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_ 6- .- } O,6-o Ci ., G } ) J. 

'God hath Treasuries aneath the Throne, the Keys 
whereof are the Tongues of the Poets.' 

Hadis-i Sherff. 






E. J. W. GIBB, M. R. A.S. 













The publication of this fifth volume of the History of 
Ottoman Poetry brings to a close the more essential part 
of the obligation which I undertook, at the wish of the 
mother and the widow of my late friend, Mr. E. J. W. Gibb, 
now nearly six years ago, to edit and secure the publica- 
tion of the great and masterly work to which his too brief 
life was devoted. All that he wrote is now accessible to the 
Orientalist, the scholar, the student of literary history and 
the general reader. Whatever else may be alleged against 
the Ottoman Turks, it can never again be asserted by the 
candid and impartial reader that they are, or ever have 
been, since their first appearance on the stage of history in 
the thirteenth century, indifferent to literature. On the con- 
trary, their fault in our own days, as it seems to me, is 
that they pay too much attention to literature, and expect 
from it (I speak now especially of the Modern School, with 
the protagonists of which the present volume deals) a sal- 
vation and regeneration which it cannot give. I have lately 
been looking with some attention into the mass of Turkish 
tracts and pamphlets which belonged to my late friend, and 
which were, with other literary materials, placed at my 
disposal by Mrs. E. J. W. Gibb, and nothing connected with 
them has impressed me more than the glorification of Turkish 
men of letters, especially of Ziya Pasha, Shinasi, Kemal 


Bey, Ekrem Bey, Mu c allim Najf, lAbdu'l-Haqq Hamid Bey 
and others of the modern leaders of Ottoman literature, and 
the minute and almost meticulous criticisms of their works' 
which form so considerable a proportions of their contents. 
Again and again I have exclaimed to myself, "Would that 
the Turks had a literature comparable in value to those of 
the Arabs and Persians, and would that the Arabs and 
Persians had cultivated the art of literary criticism to a 
degree approaching that of the Ottoman Turks!" 

It is, as I observed in the preface to the last volume 
(p. IX), a matter for profound regret that Gibb did not live 
to complete his account of the Modern School, with which 
he had a real sympathy, and for which he entertained a 
genuine admiration such as can hardly he found since his 
death outside Turkey. For this modern Ottoman literature, 
so far as Europe is concerned, is a kind of No Man's Land. 
The Orientalist by profession is disinclined to devote much 
time or labour to a literature which is not only quite 
modern but quasi-European, while the student of modern 
literary movements rarely possesses a sufficient knowledge 
of a language which, even in the simpler forms affected by 
the New School of Ottoman writers, remains more difficult 
than Arabic or Persian. Yet I begin to see (what I at first 
was disposed to doubt) than this modern Turkish literature 
has real value and merit ; and, though I cannot myself hope 
to find leisure to exploit and appreciate it, I feel com- 
pelled to express an earnest hope that some other Turkish 
scholar may arise in Western Europe who will once and 
for all write its history and appraise its value. 

Meanwhile I am still hopeful that Gibb's unfinished work 
may be completed by a very able Turkish man of letters, 
whose name I am not now at liberty to mention, and who 
has for some time been engaged on this work. Personally 


acquainted with most of the leading spirits of the New 
School, knowing English well and French still better, and 
animated by a genuine enthusiasm for his work, he has 
already surveyed a large portion of the field which Gibb 
did not live to cultivate. Yet, owing to the atmosphere of 
suspicion which now broods over Constantinople, and, in 
particular, the disfavour with which the political ideas of 
the "Young Turks" (to whose ranks most of the adherents 
of the New School of Literature belong) are regarded, his 
task is one of extreme difficulty, since even the works of 
Kemal Bey, the brightest light of that school while he 
lived, are banned by the Government and can hardly be 
seen in Constantinople. That this supplement will be finished 
in time I have little doubt, but the date of its completion 
remains so uncertain that is seemed to me best to complete 
Gibb's work without further delay by publishing the three 
chapters which he had written on the Modern School, 
together with the very full and careful Indices prepared by 
my friend and colleague Mr. R. A. Nicholson; to follow 
up this fifth volume with a sixth containing the Turkish 
texts of all the poems translated by Gibb; and to add later 
the seventh volume containing my Turkish collaborator's 
supplement, should this be finished and safely reach my 
hands. The sixth volume, containing the Turkish texts, is, 
I may add, complete in manuscript, and is now in the press, 
whence 112 pages of it have already been received in type, 
so that, if all goes well, it should be published next year. 
I am glad to say that ultimately, after many a laborious 
search through the manuscripts, printed books and note-books 
of my late friend, I have succeeded in recovering the original 
texts of all the translations contained in these volumes 
without exception. . 

My labours are therefore almost finished, and I am thank- 


ful that this is so, and that I have so nearly fulfilled th e 
arduous duty which I undertook in December, 1901. My 
chief regret is that my late friend's mother did not live to 
see the accomplishment of the work in which she took so 
profound and affectionate an interest; my chief satisfaction, 
that I have been enabled to render to a great and single- 
minded scholar, whose friendship and sympathy I shall ever 
remember with gratitude and pleasure, that service which 

of all others he would have valued most. 


August i, 1907. EDWARD G. BROWNE. 

The Modern School of Ottoman Poetry, that in which 
the inspiring genius is no longer of the East, but of Western 
Europe, falls into two periods, the one of Preparation, the 
other of Accomplishment. The first begins in 1275 (1859) 
with the publication of Shinasi Efendi's Translations from 
the French poets; the second in 1296 (1879) with the 
appearance of Hamid Bey's Sahra. 



1275 1296 (1859 1879). 

We have now to tell the story of a great awakening. 
We have traced the course of poetic literature amongst the 
Ottoman Turks during five centuries and a half. We have 
learned how, throughout this long period, no voice has 
ever reached it from outside the narrow school where it was 
reared; how, Persian in its inception, Persian in substance it 
has remained down to the very end, driven back after a 
blind struggle to win free, baffled and helpless into the 
stagnant swamp of a dead culture. But now all is on the 
verge of change; Asia is on the point of giving place to 
Europe, and the tradition of ages is about to become a 
memory of the past. A voice from the Western world rings 
through the Orient skies like the trumpet-blast of Israfil; 
and lo, the muse of Turkey wakes from her death-like 
trance, and all the land is jubilant with life and song, for 
a new heaven and a new earth are made visible before the 
eyes of men. Now for the first time the ears of the people 
are opened to hear the speech of hill and valley, and their 
eyes unsealed to read the message of cloud and wave. The 
heavy fetters of secular tradition and convention are broken 

and cast away, and the poet finds himself at last a free 
man, free to seek his inspiration where he will, free to voice 
what is within him as he pleases. 

The time is not yet come when it is possible fully and 
adequately to write the history of this Renascence. It has 
shot up and burst into glorious flower under our very eyes. 
We are too near to the great events that have brought it 
about to see these in true perspective; we cannot justly 
determine the relative importance of mighty changes effected 
while we are looking on. Moreover, we are still, perhaps, 
somewhat bewildered and dazed by the suddenness and 
completeness of the revolution, while even were it otherwise, 
the materials necessary to write a satisfactory account of 
its development are not yet available. The chief actors have 
been, as we shall see, more or less intimately concerned 
in the demand for political reform that has sprung up in 
the newly-awakened nation, and such accounts of them and 
their work as have yet appeared have been so mutilated 
and travestied by the jealous suspicion of the official censor 
as to be well nigh useless. I can, therefore, in the following 
chapters attempt no more than to outline the story of this 
great literary revival. To my successors must be left the 
task of producing the finished picture. More remote from 
the actual crisis and with ampler materials at their disposal, 
they will doubless be able not only to complete, but in 
many points to correct, my sketch. 

It took the poets twenty years to attain that freedom of 
which I have spoken ; and it is to the consideration of these 
twenty years during which the way was being prepared that 
I propose to devote the present chapter. During these two 
decades, from 1859 to 1879, the Europeanising movement 
initiated by Selim the Martyr and fostered by Mahmud the 
Reformer and his son c Abd-ul-Mejid, was becoming more 

than a mere external matter modifying the machinery of 
the administration and revolutionising the titles and costumes 
of the official world; it was striking its roots beneath the 
surface and beginning to exercise a powerful influence on 
the ideas and opinions of the more thoughtful of the people. 
The closer connection between Turkey and the Western 
states, brought about by political and commercial relations 
and the greater facilities of communication, naturally gave 
rise amongst intelligent Ottomans to a desire to form some 
acquaintance with a civilisation which enabled its possessors 
to achieve such brilliant success in so many diverse directions. 
This in its turn led men to undertake the study of the 
French language as the key to this new treasure-house of 
knowledge. And here we strike the true fountain head of 
all the development that follows. From the moment when 
the study of a Western language became general, trans- 
formation of the whole intellectual outlook was inevitable, 
and the only question remaining was when and how this 
should be accomplished. 

The admission of the French language into the educational 
curriculum is the most revolutionary measure in the history 
of Ottoman culture. There has been nothing in any way 
resembling it in the past. This culture was, so to speak, 
born and reared in that of Persia; it did not adopt this 
latter, but grew up encompassed by it, unconscious of the 
existence of any other, so that it has sometimes been regarded, 
and not altogether unfairly, rather as a branch thereof than 
as an independent growth. The passage from one Persianist 
school to another has marked no revolution, but only the 
several steps in a process of development, or, if the word 
be preferred, of decline. The Romanticist revolt effected no 
radical or permanent change, but, for lack of guiding principle, 
soon spent itself, so that nothing was left but to fall back 

into the slough of Persianism. But now for the first time 
an entirely new world of ideas is opened out before the 
Ottoman mind ; and with that genius for assimilation which, 
as we have so often noticed, is characteristic of the race, 
this new revelation is made part and parcel of the intellectual 
life, so that to the Turk of to-day the ghazels of c Arif 
Hikmet and his school have come to seem as remote as 
do the poems of Gower or Occleve to ourselves. 

Even when regarded from the literary side alone, the 
results of this measure have been stupendous. The hoary 
traditions of five hundred and fifty years, traditions which 
appeared ineradicably interwoven with the genius of the 
people, have been all reversed ; what were formerly looked 
upon as merits are now held for faults, and what were once 
held for faults are now looked upon as merits. Not only 
have the canons of taste been revolutionised, but the whole 
conception of poetry has become absolutely changed. In the 
old time poetry was before all things an art, and whosoever 
knew and followed the rules of that art was called a poet; 
but he who would earn such title now must be the interpreter 
of the heart of man. In prose the change has been as complete 
and came earlier ; while two entirely new forms of literature, 
the drama and the novel, the very names of which were 
unknown before, have been introduced and are now fully 

But the effects of the new education have been by no 
means confined to literature ; the force of the revolution it 
produced has been felt all along the intellectual line, notably 
in science and in politics. Indeed, in the earlier years of c Abd- 
ul-Meji'd's reign, the few who then undertook the study 
of French did so almost exclusively for purposes of diplomacy 
or science, the literary possibilities it opened out being 
still, except in two memorable instances, practically ignored. 

Hence it comes that the earlier historical and scientific 
treatises of Jevdet and Munif Pashas, produced about the 
time of the accession of c Abd-ul-Aziz, are written with 
modern knowledge but in the old style. In science, the new 
learning has transported Turkey from the middle ages to 
the present day; in politics, it has created the 'Young Turkey' 
party*. This party, whose aims are liberty and progress, was 
called into existence by the same men who founded the 
new literature, and the stories of the two are closely linked 
together. So swiftly grew the demand for political reform 
which it evoked among the people, and so powerful did this 
become, that hardly a dozen years had passed ere the Sultan 
was forced to proclaim the Constitution. And although this 
Constitution is for the time being in abeyance, suppressed by 
the present reactionary regime, it is still theoretically the 
only lawful form of government in Turkey. 

The new culture is spoken of by the Turks as 'gharbi" 
that is 'western' or 'occidental', and is contrasted with the 
'sharqf, that is the 'eastern' or 'oriental'. As a matter of fact it 
is borrowed almost exclusively from France, the other western 
countrie's, England, Germany, Italy etc., having contributed 
little or nothing. Till about the middle of the nineteenth 
century the Turks who knew French were few and far 
between; but nowadays every person, man or woman, with 
any pretensions to education, knows something of the language 
and can speak and read it with more or less facility. An 
immense number of works, both literary and scientific, have 
of late years been. translated from French into Turkish, thus 
enabling even those whose knowledge of the former language 
is defective to form some conception of 'western' ideas. 
French philosophers, French dramatists, French novelists, 
French poets, are now the models of the Turkish man of 
letters; indeed we might almost say that what Persia was 


to the Ottomans of bygone years France is to their descendants 
of to-day. The reason why France, or rather the French 
language and literature, occupy this position of overwhelming 
predominance may be found in the fact that French, being 
the language of diplomacy, would naturally have the greatest 
claim on officials such as were the first Turks who turned 
their attention to things western. The French language would 
thus get a start; the riches which, as was soon discovered, it 
enshrines would commend it to the scholarly, while its great 
utility as a lingua franca would readily be appreciated by all. 

The first clear note of the revolution was not struck till 
1859, but circumstances had for long been preparing the way 
for the coming change. We have seen how poetry was in 
a desperate plight, without compass and without rudder, 
tossed to and fro between Persianism and Romanticism, in 
sore need of some guiding light. The changes introduced 
during the last fifty years had gradually accustomed men's 
minds to the once distasteful idea of adopting anything 
European; the suspicion born of ignorance had now in great 
measure passed away. Then the foundation of the Enjumen-i 
Danish a few years earlier showed that there was some stir 
in the intellectual world; the literary revival could not 
therefore be far behind. Thus all was ready; the need was 
great, the remedy at hand ; nothing was wanting but the 
man who could apply it. 

Meanwhile he and his two lieutenants had been quietly 
preparing themselves for their great work. These three 
men and their names are amongst the most illustrious in 
the history of modern Turkey are Shinasi Efendi, Kemal 
Bey and Ziya Pasha. It is primarily to these three that the 
transformation of Ottoman literature and the creation of the 
Young Turkey party alike are due. In the following chapters 
we shall consider the work of each of these three reformers 

in some detail, but a few words are necessary here to indicate 
the position in which they stand in relation to the new 
movement as a whole. 

After studying in Paris, Shinasi returned to Constantinople, 
and there in the year 1859 he published a small volume of 
translations from various French poets. This was the first 
translation of a purely literary character ever made from a 
Western language into Turkish; and although it had little 
immediate effect, its appearance marks an epoch in Ottoman 
literature. By a strange coincidence this little book appeared 
in the same year in which died c Arif Hikmet, the last poet 
of eminence of the Old School. Of much more immediate 
importance was the newspaper the first non-official journal 
in Turkey which Shinasi established in the following year, 
and in which he endeavoured to promote the great end he 
had in view. This end was briefly to approximate, as closely 
as might be, the intellectual life of Turkey to that of the 
Western nations. To effect this the first thing needful was 
obviously so to modify the literary language as to render 
it an adequate medium for the expression of the new and 
alien ideas which it was sought to naturalise. This was the 
chief part of Shinasi's work, and so successful was he here 
that his immediate heirs have been able from the foundations 
which he laid to elaborate ^a literary idiom little inferior in 
precision and directness to its western prototype. The 
remodelling of the language, however, was but a means 
to an end, so, while Shinasi devoted much thought and 
attention to all matters bearing thereon, he was careful 
to do what he could towards educating the people by 
publishing in his paper articles dealing with a great variety 
of scientific and social questions treated from a modern 
European point of view. Even politics were discussed with 
a certain degree of freedom, as under the easy-going regime 


of those days writers enjoyed a considerable amount of 

About two years after Shinasi had started his journalistic 
work he was joined by Namiq Kemal, then a young man 
of some twenty summers. This young man, who was destined 
to develop into one of the most brilliant writers Turkey 
has ever known, at once became the devoted disciple of 
Shinasi, whose aims and principles he adopted with enthusiasm, 
and whose ideals he eventually realised with a brilliancy 
and power far beyond anything which the master himself 
could ever have achieved. Indeed, when Kemal Bey died in 
1888, at a comparatively early age, he left Ottoman prose, 
which he had found a chaotic welter, without rule or guiding 
principle, a powerful and delicate instrument capable of 
expressing with precision, force and grace the manifold 
complexity of modern thought. 

While Shinasi was still maturing his schemes and Kemal 
was yet a lad in the provinces writing reams of verses in 
imitation of NeFi and Fehim, the third of the group, Ziya, 
then a secretary in the Palace, was independently and entirely 
on his own account, working in the same direction, translating 
French classics and constructing for himself a Turkish prose 
style modelled thereupon. Later on he joined forces with 
Shinasi and Kemal, and in 1867, when his quarrel with c Ali 
Pasha, the all-powerful vezir of G Abd-ul- c Aziz, made it 
inexpedient for him to remain in Constantinople, he accepted 
the invitation of the Egyptian prince, Mustafa Fazil Pasha, 
to join him in Europe, and along with Kemal and some 
others of the Young Turkey leaders he fled from his nafive 
country. The sojourn of these reformers in the West, which 
lasted till the death of G Ali Pasha some four years later, 
had naturally considerable influence in the development of 
their ideas both literary and political. Thus the aims of the 


party grew more precise ; a definite demand for constitutional 
and responsible government took the place of the previous 
somewhat vague cry for reform, and a newspaper was 
established in which Kemal and Ziya could not only give 
expression to their views and aspirations but continue to 
practise that art of the literary craftsman which to them 
was hardly less dear. 

It is then to the labours of these three men that the 
creation of modern Ottoman prose is due. The application 
of the new principles to poetry does not come till later, 
not till Hamid Bey writes his Sahra. It is with the appearance 
of this epoch-making booklet in 1879 that the true Modern 
School of Ottoman poetry begins. Shinasi, Kemal and Ziya 
did indeed all write poetry, the last two, and particularly 
Kemal, being further poets of great merit and distinction. 
But partly because their chief aim was utilitarian, and partly 
because the bent of their genius lay rather towards prose 
than poetry, they did not bestow the same attention on the 
latter. Of the three, Kemal alone lived to profit by the 
change; for Shinasi was dead and Ziya dragging out the 
last year or two of his life in virtual exile at Adana, when 
Hamid Bey inaugurated the new poetry of Turkey. The 
revelation came too late for them ; but Kemal at once saw 
the potentialities it enshrined and applied himself to its 
cultivation with the splendid success that attended his every 
literary effort. It is because of his great success in the new 
poetry that I have in the following pages placed him amongst 
the poets of the true Modern School rather than alongside 
of his colleagues Shinasi and Ziya. 

The typical poetry of the twenty years under review finds 
its best exponent in Ziya, Shinasi's work in verse being 
small in extent and of comparatively little moment. The 
distinguishing feature of this typical poetry is a combination 


of the modern spirit with the traditional machinery. The 
range of subject remains practically the same, the external 
form is wholly unaltered, but the point of view has changed. 
The poet looks at much the same things as did his ancestors, 
and speaks of them in much the same way, but he sees 
them in a new light and approaches them from a different 
direction. His knowledge, too, of things in general has grown 
more mature, so that if he still sometimes speaks about the 
Seven Spheres, he does so merely as a figure of speech, 
not because he is in any way ignorant of the nature of the 
solar system. 

But although the more truly representative of its time 
and, as leading directly to the coming development, infinitely 
the more important, the poetry of this type is far from 
forming the bulk of the verse now produced. Most of the 
poets during these twenty years continued to work upon 
the lines of the Persianist reaction that had set in during 
the preceding Period. Nefi is still on the whole the favourite 
model ; but the poets are eclectic, and no single style is 
really predominant. The work they produced is often good, 
and, by the increased clearness and accuracy in thought which 
it occasionally displays, shows that the writers were not 
wholly insensible to the influences of the time; but its 
interest is little more than that of a survival, as the true 
voice of the age speaks elsewhere. None the less it is not 
without a certain pathos ; for it is the swan-song of the old 
Oriental genius as it passes away before the all-conquering 
spirit of the west. 

As I have already said, the study of French led to the 
introduction into Ottoman literature of two absolutely new 
forms, the novel and the drama. The first of these has 
no connection with poetry, and so perhaps lies somewhat 
outside our sphere ; but as its appearance is an interesting 

event in the history of Turkish literature, it may be permis- 
sible to say a few passing words concerning it. Up till now 
there have been no true novels, nothing but some romances 
of the Arabian Nights type, the best known of which are 
the Qirq Vezfr or Forty Vezirs, l the c lbret-numa, or Monitor, 
of Lami c i, 2 and the Mukhayyalat, or Phantasms, of c Ali 
c Aziz. 3 In 1279 (1862) Yusuf Kamil Pasha published in a 
very graceful though naturally old-fashioned style a trans- 
lation of Fenelon's Telemaque. This was the first western 
work of fiction ever turned into Turkish. A few years later, 
when the number of those who knew the language increased, 
there began a rush of translations of novels of every description 
which continues unabated down to the present day, the result 
being that modern French fiction is now very fairly represented 
in Turkish. The Turks had of course no name for compositions 
of this kind, so they have adopted the French term and 
call a novel, whether original or translated, a 'roman.' These 
French novels represent of course a manner of life foreign 
to Turkey; but it was not long before Ahmed Midhat Efendi, 
an eminent man of letters, conceived the idea of writing 
similar stories which should depict local life and manners. 
So in 1287 (1870-1) he began to publish a series of novelettes, 
under the collective title of Leta'if-i Riwayat or Pleasant Tales, 

1 This collection of tales, the earliest Turkish version of which is at least 
as old as the time of Murad II, was translated and published by me in 1 886, 
under the title of the 'History of the Forty Vezirs'. Nothing is known of the 
author or compiler, who is variously styled Sheykh-zade and Ahmed-i Misrf, 
i. e. Ahmed the Egyptian (or Cairene), both perhaps names of a single 
individual. The book is generally called Qirq Vezir Ta'rfkhi 'the History of 
the Forty Vezirs'; its correct title is Hikayetu-Erba c ma Sabahan ve Mesa'an, 
"The Story of the Forty Morns and Eves." 

2 This is Lami c i the Suleymanic poet an account of whom is given in 
vol. iii, ch. 2. 

3 Giridli c Ali c Aziz, or c Ali c Aziz the Cretan, died in 1213 (1798-9). His 
Mukhayyalat consists of three 'Phantasms', one of which was translated and 
published by me in 1884, under the title of 'The Story of Jewad'. 


which deal for the most part with Ottoman subjects, and in 
so doing he laid the foundation of the now flourishing branch 
of literature known as the 'milli roman' or 'national novel'. 
The drama, though at first exclusively and always more 
generally written in prose, was chosen by Hamid Bey as 
the form into which to cast some of the most noble of his 
poems, and therefore concerns us more closely than does the 
novel. The rise of the Ottoman drama proceeded naturally 
enough along the same lines as the rise of the Ottoman 
novel. In 1286 (1869 70), the celebrated Ahmed Vefiq 
Pasha published translations of three of Moliere's comedies, 
namely 'George Dandin', 'Le Medecin malgre Lui', and 
'Le Mariage Force'. In these translations, which are made 
with great ability and much spirit, the Pasha very cleverly 
adapted the scenes to Eastern life by here and there slightly 
modifying an incident or a phrase, and by re-christening the 
characters with Turkish or Levantine names. Thus George 
Dandin appears as a Greek with the name Yorgi Dandini; 
Sganarelle, the doctor by constraint, becomes the Turkish 
peasant c lwaz ; while the Sganarelle of the forced marriage 
figures as c lwaz Agha. These three plays, which are entitled 
Yorgi Dandini, Zoraki Tabib, and Zor Nikahi respectively, 
were shortly afterwards produced upon the stage, their 
representation being the first true dramatic performance ever 
given in Turkish. The expenses of their production were de- 
frayed by a subscription raised amongst those Turks interested 
in literature and culture ; and notwithstanding the inevitable 
shortcomings of the Turco-Armenian troupe charged with 
the representation, the performances were very highly ap- 
preciated. Later on a permanent theatre for the representation 
of Turkish plays was established at Gedik Pasha in Stamboul, 
and this continued to be the chief temple of the Ottoman 
drama till its destruction by fire some years ago. 

In 1288 (1871 2), two years after the appearance of 
Vefi'q Pasha's translations of Moliere, Ebu-z-Ziya Tevfiq 
Bey, in collaboration with Kemal Bey (whose name, however, 
did not appear) published the first original Turkish drama. 
This was not a comedy like Veffq's translations, but a 
tragedy having for title Ejel-i Qaza or 'The Fated Doom'. 

Ebu-z-Ziya Tevfiq Bey, who is thus closely connected with 
the introduction of the drama into Ottoman literature, has 
frequently been mentioned in the course of our History. 
Although not a poet, this scholarly and accomplished gentle- 
man, with whom I have the pleasure of being personally 
acquainted, has played so great a part in the new literary 
movement and rendered such important services to its develop- 
ment, that any sketch thereof, however fragmentary, would be 
grievously defective were his labours passed over unrecognised. 
Early associated with Kemal Bey in journalistic work, Tevfiq 
Bey soon became the intimate friend and warm admirer of that 
great reformer, and about 1874 5, when Sultan c Abd-ul- 
c Aziz, alarmed at the popularity of the latter, as shown by 
the enthusiastic reception of his play 'The Fatherland', 1 
swept down upon the little group of pioneers and summarily 
banished them to different corners of the Empire, Tevffq 
Bey was hurried off, an exile to the island of Rhodes. There 
he employed his time in the compilation of a work which 
has had a great and beneficial influence on the later literature. 
This work, the first of its kind in Turkish, has often been 
referred to in the preceding chapters. It is called Numune-i 
Edebiyyat-i c Osmaniyya or Specimens of Ottoman Literature, 
and consists of a series of selected extracts from the works 
of the most remarkable Ottoman prose writers, beginning 
at the fifteenth century. 2 These selections have been care- 

1 Watan, yakhod Silistre. The first edition was published in 1289(1872 3). 

2 In the last edition, that of 1308, the authors represented are: Sinau 


fully made, partly with the view of showing the development 
of Ottoman prose, but chiefly in order to supply the young 
literary aspirant with a series of models which he may study 
with real advantage. This being the case, the pretentious 
and wilfully obscure writers of the old time are naturally 
conspicuous by their absence; there is no word from the 
Humayun-Name or the Shefiq-Name, while Nergisi and 
Veysi, those paragons of the Persianists, are mentioned only 
to be condemned. For not the least valuable and certainly 
the most interesting feature of the work is a preface and 
series of critical articles on the authors represented,, contri- 
buted by the compiler himself. In these, which form the 
first serious attempt at literary criticism in Turkish, and 
which are written in a style noteworthy not only for its 
originality but for its vigour and directness, Tevffq Bey 
succeeds in compelling the attention of his readers by the 
new light in which he presents the literature of his country 
and by the alternately luminous and suggestive character 
of his remarks. This work, the preface of which is dated 
from the Knights' Castle in Rhodes, where the author was 
imprisoned, was first published in 1296 (1879); it has passed 
through several editions, each in one way or other an 
improvement on its predecessor. 

In 1299 (1881) Tevfiq Bey, who, along with his colleagues, 
had been recalled from exile by Murad V during his 
brief reign, established in Galata a printing-press which very 
soon gained a high and deserved reputation. The founder, 
who is a man of cultivated and refined taste, with a keen 
appreciation of all that is artistic, has from the outset taken 
the greatest interest in the productions of his establishment, 

Pasha, Fuzuli, Qochi Bey, Na c imd, Nedfm, Kani, Haqqi Pasha, Qoja Segbdn- 
Bashi, Muterjim c A.sim, c Akif Pasha, Reshid Pasha, Fu'ad Pasha, Edhem Pertev 
Pasha, Shinasf, Ziya Pasha, Sa c d-ullah Pasha, and Kemal. 


sparing neither labour nor expense in his efforts to ensure 
that these shall be in all ways worthy examples of the 
typographic art. Nor has his devotion been unrewarded; 
some of the works issued from this press afford the finest 
examples in existence of printing in the Oriental characters, 
surpassing anything hitherto produced either in Europe or 
in the East. 

But beauty of external form has not been the only, or 
even the chief, concern of Tevfiq Bey; in all his publications 
he has kept steadily in view that great aim of his party, 
the education of the people. The Mejmu c a-i Ebu-z-Ziya, 
or Ebu-z-Ziya's Magazine, contains a vast number of useful 
and instructive articles on an infinity of subjects; the Kutub- 
Khane-i Ebu-z-Ziya, or Ebu-z-Ziya's Library, is a series of 
valuable books comprising new editions of rare and interesting 
old works, reprints of many of the less accessible writings 
of the great modern authors, as well as original treatises 
dealing with matters historical, literary and scientific; while 
the Lughat-i Ebu-z-Ziya, or Ebu-z-Ziya's Dictionary, is in 
some respects the best Turkish dictionary yet published, 
and certainly the most interesting, containing, as it does, 
a wealth of quotations from standard authors of all periods 
illustrating the various uses of the words explained and the 
changes in signification which these have undergone. These 
are but a few of the many works which Ebu-z-Ziya Tevfiq 
Bey has printed and published - - and often himself written 
or at least edited and by means of which he has in his 
own way done as much as any one man to promote the 
cause of the new learning. 

Ebu-z-Ziya's, though the most artistic and most interesting, 
was but one of several printing establishments that were 
started in the capital about this time. At first the only 
institution of the kind had been the Imperial Printing-Omce; 


but later on, when semi-official and private newspapers were 
established, each of these had its own press, at which it became 
the practice to print books either on account of the proprietor 
of the paper, or, as a matter of business, for private persons. 
Such books were generally issued at a comparatively low 
price, and their cheapness, combined with the facility of 
obtaining them, soon began to develop a taste for reading 
among the public, so that M. Belin, writing of the position 
of letters in Turkey in 1866, speaks of the numerous reading- 
rooms and literary societies which were then being established 
both in Constantinople and in the provinces. It was not 
till some years after this that printing-presses wholly uncon- 
nected with any newspaper and destined solely for the 
production of books were established. But between 1296 and 
1299 (1879 81) a considerable number of such were founded, 
one of the earliest and most important being that of the 
Armenian Mihran Efendi, from which many valuable and 
creditably executed works have issued. Most of the founders 
of these presses are, like Tevfi'q Bey and Mihran Efendi, 
publishers as well as printers; but so far there were no 
publishers who were not printers. 

Thus during these twenty years which we have been 
considering the moral and intellectual condition of Turkey 
was being profoundly modified; and although the full effects 
of the great change then being prepared have not yet 
appeared, the signs of it are visible on every hand. A new 
conception of Duty has arisen. In old times religion was all 
in all. The Turk never thought of himself as a Turk; he 
was a Musulman, and that was enough. The idea of nationality 
hardly existed for him. When he went forth to war, it was 
not that he might exalt the glory or extend the boundaries 
of 'Turkey', for which indeed, strictly speaking, he had not 
even a name; when not from mere love of conquest, his 

military expeditions were undertaken that infidel or heretic 
might be brought into obedience to the Servants of God. 
Of patriotism, as the West understands it, he knew absolutely 
nothing; he would no more have thought, as some one has 
said, of dying for his country than of dying for his meridian 
of longitude. 

But now this too is changed, and no word is dearer or 
more sacred to the modern Turk than that which has been 
taken to stand for 'Fatherland'. Here again we come upon 
the hand of Kemal Bey; till his time the word 'watan' had 
been without associations and comparatively seldom used ; 
but when he raised it from a vague signification hovering 
between 'home' and 'birthplace' to be the equivalent of the 
French 'patrie', it became a sacred watchword in the hearts 
as on the lips of men. Similarly, another word, 'millet', 
which used to mean a religious community, such as the 
Roman Catholic or the self-styled 'orthodox' Greek, has 
been made to do duty as representative of 'the nation' or 
'the people' in the modern European acceptations of these 
terms. That is to say, 'millet' now means either one individual 
nation among the family of the nations, or the mass of the 
community in contradistinction to the sovereign and his 
court, both of which conceptions are new in Turkey. Yet 
another word which at this time acquired a new and precious 
significance, and which forms with 'watan' and 'millet' the 
sacred triad of the Ottoman patriot of to-day, is 'hurriyyet', 
that is 'liberty' or 'freedom.' 

The Fatherland, the Nation, Liberty, -- these three words 
are the .legend on the banner of Young Turkey, and the 
ideas they represent form the very core of the true and 
living faith of the regenerated people. This faith, which is 
now that of practically the whole of the educated portion of 
the younger generation, and which counts amongst its already 


mighty army of martyrs some of the very noblest of the 
race, is the most momentous and in effect far-reaching of 
the many changes born at this cataclysmic time. Aided by 
the general spread of education among both sexes and all 
classes, it has relegated to the background the old dogmatic 
Muhammedanism, just as in Western Europe the old dogmatic 
Christianity has been rudely shaken by the popularisation 
of science and the wide diffusion of all kinds of knowledge. 
The modern Turkish gentleman still indeed calls himself a 
Muhammedan, but there is little difference between his 
attitude towards Islam and that of the typical European 
scholar of to-day towards Christianity. 

In our own immediate subject, a notable, though inevi- 
table result of this has been the deposition of the c ulema 
from their old position of leaders and arbiters of literature. 
Under the old system, as we have abundantly seen, by 
virtue of their being generally the most highly educated 
members of the community, these jurists had always taken 
a foremost position in every matter connected with learning 
or culture. But any body at all resembling a priestly 
caste though it be as remotely as the c ulema seems 
by a law of nature ever to be reactionary. So the c ulema 
found no place in their curriculum for the new learning; 
they could not or would not adapt themselves to the altered 
condition of affairs, and therefore to-day they are held of 
no account, while their former place is taken by men of 
the world, the diplomatist, the publicist, the journalist. 

This period of twenty years is thus the turning-point in 
the evolution of the new civilisation of Turkey; all that 
has gone before since the days of the martyred Selim has 
been leading up to the revolution now accomplished, what 
follows is its development. In 1859 tne Turks were still 
practically a medieval community; in 1879 they had become 


a modern nation. Shinasi, Kemal and Ziya had pointed out 
the way that they should go; the heroic though unavailing 
struggle against the hordes of Russia had fanned into white 
heat the nascent flame of patriotism; the triumph of the 
constitutional party and the creation of an Ottoman Parliament 
had come the seeming crown and accomplishment of men's 
dreams of liberty. For the moment all boded fairer for the 
moral and intellectual advancement of the Turkish people 
than ever before in the course of their long history. 


1242 1288 (1826-7 18 7 1 )- 

Ibrahim Shinasi Efendi, the master who laid the foundations 
of the new learning, was born in the Top-Khane division 
of Constantinople in 1242 (1826 7). When little more than 
a year old he lost his father, a captain in the artillery, who 
was killed at the defence of Shumla against the Russians 
in 1828. The child was brought up by some of his mother's 
relatives, the deceased officer, who was a native of Boli 
in Asia Minor, having probably no kinsfolk in the capital. 
After attending the parish school, Shinasi entered the office 
of the Imperial Arsenal, where he formed a friendship with 
an elderly and learned clerk named Ibrahim Efendi, with 
whose assistance he acquired the Arabic and Persian tongues, 
and at whose suggestion he committed to memory mor.e 
than half of the huge Arabic dictionary called the Qamus. 
Amongst the European officers at this time employed in the 
Arsenal was a certain Chateauneuf, who afterwards adopted 
Islam and became known as Reshad Bey. From him Shinasi 
received some lessons in the French language, which created 
in him a great desire to become more intimately acquainted 
with the culture and civilisation of the West. His opportunity 


was not long in coming, for shortly afterwards he heard that 
the authorities were looking for a young man of his own 
age some seventeen years who might proceed to Europe 
for the purpose of studying certain branches of western 
science. Shinasi's difficulty was how to bring himself under 
notice, for, being of a shy and retiring disposition, he had 
always avoided paying court to the great, and consequently 
was without a patron to push his interests. His friend Reshad 
Bey came to his assistance, and advised him to apply directly 
to Fethi Pasha the governor of the arsenal, suggesting to 
him at the same time how and when he should do this. 

So in conformity with Reshad's plan, one day when Sultan 
c Abd-ul-Mejid was visiting the Arsenal, and Fethi Pasha was 
standing in the exercising-ground in full view of the Imperial 
Kiosque, Shinasi stepped forward, and, having saluted the 
governor in military fashion, represented how he had studied 
hard, and, besides acquiring Arabic and Persian, had learned 
a little French, and how it would be a good and advantageous 
thing to select him to be sent to Europe. The naivete of 
the young man's speech pleased the Pasha, who promised 
to find an opportunity to lay his case before the Sultan. 
So when shortly afterwards Fethi Pasha was summoned 
into the Imperial presence, c Abd-ul-Mejid, who had seen a 
young man in the dress of a clerk come out into the 
exercise-ground and exchange some words with the governor, 
asked the Pasha who his interlocutor was and what he 
desired. The Pasha accordingly represented to His Majesty 
the young clerk's request; and that same day Shinasi was 
received in audience by the amiable c Abd-ul-Mejid, who 
spoke to him in kindly and encouraging terms. A week 
later Shinasi was sent to Paris with a monthly allowance 
of 750 francs, and the future of Ottoman literature was 

2 4 

In the French capital the young Turk made the acquaintance 
of the family of the great orientalist De Sacy, who some 
dozen years before had himself befriended Reshi'd Bey, the 
illustrious Reshid Pasha of later days, on his arrival as a 
stranger in the western world. Introductions soon followed 
to many of the leading men of letters in Paris, including 
Ernest Renan and the poet Lamartine; and in their society 
Shinasi found ample means to gratify his taste for European 
culture, while at the same time he assimilated the principles 
which were to guide him in the great work of his life. For 
although Shinasi did not neglect the ostensible object of his 
sojourn in France, and we read of his studying the economic 
and even the physical sciences, it was to literature and 
things literary that the best, because the sincerest, efforts 
of his mind were directed. 

On his return to Constantinople l Shinasi was offered by 
Reshid Pasha, then Grand Vezir, employment in both the 
Ministry of Public Instruction and the Treasury, but he 
contented himself with a post in the first only of these 
departments. He was also made a member of the Enjumen-i 
Danish, the Imperial Academy of Science and Literature, 
whidh had just been established under the auspices of Sultan 
c Abd-ul-Mejid. But, being a protege of Reshid Pasha, Shinasi 
incurred the ill-will of that statesman's rivals, Fu'ad and 
C AH Pashas, who took advantage of Reshid 's deposition from 
the Grand Vezirate to accomplish his client's dismissal from 

1 The biographers do not mention the dates of Shindsi's departure from 
and return to Constantinople, neither do they tell us how long he stayed 
in France. We know that he was there as late as 1266 (1849 50), for some of 
his letters from Paris bearing that date have been published; and as he was 
on his return made a member of the Enjumen-i Danish (opened in the 
Shevwdl of 1267 (August 1851) which is spoken of as having been then 
newly formed, it is probable that he returned about the end of 1851 or 
beginning of 1852. 


his office in the Ministry of Public Instruction as well as 
his expulsion from the Imperial Academy and his exclusion 
from a financial appointment given to him by the ex-Prime 
Minister, bringing forward as justification for this persecution 
some ridiculous charge as to their victim having shaved his 
beard while in Paris. 1 Upon this Shinasi addressed a qasida 
to Reshid Pasha in which he reflected upon the conduct of 
Fu'ad and c Ali and also upon the behaviour of c Arif Hikmet, 
the poet Sheykhu'l-Islam who was president of the Imperial 
Academy. The persons thus attacked were about to meet 
this move by impeaching the poet, when Reshid's return 
to power set matters right, and re-instated Shinasi in his 
former position. On the death of Reshid Pasha in 1274(1858), 
Yusuf Kamil Pasha, who afterwards translated Fenelon's 
Telemaque, became Shinasi's protector; but out of respect 
for the deceased statesman who had done so much for 
Turkey, Fu'ad and c Ali refrained from taking any steps 
against his client. 

Official duties were, however, but little to Shinasi's taste, 
and moreover he perceived that so long as he was connected 
either with the government service or with state institutions 
he would be hampered and impeded in what he felt to be 
the true work of his life. He therefore resigned both his 
official position and his membership of the Imperial Academy 
that he might henceforth be free to devote himself entirely 
to his arduous work, a step he would probably have taken 
earlier but for deference to his patron Reshid Pasha. 

In 1276 (185960) Shinasi took the first public step 
towards the accomplishment of his aim by starting, in con- 

1 There used to be a prejudice amongst the Turks against a man who 
shaved his beard after having once allowed it to grow. Fu'ad and C AU Pashas 
were both men of much talent and ability, and far too enlightened to be influenced 
by any such childish notions; they merely exploited a vulgar prejudice in 
order to compass their own ends. 


junction with a friend named Agah Efendi, a newspaper 
which he called Tefjuman-i Ahwal or 'The Interpreter of 
Events'. After six months- he withdrew from this paper, 
and in the year 1278 (1861 2), he began to publish his 
far more famous journal, the Tasvi'r-i Efkar or 'Tablet of 

Towards the end of the following year, 1279 (1863), he 
was joined by Namiq Kemal Bey, whose youthful allegiance 
he at once and for ever secured, and whom he trained to 
be not only the doughtiest champion of the new learning, 
but the greatest master of Turkish prose who has ever taken 
pen in hand. 

The publication of this second newspaper marks an epoch 
in the history both of Ottoman literature and of the Otto- 
man language. Not merely was it the first unofficial journal 
in Turkey; it is the first utterance of the Modern School, 
that School which was destined in the brief space of twenty 
years to sweep from the stage the crumbling debris of five 
centuries of Asiaticism. Here for the first time an Ottoman 
man of letters, conversant with and appreciative of a great 
European language and literature, deliberately sets to work 
to reconstruct from its very foundations the whole edifice 
of Turkish literary style. How he went to work upon this 
noble but stupendous task, and with what measure of success 
his efforts were attended, we shall ere long see. 

Even those who opposed Shinasi's principles were compelled 
to admit his courage and ability; and it is pleasant to 
know that Fu'ad Pasha, who was at heart a friend to progress, 
lived not only to regret the part he had formerly played, 
but to receive Shinasi into his circle, and solicit and obtain 
his co-operation in establishing the 'Military Gazette'. ! 
Thanks to the esteem of Fu'ad Pasha and the patronage 

1 Jeride-i G Askeriyye. 

2 7 

of Yusuf Kamil, the ill-will of c Ali Pasha was overcome; 
and it was determined to make Shinasi a member of the 
Supreme Court, and at the same time to promote him to 
the First Grade. But Shinasi loved freedom and hated office, 
and so, to escape having to accept an honour which he 
could not well refuse, he quietly slipped off to Paris, leaving 
the young Kemal Bey in charge of his journal. 

This occurred in 1281 (1864 5), and during the next 
few years Shinasi remained in the French capital busying 
himself with the compilation of a huge lexicon of the Turkish 
language, in preparing and arranging the materials for which 
he examined nearly all the Oriental books likely to be of 
service that are preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale. 
This gigantic work was however, never completed; Shinasi 
was compelled to stop half way, at the letter Jc. Of the 
fourteen great volumes, each comprising a thousand pages, 
in which the author's manuscript is contained, some are in 
the possession of the French Asiatic Society, of which Shinasi 
was a member, while some found their way into the library 
of the Hungarian collector Daniel Szilagyi, and are now 
preserved in the university of Buda-Pesth. 

When Sultan c Abd-ul- c Aziz visited Paris in the summer 
of 1867, Fu'ad Pasha, who was in the Imperial suite, had 
a private interview with Shinasi in that city during which 
he entreated him to return to Turkey and assume the 
governorship of the province of Smyrna. Fu'ad's persuasions 
were apparently successful; but soon after Shinasi's arrival 
in Constantinople he induced the Pasha to allow him to return 
to Paris to collect some documents he had left behind and 
to arrange certain private affairs. While he was absent, 
Fu'ad died at Nice (Shevwal 1285 = February 1869); so 
Shinasi remained in the French capital till the outbreak of 
the Franco-German war in July 1870, when he again returned 


to Constantinople. There he died on the $*k of Rejeb 1288 
(i3 th September 1871) of inflammation of the brain, brought 
on, it is said, by the arduous nature of the work on which 
he had been so long engaged. His death occurred exactly 
a week after that of c Ali Pasha. 

Shinasi was, we are told, of a quiet and meditative disposition, 
speaking but little and in short sentences. When he did 
speak, his language was terse and concise, and his words 
were straight to the point. He was very patient and gentle 
when talking with ignorant or prejudiced people, but used 
to be displeased if during a serious conversation anyone 
tried to turn the subject into jest, a proceeding which he 
looked upon as equivalent to a confession of defeat. 

Shinasi is justly regarded as the true founder of the 
Modern School of Ottoman literature, since he was the first 
who seriously and systematically strove to raise that literature 
from being as hitherto a mere plaything for the amusement 
of the learned into an instrument for the moral and intel- 
lectual education of the whole people. The way in which 
this change might be most surely and most readily effected 
was the great lesson which Shinasi learned from the West. 
That way was, briefly, the substitution of the natural for 
the artificial, involving the subordination of manner to matter, 
and the adjustment of style to subject. But to accomplish 
this end it was necessary profoundly to modify the existing 
Turkish literary idiom. Shinasi felt this, and himself indicated 
the lines along which such a modification should be made. 
Other writers before him had indeed endeavoured, though 
hardly with his object, to refashion the literary idiom, and 
had at times even met with a partial success. But their 
success had never been more than partial, and never very 
far-reaching in result. This was because their efforts had 
necessarily been only tentative ; those would-be reformers 

2 9 

had known of no guide whom they could unhesitatingly 
follow; all their light had come from within; and it is 
doubtful whether any one among them had ever quite realised 
either what his ultimate object was, or in what manner it 
was to be attained. 

Where Shinasi differed from all his predecessors was that 
he knew exactly what he wanted to do, and how to accomplish 
it. In the literature of France he had a model which displayed 
to perfection all that he desired. He found there an idiom 
at once concise, clear and elegant, admirably adapted to 
convey with happily-mingled simplicity and grace those moral 
and intellectual lessons which he held to be the true end 
of literature. 

His work then lay plain before him; it was to create in 
Turkish a corresponding literary idiom. This Shinasi began 
to do; and his successors have most ably carried on the 
work. But the method they have followed is very unlike 
that adopted by the early Turkish scholars who, when they 
thought to Persianise their language, annexed the whole of 
the Persian dictionary and practically the whole of the 
Persian grammar. Shinasi and his followers have not sought 
to introduce French words and French grammatical rules 
into Turkish (though some such have almost accidentally 
crept in); they have looked rather to see how ideas are 
expressed in French and what standards of literary taste 
there prevail, and have striven in the light of the lessons 
thus learned to make their language at once simpler and 
stronger, and to fit it to hold a place among the languages 
of modern Europe. 

The great principle underlying this revolution is, as I 
have said, the predominance of the natural over the artificial. 
Shinasi at once perceived that this entailed the development 
of the hitherto neglected Turkish core of the language, the 


first step towards which was the clearing away of the huge 
mass of useless accretions and false embellishments under 
which so many centuries of Persianism had well nigh smothered 
whatever was vital in the written speech. And such was 
the hearty good-will wherewith the reformer set about this 
work of stripping off the tattered tinsel of the past, that 
Tevffq Bey has somewhere described him as the Death-Angel 
fAzra'i'l) of literary solecisms. The development of the 
Turkish core of the language, then, has all along been one 
of the objects of the Modern School; but this has been 
sought by natural, not by artificial means. There has been 
no attempt to replace long-established and thoroughly na- 
turalised Persian or Arabic words by half- forgotten Tartar 
wraiths; a mirror is still called ayna, not gozgii; Paradise 
is still named jennet, not uchmaq. What has been done is 
to study and systematise the heretofore absolutely neglected 
Turkish grammar, to discover and then turn to account the 
resources latent in the native idiom, and to give literary 
form to many a forceful and idiomatic turn of speech hitherto 
confined exclusively to the vernacular. l 

In attempting thus to revolutionise the literature of his 
country, Shinasi was to outward appearances running counter 
to the spirit of his time, but in reality he was acting in 
harmony with its deeper tendencies. Apparently he was 
running counter to the spirit of his age, for we have seen 
that at this time a Persianist revival held the field, and 
any recrudescence of Persianism necessarily implied the 
strengthening of the artificial. But that his labours were in 
truth in harmony with deeper-seated and more lasting ten- 
dencies, though as yet these were working beneath the 
surface silently and in secret, is proved by the completeness 

1 One of Shinasi's minor innovations was the introduction of punctuation 
into Turkish writing and printing. 

of the revolution whereby within a decade of his death the 
whole current literature of Turkey prose and poetry 
alike - - was transformed and remodelled upon the very 
lines that he laid down. 

When we reflect upon the magnitude of Shinasi's services, 
how he led Turkish literature back to healthy and vigorous 
life from the very gates of death, pointing to the great 
masters, Truth and Nature, and showing where the lessons 
taught by these were to be most fully and freely learned, 
and how he ennobled for his countrymen the aim and 
purpose of literature, we can well understand the intense 
admiration with which he is regarded by his disciples, and 
are ready to excuse those loyal followers if at times in the 
enthusiasm of their gratitude they attribute to their beloved 
and revered master more than the critic further distant and 
less beholden may find it easy to allow. 

It in no wise detracts from the very high credit which 
is most justly Shinasi's due, neither is it the slightest 
disparagement to the unquestionably great value of his 
work, to say that had that illustrious reformer never arisen, 
the revolution which he inaugurated would none the less 
have come about, and that almost at the moment when it 
did. The reforms of Sultan Mahmud's reign had familiarised 
men with the idea of change, and when the study of the 
French language and literature became fairly general among 
the educated classes, it was inevitable that ere long some 
man should arise possessed of sufficient insight to see that 
salvation for Turkish literature, as for all things Turkish, 
was to be found in the "assimilation, so far as that was 
practicable, of the spirit of the West, and endowed with 
sufficient energy and courage to carry his convictions into 
practice. If any proof were required of this assertion, it 
would be enough to point to Ziya Pasha who was at this 


very time independently developing a literary idiom from 
the same models as Shinasi, and with hardly less success. 

Again, it is rather through his example and precept than 
through anything he actually achieved that the influence of 
Shinasi has been effective; and here his position is curiously 
analogous to that of his predecessor Ahmed Pasha, who 
brought about the Classic movement by drawing attention 
to the methods of Newa'f and his circle, not by the excel- 
lence of the work he himself produced. 

Leaving out of sight the uncompleted Lexicon which, 
never having been published, can have had no effect, the 
amount of Shinasi's written work is comparatively small. 
All his most serious efforts, moreover, are in prose, and 
consist almost entirely of articles political, literary, and 
social, which he wrote for different newspapers, notably for 
his own journal the Tasvir-i Efkar. 

The intensely practical turn of his mind and the strong 
feeling that he had for precision were unfavourable to the 
cultivation of poetry. Verse was with him merely a relaxation. 
His own best efforts and those of his immediate followers 
were directed to the creation of a prose style; poetry was 
not looked upon by them as a very serious matter, and for 
the time being was left to shift for itself. 

It is therefore not surprising that Shinasi's work in verse 
is limited in extent and for the most part playful in tone. 
He has, however, a few religious pieces, especially one 
hymn, characterised by considerable power and dignity. 
But his most remarkable work is the series of translations 
which he made from the French. With the exception of 
one of La Fontaine's Fables, The Wolf and the Lamb, 
which is rendered in its entirety, the passages translated 
are mere fragments, chiefly from Racine and Lamartine. 
No attempt is made to preserve either the metre or the 


form of the originals, but the meaning is presented with 
accuracy and vigour. 

It is the appearance of the little volume containing these 
translations, which was first issued in a lithographed edition 
in 1859,' that I take as the starting-point of the Modern 
School of Ottoman poetry. It is true that this little book 
had practically no immediate effect, and it is true that the 
real modern poetry of Turkey was not developed until 
twenty years later, but none the less these translations of 
Shinasi mark the turning-point in the history of Ottoman 
poetry. For in them breathes for the first time that spirit 
which is to vitalise and inspire the future. They are the 
earliest verses in the Turkish language to exhibit any 
indication that such a thing as European poetry is known 
to exist. All the ^Ottoman poetry of the past has been 
developed in complete ignorance of Western culture, and 
it would not have differed in one single whit had no line 
of French verse ever been penned. The Ottoman poetry of 
the future owes well-nigh all that it has and is form 
and substance, inspiration and imagery to the example 
of France. Surely this little book of Shinasi, which brings 
for the first time into Ottoman poetry an echo of that 
magic song which is to work so mighty a transformation, 
must be conceded an importance far beyond anything to 
which by its intrinsic merits it might lay claim. It stands 
here a landmark on the frontier between Asia and Europe, 
it shines out a beacon-fire signalling the passing of the old 
order and the advent of the new. 

His study of La Fontaine inspired Shinasi to write versified 
fables on his own account. Three such occur in the printed 
editions of his poems, and are named respectively 'The Ass 

1 A second (printed) edition was issued from the office of the Tasvir-i 
Efkar in Ramazan 1287 (end of 1870). 



and the Fox', 'The Young Eagle and the Crow', and 'The 
Mosquito and the Bee'. These, especially the first two, are 
written in very homely, even colloquial language; there is 
nothing quite like them before in Turkish poetry. 

Something of their manner is to be observed in several 
among a group of little pieces which we may describe as 
occasional verses. These deal with very various matters, and 
are often very short, sometimes consisting of a single couplet. 
The language is generally quite simple, and in a few instances 
the poet has amused himself by using only pure Turkish 
words, avoiding everything borrowed from Arabic or Persian. 
A similar effect would be obtained in English by the exclusive 
employment of words of Teutonic origin and the rejection 
of all derived from French, Latin or Greek. In neither case 
could the result be anything beyond a tour de force. It 
should, however, be said that in the selection of his Turkish 
words Shinasi has shown good taste, and so his verses are 
not marred by the uncouthness which x disfigures those of 
certain of the Romanticist poets. These occasional verses 
are, along with the Fables, the most characteristic of their 
author's metrical works; they are pervaded by a genial and 
playful spirit, but of true poetic feeling there are few traces. 

For the rest, Shinasi's little Di'wan contains a few qasidas 
and ghazels and a fair number of chronograms. These are 
all in the old style, of which they are poor examples, pos- 
sessing neither interest nor merit. The ghazels especially 
are particularly frigid and lifeless; so earnest an advocate 
of literary sincerity was hardly likely to be at his best where 
conventionality was the standard of success. 

Shinasf's series of translations from the French is by a 
long way his most important work so far as the history of 
Ottoman poetry is concerned; but an English translation of 
Turkish verses which are themselves translations from the 


French would obviously illustrate nothing. Instead there- 
fore of offering such, I shall give further on a selection 
of the French verses translated by Shinasi, the Turkish 
renderings of which will be found in their place among the 
texts in another volume. 

This is the Hymn which I have mentioned as being 
probably the finest of Shinasi's poetical works. 

Hymn [459]. 

God the Highest, He the Monarch of the world of majesty, 

Omnipresent is; no throne-room in His palace may there be. 

The vast Kingdom of Eternity is His, and His alone 5 

Numberless the everlasting stars that always there have shone. 

