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The History of 

Orange County 

New York 






19 8 

0^ • 

^ 3 .3-V<3^-f 


In presenting this new History of Orange County to the ])ubHc, we 
do so in the earnest hope that it will prove to be the most complete com- 
pilation of local chronicles that has up to this time been offered to our 
citizens. The authenticity of the facts contained in the various articles 
is as absolute as the utmost care could make it. The data have been 
procured from the best known authorities, and the sketches, when com- 
pleted, have been subjected to the most searching examination for veri- 
fication and correction. That no errors will be discovered in this pro- 
duction, is too much to hope for; but we do most certainly trust, that if 
any such errors there be. neither in number nor by their nature, will 
they be found to be sufficiently important to detract from that char- 
acter for reliability, which it has been our constant aim and endeavor to 
impart to this history. 

In this new work the design has been, to make clear the development 
of ideas and institutions from epoch to epoch ; the social and economic 
conditions of the people have been preserved in the narrative, and much 
attention has been paid to describing the civil characteristics of the 
several towns and cities, both in the conduct of their local affairs and also 
in relation to each other and the county at large. 

It is a well-known fact that considerable prejudice exists among a 
great body of the people toward county histories in general, for the reason 
that some such compilations in the past, have been composed of fact and 
fiction so intermingled, as to render it a difficult matter to know what 
was true and what was false. It has been our object in this work to 
hew straight to the line, satisfied to simply furnish such information as 
we were able to gather concerning each important matter or interesting 
event ; and where the desired materials were lacking, we have not at- 
tempted to supply that lack, by filling in the vacant niches with products 
of the imagination. We have not striven for effect, but our object is 
merely to give an authentic account of facts recent and remote, so dis- 
posed in a proper and orderly manner, as to enable our readers to clearly 
understand the history of their county from its origin down to the present 


It is the limitation attached to all works devoted to general history, that 
from their very character only a superficial knowledge of the men and 
their times can be derived from them, while on the other hand, that which 
tfiey lack is supplied by local histories of this nature, whose great value 
in adding to the fund of human knowledge cannot be overestimated ; 
for they are the only mediums through which we can get the whole story 
of the economy of life, practiced by those men and women in every county 
in our broad land, which eventually resulted in transforming a wilderness 
into a garden, and from a weak and needy folk, creating a rich and 
mighty nation. It has long been recognized by every scholar, that the 
knowledge of such humble elements is absolutely essential, in order that 
the mind may intelligently grasp the potent factors which go to make 
up history. Hence, our correct understanding of the advancement and 
growth of a people varies in just such proportion as the narrative of their 
daily lives is full or incomplete. 

The history of our own county cannot be studied too often ; for it is 
one of great interest, and the record revealed is a proud one. There is no 
section of the country possessing more of historic interest, nor does one 
exist, as closely identified with those crucial events connected with the 
formative period of the Republic. In this county was held the last 
cantonment of the Revolutionary army, here Washington passed a large 
portion of his time, and within our borders he rendered his greatest ser- 
vice to our country. 

At the time the army went into winter quarters at Little Britain in 
1782, although peace was not declared vmtil the following year, yet it 
was well understood that the long war was over and the States were at 
last independent of Great Britain. The knowledge of this fact naturally 
inclined the minds of men to a consideration of the form of government 
to be adopted for the infant commonwealth, and now^iere did the matter 
receive more attention than in that encampment, and from those soldiers 
whose deeds in arms had made the happy consummation possible. 

The leisure entailed from the long relief from active duty which ensued 
after going into camp, afforded ample opportunity for both the officers 
and men of the army to discuss this question in all its bearings. It must 
be borne in mind that republics were not much in favor at that period, 
while the incompetent and discreditable manner in which Congress had 
conducted the national affairs for years, had created profound distrust 


and widespread discontent. Under the circumstances it is not so sur- 
prising that, beheving nothing but chaos and ruin would be the lot of the 
country should the form of government then in force be continued, the 
army should have finally declared for a limitcfl monarchy, and desired 
Washington as king. 

The deputation of Colonel Nicola to present the subject to Washington 
does not require repetition here, nor the details of the manner in which 
that great man resolutely put aside all feelings of personal ambition, and 
so sternly repressed the movement for all time, that our present form of 
free government became an assured fact. These events are merely men- 
tioned to bring vividly to the mind the recollection of the important 
connection our county sustained toward that great drama, and also to 
bring clearly home the fact, that even though the sun of liberty rose 
first from the green at Lexingtcn or the bridge at Concord, the gestation 
of the Republic occurred on the banks of the Hudson in the old county of 

Some criticism of this work has been occasioned through the inclusion 
therein of biographical sketches ; but we are certam that upon calm re- 
flection it will be seen that such objections rest upon no substantial 
foundation. The narratives of the lives of men and their acts constitute 
all there is of history. If it be true that all that our county shows in the 
way of growth and development, is entirely due to the men and women 
W'ho originall}' ]>eopled this region, and w^orthily performed those parts al- 
lotted to them in the general scheme of life, during their existence here, it 
is equally true that their successors who still abide with us. took up the 
burden where it fell from the hands of the fathers, aufl most signally 
continued the work, and carried it forward to success. If the works them- 
selves are deserving of commendation, surely the workers and finishers 
thereof are entitled to the honor of some mention. 

In sending forth this volume, we trust that in addition to its value as 
a depository of accurate information and useful knowledge, it will also 
prove an effective instrument in creating a more active public sentiment 
regarding historical subjects, and especially foster an interest in the an- 
nals of our own county. 

The editor would be wanting in gratitude did he fail to acknowledge 
his obligations to the well-known writer, the late Mr. Edward M. Rutten- 
ber. The whole historical field comprising that perio<l prior to the Revo- 


lutionary era, has been so carefully gleaned over by that indefatigable 
and accurate historiographer, that there remains little or nothing that 
is new, to reward any subsequent investigator into the history of that 
era, and therefore all who include that epoch in any sketch, must per- 
force draw largely from the store of valuable materials gathered by him. 
The editor also desires to return his sincere thanks to our numerous 
contributors, for their cheerful assistance, and especially for the pains- 
taking care exhibited by them in the preparation of those articles which 
appear herein, and whose excellence constitutes the chief merit of this 

That the efforts of myself and associates have fallen short of the high 
standard we had set up for ourselves at the inception of our labors, we 
are well aware ; but we do at least claim, that we have in some material 
degree, contributed in this volume to the "rescuing from oblivion and 
preserving the services which others have performed for God and country 
and fellow men." If the public by its verdi'-,t allows this claim to stand, 
our reward will be ample and we shall rest well content. 

RussEL Headley. 

Dated, July 14, .1908. 





The County of Orange 

The Town of Blooming Grove By Benjamin C. Sears I30 


, ^, . ^ . By Frank nnrlan<I l4o 

The Town of Chester "> 


r ^ .11 Bv E. M. V. McClean ... .165 

The Town of Cornwall ^y ^■ 


^ r n (r.,-A Bv J. Erskine Ward . . i»3 

The Town of Crawford oy j. >^ 


The Town of Deer Park 


-The Town of^Goshen, By George F. Gregg 


^ ^ •„„ Bv Charles E. Stickney 239 

The 1 own of Greenville ^y 


r ,T *..„K„rorV, Bv Margaret Crawford Jackson 250 

The Town of Hamptonburgh oy ^*^'"« 


, „. ., ,, Bv Captain Theodore Fanrot 201 

The Town of Highlands ^^ ^ » 


.,,.-•,. By Chrxrles E. Stickney 

Tho Town 01 \ri.iiMnk ^y 


Bv M. .\'. l<;i"«- -"^^ 

The Town of Monroe 


. , c Rv David A. Morrison 

71,.. -l,,vvr, ot Montcoinery ^y i^*'^'" ^• 


-T Rv Wickham T. Shaw 

The Town of Mount Hope «> Wick nam 

Thf Town of Xewburgh i 






The City of Newburgh 348 

The Town of New Windsor By Dr. C. A. Gorse 381 

The Town of Tuxedo 397 

The Town of Wallkill By William B. Royce 405 

The Town of Warwick By Ferdinand V. Sanford 427 

-The Town of Wawayanda , By Charles E. Stickney 454 

The Town of Woodbury 460 

The Bench and Bar By William Vanamee 466 

The Medical Profession By John T. Howell, M.D 560 

The Schools ^ By John M. Dolp'h 600 

The Churches By Rev. Francis Washburn 623 

Agriculture By David A. Morrison 638 

Journalism By W. T. Doty 653 

Freemasonry By Charles H. Halstead 736 

Horse Breeding By Guy Miller 751 

Dairying 761 

Biographical Sketches 77^ 



ORANGE was one of tlie earlic>t counties of the State, 'lating back 
to 1683. when it \\as organized by a colony law. It was ajso one 
of those foniied by a general act of organization in 1788. when 
it included the present county of Rockland, and was described as extend- 
ing from the limits of East anrl West Jersey on the west side of the Hud- 
son River along the river to ^Murderer's Creek, or the bounds of Ulster 
County, and westward into the woods as far as Delaware River — that is, 
all that part of the state south of an easterly and westerly line from the 
mouth of Murderer's Creek to the Delaware River or northerly line of 
Pennsylvania. In 1797 Rockland county was set off from it, and five 
towns from I'lster were added. Its boundaries were definitely fixed by 
an act of the New York legislature adopted April 3rd, 1801. The previ- 
ous act of April 5th, 1797. provided that five towns, then a part of the 
County of Ulster, should be annexed to the county of Orange, and thai 
the courts should hold their sessions alternately at Newburgh and Goshen. 
Two days afterward another act was passed defining the boundary lines 
of the towns composing the newly-constructed county, and naming them 
as follows: Blooming Grove, Chesekook, Deer Park. Go.shen. Minisink, 
Montgomery. New Windsor, Newburgh. Wallkill -wv] Warwick. There 
were subsequent changes, and the following is a list of the present towns, 
with the years of their erection, and the territories from which they were 
taken : 

Blooming Grove, 1799, taken from Cornwall; Cornwall. 1788. as New 
Cornwall, and changed to Cornwall in 1797; Chester, 1845. taken from 


Goshen, Warwick, Monroe and Blooming Grove; Crawford, 1823, taken 
from Montgomery; Deer Park, 1798, as a part of Ulster County and 
taken from Mamakating; Goshen, 1788; Hamptonburgh, 1830, taken 
from Wallkill, Goshen, Montgomery, Blooming Grove and New Windsor ; 
Monroe, 1799, taken from Cornwall, original name Chesekook, changed 
to Southfield in 1802, and to Monroe in 1808, and divided in 1890 into 
Woodbury and Tuxedo; Montgomery, 1788; Mount Hope, 1825, taken 
from Wallkill, Deer Park and Minisink, original name Calhoun; New- 
burgh, 1788; New Windsor, 1788; Wallkill, 1788; Minisink, 1788. 

There are three cities in Orange County, Newburgh in the town of 
Newburgh ; Middletown, in the town of Wallkill, and Port Jervis, in the 
town of Deer Park. Newburgh was chartered as a city in 1865, Middle- 
town in 1888, and Port Jervis in 1907. 

The irregular county thus constituted is bounded on the northwest and 
north by Sullivan and Ulster Counties, on the east and southeast by the 
Hudson River and Rockland County, on the southwest and west by New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania and Sullivan County. It has nearly half a million 
square miles. 

The towns along the northwestern and northern border are Deer Park, 
Mount Hope, Wallkill, Crawford, Montgomery and Newburgh. 

Along the Hudson are Newburgh, New Windsor, Cornwall and High- 

Next to Rockland County are Highlands, Woodbury and Tuxedo. 

On the New Jersey line are the point of Tuxedo, Warwick, Minisink, 
Greenville, and a section of Deer Park. 

The most western town is Deer Park which lies along New Jersey, the 
Delaware River and Pennsylvania on the southwest and Sullivan County 
on the north. 

In the interior are the towns of Wawa\anda, Goshen, Hamptonburgh. 
Blooming Grove, Chester and Monroe. 

The postoffices of the county as distributed in the several towns are 
named as follovv's : 

Blooming Grove : Salisbury's Mills, Washingtonville, Blooming Grove, 
Oxford Depot, Craigsville. 

Chester : Chester, Greycourt, Sugar Loaf. 

Cornwall: Cornwall, Cornwall-on-Hudson, Cornwall Landing. Idle- 
wild, Mountainville, Orrs Mills, Meadowbrook, Firthcliffe. 


Crawford : Bullville, Pine Bush, Thompson Ridge. 

Deer Park: Cuddebackville, Godeffroy, Huguenot, Port Jervis, Rio, 

Goshen : Goshen. 

Greenville : Greenville. 

Hamptonburgh : Campbell Hall, Burnside. 

Highlands: Highland Falls, Fort Montgomery, West Point. 

Middletown : Middletown. 

Minisink: Minisink, Johnson, Westtovvn, Unionville. 

Monroe: Monroe, Turner. 

Montgomery: Walden, Montgomery, Maybrook. 

Mount Hope : Otisville, Guymard. 

Nevvburgh : Newburgh, Middle Hope, Liptondale. Cedarcliff, Cro- 
nomer Valley, Savilton, Orange Lake, Roseton. 

New Windsor: Little Britain, Rocklet, Vail's Gate, Moodna. 

Tuxedo: Arden, Southfields, Tuxedo Park. 

Wallkill : Middletown, Circleville, Stony Ford, Howells Crystalrun, 
Fair Oaks. 

Warwick: Edenville, Warwick, Florida, Pine Island, New Milford, 
Wisner Lake, Bellvale, Greenwood Lake, Amity, 

Wawayanda: New Hampton, Ridgebury, Slate Hill, South Centreville. 

Woodbury: W^oodbury Falls, Highland Mills, Central V^alley. 

To go back and particularize more fully : In 1686 the town of Orange 
was organized, and soon afterward adjoining patents were attached to 
it for jurisdiction and assessment. In 1719 the northern settlements were 
separated into the precinct of Orange, with Tappan as its center, and the 
precinct of ITaverstraw. with "the <^7hristian patented lands of Haver- 
straw" as its center. In 1714 the precinct of Goshen was organized, and 
included the entire county except the Orangetown and Haverstraw dis- 
tricts. In 1764 it was divided by a straight line, all the lands west of the 
line constituting the precinct of Goshen and all the lands east, the pre- 
cinct of .X-ew Cornwall. The four precincts named were the political 
divisions of the county until after the Revolution. In 1788 the towns of 
Warwick and Minisink were erected from Goshen, and in 1791 the towns 
of Clarkstown and Ramapo were erected from Haverstraw. In 1797 the 
name of the town of New (^trnwall was change 1 to Cornwall. 

In the southern towns of the County of Ulster, afterward transferred 


to Orange, changes were made in 1709. The precincts of Highlands and 
Shawangiuik were attached to New Paltz, and^' th€ :.present Orange 
County towns of Montgomery, Crawford and Wallkill were then em- 
braced within its Hmits. These division^ continued until 1743, when they 
were changed to three precincts — Wallkill, Shawangunk and Highlancfs. 
There was also the precinct of Mainakating west of the precincts of 
Wallkill and Shawangunk, the northern part of which was made a part 
of Deer Park in 1798 by the law annexing the Ulster County towns. In 
1762 the precinct of Highlands was divided into the precincts of New- 
burgh and New Windsor, and in 1772 the precinct of Newburgh was 
divided so as to form another precinct on the north, named New Marl- 
borough. The same law divided the precinct of Wallkill so that its north- 
ern section became the precinct of Hanover. In 1782 the name of this 
precinct was changed to Montgomery by permission of the Provincial 
Convention of the State. By the general act of 1788 the Ulster County 
precincts which have been named were erected into the towns of New- 
burgh, New Windsor, New Marlborough, Shawangunk and Mont- 

In the winter of 1797, after much opposition to plans for changing the 
boundaries of Orange and Ulster Counties, two bills were agreed upon 
by a Convention of Delegates from the several towns interested, and these 
were presented to the Legislature and passed. One of them set off from 
Orange the present County of Rockland, and the other annexed to Orange 
Cotmty the towns of New Windsor, Newburgh, \\^allkill, Montgomery 
and Deer Park, then the southern section of the county of Ulster. 

In 1 801 a general law dividing the State into counties fixed the tlien 
somewhat undefined boimdaries of Orange, and another law adopted 
the same year fixed the boundaries of its towns as they now are, with 
the exception of Woodbury and Tuxedo, into which Monroe was sepa- 
rated in 1890. 

The first Board of Supervisors of the present county, which met in 
Goshen in 1798, was composed as follows: John Vail, Goshen; Francis 
Crawford, New Windsor ; Reuben Tooker, Newburgh ; Anselem Helme, 
Cornwall; Jacob Post, Warwick; Nathan Arnont, Minisink: James Finch. 
Deer Park; David Gallatin, Montgomery: Andrew McCord, Wallkill. 

Since that time the three towns of Greenville, Wawayanda and High- 
lands have been erected. 






EAKL\ 1X1)1. \.\ CHARAC'H-:k AXl^ COXDL'CT 21 


AMONG the surprises experienced by Columbus and the e.xplurcrs 
who sailed up and down the coast of North America soon after 
his great discover)-, were the characteristics of the newly-found 
race of native Indians. Their tribal differences were comparatively slight, 
and although uncivilized, many of them exhibited traits which indicated 
a remote ancestry above savagery, and caused speculation which has not 
yet ceased. 

Hendrick Hudson, from whom the magnificent Hudson River takes 
its name, has given us in his journal the first information alx)ut the tribes 
at its mouth and along its shores. Sailing from Amsterdam in the ship 
Half-Moon in 1609, he first landed near Portland,* JMe., on July 19th. 
Thence he sailed south to Chesapeake Bay, thence north to Delaware Bay, 
and thence to Sandy Hook, anchoring, probably off Coney Island. Sep- 
tember 3(1. Here and on the New Jersey coast Indians came to the ship 
in canoes, and bartered green corn and dried currants for knives, beads 
and articles of clothing. He wrote that they behaved well, but when 
he sent out a boat on the 6th to explore the Narrows, his men were at- 
tacked by twenty-six natives in two canoes, who killed one of his crew 
with an arrow and wounded two others. On September nth he sailed 
through the Narrows and found a good protected harbor. Here his ship 
was again visited by many natives, who brought Indian corn, tobacco and 
oysters for barter, and (lisi)laycd copper pipes, copper ornaments, and 
earthen pots for cooking. 

Hudson started on his vo\age up the river September 12th. and began 
his return September 22d. His ship stopped near the present city of 
Hudson, but he proceeded much farther in a small boat — as far, it is 
supposed, as Albany. About 25 miles below Alba^iy an aged chief enter- 
tained him hospitablv. and the Indians oft'ered in barter tobacco and 

* To avoii! circnnilocution prestnt names will be generally iiseil fo imlicale localities. 


beaver skins. Here the Indians of the Hudson, and probably of all 
North America, first tested the white man's Hquor. Hudson gave them 
some to see how they would act under its influence. Only one drank 
enough to become intoxicated, and when he fell down in a stupor the 
others were alarmed, but after he became sober the next day their alarm 
ceased, and they manifested a friendly spirit. This was on the east side 
of the river. Below the Highlands on the west side the natives were of 
a different disposition, and shot arrows at the crew from points of land. 
For this they were punished by Hudson's men, who returned their fire 
and killed about a dozen of them. Hudson's journal says that above the 
Highlands "they found a very loving people and very old men, and were 
well used." One of his anchoring places had been the bay at Newburgh, 
and here he wrote prophetically : "This is a very pleasant place to build 
a town on," and the handsome and prosperous City of Newburgh shows 
that he judged well. At this point many more Indians boarded the ship, 
and did a brisk business in exchanging skins for knives and ornamental 

At several anchorages the Indians brought green corn to Hudson's 
ship, and it was one of the agreeable surprises of the crew at their meals. 
Com was generally cultivated by the Hudson River tribes, and grew 
luxuriantly. Ruttenber says it was long supposed to be native, but 
investigation shows it was transplanted from a foreign shore. It is cer- 
tain that the early explorers knew nothing of it until it was brought to 
them by the Indians, and that it had been cultivated by the latter from 
immemorial times. 

Hudson wrote that some of the Indians whom he met along the river 
wore mantles of feathers and good furs, and that women came to the ship 
with hemp, having red copper tobacco pipes and copper neck ornaments. 
Verrazano, who sailed along the North American coast 33 years after 
Hudson's expedition, said the Indians were dressed out in feathers of 
birds of various colors. He mentioned "two kings" who came aboard 
his ship in Narragansett Bay as "more beautiful in stature than can possi- 
bly be described," and characterized them as types of their race. One 
wore a deerskin around his body artificially wrought in damask colors. 
His hair was tied back in knots, and around his neck was a chain with 
stones of different colors. The natives who accompanied the chiefs were 
of middle stature, broad across the breast, strong in the arm? and well 


formed. A litilc later Roger Williams was welcomed as a friend by an 
old chief, Canonnieus, and his nephew, and he described the Indians who 
accompanied them as of larger size than the whites, with tawny com- 
plexions, sharp faces, black hair, and mild, pleasant expressions. The 
women were graceful and beautiful, with tine countenances, and of 
modest appearance and manner. They wore no clothing, except orna- 
mental deer skins, like those of the men, but some had rich lynx skins 
on their arms, and various ornaments on their heads composed of braids 
of hair which hung upon their breasts. These Indians were generous 
in their disposition, "giving- away whatever they had." 

Later the Indians were classed from language into two general divi- 
sions — the Algonquins and the Iroquois — terms given them by the Jesuit 
missionaries. The Iroquois occupied central and western New York, 
including the ^Mohawk River, the headwaters of the Delaware, the Great 
Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. The Algonquins included all the In- 
dians of Eastern New York, Eastern Canada, New England, New Jersey, 
Eastern Pennsylvania, and Eastern Virginia. Several tribes in the west 
Hud.son River counties constituted the Lenni-Lenape nation, which held 
its council fires on the site of Philadelphia. Some of their names were 
Waoranecks, Haverstroos, IMinisinks and Waranawonkongs. When Hud- 
son came the Lenapes were the head of the Algonquin nations, but wars 
with the Iroquois and the whites so weakened them that they became 
the subjects of the Iroquois confederacy for eighty years previous to 1755. 
Then they rebelled, allied themselves with other tribes, Ix-camc the head 
of the western nations and successfully contested nearly all the territory 
west of the Mississippi. Dur-ng the period of their subserviency thev 
were known as the Delawares. The Mohawk^ were the most eastern 
nation of the Iroquois, and were called Maquas by the Dutch, and a 
branch on the Delaware, Minquas. The Iroquois, first known as the Five 
Nations, later received the Tuscaroras of North Carolina, who removed 
to New York, and with the Chcrokees and other southern Indians became 
the sixth nation of that great Indian confederacy, to which they also 
.were related by language. 

Both the Algonquin and Iroquois confederacies were divided into 
tribes and sub-tribes of families, each with a head who was the father or 
founder. These combined for mutual defense and the heads elected one 
of thc-r number chief sachem, regarding themselve^^ a^^ a nation to make 


laws, negotiate treaties, and engage in wars, the wars being mostly be- 
tween the Algonquins and Iroquois. 

The Esopus Indians occupied parts of Orange and Ulster Counties, and 
their war dances were held on the Dans Kamer. a high promontory north 
of Newburgh. Their rule extended to other families east and west of 
the Hudson, but their territory cannot be clearly defined. 

Regarding Indian character, there have been presented by our his- 
torians some contrasting but not wholly irreconcilable views. E. M. 
Ruttenber, in his valuable contribution to the History of Ulster County, 
edited by Hon. A. T. Clearwater, says : 

"When they were discovered the race had wrought out unaided a de- 
velopment far in advance of any of the old barbaric races of Europe. 
They were still in the age of stone, but entering upon the age of iron. 
Their implements were mainly of stone and flint and bone, yet they had 
learned the art of making copper pipes and ornaments. This would rank 
their civilization about with that of the Germans in the days of Tacitus 
(about the year 200 A.D.). They had, unaided by the civilization of Eu- 
rope, made great progress. , They had learned to weave cloth out of 
wild hemp and other grasses, and to extract dyes from vegetable sub- 
stances ; how to make earthen pots and kettles ; how to make large 
water casks from the bark of trees, as well as the lightest and fleetest 
canoes; h?d passed from the cave to the dwelling house; had established 
the family relation and democratic forms of government ; their wives were 
the most faithful, their young women the most brilliant in paint and gar- 
ments and robes of furs ; they carved figures on stone, and wrote the 
story of their lives in hieroglyphics, of which some of the finest speci- 
mens in America are preserved in the senate house in Kingston ; and most 
remarkable of all, and that which carries back their chronology to a 
period that cannot be defined, they had developed spoken languages that 
were rich in grammatical forms, differing radically from any of the 
ancient and modern languages of the old hemisphere, languages which 
were surely ingenious, and of which it was said by the most expert philol- 
ogists of Europe that they were among 'the most expressive languages, 
dead or living.' . . . Thev were savages or barbarians, as you may 
please to call them, men who wrote their vengeance in many scenes of 
blood, the recital of which around the firesides of the pioneers became 
more terrifving bv renetitimi ; nevertheless they were representatives of a 


race whose civilization, though it was 1200 years behind our own, had 
no faults greater than were found in the races from which we boast our 

In Samuel Eager's "History of Orange County," published in 1846-7, 
are found statements presenting a different conception of Indian quali- 
ties. It says : 

"The Indian character in this State is well known, and we have no 
reason to believe that the character of the Indians of Orange was mate- 
rially different. If you know one you know the general character of 
those who compose his wigwam, 'and knowing this you know that of his 
tribe. They are all alike— dirty, slothful and indolent, trustworthy and 
confiding in their friendships, while fierce and revengeful under other 
circumstances. Their good will and enmity are alike easily purchased. 
All have the war dance before starting upon and after returning from 
the warpath, and bury the dead standing, with their instruments." Their 
known rule of warfare is an indiscriminate massacre of men, women and 
children, and they are cruel to their captives, whom they usually slay 
with the tomahawk or burn up at the stake. They believe in a future 
state of rewards and punishments, and sacrifice to a Good Spirit — an un- 
known god. We have the testimony of Hendrick Hudson that the In- 
dians above the Highlands were kind and friendly to him and his crew, 
and the more so the further they proceeded up the river. This, we pre- 
sume, related to those on both sides of the river, though below the High- 
lands they were of a more hostile character. W'c have understood, as 
coming from the early settlers, who first located in Westchester and 
Dutchess and afterwards removed here, as many of them did. that the 
impression was very general that the Indians on that side of the river 
were less hostile and more friendly to the white settlers than those on the 
west; and this was given as a reason for settling there, which accounts in 
some measure for the earlier settlement of that side of the river. We 
infer, from the absence of written accounts of anything very peculiar 
or different in the habits and customs of the Indians of the county from 
others in the State, and from the poverty of tradition in this respect 
that there were no such peculiar dift'erences. but they were similar and 
iilentical with those of the heathen Indians at Onondaga and Buffalo be- 
fore modified and changed by white association." 
.These somewhat coutrndic tory views of the Indian race seem to be 


a little too sweeping on both sides, they being neither so good nor so bad 
as represented. The native Indians have been both kind and cruel to one 
another and the whites. Their instincts are not unlike those of civilized 
peoples, but there are less control and restraint in savagery than civiliza- 
tion. Their tribal differences of conduct towards the whites depended less 
upon natural disposition than leadership and provocations. Vindictiveness 
towards real or fancied enemies seems to have prevailed everywhere 
among the North American tribes, and this was undoubtedly increased 
towards the whites by the latter's aggressions and by the former's indul- 
gence in the intoxicants furnished them by their white neighbors. But 
cruelty is ingrained in the barbarian character almost everywhere, and 
often is manifested in communities called civilized. The tortures of the 
middle ages in the name of religion were as painful as those inflicted in 
the eighteenth century by our Indians, and both seem almost im- 
possible to the philanthropist of to-day. Not until minds have 
been softened by such teachings as those of the Founder of Chris- 
tianity, and extremes of bigotry have given place to tolerance and char- 
ity, is the natural disposition of the average man to give pain to 
antagonists dissipated. 

There has been no more intellectual nation among the aborigines of 
America than the Senecas of Western New York — the most original 
and determined of the confederated Iroquois — but its warriors were 
cruel like the others, and their squaws often assisted the men in torturing 
their captives. When Boyd and Parker were captured in the Genesee 
Valley in the Sullivan campaign of 1779, Brant, the famous half-breed 
chief, assured them that they would not be injured, yet left them in the 
hands of Little Beard, another chief, to do with as he would, and the 
prolonged tortures to which he and his savage companions subjected 
them were horrible. After they had been stripped and tied to trees, and 
tomahawks were thrown so as to just graze their heads, Parker was un- 
intenlionally hit so that his head was severed from his body, but Boyd was 
made to suffer lingering miseries. His ears were cut off, his mouth 
enlarged with knives and his severed nose thrust into it, pieces of flesh 
were cut from his shoulders and other parts of his body, an incision was 
made in his abdomen and an intestine fastened to the tree, when he was 
scourged to make him move around it, and finally as he neared death, was 
decapitated, and his head raised on a pole. 


Similar tortures were not uncommon among both the Iroquois and 
Algonquins when they made captives of the whites. 

Returning to the Lenni-Lenape of the Hudson River's western lands, 
there is in Eager's history an account by a Delaware Indian of the recep- 
tion and welcome by the Indians of the first Europeans who came to 
their country — on York Island — whicli is here condensed. 

Some Indians out fishing at a place where the sea widens saw some- 
thing remarkably large floating on the water at a great distance, which 
caused much wondering speculation among them. The sight caused great 
excitement, and as it approached news was sent to scattered cliiefs. They 
fancied that it was a great house in which the Mannitto (Great Spirit) 
was coming to visit them. Meat for sacrifices and victuals were pre- 
pared. Conjurors were set to work, and runners were sent out. The 
latter soon re])orted that it was a great house full of human beings. When 
it came near it stopped, and a canoe came from it containing men, one 
elegantly dressed in red. This man saluted them with a friendly counten- 
ance, and, lost in admiration, the Indians returned his salute. They saw 
that he glittered with gold lace and had a white skin. He poured some- 
thing from a gourd into a cup. drank from it, filled it again, and handed 
it to a chief. It is passed around, and the chiefs smell of it, but do not 
drink. At last a resolute chief jumps up and harangues the others, saying 
that they ought to drink, as the ^lannitto had done, and he would dare to 
drink, although it might kill him, as it was better that one man should 
be destroyed than that a whole nation! should die. Th«n he drank, soon 
began to stagger, and finally fell to the ground. He fell asleep, and his 
companions thinking that he was dead, began to bemoan his fate. But 
he awoke, and declared that he had never before felt so happy as when 
he drank from the white man's cup. He asked for more, which was 
given him, and the whole assembly imitated him and became intoxicated. 
After they became sober they were given presents of beads, axes, hoes 
and stockings. Then the Dutch made them understand that they would 
not stay, but would come again in a year, bring more presents, and 
would then want a little land. They returned the next season, began cul- 
tivating the grounds and kept bargaining for more land until the Indians 
began to believe that they would soon want all the country. 

The scenes thus described by the Delaware Indian were probably soon 
after the vovagfe of discovery In- Hendrick Hudson. 


The. Esopus Indians, according to early records, represented four sub- 
tribes — the Amangaricken, Kettyspowy, Mahon and Katatawis. In 1677' 
their chief deeded a large tract of land lying along the Hudson in Ulster 
and Orange Counties and extending back to the Rochester hills, to the 
English Government. The tract cannot be clearly defined. Previous 
negotiations and fighting led to this transfer. In 1663 Wildwijk (Kings- 
ton), where an infant colony had been started, was set on fire, and the 
colonists were attacked and murdered in their homes with axes, toma-' 
hawks and guns. They finally rallied and drove the Indians away, but not 
until twenty-five of them had been killed and forty-five made prisoners. 
The New Village, as it was called, was annihilated, and of the Old Village 
twelve houses were burned. When Peter Stuyvesant heard of the calamity 
he sent a company of soldiers from New Amsterdam to assist the settlers. 
They were commanded by Captain jMartin Kregier, arrived at Wildwijk 
July 4, and a few days afterward Kregier had a conference with five Mo- 
hawk and IMohican chiefs who came from Fort Orange. He induced them 
to release some of their captives, but his negotiations with the VVarrana- 
wonkongs were less successful. They were the proprietors of lands in 
the vicinity of Newburgh, and for some distance above and below the 
Lenni-Lenape confederacy. They would not agree to terms of peace 
unless the Dutch would pay for the land called the Groot Plat or Great 
Plot and add presents within ten days. Kregier would not agree to this,- 
and on July 25th followed them to their castle. They abandoned it, and 
fled to the Shawangunk Mountains, taking their captives with them. 
They were followed, and again retreated. Kregier burned their palisaded 
castle, cut down their cornfields and destroyed about a hundred pits full 
of corn and beans which were a part of the harvest of the previous year, 
'ihen Kregier returned to Wildwijk and guarded the settlers while they 
harvested their grain. He resumed ofiensive operations in September, 
sending out about fifty men to reduce a new castle which the Indians were 
building "about four hours beyond the one burned." The Indians were 
surprised, but fought fiercely as they retreated, killing and wounding 
three of the Dutch soldiers. Thirteen Indians were taken prisoners and 
twenty-three Dutch captives released. The Indians fled to the mountains, 
the uncompleted fort was destroyed, and the soldiers carried away much 
spoil. Another force was sent to the same place October ist, when the 
Indians retreated southward, and the Dutch completed the work of de- 

l■:.\kl.^■ INDIAN ( ii.\k.\rTi:K and (.ondict 29 

structioii. including crops and \vig\vani,> an)und the fori. Later the In- 
dians solicited peace and an armistice was granted. They had sutYered 
severely, and felt crushed, and their allies, the Waoranecks, were also 
subdued, although their lerritury had not been invaded. "The embers 
of their forest worship, which had for ages been lighted on the Dans 
Kamer, were extinguished forever." In the following May of 1664 they 
sought and executed a treaty with the Dulch at l<"ort Amsterdam, whereby 
the lands claimed and con{|uered by the Dutch were to remain the pro]i- 
erty of the conquerors, and the Indians were not to approach the Dutch 
settlements with arms. The ratification of the treaty was celebrated, and 
thus was closed the struggle of the Indians for the possession of their 
lands on the western slope of the Hudson from the Catskills to the 
ocean. The Minsis remained in the western part of Orange and some 
adjoining territory, and in i(m)2 and 1694 were strengthened by additions 
of large colonies of Shawanoes. For nearly a hundred years after the 
treaty there was but little trouble between the Indians and the settlers 
of Orange County. 

The incursions during the I'rench and Indian and the Revolutionary 
Wars properly belong to the military chapter of this history. 



THERE is a tradition, supported by some evidence, that the first 
settlement of Orange County was in the old Minisink territory 
along the Delaware River. Although the supposed settlement 
was mostly in Pennsylvania, the reported excavations, roads and other 
work of the settlers were mostly in Orange County. The story of the 
tradition, and evidence that it has a basis of fact, are given in a letter 
by Samuel Preston, Esq., dated Stockport, June 6, 1828, which is pub- 
lished in Samuel W. Eager's county history of 1846-7, and reproduced in 
Charles E, Stickney's history of the Minisink region of 1867. Eager 
says the letter "will throw light upon the point of early settlement in the 
Minisink country," and Stickney assumes that its second-hand satements 
are substantially true. But Ruttenber and Clark's more complete history 
of the county, published in 1881, discredits them. The essential parts of 
Preston's letter are here condensed. 

He was deputed by John Lukens, surveyor general, to go into North- 
ampton County on his first surveying tour, and received from him, by 
way of instruction, a narrative respecting the settlements of Minisink on 
the Delaware above the Kittany and Blue Mountain. This stated that 
John Lukens and Nicholas Scull — the latter a famous surveyor, and the 
former his apprentice — were sent to the Minisink region in 1730 for the 
government of Philadelphia ; that the Minisink flats were tlien all settled 
by Hollanders ; that they found there a grove of apple trees much larger 
than any near Philadelphia, and that they came to the conclusion that 
the first settlement of Hollanders in Minisink was many years older than 
William Penn's charter. Samuel Depuis, who was living there, told them 
that there was a good road to Esopus, near Kingston, about a hundred 
miles from the Mineholes, which was called the Mine road. Preston was 
charged by Lukens to learn more particulars about this Mine road, and 
obtained some from Nicholas Depuis, son of Samuel, who was living in 
great affluence in a spacious stone house. He had known the Mine road 


well, an.l before a boat channel was opened to Foul Kilt, used to drive on 
It several times every winter with loads of wheat an.l cider to buy silt 
and other necessaries, as did also his neighbors. He repeated stories with 
out dates that he had heard from older people. They said that in some 
lormer aj-e a companv of mniers came there from Holland- that tliev 
worked two mines, and were very rich; that they built the Mine road 
with great labor, and hauled their ore over it; that they bought the im 
provements of the native Indians, the most of whom moved to the Sus- 

In 1789 Preston began to build a house in the Minisink. and obtained 
more evidence from Gen. James Clinton, the father of Gov Dewitt Clin 
ton. and Christopher Tappan, Recorder of Ulster County, who came there 
on a surveying expedition. They both knew the Alineholes and the Mine 
road, and were of the opinion that they were worked while New York 
belonged to Holland, which was previous to 1664. Preston did not learn 
what kind of ore the mines produced, but concluded that it was silver He 
went to the Paaquarry Alineholes, and found the mouths caved full and 
overgrown with bushes, but giving evidence of a great deal of labor done 
there in some former time. 

Ruttenber and Clark's history, as stated, discredit the tradition regard- 
ing the early settlement of the Minisink bv HoUan.lers, as accepted by 
Clinton, lappan, Depuis, Preston and others. It represents the Mine 
road to be simply an enlargement of an old Indian trail, and the mines to 
have been of copper and locate<l in what is now the town of Warren 
Sussex County, X. J. It says that the Dutch at Esopus during the war 
of 1660-63 liad little knowledge of the countrv. even east of tlie Shawan- 
gunk, and that if the Alinisink was penetrated at a much earlier period it 
was by wav of the Delaware River. The historian discusses the subject 
further, and concludes that the first settler of the Minisink was William 
Tietsoort. a blacksmith from Schenectady, who barelv escaped the slaugh- 
ter at that place in 1689. and went to the Minisink countrv from I^-sopu. 
by invitation of friendly Indians, and purcha>ed lands of them in ( )ctoIx'r 
1689. "Ihere is little doubt that he was the first settler ,>n the western 
border," says the history. 

But Stickney. after recapitulating the traditions and evidence of the 
early settlement of the region. >ays : '"Here generations live.l the fleeting 
span of liie ni blissful i-norance of anv outer .m- happier world beside. 


and were alike unknown outside the boundaries of their own domain 
until some wanderer chanced to come across their settlement, and went on 
his way, thereafter to remember with gratitude and envy the affluence 
and comfort that marked their rough but happy homes." 

If Tietsoort was the first white settler of the Minisink, Arent Schuyler 
was probably the second, as he settled there in 1697, having been granted a 
patent of 1,000 acres of its lands by Governor Fletcher. The governor had 
sent him there three years before to ascertain whether the French in 
Canada had been trying to bribe the Indians to engage in a war of ex- 
termination against the New Yorkers from their fastnesses in the Shaw- 
angunk Mountains. 

The earliest land transfers and titles were so thoroughly investigated 
by Ruttenber and Clark that we cannot do better, perliaps, than condense 
mostly from their history. 

Warranawonkong chiefs transferred to Governor Stuyvesant the Groot 
Fiat or Great Plot, as it was called, in which Kingston is now situated. 
These lands are said to be the first for which Europeans received a title 
from the Indian^,-, and are somewhat indefinitely described in the treaty 
with them of 1665 to which reference has been made. They were con- 
quered by Captain Kreiger in 1663, and embraced three townships in 
southwestern Ulster. Chronology next takes us to the extreme south of 
Orange County. Here Balthazar DeHart and his brother Jacob, purchased 
of the Indians "the Christian patent lands of Haverstraw." They were 
on the south side of the Highlands and extended from the Hudson west- 
ward to the mountains. On the presumption that they were included in 
the boundaries of New Jersey, the Harts soon transferred them to Nich- 
olas Depues and Peter Jacobs Marius, and purchased another tract north 
of them in 1671, which was bounded by the Hudson River on the east 
and the mountains on the south. This became the property of Jacobs. 
They also purchased a tract north of the previous purchase, and including 
a part of it, which was called Abequerenoy, and passed from them to 
Hendrick Ryker. 

On the north a Huguenot, Louis Du Bois, with some friends who had 
been driven from France by religious persecution, located first at Esopus 
in 1660; and in September, 1667, after purchase from the Indians, twelve 
of them became patentees of a tract of 36,000 acres lying north of the 
Redonte Creek, as the Warranawonkong was then called. The patent was 



[•"ikST si'/rriJ-.Mi-.xrs axd si-.ti-ij-.ks. 


obtained from Governor Andros in the names of l.ouis \)u IJois. Christian 
Doyan. Abraham Hasbroueq. Andre Le I-'ebYre. jean Ilasbroucq, Pierre 
Dovan. Louis lieviere, Antliony Crespel, Abraham l)u IJois, Hayne Frere. 
Isaac Du IJois and Simon Le Febvre, "tlieir lieirs and others." Nine 
fann'lics immethattly settled on ihe la'id and founded New I'altz. 

lletwecu I la\-crslra\v and New I'altz I'atriek Mac (jregorie. David 
I'Vjsbruck, his brother-in-law. and twenty-five others, who were mostly 
Sooteii Presbyterians, occupied lands at the moutii of the Waoraneck. and 
Mac Gregorie purchased for them 4,000 acres on both sides of Murderer's 
Creek, on which they settled. Mac Gregorie built his cabin on Plum Point, 
then called Conwanham's Hill, and the cabins of his associates were in 
the vicinity, and on the south side of the creek David Toshuck. the 
brother-in-law. who subscribed himself "Laird of Minivard." established 
a trading post. "Within the bounds of the present county of Orange this 
was the first European settlement," says the historian, but the precise 
<Iate is not given. Stickney thinks the year was 1684, but it was probably 
a little earlier, as about that time Mac Gregorie entered into the military 
service of the State without perfecting his patent, mistakenly trusting Gov- 
ernor Dongan to protect his interests, who, in 1684, obtained from three 
Indian owners their title to a tract extending from New P'altz along the 
Hudson to Murderer's Kill, thence westward to the foot of the high hills, 
and thence southwesterly along the hills and the river Peakadasank to a 
pond; and the same year added by deed from several Indians another 
large tract of the land called Havei straw. These lands included a part 
of those which the Indians had previously sold to Mac Gregorie, and 
others which they had sold to Stephanus \'an Cortlan.dt. The latter had 
preserved his deed, and succeeded in obtaining a i)atent attachmg them to manor across the river. Mac Gregorie was killed in the Leslie revolu- 
tion of 1691. Governor Dongan sold his two purchases to John Evans in 
ir.94, and the latter then proceeded to disjxissess Mac Gregorie's widow 
and her family of their home, when he granted only leases to them and 
the other Scotch settlers. After some years, however, the Mac Gregorie 
heirs, in consideration of their original claim, obtained a patent of the 
Plum I'oint farm and a mountain tract. 

The fourth and largest settlement was made ;idjoining "the Chn-ii.ui 
patented lands of Haverstraw" by emigrants frciui Holland, mostly of 
the Keforme<l Dutch Church. They were grante 1 a towuslup p.itent \n 


March. 1686, under the name of the town of Orange. There were sixteen 
trustees of this grant, which began at the mouth of the Tappan Creek, ex- 
tended north to Greenbush, and thence easterly and southerly back to 
Tappan Creek. The center of the township was Tappan, where a church 
was organized. The trustees of the grant were Claessen Cuyper, Daniel 
De Clercke, Peter Harnich, Gerritt Stenmetts, John De Kries, Sr., John 
De Kries, Jr., Claes Maunde. John Stratemaker, Staaes De Groot, Aream 
Lammatees, Lamont Ariannius, Huybert Gerryts, Johannes Gerryts, Ede 
Van Vorst, Cornelius Lammerts. 

A vast tract of land immediately west of Haverstraw was conveyed to 
Daniel Honan and Michael Hawdon, January 25, 1696. Adjoining this on 
the south were certain tracts containing 2,000 acres which were granted 
to Samuel Bayard. The Indian deed for this and other purchases was 
covered by Lucas Tenhoven and embraced 100,000 acres, for Vv'hich no 
patent was issued. 

Between the Haverstraw lands and the township of Orange was the 
rocky bluff known as \'^erdrietig Hook, including Rockland Lake, which 
became the subject of controversy between the John Hutchins Company 
and Jarvis Marshal & Company, both parties having obtained deeds, but 
that of the latter proved to be of prior date (Sept. 27, 1694). A feu- 
years later, in 1708, a patent was issued to Lancaster Syrus, Robert 
Walters and Hendrick Ten Eyck, ' covering the vacant river point de- 
scribed as beginning at the south bounds of Haverstraw. extending west 
to Welch's island, thence southerly to the lower end of the island, thence 
east to the creek running from the pond of Verdrietig Hook, and thence 
north to the place of beginning, "except the grant of Honan & Hawdon." 

Ruttenber and Clark's history states that the indicated foregoing patents 
covered the entire district from the New Jersey line to New Paltz and 
west to the line of the Shawangunk Mountains. 

Here is the proper place for some statements made by David Barclay 
in his paper on Balmville read before the Newburgh Historical Society in 
1899. He said that Captain John Evans in 1694 obtained from Colonel 
Fletcher, then Governor of New York, a patent for a tract of land on 
the west shore of the Hudson, extending from Stony Point to the south 
line of New Paltz. and westward to the Shawangunk Mountains, including 
two-thirds of Orange County and parts of Ulster and Rockland Counties, 
and estimated to contain 650.000 acres. The only settlement thereon at 


that time was that of Major Gregorie's heirs and followers at Murderer's 
Creek in the present towns of Cornwall and New Windsor, The patent 
was afterward annulled by an act of the assembly, which was confirmed, 
and the title reverted to the crown. Included in these lands must have 
been those unjustly transferred to Evans in 1694 by Governor Dongan 
"under the title of the lordship of the manor of Fletcherdom." Ruttenber 
says that the Evans patents, with others, were for a long time a disturbing 
element, and were entirely undefined except in general terms. 

Near tlie close of the ijtli century there was active competition in the 
extinguishment of the Indian titles and obtaining patents, and several 
patents were granted. Three of them, to associations, were issued at the 
following dates: Chesekook, December 30, 1702; Wawayanda, March 5, 
1703; Minisink, August 28, 1704. 

The Chesekook patent was included in a purchase from five Inflian 
proprietors to Dr. John Bridges, Henry Ten Eyck, Derick Vandenburgh, 
[ohn Cholwell, Christopher Dean, Lancaster Syms and John Merriit. The 
Wawayanda patent was a purchase from twelve Indians by the same 
parties, and five more, namely, Daniel Honan, Philip Rokeby, Benjamin 
Aske, Peter Mathews and Cornelius Christianse. The Minisink patent 
was to Mathew Ling, Ebenezer Wilson, Philip French, Derick Vanden- 
burgh, Stephen De Lancey, Philip Rokeby, John Corbett, Daniel Honan, 
Caleb Cooper, William Sharpass, Robert Milward, Thomas Wearham, 
Lancaster Syms, John Pearson, Benjamin Aske, Pctrus Bayard, John 
Cholwell, Peter Fanconier, Henry Swift, Hendrick Ten Eyck, Jarvis 
Marshall, Ann Bridges, George Clark. 

This last purchase was of parts of Orange and Ulster Counties, begin- 
ning in Ulster at Hunting House, on the northeast of Bashe's land, run- 
ning thence north to the Fishkill River, thence southerly to the south end 
of Great Minisink Island, thence south to the land granted John Bridges 
& Company (Wawayanda), and along that patent northward and along 
the patent of John Evans to the place of beginning. There is no record 
that the purchasers received a deed from the Indians, and it was re- 
porter!, probably correctly, that when Depuis obtained the Minisink lands 
from the Indians, he got them drunk and never paid them the money 
agreed upon — treatment which they resented for a long time afterward 
in hostility to the white settlers. 

The Chesekook patent was bounded north by the patent line of Evans, 


west by Highland Hills, south by Honan and Hawdon's patent, and east 
by "the lands of the bounds of Haverstraw and the Hudson." 

The Wawayanda patent was bounded eastward by "the high hills of 
the Highlands" and the Evans patent, north by the division line of the 
counties of Orange and Ulster, westward by "the high hills eastward of 
Minisink" and south by the division line of New York and New Jersey. 

The boundary lines of the three patents w^ere defined in such general 
terms that for a long time they caused trouble as to titles, and in the 
final adjustment the territory claimed by the Wawayanda patentees was 
cut o&, while on the west a tract called the Minisink angle, embracing 
130,000 acres, was formed. 

The English government began investigating the patents of such im- 
mense tracts in 1698, and the next year caused the Evans patent to be 
annulled, after which the territory covered by it was conveyed in small 
tracts issued at different times up to 1775. These conveyances, exclusive 
of those outside of the present county, were as follows : 

1. Roger and Pinhorne Mompesson, 1000 acres, March 4th, 1709. 

2. Ebenezer Wilson and Benjamin Aske, 2000 acres, March 7th, 1709. 

3. Rip Van Dam, Adolph Phillipse, David Provost, Jr., Lancaster Symes and 

Thomas Jones, 3000 acres, March 23. 1709. 

4. Gerardus Beekman, Rip Van Dam, Adolph PhilHpse, Garrett Brass, Servas 

Vleerborne, and Daniel Van Vore, 3000 acres, March 24th, 1709. 

5. Peter Matthews, William Sharpas, and William Davis, 2000 acres, Sept. 8th, 


6. William Chambers and William Southerland, 1000 acres, Sept. 22, 1709. 

7. Samuel Staats, June 5th, 1712. 

8. Henry Wileman and Henry Van Bael, 3000 acres, June 30th, 1712. 

9. Archibald Kennedy, 1200 acres, Aug. nth, 1715. 

10. Alexander Baird, Abner Van Vlacque, and Hermanus Johnson, 6000 acres, 

Feb. 28th, 1716. 

11. Jeremiah Schuyler, Jacobus Van Courlandt, Frederick Phillipse, William 

Sharpas, and Isaac Bobbin, loooo acres, Jan. 22d, 17 19. 

12. Fdward Gatehouse, 1000 acres, Jan. 22, 1719. 

13. Cornelius Low, Gerard Schuyler, and John Schuyler, 3292 acres, March T7th, 


14. Thomas Brazier, 2000 acres, March 17th, 1719. 

15. Phineas Mcintosh, 2000 acres, April 9th, 1719. 

16. John Lawrence, 2772 acres, April 9th, 1719. 

17. John Haskell, 2000 acres, April 9th, 1719. 

18. James Alexander, 2000 acres, April 9th, 1719. 

19. Cadwallader Colden, 2000 acres, April 9th, 17 19. 

20. David Galatian, 1000 acres, June 4th, 1719. 

21. Patrick McKnight, 2000 acres, July "th, 1719. 

22. Andrew Johnston, 2000 acres, July 7th, 1719. 

23. Melchoir Gilles, 300 acres, Oct. 8th, 1719. 

24. German Patent, 2190 acres, Dec. 18th, 1719. 

25. John Johnston, Jr., two tracts, Feb. 3d, 1720. 

Thomas Darlington, Esq. 

/-^i^n^^^ ><y/^^-«>^^^u^^/l- 

j-iRST settli:mi:.\j"s and settlers. 2,7 

26. Tlionias \oxon, 2000 acres, May 2Sth, 1720. 

27. William Iluddk-ston, 2000 acres, Juno 2d, 1720. 

28. Vincent Matthews, 800 acres, Jime I7tli, 1720. 

29. Richard Van Dam, 1000 acres, June jotji, 1720. 

30. Francis Harrison, Oliver Schuyler, and Allen Jarratt, 5000 acres, July 7th, 1720. 

31. Phillip Schuyler, Johannes Lansing, Jr., Henry Wileman, and Jacobus Bruyn, 

8000 acres, July 7th, 1720. 

^2. Patrick ALicGrcgorie, two tracts, 660 acres, Aug. 6th, 1720. 

a. Mary Ingoldsby and her daughter, Mary Pinhorne, and Mary Pinhornc and 

\Vm. Pinhorne, her children, two tracts, 5360 acres, Aug. nth, 1720. 

34. Jacobus Kipp, John Cruger, Phillip Cortland, David Provost, Oliver Schuyler, 

and John Schuyler, 7000 acres, Oct. 17th, 1720. 

35. Lewis Morris and Vincent Pearce, two tracts, 1000 acres each, July 21st, 1721. 
T^. John Haskell, 2000 acres, August 24th, 1721. 

37. Patrick Hume, 2000 acres, Nov. 29th, 1721. 

38. James Henderson, two tracts, one not located, 1600 acres, Feb. 12th, 1722. 

39. Jacobus Bruyn and Henry Wileman, 2500 acres, April 25th, 1722. 

40. James Smith, 2000 acres, Dec. 15th, 1722. 

41. Charles Congreve, 800 acres. May 17th, 1722. 

42. Ann Hoaglandt, 2000 acres. May 24th, 1723. 

43. Francis Harrison, Mary Tathani, Thomas Brazier, James (iraham, and John 

Haskell, 5600 acres, July loth, 1714. 

44. William Bull and Richard Gerrard, 2600 acres, Aug. lOth, 1723. 

45. William Bull and Richard Gerrard, two tracts, 1500 acres, Dec. 14th, 1724. 

46. Isaac Bobbin, 600 acres, March 28th, 1726. 

47. Edward Blagg and Johannes Hey, two tracts, 2000 acres each, March 28th, 


48. Nathaniel Hazard and Joseph Sackett, two tracts, 4C00 acres, Jan. nth, 1727. 

49. William Bradford, 2000 acres, Sept. ist, 1727. 

50. John Spratt and Andries Marschalk, 2000 acres, April 12th, 1728. 

51. James Wallace, 2000 acres, March 2d, 1731. 

■-52. Gabriel and William Ludlow, six tracts, 4000 acres, Oct. i8th, 1731. 

53. Thomas Smith, 1000 acres. May 8th, 1732. 

54. Daniel Everett and James Stringhani, 3850 acres, Jan. 17th, 1736. 

55. Elizabetli Dennc, 1140 acres, Dec. 12th, 1734. 

56. Joseph Sackett and Joseph Sackett, Jr., two tracts, 2000 acres, July 7th, 1736. 

57. Nathaniel Hazard, Jr., 2000 acres, Aug. I2th, 1736. 

58. Thomas Ellison, three tracts, 2000 acres. May 13th, 1737. 

59. Joseph Sackett, five tracts, 2000 acres, Sept. ist, 1737. 

60. Ann, Sarah, Catherine, George, Elizabeth, and Mary Bradley, two tracts, 4690 

acres, Oct. 14th, 1749. 

61. Cornelius DuBois, two tracts, one not located, July 2d. 1739. 

62. Richard Bradley, 800 acres. May 17th, 1743. 

63. Jane and Alice Colden, two tracts, 4000 acres, Oct. 30th, 1749. 

64. John Moore, 280 acres, Oct. 30th, 1749. 

65. Peter Van Burgh Livingston and John Provost, 3000 acres. May 26th, 1750. 

66. George Harrison, three tracts, 2000 acres, July 20th, 1750. 

6y. Jacobus Bruyn and George Murray, 4000 acres, Sept. 26th, 1750. 

68. Thomas Ellison and Lawrence Roome, six tracts, 4000 acres, Nov. 12th. 1750 

69. Alexander Phoenix and Abraham Bockel, 1000 acres, July 13th, 1751. 

70. Thomas Ellison, 1080 acres, Dec. ist, 1753. 

71. John Nelson, 550 acres. Oct. 4th, 1754. 

72. James Crawford, Jr., Samuel Crawford, James White, and David Crawford, 

4000 acres, May 17th, 1761. 

73. Cadwallader Colden. Jr., and Daniel Colden, 720 acres. June 20th, 1761. 


74. Vincent and David Matthews, 1800 acres, Nov. 26th, 1761. 

75. John Nelson, 1265 acres, Oct. 4th, 1762. 

76. Thomas Moore and Lewis Pintard, 2000 acres, Dec. 23,d, 1762. 
TJ. Peter Hassenclever, March 2Sth, 1767. 

78. William Smith and Edward Wilkin, 2000 acres, April 17th, 1768. 

79. William Arisen and Archibald Breckenridge, 400 acres, 1770. 

80. Daniel Horsemanden, Miles Sherbrook, Samuel Camfield, and William Sid- 

ney, 3210 acres, 1772. 

81. Thomas Moore and John Osborne, 2000 acres, March 14th, 1775. 

82. Henry Townsend, 2000 acres. 

Only a small part of the Minisink patent was in the present county of 
Orange, but the Wawayanda and Chesekook patents were wholly within 
its limits, and covered its most fertile sections. The Wawayanda patent 
.caused much trouble, and was unoccupied by settlers until 171 2, when tlie 
surviving shareholders — Christopher Denne, Daniel Cromeline and Benja- 
min Aske — determined to make settlements thereon, and to facilitate their 
ends were made justices of the peace. Parties were sent out by each of 
them, and these began the settlements of Goshen, Warwick and Chester, 
where houses were soon completed and occupied. The agent who pre- 
ceded Denne into the wilderness was his adopted daughter, Sarah Wells, 
then only 16 years old, who was accompanied only by friendly Indian 
guides. She married William Bull, the builder of Cromeline's house, and 
lived to the great age of 102 years and 15 days. 

Soon after the settlement thus started in 1712 John Everett and Samuel 
Clowes, of Jamaica, L, I., took charge of the patent, and proved to be 
enterprising and efficient agents. Recorded sales to settlers and others 
prior to 1721, as well as to Everett and Clowes, were as follows: 

1. Philip Rokeby sold his undivided twelfth part to Daniel Cromeline, John 
Merritt, and Elias Boudinot, June loth, 1704. Merritt sold his third to Cromeline 
in 1705. Boudinot sold his third to George McNish, who sold to Clowes, Feb. Sth, 
1714, for £150. 

2. Cornelius Christianse sold to Derrick Vandenburgh, Sept. 8th, 1704, all his 
twelfth part. Vandenburgh sold to Elias Boudinot, and the latter sold one-sixth 
of same to Everett and Clowes, July 20th, 1714, for i66 13s. Boudinot's heirs sub- 
sequently sold five-sixths to Everett and Clowes for £41 13s. 4d. This tract em- 
braced New Milford, in the present town of Warwick. 

3. Hendrick Ten Eyck sold his twelfth part to Daniel Cromeline, Dec. 8th, 1704. 
Cromeline, who also owned two-thirds of the Rokeby share, sold to Everett and 
Clowes, Jan. ist, 1714, the sixth part of his interest for £83 6s., excepting two 
tracts, one of which contained three thousand seven hundred and six acres. This 
tract was principally in the present town of Chester, and embraced the site on 
which he had made settlement and erected a stone dwelling, and to which he had 
given the name of "Gray Count." 

4. Ann Bridges sold to John Van Home, merchant, of New York, July 4th, 1705, 








all the equal undivided twelfth part held by her husband, Dr. John Bridges for the 
sum of £250. Van Home was also the purchaser of a part or the whole o another 

Da?['foTl8°6s ?d S'.v"^ Clowes one-sixth part of one-sixth of one-thrr"een 1 
part lor tso os. jsd. Amity was m Bridges s parcel 

5- Daniel Honan sold to John xMerritt, 1705, all his twelfth part. Margery Mer- 
ritt widow, and John Merritt, son, sold to Adrian lloaglandt one-half and to 
Anthony Rutgers one-half. Rutgers sold to Everett and^'lowes one twelfth ^f 
letter! ApnlitTA'/forVs "°^e'^"^^' '^^^ '^ ^^^^ ^'''"^^ Pities one-twelfth, thl 

6 Derrick Vandeiiburgh died holding his original share, and his wife, Rymerich 
and h.s son Henry, his heirs, sold the same to Elias Boudinot. Aug 8471707 
Boudinot sold his entire share to Clowes, Oct. 27th, 1713. for £355 This oa reel 
embraced what is called m the old deeds the "Florida (ract;" the 'name 'TlJrida" 
15 siiii rcLHiiicci. 

7. John Chohvell sold his twelfth part to Adrian Hoaglandt, Oct. 5th, 1706 for 
£350. Anna Hoaglandt, his widow, sold to Everett and Clowes one-siith of the 
share, and the remainder descended to Christopher Banker and Elizabeth his wife 
h?;"hdr^'"''" ^''^ ^' ''''^'' ''"'^ ^'*"'' ^"^eers and Helena his wife,' 

8. John Merritt held his share at the time of his death, and his heirs, Margery 
flT m ''' '""i"^ Joh" Merritt, eldest son, sold one-half to Adrian Hoaglandt 
John (then a resident of New London) sold to John Everett, Feb. 2Sth 1714 the 
remaining half for ii20. ^ ' ' ^' 

9. Benjamin Aske sold to Everett and Clowes, July 20th, 1714, one-sixth of his 
thirteen h part for £50 He subsequently sold a portion to LawJ^nce Decker? Feb 
28th, 1,19, another to Thomas Blain, May 20th, 1721 ; and another to Thomas De- 
Kay, Dec. 8th 1724. In all cases the land conveyed is described as part of his 
farm, called \\ arwick and in all cases the parties to whom the deeds were made 
were described as residents of the county and upon the land conveyed 

his°thiJi:eSr;arff"?^i50.'' '' ^^"^^^^ ^"^ ^^°^^-^^' ^''^ --'^- ^^14, one-sixth of 

11. Peter Matthew-s, then living in Albany, sold all his thirteenth part to Clowes 
reb. nth, 1713, for £200. *^ v-»">to, 

12. Christopher Denne sold, July 20th. 1714. to Clowes an.l Everett one-sixth of 
his share for £50. He also sold to Robert Brown three hundred and tenacres 
bept. 3rd, 1721. Elizabeth Denne sold to William Mapes, Joseph Allison Tohn 
Yelverton, Ebenezer Holley, Joseph Sears, John Green, and John Worlev, theAIapes 
deed bearing date March ist, 1729. The remainder of her interest in the patent 
passed by her will to Sarah Jones, spinster, of New York, and Vincent Matthews 
Sarah Jones afterwards married Thomas Brown. 

13. Dr. Samuel Staat's thirteenth part descended to his children, Gerturv wife 
of Andries Codymus; Sarah, wife of Isaac Gouverneur; Catalyria wife of Ste- 
vanus Van Cortlandt ; Anna, wife of Philip Schuyler; Johanna White, widow 
and Iryntie Staats, who sold to Clowes and Everett one-sixth of said nart for 
£50, Sept. 2, 1720. ^ 

By these conveyances Everett and Clowes came into possession of lands 
equaling four of the thirteen parts, and, as required by the terms of tlieir 
deeds, laid out the township of Go.shen in 17 14. divichng it into farms and 
opening roads, and assigned 200 acres of land for the support of a min- 

Some of the first settler'^— tliose of i7i4_xvcrc:- ^Tichael Dimninf^ 


Johannes Wesner, Solomon Carpenter, Abraham Finch, Samuel Seeley 
and John Holley. 

The most prolonged and bitter contest of titles was between settlers of 
Orange County, mostly in the original Minisink region, and settlers of 
Northern New Jersey. This was continued for sixty-seven years with 
occasional border frays. The dispute had reference to the boundary line 
between New York and New Jersey. King Charles II of England in 
March, 1663, gave to his brother, the Duke of York, a patent of all lands 
"from the west side of the Connecticut River to the east side of Delaware 
Bay." The following year in June the Duke of York granted release of all 
the territory now known as New Jerse\- to Lord Berkley and Sir George 
Carteret. The northern line as described in this grant extended from 
"the northwardmost branch" of the Delaware River, "which is in latitude 

41 degrees 40 minutes and crosseth over thence in a straight line to the 
latitude 41 degrees on Hudson's River." Sir Carteret took the east half 
.of the province and Lord Berkley the west half. In 1673 the Dutch 
reconquered New York from the English, but on February 9, 1674, in a 
treaty of peace between the two nations, it was restored to England. Sir 
Carteret immediatcl}' took the precaution to have a new patent made out, 
which defined the boundaries in about the same general terms as before. 
Then came controversies as to whicli should be called "the northwardmost 
branch" of the Delaware. The point of 41 degrees on the Hudson was 
agreed to, but the New Y^orkers insisted that the line should touch the 
Delaware at the southern extremity of Big Minisink island, and the Jer- 
seymen that the point should be a little south of the present Cochecton. 
This difference made the disputed triangular territory several miles wide 
at the west end. Under the New Jersey government the land was parceled 
out in tracts to various persons, and when these came to take possession 
the men who had settled upon them long before, resolutely maintained 
their claims. In the border war that resulted numbers of the Minisink 
people were captured and confined in New Jersey prisons. The first 
series of engagements resulted from efforts to obtain possession of the 
lands of a Mr. Swartout,, who was a major in the militia of Orange 
County. One day the Jersey men surprised him and put his family and 
household goods out doors. He went to Goshen for help, and a formid- 
able company returning back with him, they in turn put the New Jersey 
occupants and their goods out of the house, and restored it to the major. 


'ilieii a spy was employed to watch the Jerscymcii. ami ihrouj^h the iiiiDr- 
mation which he continually fuinished, their future operations were gen- 
erally frustrated. Ahout 1740 the "Jersey lilues" made another attempt 
upon the major and his possessions, but they were anticij^ated and driven 
or frightened back, no one, however, being killed. In 1753 a [ersey raid 
was made to get possession of the lands of Thomas De Key, colonel of 
the Orange County militia and a justice of the peace. He tried to nego- 
tiate with them, and induce them to wait until the boundary question was 
determined, but they refused, and he then barricaded himself in his house, 
and threatened to shoot the first man who tried to enter, and they finally 
retired vowing that the\ would bring a larger force. The last important 
raid was in 17^)5. on a Sunday, when the Jerseymen came in considerable 
torce resolved to capture Major and Captain Westbrook. Thev sur- 
rounded the church where the Westbrooks were worshiping, and when 
the service was over there was a fight, amid the screams and sobs of 
women, with fists and feet, in which the Jerseymen, being the more nu- 
merous, conquered and captured the \\'estbrcx)ks. They were confined 
in the Jersey colon}' prison awhile, and then released. 

In 1767 hostilities were suspended, and commissioners were appointed 
to run a boundary line, and soon afterward the territory was surveyed, 
and about e(|ually divided between the claimants, ami j)eace thenceforth 
was established between the two sections. 

In 1683, when the county was organized, it did not contain more than 
twenty families. In 1698 a first census was ordered by Governor Rellmont. 
and it showed the po])uIation to consist of 20 men. 31 women. 140 children 
and 19 negro slaves. In i860 the population had increased to 63.812; in 
1880. it was f<H.22o: in Kjoo. io3.85(). and according to the last census of 
TO05. our population was 108,267. 



ORANGE County is unsurpassed by any other in the Empire State 
in variety of surface features and picturesque beauty of scenery. 
It has mountain ranges and extended ridges, streams with wide 
and narrow valleys, and is dotted with lakes and ponds. Along the 
mountain lines are a few lofty peaks, and there are many isolated hills 
and rocky precipices. Parts of its boundaries are the Hudson River on 
the northeast, the Delaware and Mongaup Rivers on the west, and the 
Shawangunk Kill on the northwest. Near the center the Wallkill winds 
along its rich valley into Ulster County, and thence into the Hudson. Its 
principal tributary on the northwest is Rutgers Creek — which also has 
several tributaries — and others are Monhagen Creek, Mechanicstown 
Creek and, Shawangunk Kill. On the southwest it gathers in the waters 
of Warwick Creek — which is swollen by smaller streams in its course — 
and also Quaker, Rio Grande, and Tin Brook Creeks. The Otterkill 
flows easterly from Chester into the Hudson. The Neversink flows from 
Sullivan County through the town of Deer Park, and becomes a tributary 
of the Hudson. The course of the Ramapo is southerly from Round 
Pond in Monroe to Rockland County, and it is fed by several other ponds. 
Other streams^ large and small, are numerous. 

The central portion of the count}^ consists of rolling uplands broken 
by deep valleys. The most prominent of the mountain ranges are the 
Highlands along its eastern border. Their loftiest peak. Butter Hill, is 
1,524 feet high, precipitous on the river side, and sloping on the north. 
Another name given to it is Storm King, because clouds occasionally 
gather there from different directions and concentrate in storms of rain 
and lightning. Cro'-nest adjoins it on the south, and is 1,418 feet above 
the Hudson. Bare Mountain is next, with a height of 1,350 feet. Mount 
Independence, with Fort Putnam on its summit, is the background of 
the West Point plateau. Other well known hills are in this broken range, 
where Arnold, the traitor, conferred with Andre, the spy, and is more 



intimately idcnliticd with the military history of tJK cotintry than any 
other mountain region. It has been written of Butter Hill and Cro-nest 
that "they have a charm which might induce a man to live in their shadow 
for no other purpose than to have them always before him, dav and night. 
to study their ever-changing beauty." 

The Shawangunk Mountains are a spur of the Alleghanies stretching 
northeast across the western angle of the county. They are less broken 
than the Highlands, and not so high as the Catskills, but of the same" 
general formation. The western side is precipitous, but the eastern is 
sloping, and some of its lands are ver>' fertile, producing sweet grasses 
from which much of the famous Orange County butter has been made. 
The peaks rise from 1,400 to 1,800 feet above tide water. This range 
was the original dividing line between the Wawayanda and Chesekook 

The Schunemunk range is on the dividing line of the towns of Monroe 
and Blooming Grove and a part of that of Blooming Grove and Corn- 
wall. An accepted descriptive phrase for the range is, "the high hills 
west of the Highlands." North of it, in New Windsor and Xewburgh, 
is Muchattoes hill, west of it Woodcock hill, and southwest of the latter 
are Round, Mosquito, Rainer's and Peddler's hills ; also Torn Rocks, 
which rise in two rocky peaks 200 feet high. To the southwest, in the 
town of Warwick, are the Bellvale Mountains, and south of these the 
Sterling Mountains. Several other mountainous elevations in Warwick 
and Woodbury punctuate this part of the county and also the border 
country on the west. The feet of Pochuck Mountain are in the Drowned 
Lands, and northerly in Warwick are Mounts Adam and Eve, with Adam 
looking down from his superior height upon the longer Eve. Easterly, 
in Chester, is Sugar Loaf ^Mountain, and west of this is Mount Lookout, 
the principal elevation of Goshen. With the further mention of Mount 
William and Point Peter, looking down ui)on Port Jervis. let us clip the 
long list of Orange County elevations. 

\ alleys connect mountains and hills. That of the Delaware River, 
along the border of Deer Park, is narrow and irregulai, being much 
broken by tributaries and mountains. The most of the cultivated lan<l- 
of Deer Park are along the Neversink valley. The valley of the Wallkill 
is wide, fertile and beautiful Its bottom latids are among the best in the 
State, and its farmers are prosperous and thrifty. Wide flaU. gradual 


slopes and steep decliviaes g-ive variety of soil and scenery to the Otter- 
kill valley, and much of its scenery is charming. The same may be said 
of its tributary, Cromeline Creek. Sugar Loaf valley extends from 
Sugar Loaf Mountain to the village of Warwick, taking in Wickham 
Pond in its course, and extending into New Jersey. Smith's Clove, 
extending from Highland Mills to the Ramapo valley, should be men- 
tioned because it was the birthplace of Chief Justice William Smith, his 
brother, John Hett Smith, and the notorious tories, Claudius Smith and 
his two sons. 

One cannot travel far in Orange County in most directions without 
coming upon a lake or a pond, and there are dozens of them in the south- 
eastern section. These feed its many streams, and when Eager wrote his 
history he said there was not one town in the county that had not water 
power to some extent. Beginning in the northern part of the Highlands 
in Cornwall the lake-and-pond system extends through the towns of 
Highland and Monroe to Greenwood Lake, thence west and north to Big 
Meadow Pond in the Highlands. Greenwood Lake, in Warwick, is the 
largest body of water in the county. It is about nine miles long and one 
wide, is partly in New Jersey, and is a feeder for the Morris Canal. 
Sutherland's Pond, half a mile long, southeast from Cro'-nest Mountain, 
has an outlet which runs into Murderer's Creek. Big Meadow Pond, in 
Highlands, covers about 300 acres, and its outlet pours over the rocks of 
Buttermilk Falls. The waters of Round Pond flow into Long Pond 
under a natural bridge about 80 feet wide, but the stream is lost sight of 
until it emerges on the other side. This is similar lo the outlet of Wash- 
ington Lake in New Windsor, which emerges at Trout-hole and there 
becomes a fall of forty feet. Sterling Lake, at the beginning of the 
Warwick series, covers about sixty acres, and in 1751 iron works were 
established at its outlet. Round Pond, in Wawayanda, is in shape what 
its name implies, has no visible outlet, its water is clear, pure and deep, 
and it is about a mile in circumference. Thompson's Pond, in the north- 
western part of Warwick, covers about 100 acres, feeds Quaker's Creek, 
and this outlet furnishes power for mills. Orange Lake, in Newburgh, 
covers about 100 acres. But all the lakes and ponds of Orange are too 
many to be named. They are almost as interesting a feature of the 
county as its streams. 

Orange County is richer in alluvions than anv other in the State, 


as they cover about 40.000 acres. The "Drowned Lands." as they were 
formerly called, include about forty square miles, and are partly in New 
Jersey, but mostly in New York, extending in Orange from' Cheeunk 
Outlet in Goshen through W'awayanda and Minisink to the Xew Jersey 
line, and covering about 17^^000 acres. They contain a number of "fertile 
islands, and thousands oracres of the waste lands have been recovered 
by means of an artificial outlet, which, at first a mere ditch, has been 
deepened and widened by the fiowing water imtil the principal flow i^ 
through it. These recovered lands are rich and productive. They are 
belted by the Wallkill and three creeks, and the Wallkill's course through 
them is long because so crooked. The Gray Court meadows extend from 
near Craigville in Blooming Grove into the northern part of Chester, and 
embrace about 500 acres, which are nearly all under cultivation and very 
productive. They are drained by Cromeline Creek. The Black ^feadows 
m Chester and \\'arwick. are about 1,000 acres in extent, and Black 
:\Ieadow Creek flows through them. Long Swamp, in Warwick, also 
contains about 1,000 acres, and is drained into Xew Jersey. Great Pine 
Swamp extends northward from Howells on the Erie railroad seven miles 
m the town of Wallkill. and embraces many oases and cultivated fanns. 
There are several other scattered areas of swamp lands. In the marl and 
peat beds in several localities many bones of the extinct mastodon have 
been found, including two complete skeletons. One of the latter was 
taken from a bed near Coldenham in 1845, »"(! weighed 1,903 pounds, 
and the. other from a bed in the town of Mt. Hope, and weighed 1.700 

The topography of the county has been changed somewhat bv its rail- 
roads, of which there are 250 miles, not including double trackage or 
trolley roads. The following places in towns extending across the county 
have each direct railroad communication north, east, south and west: 
Port Jervis. Middletown. Campbell Hall. Goshen. Chester and Xew- 
burgh. The wagon roads are numerous, generally good, and are charm- 
ing arteries for carriages and automobiles. 

The geology of Orange County is as varied as its topography. Along 
the eastern feet of the Shawangunk Mountains are Heidelberg lime- 
stones, gray and Medina sandstones, shales and grits, and the mountain 
rcKrks are mostly sandstones, shales and grits. The grits extend along 
the top of the range through the county and are from 60 to 150 feet 


thick. Heidelberg limestone extends from the Mamakating valley to 
the Delaware River. Grit and red rocks are on the west side of Green- 
wood Lake, and grit of various colors extends from Round Hill to Wood- 
cock Mountain, and is also found in the southwest base of the Schune- 
munck range and in Pine Hill. Grawacke is the rock on the southeast 
side of the Bellvale range in Warwick, and is found in the town of 
Blooming Grove in the Schunemunck range. The Hudson River group 
occupies a large part of the surface of the county, and consists of slates, 
shales, grits, limestones, breccias and conglomerates. It extends from 
the Hudson River through Warwick to the Jersey line, and from the 
Hudson at Cornwall Landing to four miles above Newburgh. It is 
stratified with grawacke and grawacke slate. It forms the surface rock 
of the most of Goshen and Blooming Grove, and parts of Cornwall, New 
Windsor, Newburgh, Montgomery, Hamptonburgh, Crawford, Wallkill, 
Mt. Hope and Minisink. Dark Utica slate is found on the banks of the 
Hudson near Newburgh. Trenton limestone appears in Hamptonburgh 
near Mount Lookout, and this mountain is composed of Black River 
limestone, which is also found on Big Island in the Drowned Lands and 
in Minisink. There is a bed of blue limestone about a mile wide extend- 
ing from the Hudson at Hampton southeasterly through Newburgh into 
New Windsor. It is also found in the towns of Cornwall, Blooming 
Grove, Warwick, Monroe and Goshen. Oolitic limestone is on Big Island, 
near New Milford, and on Pochunck Neck. 

Slate rocks of the Taconic system are above Newburgh, and its lime- 
stone between the Highlands and Grove Pond Mountain. Its white 
limestone appears in Warwick, where it is in narrow ridges separated by 
other rocks. It is also found along the shore of the Drowned Lands at 
Amity, and near Fort Montgomery in the Highlands, from which it may 
be traced by way of Little Pond across the Ramapo. In some localities 
it is so white as to be translucent. Many different minerals are found 
in it. 

The primary rocks of the county consist of gneiss, hornblende, granite, 
sienite, limestone, serpentine, angite and trappeau. They extend over 
parts of several towns, and several mountains and hills are composed of 
them. Granite is found at the foot of Butter Hill, sienite at Butter Hill 
and on the east side of Bare Mountain at West Point, gneiss along the 
Highlands, mica and slate north of Fort Montgomery, angite rock be- 


tween West Point and Round Pond and at several points in Monroe, 
greenstone trap at Tuxedo Pond, granular limestone at Cro'-nest and 
Butter Hill. Quartz rock and hornblende are all al(jng the Highlands 
and in Monroe and Warwick. Crystalline serpentine is in the white 
limestone in Warwick, serpolite at Amity, yellow garnet at Edenville, 
soapstone in Monroe. Large sheets of mica are found southwest of the 
Forshee iron mine in Monroe, and in this mine, which embraces an entire 
hill, are red garnet, brown tremolinc. carbonate of copper, serpentine, 
cocolite and umber. In the O'Xeil mine, half a mile northeast of the 
Forshee mine, are crystallized magnetic ore, magnetic and copper pyrites, 
carbonate of copper, serpentine, amianthus, asbestos, brown and rhombic 
spars, angite, cocolite, feldspar and mica. 

There are beds of arsenical and titanium ores in Warwick and a bed 
of hemolite ore near Canterbury village. Magnetic oxide of iron 
abounds in the jirimitive rocks of the Highlands, and at West Point is 
associated with hornblende. Beds of lead have been opened at Edenville 
and in the towns of Mt. Hope and Deer Park, and zinc and copper ores 
have been found in small quantities. The Sterling iron bed in Monroe, 
which was opened in 1781, extends over about thirty acres, and has pro- 
duced so strong an ore that it has been much used in the manufacture of 
cannon. There are a number of other iron mines. Searches for the tra- 
ditional silver, gold, lead and tin mines have been wnthout satisfactory 

Many evidences of glacial action in Orange County include masses of 
boulders scattered in places throughout the county. These are mostly 
of granite and gneiss, and there is occasionally one of grawacke. The 
eastern slope of the Shawangunk Mountains gives evidence of the j^as- 
sage there of an enormous glacier, which ground the rocks into the rich 
soil that has been cultivated there for 200 years. Some of the county's 
drift deposits are valuable for casting, brick and pottery making, litho- 
graphic stones and glass. 

The soil of the semicircular plateau from the Highlands of the Hudson 
to the Dans Kamer is mostly a mixture of gravel, sand and clay, which 
form a warm and fertile loam. That of the wide Wallkill valley is allu- 
vium mixed with clay, sand and gravel and is easily worked and richly 
productive. So is the soil brought down from the hills in the town of 
Deer Park. The lands on the islands of the Drowned Lands are among 


the richest in the county. The alkivium of the Oterkill is a sauily and 
gravelly loam. In other sections of the county there is an alternating 
variety of soils, rich, medium and poor. 

^cJLd(A): AW% ^ 

EARLY (iO\-EK.\.Mi:XT. 49 

EARLY C ; ( ) \ ■ I •: R X -A 1 E X J' . 

UNTIL after the coiKjuest of New York by tlic English in 1004 
Holland methods of government, with a local ,u"vernment for 
each town, prevailed. The next year the English introduced 
courts and sheriffs. In 1682 Thomas Dongan was ai)i)ointed g.ivcrnor, 
with directions to organize a council of not more than ten "eminent 
inhabitants," and issue writs for the election by freeholders of a general 
assembly, the members of which should consult with the governor and 
his council as to what laws were necessary for the good government of 
the province. The first meeting of the first general assembly was in Xew 
York in 1683, and it passed fourteen acts, which were assented to by the 
governor and his council. One of them established twelve counties, as 
follows: Xew York. Kings, Queens, Suffolk, Richmond, Westchester, 
Albany, Ulster, Dutchess. Orange. Duke's and Cornwall. 

Except Orange, to be in the care of New York, and Ulster, to be in 
the care of Dutchess, the counties were to be entitled to representation 
in future general assemblies. Another act established town courts to 
be held for the trial of minor cases each month ; county courts and courts 
of sessions, to be held quarterly or half-yearly ; a general court of oyer 
and terminer, with original and appellate power, to be held twice a } car 
in each county; and a court of chancery, or supreme court, composed of 
the governor and his council, for which the governor was empowered to 
deputize a chancellor to act in his place. 

This was the system of administering justice eight years. Then, iii 
1 691, Courts of Justices of Peace were organized in each town, and 
Courts of Common Pleas for each county. In 1701 an act was passed 
requiring justices of the peace in each county to meet once a year at a 
Court of Sessions, to examine and allow necessary charges against the 
county and its towns. 

There were supervisors, assessors and collectors in each town from 
the first, and in 1691 the freeholders of each town were empowered to 


choose three surveyors to lay out and look after highways and fences, 
and also to ordain laws and rules for the improvement of village, pastur- 
age and other lands. 

Such were the laws which directed the early administration of govern- 
ment in Orange County. 

For many years previous to 1701 Orange County shared in serious 
corruptions and frauds which were prevalent in the province. The As- 
sembly which convened in 1698 was so turbulent and brought so much 
confusion into its councils that Governor Bellomont, who succeeded 
Governor Fletcher that year, dissolved it and ordered a new election, 
raking care that the untrustworthy sheriffs of his predecessor were re- 
tired from the management. Protests were made to the King, but with- 
out avail. The Governor had been clothed with power to correct abuses, 
to veto any law, and "to adjourn, prorogue and dissolve the Assembly." 
The new Assembly, which consisted of seven Englishmen and fourteen 
Dutchmen, instituted some important reforms. It nullified grants to large 
tracts of lands, regulated election methods, and provided punishments for 
frauds. Unfortunately Governor Bellomont died in 1701, before some of 
his plans could be carried into effect, and Lord Cornbury was appointed 
as his successor, and acquired the distinction of being "the worst of all 
the Governors under the English crown." He was notoriously ill-man- 
nered, dishonest, rapacious, and openly vicious. The Assembly refused 
grants of money which he asked for, and asserted the rights of the people, 
declaring that they could not "be justly divested of their property without 
their consent." Thus began in New York the preliminary struggle 
which brought on the Revolution, ending in the establishment of the Re- 
public, in which the representatives of Orange earnestly assisted. 

The first sessions of the Court of Common Pleas and of justices of the 
peace as a Board of Supervisors were held in Orangetown in April. 1703. 
The court justices were William Merritt and John Merritt. The super- 
visors were William and John Merritt, Cornelius Cypher, Tunis Van 
Ronton, Thomas Burroughs and Michael Hawdon. The sheriff was 
John Perry, the clerk was William Haddleston, and the constable was 
Conradt Hanson. Orange and Ulster County people were then required 
to do their surrogate business in New York. This was continued until 
175 1, when the Court of Common Pleas of the county was empowered to 
take proof of wills and grant letters of administration. The Court of 


Common Pleas was an institution of the county until 1847, when the 
County Court was substituted. The Supreme Court Ix'gan holdi?ig ses- 
sions in Orange iti 1 704, and was succeeded by Circuit Courts established 
under the Constitution of 1821, as these were by the judicial system of 
1846, consisting of a Supreme Court, Circuit Court, and Court of Oyer 
and Terminer. Surrogate's Courts were not established until 1854. In 
1727 the ori'ginal county was divided into two court districts, and the 
sessions were held alternately in Orangetown and Goshen, the former 
being- the shire town. Not until 1798 was Goshen made the shire town, 
when the sessions alternated between Goshen and Newburgh, an arrange- 
ment which still continues. 

The first public buildings for the original county were constructed at 
Orangetown in 1703. In 1740 a building of wood and stone for court 
house and jail was erected. in Goshen, at a cost of £100, and was torn 
down about 1776. a new stone court-house having been erected in 1773 
to take its place, at a cost of £1,400. The old Orange court-house had 
been replaced by a new structure in 1704, and some years afterward 
was destroyed by fire. The Goshen building came into the present county 
when it was reorganized under the Act of 1775. It was two stories high, 
with a court-room on the second floor, and on the first a sheriff's office 
and dwelling, and a dungeon for prisoners. During the Revolution Tories 
and war prisoners were confined in it, one of them being John Hett 
Smith, arrested for complicity in Arnold's treason, and who managed to 
escape. A third story was added to this building about 1800, and on the 
new floor were a main jail room, a dungeon with one grated window 
which could be completely darkened, and three other rooms for the county 
clerk, surrogate and jailer respectively. Above were a cupola and bell. 
Court-houses were erected in Goshen and Newburgh in 1842, by authority 
of an act of the Legislature, the Newburgh building at a cost of $17,000 
and the Goshen building at a cost of $13,000. The latter structure has 
been completely remodeled lately, and is now a fine, up-to-date 1)uil(ling. 
The county clerk's office in Goshen — a one-story brick building — was 
constructed in 1851. and the building there for the surrogate and super- 
visors in 1874. at a cost of $7,400. 

The county house for the poor, four miles south of Goshen, was Inult 
in 1830 at a cost of $11,000 for the building and $1,000 for 128 acres of 
land. The building has since been improved and is now 50 by 100 feet 


and 354 stories high. In 1848 a building for the insane was added, which 
is 30 by 50 feet, and in 1865 a separate building for colored people was 
erected. In 1875 another building for the chronic insane was erected, the 
cost of which was $20,000, and its dimensions 80 by 40 feet and 43/2 
stories high. The farm has been increased to 263 acres, 200 of which 
are tillable, and has been provided with the requisite outbuildings. 



IX ilic section of Orange County taken from Lister tlie first two com- 
panies of militia were organized before 1738. The regiment to 
which they were attached consisted of nine companies, located as 
follows: Kingston 3, Alarbletown i, Wallkill i, Hurley i. Rochester i, 
New Paltz i. Highlands i. 

The regimental officers were: Colonel, A. Gaasbeck Chambers; lieu- 
tenant-colonel. W'essel Ten Rroeck; major, Coenradt !•". Klmendorf ; quar- 
termaster, Cornelius Elmendorf. 

The following lists give the names of the officers and privates in the 
territory which is now a part of Orange County : 

Foot Company of the Highlands. 

Officers: Captain, Thomas Ellison; ensign, John Young; sergeants, David 
Davids, Moses Gariston, P. McCloghery; corporals. Jacobus Bruyn, James String- 
ham ; Jonah Hazard ; clerk, Charles Clinton. 

The names of the privates were as follows : 

John Umphrey Jolin Markham 

Alexander Falls John Read 

David Bedford Joseph Mc^rikhill 

Wm. Coleman David Umphrey 

Joseph Sweezcr James Ciaml)le 

Tliomas Coleman John Gamble 

John McVey Cornelius McCkan 

John Jones John Umphrey, Jr. 

Patrick Broderick James Umphrey 

Josepii Shaw Peter Mulinder 

Caleb Curtis Robert Burnet 

William Sutton Archibald Bcaty 

Jeremiah Foster Daniel Coleman 

Charles Beaty David Oliver 

Amos Foster Arthur Bcaty 

Alexander Foster Matthew Davis 

James \'oung John Xicoll, Jr. 

James Xealy Alexander McKey 

Robert Feef Robert Sparks 

Joseph Butterton Juriah Quick 

Samuel Luckey Jacob Gillis 



Joseph Simson 
James Clark 
John Clark 
Lodewick Miller 
Peter Miller 
George Weygant 
William Ward 
William Ward, Jr. 
John M. Kimberg 
William Smith, Jr. 
James Edmeston 
Tobias Weygant 
Jerry Manse 
Robert Banker 
Thomas Fear 
Frederick Painter 
Thomas Quick 

Total, 85. 

Thomas Johnston 
Casparis Stymas 
John Monger 
James Luckey 
Thomas Williams 
Johannes George 
Jeremiah Tompkins 
Isaac Tompkins 
William Watts 
Josiah Ellsworth 
James Ellsworth 
Anthony Preslaer 
Jonathan Tomkins 
Moses Ellsworth 
John Marie 
Jonathan Owens 
Andrew McDowell 

Company of the Wallkill. 

Officers : Captain, John Bayard ; lieutenant, William Borland ; ensign, William 
Kelso; sergeant, John Newkirk; corporal, John Miller. 
The names of the privates were as follows: 

Lendert Cole 
Cornelius Cole 
Barnat Cole 
John Robeson 
James Gillespie 
Thomas Gillespie 
John Wilkins 
William Wilkins 
Andrew Graham 
George Olloms 
John North 
John North, Jr. 
Samuel North 
James Young 
Robert Young 
Matthew Young 
James McNeill 
John McNeill 
Andrew Borland 
John Borland 
John McNeill, Jr. 
James Crawford 
John Crawford 
Alexander Milligan 
Nathaniel Hill 
Alexander Kidd 
Archibald Hunter 
James Hunter 
John Wharry 
John Mingus 

Stephanus Crist 
Jacob Bush 
Benjamin Haines 
John McNeill, Sr. 
Matthew Rhea 
William Crawford 
Robert Hunter 
James Monell 
George Monell 
John Monell 
William Monell 
Thomas Neils 
Robert Neils 
John Neils 
Matthew Neils 
Nathaniel Colter 
John Neily, Jr. 
Joseph Buttletown 
Thomas Coleman 
Joseph Shaw 
Patrick Broderick 
William Soutter 
John Butterfield 
John McVey 
John Jones 
Joseph Knapp 
Isaiah Gale 
Caleb Knapp 
Robert McCord 
William Faulkner 

m-j^i (^a^^^'e.^ 



Isrcal Rodgcrs 
Jeremiah Rodders 
James Rodgers 
James White 
John Manley 
Francis Falls 
Cronamus Feltcr 
Richard Gatehouse 
Jolin Boyle 
Ricliard Boyle 
Robert Ilughey 
Robert Buclianan 
James Eager 
Thomas ^IcCollum 
Sojonaro Her 
John Haven 
McKim Clineman 
Jury Burger 
Hugh Flanigan 
Benjamin Bennet 
Patrick McPeck 
John Eldoris 
Patrick Gillespie 
John Lowry 

Samuel Smith 

Joseph Theal 

James Crawford 

Joseph Sutter 

Uavid Craig 

Edward Andrews 

Samuel Crawford 

Andrew McDowell 

Philip Millspaugh 

Cronamas Mingus 

Stuff el Mould 

Johannes Crane 

John Young 

Hendrick Newkirk 

Frederick Sinsabaugh 

Cornelius Wallace 

Hendrick Crist 

Tunas Crist 

Lawrence Crist 

Mathias Millspaugh and son 

John Jamison 

John McDonald 

James Davis 

Total, 114. 

The following, found in the records of the original County of Orange, 
is entitled "A List of Officers Belonging to the Regiment of Foot Militia 
in the County of Orange, in the Province of New York," and is dated 
June 20, 1738: 

Officers of F"oot Militia. 

Colonel, Vincent Mathews; lieutenant-colonel, Solomon Carpenter; major, 
George Rem sen ; adjutant, Michael Jackson; quartennaster, James Thompson. 

First Companv : Captain, Ram. Remsen ; lieutenant, Cornelius Smith ; ensign, 
Ebenezer Smith.' Three sergeants, three corporals, one drummer, sixty-three pri- 
vate men. In all, "JZ. 

Second Companv: Captain. Samuel Odell: lieutenant, Henry Cuyper; ensign, 
Benjamin Allison.' Three sergeants, three corporals, one drummer, fifty-eight pri- 
vate men. In all, 68. 

Third Companv: Captain. John Holly; lieutenant, Michael Dunning; ensign, 
Sol. Carpenter, Jr. Three sergeants, three corporals, one drummer, one hundred 
and eleven private men. In all, 121.- 

Fourth Company: Captain, Jacobus Swartwout ; lieutenant, Johannes West- 
brook; ensign, Johannes Westbrook, Jr. Three sergeants, three corporals, one 
drummer, fifty-five private men. In all, 65. 

Fifth Companv: Captain, Nathaniel Du Bois : lieutenant. David Southerland ; 
ensign, Isaac He'nnion. Three sergeants, three corporals, one drummer, sixty-three 
private men. In all, 73. 

Sixth Company: Captain, .Xbraham Haring. Jr.: lieutenant. Garret Beanvelt ; 


ensign, John Haring. Three sergeants, three corporals, one drummer, sixty-two 
private men. In all, ^2. 

Seventh Company: Captain, Jacob Vanderbilt ; lieutenant, Andrew^ Onderdonk; 
ensign, Aaron Smith. Three sergeants, three corporals, one drummer, fifty private 
men. In all, 60. 

Troop of Horse: Captain, Henry Youngs; lieutenant, William Mapes ; cornet, 
Michael Jackson. Two sergeants, two corporals, one trumpeter, fifty-two private 
men. In all, 60. 

Total officers and soldiers, 595; sub-officers, 56 foot. 

In 1756 the Ulster rcg-iment was divifled into two regiments. Kings- 
ton was included in the northern one, and the southern was embraced in 
the precincts of Highlands. Wallkill and Shawangunk. These regiments 
took part in the French and Indian War. 

In September, 1773, the officers of the Southern Regiment were: 
Colonel, Thomas Ellison ; lieutenant-colonel, Charles Clinton; major, Cad- 
wallader Calden, Jr.; adjutant, Johannes Jansen. 

In 1775 the New York Provincial Congress passed a law for organizing 
militia which provided that counties, cities and precincts should be divided, 
so that a company might be fonned in each district to consist of about 85 
men, including officers, between the ages of 16 and 50 years ; that these 
should be formed into- regiments of from five to ten companies each ; 
that the regiments should be classed in six brigades, under a brigadier- 
general and brigade major, and the entire force should be commanded 
by a major-general. 

The Fourth Brigade when fornied consisted of five Orange County 
regiments, the colonels of which were William Allison of Goshen. Jesse 
Woodhull of Cornwall, John Hathorn of Warwick, A. Hawkes Hay of 
Orangetown, and Abraham Lent of Haverstraw\ The four Ulster 
County regiments were commanded by Johannes Hardenberg of Kings- 
ton, James Clinton of New Windsor, Lee Pawling of Marbletown, and 
Jonathan Hasbrouck of Newburgh. 

Colonel Allison's regimental district consisted of Goshen and the west- 
ern part of Orang-e County. Colonel Hathorn's of Warwick and the 
southern section, Colonel WoodhuU's of Cornwall (then including Monroe 
and Blooming Grove). Colonel Hasbrouck's of Newburgh. Marlborough 
and Shawangunk, and Colonel Clinton's of Windsor, Montgomery, Craw- 
ford and Wallkill. The other four regiments belonged to territory now 
outside of the county. 


Colonel Allison's Regiment. 

William Allison, colonel; Benjamin Tusten, lieutenant-colonel. 

Goshen Company, 1775: George Thompson, captain; Joseph Wood and Coe 
Gale, lieutenants; Daniel Everett, Jr., ensign. In 1776 Lieutenant Coe and Ensign 
Everett were transferred to a minute company, and in their places William Thomp- 
son was appointed second litutenant and Phineas Case, ensign. 

Wawayanda Company, 1775: William Blair, captain; Thomas Wisner and 
Thomas Sayne, Jr., lieutenants; Richard Johnson, ensign. 

Drowned Lands Company, 1775: Samuel Jones, Jr., captain; Peter Gale and 
Jacoh Dunning, lieutenants ; Samuel Webb, ensign. 

Chester Company, 1775 : John Jackson, captain ; John Wood and James Miller, 
lieutenants ; James Parshal, ensign. 

Pochuck Company, 1775: Ebenezcr' OweTi, captain; Licrease Holly and John 
Bronson, lieutenants; David Rogers, ensign. Li 1776: Increase Holly, captain; 
David Rogers and James Wright, lieutenants; Charles Knapp, ensign. 

Wallkill Company, 1775: Gilbert Bradner, captain; Joshua Davis and James Dol- 
son, lieutenants ; Daniel Finch, ensign. 

Minisink Company, 1775: Moses Kortright, captain: Jolin Van Tile and Johannes 
Decker, lieutenants; Ephraim Medaugh, ensign. In 1777 Martinus Decker became 
second lieutenant vice Johannes Decker. 

Colonel IIathokn's Regiment. 

John Hathorn, colonel. 

Warwick Company, 1775 : Charles Beardsley, captain ; Richard Welling and Sam- 
uel Lobdell, lieutenants; John Price, ensign. In 1776 John Minthorn l)ecame cap- 
tain in place of Beardsley, deceased; Xatiianiel Ketcham and George Vance, lieu- 
tenants ; John Benedict, ensign. 

Pond Company, 1775: Henry Wisner, Jr., captain: .\braham Dolson, Jr., and 
Peter Bartholf, lieutenants; Matthew Dolson, ensign. In 1776: Abraham Dolson, 
Jr., captain ; Peter Bartholf and Joiin Hopper, lieutenants ; Mathias Dolson, en- 
sign. In 1777: Peter Bartholf, captain; John De Bow and Anthony Finn, lieu- 
tenants ; Joseph Jewell, ensign. 

Sterling Company, 1776: John Xorman, captain: Solomon l-'inch and William 
Fitzgerald, lieutenants; Elisha Bennett, ensign. In 1777: Henry Tow-nsend, cap- 
tain ; William Fitzgerald and Elisha Bennett, lieutenants : Joseph Conkling, ensign. 

Florida Company, 1775: Nathaniel Elmer, captain; John Popino, Jr., and John 
Sayrc, lieutenants: Richard Bailey, ensign. In 1776: John Kennedy, lieutenant, 
vice Popino. In 1777: John Sayre, captain; John Kennedy and Richard Bailey, 
lieutenants ; John Wood, ensign. 

Wantage Company, 1775: Daniel Rosekrans, captain: Janus dark and Jacob 
Gale, lieutenants ; Samuel Cole, ensign. 


Jesse Woodhull, colonel; Elihu Marvin, lieutenant-colonel: Xathaniel Strong and 
Zachariah Du Bois, majors : William Moffat, adjutant ; Xathaniel Sattcrly, quar- 

Oxford Company, 1775: Archii)ald Little, captain: Birdseye Youngs and Thomas 
Horton, lieutenants; Xathan Marvin, ensign. In 1777 • Thomas Horton. captain; 


Josiah Seeley, first lieutenant; Nathan Marvin, second lieutenant; Barnabas Hor- 
ton, Jr., ensign. 

Clove Company, 1775 : Jonathan Tuthill, captain ; John Brewster, Jr., and Samuel 
Strong, lieutenants ; Francis Brewster, ensign. 

Bethlehem Company, 1775 : Christopher Van Duzer, captain ; William Roe and 
Obadiah Smith, lieutenants; Isaac Tobias, ensign. In 1776: Gilbert Weeks, ensign. 

Upper Clove Company, 1775 : Garrett Miller, captain ; Asa Buck and William 
Horton, lieutenants ; Aaron Miller, ensign. 

Woodbury Clove Company, 1775: Francis Smith, captain; Thomas Smith and 
Alexander Galloway, lieutenants; John McManus, ensign. In 1776: John Mc- 
Manus, second lieutenant ; Thomas Lammoreux, ensign. 

Southwest Company, 1775 : Stephen Slote, captain ; George Galloway and John 
■Brown, lieutenants; David Rogers, ensign. 

Blooming Grove Company, 1775: Silas Pierson, captain; Joshua Brown and 
David Reeve, lieutenants ; Phineas Heard, ensign. 

Light Horse Company, 1776: Ebenezer Woodhull, captain; James Sayre, lieu- 
tenant ; William Heard, cornet ; Azariah Martin, second master. 

Colonel Hasbrouck's Regiment. 

Jonathan Hasbrouck, colonel ; Johannes Hardenburgh, Jr., lieutenant-colonel ; 
Johannes Jansen, Jr., and Lewis Du Bois, majors; Abraham Schoonmaker, ad- 
jutant ; Isaac Belknap, quartermaster. 

Clark's Newburgh Company, June 8, 1788: Samuel Clark, captain; James Denton 
and Martin Wygant, lieutenants ; Munson Ward, ensign ; William Albertson, Isaac 
Brown, Ebenezer Gidney and Hope Mills, sergeants ; Hugh Stevenson, Isaac De- 
mott, John Simson and William Palmer, corporals ; Sol Buckingham, drummer. 

Conklin's Newburgh Company, May 4, 1778: Jacob Conklin, captain; Jacob Law- 
rence and David Guion, lieutenants ; John Crowell, ensign ; Robert Erwin, Robert 
Ross, John Lawrence and Abraham Strickland, sergeants ; Jacob Strickland, cor- 
poral ; Abraham Smith, drummer. 

Smith's Newburgh Company, April 24, 1779: Arthur Smith, captain; Isaac Fowler 
and John Foster, lieutenants ; William Conklin, John Kniffin, James Clark and 
Reuben Holmes, sergeants ; William Smith, William Michael and Samuel Griggs, 

Colonel Clinton's Regiment. 

James Clinton, colonel ; James McClaughry, lieutenant-colonel ; Jacob Newkirk 
and Moses Phillips, majors; George Denniston, adjutant; Alexander Trimble, quar- 

Eastern New Windsor Company, 1775: John Belknap, captain; Silas Wood and 
Edward Falls, lieutenants ; James Stickney, ensign. 

Western New Windsor Company, 1776: James Flumphrey, captain; James Kar- 
naghan, second lieutenant; Richard Wood, ensign. 

New Windsor Village Company, 1775: John NicoU, captain; Francis Mande- 
ville and Hezekiah White, lieutenants ; Leonard D. NicoU, ensign. 

First Hanover Company, 1775: Matthew Felter, captain; Henry Smith and 
Johannes Newkirk, Jr., lieutenants ; William Crist, ensign. 

Second Hanover Company, 1775: William Jackson, ca-ptain; Arthur Parks and 
James McBride, lieutenants ; Andrew Neeley, ensign. 


Third HaiKncr Company, 1775: Cadwalladcr C. Coldcn, captain; James Milli^an 
and John Hunter, lieutenants: Matthew Hunter, ensign. 

Fourth Hanover Company, 1775: John J. Graham, captain; Samuel Rarkley and 
Joseph Crawford, lieutenants; James McCurdy, ensign. 

Fifth Hanover Company, 1775: John Gillespie, captain; Jason Wilkins and Rob- 
ert Hunter, Jr., lieutenants; Samuel Gillespie, ensign. 

First Wallkill Company, 1775: Samuel Watkins, captain; David Crawford and 
Stephen Harlow, lieutenants; Henry Smith, ensign. 

Second Wallkill Company, 1775: William Faulkner, Jr., captain; Edward Mc- 
Neal and John Wilkins, lieutenants: John I'aulkner, ensign. 

Third Wallkill Company, 1775: Isaiah Velie, captain; Israel Wickham and John 
Dunning, lieutenants; Jonathan Owen, ensign. 

Fourth Wallkill Company, 1775: William Denniston, captain; Benjamin Velie 
and Joseph Gillet, lieutenants; David Corwin, Jr., ensign. 

Of the Hanover companies the First had been known as Captain New- 
kirk's Company, the Second as Captain (goldsmith's, the Third as Captain 
Colden's, the Fonrth as Captain Crage's, and the Fifth as Captain Gala- 


Of Wallkill companies the First was located on the east side of the 
Wallkill, the Second on the west side, between the Wallkill and Little 
Shaw^ang-unk Kill, the Third south of the Second, between the Wallkill 
and the Little Shawangunk. and the l-'ourth northwest of Little Sha- 

wangunk Kill. 

During the service of these organizations in the A\'ar of the Revolution 
there were many changes in the commands. They were home guards. In 
case of alarm, invasion or insurrection, the companies were instructed to 
march and oppose the enemy, and immediately send an express to the 
commander of the regiment or brigade, who was to control rheir move- 

Under a law passed by the Continental Congress in May. 1775. three 
companies of minute men were raised in the southern district of Ulster, 
with the following officers : 

Newburgh Minute Company: Uriah Drake, captain: Jacob Lawrence and William 
Ervin, lieutenants; Thomas Dunn, ensign. 

New Windsor Minute Company: Samuel Logan, captain; John Robinson, en- 
sign; David Mandcville and John Scofield, sergeants. 

Hanover Minute Company: Peter Hill, captain: James Latta and Nathaniel Hill, 
lieutenants : William Goodyear, ensign. 

These companies and one organized in Marlborough formed a regiment 
which was officered as follows : 


Thomas Palmer, colonel ; Thomas Johnston, Jr., lieutenant-colonel ; Arthur Parks, 
first major; Samuel Logan, second major; Isaac Belknap, quartermaster. 

Another reg-iment was formed from two companies organized in Goshen 
and Cornwall, with the following" officers : 

Cornwall Minute Company : Thomas Mofifat, captain ; Seth Marvin and James 
Little, lieutenants ; Nathan Strong, ensign, who was succeeded by William Bradley. 

Goshen Minute Company : Moses Hetfield, captain ; Cole Gale and Daniel Everett, 
lieutenants. Later James Butler and William Barker were chosen lieutenants and 
William Carpenter ensign. 

The officers of the regiment were : 

Isaac Xicoll, colonel ; Gilbert Cooper, lieutenant-colonel ; Henry V. Verbeyck, 
first major; Hezekiah Howell, Jr., second major; Ebenezer Woodhull, adjutant; 
Nehemiah Carpenter, quartermaster. 

Eoth of these regiments of minute men were on duty in the Highlands 
in 1775-6; but the system did not work satisfactorily, and in June, 1776, 
Congress repealed the law. 

Three drafts were made in 1776 to reinforce the army — in June, July 
and September. Under the first draft Orange County sent three com- 
panies and Ulster four to the vicinity of New York City, as a part of 
General John Morin Scott's Brigade. The second draft took one-fourth 
of the miUtia under Colonels Nicoll and Pauling, constituting a brigade 
under General George Clinton. By the third sixty-two men were drawn 
from Colonal Hasbrouck's Regiment, and were a part of 600 men which 
reinforced the garrisons at Forts Chnton and Montgomery. 

In July, 1776, companies of rangers were organized for the protection 
of the frontiers, and three of them were raised in Ulster County, under 
Captains Isaac Belknap of Newburgh, Jacob De Witt of Deer Park, and 
Elias Hasbrouck of Kingston. 

Of the four "Continental" Regiments organized in 1775 to serve six 
months, the one commanded by Colonel James Chnton was largely com- 
posed of Orange and Ulster County men. Orange furnished two com- 
panies — Captain Daniel Denton's of Goshen and Captain John Nicholson's 
of New Windsor. The four regiments were in the expedition to Canada 
in 1775. 

Under a call by Congress of January 8, 1776. for troops to reinforce the 
army in Canada. New York furnished one battalion. A second call was 
made on January 19, under which New York was ree[uired to furnish four 





THE French and Indian War was the result of rivalry between 
France and England for the possession of disputed territories in 
North America, and the Indians along the Delaware and other 
frontiers became allies of the French because they believed they had been 
cheated by the English and Dutch colonists, and were stimulated to hos- 
tility against them by French agents. 

In 1754 England directed her colonies to oppose with arms the en- 
croachments of the French, although the two nations were then at peace, 
and obedience to this command from the crown brought on the cruel war 
of 1755. In February of that year New York voted £40,000 sterling to 
defray war expenses, and ordered a levy of 800 men to co-operate with 
troops of other colonies in the impending struggle. The law also declared 
tliat slaves were liable to military duty, and if over 14 years of age they 
were forbidden to be found more than a mile from their master's resi- 
dence without his certificate of permission, and "if one of them were so 
found any white person might kill him without being liable to prosecu- 

Along the Delaware River the Indians had been complaining that the 
whites appropriated lands which they had not bought, and by getting 
them drunk had defrauded them of the purchase money for their lands 
and their furs. These complaints led the Pennsylvania proprietaries to 
call a council, with the head chiefs of the Six Nations as arbitrators, and 
by bribing these chiefs with presents they obtained from them a decision 
which obliged the Delawares, then wards of the Senecas. to give up their 
lands and move to Wyoming. Soon whites followed them and bought 
in fraudulent ways their Wyoming lands. This angered the Senecas, 
and they drove away their chief who had aided the whites, and bade the 
Delawares defend their homes. The eastern and western chiefs met at 
Allegheny, rehearsed their grievances, and resolved on vengeance. The 
bloodv scenes that followed have seldom been surpassed in barbarous 


cruelty aiul cunning:, and the ravacres of the Minsis were mostly confined 
to the western frontiers of Orange and Ulster Counties within the limits 
of the original Minisink patent. 

The settlers of the Minisink ohscrved that the Indians there, including 
squads who had been friendly, had suddenly disappeared, and the few that 
remained said they had gone west to join hostile tribes. Foreseeing trouble, 
some of the settlers sent their wives and children to places of comparative 
safety, and a well-settled region on the west side of the Wallkill, eight by 
fittcen miles in extent, was abandoned, some of the residents moving to 
the east side and others far away. Before they moved seven men and 
one woman had been killed by the Indians. In 1756, pending negotiations 
for peace, four men and two women were killed in the Minisink. Three 
of the men went into the harvest field with their guns and laid them down, 
when concealed Indians seized them, shot the men dead and scalped them. 
At Fort U'estfall. which the Indians tried to capture by surprise, there 
was a fight in which several Indians and seven soldiers were killed. A 
large party of Indians attacked the upper fort at Xeversink. which was 
well garrisoned, but the fort took fire from a burning barn near it. and 
its inmates had to leave. Only one of them escaped the Indian bullets and 
tomahawks, ant! among the killed was the wife of the captain, who was 
absent. Only a colored woman, hidden from view by the smoke, escaped. 
The captain returned a day or two afterwards, and .took an oath of ven- 
geance by the grave of his wife. A man named Owen was killed by 
strolling Indians in Asa Dolsen's meadow in the northwestern part of 
present Wawayanda, and Dolsen immediately moved to ( ioshen. David 
Cooley lived near him, and his wife was shot dead as she was walking 
from her house to an outdoor oven. In 1758. on the Xew Jersey frontier, 
one dav, when Xicholas Cole was absent from home, thirteen Indians 
rushed in, tomahawked and scalped his two daughters and a son-in-law, 
and carried of! his wife and a yoimg son. When Cole returned the In- 
dians were followed and frightened, and allowed the wife and boy to 
escape. In June of the same year a sergeant and several men went from 
W'awarsing block-house to Minisink, and not returning, a large party went 
in search of them and f(nni<l srvcn killed and scaljied. and three wounded, 
and that a woman and four children had been carried oflf. About this time 
a house containing seventeen persons was be.set by Indians and all of 
them were kille<l. Thev carried olT a little son of Mr. W'estfall in Mini- 


sink, and he never saw his father again, but when the latter died, he came 
back with an interpreter after his inheritance. The persuasions and pecu- 
niary offers of his mother could not induce him to abandon his life in the 

It was in 1758 that Governor Hardy caused a series of block-houses to 
be erected along the western frontier, which were a protection for the 
whites and a restraint to the Indians. In the latter part of that year 
negoliations with the head chief of the Delawares, Teedyusking, stopped 
hostilities for a time. The Minsis were paid for their lands in the Mini- 
sink, and the titles of the proprietaries were referred to the Government 
for adjustment. But subsequently "the Indian allies of the French" held 
the frontier in terror until after the fall of Montreal and Quebec, when 
all of French Canada was transferred to British authority. 

In an address before the Xewburgh Historical Society in 1885, E. M. 
Ruttenber said : 

"In common with its associate regiments in Orange and Ulster, Colonel 
Ellison's Regiment had no little service in the French and Indian War of 
1756, on the western frontier of the county, where the Minsis were scat- 
tering firel^irands and death in their rebel'ion against the domination of the 
wSix Nations, and for the recovery of the lands in the Minisink patent, of 
which they had been defrauded, and in 1757 marched to Fort Edward to 
aid Sir William Johnston. How great was the service performed or by 
whom personally we may never know. The depredations of the Minsis 
were terrible ; the settlements west of the Wallkill were perpetually har- 
assed, anrl many of them broken up; men were killed in the fields and in 
their houses; women and children became the victims of the scalping 

Colonel Ellison wrote in 1757: 

"It is but too well known by the late numerous murders committed on 
our borders that the County" of Ulster and the north end of Orange have 
become the only frontier part of the province left unguarded and exposed 
to the cruel incursions of the Indian enemy, and the inhabitants of these 
parts have been obliged to perform very hard military duty for these two 
years past, in ranging the woods and guarding the frontiers, these two 
counties keeping out almost constantly from fifty to one hundred men — 
sometimes bv false detachments of the militia, and at other times by vol- 
untary subscriptions — nay, often two hundred men, which has been an 


iiisiippiirtahlc l)ur(k'n on the ])C(i|)I(.'. and ycl all the militia of these parts 
are ordered to march to r-"t»rt I'jiward, while the officers had no orders to 
tuard the frontier." 

