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History of the Osage Nation 



Its People, Resources and Prospects. 

The Last Reservation to Open in the New State 



I raasfe 

IVIAR 15 19 




Pawhuska, the capital and Osage county seat. 
"Skiatook, Wvnona, Hominy, Osage Junction, Fairfax, Remington, Burbank. 

[3.000 Edition] ■ By PHILIP DiCKERSON, M. A. 



fTf c'f 




INTRODUCTION. 

As all wish to know something of those with whom they have any dealings 
it will not be egotistical first to give a brief sketch of the writer and his pur- 
pose. A native of the "Old Dominion," Virginia, he spent part of his boy- 
hood on the farm, and in the public schools there, then traveled extensively 
before entering upon a higher course of study which he took in some of the 
best literary institutions in the "North" and "East" for over twelve years. 
Graduating from Keystone University and Bucknell University, (Pa.) and 
taking special studies in philosophy and four languages in Richmond College 
(Va.) one year, he pursued higher studies in languages, sociology, poetics 
and pedegogy for three years in the University of Chicago, receiving the 
B. A. and M. A. degrees in the coures of study, since which years he has 
traveled much, preached as an evangelist, taught, lectured, wrote, read 
broadly in law, which he has practiced some, but all the time with the pur- 
pose, sooner or later, to establish a well located Industrial, Literary, and 
Scientific college, largely benevolent in work and aim. 

Perhaps the first thought of the reader who scans this Dook will be 
that it is an "ad." of the country. In one sense it does adertise, but in a 
much broader sense, it can be as literary, historical and true as any other 
history. The writer's purpose is to give in a literary brief, in plain style, 
the true facts of the resources and opportunities of the Osage, in book form 
so that all may have a brief history of all that interests any class of peo- 



ple, and worth 
home. In this hus- 
all things from the 
philosophic grades 
from the humble 
Avenue Palace* 

school and county 
temple, must be 
people if we aspire 
ondary purpose is 
ation of the college 
plannea through 
study and hopes 
pie or benevolently 
who will aid in be- 
tion of self help 
er boys and girls 
portunity to ac- 
with a thorough 
would be a great 
ritory to begin an 
might soon De self 
glowing through 
could more inter- 
mercially, and re- 
unsectarian school 
on the broader 
practical principles 
both Indians and 
Among the many 
every bit of infor- 
territory, just un- 
world, some are 




PlIILll* DICKERSON, M. A. 
Autlior and Publisher. 



keeping in the 
tling stage of life, 
kindergarten to the 
of university lore, 
cot to the Fifth 
from the district 
church, to the city 
kept berore tiie 
to success. His see- 
to lay the found- 
which Has been 
twenty years of 
soon to find a peo- 
inclined individua,! 
ginning an institut- 
for the many poor- 
who desire an op- 
qulre a practical 
literary course. It 
benefit to the ter- 
institution that 

supporting and 

ali time. Nothing 
est, socially, com- 
ligiously than an 
rightly conducted 
methods and more 
of education for 
whites. 

anxious to get at 
mation from the 
foulding to the 
interested in the 



condition of the churches and schools, where they may make homes, others 
seeking health in the climate, some in making city homes, wish to know of 
the town and beauty of location, society, commercial progress, people and 
the value of property. And the majority, looking for country homes, are 
most interested in the soil, cliinate, rainfall, temperature, and products of the 
.soil. To all these classes this book comes as a true history and descriptive 
greeting. Being written by a neutral observer, you may know its contents 
are true to the best of his knowledge. It does not illustrate or name all of the 
best of the Osage country and people, which would make a ten fold volume 
could the writer have taken time to travel it all over, but sufficient to show 
how well prepared the last reservation in Oklahoma is for statehood and the 
Osage for allotment and countyhood. Hoping this volume will accomplish its 
purpose, in its educational, ethical and commercial influence for the good of 
all, for all time and with much gratitude to those interested in and supporting 
this and all higher grades of publications, the Author is at 

All copyrights reserved. Your Further Service. 

I . i 




(Photo by Hargris) 



EARLY HISTORY OF OSAGE — THE CIGEHA. 

From tribal traditions, according to Dorsey, the ancestors of the Omaha, 
Ponka, Kwapa, Kansa, and Osage were at iirst one family dwelling on the 
Ohio and Wabash rivers, but gradually wandered westward. They first sep- 
arated at the mouth of the Ohio river. Those going down the Mississippi 
became the Kwapa, or down-stream people, those ascending the Mississippi, 
the Omaha or Nomaha, up-stream people. This separation occurring before 
De Sota's discovery of the Mississippi must have been in the 15th century. 
The Omahas, including the Osage, Ponka and Kansa group, ascended as far 
as the Missouri river where after a time the Omahas ascended the Missouri, 
leaving behind succe.ssively the Osage and Kansa families in the present ter- 
ritory of Missouri and Kansas, where the Omahas settled between the Platte 
and Niobrara, south of the Missouri, and the Ponkas continued into the Black 
Hills country where Lewis and Clark found them late in the 18th century 
reduced by smallpox from 3,500 to 300. 

The Osage and Kansa ancestors seemed to have separated from the main 
Omaha group at the mouth of what was known as "White Creek," Grand Tuc 
(Grandes Eaux, according to Mooney) or Great Osage, which name it after- 
wards bore instead of referring to the Mississippi, as some claim. In 167S 
Marquette refers to them as the "Ouchage" and "Autrechaha." In 1791 Peni- 
caut designates them "Huzzau," "Ous," and "Wawha." 

According to Croghan they were found on the Osage river in 1759 but 
in wending their way westward late in that century they encountered the 
Comanches and other Shoshonean peoples and turned southward toward the 
Arkansas river, and held the country between that stream and the Missouri 
till the immigration of the Cherokees westwward. They lived mainly along 
the Arkansas and Osage rivers early in the last century. In 1829 Procter es- 
timated their number at 5,000. Schoolcraft in April 1853 reckoned them at 
3,758 after the removal of Black Dog's band to a new location lower down the 
Verdigris. In 18 60 they composed seven large villages besides many smaller 
ones along Neosho and Verdigras rivers. In 1904 the full bloods numbered 
808. Early in the 18th century the Missouri (Ouemessourit) Indians being 
greatly reduced by the Sac and Fox wars, dispersed, and five or six lodges 
joined the Osages, three th© Kansa and the rest amalgamated with the Oto 
and are now mixed with the blood of these people. It is said by an old 
Osage that the name Kah-sah, Kansa or Kaw, was a term of ridicule given 
by the Osages to the Kaw band because they would not help the Osage in 
war against their common enemy, the Cherokee and other tribes, the term 
in Osage meaning coward. Mr. Wisemeyer, one of the Grey Horse merchants 
for years and now at Fairfax, and many years among the Owages, in speaking 
with the Omaha and Sioux Indians, found that they could speak the Osage 
language, all using the same dialect, showing that they belonged to the same 
or closely allied tribes. Rev. J. Owen Dorsey, an Episcopalian, who was 
connected with the Bureau of Ethnology at the Smithsonian institute at 
Washington, D. C, wrote an alphabet of the Sioux band, and discovered on 
meeting the Osage, Kaw and allied tribes, that it was applicable to these 
whose dialect he could speak fluently on first meeting them. 

The Osage never had a written language, completed. A priest of Neo- 
sho, Kansas, once wrote a dictionary of the language, but died before it 
was printed and somehow got destroyed before publication. Elex Tall Chief 
a highly educated young Osage, of the Tall Chief family near Fairfax, is said 
'tO be now compiling an Osage dictionary, but the writer has not yet gotten 
any part of it, nor met this lexicographer. Nor does he consider it of suf- 
ficient importance to publish one now, as it will be only a generation till all 
Osages will know English, the universal language of the future. There is 
such a thing as dialectic economy of time and energy in educating the world 
as in other things. 

The first record of the Osage yet found is a silver medal dated 1800 
with Thomas Jefferson engraved on one side and two claspeh hands on the 
other over the word "Friendship," perhaps given to them by Uncle Sam to re- 
mind them of his desire. 

We find but little record of these people till the treaty of 1804 at £t. 
Louis as the colonies had not needed to that time the trans-Mississippi lands. 
Here we find the French traders and explorers first marrying into the Osage 

S 



Tribes. Choteau, after whom Choteau Avenue Is named, was a part blood 

Osage. They once held the whole territory which later formed the states of 
Missouri, Arkansas and Kansas. By treaty and the press of white Immigra- 
tion, they retired along the Missouri river to the present site of Kansas City, 
Mo., where they established trading posts. 

The Osages and allied French were thus the first settlers of St. Louis 
and Kansas City, Mo., where they still have not a few distant relatives. 
What marevlous developments have followed in their former path; not more 
so however than will still gome in their present country in two decades. In 
the West Bottoms of Kansas City, and on the banks of Turkey Creek, near its 
inouth lived a woman, the material ancestor of many of the mixed blood 
Osages, whose leading families are nearly all related by consanguinity or mar- 
riage, the wife of a "Canadian French-Alsatian" trapper, trader and inter- 
preter, who died about the '50s, Monsieur Lessart. His wife lived here till 
Saucy Chief visited there in the '50s. Many of her descendants took up' 
again her maiden name of Roy, of whom more elsewhere in a sketch of 
the Lessart family. Here lived the Choteaus from St. Louis, Revars (Re- 
vards from New Orleans,) Clairmot-Lessarts from Canada or Alsatia, Plom- 
ondons, (Prudhommes,) Del Oriers, Pappans, Pappins, Perriers, Tayrians, 
Reveletts, Mongrains, Soldanls, DeNoyas, Mon Cravies, etc., etc. The French 
mostly formed marriage alliances with the Osage, Quapaws, Wyandottes, 
and Kansas (Kaws.) But as the colonies stretched their bounds westward 
from the Mississippi, the Osage and their foreign allies receded west and 
south. They had another trading post some miles west of Missouri's present 
line, In the county of Linn. Their first school was esttablished in Neosho 
county, Kansas, by Father Shoemaker, about 1836, now known as St. Paul 
MIsison. They have always been allied with some of the best whites In their 
territory, but scorning any alliance with the African race except in one 
case of adoption, one by Prince Albert, (Osage.) Hence they might be 
termed the royal tribe of American aborigines. 

In the summer of 1868 after many peaceable retreats to different points 
in their successively limited reservations, they ceded by treaty at Drum Creek 
in present Montgomery county, all eastern Kansas, retaining some lands In 
west Kansas. For 100 years or more these people have been In close relation 
with the whites and have shown great shrewdness in making their treaties. 
Their traditions claim that the first two white men they ever saw came 
across a great stream (Grandes Eaux) in a boat, were captured, a council 
held and the two whites released on condition that they recross the water 
and never return. 

Another says that the Osage first met the explorers of America upon 
the Gulf coast (or Atlantic) as they refer to the great water (the ocean 
perhaps,) then shoved their way up the Mississippi to the site of Napoleon, 
at Arkansas river mouth, there separated into the Great and Little Bone 
bands, and the Kaws and Poncas, the former taking up said river, the latter 
toward the headwaters of the Missouri and Kaw which retained the latter's 
name. But this is variance in vague history and given only to show the un- 
certainty of individual tradition. The great waters might have been the 
Pacific, or Great Lakes, or Ohio, or Mississippi rivers, as all the aborigines 
first emigrated from the northwest coast. The Dakota confederates, like the 
Wichitas, were a large tribe of Indians that were supposed to have migrated 
south from the far northern regions, from which direction ethnologists claim 
or believe, all the aboriigines of America came. From north Asia the human 
race may have first found its way across the narrows of the B'ehring Sea, 
Into what is now known as Alaska. All the historic legends of the various 
tribes seem to bear out this theory, and the bronze color and characteristics 
of the Indians are circumstancial evidence that these people were branches 
or offspring of the Asiatic races. 

The tradition of the older ones of a battle against whites led by a general 
on a white horse signifies that their ancestors may have participated In a 
fight against Gen. Babcock. on Braddock's Field, now a park in the midst of 
the town by that name, a suburb of Greater Pittsburg (Pa.) 12 miles from 
its center, which historic field the writer has frequently viewed. In thoughts 
of the Red men and French who won that victory, but finally realized that 
the westward march of a commercial, scientific and seml-Chrlstlan civiliza- 
tion could never be turned eastward again, till It has circumscribed the globe 

6 



THE ST. liOTJIS BOARDING SCHOOL 



This school located on a beautiful 
quarter section of land joining Paw- 
huska on the west, was the first to be 
built on the new reservation for the 
Osage children after the Osage came 
from Kansas. It is a fine four story 
native stone building facing north. It 
can room and board from 150 to 200 
g-irls of all ages with the best accom- 
modations. The preceeding cut shows 
some of the beauties of the building 
and improved grounds, with the happy 
little Osage girls, mostly under 16 
years of age, and the Sisters who 
teach them all the arts of domestic 
life and literature and music, for 
which they have the very best facil- 
ities for studying under the kind and 
efficient instruction of the Sisters. 
Many of the Osage ladies can look 
back to the St. Louis school as their 
first, and often only school of their 
girlhood,, and send their daughters 
to their Alma Mater. Here you see 
many bright little faces and feel the 
refining, educating influence that pre- 
vails in the recitation rooms, dormit- 
ories, dining hall, and rectory, all 
neat, clean, and cosy, surrounded by a 
broad campus. Music is made a spec- 
ialty, as many of the Osage girls take 
readily and naturally to the art of 
harmony. The school is conducted 
under contract with the U. S. govern- 
ment to board and educate the child- 



THE lilTTLE PHILOSOPHER. 
A Twentieth Century Tliinker. 





CAN YOU THINK? 



A Typical Osage Indian Girl. 
The Wife of Arthur Boimicastle. 

ren who choose to attend the school, 
at a stated sum per month. 

The land was donated the Catholic 
people for school purposes and is well 
improved, with increasing attractive- 
ness as the orchards, ornamental trees 
and flowers grow more beautiful. The 
children are under much better in- 
fluence here than in many of their 
homes, where the habits of their 
young lives are moulded in the old 
modes of living. Some of the best 
wives and housekeepers in the Os- 
age have been trained in the St. 
Louis School. 

St. John's school for boys on Hom- 
iny Creek, near Grey Horse, is a model 
after the St. Louis, and furnishes 
equal advantages for the boys. Both 
were built through the benevolence 
of Walter Kalhirise, (or Kathrine 
Drexel,) of Philadelphia. These 

schools have only begun well their 
educational work for the Osage with 
their bright future. 



and with Its primitive Asiatic cradle clasps one such unbrolcen belt of mother 
Zl^.r fT ^"7,"^^^ fi"^"y ^^"' ^here still the log barrrcade marks the 
center of the world s greatest iron, coal, and oil markets, the unceasing hum 
of a thousand productive trades. Every temporary victory was but the pre- 
lude to a Tippecanoe, Custer's last charge but the funeral knell of the wild 
buffalo, wild horse unbroken plains, unfelled forests and barbaric life 
WHEN FIRST CAI^LED OSAGE INDIANS 
They first lived in Kansas. They called themselves "Wa-sa-s(a)h" (?) 
the name of the tribe. There were three divisions, the Big Hills, the Little 
Osages and Kaws. The latter the Osages once refused to own, as the Kaws 
drifted away as a band of Osages but were not received back after their long 
absence. They speak about the same dialect and can understand each other. 
The Kaws have already allotted their lands in 1902 and occupy the Kaw 
(from which Kansas is derived) country, the northwest part of the Osage. 

When the Cherokees moved from North Carolina and Tennessee across 
the Mississippi river, and were assigned territory west of Arkansas, the Os- 
ages felt that the Cherokees were intruding upon Osage country and this 
circumstance brought the two tribes into conflict and resulted in the battle of 
Claremore Hills, near the present town of Claremore, I. T., in which the 
Cherokees won a victory over the Osages, capturing some and driving the rest 
west to their Kansas country. When the Osages ceded their Kansas land to 
the United States government "Uncle Sam" gave them by treaty the present 
Osage country, to have and hold as long as "water flows, grass grows and 
fire burns." 

ORIGIN OF THE TERM OSAGE. 
The Great and Little Osages so named by the government authorities 
were once called the Big Bone and Little Bone Indians, a term applied to 
each other even in their councils at Pawhuska. of a few years ago. The 
above names have perhaps been latinized through the English from the 
term Bone people to Osage, from the Latin Ossa (?) meaning bone. Hence 
Little Bone (Little Osage) and Big Bone (Great Osage). But this Is only 
a probability. From the report of the Bureau of American Ethnology the 
director, J. W. Powell, or rather Mr. James Mooney, a man of great re- 
search In Indian lore and language, says: "The popular name 'Osage' is a 
corruption of Wasash, the name used by themselves. The Osage being the 
principal southern Souan tribe, claiming at one time the whole territory 
from the Missouri to the Arkansas and from the Mississippi far Into the 
plains, were geographically brought equally into contact with the agricultural 
and sedentary tribes of the eastern country, and the roving hunters of the 
prairie, and in tribal habit and custom they formed a connecting link be- 
tween the two." 

They were once a strong band but have been greatly decreased by war 
before coming to their present home, and many are said to have fallen by 
dissipation, but this the writer is unabel to confirm from his own personal 
knowledge. 

W. J. McGee, in referring to the transformation of the Indian names 
into English says: 

"Most of the names are simply corruptions of the original terms, 
though frequently the modification is so complete as to render identification 
and interpretation difficult — it is not easy to find Wa-cace in 'Osage' (so 
spelled by the French) whose orthography was adopted and mispronounced 
by English speaking pioneers." 

The meaning of most of the eastern names are lost. The Osage or 
Wa-ca-ce ("People" 'We are the people' if McGee is correct,) were com- 
prised of several bands herein named. 

The nomenclature of the Osage is difficult. Like that of Souan peoples 
and the great Dakota confederacy, they seem to have had a general term 
meaning only the "People." The Osages perhaps once belonged to the power- 
ful aboriginal organization, the Dakotas, who had only descriptive terms of 
the allied tribes, as a greeting or countersign, and an alternate proper des- 
criptive term — "Seven Council Fires" from which the Osage Seven Fire-places 
In their charmed circle were derived, thus indicating the antiquity of their 
ancestors as it was applied before the separation of the Aslniboin (a Can- 
adian band.) The Cigeha group (a probabel branch of the Dakotas) was a 
term applied to the allied Omaha, Osage, Ponka, Kansa, Oto, etc., before 

7 



THE BANKS OF 




THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK 

The First National Bank was the 
first to be established, October 1901, 
before which date the money affairs 
had been handled mostly by the In- 
dian traders. This bank beg-an with 
a capital stock, and under the direc- 
tion of men of large means, that as- 
sures its success and growth. The of- 
ficers and share holders whose names 
appear under the cut, are some of the 
financial pillars of the Osage country. 
They stand high socially as well as in 
finance. A statement at the close of 
businops Aiieu=t 25. 1905. snoqi^s rn'"?'\ 
for the bank nn'l town. Tho hTnkii-^ 
business of a community is the cii- 
terian by which its resources and pro- 
gress are estimnted by the commercial 
world. Mr. Brenner, the presidpnt. i- 
a man of pxtpnsi\-e business pxiierien'^e 
nnil is well known throughout the Os- 
age PMtion. having lived there man\' 
years, engaged in the mercantile, cattle 
and other business enterprl.=es, prior 
to organizing the bank. He is largely 
interested in real estate and the oil 
and gas development here. has a 
beautiful cottage home on Main Street. 
and is ever ready to advance the in- 
terests of his town. With Mr. W. T. 
Leahy, A. W. Ruble, T. E. Gibson, and 
assistants, they are doing a large bank- 
ing business. They occupy a stone 
building south of the park square on 
the triangle, and will gladly welcome 
and aid every new enterprise for Paw- 
huska and substantial individual. 



PAWHUSKA. 

THE CITIZENS' NATIONAL. BANK 

Was established October 1, 1903, as 
a state bank with $15,000 capital stock 
but such was its volume and increase 
of business that in June 1905, the cap- 
ital stock was increased to $25,000 
and on August 26, 1906, the institution 
was converted into a national bank. 
Its last statement issued September 1, 
1905, showed the total resources to be 
$84,509.98; deposits to exceed $50,000 
surplus and individual profits over 
$5,000 and increasing rapidly. Mr. W. 
S. Mathews who has been its president 
since organization, is of Osage ances- 
try, born and reared among them, 
and for many years honored and 
prominent in their tribal affairs. He 
is now a member of the Osage council. 
His family is one of the oldest and 
most prominent citizen families. His 
children are enjoying the best literary 
schools of the states. Mr. Mathews is 
an unassuming man, but of broad 
knowledge of national affairs, and Os- 
age history, and excellent business 
experience and judgment; a congenial 
lodge man, a K. P. and a most trusted 
and excellent man to steer a financial 
house. He has very able efficient of- 
ficers in Mr. R. E. Trammell, vice- 
president, and Mr. D. H. Spruill, cash- 
ier, both young men well fitted for 
their responsibility, worthy of your 
trust, and most obliging in their bus- 
iness. At present the bank occupies 
a central building of Messrs. Beck and 
Hunt, by the Pawhuska hotel and 
council house south of the Triangle 
Init has purchased a corner lot op- 
V Msite at $5,000. the highest price paid 
c'uiing the sale. 

THE BANK OF COMMERCE 

ITas lately been organized (October 
: . 1905) under the official manage- 
n ent of J. D. Scarborough, president; 
Clifton George, vice-president, Ethan 
Allen, cashier, M. O. Garrett, assistant 
cashier. Mr. Scarborough, formerly 
of Texas, has for many years run the 
Waukomis bank, Oklahoma. They 

have chartered at $10,000 capital 
stock, but expect to increase to $20,- 
000. The best make of a Mangenes 
steel safe has been placed in their 
office on the east side of the triangle. 
Mr. Scarborough and his assisants 
will add much to the progerssive in- 
fluence of the town, do a general 
banking business, and make a special- 
ty of collections, and welcome new 
patrons. 
8 



their separation, who were without denotive designations, but proudly styled 
themselves "Local People," (a separate peculiar people.) "Men," "Inhabit- 
ants," and with still more pride "People of the Parent Speech," bearing an 
air of the first people, first families, of the world, lords in all their realm. 
too much "men," to distinguished a "people," for special titles, just as the 
terms "men" and "women" in sacred history language means the greatest 
work of God in creation. They felt the need of no other honor than the 
term "People." There is much variance in their names and spelling by dif- 
ferent writers as in opinions and figures, but we can from the forms of 
Wa-sa-sah (or sha), Wasash, Wa-ca-ce and Wa-wha draw this "conclusion: 
Wa, meaning great, and sash, sha, cace, wha, etc., meaning bone or people. 
Their own term is "Great Bone" (English slang, "Great Backbone,") a 
"Great People." 

According to Dorsey, Shahan was a synonym of Osage, Wak, Otto, etc. 
THE GENTILE SYSTEM A3IONG THE OSAGE. 

Among the Osages there were formerly three primary divisions or 
tribes composed of what was termed seven fire places each, Tsicu-utse- 
pecu-da (*), the Seven Tslcii fireplaces, Hanka, fireplaces, and Wacace- 
iitse-pe-cuda, the Seven Osage Fireplaces, 

The Hankas were the last to join the nation. When this occurred the 
first seven were reckoned as five, and the Osage as two gentes in order to 
keep the number of gentes on the right side of the tribal circle. Thus we 
find the Hebrew idea of the sacredness of the number seven and in their 
ceremonies they used seven pipes each. The circle was divided into halves 
the right side representing war, the left side peace. According as the chil- 
dren of one or the other side of the gens circle are sick they apply for 
food from the other side for them. To the peace or war side belong all the 
fireplaces or families of the tribe. Each family could trace his lineage 
back according to the side of the circle and names adopted from animals 
and plants. In this system were Involved methods of choosing chiefs, war- 
riors, officers, voting upon measures to be pursued in war, peace, punish- 
ment, treaties, etc., a system too much involved, vague and too obsolete to 
be given in detail in a brief historical sketch. 

NAMING OF THEIR CHILDREN. 

According to Saucy Chief, the care and naming of Osage children was a 
privilege conferred upon the Tsciu wactake (chief) and Pah-ka-wactake, 
who proceed with as much ceremony as some of the churches in confirma- 
tion. WTien a child of the Tsicu is named a certain old man sang songs 
without the camp, dropping tobacco from his pipe on his left toes as he 
sings each song. On the first day he (the Tsicu wactake) takes four grains 
of corn, a black, red, blue and white, after the four grains of corn dropped 
by four buffalo in the Osage tradition. After chewing the grains he passes 
them between the lips of the babe to be named. Four stones, pointing to 
the four points of the compass were put into the fire. The Tsicu called for 
some cedar and a special kind of grass that dies not in winter for use on the 
second day, on which, before sunrise, the old man says of the cedar tree 
and branches "It shall be for the children." Likewise he mentions the river, 
Its deep holes and tributaries, as future medicine for the children. Upon the 
heated stones placed in a pile, is put the cedar and grass. Water is then 
poured on them making a steam In which the child is held. Then four 
names are given by the head man of the father's gens, who chooses one for 
the child. Menntime the men of the other gens bring stones, cedar water, 
etc., each performing his distinctive ceremonies. The old Tsicu putting 
cedar into some of the water, gives the child four sips. Then dipping his 
left hand in the water rubs the child down the left side from head to foot, 
Then repeats the process on the left, right an back side of the child. And 
all the women of his gens are invited to come forward and receive the same 
sign of blessing as the child, while all the women of the other gens are 
similarly treated by the head men of their respective gentes. All these 
tokens of stones, cedar, grass, water, fire, steam and corn and sips of water 
plainly signify. "May the world (all lands) with its forests, plains, rivers, 
streams or creeks, be the heritage of the child, to eat, drink and be merry, 

9 
• The letters k, c, and t were reversed In their dialectic characters, and 
c crossed, but could not be linotyped. 




g 

M 



(Photo by Hargis) ^ lo 



his whole being rendering glory to the woman who gave it birth," So deep 
are these principles inculcated in mothers and children that perhaps no 
mothers and fathers of the world idolize their children more, nor any child- 
ren reverence more their parents, till this Israelitish virtue is handed down 
through part blood posterity, till among the Osage descendants it Is often 
beautiful to behold a quiet Caucasian father or mother, with scarce enough 
Osage blood to darken their hair and eyes, which are frequently blond, 
gather a little flock of still more beautiful children about them in ideal par- 
ental love. No money too valuable, no time too precious to spend with the 
little folks, at morn or noon or night, even at times to extreme indulgence 
In their childish wishes and imitative language, far from baby brogue. 
How different is the scene, if any at all, in may of the blue blood Caucasian 
homes (?) where no stork ever comes with her burden of blessing, and when 
she does bring her proffered gifts, how frequently the so-called "Queen of 
the Home" is too bound to her social clubs and social rounds, to welcome tht 
little strangers. And this maternal trait or trend among the Osage and their 
descendants is not explained as some would have us believe "by the fact 
that each child is born heir to a common estate of $15,000 or $20,000 each." 
though this fact may be a favorable, assuring condition. But how many 
of the better fixed and wealthier classes of Caucusians welcome not the 
little, but bighter stars of every home, worth the name of "Home, Home, 
Sweet Home!" The orphan sighs: "What is home without a mother?" 
The true parent asks: "what is home without children and their happy 
glee?" 

BEIjIEF in creation — ^IN THE GREAT GOD AND A >IESSIAH. 
In the mythological legends as to the creation of certain lands the 
beaver, otter, and muskrat hold the role of formation. The Iroquois nar- 
rated that their primitive female ancestor was kicked from the sky by her 
enrager spouse when there was yet no land for her habitation, but that it 
"suddenly bubbled up under her feet, and waxed bigger till a whole country 
was in her possession." Others claim that the beaver, otter and muskrat, 
seeing her fall rushed to the bottom of the deep to bring up mud sufficient 
to construct an island for her residence. 

Among the Osages, Takahlis, and Algonkin of the northwest tribes the 
muskrat was their simple, cosmogonic machinery of land formation. These 
latter tribes were philosophic enough to see no real creation Tn such an ac- 
count, but only formation by the action of these amphibious animals. The 
earth was there but hidden by boundless waters, and heaved up for dry 
land by the muskrat, as a formation only, logically distinguishing between 
the terms formation and creation, not assuming to know anything of cre- 
ation, and considered any questions concerning it nonsense. Their amphib- 
ians were not considered creative constructors, but merely reconstructors. 
a very judicious and important corollary. It supposed a previous existance 
of matter on earth anterior to ours, but one without light or human in- 
habitants. A lake they said, burst it bounds, and siibmerbed all lands (note 
some similarity to the Bible deluge) and became the primeval ocean. We 
find among all primitive peoples some marvelous parallels of belief in the 
mythic epochs of nature, the catastrophies. calamities and deluges of fire 
and water, which have held and swayed all human fancy in every land In 
every age. But all fancies have been lost in the dilemma of an explanation 
of a creation of matter from nothing on the one hand, and the "eternity of 
matter" on the other. "Ex nihilo nihil" (est) is an apothem indorsed alike 
by the profoundest metaphysicians and the most uncultured of primeval man. 
Frances S. Drake, in his "Indian History for Young People" gives the 
following fabulous legend as the Osage metaphysician's natural philisophy 
for the origin of his "people." Many Osages believe that the first man of 
their nation came out of a sheel; that while he was walking on earth he met 
the Great Spirit, who gave him a bow and arrow and told him to go a hunt- 
ing. After he had killed a deer the Great Spirit gave hTm fire and told 
him to cook and eat his meat and told him also to take the skin and cover 
himself with it. and with the skins of other animals that he should kill. 
One day the Osage while hunting saw a beaver sitting on a beaver hut. Mr. 
Beaver asked him what he was looking for. The Osasre answered: "I am 
thirsty and came for a drink." The beaver then asked him who he was 
and when he came. The Osage replied that he had no place of residence. 

11 



Mr. and Mrs. Davis Fronkler, a cut of whose Pawhuska home and Mil- 
land Hotel appear with this sketch, are citizens of the Osage and Kaw 
country. He is of the Kaw, she of the Osage Nation. Mrs. Fronkier's 
father, Gasso Chouteau, was half Osage and half French, and was the 
government interpreter for several years. His grandmother Chouteau was 
a full blood. They have a beautiful cottage home in Pawhuska and two 
good farms in the Osage and Kaw. They had four children, two are living, 




The Old Home of Mi\ and Mrs. David Fronkier. 

(Photo by Hargis) 
B boy, Arthur, and Rose, the wife of Jasper Rogers, one of tne most beauti- 
ful brides of the Osage descendants, showing prominently the French feat- 
ures and beauty. Their beautiful home is no less striking than the life of the 
inmates, being a characteristic, happy, Osage citizen home, with his young 
son and attractive little wife dwelling with them. The Midland Hotel Is 
centrally located and valuable property which they lease to proprietors. 

THE OSAGE TELEPHONE COMPANY 



MH. R. S. HARRIS, MgP. 

Mr. R. S. Harris, the successful 
manager of the Osage Telephone Co., 
is a native of Missouri, but spent 
some years in Texas in the cattle 
business. He has been in the Osage 
since 1889, ten years of which time 
he was devoted to the Mercantile bus- 
iness under the firm name of Leahy 
(W. T.) & Harris. But seeing a fine 
opportunity in the great convenience 
of the times, put in a telephone sys- 
tem of 60 phones, and now has nearly 
200 installed, and one of the best sys- 
tems in the territory, operated day 
and night, with about 100 miles of 
wire and 2000 feet of cable In town, 
and long distance connections to all 
points. He owns som« valuable prop- 
erty in Pawhuska, and Is a far sighted 
business man, and a good citizen wide 
awake to all advancement. He mar- 
ried a Miss Toacum, whose sister. 
Miss Dora, is his chief operator. She 
is a most typical Kansas and western 

girl, with a combination of business qualities rarely found. She has been in 

the Osage for ten years and is a successful operator. 

12 I 




"Well, then said the beaver, "as you appear to be a reasonable man I wish 
you to come and live with me. I have many daughters and if any of them 
should be agreeabel to you, you may marry." The Osage, as the legend 
goes, accepted his offer and married one of his daughters, by whom he 
had many children. The Osage ancestors gave this as their reason for not 
killing the beaver, as their offspring were believed to be the Osage "peo- 
ple." Such were their former traditions, not present. 

OSAGE TREE OF LIFE AND HEAVEN 3IYTHOLOGY. 

Rev. J. Owen Dorsey, refers to a chart that was accompanied by chant 
ing a tradition by the members of a secret society of Osages drawn by an 
Osage, Hada — cutse, Red Corn, early adopted by a white man named 
Matthews. Hence Rer Corn was named Wm. P. Matthews, or "Bill Nix," 
becoming one of the tribal lawyers. He belongs to the «adekice gens. 
Other versions were given by Pahuska (present Pawhuska. While 
Hair, chief of the Bald Eagle sub-gens of the Tsicu gens, and from Saucy 
Chief, from the Wa-ca-ce gens, and from Good Voice of the Miki gens. The 
chart represents the tree of life, by a flowing river, both described in con- 
ferring the order. When a woman is initiated she was required by the 
head of her gens to take four sips of water (symbolizing the river). Then 
rubs cedar on the palms of his hands with which he rubs her from head 
to foot. If she belongs to the left sid.^ of the tribal circle he first strokes the 
Uft side of her head, making three passes, pronounciing the sacred name 
of the Great Spirit three times, repeating the process on her forehead, 
right side and back part of her head making twelve strokes in all (a perfect 
number). 

Beneath the river were the following objects: The Watsetuka male 
slaying animal, or morning, (red), star, (2) six stars ("Elm Rod"), (3) the 
evening star (4), the little star. Beneath these are the moon, seven stars 
and sun. Under the seven stars the peace pipe and war hatcnet which Is 
close to the sun. The moon and seven stars are on the same side of the 
chart. Four parallel lines across the chart represent the four degrees 
through which the ancestors of the Tsicu people passed from the upper 
heavens to the earth. The lowest heavens rest on a red oak tree (Pusuku). 
The Sadekice tradition begins below the lowest heavens on the left side 
under the peace pipe The stanza of the chant point to the different periods 
of evolution, first when the children of the first period ("former end") of 
the race were without hun-nn bodies and human souls. Then birds over 
the arch denote the evolution rf human souls in bird bodies. Then the pro- 
gress from the fourth to the first heavens, followed by descent to the earth. 
The ascent to four and ddescent to three make up the sacred numbei. 
seven. When they alighted, as the legend runs, it was on a neautiful day. 
when the earth was clothed in luxuritant vegetation. From this tmie the 
path of the Osages diverged, the war gens marching to the right, the peace 
gens to the left, including the Tsicu, who originated the chart. Then con- 
flict and the question of rights begun. The Tsicu, peace gens, met the mes- 
senger and they sent him off to the different stars for aid. According to the 
chart he approached in order the morning star (Watse-tuka), sun (Hapata 

Wakanta — the God of day, the sun), moon (Wakantaka the God of 

night), seven stars (Mikake-pecuda), (Ta-adxi Three deer?), Big Star (Mi- 
kake-tanka), and Little Star (Mikake-cinka). Then Black Bear went to the 
VVacinka-cutse, a female red bird sitting on her nest. This grandmother 
granted his request giving them human bodies, made from her own body. 
The Hankaucantsi, the most warlike people; made a treaty of peace with 
the Waccace and Tsico gems and from the union of the three resulted in the 
I.nst Osage nation but not including the allied races. A somewhat different 
version is given by the other gens, but all showing more or less the Dar- 
winian theory of man's evolution, or ascent — almost as plausible in reason. 
when we link to this the first man's marriage with the beaver's daughter. 
THE GHOST DANCE, RELIGION AND IMESSIAH. 

The Ghost-dance that is so potent in the religious life and belief of the 
Arapahos and Cheyennes of the west made but little impression and pro- 
gress among the Osages, who seem to have had a more philosophic premises 
of religious belief and practice. This dance was practiced Vy a majority of 
the Pawnees in full anticipation of the early coming of the Messiah and the 
buffalo, becoming as devoted to the belief and dance as tne Arapahos who 

13 



FOURTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT UNITED STATES COURT. 

Composed of Noble, Kay and Pawnee counties, and the Osage Reser- 
vation, with the following officers: Bayard, judge and Jay E. Pickard 
clerk, of Perry, O. T.; Judge E. N. Yates, deputy, and U. S. Commissioner' 
and Mrs. Mary B. Yates, deputy, Pawhuska. Judge Yates is a native of 
Putnam county, Indiana, but has been in Kansas and Oklahoma seven 
years. He is also deputy clerk of the District court. His commissioner's 
court is always in session. Hon. Horace Speed, U. S. attorney, and Jno. 
H. Scothorn, his assistant, practice here. 






THE OSAGE COUNCIL HOUSE. 

(Photo by Hargis) 

In this historic building is Council Hall and the offices of Judge E. N. 
Yates; U. S. Commissioner, Mr. J. N. Coulter, E. W. King and Jos. B. Mit- 
chell, lawyers, Dr. F. C. Gale, Dentist, W. M. Dial, and Geo. B'. Mellotte, 
Real Estate and Insurance. The Blue Point Restaurant and young Mr. 
Blanc's Barber-shop in the basement. The Osage Council meets in Council 
Chamber every three months about quarterly payments or oftener at the 
call of the chief, O-lo-ho-wal-la or the assistant chief, Bacon Rind. 

14 



introduced and propagated the method of worship, but strenuously opposed 
by the agency authorities because of the spirit of unrest, conquest and 
conquering it engendered among its adherents. Yet it was but the inherent 
Idea and feeling of all humanity from the most untutored savage of AfrTca"s 
dismal jungles to the learned "Bard of Avon" that somewhere the human 
rnH^ fn^''". "1^°!^° ^^ regained by reverential approach to the Great 
?y.l-'J ^^"^tianity. he Great Spirit, or many gods of pagan minds. And 
the Restoration idea is the stronger in those whose life is proportionately 
hard to bear— a universal truth. This, perhaps, explains why the Osages 
being the most opulent, wealthiest tribe of America and the world felt 
ess need of a redeeming Messiah than those less fortunate. And bein^ 
long under the influence and teaching of the Catholic church, many are 
Arm believers in, and worshipers of the Christian Messiah, Jesus. Yet all 
belief in a Messiah is virtually the same though vested in moral, ethical 
philosophy or in silken robes, or in simple nude pagan imagination. "Para- 
dise lost and Messianic return and restoration; though one be to John's 
revealed Heaven of the Spirit, the other to the happy hunting and fishing 
grounds. It IS mainly a difference in comprehension of what is the ideality 
and perfection of life and its ultimate purpose and reward. "The belief and 
teachings as to the Hebrew Messiah, the Christian's millennium, the Hindu 
Avator and the Hesunanin ("Our Father") of the Indian ghost-dance are 
in essence the same and are born in the hopes and longings cherished by all 
human beings. ' 

Quoting Mr. Mooney, the compiler of Indian lore and legend the fol- 
lowing is worthy of reprint: "There are hours, long departed, which mem- 
ory brings like blossoms of Edden to twine around the heart."— Moore 

"The wise men tell us that the world is growing happier— that we live 
longer than did our fathers, have more of comfort and less of toil, fewer 
wars and discords, and higher hopes and aspirations. . So say the wise men 
but deep in our hearts we know they are wrong. For were not we too' 
born in Arcadia and have we not each one of us in that May of life when 
the world was young, started out lightly and airly along the pathway that 
led through green meadows to the blue mountains on the distant horizon 
beyond which lay the great world we were to conquer? And through 
others dropped behind, have we not gone on through morning brightness 
and noonday heat, with eyes always steadily forwward until the fresh grass 
begun to be parched and withered, and the way grew hard and stony, and 
the blue mountains resolved into gray rocks and thorny cliffs? And when 
af last we reached the toilsome summits we founds the glory that had lured 
us onward was only the sunset glow that fades into darkness while we 
look, and leaves us at the very goal to sink down tired in body and sick 
at heart, with strength and courage gone, to close our eyes and drem again 
not of the fame and fortune that were to be ours, but only of the old time 
happiness that we have left so far behind." 

As with men so it is with nations. The lost paradise Is the world's 
dreamland of youth. What tribe and people has not had its golden age, 
before Pandora's box was loosed, when women were nymphs and dryads and 
men were gods and heroes? And when the race lies crushed and groaning 
beneath an alien yoke, how natural is the ddream of a redeemer, an Arthur, 
who shall return from exile or awake from some long sleep to drive out 
the usurper and win back for his people what they have lost. (The hope 
becomes a faith and the faith becomes the creed of priests and prophets 
(preachers), until the hero is a god and the dream a religion, looking to 
some miracle of nature for its culmination and accomplshment. 

Say, shall not I at last attain some height from whence the past is clear? 
In whose immortal atmosphere I shall behold by dead again'' — Bayard 
Taylor. 

For the fires grow cold and the dances fail. 
And the songs in their echoes die; 
And what have we left but the grave beneath. 
And above the waiting sky? — The Song of the Ancient People. 
My father, have pity on me! I have nothing to eat, 
I am dying of thirst — everything is gone! — Arapaho Ghost Dance. 

15 







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.3 



22 tl 



2-1 



2 "" 






16 



(Photo by Hargls) 



sealed by getting a roll of paper, which she was led to believe was the 
magnet or charm of the Great Father at Washington, to hold this third 
time her man with her. Soon the third ran away and she said "he got 
crazy too." Lamenting over the fact that she had married white folks' 
way and could not again take a man till "Uncle Sam" took back her sham, 
(charm) said, "Me no marry white folks way again. No good. He ran 
away too. Roll of paper do no good. Me no like it." And it seems that 
this Indian woman was not far from being right in her estimate of the 
charm value of the roll of paper. It is recorded that out of 5,425 court 
cases docketed in Oklahoma county, one-fifth or over one thousand were 
divorce cases who did not like the roll of paper, praying the court to take 
back or annul what it gave. When society learns again that true marriage 
is an inseparable attachment formed by natural affinity, intelligence, heart 
devotion, love (meaning true affection without dissimilation,) and not a 
mere legal and social ceremony for' convenience, there will be thousands of 
more happy homes, and legal separations the exception. There would be 
according to full-blood Angle P. few "runaways," or run-abouts after 
marriage. 

THE OSAGE MARRIAGE CEREMONY. 

Their ideals of virtue are strenuous and exacting in demeanor. They 
have no courtship. The younger women are constantly under the keenest 
vigilance of the older married ones. This is their custom. All ancestors 
are looked upon as mothers, fathers or guardians of the girls till married, 
which is early in life. Then she becomes the ward of the husband'.s par- 
ents, who feed them both the first year. The parents arrange the match 
by consent or gift. The boy and girl perhaps never see each other till 
their wedding hour, even though he ties his ponies in her yard to be re- 
ceived if accepted, or cut loose if rejected. 

In marriage the girl was bought by the groom or his father for an 
agreed sum, or gifts paid to the girl's father, and her relation. It is said 
the full-bloods still practice this after the official recognition of such mar- 
riage by the agent and councils. When the gifts are first brought to the 
bride to be, time is given for the relatives to be consulted, or called 
together. The gifts are generally accepted on the second day. Then two 
days are given for the preparation for the wedding. Some food Is sent 
by the groom each day to his expected bride, to let her know what kind of 
fare she may expect after marriage, whether it be good. A fine test If it is 
not only taffy but plain "grub," or "chuck." She is not so liable to be dis- 
appointed after marriage. Many "pale face" lads and lassies have all the 
sweets of well stocked confectionaries, chocolates, bon-bons, angel puffs, 
grape richey, ice cream socials, taffy, etc., and the finest livery rigs, at 
any cost before marriage, who often seem unable to get plenty of corn 
bread and butter milk for food and even a goat cart to ride in after mar- 
riage. The Osage young people are conslstant. They start in as they expect 
to go through. 

On the fourth day a beautiful, perhaps costly, American flag Is raised 
by the families interested. After this the bride is prepared by putting 
on all of her best clothes, or all personal effects, often consisting of several 
fine robes, dresses, or blankets. Then she is taken to the groom's house on 
the best pony, or in a fine buggy, usually a pony, while another is led near 
her side. Now the race by the squaws from the grooms house or tent 
begins. The one reaching her first gets the pony that is led, while those 
second in the race divide the brides robes among them, leaving her only 
one scant poorest robe, taking her ribbons, jewelry, etc. When she reaches 
the groom's home the other women lift her off her pony, put her on a 
blanket, and take her in, not letting her touch the ground, she Is lifted 
from the blanket to a white spread or table cloth where the wedding 
supper is spread. Then the groom is called from his hiding place, for he 
never appears till called, being much more bashful than the white grooms. 
He seats himself beside her and if both are happy In their parentlal choice 
they eat and drink together. If not pleased they may sit moody, solemn, 
or sullen for hours. In one case a young boy, being a graduate of Carlisle, 

21 




Tile Catholic Church — ^In the Oliamiel of Bird Ci'eelt — Being Movetl by 
Mr. Will Bradshaw, tlie House 3IOAer, Pa^luiska. 

Mr. J. W. Bradshaw whose house moving appears herewith, Hves in 
West Pawhuska. He has been a resident of the Osage Country for some 
years. He is a young man of good business ability and energy, and has 
spent much time on the farm, but has been engaged in moving houses in 
Pawhuska since the new railroad cut a swath through the town and made 
some ^rearrangement of the streets. He is progressive in idea as to what 
Pawhuska is and will be. He married Mrs. Zoah Revard, the widow of 




Joseph Revard, Jr., the eldest son of "Uncle Joe" Revard. They had six 
children, EInora, Margurite, Kert, May, Odel and Carl. Margurite is married 
to a Mr. Ebert Fenton, Blnora married Mr. Lou Hays. The others are still 
single. Mr. and Mrs. Bradshay have no children of their own but a pleas- 
ant cottage home where they live and good farms for themselves and chil- 
dren. Mrs. Bradshaw is of the Pappin family of historical interest. She 
is a bright, vivacious woman, much interested in the education of her chil- 
dren. Mr. Bradshaw moved this church across the deep channel of Bird 
Creek, over one-half mile. s 

(Photo by Hargis) 22 



and imbued with young America's ideas of courtship, did not care to take 
the girl his parents selected, and forced him to wed, nor did the girl like the 
choice better. Both cried and could not be persuaded to eat at first. He 
was 21 and his bride 16 and educated in the National Government School. 
After weeping for long hours, they finally smiled at each other, and ate and 
drank together the Osage marriage ceremony. Oh, ye little "banty spark- 
ers," how would you like the ceremony of "daddy" or "mammy" boxing 
your ears and making you wed in the Osage way? But Angie P. preferrea 
if. Miss Hilton also deserves credit for the above observation and narration. 
SLAVES A3IONG INDIANS 

It appears that while the Osages never captured members from other 
tribes for slaves, they themselves were sometimes made slaves by the 
northern tribes, either by capture or purchase. 

Quoting Mr. Augustin Grignon, "The Menominees," "Wisconsins," and 
other Indian tribes, purchased Pawnee slaves from the Ottawas, Sioux's 
and other who captured them. Most of the slaves were called Pawnees, 
though some of them were from other Missouri tribes. He kneW three 
Osages among the Menominees. The slaves were mostly females iaptured 
while young. No special pecuniary value was set upon these servants, but 
he relates where two females were sold at different times for $100 each. 
Regarding their treatment he remarks: The Pawnee slaves and otheni 
were generally treated with great severity. A female slave owned by a 
Menominee woman while sick, was directed by her unfeeling mistress to 
take off her over-dress and she then deliberately stabbed and killed her. 
and this without cause or provocation, and not in the least attributed to 
lienor. 

The dog, among the Osages, as with all Indian people, is a favorite 
animal, at first being used for burden, before the capture and domesti- 
cating of the horse, which was introduced among the prairie tribes about 
the middle of the seventeenth century. "Long's Naturalist found the 
horse, ass and mule in use among the Kansas and other tribes, and des- 
cribed the mode of capture ofwild horses by the Osage." lu the Dakota and 
Souan dialects, to which the Osage belong the word suk-ton-ka, or sun-ka- 
wa-kan is a compound word sun-ka, (dog), and an affix tan-ka, and wa- 
kan, meaning great mysterious or sacred ancient dog, injicating that the 
dog among the Souan tribes was domesticated before the horse. Whether 
the Osage ever used canine flesh for food like other Indians, the writer is 
unable to say, but finds no record of such usage. 

The Osage weapons of war were a bent spear, knife, bow and arrow and 
tomahawk. The Osages were at war with the Kiowa and their confederated 
allies, the Comanche and Apache till 1834, for whom the Osage appeared to 
have a special dislike. 

Padonca, (a possible contraction of Pi-na-tika, name of their western 
division) was the term applied to the Comanches by the Osage and their al- 
lied tribes. 