Lo, the edifice of Earth and Heaven stands, His wisdom's sign; 

Void and peopled, all existent, is His hand of power's design. 

All the angels laud His splendour and His majesty and might, 

Low the Sphere in adoration bows before His glory bright. 

As He biddeth, ever onward day and night careers the earth, 

Seasons change, and bounteous springtide blooms again in freshened birth. 

Sun and moon are sparks of radiance from His mercy's fostering beam, 

From His anger if from aught is litten the infernal leam. 

Yon effulgent stars are flashes of His majesty most high, 

'Tis their lustrous sheen that gildeth all the cupole of the sky; 

Fixed are some and others wandering by the Omnipotent decree ; 

Each one is a shining proof that God in very truth doth be. 

Though to prove His being where the need of this terrestrial ball, 

When one mote by Him created were enough, enough for all? 

All too weak to see His Essence is His creatures' earthly sight, 

Yet the vision of the understanding may perceive His Light. 

To my intellect 'tis needful to confess His Unity, 

To my heart and soul 'tis needful to adore His Majesty. 

Fain am I before His Signs in ecstasy to bow me low, 

Learn ye thence what else I fain would for my loved Creator do. 

O Shinasi, deep the fear of God is burned into my soul; 

Though my lips may smile, the tears of blood forth from my heart's eye roll. 

Penitence for my transgression doth my spirit overbear; 


What can I ? I dare no prayer for pardon with this fell despair ! 

What said I? Oh! I repent me! that too was a deed of guile, 

This excuse that I have proffered than my sin is yet more vile! 

How should not the Light of Mercy bid my sad face smile again ? 

Which is greater, God's Compassion or my foul rebellion's stain? 

Does not then His boundless Graciousness the whole wide world embrace ? 

Else does this poor slave, though in the world, find in the world no place? 

Though His servant's faults, for all his frailty, great and grievous be, 

Does not His compassion o D er His anger gain the victory ? 

From His servant's native frailty 'tis his errors still proceed, 

In the World Unseen He therefore for His folk doth intercede. 

Grace of God, divine and free, to pardon me will well avail; 

Deem not, God forefend! that Mercy limitless shall ever fail. 

The Ass and the Fox is the most interesting of the 
poet's original Fables. 

The Ass and the Fox [460]. 

From a vineyard once an aged ass was slowly toiling down 
With a load of 'beauty's faces' ' he was bearing to the town. 
Lo behold, just then a hungry fox before his eyes appeared, 
Eager longing for the luscious grapes had all his vitals seared. 
Kicked a bit at first the donkey when the other came him nigh, 
But his waywardness and coyness were not long in passing by. . 

The Fox: 

'O my lion, brave and mighty, may not I approach to thee, 
'So that I may see thee near ? Thy loveliness dumbfounders me ! 
'May the shadow of the favour of my lord abide for aye! 
'Wheresoe'er yon blessed feet have trodden, blossom roses gay. 
'Yonder tail so sweetly scented all would rarest musk suppose; 
'Fain I'd smell it, if my master would not kick me on the nose. 
'In those speaking eyes thine inward virtues and thy culture shine; 
'Words poetic and melodious well beseem that mouth of thine !' 

1 Rii-yi Nig&r, 'beauty's face', is the name of a variety of grape of a light 
pink colour. 


Hereupon the donkey mightily delighted brayed a deal 
Just as though he'd seen a tender thistle or a melon-peel. r 

The Fox: - 

'Ah, that charming voice hath reached e'en to the very heart of me; 
'While if thou art silent, lo, another lovesome joy have we ; 
'For the nightingale hath heard thee, and to steal thy notes is fain, 
'Singing so that to the listener comes a gentle sense of pain.' 

Thus the fox went on a-prattling, laughing slyly at his fere, 

Till that he had brought the donkey where a well was deep and clear. 

The Fox : 

'Down there is a lovely stable where are feeds in goodly store; 
'But alack! one cannot enter laden, narrow is the door. 
'Pleasures many such as sleeping and as resting still are there; 
'Eating feeds and drinking water are the only toil and care. 
'Then the lady donkeys dwelling there have quite a special grace; 
'Just look in, but see thou be not smitten by some pretty face.' 

Then the ass went near and gazed down on the liquid mirror bright, 
Saw his face therein reflected, watered then his mouth forthright. 

The Ass : 
'Yes indeed, a face all lovely and all gracious there I see.' 

The Fox: 

'Call her then to. come beside thee that thy playmate she may be.' 

All excited, loudly bellowed out the donkey's 'Come thou here!' 
From the well his words re-echoed fell upon his wildered ear. 

The Fox: 

'Hear'st thou not how to that noble banquet they are calling thee? 
'Sore I wonder is there ne'er a place as servant there for me? 

1 In Turkey donkeys are often given melon-peel, of which they are very fond, 
iil (jSXx.kS' ^fcjls, 'Like an ass that has seen a melon-skin', is 
popularly said of one who is taken up with a trifle, the figure being derived 
from the donkey's habit of making for any piece of peel which he may see 
on the roadside and from which it is difficult to get him away. 


'Leave thy burden here, and free from all impediments descend, 
l l shall follow straight behind thee there as lackey to attend.' 

Then the donkey cast his load to earth, himself into the well, 
Thus unto the fox to heir him and to pray for him ' it fell. 

All the following are examples of what I have called 
Shinasi's occasional verses. The special names which some 
of them bear is a new feature in Turkish poetry; it is of 
course adopted from the French. The love-poem which fol- 
lows is mere badinage ; but it is quite original both in 
language and expression, and contains a number of fancies 
and similes that are absolutely new. 

Declaration of Love [461]. 

My heart hath chosen for its love a matchless beauty bright, 

And jealous is it grown, alack, e'en of my very sight. 

How passing well do yonder breasts beseem her bosom fair, 

As 'twere two guelder-roses that a tender branchlet bare. 

Though yonder bosom into mine at times is ardent prest, 

Think not thereby the pang of love is driven from my breast. 

More dainty than the jessamine yon shapely figure slight; 

If ivy-like I clasp it, it will bend to me forthright. 

Since I have held heart-converse with that charmer young and free, 

I seek none other, houri fair or angel though she be. 

When overcome of fond desire, those eyes, a-fainting, swoon, 

They waken when my tears are o'er her lovesome face bestrewn. 

Shall not the heart within me melt when smile those languid eyes? 

The sweet words from her lips that flow bid all my yearning rise. 

A-blush at her own beauty, lo, her cheeks with crimson glow; 

To veil that bashful face of hers the tresses o'er it flow. 

I'm fallen sick of yearning ever dreaming of her hair; 

Was 't thus, I wonder, Mejniin did for Leyla frenzied fare? 

1 To pray for the repose of his soul. Certain passages from the Koran, 
notably the 36 th chapter, that entitled Yd. Sin, are frequently read or recited 
for the repose of the souls of the dead. 


I'll give my life to her and toss no more in mortal pain; > 
What right has he who loves a dear to spend his life in vain? 
I'd dig my grave before 1 die, the martyr of her love, 
And with my tears of blood I'd write upon the stone thereof. 

During his conversations with the European savants Shinasi 
doubtless heard something about the speculations of Darwin ; 
probably he never really understood the theory of the great 
naturalist; at any rate the doctrine of the mutability of 
species seems to have been little to his liking. 

A Tale of Transmigration [462]. 

A sham philosopher of scant esteem 

Was wont himself Pythagoras to deem. 

The transmigration of the soul his creed, 

Disintegration of the frame his rede. 

He said : 'The beast that sticketh up his tail ' 2 

'Will come in human form withouten fail.' 

A wise man heard the words that ox 3 did say, 

And with this answer stopped his mouth with hay : * 

'How can I question this religion's truth 

'With thee thyself alive to prove its sooth?' 


To an Artist's Wife [463]. 

'Tis meet that on my heart the image of thy form I trace, 
E'en as the artisl on his canvass limns an angel's face. 
I marvel, is it thy fair face, or is it thy sweet soul, 
That to his heart who looks on thee reveals Celestial grace? 

1 A reminiscence of the proverb ,<A-X-J. ;iLl^ ^-^._JO&.4~*^^- IM^ > 
'Tis better to die than to be in the throes of death.' 

a To stick up or erect the tail (as dogs do when they approach each 
other) is familiarly said of a man who assumes an aggressively haughty air. 
Shinasi would here show his contempt for what he conceived to be the 
insolence and presumption of those whose views he is ridiculing. 

3 A stupid fool is sometimes called an 'ox' in Turkish, as he is an 'ass' 
or a 'goose'. 

* 'Shut him up'. 


The following four lines are amongst those in which Turkish 
words alone are employed; I have imitated the original by 
using only Teutonic words in the translation. 

Verse [464]. 

Who sees the gleaming of thy brow amid thy dusky locks 

Would deem that midst of darkling clouds the sun is risen fair. 

Would not he say who sees me by thy side in tears of blood, 

'Lo, yonder, one whom the sea-maid ' hath drowned a-lying there.' 

This 'quatrain of condolence', sent to a bereaved friend, 
is one of the prettiest things that Shinasi wrote. 

Quatrain [465]. 

May the God of might and glory deck the Heavenly garden-close 
With the fruitage of thy heart that Death now in the dust bestows! 
Ah ! how Death is like the bitter blast that all untimely blows, 
Tearing from the branch the blossom which amid the mire it throws. 

Here are two independent couplets. 
Couplet [466]. 

My being doth to my Creator's being witness bear; 
Superfluous were other proofs, however strong they were. 

Couplet written in Paris [467]. 

Though I am far from my dear home, why should I feel distrest? 
Thus runs the proverb : God doth build the stranger bird a nest. 2 

1 Su qizi 'the sea-maid', or more commonly, su malikesi 'the sea-queen', is 
the mermaid or siren. The Turks derived their notions of such a being from 
their Greek neighbours. The Persians know nothing of her, so she does not 
figure in their literature, and consequently not in that of the old Ottomans ; 
but the men of the Modern School, carrying out and extending a practice 
begun by the Romanticists, adopt into their verses beautiful fancies or legends 
wheresoever they find them, so the 'sea-queen' is pretty often to be met with 
in the newer poetry. 

* i-jy *J^' j^w'^kj iJC&jJJ v^j* 'God builds the stranger bird's nest,' 
a well-known proverb meaning that God is the helper of the helpless. 


1245 1297 (1829-30 1880). 

If we were studying the history of Ottoman literature, and 
not merely that of Ottoman poetry, this chapter would be 
devoted to the life and work of Kemal Bey. That author 
was, as we have seen, trained directly by Shinasi Efendi, 
of whose principles and aims he became the immediate heir. 
As he thus directly carried on the work of the master, this 
would be the natural place in which to consider his career 
and labours; but seeing that his best and most characteristic 
poetry is all in the modern style, I have thought it advisable 
to defer doing so until we have learned something of the 
nature of this new style and of the manner of its introduction. 
We shall thereupon pass on to Ziya. Pasha, the third of the 
illustrious triumvirate. 

G Abd-ul-Hamid Ziya, that Ziya Pasha whose criticisms on 
the earlier poets we have so often quoted, was universally 
known as Ziya Bey until a very few years before his death 
when he received the rank of vezfr, which bears with it 
the title of pasha. He was born in Constantinople in 1245 

4 2 

(1829 3)> ' J us t three years after Shinasi. Some forty years 
afterwards when he had mastered French and created for 
himself a charmingly simple and lucid style, Ziya Bey made 
a translation of Jean Jacques Rousseau's 'Emil'. To this he 
prefixed a preface of his own, dealing with the education 
question in Turkey, in the course of which he gives a most 
interesting account of his own childhood. This I shall translate 
in its entirety, not only for the sake of the biographical 
details it contains and the glimpses of Turkish child-life 
it affords, but because it will serve to show something 
of the marvellous change which even then had been effected 
in the character of Ottoman prose. 2 

'My father', begins Ziya, 'who was a clerk in the Galata 
custom-house, was a thrifty man who understood his business 
and was content with his salary. During my childhood we 
lived summer and winter alike 3 at Qandilli on the Bosphorus. 
My father bought a Circassian slave-boy, called 'Omer, who 
was some seventeen or eighteen years of age, to accompany 
me to school and to do the household errands. As this slave 
had in his own country been brought up to thieving, he 

1 This is the date given by Farm Efendi. Tevfiq Bey gives 1241 (1825 6). 
Both authorities knew Ziya personally; but in this case I prefer the former, 
as the date he gives tallies better with Ziya's statement in the preface to 
the Kharabat that at the time he was writing he had passed his forty-fourth year. 
This would give 1289 (1872 3) as the date of the preface; the Kharabat 
was published in 1291 (1874 5). Had Ziya been born in 1241, his forty- 
fourth year would have fallen in 1285; but we know that from 1284 to 1288 
he was in voluntary exile in Europe, while the Kharabat was not compiled 
till after his return to Turkey. 

2 This preface was published in the second volume of Ebu-z-Ziya's Magazine 
(Mejmu c a-i Ebu-z-Ziya) under the title of 'Ziya Pasha's Story of his Childhood' 

^l <JsJL&lj Lyto. The portion trans- 


lated occurs in Nos. 14 and 15, issued respectively on the I st - and I5 lh of 
the Latter Rebi c 1298 (March, 1881). 

3 Not removing into Constantinople for the winter, as is usual. 


used when the cherries and grapes were ripe, to take me 
along with him to the vineyards and steal such fruit as he 
could reach, which we would eat together. One day, when 
I must have been six or seven years old, we went together 
to a vineyard called the Tank Vineyard (Hawuzlu Bagh), 
which was one of those above Qandilli belonging to the 
ex-Grand Admiral Damad Khah'l Pasha. As this vineyard 
was protected by thorny shrubs which surrounded it on 
every side, the slave could find no way to get in. So he 
parted the shrubs with a stick that he had, and made a 
little hole. "I can't squeeze through there", said he to me, 
"but you are little; in you go, pull the grapes from the 
vines near you, hand them out to me, and we'll eat them 
together." "All right", said I, and pushing my way in, I set 
to work to gather the grapes. 

'Now it happened that just then Khalil Pasha had come 
into that particular vineyard to practise shooting, and as it 
so chanced that the jug for the mark 1 had been set up at 
the very spot where I was making my raid, he saw me in 
the distance. Now there was in his household a qawas 2 called 
Qandillili Ahmed Bey 3 who had tremendous rnoustachios 
which used to frighten me whenever I met him. On that 
day he was in attendance on the Pasha, who pointed me 
out to him and told him to bring me before him. As for 
me, I was quite unconscious of the presence of anyone and 
was busy pulling grapes and handing them through the 
hedge to the slave, when all of a sudden some one came 

1 An ordinary earthenware jug is a very common target for practice with 
the musket. Many of the earlier poets. *have chronograms on the 'breaking of 
the jug' by some royal or distinguished marksman. 

a A qawas (originally qawwas c a bowman') was formerly a man-at-arms 
attached to a great man's household; nowadays the name is given to certain 
armed servants attached to the public offices and foreign embassies. 

3 That is, Ahmed Bey of Qandilli. 


up from behind and caught me in his arms. Far from seeking 
to frighten me, he managed to reassure and quiet me, and 
so brought me up to the Pasha who pushed in front of me 
a plate of grapes that was lying before him, and invited 
me to eat some. This kindly act of his quite removed my 
fear and shyness, and I began to eat without more ado. He 
then asked me whose child I was and where our house was 
situated, and I told him. Then he asked how I came to 
be stealing grapes, whereupon, concealing nothing, I told, 
him all that the slave had taught me to do. My candour 
and truthfulness were quite apparent and they pleased the 
Pasha, so he put some money into my hand and sent me 
home in charge of Ahmed Bey. ' 

'Some time after this, my father freed the slave and sent 
him back to his own country; while I was sent to the 
School of Humanities, 2 which had recently been opened 

1 Ziya Pasha has here the following note : 'During the late Khalil 
Pasha's last Grand-Admiralship I was, as Fate determined, in the personal 
service of the Sultan. One day the Pasha came to the Imperial palace, and 
while I was conversing with him the incident mentioned above came into my 
mind, and I said, 'Do you remember how, some sixteen or seventeen years 
ago, when you were practising in the Tank Vineyard at Qandilli, you once 
saw a child in a green gown stealing grapes, and sent the qawas Ahmed 
Bey to fetch him, and how you treated him with great kindness?' The Pasha, 
who was very intelligent and sharp-witted, at once remembered and said, 'To 
this day I am sorry for that child, for his father, whoever he was, had 
entrusted him to a thief of a slave; but as for the child himself, I could 
see no signs of anything bad in him, for he told me all about the matter, 
hiding nothing, and he pleased me much. Ahmed Bey, too, afterwards cor- 
roborated what the child had said. But how come you to know anything 
about that child or that affair?' I answered, 'That child whom you treated 
with such undeserved kindness when you caught him stealing grapes in your 
vineyard is now a bearded man, and it is he who has the honour of addressing 
you.' No sooner had I said this than the Pasha blushed, so great was his 
modesty, as though it were he who had been the thief, and not permitting 
me to thank him, he overwhelmed me with his graciousness.' 

2 The School of Humanities Mekteb-i Edebiyye was in its day a 
well-known educational institution ; it is no longer in existence. 


near the Suleymaniyya Mosque under the direction of the 
late Imam-zade ; and a lala, l whose name was Isma c il Agha 
and whose age was from fifty-five to sixty years, was engaged 
to superintend my education. 

'My lala, who was a native of a village in the district of 
Qaysariyya, 2 had served as page to certain vezirs in the 
provinces at the time of the janissaries, and had seen many 
things and knew the world fairly well; he was in truth a 
competent and experienced man. He was most anxious to 
be reunited to his children; indeed his thought and care 
day and night was how to gain a few piastres so that he 
might some day return to his own country and pass his 
closing years amongst his family. So when it came to the 
question of money the lala would forget all his duties as a 
man. Thus although my father's first injunction both to the 
lala and myself was that I should not go into the mosque 
courtyard and play with the little ragamuffins, we used 
every day when I came out of school to go for a turn with 
my companions in the courtyard of the Suleymaniyya Mosque. 
If the lala looked as though he might prove a little fractious, 
I would take from my pocket twenty or thirty paras, what 
remained of the daily allowance given me by my father, 
and slip them into his hand, whereon he would smile and 
say, "Oh dear! I have not said the afternoon prayer, go 
and play while I say it." And after the prayer he would 
most often fall asleep amongst the worshippers outside the 
mosque, and leave me to myself for an hour or two. After- 
wards we would together arrange some story to tell my 
father, should he on our return ask why we were late. 

1 There is no English equivalent to the Turkish lala, who is a male slave 
or man-servant to whom the care of a child is given, in short a kind of male 

2 In the original the name of the village is given as 

4 6 

'But for all this my lala was never remiss in encouraging 
me in every way he could to apply myself to my studies 
and to strive to surpass the other children in my class. 
Indeed my beginning to write poetry was owing to the 
influence of this man, and as it was brought about in a 
curious way, it may not be without interest to relate it here. 

My lala was very fond of poetry; for all that his spelling 
was so bad that it was difficult to read what he wrote, he 
was for ever, in season and out of season, reciting verses 
which he knew by heart from c Ashiq c Omer and Gevheri. ' 
At times too he would compose things something like qit c as 
or ghazels, which occasionally contained lines in metre. This 
is the opening couplet of a ghazel of his : 

"The anguish of my heart do I with pen unto this page declare; 

"Let's see what thing will hap, what it will say unto the rose-lipped fair." 2 

'A teacher of Persian named c lsa Efendi had been appointed 
to my school, and came on the Tuesday of each week. 
Some of the children took lessons from him ; but as this 
counsel which my father gave me when I was sent to the 
school, "Take good heed that you do not learn Persian, for 
'who Persian read lose half their creed,'" 3 hung like an 
earring in my ear, I, far from having any hankerings after 
'Persian, looked upon those who learned it as infidels. 

'My lala, who was aware of this, explained to me privately 
how Persian was necessary for everything; how it was pos- 
sible to learn it without hurt to one's religion; how every 

1 [ c Ashiq (Lover) is the title given to a class of wandering half erotic, half 
mystic poets to which the two troubadours here named belonged. E. G. B.] 

2 a- 

_,_ .. 

^h-** * * ;-^ )*r&k * ' S^Jr 
3 (-M** \> i_&op jiA*^ . c**)^ )*r*^ t*"^ J^*. This well-known jingle 
expresses the wide-spread prejudice against Persian which used to exist among 
ignorant Turks, who looked upon it as the special language of heresy and 
of the mysticism which to them was atheism. 


one who read Persian was not an infidel, c lsa Efendi, for 
instance, being a very pious and religious man; how he him- 
self regretted that he had not learned it long ago, and 
would, if that were possible, learn it even now when his 
beard was white; how if I did not learn it I should be 
beaten by my companions when the examination-time came ; 
how my father's counsel to me was due to his own ignorance 
of Persian ; and how if I were now to learn it unbeknown 
to him, I should not only surprise but delight him by 
coming out first in the examination. Persuaded by such 
arguments, I resolved to learn Persian; and that very week 
I began my studies, borrowing, as though I were commit- 
ting some secret crime, a copy of the Tuhfe-i Vehbi l 
belonging to the school. 

'I well remember that one night, before I had quite 
finished the Tuhfe, I was seated opposite my lala, for we were 
grinding wheat for bulghur 2 in a hand-mill. It came to my 
turn to work the mill, and as I was doing so I saw that 
tears were rolling from my lala's eyes; he was weeping. I 
asked him the reason. He replied, "You are still a child; 
you could not understand." I pressed him till he was forced 
to answer, "Do you know what that mill is saying with 
its silent tongue ?" As up to that moment I had never 
heard of a mill speaking, I looked in the lala's face in 
bewilderment and said, "Pray tell me how the mill speaks." 

'The lala heaved a deep sigh and said, "Yes, the mill 
speaks, and speaks far more eloquently and sensibly than 
we ; but one needs ears to hear it. Aye, this mill is saying 
with its silent tongue, 'O ye heedless who look at me, open 

1 The riming Persian-Turkish vocabulary by Sunbul-zdde Vehbi, See Vol. 
IV, pp. 2578. 

2 Bulghur is wheat deprived of its husk by boiling and pounding; it is 
used in making soups and pilaws. 


your eyes and look well at me, for I am a symbol of the 
world. The grains that you put in me are as the men who 
come into the world. Bruising these grains between two 
stones, I break them and grind them small, and when they 
have been brought to that state of fitness in which they 
become bulghur, I cast them out and busy myself with 
those that take their place. Even so does the world crush 
the men who enter it with all manner of trials and sorrows 
between (the stones of) earth and sky till they are made 
perfect that is, till each has received his share, when 
it casts them out into the grave and busies itself with 
others. Yes, and there have occurred to me," added the lala, 
"some verses to this effect." Then he improvised a few couplets 
of which, alas, nothing but this line remains in my memory: 

'I looked upon that Harmony which makes the mill to turn.' ! 

'As I was not of an age to understand the import of 
these words, I was more impressed by my lala's talents and 
accomplishments than by the mill's pretty speech, and my 
desire to learn Persian and so know the meaning of the 
words asyab and ahenk 2 was increased. Moreover, the way 
in which the lala worked his eyes and eyebrows, and the 
melody of the poetry, which he recited in a fashion I 
understood not, 3 delighted me yet more than the meaning, 
and I besought him to explain to me the poetic art. "What 
they call Poetry," answered he, "is a divine gift granted to 
some alone; it does not come by study and application. If 
God has decreed it for you, you will be a poet; otherwise 
you can never attain to that glory. Can Khoja Nu c man 

The 'Harmony' referred to is of course the Divine Scheme of things. 

2 In the lala's hemistich the Persian words dsyab (mill) and ahenk (har- 
mony) are used. 

3 I. e. having regard to the metre, etc. 


write poetry for all that he is so profoundly learned in 
every science? Look at c lsa Efendi; though he is unrivalled 
in his knowledge of Persian, has he the skill to make poetry ? 
Poetry is the gift of God; it is not to be obtained through 

'No sooner had I heard this than I felt in myself an 
emotion as though a smouldering fire had been blown into 
flame within me. I could rest still no longer. I left the mill, 
and weeping, threw my arms about my lala's neck, and 
prayed him earnestly to teach me how poetry is written. 
The lala was a sympathetic though sad-hearted man, and 
he looked at me pitifully, and said in a tender voice, "Since 
this love and desire is in you, I believe you will be a poet." 
He then explained to me, so far as he himself understood it, 
how what is called Poetry is simply words arranged con- 
formably to the movements and pauses of the Fa c ilatuns 
and Mefa c iluns * which they call metres and prosody, and 
how it is necessary that the ends of the lines should rime 
together. After which he said, "As you are so eager after 
poetry, let your first verse be, for good luck, a hymn to 
the Prophet. 2 Now try to-night ; make something in that 
manner, and show it to me to-morrow; we shall correct the 
places where there are mistakes; and in this way you will 
become a poet." And he recommended me to use as a 
refrain 3 the words, 'O apostle of God !' 4 

'Delighted, I mounted the stair at full speed, ran into 
my room, shut the door, and spread out before me a sheet 
of paper. I seized my pen, as though I were about to write 

1 Fa c ilatun and Mefa c ilun are the paradigms or meaningless model words 
for two of the Oriental prosodic feet. The first stands for 1-^ I, the 
second for I - ^ - 1 . 

2 A na c t. 3 Redif. 

* jjjl 4>~ L. 


down a crowd of things that were heaped up in my mind. 
Think! go on! think! not a thing would come into my 
head. Where were metre and prosody? even common 
words had fled from my mind as though they had feared 
to be taken and thrust by force into the fetters of metre. 
In short, I could think of absolutely nothing. And so the 
dawn came; I had not slept for a moment. Then saying 
to myself, "Let come what will," I wrote down on the 
paper a few lines of nonsense ; but I did not forget to end 
each with 'O apostle of God !' I read these over a hundred 
times, and found them all to my own thinking correct in 
metre and very fine; but it never occurred to me to give 
any thought as to their meaning. 

'As soon as it was light I ran full of joy to my lala's 
room and caught him performing his ablution, having just 
risen from bed. I thrust my paper triumphantly into his 
hand. He cast his eye over it, then handed it back to me 
and said with a smile, "This is not bad; but poetry must 
be metrical, that is, the movements and pauses must be 
equal in every line; now not only are some of these Fa c ilatun 
and some Mustef c ilun, l but there is no sense to be made 
out of any one of them. The words glare at one another 
like mad bulls. Now sense as well as metre is an essential 
of poetry. Keep these; but try to write as I told you last 
night, and to-morrow we shall see." 

'Then. I read my poem over again and saw all the faults 
the lala had pointed out. Who could care for lessons 
any longer! To become a poet was more desirable in my 
eyes than to be King of all the world. So I thought about 
poetry all that day in school ; even when playing walnuts 2 

1 This word is the paradigm of the prosodic foot 1 w - 1 . 

2 Walnuts are used for playing many games, some of which resemble 
those played with marbles by boys in this country. 

in the mosque courtyard I was dreaming about poetry. 
Again I worked hard all night till morning and managed 
to scribble something. Next day I showed it to the lala, 
and while he was glancing over it, my heart beat fast, and 
I looked at his eyes, wondering what he would say. I do 
not know whether it was to encourage me, or whether the 
metre and sense were really correct, or whether they seemed 
so to my lala, but in any case he clasped me in his arms 
and said, "Well done! I no longer doubt that you will be 
a poet; your father or whosoever will may forbid, but I 
no longer fear." These words fanned, as it were, the fires 
of eagerness in my heart. Saving up from a few days' 
allowances, I went secretly with my lala to the booksellers 
and we bought a collection of c Ashiq c Omer's verses which 
I diligently studied in the evenings. 

'I very soon began to discover which of the verses the 
lala used to compose and recite were out of metre, and 
even to make 'parallels' to the couplets I liked best in the 
c Ashiq c Omer and Gevheri that I was reading. But I did 
not pay much attention to sense until I became acquainted 
with the late Fatin Efendi. ' I had been fancying myself a 
full-fledged poet and the worshipped c Ashiq c Omer an erudite 
master whose like had never been seen on earth when the 
aforesaid Efendi was the means of rectifying my errors.' 

At this point the autobiographical portion of Ziya Bey's 
preface ends. It was written to introduce and illustrate what 
follows it, a series of reflections on the education of children, 
the subject of Rousseau's work to the translation of which 
it is prefixed. There is however a section in the preface to 
his anthology, the oft-quoted Kharabat or Tavern, in which 
Ziya describes how he came to be interested in poetry, and 
of which, as it supplements the story just told, I shall here 

1 The author of the Tezkire which has been so often quoted. 


give a translation. The original is in verse, but for brevity's 
sake I shall render it in prose, omitting whatever is irrelevant. 
'Before I was fifteen years of age I busied myself with 
verse; what first gave me the taste therefor was the braying 
of the street-poets. 1 Sometimes I would read Gharibi or be 
stirred up by c Ashiq Kerem ; 2 at other times I would take 
up c Ashiq c Omer and be confounded by his erotic speeches. 
But I was not content with admiring; sometimes I made 
bold to pilfer, and I would try to write 'parallels'. What 
productions they were ! May all ears be spared hearing such 
things, and all lips uttering them ! Yet I wrote them in my 
little diwan, and would, if I could, have carved them on 
the rocks. Whoever cast the stone of derision at my verses 
got himself into trouble with me, and I answered the 
criticiser with a satire. A year or so passed thus when I 
became possessed of a treasure in the shape of one or two 
old printed diwans, and when I got these I entered into 
another world. Gevheri's slippers were now thrown aside. 3 
I admired Vehbi and Wasif, and strove to imitate them. 
When reading I would say, 'What magic ! what a miracle ! 
Can any speech surpass this, so sweet in language, so bril- 
liant in conception ? Look at that cypress, that form and 
figure! How charming the connection of rose and nightingale ! 
Surely the moth is indeed the taper's lover !" But as yet 
I was unable to discriminate. However, when I read the 

1 Literally 'public-square poets' (maydan shu c arasi) that is, men who 
for money sing or recite verses from the popular poets such as c Ashiq c Omer 
in public places. 

2 Gharibi and c Ashiq Kerem (Kerem the Minstrel), popular poets of the 
type of c Ashiq Omer and Gevheri. 

3 (^Xlii Xd'o ^^jLj 'His slippers have been thrown on the roof,' is 
a proverbial expression meaning 'he has fallen from the high esteem in which he 
was held (some other having taken his place.') It is often said of a first child 
when a second is born. Here Ziya would imply that his youthful allegiance 
was transferred from Gevheri and the folk-poets to Vehbi and Wasif. 


Gulistan ' I began to discover what language is. Just then, 
too, I was assisted in my studies by certain poets, 2 one of 
whom induced me to read a considerable part of Hafiz. 
My whole nature was enthralled by what I read ; it was as 
though my closed eyes were opened. The Persian poets 
became my masters, and I gathered gems from many of 
their Khamsas and Diwans.' 

Such were the circumstances under which Ziya's poetic 
talents were developed. I have given them here in detail 
and in the author's own words ; for, apart from its personal 
interest, the narrative may be taken as typical. No other 
Ottoman poet has left a similar record, but, save that Ziya 
was probably more than usually fortunate in his lala, the 
story which he tells was doubtless in its main outlines that 
of many a Turkish poet born in a non-literary family. A 
natural talent for poetry first awakened by the songs and 
rimes of the folk-poets heard in public places from the lips 
of c ashiqs or wandering minstrels, followed by attempts at 
versifying modelled with more or less accuracy upon the 
poems in any stray diwan the young enthusiast might lay 
hands on, refined and corrected by intercourse with literary 
friends won to interest by his manifest abilities, and matured 
by study of the great Persian classics, - - such must have 
been the steps by which many a Turkish poet of bygone 
times scaled the slopes of the national Parnassus. 

In the biographical and critical notice which Ebu-z-Ziya 
Tevffq Bey has prefixed to the selections from Ziya's prose 
works in his Specimens of Ottoman Literature 3 we find 
many interesting particulars of the poet's subsequent career. 

1 The famous Persian work by Sheykh Sa c di of Shiraz which is held as a 
classic throughout the East. 

4 No doubt Fatin Efendi is one of those referred to. 
3 Numune-i Edebiyyat-i G Osmniyya, edition of 1308. 


The information from this source is of special value, as 
Tevffq Bey was personally acquainted not only with Ziya, 
but with many of that author's friends and associates. The 
following details may therefore be regarded as scarcely less 
authoritative than the story just related. 

In 1262 (1846), when Ziya Bey was some seventeen years 
of age, he received an appointment in the office of the 
Chief Secretary of the Grand Vezirate. It was very soon 
after he entered upon his duties at the Porte that he made 
the acquaintance of Fati'n Efendi, to whose assistance he 
confesses that he owed so much. Encouraged by him and 
by other literary men whom he soon got to know, he worked 
assiduously at his poetry, producing verses which Tevffq 
Bey declares to be equal, if not superior, to the best of 
those of his most distinguished contemporaries. 

His literary efforts for the next nine years or so were 
directed exclusively towards poetry, and the amount of 
verse written by him during this period must have been 
considerable. Indeed his friend and counsellor Fatin Efendi, 
writing in 1271 (1854), says that by that time Ziya had 
composed ghazels enough to form a diwan. But all this 
work was in the old style, chiefly in the then fashionable 
manner of the Arif Hikmet group, so that what has been 
preserved of it is now of little account, having been altogether 
eclipsed by the far more original and brilliant work which 
the poet produced later on under the influence of the new 

During these nine years when Ziya Bey was employed 
at. the Porte and was exercising his poetic talent in the 
production of Neo-Persianist verses, he was leading a wild 
and gay, not to say dissolute, life. This was perhaps inevitable, 
seeing that it was in the taverns and other places of debau- 
chery where drinking-parties used to- be held that the young 


poets of those days made their rendezvous. 'Alas !' cries 
Tevfi'q Bey, 'some of those who used to frequent those 
rendezvous have since roamed the wastes of madness, l while 
others still in their youth have been snatched away by the 
hand of death.' Tevffq Bey then mentions as being of the 
number of these unhappy ones, whom he never saw, but 
whose sad story he heard from their boon-companions, Hafiz 
Mushfiq and C AH; while amongst those whom he himself had 
met were Ghalib and Halet Beys and Emin Firdevsi. 2 But 
whether it was that he possessed a stronger constitution, or 
that he had the good sense to temper self-indulgence with 
moderation, Ziya Bey, although he associated with such 
men as these and shared in their merry-makings and dis- 
sipations, escaped the untoward fate by which so many 
among them were overtaken. 

Yet this same Ziya Bey, who spent his nights in the 
tavern carousing with his boon-companions, passed his days 
in his office at the Porte, where, owing partly to his self- 
reliance and partly to his ambition to outstrip his colleagues, 

1 This perhaps refers to the poet Haqqf who went mad. 

2 The men whose names Tevfiq Bey mentions here as being among Ziya's 
gay companions were mostly journalists connected with the Jeride-i Hawadis, 
the well-known Turkish semi-official newspaper. Hafiz Mushfiq was born in 
Constantinople in 1221 (1806-7), and is said to have known the Koran by 
heart when eight years old. He was in the Civil Service, was for a time 
editor of the Jeride, and wrote a volume which he called Mushfiq-name, the 
Book of Mushfiq (i. e. of the Compassionate one). c Ali Efendi, who was 
likewise a native of Constantinople, was also in the Civil Service, and at one 
time edited the Jeride. The Ghalib Bey referred to is probably the poet who 
is generally known as Lesqofchali Ghalib Bey. Halet Bey was born in 1255 
(1837 40) and when quite young contributed to the Jeride. He was in 
Aleppo when the local official journal Furat, The Euphrates, was started, 
whereon he brought out a private paper which he called Ghadfr-ul-Furat, 
The Pool of the Euphrates. When he returned to Constantinople he started 
a literary magazine called Dolab, The Cupboard. He wrote a life of Fu'ad 
Pasha, also a volume of poems entitled Halet-ush-Shebab, The World of 
Youth. He died in 1295 (1878). 


he soon made his way and attracted general attention. His 
devil-may-care airs, his dissolute life, his familiarity with 
disreputable characters, the satires and lampoons which he 
launched against high and low, all were notorious; but 
so keen was his intelligence and so brilliant were his talents 
that everything besides was overlooked. His colleagues in 
the Chief Secretary's office, when they saw the extraordinary 
ease and grace with which he composed in that highly 
elaborated and wonderfully involved official style to write 
in which was sore travail to even the oldest of his fellow- 
clerks, were, whether they would or no, constrained to 
acknowledge and admire his marvellous ability. 

For all this, Ziya made no money by his pen ; his father's 
purse had to provide for all, from the clothes upon his 
back to the expenses of his nightly revels. ' This, however, 
gave but little concern to the young Bey, all of whose 
serious efforts were directed to the increase and advancement 
of his own culture. The way in which he set about accom- 
plishing this may at first sight seem peculiar; but we must 
remember how, as Tevffq Bey points out, it was in the 
taverns that the more brilliant of the younger literary men 
of those days were in the habit of holding their symposia, 
and how consequently it was thither he who would share the 
pleasure or advantage of their society must go. 'We too', 
continues the biographer, 'have our Giimiish-Halqali (Silver- 
Ring), our Servili (Cypress-Inn), and our Altun-Uluq (Golden- 
Spout), 2 cabarets which are now looked upon as places of 
historic interest, even as the Cafe Procope, the Cafe Moliere 
or the Chat-Noir in Paris, once the resorts of Moliere, 

1 It should be mentioned to Ziya's credit that after he had 'ranged him- 
self he set about repaying his father with interest all the money which he 
had caused him to disburse. 

2 These are the names of taverns frequented by Ziya and his friends. 


Piron, Voltaire, Diderot, Mrrabeau and other men of letters.' 
In one or other of these Constantinople taverns, according 
to the season, met the wits and poets of those times, and 
while the glasses were going round some one would recite 
a ghazel of Hafiz or criticise a couplet of Feyzi, or some 
other would declaim a ghazel composed by himself in the 
manner of Fuzuli or a few verses from a qasida written 
after the fashion of Nef c i. 

Things went on in this way till the year 1271 (1854 5), 
when Ziya Bey was, through the influence of Reshid Pasha, 
appointed third secretary to the Sultan. Ziya's wonderful 
skill in secretarial work, as well as his poetic talent, had 
come under the notice of Reshid Pasha and the Sheykh-ul- 
Islam c Arif Hikmet Bey; and the former, who was then 
Grand Vezfr, wishing to promote the interests of so promising 
a young man, procured for him the above-mentioned office 
in the Imperial household. From the day he entered the 
Sultan's palace Ziya began a new life; he felt that he owed 
the honourable position in which he found himself neither 
to his birth nor to any favouritism, but to his own merit 
and talent alone, and he determined that he would do what 
in him lay to maintain and increase his fair fame. He there- 
fore turned his back on his former life, gave up his Bohemian 
companions, and set himself to walk in the straight way as 
became a dignified and learned member of so august a 

But so sudden and violent a break from habits of long 
standing could hardly be effected with absolute impunity; 
a kind of mental paralysis seemed to come over the young 
man; the Ziya who used to sing 'like a nightingale' amongst 
his jovial friends seated on the bare benches of some dingy, 
grimy little tavern, moved silent as a mute through the 
gilded saloons of the Imperial palace. Edhem Pasha, the 


then marshal of the Sultan's household, noticed the depres- 
sion of Ziya Bey, and strongly urged him to seek relief 
from it by turning his attention to the study of French. 
The Bey followed this advice, and, devoting all his energies 
to this new pursuit, acquired in six months so good a 
knowledge of the French language that he was able to 
translate into Turkish an historical treatise by Viardot on 
the Moors in Spain. This work, the Turkish title of which 
is Endelus Tarikhi, The History of Andalusia, is the first 
of Ziya's prose productions important from a literary point 
of view. Of course, the evidences of the translator's training 
are apparent in every sentence. The style has more affinity 
with the bureaucratic idiom of the Sublime Porte than with 
the simple and graceful manner of the translator's maturer 
works. Not even a Ziya Bey could at once master a foreign 
language and evolve a new literary style in the brief space 
of six months. 

For several years Ziya retained his position in the Imperial 
household, and during the whole time he worked continuously 
at his French studies, translating numerous books, and ever 
seeking to make for himself a more and more perfect literary 
style, by assimilating and applying those principles which 
he recognised as lying at the foundations of the idiom and 
the literature that he was studying. There is nothing to 
indicate that in so doing Ziya was in any way influenced 
by the very similar efforts that were then being made by 
Shinasi. The two reformers appear, independently of one 
another, to have attacked the same problem with the same 
weapons at very nearly the same time, a not unnatural 
occurrence under the circumstances, and one which confirms 
what has been said as to the inevitableness of the rise of 
the Modern School in Ottoman literature at this particular 


Amongst the French works mentioned as having been 
translated by Ziya during these years are Moliere's 'Tartufe', 
a 'History of the Inquisition', Fenelon's 'Telemaque', and 
La Fontaine's 'Fables', the last being rendered into verse. 
But as there was little demand for such literature in those 
days, these works remained unpublished, and with the 
exceptions of the 'Tartufe' * and the 'History of the Inqui- 
sition', 2 which were issued shortly after the translator's death, 
they appear to have been lost. The translation of Rousseau's 
'Emil' is probably later; at least the preface, a part of which 
we have just read, is dated 15^ Muharrem 1287 (April 1870), 
and was written at Geneva where Ziya was then living in 

Although so busy with prose, Ziya was not neglecting 
poetry. A large number of his lyric poems, including the 
best known of all, a Terjf c -bend, were written during his 
tenure of office in the Palace. The effects of the author's 
European studies are very noticeable in these verses, alike in 
the clarity and directness of the thought and in the relative 
simplicity and sobriety of the expression. The outlook on life, 
too, is Western rather than Eastern, though the external form 
and mechanism of the verse remains Oriental throughout. 

1 Ziya's translation of the 'Tartufe' is entitled Riyanin Enjami 'The Result 
of Hypocrisy', and was issued in 1298 (1881), the year after his death, from 
the printing-office of the Waqt newspaper. It is rendered literally, line for 
line, in a kind of blank verse without regular rime or metre. The printed 
edition begins abruptly in the middle of the sixth scene of the first act. 
Perhaps the first few pages of the manuscript were lost. 

2 The Inkizisyon Tarikhi or 'History of the Inquisition' was published in 
1299 (1882) by Ebu-z-Ziya Tevfiq Bey, who says in a prefatory note that 
the translation was made twenty-two years ago, and that on the author's 
death his heirs, who were ignorant of its real value, sold the manuscript at 
Adana for a quarter mejidiyye (about one shilling), and that he, unwilling 
that the public should be deprived of a precious work by so great an author, 
bought the manuscript for four hundred times the price at which it had 
been sold, and published it. 


The story of Ziya's later life cannot be given here in any 
detail. The materials out of which to form it have not yet 
been published, nor are they likely to be under the present 
repressive regime; for the Bey became one of the most 
prominent members of the Young Turkey party, no word 
concerning which is allowed to issue from the Ottoman press. 

Some time after the accession of c Abd-ul- c Aziz, which 
occurred in 1277 (June 1861), the Bey ceased to be a member 
of the Imperial household. This change was in all probability 
a result of the hostility which existed between him and c Ali 
Pasha, whose influence had become all powerful with the 
new Sultan. c Ali and his colleague Fu'ad Pasha had, as we 
have seen, been the rivals of Reshid Pasha and the perse- 
cutors of Shinasi, and Ziya bitterly resented the growing 
power of the former. He had more than once tried to bring 
about the fall of his enemy by representing to Sultan G Abd- 
ul- c Aziz how c Ali was in reality usurping the imperial power, 
a proceeding which naturally roused the resentment of the 
Pasha, and eventually entailed the dismissal of Ziya from 
his position as secretary to the Sultan. 

After his removal from the Palace, Ziya was appointed 
to a succession of more or less nominal offices; and it was 
during this time that he, in conjunction with several of the 
better educated and more talented of his younger contempor- 
aries, laid the foundations of the Young Turkey party. 
These young men, among the most prominent of whom was 
Kemal Bey, had begun to realise the unhappy and back- 
ward state of their country, and were filled with an over- 
mastering desire to do something to bring about a brighter and 
better state of things. Their aim was the regeneration of Turkey 
and her establishment as one of the great civilised powers 
of the world. Among the most important of the means by 
which they sought to accomplish this end was an idea, at 


first not very clearly defined, of substituting for the absolute 
despotism which had hitherto prevailed a constitutional 
regime under which the Sultan should rule conjointly with 
a parliament duly elected from all the nationalities within 
the Empire. The reformers flooded Constantinople and the 
provinces with tracts and pamphlets setting forth their views 
and drawing attention to the evils of the existing system. 
This brought them into collision with Ziya's old enemy, the 
then all-powerful Grand Vezir c Ali Pasha, who, although 
sincerely desirous of the welfare of the country, did not 
approve of the revolutionary schemes of the reformers, holding 
that such reforms as were made must be compatible with 
the principle of absolute monarchy which was in harmony 
with the genius of the East. Hoping therefore to check the 
new movement and nip in the bud any aspirations after 
Freedom, as that word was understood in the West, he 
thought to break up the party by banishing under one 
pretext or another its leading spirits from the capital and 
scattering them in remote provinces. A large number of 
suspected persons were thus got rid of in the spring and 
summer of 1867. 

Ziya was naturally amongst those singled out for banishment ; 
and so he received the titular appointment of Governor of 
Cyprus, but before he could be shipped off to Famagusta, 
where he believed he would be secretly poisoned, he contrived 
to elude the authorities and escape to Europe along with 
his colleagues Kemal, Nuri and Rif^at Beys, and c Ali Su c avi 
Efendi. This took place at the beginning of the year 1284, 
that is, in the early summer of 1867. 

Some at least of the refugees who at this time made 
their escape to Europe "had been invited by the Egyptian 
Prince, Mustafa Fazil Pasha, to join him in Paris, whither 
he had fled from Constantinople some little time before on 


account of a quarrel between himself and C AH Pasha. Until 
June 1866, when the direct succession to the Viceroyalty 
was granted by the Sultan, Mustafa Fazil had been the 
heir to the viceregal throne, and this alteration of the law, 
which resulted in his exclusion from his hereditary rights, 
had naturally incensed him against its authors. In order to 
carry out his scheme of revenge by attacking the Imperial 
government through the press, he desired to have with him 
in Europe some able Turkish writers who were opposed 
to the Grand Vezir and the system he represented. Hence 
his invitation to the leaders of the Young Turkey party. 
The Prince was enormously wealthy, and he promised to 
maintain as long as they lived those men who came to 
Europe at his request, a promise which he soon afterwards 
broke, as ere long he made his peace with the Ottoman 
court, and, leaving his proteges to shift for themselves as 
best they could, returned to Constantinople where he was 
reinstated in high favour, - - for all of which he is bitterly 
reproached by Ziya in his famous satire called the Zafer-name. 

After a time Ziya and his companious found it advisable 
to move their camp from Paris to London, which city they 
accordingly made their head-quarters. While in the West 
they brought out two Turkish newspapers, named respec- 
tively, the Mukhbir or 'Correspondent' and the Hurriyyet 
or 'Liberty'. ' In these papers, very many copies of which 
were smuggled into Turkey, they continued their propaganda 
in favour of a limited monarchy and representative govern- 
ment; and many of the articles contributed by Kemal and 
Ziya were most ably and eloquently written. 

From London Ziya went to Geneva, where he was in 

1 In 1894 the Hurriyyet was revived in London in the interest of the 
Ottoman constitutional party under the editorship of 'Djiwanpire' (Juvan-pir), 
i. e. Selim Fari<; Efendi. 


the spring of 1870, and whence, as we have seen, he dated 
the preface to his translation of 'Emil'. About this time the 
fugitives who had been pardoned by the Sultan for their 
unceremonious departure began to return singly to Constan- 
tinople; but Ziya did. not dare to set foot in Turkey so 
long as his enemy Ali Pasha lived. At length, however, 
in 1288 (September 1871), the Grand Vezi'r died, whereupon 
Ziya adressed to the Sultan a qasida in which, after praising 
him in the conventional extravagant and fulsome manner, 
he apologises for his flight, which, he says, was exclusively 
due to the rancour of an enemy who sought to banish him 
to Cyprus in order to kill him there, and humbly craves 
the Imperial pardon. Although it is not likely that Ziya's 
palinode had much effect on Sultan c Abd-ul- c Aziz, his prayer 
was granted, and he shortly afterwards received the much- 
desired permission to return. 

Back in his native country, Ziya was once more enrolled 
in the government service, being employed, after the fashion 
of the Porte, now in one capacity and now in another. His 
leisure was given to the compilation of his great anthology, 
the often-mentioned Kharabat or 'Tavern', the publication 
of the three volumes of which extended from 1291 (1874 5) 
to 1292 (1875 6). 

On the accession of Sultan c Abd-ul-Hamid in Sha c ban 
1293 (August 1876), Ziya Bey was promoted to the rank 
of Vezir, and so acquired the title of Pasha, whence it has 
been usual to speak of him since then as Ziya Pasha. At 
the same time he was nominated governor of Syria, the 
suspicious and nervous monarch who now occupied the 
throne wishing, perhaps, to get one who had been so 
intimately connected with the constitutional party removed 
to a safe distance from the capital. Like Kemal, Ziya was 
not permitted to stand as a candidate for the Parliament 

6 4 

to the creation of which his influence had so greatly con- 
tributed. From Syria Ziya Pasha was transferred to Qonya, 
and from Qonya to Adana, where he died early in the Latter 
Jemazi of 1297 (May 1880), worn with disease and broken- 
hearted at what he deemed the failure of his life-work. 

Ziya Pasha is described by his friend Ebu-z-Ziya Tevfi'q 
Bey as having been a brilliant conversationalist and delightful 
companion, gifted with a great command of language, a 
ready wit and a keen sense of humour. 

Besides the translations from the French already referred 
to, Ziya wrote in prose a number of articles and treatises 
on various political and social questions. In such of these 
as were produced after he had perfected his style, we find 
an ease and an absence of visible effort such as Shinasi 
never attained. Shinasi set out upon his work as reformer 
with greater earnestness of purpose, Ziya with greater bril- 
liancy of native talent. The superiority of the purely literary 
gift of the latter is beyond question, and should it be asked 
how Shinasi and not Ziya has come to be regarded by the 
modern writers as the founder of their school, the answer 
must be sought in the all-powerful influence of Kemal Bey. 
It was the extraordinary literary genius and unvarying 
loftiness of purpose of that great writer by many held 
to be the greatest Turkey has ever known that brought 
about the wonderfully swift and complete success 'of the 
Modern School; and all Kemal's contemporaries and suc- 
cessors have ever been at one in looking up to him as 
their master and their greatest glory. Now Kemal was the 
disciple of Shinasi, the inspiring influence of whose precept 
and example he never lost an opportunity of gratefully 
acknowledging. Ziya, on the other hand, became known to 
Kemal only later on, and then not as teacher but as fellow- 
worker. Kemal is the chief captain of the Moderns, Shinasf 


was the guide and inspirer of Kemal ; therefore Shinasi, and 
not another, is honoured as the founder. 

Unlike Shinasi, Ziya was a born poet. His earlier productions, 
the verses that he wrote before entering the Imperial house- 
hold, were, as has been said, in the current fashion of the 
day, that is in the manner of c Arif Hikmet and his school. 
His old friend Fatin Efendi mentions him with praise in 
his Tezkire, but as that work was published in 1271 (1854), 
before the poet had well passed his salad days, the notice 
it contains is necessarily confined to this immature work. 
Fatin however mentions two productions which I have seen 
noticed nowhere else; these are a riming Persian-Turkish 
vocabulary written as a 'parallel' to Vehbi's Tuhfe, and a 
commentary to an Arabic Tuhfe by c Asim Efendi the famous 
translator of the Qamus and the Burhan-i Qati c . The biogra- 
pher states further that his young friend had written a series 
of supplementary articles to the then recently published 
'Ottoman Grammar' of Jevdet and Fu'ad Efendis. 

The best of Ziya's lyric work was produced between 
the years 1271 (1854 5), when he became secretary to the 
Sultan, and 1284 (1867) when he fled to Europe. The verses 
written during this period, after the poet had made some 
acquaintance with French literature, are of great interest as 
presenting the earliest examples of Turkish poetry produced 
under the direct influence of Western culture. In the best 
known of all, the very remarkable Terji c -bend which Ziya 
wrote in 1276 (1859), the inspiration is wholly Western. It 
is the spirit of Western agnosticism that breathes throughout 
this poem; it is Western science that has revealed to the 
poet those mysteries at which he stands aghast; the attitude 
of his mind before the terrible problem faced is not that 
of the Muhammedan thinker, nor yet of the dervish mystic, 
it is that of the European of the nineteenth century. 



And so in most of the poems written about this time we 
can see in one form or another traces of the author's 
Occidental studies. In the past the general tendency had 
been to consider poetry either as a sort of intellectual play- 
thing or as a medium for the expression of transcendental 
ideas. Ziya thought to bring it more into harmony with 
modern life by employing it, much as he employed prose, 
as a vehicle for expressing what he, a man- of the world 
and no mystic, regarded as practically the truth. The French 
poets had taught him that serious and earnest poetry might 
be written without flying off into the regions of mysticism, 
that the hopes and fears common to all men, if treated 
with sympathy and sincerity, would yield material for the 
noblest efforts of genius. Ziya's lyrics, then, differ widely in 
purpose from those of most of his contemporaries and prede- 
cessors; there is little attempt at prettiness, still less at 
transcendentalism ; l his object is to state things as he believes 
them to be, and to give voice to his own views regarding 
them. In his attempts, however, to avoid the futilities of 
the Arif Hikmets on the one hand and the enigmas of 
the Esrar Dedes on the other, he at times stumbles into 
yet a third ditch. So great is his respect for common-sense 
that sometimes his verses are little else than rather ordinary 
prose thrown into metrical form. The language of these 
poems is in keeping with their substance, simple and straight- 
forward on the whole, with little that is merely decorative, 
nothing that is wilfully obscure. 

Although the pervading spirit is Western, the imagery 
remains Oriental. It is the same with the external form ; 
there is no attempt at any innovation in the mechanism of 

1 So far as I have seen, it is only in the hymn which opens the preface 
to the Kharabdt that there is any trace of the dervish mysticism in Ziya's poetry. 


verse. Ziya's Diwan contains nothing but what is quite 
orthodox, qasida and ghazel, terjT and sharqf, all as in 
the past. The next step, the introduction into Turkish poetry 
of European verse-forms and rime-schemes was reserved for 
another and a greater than Ziya. 

While inspired by the genius of the West, Ziya's work is 
never an imitation of European poetry; he did not attempt 
to write French poetry in Turkish words, as did certain of 
his successors, who thus unconsciously walked in the footsteps 
of those ancestors of theirs whose aim had been to manufacture 
Persian poetry out of the same materials. These poems of 
Ziya are the expression of a mind which, without ceasing 
to be, or seeking to cease to be, essentially Oriental, has 
been open to the influences of European culture. And in 
this respect they are unique; what has gone before has been 
exclusively Eastern, while from that which follows the 
Oriental element has been in great part deliberately eliminated. 
Ziya's Diwan forms the link between the purely Asiatic work 
of the Old School and the Europe-inspired poetry of the 
Modern. It might be taken either as the last word of the 
former or as the first word of the latter. The qasidas alone 
are wholly Eastern, and these form the least important 
section of the Diwan, being neither better nor worse than 
hundreds of their kind. 