Afention may he made here of a famous character of the Minisink. 
whose une(|ualed career of revenue against Indians began during the 
I-rench and Indian War. His name was Thomas Quick. His father wa^ 
kind and hospitable to the Indians, and was shot dead while at work in his 
tield by some of them whom he had entertained. Thomas, who was near 
him, and was then almost a youth, managed to escape. Over his father's 
grave he took an oath to avenge his death, and afterward to kill Indians 
became the passion of his life. It was sai<l that he shot eighty-seven of 
them, the last one being the chief murderer of his father. He went by the 
name of "the Indian slayer." He was marvelously alert and cunning, 
escaped all of the many efforts of Indians to kill him, and finally died of 
old age. A monument has been erected to his memorv in Milford. I'a. 




THE most interesting period of our national history was its begin- 
nings in protests against oppressive demands and acts by the 
mother country, followed by a revolutionary resort to arms, and 
in these beginnings Orange County took a conspicuous part. 

The non-importation resolutions adopted by the Continental Congress 
in 1774 drew the line of issue between Great Britain and her North 
American colonies, which started the war for independence. Perhaps their 
most significant feature was a call for the organization of committees of 
safety in every city, county, precinct and town. In the original County of 
(Grange the people had held a convention in Goshen, which sent a delegate, 
Henry Wisner, to Congress, who voted for and signed the non-importa- 
tion resolutions ; and in the towns of Newburgh, New Windsor, Hanover, 
Wallkill and Goshen an opposition pamphlet which had been scattered 
broadcast was publicly burned and the desired committees of safety 
promptly selected. On April 29, 1774, the committee in New York drew 
up a pledge and sent it to all the counties and towns for signatures. The 
pledge was as follows : 

■'Persuaded that the salvation of the rights and liberties of America 
depend, under God, on the firm union of its inhabitants in a vigorous 
j)rosecution of the measures necessary for its safety ; and convinced of 
the necessity of preventing anarchy and confusion which attend the dis- 
solution of the' powers of government, we, the freemen, freeholders and 

inhabitants of do, in the most solemn manner, resolve never to 

become slaves ; and do associate, under all the ties of religion, honor, and 
love of our country, to adopt and endeavor to carry into execution what- 
ever measures are recommended by the Continental Congress, or resolved 
upon by our Provincial Convention, for the purpose of preserving our 
Constitution, and opposing the execution of the several arbitrary acts of 
the British Parliament, until a reconciliation between Great Britain and 
America, on constitutional principles (which we most ardently desire) 





can be obtained; and tliat wo will in all things follow the advice of our 
(icneral Committee respeclinn the purposes aforesaid, the preservation of 
])eacc and ijood order, and the safety of individuals and property." 

When the sii^ned plcdj^es were returned to the Provincial Convention in 
.\ew York it invested the committees of safety with power to appoint 
assessors and collectors, and these, with the committees, were directed 
I0 assess, raise and collect the quotas required for the support of the 
home government, and empowered to enforce collection from defaulters 
by "distress upon their goods and chattels." They might also arrest per- 
sons inimical to the measures which had been or might be taken. These 
powers were afterward enlarged by Congress, and the committees cm- 
powered to suppress the enemies of the revolutionary government. Legis- 
lative duties devolved upon the Provincial Convention until 1777, when 
the first Constitution of New York was adopted, and meanwhile the com- 
mittees of safety attended to the execution of its laws Methods differed 
somew^hat in different counties. In Orange the precincts chose commit- 
tees, and these constituted the county committee. A signature to the 
pledge formulated by Congress was regarded as evidence of loyalty to the 
revolutionary cause. 

In the precinct lists of the Orange County signers of the pledge the 
signatures in Goshen embraced the present towns of Goshen, Chester. 
^^'arwick. W'awayanda. Greenville, and a part of Blooming Grove; iti 
Mamakating those of ATt. Hope and Deer Park; Cornwall and Highlands 
were included in Cornwall; in Monroe parts of Blooming Grove and the 
present county of Rockland ; in Xewburgh. Xew Windsor and Wallkill 
with Newburgh. The signatures b\- precincts were as follows: 

Precinxt of Xewbirgh. 

Col. Jona. Hasbrouck. Henry Cropsey. 

Thomas Palmer. » VVm. Harding. 

Kaac Belknap. Joscpii lielknai). 

William Darling. John .Stratton. 

Wolvert .'Kcker. Lewis Holt. 

Ji»ini Belknap. Samnel Hallock. 

John Robinson. Samuel Sprague. 

Saml. Clark. Burroughs Holmes. 

Picni. Birrl.sall. Samuel Bond. 

Benjamin Smith. Thomas Cam|)l)ell. 

Tamos W'augii. James Co«man. 

Abel Belknap. Lewis Clark. 

Moses Higby, M.D. Jonathan Sw't 



Precinct of NEWBURcn.' — Con tinned. 

Reuben Tooker. 
]^avid Belknap. 
Daniel Birdsall. 
Robert Lockwood. 
Benj. Knap. 
Saml. Westlake. 
Josiah Ward. 
Silas Gardner. 
Jacob Gillis. 
Wm. Kencaden. 
James Denton. 
John P'oster. 
Hope Mills. 
John Cosman. 
Wm. Wear. 
Thomas Fish. 
Wm. Lawrence. Jr. 
John Kernoghan. 
Robert Harmer. 
Robert Ross. 
John Crowell. 
Obadiah Weeks. 
Francis Harmer. 
William Bloomer. 
Abraham Garrison. 
James Marston. 
Samuel Gardiner. 
Anning Smith. 
Richard Albertson. 
Martin Weigand. 
W^m. Foster. 
Wm. Wilson. 
Wm. Stillwell, Jr. 
Peter Donally. 
Charles Tooker. 
Leonard Smith, Jr. 
Henry Smith. 
James Wooden. 
Thomas Smith. 
Caleb Case. 
David Green. 
John Stillwell. 
Luff Smith. 
John Gates. 
Benj. Darby. 
Israel Smith. 
Thads. Smith. 
Jacob Myers. 
Saml. Concklin. 
Isaac Brown, M.D. 
Peter Tilton. 
John Douaghy. 
Ste. Stephenson. 

John Griggs. 
Saml. Smith. 
Jeremiah Ward. 
Wm. Ward. 
Wm. Russel. 
John Tremper. 
Charles Willett. 
Jeremiah Dunn. 
Wm. Lawrence. 
Robert Waugh. 
Wiggins Conklin. 
Robert Beatty, Jr. 
Abr'm Johnston. 
Silas Sperry. 
Tames Clark. 
David Mills. 
Caleb Cofifin. 
James Harris. 
Theo. Hagaman. 
Wm. Dunn. 
Nehemiah Carpenter. 
Leonard Smith. 
Wm. Day. 
John Wandel. 
Abel Thrall. 
Phineas Corwin. 
Moses Hunt. 
Samuel Sands. 
Jacob Concklin. 
Joseph Price. 
John Saunders. 
Benj. Lawrence. 
Richard Buckingham. 
Jacob Morewise. 
Nicholas Stephens. 
Johannis Snider, y' 
Benjamin Robinson. 
Andrew Sprague. 
Thomas Beaty. 
Solo. Buckingham. 
Wm. Bowdish. 
Jona. Belknap. 
Jacob Tremper. 
Abraham Smith. 
Cornelius Wood. V 
John Lawrence. 
George Hack. 
John Shaw. 
Corns. LTasbrouck. 
Isaac Demott. 
David Smith. 
John Stratton. 
Absalom Case. 



Prfxinct of Newburgh. — Continued. 

Joseph Dunn. 
Daniel j\Iorewise. 
Jonathan Owen. 
Jehiel Clark. 
Reuben Holms. 
Nathaniel Coleman. 
George Leonard. 
Elnathan Foster. 
Neal McLean. 
Wm. Palmer. 
George Westlake. 
Burger Weigand. 
Tunis Keiter. 
Hugh Quigly. 
Daniel Darby. 
Isaac Brown, Jr. 
Hezekiah Wyatt. 
Wm. Whitcheaa. 
Daniel Goldsmith. 
Gabriel Travis. 
Nathaniel Weed. 

John Weed . 
Daniel Duboise. 
Arthur Smith. 
Isaac Fowler. 
Stephen Outman. 
Saml. Stratton. 
Joseph Carpenter. 
Daniel Thurstin. 
John Fowler, 
r^aniel Clark. 
Isaac Donaldson. 
Wm. Concklin. 
Charles Tooker. 
John Smith. 
Isaac Fowler, Jr. 
William Wright. 
Wm. White. 
Daniel Kniffen. 
Rob. Morrison. M.D. 
John Dolson. 
Leonard Smith. 

Prixixct of New Windsor. 

JauRS Clinton. 
John Nicholson. 
James McClaughny. 
Matthew Du Bois. 
Robert Cook. 
John Umphrey. 
James Umphrey. 
George Umphrey. 
Oliver Umphrey. 
James McDowell. 
.Mexander Telford. 
Robert Smith. 
Jonah Park. 
Scudder Newman. 
James Humphrey 2d. 
Jolm Davis. 
John Coleman. 
Joseph Young. 
And'-ew Robinson. 
William Fulton. 
James Tavlor. 
Hugh P.illoy. 
Sanr.iel (iivcn. 
Polu-rt T.nriHi, Jr. 
Timothy Mills. 
William IWichanan. 
Matthew Bell. 
Robert Thompson. 
Charles Nicholson. 

William Robinson. 
.Arthur Carscadden. 
Edward Lyal. 
Henry McNeeley. 
William Niclos. 
Roliert Boyd, Jr. 
Nathan Smith. 
Sanniel Logan. 
James Denniston. 
Jacob Mills. 
Thomas Cook. 
Daniel Clemenee. 
Robert Couhan. 
John Waugh. 
William Gage. 
Alexander Kernahan. 
William Stin.son. 
1 lenry Roberson. 
r.enianiin Homan. 
Wiliiam Miller. 
Willinm Telford. 
John Burnet. 
Joseph Realty. 
John Smith, 
lames M. Oliver. 
William Miller jd. 
Charles Bvrn. 
Walter McMichacl. 
George Coleman. 



Precinct of New Windsor. — Continued. 

James Gage. 
James Dunlap. 
Robert Stuert. 
Samuel Wood. 
Nathaniel Garrison. 
Andrew Dickson. 
George Coleman 2d. 
Peter John. 
Samuel Lamb. 
AVilliam Crawford. 
John W. Miklan. 
I'Vancis Mains. 
James Miller. 
John Morrison. 
Hugh Watterson. 
Caleb Dill. 
John Dill. 
Edward Miller. 
Robert Whigham. 
John Crudge. 
Robert Boyd. Sr. 
Silas Wood. 
Richard Wood. 
John Johnston. 
/^David Crawford. 
John Morrison 2d. 
Henry McNeeley, Jr. 

.Alexander Taylor. 
James Perry. 

Samuel Boyd. 
John Cunningham. 
James Jackson, Jr. 

Isaac Stonehouse. 

John Iliffernan. 

James Smith. 

William Park. 

David Thompson. 

Nathaniel Liscomb. 

William Mnllincr. 

Isaac Belknap. 

Natiianiel Boyd 2d. 

Edward Petty. 

Robert Johnston. 

Joseph Sweezey. 

Alexander Fulton. 
James Faulknor. 
David Clark. 
Nathan Sargent. 
Gilbert Peet. 
James Docksey. 
Solomon Smith. 
Samuel Woodward 
Jonathan White. 
Alexander Beatty. 
Jonathan Parshall 
James Greer. 
John Mills. 
Thomas Eliot. 
Robert Campbell. 
Nathaniel Boyd. 
Charles Kernaghan. 

Eliphalet Leonard. 

William Nichols. 

Thomas McDowel. 
/James Crawford. 

Joseph Belknap. 

John Nicoll. 

Samuel Brewster. 

Samuel Sly. 

.Matthew McDowel! 

Daniel Mills. 

John Close (Rev.) 

William Moffat. 

William Beatty. 

tieorge Harris. 

Stephen King. 

John Murphy. 

Benjamin Burnam. 

.Austin Beardsley, 

Thomas Swafford. 

Timothy White. 

Dennis Furshay. 

George Mavings. 

Samuel Brewster 

David Mandevill. 

William Welling. 

Peter Welling. 

Hugh Tp.rner, 



Precinct of iM.\ \i.\k.\tinc 

John Young. 
Capt. John Crage. 
Benj. Cuddeback, Jr. 
T. K. Wcstbrook. 
William Johnston. 
Johan. Stufflebane. 

Johan. Stufflebane. 
John Thompson. 
Wm. Cuddeback. 
F.lias Travis. 
Fli Strickland. 
Capt. J. R. DeWitt. 


• c^cyZ^O^^^^i>-*^'^*^^->^^ 




Precinct of Mamakatin^;. 
Abiicr Skinner. 
Tliomas Kytte. 
Joseph Drake. 
Isaac Van Twill. 
Joseph Westbrook. 
Daniel Van Fleet, Jr. 
Jacoi) V^an Invvegen. 
Corn. Van Inwegen. 
Renben Babbett. 
Robert Milliken. 
John Williams. 
W'm. Smith. 
Jep. Fuller. 
Joseph Thomas. 
Joseph Skinner. 
John Travis. 
John Travis, Jr. 
Robert Comfort. 
Eph. Fiir'.jison. 
Moses Miller. 
J no. Barber. 
John Fry. 
(jeorge Gillespy. 
Henry Xewkirk. 
Philip Swartwout, Esq. 
\Vm. Ha.xton. 
Robert Cook. 
William Rose. 
James Williams. 
James P.Iizzard. 
Tliomas Combs. 
Ebcnezer llalcomb. 
Abr. Cndcleback. 
.\ldert Rosa. 
David Ciillaspv. 
.M)rm. Cuddeback, Jr. 
bred. Benaer. 
Jonathan Brooks, 
libenezer Parks. 
I'etrns (inmaer. 
J. DeWitt riumaer. 
F./rekiel Thnnacr. 
F.Iias Ciuinaor. 
.>I(j>ies Dcpny. Jr. 
Jonathan Wheeler. 
Thomas Lake. 
Jacob Comfort, 
(onah Parks. 
Saml. Patterson. 
Joel Adams. 
James Cuncn. 
Pe'er Simpson. 
Benjamin Dupny. 

John McKinstry. 
Harm. Van Inwegen. 
Samuel Dupuy. 
Chas. Gillets. 
James McCivers. 
Joseph llubbanl. 
G. Van Inwegen. 
Elii)halet Stevens. 
Adam Rivenburgh. 
Stephen Larney. 
Samuel King. 
Valentine Wheeler. 
John Wallis. 
Jacobus Swartwout. 
Gerardus Swartwout. 
Phil. Swartwout, Jr. 
Jacobus Cuddeback. 
Petrus Cuddeback. 
Rufus Stanton. 
Asa Kmiball. 
Zeh. llolcomb. 
Samuel Daley. 
Nathan Cook, 
llenry Ellsworth. 
John Seybolt. 
David Wheeler. 
F'.Iisha Barber. 
Jonathan Davis. 
Gershom Simpson. 
Jacob Stanton. 
Ji)hn Gil la spy. 
Abraham Smedes. 
Joseph Shaw. 
.\braham Rosa. 
Jacob Rosa. 
Stephen llalcomb. 
Moses Roberts. 
Daniel Roberts. 
Jeremiah Shaver. 
Joseph Ogdcn. 
Elias Miller. 
George 1. Denniston. 
Jonathan Strickland. 
Johannes Miller. 
John iJouglass. 
Joseph Randall. 
Thos. Gillaspy. 
D.miel Walling, Jr. 
^|•ltlhl•w Neely. 
John Harding. 
I'.ph. Thomas. 
.-\bm. .McQuin. 
Joseph .\rihur 



Precinct of Mamakating. — Continued. 

Daniel Decker. 
John Brooks. 
David Daley. 
Daniel Walling, Jr. 
Matthew Tervvilliger. 
Johannes Wash. 
Daniel Woodworth. 

Nathaniel Travis. 
Ezekiel Travis. 
Joseph Travis. 
Isaac Rosa. 
Abr. Smith. 
Leonard Hefinessey. 

Precinct of Goshen. 

Minisink Distriri. 

J. Westbrook, Jr. 
Benjamin Cox. 
John Prys. 
Levi Decker. 
Samnel Davis. 
Reuben Jones. 
Petrns Cole. 
A. Van Etten. 
John Bennett. 
Petrus Cuykendal. 
Sylvester Cortright. 
Jacobus Schoonhoven.. 
Jacobus Vanfliet, Jr. 

Thomas Plart. 
John Van Tuyle. 

S. Cuykendal, Jr. 

iVlartinas Decker, Jr. 

Wilhclmus Westfill. 

A loses Kortright. 

Jacob Harraken. 

G. Bradcock. 

Nicholas Slyter. 

Danie! St. John. 

AllK-rt Osterlioust. 

Johannes Westbrook. 

Simon Westfall. 



Alexander Smith. 
Joseph Conkling. 
Jonathan Horton. 
John Case. 
Phincas Rumsey. 
Benjamin Harlow. 
William Hubbard. 
Garrett Duryea. 
David Youngs. 
James Miller. 
James Mapes. 
Joseph Drake. 
Samuel Haines Smith. 

Isaac Davis. 
George Quick. 
Jacobus Davis. 
Jacobus Vanfliet. 
Levi Van Etten. 
Daniel Cole. 
Benjamin Corson. 
Joel Westbrook. 
A. C. Van Aken. 
Johannes Decker, Jr. 
Jacob Quick. 
Timothy Wood. 
Benjamin Wood. 
James Carpenter. 

Esee P.ronson. 

Isaac LTptegrove. 

.Solomon Cuykendal. 

Alartinas Decker. 

Benjamin Boorman. 

Nehemiah Pattison. 

Arthur Van i uyle. 

Wilhelmus Cole. 

Petrus Decker. 

.\sa Astly. 

Daniel KortriglU. 

Tiphraim Middagh. 


Increase Wyman. 
Jonathan Smith. 
John Barker. 
Moses Carpenter. 
Joshua Corey. 
John Corey. 
John Pain. 
Dnniel Pain. 
\¥illiam Warne. 
Hczekiah Warne. 
Zeba Owen. 
Jonathan Jayne. 
Caleb Coleman 


Pl<tLiNLI 111 (i 

. — ^('Htn'ucd. 

Bloum ing-Grorc District. 

David Rogers. 
Iknry Wisner. 
'Iliomas (loldsniilli. 
Jacobus Bartholt. 
Guilian P>artholf. 
Abraham Dalscn, Jr. 
I.saac Dalsen. Jr. 
Cornelius Decker. 
David Dcinarest. 
John Denton. 
Corns. Van Orsdale. 
Joseph EHiot. 
John Elliot. 
Abraham Springsteen. 
Capt. Nathaniel Roc. 
Lient. John Jackson. 
Joseph Dixon. 
David (Kidtrey. 
Silas Pierstm. 
William Satterly. 
Ciidfun Salmon. 
Piiineas Salmon. 
John lirown. 
Silas Morton. 
John Cravens. 
Ezra Keelcr. 
James Aspell. 
Cicftrge Dnryea. 
John Ketchnm. Jr 
William Heard. 
Phineas Heard. 
Joshna Reeve. 
Obadiah 1 lelms. 
William Forbes. 
Coleman Curtis. 
David Jones. 
Francis Baird. 
Stephen. Lewis, 
Nathaniel Mintlmrn. 
Gamaliel 'i'ansdell. 
.\ndre\v Christy. 
Hendrick Partholf. 
Peter i!artholf. 
Retiben Hall. 
Soloinon Carpenter. 
Martin Myer. 
Joshna Smith. 
Kbenezer Beer. 
Samitcl MolTat. 
Lieut. John Wood. 
Ensign Dar.iel Drake 

Daniel looker. 
Isaiah Smith. 
William Lcsly. 
David Rnmsey. 
John Meeker. 
Joseph Browne. 
David Horton. 
Solomon Smith. 
John King. 
Ciippc Brooks. 
Samuel Wickham. 
Silas Horton. 
Charles 'looker. 
John Budd. 
William Horton. 
Joshua Brown. 
Joshua Brown, Jr. 
lames Markel. 
John Bull. 
Richard Bull. 
Jeremiah Butler. 
John Minthorn. 
-Abraham Chandler. 
Jacobus Laine. 
Jacob Demarest. 
Joseph Todd. 
John Bigger. 
Eli-cah Doan. 
James Smith. 
Zephaniah Hull. 
Jo>^eph Case. 
William Marshall. 
Benianiin MacVea. 
Christopher Springsteen. 
Hezeiah Watkins. 
Daniel Reeve. 
Samuel Bartholi 
Tjenrx- Rocmer. 
Robert McCane. 
Peter (la'e. V 

Sfeiihen .Meeker. 
Joseph Smith. 
!"h<imas McCane. 
Samuel Smith. 
Jacoi) Dunning. 
Jo-ihua l>avis. 
Ji>hn Williams. 
Kicliard Jones. 
Philip P.orroughs. 
Thomas Engle.';. 
Olivrr Headv. 



Precinct of Goshen. — Continued. 

Blooiiiius-Grove District. 

Richard Sheridan. 
■^Jonathan Owen. 
Joshua Wells. 
Jonah Seely. ~ 
Wright Smith. 
Silas Stewart. 
Benjamin Carpenter. 
Sqnire Whitaker. 
Silas Hulse. 
Elisha Hulse. 
Benjamin Smith. 
Samuel Cooley. 
John Ferger. 
David Kendle. 
Samuel Cole. 
Peter Miller. 
Robert Thompson. 
Matthew Billing. 
James Little, Jr. 
Benjamin Whitaker. 
Henry David. 
Samuel Demarest. 
John Hopper. 
William Wisncr. 
Israel Wells. 
Daniel Carpenter. 
Samuel Carpenter. 
Peter Arnout. 
James Bell. 
Jeremiah S. Conkling. 
John Garvey. 
Benjamin Forgesson. 
Elijah Truman. 
David Moore. 
Nathaniel Tuthill. 
Joseph McCane. 
Joe.l Cross. 
Caleb Goldsmith. 
FTenry Smith. 
John Finch. 
]\[oses Smith. 
Robert Thompson, Jr. 
George Little. 
James Knap. 
Jeremiah Smith. Sr. 
Amos. W^oolcocks. 
Jeremiah Ferger. 
Zephaniah Drake. 
John Van Cleft. 
Israel Holley. 
William Seely..^ 

John Van Cleft. Jr. 
David Cooley, Jr. 
Nicholas Van Tassel. 
Joshua Weeks. 
Benjamin Currie. 
Samuel Jones. 
Michael Carpenter. 
Samuel Webb. 
John Owen. 
Benjamin Dunning. 
William Kimber. 
Gilbert Bradner. 
Jacob Finch. 
Hidley Spencer. 
William Walworth. 
Cornelius Bartholf, Jr 
Stephen Bartholf. 
Joseph Allison. 
Michael Allison. 
James Allison. 
William Carpenter. 
Casper Writer. 
I/Jonas Wood. 
David Linch. 
John Boyle. 
"Michael Coleman. 
.Abraham Harding. 
Henry David, Jr. 
Jonathan David. 
James Thompson. 
Jonathan Coole}^ 
William Lloward. 
James Dolsen. 
Isaac Dolsen. 
Reuben Smith, Jr. 
Jacob Fegate. 
Jeremiah Smith, Jr. 
.•\mos Smith. 
Matthias Carvey. 
John Carvey. 
Francis IMvanjoy. 
Solomon Tracey. 
.A.mos Hubbs. 
Thomas Barer. 
William Morris. 
John Kennady. 
Joseph Wilson. 
James Steward. 
Joseph .Steward. 
John Clar. 
John Feigler. 



Prlcinct 01" Goshen 


Benjamin Demarest. 
Peter Dcmarest. 
Sallier David, 
luhvard David. 
Jolin David. 
Jacob Cole, 
(icorge Kenilile. 
William Dill. 
Ciiristopher .Myers. 
Thomas Wood. 
Philip Rodrick. 
William McCane. 
James MeCane. 
Martin MeConnely. 
William Ilorton. 
I'hilip Horton. 
Benjamin Carpenter. 
Henry Samis. 
Sanuiel Knapp. 
R(>t)l<)f \'an IJrnnt. 
Abel Jackson. 
Xathaniel Knapp, Jr. 
James Parshall. 
-Anthony Swartvvout. 
Benjamin Jackson. 
(Jeorge Howell. 
James Mosier. 
Sannicl l-'inch. 
Samnel Reed. 
Jaliez I'inch. 
Benjamin Wallworth. 
John Whilakcr. 
"Xathaniel Mather.-., 
Increa-e Matthews. 
James Gardiner. 
John Little. 
James Reeves. 
John Knap. 
Jonatlian Corney. 
Solomon Roe. 
Saven Tracex. 
C)l)Tdiah Smith. 

I lenry F'.arlh'ilf. 
David Deinaresl. 
Jacob Dcmarest. 

William King. 
Christopher Decker. 
James McCane. 
Jolin Th()mpsf)n. 

i'homas < iale. 

Charles Webb. 

Samnel Chandler. 

— Contiiiurd. 

D IS I rid. 

Richard Allison. 
Henry Hall. 
John Kinnett. 
Benjamin Halsted. — ^ 
David Miller. 
Henry Dobin. 
Solomon Finch. 
Solomon Hoff. 
Joseph Cnrric. 
James Ramsey. 
James Masters. 
James Clark. 
Michael Dnnning. - 
James Schoonover. 
John Morrison. 
Joseph Coleman. 
Jonathan Coleman. 

William Kirby. 
Orinns Bartholf. 
James Bartholf. 

iosejjh Halsted. 
"Michael Halsted. 

Gershon Owen. 

Samuel Westbrook. 

.\nthonv West Brook. 

Joshua Hill. 

Benjamin Gabrelis. 

David Shephard. 

Abraham Dolsen, Sr. 

John Kinman. 

I >aniel Rosegrout. 

John Davis. 

David Lowren. 

Moses Whitehead. 

John Myers. 

David Stephens. 

Jeremiah Trickey. 

Henry Clark. 

Inhn Carpenter Smith. 

Nathan Roberts. 

John Shepard. 

Jf>hn (ierner. 

I le/eki:di Lawrence. 

.Vathan Pembcrton. 

FJcnianiiii Cole. 

Caleli Smith. 

Peter .\nioiit. 

Mattbe\\ Howell. 

Matthew Howell. Jr. 
Ihonias .Angel. 

i•.■^ac i'racey. 

Elijah Egars. 



Precinct of Goshen. — Continued. 

Blooming-Grove District. 

James Hulse. 
Mark Chambers. 
David Cooley. 
Nathaniel Cooley. 
Nathan Bailey. 
Nathan Bailey 2d. 
Zcphaniah Kelly. 
Samuel Satterly. 
William Vail. 
James Hamilton. 
Joseph Beckas. 
Elias Clark. 
Alexander Campbell. 
Elihu Horton. 
Jrlngh Fulton. 
Phineas Parshall. 
Peter Townsend. 
John Gardiner. 
Michael Brooks. 
David Howell, Jr. 
John Howell. 
Samuel Harman. 
Jabez Knap. 
Nathaniel Knap, Jr. 
Peter Barlow. 
Elias Oldfield. 
Samuel Sawyer. 
Jeremiah Oakley. 
Timothy Smith. 
Benjamin Attwood. 
Gilbert Howell. 
Isaac Hoadley. 
Nathan Arnout. 
William Little. 
Caleb Smith. 
Stephen Smith. 
David Caser. 
Matthew Tyrel. 
Andrcv,' Miller. 
Asa Vail. 
Bazaliel Seely. " 
Francis Gallow. 
John McDowell. 
William Hoff. 
John Kimball. 
James ]Miller. 
James Stewart. 
.\braham Johnston. 
Stephen Conkling. 
Joshua Howell. 
Samuel Titus. 
Jonathan Hallock. 

John Miller. 
John Rhodes. 
David Mapes. 
Zacheus Horton. 
Joshua Wells. 
Benjamin Hill. 
Nathaniel Allison. 
William Kinna. 
John Bailey. 
Landrine Eggers. 
John Conner. 
Peter Mann. 
Daniel Cooley, Jr. 
William Huff. 
Jacob Cole. 
Edward David, Jr. 
Daniel David. 
Richard Hoisted. 
Joseph Oldfield. 
Joseph Chilson. 
Silas Holley. 
Benjaunn I^unning. 
Daniel Holley. 
Joshua Drake. 
Wait Smith. 
.Stephen Jackson. 
Daniel Myers. 
John Smith. 
Jonathan Rawson. 
"William Reed. 
William Egger (Eager) 
Daniel Egger. 
Anning Owen. 
Jacob Hulse. 
Solomon Smith. 
Thomas Denton. 
.\sa Derba. 
Moses Clai-k. 
William Helms. 
Phineas Case. 
W^illiam Knap, 
(iilbert Aldrigc. 
Tames Kinner. 
Joshua Hallock. 
John I\fory, 
Oliver Smith. 
Tsiac Smith. 
Cain Mehany. 
Ebenezer Holly. 
Joshua Plerbert. 
John Armstrong. 



Precinct or Cornwall. 

John Brewster, Jr. 
Silas Benjamin. Jr. 
Smith Clari<. 
Tliomas Clark. 
Kphraim Clark. 
Jienjamin Alapes. 
Bethucl Mapes. 
Isaac Corky. 
Patrick Cassaday. 
Joseph Wilcox, 
limothy Smitli, Jr. 
Richard Moniman. 
Nehemiah Clark. 
John Secly. — 
James Peters. 
James Matthews. 
William Roc. 
Joseph Smith. 
John ^IcWhortcr. 
Josiah Pell. 
John Pell. Jr. 
.\br'm Ketchnm. 
Thomas Clark. Jr. 
William H miter. 
Archibald Little, Jr. 
Jonas Seely. - 
Israel Hodges. 
Samuel Knights. 
James Sayre. 
Isaac Corley. Jr. 
Jesse Marvin. 
Jeremiah Clark. 
x/ Joseph Wood. 
Archibald Little. 
Stephen Gilbert. 
•Abraham Loce. 
John Mapes. 
Joseph Ketchum. 
Samuel Ketchum, Jr. 
Benjamin Ketchum. Jt 
Benjamin Ketchum. 
Joseph Morrcll. 
James Tuthill. 
Brewster flelmc. 
William Brown. 
.\sahel Coleman. 
Samuel Sackct. 
Micah Cnlenian. 
John Smith. 
Ciorshom Clark. 
Timothy Little. 
Samuel ^L'll)es. 
Justus Stevens. 


David Stevens. 
Jonathan Stevens. 
Daniel Mapes. 
Smith Mapes. 
Isaiah Mapes. 
Nathan .Marvin. 
Samuel Gibson. 
Solomon Little. 
Jesse Woodluill. 
Nathan Brewster. 
Jonathan Brooks. 
Elihu j\larvin. 
Seth Marvin. 
Elihu Marvin, Jr. 
David Beggs. 
Timothy Brewster. 
Isaac Brown. 
Jesse Teed. 
Benjamin Budd. 
Benjamin Lester. 
Joab Coleman. 
Phineas Helmes. 
Silas Youngs. 
Silas Youngs, Jr. 
Reuben Youngs. 
Abimael Youngs, Jr. 
John Callay. 
Thomas Sullivan. 
Jeremiah Howell. 
George Baitman. 
Josiah Seely. _ 
John McCarly. 
John Wood. 
Thomas Moffat. 
Samuel Smith. 
David Mandcvil. 
Vincent Matthews. 
Samuel Ketchum. 
Eleazer Youmans. 
Stephen Youmans. 
John Marvin. 
Jonathan Ilallock. 
John Pecham. 
John Burges. 
Patrick Odey. 
Isaiah Howell. 
Sanmcl Sccly. - 
Israel Sccly. 
Natli.uiicl Seely" 
James Little. 
I'haddeus Seely. - 
Beniamin Grcgor)'. 
William Nicholson. 


Precinct of Cornwall. — Continued. 

Silvanns White. 
Daniel Coleman. 
John Brewster. 
Christopher Van Duzer. 
Isaac Van Duzer, Jr. 
Roger Barton. 
Obadiah Thorn. 
Solomon Sheldon. 
Absalom Townsend. 
James Hall. 
Silas flail. 
John \Y. Clark. 
Paul Howell. 
Silas Howell. 
Bazaliel Seely. 
Elijah Hudson. 
Samuel Moffat, Jr. 
Hugh Murray. 
Dennis Cooley. 
Silvanus Sayles. 
Matthew Sweny. 
Isaac Brewster. 
Ebenezer Woodhull. 
Nathaniel Strong. 
Daniel Tuthill. 
Maurice Hearen. 
James Smith. 
Henry Dier, Sr. 
Silas Pierson. 
Silas Pierson, Jr. 
Richard Coleman. 
Francis Drake. 
-Benoni Brock. 
Justus Hulse. 
Stephen Howell. 
Stephen Sayles. 
Daniel Smith. 
Daniel Jones. 
John Brooks. 
John Moffat. 
Michael Kelly. 
John Eoonard. 
l-ewis Donnovan. 
John Close (Rev.) 
John Pride. 
Nathaniel Seely, Jr. 
Jesse Seely. 
Obadiah Smith. 
Nathaniel Satterly. 
Hezekiah Howell, Jr. 
Patrick McLaughlin. 
Daniel Deven. 
James Davidson. 

Bn. Cruft. 

Nathaniel Sayre, Jr. 
David Clark. 
Richard Drake. 
Josiah Reeaer. 
Peter Reeder. 
Stephen Reeder. 
Jacob Reeder. 
Samuel Reeder. 
Francis Vantine. 
Alexander Sutton. 
Samuel Smith. 
Thomas Smith. 
Jacob White. 
Justus Philby. 
Benjamin Corey. 
Frederick Tobias. 
Gilbert Weeks. 
Nathan Birchard. 
Zebulon Birchard. 
Robert Height. 
Daniel Thorne. 
Timothy Wood. 
Samuel Moffat. 
Sylvan us Halsey. 
Barnabas Many. 
Luther Stuart. 
James Sayre, Jr. 
John Sayre. 
Birdseye Young. 
Aaron Howell, Jr. 
William King. 
Isaac Bower. 
Thaddeus Coolev. 
William McLaughlin. 
Nassiad Curtis. 
Elijah Green. 
Jonathan Tuthill. 
Francis Tuthill. 
Zachariah DuBois. 
Francis Brewster. 
Joseph Collings. 
Thomas Collings. 
James Moore. 
Benjamin Thorne. 
John Parker. 
Hezekiah Howell. 
Richard Collingwood. 
Silas Benjamin. 
John Benjamin. 
John Kelley. 
Aaron Howell. 
John Carpenter. 

WAR Ul' Tin: Ri:\ Ul.LTlUN. 

Precinct of Counwm.!.. — Continued. 

I'.tnjaniin Carpenter. 

limotliy Carpenter. 

Joseph Carpenter, Jr. 

Rol)ert dreKg. 

Sanmel Hanlctt. 
-William Owen. 

Silas Coleman. 

linprli Cregs. 

Francis Drake. 

Charick X^anduzen. 

Azariah Martin. 

Abraham Bntler. 

Zachariah Biirwell. 

Joshna Rurwell. 

Joseph Reeder. 

John Reeder. 

William Reeder. 

Joseph Reeder, Jr. 

Samuel Tnthill. 

Benjamin Tuthill. 

Joshna Sandstar. 

Isaac Lamoureux. 

John Lamonreux. 

John Lamouren.x 2d. 

Peter Lamoureux. 

Luke Lamoureux. 

Peter Lamoureux, Jr. 

Philip Miller. 

John Carpenter 2d. 

Elijah Carpenter. 

William Carpenter. 
- Josiah Hals'.ead. 

Jonathan DuBois. 

Thomas Poicy. 

Thomas TIerlcy. 

Zachciis Morton. 

John McLean. 

.Austin Smith. 

Joseph Lamoureux. 

Eleazer Taylor. 

William Bradley. 

Nathaniel Pease. 

Charles Howell. 

F,. Taylor. 

William Cook. 

Thomas Chat field, 
lames Wilkins. 

Willian- Moffat. 

Uaac Moffat. 

John Moffat. 

Thomas Lenington. 

Jesse Brewster. 

Joseph Chandler. 

William Gregg. 
Silvanus Bishoj). 
Samuel Smith. 
John l<"aren. 
Isaac V^andusen n\. 
John Lighthody. 
Gabriel Lighthody. 
Isaac Lighthody. 
.Andrew Lighthody. 
James Lighthody. 
Thomas Hulsc. 
Selah Satterly. 
Joel Tuthill. 
John Miller. 
.Arch. Cunningham. 
James Galloway. 

Abner Thorp. 
John Johnson. 

Arche. Concham, Jr. 

George Whitaker. 

Henry Myers. 

Ilenry Brewster, Jr. 

Joseph Van Nort. 

William Conkling. 

John Brooks. 

Neal Anderson. 

James Mitchell. 

James Overton. Strain. 

Caleb Ashley. 

Benjairiin Chichester. 

Jonas Garrison. 

Samuel Robbins. 

William Ikdall. 

Thomas Smith. 

Jacob Comten. 

Jacob Comten, Jr. 

Thomas Cooper. 

William Clark. 

.Abraham Sneden. 

Adam Belsher. 

Stephen Hulsc. 

F.lcazer Luce. 

Timothy Corwin. 

James Ludis. 

Daniel Rtimsey. 

John Tuthill. 

William Owens. ** 

William Bartlett. 

James Stought. 

John Carpenter .vl. 

James McClngin. 

William llooge. 



Precinct of Cornwat.l. — Continued. 

James McGuffack. 
Silas Corwin. 
Henry Brewster. 
Stephen Halsey. 
James Halsey. 
Jacob Brown. 
John Earll. 
Peter Earll. 
Abraham Cooley. 
Silas Tucker. 
George Everson. 
Thomas Everson. 
Reuben Tucker. 
David Wilson. 
Peter Lowrie. 
Elisha Smith. 
Aaron DeGrauw. 
y Amous Wood. 
John Williams. 
Togidah Dickens. 
Samuel Howard. 
William Howard. 
Erancis Bourk. 
John Daynes. 
Aaron Miller. 
Owen Noblen. 
Jacob Devo. 
Thomas Willett. 
Thomas Horton. 
Hanes Bartlett. 
Reuben Taber. 
Solomon Cornwell. 
John W. Tuthiii. 
Joseph Davis. 
Nathaniel Jayne. 
Stephen Jayne. 
Daniel Jayne. 
Joseph Hildreth. 
Adam Miller. 
Isaac Tobias. 
David Bloomfield. 
Gilbert Roberts. 
Eawrence Ferguson. 
Daniel Harrison. 
Daniel Miller. 
Joseph Gold. 
Henry Davenport. 
Israel Osmun. 
Ezekiel Osmun. 
Henry Hall. 
William Cooper. 
Samuel Lows. 
Jacob Lows. 

Tobias Wygant. 
James Lewis. 
Nathaniel Biggs. 
James Huff._ 
Daniel Curtis. 
Nathan Strong. 
Solomon Sarvis. 
Richard Earll. 
Benjamin Earll. 
John Brase. 
-Robert Brock. 
Neal Anderson 2d. 
Benjamin Jayne. 
Joseph Patterson. 
Thomas Gregg. 
Jacob Vanduzer. 
Andrew Stuart. 
Henry Atwood. 
Isaac Vanduzer. 
William Ayres. 
William Miller. 
Edward Robben. 
Isaac Horton. 
Hugh McDonel. 
James Wilks. 
James Wilks, Jr. 
Richard Wilks. 
William Thompson. 
John Johnson. 
John Wagent. 
John Wagent 2d. 
Joseph Stevens. 
Thomas Smith. 
Silas Reynolds. 
John Wolly. 
Peter Stevens. 
William Obadge. 
John Boucke. 
Silas Millis, Jr. 
Charles Field. 
Henry Mandeville. 
Jacob Mandeville. 
Francis Mandeville. 
-Peter Reynolds. 
Thomas Powell. 
Benjamin Pringle. 
Daniel Prindle. 
Enos Prindle. 
Oliver Davenport. 
Chester Adams. 
Joseph Canfield. 
Benjamin Canfield. 
John Canfield. 

Precinct of Cohsw \LL.~Coiitiniicd. 


Anius Miller. 

Lornwcll Sands. 

Thomas Linch. 

George Galloway. 

John Smith. 

JJariah Stage. 

Garret Willem, Jr. 

William 14orton. 

Benj. Miller. 

James Miller. 

.Asa Buck. 

Robert Miller. 

Joini McKclvey. 

Benjamin Goldsmith. 

Jo.seph Miller. 

Timothy Owens. 

John Gee. 

John .Arkils. 

John Earll, Jr. 

David Standley. 

James Unels. 

James Arnold. 

Xathan June. 

Fanton Horn. 

Thomas Davenport. 

Oliver Davenport. 

Robert Davenport. 

Gideon Florence. 
V Uriah Wood, 
t Amos Wood. 
^ t Benjamin Wood. 
(/ John Wood (3d). 
V Daniel Wood. 

James Scoldfield. 

Uriah Crawford. 

Jonas Smith. 

Francis Plumsted. 

Samuel Whitmorc. 

Amos Whitmore. 

George Everitt. 

David Miller. 

Zabud June. 

Francis Smith. 

Thomas Dearin. 

Jeremiah Fowler. 

Martin Clark. 

Richard Langdon. 

Stephen Pect. 

John Cronckhite. 

Andrew Sherwood. 

William Sherwood. 

Samuel Strong. 

Thomas Oliver. 

John Carr. 

Garrett Miller. 

David Causter. 

Josliua Miller. 

\\ illiam Bell. 

Zophar Head. 

John Hall. 

Benjamin Kelley. 

Henry Dier. 

William Compten. 

Philips Roblin. 

Samuel Hall. 

Matthias Tyson. 

Vincent Helme. 

L. Canfield. 

Daniel Adams. 

Patrick Ford. 

Amos Mills. 

John Barton. 

Andrew Southerland. 

James Southerland. 

Alex. Southerland. 

David Southerland (3d). 

John Southerland. 

David Southerland. 

Henry Cunningham. 

Henry Reynolds. 

David June. 

Richard Sheldon. 

John Celly. 

Stephen C. Clark. 

Reuben Clark. 

Joseph Plumfield. 
« John Wood. 
: Stephen Wood. 

Amos Pains. 
Joseph Cu|)per. 
Joseph Caiitield, Ir. 

Francis Welton. 
John J. llanunond. 

Solomon Siles. 
Thomas Porter. 
John Samson. 
Micah Seaman. 
Jonathan Earll. 
John Haman. 
.Alexander Johnson. 
Safiuiel Earll. 
Samuel Raymond. 
Thomas Lamoureu.x. 
James Tuttle. 
John Florence. 
Francis Miller. 


Thomas Gilbert. Elijah Barton. 

Alexander Galloway. Benjamin Quackenbush. 

William Douglas. William White. 

Patrick McDowell. Jacob Vanduzer. 

In Newburgh precinct the "Committee of Safety and Observation," ap- 
pointed January 27, 1775, consisted of Wolvert Acker, Jonathan Has- 
brouck, Thomas Palmer, John Belknap, Joseph Coleman, Moses Higby, 
Samuel Sands, Stephen Case, Isaac Belknap, Benjamin Birdsall and John 

In New Windsor precinct the committee appointed May 6, 1775, con- 
sisted of Col. James Clinton, Capt. James McClaughry, John Nicoll, John 
Nicholson, Nathan Smith, Robert Boyd, Jr., Samuel Brewster, Samuel 
Sly, Samuel Logan. In May, 1776, the committee became: Samuel 
Brewster, chairman ; Robert Boyd, Jr., Nathan Smith, Hugh Humphrey, 
George Denniston, John Nicholl, Col. James McClaughry, Samuel Arthur. 

In the precinct of Mamakating, John Young, chairman of committee, 
certified that the pledge was signed by all the freeholders and inhabitants 
of the precinct, June 26, 1775. 

In the precinct of Goshen the committtee appointed September 14, 
1775, consisted in part of Isaac Nicoll, Benjamin Gale, Moses Hetfield, 
Daniel Everett, James Little, Joshua Davis, with Daniel Everett as Chair- 
man. Later the names of John Hathorn, John Jackson, Henry Wisner, 
John Minthornes and Nathaniel Ketchum were chairman at different 

In the Cornwall precinct, 1775, the committee consisted of Hezekiah 
Howell, Archibald Little, Elihu Marvin, Nathaniel Satterly, Nathaniel 
Strong, Jonathan Brooks, Stephen Gilbert, Zachariah Du Bois, with 
Thomas Moffat as chairman. 

In the precinct of Hanover no names of pledge-signers were reported, 
but the committee, appointed May 8, 1775, consisted of Dr. Charles Clin- 
ton, chairman ; Alexander Trimble, Arthur Parks, William Jackson. 
Henry Smith, Jacob Newkirk, James Latta, Philip Mole, John Wilkin, 
James McBride, James Milliken, Samuel Barkley. 

In the precinct of Wallkill there was no return of pledge-signers, but 
the committee, Jan. 30, 1775, consisted of Abimael Tonng. chairman; 
James Wilkins, Hezekiah Gale, Moses Phillips, Henry Wisner, Jr. 

The county committee of Orange in 1776 had Elihu Marvin, of Corn- 
wall, for chairman, and David Pye was deputy chairman for Haverstraw 


and Orangetovvn. Robert Boyd, of New Windsor, was chairman for 
Ulster County. 

The Committees of Safety and Observation began immediately to 
gather arms, and later to arrest inimical or suspected persons and bring 
them to trial. 

With few exceptions the inhabitants of Orange and Ulster Counties 
were loyal, earnest and active for the cause of Independence. In the early 
years of the war tlie militia was efficient in guarding the frontiers, con- 
structing Highland forts and placing obstructions to navigation in the 
Hudson River ; and two of the companies took part in the expedition to 
Canada of 1775. In 1776 one-fourth of the militia of the two counties 
was "drawn out for the defense of the State" and stationed along the 
Highlands. They consisted of two regiments from Orange commanded 
by Colonel Isaac Nicoll, and one from Ulster commanded by Colonel 
Levi Paulding. In December, after the British had captured New York, 
a more general requisition was made, and men were obliged to leave their 
families and stock unprovided for. which caused great disaffection for a 
time ; but after General Washington's victory at Trenton they were per- 
mitted to return home. 

In 1777 George and James Clinton were in command on the west side 
of the Hudson, and General Putnam on the east side. Burgoyne, with an 
army of 3,000 men. marching down from Canada, had reached Saratoga, 
and Howe, with another army, was marching to capture Philadelphia, 
wlien. about September 20. 3.000 British and Hessian soldiers arrived 
in New York and joined the army of Sir Henry Clinton. Thus rein- 
forced Clinton soon started to force his way up the Hudson, and on 
October 6, approached Forts Montgomery and Clinton, defended by some 
400 of Colonel DuBois's Regiment and Lamb's Artillery, and about 200 
militia, mostly from Orange and Ulster Counties. They made a gallant 
defense, but finally overwhelmed by superior numbers, were obliged to 
retreat, leaving behind them 300 in killed, wounded and prisoners. In 
Governor Clinton's report to General Washington of the fight at Fort 
Montgomery he said that Sir Henry Clinton commanded in person; that 
the enemy was repeatedly driven back by grape shot from a. field-piece 
and the well-directed fire of musketry during their approach ; that the 
militia retreated to the fort, when a demand to surrender was refused ; 
and that the enemy's superior numbers finally forced the works on all 


sides. If expected reinforcements had reached the fort it was beHeved 
that the enemy would have been defeated. Many miUtiamen were in 
the mountains, but their communications had been cut off. There were 
not more than 600 men in both the forts, while the attacking army num- 
bered 3,000. Governor Clinton escaped across the Hudson, and many 
of his men were bayonetted after the works were taken. DuBois's 
Continental Regiment and Lamb's Artillery bore the brunt of the fight. 
The following other regiments were represented in small numbers ; 
Colonel Allison's from Goshen, commanded by himself ; Colonel James 
Clinton's from New Windsor, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel James 
McClaughry ; Colonel Harbourg's from Newburgh, commanded by 
Colonel Masten ; Colonel Jesse Woodhull's from Cornwall, commanded 
by Colonel Dubois. 

Sir Henry Clinton's ships moved on up the Hudson, and Putnam's and 
Clinton's troops followed. The British Commander caused Kingston to 
be burned, and here, receiving the news of Burgoyne's surrender, turned 
back. His army tarried a few days in the Highlands to complete the de- 
struction of the forts, and then sailed to New York, and the militia re- 
turned home. 

The Indians on the western frontier of Orange and beyond were still 
nursing grievances against the colonists, and were easily won over to the 
British side by diplomatic agents. Their depredations began again in 
1777, when the family of a Mr. Sprague in the northern part of the Mini- 
sink was attacked and some of them taken prisoners. Next they killed 
some of the family of a Mr. Brooks, and took the rest prisoners. In 
1778 the upper Minisink was invaded by about 100 Indians, under the 
famous warrior chief, Brandt, and on Oct. 13 they attacked two dwellings, 
killed three persons and destroyed much grain and stock. The settlers 
repaired to the forts of Gumaer's and DeWitt's, and the Indians after 
following and firing a few times at them from a distance, went away. 

The Committee of Safety for Minisink in 1778 consisted of Benjamin 
DePuy, Philip Swartout and Ezekiel Gumaer, and they ordered the erec- 
tion of five forts, three in the upper neighborhood, and two in the lower. 
These could not accommodate all of the fifty families in what is now Deer 
Park, and many women and children were sent to the older settlements. 
Scouting parties were sent out under command of Captain Bezaliel Tyler, 
and persons suspected of aiding the Indians were imprisoned or banished. 

WAR OF Till-: RI-:\()LLT1()X. 85 

Small comijanics of nine months" militia were obtained to J4^arri-^(>n the 

The massacre of Wyoming in July, and the horrible cruelties practiced 
upon some of the prisoners, had caused grave apprehensions, and these 
were increased by the coming of Brandt and his Indians in October. 
Count Pulaski and his cavalry legion were sent to Minisink, and remained 
there during the winter of 1778-9, and Colonel \'an Cortlandt's Regiment 
was sent to Wawarsing. In the spring Count Pulaski and his legion were 
ordered to South Carolina, and on July 19 Brandt, aware of the jjoorly 
defended Minisink. came with sixty-five Indian warriors and twent\- 
sevcn Tories disguised as Indians, to the lower section, now Deer Park, 
south of the Neversink and while the settlers were asleep set fire to sev- 
eral dwellings. Some of the inmates were killed as they were fleeing and 
others were taken prisoners. The cattle were driven off, and much liooty 
carried to Brandt's headquarters, Grassy Brook, on the Delaware. When 
news of the murderous raid was received by the militia, a council was 
held by Lieutenant-Colonel Tusten of Colonel Allison's Goshen Regi- 
ment, Colonel John Ilathorn of the \\'arwick Regiment, and Captain 
Meeker of the New Jersey militia, and contrary to Tusten's advice, it 
was decided to march against the Indians with such numbers of men as 
could be quickK' brought together. Meanwhile Brandt's force had been 
increased to about 3CX) Indians, and 200 Tories painted to resemble In- 
dians. The small band of militiamen, commanded by Colonel Ilathorn. 
marched to the hills overlooking the Delaware near the mouth of the 
Lackawaxen. and then discovered lirandt and his warriors three-fourth•^ 
of a mile away. Colonel Hathorn prejiared to attack them, but r.randt 
outmaneuvered him, and cut off fifty of his men. leaving only ninety in 
the fight that followed. I^randt got in their rear, and hemmed them in 
on a rocky slope, with the advantages of position and more than five 
times as many men. \\'hen their amnninition was exhausted they formed 
in a hollow square to fight with clubbed muskets, but the square was soon 
broken and the men sought safety in rlight. Tusten was killed by the 
Indians while dressing wounds of his men behind a rock, as were also 
seventeen wounded men with him. Others were shot or drowneil in 
trying to swim across the Delaware. Only about thirty survived. 

In Colonel Hathorn's report of the fight to Governor Clint<Mi he says 
that "the enemv repeatedly advanced to from forty to one hundred yards 


distance and was as repeatedly repulsed" ; that his men "defended the 
ground nearly three hours and a half and during the whole time one 
blaze without intermission was kept up on both sides." This was at the 
last stand on the slope. Hathorn's men had been firing for five hours, 
when, ammunition being almost exhausted, he ordered that no one fire 
"without having his object sure." Soon they were forced to retreat down 
the hill towards the river, and scattered, every man for himself. Col- 
onel Hathorn further says : 

"The Indians were under the command of Brandt, who was either 
killed or wounded in the action. They burnt Major Decker's house, barn 
and mill, James Van Vlock's house and barn, Daniel Vanoker's barn 
(here were two Indians killed from a little fort around the house, which 
was saved). Esquire Cuykindall's house and barn, Simon Westfall's 
house and barn, the church, Peter Cuykindall's house and barn. Mer- 
tinus Decker's fort, house, barn and saw-mills, and Nehemiah Patter- 
son's saw-mill ; killed and scalped, Jeremiah Vanoker, Daniel Cole, Eph- 
riam Ferguson and one Tavern, and took with them several prisoners, 
mostly children, with a great number of horses, cattle and valuable plun- 
der. Some of the cattle we rescued and returned to the owners." 

A list of the names of the killed has been preserved, and is as follows : 

Killed in Minisink Fight. 

Col. Benjamin Tusten. Gabriel Wisner. 

Capt. Bezaliel Tyler. Stephen Mead. 

Capt. Benjamin Vail. Nathaniel Terwilliger. 

Capt. John Dimcan. Joshua Lockwood. 

Capt. Samuel Jones. Ephraim Ferguson. 

Capt. John Little. Talniadge. 

Lieut. John Wood. John Carpenter. 

Adjt. Nathaniel Fitch. David Burney. 

Robert Townsend. Gamaliel Bailey. 

Samuel Knapp. Moses Thomas. 

James Knapp. Jonathan Haskell. 

Benjamin Bennett. Abram Williams. 

William Barker. Daniel Reed. 

Jacob Dunning. Jonathan Pierce. 

Joseph Norris. James Little. 

Gilbert S. Vail. Nathan Wade. 

Joel Decker. Simon Wait. 

Abram Shepherd. James Mosher. 

■ Shepherd. Isaac Ward. 

Eleazer Owens. Baltus Niepos. 

Adam Embier. San-uel Little. 

Ensign Ephraim Hasten. Benjamin Dunning. 
Ensign Ephraim Middaugh. 


There is a tradition ihat Joseph CrancU secretly visited the Minisink 
some time before his second invasion, and was cared for by a Tory, and 
thus became well informed of the condition of the region. Brandt was 
supposed to be a half-breed, with a German father, but later he was be- 
lieved to be a pure Mohawk Indian. He was educated at Dartmouth Col- 
lege, and at the commencement of the Revolution received a British 
appointment as Colonel of the Six Nations. He was a Free Mason, but 
neither this nor a good education tamed his savage nature. Dr. Wilson 
said of him : "He was more cunning than the fox and fiercer than the 

Detachments from Woodhull's, Allison's and Hathorn's Regiments were 
sent to guard the frontier, but Sullivan's expedition up the Susquehanna 
and to the Genesee Valley drew the attention of Brandt, and he and his 
Indians did not return. 

The jails at Goshen an<l Kingston were filled with prisoners, but the 
local Tories continued to be troublesome, and some of them joined the 
British Army, while others made predatory excursions from retreats in 
the lower Highlands, covered by the British works at Stony Point and 
Fort Lee, and became a terror to the inhabitants. 

The residents of this portion of the country and on down the Raniapo 
Valley were mostly Tories, and in this defile in that region known as the 
"Clove," the Tory Moody intercepted an express from Washington to 
Congress regarding an interview about the land and naval forces of 
France. This messenger was intended by Washington to be captured, 
and the news thus obtained caused the withdrawal of a portion of the 
forces under Cornwallis, rendering easier the capture of the latter at 
Yorktown. Claudius Smith and his sons, who had their headquarters in 
the Clove, were the boldest and most successful of its Tories. Smith was 
a large, powerful and shrewd man and while he committed many crimes 
and did many hazardous things, yet for a long time managed to escape 
capture. In Octolx?r. 1778, Governor Clinton, enraged at Smith's depreda- 
tions. ofTered a reward for his arrest and that of his two sons. Richard 
and James. Alarmed by this. Smith fled to Long Island, was recognized 
there, and seized in the night in bed. He was tried for one of his crimes 
at Goshen in January. 1779. and executed on the 22nd of the same month. 
Five of his associates were executed with him — Matthew^ Dolson, John 
Kvan. Thomas Delamar. Tohn Gordon and Amy .\ngor. Retribution fol- 


lowed soon on all Smith's band. His son William was shot in the moun- 
tains, and his son James was probably executed in Goshen soon after his 
father, with James Flewelling and William Cole. Silas Gardner, however, 
who was tried and sentenced as a Tory, was pardoned, but the rest were 
slain or driven from the country. Claudius Smith commenced his depre- 
dations in the interest of the British in 1776, and first appeared on the 
public records, charged with stealing, in 1777. He was confined in the 
Kingston jail, and transferred from there to the Goshen jail, from which 
he escaped. He was said to be the friend of the poor, giving liberally to 
them of what he stole from the rich. Many exciting stories were told 
of his doings. 

One of the most brilliant exploits of the war was the night assault on 
Stony Point, twelve miles below West Point, and now a State reservation 
in Rockland County. This was on July 16-17, 1779. It had been occupied 
by British troops since Clinton's expedition up the Hudson in 1777, and 
was regarded as almost impregnable. "Mad'' Anthony Wayne headed the 
enterprise, and it was carried out in substantial accordance with a general 
plan which had been suggested by General Washington. The fort was 
garrisoned by 700 men, who had fifteen pieces of artillery on the heights. 
Their surprise was complete, and the capture quickly accomplished. The 
American loss was 15 killed and 83 wounded ; that of the British 63 killed, 
61 wounded and 575 made prisoners, only one of the garrison managing to 
escape. The works were destroyed and the place evacuated. In July, 
1779, the British reoccupied it, and began to build defenses, but were soon 
withdrawn because of the coming of the French fleet, and the Americans 
took possession and began restoring the fortifications. 

Arnold's treason was discovered Sept. 23d, 1780, and Stony Point was 
included in the fortifications which he intended to betray. His treason, 
his conference with Major Andre below Stony Point, Andre's stay at 
Hett Smith's house, his capture at Tarrytown and brief confinement at 
West Point, Arnold's flight and Andre's trial and execution, are too 
familiar to the readers of American history to require recapitulation here. 

dLkFiL^^ <=>L ^ 

THE WAR ol" I Si 2 89 


THE WAR ( )l- 1812. 

NOTWITHSTANDING other ostensible causes, it was really neces- 
sary to complete the independence of the United States, only partly 
effected l)v the War of the Revolution, that the War of 1812 
should be bc^uiv and fought out. Great Britain claimed the right to 
search American ships, impress American seamen into her service, and 
make prizes of all American vessels going to or from Erance or her 
allies which did not clear from or touch English ports. Erance issued 
retaliatory decrees which were more damaging to America than Eng- 
land. They declared that its vessels which had touched English 
ports or submitted to be searched by an English ship should be the prop- 
erty of Erance. anci that English goods, wherever found, should be sul>- 
ject to confiscation. Thus endangered by the policy of both nations, Con- 
gress in 1809 declared an embargo prohibiting American vessels from 
sailing from foreign ports, and foreign ships from carrying away Amer- 
ican cargoes— a law which virtually suspended our commerce and exposed 
our merchants to the risks of bankruptcy. England gave notice to the 
President that her claims before stated would be adhered to. and Congress, 
seeing no other means of redress, formally declared war on June 18. 181 2. 
Orange County citizens had given expression to their views on the 
embargo act in March. 1800. A Republican county convention held at 
Goshen selected General Hathorn as its chairman. an<l a committee on 
resolution- was appointed consisting of Jonathan I'isk. CoL'tu-l John 
Nicholson. General Reuben Hopkins and Judge Nathan White. The reso- 
lutions reported and adopted asserted that the American embargo was "a 
wise anrl patriotic measure, imperiously demanded by the exposed condi- 
tion of our seamen, slipping and trade to the audacious outrages of for- 
eign powers.- In the I-ederal party's county convention, held later. 
Daniel Niven was chairman, and its committee on resolutions consisted 
of John Barber. Alexander R. Thompson. Alanson Austin. John Bradner. 
J N. Phillips, John Morrison. John Ducr. Samuel Saver. Jame^ Storey. 


Solomon Sleight, John Decker and Samuel B. Stickney. The resolutions 
protested against the enforcement of the embargo, as "unjust, illegal and 
oppressive, subversive of the rights and dangerous to the liberties of the 

But when the war came the views of many of the Federalists had 
changed, and they sustained the Government. 

The first call for troops was made April 21, 1812, when the militia 
was arranged in two divisions and eight brigades, and the brigades were 
divided into twenty regiments. The second brigade of the first division, 
embracing the militia of Orange and Ulster, under Brigadier General 
Hopkins of Goshen, was organized as the Fourth Regiment, and its Com- 
mander was Lieutenant Colonel Andrew J. Hardenburgh of Shawangunk. 
In 1 81 3 and 1814, Lieutenant Colonel Isaac Belknap took the place of 
Lieutenant Colonel Hardenburgh. The cavalry and artillery were simi- 
larly organized. 

The second call was made in July, 1813, and the third in July, 1814, 
when the places of rendezvous were Newburgh and New Windsor, and 
from these the men were moved on sloops to New York and assigned to 
the neighboring fortifications. They embarked Aug. 28, and returned 
Dec. 4, having been absent only a little more than three months. 

Among the uniformed companies at that time were the following: 
Orange Hussars of Montgomery, Captain William Trimble (succeeded by 
Captain MilHken) ; Captain Van Orsdal's and Captain Dorcas's companies 
of infantry of Montgomery; Captain Kerr's company of artillery of 
New Windsor; Captain Butterworth's company of artillery of New- 
burgh ; Captain Westcott's company of cavalry of Goshen ; Captain 
Acker's company of cavalry of Newburgh and Marlborough ; Captain 
Denniston and Captain Birdsall's companies of infantry of New- 

It appears that Captain Westcott was afterwards appointed Major of 
the first regiment of cavalry, when Chaeles Lindsay was made captain of 
his company ; Joseph H. Jackson, first lieutenant ; Daniel McNeal, second 
lieutenant, and Stephen P. Rockefellow, cornet, all being residents of 
Montgomery except Major Westcott. 

In the fall of 1812, Captain Denniston of the "Republican Blues" en- 
listed about fifty volunteers to serve one year or during the war, and they 
elected Jonathan Gidney captain. They formed part of a detached regi- 

Signing ol the W awayanda Patent. 

THE WAR OF 1812. 


ment of riflemen of wliich Captain Denniston became major and after- 
wards colonel. 

A part of a company from Wallkill was includefl in Colonel Harden- 
huro^h's Ulster regiment, which went to Plattsburgh and thence to Fort 
Hamilton, near the Canada line, for guard duty. 

The following roll of a detached company in Colonel Michael Smith's 
regiment of infantry, mustered in in Se])tember, 1814, embraces men 
from both Orange and Ulster Counties: 

Roll of Detached Company. 

Dunning, Jolni. Captain. 

Mullicks, William, First Lieutenant. 

Moore, Walter, Ensign. 

Booth, Jeffrey, First Sergeant. 

Crane, John A., Second Sergeant. 

Dunning, Henry, Third Sergeant. 

Clark, Oliver, First Corporal. 

Genung, Pierson, Second Corporal. 

Murray, Archibald Y., Third Corporal. 

Lewis, James, Fourth Corporal. 

Smith, Derrick, Fifth Corporal. 

Wilkin, Daniel, Sixth Corporal. 

Brown. Samuel, Drummer. 

Genung, Harvey, Fifer. 

Brown, Elisha. 

Brundage, Abijah. 

Brown, Xeal. 

Bennett, Levi. 

Brown, Daniel. 

Bailey, Xathaniel. 

Benjamin, John. 

Booth, Thomas .\. 

Bedford, Benjamin. 

Cash, Stephen. 

Clark, Stephen. 

Corey, Benjamin. 

Crawford, James. 

Caldwell, Gabriel. 

Christie, .Andrew. 

Corwin, Xebat. 

Corwin, Joseph. 

Cox, Jeremiah. 

Co.x, Thompson. 

Canfield, Joseph. 

Decker, Stephen. 

Dunning, Michael. 

Dunning, John, Jr. 

Planning, Samuel. 

Goldsmitii. Salem. 

Gale. Henry. 

Gregory. Lyman. 

Goldsmith, Moses. 

(iardner, .Samuel, 
(iardner, Silas L. 
Goldsmith, John D. 
Horton, Barnabas. 
Hulse, Jonas, Jr. 
Hudson, Eleazer. 
Hines, John W. 
Jackson, Daniel T. 
Jagger, Paul. 
Kirk. Robert. 
Kortright, John C. 
Kerr, X'athan. 
Kirk, David. 
Keen, Elihu C. 
Knox. James. 
Knapp. Elijah. 
Long, Artemas. 
Lockwood. Jared. 
Lodcr, Isaac W. 
.Millspaugh, Samuel. 
McXish, Joshua. 
.McXish, Spicer. 
McXish, Henry. 
McCarter, James. 
McCartcr, .-Mien. 
-McWy, James. 
-Mires, John, Jr. 
.Monnel, Joseph. 
Moore, Lodcrwick. 
.Miller. John C. 
McWy, John. 
Mc\'ey, .\rden. 
McCarter. William. 
Miller, George. 
Xicolls, .Mien. 
Ogden, Gilbert. 
Prcscott, Stephen. 
Puff, .Kdam. 
Puff, James. 
Roi)bins, John. 
Robbins. Peter. 
'\ny. James. 
RMik-rrs. John. 


Selleck, Isaac. Taylor, Morrison. 

Slauson, Alva. Uptegrove, Richard. 

Saver, William. Van Benschoten, John. 

Sands, Samuel. Warren, David. 

Stringham, Jacob. Warren, Solomon. 

Smith, Isaiah W. Warren, Eliphalet. 

Screder, Elijah. White, Jonathan. 

Smith, Grant. Watson, James. 

Smith, Silas W. Wilkin, William. 

Smith, Bezalell. Wood, John. 

Thompson, Jonathan. Youngs, Virgil W. 
Treadwell, Charles. 

Orange County was represented in the Navy by Silas H. Stringham, 
Charles Ludlow and Robert C. Ludlow, among others. Robert Ludlow 
was on the "Constitution" when she captured the "Java," and Augustus 
C. Ludlow as a lieutenant distinguished himself as a hero in the action 
of the "Chesapeake" with the "Shannon." 

After the British captured Washington in 1814, a public meeting was 
held in Goshen, August 30, to consider the propriety of repairing the fort- 
ifications at West Point or erecting new ones for public defense. General 
James W. Wilson was chairman of the meeting, and a committee to 
devise and report plans was composed of John Duer, Jonathan Fisk, 
William Ross, John W. Wilkin, George D. Wickham, James Finch, Jr., 
and Nathan H. White. They reported at an adjourned meetmg, and 
recommended the following committee of defense, which was ap- 
pointed : 

For Minisink, John Bradner, Nathan Arnot ; Deer Park, John Finch, 
Jr., Joseph Baird ; Wallkill, Henry B. Wisner, Benjamin Woodward; 
Goshen, John Duer, Freegift Tuthill ; Warwick, Dr. Samuel S. Seward, 
Jeffrey Wisner; Monroe, James D. Secor, Benjamin Cunningham; Corn- 
wall, William A. Clark, Joseph Chandler, Jr. ; Blooming Grove, Col. 
Selah Strong, Jeremiah Horton ; Montgomery, John Blake, Jr., Johannes 
Miller ; Newburgh, John D. Lawson, Jacob Powell ; New Windsor, Jo- 
seph Morton, David Hill. 

This Committee of Defense met September 7. and made Selah Strong 
its chairman and John Duer its secretary. It passed resolutions in har- 
mony with those of the public meeting, and appointed the chairman, the 
secretary, William A. Clark. Joseph Morell and Johannes Miller a com- 
mittee to tender the services of citizens in repairing the West Point forti- 
fications. At another meeting, September 17, the committee instructed 

THRWAR OF i8i2. 93 

the town committees immediately to collect subscriptions of money and 
labor, and report them to the General Committee, and also inquire into 
and report the quantity of arms and ammunition which the respective 
towns might need. 

October 25 it was reported from the Secretary of War that he would 
send a skillful engineer to West Point "to superintend the works and point 
out the sites most eligible for defense." 

Little was done, however, at West Point, but military companies 
of exempts were organized in several towns. 

The glad news of the treaty of peace, concluded in December, 1814, 
was celebrated in every town of the county with great enthusiasm, and 
included illuminations, cannon firing, speeches, toasts, and thanksgiving 
services in the churches. 

Peace with other nations continued from the close of the War of 1812 
until the war with Mexico, 1846-8. For this war New York City regi- 
ments drew a number of volunteers from Orange, but only one com- 
pany was recruited in the county, and this was in Goshen, and it became 
Co. K of the loth Regiment U. S. Infantry. Its captain was Alexander 
Wilkin and its lieutenant, Francis M. Cummins. Captain Wilkin re- 
signed in April, 1848, and Lieutenant Cummins was promoted to the 
captaincy. The regiment with this company was attached to the Army 
of the Rio Grande under General Taylor. 



THE patriotic services of the people of Orange County in the four- 
years' Civil War of 1861-5 were as praiseworthy as those of their 
ancestors in the two wars with Great Britain, which founded 
the RepubHc upon a lasting basis of unparalleled prosperity and progress. 
It was as necessary for the continuance of that prosperity, and as a 
lesson of our republican experiment to the world, to defeat the efforts 
of the slave-holding States to rend the Union in twain, as it had been 
to compel the kingly power across the ocean to let us establish it. This 
Orange County was quick to perceive and act upon. 

Its Co. B, Third Regiment of Infantry, was the first company re- 
cruited and ready for muster in the State. Recruiting for it was com- 
menced in Newburgh immediately after the passage by the Legislature, 
April 16, 1861, of an act to authorize the equipment of volunteer 
militia for the public safety, the movement being started by Hon. Ste- 
phen W. Fullerton, Member of Assembly, and placed in charge of James 
A. Ramney. There were seventy-seven men enrolled when the company 
was mustered in for two years, May 14, 1861 — less than one month from 
the day the first man enlisted, and it had then been ready several days for 
mustering in. 

The following regiments and companies were recruited in Orange 
for the Civil War, and there were many other enlistments from the 
county in other regiments and in the Navy: 

Infantry: Third Regiment, Co. B, 1861 ; i8th, Co. D and Co. H, in part, 1861 ; 
36th, Co. B, 1861 ; 56th, Cos. A, B, D and E, 1861 ; 63d Regiment, 1864 ; 70th, Co. 
F, 1861 ; 87th, Co. C, 1861 ; 98th, Co. C, 1864; 124th Regiment, 1,047 men in 1862 and 
one company in 1864; i68th, 335 men, 1862; 176th, 272 men, 1862. 

Mounted Rifles: First Regiment, Co. C, 1861. 

Cavalry: Second Regiment, Co. B, 1861 ; 15th, Co. I, 146 men, 1864. 

Artillery: Fifteenth Regiment, Co. M, 82 men, 1864; 7th, 70 men, 1864; 7th Inde- 
pendent Battery, 1861. 

Militia: Nineteenth and 71st, 517 men, 1861-62. 


The following are the aggregates by towns of the men furnished and 
accepted in the county: 

April, i86r, to July, 1862. 

Towns. Volunteers. Militia. Total. 

Blooming Grove Zl • ■ 37 

Chester 31 2 33 

Cornwall 36 . . 36 

Crawford il 5 16 

Deer Park 104 . . 104 

Goshen 30 . . 30 

Greenville 3 . . 3 

Hamptonburgh 2 . . 2 

Highlands i . . I 

Minisink 17 . . 17 

Monroe 25 . . 25 

Montgomery 109 79 188 

Mount Hope 9 . . 9 

Newburgh 493 4^9 922 

New Windsor 26 2 28 

Southfield 12 . . 12 

Wallkill 447 447 

Warwick ICO . . 100 

Wawayanda 12 . . 12 

1,505 517 2,022 

In addition to the numbers tabulated there were in the 71st Militia 
four hundred and twenty-nine from Newburgh, seventy-nine from Mount 
Hope, five from Deer Park, two from Chester and two from Southfield. 

The totals tell their own story of patriotic zeal. 

Company B, Third Regiment, before referred to as the first to be 
recruited and ready for muster in the State, was mustered out at the 
end of its two years' service, but reorganized and was mustered out the 
second time after the close of the war, or August 28, 1865. It was in many 
fights, including those of Big Bethel, Fort Wagner, Bermuda Hundred, 
Petersburg. Fort Gilmer, Chapin's Farm, Fort Fisher and Wilmington. 
Its first captain, Stephen W. Fullerton, appointed April 20, 1861, died 
in Newburgh. September 11, 1861. and was succeeded by Ervine A. Jones, 
firj^t lieutenant. September 25. 1861. who was dismissed August 16. 1862. 
Alexander Mann, second and then first lieutenant, was promoted to captain, 
June 10, 1861, and discharged .August 31, 1864. Jeremiah D. Mabie, who 
wai; promoted from first sergeant to second lieutenant, and then to first 


lieutenant of Co. B, was made captain of Co. F, June 15, 1863, and dis- 
charged September 18, 1864. James H. Reeve was advanced from fourth 
sergeant to first sergeant and then to second Heutenant of Co. B, was 
made captain of Co. I October 3, 1864, lost a leg at Fort Fisher, and was 
discharged June 26, 1865. 

The Eighteenth Regiment was recruited in several counties in response 
to the call of President Lincoln for 75,000 volunteers. It was mustered 
in for two years May 17, 1861, and mustered out May 28, 1863. Co. D 
was recruited from Orange County and organized at Middletown,. 
with John C. McGinnis, captain, George Barry, first lieutenant and 
Roswell M. Sayre, second lieutenant. The commissions of these officers 
date back into April. The enlistments were so many that thirty men of 
the company were separated to form a part of Co. H. The regiment sup- 
ported a battery in the first battle of Bull Run, but was not brought into 
action. It was stationed and remained near Alexandria the most of the 
time until McClellan's Army went to the Peninsula, and took part there 
in the seven days' fighting. Afterward it did guard duty at various 
points until it was mustered out. 

The following promotions of Orange County men in the i8th Regi- 
ment are on record, the dates being those of rank, some of which pre- 
ceded dates of commission : 

Thomas S. Lane, 2d Lieut., Nov. 6, 1861 ; ist Lieut., Nov. 10, 1862; mustered out 
with regiment. 

W. E. Carmichael, 2d Lieut., May 7, i86t ; ist Lieut., Dec. 2, 1861 ; resigned May 
16, 1862. 

Robert A. Malone, 2d Lieut., Nov. 11, 1861 ; Capt., Sept. 8, 1862; mustered out 
with regiment. 

Roswell M. Sayre, 2d Lieut., April 30, 1861 ; ist Lieut., Dec. 21, 1862; Capt., June 
26, 1862 ; mustered out with regiment. 

John S. King, ist Lieut., June 26, 1862; mustered out with regiment. 

George Barry, ist Lieut, April 30, 1861 ; killed at Gaines Mills, June 27, 1862. 

John C. McGinnis, Capt., April 30, 1861 ; Major, Dec. 2, 1861 ; Lieut. Col., Oct. 14, 
1862 ; mustered out with regiment. 

The 36th Regiment was organized in New York, and its Co. B was 
recruited in Orange County by John Raney of Newburgh, captain of 
Co. F, 19th Militia, assisted by Timothy Donoghue of the same company. 
The enlistments were for two years. Between May 13 and June 17, 
1861, they enlisted seventy-seven men; The regiment arrived in Washing- 
ton, July 14, 1861, and remained in camp until March, 1862. It was 



brii^aded under General Couch, and attaclied to General Buell's Division, 
afterward commanded by General Keyes. It went with General Mc- 
Clellan's Army to the Peninsula and was in the fights at Seven Pines, 
Gaines Mills and ^Malvern Hill. Afterward it saw much active and per- 
ilous service in \'irginia and Maryland. At Fredericksburg it was in 
General Deven's Brigade, which was the first of the left grand division to 
cross the Rappahannock, December ii, 1862, and covered the retreat of 
the army, December 15, Co. B being detailed to collect stragglers under 
the enemy's fire. May 3, Co. B, at Marye's Heights, captured a battery 
from a Mississippi brigade, and was the first to raise the colors on the 
heights. The regiment was a part of Sedgwick's Corps in the attack on 
Salem Heights. The last active service of the regiment and Co. B was 
in Hooker's campaign. The officers of the company were : 

John A. Raney, Capt., June 15, 1861 ; Major, Dec. 21, 1861 ; resigned Oct. 15, 1862. 

Timothy Donoghue, ist Lieut., June 15, 186 1 ; Capt., Nov. 12, 1861 ; mustered out 
with regiment, July 15, 1863. 

John M. Lewis, 2d Lieut.. June 15, 1864: ist Lieut., Dec. 2, 1861 ; mustered out 
with regiment. 

Charles B. Lewis, ist Sergt., Oct. T, i86r ; 2d Lieut., Nov. 12, 1861 ; ist Lieut, 
Aug. 20, 1862; mustered out with regiment. 


The 56th Regiment was formed of companies from Orange, Ulster, 
Sullivan and Delaware Counties, Companies A. B, D and E being re- 
cruited from Orange, as were the 7th Battery and Co. C of Mounted 
Rifles, afterward detached. It was a three-years' regiment, but was 
continued by re-enlistment, and although the companies were all mus- 
tered in between July 31st and December loth, 1861. the regiment was not 
mustered out until October 17th. 1865. Its services in the army were 
varied and creditable throughout, and at times brilliant, and deserved the 
detailed record of its movements. hardshij)s. perils and achievements in 
the hi.story by John C. J-'isk and William II. I). Blake, members of the 
regiment, which was published in 1906. It is this well-written history 
herein epitomized. 

The 56th Regiment, first known as the Tenth Legion, was organized 
in July, 1861, by Charles H. \'anWyck. with headquarters at Xewburgh. 
It consisted of ten companies of infantry, one of sharpshooters, two 
of artillery and two of cavalry, when it went away, but in W^ashing^on 


the four latter companies were detached and placed in the artillery 
division and cavalry corps. Its camp of rendezvous and instruction until 
November 6th was on a sandy plateau by the Hudson River, near New 
Windsor. In Washington it was made a part of the Provisional Brigade, 
including also the 52nd and 104th Pennsylvania, the nth Maine and the 
1 00th New York Regiments. The 56th New York was commanded by 
Colonel Charles H. VanWyck until he was breveted a Brigadier General. 
Companies A, B and E were recruited in Newburgh by Recruiting Of- 
ficers Thomas S. Marvel, Charles T. Thayer and William J. Williams, 
respectively ; Co. C of mounted rifles in Montgomery by Frederick 
Decker, and Co. D in Warwick by John J. Wheeler. 

The instructing officer at the New Windsor camp was Charles A. 
Van Home Ellis, of the 71st New York Militia, and he proved to be 
an efficient drill-master in regimental and company movements and the 
manual of arms, in which officers and men made rapid progress and be- 
came expert before leaving for the seat of war. When the regiment 
reached New York General Stuart L. Woodford presented to it a white 
silk banner in behalf of a patriotic society called "The Sons of Orange 
and Sullivan," and this was carried through the whole war. On arriv- 
ing in Washington in November the regiment was sent to Kalorama 
Heights, near Georgetown, and tented there about two weeks. The 
weather was severe, and many of the men contracted colds, pneumonia 
and rheumatism from unaccustomed exposures, which also proved fatal 
to some of them. Afterward they camped a few weeks by Rock Creek, 
in the suburbs of Georgetown, and in January, 1862, went into the 
Carver barracks on Meridian Hill. The brigade, under General Naglee, 
had then become one of the best-drilled in the army, and President 
Lincoln and family and General Scott and daughter repeatedly came 
to Meridian Hill to witness its parade. It was in the grand review of 
140,000 men under General McClellan which preceded the movement 
to the Peninsula, and on March 26th crossed the Long Bridge in Casey's 
division of four brigades, which marched thence to Alexandria, where 
on April ist they started down the Potomac on the steamer "Constitution" 
for the Peninsula, reached Hampton Roads in the evening of April 2nd, 
and proceeded to Newport News April 3d. On th's last trip the men 
had their first experience under fire, but the shells which the rebels shot 
at them from Sewell's Point fell short. 


At Newport News they went into camp on a large plantation, waited 
for the rest of the army a few days, and marched with it to Yorktown. 
Here the men on picket line were almost constantly under fire, and all 
were kept in a fever of excitement by the roar of cannon and cracks 
of rifles along the whole line from river to river, day and night. 

The first real baptism of fire experienced by the 56th was on April 
i6th, when a large force of the enemy came out and fell on the left of 
the division near Lee's Mills. The rebels were repulsed, and the officers 
commended the men of the regiment for their courage and steadiness 
under fire. May 5th they had more fighting experience after a swifl 
march of the day before to the front of Fort McGruder in the suburbs 
of Williamsburgh. Here they took part in a charge on their enemies 
with fixed bayonets, which caused the latter to flee in confusion leaving 
many dead and wounded and about 600 prisoners. They remained in 
line of battle all night, standing in deep mud, and drenched by a driz- 
zling rain. When, the next afternoon, they were each given three bis- 
cuits of hardtack it was the first food they had eaten in two days, and 
ended the first experience of intense gnawing hunger with the most of 
them. May 9th they followed the retreating rebels over roads deep 
with mud, exchanging shots with them day after day, sleeping on the 
ground at night, wading streams waist-deep sometimes, with little to 
eat. and much of the time only what they could jayhawk. May 19th 
thc\ drove the enemy across the Chickahominy at a point opposite 
Richmond, and as all the bridges had been destroyed, waded the next day 
across the Oozy river without much opposition, and waited for the rest of 
the corps, which followed in three days, and crossed the river on a bridge 
which had meanwhile been constructed for them. During the next three 
days the regiment was kept on the move making reconnoissances and 
scouting, and scouted to within four miles of the city of Richmond. 

May 28th the 56th found itself assigned with Casey's division to a 
position on the right of the Williamsburgh turnpike, remained on picket 
till sometime after the attack of the 3i.'^t and captured a number of the 
enemy's skirmishers. Later, when the two lines of battle were formed, 
it was placed to support Spratt's battery, but the battery's captain re- 
lievefl it and left the division lying on the ground exposed to the plunging 
fire of the enenr 's artillery, which killed the men "at a fearful rate." 
Thev then formed in the e(\^e of the woods, and there fought two hours, 


and Colonel Van Wyck was wounded in the leg by a piece of shell. The 
division that day opposed a force of 30,000, and held the line. Three 
times the enemy charged to within reach of their bayonets, and each 
time was driven back. The division made one of the most bloody and 
obstinate fights of the war, and lost nearly half of its men, but, it was 
believed, saved the army of the Potomac from great disaster. 

Then to Malvern Hill. On July i the division, after a tedious march, 
lay down on the hill near a large house, and there all day witnessed the 
cannonading of 160 Union guns, expecting every moment to be ordered 
to assist in the frequent fierce assaults made by the Army of Virginia in 
three divisions, "only to be torn in pieces and hurled back again to the 
cover of the woods by the awful storm of shot and shell and volleys of 
the infantry supports." But the brigade was not moved from its re- 
served position until late in the afternoon, when it was sent to the 
southern slope of the hill, and on the 2nd acted as rear guard of the 
whole retreating army, being in charge of the artillery and wagon trains. 
The enemy's advance attacked it at Carter's Hill, but was repulsed. The 
next day breastworks were thrown up, and the army rested. On July 
7th the men were cheered by a visit and praise from President Lincoln. 
It was thought that the army would move forward and capture Rich- 
mond, but General McClellan received orders to withdraw by way of 
Aquia Creek and attack Richmond from the Rappahannock. The Chicka - 
hominy was crossed October 16 in weather so hot that large numbers of 
the officers and men dropped by the wayside exhausted, and that night 
when the regiment bivouacked not more than 100 men stacked arms, and 
hardly an officer except the mounted ones was with them. Key's corps, in- 
cluding the 56th Regiment, was left at Yorktown to cover the embarka- 
tion. The Peninsula campaign *was ended. 

General Naglee's brigade remained in and about Yorktown for j-ome- 
time, doing picket duty and demolishing earthworks. On December 11 it 
went on a raid into Gloucester, Kings and Queens Counties, and brought 
back horses, mules, cattle, sheep and fowls. The brigade marched all night 
closely followed by the enemy, the 56th doing excellent service as the rear 
guard. On December 29th the brigade embarked on steamer for More- 
head City, N. C, and went from there to Newbern, near which it re- 
mained two weeks. On January 8, 1863, orders were read informing the 
men of the 56th that their regiment had been attached to the i8th Corps, 

THE CI\'IL WAR. loi 

2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, with General Xaglee as division commander, 
and Colonel Davis of the 104th Pa. as the brigade commander. General 
Naglee, on taking leave, issued an order naming the important events in 
the history of the brigade in which it acted a conspicuous part, and which 
should be inscribed upon the regimental banners. The 56th was included 
in all of them. 

General Naglee also characterized the work and behavior of the brigade 
in each of the events. 

In connection with the preparations to attack Charleston the brigade 
went to St. Helena Island and waited there until about April ist. Thence 
to woods near the shore of Edisto Harbor, where monitors and gun- 
boats lay at anchor, and covered its landing by shelling the woods. 
After landing it followed the retreating enemy, and some of the men 
were wounded. While in camp here it was several times attacked in 
night forays and some of its picket men captured. Here the 56th was 
temporarily brigaded with that of General Howell in General Terrv's di- 
vision, under General Gilmore of the Tenth Corps. On July i6th. this 
division, 4,000 strong, was attacked by a superior force of Georgia troops, 
but with the aid of the gunboats they were driven off with a loss of 200 
prisoners. Soon afterward the division went to Folly Island, and here, 
while the bombardment of Forts Wagner and Gregg was in progress, 
the men were engaged in arduous duties and got but little rest. August 16 
they sailed to Beaufort, S. C, and went into camp, with the regiment 
sadly reduced in numbers and many sick. They remained there till Sep- 
tember 3, 1864, with the exception of an expedition to John's Island in 

In February. 1864. the regiment veteranized, the most of the men re- 
enlisting, and was mustered in as a veteran regiment I-\'l)ruary 29. In 
March it went north on a furlough and returned May 18. commanded by 
Colonel Tyler. During its stay at Beaufort about 400 new men had been re- 
cruited for it by officers sent north. The regiment went from Beaufort 
to John's Island, near Charleston. July ist. and here became a part of 
J. P. Hatch's division. On July 4th it had the most trying march of the 
year on account of the extreme heat and the soft sand. Manv of the 
men were sunstruck. and some of them died. The march was continued 
the next morning to within seven miles of Charleston, when, hearing 
that rebel cavalrv were in their rear, thev were ordered back. The next 


day they started again for the front, and had to do some fighting. July 
9th they were attacked by the rebels in force in a dense fog. A surprise 
was intended, but the rebels were met with volleys of grape and canister, 
and were twice repulsed. On July loth, the regiment went back to Beau- 
fort, and the St. John's expedition passed into history. It was regarded 
as the most exciting and perilous scouting expedition the regiment was 
ever engaged in, but its object was accomplished. It remained at Beau- 
fort until September 3, when it moved over to Morris Island and assisted 
in the siege of Charleston. Here the men could see every shot from their 
batteries that struck Fort Sumter, and the firing was kept up night and 
day. The heat was extreme, the whole island was covered with shifting 
sand, which filled eyes, ears and hair, the heavy fogs at night were like 
a drenching rain, and all the while they were under the fire of the rebel 
forts and batteries, shells from which burst over their heads ; but they 
had the compensation of seeing their own shells burst in the city of 

Many of the men became afflicted with scurvy, and the effective force 
of the regiment was reduced to 600 men, one-half of whom were detailed 
each day and night for field duty. Otherwise their duties were severe, and 
in October the nights became very cold, and, being without fuel, caused 
them much suffering. They remained there until November 27, when 
they were taken to Boyd's Point, and the next morning were marched by 
General Potter toward Honey Hill, where they were surprised by a con- 
cealed rebel battery, and there was a bloody fight in which the 56th lost 
fifty men in killed and wounded, and the division 746, and they were 
obliged to fall back. On December 3d the brigade, after a lively skirmish, 
returned to its old camp, and three days later went up Broad River to 
Deveaux Neck, near which it had many of its men killed and wounded 
in a severe fight. The next day it was attacked by a large force, and 
there was a bloody fight in which each man fired sixty rounds and the 
rebels were repulsed, but resisted stubbornly and retired slowly. In this 
battle the 56th encountered the 5th Georgia Regiment, drove it from 
its position, captured its colors, and lost twenty-four men in killed and 

The camp was thirty-six miles north of Savannah and seventy from 
Charleston. December 23d the news came that General Sherman had 
occupied Savannah. On the 29th Colonel Tyler was put in comman 1 


of three regiments, including the 56th, and they advanced to ascertain the 
strengtli of the enemy. They encountered his picket Hne which resisted 
but fell back, and killed and wounded seventeen of Tyler's men. The camp 
was undisturbed until January 7th, when a rirted gun began shelling them 
and kept it up for a week, night and day. This was not restful, but the 
camp was so sandy that not more than half the percussion shells burst, and 
not a man was injured by them. January 15th it was discovered that the 
rebels had left, and our men pushed on and took possession of Fort Coo- 
sawhatchie. Here the rations were greatly improved by foraging expedi- 
tions. On the 17th they were visited by Generals Sherman and Howard. 
On the 29th the 56th remained at the fort while the rest of the brigade 
left to relieve General Sherman's forces at Poctaligo. The 56th did not 
join it until February 16, and afterward the brigade made a slow march 
to Ashley River, across which lay Charleston, arriving there February 28. 
The city had been evacuated after the cotton warehouses, quartermasters' 
stores, bridges, vessels, etc., had been burnt by order of General Hardie. 
March ist the division started to pursue him, and if possible prevent him 
from joining General Johnston's army. It marched several days without 
finding any rebels, then was ordered to return and was back in 
Charleston on the 9th. This expedition, composed of General Pot- 
ter's entire division, had marched ninety miles. It went on March 
nth to the village of Mt. Pleasant, near Charleston, and re- 
mained there until April 2n(l, when it went to Georgetown. Major 
Eliphas Smilh being in command of companies A, R. C. D and E of the 
56th. A and B remained in Georgetown as a part of the garrison. C was 
sent as guard of a transport up the Santee River, and B and D were 
attached to the 157th regiment, and went with it on the "Kingsville 
expedition." Kingsville was about 135 miles from Georgetown, and the 
rebels had run in there from points on Sherman's march as many as 25 
locomotives and 200 cars, with large quantities of stores and ammuni- 
tion. After a troublesome march, with some hard fighting, the expedi- 
tion reached Kingsville April 10. On the 9th companies B and D of the 
56th had gallantly charged a rebel battery, in the face of a fusilade, and 
captured it, but with a loss in killed and wounded of fifteen men. 

The next day news was received of the fall of Petersburgh and the 
surrender of General Lee's army. In General Potter's order announcing 
it he returned "special thanks to Lieutenant-Colonel Carmichael of the 


157th New York and detachment of the 56th New York for the skilful 
and gallant manner in which they carried the enemy's battery and drove 
him in confusion from the field." 

The locomotives and cars at Kingsville were destroyed, and the expe- 
dition marched back happy to their old camp at Mt. Pleasant. The 
fightings and severe hardships were ended at last. 

April 14 the men witnessed the raising of the Union flag at Fort Sum- 
ter on the 4th anniversary of its surrender. Soon the regiment was 
united again at Summerville, and remained near there until the men were 
paid up. It started homeward October 6th, and was disbanded and mus- 
tered out on Hart's Island, New York Harbor, November loth. but a num- 
ber of the men whose terms had expired had been discharged on July 5th. 

During its last campaign in South Carolina the distances the regiment 
had traversed were about as follows : Beaufort to Morris Island, seventy 
miles ; to Coosawatchie by way of Honey Hill and Deveaux Neck, ninety 
miles; to Charleston, seventy miles; to Santee River and return, eighty 
miles ; Kingsville raid, 390 miles ; to Newberry by way of Orangeburg and 
Columbia, 166 miles ; to Chester, forty-five miles ; to Charleston by way of 
Winsboro, Columbia and Florence, 205 miles — all during the regiment's 
last year of service. 

The regiment arrived in New York City October 20, 1865, was quar- 
tered in the Battery barracks until November 9, was paid up and dis- 
charged November 10. 

From first to last there were 2,176 men and boys enlisted and assigned 
to the 56th regiment. 

The incomplete record shows the names of forty-one killed in battle, 
twenty-three died of wounds; 216 died of disease; 170 wounded and re- 
covered; 415 discharged for disability and wounds; sixty-seven trans- 
ferred to other commands ; five captured and paroled. 

Following is a list of the engagements in which the regiment took part : 

Engagements of the Fifty-sixth. 

Siege of Yorktown, Va., April 15 to May 4, 1862. 

Lee's Mills, Va., April 28, 1862. 

Williamsburgh, Va., May 5, 1862. 

Bottoms and Turkey Island Bridge, Va., May 23, 1862. 

Savage Station, Va., May 25, 1862. 

Fair Oaks, Va.. May 31, 1862. 


7. Seven Days' Battle, June 25 to July 2, 1862. 

8. Railroad and Bottoms Bridge, Va., June 28 and 29. 1862. 

9. White Oak Swamp Bridge, Va., June 30, 1862. 

10. Malvern Hill, Va., July i, 1862. 

11. Carter's Hill, Va., July 2, 1862. 

12. Woods' Cross Roads, Va., Dec. 14, 1862. 

13. Seabrook Island, S. C, June 18, 1863. 

14. Grimball's Landing, S. C., July 16, 1863. 

15. Siege of Fort Wagner, S. C, July 18, 1863. 

16. Siege of Charleston, S. C, August and September, 1863. 

17. Johns Island, S. C. Julv i to 10, 1864. 

18. Honey Hill, S. C, Nov."30, 1864. 

19. Coosawhatchie, S. C, Dec. 3, 1864. 

20. Boyd's Point, S. C, Dec. 5, 1864. 

21. Deveaux Xeck, S. C, Dec. 6, 1864. 

22. Deveaux Xeck, S. C, Dec. 7, 1864. 

23. Deveaux Neck, S. C, Dec. 9. 1864. 

24. Deveaux Xeck, S. C, Dec. 19, 1864. 

25. Deveaux Xeck, S. C, Dec. 29, 1864. 

26. Manningsville, S. C, April 8, 1865. 
2-7. Dingle's Mills, S. C, April 9, 1865. 



Charles H. Van Wyck, and Brig. Gen., U. S. V. 
Rockwell Tyler, not mustered. 


James Jordan, to August S, 1862. 

Frederick Decker, not mustered. 

John J. Wheeler, to Feb. 11, 1864. 

Rockwell Tyler, to muster out and Brevet Colonel. 

Eliphas Smith, not mustered. 


Jacob Sharpe, to Aug. 5, 1862. 
John J. Wheeler, to Dec. 15, 1862. 
Rockwell Tyler, to Feb. 27, 1864. 
Eliphas Smith, to Oct. 17, 1865. 
James DuBois, not mustered. 


Eli H. Evans, to Oct. 25, 1863. 

Henri B. Loomis, to muster out of regiment. 


John B. Gerard, to Sept. 5, 1862. 

Jesse F. Schafer. to Oct. 15, 1864, from Co. K. 

Addison J. Clements, to muster out of regiment, from Co. F. 



Solomon Van Etten, to Sept. 28, 1864. 

George H. Fossard, Oct. 7, 1864, to July 5, 1865. 

Ira S. Bradner,' Sept. 19, 1865 ; not mustered. 


O. A. Carrol, Sept. 2, 1861, to May 13, 1863, 
Albert S. Turner, Aug. 9, 1862, to Nov. 18, 1863. 
Daniel S. Hardenburgh, Nov. 11, 1863, to April i, 1865. 
Ira S. Bradner, April 25, 1863, to muster out of regiment. 
George K. Sayer, Brevet ist Lieut, and Asst. Surg. 


George K. Sayer, from Oct. 20, 1861, to muster out of regiment. 


Charles Shelling, to Dec. 23, 1862. 

George P. Van Wyck, Dec. 30, 1862, to muster out of regiment. 


William N. Phillips, to Jan. 18, 1862. 

Demmon S. Decker, Co. F, to Feb. 9, 1862. 

Francis Hines, Co. E, to Aug. 8, 1862. 

John Metcalf, Co. A, to Dec. 23, 1863. 

Francis Might, Co. G, to July i, 1864. 

Robert C. Roper, Co. H, to Jan. i, 1865. 

James Gowdy, Co. C, to May 18, 1865. 

Frank Hotchkin, Co. F, to muster out of regiment. 


Jesse F. Schafer, original, to Feb. 2"^, 1862. 

Noah D. Smith, Co. H, to muster out of regiment. 


Isaac Rosa, original, to April 12, 1862. 

William H. Merphy, Co. K, to Nov. 20, 1864. 

William H. D. Blake, Co. C, Nov. 22, 1864, to muster out of regiment. 


Berger, Albert B. King, Hiram T. 

Biddle, John Kirkpatrick, Joseph 

Canfield, George Little, James, Jr. 

Count, Thomas H. Sloat, Cornelius J. 

Cromwell, Charles Stewart, William H. 

Depuy, Elias Turner, Joshua B. 

Depuy, George Tuthill, Charles 

Depuy, Calvin Van Cleft, Theodore H. 

Frost, William N. Way, Richard D. 

Harding, Elisha C. Welch, Theodore H. 

King, George J. Wheat, Robert A. 

1 emple Hill Monument, New Windsor. 




Aber, David, Co. B. 
Aher, George, Co. B. 
Baird, Charles, Co. H. 
Bender, Conrad, Co. D. 
Bradncr, Fred H., Co. F. 
DeSylvia, Dwight, Co. F. 
Graham. Nathaniel, Co. '. 
Grannis, James H., Co. H. 
Hamilton, William, Co. B. 
Howe, Wcstley, Co. H. 
Kennedy, Le\vi.s E., Co. G. 
King, Henry, Co. D. 
Kinslcr, George, Co. K. 

Lamoreu.x, Timothy, Co. F. 
Mead, John, Co. L. 
Miller, Ilarman B., Co. A. 
Miller, Thomas, Co. G. 
Nixon, Edward, Co. G. 
Pitts, Charles V. L., Co. H. 
Reynolds, Newell F., Co. D. 
Robinson, John T., Co. A. 
Robinson, Henry, Co. C. 
Smith, Cornelius. Co. F. 
Smith, William T., Co. I. 
Wcightman, Charles, Co. E 
Young, William, Co. F. 


VanWyck, Charles — Age, 37 years. Enrolled at Newburgh, to serve 3 years, and 
mustered in as Colonel, Sept. 4, 1861 ; mustered out with regiment, Oct. 17, 1865, at 
Charleston, S. C. Commissioned Colonel, Nov. 13, 1862, with rank from Sept. 4, 
1861. Original. Brevet Brig. General, U. S. V. Brigadier General from Sept. 27, 
1865; mustered out Jan. 15, 1866. 

Jourdan, James. — Age, 29 years. Enrolled at Brooklyn to serve 3 years, and 
mustered in as Lieutenant Colonel, Dec. 19, 1861 ; discharged, Aug. 5, 1862; prior 
service as Major 84th Infantry. Commissioned Lieutenant Colonel, Dec. 20, 1861, 
with rank from Dec. 19, 1861. Original. 

Sharpe, Jacob. — Age, 27 years. Enrolled at Newburgh, to serve 3 years, and 
mustered in as Major, Sept. 3, 1861 ; discharged Aug. 5, 1862. Commissioned Major, 
June 28, 1862, with rank from Sept. 6, 1861. Original. Subsequent service in the 
156th Regiment, N. Y. Infantry Vols., as Lieutenant Colonel and Colonel. 

Evans, Eli H. — Age, 25 years. Enrolled, July 31, 1861, at Newburgh, to serve 3 
years: mustered in as Adjutant, Sept. i, 1861 ; dishonorably discharged, Oct. r, 1863; 
also borne as First Lieutenant on rolls of Company A. Commissioned First Lieu- 
tenant and Adjutant, Aug. i, 1862, with rank from Sept. i, 1861. Original. 

Gerard, John C. — Age, 32 years. Enrolled, July 21, 1861, at Newburgh, to serve 3 
years: mustered in as Quartermaster, July 31, 1861 : discharged Sept. 4, 1862. Com 
missioned First Lieutenant and Quartermaster, Aug. 7, 1862, with rank from July 
31, t86i. Original. 

Shelling, Charles — Age, 35 years. Enrolled at Newburgh to serve 3 years, and 
mustered in as Chaplain, Sept. 16, 1861 ; discharged, Dec. 2;^, 1862. Commissioned 
Chaplain, Aug. 7, 1862, with rank from Sept. 16, 1861. Original. 

VanWyck, George P. — Age, 35 years. Enrolled at Seabrook Island, S. C. to 
serve 3 years; mustered in as Chaplain, April 8. 1863: mustered out, Oct. 17, 1865, 
while absent with leave. Commissioned Chaplain. Dec. 30, 1862, with rank from 
same date, vice Charles Shelling, resigned. 


Phillips. William N. — .Age. 30 years. Enlisted. Sept. IQ, i86t, at Newburgh, to 
serve 3 years ; mustered in as Sergeant Major. Oct. i, 1861 ; died of typhoid fever, 
Jan. 4, 1862, at Warren Hospital. Washington, D. C. 



James Jourdan, Aug. 5, 1862, Lieutenant Colonel. 

Jacob Sharpe, Aug. 5, 1862, Major. 

Eli H. Evans, Oct. i, 1863, Adjutant. 

John C. Gerard, Sept. 4, 1862, Quartermaster. 

Charles Shelling, Dec. 23, 1862, Chaplain. 

Frederick Decker, Nov. 23, 1862, Lieutenant Colonel 

John J. Wheeler, Feb. 11, 1864, Lieutenant Colonel. 


Bradner, Ira S. — Enrolled, April 25, 1863, at Hilton Head, S. C, to serve 3 years ; 
mustered in as Assistant Surgeon, May 12, 1863 ; commissioned as Surgeon, Sept. 
19, 1865; mustered out with regiment, Oct. 17, 1865, at Charleston, S. C. Commis- 
sioned Assistant Surgeon, May 4, 1863, with rank from April 25, 1863, vice O. A. 
Carroll, promoted in 143d Infantry; Surgeon, Sept. 19, 1865, with rank from Sept. 
19, 1865, vice G. W. Fossard, resigned. 

Carroll, Oscar A. — Age, 34 years. Enrolled, Sept. 2, 1861, at Newbtirgh, to serve 
3 years ; mustered in as Assistant Surgeon, Sept. 23, 1861 ; mustered out May 13, 

1863, for promotion to Surgeon, 143d Infantry. Commissioned Assistant Surgeon, 
Aug. 7, 1862, with rank from Sept. 23, 1861. Original. 

Fossard, George H. — Age, 25 years. Enrolled, Oct. 7, 1864, at Morris Island, S. 
C, to serve 3 years; mustered in as Surgeon, Nov. s, 1864; discharged July 5, 1865; 
prior service as Assistant Surgeon, 146th Infantry. Commissioned Surgeon, Oct. 7, 

1864, with rank from Oct. 7, 1864, vice S. Van Etten, mustered out. 
Hardenberg, Daniel S. — Age, 23 years. Enrolled, Nov. 11, 1863, at Beaufort, 

S. C, to serve 3 years; mustered in as Assistant Surgeon, Dec. 11, 1863; discharged, 
April I, 1865. Commissioned Assistant Surgeon, Nov. 13, 1863, with rank from 
Nov. II, 1863, vice A. L. Turner, promoted. 

Sayre, George K. — Age, 22 years. EnHsted at Newburgh, to serve 3 years, and 
mustered in as Hospital Steward, Oct. 20, 1861 ; re-enlisted as a veteran, Feb. 24, 
1864; mustered out with regiment, Oct. 17, 1865, at Charleston, S. C. ; also borne as 
Sayer. Breveted First Lieutenant and Assistant Surgeon. 

Turner, Albert S. — Age, 35 years. Enrolled at Yorktown, Va., to serve 3 years, 
and mustered in as Assistant Surgeon, Aug. 9, 1862; discharged, June 30, 1863, for 
promotion to Surgeon, 103d Infantry. Commissioned Assistant Surgeon, Aug. 29, 
1862, with rank from Aug. 19, 1862. 

Van Etten, Solomon — Age, 2^ years. Enrolled at Newburgh, to serve 3 years, 
and mustered in as Surgeon, Sept. 23, 1861 ; mustered out, Oct. 7, 1864 ; also borne 
as Fetterman Van Ettan. Commissioned Surgeon, Sept. 23, 1861, with rank from 
Aug. 7, 1861. Original. 


Biddle, John — Age, 23 years. Enlisted at Middletown, to serve 3 years, and mus- 
tered in as musician in band, Sept. 21, 1861 ; mustered out, March i, i86i, at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Canfield, George. — Age, 15 years. Enlisted at Middletown, to serve 3 years, and 
mustered in as musician in band, Sept. 21, 1861 ; mustered out, March i, 1862, at 
Washington, D. C. 

Count, Thomas H. — Age, 35 years. Enlisted at EUenville, to serve 3 years, and 
mustered in as musician in band, Sept. 21, 1861 ; mustered out, March i, 1862, at 
Washington, D. C. 

Henry Seacord. 

THE C1\IL WAR. 109 

Cromwell, Charles — Age, 27 years. Enlisted at Middlctown, to serve 3 years, and 
mustered in as musician in band, Sept. 21, 1861 ; mustered out, March i, 1862, at 
Washington, D. C. 

Dcpuy, George — Age, 29 years. Was enrolled Sept. 10, 1861, to serve 3 years, 
and mustered in as musician in band; discharged, Dec. 6, 1861, at Washington, D. 
C, by General Order, No. 91, War Department. 

Harding. Elislia C. — Age, 26 years. Enlisted at Middletown, to serve 3 years, 
and mustered in as band leader, Sept. 21, 186 1 ; mustered out, March i, 1862, at 
Washington, D. C. 

King, George J. — Age, 31 years. Enlisted at Middletown, to serve 3 years, and 
mustered in as musician in band, Sept. 21, 1861 ; mustered out, March i, 1862, at 
Washington, D. C. 

King, Hiram T.— Age, 27 years. Enlisted at Middletown, to serve 3 years, and 
mustered in as musician in band, Sept. 21, 1861 ; mustered out, March i, 1862, at 
Washington, D. C. 

Kirkpatrick, Joseph — Age, 25 years. Enlisted at Middletown, to serve 3 years, 
and mustered in as musician in band, Sept. 21, 1861 ; mustered out, March i, 1862, 
at Washington, D. C. Subsequent service in the Cavalry. 

Little, James, Jr. — Age 24 years. Enlisted at Middletown, to serve 3 years, and 
mustered in as musician in band, Sept. 21, 1861 ; mustered out, March i, 1862, at 
Washington, D. C. 

Stewart, William H. — Age, 24 years. Enlisted at Middletown, to serve 3 years, 
and mustered in as musician in band, Xov. i, 1861 ; mustered out, March i, i8i52, at 
Washington, D. C. Subsequent service in the Engineer Corps, and Captain in the 
Regular Army. 

Tuthill, Charles — Age, 24 years. Enlisted at Middletown, to serve 3 years, and 
mustered in as musician in band, Sept. 21, 1861 ; mustered out, March i, 1862, at 
Washington, D. C. 

Van Cleft, Theodore H. — Age, 24 years. Enlisted at Middletown, to serve 3 
years, and mustered in as musician in band, Sept. 21, 1861 : mustered out, March i, 
1862, at Washington, D. C. 

Way, Richard D. — Age, 24 years. Enlisted at Middletown, to serve 3 years, ancf 
nuistered in as musician in band, Sept. 21, 1861 ; mustered out, March i, 1862, at 
Washington, D. C. 

Welch, Theodore H. — Age, 23 years. Enlisted at Middletown, to serve 3 years, 
and mustered in as musician in band, Sept. 21, 1861 ; mustered out, March i, 1862, at 
Washington, D. C. 

Wheat, Robert A. — Age, 25 years. Enlisted at Middletown, to serve 3 years, and 
mustered in as musician in band, Sei)t. 21, i86r ; mustered out, March i, 1862, at 
Washington, D. C. 

CoMP.\NY A. 

Captains — Thomas S. Marvel. Jr., James H. F. Milton, John Metcalf. 

First Lieutenants — Thomas B. Pope. Thomas Atwood, John Metcalf, Robert C. 

Second Lieutenants — Peter B. Steele, Wilbur F. Still, Robert C. Roper, George 
R. Black, Daniel R. Franklin, Wilbur F. Still. 

CoMP.\NY B. 

Captains — Charles F. Thayer, James H. Smith, Norman Perkins, Alfred W. 
Loomis, Melville Scars. 


First Lieutenants — Effingham Vanderburgh, Alfred W. Lomas, James J. Cox, 
Alphonse Richter, Edward H. Lomas, Jeremiah Strickland. 

Second Lieutenants — Alfred W. Lomas, James J. Cox, Isaac Roosa, Alphonse 
Richter, Algernon Rose, Jesse L. Stivers, Calvin Lambert. 

Company D. 

Captains — John J. Wheeler, Edward Wheeler, John Connell. 
First Lieutenants — Edward Wheeler, Isaac Beckett, William J. Sayre. 
Second Lieutenants — Isaac Beckett, John Connell, Robert E. Halstead, Benjamin 
F. Clark, William J. Sayre. 

Company E. 

Captains — William J. Williams, Daniel D. Eiting, James J. Cox. 

First Lieutenants — Edgar E. Morse, Joseph A. Holmes, John L. Thompkins, 
Francis Hines, Meeker G. Bell. 

Second Lieutenants — Meeker G. Bell, Francis Hines, Edward J. Scranton, Clem- 
ent B. Newkirk. 


The following brief story of the organization and military career of 
the 124th N. Y. V. is condensed from the history of the regiment pre- 
pared by Colonel Charles H. Weygant and published in 1877. 

The 124th was distinctively an Orange Cotmty regiment, as all its 
companies were recruited in the county under President Lincoln's call 
of July I, 1862, for 300,000 three years' men. The day after this call 
was issued Governor Morgan made an appeal to the people of New York 
urging them to respond promptly to the President's wish and the country's 
needs. The State was immediately divided into military districts and a 
committee of prominent citizens was appointed for each, to superintend 
the work of enlistment and recommend suitable persons for the officers 
of the regiments to be raised. Orange and Sullivan Counties constituted 
one of these districts, and its military committee was composed as fol- 

Hon. Robert Denniston, Blooming Grove; Hon. Andrew S. Murray, 
Goshen; Hugh S. Bull, Montgomery; Albert Post, Newburgh; James 
M. Barrett, Cornwall ; Alexander Moore, Washingtonville ; Morgan 
Shint, Monroe. 

A little later the following were added to the committee : E. A. Brews- 
ter and William Fullerton, Newburgh ; C. H. Winfield, Thomas Edsall 
and Silas Horton, Goshen ; James Cromwell and William Avery, Corn- 
wall; C. C. McQuoid, Halstead Sweet, John G. Walkin and John Cum- 
mings, Wallkill ; Charles J. St. John, John Conkling. Orville J. Brown 

THE CI\1L WAR. in 

and C. M. Lawrence, Port Jervis ; C. B. Xewkirk, Monroe; A. S. Dodge, 
Mount Hope; Dorastus Brown, Greenville; A. F. Schofield, Montgom- 
ery ; A. G. Owen, Blooming Grove ; John Cowdrey and Thomas Welling, 

The committee recommended A. Van Home Ellis, of New Windsor, 
then a captain in the service, for colonel of the regiment which it was 
proposed to raise in Orange, and to have general charge of the recruit- 
ing. The gloomy conditions at the seat of war made enlistments slow 
throughout the State. Colonel Ellis, after his selection by the committee at 
its first meeting on June nth, had gone to work immediately, and opened 
recruiting offices in every town, yet only eight men in all were enlisted 
in the county during the month. Then, when it was seen that the national 
capital was again in danger of capture, public meetings were held, private 
bounties were offered, money for the support of the families of volun- 
teers were raised, and there was a general revival of patriotic enthusi- 
asm. Although up to August 8th not more than a score of volunteers 
had reported at Colonel Ellis's headquarters, fifteen days later the regi- 
ment was fully organized and ready to march to the front. 

The regimental ofificers then were : A. \'an Home Ellis, colonel ; F. AI. 
Cummins, lieutenant colonel; James Cromwell, major; John H. Thomp- 
son, surgeon ; T. Scott Bradner. chaplain ; Augustus Denniston, quarter- 
master; De Peyster Arden. adjutant; Edward Marshall, assistant sur- 
geon ; R. V. K. Montfort, 2nd assistant surgeon. 

These field officers had all served honorably in the Union army, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Cummins had been a commissioncl officer in the Mex- 
ican War. 

