic attempt to gi\e the village a lighting system 
was in 1853. when the Canandaigua Gas Light Company was 
organized and extended its wooden mains through Main street. 
From time to time these were replaced or supplemented by iron 
pipes, and the companw of \\ hich Elbridge G. Lapham was president 
and Mvron H. Clark, James McKechnie. and other enterprising 
citi/.ens \\ ere members, continued to ser\e the village in street light- 
ing as well as in house lighting without competition until 1886. 
wher. an electric lighting system was introduced by a coiii])aii\ 
of outside cai)italists, of which b'rank \\. Merrill, then a resident of 
Canandaigua, acted as president and manager. This company soon 
took over the lighting of the village streets, which was hrst accom- 
plished on November 9, 1886. The competition resulted in a 
combination of interests, though the two corporations were never 
actually consolidated. In 18<^)3 the electric lighting and street 
railroad properties amalgamated under the management of M. 
Dwight Munger, a prominent local banker, who bought and de\ el- 
oped the water power at Littleville and used it for the generation of 
electricity with which to light the village and operate the railroad. 
In the year 1900, under a forec'osure sale, these interests went into 
the hands of out-of-town capitalists, organized under the name of 
the (Ontario Liglu and Traction Ccnnpany. a corporation which has 
since continued to hold the electric lighting franchise of the village. 
The demand of the growing population for a more adequate 
tire protection than that atiorded by the public wells, and for a more 
wholesome water sup])Iy for domestic ])urposes than that of the 
private wells, resulted in the granting of a franchise in 1884 to a 
companv of eastern capitalists for the construction of a pumping 

TTTK VIT J. .\r,F. OF CANAXD A [( ;r.\. 297 

plant and the layinq' of water mains in tlu- Nillag^e streets. This 
company, of which M . Hwi^ht Mnn^cr. hrank 15. Merrill, and J. 
Henry Mclcah' were successively ihe local managers, erected a 
power plant near the lake on the west side of Main street, extended 
a suction pipe for a distance of 2.~i()i) feet into the lake to a |)f)int 
south of S(|u:iw' island, laid main^ lin'ouiih the i)rincipal N'illage 
streets, and undertook to su])pl\ the puhlic and i)ri\ate needs of the 
village for water. Idie o\ er-capitali/.ation ot the enterprise, and its 
consequent failure to make both ends meet and to satisfy the just 
demands of the citi/ens for eHicienl >er\ice at reasonable rates, led 
lo the construction, in IS'^?, of a niumci])al water s\-stem, which 
soon supplanted that of the ])n\ale com])an\- and linalh' resultt'(l in 
its dissolution. The pnmpini^- elation ot the nnmici])al >\>lem is 
located on the \vest shore of the lake, some two nnles from the fo(jt 
of Main street, and by means of two ])owerful engines, which ha\-e 
supplanted the electrical traMsnnssi( n system first installed, the 
water is ele\ated to a reser\'oir coriStrnctc'l on a nearby eminence, 
and front there it is distributed by gravity to all i)arts of the \illage, 
under a pressure that affords abundant and cdticient service. 

The street railroad was laid from the lake dock through .Main 
street to a ])oint above tlic Buffalo street corner in 1S(S7, l)v a 
com])an\' of which .Major hrank ( ). ( hamberlain was ])resident and 
m which Charles C. Sackelt, Augustine S. C'oolcx', Mayuard .V. 
Clement, and Charles F. Milliken, all residents of Canandaigua. held 
the controlling interest, ft was first operated by horse power, but 
u])on its absorption bv the Canandaigua h.lectric Light Com])an\- 
in 1<S93, was e((uipi)e(l with electricity. in U)(K) the combined 
pi"o])ert\' was sold under foreclosure" to II. C". .Mandeville and others 
and became the property ot the ()mario Light and draction 

The sewer system of the village was inaugiu'ated in the v ear 
1883, wdien a trunk sewer was constructed through Main street 
under nnmicipal direction and at the cost ot the ])roperty benelited. 
In 1887, "for the purpose of obtaining drainage and sewerage for 
the Village of Canandaign.a," the corporation named acquired 
possession of the dam across the outlet at ldiai)in\ille and the control 
of the so-called "feeder," an artihcial channel, which had been 
opened in 1855 by the "Ontario TTydraulic Com])any" from the lake 
direct to a point on the outlet something over two miles distant 
from its motilii, for the purpose of regidating the discharge of the 


waters for the benefit of the mihs and factories lower down on the 
stream. The village, upon acquiring possession as stated, removed 
the dam and deepened the channel, making the stream substantially 
a part of the village sewer system. In succeeding years sewers were 
laid through the lateral streets, the cost iri each case being assessed 
an.d collected on the property benefited. 

Except for some fairly good gravel roads, bordered by cobble- 
stone gutters, the village streets were without permanent improve- 
ments until 1899, when a brick pavement was laid on Chapin street, 
from Main street to Sucker brook l)ridge. a distance of 1300 feet. 
In 1901 a Telford macadam pa\ement. 30 feet wide with cement 
cur])s and guiters, A\as constructed on Howell street and the 
followino- vear a similar improvement was laid on the east end of 
Gibson street. In 1903, after much agitation of the need of the 
village for permanent street construction and of the futility and 
wastefulness of expending large sums annually for temporary 
repairs, the village board of trustees, of which Dr. Cornelius J. 
Andruss was president, submitted to the taxpayers the question of 
bonding the corporation, in the sum <>f S200,000 for paving. This 
proposition was adojUed., and wilh anad\isory connnittee of citizens, 
consisting of .Messrs. I-"raiikhn W Warner, (ieorge W . llamHii, 
Micliael J. Moran, and l.lewell\!i I.. Snntli. the board emploxed 
Legrand lirovsm of Rochester as engmeer in charge and proceeded 
with the task of i)aving Main street, from the lake to Chapel street, 
w it'll shale l)rick. In the following year, under authority conferred 
bv special act of the Legislature, the work of street construction and 
repair was transferred to a board of street commissioners, which 
was appointed as follows: JM-anklin 1'. Warner, president: Cli:irles 
J. Bradv, Leonard A. l'arkluir>i. 'I'homa^ Jolinson. and l'"red (i. 
I)ou"lass. Georofe W'. Handni was elected secretarv of the new 
l)oard. The work of la\ing perm;ineni ])a\ements was continued 
thereatttr willi su'di industry tlnii wilhir. two years all the princii)al 
streets of the village were ])a\ed with brick or macadam, with 
sandstone curbs :ind >torm sewers, and the work has lieen pursued 
in subsequent years with a result that most of the residential as 
well as the business streets have been ])rovide(l with permanent 
improvements of this character. Their total length aggregates four- 
teen miles and their cost $500,00"), winch, excepting in the case of 
parts of Main street. Charlotte street. 1-ort Hill avenue, and East 
street, has been borne one-half b\- assessment on the village at large 


and one-half on tlu- ril)uUin^- property. \v the case of Main street, 
one-third of the cost (A thr in)i)r<)\ enieni was home 1)\- the ahnttini;" 
])r(»])ert \', tlie halancc hi-in<4' a^■-e^.^l■d n])()n the- \ illas^^e at hir^e. 

Two .'uhhtional leainres which iii;i\ he cntinled as ])id)hc 
inipr()\ enient ^, ahhoniiii estahh.^hed and iiiaiiitaineil 1)\ ih(.' >anie 
!4"ener()us woman who has pr()\i(K'(i the vihai^e with a liospiia! .-mk! 
other beneficent instUntions, are the recreation ^ronnd^ on llowcll 
street and tlic swimming- school on the lake t'r();it, at thr foot oi 
Main street, hotli ol which are litted with tiie most complete e(|ni])- 
nient ami are in charj^e of trained instrnctors. 

Transportation Facilities. 

The trails which tormed the a\ennes ol tra\el and tiaflic lor 
the original possessors of the soil iia\'e i)lace, lollowiny the o])ening' 
of ihie conntry to settlement hy the whites, to so-called inriipikes 
or state roads, of \vhich Canan(hii>;na was the center of an extensive 
system. These hig"h\\a\'S \\ere in tinu' snp])leinented and in >ome 
res])ects sn])planled, first 1)\' the canrd and then li\- the railroad. I he 
haae canal, com])leted in 1SJ5, did not come nearer the village than 
I'almvra; in 182*^', it was hron^ht as near as (iene\a 1)\' the com- 
pletion ol the C'a\n:L:a and Seneca branch : an ellort ni ISJn to ])nl 
the \illai;'e and lake in direct connection with the ""( irand ('anal" 
then in course of hnildini:", was made thronj^h the lormalioii ol "fhe 
()ntario Canal C'ompanv"" and $5iM**'" was raised toward the 
$100,000 which it was estimated the enterprise wonld cost, l)nt this 
])roposed walei"way was not dn,<;'. 

C'anandaiL'aia howe\cr, wa.s hron^lit into direct and ra])id 
commnnication with the rest of the conntr\ 1)\- the linildm^' ol the 
Anhnrn and Rochester railroad, an enler])rise in which two ot its 
leadiiiL;' citizens, hd'ancis llrans^er and ( )li\er IMiel])S. vvl, took an 
acti\'e part, and n])on the orj^'ani/ation ot \\hich Jlenrx' 11. (lihson. 
of Canandais^na, became its president. After \aried incidents and 
accidents the road was completed between Canandaii;-na and 
Rochester, and on Satmalaw Se])teml)er 12. 1S4(\ a locomoti\e and 
three cars came ihron^ih to ( "anandaiqna and made the retnrn trip 
the i\londa\' followiii!.;-. W'iihin a tew days a rnde station honse 
was bnnt west of Mr. (libsonA re>idenc(.-, near where ( ireii;" terrace 
now imersects the .Xnbiu'n ])rancli. and there was opened, as the 
first time table advertised, "for freiLiht and i)assa_i;e three daily 
lines." ddie work of const lanM ion toward the east was carried 


rapidly forward, and on July 4. 1841. was so far completed as to 
warrant the running; of an excursion train to Seneca Falls. The 
bridge o\ er Cayug-a lake was completed the same fall and in 
November trains were running- the entire length of the road 
between Rochester and Auburn. Some years later the Auburn and 
Rochester road was consolidated with the Aulnn-n and Syracuse 
road, and in 1853 a direct line between Rochester and Syracuse was 
comjileted, a step preparator\- to the general consolidation of the 
lines through the State in a corporation thereafter to be known as 
the Xew York Central and Hudson River Railroad Company. 

The building of a road connecting Canandaigua with the 
country to the south \\as undertaken by Aiark H. Sibley, Jonas M. 
Wheeler, jared AX'illson, John A. Granger, and Oliver Pheli:)S. 3d, 
in 1845. and. an act of incorporation having l)een secured and after 
nuich etiort the requisite funds ])r()\ided, the work of construction 
\\a> begun in 1850. 'I4ie road was opened between Canandaigua 
and Jefferson (now Watkins) in September, 1851. Known tirst as 
the Canandaigua and Corning railroad, it became on September 11, 
1852, the Canandaigua and I-~hnira railroad. \\ (i. Lapham 
was 'ts sui)eriiUendeni. and its two passenger trains and two freight 
trains made the round tri]) betN\een the two \illages. dailw The 
rojul was sold to outside capitalists in 1857 for $35.(X^\ subject to 
a bonded indebtedness of hah' a niilbon dollars, and the name was 
changed to the I'.hnira, Canandaigua. and .\iagara l-'alls Railroad. 
'I"he road is now operated under lease b\- the Xorthern Central 
Coni])an\-. constituting the northern terminal of the l'enns\l\ ania 
Railroad sxstem. and affords Canandaigua direct connection with 
Washington. I'hiladelpliia. and i'.altiniore. 

'Idle railroad now known as the llataxia branch of the Xew 
NOrk Central -was built in 1853 b\- a corporation known as the 
Canandaigua and Xiagara l'\alls Railroad ( "ompany. The first 
passenger train was run oxer the comi)leted road on July 2f^, 1853. 
It is now operated by the Xew ^'ork Central under a long lease. 

Tentative efforts were made sui)se(|uently to build railroads 
to connect Canandaigua b\' routes on the east and west sides ot 
the lake with Xa])les and with the east and west trunk lines in the 
southern ])art of the State, also northward to Palmyra and Lake 
Ontario, but none of the ])rojects were carried much be\ond the 
prospectus stage. 

In Mav. 1<K)4, however, the village saw the successful com- 

Till': X'lLI.ACI'; Ol" CAX.WDAICl-A. 


])l(.'ti()n ol an cU'Ctno trollcv' line,'. \\\v Koclicstcr and I'.astfni kapid 
Railwaw connecting' it with Koclicslc]" at the west and witli (icnc\a 
at the east I)\' an honi'l\- car si.m"\ ice. The conipanx' which huih this 
road took tner tlie tranchise and ])i()])ei"t\ ot the slreel raih"oad 
heretofore nientionecl, l"he (.•ontrol ot the Uochestei" and I^astern 
road was transferred in I'^O? to a company ot easti-rn ca])itahsts 
re])i csentinLj' tlie N'anderhih or X'ew N Ork (enti'al interests. 

Canandaigua Lake. 

'The heaulitnl lake l\in^' sonth of ("anan(kn^na was from the 
carhest settlement a means ol t rans])o]"tat ion h\- row and >ad l)oats 
to and from the farnrs and woodkands l\in<4 ahont its headwaters, 
but the lu'st steam craft to tra\el the hake was a boat called " The 
Lady of the Lake." which was built throui^h the enter])rise of 
Francis (iran^er. John (irei^-, jared W illson, James I). iJemis. and, 
other prominent cili/.ens of the \illaL;e. and which was lannched in 
the summer of 1827. 'idie launchin|L; took ])!ace on the west shore ot 
the lake, opposite the island, in the ])resence of a brdbant part\' ol 
\-illaiL^"e people and under the eves of the officers of the lilh regiment 
o{ militia, assembled b\' order of their commander. (A)lonel John A. 
Granofer. for their annual drill. The "h^ht infantry,"" the local 
mditia company, was also out m their natty unitorms and w ith their 
fine martial music. Tlie speech of the occasion w .as made by Mr. 
John Greig" and the boat was christened witli a bottle of wine broken 
by Miss vSally Morris, the daughter of Hon. Thomas Morris, a 
former prominent resident of the xillage. 

Isaac I'arrish was the captain of the wonderful cratt. which, 
however, ^vas not a Hnancial success and had but a brief career. 
The next lake steamboat, called "I he ( )ntario.'" was built by a 
company of Naples capitalists and was launched in the fall of ]X4?. 
Her skeleton, too, \\as after a few }ears end)ed(led in the sand at 
ihe bottom of the lake. This first "( )ntario's"" immediate successor 
was the "Joseph WOod."" built b\- Allen and l)a\id Wood and for a 
long time snccessfulK' managed b\- tlie Standish brothers. About 
the \eiU' 1858, Captain John kobinson built the steamer "Henry 
1). (libson," which after being enlarged and renamecl "The X'a]des" 
passed into tlie hands first of WOod \' l!olc<»mb and then of the 
Warner brothers. She was later destroyed in the ice at Ganan- 
daip'ua. In 18o5 the W arner brothers built as her successor a 
which was christened "The Canandaigua,"' and which for a number 


of }ears was owned and operated by J. & A. McKechnie, the 
Canandaigua brewers. In September. 1867, the Standish brothers 
completed the construction of a new boat christened the '"Ontario,"' 
the second Canandaigua lake craft to bear that name, and on the 
25th of the montli she was launched at Woodville with appropriate 
ceremonies, the traditional bottle being broken over the bow by 
Miss Julia Phelps of Canandaigua. .Mr. Manning C. Wells delivered 
the address. A sharj) rivalry ensued between the "Canandaigua."' 
under the management of the ^IcKechnies. and the "Ontario," of 
which Henry Standish succeeded to the captaincy. This rixalry 
continued for several years and until the ^vTcKechnies purchased 
the competing line. In 1880 the steamboat and dock properties of 
the lake were taken o\er by a corporation known as the Canan- 
daigua Lake Steam Navigation Company, of which Mr. ]M. Dwight 
^klunger was the hrst president and Mr. James McKechnie his 
successor. Hiis company, following the burning of the steamer 
''Ontario.'" at the dnck in Canandaigua in July. 1887. began the 
construction of a new boat, which was launched May 19, 1888. and 
christened the "Onnalinda."" by Miss Maude Saver. The address 
was delivered bv Hon. John Raines. The "Onnalinda." 142 feet in 
length over all. with a deck 40 feet wide, is the largest 1)oat that has 
been run on the lake. The following }ear,- the same company built 
a second and smaller steamboat, the "Ogarita." to take the place 
of the worn-out "Canandaigua.'" whose engine, however, was trans- 
ferred and used in the new boat. In 1889. also, a rival or inde- 
pendent boat was built by the People's Line Company, in which 
Captain John M. McCormack. Captain James Menteth. and other 
lake boatmen were interested. 44iis boat was launched May 5. 
Oliver Armstrong. Escj.. making the speech and ]Miss Philadelphia 
Menteth oriviner it the name "(lemindewah." This boat was 
destroyed by tire at her dock at Woodville on December 8. 1894. 

In lulv. 1890. the remainin"- steamboat interests of the lake 
went into the possession of a nev\ corporation, the Canandaigua 
Lake Transportation Company, of which John Raines was made 
president and Louis Sayer became general manager. This company 
continues to operate the "Onnalinda," the "Ogarita," and also a 
smaller boat known as the "Oriana." which has been enlarged and 
fitted with a gasoline engine the present season. 

Much interest was manifested for a number of years in sailing 
craft, the Canandaigua Yacht Club, under the leadership of Commo- 

Till-: X'lLLAGI'. n|- CANA X I ) A K iUA. M)^ 

(loi'c J-oins Saver, liaviiiL;' «'n its I'o^tcr a score (ir iiKH'r nf fa^l Imats 
ami its aiimial ici^atlas coiislit iit iin; an at ti'arl i\ c feature nf tlie 
sucecedini^' sunimei-s. More reeeiitl\ llie <lc\ i'lo])ineiH ol" tlie 
gasoline ])ro])e]]t(l launch lia^ opei'ated to (lisc(»urage interest in 
sailing", and the lake men ha\e e<|uii»i)ed t lu-niselvcs with motor 
boats rcpreserit in<4 the widest \ariet}' in si/e and e(|ui])nient. At 
least one hundred and fift\' of these boats are now in use on the lal<e. 

Manufacturing and Business Interests. 

Canandai^ua. as tlu- i;eo^ra])hical and political center of a lich 
farmint;' district, hut without water power or other natural 
I'esources. has been compelled to de\elop its business aloni^' lines 
that would supply the needs of the farmers rather than d(.'])end u])on 
the more slinndatim;- if less reliable su])i)ort of jarj^e manufactui'in^ 
interests. it has howexer. been the location of a nnmbei' of 
\entures in manufacturin<^- lines. h'ii'st of the-^e wtu-e. of com"^e. 
the i^'rist mills and the saw nulls upon which the settlers had to 
depend loi" the tlour with which to make their brt'ad and the hnuber 
with which to build their houses. b'oUowini;' (he establishment of 
the grist mill on the outlet at C'ha])iu\ ilb- came a more extensixe 
enter])rise at the foot of Alain street, but the water ])ower axailable 
here was not suthcient and after se\eral renewed attem])ts to make 
the enterprise a success it was abandoned an.d in ISJS the buildinj^s 
were destroNcd by fire. 

Idle J. & A. McKechnie Urewiug- C/ompaiu- was founded b\ 
lames and Alexander McKechnie in ]H4.^ and earl\- became an 
e.\tensi\-e and profitable 1:)usiness, making inilliouaires of the owners. 
Followiui;' the death of the .Mcl\echnie brothers, the enterprise was 
continued for a time by a com])aiiy in which the \-ouiiiier members 
of tlie fannl\- were lar_g"eh' interested, but ii is now oi)erate(l 1)\- 
outside ca])ital. The n.anie and fame of Canandaigna ale is widel\ 

A'nother successful enter])rise ha> been that of the l.isk Maiiu- 
facturing" Com])an\-, which was bi'ouL^hl to C'auandaigua trom t'lilton 
Springs in 1SV)2, and 'wcvQ de\elo])ed a large business in the manu- 
tactnrc of anti-rust tin. ivater the compaiu' greath' enlarged its 
l)lant and engaged in the manufacl>ure of enameled steel ware, and 
notwithstanding a financial diU'cullx whicli it sulfered, a-- the result 
of experiments in "high hnancc" b\' it< directors, in l'Hi7, it has 
gained recognition as one of the largest concerns in the country. 


Several aml)!tioiis atteni]:)ts to liuild up successful niauufactur- 
ino- in otiier lines have been made, but outside of the two larg-e 
roller flour mills of Suiith Brothers & Co. aud Feuton & Hawkins, 
the planing- mdls of (jeorge T. rhomi)son and Frank R. Beecher, 
anil the brick and tile works of Alfred M. Hollis. they haxe not met 
with success. The enterprises thus called to mind include the 
Robinson Chill Plow ^^'orks. established in 1876. following the 
invention of an improved process for chilling the mould boards of 
plow^s ; the sash, door and blind factor\-. established on Chapin street 
in 1887. by Johnson & Cro\\ly ; the Ontario Iron ^^'orks, established 
in 1883, by H. L. Howe and continued under the name of Howe & 
Dayton and Howe & Beard for several years : The Vanderbilt 
Sash Balance Company, organized in 1892: The Canandaigua Tin 
^^are Company, incorp»irated May 25. 1892; The Hydraulic Press 
Brick Company, established in 1892: the canning factory, a ])aper 
paii factory, etc. 

But while thc^e attempts tn transform Canandaigua from a 
business connnunii}. dei)eudent \ er}- largcl}- u])t)n the trade of the 
surrounding agricultural population, to a j)ushing manufacturing- 
community, haxe not been altogether successful, the business 
interests of the village have developed along substantial lines, and 
its financial and mercantile facilities ha\e grown in strength and 
scope to an extent that makes it a fa\-orite trading center, even in 
the lace of the ri\alr\- of the nearby citv of Rochester. 

The Ontario Bank established in 1813. th.e I'tica Branch Bank 
established in 181.''. aud the C)utario Saxings r>ank established in 
1830, were the earl\ banking institutions of the village, and under 
the nianagement of Henr\- \]. Ciibsou and Thomas Beals, men of 
unusual financial abilit\'. and pul)lic spirited and influential citizens 
as well. ga\e the business of the connnuuity a stability that with 
the single exception of the distress resulting from the failure of the 
IF i. Alessenger bank in Ma\', 1868. has not been disturbed. The 
fmancial interests of the connnunit\- are now in the hands of two 
substantial institutions. The Canandaigua Xational Bank and the 
Ontario National Bank, which together ha\e a capitalization of 
$200,000. a surplus of $165,000. and iuflividual deposits aggregating 
a million and a half dollars. 

The l)usiness circles of the village now include tw-o auctioneers, 
four dealers in agricultural implements, three bakers, ten barbers, 
five automobile garages, eight blacksmith shops, two book binder- 

nil- \ ll.l, \(il', ( )!■• ("AX \.\I) Ah.rA. 305 

ies, two bookstores. (i\n' l)()iit ;m(! slidc storr-^, \\\c i-;iniam' (K-alcrs, 
cii^ht clothing" stores. sc\cii dial and wikmI vaiaU, iiiiu' r( iiitcct idiktv 
and news stores, or.e rrockei'v and clmia -.Ini-c. I'nni" diaiiL;' >t(iri'S, 
\i)\\v dr\' g'oods stores, four ilonsK. tlircc fuiaiil iiic ■^ton-s. ten 
g"rocer\' stores, two j4iiii>milli --iKip^. Iixr liai"i|\\ arc- -iiu'es. se\en 
harness sh()])S, three liitidi ai;d fee(| hai'irs. oiu' ice dealer, elex'en 
insurance agencies, loui' jeweh'x' -toix-^-. n\(i sieani laundiir--. tonr 
livery stables, three hnnbi-r \ards. one niaclnnt' ^liop. six meal mar- 
kets, three merchant tailors, ten millmei'x slnipv. i)]U' nni->ic ^toix-. 
three phot()gra])h g.alk'ides. eight phimhrrs and steam lillc]"^. six 
printing offices, eight produce dealers, tour la'stani'ant >, I'.ell and 
Jnlerlake tele])hone excdianges, W estciMi I uion and I'ostal tele- 
graph offices, four undertaking establishments, four xai'iety stores. 
five hotels, and sixteen li<pior saloons. 'Ihei'c are also t w eiU \ -t w <i 
lawyers, two ei\il engineers, eight dentists, three \ elerinariaus. eigh- 
teen physicians, two broom manufacturers, two cigar manulactur- 
ers, twelve contractors and buildei"s, three eU'ctricians, >ix haii' 
dressers and manicm"ists, two monumeuL dealers, one o])era house, 
and two moving ])icture 1 heaters. 

Municipal Organization. 

The settlement continued to grow in ])o])ulation and gain in 
property until it became ex'ident tliat its ])i-o])er goxerument and 
development demanded its organization as an incorporated \illage. 
This was effected by an act of tlie Legislature, passed April IS. 
1815. and in accordance \\ith the ])ro\isions of this act the tirst 
election was held on the first Tuesday in June thereafter, resulting 
in the election of the following named ofticers : Trustees. James 
Smedley, Thaddens Chapin. Dr. .Moses Atwater. Xathauiel W. 
Howell, and Phineas P. Bates:' assessors, Jasper Parrish. Asa 
Stanley, Freeman Atwater, A1)ner Barlow, and John A. Stevens; 
treasurer, Thomas Beals; collector, Benjann'n W aldron. At the 
meeting of the trustees on June 13, 181.^, Judge Howell was elected 
president of the board, and Alvron Holley. clerk. 

The original charter of the village, enacted as above, and 
amended from time to time to meet the changing conditi(»ns. con- 
tinued without thorough revision until in 18*^.\ when the instru- 
ment was redrafted and re-enacted on lines that dixided the village 
into four wards, to each of which were given two rei)resentatives 
in the village board, while the office of President of the \'illage was 


formally created and provision made for his election and that of 
three assessors, a treasurer, and a clerk, from the village at large. 
In 1904, in view of the inauguration of a system of extensive street 
improvement, the exclusive control and management of the parks, 
streets, and sidewalks ^\•as placed in the hands of a new board of 
five members known as the board of street commissioners. In 
1905, the offices of collector and treasurer were combined, and the 
villasre sfovernmcnt took the form in which it has continued to this 

The succession of Presidents of the Village from its first incor- 
poration has been as follows: 1815, Nathaniel A\\ Howell: 1816, 
EHphalet Taylor; 1817-18. Jeremiah F. Jenkins: 1819-20. James D. 
Bemis; 1821, William H. Adams: 1822-23. Francis Granger: 1824. 
Henry B. Gibson; 1825, John A\'. Beals; 1826-27, Phineas P. Bates; 
1828-29, James Lyon; 1830. William Kibbe ; 1831-32, Nathan Bar- 
low; 1833, AVilliam Blossom; 1834, Alexander H. Howell; 1835, 
Phineas P. Bates; 1836-39, Nicholas G. Chesebro: 1840, Phineas P. 
Bates; 1841-43, Nicholas G. Chesebro; 1844, Jabez H. Metcalf; 
1845-46, George W. Bemis; 1847-49, John A. Granger; 1850-51, 
Myron H. Clark: 1852. Alexander H. Howell; 1853, Thomas F. 
Brown; 1854. C\rus Townsend : 1855. Alexander H. Howell: 
1856-59, John ]. Lyon: 18;)0-61. Henry C. Swift; 1862. Gideon 
Grander; 1863-64, Alexander McKechnie: 1865-66, Noah T. Clarke; 
1867, John C. Draper; 1868. William H. Lamport; 1860-71, Jacob 
J. Mattison; 1872. Edward G. Tyler: 1873-74, Marshall Finley: 
1875-76, Rollin L. Beechcr: 1877. Hilem F. Bennett; 1878, J. Har- 
vey Mason; 1879. William T. Swart: 1880, Amos H. Gillett : 
1881-82, Rollin L. Beechcr; 1883, Lyman C. North: 1884-85, John 
B. Robertson: 1886, Alexander Grieve: 1887, Frank IL Hamlin; 
1888-89. Mattison L. Parkhurst ; 1800, W. M. Spangle; 1891, 
Charles F. Roberston : 1892-93. Lyman C. North; 1894, Mack S. 
Smith: 1895-98, Daniel M. Hulse: 1890-1902, William 11. Warfield : 
1903-4, Cornelius J. Andruss; 1905-10. Maynard N. Clement: Dll. 
Peter P. Turner. 

The Village Clerks have been as follows: 1815-16, Myron 
Holley; 1817-18. George H. l^oughton : 1819-28. Alark H. Sibley: 
1829-30. Jeffrey Chipman : 1831-33, Albert Lester; 1834. Ebenezer 
S. Cobb"; 1835-39. Ansel Munn ; 1840, Ralph Chapin : 1841-44, 
Elbridge G. Lapham : 1845-46, George A. Leete ; 1847-52, Hiram 
Metcalf; 1853, Myron H. Peck; 1854, Hiram Metcalf; 1855-57, 

'I'llI' \II.L.\(.I': ()!■■ CAX.WDAK.l-A. .^07 

Conu'lius ^'()^ni;l()\ t' : 1S5S-5*'. I'wd A. Lndii: 1S0()-(')4. ('uniflius 
\'()uii,^l()\ c : 1X65, WalttT ll.';ii<l: ]Sr)C)-f)S, (ic'or^c W . liniiis 
1869-71, ll()r;ili(. 11 I'.r.-ux': lS7i. 'Iror-c C'om-l): lX7.v7f). II. I". 
i'.racc: 1X77. Cl.ario II. l'a(M()ck; lS7S-7*>, Cliarlr- il. Lai-liani 
1880-<X.\ Chark's II. I'a.ld.icis: 188-1-85. Mayiiard X. CU-nuMil : iSSf. 
Charlo II. I'a.Mock; 1887, Alaxnard .\. Ck-Du-nt: lS88-8<), C. !■. 
Crandall: 18^)()-'M. Sanimd !•". Wader: 1892-9.\ J. .St;ink-y .Smith 
1894-95. .Mark T. I'owrll: 189r)-*)8. (K-or-c (i. .Smiili; 1S')<)-1«)I H 
ficoro-c A. Mac(d-cc'vcv: U)02-04. Will I".. .Martin: I'X )5-()7. Jaiiu-s L 
I'.atcs: 1<)()8 II. William N. Brooks. 

Present Village Officials. 

The i)rcsc'nt list of^ \ illa^c (ifllcials includes nian\' represent a- 
ti\'C citizens and is as follows: 

President of the \ illame, Peter V. Turner; Trustees, k'ir^t 
ward, .\ce\- W. .Sutherland. Charles II. ('ai)le: Second ward. Pat- 
rick Linehan, I'eter O'r.rien; Third ward. John J. Mattison. llar- 
le^' TTancock : ]'^»urth ward. I^dward II. I law kin,--. Kohert I). I'ater- 

The other elective officers are as follows: Police Justice. John 
J. Dwyer; Treasurer-Collector, Henry Seny-Iaub ; Assessors. Croat 
A. DeCraff. Henry C. Higley, William M. Crowly. 

The Hoard of .Street Commissioners is made up as follows: 
Thomas Johnson, president; W'. .\. .Salladin. ("haides j. Urady. 
James J. W ard, Myron P. Pindsley. 

Board of W'ater Commissioners — .Alexander Davidson, i)resi- 
dent ; Clarence W. Mead, secretary; Chester Boyce, William R. 
Marks, William Carratt. 

Board of laght Commissioners — Thomas P. Murray, presi- 
dent: Willis H. Tuttle, secretary: Frank Bates, Mamn'ui^- W. Levy 
James |. h'ogarty. 

Board of Police Commissioners — F.dward C Hayes. i)resident ; 
F.dward W . .Simmons, F.dward J. Tracy. 

Board of Health— Michael \\'. Tuohey. jM-esideut : Howard J. 
Moore, secretary; Matthew C. OT^)rien. 

Fire Depart ment— Chief hjigineor. William 11. Townsend ; 
l-'irst Assistant Eng-ineer. h^red Kershaw: Second .\ssistant haigi- 
neer, Frank B. Cox; Secretary and Treasurer. FToward J. .Moore. 

The members of the village board and the members of the 


commissions having control of the several departments named serve 
without pay. 

The only paid ot^cials in the village government are those 
holding the elective positions of Police Justice, Treasurer-Collector, 
and Assessor; the Village Clerk, the Village Attorney, and minor 
officials appointed by the Board of Trustees; and the executive 
employees appointed l)y and serving under the several commis- 
sions, like the street superintendent, the superintendent of the 
water works, etc. 

Supplementing the work of the several boards and officials 
elected or appointed under the provisions of the charter, and con- 
stituting in reality a department of the village government, though 
in a legal sense entirely independent of it. is the Board of Educa- 
tion, the members of ^^•hich are elected by tlie voters of the union 
district, embracing a territory j^ractically the same as the Aillage. 
The members of this board are as follows: Thomas H. Bennett, 
president; Charles F. Robertson, vice president: John H. Kelly. 
Orlando J. Hallenbeck. ^^'aher H. Knapp. John Colmey. John H. 
Jewett. Edgar S. ^^'heaton. Antoinette P. Granger. 

Another organization which may be properly considered an 
auxiliary of the village government is the Canandaigua Cemetery 
Association. This association is organized as follows: .Mexander 
Davidson, president ; Charles F. Robertson, vice president ; 
Clarence W. ^Fead. treasurer: Harrison B. Ferguson, secretary; 
trustees — Afatthew R. Carson. Orlando J. Hallenbeck, George B. 
Anderson, Abram C. Cappon, O. S. Bacon. Walter H. Knapp. Grant 
^I. Kennedy, James D. Park. 

Canandaigua w^as one of the seven larger villages of the State 
to which the operation of the Civil Service law and rules was 
extended in March, 1910. 

The Village Fire Department. 

The first fire fighting organization of the village was known 
as the Canandaigua Fire Company and was recognized by the 
Village Board of Trustees on April 22. 1816. as containing the 
following members: John V. Beals, Charles Underbill. A\'alter 
Hubbell. Punderson B. Underbill. Ebenezer Ely. Spencer Chapin. 
Nicholas Chesebro, Charles Hill. Manning Goodwin, Joseph Bull. 
George H. Boughton. George Clark. James Lyon. Mark H. Sibley. 
Simeon T. Kibbe. Hiram T. Dav. Jeremiah F. Jenkins. W. N. 

Till'. \I LI.ACI'. ()!• CAXAXDAMil'A. M')n 

Jenkins, John Clark, and Al)rahani II. i'cnnetl. This company 
was equipped \\'\\h a hand eni^inc, wliicli has hccn prcserxcd as a 
sample of ihe best lire li^htiuLi' a])paraliis of tlu' tinu-. 

In ISoO, Fire C'omi)any Xo. 2 \\a> (»ri;ain/.r(l, in 1S3J ilie Can- 
andaigua Hook and Ladder Compaii}-, and in 1.S43, (Jnlaricj l^'ire 
Company, No. 3. d'he i)rcscnt i^-prcscnial i\ es of these old or<;"ani- 
zations are kno\\ n rcspccli\el\- a-> riic i-.rina Nose Com])an\-. The 
Merrill Hose Company, The Mutual Jl(jok iS: i-addci" L'ompauy, 
and The Ontario Hose Company. 

The evolution in the buildiuLi's and e(|ni]nnrm of ihc i-"ire 
Deparlmcut has kept pace with ihe time>, and honsed in ■^nhstantial 
brick biuldings and sti])plied with si earn lire engine, eliemical lire 
wagons, and hook and ladder truck. su])plenientinL;' the mvnncipal 
system of water supph', it constitutes an ellicieut and in all respects 
modern department, although still maintained 1)\' an entii'cly \'ol- 
unteer and impaid ser\ ice. 

The records of the dejiartmeiit prexious to IS.sS ha\e bec-n 
lost. Since that date the executi\"e conti-ol has been \ested in the 
following" succession of Chief haigineers: IS.sS. William McCiin- 
niss; 1859-1860, Moses Twist; I8r,|, Steplun 1.. .Sterling: 1862. 
b.ardwell .S. liillini'-s; 1863, Thomas 1-. ibcwn; 18^4-^)^). I'.ardwell 
.S. Ihllings; 1867-68, Iltigh Kmg: 18()'). l-:. McCnrex-; 1870, b-hn 
S. Robinson: 1871. L. O. Lami)man : 187J. A. 1 ). I'aul: 1873-7.\ 
Thomas II. Bennett; 1876-89, (). X. Crane; 189(M^2. William .\lc- 
Cabe, jr.; 1893-95. James I'ogarty; 18')f.-1900, James .M . McCabe: 
L)()l-05, Thomas 1'.. Aluri)h\-; 1906-07. Robert Rauney; b)()8. James 
Cnnmungs; lO()«), Rder Mack; l')]!) 11, William II. Tnwnsend. 

Mtisical Development. 

In later \'ears Cauandaigua has witnessed a most encouraging" 
de\-elo])ment of musical interest and abilitw as exideticed 1)\- the 
work of the "Tuesda\- Musicale." an organi/at ion i>f ladies which 
holds i)i-mouthl\' ])rogranmie meetings, and b\ that of "" The 
Singers." a choral societ\-. ijoth of these nrgani/alions ha\e been 
sustained through a series of \ears with increasing interest. "The 
Singers." under the direction of their ])i-esiilent, the lion. Harry 1. 
nunton, and their director, the Ibni. RubeiU 1'". Thoinpson, have 
l)resemed at their \'earl\- .Ma\- lA'st i\als. with great i)o])ulai- siu'cess. 
nmsical com])ositious of the highest merit, tluil for the ])resent _\-ear 
ha\ing been M endelssolubs ■■bJijah." 