When I spoke in a previous chapter of Ziya's poetry 
being in an eminent degree typical of the twenty years 
between 1859 and 1879, it was more especially this Diwan 
that was present in my mind ; for in it more particularly 
we feel that the author is struggling to deal with modern 
themes, yet can find no means of utterance but that of the 
by-gone generations. 

No edition of Ziya's lyric poems was published during 
his life-time; but in 1298 (1881), a year after his death, a 


selection of these edited by his brother-in-law Commander 
Hamdi Bey was brought out under the title of Esh c ar-i 
Ziya or 'Poems of Ziya.' It is this selection which I have 
spoken of as the 'Diwan' ; but the author has very many 
poems not included therein. Some of these are to be found 
in his own anthology the Kharabat; but the majority, espe- 
cially those that touch on political affairs, have never been 
printed and still circulate in manuscript alone. 

Among the best known of these prescribed poems is one 
which, according to the story, was found among the author's 
papers after his death. In form this too is a terji c -bend, 
which, like the poet's earlier work of the same class, is pes- 
simistic in tone. But here the note is more personal. Ziya 
Pasha died in the belief that the great work to which he 
had devoted his life and his splendid talents had ended in 
hopeless failure. He had worked hard and suffered much in 
his country's cause; and now at the end he saw the old 
evil Byzantinism again triumphant, and the infant constitution 
strangled by despotic hands ; while the champions of liberty, 
slain, imprisoned, or, like himself, in virtual exile, were power- 
less to strike one blow or raise one cry on behalf of freedom. 
And the people the people for whose sake they had 
toiled so hard and borne so much stood still and did 
nothing. Instincts born of centuries of unquestioning sub- 
mission to a ruler's will were not to be wholly done away 
by a brief propaganda, however earnest and gifted might 
be the preachers ; but Ziya, disappointed in his dearest hopes 
and racked with suffering physical and mental, thought not 
of this, nor had he faith to foresee that the seed which he 
had sown would yet ere many years were past bear a rich 
and abundant harvest. And so he arose and with almost 
his dying breath denounced his people and his country, and 
anathematised his own efforts made to save them. 

6 9 

'Naught but sorrows on the loyal to this Empire ever wait; 
'Sheerest madness is devotion to this People and this State.' 

Such is the refrain of what is probably the saddest poem 
in the Turkish language. 

In many respects the most remarkable of all Ziya's writings 
is his famous satire the Zafer-Name. This work stands by 
itself in Ottoman literature; there is nothing the least like 
it in the past, and as yet no one has attempted to imitate 
it. Several of the earlier poets, it is true, wrote what they 
were pleased to regard as satires; but the verses of this 
class composed by such men as Nefi and Sururf are little 
else than strings of grossly abusive epithets, exercises in 
vulgar vituperation, the grotesque abominations of which 
serve only to disgust the reader with their foul-mouthed 
authors. The work of Ziya is very different; the Zafer-Name 
is really a satire as that term is understood in modern 
Europe. Although it is not quite free from personal allusions, 
which are at times in somewhat dubious taste, there is no 
trace, however faint, of the outrageous scurrility of the 'Shafts 
of Doom'; the poet seeks his purpose either through bitterly 
.ironical praise of his victim, or by holding up to ridicule 
his pretentious ignorance. Here again the influence of the 
West is evident; had Ziya known nothing of French literature, 
the Zafer-Name would either never have been written, or 
it would have been quite other than it is. 

The satire is directed against the political enemies of the 
Young Turkey party, who for the most part were also the 
personal enemies of the author. While the chief victim is, 
of course, the Grand Vezir c Alf Pasha, many of his colleagues 
and flatterers, notably Fu'ad Pasha, are incidentally attacked. 
The name Zafer-Name or 'Book of Victory', (we might 
translate it as 'The Paean',) which is a very common title 
in old Turkish and Persian literature for an account, in 


either prose or verse, of the military triumphs of some great 
warrior or monarch, was chosen by Ziya on account of the 
irony of its suggestiveness. The poem which he so called 
is in form a qasida, and is composed in a strain of the 
most exaggerated and bombastic eulogy. Its ostensible object, 
and that to which it owes its name, is the celebration of 
the Grand Vezir's expedition to Crete in the autumn of 1867 
in order to bring to a close the rebellion which had for 
some time been devastating that island; but its scope is 
really much wider, the whole of the Vezfr's policy being 
passed in review, always in the same tone of ridiculously 
extravagant laudation. 

The satire would have lost much of its point had Ziya 
avowedly written it himself; he therefore attributes it to 
one of c Ali Pasha's warmest partisans, Fazil Pasha the Bosnian, 
who, was then mutesarrif or governor of Izmid. In thus 
making him the author of this absurd panegyric on his 
patron, Ziya deals a by-thrust at the old Bosnian, with 
whom he had a crow to pluck. For when the reformers fled 
from Constantinople, this Fazil, wishing yet further to ingra- 
tiate himself with c Ali Pasha, had written some verses on 
the subject which, if we are to believe Ziya, so pleased the 
infuriated Vezir that he straightway appointed the writer 
mutesarrif of Izmid. 

But the Zafer-Name qasida by no means completes the 
satire; in order to reinforce his attack on c Ali Pasha, and at 
the same time to wing a shaft against another adversary, 
Ziya wrote a takhmis on the qasida, which he attributed to 
Khayri Efendi, a retired employe of the quarantine depart- 
ment. Even this was not enough; the satirist crowns the 
whole by a prose commentary on the qasida thus turned 
into a mukhammes, which he fathers on an adversary to 
whom he owed a very special grudge, Husni Pasha, c Ali's 

Marshal of Police. l In this extraordinary production Ziya 
pushes home ruthlessly and relentlessly his attack alike on 
c Ali and Fu'ad Pashas, on Fazil, Khayri, and Husni, as well 
as on a host of minor foes. 

Fazil, Khayri and Husni had all three dabbled in poetry, 
hence the appropriateness of the ascription to them of the 
three parts of the mock-eulogy. This ascription was not 
made by Ziya with the least intention that it should be 
credited; still less was it prompted by any notion of screening 
himself, for when he wrote the work he was safe in Europe, 
far beyond the reach of any adversary. The threefold 
attribution not only enabled him to hold up to ridicule the 
three fictitious authors, but heightened the whole effect of 
his work by imparting to it an air of verisimilitude which 
would otherwise have been lacking. 

In conformity with their feigned authorship, qasida, takhmis, 
and commentary are all written in the old style, or rather 
in the old style travestied. But while the first two, that is 
the verse portions of the satire, are presented as the work 
of men who, though they may be shameless flatterers and 
very mediocre poets, are at least educated, as education was 
understood in the school to which they belonged, the prose 
commentary, on the other hand, displays its suppositious 
author not only as a bare-faced sycophant, but as a ridiculously 
pretentious and grossly illiterate clown. 

The Qasida consists of sixty-six couplets, which, when the 
poem is extended into a mukhammes, give as many five- 
line stanzas. The first dozen of these are taken up with the 
mock-heroic panegyric on C AH Pasha's doings in Crete. 
This is followed by an ironical eulogy of the Grand Vezir's 
literary skill, notably as shown in the report which he 

1 Zabtiyye Mushiri. 


presented to the Sultan on his return from the Cretan 
expedition. This again leads to a consideration of the Pasha's 
other accomplishments, which, in its turn, opens the way 
to a review of the whole of c Ali"s past policy, more especially 
of the various financial arrangements that he made, and of 
his dealings with the several foreign and quasi-foreign questions 
that arose between 1860 and 1868. References to a number 
of personal matters follow, and the poem is wound up, in 
imitation of the orthodox usage, with a kind of burlesque 
prayer for the continuance of the great man's prosperity and 

Even cleverer than the verse, and certainly far more 
amusing, is the prose commentary. Here Ziya had a much 
wider field for the exercise of his talents, and he availed 
himself of the opportunity to produce what is probably the 
wittiest piece of writing in Turkish literature. It is of con- 
siderable length, as Husni Pasha is made to follow the time- 
honoured practice of the Eastern commentator, who takes 
stanza by stanza, explaining first the individual words in 
each, with continual digressions more or less relevant, and 
then giving an explanatory paraphrase of the complete verse. 
This method of elucidation applied to the sixty-six stanzas 
of the mukhammes occupies 125 out of the 135 pages of 
which the lithographed edition of the satire consists. It is 
therefore impossible to give more than a succinct account of 
it here ; but some further idea of certain of its features may 
be gained from the portions incorporated in the notes to 
the translated extracts from the poem. 

Husni Pasha, the nominal author, was, as has been said, 
Marshal of Police when the Zafer-Name was written. He had 
much to do with the repressive measures adopted by the 
Government to check the new political movement, arid was 
consequently in exceptionally bad repute with the would-be 


reformers. He seems to have been a typical official of the 
old style, probably without much culture, possibly without 
too many scruples; but he can hardly have been so amazingly 
ignorant as he is represented, else c Alf Pasha would scarcely 
have placed him in so important a position. 

In a preface which is prefixed to the commentary proper 
Husrtf Pasha is made to say, after a kind of parody on the 
usual introductory doxologies, that ever since his childish 
days he has been a devoted student of poetry, especially 
of the priceless works of c Ashiq c Omer and Gevheri, l and 
that he has himself composed some little songs and bal- 
lads. 2 He then goes on in a comically colloquial style to 
give a quaintly naive account of his career- as an official 
and of the way in which he came to be appointed to his 
present position. 

'The first instructions,' he proceeds, 'that I received on 
being appointed to this honourable office (i. e. the Marshal- 
ship of Police) were to take means to prevent the circulation 
in Constantinople of papers like the Hurriyyet, the Mukhbir, 
and the c Ulum 3 published by the pestilent society called 
the 'New Turks', 4 which had for some time dared to disturb 
the peace and repose of our lord c Ali Pasha by their seditious 
publications. So, putting my trust in God, I tucked up my 
trousers 5 and with or without right (may God pardon what 

1 The folk-poets mentioned on pp. 46 and 5 1 supra. 

2 In M. Belin's notice of the Turkish books published in Constantinople 

in 1289 (1872 3) occurs the entry: '^^Ws* ^/e^Ixi.*, Poesies de Husni 
pacha, ancien ministre de police.' I have been unable to procure a copy of 
this book. 

3 The Hurriyyet and Mukhbir have been already mentioned. The c Uliim 
was a literary and scientific paper edited by Su c avi Efendi. 

* -The 'new Turks' i. e. the members of the Young Turkey party. 

5 Pachalarini sighamaq 'to tuck up the legs of one's trousers,' is a collo- 
quial phrase meaning to prepare to set about some important business. 


I did amiss!) I imprisoned some of those connected with 
the leaders of this society, while some I sent into exile. When 
they were being examined, I could not restrain myself for 
my anger, and cursed and swore at every one of them like 
a street rough. I gave much money to spies and agents whom 
I found amongst the Greeks, and multiplied detectives beyond 
what was required ; and though in view of the present state 
of the treasury this useless expenditure may be deplored, 
yet, in accordance with the saying 'necessity maketh lawful - 
the forbidden,' ' my heart could grudge nothing, since the 
peace of the inspired mind of my bounteous benefactor was 
dependent on the accomplishment of this serious business. 
Yet the miscreants still found a thousand ways and means 
to smuggle their papers into Constantinople; and so my 
heart bleeds for that while I have been the object of so 
much boundless favour and kindness, I have up till now 
been unable to perform this important service which would 
be acceptable to His Highness. 

'Now the other day the Zafer-Name which my brother 2 
Fazil Pasha, the ex-governor of Izmid, has versified upon 
the Cretan victory came into my hands. A thousand times 
I read it, laying it down and taking it up again, and I was 
amazed at its eloquence and beauty of style. Then I saw the 
graceful takhmis which Khayri Efendi, the retired quarantine 
secretary, has composed on that delightful poem, and I was 
so impressed by the pearls of rare words and the lustres of 
strange -fancies that it contains that the dungeon of my 
desolate heart was filled with the rays of desire and zeal 
and enthusiasm. And I said to myself: 'That fool of a Bosniac, 

- 5 O . O.* > 5 5 35 

1 '"^ , Pr gi-t-M &**$ O^jyOojl A well-known Arabic phrase equivalent to 

'necessity knows no law.' 

2 I. e. my dear friend, or my colleague. 


Fazil Pasha, showed his devotion to the vezirial throne by 
yon qit c a he composed when Ziya Bey went to Europe, 
and thereby obtained the governorship of Izmid ; Khayri 
too, though fit for nothing, while sitting at home with a pension 
of 5,000 piastres, praying God for the prosperity of His 
Highness the Grand Vezir, gave proof of his claim to clientship 
by making a chronogram on the departure of Ziya Bey and 
Kemal Bey and Su c avi Efendi ; yet I, who, though unworthy, 
have, through the special favour of that lofty-purposed one, l 
obtained this rank and this office, and who am, moreover, 
amongst the illustrious poets of the age and formerly wrote 
a commentary on Ziya Bey's terji c -bend, I sit still, as though 
now I could do nothing! What assishness is this!' 

And so the Pasha, determined not to be behindhand, 
resolves to write a commentary on this poem in praise of 
his illustrious patron. 

In the commentary on the first few stanzas Ziya's object 
is to hold up to ridicule the crass ignorance of the nominal 
writer. Thus, whenever any somewhat unusual Arabic or 
Persian word occurs, acquaintance with which would imply 
some little culture, Husni is supposed to turn up his Qamus 
or Burhan, when out of the several meanings shown in the 
dictionary he invariably selects a wrong one, so that when 
he comes to the paraphrase of the stanza he writes the 
most ludicrous nonsense, which has not the slightest resem- 
blance to the real meaning. But Ziya soon leaves off this 
fooling, persistence in which would have grown wearisome, 
and begins to use the commentary as a channel for the 
indirect expression of his own views. The language, indeed, 
continues uncouth, is sometimes even gross, such as the 
real author deemed appropriate for the mouth of the feigned; 
things are still put in a whimsical fashion, and laughable 

> I. e. C A1( Pasha. 

7 6 

blunders yet occur from time to time, but these are only 
incidental, and never intrude where they can affect the meaning 
of the passage; it is now Ziya himself who is speaking through 
the voice of Husnf. The commentary is a very skilful device 
to enable the satirist to extend his attack; in the mukham- 
mes, owing to inherent limitations, only c Ali and Fu'ad 
Pashas and the two fictitious authors are directly assailed, 
but in the prose part of the work, where there are no such 
limitations, not only is the attack on the two most prominent 
victims renewed and driven home, but a number of other 
more or less important persons, including the Egyptian 
Mustafa Fazil Pasha, are brought under the lash, while 
Husni, the tool of the oppressor, is gibbeted for ever as the 
type of ignorant and brutal officialdom. 

That the chastisement meted out by Ziya in this satire 
was on the whole well-deserved may be allowed, but at 
the same time it is impossible to deny that he is on occasions 
very unfair to C AH Pasha. Apart from the bad taste displayed 
in twitting him with his humble origin and his short stature, 
it is preposterous to lay to his charge all the misfortunes 
that befell the Empire while he was connected with the 
government. Ziya Bey knew perfectly well that many of the 
unfortunate arrangements to which he alludes were none of 
the Vezir's choosing, but that he was bullied into them by 
the European ambassadors; and in upbraiding him with 
these, the poet only weakens his otherwise powerful satire. 

It must, on the other hand, be remembered that if Ziya 
sometimes lets his resentment get the better of his judgment, 
it was owing to c Ali Pasha that he was then an exile, that 
c Ali Pasha was his bitter personal enemy and the determined 
opponent of constitutional government in which, as the author 
truly saw, lay the only hope for his country. 

The Zafer Name is not to be criticised as poetry ; the 


greater part of the work is in prose, while what is in verse 
is purposely exaggerated to the point of becoming absurd ; 
but it is the one great satire in Turkish literature. 

The date of the composition of the work is nowhere given; 
but a reference in the commentary to Fu'ad Pasha as having 
died 'last year' enables us to fix it as 1286 (13 April 1869 
3 April 1870). 

As might be expected, the circulation of the Zafer-Name 
is, and always has been, prohibited in Turkey; lithographed 
copies are, however, none the less easily procurable. 

The last volume of the Kharabat or Tavern, the great 
Turkish, Persian and Arabic anthology compiled by Ziya 
after his return from Europe, was published just four years 
before the true Modern School of Turkish poetry was inau- 
gurated by the appearance of Hamid Bey's Sahra. This 
work of Ziya marks the last endeavour of the old Asiatic 
culture to retain what was left of its ancient supremacy in 
Ottoman literature. Never again can the dead past be held 
up, as it is here, as the model to which the living present 
must conform. But for this final effort all the forces of 
re-action are mustered. Side by side with what the anthologist 
held to be the most brilliant examples of Turkish poetry 
from the Birth-Song of Suleyman Chelebi down to his own 
Diwan, these are here presented to the young Ottoman poet, 
to evoke his admiring fealty and incite him to emulation, 
those famous and glorious masterpieces of the old Arabian 
and Persian classics which his fathers had ever regarded as 
the topmost pinnacles in the temple of human speech, the 
matchless paragons to approach which must be the aim of 
every poet. But all was in vain ; 'when comes the true, the 
false departs,' ' and this last barrier raised by a once mighty 

i Kor'dn xvii, 83: jJaLJ 


but now dying spirit fell almost without a struggle before 
the destructive criticism of Kemal and the creative genius 
of Hamid. 

That Ziya the reformer, Ziya the satirist of the Zafer-Name, 
should appear as a champion of the moribund past may 
seem strange; but it must be borne in mind, firstly that 
Ziya had by this time lost much of his old energy, and 
secondly that he does not set himself up as a defender of 
the Old School of poetry against the New, which latter indeed 
was not yet in existence. If Ziya was to make an anthology 
at all, it must necessarily be compiled from the works of 
the Old School; yet the making of such at this juncture 
and the offering of it as a textbook to young poets was in 
fact, if not in intention, a defence of the Asiatic School. 

The work consists of three volumes, the first of which 
was published in 1291 (1874-5), and the remaining two in 
the following year. The first volume contains the long and 
elaborate preface in mesnevi verse, and the selection of 
Qasidas, those in Turkish coming first, arranged in the 
alphabetical order of the poets' names, those in Persian fol- 
lowing, while those in Arabic come last. The second volume 
consists likewise of three parts, Turkish, Persian and Arabic, 
each of which is divided into several sections, as follows : 
Terkib-Bends and Terji c -Bends (including Mukhammeses and 
Museddeses), Qit c as, Ruba c is, Ghazels and selected couplets 
from such. The third volume contains extracts from famous 
Mesnevis, in two parts, Turkish and Persian. 

The preface to the Kharabat is very interesting. It opens, 
according to old custom, with a hymn to God followed by 
one in honour of the Prophet. Then comes the 'Reason of 
the Compilation.' This begins with the writer's account of 
his early interest in poetry which has already been translated. 
After studying the Persian masters he tells us that he turned 


his attention to the critical examination of the Turkish poets, 
all of whom, starting with their protagonist the Chaghatay 
Mir c Ali Shfr, he found to be imitators of the Iranians. 
Next we have a few remarks on the injury done to Turkish 
poetry by those early writers having substituted the Perso- 
Arabian prosodic system for the native 'finger-counting' or 
syllabic metres, and on the relations thus established between 
the poetry of the Ottomans and that of the Persians and 
Arabs. Ziya then mentions his great desire to be a poet, 
and states that though his studies may not have enabled 
him to attain this honour, they have at least given him a 
critical knowledge of the art. He is now past his forty-fourth 
year, 1 and reflecting on the transitoriness of life, he is filled 
with longing to leave behind him some memorial which will 
preserve his name from oblivion, when he bethinks him of 
the story of Qitmir the dog of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, 2 
and how his name, though he was only a beast, has been 
handed with theirs down the ages by reason of his faithful 
service to these noble men. Ziya will therefore follow his 
example, and do a service to the illustrious poets. When 
during the course of his reading he came across any verses 
which specially pleased him, it had been his custom to copy 
them into an album. He now set to work to arrange this 
collection as an ordered anthology. He has preserved, he 
says, the old spelling; while as Chaghatay is, so to speak, 
the 'mother' of Ottoman Turkish, he has felt bound to grant 
it a place. He has passed the poets in review, and criticised 
each according to the best of his judgment. He has also 
included the best-known works of his contemporaries. He 

1 This would give 128.9 or 1290 as the date of the preface to the Kharabat, 
allowing Ziya to have been born in 1245. 

8 The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus are reckoned as saints by the Muslims ; 
they and their dog Qitmir are mentioned in Sura xviii of the Koran. 


has inserted in his collection all his favourite pieces; yet 
in order to show both merits and faults, he has given examples 
of every style. He then bids the reader think how many 
books he must have read and how much labour the compi- 
lation must have cost him. This section of the preface winds 
up thus : 'Since the topers 1 meet therein, I have named 
this book the 'Tavern' ; none would have given credit had 
I entitled it the 'Mosque', as not many poets frequent 
that place.' 

In the next section, 'Concerning the Conditions of Poetry 
in Turkey,' the author gives a brief account of the develop- 
ment of Ottoman poetry as he understood it. He ignores 
all the archaic writers and begins with Ahmed Pasha, Nejatf 
and Zati, who, he says, laid the foundations of Turkish 
literature. Although the matter of these early poets is good, 
their language is uncouth, and owing to the changes that 
have taken place, their idiom is only with difficulty intel- 
legible nowadays. The advancement of the language was 
much assisted by the encouragement which Sultans Selim I 
and Suleyman I gave to the poets, notably to Baqi, who, 
although obsolete words still occur in his verses, may justly 
be entitled the first reformer of the language. After his 
time the literary idiom became more thoroughly Persianised, 
chiefly through the influence of Neri and Nabi, the result 
being that it grew to be the most copious in the world. 3 
Sabit and Sami, however, introduced a number of prosodial 
solecisms, which, being adopted by Raghib and c Asim, became 
the rule for subsequent poets. 

The section which follows deals with the necessary quali- 

1 The old poets were fond of speaking of themselves as 'topers.' 

3 Perhaps this is true; during the seventeenth century, at any rate, every 
word in the Persian and Arabic dictionaries was a possible Ottoman word. 

fications of the Poet. ' Two things are needful before a man 
can be a poet, of which the first is natural genius, the 
second culture. The first is the gift of God, for unless a 
man is born a poet, he can never become one : yet native 
talent, however great, is insufficient without diligent study 
and application. The typical poet is described as a man of 
free and easy temper, fond of pleasure, not over scrupulous 
in his religious duties, nor (except in his verses) particularly 
subservient to the great. He ought, we are told, to be neither 
rich nor poor. The reader is counselled to throw aside prejudice 
and learn the languages of Europe, as one cannot otherwise 
become a perfect poet. For in the poetry of these languages 
there is another eloquence, by which 'the mirror of thy 
heart will be polished and the strength of thy soul doubled.' 
At the same time one must not copy this to the extent of 
losing one's own nationality; East and West are essentially 
different, and it is not good to destroy one's individuality. 
The poets of the West worship 'the Muses', and write very 
artistic dramas. These, especially when played by good actors, 
are very powerful ; but it is a mistake to imagine that they 
are all lessons in morals, for though one in a hundred may be so, 
with the remaining ninety and nine it is otherwise. Poetry, 
continues Ziya, is the flower of speech; and it is because 
royal edicts have not always sounded sweet that kings have 
been wont to regard poets with favour. 2 It is, moreover, by the 
words of poets that the names of monarchs are saved from 
oblivion : who would ever mention the Atabek 3 but for Sa c df ? 
It is Jami and Newa'i who have preserved the fame of 

2 That the poets by praising the kings in their verses may gain for these 
rulers the admiration of the people. 

3 The Atabek Abu Bakr ibn Sa c d ibn Zangi, the prince of Shiraz to whom 
Sa c di dedicated his immortal (julistan. 



Huseyn Bayqara. The words of true poetry are eternal ; the 
shifts and changes of time cannot destroy them. Whosoever 
can utter such words is an emperor in the realms of culture; 
his diwan will abide till the end of time; and while his 
enemies will pass away and be forgotten, his name and fame 
will endure for ever, - - and in this lies his revenge. 

In the succeeding section, 'On the Characteristics of the 
Ottoman Poets,' l Ziya passes in review a considerable number 
of the more important of his predecessors, devoting a few 
lines to the criticism of each in turn. As almost all these 
criticisms have already been discussed when dealing with 
the several poets to whom they refer, it is unnecessary in 
this place to do more than remark that it is hard to imagine 
by what principle Ziya was guided when deciding whom to 
mention. The critical remarks are prefaced by a few lines 
in which we are told that those who have studied the 
subject divide Turkish poetry into three periods : the Early, 
which ends with Baqi (beginning presumably with Ahmed, 
Nejati and Zati, whom a previous section describes as having 
laid the foundations); the Middle, which goes down to Nabi; 
and the Later, extending to the writer's own time. We are 
further informed that during .the first and second of these 
periods poetry suffered no deterioration; but that during 
the third, poets have become rare. 

This section is followed by two others similar in character, 
but of less extent, dealing respectively with the Persian and 
Arabian poets. 

The preface to the Kharabat is brought to a conclusion 
by an epilogue in which Ziya, after saying that his collection 
does, as it were, prefigure the Judgment Day, the poets of 
many lands and ages being gathered together to receive 


sentence according to their works, offers his anthology as a 
guide to aspirant poets and as a souvenir to the 'men of 
heart.' He then seeks to disarm adverse criticism by reminding 
the would-be caviller that poems which appear trivial to 
him may be dear to others, that the world is not confined 
to him alone, and that a single couplet which appeals to a 
man, or which meets his case, is of more value to him than 
a whole diwan. Again, the present collection is but a 
compendium, it does not profess to contain everything that 
is good; 'I plunged into an ocean full of jewels, I took just 
as many as I was able, the sea is still brimful.' And last 
of all the compiler claims indulgence on the score of his 
failing health. 'When the body no longer enjoys health the 
mind cannot remain unaffected; when I made this book my 
body was racked with pain and my heart was full of anguish; 
all my days have passed in troubles, and suffering has been 
the fruit that I have gathered ; I have written as I could, 
well or ill; is not the plight of the sick man known? I trust, 
therefore, that the courteous and refined will hold my excuse 
worthy of acceptance.' 

These excuses and entreaties of Ziya availed but little 
with the most illustrious of his whilom colleagues. The first 
volume of the Kharabat was published in Sha c ban 1291 
(Sept. Oct. 1874); before the year was out Kemal Bey had 
penned and sent to the compiler, from Famagusta in Cyprus, 
where he was then involuntarily residing as nominal governor, 
an attack upon the book, which for bitterness of tone is 
scarcely inferior to the Zafer-Name itself. Ziya had indeed 
laid himself open to criticism; he was not much of a critic 
nothing where Kemal came ; and his selection of poems 
is no doubt a long way from being the best that could 
be made; his preface, moreover, is crude and ill-digested, 
often inconsequent, sometimes self-contradictory; but all this 

8 4 

is insufficient to account for the acrimony of the attack. 

The real motive of this violent onslaught of Kemal was 
threefold. In the first place, he held and held rightly - 
that at this time of day a man of learning and a professed 
reformer like Ziya had no business to set up as models of 
literary excellence many of the pieces included in theKharabat. 
In the second place, the critic, ever a sturdy defender of 
the national cause, was disgusted at the sycophantic poems 
which, since his return from Europe, Ziya had been in the 
habit of addressing to Sultan G Abd-ul- c Aziz, and of which 
several are printed in his collection. In the third place, Kemal 
felt it as a personal slight that, whilst all the other contempo- 
rary poets including the compiler himself - - were largely 
quoted, he was represented only by three rather feeble 
juvenile couplets, although he had, as Ziya knew perfectly 
well, written a great number of poems, many of which were 
of high merit. Whatever may have been the reason for this 
shabby treatment of an old fellow-worker, whether Ziya 
was jealous of his friend's greater poetic gift, or whether, 
as is more likely, he dreaded offending the Palace by quoting 
one who was anything but a persona grata, certain it is 
that Kemal took the matter to heart, and did not hesitate 
to avail himself of the opportunity which a criticism of the 
book offered to take revenge for what was to him an unmerited 
personal affront. 

Under such circumstances strict fairness is not to be looked 
for; none the less, along with much that is beside the mark, 
being obviously written with the deliberate intention to wound, 
there is in this review a great deal of pure literary criticism 
which is extremely valuable and suggestive. The literary 
instinct in Kemal was too true and too strong to permit of his 
writing anything^ that had not in some degree a real and 
enduring value; and while we cannot but think it would 


have been better for the author's fair fame had he magna- 
nimously ignored an old ally's discourtesy, it is neverthe- 
less true that had this review not been written, Turkish 
literature would have been the poorer by one of its best 
and most remarkable essays in criticism. 

On the appearance of the second volume in the following 
year, Kemal wrote on it another similar review. 

I have been assured by Turks who were personally 
acquainted with both Kemal Bey and Ziya Pasha that not- 
withstanding the unpleasantness of this incident the two 
poets remained good friends down to the death of the latter. 
So long as Ziya lived these letters remained unpublished, 
but in 1298 (1881), a year or so after his death, they were 
printed in Ebu-z-Ziya's Magazine, the first under the title 
of Takhnb-i Kharabat 'The Demolition of the Tavern,' the 
second under that of Ta c qib 'The Pursuit.' ' 

In spite of all the strictures of Kemal Bey, the Kharabat 
is an extremely useful book. It is unquestionably the best 
anthology of old Turkish poetry in existence; and in its 
three volumes it presents a fairly adequate picture of the 
achievements of the Asiatic School. No doubt every reader 
thinks with Kemal that he could improve the selection by 
omitting this and inserting that; but such is the common 
lot of all anthologies. A graver drawback is the evident 
haste and lack of care with which the preface was written; 
this, which has led to several inconsistencies, seriously impairs 
the value of a piece of work which, for all its faults, is yet 

1 The Takhrib runs through six consecutive numbers of the Mejmu c a-i 
Ebu-z-Ziya, beginning with No. 19 in the Second Volume, the issue for 15 
Jemazi-ul-Akhir 1298. The Ta c qib begins in No. 30 in the Third Volume 
that for 15 Rebi c -ul-Evvel 1300 -- and runs on to No. 36. Both articles 
were afterwards (in 1303) published separately by Ebu-z-Ziya Tevfiq Bey 
among the volumes of his 'Library' (Kutub-Khane-i Ebu-z-Ziya). 


full of interest. But here the state of the author's health 
may be pleaded in extenuation. 

Less easy to forgive is the egotism which has led the 
compiler to insert among his selections page after page from 
his own diwan, and that to so disproportionate an extent 
that he holds a position of exceptional prominence in a col- 
lection where the canons of taste should have ruled precisely 
the reverse. It might perhaps be urged in excuse that, no 
edition of his poems having at that time been published, 
the author was naturally anxious to ensure for his favourite 
verses such immortality as he could. But here his case was 
in no wise different from that of many - probably of 
most of his contemporaries, including Kemal Bey him- 
self. From the beginning it had always been the exception, 
rather than the rule, for a Turkish poet to collect his own 
diwan, or even to see it collected during his lifetime. It 
was much more usual to defer the collecting and arranging 
of a poet's works until after his death, when the task generally 
devolved upon some enthusiastic disciple or admiring friend, 
of which practice we have seen many examples in the course 
of this History. 

Brave and earnest, talented and industrious, Ziya rendered 
signal and enduring service alike to the cause of progress 
and to the new learning. But he was lacking in stamina; 
if he did not fall, he at least grew faint in the heat of battle. 
The years of exile wrecked his health and broke his spirit. 
Poor Ziya, he had overestimated the strength that was in 
him ! Yet but for him, the literary revolution had not been 
the swift success it was; while had he only been the leader, 
it would have died, a mere flash in the pan. 

Ziya's famous Terji c -Bend consists of twelve stanzas, ten 
of which are here translated ; the remaining two are omitted 
as they are somewhat commonplace and tend to detract 

from the effect of the poem. The refrain is an ancient Arabic 
couplet here used by the poet as a sort of commentary on 
his own reflections, in fearful submission, in bewildered con- 
sternation, or in bitter irony, as the reader will. Since 
Ziya's employment of it, this distich has become a household 
word among the Turks. 

Terji c -Bend [468]. 

How passing strange a school this workshop of creation shows! 
Its every fabric doth some script of the unknown expose. 
The whirling heaven is a mill whose yield is agony ; 
Bewildered man is e'en the grain it grinds the while it goes. ' 
Like to a demon fierce and fell its offspring it devours : 
How strange a nest doth this old hostelry of earth disclose ! 
If one should heedful scan the shows of all existent things, 
Behold a dream, a phantasy, a tale of joys and woes. 
All things soever in the world are borne towards an end ; 
Spring into autumn glides, and summer's heat to winter's snows. 
Belike 'tis man will never win Eternal Truth unto 5 
All faiths and creeds appear to reason vague and futile shows. 
O wherefore, Lord, is all this bitter stress and strife of pain, 
The while a crust of bread is all the need man really knows ? 
There is no buckler underneath yon dome of turquoise hue; 2 
Each atom is the butt 'gainst which fierce Fate his arrows throws. 
The scheme of the Everlasting Will is working out its end; 
But means are all the seeming good and ill that e'er arose. 
All things existent are the workings of some mighty Power; 
No circlings of the Heaven's wheel, no tricks of Fortune, those. 

l Glory to Him before whose work all intellect is dazed! 

'Glory to Him before whose might the wisest stand amazed!' 

With spheres beyond all reckoning the boundless sky is dight, 
Compared to which this earth were scarce an atom in our sight. 

1 As Tevfiq Bey points out, the figure in this couplet recalls the incident 
with his lala which first directed the author's childish thoughts to poetry. 

2 The sky. 


A thousand blazing suns are there, a myriad shining moons, 

A hundred thousand stars, and many a wandering planet bright. 

Each sun with its own satellites is journeying on its road, 

Whilst other satellites in turn attend each satellite. 

Each sun a special virtue o'er its own dependents sheds, 

While ever hidden from its feres is each dependent's plight. 

Around its centre every system ceaselessly revolves, 

In its own orbit every sphere Eternal Grace doth sight. 

Myriad existences are scattered through each system vast, 

In every spacious sphere a thousand worlds ' are brought to light. 

Each several being for a thousand beings is the source; 

Each several world suggests a myriad other worlds forthright. 

In every atom lies a virtue special to itself, 

In every frame according to its nature is the spright. 

The changing seasons and the years are different in each world; 

Nay, every land a different reckoning of time doth cite. 

In brief, this boundless ocean is an ocean that doth lead 

On every side into the dizzy whirlpool of affright. 

'Glory to Him before whose work all intellect is dazed ! 

'Glory to Him before whose might the wisest stand amazed !' 

This mighty mote of earth's a mote on such wise fashioned 

That separate therefrom not any mote may fix its stead. 

A fiery ball it is whose heart is scorching lambent flame, 

Whose crust is scarred with many a river-course and ocean-bed. 

Its crust, if thou compare it with that heart of raging fire, 

Is even as the vines that over dome or cupole spread. 

This crust it is that night and day for every living thing 

Provideth all that needful is and yieldeth daily bread. 

What time the fiery subterranean dragon breatheth forth, 

The burning mountains, showering flame, make earth to quake for dread. 

Even as by a shade of glass a lamp is circled round, 

By limpid air this giant mote is all encompassed. 

From off that world-embracing board it is that every day 

All creatures that have breath, whate'er their rank or power, are fed. 

This dot it is that marketh off the left hand from the right; 

1 By 'worlds' is meant 'Kingdoms' of natural objects, such as plants, animals 
and so on. 

8 9 

From hence the intellect sets out where'er its flight is sped. 

Here each existent atom tasteth life's hilarity, 

Here each created thing must drain the draught that dooms it dead. 

All creatures lie, reposing calm upon the couch of ease, 

Upon a burning globe they sleep sans fear, sans thought, sans dread. 

'Glory to Him before whose work all intellect is dazed! 

'Glory to Him before whose might the wisest stand amazed !' 

The lion's cruel fangs do rend the screaming fawn, their prey ; 

The fierce and ravening wolf devours the sheep, ah ! welaway ! 

The fly, though guiltless, yet becomes the hungry spider's meal; 

E'en so the royal falcon doth the harmless pigeon slay 5 

The tortoise all defenceless must the eagle's victim fall; 

And with the helpless frog the snake his hunger doth allay ; 

The chicken, though he doth no wrong, is mangled by the kite; 

The mouse, although he sins not, by the cat is torn in tway ; 

The bitter eager hawk likewise the hapless sparrow kills; 

The buzzard's cruel talons too the blameless pheasant flay ; 

The bird, though swift of wing, becomes the grovelling serpent's meal ; 

The fish that swims the sea becomes the fowl of heaven's prey ; 

'Tis greed of pearls that handeth o'er the diver to the shark ; 

'Tis lust of grain that doth the partridge to the snare betray ; 

'Tis for the pearl anear its heart the oyster riven is; 

'Tis for its song the nightingale imprisoned pines away; 

His castor 'tis that brings about the luckless beaver's doom; 

His fur it is that doth the sable unto death bewray. 

The universal law is this: The strong shall slay the weak. 

On earth, in air, in sea this hideous carnage rageth aye. 

'Glory to Him before whose work all intellect is dazed ! 

'Glory to Him before whose might the wisest stand amazed!' 

At times the sun, at times a star, yea, e'en at times a stone 

Hath been the trusted god fore which a race has fallen prone. 

Now to the calf, ' and now to fire, Ormuzd and Ahriman, 2 

And now to darkness, now to light, have worship's rites been shown. 

1 Referring to the worship of the golden calf by the Jews. 

2 Ormuzd and Ahriman, the Principles of Good and Evil with the 


Of old time beauty, wisdom, love were all as gods revered ; ' 

For many a year in every land were idols served alone. 

At length the season came wherein God's Unity was learned, 

But e'en through that a thousand strifes, disputes and feuds were sown. 

The mind now thought Creator and Created one, now two, 

Believed now endless difference, now final union. 

Some held the Substance manifold, the Attributes as one, 

Then in one Origin did many an origin depone. 

Each one desires to shape a God conformable unto 

Those thoughts and aspirations which in truth are all his own. 

As different as mind and matter each from other is, 

So different the varied faiths and creeds the world hath known. 

How passing strange that every folk holds others' creeds in scorn, 

And deems the way of righteousness belongs to it alone, 

While yet with all this difference the aim of every sect 

Is but with true devotion one Creator's rule to own ! 

'Glory to Him before whose work all intellect is dazed! 

'Glory to Him before whose might the wisest stand amazed!' 

The roses smile, the nightingale breathes out his life in sighs, 

His fee is all the leech's thought the while the sick man dies. 

The corpse of him who riches had is e'en as carrion, 

Like vultures are the lavers and the heirs with greedy eyes. 

Upon the couch of luxury the city lord reclines, 

The stranger starves within the dust of scorn in woful guise. 

The smiling taper sheddeth radiance o'er the joyous feast, 

Amidst its flame, with crippled wing, the moth unheeded dies. 

Garlic and onion freely smile like tulip or narcisse, 

While prisoned close in narrow vial sweetest perfume lies. 

The sordid fool reposeth glad on cushions of delight, 

While in the stoke-hole of contempt croucheth the good and wise. 

Earthly prosperity is oft the lot of ignorance, 

What time the world a crust for wisdom's evening-meal denies. 

The banquet of society receives the false and vile, 

The spirit of the world doth oft the true and leal despise. 

The gifted poet many a time becomes the jest of fools, 

1 As by the ancient Greeks. 

The wise and learned many a time the idiot's mirth supplies. 
The feeble and opprest must often want for daily bread 
What while a cruel tyrant's deeds to fame and glory rise. 

'Glory to Him before whose work all intellect is dazed ! 

'Glory to Him before whose might the wisest stand amazed!' 

O Lord, how comes it every man of learning here below 

Must through the curse of knowledge ever rest and peace forego? 

Lord, why is it that with every wise man here on earth 
The measure of his gifts is still the measure of his woe? 

His peace of mind is gone, whatever side he turn his glance; 

His understanding is abased, where'er his thoughts may go. 

With knowledge as the only weight for understanding's scales 

Is't possible the utmost truth of things to weigh and know ? 

Thus impotent may any vision ever win to see 

The final verity of all the things and haps that show? 

And then, as though the burden of this sorrow were too light, 

From fools' o'erbearing tyranny in blood his vitals flow. 

1 know not ; is it ordered in the canon of the world 
That ever upon earth the brutish folk shall prosper so? 

Since e'er the world hath been the world this rule hath still prevailed, 
Before the vilest lout the man of heart is humbled low. 
The dullard prosperous and courted lifts on high his head 
Contemned and destitute the sage must ever humbly bow. 
Fair Fortune doth caress the fool, crowning his every hope, 
While fickle Fate the wise and good to beggary doth throw. ' 

'Glory to Him before whose work all intellect is dazed! 

'Glory to Him before whose might the wisest stand amazed!' 

The Father of Mankind was cast from Eden's happy plain ; 

As place of trial for Abraham his offspring's neck was ta'en ; 

The dole of separation from his son made Jacob weep ; 

The saintly Joseph's biding-place was e'en the well of bane ; 

Ailments and aches of frame and limb made Job to groan full sore ; 

1 These five last couplets have a peculiar appropriateness in the East, where 
not unfrequently those in authority are both ignorant and overbearing. 

9 2 

And Zacharias to the saw must needs his head constrain; 1 
John the Apostle 2 was beheaded by fell tyranny; 
Jesus the Fatherless endured full much of grief and pain ; 
At Ta'if were the Prophet's shoon to ruby turned, 3 and then 
Yon lustrous pearls were on the Day of Uhud broke atwain ; 4 
For hunger's pangs he bound the stone fast to his blessed waist, s 
Full little recked the Lord of Humankind of wordly gain ; 6 
Poisoned, from hence unto the Other World set forth the Leal ; 7 

1 According to the Muhammedan legend, Herod, when he had determined 
to slay John, was fearful lest some evil should overtake him through the 
prayers of his victim's father the saintly Zacharias. He therefore determined 
to murder the old man before slaying his son. Zacharias, becoming aware of this 
purpose, fled, and while on his way., saw a tree the trunk of which was split 
open as if to offer him a hiding-place. He concealed himself therein, whereon 
the trunk closed upon him, but a corner of his robe remained hanging out. 
Herod's emissaries passing by met an old man who, having enquired their 
errand, told them that he whom they sought was concealed in the tree, 
showing them the corner of the robe that was hanging out. At the instigation 
of this old man who was Satan in disguise they got a great saw and 
cut longwise down through the trunk of the tree, so that the saint was 
cloven in two from the crown downwards. 

2 John the Baptist is referred to. 

3 At Ta'if the Prophet Muhammed was stoned by some heathen and wounded in 
the legs, so that they were stained with the blood which ran down over his feet. 

* At Uhud the Prophet was struck on the mouth by a stone thrown by 
Ibn-Abi-Waqqas, and two of his front teeth were broken. 

5 Referring to the hardships the Prophet underwent during his wanderings. 
In a former note (vol. iii, p. 56, n. i) the custom of tying a stone against the 
stomach to repel hunger has been already spoken of. The poet Samf hints 
at this practice in the following rather pretty little conceit on a qibla-name 
(for qibla-numa), as the Turks call a particular kind of compass arranged to 
point out the direction of Mekka ; the compass itself is here likened to a 
pilgrim-lover seeking with fear and trembling the dwelling of his loved one, 
the needle being his staff; and the china face on which the directions are 
marked, his 'contentment stone.' 

.- . L<r 

'Stone against its middle bounden, and with iron staff in hand, 
'Trembling sore, the compass ever seeketh out the Loved One's land.' 

There is also a proverb, <^^^f u*Ub j}^ QtAftX>^ 'for hunger he 
has bound the stone against his navel. 

8 Referring to the Prophet's simple life. 

* Es-Siddiq 'the Leal' was the title bestowed by the Prophet on his father- 


And by the sword of doom at last was martyred c Omar slain 5 t 
And martyrdom befell him too who ordered the Koran ; 2 
The Blessed Hayder sank at last beneath the blade profane; 3 
And Hasan, poisoned, passed away to Paradise above ; * 
And foully murdered was the Monarch of the martyr-train. 5 
In whomsoe'er the love of the Divine doth master all, 
To him in that same fashion woe and anguish still pertain. 

'Glory to Him before whose work all intellect is dazed! 

'Glory to Him before whose might the wisest stand amazed!' 

Who made the human race this woful impotence to bear ? 
Who raised that race on high above all worlds exalted fair? 
Who makes the devil and the flesh the instruments of sin ? 
Who casteth into hell all those that lust doth overbear ? 
Who drove Mansur into the region of 'I am the Truth' ? 
Who gave the Holy Law the right to slay him then and there ? 6 
Who made the wine unlawful and of bitter taste the while? 
Who taught Jemshid the bowl and heady potion to prepare ? 7 
Who made the Jew deny the miracles of Heavenly Truth ? 
Who breathed the Messiah into Mary debonair? 

in-law Ebu Bekr, who became his immediate successor in the government of 
the Faithful. According to one tradition, he died of the effects of poison 
administered a year before by some Jews. 

1 Omar, Ebu Bekr's successor, was assassinated by a Persian slave. 

2 c Osman (in Arabic, c Uthman,) was the Prophet's son-in-law and c Omar's 
successor. He was murdered by a band of conspirators in his eighty-second 
year. It was he who made the final revision of the Koran. 

3 Hayder, more often called c Ali, another son-in-law of the Prophet, and 
c Osman's successor, was killed with a poisoned sword by Ibn Muljem. Ebu 
Bekr, c Omar, c Osman and c Ali, the first four Caliphs, are collectively called 
the Khulefa-yi Rashidin or 'Right-guided Caliphs.' 

* Hasan, the son of c Alf, was poisoned in Medina by his wife Ja c da at 
the instigation of Mu c awiya, the usurping Caliph and founder of the Umayyad, 
dynasty who had promised to marry her to his son Yezid. 

8 That is Huseyn, c Ali's other son, and the chief of the martyrs of Kerbela. 

6 Mansur, (properly Huseyn ibn Mansiir, called el-Hallaj, the Wool-carder) 
the oft-mentioned martyr of the mystics, put to death by the decree of the 
c ulema, the official interpreters of the Holy Law. 

1 Jemshid, one of the ancient legendary Persian Kings, who is reputed 
to have discovered the art of making wine. 


Who gave Sufydn > and Ja c da, 2 Ibn Muljem,3 aye, and Shimr* 
The hardihood the foullest of all infamies to dare? 
Who sent Nasir-ud-Dfn of Tiis to counsel Huldgii? 
Who caused Musta c sim all his trust with Ibn c Alqam to share ? 5 
Who makes the sick man stand in need of physic and of drug? 
Who makes the balm remedial its healing virtue wear? 
From whom is it the bee hath learned the geometric art? 
Who is it that hath taught the nightingale his plaintive air? 
Who is it round this Work-shop draws the veil of mystery ? 
Who is it that inspireth man to search this everywhere? 

'Glory to Him before whose work all intellect is dazed! 

'Glory to Him before whose might the wisest stand amazed!' 

He changeth morn to even and He turneth night to day; 

He maketh summer winter and He maketh autumn May. 

From the death-throe He bringeth life, He makes the dead to live; 

He turns the clay to man, He turns the body back to clay. 

For Abraham His might transformed the Fire into the Light; 6 

To Moses did His wisdom high the Light as Fire display. 7 

1 Ebu Sufyan, though he eventually embraced Isldm, was for long among 
the most determined of the Prophet's opponents. 

2 Ja c da, Hasan's treacherous wife and murderess. 

3 Ibn Muljem, the murderer of c Ali. 

4 Shimr, a commander in Yezid's army which defeated Huseyn at Kerbela, 
and the reputed slayer of the martyr Tmam. 

8 Nasir-ud-Din of Tiis, a very famous philosopher and astronomer, was at- 
tached to the service of Hulagu the Mongol conqueror, whom he urged to 
march against Baghdad. Ibn c Alqam (properly Ibnu'l- c Alqami), the treacherous 
vezir of el-Musta c sim billah, the last Caliph of the house of c Abbs, was the 
means of admitting into Baghdad the Mongols, who thereupon murdered the 
Caliph, massacred the people, and laid the city in ruins. All these historical 
allusions are of course familiar to every educated Muslim. 

6 Referring to the legend according to which Nimrod cast Abraham into 
a huge blazing furnace for blaspheming his divinity, whereupon God sent the 
Angel Gabriel who changed for Abraham the fire into a garden of flowers. 
The story is practically the same as that of Shadrach, Meshach and Abed- 
nego in the Book of Daniel. 

7 In the Burning Bush. With the mystics the terms Fire and Light are 
used to typify respectively the Awfulness and the Beauty of the Divinity. 


Showing the Leyla-beauty Shirin-sweet before his eyes, 

For dole of love He made Ferhad Mejiin-distracted stray. 

He makes a heart bereft of peace for long through some desire; 

For some fond hope He makes a soul for years to thole dismay. 

He overthrows a kingdom for some greedy tyrant's sake; 

He casts through some intriguer a whole nation in deray. 

He fosters in all luxury a body many a year, 

And then at last He yields it to the clutch of death as prey. 

He maketh one a treasure-hoard of knowledge year on year, 

And in the dust sepulchral at the end He doth him lay. 

Ziya, the sage is he who doth his helplessness confess, 

And taketh warning by the things that pass before him aye. 

Throughout His Kingdom ever rules the Truth 'e D en as He will' : 

The universe, e'en as He please, He makes or doth away. 

'Glory to Him before whose work all intellect is dazed ! 

'Glory to Him before whose might the wisest stand amazed!' 

The following little ballad was written by Ziya in imitation 
of the Turkis or folk-songs; the curious inconsequence, the 
lack of apparent connection between the lines even of a 
single stanza, is characteristic of the type. 

Turki [469]. 

The sun is sinking, and the evening-dusk is falling now, 
And from the vale the shepherd-lad is piping soft and low. 
May He who made thee keep the safe, for very young art thou. 
Come, join the flock, my little lamb, the wolf might seize on thee : 
Parted at last from thy dear love, my little one, thou'lt be. 

Since that the Lord hath made of me thy slave for aye and aye, 
Where'er thou treadest it were meet my face and eyes I lay. 
Be not deceived by rivals' craft, but heed the words I say. 

Come, join the flock, my little lamb, the wolf might seize on thee 
Parted at last from thy dear love, my little one, thou'lt be. 

The mist wraps all the mountain round, the rival can't be seen; 
One may not win unto one's love, the hunter 's laid his gin. 

9 6 

Wine is not drunk in company of faithless friend, I ween. 

Come, join the flock, my little lamb, the wolf might seize on thee : 
Parted at last from thy dear love, my little one, thou'lt be. 

Of the sixty-six stanzas of the Zafer-Name I have trans- 
lated thirty-three. These thirty-three have been selected as 
being either characteristic or interesting; and, taken as a 
whole, they give a fairly adequate idea of the poem. 

From the Zafer-Name [470]. 

Lo! what a royal triumph! glorious! splendid! of high degree! 

Lo! what a joyous conquest! lo! what a banner of victory! 

'Twere meet that Zal and Rustem ' cry in Heaven, as they wondering see : 

'God bless us all ! what a meteor bright of loftiest radiancy ! 

'God save us all! what a wondrous triumph crowned by Fortune free!' 

Here is the history of the past, if of argument there's need; 2 
The fights that have been fought on earth are many and many indeed; 
But thus say men below, with angels bright above agreed: 
'The truth is this, that never since the spheres began to speed 
'Hath any ever won so brave a victory to see !' 

In dread looked the earth to the sky, the sky looked to earth in dismay; 
And each in its terror sought some place where to hide away ; 
The peoples of earth and sky wailed and cried in dire affray; 
The welkin shook with the shouts: 'God grant him to live for aye!' 
And quaked the earth with the cries: 'Exalted on high be he!' 

Let us search all records through since history hath begun, 
E'en from the furthest East to where sinks the westering sun. 
Heroes and conquerors bold have arisen many an one, 
But ne'er to a triumph grand like to this hath any won, 
Iskender nor Huldgu, Hannibal nor Caesar, nay ! 

1 Zal and Rustem, the legendary Persian heroes. 

2 I. e. If the greatness of c Ali Pasha's victory over the Cretan rebels be 
questioned, we appeal to history to show a more brilliant triumph. 


Waving on Candia's towers, his flag triumphant flew ; 
And the charm of the words he wrote * did Europe's heart subdue. 
To save the State in sooth was all that he held in view; 
The might of his sword and pen hath conquered Crete anew 
Although that its folk were bent on independency. 

'If the aim and purpose be but to rule the State aright, 
'Such number of lands and towns will all endeavour blight.' 
Himself did invent that rule illumed with wisdom's light.* 
He freed the State in sooth from a passing parlous plight; 
Elsewise were affairs to-day in a sad perplexity. 

1 c Ali Pasha's official notes promising reforms, etc. 

8 C AH Pasha maintained, not without some truth, that much of the difficulty 
of governing the Ottoman Empire arose from the number and diversity of 
its subject races ; and in order to remove, or at least alleviate, this difficulty 
he was in favour of granting a species of home-rule to certain districts where 
one or other of those subject races was in a large numerical preponderance. 
This was a scheme for which much might have been said, but it was hardly 
likely to commend itself to a Turkish patriot zealous of maintaining the 
supremacy of his people. In the following passage from the Commentary the 
idea and its originator are both turned into ridicule by Ziya who here for 
the first (but by no means the last) time makes Husni Pasha's fictitious work 
an instrument for the expression of his own political views : 'In the per- 
spicacious opinion of our lord Ali Pasha the absence of good administration 
throughout the Sublime Empire is due solely to the extent of its territories 
and to the want of cohesion amongst these. Thus if a number of districts were 
cut off and formed into compact governments, like the Kingdom of Greece, 
the administration would in the future certainly be improved. Now this 
sagacious suggestion is of the inventions of that Fountain-head of Perfections, 
and none before him ever uttered it. And by this sage scheme it is that 
Crete has been placed under a special government, and the Empire relieved 
from that trouble. Although such diversities and the symptoms of bad 
administration may still be seen in the Principalities (Walachia and Moldavia), 
in Servia, in Montenegro, in Egypt, in Arabia and in Bulgaria, it is beyond 
doubt that, through the lofty zeal of His Highness, these troubles also will 
shortly be removed from the Empire. 

"What sorrow for the nation's bulwarks buttressed by thy like?" 
This Persian hemistich which Ziyd makes Husni quote may be read either 
as a question or as an exclamation. 

9 8 

While safe and snug was his home in the midst of his maidens fair, 
And while with his servants' jests his nights enlivened were, 1 
Unbidden did he all such delight and peace forswear; 
He chose this hard campaign in the winter-tide to share, 2 
While never an one had wished of him to be rid or free. 