The members of the regiment's band were : Drum ALijor. Hart ; 

buglers, Wm. B. Wood, Moses P. Ross ; fifes, John G. Buckley. Charles 
Whitehead. Arthur Haigh. Geo. W. Dimick. Henry C. Payne; drums, 
Robert L. Travis, A. J. Millspaugh. Geo. W. Camfield. John N. Cole, 
R. D. Stephens. Charles W. Bodle. Henry U. Cannon. Wm. Hamilton, 
Henry Hoofman. C. \'an Gordon. Jehue Price. J. M. Merritt. W. Johns- 
ton. James McElroy. Samuel W. Weeden. 

The captains of the several companies were: A. Charles H. Wcygant ; 
B. Henry S. Murray : C. Wm. Silliman ; D. James W. Benedict : E. Wm. 
A. McBirney; F. Ira S. Bush; G. Isaac Nicoll ; H. David Crist; I, 
Leander Clark; K. Wm. A. Jackson. 


Delay in obtaining guns postponed the mustering in of the regiment 
until September 5th, and the next day it broke camp at Goshen and 
started for Washington. Meanwhile it had been presented by Charles 
H. Wintield, in behalf of the ladies of Orange, with a stand of colors. 
Its tine appearance in New York inspired a paragraph of praise from the 
Tribune, which said that the most influential families of Orange County 
were represented in its ranks, and that it contained "the very cream of 
the regimental district." 

Three days afterward they were in Washington, and the first nighl 
there slept on the ground and stone block in front of the Capitol. The 
next day they marched to Camp Chase on Arlington Heights, and two 
or three days later moved to a spot which they christened Camp Ellis. 
Here they were attached to Piatt's brigade of Whipple's division of 
Hemtzleman's corps. The other regiments in the brigade were the 122nd 
Pa. (a nine months regiment), the 86th N. Y., and the ist Ohio battery. 
The 124th and 86th regiments remained toge^TeT' during the war. The 
latter and the Ohio battery were already veterans. 

The 124th broke camp again September 25th, went to Miners' Hill, 
and here the men became experienced in picket duties. Tents were struck 
October i6th, and the next day they started in a drizzling rain with their 
division to join the main army on the Maryland side of the Potomac in 
the vicinity of Harper's Ferry. A freight train carried them in great 
discomfort from Washington to Knoxville, eight miles from Harper's 
Ferry, and they became a part of the Army of the Potomac. October 
25th they again received marching orders, and were in motion from sup- 
per time till midnight, when they bivouacked near Berlin, where a pon- 
toon bridge was being laid. Across this they went with tha entire army 
of 100,000 men, and were afterward halted in a muddy cornfield near 
Lovettsville, where they had to stay all night in rain, a cold wind and 
mud, and had their first realization of the sufferings of army life. The 
next morning thirty of the men were unfit for duty. Short marches were 
continued, with stops of two or three days, they being in the advance with 
the rest of Whipple division a part of the time, and then they looked from 
a peak of the Blue Ridge upon some white tents of the enemy. The 
object of the movement had been to cut off a force of his infantry, but it 
was too late and the division was ordered to retrace its steps. 

At Orleans they learned that McClellan had been succeeded by Burn- 

THE CI\"1L WAR. 113 

side as coniiiiainlcr oi the Army of the i'utomac. Xovcmber iith they 
marclied to Waterloo, and here some of the men of Co. B, commanded by 
Lieutenant W. E. Weygant, were part of a detail which had a fight with 
the enemy's pickets and captured two prisoners. November i6th they 
marched to Warrenton and here became a part of General Hooker's grand 
division. There were now daily marches, some of the time through 
heavy rains and in deep mud. November 23rd, four miles from Freder- 
icksburg, they went into camp for the first time since leaving Miner's Hill. 
The army waited in that vicinity for the pontoon trains, which did not 
arrive until December 10. Then, in pushing a pontoon bridge across the 
Rappahannock, many of the builders were killed by Mississippi sharp- 
shooters. To stop this 120 cannon were placed on Stafford Heights over- 
looking Fredericksburg, and began firing shells into the city and among" 
the sharpshooters. When the firing ceased two bridges spanned the 
river, and Union troops hurried across and soon drove the enemy out of 
Fredericksburg. But the great battle was yet to come, when the Con- 
federates forced Burnside's army to withdraw to Falmouth after losing 
13,000 men. Piatt's brigade formed the extreme right of the line, and 
the 124th was one of the last regiments to recross the bridges. The next 
morning about half of the men answered to the surgeon's call, and nearly 
a hundred were placed on the sick list. General Piatt resigned about Christ- 
mas time, and there was a period of drilling and picket duty by brigades. 
January 5th the corps was reviewed by General Burnside. January loth 
new Enfield rifies came and were substituted for the old Belgians. Then, 
after three or four orders to march had been countermanded, a start was 
made through pelting rain and sleet and deepening mud. The rain and 
sleet froze as it fell, and the men w'ere chilled, and experienced two nights 
of great suffering. General Burnside abandoned the attempt to advance. 
On January 26th General Hooker superseded him. The division moved a 
little way, and cut down trees and constructed log cabins. During Feb- 
ruary the weather was severe, but the log cabins, which had fire places, 
though smoky at times, made them tolerably comfortable. Februarv 25th 
the 124th drove off a body of Confederate cavalry which made a dash on 
their picket line. There was a monotonous interval, enlivened April 7th 
by a grand review before President Lincoln and Generals Hooker and 
Sickles. The division and brigade were then attached to General Sickle*'*^ 
corps. Orders to march came April 28th, and the entire armv was soon 


in motion, and the next day halted in sight of the enemy's pickets across 
the Rappahannock. The 124th crossed the river on a pontoon bridge 
with an army of 65,000 men, thirteen miles from Fredericksburg. Then 
came the disastrous battle of Chancellorsville. during which the 124th got 
into the thickest of the fight, had a fierce encounter with Iverson's bri- 
gade, and "not a man faltered," although raked by a deadly fire in whicli 
many men and a number of officers fell. Once they made a charge and 
retook works from which one of our batteries had been driven. The 
battle ended with the day, and Hooker was whipped. The Third corps 
lost in killed and wounded 4,000 men. It captured seven battle flags and 
over 1,000 prisoners. The losses of the 124th were fifty-five killed, 150 
v/ounded and six missing. Colonel Ellis, in his official report said : "Our 
men fought like tigers, cheering loudly, but falling fast, the officers with- 
out exception standing up to their duty and encouraging their commands." 

After Chancellorsville the 122nd Pa., having completed its nine months 
of service, returned home, and the brigade collapsed to between 500 and 
600 men of the 86th and 124th. Colonel Ellis was now in command of the 
brigade, and it was selected as one of three brigades of picked regiments 
to accompany a large body of cavalry on a secret expedition. They 
"Started May 6th through a thunderstorm to Beverly's Ford, where they 
crossed the Rappahannock. There had been a clash of cavalry, and Colonel 
Ellis's regiments were the first in the field. Batteries on both sides opened 
fire, and there were charges and countercharges, in which bullets flew 
thick. A body of rebels got in the rear of the 124th, but they were re- 
pulsed after a hot contest in which Co.'s A, F and D lost two killed and 
twenty wounded. The troops were ordered to recross the river. 

The 124th did such splendid service at Chancellorsville that it was trans- 
ferred to the roll of "first class, tried and to be trusted, veteran battalions," 
although only six weeks before it had been classed among the "untried 
recruits." June 9th it was part of an expedition of these veteran regi- 
ments which recrossed the Rappahannock, did some more fighting, under 
General Buford, and captured some of the enemy's pickets. General 
Pleasanton accompanied General Buford and ordered an advance in force, 
but he found the enemy reinforced and the troops were withdrawn after 
a loss of about 800 on each side. The 124th and 86th were commended 
as "reliable regiments" in the day's doings. 

About this time the old Whipple division ceased to exist in consequence 

Soldiers' Monument. Goshen. 


of the losses at Chancellorsville and mustering- out of several regiments. 
Berdan's sharpshooters and the 124th and 86th were assigned to General 
J. H. H. Ward's brigade of General D. B. Birney's division. 

On June 14th they started on one of their longest and severest marches 
northward, and on June 25th crossed the Potomac at Edward's Eerry 
near Ball's Bluff. Just before it was ordered Milner Brown was 
assigned to the command of the regiment. They proceeded through 
Fredericksburg to Emmetsburg, and here on June 30th the 124th had but 
264 rifles in line, so great had been the losses in battle and from disease. 
They were informed that General Hooker had been succeeded by General 
Meade. The Confederates had invaded Pennsylvania and a great battle 
was anticipated. A forced march was made to Gettysburg through such 
intense heat that many were prostrated, and when the regiment reached 
the high ground south of Gettysburg not more than 100 men and five or 
six officers appeared in the regimental line, but the next morning it was 
240 strong. It was placed in the right center of the brigade, and in that 
decisive battle of the war distinguished itself by its steadiness and daring. 
For forty minutes Ward's and DeTrobriand's brigades of about 3.000 men 
held their ground against Longstreet's entire corps. By a mere chance the 
w^hole regiment escaped capture. General Ward harangued its men on the 
battlefield, and said the heroic resistance they had made "was beyond any- 
thing he had ever dared to hope for." Its active part in the great three 
days' battle was finished on the second day, as it was not called upon to 
participate in the fighting of the third day^ which brought defeat to Lee's 
army. The 124th had lost thirty-three killed, including Colonel Ellis. Major 
James Cromwell and Captain Isaac Nicoll, and fifty-nine wounded, includ- 
ing Lieutenant Colonel Cummins. A number of the severelv wounded re- 
mained in the hands of the enemy several days. The regiment was now 
reduced to 150 men with muskets and nine commissioned officers. Some 
had been sent to the corps hospital. They were now temporarily com- 
manded by Captain Charles A. Weygant of Co. A. 

The pursuit of Lee began, but he was too swift for Meade, and escaped 
across the Potomac. After various movements on both sides of the Poto- 
mac, which was crossed July 17th. the 12 ^.th bivouacked at Manassas Gap 
July 22nd. in sight of the place of its first skirmish. Then the regiment 
had 700 rank and file, a full field staff and twenty-five line officers. Xow. 
although about thirty convalescents had returned, it had less than 200 men 


in all. The corps, commanded by Major General French had been strength- 
ened since Gettysburg by about 8,000 new troops. General Ward still 
commanded the division. 

There were some undecisive movements and skirmishing in which the 
124th participated. Lieutenant Colonel Cummins, having recovered, re- 
turned and took command of the regiment July 28th. It was soon estab- 
lished in camp near Sulphur Springs and remained there six weeks. Sep- 
tember loth, in consequence of the backward movement of Lee's army, 
General Meade pushed a heavy cavalry force across the Rapidan, and 
soon the entire army was transferred to the region between the Rapidan 
and Rappahannock. The 124th broke camp September 15th, and next en- 
camped near Culpepper. October 2nd Lieutenant Colonel Cummins was 
given a leave of absence for five days, and left Captain Weyg^ant in com- 
mand. There were some uncertain movements, one of which followed a 
retrograde movement of Lee, October 19th, but he was found to be out of 
reach and General Meade gave up the pursuit until twenty miles of rail- 
road could be re-built. Next came the fight at Kelly's Ford of November 
/th, in which the 124th supported the lotli Massachusetts Battery, and the 
Confederates were defeated. Ward's division took possession of the ford 
and captured over 500 prisoners. The Union loss was only about fifty. 
Sedgwick's right wing attacked works on the bank of the Rappahannock, 
carried them by\Via:nt coup de main, and captured 1,500 prisoners, his 
loss being about 3t)0. In the mafcli next d'ay toward Beverly Station, with 
Ward's division in front, the 124th was deployed as flankers and was 
vmder fire for some time. There was no more fisfhtino- until November 
27th, when the fight at Locust Grove took place, followed by that at Mine 
Run. The 124th took part in both, and lost one killed, eight wounded and 
three captured. December ist Meade ordered a. retrograde movement, 
and the regiment settled down to a long stay at Brandy Station and Cul- 
pepper. March 17 General Birney sent an order to Colonel Cummins stat- 
ing that to equalize the, brigades the 124th would be transferred to the 
Third Brigade. This was so displeasing that fourteen officers of the regi- 
ment petitioned General Birney to allow them to remain under Brigadier 
General Ward. Major General Birney replied that "the request of the of- 
ficers of this gallant regiment would be fully considered," and he would 
try to grant it. This was done, and the 124th remained in Ward's Bri- 
gade. Meanwhile it had received considerable additions in volunteers 

THE C1\1L WAR. 117 

from Urange County, although not half as many as had been mustered 
out and transferred to the veteran reserve corps in consequence of physical 

Early in March L'. S. Grant had been made Lieutenant General and 
invested by the President with the chief command of all the armies of 
the United States. In the latter part of March and the month of April 
he caused a radical reorganization of the Army of the Potomac, and 
the "Old Third" became a part of the Second Corps. 

An advance was ordered May 3d. and that night Birney's division 
struck tents and began its march. Two days afterward the memorable 
Battle of the Wilderness was begun. Ward's command in this battle 
consisted of eight infantry regiments, including the 124th and the Second 
U. S. Sharp.shooters, constituting one of the largest brigades in the 
army. The leading officers of the 124th were now Colonel Cummins, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Weygant and Acting Major H. S. Murray. The 
brigade and regiment did their allotted share in the two-days' battle, but 
the regiment was less exposed than at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, 
and came out with a loss of three killed and fifty-seven wounded, Colonel 
Cummins being among the wounded. 

The battle of Spottsylvania Court House came a week later. On the 
9th the 124th N. Y. and 20th Ind. Regiments were throw^n out as skir- 
mishers for General Birney's division as it marched forward. Near Po 
River a Confederate battery opened on them, but fired too high, and 
soon ha<J to flee. In tlie battJe the next day for a while the 124th sup- 
ported a battery on the extreme right of Hancock's line, and then 
marched with the division towards the left, where it was soon engaged, 
and assisted in an unsuccessful charge on the rebel line. It was in General 
Hancock's famous charge of Alay 12th. Birney's division was in four 
lines, with Ward's Brigade in front, the 124th composing the right center 
of the first line. Lieutenant Colonel Weygant in command. When the clash 
came there were hand-to-hand encounters so fierce and desperate as to 
defy description. There was an "unparalleled struggle of eigh.teen hours' 
duration." Hancock's men captured the enemy's works, and he finally 
abandoned his efforts to retake them. The 124th had been so actively en- 
gaged or under fire so much that the men writing home as late as May 
i8th spoke of the battle as having been raging since May 4th. Its losses 
were fifteen killed, fifty-two wounded and two captured. Coh^nel Weygant 


was one of the wounded. After the battle the regiment was so small that 
it was found necessary to consolidate it into five and then into three com- 
panies, and the 124th and 86th acted together, first under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Lansing and then Major Stafford, both of the 86th. This union 
lasted until they settled down in front of Petersburg. 

On the evening of May 20th the movement of the army from Spott- 
sylvania Court House began in earnest. The 124th was in various move- 
ments, and on June ist seven of its men on picket duty were captured. 
In the bloody battle of Cold Harbor, June 3d, Birney's command was in 
reserve, and the men of the 124th were lookers-on. 

Offensive operations were suspended for a time, and General Grant de- 
cided to transfer his army to the James River. On the evening of June 
I2th, after a march of fifty-five miles, Hancock's corps reached Wilcox 
Landing and was transferred to waiting steamboats. On June 15th the 
advance of the rest of the army was resumed, Birney's command leading 
the column down the Prince George Court House road towards Peters- 
burg. The brigade encamped in a grove of pines on City Point. There 
were only about 100 men left in the 124th. Between Alay i8th and June 
22nd it lost three killed, twenty-four wounded and eight captured. Every 
third day from the 4th to the 24th of July the remnant was on the picket 
line. There were no engagements, but some skirmishing. 

General Birney had been assigned to the command of the Tenth Corps, 
and the veterans of the "Old Third" were consolidated into one division 
under General Mott, and General De Trobriand became commander of the 
brigade, which included the 124th, now commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Weygant. When offensive operations were resumed on the last day of 
September, the regiment could muster sixteen ofiicers and 230 fighting 
men, and two months later had been reinforced so that it numbered nine- 
teen ofiicers and 362 enlisted men, a few of whom were raw recruits. It 
had some active and hazardous work during the fall, before the army 
settled down in winter quarters. October 26 Hancock's command moved 
to the Weldon road, and the next day De Trobriand's brigade marched 
with Mott's division to Hatcher's Run, where General Eagan was having 
a skirmish, and preparing to force the passage of the stream. This was 
done, and presently De Trobriand's brigade was ordered to the front to 
relieve the brigade on the left of Eagan's line. In the afternoon the enemy 
advanced in force, and there was some furious fighting, in which the 



124th brought to a halt a tlanking force of dismounted cavalry with a 
battery of rifled guns and sent them into the edge of a neighboring 
wood. The battle continued, and a bullet struck Colonel Weygant ?ti 
the side, so that he had to leave the field. Finally the Confederates fled. 
This was called the Battle of Boydton road. Three of the 124th were 
killed, fourteen wounded and six captured including two of the wounded. 
The regiment also took part in the raid of a w-eek, beginning November 
6th, to destroy the Weldon railroad, when its loss was only one killed and 
one wounded. 

During the winter the Union lines tightened around Richmond, but ajjart 
from preparations for the spring campaign not much was done on either 
side. In Februar}^ however, De Trobriand's brigade was in a short fight 
at Hatcher's Run, across which the Union line was permanently extended. 

Confederate leaders did not allow Grant to open the spring campaign, 
and on March 26th attacked his lines, east of Petersburg, but were re- 
pulsed. The previous day the 124th was in an engagement with 500 Con- 
federates, and in a gallant charge captured six officers and 164 men. Pri- 
vate George W. Tompkins shot the Confederate Commander, Colonel 
Troy, and carried off the battle flag of his regiment which he bore. Not a 
man of the 124th was injured. Private Tompkins was given a medal of 
honor from the Secretary of War. the thanks of Congress and a brevet 

The storming of Petersburg began April 2nd wuth all the artillery. 
That night the 124th and two other regiments were ordered to advance, 
and got into a fight in w^hich several men were seriously wounded. The 
object of this move was to delay the return of some of Lee's troops, and 
was successful. The grand assault on the Confederate lines was made at 
the appointed time, and a part of De Trobriand's brigade led by the 124th 
moved at double-quick over one of the main road? leading into Peters- 
burg, the Confederates fleeing before them, but wheeling and firing as 
they ran. Lee was quick to see the inevitable result of the assault, and 
ordered the evacuation of Richmond. During April 3d the 124th, which 
had the advance of the Second Corps, marched twenty miles, and gathered 
in 200 dismounted Confederate cavalrymen. On the 6th it came up 
with Lee's rear guard, and in the fighting of the march along Sailor's 
Creek up to this date the regiment lost four killed, seventeen wounded 
and one missing. The pursuit was resumed on the 7th. and on the 9th 


came the great surrender of Lee to Grant, when our "men shouted until 
they could shout no longer." 

After the momentous event at Appomatox the 124th encamped at 
Burkesville Junction. In the night the men were awakened and horrified by 
the news that President Lincoln and Secretary Seward had been assassin- 
ated. On May ist Meade's army took up its line of march for Washing- 
ton, and came in sight of it about the middle of May. On June 5th, after 
participating in the grand review of the whole Union army, the 124th 
received its last marching orders. It reached home June 13th, and re- 
ceived a wonderful welcome from assembled thousands at Newburgh. 

The Newburgh Daily Union published the truth when it said the next 
day that it "had made as noble a record as any regiment in the field." 
It praised Colonels Ellis, Cummins and Weygant, and said of the regi- 
ment: "Slowly they filed past; and now the people's enthusiasm burst 
out over all bounds. Our scanty police and watch force were swallowed 
up and overwhelmed, and the eager multitudes seemed as if they would 
throw themselves upon the soldiers. On they marched with steady and 
resistless step, their paces and uniforms telling of the fearful scenes they 
had passed through. Their battle flag, as it was borne aloft, awakened 
intense emotion ; hardly a strip of its frayed and bullet-torn silk was 
left ; yet it was more precious to the men and to the people than if it 
were made of cloth of gold." 

Judge Taylor made the address of welcome, in which he said : "You 
are the life-guards of the nation, and we look upon you with something 
of the same reverence which we feel toward the fathers of our country. 
And we cherish the memory of those who fought, bled and died, and of 
those who survived the carnage of Fredericksburg, of Chancellorsville, 
of Beverly's Ford, of Gettysburg, of the Wilderness, of Spottsylvania, 
of Boydton Road, of Sailor's Creek and the many battlefields around 

The following is the official record of the commissioned officers of 
the 124th, in which the date of commission is followed by the date of 



A Van Horn Ellis, Sept. 10, 1862 ; Aug. 23, 1862 ; killed in action at Gettysburg, 
Pa., July 2, 1863. 



THE CI\'IL WAR. 121 

Francis ^I. Cummins, Oct. 10, 1863; July 2, 1863; discharged, Sept. 19, 1864. 
Charles H. Wcygant, Jan. 11, 1865; Sept. 19, 1864; not mustered. 


Francis M. Cummins, Sept, 10, 1863; Aug. 16, 1862; promoted to Colonel, Oct. 
10, 1863. 

Charles II. Weygant, Oct. 10, 1863; July 2, 1863; mustered out with regiment, 
June 3, 1865 ( Brevet Colonel, U. S. V.) 

Henry S. Murray, Jan. 11, 1865; Sept. 19, 1864; not mustered. 


James Cromwell, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 20, 1862; killed in action at Gettysburg, 
Pa., July 2, 1863. 

Charles H. Weygant, Sept. 14, 1863 ; July 2, 1863 ; promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, 
Oct. 10, 1863. 

Henry S. Murray, Oct. 10, 1863; July 2, 1863; mustered out with regimei>t, 
June 3, 1865. 

James W. Benedict, Jan. 11, 1865: Sept. 19, 1864; not mustered. 


William Silliman, Sept. 10, 1862; July 16, 1862; promoted to Captain, Oct 3, 1862. 
C. Depeyster Arden, Oct. 3, 1862; Aug. 20, 1862; discharged, Jan. 14, 1863. 
William Brownson, Feb. 20, 1863; Dec. 31, 1863; resigned, Sept. 17, 1863. 
William B. Van Houten, Oct. 10, 1863 ; Sept. 17, 1863 ; discharged, Jan. 23, 1865. 
Wines E. Weygant, Jan. 31, 1865; Jan. 31, 1865; not mustered. 


Augustus Denniston, Sept. 10, 1862; July 15, 1862; resigned, Jan. 14, 1863. 
Henry F. Travis, Feb. 27, 1863; Jan. 14, 1863; promoted to Captain, Aug. 20, 1863. 
Ellis Post, Aug. 20, 1863; April 21, 1863; mustered out with regiment, June 
3, 1865. 


John H. Thompson, Sept. 10, 1862: July 26, 1862; dismissed Nov. 25, 1864; dis- 
ability removed by order of the President, Jan. 14, 1865. 

John H. Thompson, Feb. 15, 1865: Feb. 15, 1865; failed to muster. 

Robert V. K. Montfort, March 22, 1865: March 22, 1865; mustered out with 
regiment, June 3, 1865. 


Edward G. Marshall, Sept. 10, 1862; Sept. 5, 1862; dismissed, Aug. 7, 1863. 

Robert V. K. Montfort, Sept. 10, 1862; Sept. 10, 1862: promoted to surgeon, 
March 22, 1865. 

Edward C. Fox, April 6. 186;: April 7. 186^; mustered out with regiment, June 
3, i865. 


Thomas Scott Bradner, Oct. 21, 1862; Aug. 23, 1862; mustered out with regi- 
ment, June 3, 1865. 



Charles H. Weygant, Sept. lo, 1862; Aug. 12, 1862; promoted to major, Sept. 14, 

Charles B. Wood, Oct. 10, 1863; July 2, 1863; discharged, Sept. 21, 1864. 

Thomas Taft, Nov. 15, 1864; Sept. 21, 1864; mustered out with regiment, June 
3. 1865. 

Henry S. Murray, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 14, 1862; promoted to major, Oct. 10, 1863. 

William E. Mapes, Dec. 17, 1863; July 2, 1863; discharged, Dec. 15, 1864. 

Robert J. Malone, Dec. 17, 1864; Sept. is, 1864; mustered out with regiment, June 
3. 1865. 

James Cromwell, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 15, 1862; promoted to major, Sept. 10, 1862. 

William Silliman, Oct. 3, 1862; Aug. 20, 1862; promoted to colonel, 26th U. S. 
C. T., Feb. I, 1864. 

James Finnegan, Feb. 9, 1864; Feb. i, 1864; died of wounds, Oct. 28, 1864. 

James A. Grier, Nov. 15, 1864; Oct. 27, 1864; not mustered. 

James W. Benedict, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 16, 1862; mustered out with regiment, 
June 3, 1865. 

John C. Wood, Feb. 18, 1865 ; Jan. i, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment, June 3, 

William A. McBurney, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 19, 1862; resigned, March 9, 1863. 

Daniel Sayer, Dec. 17, 1863; March 6, 1863; mustered out with regiment, June 
3, 1865. 

Isaac NicoU, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 20, 1862; killed in action at Gettysburg, Pa., 
July 2, 1863. 

James O. Denniston, Aug. 20, 1863; July 2, 1862; not mustered. 

Henry P. Ramsdell, Dec. 12, 1863 ; Oct. 7, 1863 ; not mustered. 

Thomas J. Quick, Dec. 17, 1863; Dec. 10, 1863; mustered out with regiment, June 
3. 1865. 

Ira S. Bush, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 20, 1862; resigned, June 21, 1864. 

John W. Houston, July 15, 1864; June 21, 1864; not mustered. 

Edward J. Cormick, Nov. 15, 1864; Aug. 10, 1864; killed in action near Peters- 
burg, Va., April i, 1865. 

Lander Clark, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 20, 1862; resigned, May 13, 1863. 

Henry F. Travis, Aug. 20, 1863 J April 21, 1863 ; mustered out with regiment, June 
3, 1865. 

William A. Jackson, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 23, 1862; killed in action near Peters- 
burg, Va., June 18, 1864. 

Lewis M. Wisner, July 15, 1864; July 14, 1864; not mustered as captain. 

Thomas Bradley, Nov. 15, 1864; Aug. 2, 1864; mustered out with regiment, June 
3, 1865. 

David Crist, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 23, 1862; killed in action. May 30, 1864. 

Theodore M. Roberson, Feb. 18, 1865; Jan. i, 1865; mustered out with regiment, 
June 3, 1865. 


Charles B. Wood, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 12, 1862; promoted to captain, Oct. 10, 

Charles T. Cressy, April 19, 1864; May i, 1S64; not mustered. 

Thomas Taft, Aug. 2, 1864; July 20, 1864; promoted to captain, Nov. 15, 1864. 

David U. Quick, Feb. 18, 1865 ; Jan. i, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment, June 
3, 1865. 

Wines E. Weygant, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 14, 1862; resigned, Feb. 8, 1863. 

William E. Mapes, Feb. 27, 1863 ; Feb. 8, 1863 ; promoted to captain, Feb. 2-j, 1863. 



Edward J. Corniick, March 22, 1864; March i~, 1864; promoted to captain, Nov. 
15, 1864. 

Abram P. Francisco, Feb. 18, 1865; Jan. i, 1865; mustered out with regiment, 
June 3, 1865. 

William Brownson, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 15, 1862; promoted to adjutant, Feb. 20, 

Henry P. Ramsdell, Feb. 20, 1863; Dec. 31, 1862; discharged, Dec. 13, 1863. 

Daniel Saver, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 16, 1862; promoted to captain, Dec. 17, 1863. 

John W. ilouston, Dec. 17, 1862; March 6, 186,^: discharged, Dec. 13, 18(63. 

Ebenezer Holbert, July 15, 1864; June 21, 1864; mustered out with regiment, June 
3. 1865. 

Wm. A. Verplanck, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 10, 1862; discharged, Sept. 23, 1863. 

Theodore M. Roberson, Dec. 17, 1863; Sept. 25, 1863; promoted to captain, Feb. 
18, 1865. 

Woodward T. Ogden, Feb. 18, 1865 ; Jan. i, 1865 ; not mustered. 

James O. Denniston, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 20, 1862; discharged, Oct. 17, 1863. 

William H. Benjamin, Feb. 18, 1865; Jan. i, 1865; mustered out with regiment, 
June 3, 1865. 

Thomas J. Quick, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 20, 1862; promoted to captain, Dec. 17, 

James A. Grier, Dec. 24, 1863; Dec. 10, 1863; not mustered. 

John B. Stanbrough, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 20, 1862; resigned, Nov. 12, 1862. 

Isaac M. Martin, Dec. 30, 1862; Nov. 12, 1862; dismissed, May 15, 1863. 

Wm. B. Van Houten, Aug. 20, 1863; May 15, 1863; promoted to adjutant, Oct. 
10, 1863. 

Charles Stuart, Oct. 10, 1863; Sept. 17, 1863; discharged, May 15, 1865. 

James H. Roosa, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 23, 1862; resigned, March 7, 1863. 

James Finnegan, May 26, 1863; March 7, 1863; promoted to captain, Feb. 9, 1864. 

Lewis M. Wisner, Feb. 23, 1864: Feb. i, 1864; discharged, Aug. 5, 1864. 

John C. Wood, Nov. 15, 1864; Aug. i, 1864; promoted to captain, Feb. 18, 1865. 

Thomas Hart, Feb. 18, 1865; Jan. i, 1865; mustered out with regiment, June 3, 

Henry Gowdy, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 22, 1863; died, May it, 1864, of wounds. 

John R. Hayes, Dec. 17, 1863; May 10, 1863; not mustered. 

Thomas Bradley, Sept. 27, 1864; Aug. i, 1864; promoted to captain, Nov. 15, 1864. 

John S. King, Dec. 17, 1864; Sept. 15, 1864; mustered out with regiment, June 3, 


Charles T. Cressy, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 12, 1862; promoted to first lieutenant, 
April 19, 1864. 

Jonathan Birdsall, Aug. 2, 1864; July 20, 1864; killed in action near Petersburg, 
Va., Oct. 22, 1864. 

Gabriel Tuthill, Feb. 27, 1863; Feb. 8, 1863; discharged, Feb. 23, 1864. 

Henry P. Ramsdell, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 15, 1862: promoted to first lieutenant, 
Feb. 27, 1863. 

James A. Grier, Feb. 20, 1863; Dec. 31, 1862; promoted to first lieutenant, Dec. 
24, 1863. 

Thomas Hart, Nov. i^, 1864; July 21, 1864; promoted to first lieutenant, Feb. 18, 

John W. Houston, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 16, 1862; promoted to first lieutenant, 
Dec. 17, 1863. 

Ebenezer Holbert, April 2, 1864: July 20, 1864: promoted to first lieutenant, July 
15, 1864. 


Thomas G. Mabie, Nov. 15, 1864; July 26, 1864; mustered out with regiment, 
June 3, 1865. 

Adolphus Wittenbeecher, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 19, 1862; dismissed, March 19, 1863. 

Theodore M. Roberson, May 26, 1863; March 6, 1863; promoted to first lieuten- 
ant, Dec. 17, 1863. 

Woodward T. Ogden, Nov. 15, 1864; July 21, 1864; mustered out with regiment, 
June 3, 1865. 

Sylvester Lawson, March 14, 1865; March 3, 1865; mustered out with regiment, 
June 3, 1865. 

David Gibbs, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 20, 1862; resigned, Feb. 25, 1863. 

Wm. H. Benjamin, May 26, 1863; Feb. 25. 1863; promoted to first lieutenant, 
Feb. 18, 1865. 

Joshua V. Cole, Feb. 18. 1865 ; Jan. i, 1865 ; not mustered. 

Samuel W. Hotchkiss, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 20, 1862; resigned, April 2, 1864. 

David U. Quick, Nov. 15, 1864; July 21, 1864; promoted to first lieutenant, Feb. 
18, 1865. 

Lewis T. Schultz, Feb. 18, 1865; Jan. i, 1865; mustered out with regiment, June 
3, 1865. 

Isaac M. Martin, Sept. 10. 1862 ; Aug. 20, 1862 ; promoted to first lieutenant, Dec. 
20, 1862. 

Milnor Brown, Dec. 30, 1862; Dec. 30, 1862; killed in action at Gettysburg, Pa., 
July 2, 1863. 

Charles Stuart, Aug. 20, 1863 ; July 2, 1863 ; promoted to first lieutenant, Oct. 10, 

William W. Smith, April 19, 1864; Sept. 17, 1863; not mustered. 

James Finnegan, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 23, 1862; promoted to first lieutenant, May 
26, 1863. 

Jacob Denton, May 26, 1863; March 7, 1863; not mustered; killed in action. May 
3, 1863. 

Lewis M. Wisner, Aug. 20, 1863; May 3, 1863; promoted to first lieutenant, Feb. 
23, 1864. 

John R. Hayes, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 22, 1862; discharged, April 8, 1864. 


Company i, 71st Regiment, N. G. S. N. Y., was recruited in Newburgh, 
mostly from Co. L, iQth Regiment, N. G. S. N. Y., between May 2c and 
31, 1 861, by Captain A. Van Home Ellis. Governor Morgan refused to 
permit the company to leave the State, and thereupon Captain Ellis took 
it to New York on his own responsibility. It was furnished with transpor- 
tation to Washington, was accepted through the influence of Secretary 
Seward, and mustered in for three months. It was stationed at the Wash- 
ington Navy Yard, sent to Chapel Point and Point Tobacco, June 28, re- 
turned, and on July 16 was brigaded with Rhode Island and New Hamp- 
shire regiments under Colonel Burnside. It went to the Bull Run battlefield 
dragging two twelve-pound boat howitzers on July 4th, and returned 
with them. Soon it went back, arriving on the Bull Run battlefield July 
2Tst, and in the battle fired 232 shots of shrapnel and canister. It drew 




out of the conflict by order at 3 i'. m. with the loss of one killed and two 
\Voimded, and returned to Washington. It was soon back in Newburgh, 
where it was mustered out July 30th. The officers during^ this service 
were : 

A. X'anHorne Ellis, captain; George W. Hawkins, second lieutenant; 
Wm. H. Garrison, second sergeant ; John Mc Meekin, third sergeant ; 
James D. Hamilton, fourth sergeant ; Charles Decker, first corporal ; 
Marshal M. \'an Zile, second corporal; Henry T. Travis, third sergeant; 
Thomas Riley, fourth sergeant. 

May 28th, 1862, within seven hours, the company was again recruited 
for three months, and during that period was on guard duty in and 
around Washington. The officers were : 

A. VanHorne Elli>. captair. ; Wm. II. ( .arrison, first lieutenant; James 
C. Taggart, second lieutenant; John W. Forsyth, first sergeant; Henry 
F. Travis, second .sergeant; John McMeekin. third sergeant; James B. 
Montgomery, fourth sergeant; Thomas Riley, fifth sergeant; Robert 
Acheson. David M. DeWitt, Wm. M. N'crplanck and Edward J. Hall, 

Captain Ellis afterward became colonel of the 124th, and several other 
members of the compnm\- became captains ard lieutenants in the 124th, 
56th and other regiments. 

In May, 1862, the 19th regiment of militia, commandeil by Colonel \\"m. 
R. P.rown, was ordered to Washington, and after recruiting its ranks, 
which had been depleted by volunteer enlistments, left Xewburgh Jun.e 4. 
Arriving in Baltimore, it was ordered to .Stuart Hill, and remained there 
until July 2nd, when two of its companies were ordered to Fort McHenrv 
and the rest of the regiment to Fort Marshall. On July 14 four companies 
were ordered to Fort Delaware, and remained there until August loth, 
when they were sent to Havre de Grace to guard the railroad between 
there and Baltimore. The wdiole regiment went back to Xewburgh the 
last of August, and was mustered out of the U. S. service September 6. 

Officers during this expedition were: \\'illiam J. Brown, colonel : James 
Low, lieutenant colonel: David Jagger, major; George Weller. quarter- 
master ; William J. Hathaway, adjutant. 

In August Colonel Brown twice offered the services of the regiment for 
nine months, but the offers were refused by Governor Morgan. He of- 
fered them again September 17, when they were accepted. Recruiting for 


it was complicated by the efforts of Colonel Isaac Wood to raise an au- 
thorized regiment of three years' men in the county at the same time, but 
he stopped after enlisting 2']2 men, who were consolidated with the 176th 
N. Y. Y. and mustered in November 20th. 

Colonel Brown continued to enroll volunteers until February 2nd, 
when his regiment, known as the i68th, left Newburgh with 750 men, and 
New York City eleven days later with 835 men. It went to Yorktown, and 
remained there on garrison duty during nearly its whole term of service. 
Once a detachment of 140 men under Captain Daniel Torbush was sent 
with detachments from other regiments up York and Mattapony Rivers, 
and the Torbush detachment was placed to guard the Richmond road. 
Flere it was attacked by a force of Confederate cavalry, and repulsed them, 
killing fourteen, and losing one killed, five wounded and two captured. 
September i6th the regiment was sent to Bridgeport, Ala., and remained 
there on guard duty until October 14th, when it went back to Newburgh, 
and was mustered out October 31st. During its nine months of service 
it lost one killed, eighteen died, thirteen captured and 184 deserters. Its 
commissioned officers were : 

Colonel : William R. Brown. 

Lieutenant-Colonels : James Low, James C. Rennison. 

Majors: George Waller (dismissed), James C. Rennison, Daniel Torbush. 

Adjutant: Wm. R. Hathway. 

Quartermasters : James H. Anderson, George C. Spencer. 

Surgeon : Jacob M. Leighton. 

Assistant Surgeon : Edward B. Root. 

Chaplain : R. Howard Wallace. 

Captains : Wm. H. Terwilliger, Daniel Torbush, James H. Anderson, Isaac Jen- 
kinson, Bennett Gilbert, George McCleary, Samuel Hunter, John D. Wood, James 
C. Rennison, Myron A. Tappan, Marshal Van Zile. 

First Lieutenants : Nathan Hubbard, Oliver Taylor, Jacob K. R. Oakley, Archi- 
bald Ferguson, James H. Searles, Lawrence Brennan, James 1. Chase, De Witt C. 
Wilkin, Wm. D. Dickey, Marshal Van Tile, George R. Brainsted. 

Second Lieutenants : Thomas P. Terwilliger, Isaac N. Morehouse, James H. An- 
derson, Geo. C. Marvin, Andrew J. Gilbert, Samuel C. Wilson, Paul Terwilliger, 
Geo. W. Hennion, Daniel Low, Jr., Geo. R. Brainsted, Bartley Brown, Lester 

The 176th regiment, with which Colonel Wood's 272 recruits were con- 
solidated, was sent to the Department of the Gulf as a part of the Nine- 
teenth Corps, and was in the Red River campaign in 1864, in General 
Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley campaign the same year, and in Georgia 
and North Carolina in the early months of 1865. In the Red River cam- 
paign it did some fighting and lost many men in killed, wounded and 


prisoners. Of its Orange County officers, T. Henry Edsall was adjutant, 
Sprague K. Wood rose from sergeant to captain, and Joseph Goodseli 
from second lieutenant to captain. 

The company of cavalry recruitc(l in the fall of 1861 by Morris I. 
McCormal as a part of Colonel Van Wyck's "Tenth Legion," when it was 
detached from this regiment was mustered in as Co. C, First Mounted 
Rifles, and had ninety-five men. The company served three years. Officers 
were: Morris I. McCormal, captain; Charles F. Allen, first lieutenant; 
Arthur Hagen, second lieutenant; Ardice Robbins, orderly sergeant; C. R. 
Smith, quartermaster sergeant. Captain McCormal resigned in 1862, but 
re-entered the service in the Fifteenth Cavalry in 1863. Quartermaster 
Smith and Sergeants James Eaton, Frank Mills and Fred Penney were 
promoted to lieutenants. 

Orange County was represented in the Seventh, afterward Second, 
regiment of Cavalry, its volunteers being mostly in Co. B. under Captain 
Charles E. Morton of New Windsor. Alanson Randall. U. S. A., a 
native of Newburgh, was colonel of the regiment from November, 1864. 
to the muster out, June 5, 1865. The regiment was also known as the 
Harris Light Cavalry. 

Recruits were obtained in Orange County for the Fifteenth Cavalry in 
the winter of 1863-4 by Captain Morris L McCormal of Middletown, and 
Lieutenant Charles H. Lyon of Newburgh. 

The Fifteenth Heavy Artillery's Co. M. was mostly recruited in Orange 
County in the winter of 1863-4. The regiment was mustered in at Fort 
Lyon. \'a., February 3, 1864, remained there until March 27th, when it 
went to Beverly Station and was assigned to duty in the Artillery Reserve 
of the Army of the Potomac, and did creditable service in several bloody 
battles. When Co. M was organized its officers were : Wm. D. Dickey of 
Newburgh, captain ; Alfred Newbatt and Julius Niebergall. first lieuten- 
ants ; John Ritchie and Robert B. Keeler, second lieutenants. August 
15th Captain Dickey was placed in command of the Third Battalion and 
Lieutenant Ritchie took command of the company, leading it through the 
engagements in the struggle for the Weldon railroad, in one of which it 
lost in killed and wounded a third of its men. For the regiment's good 
work here and in a previous fight at Haines' Tavern it was complimented 
in the general orders of Meade. Co. M was mustered out in July, 1865. 
It lost during its year of service three officers and ninet\-five privates. The 


promotions were : Captain Dickey to major, Second Lieutenants Keeler 
and Ritchie to first lieutenants, and Sergeants Joseph M. Dickey and Rie- 
mann to second Heutenants. 

This Seventeenth Independent Battery was recruited in Orange to be a 
part of Colonel Van Wyck's "Tenth Legion" or 56th Regiment. It arrived 
in Washington November 11, 1861, and was organized as an independent 
battery January 10, 1862. It was first assigned to Casey's, afterwards 
Peek's division. It also served in the Seventh Corps, then in the Second 
division of the Eighteenth Corps, at Bermuda Hundred a short time in 
the Tenth Corps, and when mustered out formed a part of the artillery 
brigade of the Twenty-fourth Corps. It was in the siege of Yorktown, 
the battles of Williamsburg, Savage's Station, Fair Oaks, Malvern Hill, 
the siege of Suffolk, and was in action at Petersburg, Dutch Gap, Fort 
Harrison, Hatcher's Run and Port Walthal. It was in the investment 
of Petersburg and Richmond. It suffered most severely at Fair Oaks. 
Its record was good throughout. Its commissioned officers were : 

Captain : Peter C. Regan. 

First Lieutenants : Eugene Scheibner, Abram Kniffin, Martin V. Mclntyre, John 
S. Bennett. 

Second Lieutenants : Abram Kniffin, Charles S. Harvell, Abram Smith, Wm. H. 
Lee, Edward Kelly, John B. Brosen, Jr. 

The First Regiment of Engineers, known as Serrell's, had in its ranks, 
it was said, 300 or 400 men from Orange County. Its detachments were 
mustered in between September 10. 1861, and February 12, 1862. The 
regiment retained its organization until June 30, 1865, when it was mni- 
tered out, but there were various changes in its composition. It was an 
important regiment in the engineering part of the service. 

Company C of the Q8th N. Y. S. V., was mostly recruited in Newburgh 
in the winter of 1863-4 by Captain James H. Anderson and LieuteniantJ. 
K. R. Oakley, who had been in the i68th Regiment. They went to Riker's 
Island in February, 1864, aud here consolidation requirements caused Co. 
C to consist of ninety-five Orange County men under Captain Anderson 
and Lieutenants Oakley and Sneed, and twenty-four were assigned to Co. 
I under Captain E. M. Allen. The record of the regiment was one of the 
best. It fought at Drury's Bluflf, Cold Harbor and Petersburg. At Drury's 
Elufif it saved General Buller's army from a flank attack : at Cold Harbor 
it lost in killed and wounded 100 men ; at Petersburg it charged the outer 

//^ ocJ /^(^-^--i^-Le^co 


line of the enemy's works and was almost constantly under fire. Its colors 
were the first to be planted at Fort Harrison on September 29, 1864, and 
it was the first regiment to enter Richmond after the evacuation. After the 
surrender of Lee it was on post and garrison duty in several places, and 
was mustered out at Richmond August 31, 1865. Of the men who went' 
out with Captain Anderson, thirteen were killed or died of wounds, twen- 
ty-three wounded, and five died of disease. 


The following totals were raised by official action from town taxes, 
loans, state cash and bonds, for the towns named for war purposes : 

Blooming Grove, $60,900; Chester, $54,192.67; Cornwall, $69,200; 
Crawford, $84,187.12; Deer Park, $242,981.83; Goshen, $83,233.05; 
Greenville, $54,016.45; Hamptonburgh, $21,000; Minisink, $57,271.62; 
Monroe, $160,968.65; Montgomery, $57,250; Mount Hope, $62,888.24; 
Newburgh, $455,637; New Windsor, $48,715,55; Wallkill, $95,100; 
Warwick, $201,070; Wawayanda, $51,750. 

By the County: From taxes, 1864, $1,800; 1865, $90,649.50; from 
loans, 1864, $421,000; total. $513,449.50. 

Towns and County: From taxes, 1862, $31,931; 1863, $2,000; 1864, 
$350,434.95; 1865, $257,581.82; from loans, 1862, $31,950; 1863, $35,- 
318.70; 1864, $1,113,761.82; 1865, $229,278.41. 

From State : Cash. $76,000 ; bonds, $252,000.53 ; interest on bonds, 
$3,473.51 ; other sources, $105. 

Full total: $2,384,801.74. 

The donations, cash subscriptions and draft exemption moneys, amount- 
ing to a very large sum, are not included in the foregoing figures. 




By Benjamin C. Sears. 

THIS is one of the older towns of Orange County, lying somewhat 
northwest of the geographical center. The towns of Hampton- 
burgh and New Windsor are on the north, Cornwall on the east, 
Monroe and Woodbury on the south and Goshen and Chester on the west. 
It covers an area of 21,759 acres. 

The title to all the territory of this town conveyed by the various orig- 
inal patents, upon which rests the^deed of every property-holder to-day 
has been carefully preserved. The names and dates of the first settlers 
are also pretty fully recorded. 

The oldest grant of land seems to be the Mompesson Patent, which 
is dated March 4, 1709, and confirmed May 31, 1712. This covered 
1,000 acres. The next grant in order of time is that known as the Rip 
Van Dam patent, which is dated March 23, 1907 and covered some 3,000 
acres. This was granted to Rip Van Dam, Adolph Phillips, David Pro- 
vost, Jr., Lancaster Symes and Thomas Jones, each having an equal share 
in the tract. This is described as "beginning at a station bearing west 24 
degrees north, and 85 chains from the wigwam of the Indian Maringamus, 
which was on the southwest bank of Murderer's Creek just across the rail- 
road track from the Catholic Church of St. Mary. The present village of 
Salisbury Mills is on the east end of this patent so far as the village 
lies in the town. In the northeast corner of the town on the old county 
line is the 1,000 acre tract of Roger Van Dam which is dated June 30, 
1720, although a portion of this tract extends over into the present town 
of New Windsor. The next patent was granted to Ann Hoagland, May 
24, 1723, and it contained 2,000 acres in the western part of the town. 
In the southeastern part of the town, adjoining the Rip Van Dam patent, 
and west of the Schunemunk Mountains was the 2,000 acre grant of Ed- 
ward Blagg and Johannes Hey. dated March 28, 1726. This valley has 
been known ever since as Blagg's Clove. West of this was the irregular 
tract of 2,440 acres granted to Nathaniel Hazzard January 11, 1727. This 

Benjamin C. Sears. 


was south of Washingtonville. Still further west was the Joseph Sackett 
2,000-acre tract, to which 222 acres were afterward added on the south. 
This patent was dated July 7, 1736, and the tract adjoins the present 
village of Oxford. Sackett got another grant of 149 acres September i, 
1737, on the west. 

( )n August 10. 1723 a i)atc'nt covering 2,600 acres was granted to 
Richard Gerard and William lUill. 


The surface of this town is varied by the long range of Schuncmunk 
Mountains, forming the eastern boundary, with its level ridges reaching 
to the height of about 1,600 feel, and the beautiful foothills of Woodcock, 
Round Hill, Aloscjuito, Raynor and Peddler. The last two have deposits 
of magnetic iron ore, which mixed with the ores from other parts of the 
county was used in making the Parott guns during the War of the 
Rebellion. The cultivated land is also broken and rolling, some upon 
quite high hills, whose sides were not cultivated, and are covered with 
luxuriant blue grass pastures, and along the streams and the lower lands 
are beautiful natural meadows, which bring their annual tribute of hay 
into the barns, and add very much to the beauty of the scenery. 

The Greycourt or Cromeline Creek runs from W^alton Lake by the 
base of Goose Pond Mountain, through the Greycourt meadows and the 
picturesque falls at Craigville, through Farmingdale and Hulsetown, 
and is joined near the Hamptonburgh line by the Ottcrkill ; near Wash- 
ingtonville by the Tappan or Schuncmunk Creek, flowing from Sat- 
terly's Mills; also b\- tlic Silver stream draining a portion of Blagg's 
Clove, and furnishing at the old Coleman Mills, the excellent water sup- 
ply of Washingtonville. The united stream is called Murdner's or Mur- 
derer's Creek, to which X. P. Willis gave the more poetical name of 
"^^oodna," where it entered the Hudson near Idlewild. These streams 
have along their bank beautiful natural meadows dotted with fine old 
trees, and the hill-tops are covere<l in places with sugar ma])le and chest- 
nut trees, making in the early spring time a beautiful picture of varied 
green, and in the autumn a glorious variety of colors, which, together with 
the fine apple orchards crowning the hillsides, justifies the name of Bloom- 
ing Grove. 



Vincent Mathews seems to have been the first settler according to 
the record. He bought the Rip Van Dam Patent, August 22, 1721, and 
built a grist mill at the place since known as Salisbury. He named this 
estate "Mathewsfield." Thomas Goldsmith came next, about ten years 
later, and he took the Mompesson Patent. He built a house on the north 
bank of the Otterkill, now known as the "Walnut Grove Farm," near the 
present Washingtonville. Edward Blagg also settled upon this tract, 
known as "Blagg's Clove" about this time. Mathews sold his mill to 
John J. Carpenter, which was turned into a powder mill under a State 
contract in 1776, when under the kindling fires of patriotism the demand 
for powder became very active. 

In 1753 Jesse WoodhuU settled in Blagg's Clove, although he seems 
to have purchased the Richard Van Dam Patent upon which the Moffatt 
family afterward settled. Mr. Mathews, the original settler, was an 
attorney, and took an active part in the early history of the town. He 
sold 1,500 of his acres to Louis DuBois, of New Paltz, who built a 
tavern upon it which was kept by Zachariah DuBois in Revolutionary 

Prior to 1764 the territory of this town was a part of the Goshen 
precinct. From that time to 1799 it formed a part of the town of Corn- 
wall. The other prominent settlers of the town are believed to be included 
in the following list : 

John Brewster, Edward, Francis, Isaac, Jesse and Nathan Brewster, 
Daniel Brewster, George Duryea, Richard Goldsmith, Benjamin Gregory, 
John Hudson, Henry Hudson, William Hudson, Archibald Little, Tim- 
othy, James and Solomon Little ; James Mapes. and his sons Wines, 
Jesse, Robert, James, Barney, David, William and Thomas ; Elihu Marvin, 
a member of the Committee of Safety in 1775, also judge of the county 
in 1778; Seth, Nathan, James, Jesse and John Marvin, Samuel Mofifatt; 
James and Fletcher Mathews, sons of Vincent Mathews, who was a 
colonel in the Revolution and a leading citizen ; Thomas Moflfatt, member 
of the Committee of Safety from 1778 to 1794; Josiah, Samuel. Jacob, 
Stephen and Peter Reeder; Israel, Thaddeus, John, Jesse, Josiah and 
Samuel Seely, Bezaliel Seeley, Selah Strong, the first supervisor of the 
town ; Major Samuel and Captain Nathan Strong ; Nathaniel Sat- 


terly, member of Committee of Safety in 1775, and proprietor of 
Satterly's Mills in 1765; John and Selah Satterly ; James, Nathaniel and 
John Sayer ; Nathaniel Strong, member of Committee of Safety, who 
was shot at his door by Claudius Smith, October 6, 1778; Captain Jesse 
Woodhull, delegate to the first Provincial Convention, and member of 
the State Convention that revised the federal constitution in 1778; 
Abner Woodhull, George and Benjamin Wliittaker; Silas. Reuben and 
Birdseye Young; Stephen Mathews, Gilbert, Zachariah and John Du- 
Bois ; Hezekiah, Isaiah, Stephen, Isaac, Paul, Zepheniah, Charles, Aaron, 
Silas and Jeremiah Howell; Benjamin and Thomas Goldsmith; David 
Coleman, Caleb, Joab, Asahel, Micah, Silas, Richard and Jeremiah Cole- 
man ; Thomas, John, Francis and Richard Drake ; Nathaniel Coleman. 
Daniel Curtis. John Chandler, Henry and Oliver Davenport. 

Among other family names recorded are those of Carpenter, Moft'att, 
Owens. Gregg and Wooley. It is said of the Woodhull family that its 
ancestry is distinctly traced to the individual who came to England from 
Normandy with William the Conqueror in 1066. 


The town of Blooming Grove was organized March 23, 1799, the 
territory being taken from the more ancient Cornwall township. The 
name Blooming Grove had long been in use tor this part of Cornwall, 
being the name of the old village which was g^ven to distinguish it from 
Hunting Grove, a locality then in New Windsor. 

The first town meeting was held at the house of John Chandler, the 
first Tuesday of April, 1799. Selah Strong was then elected supervisor 
and Daniel Brewster town clerk. Two hundred dollars were raised for 
the support of the poor that year, and a $10 bounty was voted for each 
wolf killed within the town. IVIr. Brewster served as town clerk for 
thirty-seven years without intermission. There was little personal politics 
in those times, and public office was probably regarded as a public trust. 

In April, 1830. a part of the town was taken off in the formation of 
Hamptonburgh. In March, 1845, another small portion was set off to 
the town of Chester. 

Charles W. Hull has been town clerk since 1874, and has just been re- 
elected, so that his term will be nearly as long as John Brewster's. 

The house of John Brewster, at which the town meetings were held, 


1765 to 1799, was kept as a hotel and was said to be the homestead of 
the Cooper family, upon which is now situated the Blooming Grove sta- 
tion and post-office. 

When the present town of Blooming Grove was formed, the principal 
center was at Blooming Grove, where the old church was erected, 1759. 
The first town meeting was held in the spring of 1759, at the house of 
John Chandler, who kept a general country store here several years pre- 
vious to this, also at Edenville, near Warwick, taking in wheat and other 
grain which was carted to New Windsor, ground at the old mill on 
Ouassai'c Creek, and shipped to the West Indies and exchanged for sugar, 
molasses and other products of the tropics, which were brought back to 
Orange County by the Hudson River to New Windsor, and exchanged 
again for grain and other farm products. John Chandler purchased in 1793 
a small farm, upon which his great-grandson, B. C. Sears, now resides. 
He was president of the Newburgh and New Windsor Turnpike Co., 
and of the Blooming Grove and Greycourt Turnpike Co., built by his 
son-in-law. Hector Craig. He was an elder in the Blooming Grove 
Church and a large land owner in this part of the county. 

The village of Blooming Grove then consisted of the old church and 
the old Blooming Grove academy, built about 1810, to which many of 
the students came from the neighboring towns, boarding with the neigh- 
•bors about. A part of it was used as a district school until 1857, when 
'the present building was built upon the old academy site. A blacksmith- 
shop, kept later by Pierson Genung, a drug store, a cooper shop, the old 
toll-gate, the country store, and the hotel kept by Benjamin Thompson, 
wlrere were held the town meetings, general trainings, etc., and the public 
were entertained, were on this the main thoroughfare from Warwick to 
New Windsor and later Newburgh. This property was conveyed to Sam- 
u^r-Moffatt, Jr., merchant, by the executors of Rev. Benoni Bradner, and 
by him to Seth Marvin in 1810, who built a store-house on a lot purchased 
of Charles Howell, 1810. Blooming Grove now consists only of the old 
clfurch, the parsonage and the schoolhouse, and half a mile away the 
station, store and post-office, kept by C. C. Gerow, and the creamery 
owned by the Sheffield, Slawson, Decker Co. 


In 1810, Samuel "Mofifatt, Jr., having sold his place in Blooming Grove, 

Charles R. Bull. 


moved to a new settlement at Washingtonville, building the old corner 
store, now owned by George A. Owen. Across the highway Moses Ely, 
the father of the late Dr. Ely, of Xewburgh, had a tannery, and John 
Jaques, then a young man, opened here a shoe-shop. The old corner 
store, built in the woods almost, there being only two other dwellings, (a 
log house owned by James Giles and the private school of Jane Sweezey), 
was carried on by Samuel Aloffatt and his son David, either alone or as 
members of the firm, from 1812 to 1832; then John S. Bull, 1832-1839; 
Walter Halsey and Apollis Halsey, 1839-1850; and the Warners and Wil- 
liams Howell, 1850 to 1890, and George A. Owen, 1890, to this date. This 
store has always been, and is still, a prominent landmark in Washington- 
ville. In 1 81 3, Jedediah Breed came to Washingtonville from Dutchess 
County, and built a harness shop adjoining the dwelling house now owned 
by his grandson, George A. Owen, and which has been occupied as a har- 
ness shop for nearly 100 years. Here Henry F. Breed kept the Blooming 
Grove post-office for forty years, nearly continuously ; after his death the 
post-office was removed to the building of Alexander Aloore. where, in 
1872, the name was changed from Blooming Grove to Washingtonville. 

Alexander Aloore and his brother-in-law, Albert G. Owen, the father 
of George A. Owen, carried on a furniture and paint business here from 
1830 to 1850, Moore being the postmaster and Owen, supervisor and 
justice for many years, and a member of the Assembly, 1849- 1850. This 
village soon grew to be important, and is now one of the finest villages of 
its size in Orange County, having a beautiful shaded avenue of maples 
and many handsome residences. There are the Presbyterian and Methodist 
churches. Catholic Church of St. Mary, and the beautiful ^NIofFatt Librar)-, 
given to the village by David H. Moffatt, of Denver, and erected untler 
the careful supervision of John Xewton Moffatt, having a fine collection 
of books and a beautiful hall which is the convenient center for much 
social enjoyment; the large feed mill, originally built by David H. ^Mof- 
fatt, the father of David H., and now carried on by the Thomas Fulton 
Co., together with a large coal and lumber business; a similar establish- 
ment carried on by Hector Moffatt & Son, and the very large wine vaults 
of the Brotherhood Wine Co., successors to the Ja(|ues brothers' \incyard 
established in 1838. The Bordens also have here a large creamery, and 
there is also the Farmers' Creamery, now operated by the Mutual Milk and 
Cream Co.. making this the most imf)ortant station upon the Xewburgh 


Branch of the Erie Railroad. It is surrounded by beautiful homes and 
thrifty farms. Within the corporation line are the home and farm of Wil- 
liam H. Hallock, who owns several of the old ancestral homes throughout 
the town, which he has improved, and still runs with great business ability ; 
also the ancestral homes of the Brooks family, descendants of Fletcher 
Mathews, one of the original settlers, and also the old Nicoll homestead, 
now occupied by Charles Nicoll. 

Northwest of Washingtonville is the old Joseph Moffatt homestead, 
now- held by his grandsons, C. R. Shons and S. L. Moffatt, who have 
beautiful orchards, which, with that of Jesse Hulse, crown the beautiful 
hilltop and have made "Blooming Grove apples" famous both at home 
and abroad; also the Walnut Grove farm, upon which the first Gold- 
smiths settled, and made famous by Alden Goldsmith and his sons, 
James and John A., now in the hands of the widow of John A. and her 
husband, Mr. O. B. Stillman ; also the home of the late Captain Thomas 
N. Hulse, so long and so favorably known years ago to all travelers upon 
the Hudson River, now the home of his niece, Mrs. James A. Knapp, 
daughter of Benjamin Moffatt. Two and a half miles east of the village 
of Washingtonville is the village of Salisbury Mills, the oldest settle- 
ment of the town, where, on the falls of Murderer's Creek, Vincent 
Mathews built his mill, which later was owned by Captain Richard Cald- 
well, by Peter Van Allen, by Isaac Oakly, and is now the Arlington paper 
mills, owned and operated on a very large scale by Henry Ramsdell. 
Here in 1803 came John Caldwell, and with him his three sons, John, 
Andrew J. and Richard. Richard, then a mere lad, had been at the head 
of a company in the Emmet Rebellion, and through the clemency of 
Lord Cornwallis his sentence of death was commuted to banishment 
for himself and his father's family. He came to Salisbury with his father, 
and in 1808 married a daughter of John Chandler. He had the mill and 
a store at Salisbury. When the war with England in 181 2 became a 
certainty, Richard Caldwell raised the 25th Co. Infantry of soldiers, was 
elected their captain, and led them toward Canada, crossing Lake Cham- 
plain in open boats, in a severe storm. He divided his extra clothing 
with his soldiers, and contracted a severe cold, resulting in pneumonia, 
and he died December 11, 1812, and is buried at Champlain, near Platts- 
burg. His name is perpetuated by the beautiful monument erected in Salis- 
bury Mills by his nephew, Richard Caldwell, to his memory and the mem- 

TOWN OF i;l()v)Mixg (;ro\e. 137 

ory of those who perished with him in that ill-advised and ill-equipped ex- 
pedition; also to the memory of Captain Isaac XicoU and those who died 
with him, in the War of the Rebellion. Captain Richard Caldwell left 
two children, John R. Caldwell, long well known as a prominent citizen 
of New Windsor, and Mary, the wife of Marcus Sears, M.D. The old 
house erected by John Caldwell in 1803 is still standing, long known as 
the home of Andrew J. Caldwell and his son, Richard Caldwell, both of 
whom stood firm for righteousness and temperance. In a part of the same 
grounds was the home of a sister, Mrs. Chambers, now occupied by the 
widow of Richard Caldwell, and from which still emanates a powerful in- 
fluence for good to the whole village. Also the old home of the oldest 
son, John Caldwell, who was a merchant in Xew York, and on retiring 
came to live with his kindred in Salisbury, was the first president of the 
Orange County Agricultural Society, and was much interested in keeping- 
silk worms and actually produced silk from the mulberry trees growing 
on his grounds in Salisbury. 

Near the village stands a part of the old stone house, the home of 
Major DuBois, who was a prominent man in the War of the Revolution, 
as major in Colonel Woodhull's regiment, who was a prisoner for ten 
months in the hands of the British, and who lost his extensive lands by 
the depreciation of the Colonial money and his enforced absence from 
home; also the beautiful home of the family of Hon. Robert Denniston. 
The ancestor of the Denniston family was Alexander Denniston, the 
brother-in-law of Charles Clinton, who with many of his friends and 
neighbors, all being Scotch Presbyterians, and tired of the exactions and 
demands of the crown, emigrated from the town of Edgeworth. county 
of Longford, Ireland, in the early summer of 1729. After a long, tedious 
voyage of nearly five months, they landed on Cape Cod ; thence two years 
later they came to Little Britain. A family legend is, that these pioneers 
stood upon a hilltop about two miles northeast of Washingtonville and 
called the land in sight to the north, Little Britain, and there they settled. 
Alexander had six sons, James, George. Alexander. William, John. 
Charles, and four daughters. They were all stern patriots devoted to their 
country. The father was a member of Colonel Ellison's New Windsor 
regiment in 1738. and on frontier service in 1755. The six sons w^ere all 
members of the Third Ulster County regiment, which was called out 
many times during the dark days of the Revolution. Two were members 


of the Committee of Safety and one served in the line during the whole 
war. Of these sons James was the only one that settled in the town of 
Blooming Grove, the others settling elsewhere, New Windsor, Cornwall, 
etc. He purchased, in 1790, the farm one mile east of Washingtonville, 
which still remains in the family. He had three sons, James, Alexander, 
Abraham, and two daughters. He died in 1805, leaving the homestead 
to his son James. The latter had one son, Robert, and four daughters, 
Dying in 1825, the homestead was inherited by his son Robert. The latter 
served as an officer of the militia, was justice of the peace in his native 
town, judge of the Court of Common Pleas in Orange County, was 
elected member of the New York State Assembly in 1835, and again 
in 1839 and 1840, and was State senator from 1841-1847 and State 
comptroller in i860 and 1861. He was very active and energetic in his 
endeavors to maintain the Union during the War of the Rebellion, and 
was chairman of the military commission in the Orange and Sullivan 
Counties district. He had five sons, William Scott, James Otis, Robert, 
Henry Martyn, Augustus, and six daughters. These sons, like their an- 
cestors, were all interested in the war for the preservation of the Union, 
and served either in the army or navy. William Scott was a surgeon 
in the volunteer army and died of fever, July, 1862. James Otis was first 
lieutenant and captain, Company G, 124th N. Y. State V^olunteers, July 
2, 1862, to September 3, 1863, when, on account of wounds, he was mus- 
tered out. He afterwards studied theology and retired from active 
church work in 1905. Augustus was first lieutenant and quartermaster 
in the same regiment from July 15, 1862, to February 3, 1863. resigning 
on account of physical debility. Henry Martyn entered the pay corps 
of the U. S. Navy in September, 1861, and after serving over forty years, 
on reaching the age of sixty-two years was placed on the retired list with 
the rank of rear admiral. Robert served as his assistant from March, 1863, 
to October, 1863, resigning on account of ill health, and died August, 1864. 
Augustus was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1874-1875, 
and president of Or'ange County Agricultural Society, 1879, to date; also 
president of Highland National Bank, and resides on the old homestead, 
which he owns. 

West of Blooming Grove about two miles is located the village of 
Craigville, upon the falls of the Greycourt Creek, which formerly al- 


lowed three dams, all now gone, the combined power of which, together 
with the fact that the stream may be rej)lenished from Walton Lake, 
or Long Pond, will at s<ime future date be of value, as it was in the past. 
On the u]ii)er fall was located in the early days a forge, and some of the 
old slag is still in evidence. In later years a saw-mill and grist-mill were 
erected by Hector Craig, used afterward as the first manufactory of 
Hornby's Oats — ¥1. O. The machinery has been removed since to Ijuffalo. 
The second fall was utilized by James Craig and his son. Hector Craig, 
for a paper mill in 1790. 

After the death of Hector Craig, Barrett Ames, a son-in-law of Hector 
Craig, who had been a cotton merchant in Mobile, and his son-in-law, E. 
Peet, erected here a cotton factory, which was operated successfully for 
a number of years, but after the death of Mr. Ames, the property passed 
into other hands, and the cotton factory was burned down. Later the high 
(lam was swept away and nothing remains but the ruins and the old house, 
which was once surrounded by beautiful gardens and was the scene of 
much social life when the home of Hector Craig, Barrett Ames and Irving 
\'an Wart, who was a son-in-law of Mr. Ames. At this home Wash- 
ington Irving, an uncle of Irving Van Wart, made one of his last visits, 
if not his last visit, far away from Sunnyside. To this old home came 
James Craig, in 1790, from Paisley, Scotland, bringing with him his 
family. His son. Hector Craig, born in Scotland, 1775, married a daugh- 
ter of John Chandler. 1796. He was a member of Congress, 1823-1825 and 
1829-1830. He was a strong supporter of Andrew Jackson, is said to 
have cast the first vote in Congress for Andrew Jackson for President, 
and was by him ajipointed surveyor of the port in 1830, and L'. S. com- 
missioner of bankruptcy in 1832. Hector Craig carried on the paper 
mill during his life, and also for a time the manufacture of hemp from 
the Chester meadows, which had been drained by act of Legislature in 
1790. The old storehouse built by him is still carried on by Edwin 
Duryea, and the old hotel is still standing, a part of the Hornby prop- 
erty. The third fall, much lower, turned the mill of L^ncle Silas Sea- 
man and his son, Valentine Seaman, but is now^ out of use, and the prop- 
erty of H. S. Ramsdell. Just beyond the terminus of the Blooming 
Grove and Greycourt turnpike is the old Greycourt Cemetery, the burial 
place of many respected citizens of this and adjoining towns. 

Two miles south of Craigville is situated Oxford Depot, on the Erie 


Railroad, with a general country store, kept formerly by Peter B. Taylor, 
but for many years the store and post-office have been in charge of S. C. 
Van Vliet, who has also served the town as supervisor, justice, etc. 
Here is also a creamery run by the Alexander Campbell Co. The old 
settlement of Satterly's Mills and the adjacent Campbell Tillotson prop- 
erty are now the beautiful country residence of William Crawford, a well- 
known New York merchant, who is doing much to improve that part of 
the town. Near Oxford Depot is the beautiful home of Judge Charles 
R. Bull, supervisor from 1899 to 1903, and associate judge of County 
Court, and a lineal descendant of Sarah Wells. The old-time homes of 
the Seelys and Marvins and the Fletcher Woodhull families, for a long 
time famous for their well-tilled farms, and in the old times well finished 
fat cattle, have passed from their hands, with the single exception of that 
of Courtland Marvin, still in the hands of his grand-daughter, Fannie 
Marvin, regent of Blooming Grove Chapter, D. A. R., and grand- 
daughter of Fannie Woodhull Marvin, mentioned by Eager in his sketch 
of Claudius Smith as being used by her mother, wife of Captain Wood- 
hull, in saving the family silver. The stone house built under the 
supervision of William S. Woodhull is still the property of the widow 
of his son, Jesse Woodhull, who was a daughter of Marcus Sears and 
Mary Caldwell. And the Youngs homesteads are still held by their de- 
scendants, Joseph W. Young, Mrs. Durland and the family of William 
B. Hunter. The Bulls in the southern part of the town near Monroe, 
still dwell upon the old homestead. John Brewster, the town clerk 
of Cornwall, 1765-1799, lived near Blooming Grove, and a part of his 
old homestead remains in the hands of his descendants, Thomas C. and 
Walter H. Brewster, who have both been supervisors of the town, and 
whose beautiful homes are beside the Tappan on Satterly's Creek, and 
near the ancestral home of Selah E. Strong, supervisor of Blooming 
Grove, 1875- 1882, and sheriff of Orange County, 1888- 1889- 1890, and is 
now the home of his widow and their son, Sherwood Strong. This fine, 
old home was built by his grandfather, Selah Strong, the first super- 
visor of the new town of Blooming Grove, having been justice of the 
peace for the town of Cornwall for ten years. His father, Major Na- 
thaniel Strong, came to this farm with the Howells and Woodhulls from 
Long Island, and married Hannah, daughter of Major Nathaniel Wood- 
hull. He was a prominent citizen, a major in the Continental Army, and 





was murdered in liis home on his farm, by the notorious Claudius Smith, 
October 6. 1778. This homestead adjoins that of the Strong family, now 
occupied by Charles F. Bull, from which came :Major Samuel Strong and 
Captain Nathan Strong, who was at Valley Forge with the Continental 
Army. The descendants of Samuel Strong now live in Blooming Grove 
on the Benjamin Strong farm, near the Blooming Grove church, and 
Charles Strong in Blagg's Clove. This homestead adjoins that of Colonel 
Jesse Woodhull, who settled here on 500 acres of land in 1753, aged eigh- 
teen years, a part of which still remains in the family of N. D. Woodhull. 
The Woodhidl family were descendants from Richard Woodhull. born 
in North Hampton, England, 1620. Zealous for English liberty during 
the Protectorate, he sought freedom here. His grandson, Nathaniel, 
married into the Smith family, wdio were large proprietors of St. 
George's Manor, L. I. His daughter, Hannah, married Major Na- 
thaniel Strong. His son. General Nathaniel Woodhull, remained upon the 
old homestead at Mastic, Long Island, and took an active part in oppos- 
ing British oppression, and was killed by a British officer, September 2, 
1776, tradition says because he would not say. ''God save the King.' " Jesse 
settled in Blagg's Clove, and his son Richard married Hannah, daughter 
of Judge William Smith, of Long Island, and was the father of William 
Smith and Nathaniel DuBois. William Smith was the father of William 
Henry Howell and Jesse Woodhull, and Nathaniel was the father of Rich- 
ard and Francis Mandeville and grandfather of Nathaniel D. Woodhull, 
well known in Orange County as a leader of the New York milk business. 
Adjoining the Woodhull tract is the old Howell homestead to which 
Hezekiah Howell came from Long Island about 1730, and tradition says 
that as they came over Schunemunk Mountain they were obliged to 
stand by their horses to prevent the wild turkeys from eating up their 
oats. He with Sylvanus White and others took up the patent of 2.000 
acres called Blagg's Clove, and he married a daughter of Job Sayre in 
1735. His son. Hezekiah 2(1. was bom here. 1741. and married Juliana, 
daughter of Nathaniel Woodhull. of Mastic. L. I. His son. Charles 
Howell, was born in 1752. married a daughter of Major Nathaniel 
Strong, and after her death. Elizabeth, daughter of Charles Board, and 
.settled near the Blooming Grove church, upon a farm of 150 acres, 
which still remains in the hands of the family of his son. Edmund S. 
Howell. He served in the Independent Corps under General George 


Clinton in building Fort Putnam, and was on guard after the burning 
of Kingston. Hezekiah Howell was the first supervisor of the old town 
of Cornwall, and was sheriff of Orange County during the Revolution. 
His son, Hezekiah 3d, married Frances, daughter of Major Tuthill, of 
Orange County. His grandson, Nathaniel W., graduated from Williams 
in the year 1853, was supervisor of Blooming Grove, 1871 and 1872, 
and a member of Assembly, 1863- 1864. He has lived upon the old Howell 
homestead, and also inherited his father's farm, and has just conveyed 
the whole Howell tract of 700 acres to C. T. Purdy, who is as closely 
connected with Sheriff Howell as Nathaniel W. Sylvanus White, Jr., 
was born on Long Island, Southampton, and was son of Sylvanus and 
Phoebe Howell. They came with the Howells and Woodhulls and 
Strongs and Moft'atts, to Blagg's Clove, and settled upon 300 acres of 
land. His daughter married Anselm Helme, and the family still retain 
the old Helme homestead, near Coleman's Mills. His son, Nathan H. 
White, was born in 1770, entered Columbia College at the age of eighteen, 
and graduated in 1781 in the same class as John Randolph of Roanoke. He 
taught a classical school in Montgomery for six years, and was principal 
of the Newburgh Academy two years. Returning to the old home in 1802, 
he married Frances, daughter of Hezekiah and Juliana Woodhull Howell 
and added 200 acres to the old homestead. He was elected first judge 
of Orange County, and was the friend and associate of Judges Kent, 
Van Ness, Piatt and others; in 1806 was commissioned by Governor 
Morgan Lewis, captain of an Orange County Company of Militia. His 
son, Albert S. White, went to Indiana about 1825, was a member of 
Congress from Indiana two terms, and U. S. Senator contemporary with 
Clay, Calhoun and Webster. One daughter married Harvey Denniston, 
and after his death, John Nicoll, of Washingtonville. and the old White 
homestead is still held by her son, Charles Nicoll ; and from this union 
of the Woodhulls with the Strongs and the Howells and from the Wood- 
hull family came the numerous descendants who, together with the 
Seelys, Tuthills and Moffatts, Hulses, Hudsons, Duryeas, etc., have com- 
bined to make the old town well known, both at home and in very many 
distant States, as one after another has left his ancestral acres to seek 
a home, if not a fortune, in other parts of our native land. Those 
who remained at home have kept the ancestral acres up to the 
standard of productiveness set by their fathers, have been the sup- 

TOWN OI' r.T.OOMIXG C;K()\ !•:. 143 

porters of the old church and <il the schools, and have erected beau- 
tiful homes. 

Instead of the droves of fatted cattle which slowly wended their way 
through the Ramapo X'alley to the Christmas market in the city, and 
the county butter, now the Erie Railroad carries its daily freight of 
milk, and the accustomed leisure, the good old-fashioned all-day visits, 
and early teas, have given way to the daily rush to the trains, or cream- 
eries, and the more elaborate, though no more enjoyable festal occasions. 
with formal invitations and great preparations. 

Who shall succeed these old families who have so loyally supported 
the Church, the State and the School? Shall their fine residences, which 
now crown the hilltops, with their beautiful views, and the valleys 
with their peaceful streams, attract the residents of the nearby cities, as 
the neighboring town of Monroe is doing? Or will these homes ^ass into 
the hands of those who have to labor for their daily bread, day by day, 
and neither the one nor the other caring for the traditions of the past, 
caring not for the old churches, the old burial grounds, nor anything of 
the past. 

This question comes home to many of us, as we see the changes going 
on about us, and we cannot answer. 


The first house of worship was erected in Blooming Grove, 1759. The 
old church stood until 1823, when the present building was erected. The 
first pastor was Rev. Enos Ayres, who stood first on the roll of the first 
class graduated at Princeton College. He died in 1762 and was buried in 
the old burial ground, a part of which, including his grave and the graves 
of Rev. Samuel Parkhurst and Rev. Benoni Bradner, was covered by the 
new church building. In 1764 he was succeeded by Rev. Abner Reeve, 
father of the celebrated Judge Reeve, who founded the law school at 
Litchfield, Conn. Rev. Abner Reeve resigned about 1786. In 1786, Rev. 
Samuel Parkhurst came as a supply and soon died here, and his grave 
is also under the present church. Then followed, in 1770, Rev. Anasiah 
Lewis, Rev. Case, Rev. Green and Rev. Silas Constant, as stated supplies 
for a time. Rev. Benoni Bradner filled the pulpit from 1786 until 1892, 
dying in 1804. He was buried here, his stone still standing erect un ler 


the church. After his retirement Rev. Joel T. Benedict preached a few 
months. Rev. Noah Crane, 1803 to 181 1. He was succeeded by Rev. 
WilHam Rafferty, who married a daughter of John Chandler and re- 
signed in 1815, to become president of St. John's College, Annapolis, 
Maryland. Returning on a visit in 1830, he died here, and is buried in 
the old Chandler family burial ground on the old homestead now occu- 
pied by B. C. Sears. August 7, 1816, Rev. Luther Halsey was installed as 
pastor. The church was admitted under the care of the Presbytery, 
with the reservation of its form of government, and remained in the 
Presbytery of Hudson until 1833, but has always been in fact Congrega- 
tional. Rev. Luther Halsey served the church with great acceptance. 
Great revivals blessed his ministry, at one time nearly one hundred 
being added to the church. The present church building was erected 
under his ministry, and frequently filled. He resigned in 1824 to accept 
a professorship in Nassau Hall ; later became professor of theology in 
Alleghany, in Auburn, and in Union Seminaries. He died in Pittsburgh 
on November 2, 1880, aged eighty-seven years. He was succeeded at 
Blooming Grove by James Arbuckle, then pastor of the Eighth Presbyte- 
rian Church of Philadelphia, who was pastor of the church until his death, 
July, 1847. In 1847, Rev. Ebenezer Mason, son of the celebrated John M, 
Mason, D.D., of New York City, became pastor, who died here the next 
year. After his death the pulpit was supplied until April, 1851, when Rev. 
Austin Craig was called, and served this church for fourteen years, when 
he resigned to accept the presidency of Antioch College, Ohio, and later 
was president of the Biblical School at Stanfordville, Dutchess County, 
N. Y., where he died, but is still held in loving remembrance by many 
of the congregation and in the town. He was succeeded in April, 1866, 
by Rev. Warren Hathaway, D.D., who still occupies the pulpit. Although 
he has had frequent calls to what seems to have been more attractive fields 
of labor, he still remains loyal to his old congregation and they to him. 
Both Eager and Ruttenber, to whom we are indebted for part of the facts 
herein stated, excuse a lengthy report of this old church, because of its 
being one of the landmarks of the town, and it still stands for right- 
eousness, temperance, and charity toward all those laboring for the 
good of their fellow-men, but the congregation is greatly changed. In 
the place of the Marvins, and Seelys, Moflfatts and Roes, who came in 
large loads containing the whole families, come very few of those still 


left of tlie Woodhulls and Marvins. Although the Tuthills and the 
Shons, who represent the old Moflfatt family, the Hulses and Hudsons, 
Gerovvs and Sears, and Howells and Brewsters, still contribute their 
quotas toward the congregation, there are many vacant pews, and very 
manv who trooi)cd up the long aisles, and listened attentively to the in- 
structive and eloquent sermons, and visited upon the old door stones, are 
seen there no more. In place of the tall form of David H. Aloffatt, Jr., 
who used to lead the choir in the old gallery, stands the handsome pipe 
organ erected to his father's memory by David H. Mofifatt, of Denver. 
And the clmrcli has a fund in memory of David Wright, given by his 
daughter Susan Wright. 

In. 1830, an ctYort was made to start an Episcopal church in Washing- 
tonville, but met with no success. August 21, 1851, under the leader- 
ship of Rev. Henry Belden, a Congregational church was organized, and 
a building erected, which was afterward sold to the Methodist congre- 
gation, incorporated 1855. The First Presbyterian Church of ll'ash- 
ingtonville was organized 1841. Connected with the Hudson Presbytery 
under the charge of Rev. Henry Belden the church grew to a member- 
ship of 121, when Rev. Henry Helden was succeeded by Rev. Phineas 
Robinson. A cluirch l)uil(ling was erected in 1847, ^"<^^ ^ev. Luther 
Halsey was called to succeed liim and occupied the pulpit until October. 
1856. Rev. Daniel Higbee served the church from August, 1858, until 
his death. October. 1867. He was succeeded by John Griswold, who 
served until April, 1871, when he was succeeded by Rev. James B. Beau- 
mont. 1 87 1 to 1 881, George W. Morrill from 1882 to 1884. when an effort 
to unite the congregations of the First and Second Churches was made, 
but failed. In 1886, Rev. Joseph Greenleaf was called, and died in 
1888. ^^■illiam M. Yeoman was pastor from 1898 to October. 1902. John 
A. McCallum. installed 1903, resigned June 20, 1907, leaving the cluirch 
without a pastor at this date. Their church proj)crty has been increased 
by a new parsonage, 1872. and a handsome chapel and Sunday school- 
room, to the memory of Mary Scott Denniston, the widow of Hon. 
Robert Denniston, erected by her children. 

In 1855, Dr. Luther Halsey, having a matter of difference with the 
New School Assembly, did not feel he could any longer remain under 
its care, and many of his congregation joining with him, they formed 
the Old School Prcshxtcrian Church of Washini^tonville. The chur:h 


was organized in 1857, a house of worship built in 1858, and a parsonage 
added in 1871. Dr. Luther Halsey occupied the pulpit until April, 1862, 
when Rev. Arthur Harlow was called and ordained and installed, Sep- 
tember, 1863; resigned in October, 1871, and died June 19, 1883. In 
1872, B. G. Benedict became stated supply until 1875, when on account 
of ill health he resigned and was succeeded by Rev. N. M. Sherwood, 
who served the church ten years, resigning in 1885 in order that his 
occupying the pulpit might not embarrass the effort to unite the two 
Presbyterian churches. This effort failing. Rev. Eugene L. Mapes was 
called, April, 1886; installed 1887, and resigned a year later, having re- 
ceived a call to the Presbyterian church of Carlisle, Pa. The church 
was then supplied for some time, and then sold its property, and divided 
the proceeds between the Foreign and Home Mission Boards of the Pres- 
byterian Church, part of the congregation giving to the First Presby- 
terian Church and part to the old Blooming Grove Church, and part to 
Bethlehem and Little Britain. 

The Blooming Grove Methodist Episcopal Church was incorporated De- 
cember 3, 1855. This is now the Washingtonville Methodist Church. It 
was for a long time on the circuit of Monroe, Oxford, Craigville and 
Highland Mills, but now is associated with the church at Salisbury Mills, 
has a fine church property, kept in very good repair, and has recently 
installed electric lights in connection with other improvements. 

The Catholic Church of St. Mary is near Washingtonville on the State 
road, the first building erected in 1872, has been of late much enlarged 
and beautified under the direction and by the efifort of Rev. Father 
Tetrau, and now has a fine property consisting of the enlarged church 
and rectory. 

The Methodist Church of Salisbury Mills was incorporated in 1854, 
was connected with the New Windsor circuit until 1898, when it was 
connected with Washingtonville. It has a convenient and finely located 

In Salisbury, largely through the efforts of Richard Caldwell and his 
wife, Sarah Beattie Caldwell, the Hope Chapel, connected with the Beth- 
lehem Presbyterian Congregation, was built, and has been an active or- 
ganization ever since, and its Sunday school, supported by its founders, 
is large and active, and Sunday evening and other services well attended. 

The Satterly Town Methodist Church was organized in 1855, a house 


built and services held for some time, but its supporters, withdrawing or 
niovmg from the neighborhood, the building was removed. Also about 
1850 a cliurch was erected at Craigville, for the use of that village and 
neighborhood, which soon passed into the hands of the Methodist organ- 
ization, and was on the circuit with Washingtonville for many years, but 
service has for a long time been discontinued, though the building still 
stands in fair repair and is beautifully situated. Still another Methodist 
church was built about one mile south of Oxford Depot and used for 
the purpose of worship, but now has been turned to secular use- also 
near this was the Friends meeting house, now used as a dwellino- 




By Frank Durland. 

CHESTER is one of the interior towns of Orange County, situated 
on the main line Erie RailroaJ, which together with the Newburgh 
branch, Lehigh and Hudson and Orange County Railroads, make 
up the chief commercial outlets to the ports on the Hudson and Delaware 

It consists of over sixteen thousand acres of fine farming land and is 
a noted dairy and stock farming section of the Empire State. Consider- 
able enterprise has been shown in recent years in the culture of onions, 
celery and lettuce on the Greycourt meadows, which are among :he most 
fertile of all the alluvial deposits of the country. 

The title of most of the land of the township is from the famous 
Wawayanda patent, which covered the land deeded by the twelve native 
Indian proprietors, who signed a deed, March 5, 1703, for all the land 
from the high hills of the Hudson to the Shawangunk Mountains and 
the Jersey line. The highest points of vantage in Chester township, 
from which magnificent views may be obtained of the whole Wawayanda 
country, are Sugar Loaf Mountain, 1,220 feet elevation, and Goose Pond 
Mountain, 826 feet above the sea level. From these pinnacles may be 
seen the Catskills, which are much higher and further removed than the 
Shawangunk range of mountains. 

The elevation in Chester village at Durland Square is 485 feet, and 
on the ridge back of the Presbyterian Church, extending toward Craig- 
ville, may be obtained extended views of a large portion of Orange 
County, spread out in every direction. 

The H. W. Wood hills at East Chester, the T. S. Durland ridge at 
Greycourt, and the Guy Miller gravel hill, each have a magnificent out- 
look over a large scope of the country from Schunnemunk to Shawan- 
gunk. In the valleys between these ridges are the old highways following 
in some instances, Indian trails. It is but natural that along these roads 
the present village should have grown up. 




The road from Xewburgh through Chester to Trenton and Morris- 
town, N. J., is often spoken of in the Clinton papers and in more recent 
years it has been known as the King's Highway. It has been a noted 
road since Colonial days, having often been used by General Washington 
during the Revolutionary War, It is the natural avenue for intercourse 
between Newburgh and New Jersey. Crossing this road at Durland's 
Square is the old Albany and New York stage road, which enters the 
town of Chester at the Goshen line and to the metropolis continues its 
course southward near Greycourt. Leaving this old stage road at Nano- 
witt Park, which has been recently donated to the town of Chester by 
Rev. E. T. Sanford, pastor of the North Baptist Church of New York 
City, is the old Indian trail, which became a popular road during the 
Colonial days and leads to Greenwood Lake and to the ancient Sterling 
Iron Works. This road was traveled by Peter Townsend, one of the 
owners of the Sterling Iron Works, who lived in Chester during the 
Revolution, and whose descendants continued to reside here for many 

There is also the new State road, No. 600. following quite closely 
the old Albany and New York road, excepting the course from Monroe 
to Chester is changed from the east to the west side of the Erie Railroad. 
The famous Glenmere Lake, formerly known as Thompson's Pond, is 
partly in the town of Chester, and is noted for its pickerel and bass 
fishing. Its area is about 400 acres. 

The streams of the town are known as the Otter Kill, which flows 
through West Chester and is joined at Lincolndaie by the Cromeline 
Creek, which was known in Colonial days as the "River." 

The Cromeline has its sources of sujjply near the northern headwaters 
of Greenwood Lake in the watershed known as "Dutch Hollow ;" also 
from the outlet of Walton Lake, known in Colonial days as the "Little 
Long Pond" to distinguish it from Greenwood Lake, which in the 
early period of our histor\- was known as Long Pond. Along the Crome- 
line Creek are the- fertile meadows formerly known as the Great Ikaver 

Since the erection of the Cromeline house in the year 1716, which 
stood on the south side of the road opposite the present home of \\ . R. 
Conklin, the meadows have been known as the Greycourt meadows, from 
the fact that this Cromeline house was known as the Grevcourt Inn. 


This name was also given to the cemetery, near this old inn, and when 
the Erie Railroad was built in 1841, this name was applied to the junction 
of the Erie Railroad with the Newburgh branch and the Warwick Val- 
ley, first called East and West Junction, afterwards Chesterville, and 
finally the euphonious name of Greycourt was decided upon as the name 
appropriate for the station adjoining these famous Greycourt meadows. 


On the 22nd of August, 1775, the Provincial Congress of New York 
passed a law under which the militia of the Revolution was organized. 

The several companies so formed were directed to be joined into regi- 
ments to consist of not less than five nor more than ten companies. When 
the organization was perfected, the companies of Orange formed the 
Fourth Brigade under Brigadier General George Clinton. This brigade 
was composed of four companies of Ulster and five of Orange County, 
commanded respectively by Colonel Allison, whose regimental district 
included Goshen, of which Chester was then a part, and the western 
part of the county. There were Colonel Hathorn, whose district embraced 
Warwick and the settlements ; Colonel Woodhull, the district which is now 
Monroe and Blooming Grove; Colonel Hasbrouck's district, embracing 
Newburgh and vicinity ; Colonel Clinton's of New Windsor, Montgomery 
and Wallkill. 

During the early years of the war our people (located, as they were, 
not far removed from the Hudson) were almost constantly under arms 
or engaged in the construction of the forts of the Highlands, or pre- 
paring the obstructions to navigation through these Highlands. 

The contract for the making of the last chain drawn across the Hud- 
son at West Point, on April 30, 1778, was awarded at the home of Mr. 
Peter Townsend, who resided at this time in the old homestead opposite 
the Presbyterian Church, in Chester village, by Secretary of War, Mr. 
Pickering. Mr. Townsend, of the firm of Townsend & Noble, at this 
time was one of the owners of the Sterling furnace, where the chain 
was made. 

During the years 1776 to 1779 our troops were very active and were 
kept informed by the aid of cannon firing by day and beacon fires by 
night. From December, 1776, to April, 1778, our militia was called out 
no less than twelve times and spent 292 days in the field. 


At a meetinf:^ of tlic County Delegates called to meet at llie Yelverton 
Inn (still standing in Chester), on September 17, 1774, Henry Wisner 
was elected and sent as a delegate to the Continental Congress at Phila- 
delphia, "to protest against the unjust taxation." On December 9, 1776, 
General Clinton was ordered to co-operate with Generals Lee and Gates 
to harass the enemy, who had then entered northern New Jersey. The 
resolution read as follows : "That all the militia of Orange and Ulster 
Counties be forthwith ordered to march properly armed and accoutered 
with four days' provision to Chester, Orange County, N. Y." 

This fixes the date of the encampment of these troops on the hill 
where the present new modern school-house is being erected, as being 
about the latter part of December. 1776, or January, 1777. The encamp- 
ment probably consisted of part of the four regiments, under Colonels 
Allison, Hathorn, Wooflhull and Clinton. An order was issued on Jan- 
uary 4, 1777, dismissing part of these troops, leaving about 300 men 
in the above camp for the winter. 

One of the first engagements in which our Chester patriots took part, 
occurred at SufFern, October 3, 1777, when Major Thomas MofTatt or- 
dered Captain Wood and twenty men to cover the pass through the 
mountains at this point, where they intercepted a band of Tories, with 
the result of one robber killed and three wounded. 

Our company was engaged under Colonel Allison later on at Forts 
Montgomery and Clinton. While these events were transpiring on the 
Hudson, the western frontier was harassed by the incursions of the In- 
dians and Tories under the leadership of the educated half-breed Brant, 
together with Butler the Tory. Our troops becoming alarmed by the 
fugitives' accounts of the massacres and burnings taking place on the 
frontier. Colonel Hathorn, together with Lieutenant Colonel Trustin, of 
Colonel Allison's Goshen Regiment, and with such numbers of the com- 
mands as could be brought together in so brief a time, proceeded at once 
to Minisink, on July 22, 1779, to take part in that bloody battle on this 
date. Several of our Chester Company were among the brave troops. 


After the Revolutionary War and until 1845, the village of Chester 
was a part of the township of Goshen, and had become quite an import- 


ant trading center, being at the junction of the two leading State roads. 
Up to the time of the building of the Warwick Valley road, in 1863, 
now the Lehigh and Hudson, the pig iron from Wawayanda Lake 
forge was carted to Chester for shipment on the Erie, the butter and 
other farm produce from the Vernon Valley, extending as far as New- 
ton, N. J., was also brought to this point for shipment. It was but nat- 
ural that the trial to decide the boundaries of the Cheesecock and Wa- 
wayanda Indian patents should have been held at this place. In the 
year 1785, in the barn connected with the Yelverton Inn, erected in the 
year 1765, still standing, in good state of preservation, and owned by 
Joseph Durland, some of the older inhabitants and pioneers of Orange 
County met with the nation's most famous lawyers, Alexander Hamilton 
and Aaron Burr. The Wawayanda patentees were fortunate in securing 
these men during this trial, and many historical facts were brought out, 
through the witnesses sworn at this trial. In their testimony concerning 
what they knew about the early settlement of the country and the rela- 
tions of the whites to the native Indians, the evidence was set forth. The 
burden of the testimony seemed to prove that Schunemunk was not 
considered by the pioneers as the high hills of the Hudson. On this trial, 
Judge Elihu Marvin stated "that he was born in 1719 and moved in what 
is now known as the town of Chester in 1742. Whenever he visited 
Haverstraw and returned as far as the Ramapo River, it was always 
called beyond the High Hills of the Hudson." 

Hugh Dobbin, aged seventy-six, stated "that he lived near Sugar Loaf 
Mountain since 1738." 

Deliverance Conkling. who lived near Wickham's Pond, stated "that 
he was 71 years old, and has known personally Lancaster Symes, one of 
the Wawayanda patentees, and the pond as Goose Pond Mountain used 
to be called Cromeline Pond, and abounded in wild geese." 

Samuel Gale was born in 1737, and testified "that the Cheesecocks line 
had always been disputed." 

William Thompson was born in 1723, was chain bearer for Colonel 
Clinton and usually stopped, when surveying the Cheesecock patent, at 
Perry's near Wickham's Pond. He had talked with the Indians and re- 
mained at times in their wigwams." 

Ebenezer Holly, born 1698, stated "that he knew Captain Symes, Cap- 
tain Aske, Christopher Denn and Daniel Cromeline. In dispute with 



the Indians, Governor Burnet had decided that the IncHans must move 
off the land ; among the Indians who still claimed land were Rombout, 
Hons and Romer. He stated that Cromeline made his first improve- 
ment at Greycourt. 

John Kinner, a Chester resident, held land in this disputed tract under 
Mr. Wisner, Dr. Baird and Mr. Scott. 

James Board, aged sixty-five, born in England in 1720, came to this 
country with his father, Cornelius, and brother, David, in 1730; sent by 
Alexander, Lord Sterling, to discover copper mines ; discovered iron ore 
deposits at Sterling, built there a forge in 1735, and in the year of 1740 
removed to Ringwood. The mountains west toward Warwick were 
called by that name. The Sugar Loaf Mountain was called by that name 
as long as he remembered. 

Soon after the forge was going it was sold by Cornelius Board & 
Sons to Coldon & Ward. 

During this trial Burr and Hamilton were guests at the old Yclverton 
Inn. The court adjourned to meet again at Chester, in Yelvcrton barn, 
in October, 1785. at which session it was decided that Chccsecock patent 
should comprise all the land east of Goose Pond Mountain and the great 
Beaver Meadows, to the western line of Evans patent and the Hudson 

In the early part of the nineteenth century, living in and about West 
Chester, were Joseph Durland. born in 1762, Benjamin Dunning, Daniel 
Denton, James Roe and Michael Renton. On the Florida road lived 
Thaddeus Seely and Major Holbert. At Chester lived Asa \'ail opposite 
the second academy. Edmund Seely. Seth Satterly and Dr. Townsend 
Seely. Peter Townsend lived opposite the Presbyterian church. Isaac 
and William Townsend on the C. B. Wood ridge, Elmer Cooper and Dr. 
Dodd, .Aaron Cox. the hatter, and Stephen Cooper, born in 1788; David 
G. Drake, born in 1760. The old Samuel Satterly house stood on the 
brow of the hill, nearly opposite the joining of Old New York road, 
near the new State road ; from this point at the bridge, which was 
called in these early days the "P^irgatory Bridge." the most popular 
amusement was running races. The course lay from this bridge to the 
oak tree, which is still standing near H. \\". Woofl's residence. On 
special days. July 4. and in the atituinn, the i)copIe from miles around 
fairlv lined the short course in inimbc-rs from three to four hundred 


people. In fact, nearly double the number of our whole population at 
that period. Purses were usually made up at such times at the course, 
and great horses contested. Among them were Webber's "Kentucky 
Whip," a great running sire from Kentucky ; Tom Thumb and Saltrum. 
The visitation of such noted running stock to Chester was the beginning 
of an improvement in the racing stock of this section. This development 
found its climax in the birth of Hambletonian, the progenitor of the 
American trotter. 

When the old "Hero of Chester" died in 1876, he was buried on the 
hill on the W. M. Rysdyck place. Since that time a granite shaft costing 
$3,000, has been erected, to mark the resting place of this notable sire. 

About 100 years ago Isaac Kinner and Daniel Cooley lived on the 
western foothills of the Goose Pond Mountains. 

On the Craigville road lived Dr. John Boulton, Birdseye Young, Al- 
bert Seely, Samuel Denton, Hezekiah Moffatt and Jesse Carpenter. 


About 1 72 1, we find John Yelverton, of New Windsor, in this section. 
The deed recorded, 1765, by his grandson and executor, Abijah Yelver- 
ton, who kept the Yelverton Inn, in old Chester village, conveys three 
parcels of land in 1721 in Goshen to John Yelverton, in trust "for a 
parsonage, minister's house and burying place ; also to build a meeting 
house thereon or a public edifice for the worship of God in the way and 
manner of those of the Presbyterian persuasion," signed by twenty-four 
land owners in the different parts of the Wawayanda patent. This has ref- 
erence to the Goshen Presbyterian church. During this period Chester, 
with the rest of this part of the county, was included in the precinct 
of Goshen. 

Richard Edsall's survey, made in 1741, mentions William Seely and 
Rulof Swartwout as living in this neighborhood. 

The township of Chester is well arranged for the transaction of public 
business, and is the practical outcome of the ambitions of a progressive 
century. In 1845 from the towns of Goshen, Warwick, Blooming Grove 
and Monroe, the township was organized with James Gray as its first 
supervisor, 1845. 

The first deed that we find made mention of was John Beers as own- 




ing 120 acres of the Cromeline i)atent ; he sold the same June 16, 1751, to 
John Ensign, who in turn sold 42^ acres of the tract, on May 19, 1755, 
to John Yelverton, gentleman, for the sum of i)j£ and 4s, current money. 
Upon this land the village of Chester is located. 

Many familiar names of the families living in our township to-day 
are found on the assessment rolls of dist. No. 4, town of Goshen, of 
September. 1775. signed by Nathaniel Roe. 

This district may be described as running from Greycourt to Satterly- 
town, Sugar Loaf to Summerville, to Fort Hill, with no less than 119 
land owners with an assessed valuation of 370^ 8s. I7d. 

Abijah Yelverton, in the year of 1783, gave an acre of ground for 
church purposes. The year 1797 saw the beginning of the first meeting 
house. In 1708 the first minister began his labors in the Pre^>byterian 
church at $75 per annum, "with the privilege of teaching to piece out 
his support." This meeting house stood on the high ground in the rear 
of the residence of Dr. S. G. Carpenter, in the old village of Chester. It 
was commodious for the time, with square pews, but was used without 
being heated. The next church was built in 1829, and was located about 
the center of the present cemetery at East Chester. 

Our earliest district school-house stood opposite the Dr. Edmonston 
home in the old village. It was erected during the latter part of 1700. 
Another was located on the Goshen road near Dr. A. T. Sanden's resi- 
dence. Long before the noise of railroads disturbed the quiet of our 
hamlet, the mails were brought by the old stage coach. 

Chester was favorably situated for the exchange of mails, the Goshen 
stage running through here to meet the Newburgh and New York stage 
line at Southfield and the Warwick stage line, using our road to connect 
with the same line at Washingtonville. 

The first post-office was established in Chester in 1794. Joseph Wick- 
ham being the first j^ostmastcr located at West Chester, then and now a 
part of Chester village, .\fterward it was moved to the old village and 
in 1842 was removed to the building oj)])ositc the present Erie Railroad 
tower at Chester Station. The idea of offering fresh milk from the 
country to the distant consumer in the city originated with a road con- 
tractor named Selleck who interested some of our leading farmers in the 
project and succeeded in getting a su])ply sent by the Erie in the spring 
of 1842. It was shii)j)ed in the blue pyramid churns of that day. The 


first shipment were about six cans per day and freight charges were by 
weight, twenty cents per hundred pounds. The price paid the producer 
was two cents per quart, placed on the cars at Chester. The farmers 
soon finding that there was more money to be made from milk at two 
cents per quart than butter at fifteen cents per pound, began sending milk 
to Selleck. Thus the milk business of the county was born, and in spite 
of the many difficulties, this business has alone been the means of build- 
ing four railroads in Orange County and returned to it over $100,000,- 

In 1784 mention is made of a saw-mill on the trout brook, on the 
Sterling road. These mills are now known as Bull's Mills. A grist-mill 
was then operated on the opposite side of the stream. The old flouring 
mill at West Chester was established soon after the settlement was 
made. As late as the year 1820, an old mill stood upon the ground just 
above the present Chester mills. During these times they used two run 
of stone and never were compelled to shut down for lack of water. 

Chester's first library was incorporated November 17, 1779, with seven 
trustees, and was verified before Judge Wickham and recorded the same 
year. Abijah Yelverton was the first librarian. 

The war of 1861 occasioned a great demand for onions and our onion 
culture on the black meadows began about that time. Our average yearly 
production has been about 60,000 bushels. During revolutionary times 
a part of these meadows were cultivated for raising hemp ; later on, pota- 
toes and corn. 


The movement for both our present water supply and for the incorpo- 
ration of the village first took effective shape in the year 1891, when a 
few public-spirited citizens of the village subscribed to a fund to be 
expended in a survey to determine whether the water of Little Long 
Pond, now known as "Walton Lake," could be brought to the village 
under such pressure as would make it available for fire protection. The 
preliminary survey was made under the direction of Joseph Board and 
George M. Roe. The facts were convincing that this was a most favor- 
able project for a water supply. First, the organization of a private 
company was proposed, and from this developed the incorporation of 
our village, the citizens realizing that if we were to have a water supply. 



it must be owned by tlie village. Accordingly this was done with the 
happy result that has made us the envy of our neighboring villages. 

On October 17, 1892, Mr. Joseph Board was appointed as resident 
superintendent in the construction of the water works, and when the 
water was turned on, in exactly a year, October 17, 1893, the inhab- 
itants of our village had the satisfaction of knowing that each length 
of pipe so laid had been under the inspection of our superintendent. 

The village of Chester was incorjiorated June 23. 1892. having a popu- 
lation of 1.400; 125 voters favored the incorporation and only the small 
number of thirteen opposed the proposition. At the first caucus, held July 
12, 1892, were nominated W. A. Lawrence as president; Joseph Durland, 
Ceorge M. Roe and Thad. S. Durland, trustees. At the first election, 
held July 20, 1892, the above citizens were elected to their respective 
offices. The village board was organized on the same date, naming 
Jose])h Board as village clerk. 

The board of water commissioners was organized August 15. 1892, 
with Messrs. W. A. Lawrence, Joseph Durland, George M. Roe and T. 
S. Durland as commissioners, and Joseph Board, clerk. A taxpayers' 
meeting was called September 2, 1892. to vote on the question of assess- 
ment for water-works, with the following results : Sixty-eight in favor, 
against seven. Contract was executed at a total cost of $53,000 at their 
final completion. 

This water supply for the village of Chester is one of the best in the 
State. The source is Walton Lake, formerly known as Little Long Pond, 
a beautiful sheet of spring water, covering an area of 127 acres, with a 
-torage capacity of 33^ feet, each foot of water giving a supply of over 
40.000.000 gallons. This su])ply is a gravity system. From this lake, at 
an elevation of 250 feet above the level of Main street, at Chester Sta- 
tion, giving a working pressure of 80 to 90 pounds, there was laid for 
water-mains, 8,197 ^^^^ of 12-in. pipe, 6.978 feet of 19-in. pipe, 14,820 
feet of 8-in. pipe, 5.748 feet of 6-in. pipe, 6.312 feet of 4-in. pipe. 

Since the introduction of Walton Lake water, both the Walton Hose 
C'om])any and Hook and Ladder Company have been organized. 

After the incorporation the present municipal brick building was 
erected at a cost of $5,000. In this building rooms for village officers 
and parlors used by the fire department are located. Tn connection 
with our fire department, there is an annual iu'^pcction. at which time 


the Chester mihtary band of twenty-live members, under the leadership 
of George W. Ball, adds greatly to the village life. 

In the year 1905, the Orange and Rockland Electric Company was or- 
ganized, with R. W. Smith as president, and G. M. Roe as vice-presi- 
dent; Zael Paddleford, secretary; Frank Durland, treasurer. This com- 
pany was organized and stock subscribed for by the citizens of Chester 
and Monroe. 

The streets of the village, which were formerly lighted by kerosene, 
are now illuminated by electric current, generated by this company. Our 
Telford streets were laid in the year 1901, at a cost of $17,000. A dis- 
tance of two and one-quarter miles were constructed through the main 
streets of the village. 


The Presbyterian Church of Chester, while it had been ministering to 
the spiritual needs of the community for more than a quarter of a 
century, effected its legal organization December 26, 1826, with David 
Roe, Henry Seely, James Holbert, Elnathan Satterly, Joseph Sherwood 
and Townsend Seely as trustees. 

The present house of worship, being the third erected by this congre- 
gation, was dedicated January 4, 1854. The present chapel was added 
in the year 1884. The church was remodeled and memorial windows 
added in the year 1898. In the year 1898 the church celebrated the cen- 
tennial of its existence with impressive services and the publication of an 
interesting history of its century of church life. 

The commodious parsonage adjoining the church was erected in 1895 
at a cost of about $8,000. 

Methodist Episcopal Church, Sugar Loaf. — Rev. Isaac Condee was 
the first Methodist preacher to visit Sugar Loaf, which he did in the 
year 1803 or 1804. and first preached in the home of John D. Conklin. 

In the fall of 1804 he organized the first class and appointed John D. 
Conklin, leader. It is the mother of all the Methodist churches within 
a radius of ten or twelve miles. 

The certificate of incorporation was executed on August 6, 1809. The 
trustees then chosen were Henry Wisner, Jr.. Joseph Beach. Andrew 
Cunningham, Benjamin Wells, Richard Wisner. Horace Ketchem, Elijah 
Stevens, John D. Conklin and Benjamin Horton. 


A subscription was taken and the tir>t church was built in year 1810. 
Ten }ears later, in the year 1820, the Sunday school was established. The 
parsonage was erected in the year 1832. The second church, the present 
building, was built in 1852, and at three separate times it has undergone 
repairs. Rev. J. B. Wakcley, D.D., preached the sermon at the dedica- 
tion of the church in the year 1852, and following the extensive repairs 
to the church, made in 1872, Bishop Cyrus D. Foss preached the deflica- 
tion sermon. The church celebrated the centennial of its existence in the 
fall of 1904, at which time many of the former pastors were present to 
participate in the services, when Bishop Foss was again present. 

A long list of worth}- men have served this church as pastors. Rev. 
P. X. Chase, Ph.D., is at present in charge; M. D. Stevens, superintend- 
ent of the Sunday school; Miss Alice Turfler, president of the Epworth 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Chester was organized in the 
year 1837, and for some time used the academy for worship; afterwards 
used the "Ball Room" of Yelverton Inn. In the year 1852 the present 
property was purchased and the church, edifice erected in charge of the 
following trustees : 

C. B. Wood, W. L. Foster, Daniel Conklin, S. R. Banker, John T. 
Johnson, William jMasterson, G. B. jMcCabe. 

In 1867 the church was enlarged and in 1878 the present parsonage 
was purchased. In the year 1879 the sum of $3,000 was expended in 
beautifying the church building. 

St. Paul's Episcopal Church. — The organization of St. Paul's Episcopal 
Mission was effected on May 25, 1897. at which time Samuel Wilkins 
and James A. Parkin were elected trustees. Services were held in 
various places until the summer of 1898. when land was purchased and 
the present church edifice on Main street was erected. The church was 
dedicated by Archdeacon William R. Thomas, D.D.. on August 6, 1898. 
The church was consecrated by Bishop Henry Cadman Potter on July 
25, 1899. Prior to this, the usual organization of the Episcopal Church 
was effected. Mr. Samuel \\'ilkin and R. W. Chamberlain, wardens, 
were elected. J. A. Parkin, E. T. Jackson and W. F. Depcw, vestrymen. 
Articles of incorporation were filed on February 27, 1899. 

The clergyman. Rev. J. Holmes McGuinness, D.D.. at this time was 


St. John's Africa]i Union Chapel. — This church was organized on 
June 22, 1904, under the auspices of the African Union First Colored 
Methodist Protestant Church in America and Canada, with five members 
and Rev. Edward Nicholas as pastor. The church and Sunday School 
has at present a total membership of eighty-eight. 

Rev. Mr. Nicholas was assigned to this field of labor by the ninetieth 
annual conference of the above named denomination, held at the mother 
church in Wilmington, Delaware County, May 18, 1904. 

The citizens of the place have done much to encourage this well begun 


Chester Lodge No. 363, Knights of Pythias, was organized in the year 
1894, and the lodge charter is dated July 25 of that year. The lodge was 
started with a membership of twenty-one, which has increased to forty 
Knights. The lodge conventions are held every Thursday evening at 
Castle Hall, in the Wilkin building. The sums paid to members in sick 
benefits since the organization amount to $1,000. 

Standard Lodge No. 711, F. & A. M., was instituted July 27, 1871, 
and continued to meet in this place, where many of its members resided 
until a few years ago, when a majority decided to change its place of 
meeting to Monroe. 

The Chester National Bank was organized in the year 1845 as a 
State bank, and became a national bank on June 6, 1865. 

The bank occupies the up-to-date quarters in its new building, erected in 
1896, on Main street. The building is of brick, with Quincy granite 
facing, built at a cost of $10,000, its fire and burglar-proof vault contain- 
ing 100 safe-deposit boxes, at an added cost of $8,000. 

Chester free library, organized through the efifort of Chester Library 
and Social Club, was chartered by the University of the State of Ne^v 
York, December 19, 1901. The original trustees were Hiram Tuthill, 
president ; Charles W. Kerner, secretary and treasurer ; Joseph Board, 
Joseph Durland and Roswell W. Chamberlain, trustees. Mrs. Abbie 
Masters is librarian. The library owns about 800 volumes, and in 1907 
circulated 3,543 books. It is supported by voluntary contributions and 
entertainments. The reading room, which is well supplied with periodicals. 

^^-"-^Ao-e^^^^^ ^^^^^W'a^^^?^^;.^^^ 


and the library, are open to the pubHc on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday 
evening's and Saturday afternoons. 

The Young Men's Christian Association was organized March i, 1907, 
witli no members. The members occupy the rooms in the Lawrence 
building. The society started in a very flourishing condition. 

There have been various organizations from time to time in Chester to 
advance its interests. The Board of Trade was organized October i, 
1900, with Frank Durland, president; W. A. Lawrence, vice-president; 
Charles W. Kerner, secretary; Hiram Tuthill, treasurer. Directors, Jo- 
seph Board, William Osborne, George Vail, G. M. Roe. 

The Board of Trade represents the spirit that has eflfected co-operation 
in many ways for advancing the interests of the town. Among them are 
the incorporation of our village and the securing of the water supply 
from Walton Lake, and the Telford streets. At present the officers are 
looking forward to the development of the suburban idea on the beautiful 
site that our village affords, and will welcome desirable manufacturing 

From a small beginning in the year 1874, the manufacture of Xeuf- 
chatcl and square cream cheese has grown until at the present time the 
Lawrence & Son's cheese factory is using over 300 cans or 12.000 quarts 
of milk daily, employing a daily average of twenty-five men. This factory, 
consuming such a large amount of milk, together with Borden's large re- 
ceiving station, with a receiving average of 100 cans daily, proves the 
high productiveness of the land in this section. 

The Sugar ]\Iilk factory is located adjoining this cheese plant for the 
manufacture of milk sugar. 

This sugar is made from the whey, a by-product delivered by the cheese 


The military record of Chester is a worthy one. Quite a number of 
Chester residents made up a company during the Revolutionary War. 
under Colonel Allison, and were attached to the Goshen regiment. 

In the second war with England there was a representation of hardy 
men of this town to endure the hardships of the war. Some of them 
survived until the year 1880. 