In the summer of 1833, significantly called by the Kiowa, "Summer 
that they cut off their heads," there was a great massacre in which the 
Osages cut off the heads of the Kiowas and put them in buckets upon the 
field of slaughter, just west of Saddle mountain, 25 miles northwest of 
Ft. Sill, known to Kiowas as, "Beheading mountain,", near the headwaters 
of Otter creek. The Osages were on a western hunt and raid. The Kiowa 
warriors had gone against the Ute, leaving few except old men, women 
and children in camp at the mouth of Rainy Mountain creek, near the 
present site of Mountain View, O. T. Young Kiowa hunters found an Osage 
arrow sticking in a buffalo near by, gave alarm, the camp broke and fled 
in four bands, one east, another west and two south to the Wichita moun- 
tains. Three escaped. The fourth under A'date (Island Man) thinking 
all pursuit over, halted on Otter creek, where at the following dawn, a 
young pony hunter saw the Osages creeping up on foot, the general cus- 
tom of the Osage and Pawnee, when going into battle with the hope of 
returning mounted, capturing their horses, a wise, Spartan like forethought, 
banking on bravery. They were designated by the Kiowas, Domankiago, 
"walkers." in marauding, but generally returning well mounted, going to 

23 




Prof. Robert R. McOeight, and His Middle-Grade Pupils, Episcopal Church. 
(Photo by Hargis) 24 



DOCTRINE OF THE GHOST DANCE— BY THE PROPHEyr OR MESSIAH 

— VVOVOKA. 

"When the sun died, I went up to heaven and saw God and all the 
people who had died a long time ago. God told me to come back and tell 
all my people they must be good and love one another and not to fight, steal 
or lie. He gave me this dance to give to my people. * * ^ You must 
not fight, do no harm to any one. Do right always. It will give you satis- 
faction in life. The Revelation of VVovoka, the son of Tavibo, the prohet 
of Mason Valley, Nev., who died about 1870. Wovoka (meaning cutter) was 
an industrious boy working till 30 years of age, when he announced this 
revelation that made him famous. He was reared in a narrow valley of the 
Sierras, 30 miles long, walled in by convulsively torn volcanic mountain 
walls, towering to perpetual snows, sparkling with diamona icycles, with a 
background of pine forests, the whole under the canopy of a cloudless, infin- 
ite, blue sky, through which the mind is called in thought to far off worlds 
above. Rasselas-like, a valley apart from the rushing world beyond, a 
favorable home for the contemplative mind of a dreamer whose instinctive 
sjiritual power is producing a religious code that needed no human assist- 
ance. The doctrine anticipates that the whole Indian race, dead or alive, 
will be reunited upon some regenerated abode, or planet to live again in 
their aboriginal happiness "forever free from death, disease and misery." 
And these fundamental beliefs are common to all Indian peoples with only 
the mytholigical differences attributed by each apostle or prohet according 
to his traditions or his mental trend or ideas of happiness as characterize 
each tribe; but scarcely more variations of interpretation than are found 
ill Christianity with hundreds of sects and creeds and innumerable shades 
of individual opinions that divide the ranks of Christianity and with, per- 
haps, as much sound reason. For our differences are mostly those of in- 
terpretation or definition that converge when followed out to the same fun- 
damental points and premises leaving only a difference in imagination or 
practice, if any vital difference. 

The writer treats this subject of religious life among American aborig- 
ines, to show how little Jamestown and Plymouth Rock colonies subse- 
quently added to these principles except to teach them how to live tne 
"Great Father's" teachings in precept and practice. And the Indian ana 
Christianized Caucasian, too, sometimes doubt that even these have been 
accomplished except in a smattering of science among them. 

All Indian believers were exhorted to make themselves worthy of tne 
rewards of the promised happiness, conditioned upon discarding cruelty and 
war and practicing honesty, peace and good will not only among each other, 
but toward the pale-faced alien, among them. Many believed that tne 
white races were of secondary importance, spiritually unreal and would have 
no part in the Red Man's plan of regeneration, would be left behind as other 
earthly things, and perhaps cease entirely to exist after the coming of the 
Indian Messiah and the regenerative dawn, which some even ilxed on cer- 
tain days or years, as has often been done by religious enthusiasts among 
Christian adherents. 

A PARAGRAPH OF THE MESSIANIC LETTER. 

"Do not tell the white people about this. Jesus is now like a cloua. 
The dead are all alive again. I do not know when they will be there. May 
be this fall or in the spring. When the time comes there will be no more 
sickness and everyone will be young again." 

"Do not refuse to work for the whites, and do not make any trouble 
with them until you leave them. When the earth shakes, (at the coming 
of the new world) do not be afraid. It will not hurt you. 

"I want you to dance every six weeks. Make a feast at the dance and 
have food that everybody may eat. Then bathe in the water. That is all. 
You will receive gods words again from me sometime. Do not tell lies." 

It is evident that these people have either a system of ethics, mytholigy, 
and ceremonial observance, skeletons of which were brought from eastern 
Asia, and these first from Western Asia, some thousands of years ago or 
gathered from the earliest missionary colonists from the old world, or it 
shows that all aborigines had an intuitive inherent religious belief and 
standard, as the birth-right of man, given by the creator, from his own 
image. Both may be true. Comparing the old prophecies, Christ's sermon 

17 



The Family Reunion of Mr Mos*-«! »,^r^ i^r^ ^ 

m the accompanying cut shows W^nemion^air^?™^"'?^ ^'^^^^^^^ 
Dunham, who appears in the eroun ^vl Iv, descendants of Martha 

and Clemont Lessart. ofVrench Canadi/n T' \' ^^"^^ter of Julia Roy 
blood Osage, who came fror^ Kansas inTs 7 s'Tf" ''.""f.''^^ ^^^ " ^^^^ 
near Silver Lake. Mrs Clempntin. ^^ \ *^'' ^^""^^ ^^^ was buried 

Of Martha Dunham, ^ow ? year o,d aTd'he^fi^r.^^ ""'^^^ ^^"^'^t- 
Noya. She had no children bv h!.r « ? ^ ^''^^ husband, Francis De- 

her in her first marri^e three "inf'^i"'''^"*'' '^"^ ^^'^ ^^^^ '"^^^^ to 
Rosa, and Frank. Lewis and cfemonf ^% '"" ''°^'' ^^^*^^' M^^^' ^nd 
Plomondon. and waHL^^d SI "Twelve'^'^h^MdrTn Tn 'o? wh^^^^' "^T' 

1905. by being dragged to death by a runnaway team. She was saW to have 
been one of the most beautiful women of Osage descent Rosf marrtel 
Joseph Pearson, and is the mother of eight children and lives neS door 
to Mrs. Plomondon. Clement married a Miss Emma Ross, to whom was 
born seven children. There are forty-seven grand-children, and tweiTty! 
seven great-grand-children, of Mrs. Dunham, the great-grana-mother ot 
this family reunion, ranging in decree of Osage blood from one-quarter 
m Mrs. Dunham, (whose grandmother was a full blood) down to the thirty- 
second degree, in^ the great-grand-children. 

The oldest great-grand-child is now sixteen, miss Mabel Palmer the 
eldest daughter of Hon. John Palmer; and the youngest is at this writing 
an eleven-month-old boy, Moses Shaw, the son of Frank and Rosa Shaw 
(nee Plomondon.) 

The writer gives a brief sketch of this family reunion, because it rep- 
resents, to some degree of consanguinity, a large part of the Osage citizens, 
and by intermarriage many of the most prominent families now and for 
generations to come. The cut does not include many who were absent 
at the time the photo was taken by Mr. Hargis in September. 1905, when 
many had come for the quarterly payment. 

PAVVHUSKA HOTEIiS 

Hunt, are as first class hotels for their 
rates as can be found in the two ter- 
ritories. They are both centrally lo- 
cated and well patronized, and well 
conducted by experienced managers. 
Miss Jennie Larson, who is propriet- 
ress of the Pawhuska Hotel, is a nat- 
ive Missourian but need not be shown 
how to run a hotel. After coming to 
the Osage Nation with her sisters she 
conducted a dressmaking parlor for 
two years, but leasing the Pawhuska 
hotel and the rooms adjacent over the 
Citizens National Bank, a building also 
owned by Messrs. Beck and Hunt, she 
Tlie Midland has, with unusual success, conducted 

Pawhuska is well supplied with ^ first class hotel business and has 
hotel, lodging and boarding facilities, many patrons in and outside of town. 
Three hotels afford ample accomo- Her sister assists her in the business 
dations. The Midland Hotel, owned and Mr. Dounce, familiarly called 
by David Fronkier, and the Pawhuska "Uncle Jimmy." for his congenial and 
Hotel, owned by Messrs. Beck and obliging manner, is her clerk. 
(Photo by Hargis) 18 




on the mount, the two comprehensive laws of supreme love to God and 
fellowman (our neighbors) upon which two fundamental commandmmenta 
hang all the laws and prophets, and then add the interpretations of the 
apostles in their acts and letters, the above Indian code falls but little 
short of our Christian code in theory at least; and, we dare say, practice 
too, by the masses. The return of the Messiah to take up all Indians higp 
upon the mountains where all kinds of game roam in abundance, while a 
flood comes to drown the bad (white man), then nobody but Indians live 
and game of all kinds thick, is only another interpretation of Mt. Ararat, 
and all the unworthy drowned. 

"All Indians must dance, everywhere, and keep on dancing till their 
year of jubilee, is but the continuation of the ancient religious dance, as 
Meriam, David and others, danced before the Ark of God or the thousands 
In religious festivals, dancing only to the glory of god, till the practice of 
dancing was introduced upon the Greek and Roman pulpita or stage by 
men and women dacing together for show and pleasure. The full blood 
Indian knows no dance but by men alone and that partaKig of a religious 
nature. Few, if any, of the part bloods take part in these dances, but man- 
ifest their love of music and dancing by frequently participating in the 
reel, two-step and waltz. 

It was recently the writer's privilege to witness a full blood dance, 
to their four guests, men, from the Pueblos of New Mexico, in the Round 
House (a dancing, feasting and council buildding, similar in shape to a 
round circus tent, or locomotive round house) that stands in the midst of 
the Indian village, one mile northeast of Pawhuska. Four corpulent braves 
seated in a circle with drum sticks, beat a large one-headed kettle drum, 
with the same regular stroke and beat, making a thundering roar. One 
began the three others following what appearedd to the ear untrained to 
such music a doleful song or chant with equal time to the drum beats, 
which sounded to the writer's ear thus: Doom, Doom, doom, doompity- 
doom, doom, doom, doom, doomity-doom, or giving the a a broad Latin or 
Italian sound something like this: Dam, dam, dam, dam'pol, dam, dam, 
dam, dam, dam'ool, dam. But this is not the white man's swearing exple- 
tives, for the Osages have no swear words, and whenever using one which 
is seldom, they must adopt or transfer the language of his enlightened, 
civilized white cousin. 

A charm of a small stone image is carried by some, as is the custom 
of the Ute also. 

The following incident related to the writer by a most excellent de- 
voted Christian girl. Miss Hilton, shows the susceptibility of the full bloods 
to Christian teachings. After a young Missionary of the Southern Board 
had taught a rather troublesome old fellow, L. M., even wicked in beat- 
ing his squaws, that if he did not live better and cease beating his wivea 
he would go to the bad place, having consigned two or three wives to 
the Osage stone covered tomb, he married another, a Christian, who tried 
to influence him to be better. He came to Miss Emily Cottrelle and said 
"I want to be a good Indian; my squaw says if I don't do better me will 
go to the Devil and I don't want to go to the Devil, me fant to be good 
Indian." 

Most of them believe in a good and a bad spirit, that the bad live In 
a lower place of happiness than the good who continue in spirit life and are 
rewarded according to good or bad done here, worshipped idols, pictures, 
or other emblems that signifies the Great Spirit; believed in self torture or 
self sacrifice in order to obtain forgiveness of wrong doing. At times they 
marched in solemn prosession bowing to the ground in prayer, and at other 
times congregations or as individuals asking the Great Spirit for present 
dpsires and future favors, in an earnest devout manner. Their emblem is 
a cooing dove, signifying peace and love. 

'But there are many who believe that the white man's religion and 
ceremonies are no better than their own. 

One Osage, Angle P., after marrying two braves, whom she said went 
crazyz, having ran away from her, she was going to wed another man 
who desired her to go to Pawnee to get a license, to marry In white folks' 
way. After much persuasion, she was Induced to go. and have the act 

19 




The elegant aud costly residence of Frank Tinker. Park Row, Pawbuika. 
Built by A. V. Linscott. ,f Photo by Hargis) i 



20 



ana me?ry """"'^ themselves they are humorous, jollying 

withry sr: et-:;. T^zL':iv:\txrru ^r ""--' '^-"^ 

hunt in the Cherokee Strin when th.^ ^ ^^" '"*° °" t^®*^ regular 

t-^r: r..rhu=H£E~H?- ~ 

be repeated. ''' ^^^^^'^^tion for fear that the trouble might 

.u ^ OSAGES AND CHEROKEES. 

f:t;eJy-afr.-r^T.-L^^TiHE 

and ater at Fort Smith faihng to bring peace availing but little to check 

years aJewarS: T'"n '*''" '"^^^"°^^" ^" *^^ ^^'^ °^ ^^22. But for some 
years afterwards the Osages were harassed by Texan bands of Cherokees 
under the bold leadership of a fearless chief, Tohabee (Tatsi), or Dutch an 
early emigrant to Arkansas, but who refusing to abide by the treaty of 18 2 8 
had crossed to Texas-Mexican territory. He frequently raided the Osages 
till General Arbuckle offered a reward of $500 for his capture. In deliber- 
ate defiance of the reward he returned to Fort Gibson, attacked an Osage 
trading post, and scalped one of them. Jumping a precipice, with the 
bleeding, warm scalp in one hand and rifle in the other, he escaped, within 
hearing of the drum beats of the Fort. He gave himself up only after 
promise of amnesty and withdrawal of reward. 

The Osage, who were a strong predatory triiae when the Cherokees first 
began to come in independent squads to Osage territory because of the 
Hopewell. S. C, treaty, displeasing to many Cherokees, opposed the new! 
comers who numbered two or three thousand in 1817. They called the 
Osage, Ani-Wasa-si, from their name Wasash. Hostility grew stronger be! 
ween the two after the Osage refused to join the general peace conference 
111 1768, concluded between the Cherokee and Iroquois, the latter send- 
ing a delegation to the Cherokees to propose a general alliance of the 
southern and western tribes. The Cherokees accepted and asked all others 
to join them. All complied except the Osage, who according to Stand Watie 
and Cherokee tradition, refused alliance, and of whom the rest said they 
should be henceforth like a wild fruit on the prairie, at which every bird 
should Dick, and from this incident arose the accusation that the "Osage 
were a predatory people without friends or allies," and faithless to other 
neighboring nations. But the charge is not sustained by the quiet peace- 
ful manner of these people and their friendly relations with their friends, 
the whites and the United States government. 

The Osage have a secret organization called Wah-ho-pe. to which only 
few belong, something like Free Masonry and as costly to enter this Wah- 
ho-pe. lodge, or taking the Dove which is the symbol of their God and Or- 
der. It costs from $100 to $150 admission. When a brave wishes to be- 
come a member of this lodge he brings his costly gifts, premium of cattle or 
beeves not less than five, to be slaughtered, or merchandise to be divided 
among the lodge members on initiation, amounting to over $100. Then 
the dove which is a real dove, skinned and spread out in attitude of living, 
with many other pelts of various birds, with the dove is brought from ite 
sacred keeping in the hands of the new member of the lodge, and spread 
out before the candidate for initiation who is placed between two lines of 
members, who perform the ceremony just as the sun is rising in the mora- 

29 



Among the Osages we find many full bloods who have not stopped with 
the National school at Pawhuska, but have aspired to higher education and 
have gone through Lawrence or Carlisle Indian schools, and some went to 
the best American colleges. Mr. Michelle was among this number. He 
speaks English fluently and is employed as a clerk in the Osage agenfs> 
he fills with credi to himself and people. The rules, applied in the agencies 
offices and is a good scribe. He is well educated and merits the position 
give a preference of employment to Indian young men and women wh j 
may be foundd competent to fill the positions in the Indian service. Several 
of the full bloods fill positions here. Mr. Michelle has a comfortable cot- 




CHARLES S. MIGHELJjE, WIFE AND lilTTIiE DAUGHTER. 

tage home in Pawhuska where he spends much of his time with his wife 
and little daughter. To be and stay at home after night is a characteristic 
custom of all Indians. Whether it be induced by mere custom or an awe 
inspired by darkness is a question the writer cannot answer. Many of 
the whites might be benefitted by following such a custom. To appreciate 
the life of any people we must put ourselves in their shoes and view rights 
and wrongs and customs from their standpoint. On coming to the Osage 
do not fail to meet and know the better full bloods, whom you will ap- 
preciate the more by acquaintance. 

ROBERT BODTVVOOD, The Cigar Manufacturer. 
Is the first to establish a cigar factory in the Osage country, and the 
only one at present. He is from Massachusetts and New York where he 
was connected with some of the largest tobacco factories. He opened busi- 
ness here in September, 1905, under the district of Kansas, factory No. 52. 
All U. S. licenses in Oklahoma and Indian Territory in the liquor and to- 
bacco business or internal revenue stamps come under this district and re- 
ceive license from the U. S. office at Leavenworth, Kansas. Mr. Boltwood 
has the qualifications of an energetic New Englander and does a wholesale 
business. He was in Wichita, Kansas, during the making of that town, the 
city of today, and sees a great future for Powhuska and the Osage country. 
He being first on the field deserves the full patronage of the Osage retail- 
ers for his copyright brands, "Something Good" and "Doctors' Prescrip- 

Qg (Photo by Hargis) 



and the newly initia7ed member nf^^ f, ?" ^'^ ^'°"^^* *"*° the circle 
back over their forehead aTdhP.Lf^ solemnity passes his open hand 
the anthem is be n^sun^ ThenTh V^ T^""^^ °' ^^^^'^^"^ them, while 
bers of the Order ^ ^'"" °' ^^^ ^^ '^^^''^^'^ a"^«"^ the mem- 

turne'cf'ovtT'to'thfn '^'"'""^ "'^^P"'' ^"^ "«^ "P '^ ^ --tain way and 
7Zf , Z ^^ member who now being fully installed keens th^ 

gneratfons o? t'he V "T."^'" '^"^ ^""'^^"^ ^he emblmd^tn Trough 
From T^fdl^T. h''^^'- J""^^ ^'^^^ '°^^^^ ^" ^^"°"« bands or families 
i.t.r n ^ ! ^°^S:ers the writer gathered many interesting incidents of 
later Osage history and merits a full sketch of his own life '""'^^"ts of 

Judge Thomas Louis Rogers, whose beautiful home appears in an ac- 
companymg cut, won his title by serving in Osage National Supreme Sourt 
two terms or four years, from '82 to '86, and the first supreme judTe elect- 
ed under the written code of Osage constitution and laws of which he wa- 
former and signer. He served with two full blood Associate Justices O-ke- 
s.ih and Tsa-mah-hah. He was a strong disciplinarian in holding his people 
to obedience to the law. They were unaccustomed to a written law and 
code and thought their judge was too strict as he orddered punishment of 
the 'unruly- ones by whipping on two for larceny and one for rape a 
remarkable record for four years. They were great raiders of horses and 
stock in early days, but they dreaded the whipping post much as death and 
soon became law abiding. 

Judge Rogers is one-quarter Cherokee. His father, T. L. Rogers, Sr., 
was half Cherokee, half Scotch. His mother was half Osage, half French! 
from whom he inherited an Osage right. He was born near the old Grand 
Saline District, but has lived among the Osages since first they came to 
Indian Territory in 1870. He served all through the Civil War as a confed- 
erate soldier under command of Col. Stand Watie, a Cherokee volunteer 
taking part in the battles of Honey Springs against Gen. Brunt, and Cabin 
Creek battle, and he helped to capture a 300-wagon train and engaged in 
other fights. Mr. Thomas Leahy, the father-in-law of one of his amiable 
daughters, cast his lot on the Federal side and was in the same fight with 
Judge Rogers and escaped capture. But true patriotism and love settles all 
differences and the two men living opposite each other are co-veterans, 
friends and united in the marriage of their daughter and son, only one of 
many examples in the Territory, a union of the Gray and Blue in nuptial 
bonds. Judge Rogers married February 26, 1869, the daughter, Martha, 
of Judge John Martin. She also is a quarter Cherokee, but an adopted 
daughter of the Osages. Her father was of Irish nationality from whom she 
inherited some of her strongest characteristics and as one of the most cul- 
tured and typical mothers and grandmothers among the Osage. She has 
three children, daughters, Bertha, Martha, and Ellen, all happily married. 

Judge Rogers first married Miss Goody, also of Osage descent of the 
Cherokees by whom he had two sons, Arthur, and Lewis who died in baby- 
hood. Arthur, a most excellent man, lives in Pawhuska where he has a 
beautiful home and has a well improved farm 12 miles south, near Wynona. 

Judge Rogers has also served three years in the Osage National Council 
and was its chairman for two years, till the amendment of the constitution 
making the chief chairman by virtue of his office. 

Judge Rogers has one of the most beautiful farm homes of the country 
a large stone building just seven miles east of Pawhuska, half way be- 
tween Nelogany and Hominy, but he has retired to Pawhuska and has 
built a fine large dwelling shown in the cut. He, with his children, all near 
him in Pawhuska, present one of the most cultured and ideal and wealthy 
families among the Osage citizens. Scarcely would you find more refine- 
ment and certainly not more happiness in any of the best homes of the 
East or West He, himself, has more of the ap'pearance and features of 
a well bred Hindoo of British India than he does Osage or Cherokee; dark 
complexioned, dark hair and beard, but classical Shakespearan features, 
wirfinely modulated voice and a bright, intelligence and memory far be- 
youd the average Caucasian gentleman. He is known among the Osage 

31 




Prof. Robt, E. Austin, Principal of Public Schools, and His Higher Grade Pu 
pils, and M. E. Church Building, Main Street. (Photo by Hargis) 

32 



social dances on foot, returning: on generously donated ponies. At dawn 
above mentioned, all were asleep in camp save the young man, and the wife 
of Chief A'date, preparing to dress a hide. She aroused her brave, who 
rushed out shouting, *Tso batso! Tso batso— "To the rocks, to the rocks!" 
They threw off morbid sleep, some sprang to flee, others upon the blood- 
thirsty knives of their fleet-footed foe, now slashing right and left. A'date 
was wounded, but escaped, his faithful wife, Sematma, (Apache Woman), 
captured, later to escape. One mother fleeing with a baby girl on her back, 
and a larger one by hand saw the older girl seized, with throat about to 
receive the cruel beheading knife, rushed at her captor, and beat him off, 
receiving only a slight scalp wound. Little Aza was rescued by his father 
by like daring and became an old man to tell the marvelous escape; how 
his father held him in his teeth while shooting arrows at his pursuers, then 
taking him in arms again to run. Other women escaped through the brave 
fight of a Pawnee in camp. The Kiowa warriors being absent it was only 
a Kiowa run for life. Many were beheaded by the Osage lance or knife as 
it was their custom to behead instead of scalp in battle. 

It was a wild, panic-stricken fight of old men, women and children in 
which every one caught, mostly women and children, were beheaded where 
they fell, and heads placed in brass buckets, bought of the Pawnee by he 
Kiowas. After the tepes were burned the Osages left the place. For the 
Kiowa flight and massacre Chief A'date was deposed. The Osages captured 
the taime medicine, killing the wife of its keeper while untying it from the 
tepee pole, also both taime images were captured in thir case and kept till 
peace was made between the Osage and Kiowa who had no sun dance for 
two years because of the loss of the taime. This massacre of 1833 led to 
the first dragoon expedition in 1834; the return of the head men of the 
more western tribes, including fifteen Kiowas with Col. Dodge to Ft. Gib- 
son, where all the territory bands were called together in counsel and treaty 
of friendship' that resulted a year later in an agreement by the southern 
tribes that all Indians should have equal hunting rights on the southern 
prairies as far as the western boundary of the United States and all Ameri- 
can citizen travelers free pass through Indian hunting grounds, etc. This 
treaty was never broken, though the Osages served as U. S. scouts against 
the allied plain tribes later. Chief Clermont of the Osages signed this treaty. 

When the Kiowa visited, in friendship, the Osages on the Cimarron, 
or Salt Fork of the Arkansas, they redeemed it by offering a pmto pony 
and other ponies, but they brought it from their home and delivered the 
taime, and as an evidence of friendship accepting only one pony in return. 
The Osages were strong enemies in war, merciless in battle and generous 
victors and friends. 

Among the Osages, as well as other northern tribes, their brave deeds 
and numbers of enemy slain were indicated by styles of dress, ornaments 
and body paint. 

THE OSAGE BURIALi AND MOURNING. 

When Osage (full bloods) die he is immediately dressed in the best new 
robes, and blankets are put upon the corpse and prepared for burial by plac- 
ing the body in a half-reclining position as if the body was calmly seated 
in a rocking chair. In this attitude the body was buried, by placing it on 
the ground and building a tomb of rough stones bui skillfully constructed 
to resist beasts of prey and often stood for ages. The dead's personad ef- 
fects are placed in the tomb with him and his best and favorite pony was 
often led to the tomb and shot, that all might pass to the happy hunting 
ground together. No coffin was used, or desired. One family took its child 
from the grave and coffin in the cemeterp and placing it on a high rocky 
point after kind hands from the government school where it had died be- 
fore the parents could reach their child, had tenderly buried the little body. 

But this mode of burial is seldom followed of late years. Professional 
mourners were hired to bewail the death of the departed and for some 
days the mourners goes to a lonely wigwam and fasts day and night while 
he, (as only men can be professional mourners), mourns. But the beloved 
companion, or parents, mourn for a year. The first duty on each morn- 
ing, a man is to smear his forehead with smoot, but the women use mud 
on one side of the head, all wearing the poorest, dirtiest and scantiest cloth- 

25 




St. John's School For Boys, Near Gray Horse. (Osage Co). Sistei^LneeUcn. Sui^rior. 



26 



Ing, and often fast till they become emaciated and physically exhausted 
before the year ends. It is similar to the idea of mourning in sack-cloth 
and ashes in Bible times. This mourning was often kept up for the more 
prominent deceased till a war party was sent out at the request of rela- 
tives and they roamed till a scalp was obtained from a destroyed enemy 
of a different tribe, and brought into camp at full speed, after being an- 
nounced by a runner from the war band, and placed in the hands of the 
nearest relative who after weeping and prayer to the Great Spirit would 
wash, or be washed, by a committee, and cleanly dressed and well fed 
by a feast and his mourning was at an end. The last real scalp; for this pur- 
pose was a Wichita chief, A-sah-a-wa, about '73 or '74, which came near 
creating a war between the two nations. The Wichitas came to Pawhuska 
with their agent and United States marshal and interpreter, McClusky, 
but after a few days the difficulty was settled after a week's counciling. 
The authorities realized the danger of pushing their demand for the slay- 
ers of the Wichita chief, withdrew with the understanding that if they 
settled it in their own way that that scalping should be the last between the 
two tribes and give the United States a mutual pledge to stop that ancient 
custom, and cruel sacrificing. The Osages, being sad over the deed of their 
number killing a good chief of a tribe with whom they were not at war, 
caught the tears of the widowed Wichita Princess, in a golden cup and 
dried them up in a silver urn by paying the whole Wichita tribe $2.00 per 
capita, about $4,000 and hunddreds of dollars value in merchandise of every 
kind to A-sah-a-wah's bereaved widow. Peace was concluded by all the 
peace council smoking from the same pipe. Then the chiefs arose, followed 
by their warriors, clasped right hands in silence for a moment, then warm- 
ly embrace each one in turn and in tears and peace and friendship forever 
was proclaimed in the midst of a grove of giant oaks that still sing the 
requiem of the dead chief on the beautiful banks of Bird creek, just above 
where the Pawhuska steel bridge spans that creek that widens at this point 
into a most beautiful expanse of water for a mile. 

An amusing incident occurred in the life time of Saucy Chief, who 
had lost by death his most beloved daughter, Nellie, 1894. During his 
mourning some years later a war party started out pretensively to secure 
a real scalp but only in pretense, as the government of the Osages, as well 
as of the United States had stopped the practice of human scalping after the 
killing of the Wichita chief, as a sacrifice to the departed girl, and as a 
propitiatory offering for the mourning chief and father. 

In the northern part of the Osage was a man mowing hay. The war 
band conceived the idea of playing their game with this man, but a mes- 
senger forwarned him of their prank. Yet when they reached him and 
encircled him in the old manner of approaching the individual enemy the 
poor fellow was almost scared out of his senses. He soon understood that 
the band would not hurt him but wanted to buy a lock of his hair that 
they might carry out their fictitious drama or tragical comedy to gratify 
their chief and tribe. By much persuasion the trembling mower at last 
consented, on condition that they might have the lock of hair if they did 
not clip too much and too close, and in true brave manner, with scalping 
knife in hand the warrior approached and with barbaric swing clipped 
the lock from the dodging "paleface" and with triumphant march returned 
to camp and placed the lock in Saucy Chief's hand. He facing the setting 
Sim that now buried all his sorrows and sadness beneath the great waters 
of the Pacific sea, holds long in solemn reverence the supposed scalp of 
his human offering while the little braves marched in circle to stroke the 
hand that held the propitiation to the Great Spirit, guardian of his cher- 
ished daughter. 

Saucy Chief was the first chief to come to an Indian Agent, Laban J. 
Miles at that time, and declared that he wanted to walk in the way of the 
white man and desired to have a house built for him. Such was the gen- 
eral antagonism to his action, that his band split up, and one faction elected 
a chief over them during the '70's. But when they did become reconciled 
to have houses nearly all wanted the best house, best land, best horses in- 
stead of mules. They never used oxen. They manifest much pride in hav- 
ing the best of everything. But the houses were generally rented to the 
whites while they live in their tents or wigwams. 

27 




Tlie primary and Intel-mediate Grades of the Public Schools — ^MisS Blanc and 
aiiss Pratt, Teachers — Pawhuska. (Photo by Hargis) 



28 



only the top of the head from the forehead to the crown with Lf ha"? 
somewhat similar to the Chinese. A long cue is left on the Trown but the 

striking resemblance to the pompadours the young ladies used to weaT As 
to why these customs are followed the writer is unable to say, but from the 
modes of hair dressing prevalent among the various bands ^t seems To be 
a tribal mark of the differential characteristic. The deaf and dumb among 
them refer to the different tribes by sign language, pointing out their chief 
characteristics. For example, they would pass the hand around the fore- 
head indicating Cherokee, the tribe that formerly wore a band or hand- 
kerchief around the head, so often seen among that people. The Osages 
were indicated by the motion of pulling out the eye-brows, their general 
custom; the Creeks a motion of the fingers as if combing the long locks 
which that tribe left on the temples, cutting all the rest short except these 
ear-locks; and the Delewares by passing the open hand perpendicularly to 
the sides of their legens, indicating a wide flap on the outside. The Osages call 
the whites the Muh-he- (knife) ton-kah (big), meaning big knife people 
from first meeting the United States soldiers with their swords and bay- 
onets. They refer to the Indian Agent now as Big Knife Chief. 




The Home of Chester Jake, the Painter and Paperhanger and U. S. Licensed 
Ti'ader \vltli the Osage. 

Mr. Take has lived in Chicago, Kansas City, and Independence, Kan., 
prior to coming to the Osage, but from Canada in 1883, and of German 
nationality. He has followed the painting trade for 25 years, which has 
fitted him well for his contracting business in which he employs from three 
to seven men, and does the best grade of work. He has lived 17 years in 
Pawhuska, and has done most of the painting in the town, and reservation, 
for 40 miles distant. Mr. Take is a skilled artisan and a pleasant gentleman 
In his business transactions. He married Miss Helen Payne of Independ- 
ence, in '84, and has a happy family of seven children. His dwelling and 
paint shop is in the north part of town. He will brighten up your house 
and mind. 

33 



Mr. J. R. Pearson, whose large Pawhuska home appears herewith, 
came to the Osage twenty-seven years ago, from Kansas, but formerly 
from the northern part of Missouri. He has been a most successful farmer, 
and stock raiser during these years, having 800 acres under cultivation, 
and fine orchards of 16 years' growth, which the writer had the pleasure of 
visiting on Salt Creek. He is a man of broad experience, most practical 
ideas and sound judgment. His fine residence shows his ideal of life. He 




The CoiiuiiotUous llosideuce of Mr. and Mis. J. K, Pearson, West Pawliiiska. 

is largely interested in the town and a stockholder in the Pawhuska Oil and 
Gas Co. He married Miss Rosa DeNoya, July, 1873, and has a family of 
bright, strong, rosy children. His oldest son, October, Married Miss Trum- 
bly and his eldest daughter is now in one of the best schools in Kansas. 
Their second daughter has the distinction of being the tallest girl of hei 
age in Pawhuska, and perhaps the Osage. Mr. and Mrs. Pearson take great 
pride in their children, and aspire to their greatest success, socially, finan- 
cially, and in culture and have located them fine farms. 




HARDIN EBEY. 



Attx)mey at Liaw. 



Hon. Hardin Ebey was raised at 
Wichita, Kansas, and went through 
the schools there and later graduated 
Christian Church College, but now 
Friends University. He was well pre- 
pared by his broad training to enter 
the profession of law which next to 
the ministry demands men of educa- 
tion, studious habits and sound un- 
biased judgment, and above all, true 
honesty of purpose and principles 
which characterize him. Judge Har- 
din Ebey, as he is known, opened a 
law office at Pawhuska but was admit 
ted to the bar at Wichita. Kan., in .91' 
He served as clerk of the Court at 
Wichita, also as Deputy Probate 
Judge there. Though of broad ex- 
perience in his profession he is still 
quite a young man and one of high 
ambitions and fine habits, a student 
of law and of thoughtful common 
sense the basis of all true law. He 
practiced law four years at Oklahoma 
City and is thoroughly conversant wit 
Oklahoma laws, and will be a power 
for good in the Osage. 
34 



AN ACT RELATING TO NEGROES 

The Osages have always been friendly toward the whites and welcomed 
them to their reservation and Into their families by inter-marriage. They 
have never been in war against the white Americans. On one occasion 
they were on a trip west for a hunt in western Oklahoma and were at- 
tacked and fired upon by the Kansas Militiamen who were reported to be 
mismformed of the Osage purpose. The braver ones rushed to their guns 
but their chief and leader said, "No the soldiers are Americans, white peo- 
ple! You must not shoot! And the Federal Government rewarded them 
generously for the dead and wounded. 

In all treaties with them, we find the following or similar expressions 
of friendship, and good will as found in a treaty concluded between Wu- 
liam Clark, Ninian Edwards and Auguste Chouteau, with the Osages 
December 26. 1815. 

"Art. 2. There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between all the 
citizens of the United States of America, and all individuals composing the 
Osage tribes or Nation." 

They have kept the letter and spirit of this treaty with even a self-sac- 
rificing sincerity for which Uncle Sam has amply rewarded in money and 
fostering care, education, and other essential things to encourage the do- 
mestic arts and agriculture. They still welcome the whites who are honest 
and conduct themselves rightly. 

But they seem to have an aversion for the African race and to hold 
proudly aloof i cm them, only one it is said holding the marriage relation- 
ship with one of the black race. In the constitutional law of the Osage Na- 
tion Article XII, the National Council passed an act relating to negroes. 

(114.) Sec. 1. That from and after the passage of this act the Negroes 
residing within the Osage Nation shall be ordered to get out. 

(115.) Sec 2. Any citizen of the Osage Nation shall be subject to a 
fine of fifty dollars ($50.00) for the employment of any negro upon their 
reservation. 

(166.) Sec. 3. The United States Indian Agent is hereoy requested 
to take such action as is necessary to have all negroes put out of the Osage 
Reservation. 

And as this aversion seems to continue among these people hence no 
inducements for the negro. 

In concluding this synopsis of the Constitution and laws it is especially 
worthy of note that in Article VI, Section 1, the qualification of religious 
belief is prerequisite to office holding. 

"No person who denies the being of a God, or a future state of reward 
and punishment, shall hold any office in the civil department in this Nation." 
Signed, James Bigheart, President of the National Convention, and Ne- 
kah-ke-pon-ah, Wat-ti-an-kah, Saucy Chief, Tah-wah-che-h/e, William 
Penn, Clamore, Two-giver, Tall Chief, Thomas Big-chief, Ne-kah-wash-she- 
tan-kan, Joseph Pawnee-no-pah-she, White Hair, Cyprian, Tayrian, Paul 
Akin, interpreter, and E. M. Mathews, secretary. 

The Constitutional form of government laws were enforced up to the 
time the large payment of a million and a quarter dollars was made when 
conditions arose that caused the abolishment of the Council and other of- 
ficers except the Chief and Assistant Chief and through the recommenda- 
tion of Mr. Churchill, the inspector, the Secretary of the Interior ordered 
that a business committee of eight be appointed. 

Fifteen CL.ancilmen or three from each of ''he five districts composed 
that body, as provided by the constitution and laws, and to be elected the 
first Monday in August. The council was partly abolished by the committee 
of eight, but holds is meetings for deliberation in the same manner as 
before 

On June 5, 1872, Congress passed an act authorizing the removal of 
the Great and Little Osages from their lands in Kansas, to their present res- 
ervation, bounded east by the 96th meridian, south and west by the Creek 
line and the Arkansas river and north by the state of Kansas. By the act of 
Congress July 15, 1870, the reservation for the Osages was retricted to a 
tract of land in compact form, equal in quantity to 160 acres for each mem- 
ber of said tribe, but in the early settlement of the Osages in Indian Terri- 
tory, most of their valuable improvements and valuable farm lands proved 
by later survey to be east of the 96th meridian. Their present boundaries 
were fixed in this act of June 5, 1872, yet based upon the stipulations of the 
congressional act of 1866, section 16 of said act, so far as applicable to the 
reservation. The act provided that the Osages were to allow the Kansas 
(Kaw) Indians, to settle within their reservation, on land not to exceed 160 
acres to each member of the Kaws at a price not higher than that paid by 
the Osages to the Cherokees for their lands. 

47 




. *, *; 







48 



THE OSAGE TREATIES AND LAWS. 

country along the Mississippi and MiL^H ?iv?.l ^"^'^^"'" ^^^^«« ^'^ ^he 
with the former tribes at St Louis Sen in thT^ ; w / *'"^*^ ^^« "^^^^^ 
the trbes to cease their wars and com" under T''""' "" Louisiana, binding 
States, and make a firm and lastTngtreat h.tw''' - °' '"'" ^"^*"' 

Osages. under the Indian Commoner tiniamHenrrS'"'' ""' *^^ 
fn7e=t1.";nrn"a".IiTs^^S T " -"^---a ---^1^ 'su^e;. 
make a. treaties .o"un?trbeTecelT;.^°^rS^e oU^e^s """^ ^^^^^ ^ 

t.eatr:. "-e°Lrar;rc5;rr.^o^^?i,r^^^^^^ -.--.i. 

s^^^^rt^-.^-^--L:^rrS^^^^ 

tory was ceded to the United StaL. ^Lf ^ I ' . ^""^^ ^^*^"* °^ t^"i- 
Fort Clark directly sou^h^t^'th^el^L^n^^li v^er^rd'^wf tLTa-nlftoTh^ 
MISSISSIPPI for a consideration of $800 cash and ILOOoTn merchandise ^o 
Osag?s °^^^«^' a-^ '''' -«h -<5 ?500 in me;chandisr to the Sttle 

In the treaty of August 31, 1822, the Osages released the "Uncle Sam" 
from the obligation of establishing a well assorted store for the purpose 
of bartering with them on moderate terms for their peltries and furs IfaH 

oHhe Un t .%?r' ';^' ^"^"^'"^ °' ^'''''■''' ^-'^ ^" merchandise out o 
of the United States factory by Richard Graham, agent of Indian Aflairs 

n fT. '1 ^^^ *''^''*^ °^ January 11, 1839. at Fort Gibson. Brigadier 

General M. Arbucle, U. S. Commissioner to the Osages renounced all titles 
or mterests in any reservation previously claimedd by them within the limts 
of any other tribe and all interests under the treaties of November 10 1818 
June 2. 1825. (except contents of art. 6). the Osages bound themselves to 
remove from all lands of other tribes and to remain within their own 
boundaries, and in consideration for above concession the United States 
paid them for a term of twenty years an annuity of $20,000 to be oaid in 
their nation, $12,000 in money and $8,000 in goods, stock, provisfons as 
the president might direct, to furnish them with blacksmiths, grist mill 
,V^^ "I ' -f--"^^ 5^^ necessary stock and utensils for beginning to farm for 
1000 families, farming agricultural districts. To give some idea of the 
Osage dialect the writer would gladly insert the names of the 72 chiefs 

^^t^Z7 t"^ r^'"'"^"''! °^ l^? °^a^^"- (^«« ^«1- "• Treaties. 2nd Edition, 
page 527.) but cannot in this synopsis. ij^iii^ii, 

lannd^in^Miiln,^^^ °^/.''"^^' ^^^^' ^^ ^^^'^ ^^^^t, title and claims to all 
drnwn fr^^ t^' ^"d territory of Arkansas and westward, as far as a line 
Rn.^ «fr % ^f,""*^ sources of the Kansas river southwardly through 

Rock Saline, and all south of Kansas river, except a strip of 50 miles be- 
wniv'^^r ,, '"'^^^ ^®^* ^^ *^^ Missouri state line, at a point called Wihite 
Mairs Village, and extending to the said west line of this treaty con- 
cession; the United States reserving the right to navigate all navigable 
streams in that reservation, and in consideration of these concessions paid 
the Osages $7,000 yearly for twenty years, (from the date of treaty) at 
tlieir village or at St. Louis, at their option, in money, merchandise, pro- 
visions, or domestic animals, as they might elect, at first cost of goods at 
St. Louis, and free transportation, etc., and many provisions for the tribes 
lu the efforts to farm; and reservations of one section each to all the half- 
bloods, whose names are mentioned, and from whom have sprung many 
of the more cultured, educated and wealthy families of Southwest Missouri, 
Kansas and the present Osage citizens as the Rivards, Chouteaus and 
others. And all the debts of the Osages due the Delawares, Indian Traders, 
and for all destroyed property not to exceed $6,000. The treaty of August 
10, 1825, called Council Grove Treaty, 160 miles southwest of Ft. Osage, 
was made for the sole purpose of opening a public public road from the 
Missouri frontier to New Mexico, and to obtain consent of the Osages for 
right of way through their reservation and their friendly protection of trav- 
elers on the road, to promote friendly and commercial relations with the 
Republic of Mexico and as a consideration paid to the Osages $500 cash or 
merchandise. 



35 



Mr.'^BL^r^-n Frlnfan.'^^r " f""^'^ "' ^^'^^ Generations. 

scendants. The writer wnnM Jioh, ^' '^^"^Pose the immediate de- 

and Susan LessarTindTh^ r chSdl^en^'but" f '''^^ °' ^"'^^ '""^^'^°^ ^-"^ 
so Julia Roy. their maternL ances^o; wL a"hw '""^ '"'^' "' ^^"^ *° ^° 
a short Sketch might be more appree kted bv ^b T' P^''^^^"^^- ^^ whom 
offsprmg than a slcetch of their Xn iamf,,-!^f ^''''^/^^^''^^ ^"d her many 

JulSTov """"^ '^^'^ "^^^^^ - cen^u'yTrare^trid a'"' '""'^'''^^ ^"°-" 
Julia Roy, married a man of lineuisf.v ^ ^°''"^ woman, Miss 

named Lessart, a trapper and imerp'etT."'/ "^'^^-^--French-AIsatian 

^uages also Kaw and Osage. About thj/^- '^''''^' °^ *^" "^°^^'-" ^^n- 

wnere now a million wheels ar,ri v, ^° among the Kav^^ „v, i 

her twelve children she came to the Sthor'^''^"°" '°' ^^^ educftion of 
mitted to enter them in schoo ^JiSek/h t "^'f '°"' ^"^ ^^ last was per- 
Osa^es and young Saucy Chief are saM io^hlv'"^';; '''' '''''' °' -" 'he 
the latter rendering valuable =;prv,vJ^ / 1 ^^^ championed her ri^hf 

;;;^hts. To settle all dispute cfarmor'r'o'f ^v?, ^J^^^ *" «^-^ RoJ^amHy 
Nation hence she was termed at tim^s iTd ^^ V^^^'""^ ^^^ '"to the 
Lessart," and "Julia Roy " a lartl I ^ Madame Claremore," "Madame 
voted mother.-the moJt prom Sent femaT' T"'"""' ^"^'^ -^^«' -"^ "e! 
She had three sisters, all of whom wed P. n 'l^.^'^"*"'" '" "^^^e history. 
Prue, and Lessarge. whose chUdre^ nherfted n^""'"'"""'^'"^"' ^^^vellette 
hence the numerous family of the L^se of Rn ^f ''^'''' °' citizenship, 
home, except one boy, who went far northt "^V • '°"''"^ *° ^^^ P^^^^nt 
one or two of whose children ever cam" W^? T"' ^ ^'°"^ ^'^e, only 
Of the Dakotah Lessart was received bv t^.r^" '*'" °'^^^- "^ daughter 
father, a son of Julia Roy, was denLd b J« ^.""'" ''' '^'^- ^^^er her 
Commissioner was dispatckeTtorT the case'' N '"'? '^'i'^"^" ^ ^^ «• 
descent were about to be disinherited bv w ^^^r two hundred of Roy 
took the stand and testified to seeing thfT"'' Z""^'' ^^"'^ ^^"^^^ Chief 
Roy some 40 years before. The fuH bloods J? T/' ^'°°' "^"^ ^'^ J'^"^ 
Roys, that they might hold fuH swav Now ° T'""^^ *^^ increasing 

Julia Roy, who died at the age of sTxtv r .^ "^"^i:'^ ^^'^ "^^™ ""^age. of 
vation and was buried near the Ponfl"^ ^^ '"^ ''""" ^^'"^"^ ^o this reser- 
in the memory of her ch"!dren Lnor^^ ^^ k'/""" ^^""^^' °^ Silver Lake, 
Physique of the LessLf families in th. '''''''' f' ^"^ ^" ^^^ ^^^^s and 

the better, nobler Sal ties oJst-n , "^ ^"^'' ^"^ °*^^^" ^^"' y«" can see 

homes in Ponca CitT^nrL^Lll^TarmTrnnhe^ot'e'^Mr:^ "T ^"^ 

an amiable woman of Kiowa linacr^ t -i^ me usage. Mrs. Laura Lessart, 

her bright children in Ser cotta" AonJ'ber ' °"' ''r''^"^' ^^^^^^^^' ^^^ 
the reservation. WhUe Julia Rovt.ss. !°' ^""^ ""'^^ «"« ^^^^ ^^ 

her full brood of im ^ Lessart came to the Neosho Mission with 

HARGIS AND HARGIS. 

rrh^ K.^fi, • .^- lawyers— General Practice. 
er>y Tr^oln^SlS.!" .'Sf.i™ Kl,™- ^'.ntii!,' Va^ «' ^,'?„\l"'.?/^'^d°™- 



In the treaty of Camp Holmes In the Grand Prairie near the Canad- 
ian river in the Muscogee Nation, Aug-. 24, 18 35, for a similar purpose with 
the Comanche and Associated Bands including the Osages, over two hundred 
of the chiefs and head men signed (made their X mark) the treaty to keep 
peace with the Republic of Mexico. Again in May 26, 1857, a similar 
treaty was made with the Kiowas, Kakakas, and Ta-wa-ha-ros tribes, to 
keep peace with Mexico, Texas, and with the Muscogee and Osage Nations 
of Indians. Mr. Stokes and A. P. Chouteau, commissioner Indian treaties 
at Ft. Gibson, negotiated the treaty The informal treaty at Ft. Smith, Ar- 
kansas, Sept. 13, 1865, (unratified and not filed in the Indian office but 
found in Indian Commissioner's reports for 1865) was an agreement by and 
between ten tribes of Indians, including the Osages in Indian Territory, 
or country, to re-establish their treaties, etc., and friendly relations with the 
Federal govenment, after having entered into treaty stipulations with the 
Confederated States, thereby forfeiting all rights of treaties and protec- 
tion by the United States. The Osages, like the other tribes of Indians, 
were divided in their sympathies between the two above named warring 
powers and hence the need of this agreement to be restored to all former 
treaty rights. They were represented by White Hair, principal chief; Po- 
ne-no-pah-she, second chief; Big Hill Bands, and Wah-dah-ne-gah, 
counsellors. 

By the treaty with the Osages at Canville Trading post, Osage Nation, 
within the state of Kansas, Sept. 29, 1865, most of their lands In Kansas 
were ceded to the United States, the Osages having more lands than they 
could occupy for their greatest good, and for which concession the United 
States agreed to pay the sum, and place to the credit of the Great and 
Little Osages, $300,000 to be held in the treasury of the United States 
and five per cent per annum interest to be paid the Osages semi-annually 
in money, clothing, provisions, or such articles of utility, as the Secretary 
of the Interior may from time to time direct. Article 2 also makes provis- 
ion for the holding in trust a twenty-five mile strip of the reserve left, and 
sold at a price not less than $1.25 per acre, all moneys from such sales 
to be placed to their credit and 5 per cent used to aid them in beginning 
agricultural pursuits under favorable circumstances and "Uncle Sam's" 
direction. 

Twenty-five per cent of the net proceeds of such trust land sales were 
to be set apart till $80,000 should be accumulated, and placed to the credit 
of the school fund of the Osages, and the interest thereon, at the rate of 
five per cent per annum, should be expended semi-annually for the boardidg, 
clothing and education of the Osage children. In this treaty the Osage peo- 
ple showed their appreciation of the Catholic missionaries among them 
by granting to John Shoemaker in trust one section of land for their mis- 
sion, with the privilege to buy two other sections at $1.25 per acre for the 
use and sutsaining of the Catholic mission located in thb ceded territory 
and the like privilege in the new field. 