There were vessels twenty-and-five his high commands to obey; 
He took one Greekish steamer, the fruit of a year's essay. 3 
Although he ne'er had studied things naval till that day, 
He wrought that on the squadron nor slight nor stigma lay ; 
Full worthy he an admiral of the English fleet to be.* 

When forth to that bitter war did this valiant champion go, 

The very thought of his sword made the paynim hordes bow low. 

1 Ziya here takes the opportunity to deal a blow at some of his opponents, 
notably at his old patron Mustafa Fazil Pasha who had played him false. 
Husni is made to say in his Commentary: 'That is, his servants such as 
Vehbf Molld, S&'ib Bey, Billuri Mehemined Efendi, c Omer Fa D iz Efendi, KhaKl 
Bey and Mustafa Fazil PaSha, whose nights are usually spent in drinking and 
making merry at the private feasts of His Highness our benefactor, and 
who, when their pates get heated, amuse His Highness with ribaldries of 
which larrikins would be ashamed.' 

2 c Ali Pasha arrived in Crete on the 28* of September 1867. 

3 The Greek steamer Arkadi, after having repeatedly run the blockade 
bearing arms for the rebels and landing filibusters, was taken by the Imperial 
vessel c !zz-ud-Din. 

4 The 'Summary of the Meaning' which winds up the commentary on 
this stanza is a good example of Ziyd's satirical praise. 'When he who is 
versed in all learning and science, to wit, His Highness the accomplished 
c Ali Pasha, set in motion the wheel of departure to conquer and restore Crete, 
that island was blockaded by twenty-five government vessels. Notwithstanding 
this, the steamer Arkadi and Russian and Italian steamers were puffing about 
bearing stores to the island rebels. At length, after a year's untold efforts, 
he succeeded in capturing the aforesaid steamer, and by this marvellous 
victory he saved the honour of the fleet from any hurt. Now when one who 
never in all his life had seen any sea except the Bosphorus or any ship 
beyond a row-boat is able to achieve so glorious a triumph solely through 
his own energy and ability, is he not worthy to be an admiral in the English 
navy? For the English naval chiefs are more skilful than those of any other 
nation; but while they have to study a long time in their schools and do not 
become admirals until after forty or fifty years, our benefactor has attained 
to this degree of perfection through his inborn genius or through the sheer 
grace of God. O happy Empire !' 


He held the soldiers back, nor let one pursue the foe; ! 
How 'Pardon is the alms of victory' he did show, 2 

Nor swept from the face of earth the dastard rebel crew. 

His skill in all arts that be unto everyone is known ; 
But in letters more than all is his wondrous talent shown. 
E'en supposing we could not prove these pretensions one by one, 3 
That Note * of his which recounts all the deeds that he hath done 
Unmatched and unrivalled stands for its rhetoric's brilliancy. 

No eye may pierce to his reed with art invested fair, 
For circling o'er its head doth the halo of wisdom flare. 

* In the Commentaiy on this line Ziya, says through his monthpiece Husni 
Pasha: 'When that Mine of Magnanimity (i. e. c Ali Pasha) was in Crete, the 
Greek rebels used often to attack the guard-houses held by the Muslim troops 
and to seize captives whom they murdered with all kinds of tortures, and to 
come down into the environs of the towns and destroy the vineyards and 
orchards. In brief, there is not a brutality that they have left undone ; still His 
Highness forbade the troops to pursue them. It was even as in the Montenegrin 
trouble, when, though the mountaineers used to cut off the noses and ears of 
the Muslim soldiers, our lord C AH Pasha would permit no attack on them, 
in order that the question might be settled by diplomacy.' 

Of course, c Ali Pasha's abstention from chastising those malefactors as 
they deserved was really brought about by the pressure put upon the Porte 
by certain of the European embassies. Ziya knew this perfectly well, and 
his reflections on the Vezir's conduct in this and some other similar cases 
are unfair. None the less an Ottoman minister who seems to yield over much 
to foreign insolence can hardly expect to stand well with his countrymen, 
who naturally and justly can see no reason why they should not deal with 
their revolted subjects in the same way as Englishmen have dealt with 
revolted Indians, Frenchmen with revolted Algerians, and Russians with 
revolted Poles and Turcomans. 

j&jtt Uj jA*Jl 'Pardon is the alms of Victory', is a hadi's. 

3 These pretensions, i. e. our claim that he is skilled in all the arts that be. 

4 The Note which c Ali Pasha presented to the Sultan on his return from 
Crete. In it he gave an account of all he had done in the island and of 
the measures he had taken to ensure tranquility. It was published in the 
Constantinople newspapers. Having satirised c AH's exploits in Crete, Ziya 
now proceeds to turn his literary and other accomplishments into ridicule. 
c Ali Pasha was not, and did not pretend to be, a man of letters; there is, 
however, a ghazel by him (the only one known) in Fatin's Tezkire. 


This verse from his Victory-Book ' read thou with heed and care : 
In questions and upon points that touch the loved one's hair 2 
The threads suggestive coil at his pen's foot verily. 

Whatever thing he writes, the world is compelled to praise ; 
Whatever thing he doth, the people admire always. 
How could it be that his works should not all men amaze? 
Mumtaz 3 and Fu'dd 4 applaud and extol his every phrase, 
Gazette 8 and Journal 6 both proclaim his doings aye. 

Sharpen he but his wits anything whate'er to do, 
In one or another way he is certain to pull it through, 
E'en matters held by all for impossible hitherto. 
Such is his might and power that if he but choose pursue, 
Impossible things by scores to possibles changed will be. 7 

'That is this qasida called Zafer-Name or Victory-Book, which Fazil Pasha 
is feigned to have written, and on which Khayri Efendi is here supposed 
to be making a takhmis. 

2 oU-.J^b v\> v_ sd\ 'To touch (caress) the locks of the beloved,' is a 
proverbial phrase meaning either to wound the susceptibilities of some one 
by touching his sore point, or, as here, to attack indirectly the policy of the 
government or of some great man. The phrase is quoted in the following 
couplet of Munif: 

L\J<3 .! 5 V^'j <$*$ H *"*-3 ^ o is^tf ^lAJLSkL 8.Lj v_ JiJ: 

"Tis as though played the breeze with the loved one's locks, 
'Once again is there qualm and throe in my heart.' 

Ebu-z-Ziya Tevfiq Bey, who cites this couplet in his book of proverbs, has 
followed a manuscript in which the last line of this distich has been trans- 
posed with the last line of the preceding one, the result being that the quotation, 
as he prints it, is meaningless. The preceding couplet, which is mystic, is: 

.} v_j__s ,;_ 

'A mote inexistent of Love am I; 

'Yet suns by the myriad glow in my heart.' 
3 Mumt&z Efendi, a government official of those days. 
* Fu'ad Pasha, c Ali's famous colleague. 

5 Taqwim-i Vaqayi c , the Ottoman official Gazette. 

6 Jeride-i Hawddis, 'the Journal of Events', the well-known Constantinople 
paper with which so many of Ziya's early associates were connected. 

~ Husni Pasha is made to say that this is of course a poetical exaggeration 


'Tween him and the King of the Age ' no sundering veil is spread ; * 
There is but this, that his name is not in the Khutbe read. 3 
But such is the power of his word in every spot and stead, 
The Sultan is but a name on the tongue of the people said ; 
The one who truly rules from the throne of the State is he. 

The chief in Damascus town was by his orders slain ; * 

on the part of the author of the Zafer-Name who by 'impossible things' means 
things which none would have conceived possible of accomplishment, such 
for instance, as this suppresion of a Cretan insurrection at the cost of only 
some eighty thousand lives and a million or two of purses in so short a 
time as two and a half years, or as the imprisonment and banishment of 
many Musulmans without even the pretence of a trial, after the numerous 
Imperial proclamations guaranteeing the liberty and the protection of the 
lives, property and honour of all Ottoman subjects. Husni adds that Fazil 
and Khayri proceed in the following stanzas to give further examples of C AK 
Pasha's successful accomplishment of other similar 'impossible things.' 

1 Sultan c Abd-ul- c Aziz. 

2 I. e. C AH Pasha is on the most intimate terms with the Sultan whom he 
has replaced, as the following lines declare, in the virtual sovereignty of the 
Empire. 'It is among those impossible things which, through the power pos- 
sessed by our lord C AK Pasha, have become possible, that he should subject 
to himself a monarch so zealous of defending the rights of sovereignty as 
Sultan c Abd-ul- c Aziz.' (Commentary.) 

8 The Khutbe is the prayer recited in the mosques every Friday, in which 
the name of the reigning sovereign is mentioned. Khayri Efendi is here made 
to say that the only distinction between the sovereignty of c Abd-ul- c Aziz and 
that of C AH Pasha is that the latter's name is not mentioned in this prayer. 

* In the summer of 1277 (1860) there was a serious riot in Damascus, in 
the course of which many of the Christian inhabitants lost their lives. Pres- 
sure was brought to bear upon the Porte by certain of the European powers, 
in consequence of which c Ali's colleague, Fu'ad Pasha, was despatched to the 
Syrian capital with instructions to put to death a number of the Muhammedan 
inhabitants, including the governor Ahmed Pasha. This Ahmed Pasha was a 
military officer who had served with distinction in the Crimea, and the shame- 
ful treatment which, if Ziya's account be correct, he received at the hands of 
the Porte, culminating in his sacrifice to the bloodthirstiness of Europe, was 
most likely the work of some high-placed rivals at head-quarters. This is 
what Ziyi says through the mouth of Husni : 'This Wall (Governor-General) 
of Syria and Marshal of the c Arabistan army-corps was the innocent and 
martyred Ahmed Pasha. As is known to everyone, some three or four months 
before the outbreak of the Damascus riot there were in that city four bat- 
talions of troops. At that time Ahmed Pasha was ordered by Riza Pasha, the 


then commander-in-chief, to despatch two of these with all speed to Rumelia' 
Ahmed Pasha replied that owing to the intrigues of some foreign priests, 
and especially of the French consul in Damascus, signs of ill-feeling 
between the Muhammedan and Christian citizens had for some time been 
apparent, that it was difficult to maintain order even with the four battalions 
that he had, and that if the half of these were withdrawn, a tumult among 
the people was almost certain to occur. He added that should the despatch 
of these battalions be insisted on, he would pray that he might be allowed to 
resign his post and that another might be appointed thereto, as he would 
not be responsible for any evil results that might ensue. To these words 
Their Excellencies the Ministers paid not the slightest attention; they with- 
drew the battalions from Damascus and they did not replace Ahmed Pasha. 
Not long after this they demanded further one of the two battalions which still 
remained. Ahmed Pasha, who then foresaw what would happen, wrote an 
answer a copy whereof was sent to the Imperial Palace and so must be 
lying pigeon-holed there in which, after describing in an almost prophetic 
manner the disastrous events which would occur in Damascus, he categorically 
announced his resignation, as should this other battalion be withdrawn, he 
declared himself unable to preserve order in the city; while should his 
resignation be declined, he would none the less look upon himself as having 
resigned, as he would in no wise accept responsibility for the future. This 
reply was discussed in the cabinet, yet the battalion was withdrawn. Three 
or four days later the tumult broke out. The cry 'the Muhammedans are 
murdering the Christians !' made Europe jump up, and there was a tremendous 
uproar. Fu'ad Pasha was despatched, investigations were made, the upshot 
being that one hundred and sixty-eight innocent Muhammedans were executed, 
while they shot Ahmed Pasha, whom they reproached, saying, 'why did you 
not go out of the palace during the riot and let them tear you in pieces?' 
Requisitions were made on behalf of the Christian families who had suffered, 
and the Treasury indemnified them to the extent of 800,000 purses; and in 
such fashion was the matter closed. Many different reports were current con- 
cerning the execution of Ahmed Pasha; some people declared that on the 
occasion of a drunken quarrel between him and Fu'ad Pasha, when they were 
on service at Bucharest, Fu'ad said to Ahmed, 'Thy death shall be at my 
hands !' and in order to make good his words sacrificed him at Damascus. 
Others maintain that c Alf Pasha had for long borne ill-will to Ahmed Pasha, 
and, using this question as a pretext, brought about his death ; and indeed 
when, during the course of the investigations, Ahmed Pasha was brought to 
Constantinople, c Ali Pasha urged his being sent back to Damascus, ostensibly 
for the completion of the investigation, but really, it is said, that he might 
complete the term of his life. Others again are of opinion that C AH Pasha 
sacrificed Ahmed Pasha as a sop to Europe, and especially to the Emperor 
of the French ; while, according to some, there was in addition to these reasons 
a rivalry for office between Riza and Ahmed Pashas. But, be all this as it may, 
although the unfortunate Ahmed Pasha had fully and carefully instructed the 


And thus did he heal the hates that clave the folk in twain. l 
He granted the Nazarenes in the Lebanon to reign. 2 

government as to the state of affairs in his province, the authorities paid no 
attention to him, and the arms that he had and the troops that were with 
him were taken away, and he himself was afterwards shot. As our lord 
c Ali Pasha was then reigning supreme as Grand Vezir and Foreign Minister, 
the orders in these matters were executed at his instructions. Now before the 
occurrence of these events none would have believed it possible had it been 
said that such a state of affairs should arise, that a Marshal of the Ottoman 
Empire should be shot like a brigand, a sacrifice to the rancour of C A1{ Pasha, 
that one hundred and sixty-eight Muhammedans should be butchered, and 
that several hundreds of households should be driven into exile, and their 
women and children left to perish. Yet the might of our lord c Ali Pasha has 
brought these seemingly impossible occurrences into the field of possibility !' 

1 This line is of course ironical, racial and religious enmity not being 
extinguishable by the blood of any number of Walis. 

2 In consequence of continued fighting between the Druses and Maronites, 
a body of French troops under General Hautpoul and of Turkish troops 
under Fu'ad Pasha marched upon Mount Lebanon in the autumn of 1860. 
Later on the district was, through French influence, formed into a separate 
province, the governor of which must be a Roman Catholic, that is, a co- 
religionist of the Maronites. Here is Ziya's account of the business as given 
through the Commentary: 'Another instance of the power of our lord C AK 
Pasha to make possible the impossible is the placing of the government of 
the Lebanon in the hands of a member of the Catholic sect. As is generally 
known, until the question of the Lebanon arose, those parts were under the 
administration of the governors of.Sidon and Beynit. The inhabitants of the 
Mountain are of two peoples of different religions who are called Druses and 
Maronites. The Maronites are Catholics, and so they have always had the 
moral support of France; but as the Druses, who have a special creed of 
their own, are the more numerous, they are unable to put up with the privi- 
leges of the Maronites. Consequently there is never any cessation of strife 
and quarreling between them; the more especially as the Catholic priests, 
seeking to drive the Druses into the Catholic sect, and the French consuls, 
hoping some day to annex those districts to France like Algiers, never leave 
off exciting hostility between the two peoples. At length, after the trouble 
in the Lebanon, it was decided to give over the government of those parts entirely 
over to the Catholics by placing the administration in the hands of a mushir 
who must belong to that sect. A number of privileges were also granted 
which do not prevail in other provinces. The governorship, along with the 
rank of mushir, was conferred first on Dawud Efendi, who had been charge 
d'affaires at Berlin and had written a book in the German language, and who 
was moreover one of the most steadfast in obedience and humility among 


In Egypt-land a change in the heirs did he ordain. l 
He made a captain Prince of Roumania to be. 2 

Ten thousand Muslim households, obeying his command, 
Abandoned hearth and homestead and fled their native land. 
That there should float our banner with this condition grand 
To Servia the fortress of Belgrade did he hand: 3 
Thus perfectly he preserved the Empire's integrity ! * 

AH Pasha's servants. But after some years certain indications of thoughts of 
independence were perceived in him, so he was brought under a clever pretext 
to Constantinople, and the notorious Franco Efendi, one of Fu'ad Pasha's 
sycophants, was made mushir and appointed governor of the Mountain in his 
stead. As Maronites and Druses alike are savage mountaineers, honest and 
trustworthy men are exceedingly rare among them; while very plentiful are 
the likes of Rizq-ullah Hasun, who, while chief secretary of the tobacco 
customs, was for well-known reasons put in prison, whence he escaped and 
took up his abode with his compatriot Ghadban, the Ottoman consul in 
London. Now before these events would it have been thought possible that 
the Mountain should have been thus placed under a practically independent 
government which is virtually under the control of France ? But lo, the might 
of our lord c Ali Pasha has achieved this !' 

1 Direct succession to the Khedivial throne was granted in 1866 to the 
Viceregal family of Egypt, in place of the Ottoman system which had prevailed 
since the time of Mehemmed c Ali Pasha. By the change thus effected, Mus- 
tafa Fazil Pasha, Ziya's former patron, lost his chance of succession; and it 
is in the commentary on this line of the Zafer-Name that the poet takes his 
revenge on his faithless friend, by making Ilusni bring forward many charges 
against him ostensibly to justify C AH Pasha in sanctioning this change in the 
succession on the ground of Mustafa Fazil's being an imbecile and conse- 
quently unfit to reign. 

2 Prince Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, elected in 1866. 

3 The Imperial government maintained a garrison in the citadel of Belgrade 
till 1867, when the troops were withdrawn, and the fortress handed over to 
the Servians. It was stipulated that the Ottoman flag should continue to fly 
over the citadel, a barren recognition of the Sultan's suzerainty which 
the Servians did not very long respect. The first two lines of the stanza 
refer to the Muhammedan inhabitants of Belgrade, who, unable to trust the 
native government, had to leave their homes when the troops that had 
hitherto protected them were withdrawn. 

* Referring to the oft quoted phrase 'the integrity and independence of the 
Ottoman Empire.' 


The Kenez, * too, hath been brought by his words to the rightful way, 
No more will he pounce as of old to left and right on his prey; 
In a realm so safe as that what need for a guard to stay? 
What though in Montenegro he did the forts away'. 

A gnat can a mount o'erthrow, if the will of God it be ! 2 

If but the help of God assist in his purpose dear, 

Full soon will these gypsies sit on the couch of the Grand Vezir; 

It is but the Jews alone that form the exception here, 3 

1 The Kenez (sometimes pronounced Kinz) is the title given by the Turks 
to the Prince of Montenegro. Formerly, when that savage chieftain exercised 
the functions of an ecclesiastical as well as of a temporal ruler, he was called 
the Ladiqa. Both Kenez (Knyaz) and Ladiqa are originally Slavonic words. 

2 In the commentary on this stanza we read : 'As is well known, this 
Montenegrin business, during the four years that it lasted, swallowed up the 
pick of the Ottoman officers and soldiers and the bravest youths of Bosnia 
and Herzegovina, was the cause of the present desolation of these two pro- 
vinces, and inflicted on the Treasury a loss of many thousand purses. At the 
same time it was the making of certain men who, though previously unknown, 
have now come to the front; Kani Pasha, Dervish Pasha and their likes 
have fattened on the soup of that free-kitchen, but it is in the blood of 
many thousands of the Muslims that they have broken their bread. At length 
the mountainers were overcome, and the Muslim troops entered Cettigne. 
On this the Sublime Porte conferred with the Five Powers, and it was 
unanimously agreed that block-houses built of stone should be erected in such 
places as were necessary in Montenegro and garrisoned with a sufficient number 
of troops, in order to protect the adjacent Ottoman territories from further 
depredations by the inhabitants of that country, as these know not of such 
matters as trade and agriculture, and have no other occupation than brigandage 
and highway robbery. Now although the mountaineers, through their native 
savagery, used during the war to cut off the ears and noses of our soldiers, 
and to rip up the slain and tear out their entrails, and had indeed formed 
at Cettigne a regular museum of the heads of our soldiers, yet as they 
represented to our lord His Highness c Ali Pasha, through the medium of the 
Russian embassy, that the decision to build such block-houses was very distressful 
to them, and that so long as they saw these before their eyes a certain coolness 
might overtake the loyalty they were all eager to bestow upon their Suzerain, 
and as the French embassy supported the Russian by friendly advice, the 
pity and compassion of our lord the Pasha were excited, and all those block- 
houses, bought with the blood of so many thousand Muslim soldiers and at 
the cost of so many thousand purses, were levelled with the ground.' 

3 When Ziya wrote, no Jew had ever been promoted to the grade of Bala 
or Mushir. 


For of Greeks and Armenians both doth he make Bey and Mushir; 
The equality of rights 1 to perfection brought hath he. 2 

Though the purpose of Fu'ad was to win at Damascus fame, 
What need a wholesale slaughter of the Muslims to proclaim ? 3 
Were 't not enow had he acted like him of noble name ? * 
Such are the deeds they do who at lasting glory aim; 

Is 't meet to defile Zemzem though one would remembered be ? 5 

Were it strange at all that he 6 who doth Fortune's charger ride, 
When armed with the whip of zeal, should the wall like a donkey guide, * 
What else could have brought such weal within so brief a tide? 
Had ever the steed of Empire so swift unto progress hied, 
Had he not urged it on with the spur of his energy? 

1 The equality of rights between the different races subject to the Sultan. 

2 This stanza is followed by three in which c Ali Pasha's financial arrange- 
ments are criticised. 

3 A return to Fu'ad Pasha and the Damascus executions. 

4 That is, Fu'ad should have acted at Damascus as c Ali did in Crete. 

5 Referring to a legend of a certain filthy and foolish fellow who defiled 
the Zemzem, the sacred well at Mekka, in the hope that by thus doing what 
none had ever done before, he might immortalize his name. 'And in truth, 
because of that villainy of his, will the name of that accursed one be mentioned 
with execration while the world lasts. * * * * The writer of the poem, attributing 
Fu'ad Pasha's proceedings in Damascus to a desire to perpetuate his name, 
compares him to the fellow who defiled the Zemzem; the humble commentator 
would say that as Yezid is also, like the denier of the Zemzem, amongst those 
who have made a name at Damascus, it would have been most appropriate 
to have compared the Pasha to him. Alas, that the metre would not admit 
of it!' The Yezid here mentioned was the son and successor of the usurping 
Caliph Mu c awiya, and is loathed and execrated above all others by the Muslims; 
indeed he holds in the Muhammedan world much the place occupied by 
Judas Iscariot in the Christian. It was by his orders that the martyrs of 
Kerbela were slain, and it was he who most cruelly insulted the hapless 
survivors of that fatal day when brought into his presence at Damascus. One 
Muslim can cast no more bitter reproach at another than to compare him 
to Yezid. 

I. e. c Ali Pasha. 

7 A reference to a legend concerning the saint Hajji Bektash, which says 
that when that holy man desired to go from one place to another he used 
to mount a wall which carried him whither he would be. 

To his private audience none may win who is base or low 
He doth on the c ulema whate'er they desire bestow. 
No scorn of the Prophet's race would he in public show; 
So great a lord is he, did the Dean of the Sherifs J go 

Up to his audience-hall, his place would the shoe-rank be. 8 

The Arab and Persian Kings are eclipsed by his high renown; 
The titles of royalty he appropriates as his own, 
By the style of Son Altesse in the Moniteurs he is known. 3 
Is it much though to Europe's lands his eagle-fame is flown? 
Were it strange should a vulture fly to Beyqoz from Geybize? 4 

Should he but his holy ire to the raging lion show, 

Its body would fall in bits for the dread it were sure to know, 

So let not the evil beasts in heedless surety go; 

As yet they have felt not his wrath, but should they once do so, 

Not a wolf would the mountain roam, not a mouse o'er the ceiling flee ! 

Although he may harshly deal with the righteous men and wise, 
'Tis but as a father acts when he doth his son chastise. 
For alum from sugar well enough can he recognize. 5 

1 The Naqib-ul-Eshraf or Dean of the Sherifs, the registrar of the des- 
cendants of the Prophet in a province or city. The Dean of the Sherifs for 
Constantinople is a much venerated official. 

2 The shoe-rank (saff-i ni c al) is the place by the door of an Oriental room 
where shoes are left on entering and where servants wait. See Browne's remarks 
on this subject in the J. K. A. S. for 1895, pp. 805808. 

3 By the 'Moniteurs' the European press is meant. 

* Beyqoz is a village on the Bosphorus, Geybize is a small town between 
Scutari and Izmid. 'The humble commentator would say that if the comparison 
of the passage of our benefactor's fame into Europe to the flight of a vulture 
from Geybize to Beyqoz appear somewhat vulgar, this results from the fact 
that the author of the poem is a provincial. As is well known: 

"Never is the country beauty dainty, e'en though fair she be." ' 
It will be borne in mind that the pseudo-author of the Zafer-Name qasida 
is Fazil Pasha the Bosnian. The line Husni is made to quote is from a ghazel 
of Nabi : 

M ST*^" 'He can tell between alum and sugar,' 
is a proverb. 


Full many a fair and cultured home would he pulverize, 
Did not his noble heart incline towards clemency. 

The Turkish virtues old are all, alack, undone; 
The ancient Turkish zeal abideth in ne'er an one ; 
The Turkish glory of yore is past away and gone; 
The Turkish State is come into such a plight that none 
The signs and portents sad of approaching doom can see. 

Though to show what is naught as aught doth no little talent need, 
Harder yet than the juggle is to get it believed indeed. J 
For all that many a hap hath occurred the work to speed, 
What skill is thine that it doth these twenty years succeed 
In cheating Europe still and deceiving the world alway ! 2 

The King of earth unto thee subjected boweth low; 
Supreme in his name thou'st ruled since many a year ago. 
All manner of wonderment and amaze were it meet to show. 
How happy-starred, for so long, with all the world thy foe, 
To sit all uncontrolled on the throne of mastery ! 

No longer confiding now in thy promises full fair, 
Regarding thy notions wise as though they but follies were, 
And seeking each evil plight to thee alone to refer, 
At thee swear the Muslims all, and at thee non-Muslims swear; 
Alack, there is never an one who knoweth the worth of thee ! 

Relying on thine indulgence, extended to those who claim, 
Fazil 3 hath sung thy lauds, while Khayri * details the same : 
(Never did he when young vituperate thee or blame.) 5 
Although in his dotage, still will Fazil they praise proclaim; 

Though his teeth be gone, will the dog of race still of service be. 6 

1 Difficult as the actual juggle is, it is yet more difficult so to execute it 
that people may never guess there has been any juggle at all. 

2 From this stanza the poem is addressed directly to c Ali Pasha. 

3 Old Fazil Pasha the Bosnian, the pretended author of the Zafer-Name qasida. 

4 Khayri Efendi, the pretended author of the Takhmis on the Zafer-Name. 

5 From this it seem that Fazil at one time opposed c Ali, which Khayri 
here takes credit to himself for never having done. 

6^j_;AJL*d lOa-wJ^O ,^gjLioO <&~Jjf (j* 'The dog of race will 
attack even when his teeth are gone,' is a proverb. 'The humble commentator 


Wan was my ' face and pale for dejection and despair, 2 
And ever the tribe of duns would pluck at my beard and hair; 3 
Belike with this torment dure the reels full wounden were ; * 
A mutesarrifship through a qit c a became my share ; 5 
So this qasida 6 should win a wdliship 7 for me. 8 

would say : When Fazil Pasha, curbing his pride, compares himself for fidelity 
o a dog, he must mean either a sporting dog or one of those that guard 
the flocks and vineyards. For such dogs, even when they have lost their 
teeth, and can no longer chase away wolves and thieves, do not sit idle, 
they at least howl. Similarly, Fazil Pasha, being a man of good family, though 
no longer in full possession of his senses, does not cease from making verses, 
good or bad, in praise and honour of our benefactor.' 

1 Although Khayri is still the pretended author of the takhmis, Fazil is 
the supposed speaker throughout the whole of this and the following stanzas. 

2 A reference to the proverb, \ \r-* L5j^ f3 -^^jV ' tne debtor dies 
not, but his face grows pale.' 

3 Referring to a time when Fdzil Pasha was out of office and hard pressed 
by his creditors, Husni proceeds: 'The (once) debt-laden commentator would 
say that the importunity of duns is indeed intolerable. When I was out of 
office I learned the taste of it. But now, since, thank God, I have become a 
Marshal, I have been delivered from that torment, not indeed through saving 
from my salary and paying my debts, but by appointing some of my creditors 
keepers or wardens at the prisons, and by employing others as spies or 
members of the secret police.' 

4 ^iXlLb ^gjnk:> The reel thereof is filled' is a proverb which we might 
paraphrase by 'the cup of misery has run over.' 

8 Referring to the mutesarrifship of Izmid which Fazil held, and which 
Ziya would have us believe was conferred on him by c Ali Pasha on his 
composing a qit c a (here referred to) on Ziya's flight to Europe. 

6 This qasida, i. e. the Zafer-Name. 

1 A waliship, i. e. the governor-generalship of a vilayet or province, which 
comprises several mutesarrifships. 

8 Not desiring to be overlooked when there is a question of favours being 
conferred, the 'humble commentator' thus delivers himself here: 'The humble 
commentator would say : It is not too much to hope for a waliship in 
recompense of a brilliant qasida like the Zafer-Name from that source of 
bounty which rewarded a qit c a of four lines with the mutesarrifship of Izmid. 
Since it is the usage of poets, at the end of a qasida just before the prayer, 
to crave some boon from him whom they praise, the author of the poem here 
requests that he may be provided for with a waliship, while the portionless 
commentator will confine himself to a little hint to that benign physician, 
namely to the gracious, belauded Sublime one (a play on the name G Ali or 
Sublime), that the attack of the itch wherefrom he is suffering might be 


As the month of May is the tide of health (so physicians say), 
For them who would blessings crave the time is the dawn of day ; l 
So now let us to the Lord with loyal devotion pray. 
Desist from thy toil and moil, and cast thy reed away, 
And Mekka-ward bow thy head with all sincerity. 2 

So long as the Salamander in his fiery dwelling lies, 
So long as the Phoenix doth from his ashes heavenward rise, 
So long as the Stellar Eagle 3 circling and soaring flies, 
So long as Humd and Simurgh do wing them through the skies. 
May the partridge of his pomp 'scape the hawk of adversity ! 

May nothing that is or is not e'er his noble heart offend, 4 

cured by a decoration set with jewels. That Khayri Efendi is entitled to ask 
for some favour on account of his takhmfs is self-evident, but the exigencies 
of metre have prevented him from making any request; there is, however, no 
doubt that he too will get his desire through the channel of His Highness's 
sons.' Husni Pasha is elsewhere made to hint at his eagerness for a decoration 
(presumably the Mejidiyye, since the 'Osmaniyye order was not instituted 
until 1288 = A. D. 1871 2). Thus when speaking, in the commentary on a 
preceding untranslated stanza, on the usual penuriousness and jealousy of poets, 
he says : 'As the present writer likewise (though he has no claim thereto) is 
reckoned among the poets, for all that he is Marshal of Police, he has been 
unable to escape from penuriousness, and although there is no jealousy in 
his soul, yet were he to say that he feels no pangs when he sees ministers 
on whose breasts is the decoration in question, he would tell a lie.' 

1 The old poets used to say that the prayers uttered at dawn were the 
most effectual. 

2 In these two lines the poet addresses himself. The two stanzas which 
follow, which are the last of the poem, contain the prayer for c Ali Pasha's 

3 That is the constellation Aquila; it will noticed that they are all fabu- 
lous animals the continuance of whose existence is to be the measure of C AK 
Pasha's spell of prosperity. 

* 'The humble commentator would say that seeing how as it is impossible 
that the heart of any man, so long as he is in this world, should always be 
free from every actual or possible trouble, to express such a wish concerning 
one is a polite way of expressing a desire that he may depart to the Here- 
after; but that the intention of the author of the poem must be to declare 
his hope that the ears of our lord c Ali Pasha may be strong.' 'May the ears 
of So-and-so be strong' is a whimsical way of praying that he may continue 
to enjoy good health. 

And him may God exempt from the spite of the envious band ! ' 
While e'en as his stature, far may ever his shade extend ! 2 
And like to his boundless grace, may his lifetime know no end! 
And great as his pity is, may his fortune and favour be! 

- * 'Seeing that so long as man lives he is an object of envy, and that so 
long as he is an object of envy he is exposed to spite, exemption from the 
envier's spite is only possible with death. But the author of the poem means 
that His Highness c Mi Pasha ought not to be worried.' (Commentary.) 
2 C AH Pasha was short of stature. 

(Here ends the Author s manuscript. The continuation and 
completion of the book, undertaken by a Turkish man of letters, 
will form the seventh and concluding volume of the work.) 

E. G. B. 



G Aba-push-i Veil (Prince 
Felt-clad the Saint), Sultan, 
I 423 seq. 

c Abbas, ancestor of the G Ab- 
basid dynasty, II 260. 

c Abbas, the house of, V 94 
n. 5. 

c Abbas, a Qadi- c asker, IV 

c Abbas I, Shah, III 107. 

Abdal Murad, the prome- 
nade of, IV 141. 

c Abdi, pen-name, I 431. 

e Abd-ul- c Aziz el-Baghdadi, 
I 207 n. 2. 

c Abd-ul- c Azfz EfendiJII 294. 

c Abd-ul- c Aziz, Sultan, III, 
142; IV 136, 306; V 7, 10, 
15, 27, 60, 63, 84, 101. 

c Abd-ul-Baqi, name of Vejdi, 

HI 303- 

c Abd-ul-Ghafifar, IV 101 n. i. 

c Abd-ul-Hamid I, Sultan, IV 
151, 221, 243, 249, 250, 304. 

c Abd-ul Hamid II, Sultan, 
V 63. 

c Abd-ul-Hami'd Ziya, V4i. 
See Ziya Pasha. 

c Abd-ul-Haqq Hamid Bey. 
See Hamid Bey. 

'Abdullah, father of the 
Prophet, I 243. 

'Abdullah, Prince, eldest son 
of Bayezid II, II 96, 116, 
1 17 n. 3, 366 ; III 36 n. I. 

'Abdullah, Prince, son of Mu- 
rad III, III 172. 

'Abdullah of Bosnia, Sheykh, 
I 60, 62, 407 n. 3. 

'Abdullah Na'ili Pasha, IV 
176 n. 2. 

c Abdullah ibn Tahir, III 
22 n. i. 

c Abd-ul-Mejid, Sultan, IV 
3 2 7> 35U V 4, 6, 23, 24. 

c Abd-ul-Mejid-i Qirimi, II 
148 n. 2. 

c Abd-ul-Qadir, the Hamidi, 
III 199 n. i. 

c Abd-ur-Rezzaq Nevres. See 

Abednego, V 94 n. 6. 

c Abid, son of Sultan Veled, 
I 422, 

Abraham, I 38, 168, 233 n. 
4, 374. 37 6 ; n II8 n - 2 > l $ l > 
2$3> 339 n - 5; HI 35 n. 2, 
325 ; IV 63 n. 4, in n. 9; 
V 94 n. 6. 

Absal.See Seldmdn and AbsdL 



Abu c Abdullah of Samar- 
cand, Khoja, IV 92. 

Abu Bakr ibn Sa c d ibn Zangi, 
V 81 n. 3. 

Abu Hanifa, III 250 n. 3. 

Abu-1-Hashim, I 53 n. 2. 

Abu Ishaq of Shiraz, II 

335 " 7> 

Abu-1-Mahasin Jemal-ud- 
Di'n Yusuf ibn Taghri-bardi, 
II 358 n. 3. 

Abu Nuwas, III 115 n. 1. 

Abyssinia, II 158; IV 228. 

Achiq Qazi, II 289. 

Acre, IV 220 seq. 

c Ad, name of a king, I 281. 

c Ad, tribe of, I 326 n. 5, 
389 n. 2; II 270. 

Adam, I 119 n. 5, 233 n. 

4> 2 3 6 > 35 3> 3 62 n - 6 > 3995 
II 151, 215 n. 10, 253 n. 4, 

281 n. 2, 329, 339 n. i ; IV 
211 n. i. 

c Adana, I 204; III 163; IV 
266 seq.; V n, 59 n. 2, 64. 

Adem Chelebi, III 119. 

c Aden I 326 n. 5 ; II 89 n- 
2, 278 n. 9 and 1 1 ; III 230 n. 
2, 300 n. 2 ; IV 265 n. I. 

c Adeni, II 25 n. 3. 

c Adli, pen-name ofBayezid 
II, I 417 n. i; II 28, 31,85, 
88 n. 6. 

c Adli, pen-name of Mahmud 
Pasha, II 25, 31, 32 n. i, 36, 
85, 88 n. 6. 

c Adli, pen-name of Muham- 
med III, I 417 n. i ; III 165, 170. 

c Adnf, pen-name, II 25 n. 
3, 28, 32, 33 n. 3, 37, 85. 

Adrianople, I 114,252,255, 
256, 263, 299 n. i, 381, 382 
n. 2, 387, 415, 427, 428; II 
1 6, 30, 42, 49, 50, 73 n. i, 
93, 139, 172, 232, 234, 251, 
272, 273 n. 2, 317, 347, 349, 

350, 35 2 > 37; HI 40,41. 5o> 
60, 61, n. 3,62, 175, 202, 204, 
222, 294, 312, 313, 326,332; 
IV 65 n. 4, 211, 218, 309 
321, 326 seq., 332. 

Adrianople Gate, the, II 
353; III 50, 135, 194. 

Adrianople Gate Mosque, 
the, III 194. 

Aesop, I 389 n. 2. 

x*35, name of a village V 
45 n. 2. 

Afrasiyab, III 269 n. 3. 

Afyon, III 89. 

Agah Efendi, V 26. 

Ahdi, III 8, 19, 36,4552, 
57, 72, 76, 79, 89, 90, 108, 
109, n. i, 127, 138, 165, 167, 
173, 175, 1 86, 187, 198. 

Ahi, I 107, 306, 311 ; II 
108 n. I, 286 sqq., 370,376; 
III 21, 52; IV 181 n. 2. 

Ahli of Shiraz, III 23. 

Ahmed, personal name of 
Kemal-Pasha-zade, II 347, 357 
n. 3. 

Ahmed, name of Muham- 
med the Prophet, I 377 ; II 
57 n. 4, 220 n. i. 239 n. i, 
357, n. 3; IV 23 n. 8. 


Ahmed, personal name of 
Nedim, IV 30. 

Ahmed, hero of Yahya Bey's 
Shah u Gedd, III 123. 

Ahmed (old Turkish poet), 
I 225, 226, 260, 427. 

Ahmed, Prince, son of Baye- 
zid II, II 125, 129, 135, 228, 
257, 259, 266, 367. 

Ahmed I, Sultan, I 417 n. 
I ; III 2, 165, 2OI, 205 sqq., 
209, 252, 263. 

Ahmed II, Sultan, III 233 
n. i, 302. 

Ahmed III, Sultan, I 417 
n. I ; II 142 n. I ; III 2, 155 
n. 3, 202, 205, 233 n. i, 245 ; 

IV 3, 4, 8, ii sqq., 24, 29-31, 
37> 53. 61, 67, 75, 77 n. 5, 
81, 88, 107, 108, no sqq., 
243, 279. 

Ahmed, Sultan, Mosque of, 
I 237 n. 2. 

Ahmed Bey, V 43 seq. 

Ahmed-i Bijan, I 396 sqq., 

Ahmed Burhan-ud-Din. See 
Burhan-ud-Din, Cadi. 

Ahmed-i Da c i, I 211, 249, 
253, 256 seq. 

Ahmed Dede, IV 37 n. i. 

Ahmed Jelayiri, Sultan, I 
207 n. 2. 

Ahmed Midhat Efendi,V 13. 

Ahmed-i Misri, I 430 n. i ; 

V 13 n. i. 

Ahmed Mukhtar Efendi, III 
171; IV 151, 349. 

Ahmed Neylf Efendi. See 

Ahmed Pasha, the poet,1 1 28, 
228 230, 231 n. i, 416; II 10, 
16, 18, 25, 31, 32, 40 sqq., 
85, 88 n. 2, 93, 94, 95, 104, 
106, 109, 123, 229, 230 n. i, 
277, 284, 288, 365, 368, 371, 
388; III 53, 85, 179 n. 2, 325; 
IV 99; V 32, 80, 82. 

Ahmed Pasha, ex-governor 
of Baghdad, IV 93. 

Ahmed Pasha, governor of 
Damascus, V 101 n. 4. 

Ahmed Pasha, governor of 
Salonica, III 294. 

Ahmed el-Qudurf, IV 342. 

Ahmed Ratib Pasha, IV 
125 n. 3. 

Ahmed Refi c a Efendi, IV 

Ahmed bin Shemsi, perso- 
nal name of c Ahdi, III 8. 

Ahmed, Sheykh, I 304 
n. i. 

Ahmed VefiqPasha, V 14, 15, 

Ahmed Wasif Efendi IV 
279 n. i. 

Ahmed-i Yesevi, I 71, 76, 
92, 95, 104, 169. 

Ahmedf, I 108, 211, 228, 
253, 255, 260 sqq., 299, 308, 
311, 336, 414, 427, 429, 436, 
443, 444; II 19, 51, 52, 200, 
377; III 86, 171 n. i. 

Al-Ahqaf, I 326 n. 5. 

Ahriman, V 89 n. 2. 

Akbar, Sultan, III 190 n. 4. 



Akhf-zade c Abd-ul-Halim 
Efendi, III 233. 

Akif Pasha, IV 323 sqq., 
333; V 15 n. 2. 

c Ala-ud-Dm, personal name 
of Sabit, IV 14. 

c Ala-ud-Din, Seljuq Sultan, 

I 176 178 n. i ; II 72. 
c Ala-ud-Dm c AH, I 406 n. i . 
c Ala-ud-Dm c Arebi, I 300. 
Ala-Shehr, III 208. 211. 
Albania, II 226; IV 228. 
c Alem-Shah, name of a boy, 

II 253 n. 8. 

Aleppo, 1205, 346, 349; II 
29, 74, 139, 3915111284,294, 
326, 330, 332; IV 17,66, 101 
n. 3, 108, 192, 228, 242 seq. ; 
V 55 n. 2. 

Alexander the Bicorned, 

III 209. 

Alexander Borgia (Pope 
Alexander VI), II 8 1. 

Alexander the Great, I 144 
n. 3, 149 n. i, 172 n. i, 266 
sqq., 296 n. i, 330 n. 4; II 10, 
11, 125 n. 5, 126 n. i, 137 n. 
2, 270 n. 2 ; III 9 n. 2, 152 n. 
2, 209 n. i, 324 n. 2 ; IV 103 
n. 3, in n. 6, 317 n. i. See 

Alexander, the Waywoda, 

IV 160 seq. 

Alexandria, I 278, 283, 284; 
IV 327. 

Algiers, IV 228 ; V 103 n. 2. 

c Ali Efendi, author of the 
Kunh-ul-Akhbdr, I 139, 140,. 

147, 164, 165, 166, 177, 178, 
205, 208, 225, 226 n. i, 228, 
230, 231 n. i, 232 n. 3, 233 
238, 251, 254258, 260,265, 
268, 300, 302, 303, 307, 312 
n. "i, 343, 346, 354, 381 n. 2, 
384 n. 5, 390, 391, 393, 395, 
406, 411,413416,427429; 

II 84, 86, 90, 95, 102, 103, 
1 06, 107, 109, 128, 140, 
191 n. 3, 263 n. i, 266, 269, 
272, 276, 277, 283, 292, 294, 
317, 318 n. i, 319, 320 n. 8, 
322, 323, 324, 350,353356; 

III 119. 

c Ali Efendi, Editor of the 
Jeride, V 55 n. i. 

c Ali Pasha, V 10, 24, 25, 
27, 28, 60 sqq., 69 sqq., 96 

c Ali, son-in-law of the Prop- 
het, I 63 n. 2, 187 n. 3, 216 
n. 2 and 3 ; II 41, 82 n. i, 150; 

III 105 n. 2, 191 n. 2 and 5, 
215 n. 10, 281 n. 2, 339 n. i ; 

IV in n. 2, 123 n. 2; V 93, 
94 n. 3. 

c Alf, a lawyer, III 276. 

C AH (poet), I 72 seq., 76, 92, 
95, 104. 

c Ali, personal name of C A- 
shiq Pasha, I 176. 

c Ali, grandfather of Lami c f 3 
III 20. 

c Ali b. Abi Talib. See c Ali, 
son-in-law of the Prophet. 

c Ali of Adrianople, II 370. 

c Ali c Aziz, V 13. 



c Alf Bey, College of, 349 n. 4. 

c Ali Chelebi, II 227. 

C A11 Chelebi, translator of 
the Anvdr-i Suheyli, III 90 n. I. 

C AH Efendi, Seyyid, IV 178. 

c Ali En ver Efendi, 1 42 2, 424. 

C AK Hayder Bey, I 114. 

C AK ibn-Ilyas, II 387. 

c Ali-i Jurjanf, II 349 n. 3. 
See.Sherif-i Jurjanf. 

c Ali-i Mest, Baba, III 59. 

c Ali Pasha, vezir, 141 n. I. 

c Ali Pasha, a contemporary 
of Zati, III 50. 

C AH Pasha, the Archer, III 

c Ali Pasha, vezir of Bayezid 
II, II 226 seq., 229 ; III 47, 48. 

c Ali Pasha of Chorli, IV 37. 

G Ali Pasha, Turkish general 
under Ahmed III, IV 93. 

c Ali Qushji, II 25, 364, n. I. 

Ali Shir Newa 3 !, I 1 27. See 

c Ali Su c avi Efendi, V 61, 73 

n- 3, 75- 

C AH Zahir, IV 221. 

Alric, M. A., IV 328 n. 2. 

Alti-Mermer, IV 90. 

Altun-Uluq (Golden-Spout), 
name of a tavern, V 56. 

Amasiya (Amasia), I 176, 
177, 1 80, 262, 263, 357 n. 3; 
II 29, 30, 73, 1 08, 124126, 
128 n. 2, 129, 132 n. i, 135, 
138, 263, 264, 267, 268, 272, 
366, 367; III 171, 303 n. i. 

Amazia, I 357 n. 3. 

Amed (Amid), I 343; IV 71. 
See Diyar-bekr. 

America, IV 228. 

Amine, mother of the Pro- 
phet I 241, 243; II 191. 

Amir Khusraw, Persian poet, 
IV 192, 193 n. i. 

c Amr ibn-Hisham, II 357 n. 3. 

c Amuja-zade Huseyn Pasha, 
III 303 n. i. 

Anahita, II 6 1 n. 3. 

Anaites, II 61 n. 3. 

Anatolia, I 10, 164, 179 n. 
i, 257; II 25, 30, 74, 109, 259 
n. 2, 264 n. i, 350, 383, 395, 
399; III 222, 274, 294, 312, 
326; IV 228, 324. 

Anatolia, the Castle of, III 

c Anbar (Ambergris), name 
of a negro, III 362. 

Angora, I 178, 204, 230, 
250, 255, 299, 302,389391, 
421, 428, 429; II 75, 138, 
139, 276. 

Anf, poetess, IV 150. 

c Anqa, the, II 280 n. 5 and 
6; III 67 n. 7, 127; IV 53 n. 
3. See Simurgh. 

Antakiyali Munif, IV 68. 
See Munif of Antioch. 

Antichrist, I 399. 

Antioch, II 370; IV 68. 

Ants, Queen of the, III 
56 n. 5. 

Ants, the Valley of, III 
56 n. 5. 

Antun, the Frank, III 359. 


An van', I 144. 

Aq- c Alem, name of a girl, 
III 185 n. 4. 

Aq-Qazi-oghli, III 334^1. 

Aq-Qoyunlu (White Sheep), 
name of a dynasty, I 204. 

Aq-Saray, IV 213 n. i. 

Aq-Shehr, I 304 n. 1,414; 

III 275. 
Aq-Shems-ud-Din, Sheykh, 

I 312; II 128 n. 2, 138 sqq., 
150; III 171. 

c Arab, Monla, III 23. 

Arabia, II 260; V 97 n. 2. 

c Araq, III 89. 

Aras (Araxes), river, I 320, 


Araxes, river, I 320. 
Archipelago, the, IV 228. 
Ardeshir, King, I 284; III 

358, 360. 

c Arif, Chelebi Emir, I 145 
n. 2, 421. 

c Arif Hikmet Bey, III 277 ; 

IV 34, 336, 350 sqq.; V 6, 

9> 25, 54, 57> 6 5, 66. 

c Arifi, Persian poet, III 23. 

c Arifl Ahmed Pasha, IV 93. 

c Arish, II 156. 

Aristotle, I 53 n. 2, 69, 266, 
270, 271, 276, 280. 

Aristu (Aristotle), I 270. 

Arkadi, name of a steamer, 

V 98. 

Armenia, 315 sqq. 
Armenians, the, IV 228, 235. 
Arnold, Matthew, III 152 
n. i. 

Asaph, II 39 n. i ; III 18 
n. i, 179 n. 3; IV 48 n. i. 

Ashqar, name of Behram's 
horse, III 365. 

c Ashiq Chelebi, I 139, 164, 
166, 169, 226, 227, 231, n. i, 
238, 255, 256, 260, 265, 268, 
300303, 306, 307, 312 n. i, 
343> 348, 384 n. 5, 392, 416, 
427, 429, 431 n. i; II 25 n. 

3, 28, 32 n. i, 33 n. 2, 34, 35, 
41, 44, 45, 4749, 51, 56, 58, 
71, 72 n. 8, 73, 77, 78, 84, 86, 
93> 9$, 97' 98, 102, 103, 105, 
106, 108, 109, 124 n. i, 126, 
128, 129, 131, 135, 136, 141, 
148, 174, 1 86 n. i, 190, 191, 
199, 200, 226, 227, 229, 231, 
237, 238, 263 n. i, 269272, 
275, 276, 286, 288 n. i, 289, 
291, 294, 295, 311, 312, 318, 
319, 320 n. 8, 322324,346, 
353, 355358, 372, 380 n. 3, 
383, 385; III 7 seq., 5962, 
71, 72, 123 n. i, 138, 162, n. 

4, 200. 

Ashiq Kerem, V 52. 

Ashiq G Omer, V 46,' 51, 
52, 73- 

c Ashiq Pasha, I 108, 141, 
176 sqq., 202, 210, 213, 235, 
267, 268, 308, 371, 392, 436; 
II 124 n. i, 388; III 349. 

c Ashiq Qasim, II 271. 

Ashji-zade Hasan Chelebi, 
II 358. 

Asia Minor, II 259; III 17 
n. i, 38, 291, 303 n. i. 



Asia, Western, I 25. 
c Asim Efendi (Chelebi-zade), 

I 121 ; III 329; IV 38, 58, 
74 sqq., 98, 143; V 80. 

c Asim Efendi, translator of 
the Qdmus, IV 248 n. i ; V 65. 

c Asim Muterjim, V 15 n. 2. 
See c Asim Efendi, translator 
of the Qdmus. 

Aspuzi, III 312, 317, 318. 

c Asqalan, II 156. 

c Assar, III 221. 

Assyria, I 357. 

c Ata (historian), 1417 n. i, 
419 n. i ; IV 222. 

c Ata of Uskub, minor poet, 

II 191 n. 3. 

Atabek, the, V 8 1. See Abu 
Bakr ibn Sa c d. 

c Ata D i I 100, 109, no, 232 
n. 3, 411, 415 seq. ; III 140, 
166, 171, 173, 174, 180 n. i, 
205, 206, 209, 210, 223, 224, 
226 n. i, 227, 232 sqq.; IV 
20, 192, 231. See Nev c i-zade 
c Ata D i. 

G Ata-ullah, name of e Ata D i> 

III 232. 

c Atif Efendi, IV 68 sqq. 

c Atike, name of a girl, IV 
292 n. i. 

At Meydani (At Meydan), 
III 123, 368. 

Attar, Ferid-ud-Dm, II 7, 
242 n. 2, 243 n. 6; IV 190. 

See Ferid-ud-Din-i c Attar. 

c Attar, minor poet, II 375. 

Avars, the, II 91 n. 6. 

Avji Sultan Muhammed, III 

c Avni, pen-name of Sultan 
Mehemmed II, I 417 n. i; II 28. 

el- c Awfi, Jemal-ud-Dfn, II 
102 n. 2. 

Ayas Pasha, III 186. 

Ayaz Pasha, III 6, 193. 

Aydin, I 142, 249, 260 n. 
I ; II 52 n. I, 79, 148 n. 2. 

Aydinjiq, I 431. 

c Ayishe, name of a girl, III 

c Ayishe, name of Hubbi 
Qadin, III 170. 

c Ayishe Qadin, IV 267. 

c Ayni, the poet, II 327 n. 
i; IV 246, 271, 272, 336 sqq. 
See Hasan c Ayni Efendi. 

G Ayni, Bedr-ud-Din, I 206 
n. 2, 207, 208, 212; IV 38. 

c Ayntab, IV 336. 

c Ayntabi-zade Mahmud, IV 


Aywan-i Kisra (Kisra/'s Pa- 
lace), IV 55 n. i. 

Azad, I 430 seq. 

Azamia, I 357. 

c Azazil, II 253 n. 3; III 
216 n. 6. 

Azer, III 35 n. 2. 

'Azerbayjan, I 204; II 374 
n. 2; III 75. 

'Azeriyun, Princess, III 366. 

c Azizi, II 236 seq.; Ill 165, 
179 sqq. ; IV 182. 

c Azmi, III 221. 

c Azmf-zade Haleti, I 89. 



c Azmf-zade Mustafa, name 
of Haletf, III 221. 

c Azra, heroine of the ro- 
mance Wdmiq and c Azrd, III 
183 n. 4; IV 306. See Wd- 
miq and *Azrd. 

c Azra D il, I 173 n. 3; II 216 
n. 3; V 30. 

Azraqi, III 37 n. 2. 

Baba Chelebi, II 78. 

Baba Ilyas, I 176 seq., 178 
n, i ; II 124 n. I. 

Babel, II 61 n. 3. 

Babel, the Tower of, IV 
63 n. 4. 

Baber, IV 96 n. I. 

Babil, II 6 1 n. 3. 

Babil, the King of, III 298. 

Babis, the, I 341. 

Babylon, III 298; IV i$6n. 
2. See Babil. 

Badakhshan, I 333 n. 2 ; II 
89 n. 2, 255 n. 4, 340 n. 2; 
IV 216 n. i, 265 n. i. 

Baghban-zade, I 414. 

Baghdad, I 21 n. 2, 280, 
281, 310 n. 2, 343, 344 n. i, 
377 ; II 112 n. 6, 118 n. i, 
138 n. 2, 148 n. 2, 172 n. 3, 
364; III 5, 6, 8, 9, 39, 60,70 
sqq., 83, 86, 106, 172, 186, 
187, 191 n. 2, 207, 208, 210, 
250 n. 3, 274, 275, 286 n. i ; 

IV 42 n. 3, 134, 228, 243, 244; 

V 94 n. 5. 

Bagh-i Wefa, name of a gar- 
den, IV 50. 

Bakhshi, said to be the per- 
sonal name of Zati, III 47 n. i. 

Bakhti, pen-name of Ahmed 
I, I 417 n. i ; III 208. 

Balat, quarter of Constan- 
tinople, II 269. 

Bali, I 423. See Aba-push-i 

Bali, minor poet, II 370. 

Balikessi, III 47. 