During the general training days that followed the second war with 


England, Captain John Yelverton, whose sword is still prized as a relic 
of those days of patriotic zeal, led the men of the town to Durland's 
Square, where the volunteer militia were inspected. 

During the Civil War nearly 200 men represented this town in de- 
fending the Union. Many of them suffered upon the battlefield A few 
citizens from the young men of the town enlisted in the Spanish Ameri- 
can War. 


Sugar Loaf is one of the oldest communities of Orange County and 
as a trading center was established shortly after the settlement of Goshen. 

It is one of the villages of Chester township to which we may look with 
interest in these early times. It was named by these pioneer settlers 
from the conelike mountain which towers above the quiet village to an 
elevation of 1,226 feet above sea level. The mountain, which consists 
mostly of greywack slate, resembles in appearance, as viewed from the 
village, a loaf of sugar, such as was used in the homes of the early set- 
tlers before the day of granulated sugar as an article of commerce. This 
sublime eminence, the highest in the county, affords from its summit 
one of the most commanding views in the county. This view is best 
secured by entering the field near George H. Mapes's place on the road 
to Sugar Loaf Valley and walking, as it were, from the tail to the head 
of the lion-like mountain, for this is the shape of the mountain as viewed 
from Chester depot. 

N. P. Willis, the American poet and literary genius, who loved old 
Orange County's hills from Butler Hill on the Hudson, which he re- 
named Storm King, to Adam and Eve in the drowned lands, speaks of 
Sugar Loaf Mountain when viewed from the Chester Hills as being 
like a crouching lion ready to spring upon its prey. 

The earliest record of inhabitants includes Hugh Dobbin, who lived 
near Sugar Loaf Mountain in 1738. Mr. Perry lived near the pond, 
which bore his name and later was called Wickham Pond. This was 
prior to the middle of the eighteenth century, when Clinton, the surveyor, 
marked the Cheesecock claim line, which extended from the base of 
Goose Pond Mountain to Bellevale and thence to the Jersey line. 

Stephen W. Perry, who lived in the Sugar Loaf Valley a century ago, 

Fred. B. Seely. 


was probably related to the Ferry with whom the surveyors stopped in 
those Colonial days when the Indians still lived m the mountains and 
the surveyors were accustomed to use :he Indian wigwams for shelter 
during their journey, blazing the trees on the Cheesecock line through 
the trackless forest. 

Nathaniel Knapp lived for a time on the Levi Gecr place, and a head- 
stone with the date 1804, the initials N. K., aged sixty-four years, marks 
the place of his burial. For some sentimental reason he was buried 
under a great oak on the farm upon wdiich Hugh Dobbin probably lived 
in the year 1738. According to tradition the old log house of this early 
pioneer was at the curve of the road near the entrance to the meadow. 
Among other men that have been prominent about Sugar Loaf were 
Henry Wisner, Horace Ketchum, Squire James Hallock, Jesse H. Knapp, 
\'incent Wood, who lived on the Asa Dolson farm, and John Holbert, 
born 1773, who lived on the farm now occupied by his grandson, Samuel 

Tl:e Knapp family came from Connecticut, and settled on three differ- 
ent farms. Some of the family emigrated later through a trackless forest 
to the Butternut Creek in Otsego County. 

The Nicholas Demerest family, of Chester, descended from James 
Demerest's family, who came from Bergen County, New Jersey, and 
settled on the ridge near Sugar Loaf, occupying a farm of five hundred 
acres. John Bigger is mentioned by John Wood, the assessor, in 1775, 
as a taxpayer, together with David Rumsey, Samuel Wickham. Jacobus 
I'.ertholf and 15arnabas Horton. 

In Sugar Loaf \'alley. east of the mountain, John King settled soon 
after his marriage in 1784, upon a farm of two hundred acres. Among 
his neighbors were Cornelius Board and George Davis. Thomas Fitz- 
gerald lived near the line of the town of Warwick. More recently in the 
community life of Sugar Loaf the following men may be mentioned: 
Joseph Cooper. Crinis Laroe, David Dyer, Lewis Rhodes, Jesse Wood, 
John D. Conklin. John Bertholf. Silas Rose. David W. Stevens. Charles 
i'itzgerald anfl Flisha Stevens. 

Miss Martha OdcU. of Chester, now ninety-four years of age. re- 
members the visits of "I'rank Forrester" and his companion. "Tom 
Draw." passing through the village and over the hills to the valley and 
beyond for game and fish. 


The school of Sugar Loaf village in the past century has educated 
many bright boys and girls. The old school-house stood on the road 
that leads from the village to the northwest. The house was on the west- 
erly side of the road. Reeder Feagles and Lieutenant Wood were among 
the teachers in the early part of the nineteenth century. 

The fact that men with patriotic zeal have been identified with Sugar 
Loaf may be summarized by the statement that in the home of Mrs. H. 
C. Baker are mementoes of her husband's service in the Civil War, Jesse 
H. Knapp, who was an officer in the second war with England, and Caleb 
Knapp, who served in the American Revolution. 

The Committee of Safety during the Revolutionary War included 
other patriots like Jacobus and Gillion Bertholf, David Rumsey, father 
of Royal Rum_sey, and Captain Henry Wisner. Jacob, John and Josiah 
Feagles were patriotic citizens of this section during these times. 

The interesting story is told of Hugh Dobbin, the pioneer of Sugar 
Loaf, that during the Revolution he was exempt from service, but pointed 
with pride to the fact that in 1757, in the struggle with the French and 
Indians, he assisted the Government by pasturing one hundred and fifteen 
horses belonging to Captain John Wisner's company. 

We cannot turn from the story of this section without alluding to the 
loss of one of its interesting objects, now only a tradition. Mr. Thomas 
Burt, of Warwick, at the age of eighty-seven, remember the time when on 
the side of Sugar Loaf Mountain there was an eminence upon which was 
the profile of a man with broad shoulders, narrow neck and enlarged head 
with hat on. This was called the "Old Giant," and near it was a fissure 
in the rock called the "Giant's Cellar." Tradition says that Claudius 
Smith, after his depredations through the county, hid in this cleft of the 

George E. Brink. 




Bv E. M. V. McClean. 

THE first view of Cornwall is not attractive. Two rugged hills rise 
before us, their sides not eveii clothed with virgin soil, for the 
loose soil sends down sand and boulders to the street below. They 
are separated by a rocky ravine, at the bottom of which runs a brook, 
scarcely visible in summer's drought, but fed in the spring by the melting 
snow from the hills, becomes a torrent that sweeps away bridges and roads 
that form its banks. A narrow highway has been cut at the base of each 
hill, but merges into one road just where the stream is spanned by a pretty 
stone bridge. 

The landing itself is simply a business place without any pretense of 
beauty. Nathan Clark's store stands as it did in 1824. Some small houses 
shelter a few families, storehouses line the docks. Taft, Howell & Com- 
pany's mill has only the attractiveness of utility if we except the emerald 
velvet robe of Ampelopsis, which almost covers the entire front. The 
West Shore depot is a more modern structure and past this the black rails 
sweep north and south. 

We wmU take the right hand road past the post-office, presided over by 
Miss Young, and ascend a rather steep hill. After we leave the little bridge 
we are shut out from the sight of civilization. At our right rises an al- 
most perpendicular hill darkly clothed in fir, pine and hemlock. On the 
left is a substantial hand rail protecting us from the rock\' gorge below. It 
is cool and dark here and we will stay long enough to review a little of 
Cornwall's early history. 

As the Half Moon anchored in the broad bay .<^outh of Newburgh, the 
swift canoes of the Indians shot out from the shore to investigate what 
kind of a bird their white winged visitors might be. They were of the 
tribe Warwaronecks. afterwards known as the Murderer's Kill Indians. 

On April 15, 1685. Governor Dongan purchased the tract claimed by 
this tribe, extending from ^[urdercr's Creek to Stony Point, the river 
forming the eastern boundary. A year previous to this a Scotchman 


named McGregorie had brought his own and several famihes to settle 
here. A document is extant in which Margaret McGregorie states : 

"They were not only the tirst Christians that had settled thereon but 
also peaceably and quietly and enjoyed their land during the term of their 
natural lives." 

McGregorie was placed in command of the militia and marched with 
his men to fight the Indians. Before he left he was assured by Governor 
Dongan the patent for his land should be issued. It never was. He was 
killed in 1691 and during the trouble with the Leisler government and that 
of Governor Fletcher his property was sold to Captain Evans. After a 
great deal of trouble in getting back to his family, who held it until 1727, 
it was sold to Thomas Ellison. 

There is no record of the names of any of his family after his death 
except his and that of his wife's brother Tosusk, the Laird of Minne- 
vard. The boundaries of this tract were very indefinite until in 1799 
when Monroe and Blooming Grove were erected into separate towns. 
Buttermilk Falls still formed part of our territory, but the mountain made 
business intercourse so very inconvenient that in 1872 a petition was 
granted by the Legislature severing this connection, the new village 
taking the name of Highland Falls. 


There were still many hundred acres and those were divided into large 
farms where cattle, horses and small stock were raised in great quantities. 
Orange County milk and butter had become famous and Cornwall con- 
tributed her full share. Not only the products of our own neighborhood 
but those of the other counties reached New York by the way of Corn- 
wall landing. A friend recently gone from us, Miss Maria Conser, who 
was a child at that time, gives the following graphic description : "How 
we children liked to stop on our way to the old schoolhouse to watch the 
loaded wagons drawn by three mules abreast lumbering over the rough 
roads. We were frightened when we met the droves of cattle. The toss- 
ing of their wild horns sent us scrambling upon the stone wall until they 
had passed. Hours would elapse while tubs of butter, forests of hoop- 
poles, cows, calves, sheep and lambs were placed on board of the night 
boat. The passengers went to their berths but alas, for their hope of 

Charles Ketcham. 


rest; the lowing of cattle, the bleating of lambs and the noise of the crew 
forbade sleep. About midnight a lull would come ; the boat gliding 
through the softly murmuring water made sleep possible." 

In 1805 Isaac Tobias constructed a dock at New Windsor where he 
built the sloop Hector and sailed it from the landing. A few years later 
Captain Nathaniel Ketchum ran the Rcvcui^c between here and the city. 
In 1828 the Experiment, the first steamboat that sailed from the landing, 
was built by Silas Corwin of New Windsor and commanded by Captain 
Isaac \'anduzer. She had four smokestacks and was but little more 
speedy than the sloops. After a few years she was sold to Weeks & 
Griffin who in turn disposed of her to Bertholf & Co. She was finally con- 
verted into a barge. Two others, the Wave and General Jackson, w-ere put 
on. and in 1855 Captain Joseph Ketchum and Henry M. Clark purchased 
the Orange County and ran her between here and New York. The build- 
ing of the Erie Railroad to Piermont sent a large part of the freight by 
that route and we have never recovered our lost prestige. But just about 
this time a new industry sjjrang u]) which ])artially made up for the 
freight that had been carried elsewhere. The land was found to be 
especially adapted to the raising of small fruit.s — the Hudson River Ant- 
werp raspberries and strawberries being the most successful, and thou- 
sands were shipped every night during the fruit season. This too fell off 
when it was discovered that we had a home market for all we could raise. 
This was due to the personality of one man. N. P. Willis. 


Those who visit Idlewild today and note the miles of gravel walk 
sweeping where the vista that opens is most beautiful: the rare trees 
brought from many lands.— the acres of lawn, smooth as velvet— the 
profusion of fiowers that meets one at every turn, -the luxurious mansion 
crowned to its eaves with blossoms and vines, can hardly realize the wild 
graufleur of the scene that appealed to the poet soul of N. P. Wdlis, and 
drew from the owner, Mr. Daniel Ward, the question, "What do you want 
with such an idle wild?" 

An unbroken woodland lying about the bank of the river, whose ro- 
mantic beauty was as yet unappreciated ; bisected by a dark ravine at the 
bottom of which ran a brook only revealed by the music of its waters an I 


thrown into spray biy huge boulders obstructing its course. Pines, hem- 
locks and forest trees centuries old sprang towards the sunlight but at 
their base grew inpenetrable underbrush. 

The name has become a household word not only among our own peo- 
ple, but in the lands beyond the sea, and thousands of readers followed 
with delight every step that was taken to change the scene from barbarism 
to civilization. "A letter from Idlewild" was published every week in 
the Home Journal of which Willis and George P. Morris were editors. 

While still a boy in college the publication of his Scriptural poems at- 
tracted much attention. These were followed by ''Pencilings by the 
Way," a brilliant record of a trip through Europe. 

In 185 1 he was sent to Cornwall by his physician in hopes of prolong- 
ing his life. He was threatened with consumption and had already been 
warned by the danger signal of several hemorrhages. The medicine pre- 
scribed was rest, nourishment and every hour possible spent out of doors. 
He boarded with a gentle Quaker lady, Mrs. Southerland, over whose 
home the dove of Peace was brooding. Slowly but sometimes almost im- 
perceptibly came returning strength, but to make it permanent he must 
remain here and so came the purchase of a home. The Civil War 
brought financial reverses, for a majority of his subscribers were in 
Che South, but he turned again to work in order to recoup some of his 
losses, but his health again broke down and he died on his 60th birthday, 
1867, in the home he loved so well. 

Mr. Willis was twice married — first to a sweet- faced English girl, 
who only lived for a few years. His second wife was Miss Cornelia 
Grinnell, daughter of one of our merchant princes. She sold the estate, 
which passed into the hands of Judge George, a gentleman of culture and 
refined taste, who carried out many of the improvements planned by his 
predecessor. He sold it to the late Mr. Courtney, who was then Presi- 
dent of the West Shore Railroad. After Mr. Courtney's death it passed 
into the hands of Mr. Charles Curie, the present owner. 

In Mr. Willis's "letters from an invalid," he described the beautiful 
walks and drives in the neighborhood where he spent his days and the 
description brought summer visitors seeking for board. Every room was 
occupied and hundreds went away for lack of accommodation. The next 
season saw new houses built and others were enlarged, and there seemed 
no limit to our prosperity. A paper published here in 1874 contained the 


advertisements of twenty-five houses that were pnbhc boarding-houses, be- 
sides all that were accommodated in private families. Many who came as 
visitors purchased building sites and erected summer homes. One of these 
was Mr. Harvey, of Brooklyn, who built Homeland, adjoining Idlewild. 
Mr. E. A. ]\Iattheissen secured the next site where Mattheissen Park is 
now. Mr. Solomon, of New York, chose Land's End for his beautiful 
home. Mr. Bellows's residence was on Bayview Avenue. Mr. James 
Stillman and his mother each have a summer cottage hefe. 


Among all the houses opened for guests the Mountain House stood 
first, from the fact of its position twelve hundred feet above tide-water in 
the heart of pine woods, where the visitors found health as well as recrea- 
tion. The buildinor itself was also attractive. In the earlv sixties Dr. 
Champlin, who had been traveling in the East, saw some marvelous cures 
performed on consumptive patients by the use of kourmis. 

Property on the mountain was at this time nearly all held by two 
families — John Losee Wood and Christian \'ought ; so when the doctor 
erected two houses as a samtarium, no one objected. The architecture 
was oriental — windows and doors were surmounted by round arches, 
and the second "Story was built over the broad piazza which surrounded it 
on three sides. A number of goats were installed in what is now the 
Chalet across the road, and two physicians. Doctors Pellatier and Boyd, 
had charge of the houses, but the enterprise was a failure and it became a 
boarding-house, numbering among its patrons some of the most 'exclu- 
sive families of New York and Philadelphia. 

Many of the wealthier guests who saw that there was a possibility of 
forming a colony similar to that of Tuxedo, joined in a syndicate to 
purchase land, to lay out roads and develop its resources. Later it was 
found desirable to have a place of meeting for themselves, and the club- 
house was built. It was incorporated under the title of the Deer Hill 
Company in 1890. Besides being able to accommodate many guests cot- 
tages were built in the grounds and the Mountain House found its days 
of prosperity gone. Mr. J. W. Meagher surrendered his lease and fire 
destroyed two-thirds of the building, when it passed into the hands of 
Mr. James Stillman. One of the next houses in point of numbers was 


Mr. James G. Roe's. It has sheltered three hundred guests. The Ehner, 
had nearly two hundred ; the Smith was almost the length of a city block. 
The Wiley House had ninety feet of broad piazzas. Grand View, owned 
by Mrs. Alott, is the only one at present that is still in the business. 
There were many others, and nearly every private family was willing to 
accommodate city guests. Recently the club has surrendered its charter^ 
and it has passed into private hands. 


While we are in the mountain we will stand for a few minutes on 
Round Top, the home of the late Miss Hussey. Near us is a small chalet, 
consisting of three rooms with a cedar rail portico in front. Here for 
sixty years a woman, refined, cultured, and of marked literary ability, 
dwelt alone. There came a break in her seclusion, when in 1861 she 
entered the army as a nurse, where she remained until the close of the 
war. She was a fine raconteur, and many a. story of those days enter- 
tained her visitors, and she had many, for she and her romantic home 
attracted nearly everyone who came to Cornwall. She kept a visitors' 
book, and there were 5,000 names in it before mine. In 1876 she, with 
two othejc- ladies. Miss McClean and Miss Hayes, edited the first news- 
paper printed in the town, but it was not a success after the first year, 
when she abandoned it. She received a pension from the Government, 
and died about four years ago. 

E. p. ROE. 

As we have been dealing with personal history, a modest residence with 
large grounds suggests another name, that of E. P. Roe, the novelist. 
His childhood was passed in Moodna and the home and surrounding 
scenery in the background of the picture drawn in "Nature's Serial Story." 
He studied in Williams College and then entered a theological seminary, 
but in 1862 resigned to become chaplain in the Harris Light Cavalry. He 
participated in several engagements, but on being appointed Hospital 
Chaplain, was granted a furlough, came home and was married to Miss 
Sands, who accompanied him back to the seat of war. He retained his 
position until the close of hostilities, when he took charge of the Presby- 


teriaii Church at lli<^^hlaiul l-"alls. He visited Chicago after the fire, and 
tliat suggested the plot of "Barriers Uurned Away." The success of 
this was phenomenal, several editions following in quick succession. 
Feeling he could reach a larger congregation by his pen than by his voice, 
he resigned his charge and came to Cornwall. His mornings were spent 
in his garden, where his success in fruit raising equalled that in literary 
work. The afternoons in his study resulted in volume after volume being 
given to the public in quick succession. His books sold well and his 
royalties were large, but through the misfortunes of others he became 
financially embarrassed and sold the royalties of his then published 
novels for $30,000. He still found ready sale for all he produced, which 
soon enabled him to liquidate his obligation, and the "children of his 
fancy were his own again." But the strain told on him, and in 1887 he 
went to Santa Barbara for rest and recuperation. There he wrote "The 
Earth Trembled," a story of the Charleston earthquake. He returned 
in 1887 and began his last work, "Miss Lou," which was never finished. 
In August, 1888, he was reading aloud in his library, when he was seized 
with sharp pains in his heart. Two physicians were summoned, but 
failed to give relief and half an hour after his first attack, E. P. Roe 
was no more. After his death several gentlemen, among others Mr. 
Thomas Taft, Mr. \'alentine and the Rev. Lyman Abbott, consulted as 
to what shape a permanent memorial to him would take. A Roe Me- 
morial Park was decided upon, the location being near his home on the 
side of Round Top, bounded by the Boulevard. It consists of a little 
more than two acres and is heavily wooded. Xone of the trees have been 
disturbed, only the underbrush cleared up and paths made through the 
grounds. At the top is a large boulder and on top of this was placed a 
bronze tablet, on which was engraved two branches of chestnuts with 
their foliage and burrs, some open. Above this is inscribed: "In Memory 
of Edward Payson Roe," and under this, "Near to Nature's Heart." 
The tablet was unveiled on May 30. 1804. with very impressive cere- 
monies and was presented to the village. 


Another name very dear to Cornwall. Init one almost forgotten by the 
present generation, was that of Colonel James Duncan. He \\as born 


at Cold Springs, but his parents moved here when he was a small boy, 
and settled on a farm a little out of the village. He graduated from 
West Point in 1835, and was appointed Lieutenant of the Fourth Cavalry. 
In 1838 he perfected an arm of the service called "The flying artillery," 
and this first brought him into notice. During the Mexican War he rose 
from the rank of Lieutenant to that of Colonel. He received the ap- 
pointment of Inspector General of the United States Army, and during 
one of his visitations at Mobile he contracted the yellow fever and died 
there in 1849. His body was brought on and buried near his home, but 
some years later it was removed to the cemetery at West Point. 


That part of the town known as Canterbury was probably the first 
portion settled. Old records give names of path masters who resided here 
previous to the Revolutionary War, but seemed to have left no de- 
scendants. As far back as 1820 we have the name of John Chadeayne, 
one of whose sons, Mr. Henry F. Chadeayne, was the father of our pres- 
ent supervisor. The early physicians all located in that end of the town. 
Dr. Tobias was the first one of which we have any record. Dr. Clinton 
came next, and then Dr. Elisha Hedges, dying a young man in 1824. 
The house where he lived was occupied until recently by his daughter. 
His successors were Dr. Heaton and his son-in-law, Dr. Gough, and they 
cared for all the sick in the radius of many miles. But as the population 
increased there was found work for others, and Dr. Beattie came to us 
and died among us in his eightieth year. Dr. Thomas Heaton also lies in 
one of our cemeteries, one of the most beloved and trusted of doctors. He 
was a grandson of the first one of that name. Dr. Hotchkiss represented 
homeopathy, and at his death was succeeded by Dr. Bergen, to be fol- 
lowed by Dr. Chandler of that cult. Beside the latter we have Drs. 
Winter and Bowdish, of the upper village, and Drs. Shirk and Bayard, of 
the lower one, at present with us. 


Presbyterian. — The earliest record of religious worship came from 
Bethlehem, which was at first the name of the church, and then ex- 
tended to the neighborhood. It was Presbyterian in form and ministered 

John Orr. 


to bv tlic Rev. Mr. Challoner, who had charge also in Cornwall, New 
Windsor and Ulooming Grove. The building was erected in 1730. In 
point of seniority it was the third oldest congregation west of the Hudson 
and north of the Highlands. The second incumbent was the Rev. Enos 
Ay res, who was followed by Mr. Close in 1764. He remained for forty 
years, and was chaplain during the Revolutionary War to soldiers .sta- 
tioned in the vicinity. The Rev. Artemus Dean was installed in 1813 and 
served for twenty-nine years. During his pastorate the church that had 
stood for ninety-six years was torn down and replaced by the ])resent edi- 
fice. In 1872 the Rev. Mr. Atwater was appointed. In 1827 the Rev. James 
Thorn, of Canterbury, gathered some members of other churches together 
and, obtaining letters of dismissal from their several organizations, formed 
them into a congregation. A small church was erected, and in 1828 he 
was installed by the Presbytery of the North River as pastor for New 
Windsor and Canterbury. He was succeeded in 1835 by Jonathan Silli- 
man, who remained pastor for twenty-six years. The Rev. Messrs. Baker, 
Eddy and Clarke succeeded each other for short terms, but in 1872 the 
Rev. Lyman Abbott took charge. He labored faithfully for many years, 
and only severed his connection when the call came from Plymouth 
Church. Brooklyn. His i)lace was filled by Mr. Egbert, who proved to be 
a thorcnighly live man, leaving the impress of his personality not only on 
hi> church l)ut tlie whole neighborhood. A call to a larger field took him 
away, and his mantle fell on the Rev. Mr. Beattie, who had been taught 
in that Sunday School. He too gave up and was succeeded by Rev. 
Mr. Allen. 

Coriizcall-ou-Hudson Presbyterian Church. — As early as 1855 some 
families residing in what is now known as Cornwall-on-Hudson, felt 
the need of a church at tliis place. They held their first meeting in the 
school-room of Alfred C. Roe, in the building now occupied by the Gold 
Cure, and "depending on divine aid resolved to erect a house of Wor- 
ship," and one year later the present building was dedicated. There were 
only seventeen members and eight of them belonged to the Roe family. 
Their names w^ere Peter Roe. Mrs. Susan Roe, Alfred C. Roe, Mrs. 
Caroline Roe, James G. Roe and wife. Mrs. Roe Cak'well. Milton Wiley 
and wife, Mrs. Mary Jackson. Miss Amanda .\dams. Mrs. Mary A. 
Clark, Mrs. Rachael Bruen, Phebe Greegs, Mary Johnson, Angeline Clark, 
and John P. Roe. In 1899 there were four survivors, but Mrs. Sarah 


Wiley died that year, Mr. Milton Wiley following three years later. In 
1906 Mrs, Mary Jackson passed away, but was able to be present part 
of the time in the church at the celebration of its fiftieth anniversary. 
Her sister, Miss Amanda Adams, still survives. 

The first elders chosen were Milton Wiley and James G. Roe, James 
O. Adams was elected later. The first stated supply was the Rev. Dr. 
Deyo, who was succeeded by the Rev. Joseph Robinson, who died in 1858. 
Dr. Ledoux followed, who resigned when Mr. Teal was appointed. He 
was called to a larger field and the Rev. George P. Noble came. In 
1 891 he dissolved his connection with the church and Mr. Hugh Frasier, 
the present incumbent, was installed. 

The next church in point of age is the plain Quaker meeting house in 
Canterbury. Previous to its erection^ service was held in the house occu- 
pied by David Sands, who was a noted Friend preacher, but as the con- 
gregation grew it was found a place of worship was needed. About 1790 
the present edifice was built and Catherine Sands, a girl of twelve years 
old, carried the nails for the workmen from New Windsor on horseback. 

A division in doctrine caused a separation in the society in 1827. The 
part retaining the buildings was called the orthodox and the seceders 
Hicksites, from a member called Elias Hicks, who had promulgated the 
new belief. These held meetings in private houses for some months, 
when a brick building was erected in the rear of what is now John Chat- 
field's stable. Both Mr. Beach and Mr. Ruttenber mention a coincidence 
in the two buildings. The first marriage in the first house was Catherine 
Sands to Squire Ring, and the first one in the new building was that of 
her son, Robert Ring, nearly forty years later. 

Methodist. — The early Methodists held their meetings in a school- 
house, which stood for many years at the Corners, but in 1830 erected the 
present building on a knoll in Canterbury. It has been almost rebuilt 
and modernized, and now is a very handsome church. The first pastor 
was the Rev. Phineas Rice, who had charge in New Windsor, and 
what is now Vails Gate, Salisbury and Mountainville. In 1863 it became 
self-supporting, and was detached from the other missions, and the Rev. 
J. H. Gregory was appointed by the Conference. It has always since had 
a resident pastor and the present incumbent, Rev. Angelo Ostrander is 
justly popular and has been returned by the unanimous request of the 
congregation three successive terms. 


Episcopal. — Previous to 1858 there was no separate organization of 
the Episcopal Church in Cornwall. Those who could do so drove to 
New Windsor, and those who were unable, joined in the worship with 
other religious bodies. Many of the strangers coming here at that time 
were of that faith, and in conjunction with some of the residents took 
the necessary steps for the incorporation of a parish. On July 17th, 1858, 
a meeting was held and officers were elected to serve until the following 
Easter. Alonzo Alvord and William Bayard were chosen wardens, 
and N. P. Willis, Thos. Cummings, Daniel Birdsal, James Crissey, Nich- 
olas Chatfield, Jr., Francis Barton, Chas. H. Mead and John Chatfield 
were elected vestrymen. A lot was purchased and a contract for the 
building made with ]\Iessrs. Shaw & Sons, of Newburgh, and on May 
loth. 1829, the corner-stone was laid by the Right Rev. Dr. Potter. By 
the 20th of November of the same year it was opened for ilivine service. 
Until 1864, the services were conducted by the resident minister at New 
Windsor, but in November of that year the Rev. John Webster was in- 
stalled, who was succeeded in January. 1866, by the Rev. W. G. French. 
In 1869. the tower and spire was completed, one of our wealthy residents 
who was a vestryman, Mr. Sherwood, contributing $2,000. The ladies' 
auxiliary, an organization that has shown the greatest success in collecting 
funds for church purposes, contributed the clock. Mr. Snowden was the 
next minister, who died in office. The Rev, Mr. Huntington succeeded 
him, and was succeeded by Mr. Cleveling, who gave place to Dr. Page, 
who has charge at present. 

The Catholic. — Previous to 1857 the members of the Catholic Church 
met for service in the home of Mrs. McQuade, in Canterbury, and at 
the corners in what was then known as the Weaver bouse. Three gentle- 
men, John Diffendale, Daniel O. Callahan and John McClean started a 
building fund, each contributing one hundred dollars. Tiie next on the 
list was a non-Catholic. Mr. Henry F. Chadeayne with fifty dollars. Mr. 
Stephen Gillis gave 50,000 bricks from his yard. But a few weeks elapsed 
before there was money enough to justify their purpose of building a 
church, and a lot was purchased at the top of River avenue, which com- 
manded a magnificent view of mountains and river. The building was 
erected by Messrs. Little Brothers & Co.. of Newburgh, and would seat 
about 150. About twenty families represented the entire congregation. 
But only a few years elapsed when it was found wholly inadequate to 


accommodate the resident population, and the summer visitors would have 
filled one three times as large. It was supplied from St. Patrick's, New- 
burgh, a priest driving down on Sunday morning, and returning after 
service. After A. E. Mattheissen and the Harvey and Sherwood families 
settled here, steps were taken to build a larger edifice. The present lot was 
purchased for $i,ooo and nearly $2,000 more was in the savings bank, 
when an application was made for a resident clergyman, and in 1870 
Father Ambrose Keogh was sent by the Archbishop of New York. 
His health was very delicate, and at first it seemed a task beyond his 
strength to attempt to erect a church, but the present fine building is a 
monument of his perseverance and energy. The corner-stone was laid in 
1871 by Bishop McQuade, of Rochester, and the following year services 
were held in the basement. A handsome rectory was built and furnished 
at the same time. It was connected with a mission at Washingtonville. 
After five years' service Father Keogh was transferred to Tuckahoe, and 
was succeeded by Father Mackin. There was a mortgage of $13,000 on 
the property and Cornwall prosperity had begun to wane, and the 
churches were among the first to feel it. Meeting the annual interest and 
current expenses were nearly all that was attempted at that time, with the 
exception of the purchase of a cemetery for $2,000. At the end of five 
years Father Ward succeeded to the pastorate, and immediately took steps 
to complete the upper part. This he did, at a cost of about $8,000, without 
increasing the mortgage. He was succeeded by Father Gordon, who paid 
$8,000 of the debt during the five years of his incumbency. His promo- 
tion to a large city parish was followed by the Rev. Phillip Ahearn, who 
was in turn succeeded by the Rev. James Curry. A heating plant, electric 
light and village water were installed at this time into both church and rec- 
tory. Two handsome side altars were built with three costly statues. In 
1901 he was appointed to St. James's Parish, New York, and was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. James S. Fenton. Under his management the re- 
mainder of the mortgage has been paid and plans drawn for a parochial 
school to be erected on the grounds in the rear of the church. A large 
Sunday school has always been an important part of the work. In 1907 
Father Fenton went abroad for his health, and the Rev. Father Brosan 
has charge. 


As early as 1830 means were taken for fire protection in Canterbury. 


and each man who contributed $2.50 could become a member. The names 
of the first trustees were Nathan Westcott, Elias Hand, W. T. Cocks, 
Geo. Marriott and John AL Gough. Soon others joined it, and it was 
created a body corporate under the name of the Canterbury Fire Com- 
pany. A hand engine was purchased at an expense of $125. About 1836 
a second-hand suction engine was purchased in New York, but as the 
population increased they realized how important it would be to check any 
serious conflagration, so in October, 1869, a meeting of property owners 
was held, which made arrangements for purchasing a lot and engine 
house. A committee was appointed who finally bought the premises 
where Hunter & McClean had their market for $2,000. A new engine 
was bought and called Highland Engine No. i. During 1905 a very 
tasteful brick building costing $5,000 was erected. There were sixty 
members in good standing and many applications for membership when 
a vacancy occurs. The same year, 1869, that the engine was purchased in 
Canterbury, a similar project was started at the Corners, and a subscrip- 
tion paper was sent out, but failed to get any definite pledges, each person 
approached being unwilling to be the first to sign. A public meeting was 
called, and thirty-five young men responded, each promising to give five 
dollars. In a few days nearly $700 was secured, and Messrs. Titus, Wiley 
and John jNIcClean went to New York to see what could be obtained 
for their money. Steamers had been introduced into the New York and 
Brooklyn districts, so they found an article that suited them in Engine 
Goodwill 4 of Brooklyn and it was bought and shipped on the Orange 
County for Cornwall. They had no house, but procured the use of Cars- 
weli's barn. A company had been organized with Wm. J. Quigley, 
foreman, John K. Oliver, assistant and John AlcClean, Jr., secretary. 
A charter was procured in 1870, March 30th, in which A. E. Mattheissen, 
Stephen Gillis. Hamilton Salmon, David Clark, Jas. Hitchcock and E. H. 
Champlin, constituting themselves a body corporate, under the name of 
the Storm King Engine No. 2. Another subscription was solicited, which 
met with such a generous response that a lot was purchased and a two- 
story building erected on Duncan avenue. The dues of members supple- 
mented by entertainments, furnished their rooms and met their expenses, 
but in 1900 they surrendered their charter to the village corporation 
and were henceforth a public charge. A lot was bought on Main street 
and a handsome building costing $6,000 was erected. They have a recep- 


tion room, pool room, and public meeting room, and a large space down 
stairs for their engine house. Their charter allows only sixty members, 
and there are always candidates waiting for any vacancy. A company 
was organized at the Landing and some hundred feet of hose purchased, 
but it soon disbanded. Last year a hose company was formed on the 
heights for fire protection. 


Public schools were established soon after the Revolutionary War, and 
each village had its schoolhouse and teacher, for at least the winter 
months, and as the instruction was confined to the three R's several pri- 
vate schools were started, but were only moderately successful. The 
earliest of these was that of Madame Rutkai, the sister of the famous 
Hungarian, Louis Kossuth. ]\Ir. Alfred Roe taught one in Canterbury 
for a time and in the spring of 1853 purchased the Fowler Griggs prop- 
erty, where he conducted a boarding and day school for young men. It 
was very successful, but in 1863 he gave it up, entered the ministry 
and joined the army as the chaplain of the Eighty-third Volunteers. In 
1877 he again came to Cornwall and opened a school for young ladies, 
following the Harvard standard, but the patronage did not warrant its 
continuance and it was closed in the third year. Dr. Ledoux succeeded in 
founding a permanent institution. While he was pastor of the Presbyterian 
Church, he was taken very sick with typhoid fever, and at times was deliri- 
ous, and then spoke only French, it being his native language. Mr. Mc- 
Creery, the New York merchant, who was boarding in the neighborhood, 
was looking for a school for his sons, and after the Doctor's recovery ar- 
ranged with him to receive his boys into his family. He soon had as many 
as he could teach, resigned his living, purchased a tract of land on the 
Heights, and began a most successful career. He sold out to Mr. Cobb, 
who after a few years sold in turn to the present proprietor. Rev. Charles 

Down to 1869 our public school was taught just long enough every 
year to obtain the public money, and then some one would continue it 
as a private enterprise for three or four months. But in that year, some 
of our summer residents, including E. A. Mattheissen, Chas. Bellows, 
Mr. Solomon, Stephen C. Gillis, James Dunn, Mr. Hitchcock, James 
Couser, John McKibben and Dr. Vail, formed a board of education. A 

Thomas Tafl. 


lot was purchased from ]\Ir. Hitchcock near the Corners, and a substan- 
tial building erected. The school was opened on j\Iay 24th, 1869, with 
Mr. Williamson as principal, Miss McClean and Miss Frances Marvel as 
assistants. There were then about (So pupils. In 1896 it was found an 
addition was needed and a large building was erected across the front at 
a cost of $8,000. There are fourteen teachers in the building now, and 
one in the annex on the Heights, and tl;e census of this }ear shows 500 
children of school age. The training school under Mr. Aldrich, turns 
out wonderful work for boys and girls, and the sewing class in charge 
of Miss Murray, which has only been established a year, shows how little 
hands can be trained. The present board of education consists of Mr. 
Townsend D, Wood, president: Mr. P. Bevins, J. J. Hall, Louis A'elton, 
Carlos H. Stone, George Mailler, Jas. H. Ward, John Noe, and Harris 


The village of Cornwall-on-Hudson was incorporated in ^iarch, 1885, 
the first officers being : Thos. Taft, president ; trustees : Wm. Fogarty, 
Charles W. Clark and Oren Cobb; treasurer, H. N. Clark; collector, 
Charles E. Cocks, and clerk, Daniel E. Pope. 

In 1 891 an excise board was elected, that refused to grant licenses, and 
since then the town has remained dry. Two reservoirs were built on the 
mountain, and the pure spring water carried through the town. The out- 
lay was $67,000, but at present the water rents defray all expenses for 
interest. In 1906 a proposition was made to unitt Uie two villages of 
Canterbury and Cornwall, but was defeated. The present board of trus- 
tees are : John Clarkson, president ; Louis Velton, Charles Smith, Norman 
Chatfield and Ralph Quackenbush ; clerk, James H. W'ard ; collector, 
John Noe. 


A small building on one of the side roads was used for many years, 
after it was evident the days of its usefulness as a schoolhouse was over. 
In 1905 the people voted to raise $30,000 for a new schoolhouse. A lot 
on Willow avenue was purchased, and a building, complete in all modern 
appliances has been the result. There are twelve teachers under a most 


efficient principal, Mr, Woodworth. Both this and the one at the Corners, 
are high schools under the regents. 


The Village Improvement Society was organized in 1900, when a public 
meeting was called in Mattheissen Hall. Dr. Harrison was chairman, 
and introduced the Rev. Lyman Abbott, who explained the object of the 
association, which was that each one should pledge themselves to take 
care of their premises, and use their influence to abate anything that 
would detract from the beauty and order of the village. Nearly every- 
one present agreed to become a member. The following day a meeting 
was held and officers elected. Mrs. Lyman Abbott was chosen president ; 
Mrs. Seaman, first vice-president; Mrs. Hunter, second vice-presi- 
dent; Mrs. Furey, secretary; Miss Laura Currie, corresponding secre- 
tary, and Mrs. Dr. Harrison, treasurer. A handsome loving cup was 
purchased to be given to the person who, in the estimation of the judges, 
should show the best kept garden for the year. Anyone who should win 
it three years in succession would own it. Mrs. John Noe held it the 
first year, Mrs. Milton Couser the second, but the three following sea- 
sons it was held by Mrs. John Noe, who then became its permanent 
possessor. Almost the first work done by the society was offering ten 
cents a hundred for the nests of the tent worm. Seventy-two thousand 
were brought in by the school children, with the result that while the 
neighboring villages lost hundreds of trees the place was free from the 
pests. Trash cans were placed in different parts of the village, and thir- 
teen hundred posters were removed from trees, fences and telegraph poles. 

Many friends have made generous donations ; among others Mr. Weeks 
who, during the past four years, has offered $50 each year as door-yard 
prizes. A boys' horticultural club has been formed, land rented and a por- 
tion assigned to each boy who owns all he raises. The two most successful 
receive prizes. Enough money has been subscribed to meet the ex- 
penses of this work for five years. The second year of the organization, 
it lost by death the efficient treasurer, Mrs. Dr. Harrison, and last sum- 
mer the loved president, Mrs. Lyman Abbott, died beyond the ocean 
and sleeps in a little German graveyard. The present officers are : Mrs. 
Ernest Abbott, president; Miss Cocks, vice-president; Mrs. Seaman, sec- 


ond vice-president; Mrs. Fleming', secretary; Miss Josephine Youngs, 
treasurer, and Miss E. M. V, ]\IcClean, corresponding secretary. 


In 1877 ]\Ir. John Lee, author of stories of the Fludson, started the 
Cornwall Mirror, but he died within the year. He was succeeded by Mr. 
Snelling, who changed the name to the Cornwall Reflector. Mr. Pendell 
succeeded him as editor, when the title was changed to Cornwall Local, 
the name which it retained when it passed into the hands of the present 
proprietor, Mr. Goodenough. Three or four efforts have been made to 
run a second village paper, but they have all proved a failure. Mr. 
Morehouse started the Courier, which passed into the hands of Creswell 
McLaughlin* but it came to grief. It was resuscitated in 1905, but only 
lived a year. 


With the introduction of the mountain water into the village, it was 
hoped that with the fine freighting facilities, manufacturers might be 
induced to settle here, but such has not been the case. Several applica- 
tions have been received from outsiders, but when negotiations reached a 
certain point, they have been quietly withdrawn, and it has been surmised 
that some of the wealthier neighbors object to the class such work would 
bring among them. The stream known as Murderer's Creek, and later on 
as the Moodna, at one time had several factories along its banks. The 
late John Orr's flour mill is still in business, and about a mile from Can- 
terbury is a settlement known as Firthcliff. In 1869 Mr. Broadhead had 
a large woolen mill there which after a few years, passed into the hands 
of an English carpet company. These brought many of their skilled 
employees with them, and they in turn induced friends and neighbors to 
come out, so that one corner of the town is an English village. The 
home works are in England, but the proj)rictors fref|uently cross the 
Atlantic to visit their factory here. Still farther down the stream are the 
mills of John Orr, at a railroad station that bears his name. A piano fac- 
tory, owned by John E. Ryder has disappeared, and as the brook nears 
the Hudson, it passes through a valley which was once filled with homes 
of the work people employed in the \^alley Forge paper mill, owned by 


Carson & Ide, and the Leonard linen mill. The latter stopped during the 
war, but the former under different owners produced some material, 
until a freshet tore away bridge, dam and race and forced the stream into 
another channel that left the building practically without water. 


Mr. Ruttenber gives a list of 172 volunteers who went from here dur- 
ing the Civil War, but he has omitted three names, Frederick Lamb, Wm. 
Couser and George Chatfield. Emslie Post contains the names of some of 
the surviving on its roster, and on Memorial Day they decorate eighty 
graves of comrades who have passed over to the great majority. But 
there are others who sleep on Southern battlefields, and still others who 
passed from the weary anguish of the hospitals to the "low green tent, 
whose curtain never outward swings." Captain Thomas Taft is probably 
the youngest surviving veteran ; and among the revered names of those 
"who came not back" stand Captain Silliman, Major Cromwell and 
William Emslie, who died in Andersonville. Through the efforts of Mr. 
Charles Curie, of Idlewild, a soldiers' monument has been erected in the 


One of the institutions of Cornwall is the New York Military Aca- 
demy. In the '70s it was a large boarding house, capable of accommo- 
dating two hundred guests. The grounds cover a large plateau, skirting 
a ravine, and was called Glen Ridge. It was owned by Mr. James G. Roe, 
brother of the novelist, who when the boarding business failed in Corn- 
wall, sold to Colonel Wright, who opened a boys' school. He was suc- 
ceeded by Mr. Jones, who has enlarged the already capacious buildings. 
There are always over 100 young men and boys in the institution, and 
a large corps of capable teachers. The discipline is secured more by re- 
wards than punishments. The pupils, when visiting the village, are al- 
ways quiet and gentlemanly. Officers from West Point train them in 
military tactics, and it is marvelous what a proficiency they attain in a 
few months. 



TOWX (^l- ("R \\\l"( )R1J. 

By J. Erskixi-: Ward. 

TIJJS triani::u!ar townshi]). some eighteen or twenty miles west of 
the Hudson River, is in the northwest corner of Orange Cotinty, 
bordering upon the counties of SulHvan and Ulster. It carries a 
point of Orange Countv land well i\p into old Ulster County and con- 
tains the northernmost soil of the county. 

It is bounded on the north by Sullivan and Ulster, on the east by Ulster 
and the town of Montgomery, south by Montgomery and W'allkill. and 
on the west by the town of Wallkill and Sullivan County. 

The area of the town, as given in the last report of the Orange 
Supervisors, is 24.769 acres. Upon this land the Crawford assessors for 
igo6 placed a valuation of $664,531, and returned personal property of 
its residents to the value of $15,300. The total tax raised in the town that 
year was $8,617.89. This amount was made up as follows: General fund, 
$2,668.14; poor fund, $600; town audits, $2,287.12; roads and bridges, 
$400; railroad purposes. $2,107.50: temporary relief, $250; sworn off 
taxes, $185.45; treasurer's credits, $115.33. 

The name Crawford came from a numerous and respectable family of 
Irish descent who were among the first settlers of the locality. The land 
was a part of the original John Evans patent referred to in other 
parts of this work. When this great tract was set aside the territory of 
this section was disposed of in many smaller grants to Philip Schuyler 
and others. Among the manv other tracts mentioned in the Crawford 
titles were the 8.000-acre tract which now includes the village of Pine 
Bush, and the tract next on the south. The following sepa- 
rate patents were included in the Crawford township ; Thomas Ellison 
an<l Lawrence Roome. Xovember 12. 1750; Frederick Morris and Samuel 
Heath. January 24, 1736; Jacobus Bruyn and Henry Wileman. April 25. 
1722; Philip Schuyler and others. 8.000 acres. July 7. 1720; part of the 
patent to Jeremiah SchnyU'r and others, January 22, ]~\<i: part of Thomas 
Xoxon's patent February 21, 1737. 



The general altitude of the town is somewhat higher than that of 
Montgomery. The general surface is a hilly upland broken by high 
ridges, which extend northeast and southwest. It is in fact separated 
from Montgomery by one of these elevated ridges known as the Colla- 
burgh and Comfort Hills, which at times rise 200 feet above the valley. 
While the land is somewhat more difficult to cultivate because of the stony 
hiils and undulating surface, the soil is very strong and productive, yield- 
ing line crops of grass, grain and fruits and responding well to tillage. 
These slopes and elevations have been found particularly well adapted to 
the growth of fruit of a superior quality. The proximity of the mountain 
range is said to have a favorable influence upon the general rainfall of the 
region. Showers are frequent in summer and the eirects of drouth are 
less severe than in other sections not so favored. 

The Shawangunk Kill or river is the principal stream, and it forms the 
western boundary of the town between it and Sullivan County, and after- 
ward it also separates the town from Ulster County until the northern 
limit of the town is reached. This is a rapid flowing stream and affords 
much valuable waterpower at different points, which has been utilized to 
some extent in a variety of ways. The early settlers were quick to see the 
value and importance of these privileges, and they began to make use of 
them in their primitive manner at once. 

Among the numerous tributaries to the Shawangunk in the town is 
the Paughcaughnaughsinque. The name is of Indian origin. There are 
in fact two of these subsidiary streams, the Big and the Little Paugh- 
caughnaughsinque. They flow northward and afford additional water 
power at different points. 

In the eastern portion of the town is a more important stream known 
now as the Dwaarskill. This, too, has enjoyed a great variety of ortho- 
graphic nomenclature, such as "Dwaaskill," "Dwarf'skill," etc. Of course 
the original was bestowed by the Indians, and, it is said, was given ni 
honor of a Chief of a small tribe which dwelt upon its banks. One of 
the old settlers in that region is credited with having seen this Indian 
Chief, who was called "Dwaase," and who had his wigwam near the old 
turnpike gate No. 3. Others claim, however, that the name is clearly 
Low or Holland Dutch, and signifies perverse or contrary because it 

Joel Whiltt-ii. 


flows iiorili. The stream l)egins somewliere near the center of the town 
of Wallkill, not far from the Crawford Railway junction,, flows through 
the valley parallel to that of the Shawang^unk Kill, and finally leaves the 
town at the northeast corner. 

This town also has its share of swamps, of which the historian Rutten- 
ber says Orange County has over 40,000 acres. One of these swamps is 
northwest of the Sinsabaugh neighborhood, and another is soutliwest of 


This being among the newer towns of the county, the specific fletails 
of its settlement are so blended with the early history of the old Wallkill 
precinct and that of the town of ^lontgomery, from wdiich Crawford was 
set oflf, that it is quite impossible to separate them for this place. 

The Weller settlement was partly upon this territory. Johannes Sny- 
der started a small settlement in the vicinity of S'earsville, where he 
bought a large tract of land on both sides of the Dwaarskill. He built a 
primitive log mill there at once, and this is down in the records of 1768 
as Snyder's Mill. He seems to have been a man of means and influence, 
as he also built a log church soon after settling there, which was known 
as Snyder's Church. This Snyder family was Dutch and made the first 
settlement here in 1740, if not earlier. All the services in this little church 
was in the Dutch language, and it is recorded that the church was worn 
out or outgrown even before the Revolution. 

Somewhere about the same time Robert Milliken built a saw mill on 
the Shawangunk Kill. This is referred to as Milliken's mill in the records 
of 1768, and this is the earliest mention of a saw mill on that stream in 
the records. Other mills were built there, however, in later years. First 
was the old flour mill of Pat. Boice, next below the Milliken mill was the 
Sear's grist mill, then Abraham Bruyn's flour mill, and finally Cornelius 
Slott's saw and grist mill combined. The latter was continued by Arthur 
Slott after the death of his father, and he soon built a small collection of 
houses there for his employees. This Slott ancestry were among the oldest 
settlers in the State. The family came from Holland in 1670. as the 
family record shows. They located first at Hackensack. X. J., and after 
a few years there they removed to Rockland County, and soon after that 
they came to Montgnmory and settled on the Tinn Brook at a point after- 


ward known as Slott Towai. Cornelius Slott engaged in farming. In 
1777, while serving as an orderly sergeant with his military company, ni 
the active defense of Fort Montgomery, he was taken prisoner and con- 
fined in the old Sugar House, New York, by the British forces for ten 
months. In 1785, on regaining his liberty, he sold his farm and lived in 
New York for the next five years. Then he bought the mill site in Pine 
Bush and erected his saw mill just below the mouth of the Paughcaugh- 
naughsinque stream. The next year he also built a grist mill. There was 
no public road leading to his niill at the time, but he soon secured one 
from Hopewell. 

A small early settlement near Graham's Church was made by Abraham 
Dickerson, an Irishman, John Robinson and Philip Decker. Philip 
Decker's ancestors came from Holland. When sixteen years old he drove 
a team from Ward's Bridge to Valley Forge with a load of corn for 
W^ashington's army. Dickerson built a saw mill on a small stream near 
there which was operated successfully for a time and then fell into decay 
The portion of the Wallkill valley in this town was the site of the earliest 
settlement. These old pioneers consisted of Germans, Hollanders and 
Huguenots. Many of them came from the older settlements in Ulster 
County, and others were directly from their native land. 

Robert Jordan came here from Ireland in 1771. About 1784 he set- 
tled at Bullville in this town. His brother John seems to have settled 
there in 1767, having arrived in this country some years ahead of Robert. 
Among his neighbors there about that time or a few years later, were 
Joseph Elder, James F)arclay, Samuel Barclay, John Martin and Daniel 
Bull. Thomas Turner was also a. land owner in the Bullville settlement 
to the extent of 300 acres. 

In the Searsville neighborhood Willian_i Snider was among the pioneers. 
He purchased a large tract of land there upon which he lived many years 
before the Revolution. He seems to have been a man of some wealth, 
for at the outbreak of hostilities witli Great Britain he buried a consider- 
able sum of money in a secret place upon his property, the location of 
v;liich was known only to a faithful negro slave. After the war this negro 
was aw^arded by his master with his personal freedom because of his 
loyalty and faithfulness. 

An old apple orchard planted before the Revolution near Bullville, died 
out long years since. Nathan Johnson was the village shoemaker, going 


arouiul from house to house witli his kit of tools strapped upon his back. 
This occupation was then known as "whipping- the cat" for some reason 
not very clear at this time. Johnson was an old shoemaker who had 
been employed making- army shoes during the war. It was the custom 
at that period for those cobblers to go about at stated periods and do the 
family cobbling- and shocmaking for the year. 

A\'illiam Jordan, son of Robert, became colonel of the Shawangunk 
regiment of militia, and he lived under every President of the United 
States until his death, having voted the Democratic ticket for 66 years. 

l^enjamin Sears is mentioned in the records as a remarkable man in 
many respects among the settlers in that region. Coupled with rare 
native talent he had a most remarkable memory of details. Nothing eve: 
escaped him when once his mind grasped it. All his accounts were accu- 
rately kept in his mind. Tlut his education is said to have been very lim- 
ited. He served as constable in the town of ^Montgomery during his 
early life, where he had five brothers from wdiom there has been a long 
line of descendants. Fie also served as sheriff of Orange County for a 
time. And the small hamlet of Searsburgh, near the center of the town, 
on the Dwaarskill stream, was named for him. He established a flour 
and saw mill there at an earl}- date. 

Joseph Elder was of Irish descent and came into this region some years 
before the Revolution. He lived upon a very stony farm, and it is re- 
corded of him that being a man of giant frame, robust and vigorous, he 
would gather up these stones in a leathern apron girded about his loins 
and carry them to the place where they were used for fence walls, instead 
of carting them in a wagon. Though also scantily educated, he served 
some years as magistrate of his town with much satisfaction, being a man 
of strong common sense and good judgment. He seems also to have 
been a pioneer pedestrian, the original W^eston, apparently ; for it is re- 
corded that on a certain occasion, missing- his sloop at Xewburgh, which 
was alreaidy out of sight above the Danskammer Point, running with a 
fair wind, on the Hudson, on its way to Albany, \oung- Elder started oi>' 
at a rattling pace, with his musket and knapsack, to join his military com- 
pany at the Capital in tinie or be denounced as a traitor. It is said he 
beat the sloop by several hours, though the precise time made is not given. 

Dr. Joseph Whalen, another well known Irish pioneer, was among the 
early phvsicians practicing his profession in this region. Fie came at the 


close of the war, settled in this town for a few years, and afterward 
practiced in Montgomery for over fifty }ears. It is worthy of note in 
this connection that in those da}-s no doctor ever expected to collect for 
his services from his patient in person. The doctor's claim was always 
presented to the executor or administrator, as the case might he, after the 
patient's death. There were obvious reasons for this custom then, as 
there often are even in these later times, but the reader must be left to 
draw his own conclusions. This noted doctor had a most extensive prac- 
tice, and he was also a famous horseman and equestrian, owning much 
fine horseflesh. He even rivaled the celebrated Count Pulaski, the Polish 
general in the Revolution, who would throw his hat before him on the 
road while under full speed on his horse and so far dismount as to take 
it up-. Dr. Whalen could take a glass of liquid in his hand, mount his 
horse, ride away a quarter of a mile and return without spilling a drop. 

Daniel Bull was another prominent settler of this region. He came 
some years before the Revolution and settled upon an extensive tract of 
newly cleared land which was rough and stony and had been owned by 
his father, Thomas Bull, who lived in the old stone house in Hampton- 
burgh. This land was then valued at $2.50 per acre. In 1780 he married 
Miss Miller at Goshen, where the bride and groom were snowbound for 
two weeks of their honeymoon. They had thirteen children and the 
family became one of the most prominent and numerous in the town. Mr. 
Bull was a most successful farmer, and he reclaimed a vast acreage of 
wild land and brought it under good and profitable tillage. He amassed 
wealth and became a valued citizen, being long regarded as a patriarch of 
the town. In 1821, the record shows, that fifty-two grandchildren had 
been born of this parentage, making a family total of seventy-six. All 
were then alive except two who died in infancy, and on a certain day in 
June of that year seventy-four members of this noted family were gath- 
ered in the family homestead near Bullville for a grand reunion. The 
farm is now owned by Theodore Roberson. 

The Crawford family, after which the town was named, were descend- 
ants of John Crawford, who settled in New Windsor in 1737. The names 
of John, William, James and Samuel are found upon the old military roll 
of 1738 for the Wallkill. Robert I. Crawford was a prominent citizen 
here early in the last century, and he lived near the old Hopewell church. 

The Thompson brothers, Alexander, Andrew, and Robert, came from 


Ireland about 1770. They boui^ht 500 acres of land on what became 
afterward known as Thompson's Ridge, and divided the plot equallv 
among themselves. One of these farms then included the site of the 
Hopewell church, and all this property has been kept in the Thompson 

David Rainey was another ante-revolutionary settler in this locality, 
and he established what was afterward known as the "brick-house farm." 
near Pine Bush. He erected the first brick house between Newburgh and 
Ellenville. Although only a boy during the Revolution, he served for a 
short time in the Continental Army under Clinton. The ancestor of 
Jacob Whitten was also among the pioneers there. 

Among the early physicians of the town were Dr. Crosby, who lived 
near the Hopewell church and practiced during the early part of the last 
century; Dr. Charles Winfield, who lived near Pine Bush; Dr. Hunter, 
of Searsville, who later served as school inspector for that time ; Dr 
Griffith, also of Pine Bush, who died in 1855, and Dr. Durkee, who lived 
a mile south of Pine Bush. 


The town of Crawford was formed from the town of Montgomery, 
March 4, 1823. That older town covered such a large extent of territory 
that it was found inconvenient and expensive to conduct the public busi- 
ness to advantage. A convenient and practicable arrangement of boundary 
lines for a division of the town was found possible whereby there might 
be a central point convenient of access for the citizens of each town. The 
name Crawford was given in honor of that pioneer family, as before 
stated, many of its descendants having become so closely identified with 
the local interests of the region. 

The first town meeting was held at the house of Edward Schoonmaker, 
April I, 1823. William W. Crawford was then 'chosen the first super- 
visor ; Oliver Mills, town clerk, and a full list of officials was selected. 
Every man was authorized to act as his own poundmaster, and every farm 
was regarded as a pound. A bounty of $25 was voted for every wolf 
killed in the town, which shows that these hungry animals were still 
roaming through the forests at that time. At a special meeting held later 
in the month, $460 was voted to be raised for the support of the poor for 


that year. There were then thirty-nine road districts in that little town, 
and each district had its accredited roadmaster. Jjiit the records are not 
clear as to the character or extent of the road work done in that early 
period. Of course every male citizen was recjuired to appear for service 
upon the road at such time or times as the master of his district would 
desig-nate, and put in such number of days' work as his property posses- 
sions called for under the prevailing- provisions of the State road laws. 
The roadmaster was the boss, and if he said the roadway must be highly 
rounded in the center, a plow was run deeply along each side of the track 
and the loose mud or dirt was scraped up into the road with hoes cr 
shovels. Then the Vv'agon wheels would throw out this mud during the 
rest of the year when it was not frozen, where the workers of the suc- 
ceeding year would find it again, waiting to be scraped back into the road- 
wav. This was the old process of road repair for two hundred years, and 
there seems to have been general satisfaction with the curious method as 
far as the records disclose. In fact, the public highways were not re- 
garded of great importance in those days in spite of the fact that the> 
witre the leading if not the only arteries of transportation throughotit 
the country before the advent of railways and cheap water-line shipment. 
These observations are made in this connection because of the recent 
dawn of a new era in roads and road work, when the great importance 
of public roads and their proper repair and maintenance has at last been 
more nearly recognized. Very soon these antiquated methods will be 
among the curious events in history. 

When the Middletown and Crawford Railway was projected through 
this town the sum of $80,000 was raised by the town authorities in aid 
of its construction. This was in July, 1868. The interest upon this debt 
has been paid annually smcc that time, but in 1880 no part of this princi- 
pal sum had yet been paid. This was a severe tax upon the town which 
bore rather heavily upon the farmers especially, a class that rarely escapes 
the lion's share of these burdens of modern civilization. But the railway 
has been of great value to every resident as a developing factor of that 
entire region and none now regrets its cost. 


Hopewell. — This village is in the western portion of the town, not far 
from the Shawangunk River. The name was taken from the old Hope- 


well cliurcli, which \\a> an ulYshuul imni the Goodwill Presbyterian con- 
gregation at .Montgomery, where the Congregational section had been 
squeezed out, as it were. They were thus in need of hope at the time, 
and thus the name "Hopewell" was suggested by some of the more 
thoughtful members, and it was very promptly adopted for the church 
name, as it afterward was also for the little village which gathered about 
it. Jt does not appear that any important business or mercantile trade 
was ever conducted there, however. It is merely a fertile farm section 
where the residents have gathered to make their homes. The postal facil- 
ities for these people ?re at Thompson's Ridge, a station on the Crawford 
branch of the Erie Railway. 

Bullville. — This is in the southwestern portion of the town near the 
Wallkill line. It was named in honor of Thomas Bull, who lived there 
many years and engaged in various business enterprises, and in fact 
founded the place. While the name of the hamlet is not especially felici- 
tous, nor even euphonious, the location is attractive and pleasing, it bemg 
upon high ground with a line view of the surrounding landscape. A fine 
commodious i»iIethodist church was built there many years ago and there 
is a most attractive cluster of fine dwellings. In 1880 a hotel was con- 
ducted by Silas Dickerson and a general store by Charles Roe. There 
were also a creamery, tv:0 blacksmith shops, a flour and feed store, a coal 
\ard and even a distillery. The ]3lace is seven miles west of i\Iontgomer\ 

Searsville. — This was formerly known as Searsburgh. It is another 
small village, near the center of the town, on the Dwaarskill. It was 
named for, and practicall}- founded by, Benjamin Sears, already men- 
tioned at some length. He built the mills there at an early date, and his 
more distant neighbors soon gathered about him and built their honies 
there. It was formerly a trading point of some importance, but the ad- 
vent of the railway brought other neighboring hamlets into greater prom- 
inence and left this place somewhat isolated. But in 1880 there were a 
hotel, two blacksmith and wagon shops, a grist mill and a saw mill still in 
operation. There is also a post-oflice. The location being central, the 
town meetirvgs were usually held there in past years, and the general 
official business was transacted there. 

Thoinpsofi's Ridge. — A short distance we>i of Sear.sville, on the Craw- 
ford Branch Railwav. is this hamlet, as before stated. In former vears 


it was mainly composed of the Thompson family, for which it was origi- 
nally named. Daniel Thompson, the railway superintendent, lived near 
there. The station is quite an important one both for its passenger busi- 
ness and the large shipments of milk which are made from it. A small 
store, the post-ofifice, and the various railway structures make up the 
business part of the hamlet. It is in the midst of the finest farming sec- 
tion of Orange County, the farms of the Thompson family and others 
in that neighborhood being the most productive in the county. 

CoUabitrg. — This is in the southern section of the town, and the name 
is now printed "Collabar" on the modern map of the county. The 
locality is somewhat thickly settled. It w'as formerly an important point 
on the Newburgh and Cochecton turnpike, with a hotel and many other 
buildings of a varied character. But the new railway did not touch the 
place and travel was soon diverted to other points, which stopped all 
further development there. 

Pine Bush. — This is located near the Shawangunk River, in the north- 
ern part of the town, near the Ulster County line, and it is a thriving 
business village, the most important in the town. It is the northern ter- 
minus of the Crawford Branch Railway, and its post-office serves a large 
section of country on both sides of the river in that region. The village 
site is generally level and attractive, upon the high bank of the stream at 
that point, and the land environment comprises a most fertile farming 
section. The old grist mill there belongs to the Revolutionary period, 
and the Shawangunk Mountains rise in rugged, frowning peaks which 
overlook the valley and form a background of rare beauty. The heights 
of the Hudson River are seen in the distant horizon toward the east and 
north, and there is a rare combination of upland, valley, mountain and 
stream, forest slopes and well tilled farms which charms the beholder and 
forms a most attractive and beautiful landscape. Summer visitors are 
attracted here in large numbers, and they find much to admire and enjoy. 

Among the early tradesmen here was James Thompson, who opened a 
store in 1824. He was succeeded by Hezekiah Watkins, Tarbosch & 
Weller, Louis Wisner, Elijah Smith and George Oakley. Dr. Ewan 
came in 1830, and built a hotel and also conducted a drug store. Abra- 
ham Mould began a tannery plant in 1825, but after a few years he was 
killed by James Mitchell in a violent personal quarrel, for which Mitchell 
was finally acquitted on the ground of self defense. 


The r)l(l Ellenville and Xewburgli plank road — a wicked production of 
a benighted period — passed through Pine Bush. This, however, marked 
the beginning of the modern growth of the place. There were 
then only three or four dwelling houses. In 1880 there were in addition 
to the various railway structures, two hotels, several stores, many shops 
of various kinds, a restaurant, grist mill and saw mill, meat market, pho- 
tograph gallery, livery stable, distillery, marble works, and a great variety 
of other business enterprises. The post-office was originally known as 
Crawford, and Arthur Slott was probably the first postmaster. The name 
of the village was bestowed on account of the dense growth of pine trees 
which formerly covered that entire tract of land. The opening of the 
railway was of course a great event for Pine Bush and had much to do 
with its subsequent development and progress. Mr. A. R. Taylor, a 
leading business man, came from Ulsterville in 1848 and proved a most 
progressive citizen, opening many new stores and taking an active part 
in all village nnprovements. Fie was a civil engineer and was credited 
with having driven the first stake in Chicago during an engagement in the 
west many years ago, which if true is a well merited distinction. 


( )liver Mills. Alexander Thompson and Hieromous W'eller were the 
first school commissioners chosen at the formation of the town. From 
1843 to 1856 the public schools were under the control of town superin- 
tendents chosen at each annual election. There were ten school districts 
in 1823. and 655 children between the ages of five and fifteen in the town, 
small portions of the towns of Wallkill and Montgomery being then iii- 
cluded in this enumeration. The amount of public money received was 
$26-^.-14. Among the earlv school teachers of this town were John Flard- 
castlc. William Brown. Mr. Reed and Mr. Crosby. And they are said to 
have been firm believers in the free use of the rod in the inculcation of a 
thorough knowledge of the tjiree "Rs" and the maintenance of proper 


The first efl'ort to build a church in Flopewell was made in 177Q by tlie 
Presbyterian association. But they succeeded only in completing th.- 
e\teri< r of the buiMin;' an! verv little was done toward fini^hin*-- the 


inside of the structure. And yet for the next three years those devoted 
Christian people were content to worship in this unfinished building with 
all its discomforts. They went to church faithfully and regularly. In 
1792 they united in a corporate body and selected a full board of trustees, 
as follows: William Cross, Robert Alilliken, Jonathan Crawford, Daniel 
Bull, Andrew Thompson, Nathan Crawford, Abraham Caldwell, Robert 
Thompson and Robert McCreery. Soon after this they finished their 
church and called the Rev. Jonathan P'reeman as their pastor, who was 
installed August 28, 1793. This may be regarded therefore as the date 
of the organization of this church, which began with twenty-one members. 
Mr. Freeman multiplied this number by five during the next five years 
and then resigned for another field of labor. The next five years this little 
pulpit remained vacant. Rev. Lsaac Van Doren took up the work there 
in 1803 and labored most successfully for 21 years, adding some 152 
members to the little flock of worshippers during that period. Then, 
after further changes in the pastorate, a new and more commodious 
church building was built of stone on another site, which was completed 
in 1832. Rev. John H. Leggett was then the pastor for the next twentv- 
three years, when he went to Middletown. Flis ministerial work in this 
Hopewell church is highly spoken of in the records, he being a powerful 
preacher and a man of great activity and influence. 

What was known as Graham's Church, associated Reformed, was es- 
tablished by Robert Graham in 1799. A house of worship was erected 
at once and it was opened for use in August of the same year. Mr. 
Graham died a fev/ weeks later, but he devised 100 acres of land to thi^ 
church organization for its pastor. This church was merely a branch of 
the older organization at Neeleytown until 1802, when it became inde- 
pendent, with Samuel Gillespie and Andrew Thompson as elders. There 
were then only 2^ regular members, and the Rev. John ]McJimsey still 
served both this and the Neeleytown church. He left in 1809 but re- 
turned ten years later and remained until his death in 1854. Robert 
Graham, the founder of this chm"ch, was a staunch Scotch-Irish Presby- 
terian, and he left a lasting impress for good upon this people. 

The Crazvford Methodist Church is located at Bullville and it was in- 
corporated April 20, 1859. The trustees named were Jacob M. Shorter, 
Robert Hill and Herman S. Shorter. The original church structure was 
completed in the summer of 1861 at a cost of $8,000, which was donated 


by Mrs. 'Slary Shorter. Rev. Joliii W'ardle was tlie first pastor, being 
assigned there in response to a request of Mrs. Shorter. 

The Methodist Church of Pine Bush was incorporated November 28. 
1870. with llie following trustees: William li. Barnes, John Walker, Sam- 
uel Armstrong. William II. Cowley and l-'rancis M. Bodine. But there had 
been religious setvices there many years before this, especially in the 
school house. The old Reformed Church over the river at Shawangimk, 
in Ulster County, 'lad many men'ibers in the Pine Bush village, and there 
was preaching in the little school house nearly every Sunday, either by 
the pastor of that church or by the Methodist preacher from Bullville. 
But the Methodist people were not satisfied with this arrangement and 
they finally built a church for themselves, completing it in the spring of 
1871 at a total cost of $8,000. of which only half had been paid. But the 
balance was pledged at the dedication ceremonies held on the night of 
April 24, 1871. This buildmg was repaired and improved some ten years 


Near the site of the old Slott grist mill on the bank of the river is an 
old log hut which is said to date back to the ante-Revolutionary period. 
During that war this hut was on the \'an Amburg property, and that 
family was somewhat closely connected with the noted Anneke Jans, who 
once owned the ground now covered by the vast estates of Trinity Church 
in New York City, in which her myriad heirs, scattered all over America 
to-day, still claim an equitable share, and justly so. perhaps. In this old 
log structure once lived a stalwart female member of the \'an Amburg 
family, and the story is that during the Revolution a biq reward was 
ofiered by the British officers for her capture. "Shanks Ben," a noted 
I'lster County Tory, like Claudius Smith of Orange County, being at- 
tracted by this rich, reward, planned her capture. He concealed himself 
in one of the farm hay-stacks where he knew she would come to feed 
her cattle at a certain time. But when he saw the huge old-fashioned 
hayfork in her hand, he concluded that discretion was the better part of 
valor, and was in fact glad to escape with his own life, fearing she might 
chance to puncture his brave anatomy in reaching for the required hay- 
fodder. If this somewhat noted woman was ever captured by the red- 
coats the records fail to disclose it. 


Aside from th-e pursuit of farming and lumbering, this town has never 
been able to boast of any very important industries. Nearly every citizen 
was engaged in the cultivation of the soil during its early history at least. 
As already noted, the town was famed for its production of the choicest 
grade of Orange County butter. In later years, under the changed con- 
dition of transportation facilities, the manufactured products of the dairy 
were almost entirely discontinued and gave way to the natural product of 
milk, which was shipped to the New York markets in large quantities. 

The growth of apples, peaches and other fruits, for which the land is 
so well adapted, has meanwhile increased in extent and importance, and 
many of the Crawford orchards that were properly cultivated and cared 
for have becom.e sources of large profit to their owners. 

While many of the more ancient grist and saw mills of the town have 
now disappeared, some have been greatly improved and modernized and 
new ones have been built. 


On this topic little can be said with reference to the early history of 
this separate section, as the town came into existence some time after the 
close of the wars with foreign nations. All such data is hopelessly buried 
in the ancient annals of Wallkill and Montgomery sO' far as the Crawford 
chronicler is concerned. There were doubtless patriots of this section 
who served in the Continental army of Washington, and others who went 
out in the military company during the second outbreak in 1812. But 
the records contain no separate lists of these and this roll of honor cannot 
therefore be presented here. Philip Decker, David Rainey and Joseph 
Elder, the only names we can positively identify as being residents of 
what is now the town of Crawford, who served in the Revolution. 

But in the War of the Rebellion the record is more complete. While, 
like most other towns in nearly every county in the northern States, there 
were misguided men in Crawford, partisans, politicians and abject fol- 
lowers of that class, servile men with little principle and less brains, who 
opposed the war on political principle, or through ignorance of the situa- 
tion, without regard to the safety of the American Union of States, the 
great majority of the citizens, here as elsewhere, were loyal Union men. 
And when the first secession enn belched forth on Fort Sumter the old 


spirit of patriotism which had animated their ancestors was fired anew 
The town furnished 188 men for the Union army and navy under the 
various calls of President Lincoln and the draft. Sixty-nine men went 
forward at once under Captain Samuel Hunter, who organized a company 
of volunteers in the town known as Co. H, which was attached to the 
124th Regiment. The sum of $525 was raised by subscription in 18C2 
foi bounties paid to 21 volunteers who enlisted in the i68th Regiment, 
and $50 was raised for a like purpose in connection with the regiment 
first named. In 1863 $3,000 was raised and $27,610 the following 
year. Then, under the last call, $16,500 was added to these cash contri- 
butions from this tow^n, making the total sum $47,685. On the final set- 
tlement with the State after the war, $11,700 of this amount was returned 
to the town for excess of years and bounties. A tax of $30,000 was au- 
thorized in January, 1865, but as is seen above only a portion of this 
amoiuit was required. 

The record contains a detailed list of the men furnished by the town 
from which it appears that ten enlisted in the 56th Regiment in 1861, one 
in the 1 8th, five in the 19th. and twelve in other regiments during the first 
year. Then in 1862, twenty-one went out in the 124th, and thirty in the 
i68th. Tw'enty-nine enlisted in various other organizations in 1863 and 
1864. and tw-enty-nine others were drafted into the service, most of whom 
furnished substitutes. 

As showing who were among the leading farmers in this town in the 
early part of the 19th century, it will be of interest perhaps to quote a 
few items from an old list of agricultural premiums awarded at the 
county fairs held in that period. In 1820 Daniel Bull w'as awarded $20, 
fur the best farm of 100 acres in the town. He also had the second best 
fat oxen. The next year PTenry Bull got $10 for the second best farm, 
and Daniel Bull $15 for the best working oxen. In 1822 Henry Bull had 
the best three acres of \vinter wheat, for which lie was awarded a prize 
of Sio. Moses Crawford then received a like award for 2.051 ix)unds of 
butter from twenty cows. In 1823 Moses Crawford received a four- 
dollar prize for the third best piece of dressed woolen cloth, also various 
other prizes for white flannel, linen, etc. \\'illiam Gillespie then had a 
fine exhibit of sewing-silk, for which he received a prize. These items 
are taken at random from an old record which, stratigely enough, does 
not contain the first awards in manv cases. 


The population of Crawford, according to the national census of 1880, 
was 1,951, which was a decrease from that of 1870 of seventy-three. 

The Pine Bush Library Association was organized November 10, 1899, 
at a meeting held in Wallace Hall for the purpose of considering the 
practicability of establishing a public library in the village. H. J. Mc- 
Kinney, Mrs. Joel Whitten, J- E Ward, Mrs. J. L. Acheson, D. T. 
Bowen, Miss Emma B. Shaper, S. K. Seybolt and Mrs, Nelson Van 
Keuren were chosen trustees. H. J. McKinney was elected president, 
retaining the office until his death, September 24, 1907. While ably dis- 
charging the duties of the position, he was a liberal contributor to the 
support of the library. He supervised the construction of the building it 
now occupies. 

The library was incorporated December 21, 1899, receiving from the 
State University a provisional charter. December i, 1904, a permanent 
charter was granted. 

Through the kindness of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union 
of Pine- Bush the library was kept in the rooms of that organization with- 
out cost to the association, until the summer of 1907, when it was re- 
moved to its present home. This was remodeled from a building pre- 
sented to the Library Association by H. P. Taylor, a resident of the vil- 
lage, and is a substantial edifice with an attractive interior, admirably 
arranged for library purposes. 

The library, which is free, now numbers more than 2,000 well selected 
books. The funds for its support are derived from the membership dues, 
contributions, lectures or entertainments, and the State appropriation. 




THIS town is located in the extreme western ang;\e of Orange 
County. In outline the territory forms nearly a perfect triangle. 
It is one of the larger towns in the county, having an area of 
37,020 acres, according to the latest tax tables of the Orange supervisors, 
being exceeded only in extent by the town of Warwick. It is also next to 
the largest in population, having 11,562 inhabitants, according to the 
State census of IQ05. It is also a most important town in several other 
respects, as will be seen from the comprehensive outline presented in the 
succeeding pages. 

It contains the point of land where three States intersect — New York, 
New Jersey and Pennsylvania. This precise point is known as the "Tri- 
States' Rock." This solid rock is at the extreme point of the tongue of 
land lying at the mouth of the Neversink River and between that stream 
and the Delaware River. A copper bolt has been sunk in this reck to 
mark the spot which has been agreed upon by the authorities of these 
States. By standing over this bolt one is therefore in three different 
.States at the same time. 

Whether or not the full legal import of this strategic point of vantage 
has been well understood by certain classes, or made use of in critical 
emergencies, is not definitely known. It is, however, one of the show 
places of Port Jervis, and visitors may easily find it by a short walk 
through Laurel Grove Cemetcn-. 

In 1880 the .town assessors reix)rted a total value of taxable property 
of $2,431,680. upon which a tax of $37,374.27 was levied. These amounts 
have been increased to $2,509,003, and $41,378.65 resf>ectively, the valu- 
ation of the two banks not included, $379,706, on which their tax is levied. 

With the exception of the small tracts known as the Arent Schuyler 
patent, the Tietsort 400 acre j)atent. and the Cuddeback patent, the title 
to all the land of Deer Park comes from the Minisink patent. This name 
was originally spelled "Minnisink." The tribal Indian occupants were 


first known as the Minquas, and subsequently as the Alinsi^, from which 
the present name seems to have been evolved. 

Captain Arent Schuyler visited this region in 1694, during that turbu- 
lent period of war with the savages, in order to determine how far the 
influence of the French had effected the aborigines. 

The town is bounded on the north by Sullivan County, on the southeast 
by Mount Hope and Cornwall, and on the southwest by New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, and the County of Sullivan. 


The topographical features of Deer Park are peculiarly marked. There 
is the broad valley of the Neversink on the east, reaching from northeast 
to southwest. This soil is exceptionally fertile, and here it was that the 
early settlers began to build their cabins and blaze their way into the 
thick forests. 

A short, distance from the Neversink stream the old Delaware & Hud- 
son Canal was constructed and operated for many years, the line being 
nearly parallel to the river. This great coal artery from the mines to the 
Hudson was, however, abandoned in 1898 after seventy years of success- 
ful operation, and the new EUenville & Kingston Railway took its place. 

The Neversink stream has no important tributaries from the east. On 
the west the Old Dam Kill comes into the main stream at Huguenot. 
This drains a large portion of the central territory and gives some valu- 
able water power. Basha's Kill is the larg-est branch entering from the 
east near Cuddebackville. 

The Delaware River separates the town from Pennsylvania on the 
southwest, and the Alongaup branch of the Delaware divides the town 
from Sullivan County. Tributaries of this Mongaup stream drain the 
higher central portions of the town. Still other tributaries of the Dela- 
ware flow through the Honesdale region. 

The general surface of the town is a mountamous upland broken by 
many small streams which often flow through rocky ravines. There are 
steep declivities along the Delaware, Mount William and Point Peter be- 
ing the most attractive features near Port Jervis. Along Basha's Kill the 
bottoms are known as the Mamakating valley. Those along the Never- 
sink constitute the Suckapack valley, until the junction wdth Basha's Kill 

S. H. Gc 


is reachetl. when it is Ciilled the Xeversink valley proper, althouij^h also 
known as the Peenpack. This valley extends to the mouth of the Xever- 
sink at Carpenter's Point. If space perniitted it woukl be interesting to 
trace the origin and significance of these quaint names. 

1: AKiA si; I n.CMEXT. 

In 1689 the old town of Schenectady in New York State was captured 
by the Indians after a bloody fight. Among the residents there who fled 
from the place was one William Tietsort (now written Titsw^orth), who 
came to the land of Esopus first, but soon afterward went to this Minisink 
region and settled in these forests. After a residence there of some years 
he sought the right to purcliase a tract of land there. This was in 1698, 
and he succeeded in obtaining the land. His title to this tract, though in 
dispute for a time, was finally confirmed, and it was excepted from the 
Minisink patent. This tract was afterward sold to John Decker, and the 
location is thought to have been near Port Jervis. Thus the hon.or of 
being the first settler seems to belong to this William Tietsort. 

Other pioneer settlers came into the Peenpack valley and also in Mama- 
kating Hollow. Most of these okl pioneers seem to have taken such lands 
as suited their fancy with very little regard to who the owner might be. 
Many of these came in from the famous Esopus region, and these were 
mostly of that thrifty Dutch stock which made that ancient region so 
famous and important in the formative period of the State and national 
history. Nearly all settled along the streams where the advantages of 
fertile soil and level land seemed most attractive and important. 

In 1697 Arent Schuyler received his patent, which covered a large tract 
in the ^Minisink country called by the natives Sankhcheneck, otherwise 
Mayhawaem, also another tract called "Warinsayskmeck, u])()n the river 
Mennessincks before an island called Menagnock, which was near the 
Ivfaghaghkemek tract and contained 1,000 acres and no more." About the 
same time another grant of land containing 1200 acres was given to Jacob 
Codebeck, Thomas Swartwout, Anthony Swartwout. Rernardus Swart- 
wout, Jan Tys. Peter Gimar and David Jamison. 

Both these patents were in the Peenpack valley, and they were so im- 
perfectly described in the titles that it was impossible to fix their precise 
location or boundaries. They were therefore regarded as "floating" pat- 


eiits or tracts, and the grantees were inclined to lake possession of most 
any unappropriated lands in that valley and settle where they saw fit. 
This led to much difficulty in the succeeding years, and when it became 
necessary to divide this Minisink patent the commissioners found no end 
of trouble. 

The patentees Codebeck and Gimar were French and came here after a 
brief sojourn in Maryland. They married into the Swartwout family, 
which was a sturdy, vigorous stock, well able to cope with the warlike 
natives and ferocious wild animals and dense forests as pioneers. 

The seven joint owners of this patent are said to have come into this 
region in 1690, although there is no authentic record of any w^hite people 
there until 1604. T^he land covered by this patent laid along the Never- 
sink River and Basha's Kill. Mamakating Hollow^ was then the nearest 
settlement, some twenty-five or thirty miles north. 

In those days the settlement of a new country was indeed a herculean 
task with the meager facilities then existing. And this was pre-eminently 
true of this town, which was still slumbering in a dense primeval forest. 
Plows and all other implements were of the crudest description. What 
little grain was grown by these ancient farmers had to^ be cut with a knife 
or rude sickle, and then the grain was separated from the straw by the 
tramp of horses upon the threshing floor. It was afterward winnowed 
from the chafif by hand-fans made of willow rods. This was the univer- 
sal practice in this region down to 1760. The first fanning mill was 
brought in here just previous to this by Peter Gumaer. The wagons 
were made almost entirely of wood and the harness of flax and tow. 
During the long winter evenings while the men were making these things 
the women were spinning and reeling yarn. Not the yarn of the idle 
gossiper, as now, but the fiber. and fabric of utility which went into their 

The old Esopus region was some fifty or sixty miles north and the 
roads were left to the vagaries of Dame Nature. But these pioneers 
had to cart their corn and other produce there for sale. Wheat was the 
staple crop, and Jacob Codebeck of this town was the first to attempt 
grinding it in a small mill. One of these millstones, about two feet in 
diameter and three inches thick, is still in the Gumaer cellar near where 
the old mill stood. This was afterward followed by two other grist mills 
on the "Old Dam Brook." Then came the DeWitt mill in 1770, on the 


Xevcrsink River near Cuddebackvillc, and others in later years. These 
ancient mills had no devices for bolting the flour as now; thus after the 
grinding- process, the whole had to be sifted by hand in order to secure 
the fine flour for bread-making and other culinary uses. 

One of the earliest saw mills was erected in this town soon after 1760. 

It should be said in this connection that there is some traditionary evi- 
dence of a still earlier settlement in this Minisink region which takes the 
date back even to 1650. Most of these claims, however, seem based upon 
certain letters written by Samuel Preston of Stockport, Penn., in 1828. 
In these letters he gave the recollections of John Lukens, Surveyor Gen- 
eral of Pennsvlvaiiia. as to this very ancient settlement. His memory 
extended back to 1730. On this rather hazy authority it is claimed that 
the first settlement was prior to 1664, when the region was still in the 
possession of the Dutch, antl that the settlement was abandoned at the 
English conquest. lUit there are no existing documents to substantiate 
any such claim, and the entire weight of evidence seems to clearly dis- 
prove it. 

The records show that in 1714 the only freeholders in ]\Iaghaghkemek 
were Thomas Swartwout, Harmon Barentsen, Jacob Cuddeback, Peter 
Gumaer and Jacobus Swartwout. To these were added, fourteen years 
later, the names of John \'an Vleit, Jr., Samuel Swartwout and r>er- 
nardus Swartwout, Jr. This would show a very small increase in 38 
years, assuming that the settlement began in 1690. 

This town became important also because of the long dispute over the 
boundary line between the .States of New York and New Jersey. The 
variance of this line over which the conflict arose was in this township. 
The o^yners of the Minisink and the 1,200 acre patents were much dis- 
turbed for years by the Xew Jersey State authorities, who claimed the 
line ran considerably farther north of the Delaware River than the Deer 
Park people had established it. The New Jersey people claimed a large 
portion of this 1,200 acre patent through which they insisted the line 
ran, they procured a colony title to this disputed portion of that patent. 
The precise location of the line being vague and uncertain, no action at 
law could be maintained by either side, but a bitter struggle ensued and 
lasted for many years. The trouble seems to have arisen over the mean- 
ing of the phrase "the northernmost branch of the Delaware River," 
which was the language used in the description of title. There was a big 


triangular gore of land in dispute. This conflict lasted nearly seventy- 
five years, and then it was finally settled by an equitable division of the 
land in question. 

Among the residents on this disputed land was Major Swartwout, and 
the Jersey claimants planned to oust him from the property by force. He 
was prepared for such an attack, but in spite of all his loaded guns it 
seems that about 1730 the Jersey ites routed him from the house and 
threw out all his goods. But with the assistance of friends in Goshen the 
major was reinstated, and he afterward successfully repelled another 
attack made about ten years later. He was, however, captured and im- 
prisoned, together with Johannes Westbrook, another resident of the 
battleground, some time between 1764 and 1767, by a strong force of 
Jerseymen who surrounded his church on the Sabbath, and seized the 
two men at the close of the service, after a fierce struggle. 

Soon after this a new line was agreed upon and the fight ended by the 
passage of a royal. ^dict at the Court of St. James in September, 1773. 
Commissioners of the two States afterward ran the line in accordance 
with that agreement. 

In 1874, one hundred years later, commissioners representing the two 
States made a resurvey with the assistance of the United States Coast 
Survey ofticials, which finally settled the great controversy for all time. 

In 1775, an old assessment roll of district No. 3, which was the south- 
ern portion of Deer Park, comprising the present territory of Port Jervis 
and vicinity, contained forty-eight names of property holders. The largest 
of these was Johannes Decker, who was assessed for 17 pounds 8 shillings 
and 7 pence. Next in order was Anthony Van Etten, John Wells, Abra- 
ham Van Auken and Johannes Decker, Jr. 

The DeWitt family of this town were descendants of Tjerck Claesson 
DeWitt, who came from Holland and settled in Wiltwyck, now Kings- 
ton, at a very early date. It was a ver}- prominent family here and many 
of its members achieved distinction. 

Among other prominent settlers in this region were Peter Gumaer, Jan 
Tyse, Bernardus Swartwout, Jacob Cuddeback, Anthony Swartwout, 
David Jameson, and Hermanns Van Inwegen. 

The very earliest physician in this region was Doctor Chattle, and he 
settled near Carpenter's Point and practiced there until his death, many 
years later. He came in at the opening of the nineteenth century. 

roWX OI- PEER PARK. 205 


Just wlicn the civil organization of Deer i'ark was formed is not deh- 
nitely known. The Legislative act of October 18, 1701, provided that the 
"people of Wagach-emeck, the Great and Little Minisink, should vote in 
the County of Ulster." This would imply that they were outside of that 
county. This territory covered what is since known as Cuddebackville 
and vicinity. Eight years later the boundary between the counties was 
more definitely fixed by the Legislature. Soon after this the territory 
went under the name of ]\laghaghkemek, remaining under this jaw- 
breaking title until 1743, wdien the precinct of IMamakating was erected, 
which was at least a slight improvement upon the old name. 

This continued until 1798 when the town of Deer Park was organized. 
The first Mamakating- precinct meeting w-as held at the house of Samuel 
Swartw^out. This territory then included "all the land to the southward 
of the tow"n of .Rochester as far as the County of Ulster extends, and to 
the westward to the precincts of Wallkill and Shawangunk." 

While the name Minisink was applied to the territory above named, it 
has been contended by some waiters that there was in addition a precinct 
of Minisink, and there are documents which seem, to establish this fact 
even as early as 1739. But this precinct seems to have been erected 
along the Delaware River below wdiat afterward became Carpenter's 

The territory now in Deer Park south of the old county line compris- 
ing Port Jervis and vicinity was a part of the town of ]\Iinisink from 1789 
to 1825. 

The first supervisor of the Mamakating precinct elected in April. 1774, 
was Benjamin Dupuy. The first supervisor of Deer Park elected in April, 
1798, was James Finch, and he remained in that ofifice by successive elec- 
tions until 1810, when Peter E. Gumaer succeeded him. But Mr. Finch 
V.P.S again selected to serve the town in that capacity on three different 

The earliest assessment roll of the town now preserved in the town 
clerk's office, which was the first roll of Deer Park after the division of 
the territory, is that of 1825. This shows a total valuation of $114,820, 
and there were fifteen i:)ersons on the list for over $2,000, the highest 
being Peter E. Gumaer at $6,230. 



With the exception of Port Jervis the centers of population in the 
town are small and unimportant. Among them may be mentioned West- 
brookville on the line of the old canal, northeast of Cuddebackville ; Port 
Orange, a short distance south on the canal line : Cuddebackville, in the 
northeastern part of the town, named in honor of the pioneer settler, 
Jacob Cuddeback ; Rose Point, a station on the Monticello Railway ; Port 
Clinton, still further down the valley; Gumaers, also on the old canal line, 
and Huguenot, between this and Port Jervis. Near this point are valu- 
able mineral springs, discovered in i860. In 1880 a pipe line for the trans- 
mission of petroleum oil to tide water was constructed through this sec- 
tion, with stationary engines and a power plant for forcing this oil to 

Carpenter's Point is a very old locality, named for an early settler, who 
established a ferry across the Delaware River there at a very early period. 
It is near Port Jervis on the south and the famous "Tri-States rock" is 
located here at the extreme point. This rock marks the junction of the 
States of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. There are several 
stores, an old grist mill, and many dwellings. A bridge here spans the 
Neversink River which was built in 1868. 

Sparrowbush is another hamlet and post-office on the old canal line. 
Bushkill is in the western part of the town, and Ouarryhill is a local 
mining district still farther west. .Shin Hollow is a neighborhood on the 
slope of the Shawangunk Mountain w'here the Erie Railway crosses the 
tOAvn line into Alomit Hope. Paradise is a small hamlet on the Sullivan 
border northeast of Cuddebackville, and Honesville and Bolton are other 
small hamlets born of the canal enterprise. 


The Gumaer graveyard is believed to be the oldest burial place in the 
town. Some of the old stones have inscriptions which show that burials 
were made there very early in the eighteenth century. 

The old Machackenerck graveyard is in the southern section of the 
town at Port Jervis. Previous to 1907 this ground was much neglected, 
and its condition was anything but creditable to the citizens of that grow- 
ing village. Interments were made there long prior to the Revolution. 

Dr. J. J. Mills. 


The Laurel Grove cenieter_\- is situated in the extreme southeastern 
part of Port Jervis. This was cstabhslied in 1856 ])y John ConkHn. who 
owned the site, and it is the modern cemetery now in use. It contains 
many fine monuments and the lots and drives are well kept. The name 
Laurel Grove was most appro])riate'y Ijestowed because of the thick natu- 
ral gfrowth of the American laurel on the ground. In 1857 the '\\'eeping 
Willow cemetery was begun in Port Jervis. This is St. John's burial 
ground next the Reformed church. Among other cemeteries are that of 
the Reformed church, started in 1833. the Catholic cemetery, also in Port 
Jervis, and the Rural \'alley cemetery in Cuddebackville, opened in 1867. 
In the ear]\- eighties the \\'eeping Willow cemetery was purchased by the 
village of i-'ort Jervis and converted into a site for a school building, the 
bodies being removed to other cemeteries. 


At the beginning of the brench war of 1775 there were only about 
thirty families within the present limits of Deer Park township. It was 
then divided int() u])j)er and lower neighborhoods. In the upper or north- 
ern i)art, near the ('Id count}- line, three small forts were built; one on the 
Neversink, another at the house of Peter Gumaer, and the third near the 
home of Peter Swartwout. There were also three forts in the lower 
neighborhood on the 

It is believed, however, that most of the Indian occupants of this 
region had left before the ojDening of this bVench war. P.ut they returned 
in force when the Revolution began and attacked some of the early set- 
tlers in 1777. These attacks soon became more frequent and alarming, 
and the Committee of Safety was obliged to resort to very vigilant meth- 
ods in repelling th.e ferocious savages. Three other forts were built in 
the Peen|)ack section, and these were manned by soldiers known as the 
nine-months' men. Many of the women and children were sent out of the 
town to more safe quarters. About this time there were some fifty fami- 
lies in the town and thcv moved into the forts for protection. P)Ut the' 
settlement was attacked by a force of Indians and Tories about that time 
and afterward, and U'any were killed in the conflicts. Many of the houses 
and barns were burned and much of the crops were destroyed during the>~e 
Indian raids. 


Many stirring incidents of those days are recorded, but much of this 
record is merely traditional and lacks authentic documentary evidence in 
its support. 

At the close of the war the people were practically in a destitute condi- 
tion, and it took them a long time, with the very meager facilities at hand, 
to reinstate themselves. Even the Continental paper currency had greatly 
depreciated in value, and it was necessary to build mills to make material 
for rebuilding their homes and barns. 

x\.t the opening of the Revolution Major John Decker was one of the 
most prominent citizens in the Minisink valley, and it is said that one of 
the objects of these Indian raids Avas to secure the scalp of Major 
Decker. They succeeded in burning his house to the ground and des- 
troyed all his property during his absence from home at night, driving out 
his family to sleep on the banks of the Neversink River, but they didn't 
get the Major's scalp, though he was wounded while riding his horse 
homeward, and barely escaped with his life b}' hiding in a cave. 

The Brandt raid of what was known as the lower neighborhood occurred 
in July, 1779. News of the atrocities perpetrated by the Mohawk chief 
and his savage followers was conveyed to Goshen, where a pursuing force 
of militia was organized by Colonels Tusten and Hathorn. They over- 
took Brandt at the ford of the Delaware at Lackawaxen, Pa., and in tlie 
sanguinar}' struggle which took place on the heights above Lackawaxen 
on the New York side of the river, the Indians were completely victorious. 
The force under Harhorn and Tusten was almost annihilated, but few 
escaping to tell the tale of the disaster. Of these men were Captain Abra- 
ham Cuddeback of Deer Park, and Daniel Meyers of Minisink, who is said 
to have killed more Indians than any other man during the engagement. 

The town took its full patriotic share in the struggle to save the Union 
of States. Dr. John Conklin presided at the first meeting of citizen^, 
April 18, 1861, and prompt measures were adopted. Nearly $1,000 was 
raised, and there were many donations for the soldiers and their families. 
The Ladies" Aid Society was formed with Mrs. PI. H. Farnum as presi- 
dent, in September, 1862, and this association of patriotic women for- 
warded suij'plies to the front amounting to $843.63. Under the call of 
President Liricoln tor 500.000 men in 1864 a tax of $48,600 was raised by 
the town to pay bounties for soldiers of $300 each. An additional tax 
of $155,300 was afterwards raised for a like purpose. 



The Deer Park roll of honor in that war numbers 428. Of these some 
forty-five lost their lives in the service of their country. 

In the Spanish-American war of 1898 eighty-two volunteers for service 
in Cuba were recruited in Port Jervis by Captain Benham and others 
under the auspices of Eafayette Post, G. A. R., of the city of New York. 
Of these, forty-four were attached to Company I of the Second U. S. 
Infantry ; thirty-five to the 42d U. S. Infantry, and the remainder entered 
the Artillery and Cavalry arms of the service. The recruits for this war 
came mainly from Port Jervis. but a few came from surrounding; districts. 


Under the act of ^lay 4, 1868, the town of Deer Park was bonded for 
ib.e sum of $200,000 to aid in the construction of the Monticello and Port 
Jervis Railroad. These bonds drew 7% and ran thirty years to their 
maturity. In 1898 they were refunded at 4% and provision made for 
the gradual paMiient of the principal. There is now (1908) outstanding 
in these bonds Si6t,ooo. 

THE monticello R. R. 

The Monticello and Port Jervis Railroad Company was incorporated 
Sept. 3. 1808. It ran between Port Jervis and Monticello and opened for 
tratiic January 3, 1S71. It was sold in foreclosure July 8, 1875, and 
subsequently reorganized as the Port Jervis and ^lonticello Railroad Co. 
Its history has been a checkered one. It is now operated by the Ontario 
& Western Railroad as a part of its system. 


Port Jervis had its beginning in 1826 when the building of the D. & 
H. Canal became a certainty. It was named in honor of John B. Jervis, 
of Rome, X. Y.. a distinguished civil engineer, who superintended the 
construction of the canal. As late as 1846 a writer thus describes Port 
Jervis : 

"It is a small village on the canal where it first approaches the Dela- 
ware. It is just above Carpenter's Point (Tri-States) and the junction 


of the Neversink and Delaware Rivers. It ovtes its population and its 
importance to its position about midway between Honesdale, Pa., and 
Kingston, N. Y., the two termmals of the D. & H. Canal. There are 
five stores in the village ; three taverns in spacious buildings ; one three- 
story grist mill, built by Dr. P3all, of Brooklyn, N. Y., being a stone build- 
ing with five run of stone in it ; three churches, a Dutch Reformed, Bap- 
tist, and Methodist, and one large school house. Coal and lumber are sold 
in considerable quantities. A mail route from Kingston, N. Y., to Mil- 
ford, Pa., and thence to Philadelphia, passes through the village." 

At this time the population of the village was small, and Port Jervis 
w^as equalled if not exceeded in importance by the neighboring hamlet 
of Carpenter's Point, where the post-ofifice was located and courts were 

The completion of the Erie Railroad to Port Jervis, January i, 1848, 
gave a wonderful impetus to its growth. The directors of the company 
celebrated the event by an official trip over the road from Piermont on the 
Hudson River, its eastern terminus, to Port Jervis, where the entire popu- 
lation of the surrounding country were gathered to celebrate their arrival. 
Cannon boomed and flags and bunting floated from every house top. A 
banquet was served at the hotel of Samuel Truex on the southwestern cor- 
ner of Pike and Main .streets, during which the president of the road, 
Benjamin Loder, made an address congratulating all concerned in the 
successful completion of the great enterprise as far as Port Jervis. The 
subsequent growth of the place w^as rapid. Its position as the headquar- 
ters of the Delaware division of the road and the terminus of its eastern 
division and the location here of extensive machine and car shops gave it 
a large railroad population, which has been and still is the principal con- 
tributing element to its prosperitv. 

In 1853 the village was mcorporated and the first charter election was 
held in August following. The total village expenses for the first year 
was $1,350. Samuel Fowler was the first president. 

Port Jervis became a city by an act of the Legislature of the date of 
June 26, 1907, and at the first election under the city charter, held in the 
ensuing November, the following city officials were elected : Mayor, Dr. 
H. B. Swartwout ; aldermen, Joseph Johnson (at large), F. N. Mason, 
Andrew Hensel, A. F. Brown. P. C. Rutan, C. F. Van Inwegen, Thomas 
Mulhearn. fanies Mowell an.: fames I. Delanev. The first five named are 


republicans, the others democrats. The following appointments were 
made by the Common Council : City clerk, A. P. Altemeier ; city engi- 
neer, Irving Righter; commissioner of charters, John M. Snook; superin- 
tendent of streets and sewers, Theodore Ludlum ; chief of police, William 
Wilkin. Supervisors from the four warils were elected as follows: First 
W'ard, S. S. Garriss, dem. ; Second Ward, Henry Farnum, rep. ; Third 
Ward, J. J. Toth, rep. ; Fourth Ward, J. P. Gillen, dem. 

The population of F*ort jervis in 1907, according to the census of the 
State excise department, taken in that year for the purpose of furnishing 
a basis upon which to adjust license rates, was 10,035. 1^"^ as the census 
was not intended to be exhaustive and practically stopped when the 10,000 
limit was reached, leaving certain sections uncounted, it is fair to presume 
that tiie actual population was considerably in excess of the figure named. 

The assessed valuation of the city of Port Jervis for the year 1907 was 
$2,000,000; for the town of Deer Park about $500,000. 

The city has eighty-two industrial establishments including the car and 
machine shops of the Erie Railroad, employing over 1,000 operatives. 
Tlie principal manufactured commodities are saws, glassware, silk, gloves 
and mittens, shirt and ladies' collars. These industries give employment 
to many skilled operatives who receive good wages. The city has three 
hardware stores and two iron foundries. 

Among the important industries of Port Jervis is the Deer Park Brew- 
ery Co., located on Reservoir avenue. The company was organized in 
1902 with George F. Ott, of Philadelphia, as president. The plant of the 
insolvent Deer Park Brewery Co. was purchased and greatly improved 
and enlarged. 


The Port Jervis Electric Street Railway Company was organized in 
1895 with Flon. \y. C. Richardson, of Goshen, as the first president. The 
v.-ork of construction began November 15, 1897, and the road went into 
operation January 15, 1898. The road is now known as the Fort Jervis 
Electric Railroad Co. It has about 4 1/3 miles of track and runs three 


The oldest of the two banking establishments of this place, the National 
Bank of Port Jervis. was organized under the State law as the Bank of 


Port Jervis, in March, 1853. Business was opened in the Delaware 
House. The original capital was $120,000, afterwards increased to $130,- 
000. Its first president was Thomas King, who served until his death in 
1857, when he was succeeded by H. H. Farnum, who served until his 
death in 1879. The late Charles St. John succeeded him and the late 
Francis Marvin became president in 1892 on the death of Mr. St. John.. 
The present incumbent of the office is W. L. Cuddeback. 

The heavy defalcation of the assistant cashier led to a reorganization 
of the institution in 1899 with Dr. W. L. Cuddeback as president. The 
last annual report, December 5, 1907, showed deposits amounting to 
$550,738.04. The present dividend rate is 7^ per cent, per annum. 

The First National Bank was organized in 1870 with a capital of $100,- 
000. Jacob Hornbeck was the first president. The late Martin C. Everett 
succeeded him. The present head of this prosperous institution is Chas. 
F. Van Inwegen. Its last report, on December 3, 1907, showed total de- 
posits of $1,001,621.46. The stock pays 16 per cent, dividends to stock- 

The Port Jervis Savings Bank, organized under the State law, began 
business in March, 1870, with Eli V^an Inwegen as president. It discon- 
tinued business in the later seventies. 


The post-office was removed from Carpenter's Point to Port Jervis in 
1829, and John Slauson was the postmaster. He was succeeded by Dr. 
John Conklin in 1833, followed by Dr. Charles Hardenburgh in 1845, who 
was soon displaced by Thomas J. Lyon. Then came Dr. Conklin again in 
1849, Francis Marvin in 185 1, Thomas J. Lyon again in 1853, James 
Van Fleet in 1855, George Brodhead in 1857, Augustus E. Goodale in 
1861, Charles St. John, Jr., in 1879, Benjamin Ryall in 1885, Stephen St. 
John in 1889; George A. Elston in 1893; S. D. Boyce in 1897. Mr. 
Boyce still (in 1908) continues in office. 


The Port Jervis fire department was long regarded among the best in 
the State outside the largfe cities, and few destructive fires were ever 


allowed to g-ain much headway. The introduction of the water-works 
system gave ample hydrant pressure to cope with any conflagration, and 
the old hand engines were long since abandoned. There are seven differ- 
ent fire companies with a force of considerably over 200 effective fire 
fighters. The equipment included a steamer and hook and ladder appa- 
ratus. P. C. Rutan is chief engineer of the department. 


In 1892 was organized the Port Jervis Free Library, with \V. L. Cudde- 
back, W. H. Nearpass, Maria B. Van Ellen, Alinnie C. Brox and E. H. 
Gordon, trustees. This board has continued in charge of the library until 
the present time except that, in 1896, Mrs. Brox resigned and was suc- 
ceeded by Mrs. M. I. Coonrod. In 1901 a gift of $20,000 was received 
from Mr. Carnegie for the construction of a library building, which was 
subsequ.ently increased to $30,ocjo, and with this fund a large, handsome, 
commodious building was constructed on Pike street hill on a site given 
by Peter E. Farnum. The building is constructed of light colored pressed 
brick with native blue stone trimmings. It will house 40,000 volumes. 
The number at present on the shelves is 15,000; added during the year 
1907 by purchase, 1,062 ; the number lent for home use during the current 
year, 33,706. It is rich in encyclopedias and valuable works of reference, 
including the Congressional Record and Globe, and reports of the depart- 
ments of the Federal and State governments. The valuable collection of 
books and documents of the ^^linisink \'alley Historical Society is also 
housed in this building, a separate room on the second floor having been 
set apart for the acconmiodation thereof. This building contains two 
spacious, well equipped reading rooms, in which may be found all the 
leading reviews, magazines, and weekly periodicals, with complete files of 
many of them handsomely bound and ranged about the walls for con- 
venient reference. 

The preseiit librarian is Miss Elizabeth G. Thorne; assistants, Miss 
Charlotte Nearpass and Miss Anna G. Wells. 


Port Jervis has an excellent system of public sewers, established in 1891 
at a cost of about $85,000. for which the bonds of the village were issued. 
The original sewer commissioners were Francis Marvin, L. E. Carr, 


George Schoonover, W. A. Drake, M. D. Graham, with Ed. Whritner, 
clerk. Its establishment has resulted in a lowering of the death rate and a 
notable diminution in zymotic diseases within the city limits. 


Port Jervis has eight churches, which in the order of their establish- 
ment are as follows : The Reformed Church of Deer Park, founded Au- 
gust 23, 1737, under the name of the Reformed Dutch Church of Machac- 
kemech ; Drew Methodist Episcopal CJmrch and the Baptist Church, both 
founded in 1838; First Presbyterian, incorporated July 15, 1851 ; Grace 
Episcopal Church, incorporated September 3, 1853 ! ^^^ Church of the 
Immaculate Conception, incorporated January 10, i860; German Lutheran 
Protestant, Port Jervis, incorporated January i, 1861 ; the Second Re- 
formed Church, whose house of worship on West Main street (in Ger- 
mantcwn), was dedicated November 29, 1896, with Rev. David T. Harris 
as pastor; the Church of Sacred Heart (in Germantown), whose hand- 
some church edifice of brick was dedicated in November, 1899, with Rev. 
B. J. Duffy, ordained in Rome, as first pastor. 

The colored people also have a church organization known as the JVick- 
ham A. U. M. P. Church, in honor of the late Dr. D. T. Wickham, the 
principal contributor to their church building. 


A religious, educational and charitable institution of great merit and 
usefulness is St. Mary's Home, founded in 1871 by the late Rev. Father 
Nelan, its object being to provide a home for orphan children and to train 
and instruct them for a useful place in society. For over twenty years 
this institution has been in charge of Sister Theophelia, a woman whose 
motherly instincts and marked administrative abilities peculiarly fit her 
for this highly important work. 


An event of great importance to the residents of this town was the 
organization of the Minisink Valley Historical Society in 1888. Among 
the active promoters of this undertaking were Rev. Dr. S. W. Alills, 


Francis Marvin, Dr. Conkling-, (J. P. llowcll, Dr. Sol \'an Ellen, 
C. E. and W. L. Cudckhack, W. H. Nearpass and C. F. Van Inwegen. 
It> collcclion of relics and manuscripts is large and of great value 10 the 
genealogist and historian. Its library numbers more than 1,500 volumes 
of books and pamphlets. Its manuscripts exceed 1,000 in number. With 
tlie facilities offered by its new home in the Carnegie J^ibrary building 
and protection and safety provided by its fireproof vaults, it will in time 
become the repository of all valuable documents and manuscripts in this 


During the summer of 1007 a notable work was accomplished by the 
Machackemech Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, of 
which Mrs. Charles F. \'an Inwegen is the president, in clearing and 
beautifying the grounds of the old historic Machackcmech cemetery on 
East Main street next to the Catholic cemetery. Through long neglect 
the cemetery had tallen into a condition of utter decay and ruin. The 
ground was covered with a dense growth of weeds, briars and under- 
brush,, and the memorial stones, some of them dating back to a period 
anterior to the Revolution, were for the most part so weather beaten and 
mossgrown that their inscription was difficult to decipher, in some cases 
were totally illegible. All this has been changed, and now this hallowed 
ground "Where the rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep" has been re- 
stored to order and beauty and no longer offends by its wild and neglected 


.■\ conspicuous ornament to the public square of the city (Orange 
Square ) is the soldiers' monument, erected in 1886 tlirough the liberahty 
and public spirit of Diana Farnum, wido\v of FI. H. Farnum, whose gift 
of $10,000 defrayed the cost thereof. It commemorates the valor and 
patriotism of the soldiers from Deer Park who took i)art in the great 
struggle for the preservation of the Union in 1S61-5. It was unveiled to 
the jMihlic on July 4, 1886, in the presence of a va^t multitude of spectators. 
L. F. Carr, Esq., of Port Jervis, and General Stewart L. Woodford, of 
Brooklyn, X. Y. were the orators of the occasion. The ceremonies were 
in charge of Carroll Post. G. A. R.. of Port lervis. 



The situation of Port Jervis near the confluence of the Delaware and 
Neversink Rivers exposes its low-lying parts to occasional overflows of 
these streams in times of heavy rainfall and more epecially during- the 
break-up of ice at the end of the winter season. 

The channel of the Delaware at this place is shallow and obstructed by 
rapids and islands against which descending masses of ice become lodged, 
damming back the water and producing what is known as an ice-gorge. 
Sucli an event occurred in the latter part of February, 1875, when the 
channel of the river for several miles in extent was filled with a gigantic 
accumulation of broken ice. For several weeks the village was threat- 
ened v.'hh inundation and various unsuccessful expedients were resorted 
to to start the ice moving. The excitement culminated on j\Iarch 17, 
when the "gorge" gave way, carrying with it the iron railroad bridge 
across the Delaware above Sparrowbush, which in descending the stream 
on top of the moving ice, struck and swept away the E>arrett suspension 
bridge at Port Jervis. For a short time just before the break-up of the 
"gorge" the lower part of the village as far as the Erie tracks was flooded 
with water. 

On October 10, 1903, a ten-inch rainfall in forty hours caused both 
rivers to overflow their banks, submerging the low-lying parts of the 
town. Barrett bridge across the Delaware w^as again carried away, and 
five persons who were on it at the time lost their lives. 

On March 8, 1904, a flood caused by an ice gorge destroyed the iron 
railroad bridge across the Delaware at this place and the suspension 
bridge across the Neversink. The lower section, of the village was sub- 
merged to a depth of three feet and the portion across the Erie tracks to 
a depth of from seven to ten feet. 

This succession of disasters emphasized the necessity for protective 
measures of some kind, and the matter was taken in hand by the village 
Board of Trade, as a result of whose deliberations a bill was presented and 
passed at the ensuing session of the Legislature, appropriating the sum 
of $35,000 for dyking the Delaware at Port Jervis. This money was used 
to excellent purpose and a substantial dyke was built under the direction 
of the State engineer, extending from the upper part of Germantown to 
Barrett bridge. To aftord the needed protection, however, this work 


should be extended dow n ib.e river bank lo Laurel Grove cemetery. Bills 
for the necessary appro])riation have been introduced at the successive 
sessions of the Legislature, but for various reasons have failed to pass. A 
more fortunate issue is expected from the one introduced by Senator 
Taylor at the present session. Another State appropriation of $10,000 
was spent in strengthening- and clearing the channel of the Clove Brook 
at Tri-States and a pumping station has been established at the foot of 
Wagner Place, by means of which accumulated surface water is drained 
off in times of flood. An effort is also being made through Representa- 
tive Thos. W. Bradle\- to secure the aid of the Federal government in 
clearing and deepening the channel of the Delaware and removing ob- 
structions from Storm Island, about a mile below the city. 


Tiie canal of the Delaware & Hudson Company abandoned in 1878. 
Samuel D. Coykendall, of Kingston, purchased the right of way, and sold 
it to the Pennsylvania Coal Company, by whom a coal carrying road from 
the anthracite field to tide water along the old canal route was projected. 
The enterprise was defeated by the purchase by the Erie Railroad Com- 
pany of the stock of the Pennsylvania Coal Company, which carried with 
it ownership and control of the old right of way and blocked threatened 
competition in the carriage of coal to tide water. 


In the spring of 1890 the Erie removed its passenger station from the 
foot of Pike street to the Brown building in Jersey avenue, near its junc- 
tion with Fowler street. This building was remodeled and enlarged and 
made over into one of the finest depots along the line of the Erie road. It 
was destroyed by fire on Christmas night x)f the same year and the pres- 
ent handsome structure erected on its site. 

On Easter Sunday, 1905, the company transferred the headquarters of 
the principal Delaware division official from Port Jervis to Susquehaima. 
This involved the removal of tbirt\- officials and assistants, including the 
superintendent, trainmaster, division engineer, division phmibcr. and 
division carpenter. 



This section will benefit by the good roads movement lately adopted 
by the St?te, and Port Jervis may naturally expect considerable increase 
of trade and perhaps of population from the three State roads now in 
process of construction which converge in this city. One of these begins 
in Middletovvn, passes through Wawayanda and Greenville and comes 
out upon the road leading from Tappentown to Tri States. Another 
starts from Middletown and passes through Otisville and Cuddebackville, 
taking at the last named place the old road pronounced by the State in- 
spector to be one of the finest in the State. A thinl leads from the Sulli- 
van County line at Rio on the west to Port Jervis. 