310 ]TTST( )R^' ()F DX'l" XRTC) C^Ol'XTV 



The Indian Village of Gannogarae — Organization of the Town and 
Its First Settlers — The First White Woman Honored as a 
Good Bread Maker — Early Manufacturing Enterprises — 
Schools and Churches — Soldiers' Monument — The First Town 

By Carolyn Buell. 

Throughoiii nil the \ear>; since the region now known as East 
Bloomheld was a wilderness, inliabitated only l)y a tribe of the 
]->rime\"al Indian race. (lo\\ n to the present time of organized li\ing. 
«if i)r(»>pcritv and i)eace. nmch lia-> ])een written, recorded, and ]3re- 
>er\e(l of it> liistorx". I""rom linie to time as the years ha\e gone 
by. i)ai)ers ha\e been prc])ared and written, societies ha\e been 
formed, and histories compiled, in order that the things accom- 
plished here, and the glorious lives of the men and women who 
faithfulh- li\e(l and toiled here lo!" its athancement. might not be 
forgotten by the generations (^)ming after. 

l-'or those who have spent their lives or a ])art of their ]i\es 
in East Bloomfield and who ha\e followed with interest and appre- 
ciation its begimiing. growth, and de\elopment. as recorded in 
written history, and who are still following \vith the same interest 
and appreciation its growth and de\ elopment now, this little re\iew 
is made. 

The first that wa> recf^-ded about this region is that it was 
inhabited by the Seneca Indians. They built their wigwams on 
the banks of Mud creek and of other smaller streams 'round about. 

Among the tall. >^trong forest trees a\ hich completely envelo])ed 
these picturescpie homes of our ])redecessors. \vere found the oak, 
walnut, and w ild chestnut. Some of these were cut dow n and large 
tracts of land cleared to make room for fields of maize and a])ple 

'riii<: Towx ()!•■ I'.AST r.LooMi'ii- ld. 311 

orchards; narrow Indian trails, blazed countless years before, led 
the way beside dense jungles; domestic animals roamed about at 
will, the whole presenting- a landscape charming and beautiful. 

To the little village on Aiud creek called Gannogarae, situated 
about three miles northeast of what is now i-'ast Bloomfield village, 
came the Frenchman, known as iIk- .\lar(|uis Denonville one day 
in July, 1687, with his army of thousands, all hrnt on destruction. 
'Jliey had just come from IJoughton hill near X'icior, where they 
had been successful in laying the ashes of anothei- Indian village, 
and with this inspiration to put new \igor nito thon, ihe\' fell 
upon the little Gannogarae. We read with some i)leasure that they 
barely escaped ignoljle defeat al the hands of those few hundred 
warriors, but in the end the sur\i\al of the fittest was evidenced. 
We pass quickly by wdiat followed, of homes destroved, mai/.e 
fields trampled into the gr(nmd, and animals jnit to death, a ruin 
swift as it was complete. 'J'hus was the curtain drawn over the 
first chapter of our history. 

Next we read that^ in December. 1780, w hat is now Ontario 
county, together with the present counties n\ Steuben, (Jenesee, 
Allegany, Niagara, Chautauqua, Monroe, Livingston, hjie, \'ates, 
aiul the western half of Orleans and W avne, was included in the 
tract of land cetled bv Xew \'ork to the commonwealth of Massa 
chusetts, subject to the claims of the Seneca Indians. In July, 

1788, Oliver Phelps purchased the Indian title to the territory, 
and in November of the same vear .Mr. i^helps and .Nathaniel Gor- 
ham, as agents for an association for the pin"])ose, i)urchased of 
Massachusetts its claim ui)on the same lands. 

The townshi]) of what is now IJlooni field was purchased 
from I'iielps and Gorhain in 178*^) bv C"a])iain W illiani Bacon, (Gen- 
eral John Fellows, General John Ashlev. Elisha Lee, and l)r 
Joshua Porter, from Sheffield, Massachusetts, and Deacon John 
Adams, from Alford, a village near Sheffield, and bv them ])arceled 
out to the early settlers. The town of Bloomfield, so named because 
of the beauty of its landscape and foliage, was formed January 27, 

1789, and included what is now \'ictor. Mendon, East and West 
Bloomfield. Victor and ]\len(lon were taken from it in 1812, and 
in 1833 it was again divided into Fast and West Bloomfield. 

To many of us the names of the lirst settlers and the incidents 
connected with their advent and of their establishment here are 
fannliar. Fspeciallv prominent i'^ the name of Deacon John Adams, 


owing to the fact that he was the pioneer settler. He came to 
know the country around here when drixing" cattle from Massachu- 
setts to Fort Niagara to supply the troops stationed there. He 
came in the spring of 1789, bringing with him his sons, Jonathan, 
John. William, Abner, and Joseph, his sons-in-law, Lorin Hull, 
Mr. \\ dcox, and Ephraim Rew, with their wives: three unmarried 
daughters, and Elijah Rose, a l)rother-in-law. his wife and a son. 
Some came by water, bringing their farming implements and house- 
hold utensils up the Mohawk river. Wood creek, Oneida lake. 
Seneca river, and through the outlet of Canandaigua lake to Can- 
andaigua. Others came on horseback, f()llo\ving as far as possible 
the old Indian trails. 

At the same time came Nathaniel and Fber Norton, Benjamin 
Gauss. Moses Gunn, John Barnes, Asa Hickox, Lot Rew, Roger 
Sprague, John and Thaddeus Keyes, and Joel Steele. 

The first thing of importance which was done was the erection 
of a loe cabin, thirtv bv fortv feet. b\- Deacon Adams. His fannlv 
being somewhat numerous for such restricted quarters. slee])ing 
places were pro\ ided b\- means of berths fastened one al)ove 
another to wooden ])ins dri^ en into the wall, a highly ingenious if 
not exactl\- lugienic method. Thi^ abode stood ujioii the east side 
of .Mud creek, a little south i^i the old Indian \illage before men- 
tioned, and it bore th.e ilistinction of l)eing the first dwelling west 
of Canandaigua ])ut up 1)\- white settlers. Near by were soon built 
two smaller log structures for the use of the others of these early 
settlers not belonging to Deacon Adams's family. 

The kindh- hospitality which has always been a characteristic 
of the people of East Bloomfield showed itself even in those trying 
days of primitive living, for we read that when Judge Augustus 
Porter. ;i vouth of twenty years, came on to survey the town into 
lots of suitable size for farms, he was entertained at the home of 
Deacon Adams, ^^'e cannot help wondering if an opening had to 
be made in the roof in order to find a place for his sleeping berth. 
It was his first experience of backwoods life, but he liked it. for it 
is said that in later vears he used often to sj^eak with animation of 
the hours si)ent in the little log house, of the charm and warmth 
and fascination of the crackling, blazing logs in its enormous fire 
place, and especially of the excellent bread which Mrs. Elijah Rosi? 
baked in the ashes of this fire. 

This Mrs. Rose was a sister of Deacon Adams and the first 

THE ToW.X ()I- l-.AST I'.l .OOM hi l-.LI ). 313 

white woman to enter this town as a resident, recei\ing- as a niarl^: 
of honor, hft\- aeres of land. 'I hn^ lia^ her iiani',- hri-n handed down 
thron^li the L;'cn(.'ration> IoIIowhil;. l)(.-ean>c- ^lK■ made <^(km1 Inn-ad 
and was couraj^eous. As lliest- \irines are appreciated li\ the 
strong" sex rather than the fair, we may eoiudnde that chi\ah-\ can 
l)e added to hosi)italit \- as htedon<;' \irtnes ot om' peo])k'. 

In l/*^() a eensns was taken regi-sterin^ ten tannlie^ in what i> 
now luist iUoomlield, eontainint^' sixt x-live pec^ple. Xo town of 
the connt)' had more femak's and no town exee])tin<4' ( anamhai^na 
more inhabitants. 'I he lirst chihh'en ixirn in \])c town were Mary 
and C)h\e llanihn. Thex were horn in 17*M and 17'^2 i"es])eeti\ ely 
and were the daait^hters of I'Jiiah llanihn, .Mr. John .S. Ilamhn's 

Mucli could be wi'itten of the trials and liardshi])S of ihi> l)ra\e 
little pioneer company; Hies, gnats, and mosipiitoo w ei'e nnmer- 
ons, and malarial fevers prevalent. The price (tt grain and llonr 
was high, Eber Norton ])aying in June. IJ'-iO, ^2.2? for lifty i)onnd> 
of flour, and in addition to this he was obliged to go to (iene\a 
for it. 

It was no uncommon occurrencr for a band of \vol\es to enter 
a llock of shee]) at night and destroy them all; bc-ar^ also were vcvy 
troublesome, as lhe\' would otten deNtro\- the hogs which to 
be allowed to run at large in order to lind enough to eat and thus 
were at their mercy. 

Jjut surely and steadilv these dillicidties were met and o\er- 
come. At the hrst town meeting held at the home of A>lier Sax- 
ton, .\pril 3, 17^)6, se\en \ears after the {]]>■[ settlement, it was 
\-oled that "a l)(nint\' of ten dollars should be ])aid by the town to 
any person (being an inhabitant ol the town) who >hovdd kill and 
destroy a wolf within the limits of the town." We are relie\e<l to 
read a little later that ANahe! .Sprague caught ten in Idoomlield. 
which had the eti'ect to ])retty nnich stoj) their ra\ages m that (|uar- 
ter. This bounty was kept up for litteen \ears. 

In 1818 it was voted, "that W illiam Root be struck otT to the 
lowest i:)idder to support him comtortably the conn'ng year." rims 
the poo;- were proxdded for. In IS3() a ])cnalt\- ot hlt\- cents was 
imp(jsed for e\er\- hog allowed to I'uu at large, twel\e and onediall 
cents for e\'er\ shee]), and two dollars lor e\er\ horse. rwel\e 
dollars was the amount which was imposed ui)on tlie unlucky man 


who permitted Canada thistles to go to seed on any portion of his 

The inhabitants of the three original log cabins soon left them 
and bought farms for themselves and buih suitable homes. Order 
was made out of the chaos. Other settlers were coming in all the 
time, and life began to take on a diti'erent aspect. We hope that 
the merry quilting, husking, and apple ]:)aring l:)ees. the jolly sing- 
ing schools from which happy lovers walked home hand in hand, 
whispering of the future, the sleighride parties taken on frosty, 
starrv nights bearing loads of care-free youngsters, were a part of 
the lives ot the^e first lK>me makers as well as of those of later 

To (ieneral jolir. l-'ellows. one of the original purchaser^ of 
the town, is accorded the honor of hax'ing erected the first frame 
ham west of Canandaigua. Hie first frame house which was l)uilt 
in the village is still in existence, although many changes have been 
made in it. It is the one now occupied 1)\- the Misses Stiles and 
was built in 1~^U. 

In 1790 General John l-'ellows and Augustus Porter built tlu- 
first saw mill in town on the bank ol Mud creek. This was the 
third saw mill on the 1 'helps and (iorham Purchase. 

The need of souk- manufacturing facilities was soon tell and 
not loug after the first settlement two o.\ cart and wagon >hoi)- 
were in operation in the town. The superior work done in these 
-hops and in those of a later date drew order> from .\'ew \ ork 
citv and from .'states outside of .\'ew \ ork. The names of Tafi. 
Hayes, Mead, and Swift are among tho-e who were connected with 
this work. A- earl\' a^ 18(M liie manufacttu'e of brick was begun. 
It was said to be of a superior (lurdity. which for twenty years was 
used in the construction of stores. hall>. and dwellings. About 
twent_\- buildings \\ere put u]) in this time. 

In 1(S11, there were h\'e tlour niill> in town, the first being buih 
bv b»el .Steele on Mud creek. This did away with the long trii)s 
with ox team and sled which were necessary before in order to 
obtain tlour. .\o better lb>ur could be had in eastern markets than 
that sent out from these mills. It was marked "Genesee h'lour. 
iiloomfield." In 1805. there were three wool carding and cloth 
dressing machines in the town, all ha\ing extensive patronage in 
Western New York. 

Three clock factories were doing business in 1811. Wooden 

'nil'. TOWN' ()!• I'AST I'.I.OOMI'IKT.D. MS 

one-day clocks were made by one James T'lakc in tlie ntjrtliern part 
t)f the town. Eight-da\ brass clocks were niannfactured, sonic of 
them giving- the changes of \hv moon and tlie da\- of tin- month 
selling for ninety dollars. Andiron^ and caiidU- sticks of brass were 
made, also sleigh bells from two to I'nr iiu-lu-s in diameter, the 
ringing of which, it was said, conld \>v heard at learst two nnles 
away. Hats of fm* and wool were made here, (dm shops, cooper 
and blacksmith shop.s, and tanneries, abounded. 

To gi\e a little idea ol the condition of things in 1S1.\ we (|uoie 
from an article j>nblishetl in the "Ciazetteer of the State of Xew 
York" of that time: "This is the most populous town in the 
countv and one of the best farming' towns in the .State. The ndiab- 
itants are wealth), enjoying all the ease of in(le])endence, derived 
from agricultin-al indu>try and econonu. The sod is of the best 
quality of loam, good for grain and grass, and the surface but 
gently undulated." 

The demand for some educational facilities was met in \7'-)2 by 
the building of a school house at the place of the hrst settlement. 
Laura Adams was the lirst teacher to gi\e instruction here. To 
her came the children through the forest 'paths from e\ery direc- 
tion within a radius of three miles. Three _\ears later, the second 
one was l)uilt. It was comi)osed of logs ha\ing a lire ])lace alninst 
the entire width of the intei'ior. The \\ind(w\" was formed b\' means 
of a hole cut in the logs and covered oxer with greased ])aper. 
d'he roof was of clapboards held in place by means of heavy poles 
and the low door was hung ()n wooden hinges. In the tall ot 17^^7. 
a young man carrving his worldly possessions u])on his liack 
arri\ed in town, and introducing himself as a teacher trom COn 
necticut suggested that a new school district be formed with his 
services as teacher. The ]>roposition was acce])ted and another log 
school house went up. 

In an article written bv one of our townsmen about the district 
schools of 1825 and bS^O, he states that men were usually employed 
to teach the winter terius and women the summer terms. This 
.arrangement was probabl) deemed e.\i)edient l)eoause it was during 
the winter months that the large boys flocked in. It seems to have 
been the custom of these \-oung men to test the ability ot their 
instructor, the first day. bv an attem])t t<« put him out. If thev 
failed in accomplishing this feat, as we are tuld they tre((uently ilid. 
thev retired o-racefullv and gave no more trouble during that winter 


at least. Men teachers were paid from twelve to eighteen dollars 
a month with board, and women from one to two dollars a week 
and board. These last were expected to teach the art of needle- 
work and of embroidery in addition to their other work. The bovs 
of these schools were taught to acknowledge their teacher upon 
entering the school room by making a low bow. hat in hand, the 
girls by making a low courtesy. They were also instructed to 
acknowledoe every one whom thev chanced to meet on their wav 
to and from school, and most people were polite enough to 
recognize and to return this salutation. It was also the duty of the 
long suffering teacher to make and to keep in repair the goose quill 
pens, metal pens being, of course, an unhearrl of thing- in those 
days. The paper in the writing books was of unruled foolscap and 
those learning to write were obliged to rule their own paper with 
a plummet made of lead. When this was dune the copy was written 
by the teacher. In many of the schools it was the custom, at stated 
times every week, to repeat in unison the multiplication table, the 
ten commandments, the Lord's prayer, or passages from the New 
England ])rimer. 

On the ninth of April. 1838. an act passed the Legislature. 
incor])orating the East Bloomfield Academy. Accordingly, a three 
story brick building was erected, capable of seating two hundred 
])upils. School was o|)ened in Max. 1839, ha\ing three dejiart- 
ments: a j^rimary. a higher F.nglish. and a classical. In 1840 the 
school became subject to the Board of Regents and the Academy 
was converted into a union school. June of I'M)^) marked the close 
of ihe career of the old brick l>uilding as a >ch(M)l house, which it 
had held for seventy \-ears. Thirteen hundred dollars was voted to 
bu\' the lot for the fine new building of pressed brick on Main street. 
twenty-fi\e thousand to put it r.p. and twenty-fi\e hundred to 
furnish it. This building was completed and made ready for 
occupanc\- in the fall of 1909. It is littt-d with modern, scientific 
api)liances for heating, lighting, and \entilating. and a])parently is 
considered in e\er\- way ihoroughly satisfactory. 

At one time Miss Sophia Adams, sister of Myron Adams, kept 
a select school in the house now occupied by the Re\ . Mr. Ilmvard. 
This was tlie flr-t of it> kind in F.a>-t P.loomtield to take up more 
than the common branches. This school must have been famous 
for its beauty as well as its learning, for we read that when Miss 
Adams appeared in Canandaigua with her young charges, at a 

Till". TOWN ()i" i<:.\s'r r.i,( )( ).M iTi'.i.i). ;>i7 

reception L;i\c'ii ;it tiu- lionu' nf Indj^f r,i\l()r in lionof nf (Icneral 
LafaN'cttc, tlu' lallc-i". alU-i- inri'tin^ one o) ihrni. Miss jnlia I'arrisJi. 
kissed her and reniaidsrd that sJu- was tlie liamUf iiiir--t ]ad\ \\v had 
inr( in Anu-rical 

In ihc midst of tins ])(.'riod of creation and of toil eanie the 
desire and the need for a wax to e\])ress the religion that was in 
these |)eo])ie. ami on Se])tend)er X. 1705, six \-ears after tlu' tir^t 
settlement, the hist religions societx in the town wri-~ fonned. It 
was called the ln(le])endent ( dn^re^at ional xociet\. The lir^t step 
taken alter ( n'l^aniziiiL; the socielx was to ])nridiaNC a "l»nr\in^ 
i^round and a meeting;' honse i^reen." \\ ith this end in \iew. six 
acres ot land were pnrcha.sed of lienjamin l\e\es on ( )ci(d)er first, 
l/'^^H. l'])on the west half of this lot, in ISOl. was erected the lirst 
church this side of Clinton, ( )neida conntw It was completerl six 
years later, 1(S07, and was remularU mcor])e)rated in 1X11. This 
huildiui;- \\as htted with o-alJeries on three sides, with s(piare pews 
both abo^"e and l)e]ow, in which not more than one third (if the 
audience could face the minister. It faced the south, lia\inu a high 
l)ul])it at the o])])osite end., and it stood just a little north of the 
present building'. Twenty-nine years later, in January, 1836, it was 
decided, rather than to remodel the old edilice, to raise four thousand 
dollars to build a new one. I'hus the present Congregational 
church w'as built. 

The Methodist church was iirst established on Mud creek, in 
the northeast ])art of the to\\n, and the hrst church was built there. 
The society ^\'as organized Max- 12. 1834, as the "I'irst Methodist 
Church of East Bloonifield." In 184(1 the church was reorganized 
and the first church edifice built, ddiis building" was afterwards 
mo\ed and used as a dwelling house. In 185^ the church was 
reorganized a second time, when the building ])ut u]) by the I'nixers- 
alists was bought from the T'"i)iscoi)alians for .'^2,(K^0. together with 
the ])arsonage. This church is in use ai the present time. 

An Episcopal church societ\ was organized in 18.^0. taking the 
name of St. Peter's, line serxices were held at (Irst in jirixate houses 
and in the I^nixersalist church i)re\iously mentioned. As far as 
can be learned, the present edilice was built in 183^, after the society 
sold the [ 'nixcrsaJist building to the Methodist societx-. The church 
now has an endowment of ^^^8,(^00 bei|ueathed by Mrs. T4iram 

The first Catholic church was erected in 1851, the parish at this 


time numbering sixteen families and about seventy persons. On 
the twenty-first of August, 1874. ihc corner stone of the present 
church was laid. It stands in tlie north part of the village and is 
a substantial brick building, containing a fine organ in the gallery 
and a number of rich memorial windows. 

The history of East Bloomfield would not be complete without 
some mention of the prettv little park which lies between the 
Methodist and Congregational churches. It was originally called 
the "square" and was a part of six acres of land deeded by 
Benjamin Keyes to the Congregational chm-ch in 1798 for one 
hundred and eight dollars. For many years it was a rough, uneven 
plot of ground, full of old stumps and fallen trees. Cattle, sheep, 
and swine wandered about, and the ducks and geese of the neighbor- 
hood found amusement in the small pond contained in it. Finally, 
in 1848, the ground was graded, seeded, and fenced, and, a few 
years later, planted to trees. Dr. Murphy planted the elms, Luther 
Barber the chestnuts, S. Fmmons the locusts, and the Rev. Luther 
Conklin the wild cherry trees. 

In 1868, a fund of v$6,000 was raised by subscription, entertain- 
ments, and bazars, to erect a monument in this ])ark to commem- 
orate the lives of those who went from T^ast I'loomfield to fight for 
the Union cause in the Civil war. ( )f the one hundred and tifty- 
eight voung men who enlisted at this time, thirty-one never 
returned. Of the five men named as a finance committee to whom 
the subscriptions were to he paid, .Mr. Charles Buell, of Canan- 
daieua, alone is livinsj-. This monument is of brown granite and 
stands in the center of '^he park. It is sm-mounted by the figure of 
a soldier in fatigue uniform, looking toward the south. Upon the 
four sides of the shaft is car\ed the wnv record of the town. On 
the front is the roll of honor of the 85th regiment. New ^'ork 
Volunteers, and above, the names of battles. On the l)ase is this 
inscription: "h'ast r)loomtield. To the memory of her sons who 
died in the defense of the Union. 1861-65." The column is forty-five 
feet in height, and stands on a stone foundation which is ten or 
twelve feet below the base. Its weight is estimated at one hun<lred 
and fifty tons. The heaviest stone, weighing nine tons, was drawn 
from the depot b\- twelve horses. The work of erection was begun 
in December, 1866, and A\as completed in January of the year 
following. The dedication took place on the fourteenth of October, 
1868, at which a famous dimier was served beneath a large tent in 


the |>ark. Tlirco t1i()ns:niil were serxed at this (hnner ami it \\a- ^aid 
that at its ehoe (.'iioiiL^h <ii |)r<)\isi(>n was left to \vv<\ a small armw 
This was tollowed I)\ musie. prawi. an iiration 1)\ an \iiliuiai I'esi- 
(lent, the read'n^ of an orii^inal ixiem li\ t<\\v (it inir t(iwnsiiu'n. and 
ail address li\ the l\e\ . I ait hei" ( 'oiikliti. pastor ot' the ( i >nL;reL;at ional 
eluirch. In the exenin^- a lari^c andienee assemhlcd in tin- ('<ini4re- 
s^'atioiia! chureh to hsteii to an oration L;i\(.'n l)\ ( 'ol. W . II. ( '. 
TTosmer, of .\\nn. The eaniion at the ot the moniimcnt were 
presented bA' the (ioxernnient in 1S,X4. 

A few years a<;<). Mr. James h'Jton of W aterhm'w Tonneetient. 
erected an arch in front of the ])ark and L;a\c- the ^nni of Sl.<)()(i. the 
interest of which is to l)e nsed toward keei)int; the park in ordi-i'. 
This was done in menu)r\' of liis wife who died sonie \ears previous 
At the same tnne it was named h'lton ])ark. 

Tn 18^8 the work of kt\inm- crushed stone roads was l)eL;un. At 
))resent there are about lifteen miles of stone road in l-'ast liloom- 
fielcL Natural gas obtained from nearb\- wells was pii)ed into the 
\'illai;e in 1004. There are rd)out (i\e miles of cement walks in the 
\-illag-e at present, the hrst being laid in 1<H)5. 

The first count\^ tiiberculosis hospital in \'e\\ \'ork ."^tate has 
just been erected on a high rise of ground in the south ])art ot the 
town, a location admirabl\- adai)ted in e\ery way for such at; 
institution. Fifteen thousand dollars was appro])riated foi" this 
building and for its equipment. At its completion, the bmlding 
connnittee turned it o\ er to the board of manag'ers. which consists 
of Father Doug^hert}-, of Canaudaigua : Dr. C". C. F)-tle, of (ienexa : 
Dr. W. B. Clapper, of Victor; Mr. Le\i A. i'age. of Seneca, and 
Mr. Heber E. Wheeler, of East Bloomfield. Dr. S. K. Wheeler, of 
East Bloomfield, is the suj^erintendent . 

The population of the town, according to the census of 1*M(\ is 
1 ,892. 

At the first towai meeting in April. 1/96. officials \\ere chosen 
;is follows: Sujiervisor. Amos Tlall ; town clerk, fared IJoughton : 
assessors and commissioners of schools, Asa ilickox. John Adams. 
David Parsons, Samuel Starling. Roger Sprague : connnissioners of 
highways. J<niathan .\dams. I)a\id Parsons. Joseph P.race : over- 
seers of poor. Jasper l\>ck Sears. Saxton: const.ables. Daniel 
Bronson. Clark Peck. .Seymour iJoughton; collectors. Nicholas 
Smith. Philander Saxton, Julius Cin^tis. 

The town has been of its present proportions since 18.^3. when 


it was established as Ea<t Bloomfield and \\ est Bloomfield was set 
off as a separate town. The succession of supervisors since 1838 
lias been as folloAvs : Timothv Buell. Jr.. 1838-41: Philo Hamlin. 
1842-45: T«>siah Porter. 1846; Edwin W. Tairchild. 1847; Moses 
Shepard. 18-18-49: Guy Cnjlii,.. 1850-52; Henry W. Hamlin. 1853-55 
Elisha Steele. 1856-58; Edward P.runson. 1859-61; Frederic Munson 
1862-66; Edward Brunson. 1867-6^; Reuben E. French. 1870-71 
Henry AW Hamlin. 1872: Reuben E. French. 1873: Cholett Collins 
187-H-7h; Harlev Handin. 1877-80; Georoe W. Hamlin. 1881-82 
Daniel R. Bostwick. 1883; John S. Hamlin. 1884-86; Myron Mariner 
1887; Frank \V. Pa'^-e. 1888-89 : John M. Xorton. 1890-91; Harry (i 
Chapin. 1892; Peter Xeenan. 1893-95; Roswell M. Lee. 1896-1903 
Edward F. Burt. 1904-05 ; James Flynn. 1906-07; Edward E. Rigney 

TIJl-: TOW X ()]' I \K Ml xerox. 321 



Named After a Connecticut Town — Purchased by a Company of 
"Friends" from Massachusetts — Names of the Pioneers — 
Early Houses of Worship — The School Districts and Their 
Settlers — Survivors of the Union Armies of 1861-65 — Decrease 
in Population Noted — Present Town Officers. 

By Albert H. Stevenson. 

Farminf^ton. whicli wns nanuMl nflcr l'";u-]nini;ti)n, ( '(ninccticnt. 
is lia])])ily situated in the heart of a hcautiful. i)r()sper()ns. and 
healthful, farming- reg-ion. as the chance traveler can testifv. The 
soil in the noi-ihern and central part of the town is a L;"ra\ell\- loam 
and is ^•ery productixe, while a stri]) of land across the southern 
])arl has a hea\y clay soil which is also \er\- ])i'odncti\e of certain 
Crops, and there are nian\' splendid meadow and ^ra/in^" lands 
th]-(Mii;hout the town. The xillag-es are Xew Salem, hereafter men- 
tioned, Brownsxille. and Mertensia. and the streams, lilack brook. 
Beaver creek or Tra]) hrook. and the (ianar^ua or Mud creek. 

The township now known as Farmin^ton constituted the lirsl 
sale of land made from the Phelj^s and (iorham tract, it heini^- 
township X^o. 11. ran^e .\ of the i^reat tract. It was ])iu-chased 
in 1780 l)v members of the Societv of I'riends. or (juakers. from 
lU-rkshire. Massachusetts, their i)urchase end*racini^ also the terri- 
tor)- now comi)rised hi the town oi Manchester. The two town- 
ships continued to be known as l^artuin^ton until 1S21, when Man- 
chester (to\vnship Xo. 11. ind rang'e) was set olt. 

The names of the ])urchasers were X'athan C"om>iock. VtQW- 
lamin Russell, Abraham Laiiham. F.dmund Jenks. Jeremiah P)r<nvn. 
r^.phraim T^ish, X\athan Herendeen. Xathan \ldrich. Stei>hen .^mith. 
Benjamin Rickeuson, W illiam Baker, and Hr. i:)aniel Brown. The 
deed was oiven to Messrs. Comstock and Russell as reiiresentatives 


of the company. A settlement was commenced in 1789 by Nathan 
Comstock. witli his sons Otis and Darius, and Robert Hathawav, 
these pioneers accomplishing their journey by both land and water 
routes. They made a clearing in the wilderness, near where now 
stands the little hamlet of New Salem, familiarly known as Pump- 
kin Hook, l)uilt a cal:)in. and sowed a small piece of wheat. The 
little company brought but one horse with them and that thev had 
the misfortune to lose, so thev were oblioed to walk to Geneva, 
some twenty miles or more distant, for their weekly provisions and 
household supplies. 

When fall came, all returned to Massachusetts, except Otis 
Comstock, who was left alone in the new country, with no neighbors 
nearer than Canandaigua and Boughton Hill, excepting, indeed, the 
wild animals inhabitins: the forest, or the Indians. Truh'. his must 
have been a brave and dauntless s])irit, nor had he the solace of a 
daily, nor }et a weekly })aper. However, in the spring of 1/00. 
Nathan Comstock. Nathan Aldrich, Isaac Hathaway. Nathan Her- 
endeen. and others started to join (^tis. traveling with ox teams 
and making a camp-fire where night overtook them. After weary 
days they reached the little clearing and soon had erected cabins, 
and before fall had sowed several fields of wheat, the soil having 
received no further ])reparation than the clearing away of trees 
and the raking in of the seed. During this first summer, owing to 
decaying vegetation, these pioneers suffered greatly from the 
disagreeable disease known as fever and ague. 

The cabin of Nathan Aldrich was the second built in the town. 
In it. in the year 1797, was held the first town meeting in the town, 
and there Mr. Aldrich died in 1818. Nathan Herendeen built the 
third cabin and raised the first barn in town in 1794. in what is now 
known as District No. 1. and on the farm known to many now as 
the !Mercereau place. Here, in 1807, Herendeen died. In 1700 the 
first white child. Welcome Herendeen. was born in Farmington. 

The first house nf worship was erected by the Friends near 
New Salem, in 1706. It was built of logs and was the first house 
of worship west of Clinton. Oneida county. Destroyed by fire in 
1803. it was replaced in 1804 by a frame building, for which Nathan 
Comstock drew the timbers to Smith's mill, which had been built 
in 1795. This building, in its turn, was destroyed by fire, in 1875 
It was again rebuilt, the first service in the new building being 
held in June, 1876. At this meeting spoke Thomas Kimber and 

rill': T(j\\ \ ()!• iAi<.\ii.\(, r( ).\. 323 

wife, of Philadcljiliia . l-'Jwood Scott, of Iowa: Marv Knowlcs, 
Mari;arrt Hathaway, ai)(l Jar\is Uide-r. I'l-om tlic Iiei^iiiniii^ ot" the 
settlement, the h>ien(ls held regular nicetiniL!:s. increased in num- 
bers, and \\\v{] in peace and unity, which continue(l until the \ear 
1828, when one IClias Hicks was mo\ed to e.\|iound a new doctrine, 
which caused a division in the society. Thereafter the seceders 
were called Hicksites, while those adherini;- to the ori-inal doc- 
trines of the society were called ()rthodo.\ hi-iencN. Ahout the 
year 18U), a large meeting-house had heen erected to acconnnodate 
the increasing congregation, the old house of 1804 being left 
standing, and in this new building remaiui'd the Hicksites. while 
the Orthodox returned to the old building. The church built in 
1816 is now standing and is a well pre-erxed building, being one 
of I'"arming"ton's (juamtest hmdm.'iiks. The first speaker of the 
Friends in this to^vn was Caleb McCumber, who die(l in 18.S0. 
The following is a list of the ministers of the ()rthodo\ I'riends 
church to the present time, as nearly correct as it is ])ossil)le to 
obtain: Bersheba Herendeen, T^ydia !\lc("und)er. Margaret Hath- 
away, Jarvis M. Rider. Adelaide H. Wood, Mary S. Kuowles, 
Edwin P. Wood, Thomas E. Williams, (icorge !'>. l'".\an^. I .everett 
J. Rugg, James Renfrew. Of the Hicksites we may mention John 
J. Cornell, Sunderland P. Gardner, a resident minister, Isaac W'il- 
son, and others. 

It can be truthfully said of the Friends that they were honest. 
God-fearing, peace abiding citizens, and we of later days must look 
well to it that we |)reser\e that integrity of life and ])urpose so 
nobly set before us by our respected Quaker ancestors. 

The Friends were not the only religious society whicli started 
churches in Farmington. In 1817. a Presbyterian society was 
organized, but it h"ved but fifteen short years. Tn 1846 the Wes- 
leyan Methodist church wa^ Imilt in the village and enjoyed a 
prosperous life about forty years. The first pastor of this church. 
was Thomas Burrows. After the dissolution of this society the 
edifice was sold to the trustees representing r'"armingtou (irange. 
No. 431. viz: George E. Eapham. Ellery G. Allen, and Albert H. 
.Stevenson, said society taking possession in 1802. The German 
Lutheran denomination built a neat edifice in the village of New 
Salem in 1894 and now has a prosperous and growing society here. 
The first resident pastor was Rev. Herman Eeibich, who was fol- 
lowed by Ernest Resseig, E. Saul, W. Siedel, and J. Flierl. 


We would not lea\e the sul)ject of the settlement of Farminq-- 
ton without recording the hrst death, that of Elijah Smith, in 1793. 
or the first marriage, that of Otis Comstock and Huldah Freeman, 
in 1792. Other interesting facts to note are the building of the 
first grist mill, by Jacob and Joseph Smith, in 1793. and that Otis 
Hathaway was the founder of Xew Salem, a quiet little village of 
one hundred inhabitants, and in. 1810 erected there the first store 
building of which Jonathan Hatt}- was the keeper for about ten 
years. An ax factory was established by Lewis Lombard in 182.=^, 
and a wagon shop l)y George Hoag in 1823. Walter \A hippie 
established an iron foundry in 18-13. Matthew Windsor was the 
pioneer shoemaker, and Waters and Cook the pioneer hatters. The 
first inn keeper was Daniel Allen, who was followed by several 
others: but here as always the Friends' society manifested its 
purity of thought and motive by purchasing the last hotel and 
closing it, and to this day there is no place in Farmington where 
intoxicating liquors can be legally purchased. 

The schools of Farmington rank well with the schools of other 
towns. The Friends, in the year 1838. established a manual and 
labor training school, which, howexer, did not i)rove as decided a 
success as did the good old district school. 

In order to be more definite, we will now take up the history of 
Farmington 1)\- the school districts. Commencing with District Xo. 
1, Abraham Lapham was a resident in that district in 1790. and in 
the spring of 1790 John Payne came from Massachusetts. Jona- 
than Reed, the pioneer l^lacksmith. an.d a son-in-law of X^athan 
Herendeen. moved upon the farm now owned by the Trenfield sis- 
ters. Another son-in-law of X'athan Herendeen settled upon and 
cleared the land where Richard Broomfield now lives, and was the 
pioneer cabinet maker. John Dillon was also a pioneer settler in 
this district. Joseph Smith and James Smith started an ashery in 
1793 and Thomas Herendeen a tannery in 1800. 

District X^o. 2 had for its pioneer settlers Adam Xichols, 
Joseph Wells, and Jacob Smith. Tt is recorded that during the 
year of 1806, made memorable by the great eclipse, one Elam Crane 
taught the district school and upon that day took his pui)ils to the 
road. ]K)inted out to them the d?rk body j^assing slowly across the 
face of the sun, and taught such a lesson as may never be forgotten. 
Schoolmaster and pupils have all passed away. Tn this district, the 
present tow'n hall is situated. 

'rill- Towx ()i" I' \k.\i ixcrox. 


District No. 3 had for its pioneer settler Arthur Power, who 
cleared and lilted for cnltiwation llic fanii now owiu-cl 1)y Dr. W. 
G. l)()d(U, of Canandaif^ua. 

I)i>h-ict Xo. -I borders upon Victor and is traversed 1)V the 
(ianari^ua ri\cr and contains llic hamlet ol .Mcrtensia. L'pon this 
stream McMillan huill the lirsl Hour nnll in the town foi- |acol) 
Smith, in \7^).\ and two years latei" a saw nnll was erected on the 
opposite side of the stream. It is claimed ihal the site of these 
nn'lls was a familiar hnnlini:;- and lishin^- ])lace of the Indians, and 
that to .Mr. SmitlTs mdl they came to tradi- their tish and ^ame for 
llonr and feed. Da\i(l Snn'ih. I'arnnni^tcms lirst constable. li\ed 
lor man\' \ear> in thi^ localitx'. 

District Xo. .^ had for some of its pioneei" settlers ( iideon (irin 
nell, (iermond Ketcham. and a man b) the name of i'ratt, all of 
whom iia\e passed away. 

District Xo. () had for its ])i(nieer settlei- ls;iac I lathaw ;i\-. from 
Adams, Massachusetts, wdio located at what has since been known 
as llathaway's corners. .\ framed barn bnilt by .\nanias McMillan' 
for .\lr. Hathaway in \7'-K^ was the lirst building" of its kind in the 
town. in this disti'ict, at the home of Isaac llathawaw occurred 
the hrst mai'ria<.;e in town, that of ()lis COmstock and lluldah kree- 
man. d'he ceremony was jierformed 1)\- I )r. .Moses Atwater, of 
C anandai^ua. .\sa W ilmarth lived near the corners and was one 
.of the lirst justices of the ])eace. l\ol)ert Power settled near the 
corners and was said to ha\e been an excellent cari)enter and 
joiner and wa> the workman emplox'ed upon the woodwork of the 
^'ale collei^e bnildino'S. The .\ldriches were also i)ioneer settlers 
;n this district. In the earlx' da\'s of the settlement, the district had 
a lo^" school house and Dydia Snnth was one of its teachers. 