Balim, I 179 n. i. 

Balkh, I 150; II 118 n. 3. 

Baltaji Muhammed Pasha, 
III 326; IV 24. 

Bal-yemez c Osman, II 268. 

Baqa'i, III 180 n. i ; IV 231. 

Baqi, I 83, 86, 129; II 16, 
51, 104, 123; III 2, 63, 70, 
78, 133 sqq., 171 175, 205, 
206, 223, 246 248, 258 261, 
278, 279, 296, 305, 333; IV 
7, 259, 347; V 80, 82. 

Baqlawaji Sheykh, IV 161. 

Barbad (Barbed), 1315, 302; 
324, 325; III 354. 

Barker, John, IV 101 n. 3. 

Bartholomew, I 48 n. 2. 

Bash Tekye, III 275. 

Basin, II 48 n. 2 ; 364 seq. 

Bayezid, author of the epi- 
logue to Sheykhi's Khusrev 
and Shir in, I 304, 414. 

Bayezid Bey, I 264, 429, 
430. See Bayezid, Sultan Yil- 

Bayezid of Bistam, I 21. 

Bayezid Pasha, medrese of, 
II 288. 



Bayezid, Prince, sonofMu- 
rad III, III 172. 

Bayezid, Prince, son ofSu- 
leyman I, II 86; III 10, n. 

Bayezid I, Sultan Yildirim, 
I 165, 204, 206, 207 n. i, 225, 
228, 230232, 249, 250, 254, 
257 n. i, 261 n. i, 262, 265, 
269 n. i, 389, 418, 428; II 

47> 347- 

Bayezid II, Sultan, I 231 n. 

i, 384 n. 4, 385, 417 n. i; II 
28, 29 sqq,, 35,40,47,48,70, 
73 sqq., 80, 82, 96, 115, 125, 
148 n. 2, 149, 226, 234, 257, 
263 sqq., 269 n. I, 272, 317, 
318 n. 3, 347, 348, 351, 364 
sqq., 377 n. 4, 395; III 7, 12, 
20, 36 n. i, 37, 47, 48, 170, 
221 n. 2. 

Bayezid, Sultan, the Mos- 
que of, III 48; IV 152. 

Bazigha, II 160. 

Bedi c -ul-Jemal, I 439. 

Bedr-ud-Din c Ayni. See 
c Ayni, Bedr-ud-Din. 

Bedr-ud-Din Hasan, II 113 
n. 6. 

Beha-ud-Din Ahmed, name 
of Sultan Veled, I 151. 

Beha-ud-Din, Khoja, II 374. 

Beha-ud-Din Veled, I 145. 

Beha 3 i Efendi, III 245, 277, 
294 sqq.; IV 35, 36. 

Beha D i Kurfezi, III 295 n. i. 

Behemoth, I 39. 

Behistun, Mount, III 3 ion. 5. 
See Bi-Situn, Mount. 

Behmen, III 357 sqq. 

Behram, general of the king 
of Jurjan, III 361. 

Behram-i Chubin, I 311, 314 
n. i, 319. 

Behram-i Giir, King, I 144 
n. 3 ; II 378 ; III 27, 224, 266 
n. 5, 365 sqq. 

Behrnauer, I 157 n. i. 

Bektash, I 179. See Hajji 

Bektashi dervishes, I 179 n. 
i 357. 358; IV 248 n. i. 

Bela'i, II 124. 

Belgrade, I 98 n. 2 ; III 3 19 ; 
V 104 n. 3. 

Beligh, I 140, 230, 231 n. i, 
233 n. i, 239; II 41, 52; III 
206; IV 107, 117 sqq,, 143, 
145, 182, 228, 276 n. 2; IV 
117, 118. 

Belighi, I 82 n. i. 

Belin, M., V 18, 73 n. 2. 

Beloor, Mount, IV 27 n. i. 

Benecke, E. F. M., I 64 n. 2. 

Beng, King, III 89. 

Beni c 'Amir, II 175. 

Beni Mahabbet, IV 198 n. i. 

Beni Ramazan, I 204, 250; 
II 364; III 163. 

Benjamin, II 151, 170. 

Beiilu Hasan, popular name 
of the poet 'Ahi, II 286. 

Berge, Adolph, III 106 n. 2. 

Berghama, II 368. 

Berlin, V 103 n. 2. 

Berlin, Royal Library of, II 
84, 324 n. 4, 380 n. i. 



Beshik-Tash, III 39 ; IV 90, 


Beshir, III 357. 

Bevan, Professor A. A., IV 
248 n. 2. 

Beylikji c lzzet Bey, the, IV 

Beyqoz, V 107 n. 4. 

Beyram Pasha, III 253. 

Beyrami dervish-order, I 299 
n. i. 

Beyrut, V 103 n. 2. 

Bibliotheque Nationale, V 27. 

Bicknell, Hermann, IV 273 
n. I. 

Bidil, IV 143. 

Bihishti, II 148 n. 2, 172 n. 
3, 174 n. 2, 225, 376; III 24 
n. 2, 86. 

Bihishti of Vize, II 356 n. 2. 

Bihzad, III 296 n. 2, 361. 

Bikr Basha, IV 290 n. 2. 

Billuri Mehemmed Efendi, 
V 98 n. i. 

Bi-Situn, Mount, I 322; II 
107 n. 2; III 99 n. i, 310 n. 
5 ; IV 29 n. 2, 105 n. 2. 

Bistam, I 21. 

Bisyan, II 156. 

Bithynia, I 141. 

Bitlis, II 267 n. i, 379. 

Black Sea, the, IV 1 14 n. 3. 

Black Sheep, dynasty of the, 
I 204, 250. 

Black Sheep Turkmans, II 

Bogha Khan, 429 n. 3, 431. 

Bokhara (Bukhara) I 72, 232 

n. 2; II 374; IV 96 n. i, 101 
n. i, 264 n. 2. 

Boli, I 164, 390; II 140; 
V 22. 

Boqra Khan, I 71. 

Bosna-seray, IV 15. 

Bosnia, II 228; III 119; IV 
228; V 105 n. 2. 

Bosphorus, the, III 39 ; IV 
241 n. i, 277 n. i, 351; V 
42, 98 n. 4, 107 n. 4. 

Boza, III 89. 

Brahmans, City of the, 1 282. 

Brazil, II 213 n. 2. 

Bezmi, III 42, 

British Museum, I 139 n. 
3, 5, 140 n. i, 181 n. 3, 209; 
II 358 n. i, 376 n. i, 392 n. i. 

Brockelmann, C., II 178 n. i. 

Browne, Arthur, II 287 n. i. 

Browne, Professor E. G., I 
15 n. I, 19 n. i, 24 n. i, 62 

n- i, 337340. 354. 37 n -4> 
385 n. 5; II 2O n. I, 46 n. 2; 
IV 172 n. 3 ; V 107 n. 2. 

Brusa, I 140, 228, 232 234, 
236, 254, 255, 261 n. i, 300, 
343, 415; II 41 43, 4648, 
53 n. i, 73, 82, 94, 109, 140, 
172 n. 3, 237, 288, 319, 368, 
375, 377 39 n. 4, 394 ; III 2, 
7, 20, 23, 24, 28, 3639,41, 
159, 162 n. 4, 199, 222, 312, 
3i3> 3 2 3, 3 6 3 ;!V 67, 117, 134, 
1402, 145, 299 n. 2, 327. 

Bu Hanifa. See Abu Hanifa. 

Bucharest, IV 160; V 101 n.4. 

Buda, II 358. 



Buda-Pesth, V 27. 
Bukhara. See Bokhara. 
Bukhari, Sheykh, II 374; 

III 20. 

Bulaq, I 41 n. I. 

Bulgaria, V 97 n. 2. 

Bulgarians, the, IV 228. 

Bulghur, V 47 n. 2. 

Buqrat (Hippocrates), I 270. 

Bulqiya, I 433 sqq. 

Buluqiya, I 433 n. 3. 

Buraq, III 336 ; IV 22, 23 n. 5. 

Burhan-ud-Din, Cadi, I 201, 
204 sqq., 229, 236, 249,285, 336. 

Burhan-ud-Din, Son of Je- 
lal Arghun, I 424. 

Burhan-ud-Dm of Tirmiz, I 


Burns, III 67 n. 3; IV 33. 
Burton, Sir Richard, I 326 

n- 5, 33 1 n- 7> 3 8 9 n - 2 > 43 2 
n. i, 439 n. i; III 175 n. i, 
320 n. 4. 

Buzurg-Umid, I 305, 311, 
314, 317, 319, 324, 325. 

Byron, IV 33. 

Cadi Burhan-ud-Dm. See 
Burhan-ud-Dm, Cadi. 

Cadi-Kyiiy, IV 325. 

Caesarea, II 193, 198. 

Cafe Moliere, the, V 56. 

Cafe Procope, the, V 56. 

Cairo, I 207 n. 2, 260, 261 ; 
II 74, 81, 178 n. i, 260, 374 
n. 2; III 16 n. 2, 45, 125, 222, 
274, 284, 290, 312, 316 n. 5; 

IV 93 n. i, 228 351. 

Caliphs, the Just. See Khu- 
lefd-yi Rdshidin. 

Callirrhoe, III 325 n. 2. 

Cambridge, the University 
of, II 172 n. 3. 

Caminiec, III 327 n. 2. 

Canaan, II 154, 170; III 125. 

Candahar, IV 265 n. 7. 

Canopus, II 89 n. 3. 

Cantemir, Prince, III 155 

n. 3> 313 sqq. 

Canton, I 274 n. 2. 

Capella (star), IV 209 n. 3. 

Capua, II 81. 

Caria, I 142. 

Cashmere, I 277 ; IV 264 n. 3. 

Caspian Sea, the, III 22 n. i. 

Cathay, I 431; II 112 n. 4, 
137 n. i, 192 n. 2, 254 n. 7, 
339 n. 8, 361 n. 8; III in n. 
2, 157 n. i, 268 n. 2, 282 n. 4. 

Cecilia, Saint, II 61 n. 3. 

Cettigne, V 105 n. 2. 

Chakeri, II 148 n. 2. 

Chalak, name of a burglar, 
III 371 sqq. 

Chaldiran, II 30, 259, 267. 

Charles of Hohenzollern- 
Sigmaringen, Prince, V iO4n.2. 

Charles of Savoy, Duke, II 80. 

Charles II, I 357. 

Charles XII of France, II 8 1. 

Chat-Noir (name of a ta- 
vern), V 56. 

Chateauneuf, V 22. 

Chaucer, III 249 n. i. 

Chekraghi, II 96. 

Chelebi Bustan Efendi, 1422. 



Chelebi Emir c 'Arif. See 
c 'Arif, Chelebi Emir. 
Chelebi Ferrukh Efendi, 1422. 

Chelebi Khusrev Efendi, Je- 
nab, I 422. 

Chelebi Mehemmed, the 
Re 3 is Efendi, IV 74. 

Chelebi Sultan Mehemmed. 
See Mehemmed I, Sultan. 

Chelebi-zade ^Asim, IV 74. 

Chenarli Medresa (the Plane- 
tree College), III 172. 

Chidem (name of a woman), 
IV 302, n. 8. 

Chigil, III in n. 2. 

China, I 276; II 137 n. i, 
192 n. 2; III no, 185 n. 2, 
268 n. 2; IV 56 n. i, 146. 

China, the Great Wall of, 
IV 103 n. 3. 

China Sea, the, I 274. 

Chinese Tartary, III 157 n. 
i, 185 n. 2. 

Chingiz Khan, IV 42 n. 3. 

Chosroes, the, II 59 n. i, 62 
n. 4, 63 n. 4. 

Chosroes I, I 314 n. r. 

Chosroes II, 1310, 314 n. i. 

Christ, IV 85 n. i. 

Church of the HolySepulchre, 
the, in Jerusalem, IV 24 n. 4. 

Churchill, William, IV 325 

Circassians, the, IV 228,234. 

College of Ibrahim Pasha, 
III 40. 

College of Sultan Orkhan, 
III 41. 

College of Traditions, the, at 
Adrianople III 41. 

Comorin, III 32 n. 4. 

Constantine, III 214 n. i. 

Constantinople, I 20951125 
n. 5, 26, 27, 30, 31, 43 n. i, 
55 n. i., 58, 72, 73, 79, 82 n. 
2 > 95 97> I0 4> no, i26n. 3, 
132 n. i, 141 n. i, 194 sqq., 
226, 227 n. 3 and 4, 236, 237, 
257, 258, 264, 266, 267 n. i, 
269, 270, 286, 317, 319, 335 
n. 7, 352, 365, 366, 370, 372, 
374, 382; III 8,38,39,41,47, 
48, 50, 59, 63, 70, 71, 75,90, 
108, 116, 118, 119, 123, 133, 
135, 162 n. 4, 172, 173, 175, 
179, 181, 184 n. 6, 1 86, 194, 
195, 202, 213, 214 n. i, 221, 

222, 232, 233, 252, 274, 280 

n. 2, 290, 294, 303, 304, 312, 
313, 325, 326, 330, 349, 368; 
IV 26 n. 2, 65 n. 4, 81, 101 
n. i, 108, 134, 138, 152, 159, 
160, 175, 177, 207, 213, 220 
seq., 228, 235, 240 n. 5, 243 
seq., 266, 267, 279 n. i, 280, 
283, 292 n. 3, 298 n. 6, 304, 
305308, 310, 311, 324, 328 
n. 2, 342, 349 35 !; V 9, 10, 18, 
22, 24, 27, 28, 41, 42 n. 3, 
57, 6163, 73, 74, 100 n. 6, 
101 n. 4, 105 n. i. 

Constantinople, the Cannon 
Gate of, IV 79. 

Court of the Eight, the, III 
41, 42. 

Creasy, III 172. 



Crete, I 150 n. I ; V 70, 71, 
96 sqq. 

Crimea, the, II 257; IV 73, 
133 n. 7, 245, 250; V lor n. 4. 

Croatia, II 91 n. 6. 

Croats, the, IV 228. 

Croesus, II 344 n. 8. 

Ctesiphon, I 270 n. I, 317 n. 
i; IV 55 n. i. 

Cyprus, III 287 n. i, 294; 
V 61, 63, 83. 

Cyrus, I 432, 436. 

Czar, of Russia, the IV 146. 

Daghli Baba, shrine of, III 


Da c i, minor poet, II 368. 
DamadKhalil Pasha, V43seq. 

Damascus, II 74, 118 n. 3, 
138; III 41, 187, 222, 284, 
294; IV 179 n. 2, 228; V 101 
n. 4, 1 06. 

Daniel, I 389, 432, 433 n. 
i; III 298. 

Danish Bey, IV 336, 341. 

Dante, I 404. 

Danube, river, III 8. 

Dara (Darius), I 270; III 
152 n. 2. 

Darab (Darius Codomanus), 
I 270. 

Darchin Guli, name of a 
dancing boy, IV 236. 

Daricha, village of, IV 332. 

Darius, I 270 sqq.; Ill 152 
n. 2. 

Darmesteter, J., II 324 n. i. 

Dar-ul-Hadis college at Adri- 

anople, II 349, 352, 354511141. 

Dar-ul-Hadis college built 
by Suleyman I, II 399. 

Dar-ut-Ta c limat, name of a 
college in Constantinople, IV 

349 " 2. 

Darwin, V 39. 

Dastagherd (name of a pa- 
lace), I 317 n. i. 

D'Aubusson, II 76, 81. 

David, I 16, 233 n. 4, 389 
n. 2; II 254 n. 5; IV 187 n. r. 

Dawlatshah, II 243 n. 6, 291 
n. 2; III 22 n. i, 37 n. 2. 

Dawud Efendi, V 103 n. 2. 

Daye-zade Judi Efendi, IV 

De Musset, Alfred, IV 185. 

De Sacy, V 24. 

Decourdemanche, M., IV 
233 n. 2. 

Dede Bey, II 387. 

Dede Jan, title of the poet 
Ghalib, IV 185. 

Delhi, III 51 n. i. 

Deli Birader, nickname of 
Ghazali of Brusa, III 36. 

Deli Lutfi, II 349 n. i. 

Dellak-zade, II 289. 

Demitoka, II 29, 258, 347 n.2. 

Democritus, I 67 n. i. 

Dervish (name of a poet), I 

257 n - I- 

Dervish Efendi, IV 151 seq. 
Dervish Pasha, V 105 n. 2. 
Deyr-Mesih, III 318 n. 2. 
Diderot, V 57. 
Dieterici, III 21 n. i. 



Dilaver c Osman Wahid, IV 
103 n. 4. 

Dilkusha, Castle, 111358. 

Dilpezir, Princess,IIl358sqq. 

Diogenes the Cynic, I 281 
n. i ; III 9 n. 2. 

Divvan Yolu, name of a street, 
IV 193 n. 3. 

Diyar-bekr, I 204, 343 ; II 
260, 267 n. i, 379; IV 15,71. 
See 'Amed. 

Djiwanpire, V 62 n. i. 

D'Ohsson, I 237 n. 2; IV 
356 n. 2. 

Doquzlar (name of a village) 
I 301, 302. 

Doquzlu, I 301 n. 2. 

Dozy, I 414 n. 2. 

Druses, the, V 103 n. 2. 

Dschemalisade (Jemali-za- 
de), I 428. 

Due Jean, III 117 n. 2. 

Diikagfn, family of, III 108, 
1 17 n. 2. 

Dukagm-zada Ahmed Bey, 

III 117 n. 2. 

Duldul, name of c Alfs mule, 

IV 123 n. 2. 

Durr-i Bakht (Pearl of For- 
tune), II 114 n. i. 

Durusti, Princess, III 366. 
Dvorak, Dr. Rudolf II 287 n. i . 

Ebu Bekr, the Caliph, II 
150; V 92. 

Ebu Bekr Kani. See Kani. 

Ebu Bekr Ratib Efendi. See 
Ratib Efendi. 

Ebu Eyyub, companion of 
the Prophet, II 26, 139; III 146. 

Ebu '1-Feth, surname of Me- 
hemmed II, II 22 n. i. 

Ebu '1-Hasenat, surname of 
Mehemmed II, II 23 n. i. 

Ebu Jehl, II 357 n. 3. 

Ebu D l-Khayr, III 332 seq., 
343 n. 4- 

Ebu D l-Khayrat, surname of 
Mehemmed II, II 23 n. i. 

Ebu Sufyan, V 94 n. i. 

Ebu-s-Su c ud, III 1 08, 1 1 6, 
277, 294, 296. 

Ebu-z-Ziya Tevfiq Bey, I 
394 n. i; II 25 n. 4; III 71 
n. i, 182 n. 2, 208, 215 n. 5, 
217 n. 3, 323 n. 2; IV 34, 35, 

l6l, 163, 268, 269, 272 ; V 
15 seq., 17 seq.. 30, 42 n. i, 
5356, 59 n. 2, 64, 87 n. i, 
100 n. 2. 

Eden, Garden of, I 37; III 
300 n. 2. 

Edessa, III 325 n. 2. 

Edhem Pasha, V 57. 

Edhem Pertev Pasha, V 15 
n. 2. 

Edfb. See Mehemmed Edib. 

Eflah, II 155. 

Eflaki, I 145, 151. 

Eflatun (Plato), I 270. 

Eflatiin-zade Mehemmed, 
II 48. 

Efrasiyab. IV 23 n. 2. 

Egypt, I 205, 278, 281; II 
8 1, 83, 143, 154, 156 sqq., 
260; III 42, 125, 287 n. 3, 



290; IV 172 n. 5, 217 n. i, 
332; V 97 n. 2, 104 n. i. 

Egypt, meaning the Egyp- 
tian capital, III 16 n. 2. 

Egypt, the Grandee of, II 
145, 157 sqq. ; III 1 5. See Po- 
tiphar and Qitffr. 

Eight Colleges, the, II 23, 30. 

Ekmel-ud-Din, Sheykh, I 

Ekrem Bey, I 124; III 14 
n. 2, 81, 82, 90, 143 seq., 203, 
246, 257, 262, 266 268,271, 
293> 327. 329, 33i; IV 31, 
32, 3436, 53, 75, 118, 181, 
183, 185, 223. 

Elbistan, IV 258 n. 2. 

Elburz, Mount, II 280 n. 
5; III 357; IV 53 n. 3. 

Elias, I 172 n. i. 

Elmali, village, III 312. 

Emm Beligh. See Beligh. 

Emm Firdevsi, V 55. 

Emin Pasha, IV 332. 

Emine, II 39 n. i. 

Emine Tuti, IV 301 n. 2. 

Emir a Adil, I 422. 

Emir c 'Alim, I 422. 

Emir Bukhari, II 374 n. i. 

Emir Sultan, I 232; II 47. 

Emri, III 133, 160. 

Emr-ullah of Isparta, II 52 
n. i. 

Emr-ullah, son of Sheykh 
Aq Shems-ud-Din, II 140 n. 2. 

Enderuni c Osman Wasif Bey. 
See Wasif. 

England, IV 146, 228. 

Enver. See c Ali Enver E- 

Enveri Efendi, IV 176 n. 2. 

Ephesus, V 79. 

Eregli, III 130. 

Ergene, town, IV 321. 

Erivan, IV 93. 

Er-Toghrul, I 10, 14151114. 

Erzerum, I 86, 204; II 259 
n. 2; III 252, 273, 323; IV 162. 

Erzinjan,! 204, 205, 207, 249. 

Es c ad, former pen-name of 
Sheykh Ghalib, IV 177. 

Es c ad Efendi, III 274. 

Esau, II 151. 

Esed, tribe, II 180. 

Eshref, Persian poet, II 243 
n. 6. 

Eshref Khan, IV 68. 

Eski Hammam (Old Bath), 
quarter, IV 351. 

Eski-Zaghra, IV 118, 244, 

Esma Khanim, IV 301 n. i. 

Esrar Dede, I 348, 422 n. 
2; II 32; IV 179, 196, 207 
sqq. ; V 66. 

Ethe, Dr. H., Ill 22 n. i. 

Etmekji, village, II 50. 

Euphrates, the, III 318 n. 2. 

Eve, I 339, 399. 

Evhad-ud-Din, Sheykh, II 


Evliya Efendi, II 124 n. i, 
141, 142. 

Evrenos Bey, II 348 n. 2. 

Evrenos-oghli Ahmed Bey, 
II 348. 



Eyyub, place-name, II 128 
n. 2, 222; III 135. 

Eyyub Pasha, III 290. 
Ezheri, I 41 1, 414. 
Ezra, II 219 n. i. 

Fa D iq Reshad Bey, I 264. 
Fakhr, poet. See Fakhr-i 

Fakhr-i Jurjanf, III 22, 27, 

345, 370 s qq- 

Fakhr-ud-Dm-i c Ajemf, I 
381 seq. 

Fakhshad, I 429. 

Famagusta, V 61, 83. 

Faqfri II 237 seq. 

Farisi, pen-name of Sultan 
c Osman II, I 417 n. i ; III 208. 

Fasih Dede, IV 207. 

Fasihi, II 376 n. i. 

Fatih, surname of Sultan 
Mehemmed II, II 22 n. i. 

Fatima, daughter of the 
Prophet, III 105 n. 2, 215 n. 2. 

Fatima, daaghter of Salah- 
ud-Dm Fen'dun, I 151. 

Fatima Khatun, IV 150. 

Fatin Efendi, III 200, 202 ; 
IV 61, 81, 117, 118, 140, 151, 
162, 222, 266 n. i, 311, 343, 
352, 355; V 42 n. i, 51, 53 
n. 2, 54, 65, 99 n. 4. 

Faylaqus (Philip), I 270. 

Fayzf, I 127, 129; 111247, 
263; IV 5; V 57. 

Fazil Ahmed, III 303 n. i. 

Fazil Bey, I 109; IV 220 
sqq., 252 n. 2. 

Fazil Pasha, the Bosnian, 
V 70, 71, 74, 75, 100 n. i, 
107 n. 4, 1 08, 109. 

Fazl-i Khuda, Persian equi- 
valent of Fazl-ullah, I 355. 

Fazl-i Yezdan, Persian equi- 
valent of Fazl-ullah, I 355. 

Fazl-ullah the Hurufi, I 253 
n. 2, 336 sqq. 

Fazl-ullah, son of Sheykh 
Aq Shems-ud-Din, II 140 n. 2. 

Fazli, I 109 ;III 3, 108 sqq., 
206; IV 1 86. 

Fazli, son of Fuzuli, III 72. 

Fehi'm, III 245, 290 sqq. ; 
V 10. 

Fenar, village, I 261 n. i. 

Fenari, Mevlana, I 261, 

Fenari-zade Qazi- c Asker 
Shah Chelebi, II 288 n. i. 

Ferazdaq, IV 248. 

Fenelon, V 13, 25, 59. 

Ferhad, I 321 sqq.; II 107 
n. 2, 245 n. 2 and 3, 292, 386 
n. 8; III 10 n. 2, 99 n. i, 
123, 191 n. i, 310 n. 5 ; IV 
29 n. 2, 105 n. 2, 306 seq., 
314 n. i. 

Fen, III 357 sqq. 

Ferid-ud-Din-i c Attar, II 242 
n. 2, 243 n. 6; III 335 seq., 
345, 371 seq. See c Attar, Fe- 

Fen'dun, III 266 n. 6. 

Ferkhar, city, III inn. 2; 
IV 265 n. 4. 

Ferrukh-shad, I 430 seq. 



Fethi Pasha, V 23. 

Fettahi, II 287, 292, 302 
n. 2; III 21, 52; IV 181, 
1 86. 

Fevri, III 133, 160. 

Feyzi. See Fayzi. 

Fez, the city of, IV 41 n. 3. 

Fez, the kingdom of, IV 
170 n. 4. 

Fighani, I 284 ; III 20, 34 
sqq., 126. 

Fighani of Qaraman, III 
36 n. i. 

Firdawsi, I 71, 269; II 9, 
105, 142 sqq., 151, 157 n. 2, 
162 n. 2, 170 n. 2, 201, 390 
sqq.; Ill 4, 36 n. I, 120,341 
n. i ; IV 192. 

Firuz Shah, King of Herat, 
III 361. 

Fitne, name of a slave-girl, 

III 366. 

Fitnet Khanim, IV 94, 140, 
150 sqq., 168 n. I, 342. 

Fitzgerald, Edward, I 89; 
II 332 n. 2; III 22, 224 n. i, 
344 n. 4; IV 157 n. 3. 

Fleischer, Prof., I 157 n. i, 
161 n. 4. 

Fluegel, G., I 182 n. 6, 256 
n. i, 257 n. i, 286 n. 2. 

France, II 76, 77, 80, 81 ; 

IV 228. 

Franco Efendi, IV 103 n. 2. 

Franks of Constantinople, 
the, IV 228. 

Fu'ad Pasha, I 120; III 331 ; 
IV 306; V 15 n. 2, 2427, 

55 n. 2, 60, 65, 69, 71, 76, 
77, 100 n. 4, 101 n. 4, 103 
n. 2, 106. 

Fur (Porus), I 273. 

Furek, Princess, III 224 n. 
3- 366. 

Fuzulf, I 83, 103, 107, 116 
n. 2; II 13, 104, 148, 172 n. 
3, 174, 295; III 2, 3, 9, 14 
n. 3, 70 sqq., 205 207, 226, 
236, 237 n. i, 241, 252, 258, 
278, 306, 327, 330; IV 31, 
32, 35, 67 n. 4, 89 n. i, 175, 
1 80, 182, 185, i97;Vi5n. 2, 57. 

Gabriel, I 35 n. 3, 36, 239 
n. 2, 363 n. 4, 5, 366 n. 3, 
432; II 154, 171, 217, 219 n. 
5, 253 n. 7; IV 22, 23 n. 4; 
V 94 n. 6. 

Galata, III 186,297; IV 178 
seq., 196, 207, 301 n. 4, 304 
305 n. i; V 1 6, 42. 

Galland, I 432 n. T. 

Gallipoli, I 391, 392, 397, 
400, 402; II 375; III 172,295. 

Garden, the New, in Con- 
stantinople, II 258, 318. 

Geda. See Shah u Gedd. 

Gedik Pasha, place, V 14. 

Geneva, V 59, 62. 

Genje, 1 144, 309; IV 18211.1. 

Gentile Bellini, II 27, 70 n. i. 

George, St., I 172 n. i, 393. 

George Dandin, V 14. 

Georgians, the, IV 228. 

Germans, the, IV 228. 

Germiyan, I 142 n. i, 249, 



256, 257 n. i, 260, 262, 264, 
265, 269 n. i, 285287, 299, 
302, 311, 312, 412 n. 4, 423, 
428, 429, 442; II 6, 147. 

Germiyan Bey, I 423 n. 2. 

Gevheri, V 46, 51, 52, 73. 

Geybize, V 107 n. 4. 

Geyikli Baba, III 38. 

Geyikli Baba, shrine of, III 


Ghadban, V 103 n. 2. 

Ghaffari, III 278 n. i. 

Ghalib Bey, IV 350 n. i, 
3535 V 55. 

Ghalib Dede, IV 175. 

Ghalib Edhem Bey. See 
Edhem Bey. 

Ghalib, Sheykh, I 103, 107, 
115, 146 n. 4, 422 n. 2; III 
14 n. 3, 87, 205, 236, 291, 327, 
329, 336, 353 n. i, 354, 374; 
IV 32, 35, 175 sqq., 207, 211, 
213, 215, 268. 

Gharami, III 133, 160. 

Gharibi, V 52. 

Ghazali of Brusa, III 20, 
36 sqq. 

Ghazali, the Imam, II IO2; 
III 162 n. 4. 

Ghazi Giray, Khan of the 
Crimea, III 207. 

Ghazi Hasan Pasha, IV 220. 

Ghazna, the King of, III 

Ghiyas-ud-Din II, Sultan, I 
176 178. 

Ghiyas-ud-Din Muhammed, 
Emir, I 337, 344, 351, 356. 

Ghiyas-ud-Din Pasha Che- 
lebi, II 128 n. 2. 

Ghulam Muhammed, I 71 
n. 2. 

Ghur, name of a demon, 
III 360. 

Gilan-shah, III 334. 

Gipsies, the, IV 228. 

Giray, Ghazi, Khan of the 
Crimea, III 207. 

Giridli c Ali Aziz, V 13 n. 3. 

Gobineau, Comte de, I 24 
n. 2, 27 n. i. 

Goeje, M. J. de, I 274 n. 2; 
III 280 n. 2. 

Gog, I 277, 287 n. i, 289 
n. 2, 399. 

Gog and Magog, Dyke of, I 
277, 284, 287 n. I ; IV 103 n. 3. 

Golden Horn, the, II 227 
n. 3; III 298; IV 301 n. 4, 
302 n. 3. 

Gower, V 6. 

Greece, V 97 n. 2. 

Greeks, the, IV 228, 234. 

Gul Shah, heroine of the 
romance Verqa and Gul Shah, 
III 107. 

Gul-Shah (Princess Rose), I 
272 n. i, 309 n. 2. 

Gulf, the Persian, II 39 n. 2. 

Gulgun (Rose-hued), name 
of a horse, I 318; III 231 
n. 4. 

Gulsheni, minor poet, II 192, 

374, 378. 

Gulsheni, Sheykh. See Ibra- 
him Gulsheni. 


Giimiish-Halqali (Silver- 
Ring), name of a tavern, V 56. 

Giimiish Suyu, IV 26 n. 2. 

Gurgan, III 22 n. I. 

Gushtasb, I 433 n. i. 

Guwahi, II 124, 126. 

Guy-Allard, II 80 n. i. 

Guynuk, II 140, 141. 

Guzelja Rustem Pasha, III 
193 n. i. 

Habib Efendi, I 394, 420 n. i. 

Habeshf-zada Abd-ur-Ra- 
him Bey, III 327 n. 4. 

Hadramaut, I 326 n. 5. 

Hafiz, I 23, 127, 144, 163 
n. 2, 166 n. 3, 214 n. 6, 286 
n. i, 350; II 8, 41,49, 5255, 
89 n. 6, 106, 198 n. i, 280 
n. 6, 322, 331 n. i; III ii n. 
3, 31 n. 6, 51 n. i, 77, 145, 
146, 179 n. 4, 224, 328; IV 
12, 259, 264, 273 n. i; V 

53, 57- 

Hafiz Musa, IV 267. 

Hafiz Mushfiq, V 55. 

Hafiz c Osman, IV 78. 

Hafiz Pasha, III 208, 245, 
248 sqq. 

Hagar, II 87 n. 3. 

Hajja Khatun, III 22 in. 2. 

Hajji Abdu D l-Wahid, IV 
273 n. i. 

Hajji Ahmed, father of 
Seyyid Vehbi, IV 107. 

Hajji Ahmed Hayatf, IV 
258 n. 2. See Hayati. 

Hajji Ahmed Pasha, IV 73. 

Hajji Akif Pasha, IV 324, 
See c/ Akif Pasha. 

Hajji Bektash, I 165 n. i, 179. 
357 n. i, 358 n. 2; V 106 n. 7. 

Hajji Beyram, I 299, 300, 
39 39 2 > 39 6 > 401,412,421; 
II 138, 139, 375. 

Hajji Hasan-zade, II 264, 
273, 350 seq., 357. 

Hajji Ibrahim Pasha, III 


Hajji Khalffa (Hajji Khalfa), 
I 182 n. 6; III 20 n. 2, 28 n. 2, 
41 n. 3, 43, 109 n. i, 161, 
162 n. 4, 254; IV 38, 82. See 
Katib Chelebi. 

Hajji Pasha, I 260, 261, 

Hakim (Sage), surname of 
Loqman, I 389 n. 2. 

Hakim-oghli (Hakim-zade) 
C AH Pasha, IV 90, 159 seq. 

Halebi College, the, II 352. 

Halet Bey, V 55. 

Halet Efendi, IV 305. 

Haleti, I 103, IIO; III 205, 
206, 221 sqq., 235 ; IV 209. 

Halimi, II 267 n. 2, 386 n. 10. 

Halimi Chelebi, II 267. 

Hamadan, IV 73, 93. 

Hamd-ullah Chelebi, II 140. 

Hamdi, I 107, 109, 238, 306, 
312; II 138 sqq., 234, 254 n. 
2, 357, 376; HI 3, 12, 13, 54, 

87, 335- 

Hamdi Bey, Commander, 

V 68. 

Harm, IV 58, 71 seq. 



Hamid, province, I 142, 249. 

Hamid Bey, I 70, 132, 133, 
135; III 209; IV 34; V i, 
n, 14, 77, 78. 

Hammam Anasi, IV 303 n. 4. 

Hammer, JosephVon, 1 1 39 n. 
5, 157 n. i, 177, 178 n. i, 179 
n. 3, 183, 202, 208, 256 n. 
46, 257, 263, 312 n. 2, 389, 
390, 414, 422 n. 2, 428, 429, 
433 n. i; II 25 n. 3, 74 n. i, 
78 n. 3, 90 n. 5, 960. i, 124 n. i, 
*99> 237, 267 n - 2, 3 2 4 n. 4, 
380 n. 3, 390; III i, 24, 26 28, 
36 n. i, 37 n. 2, 41 n. 3, 50 
n. i, 108 no, 147,160,161, 
1 8 1, 182, 184 n. 6, 1 86, 202, 
203, 206, 207, 210, 219, 234, 
254, 298, 313 n. i, 314, 315, 
374; IV 20 n. i, 37, 91, 118, 
145, 146 n. i, 176, 179 n. 2, 
181, 185 seq., 233 n. 2 and 3, 
242 n. 3, 270, 279 n. i. 

Hamza, uncle of the Prophet, 
I 170 n. 3, 255. 

Hamza Bey, College of, at 
Brusa, III 199. 

Hamzevi, I 255, 260. 

Hanif-zada Ahmed, IV 
38, 82. 

Haqqi, the poet, V 55 n. i. 

Haqqi Pasha, V 15 n. 2. 

Hariri, author of the Ma- 
qdmdt, IV 82, 342. 

Hariri, of Brusa, II 368. 

Harun-ur-Rashid, II 269, 
276 n. i ; IV 48 n. 3. 

Harut, IV 156 n. 2. 

Harut and Marut, II 6 1 n. 3. 

Hasan, personal name of 
'Ahi, II 286. 

Hasan, son of c Ali, I 216 
n. 2, 399; II 41; III 90, 105 
n. 2; V 93 n. 4, 94 n. 2. 

Hasan, younger brother of 
Fazil Bey, IV 221. 

Hasan c Ayni Efendi, IV 336. 
See c Ayni. 

Hasan Chelebi, I 139 n. 5, 

169 228 230, 231 n. i, 
256 258, 264, 265, 268, 300, 
302, 303, 307, 312 n. i, 349, 
384 n. 5, 392, 416 n. 1,427; 
II 25 n. 3, 33 n. 2. 35, 41, 
45, 47, 48, 51, 51, 52, 53 n. 

1, 56, 58, 72 n. 8, 73 n. 3, 
78, 82, 86, 93 n. i, 94, 95 n. 

2, 96, 102, 106, 108 n. 2, 
109111, 115, 128, 132, 136, 
141, 148, 149, 174, 190, 199, 
200, 230, 263 n. 3, 269, 270, 
272, 273, 276, 291, 292, 294, 
295, 318 n. i, 319, 320 n. 8, 
322324, 326, 355, 357, 358 
n. 2. 377, 380 n. 3, 383; III 

Hasan of Delhi, III 51 n. i. 

Hasan Qal c a, III 252. 

Hashmet, I 100 n. I ; IV 
101 n. 3, 133, 134, 140 sqq., 
152, 153 n. i, 183. 

Hasib Kerim-ud-Din, I 433 
n. i. 

Hassan ibn-Thabit, II 276. 

Hatif Efendi, IV 343 n. i. 

Hatifi, III 22. 



Hatim of Tayy, III 266 n. 2. 

Hautpoul,General, ViO3n.2. 

Hawuzlu Bagh, V, 43, 44 n. i. 

Hayati, IV 242 n. 3, 243, 
258 seq. 

Hayder, treasurer of Prince 
Jem, II 72 seq., 82. 

Hayder Pasha, Governor of 
Yemen, III 300. 

Hayder Pasha, place, IV 69. 

Hayder, Sheykh, II 259 n. 2. 

Hayderi, II 72 n. 8. 

Hayderi Khafi, Sheykh, I 

39 2 403. 

Hayreti, III 61. 

Heki'm Sinan, I 301. 

Helhilan, King, III 359 seq. 

Helvaji-zadeMahmud, name 
of Huda'f, III 218. 

Herat, I 278; II 8, 10, 11, 
40, 41, 48 n. 2, 243 n. 6, 365. 

Herod, V 92 n. i. 

Herzegovina, V 105 n. 2. 

Hewa 3 !, pen-name em- 
ployed by Sururi, IV 271, 276. 

Hezari, former pen-name of 
Munif, IV 68. 

Hibet-ullah, Princess,IV 147. 

Hijaz, the, I 281; III 150 
n. 2 ; IV 228. 

Hilali, III 122. 

Hilla, III 71. 

al-Himar (the Ass), title of 
Merwan II, III 365 n. i. 

Hindustan, IV 241 n. 6. 

Hippocrates, I 270, 301 n. i. 

Hippodrome, the, in Con- 
stantinople, III 123. 

Hira, Mount, II 217 n. 3. 

Hishmet, IV 146 n. i. 

Holland, IV 146 n. 2, 228. 

Hormisdas IV, I 314 n. i. 

Horn, the Golden. See Gol- 
den Horn, the. 

Horn, P., II 335 n. 7. 

Hot Baths, College of the, 
at Brusa, II 375. 

House, the Frequented, I 
37, 365 n. 9; II 5911. 3 and 4, 
6 1 n. 2. See Beyt-i Mcfmiir. 

Houtsma, Th., I 73 n. i. 

Howorth, Sir H., I 222 n. 2. 

Hubbi Qadin, I 286; III 
165, 170 seq.; IV 150. 

Hud, II 270 n. 3. 

Huda D i, III 1 66, 205, 218 sqq. 

Hughes, Thomas Fiott, 1 209. 

Hugo, Victor, IV 181, 185. 

Hulagu, I 176; IV 42 n. 3 ; 
V 94 n. 5. 

Hululiyye, sect of the, I 382 
n. i. 

Huma, Princess, III 359. 

Humay, Prince, III no. 

Humay, Princess, III 366. 

Humayun, I 324. 

Humayun, Princess, III 1 10. 

Hungary, II 77, 83, 91 
n. 6. 

Hungary, the King of, II 77. 

Hurmuz, I 314. 

Huruffs, sect of the, I 336 
sqq.; Ill 315 n. 2. 

Husam, IV 310. 

Husam-ud-Dfn, Sheykh, I 



Husam-ud-Dfn, ancestor of 
Seyyid Vehbi, IV 107. 

Husami, former pen-name 
of Seyyid Vehbi, IV 107. 

Huseyn, son of c Alf, I 216 
n. 2, 399; III 23, go, 105, 
106 n. i ; IV 112 n. i, 350; 
V 93 n. 5, 94 n. 4. 

Huseyn Bayqara, I 127, II 
8, 10, II, 41, 365 ; V 82. 

Huseyn Chelebi, II 95, 99. 

Huseyn Efendi. See Vehbi, 

Huseyn [ibn] Mansur-i Hal- 
laj, I 21 n.2; IV 2ion. i ; V93 
n. 6. See Mansur-i Hallaj. 

Huseyn Pasha, the Grand 
Vezir, III 332. 

Huseyn Va c iz, III 90. 

Huseyni, pen-name, III 36. 

Husni Pasha, V 70 sqq., 
97 sqq. 

Huzni, former pen-name of 
Sururi, IV 266. 

Huzuri II 375. 

Hyrcania, III 22 n. i. 

lamblichus, I 39, 53 n. 2. 

Iblfs, I 119 n. 5, 339; II 
253 n. 3; III 216 n. 5. 

Ibn c Alqam, V 94 n. 5. 

Ibn-ul- c Alqami, V 94 n. 5. 

Ibn c Arab-Shah, I 207 n. 
2; II 102 n. 2. 

Ibn-ul-Farid, II 212 n. 3. 

Ibn-Hajar, I 205, 206 n. 2, 
207, 208, 336. 

Ibn-i Husam, II 243 n. 6. 

Ibn-Katib (Son of the Scribe), 
patronymic, I 391 n. 3. 

Ibn Kemal, II 347 n. i. See 

Ibn-ul-Muhtesib, III 162 
n. 4. 

Ibn Muljem, V 93 n. 3, 94 
n. 3. 

Ibn-un-Nejjar, IV 90. 

Ibn-us-Selam, II 180, 183, 
184, 1 88. 

Ibn-Shuhne, I 206 n. 2. 

Ibn Teymiyya, III 162 n. 4. 

Ibn-ul- Verdi, I 274 n. i. 

Ibn-Abi-Waqqas, V 92 n. 4. 

Ibn-i Yemin, II 243 n. 6. 

Ibn-Yusuf, I 439. 

Ibrahim (Abraham), III 35 
n. 2. See Abraham. 

Ibrahim, father of Ishaq 
Chelebi, III 40. 

Ibrahim, father of Sheykh 
Riza, IV 89. 

Ibrahim Agha, IV 79. 

Ibrahim Chelebi, name of 
Jevri, III 297. 

Ibrahim ibn-Edhem, II 118 
n. 3. 

Ibrahim Efendi, V 22. 

Ibrahim Gulsheni, Sheykh, 

II 374, 375; HI 45, 61 n. 3; 
IV 316 n. i. 

Ibrahim Haqqi, Sheykh, IV 

Ibrahim c lsmet Bey, IV 

Ibrahim Pasha, College of, 

III 40. 


Ibrahim Pasha, Grand Ve- 
zir under Ahmed III, IV 11, 
13, 14, 30, 34, 37, 47, 53, 8 1, 
82, 88, in n. 8. 

Ibrahim Pasha, the Grand 
Vezir, III 5 seq., 34 seq., 49, 
59 seq., 6 1 n. 3, 71 n. 2, 72, 
1 1 8, 126. 

Ibrahim Pasha, son of Kha- 
Ifl Paslia, II 348. 

Ibrahim Shahidi Dede, IV 
176 n. 3. 

Ibrahim Shinasi Efendi, V 
22. See Shinasi. 

Ibrahim, Sultan, III 245, 
251, 276, 290, 302, 304. 

Iconium, I 10. See Qonya. 

Idris, Monla, historian, I 
206 n. 2; II 1 06, 267 n. i, 
351, 364; III 7 n. i. 

Idrisi, I 274 n. i. 

Ikhwan-us-Safa (the Breth- 
ren of Sincerity), III 21. 

Ilahi, Sheykh, II 373 seq.; 
Ill 61. 

Ilghin, III 291. 

Ilhami, pen-name of Selfm 
III, I 417 n. i. 

c llmi-zada Muhammed Che- 
lebi, name of Sabri, III 286. 

Ilyas, the Prophet I I72n. 
l > 393' See Khizr. 

Ilyas, personal name of Re- 
wani, II 317. 

Ilyas of Gallipoli, I 231 
n. i. 

Ilyas Pasha, I 423 seq. 

c Jmad-ud-Din, Seyyid, I 343. 

Imams, the Twelve, III 214 
n. 2, 215 n. 2, 217 n. 5. 

Imam-zade, of Yeni Shehir, 
IV 107. 

Imam-zade, principal of a 
school in Constantinople, V45. 

c lmran, IV 241 n. 5. 

Imru-ul-Qays, IV 246. 

'Inas, II 152. 

India, II 62 n. 7, 213 n. 2; 
IV 228, 241 n. 6, 264 n. 3. 

India Office, the, II 102 n. 2. 

Injili Chawush, IV 252. 

Innocent VIII, Pope, II Si. 

Ionia, I 149 n. i, 177, 178 n. i. 

Iqbali, pen-name of Mustafa 
II, I 417 n. i ; III 302. 

c lraq, I 343, 344 n. I ; II 
112 n. 6, 158; III 188. 

c lraq-i c Arab, III 71, 74. 

Irem, I 326 n. 5 ; II 59 n. 
6, 113 n. 3; III 150 n. 7, 214 
n. 5, 265 n. 2. 

c 'Isa, personal name of Ne- 
jati, II 56, 95. 

c/ Isa Efendi, V 46 seq., 49. 

c 'Isa, Prince, son of Baye- 
zid I, I 250. 

Isaac, II 151, 152. 

Isauria, I 142. 

Isfahan, II 291 n. 2; III 
328 n. i; IV 243, 258. 

Isfendyarli (dynasty), I 142 
n. 2, 415 n. i. 

Ishaq, Arabic form of Isaac, 
III 40 n. 2. 

Ishaq Chelebi, II 105, 271, 
322; III 20, 40 sqq., 85. 



Ishaq Pasha College, the, 

II 351- 

Ishmael, II 87 n. 3 ; IV 1 1 1 
n. 9. 

c lshqi, II 192, 225, 368, 377. 

Iskele Qapusi (the Harbour 
Gate) of Constantinople, II 72. 

Iskender (Alexander), I 270; 

III 152 n. 2. See Alexander 
the Great. 

Iskender Chelebi, son of Si- 
nan Pasha, II 124, 125, 129, 131. 

Iskender Chelebi, the Def- 
terdar, III ,6, 35, 39, 59 seq., 

Iskender Pasha, III 221 n. 2. 

Iskender-i Rumi (Alexander 
the Roman) I 149 n. i. 

Iskenderus, I 282, 284. 

Islambol, III 214 n. i. 

Isma c il Agha, V 45 sqq. 

Isma c il c 'Asim Efendi. See 
c 'Asim Efendi (Chelebi-zade). 

Isma c il Bey, I 415. 

Isma c il Bey, the Re D is-ul- 
Kuttab, IV 243 seq. 

Isma c il Ferrukhf, IV 81 n. i. 

Isma c il Haqqi, I 392 n. i, 
398 n. 3, 406. 

Isma c il Rusukhf of Angora, 

IV 81 n. i, 178. 

Isma c il, Shah, the Safevi, I 
204 n. 2 ; II 30, 227 n. 4, 259, 
260, 267, 374 n. 2; III 88, 
1 06. 

Isma c ilis, the, I 341. 

Isparta, II 52 n. i. 

Israel, II 151. 

Israel, the children of, I 396 
n. 4. 

Israfil, V 3. 

Istambol, III 280 n. 2. 

Istanbol, III 214 n. i. 

Italy, IV 228. 

Itfir, III 15 n. i. 

c lwaz, V 14. 

c lwaz, said to be the per- 
sonal name of Zati, III 47 n. i. 

c lwaz Agha, V 14. 

c lwaz Pasha, I 415. 

c lzari, Mevlana, II 369. 

Izmid, IV 332; V 70, 74, 
75, 107 n. 4, 109. 

Iznik and Izniq (Nicaea), II 
380 seq.; Ill 41. 

c !zz-ud-Din, name of a Tur- 
kish war-ship, V 98 n. 3. 

c lzzet Bey, IV 77 n. 5. 

c lzzet Bey, the Beylikji, IV 
213, 218. 

Izzet Molla, I 109, iiO;IV 
151, 268, 279, 304 sqq., 342. 

Jaba, Isle of, I 275. 

Jacob, II 151 sqq., 254 n. 
3; III 287 n. 3, 309 n. 3; IV 
217 n. i and 2. 

Ja c da, V 93 n. 4, 94 n. 2. 

Ja c fer, the Barmaki, II 269 ; 
IV 48 n. 3. 

Ja c fer Chelebi, I 306; II 56, 
228, 230, 241, 243 n. 3, 263 
sqq., 326, 350 n. i, 378; III 
47, 48, 1 1 8. 

Ja c fer Pasha, the Admiral, 
III 141 n. 3. 


Ja c fer-i Tayyar, I 216 11.2. 

Jam, in Khurasan, III 1 56 n. 5. 

Jamasb, I 433 n. i. 

Jamesb, I 433 sqq. 

Jami, I 5, 15, 20, 30, 100, 
127129, 151, 231 n. i; II 
8 sqq., 26, 28, 40, 48 n. 2, 
129 n. i, 141, 142 sqq., 148 
n. 2, 1-51, 157 n. 2, 162 n. 2, 
170 n. 2, 173, 201, 224 seq., 
357 n. 5> 365; HI 3 n. i, 13, 
21, 22, 26, 37 n. 2, 51 n. i, 
77, 87 n. i, 120, 125, 156 n. 5, 
161, 166, 224, 234, 236, 238, 
248, 328; IV 6, 7, 195, 225 
n. i; V 81, 

Jan-Shah, I 434 n. 3. 

Japan, I 274 n. 2. 

Javid, III 345, 370 sqq. 

Javid Bey, IV 336, 341. 

Jebbar-zade Suleyman Bey, 
IV 324. 

Jelal Arghun, I 424. 

Jelal Bey, IV 35, 6r, 64, 
67 n. 4, 79, 1 1 8, 

Jelal-ud-Dm-i Dewani, II 
28, 29. 

Jelal-ud-Dm Rumi, I 17 n. 
2, 53 n. i, 108, 126, 141, 

H5 H7> H9i53> l6 3 n. 
2, 169, 170, 177, 309, 421, 422, 
425 n. 6; II 7, 356, 374; III 
186, 293 n. i, 297, 328; IV 
79 sqq., 125 n. i, 182, 189, 
190, 194, 196 seq., 205 n. 5, 
209 n. 2, 306 sqq. 

Jelal-ud-Dm Rumi, mauso- 
leum of, I 151 n. 3, 185. 

Jelal-zade, the Nishanji, II 
269 n. i. 

Jelili, I 311; II 172 n. 3, 
287, 290, 390 n. 4; III 86, 
133, 159 seq. 

Jem, Persian King. See 

Jem, Prince, II 28, 31, 32 
n. i, 70 sqq., 96, 104, 172, 366. 

Jem Baghchesi (Jem's Gar- 
den), II 78. 

Jem Sa c disi, II 72 n. 7. 

Jemal-zade, Sheykh, II 148 
n. 2. 

Jemalf, I 304, 314, 427. 

Jem c i, III 226 n. i. 

Jemshfd, Persian King, II 
71, 114 n. 3, 330 n. i, 392; 

III 176 n. 8, 190 n. i, 266 
n. 6; IV 148 n. i; V 93 n. 7. 

Jemshfd, son of the Empe- 
ror of China, I 286. 

Jenabf, I 177. 

Jengiz Khan, I 10, 176. See 
Chingiz Khan. 

Jerba, III 160. 

Jerir, IV 248. 

Jerrah Pasha, mosque of, 

IV 108. 

Jerusalem, I 53 n. 2, 281; 
II 74, 76; III 284; IV 350. 

Jesus, I 233, 363 n. 8, 372, 
376; II 57 n. 4; III 214 n. 
3, 230 n. 3, 299 n. i, 314, 
315 n. 4, 316 n. 4; IV 206 n. 2. 

Jevdet Pasha, II 360 n. 7; 
IV 161, 164 sqq., 222, 270, 
305 n. 2 ; V 7, 65. 



Jevri, I 391; III 245, 297 
sqq.; IV 179. 

Jews, the, IV 228, 235 

Jeyhun, I 220 n. 2, 432 ; II 
360 n. 7. 

Jihangir, Prince, son ofSu- 
leyman I, III 10, n. 

Jihan-Shah, I 434 sqq. 

Jinji Khoja, III 276. 

Joachim, S*, IV 241 n. 5. 

Job, I 389 n. 2. 

Joe Miller, IV 276 n. I. 

John the Baptist, V 92 n. 
i and 2. 

Jones, Sir William, II 102 
n. 2, 232. 

Joseph, I 168, 259 n. 5; II 
12, 63 n. 4, 64 n. i, 112 n. 

2, 116 n. 4, 136 n. 2, 142 
sqq., 254; III 31 n. i, 55 n. 
i, 87, 236, 287 n. 3, 309 n. 

3, 313 ; IV 172 n. 5,201 n. i, 
217 n. i, 265 n. 2. 

Jouanin, M., IV 333. 

Judah, II 153, 154, 170, 
171 ; III 287 n. 3. 

Judas Iscariot, V 106 n. 5. 

Juliet, I 220 n. i. 

Juneyd, I 377 n. 2. 

Jupiter, I 259 n. 3; II 125 
n. i ; III 147 n. 4, 311 n. 2. 

Jurjan, III 22 n. i, 334. 

Jurjan, the King of, III 31, 
360 seq. 

Juvan-pir, V 62 n. i. 

Ka c ba, the, I 37, 38, 170 n. 
i, 243 n. 3, 281; II 59 n. 2 

and 3, 87 n. 2, 1 18 n. 2 and 3, 
178; IV 65 n. 4, 91, in n. 
3 and 10. 

Kabul, I 434, 435. 

Kaffa, II 257. 

Kafur, name of a Greek, 
III 362. 

Kaghid-Khane (the Paper- 
Mill), IV 44 n. 2. 

Kami, Sheykh Jemal-zade, 
II 148 n. 2. 

Kamil, younger brother of 
Fazil Bey, IV 221. 

Kanghri, II 369. 

Kani, IV 15, 140, 159 sqq., 
176 n. 2, 183, 275 n. I, 303 
'n. 5; V 15 n. 2. 