The year just passed has witnessed the organization of a City Improve- 
ment Association composed of ladies, the object of wbich is sufficiently 
indicated by its name. It has an active corps of officers and members ani- 
mated by a praiseworthy spirit of civic pride. Mrs. Alaria B. Van Etten 
is tlie president. 


Tri-States Rock, situated at the confluence of the Delaware and Never- 
sink Rivers, at which the boundary lines of three States — New York, 
Pennsylvania and New Jerse}' — intersect, is one of the sliow places of 
the town. The rock is at the extreme point of the narrow tongue of land 
Iving between the two rivers and at the mouth of the Neversink. The 
geological formation is rocky and will stand the wear of the floods for 
centuries to come as it has for centuries past. A small monument now 
marks the spot. 

The site of the old Dutch church on the Van Inwegen land directly 
opposite the old Machackemech cemetery on Main street is suggestive 
of historic memories. Plere assembled for worship in the old log "meet- 
ing house" of 1743 the pioneer families of this section. The house was 
burned by Brandt and his savages in the historic raid of July, 1779. 

The Van Etten schoolhouse. from which the teacher, Jeremiah Van 
Auken, was taken out and cruellv murdered in the same raid, was located 


on the old Levi \'an Etten farm, afterwards owned by Mark Van Ellen, 
on tb.e ea^L side ot the Xeversink River about one-fourth of a mile north 
of f'dack Rock cut on the Erie. 

The forts mentioned in the early annals gather about themselves most 
of the tiadilions of Indian attack. In the upper neighborhood there was 
one at the house of Jacob Rutsen DeWitt. This was near Cuddebackville, 
on tlie west side of the NcAcrsink. Another fort was at the Gumaer place, 
now the Godeffroy estate. The old stone building- is still standing and in 
excellent preservation. 

In the accounts of incidents occurring during the old French War, it is 
staled ihat on one occasion the Indians lay in ambush "to take the lower 
fcrt at ]\Ir. Westfall's." This was probably the old stone house at Ger- 
mantown. A local writer says: "The present structure, rebuilt in 1793, 
occupied the site of a fort or blockhouse built anterior to the Revolution 
and occupied as a dwelling and trading post by a family o^" the name of 
llaynes, who carried on a thriving trade with the Indians for many years. 
Captain Westfall, who married one of Mr. Haynes's daughters, lived in 
the house during the Brandt invasion of 1779. He was away on a scouting 
expedition at the time, and a trusty negro buried the valuables and assisted 
tlie escape of the captain's wife to the high liills of the Jersey shore near 
Carpenter's point. 

It is said that Brandt's expedition first attacked "the fort at Major 
Decker's." This was on the old George Cuddeback place on the east side 
of the Neversink River, about three miles from Port Jervis. Another 
fort was near the residence of the late James D. Swartwout. .Still an- 
other is mentioned by Peter E. Gumaer "at the house of Peter Coykendall, 
in the present village of Port Tervis." 




By George F. Gregg. 

NORTHWEST, sixty miles by rail from New York City, sixteen 
miles in an air line west from the Hudson River, lies Goshen, the 
county seat of Orange County, located in the geographical center 
of that civic sub-division. The town derives its name from the Goshen of 
Biblical memory. Almost two centuries ago the first of the settlers came. 
The native beauty of the place appealed to the calm and dauntless spirits 
of these men, who had plunged boldly into a benighted and unknown 
country. They stood upon the wooded hills and looked with glad eyes 
upon the fertile, fruitful valley. All around about them lay the land of 
their desire, and they called it Goshen, the "promised land" of the Scrip- 

The town, which was first known by this name in 1714, was originally 
much larger than at present. Its boundaries were defined by law in 1788. 
A part of Hamptonburgh was taken from it in 1830, and a part of Chester 
in 1845. Other changes of boundaries were made at dift'erent times, as 
recited elsewhere in this article. It has a population to-day in town and 
village slightly in excess of 5,000. 

The section is known for the great fertility of its soil It is in the 
heart of a noted dairying country, and as long ago as Revolutionary 
days Goshen butter was widely famed. Butter making has practically 
ceased now, but the milk production is large. The town is also noted for 
the onions and celery raised on its black dirt meadows, as well as for the 
grass crops grown on its fertile farms. 

The village is located on the main line of the Erie Railroad, and has 
direct connection with New England cities by way of the N. Y.. N. H. 
& H. R. R. It is also the terminus of the Montgomery & Erie, the Goshen 
& Deckertown, and the Lehigh & New England Railroads. It is hand- 
somely laid out with broad, well-kept and well-shaded streets of smooth 
macadam. It has three public school buildings, and Garr Institute, a 
parochial school, conducted under the direction of St. John,'s Church. It 

George F. Gregg. 


has six churches: The First Presbyterian, organized in 1720; St. James's 
Episcopal, dating- back to 1796; St. John the EvangeHst, Roman Cathohc, 
founded in 1820; the Methodist Episcopal, organized in 1847; the A. U. 
M. P. Church, and OHvet Chapel, a Presbyterian colored mission. It has 
two national banks and a savings bank, two newspapers, gas and electric 
lighting companies, a waterworks system, and first-class hotels and clubs. 
Its fire department is made up of three volunteer companies, Cataract 
Engine and Hose, organized in 1843; Dikeman Hose, organized in 1872, 
and Minisink Plook and Ladder, organized in 1906, upon the disbanding 
of Elliott H, and L, which was organized in 1871. Leading to the vil- 
lage from almost every direction are improved roads, maintained under 
State supervision. 

No mention of the town, past or present, would be complete, without 
reference to the trotting-horse industry. It began in 1803, when Imp. 
iMessenger, acknowledged head of the trotting family, stood at Goshen. 
Down through all the years trotting horses were bred and raised there, 
and even in this day and generation the horse interests are chief among 
the interests of the town. In the center of the village is located the 
finest half-mile track in the country and many famous horses are trained 

Every foot of its ground is historic. In the far-gone years red men 
roamed its landscape and predatory beasts lurked in the shadows of its 
primeval timber lands. It was one of the early settlements made on that 
vast tract to which Governor Nicolls referred when he wrote in 1664: 
"The lands which I intend shall be first planted are those upon the west 
bank of Hudson's River." Shortly after the first settlement a bounty 
was placed on wolves and the Governor recommended its payment to the 
House of Lords. Chapter 302 of the laws of 171 5. was an act for the 
destroying of wolves in this section. This act expired July 21. 1717, and 
on October 29, 1742, the General Assembly found it necessary to pass a 
law placing a bounty of a shilling and sixpence on "wolves, whelps anfl 

Noah Webster, of dictionary renown, taught the first academy in 
Goshen. Dewitt Clinton- attended school there, and William H. Seward 
studied law in the ofiice of Judge Duer. The first newspaper of the 
county. The Goshen Repository, was published at Goshen in 1788, by 
David Mandeville. 


In the article which follows, the writer has endeavored to furnish a 
concise history in limited space. As nearly as possible, events are set 
down in chronological order. Much of interest concerning the town that 
is based only upon tradition is left out and the space devoted to his- 
torical facts that can be authenticated and verified by records, maps, 
parchments and the writings of earlier and wiser men. 

The County of Orange dates its existence by legal enactment from 
October i, 1691, in the third year of the reign of King William and Queen 
Mary, and in the administration of Henry Sloughter, Esq., Governor. 
The First Assembly convened the 9th of April that year. On October 
I it passed an act. Chapter 17, entitled "An Act to divide the province 
and dependencies into shires and counties." Section VH of this act pro- 
vided : "The County of Orange to begin from the limits or bounds of 
East and West Jersey, on the west side of Hudson's River, along the 
said river to the Murderer's Creek, or bounds of the County of Ulster ; 
and westward into the woods as far as the Delaware River." 

Chapter 94, which became a law October 18, 1701, added to the lands 
embraced in the county those of "Wagachemeck and Great and Little 

On November 12, 1709, during the administration of Richard In- 
goldsby, Esq., Lieutenant-Governor, the Eighth Assembly passed an act, 
Chapter, 202, "to determine, settle and ascertain the bounds and limits 
of the County of Orange." This act repealed the clause added by Chapter 
94, and fixed the bounds as follows : "That the County of Orange shall 
extend from the limits and confines of the Province of New Jersey on 
the west side of Hudson's River, along the said river to the line of the 
County of Ulster, and westward so far as the Delaware River." 

The county derives its name from the Prince of Orange, who mar- 
ried Mary, and came to the throne in 1689, under the name of King 

Goshen is a part of the tract known as the Wawayanda Patent, ac- 
quired of the red men by John Bridges & Company, on March 5, 1703, 
and confirmed by royal decree of Queen Anne. Twelve Indian sachems 
conveyed the land. They were Rapingonick, Wawastawa, Moghopuck. 
Comelawaw, Nanawitt, Arawinack, Rombout, Glaus, Chouckhass, Ching- 
apaw, Oshasquememus and Quilapaw. The patent was granted April 29. 
There were twelve patentees, namely, John Bridges, LL.D.. Hendrick 


Tenyck. Derrick X'anderbur.^h, ji)lin Choiwcll, Christopher Dciin, Lan- 
caster Syms, Daniel Herran. PhiHp Rockeby, John iMeredith, Benjamin 
Aske, I'eter Matthews, anJ Christian Christianse. The grant was sup- 
posed to contain 60,000 acres, but surveys later showed that it contained 
nearly 160,000. These twelve patentees held the land in common until 
1706. when it was divided into twelve parts. Only eight of the original 
shareholders retained their interests at that time, Bridges having died in 
1704. and others having transferred their holdings. 

The tract was unoccupied until 1712, when Christopher Denn made 
settlement upon it, to be followed shortly by Benjamin Aske; Daniel 
Cromline, who became a shareholder in 1704; Christian Snedeker, of 
Long Island ; Samuel Staats, who came into record as a thirteenth 
shareholder in 1713; and John Everett and Samuel Clowes, who in 1714, 
acquired a tract equal to four of the thirteen shares. The township of 
Goshen came that year, and the precinct of Goshen, comprising the out- 
lying settlements came later, and remained until 1788 when the town- 
ship was expanded to take its place. 

In 1 712, Christopher Denn, a carpenter by trade and resident of Xew 
York City, ])aid a visit to the patent and determined to make a settlement 
upon it. He and his wife, Elizabeth, were childless, but had adopted 
an orphan girl, Sarah Wells. 

Denn selected a spot along the Olterkill, as it is now known, alwut two 
miles or more from the present village. He returned to Xew York, 
equipped an expedition, which he sent up the Hudson River in charge of 
his adopted daughter, accompanied by two white men and some Indians 
whom he had taken to Xew York when returning from his first visit. A 
raft was used for the voyage and a landing safely made near Cornwall. 
The journey to the spot selected by Denn was through a trackless forest, 
but was made without mishap and a rough cabin was built. After the 
starting of the expedition Denn was remorseful because he sent the girl 
into unknown dangers, and within a short time he started for the new 
settlement, with his wife. The journey was made on horseback. They 
arrived safely and took up permanent residence there. 

It appears from an old map that Denn's share of the patent was a 
triangular tract, containing about 2,000 acres. The presence of this 
family soon brought other settlers and the woodman's axe resounded 
far and near. The merciless push of immigration began and the native 


red men were driven further into the wilderness. In the course of a few 
years Sarah Wells became the wife of William Bull, of Wolverhampton, 
England, who came to this country and was employed by Daniel Crom- 
line in 1716 to build the masonry of a dwelling', later known to fame for 
nearly a century as the Greycourt House. History records this as the 
first marriage within the limits of the town of Goshen. 

The lands in the vicinity of the present village were settled to some 
extent soon after Denn's arrival. There were on record deeds showing 
the conveyance of lots in the village in 1714. On July 10, 1721, a deed 
in trust was made to John Yelverton by John Everett, John Carpenter, 
John Gale, William Ludlum, Nathaniel Higby, John Carpenter, Jr., G. 
McNish, James Sandys, Thomas Watson, Hope Rodes, John Holly, James 
Jackson, Isaac Finch, Solomon Carpenter, John Beers, Michael Dunning, 
Samuel Seely, John Nichols, William Jackson, Alexander Moore, John 
Knapp, Samuel Webb, John Alsop and Richard Halsted, setting forth that 
a conveyance had been ''lately" made to John Everett and Samuel Clowes, 
giving them one-sixth part of all the lands for the purpose of laying out 
a township, establishing a church and settling a minister. 

The Goshen Presbyterian Church was organized in 1720, and Rev. John 
Bradner, to whom more extended reference is made later in this article, 
became its pastor in 1721. Two hundred acres of land were deeded to 
him on April 17, 1722, and recorded at the request of his widow on April 
8, 1742. In 1724 the erection of a house of worship was begun on the 
spot where now stands the court house. The first court was convened 
in Goshen in 1727, and on December 16, of that year an act was passed 
providing for the building of a court house and jail, which were erected 
and completed in 1740, on the site of the present Orange Hotel. On 
October 24, 1754, the General Assembly appropriated 100 pounds for an 
addition to it, and in 1775 it was demolished and a new one built at a 
point where now stands the county clerk's office. The arms of King 
George HI were placed upon its front, but were torn down by indignant 

A schoolhouse was built in 1801 on the church plot, the same spot 
where the public school building on Greenwich street now stands. Here 
Noah Webster taught for a time before he published his first dictionary 
in 1806. 

Goshen, after its original settlement, soon became the most important 




and populous district of the county, and a clii'~u> laken in 1738 showed a 
total of 319 males above the age of ten. These were stirring times for 
the people and most of the affairs were of a warlike nature. There was 
frequent trouble with the Indians. The frontier was only four miles 
away. Block houses were built at Dolsontown and Scotchtown, and tra- 
dition has it that a block house once stood back of the present race course 
on the property known to-day as the Parkway Farm. In those days the 
settlers west of the Wallkill made Goshen their rendezvous when Indian 
raids were feared. 

In the reign of George II, when Hon. George Clinton was Governor, 
the General Assembly passed an act to enable the inhabitants of Goshen 
in the County of Orange to elect two additional constables. This act ex- 
plaineil that the inhabitants of the Precinct of Goshen had liberty to elect 
only one constable and as the precinct had considerably increased in num- 
bers of inhabitants and settlements, it was necesssary that an increased 
number be elected. The act was passed December 17, 1743, and provided 
that one of the constables "be elected and chosen from and out of such of 
the inhabitants as have habitations in the south part of Goshen, commonly 
called Wawayanda. and the other from and out of such of the inhabitants 
as have habitations northward near the meeting house, commonly called 
the ^^'ater-Side Meeting House. 

On September 21. 1744, the General Assembly passed an act to author- 
ize justices of the peace in the counties of Dutchess and Orange to "'direct 
so many constables and overseers of the highways to be chosen, in the sev- 
eral precincts as to them shall seem meet." On the same day an act was 
passed for the relief of the poor in the counties of Orange and Sufifolk. 

Covenant Chain Treaty. 

During these years the settlers had as allies two tribes of Indians, some- 
times known as the Cashigton Indians, whose principal lodges were lo- 
cated near where now stands the village of Cochecton in Sullivan County, 
They formed a part of the Lenni Lenape, or Delaware Confederacy, once 
powerful, but at that time reduced in numbers. From time immemorial 
Western Orange had been their hunting ground, but late in the year 1744 
they showed signs of distrust and retired to their lodges on the upper 
Delaware. Tlie colonists were loath to lose these faithful allies, for their 


withdrawal left the outlying settlements on the frontiers exposed to attack 
of hostile savages, incited to rapine and murder by the French. 

The attention of the Colonial Government was called to this matter and 
Colonel DeKay was ordered to take a party and visit the Indians in the 
hope that friendly relations might be restored and the redmen induced to 
return to their old hunting grounds. As a result of this visit the Indian 
Treaty of Orange County was enacted and the ceremony of the Covenant 
Chain performed at Goshen. Colonel Thomas DeKay took wdth him, 
upon this expedition, Major Swartout, Ensign Coleman, Adam Weisner, 
who acted as interpreter, Benjamin Thompson, and two Minisink Indians 
as guides. The pilgrimage was made in the depth of winter. The Indians 
were found and agreed to come back, claiming that they left because they 
were afraid of the people of Orange County, who were always under 
arms. When it was explained that this was by order of the Governor and 
for protection against the French and their allies, the Indians rejoiced. 
They explained that they were of two tribes, using for totems the signs of 
TVEinsi, or Wolf, and Uralachtgo, or Turkey, and that their sachem had 
recently died. They were about to choose a new sachem to govern all, and 
they promised that when he had been chosen they would send representa- 
tives to make a treaty. New Year's Day was fixed upon as the date. 

On January 3, 1745, two days late, the Wolves and Turkeys, a dozen 
of the head men in all, led by the new sachem, came into the village of 
Goshen and marched in savage bravery up its maui street. Just where 
the ceremony took place is unknown, but the old manuscript record says 
that the weather was severe, and it is probable that the meeting was held 
in the rude court house. The Indians by their spokesman explained 
that they had brought a Belt of Wampum that friendship and brother- 
hood might be restored. They asked that some one be appointed to enact 
with them the ceremony of the Covenant Chain. 

Colonel DeKay informed them that the Governor alone had power to 
make such an appointment and that as there was not time to communicate 
with him. it would be best for the Indians to select a man. They chose the 
colonel and he was then chained to them for an hour or more as a token 
of their being united again in the bonds of friendship. Speeches were 
made by the Indians and they solemnly pledged themselves to be true "as 
long as the sun and moon endured," and promised to send in runners at 
once if they learned of any plot? against the English. They also agreed 

James Edward Wells. 


to join in fighting the enemy and asked that aid be given them in case of 
attack by the French. This was freely promised and while the Colonel 
was still chained to the Indians they gave him the Belt of Wampum to 
be sent to the Governor. The Indians, according to the record, 'again 
rejoiced with three huzzas and departed very much pleased." The Belt 
of Wampum, so states the books of the Lords of Trade and Plantations 
in London, was taken to the Colonial Council in New York by Colonel 
DeKay a fortnight later and delivered to the Council, which in turn 
sent it to the Governor, who recommended that one be given in return 
to the Indians. This was the only occasion on record when the ceremony 
of the Covenant Chain was enacted in Orange County. 

On April 18, 1748, an act was passed by the General Assembly providing 
that "for the time to come, all elections of representatives of the County 
of Orange to serve in the present or any future General Assembly shall 
begin and be first opened at the court house in Orange Town, or at the 
court house or some other convenient place in the town of Goshen." 

About this time settlers who had dealings with the sheriff began to 
find considerable fault with the manner in which mileage charges were 
computed. On April 8, 1748, an act was passed providing that for all 
writs and process papers served on inhabitants on the north side of the 
mountain range called the Highlands, mileage should be computed by the 
sheriff from the court house in Goshen, and for all papers served on 
the south side from the court house in Orange Town. The preamble 
to this act fully explained the situation. It stated : "Whereas the County 
of Orange is very extensive in length, and by reason of a ridge of moun- 
tains across the same, and for the better accommodation of inhabitants, 
it was found necessary to have two court houses, the one at Goshen on 
the north, and the other at Orange Town on the south thereof; yet by the 
sheriff' having his residence sometimes at the one and sometimes at the 
other extreme of the said county, the computation of his fees for mileage 
in the service of writs hath hitherto been made from the place of the 
sherift"s abode, which has been found to be very inconvenient and burden- 
some to the parties concerned." 

Military M.\tters. 

When the French and Indian War began in 1756 the men of Goshen 
were continually under arms. The old Journal of the Assembly relates 


the services of Captain George DeKay as express between Goshen and 
Minisink. It mentions as his guards Peter Carter, David Benjamin, 
Philip Reid and Francis Armstrong. It tells also of the payment of 
nearly lOO pounds to Colonel Vincent Mathews for furnishing guides to 
regulars posted at Goshen from October, 1757, to February, 1758, and 
refers to the work of Colonels Clinton and DeKay in laying out block 
houses for the settlers' defense. Mention is also made of the payment 
of 56 pounds to Samuel Gale for provisions furnished troops on the 
frontiers near Goshen; and of reimbursing Colonel Benj. Tusten, Captain 
Daniel Case and Captain J. Bull for money advanced in building block 
houses Nos. i and 2 on the western frontier in January, 1757. 

In 1763, Lieutenant-Governor Cadwallader Golden appealed to the 
General Assembly for troops to relieve the militia on the borders of Or- 
ange and Ulster which were infested by the enemy. At this time the 
town of Goshen extended from the Hudson to New Jersey. In 1764 a bill 
was passed dividing the precinct of Goshen into two precincts, to be called 
Goshen and Cornwall. After this division Cornwall embraced the present 
towns of Cornwall, Monroe and Blooming Grove, while Goshen included 
the present town of Warwick. 

During the years prior to the Revolution when the colonists were 
growing desperate under the exactions of King George, patriotism and 
valor were manifested to a marked degree in Goshen. On June 8, 1775, 
over 360 men signed the Revolutionary pledge at Goshen and the name 
of Henry Wisner headed the list. The Reverend Nathan Ker, an ardent 
patriot, and the fourth pastor of the Goshen Presbyterian Church, who 
came to Goshen in the fall of 1766, and remained until his death, Decem- 
ber 14, 1804, on one occasion is said to have dismissed his congregation in 
the midst of a Sunday service to prepare food for a troop of horse that 
had halted on the way to Philadelphia. Once General George Washington, 
riding eastward on the Florida road towards his headquarters at New- 
burgh, stopped with his staff to chat awhile with the children at the old 
school house near the stone quarry. 


Many of the old families of Goshen to-day are descendants of the 
patriots who fought in the colonial service and whose names appear on 

J^. -^ 

-TiiZ,, -2,^' 


the roster of the Goshen regiment at the battles of Long Island and White 
Plains, at the struggle in the Highlands, and the capture of I'ort Mont- 
gomery, as well as in the memorable slaughter of Minisink. 

The highway between Goshen and Florida, over whicli Washington 
rode, is a historic thoroughfare and in Revolutionary days was lined 
with the homes of famous men. Goshen was then the stronghold of the 
Whigs. In a stone house nearly opposite the present Sayer homestead, 
lived jMoses Hatfield, a captain, afterwards a major, in the Goshen regi- 
ment, who was taken prisoner at a night assault on what is now Randall's 
Island, on September 23, 1776, and was kept a captive until 1778. 

A little further along the way lived Henry Wisner, the elder. He 
and his son of the same name were makers of powder for the Continental 
Arniv at Phillipsburg, between the highway as it now stands and the 
grist mill near by. Traces of the old raceway and mill can si ill be seen. 
Another on the opposite side of the stream, and one at Craigville, oper- 
ated in conjunction with John Carpenter, were also erected by Henry 
Wisner. The Sons of the Revolution arranged some years ago to mark 
the site of the Phillipsburg powder mill by an historical tablet. 

Henry Wisner stood foremost among those who advocated the inde- 
pendence of the colonies. He represented Orange County in the Con- 
tmental Congress which declared that "these States are, and of right 
ought to be, free." His son Gabriel, hardly past his majority, was 
slain in the slaughter of Minisink. On the i6th of August, 1774. Henry 
Wisner was chosen as one of the delegates to represent Orange County 
in the Continental Congress held in Philadelphia in September of that 
year. The election was by the committee of the county held at the house 
of Stephen Slot and the purpose was for the delegate to attend at 
Philadelphia ''to consult on proper measures to be taken for procuring 
the redress of our grievances." 

A question was raised as to the regularity of this election and a meeting 
of the inhabitants of the precincts of Goshen and Cornwall was held at 
Chester on September 3, 1774, at which Henry Wisner was chosen to go 
to Philadelphia "in order to meet the rest of the delegates and consult on 
proper measures to be taken with respect to the claims made by the 
British Parliament of taxing America in all cases whatsoever." 

William Wickham was a prominent citizen of Goshen, and his attitude 
was one of extreme lovaltv to the crown. With other adherents of the 


king he attempted to set aside the election of Wisner. The correspon- 
dence, which still exists, shows that political feeling was very bitter. The 
scheme came to naught and Wisner took his seat. In April,. 1776, he was 
elected by a convention held at New York City, as a delegate to the 
Second Continental Congress in which he took part, leaving it for the 
purpose of manufacturing powder for Washington's tattered army. 

Mr. Wisner's signature may still be found in the list at Carpenter's 
Hall in Philadelphia. He continued in Congress until the memorable 2nd 
of July, 1776, when the "Resolution of Independency" was passed. He 
was heartily in favor of the measure and remained for the purpose of 
casting his vote for its final passage, had the Provincial Congress of New 
York given such instructions to its delegates. Tradition affirms that he 
actually did vote for the "independenc}-" that day. He was not present to 
sign the Declaration. He had proposed in Congress " a method for the 
manufacture of saltpetre and gunpowder" which had been approved, and 
in agreement with which he was requested or appointed to build works 
and prepare powder for the "Army of the North." To do this he left 
Philadelphia on the third of July and applied himself to the making of 
powder. For three years, and until his mill was burned and his fortune 
exhausted, he continued to supply powder to the American forts and thus 
beyond any man in the Continental Congress of 1776 contributed to his 
country's triumph. 

On the square at St. James' Place in the village of Goshen stands a 
monument of native Pochuck granite erected to the memory of Henry 
Wisner by his great granddaughter, Mrs. Frances Wisner Murray, widow 
of Ambrose Spencer Murray, of Goshen. The monument was dedicated 
on July 22, 1897, by Dr. John H. Thompson, who presided and Harrison 
W. Nenny, Esq., who made the dedicatory address. 

Adjoining the residence of Henry Wisner, and separated from it by 
what is now known as Steward's lane, was the home of John Steward, 
an ardent patriot. He was one of two brothers, John and Walter 
Stewart, or Steward, the name having been spelled both ways, who came 
from Ireland to New England about 1740. Walter settled in Rhode 
Island, where he started a snuff-mill and became the father of Gilbert 
Stuart, the noted portrait painter, whose unfinished picture of Washing- 
ton is the likeness that the world knows best to-day. Gilbert after reach- 
ing manhood, wrote his name Stuart, because by reason of the fact that 


( «. 


his ancestry was by tradition connected with the Jacobite cause, he had a 
great admiration for '"IJonny Prince CharHe." 

The tradition was that, at the time of one of the early Jacobite ri>ings, 
a nur^e in charge of two yoiuig children appeared in IJeifast, Ireland. 
They came from Scotland and the woman immediately on arriving fell 
ill of small-pox and died refusing to tell an\ thing about the children 
except that their names were John and Walter Stewart, and that they 
w^ere the sons of a man of rank who would soon come for them. She had 
with her no money but some fine jewels, no one ever came to claim the 
children, but as it is recorded in history that some Jacobite families are 
known to have been exterminated in their bloody and unfortunate battles, 
this may have been the fate of the relatives of these boys, too \oung to 
tell anything about themselves. They were brought up by a man, appointed 
their guardian. He treated them harshly and as soon as grown they left 
him and came to try their fortune in a new land. John first acquired 
some property in Boston, which he left in his will to his son Xathan, but 
soon came to Goshen anil settled there, buying in 1744 eighty acres of 
land, "and the houses thereon" from William Jayne. From this it appears 
that the Steward house may have been erected previous to 1744, but 
"houses thereon" may have been a mere legal term, and the house was 
probably built by John Steward. It is certain, however, that it has been 
standing since 1744. He bought more land, about 120 acres in all, at a later 
date. To farming John Steward joined the occupation of blacksmith, 
erecting a little to the left of his house a forge, which was in operation 
as early as 1758, the family having still in their possession, a deed of sale 
bearing that date of a slave named Tite. warranted to be a goofl black- 
smith. Later at this forge, John Steward II, during the Revolutionary 
war made sabres and bayonets for the Continental Army. 

John Stew-ard I, married Elizabeth Bradner, the daughter of Rev. John 
Bradner, first settled clergyman in Goshen. As John Bradner was the 
father of nine children, viz., Calvin, John, Benoni, Gilbert, Susanna, Mary, 
Sarah, Christian and Elizabeth, and to him many families in Orange 
County trace their descent, the following may be thought worthy of 
record. When a young divinity student in Edinburgh. Scotland, John 
Bradner was employed by a gentleman callcfl Colvill, a Huguenot refugee, 
as a tutor to his sons. His daughter Christiana shared her brothers' 
studies and she and the tutor fell in love with each other, but Colvill 


thought the tutor no match for his daughter, and told her if she married 
him he would never speak to her again. She put love before duty and 
having married John Bradner they sailed for America. The voyage oc- 
cupied six months. Violent storms in which the ship nearly foundered 
were encountered. These Mrs. Bradner thought were sent by Heaven 
to punish her for her disregard of her father's wishes. Rev. John Brad- 
ner received the degree M.A. from the University of Edinburgh, February 
23rd, 1712, was licensed to preach March, 1714, ordained May 6, 171 5, 
pastor of Cold Spring Presbyterian Church, Cape May, N. J., before 
being called to the church in Goshen, 1721. He died 1732. His widow 
died 1759. She was well educated in the classics and assisted in pre- 
paring her son; Rev. Benoni, for Princeton College. He graduated 1755, 
was settled in Jamaica, L. I., 1760, and two years after was called to 
Church Nine Partners, Dutchess County. There is now in the possession 
of Mrs. M. H. C. Gardner, of IMiddletown, a piece of a quilt brought 
from Scotland by Mrs. John Bradner. The colors of the design,' birds, 
fruit and flowers, are as bright as though it was new. John Steward I 
had eight children and their mother used to relate with pride that never 
once during their infancy or childhood was she obliged by reason of the 
illness of one of them to strike a light during the night. John Steward 
I died in 1770, of a fever then epidemic. In his will he left to his widow, 
as long- as she remained his widow, the use of the best room and the 
"salon" room. The small adjoining room, now a store closet, was her 
prayer closet, where she used to retire to pray, as was the good custom of 
those times. 

Her eldest son, John Steward H, although holding no commission in 
the Continental Army was an ardent patriot, mention being made in 
Rivingt oil's Nciv York Gasefte, the Tory organ, that "rebellion in Orange 
County was continually fomented by those two firebrands, Squire Steward 
and Old Wisner, the latter being Henry Wisner, member of the Conti- 
nental Congress and John Steward's friend and neighbor. 

John Steward H, who was thirty years younger than Henry Wisner, 
was a justice of the peace, and a number of Hessian prisoners passing 
southward through Goshen, probably after the battle of Saratoga, were 
quartered over night at his house. The common soldiers slept in the barn, 
but the ofificers, of whom there were several, were accommodated in the 
house and on lea vine the next mornine told Mrs. Ste^^ ard that the coffee 

General Alfred Neafie. 


made b}- her black cook \\a> the best they had tasted since leaving Ger- 

Jn a house that stood about lOO feel east of the present residence of 
Campbell Steward, Esq., lived General Reuben Hopkins, whose son, Hani- 
bal, married Elizabeth Steward, daughter of John Steward H. General 
Hopkins's portrait and his appointment as attorney-at-law dated 1771 and 
signed by Lord Dunmore, now hang on the walls of the Steward house, 
which contains other objects of interest, among which may be mentioned 
an original broadside of the Declaration of Independence addressed to 
John Steward, Esq., his commission as Major No. i of the regiment of 
militia in the County of Orange, signed by Geo. Clinton in 1798, and a 
bag of old counterfeit silver Spanish dollars. A band of counter- 
feiters was arrested in Orange County about the time of the Revolution 
and they were tried at Goshen, their judges, among whom was Judge 
Steward, keeping some of the coins as curiosities. In the house can also be 
seen' a small stone hammer presented to the wife of John Steward I, as a 
token of friendship by a member of a band of Indians who, at the tiine 
Steward settled in Goshen, and for some years after, lived in a hickory 
grove at the rear of his house. His family always made a point of main- 
taining friendly relations with their savage neighbors, and were never 
troubled by them, although once during the r>ench and Indian War on an 
alarm being given that Indians on the war path were approaching Goshen, 
the family fled to the cedar swamp. It is said that on leaving they looked 
back for what they feared might be a last look at their I'ouse. but the 
alarm proved a false one. Goshen was spared an Indian massacre and 
they returned to find their house still standing. The main body of the 
house, with some minor alterations, is the same to-day as it was in those 
old Indian days, its cedar shingles, oak beams and large stone chimneys 
seeming still sound and strong. The house being too small for modern 
requirements, two wings have been added at different times and the chim- 
ney tops rebuilt, but care has been taken to preserve as far as possible 
every antique feature of the house in its original condition. 

During Revolutionary days the inhabitants of Orange County were 
terrorized by the depredations of Claudius Smith, a notorious outlaw, and 
his gang of ruffians, who were known as cowboys. Smith was indicted 
on three charges, one of which was the murder of Major Strong. Re- 
wards were offered by Governor Clinton, and Smith was taken captive at 


Smithtown, L. I., by Alajor Brush. He was given into the custody of Col- 
onel Isaac Nichol, sheriff of Orange County, and on January 22, 1779, was 
publicly executed at the west corner of church park in Goshen, with 
two other criminals, De La Alar, a burglar, and Gordon, a horse thief. 
On the gallows near the same spot forty years later two others were pub- 
licly put to death for murder. 


On July 22, 1779, occurred the battle of Minisink, in which the Goshen 
regiment, under Colonel Tusten, met almost complete annihilation at the 
hands of nearly 500 Indians and Tories under Joseph Brant, the half- 
breed chieftain, who was known as Thayendanegea, the Scourge, and 
held a colonel's commission from George III. The Goshen regiment 
marched against Brant's forces to avenge a raid made by Brant upon the 
settlers near Minisink on the 20th of the month. They were joined by a 
small reinforcement, under Colonel Hathorn, of the Warwick regiment, 
and the latter assumed command. While marching along the west bank of 
the Delaware at nine o'clock on the morning of July 22, the Indians were 
discovered about three-quarters of a mile away and Colonel Hathorn has- 
tened his command in pursuit. Brant, taking advantage of intervening 
woods and hills made a detour which enabled him to gain the rear of the 
attacking party, and in the battle which followed the savages completely 
routed the small force that opposed them. The colonists had little ammu- 
nition and this was soon exhausted. A part of them fled, and more were 
killed in flight than in battle. Colonel Tusten, who was a skilful surgeon, 
dressed the wounds of his men, and refused to abandon them, staying on 
the field until he fell. Of the eighty men in the engagement, 44 were 
killed outright and others died later of their wounds. 

Colonel Benjamin Tusten, who was a physician and surgeon by profes- 
sion, came originally from Southold, L. I., in 1746, at the age of three 
years. His parents located on the banks of the Otterkill on the patent 
granted to Elizabeth Denn. His father, Benjamin Tusten, was appointed 
one of the judges of the courts of the county and also a colonel in the 
Orange County regiment of militia. The son, Benjamin, was sent to an 
academy at Jamaica, L. I., and at the age of nineteen returned to Goshen 
and studied medicine with Doctor Thomas Wiskham. He afterwards 

^yrC^^»!Ui^^, /^.(J^cJ^^/a^ 


studied in Newark, N. ]., and New York City, returning in 1769 to prac- 
tice medicine in Goshen, where two other physicians, Doctor John Gale 
and Doctor Pierson, had ah'cady located. He was very successful and was 
widely known as a surgeon. He married Miss Brown, by whom he had 
two sons and three daughters. In 1777 he was appointed lieutenant 
colonel of the Goshen regiment of militia under General Allison, and in 
1778 was appointed surrogate of Orange Count)-, which office he hel<l 
when he lost his life at Alinisink. 

Captain John Wood, of Colonel Tuslen's regiment, was captured in the 
battle of Minisink, his life being spared by Brant, who in the thick of the 
battle, thought he saw Wood give a masonic sign. Wood was taken cap- 
tive and transported to Canada. He left a journal of events followinsi 
the battle wliich throws considerable light on the life and cliaractcr of 

On July 22, 1822, by the influence of Dr. David R. Arnt-ll. of Goshen, 
a monument was erected in the village to the memory of the men who fell 
at Minisink. It was set up over the bones of the patriots which had been 
gathered from the battlefield forty-three years after the massacre. On 
July 22. 1862. a more pretentious monument was dedicated and unveiled, 
provision for the cost of the same having been made in the will of Dr. 
]\Ierritt H. Cash, of ]\Iinisink. 

Goshen village was originally laid out in four lots of eighty acres each. 
Its original boundaries are not definitely known, as a disastrous fire in 1843 
destroyed the town clerk's office, burning up the map of the town and 
village lots, together with deeds dating from 1714. After these records 
had been destroyed a new charter was grameil on April 18. 1843. fixing 
the boundaries of the village, which remained under this charter until 
1878. when it was abandoned and the village reorganized under the gen- 
eral act. Goshen was incorporated a town on ]\Iarch 28, 1809. 

At one time Orange County embraced nearly all the southern part of 
New York, bordering on the Hudson River. Courts were then held at 
Orange Town, now in Rockland County. In 1827 they were removed to 
Goshen. In 1839 the board of supervisors made application to the 
Legislature to erect a new court house at Goshen. There was consider- 
able opposition from the southern end of the county, which was anxious 
to secure increased judicial conveniences. As a result, the Legislature 
eflfected a compromise, making Goshen and Newburgh joint capitals, and 


in April, 1841, passed an act authorizing the building- of a court house 
and jail at Goshen and a court house and cells at Newburgh. 


■ On July I, 1862, President Lincoln issued a call for 300,000 volunteers, 
and Governor Morgan appointed a military committee for Orange 
County. Hon. Ambrose S. Murray was the Goshen member. As a 
result of this call the 124th Regiment, afterwards famed as the '"Orange 
Blossoms" was organized. During the period of organization it was en- 
camped at Goshen, where Murray avenue is now located. Enlistments 
came rapidly and by August 2.'i^ it was ready for the field. 

The military committee recommended A. Van Home Ellis, of New 
Windsor, for colonel of the regiment and he accepted the commission. 
Henry S. Murray was made captain of Co. B, which was composed of 
Goshen men. On August 26, 1862, the regiment was presented with a 
stand of colors by the women of Orange County. Hon. Charles H. 
Winfield made the presentation speech. Afterwards, on behalf of the 
women of Wawayanda, Miss Charlotte E. Coulter presented the regiment 
with a pair of embroidered silk guidons. 

On- Friday, September 5, the regiment was mustered in and on the 
following day departed for the front. It fought in many engagements 
from Manassas Gap to Lee's surrender at Appomatox, and was dis- 
banded at Washington's headquarters in Newburgh, June 16, 1865, leav- 
ing a record of 208 service dead and 609 casualties in action. 

When the Civil War was at its height and drafts were necessary to 
supply the depleted ranks of the L'uion Army, one interesting incident 
took place at Goshen. The provost marshal general had ordered a draft 
for the Eleventh District, comprising the counties of Orange and Sulli- 
van, calling for 1,932 men, with 50% added, making a total of 2,898. This 
draft was to begin at Goshen on Wednesday morning, October 7, 1863. 
Trouble was feared by certain of the leading citizens, and they asked 
that troops be sent to the village to prevent rioting. Accordingly on 
Tuesday evening, October 6, the Fifth Wisconsin Volunteers, imder 
Colonel Allen, arrived in town. The regiment, which originally numbered 
1,300, had been reduced by hard service to 450 men. They made their 
camp on the elevation which is now Prospect avenue, and during the 

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night, trained their cannon to cover the points where crowds would 
gather in case of rioting. The drawing began on Wednesday and lasted 
until Saturtlay and there was no serious disorder. The names were 
(.Irawn from the wheel by Gabriel Coleman, an aged blind man of the 
village. Orange County's quota was 2,131, and Sullivan's 767. Goshen 
furnished 62, of whom three were colored men. 

A table of military statistics compiled just before the close of the 
war showed that Goshen had furnished men as follows at the Govern- 
ment's call: 30 men in 1861 ; 113 men in 1862; 104 men in 1S63; 51 men 
in 1864. 

On Thursday, September 5, 1907, there was dedicated at Goshen a 
monument to the service dead of the 124th Regiment. The monument, 
which weighs nineteen tons, is a bronze figure, "The Standard Bearer," 
designed by Theo. Alice Ruggles Kitson, a noted sculptress. The figure, 
eighteen feet in height, stands upon a pedestal of Stony Creek granite, 
fourteen feet high. The monument was presented to the people of 
Orange County by Hon. Thomas W. Bradley, of Walden, N. Y., Mem- 
ber of Congress from the Twentieth New York District, in memory of 
his comrades who died in the service of their country. Mr. Bradley en- 
listed as a private in the "Orange Blossoms," was promoted to captain, 
and breveted major for meritorious service, and was awarded the Con- 
gressional Medal of Honor for gallantry at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863, 
when he volunteered in response to a call, and alone, in the face of a 
heavy fire of musketry and canister, went across the field of battle and 
procured ammunition for his comrades. 

The presentation was made by Colonel Charles H. Weygant. who com- 
manded the regiment after the commander, Colonel F. M. Cummins, fell 
wounded. It was accepted for the people by Mr. John J. E. Harrison, 
chairman of the board of supervisors, a veteran of Co. B, 56th Regiment, 
U. S. v., w^ho was wounded at Devon's Neck, S. C. December 7, 1864, 
and who rendered before and after that time valiant service in the 
Union's cause. It was accepted also by Captain Robert B. Hock, who 
was the village president, and was then serving his eighteenth consecutive 
term in that office. He also had been a soldier with a long and honorable 
record. He enlisted in the regular army as a bugler, some years before 
the war. and was assigned to the Tenth L'. S. Infantry, and sent to Fort 
Snelling. Minn. He took i)art in many expeditions against the Mormons, 


under General Albert Sidney Johnson, afterwards the confederate general 
killed at Shiloh. Mr. Hock was later sent to the scene of the Alount 
Meadow massacre and fought in the battle of Ash Hollow under General 
Hardy. In i860 he was a pony exj^ress rider when Denver was only a 
tented village. After Fort Sumter was fired on, his old commander Gen- 
eral Tracy, asked him to drill recruits at Staten Island. He did this and 
later performed the same service at Washington. In 1861 he was commis- 
sioned lieutenant of Co. E, 12th New York Cavalry, and in 1863 was 
made captain of Co. F. He was on the Burnside expedition, at Ball's 
Bluff and in the second battle of Bull Run. On April 17, 1864, he was 
taken prisoner at Plymouth, N. C. and confined for three weeks in Ander- 
sonville, four months at Macon, one month at Savannah, and one month 
at Charleston. With six brother officers he escaped from prison at Col- 
umbia, S. C, and was tracked by bloodhounds. All the others were 
recaptured, but he, after suffering terribly by privation and exposure, 
reached the Union lines and was cared for by the Third Tennessee, until 
able to report to General Dix in New York. In 1865 in a skirmish with 
General Bragg's troops his horse was shot from under him, and he was 
caught by Bragg's men and sent to Danville, Va. He made a break for 
liberty and escaped to the brush, rejoining the Union forces just before 
Lee's surrender. At Bentonville, in a cavalry charge, his horse was killed 
and he was thrown among the rebel infantry and captured. The same 
night he escaped, covering himself with dead leaves, and reporting at his 
company headquarters in the morning. His comrade in rebel prisons. 
Lieutenant A. Cooper, dedicated a book of his experiences to Captain 

Charles E. Stickney, 




By Charles E. Stickxev. 

THE number of acres of laml in the town assessed in 1865, was 
18,287, at a valuation of $385,600. Personal property $49,850. 
The number of acres assessed in 1907 is 17,829 at a valuation of 
$269,485. Personal property, $19,850. A loss in 42 years of 458 acres 
of land, $116,115 in assessed valuation of real estate, and of $30,000 
assessed personal property. The town expenses (town audits i were 
$619.37, besides $807 for roads and bridges. 

In 1855 the town had a population of 1,218. Ten years later it had a 
population of 1,147; ^vhile in 1905 it had only 672 inhabitants, a loss of 
nearly half compared with its first-named census. 

The name was undoubtedly suggested by the beautiful green summer 
verdure the eastern part of the town exhibits, lying to the sun on the 
eastern declivity of Shawangunk mountain. 

Its boundaries are : Beginning at the corner of the town of Wawayanda 
line with that of Mount Hope, thence almost due west along the Mount 
Hope line to that of the town of Deer Park; thence along the Deer 
Park town line southwest to the New Jersey State line ; thence easterly 
along the said State line to the corner of the Mini sink town line ; thence 
northeasterly along the ]\Iinisink town line to a point on Castle High 
Hill near South Centerville ; thence northwesterly along the town of 
Waw-ayanda town line to a corner; thence northeasterly by north along 
the said line to the place of beginning. 

The first town meeting was held at the house of Jonathan Wood, in 
Bushville, March 28th, 1854. Bushville then was a village of some impor- 
tance, but since the near advent of railroads its trade has gone to other 


The oldest village in the town is no doubt the 'settlement at Smith's 
Corners. It was situated on the road which leails alone the eastern slope 


of the Shawangunk mountain from Coleville, N. J., to Ocisville, and in 
early times was a place of some business. Elijah Smith was its founder 
about the close of the Revolution. Joseph Smith, justice of the peace 
(see Minisink civil list), in 1813 was a noted man in his day. After the 
Goshen and Minisink turnpike road was built, and later when (about 
1820) a mail route was established through there, the post-office was lo- 
lated at a store which stood where the village of Greenville now is. The 
post-office was named Minisink, because there was somewhere in the State 
a post-office already known as Greenville, and this was the nearest post- 
office to the real Minisink west of the mountain. Two churches, a store 
and a hotel are located there. The village of Smith's Corner has this 
year of 1907 been made convenient to travel on account of the new 
macadam road just built throughout it from Slate Hill to Carpenter's 

Lake Maretange, upon which one of the great land patents (Evans) 
cornered in Colonial days, is now known as Binnewater Pond. It covers 
about twenty acres of land, and is now so filled with aquatic growths and 
mud that it has less than half of its original extent. It was once reported 
to be of great depth. It in early times was famous for its excellent 
fishing. Its original name was undoubtedly an Indian one. The name 
Binnewater is a corruption of the German Beninwasser (Inland water). 
Boudinot creek is its outlet. 

The great swamps which once stretched north and east of Smith's 
Corners were known to early records as "Pakadasink Swamp." They 
have been largely cleared, drained, and are coming rapidly under culti- 
vation. The Shawangunk Kill whose Indian name was the same as that 
of the swamp, "Takadasink" or "Peakadasink," originates from springs 
in the swamps, and flows northward along the base of the Shawangunk 
mountain toward Ulster County. 

Rutger's creek originates in the watershed south of Greenville village. 


Jonathan Wood, justice of the peace as early as 1796, and Timothy 
Wood (see civil list) resided in Bushville in this town. 

John W. Eaton (see civil list) is a descendant of Robert, who came 
to the town, shortly after the Revolution. Robert had sons, John, 


William, Robert, and Samuel. There was alsu an Aiexamler in the town 
of about the same generatiim as Robert's sons, who liad a son Tliomas. 
John, the eldest son of Robert, had two sons, Gabriel and Daniel H. 
The latter during the later years of his life, owned the former David 
Moore farm now owned by William Creeden, in Wawayanda, where he 
died. Gabriel, during the later years of his life retired from active life 
to L'nionville, where he owned property and where he died. There seems 
to have been a James Eaton in the town contemporary with Robert. 
Their farms constituted what w'as called Eatontown. 

Charles Durland of Long Island settled near LJushville in this town 
prior to 1800, and it is probable that Moses came into the town soon after 
he did. ]\Ioses lived and died in the town, but Charles bought land, about 
a mile and a half south of Ridgeberry, where he made a permanent set- 
tlement and died there. Thomas T., Steward T., Daniel and Addison 
were sons of Charles. Steward T, and Daniel became residents of Green- 
ville (see civil list). Garret, John and George A. Durland, descendants 
of Moses, also resided in Greenville. George A. and Steward T. were 
justices of the peace for many terms in the town (see civil list). 
Addison settled near Westtown wdiere he died. Thomas T. Durland suc- 
ceeded to the old homestead near Ridgeberry, and later in life bought the 
former Phineas How^ell farm near Slate Hill, where he died. His widow 
(whose father, George Jackson, in his lifetime owned the farms now 
owned by William Ralston, of the lower road ) and son George, and 
daughters Alice L. and Etta H., now reside on the Slate Hill home- 
stead ; while a son, Charles, resides in Middletown and a daughter, Eliza- 
beth \'an Orden, lives in Pompton Lakes. 

John, Joseph and Hiram Manning were early settlers in the tow^n. 
Joseph's children were Joseph, Jr., John, Isaac, Richard, Walter, Benj- 
amin. ]\Irs. Isaac Finch., Mrs. E. Hurlbut, Mrs. John Ferguson. Hiram 
Manning at one time owned the grist, saw and cider mills at Millsburg. 
His son. John R. Manning, resides in Gardnersville in Wawayanda, and 
the latter's son. Hiram, Jr., is in business in Johnsons. 

Abraham Elston was a very earh' settler in the town and many of his 
descendants are still in it. 

Harvey H., Alfred, W. L. and W. W. Clark (see civil list) were de- 
scendants of the David Clark mentioned in a sketch of the family in the 
town of Minisink. 


Under an old school law teachers were formerly licensed by town 
superintendents which prevailed up to 1856. Geo. A. Durland held the 
office of superintendent for some time. Samuel S. Graham was elected 
to the position in 1856, but the law was repealed that year and he was 
never sworn into office. 


The Baptist Church of Greenville was incorporated January 27th, 1816, 
and was supplied by the pastors of Brookfield church until July 31st, 
1822, when the church was dedicated as a separate one. It was consti- 
tuted by thirty-one members. Elder Zelotes Grenell preached the sermon, 
August 3d. That year twenty-three more members were set off from the 
Brookfield church to it. Elder Henry Ball was pastor for eleven years. 
Elder D. Bennet supplied it from Unionville for four years. W. H. Jur- 
ton, D. Benett, C. Brinkerhoff and Joseph Haughwout supplied it to 1848. 
Rev. Stephen Case became pastor of it in May, 1848, and continued there 
to his death in 1895. It was said of him that he married and buried prob- 
ably more Orange and Sussex County people than any other minister has. 
He was a son of John and INIary (Mead) Case. The father is alleged to 
have come from New England, while his mother was a daughter of 
Ebenezer Mead of near Waterloo Mills in Minisink. John and Mary 
(Mead) Case had four sons, Joseph M., E. Inman, John B. and Stephen. 

Joseph M. was justice of the peace from 1850 to 1874 in Minisink 
and held other offices (see civil list).. The Case homestead was on the 
ridge west of Westtown where John died in 1844 and Rev. Ralph Bull 
preached the funeral sermon. His wife died in 1847. Joseph M. was un- 
married. E. Inman died in 1888. He had five sons and one daughter, 
John, Jr., Joseph, Ira L., Jefferson, Anson and Amelia. Ira L., became 
a resident of Middletown and was elected school commissioner of the 
second district of Orange County for a term. John B. studied for the 
ministry and became a clergyman of much influence. He died in 1886. 
He had seven children : John B., Jr., Stephen J., Joseph M., Tisdale, 
Joshua I., Sarah and Flora. 

Stephen, son of John, after his primary studies were over, attended 
and graduated at Madison University in 1840. He began preaching the 
next year, and supplied the pulpit of the Orange Baptist Church six 


months. Then he preached lor three years in what was called the iJroad- 
way Baptist Church, which we incline to think was located near Wyker- 
town in Wantage township, N. J., probably the one built by Job Cosad. 
In May, 1848, he became pastor of the Mount Salem and Greenville 
churches. He was then about thirty years old, and he labored there for 
over sixty years until his death. He was survived by three sons: John E., 
Joshua, Jr. and Joseph jNI. Joshua, Jr., is a famous auctioneer residing in 

The Mcthudist Church of Greenville was incorporated December 23rd, 
1850. There had been preaching for about twenty years before that by 
ministers of the j\L E. denomination. The church edifice was built before 
the church was incorporated. Rev. Henry Litts, who died a few years 
ago in Deckertowni, was pastor there for some time, succeeding Revs. 
Andrews, Grace and Rusling. 

Besitles the cemeteries connected w-ith the churches, there are a number 
of family burial places in the town; notably those of the Manning, Sey- 
bolt, Seeley, Courtright, \*anbuskirk, Mulock, Remey and Jenks families. 


During the Civil War the town issued in August, 1864, bonds for 
$25,159; they were all paid by February nth, 1871. 

Its officials have from the formation of the town proved worthy men. 
It has been universally Democratic by a small majority. 

Nathaniel Reeves Quick, justice of the peace from 1868 to 1873, was a 
tall pleasant man, a descendant of the Quick family of Pennsylvania. 
He was well posted on the history of the famous Tom Quick, who was 
a member of the same family. The traditions which Mr. Quick, of 
Greenville, had instilled into his mind from accounts handed down to him 
by his grandfather, no doubt truthful, were not altogether complimentary 
to the old Indian hunter. His grandfather said (told by Nathaniel 
R. himself), that Tom, when hard pressed for something to eat, would 
come to his house and stay till the good housewife would absolutely 
refuse to cook for him any longer, and his grandfather would inform 
Tom that he must either go to work or leave. That, he said, always 
started him. for if there was anything in this world that Tom hated it 
was to work. Then he would shoulder his gun and tramp off in the forest 


for two or three months before he ventured to show himself again at the 
house. In truth, his grandfather did not put much dependence on the 
stories told by Tom of his adventures, because he thought Tom was 
merely whiling the time away with something to wheedle him with, in 
fact, a sort of "stand off" for lodging. 

The old Goshen and Minisink turnpike road of the last century, crossing 
Shawangunk Mountain just west of Greenville village, was changed by 
the State to a macadam road constructed or, nearly so, in 1907. It takes 
a new route across the mountain and has greatly reduced the grade. The 
Goshen end of the road to Dolsentown was completed a few years ago, 
and the one from Dolsentown through Wawayanda and Minisink to the 
State line about two years ago. The new road through Greenville con- 
nects with the Wawayanda line at Slate Hill. 

Of the Tory element in the town during the Revolution, it is tradi- 
tionally remembered that Brant is said to have, after his first raid 
in 1778, contemjDlated a more extensive one. For that ptirpose he came to 
Greenville secretly to get information of the surroundings. He hid 
himself in the Pakadasink swamp below Smith's Corners, and explored 
the vicinity by night. Certain Tories of the neighborhood were suspected 
at the time of furnishing food to some tramp in tlie swamp, and one of 
them was caught returning from the swamp where he had been to take 
a portion of a sheep which he had killed, as it was later found out. Ex- 
citement ran high at once and a party visited his premises and found that 
he had slaughtered a sheep and had taken a part of it to the swamp to 
feed a hidden Tory as was supposed. A committee improvised a fife and 
drum corps, wrapped the bloody sheepskin about him, and marched him 
at the point of a bayonet on foot to Goshen followed by the music of the 
fife and drum. 

This was on a broiling hot day in summer, and, as may well be sup- 
posed, that march of sixteen miles, bothered as he was by the flies and the 
jokes of the people they met, made the victim very uncomfortable. Later 
when Brant swooped down on Minisink in 1779, he did not cross the 
mountain into the Greenville neighborhood as the settlers then thought he 
intended to do at first. Then they ascertained the kind of a tramp that the 
Tory had been furnishing with mutton in Pakadasink swamp, and re- 
joiced to think that their prompt action in treating their Tory neighbor 
to that arrest probably saved their homes from the invasion planned. 

TOWN OF GREi:X\ iLLE. 245 

Before the days of railroads the people who hvcd in these neighbor- 
hoods generally went to Newburgh, and if they desired to go to New York 
took from thence passage on a sailing vessel for that place. Sometimes 
the passage occupied three or four days between those two cities, de- 
pendent on the weather. In windy weather the sloops often had to 
anchor under some protecting high shore, and in dark nights they gener- 
ally anchored until daylight. A disaster which made a great sensation 
throughout the county and elsewhere, happened November 24th, 1824, to 
a sloop of this kind, near Pollopel's Island, in lower Newburgh bay. The 
sloop Neptune w^as on its way up the river under command of its first 
deck hand, John Decker, the captain (Ilalstead) having been left in New 
York sick. About twenty tons of plaster were in its hold and about twenty 
more tons piled on deck, together with eight or ten tons of other goods. 
There was a strong wind prevailing and the boat was coming up near the 
island with a double reef in the mainsail and all precautions taken for 
safety, when there came a sudden blast of wind which causc<l the sloop to 
dip and the plaster on deck to shift its weight. This shifting of the deck 
plaster caused the sloop to dip so violently that the water came pouring 
into the scuttle of the forecastle, and into the cabin where some ten or 
twelve women and a number of children w^ere gathered. Besides the crew 
about twenty-six male passengers were on the deck. Instead of righting, 
the boat went right down without further warning. .\11 in the cabin were 
drowned. It was about noon, and several boats that saw the sloop go 
down hurried to the scene, and were so successful as to rescue seventeen 
oT the passengers. 

Joshua :Mulock, of Minisink (now Greenville) was one of the men on 
deck, and he said that when he first heard the women and children scream 
in the cabin, he tried to break a grating in the deck to let them out and 
the boat went down so quick that it carried a part of his vest with it 
which caught fast. That held him and he went down under ihe boat. 
Luckily his vest tore loose, and he floated out from under the boat an<l 
came to the surface, where he was rescued. Jesse Green from present 
Greenville, and a man named Carey from present Wawayanda neighbor- 
hood, were also saved. Among those drowned were John Greenleaf, 
George Evertson. :\[atilda Helms and William Kelly and child from 
Minisink. The next year the bodies of ^Fatilda Helms and Mr. Green- 
leaf were found among others at Cold Spring some distance down the 


river. They were buried by the coroner of Putnam County. The sloop 
was afterwards raised by its owners. 

Next to the battle of Minisink this disaster furnished the greatest sen- 
sation of those early times. Mr. Mulock was a great humorist. On one 
occasion, a Mr. and Mrs. Lee, of Greenville, made Mr. and Mrs. Mulock 
an evening visit. When the visitors were seated in their wagon ready to 
start for home, one of them said to their host and hostess, "Now you must 
come and see us as soon as you can." "We'll promise to do so, sure !'' said 
Mr. Mulock. 

When Mr. and Mrs. Lee had arrived home, and she was in the house 
with a lighted candle looking at the clock and wondering how they came 
to stay until after midnight, and he was returning from the stables where 
he had placed the horse, they were surprised to hear a wagon driving up 
to the door. How much greater was their surprise when they both went to 
the gate to see who it was, and saw there Mr. and Mrs. Mulock. "You 
told us," said the former, "that we must come and see you as soon as we 
could, and here we are." Then after a laugh at Mr. and Mrs. Lee's ap- 
parent discomfiture, they went home, and told the joke round about to 
their friends. We give it to illustrate the jollity of those times. 

From the years 1836 to 1854 the post office regulations for the three 
towns, under the name of Minisink, were a mail delivery Tuesdays and 
Fridays of each week. The mail was carried by a contractor, who left 
Goshen on those days in the morning in a one horse sulky or gig which 
easily carried the driver and mail bags. He came across the Wallkill at 
Pellet's Island to Ridgeberry; thence to Westtown, Unionville, Minisink 
(Greenville) and back through Bushville, South Centerville, Brookfield-. 
Slate Hill, Denton and to Goshen. The trip was made in one day. Some- 
times the carrier would have a young woman on the seat with him which 
invariably made him late and caused lots of grumbling among the people 
waiting for the mail. Few letters were received, and the only newspapers 
taken generally were the Goshen Democrat and Independent Republican, 
of Goshen. Not a daily paper then found its way in this region except at 
intervals. The rates of postage were, up to 1845, for a letter of a single 
sheet, not exceeding thirty miles, six cents ; over thirty and not exceeding 
eighty miles, ten cents; over eighty and not over 150, twlve and one-half 
cents; over 150 and not over 400 miles, eighteen and three-quarter cents; 
over 400 miles, twenty-five cents. If the letter had two sheets of paper it 


was cliari^cd double, and if three sheets, triple rates; for4each newspaper 
carried not over 100 miles, one cent; to any office in the State where 
printed, one cent ; otherwise over 100 miles, one and a half cents. Pamph- 
lets 100 miles, one and a half cents a sheet; over 100 miles, two and 
a half cents a sheet; if not published periodically, four and six cents a 
sheet, as to distance. Everything else was paid at letter postage at a quar- 
ter ounce rale. The letters then were sent without envelopes, folded so as 
to conceal the writing, and sealed with wax usually. The postage was col- 
lected on delivery. In 1854 the rates were reduced considerably, but all 
other features retained. In 1855, the writer, then a boy, was left tempo- 
rarily in charge of the post-ofifice at Slate Hill, which then paid the post- 
master, a storekeeper, about $10 a year percentage. He then kept a store 
and the keeper of the office was considered a help to the store trade. A 
woman came in and asked if there was a letter for her. There was. She 
asked how much postage was due on it. There was eighteen cents. Then 
she asked to look at it. The verdant young man handed it to her. She 
opened it, glanced over the contents, then handed it back, saying, "I won't 
take it. There's nothing in it worth the money." The postmaster when 
informed of the incident later, said, "Boy, next time don't you hand out 
the letter till they hand over the money." 

In 1852 the postage was reduced and a little later envelopes came in 
fashion. The Aliddletown, Unionville and Watergap Railroad was com- 
pleted from Middletown to Unionville, June 2n(l, 1868. That changed 
mail arrangements throughout the three towns. Slate Hill. Johnsons, 
Westtown and Unionville got a daily mail. A\'aterloo ^lills, Denton and 
Bushville were abandoned, and Ridgeberry and South C'nterville were 
supplied from Slate Hill. The railroad is now known as the Xew York, 
Susquenhanna & Western, under control of the Erie. The increase in 
the amount of mail matter handled has been wonderful, and the offices 
which once had their mail matter carried on a two-wheel sulky twice a 
week easily, would now require a team of horses and a big wagon to 
move it every day. 

The 4th and 5th days of January, 1835, were remarkably cold days and 
that winter was a terribly severe one. We liave no thermometer records 
for riur three towns of those days, but in Xew York City it was 5 de- 
grees, in Xewark 13 and Elizabethtown 18 degrees below zero for both 
days. In 1857 the 23rd of January was a remarkably cold flay, the ther- 


mometer standing at 2.2^ below in the early morning, 17 at noon, and 12 
at night, when it began to snow and a deep snow came. 

Orange County gave 3,541 votes for Van Biiren^ and 2,242 for Har- 
rison for President in 1836. 

Tke local option law in our three towns has resulted in a continual 
no-license majority for about twenty-five years in Wawayanda ; occasional 
no-license in Greenville and Minisink. The result of the election m 1907 
gave no-license a majority in Minisink. 

In ancient times elections were held in the spring for local officers, and 
in the fall for county. State and national officers. All the officers in the 
State are now elected in November on one day. In 1837, the States held 
election: Maine, 2nd Monday of September; Alabama, Mississippi, Ken- 
tucky, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, ist Monday in August; Delaware, 
1st Tuesday of October; Louisiana, ist Monday of July; Tennessee and 
North Carolina, ist Thursday in August; Vermont, ist Tuesday in Sep- 
tember; Georgia and Maryland, ist Monday in October; New York, ist 
Monday in November ; Massachusetts, 2nd Monday in November ; New 
Hampshire, 2nd Tuesday in March ; Virginia and Connecticut in April ; 
Rhode Island in August ; South Carolina, 2nd Monday in October. 

During the first early years of our history, where farmers kept large 
dairies, they made butter, which was the mainstay of their farming. They 
used a tread-wheel about twelve feet in diameter set at a steep incline, on 
one side of which a horse or bull climbed to furnish the power for churn- 
ing. Similar dairies used sheep or calves. About 1834 to 1840 (tradition) 
George F. Reeve, of near ^^liddletown, invented an endless chain-power 
on which a good-sized dog would furnish as nuich power as an animal 
twice as large. 

Lights for many years were furnished of dip tallow candles. These 
were made by melting a wash boiler full of tallow, into which six candle- 
wicks hung on a stick were dipped and hung on a rack to cool. Enough 
sticks were used so that by the time the last one was dipped the first one 
was cool enough to dip again, and so the process was continued until the 
candles had accumulated enough tallow to be of the right size. When- 
ever the tallow in the boiler began to get low hot water was added to 
make the tallow float to the top of the boiler. When beeves were killed 
in the fall the good housewives were careful to dip candles for a whole 
year's supply. About 1852 camphene began to be used for lights, and in 


some instances alcohol and sonnj other dangerous compounds. About 
i860 the use of kerosene came into family and public lighting-, and is still 
the great illuminant. 

In 1777 a real estate ownership of one hundred pounds value was a 
necessary qualification for a voter who desired to vote for a Governor, 
Senator and Assemblyman, while only twenty pounds worth of real 
estate was requisite in order to qualify a person to vote for a representa- 
tive in Congress. For town officials and resolutions all male citizens were 
allowed to vote, and this was generally done at town meetings viva voce, 
or by division to the right and left. A Governor then held office three 
years and had to be a real' estate owner. Senators held office four years 
and had to be owners of one hundred pounds worth of real estate. 
Judges were appointed by the Governor and council and hehl office during 
good behavior, but were disqualified when sixty years old. They could be 
removed by the Governor when requested by a tv/o-thirds vote of the 
legislature. Clergymen were then excluded from holding office, and from 
the legislature. In 1821 a new State constitution was framed and the 
property qualifications removed. Ballots were then introduced generally 
in town elections. 



By Margaret Crawford Jackson. 

ON March 5, 1703, in the reign of Queen Anne, the Wawayanda 
patent was signed. The grantors were twelve Indians named 
Rapingonick, Wawastawa, Aloghopuck, Comelawaw, Manawitt, 
Ariwimack, Rumbout, Clanss, Chonckhass, Chingapaw, Oshaquemonus 
and Quiliapaw, and among the twelve patentees was Christafer Denn. 
He was. a Frenchman and a carpenter, then living on the eastern shore 
of Staten Island with his wife, Elizabeth, and a young girl sixteen years 
of age, Sarah Wells, who had been taken by them as an infant and 
brought up as their own, although she did not receive their name, nor at 
their deaths did they mention her in their wills, probably because she 
had received one hundred acres after her marriage. 

Christofer Denn, as his name is spelled by Mr. Eager in his history, 
or "Denne," as spelled by Mr. Ruttenber. the latter says, was a resident 
of New York in 170 1, and one of the signers of the "Protestant Peti- 
tion" to William III, in that year. In 1702 his name appears appended 
to the congratulatory address to Lord Cornbury as one "of the chiefest 
inhabitants of the City and County on New York." And in 1705 he 
was one of the signers of a petition by the merchants of that city. He 
was still a resident of New York in 1722-1723, and it was in that city his 
wife Elizabeth died. It should be noticed that it is said Denn was a resi- 
dent of the county of New York, even when not living in the city. 


Around Sarah Wells much of the history of Hamptonburgh is woven. 
She was born in New Jersey, opposite Staten Island, April 6, 1694, and 
died April 21, 1796, aged 102 years, leaving 355 living descendants. Her 
husband was William Bull, an Englishman from Wolverhampton. The 
family left there for Dublin in February, 1689. At Wolverhampton the 
church register shows the records of the family back to 900 A. D. The 


late claim is thai William Bull, son of John Bull, and grandson of Josias 
Bull, of Kingshurst Hall, who emigrated in 1715, settling at Hampton- 
burgh, Orange County, New York, is identical with the husband of 
Sarah Wells. But whether Kingshurst Hall is in Wolverhampton we 
cannot say at this moment. However, the coat-of-arms belonging to the 
Bulls of Kingshurst Hall has been engraved and virtually accepted by 
Mr. Ebenezer Bull, of Hamptonburgh, as that of his ancestors. 

Christofer Denn's share of 2,000 acres in the Wawayanda patent hav- 
ing been set apart, he visited the location and made friends with the 
Indians living there. The claim was surveyed by Peter Berian and lay 
touching the northeasterly bounds of the town lots of the village of 
Goshen. Its bounds run thus : "Beginning at a stake and stones about 
east of and ten chains from the dwelling-house of General Abraham 
\'ail in East Division; thence northwesterly along the northeasterly 
bounds of the Goshen town lots, and until it meets with a line supposed 
to divide the old counties of Ulster and Orange; thence east along the 
same to a stake and stones known to be standing near the top of the 
highland, or mountain above Charles Heard's in Hamptonburgh ; thence 
on a course about thirty-six degrees west to the place of beginning. 

Some difficulty arose later in running the survey of other lines which 
interfered with Denn's claim. 

To settle it a grant was made after his death in the name of his wife, 
Elizabeth "Denne," of 1,140 acres, December 12, 1734. Although the 
patent had been signed there was a condition that unless a settlement 
was made on the Wawayanda patent by the end of May, 1712, the title 
was to lapse. Add to this that six hundred acres were to be given to 
the first settler and we may find a sufficient motive for Christofer Denn 
to become the needed pioneer. 

His affair? were embarrassed at the time, and this change from the 
city to the wilderness probably offered a much needed retreat for a time 
at least. He took with him on his return to the city after his inspection 
of the land, three young Indians, sons of those whom he had visited and 
of the tribe which had parted with their land to the patentees. They 
had befriended the surveyors while running out the patent and had kindly 
volunteered their services to help him remove from the city to the patent. 
All accounts say that three ynung Indians went with him to the city and 
helped to direct the party. 


It was Sarah Wells, this slender, dark-eyed little girl of sixteen, whom 
Denn chose to go forth alone with the men to conquer the wilderness. 
When he told her, she was sick with terror at the thovight that in the latter 
part of her journey her only companions would be the carpenters and 
half-naked savages, who might attack her at any moment. 

The carpenters sent to build the log house, of whom there were two, 
knew nothing of the countr}-, and had treachery been intended the whites 
must have been defenseless. 

Denn, being in straitened circumstances at the time, the other patentees 
came to his assistance and supplied the sloop and crew and cows and 
horses to assist in the settlement which, according to Eager, was to hold 
the Wawayanda Patent. 

The present family believe him to have been correct in regard lo their 
history, for he was a descendant on his mother's side. He gives a full 
and romantic account of this journey, from which we can only give ex- 

He says: "As this portion of our narrative was derived from Sarah 
in after life, we purpose to place an inventory of the various articles of 
outfit before the reader, that he may judge of its nature, extent and value, 
which are as follows : Two pack horses with bells on, two milk cows with 
bells, two dogs, two Irish brahmas, one spade, two pails, two beds and 
bedding, one small and one large kettle, wood trenches and bowls, can- 
dlesticks and candles, a pair of trammels, a frying pan, small tin plates 
for saucers, coffee pot with cofifee, teapot, chocolate, tin canister with tea, 
silver teaspoons and sugar tongs, small china teacups and saucers, bundle 
of cloths, saddlebags, pillow saddles, knives and forks, some potatoes, 
wallets, medical cordials in vials, refined sugar in small pieces, brown 
sugar in rolls, flour, biscuit, ham in small sacks, some trinkets, ribbons 
and small knives for the Indians." 

There may have been other articles not enumerated. As Denn bade 
Sarah good-bye in a subdued voice and tones of affectionate regard, he 
said: "Sarah, you have been kind and dutiful to us thus far, and your 
present conduct confirms us in your kindness. The duty you have to per- 
form is new and may be fatiguing, but must if possible be accomplished 
now or the season may be lost. The workmen will take care of you while 
on the boat and afterwards, while the Indians, of whose friendship I 
have no doubt, will guide you through the woods to the place selected for 

William Bull. 

TOWN OF HAMl'T(JXi;Ll«iII. 253 

our dwelling. This work i^ very imixiriant ami what you do for Madam 
Demi and me is also done for the benefit of the company." He ended 
thus: "God save and bless you, Sarah." 

The Indians faithfully i)erformed their part and the one who was 
given especial charge over Sarah's horse (after the party landed on the 
banks of the Hudson near Cornwall), although half-naked, as were the 
other two, watched carefully her comfort. Their eyes were piercing, 
their voices harsh and grating, yet Sarah's attendant showed a deference 
;nd gentle anxiety to please that many white men of to-day might envy. 

Sarah mounted on the second horse, sat upon beds and bedding with 
many small articles around her and managed her horse with great diffi- 
culty. The Indian marched close by her side, helped her on and off her 
liorse, and pointed out many things in the woods calculated to interest her 
ittention and draw her out in conversation. Xot infrequently he plucked 
an early flower as it sprang up by the wayside, and calling her attention 
to it. tasted its leaves and then presented it for acceptance. 

They arrived on the bank of the stream, now the Otterkill, opposite 
the spot which Christofer Denn had selected as the place of his residence. 
Thus the journey in full twenty miles of pathless forest, with ocoa- 
-ional thick underwood, was performed in a single day. 

They built a fire beneath a tree whose branches guarded them from 
dampness. They put boughs of trees upon forked sticks driven into 
the ground antl laid the beds there to escape the snakes, and the car- 
penters lay down and slept well till morning, but Sarah dreamed and 
slept fitfully, while the Indians threw- themselves on the ground with their 
feet to the fire and slept all night. Whenever Sarah roused herself 
to look about, "her Indian" made signs to her that all was w'ell and he 
was guarding her. The next day the carpenters built a wigwam of split 
logs resting on end against a frame of poles 16 by 18 feet with a ditch 
about it to carry off rain. It had a slanting roof with a hole three feet 
square in the peak for the escape of smoke, the fireplace being below it. 

The goods were first unpacked and plates set on the table for supper the 
second evening of their arrival, when one of the Indians saw two people 
at a distance, and going to reconnoiter, found Madam Denn and her hus- 
bantl. They had been so overcome by the parting from Sarah and the 
enormity of their conduct in sending her on such a perilous adventure, 
that they had followed her on horseback up through Xew Jersey as fast 


as they could, and arrived in time for the first meal in the new wigwam. 
On seeing them at the door she fainted at their feet. 

It is only just to say that the friendship thus begun between Sarah 
and the Indians continued to the end. 

When the Indians were most hostile to others in the neighborhood the 
family could always give a safe refuge to the many who sought a shelter 
under their roof when night came. 


In 1716 William Bull entered on the scene. Born in Wolverhampton, 
England, February, i68g, his youth was, however, passed in Dublin, 
where his father moved when he was small. 

He was apprenticed to learn the trade of a mason and stone cutter. 
When his apprenticeship ended he and a young friend took the contract 
to build a large arch for a bridge being constructed near Dublin. Tradi- 
tion says : One Saturday night the work was nearly done and the arch 
finished but for the keystone. He begged the men to remain and put it 
in place, so completing the work, but they refused. On going down to 
see it on the next morning he found it fallen and his fortunes with it. 
It had carried with it his all and imprisonment for debt — as far as he 
knew it might be for life — stared him in the face. 

There was a ship lying at the dock which he knew was sailing that 
day for New York. He searched his pockets and discovered five guineas 
with which and a few books he boarded the vessel. The captain on being 
asked if that much money would take him to America, answered it would. 
On reaching New York the captain told him the money had brought 
him, but had not paid his full passage and he must be sold for the balance. 
Bull was highly indignant and refused to leave the ship. He replied that 
he would return to Ireland and face his debts. Daniel Cromline, wdio 
also had a share in the Wawayanda patent, heard that an Irish ship 
was in dock, and hoping to procure some workmen had it proclaimed 
on board the ship. Bull felt that Providence and strangers would help 
him, and on telling his story to Mr. Cromline the money was advanced 
and they traveled together as far as Greycourt. Here he did the mason 
work on the old stone Greycourt house in 1716. 

This was long a public inn on the way from the Hudson to New Jer- 
sey, and was a famous resort for the people around. 

TOWN ( ) 1 " 1 1 A .M I'TUX BURGI I . 


William Lhill live.l in the Cromlinc family, \v1k)>c palciil was not far 
frum that part of the W'awayanda patent on which Mr. Denn had set- 
tled. They were in fact neighboring families, and so William Liull met 
Sarah Wells. They loved each other and were married in 1718. 

The ceremony took place in the new double log house of Christofer 
Denn, and as Dull was an Episcopalian and desired to be married by the 
rites of his church they did not know how to proceed. There was no 
church nor a clergyman who could proclaim the banns three weeks, but 
courts of justice had been established and a magistrate was in the neigh- 

They decided that circumstances alter cases and summoned their guests. 
All being assembled the magistrate carrying the prayer book proceeded 
first to the front door and proclaimed the banns to the trees of the for- 
est, then tlirough the hall to the back door where he proclaimed it to the 
cattle and the outbuildings. He made proclamation then once more from 
the front door to the wilderness at large and then performed the mar- 
riage ceremony. The wedding dress was of homespun linen delicately 
embroidered by the bride, and is now in the possession of one of her de- 
scendants, who has exhibited it at the family picnic held each year on the 
last W'ednesday in August in the grove at Campbell Hall. 

Later Sarah Wells Bull asked for and received the jjromised reward 
of 100 acres from Christofer Denn for having gone alone at his bidding 
to settle his claim and save his title. 

^^''illiam Btill and Richard Gerard received a grant joining Denn's 
of 2.600 acres. August 10, 1723. 

(Jn the 100 acres given to Sarah. Bull built a barn of hand-sawed 
planks. These were of ash. rived, and the shingles of split pme and 
put on each with two pegs. This barn is still in use and never has 
been jxiinled. Afterwards he built the stone house in 1727 en his (iwn 
land near by. and it is still occupied by the family and probably \\\\\ stand 
for generations to come. It is l)uilt on a rock, with a spring in the cellar, 
and before the house was quite finished in September, 1727, an earthquake 
which was felt for 1.500 miles, cracked the east side of the house and 
the crack can still be seen. The lightning struck it in 1767-8, but only 
slight damage was done to its thick stone walls. The house has two 
stories of eleven feet each, with basement and a good-sized garret. It is a 
truly fine hou-^e for those time-. Afr. Bull r.illed his place Hampton- 


burgh, from Wolverhampton where he was born. There were eight chil- 
dren born to him. 


Hamptonbnrgh township as it now stands was set apart in 1830 from 
the towns bounding it. It is in the form of an irregular hexagon, its 
northern extremity a point and Montgomery bounding it on the north- 
east f,nd northwest, with the Wallkill River running between Wallkill 
township on the west and Montgomery on the northwest, while Goshen 
is on the southwest. Blooming Grove the southeast and New Windsor 
on the east. 

The Otterkill circles through the town adding picturesqueness to the 
fields it waters, while high ridges and fertile valleys vary the scene. 
The Goshen and Montgomery State road runs northeast through the 
western part of the town and the Little Britain State road joms it at 
Clark's Crossing. Mr. Clark's farm, once the Denniston Bull farm, is 
now in the hands of the New York and New Jersey Railroad, and the 
road is being constructed. It is claimed that this will put Campbell Hall 
within one hour of New York City, instead of the three days' journey by 
sloop and horseback which Sarah Wells had to undergo. 

At Campbell Hall Junction four railroads center, the Ontario and 
Western, the Central New England, the Wallkill V^alley Division of the 
N. Y. C. & H. R. and the Erie, while the Lehigh and New England runs 
through the eastern part of the town from norch to south, with stations at 
Hamptonburgh, Girard and Burnside, thus making this small town of 
more than proportionate interest in the county. 

There are six rural schools and one church now in the town. This 
is the Presbyterian church at Campbell Hall, where also are the stores 
of Alexander Brothers and C. B. Howell, a meat market, a creamery 
and a blacksmith's shop, and the surrounding houses with neat lawns 
make an attractive hamlet. 

The two-room schoolhouse stands in a grove of oaks on a hill over- 
lookmg the Otterkill where the old church stood before it was moved to 
Hamptonburgh proper. Now that building stands empty and only the 
graveyard tells the old story. The name Campbell Hall came from a 
Colonel Campbell who lived there. His house was back of what is now 
the Bertholf house. "Col. Campbell was a Scotchman, the father of Mrs. 
Margaret Eustace, who was the mother of Gen. Eustace of the Revo- 



lutionar\ anu\ of I'rancc, both i.if wlium, we Ijclicve, died in ihc vicinity 
of Xewburgh thirty or thirty-five years since." (Eager in 1846-7.) In 
speaking of Mrs. Eustace he notes her chgnity of manner when she re- 
sided at Campbell Hall ; also of her husband, Doctor Eustace, who was 
from the South, lie says there was a secret not fully understood which 
emlnttered the last years of her life and her father's. 

Campbell Hall owes much to ^Irs. ^^latilda Booth Gouge. Her hus- 
band, ^Ir. George Gouge, conducted a large creamery business there for 
years, and on his death he left his widow more than comfortably pro- 
vitled for. There were no children and Mrs. Gouge did many kind things 
for her neighbors before her death. She gave the ground on wdiich the 
church was built and a large iiouse for a j^arsonage close to the church. 
She aiso educated a colored man for the ministry. ( )n her death she willed 
her large residence with its furniture for a more comfortable home for 
the pastor and her farm of 100 acres to the church with $5,000 in bonds. 
]\Io>t of the buildings in the village are built on land purchased from her. 
Her l)irthi)laee was near and is now owned by Mr. C. B. Howell. 

liurnside has a sawmill, a store and a Borden's creamery. Post offic(?s 
are in each place and the R. F. D. comes out from Montgomery. This 
closes the helpful ])ul)lie activities of the town, but fine hotels, with bars, 
make an addition not to be omitted. It is impossible to follow closely all 
the different family fortunes of those who make the records of to-day ; 
our allotted space is too small. 

There are two of the original grants on which the descendants of the 
patentees are still living. These are the Richard Gerard and William 
Bull grants. 

The one of 2.C)00 acres was dated August 10, 1723, on which, by a mis- 
take of calculation, the carpenters erected the first wigwam in 1712, fol- 
lowed by the William Bull stone house. 

The second grant lay partly in Wallkill, partly in Hamptonburgh. di- 
vided unevenly by the Wallkill River, \\illiam lUill, Esq.. the great- 
great-grandson of the first one of the name here, lives upon the western 
portion, and the stone house known as Hill-Hold on the eastern part, be- 
longs to the descendants of the third son of William Bull — Thomas Bull, 
Robert McLeod Jackson and Margaret Eleanor Jackson and their 
mother. Margaret Crawford Jackson, wife of Robert McDowell Jackson, 
son of William Wickham Jackson. 


The stones in the house were cut in the fields by the builder, Thomas 
Bull, as he had time for the work between planting and reaping-. It was 
years before he was ready to build. Paneling was brought from Eng- 
land for the east and west sides of the two large first-floor rooms. Also 
solid mahogany balls for the newels and mahogany balusters. The walls 
are two feet thick, with open fireplaces throughout the house and massive 
chimney stacks on the east and west. This house also stands on a rock, 
is in good repair and has a beautiful situation on a hill. 

Thirty years ago Air. Charles Backman bought the road house by 
Stony Ford bridge, known as the Sutton House, with race track, and 
began to improve Orange County's fine trotting stock. Little by little he 
bought the adoining farm land until he owned 640 acres and remade the 
mile of road from Stony Ford to La Grange into as fine a highway as are 
the best State roads to-day 

His house was visited by many noted people, among them General 
Grant when President, and General Benjamin F. Tracy, now ex-Secretary 
of the Navy. Air. J. Howard Force now owns the place. General Tracy 
owned for a few years a farm in Goosetown or LaGrange, which he 
named A^arshland and greatly improved. This also was a stock farm for 
fine horses ; it is now in other hands. Air. Backman bought part of the 
Valentine Hill farm originally belonging to Andrew Wilson, who was a 
private in Colonel James AlcClaughrey's regiment of Little Britain. In 
October, 1777, he was one of the hundred men sent out from Fort Alont- 
gomery to intercept the British, who were 5,000 strong and commanded 
by Sir Flenry Clinton in person. 

Here is a dispatch from Governor Clinton, dated October 7, 1777, the 
day after the fort was taken : "We received intelligence that the enemy 
were advancing on the west side of the mountain with design to attack us 
in the rear. Upon this ordered out Colonels Bruyer and AlcClaughrey 
with upwards of 100 men towards Doodletown with a brass field piece, 
with a detachment of sixty men on every advantageous post on the road to 
the furnace. They were not long out before they were attacked by the 
enemy with their whole force; our people behaved with spirit and must 
have made great slaughter of the enemy." 

Andrew Wilson was here taken prisoner and when an English soldier 
ordered him to take off his silver shoe buckles he refused and was 
knocked down by the butt of a musket and his buckles taken. He lay 

George W. Carpenter. 


on the sugar hulk for two years and behcved he was treated with greater 
indignity than others because of his refusal. 

After his release he lived on the farm mentioned on the east bank of 
the W'allkill. His son James died first, he himself in 1804. He left two 
sons and a daughter. Jolm lived and died in Goshen. His son, Andrew, 
raised two companies in 1812, the first he turned over to his intimate 
friend, Burnett of Little Britain, that they might not be separated; the 
second gave him a commission as lieutenant in the regular army. After- 
wards he liccame captain and was in charge at (jovernor's Island. He 
married a daughter of William Bull, of W'allkill, Milinda Ann, and made 
a home in Goshen. He was sent to the Legislature from there in 1819. 
He was prominent in the temperance movement, also the Bible society 
and the church life of Hamptonburgh. 

The first pastor settled at Hamptonburgh was the Rev. James R. 
Johnson, formerly of Goshen. The tide of prosperity in the town was 
expected to set to the east, about the new church, but the hopes were 
not fulfilled, and little by little Campbell Hall Ijccame the established 
center. The Rev. Slater C. Hepburn was called after Mr. Johnson and 
was installed July 2, 1850, and died in Cami)bell Hall after serving his 
people forty-five years. 

Able B. W'atkins was an early settler near the Denns and ha<l a family 
of ten children. 

In 1749 Silas Pierson came from Long Island and took possession of 
what long was known as the old shingle house on the Pierson farm, a 
mile northeast of Hamptonburgh church. This house was burned this 
spring of 1907, April 13th. The eastern half was built of squared logs 
up to the eaves. 

On the 8th day of July, 1760. James DeLaney, Esq., his ^lajesty's 
lieutenant-governor and commander-in-chief in and over the province 
of Xew York and the territories depending thereon, signed a com- 
mission appointing Silas Pierson to be captain of the company of 
militia foot lately commanded by John Bull. Esq. This was near the 
close of the French and Indian War, when England had determined to 
destroy the power of France in America. The militia was liable to be 
called out at any time to defend the settlements against the attacks of the 
Indians and to avenge their wrongs. 

In 1775 Silas Pierson was captain in Jes^e WoodhuH's regiment: later 


he was captain of a light horse company in the Revohition. Silas Pier- 
son and Silas Pierson, Jr., were among the many signers of the pledge 
in the Cornwall precincts, in which they declared that they would never 
become slaves and would aid the Continental Congress in opposing the 
arbitrary acts of the British Parliament. Joshua Pierson, grandfather 
of George Pierson, Sr., was a private in Col. Jesse Woodhull's regiment 
in 1777 at the age of sixteen, and went with the regiment under the com- 
mand of Major Zachariah Du Bois to assist in the defence of Fort Mont- 

The family of Mr. William Henry Pierson still resides on the old farm. 
His wife was Miss Elizabeth Bull of the "stone house." His daughter 
Lucilc married Harry Bull, of Wallkill, who, like his father, is justice 
of the peace. It thus appears that in a large degree the history of Hamp- 
tonburgh township is the history of the Bulls, for marriage has linked 
the family with so many other well-known names. 

We would like to give a list of the men who have served as super- 
visors and also as elders of the church. Indeed our story could well 
lengthen itself into a small volume were all to be told which is of interest 
in our little town. We have tried to keep a class of facts which hold 
more than a passing and local interest. 

We have drawn for our material upon such published records as have 
been within our reach, and have consulted with persons who have knowl- 
edge of such points as may have been in dispute. 

Let us hope we have wronged no one in anything said or left unsaid, 
and have disseminated no more false facts than are unavoidable with the 
most conscientious historians. 




Dv C.M'T.MX Theodore F.\urot. 

THIS is one of the younger towns of Orange County, only those of 
Tuxedo antl Woodbury having been born later. It is, in fact, 
only about thirty-five years old. But for scenic beauty and native 
charm it easily outranks every other town in this county, if not all others 
on the Hudson River. The fame of the Hudson River Highlands is world- 
wide, and it is in this little town that the culmination of this native 
grandeur and picturesque beauty is reached. No one who has ever sailed 
up or down the Hudson, and who has not. will spend a moment wonder- 
ing why this township was thus named. 

The general shape or contour of the town, laterally, may be roughly 
classed as triangular. But the topographical surface is far more difficult 
to classify. It has the most extended river frontage of any town in the 
country, it being some nine or ten miles, beginning at Cro" Nest,, in the 
town of Cornwall on the north, and reaching below Fort Montgomery, 
to the Rockland County line. 

It is bounded on the north by the town of Cornwall, on the east by 
I he Hudson River, on the south by Rockland count}- and the town of 
Woodbury, and on the west by Woodbury. 

The art-a of this young town, as now estimated by the Orange super- 
visors, is 15.514 acres. In 1879 it was placed at 9.324^ acres. This 
fractional total would seem to indicate that a very careful survey had 
been made previous to that time. But nobody has been quite able to 
explain just how this unique engineering feat was accomplished. Look- 
ing at the town from the river, the task presents many features of serious 
im])(»rt. even to the mountain engineer. 

The whole thing was valued at $330,600 by the assessors of 1879. But 

if course there was nothing allowed for sentiment or native grandeur 

in that cold, Inisiness estimate. Perhaps such things really had no cash 

value at that time, if indeed they have now. The tax of the town that 

year amounted to $2,896.67. In 1906 the total value of this real estate 


was placed at $857,112. Upon this amount a tax of $8,610.67 was levied. 
This was made up as follows: $3,474.20, general fund; $4,423.37, town 
audits ; $250.02, sworn off taxes ; and $0.33, treasurer's credits. 


Concerning these, previous to the Revolution, little is definitely known. 
The lands around the Point, from which West Point takes its name, and 
to the north and west thereof, were originally granted by the British 
Crown to Captain John Evans. In 1723 these lands, having been reas- 
sumed by the Crown, the larger portion was granted to Charles Con- 
greve upon condition that he, or his heirs and assigns, should settle there 
and cultivate at least three acres out of every fifty acres of land con- 
veyed to him in the grant. The inference is, therefore, that the first 
buildings at West Point were erected about that time. 

This Congreve tract comprised some 1,463 acres, which included the 
northern portion of the Point. But the records do not give the names of 
these early white settlers. In March, 1747, another portion of this John 
Evans tract, covering 332 acres, was granted to John ]\Ioore, on the same 
conditions contained in the first grant to Congreve. This tract adjomed 
the southwest corner of the Congreve Patent. John Moore afterward 
purchased the Congreve tract and thus became the owner of 1,790 acres 
in the vicinity of the Point. This he subsequently devised to his son, 
Stephen Moore, a merchant of Caswell, N. C. Then after a forty-year 
tenure of this land by the Moore family it was finally sold to the United 
States Government, pursuant to an act of Congress passed July 5, 1790. 
The deed of transfer was executed by Moore, December 10, of the same 
year. The price paid was $11,085. The necessity of this purchase was 
urged upon Congress by Alexander Hamilton, as Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, and also by Henry Knox, who was then Secretary of War, who 
finally conducted the negotiations for the purchase for the Government. 

Captain John Evans obtained his original grant on petition, March, 
1694, from Governor Dongan, who had purchased the land from the 
Esopus Indians. It was described as extending "from Murderer's Creek 
back," This stream finds the Hudson at Cornwall. Captain Gee, of the 
ancient sloop Federal, who brought stores to West Point between 1790 


and iSio. sccnis lo have owned a dwelling house near the i'oinl aijnui 
that time, when it was known as Gee's Point. 

Adjoining the Congreve Patent on the south wa^ one of the six tracts 
originally granted to Gabriel and William Ludlow, October 18, 1731, 
under the conditions of settlement already named. This tract seems to 
have passed to many successive owners, as follows : 

Richard Williams, of Cornwall ; Robert Armstrong, of Sussex Counl\ , 
N. j. ; JJenjamin Rose, December i, 1785 ; John Dunlap. of Ulster County, 
September 6, 1788; and Thomas Xorth. of Cornwall, November 22, 
17U4. North also purchased an adjoining tract on the south from Isaiah 
Smith, June 3, 1790, and he h.eld the whole tract for nearly thirty years. 
Then it passed to Oliver Gridley, of Bergen County, N. J., Deceniber 28, 
1819. who deeded the same to the United States, May 13, 1824. in accord- 
ance with the act of Congress, approved ]^larch 10, of that year. 

At the time of the purchase of the Congreve and Moore grants by the 
Government. Hugh McClellan, a Revolutionary soldier, occupied a small 
house on the property. In recognition of his j)atriotic services in that 
war he was permitted to remain and cultivate his garden by Secretary of 
War John Knox. The old soldier spent the rest of his life there, leaving 
a wife antl a daughter on the jiremises. Thc}- finally claimed the domicile 
by right of undisputed possession under the laws of the State. But they 
w^ere finally clispossessed by the N^ational Government in 1830. in an 
action for ejectment. 

In addition to the patents already named the following list of grants, 
covering other parts of this town of Highlands, are found on the record : 
Gabriel and William Ludhnv. 991 acres. October 13. 1731 ; Alexander 
Phoenix, acres. July 13. 1750; Ihomas Moore and Lewis Pintard, 
I, IOC acres, December 27,. 1762; Samuel Staats. 400 acres, June 5, 1712; 
Thomas Ellison, 770 acres, November 12. 1750: Richard Bradley. 800 
acres. July 30. 1743; Gabriel and William Ludlow. 407 acres. October 18, 
173 1 : X'incent and David Matthews, acres. November 26. 1761 ; Ga- 
briel and William Ludlow, 1,437 acres. October 18. 1731 ; Bradley chil- 
dren, 4.290 acres. October 30. I74<): \'incent and David Matthews. 800 
acres. November 26, 1768; William and Edward Wilkin. 1,305 acres. 
April 15. 1768: John Osborne, 1.850 acres. March 14. 1775; Thomas 
Monrc and Le\\is Pintard. 2.90G acres. December 23, 1762; Smith and 
Wilkin. IOC acres. April 15. I7^'8: Afnore and Osborne. 150 acres. March 


14, 1775; Smith and Wilkin, J 90 acres, April 15, 176S; John Nelson, 550 
acres, October 4, 1752; Henry Townsend, 2,000 acres; Thomas Smith, 
250 acres, June 14, 1750; the Hassenclever & Co.'s tract, 1,000 acres, 1705. 

Captain Horace M. Reeve, of the general staff of the United States 
Army, in his history of V\'est Point during the Revolution, savs : "Until 
the American troops began to cut timber for military purposes, and to 
crown the surrounding hills with forts and redoubts, West Point and the 
neighboring Highlands were little else than a wilderness of rugged hills 
and virgin forests, presenting about the same appearance as first greeted 
Hendrik Hudson when, in 1609, he sailed up the river which now bears 
his name." 

Hudson anchored near West Point September 14, 1609, and he was 
probably the first European that ever saw that section. 

Continuing, Captain Reeve says : "Although this tract of country 
could never lend itself kindly to the agriculturist, yet before the advent 
of the American soldier there were several houses standino- at or near 
West Point, which were subsequently used for purposes very foreign to 
the peaceful intentions of their builders. Two of these became noted. 
One was 'Moore's House' at West Point, used by Washington as his 
headquarters during the whole, or a part, of the time he was stationed 
at West Point — from July 21, 1779, until November 28. The other was 
the 'Robinson House,' and was situated on the eastern shore of the Hud- 
son, aboiit two miles below West Point. It was used as a military hospital 
and afterward as the headquarters of several successive general officers, 
among whom was Benedict Arnold, who was in this house when apprised 
of Andre's capture. It was from this house that Arnold made his 

The Moore house stood in Washington Valley, near the river, a short 
distance from the northeast corner of the present cemetery. It was built 
prior to 1749, and was a pretentious structure for that period, being 
known as "Moore's Folly." 

Every foot of land in these Highlands has its memories of the Revo- 
lutionary War, and this town contains the culminating features of native 
grandeur not only, but also the vital strategic point on the famous river 
which figured so conspicuously in the war for independence, and will 
continue to fill so many important pages of our national history for all 
time to come. 

r< )\\X UF HIGHLANDS. 265 

XAiTRAi. ri:.\TL-Ki:s. 

These great hills of gramlcur and Ix-auty cxicnd along the entire river 
frc>nt from Stony Point on the south lo old Slorm King on the north. 
Scientists tell us that these vast mountains of jjrimitive rock are com- 
posed of granite, gneiss and syenite, with veins of trap. Uut regarding 
the formation of these towering masses of rock Ijoth geologists and lay- 
men have only speculated and guessed for more than a century, as their 
descendants and successors will continue to do for ages to come, and 
leave the maze of mystery as dark and deep as ever. We can only wonder 
and admire, while scientists wrestle with the mighty problem of creation 
here presented. 

Just now, as the writer is gathering '"these data for this connected 
record, he finds that the great mystery concerning the formation of this 
particular region has become even more obscure than ever through the 
developments of the vast engineering project now under way off Storm 
King Mountain. In the effort to find a solid rock bottom beneath the 
Hudson at this gate of the Highlands, through which to construct the 
great aqueduct which is to convey the Catskill Mountain water to New 
York City, the engineers have bored the river bottom to a depth of 700 
feet, and are still baffled. Geologists predicted that this rock would be 
foimd at least at 500 feet. But now they are all at sea and frankly admit 
that their supposed knowledge as to the bed of the Hudson at tliis point 
was totally wrong. Some expected that rock would be reached even at 
100 feet. But now the engineers say they may have to go dowui 4,000 
feet before they can find proper rock through which to build their aque- 
duct which is to carry 800,000,000 gallons of water daily at a pressure of 
200 feet per square inch. The old bed of the river is evidently covered 
with the drift and silt of ages. And who will say when and how this 
vast body of water broke through these adamantine hills, or l>y what 
Cyclopean process of upheaval they were formed? 

There are several small streams that flow into the Hudson at diflfer- 
ent points in this town; one just south of Cro' Xest. others at Highland 
Falls and I'ort MontgomerN . The pretty cataract. crJled "nuttermilk 
Falls," from its characteristic resemblance to that acidulous fluid, as it 
tumbles over the rockv shelves in fantastic glee in its haste to reach 
the river, is admired bv everv tourist. There are also other .'Streams which 


become tributaries of Popolopen's Creek, which hnds the Hudson at Fort 

The town also contains many inland ponds or small lakes, such as 
Bog Meadow Pond, Round Pond, Long- Pond, Cranberry Pond, Mine 
Pond, Popolopen Lake and Highland Lake. Strangely enough, many of 
these ponds have been left without more appropriate names. This High- 
land Lake, just south of Fort Montgomery, is about 150 feet above the 
Hudson, and about half a mile long by one-eighth of a mile wide, and is 
fed by its own sijrings. "Flood l^ake" and "Flessian Lake" are some of 
its more ancient appellations, bestowed, according to Revolutionary tra- 
dition, because of a company of Hessians who were slain there when Sir 
Henry Clinton captured Fort Montgomery. 

It is now proposed by the New York authorities to locate a new State 
Prison in the vicinity of this lake, which is northwest of lona Island in 
the Hudson. Most of the region in that immediate section is a wild 
rocky forest, and sparsely populated. Half a mile or more west of the 
river, however, there is a comparatively level plateau, some 200 acres in 
extent, from which a fine view of both reaches of the Hudson is obtained. 
This is included in the site which has been selected for the prison. Part 
of it, however, extends over into Rockland County. 

This property, which consists of some 500 acres, was purchased by the 
State for this prison site, in December, 1907, at a cost of $75,000. It is 
about six miles below Highland Falls, and it includes Highland Lake and 
its entire watershed. Whether the name of this new prison will be se- 
lected from the classic nomenclature which prevails in that locality, such 
as "Doodletown," or "Popolopen," remains to be seen. 

"Doodletown Bight," is the classic name handed down from the Co- 
lonial period, which is here applied to a small bay in the Hudson where 
small water craft find a safe and pleasant harbor. The new State road 
which is to run from the New Jersey line to Albany, will pass through 
the eastern side of this new prison tract. Bear Mountain, on the west, 
has an inexhaustible supply of granite well suited for building purposes. 


As before stated, the ancient records are almost devoid of names of 
early settlers in this immediate region, and the presumption is that these 
settlers were comparatively few. Major Boynton, in his history of West 


roim. sa\s : "'riic interval between the grantin;..,' of the patents anil the 
transfer of the titles, clown to the period at which the American Revolu- 
tion commenced, are blanks in historical literature. Xo traditions even 
of early settlers are extant, and the probabilities arc that, beyond a set- 
tlement made to secure a site or grant. West Point, being in a region 
of stratified rocks, heavily covered with drift deposits, and without a suit- 
able soil for cultivation, remained a mere woodland tract, possessing no 
higher value than attaches to similar adjoining points in the Highlands 
which have remained unsettled and uncultivated to this day." 

It seems well settled, however, that John Moore, the patentee, really 
located upon his purchase about 1725. This homestead stood in what 
has since been known as Washington X'alley, from the fact that Wash- 
ington once occupied the same dw-elling for a time. The original house, 
and even the second one, which replaced it, have long since disappeared, 
but the remains of the old cellar were visible for many years afterward. 
This, then, may be regarded as the first point of settlement in the town of 
Highlands. The Moore descendants, though inclined toward loyalism. 
at the outbreak of the war, could not have been outspoken or turbulent 
in their opposition to the American cause, as their lands were not con- 
fiscated. They, how^ever, soon fled to Nova Scotia, but afterward re- 
turned to the State of North Carolina, where some of them became prom- 
inent, one being elected Governor of the State ; and Stephen ^loore sold 
the West Point reservation to the Government, as already stated. A 
daughter of John ^Moore married Hugh ]\IcClellan about the time the 
war broke out. Although not in the army, as a soldier, AlcClellan seems 
to have fought bravely against the invaders on his own hook, as it were, 
for the records contain many instances of his personal prowess. He was 
employed in hauling stone for the erection of Fort Putnam, and on one 
occasion he crossed the river alone and brought powder for the Conti- 
nental Army at West Point at the risk of his life or capture. 

James Denton, who came from Newburgh. seems to have settled at the 
Point some time afterward. He had married into the McClellan family 
and became active in pressing the claim against the Government for the 
title to the old homestead there by reason of possession. These descendants 
also claimed certain rights which came from the Moore family direct ami 
were not reserved in the deed to the Government, although antedating 
that transaction, as thev contended. Then, too, it mav be added in their 


behalf, the suit for ejectment was terminated by a compromise, the widow 
of McClellan being paid a certain sum to surrender her claim. 

In the vicinity of Highland Falls Cornelius Swim seems to have been 
the pioneer settler. This family originally came from England about 
1686 and settled on the east side of the Hudson opposite West Point, 
forming part of a colony there. They were olTered an extensive tract 
of land there at that time for ten cent.s an acre. But not being pos- 
sessed even of this modest amount of money, they were afterward obliged 
to leave when a more fortunate immigrant took the tract at fifteen cents 
per acre. The Swims, Faurots and Roses came to Highlands in 1725. 
Cornelius Swim had six sons and six daughters, most of whom settled 
in the vicinity. He was finally killed by a British scout fen* refusing to 
tell where certain army supplies were hidden. 

Cornelius Gee was another ante-Revolutionary settler ai W^est Point, 
who came from the Colony opposite. He afterward established a ferry 
from West Point, then known as "Gee's Point," to Constitution Island 
opposite, being associated with Jacob Nelson in the enterprise. This 
was called "Nelson's F'erry." Nelson also lived in the colony on the east 
shore of the river opposite the Point and he had seven children. Only 
one of these, however, seems to have settled on the west side of the 
river. This ancient ferry is frequently mentioned in the Revolutionary 
annals ; and Nelson's Point opposite Fort Arnold, afterward Fort Clin- 
ton, was regarded as a most important strategic point b}- Washington, 
which he carefully guarded. 

Tradition has a pleasant little Highland "tea story" connected with 
this Gee family which may as well be perpetuated here. "Aunt Sally 
Gee" was the happy possessor of half-a-pound of this most delectable 
and very scarce beverage that caused so much trouble between the 
mother country and her dependent Colonies on this side of the Atlantic, 
at the outbreak of hostilities. It is said that while the flames that were 
destroying Fort Montgomery illuminated this entire region, announc- 
ing the triumph of the British forces, "Aunt Sally", giving up all as 
lost, resolved upon having a final cup of tea to assuage her grief be- 
fore fleeing for her life. Grabbing the old teapot from the shelf, she 
tossed the entire, half-pound of tea into it in her haste, determined 
that should be left for the redcoats. But the decoction proved 
all too strong and bitter even for her tea-stained palate. 


An early pioneer in tiie West Grove section was John Kronkhite, 
who came, about the opening of the war, from Westchester County, N. Y. 
Some of his descendants are still in that region. Moses Clark was 
another early settler there, whose name appears in the Cornwall records 
between 1765 and 1775, which would indicate that he arrived some 
^ears before the war. Tobias Weygant is also mentioned as an early 
West Grove settler. Among other early settlers in the town were Tho- 
mas and Joseph Collins, W'illiam Cooper, who lived near Fort Mont- 
gomery, Thomas Cooper, Isaac Garrison, who livetl in the Middle High- 
lands section, Jonas Garrison, William Horton, Zaccheus Horton, Mau- 
rice Havens, David June, who lived near the Rockland county line, 
D. Lancaster, John Parker, Israel Rose, Samuel Rockwell, S. Sheldon, 
Birdseye Young and James Stout. Isaac Faurot was also an ancient 
resident in the Highland Falls section, who was a deckhand on the 
first steamboat "Cleremont" that went up the Hudson under Captain 
Wiswell in 1807. Captain I-"aurot, a descendant, is still a resident of 
Highland Falls. 


Like several other of the younger tow^ns in Orange county. High- 
lands was the offsj^ring of convenience and expediency. Its formation 
became in fact almost a matter of public necessity owing to the pecu-" 
liar conditions prevailing. The old town of Cornwall consisted of a 
thickly settled region north of the mountains, and the wi lely separated 
localities of Highland Falls and Fort Montgomery far to the south. 
Communication between these two ends of the township was in those 
days very slow and inconvenient. The transaction of official business 
of the town was very expensive and almost impracticable. Boats had 
to be chartered to carry voters to the town meetings. Thus the division 
of the town, which was authorized by the c<iunty supervisors in 1S72, 
met with little opposition. 

The first town meeting rif the new town was held at the house of 
Charles Engleskircher, March 4. 1873. William Avery was then chosen 
the first Supervisor, and a full list of town official was selected. Avery 
was succeeded by Jeremiah Drew in 1874, who continued in the office 
several years. John A. Cook held the office one term and was followed 
by Hon. Louis F. Goodsell. who was supervisor eighteen years. Jacob 


L. Hicks was elected in 1905 and was succeeded by John F. Pierce in 
the closely contested election of 1907. 


Of these, West Point, if it can be called a village, is the more import- 
ant. A post-office was established here at an early period of the nation's 
history. Major Roger Alden was the postmaster for some years, and 
was followed by Mr. Hoh. In 1835 Prof. Claudius Berard succeeded 
to the office and held it until his death in 1848. His widow was then 
appointed and remained in office until 1870 when she was succeeded 
by A. B. Berard, who was still there in 1880. 

The place is composed almost entirely of the great Military School 
of the nation in all its varied departments and imposing structures. 
Aside from this there is very little business, except that arising from 
the extensive improvements now in progress by the government. The 
noted old West Point hotel is still standing, and in operation, although 
even this is soon to be demolished under the plans for the modern re- 
construction of the post, which are being carried out on a vast scale and 
at great expense. 

The importance of West Point during the Revolutionary period 
is too well understood by every student of our national history to need 
any further emphasis or exemplification in tliis connection. It is visited 
by thousands from every land annuall}^ as the great show-place of the 
nation and river. And the rare native charm of its location enshrines 
it as the beauty spot of America. 

Busy Highland Falls, adjoining West Point on the south, was in- 
corporated in 1907. It is located on the Big Aleadow Brook which 
tumbles over the rocks into the Hudson at this point in a most attrac- 
tive cataract, which gave the village its name. It was first known as 
"Buttermilk Falls,"' under which name the post-office was established 
there July 14, 1849. Cornelius Nelson was the first postmaster, but Presi- 
dent Buchanan removed him and appointed Timothy O'Leary in his 
place. He was reinstated, however, at the close of Buchanan's term, and 
held the office in all about thirty vears. Joseph F. Stephens, the present 
postmaster was appointed in 1901. Although still invested with much 
historic charm because of its 200 vears' existence, the village now pre- 

TOWX OF ]II(ilI[:.\XDS. 271 

sents a pleasing modern aspect. There are many business houses, 
stores and shops. There are two national banks, both organized in 
1907. A library and reading room, antl a village improvement society. 
A weekly newspaper was established in 1891. South of the village 
overlooking the Hudson are some charming private residences including 
those of John Iligelow, Major General Roe, ex-Senator Goodsell and 
J. rierpont Morgan. The place is a favored summer region because 
of its picturesque natural environment. The most imposing structure 
in the village is Ladycliff Academy conducted by the Franciscan Sisters. 
This property was originally Cozzen's and later Cranston's Hotel, and 
was purchased and opened for its present purpose in 1900. Extensive 
additions and improvements have since been made. The enclosed grounds 
cover an area of twenty-two acres. There is an average attendance of 
one hundred and ninety pupils, and the regular courses give the edu- 
cation acquired in advanced high schools. 

The old Revolutionary Fort ^[ontgomery, which stood on Popolopen's 
Creek, where the stream empties into the Hudson, is perpetuated by 
a small hamlel with the same name. It makes no boast of its business im- 
portance and points only to its patriotic history. It is, however, the ship- 
ping point of large quantities of iron ore from tlie Forest of Dean Mines _ 
some six miles west of this point. 

^^ Grove is a pretty hamlet in the mountain section northwest of 
Highland F^'alls. It was settled at an early date and the environment is 
among some of the attractive lakes and ponds of the town. 


I-\)r the school records i)ertaining to this sjx'cihc region between 1S13 
and 1856, the reader is referred to the parent town of Cornwall. There 
are three common school districts in the present town, in addition to the 
Post school at West Point which is maintained for the children of 
the soldiers and officers of the post. District Xo. 2 comprises the High- 
land Falls and Fort Montgomery .schools. George W. F'lood, school 
commissioner for the eastern district of Orange County, is a resident 
of Highland Falls. 

The First Presbyterian Society was incorporated October 12, 1830, with 
William Flowe, of Buttermilk Falls. Samuel Spencer of West Point and 


Peter Meeks of West Grove as trustees. It was decided to erect two 
churches for the better convenience of the separate settlements, one 
near Buttermilk Falls, and the other in the Fort Montgomery section. 
These churches were open to other denominations under certain regula- 
tions. In 1850 the society was reorganized under the name of "The 
First Presbyterian Church of the Highlands." The following trustees 
were then chosen : David Parry, Cornelius Nelson, Charles P. Smith, 
Alexander Mearns, and John M. Hall. The Rev. E. P. Roe, the famous 
novelist, who then lived on his fruit farm in Cornwall, was the pastor 
of this church for several years, being succeeded by Rev. Mr. Williams. 

The First MetJiodist Church at Fort Montgomery was incorporated 
January 11, 1831, with the following trustees: Thomas Potter, Ebenezer 
Bull, Michael Jaquish, Hiram Tyler and Silas Rockwell. A comfortable 
house of worship was built soon afterward. 

The First Methodist Church at Buttermilk Falls began its career 
March 4, 1845, with Andrew Swim, David Parry, James Thackara, 
Charles P. Smith and Wright Dusenbury as trustees. But for some 
reason the society disbanded soon afterward and the members united 
with other churches. 

The present Methodist Church at the Falls came into existence some 
years later, and it continues in a flourishing condition. 

The Church of the Holy Iiuwceufs (Episcopal), at Highland Falls, 
was incorporated September 13, 1850, Robert W. Weir and Thomas Webb 
being chosen wardens, and Deiuiis 'M. Mahar, W. H. C. Bartlett, A. E. 
Church, Francis Rider, R. S. Agnew, Thomas Corris, B. R. Alden and 
R. S. Smith, vestrymen. The church building, which was erected largely 
through the liberality of Prof. Weir of the Alilitary Academy, was com- 
pleted in July, 1847. being' constructed of the native granite. 

The Catholic Church of the Sacred Heart was erected opposite the old 
Cozzens Hotel, at the Falls, in 1875, at a cost of $19,000. Rev. T. J. 
Early became the first settled pastor. 

"molly pitcher.'' 

The oft-told story of this stout, freckle-faced young Irish patriot of the 
Revolution is so closely identified with the ancient history of this locality, 
where she lived and died, that its omission here, even in this modern 
historv, would be noted with regret. 


At the capture of I'ort Clinton by the British in October, 1777, "Molly" 
was "in at the finish." When the enemy scaled the parapet, her husband, 
an artilleryman, dropped his portfire and fled. But Molly caught it up 
and discharged the last gun fired. Nine months later, at the Monmouth 
battle, while she was devotedly bringing water to her husband, who was 
serving a gun, he fell dead at her feet from a British shot. Although the 
officer in command ordered the piece withdrawn, Molly dropped her 
water-bucket, seized the rammer, and vowed she would fill lier husband's 
place at the gun and thus avenge his death. Next morning, covered 
with dirt and blood, she was presented to Washington by General Greene, 
and was appointed a sergeant and placed upon the half-pay list for lite. 
She became a universal favorite with the army and usually appeared in 
artillery dress, with a cocked hat. She was afterward provided for at 
the Point by the Government authorities and died in that vicinity about 
the age of thirty-three. 