District .Xo. 7, a joint district in k'armin^ton and Macedon, 
had amoui; its early settlers. Asa Smith, father of Ciideon Smith, 
who survives at the advanced ag-e of ninety years and is a resident 
of the district at the present time, and Sanniel Pverett, whose 
descendants have resided m the district until the ])ast \ear or two. 

District .Xo. S had for its ])ioneer .•^ettlers John I'onnd and 
I'dijah. his brother, from .Xew lerse\', who settled upon and cleared 
the laud now owned bv .\lbon (i. Sheldon, Sr., and James lioai;-, 
who settled here and c;irried on a shoe shop. 

Amonj;- the i)ioneers in District .Xo. *' was b'b ITowland, who 
located lure in l"*-'!* and within a short time bnilt a saw mill on 


Black brook. In this district were planted some of the first 
orchards in ib.e town. The first white settler in this section was 
Major Smith, who had a good orchard as early as 1800. In 1803, 
Smith sold to Benjamin Hance, from Maryland, who brought some 
slaves with him. 

The pioneer settlers in District No. 10 were Peter Pratt and 
Lawrence Mcl.outh, an old time pedagogue, who had served as a 
sergeant in the Revolutionary war. Percy Antisdale was also a 
Revolutionary soldier. 

District No. 11 was settled by :\Ioses Power in 1798. This 
district compared with others in the town was late of settlement. 
District No. 12. known as New Salem, or 'Tumpkin Hook," 
is Farmington's primary settlement, made by Nathan Comstock 
and his sons, Otis and Darius, heretofore mentioned. Theirs was 
the first white men's cabin in town. Besides those mentioned, four 
other sons came west with Mr. Comstock: Nathan. Jr.. jared, 
Joseph, and John. Jnred settled back in the field and built a house, 
which was standing but a few years ago on the farm now owned 
by Andrew Bowe. Isaac Hathaway, Jr.. son of ])ioneer Isaac, 
settled on the farm now occupied b\ his grandson. Frederick Hath- 
away, and was engaged in piling brush in one of the fields at tlic 
time of the eclipse in 1806. Otis Hathaway, Isaac's brother, was 
the founder of New Salem and built the first store buildings there. 
Other interesting fac^^s in connection with the history of this dis- 
trict have been mentioned previously and we pass to the early 
settlement of District No. 13. 

The pioneer settler in District No. 13 was Dr. Stephen Aldrich. 
He was the first physician in the town and settled on the farm now 
known as the Isaac Cotton farm. Gideon Herendeen was also an 
early settler in this district, owning and residing on the farm now 
belonsfino to lohn A. Scribner. Others were Turner Aldrich, who 
held office as early as 1/07. and Ebenezer Horton, an eccentric 
character who claimed control of the weather. Manufacturing was 
carried on quite extensively in this district in early days. Talcott 
and Batty l)uilt an ashery near the site of the present school house 
in 1817. Previous to that, about 1815. Reuben Hayt built a small 
tannerv. A tavern was kept at Stevenson's corners in those early 
days by John Sheffield. A part of the original building is nc^v 
standing and is at present owned by Myron G. Cotton. Isaac and 
Richard Colvin had a battery in this locality, and not far from the 


school, presumably where John A. Scribner's orchard now stands, 

Augustus Uiumh.'un iTcctcd a blacksuiitli slio]). Tlu- t iiul)ers of this 
shop arc in a good state ot [)rcscr\ati()n. lia\iug been ni()\cd across 
the road to the tariu of A. H. StCNcuson, where they were reinoil 
ek'(| into a corn-crib, whicli is now in useful comHtion. 

In closing- this brief liistor\- of the town of l-'arniington, it would 
be but litting to mention our soldier heroes of the great Kebellion. 
I'Lighty-six soldiers enlisted from old !• arniington. Manx' ol these 
ha\'e .mswered to their last roll call, and gone to their long home. 
()thers are scattered east and west, north and south. Those I'esid- 
iug in the town at the ])resem tinu- are James A. \ oung, Ambrose 
.\. \ Dung, Edward Collon. John .Xnssbaunier. W illiam Stevenson, 
llorace ShefTer, Henry j. W hii)];ie, Charles joslin, S}i\ester dard- 
ner, I )aniel W . lironk. and (ieorge I'ortel. 

The lirst census of the town was taken in lS3t) and the p<jj)U- 
lation at that time w^'is 1,773: in IMO it was 2,122; in l<Sr)(), 1,,S58; 
in 1.S7U. 1,81)0; in 1880, 1,978; in 189U, 1,7U3; in 19UU, 1,(;U7; m 191U, 

The lirst supervisor of the town was jared ("omstock ; the hrst 
town clerk wa.s Isaac llalhawa\-. They were elected in the spring 
of 1797. 

The ])resent town officers follow: Super\isor, Jose|)h W . 
.Tuttle; town clerk, h^-ank ( ). Power; justices of the jteace. hdwin 
J. (iardner, A. !>. Katkamier. llenry C. Osborn, 11. II. Collins ; 
assessors, lohn A. Scribner, Eewis V . Allen, bonis II. .McEouth: 
highway connuissioner, Charles IE (Iardner; oxerseer ot jioor. 
Thomas R. Baker; collector, hred Kobbins: constables, lienry j. 
Whipple, George Whit'taker : sclu.ol directors, Ee\i .\. Redfield. 
George Eoomis; truant officer, Norman .Norris. The resident 
plnsician is I)r. (). J. Mason. 




The Youngest and the Smallest Town in Ontario County — Nurser- 
ies, Fruit Growing, and General Farming, Its Only Industries 
— Descendants of the Pioneers now Prominent Citizens — 
"Kashong" on Seneca Lake, the Gateway for the First White 

By Sidney B. Reed. 

The township of Gene\a was created by a resolution of tlio 
Ontario count}- Ixoard of superxisors. adopted October 11. 1872. 
dixidinjj the town of Seneca, and orivins: the new town the follow- 
ing 1)<)undarie> : "All tliat ])art of the town of Seneca King cast of 
the west line of the first tier of town>hi]) h)ts. next west of tlie old 
I'reemi)tion line." 

This included the then village of Geneva, and the original foi m 
of the new town was continued until January 1st. 18*)8. when ai\ 
act of the State Legislature, passed in Mav. 18')7. incorporating 
the cit\- of Geneva, became effective. The cit}' boundarv was 
extended beyond the bounds of the \ illage. taking in several Inm- 
(]red acres of farm land. The city and town still ha\e the same 
boundaries, though nearlv exery year the city's connnon coiuicil 
makes an effort to ha\e tlie charter amended, so as to take a con- 
siderable ])art of the town's valuable farm land into the city. 

The smallest town in the county, haxing but eighteen square 
miles of area. Geneva carries the highest per acre assessed valua- 
tion. A<ljoining the city of Geneva as it does, there is not a ham- 
let, a store, postoffice. or church in the town. Xurseries. frnit 
growing, and general farming are the only industries. 

?^Ianv of the prominent families of the town are descendants 
of the settlers of more than a hundred years ago. \\'illiam .\nsley 
came from Pennsylvania and located in Geneva in 1786. The third 

TTTF. T()\\\ OV r.l'.XFA'A. 


and foiirtli general inn of his descendants now live where he settled. 
(ieor.iL^c W dkie came from Scotland. earl\ in the la>t centnry. and 
was the ancestor ot a luunher ol' the most successfnl citizen^, [ohn 
Scoon, al>o from .Scothin(K came- to tlie \ iUa^e of deneva in 1<S(J0. 
and hater \\\ l-^I and (h'ed in the town. \ nnmher of his ^a'antUdiihlren 
and L;i-eat-^ranihdn'l(h"en are |)ermanentl\ located iiere. 

In 1 / (S,S. Jerome l,oomi> located m the noia hwest ern part of 
the town, connn^ here fi'om ( Onnect icnt . a \t'teran of the l\e\(jlu- 
tionai'x war. Mis son, l!enr\- II. I.oomis, now past ninetx' \'ears 
of a^e, is an acti\e cili/en of (iene\a cilw ( ieori^e Kennetl earK* 
located in the noflhern ])art of the town. I lis son. Horace I)., a 
tormei" sniierxi.sor, thonL;h nioie than fonr score vears of ajj'e, is an 
acti\e and inllnential resident on a farm near where he \va> hoin. 

Seneca lake horders the town for mo]"e than se\'en miles on the 
east. ,\ hranch ot the .\'e\\ N'ork Central railroad, from [.\-ons to 
("ornini^-, ])arallels the lake. .\t the month of Kashon^' creek, \erv 
near the line hetween ()ntario and Nates connties, a ])oint of land 
projects into the lake, occnpied 1)\' ahoni twentx' snmmer cotta^'es. 
This colonx' is name(l kashon^'. as is the railroad station close hw 

The following- sketch of Kashon^" is taken from S. C. Cle\e« 
land's ']listor\- of Nates C"onnt\": "The tirst white settlers at 
this place were the iM-ench traders, l)e l>art/cl.i and Poudre. Kas- 
hon<4- was the ^'atewaN- 1)\ which settler> entered that ])art ot the 
conntr\'. It was known foi" man\- \ears as *Ben Barton's Landing.' 
It was ;i heantifnl s])ot. where a line Indian \illao;e had heen 
destroyed ])\ Snlli\an's men. .Some of the Indian ap])le trees, it is 
said, remained o\er lift\' vears after the tirst settlement of the 

"Major P.arton. who was interested in the Xiao-ara T.essee 
Com])an\-, and a^enl for the same, hon^ht of Dominick De Bartzch 
a farm of seven hnndred acres at Kashon^'. lie resided here ahont 
twenty years, and married a daniihter of James l.atta, an earlv 
settler of the town of Seneca, h'rom 1S02 to 1806, he was sheritt 
of Ontario county, h^' api)ointnient of (hAcrnor (leorg-e Clinton, 
and was a man of hioh consider.ation in the country. .Vhout 1/^V) 
or 17*>7, he commenced the erecticMi of a lari^e scpiare two-story 
frame house. OwiuLi' to ad\erse circumstances, one of which was 
the failure of the contractor, he lost three hundred dollars, a lar^e 
sum at that time. Another was that his lund)er, after hein^- well 
dried and ht for use, caught hre in the kiln and was destroyed. 


These retarded the work for many years. At length it was com- 
pleted, and the event was celebrated by the most rousing house 
warming the new country ever saw." 

This house now stands about an eighth of a mile south of the 
county line, almost exactly as it was built. 

The first election for the town, after the incorporation of the 
city, was held in November. 1897, when the following offi.cers were 
elected: Samuel McBlain. supervisor; James A\'. Holland, town 
clerk; Charles ^^^ Smith, justice of peace; William A. Merritt. 
justice of peace; Chauncey Sheffield, commissioner of highways; 
Georgfe W. Black, collector; G. Grove Long, constable. IMr. 
McBlain served one lerm as supervisor, and was succeeded by 
Robert Bilsborrow, who died during his first term. Horace D, 
Bennett was appointed for the unexpired term and was reelected. 
Sidney B. Reed was the next incumbent, and is now serving his 
fourth term as supervisor, and the fourth year as chairman of the 
coiinty board. 

The present officers of the town are : E. L. Holcomb. town 
clerk; \\'illard G. ^McKelvie. justice of peace; E. G. Nellis. justice 
u\ })eace ; George McBlain. town superintendent; Leo Dc .Melle, 
constabit; Sam H. Morrison, constable; Herbert H. W'yatt, collec- 




Its Origin, Its Development, and Its First Hundred Years of 
Corporate Life — Its Early Coign of Vantage — Circum- 
stances of Settlement — Pioneer Families — Unique Character- 
istics — Chronicle of Happenings — Incorporation as City — 
Centennial Celebration. 

Compiled from Materials Furnished by Charles Delamater Vail, L. H. D., by Whom 
All Rights Are ResERVED, also Revised and Corrected by Him. 

As a l)it of earth, Geneva, as seen todaw has nuicli to phime 
itself upon, hut in the early (hays the coii^n of \antage of (Jene\a 
as a place was not so nuich its l)eautifnl surroundings as tlie fact 
tliat it shared with Ihath the honor of heiug the gatewa\' to the 
Genesee cotnitr}-, and l)y the Genesee c(nnitr\- is meant here not 
merely tiie geographical valley of the Genesee river, hut, in a larger, 
freer sense then ctirrent, the entire portion of the I^m])ire State from 
vSeneca lake to lake Erie, a country which, coming suddenh to the 
attention of the w*)rld through SuUixan's Raid in \77^K at once 
dazzled its imagination as a new earildy })aradise and to this day 
remains a magnet of undiminished attraction — a cotmtry to which, 
if traditions may he helieved, no less a one than Washington once 
made a flying \isit with his friend, I'olonel W illiani JMtzhugh, to 
verify its charm — a legend \\()rthy to l)e true e\en if it he not so. 

As already stated, the early coign of vantage of Geneva was 
that it shared with Bath the honor of heing the gateway to the 
Genesee country, hut ha])pily for (jeneva and unhappily for F)ath, it 
was not a case of sharing equally. To the coveted Genesee country, 
there were, it is true, in the early time l)tU two approaches from the 
seaboard, one from the Hudson river Ijy waterways to Geneva, the 
other from the Chesapeake bay by waterways to Bath : hut since to 
the Intlk of the seaboard ])opulation siglnng for new demesnes the 


approach from the Hudson river was the more convenient, it 
resnhcd that ])racticail}- Geneva was the gateway to the Genesee 
country, and. further, that as hetween Bath and Geneva the star of 
empire never took its way l)e_vond Geneva. 

Fortunate in its geographical situation and >urr()undings. 
Geneva was equally fortunate in the exceptional character of its 
early settlers as a body — a peculiarity for good which came not to 
Gene\'a only. l)ut in differing degrees to ah the old towns of the 
Genesee country. The circumstances attending the settlement of 
the Genesee country were unusual, indeed were entirelv unique. It 
was not a case of scattering and squatter settlement, hap-hazard. on 
lands o\\ ned by the State, without any attem])t \\hate\er at sifting 
or selection : contrariw ise, it was a case oi organized settlement 
under great proprietaries, to whom the character as well as the 
number oi the settlers mattered, and to whom ai the same time 
ra]iiditv of settlement was a consideration of momerit. 

It must be remembered that, while l)y the celebrated con\en- 
tion of Decend^er 16. 178h. held at H;irtford. Connecticut. I)\- the 
State of New N'ork and Massachusetts, to settle their ri\al terri- 
torial claims under their ("olonial charters, the rights of s()\-ereignty 
over that portion of the Stale of Xew ^'ork west of the meridian 
of the eight\-second milestone in the boundarx' line between Xew 
^'ork and Penusyh ania. i. e.. o\er the (ienesee countrw was 
reserved to the State of Xew N'ork, the fee simj)le. together with 
the right of pre-em])tion or lirst pm"chase from the nati\e Indian^ 
of the soil of tlie same, was gi\en to the State of Massachusetts; 
and liiat ^ul)se(|uentIy the State of Massachusetts, not caring to 
interest itself as |)roprietar\- in any ])lans for disposing of the lautls 
of the (ienesee country to actual settlers, sold its pre-emption rights. 
A])ril 1. 17H,S. to two of its citizens. Oliver l^helps and Xatlianiel 
Gorham. re])resehting an association. This passed the lands of 
\\ estern Xew ^'ork from .^tate ])roprietaryshi]i to the i)ro])rietar\'- 
ship of pn\ate individuals and the advantages that naturally follow 
private ownershi]) and management. 

The intimate i)articular-> of the creation of the I^help^ and 
Gorham proprietaryship over the Cienesee country, and how two 
years later, in 17^)0 and I7^M. this ])roprietaryship passed to Robert 
Morris, and liow. \]>ri] 11. 17''2. that portion of this ])roi)rietaryshi]) 
lying between Seneca lake and the Genesee river passed under the 

\ii.i. Af.i-: Axi) c\y\ ()!• (,i:.\i-:\-.\. 3,^3 

name of llu- "Genesee trnct"' [o Sii- William l'nlUMic\- aii<i the 
rnltcncy Associates, it i^ no! prinncnt to i (.H-oinii m this i-omiection ; 
nor is it i)ertinc'nt to pas^ in review iju' \anon- iiroprict.-irNships 
wliicli laicr arose in llie western half ol ihe ( .eiicsee conntr\. I)\- 
pnrchaM.' Irom l\ol)crt Moi-risor from the A! orris otatc. It is pi-rti- 
iKMit, however, or at least it will ^ratif\- a landaMc enriosii\-. to |ix 
the first cost of the territofv which todax coiist)tnies the cil\ of 
( icnexa, hcin^- t went y-fonr hnndred acres more or less. To Massa- 
chnsetts. for the ri^ht of i)re-enipt ion of the lands of the ( leiiesee 
country, rheli)s and (loidiain paid, or contracleil to pa\ , one million 
dollafs. hein^- an a\(.'i-ame jicf acre of about tweUe cents: and to the 
nati\e Indians, in satisf;ict ion of their claims on tlu' "r,enesee ti'act"" 
in which (ienexa is located. twel\e thousand dollafs. heiiiL;' an 
a\ei"ai^e per acre of about half a ceiu. If these I'lLjiires are correct, 
the fn'st cost of the teirilorx- now inclnded in the cit\- of (iene\a 
was bnt three hundred dollars! 

The First Settlers. 

The lirst i^roiprielaries, rhel])s and ( lorham. I7XS-17*>I), (bd not 
content themselves with efforts to secure accei)table settlers fiom 
the eastern ])ortion of Xew \'ork .Slate onlw or from I 'eims\ l\ ania 
and Xew jersew the States j^'eoi^raphicalK' nearest, but bein^ .Massa- 
chusetts men made specia.l elTorts to secure settlers from Massachu- 
setts and from Xew En^Tiud ^eneralK . ;md the roll of earl\- settlers 
in the "Genesee tract" shows maii\ names from that portion of our 
countr^^ But the ])roi)ri(Mar\siiip of I'helps and ( iorham. two \ears. 
was too short for an\ particularlx" siL^'mlicant results to be accoiu- 
])lished. ()f these first prc^prietaries, howexer. ()li\er IMiel])s and 
Nathamel (iorham, it will e\er be the historian's ])ri\ile^"e and duty 
to record that both were men of elexated character ;ind marked 
mtellii^'ence, and in particular of Mr. I'lielps that in all business 
matters he was conspicuousK- remarkable for ca])acit\. energy, .and 
shrewdness, and that throti^hout the territory embraced in the 
i'helps and Gorhaau r'urchase his memory has been cherished with 
])rofoun(l respect, and that the system of land sur\ey into townshi])s 
and ranges, ors^l^anized b\- him in Ganandai^ua in I7S''. was atter- 
ward. with sljoht modification. 'ido])ted by the Guited States 

Under the next proprietary. Robert Morris. 1/90-1702, no 
special efforts at actual settlement within the "Genesee tract" seem 


to have been made, as ATr. Alorris had apparently purchased the 
great domain for speculative purposes only, hut though during this 
proprietaryship the work of settlement was not pushed, it did not 
by any means cease, settlers conliiuiing to come from geographical 
sections brought into touch with the ''Genesee tract" by Phelps 
and Gorham. 

When, however, in 1792 Sir William Pultenev. representing 
the Pulteney Associates, became proprietary of the "Genesee tract," 
a new and memorable chapter began in the settlement of the countrv 
which had so recentl}- been thrown open to the knowledge of the 

. world. There appeared on Hie scene, as the agent of Sir William 
Pulteney and the Pulteney Associates. Captain Charles Williamson, 
a Scotchman by birth, nn Englishnian by adoption, an American by 
naturalization, a Bostonian bv mr'rriage, but above all a man of 
genius, a man of extraordinary energy and resource, peculiarly 
fitted to promote large enterprises, even if he was to an extent 
over-sanguine of results and ])rodigal in expenditures to achieve 

\ the determined end. Immediately, by advertisements, b}- ])ul)lica- 
tions, by personal \-isits to important centers, and by correspond- 
ence. Captain ^^'illiamson with masterh- tact concentrated atten- 
tion abroad as well as at home on the new paradise. Especially 
he utilized with great success the interest in the Genesee country 
which had been kindled bv the \ ery laudatory reports of that 
country which had been .spreading in e\ery direction since the 
return of Sullivan's army from its triumphant but devastating raid 
through the land of the Senecas to the Genesee river, in 17/9. In 
no long time it i-esu1ted that on both sides of the Atlantic and on 
this side in Marxland and \^'rginia. as well as in the Eastern States, 
well-to-do families became interested, and soon the "Genesee tract" 
was invaded, so to speak, by ladies and gentlemen, many of whom 
came with their servants and slaves. But the invaders were resolute 
men and high spirited women, and the terrors and hardshijis of 
subduing a wilderness did not affright them or drive them back. 
Thev came into the wilderness to make it blossom like the rose 
and they stayed and triumphed. 

A Social Center. 

But more remarkable even than the presence of a certain 
number of families of culture and i)rominence in Geneva at its very 
beginning, is the extent to which Geneva became and still 

VrTJ.AGK WM) (•|T^• ()!•• (ilCNEVA. 335 

is a center for families of lliat class, and llic ciiiiinlat i\e effect it 
has liad in lifting tin- Imu- of tlic wliok' pl.-icc, and in niakin^- 
deneva a cultured liouie ot iiidu^lr\- and order and prosperity, as 
well as of letters and llie ,-entle arts. W Ikmi ])assin<4- in re\icw the 
century of cx'cnts in (iene\a. one is struc-k with the lii.L;Ii 
character oi the things attempted and achieved hy its professional 
men, its business men, and its captains of industry. 

Unite as striking- as the nnmhei' of (lene\a's families of culture 
and prominence, is the extent to which in the histor\- of deneva 
they ha\e heen constant and conlimiin^- foi'ces. It is to he re.i;"rctted 
that a tahle prepared to illustrate this pecnliarit\' and to exhihit tlu' 
historic families of (iene\a, in ^roujjs as determined l)\- birth and 
marriage cond)ine(l, is too long- to he incor])orated in this hist<ii'ic 
sketch, hut a few words hy way of stnnmar\' ma\' he allowed. 
Altog'ellier there is a total of twenty-eight groups, w ith one hundred 
and fifty-two families, not counting any famil\- twice, the \ arious 
Roses, for example, who are related, counting as only one familw 
Of these groups, eight began before 1800. four between hSOO and 
1810. three between 1810 and 1820. four between 1820 and 1830. 
four between 1830 and 184(V the remainder, excluding the present 
generation (five), at various dates l)etween 1840 and 1870. I^ie 
largest of the gr()U])s is the Lawson grou]), beginning 1/06 with 
Jacob W. Hallett and including twenty-one clitTerent families, among 
which are, for exam])le. the familiar names of Rose. Nicholas, l^ox. 
Bo8:ert. Gallao-her. Mellen, Cammann, Patterson. P)esides the 
historic families in groups, one finds also ahout the same number 
of prominent single or unrelated families, the grouped and 
ungrou|)e(l families making a total that is certainl\- remarkal)le in 
any place the size of Geneva. 

Religious Characteristics. 

The religious characteristics ])resentc(l hy (ieneva are i|uite as 
remarkable as its social characteristics. In the earliest ])eri()(l. 
strange as it may seem, the Episcoi:)alians in nunibei-s and intUience 
l)ractically balanced the Presbyterian.s — a phenomenon not ])aral- 
leled probably in any other part of the country, but cxiWicable by 
reference to the sources wdience the original i)oi)ulation of Geneva 
was drawn. Again, and this coincidence should be writ large, for 
it is quite as striking as the fact just noted. Geneva is relatively the 
strongest center in the United States of both the Episcopalians and 


the Presbyterians. And last of all. l)in perhajis more remarkable 
and more complimentary to Gene\a than either of the two facts 
already mentioned, the total membership of the Christian bodies in 
Gencxa compared with the total population shows as large a 
})ercentage as is shown anywhere else in our country and possilily 

A uni([ue characteristic remains to be noticed. Years and years 
ago Gene\a was conspicuous for its large ninnber of retired clerg}'- 
men, also its large number of unmarried women and a Genexa wit 
won immortalit}- b\- this epigram: "Ah! \'es, Geneva is equally 
the saints' retreat and the old maids' ])aradise!"' This epigram is 
introduced not in the wa}" of veiled disparagement of a certain cla^s 
of Geneva's clergy and a certain class of Geneva's women, but to 
gi\e a legitimate occasion for emphasizing the fact that in the long 
historv of Genexa nothing is loxelier than the shining record of its 
unmarried women, not onl\- in acts of Lhristian charity and beneh- 
cence. but in li\es of high ;md noble example, and nothing more 
wholesome or gratifying than the (|uiet but elevated induence of its 
retired clergy. 

Chronicle of Geneva. 

I come now lo the chronicle of (k'ueva. The events betore 
1800 are. in a \\a\. but a prelude to the events after 1800. and 
are comprised in two foiMuative i)eriods. i. shorter and a longer, 
both full-charged w ith occnrreuces of moment, but each subject to a 
donnnalion entirelv dilYereut from the other. The shorter period 
embraces the year> from 1787 to 17^)2 inclusive. 

Period 1787 to 1792. 

The stor\ of the ci\ ic life of (iene\a oi)ens in June. 1787. with "a 
sohtarv log house and that not linished. inhabited bx" one Jennings. ' 
This house, soon enlarged b\- Jennings, hdark Jennings, into a 
tavern and i)resuni;d)lv the lirst taxern within ( Geneva's borders. 
stood a little south of what is n(n\ the junction of Washington and 
Exchange streets, on what was then the Indian trail leading south- 
ward to Kashong from round the lake, the trail breaking over the 
top of the shore-bank at or about 'he spot where now stands 
Trinity church. Within a year several huts or log houses, bark- 
covered, arose along this street or trail, among them one bark- 
covered structure, move ambitious than the rest, the framed tavern 

VILLAdl-: ,\.\l) i \'V\ ()]■' CI'.XI'A'A. 337 

and tradino- estal)lislinu'ni ctcoIcmI ny the so-called Lessee rompanv 
in tiie summer or early autumn of 1787 and occupied In- I )r. ('alch 
IJeiiton as re])i"esenlati\ e of llial companv. ^hi^ ^t i"a^^'linL;- line of 
hark-coN'ered strnclurt's. i )\ ri't* ippcd 1)\- the lakelianlv, fniuned the 
distant prospect ot (iene\a lor the lir'-i \\a\farers fi-om the east into 
the (ienesee country, a to the distant i)r()si)ecl of the beauti- 
ful and 1)US)- Gcne\a of the d'wenlietii cenlnrw 

As the gate\\'ay of the (ienesee count r\-. ami tn an extent 
identical oeoo-i-ai)hicalK' with Kanades.a.^a. the famous l)ul fallen 
capital ot the Senecas, and ai the saim- time as the head(|uai'ter^ of 
the Lessee companw i. e.. the Xcw NOrk (ienesee Land ('ompany, 
a compan\- orj^anized earh in the lu'st \-ear of (iene\a. 1787. Geneva 
had, of course, from the l)eL;inninL;' a lloatiuL;' ])()pulation nf xai'xini;- 
numhers, a ])opulalion made u]) mostK' of ex])lorers, land s])eculators. 
Indian traders, and of ])ioneers i)assini^ throui^h to the westward: 
hut, aloni' with these and such as these, there were those wlm had 
come to (ienc\a to become permanent settlers, or who. arriving' 
there, had found it to their interest to liecome such, ddie number 
of permanent settlers in (ieneva during;- the shortei' formati\e period 
ii'rcw. but not rapidly, for in 1790, Gene\a is spoken of as a place of 
only ten or t^\ elve families. 

The Earliest Comers. 

No complete list exists, nor ])robabl\ can e\er be made, of the 
\-arious persons who were in GencNa f(U- a longer or shorter time 
duriui;- the lirst formati\e i)eriod ( 1 787-1 7*'2 ), either as temi)orary 
residents or permanent settlers, but the following- confessedly 
imperfect list, leathered from Mr. C'ono\er"s historical jiapers. is not 
without interest and x'alue : 

Elark J(Uim'n,LiS. at once first iim keeper and first recorded, 
inhabitant; Peter Bartlc, Indian trader: Tloraiio Jones. Indian 
interi)reter : Asa Ransom, maker of Indian trinkets: Gilbert U. 
r>erry. silversmith: John A\idner, farmer at the foot of the lake 
and ferry keeper; Daniel Earl and Solomon l\arl, his son. farmers 
over the outlet; Captrun Timoth\- \ll\n and one llickox. merchants; 
Jacob and Joseph Backenstose. taihn-.s, who by their skill created in 
time a State-wide ambition to wear clothes made by a "Genex a 
tailor;" one Butler, the first cari)enter: James d\allmaoe. a black- 
smith, and Fdisha Tallmage, merchant: l^/.ra Patterson, inn keeper, 
presumably on site of the Carrollton; Joshua Fairbanks, inn keeper. 



site not certain; Dr. Caleb Benton, representative of the Lessee 
company, Avith headquarters in their tavern and trading establish- 
ment ; Colonel Seth Reed and Peter Ryckman, first holders of 
important land patents in Geneva : ^Major Benjamin Barton, Major 
Adam Hoops, Jacob Hart, Joseph Annin. A\'illiam ( ?) Jenkins, 
surveyors; Dr. AMlliam Adams, tirst physician, and a little later Dr. 
Andrews; and land ov.ners among others as follows: Jerome 
Loomis, from Lebanon, Connecticut; ]\Iajor Sanford AA^illiams ; 
Captain Jonathan. AMiitney ; Roger Xoble, from Sheffield. Massachu- 
setts; James Latta, from Xew Windsor, New York; Solomon 
Warner. William Ansley, a Mr. Ringer, a "Sir. Crittenden, owner of 
the farm on whdch were the Old Castle and the Indian mound; 
Phineas Stevens, at the (diaries Bean place: while at Kashong were 
settled Joseph Poudre and Dominique De Bartzch. the latter a man 
of great influence at the time in this region. Other names of this 
period are: Sisson, \'an Duzen, Butler. Jackson, Graham, and 
Scott, the last two being merchants who came in June, 1793. To 
this list it would be a pleasure to add. were it known, the name of 
him who during the first formative period introduced into Gene\a 
the manufacture of brick, for Dr. Coventry in his Journal records, 
under date of ]u\\ 3rd, 1792. that he went to Geneva and bought 
300 bricks at $4 per thousand, a ])rice which precludes the supposi- 
tion that the bricks he bought were imported bricks. 

Resides the taverns or inns alread}- mentioned, there were at 
least three other early inns, but it is not certain whether they came 
into existence in the first formative period or somewliat later: the 
famous McCormick tavern on the southwest corner of North and 
Exchange streets, the first inn on the Kirkwood site, and Tuttle's 
tavern just south of the Charles Bean place. But in those early 
days every man's house was in a way an inn. for no man might 
refuse rest and refreshment to the wearied traveler, especially for 
a reasonable consideration; and besides and behind this Inmianc 
impulse was the ever present and the ever active desire to exchange 
news, for in Geneva, just waking into life, this was before news- 
papers and stages and any fixed mail service, and of course before 
telegraphs or telephones or railroads or steamers or canal packets, 
still waiting for their predestined inventors. To this first period, 
but possibly to the beginning of the next period, belongs General 
H. W. Dobbin, land owner, a soldier of the Revolution who enjoyed, 
and justly, marked local celebrity. 

\'IM,.\(;i". AM) C\-\'\ ()\- (ii:.\l'".\',\. 339 

Brief Biographies. 

()t llu- pcrni.-iiicni sctllcrs of llii> cailir^l pcrind. l)ricf hioj^ra- 
phies of (wo or three w ill dcM-lop certain fact^ peculiaiK iiiieiest iii^^ 
as opeiiiiiiL;- |)ati^es of tlie stor\- of ('i(.'iie\a. 

I lie )ear 1/(S,S hrduj^jii to (iene\a |ei"(mn' l.<ii)inis, a snldicr of 
the kcvohitioii. who. settling linalK- in the ( )M (astle iiei-hl)orhoo(l, 
hiiilt there as liis ])ei'iiiaiieiii residence a honse whicdi remained his 
home till his death in 1S[(), [\\](\ since has ln'cn the Iimhu- of his son, 
llenry lio])kins Loomis. who at the close of a loni; an*! siu'cessfnl 
lite still takes an acti\e interest in affairs and iani<s a'- the oldest 
nati\e horn citizen, lather and son toi^ethei- hi'id^inL;' in one home 
tlie whole ]:)eri()d of (ieneva's existence. In 1 7*)S, Jerome I.oomis, 
married F.lizal)eth Tippetts, daui^hter of Stephen Tippctts. of \ew 
York city, one of wliose ancestors i^rne to that cit\ the land used 
for its city liall and park. 

The same }'ear, 1788. hronj^ht also to (lene\-a P)enjamin llarton. 
aged se\enteen, afterward lietter known as Major IJafton. and the 
reputed father of that fairious ]dace-name. I'enn ^'an. a prominent 
man throughout his life in Western New "N'ork and i->utTalo. whithei' 
he removed in 1807. He is memoriali/ed 1)\' his granddaughter, 
Mrs. Agnes Demarest, in the dedicatory tablet of the James F. 
Demarest library building and the Uarton scholarshi])s, fonnded 
by her in Hobart college. ITis marriage to .Vgnes T.atta, in 1 7Q2, 
was the first marriage in Geneva's selectest circle. l\emo\ing in 
1794 to his great farm of se\-en hundred acres at Kashong, seven 
miles up the lake, he a little later opened his new house there with 
a grand house-warming and ball, believed to be the first eveiU ot 
that kind in AVestern New York. 

The story of this house-warming, as t(dil a half century later 
bv Mr. Barton's son, is full of sparkle and fascination and is ot too 
much historic interest to be omitted. That year Mr. I'arton had 
grown an extraordinary crop of tFax. and the beaux of the country 
round, siehino- for a social hour that would lltl\- com])anion the crop 
of flax, lay aw^ake nights till the plan of a house-w-arming came to 
them full fledged. They won the consent of Mr. Barton by a 
promise not only to attend to the business of the ball and to furm'sh 
the "fiddlers three" (for the wilderness was innocent of pianos and 
dulcimers and orchestras), but also to hackle and dress the flax. 
They turned in, dressed the flax and then, making up seventy-two 


halt pound bundles, put tliem in l^ags and scattered them for many a 
mile about amongst the belles, to be converted into skeins of thread 
and held as cards of invitation. When the appointed night was 
come, the beaux and belles concentrated at the Barton domicile, 
some by the sparse roads, in wagons, the rest ])y the forest trails, 
either on foot or on horseback, the fortunate horseback cavaliers, 
each with his maiden fair mounted behind him. The lielles came 
clad in homespun, but bearing each in a bag her ball dress and 
precious skein of thread. Of Geneva's elite, thirty were numbered 
in the throng. Xo sooner were all arrived and the belles had 
fluttered from their homespun into their winningest arrav. than the 
dance was on. Though broken in twain by a royal supper prepared 
by Mrs. Barton, the night fairly flew, alas! and all too soon was 
spent, and \vhen the bird of morn woke the sleeping sun and rising 
Phoebus hasting shot his shafts of roseate light across the lake, the 
dancers, weary with joy. doffed their Terpsichorean robes and 
donned again their homespun, and with backward flying thoughts 
homeward spun through the roads and forest trails, as they had 

Again, 1788 brought to Geneva John W'idner. aged nine, who 
remained in Geneva until 1823 and finall\- died in Rochester, aged 
one hundred and one. His clear recollection of persons, places, 
houses, events, indeed everything connected with the early history 
of Geneva, w^as verv remarkable, and his reminiscences, as preserved 
bv Mr. Conover in his noteworthv history, is a valuable mine of 
information for the investigator of the first days of Geneva. 

.\bout this time, but not later than 1790. came to Geneva Dr. 
William Adams, a somewhat elderly man. greatly respected, the 
first physician to practice his profession in this immediate part of 
the Genesee country. He died heroically in the line of his profes- 
sion in the epidemic of dysentery (Geneva's first recorded epidemic) 
which swept over the place in 1795. the year of Geneva's first great 
drought. At the same time, and from the same cause. Dr. Adams's 
wife also lost her life. Still another victim was Dr. Adams's co- 
worker. Dr. Andrews, a young physician recently arrived with 
his bride. 

In 1792. Dr. Alexander Coventry, an eminent physician, but 
as devoted to agriculture as to medicine, came to Geneva and 
entered upon extensive farming operations across the lake, naming 
the splendid farm which he developed "Fairhill" after the ancestral 

villagp: axi) ci'vy oi- ci'.xfa-a. 341 

estate in Scotland. In 1802. Dr. Coventry parted with this farm, 
and afterwards, with shglu additions lo the acreage, it became 
known as "Rose Ilill" farm. I )r. C()\cntr\- kv\>\ during liis vears 
liere in (leneva and at "i'airhiH" a nctv iniimtc (har\- which still 
exists, hut not entirely intact, a (h'ai'y as \ahialde as it is minute. 
In it is \i\i(lly described among main othei' things the terrible 
epidenn'c and drought of 17*'.^. lie uientions a tinie when in 
(lencxa. small as it was, there were three or four (.-orpses at once, 
and another time when of the inhabitants of the little handc-t, oiil\- 
one, a woman, was strong enough to be about, and how for several 
days, like a ministering angel, she went froiu house to house 
bcst(~>wing on ihe >ick the greatest of all fa\()r>, ;i driuk (if cold water. 