Kani Pasha, V 105 n. 2. 

Kashghar, I 71. 

Katib Chelebi, I 43 n. i, 179 
n. 3, 182, 202, 206 n. 2, 207 
n. 2, 239, 256 n. i, 257 n. i, 
286, 302, 304 n. i, 311 n. 2, 
337 n. 3, 347, 386, 390, 39.1, 
427429, 439; II 72 n. 3, 73 
n. i, 103 n. i, 141 n. 2, 148 
n. 2, 172, 190, 191, 199, 
289, 324 n. 3, 326 n. i, 380 
n. 3. See Hajji Khalifa. 

Katibi, II 191 n. 3, 368. 

Kawa, III 266 n. 6. 

Kawus IV 136 n. 2. 

Kazim Bey, I 398 n. 3. 

Kecheji-zade Mehemed c lz- 
zet, IV 304. See c lzzet Molla. 

Kelim, IV 115 n. 2. 

Kemal of Berghama, II 368. 

Kemal Bey, I 132; III i, 


81, 82, 127, 175, 203,205,257, 
262, 264, 286 288, 291, 296, 
307> 3 J 9 3 2 3; IV 4, 15, 19, 
30, 3236, 61, 71, 98, 1 10, 
118, 119, 280282, 311, 352; 
V 8, 10, 11, 15, 19, 26, 27, 
41, 60, 62 65, 75, 78, 83 sqq. 

Kemal-ud-Din Isma c il of Is- 
fahan, II 291 n. 2; III 51 n. i. 

Kemal-i Khalveti, 141 1,412. 

Kemal of Khujend, II 291 
n. 2. 

Kemal Pasha, II 347. 
Kemal-Pasha-oghli, II 347 
n. i. See Kemal-Pasha-zade. 
Kemal-Pasha-zade, I 107; 

II 148, 264 n. i, 288, 347 
sqq.; Ill I, 12, sqq., 54, 116, 
118, 277. 

Kemal, Sheykh, III 51. 
Kemal-i Ummi, I 411, 413. 
Keman-Kesh c Ali Pasha, 

III 274. 

Kerbela, I 216 n. 2; III 90, 
106 n. i ; IV 112 n. i ; V 93 
n. 5, 94 n. 4, 106 n. 5. 

Kerim Khan-i Zend, IV 243 
seq., 249. 

Kerkuk, IV 134, 138. 

Kermanshah. See Kirman- 

Kermiyan, I 142. See Ger- 

Keshan, IV 279 n. i, 305, 
308 sqq. 

Keshfi, II 375. 

Kestelf, Mevlana, II 349. 

Kevser, a river of Paradise, 

I 36, 259 n. 4; II 136 n. 3; 
III 183 n. 7; IV 65 n. i, 112 
n. 3, 115 n. 4. 

Key, a legendary king of 
Persia, IV 136 n. 2. 

Key Ka 3 us, IV 23 n. 2. 

Keyani dynasty, the, III 
149 n. 5; IV 136 n. 2. 

Keyd, King of India, I 272, 


Key-Khusraw. See Key- 

Key-Khusrev (Cyrus), I 432; 

III 265 n. 8; IV 23 n. 2. 
Key-Qubad, III 149 n. 5. 
Keyumers, I 280. 
Khadim c Ali Pasha, II 226 

n. i. 

Khaki, I 411, 415. 

Khalifa, name of a poet, I 
311 n. 2; II 148 n. 2, 172 n. 3. 

Khalil ibn-Ahmed, I 209. 

Khalil Bey, V 98 n. i. 

Khalil Efendi, IV 14. 

Khalil Ham id, Grand Vizier, 

IV 258. 

Khalil Khalid Efendi, II 
227 n. 2. 

Khalil Nuri Bey, IV i76n. 
2. See Nuri Bey. 

Khalil Pasha, II 348 n. i. 

Khalil Pasha, IV 279. 

Khalil Pasha. See Damad 
Khalil Pasha. 

Khalili, II 192, 379 sqq. 

Khalili, a mistake forjelili, 
II 172 n. 3. 

Khani Dudu, IV 304 n. 6. 



Khans, the Qipchaq, I 222 
n. 2. 

Khaqan of Turkistan, the, 

III 366 seq. 

Khaqani, Turkish poet, I 
109; III 165, 1 66, 193 sqq., 299. 

Kharijites, the, II 82 n. I. 

Kharput, I 206; IV 66. 

Khata (Cathay), II 112 n. 
4; III in n. 2. 

Khatami', pen-name of Shah 
Isma c il, III 1 06. 

Khatemi, pen-name of Mu D - 

eyyed-zade, II 31, 126 n. 2. 

Khatib-zade,Mevlana, II 349. 

Khatib-zade Nasuh Chelebi, 
II 82. 

Khaveri, II 289, 370. 

Khavernaq, Palace of, III 
28, 365 sqq. 

Khayalf, an obscure writer 
in the time of Selim I, II 172 
n. 3, 377; III 62 n. i, 86. 

Khayali Bey, III 47, 49, 58 
sqq., 80, 118 seq. 206, 297; 

IV 197, 

Khayri Efendi, IV 161 ; V 
70, 71, 74, 75, 100 n. i, 101 
n. 3, 108, 109. 

Khazar, I 277. 

Khios, IV 113 n. 4. 

Khizr, the Prophet, I 172, 
n. i, 271, 282284, 37> 377> 
393, 423 n. 3, 430, 435; II 
112 n. i, 137 n. 2, 247 n. 
3; III 251 n. i, 299 n. i, 
318 n, 3. 

Khizr-Agha-zade Sa c id, IV 
342. See Sa c id Bey. 

Khizr Pasha, I 423 seq. 

Khizr u Ilyas Maqame, name 
of a mosque, I 393. 

Khizrf, II 375. 

Khoja Ahmed-i Yesevi. See 
Ahmed-i Yesevi. 

Khoja Chelebi Efendi, the 
Mufti, II 272. 

Khoja Nu c man, V 48. 

Khonaz, II 148 n. 2. 

Khotan, II 254 n. 7; IV 
264 n. 3. 

Khuffi', II 368. 

Khujend, II 291 n. 2; III 51. 

Khulusi Efendi, IV 207. 

Khurasan, I 176, 178, 179 
n. i, 203, 278; II 139 n. i, 
374; III 22 n. i, 156 n. 5. 

Khurrem, King of Jurjan, 

III 336, 345, 370 sqq. 
Khurrem, Sultana, III 6, 

11, 119. 

Khurshid, heroine of Jem- 
shid and Khurshid, I 286. 

Khurshid, heroine of the 
Khurshid-ndme, I 430 seq. 

Khusraw of Delhi, II 8, 107, 
191 n. 3, 291, 292; III 238; 

IV 192. See Amir Khusraw. 
Khusraw Parwiz. See Khus- 

rev-i Pervfz. 

Khusrev, II 12, 291, 311 
seq.; Ill 27, 99 n. I, 236. 
See Khusrev-i Perviz and K/ms- 
rev and Shirin. 

Khusrev-i Perviz (Chosroes 



II), I 310, 314 sqq. ; II 63 n. 
4, 287; III 231 n. 4, 265 n. 
8, 266 n. 8, 354; IV 262 n. 
i. See Khusrev. 

Khwaju of Kirman, III no. 

Khwand Amir, IV 82 n. I. 

Kirman, the King of, III 
373 seq. 

Kirmanshah, I 318 n. I, 322 
n. i and 2, 310 n. 5. 

Knights' Castle, the, V 16. 

Knights of S* John, II 76 

Kopri, III 303 n. i. 

Koprili Muhammed Pasha, 
III 303 n. i. 

Koprilis, the, III 302 seq., 326. 

Koprili-zada Ahmed Pasha, 
III 303 n. i, 312, 327 n. 2. 

Koprili-zada Mustafa Pasha, 
III 303 n. i, 313. 

Koprili-zada Nu c man Pasha, 
III 303 n. i. 

Korah, II 117 n. 4, 331 n. 
i, 344 n. 8. 

Kremer, Alfred von, III 115 
n. i, 240 n. 3. 

Kuh-i Billur (Mt Beloor), IV 
27 n. i. 

Kuh-i Surkhab, name of a 
mountain, IV 202 n. 3. 

Kurdistan, III 116. 

Kutahiya, I 299, 300, 302, 
303; II 6, 373; III 323. 

Ladiq, II 132 n. i. 
Ladiqa, the, V 105 n. i. 
La Fontaine, V 32, 33, 59. 

Lahijan, King of the Fairies, 
III 357, 360. 

Lah', II 365. 

La c lf, II 73. 

Lamartine, V 24, 32. 

Lami c f, I 107, 307; II 287, 
288, 292, 294, 296 sqq., 378 ; 

III 2, 3, 20 sqq., 5254, 88, 
no, 181, 206, 335, 353 sqq.; 

IV 181 n. 2; V 13. 

Lane, Edward, I 432 n. i, 

439 n - I- 

Larende, I 151, 178 n. i, 

413; II 72. 

Larissa, II 237; IV 117, 
125 n. 3. 

Latifi, I 139, 169, 178, 1 80, 
181, 183, 1 86, 228233,238, 
256 258, 260, 263 265, 268, 
285, 286, 299301, 303,304, 
306, 311 n. 2, 312, 325, 343, 
344, 347, 348, 350, 383385, 
391, 405, 412416,418,429; 

II 11, 25 n. 3, 27, 28 n. 2, 

3335, 4i, 42, 45,49, 54, 56, 
58 n. i, 72 n. 8, 73, 75 n. i, 
78, 82, 86, 90, 93, 95, 96 n. 
2, 101 109, 124, 125, 127, 
128, 130, 135, 136, 141 n. 2, 
147, 148 n. 2, 172 n. 3, 190, 
191, 199, 229, 230, 238, 244 
n. 7, 263 n. i and 2, 275, 276, 
291, 293, 311, 318322,324, 
354, 356, 367369, 371, 376 
n - r > 377, 38o n. 3, 383, 384; 

III 7, 13, 18, 19, 25, 34, 35, 
37, 38,43, 45,47 n - i. 5053, 
58, 62, 64, 71, 72, 76, 79, 86 



n. i, 89, 90, 109, no, 127, 
! 33> 1 3%> 1 6> *6i seq., 200. 

Lavends (Levantines) the, 
IV 1 14 n. 2. 

Leander's Tower, IV 241 
n. I. 

Lebanon, Mt, V 103 n. 2. 

Lees, W. N., I 348 n. 2. 

Lemnos, III 313; IV 161. 

Leroux, M., IV 233 n. 2, 
328 n. 2. 

Lesqofchali Ghalib Bey, V 
55 n. 2. 

Levantines, the, IV 1 14 n. 
2, 228. 

Leyla (Leyli), I 220 n. I ; 
II 12, 175 sqq., 222 n. 7, 247 
n. 4, 356 n. 2, 362 n. 9; III 
66 n. 2, 93 n. 3, 100, 101, 236, 
311 n. 2; IV 29 n. i, 204 n. 
2, 306, 343 n. i. 

Leyla Khanim, IV 336, 342 

Liqa 3 f, II 370. 

Lofcha, III 233. 

London, IV 326; V 62. 

Loqman, the Sage, I 389, 
414 n. i; II 38 n. 3. 

Lutfi, Monla, II 349, 352. 

Lutfi Pasha, III 6. 

Lutf-ullah, son of Sunbul- 
zada Vehbf, III 335 ; IV 254 
seq., 257 seq, 

Lyall, Sir Charles, III 174 

n. 3- 

Lycaonia, I 142. 
Lycia, I 142. 
Lydia, I 142. 

Maghnisa, I 41951197, 148 
n. 2; III 330. 

Maghrib (Sunset Land), I 
278, 430. 

Magnesia, III 37, 109. 

Magog, I 277, 287 n. i, 289 
n. 2, 399. 

Mahmud, personal name of 
Lami c i, III 20. 

Mahmiid c Abd-ul-Baqi, III 


Mahmiid Chelebi Efendi, II 

Mahmud of Ghazna, Sultan, 
III 153 n. 5; IV 24 n. 3. 

Mahmud Pasha, Grand Vi- 
zier, I 381, 382; II 25, 28 n. 
2, 3i 33. 35. 37 1 ;Il366, 369. 

Mahmud Pasha ibn-Qassab, 

I 401, 402 n. i. See Mahmud 
Pasha, Grand Vizier. 

Mahmud Pasha, College of, 

II 264. 

Mahmud, Prince, son of 
Bayezfd II, II 96, 97, 102, 
117, 366; III 7. 

Mahmud-i Shebisterf, I 18 
n. i. 

Mahmud, Sheykh, 1411 seq. 

Mahmud, Sheykh, the Clois- 
ter of, II 353. 

Mahmud I, Sultan, 141711. 
i; IV 13, 58, 151. 

Mahmud II, Sultan, I 262 
n. 2, 415, 417 n. I; II 268 n. 
2; IV 248 n. i, 305, 311, 323, 
324, 326, 327, 333, 336; V 
4> 3i- 


Ma c jun, name of a charac- 
ter, III 89. 

Malatia, III 312; IV 66. 

Malghara, I 392 n. I ; III 

Malik, name of a merchant, 
U 154 sqq., 159, 1 60. 
Mal-Tepe, cemetery of, IV 79. 

Ma c muret-ul- c Aziz, province, 

II 259 n. 2; III 312. 
Manes. See Manf. 

Mani (Manes), II 313 n. 5; 

III 66 n. i ; IV 43 n. 3, 70 n. 2. 
Mansur. See Mansur-i Hallaj. 
Mansur-i Hallaj, I 21, 168, 

345. 347> 35i, 359J HI 286 n. 
I ; IV 168 n. 5 ; V 93 n. 6. 
See Huseyn Mansur-i Hallaj. 

Maqam-i Khizr (the Sta- 
tion of Khizr), in the mosque 
of St Sophia, II 141 n. i. 

Marcian, the column of, IV 
292 n. 3. 

Mardin, II 260; III 312. 

Maria, danghter of Maurice, 
I 321. 

Maritze, river, II 251 n. 3; 

IV 305. 

Marmora, the Sea of, II 43 
n. i. 

Maronites, the, V 103 n. 2. 

Mars, I 297 n. 4; II 125 n. 
!> 373 n. 3; III 147 n. 4, 148 
n. 2, 176 n. 5. 

Mariit, IV 156 n. 2. See 
Harut and Marut. 

Mary, the Virgin, III 308 
n. 6. 

Mas c udi, III 280 n. 2. 

Maurice, the Caesar, I 321. 

Mazdak, II 63 n. 4. 

Mazenderan, I 277. 

Me c ali Bey, III 290. 

Meda'in, I 270, 272, 316 sqq. 

Medina, I 216 n. 2; II 317 ; 
III 265 n. 3, 320 n. 4, 326, 
327 n. 3; IV 220, 351; V 

93 n. 4- 

Mediterranean Sea, the, IV 
114 n. 3. 

Mehabad, Castle of, III 36 1 . 

Mehdf, the, II 57 n. 4; III 
214 n. 2, 215 n. 2. 

Mehemed a Akif Pasha. See 
"Akif Pasha. 

Mehemed Efendi, the 
Sheykh of Islam, III 267. 

Mehemed Pasha, the Geor- 
gian, UI 254. 

Mehemmed Bey, II 353. 

Mehemmed the Conqueror. 
See Mehemmed II. 

Mehemmed the Conqueror, 
Mosque of, III 133, 135, 172. 

Mehemmed Edib, IV 161 
n. 2. 

Mehemmed Emm Bey, I 
134 n. i. 

Mehemmed Esrar Dede. See 
Esrar Dede. 

Mehemmed Fu D ad Bey, II 3 1 . 

Mehemmed Pasha, I 98 n. 2. 

Mehemmed Pasha, ambas- 
sador, IV 79. 

Mehemmed Pertev Efendi. 
See Pertev Efendi. 



Mehemmed, Prince, son of 
Bayezi'd I, I 250. 

Mehemmed Raghib Pasha. 
See Raghib Pasha. 

Mehemmed Rashid Efendi, 
the Re 3 is-ul-Kuttab,I V i 64, 1 67. 

Mehemmed Sa c id Imam- 
zade, Seyyid, IV 140 sqq. 

Mehemmed Sa c id Ziver, 
Seyyid, IV 352. 

Mehemmed Shems-ud-Din, 

I 232 n. 2, 

Mehemmed Sherif Efendi, 
IV 151. 

Mehemmed Shevqi, IV 92. 

Mehemmed, Sheykh, son of 
Salah-ud-Din the Scribe. See 
Yaziji-oghli Mehemmed. 

Mehemmed I, Sultan, I 250, 

261 n. i, 301, 302, 413 n. i ; 

II 74 n. i, 77 n. i. 
Mehemmed II, Sultan, I 229, 

262 n. 2, 312, 381, 401, 416 
n. i, 417 n. i; II 21 sqq., 31, 
34, 40, 42, 44, 45 n. i, 47, 
49' Si 5 8 > 6 4 n. 2, 70 n. i, 
72, 73, 84, 9597, no, in 
114 n. 3, 135, 138, 139, 192, 
258, 263, 264 n. i, 267 n. 2, 
289, 364, 371, 377 379>398; 

III 41, 172, 199 n. i, 214 n. 

i> 325- 

Mehemmed III, Sultan 1 
417 n. i ;III 135, 165, 170,205. 

Mehemmed IV, Sultan, I 
357; III 302, 312, 325. 

Mehemmed Veled Chelebi. 
See Veled Chelebi. 

Mehin Bami, 1315,316, 320. 

Mejdf, 1 139 n. 7; III 233. 

Mejniin, I 220 n. I ; II 12, 
175 sqq., 211 sqg., 222 n. 7, 
247 n. 4, 281 n. 3 and 5, 
356 n. 2; HI 10 n. 2, 66 n. 

2, 93 n. 3, 100, 101 n. 3, 103 
n. i, 123, 236, 311 n. 2, 359; 
IV 29 n. i, 204 n. 2, 306 seq., 
314 n. 3, 343 n. i. 

Me D juj (Magog), I 287 n. i. 

Mekka, I 37, 170 n. i, 224 
n. i, 261 n. i, 281 ; II 25 n. 
5, 59 n. 2, 72 n. 7, 74, 87 n. 

3, 91 n. 2, 1 10 n. 2, 118 n. 
3, 178, 217 n. 3, 317, 319, 
386 n. 9; III 39, 115 n. 2, 
125, 135, 294, 326, 327 n. 3; 
IV 65 n. 4, 108, 1 1 1 n. 3, 212, 
305, 324, 327; V 92 n. 5, 
106 n. 5. 

Melatiya. See Malatia. 

Melek Qadin, II 286. 

Melihf, II 42 n. i. 

Melik Shah, I 269. 

Melioranski, M., I 213 n. i, 
222 n. i. 

Melitene, IV 66 n. 3. 

Memduh Bey, III 82; IV 

Memluks, of Egypt, the, II 
391; HI 42. 

Memluk Sultans, the, I 205, 
207, 346. 

Menteshe, I 142, 249; IV 
176 n. 3. 

Menzil-i Hashmet (Hash- 
met's Range), IV 141. 


Mer c ash, I 204, 206 ; IV 242, 
243, 258 n. 2. 

Merdumf, II 227 n. i. 

Merij, river, II 251 n. 3. 

Merjan Yoqushu (Coral Rise), 
a place in Constantinople, III 
184 n. 6. 

Merjumek Ahmed ibn-Ilyas, 
III 334 n. i. 

Merv, I 278. 

Merve, II 87 n. 3. 

Merwanlll, Umayyad Caliph, 
III 365 n. i. 

Meryem (Maria), I 321. 

Merzuban, King of Tus, III 
359 seq. 

Meshach, V 94 n. 6. 

Mesih, personal name of 
Mesihi, II 226. 

Mesihi, I 107 ; II 16, 17, 
226 sqq., 266, 321 n. 2, 326; 
III 49, 181, 182; IV 182,228. 

Mesihi of Azerbayjan, III 

Mes c ud, a lawyer, III 276. 

Mevlana Jelal-ud-Din. See 
Jelal-ud-Din Rumi. 

Mevlana Kestelli, II 30 n. 2. 

Mevlevi Convent at Galata, 
the, IV 305 n. i, 336. 

Mihr-u-Mah, personal name 
of Mihn Khatun, II 124 n. i. 

Mihr Shah, III 221 n. 2. 

Mihran Efendi, V 18. 

Mihri Khatun, II 123 sqq., 


Millevoye, IV 329. 
Milton, I 1 1 6, 404. 

Mir c Ali Shfr Newa'f. See 

Mir Selman (Sulman), I 264, 
265, 285, 297, 429. 

Mir Suleyman, I 269 n. i. 

Mirabeau, V 57. 

Mfri Efendi, II 52, 53 n. i, 
94, 95, 109, 141. 

Mirza Habib, author oiKhatt 
u Khattdtdn, II 335 n, 7; III 
220 n. 2, 273 n. i. 

Mirza Nasir, IV 247 n. i. 

Mirza-zade Mehemmed, IV 

Mirza-zade Muhammed E- 
fendi, name of Salim, III 202. 

Misr, denoting either Egypt 
or Cairo, III 16 n. 2. 

Misri, pen-name, III 315, 
316 n. 5. 

Misri Efendi, III 302, 312 

Mitylene, III 295. 

Moldavia, IV 356 n. 2; V 
97 n. 2. 

Moldavians, the, IV 228. 

Moliere, V 14, 15, 56, 59. 

Molla Idris, I 206 n. 2. See 
Idris, Monla. 

Molla Kurani ward of Con- 
stantinople, IV 213. 

Monastir, II 282, 370; III 


Mongols, the, II 291 n. 2; 
V 94 n. 5. 

Montague, Lady Mary Wort- 
ley, IV 12. 

Montenegro, V 97 n. 2, 105. 



Moore, Thomas, III 14 n. 2 ; 
IV 265 n. 3. 

Morali-zade Hamid Efendi, 
IV 342. 

Morea, the, III 326; IV 125 
n. 3. 

Morocco, IV 228. 

Moscow, I 222 n. 2. 

Moses, I 156, 162, 168,233 
n. 4, 366 n. i, 372 n. 3,376; 
II 316 n. 6; III 66 n. 6; IV 
85 n. 2, 104 n. i, 

Mosque of the Three Gal- 
leries, the, I 382. 

Mosul, II 260, 267 n. i ; IV 

Mouradjea D D Ohsson. See 

Mu c awiya, I 216 n. 3 ; II 82 
n. i; III 301 n. 3; V 93 n. 
4, 106 n. 5. 

Mueyyed-zade c Abd-ur- 
Rahman Chelebi, II 29 sqq., 
48 n. 2, 96 98, 124, 126, 
129, 266, 270, 272, 273 n. 2, 
276, 318 n. 3, 350seq., 364 n. 
I ; III 47, 48, 116. 

Mu D eyyed-zade c Abdi Che- 
lebi, II 318. 

Mughla, IV 176 n. 3. 

Muhammed. See also under 
Mehemmed and Mehemed. 

Muhammed, the Prophet, I 
17 n. i, 170 n. 3, 209 n. 2, 2i6n. 
2,232248, 255, 280, 363 n. 5, 
366, 373, 374, 376, 379 n. i, 
396, 399401, 403; II 22, 4 1, 
57 n. 4, 59 n. 7, 68 n. i, 98 

n. 2, 150, 175, 190, 191, 193, 
197, 210 n. 2, 217 sqq., 239 
n. i and 2, 254 n. 5, 274 n. i, 
276 n. i, 287, 340 n. i, 390; 
III 54, 90, 105 n. 2, 113 n. i, 
123, 191 n. 2, 193, 194 n. i, 
195 sqq,. 215 n. 2 and 6, 291 
n. i, 299, 301 n. 3, 319, 320 
seq., 332, 336; IV 19, 22seq., 
85 n. i, 90, 107, inn. 2 and 
9, 147, 182, 190, 210 n. 3, 218, 
246 n. 2, 321 n. 2, 351 ; V 
49, 78, 9294. 

Muhammed, personal name 
of Beha'i, III 294. 

Muhammed, personal name 
of Fazlf, III 108. 

Muhammed, name of Gha- 
zali of Brusa, III 37. 

Muhammed, personal name 
of Khayali, III 59. 

Muhammed, personal name 
of Niyazi, III 312. 

Muhammed, name of Riza, 
III 202. 

Muhammed, personal name 
of Sunbul-zade Vehbi, IV 242. 

Muhammed, son of Sultan 
Ibrahim, III 252. 

Muhammed ibn Ali al-Bi- 
qa c f, III 162 n. 4. See c Ashiq 

Muhammed c Ali Pasha of 
Egypt, III 312 n. i ; V 104 n. i. 

Muhammed Bey, name of 
Khaqani, III 193. 

Muhammed Efendi, perso- 
nal name of Talib, III 323. 


Muhammed Es c ad. SeeGha- 
lib, Sheykh. 

Muhammed, Prince, son of 
Suleyman I, III 10, n, 108, 
109, 126. 

Muhammed Rashid. See 

Muhammed ibn-Rize (Riza) 
ibn-Muhammed el-Huseyni, 
IV 233 n. 3. 

Muhammed ibn Suleyman, 
name of Fuzuli, III 71. 

Muhi-ud-Din ibn c Arebi, I 
60 n. 2, 406. 

Muhi-ud-Din Mehemmed 
bn-el-Khatib Qasim, II 191 
n. 3; III 162 n. 4. 

Muhibbi, pen-name of Su- 
leyman I, I 417 n. I ; III 8, 
10 n. i. 

Muhitf, III 218. 

Muhtasham of Kashan, IV 
1 20. 

Mu c idi, I 311 n. 2; III 133, 
1 60. 

Mu c idf-zade, I 311 n. 2. 
Mukhlis, Sheykh, 1 176 178. 

Mukhlisi, pen-name, IIIn. 

Mumtaz Efendi, V 100 n. 3. 

Munif, III 329, 332; IV 68 
sqq., 118, 143; V 100 n. 2. 

Munif Pasha, V 7. 

Munkar, name of an angel, 
IV 297 n. 2. 

Munqad, King of Merv, III 
360 seq. 

Munzir, Prince, of Hira, III 

al-Muqanna c (the Veiled Pro- 
phet), IV 265 n. 3. 

Murad Khan Ghazi, I 343. 
Murad Pasha, Grand Vezir, 
III 267. 

Murad Re D is, IV 140. 

Murad I, Sultan, I 17911. i 
and 3, 204, 206 n. 2, 226, 249, 
260, 262, 264, 336, 343; II 
394; III 129. 

Murad, II, Sultan, I 232 n. 
3, 261 n. i, 299 n. i, 303, 
312314, 343, 382 n. 2,401, 
413 n. I, 415, 416, 417 sqq., 
431; II 22, 41, 42, 366, 377; 
III 334 n. i; V 13 n. i. 

Murad III, Sultan, I 82 n. 
i, 164 n. i, 417 n. i; 164 n. 
I, 417 n. i; III 8, 134, 165, 
167, 169 sqq., 175, 190 n. 4, 
198, 199, 221. 

Murad IV, Sultan, I 417 n. 
i; III 140, 165, 166, 205207, 
210, 233, 245, 248 sqq., 252 
seq., 264, 268, 269 n. 2, 273 
sqq., 288, 290, 294, 303 n. i. 

Murad V, Sultan, V 16. 

Murad, Sultan, the Mosque 
of, II 82. 

Muradi, pen-name of Murad 
III, I 417 n. i. 

Muradiya mosque, II 47. 

Musa, author of the Jdmesb- 
Ndme, I 431. 

Musa, Prince, son of Baye- 
zid I, I 250. 

Musalla, at Shiraz, IV 12. 

Musannifek, I 406. 



Museum, the British. See 
British Museum. 

Mushku, Mushkuy, palace 
of, I 317 seq. 

Muslih-ud-Din-i Qastalani, 
II 30. 

Mustafa (Elect), a name of 
the Prophet, I 209 n. 2, 244 
n. i; II 92 n. 3, 218 n. 3; 
IV 53 n. i. 

Mustafa, personal name of 
c Azizi, III 1 80. 

Mustafa, personal name of 
Nazim, III 319. 

Mustafa ibn "Abdullah, I 
182 n. 6. 

Mustafa Efendi, molla, IV 66. 

Mustafa Efendi, qadi- c asker, 
IV 30. 

Mustafa Efendi, personal 
name of Munif, IV 68. 

Mustafa Efendi, name of Sa- 
fa D i, III 202. 

Mustafa Fazil Pasha, V 10, 
61 seq., 76, 98 n. i, 104 n. i. 

Mustafa Mazhar, IV 324. 

Mustafa Pasha, III 325, 326, 

332, 342- 

Mustafa Pasha, Grand Ad- 
miral, IV 12, 50, 54. 

Mustafa, Prince, son ofMu- 
rad III, III 172. 

Mustafa, Prince, son ofSu- 
leyman I, III 7, 10, n, 64, 
108 no, 119, 130. 

Mustafa Reshid Efendi, IV 

Mustafa Sami Bey. See Sami. 

Mustafa I, Sultan, I 417 n. 
I ; III 165, 205 207. 

Mustafa II, Sultan, I4i7n. 
I ; III 302. 

Mustafa III, Sultan, I 417 
n. i; IV 94, 146, 243. 

al-Musta c sim, c Abbasid Ca- 
liph, IV 42 n. 3; V 94 n. 5. 

Muta, I 216 n. 2. 

Mutahhara Khatun, I 423 

Mutanabbi, II 212 n. 3, 299 
n. 3. 

Muterjim c Asim, V 15 n. 2. 
See c Asim Efendi, translator 
of the Qdmus. 

Mysia, I 141. 

Mysri. See Misri Efendi. 

Nabi, I 108, 109, 122, 123, 
129, 130; III 14 n. 2, 142, 
205, 206, 208 n. i, 245, 246, 
248, 259, 302, 305, 323, 325 
sqq., 349, 351354, 37; IV 
6, 1517, 58, $9, 61, 67,69, 
75, 87, 89, 92, 9597, 109, 
119, 143, 164, 183, 185, 190 
sqq., 196, 246, 251, 254 seq., 
259, 275 n. 3 ; V 80, 82, 107 
n. 4. 

Nablus, II 155. 

Nadiri, IV 20. 

Nahid, II 6 1 n. 3. See Zuhre. 

Nahifi, III 58, 78 sqq. 

Na D ilf, III 206, 302, 303, 
304 sqq., 350; IV 133: 

Na c ima, V 15 n. 2. 

Naji, Professor, I 419; II 



55; III 9 n. 2, 50, 53,62,67, 
82, 162 n. 4, 175, 193, 203, 
222, 226, 237, 260, 273 n. i, 
294 n. i, 299, 305, 306; IV 
18, 69, 79, 81, 86, 91,98,99, 
101 n. i, no, 118, 151, 154, 
165, 185, 208, 213, 215, 223, 
248, 260, 266 n. i, 271, 281, 


Nakhjuvan, the fortress of, 
HI 358. 

Nakhsheb, IV 265 n. 3. 

Nami, III 134. 

Namiq Kemal Bey, I 132. 
See Kemal Bey. 

Naples, II 77, 81. 

Naples, the King of, II 77. 

Naqiyya, IV 349 seq. 

Naqqash, surname of c Ali 
the grandfather of Lami c i, III 

Naqqash Bayram, II 95 n. 

3, 98. 

Naqshbendi order of der- 
vishes, II 374, 375; III 20, 
312; IV 90, 92, 214. 

Naqshi Chelebi, II 95. 

Nasir-i Khusraw, IV 330 n. i . 

Nasfr-ud-Din of Tus, V 94 
n. 5. 

Nasfr-ud-Din Bey, I 206. 

Nasr-ud-Din, Khoja, IV 275 
n. 3, 276 n. i. 

Nasuh, grandfather of Nev c f, 
III 172. 

Naz-Peri, Princess, III 366. 

. Nazim, I 119 n. 4; III 291, 

319 sqq. ; IV 8, 60, 90, 1 1 5 n. 2. 

Nazir Chelebi, II 49. 

Nazmi, anthologist, III 203, 

Nazmi-zade Murteza, III 334 
n. i. 

Nebfd, name of a charac- 
ter, III 89. 

Nebil Bey, IV 349. 

Nedfm, I 83, 97, 115; III 
14 n. 3, 78, 141, 205, 206, 
224, 226, 236, 257, 262, 278, 
279, 327; IV 3, 13, 14, 19,29 
sqq., 59, 60,75,89, 107109, 
113, 117119, 123, 131 n. 8, 

I33> 135, 143, H4, i/5> 185, 
218, 259, 268; V 15 n. 2. 

Nef c i, I 84, 86, 103, 114, 
129; III 14 n. 3,81, 141, 165, 
166, 175, 205, 206, 226 n. i, 
245 sqq., 252 sqq., 278, 279, 
284, 286, 296, 299, 305, 326, 

327, 3 2 9> 333, 334, 33^, 349, 
350; IV 6, 31, 32, 35,61,87, 
143, 175, 182, 185, 197, 259, 
272, 341, 355; V 10, 12, 57, 
69, 80. 

Neffse Qadin, IV 267. 

Nejati, I 416; II 34, 52, 53 
n. I, 56 sqq., 93 sqq., 123, 
127, 131, 141, 172 n. 3, 229, 
230 n. i, 288, 319 n. 2, 323, 
366; III 7, 53, 63; V8o,82. 

Nejati Sun c isi, II 99 n. i. 

Nejd, II 177, 179, 1 84 sqq. 

Nejef, III 191 n. 2. 

Nejjar-zade, IV 90. 

Nejjar-zadeSheykh Mustafa 
Riza. See Riza, Sheykh. 


Nejmi Chelebi, II 271. 

Nekir, name of an angel, 
IV 297 n. 2. 

Nergisi, III 208; IV 254, 
352; V 1 6. 

Nerkis, name of a slave-girl, 
IV 94 n. i. 

Nesh D et, Khoja, IV 176, 197, 
207, 211 sqq., 276 n. 3. 

Nesim, name of a place, I 


Nesimi, I 211, 253 n. 2, 300, 
336, 341, 343 sqq., 369, 376, 
380, 383, 384 n. 3, 387,413; 
II 14, 17, 52, 104511145,315 
n. 2 ; IV 1 68 n. 5, 341 n. 2. 

Nesli, II 253 n. 2. 

Nesrin-nush, Princess, III 

Nestor, a monk, I 320. 

Nevfel, II 1 80 sqq., 211. 

Nev c i, III 136, 137 n. i, 
165, 167, 171 sqq., 232. 

Nev c i-zade c Ata 3 i, III 171, 
232. See c Ata D i. 

Nevres, IV 107, 133 sqq., 
140, 144, 145. 

Nevres-i Qadim, IV 136. 

Newa D i, I 127 129, 212, 
285 n. i ; II 8, 10,11,40,41, 
48, 52, 53, 148 n. 2, 365; III 

2 7> 7 6 >79> 8 7> l6l > 2 37 n - i 
248, 325; IV 99, 192; V 32, 
79, 81. 

Neylf, III 38, 58, 86 sqq., 
101 n. 3, 107, 143. 

Nice, II 77 sqq., 92 n. 4; 
IV 306; V 27, 

Nicholay, Nicholas, I 356, 


Nicholson, R. A., I 53 n. 

1 , 146 n. 2, 1 69 n. I ; III 293 n. i . 

Nicopolis, II 286. 

Nicosia, III 287 n. i. 

Nida D i, III 133, 160. 

Nigari, III 133, 160. 

Nigisa, the maid of Shirin, 
I 320, 323, 324. 

Nihali Chelebi, III 42. 

Nile, the, II 156, 360 n. 7. 

Ni c met-ullah of Khonaz, II 
148 n. 2. 

Ni c meti, II 148 n. 2. 

Nimrod, II 253 n. 7, 339 
n. 5 ; IV 63 n. 4; V 94 n. 6. 

Nishanji Mesjidi (the Nis- 
hanji's Mosque), II 269. 

Nishanji Pasha, the, III 91. 

Nfshapur, I I79n. i ; II 287, 
292; III 37 n. 2, 335 n. 1,370. 

Nissa, IV 259. 

Niyazi, also known as Misri 
Efendi, III 302, 312 sqq. 

Niyazi, the earliest Ottoman 
lyric writer, I 210, 211, 228, 
253; II 58 n. i. 

Nizam-ul-Mulk, II 63 n. 4. 

Nizami, I 126, 144, 145, 268, 

303, 30 6 > 309 3 n 324, 443> 
446; II 8 10, 148 n. 2, 173, 
174, 190, 215 n. 3, 292, 376 
n. i, 377; III 22, 28, 86, 87 
n. i, 88, 89, 1 60, 1 66, 234, 
236, 238, 328, 336, 353, 365, 
370; IV 151, 182 n. i, 189, 
192, 193 n. i, 195. 


Nizami-i c Aruzi, II 20 ; III 
22 n. i. 

Nizami of Qonya, II 371. 
Noah, I 37, 219 n. i and 2, 

3/6, 389- 

Nour Sofi, I 178 n. i. 

Nuh, asserted by some to 
be the name of Nejati, II 56, 
94 seq. 

Nuh Quyusi (Noah's Well), 

IV 351- 

Nu c man, King of Hira, III 


Nu c man-i Naz, Princess, III 

Niiri, editor of Kani 3 s Di- 
wdn, IV 164, 176 n. 2. 

Nun Bey, IV 176, 179 n. 
2.. 185, 349; V 61. 

Nur-ud-Din, personal name 
of Ezheri, I 414. 

Nur-ud-Din, Sufi, I 177, 178 
n. i. 

Nur-ud-Din c Ali of Cairo, II 
113 n. 6. 

Nuru'llah, III 363. 

Nushirvan, Nushirewan, I 
270 n. i, 314 n. i, 315; II 
63 n. 4; III 22 n. i, 49, 198 
n. 5. 

Occleve, V 6. 

Ofen, III 34. 

Olympus, the Bithynian, II 
47; III 38. 

c Oman, the Sea of, II 39 
n. 2. 

c Omar-i Khayyam, I 89 ; II 

332 n. 2; III 224, 226; IV 
157 n. 3. 

c Omer, the Caliph, II 150; 
III 266 n. 7; IV in n. 2; 

V 93- 

c Omer, name of Nefi, III 

c Omer, name of a slave-boy, 
V 42. 

c Omer Fa D iz Efendi, V 98 
n. i. 

c Omer of Maghnisa, Sheykh, 

II 148 n. 2. 

c Omer Pasha, IV 243 seq. 

c Orfa, II 260. 

Orkhan, Sultan, I 11, 178, 
179 n. i, 249, 262 n. 2,411, 
429; II 46, 47, 228 n. i, 348 
n. 2, 394; III 38, 41; IV 141 
n. i. 

Orkhan, Sultan, College of, 
at Izniq, III 41. 

Ormuzd, V 89 n. 2. 

Orontes, the river, IV 147 
n. 2. 

c Osman, the Caliph, II 150; 

V 93- 

c Osman, father of Lami c i, 

III 20. 

c Osman, name of Ruhi, III 
1 86. 

c Osman, province, I 141. 

c Osman Efendi, father of 
Sami, IV 58. 

c Osman Efendi of Yeni- 
Shehr, IV 243 seq. 

c Osman Nevres Efendi, IV 
4, 136. 



c Osman Pasha, the Lame, 
IV 125 n. 3. 

c Osman, Prince, SonofMu- 
rad III, III 172. 

c Osman, Seyyid, personal 
name of Suriiri, IV 266. 

c Osman, the Son of = Baye- 
zid I, I 207. 

c Osman, Sultan, I 10, 141, 
178, 226, 249, 417; II 148 n. 
2, 260, 394; III 4, 38, 135, 
167, 207, 212, 252; IV 268. 

c Osman II, Sultan, I 417 n. 
I ; III 165, 204 n. i, 205 208, 
219, 252. 

c Osmanjiq, II 138. 

c Osman-zade Ta D ib, IV 103 
n. 4. 

Oxus, the, I 220 n. 2, 432. 
See Jeyhun. 

Paleologi, the, IV 311. 

Palmer, Professor E. H., IV 
84 n. 2. 

Pamphylia, I 142. 

Paphlagonia, I 142. 

Parga, III 5. 

Paris, V 9, 24 n. I, 25, 27, 
61, 62. 

Pasha Chelebi, II 128 n. 2. 

Pa vet de Courteille, II 358 
n. 2; III 335. 

Payne, John, I 89 n. I, 432 
n. i, 439 n. i ; II 280 n. 6, 
331 n. i, 333 n. 5. 

Pechin, II 52 n. i. 

Pembe, name of a girl, IV 
304 n. 5. 

Pembe. Khanim, IV 293 n. i. 

Pera, IV 301 n. 3. 

Perezin, III 162 n. 4. 

Persia, III 207 n. i ; IV 228. 

Persians, the IV 234. 

Pertev Efendi, IV 197, 207, 
213, 216, 218 seq. 

Pertev Pasha, IV 219,322, 
325 seq., 328 seq., 332 sqq. 

Perwana, King, III 57. 

Pesheng, III 269 n. 3. 

Peter the Great, III 326; 
IV 24. 

Peterwaradin, IV 37. 

Peyami, III 190 n. 4. 

Pharaoh, II 159 n. I; III 
214 n. 4. 

Philadelphia, III 208. 

Philippine-Helene of Sasse- 
nage, II 80. 

Philippopolis College, the, 

II 349-. 

Philo, I 42 n. i. 
Phrygia, I 142. 
Phrygia Epictetus, I 141. 
Piers the Plowman, III 211. 
Pir, name of a physician, 

III 358 sqq. 

Pir c Alf, Sheykh, III 172. 

Pir Ilyas, II 124 n. i. 

Pir Muhammed, personal 
name of c Ashiq Chelebi, III 7. 

Piri Pasha, III 47. 

Piron, IV 163; V 57. 

Pishdadi dynasty, the, II 
71 n. i. 

Pisidia, I 142. 

Piyala, Admiral, III 160. 



Piyala Bey, III 37. 

Plato, I 55, 266, 270, 271, 
283, 389. 

Platts, J., Ill 136 n. i. 

Plotinus, I 42 n. i. 

Podolia, III 327 n. 2. 

Poland, IV 228. 

Ponsonby, Lord, IV 326. 

Portugal, IV 265 n. 6. 

Potiphar, I 168 n. I ; II 64 
n. i, 157; III 157; III 15. 

Potiphar's wife, i.e. Zelikha, 

II 143- 

Price, William, II 287 n. i. 

Printing-Office, the Imperial, 
V 17 seq. 

Prishtina, II 226. 

Prisrend, II 375. 

Provence, I 446; II 79. 

Pruth, the river, III 326. 

Psyche, I 42 n. 3. 

Ptolemy, I 69. 

Pulci, Luigi, III 96 n. i. 

Puttenham, IV 273 n. i. 

Qa D ani, III 248 n. i, 325 n. 
i; IV 6 n. i. 

Qabuli, III 226 n. i. 

Qabus, Prince, III 334. 

Qadi-K6y, I 392. 

Qadri Efendi, III 47, 49, 
72, 118. 

Qaf, Mount, I 37 seq., 170, 
434 seq.; II 280 n. 5, 298, 
306; III 67 n. 7, 358, 360; 
IV 53 n. 3- 

Qafes (Cage), name of a 
pavilion, III 173. 

Qaf-zade Fa'izf, II 172 n. 
3; III 140, 203, 204,223,226 
n. i, 233; IV 143. 

Qahraman, III 149 n. 6. 

Qalender Yusuf-i Endelusi, 

I 357 n - I- 

Qalenderis, Qalenders, order 
of the, I 357 n. i ; II n6n. 
3, 386 n. 3. 

Qalender-Khane College, 
the, II 30. 

Qalender-oghli, III 222. 

Qalqandelen, III 160. 

Qalyonji Qullighi, name of 
a quarter, IV 301 n. 3. 

Qanariya (Canary), name of 
a dancing-boy, IV 236. 

Qandarush, I 279. 

Qandi, II 73. 

Qandilli, V 42 44. 

Qandillili Ahmed Bey, V43- 

Qanlija Bay, III 295. 

Qansuh el-Ghuri, Sultan, II 

39 r - 

Qanuni (Lawgiver), surname 

of Suleyman I, III 8. 

Qaplija (Qapluja), in Brusa, 

II 319. 

Qaplija College, at Brusa, 
the, III 41. 

Qapujilar Odasi (the Cham- 
berlains 3 Room), II 45 n. i. 

Qara Bali Efendi, III 40. 

QaraFazli, III loS.SeeFazlf. 

Qara-Ferya, II 30, 289. 

Qara-Iluk, Qara-Yuluk (the 
Black Leech), surname, I 206 
n. i. 




Qara- c Osman, I 206. 

Qara-Qoyunlu (Black Sheep) 
dynasty, I 204. 

Qaraman, province, I 142, 
1 66 n. 5, 177 n. 5, 178, 184, 
228, 249, 256 n. 4, 413, 415, 
418; II 6, 21, 23, 70, 72, 74, 
75, 8284, 96, ii7n. 3, 356; 
III 36 n. i. 

Qaraman, town, I 151 n. i. 

Qaraman, son of Nur-ud- 
Di'n, I 177, 178 n. i. 

Qaramam-zade Mehemmed 
Efendi, I 86; III 133, 172. 

Qarasi, province, I 141, 249; 
III 47. 

Qarchi, IV 265 n. 3. 

Qaren, III 301 n. 3. 

Qasim Bey, II 74 seq. 

Qasim Pasha, place, IV 301 
n. 3. 

Qasim-ul-Anwar, IV 170 
n. 5. 

Qasr-i Shirin (Castle-Shirin), 

I 318 n. i ; IV 55 n. i. 
Qassab, father of Mahmud 

Pasha, I 402 n. i. 

Qassab G Ali, I 390, 402 n. i. 
Qastamuni, I 164, 415, 442 ; 

II 70, 94, 107 sqq., 135, 267 
n. 2, 368, 387; III 7, 161. 

Qavsi of Tebriz, III 107. 

Qays, personal name of Mej- 
nun, II 175 sqq.; Ill 103 n. 
i ; IV 29 n. i, 204 n. 2. See 

Qaysariya, I 205,249,383; 
V 45- 

Qayt Bay, the Sultan of 

* II 74 seq. 
Qayzafa or Qaydafa, Queen, 

I 278 seq.; II 270. 
Qaziqji-Yegeni, IV 253 n. 

i, 262 n. 5. 

Qazi-zade, III 133. 

Qazwini, geographer, I 274 
n. i, 392, 406. 

Qinali-zade c Ali, I 41 n. I ; 

II 45, 47, 94, 106; III 199, 

2OO, 222. 

Qinali-zade Hasan, I 41 n. 
i; II 475 HI 7> 8 > 13,24,25, 
33, 3537, 4i n. 3, 43, 45, 
47, 50, 52, 54, 58, 59,62,73, 
7 6 , 77, 79, 8 9, 9, I09 IIO 
I2 7, r 35, J 3 8 , X 44, l6 o, 161, 
165, 171 173, 180, 181, 186, 
199 seq., 274, 277, 279. See 
Hasan Chelebi. 

Qirimi Rahmi, IV 73. 

Qir-Shehri, I 178, 179, 181 
n. 4, 184, 185. 

Qirq Cheshme (Forty Foun- 
tains), a district of Constan- 
tinople, II 319. 

Qitfir (Potiphar), II 157; 

III 15. 

Qitinir, V 79. 
Qiz- c Alf, II 252 n. 5. 

Qiz Qullasi (the Maiden To- 
wer), IV 241 n. i. 

Qiz Tashi (the Maiden's Pil- 
lar), IV 292 n. 3. 

Qizil Ahmedli, province, I 
142, 164, 249, 415 n. 1,418; 
II 21, 23. 


Qochi Bey, V 15 n. 2. 

Qoja Raghib, IV 92. See 
Raghib Pasha. 

Qonya, I 10, 145, 146, 150, 
151, 178 n. i, 185, 422; II 
6, 52 n. i, 71, 72, 74, 75,97 
n. 2, 356 n. i, 371; III 11, 
187, 211, 218; IV 15,80, 177, 
212, 305 n. i ; V 64. See 

Qorqad, Prince, III 37 seq. 

Qosqa quarter of Constan- 
tinople, IV 95, 101 n. i, 349 
n. 2. 

Qostantaniyya, name of 
Constantinople, III 214 n. i. 

Queen of the Serpents, the, 

I 432. 

Qumar, III 32 n. 4. 
Qureysh, the Prophet's tribe, 
IV in n. 9. 

Qutb-ud-Din, II 349 n. 3. 
Quzghunjuq, IV 351. 

Rabelais, IV 163, 271. 
Rabi c a, I 53 n. 2. 
Rachel, II 151, 155. 
Racine, V 32. 
Raghib Pasha, I 98 n. 2; 

II 18; III 329; IV 58, 92 sqq., 
107, 119, 134, 135, 143, 147, 


Rahimi, III 133, 160. 

Rahmi, IV 58, 73. 

Ra 3 ij, Island of, I 274. 

Ra c il, III 15 n. i. 

Rakhsh, the charger of Rus- 
tem, III 152 n. i. 

Ramazan, personal name of 
Fighanf, III 34. 

Ramin. See Visa and Rd- 

Ramin Shah, III 361. 

Ramla, I 53 n. 2. 

Rashid, the historian, III 

313 n. i, 329; IV 12, 58,66 

sqq-, 75, 135, 143- 

Rashid Efendi, father of 
Sunbul-zade Vehbi, IV 242. 

Rasikh, poet, III 323. 

Ratib Efendi, IV 222, 232 

Ravza, the, at Medina, III 
320 n. 4. 

Rawha, Arabic name of 
Edessa, III 325 n. 2. 

Raziya, Island of, I 274. 

Red Sea, the, III 300 n. 2. 

Redhouse, Sir J. W., I 145 
n. 2; III 18; IV 285 n. i, 

314 n. 4. 

Refi c a Efendi, I V 2 1 1 seq. 

Refi c i, I 336, 341,344,351, 
369 sqq., 424 n. 2. 

Refiqi, Monla, II 355. 

Renan, V 24. 

Reshad Bey, V 22. 

Reshid Bey, V 24. 

Reshid Efendi, father of 
Sunbul-zade Vehbi, IV 242. 

Reshid Pasha, IV 326 seq. ; 
V 15 n. 2, 24, 25, 57, 60. 

Resmi, II 368. 

Reuben, II 152. 

Rewani, II 317 sqq., 367, 



Reyyan, King of Egypt, II 
157, 168, 171. 

Rhodes, II 76, 77, 79; III 
28 n. i, 253; IV 140, 222, 
245, 249, 250; V 15, 16. 

Rieu, D r . Charles, I 181, 
431 n. 2; II 261 n. i ; III 51 
n. i, 226 n. 2. 

Rif c at Bey, V 61. 

Rif c at Efendi, I 381 n. 2. 

Riyazi, I 139, 228, 231 n. 
i, 312, 384 n. 5; II 41, 45, 
46, 52, 95, 141, 226, 270, 272, 
277, 324 n. 3, 347 n. 2, 355, 
356 n. 2; III 7, 8, 180, 186, 
198, 200 seq., 245, 284 sqq. 

Riyazi Efendi, III 226 n. i. 

Riza, author of the Tez- 
kire, III 1 86, 200, 201 seq., 291. 

Riza Pasha, V 101 n. 4. 

Riza, Sheykh, IV 58, 89 sqq. 

Rizq-ullah Hasiin, V 103 n. 2. 

Rizwan, I 37, 245 n. 2, 297 
n. 3, 362 n. i, 364 n. 2,378; 
II 256 n. 2 ; III 3 oi n. I ; IV 
54 n. i, 115 n. 4. 

Rodosto, IV 15, 21, 305. 

Rome, I 149 n. I; II 8i; 
IV 25 n. 2, 265 n. 5. 

Romeo, I 220 n. i. 

Rope-dancer's Mosque, the, 
in Constantinople, IV 108. 

Rosenzweig-Schwannau, II 
89 n. 6. 

Rosetta, III 199. 

Rousseau, Jean Jacques, V 

42, 51. 59- 

Roxelana, III 6 n. i. 

Rufa c i dervish-order, the, IV 
322 n. 3. 

Ruhi, III 165, 167, 186 sqq., 
207, 299; IV 61, 65, 71, 89 
n. i. 

Ruknabad, IV 12. 

Rum (Asia Minor), I 10, 126, 
149 n. i, 177, 178, 226, 229, 

2 7> 2 79> 343; n 93> IO 4> 105, 
138, 158, 174,361 n. 7, 374; III 
266 n. 3. 

Rum, the King of, i. e., the 
Sultan of Turkey, III 44 n. 3. 

Rumeli Hisar, IV 351. 

Rumelia, I 228, 257, 412 n. 
2; II 24, 30, 264 n. i, 350, 

352, 3/0' 374, 395> 399; m 
7, 123, 172, 222,274, 294; IV 
151, 216 n. i, 228, 245,351 ; 
V 101 n. 4. 

Rumi Mevlana, IV 125 n. 
i. See Jelal-ud-Din Rumi. 

Rumilly, II 80. 

Riiqiya Khatun, I 283. 

Ruschuk, III 233. 

Russia, I 276; IV 146, 213, 
228, 250. 

Russians, the, IV 235. 

Rustem, I 269 n. i ; III 152 
n. i, 343 n. 3; IV 23 n. 2, 
48 n. 2, 136 n. 2 ; V 96 n. i. 

Rustem Pasha, III 6, 7, n, 
118 seq., 193. 

Rycaut, Sir Paul, I 356 359. 

es-Sa c b the Himyarite, III 
209 n. I. 

Sabit, I 1 10, 130; III 142, 


206; IV 3, 14 sqq., 59, 61, 
117, 119, 163, 182, 241 n. i, 
253, 259, 282; V 80. 

Sabqati, pen-name of Sul- 
tan Mahmud I, I 417 n. i. 

Sabri, III 245, 286 sqq. 

Sabuhi, III 226 n. i 

Sa c d of Herat, II 243 n. 6. 

Sa c d-abad, IV 12, 44 n. 2, 
45 n. 2. 

Sa c d-ud-Din, the Mufti, III 

Sa c d-ud-Din Efendi, histo- 
rian, I 164, 165, 205 208, 
384 n. 4; II 44 n. i, 72, 80, 
82, 84; III 172, 199,221, 274, 

Sa c d-ud-Din Mes c ud-i Tef- 
tazani. See Teftazani. 

Sa c di, Muslih-ud-Din, 1159 
n. 6, 191 n. i, 202, 431 n. 2; 
II 8, 43 n. 2, 46 n. 2, 55 n. 
4, 215 n. i, 254 n. 3, 357, 
378; III 109, 125, 136, 137 
n. i; IV 195, 259, 318 n. 5; 
V 53 n. i, 81. 

Sadi, brother ofJa c ferChe- 
lebi, II 263, 269, 271. 

Sa c di, one of Prince Jem's 
followers, II 7173, 78, 79, 
84, 90. 

Sad-ullah, personal name of 
Jem Sa c disi, II 72 n. 7. 

Sa c d-ullah, son of Sheykh 
Aq Shems-ud-Din, II 140 n. 2. 

Sa c d-ullah Pasha, V 15 n. 2. 