Colonel Henry Knox, who was appointed chief of artiller}' by Washing- 
ton in November, 1775, was the first to propose the establishment of a 
military academy, of the Woolwich type, in this country. In a letter to 
his wife, dated September 5, 1776, he said: "We must have a standing 
army. The militia get sick, or think themselves so, and run home." 
Later in the same month, in a letter to Adams, he wrote: "Military 
academies must be instituted at any expense. We are fighting against 
a people well acquainted with the theory and practice of war, and brave 
by discipline and habit." 

Here was the germ of the Military Academy of this nation In the 
following October a committee was appointed to "prepare and bring in a 
plan of a military academy at the army." The Post of West Point re- 
ceived its first garrison January 20, 1778, and work on Fort Clinton was 
begun at once. There seems no room for doubt that in the very midst 
of the Revolutionary War, at least as early as 1780, and possibly two 
years before, an engineer school was in operation at West Point. There 
were also a laboratory and library, which was the parent of the present 
Academy Library, the oldest Government library in the United States. 
It is clear that military instruction of some sort had then begim. Early 
in 1783, when the success of the American Revolution was apparent, the 


necessity for this permanent school of mihtary education was still recog- 
nized. General Washington and his officers were agreed upon the im- 
portance of some such school, and West Point was generally regarded 
as the ''key to the United States." In 1783 the necessity of retaining 
West Point for this purpose was urged upon Congress. General Knox, 
Secretary of War in 1790, again advocated the scheme in his report, 
which was approved by Washington. But it was not until March 16, 
1802, that the organic act for the establishment of the United States 
Military Academy was finally passed. This authorized the President to 
organize and establish a corps of engineers at West Point which should 
constitute a Military Academy. 

Thus in 1802 ten Cadets of engineers were stationed at West Point 
with their officers, which constituted the Military Academy there until 
1812. This force was increased from time to time, and the sum of 
$25,000 was finally appropriated for the erection of suitable buildings, 
and the provision of the library, apparatus and necessary instruments for 
the use of the school. 

Previous to this, however, while Washington, Randolph, Knox and 
Hamilton strongly favored the West Point Academy plan, Jefferson 
doubted the constitutionality of the scheme. But Washington was in- 
clined to take the risk, and at his recommendation the West Point School 
was practically started in 1794, it being then held in the old provost prison 
building, which was burned in April, 1796. The school seems to have 
begun in earnest, however, in February of that year. The fire, which 
had destroyed all the books and apparatus, was thought to have been of 
incendiary origin, induced perhaps by opposition to the school. In the 
following May a parapet for the practice of field pieces, and some of the 
early wooden fortifications were constructed. 

In September, 1799, the superintendency of this academy, which how- 
ever had not yet been legally established, was offered by President 
Adams to Count Rumford, the founder of the Royal Military Academy 
of Munich. But nothing came of this ill-advised proposition. For nearly 
25 years Washington had labored to establish a National Military 
Academy, which he considered of primary importance. 

On December 14, 1801, Major WilTiams, a grand-nephew of Benjamin 
Franklin, took charge of the school as superintendent. Cadet John 
Lillie, writing of his life there from 1801 to 1805, said: "All order and 


regulation, either moral or religious, gave way to idleness, dissipation 
and irrcligion. No control over the conduct of the officers and cadets was 

As already stated the academy was legally instituted March 16, 1802, 
and the school went into full operation on the 4th of the following July. 
But its ancient history really dates from 1776. The act of 1812 estab- 
lished its present form, the main features of which have been practically 
adhered to to this day. Washington is still regarded as its founder, 
while Knox first proposed and strongly advocated a military school of 
this very type, and Hamilton outlined the well-considered plan of military 
education that was finally adopted and has been pursued ever since. 




By Charles E. Stickney. 

derivation of the name. 

THE derivation of the name Minisink is undoubtedly from the 
Delaware valley, which was the "Minisink" country of its Indian 
owners. They had a large village and castle on the Jersey side 
of the Delaware River, opposite a large island in the river, both that and 
the village being known to them and to the early white settlers by the 
name "Minisink." They were a sub-division of the Lenni-Lenape tribe 
that somehow became known later by the name of Delaware, from an 
English lord, who visited the mouth of the river about five minutes once, 
and left his unmerited name to the river and its valley as well as to the 
tribe of Indians about it. In truth a most foolish freak upon the part of 
the white people, who had far more deserving names to give, if they 
wished to observe and reward more daring explorers. Foolish, too, be- 
cause the Indian names were just as beautiful, even more so than that of 
the old lord. 

This sub-division of the Lenni-Lenape Indians was called the Minsi 
(wolf), and they were easily recognized from other tribes by the white 
people. In 1663 when Wiltwyck (now Esopus or Rondout) was attacked, 
its white settlers declared that they saw the Munsey (Minsi) Indians 
among their assailants. 

In front of their village on the river flats south of the island lay their 
great national cemetery covering acres of ground, where many genera- 
tions of their nation lay entombed. Some of them were buried so close 
to the river that the sweep of its current often washed away the dirt and 
exposed their bones as the writer saw them. The early white people 
in the valley, all German, at first assumed that the name Minsi, pronounced 
by them "munsey," was derived from the fact that the water had at some 
time been drained by the Water Gap from the lands in the valley and 
that the name was derived from "the water is gone." We have never 


fouml any corroboration of thai theory. The village was the source of 
the name, but what is meant in the Lenni-Lenape language we probably 
shall never know. I""rom their village the white settlers applied it to the 
whole valley. 

William Tietsort, whom they induced to settle among them near pres- 
ent Port Jervis, and do their blacksmithing, in 1690, found the name 
there. Arent Schuyler, who has left on recortl his diary of the visit he 
made there to find whether the French spies had been there from Canada, 
said of it: "1694 ye 6th, Tuesday. I continued my journey to Maghack- 
emeck (Indian name for the neighborhood of the junction of the Never- 
sink with the Delaware) and from thence to within half-a-day's journey 
of the Minisink." A half-day's journey would about represent the dis- 
tance to the village and castle of the tribe mentioned, and where he was 

The Indians who occupied the territory in these three towns were one 
of the three divisions of the Lenni-Lenapes. On the first map of the 
country made they were called Maquas, which was later corrected to 
Munscys and by the English to Minsies. The name of their headquarters, 
Minisink, has come down to us from all the various languages spoken by 
white settlers as Minisink. That corroborates it as an original Indian 
word. Every clan or sub-division of the tribes used an accent of their 
own. so that they were easily distinguished, but the difference was not 
so radical but that the whole Lenni-Lenape people could understand each 
other. Therefore the name Minisink was a name known over a vast 
region before the white people came here. Its meaning is a mystery 
which all linguists can guess at with some probability of nearness. 


June 23rd, 1664, this region belonged to Holland, at least that country 
claimed it; but Charles, then King of England, deeded that day, to his 
brother, James, Duke of York, a tract "to the northward as far as the 
northernmost branch of the Delaware River in 41 degrees and 40 minutes 
north latitude, thence in a straight line to Hudson's River, to be called 
"Nova Cesaria" or New Jersey. England sent over a fleet and captured 
the whole country in this vicinity a little later the same year, and that 
made the Duke's patent valid. 


The region under consideration was then a dreary forest, but land 
speculators soon began to deal in tracts of it, and New York Province 
claimed that the line, 41.40 latitude north to the northernmost branch of 
the Delaware River, ran from its beginning on Hudson's River to the 
mouth of the Lehigh River (which they asserted was the branch of the 
Delaware referred to in the deed) where is now Easton, Pa. 

On the other side the owners of New Jersey claimed that the branch 
referred to in the deed was a tributary of the Delaware River at what 
IS now Cochecton, N. Y. It will be seen that this disputed territory was 
of great extent, the apex of the triangle on the Htidson River widening 
out to a base of near 50 miles from present Easton to present Cochecton. 
In this triangle was comprised nearly all of what we now call Sussex 
County, N. J., and, according to the New Jersey claim, taking in the pres- 
ent city of Port Jervis and about all of the present towns of Greenville 
and Minisink. The great dispute as to the ownership of this triangle 
lasted for a hundred years and its tales of warfare and contests in 
courts are of great interest, but not altogether pertinent to our subject. 
The start upon Hudson's River is thus mentioned m N. J. Archives, Vol. 
I, page 531, in 1685-6: "Gawen Lawrie of New Jersey, Governor Dongan 
of New York and others" fixed at a point nigh Colonel William Merrit's 
house (see mention in first census of Orange County) on the west side of 
the Hudson River and "marked with a penknife on a beech tree standing 
by a small run." How different surveyors could locate the degree of lat- 
itude from thence to such widely different points was explained in old 
documents to be the fault of the crude quadrants then used. 

In 1704 Queen Anne of England granted 23 persons a patent (deed), 
for a tract of land which was named "Minisink," because it embraced the 
land in Minisink along the Delaware River down as far as Big Minisink 
island, and as far north as Peenpack (a nickname for the Gumaer set- 
tlement on the Neversink). March 20th, 1765, Alexander Colden, of 
New York, said of this patent. Vol. Ill, p. 988, Documentary History 
of New York: "It contains not less than 250,000 acres, under the very 
small Quit-rent of nine pounds current money of this Province." 

The Wawayanda patent had been granted the previous year (1703) to 
12 men and the Minisink patent lapped upon it, hence we may well con- 
clude that the quarrel between the Provinces of New York, New Jersey, 
the owners of the Minisink patent and those of the Wawayanda patent 


made a very mixed question of title. There does not appear to have 
been an\- severe contests in the three towns of whicli we write between 
indivichial land owners, excei)t those of the large patents. In 1767 the 
Provinces of New York and New Jersey appointed commissioners to run 
out a compromise line settled upon to run from the apex of the triangle 
on Hudson River to the present station at Tri-states, which was done and 
that line has since remained as the boundary between the two States. 
Titles derived from the Miiiisink patent south of that line were void, but 
the titles of landholders in the tlirec towns were all derived from the 
New York patentees, hence there followed no c'onfusion. 

During the Revolution there were few changes in county matters, but 
March 7th, 1788. the legislature of the State enacted that subdivisions of 
counties should be called towns instead of precincts. By that act Orange 
County was divided into the towns of Haverstraw. Orangetown. Goshen, 
New Cornwall. Warwick and Minisink. The southern boundary of the 
latter was the State line of New York and New Jersey. 

The town of Minisink under that formation was bounded on the east 
by the Wallkill River, northeast and north by the town of Wallkill and 
the Ulster County line around on the northwest to the Delaware River, 
and the State line. 

In 1798 the town of Deer Park was created and it cut off from Mini- 
sink its over-mountain lands, which had belonged to old ]\Iinisink. and 
thus cut off the base whence the name had been derived. Since then the 
town has held to the name, a reminder of its old associations and of being 
once the home of a part of the Minsi Indian tribe. 

In 1825 the town of Calhoun was formed principally from Deer Park 
and Wallkill. and formed part of the boundary of Minisink on the north. 
In 1833 the name of Calhoun was changed to Mount Hope. 

In 1840 the town of Wawayanda was erected from the northeastern 
portion of Minisink, and took the place of Wallkill in the boundary of the 

In 1853 the town of Greenville was taken from the westerly portion of 
Minisink, and fixed the bounrlarics of the latter as they now are. 


The line between the States previously referred to. on a westerly course 
has set-offs to avoid great obstacles in some places, but where it boimds 


Minisink it is a straight line. It crosses the Wallkill a short distance 
south of Unionville. 

Millsburg, is a small village, named from the large mills once located 
on Botidinot's Creek at that place. Extensive saw-mills, grist, cider, 
and plaster mills, were for a long time kept there by John Racine, and 
did a very large business for years after his death. They are now gone. 
Down stream a short distance were other grist and saw mills, of which 
one, a grist mill, is still in existence and managed by Frank Mead. A lit- 
tle farther down the stream were once very large woolen carding and 
fulling mills, where cloth was made of the finest quality. These are 
now in ruins. 

Boudinot's Creek has gone by various names, such as Indegot and 
Bandegot, but antiquarians have now settled upon the derivation of the 
name from Elias Boudinot, and the probabilities are that they are right. 
Elias was a merchant in New York City, and speculated in the lands out 
in the wilderness, as many others were doing in those times. The records 
show that he bought, June loth, 1704, of Philip Rokeby, one-third of his 
share in the Wawayanda patent; also, August 8th, 1707, a twelfth part 
of the patent. He soon sold out his interests in the patent and so far as 
we have been able to find, never saw the creek in question, and he cer- 
tainly never made a settlement in this county. 

Rutger's Creek was undoubtedly named from the circumstance of 
Anthony Rutger's buying of the widow and son of John Merrit, one-half 
of the one-twelfth of the Wawayanda patent allotted to Daniel Honan, 
who had in 1705 sold it to Merrit. 

The creek in question rises in the town of Greenville and flows east- 
ward near Unionville, where it takes a northeasterly course through 
Waterloo Mills, Westtown, Johnson's, and then southerly through Gard- 
nersville to the Wallkill. Its Indian name is not known. 

Tunkamoose Creek, a small tributary of the Wallkill near Unionville, 
has what is claimed to be an Indian name, but we cannot verify it. 

The Wallkill is said by Haines to have drawn its name from some 
families of Walloons who settled by it, and it has also had various other 
derivations alleged. Its Indian name is well known. In the very early 
surveys about Franklin Furnace, N. J., in 1712-15, the surveyors have 
written the name plainly, Twischsawkin. That this name was not of a 
mere local application is shown by the fact that on a map accompanying 


Smith's History of Xew Jersey, made and published in London, Char- 
ing Cross, by Wilham Faden, December ist, 1777, from surveys made in 
1769 by the commissioners who ran the State hne, the name Twischsawkin 
is appHed to the stream. On that map there is not a settlement marked 
from Goshen to jMackhackcmeck in this county. In Sussex County the set- 
tlement of the Walling brothers, where Joseph Walling kept an inn, now 
Hamburg, X. J., is marked "Wallins." They were located there some- 
where about 1725-1730, and a brother settled in this town of Minisink at 
about the same time, by the river. We take him to have been the first 
settler in the town, and mention is made of him later. The true derivation 
of the name Wallkill is due to their settlements. The name "Wallins" 
was known far and wide to the stragglers who first came into the neigh- 
borhood and the river that ran by their locations, first called by visitors, 
Wallinskill, about 1750 got abbreviated to "Wallkill." The Walloons 
spoken of by Haines were undoubtedly "Wallins." The Indian name 
Twischsawkin has been interpreted to mean "'abundance of wild plums." 
A land abounding in snakes comes nearer its true meaning in our study of 
the Minsi language. 

Unionville village, assumed to be derived from the union of good feel- 
ings following the settlement of the line between the States of New York 
and New Jersey, is near that line, and is believed to have been settled 
about 1738. It now has three stores, two hotels, coal and feed stores, a 
system of waterworks owned by a private company, three churches, and 
other places of business. It was incorporated as a village in 1871, Septem- 
ber 26th. Isaac Swift was the first president. 

Westtown, a village so named because it was situate<l at the western 
limit of the settlements when Goshen was headquarters of civilization in 
the county, has three stores, two churches, one hotel. 

Johnsons, so-named after William Johnson who gave the land for the 
Middletown, Unionville & Water Gap Railroad when it passed through the 
town where the depot is now located, has three good stores, two feed 
and coal stores, one hotel, and Borden's large milk and cream plant, and 
is a place of considerable business. 

Gardnersville. on Rutger's Creek, about two and a half miles southeast 
of Johnsons, is mostly in the town of Wawayanda. and derived its name 
from the Gardner family who once owned extensive grist, .saw anfl cider 
mills there. It is now mainlv known from the feed mills of Tohn R. Man- 


ning, at present its principal industry. In the early settlement of the coun- 
try there was a defensive place near, known as Fort Gardner. Its location 
is not precisely known. In some records it is spoken of as being southward 
from where Westtown now is. It was most probably at Gardnersville. 
An old stone building- on the late Lain farm is the "Fort Gardner," says 
one tradition. 

Waterloo Mills (derivation of name unknown) since the decline of the 
milling industry has nothing now to show of its former important grist 
mills btit the ruins. 


Of the first settler in the present territory of this county, Patrick Mac- 
Gregorie, whose brother-in-law, David Toshuck, is spoken of in Rut- 
tenber & Clark's History of Orange County (p. 13) as having "closed his 
earthly career in the bosom of his family at Plum Point," we desire to 
mention. In New Jersey Archives, Vol. I, p. 460, it says: "David Toshuck, 
of Moneyweard, partner with James, Earl of Perth, Captain Patrick Mac- 
Gregorie, all sharers in Proprieties," were so mentioned in 1864. In a note 
on Vol. IX, p. T^^y, mention is made of the will of Edward Antill proven 
in New York, April 7th, 1725, wherein he gives his wife all his interest 
in a "certain proprietyship formerly purchased of David Toshuck, laird 
of Minnevarre." On p. 338 it is stated that Edward Antill, Jr., came 
into the possession of the laird of Minnevarre's broad acres at Raritan 
landing in Middlesex County where he spent the most of his life." Don- 
ald Macquirrish, of Murderer's Creek," is mentioned with David Toshuck, 
of Minnevarre, Scotland, in a deed dated March 13th, 1687. From all 
wdiich we have doubts as to the death of the aforesaid David Toshuck at 
Plum Point. 

Governor Dongan bought, October 25, 1684, of three Indians, one of 
whom was Joghem or Keghgekapowell, for ninety pounds and eleven 
shillings in goods, all the land from the mouth of Murderer's Creek on 
the Hudson, to a "water pond upon the said hills called Meretange." The 
latter is the present Binnewater pond in Greenville. This purchase em- 
braced about thirty by forty miles of the territory of Orange precinct, 
and a part of the lands in three towns. It lapped on other grants also. 
September 12, 1694, he sold it to Captain John Evans. In the latter sale 


went a house on I'Kini Point, whicli Cajitain MacGregorie had built tlicre 
on his land by advice of that very Governor, who also sold the land with- 
out any scruple. 

Lord Ikdloniont. in reviewing the transaction afterwards in writing 
January 2, 1701. to the Lords of Trade, said: 

"Capt. Evans's great grant of 40 miles one way and 30 another, has but 
one house on it, or rather a hut, where a poor man lives, built by Patrick 
MacGregorie, a Scotchman, who was killed at the time of the Revolution 
here, and his widow compelled to sell her house and land to Capt. Evans 
for 30 or 35 pounds." 

The foregoing was not only a concise history of the first settlement in 
this county, but it was in reality the first census, and shows that then, 
1 70 1, there was not a single person in the limits of our three towns as a 
permanent settler. It may be said in apparent contradiction that a census 
taken by Bellomont in 1698 showed this county to have in it 29 men, 31 
women, 140 children and 19 negroes. They were all located along the 
Hudson River, in what is now Rockland County. Yet there was at that 
time a blacksmith, William Tietsort (Titsw'orth), in Minisink, near where 
Port Jervis now stands, who had settled there in 1698 at the request of 
the Indians to work at his trade for them. In 1703, the county had 268 
people in it; in 1712. 439. The Gumaer patent was settled on in the 
Neversink valley by this time, but there is no record of any settler in our 
three towns at that time. In 1723 the census showed 1,097 white and 147 
colored people in the county. The owners of the big patents used great 
inducements to get settlers to locate on their land, and it is probable 
that some were in our territory but not of record. In 1737 there were 
2,840; and in 1746. 3.268 people in the county. 

Inman \\'alling was a settler, probably 1725-1730, by the W'allkill. east 
of present Westtown, and John Whitaker died in 1742 near where 
LTnionville now is, and had been a resident there, no one knows how long. 
His will on record in the surrogate's office in Goshen, liber A. page 221, 
mentions his wife Eve, sons Richard. Peter and John. :uid daughters Jean 
and Elizabeth. Their descendants are yet residents of the town and of 
Sussex County adjoinin.g. Those two families were prol^ably the first 
permanent ones in this town of Minisink. There were others in the limits 
of what is now Wawayanda at or about the same time. 

There were two Smith families early in the precinct of Minisink. One 


of them, Benjamin, settled near the present Slate Hill village, and the 
other on the farm now owned by J. Cadigan near Johnsons, where he 
kept an inn, the place being known as Smith's Village for at least seventy- 
five years. 

Other settlers came in rapidly. William Stenard in 1749; Captain John 
Wisner from Warwick in 1776; George Kimber in 1750; Caleb Clark in 
1800; William Lane in 1760. In an assessment roll made for Goshen pre- 
cinct in 1775 Godfrey Lutes, Peter Middagh, Daniel Rosencrans, Inman 
Walling, Peter Walling, Increase Mather, John Whitaker, Jr., and Eben- 
ezer Fieers were shown to reside in this town besides the other first settlers 

The census of the county in 1756 showed it tO' have a population of 
4,446 whites and 430 slaves. In 1771 there were 9,430 whites and 662 

The Horton family were early residents of this territory, but we have 
no positive data of their first advent. October 20, 1764, a line run to 
divide the county into two precincts was described as "beginning near the 
new dwelling house of John Manno, and thence on a course which will 
leave the house of Barnabus Horton, Jr., ten chains to the westward." 
His house we do not think was in this town. A Barnabus Horton in 1813 
lived near what is now South Centerville in Wawayanda. Gabriel Horton, 
justice of the peace, 1839-1843, lived about a mile and a half west of 
present Slate Hill in Wawayanda. William Horton in this town was a 
holder of important local offices, and his son Charles W. Horton, former 
supervisor, is now one of the leading citizens, as is also his neighbor. 
Reeves Horton. 

In 1835, ten years after the town of Calhoun (Mount Hope) had been 
set off, the remainder of the territory in old Minisink had 4,439 inhabi- 
tants, and the present limits of this town about 1,000. 

In 1850 the town of Wawayanda was taken off, and in 1853 the town 
of Greenville. In 1855, by the first census after their elimination, this 
town had a population of 1,295. 

Since then its limits have remained unchanged. In i860 its population 
was 1,266; in 1865, 1,209, ^ decrease owing to the civil war; in 1880, 
1,360, including the incorporated village of Unionville, which had 316; in 
1905, the last census taken, 1,354, including Unionville — a gain in 50 years 
of 59, which may be mainly said to be in Unionville. 


Tlie first incorporated company to do business in the town was the 
Goshen and Westtown Turnpike Company, chartered June i, 1812, con- 
sisting of Reuben Hopkins, Freegift Tuthill, Benjamin Strong, Stephen 
Jackson, James Carpenter, D. AI. Westcott, "and such other persons as 
they shall associate with them." The purpose was to build a turnpike road 
from the State line to Rutger's Kill near the mill of Jones & X'ancleft 
(at Gartlnersvillej. Thence it ran to Pellet's round hill and the Goshen 
and Minisink turnpike. 

The Middletown, Unionvillc & \\'atergap Railroad Company was incor- 
porated and completed ready for business by June 10, 1868, from Union- 
ville to Middletown. Later it was leased to the Oswego Midland Rail- 
way, and still later its 13.30 miles of track were leased by the New York, 
Susquehanna & Western Railroad Company, bv which it is now operated, 
under Erie Railroad supervision. 


There appear to have been no conflicts with the Indian owners of the 
territory of the three towns under consideration, and its white set- 
tlers, previous to the Minisink war, or as some historians call it, "The 
French and Indian War" of 1754-1758. We call it the Minisink war, be- 
cause the Minsi tribe, at the outset of the war between France and Eng- 
land, which led to the great struggle between Canada for France and the 
colonies of our country for England, got permission to take up the hatchet 
against the settlers in Pennsylvania Minisink from their (the Minsis') 
masters, the Six Nations, to avenge their wrongs in that region. The 
wrongs were alleged to be that the proprietors of Pennsylvania had 
cheated the Indian owners of the lands there, and there is now- no doubt 
that the allegation was true. There was no redress to be had for an Indian 
wrong in those years. Teedyuscung and the leaders of the Indians issued 
imperative orders that the war should be confined to Pennsylvania and 
thev were pretty generally obeyed. Occasional straggling parties of them, 
however, in small numbers, disobeyed orders in order to avenge some 
injury to some person or clan, and passed through east of Shawangunk 
Mountains on marauding expeditions. They were vagrant Indians who 
had no standing as warriors in their tribe and they perpetrated wanton 


murders without the knowledge or sanction of their leaders. Of this class 
no doubt were the ones who surprised a man named Owens at work in 
Dolsen's meadow, in what was then Dolsentown, now in Wawayanda, near 
Middletown, in 1756, and shot him. David Cooley, who is believed then 
to have had a settlement at what is now the Charles O. Carpenter farm 
near Pine Hill cemetery, about a mile south of where Dolsen was located, 
alarmed at the murder of Owens, moved his family to Goshen. The next 
spring he moved back. That summer a party of Indians, in passing by his 
place, shot a woman of his household who at the time was passing from 
the outdoor o\^en to the house. 

A company of militia had been organized in 1738 in the county called 
the "Company of the Wallakill (Willinskill)" ; but none of the 144 names 
of its members appear to belong to our territory, except it may be those 
of John Monell, Lieutenant William Borland, I'enjamin Haines, James 
Monell, Johannis Crane and James Davis. John Bayard was its captain. 

The murder of the widow Walling in 1758 was mentioned in the Phila- 
delphia Gasetie and in New York papers in that year and made a pro- 
found impression throughout the colonies. 

In the Revolutionary War, Colonel Allison's Goshen regiment contained 
some names belonging to this territory. The officers of its Wawayanda 
company were : Captain, William Blair ; lieutenants, Thomas Wisner and 
Thomas Sayre, Jr. ; ensign, Richard Johnson ; of the Drowned Lands 
company — captain, Samuel Jones ; lieutenants, Peter Gale and Jacob 
Dunning ; ensign, Samuel Webb ; of the Pochuck company — captain, 
Ebenezer Owen ; lieutenants, Increase Llolley and John Bronson ; ensign, 
David Rogers ; of Minisink company — captain, Moses Courtright ; lieuten- 
ants, John VanTile and Johannes Decker ; ensign, Ephraim Middaugh. 
The latter lived in the township of Wantage in 1764, where he was com- 
missioned as an ensign of Captain Kirkendal's company by Governor 
William Franklin. The late S. M. Stoddard of that township had and 
exhibited to the writer the last named commission. Middaugh went with 
General Hathorn to the battle of Minisink, where he was killed. 


The town of Minisink was bonded in 1869, for $75,000 to aid in extend- 
ing the New York Midland Railroad from Unionville farther south. This 


has not been paid in full yet. The sum of $3,280 was ordered to be raised 
by tax on the town of Minisink by the board of supervisors on the 22nd 
of November, 1907, to pay principal and interest on those bonds. 

The first town meeting after the town of ^linisink was organized, took 
place at the house of John Van Tuyl, April i, 1789. Its territory then 
covered the three towns, and that house supposed to be the old stone 
house now in Greenville, on the former Jonathan Van Tuyl farm, later the 
Hallock house, was a convenient place for the gathering. 

August II, 1864, the present town was bonded for $25,000 to pay 
bounties for volunteers in the Civil War. It was paid off, principal and 
interest, in eight e(|ual installments as they fell due. 

Hulet Clark bought land in .Minisink in 1828 in the present town of 
Minisink, where he died March 31, 1857. H!is son, William Harvey Clark, 
early gave evidence of the good judgment and business ability which his 
future life carried out. He married Emily Robertson of Waw-ayanda and 
they lived on the old homestead near Westtown, where he died in 1907. 
His son, Robert H. Clark, is the present supervisor of this town, resides 
on the old homestead, and is establishing a business reputation as popular 
and able as that which distinguished his father and which will make his 
name long remembered in local annals. 

In March, 1799, the Legislature of the State passed an act for the 
gradual abolition of slavery. All slaves were to become free at a certain 
age. As an instance of its w-oiking, there w^as Frank Bounty, a col- 
ored man, for whom Joseph Davis of Wawayanda had traded a pair of 
oxen when Frank was a young man. When the thiie arrived at which 
the law gave Frank his libcrt}- he was called up by Mr. Davis and 
told that he was then a free man. F>ank asked him if he could not stay 
on with him, but Mr. Davis said he could not, for the reason that people 
would then say that he was being coerced. Mr. Davis gave him some 
money and told him he must go and do for himself, and Frank told the 
WTiter that was one of the saddest days of his life. 

Mr. Davis also gave him the use of a house and lot in P.rookfield or 
Slate Flill which he might, and did, enjoy for life by paying the taxes on 
it. It was the last house on the west side of the street in the west end of 
the village at that time. There he raised a large family. 

Not all negroes were so lucky. Some of them were old and worn out 
and their masters were glad to get rid of caring for them. 


In the early history of the town in all its farming communities, the 
farmers raised sheep, and made a double use of them. The rams were 
used to churn with on the big wheel and on endless chain churning ma- 
chines then used, and the wool sheared from all the sheep was carded, 
sometimes by hand, at other times in factories, and woven or spun into 
stockings, mittens, and cloth, to furnish wearing apparel. Up to 1850, 
butter was the chief product of the dairies in the town. Then selling milk 
came into general practice, and making butter, milling flour for home use, 
and traveling on horseback went out of fashion. 

The farmers universally kept sheep, raised the wool to make the clothes 
for the members of the family, and at the same time used the large sheep 
to churn with upon a tread or sweep power. Up to 1850 butter and hogs 
were the chief products. It is less than 200 years since the first squatters 
settled in the limits of the three towns of which we write. The first cus- 
toms to pass away were their friendly associations with the few Indians 
who clung to their old hunting grounds with death-like tenacity. Then 
the hostilities engendered by the helplessness of the Indians and the con- 
sequent overbearing attitude of the settlers passed by, leaving a trail of 
traditions and savage memories. Then followed the old logging, stone 
picking, mowing, husking and quilting bees or frolics in which whiskey 
was used as a general beverage. Then came the passing of the use of 
whiskey for the universal medicine and social welcome. Next passed the 
days when women carded the wool and spun and wove it, and knit every- 
where, knit, knit, knit. Next passed the days when the young ladies* 
worked samplers, and helped in the harvest and hay fields, and grew up 
vigorous, stout and healthy. Next passed the fishing with fikes and racks 
and the hunting for wolves and foxes. Now have arrived the days when 
fish and game are about extinct. 

Now are the days when the farmers sell their milk and buy their butter ; 
when they sell little else than milk and have become a great generation of 
buyers ; when social visits are about unknown ; when the old timie good- 
natured sports and merriment are frowned upon ; when men no longer 
meet on the streets and argue politics, but bury themselves in a newspaper 
on the trains or in any resting place and read, read, read; when women 
no longer knit and spin; when the girls no longer will do outdoor work 
and dreadfully dislike to do indoor work ; when, instead of the big boys 
and girls going to school a few months in the winter season, they all 


go away to boarding school. In noting these and other changes which 
liave taken place in the towns as the years have fled, it is noticeable that 
the people generally live better, even luxuriously, compared with former 
years, but are their public and domestic relations happier? 




By M. N. Kane. 

THE territory comprising the present town of Monroe is part of the 
Cheesecock Patent granted by Queen Anne, March 25, 1707. 
The Cheesecock tract was surveyed by Charles CHnton, father 
(■1 George and James Clinton, and grandfather of Dewitt Clinton. His 
f'eld book, the original of which is in the possession of Hon. MacGrane 
Cox, of Southfield, N. Y. (Mr. Fred J. Knight, Civil Engmeer, of Mon- 
roe, N. Y., having a copy), contains much information and many inter- 
esting incidents of the early history of this section. 

The town was set off from the precinct of Goshen in 1764 and named 
Cheesecock. This name continued until 1801, when it was changed to 
Southfield. On April 6th, 1808, it took the present name Monroe, in 
honor of James Monroe, the fifth President of the United States. 

In 1863, the town (like ancient Gaul), was divided into three parts by 
the erection of the three towns of Monroe, Highland and Southfield, 
which division was the same as the present towns of Monroe, Woodbury 
and Tuxedo, except that the then town of Monroe embraced a small 
portion of the present town of Woodbury. 

In 1865 ^^^ three towais were dissolved and the whole original territory 
restored to the town of Monroe. In 1889 it again underwent the Gaelic 
operation resulting in the creation of the present towns of Monroe, 
W^oodbury and Tuxedo. Monroe contains an area of 11,500 acres, W^ood- 
bury 23,000 acres and Tuxedo 50,000 acres. 

The history of this town was written by Rev. Daniel Niles Freeland, 
who was the beloved and scholarly pastor of the Presbyterian Church 
from 1847 to 1881, and his volume of two hundred and fifty pages, en- 
titled "Chronicles of Monroe in the Olden Times," is a history of the 
town up to 1898. 


Monroe has in recent years, because of its rugged beauties, its beau- 
tiful lakes and mountain scenery, its high altitude, pure water and health- 

M. N. Kane. 


fulness, and its proximil\- to the Metropolitan district, become a favorite 
resort for the people of New York and nearby cities, and has made very 
rapid growth. It is the lake region of the county and located on the crest 
of the mountain divide, the village being the highest station except Otis- 
ville on the Erie Railroad between Jersey City ami Port Jervis. There 
are four beautiful natural lakes, located from one to three miles from 
the village, namely, Mombasha, having an area of 340 acres and an ele- 
vation of 860 feet, from which Monroe village gets it water supply ; Wal- 
ton Lake, having an area of 125 acres and an elevation of 720 feet, from 
which Chester obtains its water supply ; Round Island Lake, ninety acres 
in area and 660 feet elevation, upon the eastern hhxfi of which Mr. W. M. 
Haight's beautiful Cedar Cliff Inn is located, and Cromwell Lake with an 
area of fifty-three acres and an elevation of 740 feet. There are a num- 
ber of smaller lakes which add to the beauty of this region. Among 
them should be mentioned, the Mountain Lake recently built to the east 
of the village, witli an area of twenty acres and an elevation of 550 feet, 
and Lake Winape, a most charming mountain lake near Mombasha Lake, 
with an area of eleven acres and an elevation of 760 feet, just completed 
by Mr. George R. Conklin. The construction of other lakes is con.tem- 

The village of Monroe is in the pass on the mountain crest, the waters 
from the northern part of the village flowing northeast into the Hudson 
near Newburgh, and from the southern part of the village flowing south- 
east through the Ramapo, which rises in Round Island Lake, into the 
Passaic River. 

Eager, in his early history of Orange County, with prophetic vision, 
saw the beauties of this section. He wrote as follows : "These are the 
Grampian hills of Orange. While this elevated range is severed by many 
deep glens and valleys, the Alpine heights hold within their rocky crests, 
ponds and lakes of pure water, which glitter like diamonds in the noon- 
tide sun. Rude and forbidding as this region of hills and rocks and 
mountain crags may at first sight appear to the eye of a superficial ob- 
server, yet, to the true lover of nature in the exhibition of her noblest 
works, and to the practical mind of the really utilitarian, for a thousand 
purposes, the whole is well arranged and unsurpassed by anything of 
the kind in the county. Here are found without stint or measure, gran- 
ite, mica or isinglass stone, and every quality of iron ore, with other 


minerals, treasures of present and future wealth to the nation. As early 
as 1778, during the war of the Revolution, the great chain passed across 
the Hudson at West Point, was made from the mineral of this region. 
In this respect as regards quality and quantity, the county of Orange 
stands unrivaled by any other in the State. 

"The time will come when these hills, mountains, deep glens and spark- 
ling lakes, shall be the descriptive themes of some native bard, who like 
Scott or Burns, caught up in spirit and wrapped in poetic fire, will har- 
moniously weave them, one and all, into the thrilling lays of the lowland 
and mountain muse. The time will come, when these elevated heights of 
dreary aspect, these hills overhung and darkened with vines and forest 
trees, and these lakes of picturesque beauty, unknown to the common mind, 
decorated with the wildest garniture of nature, and visited by the wing 
of the wild bird, shall be associated in the minds of our children's chil- 
dren with all that is pastoral, pleasing and heroic. True, Monroe cannot 
be made equal in agricultural beauty to other more charming localities, 
and wave with a golden harvest ; for though her hills and mountains may 
be denuded of their vegetable ornaments, they cannot be leveled down nor 
driven over by the ploughshare ; yet the time will come, when every nook 
and corner throughout the broad and variegated mass shall hold a free- 
man's cottage, teeming with life and highland cheer, whose tenants, hon- 
est and hardy, will sleep amidst the thunders which rock them to rest, 
and the lightnings that play around and gleam up their mountain dwell- 

The Rev. Mr. Freeland in writing of its mountains says : "As the 
mountains were round about Jerusalem," so are the mountains round 
about Monroe. On the east are the Highlands, like the mountains of 
Moab, seen whenever its citizens look toward sunrise. Ten miles of rock 
ridges, with many a peak, defend them on that side. Only one or two 
passes give access in that direction — one over Bull Hill, the other up to 
the Stockbridge Hotel. Either of these could easily be defended against 
an enemy. On the south are Forshee Hill and the Southfield Moun- 
tains. On the west, the Bellvale Mountains and Sugar Loaf, standing like 
a sentinel, overlooking the valley below. Schunemunk guards the north- 
west. It has a bastion on the eastern corner. High Point is a weather 
signal-tower to the observing. When it wears its night-cap late in the 
morning, it indicates falling weather ; when the cap is early doffed, it 


betokens a serene day. The black rocks loom up from ihc mouniain-top, 
and from their summit a wonderful scene presents iiself. Tiie eye sweeps 
the entire horizon, takint^ in the Catskills, JJutter Hill, the I'ishkill tlills, 
Bull and I'ine Hills, Mount Bashan, Sugar Loaf, Bellvale and Goose 
Pond Mountains, with lakes, farms, nnncs, mills and villages galore. The 
Devil's Racecourse lies on the northern slope of old Schunemunk, but 
the visitor needs none of his counsel or company, for he who climbs these 
steeps can find sweeter communion nearer to the heart of nature. 

"One other landmark is l>ald Hill, very dear to us because at its foot 
we first hung the crane. Here we toiled and studietl, and here the sun- 
shine lingers in our memory longest and our children fell asleep. It is the 
Acropolis of the village." 

And in writing of its valleys he says: '"Soils of great fertility were laid 
down here ; yes, brought from distant hills to furnish slope and meadow. 
Here are alluvions of great depth and good grain lands ; but the 
town is best adapted to grazing. The grasses, like those of the Blue 
Grass region of Kentucky, contain just those elements which yield fat- 
tening and milk-producing qualities. Had the mountains of Monroe been 
only a mass of rock, like some parts of Scotland, they might have been 
abandoned to the heather and become great solitary sheep-walks ; or if 
they had been only picturesque vales and quiet nooks, there would have 
been a temptation to some lord of the manor to make it his park and 
country-seat. Heaven had a better destiny in store for it, hence mingled 
rocks and soils so as to invite the plow% scooped out the water courses to 
attract the loom and forge, hid away such materials as would bring 
hither the herdman and artisan, the abhorrence of lordly pretension and 
elegant leisure. Monroe, from its very physical constitution, was pre- 
destined to be the home of honest toil and frugal industry. In the vicin- 
ity of what was to be the greatest city of the New World, and on the 
route of its best approaches from west to north, wealth and prosperity 
ought to be its sure reward, and doubtless will when the wisdom of men 
is able to master the situation." 


But the growth and development of Monroe depends not alone upon its 
picturesque mountains, beautiful valleys and charming lakes, which at- 
tract so many city people, who are fast dotting the available lake and 


mountain sites with charming villas and country homes, beautiful inns, 
hotels and boarding houses, for the village itself is becoming one of the 
most progressive and bustling of modern towns. Its growth during the 
past five years being much more rapid than any other village of the 

Monroe village, incorporated in 1894, with a population of 781, now 
has about 1,200. The incorporation was due in a large degree to a disas- 
trous fire occurring in November, 1892, which showed the necessity of 
fire protection. 

On July 31, 1894, a vote on the question of incorporation was taken, 
resulting in favor of incorporation iii for, and 45 against. On August 
21, 1S94, an election for ofiicers was held. Henry Mapes was elected 
president ; George R. Conklin, Gilbert Carpenter and Henry Morehouse, 
trustees, and J. Lester Gregory, treasurer. On August 28th the Board 
organized as a board of water commissioners with Gilbert Carpenter, 
president. At the election held November 10, 1894, to vote for water- 
works, there were fifty-eight for and fifteen against the proposition. The 
board of water commissioners took the necessary steps to acquire water 
for the village, and the village of Monroe is largely indebted to this first 
board of water commissioners for its splendid water plant which is con- 
tributing so largely to its development. 

The village purchased from the Sterling Iron & Railway Company the 
right to raise the dam and store additional water at Mombasha Lake, 
This lake affords one of the purest and finest water supplies to be found 
in the State. About one mile of 14 inch pipe and two miles of 10 inch 
pipe bring the water to the center of the village with a head of about 
250 feet, and distribution is made with 8, 6 and 4 inch pipes. The water 
was turned on October 10, 1895. -^^ ^^^ ^^^^ since extended beyond the 
building in which it originated. The cost of the works was about $46,000, 
which is probably about two-thirds of what it would cost at present, 
owing to the increased cost of labor and material. The works are now 
not only self-sustaining but are producing a comfortable surplus, and it is 
estimated that in not many years the plant will pay for itself and will 
then produce sufficient revenue to light and keep in repair the village 
streets — a splendid example of municipal ownership of public utilities. 

The town of Monroe has no bonded indebtedness and the village none 
other than its water bonds, except that Union Free School District No. 


I, which inchulos the village, has issued $4,375, on account of the pur- 
chase of a seven acre school site on a commanding height overlooking 
the village. 

The Warwick, Monroe and Chester Building and Loan Association 
has been a potent factor in Monroe's development. It was organized in 
April, 1890. 

Standard Lodge No. 711 F. & A. M., instituted at Chester, N. Y., June 
30, 1S71, was. with consent of the Grand Lodge, moved to' Monroe in 
1884, and has a membership of 180. 

The Monroe National Bank, U. S. No. 7,563, although in its infancy, is 
a tiourishing institution. It was chartered by the Treasury Department 
January i8th, 1905 and it was opened for business, March ist, 1905. 

Monroe has a very excellent fire department. The Mombasha Hose 
Company was organized July 24th, 1895, and the Mombasha Fire Com- 
pany, April 5th, 1898. 

The Orange and Rockland Electric Light and Power Company, which 
furnishes light and power to the villages and communities in the eastern 
end of the county, is located at Monroe and is now erecting a very large 
plant. The Newbury Foundry Company is also located here. 

Monroe has a fine telephone system, an athletic association, and is now 
putting dow^n cement walks in the village, and it is confidently predicted 
that it will be the leading center of the eastern end of the county 
within a short period. 

A Methodist society existed in the neighborhood of Monroe prior 
to 1839, the M. E. Church at Oxford (near Quaker Hill) having been 
built some time before, but in the year above mentioned Matthew B. 
Sweezy deeded to the Trustees of the recently organized M. E. Church 
of Monroe the land upon w^hich the church now stands. Tn the follow- 
ing year. 1840, the church was built. The first board of trustees was 
the following: Stephen Post, Isaac Compton, Jeremiah Kniglit, Thomas 
D. Tannery. John King, Samuel Smith and Peter Ball. Others who 
served the church in its early history as trustees were Jonathan Mapes, 
John S. Grcgor)', Matthew B. Sweezy, Solomon W. Esray, Townsend 
Mapes. Job Mapes. William Hudson, George K. Smith, William John- 
ston, Martin Konnight, Daniel Secord, Nathan Strong and Walter 
Roberts. John S. Gregory was elected trustee in 1843 ^^^ served in this 
capacity until his death in IQ05. a period of sixty-two years. 


The Rev. Mr. Bancroft is said to have been the first minister. Others 
who followed him were the Rev. William Van Duzen, Rev. A. C. Fields, 
Rev. Mr. Newmans, Rev. J. H. Hawkshurst, Rev. Mr. Blake, Rev. Mr. 
Croft, Rev. N. Messiter, Rev. D. D. Gillespie. 

Matthew B. Sweezy was chorister for a time. There was no organ 
in the early days of the church, but the congregation was frequently led 
in singing by the violin and the violincello, though there were some who 
objected to the use of so ungodly a thing as the "fiddle." 

At first the Monroe church was a part of the circuit under the charge 
of a pastor and his assistants. This circuit in the early days comprised, 
besides Monroe, the churches at Highland Mills, Washingtonville, Craig- 
ville and Turner. Finally, Monroe and Turner comprised the charge, and 
this relationship was dissolved in 1895. 

In 1875 it was voted to enlarge and repair the church, and the pastor, 
Rev. David McCartney, and Mr. H. H. Lawrence, were appointed a com- 
mittee to solicit subscriptions for this purpose. Their efforts were suc- 
cessful and the church was remodeled, and stands to-day practically the 
same as they left it. 

The church has reason to hold the memory of Mr. James Smith, Mrs. 
James Smith and Sara Smith, their daughter, in lasting remembrance, 
as thev respectively left substantial legacies to the trustees of the church, 
to the Ladies' Aid Society, and to the Sunday school, said legacies to 
be held in trust for their use. 

The church has a Sunday school and Epworth league. The super- 
intendents of the Sunday school during the last twenty-five years or 
more have been Franklin Bull and Orville Eichenberg, the latter having 
held the position for the last nineteen years. 

The first available records of the schools of the town of Monroe are 
dated January 7, 1819. These are receipts given by the trustees of 
several of the school districts for State moneys received from the com- 
missioners of common schools. These moneys were for the benefit of 
their respective districts and were in all cases small, the apportionments 
ranging from eight to twenty-five dollars. At this time the town's edu- 
cational interests were in the hands of three commissioners of common 
schools. The incumbents of these offices in the town of Monroe in 1819 
were Israel Green, Lewis H. Roe and George Wilks. 
i In 1843 the office of town superintendent was instituted, thus doing 


a\\a\- wiili tlic board of three commissioners of common schools. The 
duties of this officer were probably the same as those exercised by the 
board which he had taken the place of. The first person to hold this 
new town office was Joseph R. Andrews, who had been a member of the 
last board of commissioners of common schools. The office of town 
superintendent ceased to exist in 1857. when the office of school com- 
missioner was created. The new official assumed the powers of hcensing 
teachers, altering school district boundaries, etc., while the care of the 
school moneys from the State was given to the supervisor of the town. 
The office of town superintendent was held for a short time by 
Morgan Shuit, and afterward for a period of about ten years by Archi- 
bald Campbell, whose term was concluded in 1857, when the office was 

In 1819, as the}' did in subsequent years, the commissioners reported 
the text-books in use. This list varied little for many years and was 
given in the following order : Webster's Spelling Book, Murray's Gram- 
mar, Johnson's Dictionary, Scott's Lessons, English Reader, American 
Selections. American Reader, Columbian Orator, Daball's and Dilworth's 
Arithmetic. Later on a new and inexperienced board of conuuis- 
sioners enumerates the above list with one exception, and concludes with 
the information, "all of which are American selections." 

The commissioners of common schools in 1819 rearranged the boun- 
daries of the school districts of the town, and recorded these boundaries 
somewhat definitely. The number at that time was thirteen, but since 
that date the number has been changed many times and their boundaries 
have frequently been altered. 

Of the schools of the former town of Monroe four have become 
union schools, having high school departments, viz : Central Valley, in 
February, 1895; Monroe, in December, 1896; Turner, in May, 1902, and 
Tuxedo, in December, 1902. 

District Xo. i is the district that includes the village of Monroe. 
Though it contains practically the territory of District No. i, as re- 
corded in 1819, its boundaries have been materially changed. The Rev. 
D. X. Freeland says, in his history of the town of Monroe, that the 
first mention of a school in this neighborhood is of one held in the 
Presbyterian church building at Seamanville. After that a log school- 
house was built I'ust west of the church. The old stone school-house on 


the road to Mombasha followed, and this in turn gave way to another 
built a few rods further south. In 1857 a two-story building near the 
Presbyterian church was constructed and this was made to answer the 
purpose until 1884, when the building now in use (1907) was erected 
at a cost of $10,000. This building has now become too small and the 
people of the district have purchased, during the past year, a new site 
just north of the Episcopal chapel, containing nearly seven acres, at a 
cost of $5,000. They have also appropriated the sum of $40,000 for 
the erection of a suitable building, the foundations of which are at this 
time completed. 

Of the persons serving the district in an official relation the following 
have rendered the longest continuous service ; Henry Mapes, as clerk, 
thirty- four years ; George R. Conklin, trustee, twenty years ; A. B. Hulse, 
trustee, fifteen years. 

The school of District No. i was admitted as a member of the Uni- 
versity of the State of New York December 17, 1896, having been 
created a union school the preceding year. The following are the names 
of the trustees appearing upon the certificate of admission as petitioners : 
Eugene McGarrah, George R. Conklin, L. H. Marvin, Solomon Fair- 

Tbe present board of education is : Fletcher B. Brooks, Solomon 
Fairchild, Millard Mapes, Frank F. Grififin, and Clarence S. Knight. In 
addition to the usual work of a board of education, this board has the 
additional responsibility of building a modern school-house. 


Many changes have to be recorded in the thriving village of Turner, 
in the eastern part of the town of Monroe. By common consent the 
name has been changed from "Turners" to "Turner," and this seems to 
be a most reasonable change. 

No longer do the trains of the Erie Railroad Company sweep majesti- 
cally into the depot, there to stand impatiently while its hungry pas- 
sengers regale themselves in that famous restaurant founded by Peter 
Turner. The now common, every-day dining-car attached to nearly 
every train, has crowded out that famous business. The large brick 
building was destroyed by fire and the restaurant moved to the wooden 



building on tlic opposite side of the track. This property is now owned 
by the Ramapo Mountain Realty Company, but is fast falling into decay. 
One end alone is used as a depot. Below the hill stands the famous grist 
mill which receives its power from the village pond near by. Across the 
street from the mill stands the old hotel of stage coach days, now reno- 
vated into a modern hotel, known as "Silver Fox Inn." This property 
and the farm connected therewith are owned by the Ramnpo Mountain 
Realty Company. 

The old smithy, where Cortland Rumsey's hammer caused the anvil 
to ring, has long since become a business house. The village blacksmith, 
J. B. Hallock, has built a modern shop near by and causes the same old 
anvils to ring as hearty and strong as ever. 

The little old stone school-house where our fathers learned their 
"three R's," is now a dwelling and a magnificent school-house stands on 
a hill overlooking the entire vdlage. There, four learned instructors 
hold forth, where a few short years ago one was sufficient. 

The few rambling houses that constituted the little village of a few 
years ago have given way to modern dwellings and business places, con- 
stituting a thriving village of some eight hundred people, all busy and 

Surrounding the village on every hillside stand the beautiful summer 
homes of some wealthy New Yorkers. Among these are the homes of 
W. R. Barr, "Stony Wolde"; Mrs. John Brower, "Blythlea"; and the 
homes of E. H. Harriman, Ward Brower, Farrand Brower, Max Jager- 
huber, Orrin S. Wood and William L. Strout. Where once our farmers 
tilled the soil beautiful lawns appear. To the east, where once hunters 
and trappers alone journeyed, on the highest peak of the Ramapo Moun- 
tains, rises the n]ansion of E. H. Harriman. Inch by inch and foot by 
foot this great stone structure rises into view above the trees that sur- 
round it. A railway has been hewn out of the side of the mountain and 
a cable railroad operates cars that hoist workmen and materials to the 

The village maintains two churches — a Methodist Episcopal and a 
Catholic. Both have excellent sanctuaries and congregations of earnest, 
sincere, right-living people. They have done yeoman work in their terri- 
tory and their influence has been widespread. Connected with the Meth- 
odist Church is a Sunday school and Epworth league. 


The famous old store of Thomas Earl has been torn down and the 
village now has five stores. The old "Bombeetel" house still stands at 
the cross-roads in the center of the village and now contams the village 
market run by J. R. Brooks. 

Time has indeed dealt kindly with Turner. The latest item to be 
accredited her is electricity. Nightly the village streets are brilliantly 
lighted and business goes on as busily as by daylight. The magic current 
is introduced to the houses and brings light and cheerfulness to the 

The old village of Centerville would scarcely recognize the village of 
Turner, which is but the village of Centerville under a new name. 

David A. Morrison. 




Bv David A. Morrison. 

THIS inii»(>rlain town is in the norlhcrn part of Orange County, bor- 
dering- upon Ulster. It lies between the towns of Newburgh on 
the east, and Crawford on the west. Each of these towns has 
a large tongue of land that extends much further toward the north than 
the territory of Montgomery, the northern bounds of wdiich form nearly 
a straight line. On the south are the towns of New Windsor, Hampton- 
burgh and Wallkill, from wdiich it is separated by rather irregular rectan- 
gular lines. The area of the town as shown by the last Supervisors' 
report, is 30,578 acres. The assessed valuation of property taxable in 
the town and found by the Assessors in 1906 aggregated $2,094,640. The 
total taxes for that year amounted to $23,953.01. 


The territory of Montgomery is a part of the original John Evans 
Patent, which seems to have been set aside subsequently for various 
reasons. In 1714 it was in the precinct of Shawangunk. in Ulster County, 
where it remained until 1743. when it became part of the Wallkill pre- 
cinct. At that time it embraced the following patents: 

Cadwallader Golden, April 9, 17 19 2.000 acres 

John Johnson, Jr.. February 3. 1720 " 

Thomas Rrazier, March 17. 1720 2,000 " 

Henry Wileman, June 30. 1712 3,000 " 

David Gallatian, June 4, 17 19 1,000 " 

Edward Gatehouse, January, 1719 " 

James Alexander, April 9, 1719 2,000 " 

Archil)ald Kennedy. April 9, 1719 2,000 " 

James Smith. December 15, 1722 2,000 " 

Patrick McKnight, April 9, 1719 2,000 " 


Thomas Noxon, May 28, 1720 2,000 acres 

Francis Harrison & Co., July 7, 1720 5,00O " 

Jeremiah Schuyler & Co., January 22, 1719 10,000 " 

Phillip Schuyler and others, July 20, 1720 8,000 " 

Jacobus Bruyn and Henry Wileman, April 25, 1722. . . 2,500 " 
Frederick Morris and Samuel Heath, January 24, 1736. 
Thomas Ellison and Lawrence Roome, Nov. 12, 1750 
Cadwallader Colden, Jr. and David Colden, June 20, 1761 — 720 A. 

In 1772 Wallkill Precinct was divided and the eastern part named the 
precinct of Hanover. In 1782 this name was changed to the precinct 
of Montgomery, which was erected as the town of Montgomery in 
1788. Ten years afterwards it Wias, with other towns, taken from 
Ulster County and annexed to Orange County. In 1823 the town of 
Montgomery was divided and the western part containing about 25,000 
acres constituted and named the town of Crawford. In 1830 the 
southern part of Montgomery was detached to form (in part) the 
town of Hamptonburgh. The last alteration in its boundaries was made 
in 1842, when four farms containing nearly 600 acres were taken from 
the town of New Windsor and annexed to Montgomery. 


The fertile valley of the Wallkill, which extends through the town 
on a northeasterly course, dividing it nearly into equal parts, is a dis- 
tinguishing characteristic. For nearly a third of the way, where the 
stream enters Ulster County, it flows very nearly north in a straight 
line. Then it deflects toward the southwest to the village of Mont- 
gomery, when there is a sharp bend, which afterward turns nearly at 
right angles toward the east and finally leaves the town in nearly a 
straight course again, forming a part of the eastern boundary of the 
town and dividing it from Hamptonburgh. The most important tribu-. 
tary of the Wallkill is the Tinn Brook, which begins in the town of 
New Windsor, pursues a sinuous career, and finally tumbles into the 
Wallkill near the village of Walden. The Beaver Dam stream rises in 
the southeastern part of the town and flows nearly south into the Otter- 
kill, in the town of Hamptonburgh. The source of this stream is a large 


spring of great depth. McKnight's Kill also rises in the southeasterly 
part of the town, and flows southerly into the Otterkill near Burnside. 
The Muddy Kill rises in the western part of the town, drains that section 
ii: a sluggish way. and ends near the village of Montgomeiy. The 
surface of the town is diversified with hills, rolling and meadow 
land. Comfort's Hills on the west rise from 6cx) to 800 feet above tide and 
are much the highest elevation. For adaptation to varied agriculture 
the town is not excelled by any other town in the county. The uplands 
arc warm, fertile, and comparatively easy to cultivate. The meadows 
generally produce large crops of grass, and afford excellent pasturage. 
Numerous springs and small streams furnish an abundant supply of 
pure water. Dairying is the predominant agricultural industry. 


On the east bank of the Wallkill, on the old Rogers farm, there was 
?n old Indian settlement. The red men had made a goodly clearing in 
the forest here and, tradition says, had planted fruit trees, and when 
the white man first set foot in this region he found full-grown bearing 
apple trees on this ancient clearing. An Indian settlement was found 
on the flat above the bridge over the Wallkill, near the old Miller stone 
house. Another had its wigwams on the old Christoffel (or Stuffeli^ 
Moul (Mould) farm about two miles north of Montgomery on the 
main highway afterwards known as the stage road from Cioshen to 
Albany. These left for more remote regions in 1775. 

Xear the present village of Walden the settlement of Henr\' Wile- 
man was made. His patent contained 3.000 acres, and he settled upon it 
\ery soon after its purchase in 1712. What was known as the Harrison 
Patent was granted May 25. 1721. This was given to the following 
persons : Francis Harrison, Allan Jarrat, Adolphus Phillips, George 
Clarke, Johanes Lansing, Henry Wileman, Jacobus Bruyn and William 
Sharpas. This entire tract was surveyed and a large village laid out. 
and deeds were given to all actual settlers. Among these the following 
were named : Hans Newkirk, Hendrick Newkirk, Matthias Slimmer, 

Peter Kvsler, Kraus, Brandos. These ancient .settlers 

upon this land were Palatines, and after a few years they erected a small 
log church within the village, the .site of which is still fairly indicated by 


the old graveyard on the east side of the Goshen road, a short distance 
south of Montgomery, This old village was known as Germantown. 

About a mile farther south on this patent Johannes Miller, a German, 
made a settlement in 1727. The next year he built a stone house where 
Mr. Elmer Miller afterwards lived. His grandson, Johannes Miller, 
was a leading citizen of the town in later years — a progressive man, 
prominent in promoting several important public enterprises, and espe- 
cially active in the construction of the Newburgh and Cochecton Turn- 
pike Road. His services towards establishing and maintaining the Mont- 
gomery Academy have always been held in grateful remembrance. 

The 5,000-acre tract granted to Schuyler & Co., was first settled by 
Jeronimous Weller & Co., in 1721. Another grant of 10,000 acres was 
settled by a company consisting of Johannes Mingus, his son Jeronimous, 
Mattias Miltzbagh, and others whose names are not definitely known. 
It was agreed by this company that a tract of 100 acres would be granted 
to each family that would locate permanently upon it. Mingus built a 
mill, around which the old village of Ward's Bridge soon clustered. But 
Mingus lost his life in this mill by accident soon afterward, which resulted 
in considerable dispute over the property. 

The Wallkill or Goodwill settlement is supposed to date from 1724-25. 
John Mackneel and Adam Graham were among the first settlers. When 
they came into the Precinct is not definitely known. The former owned a 
part of what is now known as the Dowms farm; the latter settled on 
what is now the Parsonage farm. In 1727 Archibald, James and Robert 
Huntier purchased 200 acres of land, on which a house had then been 
built, from James Alexander, the patentee ; this purchase included the 
Henry Suydam farm. In 173 1 James Munnel settled on, or near, the 
Charles Miller farm, now owned by Mr. William Y. Dennison. Alex- 
ander Kidd settled on what is still known as the Kidd Homestead, about 
2^ miles north of the Church in 1736. Benjamin Haines came into the 
neighborhood in 1739, and the Rev. Joseph Houston was installed 
pastor of the Goodwill Church in 1740. Other early settlers were James 
Barkley, on the James W. Bowne farm; the Rev. Joseph Mofifat. 1758; 
John Blake who bought 475 acres of land in 1761, part of which is 
owned and occupied by his great grandson, Mr. John P. M. Blake, and 
whose son, John Blake, Jr., was in after years, a prominent man. being 
supervisor sixteen years, and a member of assembly several terms, sheriff 

Robert Young. 


and congressman ; Samuel Miller, who came from Canada pi-cvious to 
1764; Peter Hill in 1767; Captain Hendricns Van Keuren in 1768; Colonel 
John Nicholson; John Morrison; Gideon Pelton, and Tunis Van Arsdale, 
whose blacksmith shop is mentioned in the early records of the town. 

Adjoining the Goodwill settlement on the east, Cadwallader Colden 
had been granted a patent for 2,000 acres and was settled in 1728 where 
Mr. George W. Pimm now resides. The locality was named Coldenliam 
in his honor. He was one of the most prominent of the early settlers, 
being surveyor-general of the Province, lieutenant-governor and sev- 
eral limes acting governor. As a man he was esteemed for his great 
learning, benevolence and strict honesty. As a public officer he was 
distinguished for his unblemished integrity. Several buildings were 
erecteti in that vicinity by members of the Colden family, some of which 
are still standing. 

The Neelytown section adjoins the Goodwill neighborhood on the 
south, and was so called from a large and influential family which appears 
to have been active in bringing in the early settlers, but whose name has 
entirely disappeared from the community, ft was settled before 1726. 
In that year the names of John Neely and Thomas Neely appear as actual 
settlers. At that time Charles Booth who purchased 1,000 acres of land 
had built his first house near where Mr. William Conning lived in later 
years — his two sons, Charles and George Booth, were w-ith him. A de- 
fective list of freeholders made in 1728 contains the name of Alexander 
Neely. William and Robert Neely were witnesses to a will in 1731, ami 
the name of John Neely, Jr.. is seen in an old record. William Eager 
with his sons, William and Thomas, came to Neelytown m 1741. He 
built a log house where the residence of Mr. Samuel W. Eager now 
stands. His second house w^as of stone and was situated a short distance 
south of the first and built before the Revolution. His descendants are 
very numerous and are widely scattered. Samuel W. Eager, Orange 
County's first historian, was one of them. Other early settlers in this 
section were James McCobb, who located at a very early date on the 
Sherwood farm, now "Nestledown"; William Jackson. James Jackson, 
James Houston. William Young. Captain Alexander Trimble, 1764; Pat- 
rick Barber, 1764; Captain James McBride and Rev. Robert Annan, 1765. 

A settlement across the Wallkill opposite the present village of Mont- 
gomery, was made by Henry Crist, Stevanus Crist. Mnltliia<; Millspaugh 


and others. This land was then considered the best in the town. These 
Germans were a vigorous and hearty people, and they went to work 
boldly to cultivate the land and establish comfortable homes, with a de- 
termination to succeed. They soon began to extend their farms to the 
Comfort Hills slopes, and into the section now embraced in the town of 
Crawford. Their success attracted many representatives of the sturdy 
Scotch-Irish race, who joined them soon afterward. Among the more 
progressive pioneer settlers was Henry Crist, from whom descended many 
active men and women who became leading and influential citizens of the 
town. Jacob Crist is said to have been drowned in the Hudson River .on 
his return from New Amsterdam with his wedding outfit. Henry Crist, 
the early immigrant, built near the foot of the hill east of the old Dutch 
church. His son, Jacob, planted his home on the hill opposite Montgom- 
ery village near the mill. 

Among other early settlers were David Bookstaver, Jacob Bookstaver, 
Frederick Sinsabaugh, and Johannes Young-blood who bought an 800 acre 
tract. It is recorded of these pioneer German settlers that they were even 
unable to build so much as a log cabin at first, and were obliged to make 
excavations in the hillside in which to pass the winter. This they did in 
the gravelly hill east of the old Brick church. In these primitive dugouts 
they waited patiently for the snowdrifts to melt away in the springtime, 
when they might renew their labors and provide more comfortable shelter 
for their families. 

Johannes Miller came to America in 1700, lived in Ulster County for a 
time, and about 1727 settled upon a portion of the Harrison patent. 
Frederick Shafer, a tanner by trade, was also among these old settlers, 
and soon established a tannery, which was afterward improved by his 
son Daniel. 

Charles Booth purchased 1,000 acres of land in Neelytown, and this 
tract remained in the Booth family for a long series of years afterward. 
This family came into the town from Long Island, and George Booth 
became a leading citizen and was so regarded all through his life. 


In 1738 a company of militia of the Wallkill was organized under 
Captain John Byard, and formed part of a regiment of which A. Gaas- 
beck Chambers was Colonel and Wessel Ten Broeck Lieutenant-Colonel, 


to protect the early settlers against the incursions of the Indians. Among 
those whose names were enrolled in this company the following are 
known to have been residents of what is now the town of Montgomery : 
John Ncwkirk, sergeant; James Gillespie, Thomas Gillespie, Alexander 
Milligan, Alexander Kidd, Archibald Hunter, James Hunter, John Min- 
gus, Stephanus Crist, James Munell, John Alunell, George Munell, John 
McNeill, John ^McNeill, Jr., Robert Hunter, Richard Gatehouse, Joseph 
Sutter, Philip Milsbaugh, Cronimus Mingus, Stoffel Moul, Johannes 
Crans, Matthias Meltzbagh, Hendrix Ncwkirk, Hcndrick Crist, Benjamin 
Hains, John Neely, Jr., Frederick Sanzabah. 

In 1755 the regiment was divided into two regiments. The first em- 
braced Kingston and the northern part of the county ; the second em- 
braced the Precincts of Highlands, Wallkill and Shawangunk, and in this 
form took part in the French and Indian War. The roster of officers 
in the second regiment included the names of the following persons who 
then resided in what is now the town of ^Montgomery. Jacob Newkirk, 
Captain ; Cadwallader C. Colden. Captain ; David Gallatin, Captain ; Mat- 
thew Rea, Lieutenant. 

The militia of the Revolution was organizetl by an act of the Provincial 
Convention passed August 22, 1775. Lister County was divided into 
four regimental districts. The second district comprised the precincts 
of New Windsor, Hanover and Wallkill. At first there were twelve 
companies in the regiment, of which Hanover furnished five, commanded 
by Captain Matthew Felter, William Jackson, James Milliken, John J. 
Graham and John Gillespie. In 1777 the number of companies was re- 
duced to nine, four of which were in Hanover, under Captains Felter, 
Milliken, Hendrik \'an Keuren and James McBride. 

An eminent historian said of the second regimen I of Ulster County 
militia that "it gave, perhaps, more fighting men than were drawn from 
other similar organizations," and that "no other regiment of militia was 
more active from the beginning until the end of the war." There was 
fight in it from start to finish. "As a rule circumstances would not admit 
of the calling out of an entire company from its beat at one time ; some 
must remain at home ; but portions of this regiment were in almost con- 
stant motion, some going, others returning." From Decemlx-r. 1876. to 
April 12. T778, less than 16 months, the militia of Hanover and adjoining 
precincts were called out twelve times and spent 202 days in the field. 


Although the records of churches and traditions give gUmpses of con- 
troversies, the inhabitants of Hanover precinct acted with great unanim- 
ity and showed an intense patriotic spirit during the War for Independ- 
ence. The pledge of association, dated May 8, 1775, in v/hich they 
pledged their "support to the Continental Congress in resisting the op- 
pressive acts of the British Parliament," and in the most solemn manner 
resolved "never to become slaves," was signed first by Dr. Charles Clinton 
and received 342 signatures. 

The history of the men of Montgomery in the Revolution, who they 
were, and what they did, if it could be written, would be a story of toils, 
privation and exposure of great interest to the present generation. In 
few sections of the State did the burden of the war bear more heavily 
than in the valleys of the Wallkill and the Hudson, and in no portion was 
it borne with more unflinching determination. But this history cannot be 
written. The names of many of these men and their deeds have sunk 
into oblivion. A few of those preserved by history and tradition, to- 
gether with the places where they lived, are mentioned. To locate the 
places definitely the names of the owners at the present (1908), are given. 

Arthur Parks lived at Ward's Bridge (now Montgomery), on what 
was afterwards known as the L'Hommedieu farm, now occupied by Mr. 
H. H. Hallett. He was a member of the Committee of Safety in 1775 
and 1776, first Lieutenant in Captain William Jackson's company of 
militia. Major of a battalion of minute men in 1776, member of the 
first Provincial Convention, member of the convention that framed our 
first State Constitution and of the convention that amended it, and State 
Senator for eleven years. 

Jacob Newkirk was captain under Colonel Thomas Ellison in the 
French and Indian War, member of the Committee of Safety, Major, 
and afterwards Lieutenant-Colonel of the second regiment Ulster County 
militia, and commanded the regiment during the years that Colonel James 
McClaughry was a prisoner and was recovering from his wounds re- 
ceived at the capture of Fort Montgomery. 

Henry Smith was also a member of the Committee of Safety for the 
precinct and was first Lieutenant in Captain Matthew Felter's company; 
he lived nearly two miles north of Montgomery on the farm now owned 
and occupied by his descendant, Mr. James Smith. 

Hugh Lindsay was a private in Colonel John Lamb's Artillery, and was 

W. r. Lodge. 


taken prisoner at the capture of l-'ort Montgomery; he lived at Ward's 
Bridge and afterwards built and lived in the house on Bridge street now 
owned by the estate of the late Jonathan M. Morrison. 

Alexander Trimble was quarter-master of the Second Ulster Regiment 
in the War of the Revolution, and also a member of the Committee of 
Safety; he lived about two miles south of Goodwill Church on the farm 
now owned and occupied by Mr. George V'anAlst. 

^z'' Johannes Moul (Mould), who lived about two miles north of Mont- 
gomery, where his great-great-grandson, Mr. John D. Mould, now lives, 
was a sergeant in the French and Intlian War, and with his son, Johannes 
Moul, Jr., and his brother, Christopher Moul. were privates in Colonel 
McClaughry's Regiment in the Revolution. These three patriots also 
evinced their patriotism by loaning money to the Government when it 
was urgently needed to equip the army for the caj^ture of Cornwallis. 

James Milliken. a member of the Committee of Safety, lived on the 
east side of the Wallkill. where Mr. Harvey N. Smith now resides, was 
captain of one of the Hanover companies, and was killed at Fori Mont- 

Hendricus \'an Keuren was a veteran of the French and Indian War, 
who served throughout the Revolution as Captain, and according to family 
tradition, gratuitously lived on what is known as the Downs farm, l)e- 
twccn Montgomcr\' and Goodwill church. 

John Nicholson was Colonel of the Third N. Y. Regiment of the Conti- 
nental Line, which was brigaded under General Richard Montgomery, and 
took part in the assault on Quebec when the brave Montgomery was 
killed. The privations and exposures of that canii)aign were so great that 
wnth impaired health he returned to his farm, near Maybrook. which is 
now divided, and owned by Mr. John Wiley and Mr. William H. Jewell. 

Hamilton Morrison enlisted as soon as he was old enough, and served 
first as a private and then as a sergeant in Captain James ^fcBride's com- 
pany. Second Ulster County Militia. He lived about a mile south of 
Goodwill Church on what is known as the Morrison Homestead, now 
owned and occupied by his grandsons. Mr. George H. Morrison and 
Mr. John G. Morrison. 

Tunis \'an Arsdale liverl on the adjoining farm ( iiow a part of the 
homestead), and was a blacksmith. His shop was the ren<Iezvous of the 
patriots in that vicinity. He was also a private in Captain Van Keuren's 


company and saved his life at Fort Montgomery by slipping between 
the legs of a British soldier who was holding an American bayoneted 
against the wall of the fort, and escaped in the darkness. 

John Van Arsdale, who lived with his elder brother, Tunis, enlisted in 
the Continental Army at the beginning of the war, and served faithfully 
until its close. He suffered intensely from cold and hardship in the Can- 
ada expedition, was severely wounded and taken prisoner at Fort Mont- 
gomery, languished many weary months in the "old sugar house'' and 
in the foul hold of the "Jersey prison ship," was finally exchanged, and 
then braved the perils of Indian warfare in several campaigns. On No- 
vember 25, 1783, he witnessed the evacuation of New York City by the 
British, which was the final triumph of the cause for which he and others 
had fought and sufifered seven long years, and was present when the ad- 
vancing Americans, following closely upon the retiring British, reached 
the Battery to perform the last formality in re-possessing the city, which 
was to unfurl the American flag over Fort George, but found the royal 
ensign still floating as usual over the Fort. The British had nailed their 
colors to the staff and taken away the halyards. In this dilemma John 
Van Arsdale ascended the flag-stafT, partly by ladder, but mainly by shin- 
ning, tore down the British flag and rove the new halyards by which the 
Star Spangled Banner was quickly run up while the assembled thousands 
cheered, and the artiller}^ boomed forth a national salute. While other 
localities may boast of those who struck the first blow for American free- 
dom, Montgomery may justly claim for one of her sons the glory of re- 
moving the last vestige of British authority from this country. 


The town was originally organized under the name of Hanover Pre- 
cinct in 1772. The present territory of Crawford was then included, the 
whole having been taken from the old Wallkill Precinct. In 1782 the 
name was changed to Montgomery Precinct, and seven years later it was 
finally changed to the town of Montgomery. This title was bestowed in 
honor of General Montgomery, who was killed in the assault upon Que- 
bec in 1775. Major Colden was the supervisor of the old Wallkill pre- 
cinct in 1768-69. 

The record of the first town meeting, now on file in the town clerk's 


office, is of April 5, 1803. Jvculx-n Ncely was llicn clmsc-n supervisor, and 
Arthur Parks, town clerk. There were fifty-five overseers of highways in 
the town that year. But the kiborers were few, the system of road-work- 
ing was sadly defective, as in fact it remained for nearly a hundred years 
afterwards, and the results were primitive and unsatisfactory, although, 
of course, far less was required of a public road in thnse days than is now 
demanded, and the people accepted the situation without complaint, so 
far as the record shows. 

The following is a list of supervisors of the town to 1908: David 
Galatian, 1798; John IMake, 1799; Reuben Neely, 1800 to 1810; John 
Blake, Jr., to 1826; Samuel W. Eager, to 1833; Nathaniel P. Hill, 1834; 
Edward Filake, to 1839; James Galatian, to 1841 ; William Blake, to 1844; 
William Graham, to 1846; Stephen Rapalje, 1847; Joshua G. Haliock, to 
1849; Lindley M. Ferris, 1850; Johannes M. Hunter, to 1852; Stephen 
Rapalje, to 1863; Marcus K. Hill, 1864; Stephen Rapalje, to 1873; 
Daniel M. Wade, to 1875 ; Marcus K. Hill, to 1877 ; Charles J. Van Alst, 
to 1879; Robert Young, to 1886; Andrew K. Wade, to 1889; Robert 
Young, 1890; Irving H. Loughran, to 1900; William H. Didsburg, to 
1905; Hector W. Millspaugh, to 1907; William G. Decker, 1908. 


The old village of Montgomery is on the bank of the Wallkill in the 
southern part of the town. It was here that Henry Crist, Stephen Crist 
and Matthias Millspaugh settled at an early date, on the west bank of the 
river. Johannes Mingus built a grist-mill there, which was afterwards 
sold to James Ward with 200 acres of land, upon which the village was 
built. Mr. Ward built a rude bridge across the Wallkill in order that his 
customers might reach his mill. This was really the first road bridge of 
any kind known in that vicinity for years afterward. In fact, the place 
took its name from this important structure, as well as the post-oftice itself, 
it being known as Ward's Bridge for many years. 

James Clinton and William Crist, having obtained an interest in the 
Kennedy patent, upon which the village stands, laid out "a small town 
called Montgomery town," which gave the village that name. Among 
other early settlers there were John McFaugh. David Crist. John McKins- 
try, Matthew Hunter, Samuel Smith, Arthur Parks and Oolis Shulp. 
James Ward,* the pioneer, lived in a log cabiiL 


The village was incorporated by a special act dated February 17, 1810. 
Hugh Lindsey was the first president. The first village tax aggregated 
$60. Two years later $100 was raised to build a market house, and in 
1814, $200 was appropriated for a fire engine. But it was not until seven 
years later that four professional firemen were appointed. In 1880 this 
village tax had increased to over $1,200. 

The location of Montgomery. on a placid stretch of the Wallkill, with its 
slightly elevated banks, afifording a fine natural drainage, is peculiarly 
healthful, and there are many attractive and commodious private resi- 
dences. Among the leading manufacturing industries is the worsted mills 
of William Crabtree & Sons. The people of Montgomery are noted for 
their hospitality and public spirit. The place is surrounded by fine State 
roads, and ranks as one of the important historic villages of Orange 

Walden is the most thriving and important village. It is on 
the Wallkill River at the high falls, by which indefiuite name it was 
known for years. The settlement began many years before the Revolution. 
Of course, the first structure was the inevitable grist-mill, as in nearly 
every instance in this region. James Kidd built a mill at the foot of the 
falls on the east side of the stream, though the precise date is not definitely 
known. In any event, the records show that in 1768 this old mill had al- 
ready fallen into the possession of Johannes Decker. In 1789 it belonged 
to Cadwallader Colden, Jr. The plant was afterward converted into a 
cotton factory. 

Mr. Walden, the founder of this village, is said to have struggled man- 
fully under adverse influences and suiTered defeat at the end in his old 
age, causing him to retire ultimately from the scene of his labors. Leaving 
the refinements of city life to establish manufacturing interests in this 
sparsely settled region, and without adequate protection, he spent his for- 
tune and his active energies here practically without reward. There being 
no railways, raw material had to be drawn in sleighs in winter to these 

Mr. Walden was a prosperous New York merchant. While summering 
in the Highlands, he extended his drive with Mrs. Walden many miles 
further, and came upon this charming valley of the Wallkill, through 
which a broad stream flowed. They saw the old mill at the very foot of 
the cataract, and a tiny cottage in a grove of locusts further down the 

Edward Whitehead. 


stream. The old niercliant perceiveil the wonderful i)ossibilities of this 
picturesque spot, and he lost no time in develcping the i)lace. He pur- 
chased large tracts of land covering the region, closed uj) his extensive 
city business and moved here. The place grew very slowly in the earlier 
years, even after its incorporation in 1855. Down to 1868 the population 
of the village did not exceed 600 souls. Of course, the manufacturing in- 
terests had not been fully developed at that time. The people were still 
largel\- employed in trades and farm work. The New "^'ork Knife Com- 
pany began business in 1856 by purchasing the cloth mills of Scofield, 
Capron & Gowdy. 

There are two tine iron bridges over the Wallkill at this ])oint, many 
handsome private residences on the heights on either side of the river, 
several busy factories, churches, schools, newspapers, numerous stores 
and shops of everv kind, and there is a general aspect of thrill and prog- 
ress all thr'jugh the pretty village. Most of this growth is mo<lern : nearly 
all the more substantial structures are less than forty years old. The act 
of incorporation was passed April 9, 1855. and the first village meeting 
was held the following week. Augustus F. Scofield was the first ]>resi- 
dent, and continued six years. Previous to the incor])oration of the village 
the fire company had been in existence some time. This organization was 
known as "The W^alden Fire Incorporation," an 1 it constituted the Fire 
Department of the village for years afterwards. In 1865 Daniel Torbush 
was the chief engineer, and in 1880. when the company was known as 
"Enterprise No. i." the chief engineer was (Granville Crist. 

A new comer in Walden in 1859 says there were then only three jiroui- 
inent business houses, those of Marcus K. Hill, Ebenezer Knapp, and 
Josei)h Millspaugh. It seemed to him then that about nine-tenths of the 
inhabitants there were named either Millspaugh or Ki<ld. .Augustus F. 
Scofield was then the leading citizen of wealth and influence, having a 
large shawl factory. The hotels were the Eagle and the St. Nicholas, as 
they are at present. Scofield Hall was used for public as.semblies and such 
eminent lecturers as John G. Saxe, Rev. Edward K. Beecher, Park Benja- 
min and Fanny I^'ern apjicared there. The much loved village parson was 
old "Dominie" Schoonmaker. who labored there faithfully for many 
years. The industries of Walden were then confined to the shawl factory, 
the satinet factory of Giles Andrews, and the knife factory. James Todfl 
was widelv known as "the model farmer of Orange Countv." George 


Weller was a prominent resident greatly devoted to all the village inter- 
ests, and his home was regarded as a scene of unbounded hospitality and 
good cheer. 

The first introduction of gas in Walden many years ago was not a 
financial success, and the company abandoned the project. A public water 
system was introduced in 1892. Previous to that time water for fires had 
to be taken through long hose from the Wallkill and Tinn Brook streams. 
The electric fire alarm system was installed about fifteen years ago. The 
newspaper known as the Walden Herald was established about 1869, and 
the Walden Citizen is in iis twentieth year. 

Near the line of Newburgh, in the northeastern part of the town, is the 
old hamlet of St. Andrews, which was left behind in the later development 
of Walden with its great water-power facilities. It was named for the 
ancient Episcopal church there, which is now located at Walden. 

Maybrook is an important railway junction, in the extreme southeast 
corner of the town. The population, which numbers about four hundred, 
is composed principally of railroad employees. 

Coldenham is near the New Windsor boundary, but in the southeast- 
ern part of the town. The title came from the Golden family and the 
hamlet was the home of the Lieutenant Governor and acting Chief Magis- 
trate of the New York Colony. 

Allard's Corners on the northwest border, and Scott's Corners, east of 
Montgomery village, are other small hamlets of minor importance. 


Le Fevre and De Garmo were the first bankers, beginning business in 
Walden in 1870. They continued but a short time, and in 1873 the Ex- 
change Bank was organized with George W. Stoddard in active charge. 
This was merged into the Walden National Bank in 1877 and was suc- 
ceeded in 1897 by the National Bank of Walden, the name of the present 
institution. The Walden Savings Bank, the oldest and largest financial 
institution in the town, began business June i, 1872, with the following 
officers: Seth M. Capron, president; Thomas W. Bradley, vice-president; 
and Peter LeFevre, secretary and treasurer. 

The Montgomery National Bank began business November i, 1905, 
with the following officers : William H. Senior, president; John A. Crab- 
tree, vice-president ; E. I. Emerson, cashier. Directors : William Eager, 


John j. \'aii(lcrocf, John A. Crabtrec, Clunks D. Wait, J. llarvcv Harris, 
Dr. E. Ross Elliott. William F. Lodge, Harvey Tuttlc. William II. .Senior, 
Walter R. Comfort, I-Ycd W. Tower. 


Nearly all the soil of this town is well adapted to successful agriculture 
in its varied forms. While much of the land has been devoted to meadows 
and grass, fine crops of grain were grown, wheat especially, in the earlier 
years of the settlement. Fruit is also grown to a considerable extent in 
some localities with profit. Orchards were planted in the town nearly a 
hundred years ago by Robert Griffith, John Miller, Andrew Graham, 
Hamilton Morrison and others. 

The bonding of the town in aid of the Wallkill Valley and other rail- 
way construction had a depressing effect upon the people and their prop- 
erty for a time, and there was much opposition to the scheme, among the 
farmers especially. But the advantages of the railways became api)arent 
in a few years, and probably no one would now care to abolish the present 
traffic facilities afforded or longer regrets the cost. 

The opening of the Wallkill \'alley Railway to Montgomery, in 1866 
was a most important event for the town and county. 

The Walden Woolen F'actory was established in 1823 by Jesse Scofield 
and Dr. Coburn. It was at first known as the "Franklin Company." 
There were frequent changes in the firm and management in the succeed- 
ing years. But for over fifty years this old plant was the most important 
business feature of \\'al(Ien. and it had much to do with its early growth 
and develoi)ment. The buildings were of stone and of the most durable 
character, and the water-power ample. 

The New York Knife Company has long been regarded among the 
largest cutlery plants in the Ignited States. It was organized in 1852 
and operated at ]\Iatteawan. Dutchess County, until 1856. when it was 
moved to Walden to the building formerly used as a cotton factory. Table 
and pocket cutlery of every kind and quality are made in this establish- 
ment, which has achieved world-wide fame in the hardware trade, domes- 
tic and foreign. Thomas W'. Bradley was long the leading spirit of the 
concern, being the active superintendent as well as the president of the 
company. He served with valor and distinction in the Civil War, and be- 
came prominent in the military affairs of the .State afterwards. He also 


served in the State Assembly in 1875-76, and at present represents this 
district in Congress. 

The Walden Condensed Milk Company was organized in- 1864 with a 
proposed capital of $50,000. But it was reorganized three years later 
under the name of the Highland Condensed Milk Company. The enter- 
prise was finally abandoned soon afterward and the buildings were used 
by the Walden Soap Works. The Walden Brickyard began operations in 
1868 with James Gowdy at its head. The Walden Knife Company was 
established in 1870 with W. E. Gowdy as president. It is entirely de- 
voted to pocket cutlery. In 1891 Mr. Edward Whitehead became its 
president, since which time the industry has forged rapidly ahead, with 
the annual payroll exceeding a quarter of a million dollars. The Schrade 
Cutlery Company was organized in 1904. It is under the direct manage- 
ment of George Schrade and his brother, J. Louis Schrade. The Rider- 
Ericsson Engine Company, manufacturers of hot air pumping engines, is 
also a very important industry, giving employment to 125 men. The Woos- 
ter Manufacturing Company, makers of pants and overalls, conducts an 
extensive and increasing business. The firm of William Crabtree & Sons, 
manufacturers of worsted yarns with plants in Montgomery village and 
Newburgh, conducts an important industry. This was established in 1880 
by William Crabtree and Arthur Patchett, both now deceased. Two hun- 
dred persons are given employment by this progressive firm. 

The New York Condensed Milk Company established a very extensive 
branch of its business just north of Walden in 1880, at an initial cost of 
$200,000, and the buildings and entire plant have been greatly enlarged 
and improved since that time. It was intended to receive the milk from 
5,000 cows at the outset. John G. Borden, who became one of the most 
prominent and progressive men in that region in after years, was the first 
president of this important plant. Since his death the great enterprise, 
with its model farms, has been carried on most successfully by his daugh- 
ters, and it is still one of the great show places of this region of the State. 
The farms, though mainly in Ulster County, are highly cultivated and 
operated under the most modern methods. 


The Colden house, on the Montgomery and Newburgh State road, at 
Coldenham, was built in 1765 by Cadwallader Colden, Jr. His father. Dr. 


Cachvalladcr Coldcn settled in Coldenham in 1728 on his patent of 3,000 
acres of land — he was the surveyor general of the province for eleven 
years, lieutenant governor for thirteen years and acting governor in 
1761, 1763, 1769 and 1774. lie gave to Cadwallader, Jr., on his marriage, 
five hundred acres of land, including the site on which this house stands. 
The land was all in woods, and Cadwallader, Jr., began at once to clear 
part of it for farming purposes ; with his own hands he felled the tirst 
tree, and up-rooted the first stub. After a few years the first dwelling he 
erected gave place to this permanent stone structure, then, one of the 
finest dwellings of the period. In it he lived a useful life, esteemed by all 
who knew him, and in it he died mourned as a public benefactor. Some 
years ago an addition to the house was built in the rear, and more recently 
a mansard roof and other improvements were added. The date of the 
erection of the building, and the names of its builders, are cut on a stone 
in the upper front center. Its historical associations, past and present, 
cover a period of one hundred and seventy-five years. 

The Thomas Colden mansion was built by Cadwallader Golden, Jr., for 
one of his sons. It is situated about a mile north of Goldenham, at Gol- 
den Hill, near what was the Newburgh and Ellenville plank roatl. It is 
a frame building with hipped-roof and is kept in excellent condition. 
After the death of Thomas Colden it was occupied by Cadwallader C. 
Colden, and more recently by Messrs. John and Joseph Kelly. 

The Haines house is situated about a mile east of the Goodwill Church, 
and a short distance south of the highway known as the Hadden road. 
It was built by Benjamin Haines who came into the precinct in 1739. The 
year in which the house was erected is not known, but it is probably 
the oldest house in the town. During recent years it has been occupied 
only for short intervals, and the walls are crumbling. This house is 
known as the CJld Hadden house, having been in the pxissession of suc- 
cesssive generations of that family for more than one hundred years. 

The Hill Brick house situated about three miles east of Montgomery 
on the State road was built by Nathaniel Hill in 1774 and occupied by his 
son, Peter, who was a soldier in the War of the Revolution. At his death 
the ownership and occupancy of the homestead passed to his son, Nath- 
aniel P. Hill, who was a prominent man — was sheriff, member of con- 
gress, and filled other important positions. One of his sons, Nathaniel P., 
had also attained prominence as U. S. senator from Colorado. 


The Van Keuren Stone house, now generally known as the Downs 
House, about a mile west of Goodwill church, on the road to Mont- 
gomery, was built in part by Hendricus Van Keuren in 1768, and in part 
by a previous owner probably John McNeal. The house is in excellent 
condition and is, perhaps, the oldest unchanged occupied house in the 

The Beemer house, situated on the old Stage road from Goshen to 
Albany, nearly three miles north of Montgomery and about two miles 
west of Walden, was built by Adam Beemer in 1770. It is a framed build- 
ing and has been recovered and repaired, but otherwise not materially 
changed. It is now in fair condition. 

The Hans Youngblood house is situated on the road leading from the 
Searsville road north to the former site of Graham's church on the Pine 
Bush road. Tradition says it was built before the French aad Indian 
War. It was used for a German school in 1761. and is not occupied at 

The Kidd house in the extreme southeasterly part of Walden was 
probably built in part by Alexander Kidd, who settled there in 1736. 
The year it was built is not known. Alexander Kidd was among the first 
elders of Goodwill Church. His descendants are numerous. 


One of the ancient landmarks is the Montgomery High School, for- 
merly known as the Montgomery Academy. This noted school is as old 
as our National Government. It had its inception in 1787, the year that 
the National Constitution was framed. It was the fourth oldest academy 
in the State, having been incorporated in 1791. Before 1787 the inhab- 
itants of the village and surrounding country felt the need of a school of 
a high grade, and during that year erected a school building on lots re- 
served in part for school purposes, when the village was first surveyed and 
laid out. In the autumn of 1787 teachers were employed and the school 
opened for pupils. During 1790 steps were taken to incorporate the in- 
stitution and place it under the care of the regents of the State Univer- 
sity, as appears from the following application and petition : 

"To the Regents of the University of the State of New York: Be it 
known that a certain tract of land pleasantly situated in the town of 


Montgomery, in the county of Ulster, in the center of a populous, fertile 
and wealthy country, hath lately been purchased, and a large and con- 
venient building of two stories high erected and completed thereon, for 
the use of a public academy for the instruction of youth 'in the learned 
languages and other branches of useful knowledge, that the expense of 
the undertaking hath been defrayed by the free and liberal benefactions 
of individuals, of whom the subscribers constitute more than one-half with 
respect to the contributions raised and collected to found said academy, 
and that a gentleman of liberal education, of very competent abilities and 
irreproachable moral character has been procured, with a tutor, to teach 
in said academy. 

The subscribers, pursuant to an act of the Legislature of the State of 
New York entitled an act to institute a university within this State, and 
for other purposes, passed April 13, 1787, respectfully make the applica- 
tion to the regents of said University requiring that the said academy 
may be incorix)rated agreeably to the said law. and be subject to the 
visitation of the said regents, and they do hereby nominate Arthur Parks, 
Matthew Hunter, J^.enjamin Sears, Henry X'anKeuren, Solomon Slight, 
Joseph Barber, James Clinton, Moses Freleigh, Daniel Bull, James Hun- 
ter, Peter Hill, David Galatian, Johannes Miller, Severyn T. Brown, 
Henry Smith, Ebenezer Clark and William Cross to be the first trustees 
of the said academy, declaring it to be their desire that the said trustees 
be called and distinguished by the name of the trustees of the Mont- 
gomery Academy in the County of Ulster. 

Andrew King. Jolni McKinstry. 

Nathan \V. Howell. James Moore. 

L. Sleglit. William Jackson. 

Matthew Hunter. .Matthew Gillespie. 

Stephen Goldsmith. Uavid Jagger. 

John Nicholson. Hugh Alillikcn. 

Benjamin Sears. Andrew Graham. 

James Clinton. Thomas Greggs. 

Hamilton Morrison. Jacob Meltzberg. 

Gideon Pelton. Alexander Leeds. 

Patrick Barber. Robert Kidd. 

Jacob Newkirk. James Mackay. 

David Galatian. Thomas Barklcy. 

William Cross. Stephen Ross. 

Severyn T. Bruyn. Stephen Crist. 

Johannes Mould. John Wilkin. 

Christian Rockefeller. A. M. .McCord. 

Jacob Linderman. \\'illiam Wilkin. 

Jacob Bookstaver. Robert Sewall. 



William Booth. 
Alexander P. Anderson. 
John Clark. 
James W. Wilkin. 
Johannes Miller. 
Willfam Weller. 
Jacob F. Bookstaver. 
Henry J. Smith. 
Neal Diggie. 
Henry Sinsabaugh. 
Henry Van Keuren. 
Peter Crans. 
Henry Smith. 
James Jackscn, Jr. 
Philip Millspaugh. 
John Linderman. 
William Cross. 
David Smith. 
James Hunter. 
Jacob Pitts. 
Henry German. 
John Barber. 
Daniel Bull. 
James M. Claghen. 
John Puff 
John Pool. 
John Sears. 
John Barclay. 
John Scott. 
Jeremiah Smith. 
Jane Crage. 
James T. Graham. 
John Haines. 
Thomas Beallie. 
Tunis Van Arsdale. -^ 
John Dunlap. 
Caleb Dill. 
Andrew Embler. 
Jason Wilkin. 
William Faulkner. 
D. G. Rogers. 
James Preston. 
Cornelius Schoonmaker. 
William Miller. 

David Miller. 
B. Hopkins. 
Samuel Boyd. 
Adam J. Doll. 
Martinus Crist. 
William Johnston. 
Daniel Cahill. 
John Millspaugh. 
Solomon bleght. 
John Robinson. 
John C. Millyberg. 
Henry Nealy. 
Benjamin Cradit. 
Frederick Bookstaver. 
Moses Latta. 
Jacob Sniedes. 
John A. Newkirk. 
James Hunter. 
William Crist. 
Johannes Yerkes. 
Christopher Moule. 
George Monnell. 
Joseph Burrows. 
William Hill. 
Thomas McKissock. 
Alexander Dorcus. 
Charles Young. 
Andrew Hart. 
James Kidd. 
William Erwin. 
John Hunter. 
John P. Haines. 
Peter Plill. 
Robert Hunter. 
David Crist. 
James Fitzgerald. 
Samuel P. Gale. 
William Faulkner, Jr. 
James Sutton. 
John Barber. 
Jonathan Miller. 
David Comfort. 
Matthew M. Rowe. 

The petition was dated January 3, 1791, and the act ot incorporation 
was passed the 23rd of April following. The school prospered and 
greater accommodations became necessary. In 1823 the main part of the 
present brick building- was erected at a cost of about $5,400. Nearly 
two-thirds of the cost was paid by State moneys ; the remaining third was 
raised by subscription through the activity and persistency of Johannes 


The academy ctintiiuKd to prosper until the free school system was 
adopted, when it began to decline. In 1881 it was transferrefl by the 
trustees to the Hoard of P'ducation of the jNIontgomery Union l">ec 
School, of which it is now ( it/)8) the academical department. The 
foUowinti: is a list of principals of the academy since it was incorporated : 
Rev. Alexander Miller, Nathaniel Howell, Nathan H. White, Reuben 
Xecly. lames Kin.^', Prof. Stansbury, William H. Weller, Rev. John 
Mcjimsay, Prof. Wilson, Jacob C. Tooker. twenty years. Silas S. Harmon, 
seven years. Rev Samuel B. Bell, D. D.. Joseph M. Wilkins, three years, 
Robert Simpson, Daniel K. Bull, Prof. Lasher, Prof. Graham, Prof. Gun- 
nison, Theron Little, Prof. Stevens, Prof. Beardsley, Prof. Cone, Ben- 
jamin C. Nevins, Prof. Demarest. Prof Rouse. This famous academy 
reached the zenith of its prosperity under Professors Tooker and Harmon. 

The town is divided into thirteen school districts and parts of districts; 
of these, twelve have school-houses in the town. These district schools 
will compare favorably with those of any other tow-n. It appears from 
trustees' reports for 1907 that the whole number of children of school 
age (between five and eighteen), residing in the town that year was i,- 
337; of these 1,299 attended school. The average daily attendance of 
these children was 850. The number of teachers employed at the same 
time was thirty-four. The total cost of sustaining these schools was 
$25,330; of this sum $17,892 was raised by district tax. The value 
of school-houses and sites was $42,450. Two of the districts (Mont- 
gomery and \\'ald>nO. are union free school districts. The former was 
established in i88r and now (1908), employs six teachers. The first 
principal was Reuben Fraser. The present board of education is : Dr. 
E. Ross Elliott, William Eager, William H. Senior. John A. Crabtree and 
William S. Hanlon. The latter was organized in 1859 and now employs 
eighteen teachers. The Board of Education in 1908 is: Sanford Ab- 
rams, Henry E. Williams. Frank Benedict, Benjamin S. French. Harry 
Hollingsworth, DeWitt C. Dominick. There is one parochial school in 
the town. 


There are many ancient churches in this town. It was a sturdy Chris- 
tian people that first settletl in this region. After building their grist 
mills and providing themselves and families with log-cabins, or other 


rude shelter from the storm and cold of the severe winters which then 
prevailed, their next thought was for the church, where they might en- 
joy religious worship, hear the Scripture expounded and meet together in" 
praise and song. 

The oldest and best known of these churches in those early days was the 
Good Will Presbyterian Church. This was established by the Scotch- 
Irish settlers who came into the region in 1724.- The earliest records of 
this old church seem to have been lost. But the organization was repre- 
sented in the Synod of Philadelphia in 1729 by John McNeal as com- 
missioner. This date has, therefore, been taken for the establishment of 
the church, although it was doubtless in existence there some years earlier. 
The settlers of the region being long known as "the people of Wallkill," 
this church went under the name of the Wallkill Church, though incor- 
porated under the name first mentioned. The first church structure is 
believed to have been erected in 1735, although there was some rude build- 
ing set apart for religious worship some years before this. The building 
was improved and enlarged from time to time, some $8,000 having been 
expended upon it in this way in 1871. During the one hundred and sev- 
enty-nine years of its existence it has had but nine pastors : Rev. Joseph 
Houston, John Moffatt, Andrew King, Robert W. Condit, William Blain, 
David M. Maclise, D.D., James M. Dixon, D.D., David F. Bonner, D.D., 
and the present pastor, Rev. John H. Thompson, who has served the 
church for seventeen years. 

The Reformed Church of Montgomery was founded mainly by the 
German element in 1732. As the population increased divisions arose in 
this church and several other churches were formed from it. The first 
house of worship was a log structure built in 1732. And it is said that 
the entrance of this old church was by means of a ladder placed on the 
outside. All these early records were kept in the Dutch language, and the 
services were also conducted in Dutch for the first fifty years. Then for 
a time each alternate Sunday the English language was used. Rev- 
John Michael Kern seems to have been the first settled pastor. He came 
in 1772 and resigned in 1776. Rev. G. W. Mancius, of the old parent 
Kingston Dutch Church, had been acting as a supply previous to that date, 
until his death in 1762. Three different church buildings have occupied 
the site since the old block house was taken down in 1760. The first was 
a frame structure erected immediately thereafter. The church contained 

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sixty-eight pews, forty-six of which were occupied at a rental of £96 8s. 
Pews for the elders and deacons were on the right and left of the old- 
fashioned pulpit. Among the names of the pew-holders are foimd those of 
Rockefeller. Voungblood, Mould, Decker, Weller, Rcjbinson, etc.. ances- 
tors of many well-known families. The modern name of the church for 
years has been "the lirick Church of Montgomery." The present pastor is 
I'eter Crispcll. 

The St. Andrczu's Church at Walden, before alluded to, is another an- 
cient religious society. This people passed through a troublous existence 
during the Revolution, and the parish was left vacant for some years until 
1790. I'^inally, after emerging from a heavy debt, a new church was 
erected in the village of Walden in 1827. Then after many changes in 
rectors, another new church was decided upon in 1870. This with the 
parsonage cost $18,000. and in 1880 the church was finally consecrated 
free from debt. 

The Reformed Presbyterian Church of Coldenhain was organized in 
1/95' ^"*1 ^ house of worship built four years later. This was replaced by 
a new structure in 1838. Dr. Alexander McLeod was the pastor from 
1800 to 1812. The present pastor, Rev. Thomas Patton, was installed in 


The Reformed Dutch Church of Berea, which came as a secession from 
the Good-will Church, got its first pastor in 1823, Rev. James Ten Eyck, 
the congregation having been incorporated two years before. When the 
first little church was built it was surrounded by a forest, the timber for 
the building being cut from the site itself. 

The First Reformed Church of JValden was incorporated in 1870, al- 
though the society was formed forty years before, and the church building 
was completed in 1838 at a cost of $12,000. Some $5,000 more was after- 
ward spent upon the parsonage. Rev. M. \^. Schoonmaker was the min- 
ister from 1849 to 1888. The present minister. Rev. W. W. Schomp. was 
installed in 1897. 

The First Presbyterian Church of MontS!^omery was incorporated in 
1832 and Rev. James O. Stokes was the first pastor. There \vere many 
changes in this pastorate in the succeeding years, and the debt piled up 
gradually until it reached $2,300 in 1848. a parsonage having been built 
meanwhile. This debt was. however, fully met that year under the pas- 
torate of Rev. E. R. I'airchild. whose health soon failed, however. Rev. 


J. C. Forsyth was installed in 1875 and he continued in that field for many 

The Methodist Church of Montgomery, was organized in 1829 with 
Rev. B. Howe and J. W. Lefever as priests. The '"table expenses" of 
Mr. Howe were $100 and those of Lefever $50, which was in addition to 
the disciplinary allowance. A small church was built that year and a par- 
sonage four years later. 

In 1906 an Episcopal mission was established in Montgomery. 

The Waldcn Methodist ChurcJi was incorporated in 1850. Previous 
to that the "classes" there were under the pastoral care of the Mont- 
gomery preachers. In fact, it was not until 1866 that the Walden Church 
became an independent charge. Then a parsonage was built and the 
church building was enlarged and improved in 1870 at a cost of $6,000. 
In 1893 it was removed to the east side of the church lot and remodeled. 

The Church of the Holy Name in the village of Montgomery was in- 
corporated in 1870. Rev. Hugh S. O'Hare was the pastor. 

The inception of the Church of the Most Precious Blood in Walden 
was in 1887. Services were held in Lustig's and later in Condon's hall. 
The church was dedicated by Bishop Farley July 5, 1896. The officiating 
priests have been Rev. C. A. Meredith, Rev. P. Morris and Rev. F. C. 

Among the recent church organizations of the town is the People's 
Baptist Church at Maybrook, erected in 1906. No settled pastor. 

Several of the old cities of the dead date back to 1725. The Wallkill 
Valley Cemetery Association was organized in 1865 and the first burial 
made May i, 1867. This cemetery commands general admiration in the 
beauty and grandeur of its location. It comprises forty-one acres and the 
interments exceed 2,000. In 1905 Colonel Thomas Bradley erected here a 
bronze statue, "The Volunteer," memorial to Company H, 124th Regi- 
ment. Other burial places are Goodwill, St. Mary's, Riverside, Berea, 
Brick Church and Coldenham. 

Wickham T. Shaw. 




Bv WiCKiiAM T. Shaw. 


TWIS is one of the smaller towns of Orange Couniy ami it is located 
in the acute angle of the western boundary line of the county 
formed by the indentation of Sullivan County. The territory 
of the town is diamond-shaped. The Shawangunk stream, which flows 
through the town lengthwise toward the northeast, leaves it in the apex 
of the angle and then forms the boundary line separating Orange from 
Sullivan, as well as the northwestern bounds of the towns of Wallkill and 

It is bounded on the north by Sullivan County and a very small part 
of the town of Wallkill, east by that town, south by the towns of Waway- 
anda and Greenville, and west by the town of Deer Park. 

The area of the town is now placed at 16,104 acres. The assessed 
valuation of all the real and personal property, as reported by the 
assessors in 1906, was $632,075, upon which the tax levy for that year 
was $3,903.36. In 1880 this land was valued at $673,470, and the annual 
tax was $5,157.79. But it would be manifestly unfair to assume that the 
land is less valuable now than it was twenty-five years ago. The average 
town assessor in the State of New York, under the prevailing ]X)litical 
conditions and customs, is largely a creature of circumstance, with strange 
vagaries in judgment, if indeed he is called upon to exercise any judgment 
at all under the official limitations of his position. Then. too. standards 
of value have greatly changed during that time. 

This Mount Hope territory lies wholly north of ihe old couniy line 
which originaHy divided Orange from Ulster County. 


The Shawangunk mountain range in the western border of the town is 
the most important topographical feature. This northern spur of the 


Alleghanies is known as the Blue Mountains in New Jersey and the Kitta- 
tiny Mountains in the State of Pennsylvania. Beginning in the central 
part of Ulster County the general trend of the range is toward the south- 
west for some 250 miles. There are few isolated peaks, and the greatest 
altitude reached is about 1,800 feet above tide. The more notable eleva- 
tions of this range are Sam's Point, near Ellenville, Sky Top and Eagle's 
Clifif at Lake Mohonk, all of which are in Ulster County. The Indian 
word Shawangunk, which has been used to designate this range since the 
settlement of the region, signifies "great wall" in the aboriginal vernacu- 
lar, which in fact seems especially appropriate as a descriptive title. 

The eastern slopes of these mountains are uniform and well adapted to 
cultivation, even to their summits, in most instances. But on the western 
side they are broken and precipitous. The approach from the east has 
been fitly described by an old writer in the following language : "The eye 
rests upon fields of grain and grass, upturned furrows, the verdure of 
waving trees and the homes of thrifty hospitality, spread out from valley 
to crest, over the south and the far north, in unwearying panoramic beauty 
— a patchwork of gold and green, of brown and gray, of white and 

The Shawangunk River is another dominating feature in this Mount 
Hope township. Rising in the adjoining town of Greenville on the south, 
this stream enters the Mount Hope territory near the middle of the south- 
ern boundary line and flows northeasterly through the central portion of 
the town, leaving the north boundary line at the apex of Sullivan County, 
as before stated. 

The Little Shawangunk rises at Shawangunk Lake, on the eastern bor- 
der of .the town, flows northward along the line some four or five miles, 
then crosses over into the town of Wallkill, anon reentering Mount Hope 
in the northeast corner, and finally unites with the parent stream in the 
western bounds of Wallkill. There are several small tributaries which 
enter the Shawangunk from the west and drain the mountain slopes ef- 

This territory also presents many geological features of interest which 
have attracted considerable attention in past years. Here, as elsewhere in 
this mountain range, rich mineral deposits have been found. Lead, copper 
and zinc ores were discovered many years ago, and numerous mining 
companies have been formed in the town. 


EARLY SR rT[.i:.M F.NT. 

This being one of the newer towns of ilie eounty, having been taken 
from the towns of Wallkill and Deer Park in 1825, the details pertaining 
to its early settlement are of course embodied in the history of those towns 
and cannot well be treated separately in this place at much length. 

.\niong the early pioneers in this section was John Finch, who settled 
in what was afterward known as h'inchville. The records show he was 
there in 1733 at least. He came from Horseneck, Conn., settling first at 
Goshen, where it was said in after years he was the first adult person to 
receive luirial in the Goshen churchyard. 

Jasper Writer came from Germany, and after spending a few years in 
Philadelphia he removed to this section and settled on what was after- 
ward known as the Writer farm. This was probably before 1763, as he 
was over a hundred years old when he died in 1842. 

Ashbel Cadwell was another early settler here, and his grandson, Har- 
vey R. Cadwell, in later }cars became a prominent citizen of Otisville. 

The Green family was also among the early settlers here. Israel Green, 
the pioneer, started at Middletown, and he had many children, some of 
whom lived in the Otisville section. Daniel Green, his brother, settled 
near Finchville. William Shaw must also be numbered with the well 
known Mount Hope pioneers, and he settled near Flowells some years 
before the Revolution and left many worthy descendants in that 

.Stei)hen St. John was another enterprising and public spirited citizen 
of that little village. James Finch ■served in the militia during the Revo- 
lution for more than three months, anrl also in the French and Indian war 
in 1755 and 1756. In his youthful days he served as valet to General 
Abercrombie at Fort Stanwix. 

Benjamin W'oodward. already mentioned, came into the section in 
1773 from Stonington, Conn. He served several sessions in the Legisla- 
ture, was a member of the Constitutional Convention in 182 1, and was 
state senator from 1827 to 1830. His son Charles also represented his 
tov.n m the Legislature in 1863 and 1864. 

Joshua Corwin was another Mount Hope pioneer who came there some- 
time before the Revolution, coming from South' >ld. L. I. He had eight 
children, who 'settled on an extensive tract of land in that region. 


Jacob Wiggins came very soon after the Revolution and settled two 
miles south of Otisville. 


The act of incorporation of Mount Hope was passed in 1825, as before 
stated. But the new town was then named "Calhoun" in honor of the 
distinguished South Carolina Senator, John C. Calhoun, whose patriotic 
course as secretary of war during the contest with Great Britain in 1812 
won him great favor with the people of this entire region. But they soon 
regretted this action and the honor conferred because of Calhoun's course 
and policy during the nullification discussions of 1831 and 1832. There 
was a violent revulsion of public opinion and everybody wanted to drop 
this now unpopular name of the town without ceremony, thus showing 
their open disapproval of the new policy of the Southern statesman. A 
public meeting was held, the old name was dropped with a heavy thud 
and the present title of "Mount Hope" was unanimously adopted with 
much enthusiasm. In response to a popular petition sent tO' the Legisla- 
ture in 1833 a law was passed March 14 of that year discarding the old 
name and ratifying the new one. The plan of thus honoring a political 
favorite of the hour, however distinguished and popular he might be, had 
proved a dangerous experiment even in those eight short years, and the 
people were now resolved to adopt some title for their town which could 
not be affected by the sands of time or the progress of human events. 

While all the earlier records of this town were destroyed by fire in 1848, 
the account of the first town meeting, which was held at the house of 
Joseph Conklin, April 5, 1825, is happily preserved in the books of Deer 
Park. Joseph Chattle and Richard Penny were the presiding justices of 
the peace. One hundred and fifty dollars were raised for the support of 
the poor for the ensuing year and $35 for the maintenance of bridges. 
Joseph Chattle was chosen the first supervisor and Joseph Conklin town 
clerk. While many of the principal ofificers were chosen by ballot, all the 
minor town officials were selected by the primitive method of raising of 
hands. Four constables were chosen, six firemasters, four fence viewers 
and forty-one highway masters. Just what the duties of the latter were 
can only be conjectured, as very little attention was paid to the public 
roads of that period or their repair, and fortunately so, perhaps, because of 


the piiiniiive and defective methods in vogue. The official list of the town 
included also three assessors, two overseers of the poor, three commis- 
sioners of hig-hways, three school commissioners and three school inspec- 

The first town meeting after the fire was in 1849. At that liiiK- the 
rather extravagant civil list of the town had been somewhat reduced in 
number. One hundred dollars were then raised for repairs to roads and 

It is interesting to note in passing that in 1906 the sum raised for the 
maintenance of public roads alone in the town under the money system of 
road work was $2,743.33. ( )f this amount $933.12 was received from the 
State and $260 from the poll tax. 


Heretofore it has been said that the little Shawangunk Kill, in this 
town, was of such little importance that historians declined to mention it, 
yet this stream, 1\ ing practically all in the town, was at one time the 
scene of five thriving saw-mills in operation, but which have since disap- 
peared. Yet the city of Middletown in i8()0 saw a basis of great water 
works in this stream, and just from the line at the headwaters of this kill 
in the town of W'allkill, erected a reservoir which was known as Highland 
Lake, containing about 500,000,000 gallons of water. On April 22, 1901, 
just below Highland Lake and in the town of Mount Llope, the city of 
Middletown decided to erect another lake, and the contract was let to 
Charles Sundstrom of the city of Middletown, who. by the erection of 
what was known as Shawangunk, Greenleaf and Steward dams, im- 
pounded a large quantity of water, which was to form a part of the 
Middletown system. 

This work was at the cost of something like $57,000, and was con- 
nected with Mohagen Lake by a twenty-inch conduit, and also a twenty- 
four-inch conduit was extended in a westerly direction to a point in the 
Shawangimk Kill, alxjve Mount Hope, from which it was intended to take 
water at high times, and conduct it to what was called Shawangiuik 

This reservoir when full contains over 434.000,000 gallons of water, 
and has an acreage of about 102 acres, on what was formerlv known as 


the Greenleaf farm. It will be observed that Highland Lake had been 
erected some fourteen years, but since Shawangunk Lake was erected, 
litigation sprang up from the mill owners on the big Shawangunk Kill, as 
far north as Pine Bush, and all the farmers on the line of the little 
Shawangunk Kill were brought into proceedings for condemnation, and 
the payment of damages for the taking of this water, and this litigation, 
which continued some two or three years, was finally settled in the year 
1907, when all water rights to both kills were finally determined, but the 
city of Middletown had paid in expenses and damages something like 


The village of Mount Hope is in the southwestern part of the town. 
This name was bestowed long before the formation of the town itself, 
which was evidently named after the old village. The site of the hamlet 
is a commanding elevation, and there is a charming view of the surround- 
ing landscape on all sides far and near. 

Benjamin Woodward and Dr. Benjamin Newkirk are credited with the 
establishment of the place in May, 1807. On the eighth day of that month, 
after the "raising bee" was over, James Finch, the old settler, called the 
assembly to order and made a very enthusiastic speech, during which he 
christened the place "Mount Hope" with proper ceremony. 

Otisville was settled in 1816 by Isaac Otis, a merchant from New York, 
and named for him. There were but three houses on the upper street, 
and probably but little more than a dozen buildings comprised the entire 
village when the Erie Railroad was opened on November 3, 1846. 