A Boy or a Girl? 

Ihe (piestion has been asked, 'A\ as the lir>t l)ab\- born in 
(ienex'a a boy or a girl, and who was it ?" It is n<il a great (|ue.slion, 
perhaps, but it is one ftill of human interest. Se\en cities contested 
the iionor of being the birthplace of tlomer. (ieneva's historic 
cpiandary is nearly as bad, if not worse. I hree babies contest the 
honor of ha\ing been her lirst born. \o. 1 was born under the 
sha(l(»w of the l'"actor_\- liay cliffs just (nilsidc (iene\a"s cit\- limits, 
in l)ecember, 1786. the _\ear before Gene\a's lirst settler ap])eared 
upon the scene, and his name was William, William W . Jones, 
])assed into history as the lirst white child born in the State of Xew 
N'ork, west of Utica. X^o. 2 was born, Decend)er 11, 1702, and his 
name was John, John Backenstose. Xo. 3 was born two days before 
John, but Xo. 3 was, as the historiographer with unbecoming levity 
stated it, onlv a girl and of course shouldn't count. Unfortunateh' 
her name is irretrievabU' lost; but if Xo. 1, William W'. Jones, is 
to be rejected as an outsider both in time and place, it follows with 
loo-ical irrevocableness that in this matter it is to Gene\a, as in her 
great beginnings it was to Carthage — ilux friniiia. 

The Naming of Geneva. 

The tradition that Geneva was given its name by a Swiss 
engineer in the employ of Captain Williamson, agent of the 
Pultenevs, has been proved absolutely untenable, as the name was 
in use locally as early as 1788, three years before Williamson had 
any interest in this region and four years before he made his first 
visit to Geneva. Written documents still exist which remove all 


doubt on this point. The really interesting question about the 
christening" of Geneva is: Whose suggestion was it? Was it a 
random suggestion, or was it deliberately made in the interests of 
some party or corporation wishing to exploit the place ? The lat- 
ter view commends itself as the reasonable one, and in that case 
the name must have emanated either from the Massachusetts 
proprietaries or from the Xew York Genesee Land Company, previ- 
ously mentioned and more commonly known as the Lessee com- 
pany. Probablv it emanated from the Lessee company, for of the 
two companies the Lessee company was the first on the ground, 
indeed ^\"as on the ground before the Phelps and Gorham company 
was formed, and the earliest written document now known dated 
from Geneva is a letter written October 14, 1788, by Dr. Caleb 
Benton, the local representative of the Lessee company, a letter 
presumably written from that comi)any's trading establishment, 
erected as we have seen in 1787 at the foot of what is now known 
as Colt's hill. Perhaps, it was after all. Doctor Caleb Benton him- 
self who was responsible for the name Geneva, in preference to 
the old Indian name Kanadesaga. waiting to be adopted; for it is 
in evidence that Promoter Benton liad a fondness, a taste for 
bestowing names, and that could he have had his way Canandaigua 
had been Walkersburgh ! 

The Long Lease. 

But the shorter fnrmati\e ])eri(Ml in the history of Geneva was 
not without dramatic phases. The serpent entered our paradise, 
when Xoveml)er 30, 1787. at the very beginning of Geneva's his- 
torv, the Lessee company, at a council at Kanadesaga (Geneva) 
of the chiefs or sachems of the Six Xations of Indians, secured from 
them a 999 years' lease of all their lands in Xew York State west 
of the "i)roperty line," that is. in a general way, west of I'tica. 
except certain reservations for their own use. This move, though 
suggested by views and practices then more or less current among 
land speculators, was as adroit as it was bold, hi its natural oper- 
ation, a 999 year<* lease of such universal scope practically estopped 
both Xew York State and the State of .NLassachusetts from acquir- 
ing possession, excejit through the Lessee company, of any of the 
lands of the Six Xations, and rendered the provisions of the 
Hartford Convention of the preceding year, 1786. nugatory: and. 
although without delay. I'ebruary 16, 1788, the Legislature of the 

XM.LACI': A XI) C\'\\ ()|- GENEVA. 343 

State of New York by resolution declared this long lease and other 
long- leases of more limited scope which the compan)- had negoti- 
ated, to he purchases and therefore void, the Lessee company was 
!)}■ no means stripped of power to he a disturhing infiuence in 
mipendmg land dealings with the Indians in Central and Western 
New York, by the State of New ^ ork and 1)\ the State of Massa- 
chusetts, lor in the negotiation of the long leases, the Lessee 
company had obtainctl an inlUience with the Indians which it was 
difticnlt to neutralize. So line is this that when in the following- 
year, l/S,S (Jul}- 8), at the IkilTalo Creek council, Mr. Phelps as 
representative of the State of Alassachusetts and the proprietaries 
it had created, sought to clear title to the "(ienesee tract," so- 
called, by i^urchase from the Senecas, he found it expedient to 
secure by grants of land the good offices of representatives of the 
Lessee company as intermediaries; and later, in the latter part of 
1788 and the earlier part of 1789, the State of New York itself 
was from the malign ascendency of these same iutluences seriously 
hampered in securing necessary cessions from \arious of the Six 
i\ations, even though pendmg such negotiations the long leases 
were surrendered by the Lessee comjianw I'ebruary 14, 1789. As 
fm-ther twidence of the [)ul)lic estimation in which this malign 
ascendencN' of the Lessees was held, it is to be noted that at the 
Eort Stanwix negotiations with the ( Anondagas, September 12, 
1788, and with the Oneidas, a week later, September 20, John 
Livingston and John C. Schuyler, who had appeared on the scene 
in the interests of the Lessee company, were peremptoi-ily ordered 
to retire fort\- miles from the ])lace of meeting. 

The Conspiracy. 
The trail of the serpent in Geneva's earlier history does not 
stop here. The machinations of the leading spirits of the Lessee 
com])an\' went further. Jn the autumn of 1788, a circular was 
issued signed by John Livingston and Caleb Benton, as officers of 
a convention purporting to have been held at Geneva, "urging the 
people to hold town meetings and sign petitions for a n^w state to 
be set otT from \\w\ ^■ork," and of the leading si)irits oi the Lessee 
comi)any John Livingston and Caleb I'.enton were easily the two 
most consi)icuous. ddiis conspirac)- to disrupt the fair common- 
wealth of Xew \'ork, which had not a few promoters in the coun- 
ties east of the Pre-emi)tion line and in the extreme western part 
of the State, itcrsisted with more or less activity throughout 


the earlier formative period and even till Xoveniber 8. 1793. when 
at a meeting- held at Canandaigna. embracing the jndges. justices. 
and inhal)itants of the different parts of the county of Ontario, the 
movement and its instigators were denounced with such eloquent 
and irresistible force that the i^roject was never heard of 
more. It is interesting to note here that not many years later a 
conspiracy on similar lines, but of national import, best known as 
the Aaron Burr conspiracy, was developed. 

The First Pre-emption Line. 

X'ext in the train of ills that n.iake Geneva's earlier formative 
period memorable was the misfortune, the fatal error, that io\- 
lowed ihe running of the Pre-em])tion line to define the eastern 
limits of the Massachusetts holding under the convention of 1786. 
The running of the Pre-emption line l)egan June 13. 1788. and 
about this time Mr. F^heips. re]:)resenting the i)roprietaries, arrixed 
to take possession of their i)rincipaiity. for such in essence it was. 
Nothing doubting that Kanadesaga, the ca])ital of the Seiiecas, was 
\\ithin the lands of the Senecas which the i)roprietaries' jiurchase 
was supposed to co\er. and full of the pleasing expectation of 
making it the ca])ital of the ])roprietaries" ])rincely domain, Mr. 
Phelps was seized with unspeakable consternation on hearing that 
the Pre-emption line as being sur\e}'ed would run. to the west of 
Kanadesaga. and that his j)roject of making Kanadesaga the cajv 
ital of the proprietaryshiji nuist be aljandoned. In this crisis, no 
other course offering, Mr. ['hel])s decisivelv cut the Gordian knot and 
pushed on to the next lake and made Ganadarcjue, or Canandaigua, 
the capital. Hence, later the coiu't house at Canandaigua and an 
irremediable wrong to (ienexa! A re-sur\ev in 17Q2 showed that 
Kanadesaga (Genewi) was in the Pheli)s and Gorham i'm-chase. 
1)ut the knowledge came too late. 

It has fre(|uenth- been suggested that the error in the running 
of the I're-emjjtion line of 1788. the Old Pre-emption line as it is 
now called, was made purposely in the interests of the Lessee 
company, but a careful study of all the circumstances of the case 
does not seem to justify the charge, as the main thing and practi- 
calh the onh- thing tliat can be said in support of it is that 
to an extent it jumped with the interests of the Lessee company 
not to have Kanadesaga (Geneva) included in the Phelps and 
Gorham Purchase. 

villa(;r and ci'ia of gexeva. 


The First Titles. 

Unite as inlercstin^-. if not as dranialic, as the wci^hlicr 
events in the earlier forniatixe pei-iod ot (]ene\a's ln^t(Jl•\■ alreadx' 
recited, is the fact that in the sonlhern liah' nf (iene\a. title l(j the 
land conld not he ac<|nired or parsed till l''ehinar\- _?5. IJ.SVi, and 
in the iiurthern and northeastern ])arts till l)eceinl)er In, 17(S'^. for 
in the eye of the law the Indians of the Six Xatioiis were not 
owners Init simply ()ccn])ants of the lands within their acknowl- 
edged domains, and their lands were inalienahle 1)\ them e.\ce]jt tcj 
the State by cession after dne com])ensation. and it was lujt till 
the dates given al)o\e that cessions hy the Indians to the State of 
all land in Cjenexa were ettected. Had it not been for the err(;r 
developed in the snmnier of 17(SS in rnnniiii; the (original oi" ( )Id 
I're-em])tion line, the lands ot Genexa had been covered by the 
cession made at Buffalo creek, July 8th. 1 7(S<S. to Mr. I'hel])s. as 
representati\e of the State of Massachitsetts a.nd the proprietaries. 
I)\- the Seiiecas. of that iiortion of their lands lying between Seneca 
lake and the Genesee ri\er. distinctixely known as the "(ienesee 
tract." However, at Albanx , h"ebrnar\- 2?. 17S*>. the ("ayngas. whose 
lands ran west to the lands of the Senecas. ceded all their territ(jry. 
after certain reser\-ations. to the State oi Xew \'ork. To this 
general cession of their lands the\- added a special cession oi" reser- 
vation ihrough the State to I^eter Ryckman of 16.000 acres between 
the east line of the Massachusetts cession of jtily S. 17SS, and 
Seneca lake, the north boundary of said tract as afterward laid out. 
being a line best known as the Reed and kyckman line, starting 
on the shore of Seneca lake, two rods north of the mouth tit what 
is locally known as Cemetery creek, and running west to the Pre- 
ein])tion line, the ( )ld I're em])ti()n line, and forming in its cour,se 
the north boundary of the Pulteney street cemetery. 

This cession, it is to be observed, extinguished the Indian 
claims to the southern i)ortion only of Geneva. Rtit ten months 
later. December 10. 178*^^ two Seneca chiefs executed at Kanade- 
saga (Geneva), in 1)ehalf of the Senecas. a letter of renunciation to 
the State of New N'ork of all claims l)y them to lands east of the 
oid Massachusetts Pre-emption line, a reasonable compensation 
therefor to be made to the Cayugas. 'idiis cession of the Senecas. 
by letter of renunciation, completed the extinguishment of any and 
all Indian claims to the land within Geneva and i)laced the owner- 


ship of the land in the State of New York. At last the acquisition 
and passing of legal titles within Geneva had become possible. 

The First Land Patents. 

Subsequently two notable patents were issued by the State of 
New York covering the lands in southern and northern Geneva. 
So notable are these patents and so prominent a part ha\"e they 
played in Geneva's history and life that at least a passing notice 
of them cannot be omitted. February 15. 1790, the land office of 
the State ol New ^'ork ordered to be isstied to Colonel Seth Reed 
for nnlitary ser\ices in the Revolution a patent of 2000 acres, 
bounded as follows: on the south, by the Reed and Ryckman line: 
on the west, by the (old) Pre-em])tion line, and on the east, by 
the Miiiiary line (afterwards known as the Old Alilitary line), 
which, begmning at the eastern point of the Reed and Ryckman 
line, ran north. 3> degrees. 45 minutes east. And in May of the 
same \ear, 1790, the "Seth Reed location," as it was called, was 
surveyed, plotted, and mapped by Jacob Hart, and the plan then 
developed and adopted remains with slight changes the plan of the 
nDiihcrn ])art of (Geneva today. 

Xovend)er 2, 1790. a patent of greater importance and interest 
in the liistorv of Geneva, as covering the southern half of the ])lace. 
was issued b\- the land othce of the Stale to Peter Ryckman and 
Selh Reed, as tenants in connnon of the tract of 16,000 acres ni land 
ceded by the Cayugas, as before recited, to Peter Ryckman. riii> 
patent was issued to Peter Ryckman and Seth Keed as compensa- 
tion for their services in etfecting a meeting between the Cayugas 
and the commissioners for holding treaties with the Indians within 
the State. 

The northe'istern ])ortion of Genexa lying east of the ( (dd ) 
Militarv line, the original western boundary of the Militar\- tract 
set apart b\- the State of New Wn-k for soldiers of the l\e\ olution. 
was within the Military tract and was patented by the State to 
different parties, the Indian claims having been extinguished by the 
two cessions that extinguished tlie Indian claims to the southern 
and northern portions of Geneva. 

Thus slowly, but surely, Geneva was opened up to civilization 
and made a theater of action for the settler and the land s])eculator. 
But, alas, for the incon.stancy of things human! 14ie cloud which 
from the beginnino- had lowered over the first formative 

VIT.I.ACI-: AM) (\'\\ ()!• (,I-:NEVA. 347 

period did not ri'^e : contrariwise, it scttlcil down in darkest gloom, 
when al the close of tlic ])cn(i(| ilic I 'rc-cniption line was re-sur- 
veyed and it was found that (iene\a was part and ])arcel of the 
"Genesee tract" and that all titles that lia<l heen ac(|nii-ed to lands 
willnn its horders were \()id ! 

Period 1792 to 1801. 

The second and longer of tlie two foiinative i)eriods indicated 
as opening- Geneva's history enihraces the \ears from 17*>2 to ISdl. 
To this period helong the real heginnings of (iene\a. and from lir>t 
to last the dominant spirit in it was Captain (haides Williamson, 
agent of the Pultene)- Associates, and one of the most remarkable 
and ])ictures((tie charactei's in the histor\ of W estern New \'ork — 
a sort ot Robin Hood and Aledie\al haron cond)ined, as one hio- 
gra])her has felicitotisK- described him. It might be interesting to 
pause here and present brietly the storv of Captain Williamson's 
reign over the great l\ilteney i)urchase, of his earlier life, and of his 
death .it sea in IXO.S. when returnuig frrnn the W est Indies, whither 
he had been sent as Go\ ernor of one of the islands thei'e. but the 
limits of this sketch forbid it. 

Cai)tain Williamson lirst came into the ( lenesee countr\- in 
I'^ebruar}', 17*>i, coming 1)\' the (iene\a a])]iroach. Xo soonei- had 
he entered u])on dut\' in his princeK' domain than throughout it 
events of interest and imjxtrt followed thick and fast. W hen in 
h'ebruarw 17^)2. Ga])tain Williamson passed through (iene\a. 
( lene\a according to the ]*re-eni])tion line as then established was 
not, as we ha\e seen, part of the rulteney purchase: but in 
No\eml)cr and l)ecend)er of that \ear the doubt that had existed 
from the first as to the correctness of the original 1 're-eiu])tion line 
was dissolved. A re-snr\e\- showed that Gene\a was part of the 
Pulteney purchase and that the true or new rre-emption line which 
of course became the true Military line, ran about as much to the 
east of Geneva as the old or false Pre-emption line ran to the west 
of it. 

What ha])pene(r-' Pater it de\elo])ed that ■■The ( iore" as it 
came to be called, i. e., the wedge-shai)ed tract between the two 
i're-eni])tiou lines — for these two lines beginning at the same point 
in the boundary line between Xew \ nvk and Pennsyhania ended 
several miles apart at Pake Ontario — embraced not only the much 
coveted 2,400 acres more or less of the future city of Geneva, but a 


grand tolai of 85,896 acres in one of tiie most desirable portions of 
the State. "The Gore" was. therefore, from any point of view, a 
valuable property, and as it belonged to the Pultenev Purchase, 
immediately Captain Williamson, as agent of the principaHty, 
proceeded to reclaim it. There was consternation now in the 
camps of the Lessee compan}- and in the hearts of all who held titles 
in "The Gore." since their titles as previously pointed out had 
become void. But in l)ecoming void, the titles had not become 
worthless, for the titles rested on patents granted by the State of 
New ^'ork. and the great State of Xew York did not close its eyes 
to its duty, but lionorabK' met the exigency with generous grants 
of "compensation lands" in the unassigned territory of the State, 
east of the Pre-emption line, for west of that line all territory 
Ijelongcd to Massachusetts and its proprietaries. On his piiri. 
Captain W illiamson. recognizing the poignancy of the iniancial 
situation, handled it not merely with the irresistible promptitude 
liabitual to him, but \\ith masterly fairness and liberality and skill, 
and the war of "The Gore" ended amicably, if not to the entire 
satisfaction of all concerned. In 17*^^6. the State formally adopted 
and ratified the new Pre-eni])tiiin line and thenceforth (Iene\'a"s 
claim to be part oi the "(jcnesee tract" was never assailed. 

Meanwhile, history had been making, and among other occur- 
rences, in 1792, the tlrst school was taught by Samuel Wheaton. In 
179o the town of Seneca was organized and Ezra Patterson was 
elected sui)ervisor. thus becoming not only the first supervisor of 
the civic proxince to which Gene\a belonged, but the first ])ublic 
official therein ac(|uiriug avuhorit}- by local election. This tirst local 
election was held in the house of Jt)shua l'"airbanks. inn keeper. 
The full list of officers elected is preserved in the tirst record book 
of the town of Seneca. Also, in this year i 17*)vM. the hrst Court of 
Over and Terminer in Ontario county was held in Geneva, judge 
John Sloss Ho])art presiding, and one of Genexa's first maiuifac- 
tories. a saw null, is supposed to have been erected on the banks of 
Castle creek, though as it is said to have been erected by Polydore 
B. W'isner. probaldv it is more correct to say that it was erected in 
1798. the vear of Mr. Winner's connng. which hai)pens to be (juite 
certainly the year in which the first grist mill was erected by Cor- 
nelius Rol:»erts. It is tobe noted, however, that the natural home of 
the grist mill and the saw mill in this region was Kashong creek and 
lake Keuka outlet, and that the existence in those sections of the 

\'ii.i.\r,i' Axi) cvyy n\- gexeva. .uo 

twain t()uii(l;(li(in shmes of ri\ iliz.-i tinn antedates their appearance 
\\ithin (ifnc\a's limil^. I'.nl nio^t ni)tal)lc of all. in ilii^ vcar. 1703. 
Captain Williamson todk formal possession of iln' \\vvi\ ami 
Ryckman rescrx at ion. and by hi:- dn-cction a snr\cy and plottinj^' of 
the sonthcrn half of dcncxa iin.i lots and trarts was made hy [oseph 
Anmn, \\hndi hecame the ha^is of titles for thi.s portion of (ieneva. 
jnst as the Marl snr\ey and plottin- made in 17'>() hecame tlu' hasi.s 
for titles in the iiorthei-n poni(ai of (ieiu'\a. a^ ali"ead\- de^crihed. 

A Year of Events. 

I he year l/^h, (he I 're-emi)tion line ha\in- heen settled, fairly 
hrisllcs with exents, and in a way is the trne hei^innini^- for TJenex-a 
of iridi\idnalit_\- and of its elaims to distinetion. In this vear 
the villao-c was laid ont nnder the e\e of Captain W illianison. and in 
particular Alain street, the jnst jiride of onr hearts and the einw 
not perhaps of the world, hnt of onr neighbors, sjjran^' into 
existence with its promise of residences on the west side onlv and on 
the east side gardens drop|)in<; in terraces to the lake. The Geneva 
hotel, m its day the wonder and adnnration of all tra\elers. 
preserved as a part of what is now known as the Hy^'icnic Iiistitnte 
.Sanitarinm. was hnilt and C(|ni])])ed at an expense of little less than 
$10,000. an enormons snm at that early date. The MUe Point 
house, intended for the residence of Captain Williamson's brother, 
a private mansion as notable in its wa\- as the (ienc\a hotel itself, 
and costing;" \\hen com])lete(l $5,000 nearh'. was bc£;"nn. thonj.;h not 
hnishcd till three or four years later. The fnst slooj:) cx'cr bnilt at 
Geneva to sail the "sil\-er Seneca." a \essel of thirt\-ci_<;"ht and one- 
halt tons bnrthen, constructed bx Ilrown cK; Sheflield. was launche(l 
with j^rcat ccremonv l)efore a xast crowd di-awn fi-om all o\er the 
(icnesee countr\- :uid the xdcinaqe. and with shontmq's was bai)ti/ed 
"Alexander." In the launching- of the "Alexander." there was a 
moment of dramatic intensitx' worth i)reser\in^- in its integrity 
just as the blocks were broke, unnoticed a hardy mariner sjied to 
the to]3 of the toweriiiL;- mast, and as the "Alexander" shot down 
the ways and took the water, innnediatcly she be_i;an to swa_\- 
violently and the hardy mariner was whii)ped through the air from 
side to side. A crv of hon-or went u]) from the assembled thousands, 
some closed their eyes that they mi,L;lit not see a dire trag-edy 
enacted, while others for the opposite reason kept their eyes wide 
open, but fortune ever favors the brave and at last aiuid huzzas the 


(lougiity tar slid down to ilio deck unlianned antl tlic land Inbbers 
went below to ponder the terrors of the sea. 

Deceml)er 16 of this memorable year. Lucius Carev published 
at Geneva the tirst number of the "Ontario Gazette or Western 
Chronicle," Geneva's hrst nc\vspaper, later removed to Canan- 
daigua. Also a postoffice was opened with Walter Grieve, afterward 
General Grieve, as postmaster: and School Commissioners were 
appointed, Jame> Rice. Oliver \\ hitmore. and Phineas Pierce, who 
were empowered to receive the money granted bv the State for the 
use of schools under the act of \7^>5. Further, the Geneva ^\'ater 
\\'orks Compan} . destined to last unrler one form or another till 
1896, just one hundred years, was organized. And to close the vear 
with eclat, the Gene^■a hotel being finished. Geneva's first notable 
ball was given in celel)ration of the event, and thereto came all the 
wealth and beauty of the Genesee country. 

In 1797 the work of laying the foundation of the citv went 
merrily on. A brewery, in the interests of temi)erance, was opened 
at Mile ])oint. I)^■ John Mot'tat. a Scotchman: the Pultene\' street 
cemetery was laid out and the first burial therein was made, being 
that of a child of Pohdore P.. Wisner. .\ fairly good road from Utica 
to the Genesee, kno\\"n as the great Genesee road, was perfected 
through funds olUained princijially b}- a lotter\-. and the Genesee 
Mail stage. Utica to Geneva, once a week, commenced September 
30th. In 1798 the formative work continued, and Geneva's first 
library association was created, the creation of pul)lic libraries being 
counted in the ''Genesee tract" an object of ])rime importance 
deserving the earliest ])ossible attention. Among- those in Geneva 
who interested themselves in promoting this public utility, the 
leading spirit was Polvdore P). \\'isner. already mentioned, a 
lawver, -who from this time til! his sudden and deepl}- mourned 
death in 1814 continued instant in all movements for benefiting 
Geneva. In the same vear the Presbyterian church was organized 
and the first step taken toward the establishment of religious bodies, 
a movement destined to be continued with conspicuous zeal. 

The Passing of Captain Williamson. 

At last the time was come when the man who had been back 
of all this rapid and wonderful development was to disappear from 
the scene. In 1800 differences of opinion, which had been develop- 
ing between the Pulteney Associates and their agent, Captain 

\iiJ..\r;[.: axd ci-yy f)|- (]]\.\. .s5i 

W illianison, as tn certain details of administration, especially the 
la\ishncss of e\i>eiiditiiri' deinandeil l)y liis plans, cnlnn'nated. and 
nn Ma)' U»lli. ISOI ('aptam Williamson. deedinL; to the Tnltenev 
Associates, as already n)entione(l. ilif ]iiincel\ estate which he had 
held in his own name >ince Apiil lltli, 17^)2, retired, 'i'his is not 
the place to discnss the merits oi the differences, hnt the sober 
second thonght of the (ienesrc country has std)stantiall\- approved 
the adnnnistralion of ("a])tain W illiamson. \nv ihc rapiditx of settle- 
ment it enL;cndei-ed and the hii^h (diarac'ter of ihr scttlei-s it <o 
ahnndantly attracted, and withont reser\ation is pk-ascil to 
renKMnher and ap])land tlie manlmcss and honesi\-. the ^enialitw the 
mi(|nenchal)le enthnsiasm. the facnlty foi" organization, and the 
mar\elons industry of C"a])tain Charles W illianison. 

"Phc successors in Gene^ a of Captain W illianison m the ai^encv 
of the Pulteney estate, an e\cr lessenini^- estate and now near 
extinction. ha\e all heen inen of InA^h character: Colonel Robert 
Trou]). 1S()1-1,S,^^2; j(»seph bellows. 18.^2 1.S71: bldward .\. Kin^s- 
!and, 1871-1X04: and 1S')4 to I'HiO. Mason and Rose, and since the 
lamented death of Jndo"c ^lason in l*)()i), Mr. Rose alone. Colonel 
Robert Troup. a])]iointed ^en.eral a^ent in 1X0]. \\as not able to 
assume the duties of the office in ])i'rson till ISl-!. and in the interim 
was re])resented worthih- b\- Jolm Johnstone. John Ileslop. and 
Robert vScott, successixely. as sub-agents. 

Growth during Williamson Period. 

l)ui"in^" the longer formatixc i)eriod. that is dnriiiL^- the reii:;n of 
Captain W illianison. (ieue\a made substantial i)ro_s5^ress. There is 
a dearth of exact h^aires. bin there are estimates which e\en if not 
exact ^•i\e a satisfactor\- idea of tleiuwa's growth and de\elo]>ment 
during- that interesting- period. .\l the be^inniiiLi- of the i)eriod. the 
1)opu1atioii of Ciciuna \\a^ estimated as we ha\e seen at ten or 
twehe families. Mrs. Bradford, in her careful history, written in 
1<S62, speaks of Genexa's ])opulation in 17*^8 as about thirty tamilies. 
too small an estimate perlrips. In ISOd. the F.n.e^lish traveler Maude. 
makes the number of families sixty, probably a somewhat o;enerous 
estimate, for evidenth- Mr. Maude was not a little fascinated with 
the si)leiidid "C.eneva hotel" and the manner in which he was 
treated there bv Captain Williamson and the C.enexans. and possi- 
1)1\- (leneva looked to him larger than it was. A recension made 
in 1805, the year before the incorporation of the village, showed 


sixty-eight houses and three hundred and twenty-five inhabitants* 
In any view, however, the growth made under Captain W'ilHamson 
was substantial and can \\itl-i fhfficulty ])e measured hv figures. 

The taste shown l)y Captain A\'illiamson in laying out the future 
city and particularly his provision of a grand avenue. ]\Iain street, 
along the banks of the lake, and the erection by him of two such 
advanced and imposing buildings for their time as the Geneva hotel 
and the Mile Point mansion, the latter to be approached through 
rows of Lombardy poplars, whether profitable to the Pulteney 
Associates or not, at once lifted Geneva out of the commonplace 
and invested it with an "imperial air" which it was destined never 
to lose. In the presence of fame, figures become voiceless. The 
rights of local history demand that it be noted that although of 
Geneva's first two great l)uildings the name of the architect has 
not survived, the carpenter work was cared for by David Abbey 
and the mason work 1)\- John \\ oods. while the materials and 
supplies were furnished chiefly Ijy Grie\e and Moffatt. the leading 
mercantile firm of the >econd formati\c period — chiefly by Grieve 
and r^lottatt. not exclusively, for Captain W illiamson dispensed the 
patronage of his principality with princely impartiality. 

Again it is largeh' due to Captain \\ illiamson that during this 
period, almost completely controlled by him, Geneva's population 
was so augmented bv settlers of a reallv desirable character, and 
that so many gentlemen of social importance and of professional or 
business capacity made Geneva their home and became founders of 
families destined to render Gene\a notewortlu" anil some of them 
to continue to the present time, b^xamples are: Judge Jacob \\". 
Hallett, whose descendants are by connection members of many 
of Geneva's leading families of today, one daughter having married 
a Rees. another a Rose, and another a Colt : .Major James Rees. 
who first came mto the Genesee country as the jirivate secretary 
and representative nf Robert Morris, one of the proprietaries, 
Caroline C. Rees. his daughter, later marrying Baron William 
Steuben l)e Zeng. one of whose daughters in turn married a 
De Lancev and a second a Seward: Herman H. Bogert. lawyer. 
whose voungest daughter was afterward married to Godfrey J. 
Grosvenor, a talented and distinguished lawyer in Geneva: Judge 
Elijah H. Gorden. Robert \\'. Stoddard. Daniel W . Lewis. David 
Hudson, John Collins. Henry Beekman, all lawyers and all promi- 
nent in the history of Geneva; John Hemiup, born in Strassburg, 

VJ1.L.\(,I-: AND (\'\'\ ()!• (.I-.XI'A'A. 353 

Gcniiany, who, a warm fiitiid and admirer of Lafayclle, crcjsscd 
the ocean witli liim and inok ])arl nnder hnn in tlie war of the 
Ivcvohition, and came In (l'/n(.'\;i in 17*)'^ <;!-andfather of tlic well 
known hrolhcis. Morris and ( liarlcs 1>. Ilcmin]); I )r. John llcnry 
and I)r. I^amcl (ioodwin, (icn<.'\;i"s fn-st ])ciananent [)h\sicians ; 
Saninel Coll, Tliomas (ionndry, Xathaniel Merrill, Colonel Walter 
rrrievc, W. Hontcn ( llon^hton ? ), Thomas and James jiarden, 
Kichard M. W illiam?., William 'rai)])an. Colonel Kirhard M. P.ailey. 
John Mofit'att, Richai'd I ,ar/.alere. John and Alu-am Mall. 
men; Isaac Mullender, land owner; John |ohnslone and Charles 
Cameron, assistants to Captain W iliiamson. who came o\er with 
him in 1/01 ; and Thomas I'oweli, lons^- coimected with the celebrated 
"Thatched Cottajje" in London, the resort of "statesmen, ])oliticians 
and wits," but after his connm^- to this conntiw indnced b\- Captain 
W iliiamson to take chari^x' of the Geneva hotel, which he condncted 
with honor and snccess. an esteemed citi/en with \aried interests 
other than the hotel and one of the first vestr\-men of Trinit\- church. 
To this list must be added the name> of the follo\\in<r gfeiitlemen, 
first trustees of the Tresbyterian church of Geneva, elected 1798: 
Oliver AVhitiuore, Klijah Wilder, Septinuis lA ans, Rzra Patterson, 
Samuel Latta, William Smith, Jr., and Polxdore 1). W'isner, thouijh 
Ezra Patterson \vas an influential citi/.en before Captain Williamson 
came upon the scene. 

Of the mechanics attracted to (iene\a during the \\Mliiaiuson 
])eriod, a word is to be said of one of the iuost prominent of them. 
Moses Hall. Tt was to him that Geneva owed its tirst iron foundry, 
which he established on the north side of Castle street, a little west 
of F.xchnng-e street. Before his establishment of his foundry on 
Castle street, Mr. Plall had maintaine<l for years a bl.acksmith's 
shop on the east side of Main street, opposite the south end of the 
l)ark, for thoug-h now the center of Geneva's activities is the corner 
of Seneca and Exchans^e streets, at the level of the Lake, in the 
begiimin^- the center of activities was around Pulteney park, eii^hty 
or ninety feet above the level of the lake, and Mr. TTall's change of 
site was an early instance of what Geneva's forefathers picturesc|uely 
styled the "Hill" going- to the "Bottom." "TTill" and "Bottom" being 
the popular designations of the rival sections of the village. Mr. 
Hall was born in 1776 nnd died in 1867. Tt is not known when he 
first came to Geneva, but by Abraham Dox he was spoken of as an 
"old resident" in 1805. Pn her history of Geneva, Mrs. Bradford 


records of him that he was "one of the earhest and most respectable 
settlers of Geneva," always esteemed as "an honest man and a 
faithful Christian." 

Quite in a class by himself, but belonging to the Williamson 
period, is Major James Cochran, "who fiddled his wav into 
Congress," as he with great zest stated in speaking of the 
impromptu but indescribably valuable and dee])ly ap])reciated 
services he rendered at Geneva's famous ball in ]7'-Y). This list, 
imperfect as it is, attests the interest that Geneva should feel in the 
character and career of Capiain Williamson. 

Geneva's happenings since 1800 constitute a centurv of events, 
of exits and of entrances of persons and of families, so numerous 
and so deserving of remembrance here that, were an attempt made 
to do them all that even and exact justice which would make them 
real to the luind, the result Avould be not a l)rief chronicle such as 
this \\'ork requires, but a ponderous volume meet only for coteries 
of men and women of endless leisure, so that apparently the one 
course left is to run Hglitly along the mountain tops of Gene^•a^s 
storv as it reveals itself in the successi\e decades of the centurw 

Decide, 1800-1810. 

The princi])a] events of the decade, 1800-1810. are in a way. 
nearlv all of them, niomimental. 1802: The Mile Point mansion 
was occupied for the llrst and last time. 1803: The two great 
farms, "The White Springs Farm" and "The Rose Hill I'arm." 
were established, the one by Judge John Xicholas. the other l)y the 
Hon. Robert L. Rose, Uyo men who were of signal prominence in 
the early development of Geneva, men whose cultured influence has 
happily been continued to the place to this day through their many 
descendants. They were sons-in-law of Mr. and Mrs. (iavin 
Lawson, who built and resided in what is now^ known as "The 

1804: Tlie first regular passenger stage line, Utica to Canan- 
daigua, was opened, the first stages used thereon being the coaches 
in which Mr. Lawson and his sons-in-1aA\- ^^•ith their families 
journeyed to Geneva from "Hampstead," their plantation in 
Virginia where these coaches were made by their own workmen. 
1806: Three events present themselves for record: — the village 
was incorporated; Trinity church was organized; and the "Exposi- 
tor," the first permanent village paper, was established by Colonel 

viLi..\(ii': AM) (\\'\ ()i (,i-:.\i-:\ A, 


j'lmcs l>()i;"cr(, wild lir,s( canir lo (inicva iliis vc-ar. Three vears 
later. Colonel lloiyeil cliani^eM tiie name (if liis papei' lo "(lencva 
Gazette," which as such has snr\i\e(l lo llu- present time, hut since 
1902 under the title "(Jenexa A(l\ ertiser ( la/et te." 

1807: The lirst seci'et society- or^ani/ation was t'ormeil. Ark 
l()(ls;'c. N'o. v?o ot' l'"ree and Aci-e]-led Masons, the lodge finding its 
first home in the splendid old 
Colonial building on h'\(diange 
(then Water) street, erected in 
1804 hy Colonel rearl\' I'hiljips. 
which some _\cars later. 1813. he- 
came the home of the Tillman 
family and the scene of man\- bril- 
liant social affairs. januar\- .^0 of 
this year (1807). twenty-three 
free-holders of Cene\a petitioned 
the Regents of the LMii\ersit\' of 
the State of New York for the in- 
corporation of Ciene\a Acadenu', 
but the ])etition was not granted 
and the Academy remained with- 
out a charter till 18l.v :\ugust 3. 
1807. in anticipation of a war with 
l^ngland, Captain Walter Crieve's 
company of artillery and Captain 
Sei^timus Evans's troop of horse 
tendered their services to the 
commander-in-chief to be held in 
readiness for active ser\ice. De- 
cember 20, 1807. at 2 A. M.. oc- 
curred the first fire of anv im- 
portance of which there is record, 
being the still-houses of Daniel 
Benton and the Messrs. Reed; 
loss, eighteen hundred dollars; or 

1809: Idle hrst church edifices, the Presbyterian and the 
Episcopalian, were erected, jonatha.n Doane. the father of the late 
Bisliop Doane of New Jersey, builder. Of the Presbyterian church, 
the Rev. Jedediah Cdiaiiman was the first permanent pastor, 1800- 
1812; and of the Episcopal church,, the Rev. Davenport Phelps was 


SteiilRMi II. Paiker, for ni.iny years prom- 
inent as a newspaper publisher in Geneva, 
was born in the town of Hector, Seneca 
county, October 29, 18JJ ; became editor and 
proprietor of the Geneva Gazette, the Oemo- 
cratic organ of Eastern Ontario, in lS-44; 
and continued at its head until his lieath ; 
po.stniaster of (ieneva under President Cu- 
cbaiian, 1856-60; State Canal Commissioner, 
180)1-65: served also as President of the 
V'illafje of f Jeneva ; died at Geneva. October 
25. 1901. 