In this treaty provision is made for the ce.ssion of all their Kansas 
land, at the option of the Osages and seelection of IVind in Indian Territory, 
or affiliating with some tribe in said territory and sharing equally all 
privileges and annuities. Provisions are made for their just debts to James 
N. Coffey, and A. B. Canville, traders through the Secretary of the Interior, 
not, however, to exceed $5,000. Charles Mongram, a chief of the Great 
Osages is remembered for his faithful services by a grant to his heirs of 
a section of land in fee simple. Also Darius Rogers for his great services 
to the Osages was granted a patent of 160 acres, and the privilege to pur- 
chas 160 more adjoining, subject to the Secretary's approval. They de- 
clare against war and desire to establish peace with all men, and declare 
against the introduction of and use of ardent spirits among them. Should 
their home be selected in Indian Territory, 50 per cent of the dimininshed 
Kansas reservation funds were to be used to buy the new home, the rest 
placed to their credit with similar trust funds. 

By the articles of a treaty concluded at the Osage Council Ground on 
Drum Creek, Osage Nation, state of Kansas. May 27, 1868, through the 
consent of the United States and according to the desires of the Osages, 
to remove from Kansas to a new and permanent home in Indian Territory, 
all their lands in Kansas were sold to (or the company granted the priv- 
ilege of buying it) the Leavenworth, Lawrence and Galveston Railroad Com- 
pany in consideration that this company within three months after ratifica- 
tion of the treaty, pay to the Secretary of the Interior $100,000 cash, and 
duly executed bonds for a further sum of $1,500,000 with interest payable 
semi-annually at 5 per cent per annum, beginning from a date fixed for the 
removal of the Osages from these Kansas lands, and $100,000 each year 
for 15 years, and that said company should build 20 miles of track toward 
Indian Territory each year, until it reached the south line of Kansas, and 
on other conditions not essential to mention here, but fully protecting all 
rights of the Osages. 

S7 



THE LIVElllES, \VA(;ONS. AXD FEED YARDS. 

Next to caring for himself man should give all possible care and 
kindness to the animals that serve him, even more care might be due, as 
the animal servant is at his mercy. Pawhuska has four large liveries and 
three feed yards to board your teams. 

The A. M. Davis Wagon and Feed Yard is centrally located near the 
Osage Mills on the bank of Bird Creek, with free camp house, shady 
grounds, and abundance of good water, and box stalls for boarding your 
horses at reasonable rates. Mr. Davis, the proprietor, came from Wichita, 
Kansas, to Grant County, Oklahoma, whence he came to Pawhuska, 
March 1905. 

Geo. H. Grady, V. S., A Veterinary Surgeon. 

Is from the State Veterinary College of Des Moines, Iowa. He came 
to Pawhuska from Kansas City, where he practiced for five years with fine 
si;ccess, and now becomes practitioner in Pawhuska, and will welcome all 
who need his skillful services. Some of the best talent of the country is 
coming to this new country, which promises great future developmenr. 
Many fine breed horses and other stock are found in the Osage which is a 
favorable field for a veterinary surgeon. Dr. Grady offices at the Red 
Store Wagon and Feed Yard as shown in the cut, with his horses in the 




Old Red Store Wagon and Feed Y'ard. 

Of the three yards in town this yard was the first in Pawhuska, located 
just in the rear of the famous Old Red Store, one-half block from the 
Council House and Mildand Hotel. It was first built by Mr. N. K. Akers 
of Roanoke, Va. This feed yard has not only the honor of age, but the 
days one horse's dinner was a 65c bill of fare; but the present proprietor, 
C. R. Hare, will feed your horses at 30c a team and groom your vehicle in 
modern style, at moderate prices and welcome old and new patrons to a 
free camp house, free water, and free gas. 

38 



In Article 6 of this Treaty $20,000 were to be paid by the United States 
for its failure to furnish in full all the farming utensils agreed upon, and 
$10,000 for failure to run a saw and grist mill longer than five of tht^ 
fifteen years agreed upon in the treaty of January 11, 1839. (Art. 2.) 
Of the $20,000, $12,000 were to be expended in building an agency building 
in their new home, and also a warehouse, and blacksmith shop, etc., and 
the remaining $18,000 were to be used in building a school, churcn and the 
purchase of a saw and grist mill, which mill was to be managed and con- 
trolled by the Catholic Mission, for the benefit of the Osages. In Article 
[■, the Osages, grateful for the benefits of the Catholic Mission, gave in trust 
and fee simple to John Shoemaker, two sections of land to be selected at or 
near the new aency, with right to use all necessary timber to sustain such 
Mission, and school, for the purpose of educating and civilizing of the 
Osages. But if the Catholic Mission should fail to avail itself of the pro- 
visions of this treaty, within twelve months after the removal of the Os- 
ages to their new home, it should forfeit all the rights, privileges and im- 
munities therein conferred; and the same rights should inare to any other 
Christian society, willing to assume the duties and responsibilities enjoined 
on such a mission, with the period of two years after settlement in their 
new home. If no Christian society should avail themselves of these benefits 
as provided, then all such funds should be used under the direction of the 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, as in his judgment would best promote the 
moral, intellectual, and industrial interests of the Osage Nation not to ex- 
ceed $5000 a year, to be deducted from their annuities. 

In order to be free from all just debts on removing to their new homes 
$40,000 were voted to settle all debts. 

It was also provided that if any head of a family desired to commence 
farming he was privileged to select 300 acres or less, under the direction 
of the agent in charge within their new reservation, which selection, when 
recorded, certified, etc., should cease to be held in common and be individ- 
ual land, so lang as the accupant cultivated it. Any person over iS yeais 
of age, not being the head of a family, could select SO acres and hold it as 
his own, in the same manner, and duly entered upon the "Osage Land 
Book" with all the rights of improvements of deeded lands, subject to the 
Federal laws of alienation and descent of property. 

In Article 14 of this treaty it is stipulated that the United States agreed 
to sell to the Great and Little Osage Indians, for their future home, the 
country they now occupy, at a price not to exceed 2,5c, (twenty-five cents) 
per acre, bounded on the east by the 96th meridian west from Green- 
wich, south to the Creek country, thence by the north line of the Creeks 
to where that line crosses the Arkansas river, thence along its middle main 
channel to south line of Kansas, and east to the 96th meridian, composing 
1,570,195 acres of land. 

The above price of twenty-five cents per acre must be a mistake as 
the former treaties stipulated the price at $1.25 per acre. There seems to 
be some discrepancy in the different statements concerning the cost of these 
lands. H. B. Freeman, reporting to the Indian department in 1895 said: 
"The Osages own 1.600,195 acres of land which they purchased from the 
Cherokees at 70 cents per acre cash, including the 100,000 acres of the 
Kaws purchased from the Osages at the same rate." He further says that 
at that time the part bloods were unanimously in favor of the allotment 
of the lands, and full bloods as strenuously opposed, for reasons that will 
be given later on . 

THE PAWHUSKA KIXK AND OPERA HOUSE. 
K. J. Wooclring, O^Tier. E. H. 3Iahon, Mgr. 

In these days of business rush and nervous tension there is a corres- 
ponding desire for physical and mental recreation and past time. With 
each care, worry and strain of life arises a need, at least a longing, for 
some intoxicating or restful counteraction. With the increase of wealth on 
the one hand or ardent toil on the other comes a demand for gratifying 
entertainment to keep them pace. In no period of the history of nations 
v.'as the arena or play house more patronized than today. Millions are 
spent monthly for these classes of entertainments. Scarcely does a town 
put off her swaddling clothes when the opera robe is donned. Shrewd 
men seeing this tendency invest fortunes in theatres and operas. Mr. R. 
J. Woodring was the first in Pawhuska to erect skating ring, dancing hall 
and opera house combined. He is a clerk in the Osage Mercantile company's 
store, and a citizen by marriage to Miss Tina Herrard of Osage lineage. His 
energetic business qualities are manifest by the erection of this play house, 
Mr. Claud Conway was formerly a partner but now Mr. Woodring alone 
conducts the enterprise. Stage decorations of beautiful and cosily scener> 
have been ordered from Chicago at $25 a scene, and hung in place. Scenes 
robes and paraphanalia, often make one-half the shows, in any house. The 
first show here occurred October 17, 1905, with full house inspite of rain, 
and several popular plays since. The photo failing to come, a cut could not 
be shown as ordered. 

3d 




Fine Home of Clias. Leech — Built by 
Mr. A. V. Linscott. 
Mr. A. V. liinsoott, the contractor 
Who appears on the fore ground of 
this building is one of the first build- 
ers and contractors ever established 
in the Osage nation. He was form- 
erly from Texas, but has resided in 
the Osage lor twenty years and ap- 
plied his trade all over the Osage 
country. Some of the finest types of 
architectural buildings have been 
erected by himself. The cut repre- 
sents one of his latest buildings, put 
up for Mr. Chas. Leech, a surveyor 
Mr. Frank Tinker's beautiful cottage 
home is also one of his best in Paw- 
huska, and others equally fine. He 
is an expert at his trade and is sat- 
isfied with only the best work, and 
will gladly give you estimates. He 
is still a bachelor, and ready for any 
engagements in contracting, if not 
nuptially inclined. 



CURTIS BROS., MEAT MARKET & 

BAKTTR V 
and Hon. Jno. Palmer's Home and 
Summer Pavillan on National Heights, 



One Source of Osage Wealth. 

One of Pawhuska Oil & Gas Go's., 

wells. Natural gass flow of this sec- 
tion said to be 15,000,000 cubic feet 
every twenty-four hours. 





40 



Fresh, Salt and Cured Meats, Pure 
Lard, Fresh Fish and Oysters in 
Season, and all kinds of Fine 
Bakery Goods at \A1iolesaIe 
and Retail. 
Curtis Bros., (C. W. and H. K ) 
formerly of Illinois, have been resi- 
dents of the Osage six years in the 
eattle business. In Nov., 1904, thev 
bought the old market of Mr. Sim- 
cix, and have since bought out Geo 
saxon s and H. T. Leahy's bakery bus- 
iness and now run both, and doing 
a flourishing business. They also run 
ranch three miles from town and 
slaughter all their cattle fresh from 
the pasture and feeding stalls, thus 
furnishing the best meats that grass 
and grain produces. With the zeal 
characteristic of their native states 
Pawhuska will feel their progressive 
force and citizenship. 



In the act admitt™t5fJJte'^S''T^''^^^^r ^^^^ 
vided that the Indian Reservafon fn fhlT^.tti^V^'.}''^' '' specially pro- 
any purpose except with the consent of thfTnd^r'*^-"^* ^^ alienable for 
and then in accordance with the treatv m^tLl "^ '" ^''^^ Reservation, 

On January 21, 1867 a treatv witv, .J ^^^'"^ ^"°^ alienation, 
proclaimed and a trust create^to ^dispose of'th'lirfn ^^'^ k^^"'^ °«^^«« ^^« 
at ''a price not less than $1.25 per acr^ anJ tt.! f ^*^^ V^ *^^ government 
of these tribes, as the proceeds accrued 1. ""^^ ^'"'^^^ *« the credit 
States Treasury." The Secret^rv nf th. ? . •"' ^"""^ ^^'^^ '" the United 
to make a correct accosting: of Vee^e'^?-'-'-^^ -*' ""'" authorized 

state of Kansas and draw upon the UnUed state °Tr^^^^^ ^^f^ '^"^' ^" *^« 
not correctly credited from their and sale^ ^^ftl Z^t^VF^ ^°^ ^" moneys 
Of the Interior as custodian of heir trust fund? ?n h""'^- ^^ *.^^ Secretary 
tnbuted according to existing treat pc, w,J""k ^^ P® invested and dis- 
wealth of the Oslges, wiTely heralded' as thP H^l"". *^^ ,^"^^^ financial 
the world. The term per caoita^trilhtt^ ,,1^1?^''^* P®°P^^ P^^ capita in 
the Osage tribe has equal financial riShts^^th .tf ^"'f.^^^^ °"« born into 
that will be discussed later ^ ^^ ^^^""^ °t^^^' with exceptions 

izatioli Fund'fo^'ThTie^JfslTectrn"* ^^' T^^ ^^^^ ^^^ I^^^an Civil- 
state Of Kansis. within the limits orthe^Os'aV"; *^/ ^"J'"*^ states to the 
said treaty. *^^ °^^^® '^n^^s ceded by the afore- 

mal College at Ft. Scott, and has prac- 
ticed law ever since coming to Paw- 

th".'^A '" ^1^,2- H^ h^^ ripresentid 
the Osage delegations in Washington 
as advisory counsel to two commit- 
ll% ^on'i"?*"'®'^* delegations in 1903 
and 1904-5, and is now a delegate to 
Washmgton. In 1896 during the in- 
vestigation of the Osage rolli he rep- 
resented a large number of citizens 
whose rights were questioned and suc- 
ceeded m keeping most of them on 
the rolls after 90 days testimony. He 
IS a young man of fine ability and has 
a profitable, successful practice. He 
IS a man of fine discretion and broad 
knowledge in general as well as his 
profession. He has a pretty cottage 
home opposite Judge Rogers, has four 
fine specimens of children, and a most 
devoted husband and father. He has 
^QnYn^® l?"^ library costing about 
$;i,000. He will be a representative 
citizen of Osage county and the new 
state of Oklahoma. There will be no 
necessity of importing men for high 

mifted^'T^''^" *^^ "^^ «tat« is ad- 
m tted. He was assistant attorney for 
two years, before the Court of Claims 
He IS on ardent Knight of Pyth^I" 
having organized the lodge No. 11 of 
Pawhuska in 1894, and was i?s 
first "C c" He was Supreme 

Representative one term from Ok- 
lahoma, having previously served 
as grand chancellor of the ter- 
ritory. Being well versed in Osage 
history the writer gathered from Sm 
some information along this line. 

His law partner Mr. E. P Scott is 
also a young man of ability and an 
m ermarried citizen. His wife was a 
Miss Johnson, one of the leading fam- 
ilies of the Osage, and a sister of Mrs 
ihomas, whose parents have lon=r 
lived on their well improved farm two 
miles northeast of Pawhuska and ac- 
tive members of the M. E. church, and 
excellent people. 




HON. JOHN T. LEAHY 

Mr. J T. Leahy, the Senior partner 
?^ ^^ '-""L ^™ °^ Leahy and Scott 
(E. F.) IS by virtue of his ability, pro- 
fession and marriage in a most prom- 
inent family of Osage descent, one of 
th leading personagfes of the civiJ 
social and political life of these people 
He IS a citizen by marriage to Miss 
Bertha Rogers, one of the accom- 
plished doughters of Judge T. L Rog- 
ers and a sister of Mrs. Will Leahy. 
John and Will are cousins. He is the 
son of Edward Leahy, a brother of 
Thomas Leahy. His father lived 
among the Osages in Kansas but died 
in 69, four years before their removal 
here. He has been associated with the 
Osage Interests most of his life, and 
has lived in Pawhuska for 13 years. 
He IS a graduate of the Kansas Nor- 



41 



AN ACT TO LEALIZE INTERMARRIAGE \WTH A\TIITE MEN 

Art. IX. (Para. 99.) Section 1 of the Laws of the Osage reads: 
"Whereas the peace and prosperity of the Osage people require that in the 
enforcement of the laws, jurisdiction of the civil law should he exercised 
over all persons whosoever who may from time to time be privileged to 
reside within the limits of the Osage Nation, therefore any white man or 
citizen of the fniled States who may letoafter Cf.me into the country to 
marry an Osage woman shall first be required to make known his intent- 
ions to the Nation Council by applying for a license and such license may 
under the authority of the National Council, to be issued by the clerk there- 
of. Any person so obtaining a license shall pay to the clerk the sum of 
twenty dollars ($20.00) for such license, and take an oath to support the 
constitution and abide by the laws of the Osage Nation, which oath inay be 
administered by the President of the National Council or the clerk of the 
body, anthorized for that purpose, and it shall be the duty of the clerk 
to record the same in the Journals of the National Council. But if any such 
white man or citizen of the United States shall refuse to subscribe to the 
oath, he shall not be entitled to the rights of citizenship, and shall forthwith 
be removed without the limits of the Osage Nation as an intruder. The 
Osage laws relating to man's and woinan's conduct to each other, and for 
the protection of woman's virtue and offspring, sections 2 3 to 3 3, holds as 
high a standard of morals as the inost advanced people of any age of civ- 
ilization. 

For more than a half century they have had all the modern privileges 
of a literary education. They have had schools in their midst for many 
decades and all who have desired to go, have been sent to Carlisle, Penn., 
or Lawrence, Kan., to graduate, or to other institutions equally famous. 
In January (12), 1884, the Osage Council passed a practically compulsory 
education law for the children of their nation. 

"That every child of school age (from 7 to 14 years of age) who has 
not been in school four months out of the six months preceeding an an- 
nuity payment, shall be enrolled, and payment withheld, unless the child 
was sick and unable to attend school, which fact shall be certified to by the 
agency physician, and the annuity paid. 

It is not the object of this short synopsis to give a digest of all 
the laws of this people, but only such as indicate the high degree of self- 
government, and civic and educational development. 

Their Constitution and laws published in 18 95, under tlie authority of 
the National Council of the Osage Nation, and certified to by Thomas 
Mosier, their National Secretary, show a close following of the constitu- 
tion of the Federal government and States: — "We the people of the Osage 
Nation in National Council assembled, in order to establish justice, insure 
tranquility, promote the common welfare, to secure to ourselves and poster- 
ity the blessing of freedom — acknowledge with humility and gratitude the 
goodness of the Sovereign ruler of the universe in permitting us to do, and 
implore his aid and guidance in its accomplishment, do ordain and establish 
this constitution for the government of the Osage Nation." 

Any people that can, with the spirit and purpose of such a preamble 
legislatively formulate and judiciously execute the laws following this pre- 
amble, were, or are, or ought to be as capable of self government and as 
competent and well fitted to protect the weaker ones of th«iir nation as any 
community on the face of the American continent. They are certainly able 
to organize immediately, and govern well and judiciously the County of 
Osage in the new state of Oklahoma, which we all hope to greet this winter. 
The Osages have long exercised the Legislative, Executie, and Judicial 
functions of a well formulated government, under the authority of "citizens" 
or part Osages with as bright minds, and noble qualities as can be found in 
any county or state. Such men as Judge T. L. Rogers, Judge J. W. Pettit, 
Hon. John Palmer, Hon. Jno. T. Leaky, C. N. Prudom, Mathews, J. W. 
Trumbly, and others who have served years in the judicial departments 
and many other strong men from the citizens, and the best and shrewdest 
of the "fullbloods" have represented their districts in the usage National 
Council, composed of three members from each of the five districts into 
which the whole Nation was divided. The councilmen are elected for two 
years, vica voce, by the qualified voters, all male citizens over 18 years of 
age. Only Osage male citizens can be elected, and not before 2 5 years of 
age. No one convicted of a felony was or is eligible to office, appointment 
of honor, profit or trust in the nation. And each member on being seated 
in the National Council took the following oath or affirmation: 

"I, A. B., do solemnly swear or affirm, (as the case may be,) that I have 
not obtained my election by bribery, treat, or any undue and unlawful 
means, used by myself, or others, by my desire or approbation for thai 
purpose, that I consider myself constitutionally qualified as a member of 
the Osage Council, etc., and that all questions and measures which may 

42 



come before me, I will give my vote and so conduct myself, as In my judg- 
ment shall appear most conductive to the interest and prosperity of this 
nation, and that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same, and to 
the utmost of my ability and power, observe, conform to, support, and de- 
fend the Constitution thereof." 

Such an oath would certainly make many a state politician tremble, and 
turn pale, at such a stunner for pure government. 

The supreme executive power was vested in a Principal Chief, called 
"The Principal Chief of the Osage Nation" elected by popular vote of the 
qualified electors on the general election day. He must be a natural born 
citizen and 35 years of age. In the same manner is elected an Assistant 
Chief under the same conditions, and both hold office for two years subject 
to impeachment by the Council. But the Chiefs oath of office is not as 
searching as the oath of the Councilmen. He says: "I do solemnly swear 
(or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the duties of Principal Chier 
of the Osage Nation, and will, to the best of my ability preserve, protect, 
and defend the Constitution of the Osage Nation." 

The Assistant is to aid and advise the Principal Chief, a more import- 
ant relationhip in this respect than the Vice President is to the President 
of the United States. The Constitution provides for supreme and circuit 
courts presided over by Judges elected by the National Assembly or Council, 
who have complete criminal jurisdiction in all cases and manners as might 
be provided by law. And all indictments conclude thus: "Against the peace, 
and dignity of the Osage Nation." 

There seems to be no provision of trial by jury, but that all civil cases 
should be tried by a supreme court composed of one Chief Justice and 
two Associate Judges and in criminal cases these three should select two 
other persons of good character and knowledge, to constitute with them, 
a court to decide all criminal cases. In all other respects the Constitution 
provided for similar laws, and manner of procedure as found in the most 
of states, and unnecessary to repeat here. 

The Osage Executive Council was composed of the Principal and As- 
sistant chief and three other men appointed by the National Council, on 
the recommendation of the Chief whom with the Assistant Chief he called 
together from time to time for directing the affairs of the Nation according 
to law. 

The Salaries of the Osage National Officers were not of such amounts as 
would entice the average state politician to spend hundreds or thousands 
of dollars, or even many cents, in their elaborate campaigns. The Principal 
Chief was allowed a salary of only $450 per annum; Assictant Chief, $350; 
Justice of the Supreme Court, $250; Associate Justice in addition to legal 
fees, $150 per annum; Prosecuting Attorney $300; National fsecretary $350; 
each member of the National Council $250; High Sheriff, $250; each Dis- 
trict Sheriff, $200; each member of Executive $100; Principal Chief's Priv- 
ate Secretary $150; his Private Interpreter $150 per annum; making a 
total of $3,459, less than $4,000 per year expenses for running the govern- 
ment — a good example for future use. 




iON. J. N. 



COULiTER, Attorney 

a.t-law. 



Mr. J. N. Coulter, the subject of 
this sketch was born in the moun- 
tain region of Pennsylvania. His 
parents moved to Indiana when he 
was yet a boy, where he lived 
and grew up to manhood, receiving 
a liberal education at Wabash col- 
lege. The western fever struck 
him at the time uf the opening of 
old Oklahoma in 1889. Entering 
the territoriy on the 2 2d day of 
April as one of the boomers, he lo- 
cated in Guthrie, where he lived 
till September 1893. When the 
strip opened he came to Pawnee, 
Pawnee county, were he lived un- 
til the first of May, 1905, remov- 
ing at that time to Pawhuska, 
vhere he now lives with his fami 
y, consisting of his wife and lit- 
tle daughter, seven years old, a 
happy trio. Mr. Coulter is success- 
ful and enjoys a good practice of 
the best clientage of the Osage Na- 
tion. .. 



43 



Mr. Conway is a native of New York state, born in Albany, where he 
lived as a boy, but lived at Syracuse after he was sixteen. He enlisted in 
the Federal army in the Fourteenth N. Y. Volunteers and served three 
months. Discharged Aug. 2, '61 for disability, re-enlisted Dec. 22, '61 for 
three years in Battery F, 3rd N. Y. L. Art. Helped to capture Fort Sumpter 
and as a sargeant volunteered to carry the colors to a Gabion, midway 
the trenches and the Fort, and was promoted to a lieutenant for this deed 
of bravery. He was a prisoner in Petersburg, Livy, and Bells Isle, from 
which he escaped through the indulgence of the officers because of hla 
clerical services, and rejoined his battery. He came to the Osage Nation 
in 1884, and married Mrs. Jane Wilson, nee Miss Revard, the sister of 
Joseph Revard. They now live in their Pawhuska cottage home amid 
flowers and trees, a happy, aged couple, retired for a golden sunset of life. 
They take much pride in their quiet home, and its flowers and pets. Notice 
a large snail or sea shell found in Beech Creek on his farm. It is a pre- 
historic specimen and weighs about fifty pounds. 




The Pretty Park Home of Jolin Ck)nvvay, Park Row. 



(Photo by Hargis) BAKKR-CERNEY COJMPANY. 



These Hardware, Furniture, Har- 
ness and Vehicle Dealers have one of 
the largest department stores in Paw- 
huska, furnishing all kinds of hard- 
ware, stoves, tinware and tinshop, of 
which they have the finest in the ter- 
ritory. Their various lines cannot be 
excelled. They carry also the best of 
carpets and drapery. Axniinister 
rug-s, and lace Curtains. Their busi- 
ness being established in 1904, on a 
much smaller basis has grown to 
large proportions, with a number of 
rooms stored full of high grade goods, 
andd the best make of implements 
and vehicles. Mr. Adolph Cerney 
supervises the hardware department. 
He is broadly experienced in his line 
and ably assisted by well qualified 

44 



clerks. 

Mr. O. M. Baker gives his special at- 
tention to the furniture and carpet 
sales, stocks and rooms, and their suc- 
cessful business proves his fine quali- 
fications for his department. Mr. A. 
W. McCoy, conducts the book-keeping 
and heavy office work. Their present 
building has a 115 foot front, by 80 
deep, stored full from centre to cir- 
cumference. They incorporated at 
$100,000, and now doing a $125,000 
business per year. Mr. Baker is pres- 
ident, Mr. A. S. Sands, (of Iowa), vice 
president; Mr. McCoy, secretary; Mr. 
Cerney treasurer and one of the 
managers. They were formerly from 
Nebraska and Iowa, and of broad 
generous principles. 



g"^t^^ states to prohibit "Ind emfoS "^fn^t'rpi'r'^ ^^""^ encouraged the 
hibit the introduction and sale of int^X.f treaties provisions to pro- 
ments of their National Council wl ^."^^o^.i'^ating drinks. Among the enact- 
whenever any citizen of The o^le Natio^n "'i^'^'f ^'^5^- ^''>' Section I7, That 
ness, (and) it shall be the dutt of th^ <?Ji ^ ^""i"^ ^" ^ state of drunken- 
person before the Supreme JuL° ti't °^^'=^''!, °^ ^^^ "^tion to bring such 
proven that he has beSTrunk^f 'shall blTh^ .'?t '^\\^^^^Se, and if if be 
impose a fine on him of not 1p^^ thad . f.?^*^ °^ ^^^ Supreme Judge to 
twenty-five ($25.00)"dolla?s fireach an'd^eveiv'ofJ ''''''^'' "°^ more than 
said payment such person be made to .Prv/ ^^^1^^' ^"^ '" ^^efault of 
nn''°H ^* °"^ ('^l-OO) dollar pir day oJ be nn? tn'' *'v^ *" *^« National 
one dollar and fifty cents ($1.50) pe? dav%i%T^'■^?,",P"^"^ ^o^k at 

°' ^^TTe^?rirS"^Scf'of'?^r%"* r ^^^^^^^^^^ '"' ^'"^ 

present tin^e The v^Sance of he tL-^^' .^'"" ^^^^^"^ enforced to the 
deputies, makes tL JrohibUion Lw r^o^" ^S^""}' ^^P*^'" ^rantz. and hi^ 
any other section of Anierica Fa^onT r..^,f-K?f-^'''^ ^"'^ complete than in 
sas, are free license in comparSoS^ wfth thi^n °" '^^*^'' ^^^"^ an<i Kan- 
medicines containing alcoh™ ?r distini!? 3^-.°^''^® country. Proprietary 
serving the law you dare no sell them o.?."*^^ ''''^ ''^''^^y excluded. Ob- 
dividual or family use nor <,h1eM -.<^ introduce them for your own in- 
fold, can't even Jt Hoke"t°Lf B tterf nor \"he''?adfe '°p ^^"' *^^ ^"^- ^« 
imes cross over to old Oklahomi'lTnsT oV'^'li'd^rn Ter'rUory. ^"' "'"^' '^'' 




An.tM„, .„ „.e ^^a^P^olS'^--- -SSn. a Specialty . S 
r>or,v, , ,. Jjicensecl Indian Ti-ader ^ptrcia^iy, u. s>. 

rankfh!?h"lS\i's%ydTasl'i;ia1ksrith\"r^' among whom C. B. Thomas 
he came here from Poata Kansas Me L'^^1'^"*/^"^^^- ^wo years ago 
and has here won a wide pat rJnaee i? .n if- ^o'^^l^^ his trade many years 
farm implements. Having made a sneo ^H '""^^ °J iron work, vehicles and 
pert service in shoeing and ^SaLntee.. ft," Jf.°^ ^°?^'^°^^^ ^« ^'^es ex- 
onable prices. In meetinJ^ mnnv Jnn^ satisfaction to his patrons at reas- 
comes to our minds the poet's ''Vifla/e R,t"i.'" the shops, how frequently 
steel, both within and out Some trl/et ?i''''''T'l^' ^^^ "^^" o^ ^^O" and 
to destroy them. The blacksSs l?e^eni^!„*° ^^'£ *° "'^^^ "^«"' others 
firm in the conviction of rSri'^k^LirSeXmier^'^^' "^'"' °"«" ^^ 
c * rj-ANNIGAlV AND JARIES. 
With tho fi^J^^^ J Plumbing, Steam and Gas Mttin- 
was r^mln'e'di'a'^f'df n?Inf ^ ^fni^!L\i Tr^l ?^'"'*^- ^^^"piumbing business 
firm of first class plumbers and s?eof^ m^ '"',^^ ^'"^ ^ '^^^^'^ established 

ness. They are progiessive bisines men Ind will do" ^°'"^ ^ f '■°^^^*"^ b"«- 
ly and promptly. uu&inei, men. and will do your work satisfactori- 



45 



THE liTJMBER COMPANIES. 

THE SPURRIER LftJMBER CO., J. T. YOUNG, MGR. 

One of the first necessities of immigrants to a new field is that of 
material to build dwellings for themselves and barns for their stock, and 
other improvements. This employs an army of men to cut and saw the 
timber, transport it, and others to sell it to the contractors and builders; 
thus sustaining a great industry in every densely populated center. Paw- 
huska, has four lumber yards, doing business in supplying these needs, as the 
town has doubled in size in one year, with good prospects of doubling again 
durin? the next year. Some of the largest companies are located here. 
Among these the Spurrier Lumber Co. with headquarters and main yard ai 
Guthrie, O. T., have eleven yards over the two territories, and are extensive 
dealers in yellow pine and cypress lumber, shingles, sashes, doods, mould- 
ings, etc. They have been in business in Pawhuska two years and are 
located on the east side of the Triangle under the management of Mr. J. T. 
Young, an experienced lumberman. Besides a full line of building material 
they carry also a large assortment of paints, and welconae your patronage, 
and furnish you estimates for building. Give them a call and meet Mr. 
Young, when preparing to build. 




Duncan Bros., C. A. and G. H., Dealers in Yellow Pine liumber & Hardware 

They carry a full line of oak, cedar, cypress, redwood, lumber and lime. 

sane, brick and cement. 

These young men were the first to build fine lumber sheds and office, 
a cut of which appears. They do an extensive business in all kmds of 
building material, from tin buttons for your tar paper roof, to the finest 
lumbers and paints for the finishing touches. They contract for building 
for all work from the stone foundations to the hangings of the paper. They 
are from Winfleld, Kansas, where they did a wholesale commission lumber 
business for years. They have one of the finest locations in Pawhuska, 
just in the rear of the Indian Agent's office, in the center of the business 
district. Mr. C. A. Duncan, the senior partner, is an active member of the 
Baptist church and leader of its choir. You will find them courteous gen- 
tlemen and obliging in supplying your needs. 



46 



(Photo by Hargis) 



In the Act passed March 3, 1873, provision was made ti>r th<- traiisfei 
of $1,650,600, (or as much as necessary for the purchase of laml-; from the 
Cherokees, for the Osages from the Oagge trust funds) to the Cherokee 
credit, in conformity to an act passed June 5, 1S72. entitled. "An act v- 
confirm to the Great and Little Osage Indians a Reservation in Indian 
Territory. But the Osage reservation in Indian Territory was excepted 
from the operation of the Dawes Act (the general allottment Act of 1887 ) 
as provided in that Act, May 2, 1892. And for civil and taxable purposes 
has been attached to Pawnee and Kay counties. Oklahoma. But by the 
Act of June 7, 1897, only the district court should have exclusive jurisdiction 
of any actions in civil cases against members of the Osage and Kansas tribes 
residing on their reservation in Oklahoma Territory. No Justice of the 
Peace or Probate Court shall have jurisdiction in such cases, and at least 
two terms of the district court should be held, each year, at Pawhuska, on 
the reservation, at such times as the supreme court of Oklahoma shall 
fix and determine for the trial of bith civil and criminal cases. 

The taxes of the taxable property, etc., of the business men of the Osage 
country adjoining go to the counties, on the theory that the alien's lav 
business, civil, and Circuit Court, be held in Pawhuska, twice each year, but 
the Circuit Court business in Pawhuska seems to have consisted mainly in 
continuances, changes of venue and adjournment. 

Juries, it seems are brought from Pawnee county at great expense, 
while men all over the Osage, equally intelligent, and nioe wealthy, and 
should be more competent, are excluded as jurymen. It seems to be on 
the verge of the colonial days, "Taxxation without Representation." A 
county government will soon remedy this. 

An act of the 49th Congress, February 8, 1887, Section 6, makes the 
provisions that upon the completion of allotments and the patenting of land 
of allottees, each and every member of the respective bands or tribes of 
Indians, to whom allotments have been made, shall have the benefit of 
and be subject to the laws, both civil and criminal, of the state or Territory 
in which they may reside, etc. And every Indian born within the limits of 
the United States and has voluntarily taken up his residence separate and 
apart from any tribe of Indians therein, and has adopted the habits of civ- 
ilizzed life (and every Indian in Indian Territory,) is hereby declared to be 
a citizen of the United States and is entitled to all the rights, imparing the 
right of any such Indian to tribal or other property." 

According to this act many of the Osage, allied families, have long been 
citizens of the United States and should be forthwith entitled to all the 
privileges of American citizens, regardless of those who do not allot, and 
live apart in severalty. For many of them live just as much apart in 
manner of life, in eating, drinking, dressing, and in finely improved homes, 
farms and town residences, with education and culture, as the better 
citizens of New England or the Pacific coast, the wealthy North, or "Proud 
South," and are entitled to become citizens. 

By the act of March 3, 1901, provision was made for the settlement of 
all Osage debts due Indian Traders upon a just basis of fair profits upon 
the goods sold to them by the Osages. Such payments are or may be 
made direct from the government representatives who adjust or O. K.'s 
all debts contracted by the individual Indian or head of a family. But 
the trader is prohibited by this bill from giving credit to the Indians to 
an amount exeeding sixty centum of the Indian's next quarterly annuity, 
under the penalty of forfeitinng the right to collect any of the debt, and 
the trader's license shall be void, and revoked for such excess credit by the 
trader. This act protects the trader in credits and the Indian against 
consuming all his money before getting it. It is a wise provision for all 
classes. 

•-at*-*-' irw irvnt^, 
DR. F. C. GALE, D. D. S. 

With the advance of society and civilization there seems to be a cor- 
responding deterioration or more rapid decay of the human teeth. Whether 
this be caused by less use in eating foods pulverized by artificial means, 
or often by inheritance, or medicines, is a question to be solved by the den- 
tal profession, or individual care. Paw^huska has three dentists, young 
men, among whom Dr. F. C. Gale, the brother of Miss Gale, the vocalist, 
has established a well furnished office in the Old Historic Council House 
since May 1905. He is a graduate of the Western Dental College of Kansas 
City, Mo., one of the best colleges of the "West." With the latest know- 
ledge and experience of his profession he is doing a fine practice with satis- 
faction to his patients. He is an excellent young man, and adds much to 
to the progressive element of the Osage. 




Tlie Mitscher Allotment Delegation to Washington, D. C, 1904. 
Top Row. — Fi'ank Comdropper, Bacon Rind. Fi-ed Lookout, W. T. 
Leahy, Eaves Tall Chief, and Charles Brown. Next Row. — Charles N. Pini- 
dom, Arthur Bonnicastle, W. S. Mathews, James Bigheait, and Lawrence. 
Lower Row. — Brave, Heh-scah-moie, Ne-kah-wali-she-tun-kah, Back Dog, 
Shun-kah-mo-lah, Peter C. Bigheart. Tom Mosier, Interpreter; Oscar A. 
Mitscher, U. S. Indian Agent. 




Cottage and Business Block of R. M. Hunt. 

Mr. Hunt, whose cottage and fine business block appears herewith la 
an intermarried citizen of the Osage. He has lived in PawhusKa eighteen 
years, engaged in the blacksniithing business fourteen years of that time, 
and also conducted a well stocked farm and ranch 23 miles northwest of 
town on Beaver Creek, which his son Orial now farms. Mr. Hunt resides in 
Pawhuska, where he has valuable property and will soon establish himself 
i nbusiness here, being long a licensed Indian Trader. He married Miss 
Mary A. DelOrier. They have four children from three to sixteen, two boys 
and two girls. Orial is attending Nazareth Academy at Muskogee. He is 
Fixteen and preparing himself for a gucce.'-sful business life. :Mr. Hunt be- 
lieves in preparing his children for the practical affairs of life and self- 
dependence. 

50 (Photo by Hargis) 



GIVE THE INDIAN A WHITE MAN'S CHANCE 

(Passed in Council Assembled Dec. 5, 1905.) 

"Whereas, The People of Oklahoma, and Indian Territories are greatly 
interested in the Statehood Bill introduced by the honorat)le Bird S. Mc- 
Guire, Delegate for Oklahoma Territory, which provides for the admission 
of the aforesaid Territories into the Union as one state, and 

"Whereas, The terms of said McGuire Statehood Bill have been made 
known by the press of the country, within the past few days, thereby giving 
us an opportunity to examine into the minor details of same, and 

"Whereas, said Oklahoma Statehood Bill if passed, will materially ef- 
fect the intterests of the Osage Tribe of Indians now living in Oklahoma 
Territory, and 

"Whereas, we feel sure that the Honorable Bird S. McGulre and the 
Congress of the United States has the most friendly feeling for the Osage 
Tribe of Indians, and would not intentionally injure them or deny them 
any reasonable request and 

"Whereas it is proper that we make known our wishes in matters that 
vitally affect us to the congress of the United States and 

"Whereas the Osage Tribe of Indians now own a tra^t of land which 
they bought and paid for, and which is situated in the Territory of Okla- 
homa, and is known as the Osage Indian Reservation, and 

"Whereas, Disposition is to be made of said Osage Indian Reservation 
is a matter that affects the Osages primarily, and can in no way effect the 
inhabitants of other sections of Oklahoma Territory, or the inhabitants of 
Indian Territory, and 

"Whereas, The Osage Tribe of Indians now hold lands and other com- 
munal property in a different mannner from that of any other Indian tribe, 
or other people in either of said territories, and 

"Whereas, The Osage Tribe of Indians have long been assustomed to 
transact the greater part of their business in the town of Pawhuska, the 
Capital of the Osages and 

"Whereas, The Osage Tribe of Indians have for a long time expected 
that when existing conditions changed that the Osage Reservation would 
remain intact, and be constituted one county, to be known as Osage colunty 
with Pawhuska as the county seat thereof, and 

"Whereas, We are acquainted with the wishes of the Osages and the 
people living in the Osage Indian Reservation, and know that they are 
unanimous as to their wants and desires in the matter above set out and 
fully approve of the same. 

"Therefore, Be it resolved by the Osage National Council in session as- 
sembled at Pawhuska, the Capital of the Osage Nation, this 5th day of De- 
cember, 1905, that in the proposed statehood bill there be inserted a clause 
in effect as follows: 

"That the Osage Indian Reservation in Oklahoma Territory is hereby 
constituted a county, to be known as Osage County, with Pawhuska as the 
coounty seat thereof, and that the first election of the proper officers 
thereof should be held at the time and place, or places, and be conducted 
In such manner as the Governor shall appoint and direct after at least 
thirty days notice to be given by proclamation, and all subsequent elections 
the time, place and manner of holding elections, shall be prescribed by law. 

"Be it further resolved. That the main and essential provisions of the 
said proposed Statehood Bill for Oklahoma and Indian Territories, other 
than the peculiar features above referred to, as introduoed in the House 
of Representatives by the Honorable Bird S. McGuire, meets with our 
hearty and unqualified approval. 

"Be it further resolved. That copies of these resolutions be sent to the 
Honorable Bird S. McGuire, the Honorable Chairman of the Committee 
on Territories, in both House and Senate, the Honorable Charles Curtis, the 
Honorable Secretary of the Interior, the Honorable Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs; and that copies be furnished the five local newspapers published 
on the Osage Indian Reservation, and the Pawhuska Commercial Club. 

"W. S. Mathews. Julian Trumbly, Francis Claremore, Tom West, 
Charles-Me-She-Tse-He, his x mark, O-Lo-Hal-Moie, his x mark, Me-Kah- 
Wah-Ti-An-Kah, his x mark. Frank Corndropper, Osage Councilors; 
O-Lo-Ho-Wal-La, Principal Chief; Bacon Rine, Assistant Principal Chief, 
professional organizations. From eighteen men, the organization has 

"I hereby certify on honor, that the foregoing proceedings of the 
Osage Council are true and correct. A. W. HURLEY, Acting U. S. In- 

dian Agent. 

51 




25 



PAWHUSKA. 

(Pa-hu-ska, the name of a chief, means White Hair, of the Bald Eagle 
subgens of the Tsicu Gens). 

After surveying, and scanning the Osage couirtry you can quickly see 
why the county seat of the reservation, Pawhuska, should be called "The 
Hub of the Osage," both from her central location and commercial im- 
p'ortance. Approaching the city from the east along the Midland Valley 
Railroad, 209 miles from Ft. Smith, 10.3 from Muskogee, 49 from Tulsa, 
33 from Skiatook, on the east boundary of the Osage, 23 from Tucker, 17 
from Nickols, 13 from Bigheart, and 5 from Nelagony Junction, you will 
see beautiful, rapidly growing Pawhuska, where about 1872, "Uncle Sam" 
selected a most favorable site for the Guardian Home of the Osage Agency 
Schools, and Trading Post, which it continued to be till a year ago, when it 
begun to develop into the present, growing and promising city of the future 
country, and its prosperity seems only to have begun. Pawhuska is mid- 
way between Tulsa, partly built on the extreme southeast corner of the 
Osage and Arkansas City nearly touching the northwest corner of the 
Reservation. Equal distance from Elgin, or Chautauqua Springs, Kansas, 
and Cleveland, O. T., Bartlesville, on the extreme east and Ponca City, 
west. Train connection with Arkansas City will soon be, if not already 
established on the newly built Midland Valley, that follows the beautiful 
winding Bird Creek Valley, walled up on either side by rocky, forest- 
covered cliffs and hills. Along this line are some of the must sublime scenes 
in Oklahoma. The Rocky Cliffs just west of Skiatook are most picturesque, 
and "Lover's Leap," three miles west of Pawhuska overlooks the Mid- 
land Valley road. It is said by some that this high, perpedicular wall was 
named from the incident of an elopement, a young couple who were being 
closely persued by an irate father and the lovers prefered to die together 
by leaping over this cliff rather than be separated from, each other. If 
this legend were true, sacred would the spot to all true lovers or those 
desiring to make true love, but Mr. John Florer wrecks all the love dream- 
ing on this point by claiming that he first named the high cliff in jest dur- 
ing a family picnic party on that point. So young lovers if the romantic 
inspiration of "Lover's Leap" fails you in the conflicting origin of the name, 
see the venerable merchant of Gray Horse, and "cheer up" for it might not 
be true. And the towering rocks, fertile vallies and romantic forests and 
groves may still lend their insiiiring charms. 

From the slope east of Bird Creek, looking west as seen on the title 
page, Pawhuska nestles in a beautiful valley basin, broken east and west 
by the curving stream, adroned by primitive groves of pecan, persimmon, 
walnut, elms, all varieties of oak and other native trees that will make an 
"Ideal park. 

It could be made "IDEAL PARK" by linking the banks together by 
several light suspension foot bridges. A large steel bridge, now, connects 
East and West Pawhu.ska. In these times of hustle-tustle, hurly-burly, 
competitive, commercial life, and constant strain upon tne pnysical and 
nervous system of the human race, no city nor town could oe very scientifi- 
cally plotted without such a park for leisure hours, and mnocent recrea- 
tion. 'Tis not all of life to live in the crowded blocks of busmess all the sev- 
en days and nights through natural life. Everyone should once in a while 
get a taste of that paradise on the eternal "shores beyond." A little vesti- 
bule of Eden should be made for the city, where the adventurous hun- 
ter and the feathered, painted and bronzed race used to roam. "How 
sublimely the Great Father of the Pale and ruuddy races has made this 
spot for the abode of his children." The Paradise of a romantic love — 
dreamer could scarcely improve upon her site. The ancient Paradise was 
but a lovely scene of trees, flowers, fruits and castles. And here many 
beautiful trees have been reared by creative laws and many ornamental 
trees have been planted in the yards of the older residences of the town, 
part of which was built years ago, by Indian Traders, and the government. 
But many smaller business buildings and fine residences have gone up dur- 
ing two years, since the town survey and sale was assured. 

Many of the native people seem to have a strog love for natural 
beauty and fill their yards with trees, flowers and evergreeno. Mr. Simcock, 
on the north hill, and Mr. Wheeler on Park Row, have th»;lr yards adorned 
with evergreens, cedar and arbor vital. Main street, as you look east from 
the Midland Valley tracks is walled with beautiful trees and flowers. 

As the bill which will be reprinted later in this book speaks for itself 
It is useless to give the town sections here. We need only say that the 
most of a section, 640 acres will be available for homes and business, of the 
most beautiful locations. Pawhuska is ideal for both business in the low- 
est center of the basin, easily drained to the deep broad onannel of Bird 
Creek, residences occupying the rest of the basin and its beautiful slopes 
north, west and south, where the grandeur of forest covered hills over- 

fi3 



Mr. Wllliam E. McGuire, Postmaster, Pawhuska, O. T. 

In the development of any community the men in places of trust and 
honor can wield a mighty influence. Mr. McGuire is a brother of Rep- 
resentative McGuire of Oklahoma, now in Congress. He is a gentleman of 
broad experience, manly qualities, and obliging thoughtfulness, well fitting 
him for the office he fills with much satisfaction to all. He first came to 
Pawhuska to teach in the government schools where, after teaching one 
year, during Arthur's administration, in 1883, he resigned because of the 
change of administrations. Returning to Kansas he taught till the Cherokee 
strip opened up, came back to Oklahoma and became a resident of Ponca 
City. He raised the first tent ever placed upon that townsite, where he was 
a leading factor in building that city into the present business center. He 
served as city clerk for two years and chairman of the school board, in 
which office he was the main figure in having erected the first complete 
school house on the "Strip," only sixty days after the opening. The dedica- 
tion was celebrated by 5,000 while the Ponca and other Indians slaughtered 
twenty head of wild Texas cattle In Indian mode. In February, 1898, 
McGuire was appointed potsmaster at Pawhuska, where he has been a pot- 
ent Influence in town progress. He married Miss Virginia A. Slater of 
Kansas, July, 1889. She often aids him in his official duties with Miss 
Stoner as assistant postmaster. They have four bright children, a girl and 
three boys, Robert and Rolland, the youngest, and twins, appear on the 
porch with their pet mastif. The volume of postoffice business has in- 
creased rapidly the past year, and will soon make a high grade office. He 
is reported to have sent in to the postoffice department $300 as the net 
proceeds of one month's business last fall. Mr. McGuire is a congenial bus- 
iness man, leading lodge man, a K. P., a good singer, and active Christian 
in the M. E| church, and anxious for the good of Pahuska, and the Osage, 
In short an all around clever man and devoted husband and father. 




Mr. P. Spirllngi's Orchai'd Park and Home. 

Mr. P. Stirling, whose park-like cottage home in South Pawhuska, 
appears in cut. Is from the famous state of Kansas, 18 years ago, coming 
here while a young man. He has long been manager of Mr. F. A. G. 
Morris* Meat Market, the insurance man mentioned elsewhere and the 
first exclusive butcher shop in Pawhuska. Mr. Spirling is a deacon In the 
Baptist church, and an energetic Christian, and is honored by his friends 
with the familiar nickname, "Musical Butcher," from his fine happy ten\- 
perament and singing. 

To carve your mutton, pork or steak, he rises with the larh 

No foes nor care, he whistles, sings, or smiles from daylight until dark. 

He married a Kansas girl, Miss Jennie E. King, in Pawhuska, In '93. 
They have no children but judging from his merry air they must have as 
happy a home as possible without them. 