The officials of the road who arrived on the first train dined at the 
hotel of Ambrose W. Green, who for many years was one of the leading 
citizens of Otisville. At this time, 1846, Dr. Avery Cook lived and had 
his office near where the depot stands. Galen Otis owned the only store 
which stood where he later built a large square house. Ezra Coleman lived 
and had his wagon-making shop where Dr. Writer now lives. Samuel K. 
Wheat was the harness-maker, and lived where later Judson Van Duzor 
lived. Stanford Harding was the blacksmith, and Squire Baker had a 
cooper shop. Harvey R. Cadwell, a member of Assembly in 1862, 
owned the farm on the north, and Smith Loomis, father of Supervisor 
Charles Loomis, owned the farm on the western boundary of the village. 

Garrett H. I ymeson.. 


The schoolhouse in 184O was iK-arly a mile xnuli (if ilic villaj^jc on tlic 
plains, the present site of the cemetery. .V church was also there. This 
same year Algernon Sidney Dodge, son of Benjamin Doge, of Mount 
Hope, came to Otisville and leased the store of Galen Otis. Alsop Wood- 
ward Dodge, son of Algernon Sidney Dodge, now resides in Middlctown, 
and from him we learned some of the facts contained here. 

Ambrose Woodward Green, mentioned above, was born in the town of 
Greenville in 1813. His father was Charles S. Green, and his grandfather 
was Daniel Green, a soldier of the Revolution from Orange County. 

Ambrose W. Green settled in Otisville in 1835, and for a time carried 
on the tailoring business, w-hich he discontinued, and built the Washing- 
ton Hotel, now the Greenleaf Hotel, conducting it for some time in con- 
nection with other business. 

Before the Erie came to Otisville, Mr. Green owned a market wagon 
route to Newburgh, going twice a week by way of I>loomingburg. While 
Otisville remained the western terminal of the Erie, Mr. Green also owned 
a stage line to Forestburg, Sullivan County, connecting with lines into 
Pennsylvania for Honesdale and other western points. He was interested 
in building the Otisville and Wurtsboro turnpike. Mr. Green sold the 
\\'ashington Hotel and about 1850 built the hotel near the railroad track. 
While conducting this hotel, he was engaged in the lumber and coal busi- 
ness. From 1863 to 1870 he was extensively interested in the lead mining 
operations on Shawangunk Mountain. The decline in the value of lead 
after our Civil War caused the mines to be discontinued, and Mr. Green 
later sold his hotel and removed to a farm a couple of miles north of Otis- 
ville, where he died in July, 1888. 

The coming of the Erie boomed Otisville for the ne.xt few years. 
A Methodist and a Presbyterian church were built and a little later 
a Catholic church. Several stores and many flwellings \vere erected. 
Market wagons came here twice a week with farmers' produce for ship- 
ment to New York. Previous to the building of the Midland Railroad 
hundreds of teams throughout the winter, while the Delaware and Hudson 
Canal was closed, came to Otisville from Sullivan and western Ulster 
Counties, with leather from the tanneries, and returned with the green 
hifles for tanning. For many years, until the introduction of refrigera- 
tor cars, Otisville was the western terminal of the milk train. 

George Strickland and Joel D. Northrup, residents of Otisville, were 


the conductors — the latter for many years. The Orange County Express 
for several years went no further west than Otisville. The gravel and 
construction train for this section, with nearly a hundred employees, had 
its headquarters at Otisville. Until coal was used as the fuel for the en- 
gines of the Erie, Otisville for many years was the principal point where 
the thousands of cords of wood were received which the Erie consumed 
yearly. This wood was all sawed by hand, and many men were employed. 
Many citizens of Otisville found various kinds of employment with the 
Erie during these years, and much of the prosperity of the village came 
from the dollars left here by the monthly pay-car of the Erie. 


To the historian of the future the name Otisville will be associated 
with one of the great sanitary advances made in this country, namely, 
the establishment, by a municipality, of a tuberculosis sanatorium outside. 
the political limits of that municipality. 

The establishment of such a sanatorium was first suggested in 1889. 
At that time, however, not even a medical sentiment was ripe for such a 
movement. In the succeeding fifteen years, little progress was made to- 
ward a realization of these plans, and it was not until Dr. Thomas Dar- 
lington became commissioner of health that any tangible results were 
achieved. He proved an aggressive and resourceful champion. With 
political, corporate, and private interests leagued together to prevent the 
city from acquiring a site, it was largely owing to the indefatigable labors 
of Dr. Darlington that the most determined opposition to the plan was 

After carefully examining many sites, it was finally determined to estab- 
lish the sanatorium at Otisville, a little village lying in tlie Shawangunk 
Mountains, and about seventy-five miles from New York City. As a south- 
ern exposure was desired, the grounds, covering an area of over 1,400 
acres, were selected on the southeastern slope of one of the most pic- 
turesque and most favorably situated mountains of the entire range. The 
grounds have an altitude varying from about 800 feet to 1,500 feet above 
sea level. The sanatorium property consists of what were formerly thir- 
teen separate farms, which were purchased at different times during the 
years 1905 and 1906, the health department first taking possession for the 
city of New York on December i, 1905. 


To avoid delay in establishing the institution on a working basis, it was 
deemed best to renovate and remodel the buildings on the ])ro|)erty, anrl 
use them until such time as the needs of the sanatorium would re(|uire the 
erection of new ones. By July, 1906, the institution was ready to receive 
its first patients, and a year after that date had accommodations for about 

Since the sanatorium is designed for the treatment of those ill with 
tuberculosis in the early stages of the disease, there is only a small build- 
ing for hospital accommodations. The rest of the buildings, in which the 
patients practically live outdoors, are portable houses and shacks. All the 
frills and ruffles so universally connected with the construction of public 
buildings have been omitted; everything has W-vn suljordinatrd \i> that 
which is best for the patients. 

There are six portable houses, which are set on posts and can be taken 
apart and transferred to any location desired. The houses all measure 
ten by sixty feet, and are divided into five rooms. The center room, 
heated on cold days, is used as a bathing and dressing room, as well as 
a sitting room in inclement weather. Those on either side are used as bed 
rooms. Each room has four windows, two of which are always open and 
so arranged as to avoid all draughts. Each room contains one bed. The 
two rooms on either end are entirely open on the three sides, a fine screen 
only enclosing to keep out insects, etc. Heavy canvas curtains are folded 
in a roll outside, and can be dropped in stormy weather. These end rooms 
each accommodates two patients, thus making a capacity of six to each 

In the latter part of 1906 a one-story and a two-story shack were erected 
for the additional accommodation of patients ; and during 1907 two single- 
story shacks and one small house were built. 

The shacks are built in the form of the letter T. The stem of the T 
consists of a room containing the washstands, lockers for each patient, 
and toilets and baths. In front of this is a sitting room, and opening from 
either side of this are the sleeping rooms. The latter are practically only 
verandas, being open in front and on the side, while for protection against 
storms and severe winds there is a similar provision to that used on the 
portable houses; that is. the curtains ordinarily rolled up arc lowered, 
shutting oflF the verandas from the outside. A single-story shack accom- 
modates twelve patients, six on each veranda. The two-story shack ac- 


commodates just double that number, being exactly alike in its two stories. 

A feature of considerable importance in an institution of this kind is the 
manner in which the different patients are segregated. As nearly as possi- 
ble patients in the same physical condition as well as those who are apt 
to be congenial are assigned to the same quarters. 

Every patient is closely observed for about ten days after admission. 
The amount and frequency of rest, exercise and work is determined at all 
times by the condition of the patients. They are assigned to work accord- 
ing to their strength and capabilities. All dining-room duties, such as 
waiting on the table, washing dishes, and preparing vegetables, are per- 
formed by selected patients who show but slight lesions, negative sputum, 
and have no cough. Many of the patients are able to do farm work, and 
this keeps them out in the air and relieves their ennui. 

In a large institution of this kind the problem of sewage disposal is 
not an easy matter. But by the aid of expert sanitary engineers this has 
been satisfactorily overcome. Thousands of feet of pipe have been laid, 
and an up-to-date disposal plant has been erected. The effluent from this 
plant will have been so purified as to be practically indistinguishable from 
pure water. 

An abundance of pure water has also been provided, and is supplied at 
a high pressure to all the buildings. Fire plugs are scattered about the 
sanatorium grounds, and a fire-fighting system has been organized. 

The sanatorium has its own dairy, for the patients are encouraged to 
drink considerable milk. The cow barn and the milk handling rooms in 
connection with this, are immaculately clean, and this condition is re- 
flected by the milk, which is of the highest possible purity. 

The one fact which stands out prominently at the sanatorium is the 
broad foundation on which the whole work has been planned. The work 
is being directed with admirable foresight, and will yield immense returns 
in the fight against tuberculosis in New York City. The sanatorium was 
established in order to provide a place for treating these consumptives of 
New York who are unable to pay, the large army who until now have 
had merely the clinics and dispensaries, but for whom country treatment 
is most desirable. The city maintains the patients absolutely free, the 
only condition being that the disease is not too far advanced. 

The present capacity of the institution, about 150, is only a small frac- 
tion of what it will be five or ten vears hence. Yet even these small num- 


bers arc an iniiiicnsc ]X)tetUial for good when tliev return to tin- citv cured 
or improved, for lliev carry with them habits of cleanliness and pergonal 
hygiene and a knowledge of the value of fresli air, which are of incalcula- 
ble value not only to them, but to all with whom they come in contact. 

The ])resent officers of the institution are: Dr. Thomas Darlington, 
commissioner of health; Dr. Hermann M. Biggs, general medical officer; 
Dr. Irving D. Williains, superintendent; Dr. Edward J. McSweenv. resi- 
dent physician, and Dr. Frank P. ITauscr. assistant resident i)hvsician. 


Eric & Jersey Railroad. — In the year 1904 a corporation was organized, 
known as the Erie and Jersey Railroad Company, which ostensibly was 
an independent line, to be built from a point on the Erie railroad west 
of Guymard. on a circuitous route, to the north of the present Erie rail- 
road, to Turner. It was well understood that this road was a part of the 
Erie system, and was to be a double-track road, the projectors of w'hich 
alleged that it would be used for freight, but as it shortened the route of 
the road and was a much easier grade, when completed, undoubtedly 
would be used by many fast express trains. 

The condemnation laws of this State were not elastic enough to permit 
of taking property along the line of this route through the courts, and 
the greater part of the right of way had to be bought by the company, 
and fabulous prices were paid for its right of way, which was 130 feet 
wide. About eleven miles of this road is in the town of Mount Hope. 

71ie Erie & Jersey Railroad Tunnel. — On August 10, 1905, Bennett 
& Talbott, contractors, of Greensburg. Pa., contracted with the Erie 
& Jersey Railroad Company to build twelve miles of railroad, eleven miles 
of grading, which would require about 1,500.000 cubic yards of excava- 
tion, and about 15,000 yards of concrete masonry, and one mile, tliree liun- 
dred and three feet of tunnel through the Shawangunk Mountains, be- 
tween Guymard and Howclls. X. \'. The road was to be completed 
within a period of two years. Work was commenced on September 4. 
1905. by sinking a shaft at the center of the tunnel to a depth of 117 feet. 
Owing to a delay in getting the right of way. however, they were com- 
pelled to sink another shaft at the east portal of the tunnel to expedite 
the work, beginning on or about October i. 1905. The west portal of 
the tunnel was begun on or about November 15 of the same year. The 


completion of the work was delayed somewhat on account of the suspen- 
sion of work April, 1907. The excavation of the tunnel will now be com- 
pleted on or about the first of March, 1908, while the arching will be 
finished some time in July, 1908. The excavation of solid rock required 
for this work was 180,000 cubic yards. The timber required to support 
the roof was 1,700,000 feet, while the amount of concrete sidewall was 
8,000 cubic yards. The number of brick required was 8,000,000. The ma- 
chinery used in the construction of this tunnel was two improved Style A 
Marion steam-shovels, known as the "45-ton." Alpha Portland cement 
was used for the masonry. Francis Lee Stuart was chief engineer of 
this work. 

Finchville. — This hamlet is in the southwestern part of the town at the 
eastern base of the Shawangunk Mountains. It was founded by James 
Finch, the old settler, in whose honor the name was bestowed. But the 
precise date of this settlement is not accurately disclosed by the records. 
It was to this place that many terror-stricken women and children fled for 
refuge from the Mamakating Valley during the Indian troubles there. 

New Vernon. — This is a small hamlet in the northern border of the 
town. In fact, part of it is in Sullivan County. It was named thus to 
distinguish it from Vernon in New Jersey. It had one church and some 
twenty dwellings in i860, and has shown no very material increase in 
recent years. 

Guymard, in the western part of the town of Mount Hope, was the 
culmination of the plan of the Gumaer brothers to have a railroad station 
nearer Gumaer's, which was on the Delaware & Hudson Canal. After the 
strenuous times of 1857, labor could be obtained at sixty-five cents per 
day, and the Gumaer brothers decided to build a road from the canal to 
the Erie railroad, and then the station was named Guymard. 

About 1862 they concluded to extend the new road to the old turnpike 
on top of the mountain. While constructing that part of the road, lead 
was discovered. As a result of this discovery, many mines were pros- 
pected on the Shawangunk Mountain and were operated more or less 
from 1863 to 1870. Among these was the mine of the Guymard Lead & 
Zinc Co., from which several carloads of lead were shipped weekly. After 
the close of the Civil War the price of lead declined, and considering the 
crude mining methods and the cost involved, eventually the mines were 


Of the Gumaer brothers, Peter and Jackson arc now living ai (Ju)mard. 
Chauncey Gumaer, son of Peter, having had nearly twcnty-tivc years' 
mining experience in Colorado and the West, has returned and is nnw 
working the old mine at Guymard. With the improved methods of 
mining, he believes his new venture will prove successful. 

An incident of considerable local historical interest occurred here in 
the spring of 1863. The mine at Guymard was being worked by its 
owners, when one day one George H. Servoss, an Englishman, arrived 
and claimed that he owned the mine and all the mineral rights in this sec- 
tion through a grant by Queen Anne of England. He erected a small 
building on the grounds and his miners began operations. The rightful 
owners were wild with excitement and the news was soon communicated 
to others interested in mining in this section at that time. A day was 
appointed, when between 100 and 200 men assembled and tumbled Ser- 
voss's building over into the gully below the railroad track an' I drove him 
and his miners from the mine. This was probably the last attem]it of a 
subject of Great Fjritain to claim territory or granted rights in the United 
States which had been so definitely decided nearly a hundred years before 
by the ancestors of some who took part in driving this Englishman from 
his false claim. 

A singular incident in connection was this: Ambrose W. Green, who 
kept a hotel at Otisville. and was much interested in mining, was one of 
the men who assembled and helped to drive Servoss from his claim at 
Guymard. Servoss came to Otisville that night and with some of his 
miners stopped at Mr. Green's hotel. Being convinced that Yankee blood 
still predominated in this section, Servoss gave up his claim. While stop- 
ping with Mr. Green he began prospecting and on June 13. 1S63. leased 
the mineral right of Thomas Hawk of his farm situated less than a mile 
above Otisville. Ambrose W. Green witnessed the document and Servoss 
formed what was known as the Otisville Copper Mining Company, which 
he worked for some time, ."^ervoss died in New York Citv on December 
10. 1907. 

The Farmers' Library was incorporated in ( )oioher. 1S07. jnst a ccnturv 
ago. Its first meeting was held at the home of r.cnjamin Woodward. The 
original trustees were P»cnjamin P.. Xewkirk. r>enjamin Woo-lward. \\il- 
liam Mulock. James iMnch. Jr.. Peter E. Gumaer. Daniel Green. William 
Shaw. Jr.. Stephen Farnnm and Peleg Pelton. The library was c>^tab- 


lished at once and it is said to have contained a valuable collection of his- 
torical works which were doubtless the only available books for such use 
at that early period of library literature. This old library was maintained 
there some thirty years, which certainly speaks well for the people of 
that region at that time. The educational influences of this old library 
upon the young people of that section during that period are said to have 
been most wholesome and of incalculable value. 


Of course Ihe Shawangunk Mountain range is always interesting to 
the geologist and historian. The pass through these mountains at Otis- 
ville is well worth visiting. It was the only break the Erie engineers 
could find when they laid out the railway, and they went over ten miles 
north of Port Jervis to utilize it. 

The old Finch homestead at Finchville has long been an object of in- 
terest, although the old house itself was burned many years ago. It was 
liere that the militia halted on their way to the fatal Minisink battlefield 
and took a hurried meal. Resuming their march over the mountaiu-S, it 
is said very few of the soldiers survived the terrible encounter and lived 
to recross those hills and again enjoy Mr. Finch's hospitality. 

The huge bones of a noted mastodon, which awakened much popular 
interest at the time, were found deepl\' imbedded in the soil on the old 
Allison farm, a short distance from Otisville, nearly fifty years ago. This 
remarkable find took the imagination back to the primitive era when 
these mammoth creatures roamed at will over this western continent. 


Of course ihe primary and paramount interest of the people in this 
town from its early settlement even to the present day, has been agricul- 
ture. The cultivation of the land attracted the settlers thither and the 
raising of crops, together with lumbering, were the leading pursuits in 
which the residents engaged for over a hundred years. The sunny moun- 
tain slopes and the alluvial bottoms along the rivers were well adapted 
to plant growth, and the farmer obtained good results from his labor. 
Nearly all the ordmary crops to which the latitude and climate were 

T()\VX OF MOLXr IK )i'l-:. 339 

suited could he yrowii with profit. The town had its full share in the 
production of the famous "(Jranij^e C(junt\- hutter," which was made in 
large quantities for a time. i5ut for many years past, with the 
ample railway facilities alTorded for prompt shipment, nearly all the 
milk produced has hecn shipped to Xew York direct and the Initter- 
makiiig- branch of the dairy interest has been almost entirely discon- 
tinued. In fact, man\ of the farmers have been buyin<T liutter elsewhere 
for their own use. findin.i^" it more profitable to sell their milk, which of 
course has been produced to a far larj^er extent than ever before. 

Mii.nAin' I^STOK^. 

This town east of the mountaiii range was long regarded as a place 
of refuge for those fleeing from the frequent Indian attacks in the Mam- 
akating X'ailey. Historic records contain many thrilling and pathetic 
incidents of this nature, and they are presented in much graphic detail, 
although doubtless based largely upon traditionary authority. 

.\s to the history of Mount Hope during the Revolution, there is none, 
apart from the annals embraced in the records of the parent towns of 
Deer Park and W allkill. from which Mount Hope was taken forty-five 
years after the settlement of that little dispute with a tyrannical nation 
over certain questions regarding human rights and jiersonal libert\-. Con- 
cerning the roll of honor, belonging to this ierritor\- in that war for 
independence the reader is referred to the records of Deer Park and 
Wallkill. found on other pages of this work. 

!n the \\ ar of i8i2 the Wallkill Regiment was ordered out in full force, 
while the 128th Regiment of Sullivan was drafted into the service. This 
organization then included many men from this Mount Hope section. 
Those who served in that secondary strug-gle from here, mentioned in 
the records, are Joseph Stanton, Amzi Mapes, John Mulock. Zebulon 
GifFen, Frederick A. Seybolt. Richard Penny and Captain William MuKxk. 

During the war of the rebellion the town was of course an integral 
factor of the county, and it bore an honored share in that menn^rable 
struggle. The jwpulation being small the number who enlisted in the 
service of the government was not very large. Under the various calls of 
President Lincoln in 1862- 1863- 1864 J^ome 330 men went forth irom this 
town to serve their cinmtry. Tn addition to this, fifty-eight were drafted 
into the service. 


At a special town meeting held August 9, 1864, and ratified on the 
twentieth of the same month, a tax of $37,000 was ordered for the pay- 
ment of bounties at the rate of $800 per man. In February, 1865, another 
tax of $10,000 was authorized for a similar purpose. The town was after- 
ward reimbursed by the Government for bounties paid to the amount of 
$11,400. In addition to this, voluntary subscriptions and contributions 
amounting to $913 were sent forward at different times. Of the Mount 
Hope soldiers four were reported killed in action. The record also con- 
tains the names of forty-one other men who enlisted during 1863 and 


TOWN OI" Xi:\\lJl'RGH. 


WHILE Xewburgh is the most important and impressive place in 
Orange Cotinty, Xewburgh Town, outside of the city, has its 
facts and points of interest. 

After the annuhiient, in 1669, of the patent purcliased of the Indians 
by Governor Dongan, and conveyed by him to Captain John Evans in 
1684 in which patent was inchuled the territory of the Xewburgh pre- 
cinct, the entire district was conveyed, between 1703 and 1705, in small 
patents, ten of which were in the Xewburgh precinct, and a list of which 
is given in the chapter on Xewburgh city. 

All patents were conditioned upon a payment of quit-rent, sometimes 
in money, sometimes in wheat or other commodity. 

The Palatine settlement, including a portion of the present city of 
Xewburgh and a portion of the town, is elsewhere considered. So are the 
changes and troubles that followed the coming of the new Dutch and 
English settlers, resulting in a decision of the council which practically 
terminated "The Palatine Parish by Ouassaick." Ruttenber says that 
when this decision was rendered the original members of the parish had 
long previously removed from it or been laid away in the quiet church- 
yanl. and adds: "As a people they were earnest, good men and women. 
Wherever their neighbors of subsequent migrations are met. their record 
compares favorably with that of immigrants from any other country. No 
citizens of more substantial worth are found under the flag of this, their 
native land, than their descendants : no braver men were in the armies 
of the Revolution than Herkimer and Muhlenberg. Had they done noth- 
ing in the parish but made clearings in its forests and planted fields they 
would be entitled to grateful remembrance. They did more ; they gave 
to it its first church and its first government ; and in all subsequent his- 
tory their descendants have had a part." 

As to the other patents: The Baird patent included the settlement of 
Belknap's Ridge, later classed at Coldenham. It was issued to Alexander 


Baird, Abraham Van Vleque and Hermans Johnson, and was sold to Gov- 
ernor WilHam Burnet. The Kipp patent inchided the district east, north 
and west of Orange Lake, and adjoined the Baird patent on the south. It 
was issued to Jacobus Kipp, John Cong-er. Philip Cortlandt, David Prevost, 
OHver Schuyler and John Schuyler. It was divided into six parts, and 
these were subdivided into farms. About 1791 a company of Friends 
from Westchester County settled on the patent. They were Daniel, 
Zephaniah and Bazak Birdsall, John Sutton and John Thorne. The first 
purchasers on the Bradley patent are supposed to have been Johannes 
Snyder and John Crowell. The Wallace patent, issued to James Wallace 
alone, was afterwards purchased by John Penny, who sold 200 acres of 
it to Robert Ross, and settled, with his seven sons, upon the remainder. 
The Bradley patent was to Sarah, Catherine, George, Elizabeth and 
Mary Bradley, and was taken in their name by their father, Richard Brad- 
ley, who thus secured six tracts, of which that in Newburgh was one. 
The Harrison patent was to Francis Harrison, Mary Fatham, Thomas 
Brazier, James Graham and John Haskell. Ir included the present district 
of Middlehope, and its settlers were influential in the control of the town 
during its early history. The Spratt patent was in two parcels, 1,000 
acres in Newburgh and 2,000 acres in Ulster. It was issued to Andrew 
Marschalk and John Spratt, the latter taking the Newburgh tract. This 
was purchased in 1760 by Joseph Gidney, and took the name of Gidney- 
town. The Gulch patent was to Melichor Gulch and his wife and chil- 
dren of the original company of Palatines. The Johnson or Jansen patent 
adjoined the Gulch patent, and was the first occupied land in the north- 
western part of the town. 

The settlement of these patents resulted in dividing the old precinct 
of the Highlands in 1762 into the precincts of Newburgh and New Wind- 
sor, the former embracing the towns of Marlborough and Plattekill in 
Ulster County with the present town and city of Newburgh, and the 
latter covering substantially the same territory as now. 


The next April, 1763, Newburgh's first town meeting was held at the 
house of Jonathan Hasbrouck, now known as Washington's Headquar- 
ters, and these officers were chosen : Jonathan Hasbrouck, supervisor ; 


ruWX Ul" \K\\JUR(.1I. 34.^ 

Samuel Sands, clerk ; Richard Harper, John W'infield and Samuel W'yatt, 
assessors; Daniel Gedney and Benjamin W'oolsey, poor masters; Jona- 
than McCrary, John Wandel, Burras Holmes, Isaac Fowler, Muphrey 
Merritt and Thomas Woolsey, patli masters; Xatlian Turdy and Isaac 
Fowler, fence viewers and appraisers. 

Ten years later Marlborough and Plattekill settlements were set off as 
New Marlborough, and left Newburgh with almost the same territory 
as that of the present town and city. The first supervisor of this rcfluced 
town was John Flewwelling and the first clerk was Samuel Sands. 

The territory of the present town embraces 26,882 acres in the extreme 
northeast portion of the county. The soil along the river front for a 
distance of five miles is warm, productive and well cultivated. The rock 
formations are largely slate and lime. In 1875 its population was 3.538, 
and the census of 1905 places it at 4,885 persons. 

.Subsequent to the incorporation of the city of Xewburgh, April 25, 
1865, the town of Newburgh was invested with the government '^i its 
own officers. The following supervisors have been elected : 

Nathaniel Barns. 1866; C. Gilbert Fowler. 1867; Xathaniel Barns, 
1868 to 1870; W. A. Pressler. 1871 ; John W. Bushfield, 1872 to 1877; 
Henry P. Clauson. 1878 to 1880; W. A. Pressler, 1881 to 1885; Oliver 
Lozier, 1886; John W. Bushfield. 1887; OHver Lozier. t888 co 1801 : 
William H. Post, 1892 to 1899; Henry P. Clauson, 1900 I0 1906: IVed 
S. McDowell. 1907 and 1908. 


But little need be added to what has elsewhere been sketched regarding 
Xewburgh's part in the war for indepenrlcnce. Its people were prompt 
in patriotic response to the non-importation resolutions of tlie Continental 
Congress. It was one of the five precincts to publicly burn the pamphlet 
assailing those resolutions, entitled. "I'ree Thoughts on the Resolves of 
Congress," and on June 27, 1775. at a jMiblic meeting, appointed a Com- 
mittee of Safety : Wolvert Acker, lonathan Hasbrouck. Thomas Palmer, 
John Belknap, Joseph Coleman, Moses Higby. Samuel Sands, Stephen 
Case, Isaac Belknap. Benjamin Birdsall. John Robinson and others. When 
the pledge to support the acts of the Continental and Provincial Congress 
was ready 174 names were voluntarily sigited to it and twenty-one of the 


fifty- four men who refused to sign afterward made affidavit that they 
also would abide by the measures of Congress and pay their quota of all 
expenses. Some of the thirty-three Tories who stood out were imprisoned 
and some were executed. The Newburgh patriots as promptly reorgan- 
ized the militia of the precinct. They furnished two companies for a new 
regiment in September, and in December helped to constitute a regiment 
of minute men, and provided its colonel in the person of Thomas Palmer. 
They also, in 1776, organized as rangers or scouts to prevent attacks from 
hostile Indians. Throughout the war the citizens of Newburgh were con- 
spicuous as vohuitcers in the regular army and as local militiamen in 
the cause of the Revolution, and were subjected to much inconvenience 
and many privations in consequence of the presence of other troops, as 
elsewhere stated. Many of them were killed and many more taken pris- 
oners in the defense of the Highland forts, after which the poor taxes 
were increased from £50 to £800 and special donations were collected for 
those who had been deprived of their husbands or parents. 

The history of Washington's doings and sayings in and near Newburgh 
is so familiar that they need not be repeated here. 


The Benevolent Society of the County of Orange was formed in Jan- 
uary, 1805, with the following officers: Hugh Walsh, president; Gen. 
John Skey Eustace, vice-president ; John McAuley, treasurer ; William 
Gardner, Secretary. 

In the sketch of Newburgh village and city mention has been made 
of the charter provision for a Glebe fair. This fair is believed to have 
been held occasionally as late as 1805, as there has been found in an old 
newspaper notice of one to be held in October of that year, with an offer 
of $125 as a premium to the jockey riding the best horse on the course 
of Benjamin Case, $50 to another jockey riding the best horse on the 
following day, and $25 to the jockey riding the best filly on the third day. 

The Newburgh Bible Society was organized September 9. 1818, at a 
meeting held in the Presbyterian Church of Newburgh villa'ge, after a dis- 
course by Rev. James R. Wilson. The first article of the constitution de- 
clared that its ''sole object shall be to encourage a wider circulation of the 
Scriptures, without note or •comment." The following officers were 


elected: jinias Story, president; Isaac Belknap and Joseph Clark, vice- 
proii'ents; Rev. John Johnston, corresponding secretary; Charles Miller, 
recordiiii^ secretar\ : lleiiiamiii J. Lewis, treasurer. 

In 1823 the Xewburgh Society for Aiding- Missions was formed. The 
report said: "Its design is to be auxiliary to the cause of missions in 
general; its funds, at the disposal of a board of managers, are to be ap- 
propriated from time to time to such societies or other missionary objects 
as may seem to have the most pressing claim to assistance."' 

The Xewburgh Sabbath School Society was organized in 1816, and the 
following officers are found recorded, as chosen in 1823. sixteen years 
afterward: .Superintendents. Mrs. Agnes \'an \ leeck, Mrs. Mary G. 
Belknap, !Mrs. Harriet AI. Bate, Miss Joanna Schultz ; secretary, Miss 
Louisa Lewis ; treasurer. Miss Jane Carpenter. The secretary, in her 
report, stated that the school then consisted of more than 300 scholars, the 
average attendance being 200, and that there were thirty-two classes in- 
structed by forty-six teachers and assistants. She stated that the number 
of verses committed to memorv during the year was 21.440 and of divine 
songs 8,684. 

Eager reports a meeting of the Orange County Medical Society in 
Xewburgh in October, 1823, which invited the members of the Xewburgh 
Lyceum to attend. Medical and scientific essays were read by Drs. John 
M. Gough, Francis L. Beattie and .\rnell, other essays by George W. 
Benedict and Rev. James R. Wilson, and "the merits of each underwent 
an able discussion.'' 


Just outside the legal boundary line north of the city of Xewburi^h is 
the fashionable suburb of Balmville, named after a large Balm of Gilead 
tree, which is estimated to be one hundred and fifty or more years old, and 
nearly twenty-five feet in circumference. The population is large and 
wealthy, inhabiting charming country seats. Continuing northward about 
two miles is the village of Middlehope, formerly known as Middletown. 
It is the center <^f a prosperous fruit section where many varieties of fruit 
originated with men foremost in pomology. Xorth of this settlement is 
Cedar Hill Cemetery. The grounds are from the design of August Hcpp. 
and are under the control of the Cedar Hill Cemetery .Xssociation. which 
was organized in '-"^"o. mainl\ through efforts of Entxrh L"arter. Rose- 


ton, four miles north of Newburgh, on the banks of the Hudson, was 
named after John C. Rose, who estabhshed extensive brick yards here in 
1883. Brick yards have muhipHed in this section, and destroyed the 
natural attractions of a once pretty cove. The Dans Kammer, a promon- 
tory just beyond, marks the northern extremity of Newburgh Bay. Hamp- 
ton, now known as Cedar Cliff Post-office, is a landing on the Hudson, 
adjoining the Ulster County boundary line. Savilton, formerly Rossville, 
is a small district eight miles northwest of Newburgh city, named from 
Alexander Ross. Gardnertown is a small settlement four miles northwest 
of the city, and was named from the old and numerous family of Gardners 
who settled there. 

Orange Lake, now a noted summer resort, was called by the early 
settlers Dutch Bennin Water, and later Machen's Pond, from Captain 
Machen, an engineer employed by Congress in 1777 in erecting fortifica- 
tions in the Highlands and stretching the huge obstructing chain across 
the Hudson. It was also called Big Pond as distinct from Little Pond 
in New Windsor. The lake covers about four hundred acres and is kept 
well fed by creeks and large springs. Numerous cottages dot its shores, 
and an amusement park is conducted under the management of the Or- 
ange County Traction Company. Extensive improvements were made in 
1907, including the erection of a large theatre and other buildings. 

Quassaick Creek is a fine stream entering the Hudson between New- 
burgh city and New Windsor, and is formed by the united waters of 
Orange Lake outlet and Fostertown and Gidney's Creeks. It has sup- 
plied many mills and factories with power. 

King's Hill is a high boundary elevation in the northwest part of the 
town afifording an extensive view in all directions. Bacon Hill is another, 
north from King's Hill, at the edge of the town. Limestone Hill is a 
ridge running north and south two miles northwest of the city. 

Fostertown Creek, one of the tributaries of Quassaick Creek, is a 
small stream which rises in Ulster County and drains a narrow vallev 
several miles in extent. Bushfield Creek also rises in LUster and is one 
of the streams which feed Orange Lake. 


Among the "remarkable incidents" of early times mentioned by Eager, 
are the following: In 1803 the formation of a Druid society, composed, 

Aymar van Buren. 

TOWN <)i- xi-:\\i;rK(;ii. 347 

it was said, wholly of deists, whose i^roccedings were secret. In Janu- 
ary. 1805, a son of Warren Scott, 14 years old, was torn in pieces by 
wolves in the west part of the town while feeding liis father's sheep. The 
wolves at this time also came down and killed sheep near the village of 
Newburgh. In 1816 the owners of the Newburgh ferry first used a 
horse IkuU. and on August i^^th of that year the boat Jason Rogers 
crossed the river with two horses attached to a coach and a wagon, sev- 
enteen chaises and horses, another horse and fifty passengers. In 1817 
(jovernment officers inspected ninety tons of cannon made by Mr. Town- 
send on Chamber's Creek, and all ])roved good. They were the first manu- 
factured in the State, and were of sterling ore from the town of Monroe. 
Xovember 24. 1824. the schooner Xcptuiic. on the way from New York 
t(^ Newburgh. was upset and sunk, and the most of her fiftv or more pas- 
sengers were drowned. She had forty or fifty tons of plaster on board. 
and the heavy wind shifted it. which caused the accident. 



NEWBURGH, the chief city of Orange County, with a population 
of nearly 27,000, is also the largest commercial city on the Hud- 
son between New York and Albany. It-is located on the side hill 
of a bay, 57 miles from the river's mouth, has a deep and spacious har- 
bor, with good docks, and its scenic views and contiguous territory are 
peculiarly attractive. The inviting bay and river are in front, and the 
mountains southward and westward have been characterized as "Nature's 
arm thrown lovingly about us." In the landward distance mountains are 
visible in several (Hrections from the upper town, p.n'l adjacent are fruit 
and dairy farms on undulating fields, with a ten-mile plain known as 
"Highland Terrace." A recent local pamphlet says of the City of New- 
burgh : "As a home-city there is little to be desired. It is metropol- 
itan and suburban. It has broad thoroughfares, good streets, and 
provision is now perfected for having $100,000 expended annually 
in new pavements. There are numerous lireathing spots. One of the 
most magnificent views obtainable anywhere in the Hudson Valley is 
from Downing Park, where from the observatory the city appears to be 
almost beneath your feet. The Hudson River presents an unobstructed 
view for miles, and a half dozen ranges of mountains appear to view. 
The Catskills at the north, Fishkill and the Beacons on the east, Storm 
King and Crow Nest on the south, Schunemunck at the southwest, and 
the Shawangunk range far to the west. At the north end of the city is 
LeRoy Place, one of the coziest and most inviting of the city's little 
parks. It is especially referred to as a resting place for those who find it 
convenient to take a walk to the famed 'Balm of Gilead' tree, one of the 
oldest monarchs of its class to be found for many miles around." 

The near suburban villages tributary to the city have a population of 
nearly 50.000, as follows: Fishkill and ^Nlatteawan, i mile. 13.016; Corn- 
wall. I mile. 4.258; Marlborough. 6 miles. 3,478; 3ililton 10 miles. 1,500; 
Walden, 10 miles. 5,939; Highland Falls. 10 miles. 4,519; Cold Spring, 
8 miles. 2,067; New Hamburgh. 10 miles, 500; Washingtonville. 10 miles. 
*i.ii8; New Windsor. 3 miles. 2,392; Newburgh Town. 3 miles. 4.246. 


The little hamlets in the vicinity jirobably have a pnpnlaiii pii 0(5.0):) 


The territory embraced in the town and city was a part of the lands pur- 
chasetl from the Indians by Govern(jr Dong^an in 1864. and conveyed by 
him to Captain John Evans in 1694. The conveying i)atent was annulle I 
in 1699. and the district was afterward conveyed in small tracts at ditifer- 
ent periods, of which ten were included in the precinct of Xcwburgh as it 
was constituted in 1762. These were: No. i, German patent, 2,190 aero, 
issued December 18, 1719, No. 2, Alexander Baird & Co., 6,000 acres ; Feb- 
ruary 28, 1719; No. 3, Jacobus Kip & Co., 7000 acres; October 17, 1720; 
No. 4, Ricard Bradley and William Jamison, 1,800 acres, May 17, 1729; 
No. 5, James Wallace, 2,000 acres, January 25, 1732; No. 6, liradley chil- 
dren, 817 acres, March 26, 1739; No. 7, Francis Harrison & Co., 5.600 
acres, July 10, 1714; No. 8, John Spratt & Co., 1,000 acres. April 12, 1728; 
No. 9, Melchior Gulch 300 acres, October 8, 1719; No. 10, Peter Johnson, 
300 acres, October 8, 1719. 

The original settlement was in 1709 by a party of Germans from the 
Palatinate — a strip of German territory along- the middle Rhine. In 1708 
Louis XI\' gave warning to the people of the Palatinate that it was to bt 
devastated in order to crip])le the enemies of France, and this caused a 
companv of twelve families and two bachelor.s — fift\-tlirce persons in all 
— to flee to London. Here Oueen Anne interested herself in their welfare, 
and sent them to New York, with a guaranty of 9 pence each for twelve 
months, and of a grant of land on which to settle. From New York they 
were moved in the spring to ''Quassaick Creek anrl Thau'-hammer."' Of the 
heads of families there were seven husbandmen, a minister, a stocking 
maker, a smidi. a carpenter and a cloth weaver. One of the bachelors \\ a- 
a clerk and the other a husbandman. They were Protestants and of "good 
character." as certified by officials in the villages where they had lived. 
Their promised land ])atent was not issued until 1719, wlien it granted 
to each of the different families from 100 to 300 acres, WMth 500 acres set 
apart for the support of the minister. The settlement was generallv 
called "The German Patent," but its official title was "The Glebe." 
The lands for each family extended from the Hudson River west one 
mile. No. i was bounded on the <outh l)y Oua'^saick Creek, and covered 
the present site of Newburgh. 


The immigrants erected a church, cultivated portions of their lands and 
maintained their settlement several years. Then sales were made to new- 
comers, and there were changes in ownership and population. After twenty 
or thirty years the later Dutch and English comers were largely in the ma- 
jority, and in 1747 elected trustees of the Glebe, closed the church to the 
Lutheran minister, and in 1752 obtained from the governor and council 
a new charter whereby the revenues might be applied to the support of 
a minister of the Church of England, with the title of "Palatine Parish of 
Ouassaick" changed to "The Parish of Newburgh." At this time there 
were forty-three real estate lease holders in the settlement. Ruttenber char- 
acterizes as prominent among them the following: Alexander Colden, son 
of Lieutenant-Governor Colden; Duncan Alexander, brother of William 
Alexander, the Lord Sterling of the Revolution ; James Denton, son of 
Daniel Denton, the first historian of New York; Jonathan Hasbrouck. 
from the Huguenot settlement of New Paltz. Colden, Denton and Has- 
brouck erected grist mills, and in 1743 Colden obtained a charter for the 
Newburgh ferry. "The names of Hasbrouck and Colden have never been 
absent from the list -of inhabitants since 1750," says Ruttenber. 

The trustees elected in 1747 were Alexander Colden and Richard Al- 
bertson. When the first service was held after the Church of England 
was substituted, the Lutheran minister and his flock made public protest 
at the door, and afterward went away and had service in a private house. 
Tradition says that the Lutherans attempted a forcible entry, and there 
was a fight in which the church door was torn from its hinges and one 
Lutheran was killed. This was after the election of trustees in 1847, ^^id 
previous to the receipt of the new charter. 

The new trustees, Colden and Albertson, established a public landing, 
started agricultural fairs, took temporal charge of the church, erected 
a parsonage, a residence and school-house combined for the school- 
master, and did much other work which contributed to the growth of 
the settlement. 

In 1762 Newburgh was set ofif from the precinct of the Highlands and 
made a precinct by itself. In 1767 a petition was granted for licenses 
for more taverns, as being necessary "to accommodate the country peo- 
ple, travelers and passengers." In 1769 a petition asking for a charter of 
lands for the Newburgh mission, signed by missionary, vestrymen 
and wardens, was granted. In 1770 another petition to the governor 





tor "a ro\al charier of incorporation of St. George's Cliurcir' was 

The old patent of the Highlands, after serving its pnrpose 50 years, 
had given way in 1762 to the precincts of Xewburgh and New Windsor, 
the latter being constituted nearly as now, and the former embracing the 
towns of Marlborough and Plattekill in Ulster County as well as the 
present town and city of Newburgh. 

In 1776 the Glebe hamlet comprised about a score of houses, and 
three boats owned in town made trips between it and New York. 

TROfP-r.i-: Axn rf.\'oi.i;tiox. 

Passing to the events just preceding the War of the Revolution, when 
the bold and significant non-importation agreement was adopted bv the 
Continental Congress, and a pledge of association in its support was 
opened in every town and precinct, supervised by committees, Wolvert 
Acker was chairman of the committee for the precinct of Newburgh. 
When the signing was finished he made return of 195 signatures and 
names of thirty-nine who had refused to sign. The names of the signers 
follow : 

Xon-Iiiiportatioii Pledge S{i^)iers of I//6. 

Ricliard Albertson 
Stephen Albertson 
William Albertson 
Joseph Albertson 
Daniel Aldridge 
Isaac Brown, M.D. 
Isaac Brown, Jr. 
Joseph Broun 
Abel Belknap 
Isaac Belknap 
Isaac Belknap, Jr. 
Wm. Bowdish 
John Bccket 
Solomon Buckingham 
Richard Buckingham 
Benjamin Birdsall 
Daniel Birdsall 
James Burns 
Benj. Cofbn 
Caleb Coffin 
Wm. Collard 
Nathaniel Coleman 
Henry Cropsey 
Wm. Carskadden 

Caleb Chase 
Daniel Denton 
Daniel Denton, Jr! 
Nehemiah Denton 
Samuel Denton 
Nathaniel Denton 
Peter Donelly 
Benj. Darin- 
John Donaghey 
Isaac Demott 
Mugh I'erguson 
Wm. Ferguson 
Elnathan i^'ostcr 
Morris Flewwclling 
James Flewwelling 
Jonathan Hasbrouck 
Cornelius Hasbrouck 
Moses Higby, M.D. 
James Harris 
John Nathan Hutchins 
George Harding 
Thomas Ireland 
George Jackson 
W^m. Lawrence 


Benjamin Lawrence Thomas Smith 

Aaron Linn Thaddeus Smith ' 

Solomon Lane Samuel Sands 

George Leonard Hugh Stevenson 

Silas Leonard Stephen Stephenson 

Robert Morrison, M.D. William Thurston 

John Morrel Burger Weigand 

Thomas Palmer Martin Weigand 

Ihomas Patterson Monson Ward 

Harmanus Rikeman Richard Ward 

Thomas Rhodes William Ward 

Albertson Smith- Timothy Wood 

Benjamin Smith Jeremiah Wool 

Henry Smith Charles Willett 

Leonard Smith John Wandel 
Leonard Smith, Jr. 

The lists of those who signed and those refusing to sign embraced all 
males over i6 years old. 

The "old town" was at this time a forlorn looking place, and the side 
hill was mostly covered by orchards. A tavern built in this year of 1776 
by Adolph De Grove, on the southwest corner of Water and Third 
streets became Lafayette's headquarters. 

When the war became a certainty the control of Hudson River naviga- 
tion became important, and to this end Forts Montgomery, Clinton and 
Constitution were built. Two out of every five of the male population 
became militiamen, were almost constantly in service, and levies en masse 
were frequent. In 1779 Washington established his headquarters at 
New Windsor in the William Ellison house, and here they remained until 
the movement which resulted in the siege of Yorktown in 1781. After 
its surrender his army returned to the Highlands, and Washington then 
made the Hasbrouck house in Nevvburgh his headquarters, retaining 
them as such until August, 1783. 

Before the beginning of hostilities in the Revolution two companies 
were organized in Newburgh for a regiment formed in the southern dis- 
trict of Ulster County, of which Jonathan Hasbrouck, of Newburgh, was 
colonel, and Arthur Smith anrl Samuel Clark captains of the companies. 
In the next December a regiment of minme men w?s organized, of which 
Thomas Palmer, of Newburgh, was the colonel. In the summer of 1776 
a convention directed the general committee to organize three companies 
(201 men) of rangers to guard against and fight Indians. Of one of 
these Isaac Belknap, of Newburgh. was captain. At this time the age:! 
and those who ordinarily would be regarded as exempts were pressed 

CITY OF NE\VI5lK(;il. 353 

into the service. In 1778 the i)e(»ple were asked lo form com|)anies to 
repel invasions and suppress insurrections, and a company of this kind 
was formed, with Samuel Edmonds as captain, h'igures show that the 
militia of Newburgh was not sleeping during the Revolution, for in 1776 
they were called out on alarms twenty-seven days, and between that tiinc 
and April, 1788, 305 days. Newburgh was made a general rendezvous for 
troops, and frecjuently the soldiers were billeted on the inhabitants. Al- 
though the precinct escajied direct devastation, many of the men were 
killed or taken prisoners in defense of the Highland forts. 

When the British sailed up the river in 1777, and burnt Kingston, after 
capturing the Highland forts, the Xewburgh women hid their valuables 
in the woods, nearly all the men having gone to the defense of the forts. 

While Washington's headquarters were at New Windsor his main 
army was in and near the Hudson River forts, and in 1782. after the 
surrender of Yorktown. was again encamped along the Hudson, number- 
ing about 8,000 men. Washington at Newburgh, meanwhile, during the 
progress of peace negotiations. ke]it careful watch of Sir Henry Clinton's 
movements. Many interesting >toric> have been told about Washington 
during his long stay at New Windsor and Newburgh. At Newburgh he 
battled with discontent, and even mutiny, in the army, and here he pro- 
claimed the cessation of hostilities. This was on April 19, 1783. eight 
years after the beginning of the war, when general rejoicing followed. 
The first battalion marched southward June 5th, and the last June 23d. 
On July I2th Washington went up the Huclson to Albany, where he was 
joined by Governor Clinton and a >mall jiarty. On August 17th he 
issued the last general orders from army headquarters, announcing his 
intention to depart and meet Congress at I'rinceton. and left W'est Point 
the next day. July 4. 1850, the ancient house that had been his head- 
(|uarters in Newburgh was dedicated as a monument of the events of the 
war. General Winfield Scott was present to raise the flag, and Judge 
Monell made an address. The buihling is owned by the State and con- 
trolled by trustees a])])ointed by the Governor. 

For some time after the war the Newburgh people were almost poverty- 
stricken. Their Continental moiuv was almost worthless: they lacked 
means for the cultivation of their lands, and business was at a standstill. 
in 1785 they petitioned the T>egislature for relief, giving as reasons the 
urplie< they had provided for the war. ilieir manv lo-^se^ can. '•el hv the 


war, their large personal service, and the depreciation of the paper cur- 
rency, all of which rendered it impossible for them to cultivate their 
farms or pay their just debts, while many families were reduced to want 
for the necessities of life. 

Soon, however, the vigorous population recuperated, was increased by 
newcomers, and the period of prolonged prosperity began in earnest. 
From the position of the lowest in 1780 the precinct passed to the fourth 
in 1790. with a population of 2,365, and in a quarter of a century to the 
first rank in population. 


The charter of 1752 of the Glebe was complied with down to 1793. 
From 1793 to 181 5 there was only a temporary church organization, and 
no regular minister. Then a legislative enactment was obtained dividing 
the income from the Glebe between the Newburgh Academy and such 
other schools as existed or might exist in the territory. It is remarkable 
that the early academy instituted by the Glebe served the community 
educationally for nearly a century. 

The "old town," situated on a plot opened by Cadwallader Golden be- 
fore 1730, was located between present Front street and Broadway, and 
named Newburgh. This was extended by Benjamin Smith in 1782, who 
laid out streets and lots from a part of his farm lying east of Montgomery 
street and between First and South streets. After the disbandment of 
the army in 1783 Newburgh's population increased somewhat rapidly by 
the settlement there of some of the soldiers of the dissolved army and of 
families who had fled from New York City when it was captured by the 
British. But up to 1790 it was a disjointed settlement, the three town- 
ship plots of which it was composed having no connection except through 
Libery street and a few cross-lot roads. None of the lateral streets inter- 
sected each other, and in 1790 other highway commissioners formally 
connected them. The general legislative act of 1788 changed the name 
"precinct" to "town." 

Newburgh quickly became the first shipping point of importance on 
the west bank of the Hudson north of New York, because of its fine 
harbor, and of being the natural outlet for the trade of a vast section of 
country previous to the advent of the canals and railroads. South of the 



Highlands the Palisades and other mountain ranges were a barrier to easy 
access to the river. Therefore in the early days transportation became 
the most important business of Newburgh. The lumber business was 
especially heavy, and large quantities of ship timber, planks and staves 
were forwarded to New York. Shipbuilding was also carried on, and 
Xewburgh ships entered into the Liverpool and West Indies trade. Rut- 
tcnber mentions many mills that were erected in Xewburgh and vicinity 
after the war, and says: "Besides mills and hamlets there were many 
well-cultivated farms, and substantial dwellings which had suj)plantcd 
rude log cabins." 

The early millers and boatmen of Xewburgh kept goods of various 
kinds to sell to the farmers. The first regular store was opened by Benja- 
min and David Ijirdsall, and the second, immediately after the Revolution, 
by John McAuley. Hugh Walsh opened a store about the same time. 
The other principal merchants up to i8oi were Wm. Seymour, Leonard 
Carpenter. John Anderson, Cooper & Son, George Gardner, James Ham- 
ilton. James Burns, Robert Gourley, Robert Gardiner, George Monell, 
Robert W. Jones, Denniston Sc Abercombie, Wm. W. Sackett, Alexander 
Falls, John Shaw and John Brown. A considerable number of these 
were connected with the forwarding business, among them John Ander- 
son, John Anderson, Jr., Hugh Walsh, Benjamin Case. Jr., Jacob and 
Thomas Powell, Jacob and Leonard Carpenter and George Gardner. 
Trade on the river was conducted by sloops until 1830, when the first 
steamer, the Baltimore, was purchased and started on regular tri])s by 
Christopher Reeve. 

Before the war Great Britain would not allow the colonists to engage 
in much manufacturing, requiring them to import or supply themselves 
by domestic substitutes. Therefore, there was much spinning and weav- 
ing by wives and daughters, and making soap from refuse fats, and di])- 
ping for candles, while the farmer made his own sleds and carts and 
generallv constructed his own dwelling and outhouses. These practices 
were continued to some extent long after the war for economical reasons. 

Some of the first men to start things in Newburgh are here named: 

John Haines, hat manufacturer, 1795; Richard and Joseph Albertson, 
shoe making, before the Revolution ; Cooper, tailor, at the close of the 
war; Joseph Reeves, watchmaker, 1798, took up whip-making in 1804, 
and was followed in watch-making by George Gorden and Ebenezer 


Ayres ; Hugh Spier, cabinet-maker and undertaker, 1798 ; Selah Reeve, 
earthenware manufacturer, 1799; James Patterson, tin plate worker and 
coppersmith, 1797; Mrs. DeGrove, baking, 1791, and succeeded by John 
and Joseph Hoffman; Peter Bannen, soap and candle making, 1804, pre- 
ceded by Abel Belknap; Matthew DuBois, tobacconist, 1799; James 
Ren wick distiller, 1790; John Cooper, father of the famous Peter Cooper, 
ale brewer, 1794; Benjamin Roe, saddle and harness maker, before 1800; 
Phineas Howell, tanner, before 1800; Sylvester Roe, painting and glaz- 
ing; 1804; Henry B. Carpenter, iron and brass foundry, 1821 ; Richard B. 
Phillips, brush manufacturer, 1831, preceded by Daniel Berrian ; Henry B. 
Ames, fancy and family soaps, 1852; stock company, with Hiram Bennett, 
president, cotton goods manufactory, 1844; George Gardner, Jason 
Rogers, William Seymour, Richard Hill, earliest ship builders, and Walter 
Burling, Daniel Bailey, W^m. Holmes, Samuel Wright, earliest ship car- 
penters; Drs. Isaac Brown and Robert Morrison, regular physicians in 
1776; Phineas Bowman, first lawyer, settled in Newburgh at close of 
Revolution, and his contemporary lawyers were Thomas Cooper. Solomon 
Slight and Jonathan Fisk ; Lucius Carey ; first newspaper, Newburgh 
Packet, lyys, bought by David Denniston, and name changed to Mirror ; 
E. W. Gray, first daily, Nezvs, 1856; Hezekiah Watkins, schoolmaster, 
1752; John Nathan, teacher during Revolution and founder of "Hutchin's 
Family Almanac" ; Rev. Jonathan Freeman and Silvenus Haight, private 
school, 1 80 1. 

When the second war with England came, Newburgh was paying 
nearly one-fourth of the taxes of the county. Again she was prominent 
in zeal for the national cause. A convention was held in which it was 
resolved to resist "the attacks of domestic enemies and the insolent aggres- 
sions of foreign powers." Local military companies were ordered on 
duty at Staten Island, and later Newburgh was made temporarily the 
rendezvous for grenadiers, light infantry and riflemen of the 34th Bri- 
gade. Its citizens celebrated Perry's victory on Lake Erie with enthusiasm. 
The embargo act detained Newburgh vessels, among others, in foreign 
ports, and Newburgh merchantmen were captured and confined in Dart- 
mour prison. 

Colden's first dock was built in 1730. Isaac Belknap sailed a sloop from 
Newburgh before the Revolution which made trips to the West Indies. 
William Harding, Richard Buckingham and Lewis Clark also sailed sloops 

Arthur ^ oung. 

CITY Ol" XKW r.LRl.Il. 357 

before the war, and later conveyed troops on them for the Revohitionists. 
As early as 1798 there were four lines of sloops from Newburgh. 

In iIk- "thirties Newburgh's river and land trade was very large. The 
streets were frequently blocked for hours with farmers' loaded wagons. 
The completion of the Erie canal diverted the most of this trade, and 
later the Delaware and Hudson canal cut off another source of wealth. 
Then the construction of the Erie Railroad from Goshen to i'iermont. 
and its subsequent extension in other directions, finished the old trans- 
portation business of Newburgh, and it has taken many years to bring 
about the present prosperity, with railroads extending from many direc- 
tions, large and varied manufactures, superior public institutions and 
other conditions to correspond. 


The village of Newburgh was incorporated March 25, 1800, by an Act 
of the Legislature, and in ^SFay seven trustees, three assessors, three 
fire wardens, a collector and a treasurer, w'ere elected. John Ander- 
son was chosen president of the board of trustees. In 1801, the New- 
burgh and Colchester turnpike was incorporated, with a capital of 
$125,000. "Both measures." says Ruttenber. "were largely instrumental 
in influencing the prosperity of the village." The latter. In oijening <% 
new route of travel westward, brought a trade which in the main han 
previously reached the Hudson by way of Xcw Windsor, as up to that 
time nearly all the wagon roads led to this place. The turnpike so re- 
versed conditions, by giving to the western part of Orange County and 
Sullivan County a better and shorter route of travel, that Newburgh 
came up and New Windsor went down, and the merchants of the latter 
place moved their stocks of goods to Newburgh. Other turnpikes fol- 
lowed, and the village grew rajjidly. From the close of the Revolutionary 
War to 1825 its population increased i.ioo in each decade, and its com- 
merce was proportionately extended. Connecting turnpikes stretched to 
Canandaigua Lake, and were traversed by lines of stage>^. and a steamer 
on Cayuga Lake facilitated travel. Subsequently connections with Buf- 
falo permitted a trip of sixty-five hours between that place and New York, 
and this was advertised as "the shortest and most expeditious route from 
the IIudMin River to the we>tern couiUrv." 



The city of Newburgh was incorporated in 1865. Of its patriotic 
celebrations two were of surpassing enthusiasm and interest. These were 
the Centennial celebration of 1876 and the Ceritennial celebrating the close 
of the Revolutionary War, of October 18, 1883. In the former there was 
a great nocturnal parade, and the noise and commotion were unprece- 
dented in Newburgh from cannon firing, engine whistling, fireworks, band 
playing, songs and shouts. At Washington's headquarters the procession 
paused awhile and sang, "My Country 'tis of Thee." 

The celebration of 1883 was less noisy, but more imposing. The me- 
morial monument or "Tower of Victory," at Washington's headquarters, 
had been completed at a cost of $67,000, and the event was of national 
and State as well as local significance. Congress had appropriated $25,000, 
the State Legislature $15,000, the Common Council of Newburgh $7,500, 
and the citizens of Newburgh had subscribed $5,000. Many thousands of 
people came from far and near on railroads, steamboats and wagons. 
The river front was lined with steamers. The procession of the military, 
firemen, and societies was three miles long, and included quite forty brass 
bands and a score of drum corps. It was headed by a company of New 
York City police, and within it rode Peter Ward, mayor of Newburgh ; 
Joel T. Headley, president of the Washington Headquarters Commis- 
sion; Thomas Bayard, president of the day; William M. Evarts, orator, 
and William Bruce, poet. The inscription on the monument gives the 
sufficient reason for the parade and accompanying ceremonies : 

"This monument was erected under the authority of the Congress of 
the United States and the State of New York, in commemoration of the 
disbandment under proclamation of the Continental Congress of October 
18, 1783, of the armies by whose patriotic and military virtue our national 
independence and sovereignty were established." 

Another noteworthy celebration was the unveiling of the statute of 
General George Clinton, October 6, 1896. The exercises consisted of a 
military and civic parade. The presentation address was delivered by 
Rev. William K. Hall, D.D. and Mayor Odell, in behalf of the city, made 
the address of acceptance. The statue stands in Clinton Gore, at the junc- 
tion of Water and Golden Streets. It shows General Clinton resting on 
his sword, which he holds in his right hand. It was modeled by the late 

George T. Barnes. 


eminent sculptor. Henry K. lirown, and his ne])lie\v, Mr. liusli-llrown. 
had tlie statue cast and tlie pedestal carved. The cost to the people of 
Xe\vl)ur,q;h was only $3,000. raised by subscriptions undertaken by the 
local Historical Society, and finished by Mayor Odell. Upon the granite 
pedestal is this inscription : 

Member of Continental Coui^^ress. ^77S-^777- Bri<^adier-(ieneral 
Continental Army. 1777. Governor of the State of A'cti' York. 
I777-I795' 1801-1804. J'iee-President of the United States, 
1804- 181 2. Cara Patria Carioe Libertas. 

The Newburgh Municipal Centennial was fittingly observed Ma\' y, 
1900. The parade, in which about twenty-eight hundred persons took 
part, marched through the city's principal thoroughfares, after which the 
l)eoi)le assembled at Washington's Headquarters, and Mayor Wilson 
called the gathering to order. The Rev. W. K. Hall. D.l)., eloquently 
reviewed the events of a century in this village and city, r.enediction was 
pronounced by Rev. Father Salley. 

Another event of unusual interest was the visit of Lafayette, in 1824, 
to Newburgh. the place of his headquarters iii the RcvnUilion. He was 
given a great reception, h'rancis Crawford, j^resident of the village, 
presented him to the corporation in a brief address, and he was afterwards 
received with Masonic honors by Hiram Lodge. I-^. & A. M.. wlure \v: 
replied eloquently to an address by Rev. Dr. John I'rown. Ik- was ban- 
(jueted at the Crawford Hotel, with about 100 citizens at the table. 

Newburgh's growth has been steady and healthy in recent year^. in 
consequence of civic enterprise and belter knowle'.ge of the advantages 
and attractions of her location. Her compact l)uildings. mostlv of brick, 
her charming suburbs, with fine country seats, the good and delightful 
roads extending into the country for carriage drives and automobiles, her 
excellent harbor and easy access to the Metropolis by rail and steamer, 
her good schools and churches and her busy manufactories, are entice- 
ments which are drawing many new residents. Apart from its popula- 
tion it is the centre of trade for many thousands of people. 



The following is a partial list of leading industries: 

Newburgh Bleachery, bleachers and finishers of fine cotton fabrics; 
Sweet, Orr & Co., overalls and workingmen's garments; Coldwell Lawn 
Mower Co. ; Coldwell-Wilcox Co., iron founders and machinists ; T. S. 
Marvel & Co., iron shipbuilding and engineering works ; Newburgh Steam 
Boiler Works; h^abrikoid Company, imitation leathers; Newburgh Ice 
Machine and Engine Co. ; Newburgh Lumber Co. ; Newburgh Planing 
Mill Co. ; Belknap & McCann, soap ; Lackey Manufacturing Co., lace cur- 
tains; Harrison & Gore Silk Co.; Hudson River Woolen Mills; Staples 
& Hanford, wire goods; Newburgh Reed Co., reed chairs; Stroock Plush 
Co. ; Stroock Felt Co. ; Little Falls Paper Co. ; Granite City Soap Co. ; 
Newburgh Steam Mills, cotton goods ; John Turl's Sons, iron works ; 
Cleveland & Whitehill, overalls ; Ferry, Weber & Co., hats ; Abendroth 
& Root, spiral pipe, etc., automobiles ; Muchattoes Lake Ice Co. ; Higgin- 
son Manufacturing Co., cement; Newburgh Light, Heat & Power Co.; 
Pennsylvania Coal Co. 

Of the industries which have been listed, some should be more fully no- 
ticed. The Newburgh Ice Machine and Engine Company was known at 
the time of its establishment, in 1824, as the Newburgh Steam Engine 
Works. The present company was organized in 1890 with a capital of 
$500,000 to manufacture Whitehill-Corliss engines and ice-making and 
refrigerating machines. Extensive shops were completed that year, to 
which additions have recently been made. Mr. Edgar Penney is vice- 
president and general manager. 

The Muchattoes Lake Ice Company's business was started in the winter 
of 1859-1860 by James R. Dickson, and was bought in 1863 by Benjamin 
B. Odell, when he organized the company named. The officers are: B. B. 
Odell. president; B. B. Odell. Jr.. secretary and treasurer; H. B. Odell, 

Sweet, Orr & Co. are the pioneers and most extensive manufacturers 
in the country of overalls and other workingmen's garments. In 1876 
their weekly product was about a thousand dozen pairs at their Wap- 
pinger's Falls factory, where they kept 250 employees busy. Seeking in- 
creased quarters they started another factory in Newburgh in 1880. The 
factory has a frontage of 150 feet on Broadway and 275 feet on Concord 

CITY OF \E\\"l'.rR(;H. 361 

street, lu 1882 they opened a factory in Chicago, and in i<po another 
at JoHet, 111. Sixty traveling salesmen cover the entire United States 
with their product. Mr. Clayton E. Sweet, head of this concern, resides 
in Newburgh. 

To Ca])lain Thomas S. Mar\el is due the success of the immense ship- 
yard of the T. S. Marvel Shiphuilding Company. Soon after ilie failure of 
Ward. Stanton & Co., Captain Marvel, who had been their su])erinten- 
dent, began business on his own account. The shipyard has been en- 
larged from time to time, ar.d building after building erected for 
their l)usiness. Over 200 men are employed in the building and 
repairing of iron and wooden steamboats and other water craft. Among 
their notable products are the steamers Homer Raiiisiirll. Hcndrk'k 
tiudso)i. numerous ferrybt)ats, and fireboats for the Xew \'ork l-'ire De- 

The Higginson Manufacturing Company have a very extensive plant 
for the production of plaster, g}'psum. etc., with steamers :ind barges tc 
trajisport it to Xew York and other points. The business was begun by 
William R. Drown in 1868. Mr. Henry C. Higginson has been proprietor 
of the plant for many years. 

The Xewburgh lUeachery is owned and managed by Joseph Chadwick & 
Sons. It is one of the largest and best equipped manufactories of its 
kind. The Chad wicks in 1871 purchased the present site, and combined 
with it a factory which they owned in Rutherford, X. J., concentrating 
their whole business in the Xewburgh establishment. They employ about 
300 hands in bleaching and finishing variotis kinds of cotton goods. 

The Fabrikoid Coni])any"s industry was moved to Xewburgh in k^j. 
The plant covers about fifteen acres, and consists of twenty-eight build- 
ings. The product is ciiietly an imitation leather and the manufactory has 
a capacity of over 6.000 yarrls a day. ^\t. John Aspinwall is president, and 
Mr. George H. May, secretary and treasurer. 

Coldwell Lawn Mower Company, manufacturers of hand, horse and 
motor lawn mowers, is the largest concern in the world devoted exclu- 
sivelv to the production of these machines. The firm is compo.sed of 
William H. Coldwell. president and general manager; \\. C. Ross, 
treasurer; H. T. Coldwell, assistant treasurer, and .\. W. Mapes. sec- 
retary, ^fr. Thomas Coldwell. the parent of this industry, organized the 
company in 1891. and the plant was built on the most modern principles. 


Their annual output, shipped to all parts of ihe globe, exceeds one hun- 
dred thousand mowers, which is over one-fifth of the entire production in 
the country. 

H. Powell Ramsdell, of Newburgh, is the proprietor of the Arlington 
Paper Mill at Salisbury's Mills, eight miles southwest of the city on 
Murderer's Creek and the Newburgh branch of the Erie. The mill is the 
principal industrial element of the hamlet. It is picturesquely situated 
on the edge of a rocky gorge. The oldest part of the mill was built about 
1840, by Isaac K. Oakley. It forms but a small part of the present plant. 
the main building of which is 480 feet long and from one to three stories 
high, with capacity for the employment of 150 hands, and tlie production 
of over 24,000 pounds of paper daily. It is a progressive institution an 1 
up to date in its machinery and other equipment. There are several de- 
tached buildings in addition to a connected series of brick and stone l)uil(l- 
ings, and twenty or more cottages for the families of the employees. The 
Arlington Mill manufactures the best grades of book paper and French 
folios, white and colored. These go to the great publishing houses of 
New York and other American cities, and some of them to Englan 1 anl 
even to Australia. 


Washington Heights, formerly the homestead of Captain Henry Robin- 
son — a tract of nearly 100 acres in the southern part of the city — was made 
a valuable addition to the resident portion of the city by its purchase from 
the heirs, division into streets and lots and their improvements started 
twenty years ago. The part of the plateau east of Lander street, about 
forty acres, was purchased by tienry T. McConn, and he arranged with 
Colonel Charles H. Weygant for its development. The macadam streets 
are broad and straight, the houses must set twelve feet back from the side- 
walk, which is lined with shade trees. A little later, in October, 1887, 
William D. and Joseph M. Dickey purchased the part of the Robinson 
farm west of Lander street, forty-two acres, and there inaugurated similar 
improvements. Many lots have been sold and houses erected on both plots. 

The Newburgh Street Railway Company obtained a franchise earlv in 
1886 to build a surface road from a point near the western end of the 
city to the Union depot, and then another to extend the line from the 



j^9 ^SP 


corner of Water and Third streets along Water street to near the north- 
erly line of the city. On December 23d, of the same year, the road was for- 
nialK opened between West Xewburgh and the Inioii depot. Later the 
road was extended to Orange Lake, and the name was changed to the 
( )range Comity Traction Company. In iyo6 it was purchased by Ex- 
( Governor Odell, and desirable improvements in equipment were made. 

On recommendation of Mayor Odell, in his annual message of 1887, 
the people voted $30,000 for the purchase of additional lands to the 
former Smith estate, owned by the city, to be improved and laid out into 
tlif beautiful and sightly Downing Park, in honor of Andrew J. Downing. 

Of buildings for public use the Newburgh Academy of Music is con- 
spicuous. It was projected in 1886 by J. 1*. .Andrews and E. S. Turner, 
and the construction was commenced in the spring of 1887. Itjias a 
frontage on Broadway of 85 feet ar.d a depth of 140 feet. The audi- 
torium is 80 feet long by 45 feet deL]j, 40 fe-.^t high, and will seat 1.300 
people. The stage is 80 by 35 feet, and there are 12 dressing rooms, 2 
balconies and 4 boxes. In all its appointments it is thoroughly modern. 

( )f school buildings two deserve particular notice. The Free Academy 
was erected in 1885-1886, and cost $67,000. The material is brick with 
stone trimmings. It is 112 by 68 feet, and three stories high, with base- 
ment. It has an assembly room 88 by 64 feet, which will seat 700 persoTi>, 
and 12 class rooms each 31^ by 23 feet. There are 21 rooms in all. 
\\'ithout and within it is a good specimen of school architecture. Anoilier 
i- the Grammar School building, erected in 1891 at a of $30,000. 
This is 74 by 76 feet, with eight class rooms 28 by 23 feet each, aw] each 
containing desks for 40 ])U])ils. The as'-embly rccm is in the third story. 

Another noteworthy building is that of the Y. ]\I. C. A., constructed in 
1882- 1883. and costing $24,000. It is 31 by jj feet, three stories high, 
and has a seating caj)acity in its assemblv room for 300 persons. 

In 1896-1897 a handsome Government building was erected. Congress 
having appropriated $100,000 for thi> purpose, and this has since been 
the home of the post-office, the business of which has already almost out- 
grown it. 

The water with which Xewburgh is supplied is Irawn from W'a^hing- 
t(in Lake, three and a third 'miles from the Hudson and 2J() feet ai)ove 
it. The lake is fed by internal s|)rings and an artificial channel with 
.Silver stream. Chemical analysis has siiown that this water is so pure 


that it needs no filtering, and it is agreeably palatable, without any min- 
eral flavors. It has been healthy Newburgh's drinking water for more 
than fifty years. The lake's area is about 140 acres, and it has a storage 
capacity of 300,000,000 gallons. Newburgh is now so thoroughly piped 
that the water is universally accessible to its citizens, and is an invaluable 
protection against fire as well as promoter of cleanliness, health and hap- 


Newburgh has been remarkably free from crime, which is in part due 
to the character of its citizens and in part to its uniformly excellent police 
force, which now consists of one marshal, two sergeants, two rounds- 
men and fifteen patrolmen. 

The Volunteer Fire Department of Newburgh is one of the oldest in 
the State, and also one of the most efficient. Therefore there have been 
feW' very damaging fires, and the insurance rates are low. From its 
organization, over a hundred years ago, until now, it has had on its 
records of membership some of the leading business and professional men 
in the community, and they have promptly responded to the call for ser- 
vice when their service was required. 

The department was started, by authority of an act of Legislature, 
in the spring of 1 797. This was three years before the village was in- 
corporated, and the five trustees which the act required to be elected an- 
nually for controlling managers were the first form of government in the 
village. Their power was transferred to the village trustees by the incor- 
porating act. There were at first a suction engine and a bucket brigade to 
keep it supplied with water. In 1805 a company of "bagmen" was formed, 
whose duty it was to take charge of goods. The first engine house was 
erected about the same time, and a record of the two engine companies 
of 1806 furnishes the following names: 

No. I. — William L Smith, Enoch E. Tilton, Walter Burling, Henry 
Tudor. Ward M. Gazlay, Gilbert N. Clement, Minard Harris, John Cars- 
kaden. Caleb Sutton. Georfre E. Hulse. John Coleman, John Hoagland, 
William Adee, Andrew Preston, Nicholns Wright, John Forsyth, Walter 

No. 2. — John Harris, Jonathan Fisk, John Anderson, Jr.. Leonard Car- 
penter. Selah Reeve, James Hamilton, Samuel L Gregory, William 

John Dales. 

CITY nv XRWIHKCll. 365 

Gardiner. Xatlianiel llurlinj;. Solomon Slcij^dit. Jonathan Carter, iliram 
Welkr. Samuel Wriy^hi. Hug-li Spier. Thomas Powell, Cornelius DeWitt, 
Joseph Hoftman. Cadwallader Roe, Daniel N-ven. Jr., Benoni H Howell, 
Sylvanus Jessup, Josej)!! Reeve, John Richardson. 

The interesting history of the department from its interesting begin- 
nings cannot be followed here. Coming down to the present time its 
heads consist of a chief engineer .-nul two assistant engineers, the ft^rc- 
man and assistant foreman of the various companies, and the trustees 
of the I-'ire Department fund. The oi the companies are: High- 
land Steamer Co. Xo. 3. Washington Steamer Co. Xo. 4. Eirewster Hook 
and Ladder Co. Xo. i, Ringgold Hose Co. Xo. r, Columbian Hose Co. 
Xo. J. C. 'SI. Leonard Steamer Co. Xo. 2. Chapman .Steamer Co. Xo. i, 
Law>on Hose Co. Xo. 5. Washington Heights Chemical Engine Co. Xo. 3. 

I he C'ty is divided into five fire districts, and thirty-two alarm boxes 
coiinect with the engine houses. 

Xewburgh is essentially progressive and modern in its e iucational 
svsteni. now made free, from the primary to the end of the academic 
course. Its Board of Education consists of nine members. It has seven 
public school buildings and one public library building. Other officers be- 
sides th.e board, are its president, vice-president, clerk, who is alsc 
su])erintendent, librarian, counsel and attendance officer. There arc 
also three Glebe trustees and three Glebe auditors. The courses of 
studv are similar to those in other city schools, and the graduate from 
the I'ree Academy may be prepared to enter one of the leading colleges, 
while the Manual Training School is a jjhysical safeguard as well as a 
means for harmonious muscular development. Vor reading helps a])art 
from text-books the good library of nearly 35.000 volumes is an opening 
into general literature. 

The reason for the Glebe trustees and auditors referred to dates back 
to ancient conditions which have been luemioneil. The act to amend the 
charter of the Glebe passed by the Legislature in 1803, directed that $200 
should be paid annually to the trustees of the academy, and that the 
remainder of the money from the Glebe income should be paid to the 
other schools on the Glebe lands, as the inhabitants should direct. It was 
applied to the juvenile school which was established in the old Lutheran 
church in iSo<). the last terudur .-f which was John L. l.von, who taught 
from 1S43 tf) 1H45, when the school was removed to the academy. In 


1849. after the Clinton street school building was erected and became 
officially known as the (ilebe school, it received the revenues of the Glebe 
above the sum required by law to be paid to the academy. The High 
school was incorporated in 1829, and opened the next year. The number 
of pupils registered in this 185 1-1852 was 348, and the number in the 
Glebe school about 120. During the first year of the new order of things, 
provided for in the act of 1852, the number of pupils was doubled. 

Besides the present public schools there are several parish and private 
schools, the former being under the care of the Roman Catholic Church. 
Of these St. Mary's Academy, founded in 1883, has become very promi- 
nent and useful. 

The library, with its 35,000 volumes, is free to the people of New- 
burgh, and the building includes a teachers' reading room supplied with 
books adapted to the professional needs of the teachers, and may also be 
used by citizens and strangers for study and literary work. The library 
was started in 1852, and is among the oldest of the free circulating 
libraries. Previous to 1850 there were but four in the State, ten in the 
New England States, six besides these in the United States, and none 
in Great Britain, and but one of the libraries then organized has as many 
books or as large a circulation as the Newburgh library. In September, 
1852, the Board of Education resolved that all the school libraries in the 
village should be consolidated and placed together in the academy room, 
then ready to receive them, and William N. Reid, first principal of the 
academy under the new system, was appointed librarian. There were 
924 volumes from the high school, yyj from the Glebe and 418 from 
the academy. In 1862 the books of the Mechanics' Library Association 
were transferred to the Board of Education, which added 2,801 volumes 
to the library. Other donations and the purchases have brought the 
library to its present valuable condition in the number and quality of its 
books. The fine building which now contains them was completed in 1877 


Of Newburgh's churches the oldest is the First Presbyterian, whose 
legal existence began a few months after the close of the Revolutionary 
War, although its informal existence had started a score of years before, 
and been kept up in an irregular and feeble way. The formal organiza- 

Thomas Coldwell. 

CITY OI- XEWr.l'RGH. • 367 

tioii as a Presbyterian society under the laws of the Slate t<jok place 
July 12, 1884, with these trustees: Adolph L)e^rf)ve, Daniel Hudson. 
Thomas 1 'aimer. Joseph Coleman, Isaac Belknap. The first stated supplv 
was Rev. John Close, who served from 1785 to 1796. His successor was 
Rev. Isaac Lewis, who continued until 1800 and was followed by Rev. 
John F'reeman. and Mr. Freeman by Rev. Eleazer Burnet. Then came 
the long- and very successful pastoiate of Rev. John Johnston, which 
lasted from July 5, 1807, until his death, August 23, 1855. Nearly a 
thousand n;embers were added to the church roll during his ministry. 

The congregation of the Firsfl Associate Reformed Church was formed 
in 1798, and the society was legally incorporated l^'cbruary 7. 1803. The 
first pastor, Rev. Robert Kerr, was installed April 6, 1799. The first 
trustees were : Derick Amerman, Hugh Walsh, Daniel Xiven, Robert 
Gourley, Robert Boyd, John Brown, Isaac Belknap, Jr., John Coulter 
and Robert W. Jones. The ruling elders were John Currie, Samuel 
Belknap, Hugh Speir and John Shaw. 

The First Reformed Presbyterian Church was planted in Xewburgh In- 
several families of the Covenanter faith in 1793, who held services in 
their homes on Sundays, and, with others, organized a Covenanter so- 
ciety in 1802. This became a branch of the Coldenham congregation, and 
the connection was continued until 1824, when it separated, and James 
Clark, Samuel Wright and John Lawson were chosen elders and John 
Crawford, deacon. 

Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in i8o8. when 
Rev. Samuel Fowler became the first pastor. 

St. George's Episcopal Church has been elsewhere referred to. in the 
early history of Newburgh. The j^arish was reincorporated, after a long 
period of adversity, in 1805, and the minister who more than any one 
else built it up afterward in the early years of the nineteentli century was 
Rev. John Brown. He became its regular rector in the fall of 1815. 

The African M. E. Church was organized in 1827, by Rev George 

A Baptist Church was organized in 1821. and after a feeble existence, 
ending in dissolution in 1828. was formally reorganized in December. 


Of the later churches the organizations were as follows: 

American Reformed Church. Se])teml)er 24. 1835; St. Patrirh's Roman 


CotlioUc Cluirch. 1838; Union Churchy July 13, 1837; Sliiioh Baf^tist 
ChnrcJi, 1848; St. John's M. E. Church, ]\Iay 2;^, 1852; IVcstniinstcr 
Reformed Presbyterian Churchy November 12, 1854; Calvary Presby- 
terian Church, September i, 1856; First United Presbyterian Church, 
December 6, 1859; Congregation Beth Jacob, about i860; St. Paul's 
Protestant Episcopal Church, May, i860; Grace M. E. Church, April 25, 
1868; Church of our Father (Unitarian), 1855; St. Mary's Roman 
Catholic Church, May 19, 1875; Church of the Corner Stone (Reformed 
Episcopal), December 2, 1873; German Ez'angelical Lutheran Church, 
spring of 1876; Church of the Good Shepard (Episcopal), June, 1871 ; 
First Congregational Church, January 3, 1889. 


A Young Men's Christian Association of Newburgh was organized 
September 17, 1858, and the next week officers were elected. The time of 
organization was less than six years after the Y. M. C. A. movement 
started. The association dissolved about 1861, and after the lapse of 
seven years the ijresent association was organized. It did not have a 
vigorous existence for several years, and was reorganizeci in January, 
1879. A few months later General Secretary J. T. Browne came to New- 
burgh and put new life into it, and it has been prosperous and progressive 
since. Its president, E. S. Tanner, was largely instrumental in raising 
the money for the new building, first occupied in 1883, and costing 

At a public meeting held April 24, 1888, after an address by the na- 
tional secretary, Miss Nettie Dunn, Newburgh's Young Women's Chris- 
tian .\ssociation was organized, and 105 members enrolled. The elected 
officers were : President, Mrs. Susan McMasters ; vice-presidents, Mrs. 
Isaac Garrison, Miss Mary E. Gouldy and Mrs. Charles S. Jenkins ; re- 
cording secretary. Miss Augusta Lester; treasurer. Mrs. M. C. Belknap. 
The association has been prosperous and useful. 

St. Luke's Home and Hospital was incorporated in 1876. Its object 
is to provide for the care and medical treatment of the sick and disabled, 
and also a home for aged women. It has a training school for nurses, 
established in 1893, and a medical board of nearly a score of physicians 
and specialists. 

Valentine Kohl. 


There are two institutions under the eare of Alms House Commis- 
sioners — the City and Town Home and Children's Home. The former is 
on a farm in the southwestern corner of the city, and the latter is a 
building in High Street. These are city benefactions, well managed and 
helpful to the aged and orphaned. 

An office and employment bureau was organized in 1875, and re- 
organized in 1886. It is primarily an organization to help the poor to 
help themselves. Members pay $5 annually and agree to abstain from 
indiscriminate almsgiving. The society is otherwise supported by vol- 
untary contributions. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union and Young Women's 
Christian Temperance Union labor to teach the boys and younger men 
the principles of temperance and morality, and have restrained and re- 
formed many of them. 

There arc two military companies in Newburgh — the Fifth Sejiaratc 
and Tenth Separate Companies, originating in the Seventeenth Battalion, 
which was organized in 1878. Lieutenant Colonel F. O. Ilayt. com- 
manding. January 11. 1882. Companies B, C and D were mustered out 
and Company A, Captain James T. Chase, continued as Fifth Separate 
Company, and Company E. Captain James M. Dickey, continued as 
Tenth Separate Company. 

The Loflges of the Independent Order of O Id Fellows arc .\cme No. 
469. Bismarck Xo. 420; Highland Xo. 65. ati 1 Mount ( )live Fncampment 
No. 65. 

The Elks have Lodge Xo. 247. B. P. O. E. 

The drand Army of the Republic is represented in Xewl)urgh b\ FIlis 
Post Xo. 52. and l'\illerton Post Xo. =,S:f). The Son^ of X'eteran'S have 
A. S. Cassedy Post Xo. 18. 

The Knights of Pythias have .Storm King Lodge Xo. 1 i. Olive Branch 
Lodge Xo. 133, Endowment Rank .Section Xo. 2oC\ and Charles T. Good- 
rich Division No. 25. L'niform Rank. 

The Knights of Honor have Hudson River Lodge Xo. 1218. 
The .Ancient Order of Foresters has Court Xewburgh Xo. y2^<^ and 
Court Pride of the Fludson No. 7718. 

The Improved Order of Red Men has Muchattoes Tribe X^o. 54, 
and Orange Council Xo. 50, De.grce of Pocahontas. 

Of tenii)erance societies- there are Orange Council Xo. 18^1. Royal 


Templars of l^mporance. }*rohibition x-Vlliance, Junior I'rohibition Club, 
St. George's Company No. 62, Knights of Temperance, St. Paul's Com- 
ijanv No. 62. Mission Lodge No. 639 I. O. of G. T., Newburgh Lodge 
No. 2S2 ]. (). of G. T., and Victory Lodge L O. of G. T. 

Among the many other societies are United Friends, Sons of St. 
George, Ancient Order of Hibernians, Royal Arcanum, Order of United 
American Mechanics, Sexennial League, Knights and Ladies of the 
Golden Star, Knights of Honor, Orange Men, several Catholic societies, 
labor and trade unions, Newburgh Bible Society, Historical Society of 
Newburgh Bay and the Highlands, Society for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals, Society for Instruction in First Aid to the Injured, and Horse 
Thief Detecting Society. 


Newburgh has solid financial institutions. Highland Bank was char- 
tered April 26, 1834, with a capital of $200,000. In January, 1865, the 
capital was increased to $350,000, and the following April was reorgan- 
ized as a National Bank with a capital of $450,000, which was reduced 
to $300,000 in 1888. The first president was Gilbert O. Fowler. 

Quassaick National Bank was organized March 31, 1852, and began 
husiness with a capital of $130,000. The first president was E. W. 
Farrington, and the first cashier Jonathan N. Weed. In June of the 
3^ear of organization the capital stock was increased to $200,000, and in 
June of 1853 to $300,000. In 1895 ^^- Weed was chosen president. 

The National Bank of Newburgh is the successor of tlie Bank of New- 
burgh, incorporated March 22, 181 1. The capital of the first bank was 
$120,000. The first president was Isaac Belknap, Jr., and the first 
cashier was John S. Hunn. In February, 1820, a branch bank was opened 
at Ithaca and continued till 1830, when its charter expired. The Bank of 
Newburgh was then reorganized under the Safety Fund law with a cap- 
ital of $140,000. In 1 85 1 it was again reorganized under the general 
banking law with a capital of $200,000, which was increased the next 
year to $300,000. July 3, 1864, the bank divided its capital and 60 pei 
cent, profits among its stockholders, and closed business, and two days 
afterward the National Bank of Newburgh more than took its place m the 
business community, with the large capital of $800,000, the stock of which 

CITY OF XE\vj;rk(,ii. 371 

\va> iiroiiiptly Uikcii. June 3, i8yo. the stockholders voted to reduce the 
capital to $400,000. and the additional $400,000 with 40 per ceiu. profits 
was divided among- them. The bank has continued to prosper. 

The Xewburgh Savings Hank was chartered April 13, 1852, and was 
opened January i. 1853. Its present building- was completed in 1868, 
and cost $115,527. It has been a heljjful uistitution to the people of 
Xcwljurgh and vicinity. Its tirst president was R()l)ert L. Case. Ir>scph 
Chadwick is now- its president. 

The Columbu.s Trust Compan\ began to do business March i, 18(^3. at 
Xo. S2 Broadway, with a capital st(jck of $100,000 divided among 144 
^shareholders. Semi-annual di\idends of 3 ])er cent, have been regailarly 
])aid since 1895. ^" i^joi the directors decided to purchase Xo. 78 Broad- 
way for a banking h.ouse. The builduig- was remorleled. and .April 20. 190J, 
the company moved to its j^resent quarters. This company has prospered 
l>eyond the reasonable expectations of its friends. The statement of De- 
cember 31, 1893, showed $117,249.17 on deposit, anrl $20,238.36 surplii- 
and undivided jirofits. June 29, 1907, deposits amounted to $2,941,587.13 
and sur]:)lus and uiidivided ])rotits to $121,527.26. The total riuml)er of 
accounts is 5,300. The present officers are: Joseph \'an Cleft, ])residenl ; 
David \. .Morrison, first vice-president; Charles K. Bidl, second vice- 
president; Henry M. Leonard, treasm-er ; Barcla\ \ an Cleft, secretary; 
Walter C. Anthony, counsel. 

The lioard of Trade was organized I-^ebruar}- 22, 1882, Mayor .\. S. 
Cassedy presiding at the meeting. Daniel S. Waring was chosen jjrc'-i- 
de'.it and the other officers were: \'ice-presidents. William B. Brockaw 
and John Schoonmaker ; treasurer. Jonathan .\. Weed. This organiza- 
tion hel])erl in many ways to advance the city's interests. It was suc- 
ceeded by the Business Men's Association, organized ( )ctol)er 16. 
1900, with llu- foUow'ing officers: Samuel \". .Schoonmaker. president; 
James Chadwick, W. C. Belkna]:). Hiram 1!. ( )dell. vice-j)residents ; John 
F. Tucker, secretary: H. .\. Bartlett, treasurer. It was incor])oralcd 
March 30, i(,'04. .Among the larger ])lants it has secured for Xewlnirgh 
nir'y be menti-med ( \()0\ ) the .\bendroth & Root Co.. of r)rooklyn. man- 
ufacturers of spiral pipe, automoliiles. etc.: { \*)0\-i(ro2) the I'abrikoid 
Co.. tormerI\- doing business in Xew |erse\-. which ]nirchased the property 
known a> Haigh ^^ills at West Xewburgh. Their products arc shipped 
to all ])art^ of the world: ( i<)03 ) William C". Cregg Co., of Mimicapolis. 


Minn., manufacturers of sugar plantation machinery. William Johnston 
McKay was chosen president of the association in 1907. This organization 
is in charge of Newburgh's portion of the Ter-Centenary celebration of 
the discovery of the Hudson River, and has already arranged for special 
exercises, September 25, 26 and 2^, 1909. 


The transportation facilities of Newburgh are almost unsurpassed. 

In front is its fine harbor, bay and river, with steamship lines up 
and down and across. These lines are a restraint upon the tendencies of 
the railroads towards high freight rates. The river trade is large and 
within a few miles of Newburgh are about fifteen village ports which are 
more or less tributary to it. The local traffic of the Hudson is mostly by 
lines of steamers, some of which carry both freight and passengers and 
others only passengers. Sloops and schooners, which long ago did nearly 
all the carrying trade, still do service. 

The Central Hudson Steamboat Company has two night lines of 
steamers to New York, which carry passengers and freight. Boats of this 
line leave Newburgh and New York in the evening and afford charming 
water trips to residents and others. The company also provides the New- 
burgh. Albany and Troy line, the steamers of which leave Newburgh for 
the upward trips every morning, except Sundays, and arrive from Albany 
in the evening. The captains of the boats on the Newburgh and New 
York lines are Zach Roosa, William Meakim, Weston L. Dennis and E. 
N. Gage. Those on the Newburgh, Albany & Troy line are Fred L. 
Simpson and Egbert Van Wagner. 

The Newburgh and Fishkill ferry, for which a line of steamers was 
started in 1835, continues business, its steamers leaving Newburgh about 
every half hour between 5.45 a. m. and 10.45 P- m. H. Stockbridge Rams- 
dell is the agent. 

Newburgh and Haverstraw Steamboat Company has the steamer Eni- 
cliiic, Captain D. C. Woolsey, which starts for Haverstraw and inter- 
mediate landings each mid-afternoon and Haverstraw for Newburgh in 
the evening. 

Newburgh and Poughkeepsie line's steamer Hudson Taylor, Captain 
George Walker, leaves Newburgh for Poughkeepsie every morning. 


W'appinj^er's l-"all> and Xcwburg-h line's steamer Mcssciii^cr leaves 
Newburgh forenoons and early evenings. 

The West Shore Railroad, which extends north and west to Albany 
and Btiffalo and south to New York, connects at Newburgh with the line 
and the New York and the New England systems, and at Buffalo with 
the Grand Trunk and the Lake Shore Railroads. Over thirty trains a day 
arrive and dejjart on this road. It has facilities for transporting cars 
across the river. 

One Erie Railroad branch extends to a junction with the main line at 
Greycourt, eighteen miles distant, and affords a direct route to the Penn- 
sylvania coal fields and across the southern tier of New York counties to 
the west. Another Erie branch connects with the main line at New])urgh 
Junction, fifteen miles distant, and passes through a number of Orange 
County villages. About twenty passenger trains a day arrive and depart 
over these branches. 

The New York Central's Hudson River line of railroad across the river 
from Newburgh is reached by the ferry, the boats of which make close 
connection with all thrcnigh i)assenger trains. 

The Lehigh and Hudson River Railway extends from a junction with 
the Newburgh branch and the Erie's main line at Greycourl to Belvidere. 
The Newburgh branch is operated as a part of the system controlled by 
the Central Railroad of New Jersey. 

There is also the line of the Orange County Traction Company, ex- 
tending to Walden. 

Newburgh is the principal gateway for the coal traffic between Penn- 
sylvania fields and the New England States, which consume six million 
tons of coal annually. The loaded cars on reaching the river front are 
quickly ferried across to Fishkill on the transfer boat, and the roads 
coming to Fishkill distribute them. Much coal is also shipped from New- 
burgh by water to all parts of the northern country, and to the ports of 
Long Island and the New England coast. 


Newburgh has six cemeteries — the Newburgh, or Old Town, St. 
George's. St. Patrick's, the Hebrew, and in the suburbs. W'oodl.iwii and 
Cedar Hill. 


The Newburgh has many old headstones, and is in the block where 
stood the church of the old Palatine settlers. 

St. George's is under the care of St. George's Protestant Episcopal 

St. Patrick's is for the remains of the Roman Catholic dead and the 
Hebrew for the Jewish dead. 

Woodlawn Cemetery is controlled by the Newburgh Woodlawn Ceme- 
tery Association, which was incorporated October 22, 1870. It is in the 
town of New Windsor, a mile from the city, and is reached by a delightful 
avenue. It is an ideal location for a cemetery, with extended river and 
mountain viev\'S. Quassaick avenue, leading from the city to Woodlawn, 
is lined with elegant country residences in the micist of spacious grounds 
studded with fine trees and beautified in the warm season with wide lawns 
and varieties of beautiful flowers. The cemetery grounds contain fifty 
acres, laid out with excellent artistic taste and skill, and carefully looked 
after and kept in order by the superintendent, ]\IacLeod Rogers, who has 
occupied the position from the beginning. Some of its features are a row 
of fine cedars along the northern boundary, a dense grove on the western 
side, scattered ancient oaks, also maples, pines, elms and other kinds of 
trees, varieties of shrubs and flowers, and a natural stream. There are 
several imposing monuments and many fine designs in sculptured marble 
and granite. 

Cedar Hill Cemetery is about five miles north of the center of the city, 
and contains 100 acres in the midst of a picturesque landscape. It has 
about three miles of driveways through its park-like grounds, there is a 
stream of spring water which supplies a little lake of two and one-half 
acres, and there are many handsome monuments. The Cedar Hill Ceme- 
tery Association was organized in 1870. 


Regarding enlistments from Newburgh and the money raised for the 
Civil War, the recapitulation in Ruttenber and Clark's History is here 
quoted : 

"i. Company B. 3d Regiment, recruited in ]\Iarch and April, 1861. 2. 
Company B, 36th Regiment, recruited in May and June. 1861. 3. Com- 
pany I, 71st Regiment IMilitia, recruited principally from Company T, 

James J. Leonard. 


Kjth Rci^imcnt. 4. Coni])anies A and I'., and i)arts of C, D and G, 56111 
Regiment, recruited between July and October. 18O1. 5. Seventh Inde- 
pendent Fjattery. in part, recruited with 56th Regiment. 6. Companies 
D, E, F, I and L. 19th Regiment Militia; miscellaneous enlistments prior 
to July, 1862. III. I'nder the calls of July and .August. 1862. 470 men 
were required from the town, and 501 furnished, 217 of whom were en- 
1 oiled in the i2-|th. and 1O6 in the i68th Regiments. The call of July. i8'>3. 
re(|uired 443 men, of whom ninety were furnished; but it was merged 
in the calls of October. [863, and of February, March and July, 1864, re- 
(|uiring 75'') ; number furnished. S2J, of whom seventy-one were not cred- 
ited. The total of enlistments, including re-enlistments, was 2,250; the total 
of men required. 1,226. The public subscriptions and loans of the town, 
including at that time the village, for the promotion of enlistments and for 
bounties were: 1861. by individual subscriptions, $7,385. bonds of the vil- 
lage, $5,000; 1862. intlividual subscriptions. $17,512; 1864. town bonds, 
$175,100; total, $204,997. I" addition to this sum the town expended 
for special relief — 1863-1864 — $1,075.50; expended by aid society, and in 
contributions to the Christian Commission. $12,387.31 ; raising the total 
to $218,459.81, and the further sum of $321,320 (partly estimated) for 
special income and internal revenue taxes to January i, 1865 — a grand 
total of $539.779.81. ■■ 


The Xewl)urgh post-oflfice was the first to be established in thi,> part of 
the State, and passed the centennial of its organization in December, 
1895. Prior to that date letters and other articles which now go by mail 
were carried by post riders, who delivered and deposited letters at ap- 
pointed stations. The first post-carrier station in this district is >upiK>sed 
to have been what was known as "the glass house" in the ancient village 
of Xew Windsor, where letters were addressed as early as 1755. < )ne of 
the early stations was the tavern of Michael Wiegand on present Liberty 
street, and the regular accounting p<i>t-office of i8<)5 was its succe^^sor. 
At that time, we are told, the Xewburgh office included in its rleliveries 
Marlborough, Montgomer\-. Plattckill. Xtu Windsor and other nearby 
settlements, and received mails by carriers on the eslabli>he<l l)o^t roads, 
the main trunk lines beintr the old Kinsj;'^ Hitrhwav. now Liberty street, the 


old road from Kingston to Goshen, running tlirough Montgomery, from 
which a cross mail was carried through Coldenham to Newburgh, and 
there was a main cross mail running east through Fishkill into New Eng- 
land and to Boston, which intersected a cross line on the east side of the 
river extending from New York to Albany. 

The Newburgh post-ofifice had various locations in town until 1897, 
when it was moved into its permanent home in the new Government 
building, then just completed. The equipment here was modern and com- 
plete and the space sufficient, but the rapid growth of the city's industrial 
business and other changing conditions have been such that the building 
is already too small for the increased and increasing post-office business. 
Note the changes in five years. On March i, 1900, there were connected 
with the office eight clerks, thirteen letter carriers and one substitute car- 
rier, and in 1905 there were thirteen clerks, two substitute clerks, sixteen 
carriers, four substitute carriers, and four rural delivery carriers. The 
receipts of the office for the year ending March 31, 1901, were $52,263.12, 
and for the year ending March 31, 1906, they were $73,232.79, an in- 
crease of $20,969.37. or 40.12 per cent. 

A list of postmasters from the beginning until now, with the dates of 
their appointment, follows : 

Ebenezer Foote, appointed January i, 1796; Harry Caldwell, October i, 
1797; Daniel Birdsall, October i, 1802; Chester Clark, July i, 1810; 
Aaron Belknap, March 26, 1812; Tooker Wygant, November 26, 1830; 
A. C. Mullin, May 23, 1833; B. H. Mace, November 23, 1836, Oliver 
Davis, June 11, 1841 ; James Belknap, May 18, 1843; Samuel W. Eager, 
August 6, 1849; Joseph Casterline, Jr., May 4, 1853; Ezre Farrington. 
May 22, 1861 ; James H. Reeve, November i, 1866; Henry Major, May 
7, 1867; Joseph Lomas, August 22, 1867; Ezra Farrington, July 19. 1869; 
John C. Adams, April i, 1875; Joseph M. Dickey, March 21, 1883; 
William R. Brown, April 8, 1877: William G. Taggart, April 2, 1891 ; 
Joseph A. Sneed, February i, 1892; Lewis W. S. McCroskery, March i, 
1896; Hiram B. Odell, March i, 1900, reappointed 1904 and January, 


A list of the mayors, etc., of Newburgh with their terms of service 
since its incorporation as a city in 1865 are here given : 

Henry P. Clauson. 



George Clark, four tonii>. from .March ii, i80<j, t(^ }*larch 8, 1870. 

Robert Sterling, from March 8, 1870. Died April 30, 1870. Alexander 
McCann, president of the common council, acting mayor the rest of 
term, to March 7, 1871. 

William W. Carson, from March 7, 1871, to March 6, 1872. 

Samuel E. Shutes, two terms, from March 6, 1872, to March 10. 1874. 

Chauncey 'SI. Leonard, from March 10. 1874. Died December 3, 1874. 
Nathaniel B. Hayt, acting mayor rest of term, to March 10, 1875. 

John S. McCroskery, three terms, from March 10, 1875, ^o March 12, 

Charles H. Weygant. two terms, from March 12. 1878, to March 8. 

Abram S. Cassedy, two terms, from March 8, 1880, to March 13. 1882. 

Peter Ward, two terms, from M^'.rc'n 13, 1882, to March 11, 1884. 

Benjamin B. Odell, six terms, from March 11. 1884, to March 11. 1890 

Michael Doyle, two terms, from March 11, 1890, to March 11, 1894. 

Benjamin B. Odell, six terms, from 1894 to 1900. 

Jonathan D. Wilson, six terms, from 1900 to 1906. 

Charles D. Robinson, 1906 to 1908. 

Benjamin ^IcClung. 1908. Term expires March, 1910. 


Francis Scott, 1866- 1868, 1870. 1873- 1875. 

Lewis ^L Smith, 1869- 1870. 

James X. Dickey. 1872. 1879-1891. 

Ring A. Smith. 1876-1878. 

Jonathan N. Weed, 1891-1894. 

J. N. Dickey. 1894-1906. 

H. ^L Leonard, 1906. Term expires AL'irch. 1909. 


Joseph D. Shafer, 1866- 1870. 
Charles B. Titus. 1871-1874. 
John B. Kerr, 1875- 1878. 


Cornelius L. Waring, 1879-1890. 

L. W. Y. McCroskery, 1891-1895. 

W. H. Hyndman, 1895. Term expires December 31, 1910. 

Corporation Counsel. 

Jan'es W. Ta\lor, 1865-1869. 
Jolm IC Fenton, 1870-1871. 
William D. Dickey, 1872, 1878-1880. 
j. G. Graham, 1873-1874, 1885-1890. 
Abram S. Cassedy, 1875- 1876. 
George H. Clark, 1880-1881. 
Russei Headley, 1881-1884. 
Eugene A. Brewster, 180)0-1892. 
C. L. Waring, 1892. Resigned 1907. 
W. F. Cassedy, 1907-1908. 

City Siin'cyor. 

Charles Caldwell. 1866-1902. 
Everett Garrison, 1902-1906. 
William J. Blake, Jr., 1907 to present time. 


Supervisors from 1763 to inauguration of first city officers, March 12, 
1866: Jonathan Hasbrouck, 1763; Lewis DuBois, 1764; John Wandal, 
1765; Benjamin Carpenter, 1766; Lewis DuBois, 1767; Edward Hallock, 
1768; Latting Carpeiiter, 1769-1771; Jonathan Hasbrouck, 1772; John 
Flewwelling, 1773; Samuel Prowler, 1774; Wolvert Acker, 1775; Morris 
Flewwelling, 1776; Wolvert Acker, 1777-1780; Thomas Palmer, 1781- 
1786; John Robinson, 1787-1788; Isaac Fowler, Jr., 1789; John Robinson, 
1790-1791 ; Isaac Fowler, 1792-1795; Reuben Tooker, 1796-1807; Isaac 
Belknap, Jr., 1808; William Poss, 1809-1810; Jonathan Fisk. 181 1 ; Leon- 
ard Smith, 1812-1818; Daniel Tooker. 1819-1820; Leonard Smith, 1822; 
William Wear, Jr., 1823; William Walsh. 1824- 183 1 ; Robert Lawson, 
1832-1833 ; William Walsh, 1834; James G. Clinton. 1835-1836; Daniel 
Tooker, 1837; David W. Bate, 1838: Jackson Oakley, 1839; David W. 

William D. Barnes. 



Hale. 184.0-1X44: jdlin W . 15r(.\vn, 1S4J; Ua.vid W. I'.atc, 184^^-1840; 
( )(lcll S. Ilatliaway. 1847-1849; Mnoch Carter. 1850; Odcll S. 1 iatlr.uvav, 
1851 ; I'jiocli Carter, 1852: Samuel J. P^arniim. 1853; IJenry Walsh. 1854; 
Stephen W. FuUerton. 1855: ( )(lcll S. Hathaway. 1856; Albert .\(X', 
1857; Enoch Carter. 1838 ; Mhcrt Xoe, 1850-1860; (hk-W S. llalhaway, 
1S61-1863; William II. llecle. 1SO4: Ceorire W. L'nderhill. 18O5; C. ( ;il- 
bert l^owler. i866. 

A FEW I!RIi:i"S. 

August 3. i8()9. two acres were added to the gn)und> nf \\'a>hin|L;t«'n'^ 

November 20. 1870, un])aralleled rain^lnmi and destructive hurricane. 

In 1870 population, 17.094. 

November 4. 1871. Newburgh's contribution to Chicago's relief fund 
over $5,500. 

January i. 1872, Newburgh's tirst steam hre engine tested. 

May 11, 1873, board of trustees created fur Washington's Head- 

February 13. 1878, new public library ojjened. 

'Slay 30. 1878, first exhii)ition of the ]>honograph in Xewburgh. 

September 2^. 1878, Newburgh's contribution for relief of yellow fever 
sufferers in the South. $2,613. 

July 5, 1879. mastodon unearthed at Little IJritain. 

July 28, 1879, movement to erect poles for fir>t Newburgli telei)hone. 

June 25. 1880. armory opened. 

In 1880 population 18.049. 

May 30. 1 88 1, soldiers' and sailors' monument at W'oodlawn Cemetery 

June 4, 1883. first train on \\'est Slu)re kailroatl fn>m Newburgli !<• 
New^ York. 

October i. 1884, beginning of free mail tlelivery. 

October 31. 1885. Moody and Sankey evangelistic meetings. 

November 24. 1885, West Shore Railroad sold at Newburgli court-bmi-e 
for $22,000,000. 

September 2. 1886, new acailemy dedicated. 

December 2j!i. 1886, street railroad ojiened. 

March 12, 1888. unprecedented snowstorm and blizzard. 


September 17, 1888, Academy of Music opened. 

March 19, 1889. electric fire alarm system adopted. 

July I, 1889, Newburgh's contribution for relief of Johnstown flood 
sufferers, $5,164. 

September 27, 1889, display of national flag over the school buildings 

In 1890 population 23,087. 

October 6, 1896, unveiling of General George Clinton statue. 

May 9, 1900, centennial celebration of Newburgh municipality. 

Dr. C A. Gorse. 




Bv Dk. C. a. Goksi:. 

LESS than three centuries ago, to be accurate in 1609, Hendrick Mud- 
son sailed up the beautiful river to which he gave his name, and 
anchored in the broad bay above the Highlands to trade with the 
aboriginal inhabitants, who then inhabited the primeval forests which 
lined its banks. 

It is i)robable that lie and some portion of his crew were the fir>t men 
who set foot upon the virgin soil of New Windsor, but it was not 
until more than half a century later, in 1685, that a company of Scotch 
and Irish emigrants to the number of twenty-five families, with their 
servants, under the leadership of Colonel Patrick McGregorie, accom- 
panied by his sons-in-law. David I^'oshack and Captain Evens, settled 
upon the extreme eastern extremity of the town, now known as Plum 
Point, an elevation of 118 feet above the river and consisting of eighty 
acres at the mouth of the Moodna Creek. 

Here they erected a commodious cabin and established a trading post ; 
this is the earliest recorded settlement in the county. Colonel McGregorie 
was appointed muster general of the militia of the province and after his 
death, in 1691, in an endeavor to suppress an insurrection by the Leister 
partv, his sons-in-law and their families continued to reside here until 
1789. The patent which the Colonel obtained t(^ the land passed int^ flic 
possession of his son, Patrick McGregorie. Jr. 

The town is wedge-shaped, its sharp edge of about five miles in extent 
resting upon the river. There is but a small extent of comparatively level 
land along the river bank upon which the village of New Windsor stands, 
back of which there rises a steep bluff with a surface of sand and gravel, 
and a substratum of clay, which is used in the manufacture of an excellent 
quality of brick, which at the present time is the principal industry (if the 
place. The township is bounded on the north by the city and town of 
Newburgh, from which it is separated by Quassaick Creek, an outlet of 
Washington Lake, formerly known as Little Pond, also a portion of the 


town of jNTontgomery : on the west by the towns of Montgomery and 
Hamptonburg: on the south by Blooming Grove and Cornwall. From the 
latter town it is separated by Moodna Creek, near its month. On the 
east it is bounded by the Hudson River. 

The soil is of a sandy and gravelly nature, interspersed in some por- 
tions by rocks and large stones, of a diversified surface, being rolling and 
hillw After leaving the river the surface gradually ascends for a distance 
of two or three miles, interspersed with gentle elevations which have been 
utilized by retired business men of New York for sightly country resi- 
dences, most of which command a magnificent view of the noble Hudson, 
and the picturesque Highlands in the distance. 

On the northern edge of the town rises Snake Hill, or more recently 
called IMuchattoes Hill, an elevation of 600 feet above the river. It lies 
north and south and is almost perpendicular on its eastern extremitv. 
but slopes gradually on the west, from which the surface is again rollin-:;^ 
and adapted to agricultural purposes. At the distance of about five miles 
from the river the town is crossed north and south b-\' two ridges, rising 
in amphitheatre form, from whose summit is obtained a most elegant view 
of the surrounding country. The Highlands on the south, the Fishkill 
Mountains on the east, the Shawangunk Mountains on the north, an I 
the Sugar Loaf and Schunemunk Mountains on the west. 


The earliest recorded patent was i^^sued to Patrick McCiregorie in i6^S. 
Others were as follows: 1,000 acres to William Chambers and William 
Southerland. September 2, 1709; 4,000 acres (in part) to Charles Huddy 
and Phillip Brooks, P^ebruary 20, i/OQ: this included sub'-equently a por- 
tion granted to Mary Tngoldsby and her daughter, Mary Pinkhorn, Au- 
gust 12. 1720; 4,000 acres to John Haskell of the dates of A]iril 9. 1719, 
and April 24, T721 : 800 acres to \'inccnt Matthews, June 17. 1720: t,ooo 
acres to John Johnson, h>bruary 3, 1720: 1184 acres to James Henderson, 
February 12, 1722; 1,000 acres to \'incent Price (in part), July 21, 1721 ; 
2,000 acres to Andrew Johnson, July 19, 1719; 1,000 acres I0 Louis Mor- 
ris, July 21, lyzi ; 2.OO0 acres to Patrick Hume, November 29, 1721 ; 3,292 
acres to Cornelius Low & Co. (mainly"), jVIarch 20, 1720; 1,000 acres to 
Richard A'an Dam (in part). June 30, 1720; 2,000 acres to Phineas Mc- 


iini)>li (mainly I. April 'j. 1719. and sonic portions of the patent granted 
to Cadwallader Colden. April 9. 1719, some portions of uiiich and tile 
Low & Mcintosh palcnt> were cut otif in 1830, when the town of Hamp- 
toiihuro- wa> create:!. 

On the 7th of October. 1734, Dr. John Nicoll. of New York, purchased 
of Jolin W'aldron. Cornelius \'an Horn and James Livingston 7.500 acre?. 

The Chamber and Southerland patents were divided November 7. 1723. 
into three equal parts. Chambers occupying the northern i)ari. Mattliews 
the central ])art and Southerland the southern part. ( )n the death of the 
latter in 1738. his portion passed to his two sons, William an;i lohn. on the 
death of William, without issue. John inherited and also obtained, in 
1753. the water front from the village of New Windsor to Quassaick 
Creek. He .sold this to Nathaniel Smith, of Kingston in 1738. together 
with a portion of the Ingoldsby patent, jmrchased by his father in 1726; 
also a portion of the German patent ])urchased by himself m 1742. Smith 
sold a portion to Robert Boyd. Jr.. and another to George ClintonHipon 
which the latter erected a house in 1769. and resided here until electe 1 
(ioveriior in 1777, when he removed to Poughkee])sie. I-'rom him was 
purchased what is known as the Walsh farm on the Quassaick Creek, 
recently in the possession of his grandson. E. J. DeWitt Walsh.^ On this 
portion of the tract was Admiral William Chambers. Associate Judge 
John Chambers. 1751 ; Governor George Clinton. i776;'^Ca]itain Charles 
Ludlow. L'. S. N. The central jiortion held b\- Matthews was purchased 
by John Aslop. 1724. whose son John .\slop. Jr.. was prominent in the 
Revolution, and grandfather of Governor John .\slop King, in 1749. He 
also sold that portion on which the village of New Windsor stan Is to the 
comjiany called the "Proprietors" of New Windsor. .September 9, 1749. 
Their names were \'incent Matthews. Kbenezer Secly. Michael Jackson. 
Jose])h .Sackett. David Marvin. hA'an Jones and lirant .'^chuyler. 

The Southerlands tract came into the possession of Thomas I^llison in 
May. 1723. who erected a stone mansion on the bluff overlooking the 
river: also a storehouse and dock on the river, and conducted a pro-])er- 
ous business for over a century. His mansion was the hca(k|uartcrs of 
General Washington from t77<; until he moved to the lla-brook hoU'-c 
in Newburgh. 

He also purchased the \ incent Mntthews patent, adjoining, at \'air> 
Gate, in May. 1724. upon which his i-on. Thomas Ellison. Jr., erecte ' in 


1754 the stone mansion and a mill, which subsequently came into the pos- 
session of his son John, and is now known as General Knox headquarters. 

The fourth patent was on the Ingoldsby patent in 1726, by John Gate, 
who sold to Thomas Ellison in 1736. He sold a portion to James Ed- 
monston in 1727, upon which the latter erected a stone house in 1754, just 
west of Vail's Gate, which figured conspicuously in the Revolution. 

Dr. John Nicoll came into possession of a considerable tract, from one 
Peter Post in 1738, which extended from New Windsor village to the base 
of Snake Hill ; his great-grandson now resides upon a portion of it on the 
river road. 

David Mandeville purchased the Mary Ingoldsby patent May ist, 1728, 
and sold to Samuel and Nathaniel Hazard who erected a mill which is 
still standing. 

A patent was granted to Colonel John Haskell in 1719 of 2,000 acres 
and another 2,000 acres in 1721 upon which he settled in 1726. He 
erected a log cabin on what was known as the Dusenberry farm, upon 
which the army erected the Temple when encamped there. Other early 
settlers upon this tract were : Even Jones, Samuel Brewster, Elizabeth 
Stollard, Andrew Crawford and Neil McArthur. 

The first settler upon the Mcintosh patent was John Davis, July 5th, 
1726; others about this time were Robert Boyd and the Dill families. 
Through his wife, Sarah Mcintosh, Nathan Smith came into possession 
of a considerable portion of this tract and erected thereon a grist mill, a 
fulling mill and a store. 

The first settler upon the Andrew Johnson patent upon which Little 
Britain now stands was John Humphrey. 1724; Peter Mullinder, 1729; 
also Mary McClaughry, John Read, Robert Burnett, in the same year ; 
Charles Clinton. Alexander Denniston, John Young, Andrew McDowell, 


The Mailler family were here prior to 1730, who sold to Robert Cars- 
cadden. Among others who settled here with the Clintons were the Arm- 
strongs, Beatty, Barkly, Brooks, Denniston, Davis. Dunlap, Frazer, Gor- 
don, Gray. Hamilton. Little. Mitchell. McDowell. McClaughry, Oliver, 
Nicholson, Thompson, Wilson and Young, whose descendants are nu- 
merous in the county. 