L^in, incendiar\'. 


missionary, 1803-1806, and first permanent rector, 1806-1813. Jnne 
10 of this year (1809), Geneva celebrated with grand enthnsiasm 
the restoration of commercial relations between Great Britain and 
America, the last gun of the Federal salute fired on that occasion 
being wadded with "The Xon-importation Act, Jefferson's Procla- 
mation, Embargo Act, Supplementary Embargo Act, and Enforcing 
Act." The orator for the day was Daniel W. Lewis, Esq., "a sound 
and learned lawyer." In this same year (1809), the first horse races 
were held, October 11th and 12th, in connection with the Genesee 
Semi-annual Fair on the Colt meadows, which were situated west 
of Genesee street and north of Castle street, and for many years 
were the scene of the annual military festival, or "General Training:." 
1810: A dancing school, the first probably of note, was opened by 
Alexis de St. Felix, and about this time, or more exactly, February 
6th, 1811, a '\\r. Moore advertises a military school at Powell's 
hotel, for broad-sword exercise, for thus in these early days mili- 
tarism and the dance, as may be observed, held the scene hand in 

In this year, 1810. Geneva's first important manufacturing 
interest, the Ontario glass factory, lending distinction to the names 
of De Zeng and Dox as founders, was established, capital $100,- 
000, and to this day an interesting specimen of its work remains 
in the glass of exquisite amber hue to be seen in the older windows 
of Trinity church. The charter of the company, bearing the great 
seal of the State and the masterful signature of Daniel D. Tompkins, 
Governor, is extant, having been presented to Hobart college 
library by the late Henry Lawrence De Zeng. 

The Honorable Abraham Dox, the largest stockholder of the 
Ontario glass factory, was from his coming to Geneva in 1805 till 
his death at Hopeton in 1862, a conspicuous figure in the life of 
Geneva. His business interests were large and varied and appreci- 
ably promoted the prosperity of the place. He was a leader in 
religious and educational undertakings, a liberal contributor to the 
funds for the erection of the first church buildings of both the 
Presbyterian and Episcopalian churches, and also to the establish- 
ing funds of the Geneva Academy and of Geneva (now Hobart) 
College, and was made a member of the first board of trustees of 
the collese. He served as an ofificer in the war of 1812. was the aid 
of General Stephen Van Rensselaer at the battle of Queenstown, and 
was the bearer of that General's dispatches to the headquarters of 

X'lIJ^ACiR A XI) (I 'I A' ol" GENEVA. .^57 

the army at Albany. Also, he served one time as a member of the 
Legislature of the State, and was a stockholder and director of the 
old Ontario bank of Canandaigua, whose charter he helped to 
])r()curc. I'hc Ontario bank of (\'inandai<.^"na was the first bank 
chartered west of Utica. 

Incorporation of Village. 

Sonic ol the excnts ot tlii^ (Jccadt' call for niort' iliaii mere 
nienti('n. In its act of incor])oi"ation, iSOh. (i(,mu-\;i anlc-datcs all 
neighboring- \illages and cities, the (lale> of il> lu-igliboi-^ being: 
Ibiffalo, bSlo; Canandaigna, ISI.^; Katli. iNlh; Uoclicster. 1X17; 
Anbui"!!, IS15; l*"lniira, ISl.^; S\racnsc. 1M23. The coi-])oratc life 
of (icnc\a, both as \ illagc, l(S()r)-18<:)<S, and a^ cilw 1 XUS i(» the pi-es- 
cnt time, has consistently and continuous!}' jjcen of the most 
adxanced type. 

The Two Historic Farms. 

Tlu- W hitt' Springs and The Rose Mill faiins, Geneva's two 
famous farms, originally 1,600 acres each in extent, but now b\' 
creation of smaller farms ouK- about 4nM acres each, lia\'e from the 
beginning been of more than local interest, b.otli came to be known 
■all o\ei- the State as centers of advanced or scienlitic fai'uiing. 

In tile fifties and sixties both attained ixmiarkable distinction. 
'file Kose Mill farm, under tlu' intelligent and ])ainstaking direction 
of Robert |. Swan, who accpiired it 1)\' jjurchase in 1S50, was hon- 
ored with the award of both the famous ])ri/.es oflered by the State 
Agricultui-al Societ\', the one in 18,^3. for the most perfect drainage, 
the other in 1858, for the best farm. 

I'nder James O. .Sheldon, the White .S])rings farm. ])urchased bv 
him in 1857, became more wideh' known if possible than the Kose 
Hill farm, not, however, so much for improxed methods of farm- 
ing, as for the herd of Short Morn I )m-Iiams collected by him, the 
finest and most celebrated herd in the world, 'fhe ])rices brought 
by some animals of the lier<l seem incredible, the 8th I )uchess of 
Geneva selling- for $40,600. 

Both the owners of these farms during this period. Mr. Swan 
and Mr. Sheldon, had the luMior to be elected to the presidency of 
the New York State Agricultural Society. In the beginning both 
farms maintained each a llock of sheep numbering about 
1,200, and in 1808 or 1809, on the White Springs farm, a 



woolen factory was built by Cephas H,a\vkes, at first a success. l)ut 
later a failure. The factory buihlino- was hnallv converted into a 
grist mill, whose career \\as terminated by tire. A little later than 
Hawkcs's woolen factory, Vreeland's cardino- and fulling- mill, near 
the outlet, was established. These woolen or fidling mills in their 
day promoted the interest*^ of the two great farms. Today, the two 
farms, the Rose Hill under Martin H. Smith, and the White Springs 
under Alfred G. Lewis, have as their specialty dairy products, and 
both excel: bu.t in addition, Mr. Lewis is successfully renewing the 
reputation of the White S])rings farm for stock breeding. 

A Third Farm. 

l"hc saiue year. l<Si).\ that the two great historic farms were 
established, a third farm, hardly less famous than the others, was 
established in tlie northern ])art of Geneva, it is best known to 
local history as the Burrall i)lace. Here, from 1S14 to 1856, Thomas 
I). Uurrall, one of Geneva's honored and distinguished citizens, li\ed, 
his home a social center noted for a refined and generous hos])itaht\\ 
The farm. originalK' of 370 acres, was established in 1803 1)\" Robert 
Scott, wlio came to (ieneva in 170,S, and later was connected with 
the land office of the i'ulti'ne\" estate. Two of his granddaughters. 
Mrs. Thomas 15. Ueed :ind .Miss Mull, are still residents of (kMU'wi 
in the house which Mr. Scott's widow erected not long after the 
sale of the farm to Mr. I'.urrall in 1814. In her history of Gene\a. 
Mrs. Bradford characterizes Mr. .Scott as "a very agreeable Scotch- 
man, of line wit. and cultixated hterary taste" and mentions thai 
he was an intimate friend of John (ircig. of Canandaigua. Suc- 
ceeding" owners of the farm were: W illiam lllack. COlonel I'diakim 
Sherrill. later killed at Gettysburg, and successively the brothers, 
Reuben S. and the lion. .Sanuiel 11. Torrey. It then passed to Mr. 
William Smith and was broken u]). one portion of it becoming, in 
1891. Torrev ])ark. I)uriiig the ownershi]) of Mr. Ihirrall. Joseph 
.Smith i"Ioe Smith") was for a while a foreman, hut in the end 
being ignominiously discharged as an arrant rogue and a con- 
scienceless swindler, the future prophet \indicated himself by 
discovering the "Golden IMates of Mormon" and becoming the 
founder of a new religion. 

An Early Romance. 

From farming to r(uuance is only a step. Father Conover. the 
Herodotus of Gene\a. i)atient in research almost beyond belief. 

died, alas! without know Icdi^c or sus])icioii of ihc romance wiiicli 
attended the brief life of tiie Mile I'oint house. In 18U0, Mr. 
William I'ulteney Dana, nephew of .Sii- William I'ulteney, came 
to (icneva. He met Ann I'it/.lin^h, dan^hter of Colonel Peregrin 
Fit/.hugh. lie fell in. lo\e, his suit prospered, the twain were 
married, and for two years beginning m l.SOj. iIkw lived right 
royall) in the Mile I'oint palace. The yonng wife died sud- 
denly, but an infant daughter survi\ed her. In 1SI)5, overcoiue 
with grief, Mr. Dana, after entrusting hi^ mfant daughter to her 
mother's kindred at their earnest re<inesi, to be i"eari-(l, returned 
to l^ngland, but, ah! the jiity of it! his daughtei- In- was fated ne\ei' 
to see again. 

Re\"crting to the lirst horse race and lirst dancing school, it 
throws light on the ideals of our foiefathers that the ad\ertise- 
ments close respcctixeh' as follows: "All dog-^ that appear on tiie 
ground will be killed"; "The walt/.es will not be taught exce])t with 
the consent of jjarents or guardians." 

Decade, 1810-1820. 

The cxents of the next decade, ISlO-lSid, though not as fun- 
damental as those of the decade just rexiewed, are none the less 
(pnte as uueresting. 1S12: This \ear came to (ieue\a its lirst 
great c;ii)lain of iudustrw Thomas I). Iluri'all. l""or si.\t\' \ears, 
ai)art from the inspiring example ot his ])ublic-spirited and indus- 
trious life, his career as an in\entor and mauutacturer of agricul- 
tural implements sheds honor u])on the umnicipalit \ . It is not 
too nmch to sa\' that his coru-sheller, the in\ention by which he is 
best known, like ITtgland's diaim beat, followed the sun 'round the 
world, it was his rea])er, also, that in IX.^2 took lirst ])i-i/.e in tb.e 
celebrated compet'li\e trial of reapers of dilTereut I'nited States 
makes — a trial held in (icne\a. 

Female Bible Society. 

1813: The h>niale Ibble Societ\- of (lencxa, an organization 
equally remarkable and eriicieut, was formed and its roster pre- 
sciUs in their ow u signatures the names of all the women w ho made 
(lene\a societ\- notable in its early years The roster is on deposit 
in the library of Hobart college, and while the uund»er of names 
is loo great for recital here, the enumeration ttl the hrst dozen ov 
more may be allowed if for no other reason than their felicity: 
Jennet McKay, Maria W isner. Dolly Hogert. Ann L'olt. lumice 


Hall, Elizabeth Rees, Sarah Gordon, Susanna Lawson, Sarah 
Stoddard, Margaret Rose, Anne Nicholas, Jane L. Rose, Agnes 
Barton, Hannah Gregory, Sally Barnard, Frances Wilson, Sarah 
Rubpert, Hannah Axtell, Asenath Noble, Eleanor Naglee, Jane 
Scott, Hannah Field. Cynthia Stow, Elizabeth Henry, Sally Carter, 
Hannah Cook, Julia ^,i. Hogarth, Roxalinda Goundry, llieodora 
Phelps, Barbara Black. Theodosia Hall, Sally Luni. 

1815: The hrst public school in Geneva under the act of 1812, 
creating the common -chool system, was apparently esiablished. 
1816: The foundations of Geneva's hre department were 
securely laid in the organization of the hrst hre compan\-, the best 
men ol the town who were able l)odied becoming meml)ers. But 
the true beginning of the hre department was probably in 1811. 
when a \ illage ordinance i^roxided that on or before .Ma\' 1st (_)f 
that year, every householder must procure and lia\e read}- for use, 
one bucket for one hre-place, two buckets for two oi" ilircc lire- 
places, three buckets for h\e or six hre-places, and four l)uckets 
for se\en hre-])laces or more. 

^hi^ \car. 18U). liow en Whiting cstrd)lishe(l himself in ( lenewi 
and be^-an his successful and distinguished career as a lawxer and 
judge. He became District Attorne\' in 182v\ was a .Member of the 
Legislature, 1824-182.^: Countv [udge, 1838-1844. and ludge of 
the Supreme Court. 1844-1850. He was a member of the first 
board of trustees of llobart College and was a man of inlhience in 
all ])id)lic matters. His son. John Nicholas Whiting, after a brief 
I)ractice in (ieneva, became a prominent member of the bar in New 
\'ork city. 

The First Bank. 
1817: This year occurred the most important e\ent (^f this 
decade, the founding of the Bank of Geneva, now the Geneva 
National liank — most im])ortant because it attracted to Geneva a 
great man, the Reveren<l Henry Dwight, who as president of its 
first bank brought into its administration the highest and ])urest 
methods, as well as a business intelligence of extraordinary 
acumen and force. 44ie Bank of Geneva under his goverance made 
Geneva famous throughout the State, and to this day the traditions 
of the bank are ])reser\ed in their integrity by its present president, 
Samuel Hopkins ver IManck. Indeed, the noblest monument to the 
Rev. Henry Dwight. whose life was many sided and always influen- 
tial, is the high iexel which under the stimulus of his example 

\'|[J.AGE AND CV\'\ Ol' C I-".. VIA' A. 


hanking" in (lenex'a lias atlaincil and 
arc in (iciK'\a hcsidc ilic- (ic-ncva X 
( Ieiie\a ), estahlislicd 1)\ Mi-. |)\\i<;lit 
( )iie of lliese is "Tlu' l^'irst Nation 
ill ISf).-), wliicdi stands hesuK' llic ' 
r(.'])nlat loll hir solidiu' iiwd ^ui-ccss, r 
and into^ril) of Mr. Ak-xandcr 
l.afavcttc Chew. Tlu' ot lu-r l)ank- 
in^' institnlion is llic ])ri\att' hank- 
ing' house of Sanuud Sontliworlli, 
est ahlislu'd in IShS, wliicli has al- 
ways enjoyed pnhhc esteem as 
conser\ati\e and safe. 

in company with Mr. Dwiolit 
came in 1817 his ste])-S()n, W iliiam 
I'.aton Sill, l)orn in L'tica. 1<S()6, 
destined to become an exce])tion- 
all\' esteemed and \ahied citizen 
of Gene\a. In his chosen profes- 
sion, tlie law. he rapidl\- rose to a 
l)lace in the front rank and tinally 
achic\ed for himself an ahsolutcK' 
iini(|ue position and rei)ntation as 
a referee, insomuch that his ser- 
\ices as referee were widely 
.sought, and as the highest com- 
])Hment to his success it came to he 
considered inadxisahle to ajjpeal 
from a decis^ion made ])y him. It 
is emineuth- ch.aracteristic of him, 
hoth as attorney and referee, that 
he ne\er charged for his hrilliant 
services other than the most mod- 
est fee and that his persistent ad- 
\'ice to persons appealing to the 
law was to settle without suit. Mr. 
of Geneva, .August, 18.^4, to Januar 

1818: The Methodist church 
year Geneva's first church hell, the 
terian church. ])eale(l on the hanks 

maintaiiKMl. Today, I'Ml, there 
ational I'.ank ( i. e. the Rank of 
, two (iilur hanking in^titulions. 
al I'.ank (tf Ciene\'a," organized 
'(iciuwa Xalional I'.ank" in its 
e])resenting the fmancial genius 

Kev. Henry Dwight, the founder of the 
liaiik of Geneva, now the (ienev.i X.-ition.Tl 
I Sank, waf born in -Springfiehl, Massacliu- 
setts, June 25, 17.S,?; gratluated from Vale 
College in ISOl and later from tlie I'rince- 
lon Theological Seminary ; pastor of a church 
in Itica, .\. V., 1813 to 1817. following 
which he retired from the ministry and 
nio\ed to (leneva ; President of the Hank of 
('■eneva for twenty-two years; one of the 
founders of the American Home Missionary 
Society, anil its President, 1837 to 1857; 
died ni (ieneva. Septen-ber 6. 1857. 

.Sill was ]iresidein of the I'ank 
y. 1857. 

was organized: and the next 
])rized ])i"opcrt\- of the I'reshy- 
of the Seneca. In 185^), when 


church beh.s had nuiltiphed. the Reverend Hubbard \A'inslo\v, D 
D., pastor then of the First Presbyterian church, happily wrote, 
but. of course, without ecclesiastical prejudice: "There are several 
fine bells in Geneva, and they do good service. Especially the deej) 
alternate tones of the Dutch and Methodist bells, chimed into by 
the distinct silverv notes from the Presbyterian tower, all in close 
proxnmty, together with the majestic tliumps upon the great iron 
kettle on the Episcopal tower, make the going to church on Sunday 
morning, in Main street, anything i)Ut a stupid affair. '" The year 
1818 marks also the establishment on William street. l)y Mr. EH 
Eddy, of Geneva's first prixale school for boys. The year 181*) 
saw the publication in Geneva by Colonel James Bogert of an 
edition of W att's Psalms and Hymns, possibly Geneva's first ven- 
ture in the publishing field. 

Lovers of music will be delighted to learn that to this decade 
belongs not onlv our first church bell but also the Handelian band. 
which we may conjecture was the first brass band to gladden 
Genevans' hearts, Perez Hastings, secretary. 

I)uring lliis decade and the decade innnediately ])rcceding and 
the decade immedialel\- following, many accessions to (iene\a's 
ncjted families were made: l)o\. l-'ield. llogarih, hum. McKay, 
Hastings, llorlsen. Colonel John ."^wecney. Ti])pets, Inirnrird, 
Pease, I'ow, Doane, Cole, Cannon. Cook. Axtell, Carter, Low - 
throp. Burns. Rubpert. Watson, Prouty. Tillman, Rev. Dr. Orin 
Clark, Schermerhorn. I'arke, Holly. Woods, W Idling. Ayravdt. Stow. 
Porter. Truman Hart, envied for his familx of beautiful daughters, 
McLaren. Parker. Langdon. Uumney. llalmannn. Ricord. Kirk- 
land. SeeUt. Webster. Hopkin>. Shathar, .Mizner, lironson. Sover- 
hill, Skaats, Coddington, Merrell. and last the Kip family, an old 
family one of whose forbears, erected for himself in Xew N'ork in 
1641 what is siii)pose<l to have been its first brick residence. 

Decade, 1820-1830. 

The decade that we now enter upon. 1820-1830, is peculiarly 
notable. In 1821, John Johnston purchased the farm next south 
of Rose hill and originally a jiart of it, and was the first to introduce 
into this country tile draining, with a result that made his 
farm a Mecca for scientific agriculturists. An authority on agri- 
culture writiui-- in 18')3. savs : '"The |ohnsti>n farm and Rose hill 

Vn.LAGR AND C\'V\ Ol- (il-\l-:VA. 363 

are together ])crliai)s llu- important historic spot in American 

Hobart College. 

In l(Sii, (ieneva, now Il()l)art Colh-ge, successor to the ( icneva 
Academy incorporated in 1 S 1 .\ hut in existence nnincorporated for 
a number of years het'ore that, recei\e(l from the I'niversity of the 
State of Xew ^'ork. a i)ro\isional chartei". and I'ehruarv .'^, 1SJ5, 
a permaneiu charter, the coiKhtions of the pro\isional chai"tei' hav- 
ing- l)een conipHed with, .\e\er a harge institution. l)nt alwavs an 
institution noted for the (hgnity of its anns. the se\eril\- of its 
stanchirds. the encom-agement e\ten(k'd to the jmrsuit of the chiss- 
icai languages and hteratures, and foi- ilie high character of those 
whom it called to its professorial chair> and its presidential 
control. (Jcne\a or llohart College has heen an acti\e factor in 
gi\ing Genexa its ideal distinction, a factor whose importance can- 
not easil\- he exaggerated. It is due also to (lene\a. or rather to 
the prexalcnce throughout the (ienesee counti'y including (jene\'a, 
of certain \-iews as to the fundamental relation of colleges to the 
higher educational war.ts that the charter of (iene\a (llohart) 
College, issued onl\' on the condition that the college should j)ledge 
itself to maintain, in addition to the usual cla>sical course, an I'-iig- 
lish or scientitic course in direct reference to the pi^actical business 
life, thus making (lene\a (llohart) College the pioneer, though in 
a hund)le \va\-. in an educational mo\ement which since that time 
has metamorphosed the curia'cula of uni\ersities and colleges alike. 

The histor\- of llohart ( Ollege is an impoitant cha])ter in the 
historx' of (icne\a, hut too long for presentation here. It nuist 
sufticc to mention two or three facts in the opening of the storw 
The fust ])rofessor elected 1)\- the college cor])oration in ISi.''. who 
was at the same time made the tn'st acting jtresident of the college, 
was the Kev. Daniel McDonald, S. T. D., to whose energy and 
perseverance and executive ahilitv the college is largel\- indebted 
for its formation, .\nother professor elected by the cor])oration 
the same \car, 1S2.T. was one who both for himself and his family 
has ever heen verv dear to the people of Cieneva. Hcu'ace Webster, 
M. 1)., LL. D.. whose distinguished career as an educator covers 
fifty-one years: seven vears at the West Point Military .\cademv. 
twenty-three years at Cicueva (Hobart) College, and twenty-one 
years as president of the College of the City of Xew \ ork, I he 


first president of the college was the Rev. Dr. Jasper Adams, a 
man of varied attainments. \vho, in 1826, resigned the presidency 
of Charleston College, South Carolina, to accept the presidency 
of Geneva (Hobart) College. 

Today, 1911, under a leader of power, the Rev. Rangdon 
Cheves Stewardson. LR. D., Hobart College is steadily and surelv 
widening its sphere of influence and honor, and strengthening its 
claims to the actix'e sympathy and co-operation of Geneva. 

.Vlso in 1822 the first school in Gene\a for }'Oung ladies was 
opened b}' Airs. Plum, a tit beginning of a class of schools which 
have made (ieneva famous. 

1824: This was the yeai^ of the great W a^hingt<)n ])al] held 
Monday. I'ebruar_\' 23rd, in l-"aulkner"s assend)l\- rooms, .\. llurns, 
C. A. W ilhamson. D. C\ Hall. }. V . \'re(len1)urgh, managers. Man- 
ager C. .\. Williamson, be it noted, was the son of Captain Charles 
W ilhamson. 

This same )"ear. 182-1. settled in (iene\a, as junior ])artner of 
the Hon. P.owen W liiling. C harles lluller. lawxer and ])hilan- 
Lhro])ist, learned ;ind highbred, who made his life illustrious b\- his 
intelligent and assiduous dex'otion, not to the law alone, but to the 
larger fjuesiions of s(«?ial life, charities, education, and religion. ( )f 
Iiim after his death, Carlyle said: ""lie was the truest gentleman I 
e\er knew." lie was a citizen of Cjene\a for ten years and while 
m (iene\a btiilt for him>^elf on Main street a statelx' mansion best 
known later as the Prouty house. He died in .\c\\ N'ork. in 1897. 
at the age of ninety-five. 

The vear 1825 opened with an cvcnl of no little local import- 
ance, the formation of tlie "Geneva Atheneum,"' a general reading- 
room for ladies and gentlemen. This movement a])pears to have 
been largel\- inspired h\ Mr. ("harles P>titler — at least he drew up its 
constitution and bv-laws. 'Idu' loft\ ami of the "Geneva Atheneum" 
may be mferred from the fact that its list of domestic and foreign 
periodicals and newspapers included the l'".dinbm-gh. Rondon. and 
W'estmin.ster Ouarterly. Xorth .\merican (Juarterh', etc. 

Lafayette's Visit. 

Lafa\ette. the friend of Washington, made this year, 1825, his 
memorable \isit to (iene\a. It has a felicitoir'>ly ])ersonal interest 
to Genevans, if I ma\' be permitted to re\eal it, that on this trip, far 


off in \cw ( )r](.';iiis, L;ifa\('Uc, as t^odfatliiT. luM in his arms and 
presented for IJoK' l')a|iti>-in tlu' infant nuin iil him who is today 
one of (]ene\a"s noiilcst and \\\<>^\ honoi\'(l idti/ens — Alcxamk-r 
Lafayette Chew. 

A detail or two of tlic interesting- stor\- of Lafayette's \-isit to 
Geneva will not he withont \ahie. It \\a-> the nioi-nini^of jnne Xtli. 
when at Ball's tavern, se\en or td^lit miles w i"-l of Geneva, the 
official committee of Geneva. accom])anied hv a cavalcade- of 
(ienevans, received li'om ( 'anandaii^iia'^ t-(immittcH' of escort tin- 
care of Lalavette and hi^ snite. The dist inmiiished L;'ne^t^ havins^' 
been transferred to carriat^'es in waiting'. Lafavette to a splendid new 
haronche furnished hv Mr. W illiam S. LeZen^' and drawn liv ^i.\ 
heantifnl ^ray, the c-avalcade retraced its ste])s eastward 
aIon<;- the ^-reat State highway till it reached the Old I'l-e t-mption 
road, and Lafa}-ette looked down fi'on) the ed<.;e of the ])latean ovei' 
which he had l)een tra\-elin^- upon the "silver Seneca," two miles 
away and two hundred feet below, sparklino- in the morning- snn. 
Tmniediately a signal ,i;-mi broke to e\])ectant (ieneva the -^lad news 
that Lafayette was ccmie, and at once nearlv a do/en military 
companies and a ^-reat body of citizens who had marched out to this 
point to await the arrival of the friend of Washington, fell into line, 
and the ])rocession tints formed moved in state down TTann'lton 
street and down JNlain till it came at last to the ])nl)lic S(|nare 
fPnlteney ])ark), where there were arches adorned with wreaths 
and flowers and inscri])tions of welcome. .\t the |)nblic sepiare. a 
Aast concourse of |)eople had Leathered from fai" and near, and from 
the windows of i^vcvy bnildint;' abont the scpiare ea^er exes looked 
forth and handkerchiefs and fla^s were waved. 1die nniltitnde, with 
heads unco\ered, ])arted in twain to let the procession move throni^'h 
to where a sta.o-e had been set in the nn'dst ; and as r>afa\ette and his 
snite ])assed from their carriages to the stag'e. maidens (h'essed 
in \vhite strewed Howers in their way and sanq- an ode conijxised 
for the occasion bv one of theii" nnmber. ;i daughter of Doctor 
Lnmmis, in the fotirteenth year of her age. As soon as the honored 
guests were in their api)ointed places and all nixm the stage were 
seated, a great silence fell: and after INFajor Rees had introduced 
General Lafayette and his snite. an address (^f welcome was deliv- 
ered bv Colonel Bowen A\'hiting, to which with feeling General 
Lafayette appropriately replied. And as he replied, he beheld, 
conspicuous in the varied circle of his listeners, a venerable body of 


soldiers of rhe Rcxolution distiiiiinislicd l)y badges. Ilie ceremonies 
at ihe square ended, General Lafayette and his suite, after inspect- 
ing two trophy cannons displayed on the grounds, the one from 
Yorktown. 1781. the from St. John's 1775. were escorted to the 
Franklin House, a magnificent hostelry newly opened, of which 
Geneva was duh- proud. PI ere an elegant breakfast had Ijeen 
prepared, with two hundred covers for distinguished citizens who 
had been invited to meet the "Nation's guest." At one o'clock P. 
M.. amidst acclamations. Lafayette and his suite de])arted on their 
way eastward, the "Nation's guest" departing as he liad come, seated 
in the splendid new l)arouche and drawn by six beautiful gray 
horses. Nine years later, when tlie death of Lafayette was 
announced. Geneva held in his honor a public memorial service, at 
which an eulogy was pronounced by Samuel Miles Hopkins, Esq. 

1826: The Baptist church and the United Presbyterian church 
and the I-Vee church for colored people were each organized, and 
also in this year was published a volume of poems by A\'illiam I\ay. 
Geneva's first poet-laureate. 

In 1X27. the slaves brought b\- .Mr. Nicholas and Mr. Rose to 
Geneva ha\ing Iteen freed by act of the Legislature of the State, 
the colored settlement was formed. In this connection, it were an 
unpardonable oversight to omit enumeration of several of the settle- 
ment's most deliglnfully extraordinary characters that Geneva or 
any other ])lace ever had: Jupiter, colored Democrat and psycho- 
logic crux; the Rev. Major General Brown, the human telephone: 
Brigadier General Burdy. the orator, and last, not least. Sammy 
Dog-in-the-well. servitor of the janitor of the Geneva ^ledical 
College, and the small bov's bete-noire. 

1828: The first steam boat, the Seneca Chief, was built bx tlie 
Kumney brothers, to be followed, twenty-one years later. l)y tlic 
wonder of the finger-lake region, the great Ben Loder. the master- 
work of John R. Johnston, whom Genevans will ever remember, 
not only for himself as a valued citizen and as the author of perhaps 
the most astonishing Fourth of July poster ever produced in the 
United States, also for the fascinating daughters who survived 
him. 1829: The Cayuga and Seneca canal was opened and 
connection establi.shed w itli the Erie canal, which had been opened 
in 1825. It is rleemed uncjuestionable that the suggestion which led 
to the Erie canal was made in 1805 by Jesse Hawley. a Genevan. 

\'ll,l..\(;i-. AM) (■]-\\ ol- CRXI-A'A. M',7 

Decade, 1830-1840. 

'I Ik' (l(.T;i<k'. \XM) 1S4(). ImkU (ic'iK'\;i making a \cr\- satisfac- 
tory adxaiuc in (.'\cry dircctiim. witli a ]ii ipnlat ii m j^row n from .>i3 
ill liSOf) lo 3,02'^ in iSoo, and with hnsinr^-s interests hccoiiiin^' 
ra|)i(ll\- di\(.Tsitied and ('nlar,L;f<l. 

I Iiis decade is specialK nienioraMe as lirini^in^ Id 
(iene\a a nnmher ot men wlio'-i- nanie> and live^ and t'amilies 
retlecled an envialde i-e])nlati(in npon tln' nmmci|ialii \ . In \X2'> 
came (icneral jiisepli ( laidmr Swift, the lirst ^radnatt' of West 
I'oint .md a nnlilarx and ci\il em^ineer (ti national i-epntat ion. 
followed years later by his son, Commodore J. W illianis Swift, and 
by his son-indaw, I'eter Kichaids. In I S,^ 1 eaiiie Charles lames 
P'ol<^"er, then a hoy. hut later to he tln' (hief jiidoe fornian\- \ears 
of the ("ourt of A|)])eals of our State, and later still Secretar\- of the 
I'reasnr}- of the L'nited .States. I'he >aiiie \ear. \XM, came Ko/.ec 
P-eylon and his faiiiiU' from Stannt(»n. \'ii"^inia. a faiml\- reiH-esenteil 
later hy two ^^raiiddan^liters who married I'espectiveh' (ieneral A. 
I'). Wells and Mai'or 1'. A. hdlis. In IS.^2 came Samuel .M . lloi>kins. 
a remarkably acconi])lislied man. \ersatile and charming-, well 
re])uled both as a member of the bar and a> a member ot Cong"ress. 
Ill ]X3() came as president of the collcLie. the l\e\". nenjamin Hale. 
I). 1).. who e(|n<dl\- with his successors, jack'^on. Rankine. \'an- 
kensselaer. and T'otter. to name oiil\- those of l<)iii^"er residence 
anions;- us. illustr.ated in hi> hi.^h olhce the immense \-akie of courtesy 
and learning- combined. In lS>^'W-ame the l\t. l\e\. William Heath- 
cote l)elance\'. the First I'ishop of the h"pisco])al diocese of Western 
New >'ork. the great Bisho]). who made his diocese a model through- 
out the countr\-. and lastl\-. in 1S47. came Samuel A. I-'oot. many 
\-ears a distinguished member of the .\ew ^ ork bar and one lime 
judge of the Court of .\ppeals of our k'nijiire State. 

Beside the men and families abo\ e named, this general period 
is notable for otlier distmct additions to (ienexa's social list. 1 S.V> : 
Judge Sutherland, a man of elevated and winning ])ersonality and 
equallv a lawver and jurist of commanding reputation: lS,v. the 
Rev. TheodcM'e Irving, a linished scholar and an attractive writer, 
who came to assume a professorshi]) in llobart College: again in 
1836 the brothers. William X. and 1). Lawrence Clark, who at once 
took rank among Geneva's notably esteeme.l and respected citizens, 
and were followed in later vears most welconiel\- by tke Schicffelins 


and Harrimans, relatives of theirs. A daughter of AA'illiani X. Clark 
still later married Dr. James H. Stebhins, long a leading and greatly 
beloved physician. In 1833, Peter Myndert Dox, son of the Hon. 
Abraham Dox, was graduated from Hobart Colleoe and entered 
upon a distinguished career as lawyer, judge, and Representati\e in 

During the decade now under review (1830-1840), the large 
accession to Genexa's notable men and families was not the only 
happening of interest and miportance. Four of Geneva's churches 
were estal)iished : 1831, the Dutch Reformed church: 1832, St. 
Francis de Sales: 1834, the Unixersalist church: 1839, the Bethel 
society, which combining with the United Presbyterian later (1870) 
constituted the North Presbyterian. In 1830, the Geneva Courier, 
for many years recognized as one of the leading weekly papers of 
Western New York, in politics at first ^^'hig anrl afterward Repub- 
lican, was founded bv H. C. Merrell. It reached its meridian of 
influence and rei)utation under James Mallette, as editor and 
j)roprietor, 1876-1891. and a few years after its sale by him to other 
narties ceased to be published. In 1832. the cemetery on AYashing- 
ton street was laid out. In 1833. tlie opening of the Crooked Lake 
and Chemung canals, which to 3 certain extent made the Susque- 
hanna approach to the Genesee country trilmtary to Geneva, was 
hailed as an event of no small moment. Imt the develo])ment years 
later of competing railroads caused the closing. 1875. of these canals. 

The Geneva Lyceum. 

In 1831. the (iencxa Lyceum, one time so notable, was founded 
by the ke\". Miles P. Squier. D. D. Its buildings were erected in 
the west part of the \illage. the funds therefor having been raised 
among the generous peop'e of the region upon the personal appli- 
cation of Dr. Scpiier. Although not intended to be specially denomi- 
national, the Lyceum was generally recognized as haxing 
Presbyterian leanings, a statement which finds verification in the 
fact that Dr. Sfjuier offered the buildings and grounds to the Synod 
of Geneva for the purpose of founding a college. The offer was 
seriously discussed f(ir a time, but at length was abandoned, after 
which the Lvceum passed out of existence, about the year 1842. 
Its most famous graduate was the Rev. Dr. Augustus W. Cowles, 
afterv/ard first president of the Elmira Female College, and. after 
fifty years of successful service, its first president emeritus. 


Geneva Medical College. 

Ill 1(S34 an act ol the legislature' ant in iri/cd a medical ik'part- 
nicnt in Geneva (Hobart) Colle,t,^c and in \HM) (ieneva Coilej^c 
erected a s])c'cial hniJdin^- for tlic use ot' tlu' medical faculty, in 
1841 a new medical hiiildiiii;- ot" ma^niliceiit iir< i])i iriions for the time 
was erected on the east side ol" Alain street, the State coiUrihuliujij 
$15,000 towards the I'und lor its erection. The medical department 
of llohart ColleiJi'e was discontinued m 1S7J and the huildint;- itself 
destroyed ])y lire in 1877. In 1X4'' (ieiieva .Medical ( olle-e 
conferred the (k\L;ree of M . I) on I'di/ahetli Idackwell and hecamc 
lionorahl)- tamons as the lirsl medical cojlej^e in the world to confer 
this degree in course on a woman. .Viuoul; the members of the 
faculty of the (jene\'a Meilical (dliege who made it niemorahle and 
added to the brilliancy of (iene\a societx- were: h',dward Cutbush. 
44iomas Spencer. Charles lirodhead ("oxeutry. W illard I'arker. 
James Webster, James lladlev, hrank lla>tinL.;> llamiltoii. Tlioma- 
Rush Spencer. Charles .\lfre<l Lee, |olin 4"ow ler, l-"rederick llyik. 
Hiram Newton Eastman, Xelsoii Nixison, Charles Exerts Rider. 

The Classical and Union School. 

In 1839 upon the suggestion, as it is understood, of Mr. h'ranci.s 
Dwight. the ])ublic or district schools of (lenexa xx'crc consolidated 
into the union school, making a new dei)arture in the State system 
of schools and education. In 1833 the Cenexa union school xxas 
incor|)orated and authorized to maintain a classical department 
and to instruct a normal class, and in 18(>'' its corporate title w•a.•^ 
changed to the "Genexa Classical and Cnion School." l)eing the 
first uni(Mi school in the State so raised: and today this school, xery 
justly an object of local i)ri(le. stands easilx- in the first rank of Xexx- 
York State schools in the ([uality of its xxork. It> library is the 
lari-est belonging to ativ union or high school in the State. 

Decade, 1840-1850. 

In our next decade. 1840-1830. the most conspicuous exent of 
the opening of the Smith and the .Maxxxell nurseries, the former in 
184(). the latter in 184S. ddiey xxoke into elTectixe life Genexa's 
greatest and most characteristic industry — an industry to xxdiich 
Gencxa. from its unique soil and climate, xx'ould seem to haxe been 
sealed and set apart from the foundation of the world. The 
obviously remarkable thing is that Geneva w as so long discovering 


its natural advantage of location and recognizing its call. It is to 
be noted, however, that somewhat before the establishment of the 
Smith and the Maxwell nurseries a beginning of pioneer character 
had l)een made in the village by Isaac Hildreth and William G. 
Verpianck. and that as early as 1817 there appeared in the Geneva 
Palladium an advertisement in which Boardman and W'lieeler 
offered for sale grafted fruit trees at their nurserv, two miles east 
of Geneva on the turnpike to -\ll)any. 

In this brief chronicle, which is essentially of origins, it is not 
practicable to present the story of the development of Geneva's 
nursery mterest which in its details reads almost like a fairy tale. 
but it IS only justice to our n.mniciijality to note that Mr. Milton H. 
Harman, in a valuable resume of this subject, states that there were 
in 1906 forty-seven duly registered growers of nursery stock within 
a radius of six or eight miles of (jene\a. having under cidtivation 
about two thousand acres of land and employing m the variotis 
departments of the business approximately twenty-five hundred 

Village Improvement. 