64 (Photo by T-- ^ 



look the center. The large creek here broadens into a small river of calm 
unusually clear or blue waters creeping through the town rorming the let- 
ter S, reversed from west to east. This broad, deep stretch rurnishes boat- 
ing and fine fishing nearly a mile through town. Alrtady a steam or 
gasoline launch and row boats afford pleasure to the romatically inclin- 
ed, while the stars, like merry twinkling fairies, or perchance the moon- 
beams like phantom-ghosts from far-off worlds below, peej* up through the 
listening, clear waters at Cupid's pranks. But if others prefer a firmer 
foundation, terra-firma, for the culture of Cupid's Arts tney may find 
lovely walks through "Ideal Park" that will surely be reaerved along this 

While the town has spacious room at present, her future growth which 
is sure to continue might in time be cramped in the bounas of one sec- 
tion. But there are beautiful quarters that may be added as needed. The 
160 acres appropriated to the St. Louis School is on the west. The ele- 
vations to the north. Mr. C. N. Prudom's fine quarter section, with beau- 
tiful, successive rises, and Mr. John P. Lynn's excellent bottom farm to 
the east, and the sublime views from the wooded bluffs southward will make 
future building sites unsurpassed in any city or section. The Creator 
of the great, broad world in which we live never designed that men, 
neither in business nor social life, be packed together like sardines 
in a "3x4" flat box. It is to be lamented by every lover or reedom, fresh 
air and sunshine, that all the resident lots in the town plats of the broad 
prairies were not twice as wide as they are. Hence all the more nec- 
essary that other land be added to give the porest man «, Better chance 
to own his own home and garden, with room for fruit ana ornamental 

Pawhuska being about half way between the Great Lakes and the 
Gulf and the Atlantic and the Pacific coasts, h^-s all possil>ie advantage of 
passenger and freight traffic. Five great systems of railways are tapping 
her territory. With the Midland Valley, feeling for botn coasts, south- 
east and northwest; the Santa Fe, north and south; the M. K. & T., and 
Frisco systems to all points of the compass, and the Missouri Pacific ready 
and negotiating to enter from the north, one can quickly *ee the traveling 
and shipping facilities so important to manufacturing, mlnmg, fruit-grow- 
ing and agricultural countries. Pawhuska is only 223 miles from Kansas 
City 130 from Oklahoma City, 100 from Wichita, and 425 to St. Louis. It 
has 'between 1,500 and 2,000 population of mostly cultured, intelligent so- 
cial people from Maine to Calfornia and from Michigan to Mexico. It is, 
and, perhaps, will be for all time the center of Osage education and busi- 
ness. Great sums of money are paid out here annually to the psage vary- 
ing from $41 to $46 quarterly to each man, woman and child holding a 
: rilht, and listed upon the Indian Agent's rolls These P^y^^^^s are made 
about the first week in March, June, September and De<^emt)er. In ad- 
■ dition to these payments each one receives an annual payment of royal- 
ties on mineral leases, principally from oil and gas, and pasturage so far, 
amounting last year to over $350,000, paid equally per capita. The an- 
Sies val-y fro year to year, and will no doubt increase a. other minerals 
are developed. From all evidences gas and oil will be found at some 
depth 111 over the reservation. Nearly all prospected districts m the east- 
ern half are now producing gas and oil in large quantities. T^e jv " 
can be seen north and east of Pawhuska producing volumes of gas and 
on The town is heated and lighted by these wells. One or the gas wells 
is said to be the second largest in the world. r, 4. „„ 

• The writer had the opportunity of watching the worKmen shoot one 
of these wells, which is owned by some of the most financially and pro- 
gressively prosperous citizens of Pawhuska. Most men come here to dc^ 
?e?op and there is, and will be, development along all possible I'nes Good 
shale for pressed brick is found here in abundance, an exce lent openins 
for a brick yard, for as yet no brick have been ^^^f^f^'^^.^lZlSnl^in 
hut fine building stone is everywhere abundant, soft to hew, but hardening in 
?he wLr Nfar ? all the government buildings are stone, and many 
of thi farm buildings. Besides natural gas and oil, there is much wood for 
?Li and^treams for water power. All mercantile business is well es- 
Swished and P^ofessLiTs well represented by many well equipped young 
men and ladies It is always true that many homeseekers In every newly 
^pTned ?ointS are from th^ more cultured «\--- ^^.t^^.^l^^^.l^nSmi; 
ties seeking homes and wealth in less congested fields. Generally neitner 
the ricS norToorest, but contented, working elements, care to migrate 
much. This fact is soon discovered in studying all new fields. 

The Osage townsite committee was composed of Col W. A. Miller, ine 
governmenrflpresentative, and Mr. Julian Trubly and Captain Frank 
Frantz the Indian Agent for the Osage. Since the beginning of this book, 
and the iriauuguration of Frantz, governor, the lots have been sold and the 
town is makinlrapid strides in growth, and Mr. Ret Miller appo-ted agent^ 
The deeds will soon be returned from the approval of the Secretary ottne 
?nter?or who ruLd that all lots built on after March 3, 1905. ^^ould have 
to be sold and bought at public auction. This created some agitation at 
flrsfV^ut there was but little bidding against the owners of the Improve- 

66 



successful farmer, stockman ILrea .T? / T"^ ^^°- ^^ ^"^ "«" » 
firs, formed .he D,a> ana Sk^r Re^u, c^pa'T '°' "^^ ^^"^' "-'"^ 

^-^Ef ~>~^-' - -nlef^aVS-Selrff-r--- ^ 

Husfr;,n'srT.Vu\rrf;L'tw°'>m-„-ff:rroL^^^^^^ 




His quarter section of 1=^? hf ° orchard and flne Improvements. 

66 (Photo by Hargrls) 



ments, and one case the bidders took up a collection to help an old lady 
buy her lot, she had built on, and cheered the auctioneer, Mr. Ewing when 
it was bid off to her at the appraised value, $20. 

While the present center of the business and resident portions of Paw- 
huska nestles under an abrupt bluff on the north, rising near a hundred 
feet, and crowned with the National Osage School campus and buildings 
overlooking the city, it is so level that it will require skillful engineering 
for a fine sewerage system to the creek. The Westside is one of the most 
beautiful homesites. Here the most lovely, native grove of small oaks ana 
other trees, one-half block, was recently purchased by Mr. Younger and 
wife, of Arkansas, a well known family, and fine people. He is a breeder 
of fine stock. 

Pawhuska now has five large general merchandise stores, besides sev- 
eral smaller ones, doing a good business, four hotels, three banks, three 
drug stores, four meat markets, three exclusively groceries, four livery 
barns, three blacksmith shops, six restaurants, three barber shops, four 
millinery parlors, four lumber yards, three wagon yards, two photograph 
galleries, two bakeries, two gents' furnishing stores, two racket, and sev- 
eral smaller stores and many roomiing and boarding houses sufficient to 
entertain all comers till the lot sale, when the population n.ay aouble in the 
next year. Good water, but slightly mineral is found at snallow depth all 
over town. The government ice and water plants supply itie town with 
both, at contract prices. Rents are high, because of the limited number 
of houses, till other lots can be acquired. The sooner the lot sales occur 
all over the Osage the greater benefit to the towns and country. While 
some few might welcome delay, the vast majority would gladly see the 
town lots sold and towns organized under municipal control, as no one 
can establish a business till then without giving a $10,000 bond to ob- 
serve the rulings of the Indian Department and to handle no intoxicants. This 
last provision is a good one, as the Osage under its vigilant agent, Mr. 
Frank Frantz, is the most quiet, orderly section the writer ever saw. 
PAWHUSKA LOT SALE 

The public auction of the Pawhuska lots began January 3, 1906, and 
continued till all were sold. Twenty-five per cent was payable on day of 
sale, and balance on sanction of bid or sale by the Secretary of the In- 
terior, and delivery of deed in fee simple, making practically a cash sale. 
This will be the method of sale in Hominy, Fairfax, and other sites and will 
tend to prevent speculation by many on a credit basis. The sales in the 
later places will ocur, no doubt, as early as surveyed and appraised. 

The first day of sale there were more than a 1,000 visitors and purchasers 
from all over the Union. A cold, raw wind was blowing hard from the north, 
but the actioneer Mr. Amos Ewing and the bidders waided through mud to 
the outskirts of the town to begin the sale on a lot on the beautiful creek bank, 
appraised at $20, the first bid. It was knocked down to J. B. Charles of Stroud, 
O. T., for $100. The second appraised at $16, was purchased by Ira Stewart of 
Gushing, O. T., at $75. One fixed at $2, brought $55; another at $5 went to $300; 
and $10 lot sold for $220. People from every state flocked in; expenses ran high 
frim $2 to $5 per day, stages received $5 for a 5 mile ride, with seats still at a 
premium, all paid and smiles thrown in by the town builders who saw a great 
future for Pawhuska. One business lot in the center of town has since sold 
at private sale for over $10,000. The more than 1,200 lots sold were first estimat- 
ed to bring from $25,000 to $50,000 into the Osage Treasury, but the first 100 lots 
sold brought over $25,000, and about $225,000 will be added to the Osage wealth, 
netting every man. woman and child about $100 each. Some of the full-bloods 
cannot fully comprehend the white man's craze for the vacant lots, and tight- 
ly wrapped in their costly blankets and shawls they look in amazement, ask- 
iing, "What for, pale faces want these lots." But when in future, they get 
this money for more luxuries, and sell more lots, get more monev. buy more 
delicious chuck, get finer blankets, horses, carriages, keep heap warmer, have 
much fun," and villages become retiring centres, and emporiums of commerce, 
for their homes they will know better then. Many ladies were at the sale and 
bought with zeal, investing here there hard earned money, thus showing the 
great faith placed in the future of the Osage, and her towns. A dalyi paper is 
reported to have started in Pawhuska and all eagerly waiting for the return of 
approved deeds. It all shows how lucky these Indians are as a speculator ex- 
pressed it: If an Osage was to fall into the Mississippi he would come up with 
his pockets filled with fish." 

This book was placed on contract with printers to be ready before this 
sale, but owing to the utter disregard of their obligation, the writer was unable 
to get them before; and has only this excuse for his unavoidable delay. 

Other towns, as Foraker, and Bigheart, have been set apart for sales, 
and will come in their order and importance. 

K7 



In the development of every new country much depends upon the 
manufacturing industries established to use up the natural products of the 
soil, so far as needed, without cost of shipping- both ways. It is poor econ- 
omy, and worse politics to ship from St. Paul and Minneapolis or elsewhere, 
flour, corn meal and graham, when a surplus of grain can be grown and 
ground at your door with less cost. How insane to ship cattle to distant 
slaughters, only to skin and cut, and return the meat two-fold tougher. 
The home made broom can sweep as clean and cheap'. The native brick 
may be as smooth and hard right from your shale. This mill is one of his- 
toric interest, first built smaller in 1880, by treaty with the Osages, in their 




Tiie Osage Koller Mills — Wholesale and Retail — Soderstroni & Selby, Pi*ops. 

new home, for whom it was operated by the United States for eighteen 
years, then sold to John P. Soderstrom, father of Eben, one of the young 
men proprietors. Having burned in 1897 it was rebuilt larger in 18 99, a 
stone building costing over $8,000, fitted up with the latest improved ma- 
chinery, propelled by steam. Mr. Scarborough, president of the Bank of 
Commerce, first bought a half interest, which he later turned to young Mr. 
O. M. Selby, Eben's present partner. The mill has a capacity of 75 barrels per 
day. These young men are experienced millers, energetic, progressive citi- 
zens, whom you will find most congenial and obliging. Remember the 
newly modeled old mill by tlie stream, a land mark of Osage history. 

BLUE POINT RESTAURANT. 
Regular meals and short order, fine cigars and tobacoo. . Fish and game 

Mr. Ed. Simpkins, the proprietor, a Hoosier by birth, has been in the 
Osage country for twenty years. He has been farming and stock-raising 
much of his time in the Osage but has been for two year.5 past conducting 
the Blue Point Restaurant, the most popular eating resort in Pawhuska. 
It is in the basement of the historic Council House where most of the 
"Old Timers" and many of the "New Comers" life to congregate and chat 
over times past, present and the future prospects of the Osage. Mr. Simp- 
kins is a citizen by marriage. His wife was Miss Mary L. Del-Orier. They 
have five fine children. He has a first grade farm three miles from Paw- 
huska, and a cottage house in town where they live. He is a sociable and 
popular man and is finely adapted to the restaurant business. Like many 
other intermarried citizens he is much interested in the progress of Pawhus- 
ka and the development of the Osage country. 

58 



COMMERCIAIi CLiUB. 

Tlie Pawhuska Commercial Club was organized in October last with 
nearly 100 ^len^be^s including most of the business and professional men 
of the town, and by-laws formulated to govern the workings of the club. 
Mr. E. M. Dempsey, (real estate) was elected president; Judge E. N. Yates 
vice president; Isaac D. Taylor, (law), treasurer; T. H. McLaughlin (mer- 
chant,) A. N. Ruble, (bank cashier,) and TV. C. Tucker, (merchant), direct- 
ors. Mr. McLaughlin when called upon for a speech replied: "I have 
no speech to make, but I am always here and ready for work" So force- 
ably did the crisp words, "I am always here and ready lor work," impress 
the club, that they were voted as its motto. The important office of secre- 
tary was voted E. W. King, who is a well known law^-er, and from ex- 
perience in new oountrles will know what is needed for the town and 
country. May long live the club, in its efforts to advance the town along 
beneficial lines, and enlist the sympathy and support of all the people. 
Too often what is done is borne by the few, while the whole population 
reaps the benefit of others expense, work and benevolence. Any of the 
above officers will gladly give homeseekers or investors any special infor- 
mation and encouragement, with reference to the town, or their section of 
the territory, and what manufacturies should be located nere. A large 
nursery should soon be begun to supply the demand for trees. A cotton gin 
and compress will soon be needed. A cotton meal oil mill, a tannery, a 
brick yard, a saw mill, a woolen and a cotton mill, broom factory, canning 
factory, and cold storage, are among the many industries that could be 
profitably established. 




Tlie Jet \Miite Laundry, Wayland Wood, Mgr, 

So important is cleanliness of body as well as mind that a great sage 
said ages ago, "Cleanliness is next to Godliness." Mr. Wood is formerly 
from Winfield, Kansas where he lived since 1882. He began the laundry 
business in Pawhuska in June, 1905, and is already doing a large business, 
and as fine a grade of work as can be done anywhere. Skilled help was 
hard to get at first but by energy and skill he has trained his employees till 
he now runs a first class laundry, with a growing patronage, that sustains 
a number of employes. Mr. Wood is a young man, and his business suc- 
cess is already assured if he continues his successful enterprise. He has 
a most amiable little wife, refined and intelligent, and ever ready to help 
and advise. She stands by his side amid the group in the cut. Blessed is 
the man whose life companion is able to advise and to sympathize with 
her husband in his higher aspirations of life. Mrs. Wood seems to be such 
a one. They have built an elegant cottage home of their own planning, 
and are active members of the Baptist church. The world will feel the ben- 
evolent influence of their life in other ways than snowy linen robes of "Jet 
"White Laundry." 

59 



C. M. HIRT & CO., 

Dealers In General Merchandise and 

U. S. Licensed Indian Ti'aders. 

Mr. Hirt, head of this firm is a Vir- 
ginian by birth, and has many of the 
characteristics of a true, blue blood 
Virginian. He was in the mercantile 
business in Franklin and Roanoke 
counties, the Old Dominion, before 
coming "West" to the Osage in 1902 
where he saw an opportunity for great 
development and great possibilities 
for the man of broad experience and 
best business principles such as he 
brought with him. He had already 
purchased the Old Red Store and 
dwelling by it, one of the best busi- 
ness stands in the town and Osage. 
It is one of the oldest places in town, 
built of stockade logs on ends. It 
has associated with it years of his- 
tory and will be a good card for him 
all through time. Mr. Hirt carries 
a full line of general merchandise and 
imployes a number of clerks, and 
does a constantly increasing business. 
He will soon have to enlarge the His- 
torical Old Red Store and make the 
Remodeled Red Store. His property 
is some of the most valuable in town 
joining the council house yard on the 
west. He is an active member and 
deacon in the Presbyterian church 
which has just been organized. You 
will be pleased to meet him and 
know the higher kind of citizens that 
are in Pawhuska, from all tarts of 
the world. While every Virginian 
loves the Old State he does not love 
his adopted home less. 




Sha-pa-nah-she 

A deaf mute Osage of unusual in- 
telligence, with his bright, pretty ba- 
bies. 




James C. Ferguson, Proprietor Osage Blacksmith Shop. 

Mr. Ferguson is a native of Ohio and has blacksmithed all his life. 
His father was a blacksmith of the highest grade, and from the machinery 
and outfit in the shop, a cut of which is shown herewith. His son James 
inherited the faculty of working iron an wood. He was a resident of 
Waukomis, Okla., for six years. He then came to Pawhuska to stay and 
has one of the best equipped general blacksmith shops in the territory 
and does the highest grade work in his trade. He has a "Barcas Horse- 
shoeing Rack," that tames the wildest horse in shoeing him. Shoeing is his 
specialty, but he makes new wood and iron work to order, employing sev- 
eral assistants, and guarantees all his work. He is not only an excellent 
blacksmith but progressive, public spirited man and citizen. 



60 



(Photo by Hargis) 



THE PAWHIJSKA CONCERT BAND 

Until last June Pawhuska had no regularly organized band or 
orchestra. About the first of June the Concert Band was organized and 
placed under the excellent guidance of Prof. Ed. F. Kreyer, a well known 
band instructor, who has since acted as the organization's musical director 
and he plays the solo cornet. Though but five months old this band is the 
delight of Pawhuska, and renders programs, consisting of classical and 
popular music with the ease, technic and execution of older and in fact 
professional organizations. From eighteen men, their organization has 
grow to twenty-eight members and weekly concerts given from the band 
stand in the public park. To Mr. A. W. Hurley, Chief Clerk of the Indian 
Agency, is largely attributed the honor of its organization, and main ef- 
forts of its maintainance. Both these men and their wives are leading 
spirits in music and art development, and are men of noble, congenial, pro- 
gressive temperaments, and literary, dramatic and cominercial powers iij 
any community. Prof, and Mrs. Kreyer have traveled for years as artists 
in their line, especially fitted for the work. Mrs. Kreyer, with womanly 
dash, and untiring courage, inspires him to his work. Two more congenial 
lives are seldom seen. The instrumentation of the band aie: L. M. Poison, 
Piccolo; Chas. Duncan, A. H. Duncan, A. H. Gibson, G. Hill, William 
Davies, Otis Hill, clarinet; Burt Kreyer, Peter C. Martinez, R. W. Miller, B. 
F. Parsons, Drenx Hurley, Don Owens, cornet; W. D. Perry, first horn; 
C. Wheeler, second horn; Geo. H. Beaulieu, solo alto; P. W. McKinney, 
first alto; R. J. Woodring, second alto; Harry Koh-pay, Mart T. Bowhan, 
W. M. Plake, E. B. Soderstom, trombones, A. W. Hurley, baritone; Fred 
Labadie, Bb Bass; T. E. Gibson EbBass; G. G. LaMotte, Eb Bass Monster; 
Geo. Duncan, bass drum; J. F. Anderson, snare drum and traps. 

Nothing could add more to the culture of communities than fine 
music. Harmony is heaven's first law, yea, almost the omy one; harmony 
with God, his laws, and each other, would make heaven anywhere it 
reigns. 

There is also a lecture and entertainment course being conducted 
under the individual supervision of Prof. Davies and Mr. Campbell. Some 
entertaining numbers have been given at the M. E. church. 




O.SAGE DAXCEU.S. 

«1 



Young Osages, 
Walley Fish, Rich- 
ard Rust, Sam 
Barber, in their 
dancing suits ready 
for the ballroom 

(Ruttnu riwwotjy 

Hominy. 

Such suits often 
cost from $50 up 
to $200, some of 
silks, satins, velvet 
or other expensive 
material with cost- 
ly ornaments. As 
'mong many 
whites, fine danc- 
ers are espeially 
favories. The wom- 
en only look on in 




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62 



PAWHUSKA SCHOOIi ADVANTAGES 

Up to this year the whites had no public schools. Select schools 
had been taught by various individuals. Mrs. Laura TucKer, a cultured 
lady, has her own school house on the "Hill," near the National School where 
she has taught for years. Public schools are now taught under the direc- 
tion if Mr. William McGuire, Rev. Hill, Rev. James and others, in the M. 
E. Baptist and Episcopal ohurch houses, till suitable school buildings can 
be erected, after town corporation. The parents so far as able, pay a 
nominal tuition of $1 per month for each child, as a school tax. It appears 
that the school funds of Oklahoma do not apply to the Osage reservatin. 
Something seems out of joint in this particular. Why the business people 
of the Osage counry should have to pay tax or license to Pawnee and Kay 
counties, without sharing proportionately in Oklahoma scnool funds, of 
which there is near a million dollars, is a problem to which the writer has 
not devoted sufficient investigation to solve. Opening the reservation and 
allotting the land, could soon remedy the lack of publio school funds for 
the white residents and citizens of the Osage Nation. Many of the latter 
prefer to educate their children in the public or private scnools, rather 
than in the National School, which is now attended mostly by the full- 
bloods. The attendance at the Sisters' schools are also largely fullbloods, 
the whites going to the town Parocihal school near the church, of which so 
far, the writer has been unabel to get a photo for a cut. Considering that 
the Catholic people were the first and almost only church so far to begin 
educating the Osages, as the work of Father Shoemaker, and treaties show, 
we feel constrained to dwell at some length on their work. The St. Louis 
and St. John's schools are stone buildings almost identical in architecture, 
located as above stated, St. Louis for girls, and St. John's for boys. A cut 
of both appears herein. The campi are now far more beautiful than the 
cuts show. On writing to Rev. Sister Angelica, superior of St. John's, the 
writer received a prompt reply and unexpected check (note) to place a 
sketch of St. John's in this book, stating that she did not know what 
became of the former cut of ten years ago, for which she paid the solicitor 
$15, but heard nothing more of it. The cut was printed but cannot be 
found. Sister Angelica, you shall hear from this again. Such trust is too 
sacred ere to be forgot. 'Tis sweet to be trusted that the noble virtues of 
fidelity and honesty may show their worth. How different your spirit from 
that of the articles later on discussed. 

Old Socrates, with lantern torch by day, 

Still stalking through the worlds. 
May yet perchance find some honest men. 
And true, free from tricks and churls. 
One of the greatest powers of the Catholic church is her systematic 
business principles. When they want a school or church erected the 
means are generally ready somewhere. They have been through medieval 
and modern history, the foremost religious and secular trainers of children. 
One of their greatest scholars said: "Give me the education of a child 
till twelve years of age, and I will tell you his future course." And the 
idea was not far from fact. Everywhere they have commodious brick, 
stone and wood schools, academies, colleges and universities, mounments 
of their ideas and work. They are a people who do things, not dream 
alone. Many of the better educated citizens were taught in these schools 
or at the Osage Mission, Kansas, before coming to their present country. 
In gratitude for the Mission work the Osages entreated the Sisters to 
build similar institutions here, who were not long in finding the necessary 
funds. Rev. Mother Katherine Drexel of Philadelphia, erected the f oi: .• 
story stone buildings and the Sisters, taking charge have schooled many 
Osage children in literature, art and music. The Catholic church formerly 
stood near the St. Louis school, till moved by Mr. Will Bradshaw, the house 
mover, across the Bird Creek, to its present location on Main Street, one 
block east of the "Iron Bridge," Here a school and a parsonage was er- 
ected. Many of the full bloods and allied families all over the reservation 
belong to this church. Hither they come from miles around to bend the 
knee and bow the head in prayer before the crusified Christ, the infant 
Jesus, and the immaculate Mother Mary. Scarcely are the straps of the 
papoose cradles or shawls, more commonlj^ used, unloosed from the ma- 
ternal shoulders, when many of the little bronze faces are brought before 
the white teachers in the Missions. Many of these little faces compare 
in appearance and brightness favorably with many a Caucassian mother's 
cherubs. 

The writer observed one face among the little girls in the National 
School especially worthy of note. While many of them have beautiful eyes 
and raven blaok hair to adorn their pretty brown faces, this one espec- 
ially was most fascinating in its marvelous beauty. A natural beauty 

03 




The Lessait Brothers and Tlieh- Fanii Ues. four generations, the decendants 
of JuUa Roy, — Ponca City. 
64 



the mild, pensive, slightly droDnin/ 1^1= „ ^^* innocense of childhood, 
noble, partly musical,"^ partly cK!aI%orP^h 7/^ ^tn^^^'l ^'^P^^^^^ *« the 
cheeks, a nose of strength, yet aSioni^H' ^^^ beautifully rounded 
with a luxuriant growth of oily bS hair or"^''°"l ^^^' ^" crowned 
monious head, made a picture that St hi =.T ^.V■ ^^t^aordinaryily har- 
beauties of Paris, London, or New Tfrk tIT^^ '", ""^i" ^^ *^« '^«"« °^ 
Southern Creole, of her World renowned brun. ?./ ^^"f.^^ ^^^"^^ °f the 
the face of this little Queen of the OsiL TbI f ' """"f^ scarcely eclipse 
brave deeds of the first native 4mpHn^rS3- ^^^ legends of Hiawatha, or 
a gifted pen no more tSn sha^BTt L? nhot'o .h°'^''°",'f ^' "°"^^ '""'^'^^ 
exquisite sensitiveness and reserve of minv of th.% n^'l^ "^* ^^^^- ^he 

foXinSenr rnV"sf .sr;i IlL p •-- "raS./'%i.=- 

ought all to be more devout in the presence of ro*,^ conviction that we 

thorn crowned Christ. The snow -^hn^ %Z 1 ^""^ ^^^ crucified and 

and perfect statuettes all make a^ I^nr.c=- ^' *^^ ^°^*^^" candlesticks. 

soul of the Pensively'nclineTthat?s n^riSfv forrtt*""^ Imagination and 

see why children are so influenced and mnniiL vf^°"^?' ?°^ ^^ ** hard to 

In witnessing the worshipful atS?u^e of t^ K-^'^''^ .teachings. 

their school, lit brought vi^idlv tn fhl ii, *^l ^'^*®^ i" the rectory of 

of five weeks, some yeareaLowh ill . ^T^^^^.u^ *^^ ^"ter his experience 

of all but one Pennvfn his pocket for^Ln" f^^ ^^'*' ^^^^"^ ^^^^ ^-obbed 

from home and moThS sfck and lon^lv v,l V"'''''/';^ hundreds of miles 

motherly kindness from the si4rs thP ^i.^!. °''"'^ ^^^ ^^"^^^* ^^^^ and 

a great hospital. TheS sympIVhTes and "noo,^""^^ ^"^^^^ *°^ the sick in 

have never ceased to sounT'^n his soul nor yff«"^ "^^"^^ ^* ""^^ ^ time 

work of praise for those who mlv dpn'^ht L ^^.^^^L ^'"^""^ ^^^l^ed a 

Place, if it but enforces Inirv^ngexamne thi A r'n^ctl"? ^'^^*" "° <^^^"« ^ 

undefiled religion before God fndo^rTnr^T^^^l^l^'^^''^^^ "Pure and 

the fatherless and S4?nthei>^afflTctionLH%'n'i.^^"'* '^'^'^' *° ^^^^ 
from the world " armction and to keep ourselves unspotted 

hall between; where thefe is co-educatln in ?^^ ^ "" ^°^^' ^""^ ^ recitation 

in the personality of the instructor o make Se\?nefi s e^nll tl^fl^. ^'^"'.f 
opportunities. This school appears to be well conducted unLrw.^"^"^ 

lan. He is a young man of excellent bearing. He has several hrtht wi^Il f 



<s 



THE SCHAEBER CLOTHING CO. 

. ^ T, Dealers in All Kinds of Gents' Furnishings. 

Already Pawhuska is taking on aing business. He is from a section of 
metropolitan air. General stores are country that knows now to make 
por"umr''''Th'?i^'l.?,'' °"^ ""f ^""-t^^ ™o«t of its resources and even 
msSs\to?^4.«iL\l^r\^^^"^^/"':;P"^^ "« towns beyond its developed 
1 9X)5 Thev p™ ftablished in April resources then to come again with 
190o. They carry a fine line of eloUi- strength and permanency While 
uig, liats, shoes, tiimks, valises and there are other dealers in men's and 
other gents wear. Mr. A. C. Schaeber, boys' furnishings the Schaeber com- 
a young man of culture and excellent pany is the only exclusive dealers in 
business abihty and energy is man- town. They have the commercial zeal 
ager of the company. He is from not only to develop their own busi- 
Clay Center, Kansas, where he wasness but all interests of Pawhuska 
head clerk of a large firm before and merit your fullest patronage 
coming here to start his rapidly grow- ' 




Tlie Business Block of Percy J. Monk, Druggist, and Jeweler, and Mart T. 
Bowhan, and Hon. John Palmer's Home on National Heights. 

Notwithstanding the rapid spread of Christian Science thought and 
teaching, magnetic healing, faith cure, and osteopath and homeopath 
among millions of educated thinkers of this century, pharmacies still 
Stand numerous upon the streets of every town and city. The wonder is, 
who takes all these drugs? Pawhuska has already three drug stores, of which 
Percy J. Monk's (see cut) was the first established some ten years ago, when 
he first came to Pawhuska. He is doing the largest prescription drug bus- 
iness in town. He is also a jeweler and watch repairer to which he de- 
votes most of his time, employing drug clerks. Born in London, England, 
he came to America in 1881, at 12 years of age, lived in the oil fields of 
Pennsylvania, then in Kansas, whence he came to Pawhuska. He owns 
valuable business and residence property and is a gentleman of broad ex- 
perience and interest in his town. 

Mai't. T. Bowhan — Manufacturer of Harness and Saddles. Among the 
business young men of the Osage Mr. Bowhan holds a leading part. He 
came to Pawhuska from Kansas five years ago, and became one of the best 
manufacturers of the town. He married Miss Ida Trumbley of Osage 
descent, and an amiable young lady. He and Mr. Monk are joint owners 
of the business block shown in the cut. Both are progressive and estimable 
citizens, and doing a growing busineses in their lines. Mr. Bowhan carries 
a complete line of hand and ready made harness, saddles, whips, and other 
horse furnishings. Pay him a visit and you will be pleased. 

66 



or c^^pent/; Xrar;n?r7ve1ertrr"^' '^\*^"^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^'^^ 
been in Indian work for ninr years Mr. 7'^ ^.^^"' ^°^'* '"^*^«"' ^^« 
matron, a native of Florida ha/hpl- ^'^^^ . La'^radell Henry, smaU boy's 

the superintendent ofTe school ice an<5" 'V'"'. '°"' ^^^^^- «^^ husband is 
also supplied. '"^^ ^"^ ^^^^^ Plants, from which the town is 

theSrr^L^r^iScrs^^B^rartbTic" ^^"^" ^^^^^ ^° -^- *° *-^ 

be slow and poorly acquired Th! . acquirements in this line seem to 
to fix these essential aXTn'he?fe TtZ%7st f^i-''^^ V^f " ^ ^'^^^"^t 
_ With such educational advaotaees thP wnL ^^.°'''*^, °^ ^"^^^^ children, 
privileges is that these primitive Jeonllh.''. *° ^" "^^^ ^"''^^y these 
to self dependence in all domTtlc tradHl!, 7' ""^^ ^°"^ "^"^« b^^'^ t'-ained 
the sowers, nor the see^ burof the soil T. T''^^^' '' '^ "°^ *^^ ^^^^^ <>' 
Of the western plains and forests susceDtib'l. nf ' "°' ^""^ Primitive race 
boys of these schools are trained ^nfl!,°^ ™°''^ ""^P*^ fertilization? The 
domestic duties. But somehow this rustic" r'^'' °' '^™^"^ ^"^ °^<J>"^ry 
to hold its polish. But wherher it Tti^A TT^^ ^'^""^ ^°^« °°t seem 
and base, is a question to be so ved in /if"'*. °/ *^^ P^°*=««s o^ the metal 
people. That they are canable of \ k " }^^ ^"^ure development of these 
by the accomplishments o? some whn%^I°^*? ^-"^ ""^^"1 cultivation if shown 
Missions and schools. whVsrhomS hT^ \°hr?r/" ^'^Ir^^ ^^^^"tages iS tie 
papers and others constantly around their hl^T, ''J ^^""^ •^°"™^^' f^''™ 
are shrewd people and had thev b^en . ^n.M " ^" ^^"^^^' ^^^ Indians 

SSmv' h '•^^ VP^" their own'^esourceslnd labor 7>?' "^^"^ ^^^''^ ^^« ^n<> 
abihty have been an independent self «„r.rf^ V^"^' they would in all prob- 
s confirmed by the fact thawLe k V?P°^tmg people today. This belief 
inculculcated more domesti^ nride h=?^"^^.V^'"^<^ f"" hloods. by ha? n| 
of ground and have become independent 'and 'i,^"'" °" ^^'"^ se^cet Ip"^ 
neesessanes of life go. ^"uepenaent and self-supporting so far as the 

^'-olfe'ToTe^ft^^Z^X'^^^^^^^^^^ ^•'?!J- ^- ^one much for these 

are the descendants of s?^h faSes Thev hivr\ ^'^P^'- °^ ^^" ^"^ ^o^en 
the value of their great heritTee LJ ^ f ^°"^ ^'"''^ ^^§^"" to realize 
broad acres and indivtduaf homes A^n^"'^?.* ^ plausible pride In their 
some of the most excellent LdrTchestt^nr/JVh'^ '"^,!f" descendants are 
bilities if not in real value of llnd Ini^ ^ ^ '^''''^^' certainly in possi- 

improve their possessions The oniredu^at^ion t"^,'^.^' % '!^^^ °"'>^ "«« and 
the growing generations is a thoro^ugh know^J^« the full bloods need for 
of farming, gardening, fruit growin^.n^ i ?!'• '" ^^^^''^ ^"^ practice, 
future homes. Ten vear^ nV ^n^^ / ^""^ '" building their own houses for 
of the plains than a cen'urv of merJT-"^ ^"i ^° «^°^« ^^^ the aboHgines 
stroke will be made when [he trSrofbnfr ''^^'^ knowledge. The mastS 
lands and open their reservation to the invnclh^^^l ^"^ ^^^^^^ to allot their 
conquest and improvement. Let us rrntpT-t fi^ advancement of commercial 
a civilization, and the Indian? futSe nrn«nfJ^. ^^^'"^* ^^^ rsivages of such 
i^^^'-^^^'hat life means, and wKat the Great SnlrU^J^^'^11''^*^; ^^ ^*" «°o" 
for. No "pale face" doubts the red ma n^« l^^ ^^^^ the land and waters 
since he views with wistful eyes th?choio^«rf''".'\°" ^'^"^ this line now 
timbers they select for theS- own ThelndTan h. r?^ ^"""l^" ^"^ ^^ters and 
the "Great God," who is noresvectorn?^^r.^^^'^^"'^''^^^''''°''''^^''^^i^^t 
economical and spiritual la^hTsmad^-ii^^o?^' ^''''^^} through natural, 
even though his white children nfi?. *^^t's good for the white man 

much more than S Lrth ImerYca? chfldren ""ni^l" ^^P'^^^^h and subdue 
writer in former dav<, whL f ^^ children of a more ruddy hue. The 

pounds, anrhavinrnever seen'an'IndifnTn '""''l ^^"^^^"^ ^"^ ^"-ting 
imagined, with millions of others with limited iT/'^^ P"^' ^""^ wigwam, 
children of the forest and nlpin! t. V, 'if^'ted Indian lore, that the poor 
impulse to come to thefr resCl h . "^ '"'^'^^' ^""^ ^"" *^^ chivalrous 

tudying the trul fact's 'he' wJi'tlr feels"more'?i^i"fa,',^ *^" territories and 
and leisure— rich Red Man to r-nrr,! t .T "'"^ "P°" the blessed 

For many of those fertii^^ii^ T® *° *^^ ""^^^"^ ^^ the poor white man 
the good'^f he homeless re'^te?an7'.P?r■^""/"^ ^^^ ^^^^^ too lon???r 
aborigines. They hive been at 1p«.? w/ir"^^.*°° i°"^ ^^^ the leisure loving 
cessive fostering care of "5Scte Sam " Af.^"^*^ ^"^ impoverished by the ex- 
are having this^ealization'^Sawn^upon them' ThTln^an f^°'^ *" ^"^^^^^^ 
A. Jones, in his annual report to the Secrl^rv of th^ t.." 9o"^missioner, W. 

He does no. co„de„,„ .he.r\1'„%SiJ^/r.reV£'l?JcTtTL^"a^ar.l^ra^^^ 



MR. FRANK TLNILER. 

One of the most interesting families of tlie Osage own and occupy 
this beautiful and costly cottage as shown on the preceedmg page. Both 
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Tinker are of Osage lineage. His father Wm. Tinker, 
was half Osage, his mother , one-eigth Osage, and one-eigth Kaw. Frank 
was reared in the Osage, but is unusually energetic and progressive, a man 
of broad experience, thoughtful mind, and strong intelligence, and keenly 
discerns the true merits of men and measures, has served as Osage sheriff 
several times and constable one term. He is a successful farmer and 
stockman, owning several fine farms in the eastern part of the Osage, 
near Skiatook, and valuable property in Pawhuska, besides elegant home 
shown in cut. It is the best and most costly furinished home of its size in 
the Osage nation, costing about $5000, has all the modern conveniences -of a 
city home with commodious rooms, bath, toilet, pantry, halls, all excel- 
lently furnished from kitchen to garret. The yard is a veritable flower bed 
and many other evidences of culture. He married Miss Louise Revard, 
daughter of "Uncle Joe" Revard and a woman of fine domestic talents 
and ability. They have seven bright children, a model Osage citizen family. 
Their oldest son Frank, Jr. lives near Shiatosk, in a historic house which 
appears under that heading. This home is one of hospitality and welcome 
to friends and many strangers, who could never easily forget its sur- 
roundings. 




The Pawhuska Home of O. C. Gilmore. 

Mr. C. C Gilmore, whose Pawhuska cottage home appars in connec- 
tion, was born and reared among the Osages, but not of Osage descent. His 
parents were from Tennessee, and were Indian traders in ante-bellum days. 
Mr. Gilmore is a successful farmer, having one of the finest farms in the 
Osage, located surrounding the west side of Skiatook. It contains 400 
acres, on part of which the M. V. depot is located. If will make him one 
of the wealthiest citizens among the Osages. He married Miss Mary A. 
Choteau in 1875, by whom four children, James Augustus, Johanna Co- 
anna, and Samuel James, were born. Mr. Gilmore sepnds »nuch of his time 
is one of the leading inter-married citizens and a man of fine qualities. 



«8 



too great, nor does he criticise the management of any p-articul school, 
or schools in operation, but simply calls attention to the fact ttiat the present 
Indian educational system, taken as a whole, has not and is not calculated to 
produce the results so earnestly claimed for it, and so hopefully anticipated, 
when it was begun. 

H. B. Freeman, Lieut. Col. Fifth Infantry, and acting agent of the 
Osage, in reporting to the Indian Department July 31, 1895, said: 

"The full bloods have theiir wants amply supplied by their annuity 
and have no others, make but little progress, the younger part sufCer from 
the sins of their ancestors, are lacking in physical stamina and constantly de- 
creasing in numbers. The pupils returning from the non-reservation schools 
have not the energy or ability to influence the other to fill such positions as. 
I may give them, and sooner or later, casting aside all they may have learned 
sink into the common mass of ignorance and idleness in which many of the 
younger ones grow up, in not even having the industry and energy acquired 
by the older ones under the stress of former poverty, but relying entirely 
upon the annuity and credit for support. 

"Being eminently social they spend most of their time in camp near 
the reservation, or visiting. Few are found who work ten days in the year. 
Still through association with their vhite renters, their children are gaining 
some knowledge of agriculture, the < ire of stock, etc., which with what they 
learn at school must slowly, perhaps, but surely lead them to abandon their 
roaming lives and settle down. 

Why does he say "with what they learn at school." Ought not these 
government schools to be the main educating institution to train all Indian 
children to independent life and self help? But says Freeman, "the schools 
were managed without regard to industrial education, or regular attend- 
ance," etc. If this were generally true it explains to a great extent the seem- 
ing failure practically of the system, not the theory of industrial training of 
these children. A system that will necessitate individual responsibility and 
manual effort in the support of life and happiness will, with the necessary 
protection against wrong, solve the problem in one generation. 

"In view of this condition of affairs I regard the continuance of the 
undivided land and trust funds as a positive curse to these people, destruc- 
tive of every impulse toward honest labor and consequent progress." 

Wm. J. Pollock, Osage Indian Agent, reported from Pawhuska, August 
29, 1898, referring to their wealth, makes this statement: "If an Indian and 
his wife have eight children, the annual cash income to the family is over 
$2,000. They are aristocrats, and like all wealthy people scorn to perform 
manual labor. "They toil not, neither do they spin." Who can blame them, 
and who is to blame for this state of affairs?" 

These reports show what some of the agents have thought concerning 
the course to be pursued in educating the full bloods to self reliant and in- 
dependent life, but set forth no method by which such a condition can be 
brought about. The Osages themselves are favorable to such an allotment 
and individual possession, but like all Indian people are naturally suspicious 
and shy of any person whomsoever, attempting to act or advise in their 
affairs, till he proves himself true to their interests. Then and only then will 
they give him a welcome or support of any kind. This takes time, tact, 
and patience. Their confidence once gained they are friends that stick closer 
than a brother, and nothing they have is too good for you, nor do they ex- 
pect your best is too good for them, a very natural sequence of true friend- 
ship. 

H. B. Freeman, reported in 1895 that the citizens, (part bloods) were 
unanimously in favor of the allotment of the lands, but that the full bloods 
were as unanimously opposed to it, and out-voted the former two to one, 
for the simple reason as they claimed, that the rolls contained a number 
that had no right to share in their tribal funds, and to the intense jealously 
between the two classes and factions. 

DRAFT ALLOTMENT BILL— OSAGES APPOINT ANOTHER COMMITTEE. 
Another move toward the allotment of Osage lands has been lately made 
by the appointment of a committee to draft a new allotment bill on which 
both factions of the tribe are represented. Last year both factions favored 
allotment, but differed on the details as to how it was to be accomplished 
and as a result sent two delegations to Washington who worked at cross pur- 
poses and failed to accomplish anything. They declared intentions of the 
interior departtment to take the matter of allotment into its own hands has 
caused the Osages to made an effort to adjust their differences if possible. 

The committee appointed by Chief O-lo-ho-wal-la includes from his own 
party C. N. Prudom, W. T. Leahy, Bacon Rind, W. T. N. Mosier, Frank Corn- 
dropper and Harry Kohpay, In addition to himself; from the oppsition party 
James Bigheart, who is the leader of Osage opposition, Peter Blgheart, John 
F. Palmer, Black Dog, and Ne-kah-wah-she-tun-kah. 

69 




The Pretty Home of F. G. A. Morris, tlie Insurance Man. — Park Kow. 

Mr. Morris came to Pawhuska from Plattsburg, N. Y., in January, 
1889. He served ten years as chief cleric of the Indian Agency here and 
at Muskogee, I. T. ; but resigned to enter the mercantile business. He now 
conducts the oldest and most extensive Fire Insurance business on the 
Osage Reservation. He is a leader in the Episcopal church, and is a man 
of many excellent qualities in church business and family lire. His beauti- 
ful home is one of the best in town. He is the only one here doing an ex- 
clusive Insurance business. 




The Pretty Home of Dr. Harry Walker, — Park Row. 

Dr. Walker not only excells in his profession, but is a man of refine- ^ 
ment, modesty and culture the true characteristics of all high grade person- 
alities. He has been schooled in some of the best medical schools and hos- 
pitals, east and west. He lived in Greely, Kansas, for eight years, and in ; 
Oklahoma City eight, and has practiced in Pawhuska since 1901, and has 
an extensive practice. With his wife and three children he has a, model,";; 
christian family. Such people wield a mighty influence for good in the 
churches and social circles of the community. 

70 (Photo by Hargis) 



THE GR.\I>ED PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF PAWHUSKA 

The town schools are taught by four competent teachers. The writer, 
judging from his observation and acquaintance with these teachers, can 
truly say that if the directors had searched the whole country over they - 
could not have secured four young men and women of better qualities fc' 
live among their children for instructors than the ones whose services they 
secured. They are all of fine temperaments, bright yet reserved, scholarly 
intelligent and of high ideals. It is the model you set before the child, not^^ 
text books alone that mould the character. Would you make a manly boy^f' 
keep his eyes upon a noble man. To train the child into a charming, cult-' 
ured girl, place before her tender impressive mind only the woman of brighf - 
inspiring life, and of sympathetis, modest mien, beautifully reserved. Tis the 
environment, the air in which we move, that inervates the soul or inspires - 
a stronger life. Many a failure in education lies in the lack of an insplrihg^'i 
ideal in home and school. Prof. Austin, of broad training and experience; i 
teaches the higher grades nad supervises the school. Prof. Robert R. Mc- • 
Creight, the next lower grades. Miss Blanc and Miss Pratt, the intermediate ; 
and primary grades. The scholars are increasing in number as the farmerfe^" 
move into town for the benefit of the schools. About 225 are enrolled in ; 
these schools. The National school has a capacity of about 200 with 138 en-/ 
rolled. St. Louis with a capacity of nearly 150, with 75 in attendance. The ' 
Parochial school with a large capacity and a number of pupils. Mrs. Tucker >■ 
about 25 and St. John's some 15 miles southwest with 150 capacity, and'70 ' 
enrolled. 

We would gladly give a short personal sketch of each teacher, but have 
not the facts at hand to do so. Faithful teachers deserve as much cre(iit 
for their work in uplifting the world as ministers of the gospel, often having 
more anxlties and trials. j 

Knowing Robt. R. McCreight, the teacher at the Episcopal church, |as 
a room-mate for a short time, we can surely say that he is an excellent type p£ 
a northern young man. He is a product of the Buckeye state but expects ito 
make Oklahoma his future home. Being born on a farm he received a coih- 
mon school education, attended high school, and later attended the Ohio Uni- 
vevsity at Athens, Ohio. His first work as teacher was principal of Seamon, 
Ohio, schools, being the third man to fill that position that year. ' 

He has been successful in his work, making raises in his salary each 
year. He is a Knight of Pythias and of the noblest ideals of what true men 
and women are or should be. 

'niE PRODKSTANT CHURCHES OF THE TOWN. 
There are four other church organizations in Pawhuska, besides the 
Catholic above mentioned. 

During the unparalelled development of the towns of new countries, the 
religious denominations have been very active in meeting the moral, intel- 
lectual and spiritual needs of homeseekers and commercial classes. The 
transformation from the wilderness or the prairie to the present stage of 
civilization in the Osage nation, has been more graual than most towns, 
because of the long established Indian Agency. All the comforts ana aavant- 
ages of a small town have alreadyy been enjoyed by the Indian Traders 
and agency employees, when the bill passed to open the Osage townsites. 
THE ]>nSSIONARY BAPTIST CHURCH 
Tlie First Baptist Cliurch of Pawhuska was organized with six members 
In 1898, by Rev. L. J. Dyke, Rev. Mr. Burnett, who is now workmg among 
thelOsages. or has been it is said, to be the first Baptist to preach to these 
people, though Mr. Dyke previously formed the nucleus of the present con- 
gregation. Mr. Burnett was called as the first pastor, October 1, 1901, for 
full time. Miss Emlv Cottrell. whom the writer has not yet had the pleasure 
of meeting, an amiable, devoted young lady from Richmond, Virginia, sent 
t6 the Osage by the Southern Baptist convention, is domg an ^xcejllent jofK' 
among the full bloods for the past year. Daily she goes into their village,,, 
one mile northeast of Pawhuska to teach them. The writer cannot estirfiate 
the progress of the work, but all consecrated Christian work results in much 
good. A few citizen families belong to the Baptist church, who now hajm>' 
commodious, three division building, costing $3,000 seajed with chairs, nortli. 
atid west divisions cut off by folding doors, when opened making a large seat-, 
ihg capacity. Mr. H. C. Ripley, the Trade Supervisor of the Osage, andj 
native of Main, is senior deacon, Mr. P. Spirling, junior deacon and Mrs. 
Laura E. Tucker, clerk. Rev. W. D. James is pastor; Mrs. Blanc organist^ 
They have near 50 members in regular standing, and nearly 100 /"^^"f'^,.^" 
Sunday School. Rev. James is not only a fine preacher, but a broadmijided. 
practical man and has a pretty two story home two blocks e^st. oft mei 
Church house. Rev. Mr. Day and family, formerly of Marshal. O-^T.^ am 
making their home here. So the Baptists have a strong wofking force in 
Pawhuska. , , ^ ., ...,, ..;-.■-«'.; '' ? 