Sadr-ud-Dfn, Stiff Sheykh, 
II 227 n. 4. 

Safa, a hill near Mekka, II 
87 n. 3. 

Safa Bey, I 117. 

Safari, III 200, 202, 291, 

305, 3i3- 

Safed, IV 220 seq. 

Safevi Kings of Persia, the, 

II 227 n. 4, 259 n. 2; III 106. 
Safi, Shah, III 107. 
Safi-ud-Din, Sheykh, II 227 

n, 4. 

Safiyy-ullah, title of Adam, 

III 215 n. 10. 
Sagheri, II 370. 
Sahban, II 276. 

Sa'ib, I 5, 1305111248,325, 
328, 330, 337; IV 6, 58, 96, 
97, 106 n. i, 120, 143, 259. 

Sa D ib Bey, V 98 n. i. 

Sa c id, Persian poet, II 243 n. 6. 

Sa c id Bey, IV 336, 341 seq. 

Sa'ili, II 93. 

St. Peter's, in Rome, IV 25 
n. 2. 

S l . Petersburg, the Asiatic 
Museum of, I 157 n. i. 

St. Petersburgh, IV 250. 

St. Sophia, church of, II 197. 

St. Sophia, the Mosque of, 

II 22, 141, 142 n. i, 319; 

III 123. 
Sakha D i, II 73. 
Sakhr, II 39 n. i. 
Salah-ud-Dm, the Scribe, I 

389 sqq.; Ill 298. 

Salah-ud-Din, Sheykh, 1 390. 
Salah-ud-DmFeridun,1 151. 
Salankeman, III 303 n. i. 

I 5 8 


Salemann, C., I 157 n. i, 
158 n. 4, 161 n. 4. 

Salih Efendi, IV 304. 

Salih ibn-Jelal, II 172 n. 3, 

Saliha, Princess, IV 94. 

Salihiyya, III 41. 

Salim, biographer, III 200, 

Salonica, II 348 n. 2; III 294. 

Samarcand, I 278; III 20 
n. i ; IV 264 n. 2, 265 n. 7. 

Sami, I 119; III 1 88, 206, 
319, 329; IV 19, 58sqq., 118, 
143, 259; V 80, 92 n. 5. 

Sami Bey, I 177 n. 4, 222 
n. 2; III 41 n. 3. 

San c a, III 300. 

Sapor, I 315 n. 3. 

Saqariya, the river, I 165. 

Saqi (Cup-bearer), name of 
a character, III 89. 

Saqiz (Scio), IV 285 n. 2. 

Saqiz Adasi (Mastic Isle), 
a name for Scio, IV 1 1 3 n. 4. 

Sara, name of a young lady, 
IV 259. 

Sari 'Abdullah Efendi, IV 79. 

Sari-Bey-Oghli, IV 302 n. i. 

Sarija Kemal, II 368. 

Saru-Khan, I 142, 249; 1196. 

Sasanian dynasty, the, III 
148 n. 5 and 6, 265 n. 8, 266 

" 5, 354, 365- 

Sassenage, Castle of, II 80. 

Satan, I 159 n. 6, 362 n. 
6; II 67 n. 5, 154, 253 n. 3 
and 4, 329; III 339 n. i ; V 
92 n. i. See Iblis, 

Saturn, I 297 n. 4; III 147 
n. 4, 176 n. 4, 179 n. 2. 

Sava, II 291 n. 2. 

Saya Khan, I 319. 

Schefer, C., II 63 n. 4, 184. 

Scio, the Isle of, IV 113 
n. 4, 249, 285 n. 2, 302 
n. 5. 

Scutari, III 117 n. 2, 218, 
219, 326, 327 n. 3; IV 68, 69, 
73, 241 n. i, 244, 249, 351; 
V 107 n. 4. 

Sedd-i Iskender (Alexan- 
der's Dyke), IV 103 n. 3. See 
Gog and Magog, Dyke of. 

Sedd-i Ye'juj u Me'juj (the 
Dyke of Gog and Magog), IV 
103 n. 3. See Gog and Magog, 
Dyke of. 

Sehi Bey, I 139; II n, 
25 n. 3, 28 n. 2, 34, 35, 41, 
42 n. i, 44, 45 n. 2, 50 n. i, 
7 l ~ 73> 75 n. i, 78 n. 2, 84, 
86, 93> 95. 97 IO 4> i35> 136, 
147, 172 n. 3, 226, 230, 263 
n. i, 291 n. i, 293, 317, 318 
n. i, 321324, 347, 354,357 
n- 5, 367, 368, 370, 380 n. 3 ; 
III 7, 161. 

Selam of Baghdad, II 188. 

Selaman, III 354 sqq. See 
Seldmdn and Absdl. 

Selamit, Island of, I 275. 

Selefke, I 178 n. i. 

Selim, poet, IV 11.5 n. 2. 

Selim, uncle of Mejnun, II 

Selim Faris Efendi, V 62 n. i . 


Selfm Giray, Khan of the 
Crimea, IV 21. 

Selfm the Martyr. See Se- 
lim III, Sultan. 

Selfm, Prince, afterwards 
Selim I, II 257 seq., 318, 367. 

Selfm, Prince, afterwards 
Selfm II, III 8. 

Selfm I, Sultan, I 204 n. 2, 
257 n. i, 262 n. 2, 417 n. I ; 
II 29, 30, 86, 172 n. 3, 228, 
238, 257 sqq., 266 sqq., 276, 
277, 288, 290, 319, 320 n. 8, 
325, 329, 347, 352, 356, 358, 
364, 369, 370, 374 n. 2, 384, 
391, 395 ; III 12, 17, 25,4244, 
48, 49, 62 n. i, 86, 88, 160, 
162 n. 4, 167, 262; V 80. 

Selfm II, Sultan, I 257 n. 
i, 417 n. i ; III 5, 8, 10, n, 
108, 109, 134, 151, 165, 167, 
171, 206, 233. 

Selfm III, Sultan, I 417 n. 
i; IV 151, 161 n. 2, 178 seq., 
221 sqq., 226, 245, 350; V 
4, 20. 

Selfmf, pen-name of Sultan 
Selfm II, I 417 n. i. 

Seljuqs, the, I 10 seq., 141 ; 
IV 311. 

Selman, Kh D aja. See Selman-i 

Selman, Mir. See Mfr Sel- 

Selman-i Savejf, Persian poet, 
I 285, 286; II 72, 291; III 

79> 139, 179 n - 5- 

Selsebil, a river of Paradise, 

I 36; III 76 n. 2, 317 n. i; 
IV 52 n. i, 112 n. 6. 

Sema c f, pen-name of Sultan 
Dfwanf, I 424 n. i. 

Sena D f, Hakfm, I 428. 

Sena 3 i of Qastamuni, II 368. 

Seraglio, the, name of a pa- 
lace, II 58. 

Seraglio Point, II 26, 45 
n. i. 

Serendfb, I 275. 

Seres, I 228 ; II 72 n. 7, 
73 n. 2. 

Serkis, IV 94 n. i. 

Serpents, King of the, I 433. 

Serpents, Queen of the, I 
433 n. 2. 

Servia, IV 259; V 97 n. 2. 

Servili (Cypress-Inn), name 
of a tavern, V 56. 

Sevda 3 !, II 172 n. 3, 377. 

Seven Sleepers, the, of E- 
phesus, V 79. 

Seven Towers, Castle of the, 

II 43 n. i. 

Seven Towers, Gate of the, 

III 1 80. 

Seyf-ul-Mulk, I 439. 
Seyf-ul-Muluk, I 439 n. i. 
Seyyid c lmad, a name given 

to Nesimf, I 351. 

Seyyid-i Shen'f, title of 
c Alf-i Jurjani, II 349 n. 3. 

Seyyid Vehbf. See Vehbf, 

Sganarelle, V 14. 

Sha c ban, the dynasty of, IV 
226 seq. 



Shad-Kam, City of, I 282, 
290 n. i. 

Shadrach, V 94 n. 6. 

Shah Chelebi, I 424. 

Shah Isma c il, I 204 n. 2. See 
Isma c il, Shah, the Safevf. 

Shah Khandan, I 345. 

Shah-i Maran (King of the 
Serpents), I 433 n. 2. 

Shah Mehemmed Chelebi, 
son of Shah Chelebi, I 424 sqq. 

Shah-Quli, II 227 n. 4. 

Shah Suleyman, King of 
Germiyan, I 264, 429, 430. 

Shahi, pen-name of Prince 
Bayezid, a son of Suleyman 
I, II 86; III ii. 

Shahidi, author of the Tuhfe, 
IV 176, 257, 258 n. 2. 

Shahidi, poet, II 73, 172, 
174 n. 2, 376; IV 197. 

Shahin Giray, Khan of the 
Crimea, IV 245, 250. 

Shah-zade, the parish of, IV 
292 n. 3. 

Shakspere, I 115. 

Shamf-zade Muhammed, III 


Shams-i Tabriz. See Shems- 
ud-Din of Tebriz. 

Shani-zade Muhammed 
c Ata-ulleh Efendi, IV 248, 252. 

Shapur (Sapor), another 
form of Shawur, I 315 n. 3. 

Shapur I, the Sasanian, II 
324 n. i. 

Shawkat. See Shevket. 

Shawur, I 315 sqq. ; II 312. 

Shebdiz, name of a horse, 
I 315 sqq.; Ill 231 n. 4, 354. 

Sheddad, the King of c Ad, 
I 326 n. 5; II 59 n. 6; III 
214 n. 5. 

Shehd Banu, Princess, I 273 
n. i. 

Shehdi, II 370. 

Shehr-Banu, name of a prin- 
cess in Ahmedis Iskender- 
Ndme, I 273. 

Shehr-Banu, name of a prin- 
cess in LamiTs Visa u Rd- 
min, III 31, 360. 

Shehrev, III 360. 

Shehr-ruz, I 283. 

Sheker, name of a lady, I 

Shem c , Princess, III 57. 

Shem c (Taper). See 
u Pervdne. 

Shem c i, I 202. 

Shems-Banu, Princess, III 

Shems-ud-Din Ahmed Ibn 
Kemal, III 12 sqq. See Kemal- 

Shems-ud-Din Mehemmed-i 
Fenari, I 261 n. i. 

Shems-ud-Din of Tebriz, I 
146, 151; III 293 n. i; IV 
125 n. i. 

Shemse, I 435. 

Shemsi II 383 sqq. 

Shemsi Chelebi, III 171. 

Sheref, son of Hayati, IV 259. 

Sheref Khanim, IV 336, 




Sheref-ud-Dm-i Yezdf, I 206 
n. 2. 

Sherif, II 148 n. 2, 390 sqq. 

Shenf-i Jurjani, Seyyid, I 
381 n. i ; II 46 n. 2. See 
C A1M Jurjani. 

Sherifs, the, V 107 n. I. 

Shevket, I 5, 130; III 328 ; 
IV 96, 97, 1 06 n. i, 120, 137 
n. 2, 143, 185, 259. 

Sheyda, III 367. 

Sheykh Ghalib. See Gha- 
lib, Sheykh. 

Sheykh Ilyas, I 176. 

Sheykh Misri. See Misri 

Sheykh Nasr, the King of 
the Birds, I 434 seq. 

Sheykh Pasha el- c Ashiq, I 
176. See c Ashiq Pasha. 

Sheykh-oghli, poet, I 256, 

264, 427 sqq. ; II 72 n. I. See 
Sheykh-zade, poet. 

Sheykh-zade, poet, I 256 n. 
i, 427, 430 n. i. See Sheykh- 

Sheykh-zade, author or com- 
piler of the History of the 
Forty Vezirs, V 13 n. i. See 
Ahmed-i Misri. 

Sheykhi, I 107, in, 228 D 

265, 272 n. I, 299 sqq., 343, 
390, 414, 427, 431 n. i, 436, 
437, 444, 446; II 19, 144, 147, 
173, 201, 234, 245 n. 2, 284, 
287, 291 n. i, 369, 388; III 
3, 27, 54, 86, 354. 

Sheykhi, continuator of the 

Crimson Peony, III 233 n. i, 

Sheytan-Quli, II 227 n. 4. 

Shfa sect, the. See Shi c ites, 

Shiblf, Sheykh, I 344. 

Shihab-ud-Din, Secretary of 
the Janissaries, III 118. 

Shihab-ud-Din-i Suhreverdi, 

II 138. 

Shfites, the, II 227, 259; 

III 191 n. 2 and 5, 250 n. 2. 
Shikari, II 148 n. 2. 
Shimr, V 94 n. 4. 
Shinasi Efendi, I 128, 132; 

III 81, 209, 263; V i, 8 sqq., 
15 n. 2, 21, 22 sqq., 41, 42, 
58, 60, 64 seq. 

Shi'raz, II 29, 42 n. 3, 322, 
331 n. i; III ii n. 3,23, 247; 

IV 258, 264 n. 2; V 53 n. i, 
81 n. 3. 

Shiraz, the Prince of, II 46 
n. 2. 

Shir in, 1315 sqq.; II 12, 63 
n. 4, 245 n. 2, 292 ; IV 306. 

Shiruya, I 314 n. i, 324, 325. 

Shuja c , personal name of 
Rewani, II 317. 

Shuja c -ud-Dfn of Qaraman, 
Sheykh, I 413 n. i. See Sul- 
tan Shuja c . 

Shukri, III 133, 1 60. 

Shumla, V 22. 

es-Siddiq (the Leal), title of 
Abu Bekr, V 92 n. 7. 

Sfdi Khoja, II 286. 

Sidi- c Ali-zade, II 356. 

1 62 


Sidon, V 103 n. 2. 

Sidqi, II 293 n. i, 302 n. 
2 ; IV 150. 

Sifffn, the Battle of, II 82 n. i . 

Silistria, III 233; IV 160, 

Silver Stream, the, IV 26 
n. 2. 

Simav, II 373. 

Simurgh, the, II 280 n. 5, 
300 n. 2; III 67 n. 7; IV 53 
n. 3. 

Sina-chak (Torn-Bosom), 
surname, III 61 n. 3. 

Sinai, Mt., I 168, 366 n. i ; 
II 316 n. 6; IV 85 n. 2, 104 
n. 3, 210 n. 3. 

Sinan, Cadi, II 148 n. 2. 

Sinan, personal name of 
Sheykhi, I 299. 

Sinan Pasha, II 25, 124, 295, 

349 n - i- 

Sinan Pasha, Admiral, III 

1 60. 

Sinan Pasha, the Grand Ve- 
zir, II 270. 

Sinan ibn-Suleyman, perso- 
nal name of Bihishtf, II 148 
n. 2. 

Sindbad, I 274 n. i. 

Sinimmar, III 365. 

Sipahf, poet, IV 115 n. 2. 

Siraj-ud-Din Mahmud, Qazi, 
II 349 n. 3. 

Sirat, the Bridge, I 174 n. 
3; II 369 n. 4. 

Siroes, I 314 n. i.SeeShf- 

Sivri-hisar, II 72 n. 8, 349 
n. i, 383; III 38, 218. 

Siwas, I 205 seq., 249, 260, 
264; II 259 n. 2; IV 306, 

3ii. 343- 

Siyawush, a character in the 

Khurs hid- Name, I 431. 

Slavonia, II 91 n. 6. 

Smirnov, Professor, II 132. 

Smyrna, III 312; IV 248 n. 
i; V 27. 

Socrates, I 270. 

Soleyman the Magnificent, 
I 358. See Suleyman I, Sultan. 

Solomon, I 379 n. 2 ; II 39 
n. i, 71, 386 n. 5; III 18 n. 

1, 56 n. 5, 148 n. 3, 153 n. 

2, 179 n. 3; IV 42 n. 2, 48 
n. i, 276 n. 3. 

Somnath, IV 24 n. 3. 

Soqollu Muhammed, III 7. 

Spain, IV 228. 

Sprenger, I 348 n. 2. 

Stamboul. See Istambol and 

Su c avi Efendi, V 73 n. 3. 
See C AH Su c avi Efendi. 

Sudan, the, IV 228. 

Sudi, I 202. 

Suha, name of a star, III 
17 n. 2. 

Suhrab, III 152 n. i. 

Suhreverd, II 138 n. 2. 

Snhreverdf. See Shihab-ud- 
Din-i Suhreverdi. 

Suleyman, father of Kemal- 
Pasha-zade, II 347. 

Suleyman, personal name 



of Nesh D et, IV 211, 276 
n. 3. 

Suleyman-i Bursevi, I 232. 
See Suleyman Chelebi. 

Suleyman Chelebi, I 108, 
225, 228, 232 sqq., 268, 307, 

308, 392, 399,415; II 51* 1901 
1915 III 54; V 77. 

Suleyman Dede, I 232 n. i. 
See Suleyman Chelebi. 

Suleyman Fa D iq Efendi, IV 


Suleyman, Mir. See Mir Su- 

Suleyman Nahifi. See Na- 

Suleyman Pasha, I 411. 

Suleyman, Prince, son of 
Bayezid I, I 249, 250, 252, 

2 55 257> 2 59 n - i 260, 263, 
265, 267, 269, 285, 287, 297, 
417, 427, 428; III 334 n. i. 

Suleyman Shah, (father of 
Ertoghrul, the first Sultan of 
the Ottomans), I 10, 141. 

Suleyman Shah, a member 
of the royal house of Germiyan, 
I 423 seq. 

Suleyman I, Sultan, I 140 
n. i, 204 n. 2, 358; Il2i,25 
n. 2, 239 n. 4, 257, 347, 352, 

358, 376, 395 399 se q-; m 
I sqq., 25, 27, 36, 49, 59, 63, 
71 n. 2, 72, 75, 83, 86, 106, 
108, 118, 119, 123, 123, 126, 
133, 134, 136, 146, 147, 151 
sqq., 161, 163, 1 66, 169, 186, 
204 206, 233; V 80. 

Suleyman II, Sultan, III 
302; IV 15, 21. 

Suleymaniye Mosque, the, 

II 399; V 45. 

Sulman, Mir. See Mir Sel- 

Sultan Ahmed, the Mosque 
of, I 237 n. 2. 

Sultan Ahmed el-Jelayiri, 
i 207 n. 2. 

Sultan Diwani, mystic, I 
424 n. I. 

Sultan Mehemmed the Con- 
queror. See Mehemmed II, 

Sultan Murad, the Mosque 
of, II 82. 

Sultan Orkhan, College of, 
at Izniq, III 41. 

Sultan Shuja c , mystic, I 413. 

Sultan Veled, I 108, 141, 
151 sqq., 168, 185, 210, 213, 
235, 268, 308, 421, 423; II 

7> 14- 

Sultan Yildirim Khan, I 

256 n. i. 

Sultana Mihr-u-Mah, Col- 
lege of III 172. 

Sultan-oni, II 47. 

Sunbul-zade, patronymic, 
IV 242. 

Sunbul-zade Vehbi, I 86; 

III 272 n. 2, 334; IV 108, 
no, 119, 124 242 sqq., 267, 
268, 271, 272, 289 n. 3, 302 
n. i, 336; V 47 n. i, 52,65. 

Sun c i, II 97, 99 n. i, 101, 
366 n. i. 


Sun c f-zada, the Sheykh of 
Islam, III 307. 

Sunset-Land, the, III 15, 32 
n. i. See Maghrib. 

Sun c -ullah Efendi, III 135. 

Suqrat (Socrates), I 270. 

Sururi, I 99, 202 ; III 1 1 ; 
IV n, 17911. 2, 245, 246 sqq., 
257, 265 sqq.; V 69. 

Sururi-i Mu D errikh (Sururi 
the Chronogrammatist), IV 
266. See Sururi. 

Suwari, II 370. 

Su-Yolju-zade, IV 253 n. I. 

Suzf, II 375. 

Sweet Waters of Europe, 
the, I 96; IV 44 n. 2. 

Syria, I 53 n. 2, 205; II 
158, 260; IV 228; V 63, 64, 
101 n. 4. 

Szigeth, III 9, 154 n. 2. 

Szilagyi, Daniel, V 27. 

Taberi, the historian, I 310; 
III 15 n. i. 

Taberistan, I 310 n. 2. 

Tabriz. See Tebriz. 

Taghariin, the land of, I 

Tahir Omer, IV 220. 

Tahir Selam Bey, IV 336, 

Tahmasp, Shah, III 63, 88. 

Tahmuras, King, III 360. 

Taht-al-Qala, name of a 
district in Constantinople, II 
227 n. 3. 

Ta'if, V 92 n. 3. 

Taj-ud-Dfn Ahmed, I 260. 
See Ahmedi. 

Taji Bey, II 263. 

Taji-zade, patronymic of 
Ja c fer Chelebi, II 263, 270. 

Takhta-Qala, II 227 n. 3. 

Tal c at, name of an Afghan, 
IV 210, 321 n. 5. 

Talib, III 302, 323 seq. ; 
IV 96 n. 2. 

Talib-i Jajarmi, III 23. 

Tali c i, II 105 n. i, 366 
n. i. 

Tamburlaine, I 222 n. 3. 

Tamerlane, I 222 n. 3. 

Tamghaj Khan, King of 
China, I 276. 

Tamtam, name of a demon, 

III 372. 

Tapduq Imre, I 164, 165. 
Taq-i Bustan (Garden Arch), 

I 322 n. 2. 

Taq-i Kisra (the Arch of 
the Chosroes), I 270 n. i ; 

II 59 n. i; IV 55 n. i. 
Taraz, III 1 1 1 n. 2. 
Tartars, the, II 120 n. i ; 

IV 228. 

Tartary, II 112 n. 4, 115 
n. 6, 240 n. 5, 254 n. 7. 

Tash-Kopri, district, II 387. 

Tash-Koprizade, I 139, 164, 
165, 167, 176, 178, 180 n. 2, 
182, 205, 207, 208, 226 n. i, 
260, 263, 265, 300, 302, 303, 
358 n. 2, 380, 382, 390, 391, 
393 n. 3, 403, 406; 1141,43, 
44 n. i, 50, 148, 174, 191, 276, 



347, 354; III 140, 162 n. 

4, i/ 1 * 2 33- 

Tashliq College, the, II 


Tashma Su, river, III 3 1 8 n. 2. 
Taymus, Emperor of China, 

HI 357- 

Taymus, King of the Sun- 
set-land, II 157 sqq. 

Tebriz, I 146, 151, 336; II 
25 n. 5, 259, 374 n. 2; III 
82 n. i, 107, 293 n. i ; IV 
202 n. 3. 

Teftazani, I 200 203; II 
46 n. 2. 

Tekke (Lycia and Pamphy- 
lia), I 142, 249; II 227. 

Temenna-Qayasi (the Wish- 
ing-Rock), II 107 n. 2. 

Temennayi, I 383 sqq. 

Tennyson, I 108; II 282 n. 
3; IV 209 n. i, 235 n. I. 

Terah, III 35 n. 2. 

Terhala, III 233. 

Tesnim, a river of Paradise, 
I 36; III 317 n. i; IV 44 n. 4. 

Tevfiq Bey, III 41 n. 3 ; 
IV 1 1 8. See Ebu-z-Ziya Tev- 
fiq Bey. 

Tevfiq Efendi, IV 266 seq. 

Thales, I 63 n. 2. 

Thiano, II Si. 

Thibet, II 158; IV 5611. i. 

Thompson, W. F., II 28 n. i. 

Thuasne, L., II 27 n. i, 70 
n. i. 

Tiberias, the Sea of, II 39 
n. i. 

Tigris, the, I 207 n. 2, 270 
n. i ; III 71. 

Timur, I 103, 105, 126, 142, 
147, 203, 207, 222 n. 2 and 3, 
230, 249 253, 262, 263, 269 
n. i, 336, 344, 356,418,423; 
II 227 n. 4. 

Timur-i Leng (Timur the 
Lame), I 222 n. 3. 

Tinnin (Dragon), Isle of the, 
I 275. 

Tire, IV 248 n. i. 

Tirmiz, I 151. 

Tirnova, III 233. 

Tirstinik, II 286. 

Todori (Theodore), IV 236. 

Tokhtamish, I 222 n. 2. 

Topal c Osman Pasha, IV 
125 n. 3. 

Top-Khane, a division of 
Constantinople, IV 279 n. i ; 

V 22. 

Toqad, IV 159. 

Toqat, I 249; II 347, 349, 
365; IV 274 n. 3. 

Toqtamish, I 222 n. 2. 

Torbali, II 140 n. i. 

Transoxiana, IV 96 n. i, 
265 n. 3. 

Trebizond, II 257, 262, 318, 
367; III 34; IV 159. 

Tschekrighi, II 96 n. i. 

Tughan Shah, III 37 n. 2. 

Tunis, IV 228. 

Tunja, the river, II 234, 
251 n. 3, 317. 

Tur c Ali Bey, I 206 n. i. 

Turabi, II 71 n. 4, 368. 

1 66 


Turan, III 269 n. 3, 361. 

Turan, the Khan of, III 361. 

Turf Qahraman, King of 
Balkh, III 358. 

Tiis, V 94 n. 5. 

Tusf, Mevlana, II 374. 

Tusf of Rum, the, a name 
given to Nejati, II 105. 

Tuti, name of a woman, IV 
302 n. 4. 

Tuti Qadin, II 50; III 136. 

Uch Shurfeli Jami c (the 
Mosque of the Three Galle- 
ries), I 382 n. 2. 

Uftade, Sheykh, III 219. 

Uhud, V 92 n. 4. 

Ulugh Bey, II 25 n. 5. 

c Ulvi of Brusa, II 377 ; III 
24 n. 2. 

c Ulwan Chelebi, I 180. 

c Umar el-Hafiz er-Rumf, 
III 162 n. 4. 

c Umer Khayyam. See C O- 
mar-i Khayyam. 

Umeyyads, the, II 172; V 

93 " 4- 

Ummf, I 413; II 38 n. 3. 
See Kemal-i Ummf. 

Umm-ul-Veled-zade c Abd- 
ul- c Azfz, II 100. 

Unji-zada Mustafa Chelebi, 
personal name of Fehfm, III 

c Unsuri, Persian poet, II 376 
n. i ; III 22, 26. 

Ur of the Chaldees, III 325. 

Urfa, III 325. 

G Urff of Shiraz, I 5, 127, 
129; III 247, 260, 263, 328 ; 
IV 5, 120, 352. 

'Urhai, III 325 n. 2. 

Ushitza, IV 14 n. i. 

c Ushshaqi, place, III 312. 

c Ushshaqi-zade, III 233 n. i. 

Usicza, IV 14 n. i. 

Uskub, II 191 n. 3, 351; 
11140,41, 1 60, i62n. 4, 208, 


Usulf, III 20, 45, 59, 61. 

c Utba, historian, I 207 n. 2. 

al- c Utbi, historian, III 153 
n. 5. 

c Uthman, the Caliph, V 93. 
See c Othman. 

Uveys Bey, III 86 n. 2. 

Uveys ibn Muhammed, 
name of Veysf, III 208. 

Uveysi, III 210 sqq. 

Uweys-i Qarenf, I 216 n. 
3; III 301 n. 3. 

Uzicha, IV 14. 

Uzun C AH, III 59. 

Uzun Hasan, II 25 n. 5. 

Uzun-Kopri, IV 321. 

Vadi-i Eymen (the Most 
Blessed Vale), III 66 n. 6. 

Vale, the Most Blessed, III 
66 n. 6. 

Valley of Diamonds, the, 
I 275. 

Valley of the Sweet Waters, 
the, III 298; IV 298 n. i. 

Vambery, Hermann, I 71 
n. i, 152. 



Van Gaver, IV 333. 

Van der Lith, M., I 274 n. I. 

Varanes VI, I 314 n. i, 
319 n. i. 

Vardar Yenijesi, II 374; 
III 45, 59, 61. 

Varna, I 419. 

Vatican, the, II 8 1. 
Vaughan, Henry, III 272 n. 2. 

Vefiq Pasha. See Ahmed 
Vefiq Pasha. 

Vehbi, Seyyid, II 172 n. 3; 
III 206, 329; IV 12, 38, 86, 
107 sqq., 135, 143, 242 seq., 

Vehbi, Sunbul-zade. See 
Sunbul-zade Vehbf. 

Vehbi Molla, V 98 n. i. 

Veiled Prophet, the, of Kho- 
rasan, IV 265 n. 3. 

Vejdi, III 302, 303 seq. 

Veled Chelebi, I 71, 149, 
150, 152 n. i, 163, 165, 182 
n. 5, 202, 203 n. i. 

Veled, Sultan. See Sultan 

Veli Sultan Bayezid (Sultan 
Bayezid the Saint), II 28. See 
Bayezid II, Sultan. 

Veli-ud-Din, father of Ah- 
med Pasha, II 41. 

Veli-ud-Din, father of Ni- 
zami of Qonya, II 372. 

Veli-ud-Din-oghli, II 41. See 
Ahmed Pasha. 

Venetians, the, III 313. 

Venus, II 6 1 n. 3 and 4, 125 
n. i, 311 n. i ; III 147 n. 4. 

Verqa, Verqa, III 107. 

Vesuvius, Mt, II 77. 

Veyrev, III 360. 

Veys Bey, III 86. 

Veys-i Qareni, III 301 n. 
3. See Uweys-i Qareni. 

Veysa, III 27 n. i. 

Veysi, III 205, 208 sqq., 
315, 334; IV 254, 352; V 16. 

Vezir Koprisi, III 303 n. i. 

Viardot, V 58. 

Vienna, I 157 n. i, 158 n. 

45 HI 5- 

Virgil, I 1 66 n. 3. 

Virgin Mary, the, IV 241 
n. 5. 

Vis, III 27 n. i. 

Visa, III 27 n. i, 31. See 
Visa and Rdmin. 

Voltaire, V 57. 

Wahid, a friend of c lzzet 
Molla, IV 310. 

Wahid, poet, II 237. 

Wahid, son of Sultan Veled, 
I 422. 

Wahidi, pen-name of Hajji 
Hasan-zade, II 264 n. I. 

Wahyi, Khoja, IV 213. 

Wali, poet, II 293, 295 sqq. 

Wallachia, IV 160, 356 n. 
2; V 97 n. 2. 

Wallachians, the, IV 228. 

Wamiq. See Vdmiq and 
c Azrd. 

Waq-Waq, Isle of, I 274. 

Warsaqs, the, I 166 n. 5. 

Washington, T., I 357 n. 2. 

1 68 


Wasif Bey, I 97; IV 73 n. 
2, 279 sqq., 312; V 52. 

Wefa, Sheykh, II 97 n. 2, 99. 

Wefa, Sheykh, the Mosque 
of, III, 173. 

Wefa Meydani, II 97 n. 2. 
See Wefa Square. 

Wefa Square, in Constan- 
tinople, II 97, 98, 319 n. 2. 

Whinfield, E. H., I 17 n. 2, 
18 n. i ; III 272 n. 2. 

White Sea, the, IV 1 14 n 3. 

White Sheep dynasty, the, 
I 204, 206 n. i, 250; Il26o. 

Wickerhauser, Moriz, I 157 
n. i, 438; III 24. 

Witches, Land of the, I 282. 

Wo-Kwok, a name of Japan, 

I 274 n. 2. 

Wyclif, II 159 n. i. 

Yagh Qapani, IV 301 n. 4. 

Yagh qapani iskelesi, name 
of a landing-stage, IV 301 n. 4. 

Yaghma, III 1 1 1 n. 2. 

Yahya, the Muslim form of 
John, III 273 n. 2. 

Yahya, name of Nev c i, III 

Yahya Bey, I 107, 109, no; 

II 148 n. 2, 239 n. 4; III 3, 
60, 64 n. 5, 67 n. i, 108, 116 
sqq., 206, 236, 237, 353, 354, 


Yahya Efendi, the Sheykh 
of Islam, I no; III 206,226 
n. i, 236, 245247, 259,273 
sqq., 286, 296, 305, 307, 329, 

352; IV 19, 30, 34 36. 

Yahya, Sheykh, grandfather 
of Hubbi Qadin, III 171. 

Yani, the Greek form of 
John, IV 163. 

Ya c qub Bey, I 264. 

Yaqut, calligraphist, II 282 
n. 2; III 220 n. 2. 

Yaziji-oghli, patronymic, I 


Yaziji-oghli Ahmed-i Bijan, 
I 390, 392, 395 sqq. See Ah- 
med-i Bijan. 

Yaziji-oghli Mehemmed, I 
3% 390, 391 sqq.; II 51. 

Yedi Qule, II 43 n. i. 

Yegen Mehemmed Pasha, 
IV 160, 163. 

Ye D juj (Gog), I 287 n. i. 
See Gog and Magog. 

Yemen, II 89 n. 2 and 3, 
158, 301 n. 3; III 230 n. 2, 
300, 301 n. 3; IV 146, 216 
n. i, 228. 

Yeiii Jami c (the New Mos- 
que), in Constantinople, II 
227 n. 3. 

Yefii Qapu (New-Gate), a 
district of Constantinople, IV 


Yefii Shehr (Larissa), II 
237; IV 107. See Larissa. 

Yeni-zada Mustafa Efendi, 
name of Na 3 ili, III 304. 

Yesevi. See Ahmed-i Yesevi. 

Yeshil Melek (Green Angel), 
nickname, II 253 n. i. 

Yesi, I 71 n. 2. 



Yezdejird, Yezdigird, I 269; 
III 365 seq. 

Yezi'd ibn Mu c awiya, the Ca- 
liph, III 91; IV 246 n. 2; V 
93 n. 4, 94 n. 4, 106 n. 5. 

Yildirim Bayezid (Bayezid 
the Thunderbolt), I 231 n. I, 
249. See Bayezid I, Sultan. 

Yildirim Khan, Sultan, I 
256 n. i. 

Yoraki (George), name of 
a dancing-boy, IV 236. 

Yorgi Dandini, V 14. 

Yunan (Ionia), I 149 n. i, 
177 n. 5, 178 n. i, 270. 

Yunus Imre, I 141, 164 sqq., 
185, 204 n. 3, 226 n. i. 

Yunus Pasha, II 228. 

Yiisuf, author of the Qu- 
datqu Bilik, I 71. 

Yusuf (Joseph), name of a 
boy, II 254 n. i. 

Yusuf, name of Nabi, III 325. 

Yusuf, the Prophet. See 

Yusuf, surnamed Sina-chak, 
III 61 n. 3. 

Yusuf Kamil Pasha, V 13, 
25, 27. 

Yuzghad, IV 324. 

Zabulistan, I 272 n. r. 
Zacharias, V 92 n. i. 
Za c fi, II 375. 
Zahak, III 266 n. 6. 
Zahid, son of Sultan Veled, 
I 422. 

Zahir-ud-Dm Faryabi, I 144, 

285, 286; III 139, 179 n. 5. 

Zal, father of Rustem, II 
300 n. 2 ; IV 48 n. 2 ; V 96 n. i . 

Zamiri, II 369. 

Zanzibar, III 266 n. 3. 

Zan'fi Efendi, III 108. 

Zati, I 107; II 52, 1 06, 128 
n. 2, 149, 229, 244 11.7, 321 ; 
III 47 sqq., 108, 109, 135 seq., 
138 n. i, 181, 182, 206, 237 
n. 2, 354; V 80, 82. 

Zehir-Mar-zade, sobriquet 
of Riza, III 202. 

Zekeriyya, the Muslim form 
of Zacharias, III 273 n. 2. 

Zekeriyya Efendi, III 273, 

Zelikha, Potiphar's wife, I 
168 n. i ; II 12, 64 n. r, 142 

sqq., 157 s qq-; ni 31 n. i, 55 

n. i, 236. 

Zemzem, IV m n. 10; V 
106 n. 5. 

Zengis (Abyssinians), the, 

in 359- 

Zeresb, I 272 n. i. 

Zeyd, an unfortunate lover, 
II 188 sqq. 

Zeyn-ul- c Abidin, son of Bur- 
han-ud-Din, I 206. 

Zeyn-ul- c Areb, Sheykh, I 

392. 403- 

Zeyn-ud-Din, son of the 

poet Hamdi, II 141. 

Zeyn-ud-Dm-i Haft, Sheykh, 

I 139- 

Zeyneb, cousin of Zeyd, II 





Zeyneb, poetess, II 123, 
135 sqq. 

Zidan, IV 220. 

Zihni, II 148 n. 2; III 98 
n. 4. 

Zihni Efendi, IV 151, 343. 

Zinjiri, II 370. 

Zirek-zade, II 288, 290. 

Ziya Bey, V 41. See Ziya 

Ziya Pasha, I 121, 235 n. 
i, 239, 307; II 52; III 52 sqq., 
57, 63, Si, 127, 142 sqq., 188, 
189, 195, 203, 215 n. 5, 237, 
259, 262, 279, 284287, 291, 
296, 306, 319, 323, 329 sqq-, 
335 sqq.; IV 4, 19, 34 36, 
60, 69, 71, 75,80,81,98, 109, 

HO, 118, 119, 185, 196, 247 
n. i, 251, 281, 311 ; V 8, 10, 
II, 15 n. 2, 21, 31, 41 sqq. 

Zizim, Zizimi, European 
form of Jem, II 76 n. i. 

Zoroastrians, the, II 44 n. 4. 

Zubeyde, personal name of 
Fitnet Khanim, IV 151. 

Zuhre, II 61 n. 3 and 4 ; III 
356 seq. ; IV 156 n. 2. 

Zu-1-Qadr dynasty, the, I 
204, 206, 250; II 260. 

Zu-1-Qarnayn (the Bicorned), 
surname, I 270; III 209 n. i. 

Zulaykha, Persian pronun- 
ciation of Zelikha, II 143 n. i. 

Zvornik, III 119. 




Academy, the, III 326 n. i. 

*Adam Qasidasi (the Qasida 
of Nothingness), IV 329 sqq. 

Advice, a Mother's to her 
Daughter, IV 285 n. i. 

Ahddis (Traditional Sayings 
of the Prophet), collected and 
translated by Baqi, III 146. 

Ahmediyye of Hamdi, II 199. 

Ahmed u Mahmud of Zati, 

III 50, 53- 

^AjcPib-ul-Makhliiqdt (Mar- 
vels of Creation) of Qazwinf, 
translated by Ahmed-i Bijan, 
I 392, 406. 

Akhldq-i ^Altfi (the Exal- 
ted Ethics), I 41 n. i; 1145. 

Akhldq-i Jeldli, II 28 n. i. 

Akhter, Persian newspaper, 
I 359 n. i. 

c ' Alem-numd (World-Dis- 
player), title of c Ata'i s s Sdqi- 
Ndme, III 235. 

Alfiyya u Shalfiyya, III 37. 

Ancient Arabian Poetry, III 
174 n. 3. 

Anemone, the Blood-red, III 
41 n. 3. See Peony, the Crim- 

son and Shaqtfiq-un-Nifmd- 

Antimachus of Colophon and 
the Position of Women in 
Greek Poetry, I 64 n. 2. 

Anvdr-i Suheyli (Lights of 
Canopus), III 90 n. i. 

Arabian Nights, the, I 274 
n. I, 331 n. 7, 432 sqq.; II 
113 n. 6, 331 n. 4; III 175 
n. i; IV 48 n. 3; V 13. 

^Arsh-Ndme (The Book of 
the Throne), I 337, 376, 385 
n. 5. 

Art of Poetry, the, by Put- 
tenham, IV 273 n. i. 

c ' Ashiq Pasha Diwdni (Di- 
wan of a Ashiq Pasha), I 183 
n. i, 

'Ashiq u Ma^shuq, mesnevi 
wrongly attributed to Zati, III 
50 n. i. 

Ass and the Fox, Fable of 
the, V 33, 36 sqq. 

'Atesh-Kede (The Fire-Tem- 
ple), IV 247 n. i. 

Athenaeum, the, I 152 n. i. 

^Azliyya, name of a qasida 
by Nabi, III 332. 


Bahdristdn (Spring-Land) 
of Jamf, II 8, n, 357 n. 5; 
III 37 n. 2, 161. 

Bahr-ul-Ghar&ib (The Sea 
of Wonders), II 386 sqq. 

Bahr-ul-Mcfdrif (The O- 
cean of the Sciences) by Su- 
rurf, III, ii n. I. 

El-Bahr-uz-Zakhkhdr (The 
Flowing Tide), I 177 n. 3. 

Ball and Bandy, II 1 2. See 
Guy u Chevgdn. 

Batman uppon Bartholome, 
his Booke ""De Proprietatibus 
Rerum," I 48 n. 2. 

Beauty and Heart, II 12. See 
Husn u Dil. 

Beauty and Love, 1115. See 
Husn u c Ashq. 

Behdr-i Efkdr (Fancy's 
Spring), IV 311. 

Beheld and Beholder, II 12. 

Beng u Bdda (Nepenthe 
and Wine), III 88, 104. 

Berber-Name (Barber-Book) 
of Sabit, IV 21. 

Berber-Name Barber-Book 
of Beh'gh, IV 121. 

Beshdret-Ndme (Book of 
Glad Tidings) I 344, 369 sqq. 

Bible, the, I 162 n. 4, 166 
n. 3, 171 n. 4, 444 seq.; II 
140 n. 3. 

Boke of the Duchesse, III 
249 n. i. 

Burhdn-i Qdtf, I 121, 291 

n. i ; IV 145 n. i, 231, 248 
n. i; V 65, 75. 

Biistdn of Sa c df, I 159 n. 
6, 202, 203 n. i ; III 125. 


Caravan of the Poets, III 
41 n. 3; IV 20, 118. 

Catalogue of the Persian 
Manuscripts belonging to the 
University of Cambridge, by 
Prof. E. G. Browne, I 337 n. 2. 

Catalogue of the Turkish 
Manuscripts in the British 
Museum, by C. Rieu, I 181 
n. 2, 393 n. i. 431 n. 2; II 
261 n. i ; III 160 n. 2, 226 n. 2. 

Chahdr Maqdla (Four Dis- 
courses), Prof. E. G. Browne's 
translation of, II 20 n. i. 

Chengi-Ndme (The Book of 
Dancers), IV 223, 235 seq., 
242 n. 2. 

Chenk-Ndme (The Book oi 
the Harp), I 256 n. 6. 

Chute des Feuilles, IV 329. 

Contention between the Par- 
rot and the Crow, by Nev c i, 
III 137 n. i. 

Course of Literature, by 
Ekrem Bey, IV 118, 185. See 
Ta'lim-i Edebiyydt. 

Crimson Peony, the. See 
Peony, the Crimson and Sha- 

Crown of Chronicles, the, 
II 273 n. 2; III 199. See Tdj- 


Culturgeschichtliche Streif- 
ziige, III 115 n. I, 240 n. 3. 


Ddjf-ul-Humiim ve Rdfi c - 
ul-Ghumum (The Repeller of 
Sorrows and Dispeller of Cares), 
III 37 seq. 

Dawlatshdh's Memoirs of 
the Poets, II 233 n. 6, 291 n. 2. 

Daq&iq-ul-Haqdfiq (The 
Subtleties of the Verities), II 


Defter-i c Ashq (Love's Re- 
gister], I 109; IV 223 sqq., 
232, 236. 

Deh Murgh (The Ten Birds), 

II 384- 

De Proprietatibus Rerum. 
See Batman uppon Bartholome. 

Dere-Name (The Valley- 
Book), IV 21. 

Devhat-ul-Meshtfikh (The 
Tree of the Sheykhs), I 381 
n. 2. 

Dichtungen Trans- Kaukasi- 
scher Sdnger des XVIII nnd 
XIX Jahrhunderts in Adser- 
beidschanischer Mundart, III 
1 06 n. 2. 

Dictionary of the Technical 
Terms used in the Sciences of 
the Musulmans, I 348 n. 2. 

Divina Comedia, the, IV 181. 

Diwdn-i * Ashiq Pasha, I 
183 n. i. 

Diwdn-i Afima (Book of 
Foods), II 335 n. 7. 

Diwdn-i Hikmet (Philoso- 
phic Poems), I 71 seq., 76, 
95, 104. 

Diwdn of ' Ahi, II 290. 

Diwdn of Ahmedi, I 285. 

Diwdn of "Ashiq Chelebi, 
III 162 n. 4. 

Diwdn of As hiq Pasha, I 

Diwdn of Burhdn-ud-Din, 

I 209 sqq, 

Diwdn of Fdzil, IV 223 seq., 
242 n. 2. 

Diwdn of Fuziili, III 82 sqq. 

DiwdnofGhdlib, IV 159 sqq. 

Diwdn of Ishdq Chelebi, 
III 43. 

Diwdn of Jeldl-nd-Din 
Riimi. See Diwdn of Shams-i 

Diwdn of Ja~fer Chelebi, 

II 275 sqq. 

Diwdn of Jem, II 71, 77, 
84 sqq. 

Diwdn of Kemdl-Pasha- 
zdde, II 358 seq. 

Diwdn of Ldmfi, III 23, 
28, 33. 

Diwdn of Mesihi, II 230 sqq. 

Diwdn of Nejdti II 97, 104 

Diwdn of Nesimi, I 351, 
359 n. i, 376, 384 n. 3. 

Diwdn of Newtfi, II 48 n. 2. 

Diwdn of Rewdni, II 322. 

Diwdn of Shams-i Tabriz, 
I 146, 149, 169; III 293 n. 
i ; IV 125 n. i. 



Diwdn of Sheykhi, I 305. 

Diwdn of Sultan Bdyezid, II 
31 sqq. 

Diwdn of Sultan Mehem- 
med, II 31. 

Diwdn of Sultan Selim II 261 . 

Diwdn of Sultan Suleymdn 
I, III 8 sqq. 

Diwdn of Sultan Veled, I 

Diwdn of Sunbul-zdde Vehbi, 
IV 245 sqq., 249. 

Diwdn of Zdti, III 54 n. i. 

Dj em-Sultan, f.tude sur la 
Question d" Orient a la Fin du 
XVe Siecle, II 70 n. i. 

Doldb (The Cupboard), V 
55 n. 2. 

Dukhter-i Hindu (The In- 
dian Maid), I 133 n. 2. 

Ed-Durer-ul-Kdmine (The 
Hidden Pearls), I 205. 

Durret-ut- Taj fi Siret-i Sd- 
hib-il-Mfrdj (The Pearl of the 
Crown concerning the Life of 
the Lord of the Ascension), 
III 208 n. I. 

Durr-i Meknim (the Hidden 
Pearl), I 406. 

Dur iib-ul- Emsdl, III 2 1 5 n. 5. 


Edebiyydt-i Isldmiyya (Mus- 
lim Literature), an article by 
Mehemmed Veled Chelebi, I 
150 n. i. 

Edhem u Humd, IV 20, 
21, 27. 

Ejel-i Qazd (The Fated 
Doom), V 15. 

Elf Ghuldm ve Ghuldm (The 
Thousand and one Youths), 
IV 233 n. 3. 

Elf Jdriye ve Jdriye (The 
Thousand and one Damsels), 

IV 233 n. 3. 

Emil, V 42, 59, 63. 

Endehis Tdrikhi (The Hi- 
story of Andalusia), V 58. 

Enis-ul-^Ushshdq (The Lo- 
vers 3 Familiar), II 199 n. 2. 

Enwdr-ul- v Ashiqin (Lights 
for Lovers), I 395 n. 2, 396 
sqq., 402, 403 n. i, 406 
n. 3. 

Epistle to the Corinthians, 
the First, II 140 n. 3. 

Esdmi (Biographical Dictio- 
nary), by Professor Naji, III 
162 n. 4. 

Es}dr-i Ziyd (The Poems 
of Ziya), V 68. 

Etudes Iraniennes, by J. Dar- 
mesteter, II 324 n. i. 

Examples of Literature, by 
Ebu-z-Ziya Tevffq Bey, IV 
35. See. Numune-i Edebiyydt-i 
^Osmdniyya and Specimens of 

Eyler Qasidasi (The "Doth" 
Qasida), III 263. 


Fables of La Fontaine, the, 

V 32, 59- 

Al-Fakhri, IV 246 n. 2. 


Famous Women, IV 151. 

Ferah-Ndme (The Book of 
Gladness), I 256 n. I. 

Ferah-ur-Ruh (The Joy of 
the Soul), I 406. 

Ferhdd-Ndme (The Book of 
Ferhad), III 22, 27, 28, 353, 


Ferrukh-Ndme (The Book 
of Ferrukh), by Sheykh-Oghli, 
I 256, 427 sqq. 

Ferrukh-Ndme (Ferrukh- 
Book), by Zati, III 50, 53. 

Firdq-Ndme (The Book of 
Severance), II 380 n. 3. 

Forty Vezirs, History of the, 
I 430 n. i ; II 113 n. 6; V 
13 n. i. 

Fur at (The Euphrates), name 
of a journal, V 55 n. 2. 

Furqat-Ndme (The Book of 
Severance), II 380 sqq. 

Fusus-ul-Hikem (The Gems 
of Philosophy), I 60 n. 2, 406; 
III 173. 

Futuhdt-us-Siydm (The Vic- 
tories of Fasting), III 170. 


Genesis, Book of, II 146, 
159 n. i, 170. 

Genjine-i Rdz (Mystic Tre- 
asury), I 109; III 117 n. 2, 
121, 122, 126, 236. 

Genj-Ndme (The Book of 
the Treasure), by Jelal Arg- 
hun, I 424. 

Genj-Ndme (The Book of 

the Treasure), by Refi /c f, I 376 

George Dandin, V 14. 

Geschichte der Arabischen 
Litter atur, byC.Brockelmann, 
II 178 n. i. 

Geschichte der Osmanischen 
Dichtkunst, by Von Hammer, 
II 237 n. i; III 374. 

Geschichte der Persischen 
Litteratur, by Paul Horn, II 

335 " 7> 

Ghadir-ul-Furdt (The Pool 
of the Euphrates), V 55 n. 2. 

Gharib-Ndme (The Book of 
the Stranger), I 108, 181 sqq., 
202, 235, 236, 308, 371,436; 

II 388. 

Gospel, the, I 375 n. 2, 376; II 
105 n. 2; III 191 n. 3, 215 n. 2. 

Grundriss der Iranischen 
Philologie, III 22 n. i. 

Guldeste-i Riydz-i ^Irfdn 
(Posy from the Bowers of Cul- 
ture), I 140. 

Gul-i Sad-Berg, (The Hun- 
dred-Leaf Rose), of Belfgh, 
IV 117 n. 2. 

Gul-i Sad-Berg (The Hun- 
dred-Leaf Rose) of Jelili, II 
290 n. 2; III 1 6O. 

Gul-i Sad-Berg (The Hun- 
dred-Leaf Rose), of Mesihi II 

Gulistdn (Rose-garden) of 
Sa c di, I 191 n. i ; II 8, 55 
n. 4, 215 n. i, 357, 386 n. 4; 

III 109, 136; V 53, 81. 



Gulshen-i c Ashq (The Garth 
of Love), IV 306 sqq., 3 10, 3 1 2. 

Gulshen-i Enwdr (The Rose- 
bed of Radiance), I 109; III 
1 17 n. i, 122, 126, 236. 

Gulshen-ush-Shii'ard (The 
Rosebed of the Poets), III 8. 

Gul u Bulbul (Rose and Nigh- 
tingale), I 109; III no sqq. 

Gul u Khusrev (Rose and 
Khosroes), II 291 n. I. 

Gul ii Nevriiz (Rose and 
New- Year), III 160. 

Gul u Sabd (Rose and Zep- 
hyr), II 101 sqq. 

Guy u Chevgdn (Ball and 
Bandy), of c 'Arifi, III 23. 

Guy u Chevgdn (Ball and 
Bandy), of Lami c f, III 22, 28, 


Guy u Chevgdn (Ball and 
Bandy), of Talib-i Jajarmi, 
III 23. 


Habib-us-Siyer, IV 82 n. I. 

Hadd?iq-ul-Haqd*iq fi Tek- 
milet-i sh-Shaqaiq (The Garths 
of Truths in Completion of 
the Peony), III 233 n. I. 

Hadiqa (The Garden), I 
428 n. 6. 

Hadiqat-ul-Jewdmf (The 
Garden of Mosques), II 141 
n. i. 

Hadiqat-us-Sifadd (The 
Garth of the Blessed), III 90, 

Hadiqat-ul- Vuzerd (The 
Garden-close of the Vezirs), 
IV 103 n. 4. 

Hdlet-ush-Shebdb (The 
World of Youth), V 55 n. 2. 

Hammdm-Ndme (The Book 
of the Bath), IV 121, 127. 

Hasb-i Hal (Plaint), by Be- 
ha D i, III 296. 

Hasb-i Hal (Plaint), by 
Nev c i, III 174. 

Heft Aw rang, (The Seven 
Thrones), II 8; III 22. 

Heft Khwdn, (The Seven 
Courses), III 234. 

Heft Manzar (The Seven 
Belvederes), III 22. 

Heft Peyker The Seven 
Effigies), by Lami c i, III 22, 
24, 27 seq., 353, 365 sqq. 

Heft Peyker (The Seven 
Effigies), by Nizami, I 144 
n. 3; II 377; III 22, 224 n. 
3, 266 n. 5. 

Heft Peyker (The Seven 
Effigies), by c Ulvi of Brusa, 
III 24 n. 2. 

Hesht Bihisht (The Eight 
Paradises), by Mevlana Idrfs, 
II 106, 267 n. i. 

Hesht Bihisht (The Eight 
Paradises), by Sehi Bey, III 7. 

Heves-Ndme (Book of Love- 
Desire), I 307; II 56, 265, 
275, 284, 378, 380. 

Hezeliyydt (Facetiae), by Su- 
ruri, IV 270 sqq., 276. 

Hikdydt-i DeliBirdder (Bro- 



ther Madcap's Tales), III 37 
n. i. 

Hikdye-i Khoja Fesdd (The 
Story of Fes-ad), IV 21. 

Hikdyetu Erbcfina Sabdh an 
ve Mesa? 1 (The Story of the 
Forty Morns and Eves), V 1 3 
n. i. 

(The Prophetic Physiognomy), 

III 195. 

Hilye-i Sherifa (Sacred Phy- 
siognomy), I 109; III I93>i95 
sqq., 299. 

Hilyet-ul-Enwdr (The Jewel 
of Lustres), IV 8 1. 

Histoire de f Empire Otto- 
man, I 177 n. i and 2. 

History of the Forty Vezirs. 
See Forty Vezirs. 

History of the Inquisition, 

V 59- 

History of the Mongols, I 
222 n. 2. 

History of the Present State 
of the Ottoman Empire, I 357. 

Humdy u Humdyiin, by 
Fazli, III 109. 

Humdy u Humdyun, by 
Khwaju ofKirman, III 109 seq. 

Humdyun-Ndme, III 90 n. 
I; V 1 6. 

Hurriyyet (Liberty), name 
of a newspaper, V 62, 73. 

Husn u c Ashq (Beauty and 
Love), I 108; III 87, 329, 
336 seq., 353 n. i, 354, 374; 

IV 180 sqq. 

Husn u Dil (Beauty and 
Heart), by 'Ahf, II 288, 291 
sqq., 296 sqq. 

Husn u Dil (Beauty and 
Heart), by Fettahi, II 287 ; III 
21, 52; IV 181, 186. 

Husn u Dil (Beauty and 
Heart), by Lami c i, III 21, 24 
n. 4. 