Hardly less interesting than the development of the nursery 
interest during this decade, is the fact that though in the beginning 
Captain \\ illiamson had artistically planned that the great Mile 
Point mansion should be approached from the village through two 
rows of splendid Lombardy poplars, two or three of which remain 
to this day, no attem])t worth mentioning at beautifying the streets 
of the village with shade trees seems to have been begun liefore 
1841. \'anous trees have since been tried at various times, but 
unfortunately the disco^•ery came late that the stately elm was the 
one waiting to be chosen. The beautifying of our streets became 
systematic and triumphant not till 1874. when the \"illage Improve- 
ment Society was formed under the leadership of Mrs. George J. 
Gallagher, to whom Geneva owes a debt of honor, as also to those 
who wrought with her. conspicuous among whom were Mrs. Perez 
h'ield. Mr. Glynn. Miss Eva De Zeng. ]^liss Powis. and Mrs. John 
P. De Lancev. The q-ood work is now cared for l)v the citv through 
the i)ark commission under the eye of the mayor. But after all. in 
this matter of village improvement, it was an epoch-making date 
when in 1862, In- a State law, an end was made of cattle being 
allowed at large in the streets. 

\II.L.\(il': AXI) (\\\ ()!• (.I'LXEVA. 371 


I <) tins dcTJuk'. IS-IM- iS.ii I, IicNmil^s [\\c ;i\\ akfiiiiiL; dI' ( icii(.'\ ;i's 
intcrol ill llu- siibjccl df |>nl)lu- paik-^. Ii i> \vuv that when in 17'Jf» 
C"a])tain W illiams<)!i laid out (ieiK'\a lir iiiailc |)r<i\i>i()n for a puldic 
s(|uarc ii: tionl <•! ilie i^rcat (Iciu-va lidtrl wliicli lu- \\a^ that xcar 
biiilfliiii^", hut it is not CvTlain that Ik- had aii\ iiit nit ion to improve 
the public scpiarc at any linic into a park. However that ma\' he. 
the pnhiic >(piare i"eniaine(l. exee]il tor a \ear more or less (luriii.LT 
the twenties, an open pla/.a. till about 1 S4 1 . w lu'ii the boai'd of 
trustees ot the \illa^\' directed a piirtHUi of the public xpiai'e to be 
enclo>ed ;is a ])ark and :he trees were lortliwuh i)lanle(l wliiidi are 
now one ot the cit\"> delights. krom a statement contained in ;i 
briet but interesting paper ]irei)ared b\ Mi-, lln^h L. ko^e. president 
ot the park commission, it api)ear^ that (ieiiexa owes the im])ro\e- 
menl of the ]»nbiic sijuare into l'iiliene\' pai'k lar^cb to the jmblic 
s])irit ot the late ('ai)t.iin Luther R. Slod<lard of the I'nited States 

The ciH'ation of (ienesee ])ark" beloiiL^s als(> to this decade. The 
moxement was inaugurated at the bei;"innin<,.;" of the decade, but 
owing to dilhculiies extendiuL;" o\er se\ cral \ ears in securing' owner- 
ship of pari ot the land proposed to be included in the ])ark. it wa^ 
not till |anuai-\- 27, 1S4'', that the ( ienesee i)ark became an accomp- 
lished fact. 

Public Utilities. 

With this decade in-aciicalle begins the long line of i)ublic 
utilities so-called, for which modern ci\ ili/at ion. es])ecially in the 
I'nited States, is noted. In this decade. 1S4(>-1S.^U, ihree ])ublic 
utilities make their first ai)]H'arance in (jene\a: in b'<41. the first 
raiiro.-id, tlie .\iiburn l)ranch of the Central; in b*^4.\ the first 
express facilities, not more extensi\e. howexer. in the l)egimiing' 
than a cari)et bag carried b\- Mr. W ells, a.fterwards the Wells-bargo 
express, and in b'^48, the hrst lelegrai)hic facilities. 

It may interest many that in IS47 was held the tirst regatta 
on Seneca lake, seventeen boats particii)ating. This same year. 
1847. an e\ent hai)i)ened which has pro\ ed n\ increasing local 
interest. The brothers, John W illiams and Solomon Klwell Sniitli. 
under the hrm name of "j. W . Smith cK: Co.," organi/.ed a dry 
goods establishment, which in \ irtue o\ its conduct on principles of 
the highest order e<|uall\- as to business ability and business honor 



has prospered greatly and today in Western New York is rivalled 
only in the larger cities. In 1892 it was converted into a stock 
company, "The J. W. Smith Dry Goods Co.," and as a new depar- 
ture which has amply justified itself, thirty per cent of the stock 
was issued to the older emj^loyees. The elder brother died in 1878, 
the younger brother in 1900. 

Decade, 18.50-1860. 

Tlie decade, 1850-1860, is modest but not absolntelv lusterless. 
In 1851, another great ca])tain of industry, a man who also inter- 
ested himself heartily and wisely in ])ul)lic affairs. William B. 
Dunning, came to Geneva. Of him and his extensive and varied 
work it can only be mentioned here that in 1853 through him 
Genevans first had the opportunit\- of heating their houses by steam. 
Since ]\Tr. Dunning's venture in this line, steam heating boilers and 
a])paratus have become one of (jeneva's great industries and in the 
pursuit of it Geneva has reaped distinction as well as jirofit. The 
last phase of this moxcment is a central heating ])lant established 
in 1899 as a |)ublic utilit}', whose advantages are open to a fairly 
large area of the city at what is claimed to be a theoreticall}- 
nu'ninmm figure. 

Other business develo])ments of this decade were: 1851. the 
opening of a carriage manufactory by David ^^^ Baird ; 1852, of a 
fm-niture manufactory bv Theodore E. Smith; 1859, of spoke and 
bending works by Ezra Havens. And during this decade l)egan 
sash, blind and door manufacturing as a se])arate industry; also 
there was develojjed by W. A. Dorsey & Hros. what was ])robab1y 
Geneva's first wholesale grocery business. 

In 1852, one of the most Aaluable of public utilities, ilhiminating 
gas, was first introduced into Geneva, and was first used for street 
lighting in 1854, previous to which date each citizen had been a 
light unto himself. Electric lighting, both for i)ublic and for prixatc 
use, was first introduced in 1883. Also in 1852 St. Peter's church 
was orp-anized, and later, 1861. in connect icui with it was deveh^ped 
by Bishop De Lancey "The Diocesan Training School of Western 
New Y'ork," the Rev. Dr. James Rankine becoming rector of both 
St. Peter's church and the training school, but the training school, 
after the death of Bishop DeEancey, was re-named "The DcLance}' 
Divinity School." 

In 1854, the Hygienic Institute Sanitarium was opened; and, 

viiJ..\Gi<: AX I) LiiA ()!• (ii-:\i-:\'A. 373 

in 1855, Linden ll.ill, (icne\a's first snital)le ])lace for pnMic enter- 
tainments, was 1)nill and mi tlu' e\enin^ nl |nl\' 2?\\\ inaiio-urated 
will) no little ceremony, tiic l\e\. W illiani llo-arili, I). I)., niakiii};- 
one ol Ins elo(|nenl addresses. 

Man may have sli<;litt(! ilii> decade-, Inil not so natnrc. In tlie 
\\intcr ol l(S55-lSr'() there weri' one Immlrefl da\s ot' sleij^'hinj.;-, hnt 
principally the "silver Seneca, "" whose h;il)ii is not to freeze oftener 
on the a\ei-a<;e than once in twenty years, had a nionnmcntal con- 
g-ealment, and on its cr_\-stal hosoni (it'ne\a held liiuh festival in 
sports and horse races and all that conld m.ike i;la<lsoine the hv])er- 
l)oi"ean \isit;ition ; and on the excninj;' of jnl\- Willi. ]X?(>, at ten of 
the clock, in the northern liea\ens ajipi'ared a spK'mlid rainbow of 
golden hne. To this day this extraordiiiar\- phi-nonienon remains 
open for explanation. 

Of the notahle men and cnlti\alcd fannlies, other than those 
ahead}' mentioned, that came to (jene\a din'ing this midille ])oitnpn 
of (ienex'.is histor}-, or e\en a little later down to om" generation, 
which last for e\ident reasons nuist await the fntnre historian, 
there are many. 

in the latter fifties de\eloped what was |ocall\- known ;is tlu' 
"Wool llonse C'li(|ne," an inlormal association (il le.'idmi;' gent leinen 
of (lene\a, ostensibly for the enjoNnu'nt ol each other's society. Imt 
after all nujrc commonl\- for the discnssion and ])romotion ot the 
larger mterests of the \illage: S. S. ("obh, j. S. Lewis. W . W . 
Wright, I). \V. Colvin, L. J. 1-olger, l\ II. field, W . h.. Sill. 
/. T. C ase, h. W . Trince, J W . Smith. Colonel ( '. I'.. Stnart. Colonel 
E. Sherrill, John S. iJey. 

Abont this time and for some \ears later, nmler the ans])ices 
of the N Onng Men's .\ssociat ion, 1 )i". (leorge W . field and atler- 
wards Charles hahhw ministered disinterestedly and snccessfully 
to the higher cnltnre in (lenewa b_\- the organization of courses of 
])< ])niar lectures which, bronghl to ( iene\a m;in\' of the most 
disiingnished lecturers in the conntrv. 

Decade, 1860-1870. 

Ah! the decade. 18^-1870! It is the decade of the Civil war! 
There is bnt one e\ent. It is as if Cenex a stood still, intent only to 
see if in the Nation's crisis her sons deser\ed well of the Kepnblic! 
As ilK-re has not been si)ace to tell (ienexri's story ot her i)art in 
the war of ISIJ aiul in the Me\ic;in w;ir. nor will be to tell her ]>art 


in the Spanish war and the Phihppine war, so there 15 not time to 
tell the story of her part in the great Ci\"il war. Like the rest of 
the connrry from one ocean to the other, she gaxe freelv her wealth 
Kind her sons and her gocd example, and like the rest she bore 
l)ra\ely and nnflinchingly the losses which went so straight to her 
firesides and her heart. She ga\e to the Empire State as its great 
Adjniant General the high minded and efficient Hillhonse, and lead- 
ing" her list of those who died for natixe land is the name of the 
knightly and intre]:)id Colon.el Sherrill. who fell at Gettxshnrg. 
W hat a fnneral that was. when all Gene^■a and all the conntrx ronnd 
abont in solemn ])rocession. like a clond of witnesses, followed the 
liodv of the dead hero to the \illage cemeterv! Tears? ^'es, the 
city of onr lo\e gi\es them freely, tears of pride and exultation, 
tears of grief and sorrow, freely for all who fell for nati\e land. 
whether in the distant islands of the sea. on foreign shores, or on 
the ocean, or on the fair hehls of what is to Americans the sweetest 
connlr\- the snn shines on. 

.\s in the military histor\- of onr country (iene\.'i has ni>t been 
withonl honor, so has Gene\"a not been without honor in our 
country's long na\al history. .\ssociated with Gene\a as their 
liDme. the following distinguishecl na\al oliicers ma\' be named: 
Admiral Thoma- Trnxton Cr.'.\en, Commodore j. William Swift. 
Commodore James (ilynn. Captain Luther K. Stoddard, Admiral 
Donald M. l-'airfax, and (ieneral Charles l>. Stuart, one time the 
L'nited States na\v's engineer-in-chief — not to mention others who 
have ser\ed honorably in less con.spicuous jjositions. 

The e\-ents in the life of Genc\a from 1870 till today lie within 
the memory of the i)resent generation, and though the\- all are in 
\'arious wa}-s important and intere>ting', a bare chronicle without 
comment nmst su.tllce. but lirst may be ])ointed out what seems to 
be the characteristic e\ent of each of the three decades that remain. 

In the Seventies. 

In the seyenties, by the o])ening of the Genexa and Ithaca, the 
Cicnexa and (^)rning. and the Gene^■a and Lyons railroads, Gene\a 
was made a place of exceptional shipping- facilities, and a career as 
a manufacturing center was made possible, and this i)ossil)ility 
Gene\-a has impro\ed. Ca])tains of industry multiply aj:>ace. They 
jostle each other on the streets, and Gene\a is becoming as cele- 

viLLAci-: Axi) (i{'\ ()|- (,i':\i-:\A. 375 

hrated tor liij^h ^r.'idc iii;imif;i(.-innn;L; as it c\cr was for its cliaracter- 
istic industries forcordaiiu-d hy its >oil and climate. W ith the rail- 
road de\ eiopnient in the se\eiitit'S, tlie names of ( 'oloiiel I'^rederiek 
\\ . I'nnee and S. S. ('ol)l) ai'e ]iriMmnentl\ connected. Il'tw 
im])ortanl (iene\a's entraiux- on a eai'eer a^ a manufaet nriiiL;- center 
lias proNcd ma\' ])v inierrecl Irom the lact iliat while ( leiiewi's 
])o|)niation in ISjn was 3,521, the census nf I'M'' makes it 12,44'). 

In the Eighties. 

In the eii^lit ies ( iene\a"s e(|ni|)iiienl in the interest ^ ol ei In cat ion 
was immense]\- enlarged li\' the sncce>>fnl e^laMi^iiment of the 
.Smith ( )hser\ator\' aii<l the .\ew \<>rk State A^ricnhnral l-'.\])eri- 
mi'iil Station, institntioiis tlie repnlalioii of whose wofk iran-ci-nds 
the mere honndaries of the h.mpire Slate. It i> worth\- ol remark 
lint tile .\,i;i"icuit ni'al l'".\])eiimen! .Siali«in is the tai"d\' realization 
of a dream which lloated JKdore the minds ol ( iciRwa's forhears in 
the persons of the founders ol (leneva (llol>ari) ("olleo'C in 1<S22- 
1<S2.^, w lu'ii foi" llie lii">l time in llu' liistoiw of the higher edncalion 
a college was created with jxiwer to oiler c( nr>es other than that 
k'adin^' to the de<.','ree of A. Ik. and wa> ple<lL;ed to maintain 
])eri)etnall\' a com'se in direct retereiice to the ])ractical l>nsine>s ol 
life, the moxement ])ein<; inspired in the lirsi instance hy men whose 
largest ])r.ictical interest was a^ricnllnre. The (lei)artmeiit of as^'ri- 
cnJture in connection with (iene\a College, which the lorhears had 
in mmd, did not for \anons reasons de\eIop: hnl in its i)lace has 
come, in the fn'ness of time, the Xew ^'ork .Stale Agricultural 
['".xpcriment Slation, the l)est e(|uii)iied and most elVicienl e\])eri- 
nienlal scliool in the erirlh's o'dest and uolijesl industry that is to 
l)e found in oin" countiw, and in i)oint ol coinprehensueness, in the 
world — a school thai lills e\er\- (ieiuwan's heart with whole- 
some pride. 

In the Nineties. 

Tlie last decade of the centinw is the decade in which Ciencva 
laid aside her \i]lafj;e ^armenls and ])Ut t'li the imjiosiuL;' r(4>es (^f 
citv life, hut the e\enl in this decade which will appeal to all as the 
j;'ratit\ini;- one is the estaldishnieut of the ( ienexa City 1 lospital. This 
splendid charil\- consecrates in its records in detail, as a precious 
leo-ac\- to all who shadl succeed us. the names of those whose fore- 
sii^-ht and heneficeuce made the (leiuwa City llos]) a reality, in 


this connection I can mention as the principal benefactor, principal 
not alone in gifts of money but in acKice and a fostering- care that 
never intermitted, one who for nearly forty years was in the front 
rank of Geneva's most devoted and intelligent citizens, the late 
h'rancis Oscar Alason, deceased as already mentioned in the year 
1900, I)nl happily two years after he had seen the fruition of the 
object so dear to him. 

It but remains to ru.n rapidl}- through the very creditable work 
of the present generation: but first permit me to ex])ress the deep 
regret of hmi whose duty it has lieen to prepare this Ijrief chronicle 
of Geneva ihat the limits inherent in the plan proposed of making 
the sketch a record of events and to an extent of families rather 
tlian of men, has excluded from portraiture and characterization as 
indixiduals Geneva's multitudinous men of prominence, whether in 
ci\il or ])ublic. jjrofessional or business life, her clcrg_\'men, teachers, 
])hvsicians, la\\}'ers, legishitcjrs, judges, editors, authors, artists, 
men of affairs, soldiers a.nd sailors, excei)t as in any gi\en instance 
one UMiY liaxe been connected as creator or exponent with some 
epochal e\ont that has marked the unfolding of Geneva's life as 
village and city. 

The Present Generation's Work. 

1867: \\ . Cj. Potter and Son's Marble and Granite Works 
estaljlislu'd. bSfsS: lierendccn Manufacturing G()mi)an\-. or U. S. 
Radiator Company, founded (incorporated IS.SS); Tlie Catchpole 
l'"(iundr\- ()])ene(l. 1S70: Tlic Xorth l'resl)\terian church organized: 
Peel l5oitbng Works established. 1871; W. (i. Dove's brick\ard 
estal)lishcd : Tlie Gene\a malt house (Geneva's one niannnoth 
building), the third largest malt house in respect of business trans- 
actions in the Cniied States, erected by Samuel K. Nester. 1872: 
Glenwood cemetery opened; the instruction of colored students in 
a separate building abolished. 1873: The T^vangelical church 
established ; the CJeneva and Ithaca Railroad com])leted. 1874: The 
Village Tmi)ro\ement Society formed; the first laundry operated by 
machinery established. 187,^: The Geneva Optical Company 
organized; the Geneva, since 1892 the Kanadesaga club founded, 
187^): The first IJergh agent for the j^revention of cruelty to animals 
installed; the first omnibus line i)Ut in service. 1877: The Geneva 
and Corning Railroad opened: The steam roller Hour mill (super- 
cedino- the old Red Mill of earl\- date) erected. 1878: The Geneva 


and Lyons Railro.-id opened; I Ik- ( Iniirli I Ionic established. 1879: 
'rele])li()ne service llrs; inan^nrat ed. 1 S,S( ) : dlie lii-si business 
college estal)lislie<l ; the Slih .^epaiaie ( onipanx- formed; the paid 
lire department system estahh>hi'd. ISSI : The .\e\\ \\)\k .State 
iVgricullnfal l''.xperinient .St;ition established; the (iene\a Advertiser 
(weekly) fonndi-(h ISSJ: I'aid pohce departnieni on Metropolitan 
system estai)lished. ISS.i: I he liist t-lecti-icai plant installed; the 
Standard ()ptica] Company oi-gani/.ed to opeiate in C(»nnection with 
the (lene\a ()ptical C'oin])an\. 1SS3; I'he I'hillips c^ C"lark .Sto\-e 
G()m]).'iny organized; I 1 nniphi-e\ 's binderv Cv jjiinting house 
founded; hfst Loan and Sa\'ings Association oi'gani/.e<l ; the (jc-ne\a 
minei'ai s])rings de\eloped. 

1886: llie \'onng Men's (hidstian Association oi'gani/ed (an 
earlier organixation under tins title was made in 1X7". but soon 
lapsed). 1888: d"he .Snnth Astrononncal ( )l)ser\atoi"\ founded; 
the Patent Cereals C"om])any organized. ISSM; The ( ienexa 
Preser\ing C'onipau}- organized. 18')(): The .\ew ^(^^k ('entral 
Iron \\ Orks Company incorporated, outgrowth of tln' huinnng 
works estal)lishe<l 1851, as alread\' mentioned. IS'M : riu> Geneva 
Carriage Company organized, in IS'T ridigamzed as Geneva 
Wagon Company; the I'orrey I'ark Company fornie(l. 1892; d"he 
ButTalo Extension of the Lehigh \ alley Railroad completed. 18U3: 
Street paving in (Jeneva begun; now I'M 1 there are 1."^.7'' miles of 
paved streets. 1894: The .\aples Railroad oi)ened; the trolley line 
lo Waterloo opened; tlie (icneva Choi-al .Society established; I he 
.Smith opera house built. bS^.^; (iene\a'> lii-st daily paper, the 
(ieneva Lailv d'imes ( lnde])endent Rei)ublican in i)olitics) estal)- 
lished ; the (ieneva Wall l\a])er Com])any foundeil. 1S*'C. : The 
control of waterworks assumed by the village; John j. I'ole s kettle 
Drum factorv established. 18')7; The Political lujuality Club 
formed; the Salvation Army ]) created; the Sumnn't I'oundry 
Companv organized; X'ance boiler works established; James b. 
Carne\'"s bottling works established. 18^)8: Geneva raised to City 
rank; the (ieneva City hos|»iial oi)encd ; the C^nnltry C lub formed. 
1899: Geneva awning and lent works established. DUO: Geneva 
Cutlery Company organized. P-Ol ; The American Can Company 
organized; Charles A. l"ha]nnan's h'actory of llousehold Specials 
opened. 1902: The ( hamber of Commerce organized; the Catch- 
pole fotnidry purchased bv Walter Howard. 1*'(\L The Hmnane 
Society established; The h'.mpire (Oke ('omi>any organized; the 


W. F. O'Brien stone cntting- works estal)lislie(l. 1904: The trollev 
line to Rochester opened ; the Fay and Bowen Eng-ine Conipanx- 

U)06: A lodge of the Benevolent I'rotectixe ( Irder of Flks 
estal)hshed ; Geneva's first Centennial celebration which for fulness 
and dignity of ceremonial and exposition left nothing to be desired; 
the mnnihcent and niemorahle gift !>}■ William Smith of Gene\a of 
nearly or quite a half a mdlion dollars t(» Hobart College for the 
establishment of the William Smith School for AN'omen. as a 
co-ordinate deiiartment oj the college, a gift which within four 
years crxstallized into a gi'onp of noble buildings, the William 
Smith Hall of Science, the I'lli/abeth lilackwcU llouse, the f^lizabeth 
Smith Miller I louse, and (iNUinasium. 1^)07: The Allcgrelti 
Manufacturing Com])any (stro])s) establishment. l*-)(>): The 
I'nited States Lens Com])an\' organized; the Cienexa IJrewiug 
CompauN established; the I', j. l)onnell\' C'abinet Compan\' 
founded; the (ieneva glass works eslal)li>he(l. UMO: (iene\a's first 
Savings Hank founded. I'M!: The (ieue\a Haking C"omi)au\- 
organized; the (ieue\a Ice C"ream C Ompany organi/ed ; the (ieue\a 
Unit and I'olish ('om])ari\- established: and ha])pily last ol the 
])reseut gener:ition"s works, a beautilul ])ublic drinking founl;iin. 
after ;i (h'sign b\- Arthur C. .\a>h of .\'ew \ Ork-, formcrlv of (iene\a, 
erected in the C;istle street i)la/a, east of hAchauge street — a 
present to the town b\- one ot ( leneva's most gifted and ])ublic 
spirited women, recentl\- deceased, .Mrs. h.lizabeth .Smith .Miller. 

The Centennial Week in 1906. 

This e\ent comi)rised a week's ])rogramme, beginning with 
religious commemorations in the clnu'ches on .Sunday, .May 1.^: an 
( )ld Nome (la\' with concerts, a lian(|uet to editors, professional 
baseball games, and a liistor\- night ; a music day. with grand 
concerts 1)\- the (iene\-a .Society; an Industrial day, the 
features of which were an nidustrial, military and ci\ic parade, ot 
which Colonel William Wil>oM acted as giaud marshal, and a mass 
meeting, at which .Ma\or A. I'. Kose presided and addresses were 
made by Lieutenant-( io\ernor M. I. inn IJruce and others; an I'Mu- 
cational day. with a i)arade I)}' liobart C'ollege students and the 
scholars of the public schools, followed bx' an ruldress l)\- President 
h^inley of the College of the Cit\- of Xew ^'()rk; a Xurserymeu and 
I'ruit (irowers' luncheon and in the exening a display of fireworks 

VILLAGE A XI) (\'\'\ ()!• ( .I-.X lA' A. 


on the lake; the eelehration c-Iosin^ on Sat u id. -in- with a Ilali\- 
pafade. and with hall Lianie> and (illu-r athletic s|)ort> <in tlu- ijtihaft 
C()llei;e cani])ns. The historic-al exerci-i-s ]ii( i])(,t. lirhl in tlu- Snhth 
i)])t-ra lionM I iie<da\- iwiMiiiiL;. t"i in>t it ntrd tlu- (aihninat iiii;' l\-atnrf 
i)f the celehralidii and inehu'.fd addresses h\ rnifi-ssor ('harles 
Delaniater \'ail, L. II. 1),. d' I h. hart ColieL^e. and Mi>. Sarah Rose 
Midien Ihirrall. deli\-ered hc'toix- a rf])i"(.'->(,'nt at i\e and hrilliant 
aiulience. and an historical paju'i", \ahiahk' and interesting'. h\ Mr. 
I'di l'rons(>n, pre^'iitt'd 1>\' tith- onlw hut -nh^ei |ncnl 1 \ |irinlrd. 



First Called "Easton," Then "Lincoln," and, Finally, Gorham— The 
Pioneer Settlement Was at Reed Corners — Organization 
of the Gorham Agricultural Society — The Early Families — 
Trials and Privations of the First Settlers — The Schools — 
Church History. 

By Lewis C. Lincoln. 

The town of (jorham is sitnaUMl on the east side of Canan- 
daigiia lake, lia\iii^- a lake front of about seven miles. The terri- 
tory was first organized into a town on the i7tli of Januarw 1 7S0. 
This orq-anization included ail of townships 9 and 10, second ran^e, 
of the I'i.elps and Gorham Purchase, and was hrst called "I'^aston."' 
On the l/'th of April, 1806, the name of the town was changed to 
"Lincoln," and on the 6t]i da}- of April, 1807, it was again re-chris- 
tened, being given the name of ("lorham. in honor of one of the 
original pro])rietors, Nathaniel (iorham. In 1822. the town was 
divided and the part now known as llopcwell was organized into 
a separate township. In 1824. ;dl that ])art of Cauandaigua 
embraced in townshii) *■). in the third rani>e, U'ing;- east of Canan- 
daigua lake, was annexed to Gorham. the j^eoj^jle on the east side 
finding it incon\-cnient to belong to a town which was divided by 
the lake. This portion of the town became kntnvn as the "gore." 
on accoimt of a bend in the shore of the lake. 

The towmship was sold to Calel) I)enton by Phel])s and 
Gorham. Benton was a jihysician who lived in Columbia county. 
He sold the land to many early settlers whose deeds were never 
recorded or preserved, and consecjuently it is impossible to gi\e a 
verv accurate account of the first purchasers of small parcels of 

Tlie first settlement was made in the vear 1789, in the localit\- 

THE TDWX ()|. (iokilA.M. 


of Reed Comers, janie> Wdnd Ijcmii- iln- piiHU'er. MtluT pioneers 
i" >''i^ P-""' "' 111"-' lowii were Sll;l^ Ivced. jolm M (d 'liei-><.n. and 
jereiiiiali Swart. I'"diu-at idiial interests were not neo-lccteil in these 
early limes, the hi'st schocd house in ilii-, (hstiiet he int^- erected near 
the present ( "oni^resji-ational ehnrcdi. A la\ei-n was ki-p( i,, tlie early 
part of tlie centnr\- hy Air. Sherwoo(h who was succeeded hy |ere- 
nnah Swart. 

It nuist he remcinhered that it was a hazardous undertakinLC 
at this early peidod for a man lo take his fannl\- and nio\e into the 
w ildeiaiess. where nei^hlx m^s were few and fai- hetween. and udiere 
the naii\e Indians \\ei"e still in evidiMU-e and would make their 
tmlrance lo a pioneer's dwcllinL; nnanrion]u-e(l. ddiere were no 
roads and with \ery scanty in.ii)lements. the pioneei- had to make 
his way in the lorest. (de.arin^- off the trees and stnin])^. that he 
nii^ht grow ilax for his clothes, and wheat foi' his In-eail. In onler 
to get a little money with whicdi lo hnx- sugar and hardwaie. he had 
to haul Ins wlieat to .\li)any. If his tire went out. he nuist depend 
U])on his neighl)or's lire or a Hint stone, ddie (luvv and hear and 
smaller game of the forest turnisheil him with meat. 1 1 was a time 
when men and women appreciated iluir neighhors. when the\- met 
often to exchange the necessary articles of food, or raiment, or 
im])Iement. ddicre was hut little mone\- to use as a medium of 
exchange and not much in the wa\- ot the ni'cessities of life for sale. 
Each man and fa.iuih' dei)ended ui)on theii' own resources lor the 
articles of furniture or need. It was a time that re(|uired men of 
courage, determinatiriu, and ])erse\"erance to win from nature at 
first hand a sustenance. 

The citizens of Gorhani ha\e alwa\'s taken a decii interest in 
their schools and the education of their \oulh. In the \ear ISl.^ 
the town was di\ided into school districts and nionexs appropriated 
for the maintenance of schools. It would he hard to trace the his- 
tory of each school district from the hegimn'ng. In the early years, 
families that were some distance from school houses cluhhed 
together, hired a teacher, and maintained their own i)ri\ate <choo|. 
The children remained in school, at least during the winter mouths, 
until thev were men and women grown. It was no unusual thing 
for a country district school to have an attendance of as many as 
(iftv students, ranging from the grades of infancy to higher math- 
ematics or ])hilosopliy. It is said that in one school district in the 
town five families each sent ten children to the same school, niak- 


iiig a total of fifty. The town of Clorliam ;it ])rescnt is (li\ idcd into 
sixteen school districts. It^ most costl}' school building" is thai 
erected in the year 1910 in the \i'la,qe of Gorhani. 

Gorham Families, 

James Wood, w lu^ was the hrst settler of the town of Gorham, 
lias many descendants still lixini^- near Keed Corners, the localitx' 
where he made his home in l/cS*-), amoni;" whom mii;ht be mentioned 
Clark Wood, Mrs. Sil\a Harris, who li\es on the oris^inal place, 
Emma W'oc^l, and (iilhert Elwell. 

-Many descendants of Silns Keed. whose name is connected 
with the early organization of the town, are among- its citizens at 
present. Mason Reed, Mrs. M. Dear, and Mrs. Clara Salisl)ury are 
his great-grandchildren. John Mcl'herson came in 1798. He was 
an Irishman, hnt of Protestant faith : he was a weaver bv tr<ide and 
worked at his trade in this new land, being known as the Irish 
wea\er. His son, Samnel McRherson, was i)ostmaster at \\qq(\ 
Corners lor a nnmber of vea^'s, and his grandson. John McPherson, 
still li\es on the original lot. Jeremiah Swart came in abont the 
year 1800. The names ot Swart and ( Inernsey are associated in 
the old records as town officers. In 1800. Har\ey Stone came from 
(ireene conntw .'md located a little sonth «>f Keed Corners, on lot 
52. Among his descendants who are still lixing in this localilw are 
his granddaughters. ^Irs. S. R. Dongkiss and Mrs. N. B. C^ook. His 
son. TIarve\- Stone. Jr.. was town snper\is(^r. 1857-59. and took a 
])rominent ])art in local |)olitics. Joseph, I.e\i, AN'illiam. and James 
Wilson came from Pennsylvania and located at Wilson's corners, 
in 1812. They bought large tracts of land, much of which is still 
in the possession of their descendants, among \\hom may be men- 
tioned M. J. WiNon. of Rnshville. and John K. Wilson, of Corliam. 
George W. Powell, who is now county sni)erintendent of highways, 
and Adelbert Powell are great-grandchildren. 

riie i)ioneer on lot 50 was Thomas RufTs. who moved into the 
town in 1811 and bought his farm of one Xicholas Law for about 
four dollars per acre, the usual ])rice for land at that time. 

The first school-house in this district was erected in 1811. the 
first teachers being Mrs. Laura Clark and C^liver Babcock. 

In school district No. 10. known as the Russell district, there 
settled at an early date N.-ithaii Pratt, who came from Halifax with 
his brother Elisha. in about the vear 1801. The Pratt property 

'nil<: TOWN OF (iOUIIAM. 383 

rcmaiiicci in liu" fnniily nnlil a \c'i-y rrci'iit dale. Mar\ and |ii!ia 
I'ratl. Iwo listers, held a lilc int^■^(.•^l in tin'- pr. i|utI>'. Tlicv iicxt-r 
niairitMJ and lixcd to a -cod ol<l a.^-e. '\'\\v laixl was (k-c-(k-d to tlu- 
Trails 1)\ Xicholas I. aw, a Xcw \ .)yk lawyer, who ownc(| r.-nsid- 
rrahk' proiJerly ni lliis locali'y. I>ul who ]k-\ct >c-tlk-(l hi-rc. ( hark's 
Knsseij is one ol llic early nanu's eonneete'l wnli tins districi. 
Iknijannn \\ as]d)nni came from lleilonier eonnl\ and look np ham! 
in lots ()\ and h, , and some of his deseemlanls arc slili living- in this 
locality, kiehard W asjihnrn ean)e hei'e )n ISDl, ami i-earcd a family 
ot fonr sons, John, kitdiard. .\ludiael. and l.\inan. ami fonr dan.i;h 
ters, the most ot w host' lues were li\t'd in (ioiham. Mrs. |aines 
Kelehnm. a dan^htei-. is still li\ in^; at an ad\anred a^c at Riishviik'. 
and i^reat-^fandehildiHMi ai'e found in the fannlies of l)el'"orest Iveed 
and jame.s W'iniie. 

Near h'nshxille, on the south line of tlu^ town. !lenr\- (Ireen 
located at the eaily date of I7**''. lie came from W ind.sor. Massa- 
chusetts, lie was the fathe'- of a lar^e famiK. mt'inbefs of which 
look a prominen; paft in (ioidiam affairs. Sonu" of tin- chihlfen are 
now Inini.;- in the town. \;in !,('omis came to the \ il'a^e of 
l\ush\ille in ISI.^. from ( "onnecticnl . Me i)assed thiou^Ii the town 
ot (ienexa duriiiLi the citid season. .",nd sto])])mL;- at a Imnsi'. his son. 
C hester, saw what he took to he a cui"ious Mack box standing' neai' 
the middle of the room .\e\er ha\in|L;' seen an\thm^ ot the kind 
in his section of the coimti \'. the idnld naturally atlem])ted to exam- 
ine its chai'actef. but ui)on putting lingers u|)on the "black- box" 
(a sto\e), he si)ec(li!\' discoxered one oi its c|ualitics and lcarne<l 
a useful and enduring- lesson. 

About the \ear \H()?. Sanmel Toi-iex built a blacksmith shop 
just north of West ri\er. neai- the I 'i-esbyterian church, ."^exeral 
other blacksnnth sho])s were budt about this time at Kvud L'or- 
iiers, (iorham. and in the country districts. In those early days the 
shop of the blacksmith was about tlic only manufactiu-iui;- establish- 
ment in this localitN'. The blacksmith had to work his tn\n irtm 
and to make his coal or charcoal. Tlic name of Captain Ilarwood 
was linked with this district as bein- a man of character and coii- 
\icliou, and when the of war a^^ainst (ireat Britain reached 
the neij^-hborhood.. he resi)onde(l. He settk^l in Kusluille in the 
year 17^9. The first school was keju in the I 'resbyterian nieetiiii;-- 
house. The names of Elisha Pratt and Samuel Powers are reniein- 
bered as those of early teachers. 


The first ])roininent inhabitant of the soiitliwest portion of the 
town was Christian Fisher, wlm located npon lot 33 in the vear 
1805. He lived to the extreme old age of nearl}- a hnn(h-ed \ears. 
His daughter. Mrs. Charles Ferguson, and his grandson, AUie 
Fisher, are ncnv li\ir.g on the old ])]ace. John Ferguson came in 
1813 from near Albany. The I-'ranciscos came in about 1807, and 
a Briggs family were identified \\ith the early settlement of this 
section. In the year 1810, a man 1)y the name of Aleck Sheep li\ed 
in this neighborhood. The first school building in this district, 
\\ iiich was built of unhewn logs, was located on what is now called 
the Rappalee farm. Abner Duvalle and a Mr. Bascom were two of 
the first teachers. The fire place uas huge in size as compared 
with the room, and when a stove was used in its stead, it l)ecame a 
topic of general interest. 

The recollections of each log school house are interesting. The 
associations and games of childhood, and the ])eculiarities of the 
teacher, were indelibl\- impressed upon the minds of the pupils. 
These were the only schools available to most of the children. In 
the central western portion of the town, bordering on Canandaigua 
lake, is located the Cage school district. The first settler was Otis 
Lincoln, ^vho came from Otsego count \" in 1806 and located on lot 
2. Lincoln had ser\ed as a soldier in the Re\-olution, and when 
one of his sons was drafted in 1812. the old man served as his sub- 
stitute. Henrv Linco'n, his son. who li\ed on the original ])r()i)- 
erty until he died in 188.i. as a small boy helped to sharpen the old 
sword b\- turning the grindstone. The sword had seen service in 
the Revolution and was again taken to the front in defense of the 
countrv. The Lincoln homestead is now occupied b)' a great- 
grandson of the pioneer. 

in this neighborhood, on lot 5. settled South wick Cole in 1805. 
which made him a neighboring pioneer with the Lincoln family. 
Amasa Gage was the name of the man after whom the school dis- 
trict has been named. He came to the locality when it was a wilder- 
ness, with onlv two inhabitants between his place and Canandaigua, 
a distance of seven miles. He brought three children with him, 
and ten were born to him after settling in Gorham. Two died in 
infancy and eleven grew to maturity. The land which he took up 
is still in the possession of his descendants, and there are many of 
them no\v living in the town and are among its prosperous and 
successful men. 

TIJK TOAVN ()!■ (lOKIlAM. 385 

Joshua \\ a^lihmii in 1X27 Ixmolit tlic Cole farm, wliere lie 
resided until his death in IS/'M. |;\- a first wife. Christine W'as^-er 
there were three children and hy a set^jiid wife. I'lioebe Ketehum, 
there were se\en children, all of whom L;re\\ n\> and were residents 
of Gorham. The farm is still in the possession of the family. 

The streams in this locality nninini; into ihr lake were used 
in an early day for water ])()wer. A orist-inill was hmlt on the 
creek running- throuL;h the Cole farm in ISl.S 1,\- IU'nr\ IClliott. 
In 18()S a tannery was hnilt and opt^ratcd for a nnnd)er of vears 
near the ])rcsent schoohhonse. This hnildini^- was afterwards used 
for school ])nrposes, hut was soon ahandoncd for anotlu-r lun'ldinj^, 
which was later burned, following- which the present schooldiouse 
was erected. 