71 



EPISCOPAI; CHTJHCH 

homa\id%?ran Te?rltory'Ja^^^^^ ^-°^«. Bishop of Ok.a- 

more than three famines^of the ES^Jo^alTl fh\^^^ lie found not 

prlmlt ve mission work for the EpfscoD^l Vw^v. ' ^'^ ^""^^ ^^ the 

several years there after no orfflnizatln^ tL ^f ^ among: the Osages. For 

nti '"^"^^ ^•'""^" HoSse 5fr?nrthfsTfme it'^?*!^^*^^"^^^^^^^ 
Bishop found it possible to come or send snml n^^''^'' '"Nervals, as the 
the new year 1904. chiefly through fL^\ . ^ ^'^^- ^^ ^^^ A^^t of 
ing Sunday School' had b|iro?ga\ize^^^ ^^<^^^^ G"»^' ^ Ao^rish- 

Sr ^"^''^i^" ^^ ^ P^^^^h house trbeSsed for Sun d.^^'r/^1^"' ^"^ ^^"^"^ 
for worship upon the occasion of the Risho^'= "^f^ ^^^"""^ purposes and 
menced in 1904, was completed in the foflow?n^o.Jr*^- . ^^'^ building corn- 
Is located on Osage Avenur nnl\i^ i !^^ ^^^' ^* ^ ^^^^ "^ ^1-200. It 
from^ the depot^^lht Son as irgL1S^s°l^rf'" ^'''.f.' ^"^ «"« ^loc* 
sion." The work is under the supe^fs^on of Mr."T V^J^*' Thomas Mi*- 
who came here from Philadelphia So^toL^V •^'a^n ^^*^' ^^^ Reader, 
appearance and cultured manners ank^nlull ' ^l^^' ^^''- ^^"s Is from 
will add much to the strength of ?he rh^r.^ gentleman and pastor that 
vestrymen. D. H. Spruill, GeS. W. Simcock and F ^n^ a^"^^^^- ^^^°°>- His 
of business and financial ability knd with th^ t3" ^- ¥''^^'^- are all men 
guarantee permancy and progr^essl^e" rr'k S^r fhe^^a^r^STp^aVhlsTa^.'' ""' 




The Pawhuska Home of Mrs. Monica FarreU. 

name^wlfSnvSrtTe^aui^^^^^^^ °"^-^^^^*^ ^-^^ Her maiden 

French, she CanaLn-French .n.^ ^n^ "^^"^ "^^^^^ ^^"^"^' ''^^^ 

Of building the first SrSkhouse1nK.^«?"n-."^ '°"^*^ ^'^^"^ ^*^« distinction 
depot; traded with the Osages and ^wn^^ City, near the present old Union 
with the Osage to their Present Trl fu """^^ Property there, but came 
married EuS^e Callahan ^^^^^ ^'°^ children. Miss Monica first 

their deaVh marrfed John F^ZrV "V"'^^"^ ^^' ^°^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ after 
husbands. Her youngest da^gh er a1 f/f"^' '^"^'^" ^^ ^^^ «"* t^° 
aworthyyoungman Jonnee"! wlthoni^f^^^^^^ -^^-^ ^-'^. 

rSTrid1otrg?teen\\'r^^^^^^^^^ 

in Which vocal muslft^^enrref a^^IeldTng^^^^^^ ''''' ^°"^^^'^ ^ ^^^^ 



72 



(Photo by Hargls) 



THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH 

The Methodist Episcopal Church is also well established in Pawhuska, 
and have a g-ood building, a cut of which appears on another page, and 
a medium sized pipe organ, played very melodiously by the young and 
beautiful little daughter of Mr. A. W. Hurley, chief clerk of the agency, 
Miss Catherine Hurley, who perhaps is the youngest pipe organist in Okla- 
homa and the United States. Mrs. F. T. Gaddis, who early taught a girl's 
school, seems to have been the very first Methodist Missionary among the 
Osages. She was sent by the Ladle's Home Mission Society of her church 
late in the '80's. The organization was formed in 1890 by Judge T. L. Rogers, 
Major Miles, who was then Indian Agent, Dr. G. W. Sutton, with a few 
others, and plans of a building drawn and erected and dedicated in 1891. 
For some years the services and work was sustained mostly by Judge Rogers 
and his generous wife, both of Indian lineage, and a few otner adherents of 
the M. E. Church, and Protestants of other denominations. The church 
whose building was erected by popular subscription, now has a good member- 
ship', and is in a prosperous condition under the strong pastoral charge of 
Rev. E. F. Hill, father of Chas. Hill, editor of the Pawhuska Capital, who 
by request of his people, was lately returned here by his conference. He is 
as refined and as scholarly a man as you would ever meet in large cities. 
With such officers and co-workers as W. E. McGuire, postmaster; Judge 
Rogers, W. D. Parry, A. F. Hatfield, and J. B. Johnson, trustees; the church 
has bright prospects of continued growth. Prof. Wm. Davies is choir leader 
and W. D. Parry, superintendent of their increasing Sunday School. The 
church is talking of selling its present location near the business center and 
building a fine house farther out. The "will," here as elsewhere, will effect 
the change, for next to the Catholic denomination, the Methodist people have 
the most effective, far reaching business rules in creating churches and par- 
sonages on all new fields, and supplying them with regular preaching. 
Churches ought ot be the first to select their lots in every opening field. This 
is not far from the practice of the M. E. people for which they are commend- 
able. 




Mrs SiiupsoHS Town and Fuiiu llosideuce and Mr. Simpson. 

whose farm residence appears in cut, was Miss Susan Mathews, the sister 
of Mm. S. Mathews, the president of the Citizens National Bank, in Paw- 
huska. She was born in Newton County, Missouri, in the "forties." Her 
motherwas half Osage, her father John Mathews, a Kentuckian. She 

married her husband in Kentucky, in 1870, who was a farmer and stock- 
man. He died three years ago after an accident, leaving only his wife, 
never having had any children. Mrs. Simpson now lives in her Pawhuska 
cottage home, but loves her farm home much better, where she desires 
to spend the remainder of life. She is a lady of extraordinary refinement, 
and quiet temperament, spending her time mostly with ner pet "pug" 
dog that has all the intelligence and devotion of a precocious child. Be- 
sides her town home she has a finely improved farm in the western part of 
th<» Osage. 

73 (Photo by Hargls) 



FIRST PRESBTTERIAN CHUKCH 

The First Presbyterian Cliurch which Rev. J. H. Davies, a Presbyterian 
minister of Ralston, O. T., was the first to try to organize in Pawhuska, meets 
in the hall of the Council House. He came here in July, 1905, and called to- 
gether the people of his church, and formed the nucleus of what promises to 
be a consecrated working church. They started with twenty charter mem- 
bers from some of the most priminent families of the community Dr 
Aaron and wife, J. C. Ferguson, W. D. Parry, Jos. B. Mitchell and wife, Mrs ' 
Farrar, Mrs. Tucker, Mrs. Millard, Miss Hilton, Mrs. Scarborough and Mi. 
and Mrs. C. M. Hirt, and Judge Yates and others we are unable to name, 
composed the organization. Judge E. N. Yates, U. S. Commissioner of the 
court here is the only Ruling Elder at present, and Mr. Hirt, deacon. Rev 
Brooks, a representative of the Territorial Home Mission Board, came to 
Pawhuska from Oklahoma City last fall on a visit to the church, preaching 
once while here. Rev. Davies has been called as first pastor for half-time, de- 
voting other half to the Mission at Hominy, also started by him. He will live 
at Pawhuska. A number of other denominations are represented by members 
here, but as yet, have made no effort to organize. The Christian church peo- 
ple have had some preaching in the council house at times. 




r^^^^^^mm 






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Tlie Fine Resldenec of Frank Revard, Pawhuska. 

,. Prank Revard, whose beautiful cottage residenec appears herewith, is 
■a descendant of one of the oldest allied families of the Osage citizens. His 
father, Joseph Revard, has been among the Osage through a long life of 
77 years, and is one of the oldest and best men of the citizen families. He 
was twice married and has nine children. Frank, a brother of Leonard 
Revard, is one of five boys, and a con of his father's first wife. Frank 
married Miss Amanda Nichols, of Chautauqua, Kansas. They have four 
bright children, and a happy home. He deals in musical instruments. H«- 
is a ledaing lodge man in the K. of P's , Masons and Odd Fellows; an 
honorable citizen, a good all-around fellow, and devoted to home and 
family; an energetic man knowing how to fashion his own home, and 
cultivate his "own vine and fig tree." 

The name Revard was corrupted by mis-spelling from the French 
"Revor," meaning a riveter. It was first changed by a man named Bove, : 
(or Greenwood,) to Revars, in which form it appears in treaty. The next 
form was given by Rev. Father Shoemaker, who spelled it Revard. Frank's 
great grandfather was a full-blood Osage, his great grandmother of French., 
and German Uneage, and were married on the Mississippi river. 



74 



uniteT^n w^ork^1ovp'''^nH'H''M^*^*"^ '^ "^"^^"^ ^« '^ ^" denominations were 
^hi,;^ir. fl .^' ®' a"^. building one great church temple to hold all wor- 
••Let'^me i^o! sav 'f ^^^%^'^'^ ^ the Master's prayer. The Apostle exhorted, 
of Christ orn/it^ T ''"^' ^"other of Apolis, another of Cephas, another 
all of Thr?<ft «n 17'/T^' °'' ■^°^"• ^^^••" ^^ the case may be, but we are 
"Ch?,stfnn flnini - L^""^' "'^^T^^^'^^^ to do his will, obey his laws. Let 
p?om hovhaT^v.- l^"^'' ™°"^,° ^"^ ''^"^^ ^^y °f the twentieth century. 
fftV^y}i^J ^^ ^ ^.^^^r^^^"" the dream and hope of the writer, though 
thlr^ ti suppressed. When we look back to the Messianic age of prophefy, 
i?nc t^ ^""^ one temple, one tabernacle, one altar, golden, glorious, grac- 
ious, the ornamentl crown of Jerusalem; to his people a type of heaven, 
harmony, oneness. Though there were many synagogues, (syn— together 
and ago— to go or assemble) places to assemble they all taught and prepared 
only for one great gathering— in the one temple, the one chorus, the one 
great concert of music at their yearly assembly. How much more inspiring 
would be the music of a hundred harmonious voices in chorus song than 
?^°n^/^ ^ baker's dozen! How a teacher's (preacher's) heart might be 
thrilled, with thousands of bright inspiring eyes and a thousand brighter 
voices, than a hundred dull, indifferent ones, varying down to none. The 
difference lies in the electrical force of numbers and volume and harmony of 
action. "In Union there is strength," is truer of the churches in bringing 
wayward men into harmony with right, law, and God, than it is in the union 
of smaller principalities to protect themselves against the merciless conquesib 
of tyranical empires. And none know this so well as the unchristionized in- 



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The Beautiful Cottage Home of Thomas Leahy. 

Among the older prominent families of Osage citizens Mr. Thomas 
Leahy, familiarly called "Uncle Tom," holds a high place in the esteem of 
his acquaintances and friends. A native of Illinois he came to America in 
1857, at eight years of age, lived first in Illinois six years, thence came to 
Kansas in 1863, where he resided till 18 75, then went to the broad plains of 
the "Panhandle" of Texas, for eighteen months, and returned east to Joplin, 
Mo. for one year. He came to Elgin, Kansas, and the Osage in '77. In '68, 
at Osage Mission, in Neosho county, Kansas, he married. Miss Mary L. 
Champagne, who was born and reared in Kansas City. She is only one-eigth 
Osage with French and German lineage. They have spent their married life 
in the Osagf- and eleven years in Pawhuska. They were honored with four 
children, three of whom, William, Vava and Cora are living, and all married. 
MrSi Saxon is his daughter. With his son Will, he conducts the largest 
livery business in town, just in the rear of his home shown in the cut. 
Will's beautiful cottage home is diagonally across Main Street from his 
father's, and Mrs. Saxon's, one block east. Both have finely improy^(^, 
farms adjoining Elgin, Kansas. No better people could be found among 
the Qsages 0:^ in Oklahoma than the Leahy familiesiwell-to-do, yet unas- 
suming, refined, social and hospitable. 

75 



IN HONOR PREFER ONE ANOTHER. 

divduals and nations; and the best business men are fast realizing that the 

cenreredTnai'in^.^Hni^''".-*^^^,: T.^^"^' "^°"«y' "^e and hearts, should be 
ins thlfthev r?nnn.^. "^*'^r l^^therhood. And the churches are fast leam- 
sunnort n??L^? accomplish the greatest good without the sympathy and 

in«- jr,^"^^^^"^' °^ l^.^ various congregations of the Osage nation, your abid- 
ing success m reaching the world and overcoming the mighty forces of evil 
which are sure to confront you. and contest every step of Jour advancement 
lies in the spirit of unity. Brotherly fellowship"^ should be mamfSt i^ all 
your labors. At least there should be a mutual co-operation pledged to stand 
as one church, and one body, from start to finish, in every efforf to convert 
men from the errors of sin, and to advance the mora^ educational and the 
spin ual interests of the whole community. All the followers of Christ 
a^nnhf.'rm '°^^'^vf' f°^ *^^ advancement of God's kingdom In the wSrld 
-I... " ^^l'^ ^f, ^^^ ^°^^1 members of a fraternal order stand by their 
eoif. Lh " ''''v.''"."'^^"''^^"'^^"- ^^^ ""^^ ^^^ ^o"^e ^hen the non-church- 
fhurches . """^h"^*'^" ^'^^es demand a unifying spirit, and action among the 

^,»,^V° "'^^- ^^^ *^^ highest comprehension of his Master's life and teaching 
who loves his own opinions and denomination more than the general good of 

?i!![pfont^Tt'>.^"i*^\*''''"'"^ °^ ""^^ *° ^°*^- ^^^ unspiritualized multi- 
Tr3i iZlii^f^l %''''''^%l can see some of the precious truths of the light 
?n. ,f« ^i! ^ ^^^^°," °^ ^^"' ^"^ ^^""°t conceive why it should be necesslrv 
for us who are his disciples, to be so diverse in our methods and opinions of 
following Him, who prayed that his children might be one as He and God are 
one. As an army cnsecrates its several divisions to defend a common cause 
and common country against a common and powerful foe. so may the 
churches of the future consecrate their forces to win the whole world to 
Christ, the Son of God, and defend his kingdom against attack, invasion of 
dechne. Stand together for the broad principles of the gospel, for their own 
lovlmess and truth. AlP praise to God, that we are fist seeing that true 

such^We'^anVlov?"'^ """"^ ^^'' ^^""'^ '"^'"^ ^°^^'*^ *° ^"""""^ ^"^ ^''^^'^^' without 
n„ The churches must have an interest in every man of every class if thev 
accomplish the Lord s work, and the purposes of the Gospel. On the other 
hand many men though not professional followers of the "meek and lowly 
Christ, in any church, have a substantial or practical interest in every true 
Christian, and working church, for the good they bring to the world Re- 
cognizing this mutual interest, the writer most humbly dedicates this history 
and biography to the homes, the Godspeed of the churches, and to the great- 
est prosperity of the business men pointing each one into whose hands It 
comes to the Golden Rule. 

Christ: "Love thy neighbor as thyself." 

Interpretation: "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you." 
Christ: As ye woulld that men do unto you. do ye even so unto them." 
In honor prefer another. 

Aye. learn to love, not self. Oh erring, willful fellow man! 
But another's life and good. God's will as best, and sure you can. 
That when you come, your crown of jewels to receive above. 

Not name, or wealth, or sect your plea, but how divine yon loved. 

— The Writer, P. J. D. 
TRUE POSSESSION YOURS 
I own you not, I have you not, What was as prosy of the past, 

Tho seemingly I own — Must be abiding act, 

Until myself I have forgot The beauty in our living cast. 

And angel goodness shown, Flower out in lovely fact; 

Tu ,T/f r^ ''J''™ °£ selfishness For souls to souls are wed in lave, 
jfflL]r^t^^ '1J^^ ^''''^^}- ^, And naught in kindness miss, 

LT K "" the pow-er to bless. And how the angels live above. 

And be among the blest!! Becomes our human bliss. 

God has selected a new race— o heart of love. I look on you. 

wu^,-r°^''" , present man. And feel the flush of shame. 

'^i.Jl , ^T .^^ that high grace That while I might have been so tru^. 

That perfects this grand plan: Such frailty to me came; 

It bids us live in love supreme, To love sincerely, that is wise. 

Thro all the passing days. And soon would end earth's wrong; 

And dream and work upon the dream And lovers looking from love's eyes 

And win this higher praise. Would find their lives a song! 

WILLIAM PRUNTON. 
76 




The Pretty Pawhuska Residence of Jasper Rogers. 



77 



(Photo by Hargls) 



Mr. Jasper Rogers. 

livingr in town where he hal n^^ J\u ^'^^^ '" PawhusKa. He is now 
himes. In nature and physique he i..^ T^^ comfortable, well-equipped 
nianhood. Few aree f ound"^ to excefl him s^l T^'T^u''^ welUdevelSped 
er m the love and jride of home and fai^'lv ^^^^^^^ed husband and faith- 
er. of Pawhuska. She shows Lnttle^ffhe ot "^^T^^ ^'"" ^°^« Fronk- 
the model wives and mothers amonl ti? ^^ ^^^^^ descent; ana Is one of 
children one boy. EmTett? Ld tw? Sv% c.^Z "'"f "^. ^^ey have three 
mens of childhood. Mr. Rogers irmuch in^fi .''^'^- ^''"'^' ^" A^e specl- 
his town and country. He^is a n^nhTw^f t /^^^^^ '" "''e development of 
in of W. C. Rogers, the chief of ?hony. ^'^^^'^ ^- ^- Rogers, and a cous- 
at old Skiatook"^ He is a lover of ho?ses'°.nf '/^^ ^^^°"^ ^« °"^« ^leXd 
these pets. His wife. Judginrfrom a nWo t^wln^*'". Tl!"^^ ^"^« '" °"e of 
was one of the most beautifu bHdes ev^?' weddp/ ^ """^ °^ marriage, 
zens, and wed a man worthy of her devotion ''""'"^ '""^ °^^&« «iti- 




Wm. H. Hickerson's Residence and Shop.^'^''"'" '''' "^""^'"^ 
(Cas Fitting and Plumbers' SuppUes of All Kinds.) U. S. Licensed Trader 

^^^t-^sSung-^-MSo. ^.-V;.:^T^^~ 

=. b^ng-mb-e i^ ^ ^^^1^^^^^?^^^; ^r^^eSl 
Pawhuska He has a well stocked shop, ready for all n^w or repafr work 
Pleasan?"b: .. f1 "''^J"^ ^*" ^"""^^ ^^^^^^^" ^' Arkansas. anTave^ 
three son. ^P ''• •'^''"'^ ^^"^^ '°^' '=^*^^^^"' °"^ <^^"^^ter Minnie, an^ 

wo in P. y. t ^'"''^ '^ '" ^" Oklahoma City business college, the other 
two in Pawhuska schools. Mr. Hickerson has done most of the plumbing' 
in the Osage m the former years, and has a rapidly growing trade. He is 
an ardent K. of P. and lodge man. having represented the K. P's in the 
Grand lodge of Oklahoma, and is reported to have joined the Rathbone 
bisters. He will gladly fit your gas and water systems with guaranteed work. 

78 



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80 



MR. WIUL T. liEAHY. 

Mr. Will T. Leahy, the only son of Thomas Leahy, whose beautiful 
cottage home appears herewith, is one of the most successful men of the 
Reservation. Besides a most excellent farm two miles north of Pawhuska 
be is owner of much valuable property in town. His home is a model one, 
elegantly furnished, and bearing an air of refinement that impresses even 
the casual observer. He has held positions of honor and trust in the Osage, 
being two years treasurer of the Nation, and six years Councilman, and 
three times a delegate to Washington on tribal business. He is vice-presi- 
dent of the First National Bank, and a large holder in the Pawhuska Oil 
and Gas Co., also extensively interested in the real estate, livery, and cattle 
business; and ever ready to advance the interests of his town, and the 
Osage people. He is a man of quick perception and sound judgment, and 
good material for the Osage county organization. He married Miss Martha 
L. Rogers, one of the refined and amiable daughters of Judge Rogers, a full 
sketch of whose life is given on another page. They have some fine child- 
ren. No parents in the Osage can feel prouder of their children and their 
families than Judge Thomas L. and Mrs. Rogers, and several of them are 
grouped in the cut of their home. No one can appreciate the finer qualities 
of many of the Osage citizens till he meets and knows such families as 
these, and sees the elegance and culture of their homes. They combine 
many of the better qualities of three or four nationalities, Mr. Will LeahJ 
himself having the better blood of Osage, Irish, French and German. 




The Beautiful Town Home of Leonard Revard, Just Completed. 

Mr Leonard Revard. brother of Frank, and the son of "Uncle Joseph 
Revard is a descendant of one of the oldest families of the Osage citizens. 
He spent some years farming and has some of the finest farms m the Osage. 
some opposite Ponca City and others scattered over the country, which 
he leases but he has retired in Pawhuska and bought one of the most 
beautiful cottage homes in the town. He married Miss Daisy May Morris, 
«n Arkansas cfty girl They haev four of the most beautiful children among 
tie Osages an girls He is only small part Osage. His mother was (nee) Miss 
Lea?or Lessart! also of Osage descent. Their home is as beautiful within 
as i"s exterior Who could not be happy with such a family, home, and 
children needing not to think from where tomorrow's meat may come. 
He expects to establish a business in Pawhuska. He is a man of quiet man- 
ner and love of home and family, showing strikingly the Osage descent. 

81 



THE I/ADIES OF THE OSAGE COUNTRY 

stand^^rJ'^n^^itl^t.^^^^ criterian by which we may judge a people is the 
sranaara or its womanhood. 

th«tYt''I^LT^°, ''"°'!, ^^^"^°^ *^^ advanced order of the territory think 
th^n,,,-?. T^^^^ ^,"*^ ^'°?^^ P^°P^^' '^"t not so. One cannot help noting 
the quiet and orderly conduct of the people of the Osage country Thf 
days of the Winchester and sixshooter and the desperado haxe passed as 
much so as in most of the states. You will meet as refined and as cS?tured 
people here as elsewhere, and many as fine models of girlhood and woman- 
hood as modern society produces in proportion to its population And 
woman is the standard by which the world today estimates the' moral 
and spiritual degress of the home and society, and perhaps justly s^ for 
state r^nv /"" ^^e Povver to fix the pace by which the home chJrch and 
l^^\^ J^ ,^^^7^^^ By her pressing the button the intellectual, moral 
and spiritual life of man, the home, church and state, is turned on and bv 
n?^ n.T'^ K°".H*l ''^u^'" f'' "'^^' ^«^°"^« t^-'l'^ht or darkness and hence the 
l^ ^Z^^'.!^- C^^^ ^^'^'^ *h^t ^o^l^^ the cradle, moves the world '' miiht 
r.^l^^'.Mf ^h^"S^^^ a little: "The hands that might or should rock fhe 
cradle still move the world." The destiny of man and home, the social 
world, hangs upon the aesthetic powers and virtues of tne "Twentietn 
Po^^^^'h'^ Woman." With the development of these the world risesT in tS 

the Cod rdTin'd"'"^"",-^"^ "r^^' °''^^^ *« incorporated chaos. Woman iS 
the God ordained guardian of man, his home and happiness modern 

h?s CO nfrtn'''^''TH^ '""^ °'^ ''"'^' °^ influence, and she Is fast beTominJ 
his co-partner in the commercial arena. If man should go on an exploring 
expedition to the moon the modern business woman would not be far Te? 
hind him when he might make a new discovery. 




^. ^ Tlie Home of Mi-s. Laura Soderstrom. 

durini''hi^ n^fl"" -ff""?^''^ «°T *^ l^"" y^"^""' °^ the late John Soaersirom, owner 
i-^t^f o ' . ^^"^ i^""^* ^""^ °''ly «*^"^ ^"^ srist mill ever built and run 

la the Osage nation, first built at Pawhuska about 30 years ago by the 
rfant'Tn" piA'''' T''' «° Soderstrom in 1894. It was the first manufacturing 
plant in Pawhuska. Since the death of John Soderstrom the mill was sold 
c^i-. f Tt''' F^\^ ^- Soderstrom, and a partner, Charles Havs. who later 
sold to Mr Scarborough, the new banker of Pawhuska. The father was ac- 
cidentally drowned by breaking through the ice on his pond on Bird creek 
Mrs. Soderstrom's father was Coy. J. A. Coffey, the founder of CoPfevville 
Kansas. He was the builder of the first dwelling, store ana first mill "there 
tui'TS^ J^^ postmaster of that town, named after him. He traded much 
with the five civilized tribes and Osages. His son-in-law. Mr. Soderstrom 
continued his trading career till death, February. 1002 I-^u '-"t a w'fe and 
SIX children in good circumstances. She occupies the oedu....ji cottage 
home sho^\-ii in this cut in West Pawhuska, near the 4oS root aoa bridle 
over Bird Creek. She is a woman of many good qualitieLf, ootii domestic 



82 



So Important a part does woman play in the world's progress on the 
frontier, as well as in the most domesticated centers, that we cannot over- 
look her part and importance in its history, any less than in religion, 
aesthetics, arts, romance, poetry, music and love, for she has gracefully 
combined these faculties with her business qualities, till no profession or 
trade, however arduous, shakes her nervves, or daunts her courage, in 
making a home and independence for herself, in the dawning of the 
twentieth century. Beauty of dress and symetrical form charm the passing 
glance of the aesthetic natures of men, like the swiftly passing meteor in 
its flash of light, or the more sublime comets, with golden trails that soon 
pass through the twilighted temple of the skies, charming the star gazing 
astrologers or astronomers. They are bright rays of nature that may soon 
pass from sight, but true culture of head and heart in higher accomplish- 
ments, is like the sun, moon and stars, giving constant light and life to all 
who behold and admire. Woman of such cultured accomplishments con- 
vinces the world of the trueness of the tribute once paid to higher woman- 
hood by Dr. Hargraves: "A true woman is the poetry of the earth in the 
same sense that the stars are the poetry of heaven — bright, light-giving, 
charming," guiding man in his darkest hours of business, political and soc- 
ial life. This can be true only of the girl or woman of mind and heart 
culture. The ideal, twentieth century woman will be one whose head and 
heart is more trained than heel, and whose dignity and strength of mind 
Is co-equal with her grace of step and beautiful symetry of form. These 
four qualities alone make "lovely woman." 




A Quintette of Osage Bells. 

May the literary, musical, and higher domestic cultures hold sway 
among their higher aspirations! Some in buusiness have been quite disa,i>- 
pointed in their anticipations of what grades of millhtery and ladies 
furnishings would be most in demand. The lower grades often have but 
little sale, while the most costly hats and robes have been in demand. 
Should you observe only the beautiful and costly hats and robes of the 
"fair ones" you might imagine yourself on Broadway, New York City; or 
Chestnut street, Philadelphia, or Indiana Avenue, Washington, and Gar- 
field Boulevards or on the "Lake Front" of Lincoln Park, District of Chi- 
cago, or some other elite prominade. 

Many of the wives and daughters of the Osage citizens dress as 
beautifully, gaudily, and as costly, as the elite promonaders of the above 
named boulevards; as many beautifully plumed head dresses, the rattle of 
silks and satins, as tastily made tailored suits, as brilliant matlnes and foot- 
wear a could be heard and seen in the social circles of the states. It is 
said that the receptions formeiiy given at the Indian Agency here were 
attended in evening opera gowns, and full dress suits. But this formality 
no longer prevails since the population is rapidly increasing from the 
states more interested in land lots and bank acounts than social forms. 

The educational advantages of the citizens and full-bloods have been 
as good as the government schools afford for many y^ars. All are re- 
quired to attend some school each year. Most of them while under six- 
teen years attend the school at Pawhuska or the Sisters St. Louis school 
there, or the St. John's school conducted by the Sisters on Hominy Creek, 
near Gray Horse, both conducted under Uuncle Sam's contract for so much 
per capita for the Osage children, who are compelled to board in the schools. 
Most of the full bloods stop with the training given in these schools, but many 

83 



of both sexes go to Haskel Institute, Lawrence, Kansas, and Carlisle College, 
(Pa.), and some to the best schools of other states. Most all the daughters 
and some of the sons of the intermarried citizens go up to the best schools far 
and near. The girls being mostly of Catholic families, generally go to convents 
or academies, of the Sisters to complete their literary and musical education. 
Some are excellent, many fair musicians, using various instruments. Most ot 
them are finely fitted to assume the responsibilities of home life, being kept 
from the contaminations of the world while in school, and most of them marry 
early after, or during their school days, and generally while in their teens, 
and some times exercising but Uttle discrimination, as to the highest virtues 
essential to make true men and devoted husbands. This misfortune, or lack 
of judgment is perhaps partly the fault of their exclusive education, partly 
(from home training, and indiscreet associations. But taking the average of 
happy marriages among blue blooded Caucasians, the Osage citizens whose 
sons and daughters generally wed the former, make a better showing of domes- 
tic felicity than many so-called high-bred communities. The financial inde- 
pendence of the girl or woman of Osage descent may make her less Ukely than 
others, to tolerate a worthless man, or one uncongenial to her nature, and be 
an incentive to separation and feminine liberty, but no more divorces' than in 
the most of present-day society; and from mere observation, these women con- 
form more happily to the highest ideals of a nineteenth century family an(2 
home than many of the finely decorated, pretty, social butterflies that feel 
much like the lady who disliked the duty of baking bread. Her hands were 
well filled with sticky dough when her husband came in, and gave her a lit- 




An Oclelte Drill of Osage School Girls 

tie riddle to solve. "My dear, why is the relation of man to woman like a 
woman mixing dough?" (thinking she would answer: "Because she needed 
him"). But Fhe studied a long time. He asked: "Will you give it up''" He 
thought he had the best of the joke, till she flnallly replied with an in- 
dependent toss of her dainty, classical little head: "Yes, I can tell you " "Let 
her come, then," he cried. "Because when she once gets him on her' hands 
Its so difficult to get rid of him again." His spirits fell and quiet reigned 

Mrs. Geo H. Saxon. 

-^ ^ Mrs. Saxon's First Millinei'> Parlor, 

Mrs. baxon who conducts the fine millinery store, the interior of which 
IS shown in this cut, is one of the most artistic milliners to be found any- 
where, the great cities not excepted. She studied the art in New York city 
then established her millinery parlor in her own home town of Pawhuska 
where now she conducts the leading millinery store in the entire Osage coun- 
try, both in high-grade goods and reasonable prices. She even designs some 
very beautiful, costly hats to be shipped by express to her old customers and 
acquaintances m distant states such a her art. taste and originality in design- 
ing. She IS of Irish, French and Osage descent. Her father. Thomas Leahy 
stockman and liveryman, of whom a sketch is given elsewhere in this work 

on. JllTtrn *'°''^''*'^- ^^' "'°*^^' ^"^' ^'^^ ^^^y Champagne, who was only 
o? t!t^I >,f ^.^ ^"^. ^^^'^"-^'^hth French, which fact gives the main source 
of her daughter s artistic taste in her millinery art. the French being world- 

84 



renowned as fashion designers. Mrs. Saxon is one of the most characteristic 
ladies among the Osage, possessing the strongest features and complexion of 
the Emerald Isle lady, a fair, waxey-toned hue, light blue eyes, crispy au- 
burn hair, all features blending to make a harmony of complexion not often 
seen among the fairest Americans. Among her attractive features, her unas- 
suming, prepossessing, business-like personality are not the least. Her energy 
in business Is not a very common trait among her sisters of Osage descent 
as most of them are happy only in the arena of their homes and most devoted 
love of their children. But this lady is no less an ideal mother, than a lady in 
her business, combining all the qualifications of the love of success, progress, 
business frugality, social life and home. It is said of her that the cupid of 
wealth worshipped at the shrine of her girlhood and young womanhood, but 
she from all suitors selected a man of energy and good business qualities as 
his inheritance and store of wealth, who is now in the mercantile business at 
Osage Junction, but cannot prevail on his young wife to give up her millinery 
business that she is so excellently fitted for by natural ability and schooling 
under the best designers of New York City. All have the best of words for her 
and you only have to meet her to admire her womanly amiability and quali- 
ties. And this is said only in honor to the highest womanhood of the Osage 
Nation, as Mrs. Saxon is happily married, and the writer has never been able 
to acquire the art of flattery nor does he desire to if he could. Mrs. Saxon 
has contantly in her employ the most artistic help. The lady standing to the 
left in the cut, Mrs. Mamie Rambo, is the daughter of Rev. E. F. Hill, pastor 
of the M. E. church a most skillful milliner and a most amiable lady, who has 
been with her over a year. 




The Elite Millinery Store of Mrs. G. H. Saxon. 

Pawhuska has many cultured girls and ladies who at times entertain 
the public by literary and musical talent. Many are accomplished in instru- 
mental and vocal music. Miss Gale, who has studied in the best schools un- 
der the training of the best vocal instructors, has made many successes in her 
musical culture entertainments. 

The "Pawhuska Dramatic Club" was recently organized to cultivate 
and use home talent on the newly decorated opera house stage of Mr. Wood- 
ring. The club, under the direction of Mr. and Mrs. Ed. P. Kreyer, theatrical 
professionals some years, has already showed that there is comedy and dra- 
matic ability here. 



i»>«rt. 



85 IB 



.Md 




Th^ youn^ lady is an amiable 

daughter of Mrs. Will Bradshaw, and 

granddaughter of "Uncle" Joe Re- 

vard She is now taking a musical 

and busmess course in St. Joseph's 

Academy at Guthrie, O. T., one of the 

best convent schools in the territories 

She comes of one of the oldest and 

most prominent families, and one of 

me fairest descendants of the Osages 

Her maternal grandfather was a Pap- 

Pin of history. ^ 

Miss May Revaid. 

This group is the bridal party of Mr a ^ (Photo by Hargis) 

bride. Miss May Alexander, daughter of t." ^^?^ Trumbly and his new 
Nation. Who liyes about th;ee mfes fro4 KaTot ^I"'^^"^^^- ^f the Osage 
ned July 30, 1902. at Ponca CUy lZr7 f^ ^ ^' ^^ ^- ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^r- 

day. They make their ne^ home in Ponca Cit^'bTr^^^" °" ^^^ — 
preyed farms in the Osage, about 12 and To T / ^^""^ ^'^^ ^^^^^ ^^- 
Trumbly is the only son of Francis fnd A „t! "^.''^^J^om Ponca City. Mr. 
ancestry, but of French lineage on his fatt^J^ T^"™^^^' both of Osage 
b'.ood Osage, and his mother one-hllfiTsV.th"' '"''" ^^' °"'^ ^ ^^^''^^ 
the Osage people holding the p^^ce of rn,f^. , "^^^ prominent among- 

attornew for the Nation when he died T..?^"' ^"'^ ^^' '^" Prosecuting 
Andrew eight years of age. and tt^o rghS"los^e rnd^I^rhorar^d 




Ph«o TVT . ^^ OSAGE WEDDING P/VRTY 

^ntZTToll ^His"wiSs^°at:?-wt"^7-sTh^^-^^- ^ -— 

r^^tTLre-dri^^ ^^^f^^^^'^^^r^^^ ^l:^- 

emy. AndrZ is a nephew of 7,^^.' ^"^ Y^'^hita, at Mt. Marmel Acad- 
of the Osage Townsite cLmii^nf , •^°^" ^- Crumbly. Julian is one 

seyeral terms. anTa repreTe" 1^^^ W.\^ T'^'''' °' *^^ ^°""^" ^- 
the Osage Supreme court Mr an. MrTTr?^^' ^"'^ "'"'^"' ^ "^^^^ °^^ 
Osage descendants hnti, ^^ ^ • ' ^^""^bly are excellent types of 

amo^ng their manjfr?enda ^ '"'"' ""' intelligence, and highly esteemed 



86 



JUDGE J. W. PETTIT. 

Judge J. W. Pettit and family are among- the most prominent Osage 
citizen. He is descendant of the Osages and Cherokees, and his wife a des- 
cendant of the Cherokees. Miss Lorinda Hampton, whose fatlier was from 
Tennessee. They were mraried in 1870, near Talequah, I. T., but she was 
born near old Ft. Smith. They had eight children born to them, and six 
Btill living, four sons, two at Hominy, and two at Pawhuska; and two single 
daughters. Judge Pettit has lived in his present home, three miles north- 
east of Pawhuska, as shown in the cut, fourteen years, but 21 years, on the 
same farm, being seven years in a house, first built by the government, a 
log house just in the rear of his present beautiful home. He held the of- 
fice of Chief Justice of the Osage Nation for eleven years, and went twice 
to Washington, D. C, as a representative of his people. He served in the 
confederate army as a brave soldier in the border warfare and can relate 




»liss Nettie Pettit, the youngest antlMiss Bell De Noya, a Daughter of Mr. 
Accomplished daughter of Fiank De Noya, Sr, 

Judge J. W. Pettit. 



many exciting experiences durig those years. He won his title of "Judge" 
as chief of the Oscage Supreme Court, and has rendered other services of 
honor and trust. He in one of the most successful farmers of the Nation, 
having an excellent improved farm and cultured musical family, with true 
Southern Hospitality. He is a man of great sociability and bright intelli- 
gence and high aspirations for his family and children. Once having en- 
joyed the welcome of their home you could quickly realize that it is a 
higher type of an Osage citizen, home of unassuming but refined atmos- 
phere. Mrs. Pettit is a fine type of the 19th century elderly, southern lady, 
and her children show the impression of her influence. They own some 
of the finest farms of the Osage country. That of Frank near Hominy, 
is especially beautiful, and fertile. And unlike many others of Osage de- 
scent, these young people are ambitious to excell. 



IL. 



»7 



(Photo by Hargls) 



THE UNITED STATES OSAGE AGENCY 

Should space permit we would gladly give a sketch of the agents that 
have served at the post at Pawhuska, also an outline of the various reports 
of said agents, showing their ideas, progress and recommendations concerning 
the Osage nation, country and people. But so varied have these been that it 
would only show as many personal opinions, and very diverse figures on their 
terms of service. In the study of such figures the writer has never found two 
that gave just the same acreage and estimates of thee ondition of the country. 
For instance, one says the "Osages own 1,600,195 acres of land which they pur- 
chased at 70 cents per acre." Another gives the reservation area as 1,470,055 
acres, another rtport has It 1,500,000 acres, still another at 1,400,000 acres, and 
32,000 square miles, etc. There is as much variance as to what these peoplf 
have to their credit in the national treasury, ranging from $8,584,498 down to 
$8,000,000 and all sums for the annual incomes from all leases not including 
interests, from $579,866 down, etc. Of course the population and annuities vary 
but not their trust fund, while the interest is paid quarterly; but there has evi- 
dently been some guessing. The most of the agency buildings are shown in the 
cuts. The first council house was built In the '70's, was burned down during 
Harrison's administration, and immediately rebuilt in its present form, where 
the Osage council, mostly fullbloods, meet every three months, or oftener if 
need be. In Council hall. The rest of the rooms are rented for offices. Judge 
Yates holds his courts here, where he offices. The agents' building is shown 
with the First National Bank building in cut on another page. The agents 
who have served are in order: Isaac T. Gibson, Syrus Beede, Labon J. Miles, 
(twice appointed), and during the democratic administration Mr. Hoover, Cap- 




Mr. and Mrs. John \V. Julien's Beautiful Cottage Home. 

Mr. Julien was born and reared in Ohio till 18. He lived some years in 
Indiana, in Kansas Citj- about 15 years, then came to Pawhuska, Oklahoma 
in '95 and has resided here since, where he has clerked for the Gibson 
Mercantile Company. He was a miller by trade but has railroaded and 
been an express agent, Tor some years. His father was of French descent 
as the name indicates. Julien, an ancestor escaped to America, after seeing 
his brother burned at the stake during the French inquisition. 

Mr. Julien married Miss Maria S. Seward of Indiana, in 1889. They 
have no children. Mrs. Julien was also a clerk for seven years in the 
millinery department in the same store. They have retired to spend the rest 
of life In their happy Pawhuska home, in a beautiful grove of fruit and 
ornamental trees. They are among the first and most honored residents 
of the town. 

88 (Photo by Hargis) • 



tain Potter (U. S. A. officer), and P. Smith. Then Capt. Demsey (a TJ. S. A. 
officer), Col H. B. Freemen, O. A. Mitscher (of the M:tscher delegation to Wash- 
ington), and the present agent, Capt. Frank Frantz. During the enforcement 
of the Osage constitution and laws under their own officers the agent's duties 
were mainly to look after their financial interests, payments, education, schools 
etc., but since the assuming by the government of these functions, the agent 
has absolute authority in all matters pertaining to their control, except in cases 
of felonous crime, etc. To him they come with all their business and domestic 
troubles, like children to a father. He is looked upon as a foster father by all 
the Reservation Indians. To him they come with every sickness, pain or acci- 
dent, every little difficulty or encroachment of the advancing "pale faces " with 
every broken plow, wagon, harness and tender-footed pony, like a petted child 
comes to a compassionate father for sympahty and succor. Nor are they dls- 
appomted, for he watches over them with all the solicitude of such a father 
He IS fostering their rights and protecting their lands with a plausible dignity 
and pride. He has not been in the Agency long, but every Osage from Arkan- 
sas River to the Kansas line knows him well. The writer had the privilege of 
meeting him many times. He seems to be the right man to protect his Indian 





' -'" ' ■■ ■ ■ — T III , _ 



'"■^^Cfctnsev ^— ~. 



The Residence oi J)r. Geo. L. l>iinn, M. D.. Main St 

Dr. Geo. Dunn is a graduate of the College of Physicians and Surgeons 
ot. Joe, Mo. He came from Nodaway county, Mo., in 1880, when a boy of 
16. His father was a physician, also his other five brothers. He comes of 
p. family of natural physicians for three generations or more. His father. 
Dr. Thomas J. Dunn, and uncle, Dr. Joseph B. Dunn, who is the oldest 
practicing physician among the Osage, came to this country in 18 80, and 
practiced together till Dr. T. J. Dunn's death in 1900. Dr. J. B. is still in 
the atcive practice, though advanced in years, and very successful in his 
profession. Dr. Geo. Dunn has practiced medicine for 20 years in Kansas, 
old Oklahoma and the Osage, but mostly on the Osage reservation, where 
he has the marked distinction of being the mos*- skilled in his profession, 
bu-t through the unforseen forces of physically detei^orating effects that come 
to all at times, he has been confined to his r-om for 18 months, but is 
now growing stronger. Being constantly among the Osage citizens he nat- 
urally selected one of the fairest daughters of their descent. Miss Dora 
Del Orier, daughter of Antoine and Julia Del Orier. Tliey have three fine 
children, two girls and a boy, Ida May, Marie Agnes, and John Timothy 
Dunn. Their pretty cottage home is on east Main Street. Their many 
friends wish him a speedy recovery. 
^" "■^<a»'— - 89 (Photo by Hargis) 



The Osage Agency because of the vast sums of money disbursed here and 
the vast resources of the country and the advanced order of many citizen 
families, Is the most important post in America. From $75,000 to $100,000 are 
spent here annually for educational purposes, and nearly a million paid through 
the agency in annuities to the Osage, and for the expense of the agency. It 
is a great responsibility on the shoulders of any man and his clerks and dep- 
uties But the president and interior department knew a young but strong 
man, well fitted for the post. Capt. Frantz, who has filled the place most suc- 
cessfully and satisfactorily for two years, and is now advanced to the govern- 
or's chair of the greatest of all territories, Oklahoma. The people of Pawhus- 
ka endorsed hi -appointment by many cheers of "Hurrah for Frantz," and many 
demonstrations of enthusiasm, because they feel he will make as good governor 
as he has made an Indian Agent. Though regretting to lose his presenece in 
the Osage, they believe his power will still be wielded for the Osage allotment 
and good.' It is said that he is of distant Swiss ancestry, that his father was 
a native of Virginia and a democrat, that he avs born in Woolford county, Ill- 
inois, May 7, 1872, was educated at Eureka Christian College, (111.), where his 
brother-in-law, R. E. Hieronymus was then and is now, president. His family 
coming to Wellington, Kansas, Frank left college in his junior year, at 18, and 
came west. He made the run into the Cherokee Shrip in 1893, but later went to 
California, Arizona and New Mexico mining for four years. When the Span- 
ish-American war began he left the Gold Note mine of Senator Hearst of Cal- 
ifornia, joined the Rough Riders, Troop A, at Prescott, Arizona, was commis- 
sioned first lieutenant by Governor McCord, went to Cuba, under Capt. O'Neil 
and Col. Roosevelt. On Mr. O'Neil's death he was appointed captain of his 
company. All the world knows the rest. Roosevelt became president and 
Capt. Frantz has taken the gubernatorial reins of Oklahoma. It was said 
he was a democrat before the war, but never a partisan politician in any sense, 
and so much the better for that reason, and one in whom the people can have 
confidence. He is a most congenial, but frank officer and gentleman that any- 
one could enjoy meeting. He is as congenial, approachable and democratic 
in manner as he is conscious, frank and firm in the performance of official 
duty. And the writer, voicing the feeling of the Osage, wishes him success 
as governor. It is said of Mr. Frantz that, while the Rough Rider Regiment, of 
which President Roosevelt was Colonel, was charging up San Juan Hill with 
a bullet torn flag in one hand a sword in the other, he. as lieutenant, was 
leading his company, whose captain had fallen, to "the top of the hill." His 
colonel. Roosevelt, riding up, asked "Where is your captain." Amid the roar 
of cannon and flash of musketry and glimmer of sword, the answer echoed: 
"Dead." "Where are you going?" "To the top of the hill!" the lieutenant re- 
plied. Heroism and patriotic courage in such men surmounted the hill, and 
Roosevelt and Frantz are still pushing "to the top of the hill" in their service 
to the nation, both unassuming and altruistically modest. But the hills of 
highest honor in the American nation, are now scaled by the one who beckons 
the other still to come, and Frantz is coming, Mr. Roosevelt, coming "to the 
top of the hill." of true statesmanship. He was too modest to furnish the writ- 
er his cut for this book, but can not stop a pen sketch which he deserves, and 
you approve. Young men of the Osagel set your goal high! Stop not short of 
the top of the hill. Shoot at the sun, moon and stars, and you will never hit 
the lower regions of the earth, though you may not be able to count all bull's 
eyes in your long range marksmanship. There are higher hills for every aspir- 
ing hero of industry, economy, temperance, honesty and righteous ambition. 
Stand by your guns, draw your swords, fixing your eyes on the topmost ram- 
part of the highest hills, push on up its side, saying with Miller, "I'll try 
Sir;" with Lawrence, "Don't give up the ship," and answer Dewey, who said: 
"You may fire when you are ready!" W eare ready to fire, ready to march and 
keep marching. 

There are two stimuli to set before every man one, the hope of a home, 
wealth and independence through industry, temperance and economy, the other 
a physical stimulus by intemperance and prodigality in pleasure-reaping pen- 
ury and commercial and social slavery as the reward. Young men, which wil/ 
you choose? 

Captain Frantz had an efficient corps of assistants in the following of- 
fiers: A. W. Hurley, chief clerk; Ret Millard, leasing clerk; H. M. Loomer, 
W. M. Blake, Geo. Beauleau, Geo. LaMotte and Chas. Michelle, whose cut ap- 
pears herein, assistant clerks. Harry Kohpay, interpreter. H. C. Ripley, of 
Maine, trade supervisor; Chas. F. Leech, engineer; Wiley G. Haines, chief of 

Mr. Ret Milliard has been appointed agent to succeed Frantz. He is well 
acquainted with the Osage people and well fitted to direct their interests, 
police, and J. M. Way, M. D., government physician. 

ti:u 90 .J i; i 



Incorporated THE FIRST BANK OF SKIATOOK. ^-Capital $15,000. 

T. E. Smiley, President; Beeks F^ick, Vice-President; 

Chas. H. Nash. Casliler; Gray FMck, Ass't. Casliler. 

This bank was the first bank chartered for Skiatook, Tlie president, 
T. E. Smiley is president of the Bank of Commerce at Tulsa, I. T. The 
vice-president, together with J. W. McL-oud, are intert^sted in building 
the Midland Valley railroad. The cashier has been in the banking busi- 
ness for the past six years in Oklahoma and is thoroughly conversant with 
the business. All the men connected with this bank are men of banking 
experience and their aggregate wealth is near the $100,000 mark. Mr. 
Nash is both a commercial club and town officer, and a mtin of power and 
push for the progress of the city. They do an extensive t)anking and no- 
tary, and some real estate business, and will give all homnjiseeKers a warm 
welcome to Skiatook, and some man among them is a commercial muse 
as we find the following verse quite appropriate to this fertile section on 
the back of their envelopes: 

"Corn, cattle, hogs and hay 

Will simply take your breath away; 
While plenty of gas, coal and oil 

Lies beneath our fertile soil." 




Mrs. W. II. IJcydlci-'s Milliiirry Parlor, and the Oflicc and Large Lumber 

Sheds of I>ic*kas(>n-(;<KKliiian Lumber Co., Skiatook, Mr. \V. T. Beydler, Mgr 

Mrs. Beydler is a native of the state of Iowa, but has lived in Nebraska 
where she studied and followed the art of millinery for several years. She 
now conducts a millinery business here and draws a patronage from a long 
distance in the Cherokee and Osage country. She has a beautiful display 
of hats in her parlor, and is one of the most pleasant ladies in her home 
and artistic profession. Her husband conducts the Dickason-Goodnian 
LumlK'r Co. oflice just next door, as shown in the cut. They lived for some 
time in Pawhuska where he managed the lumber lard of Dickason-Good- 
man Lumber Co., there before becoming their manager here. Mr. Beydler 
was born in Cedar county, Mo., February 18. 1872, moved to Boone coun- 
ty, Nebraska, in 1891; was engaged in the lumber business with the Edward 
and Bradford Lumber Co., in Albion, same state in 1899, since which time 
for the Dickason-Goodman Lumber Co., who have a number of yards in 
the territory, with main offices at Tulsa, I. T. Mr. Bv^ydler is an ex- 
cellent young man, of good business ability and successful as a manager, 
a good citizen, and a happy husband of a most amiable, artistic wife. They 
evidently combine business with love. 

91 



SKIATOOK, I. T. 

(Named froma full-blood Cherokee Chief.) 
This beautiful town has lately passed her first birthday, the lots being 
Eold on December 19th, 1904, in which the highest price paid for one lot 
was $300, and now worth several times that amount, for the town is fast 
becoming- a fine trading point, for not only the rich valley or prairie sur- 
rounded it, but for a large extent of the eastern Osage. A late census 
showed a populaton of 400. It has a pubic school under the efficent 
leaching of Mr. D. C. Quay, and C. H. Mehlhorn, with about 80 pupils. 
While no church house has been built, two or three denominations have 
held services here, and a house will soon be built. An intelligent and ex- 
cellent class of people have established this town. 