The Low and Co.'s patent of 3,292 acres was granted to Peter Low. 
Garret Schuyler and John Schuyler and was divided among them. The 


third portion of John Schuyler passed by will to liis nephews, Brant and 
Samuel Schuyler. Ilrani Schuyler eventuall\- Ix-coniing- sole pos.sessor. Lnw 
and Garret Schuyler sold a considerable i)ortion to Allen Jarrett, April 
5th, 1720, Low sold 600 acres to John X'ance, September 1st, 1734, and 200 
acres to Jarvis Tompkin>, .Ma\- 22, 1738. Other settlers on this patent 
were: John Slaughter, 172O; Thomas Shaw, 1729; William Miller, 200 
acres, November 12th. 1746: Charles lieatty, 200 acres of I'.rant Schuy- 
ler's, August 22nd. 1744, which he sold to James McClaughry, July 14th. 
1749. the latter the colonel of the 3rd. Regiment of Militia, who fought 
at the Highland forts in 1777. Beatty, the son of a sister of Charles 
Clinton, became a distinguished clergyman, some of whose descendants 
still reside at Salisbury Mills in this count}-. 

James Gambell and John Humphrey purchased of the Hume i)atent 
300 acres, April 6, 1730, and divided it equally between them. Gambell sold 
to Patrick Byrne, March 12, 1744, and Hum])hrey sold to Patrick Mc- 
Claughry, February 22, 1769. The remaining portion of this patent was 
sold by James Ludlow, a nephew of the patentee, to James Neely, Henry 
M. Neely, William Young and I'atrick McClaughry. William Young 
sold to Samuel Sly 233 acres, and Gambell and TTnmi)hrey sold their por- 
tion to AVilliam Tilford and Samuel l-'alls. 

Cadwallader Colden became the owner of the John Johnson ])atent of 
2,000 acres at the date of its issue. A portion of tlv P.dknap family set- 
tled upon it in 1 750. 

The \'an Dam patent of 5,000 acres passed into tiie po.^session of Jessie 
Woodhull in 1753, also a portion to Peter Gallatin. John Moffat and the 
Walling Brothers. This tract is now included in the i)resent town of 
Blooming Grove. 

The small Henderson patent early passed inii> tlie po'^^e-j^inii ot John 
Wandel and David Edmonston. 

The Lewis Morris patent of 1,000 acres was owned by Alexander 
Denniston, Francis Crawford, Thomas Cook and William Denniston in 
1786, purchased from earlier settlers. 

We have already mentioned under the head of i)atents, many of the 
early settlers. The earliest were those of Colonel McGregorie at Plum 
Point in 1685, and the Reverend Richard Charlton, sent out by the London 
Missionary Society in 1732, for the parish of New Windsor, which was 
connected with the Church of England. Among the names of the owners 


of the village were: Ebenezer Seeley, Brant Schuyler, Henry Case, Vin- 
cent Matthews, Michael Jackson, Daniel Everet, Even Jones, Hezekiah 
Howell, Joseph Sackett, Jr., James Tuthill, John Sackett, Jr. Colonel 
Charles Clinton, 1731 ; Dr. John NicoU, 1734; William Ellison, 1732; John 
Ellison, Captain Jas Jackson, William Jackson, Thomas Ellison, Isaac 
Shultz, Messrs. Logan, Bryam, Halstead, Denniston and others. At Little 
Britain, John Humphrey, 1724; Peter MuUiner, 1729, who gave it the 
name from Windsor Castle in England ; Robert Burnett, John Reid, 1729 ; 
Charles Clinton, John and James McClaughry, Alexander Denniston and 
John Young in 1731. Among those who came from Ireland were James 
Edmonston, 1720; the Clintons, Alsop, Chambers, Lawrence, Haskins, 
etc., 173 1, who settled in the eastern portion of the town, while the Col- 
dens, Matthews, Wileman, Mcintosh, Bulls, settled in the more western 


The most noted residents of this town were those of the Clinton family. 
Charles Clinton, the father of James and George, was a native of Lang- 
ford, Ireland, of Scotch-English descent. He sailed with a company of 
relatives and friends in 1729, to escape persecution. Having espoused the 
cause of the Stewards at the accession of the House of Hanover in 16S9, 
he settled at Little Britain in 173 1. He was a highly educated man and 
gave his sons a good education. He was a surveyor and a judge of the 
court of common pleas and fought in the P'rench and Indian Wars, 1759 
to 1763, was public spirited, had five sons and two daughters, lived to the 
ripe old age of eighty-three and died at home, November 19th, 1773. 

One son and a daughter died at sea. Two of his oldest sons, Alexander 
and Charles, were physicians. James and George figured conspicuously 
in the early history of the Empire State. James, born in 1756, preferred 
the army to politics. He served with his father in the taking of Fort 
Frontenac in Canada, also in the invasion by the Indians of Orange and 
Leister Counties, rose to major-general in the war of the Revolution, 
was in charge of the northern department, led an expedition against the 
Iroquois, cut a road from the Mohawk to Lake Otsego, danmied the out- 
let of the lake and floated the boats over the upper Susquehanna to reach 
the lower countrv with his command, was at the seige of Yorktown, 

Rev. Charles Gorse. 

It)\\\ ()!• Xh:\\ W l.\l)S( )1<. ^{S; 

member of the assembly, ratified tbe Constituiion ui" ilic L ni.e I Slates, 
and was a member of the convention of 1804 lo amend the State Constitu- 
tion ; died at his home December iJtb. 1S12. 75 vears of ajy:e : was biirie 1 in 
the family burying ground by the side of his father. 

George Clinton, while a very young man, sailed in a privateer in the 
French War, was with his father and brother at the seige of h'ort 1-ron- 
tcnac. studied law under Judge William Smitli, was clerk of Ulster 
County in 1759. member of the assembly in 1780, elected to the Conti- 
nental Congress in 1775, ])rigadier-gencral in 177^), first Governor of 
New York in 1777; commanded a brigade at the defense of Xcw York 
City in 1776. He was in command of the forts in the Highlands which 
he nobly defended with 600 raw militia against 5.000 veteran 1 British 
troops, and was overwhelmed and obliged to surrender m 1777; was 
Governor of the State for eighteen years, administering its trying duties 
with cons])icuous ability: was ])resident of the convention which met 
at l'oughkee])sie in 1788; \'ice- President of the United States in 1804; 
died soon after his re-election in 1808; has been designated as the h'ather 
of the State. On the beautiful monument in tlie old Dutch Churchyard in 
Kingston. X. Y.. is the following: "To the memory of George Clinton, 
born in the State of Xew York. 2r)th day of July. 1738. died at the City 
of Washington the 20th of A])ril. 1812. in the 73rd year of his age. Sol- 
dier and Statesman of the Revolution, eminent in council, distinguished 
in war. he filled with unexamjjled usefulness, purity and ability, among 
other high offices those of Governor of his native State, and \ ice-Presi- 
<lent of the United States. While he lived, his virtue, wisdom and valor 
were the pride, the ornament and security of his country, and when he 
died he left an illustrious instance and exam])le of a well-spent life. 
Worthy of all imitation." 

DeWitt Clinton, a son of James, was born .March 2nd. \j(^'). the 
jxact place, being in disi)ute. some authorities claim at I'ort DeWitt in 
IX^er Park, while his mother was there on a visit; others chiim 
at the h<me of his father, either at Uittle I Britain or while he wa- 
residing in the village of Xcw Winds, ir. Pcrha])S it doesn't matter 
■f> much where a man is born as what he may make of himself by strenu- 
ous etiforts. as was the ca<e with the illustrious Lincoln an 1 the subject of 
this sketch, .\fter graduation at Columbia College in 1786. he studied 
law with Sanniel Jones: was admitted to th.e bar in I78(); becatne soon 


after secretary to the Governor, his uncle, and became devoted to poHtics ; 
subsequent!}^ filled with great ability the following honorable positions: 
Member of the Assembly, State Senator, member of the council of ap- 
pointment, United States Senator, Mayor of the City of New York, 
many times member of the council board, Governor of the State for two 
terms, candidate for President of the United States, being defeated by 
Madison, and was invited by Mr. Adams to serve as minister to Eng- 
land, and was the author of twenty-six acts which became incorporated 
in the laws of the State and nation. The following panegyric was given 
by William H. Seward, the political successor to the Clintons in New 
York State, in 1871. 

"Only next after Alexander Hamilton. DeWitt Clinton was the wisest 
statesman, the greatest public benefactor, that in all her history the State 
of New York has produced." This was from the man who ten years after 
sat in his chair and persevered in carrying out his policies which estab- 
lished for New York the political leadership of the land. 

Alexander Denniston came over with Charles Clinton and settled at 
Little Britain in 1731. 

Robert Burnett came from Scotland in 1725, and purchased 200 acres 
at Little Britain in 1729. 

Colonel James McClaughry, born in Philadelphia, when nine years 
old was brought by his uncle, John McClaughry, to Little Britain, all the 
way behind his uncle on horseback. He married Kate, a sister of Gover- 
nor Clinton, received a colonel's commission at the commencement of the 
war, commanded a regiment at Fort Montgomery, 1777, where he was 
taken prisoner and sent to a hospital in New York, where he would have 
perished but for the extra care and comforts provided by his good wife, 
who ministered also to many others there. He returned to his farm at 
the close of the war and lived until 1790. dying at the age of 69. 

Martin Dubois, a neighbor of Robert Burnett and General James Clin- 
ton, was an assistant quarter-master during the war. 

Cadwallader Colden, Jr., of Coldenham, who married Betsy, a daughter 
of Thomas Ellison, of New Windsor, was a son of Cadwallader Colden, 
Sr. He was lieutenant-governor of the State from 1760 to 1770. He 
was arrested as a Tory in June, 1776, by the council of safety of the towns 
of New Windsor and Newburgh, and after due trial was confined in 
jail at Kingston, where he remained, for over a year, after which he 

TOWN Ol- XI-:\V WIXDSOk. 389 

was lilx-raled uu parole. Tlie town of Coldenham i•^ naim-i! atier llii^ 


This town is rich in Revolutionary lore. A portion ot the troops of 
Colonel James Clinton were or<.janize(l here in 1775. A Ijattery of four- 
teen ^uns .were mounted al I'lum i'oinl in 177'>. The militia were 
rallied here in 1777, after the fall of the Highland forts and during the 
winter of 1779. 1780. 1781. 1782 and 1783. nine l)rigade> under eoin- 
nianLJ of General Heath, were encam])ed at the foot of the ridge just 
west of Snake Hill and just south of the square at Little I'.ritain. 

Washington concentrated his forces here in 1779 and made his head- 
quarters at the William J-Lllison house at New Windsor village, and re- 
mained there until 1782, when he removed to the Hashrook House in 
Newburgh and remained there until the army was disbanded in 1783. 
Other generals of the army were (|uartered al John I'Jli^on's. Here were 
Generals Knox and Greene, while ( iates and St. Claire were at the Ed- 
nionston House. Wayne at Newburgh and Baron Stuben at JMshkill, La- 
faxette at William Ellison's at the foot of I/'orge Hill. Other generals 
were (|uartered at the old Stone Hotel just west of Edmonston's. When 
Washington brought his army from New Jersey in 1779, he ])robably 
marched over the road from Goshen or Chester to New Windsor now 
known as the \'airs Gate-Chester State road, but which at that time must 
have been in a very rough and primitive condition, for a hill just west of 
Nail's Gate derives its name of Pork Hill from the fact that one of the 
conmiissary wagons loaded with salt pork was overturned on this hill. 
a conspicuous examjjle how names will --tick to places as well as to in- 
dividuals. When Colonel Morgan marched through Xew W'imixir with 
his three thousand riflemen to join Washington at I'.oston, a man jire- 
ceeded him who represented himself as Colonel Morgan to Mr. John 
Ellison, but when the Colonel himself arrived soon afterwards, the im- 
poster was detected and was given over to his men for punishment, 
who gave him an efTectual coat of tar and feathers. 

At the camp grounds between Vail's Gate and Little I'.ritain. the writer 
has traced the foundations of many of the huts in which the army was 
encamped from 1779 to 1782. The foundations were of stone, sur- 
mounted bv hewn logs. A level meadow in front of the barracks was 


cleared for this purpose and utilized as a parade ground, but was of so 
marshy a character that for marching and drilling it required paving 
with flat stones, many of which are still in evidence. This must have 
been a labor of infinite difficulty and shows of what sturdy material these 
men were made. At the lower border of this parade ground was also 
constructed a causeway to the ridge opposite, upon which was erecte 1 
a temple or public building, near which were also the barracks for some 
of the minor officers, a hospital, bakery, and a little further east the bury- 
ing ground. To commemorate the site of this temple the Newburgh 
Revolutionary Monument Association has erected a rough stone monu- 
ment on the farm of the late William L. ]\IcGill, now owned an 1 
occupied by his married daughter, Mrs. Richard Smith. It commands 
an uninterrupted view of the Hudson Highlands and the majestic river 
rolling between, offering exceptional advantages for watching the ap- 
proach of any vessel on the river or of any consi leral)le bo ly of men 
from that direction. 


At Plum Point, formerly a portion of the Nicholl estate,' still stands the 
stately mansion of the late Phillips X'erplank. On the river side is the 
earthwork for the protection of the Chevaux-de-frise, one of five ob- 
structions placed in the river at various points to prevent the ascent of the 
British fleet, but which proved ineffectual, as the ships of the enemy 
broke them all, and ascended the river to Kingston, which it burned. 

Some portion of this boom and chain are now to be seen at Washing- 
ton's Headquarters at Newburgh. A Scotcliman by the name of Mc- 
Evers, also located here, built a log cabin or tenement long prior to 
the Revolution ; the excavation for the cellar, as well as the embankment, 
are still plainly visible. 

The point is approached by a natural causeway from the river road, 
upon the opposite side of wdiich stands the old-fashioned homestead of 
Dr. Xicoll, who purchased 500 acres of Peter Post and settled here in 

On the bluff' just south of the village of New Windsor stood the stone 
house erected and occupied by William Ellison and also by Wash- 
ington as his headquarters from 1779 to 1782. This is now replaced by a 

T(n\X Ol- Xi:W WIXDSOK. 


inodcni Oueeii Anne l)uil(ling-. tlic residence of his grandson. Thomas 

Martha Washington is said to liave visited the General while here. 
His entrangement from Hamilton also occurred here in 1781. 

The Brewster House, known as Lafayette's headquarters, is >ituated 
just across the ]\loodna at the foot of Forge Hill. 

The steep hill which ascends from this point to X'ail's Gale derives its 
name from this circumstance. The iron used in its construction was 
transported on the backs of mules or horses from the forests of Dean 
Mines in Monroe. As you ascend I'\)rge Hill just at its top you come to 
the most noted Revolutionary building now in existence in the town, 
known as General Knox's headquarters. It was built for Mr. John Elli- 
son in 1735, and was in the posses.sion of the Morton family for a number 
of years, who endeavored to change the name of the i)lace to Mortonville, 
and for a time the post-office was known by this name, liut on the death 
of the major it reverted back to the old name of X'ail's (late. from the 
toll gate stationed here, kept by the \'ail family, father and son. for many 
years; this gate was still in existence in 1872. 

Generals Kno.x and Greene. Colonels Riddle and W'adsworih were (|uar- 
lered here in 1779 to 1781 and General Ivochambeau was also a visitor 
V.ere to Washington. 

The Edmonston building near the short cut crossing on the Erie at 
Vail's Gate, was built by James Edmonston in 1755. During the encani])- 
ment of the Continental Army in this vicinity, it was made the hca<l- 
quarters of Generals Gates and St. C laire. and some of the other (officers; the hospital and military stores were kept here. When Washing- 
ton arrived here with his army, he consulted with Edmonston as to the 
best place to locate his camji and was conducted over a bridle i)ath by 
his son William to the .Stjuare which became their camj). 

At the S(|uare. so-called from being surrounded by four r<iau-. is the 
I'alls" House, occupied by the Widow Falls in 1777. when it was the 
rallying point for the scatlerel militia by ( ieneral C'linton after the fall 
of the Highland forts. It is a wooden structure just opposite the Silver 
Stream school-house, now occupied by AFr. Charles Merritt. It was 
while (ieneral Clinton was here that the incident ni the silver ball oc- 
cured. Major Daniel Ta\lor had been sent with de-])atclH"^ concealed 
in a small silver ball bv Sir I lenrv Clinton for P>urg<ivne. He was, 


captured October loth, 1777. After he had been conducted to the pres- 
ence of General George CHnton, instead of Sir Henry, as he supposed, 
he swallowed the ball. Dr. Moses Higby, who was in the neighborhood, 
administered an emetic and it was soon disgorged. It contained the. 
following on very thin paper: 

"Fort Montgomery, Oct. 8th. 1777. 
"Nous y, void, and nothing now between us but Gates. I sincerely 
hope this little success of ours will facilitate your operations. In answer 
to your letter of September 28th by C. C., I shall only say, I cannot 
presume to order or even advise, for obvious reasons. I heartily wish 
you success. 

"Faithfully, yours, 

"H. Clinton." 

Taylor was tried, condemned and executed as a spy. 

;' '■ THE TEMPLE. 

It was upon what was then known as the Dusenberry farm, formerly 
a portion of the General Haskins' estate, an English officer who settled 
4,000 acres, during the old French War, that this building was erected 
under the supervision of General Heath, for the use of the army and for 
Masonic meetings. 

It was here that General Lafayette was made a Mason by the American 
Union League, which accompanied the army. It was built of hewn logs, 
80 X 40 ft., with a barrack roof, first known as the Temple of Virtues, 
but on account of a carousal of the officers after the departure of Wash- 
ington, on the night of its dedication, it was afterwards known simply as 
the temple. 

It was also used for public services on the Sabbath. At the close of 
the war, a proclamation by Congress of the cessation of hostilities was 
read from its door and a celebration on a grand scale was held. Here 
also was held the meeting to consider the Newburgh letters, written by 
a Major Armstrong, to determine, "whether the army should rise 
superior to the grievances under which it had long suffered, and precipi- 
tate a separation betwen the military and civil powers." It was a vital 
crisis in the history of the republic, and a tragic ending prevented by an 



a(l(Irc>s of Washington to the officers at this time, which is a lasting niuiiii- 
ment to his unselfish patriotism, profound wisdom, superior ability and 
marked discretion. The Society of the Cincinnati was founded here in 
1783. "To perpetuate among the officers of the army and their descend- 
ants, the memory of their toils, trials, friendships and triumphs, for suc- 
ceeding ages." The following were among the signers : Lieutenant Robert 
lUirnett, Brigadier James Clinton. Lieutenant Alexander Clinton. Lieu- 
tenant Daniel Denniston, Lieutenant George J. Denniston, Captain James 
Gregg, Captain Jonathan Lawrence, Major Samuel Logan, Ensign Jo- 
seph Morrell. Lieutenant William Stranahan, Lieutenant William .Soud- 
der, many of whose descendants are residents of the count v. 

On the northern side of the monument spoken of as marking the -^iie 
of the temple, is the following inscription: "Erected by the Newburg 
Revolutionar\ Monument Association, 1891. E. ]\L Ruttenber, president; 
James 'SI. Dicke\ . vice-president; A. A. McLean, treasurer; Russell 1 load- 
ley, secretary." 

On the western face is the following: "Oiiiiiin rcliijiiif scrrcrc rcm- 
publicam. On this site the Society of the Cincinnati was born May loth. 
1783, at the last cantonment occupied by the American Army, and it still 
lives to perpetuate the memories of the Revolution. Committee of the 
New York State Society of the Cincinnati, Fourth of July. 1802. T. ^L L. 
Christy, chairman. William Simm Kcese. John Sha\ler." 

On the southern face : "On this ground was erected the temple (^r public 
building by the army of the Revolution, 1782- 1783 — the birthi)lace of 
the re])ublic. This tablet is inscribed by the Masonic l'raternit\- of New- 
burgh, and its Masonic confreres under wliose direction and ]ilan- ihc 
temple was constructed, and in which communications of the fraternity 
were held. 1783." 

The Clinton homestead was situated about two miles north of Wa>h- 
ingtonville. on the road to Little I'.ritain. 


New Windsor, in its early history, was the scene of great commercial 
activity and the outlet by the river for the produce of the country for 
miles around and promised to be the site of a flourishing town, but the 
limited extent of land between the river and the high bluff, of about 120 
feet in lieighl. but a short distance from the river, precluded the possibility 


of building any large towns between. This high bluff is composed of clay 
which is utilized in the manufacture of a fine quality of brick. Air. 
William Lahey, who has two brickyards, is the leading manufacturer. 
Mr. Hugh Davidson and the late Mr. Walsh each owned one. The re- 
mains of several docks on the river front are still in evidence of its 
former business activity. A ferry to Fishkill was maintained for a num- 
ber of years and until Newburgh sprang up and superseded it in commer- 
cial life it was a flourishing town. At the present time there are some 
thirty houses, stores and saloons, scattered along the river bank, occupied 
by about two hundred inhabitants. The first glass factory in this country 
was also built here. 

Moodna, formerly called Orangeville, situated at the mouth of the 
Moodna Creek, is a small hamlet of perhaps thirty houses. There are also 
two factories at this place, a paper mill, formerly that of Townsend, now 
owned by the Hemmingway Paper Co., and a cotton mill ow'ned by ]Mr. 
John Broadhead, of Firthcliffe, which is now closed. Plum Point, of 
Revolutionary fame, juts out into the river just north of the village and 
is frequently visited by tourists. 

Vail's Gate, four and a half miles from Newburgh, contains about 
thirty-five houses, a Methodist Episcopal church, three hotels, and a gen- 
eral store, where Mr. Thomas Gushing has a new building. 

The General Knox headquarters, the Edmonston house, and the old 
hotel buildings of stone are the most noted Revolutionarv relics. The 
population is probably about four hundred. 

Little Britain, made famous as the home of the Clintons, extends 
from the Square to the Little Britain creamery. At the Square are a 
dozen houses, most prominent among which is the Alexander Falls house. 
Here General Washington was a frequent visitor during the encampment 
of the army just south. 

Rocklet, a small hamlet in the extreme western part of town, has 
a store and post-office, kept by Mr. Frank Mulliner. 

The Ontario and Western railroad intersects the township for a dis- 
tance of seven miles and is taxed for $85,000; Erie, six miles, assessed for 
$42,000 ; West Shore, five miles, assessed for $22,000. 

The schools are — District No. i. New Windsor; No. 2. Moodna; No. 3, 
Aail's Gate; No. 4, Mount Arie ; No. 5, Silver Stream; No. 6, Little 
Britain ; No. 7, Alexr.nder Neighborhood ; No. 8. Rocklet. 



St. ThouHis. — \\\ tlif will di' Tliuiiia^ MiiisDii, Jr.. tifiy->ix acres of 
Ian 1 and the sum of six thousand pounds, [{nj^lish money, was bccjucathed 
to his brother. W'ilHam. and nephew Thomas, to be held in trust for the 
maintenance of a glebe and minister under the jurisdiction of the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church at Xew Windsor, the interest of said lands an 1 
M'.m to be paid yearly to the minister when in active service ; when there 
was no service the interest therefrom was to be added to the princi])al. 
When a religious organization should be eltected. the said Ian Is an 1 sum 
were to be conveyed to it. Such an organization was established, .\pril iS. 
1818, under the title of St. Thomas's Church, and the Rev. John Ijrown, 
then a resident of Xew Windsor, serving St. George's Church at 
Xewburgh, became its rector and continued so up to 1847. 

In 1844, the old church having been destroyed by fire, a new one was 
started in 1847. and the present church completed in 1849. The old 
rectory having been burned, a new one was built -n 1(^04. The value of 
the church property is estimated at $13,000. Among the prominent mem- 
bers who have been here for a good many years are. Messrs. .\ymar 
\ an jiuren. J. .\l)ner Harper. John Harper. 1-". W. Senff. K. 1). Jeffreys. 
W. C. Gregg, the Misses Morton. Mrs. Leonard 1". Xicol an 1 others. 

A't'tv.' Windsor Presbyterian. — This church was organized in 17^)4. 
It was associated with Xewburgh or Pjethlehem churches. From 1828 to 
1834 the Rev. J. H. Thomas, of the Canterbury Presbyterian Church, 
served also this church, and from 1834 to 1835 he served this church ex- 
clusively. The first building was used by the Continentals as a hospital. 
This was subsec|uentl\- de-troyed by fire and the present structure wa^ 
erected in 1807. 

.1/. E. Chnrch at I 'ail's date. — This church celebrated the centennial 
of its existence in the fall of 1806. the present building having been 
erected in 1706. and is the oldest church edifice. Its society originate 1 
from a uni(»n class started l)y John I\lliso!i in I78(>. and was conducted in 
one of his tenements for a quarter of a century. 

Little Britain M. R. Church was ercctetl in 1853 and occui)ied in 1854. 
and has been associated with other churches mostly during it> exist- 
ence. Services were held here up to 1885. since which it has remain I 


Little Britain Presbyterian Church was organized in 1760 as Associated 
Reformed by Scotch and Irish emigrants. The first edifice was erected 
in 1765, and rebuilt in 1826. Its first pastor, Robert Annan, was in- 
stalled in 1768, and served until 1783. Rev, Thomas J. Smith was his 
successor in 1791, who served until 1812, when Rev. James Schringeour, 
a Scotchman, was installed, and served until his death in 1825. 


The two principal cemeteries in this town are "Calvary," at the junc- 
tion of Quassaic avenue and the Walsh road, established within the last 
decade by the Catholics, and "Woodlawn," a half mile further west, 
which contains about thirty acres and has been in existence about twenty- 
five years. 

In the ancient burying ground connected with the Presbyterian church 
at the village of New Windsor, are the graves of James Williams and 
wife, Abigal Brewster; John Yelverton, one of the original settlers, who 
died in 1767 at the age of 74; Joseph Morrell, one of the heroes of the 
Revolution. Other early settlers whose names are recorded on tombstones 
are the Moores, Walshes, Logans, Brewsters and others. In connection 
with the M. E. Church at Vail's Gate is also another old burial ground. 
Here are the Mortons, the Stills, the Vails and many others of the fore- 
fathers of the hamlet who "rest from their labors and their works do fol- 
low them." 

James Clinton, the father of De Witt Clinton, was buried in the family 
burying ground on the Clinton estate. When the patriotic citizens of 
Newburgh thought to remove his remains to W^oodlawn and erect a monu- 
ment to his memory, all that could be found was the cofifin plate. The fol- 
lowing epitaph to the memory of his father was written by his son. De- 
Witt : "He had filled with fidelity and honor several distinguished civil 
offices, was an officer of the Revolutionary War. and the war preceding, 
and at the close of the former was a major general in the army of the 
United States. He was a good man and a sincere patriot, performing in 
a most exemplary manner all the duties of life, and he died as he lived, 
without fear and without reproach." 



THIS triangular townshi]) is in tlie southeast corner of Orange 
County. It is bounded on the north by the towns of Monroe and 
Woodbury, on the east and >()Uth by Rockland County and on 
the west by the town of Warwick. Its area as given in the latest super- 
visors' report is 27,839 acres, and the assessed valuation of real estate 
is placed at $2,510,500. The title to the soil is .derived from the Chese- 
cock ])atent. 

The general topographical features are invested with peculiar charm. 
The towering mountain crags anrl scattered bits of valley, the wildwood 
and forests primeval, are dimpled with beautiful lakes and threaded 
with purling streams. The Ramapo, which is made up wholly by the 
surplus waters of these lakes, has its head in Round Island l'on<l and 
flows thence southerly, through the vallc}- which bears its name, into 
Rockland County. 

The name Tuxedo is. undoubtedly, the corruption of one or more 
Indian words. In the language of the Algonquins, who occupied this 
region, it is found that to or tough mean "a place." A frec|uent habit 
of the Indians was to name a place after the chief whose tribe occupied 
it, and there was a sachem named P'tauk-seet. "the bear," who. in the 
seventeenth century, ruled over a tract of country including the present 
town of Tuxedo. I'niting his name with tough, the Algonciuin for place, 
we should infer the original s|)elling to have been P'tauk-seet-tough. and 
its meaning "Place of P>ears." The earliest mention of the name occurs 
in Sargeant's survey of 1754 where reference is made to Tuxedo Pond. 
In Chesecock's patent of 1769 it is written Potuckett. Krskine. in his 
survey of 1778-1779, writes it Tuxedo and Toxedo. In Eager's and 
Ruttenber's histories written respectively in 1847 and 1875 the name is 
corrupted to Duck Cedar, with the explanation that its margin is over- 
trrown with cedars and that it i^ a favorite haunt of wild ducks. 


The first description of this region is written by the Marquis de Chas- 
teUux, a French officer who came to America with Lafayette, and who,, 
on December 19, 1780, following the Continental road through the gorge 
south of the lake, then called "The Clove," presently came in view of 
Tuxedo. He mentions that at Ringwood he stopped to ask his way, and 
that at Erskine's house they gave him full information about the roads 
and wood-paths, and also "a glass of Madeira, in accordance with a 
custom of the country, which will not allow you to leave a house without 
taking something." Having been thus refreshed, he says : "I got on horse- 
back and penetrated afresh into the woods, mounting and descending- 
precipitous hills until I found myself at the edge of a lake so secluded 
that it is hardly visible from the surrounding thicket. Its banks are so 
steep that if a deer made a false step on the top he would infallibly roll 
into the lake. This lake, which is not marked upon the charts, and is 
called Duck Sider, is about three miles long and two miles wide fsic!). 
an.l is in tne wildest and most deserted country I have yet passed through. 
My poetic imagination was enjoying the solitude, when, at a distance, 
] perceived in an open spot, a quadruped, which a nearer observation 
showed to be not the elk or caribou, for which I at first mistook him, 
but ci hcrse grazing peaceably in a field belonging to a new settlement." 


Following the grant of the Chesecock patent in 1702 there was no 
settlement in this territory for man}' years. The families who came were 
mostly of English ancestry and moved from Long Island and the Eastern 
States. The Smiths are supposed to have explored this region as early 
as 1727. The first settlement in the vicinity of Tuxedo Lake was made 
at the northern extremity of this body of water. Prior to 1765, a wood- 
cutter named Hasenclever inclosed a ten-acre tract lying equally on both 
sides of the outlet. On a survey made in 1778 is shown his enclosure 
and the dam built by him, and also the position of the house, situated 
fifty yards northeasterly from the dam. and built by a man named How- 
ard, who was probably "the original settler." During the Revolution, 
when the iron works on the Ramapo were liable to interruption by the 
IJritish, Hasenclever's dam* was raised several feet, and the overflow 
turned southwest to supply the Ringwood furnaces in New Jersey. Dur- 

TOWN ol' rrxEDo. 


my; this period. Tuxedo Lake was the resort of a hand of cowhoys who 
at times found >heher amon<^ some rocks whicli they nameil after their 
leader. "'ClaucHus Smith's Cave." (See general historv. ) 

X'icent Helms was chosen constahlc in 1775. IMiineas an I iin-wster 
IJelms are also mentioned in the records of the oM li>wn ot Cornwall of 
which this locality was then a part. The hamlet llelmshurt,di indicates 
the place where the families of that name lived before the Rev(.)lution. 
Moses Cunningham was a member of the first board of assessors of thc 
town of ]\Ionroe erected in 1709. He livdd at (ireenwood Iron Works. 
Richard ^^'ilkes. school commissioner in 1709. also lived here. Adam 
Belcher, school commissioner in 1800. lived at Southtields. 

The survey and construction of the Continental road was jierformeci 
by the military engineers of the Continental Army in 1778. It entered 
the park at the present south gate and followed the cast lake shore at 
a somewhat lower level than the jiresent road. h>om the Hoffman corner 
i'l continued up to the east slope of the Alexander place to the to]) of 
Tower Hill, where it crossed to the Coster ])lace, thence to the (iriswold 
place, which it crossed to the end of what is now the Wee Wah Lake 
and left the j^ark near the present north gate where it joined the main 
turnpike I'oad of the Ramapo \'alley. There was also a wood road from 
the jiresent east gate to the Continental road at the Hoft'man corner. 


L'p to 1864 the territorv now embrace.! in the town of Tuxe lo be- 
longed to the town of Monroe. In the fall of i8(i_:^. a petition 
was sent to the board of su])ervisors re(|ue.sting that tlie town be divided 
into three towns. The re(|uest was granted and the new towns were 
nameil resjiectivelv Monroe. .Southfield and Highland. Monroe held 
its town meeting March 22, 1864, electing Chauncey 15. Knight. sui)er- 
visor. Southfield did likewise, electing Josiah Patterson. supervi>or. 
while Highland chose its old fav<irite Morgan .Smith. This ])iece ol poli- 
tical surgery did not prove satisfactory, and in 1865 the Legislature over- 
ruled the action of the board of supervisors and restored to its citi/.en- 
the old town of Monroe. 

.\gain in December of 1889 the boarfl of supervisors were prevaile I 
upon to effect a triple division of the town. Tlu- rea-xm advanci- 1 ffir 


this redivision was that the town was too large and its interests too diverse 
for harmonious government. It was resolved that the division should he 
made on the old lines, but that the names Tuxedo and Woodbury should 
be substituted for Southfield and Highland. This was duly passed by 
the Legislature and signed by the Governor. The lines were run so as 
to give Monroe 12.101 acres. Tuxedo 27,839 acres and Woodbury 23.839 
acres. However, the boundary line between Monroe and Tuxedo had 
not been clearly determined or marked by monuments. When the Heine 
Club desired to build a road from Mombasha to Southfield, it became a 
practical question how much of this road must be paid for by each town. 
Hence the question as to the dividing line. The men who were with 
the 1863 surveyor said: "It crossed Mombasha Pond, but they did not 
know where." A survey was then made by F. J. Knight, who established 
a true line, demonstrating- that the line of 1863 had been a trial or ran- 
dom line. This decision placed Mombasha in the territory of Monroe. 

In January 1890, J. Spencer Ford represented the town of Tuxedo 
in the board of supervisors; in 1894, Paul Tuckerman was elected super- 
visor; Mahlon J. Brooks filled the office in 1896 and 1897, and Charles 
S. Patterson, the present incumbent, has served continuously since 1898. 
Daniel F. Clark, the veteran bookkeeper, has held the office of town clerk 
since 1890. Gillmore O. Bush, the present postmaster and captain of 
the park police, held the office of town collector in 1890 and from 1894 
to 1899. The assessors for 1907 are M. J. Brooks, Joseph W. Conklin 
and Benjamin Mofifatt. The highway commissioners are George Gris- 
wold, Benjamin Mofifatt and William Viner. District schools are located 
at Arden, Southfields, Eagle Valley, Scott Mines, and in Tuxedo Village 
are the primary and union free schools. Of the latter institutions, Mr. 
James Cronon has been the efficient clerk of the board since 1891. A 
private preparatory school is conducted within the limits of the park. 

Episcopal churches are located at Arden and Tuxedo, Methodist Epis- 
copal churches at Southfields, Tuxedo and Scott Mines. The Roman 
Catholic church is in Tuxedo village. 

The main line of the Erie Railroad parallels the Ramapo river through 
the entire length of the town, and was opened in September, 1841. In 
this valley are the hamlets that took part in the iron industry of a century 
ago. Augusta was the seat of the "Augusta Works" founded at the 
close of the Revolution, 1783-1784, by Solomon Townsend of New York, 


to make bar iron and anchors. It was an impurtani cnierpri-c but not 
permanently successful. In later years the works came into the owner- 
ship of r. Lorillard, who allowed thcni to remain idle. Thirteen thou- 
sand acres of land were attached to the works. Southfield was the name 
of the locality of the "Southfield" and "Monroe" works. These enter- 
prises were established about 1805 to make pig iron. The early proprie- 
tors were William and Peter Townsend. Stirling I'urnace, of which 
the Southfield plant became an important branch, was in operation a 
century and a half ago. (See Warwick). The ^terling Iron & Railway 
Company filed their annual report with the county clerk January 17,1865. 
They purchased mines, manufactories and other property in southern 
Orange. Greenwood Iron Works w^as established in 181 1 by the Messrs. 
Cunningham to make pig-iron. Mr. P. P. Parrott became the subsequent 
owner. The Parrott Iron Company was formed by a certificate verified 
June 23, 1880. It engaged in mining and selling of iron ore and 
the manufacture of pig iron and steel. The capital stock was stated as 
$500,000. The tru'itees named w^ere Peter P., Edward M., and R. D. 
A. Parrott. The locality is now know^n as Arden, and is the headquarters 
of the Arden Dairy Farms, of which Mr. W'illiam A. McClellan is mana- 
ger. A short distance northeast, bordering Echo Lake, is the home of 
Mr. E. H. Harriman. who owms vast tracts of land throughout this re- 
gion. Helmsburgh is a rural mountain locality west of Southfields. 
Eagle \'alley is a station on the Erie Railroad, in the extreme southern 
angle of the town, near the Xew Jersey line. 


The tract of land containing tliis ])ark consists of 7,000 acres, 
and came into the possession of the Lorillard family in 1812. 
Shafts were sunk in various places in an attempt to find iron ore. but the 
property was otherwise undeveloped until the advent of the Erie Rail- 
road in 1841. The locomotives burned wood in those days, and an ar- 
rangement was made to supply the railroad with fuel. The hills and 
valleys were covered with large forest trees, all of which were sacrificed, 
excepting a few along the Continental road. The station here was for 
years known as the 'AVood Pile." 

About i860 Tuxedo Lake was stocked with black bass, and from that 


time the fishing was carefully preserved for the Lorillard family and 
their friends. Up to 1885 no better bass fishing could be found anywhere 
than that afforded by this beautiful lake. This suggested to Mr. P. Loril- 
lard (deceased, 1901), the idea of establishing here a shooting and fish- 
ing club. He bought out the other members of the family, and acquired 
a clear title to the whole tract. Five thousand acres were enclosed in a 
wire fence eight feet high. Deer were bought and turned loose. English 
pheasant eggs were procured in large quantities and several pheasant 
hatcheries were located. A fine trout hatchery was also built. 

Having made a start on the preserve, Mr. Lorillard proceeded to or- 
ganize the club. He gave a dinner to his sporting friends at the LTnion 
Club, New York, and his idea met with an enthusiastic reception. Twenty 
gentlemen were appointed a board of governors. Invitations to join the 
club were sent out, and temporary headquarters secured in New York. 

The foundations of the clubhouse were laid, and about 1,800 men were 
employed in roadmaking. Before the new work was begun there was 
but the Continental road through the park. The first park road con- 
structed was the Station road. The construction of the road around the 
lake was then undertaken. As the work progressed Mr. Lorillard de- 
cided, instead of a mere game preserve, to lay out a residential park. 
This plan involved enormous expense. Many roads were required to 
develop the building sites. A complete sewer and water system was con- 
structed. A village for shops and employees and a large livery stable 
were built. An office in the village for the transaction of the park busi- 
ness was opened. At the same time Mr. Lorillard formed a stock com- 
pany called the Tuxedo Park Association, to which he turned over all the 
lands and other assets of the park. The officers chosen were : Mr. P. 
Lorillard, president; P. Lorillard, Jr., vice-president; George D. Findley. 
treasurer, and William Kent, secretary. This company leased the club- 
house and grounds to the members for twenty-one years, and guaranteed 
the new club against loss for the first ten years of its existence and sub- 
sequently during the term of the lease. Fourteen houses were built and 
advertised for sale or rent. Twelve were located on Tower Hill and two 
across the dam at the foot of the lake. 

The first sale of park property to a resident was made in February, 
1886, when Dr. Morris H. Henry, Mr. Lorrilard's personal physician, 
purchased Lot No. loi on the map of Tuxedo Park. This was followed 


in March, the same year. l)y tlic purchase of Lot X(j. jjo hv Allen T. 
Rice, the editor of the Xurtli American Rcznei>j, and the same vear Lot 
No. 121 was sold to William Waldorf Astor, Lot No. 123 to I'ierre Loril- 
lard and Lot. No. 103 to Travis C. \'an 15uren, all of which persons are 
now deceased, the land having in every instance passed into other hands. 

That same year, Francis D. Carley, James L. lireese, Josephine Lee 
Price, James Brown Potter, Margaret S. E. Cameron and Mary L. Uarbey 
also purchased land in the order named. ()f the>e Mrs. I'rice, Mrs. 
Barbey and Mr. Potter still hold interests in the real estate. 

The first person actually to take up his residence at Tuxedo with his 
family was ]\Ir. CJrenville Kane, who leased the cottage he subsequently 
purchasetl and is now the oldest resident of the park proper. Mrs. Price 
and William Kent, in the order named, being the next arrivals. 

Thus the park as a ])lace of residence became an accomplished fact, 
through the indomitable pluck and energy of ^Ir. Lorillard. Each vear 
has shown a steady and substantial gain in residents. The present of- 
ficers of the association are : P. Lorillard, president : George Griswold. 
vice-president; George D. iMUtUey, treasurer, and William Kent, secretary. 

As an organization the Tuxedo Club is very strong. The club book 
of 1908 shows a inembership of 374, of which seventy-seven were resi- 
dent members. Among them are fotmd the family names of those not 
only prominent in business and financial circles, but also who have been 
identified with the society of the State since the earliest periods. The club 
is seit-supporting, has renewed its lease with the Tuxedo Park Associa- 
tion for a term of years, and bids fair to become a great center of social 
life. . 


So comprehensive was the scope of the original i)lan of development, 
that a whole village was created at the time of the founding, near the en- 
trance gate, containing stores, cottages, and subse(iuentl}- a town hall, 
schoolhouses, churches, library, and a $30,000 hospital now in course of 

The Tuxedo Stores Company was organized March, iS<>4. I-^ach resi- 
dent of the park was invited to subscribe to the xfork. ruid tlu' coninaiu 
began business April i, 18(74. 

The Tuxedo electric light j)lant was organized in i8(/i>. ami is owned 
and controlled bv the residents of Tuxedo. 


St. Mary s-in-Tnxcdo. — In 1887 Mr. Henry T. Barbey obtained from 
the association a grant of land, on which he erected the first church build- 
ing at Tuxedo, since which time it has been greatly enlarged by additions 
from time to time including a large parish house — until it had grown 
into the present beautiful church edifice. It was consecrated October 
14, 1888, and the Rev. Mr. Colston placed in charge. The present rector 
is the Rev. William FitzSimon. 

Church of Our Lady of Mount Caruicl. — The cornerstone of this 
church, was laid June, 1895. The edifice cost $7,000. Rev. James Quinn 
was the first pastor. In July, 1899, the church and rectory were com- 
pletely destroyed by fire. A year later it was rebuilt, and on September 
23, 1900, was solemnly dedicated by the Most Rev. Archbishop Cor- 

The Tuxedo police force was organized May i, 1886. John Pederson 
was captain until 1891, when he was succeeded by Gillmore O. Bush. The 
residential part of the park is patrolled regularly day and night. 




By William B. Ruyce. 

THE town of Wallkill is the second largest town in the county of 
Orange, and, exclusive of the area in the city of Middletown, 
contains 38,030 acres, as shown by the equalization table of the 
board of supervisors for the year 1906. This area would be considerably 
increased if an accurate estimate could be obtained of the amount of land 
not included in farm and lot descriptions and being used for church, ceme- 
tery, school and road purposes. 

The town is bounded northerly by Crawford and Montgomery, easterly 
by Hamptonburgh, southerly by Goshen and Wawayanda, and westerly 
bv Mount Hope and the Shawangunk Kill, which separates it, for about 
half the distance, on its westerly border, from the town of Mamakating, 
.Sullivan County. The Wallkill River forms part of its easterly boundary, 
dividing it from the town of Hamptonburgh. This stream also passes 
through the southeast corner of the town, and is the only large stream 
flowing within its borders. Both the Wallkill and Shawangunk Kill 
flow in a northerly direction and find their way into the Hudson River at 
Rondout. The other streams in the town of Wallkill are small; the prin- 
cipal ones being Monhagen Creek, flowing through the city of Middle- 
town ; the Bullhack. rising near Circleville and emptying into the Wall- 
kill near Phillipsburgh ; and the Mayunk. flowing through the easterly 
portion of the town and emptying into the Wallkill in the town of Mont- 
gomery. Notwithstanding the fact that there are no important streams, 
the town is well w^atered by small streams and springs, so that there is 
never danger to agriculture from this source. 

The topography of the town of Wallkill is very irregular, varying in 
elevation from 335 feet above sea level in the easterly portion of the town 
along the Wallkill to 1,035 feet in the westerly, alx)ut three miles west 
of the city of Middletown and about half a mile north of the old Monnt 
Hope turnpike. All the principal ridges and valleys («f the town run in a 
northerlv and southcrlv direct ion. 



The precinct of Wallkill, of which the present town is the legal suc- 
cessor, was erected December 17, 1743, by an act of the Colonial Legisla- 
ture. The three towns of Crawford, Montgomery and Wallkill, and por- 
tions oi Mount Hope and Hamptonburgh, were embraced in the area 
of this precinct. In 1772 the precinct of Hanover was erected, or set off, 
from the precinct of Wallkill, and included the towns of Crawford and 
Montgomery and a portion of Hamptonburgh, and, while it was generally 
supposed that Wallkill became a new precinct, legally Hanover was set 
off from the old precinct, and the statute directed that the rest of the ter- 
ritory "should remain" the precinct of Wallkill. It is also a fact that the 
town records of the precinct of Wallkill were left with, and became a part 
of, the records of Hanover, and. from the date of the separation, die pre- 
cinct of Wallkill opened a new record, which is still preserved. Up to the 
time of the erection of the precinct of Hanover, the town or precinct 
meetings were held for the whole precinct, including all territory orig- 
inally forming the precinct of Wallkill. 

The first town meeting in the precinct of Wallkill, after the division, 
was held at the house of Samuel Watkins. April 7, 1772, and the follow- 
ing is the record of the officers chosen : 

William Dunn, clerk and supervisor; Benjamin Booth, James Wilkins, 
Elijah Reeve, commissioners for regulating and laying out public high- 
ways ; Stephen Harlow, William Watkins, David Moore, commissioners 
for laying out the money raised by act of Assembly on the highways ; 
David Crawford, Moses Phillips, assessors ; John McGarrah, John Patter- 
son, constables and collectors ; Abel Wells, George Booth, poormasters ; 
Jonathan Smith, Esq., Isaiah Vail, John Ketchum, Benjamin Vail, Jr., 
fence viewers and damage appraisers. Fences were to be four and one- 
half feet high, staked and ridered; five rails high or otherwise ecjuivalent 
as the fence viewers shall judge. 

Many items of interest could be gleaned from these old records, one 
of the principal being the fact that many of the persons in Wallkill to-day, 
occupying prominent social, business and official positions, are the direct 
descendants of these sturdy pioneers of earlier days. 

The construction and care of the roads then, as now, seemed to be one 
of the principal subjects in which the people were interested. In order to 


demonstrate tliis. and at the same time [jreservc the names of many of 
those who then assumed the long-enduring business of road building in 
Wallkill, we make the following quotations from the records : 

"Precinct to be divided in three districts, viz: The east side of the 
Wallkill, one; the west side, two, to be divided by the new northwest 

"Samuel W'atkius, from the Widow McBride's corner to Thomas 
Simeril's, and thence along the road to Campbell's bridge." 

"William liodle, from Esquire Smith's to the ^linisink road, and 
from the schoolhouse on the road to Hezekiah Gale's ; from thence to 
John McGarrah's, and thence to the schoolhouse ; to work also on David 
Crawford's road to the bridge one day." 

"John Hill, from Esquire Smith's road along the Minisink road to the 
middle of Connor's bridge; also a piece of road leading from the Mini- 
sink road to Orange County." 

"James Rogers, Jr., from the precinct line to the Widow McCord's 
north gate." 

"Captain William Faulkner, from his own house to Thomas Simeril's." 

"Henry Savage, from the Widow McCord's north gate to Arzuble ^Tc- 
Curdy's house." 

"Daniel Tears, from the precinct line to John McHenry's house." 

"Edward Campbell, from the John McHenry's to Arzuble McCurdy's, 
and Peter McLaughlin, from the corner of Edward McNeal's lot to 
Phillips house." 

"Tilton Eastman, from Connor's bridge to the Pine Swamp." 

"Stacy Beakes, from Minisink road to Dunning's road leads to 
Pine Swamp." 

"George Smith, from the midflle nf the white-oak bridge to the top 
of the round hill beyond Corey's." 

"John Ketchum, from the top of romid liill to the west end of the pre- 

"Abraham Taylor and John Daily. Jr.. from the white-oak bridge by 
Elijah Reeve's to the precinct line." 

"There was raised by direct taxation for the following purposes:" 

£ s. d. 

"For the poor 10 o o" 

"For highways 46 16 o" 


For the year 1906 there was raised by direct taxation in the town of 
Wallkill, which contains only about one-third of the acreage of the pre- 
cinct of Wallkill, for the support of the poor, $1,000, and there was 
expended in the town for road purposes, exclusive of the care of State 
roads, and exclusive of the territory embraced in the City of Middletown,- 
about $4,500. Presumably many of our taxpayers would prefer the olden 
days so far as taxes are concerned. 


Very little is known of the aboriginal days of the town of Wallkill. 
While various tribes of Indians occupied different parts of Orange County, 
from the names of certain of the streams in the town of Wallkill, it is 
evident that they made their home, at least part of the time, in this town. 
However, outside of tradition and a few individual cases of contact with 
them, which had very little, if any, influence on the future history of the 
town, nothing reliable is known that would be of interest at the present 

The earliest record of the patenting of lands, now included within the 
town of Wallkill, was some time before the year 1724, and seems to have 
been embraced in two patents, one known as the Minisink Angle, and 
the other a part of what is known as the John Evans patent. The latter 
tract was subsequently re-patented at dates commencing December 14, 
1724, and ending May 13, 1761. The actual settlement of the town did 
not occur until about the close of the period mentioned, and therefore, 
Wallkill was not settled as early as a number of the other towns in the 

It is only necessary to refer to the assessment roll of the town of Wall- 
kill of to-day to find many property owners whose names are the same 
as those of their ancestors who subdued the wilderness and made Wallkill 
one of the most attractive and wealthy towns in the county. When we 
mention such names as Bull, Harlow, Borland, Wisner, Houston, Car- 
penter, Reeve, Mills, Green, Wickham, Connor, Mapes and Horton, taken 
from the assessment rolls of to-day, we could almost imagine we were 
reading a roll call of the names of the sturdy pioneers who subdued the 
wilderness and caused the valleys of this town to blossom as the rose. 

Previous histories of this town and the numerous writings of other per- 

Samuel Wickham Mills. D.D. 


sons have made all these facts so familiar that it would seem itlle to bur- 
den these pag-es with any repetition of the history of the early settlement 
of the town and its inhabitants. 

I'Vom the time of scttiemcnt. during the entire Colonial period to the 
Revolutionary War, there was little of moment that happened here. The 
settlements gradually progressed in different directions, but, as before 
stated, not as rapidly as in some other towns. During the Revolutionary 
War, a number of its citizens were with the army at various times, but 
the town, by its location, was far removed from the din and strife of 
participation in any events of the struggle ; no battles occurred within its 
limits, and it is not known that any organized bodies of the British or 
their allies ever set foot within its borders. From the close of the Revolu- 
tionary War until 1803, there was a steady growth in population, so that 
the assessment roll for that year contained 462 names of those who were 
assessed for either real or personal property, or both. 

On jMarch 29, 1799, the State Legislature passed an act for the gradual 
abolition of slavery, and a number of citizens recorded a formal act of 
freeing negroes held bv them. The first one of these seems to have been 
made in 1800, and is in the following form: 

"I do hereby certify that I have manumitted and set free my negro slave, Otis, 
as fully and amply as I am authorized by the act of the Legislature entitled, '.-\.n 
act for the gradual abolition of slavery,' passed the 29th day of March, 1799." 

"Given under my hand and seal this ist day of November, 1800." 

"Tabetha Borland." 

Similar acts of manunussion were entered by Smith, Stephen 
Smith, Henry 13. Wisner, John Wilkin, William Phillips and Israel 
\\ ickham, and it is a fact that the descendants of these people, bearing in 
many cases the identical names, w'ere the strongest opponents of slavery, 
and the most loyal supporters of the government during the Civil War. 

As early as 1828, the temperance question began to agitate the people 
of the town of Wallkill, possibly more thoroughly than it is doing in the 
present day, for the reason that, in 1824, there were just three times as 
many taverns (as they were called in that day) within the limits of the 
town as there are hotels at present ( 1908). Many of the questions in- 
volved in the temperance agitation of that time are the chief object of 
argiunent at present, and wc have only to quote a resolution passed at a 


meeting of the town of Wallkill, held in that year, to show this fact con- 
chisively : 

"Whereas, pauperism has increased in the town of Wallkill to an 
alarming' extent ; and whereas intemperance is one of the greatest pro- 
gressmg" causes, inasmuch as more than three-fourths of the paupers 
emanate directly or indirectl}' from that source, and whereas tippling- 
houses, dram-shops, and groceries have a direct tendency to increase the 
evils ; therefore, 

"Resolved, (as the sense of this town meeting), That the board of 
excise be requested to refuse granting licenses to those persons whose 
principal object is to retail intoxicating liquors and not having suitable 
accommodations for public entertainment." 

'Resolved, that the foregoing be entered on the records of said town 
and published in two newspapers printed in Goshen." 

"Dated Wallkill, this ist day of April, 1828." 

The town of Wallkill continued to grow steadily, without any change 
in territorial boundaries, until 1848, when the village of Middletown was 
incorporated within its limits, but, outside of certain local matters, such 
as schools, streets, police, and a few other minor matters, the village con- 
tinued tO' form a part of the towMi until the erection of the city of Middle- 
town, in 1889. All the town officers were elected to represent the village 
and town in all things, excepting the purely local matters, applicable 
especially to the village. 


At the outbreak of the Civil War, in i86t, the fires of patriotism 
seemed to burn as brightly in the town of Wallkill and village of l^.Iid die- 
town as in any corresponding section of the country. Meetings were 
called, resolutions adopted, and steps immediately taken to form a com- 
pany for the defense of the Union. Aid societies were established by 
the women, supplies sent forward to suffering soldiers, and everything 
was done that love and patriotism could suggest for the care of those in 
the army and for the preservation of the Union. 

As near as can be estimated, Wallkill and Middletown combined sent 
to the front some 787 soldiers. Liberal bounties were paid to those who 


went, either as volunteers or substitutes, and the best of care was taken 
of the famiHes of the absent soldiers. When we take int<j consideration 
the fact that, at the beginning- of the war, the population of the town of 
W'allkill and village of Middletown, combined, was less than 7,000, it 
will be seen that more than, 10 per cent, of the entire population proved 
its loyalty by going to the front, and the percentage who went and never 
returned was far greater than the proportion, in comparison to poinilatitm. 
That W'allkill j)rovcd its loyalty by devotion and blo(jfl, this record most 
ampl}- proves. 

in the year 1879, the citizens of Wallkill ami Middletown erected to the 
memor>' of the soldiers of Wallkill, a most graceful and impressive monu- 
ment. It was first located at the junction of North and Orchard streets, 
but subsequently removed to Thrall I'ark, on the corner of Wickham 
avenue and Grove street, which is a much better location than ilie 
original. Mrs. Thrall, who generously donated and bequeathed the 
money for the erection of Thrall Library and Thrall Hospital, also gave 
the city the land for Thrall Park, which is situated north of and adjcjining 
the hospital. 


The present town of Wallkill contains no incorporated village, and only 
four hamlets, which might be dignified by the name of village, as follows : 
Circleville, Howells, .Scotchtown and Mechanicstown. The rest of the 
tow n is entirely devoted to agriculture, and, since the erection of the city 
of ^liddletown, has not shown any increase in population. Its famis are 
largely occupied by the owners, in many cases heirs and descendants of 
original and colonial possessors, and it possibly shows a less number of 
farms under rental than do many other towns in the county. 


There are three churches and one chapel at present in the town of 
Wallkill. A Congregational church is located at Howells, and was in- 
corporated under its present name on Jul\ Ti. 1847. This church had 
existed for many years previous to this, under other names, and at dif- 
ferent locations. 

The Presbyterian church at .Scotchtown was organized some time 
before 1798. but the precise date seems to be imknown. The first official 
record tliat a church was rcirularlv orjranized seems to l)e in the minutes 


of the Presbytery of Hudson, when, on April 19, 1798, Jacob Mills and 
George Houston appeared as commissioners from the Presbyterian church 
in the town of Wallkill and requested that said church be taken under the 
care of the Presbytery, and that supplies might be appointed them. This 
request was granted and the services of the church continued, imder 
supplies, until June 30, 1803, when Rev. Methuselah Baldwin became 
pastor. Previous, however, to the appearance of the commissioners be- 
fore the Presbytery, a meeting had been held, on December 24, 1795, at the 
house of George Houston, apparently for the organization of a church, 
and at this meeting it was resolved that a subscription be opened for 
bu.ilding a meeting-house at the corner of the roads above the house of 
George Houston, and that the new congregation should be under the 
care of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church. This church 
was erected, enclosed and painted in 1797, and thus remained, without 
plastering, pews, pulpit or stoves, until 1806, when it was finished, at a 
cost of $515. I'his building was used for about fifty-seven years, when 
it w'as succeeded by the present church edifice. The church was, for 
many years, a leading one in the Presbytery of Hudson, and is still doing 
active work. 

The CircIeviUe Presbyterian- Church was organized on January 4, 1842, 
and became a part of the Presbytery of Hudson. Its house of worship 
was erected in 1842, and a large part of the expense of such erection 
seems to have been contributed by donations in the way of labor, timber, 
lumber and mason work. The land, consisting of five acres, was donated 
by Samuel Bull, who, in addition to his gift of land, contributed much in 
labor, material and money, and to him the community is largely indebted 
for benefits derived from this church through its past years and at the 
present time. 

The chapel previously referred to was erected near Rockville through 
the liberalitv of Robert A. Harrat and his neighbors in the immediate 
vicinity, and is used for Sunday-schools and special church services by 
clergymen from any denomination who desire to preach within its walls. 


Wallkill has excellent railroad facilities. The Erie runs through from 
Howells Depot, passing out at its southern border. The Ontario 


'ion be 


^; Western conies in at the northwesterly end of the town, running 
thence in a general southeasterly direction to the city of Middletown, 
thence easterly through the town of Wallkill, passing out into the town of 
Hamptonburgh near Stony Ford. The Middjetown & Crawford branch 
diverges from the Ontario & Western Railroad about two miles north ot 
Middletown, passes through the town in a northeasterly direction to the 
town of Crawford near BuUville and runs .thence to fine liush. The 
Susquehanna «S: Western Railroad passes into the town from the south- 
erly border of the city of Middletowai and runs in a southwesterly direc- 
tion in tlie town of Wawayanda. In addition to the above, the Erie & 
Jersey Railroad Company is now building a low-grade road which enters 
the town near Hov.-ells and runs in a general easterly direction through 
the town, passing about one mile north of the city of Middletown, thence 
leaving the town and passing into the town of Hamptonburgh in the 
vicinity of .Stony Ford. 

There is also a trolley line owned by the Wallkill Transit Company, 
which is operated in the city of ^Middletown and extends from the citv. 
through the town of Wallkill, to the town of Goshen, and thence to the 
village of Goshen. 

An example of the enterprise of the tov.-n of Wallkill was manifested 
when the question of raising money for the construction of the Xew 
York & Oswego Midland Railroad came up in 1867. Its citizens, under 
the wise leadership and giiided by the excellent judgment of Senator 
Henry R. Low, Captain James N. Pronk, Elislia P. Wheeler, William J. 
Groo, and others, was induced to bond the town for the sum of three 
hundred thousand dollars and subscribe to the stock of the new road for 
that amount. The bonds were issued for a period of twenty years, with 
interest at the rate of seven per cent, per annum, payable semi-annually, 
with a provision that after ten years an annual sinking fund of five per 
cent, of the total issue of bonds should be raised. Within a few years 
the Xew York & Oswego Midland Railroad Company went into the hands 
of a receiver, and its stock became comparatively worthless. The three- 
hundred thousand dollars of stock owned by the town was sold for 
$i5,ocxD. When the bonds matured in 1888. William P.. Royce, the sole 
railroad commissioner, had accumulated from the sinking fund, sale of 
stock, interest and other sources, the sum of $180,000. with which bonds 
to tiiat amount were paid. To provide for the payment of the balance of 


said bonds, amounting to $120,000, the railroad commissioner issued, 
under authority of law, bonds to that amount, payable in installments, 
the last of said bonds maturing- on April i, 1907, with interest payable 
semi-annually, at the rate of three and one-half per cent, per annum. As 
provided by the bonds, the last installment of principal and interest was 
paid .A.pril i, IQO/, the town and city of Middletovvn having paid the 
whole of said principal sum by direct tax, excepting the $15,000 for which 
the stock was sold. The New York, Ontario & Western Railway Com- 
pany was organized and took over the property of the old New York & 
Oswego Midland Railroad ("ompany. As a result of the construction of 
this road, to which the town of Wallkill and city of Middletown have con- 
tributed so largely, the railroad shops were located at Middletown, which 
brought a very large infiux to the population of the town and city, and 
added largely to their taxable value. It also resulted in building the road 
from Middletown to Cornwall, and the extension of what was known as 
the Middletown, Unionville and Water Gap Railroad through to New 
York under the original name of the New Jersey Midland Railroad, 
which subsequently became the New York. Susquehanna & Western 
Railroad, thus giving Middletown three direct lines of railroad to New 
York City, and making northern and western communications, which 
largely added to its transportation facilities. 


The highways of the town of Wallkill are in fair condition, and are 
maintained under the money system. The town has a portion of three 
State roads ; one branching off from the Middletown-Bloomingburg 
plank road, about three miles north of Middletown, and running in a 
general northerly direction to the town line of Crawford and thence to the 
village of Pine Bush. Another road starts from the southern corporate 
limits of the city of Middletown and runs in a southerly direction to the 
town line of Wawayanda, and thence to the village of Goshen. This road 
branches off in a southwesterly direction in the town of Wawayanda and 
extends to Unionville, and by another branch is being extended to Port 
Jervis. Another State road, known as the Middletown-Cuddebackville 
road, starts from the northwesterly line of the city of Middletown and 
runs through the town to the line of the town of Mount Hope, thence 


through Mount Hope and Deer Park to Cuddebackville. Under existing 
laws the State roatls are in the first instance maintainc<l under direction 
of and at the expense of the State. 


The town of W'allkill has seventeen school districts, in which are main- 
tained the usual form of district schools under the State law. These arc 
being gradually improved under the efficient system of State supervision, 
but are not yet at the standard to which they should be raised. 


The precise time when the first settlement was made in this village is 
uncertain, though it is believed to have been shortly after the erection 
of the town. John Green purchased some land of DeLancey, a patentee 
under the crown of Great Britain, and that purchase included land in 
the southern part of the village and the ground where the First Congre- 
gational church now stands. Mr. Green donated the lot for the purpose 
of having a house of worship erected. When the citizens assembled to 
put up the frame of the old Congregational church, it was concluded that 
the locality should have a name. "What shall it be? There is Dolsontown 
on the south, Goshen on the east, Scotchtown on the north, and a locality 
not defined, on the west, called Shawangunk. We will call it Middle- 
town, it being the center." In 1829, the name of the village was changed 
to South Middletown to prevent confusion in the transmission of mail 
matter, there being another place styled "Middletown" north of Xew- 
burgh, but in 1849 the prefix of "South" was left oflf. 

The Minisink road which passes through the city of Middletown is 
mentioned by a ]\Ir. Clinton, a surveyor employed by the owner of lot 
No. 35 of the Minisink Angle, as early as 1742, and the second store in 
^^iddlctown was started by Isaiah \'ail at a place called Monhagen. 
opposite the white oak bridge on the old ]\[inisink road, near the westerly 
liiuits of the present cit\- of ]\Iiddletown. Tlie first store in Middletown 
was kept by Abel Woodhull, previous to the place being called Middle- 

The western portion of Middletown was included in lot No. 36 in the 
Minisink Angle, owned by DeLancey, and as he espoused the Royalist 
cause his land, except what was sold to Mr. Green before the Rcvolu- 


tion, was confiscated by the State of New York. Three appraisers were 
appointed by the State to put a value on the land, two of whom were 
Israel Wickham and Henry Wisner. It is stated that an earnest debate 
occurred on the subject of valuation, whether to call it six shillings or a 
dollar per acre. Mr. Wickham insisted that it would never be w^orth a 
dollar, so it was put down at six shillings an acre. The land confiscated 
takes in the western portion of the village and present city, and includes 
the real estate formerly owned by John B. Han ford, Henry Little and 
George Houston. Part of this land could not now be bought for $10,000 
an acre. 

The New York & Erie Railroad seems to have been built on the install- 
ment plan in the county of Orange ; first to Monroe, then to Chester, then 
to Goshen, and finally by large contributions from the people of Middle- 
town, it was extended to that place. The building of this road seemed to 
give an impetus to the business of the village and induced manufacturers 
to locate there, which soon made it one of the most flourishing villages 
in southern New York. 

The actual incorporation of the village did not occur until April 7, 1848, 
when the preliminary proceedings in regard to the incorporation were 
approved by Judge D. W. Bates. The first president of the village was 
Stacey Beakes, and associated with him as trustees were Coe Dill, Will- 
iam Hoyt, Israel Hoyt, Israel O. Beattie and Daniel C. Dusenberry. John 
B. Friend was clerk. Of the above named trustees, Daniel C. Dusenberry 
is still living ( 190S). 

The growth of Middletown has always been gradual, and it has never 
been what might be called a "boom town." In 1807 the population was 
forty-five; in 1838 it had increased to 433; in 1848, at the time of its 
incorporation, it had increased to 1,360; and in 1857, to 2,190. At the 
time of its incorporation as a city, in 1888. its population had increased to 
11,977, and at the close of 1907 it was about 16,000. 

The post-office in the village of Middletown was first established on 
the 22nd of October, i8t6. Stacey Beakes was appointed the first post- 
master and held the office for about ten years. The first quarter's re- 
ceipts in 1817, as rendered by the postmaster, were $0.69; in 1826, the 
receipts had risen to $16.12 a quarter; and in 1854, to $257.79. The 
annual receipts of the Middletown post-office are now upwards of 

Charles H. Smith. 


The citizens of Micklletowii were always amljitious for its g-rowth, and 
in all that was done, the future as well as the present, interests of the 
village were carefully looked after. Manufacturers were induced to lo- 
cate there, and the village, and afterward the city, has always been recog- 
nized as a manufacturing center Tor this part of the State. Some of the 
largest manufactories in the old village of Middletown were the Mon- 
hagen Saw \\'orks. Eagle File Works, Matthews Brothers' Carpet Bag 
Factory. Draper's Hat Factory, Babcock's Hat Works, and a large tan- 
nery, which was afterward merged in the leather manufactory of Howell- 
Hlnchman Company. As before mentioned, the Xew York. Ontario & 
Western Raihvav Company located its shops here, and from that time, the 
village and citv have had a steady growth. 


Aliddletown as a village and city has always been well supplied with 

The first, the Congregational Church, was organized June 10. 1785. and 
incorporated August 12, 1786, and so far as organization and incorpora- 
tion are concerned, it is the oldest cliurch in Middletown. 

The first Presbyterian Church of Middletown. as such, was organized 
March 31, 1828. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Middletown elifected a legal or- 
ganization on July II, 1838. 

Grace Episcopal Church was incorporated on l-'ebruary 18. 1845. 

The first Baptist Church filed its certificate of incorporation October 

28, 1849. 

The Second Presbyterian Cliurch (now Westminster church) was in- 
corporated December 5, 1854. 

The Primitive Baptist Church of Middletown was incorporated May 

29. 1 871. 

The Africa)! MetJwdist Episcopal Zion Church was incorpnrate<l \o- 
vember 20. 1861. 
St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Churcli was established in 1866. 
Calvary Baptist Church was incori)orated in 1902. 
Xorth Congregational Church was incorporated in iS>C)0. 
Christ Church (l^niversalist"^ was incorporated in 1897. 


St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church (German) was incorporated 
in 1897. 

Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church was incorporated in 1875. 

Faith Mission was incorporated in 1889. 

The Christian Science Church was incorporated in 1903. 

It will be seen from the above that the churches of Middletown average 
one to every 1,000 people of the present population. 


The school system of Middletown was originated by the holding of a 
meeting April 6, 1813, to take steps to comply with the statute of 1812, 
for the organization of the common school system of the State. The 
first commissioners elected were William Hurtin, Jacob Dunning and 
Benjamin Woodward. In 1844 a system of supervision by town super- 
intendents was inaugurated. Previous to that several citizens were se- 
lected who decided upon the qualifications of the teacher. John G. Wilkin, 
afterward county judge of Orange County, was the first town superin- 
tendent of Wallkill, which included the village of Middletown. About the 
year 1856 a law was passed providing for the election of superintendents 
for assembly districts, thus doing away with the town system, and this 
system has ever since been continued. 

On the 30th of January, 1841, a meeting was held to initiate the work 
of founding Wallkill Academy. It was started as a private enterprise, 
^tock to the amount of $3,656.75 was subscribed by 115 stockholders, the 
shares being $5.00 each. Application was made to the Legislature for an 
act of incorporation, which was passed in May, 1841. The building was 
completed in October, 1842, and soon thereafter school sessions were 
opened, the first teacher being Rev. Phineas Robinson, who remained in 
charge for two years. For a number of years Wallkill Academy was 
continued under the plan of its first incorporation, but subsequently 
passed over to the village of Middletown as a part of its school system. 
The school system of the village of Middletown was always well man- 
aged and excellent results were attained. This system was afterward 
merged in the city school system upon the incorporation of the city of 
Middletown in 1888. 

The management is now under a board of education consisting of nine 


members, with superintendent of schools. There are now eight schools in 
the educational system of Middletown. The high school was erected on 
the site formerly occupied by the W'allkill Academy, and is a very impos- 
ing building with all modern facilities and conveniences. It emjjloys 
thirteen teachers in the academic department, and eight in the grammar 
grades. The seven primary schools are located in various parts of the 
city, so as to accommodate the pupils, but upon graduation in the primary 
grades all of the pupils are promoted to the high school in its various 

The free public library of !Middlelown. known as the Thrall Library 
Building, is architecturally an ornament to the city, and is fitted up in 
the most modern style for library purposes. The lot was formerly used 
as a location for the village school. Mrs. S. ]\Iaretta Thrall left a legacy 
of $30,000 to the city, with which the library was built. Mrs. Thrall, by 
her liberality, provided Middletown with a library of which its citizens 
are justly proud, and erected for herself a monument in our city and in 
the hearts of its people which will be as enduring as time. The library at 
present contains 10.500 volumes. The legacy bequeathed by Mrs. Thrall 
was to be used exclusively for the building, and was so used. 


In the vear 1880, the matter of establishing a Children's Home 
for Orange County was brought up in the board of super- 
visors. A committee, consisting of the Hon. William H. Clark. Selah 
E. Strong and William B. Royce. was appointed to take the matter under 
consideration and report. After a careful investigation and examination 
of a large number of properties, the committee reported that in its judg- 
ment the property known as the Israel O. Beattie property in the village 
of Middletown was better adapted for the purpose than any other prop- 
erty that had been brought to the notice of the committee. The property, 
at the time, was owned by the Mutual Life Insurance Company of the 
city of Xew York, and after negotiations, a price was fixed by the com- 
pany at $8,000. The price was approved by the board and the committee 
was ordered to purchase the pro]ierty. which was subsequently done. The 
sum of $2,000 was appropriated for the use of the committee in making 
such nccessarv repairs and changc> a- might he deemed necessary to fit 


the property for immediate use. The committee, having completed its 
duties, reported to the board on the 21st of November, 1881, that its 
work was completed and that there had been expended $9,910.05, leaving 
a balance of $89.95 i^ the hands of the committee. 

Previous to the making of this report, the property had been turned 
over to the county superintendent of the poor, and it was formally opened 
on February 7, 1881. On the first day of January, 1882, forty-four chil- 
dren were being cared for in the home. This number has fluctuated dur- 
ing the intervening years, sometimes the number of children being as low 
as sixteen, and at other times approximating the original number reported. 

The Orange County Home for Aged Women is located at No. 27 South 
street, in the city of Middletown, and like the Children's Home, is not 
limited to the city of Middletown with regard to the territory from which 
its inmates are received. It was incorporated in 1884, the idea emanating 
from the fertile brain of Dr. Julia E. Bradner. The home now has be- 
come a well-known institution, not only in the city of Middletown, but 
in the county of Orange. 

It is difficult to realize that Thrall Hospital, so much an integral part 
of the civic life of Middletown to-day, was not dreamed of a quarter of a 
century since. It is not an easy matter to make plain to the lay mind 
just what is behind the bald statistic, "One typhoid — discharged." 
Statistics may number the bandages and weigh out the drugs, but they 
never take reckoning of the anxieties, the heartaches, that broad utili- 
tarianism which under the name of the Middletown Hospital Association 
began its beneficent work. 

It was twenty years ago last November ( 1907) that Dr. Julia E. 
Bradner called together, at her residence, a few of the women of Mid- 
dletown to discuss the project of having a hospital in their own home 

At the first informal meeting in November, 1887, nine women, led on 
by the indomitable spirit of Dr. Julia E. Bradner, voted to have a charter 
legally drawn and to meet again at her home, on Orchard street, on the 
22nd of November. 

The charter was presented at this second meeting and signed before 
Notary Henry W. Wiggins by the following women : Julia E. Bradner, 
president; Ella S. Hanford, first vice-president; Lutie M. Clemson, sec- 
ond vice-president; Clara S. Finn, treasurer; Harriet L. Clark, secretary; 

Charles A. Evans. 


Sarah" (Jrr Sliter. Jennie 1£. Triur. l-'rances W. Wilcox. IHorence 

The organization effected on tliis November day and incorporated De- 
cember 6, of the same year, was named "The Middletown Hospital Asso- 
ciation," its object "to build and maintain a hosjiital in the village of Mid- 

The day of the second meeting was big in history, for not only was 
the matter of the charter settled, but an advisory board of physicians was 
elected, consisting of William E. Eager, M.D.; William H. Dorrance, 
M.D. ; Selden H. Talcott, :\r.D. ; I'.urke Pillsbury. M.D. ; and Ira S. 
Eradner, M.D. — all of wdiom have passed away. 

In the spring of 1891, seeing the need and the opportunity to supply 
that need, Mrs. S. Maretta Thrall gave to the association the lot on the 
south side of what is now Thrall Park. Plans were made for a building 
to cost over $13,000, but their execution w^ould have been put off in- 
definitely had not Mrs. Thrall come forward with a gift of money suffi- 
cient to cover the cost of the planned building, making, with the estimated 
value of the lot, a total gift of over $16,000. Work on the foundation 
was begun immediately. 

The association, which in various ways, during the four years which 
elapsed after the foundation was laid, had raised $5,000, now used that 
amount to furnish and equip the building in a practical and up-to-date 
manner. On the tenth day of ^lay, one year after the gift of the lot, the 
hospital, having a capacity of twenty-six beds, was thrown open for the 
reception of patients. 


Nearly forty years ago. or, to be exact, in 1869. several of the citizens 
of what was then the village of ]\Iiddletown decided that a hospital for the 
insane was needed in this vicinity. Funds were collected and a farm was 
purchased on the western border of the village for a site for an asylum, 
as such institutions were then called. Dr. George F. Foote endeavored to 
raise money by subscription for a private asylum. To this end $75,000 
were subscribed, the amount expended for a site and to build part of the 
institution, all of which was finally accepted by the commonwealth as a 
free-will offering from a comparatively few generous subscribers. 

The first appropriation by the State for the institution was made in 


1870. The original board of trustees numbered twenty-one, ap- 
pointed by the Governor. The first superintendent, Dr. Foote, having 
resigned, Dr. Henry R. Stiles was appointed in his stead. He served 
until February 9, 1877, and then resigned. He was succeeded by the late 
Selden H. Talcott, who served until his death in 1902, when the present 
incumbent, Dr. Maurice C. Ashley, was appointed to succeed him, and is 
now in charge of the institution. 

Among the early trustees, who were residents of Orange County, may 
be recalled the well-known names of Daniel Thompson, John G. Wilin, 
Moses D. Stivers, James G. Graham, Henry R. Low, Elisha P. Wheeler, 
Dr. Joshua A. Draper, James B. Hulse, James H. Norton, Nathaniel W. 
Vail, and Uzal T. Hayes. 

The hospital was incorporated in 1869, opened for the reception of 
patients on the 20th of April, 1874, and the first patient was admitted 
May 7, 1874. 

To give an idea of the present magnitude of this great public charity, 
it seems fitting that a few figures should go on record where they will be 
permanently preserved. 

The farm and grounds comprise nearly 300 acres, on which there are 
thirty buildings; the value of the real and personal property is over 
$1,500,000; the present annual expenses for all purposes, excepting the 
new building, are about $245,000, of which nearly $60,000 are received 
from private and reimbursing patients; about $110,000 is required for 
salaries and wages. Since the opening of the institution, over 7,000 
patients have been received and treated. Of this number 2,600 have been 
discharged recovered and returned to their homes and to society, and 
900 others have been sufficiently restored or improved to enable them to 
return to their families. The number of patients under treatment at the 
present time is 1,350. 

The present normal capacity of the hospital for patients is 1,222. 
Buildings are now under construction for about 550 more patients and 
the necessary employees, making a total capacity for 1,850 patients and 
450 employees. 

The hospital district comprises Orange, Sullivan, Ulster and Rockland 
Counties, but those desiring homeopathic treatment are received from 
any part of the State. 

During all the years, the hospital has been conducted upon homeo- 


pathic principles, following strictly the practice and principles of homeo- 
pathy in the selection of medicines and treatment of patients. This is 
a compliance with the law under which the hospital was first incorpo- 
rated, and the results, in all respects, would seem to warrant the coniinu- 
ance of the present form of treatment and management. 

In compliance with the law, a training school for nurses and attendants 
has been established and maintained for some years with the most satis- 
factory results. 

A few years since all the asylums were placed under State control, 
and a board of local managers with modified duties took the place of the 
old boards of trustees. 

The board of managers of the asylum, as at present constituted, con- 
sists of William H. Rogers of Middletown, X. Y., president; Ira L. Case, 
of ]\Iiddletown, N. Y., secretary; Xewbold Morris, of New York Citv, 
N. Y., Miss Alice Larkin, New York City ; Mrs. Harriet A. Dillingham, 
Xew York City ; George B. Adams, Middletown, X. Y. ; and James B. 
Carson, Middletown, N. Y. The attorney for the hospital is William B. 
Royce, of Middletown, N. Y. 


The city of Miildletown is located on the I'>ie, the Xew York, On- 
tario & Western and the Susquehanna & Western railroads, about sixty- 
seven miles from Xew York City, and is the legal successor of the 
village of ]\Iiddletown, in the county of Orange. The city was incor- 
porated by an act of the Legislature of the State of Xew York, known 
as Chapter 535 of the Laws of 1888. and John E. Iseman became its 
first mayor. The city, as now incorporated, contains 2,330^^2 acres. 

The city is divided into four wards. The general city officers are: A 
Mayor, Robert Lawrence, now holding the office ; president of the com- 
mon council, two aldermen from each ward, city clerk and collector, city 
treasurer, corporation counsel, city engineer and surveyor, superintendent 
of streets, recorder, two justices of the peace, and three assessors. Each 
ward also elects one supervisor, the duties of who^i' office are the same as 
those of town supervisors. 

Middletown has a most excellent and efficient fire dei»artmcp.t, of which 
Charles Higham is chief. The force, as now organized, consists of one 
hook and ladder company, truck drawn by ; five hose companies. 


two of them having chemical wagons drawn by horses ; one engme com- 
pany, new steamer drawn by horses. The city has a complete system of 
electric fire alarms, with forty-two boxes in service. 

Middletown has about forty-seven regularly organized charitable, be- 
nevolent, fraternal and social organizations and clubs, exclusive of labor- 
organizations, societies and organizations connected with its railroads. 
Of the latter there are nine, and of the labor organizations, twenty. 

A fine State armory is located here, which is the headquarters of the 
First Battalion, First Regiment, N. G. N. Y., A. E. Mclntyre, Major, 
commanding. This armory is also the home of Company I (24th Separate 
Company), First Regiment, N. G. N. Y., of which Abraham L. Decker is 

There are two Grand Army Posts in Middletown, viz : General Lyon 
Post, No. 266; Captain William A. Jackson Post, No. 301. 

Middletown lias a very efficient Business Men's Associaton, .which was 
mcorporated November 20, 1902. 

The banking interests of Middletown are represented by the following 
banks : First National Bank, capital $100,000 ; Merchants' National Bank, 
capital $100,000; Orange County Trust Company, capital $100,000; and 
the Middletown Savings Bank. These institutions are all in a healthy and 
prosperous condition and have, in the aggregate, deposits amounting to 
about the sum of $8,000,000. 

There are, in addition to the above, thirty-five incorporated companies 
in Middletown, representing manufacturing, mercantile, mechanical and 
financial enterprises. The largest employers of labor are the Borden's 
Condensed Milk Company, the New York, Ontario & Western Railway 
Company shops, Howell-Hinchman Company, and the Union Hat Com- 

The cemetery grounds of the Hillside Cemetery Corporation, formerly 
Hillside Cemetery Association, are located in the southwest part of the 
city. The cemetery had many natural advantages from contour of the 
land, virgin forests and running streams. To these have been added about 
twelve miles of macadamized roads and drives, with gracefully curving 
paths and winding walks. A great deal of shrubbery and many flow- 
ering plants have been set out and in the summer the scene is a most 
lovely one. Surely Hillside Cemetery is a beautiful resting place for the 

Samuel C. Howell. 


Middletown has a most complete water system supplie*! by three reser- 
voirs, located in the towns of Wallkill and Mount Hope, and named re- 
spectively, Monhagen. Hi<;hland and Shawans^amk. All water for do- 
mestic use is thoroughly filtered before being conveyed to the city. 

The city has several miles of well paved streel>. and is lighted l)y both 
gas and electricity. 

The telephone system consists of two com])anies. The Orange County 
Telephone Company has about 1,600 telei)hones in use, and also does the 
long-distance business in the city for the Hudson River Telephone Com- 
pany. The Middletown Telephone Company has about a score of sub- 
scribers in the city. It also has connection with several outside inflepeml- 
ent companies. 

With its location, financial ability, numerous business enterprises, its 
many social, benevolent, charitable and religious associations and institu- 
tions, its splendid school system, and with the enterprise, energy and 
business ability of its citizens, the Middletown of to-day is onlv a begin- 
ning of the greater INIiddletown which will occupy this central pari of 
Orange County in the years to come. 

To sum up the history of the town of Wallkill were an easy task, and 
so saying is to speak in the highest praise of the town. Its course has 
been peaceful, quiet, serene; its politics have never been infected by 
scandal and corruption 5 the red glare of warfare — aborignal or other- 
wise — has not shone athwart its pages ; it has been a history in which the 
husbandman has dominated the scene and has been the central actor. 
Agriculture has been the mainstay of a people pious and Gorl-fearing. the 
descendants of those sturdy New England and Long Island ancestors, 
who built the meeting-house and the school as soon as ever the settlement 
was made. 

We dwellers in the Wallkill of to-day have every reason to be thank- 
ful that our history has been what it has; if it has lacked romance or 
excitement, it has likewise abounded in a peace that has meant prosperity. 

Of late years the flood of immigration has sent its waves to our tliresh- 
olds. and we find in our villages, on our farms, and toiling along our 
railroads the children of Italy, of Hungary, of Austria, of Russia and the 
more remote East. What the picture will be a century hence, what 
sort of an amalgamation will have taken place, we cannot foresee. Cer- 
tain it is that, if he is to remain with us. we must educate the alien, teach 


him our ways, prepare him for citizenship, and do all we can for him 
morally and intellectually, and that will surely involve amalgamation. At 
any rate, this is a force that is bound to change our town's history, in 
the next hundred years, from anything that has gone before it. We 
should face the problem — meet it with those most forcible of weapons, 
Education and Law. 

For the rest, acting the role of prophet is not difficult. Wallkill's 
lines have been cast in pleasant places and will probably so continue to 
be cast. We anticipate nothing marvelous, look forward to naught phe- 
nomenal, expect no revolutions. Our townspeople will pursue the even 
tenor of their way on their pleasant farms and in their quiet villages ; 
they will know neither the bleak necessities of poverty nor the anxieties 
of extreme wealth ; all will be medium, which is the happiest state of all. 
We are content with that. Our Wallkill is well beloved ; we would not 
trade it for anything different or more brilliant ; we would have it as it has 
been, not meaning stagnation, of course, yet not longing for the "boom" 
which newer and less firmly established and less well-grounded communi- 
ties are forever invoking. 

Wallkill, in many ways, realizes one's ideal of a rural township — well 
governed, knowing neither financial extreme, and with a people contented, 
and at peace. 

■■'y!^/,,^s £.£- 





By Ferdinand V. S.anford. 

THE derivation of Warwick, according to Mr. Thomas Kemp, mayor 
of \\'arvvick-, England, who has written a "Flistory of Warwick 
and Its People," is from the Saxon "Wara" which in that tongiie 
signifies inhabitants, and "wic" — a town or castle, or hamlet, a bank or 
crook of a river. So that Warawic. or Warwick, signifies no more than 
the inhabitants of the town or castle upon the bank of the river. Other 
Saxon forms of the name found are \\'crhica. \\\vrengcwyk, Woerinc- 
wic, and Wering-wic. 

The history of our Warwick from the earliest times has been written 
l)v Eager and Ruttenber in their publicatons — that of the last-named 
writer coming down to the }ear i8So. 


The present sketch is intended rather to supplement these earlier ac- 
counts than to re-write all of the past history, by recording principally 
the events which have occurred since 1880. 

The town or township of Warwick was erected from the precinct of 
Goshen in 1788. and derived its name from the plantation 01 lienjamin 
Aske, one of the orignal grantees of the Wawayanda patent. Upon the 
sub-division of the patent among twelve patentees, Aske's share was a 
tract nearly in the form of a parallelogram, which extended from Wick- 
ham's or Clark's Lake, on the northeast, to the farm now owned by 
Townsend W. San ford, on the southwest, with an average width of a 
mile, and containing 2.200 acres of land. Aske named this tract. "War- 
wick." from which fact it is supposed that he came from W^arwickshire, 
England. The date of the Wawayanda patent is March 5. 1702- 1703, 
which was the peculiar style of writing year <late a couple c»f centuries 
;igo. The docunxMit is sigucd by the twelve chiefs, all making their mark 
in the presence of witne«>^es. one of them Chuckhass, the chief who lived 


in this town and for whom Chuck's Hill is named. This patent 
embraced at that time practically all of Orange County as it existed in 

By deed dated February 28, 1719, Aske sold to Lawrence Decker, yeo- 
man, for £50, 100 acres, in the deed described as "being part of the 2.200 
acres of land, called Warwick," showing that previous to that date Aske 
had bestowed the name of Warwick upon his tract. Later deeds to 
Thomas Blaine and Thomas DeKay contain similar recitals. 

The pioneers of Warwick were principally English families who came 
hither from Long Island, Connecticut and Massachusetts. Among them 
we find the names of Armstrong, Baird, Benedict, Blaine, Bradner, Burt, 
DeKay, Decker, Demarest, Ketchum, Knapp, McCambley, Post, Roe, 
Sayer, Sly, Sanford, Welling, Wheeler, Wisner, Wood and Van Duzer. 
Alost of these settlers have left descendants who still live in the town or 

During the Revolution there were a few Tories near Warwick, but 
the majority of the people were loyal to the country of their adoption, anl 
many of them enlisted for service. 

John Hathorn, colonel of the Warwick and Florida regiment, Captains 
Charles Beardsley, John Minthorn. Henry Wisner, Jr., Abram Dolson, 
Jr., John Norman, Henry Townsend. Nathaniel Elmer, John Saver ; Lieu- 
tenants Richard Welling. Samuel Lobdell, Nathaniel Ketchum, George 
Vance, Peter Bartholf, Matthew Dolson, John Hopper, John DeBow, 
Anthony Finn, John Popino, Jr., Richard Bailey, John Kennedy, John 
Wood, and many others rendered valuable services during the Revo- 

While New York City was in the hands of the British, the most trav- 
eled road between the Hudson River and the Delaware ran through War- 
wick. It is said that Washington passed through Warwick twice during 
the war, and was entertained by Colonel Hathorn at the Pierson E. San- 
ford stone house near the village, on one of these occasions, at least. 

For some time after the Revolution there were not more than thirty 
houses in the village. In 1765 Daniel Burt built the shingle house, now 
owned by Mrs. Sallie A. F. Servin, the oldest house in the village. In 
T766 Francis Baird built the stone house now owned by William B. 
Sayer, which was at one time used as a tavern, and in some of the old 
maps Warwick is called "Baird's Tavern." 

James W. Knapp. 



The town of Warwick is the largest in area of any of tlic towns of 
the county, containing 61,763 acres, or nearly double that of any of the 
others, and being a little more than one-eighth of the area of the whole 
county. Its assessed valuation of real and personal property in 1906, was 
$2,863,010. The taxes levied upon that valuation for last year were 
$22,745.12. Population according to State census of 1905 was 6,691. 

Within the last generation the tow^n has greatly improved its public 
highways and bridges. With the advent of the bicycle, automobile and 
other motor vehicles, the demand for better road facilities has been felt, 
and this demand has been and is now being supplied. Under the State 
law jiroviding for the ciMistruction and improvement of the highways 
at the joint expense of the State and county, the sum of $15,387.40 has 
been expended by the county, and the additional sum of $1,602.60 by 
ihe State, up to the year 1905, for acquisition of rights of way, engineer- 
ing and cost of construction of 4.67 miles of road from Florida to War- 
wick, known as Road Xo. 93. .so that under the good roads law (Chap. 
115. Laws 1898) we have nearly five miles of finished work done. Plans 
have also been approved by the coimty and its share of the cost appro- 
priated for the building of 6.92 miles of road from Warwick to Green- 
wood Lake at a total estimated cost of $54,250. which will undoubtedly 
be built as soon as the Legislature makes appropriation for the State's 
share of the cost. 

Since 10^83 the town has constructed several new iron bridges, viz: 
on the east arm of Greenwood Lake, at Main, South, Lake. Elm and 
Bank streets in the village of W^arwick ; also at Florida. Kimball's Point, 
Garners' Lsland across the Pochuck Creek, one between the towns of 
Goshen and W^arw'ick, and one betv.'een the towns of Minisink and War- 
wick ; also at Beiivale and Xew Milforrl. these substantial structures 
replacing the old wooden bridges of the past. An elevated bridge across 
the tracks of the Lehigh and Hudson River Railway Company was con- 
-trucled to avoid the grade cros.sing at Stone Piridge at the joint expense 
"f the railway company and the town, costing nearly $8,000. of which 
the town's sliare was one-c|uartcr of the whole cost, made a most desirable 
improvement in this ])art of the town. 

The town constructed a new road alone the east side of Greenwood 


Lake in 1889, the land being donated by Alexander Brandon, trustee, 
and others, to the town, and the latter building the same at a cost of over 
$7,000. This improvement opens up a large tract of land for building 
purposes, the road extending to State line of New^ York and New Jersey. 

In 1902, by a vote of the taxpayers, a change was made in the manner 
of working the highways from the labor to the money system. Under the 
old system something over 5,000 days would be assessed for labor, but a 
considerable portion would never be worked and in consequence our 
highways would suffer. Under the present method the sum of $5,593 
was expended by the town in 1906, in cash upon our highways, and the 
additional sum of $2,000 State aid, with uniformly better results every- 

The total mileage of public roads is nearly 200 in the town, and the 
sum of $25 per mile was expended upon every mile in that year and ad- 
ditional sums of $10 per mile upon those roads more frequently traveled. 

This amount was for all the road districts outside of the incorporated 
village of Warwick, which is a separate road district maintained by the 
corporation. The valuation for 1907 was $1 of tax for every $300 of as- 
sessed value. 

Town boards of health have been maintained since 1881 and consist of 
the supervisor, town clerk, justices of the peace, a citizen member and a 
physician, known as the health officer. Rules and regulations governing 
the proper observance of health are published each year by this offtcial 
body, and prompt action taken in case of any outbreak of disease, and 
measures instituted to control and prevent the spread of the same. As a 
result of the labors of these organizations and those in the incorporated 
villages of our towns, the public health has been safeguarded, and no 
serious epidemics have been experienced. 

The town has seventeen separate school districts, where the common 
school is maintained, and two union free schools at Florida and War- 
wick, under the supervision of the Regents of the University at Albany. 
In these latter schools our young people are graduated, prepared for the 
different walks of life, and many entering colleges to prosecute their 
studies further for the learned professions. Under the present State law 
education is compulsory, between the ages of eight and sixteen, and 
parents, guardians and employers detaining the child between those ages 
are liable to fine and imprisonment. 


Under the compulsory cducalimi law our lowu api)(jint>- aiuiually lor 
each of the school districts an officer known as the truant officer, wIkjsc 
duty it is to look after the interests of those who will not look after 
their own, and compel all children within the school age to be in attend- 
ance upon the public school during the required period. The State appor- 
tionment of school funds for 1907 for the town was $4,300. 

'■'he town has six election or polling places, known as Districts Xo>. 
I, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. No. i mcludes the voters in the .\mity and Pine I>lan(l 
district. No. 2, those in Florida and vicinity; Nos. 3, 4 and 5, the village 
of Warwick, Bellvale and New Milford; Xo. 6. Greenwood Lake and 
Sterling. The total vote polled for (lovernor in the town in 190O was 

The principal farm products are dairying, onions, peaches, apples, hay 
and potatoes. ]\Iilk is condensed at several places in the town. I'he 
mineral products are iron, granite, mica, white and blue limestone. The 
white limestone is very valuable for tluxing purposes and in the manu- 
facture of Portland cement. Large deposits of the same are found in 
the western part of the town, running from near Florida to the \'ernon 
\'alley. The blue limestone is valuable for building purposes and is 
found very generally in difYerent parts of the town. Clay beds also exist 
at Florida and at Durland's, from which brick have been manufactured. 

The present bonded debt of the town (1907) is $4,950, bearing 4 per 
cent, interest, wliicli is very small considering the amounts expended in 
the construction of the new iron bridges in the town during the last 
thirty years — nearly twcnt}- — and the cost of new road construction and 
for damages to the town roads and bridges caused by the great flood 
of 1903, when one bridge was completely destroyed, and nine were dam- 
aged, besides the damages to many of the public roads, and other small 


The village of Warwick wa> known as early a> 17 19. but was not set- 
tled until about 1764. It i> the largest village in the town and the only 
one incorporated. Its area is 395 acres, and its population ( 1005 ) was 
1.767. It was incorporated under a -pi'cial act o\ the Legislature in 1S67. 


and re-incorporated under the general village law in 190 1. Built on 
rolling land in the valley west of the Warwick Mountains, it is an ideal 
spot for country homes. The land is well drained, the Wawayanda Creek 
flowing through the center of the town in a southeasterly direction. The 
mean elevation of the valley is 550 feet, and the nearby mountains rise to 
a height of 1,200 to 1,400 feet. The varied pastoral scenes of wood, 
stream and meadow, with here and there a lake, and the tall peaks of the 
Catskills in the distance greeting the eye from these heights, are said by 
travelers to equal, if not surpass, anything else of the kind in all the wide 

Fine roads, affording delightful drives, extend from Warwick, in every 
direction, some among the neatly kept farms in the valley and others 
through winding ways among the hills. With such an unrivaled environ- 
ment, Warwick has grown famous for its own peculiar beauties. One 
cannot say that our village is quaint or old-fashioned, with swinging 
gates, grassy lanes, and moss-covered roofs ; rather, it has an air of 
smartness, blended with polished repose. It is a pretty park with velvety 
lawns, showing to vast advantage groups of flowering shrubs, unmarred 
by fences, and with the houses well apart, giving an air of freedom 
from cramped conditions. 

Not only the fine mansions that have been built by prosperous country 
merchants, professional men and city folk, but also the modest homes of 
the village mechanics and artisans, all show the same indvidual public 
spirit, not to be outdone in keeping things spruced up and freshly painted. 
Here and there are old homesteads where son has succeeded father for 
generations, yet the old homes look well and becoming in their new and 
airy clothes. The advent of broad avenues and flag walks have forever 
eft'aced the winding trails, and with them much of the sweet Indian legen- 
dary has been obliterated. For all these rolling hills were once covered 
with chestnut, birch, maple and pine trees. There is somethmg pathetic 
in the passing of the redman, the type of years gone by, as the impress of 
civilization unrelentingly, step by step, has crowded upon his tepee and 
forced him westward. 

Yet the maples, as planted by our fathers, forming bowers over streets, 
are more beautiful than the pine tree. We have no "Unter den Linden," 
but Vv^e might claim an "Unter den Afaples." 

Warwick has been called the Oueen Mllasfe, also a A'illasfe of Homes. 

William Moore Sanford. 


If she is not truly the former, slie is easily and far away a village of 

.\s early as 1830 IJeiiry William Herbert, an English gentleman and 
writer, better known as Frank k'orester, visited the village and stopped 
at the old inn, known as Tom Ward's, now and then called the Wa- 
wayanda House. Forester has celebrated us in his famous book of 
sporting tales and adventures called "Warwick W'oodlands," in which 
he tells many a quaint tale of the doings of himself and mine host Ward, 
(whom he cleverly calls Draw by sim.ply inverting the letters of the name), 
and of many other sportsm.en of that early daw 

No one has ever paid our vale and village a higher tribute than For- 
ester, when he said : 

"In all the river counties of New York there is none to my mind which 
presents such a combination of all natural beauties, pastoral, rural, sylvan 
and at times almost sublime, as old Orange, nor any part of it to me so 
picturesque, or so much endeared by earl\' recollections, as the fair vale 
of Warwick. * ■'' * Throughout its length and breadth, it is one of the 
most fertile and beautiful, and the most Arcadian regions of the United 
States; poverty in its lower and more squalid aspects, if not in any n-al or 
tangible shape, is unknow^n within its precincts ; its farmers, the genuine 
old solid yeoman of the land, the backbone and bulwark of the country, 
rich as their teeming pastures, hospitable as their warm hearts and ever 
open doors, stanch and firm as the everlasting hills among which in 
truly pleasant places their lines have fallen, would be the pride of any 
nation, kingdom or republic ; its women are among the fairest daughters 
of a cou!itrv where beauty is the rule rather than the exception. * * * 
Sweet vale of Warwick, sweet Warwick, loveliest village of the vale, 
it may be I shall never see you more, for the silver cord is loosened, the 
golden bowl is broken, which most attached me to your quiet and seques- 
tered shades. * * * ;May blessings be about you, beautiful Warwick; 
mav your fields be as green, your waters as bright, the cattle upon your 
hundred hills as fruitful, as in the days of old." 

Tn 1883 the village voted the sum of S600 to lay the sidewalks over 
the Main street bridge. In 18S6 the sum of S4.200 was voted by the ta-x- 
payers to buv the lot and budd the brick building occupied by Excelsior 
Hose Company. In 1889 an application was made to the trustees for 
the organization of the Goodwill Hook and Ladder Company. In 1891 


a truck was bought for said ladder company at a cost of $600. The sys- 
tem for working the village streets was changed in this year to the 
money system. In 1895 a number of the citizens contributed the sum 
of $433 03 for the purchase of a sprinkling cart, a proposition pre- 
viously submitted to the taxpayers for the purchase of the same having 
been defeated at a special election. In 1896, Raymond Hose Company 
No. 2. to look after the interests of the village in the west end, was 
organized by consent of the trustees. 

In 1897, the sum of $500 was voted for the purpose of a fire alarm. 
In this year the first and only franchise ever granted by the village was 
given to Sharp & Chapman for a term of fifty years, for an electric 
light plant. 

These parties having failed to carry out their agreement, the village 
the next year granted a franchise for the same purpose to the Warwick 
Valley Light and Power Company, of the same duration. 

Since 1898 the village has been lighted with electric light at a cost 
of about $2,000 per year, the present plant consisting of ninety-seven in- 
candescent electric lights and six 2,000 candle power arc lamps. 

In 1900 the taxpayers voted the sum of $1,600 for the purchase 
of a lot and the building of a hose house for the Raymond Hose Com- 

In 1901 a proposition to reincorporate the village under the general 
village law was carried. A special election held the same year to vote 
upon the proposition of paving our streets with Telford pavement and 
asking for the sum of $10,000 for that purpose, was defeated by only 
three votes. 

In 1902 the heirs oi the late George W. Sanford donated the sum of 
$1,250 to the village for the purpose of a drinking fountain, which has 
been erected and is placed at Fountain Square, corner of Main and East 
Main streets. 

In Tuly, 1906. Warwick, England, celebrated the two thousand years 
of her past history in a great historical pageant upon the grounds of 
Warwick Castle. Invitations were issued to all the Warwicks of the 
^vorld — fourteen in all — to be present and participate in these festivities. 
Dur board appointed its president, Ferdinand V. Sanford, as its repre- 
sentative, who attended the celebration, and delivered in person the fol- 
lowing resolutions of greeting and congratulation: 

Henry A. Benedict. 


HoxoRAULE Thomas Kemp, 

Mayor of tlic Corporation of Warwick, Englaiul. 

Accept congratulations and greetings from your daughter and namesake across 
tlie sea, on the occasion of your great historical pageant, wherein somewhat of your 
ancient and Iionorable past is reproduced, not merely in centuries, Init in millen- 
niums of time. 

As Americans we are proud of our English ancestry, and of that mighty nation, 
on wiiose empire the sun never sets, whose history is the history of everything that 
makes for progress, a higher civilization and the enlightenment and uplifting of 

May God continue to bless England and .America, the leading Christian nations 
of the earth, wdiose history teaches the world of the transcendent value of the life, 
liberty and happiness of man. 

Done at Warwick, Xew York, United States of America, on the twenty-sixth 
day of May in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and six. 

The Village of Warwick. 

By v. Sa.vfori), 
(Seal.) President, 

Charle.s Wutke. 
George H. Strong. 

F. C. Cary, 

Clerk of the Corporation. 

'J'o wl'.ich the mayor replied officially as follows: 

Borough of Warwick, to-wit : 

At a meeting of the mayor, aldermen and councilors of the said borough in Coun- 
cil assembled, on the 13th day of July, 1906, 

It was resolved: That the congratulatory address from the corporation of the 
village of Warwick, in the State of Xew York, United States of America, pre- 
sented to the mayor on the occasion of the recent Historical Pageant, be entered 
on the minutes of the Council, and that a cordial vote of thanks for their sym- 
pathetic greetings be accorded to the sister municipality with an earnest hope for 
its continued prosperity. 

And that a copy of the resolution l>c sealed and transmitted to the president of 
the corporation. 

Thomas Kemp, 


Brabazox Ca.MI'P.EI.L, 

Town Clerk. (Seal.) 

During the present year (i[)oy) the village has hcen the recii)ieiu of a 
fine town clock, presented hy Mr. Pierson E. San ford. The clock is sta- 
tioned in the tower of the Methodist church on Main street. 

At a special election held this year the sum of $4,200 wa-< voted to 


purchase the building- and lots formerly owned by John A. Dator and 
others, on Main street and Wheeler avenue. It is the purpose of the 
trustees to change the building, and adapt it for village purposes, such 
as a village hall, office for records, maps and files, and the rooms of Good- 
will Hook and Ladder Company. 

A'C7V Mil ford. 

The hamlet of New Milford lies southwest of Warwick, and forms a 
part of the boundary line between New York and New Jersey. It was 
formerlv called Jockey Hollow. It comprises an area of a little more than 
2,000 acres of the most fertile and well watered land in W^arwick A'alley. 
When the Wawayanda patent was deeded by the Indians to twelve white 
men in 1702, the twelfth part deed to Cornelius Christiance included what 
is now known as New Alii ford. Cornelius Christiance sold his share to 
Derrick Vanderburgh in 1704, and the latter sold to Everett & Glows, 
land speculators, in 1714, for a little more than $500. In 1724, the land 
was purchased by Thomas DeKay and Benjamin Aske. Settlers now 
began to come and they were quick to take advantage of the superior 
water facilities. The land was intersected by Wawayanda Creek, and 
flowing into this stream were four rushing mountain streams, all capable 
of furnishing fine water power, the largest of which was the Doublekill, 
so named because it is the outlet of Double Pond, or Wawayanda Lake. 
But not until about the year 1770 were any mills operated, excepting a 
saw mill and the forge on Wawayanda Creek on the farm recently owned 
by the Edward L. Davis heirs. During the year 1780, we find among the 
settlers the DeKays, the Davises, the Demarests, the Lazears, and Wood. 
The first excise money was paid into the treasury from the New Milford 
tavern in 1790 by Cornelius Lazear. A grist mill was built that year on 
the west side of the Doublekill, on the farm known as the Kiernan farm, 
and much further up the stream than the present mill. This mill was 
operated many years. 

In 1802 John Lazear built a grist mill on the site of the present mill. 
In connection with the mill he had a factory for manufacturing axe and 
shovel handles. Between the years 1805 and 1825 New Milford w^as an 
exceedingly busy place. The original and only town at the time was 
where the post-office is at present. 

There were six mills on the Doublekill, and four on the stream covered 


by the arcli bridge, near the post-office, known as Green Mine Drook. On 
the Doiiblekill there \vere tlie grist mill, or axe handle factory, and tan- 
nery owned by S. W. Clason, now owned by E. M. IJahrmann ; further 
down the stream a feed mill, a saw mill and a fulling or wool-carding 
mill. Then on the Green Mine stream there were a clover seed mill, plas- 
ter mill, cider mill with distillery, and about where William T. Vander- 
vort's barn is located there was a large saw mill run by David Demarest. 
A very good schoolhouse was situated just west of the present Methodist 
church. A post-office was established in 1815 — the first postmaster was 
Merritt Coleman. The turnpike running between New York and Port Jer- 
vis left the main road near the present home of Darius Fancher, crossed 
the E. L. Davis farm, continued northward over a bridge which was east 
of the present site of Borden's creamery, and up the hill to the road which 
now passes west of the house known as Peachblow. This was the main 
road to the northwest. Mr. E. L. Davis built a fulling and carding mill 
near the bridge and operated that as well as a saw^ mill. 

Further down on Wav^'ayanda Creek there were a saw mill, cider mill 
and distillery owned by John Ryerson. The ''covered bridge" was built 
about 1830. In 1835, a boarding school for young ladies was opened in 
the house now occupied by John Lines. The principal, Charles G. Win- 
field, was a man of profound learning. Here the best people of Warwick 
and vicinity sent their daughters to be educated. It was a classical school 
of the highest order. The Methodist church was opened in 1838. In 
1861, W'hen there was a call for volunteers. New IMilford, with a popu- 
lation of only 150 persons, responded with twenty-eight men. 

With the growth of the dairy business in Orange County, less attention 
was paid to milling interests. In 1866, a factory for condensing milk was 
built where the Kiernan fulling and carding mill stood. This was aban- 
doned after the railroad was built in 1879. In 1898 a fire swept away the 
business portion of New Milford, and it has not been entirely rebuilt. 

At present the town is regaining some of the business prosperity it 
enjoyed one hundred years ago. There are two grist mills and a saw 
mill, and one of the largest creameries for bottling and condensing milk 
in the county, owned by Borden's Milk Company, where 4.500 gallons of 
milk are received and shipped daily. There are several old cemeteries 
scattered throughout New Milford. where one may read the names of 
those who lived when the "vears were voung." 


P'.iic Island. 

Pine Island is a village lying two miles northwest of Amity at the ter- 
minus of the Goshen and Deckertown railroad, leased by the Erie. It has 
a public school, a hotel, a store and post-office, 

Grcemvood Lake and Sterling. 

The Cheesecock's patent, confirmed by letters patent of Queen Anne, 
which embraced this district, was granted March 25, 1707, by Manngo- 
mack and other Indians, whose names are unpronounceable, and who 
signed by their marks, representatives of the sub-tribes of the Minsis, 
whose totem was the wolf, a branch of the Lenni-Lenapes, whose totem 
was the turkey, a branch of the great Algonkin or Algonquin tribe, or 
nation, which held sway over them. 

This deed was dated December 30, 1702, and recorded in the Orange 
County clerk's office, June i, 1736. The original patent, bearing Queen 
Anne's seal, is in the possession of the Sterling Iron and Railway Com- 
pany. Sterling and Greenwood Eake are now embraced in the sixth elec- 
tion district of the town of Warwick. 

Charles Clinton surveyed this patent for the owners in common, be- 
ginning April I, 1735, and ending December 13, 1749. He mentions in 
his field book, as early as 1745, that iron works were in operation at 
Sterling, but to what extent is not stated. The old furnace at Sterling, 
now in ruins, is said to have been built in 1751, and from it was drawn the 
iron from which the great chain was made to cross the Hudson River in 
Revolutionary days from West Point to Constitution Island. This chain 
was built by Abel Noble & Co., Peter Townsend signing the contract 
for said firm for its construction February 2, 1778, to be finished by April 
I, 1778. This chain was drawn across the river April 30, 1778. A bronze 
tablet commemorating the building of Sterling furnace was unveiled at 
the foot of the furnace on June 23. IQ06. Iron mining is still in active 
operation, a shaft extending diagonally under Sterling Lake a distance 
of over 2,000 feet, but the ore is all shipped to other furnaces. The iron 
industry created a need for charcoal, and from Revolutionary times until 
about 1865 cutting wood and burning charcoal was an industry extending 
all over this section, and through the mountains of Greenwood Lake and 
Sterling is a network of wood roads and many foundations where for- 



nierly stood the dwellings of collieries. Sterling Mountain rises about GcxD 
feet above the surface of Greenwood Lake, which is about nine miles 
long and 700 feet elevation above sea level. 

The map of this section made by Robert Erskine for General 
ington gives it the name of Long I'ond. .About midway on the west side 
and about 300 feet from the shore of Greenwood Lake stands an old 
furnace on the furnace brook, which was built about seventy-five years 
ago by William Noble of Bellvale. The furnace was a failure from the 
start, as the stream of water furnished insufficient power for the blast. 
About 1845 ^^ anaque Creek, at the outlet of Greenwood Lake, was 
crossed by a dam, which raised the lake about eight feet, resulting in the 
overflow of about a mile of low land at both the north and soudi ends 
of the lake, forming a reservoir for the use of the Morris and Essex 
Canal, nine miles long and a mile wide. The New York and Greenwood 
Lake railroad reached here in 1876. The terminal station at the line be- 
tween New York and New Jersey on the east shore, called then "State 
Line" (now Sterling Forest), was accessible by boats only, there being no 
public road until 1889, when one was built by the town of W^arwick, the 
contract being taken by Conrad Diehl of Goshen. The steamboat Moitt- 
clair, capable of carrying 400 passengers or more, was built and launched 
in 1876. to accommodate travelers from the railroad. Smaller boats 
had been previously built, first the Pioneer, a sail boat, then the Sxlph, 
then the Montclair, and later the Anita, and at present several :^mall 
steamers and njiphtiia launches without number are in use. 

Prior to the completion of the railroad visitors reached here by stage 
from Monks on the south or from Monroe on the north. Religious ser- 
vices were held in a log schoolhouse one mile north of Greenwood Lake 
prior to 1850, when under the pastorate of Rev. J. H. Hauxhurst. the 
first Methodist church of Greenwood Lake was built, where services were 
regularly held until 1898. when the settlement concentrating about two 
miles farther south, it was deemed expedient to build a new Methodist 
Episcopal church on land donated for the purpose by M. V. Wilson, oppo- 
site the new schoolhouse. which for the same reason was built about 
two and one-quarter miles south of its former site, and now has an at- 
tendance of si.xty-three pupils. The school at .Sterling mines has abouf 
the same number of pupils, children of the miners, religious services being 
held in the schoolhouse under Methodist supervision. 


The new Methodist Episcopal church of Greenwood Lake was built 
under the supervision of Pastor Cranston, and now in 1907 Rev. J. H. 
Calyer is pastor. For fifty-seven years the church has never been without 
a pastor in charge of regular services. 

In about the year 1880 a summer school of Christian philosophy, under 
the supervision of William O. McDowell, was begun in a fine auditorium 
erected for the purpose at Warwick Woodlands on the west shore of 
the lake, and, for the accommodation of visitors, an encampment hotel 
in connection with the Greenwood Lake Association clubhouse was under 
the supervision of Lyndon Y. Jenness. Dr. Charles H. Deems, Dr. Lyman 
Abbott and many other speakers on religious, social and philosophical 
themes, spoke to the assembled multitudes. This club house for a time 
was Greenwood Lake's center of interest, but for lack of support finan- 
cially it was finally adandoned to the uses and amusements of excursion- 
ists. In 1906 the dilapidated building was demolished. 

About 1880 a movement took form to inaugurate a church on what 
was known as the lime rocks, and under the management of Rev. Mr. 
Bradford, of Montclair, assisted by local friends, a tent was erected here 
where services from time to time were held. Now a stone church occu- 
pying this most picturesque spot is under construction and the supervision 
of E. G. Lewis, of New York City, representing the Episcopal church. 

Civilization's onward march is taking strong form here, and over the 
old Indian camping grounds, where numberless arrow heads, spear points, 
stone axes and beautifully ornamented fragments of pottery bear testi- 
mony to the race that has departed, leaving only here and there a name 
that claims relatio