Further north on the lake shore is the D.avis tract of about 
seven hundred acres, which was pm-chascd at a \erv earl\- date bv 
William T)avis, of l^hiladelphia. Tart of the aoreement of the i)ur- 
chase was that the Indians should be paid a barrel of flour per 
acre. William Davis's son-indaw. Dr. llahn. came u])on the prop- 
erty, built the present dwellini^ house, and set up the ])ractice of 
medicine. John and Christain hisher. C. Carson, and John Gulick 
were early settlers, who rented the land of Mr. Davis, a^reeinc: to 
pay a yearly rent of from h\e to seven bushels ])ei- acre for the use 
of the land as fast as it could be cleared, h^dward Davis, a i^rand- 
son of the orip^inal jiurchaser, is now owner of nnich of the tract. 

East of this section, on what is now called the middle road, 
James Wood, a son of the first ])ioneer at Uced Corners, built a 
frame house upon lot S7. in the year 1806. A man by the name of 
Aleck Sampson lived on what is now known as the James Turner 
farm. On lot 58 was a man by the name of Koomer, wdio was suc- 
ceeded by a l\Tr. Sackett, who in turn i;a\e w^ay for Isaac Shaw, 
and this property still reniains in the Shaw family. Jonathan 
Stearns, in 1803, settled on lot 54. and Addison, his son. and Emmit. 
his grandson, have been his successors up to the present time. 

In about the center of the town, on lot 28, located David Pick- 
ett, from Oneida count}-, in 1820. He held the office of supervisor 
and was a member of the Assembly. Francis Harris occupied lot 
33 and his son and grandsons in succession have remained in pos- 
session of the old farm. The first frame house in this locality was 
built by Elis Newman, on lot 27. The farm of A. Xewman on the 


same lot was known as the halfway place between Bethel and 
Reed Corners. Lot 20 was the former home of Jonathan Arnold. 
South of his home stood the first school-house to be constructed of 
boards and logs, making it a notable improvement over most of the 
early buildings. James Hogeboom lived in this section and was 
one of the early school teachers. He enjoyed the distinction of 
having as a pupil Martin VanBuren, later President of the United 

East of Reed Corners, on lot 26, there settled at an early date 
a Dutch colony from Hoosick-on-the-Hudson. They moved away 
or have died out and few of their names can be given. Darius 
Miner came to this section from Seneca, in 1812. Ebenezer Lewis 
came from the east prior to 180C and settled on lot .38. Levi Sor- 
tell took up land on lot 21. in 1810. Frederick Spaulding was upon 
lot 22 at the early date of 1812. A farm on lot 2Z was taken up 
by Nathaniel Smith, who lived upon it until he reached the 
advanced age of eightv-cif^ht vears. The first school-house was 
built in 1820 and Darius Miner was the first teacher. This school- 
house was located upon the corner opposite the Degraff place. 
William Dewitt was the local blacksmith and had a good reputa- 
tion for skill and excellence as a mechanic. 

James Robson, a native of England, took up a large tract of 
land in the center of Gorham in the year 1820. He had three sons, 
James, William and John, each of whom owned in their time large 
farms and were successful business men. James Robson, son of 
the pioneer, owned a farm on lot 19 containing 350 acres, ^^'illiam 
Robson lived on the old homestead which originally contained 
800 acres. John Robson's farm was located on lot 27 and contained 
270 acres. The family of John Robson consisted of seven chil- 
dren, James A., Jane T., Ann, Mary, Nellie (deceased), Phoebe E., 
and Fannie. James A. Robson studied law and is now a Justice of 
the Supreme Court in the Seventh Judicial District. 

In school district No. 15. on the line of Yates county, was the 
Blodgett family. Ludin was the first to come from Oneida county 
in 1800 and settled upon lot 17. Ephraim Blodgett came to the 
same place soon afterwards. He finally moved to Canandaigua 
and lived to be a very old man. The Gates tavern was located in 
this district and had a reputation for comfort and hospitality 
beyond the most of such taverns at this date. The first school- 
house was built in 1807. Chester Loomis was among those who 


taiii^ht scliool in this district. Lenmcl Morse, later a justice of 
the peace, and a mcmhcr of Assenil)ly. was also one of tlie early 
teachers. In 1800. !\i( hard W csthrook from iV-nnsyivania took 
lip his residence on let 3i. James Lewis and W iUiam Bassett 
located m this (h'^trict alioiit tlu- same time. Solonion lilod^a'tt in 
1808 bought lot M\ which was sold in jiieees to Lewis Georj^je. 
.Samuel keed, a son of Silas, and Horatio Gates, son of Daniel. 
The log house i)iit ii]) ])y Lewis George was, for a time. n^e<l for n 
schooLhouse. Lucy Catlin was one of the first teachers. In 1806. 
the lirst road in tliis <listriet, and one of the first in the town, was 
surveyed and laid out. 

Church History. 

The Presbytcri.-i.n church \\as organized h'ebruarv 26. 1828. 
by Re\erend Henry Axtell. Ilenry 1'. Strong, and Ansel O. L.ddy. 
It was composed of twenty-four mend)ers. wlio were members of 
a cliurcli in Hopewell. The following are tlieir namies: Jacob 
Hove}^ Peter C. b^iero. Aliraham h'iero. ( bin Crittenden. Levi 
Sawtelle, James Robson. Alada Bridgman. Mary Hovey. Hannah 
Fiero. and her sisters. Elizabeth and Mary. Canadicc Crittenden. 
Mahitabil Soule. Sarah Newman. Sar;ih Sawtelle. Silva Flitch, 
Hannah Groesbeck, Mary Snyder. Sabra Crittenden, and Abigail 
Wise. The church i^rospcred and increased in numl)ers and in 1832 
had one hundred and two communicuits ; in 1836, one hundred and 
twenty-eight. The first elders were Jacob Hovey. Orin Crittenden, 
and Peter Fiero. Thev were set a])art to their oftice by Rev. 
Joseph ATerrill on March 8, 1828. Orin Crittenden was the tirst 
clerk of the session. The hrst deacons were Levi Hatfield and 
Mason Sawtelle. Rev. Flavel Gaylord was pastor from 1830 until 
1840. He was followed by Rev. Hosea Kittredge, 1841. Rev. 
Alva Lily was next pastor for two years, and he was succeeded by 
Charles Merwin. who was installed on April 6, 1845, and dismissed 
about a year later. 

The original church building stood about a mile from Reed 
Corners. In 1843 a new edifice was built at (lorham and a separa- 
tion took ])lace between those desiring to worship at Reed Cor- 
ners rather than at Gorham. The present pastor is Dr. John 
McColl, under whose care th^ church is in a prosperous condition. 

The Congregational church, at Reed Corners, is an ofTshoot. as 
above noted, from the Presbyterian society at Gorham. The old 


meeting-house, which stood near Babbitt's corners, was moved to 
Reed Corners, a distance of aI)oiit a mile. This building- was 
burned on Christmas night, 1903, and a new modern church build- 
ing was erected the next year. 

It has been with considerable difficulty that this churcli has 
been supported. At one time a Bajitist minister was secured, and 
at another time the pastor was a Dutch Reformed minister, who 
presented his doctrinal views so well that the people accepted 
them and the cluirch became a Dutcli Reformed society. In the 
course of a few years another change was made and the society 
became Congregational. l\e\. Warren Day was one of the first 
pastors under the new name. Rev. C. M. Bartholomew was pastor 
from 1881 to 1883. The Rev. Dr. McColl, of the Gorham Presby- 
terian church, is at present in charge. 

The P'irst Baptist church was formed earh- in the historv of 
the town, and services were held in school-houses and the homes 
of the members. The first church was erected at Baldwin's cor- 
ners. In 1841. this chtirch building was torn down and moved to 
Bethel, or Gorham, and became known as the Bethel Baptist 
church. The first minister was Abraham Knnis. The first deacons 
were Henry Douglass. J. AV. Van \rsdel. and Abraham Watkins. 
Rev. Hugh Kane is the present pastor. 

The Baptist church at Reed Corners is known as the Gorham 
Baptist church. The organization was formed in 1804 and held 
meetings in the vicinity of the Pickett school-house. In due time a 
house of w^orship was erected on the Reed Corners and Gorham 
road, about three miles from Reed Corners. In 1841 this building 
iwas moved to Reed Corners, and a part of the members of the 
Baptist church, wdiich was moved from Baldwin's corners at this 
time, joined the Reed church. The first pastor was Rev. fohn G. 
Stearns, w^ho was an able preacher and became somewhat cele- 
brated because of his book, entitled "Stearns on Masonry.'' This 
book was published in 1829 and contained what was claimed t(> be 
a full exposition of the secrets and ceremonies of the order. There 
are a few copies of the book still in existence. 

The Methodist church at Ktislnille was organized in 1821. '['he 
first members were: Kbenezer Streeter, ^\•ife. and mother. Jesse 
C. Boardman, Hannah Pratt, John A. Peabody, Samuel Whitman. 
James Peabody. and George B. Turner. Through the efforts of 
Rev. Ira Fairbanks, in 1830, a meeting-house was projected, which 


was dedicated on June 25, 1832, !)>- Rev. John Copeland, at that 
time the resident pastor. The prcseiii I.iiiMing^ was erected in 
1866-7. at a cost of $20,000. li was dedicated in 1867 by Rev. 
Matthew Simpson. The local pastor's name was V. C. llibhard. 
The church has a membershi]) of two huiidrril. ami the present 
pastor is Rev. Harry King*. 

The Congregational church of KMi^luille, althon-h located a 
few feet over the county line in \ ates county, deserves a notice in 
Gorham's history, as many of her citizens are included in its 
congregation. The church was organized in 1802. under the name 
of Augusta and Gorhani. The first pastor was Abijah Warren. The 
present building was erected in 1818. The church has never been 
without a supply or pastor for more than three months during this 
long ])eriod. The present ndnister is a ilaptist sui)|)l\- b\- the name 
of Rev. A. Trennary. 

The First Methodist Episcopal church of (iorham was 
organized in 1796, by Jefferson Hamilton and .Arming Owen, 
missionaries from Philadelphia, who came to the \icinity of Gorhani, 
and held niieetings in a log meeting-house about two miles east of 
the village, in the town of Seneca. The church was \isited by a 
re\i\al in 1817, under the labors of Rev. Idiomas I'Aving. the local 
pastor; and the community was so stii'red and lifted in spiritual 
things, that Rev. P. Hollct, a pastor from the Methodist itinerancy. 
])roposed the name Bethel (House of God) to the rising village. 
The meetings were held in different places, in the log house near 
the present dwelling of J. M. Pulver, and in one of the village 

The present organization of the society was made in 1828, ami 
a house of worship erected which cost about one thousand tloUars. 
The first trustees were John Q. Groesback, O. F. Rice, and Seaman 
Tomi)kins. Revivals were experienced under the labors of Revs. 
Smith and Zina J. PiUck. These ministers died in the \icinity and 
were buried in the old cemetery at Gorhani. In 1842, the preaching 
was held in Gorhani (Bethel) and the church was located here from 
that date. The following names of families are connected w ith its 
early history: Stokes, Phillips, Rice, Arnold, Schuyler. Hanley, 
and Runyan. The Hersheys and others were supporters, l)ut not 
members until years later, ddie church building was remodeled in 
1868 at an expense of over two thousand dollars. The first Sunday 
school was organized in 1828, with A. Hill for superintendent. The 


present l)iiilcling was erected in 1905. by Joseph Hershey and C. W. 
Perkins and presented to the organization. The church is now 
under the pastoral care of Rev. E. Jarvis. 

Reed Corners. 

Reed Corners is tlie name of the small settlement, which is 
located a little north of the center of the town and on the old stage 
route from Rushville to Canandai.*J,"ua. Here were held the first 
town meetings and it has continued to be the meeting place for the 
transaction of the town's l)usiness. The only retail store in the 
])lace is conducted 1)}' R. B. \\ inne, who carries a general line of 
groceries and sujjplies. James Partice is tlie blacksmith. There is 
an apple dryer of large ca]:)acity. owned and operated by the Rush- 
ville Evaporating and Packing Company. The hotel, after having 
been conducted for the accommodation of the puldic for nearly a 
century, is now closed. 

(jrange No. ^f\?>, P. of II.. owns (lie public hall, which is used 
for town meetings and public entertainments and amusements. The 
])resent master of the grange is l^mor\- .Megaffee. The grange was 
organized in hS7o and has been in continuous operation since that 
time. It has a mem1)ership of over one hundred and fifty. 

The Ciorlunn .\gricultural .Association, whose annual exhibition 
is sometimes known as the "World's h^air." \vas organized in \HS2. 
The grounds were donated to the society by Mason Reed. u])on the 
condition that it be used continuously for this ])urpose. It has a 
half mile track and the necessar}- buildings, which gi\e the societ\- 
facilities for holding successful fairs. 

There are two churches at Rc^id Corners: The Baptist, which 
is located a little east of the COrners, and tlie Congregational, a 
little north. 

Gorham Village. 

In the eastern part of the town is located the x'illage of Gorham, 
knowti for many years as liethel. This village is situated on Mint 
creek, the largest stream of water in the t(~)wn. Lot No. 5, upon 
whiich the \ illagc is situated, was taken up by Le\-i Benton in the 
vear PStK). He built a ta\ern on the ]u-operty, now used as a resi- 
dence l)y Mrs. William Snyder. Mr. P)enton was the first man to 
utilize the water i)<)wer of Mint creek, 1)\- erecting a grist mill, at an 
verv early date. Here also was located the hrst mill of the 
town, which was l)uilt by a man b}- the name of Craft. 


The iirst merchaiU in Gorhani village was Joseph Palmer, who 
was also the first minister to locate in this vicinity, which was in the 
year 1808. He was succeeded as a merchant in 1816 by Perry 
Holiett, who in turn was followed l)_\- (ieor^e and Samuel Stewart, 
wdio erected the first business block in 1822. Armstrong 
Tompkins was the Iirst blacksmith, coniint;- in 1814. The first 
physician was a Dr. Colhn. The Iirst frame school-house was 
erected in 1815, which was also the date of organi/ati(;n of the first 
cemetery association. The Iirst meeting-house was a iMethodist 
church, built in 1828. The lUqjtist and Tresbytenan churches were 
both built in 1842-43. 

Gorham village has a well ke])t cenicierw which is located on 
the west side, with surroundings and conditions priiticuIarK' adapted 
for a burial place. 

The Alain street in Gorham runs east and west, and four of the 
cross streets are named, Stanley street, Dewey avenue. .Maple 
avenue, and North and South street. On the north side (»f Main 
street are to be found the following business jilaces : Mar\-in 
Sutherland's bakery, the post ofiice. The (ioiiiam Ilotel. the feed 
and flour null, and the Uobinson block, which is ()ccn])ied b\- C. M. 
lUdlock's grocery and dr}- goods store and hishcr tv Kinner's 
furniture and undertaking establishment. On the south side is 
located the I. O. O. h- block, erected in IH'^K) and occupietl by 
William I'ulver's dry goods and grocery stcjre, and C. L. Grosier, 
hai'dware. Adjoining this block on the west are the foll(~)wing" busi- 
ness places: A. iVl. Phillips, department store: Stacy's barber shop; 
the New Age printing office, where is published a weekly under the 
editorship of J. J. Deal: W h)te and Kindelberger's meat market. 
Further west, over Flint creek, is the l)lacksmith shop o])erated by 
Clifford Fingers, and D. A. Sutherland's wool house is near here. 

The Lehigh A'alley station is on Dcwe}- avenue, and c^n this 
street also are the jiroduce linns of llerringlon i\: Sutherland, and 
Adamson cS; Son, who operate a cold storage jdant. 'fhe lumber 
yard conducted In' William 'fhomi)son is on Stanley street, 'fhe 
a])pie evaporator is located on l\la])lc avenue, where may also be 
found the dentist. Gliarles Compton. On South street is situated 
the Baptist church, Scott & Son. blacksmiths: and the M. K. church. 
At the west swdtch are C. j\l. 'fhom])son's produce and fertilizer 
buildings, and the Cook »*v l\ake C(Kal yard, 'fhe village has two 


doctors, A. D. Allen and C. C. W^illiamson. The town is liehted 
with natural gas furnished by six wells. 


The village of Rushville is the only village in the town that has 
a corporate organization. The principal part of the village is in 
Yates county. The union school district of Rushville extends 
beyond the village limits, on the Ontario county side. The Rush- 
ville school draws many of the more advanced students from the 
district schools in this part of the town, and in it many of Gorham's 
first citizens have received the most of their education. 

Chester Loomis, who afterwards became Judge Loomis, and a 
New York State Senator, was one of the early school teachers of 
Gorham, and his- son, Charles Loomis, remend:)ered his and his 
father's home village with a gift of $15,0()() with the stipulation that 
it be used for public improvement. With the avails of this bequest a 
large public block was erected, \\ ith room for two stores, and a large 
puldic audience hall. This building was burned in 1908, but a new 
building was erected in 19i>^ along similar lines, with a public 
hall, and space for the tire dei)artment. and the public ot^ces. The 
Rushville banking office does a thrixing business with the people 
coverinu' a larire territor^^ It is managed and conducted b\- lr\ing 
Jones, the cashier. On the Gorham side of the village is located 
the cemetery and the Methodist Episcopal church, while the Con- 
gregational church stands very near the line. 

The Rushville Evaporating and Packing Comi)an\-, w hose office 
is located on the I .ehigh railroad, does a large business in exaporat- 
ing apples and buying and selling apple products. At this point is 
also located the bean picking house of Bedel & Co.. managed by 
George hitch. The cold storage of John Adamson and several hay 
storage houses and produce plants make this one of the best 
marketing places for Gorham farmers. 

The Gorham Lodge of Free and .Accepted Masons received its 
first charter from the Grand Lodge in 1813 and held regfular meet- 
ings until 1828, when it was com])elled to forego its n>eetings on 
account of the ])o])ular feeling aroused by the Morgan abduction 
incident. The lodge resumed work again in 1840 and continued 
under the old disj^ensation until 1855, when a new charter was 
granted to it as No. Z77 . F. & A. M. The present membership of 
the lodge is one hundred and ten. It owns its buildinef, which is 
located on the east side of Main street in the villagfe of Rushville. 

TTir. TnWX nv GORITAM. 303 

The Lake Shore. 

'I'he town of (lorli:iin is lumndcMl on llic west Ijy Canandai^ua 
lake. Much ot llic lake sIkhc- lia> Ikhmi ^(.1(1 to non-residents in 
cal)in lots, ol from litl\- to \]\v hnniltail fcii widili, an<l in Sfjnic 
cases more. Upon tlior lots iiaxc Wcc-n Imili cottages which are 
occupied during' the sunimci' nioiitlis 1)\' pc'o]ik- who Ii\'e the rest 
of the }ear in ncar-h)- cities and \ diages. This lake shore devehjp- 
ment has added nialcriall\- to llic \aliu' of tlu- i)ropert\- in the 
immediate neii;lil)orliood, and lias added to the assessed \alnatioii 
of the town many thousands ol dollars. There are ahont se\ent}'- 
live of these summer homes located in the town, ('otlaj^e Cil\' is 
the name of the princi[jal steamboat landing, and the localit\- where 
the most of the C(Uta_i;es are located. The store. l)oardini;-hon^e. 
dancin_i4" hall, and billiard ](arlors are owned and o])erated b\- Mr. 
1\. JM. Gaue. Lincoln WOod is the name of another .steamboat 
landing and the immediate localilx. Mere is located the tine 
country residence of the late Senator joliii Kaines, which was com- 
pleted after his death. Washburn's landing is the name of the 
first landing" on the east side ot the lake as von lea\e Canandaigua. 
(Jn Green's point, a little further south, liieix' are located six or 
seven cottages. liradkw W ynkoop, h"s(|., and jolin tOlmey, I^s*!., 
each has a cottage on the slu)re, near the north line of the town. 
.Vt Gooding's point there is a grou]) of se\en or eight summer 
homes. k\u-ther up the lake, at Moble's, there are several more. 

ddie lake shore road running south trom the ( lage school- 
house was originalK' located on the bank ol the lake, but has been 
moved back a greater ])art of the distance from this point to the 
south line of the town, so as to make cottage lots of the land near 
the lake. 

ddie |)resent to\\n officers are: .Super\isor, kredrick kindel- 
berger; town clerk, T. 15. Pierce: justice.s, William I'uher. L. C. 
Lincoln, S. R. Douglass, and .M . W . kisher; assessors, John W hyte. 
Alonzo Ardell, and (ieorge ("hai)man ; highway superintendent. 
Charles H. Green: collector. Miles T.lodgett : overseer of poor, 
Charles Babbitt: constables, James Stokoe. Charles Stark, Julius 




Set Oif from Gorham on March 29, 1822, by Officials Who Hoped 
Well lor the New Civil Division — Emphatically an Agricul- 
tural Town — The Earliest Settlers — Fortunate in the Character 
of Its Pioneers — Once the Home of a Company of Fourierites 
— The Old Indian Trails — The Seneca Castle of Onnaghee, 

By Irving W. Goates. 

Tlie Muse of Tlistorv. clad in tlie classic ^arb of a former a^-e, 
witii uplifted pen, amid the moss s^row n tablets and the crund)ling' 
relic of a barbarous, unrecorded and uncultured epoch, at the very 
dawn of wliat is now termed ci\ ilixation, seeking to discover amid 
tlie wreck and of countless centuries the actors, the deeds, and 
the motives which impelled them, as well as the localities u])on 
which tJK'A- dwelt and enacted their drama of triumph or defeat, 
of glory or shame, is very much in the position of the modern 
historian who today attem])ts to record scenes, localities, men nud 
events of a time long since past. 

The voices of those who could tell most elocpientl}- of the i)ast 
are stilled in death. The incidents of their struggle in this then 
their wild wilderness home are not obtainable. The localities of 
their rude cabins, as their gleaming axes cleared away the giant 
forests, have gone before the onward march of progress, and all is 
chans^ed. And to add to the dil^iculties of the student who seeks to 
elucidate the story of our jiast, former historians who then had a 
most interesting field from which to glean stores of \-alual)le facts, 
with a "cloud of li\ing witnesses" to substantiate them, have been 
content to merely mention a few brief incidents, leaving to the 
investigator of today the mere "dry husks of history," on which to 
base his conclusions. 

I have often fancied the delight and interest with which the 
decendants and friends of those hardy ])ioneers of om" town would 


peruse the many daily events and adxcntures incident to their rou^h 
hfe in subjugating- this wilderness, and ilic strange scenes upon 
which they gazed, nn their eaily ad\ent t<» this paradise clothed in 
all Us pristine beaut)-, before the hand of ci\ilized man had marred 
its surroundings. We know full wc-ll, the se\ere trials and hard- 
ships which the\' endm-ecl, we know the L;reat dangers which those 
noble men and women faced by da\ and by night: \'et, would it not 
ha\'e increased our lo\e and adnni"alion loi- them, and deeiJened 
our re\erence tor their memoi'ie>, had M)me t'art-ful chronicler of 
the lime been nuM"e explicit in tellmg the stoi'\- of their heroic lives 
and dauntless courage? 

On the 27th (la\' of jaiuiar\, US'*, .iltei' tin' ad\ent of >ome of 
the earliest settlers in ( )ntai"io counts, and iiearK ti-n \ears since 
the Old C ontinent;ds under (ieneral Sulli\an made their victorious 
raid agamst the Senecas, a district or town, according to the best 
information we can get, was formed and inchnled within its bonnd- 
aries all the terrilor\- now known as the towns of G^ndiam and 
Hopewell. The district thus set olT was caded "Easton." but on 
A])ril 19th, 1800, the name, not gixing \ ery good satisfacticm to 
many citizens of the district, was changed to Lincoln, and >{\\\ 
later, April Oth, 1807, to (lorham. in lionoi" of .\alhaniel (iorham. 
one of the pre)prietoi's tmder the .Massachusetts Preemption 

The town of Ho])e\\ell. as it i^ now known. wa> >et ott from 
the old town of Gorham on .March J'Hli. 1822. and according to the 
s\-stem of I 'helps and (iorham snr\e_\s. as ado])ted at the time ot 
their large ])m-chase, it is known as towushi]) 10, range 2. and con- 
tains about thirty-six squares miles of land. As to the origin of the 
name given it on its separation frtuu the town of (iorham. the true 
reason has not been satisfactorily explained. \\y some it is claimed 
that it was in allusion to Hopewell in .\ew jersew where General 
Washington and his officers held the famous "council of war" on 
the ev(ming i)receding the battle of .\b>nmoutli. while he and his 
ami)- were in i)nr^uit (M" .Sir llenr\- Clinton after his evacuation ot 
I'hilatlelphia. during the l\e\ ( dutioii. but of the truth of this the 
writer knows not. Others ha\e suo:.geste(l that the name adopted 
in 1822. for the bantling town^hij) thus set adrift upon the uncertain 
tide of cori)orate e\istence, embodied tiie good wishes of those 
former fellow citizens of the older town — old Gorham. and that 
they truh- lioj^rd uv// for the child m.ithered on their v,,il. who thus 



had assumed the dignity and responsibility of a separate jurisdic- 
tion among the towns of Ontario county. But be this as it may, 
Hopewell is a good name, a name of which she may well feel proud. 
and whose history, although she boasts of no large populous \i\- 
lages, or long cit)* avenues, noisy with the din of trathc. can point 
with pride to many a happy country home, whose doors are ever 
open to the demands of charity, where peace and plenty dwell, and 
where kind nature rewards the labors of the husbandman. 

That the town thus christened in 1822 "made good." as the 
saying is, is evidenced by the fact that, although the pioneer settle- 
ment of the town commenced in 1789 and the year following, so 
rapid was the progress made in settlement, that in 1830 it had a 
population of over two thousand inhabitants, a population by the 
way, as has well been observed, that has never been "exceeded or 
equalled at any subsequent census enumeration."' Hopewell is 
emphatically an agricultural town, the great majority of its citizens 
being engaged in cultivating the soil, and its large area of fer- 
tile land, its heavv forests of valuable timber, its abundant supply 
of pure water in springs and creeks, no doubt early attracted the 
attention of a thrifty, industrious class of emigrants from other 
States less fortunate, and this accounts perhaps, in a great measure, 
for its early growth and development. 

Tlie earliest settlers in the town of Hopewell, according to the 
most authentic information we have, were Daniel Gates, Daniel 
Warner, Ezra Piatt, Samuel Day. (ieorge Chapin, Israel Chapin. 
Jr., Frederic I'ollet, Thomas Sawyer. Benjamin Wells, and a Mr. 
Sweet, who came from Massachusetts, and William W'yckoff, from 
Pennsylvania. These were actually the original pioneers of the 
town, and as such are deserving of notice l^efore other early settlers 
who came in sul)sequently. 

A son was born to Benjamin Wells and wife on February 4th. 
1791, who was named Benjamin W ells. Junior, who was the hrst 
white child l)orn in the town. W illiam Wyckoff was said to have 
been an Indian captive, cajUured in the Susquehanna valley by the 
Senecas, and brought from his home by them on their retreat before 
Sullivan's army in 177^). and who on his release, after the war. 
settled on the site of Old Onnaghee. 

Captain Frederic T'ollet, another early pioneer, led a romantic 
and adventurous life during the cUising years of the Revolutionary 


war, and, l)y a nrirack- almost, after intense ])ain and sufferinj^, 
escaped death at tlie liands of tlu- Indians. Ca])tain Thomas Saw- 
yer, another pioneer wliom we h.'i\c' nanie<h was a hold and l)rave 
officer anions the "Green Monntain hoys," and rendered loyal 
service in the wikl scenes of llu' l\t\ ( ihitionary periorh His was the 
first death in the ])resent town of Manchester, which occurred on 
March 12th, 1796, and his remains were hnried in the old rural cem- 
etery in Hopewell, on the main road leachnL;- from ("anandai^ua to 
Manchester. Quite recently, howexei-. at a meeting- of his descend- 
ants in Ontario count\' and elsewlu-i-e. Ins remains were removed 
from their first restino- pl.-ice in llopewell and reinterred with 
appropriate services in tlie new I'ioneer cemeter\' in the town of 
Manchester, which has lately heen incorporated and improved, and 
where sleep many of his old friends and associates of pioneer days. 

Althoug'h the pioneers, whose names T ha\e mentioned, were 
undoubtedly the first settlers in the town, there came in fpiite early 
many enterprising-. thrift\- men of families, fi'om New England, 
Mar^■land, Pennsylvania, and elsewhere, who hy their advent as 
permanent settlers, and bv their labors in sulxluing the wildness, 
helped much to improve the newly-formed township. There is 
no doubt but that these als(^ are justly entitled to the name of pio- 
neers and to all the honor which that name implies. Among the 
names recorded at that early date, occur those of Richard Jones. 
Nathaniel Lewis, Elam Smith. V^imri Densnrore. George LeVere. 
Robert Buchan. John Price. Daniel Le\\^re. |ohn Ereshour. Israel. 
John, and Stephen Thacher. Major h^dijah Murray. Elijah Ellis. Jcdm 
Russel, David W. Beach, Oliver and William Babcock. Wilham 
Bodman. Erastus Leonard, T>uther Porter. Rol)ert Penn, Samuel 
Bush, Joshua Case. John Ricker. Amos Knapp. Silas Benham. C 
P. Bush, Daniel Warren. Shuball Clark. John Hart. John Eaurot. 
George Chapin, Russel Warren, Dedrick Coursen. Robert David- 
son, Moses DePew. John 6regg. James Moore. James Birdseye. 
Edward Root, Ezekiel Crane. John McCauley. David Aldrich. 
Amos, Amasa. and James Gillett. Josei)h Lee. Oliver Warren. Elam 
Crane, Ezra and Leonard Knapp. Thaddeus Benham. Elisha 
Higby, William Canfield. Andrew P.ush. Elder Anson Shay. John 
Kellop-g, Thomas Edmundson, Daniel Macumber. Captain Thomas 
Davis, Rufus Warner, Apollas P,aker, John Church. Jonas Whit- 
ney, Asel and Constant Balcom, Eben and Eli Benham, Ezra 
Newton, and others. 


Ai a little later period, there came still others to swell the 
population of the town, w.ho. like those already mentioned, proved 
most worth)' citizens and added wealth and credit to the com- 
munity. The surnames of these families were: Thomas. Derr. 
Spangle. Skinner. Clexeland. Knap]). Marks. Sly, Purdy. Ketcluim. 
Brundage. Bishop. Pembroke. \\'oodin. Knickerbocker. Chapman. 
Archer. Stotenburg. Reese. [Mavnard. Carv. Cost. Parkhurst, Mat- 
tison, Stoddard, Shekell. Kingsley. \\'ridsworth. Odell, Warfield, 
and many others, whose names ha\e been forgotten in the lapse 
of time, but many of whose descendants have long been citizens 
of the town, and have contributed in no small degree to its growth 
and material prosperity. 

Hopewell was fortunate in the character of its pioneers, com- 
ing as the\' did. the majority of them, from the New England 
States, and liaving been educated in the stern precepts of the 
Puritan school where honesty, jiatriotism. and justice between 
man and man were regarded as the essential elements of true man- 
hood. I)eing early inured to honest toil, to rigid economv. and 
frugal habits, to a faithful regard to obligations incurred. With a 
just conception of the benefits of education and of the value of 
wholesome moral influence in regulating the affairs of a commun- 
ity, they set on their adxent here a worthy example for their 
descendants to fol1o^\■. and thus we find them, even before the 
forests were cleared away, erecting rude places of worship and 
schools that the principles of their noble forefathers which had 
wrought so much good in the older localities, might take root here 
and bring forth precious fruit in the virgin soil of Western N'ew 
York. Hence, we are not surprised to learn from the records that 
Calvin Bacon taught the first school in one of these rude school- 
houses as early as 1792. or that religious meetings were held in 

They were men of great enterprise and thrift, upright and 
honorable in their dealings, with a profound respect for law and 
order; and In- their labors soon rendered to the town a name and 
character that gave it an enviable reputation among its neighbors 
in the civil divisions of the county. The officers chosen at its first 
annual town meeting, held on the 17th day of April, 1822, were 
men of much native ability, and the names of Nathan Lewis, its 
first supervisor. Judge Amos Jones, Judge John Price, and many 
others, who occupied ])rominent positions in succeeding town 


administrations, reflected mncli Inmor upon the town and are to 
this day most lo\in^ly rrnu-iiihcreil foi' their /.(.-al, their sound 
jiidg-ment, ;ind unselfish t'lldrls m an oflicial capacity, for all the 
people of the town during man\ IniiiL;- years of service. 

As it has been before remarked in the rour>e of this lunnble 
sketch, Hopewell was typicall\- an agricultural town, and nrost of 
its citizens were tillers of tlie soil, hence its manufacturing interests 
were of no great e.xtent, nor was nuicli capital invested therein. 
In an early day, Jonas Whitney, wdio was the owner of a large tract 
of fine farming and tind)ered land, built a saw nnll on hall brook. 
Deiinie Chapman being the millwright, and a little lower down on 
that same stream. Henry Jones erected a saw mill that was run for 
several years, while yet another saw mill, higher up tlie stream, 
nearly east of Hopewell Center, was owned and operated for many 
years by George Derr. 

On the Canandaigua outlet, in the Av^estern part of the town. 
<lliver Phelps and Captain Israel Cha])in built at an earlv date. 
prol)ably about 1789, a grist mill at the foot of the hrst rapids in 
the stream, about fwv miles below the lake. This was for the time 
quite a large mill and proved a great conxenience to the early set- 
tlers, as well as estal)lishing a locrd mnrket for the splendid crops 
of the famous "Genesee wlieat'" that grew to perfection on the 
clayey soils of that ]>ortion of the town of Hopewell. .\s Captain 
Chapin soon removed from Canandaigua to the locality of the mill, 
erecting the venerable old mansion (still standing) in 1808. and 
extending his farming operations oxer a large area, the place was 
named in his honor. Chapin\ille, and soon became cpiite a busy 
center for the trade of that region. The flour made from the fine 
wheat on his farms and others soon gained a great rei)utation for 
excellence, and on the completion of the Erie canal in 1825. a brisk 
trade was opened between the cities of the State and even abroad, 
by long lines of farmers' teams hauling flour from the mill to Pal- 
myra on the canal, and even before its completion, to Pultneyville. 
on Lake Ontario, bringing on the return trip loads of iron ore. 
which occurs so i^lentifully in that part of Wayne county, to the 
early furnaces in Shortsville and Manchester. 

Another early mill on the (^anandaigua outlet was erected by 
Oliver Phelps in 17*^1. This mill was a small and crude affair, yet 
it answered its purpose well for a time and proved a great help to 
the early settlers for long distances in this region. This mill was 


iong known as the "Day mill/' from Samuel Dav, an earlv settler 
of the town, who was employed by ]\Jr. Phelps to operate the mill. 
In 1800 Edward Parker became the owner of this mill, and it was 
run by him until his death in 1820. 

Stephen Bates, the son of Phineas Bates, the early landlord 
of Canandaigua, became the owner of the mill property after the 
death of Edward Parker, and buying a large area of land near, 
became a very successful farmer, improved the mills, both saw and 
grist mills, and they were known over a wide extent of country for 
many years, as the "Bates mills."' 

Stephen Bates was a prominent citizen : became sherifT of 
Ontario county, member of Assembly, and State Senator. He 
emigrated to Sauk. AVisconsin, in 1845. and died the following year. 
The property subsequently came into the possession of a company 
of "Fourierites" and after a brief occupancy by that deluded sect, 
it was purchased by Norman C. Little, about 1846 or 1847, who in 
addition to the mills, erected a store and transacted quite a little 
business for a time, but not meeting with verv good success, Mr. 
Little was sold out by the sherifi^. and he removed to Saginaw. 
Michigan, where he was drowned in the river. The locality thus 
occupied by him on the outlet in Hopewell, in 1846. still bears his 
name. Littleville. and probably will l)e known as such for many 
years to come. 

This locality on the outlet, now known as Littleville, was a 
famous one in the days of the Indian occupancy of this region. It 
was here the "old ford," or "stepping stones," crossed the stream 
and marked the junction of two very important paths or trails, one' 
leading from Geneva through Oaks Corners and the Indian vil- 
lages on the Flint creek, and the other from the foot of Canandai- 
gua lake to the Indian settlements on the Ganargua creek in the 
vicinity of Palmyra, in what is now A\'ayne county. In fact, as the 
writer has proved by actual exploration, no less than five well 
defined Indian paths or trails converged at this point, and further 
it must have been occupied by the red men as a village or home for 
many years, judging from the relics found in the near vicinity. 
On the authority of Hen. George S. Conover. the map of the old 
trail from Littleville, or the "old ford," to Flint creek and beyond, 
is still on file in the State Engineer's office at Albany; is numbered 
341 of Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and shows the exact junc- 
tion of these two important trails. The present road in the north- 

TIM', TOWN Ob IK U'\:\\ I'.I.L. 4()l 

cm ])<i]li()n ot the t«i\\ii of I |( 'pew clI, k-adiii-- frDiii I .illlcvillc to 
()rlcans, is \ir!u;il!y on \\\c line n| ;lii^ i>\,\ ii-ail, and was surveyed 
in 17^)2. 