You can find all classes of business represented here, without going 
elsewhere when in need of anything. Skiatook has four general mer- 
<;handise stores that would be a credit to a much larger town, besides three 
lumber yards, two banks, a racket store, two hardware and furniture 
stores, two drug stores, a meat market, livery barn, harness shop, three 
hotels, a bakery, two barber shops, confectionaries, blacksmith shops, 
feed mill, mill and elevator, two millinery stores and all other lines of 
business. 

The town was incorporated at a cost of $100, defrayed by the Com- 
mercial Club of 50 active members, organized March 3, 1905, only three 
months after lot sale, with an excellent set of officers: A.E. Townsend, 
mayor and ex-officio Justice of the Peace; F. C. Bell, recorder; C. H. 
Nash treasurer; Joseph Mercer, marshal; and C. H. Cleveland, A. K. Feig- 
ley, F. Lynde, J. W. Thompson, and L. A. Tyler, aldermen. The club with Mr. 
(Cleveland, vice president; G. M. Janeway, secretary, and A. K. Feigley 
treasurer, is doing much for the trade of the town by improving the road! 
into town, and done much for their town in various lines of inducing im- 
igration to this point. They know what the best advertising ca do for a 
town that has her resources to place before home seekers. The writer 




Main Street, Skiatook, I. T., Looking East From Midland Valley DeiK>t. 

sincerely thanks the energetic people who readily expressed their inter- 
est in this book, and regrets that owing to the need of a photographer 
to take the views, he cannot show many of the better buildings and 
surrounding rich farms, orchards, alfalfa fields, beautiful native hay 
meadows for which this section is noted. The fine stone farm houses 
and farms of Mrs. Jane Appleby, and daughter Mrs. Alph Hoots, at 
Tulsa, are near Skiatook. She is said to be a most intelligent and inter- 
esting old lady of Osage citizenship and the most wealthy. Along the 
valley of Bird Creek in the Osage nation, Mr. Jno. Lundy, Jim Perrier, 
Ed. Fox, Geo. Bradshaw, and Mrs. Elic Davis, and Richard Tinker, have 
rich farms. W. C. Rogers, chief of the Cherokees, has a most fertile and 
beautiful farm joining the Osage, where old Skiatook P. U., and his store 
was located. Mrs. Sophia Davis who lives two and one-half miles from 
town is the daughter of Augustus Chouteau, (French) and Roselle Lom- 
bard, who was half Osage. She married Mr. Davis, of Illinois, eighteen 
years ago, who was for 20 years a successful farmer and stockman. She 
hcs a fine farm and orchard, but no children except an adopted daughter, 
Mary, bright, blond girl, who lately married Mr. Ed. Kruner. Mr and 
Mrs. Ed. Fox are also improving a fertile farm two miles from Skiatook. 
She is the daugher of Grandmother Mosier, and most hospitable people. 
Mr. H. C. Gilmore, of Pawhuska, owns the land surrounding the Midlana 
Valley depot, nerly a quarter from the center of Skiatook. He has a 
most choice location. The Midland Valley Co. has leased considerable 
land for 99 years and established their material yards, and built offices, 
and will make a division here or at Pawhuska, which would be a boon to 
either place as the road has experienced progressive men to run it. 

^' ■ 92 _ , ^ -. K ' ' !_^.-- 



A LAND ESPECIALLY INVITLNG TO HIGH CLASS YOUNG PEOPLE 

This section of the territories is the "Primised Land" for young peo- 
ple of ability, industrious, energetic habits, temperate, economical and aspiring 
to do and be above the ordinary. They have been settled largely by younger 
men and their chosen brides, who have come and are now coming to enter upon 
their business and professioiml careers, to make a mark in life, and lay 
the foundations of future fortunes. 

The writer can fully endorse the words read from the St. Louis Mirror: 
"The Territory is a land which invites young men who are wide awake and 
ambitious; that are not afraid to work, and have a well balanced mind and 
heart. It is a decidedly more promising country to grow up with than far- 
off Manitoba or British Columbia, where winters are long and days of sunshine 
few in numbers." We certainly have the natural advantages of a salubrious 
climate combined with all the resources of soil, minerals and commercial de- 
velopment. 

Most of the men of large business interests have come with empty hands 
but ready to grasp every opportunity for progress and their rapid rise to their 
present business standing fully coroborates the often demonstrated fact that a 
young man's most secure capital in beginning life's career is industry, economy, 
temperance and honesty; virtues, which if brought to the territory, are the only 
essential capital stock needed for beginning a prosperous life and beautiful 
homes. 

THE ALLIED RACES OK INrEK31AKRIED lAAULIES 

Many have become allied, through marriage, with the more educated, re- 
fined and thrifty sons and daughters of the natives and thus combined love 
with business have become heirs to broad and fertile farms and herds of fat 
cattle. And perhaps the time will come, if not now at hand, when the Cau- 
casian lad or lassie may be envied because they have won the hearts and 
full hands of the more dusky children of this lovely, fertile and sunny land. 
Many of the finest types of manhood and womauhood are found among the 
posterity of the allied pale and tinted races. The primitive families of the 
forests and plains have all the resources of wealth, and these, combined with 
the science and push of a Christian civilization, will make the Osage as a 
blooming gardeu of beautiful children, flowers and fruits. 

Many of the natives have risen to political and social influence and 
wealth. Many of the leading families of the Osages live in Pawhuska and 
the other towns of the Reservation where they have beautiful, costly homes, 
as shown in the cuts of this book. These dwellings are often furnished ele- 
gantly, with costly pianos, fine rugs, tapestries, Axministers and best quality 
of. ingrains and Brussels carpet, etc. 

Many of them have their servants, working girls in the homes and hired 
men upon their farms. Many have commodious barns with fine "turnouts," 
costly carriages and high-bred horses. In short they are a people of wealth 
and many luxuries, having much money but spending it freely for whatever is 
desired and enjoyed, with few exceptions among the more economical classes. 
Some of the citizen (intermarried) people and most of the full-bloods keep 
but little or no money ahead, often spending it in credit before the quarterly 
payments, by a credit-card system, issuel them by the agent, which limits the 
credit, that business men of merchants may give to only 60 per cent of the next 
quarterly payment, about $25 to $30 credit for every man, woman and child, 
every ninety days, unless the merchant, as is often done credits more at his 
own risk. And the degree of honesty varies no more with these people, from 
the writer's estimate than among the most highly cultured commercial com- 
munities. Many of tlie Cull bloods are exceptionally honest, and proud of it. 

It may be oi. interest to the reader to give here a sketch of the most pe- 
culiar, eccentric character among the full-blood Indians. John Stink, who is 
said to have been once, the richest Osage in ponies, formerly Indian wealth, 
and was looked upon with special honor because of his many ponies. The 
story goes that one lime he died, as his friends supposed, and was buried ac- 
cording to Osage custom, half reclining, as if sitting back in a rocking chair, 
and covered with a monument of stones, around and above him, on top of the 
ground. Cut John was not dead, but in a dormant condition, a breathless 
trance. He scon revived and threw off his stone tomb and came back to camp; 
but the rest thouglit he had returned from the other world and would have 
ncthiiig to do wiLli him thereafter. Because of his queer actions they con- 

93 



Dr. Sheafe was born in Ottumwa, 
Iowa, December 15, 1866, and educat- 
ed at the Southern Iowa Normal. 
Bloomfield, took a medical course at 
the State University of Iowa, from 
which he graduated in 1892, then 
practiced medicine at Riverside, Iowa, 
till 1902. From there he moved to 
Oklahoma, then to Skiatook, March 
1st, 1905. In 1905 he joined the In- 
ternational Medical Congress at Paris 
and during the same year traveled 
over Europe, visited Turkey, Greece 
Palestine and Egj'pt, thus adding to 
his broad professional culture and 
schooling, and all-round man, a K. P. 
and good physician with a growing 
practice. 




Dr. Jos. Slioale. 




Interior View of Feigjey's Dei>ai"tment Store, A. K. Feig:ley and Son, (H. L/.) 

Mr. Feigley and son came to Skiatook from Elkhart, Ind., where they 
ran the Elkhart Department Store, but were formerly of Bloominngton, 
Nebraska, where they conducted a department store for twenty-flve years. 
They started in business in Skiatook, February 1st, 1905, own their build- 
ing of two stories and 184 fet deep. They carry a complete line of up-to- 
date line of merchandise to supply the railroad, oil and farmers' trade; 
but carry an exceptionally fine line of shoes and gents' furnishing goods. 
They are excellent men to help make an ever-growing, prosperous town, 
broadly experienced in selling goods since 1882, and most pleasant gentle- 
men to meet. Mr. Al Feigley is prominently connected with the town and 
commercial club. Meet them at the corner of Main and Broadway. 

94 



sidered him crazy, possessed of an evil spirit, ran him off and took his ponies 
and all he had from him. John has never owned a pony since, nor anything 
else except a big knife, frying pan, tin plate, tin cans, etc., for camping in 
the woods without tent or shelter, when not in town. He has become a swift 
walker quite equal to the ordinary horse, his only exercise; sometimes walk- 
ing as far as Gray Horse and back to Pawhuska in a short time. McLaughlin 
and Farrar, old merchants here, made an greement to keep John in food, 
clothing (blnkets mostly), for his payments. In front of their store he sits or 
lies much of his time both day and night, and to all salutations simply re- 
plies in a good natured way: "Ugh!" Many times late at night the writer 
has found him asleep in the recess of the store room door or during warmer 
nights, on the sidewalk, scorning all invitations to inside lodging. Here he eats 
and sleeps, as happy as a fat pig; and just as contented, seemingly taking for 
his motto: "If ignorance and dirt is bliss, 'tis folly to be wise," and clean. He 
is said to be so honest that these merchants often invite him in winter to sleep 
in their store, but — John prefers the sidewalk and natural elements. On re- 
ceiving part of his payments he carries it wrapped in a bandana handkerchief. 
When he buys a meal or lunch to eat, he unfolds his bandana money bag and 
makes signs or says in Osage, as he never speaks English: "How much 
(cost?) Take!" He is perfectly peaceful and molests neither persons nor any- 
thing, but carries a big knife which he brings into service when harassed by 
another. When missed from town he is perhaps off at his forest camp-fire, 
eating, and after hiding or hanging up his scant outfit, returns to town, where 
he sits, lies or moves about in silence, having nothing to say to whites nor full- 
bloods, but seldom fails to recognize a greeting in his indifferent mood. By 
all these peculiarities he doubtless incited the epithet John Stink, but when it 
was first bestowed or what his name in native dialect we are unable to state. 
He will not allow the camera or kodak to invade his physiogonomy, quickly 
snatching his blanket over his face or turning away. But by chance Mr. W. 
G. Hargis, having his camera ready caught him unawares, as he was exhort- 
ed to look around from the steps of Mr. Monk's drug store, where you see hin. 
standing. His own people think him as much a freak of nature as do 
strangers. 

But with all the peculiarities of these people they are in general a noble 
type of full-blood, and when allied by marriage with the better class of other 
races make as fine a type phy.sically and mentally, under right education and 
training as you could find anywhere. In fact some of the last century claim 
that the highest development of the human race can only be attained by the 
intermarriage of the best types of all races, according to the laws of natural 
affinity and high intelligence. And the posterity of least diverging, allied races, 
seem to sustain the theory. Many of the greatest men and women of every age 
have been the off-spring of intermarried nationalities. It is claimed that the 
great Japanese generals. Oyama and Oku. eliminated, are in fact of Irish and 
Japanese descent; that O'Yama and O'Keough, were the first spelling of these 
names. Irishmen in the Elizabeth period having been shipwrecked and cast 
adrift in the Philippines, found their way to Japan, became military men, in- 
termarried with native*, Patrick O'Yama handing down the lineage of Field 
Marshal Oyama, the Napoleon of the Japs, and the name O'Keough, being of 
difficult spelling was eliminated to Oku. (Note — This is given as a newspaper 
report). There are some fine people of Irish descent among the Osage citizens, 
also English, some German and other nationalities. But those of French an- 
cestry, as the biographical .sketches show, are largely in the majority. 

The writer would have no one think that he is an advocate of social equal- 
ity of the races under all circumstances, far from it except upon a basis of 
individual fitners and merit, and not extremes in color. The broadest social 
equality betwee i races and families widely different in habits and life, can only 
be an individual matter at best. But it is not alone a question of color. The 
natural laws of God among a million species and retro-volution and evolution 
of unrecorded ages and above all, the law of the su^'^ival and improvement 
<»f the fittest deems it so. 

Mr. James Bigheart, a former chief, while before the allotment committee 
in Washington, paid a high tribute to the better classes of Osage citizens when 
he said: "Well, as it stands, and fro what I have observed, (etc., etc.) the 
most intelligent persons have the best land and most of it, either in farming 
lands or pasture, and it seems to me in the case of minerals, too," etc: Of 

95 



WHITNEY HOTEI/, MAIN ST. AND LELAND. 
Mr. G. A. "Whitney, Proprietor, 

There are three hotels in Skiatook, two of which are conducted by 
Mr. Whitney. He is an old hoted man of ten years experience. He is 
a native of New York state. He is well adapted to the hotel business by 
nature and experience. Nature does a great deal for a man when they 
select what they are most naturally fitted for, and here lies much of the 
secret of success in all professions and business. Mr. and Mrs. Whitney 
conduct a good restaurant and cafe with the liotel, so it is both European 
and American plan.. They are opening another FIRST CLASS HOTEL, 
THE LELAND, just a little northeast of the depot, where they will make 
a specialty of the commercial trade, but will continue their $1.25 per day 
house and restaurant and cafe at the old stand on Main Street, where 
they now keep one of the best houses for the rate in the territory. He 
meets all trains and shows the traveler every necessity and congenial court- 
esy. The central long distance phone is located in liis office.. He formerly 
refited the New State Hotel in Tulsa, I. T., but came to the rapidly growing 
town of Skiatook, to which he adds much interest. 




TOWNSEND, SULLIVAN & CO., GENERAL MERCHANTS, 

17 North Broadway, Skiatook. 

Townsend, Sullivan & Co., a cut of whose business house appears here- 
with is one of the leading firms of Skiatook, doing a gv^neral mercantile 
business. Mr. A. B. Townsend, the senior member of the firm, is mayor 
of the town and one of the most public spirited men in the territory, and 
enthusiastic in the growth of his town. He is from Massachuusetts, and a 
typical New England gentleman: and has a cottage home, (see cut), and a 
family. His partner, Mr. H. C. Sullivan, is a native of Pennsylvania, and 
a young man of excellent business ability. They have done business in 
Ohio and Tennessee, contracting on government locks on the Cumberland 
river. They have been established in business here since the early part of 
1905, soon after the town was built. They deal in aU kindsy or produce and 
farm machinery, coal, etc. They are both members of tne commercial 
club and have an increasing trade from far into the Osa.ge. A few such 
citizens can make any town prosperous and elevate its social, commercial 
and civil life. Mr. Townsend, by virtue of his office as mayor, holds the 
only court in this section at present. 

THE CITY BARBER SHOP. 
B. M. Daniel of N. Y., and E. H. Haddock, of the Cherokee Nation. 
e.stablished a nicely-equipped, up-to-date shop in Skiatook during the sum- 
mer of this year, 1905, and are doing a good business. Both are young men 
and will add energy to the commercial interests of the town. As in many 
other towns of the territory. Skiatook business is conducted largely by 
young men, just establishing themselves in all the trades, and professions. 
These young mene are highly deserving of all patronage. As the country 
develops they will become the leading tradesmen and professional men of 
the new state. Every young man should be encouraged to start in business 
for himself as early in life as cnsistent with his judgment, and such are 
especially deserving of our constant patronage and encouragement. 



96 



(Photo by Hargis) 



course I do not kiiow absolutely, but I am convinced from my knowledge of 
the situation tliat these intelligent ones are getting the best entries in our 
country, both as to tanning lanas and minerals. * * » ihe intelligent ones 
— 1 mean ot course, tne haii-breeas — would get the best lanas." 

In this he expressea, pernaps unawares, the supremest law of nature, and 
nature s Goa, the Great Spirit. 

••xue siuvival oi Uie uiiest." Christ passed judgment under the same 
law, in solemn accents: • .tie tiiat naih, to him snau De given, ana he that 
hath not, even tnat which he hath snail be taken torm mm and given to him 
that hath and he shall have more aoundaut." And this was not spoKen con- 
cerning intellectual and spiriiual seir-assertion and reward; but equally true 
of economics, temperance, anu inaustrial development, and honest increase. 
In the alliance of the races lies much of the secret of the intelligence and 
thrift referred to by JBigheart. This law and fact will in future years raise 
most of the primitive American race to the class of the intelligent ones of in- 
dustry, economy and progress, in being chief of the Usages he acquired much 
knowledge and experience by years of contact with the indomitable energy of 
business men and intermarried citizens. The taxable property of these men 
in the Osage, as assssed by Pawnee county, not including Indian property has 
run up to three and nearly a quarter milliou dollars. This law of commercial 
conquest is bringing the Osage millions of dollars in annuities that would never 
come otherwise. Jbrom a quarter to a half million dollars per year for min- 
eral, pasture and other leases, is no mean sum for 1,900 people who have not 
to turn their hands, but only hold them for the golden fruits of their fields and 
groves to fill them full, as industrial aevelopment shakes the trees. The more 
broken, rocky hills may appear to the home-seeker valuable only for grazing 
But the oil lessees' drill has already placed some of these next in value to 
those ot ■topinle Top" in a stretch of Texas swamps, or Sour Lake fed by 
mineral springs, in the edge of a poorly timbered forest bordering a broad ex- 
panse of desolate prairie, where land before went begging for $5 or $10 per acre 
soon sold tor as many ihousands. The "Shoestring" district of 17 acres were 
drained ot $75,000; another tract of 850 acres sold for $900,000 before a sinele 
hole was drilled. Cities grew to 10,000 in a short time where naught but nine 
or scrub oaks stood before, of the 120,000.000 barrels of oil produced in 1904 
the southwest fields supplied over half. Oil derricks mark tSe belt from the 
Mississippi clear into the foaming waters of the Pacific in Southern Cahf^rnfa 
The Osage is m this belt and there are fine prospects that her nearly 30 S 
benSh" Th '"'"':' "^"^ ""'"^^""^ ""' "'^"^^ ^^^« "-'^ h-r stores Of minerl 

Many of the allied families have become wealthv bv farming a„/i . , 
raising, making thousands of dollars from these sources Lside^Th^/ f ^ 
payments and annuities. Even the full-bloods of the S^stthrTftfcla.T'h''''' 

= r^^dS sz tTeTarof-o nT^rf tF " ^^ ^^^^'^^^^^<^^ 
sj^r^s -rtni5£~^^ -^^ 

streams leading into It But affovi h. ,^ "^ '^.' Arkansas Valley and the 
proved farms. T>,:r:\mTlirm:c^r.7!iZe"t\ZX""'' ''"" '"- 
those having a right, numbering about SohesldH MO, rTnr/""''' ""^ "' 
poorer lands, much ot It belne- hlllv «r,rt ^t ^, . ™° '^"" «'>"='■ »' 

many states 'that are considered dne agricultural sSl^'l'" "L""'^"-' '"^ 
West^Vlrglnla, Tennessee, Ar.ansi,To'rerMiru^l!Tor?h "^^1^0 

hrourhr-uS„^::Sre::"i:fhi' fhts^e^s^ri^ir-t :^r?ortr"-„""' "^ 
■.he.rrS:iVat°L!t r;; ^^^i:^^^ .?m\r£of ^^ "«« "°- '- 

60 per cent prairie; and only 100 000 acres Tr^nnw ^ "" f"^ ^'" ^^"^^> "^^ 
age by the Osages themselves leavt^ri 370 o?.TJ"^''/"'"^^"°" or pastur- 
grazing purposes." The acrea^f^ in w ' I ' /^ ^^^^^^ *° ^^'^^ ranchmen for 
near enough for practical purposes " ^'^'-^-^^s is only approximate, but 

fortu?es%^nran7s i::ser?org^:r;Th: Z^ '^' "^^- ^-« --^e -all 
enabling stock to live on native grasses blT.t! ^"^,"^°«"y ^'^^ and short, 
mostly grow in abundance inordinary ^eason^^^ ^^^^««es, which 

of hay by only leaving part of theind unpTowed ^'"^"'^ '^" ^"^ P^««ty 

97 



•the HARLOAV lilVERY AND BOARDING BARN — SlilATOOK 

John Harlow, Proprietor. 

Mr. Harlow was formely in Texas bbut has been in the Osage about 
17 years, as a successful farmer and stockman, till he went into business 
in Skiatook, conduucting the only livery in town, where he has built a 
beautiful cottage home. He married Miss Fine Jim, one of the best types 
of part Osage lady, a half sister of Mrs. John Daniel, who is equally as 
comely, and lives next door in a like model of a cottage home. Mr. and 
Mrs. Harlow have one bright child, the pride of both. Their fine farm is 
located on Bull Creek, about 16 miles from town. He is a congenial, ac- 
commodating, energetic business young man, and good c/tizen. Mr. John 
Daniel, a brother-in-law, and also a leading citizen farmer and stockman, 
is a native of the Sunflower state but has been in the Osage about the 
same time as Mr. Harlow. He married in 1892 Miss Sophia Perrier, of a 
prominent French-citizen family, mentioned in treaties. They have four 
fine specimens of children and some excellent farm lands on Delaware 
cheek. The failure of artist to send views prevents cuts of these homes 
appearing herein. These men will add much to the prosperity of Skiatook, 
which they have chosen for their home. 




" xAvr.„e, Sweet Home" of Richard Tiiilier and His Wife. 

Richard Tinker, whose first home after his marriage is shown in this 
unique picture is a son of Frank Tinker, of Pawhuska. He is a young man 
of more than ordinary native ability. He married Miss Minnie Voila Spy- 
buck, a young lady of the Delawares. He was schooled at St. John's Cath- 
olic school near Gray Horse. She was educated in the Friends School, or 
Skiatook Mission. She is a model little housekeeper, and their cozy little 
home is kept like a parlor. She is a high and cultured type of her race. 
They have lived here since their marriage, January 27, 19o3. In the fore- 
ground of this antique government-built log house, is a historical well 
with its triangular poles for the well bucket. And in the bttckground is one 
of the finest of orchards of apples, peaches, pears, and cherries of large 
size. This is one of the most fertile farms in Bird Creek Valley, and Mr. 
Tinker will soon build a fine home. His wife's parents, Henry and Mary 
Spybuck, were French, Delaware and Shawnee by descent. These two young- 
people are happy in their first home, which formerly beloaged to Mrs. Ad- 
line Mosier, his grandmother, who gave it to him, as a wedding gift. She 
is one of the most typical and honored old ladies ainon^ the Osage, and 
spends some of her time, with Richard and her daughter, Mrs. Ed Fox. 

98 



Besides the pasture leases which cover most all untilled land, there are 
mineral leases, ocvering the same lands thus giving a double income from all 
the lands so leased. One much discussed lease was granted by Hoke Smith, 
March, 1896, while secretary of the Interior, to Ed, B. Foster, of New York, 
covering the entire reservation. For this he was to pay the Osages a royalty 
of 10 per cent of all oil produced and $50 pearly for each gas well utilized. 
Though a valuable lease, Foster did nothing with it for nearly five years. But 
in 1900 began to sublet it to practical oil developers who soon raised the Osage 
royalty to about $150,000 a year, till E. B. Foster died, and his son, F. B. Foster 
assigned the entire lease to the ndian Territory Illuminating Oil and Gas Co., 
who paid him from 16 to 17 per cent royalty; leaving him a net profit of 6 or 7 
per cent, after paying the Osage 10 per cent. He made from $50,000 to $100,000 
each year. Their lease expires March, 1906, but the lessees declining to renew 
it, besieged congress to pass a bill by which they get an extension for ten years 
longer, and the president to fix the terms, who after investigation issued orders 
for the company to pay one-eighth of the value of all oil produced and $100 per 
annum for each gas well in use— an increase of 2y2 per cent royalty and $50 
more for each gas well. Add to these the moneys coming in from railroad 
right of kays, the town-lot sales an dother franchises, and the reader can easi- 
ly see how immensely rich per capita these people are becoming. Besides the 
common fund, the "more intelligent ones" have hundreds, some thousands of 
dollars annual income from their farms, leased to white men, while others 
make still more by cultivating their own selected and improved lands. One 
cultured lady, Mrs. awrence, who owns a beautiful farm some 20 miles west 
of Pawhuska, related that she had received as high as $1,200 cash rent one year 
and many others do as well, hence no danger of ever suffering. 

Through development how different the full-blood income now from a few 
yeai's ago when their lands were leased as low as from 3 to 20 cents per acre, 
and later from 25 to 61 cents, for the best. Scarcely one-fourth of all the tilla- 
ble land is under cultivation. All the arable land well cultivated would bring 
in from $10 to $50 per acre, thus marvelously increasing the allottees' income. 
Hence the full-bloods have much to gain and nothing' to lose by allotiiig their 
lands, which should be done at once.. If the allotment bill when passed, con- 
tains a provision that all shall share in the mineral wealth for 21 or 25 years, 
as the first bill passed in the house, but defeated in the senate, last congress 
provided, then no one need fear being worsted from this proviso unless the 
nation as a whole should get far too little royalty to justify alien or corporation 
leases, which may be true or not according to the quality and quantity of min- 
eral found. At any rate, Bigheart's "most intelligent ones" are the only par- 
ties gaining by the present condition of undivided lands. And in many in- 
stances even they may lose through the death of one who has improved lands 
which the less "intelligent" ones may gain by alloting. But this evil is small 
in comparison with the unsettled condition of the people, becaus eof a commun- 
ity of possession. The former classes improve and increase in wealth and num- 
bers, the latter decrease in numbers and increase in poverty ultimately by pro- 
digality, leisure and inveterate gambling for which many full-bloods are noted. 
Many of them and some part-bloods, assemble in crowds in their homes, or 
tents as the case may be including the women, and gamble for days and nights 
with cards or in other ways, after each payment. They stake small sums of 
five and ten cents, generally, but keep at it till all is lost or won. The writer 
has seen squals sitting on the fioor or ground in Indian villages with piles of 
nickels or dimes In purses or laps, the smaller sums, seeming to be preferred 
because of the more time or games they afford for play. 

The alloting of the land to the Indians and the future exchange of their 
tribal government to that of a state, will eventually bury the coveted tradi- 
tional history of the Osage and finally extinguish the full-bloou ►ace. This is 
the Idea that one of the oldest citizens expresses. It indicates with what ador- 
ation and unyielding tenacity the Indian races hold on to their old habits and 
traditions of life and fear extermination by the advance of the white race. But 
the higher the development of civil, and social life, the less danger of the extic- 
tion of the primitive race. They are only engrafted by the intellectually domi- 
nant progressive races. 

The publisher would reprint the entire bill introduced last session of con- 
gress, but that can be gotten from congressional records. As it did not pass 
the senate an outline is all sufficient 1 nthis brief treatise. It provides that 

99 




100 



each duly enrolled member of the Osage Reservation, Oklahoma, should be 
permitted to select a homestead of 160 acres, and that the remaining lands (ex- 
cept certam tracts reserved for the common use of the Indians, for townsite and 
school purposes) should be alloted equally to members of the tribe by a com- 
mission to be appointed in accordance with the provisions of the bill. Doubt- 
less a similar bill will soon be introduced in the present congress, and the In- 
dian office does not know of any strong preasure against it. 

Perhaps the greatest objection that might be raised to that bill was the 
provision that the allotments of all these people should be inalienable for 
^0 years, which should apply only to those clearly incapable of conducting 
their own business to the good ofth emselves and posterity. There are a thou- 
sand citizens and many full-bloods among the Osage that are as capable o'f 
caring for their own interests as the senators and congressmen from the states 
making such provisions as concerns them entirely unnecessary, and should have 
ail the rights of free action accorded every other American citizen. But from 
another important principle this is a wise provision; for every poor man might 
wisely be given at least cost to the government some space of land, however 
small, to have and hold as a homestead inalienable, for himself and family 
and be required to keep the same till exchanged for some other spot for like 
purpose. But these people are not poor, literally, and no prospect of ever be- 
ing poor so long as "Uncle Sam" holds the less intelligent ones shares in money 
and pays them 5 per cent interest quarterly. "The intelligent ones" can use 
P„ 'L"'""^^ "^'"^ ^'■^''^'^'' increase than 5 per cent. And in the words of Mr. 
r>,J;fo . '"''^"'^ *° ^^ "° ''''''®°" "^'^y the U.nd should not be divided and 

the reservation opened to settlement. It is rapidly increasing in value; so that 
when It is .sold the wealth of the tribe will be enormously increased. Reserv- 
nf.i nf Tni J." !^ "'''"• '™'"''" ^'•"^ ^^"'S an allotment of 160 acres, or a 

In.L P tfl^^T ^'''' *^^ ^""^^ t"''^' 1-166-000 a^'-PS will remain to be dis- 
nnrf a/;- !^'^^ """^ """ average of $25 an acre the proceeds will be $25,150,- 
000 Adding this to the $8,372,427 now to the credit of the Osages in the United 

$20 000 IT'^'Z '""^V"^^ '^■'" ''^^'^ ^ *^*^' "f $37..522,427, an average of nearly 
$20,000 for each member of the tribe, which would bear an income of the tribe 

Tnowi/^' L "■ '''" '"''""'^ °^ "•'^"'^ '^°''« °^ '^^^' according to the interest 
rncome of'i^ on^o f ''^™"^^"t- ^hus a family of five would have a permanent 
wnrM u r.'''' ''"'^ "" ^^'■"^ '^^ S"^ ''^^^^^- There is no community in the 

IZufZ "^ •''•' f- ''"'^ "° rnomber of the tribe will ever be compelled to 
nnmhJ. V '/'"^ ""'^«^ ^e squanders his fortune. By the census of 1904 they 
dern^v.^ •?.' ^' '•''•' """'■''• ""' ^^"^""^ ^''^ ''■'-'^ f"" bl^''^^ ^n<3 the remain- 
qio nTr?.,"^ ^ ^^'^^^'' ^^^ '''"' "^^" ^"-^ 949 are women of all ages, and 

eaual H^M^rf^" are under 18 years of age. The mixed and full-bloods have 
2ZJ the tribal property and will participate in the distribution when- 

ever it occurs, with the following strange exceptions- 

With all this wealth there there is a law or ruling for some years past 
dLscrlminating agninst the children of white men married to Osage women 
^1. tJJ" ^^"^^"''^"t''- The writer has not traced this ruling to its origin ex- 
^t \n^ report of others. It seems that the first .ct governing the rights 
^fn,';^ n n ? "• ""■ '"heritance among some Indian tribes, perhaps, the 
low th/r r^ ''• T''"' r'"'^'^ '" ^^^"^ declaring that the child's rights would fol- 
Z^ I^ !f Z^.,^""*''^'" ^^* '" ^^^^' ^""^truing or amending the act of 1887, 
decreed that children born of white fathers prior to that was to follow the 
Z i^Z' ^". ""^^ ""^ provisions for the lineal rights of those born subsequent 
IVnll ^^ r ^?'' 'T^ '■^'''•'°" *^°'^ ^^t-''- «^^t intended to meet conditions 
nTZV\7 T"''^^"^ have been applied to the Osages without tribal enactment 
or so icitatlon to enforce such a construction. Many of the children of white 
Th?fl?^^^T'I i ''/i°',*'' ^^^^- ^'""^ ^°'' "''"^'^ t'"^« excluded from sharing in 
heir ier /n"n"f.'' I ^^-ll^^' '°"'"'* "'^^ ^^^'" P'^^^'^ upon the rolls and draw 
their per capita share. Their fathers, however, have no personal rights in such 

motherf n7o "* "',• '^'"^ '°'' '^^ ^^^^'"^ ^"^^ ^°«^ ^' ^'^ children, born of 
sTnce th.t^?rf 'Tv, '^^'''" ''°'" ^' ^^^^^ "^°th«^^ ^^^ to ^hite men 
r/.Jnf . ^''''^ "''^^'"^ ^''"^P*- ^^^ *^ ^^'^> ^he be a full-blood, though 

Hg^trdraw and"ali:r "^"'^^^ ^"^ ''^' ^^^^^ ^' ^^^ ^^^^ ^"'^-^ '- 

a veJv un1u^.t onp 'T*™'."?" ^",^ enforcement of any law, it is prima facie, 
a very unjust one. It partakes of medieval and ancient customs or inherlt- 

101 



Mr. Geo. Bradshaw. 

Mr. Geo. Bradshaw, one of the most prosperous farmers in the Osage 
was formerly from Michigan, but lived in Kansas for some years before 
settling in the Osage country, about 1890. He married into one of the 
most prominent families of the Osage citizens. Mrs. Bradshaw was the 
daughter of Thos. Mosier, the national interpreter at Pawhuska. They 
were married in the old Catholic church, when it stood west of Bird Creek, 
in Pawhuska. They have seven fine children, and have selected a most 
excellent allotment for each of them, three boys and four girls, from one to 
thirteen years of age. Her mother, Mrs. Mosier, is Osage by adoption into 
the tribe. She was Miss Adline Perrier, of French lineage. Thomas Mc- 
sier, her husband, was only one-eighth Osage. Mr. Bradshaw has his allot- 
ment near Skiatook, and on Hominy creek. He has lately built a beautiful 
residence on his wife's allotment, four miles north of Skiatook, a cut of 
which appears on another page. The rear of the house is one of the old 
government hewn log houses, which still stand all over the Osage country. 
This home stands near the Midland Valley tracks, and ts surrounded by 
a most fertile farm, well improved with orchards, barns, etc. This is a 
most excellent, hospitable family. Mr. Bradshaw is a brother of Will, of 
Pawhuska, and is one of the best farmers and stockmen of the Osage, an 
energetic business man, and a devoted husband and father, feeling great 
pride in his rosy children. 



Beautiful Skiatook Home. 




Jno. Javine's Beautiful Home. 

Mr. Javine, the subject of this sketch 
is only part Osage, the nephew of Mrs. 
Adeline Mosier. He grew up among 
the Osage but has traveled extensively 
in the west. He has been a successful 
farmer and stockman for some years 



owning an excellent farm about 2% 
miles west of Skiatook with a fine two 
story house and large orchard which 
alone yields a profit of over $500 per 
year. It is claimed that this orchard 
produces the finest apples and peach- 
es in the Osage. His home in Sky- 
took is one of the most elegant in town. 
He was in the meat market business 
but has close dout in order to give 
more of attention to his ranch. He 
first married Miss Emma Haynle in 
1886 who was the mother of five child- 
ren, three girls and two boys, after 
the death of his first wife he married 
Mrs. Ollle McCoskey who died in 1903, 
without any children by her last mar- 
riage but one by her first husband. 
Miss May who wed Mr. James Long. 
They still make their home with her 
step father, Mr. Jovine, who is of one 
of the leading families of the Osafge 
and one of their best citizens. 



GRAY HORSE. 

This village, and trading point was named after an Indian. It was 
once an important point with some large stores doing a prosperous business 
in the midst of a fine agricultutral and grazing country, adorned with large 
dwellings. But with the coming of the iron horse to facilitate commerce 
and travel Gray Horse almost bodily moved to the new towns upon the 
railroads, even taking their store and cottage buildings to Fairfax, leaving 
Mr. John Florer with his store and beautiful cottage home. 

To hold this once commercial stronghold. He is one of the oldest In- 
dian traders among the Osage, living among them for nearly half a century, 
and most familiar with their history and life. From a short meeting Mr. 
Florer is a most energetic, successful business man and a congenial gentle- 
man who will long hold the big trade he still enjoys, and keep alive the 
sacred memories of the former glowing dreams of Gray Horse. 



102 



ance in which woman was considerel a little above the slave, with no rights of 
inheritance for herself or children, except through her lord. All of equal degree 
of Osage ancestry should share equally in their common funds, especially so 
when they are resources of God-created wealth, not made by ancestral skill 
and labor. The ancestry on the mothers side is always absolute and certain. 
It cannot be equallly certain of the father's side. Hence the greater injustice 
of disinheriting the child of any degree of Osage mother. Here lies the possi- 
bihty of a plume in some one legal cap before allotment. It should be changed. 
Nor has the writer heard one Osage or citizen claim justice for the law or rul- 
ing: but many expressions against it. In the provisions lately drawn up, Feb. 
6, 1906, by a committee composed of the Chief, O-lo-ho-wal-la (*), and Asistant 
Chief Bacon Rind (*), and Jas. Bigheart (*), Ne-kah-wah-she-tan-kah, Black 
Dog (*), W. T. Mosier, Frank Corndropper (*), C. N. Prudom (*), W. T. Leahy 
(*), Peter Bigheart, J. F. Palmer, and Tow-ah-hee, selected by chief to draft 
allotment resolutions unanimously adopted, 9 articles of which, the ninth con- 
tains this bighearted clause. That provision be made for the enrollment of the 
children of white fathers the issue of marriage, contracted since June 7, 1897, 
provided, their mothers are entitled to enrollment. "This is a noble and just 
provision that should prevail, and shows honor to many of the best mothers of 
the Osage people. The above men, (*), and O-lah-hah-moi. Min-ke-wah-ti-an- 
he. and Moh-e-kah-moi, composed the delegation of ten invited to Washington 
by letter from the Indian Commissioner, to look after the Osage interests and 
prospective allotment bill. It will neither keep an honorable, aspiring man 
from wedding an Osage girl or lady, for he marries for natural affinity and 
love. Nor will it deter a dishonorable man, and mere money seeker from so 
doing, as her share would be inducement enough, if she were indiscriminate 
enough to receive the offered hand, not heart, of such a man. Some of the 
best educated full-bloods, or even the least cultured might be far too good for 
such a one. A news paper reporting says: "Two views of Indians." A former 
agent describes the Osage as "a mild mannered, good humored, contented sort 
of a fellow, with an appetite for something good to eat and plenty of it. He 
has a good opinion of himself and is ever jealous of his honor and integri- 
ty. The mixed bloods predominate and some of them are shrewd and prc>- 
gressive: but like many of their red brothers, the appetite of some of the 
Osages for liquor is insatiable. Still. T do not believe that there Is any moi-e 
liouor drinking amone: them than there is among other residents of the 
T'nited States, takinsr the population throuehout." 

Others not so charitable to the men as the women also say: "Every- 
body speaks well of the women, as beine honest, industrious, modest and 
intelligent; and with a little training they make excellent housewives. 
Rut the men. as a rule, are lazy, drunken, stupid loafers, who are found of 
sport but hate work, and prefer to hire white and negro laborers to culi- 
tivate their farms, as they are perfectly able to do." 

We do not think the last view as true as the first. Yet more cor- 
rect perhaps of the women than the men. For the Osage women are 
widely praised for virtue, and their descendants, also, where not too much 
possessed of the modern ideas of society life. "Uncle Joseph Revard," 
a noble old gentleman, is authority for the statement that only one Osage 
girl was ever known to become a mother out of wedlock, and only one 
other was ever known to lead a life of public infamy, and she was ban- 
ished from camp and her food carried to her at a distance, too con- 
taminated to live in contact with other females. And men of that charac- 
ter were treated with greater severity before the days of their more liberal 
civilization. In their catalogue of sins the one most punished for disobe- 
dience against the Great Spirit was adultry on the part of the male who 
was administered 100 lashes. The public female was ostracised from 
camp and association with the virtuous of her sex, and the men known 
to associate with her received severe punishment. From time immemorial 
among them a man using force with a virtuous woman was punished by 
100 lashes, equal to a death sentence. WTiat effect would a public whiping 
post have on our modern, highly civilized society with her thousands 
of divorces primarily from such causes, and thousands of others from 
the curse of drunkenness, and frivolous prodigality, but only a few from 
natural incompatibility. The law of force is seldom applicable among the 
whites under present social conditions; only once in a while to negro 
brutes. 

103 



OSAGE NATURAIi RESOURCES — RAINFAIily, SOIL PRODUCTS, ETC. 

Years ago when "Uncle Sam" was casting his eyes southwestward to 
find some last ideal section for the hunting an dcampin^ frounds for the 
Osage people, who had sucessively surrendered by treaty their plains and 
forests to the westward sweep of the Cauucasian treks, or trail, he rest- 
ed his vigilant eyes upon forest covered hills and valleys, intersperced with 
fertile prairies than which none could be more ideal for tlie osage hunt- 
ers, then teeming with fish and wild game, a land once his own, but lost by 
Cherokee removal and conquest. But in peace it is bought back for the 
last earthly home of the once strong, stalwart tribe. To this they come 
to abide and make their final allotments. It is a land fair to look upon, 
fairer in nature, perhaps than in gold, but destined to be productive of the 
finest race of the Twentieth Century. It requires more tnan gold and 
grain to make men and women. Sunshine, pure air, pure sparkling wat- 
ers, varied vegetation, and above all the glorious beauties of God's art 
galleries, of hills and hollows, rugged rocks and rushing, rollicking roar- 
ing rills, receding slopes, with fertile valleys lying between, make men, eral 
men. Gold alone might contract the soul, destroy, mayhaps, the mind 
and body, but nature's wealth, never. 

No country, nor people, were ever more wealthy, naturally ana finan- 
cially, per capita, than the citizens of the Osage Nation, if rightly edu- 
cated. But their greatest riches are manifest in the ebautiful broad, fer- 
tile prairies, extensive hard and soft wood forests, many meandering 
streams and rivers, beds of coal, stone and the discoveries of lead, iron, 
zinc, silver and gold, and the rapid development of seemingly inexhaustible 
voluumes of oil and gas for market, manufacturing and fuel, make it one 
of the most promising sections in thef uture state of Oklahoma. 

How sublimely the Great Father of the Pale and Ruddy races has 
made this spot for the abode of his children. The Paradise of a romantic 
love dreamer could scarcely improve upon the territory. The ancient Par- 
adise was but a lovely scene of trees, flowers, fruits and castles. And here 
many beautiful trees have been reared by creative hand and thrifty man is 
planting flowers and fruits. This section of the country has proven its 
adaptability to all kinds of the finest fruits and vegetables, which could 
scarcely be excelled by the products of southern Illinois, southern Missouri, 
and northern Arkansas — the sections that have taken the premiums for 
the best large and small fruits. Unlimited wealth lies in the soil of this 
section of the territory, for fruit growers and gardeners. Even the 
roughest hilly land will grow the most perfect fruits. Irish potatoes 
grow 200 bushels per acre on good land, and two crops a year, but are 
not easily kept because of rapid growth and heat in the ground. But 
sweet potatoes were never exceeded in size, quality and quantity. Water 
melons and cantaloupes and all kinds of vine products were never excelled 
by those of any section. Peanuts and tobacco grow as well or better 
than in Virginia and North Carolina. Grapes of which there are already 
fine vineyards, and peaches, pears, apricots, plums of every variety, and 
apples grow to perfection, with few failures. In fact all that grows in 
America except tropical fruits and products, grow here in perfection. 
Strawberries and all other shall fruits can be grown as well as in the 
small fruit or berry sections of Missouri and Arkansas; and cotton and 
corn together with fruits and vegetables, will be the future sources of 
wealth here, and upon the development of the country depends the sup- 
port of the town. This part of the territory is conceded to be one of the 
finest farming regions and yields the largest average in grain products. 
As high as 100 bushels of corn per acre have, it is claimed, been gathered 
from one acre of the best creek bottoms, and good land averages from 40 
to 60 bushels per acre. Wheat yields as high as 50 bushels, with an 
average ranging from 10 to 30 per acre. Oats average from 50 to 60 and 
sometimes 100 bushels per acre, an other cereals as well. Cotton grows 
to perfection and matures a fine quality of the long-fibre staple, even 
during the driest seasons, as cotton is considered a dry weather plant. A 
good yield produces from one half to one and one-half bales per acre, and 
sells at 2 and 3 cents in the seed and from 6 to 12 cents per pound in the 
lint, or $30 or $40 per acre. This section of the territory produces more 
corn and cotton than any other products, because they grow easily and 
bring in more money to the farmer than other farm products. 

A local paper in Oklahoma reports that Frank Kirk of Enid, O. T., 
mowed nine cuttings of Alfalfa from one 35 acre field and that the ninth 
crop was as good as the first and of fine quality. Ten acres averaging 
one and one-half tons per acre for each mowing produces 135 tons of 
alfalfa in one season, bringing $8 per ton, brough $1,080, over $125 

.104 



per acre. It was done by his experiment of disk Iiarrowing- after each 
cutting, something after the Campbell system of waterlelss irrigation. 
Without authenticating the above figures the writer can state that the 
Osage is one of the best natural sections for alfalfa in America. Fine 
fields are now growing in this reservation. Many other products rightly 
cultivated will net as profitable results. How many men live and die upon 
their farms never knowing the undeveloped wealth in the soil, the main 
source of all wealth. 

All the agricultural products culti%rated between the Great Lakes 
and the Gulf, from Maine to California, can be grown here with profit. 
The climate is a pleasant moderation between the extreme heat of sum- 
mer to the south and the rigid cold of the north. Along the wood lined 
streams are some excellent sites for summer cottages and the sanitariums 
for health seekers. 

Some who are not well versed with the climatic conditions of the 
territories entertain some fear of sufficient rainfall. But there is less 
anxiety about the rainfall here than in many parts of the territories. A 
few figures may be of much value to those contemplating homes or 
investments. There are abundant rains. It is a well settled scientific fact 
that where there are many streams of water there is a greater pre- 
cipitation of moisture than in sections where few streams flow. And 
it seems a divine decree for rain to follow the plow and hoe, as the agri- 
culturist westward wends his way. 

The average temperature of the two territories since the opening oi 
Oklahoma was 62.0 degrees in 1896, and the lowest 59.0 in 1892 and 1895. 
The mean temperature of the winter season is about 37 and for autumn 
and spring about 61. The highest degree of heat, 144 degrees, August 5th 
at Mangum, O. T., and the lowest degree of cold about 10 to 15 below 
zero at Ft. Reno, January 27. The greatest annual precipitation was 
40.56 inches in 1902, and the lowest 22.78 inches in 1901. South Mc- 
Alester, I. T., received the heaviest precipitation, 53.20 inches, and Jef- 
ferson, O. T., the least, 27.82. The abundant timberof tne Osage Nation 
also causes a heavier rainfall. The above figures do not include the heavy 
rains, cold and heat of the last year which might modify them slightly. 

O 

(Capital) THE SKIATOOK BAJVK. ($10,000.) 

\V. C. Rogers, President; Li. Appleby, Vice-Pi-esident; C, R. Cleveland, Cash. 

The officers and stockholders of this banking institution are so well 
known to the people of the lacality in which they live and transact business 
ei-s, the president, is one of the finest specimens of Indian statesmen, and Is 
that it seems hardly worth the space to make any introductory remarks 
in presenting them to the readers of this brief piece of history. W. C. Rog- 
destined to go down in history as the last of the famous red warriors that 
held a place of trust and honor with his people, to whom he has always 
been strictly loyal and whose rights and interests he is now guiding and 
guarding as sacredly as if they were the Golden Calf of old. Mr. Rogers is 
accomplishing as a statesman what his forefathers failed to maintain with 
cheir rud weapons of warfare and agriculture — providing for each and ev- 
,^ry one of his fellow citizens a good home and living in their declining 
days, in acting as administrator, to a certain extent, for his people, who 
pace implicit confidence in him. Mr. Lou Appleby, the first to be elected 
vice-president, although having passed away from the world, still lives in 
the minds of his friends, which means everybody, as he had no enemies. 
C U. Cleveland, is well known throughout the two territories as a repre- 
sentative of two of the largest manufacturing plants in the United States, 
viz: The McCormack Harvesting Machine Co., and the J. I. Case Thresh- 
ing Machine Co., having acted as collector and credit man for both the 
above firms for several years, at different times. Mr. Geo. M. Janeway, 
the ever-courteous and genteel assistant cashier, received his first and early 
education in the windy state, and later attended the popular college at Still- 
water, Oklahoma, graduating in 1902. He then took chaige of the chemi- 
cal department as one of the faculty, but later resigned to accept a place 
in the National Bank of Commerce, Stillwater, resigned his position there 
for one with the Mangum National bank of Mangum; agaiin from there to 
the Bank of Eldorado, and lastly casting his lot with the early business 
men of Skiatook, I. T., which place he now claims his home. Clifton George 
and C. W. Brown, each of whom are directors, are well known through- 
out the banking fraternity in the southwest, having been in the banking 
business for many years. This bank was organized December 15, 1904, 
and opened its doors for business January 26, 1905, since wnen it has done 
a fairly nice business, and fully enjoys the full confidence and support of 
the leading farmers and business men of the commuuity in which it trans- 
acts business. 

106 



CLIMATE EAND HEALTHFULNESS OF THE OSAGE COUNTRY. 