It is a sins^iilar faci lliat todax this line \\atcr ])(»wfr afforded 
by the Caiiandai^na outk-t in the town ni llopewell, udiich was so 
nnich ])ri/e(l 1)\- the eaidy settlers, is ol' no acconnt. and it moves 
not a sini;-le wheel within llie area once noisy with the Innn of 
niachinci-y in mills and factories at what is n<»\v Chapin. Ilii^hy's. 
and other i)oints on the >trenn, with tln' sin^'lc e\ce|)tion <»f the 
Imhines of the Ontario Li^hl .md Traction Company, at Little- 

This i>"reat change lias been brouL;lit abont li\ the necessities 
of the county scat, Canandaijyua in the (lis])osal of its sewa.ece and 
for other ])nrposes. I'hat the rai)id growth and enterprise of 
Canandai^ua has worked to the disad\anta,iL;e of the town of Hope- 
well, has been remarked by other liistorians. and the fact of its 
slow growth and lack of cnteri)rise is ])atent to e\-ery citizen of the 
town. Canandaigna. l)ns\-. beantiful. and full of business enterprise. 
is fast assuming the dignity of a city, while llopewell that lies so 
near has a smaller population than it had in e\-en 1830, and. with 
not a single growing village within its borders, or the starting of a 
single new business entcr])rise. has beengi\cn oxer to the slow and 
uneventful course of an agricultural community, wdiose whole life 
and ultimate destiny as a constituent i)art of f^ntario county rest 
with the tillers of the soil. If they are wise to their opportunities 
at this day and age, if they adopt more new and impr(^\ed methods 
of farming as the researches of science have demonstrateil b\ actual 
tests to be an advance over the older methods, if they cultivate a 
.spirit of local pride in beautifving their home surroundings, in 
assisting kind Na.ture to snrcad a mantle of rural contentment and 
rest over the man\- charnn'ng homes within their b(Trdei"S. TTopewell 
need not cuav her more populous neighbors with their growing- 
towns and evidences of business thrift, for the basis of her present 
and future prosperity is founded in the soil itself, and her citizens 
are co-workers in the "oldest and noblest pursuit of man." Cities 
and towns mav spread out and assume grand proportions, but 
agriculture is after all the true source of all wealth, and the fruits 
of the farmers' toil must ever sustain the people of the earth. 

During the Indian occupancy of Ontario county, that portion 
embraced in the present tow-n of Hopew^ell was a favorite home and 


residence for a long time of the proud Senecas. who were our 
immediate predecessors on this soil. This is proven 1)\ tlie 
numerous evidences of that occupancy that still remain. In the 
southern part of the to\\n. near the old trail leading- to Seneca 
lake, the large and important town or "castle" of Onnaghee was for 
a long time the home of a numerous population, and the many relics 
found there prove that i!; occupied no small importance in the 
Indian history of the period. Just what time it was founded, or 
how long it was occupied, is a matter of doubt among investigators, 
but if we carefully study cotemporaneous Indian history, we can 
determine pretty closely the time of its occupancy. A\'e knc^w from 
well authenticated records tliat Denonville. the French Governor 
of Canada, made his famous invasirin into the Senecas' territory in 
July. 1687: that during that invasion his army destroyed, notwith- 
standing the Senecas' brave resistance, their main capital, Ganna- 
gora. on Boughton Hill in the present to\\n of \^ictor. also 
Gannogarae, about four miles south, in what is now the town of 
East Bloomfield. the large town of Totiakton on the bend ni the 
Honeove creek m the present town of Mendon. Monroe county 
The towns destroyed l)y Denonville in. 1687. we have good reason 
to believe, were never again permanently occupied by the Senecas. 
In their retreat it is not likely that the Senecas went farther than 
the foot of Canandaigua lake, where in a short time they were 
joined by their fellow tribesmen, the Cayugas. and thus reinforced, 
thev kept up such a galling pursuit of the French that Denonville 
was glad to beat a hasty and inglorious retreat to his boats, which 
he had left under a strong guard at Trondequoit bay. Then after 
embarking his motlev armv of regulars, volunteers, and Indians on 
the bosom of Old Ontario, he voyaged to the mouth of the Niagara, 
when, leaving a small force in the fort at that point, he returned to 
the settlements on the St. Lawrence, thus ending his inglorious 
raid into the Senecas' country. 

If we make allowance for the unsettled condition of the Senecas 
after this invasion, the loss of their crops, and the destruction of 
their towns, and the length of time recpiired by them to again start 
new communities for mutual defense and benefit, on sites favorable 
bv nature for the homes of a numerous population, it would seem 
that the castle of Onnaghee must have been founded soon after 1700. 
or perhaps 1710. and it was at that time regarded as the "fartherest 
castle of the nation," a place of great importance in the Indian 


history of the time. Tliert' were other locaHties in the town 
occupied hy the Senecas f<ir h)n_^er or sliorU-r periods, hut the liuiit.s 
of this l)rief sketcli will uot peruiit of exteuded uotice. Certaiu it 
is, that tlie fertile soil, the wide \v\v\ tields, the heavy forest.s, the 
pure water, tlie al)undaiice of j^aiue ou the hills and lish in the 
streams, of the territory now emhraeed in the town of Hopewell, 
were powerful inducements to the red men to found their homes 
and \il1ages on its soil. 

"Jdie strono" Jesuit iniluence whicdi that order exerted o\er the 
Senecas prior to the e>:pe(lition of l)enon\ille in 16X7. and the 
missions which they founded at Ganna^ora, (iaimogarae, Totiak- 
ton, and other places, seems nexer to have heen renewed to any 
very appreciahle extent in the villages afterwards founde<l in the 
eastern j^art of Ontario county. 'J he castle of Onnaghee in the 
town of Hopewell w'as never a mission, yet (|uite a nund)er of Jesuit 
relics, such as seal rings, hrass crosses, etc., have been found there, 
indicating that quite a few of its people still adhered to the teachings 
of the missionaries and the stateh' religion which the}' represented. 

The town of Hopew^ell has e\er heen abreast of the times as 
to the importance of mental and moral training, and from the early 
pioneer advent to the present, has sustained her schools and 
churches with a laudable zeal. The daily lives of her citizens prove 
that they believe fully in their im])ortance as ruling factors for 
good in the community. That patriotism and love of country was 
also fostered in the home and in public, is proven by the fact that 
when the armed hosts of Britain invaded our shores in 1812. not 
only did her young men buckle on the armor of defense, but many 
old men and middle-aged stepped forward as volunteers to serve 
their country, under the lead of the brave General Peter B. Porter 
and others. Their deeds of arms along the Niagara frontier are 
still remembered with pride l)y their descendants, and attested by 
the w-ritten praise of those under whom they served as citizen 

Again, at a later period, in 1861, when the dark clouds of the 
v/ar of the Rebellion rolled over the land, Hopewell, in common 
with all the other towns of Ontario county received a call for help, 
and she responded by sending more than ten per cent, of her able 
bodied young men to join the Union armies on the plains of the 

In the early days of the town, before the railways leading from 


the A\ est to the I'^ast liad a(lo])te(l the plan of transporting h\e stock 
l)y rail, the main roads of Ho]5ewell were the favorite routes o\er 
which immense droves of cattle, sheep, and hogs- were drixen 1)\- 
western dro\ers. enroute to the markets of Xew^ York and Boston. 
The favor thus shown, by the hardy, honest men win) tra^•ersed this 
region with their flocks and herds w^as partly owing to the abundant 
forage always obtainable along the way. l)ut more ])erhaps on 
account of the famous ta\erns or sto])])ing jilaces that were, in those 
days of stage coaches and droxers. such a marked featm^e of our 
AX'estern New York comnuinities. Among those in the town w hich 
at that time enjoxed a fame th;it has l)een perpetuated and rendered 
almost historic, were the famous hostelries of Samuel House and 
old Jackson Hanna. located on the road called "Broadway," leading 
from the present hamlet of Cha])in to (Orleans, in the town of Phelps. 
"Old Sam House." as he was kn(n\ n the country over, was a 
natural born innkee])er. a boniface x\ho gave a snu'le of welcome to 
every wayfarer that came his way. whose fund of good humor and 
jokes never ran dry. whose table was always laden with the best 
that coidd be obtained, and A\hose large, old fashioned bar. open as 
the generous countenance of its genial proprietor, was stocked with 
the purest wines, liquors, and everything that went with the 
generous hospitality of those grand old days. This famous old inn. 
still standing and almost unchanged b>' the hand of Time, was an 
ideal drovers' home, a ]")lace whose broad pastiu^es and whose cool 
shades alone: the banks of Fall brook that here in a graceful curve 
from the South cross the road, invited rest for the tired beasts 
from the plains of Ohio and Illinois, while the men of the otitfit. 
resting from their long journey, were made to feel at home, and 
dreaded the da\- of their de]:>arture from the ha]ipy retreat. 

This famous old inn has a still greater honor to its credit, as 
the scene of those grand balls, celebrated throughout the county, in 
the old ball room that extended the whole length of the house, at 
which great functions, the wealth, the chixalrw and the beautv of 
our pioneer ancestrv. tripped the "light fantastic" to the exhilarat- 
ing strains of that grand old liddler. Macauley. while the ban(|uet 
spread in the spacious dining rooms, under the skillful superxision 
of mine host and his worthy wife, for the gay dancers, was one that 
for its excellence \vas (^ne to be long remembered b\- all who 
partook. As we look upon the old house today, as we recall its past 
history, W'hat scenes rise before us! Could that venerable ball room 

'riii«: Towx oi" ii()i'|-.\\ I'.i.].. 


but spc.-ik, wliat laics cnnld it unfold, what pictures of the past, 
when in the hlooiu of Noutli and hcauiy hcncath its ai"chcd ceilini^', 

"Sdft c'\f> liioked Iii\i'. til fvc^ lliat >i)akf a.gain, 
And ;ill \\cu[ iin-rry as a luarria.s^c hrll." 

Almost of c'(|ua! fame was that other well known stopping' 
])lace, .d)out two nides fai"ther west <in the <ame street, the old Jack 
Manna ])laee, as it wa.s familiarh ealk-(l. .\]i<l who that has resided 
'oul;' in the town of llopewtll. hut lias heaial ot I'nele Jack' Manna, 
ha^ sei.'n the Ihie faian that was so hmi;- his home when lixin^". or 
till' ^I'and old hiou-e that in the earU' da.x's sheltei'etl within its 
hos])italde walls so main wIki t]"a\tded lin" husiness or ])leasnre 
this ])ort ion of oni" State ; hor \ eai"s it was kv]){ as a ])ul) ie inn and 
was a most weh'ome sto])])in..4' ]ilace lor droxers with lar^e herds of 
cattle, hoL;s. and slice]), the broad fields aflordin^- ami)lc sustenance 
for the animals, while the owau'i-s t hem^e''\-cs ])ai'took ot the 
excellent fare inawidcd hy the w'orth\ laiKdord and his noble wife. 

i'ut these old homesteads, with their many .associations, hax'C 
all idian^cd, their former owners slee]) beneath the i^rass L^rown 
mounds of the rural cemeteries, ar.d then" stor\- as related to our 
l)ioneer (la\'s exists onix- in the meaner sketch of some local 
historian. Hut that the\- once li\ed in our nn'dst, that they strox'e to 
im])ro\e and benefit b\' their labors this community, are tacts most 
anipl\- ])r()\en 1)\' i)ast records, ;ind the dim remembi-ance of man\' 
wliose frosted hair mark' them ot bnet continuance on earth. .\11 
honor to the memor\- ot those noble men and wnmen who occupied 
so wide a place on the public stai^e at that time. 

llence we i)ercei\e, on caretulh' examining- the liistor\- of the 
town of llopewell, its career as :< constituent ])ortion of the conntv 
of ()iUario has been, noiwilhstandim;- the slight credit awarded it 
bv some former historians, a most honoi'able one, and while it has 
bt'en the theater of no spectacular ])roo-ress, or remarkable advance 
alouj^' \arious lines, it certainU' has held its own, has ])aid its honest 
debts, and has contributed its full share towards tlu' public burdens 
im])osed upon it b\- the demands ol the count\- and State. Its 
citi/.ens lia\'e been lowal and true, and in peace and war ha\e stri\en 
to uphold the honor of their countiw and its lla^\ That its future 
may i^iawe .'is ])rosperous as its past, and that i)eace and plent\' may 
crown the Labors of its sons and daui;hters forexer, is the earnest 
Wish of ihe autl'.or of this humble sketch ot its historx'. 




Originally a Part of the Town of Farmington — Became a Separate 
Civil Division in the Year 1821 — Earlier Town Meetings — 
Patriotism of Its Citizens in the War of Independence, the 
War of 1812, and the Civil War — The Birthplace of Mormon- 
ism — Villages of Clifton Springs, Shortsville, and Manchester. 

By Dr. John H. Pratt. 

Originally Manchester was geographically known as Township 
12, Range 2, being at that time part of the town or "district" of 
Farmington. Later, in the year 1821. Alarch 31, a township \va? set 
off and called P.iirt. This was changed to Manchester on Ai)ril 16. 
1822. 'Die laml \\a^ ])urchased l>y Phelps and Gorham of the Old 
Bay State at the nominal sum of four cents per acre. They paid for 
it in Colonial securities, which were worth about one-half of their 
par vaiue. making the real cost something less than two cents 
per acre. 

The second road to be built on the Phelps and Gorham Pur- 
chase was surveyed in 1785 and was opened for travel in the year 
1788, extending from Canandaigua to Manchester village, the latter 
place being the head of navigation for flat boats on the Canandaigua 
outlet. It was natural that the first settlements should be made 
along this route. Accordingly we find that in 1793, Joab Gillett, 
Stephen Jared. and Joel Phelps were the first white men to settle 
here. Jared and Phelps remained only a short time, so to Joab 
Giilett l)elongs the honor of being the first true pioneer of the town 
of ^lanchester. The first log house was built by him near the site 
of the present Baptist church. Here in the following year was 
celebrated the first marriage, his daughter. Ruth, becoming the 
wife of Sharon Booth, the second permanent settler. 

The third and last person to arrive in 1794 was Deacon John 

'rill-: roWX ol' MANCTTr<:STKK. 407 

McLoiith. Tie was connected with the early relij^ious movements 
of the town and in liis l)arn was ludd tlic vcvy first religious meet- 
ings. I If is also crcMliti'd with riiH-i ing ;ind (>])crating tlu- lirsl 
iddcr mill. 

Soon otlu'r sclth-rs found tliidr wa\' lo ihis forest honu-. From 
the year 1/^H to ISO') w r Trnd man\- f;innli;ir nanu-s that lia\'e hel])C'(l 
to make llic histor\- of ( )n;ario county, .\inong the best known are 
Xallian i'ierce, John .Mv'Loulli. John W'lnl'dect. Sharon I'.oolli, 
I'.rnjamin I'ariu'y, |(.Mlc(liah l)ewey, William MitclR'll. Telcg Red- 
lield, Hooker and [osepli Sawser, I'dxMic/.cr rralt.John l.amnnion, 
(iid»erl I lowland, I'dihu ( )sgo()il. William .Staiford, I'lioiiias 
I I arriiigton, Jeremiah Marl, J.acol) Ni^-e, Ananias W ell>, Luke 
riieips, and lU'/aliel ^."oals. 

.\mong the well known falnilie^ thai located ])ermanently in 
the earl\' part of the twentieth I'entnry, we lind the names ol the 
(irangers. Shekels. 'Ihroops, lUishes. 

The first supervisor was joshna Vanhdeet. He also was a 
memher of the Legislature from < )ntario count}', in 1X12 and again 
in l(S14. ()wingtothe fact that Manchester and k'armington were 
one township for several \ears and that they held their town meet- 
ings together, naturally the \-er}' early othcers fcdl to the honor 
of heiuii' recorded in the archives of h'armiimton. In ISOl Man- 
Chester and Farmington lield their joint meeting at the home of 
W illiam C'larke. but it was at this lueeting that it was "voted that 
our town meetings from this time forward, to he held at the school 
h(ju>e near Nathan Tierce's." This change held good only for the 
years 1802 and 1(SU.>. and in 1(S()4 the first town meeting in either 
town or village which was e\er held within the limits of Man- 
chester was held at the home of h::i)enezer Pratt. Its sta}' there was 
a brief one. for in 1(S()C, it was again held in the Pierce neighl)orhoo(l, 
at the old Scpiires house, instead of the school house. This unsettled 
town meeting again found its wa\- back to the house of Ebenezer 
I Matt and there it remained for a term of years. It was oi)ened 
there in \<>\5 and then adiourned to a shop owned b\' .\l. and l\. 
Ibick. I his shop continued to be the ])olilical headtpiarters for a 
space of three years, when the I 'rait inlluence again manifested 
itself and Ebene/.er's ta\ern was once again the spot where our 
])ioneer suffragists were wont to congregate. In ISIS the meeting" 
was held at Nathan liarlow's store. 

In the succeeding year, ISH^ the voters, it would seem, must 


have i)een somewhat fastidious as to where they should exercise 
their right of suffrage, for we read "at the annual town meeting, 
held in the village of Manchester the sixth day of April, 1819, it was 
opened at the store wliere the town meetmg was held last year, and 
adjournetl to the chamber in the hotel, and opened and adjourned 
down into the lower room, and there opened, and the fcdlowing 
])ersons were chosen,"' etc. 

The electors first assembled at the hotel in ^Manchester \illage 
in 1820. \\hen "it was \oted tliat the town meeting adjourn forth- 
with, to meet at the woolen manufactory in said town." The hist 
town meeting of the joint district, held in 1821, went tlu'ough 
the same programme of asseml)ling at the hotel and adjourning to 
tile woolen factory. 

The question of dividing the town had been under consider- 
ation l)y the settlers for some years previous to this. These 
questions always cause difference of opinion and this one proved no 
exception to the rule. There arose parties for and against the ])ro- 
posed division, and at the town meeting in 1816 the proposition was 
brought to a vote, for the minutes of the meeting read that "a \()te 
was taken to divide the town of l'\'irmiugton on the center line 
])et\veen the two ekwen- running north and south, and was 
negatived." Those in faxor of the scheme, however, constantly 
agitated the (juestion ot sei)aration, and in 1817 it was again sub- 
mitted to a \ote, "on the nK)tion of Mr. Flias Deming." It is 
recorded that the electors j)resent, acting on this motion, "went out 
of the house and dixided themseh'es into tw^o divisions, whereupon 
it was decided against the division by a large majority." 

Again in 1818, an attempt was evidentl\- made to dixide the 
town, for we find this clause in the records, "and a notification for 
a division of the town was read," l)ut there is no record that it came 
to a vote at this meeting. J\)ssibiy the adherents of the dixision 
became discouraged, for thev made no effort to bring the much 
disputed question up at the meeting in 1819. 

I)Ut the ])roposition continued to grow in popular favor, for it 
appears that earl\- in the year 1820, it l)ecame necessary to call a 
special town meeting for another consideration of the subject. 

This meeting was held at the hotel in Manchester on the 15th 
day of Januarw 1820, and the xote was taken by ballot and again 
resulted adversely to the scheme. But it had evidently developed 
consideral)le strength and its advocates brought the matter of its 


adoption up a^ain at the re.q;uhir town incclinL;' in .\])ril, 1820, wlicn 
it was ai;"ain xoted on. and attain defeated. 

So many defeats e\idently lent /est to the sitnation, and to 
cnn(|ner beeanie the fixed determination o! llie acKocates of (h\ ision. 
Aecordint^ly the\' ap])hed to the- LeL;ishitnre and on the .-list ol 
Mareh, lS2i, an aet was ])asse(l 1)\' that iiody entitled "An aet to 
dixide the town of l'"armin!L;ie)n, in the (dnnty of ( )ntario."' After 
desii^natini;- tlie di\idin:L', line, it was enaeted that the territory lyini;" 
to the east of the same "lie, and it hereby is, ereeted mUo a separate 
town 1)\- the name of l!nrt ; and the lirst town meetin;,;- in said town 
so erected shall he held at the distriel sehool lions*.- in said town, 
ne:ir Daxid 1 lowland's dwellin|L; house." 

The faet that this aet haii heeome a law was not eomnmnieated 
to the eleetors of the old town at the time of the town meetim^' in 
^\prd, for the nnnntes ot said meeting;- state that the\' \()led to 
adi(nn"n and that the meetiniy shonld "he held at llie hotel in the 
\illai;e of Alanehester, in the ensidnt;- _\eai"."' 

.\s another historian has written, "hy this Itrilliant ])ieee of 
politieal sti'ate<;\-, i. e., the seeret in\-ol<inL;- ot le^'isiat i\e aid, did 
Mr. i)ennnt;' an<l InA ;illies seenre the rnds lor whieh the\- had 
l;il)ored so h)nL;' an(l dilii^^x-nth ."" 

The new township was ealled Unrl, after a mend)er of the 
Legislature, not, howe\ er, a re])resentati\ e ot ( )ntario county, and 
he was pro])al)l\' instrinnental in securing' the ])assage of the hill. 
This name failed to ])lease the citi/.ens, ho\\e\er, and aroused a hone 
ot contention, so they again applied to the Legislature, and on .\pril 
L), 1(S22. it was enacted, "thai from and after the ])assing of this act, 
liie town of Ihnt, in the Lount\ of ()ntari(), shall he called and 
known 1)\ the name of Manchester." 

.\s the statute iiad designated, the one and only town meeting 
of the town of lUirt was held at the sclujol house near l)a\i(l 1 low- 
land's. At the same ))lace, m 182.i. the first to\vn meeting of the 
town of Manchester con\ened. Here again it would ha\e met in 
1<S24, hut according to the record the school ht)use was not 
inhahitable, for it reads; 

"Man.chester, (.tli \i)ril. 1S24. 

"ddie annual town meeting in and for the town ot .Manchester. 
was o])ened agreeable to adjournment on the rewins of the old 
sehool hons, and for want of shelter was adjourned to Peter 
W illiams' Barn." 


The following year. 1825, the town meeting took place at ''The 
new dwelling house of Joshua K. King," known as the King tavern. 
located on the road that the State surveyed in 1814 from Phelps to 
Victor, a building that is still standing just east of the "Poplar 

The next year, 1826, the meeting was taken to the house of 
John Coon, where after its many wanderings in \arious parts of the 
town it came to stay, until an act of the Legislature "shatteretl into 
pieces," as has been written, '"the old tow n meeting of former times, 
and spread the fragments thereof over the villages of Manchester, 
Clifton Springs, and Port Gibson, thus covering them over with 
that mantle of fadeless glory, the luster of which has, we fear, 
departed from Coonsville forever." 

At the hrst town meeting of Burt or Manchester, the names of 
the principal officers elected were as follows : Supervisor. Joshua 
\'an Fleet ; clerk. Gahazi Granger: assessors, Thomas Kingsley, 
David Rowland, and Peter Mitchell: collector. William Popple: 
commissioners of highways, Jacob Cost. Carlos Harmon, and 
Nicholas Howland: overseers of the i)oor. 'litns Bement and James 
Harland : constables, William I'ojjple. Kobert Sjiear and John 
Schutt : commissioners of common schools, .\ddison X. Buck. A/.el 
Throop. and George Redfield : inspectors of common schools, Carlos 
Harmon. Peter Mitchell, and Leonard Short. 

David Howland held the office of supervisor in 1823. '24. '2?. 
and in 1826 was succeeded by Peter Mitchell, Esq. During these 
same years, including 1826. Mr. Grrnger was continual!}- re-elected 
as town clerk. At this time the assessors of the town were Peter 
Mitchell, who held the office for three years in succession. Robert 
McCollum who served one year. Nicholas Howland four years, Jacol) 
Cost three years, and Nathan Pierce one year. William Popple w as 
elected collector in 1823, and in 1825 this office was held by Gilbert 
\'. Crane. The following two years, 1824-'26. this honor fell to 
John Schutt. John Pratt served as overseer of the poor for two 
years in this time, and Titus Bement for two years. Jedediah 
Dewey and Nathan IMerce also served for the same length of time. 

During the twenty-five years of the political period of the old 
town of Farmington, what is now the town of Manchester sujiplied 
the greater share of the officers. It gave town clerk for sixteen 
years, commissioners of highways for fourteen years, assessors for 
twelve years, with the exception of an interregnum of one year. 


poormastcr for tliirteen years, and other officers for less time. The 
fact that these men retained office from year to year is e\idence of 
the satisfactory service they i^'Ave to ilie coininiinit \ at large. 

We may well he ])rond of the forefathers who fonght for 
American lnde|)endence. and Manchester has to its credit a ^oodK- 
list of those ])atriots. Anion^' them are the following- names: 
Nathan Pierce, Joshna Van Meet, Peleg keijlicdd, Saninel Unsh. 
Thomas Sawyer, Joah Gillett, J^^henezer Pratt. Israel I lairin^ton, 
and Nicholas Chrysler. It has heen impossihle to ascertain the rank 
of each one, with, the exce])tion of Xalhan I'ierce, who was captain 
of a company. 

The well earned ])eace and tran(|uilit\' of the comnmnit}- were 
again soon to he distnrhed 1)\' the cry of war. The paths of these 
early settlers had been strewn with many and xarions liardshi])S. 
The long' and great !\e\olntionary strnggle was still fresii in their 
minds, bnt they were destined to endnre, in addition to the hard 
ships of home-making in a wilderness, the anxieties and losses 
incident to another war, that of 1(S12. 

The defense of the .N'iagara frontier and the protection of the 
American shores of lake ()ntari() were of \ital inijiortance to tiie^e 
new settlements, for to them the war threatened the desolation of 
their newly made homes, and with the call for xolnnteers they freely 
yielded of tiieir best. It is not sirange to iind that anrong the first 
to enlist was Nathan IMerce, Jr., M)\i of tlie captain of Rex'olntionary 
fame. He served under General W'adsworth, familiarly known l)y 
his men as "Black Bill." At the close of the war of bSli, Xathan 
Pierce was given command of a compan\- of militia. 

Another Manchester hoy deserves menticm. (iilhert How land, 
eldest son of the pioneer, Nicholas How land, was ca])tain of a 
company of militia at the breaking ont of this war, and on May iSth, 
1812, he was commissioned, b\' Daniel I). Tompkins, then Governor 
of New York, as captain '"of a comi)an_\- in the regiment of infantry. 
in the Connty of Ontario, whereof Thaddens Remington. Esq., is 
Lientenant Colonel Commandant." His patriotism was not to be 
jiroven, for he yielded his desires to the wishes of his lather and 
mother who l)elonged to the Society of l^riends. ( )n acconnt of his 
failure to take command, it devolved upon the first lientenant, Peter 
Mitchell. Mitchell was a Nonng man of much ])romise. His later 
career gives proof of this, for his name stands forth as that of one 
of the foremost men of those early days, w hen the good and faithful 



gave of their best to sow and plant for the generations that were to 
l)e reapers of their labors. Even at this early i)erio(l this youth's 
clerical abilities were recognized and for some months during his 
active service he was detailed to act as adjutant of his regiment. 

Herman J. Redfield recei\ed a l)i-e\et connuission during this 
war and his two brothers, Harley and .Ahmning, were also \'olun- 
teers. From Short's AJilU went [(x'^hua Ste\ens and John \\'\att, 
and Moses and Jacob Edd}", father and son. They were in the 
artillery company stationed at Black I\ock. Timotln- Bigelow, Asel 
Throop, and John Robinson also served from Manchester. 

Alany are the tales handed down to us of these exciting times, 
when the l)oys from home lived on hard tack and horse tlesh. ;ind 
when at great risk loads of provisions were ccuneyed to the front, 
the mothers never forgetting the doughnuts and the fathers rdwavs 
including se>'eral casks of cider. 

About the year 1806 the militia system was enforced in ( )ntario 
county, and e\ery al)le bodied man was enrolled for militarx dutw 
each one being obliged to furnish his own firearms. W ithout uni- 
formit}' in arms or clothing, they presented anything but a militarx 
appearance. They met yearly in each town for compan\- dril'ing 
and ins])ection, also meeting once a year for regimental ti-aining and 
insi)eclion at the coimt}' seat, b'or coni])any training the\' met in 
\ari()us parts of the town, and one of the faxorite spots for these 
meetings was at the old i'oi)lar ta\-ern. situated on the road between 
Manchester and C'lifton Si:)rings. 

It is a well known fact that these compan)' trainings were 
general)}- under the ea\-es of some inn, when \\hiske\- at three cents 
])er glass, with hard boiled eggs and gingerbread, known in those 
davs as general traininir cake, were alwavs in evidence and (luite as 
much, the order of the day as the training. A fine was imposed upon 
every able bodied man who failed to a])i)ear at the general training, 
ilic Quakers, belicxing in peace and in adherence to their faith, as 
a rule would refuse to go. It was then the dut\- of the collector to 
call ui)on them and insist that they pay the line. This often ])ro\ed 
a proi)lem hard to solve, and to settle the dispute almost anything 
would be accepted in canceling the del)t, e\en to shec]). chickens, 
ducks, pigs, etc. 

The verv earliest records t^-ive the death of Thomas Saw\'cr, 
March 12th. 17^)3. as being the first death to occur in this town. It 
was he who l)uilt the hrst frame house in the southeast part of the 


town. TIk' lii'st Inrtli iTCoi'dcd i> l!i;(l of I )nn"is ImmiiIi. (hi Mai'cli 
25th. 1795. 

\\ill; {]](• (ipmiiiL; nl' llu- 1 w cut ict Ii c-c'iitni"\ c-iiiic the first 
iiK rchant , Xalhaii Itarhiw. and the lii'st ])h\sioiaii \\a^ lames 
Stc'waiM. The ti'aiiiiiijL;' ol the \(nithtnl minds fcdl to h^ham Crane 
and with L^ratitnde to liis memory we place hi^ name on record as 
that of the lirst sclioohnasu'r of the to\\n. Achilles I'.ottsfoial i-ank's 
as the pioneer cohhier. The hrst ])ianler trom this town was Lewis 
II. keilheld, who became a "printei's de\il" in ( anandai^u.'U nmler 
James 1 ). IJemis. 

Iveiiiiion was a feature of flu" i)ioneer life. l\e\'. Da\id Ii'ish 
preaclu'd in .Manclu'ster on jannarw 17"", and in hehruarx- follow- 
ing- the liaptist society was founded. The le^al ori^ani/ation of the 
society was ])erfected in 1804. Ehenezer Pratt, josei)h Wells, and 
Jeremiah I )tw\ cy were the lirst (laistees, and the hrst r)a])tist church, 
known as the "old stone church,"" was huill in ISIf). It stood on the 
east side ol Main street in the \il!ai;"e of Alanchester. just a few rods 
al)o\e where now the L(dn\.',h \'alley railroad crosses. 

The next r)a])tist church of the town of Manchester was founded 
at riainsxille in l(SO.v Its lirsr jiastor was h'.lder Wisuer. The 
Methodists had a societ}' as earl\- as ISOO and held their meetin^-s 
in ])n\ale houses. 

St. |ohu's church. Episcopal, was oriyanized hv Rev. Davenport 
IMiel])s in 1807 at Sul])hur Si)rin!.is, now known as Clifton .S])rinq's. 
John and .Sanmel .Shekels were the wardens. Tn succeeding- \ears 
othcf' I'eli^ious bodies ha\e come and made their homes amoui;' us. 

At an earl\- date our forefathers realized the necessit\' of 
educating and prejiarin^- the \aiun:L;- for the future resi)()nsibilities 
that would natnralK confront them. The outcome j^roves the 
timber was well -worth the iirunim;-. As earl\- as the \-ear 1813. the 
first school meetimi- was called and hehl at the home (»f h.benezer 
Pratt. A rec(prd taken from a book- containiuL;- the minutes of the 
mectiui^s relates thai after nmch argument and adjournment of said 
meetins^-, it \\as 'A-oted that a school hoirse shall be 26 ft. lon^- and 
20 ft. wide and ') ft. hi.uh. 1'o he a framed buildiui;-, unless other- 
wise agreed hereafter. \()ted that a tax of $250 be le\ied cm 
this district for the purpose of erectit-ii;' school buildiuL;-."" In later 
years other schov>l districts \\ere set oil. but it has been imjiossible 
to a.scertain the correct dates. 

The i)ioneers' thirst for knowledge did not end with a district 


school. This was onl\- a ■flight expression of their desire to advance 
and make good for tlie future generations. The following" year, 
1814, a town library, m the \ illage of Manchester, was founded and 
tlie amount was raised bv issuing a thousand shares of stock at two 
dollars per share. This money was expended in buying standard 
books. The preamble reads: '"Whereas, we the subscribers for 
mental improvement and for the extension and diffusion of literary 
information and knowledge generally amongst each other. ha\ing 
formed ourselves into a society to be known by the name of the 
Farmington Library Society, do constitute and establish the fol- 
lowing rules or articles to govern us in our social capacity." 

The library contained oa er six hundred volumes of biographies. 
histories, and scientific, moral, political, religious, and educational 
works. On its shelves could be found such books as these : "Rol- 
lin's History," "Franklin's Works," "Josephus," "Montague's 
\\'orks," "Locke's I'nderstanding," "Goldsmith's Works." "Biog- 
raphv of Pious Persons," "Dying Thoughts of a Christian,'' 
"Elements of ?^Iorality/' "Young's Night Thoughts." "Dick's 
I^hilosophv of a T'uture State," "Cook's Travels," etc. The selec- 
tion of these books shows that the minds of these \aliant pioneers 
were fullx- as A-igorous as their physical endurance had lieen in 
hewing a forest home. 

This library was always kept in the home of John Pratt, who 
acted as librarian from 1818 to the time of his death, a ])eriod of 
about fifty years. The remaining well-worn books show the pleas- 
ure they gave to a l)\-gone generation. ?slany of them are still in 
the possession of John R. Pratt, M. D. 

In 1813. a Mas()P.ic lodge was founded at the tavern of Reuben 
Buck. The records show that there were only fourteen members. 
The membershi]) soon, increased to over a hundred. It was known 
as Manchester lodge. No. 260. Dr. Phili]) X. nra|)er was the last 
member of this lodge to be buried by Masonic orders, in the year 
1827. The Anti-Masonic excitement was the cause of the disband- 
ing of the lodge and the last annual meeting was held on December 
17th, 1828. 

Suiting things to their needs and by utilizing the waters of the 
Canandaigua outlet, the first industry in the town took the shape 
of a flouring and saw mill, erected in 1804 by Theophilus Short at 
the place now known as Shortsville. A little below this, on the 
same stream, in 1811, William Grimes built a carding mill. In the 


same year tlu- ( )iilari() ManufactiiiMiii;" ("()ni])any was org^anized and 
])()U!^lit tlu- water ]t()\\er at .Manclicster \illa^e ami manufactured 
woolen cloths. It is said that at this time there were oiiK two 
other factories of the kind in the State. In 1 S24 a ^rist mill was 
huilt hy Valentine Coon, at Coons\ille. 

Case, Al)bey, & Co. erected in 1X17 a ])ai)er mill on the present 
site of the Jones paper nn'll in Shorts\ille. for making- writing" 
paper, and it is an item of interest that in this mill was made the 
pa])ef on which the first liook of Mormon was ])rinted. 

The Birth of Mormonism. 

Mormonism, which has hectMne one of our greatest national 
CA'ils. originated in this town, and in turn, it has given to Manches- 
ter a national renown. jose])h Smith, jr., the hrst Mormon i>roi)het 
and lonndcr of Mormonism and the Church oi Latter I3ay 
SanUs. was horn in .Sharon, \\ indsor countw Vermont. December 
l.^th, ISO.T. He came at an earl\- age with his father to Palm)'ra. 
w here thc\' ran a sm.all "cake and beer" shop. In 1818 they s(|uatted 
on a i)iece of land on Stafford street in the northwestern corner 
o| this toA\n. but they ^■acated this land in 1830 and the ])ro|)erty 
for man\- \-ears has l)een in tlie possession of the Cha|)man fatniiy, 
and was sold by AVilliam Chapman in 1907 to Apostle George A. 
Smith, of Salt Lake Citv. a grandson of the prophet Smith. 

I^)y their neigh1)ors the Smiths were regarded as a shiftless and 
most unt rust wort In- family. They were visionary and superstitions 
and were alwaxs digging for hidden treasures. So that ()li\er 
("owdery. a schoolmaster on Stafford street, had little trouble in 
enthusing them into the mvsteries that could be unearthed. 

Their fa\orite digging place came to be on the hill since known 
as the "'riill of Camorah." which being interpreted signifies 
"Mormon Hill." often called Gold Bible hill. This hill is located 
two and one-half miles north of Manchester village, on the old stage 
road between C\anandaigua and Palmyra. 

Joe Smith. Jr.. possessed even less than ordinary intellect, and 
among the l)o\'s he was alwavs a butt for their jokes, which have 
become local history. The reputation these people held among their 
neighbors is well summed np in the following statement given with 
their signatures : 

Manchester. Ontario Co.. N. Y.. Nov. .3, 1833. 
W'e. tlie nnder-ii^ncd. being personally acqnainted with tlie family of Joseph 
.Smith. Sen., with whom the Gold Bible, so-called, originated, state that they 
were not only a lazy, indolent set of men. but also intemperate, and their word 


was not to be depended upon, and that we are trulj' glad to dispense with their 

Pardon Butts, Joseph Fish, Moses C. Smith, 

Hiram Smith, Warren A. Reed, Horace N. Barnes, 

James Gee, Alfred Stafford, Sylvester Worden. 

A. H. Wentworth. Abel Chase, 

Also the affidavit of Parley Chase throws nmch the same hglit 
on tliis Smith family: 

Manchester, New Ycjrk, Decenrhcr 2, 1833. 1 was ac(|nainted with family 
of Joseph Smith, Sr., both before and since thej- become Mormons and feel free 
to state that not one of the male members of the Smith family were entitled to 
any credit whatsoever. They were lazy, intemperate, and worthless men. very 
much addicted to lying. In. this th.ey frecpiently wasted their skill. Digging 
for money v^as their principal employment. In regard to their Gold Bible 
speculation, they scarceh' ever told two stories alike. The Mormon Bible is 
said to be a revelation from God through Joseph Smith. Jr., His prophet, and 
this same Joseph Smith, Jr.