T,nr>. J^!f ^""'^^^ Should be a guarantee that this section is a healthful 
^w f^ ^ prudent and wise liver. But we would hav, no one imagine 
Lf.t-^^ country IS a perfect life insurance against disease and the de- 
teriating eflects of sanitary carelessness and of old age. Plenty of busv 
pure air and clear, pure cold water and fine medical skill is' the best 
she has to offer you along this line. If you wish better God's perfect 
moral, spiritual laws, and life insurance men are as kind here as any- 
where you may go. Men may not gain herculean frame nor women find 
ehxir of unfading, perpetual youth and beauty, unless they rightly use 

^L'tf^^^r.^^r.^'^^.J''''''^/ ^^""^ "'^^« t^^-^*^ idolized fortunes. Yet it Is 
man s fault that these do not exist anywhere and everywhere 

The Osage country with central location, fine drainage, slightly sandy 
soil with a good clay subsoil, and mostly soft water so bountiful at a mod- 
erate depth, makes the Osage a sanitarium for all who will observe na- 
h^ ^tifr%f T tl"^ the human anatomy. You sometimes near it said in 
the states that this section of the territtory is not healthful. But tak- 
ing all climatic conditions that go to make the race healthful, viz: rolling 
fr,ms L^ ^ifnv! ''"'^^^'^^ P'i^e air and plenty of it. good water, excellent 
fruits and rich and varied flowers, this part of the territory will produce 
for the wise man or woman, as rosy cheeks, as bright eyp«. and as vigorous 
physique as the mountains of Colorado and New Mexi'-c". or the sunny trop- 
ical climes of Italy and the mountains of Switzerland. You need have no 
fZ^Z. T ^"""^ 1°^''. ''^^^^^ ^^''^ '^ y°" ^^^'e learned that health and 
^r.t.J i^"""! ''".'^ ^°^^ ^''^ ^"^ ^^® ^^^t products of nature rightly ven- 
erated. The territory has not yet discovered the spring of perpetual youtn, 
spnH^c^t^ ,!° /"''^ ^'l diseases away, but it is among the most sanitary 
sections to be found But if you should get sick after coming to the Osage 
she has skilled doctors, some of whom are from the best medical schoors 
°L- I '^°""^^' ^""^ several dentists to pull out, fill in, or make vou new 
grinders (Ecc. 12 chap.) So however ailing you may be you need have 
Tv \^ .,° ciming here to live. And if you have worn out your body in 
the hu-stling business or disipations of life and concluded you must die here 
you will find as beautiful a place to retire and lie down to rest as any spot 
in the world for the government cemetery is a naturally beautiful twenty 
acre park. And should the inevitable come to you here it would be a most 
beautiful place to rise in the resurrection; and many here feel like the 
patriotic American, taken by a loyal Italian to see the beauty and great- 
ness of the Mediterrean Sea. "Oh," said the American, "we could 
dump the Rocky Mountains into thiis and fill it up in a jiffy " He 
was next taken to look down the burning throat of Aetna. "Uh " replied 
the Patriot,^ "we could turn the Mississippi into this hole and put it out be- 
rore night. Al last he was asked to come to a delectable mountain to see 
vll^'f^-''" .S ■^""j;',!^ equal to the resurrection morning. On arriving and 
beholding the sublime scene he exclaimed: "The resurrection morn' the 
resurrectiion morn! Hurrah for the resurrecton morning! and young 
America is first in the field." Such is the feeling and pride of many in this 
reservation. While it is the last to be allotted and opened to general de- 
velopment on an individual possession basis, it may soon be the first n 
commercial civil, educational, social, and Christian progress. Many of 
tw f^°^^ here look forward to wonderful progress and development when 
the land is alloted, and much of it sold; and have good cause to be elated 
over the great state of Oklahoma and the Osage country 



( Syrup) SORGHUM FACTORY ( Sweets. ) 

Mr. C. N Dugger, of the Osage, near Skiatook, is the first man that 
^Til^'^n'' ^Vi' sorghum making plant and evaporator in the Osage country 
He IS from the coast country of Texas.where he manufactured the famous 
syrup- from the ribbon cane. His plant is located two miles from Scia! 
fine'^st "^ulmv 'from'^tbrVT'"' many barrels of the best sorghum of the 

thifcountrv He^e w.V^^^ ^"'^ S^''"^ ^^'""^ ^^"^^ to perfection in 
mis country. He is here to stay, and will enlarge his mill to suddIv all 

in '^T^'"'^^- The cane produces from 120 to 160 gallons per acre and 
sells at 50 cents a gallon at the mill or 6 cents canned for market ma k 
mL^^ °^ '^' ™°'* profitable farm products as it ?s easHy c^lthated and 
made up. He can evaporate from 60 to 7 5 gallons per dav tI^i-.^ i^ 
money for the fanner for little work. g^i^ons per ctay. Heie is 

106 



cjklatook is located right on the border between the Cherokee and 
n<,a^P countriel 35 miles by the Midland Valley railway, southeast from 
?awhuska rigM dow^ the Bird Creek Valley, down which the road runs 
from Pa^huska to Skiatook, where the creek wends its way eastward and 
f^PraTlwIv south to Tulsa The town is beautifully located in one of the 
most St^Te dark soil plains, and valleys, in the two territories, with 
Srd Creek east and prairie stretching two miles "O^thwest and many 
mnes Southwest 'to Hominy Creek Valley. It is an f^l^l^'^^l^,^^'/,^^. 
inland town The best water is secured m the town and all over tne vai 
ev at alhort depth beneath the surface. There is a fine volume of p-ure 
Sing wate? flowfng out of the hillside about three ^J\%,i'^l^,^''^,,£^l^ 
the town, that could be easily stored in a reservoir and piped to Skiatook 
for a finp water supply, as the population increases. While the townsite 
f^nn ?h^ Cherokle Sid; of the line, the Midland Valley depot being on 
Ihe Osage ^We thi town fs for all commercial purposes an Osage town 
««T^ost of \ts trade will be drawn from fifteen miles west where much 
o? t^fbeft SrmTng%:n!ry of the Osage is .already bemg cultivated and 
when fully developed will sustain a good sized town without any omer 
Sources But gas and oil have been found on all sides and within a few 
mflesSf Skiatook, and in all probabilities stands over these minerals^ The 
Standard Oil Co has struck oil one and one half miles from town and tne 
oil is Piped and pumped to Neodosha. Kansas. Gas is now burning on 
bU C?eek a few miles distant. A rig is being erected by the Prairie Oil 
a^d Gas c'^o. 2 mileTwest of town, and the Boggs Drilling Co., another 
two miles south of town. This whole country from its topography will 
supply both on and gas, and the more hilly districts a good quality of 

^°"\f"Sf c^unt^^'t^errSo'rJughTy'drveloped in agricultural and horti- 
cultural productly^ its prosperity and growth ^o^'\l%^^'^^Jf,,ZTaim 
Xer resources. These products are the P"?^^^^ J^^^f tl,^e luxurie? Jf 
othprs are onlv speculative mediums and add largely to tne luxurieb u^ 
m? Fine fish and game are found everywhere. Excellent heavy timbers 
nre" found on the bottoms along the streams, such as oak, walnut, pecan 
hickory et? and a more scrubby growth for fuel and fencing on the 
S S Good"bufldrng stone are abundant on the hills. All kinds of wild 



fruits and nuts, except tropical, grow here 

PECANS 



The pecan industry of this section of the territory (Skiatook ) is an 
item of considerable commercial importance. In the yaer 1903 over 
4.0^0 buushe!s of pecans were gathered and ^^'lltfJ.f'lT a^^^^J^Zl 
hauled off in wagons. One firm shipped three carloads ot 600 ousneis 
^^X ThPv flo not hit every year, as the late frosts sometimes destroys 
tSe nut mVe blossom. Last year there was about one-third of a crop 
The price ranges from three and one-half cents a pound up for the gatherer 
ani p"?hays double that amount in the market of Kansas City and St. 
louis The groves are most beautiful, the trees being somewhat like a 
walnut or hickory tree, but with smaller, helmet shaped leaves They are 
fine ornamentYand shade trees when allowed to grow in plenty of space. 
The wooers as valuable as hickory, and more so than walnut timber and 
equal ?o or more valuable than persimmon timber of ^J^^^ ^^ere is sa 
far^e a Quantity and equal to bodock and lignum-vatae for tool handles, 
pllnes e^c A iexcept ?he latter grow here voluntarily and most Perfec Uv. 
The persimmon is also a valuable fruit to those who appreciate all fruits 

and north central states, ^^^^ .^f^^^^^^'iJelinick, postmaster at Skiatook, 
jellies. From observation ^^r- ^"„^" 4 „^ of May for some unexplainable 
claims that when it rams on the first day ot may lo g^awberries, 

reason there are very few or no ^vUd fj^apes tnat y^-^^' j^^ botanical 

o»n not be excelled, nor the town location. 




The Coumry Mansion Home «^^r^Antou.e^Ro^ei-s_W,-„ona, O. T. 

Wino^I- ^"aSn^ ^.f7^e oTTh^e °;;.o^s^^'li|£L7\"^ ^^--- --^^^ ^-n^ 
mile south of the station. AveryleiutitT^^L'''^^ "] ^^^ 0-'^^^<^' "^^ 
of his house, which bears the finest fruits a nni'/^ orchard grows just east 
cherries, apricots, pears ^ranP-T hii;^kK ^PP^«^' especially peaches, plums, 
all other kinds of"^ smairfrS grow to^f^ j-^^Pberries gooseberries and 
but grew up in the CheroLee -fnTi,^" Perfection. He is part Osage, 
chief of the Cherokees He fs the son of Ton, •f'^''" ""^ ^- ^- ^""^^'^ 
Judge T. L. Rogers of Pawhuska Hp w v? ^ Rogers, the brother of 
stock raising business fof Tears but ?t nresenf!^ '"'''^^^ engaged in the 
His pastures extend for mili over thl hfff,?-^ ^""'^ ?,"^^ ^P°"t 500 head. 
Wynona, which lies on a pSin bordered bv sub! r^^i T, ""^" ^.^^^"^^ ^'■^^"'i 
covered by low timber, ind for somfniiTes ?o Tb. '^?." *^^ ^^^'' P^^^ly 
most beautiful expanse of fertile r°rTi^iP r,!«i.^-?. ^-^"^^ ''"^ «^^t line a 

road runs the full length of it noi^fh and sou^h "^ ^" '^^^^^ ''*^^'- ^he rail- 
the same spot where he settled Seventeen vp?;« ''■ ^u^^""^ "^^^ "^^t on 
miles ast. on Bird Creek. He married M^"..^^ ^^?;, ^"' "''"* '■^^'^ed 30 
.raised a fine family of six most amilblf =fnH ^^^*^, ^^'"P^^^er, and has 
and one boy, Kenneth. Thev have b^en Idn.t^^^ '"^^''^''^ children, five girls 
Only two daughters are single one darter MlsfML"'/^" best schools, 
business course in a Kansas ritvhLfrT,,' ^^ ^^y- '« now taking a 
30 to 40 bushels of com per a«e He hf« ^°"«^5; , ^r. Rogers grows from 
in the Nation. He has a llrle stoS barn "f °^ ^^^ ^"*^"* improved homes 
ritory. Ten different kinds S ornam en tiVri^ °'^'' "^ ^^^ ^^""^ *" the tei- 
south, right on the line of lailwav Tun,, ,1 T '''^'i™ ^'^ ^^'''^' ^^cing the 
iahoma City. His son is manied and fp« ^"^ Parsons, Kansas to Ok- 
. right west of Wynona Station Mr IrthmRnS ^'^ ^^^"^ ^ "^"^ north, 
a well improved farm west of the ftat^on ITt "" "^ ''^.''■' ^''° °^"^ 
and excellent citizens. Wynona is 8 milll fV^ It V ^^^ensive stockmen 
there is only a small grocery ancrLt^urfnta^/^'''5°"^v,"^""<^"°"' ^^ere 
about 12 miles from Pawhuska and ■^"fif,-. -3 ^^^^'on house at present, 
propriately be called Rogers^'?lle as Mr %T ^""^"^^ ^"^- ^^ might ap- 
and built some businesTdwelling houses w. •n''" ^^* ^P^''^ ^ townsite 
business enterprise that may seek J location hei^ iTY'^f ^ welcome any 
Hominy, 10 miles south, to make an evn^n.^^ff" I '^ ^'^'' enough from 
for miles with the most fertiirfarm an^ f.^ f",* trading point surrounded 
beautiful location for a vi age n the^ Osaie '^"t^^^^^ 'f ""* ^ "^°^« 

general store, since Mr. Rogers closed out his «;«.Jk! ,'^ ^"^^ °"« ^"^^11 
ing of putting in anothe?soon! ^ °°*'' ^""^ *^ ^^*^ ^o be think- 

- . M 



To illustrate how democratic and practical many of the better Osage 
citizens are with their wealth and possibilities, many of like wealth and 
homes in the old states would be most exxclusive and asistocratic in their 
social discriminations; but not so with most of these citizens. It is said that 
a young- man who now lives in a cottage home at Wynona station first 
came to Wynona in charge of a cattle shipment; but possessing only his 
energy, industry and good character as his greatest riches. He started in 
as a railway section employe, taking the first best opening for an income, 
but soon met and won a most amiable, and domestically inclined daughter 
of this excellent family, their attachment being strongly mutual from the 
first meeting; and being set up in house keeping by his generous father- 
in-law the young people are now land lords of many broad fertile acres. 
And many other examples of similar nature can be found all over the 
Osage. It is the man, not the money, that counts with the daughters of 
most Oscage citizens, the right ideal of selection. ' 

HOlVnNY, O. T. 

Hominy is 18 Miles South from Nelogany Junction. 

Which like Nelagony (Ne-water, and -lagony, good; meaning in Osage 
Goodwater) has a suggestive name, derived from a settlement of Indians of, 
or allied with the Cherokee, who are noted for their prevalent custom of 
eating hominy, a usage brought with them from North Carolina and Ten- 
neessee a hundred years ago. Hence the name of Hominy Creek and 
Hominy Post on its south bank, in a primitive forest grove. And new 
Hominy is only an extension south on the beautiful incline. Thus the 
term came from an article of food. In former times the Osage, like many 
other tribes, never used bread, as they had no way to grind corn; nor 
used salt, as they thought salt was not good in food, and only crushed 
their corn or baked it whole like mush and used mostly wild game, of 
which they had a bountiful supply. They had a kind of a potato they 
called Tes-kah, which were found along the streams and low places, and 
the roots of a pond lily they called Cha-wal-lah. Pumpkins, beans and 
Indian corn, and other vegetables they cultivated only with the hoe, as they 
used no other implements at first. Hominy Valley is unexcelled for her 
rich soil and fine farms, for which she is noted. Hominy is located in the 
best section of this valley. Like Wynona, she has a western background 
of bulwark, fortlike hills, and a beautiful border of ribbon like forest, 
skirting the creek banks north and east, the whole making a sublime 
scene viewed from the "Round Top" or Castle Hill west. What has been 
said concerning the fertile soil and its products of grain vegetables and 
truits of every variety except tropical, is equally true of Hominy section. 
Many fine orchards here are bearing or growin. - Many of the best improved 
full blood farms with large dwellings are in this valley. A mile south 
is their village as it seems difficult for them to get out of the habit to band 
together in villages, living only part of the time on their farms. Each 
village has its "Round House" for dancing and council. Four miles north- 
east of town is the pink cottage of the present chief, O-lo-ho-wal-la and 
his wife and daughters, the latter siieaking- English quite well, but the 
chief speaks only Osage, a dignified, and honorable, intelligent full-blood 
Osage family. Through a bright young daughter, as interpreter, the writer 
got his consent to have his home and family photographed for a cut for this 
book, but for some unexplained reason the photographer never took. or sent 
the view, a sore regret. Tlie cliief also commended the industrial, scientific 
and litery college plan of the author and promised to consider the granting 
of a location before the Osage council. The grant of a section of land 
would be but one-third of an acre i>er capita less in the allotment, and one 
acre per capita for the beginnuig of such an institution for their childrei^ 
would be but three sections less for 1,900 allottees. Surely they could no ft 
put each an acre to better use. It need not be all first, but second grade 
land, as the location is more important than the grade of land. Yet the 
best land in the right location would be far more preferable. But if the 
generosity of the Osage people should fail to grant this amount of land 
for such a college site on condition that it be forever inalienable except for 
such school purposes, then the writer would gladly pay the government 
cost price, for a favorable location at $1.25 per acre for the college, as 
mentioned in the introduction. But he fully believes, when rightly under- 
stood, the gratis location will be readily granted, which he guarantees will 
never be regretted by the Osage people. For nowhere in the great world 
of social, civil and commercial life has a model institution ever been es- 
tablished either ancient or modern, to meet the main requirements of all 
classes for the most sucessful life of all; so far as the writer's ideals of 
education and ultimate aim of life has been able to comprehend. There 
are several locations in the reservation that might be good for the institu- 
tion With another main line of railway running east and west through 
Hominy it would be favorable to any large enterprise. She now has a firm- 

109 



ly established bank, four general stores, a drug store, three hotels, two 
liveries, two lumber yards, two restaurants, meat market, a bakery, barber 
shop, groceries a hardware and furniture, telephone system, good water, 
two blacksmith shops and a gin. Much more cotton is grown as you go 
south in the Osage. The Arkansas River Valley grows the finest grade. 
Other lines of business, are perhaps established by this date, as the town 
's rapidly growing. The finest stone block in the Osage is being completed 
from the excellent stone found in abundance near by. A stone school 
building has been erected and subscription school taught (by Prof. Gill and 
vvife, each pupil paying $1.50 per month for about 100 pupils. 

As yet only one church building has been erected here but several 
churches hold services here. Rev. Davies, of the Presbyterian church, di- 
vides his time between this point and Pawhuska. The Holiness people 
have quite a membei'ship here. Hominy has a population of over 400, in- 
telligent, progressive people, ready for any good thing. The townsite will 
be in the next to be surveyed, appraised and sold, Pawhuska coming first. 
Homny will no doubt, be one of the three largest towns in the Osage, as 
she has the resources to sustain its growth when thoroughly developedd. 
On visiting the Osage, you should not fail to see this town and section 
with their large farms, fine homes and business. Gas and oil are being 
found near by and will be a good place to invest or begin any manufac- 
turing business. 



'tf& 






r 



jt-^ii • ^ 



M4l ■ 





(Capital) — FIRST NATTONAL BANK. — ($25,000.) 
Prentiss Pi"ice, Pres.; Fi'ecl Dnuiuiiond, Vice Pi'es.; Howard M. Haner, Cash. 
Other stockli'dr's, K, E. Bird, J. E. Martin, Honuny Trad. Co., A. B. Mahr. 

The First Bank of Hominy was organized December, 1903, and na- 
tionalized September, 1905. This cut shows Hominy's first stone, two-story 
building, 26x60 feet, and cost, with fixtures, $8,500. Mr. Price ,the presi- 
dent, formerly of North Mississippi, came to the Osage 15 years ago as an 
Indian trader and has been doing business ever since in Hominy, where 
he is largely interested in the leading lines of business in tn town and is 
a most excellent young man. 

The vice president is president of the Hominy Trading Company, a full 
sketch of whose life and home is given on other page. Howard M. Maher, 
cashier is a son of the widely known proprietor of the Leland Hotel, Paw- 
huska, and has lived in the Osage country for 18 years. These are all 
young men who have the energy and business sagacity to quickly see a 
thing of merit, and like many other Osage traders, have improved well 
every opportunity which assures the progress of Hominy as well as the 
continued prosperity of their owne enterprise. "Go west, young men!" has 
been well taken in their career as in all other cases of Osage capitalists. 

110 




Old Hominy Post and North Hominy. 

W. R. FELLOWS' LUMBER YARD. 

Dealer in Limiber, Sash and Doors, James Beebe, Manager. 

Mr. Fellows himself lives at Stillwater, and is a member of the Spuirier 
Limiber Co., but conducts in Hominy an individual lumber business tor 
two years having bought out Price and Price. The yard is located opposite 
the Fraley Mercantile Go's.. Store in what was Old Honuny Post Mr^ Bee- 
be is from Stillwater, but formerly from Kansas, and has all the push and 
stability of the "Sunflower State." 




Mr. P. H. HaiTis and A. W. Nash, U. S. Ucensed Tiaders. 

This firm is from the Old Dominion Virginia ^'^th all the frarik con- 
genial aualities characteristic of the people of that state. Mr. Harris came 
fo the Osage fn 1898, from Missouri where he had lived three years. He 
farmed UP to two years ago, when he started the general mercnandise busi- 
nesf in the bloX shown in cut. His partner, Mr. Nash, his uncle, has been 
Tr the territory (Chickasaw) four years. They formed a partnership both 
n business property and merchandise, and are developing a large trade 
Mr H r!s was the third score, in order of beginning in Hommy They 
both hive nice cottage homes in town and do a cash business ^ th a JuU 
line of dry goods and groceries, also cairy a new hne «* Bradley implements 
and deal lafgely in produce, for which they pay the highest price^ They 
are interested in the growth of Hominy, being men woh help to make 
growing cities. 



(Photo by Hargis) 



m 



Mr. Fred Drummond, whose large, beautiful home appears in this cut, 
is a native of Glasg-ow, Scotland, but came to New York when a boy of 
18 years. From there came west to St. Louis, where he waa first engagred 
m the mercantile business, dry goods, for two years. Then he came to 
the Osage and settled in Pawhuska, where he clerked for Jno. R. Skinner 
Indian trader. He continued with that company till he went into business 
under the firm name of "R. E. Bird & Co.," in the present Osage Mercan- 
tile Co. s., building where he remained in business as a partner till 190s 
when he recuperated after his long experience heer, on a farm a yar then 
came to Hominy, where he organized the Hominy Ti-ading Co., ana tj'ought 




. ^ . „ ^ Mr. lYed Di*uinmond's Mansion Home. 

out Price & Price, and became president of the company, and became stock- 
holder in he First National Bank, of which he is vice president aSi is also 
vice presiden of Mullin's Dnig Co. He is a man of great intelligence and 
business ability as shown from the large stone block being erected for the 
Mercantile Company, and the elegant home he has erecfed in the Sortli 
part of Hominy. He married Miss Addie Gentner, of CoffeyvHle Kansas 

fTr thf o 'Z '''^■''T' '''''' ''^^^ ^"^ ^ ^'''- «« sees a"^ bright future 
for the Osage after his long experience here. 

THE MERCHANTS HOTEL— (HOMINY O T ) 

E. H. Carnett, Proprietor. 

Mr. Carnett is a native of Southwestern Kentuckv Perrv ronntx. >.„+ 

class dollar-rate hotels. He expects to conduct the hJuse himself and win 
f-^ , «, ,^- ^- SHAFFNER & GUY BENNETT 

work and repairing, all guaranteed to give satisfaction M? i^nn^.r 
father was also a blacksmith. These men ar^ nnfrf,?! ^- v. , ^f^nett's 
blacksmiths" but good citizens f o^r\te n^w\rwn"and°"'^t?.^^Bra?k1m S^^^^^ 
general, are sober, industrious, valuable men in any communTtv ' 

- ^ - 112 



A MODEKX BURDEN IN DISGUISE 

The author and publisher of this book had his attention called to some 
articles in one of the two local papers of the town. The Pawhuska Capital, 
of which Mr. Chas M. Hill, the son of Rev. E. F. Hill, pastor of the M. 
E. church isi editor, treated the writer like a gentleman, or as he would 
a fellow editor or publisher, for which we feel equal gratitude. All rightly 
edited publications, not dominated entirely by money and politics, are edu- 
cational influences, to which the writer extends a fraternal hand. But 
the articles in the other local sheet were evidently cowardly thrusts at 
him because of the fact that he had been collecting material, historical, 
biographical and commercial for this book. With this exception, the writ- 
er has had the hearty support, or at least gentlemanly indifference of the 
local papers, in his publications of historical booklets on the various sec- 
tions and various peoples of the territories, and has always published such 
pamphlets on definite written stipulations to the people, who with few 
exceptions, extend the most generous support, because the writer trusted 
them instead of asking for trust, on conditions, in which they knew 
there could be no fraud or even misrepresentation, just as in this case. 
He has a too high regard for his honor, education, and reputation and 
usefulness for the future to even attempt cunningry, if it should win him 
all the lands and millions of the Osage country, and a half dozen more like 
it. Who composed those articles not knowing the above facts, stabbed 
through his own disguise, while in blindi7ig ignorance, avarice or jealousy, 
he thrusts at another. He kn<- "^' nothing of the writer's life, ability, work, 
methods nor purpose, and 'herefore entirely inexcusable. But imagining 
that his own occupation \tp>s being infringed upon, his methods repeated, 
he deserves only the reply of Caesar to a traitor: "Et tu Brute!" "Thou, 
too, O Brutus." But were it not for the contemptible spirit, the falsity 
and gall, in casting false reflections on the writer's book and life before 
strangers who might not know better, he could pass over the articles in 
sheer pity for their author, who is uncertain, but they smell of a dirty, 
editorial garret where the responsibility lies. Their whole sum and sub- 
stance was fabricated falsity, except as he had in mind some false print- 
ers or publishers who may have worked such impositions as he had in 
mind one of which will be mentioned later. The book, largely on the 
Osage country, printed .it Ponc" City ten years ago, was from two to four 
times as costly to its subscr'beis as this book, but that was gotten out 
partly by a local newspaper, and for that reason — "well, maybe so" — all 
right. In spite of some f. -les in the business, the "Special Historical Il- 
lustrated books for advertising are becoming more frequent and easier 
to make all the time, for they are the most valuable and effective way if 
done by men of scholarship. All countries and colonization companies 
use them, all live towns and commercial clubs use the special "write up" 
methods, even when faked on the cost by some local office in printing 
them. Even the local newspaper can't advertise without special "write 
ups," but no one presumes they are literary. The writer hartily thanks 
he kind and generous, and long suffering men and women helping to 
publish the book; long-sufferir<? because ovt-rtaxed by too temporary 
methods of advertising. Millions are spent annually that pass away with 
the click of the pringing press. Something permanent is to be sought for 
in all "ads" except brief specialties and drawing bargains. This is the 
secret of reaping from the dollars and cents you spend in "ads." Many 
a business man contributes to the support of local news sheets because 
he may be scorched or insulted *f he does not "cough up," by something 
like the following rank editorial: 

"When you hear a merchant make the remark that as long as trade 
is good as it is he will not advertise, you may say right there that he 
is unclassed, and is no benefit to the town. He expects to live along and 
catch what few people the other merchants don't have time to wait 
upon, and barely make enough to pay rent. He does not realize or does 
not care that it is his duty to help bring the trade to the town, the same 
as others. He must have a guilty conscience when he is waiting on a 
customer whom he knows belongs to the live, wide awake, and energetic 
competitors up the street. If he wants the trade tell the people so." — Ex- 
change. (Repeated in this local paper.) 

Every progressive business and professional person todoy realizes the 
great benefit of advertising discreetly where the population is sufficiently 
large and competition fierce enough to necessitate constant display of 
something to remind others of our wares and work, but no sensibe man 
is so foolisJi or crazy as to believe that he must make such display every 

11? 




The Eleg-ant Home of Prentiss Price, lloniiny, O. T. 

MIJLiiilNS DRUG COMPAN 

Dr. Ira MxiUiii, Pres.; Fi-edl Diniiimioiid, V. Pres.; Prentiss Piice, Sec. Treasi 
Dealers in Diiigp and Diiig Sundries. 

Dr. Ira Mullin, B. S., M. D., the president, is one of the three physicians 
in Hominy. The Mullin's Drug Co., was organized by liim in 1904, as The 
First Drug Store in the town and vicinity. He isi a native of the Old Dom- 
inion, Virginia, from which he came to the Osage in 1902, and settled in 
Hominy. He was one of the first to practice here, building up a broad prac- 
tice, both as a physician and surgeon. He is a graduate of the National 
Norman University, Lebanon, Ohio, taking his "B. S." degree and "M. C." 
from the University College of Medicine, Richmond, Va., also of the New 
York Post-Graduate Medical School and Hospital. His office is in the drug 
store. They are prescription druggists and carry a full line of drugs, and 
sundry toilet articles, and cold drinks, etc. More enterprise can not be found 
in the Osage as they are largely interested in all tlie leading business of the 
town and all most excellent citizens, town advancers and country develop- 
ers. You will be pleased to meet them, and they will encourage any legiti- 
mate buisness locating there. 




New Honiiny 

A^'Tr HOUSTON'S 

Restaiu-ant — Sliort Order 
Among the first class eating places 
in Homing Mr. Huston conducts one 
of the best. His eating parlor has the 
most inviting appearance not only to 
hungry men, but to those of dainty 
tastes. He is a man of congenial na- 
ture, well fitted him for the cafe bus- 
iness and being located only one half 



(South Part), O. T. 

i block east from the north end of the 
i depot, you will find him ever ready 
ito serve the traveling public, and 
jhome patrone. One of the most impor- 
jtant parts of physical life is to be or 
I have a good cook; then to eat only 
jwhat you need or like best in right 
iquantities. Anything you want of the 
jbest quality you will find at Mr. Hous- 
jton's, Hominy, O. T. 
!H4 



day or week in some little local sheet alone, to keek his brains, trade, 
brawn or business before an intelligent, thinking- public. A well worded 
sign in front of his office or store, or board nailed to the corner posts 
at the forks of roads converging on the town, might be far more effective 
permanent and less costly , than daily or weekly Insertions in very limited 
edly circulated local sheets. or two "up" as are usually found in every 
locality, burdening often sparcely populated communities with daily or 
weekly repetitions of matter, labor and expenses that ought to be saved 
to the people by publishing: only the best in some well edited, literary, 
scientific, brain-born matter worth keeping in a book, or monthly magazine 
form, or journals, without the enormous waste of labor and money in pub- 
lishing a ranch of chaff, and the consequent necessity of the reader's strong 
mental discrimination in sifting out a gill of wheat. What is not worth 
keeping in general is not worth the time and cost in publishing. 

The thoughtful, most frank business liien and scholars all say and 
the author has talked with thousands upon this subject, that there are too 
many local publications of little newspapers for the good, much less the 
necessity of society and burnness. One local paper for each town or 

county might be a benefit to the people, ii edited with intelligence and 
economy, to the reader, who can get all but local items from a large, 
generally circulated merto- or cosmopolitan paper from which the local 
must necessarily reprint whatever world-wide news it has. In all other 

respects the local sheet is almost entirely composed of local advertising, 
or personal gossip, as Mr. Smith, Jones, Scott, or Brown goes or comes on 
political or commercial business, or Miss or Mrs. Smith, Jones, Scott, or 
Brown, has gone or comes to visit Mrs. Roe, or Miss Doe, who gives a 
reception, card party, progressive euchre, or high live for a prize. And 
some do not even stop here but pulnge into all kinds of scandal mongering 
and exaggerations under the term "news" but frequently serving only 
to cast unjust insinuations, even absurd falsities, upon some innocent, 
or perhaps some comparatively innocent party, for the want of something 
better to fill up their space unoccupied by advertising. The writer once 
knew personally the editor of such a paper even to attack the llife, char- 
acter, motives and teachings of men of high character, and higher motives 
because he was paid to do so by some prejudiced party and in some in- 
stances he would attack the affairs, or business of another in order to 
have somebody answer it in the columns of his paper simply to fill space 
that he was incompetent to fill from the thoughtful product of his own 
mind but he soon emigrated. 

OBSCENE JOURXAIylSM. 

Mr. Jerome in prosecuting a libel case lately in New York City, said: 

"For more than two weeks we have been wandering through Vanity 
Fair witnessing exhibitions of human weakness and folly, and in some 
instances of human degradation. Now let us see the character of this 
paper, (referring to Town Topics.) Mr. Shepard has told you that Colonel 
Mann has stated that it was the natural evolution of personal journalism. 
If that is true it ought to be applicable to more than one daily in New 
York whose trend is that way. There is scarcely a morning paper that does 
not print vile scandals and obscene matter. I don't seee wliat interest it 
conserves to publish such items. I do not see what interest such articles 
relating to the evil of this or that person have for you and me. Does it 
ever serve any useful purpose? Is it other than filth? It is put there for 
no other purpose than that of paying dividends to the stockholders. The 
average newspaper is run from the counting room standpoint. Many of 
the advertisements are but a corruption fund to induce quiet about this, 
that or the other. This is not a pleasant statement to make but if you ask 
the average newspaper man why a certain paper let up on a certain prop- 
osition his reply will be 'Wlhy didn't you see that advertisement of so-and- 
so?"' 

In publishing this book the methods of unreliability among some print- 
ers have been clearly demonstrated. For nearly two months the er.graving 
was delayed because of delay of photographs, either excusable or negligence; 
then some delay of engravers; then about December 15, 1905, a contract 
was placed with a Magazine publishing company to be out by all means, 
by January first, with the option of the writer taking the work elsewhere, 
if not rushed through the last week in December. With utter disregard 
of all legal or moral obligation, in the absence of the writer, the book was 
not touched and almost as willful neglect for six weeks after January 1st, 
with no reasonable excuse, except, pei'haps, the hope of a bigger price to 
rush them, at one and one half pay for all time over eight hours per day, 
while the author toiled nearer sixteen hours per day to hurry the work, for 
six weeks, at great expense, and loss, and at last had to demand his material, 
liartly lost, or destroyed, and do much of the mechanical work himself, in 
Older to get the work complete in short order. All his work, not being 
delivered, replevey suit was entered, and the manager immediately swore 

115 



NEW COTTAGE HOME OF I. B. BODWELL, HOMINY 

*>«f.^ ■ ^^°^^^" i^^ ^'^ °ld resident of the Osage, where he has been inter- 
ested in business, but came to Hominy early in its building, wnere he erected 
a dwelhng for his family, his wife and daughter, a younf laay of vivacioi 
bright social qualities. Mr. Frank Pettit, who lives three miles northeasrof 
Hominy, and has one of the best improved farms, of nearly To" Oacreg ^n 




the Osage, married a daughter of Mr. Bodwell Frank i« ^ =-.,, ^^^ t ^ 
Pettit Of Pawhuska. and one of the broadesTmlnded r^o en rgetic OsaS 

SsTrtilefand^^MrBodw 11^-' °"" '^^"^*"^' besides 'lea^fng'maTy'acr^sTf 
Te ^t, !> *,f Bodwell IS improving a beautiful home and garden and 

tf™ 1^^ „ ^ '^'^^^ HOIVnNY MEAT 31 ARRET 

M^tr ,""--"- «---s„."' --• -- --••■ 

r.&"r,';?o-T.''e •'.ajKe.s.re":? iS!!/--- - --^^ - ■ 

Tvyr. o r. XT , - "^"^^ FIRST SHOE SHOP. 

Rarf T.«t» 'HE OSAGE BLACKSftnTH. 

has nved fn the Ssarffr„n,*h Jh"'^'' '>">?''™'*s, was bom In Kansas, but 

in his busfnes cireer ' ''''^ ^^ ^' ^ ^"°*^^"' ^"^ "^°^t ideal man, 

(Photo by Alva Spiers.) ii6 



to an affidavit foi a continuance for 15 days, for the lack of material evi- 
dence, which could not possibly have been true, under the circumstances, 
and proved to be false in the trial, and after every possible manner of de- 
mand, except by physical force, for three weeks, the Justice (?) decreed 
Ithat no legal demand had been made. Such is the weakness of the 15 day 
Ibw, and, frequently the processes of the wise men of the minor courts, in 
ji'acing unmistakable facts and the editors of local concerns, that sometimes 
dominate in court more than evidence, facts and law; as they often try the 
cases before the hearing. So the author was compelled to reproduce some 
material, and go over the whole work at great loss of time and expense. 
But, maybe, such thinse will not always be so. Justice, brains, and Jaw 
may, perchance, prevail sometimes, somewhere. 

The following are some extracts from the contract: "Oklahoma City, 
Dec. 18, 1905." "Said booklet is to be six by nine inches, etc," "The cover 
is to be a good quality of S. & S. C. cover 20x25, 50-lb stock." "The inside 
pages are to be printed upon Calender Book paper, etc." "Ink on entire 
work to be of blue black of best quality, etc." "The work is to be done in a 
thorough workman like manner, etc." "The work shall be done and ready 
for delivery during the last week of December, 1905, if same can be accom- 
plished, (by the F. M. Co.) If that is not possible, however, it shall be ready 
for delivery as soon thereafter as possible." (Written at bottom). In case 
of unavoidable delay, the said Dickerson may withdraw from this contract 
and take the work elsewhere." (Signed). "The F. M. Co., by R. A. W., 
Business Manager." Philip J. Dickerson. 

The last clause was written by demand of the author, so that he could 
arrange to get his books by the last week in December, 1905, if the F. M. 
Company did not get them out immediately after December 18, who prom- 
ised to write in two or three days, which they failed to do till Dec. 29, too 
late for the work to be taken else where to be printed by January 1st. And 
after the promise to give said books the exclusive time of the shop till print- 
ed, taking a well equipped shop about five or six days to complete by lino- 
type and hand), nothing was done for nearly four weeks, except having 
set most of the linotype not over four or five days work for a skillful op- 
erator, and many printers are as negligent of their promises. At last driven 
to despair, in failing to get the work done at reasonable rates, the writer 
proceeded to publish the book himself, using only linotype-set composition, 
in about one week, and asks the people interested in the book to excuse 
this unavoidable delay, in no way his fault, as he tries always, under all 
circumstances, to make his word as good or better than a bond. But we 
can still all rejoice in the birth of the New State of Oklahoma just as this 
comes from the press. 

If the author of the article in this paper will tell thinking men why 
it is necessary to have two or three little local papers in a small town, 
often scarcely able to support one rightly, except for partisan, political 
reasons, he will do a benevolence to modern civilization that no other has 
ever done. The writer gladly notes from the "Osage Chief," (Fairfax) 
referring to an exceedingly partisan article in this paper, which there is 
no desire to reprint here. "In our opinion if there is any one thing a small 
town should do in organizing, it is to avoid mixing politics into municipal 
government. For our part, (rantankerous Republicans as we are) we 
would rather see Fairfax organized with a full board of progressive, public 
spirited democratic town builders that an equal number of republican pol- 
iticians. Let us see to it that when Fairfax is organized that only the 
best men whose every interest is identified with the town are elected, and 
will work for the best interests of the town regardless of party affiliations." 

Of course every man feels a loyal interest in his party's success, and 
perhaps justly so, but the intelligent citizens will no doubt, give their 
hands, votes and moral support to the men of greater honor, efficiency, 
and unbiased interest in the general welfare of the city and county govern- 
ment irrespective of party affiliations. In national and state politics, a true 
man may love his party for its principles, but in local government he will 
love his city and county more. 

The permanent development of Osage county, when organized, and 
Pawhuska, her judicial seat, whose present and future prospects seem 
crowned with a halo of growth and glory, depends largely upon the clean, 
pure men, and government they present to the world in the early years 
of county and town organization. 

The writer of this book hasi no party politics, nor does he care to have 
except as any party may represent, ad vocate and put into effect the highest 
principles of international, national, state, county, township and munici- 
pal government, upon a basis of individual merit, civic economy and pure, 
clean methods of politics in the sense the Greeks used the word Politas 
(long a), their citizens being intelligent enough each to govern himself 
and people, thousands of years ago, before being corrupted hy methods 
of so-called scientific politics. 

117 



FAIRFAX, O. T. 

Considering the very fertile soil all through this section, the large 
extent of country from which to draw her trade, and the present size 
of Fairfax after one year's growth, and the many excellent people among 
her population of near 400, you can quickly see that Fairfax is one of the 
best locations for a large, growing, prosperous town. It is appropriately 
named from her FAIR prospects. Quite a number of her people came 
from the historic, old trading post. Gray Horse, some miles southeast, 
where they were in business long before the location and survey of Fairfax. 
The Baptist, M. E., and Presbyterian denominations have organized, 
and hold services in the school building, which was erected by popular 
subscription. The school is conducted on the scholarship certificate plan 
of $2 per month, paid in advance, by cash, or negotiable notes, for seven 
months, thus insuring school for that length of time. Prof. C. A. Hag- 
gart, principal, is a graduate of Ann Arbor, Mich. His assistant is Mrs. 
Kate B'ristow, both successful teachers, with about 80 pupils enrolled. 
Fairfax is located on Salt creek, some miles north of the Arkansas river, 
in the richest prairie country in the Osage. This creek is larger than most 
creeks, and along its course northward is found much of the best land, 
and most costly improved farms. It is the most beautiful stream in Okla- 
homa, having a broad, rocky bed, and clear, blue waters, with many fish, 
and much game upon its well timbered banks and bottoms. ! 

Fairfax townsite has been surveyed, and when approved by the Sec- 
retary of the Interior, the vacant lots will soon be sold. For a town so- 
young she has many fine buildings, some of which are shown in these cuts. 
No town in the Osage has a fairer prospect of growing into a city of several 
thousand inhabitants. Many excellent people have already located here, 
and others still coming. Many of the fullbloods have well improved farms 
around the town. The Tall Chief family, mentioned elsewhere, live near 
town, one joining it on the south. They are an intelligent family, es- 
pecially Eves Tall Chief, educated in the best schools and reported to be 
writing a dictionary of Osage dialect containing only about 700 words in 
all, but some of the family are addicted to strong drink, being near the 
line of old Oklahoma, where they can step over and get anything they 
want, and "eat, drink and be merry." 

The department has just given a decision that the opening of the 
townsites to business, without bond or Indian license, will not entitle any 
man to deal in intoxicating drinks in the Osage any more than before such 
opening, but the same rule shall apply — a wise provision for all concerned. 
Fairfax is located on a line of railroad running from Newkirk, O. T., 
to Pawnee and on to Oklahoma City. It is being heavily ballasted for a 
through freight line leaving the main line more free for passenger traffic. 
All lines of business are well represented. There is one first class hotel, 
the Ponton House, 3 restaurants, 2 barber shops, one of which has the 
distinction of a boy baa-ber, 13 years of age, a fine sliaver, 'having begun^ 
to help his father, John Shenill, in his shop, at the age of ten. He is per- 
haps the youngest barber in America. They also run a short order in con- 
nection. There are 3 drug stores, 2 banks, 2 groceries, 2 hardware and 
one furniture store, 1 harness shop, 4 general merchandise stores, 2 fine 
liveries, a blacksmith shop, a mill and grain elevator, and one well edited 
newspaper, the "Osage Chief," one lumber yard, a large meat market, in 
short, all lines necessary to make a growing, prosperous city. With a 
beautifully undulating hill westward, nicely draining the town toward the 
creek east the location is unsurpassed for healthfulness, fine water near 
the surface and many square miles of rich country to draw from, you will 
find here an opportunity to establish manufactures, or lease the best lands, 
with rapid growth. 

All through the Osage land can be leased for periods, from one to five 
years to improve the land by breaking sod, fencing, building houses, plant- 
ing orchards, etc. But improved lands can be leased on similar conditions 
to those in the states, money rent or 1-3 of grain, in the field, and % oi^ 
the cotton at the gin. "While cattle raising is a leading industry in this 
section, as the cut of Mr. Bowers' herd suggests, farming; is co-equal. 

To illustrate the large scale farming in the Osage Mr. Geo. Chrlsman 
has one of the largest farm leases in the country at one time 4,000 acres,^ 

118 



For two years a wave of reform seems to be surging back and forth 
even m politics, and civil rules more strictly applied. Tlections for the 
last three years, and thep rosecution of corruption in high places, indicate, 
to some degree, that a tidal wave of reform sentiment and ballots may sweep 
pohtcal corruption with all of its "rooters" and "suckers" from the arena 
of American statesmanship. At least the omens are encouraging to all 
true, hberty-loving Americans who believe more in purity of principle than 
in petty partisanship. Then society and business will demand only one 
well edited newspaper in each town, county or state as the case may be. 
But editors are not resopnsible for the thousands of unnecessary, poorly 
composed sheets, they are only victims of the social and political conditions 
of the times. The introduction into civil service rules the requirement of 
examination i none other language, than English, according to England's 
practice, in order to bring the brightest young men into the consular service 
by hard study, instead of by political preferment, is another of many signs 
of many signs of the times that party politics must gradually give way to 
individual principle and merit, on which social and civil progress should 
When the president of Harvard, or Yale and Prof. James, of North- 
western Unievrsity, recommends the great metropolitan daily and weekly 
rest in all advanced stages of civilization. 

newspapers as important to the student of sociology and history, to keep 
in touch with current facts and history reported in their voluminous col- 
umns of political, scientific, social and current-event sections, they did not 
mean to sanction the existence of two to twenty small papers where one 
could serve all these purposes far better with a proportionately less cost, 
n advertising, which generally overruns their literary columns five to one. 
Again the vast amount of irreliable, unauthenticated, fictitious, manufact- 
ured stuff to fill up columns is another reason for fewer papers, and truer, 
better quality of stuff. Whole pages are often manufactured from scarce- 
ly a shadow, much less skeleton of truth and fact, just to serve some pur- 
pose, of its writer, or publisher. The average of human life is too short, 
mind too sacred, thought too valuable to be burdened or confused daily 
or weekly by columns of worthless distractions, mentally enervating matter. 
After the daily struggle for bread there is far too little time for the best, 
none for the worst publications. "Put," say the publishers of light, chaffy, 
reading stuff, "people desire it. They won't read books and better litera- 
ture." Then you have caused it. They won'tpzqmO dURsBkbonUNuavhUf 
ture." Then you have caused, by your contnuously feeding them husk 
chop, instead of well-ground grain. Those who cannot enjoy reading and re- 
reading books, mazazines and phamphlets of the best matter and forms, 
and retain their contents, are scarcely apt to remember, and profit by a 
mere glance at big sheets of paper printed each day or week to b thrown 
away th next because another is printed in its place. Local editors and pa- 
pers are all right in serving their place and purpose, but surely can't ex- 
pect everybody to think they are "the only cheese," "the only pebble on 
the beach." This is a free country, for every man to follow honstly, by the 
"Golden Rule," the pursuit of life, wealth and happiness, without baseless 
imputations, and interference of another. The writer does not expect all 
men to think alike on all things, or anything. That would be heaven, mil- 
lenial! Some are always antagonistic to others' plans and work, no matter 
what, so it be competition. If heaven wereb rought to earth by some, others 
would hurl the angels back to worlds beyond, or jump off to Jupiter, Mars 
or Moon, for new fields of eclusive operations, because heaven might take 
"three or four hundred dollars out of their business" that might "never 
return." Oh, how many growl because they want to occupy the whole 
kennel, or be the only noses in the trough. If some should not like the 
method of publishing the historical facts and resources in book form, etc.. 
it is not, perhaps the fault of the book, made on the fairest ocnditions to its 
generous, intelligent subscribers, but the experience of the one opposed to 
it. Many spurn the Bible, throw it away as worthless, but where lies the 
fault of thinking and action? in them, or the Bible? Some might fail to 
keep, or to give out to the best advantag, finely illuustrated "Souve- 
nir" brief history, biography and commercial book of their country, but 
it would not necessarily signify that it is not worth keeping for gener- 
ations. Should one paint the brightest scenes of human life, its resources 
and possibilities with pen, printer's ink, engravers styles and book papy- 
rus for a consideration, it is far better to scatter the rough paths of living 
beings with roses, than to plant thorns and thistles of envy and jealousy in 
the ways of life, then to place free fiowers, or a costly wreath upon man s 
casket, both of which he paid for years before he retired to his tomb. 
It is far better to be "oily tongued manipulators," of even failures in try- 
ing to bear the burdens of long-suffering communities, (long-suffering be- 
cause overtaxed by worthless papers, and too temporary methods of ad- 
vertising), than to have the double-tongue of a venemous serpent, both 

119 



-with a co-lessee, under cultivation. Having dissolved partnership, he now 
has only 2,000 acres plowed and cultivated, but expects to ploy 2,000 acres 
more next spring. He farms out his leases to others to plant and cultivate 
corn at 121/2 cents per bushel, estimated in the field before gathering, and 
much corn all through the Osage averages long and largfe ears. At L. A. 
Wismeyer's store some ears were seen measuring from 12 to 14% inches, 
grown by W. R. Farbes. Manning Bros., farming on Little Chief in 1905, 
giew ears of corn weighing up to 2 pounds and one ounce. 




Tlie Yearly Roundup 011 the Akin llancli — Near Fairfax. 

Mr. A. G. Bowers is manager of the Ed Akin ranch, two miles east 
of Fairfax, containing 7,000 acres of fine grass land, also an additional 
3,000 of cultivated farm lands 15 miles west, which sustains about 7,000 
head of cattle, about 4,000 of which have been lately purchased for their 
ranch. He was formerly from Texas, was raised on a ranch, handling 
cattle and horses all his life, hence a broad experience in this industry. 

He has been five years in the Osage, first year with Roy Hoss, then 
with Stone Breaker's, before becoming the manager of the present large 
ranch on the Osage, a cut of which is given, showing a "roundup" of only 
a small part of the heard. As the manager he has to see that cattle are 
kept together, the strays brought in, the fences kept in good condition, etc. 
He has six men assistants, all the time busy. John Morris, formerly from 
Texas, but ranched in Comanche county for Bill Hall for five years, but 
been in the Osage about five years in the employ of various ranchmen. 
Sam Smith, also a Texan by birth, has been in the ranch business for fif- 
teen years, having been manager for several "cattle camps," which term 
is applied to the ranches in this country. Henry Riley, is a Texas boy 
and has handled many cattle, in the employ of several camps, for the last 
15 years. George Dunnovan is also employed by Mr. Bowers on this ranch, 
a Texan also, but of late coming to the Osage. 

These boys lead a typical ranchman's life, batching, with no females 
In the camp, each one taking turns in the cook tent with one general 
dish and bottle washer, Mr. Clint Wagoner. However, many ladies, on 
horseback, are usually found at the "roundups" of this camp as the boys 
are single, generally ladies' men and have many friends among the fair 
sex who enjoy the ride after the large herds and the romantic life of the 
camp for a few days. At the last "roundup" there were 48 persons in- 
cluding 13 ladies, to see the immense herd brought together. The ranch- 
man's life, they claim, is far from being one of ease, as many suppose, but 
is one continuous round of riding and vigilance, having but little time for 
sports and reading. 

About the only pastime being the humor manifest when gathered around 
the camp fire, vieing with each other in telling the biggest story. And every 
morning they have a free exhibition of "rabbit twisting" (?) They fre- 
quently refer to each other by the nicknames, "Rabbit Twister," "Steeple- 
chasers," "Cow-waddies," "Hill Billies," and such like. Mr. Bowers and 
his boys are typical jolly ranchmen. 

120 



hissing and poking poison at everyone and evtrything, that the coil be- 
hind, imagines to come in its way, though you have no mtention of intrud- 
ing on its ground. It were better to calm or lap with an oily tongue the wa- 
ters of the troubled seas of human lives than to explode a gas well, then 
set it on fire in their midst. It is as well to bury some men alive as to 
try to soil their honesty by false insinuatiorvJi. Yet some would bury you 
alive if it were commercial gain to do so. Tlie Kaw City Star reports that 
puT3 'paunq 's.vvb^i am jo jamo 'qBSunqs-BM V^n sauo ssajd: paiBioossy aqi 
his funeral ceremony in detail, even the number of his tribe that followed 
in mourning to his last resting place. It was a real Associated Press fun- 
€,ral story. But "Wash" appeared in town soon afterwards, and was asked 
why he was reported dead and buried. "Uh! uh!!" he replied, "Paper man 
f[ — n fool, he lie, lie, lie; Wash all time best — phist." ^ ^ i. 

The article that forced this reference to the much abused, and mucn 
needed Journalism of today, was either hatched in ignorance or born in 
narrow-minded, soul contracted jealousy, or both together. It seems part- 
ly the former, but mostly the latter. When the writer begun to gather ma- 
terial for this book for the purpose expressed on the introductory page, 
called at the printing room of the managing editors, of this paper and ex- 
plained his intention, and contract for the publication, and asked an estimate 
on the work. He was informed by one that they could not do the work at 
the price the writer was contracting to do itfor, that there ough to have 
been a higher rate placed on it, and that he didn't believe in such publi- 
cations, but couldn't do the work any way at the writer's rate to which he 
replied in a few remarks on inconsistency of such a position. -Ihe other 
managing editor brought out a Special Historical and Commercial Write-up 
of one of the leading papers of Chickasha, I. T., where he was working at 
the time and informed the writer that they asked and got about $50, fitty 
dollars per page on $5,000 copies of a three newspaper column page special 
edition, scarcely longer than broad, and very ordinary printing and paper, 
with scattering cuts, all together at from five to ten times the cost to their 
patrons as the "oily tongued author solicited from from the generous, in- 
telligent end wealthy people of the Osage, with far better fo™ than can 
usually be produced in a local office. No wonder they sounded the alarm 
against anything that doesn't go through their hands. And no one ever had 
any reason to suppose this laborous undertaking was connecte^d with their 
office, nor does he believe anyone ever seriously thought so Mr Managers 
you have just as good a sheet as thousands of others of its kind, per- 
haps better than some, but calm your agitated mind, for the writer has 
no desire to be connected with a little local paper, where there is more 
than one in a community of less than ten thousand population, unless to 
do the mechanical work of more permanent publications. If your paper 
is good, osmething better might cultivate a taste and patronage for it, 
both i reading and advertising. Real education does much for some things. 
A true sayink: . , ^, . 

"A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. 
Drink deep or taste not the Pierian Spring.' 

I can forgive you for thinking that this praise for "Tom, Dick and 
Harry" could be destroyed before birth from the printing press. But how 
you erred' It came through all right and still lives to bless, we hope, the 
Osage people and the stranger who wants to know the real facts of his- 
tory and resources from sources he can believe. They are triplets, 3,000 
well formed copies, strong. Some will live and talk perhaps, when we 
have passed beyond, to give account of our editorials. 

The method of printing this book is only a means of giving a greater 
number the benefit of its publication. Some may say: "Oh, t's an adver- 
tsing scheme!" So it is in part. All history, geography and biography, 
based upon the facts of a country and people are advertising in the broad- 
est and best sense, whatever the object of their publication. The gray 
matter of brains, thinking powers may be used in advertising as literary m 
composition a sthe best books, magazines, and journals of modern civiliza- 
tion At least this is the consenses of opinion of the best busmes ana 
tion At least this is the consenses of opinion of the best business and 
profesional people in towns and countries everywhere, who do the most 
of their advertising in special editions of books, pamphlets, largely circu- 
lated magazines, in condensed form to be kept. Even the extra editions 
of little local papers must be printed in more condensed magazine form 
to be sent out broadly, if perchance they can get some failing list, well 
knowing that the narrow limits, of their little local papers are ineffectiva, 
if not worthless for general advertising of its country's resources and ad- 
vantages to hundreds or thousands of miles away. For few go beyond the 
country, or town, perhaps, as every town or village has her own paper, or 
two that serves its purpose if it discretely attends strictly to its own busi- 
ness, and furnishes some mental food for its reader's intelligence. A few 

321 





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122 



exchang-es go abroad but no papers, ever advertise, specifically, other than 
their own sections, without increased subscription lists or big money for 
their columns. The writer has seen many finely , costly illustrated books 
or pamphlets of towns and countries, in which the leading newspapers put 
full page displays of their presses, offices, etc., their intelligent editors, 
knowing the greater results of having some concise, illustrated book forms 
to set before the world the best of their town and section. And these 
pamphlets are usually written and published by men of experience and ed- 
ucation, at great cost of time and expense to themselves, who have no desire 
to be connected with any less permanent, less literary publications. If their 
work is a "fake," or "representation false." and "contracted," "big circu- 
lation that never matures," it is because of the dishonesty of some individ- 
ual, who perhaps, has been well tutored by the "fakerism" and false pre- 
tenses of some little editorial or publishing concerns that presume to live 
by such methods. The writer has formed a business acquaintance with 
many good men of the editorial and printing profession, but not all the 
"printer's devils," in the trade are by any means angels, as the intelligenx 
thinking classes well know; and are able to decide what is best for them, 
and their town and country, regardless of any warning from such sources. 
While the wirter has often felt the sting of deception from some others, 
he has the conscientious, perhaps egotistical pride in the fact that he has 
never willfully or knowingly tried to use either of these contexnptible weak- 
nesses of human character with either man or woman. Who uses such 
traits to make headway is not a man. only an imitation, a mere thing; a 
very unnecessary thing. We will concede that there have been many fakes 
in "special write-ups," but certainly not more than in many local papers 
and other commercial lines. The writer was the first, so far as he knows, 
to combine many historical facts with true commercial sketches in order 
to make a publication worth its cost and keeping to a community. If th« 
method, which is unequalled for giving time, cost and mental toil, for the 
amount received for same. The main purpose of some in life, is to give as 
little service as possible for value received, others as much as possible, even 
sepnding life in benevolence, but the former class cannot comprehend the 
actions of he latter, but judge them by their own narrow standard. All 
things can be raised to a higher degree of benefit to men by the man of 
ability and honor essential to lift them above the ordinary. Some would- 
be editors imagine they are using brain power in their compositions, and 
critical articles, when they taste, to others, like calve's brains, or scrambled 
eggs of a stale cold storage quality; brought from exchange storage, when a 
fresh supply fails to be inspired in the pigeon holes of their personal criti- 
cisms. Many men in local offices think they are thinkers, when they are 
fine typetinkers. They do not think enough to ever wear one hair off their 
heads, a bad temper and conscience too condemning to ever become fat 
or rich. 

"An Embarrassed Editor was asked: "W!hy are all millionaires rep- 
resented to be either fat or bald-headed?" asks a correspondent. "Really, 
this places us in rather an embarrassing position. We haven't a hair on 
our head and tip the scales at 225 pounds avoirdupois, so we might be 
called both fat and bald-headed. Your question, however, is easily ans- 
wered. To be fat a man must have a clear conscience, a good digestion 
and an even temper. Baldness is usually caused by the gray matter of the 
brain circulating too rapidly and wearing ofl the roots of the hair. A 
man thus blessed by nature can not help get rich." — (Ex.) 

The author of the sore-head articles has clearly lost no hair by ar- 
duous study, and thinking. If he ever gets to the heaven of knowledg-e, 
happiness and wealth hem ust shed many yet. But he has only made 
the mistake of putting on a different colored powder than that he supposed 
in his haste and dim light. A girl dressing under such conditions to receive 
her beau, when she heard his call rushed for her powder to put on the 
finishing touches, then entered the parlor, looking as she thought her 
best, and vivaciously, but unconcious of her minstrel appearance, entertain- 
ed the one before whom she should have made her best appearance, in 
her snow-white robes and blondine tresses. But on his adieu she returned 
to her boudoir, to see how pretty she had been. Discovering her mistake 
in using- pulverized charcoal instead of cream powder, as supposed, she 
fell into a hysterical swoon, and the Arkansas City Traveler said "she never 
smiled again." Moral: — Mr. Article Writer, when you get back to your 
editorial den, just see what kind of powder you really put on in your un- 
warranted haste, and darkness. 



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The Fairfax Home of J. 15. Wilson 
The liiisiness Block of Mr. J. B. Wilston. 

Mr. J. B. Wilson is a native of Missouri, but lived for fourteen years 

in Nebraslca; afterwards moved to Texas, from whence lie returned to Cliau- 

tauqua county, Kansas. He came to the Osage about 1889, as a blacksmith 

by trade, and first conducted a shop at Gray Horse, about two years. He 

married Miss Mary Herridge, a daughter of Edward and Julia Herridge. 




Business Block of J. B. Wilson. Deal er in General Merchandise, Dry Goods, 
Clotliinji, Groceries. Flonr and Feetl. 

Mr. Herridge was of English nationality, his wife was Julia Lessart, of 
French and Osage ancestry, who has one of the most courily homes in the 
Osage. Mr. Wilson obtaining an intermarried citizen's right to broad and 
fertile acres of land became a successful farmer for some years. Their farm 
home appears in cut. They have one of the best improved farins in the 
Osage. They have moved to Fairfax and built a comfortable, pretty hom«, 

124 




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The Elegant Home of L.. A. Wisineyer, Fairfax. O. T. 



127 




THE OSAGE BANK, FAIRFAX, OKLAHOMA. 

The Osage Bank of Fairfax, was the first bank in the town. It was 
organized in 1902, and does a general banking business, handling the ac- 
counts of business men, stockmen, farmers, and extending courteous treat- 
ment to all. have won a rightly merited place in the confidence of its pat- 
rons. Its stockholders are: S. B. Berry, G. W. Berce, J. P. Girard, W. N. 
Quarles. The bank building of these gentlemen and financial headers as 
W. H. Todd, E. T. Quarles, J. J.Ballard, J. T. Plummer, J, H. Trimm, 
Quarles. The bank building of these gentlemen and financial leaders as 
shown in this cut is the first and only stone building so far, in the town, 
and a finely constructed bulding. Excellent bulding stone are gotten nearby 
and many stone buildings perhaps be erected in the future. These gentle- 
men will welcome your coming and extend every courtesy consistent with 
progress and good banking principles 



128 




W. X. Ballard, LiveiT» Feed and Sale Bam. 
Horses Bought and Sold. 

Mr Ballard grew up on a farm in Missouri, but came to Gray Horse 
in 1892; where he ran a stage route, and livery business also deah^g in 
horses When Fairfax started in 1902, he moved his interests here. He 
was one of the first settlers, and built the first fine livery building m the 
Osage, as shown in cut, where he is doing a prosperous ousiness. He has 
iust^c^mpleted a costly cottage home on part of his block -^J ^^ ^arn. He 
was married to Miss Daisy Girard. a Kansas girl at Gray Horse in 1900^ 
He has spent his life in the horse and livery business of which he is fond 
and experienced; and a congenial man to meet in business, an energetic and 
progressive citizen for his town and the Osage. 




THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF FAIRFAX. 
I.. A. Wismeyer, Pies.. J. >I. Woody and Chas. Pasche, Vice Prest., Raymond 
N. Hoss, Cash., Julius F. Roehau. Asst. Cash. 

129 



FIRST NATIONAL li ANK OF FAIRFAX, OKLA 

The personnel of this bank, which was organized in the fall of iX 
speaks much for its strength and success. A sketch of Air Wi 
given on another page. Mr. Woodv a nafi.t> ^f '^ '1 AVismeyer is 

Osage leasing and farming with suocesl mrpiscST'from St'^T ^" ^^^ 
He started as a huckster boy in groeerv storp in Tan .^ ^*- ■^°^' ^°- 

came to Wheatland, Iowa, where he did «-- LaCrosse Wsconsin, later 
Then came to DaveAport. k! and s^arted\^3^b'"^^^^^^ merchandise business. 
of the Iowa National Bank ^f Dainpot but Xr ^ ?'^"' ^' ^""^ "^'h'^'' 

born near Redridee la rni^cr? .^^ ., fo ^^ Dank. Mr. Rochau, 




P. D. Waugh whose beautiful home appears with this sketch Is the 

v™s= °Lf.s iTr!':\yT:T::Li T.'.^-''rn' '^•^--' ""''■'-"- 

rn''%?1a'„!r.™o\fa"ho^.ii€HH^F4"*'-'-""- 

and farming buisness neL Ponr^'VTtl , "" ^^^ ^""^^ '" ^he lumber, cattle 

run on the Cherokee 8?!!? and filed as No'? SnldTf- "^t^^'J^^ ^'^""^^ ^^ *he 
a fine farm, % mile from Ponca t?^tinn fr^V .^o'^'^^s Declaratory, and got 
and the same late^ soW fo? tio ooo ' S- ^^'^^'^'^ .^^ '^^er received $6,000, 

He Is one of the many ^oo'nera'nrclfl.erof^thfs sSn"" '"'" ™"»'- 

130 



The gentlemen composing this firm are C. L. Goad, N. H. Farrell and 
S T Dawson. They formed the company in August, 1905, in an equal part- 
nership business and carry full line of Hardware and Implements, of Brown's 
3If o- CO , and OUver ChiUed Plows, etc. . Also a fine line of harness. Mr. 
Farrell is a citizen of the Osage, a son of John Farrell, of Irish nationality. 
His mother was Miss Mary CanviUe, of French and Osage ancestry. He 
was raised on a fertile farm on the Arkansas river. He married Miss Laura 
Goad the sister of the senior member of the firm. Mr. Goad is a native of 
Kansas, but has been farming in the Osage about fourteen years. Mr. Daw- 
son the silent partner, is also a Kansan. but recently came to the Osage, 
and entered this firm. These boys are building up a fine ousiness in this 
line Mr. Farrell is a fine type of the Osage descendants and one of the tew 
young men of the citizens that have launched out in the mercantile busi- 
ness and is worthy of all confidence and patronage, with his co-iMirtners. 
They own valuable property in town and Mr. Farrell has a fine farm m 
the Arkansas valley. 



^ GOAD ^ 

FARREU^CO.. 

HARDWARE 



H G BURT. 

„^GENERAJ 
ERCHANDl 




Mr H G. Bun has one of the larger stocks of general merchandise in 
Fairfax He is a native of Missouri and did a mercantile business m Kan- 
sas City prior to coming to the Osage eighteen months ago He is well 
fitted by training and experience for his general business. He owns valu- 
able property in town, including his one-half block f^PP"™^^^" ^"^^J „",^'- 
He carries a full line of dry goods, furnishings. S^:«^'^"*^«- 1"'«^"«^' ^°^\P'2; 
visions.. He and Mr. Jenness. his clerk, are kept bu.y selling goods to their 
growing patronage. 

O.SAGE JUNCTION. 

Is just south of Hominv, in the Arkansas river valley. Here a branch 
line of the railroad runs down the rich valley to Tulsa. I. T., and to Mus- 
cogee It is only four mjles from Cleveland and^l^as two hotels, and one 
general store, run-by feEO. H. SAXON & COMPANY. V. S. Indian Traders, 
with a livery barn in connection. B. M. Evans is postmaster, and T. M. 
Alby. proprietor of the Metropolitan Hotel over the store. The Osage Inn, 
a large railroad hotel and cafe is under the management of Mr A. Duke. 
There is also a section house and small round house, and a depot building. 



LSI 



Tlie Morledge Uvery, Feed and Sale Barn, as shown in the cut, is owned 
jointly by L. B. Morledge and W. G. Lynn, who built the barn in May, 1905, 
and one of the best in the Osage country. Mr. Morledge and son, W. R., now 
conduct the livery barn, Mr. Lynn having sold his interest in this part of 
the business. They are natives of Ohio, but have been in the Osage for thir- 
teen years, in the cattle business, both of which they still conduct, with finan- 
cial success. Their business place shows pride and push for their town and 
section. They are enthusiastic in all public enterprises for Fairfax. Such 
rnen will ensure the growth and prosperity of the town. Miss Morledge, 
his daughter, is one of the most graceful horesback riders among the young 
ladies of Fairfax. 




BURBANK, O. l'. 

Travelig north up the beautiful valley of Salt creek Cperhaps so-called 
because of some saline springs along it) we pass Mr. Jim George's before 
we reach the pretty location of Burbank Station, lying at the base of the 
towering hills westward and touching the rich valley, hemmed by the grove- 
lined stream of blueish water, with crescent bend to the >ia.st, all upon the 
fertile farm of Mr. Anthony Carlton, who has platted a fO-acre townsite 
from the station west. Here Mr. McCorkle, and son, built the first dwelling 
and store, is postmaster and acting depot agent as no operator is here at 
present. There are a number of families in the village, who have Duilt a 
school house where Miss Lillie Shields teaches about 30 pupils, and where 
different sects hold services at times. It is a fine location for a town to 
build rapidly in the near future. Already a large elevator is built to store 
and handle the large grain trade. It appears in cut wit a mammoth pile of 
corn to the left, and Mr. Corkle's store between them, with Mr. Carlton's 
home in the distance beyond the creek. These business men will welcome 
any legitimate industry here, where there is a most excellent country to sus- 
tain it. As you pass up the beautiful broad creek, you can see the well im- 
proved farms, (in order), of Chas. Donovan, Stewart Mongrain, Joseph 
Pearson, Frank DeNoya, Jr., Tom Hall, son-in-law of Frank DeNoya, Sr., 
Jake DeNoya. Mr. Hickmon, also son-in-law of Mr. DeNoya, who lives just 
above him, Mr. Roach, Mr. Barber, Mr. Sam Roach and Geo. Carlton, all 
well-to-do farmers ready to make Burbank a fiourlshing little town, all of 
whom the writer would gladly give a sketch, but has not the facts at hand 
to do so. Write Mr. McCorkle or Mr. Carlton for any information. They 
will gladly serve you, and give every inducement to other industries. 

132 



A VEwOf Burbank, Okla, Looking Northeast- 




air. Anthony Carlton. 

Mr. Anthony Carlton, whose home appears in connection herewith, is 
located just one half mile east from Burbank station, owns the land upon 
which the station is located, and the townsite of 20 acres wnich are platted, 
and lots being leased to any desiring to locate business or homes here. Mr. 
Carlton is the son of Mrs. Augustine Donovan, the wife of Chas. Donovan, 
who was formerly Mrs. Carlton. Mr. Anthony Carlton is saia to be one of 
the most model men among the Osage citizens, a good man, a model father 
and husband. He married Miss Mary Plomondon, also of Osage ancestry, 
the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Moses and Clemmy Plomondon. She is a 
medium fair blonde and shows no characteristics of Indian ancestry of 
Vv'hich both she and her husband are only distant descent. She is a most 
excellent wife, homekeeper and mother of three fair, beautiful children, all 
girls, Marie, Ethel and Francis. Mr. Carlton is an extensive farmer, and 
raises many stock. His farm lies on the Salt creek bottoms, and second bot- 
toms, the richest land in the Osage. He h^s many young fruit trees grow- 
ing and other good improvements. He will gladly welcoi»ie any legitimate 
business and industry desiring to locate at Burbank. The writer had the 
pleasure of the hospitality of Mr. Carlton, Donovan, and Mongrain 'or a 
night and day while seeing Burbank's beautiful and rich surroundings. 




Tlie Home of Anthony Carlton. 

133 



THE MERCHANTS OF 13URBANK, O. T. 

Ira McCorkle, the only merchant up to 1906, of Burbank, was born in 
Polk county, Indiana, 1861, came to Pulaski county. Mo., in 1877, was mar- 
ried to Miss Martha A. Sanders, Oct. 22, 1882, and had a ramily of seven 
children, six of whom are still living. Coming to Oklahoma in 1901 he first 
engaged as foreman during the construction of the Eastern Oklahoma R. R. 
till its completion, then went to merchandising at Burbank, Jan. 12, 190.3, 
where he was the first, except Osage citizens, to make improvements in this 
vicinity. Then the R. R. Co. built a depot and the Kaw City Mill and Eleva- 
tor Co. erected a strong 10,000 bushel capacity elevator, and 2,000 per day. 
Being located in the best grain producing section of the Osage, they ship' 
more grain per capita population than any other point, as there are no full 
bloods here, and many of the thrifty intermarried citizens cultivate their 
own well improved farms. Mr. McCorkle started with little capital, but is 
rapidly increasing his trade, and here is a fine opening for other enterprises 
to build up the town, and lease lots till Mr. Carlton can deed them some 




siSi^ 



:^> 



General Merchandise & Hnrdwiwo Store of ]McCorkle 
Burbank, O. T. 

future time. Most of the Osage descendants are only one-eighth, or six- 
teenth, and inostly excellent people, rich and stylish with whom any one 
could associate with culture; and honorable in their dealings with each 
other and strangers. Mr. McCorkle and his family belong to the Christian 
church and gladly welcome all services here, and in the school house and 
church about four miles southwest, with 26 scholars, both recently built by 
■enterprising people. Besides Mrs. Jas. George, he has two other daughters, 
Mrs. Nora (G. L.) Wayman, and Mrs. Dora (G. E.) Waller, bot.h married in 
Pulaski countj', Mo. His 'son". Robert, married Miss Lula Peterson of Kay 
county, O. T., all of whom now live at Burbank. Mr. McCorkle and his 
family are congenial, hospitable people, and furnish the only hotel accom- 
modations so far, in the town, over his store and postoffice. He will gladly 
answer any inquiries for location at Burbank. 



134 



Tlie Home of Mr. 3Ioiigi'ain. 



Mr. S. J. Monerain. 
a part of whose farm 
residence appears in 
this cuthas a promj 

.nent historical connec 
tion with the Osa^e 
people and countr"'- 

He is a decendant or 

one of the earliest 

citizen families. 

His ■ grandfather was 
Newell Mongrain. a 
Frenchman who came 
to the Osages among 
the PYenchfur traders 

with the Choutean 
family while in Missou 
ri, and first lived in 
St. Louis where h<^ 
owned property. 

Mr. S. J. Mongrain's 
father came with the 
Osages to Neosho coun 

ty, St. Paul, ir the Old 
Osage Missions wher^ 

11'=' died. He was 
married three times. 
He wag one-half 

Osage, his mother Home of S 

being a full blood. He was United 
States Governmental Interpreter from 
sixteen years of age till he lied in 
1865. The man of this sketch is one 
of four living children. He was 
schooled in the Osage Mission in Kan- 
sas, came here tvvo years after this 
section was set apart for the Osage 
and lived on Big Caney for seven 
years, then came to his present lo- 
cation and kept batch for five years 




J. MongTain. 



Cornelia Means of Pawhuska, a full 
white girl, and has three children. 
He has two fine, fertile farms joining 
on Salt Creek with good improvements 
in houses, farms and orchards of all 
varieties of fruits. He has about 700 
acres of land in cultivation and 
keeps two hundred head of cattle and 
about one hundred horses. He is a 
as a ranchman, but at last concluded pleasant hospitable man to be and con- 
that life would be more delightful on verse with. His family spends much 
the ranch with acompanion and sought time at Olathe Kansas to school their 
and wed the heart and hand of Miss children. 



THE FIRST VILLAGE BLACKSMITH, K. C. NORKIS, the first and 
only blacksmith in the vicinity, at Burbank, is a native of Kentucky. He 
has been blacksmithing about 45 years, beginning when a small boy, even 
beginning to shoe horses at nine years of age in Cumberlad county, Ken- 
tucky. His father was a blacksmith. He came to the "Five Civilized Tribes" 
28 years ago' and wielded his trade at various places in the Territory. He 
made the run in the first opening of old Oklahoma, where ne got a claim 
12% miles from Oklahoma City. But during the three dry years he aban- 
doned it, thinking it worthless, allowing another to take possession. But six 
months afterwards was offered $5,000 if he would prove up' on it and sell It. 
Now it is worth many thousands of dollars. He came to the Osage in 1905 
from Mokamah, I. T., and is doing a good blacksmithing business. 

He lost his wife in 1895, but has five children with him to make his 
home a bright and happy one. 



135 




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01 . 






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I? 

i. ^ m 



.-o 
IBs? 

O o'5 



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N r S 

^■fi a .* 



,Si 



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ol 



By 



"Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home " 
courtesy of Mr. Chas. Donovan, of Burhank. Oklahoma Territory. 

136 



Mr Cha<= Donovan, who lives one mile above BurbanK Station, was 
formerly Jrom lUino^rb^t lived some years in southern Nebraska. He came 
to me Osage country about '86; and soon won a most amiable and intelli- 
gent ladv Mrs Augustine Carlton, the mother of Anthony Canton. She has 
fhe rlnut'atfon of be^ng one of the most cultured women, and fluent conver- 
sSionalltsaS^ong the Osage citizens. Mr. Donovan won a prize ^ winning 
sationaiists among , \ ,^ He is one of the most congenial gentle- 

^kSSR^^i^^^'^^^'^ ^ '-- — ^^Fft 

the smoke of their guns and quickly ''■.'"^■"^.'"^/^V^und f win™ where 

rrs?;vrh— »n?a,|£^^^^^^^^^^ 

OSAGE TOWTS'SITE BILL. 

'■Thft t^e ;^rro;Lred'"rss-r 'S'S ?i:s:s^ ^o^Sn. 

"^"^That mflectta?J ofthe'TntTrfo? shSlTeserve from s.eo.lon and allot- 

r^Jml 'I'J^^Tl. section four »"^^,X"ldr MerSr"lnclud-lnnh; 
ship twenty.nvc "»"•>. range mne east, "'^'^"e Man Meridian S^^^^ 

town of Pawhuska, wh.ch, '"7« '^« '™ ^"'""'"the Council hullding and 
buildings, the agency reservoir, the »s'"' = °"";. „. V,.aj, „t ,and includ- 

church, school or other association in P°f ^f ;°" ^'^^"yj.etee right to pur- 
ing permanent improvements thereon ^.\^\ f ^;; ^^^^^^^e "wner of the im- 
chase the same at the appraised value, but " ^he^ase tne ^^ 

provements refuses or neglects to P^^^^^^^^^^J^^^Ssed vriue. the purchaser 
sold at public auction at not less than the appraised ya^ue^ y 

at such sale to have the right to take possession of ^^e same upon pay g^ 
occupant the appraised l^^^^^^f :ZZ:r::l\nla^^^^^ fnd sSty acres of 
Tan^d^r^-o^r thf ^blf ur^.^^ ^^^VZr^^ 

r r rth t^lTo?^^: n^orCS fuLteraTdlhe^^orth ha. of the south- 



137 




Mr. and Mrs. James B. George with 
Tlieir Six Fine Sons and Dauahtcrs. 



He has a fine ordehard of apples, 
peaches, plums cherries, grapes etc., 
surrounding- the house. He has one 
of the oldest large barns, built of pal- 
isades and logs of large size, but has 
erected another of large dimensions 
with cribs or bins holding about 10,000 
bushels all full this year. His corn 
crop of 300 acres will yield about 40 
bushels to the acre or nearly 10,000 
bushels and his two sons will have 
about 8000 bushels more. He also keeps 
a herd of 400 or 500 cattle and about 
ICO head of horses and mules. With 
their sons and daughters near them 
It is an ideal country home and happy 
family where hospitality and congen- 
ality are apples of gold painted in 
silver frames. Only James M. is mar- 
ried. He wed Miss Roxanna, October 1 
1903, the amiable daughter of Mr. Mc 
Corkle, the merchant of Burbank and 
took her to his cosy cottage on his 
fine farm by the old home, and baby 
James (grand jr.) George adds another 
link in the family lineage since October 
last. Mr. George is of Ossage decent 
but of so advanced degree that he in- 
herits but little Osage blood and a most 
excellent progressive young man. His 
kodak took the Burbank views. 



Mr. George, whc lives about hali 
way between Remington and Burbank 
is one of the most prominent farmers 
in this section. He first married Miss 
Marguerite Carlton of Osage ancestry 
by whom he had four children, two 
boys and two girls, James, Jr., Syl- 
vestea, Mary and Ruby. After her 
death he married Mrs. Mary Mongrain, 
the widow of James Mongrain who 
had three children, Edith, Rose and 
Louis, a boy who died while a baby. 
The accompanying cut shows Mr. and 
Mrs. George with his two sons and 
daughters. Ruby and Mamie and his 
wife's two daughters, Edith and Rose 
Mongrain, party taken at Mt. Carmel 
Academy at Wichita, where the three 
young ladies are now attending school. 
The Mongrain family is one of the 
noted families of the Osage citizens 
frequently mentioned in their treaties 
and laws. Miss Edith a most lovely 
character died while attending North 
Missouri Academy at Salsberry Mo. 
Mr. Gongrfe >'s two sons are still with 
him. James, Jr., married a Miss Roxie 
McCorkle, of Burbank, and lives near 
his father, 2 miles from the station. 

Mr George has one of the best im- 
proved farms aii the reservation on 
Salt Creek. 




338 




139 



REMINGTON, O. T. 

In proceeding north on the railroad up Salt Creek valley, about 8 or 
10 miles from Fairfax, we reach Remington station, where the COUNTRY 
MANSION HOME of Louis Leonard DeNoya is located, one-quarter mile 
from the station. His place is known as the X-Bar, (X with a bar under 
it) ranch. He is the son of Frank and Martha DeNoya, the latter still 
living at Bartlesville, I. T. His home built here four years ago is one of 
the finest country dwellings in the western states, costing over 59,000. 

The fine double-deck verandas all around the outside cost alone nearly 
$2,000, an adeal country dwelling. 

It has 18 large, beautiful rooms, elegantly furnished at some thous- 
ands of dollars' cost. Moquette and Axminster rugs, Brussels and other 
fine carpets cover the hard, smooth floors. A Steinway piano and Pianola 
costing $1,000, for his parlor, besides another fine piano for the sitting 
room, and children's practice; a Regina Music Cabinet, costing $250 in 
the reception room and a $100 solid brass bedstead in one room with finest 
make of mahogany and oak furniture for other rooms show the elegance 
of his home. Each of his children, Frederick, Clement (nicknamed Budge), 
Josephine and Ruby each have a room with their names printed on the 
doors. Four more beautiful and bright children could nownere be found 
in one home. Their mother, who was Miss Josephine Revard before mar- 
riage, and a handsome, bright, devoted mother, was lost by a sad accident 
from a runaway team, near her home, one year ago. Mr. DeNoya has lived 
here nine years, and runs a general store and postoffice. He is just com- 
pleting a department store, and bank building, and three pretty cottages 
for employes. He has a private school in books and music for his chil- 
dren under the instruction of Miss Mable Herriman of Pawnee. 

The large east room, first floor, is the billiard room with table, cues, 
etc., for friends who enjoy this game. Would that all games could be con- 
fined to the home for innocent recreation with select friends, then all gamb- 
ling might soon cease. 'Tis not games, but the wrong use that makes 
greedy gamesters. Not the feet keeping time to merry music in the wind- 
ing, wheeling, whirling waltz, two-step and schotische, but in excess, and 
public promiscuous, "sporty" associations, within the embrace of many 
twining, oft-polluted arms, pressing each to heart, that tune human nerves 
to many discordant strains that surely follow. Unwise is the man of 
today that opposes any innocent recreation, because unwisely or badly abused 
by some. Let us rather raise all rights to ideals that know no wrong by 
early teaching of the youth. 

Here you see immense bins for grain, filled from the rich prairie and 
valley surrounding X-Ranch, or DeNoya villa. He once owned 7,000 head 
of cattle, but now has only 4,300; but is still one of the largest dealers and 
shippers of cattle in the Osage. This is a great grain section; seventy 
bushels of corn have been produced per acre on X-Ranch bottoms. Mr. 
DeNoya has erected an 18,000 capacity elevator and grist mill at 
the station, and last fall received more than they could easily handle. 
Remington is only a flag station now as no agent is kept in the depot. 
When looking over western Osage don't fail to see X-B'ar Ranch and its 
hospitable proprietor. The memory of a pleasant entertjulnment here will 
long linger with the writer. For the lack of photographer, to take views 
we regret that cuts do not appear to show the ideally of this country villa 
and fine orchards. 

ALL HAIL TO OKLAHOMA STATE 

The greatest territory, including Indian Territory, 
that ever knocked at the congressional door for addmission to statehood, 
after years of seeking admission, are, at last, seemingly about to be 
admitted. The bill as passed unanimously by the senate, with amend- 
ments; one to allow the people of the "Twin Territories," and New Mexico 
and Arizona, to vote on affairs of most concern to their people, as the capital 
location of Great Oklahoma, an amendment by Mr. Teller, and carried by 
31 to 39; and for N. M. and Ari. to decide each as to whether they desire 
joint statehood, is a wise piece of national legislation, as only the people of 
these sections should have a right to decide for their best future course. For 
Oklahoma and I. T. have, still, great resources to develop, and N. M. and 
Ari. have only begun good. The motion of Mr. Burrows to separate the 
interests of the southwest territories was the part of a true statesman, but 
lost on the first vote of 35 to 36. Mr.Foraker's amendment to give N. M. 

140 



ana An. opportunity to vote on jonit, or separate, biaieinjui-i, "^o ^^ -- — = 
namanious. The writer is for all effective temperance meaure, but believes 
the "Prohibition" (?) clause should apply to both eastern and western Ok- 
lahoma alike, or neither. The appropriation of $5,000,000 for educational 
interests is O. K., and the provisions to set aside sections 16 and 36 m each 
township of land in Okla. for public sale is to be commended, for several 
reasons. It is to hoped political contentions in the house will not longer 
delay the bill. Upon the fine prospect of the "fair" bride or "ship of state," 
coming in a few days, this history closes with congratulations for Okla- 
homa and her young Governor in the following dedicatory verses: 




Mr. James Bigheart, ex-chief of the Osagtes, 
after whom Bigheart Townsite is named. 
TRUE FlUENDSHIP. 
Dedicated to the Osiige, and Oklalioma, January, 1906. New Bride of State. 

True friendship is our golden chain and charm, 

So bards in romance often sing, 
In life's onward rush a mighty arm 

To man's success in life, home, ere love, or anything. 



In confidence, companions sought a bond most sweet. 

Without her fostering, tender care 
Our pleasures, joys, wealth, are fleet. 

Our fame and genius weak, and victories most rare. 

Then while your pen may dry, oft silent be. 
Mine in friendship's realms, shall roam; 

Back, back again, fair one! to thee — 

If but for one reply: "I'll meet you in my home. 



Though every straw in Osage fields of grain 

Were pens, streams Homa's showers of ink. 

Seas of snowy cotton, parchment, he'd ne'er complain, 
Of unquilled sounds, while of him you think. r 






For written words may be but broken wings, 

Tho' beautiful as Birds of Paradise expressed. 

And sweeter far on tongue that sings, 

You may return, in thought and memory you 11 rest. 

— Phil Dickerson. 

141 



BUSINESS DIRECTORY OF THE OSAGE COUNTRY UP TO OCT. 30. 05. 

(P) — Pawhuska; (S)— Skiatook; (H) — Hominy; (F) — Fairfax; (B) — 
Burbank. 

Banks — (P). First National, Citizens National, and B. of Commerce. 
(S). — Skiatook B., B. of Skiatook. (H.) — Hominy First National. (F.) — 
Osage B., and First National. Bank of Remington, (O. T.) 

Builders & Contractors. — (P.) A. V. Linscott, A. H. Hunt and Mr. Beck. 
Blacksmiths. — (P.) C. B. Thomas, J. C. Ferguson, Main St. Shop. (S.) V. F. 
Pinson. (H.) Shaffner & Bennett, A. B. Patterson. (F.) J. H. Dull. (B.) 
R. C. Norris. 

Barbers. — O. S. Shop, E. F. Kreyer, Mgr., and J. R. Kreyer and Jno. 
Vandervert, assts; Blue Point, R. D. Blanc, Mgr.; A. M.Goltra shop; T. T. 
Roberts, H. A. Gosney, W. W. Martin, assts. (S.) C. G. Tinklepaugh. (H.) 
J. G. Eversole. (F.) Jno. Sherrill & Son. 

Bakeries. Confectionaries, etc. — Curtis Bros., Enterpri.se, Arthur O'Dell 
&; M. O. Stephenson, Oscar Ade, Bonton, B. F. Parsons. (S.) C. F. Rogers 
(C); H. D. Swearinger, (B.) — (H.) Butternut B., H. L. Geeno & J. B'. 
Meadows, Prs. 

Doctors, M. D's. — (P.) J. M. Way, Government Physician; Jos. Dunn, 
Harry Walker, Geo. Dunn, W. H. Aaron, R. L. Hall, E. A. Jones, J. A. Speck, 
Mr. and Mrs. E. G. Barton, (D. C). Geo. H. Grady (V. S.). Mr. White, (V. 
S.). (S) Jos Sheafe, L. A. O'Brien, J. M. Poindexter, J. C. Nickols (Hill- 
side, I. T.). (H.) Dr. Mullins, Dr. Fraley, Dr. Spiers. 

Dentists. — (P.) F. C. Gale, J. B. Talbutt, J. L. Hamilton. 

Druggists and Jewelers. — (P.) Percy J. Monk, Osage Drug Co., E. E. 
Patterson, Mgr., A. E Patterson, elk., I. F. Anderson, pr., Jerry L. Hartan- 
bower, dk. Skiat&oK- Drug Co., Dr 0'Fri<^n Ch- . ke Diug Co., J. Noble 
Thompson and T. P. McVay. (H.) Mullins Drug Co. (F.) Carl H. Hudson. 

Fiiniitxire. — Baker-Cerney Co., Johnson & Fowler, Eureka 2nd H. Store. 
(S.) C. C. Nickles (& Undtg.) (H.) Jas. West & C. L. Kelly. 

General Merchandise. — Old Red Store, C. M. Hirt & Co., Osage Mer- 
cantile Co., W. C. Tucker, Mgr., Geo. Pratt's Price Store, & W. A. Day; 
Racket, Mrs. M. C. Hard wick, pro., L. W. N. H. elk; McLaughlin & Farrar, 
(T. H. & F. W.), — W. D. Parry, H. R. Sargent. Miss Mary Loeb. W. W. Math- 
ews, (D. G. elks.) — C. C. Garlinghouse (furniture). — H. W. McLaughlin, N. 

F. Overfield, J. R. Tolley & C. I. Calhahan. (Gro. elks.) — ^W. A. Daniels, Don- 
al Farrar, (clo. elks.); — Roy Tolley, Frank Foote, Arthur Hunt. Elex Rob- 
erts, (Lbr Yard). G. J. Wilkinson B'k'. Miss Grace Luppy cashier; — Mid- 
land Valley Mer. Co., Leonard Poison. Mgr., A. Y. Shaw, V. V. Campbell, 
(elks.); J. W. Parson's (Notions & Racket). 

Citizens Ti'a.li' g Co. — A. H. Gibson, Mgr. Emory Gibson, (fullblood), James 
Bigheart, J. H. Bartles, and Mrs. Nona P. Barndollar, stockholders, Oscar 
Burdette, W. J. Boone, Miss Annie Wheeler, (elks). J. H. Comer (b'k'r.), 
W. E. Hewitt & Son, Skiatook, — W. C. Rogers, Chas. Strange, A. B. Parks! 
(elks.). J. H. Craig & W. C. Webb. Feighly & Son; A. E. Townsend & Co.; 
L. A. Tyler, Master T. O. Jameson. Hominy Trading Co.; Fred Wood; 

M. F. Fraley, Harris & Nash, (Osage Jnc.) Saxon & Co. Fairfax — J. L. Van 
Sant (Mil. D. G. & Ladies Furnishings), L. A. Wismeyer, J. B. Wilson; H. 

G. Burt. Remington — L. L. DeNoya, J. R. Foote, elks. Burbank, Ira Mc- 
Corcle & Son. 

Groceries — (P.) Hunter Bros. J. A. & W. D.; C. B. Peters (Flour & 
Feed). Frank Jay (Geo. Stacy, elk.). J. W. Edwards (Hay & F.). Mr. 
Younger. (F.). Harris & Sapp. 

Hotels — Pawhuska House; Midland, Leland, J. B. Maker, Pr. ; Carlton 
House, J. J. Rhodes Pr. ; Watkins Bdg. House, Skiatook, Whitney & Leland, 
G. A. Whitney, pr. Commercial & Cafe, O. E. Mason, Pr.— (H.) Com- 
mercial H. M. Westbrook, Pr. ; Chautauqua, W. H. Stout, Pr. ; Merchants, 
E. N. Carnett, Pr.; Osage Jnn. (Jnc.) A. Duke, Pr. Metropolitan, T. M. Al- 
by, Pr. (F.) Ponton House. 

Hardware — (P.) Baker-Cerney Co. (& furniture.) Hays Hickerson, 
Plumber; Flannagan & James plumbing. (S.) Fred Lynde Plummer and 
Machinist; C. C. Nickles. (H.) J. H. Stumpff, Jr.. Jno. & C. L. Kelley. (F.) 
Ross & Hunsaker, (& Furn. & Undtg.) Goad, Farrell & Co. (Hard. & Har.). 

142 



Liveries, Feed and Wagon Yards. — (P.) Thos. Leahy & Son, (Will.) 
Stone Barn, C. L. Harris & Son (S. T.) ; Leland Barn, D. B. Maher Pr.; Chria 
Hansen; W. R. "^"ells; Bird Creek Yard, Davis & Hall. Red Store Yard, 
C. R. Hare; and Dr. Grady (V. S.) Osage Jnc. Saxon & Co. (S.) John Har- 
low, (& sale barn). (H.) L. H. & Bert Westbrook's L. Barn. (F.) Morledge 
& Son. W. N. Ballard. 

Lumber Co's. — (P.) Spurrier, Duncan Bros., Dickason-Goodman & Co., 
W. R. Beydler, Mgr. ; Cragin Lbr. Co., L. C. Snodgrass, Mgr. ; Minnetonka Lbr. 
Co., F. C. Bell Mgr. (H.) W. J. R. Fellows, Jas. Beebe, Mgr.; Hominy Lbr. 
Co. (F.) L. A. Wismeyer Lbr. Yd., F. D. Waugh, Mgr. 

Laundry — Jet White, W'ayland Wood Pr. 

Mill & Elevator Co's. — (P.) Osage M. & E. Co. (S.) Cherokee M. & E. 
Co., S. M. Patterson, Mgr. Fairfax Grain & E. Co., McGraw Bros., Mgrs. 

Law. — (P.) J. N. Coulter, Jno. T. Leahy. E. F. Scott . Hardin 
Ebey, Isaac D. Taylor, E. W. King, (notary). Judge E. N. Yates, (U. S. Com. 
Hargis Bros., H. C. & Wrightman, Fulton & John Palmer, C. S. McDonald, 
J. D. Mitchell; P. A. Shinn. (S.) C. N. Cleveland (N. P.), Chas. H. Nash, 
(N. P.) 

Millinery. — (P.) Mrs. G. H. Saxon; Famous, Le^na Jarrell; J. F. Berry- 
hill & Sister (Mable) ; Mrs. Ollie Crabbe; Mrs. J. W. Parsons. (S.) Mrs. W. 
R. Beydler; Misses Dora & Rose Miller. (F.) J. L.Van Sant. 

Meat Markets — (S.) Curtis Eros. (F.) G. A. Morris Market. P. Spir- 
ling, Mgr.; Jesse Givens, A. N. Hinkle. (S.) City M. M., G. C. Smyth, Pr., 
J. W. Stewart, Mgr. (H.) W. H. McConnell; Palace, T. P. Countryman, Pr. 
(F.) M. E. Ponton's Market. 

Men's Clothing Tailoring — Schaeber C. Co.; B. Liebenheim. (S.) R. F. 
Sunday, Shoes, C. & Racket. 

Real Estate — Pawhuska Realty Co.; Carlton & Tolson, E. M. Demsey; 
Steffen & Smith; W. M. Dial & E. W. King; Geo. B. Mellotte (R. & Ins.) 
Ewing F. G. A. Morris (Insur.); Mr. Baker; C. N. Prudom. (S.) C. H. Cleve- 
land; Chas. H. Nash. (F.) Wm. Bennett. 

Restaurants — (P.) Blue Point, Ed Simpkins, Will Hall, Fred Cross; 
Home, G. O. Williams, Pr. ; Gem, H. W. Kuhlman, Pr. ; Main St. Res.; Moss 
Cafe, Mr. & Mrs. C. A. Moss, prs; Chilli, Joe Lenaris, Juan Rodrige. S.) 
Whitney Cafe, Jonathan Carr. (H.) A. L. Henston. (F.) H. R. Patton, 
(S. O.) City Res't., W. H. Palmer, Pr.; Barney Gibbs. 

Photographers — (P.) Mrs. Gladys Hargis, and Geo. W. Hargis; G. W. 
Parsons; (H.) Mrs. Alma Spiers, Mr. Cavner, Ralston. 

Painters, Pai>er Hangers — (P.) Chester Yake; E. R. Larey; Henry 
Barnes, (Bug. & Car. P.). (S.) C. H. Keller. 

Miscellaneous — (P.) J. C. Pollard's Bottling Works. — J. C. Mendenhall, 
(Singer Co.); Osage Roller Mills; Wm. Kelley, boot and shoe maker; Osage 
Tel. Co.; P. S. Harris, Mgr. — J. W. Bradshaw, house mover — McKinny & 
Miller, carp. shop. W. E. McGuire, postmaster. — Rink Opera House, Mr. 
Woodring Mgr. — (S.) A. B. Morris, Billiard Hall. (H.) C. C. Hopkins shoe & 
Boot Mfgr., Martin Tel. System. (F.) Kaw City Tel. Co., R. L. Bristo, Pr. 

P. M. Osage Jc'n. 

FRATERNALi SOCIETIES. 

A. F. & A. M. — Saturday in or before the full moon of each month and 
two weeks afterwards at 7:30. J. W. Franks, W. N.; J. H. Comer, Sec. 

Eastern Star — The 1st & 2nd Tuesdays in each month at 4:00 p. m, 
P. J. Monk, W. P.; Mrs. E. M. Campbell, W. M. 

I. O. O. F. — Every Monday evening at 7:30 p. m. Ed. McMahon, Sec; 
Chas. F. Leech. N. G. 

K. of P. — Every Wednesday evening 7:30 p'. m. Wm. Kelly, Rec; E. 
Wheeler, C. C. 

Modern Woodmen — Every first and third Friday evening 7:30. W. A. 
Daniels, Clerk; P. Spirling, V. C. 

Juanita Camp Xo. 2593 Royal Neighbors of America — Meets 2nd and 
4th Fridays of each month. M-s. Jennie Spirling, Oracle; Mrs. Linda C. 
Daniels, Recorder. 

(COPYRIGHTED FEBRUARi' 1906.) 
by Philip J. Dickerson. 

143 




,<^ «.^ ^^ {1414.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4. 4'4'4'4'4'4'4'4 " I"I " »4'»> 

SOXG OF THE TItAVELER 
GOING AXD COMING 

ON 

THE MUSICAL TIME 
■THE METEOR." 
For as straight a line as the buzzing bees fly, 
Carrying their honey to their distant hive, 
More direct and rapid than the beautiful dove. 
So silently fleet as carrier pigeons move. 
Returning, afar, from strange lands, home. 
Your latest of messages from friends long gone, 
Ere your loved ones themselves as all go and come, 
To or from Splendid Trains of easy sitting chairs, 
In Pullmans, or sleepers, or diners, who cares, 
Not alone by day in tourist-sightseeing cars; 
On! as well by night, under moonlight and stars, 




Speeds 



44 



THE METEOR" 



of the 




Vo and from all points of the compass. 

Through 
The Great Osage Reservation Dispatch to all Frisco Terminals, 
^-^ "THE 3IETEOIi." 




FROM HERETOTHERE. 

On a gun line 

From 
Chicago to Quanah, Texas, 

From 
Kansas City to Ft. Worth & San Antonio, 

From 
St. Louis to Oklahoma City and Guthrie. ,) 

Froin 
Evansville, (Ind.'* and Springfield, to Enid, Oklahoma. 

From 
Eureka Springs '' Anthony, (Kansas). 

From 
Memphis to Wichita. 

From 
Ellsworth, Kan., to Hope, Ark.. 

From 
Joppa, (Egypt, 111.) to Avard, Oklahoma, 

From 
Birmingham to Denver and Colorado Springs, and each taps theX 
Osage Country as the center of. 




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