Husn u Dil (Beauty and 
Heart), by Sidqf, II 293 n. i. 

Husn u Nigdr (Beauty and 
Belle), II 376 n. i. 

Hyacinth Qasida, I 86. 


^Ibret-numd (Exemplar), by 
Lami c i, III 21, 24 n. 4. 

^Ibret-Numd (Monitor), V 1 3. 

Ihyd-ul^Ulum (Quickening 
of the Sciences), by Ghazali, 
II 102 n. i. 

Iksir-us-Sa^ddet (The Elixir 
of Felicity), I 208. 

Ildhi-Ndme (Divine Book) 
by Ferid-ud-Dm 'Attar, III 


Ildhiyydt (Hymns) by Hu- 
dd'f, III 219. 

Inkizisyon Tdrikhi (History 
of the Inquisition), V 59 n. 2. 

Intisdb-ul-Muluk (The Ser- 
vice of Kings), IV 146. 

Iqbdl-Ndme (Book of For- 
tune), by Nizami, I 144 n. 3. 

Iqddm (newspaper), I 139 
n. 3. 

^Iqd-ul-Jumdn fi Tdrikhi 


I 7 8 


Ehl-iz-Zemdn (The Necklace 
of Pearls concerning the Hi- 
story of the Men of the Time), 
I 206 n. 2; IV 37. 

Isaiah, the Book of, II 140 
n. 3. 

Ishdq-Ndma (Ishaq-Book), 
III 43- 

^Ishret-Ndme (The Book of 
Wassail), by Rewanf, II 322, 
324 sqq., 378. 

Iskender-Ndme, of Ahmedf, 
I 108, 253 n. 2, 263 sqq., 305, 
308, 309 n. 2, 336, 429, 436, 
443; II 377. 

Iskender-Ndme (Book of 
Alexander), by Jamf, II 10. 

Iskender-Ndme (Book of 
Alexander), by Nizami, I 144 
n. 3. 

Iskender-Ndme (Book of 
Alexander) by FighaniofQa- 
raman, I 284; III 36 n. I. 

Istiwd-Ndme (Book of the 
Ascent) I 337, 344, 351,369, 
385 n. 5. 


Jdbir-Ndme, III 28 n. 2. 

Jahrbiicher der Literatur, 
I 157 n. i. 

Jdmesb-Ndme (Book of Ja- 
mesb), I 310 n. I, 431 sqq. 

Jdmf-ul-Hikdydt (The Col- 
lector of Stories), II 102 

Jdviddn-Ndme (Eternal- 
Book), I 337, 375, 376, 386. 

Jdviddn(-Ndme)-i Kebir, I 
337 n. 2, 385 n. 5. 

Jawdmf-ul-Hikdydt wa La- 
wdmf-ur-Riwdydt, II 102 n. 2. 

Jemshid and Khurshid, by 
Ahmedi, 1 286. 

Jemshid and Khurshid, by 
Khwaja Selman, II 72. 

Jenk-Ndme (The Book of 
War), I 256, 257 n. i. 

Jeride-i c Askeriyye (The Mi- 
litary Gazette), V 26. 

Jeride-i Hawddis (The Jour- 
nal of Events), IV 325 n. 2; 
V 55 n. 2, 100 n. 6. 

Jeivdd, the Story of,V 13 
n. 3. 

Jezire-i Mesnevi (The Isle 
of the Mesnevi), III 299. 

Jezmi, historical romance 
of, by Kemal Bey, III 175. 

Jihdn-Numd (Belvedere), I 
43 n. i. 

Joseph andZelikhd, by c Alf, 
I 72, 76, 92, 95, 104. 

Joseph and Zelikhd of Bi- 
hishti, II 376 n. i. 

Joseph and Zelikhd of 
Hamdf, I 306; II 141, 142 sqq., 
173 sqq., 190, 199 n. 3, 201 
sqq., 224 seq., 357, 376; III 
3, 12, 87. 

Joseph andZelikha, by Jamf, 
I 15; II 9, 142 sqq.; Ill 22; 
IV 225 n. I. 

Joseph and Zelikha. of Ke- 
mal-Pasha-zade, I 306; II 358, 
376; III 12 sqq. 



Joseph and Zelikhd of Yah- 
ya Bey, III I2O, 122, 125. 

Joseph and Zelikhd of Zihnf, 
III 98 n. 4. 

Joseph and Zulaykhd of 
Firdawsi, II 142 sqq. 

Journal Asiatique, II 78 n. 
3; III 37 n. 2. 

Journal of the German 
Oriental Society, I 73 n. I. 

Journal of the Royal Asia- 
tic Society, I 337; V 107 n. 2. 


Kefshger-Ndme (The Book 
of the Shoemaker), IV 121. 

Kerem Qasidasi (The Grace 
Qasida), II 43. 

Keshf-uz-Zunim, I 179 n. 
3, 182 n. 6. 

Khamsa, (Quintet), of c Ata 3 i, 
III 234 sqq. 

Khamsa (Quintet), of Bi- 
hishti, II 148 n. 2, 172 n. 3, 
376 n. I ; III 24 n. 2. 

Khamsa (Quintet), of Fu- 
zulf, III 71, 89. 

Khamsa (Quintet), of Jami, 
II. 10. 

Khamsa (Quintet), of Ner- 
gisi, III 208. 

Khamsa (Quintet), of Ni- 
zami, I 144 n. 3, 145 ; II 8, 
148 n. 2, 190, 376 n. i; III 
89, 160, 365; IV 182 n. i, 
193 n. i. 

Khamsa (Quintet), of Yahya 
Bey, III 121 sqq. 

Khamsa-i Rumi, II 324 n. 3. 

Khardbdt (Tavern), I 235 
n. i, 240, 305 n. 2, 307; III 
52, 54; IV 34, 118; V 42 n. 
i, 51, 63, 66 n. i, 68, 77 sqq. 
See Tavern, the. 

Khar-Name (The Book of 
the Ass), I 302, 303, 305. 

Khdtimat-ul- Wdriddt (The 
Postscript to the Inspirations), 
IV 91 n. 2. 

Khatt u Khattdtdn (Calli- 
graphy and Calligraphists), I 
394 n. i ; III 220 n. 2, 273 
n. i, 297 n. i. 

Khayrdbdd, the, by Nabi, 
III 329, 330, 332, 335 seq., 
345, 349> 353 n. i, 354, 370 
sqq.; IV 183, 190 sqq. 

Khayriyya, the, by Nabi, 
III 332 sqq., 337, 343, 351, 
352; IV 246, 254, 256. 

Khayydt-Ndme (The Book 
of the Tailor), IV 121, 125, 129. 

Khazdn-i ' Asdr (Labour's 
Autumn), IV 311. 

Khired-Ndme (The Book of 
Wisdom), I 302, 305. 

Khubdn-Ndme (The Book 
of Beauties), IV 222 n. i, 223 
seq., 227 sqq., 236. 

Khuldsat-ul-Eser, III 224. 

Khurshid u Ferrukh-Shdd, 
by Sheykh-oghli, I 428 sqq. 

Khurshid u Ferrukh-Shdd, 
by Prince Jem, II 72. 

Khurshid u Jemsliid, by 
Ahmedi, III 171 n. i. 



Khurshid u Jemshid, by 
Hubbi, III 171. 

Khurshid- Name (Book of 
Khurshid), I 430. 

Khusrev u Shirin, of 'Ahi, 
II 287 sqq., 291 sqq., 311 

sqq., 37 6 - 

Khusrev u Shirin, of Jelfli, 

II 172 n. 3; III 159. 
Khusrev u Shirin, of Kha- 
lifa, II 148 n. 2, 172 n. 3. 

Khusrev u Shirin, of Mir 
c Ali Shir, II 10. 

Khusrev u Shirin, of Mu c idi, 

III 1 60. 

Khusrev u Shirin, of Ni- 
zami, I 144 n. 3. 

Khusrev u Shirin, of 
Sheykhi, I 303 sqq., 427, 431 
n. I, 437, 443; II 147, 234, 
287, 291 n. i, 369; III 3, 54, 


Khwdb-Ndme (The Vision), 
by Veysi, III 209. 

Kimiyd-i Sa c ddet (Elixir of 
Felicity), II 102 seq. 

Kitdb-ut- Tanbih wa-l-Ish- 
rdf, of Mas c udi, III 280 n. 2. 

Kitdb-i Usul (Book of Prin- 
ciples), II 239 n. 4; III 121, 
122, 125 seq., 236. 

Koran, the, I 22, 24, 34 n. 
2, 35> 36 n. 3, 37 n. 2, 53 n. 
i, 57 n. i, 61 n. 2, 112, 119 
n. 5, 159 n. 3 and 4, 171, 172 
n. i, 173 n. 5, 174 n. 3 and 4, 
180 n. 2, 182 n. i, 184, 187 
n. 4, 188 n. 3, 189 n. i, 190 


n. i, 219 n. i, 230 n. i, 233, 
234 n. i, 236 n. i, 240, 245 
n. i, 257 n. 2, 287 n. i, 289 
n. 2, 297 n. i, 326 n. 5, 337 
n - 3, 338, 339, 340 n. 3, 341, 
350 n. i, 353, 361 n. 5 and 
of 7, 362, 363, 364 n. 3, 365, 
366, 369 n. i, 370, 372, 374, 

375, 376, 389"- 2, 395, 397> 39, 
399, 406, 423, 444 seq; II 45, 
46 n. i, 59 n. 7, 61 n. 3, 65 
n. 4, 89 n. 7, 100 n. 4, 105 
n. 2, 117 n. 4, 136 n. 2, 146, 
157 n. i, 197, 198 n. i and 
2, 206 n. 5, 211 n. 3, 213 n. 
9, 217 n. 6, 218 n. 6 and 8, 
219, 249 n. 8, 254 n. 4, 270 
n. 3, 334 n. 4, 354, 369 n. 2, 
386 n. 2 and 5 ; III 35 n. 2, 45 
n. 2, 55 n. 2, 56 n. 5, 61 n. 
2, 112 n. 4, 113 n. i, 191 n. 
3 and 5, 195, 196 n. i, 198 n. 

1, 209 n. i, 214 n. 5, 215 n. 

2, 223 n. 2, 224 n. 4, 289 n. i, 

2 95 n - 3, 3 l8n - 5; IV 19, 22 n. 
i, 76 n. i, 85 n. 2, in n. 5, 
147, 156 n. 2, 162, 192, 241 
n. 5, 316 n. 2 and 4, 341 n. 
2; V 38 n. i, 55 n. 2, 77 n. 
i, 79 n. 2, 93 n. 2. 

Kulliyydt (Collected Works) 
of Lami c f, III 24 n. 4, 354. 

Kunh-ul-Akhbdr (the Ess- 
ence of Histories), I 140. 

Kus-Ndme, II 275. 

Kutub-Khdne-i Ebu-z-Ziyd 
(Ebu-z-Ziya's Library), V 17, 
85 n. i. 




Lataif-i Riwdydt (Pleasant 
Tales), V 13. 

Ley Id and Mejnun, of Ahmed 
Pasha, II 50, n. i. 

Leyld and Mejnun, of Bi- 
hishtf, II 376 n. i. 

Leyld and Mejnun, of Fu- 
zuli, II 148; III 3, 71, 8 1 seq., 
85 sqq., 89, 90, 127; IV 1 80. 

Leyld and Mejnun, of Hamdi, 
II 141 n. 2, 172 sqq., 190, 192, 
211 sqq., 225, 234, 376. 

Leyld and Mejnun, of Jamf, 

II 9; III 22. 

Leyld and Mejnun, of Jelili, 

III 159. 

Leyld and Mejnun, of Kha- 
yali, III 62 n. I. 

Leyld and Mejnun, of Mir 
C AH Shir, II 10. 

Leyld and Mejnun, of Ne- 
jati, II 1 02 seq. 

Leyld and Mejnun, of Ni- 
zam f, I 144 n. 3. 

Leyld and Mejnun, of Qaf- 
zade Fa'izi, III 204, 226 n. i ; 

IV 1 10. 

Leyld and Mejnun, of Sha- 
hidi, II 73 n. i. 

Livre des Femmes, le, IV 
233 n. 2. 

Locks ley Hall, I 108. 

Lughat-i Ebu-z-Ziyd (Ebu- 
z-Ziya's Dictionary), V 17. 

Lutfiyya, the, III 334; IV 
246, 249, 254 sqq. 


Ma'drif-Ndme (The Book of 
the Sciences), I 182. 

Maghdrib-uz-Zemdn (The 
Setting-Points of Time), I 396 

Mahabbet-Ndme (Book of 
Love), I 337, 370 n. 4, 376, 

385- n. 5- 

Mukhayyaldt (Phantasms), 

V 13- 

Mukhbir (Correspondent), 
name of a newspaper, V 62, 7 3 . 

Mukhtasar (Compendium of 
Jurisprudence), by Ahmed el- 
Quduri, IV 342. 

Makhzen-ul-Esrdr ( The 
Treasury of Secrets), I 144 
n. 3; II 9; III 234, 236. 

Mantiq-ut-Tayr (The Lang- 
uage of Birds), II 242 n. 2. 

Manzimia-i Husni (Poems 
of Husni Pasha), V 73 n. 2. 

Maqdldt (Discourses), by 
Gulsheni, II 378. 

Maqdmdt (Seances), of Ha- 
riri, IV 342. 

Maqtel-i Hazret-i Huseyn 
(Martyrdom of Saint Huseyn), 
III 23, 24 n. i, 28, 353. 

Mariage Force, le, V 14. 

Masnavi i Ma^navi, The 
Spiritual Couplets of Maulana 
Jalalu D ddin i Rumf, by E. H. 
Whinfield, I 17 n. 2 ; IV 84 n. 2. 
See Mesnevi, 

Matdlf-td-Enwdr (The Ori- 



ents of Radiance), II 349 
n. 3. 

Matlcf-ul-Enwdr (Rising- 
point of Radiance), II 191 n. 3. 

Matthew, St., the Gospel of, 
I 162 n. 4, 

Medecin malgreLui, le, V 14. 

Mejdlis-un-Nefd^is (Parties 
of the Elegant), III 161. 

Mejdlis-ut- Tefdsir (The 
Reunions of the Commenta- 
ries), II 140. 

Mejmifa-i Ebu-z-Ziyd (Ebu- 
z-Ziya's Magazine), V 17, 42 
n. 2, 85. 

Mejmu c a-i Mifallim (The 
Professor's Scrap-Book), II 55 
n. i ; III 273 n. i, 294 n. i. 

Mejmifa-i Muntakhabdt-i 
'Asdr-i C 0smdniyya (Turkish 
Chrestomathy), II 132 n. i. 

Mendqib-ul- * Arifin (The 
Acts of the Adepts), I 145 n. 2. 

Mendqib-i Ghazdli (The Anec- 
dotes of Ghazali), III 37 n. i. 

Mendqib-ul- Wdsilin (The 
Acts of the Attainers), I 351. 

Meshd^ir-ush-Shu^ard, III 
162 n. 4. 

Mesnevi, the, of Jelal-ud-Din 
Rumi, I 17 n. 2, 53 n. i, 108, 
146, I49sqq., i62n. 4, 169,406, 
421, 422; III 297, 299, 349; IV 
79 sqq., 125 n. I, 178 seq., 
182, 189, 193 seq., 212 seq. See 
Masnavi i Ma c navi. 

Mesnevi, Response to the, II 

Mevlid-i Jismdni u Mevlid-i 
Ruhdni (The Corporeal Birth- 
song and the Spiritual Birth- 
song), II 190. 

Mevlid-i Jismdni u Mevrid-i 
Ruhdni (The Corporeal Birth- 
song and the Spiritual Arriv- 
ing- Place), II 190. 

Mevlid-i Nabi (Birthsong on 
the Prophet's Nativity), by 
Hamdi, II 190, 217 sqq. 

Mevlid-i Nabi (Hymn on the 
Prophet's Nativity), by Suley- 
man of Brusa, I 108, 232 sqq., 

Miftdh-ul-Hiddya (Key of 
Guidance), III 37. 

Mihnet-Keshdn, I no; IV 
151, 279 n. i, 305 seq., 308 
sqq., 314 sqq. 

Mihr u Mdh (Sun and Moon), 
II 10 1 sqq. 

Mihr u Mushteri (Sun and 
Jupiter), III 221, 226. 

Mines de F Orient, III 181, 
210, 213; IV 101 n. 3. 

Mfrdjiyya (Ascension- 
Song), by Sabit, IV 19, 22. 

Moniteur, the, V 107 n. 3. 
Mosquito and the Bee, the?J 34. 

Mu^allaqdt, the, I 83; III 
174 n. 3. 

Mudhikdt-i Sururi-i Hezzdl 
(The Drolleries of Sururi the 
Wag), IV 271. 

Muhammediyye, the, by Ya- 
ziji-oghli Mehemmed, I 392 n. 
i, 396 sqq. 



Muhammediyye, the, by 
Hamdi, II 190, 199. 

Mukhtasar-ul- Vildye, IV 92. 

Mulhima (Revealer), by Jev- 
n, III 298. 

Mulhima, by Salah-ud-Din, 
I 390. 

Mundzara-i Behdr u Khazdn 
(Contention of Spring and Au- 
tumn), III 21 n. 3. 

Mundzara-i Behdr u Shitd 
(Contention of Spring and 
Winter), III 21, 24 n. 4, 28, 
29, 88,110, 353, 354>3 6 3 s qq- 

Mundzara-i Tiiti u Zdgh 
(The Contention of the Par- 
rot and the Crow), III 174. 

Mundzara-i Gul u Khusrev 
(The Contention of the Rose 
and the Chosroes), II zoosqq. 

Mifnis-ul-^Ushshaq (The Lo- 
vers 3 Familiar), II 148 n. 2. 

Munshe^dt, the Letters of 
Nabi, III 327 n. 4. 

MushJlq-Ndme (The Book 
of Mushfiq), V 55 n. 2. 


Nakhlistdn (Palm-land), III 

Naqtfid (Flytings), IV 248 
n. 2. 

Nasihat-i Isldmbol (A Mo- 
nition to Constantinople), III 

Nazm-i Jewdhir (The String 
of Gems), IV 338. 

Nefahdt-ul-Uns (The Brea- 

ths of Intimacy), I 151; II 
129 n. I ; III 21. 

Nef hat-id Ezhdr (The Waft 
of the Flowers), I 101, 109; 
III 234 sqq. 

Nejdt-ul-Ghariq (The Rescue 
of the Drowning), III 219. 

Nettfij-ul-Funun (The Re- 
sults of the Sciences), III 173. 

Newddir-uz-Zurefd (Anec- 
dotes of Wits), IV 152 n. 2. 

Nigdristdn, by Ghaffarf, III 
278 n. i. 

Nigdr-Ndme (The Book of 
Beauties), II 237. 

Noch Einmal die Seldschu- 
kischen Verse, I 157 n. i. 

Netting Hill High School 
Magazine, IV 275 n. 3. 

En-Nujiim-uz-Zdhire (The 
Shining Stars), II 358. 

Nukhbe-i Vehbi (Vehbi's 
Selection), IV 257 sqq. 

Nuits, les, IV 185. 

Numbers, the Book of, II 
117 n. 4. 

Numuna-i Edebiyydt C 0s- 
mdniyya (Specimens of Otto- 
man Literature), III 71 n. i; 
V 15, 53- 


^Osmanli Shcfirlari (Otto- 
man Poets), II 55. 

Ottoman Grammar, by Jev- 
det and Fu D ad Efendis, V 65. 

Ottoman Poems translated 
into English verse, IV 250 n. i. 

1 84 


Ottoman Sultans, History of 
the, by Bihishti, II 376 n. i. 

Ottomans, History of the, 
by Kemal-Pasha-zade, II 358. 

Our Poetesses, by Ahmed 
Mukhtar Efendi, IV 151, 349. 
See Shcfir Khdnimlarimiz. 


Pend-Ndme (Book of Coun- 
sels), by Guwahi, II 124. 

Penj GV#/(Five Treasures), 
of Nizami, III 365. 

Pentateuch, the, I 375 n. 2, 
376; II 105 n. 2. 

Peony, the Crimson, I 262, 
263, 264, 265, 299, 300, 380, 
390, 406, 413 n. i; II 44 n. 

1, 139 n. i, 140 n. 2, 141 n. 

2, 148, 174, 190, 199, 273 n. 
2, 276, 348, 354; III 140, 162 
n. 4, 171, 233. See Shaqtfiq- 
un-Nu c mdniyya. 

Persians, a Year amongst 
the, I 15 n. i, 62 n. i ; II 46 
n. 2, 334 n. 7, 336 n. 1,340 
n. i, 341 n. 8; IV 172 n. 3, 
225 n. i, 293 n. i. 

Poems, the Suspended, III 
174 n. 3. See Mifallaqdt. 

Poeseos Asiaticae commenta- 
riorum libri sex, II 232 
n. i. 

Posy from the Garths of 
Culture, by Beligh of Brusa, 
IV 117. See Guldeste-i Riydz-i 

Professor's Magazine, by 

Najf, III 50. See Mejmia-i 

Psalms, the, I 375 n. 2, 
376; II 105 n. 2; III 18 n. 
i, 191 n. 3, 215 n. 2. 


Qdbus-Ndma, III 334. 
Qahramdn-Ndma, III 149 
n. 6. 

Qdnim-Ndme (Book of Laws), 

II 21. 

Qdmus, the, I 12 1; IV 231, 
248 n. i; V 22, 65, 75. 

Qasida-i ^Azliyya (The De- 
posal Qasida), III 342. 

Qasida, the Hyacinth, III 


Qasida-i Tanndna (The Re- 
sonant Qasida), IV 244, 249 
sqq., 264. 

Qasida-i Tayydra (The Vo- 
lant Qasida), IV 245, 249 sqq. 

Qasidet-ul-Burde (The Man- 
tle-Poem), IV 82. 

Qastamuni-Ndme (Qasta- 
muni-Book), II 108; III 161. 

Qirq Vezir Tarikhi (The 
History of the Forty Vezirs), 
V 13 n. i. See Forty Vezirs, 
History of the. 

Qudatqu Bilik (The Auspi- 
cious Knowledge), I 71, 78, 
104 seq. 


Raqqds-Ndme (Book of Dan- 
cers), IV 235 n. 2. 



Rawz-ul-Akhydr, III 162 
n. 4. 

Rawzat-ush-Shuhadd (Gar- 
den of Martyrs), III 90. 

Rehab-Name (The Book of 
the Rebeck), I 108, 152 sqq., 
167, 235, 308, 421. 

Religions et Philosophies 
dans VAsie Centrale, les, I 24 
n. 2. 

Religious Systems of the 
World, I 15 n. i. 

Restfil Ikhwdn-us-Safd 
(Tracts of the Brethren of 
Sincerity), III 21. 

Risdle-i Khizriyya, IV 82. 

diyye, I 403. See Muhamme- 
diyye, by Yaziji-oghli Me- 

Riydnin Enjdmi (The Result 
of Hypocrisy), V 59 n. i. 

Rose and Nightingale, by 
Fazli, IV 1 86. See Gulu BulbuL 

Rosebed of Poets, III 57, 73. 
See Gulshen-ush-Shifard. 

Rubd^is, the, of c Omar-i 
Khayyam, I 89. 

Ruji-ush-Sheykhi ild Sibdh 
(The Return of the Elder to 
his Youth), II 358. 


Sdqi-Ndme (Cup-bearer 
Book), by c Ata D i, I 1 10; III 234 

Sdqi-Ndme (Cup-bearer 
Book), by c Ayni, IV 337 sqq. 

Sdqi-Ndme (Cup-bearer 
Book), by Beligh, IV 122. 

Sdqi-Ndme (Cup-bearer 
Book), by Fuzuli, III 88. 

Sdqi-Ndme (Cup-bearer 
Book), by Haleti, I IIO; III 
224 sqqi. 

Sdqi-Ndme (Cup-bearer 
Book), of Kemal Bey, IV 34. 

Sdqi-Ndme (Cup-bearer 
Book) by Qaf-zada, III 204, 
226 n. i. 

Sdqi-Ndme (Cup-bearer 
Book), by Yahya Efendi, I 
HO; III 278 seq. 

Suheyl u Nev-Bahdr (Cano- 
pus and Vere), of Bihishti, II 
376 n. i. 

Sahrd (The Country), I 133, 
135 n. i; V i, 11, 77. 

Seb^a-i Seyydre (The Seven 
Planets), IV 117 n. 2. 

Sefinet-ur-Rdghib (The Ship 
of Raghib), IV 95 n. i. 

Seldmdn u Ebsdl, of Jami, 

II 10; III 22, 25. 
Seldmdn u Ebsdl, of Lami c f, 

III 22, 25 seq., 28, 353, 354 

Selected Poems from the 
Divdni Shamsi Tabriz, I 53 
n. i, 146 n. 2, 169 n. i. 

Sened-ush-Shifard (Title- 
deed of Poets), IV 147. 

Ser-guzesht-Ndme (The 
Book of Adventures), IV 117 
n. 2. 

Servet-i Funiin, name of a 

1 86 


newspaper, I 1 50 n. I ; III I 

307 n. i. 

Shafts of Doom, the, III 253. 
See Sihdm-i Qazd. 

Shah u Dervish (King and 
Dervish), by Hilali, III 122. 

Shah u Gedd (The King and 
Beggar), by Yahya Bey, I 
109; III 121, 122 sqq., 126, 

35 3> S 6 ^ sqq., 374. 
Shdh-Ndma, the, by Fir- 

dawsi, I 71, 105, 226, 269, 
272 n. i, 289 n. i, 433 n. i; 

II 142 n. 2, 390 sqq; III 25, 

36 n. i, 152 n. i, 160, 269 
n. 3, 341 n. i; IV 23 n. 2, 
48 n. 2. 

Shamir Khdnimlarimiz (Our 
Poetesses), III 171. See Our 

(The Crimson Peony), I 139; 

III 162 n. 4, 233. See Peony, 
the Crimson. 

Shebistdn-i Khaydl (The 
Nightchamber of the Fantasy), 
II 287 n. i; III 52. 

Shefiq-Ndme, V 16. 

Shehr-engiz of G Ashiq Che- 
lebi, III 162 n. 4. 

Shehr-engiz of c Azizf, III 
179 sqq. 

Shehr-engiz of Brusa, by 
Larnfi, III 23, 28. 

Shehr-engiz, by Mesfhi, I 
107; II 17, 231 sqq., 249 sqq. 

Shehr-engiz of Vardar Yeni- 
jesi, by Usulf, III 45. 

Shehr-engiz of Adrianople, 
by Zati, III 50. 

Sheitf u Perwdne (Taper 
and Moth), by Ahli, III 23. 

Shenf u Perwdne (Taper 
and Moth), by Lami c i, III 22, 

28 353> 3 62 se q- 

Shem c u Perwdne (Taper and 
Moth), by Mu c idi, III 160. 

Shem c u Perwdne (Taper 
and Moth), by Zati', I 107; 
III 50, 53 seq., 57, 354. 

Shemsiyye (Solar Poem), of 
Salah-ud-Din, I 389 seq; III 

sheref-ul-Insdn (The No- 
blesse of Humanity), III 20, 
21, 24 n. 4, 27. 

Sheref-Ndme (Book of Glory), 
I 144 n. 3. 

Shevq-Engiz (The Provoker 
of Mirth) by Sunbul-zada 
Vehbi', III 272 n. 2; IV 246 
seq., 252 sqq., 262 n. 5, 289 
n. 3. 

Shifd-ul-Esqdm ve Dewd-ul- 
' Aldm (The Healing of Ills and 
the Cure of Pains), I 260 n. i. 

Shikdyet-Ndma (Plaint), by 
Fuzvili, III 91. 

Shirin, a mesnevi attributed 
to Zati, III 50 n. i. 

Sihdm-i Qazd (Shafts of 
Doom), III 253 n. i, 273; IV 
272; V 69. 

Sihilet-uz-Zeheb, (The Chain 
of Gold), by Jami, I 231 n. 
I ; II 10. 



Simd^-Khdne-i Edeb (Audi- 
tory of Culture), I 422 n. 2 ; 
III 294 n. I, 297 n. i. 

Siret-un-Nebi (Biography of 
the Prophet), by Veysf, III 
208 n. i. 

Siydsat-Ndma, II 63 n. 4. 

es-Siydset-ush-Sher^iyye, III 
162 n. 4. 

Siyer-i Nebi (Acts of the 
Prophet) by Zati, III 50. 

Siyer-i Veysi (Veysi D s Life), 
III 208. 

Song of the Reed, the, IV 
84 n. 2. 

Spring, Ode on, by Mesi'hi, 
II 231 seq., 238 sqq. 

Story of the Nations' Series, 

II 26 n. 3; IV 229 n. i. 
Subhet-ul-Ebrdr (Rosary of 

the Just), I 100 ; II 9; III 
234, 236. 

Suhbet-ul-Ebkdr (Commu- 
nion of Virgins), I 100, 109; 

III 234 sqq. 

Suheyl u Nev-Bahdr (Cano- 
pus and Vere), of Ahmed, I 
226, 427. 

Suley man- Name (The Book 
of Suleyman), I 286. 

Sulhiyya, the, III 332. 

Supplement aux Diction- 
naires Arabes, I 414 n. 2. 

Sur-Ndme (The Book of the 
Festival), by Hashmet, IV 147. 

Sur-Ndme (The Book of the 
Festival), by Seyyid Vehbf, 

IV no. 

Sururi the Chronogramma- 
tist, by Ebu-z-Ziya Tevfiq 
Bey, IV 268. 


Taberi, the Annals of, I 
310 n. 2; III 15 n. i. 

Tableau General de I* Em- 
pire Othoman, I 237 n. 2. 

Takhrib-i Khardbdt (The 
Demolition of the Tavern ) 
V 85. 

Tdj-ut-Tewdrikli (The 
Crown of Chronicles), I 164 
n. i ; III 20 n. 2. See Crown 
of Chronicles, the. 

TcfUm-i Edebiyydt (Course, 
of Literature), by Ekrem Bey, 
I 124; III 14 n. 2, 81 n. i, 
116, 266, 267, 293, 329. See 
Course of Literature. 

Ta^qib (The Pursuit), V 85. 

Taqwim-i Meskiikdt-i C 0s- 
mdniyya (Essai de Numisma- 
tique Ottomane), I 225 n. i, 
262 n. 2; II 73 n. 5. 

Taqwim-i Vaqdyf, the Ott- 
oman official Gazette, V 100 
n. 5. 

Tdrikh-i *Atd ( G Ata 3 s His- 
tory), I 417 n. I ; II 78 n. 
3, 84 n. i. 

Tdrikh-i Chelebi-zdde, IV 
75 n. i. 

Tdrikh-i Qamincha, III 327 
n. 2. 

Tartufe, V 59. 

Tasvir-i Efkdr (The Tablet 

1 88 


of Opinions), V 26, 32, 33 
n. i. 

Tavern, the, by Ziya Pasha, 

III 142, 189, 195, 237. See 

Tazarrifdt-Ndme (Book of 
Humiliations), II 25. 

Tebsire (The Elucidation), 

IV 328. 

Tejnisdt, II 191 n. 3. 

Telemaque, V 13, 25, 59. 

Telmih, the, I 208. 

Terjih, the, by Cadi Bur- 
han-ud-Din, I 208. 

Terjumdn-i Ahwdl (The In- 
terpreter of Events), V 26. 

Terjumdn-i Haqiqat, name 
of a journal, I 150 n. I. 

Teshil-ut-Tibb (The Facili- 
tation of Medicine), I 260 
n. i. 

Tezkire, by Fatm Efendi, 

V 51 n. i, 65, 99 n. 4. 
Tezkire (Memoirs of the 

Poets), by Latffi, I 139; III 
7. See Latifi. 

Tezkire (Memoirs of the 
Poets), by Mfr C AH Shir, II 1 1. 

et-Tibr-ul-Mesbiik fi nastf- 
ih-il-Muliik, III 162 n. 4. 

Tuhfe (Gift), by c Asim Efendi, 
V 65. 

Tuhfe (Gift), by Shahidf, 
IV 176 n. 3, 257, 258 n. 2. 

Tuhfe (Gift), by Vehbi, IV 
242 n. 3, 257 sqq.; V 47,65. 

Tuhfet-id-Ahrdr (Gift for 
the Free), II 9; III 125,236. 

Tuhfet-ul-Haremeyn, III 
327 n. 3. 

Tuhfet-ul-Irshdd (The Gift 
of Guidance), IV 91 n. 2. 

Tuhfet-ul ^Ushshdq (A Gift 
to Lovers), by Hamdi, II 190, 
191 sqq., 220 sqq., 376. 

Turkje Shirlar (Turkish 
Poems), by Mehemmed Emin 
Bey, I 134 n. i. 

Turkey in the Story of the 
Nations' Series, II 26 n. 3 ; 
IV 229 n. i. 

Turkish Poetry, pamphlet on, 
by Sir James Redhouse, IV 
314 n. 4. 


Uigurische Spraclimonu- 
mente und das Kudatku Bi- 
lik, I 71 n. i. 

c Ulum, name of a newspa- 
per, V 73. 

Un Diplomate Ottoman en 
1836, IV 328 n. 2. 

^Uqud-ul-Jewdhir (The 
Strings of Gems), I 257. 


Vdmiq and c Azrd, of Bi- 
hishti, II 376 n. i ; III 24 n. 2. 

Vdmiq and c Azrd, of La- 
mi c i, III 22, 24, 28, 353, 357 

Vdmiq and c Azrd, by Un- 
surf, III 22, 26. 

Vdqfa-Ndme (The Vision), 
by Veysi, III 208, 209. 



Venus and Adonis, I 115. 

Verqd u Gulshd, III 107. 

Vilddet-Ndme, IV 147. 

Vise u Rdmin, I 107. 

Visa (Vis) and Rdmin, by 
Fakhr-i Jurjanf, III 22, 370 
n. i. 

Visa and Rdmin, of Lami c i, 

III 22, 27, 28, 31, 353, 360 

Vocabulary, riming Persian- 
Turkish, by Ziya Pasha, V 65. 
Vulgate, the, II 159 n. I. 


Waqt, name of a newspaper, 
V 59 n. i. 

Watan (The Fatherland), 
V 15. 

Wdriddt-i Ghaybiyya (In- 
spirations from the Unseen), 

IV 91 n. 2. 

Wegweiser zum Verstdnd- 
niss der Tiirkischen Sprache, 
I 438 n. 3. 

Wolf and the Lamb, the, 

V 32. 


Yatimat-ud-Dahr, IV 73 
n. 2. 

Year amongst the Persians, 
a. See Persians, a Year 
amongst the. 

Yorgi Dandini, V 14. 

Yusuf u Zelikhd. See Jo- 
seph and Zelikhd. 

Young Eagle and the Crow, 
the, V 34. 


Zafer-Ndme (Victory-Book), 
by Sabit, IV 21, 28. 

Zafer-Ndme (The Book of 
Victory), by Ziya Pasha, V 
62, 69 sqq., 83, 96 sqq. 

Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Mo rgen Id ndisch en Gesellsch aft, 
I 157 n. i. See Journal of 
the German Oriental Society. 

Zemzeme, by Ekrem Bey, 
III 271. 

Zendn-Ndme (The Book of 
Women), IV 223 seq., 227 
sqq., 236 sqq. 

Zenbiir u c Asel (Bee and 
Honey), III 107. 

Zeyl-i Siyer-i Veysi, III 327 
n. i. 

Ziyd Pasha's Story of his 
Childhood, V 42 n. 2. 

Zizimi, prince Ottoman, 
amoureux de Philippine-He- 
lene de Sassenage, II 80 n. i. 

Zor Nikdhi, V 14. 

Zoraki Tabib, V 14. 

Zubdet-ul-Esh c dr (Cream of 
Poems), III 162 n. 4; 204. 

Zuhurdt-i Mekkiyye (Mec- 
can Manifestations), IV 91 n. 2. 



' ' Abd-i Setfa (The Seven 
Sires), I 48. 

c Abir, unguent, I 334 n. 3. 

^Adam (not-being), IV 330. 
See Not-being. 

c Adan, Arabic name for 
Eden and Aden, III 300 n. 2. 

'Aghd (sergeant), III 364. 

'Ahenk (harmony), V 48 n. 2. 

Ajil, II 345 n. 5. 

Akdsira, plural oiKisrd, III 
148 n. 6. 

Akhldt-i erbcfa (the four 
humours), I 301 n. i. See 
Humours, the four. 

c Aks (Antistrophe), I 115. 

'Al (red), II 239 n. 2. 

'Al (family), II 239 n. 2. 

c 'A/em (The Universe), I 41. 

Alem-i ' Ab (The World 
Aquose), IV 106 n. i. 

a Alem-i A^ydn-i Sdbita (The 
World of the Fixed Proto- 
types), I 55. 

c ' Alem-i Berzakh (The In- 
termediate World), I 55. 

'Alem-i Ghayb (The In- 
visible World), I 56. 

v Alem-i Hissi (The Sensible 
World), I 56 n. i. 

c 'Alem-i Insdn (The World 
of Man), I 56, 

'Alem-i Jeberiit (The World 
of Might), I 55. 

'Alem-i Kevn u Fesdd (The 
World of Generation and Cor- 
ruption), I 56 n. i. 

'Alem-i Kubrd (The Greater 
World or Macrocosm), I 62. 

c 'Alem-i Ldhut (The World 
of Godhead), I 55. 

c 'Alem-i Ma'dni (The World 
of Meanings), I 55 n. 2. 

'Alem-i Melekiit (The Angel 
World), I 55, 56. 

'Alem-i Misdl (The World 
of Similitudes), I 55. 

Alem-i Mulk (The World 
of the Kingdom), I 56, i88n. 2. 

'Alem-i Shehddet (The Visi- 
ble World), I 55, 56. 

c 'Alem-i Sughrd (The Lesser 
World or Microcosm), I 62. 

v Alem-i Siiret (The World 
of Form), I 56 n. i. 

'Al-i c Abd (The Family of 
the Cloak), III 105 n. 2. 

a Alim (Knower), name of 
God, I 409 n. i. 

Alldhu Ekber, II 244 n. 2. 



Altmishlu, class ofmuderris, 

II 398. 

Altun, name of a coin, II 
26 n. 2. 

'Amedji, the office of, IV 324. 

Anadoli Muhdsibejisi (Audi- 
tor for Anatolia), III 326. 

Anbshak-riibdn, title, II 63 
n. 4. See Nushfrewan. 

Aq, used as a sobriquet, II 
138 n. i. 

Aqcha, name of a coin, I 
262 n. 2. 

Aqcha-i C 0smani, I 262 n. 2. 

*Aql (Reason), I 197 n. 2; 

II 389 n. i. 

c Aql-i Evvel (First Intelli- 
gence), I 42. See Intelligence, 
the Primal ; Logos. 

c Aql-i Fa^dl (Active Intel- 
ligence), I 43; III 356. 

c Aql-i Kull (Universal Intel- 
ligence), I 42. See c Aql-i Evvel. 

c Aql-i Mahjiib (Veiled Rea- 
son), II 199 n. i. 

c Aql-i Nefsdni (Carnal Rea- 
son), III 128 n. 5. 

' Aqd-yi Seyyid, nickname of 
hashish, II 340 n. i. 

c Araba (coach), IV 314. 

c Araq (spirit), III 89 n. 2. 

c Araz (Accident), I 41. 

Arpa Emini (Intendant of 
the Barley), IV 58. 

c ArsA (Throne of God), I 
35, 68, 172 n. 3, 372, 399; 

III 55 n- 3; IV 70 n. 3. 
'Asdr (works), I 407. 

^Ases-Bdshi (Captain of the 
Watch), III 217 n. i. 

"Ashiq, title given to a class 
of poets, V 46 n. i. 

c Ashq-i haqiqi (real love), 
III 174 n. 2; IV 123 n. i. See 
Love, Typal and Real. 

v Ashq-i mejdzi (typal love), 
III 174 n. 2; IV 123 n. I. 
See Love, Typal and Real. 

"Ashurd (iot h of Muharrem), 
the, IV 112 n. i. 

'Asitdna, name of Constan- 
tinople, III 214 n. i. 

' Asitdna-i Safddet (The 
Threshold of Felicity), III 214 
n. i. 

'Asmdn u rismdn, Persian 
phrase, IV 152 n. r. 

Asper = aqcha, I 262 n. 2. 

' Asumdni, name of a boot, 
III 295 n. 2. 

'Asydb (mill), V 48 n. 2. 

Atles (satin), I 43 n. 2; IV 
136 n. i. 

c Awdlim-i Khamsa (The 
Five Worlds), I 54. See Worlds, 
the Five. 

A c y an (Prototypes), 1 4 1 o n. 2. 

A^ydn-i Devlet (Grandees of 
the Empire), II 274 n. 2. 

A c ydn-i Sdbita, (The Fixed 
Prototypes), I 55 n. i. See 
Ideas, the Platonic. 

Ayaq, III 186 n. i. 

' Ayna (mirror), V 30. 

c Ayn-i Tevhid (The Eye of 
Unity), I 328 n. i. 



c Ayn-i Yaqin (The Eye of 
Certainty), I 328 n. I. 

'Ayydsh, III 185 n. 7. 

'Azdd (free), epithet of the 
cypress, II 208 n. 8. 

'Azdd, meanings of, II 324 
n. i. 

c Azebs (light horse), III 364. 

Azghds-i ahldm (tangled 
dreams), I 57 n. I. 

^Aziz-i Misr (Grandee of 
Egypt), II 157 n. i. 

c Azrd (virgin), III 183 n. 4. 

Bdb (Chapter), I 183. 
Baba (Father), I 176. 
Bahr-i Muhit (The Encir- 
cling Ocean), I 38. 

Bal tutan par maghiniy alar, 

II 320 n. 5. 

Baqam (brazil-wood), II 213 
n. 2. 

Bald, the grade of, V 105 
n. 3. 

yf&*, a kind of brocade, IV 
133 n. 3. 

Bdri (Creator), name of God, 
I 409 n. i. 

Bashmaqliq (Shoe-money), 

III 216 n. 2. 

Batt-i mey (wine-goose), III 
346 n. 6. 

JBafe (Partial), I 119. 

Bed? (Euphuism), I 112, 
1 24, 212, 306. See "Ilm-i Bedf. 

Beglikji, name of an official, 
III 304 n. i. See Beylikji. 

Behemiit (Behemoth), I 39. 

Belde-i Tayyiba (The Goodly 
City), name of Constantinople, 

III 214 n. i. 

Bend (Tie), I 90, 91. 

Beng (bang), III 89 n. i. 

Berd^at-i Istihldl (Eloquent 
Presagement), I 123. 

Bey an (Exposition), I in, 
124. See c llm-i Bey an. 

Beylikji, the office of, IV 


Beyt (Couplet), I 79. 

Beyt (house of a planet), I 
328 n. i. 

Beyt-ul-Ahzdn or Beyt-i Ah- 
zdn (The House of Sorrows), 
II 162 n. i ; III 309 n. 3. 

Beyt-ul-G hazel (Beyt-i G ha- 
zel), I 81. 

Beyt-i Ma c mur (The Fre- 
quented House), I 37. See 
Ka c ba. 

Beyt-ul-Qasid, I 85. 

Binish, double meaning of, 

IV 131 n. 6. 
Bismil, I 174 n. 2. 
Borek, II 334 n. i. 
Boza, III 89 n. 2. 
Bulbul (Nightingale), I 246 

n. 3. 

Bulugh-i haqiqi (the true 
age of discretion), III 42. 

Burhdn (Proof), I 209 n. 3. 

Chaqshir, IV 131 n. 7. 
Chars, III 89 n. i. 
Chaiuush (Pursuivant), II 
237 n. 2. 


Chay, IV 68 n. 2. 

Chekmek, IV 156 n. 3. 

Chelebi, meaning of, I 13911.4. 

Chelebi Efendi (title), I 151 
n. 3, 422 ; IV 177 n. I, 178, 212. 

Chelebi Sultan (title), II 366. 

Cherkh-i Atlas (The Fleck- 
less Sphere), I 43. See Pri- 
mum Mobile. 

Cherkh-i A c zam (the Most 
Great Sphere), I 43. See Pri- 
mum Mobile. 

Chille, IV 156 n. 3. 

^J^- : IV 170 n. i. 

Chorek, II 334 n. 12. 

Ddgh (sore), II 206 n. 2, 
214 n. 4, 279 n. 5. 

Dd c i (bedesman), makhlas 
of the poet Ahmed, I 259 ri. 8. 

Dakhil, I 75 n. i. 

Ddkhil, class of muderris, 

II 393. 

Ddkhil medreses, II 396. 

Ddnishmend, II 397. 

Ddr u gir, III 19 n. 4. 

Darisi bashine, IV 292 n. 2. 

Ddriyye (mansion-poem), III 

Ddr-ul-Hadis, a class of 
Muderris, II 399. 

Ddr-ul-Jeldl (The Mansion 
of Glory), I 36 n. i. 

Ddr-ul-Jihdd (Seat of the 
holy war), I 397 n. 2. 

Ddr-us-Seldm (The Abode 
of Peace), name of Baghdad, 
III 71. 

Ddr-us-Seldm (The Man- 
sion of Peace), one of the Eight 
Paradises, I 36 n. I. 

Ddstdn (legend), I 183, 270. 

Dede (title), I 195 n. 3 ; IV 
175 n. i. 

Defter-i A c mdl (Register of 
Deeds), II 213 n. 7. 

Defter Emini, the office of, 
IV 93. 

Defterddr, the office of, I 
428; II 25, 366; II 264; III 
216 n. 4; IV 68, 93. 

Defter-Khdne, IV 92. 

Deniz qulaghi, III 99 n. 2. 

Der-i Devlet, name of Con- 
stantinople, III 214 n. I. 

Der-i Sa^ddet, name of Con- 
stantinople, III 214 n. i. 

Destdr, IV 133 n. I. 

Deverdn-i Vujud (the Circle 
of Existence), I 52. 

Devlet- fAliyy a, official title of 
the Ottoman State, III 207 n. i. 

Devlet-i Behiyya-i 'Iran, of- 
ficial title of the Persian State, 
III 207 n. i. 

Devshima, a species of con- 
scription, III 117, 1 20. 

Dibdje (Prologue), II 234. 

Dik-i c Arsh (The Cock of 
the Throne), II 333 n. 3. 

Din ve dunydsini yapmaq, 
II 320 n. 7. 

Div-bend, title of King Tah- 
muras, III 360. 

Diwdn (Collection of Poems), 
I 85, 100, 102. 




Diwdn Efendisi (Secretary 
of Divan), II 96 n. 2. 

Du-Beyt, I 89. 

Dukhter-i pir-i mughdn, III 
269 n. 4. 

Dukhter-i rez, III 269 n. 4. 

Durr-i meknun (hidden 
pearls), I 398 n. 2. 

o, IV 128 n. 6. 

Efldk-ijuffiyye (subordinate 
spheres), I 45 n. i. 

Ehl-i Bdtin (Followers of 
the Esoteric), I 26 n. i. 

Ehl-i Tasawwuf (Followers 
of Sufiism), I 26 n. i. See 
Sufi and Sufiism. 

Ejr-i gheyr-i memnun, I 
398 n. 2. 

E-lest, Day of, I 363 n. 9; 
II 75 n. i, 207 n. 6. 

E-lest, the Feast of, IV 339 
n. 6. See Banquet, the Primal. 

E-lest, the Pact of, IV 65 
n. 6. 

E-lest, Wine of, I 23. 

E-lestu, I 22, 246 n. 4. 

Elif, the letter, III 177 n. 2. 

Emdnet (trust), IIl3i6n. i. 
See Trust, the. 

Enderun, IV 221 n. i. See 

Enderimi, IV 221 n. i, 279. 

Engelyim, IV 70 n. 2. 

Entari, IV 131 n. 9. 

Enjumen-i Danish (the Im- 
perial Academy of Science and 
Literature), V 8, 24. 

Ergen, IV 321 n. i. 

Erghavdn, III 30 n. 3, 152 
n. 5. See Judas-tree. 

Evqdf (religious endow- 
ments), III 162 n. 4. 

Erteng, II 313 n. 5; III 66 
n. i; IV 43 n. 3, 70 n. 2. 

Erwdh-i Jeberiitiyye (Spirits 
of Might), 155. 

Erzheng, II 313 n. 5; III 
66 n. i; IV 43 n. 3. 

Esmd (Names), I 61 n. 2. 
See Names of God, the. 

Esmd-i Ildhiyye (Divine Na- 
mes), I 61. See Names of God, 

Esrd, name of a chapter of 
the Koran, IV 22 n. i. 

Estaghfinf lldh (I ask par- 
don of God), II 244 n. 2. 

Ey Deli (O mad one), I 191 
n. 2. 

Ey Hakim (O Sage), I 191 
n. 2. 

Ey Jan (O Soul), I 191 n. 2. 

Ey Safd (O Joy), I 191 n. 2. 

Eyn, the Category of Place, 
I 41 n. 2. 

Faghfiir, title of the Em- 
peror of China, I 286; III no, 
139 n. i. 

Fd^ildtun (in Arabic Pros- 
ody), V 49 n. i. 

Fakhriyya, III 158 n. i, 257, 
270, 293; IV 193. 

Fa c l (Activity), I 41 n. 2. 

Fdlji (diviner), III 48 n. i. 


Fdnus, III 175 n. 2. 

Fdnus-i gerddn, III 175 n. 2. 

Fdnus-i Khaydl, (Magic- 
fanal), III 175 n. 2. 

Faqih (jurist), III 67 n. 5. 

Fasdhat (correctness of dic- 
tion), III 255. 

Fast (canto), I 236. 

Fdtiha (opening chapter of 
the Koran), the, I 236, 339, 
361 n. 7, 36$ n. i, 406; III 
61 n. 2, 191 n. 5, 195, 295 
n. 3; IV 162. 

Felek-i Atlas, IV 136 n. i, 
339 n. i. See Sphere, the 
Satin, and Primum Mobile. 

Felek-ul- (the Sphere 
of Spheres), I 43 ; IV 339 n. 
i. See Sphere, the Ninth, and 
Primum Mobile. 

Fel-fes, IV 170 n. 2. 

Fenn-i Furs, II 364. See 

Ferd (Unit), I 79. 

Fermele, IV 132 n. 6. 

Fermene, IV 132 n. 6. 

Ferrdsh, the, III 16 n. 5. 

Ferz, III 249 n. i. See 

Ferzdna, III 249 n. i. 

Ferzin, III 249 n. i. 

Fetwd (canonical decision), 
I 234; II 353 n. 2. 

Firqa-i Ndjiye (the sect that 
will be saved), I 379 n. i. 

Firqa-i Hdlike (the sect 
that will perish), I 379 n. i. 

Fitne (worry), I 257 n. 3. 

Funun-i jutfiyye (the parti- 
cular arts) I 261 n. 2. 

Futa (bathing-towel), II 251 
n. 5. 

Genj-i Rewdn (The moving 
Treasure), II 117 n. 4. 

Germiyan-oghli, patrony- 
mic, I 264. 

Gevher (jevher), meanings 
of, I 295 n. 3. 

Ghanimet, name of a musi- 
cal air, III 347 n. 5. 

Gharbi (western) V 7. 

Ghayb-i Muzdf (Relatively 
Invisible), I 55. 

G hazel, I 80, 102, 144. 

Ghazel-i mudevver (circular 
ghazel), IV 250 n. i. 

Ghdzi (Champion), title, III 
155 n. 3. 

Ghilmdn (youths of Para- 
dise), I 245 n. 3. See Eternal 

Ghuluvv, I 112 n. i. 

Ghurdb-ul-Beyn (The Crow 
of Parting), II 214 n. 3. See 
Crow, the. 

Ghurush, Turkish coin, I 
262 n. 2. 

Gil (clay), III 237 n. 3. 

Giribdn, III 154 n. 5, 230 
n. 4. 

Girishme, IV 170 n. i. 

Giti-numd (world-displayer), 
name of a glass, I 278. 

Gozine durmaq II 320 n. 2. 

Gozgil (mirror), V 30. 

Gul (rose), III 237 n. 3. 



Gul Qasidasi (Rose Qasida), 
I 101. 

Gul-i sad-berg (Cabbage 
rose), III 162 n. 2. 

Gulaj, II 335 n. 5. 

Gulndr, III 267 n. 2. 

Gulshen (rose-garden), II 75 
n. i. 

Guriz, I 84 n. i. 

Guriz-gdh, I 84 n. i ; III 
148 n. 4, 266 n. i, 269 n. 2. 

Guyende (minstrel), II 386 11.4. 

Habbet-id-Khazrd (grain of 
green), I 385 n. 3. 

Habib (Beloved), title of 
Muhammed, III 197 n. i. 

Habib-ulldh, title of Mu- 
hammed, I 243 n. 2; III 113 
n. i. 

Habs-i nefes (holding the 
breath), III 240 n. 3. 

Hadda (gauge-plate), IV 261 
n. i. 

Hadis, (Apostolic Tradi- 
tion), I 1 6, 17 n. i, 24, 54 
n. i, 113, 170 n. 5, 184, 188 
n. i, 194 n. 2, 216 n. 2, 241 
n. i, 242 n. i, 366 n. 7, 369 
n- i, 373, 379 n. i, 396 n. 4, 
397 n. i, 399, 424 n. 2; II 
23, 57 n. 4, 68 n. i, 140 n. 
3, 210 n. 2, 239 n. 2, 247 
n. i, 271 n. 4, 274 n. i, 390 
n. I ; III 195 ; IV 117 n. 2, 
136 n. 3, 147, 150 n. 2, 187 
n. i ; V 99 n. 2. See Tradi- 
tions of the Prophet. 

Hadis-i Qudsi (Divine Tra- 
dition), I 17 n. i, 370 n. 4. 

Hadis-i Sher if (Blessed Tra- 
dition), I 17 n. i. 

Hdfiz, meaning of, II 218 
n. 8, 254. 

Hdfiza (memory), IV 172 
n. 3. 

Hajj, the pilgrimage to 
Mecca, I 243 n. 3. 

Hdjji Leylek (Pilgrim Stork), 
II 386 n. 9. 

Hal (Ecstasy), I 59. 

Haldli (union-tissue), IV 
293 n. 2. 

El-hamdu Iflldh (Praise be 
to God), II 244 n. 2. 

Hdmil (deferent), I 45 n. i. 

Haqtfiq (Verities), I 407. 

Haqq (the Divine), I 42. 

Haqq (Truth), Sufi term for 
God, I 60. 

Haqq-i Tevhid (Truth of 
Unity), I 328 n. i. 

Haqq-i Yaqin (Truth of 
Certainty), I 328 n. i. 

Hardret-i Ghariziyye (Nat- 
ural Heat), I 190 n. 3. 

Hareket-i Altmishlu, class 
of Muderris, II 399. 

Hareket-i Ddkhil, class of 
Muderris, II 399. 

Hareket-i Eyniyye (Spatial 
Movement), I 45 n. 2. 

Hareket-i Kemiyye (Quanti- 
tative Movement), I 45 n. 2. 

Hareket-i Key fiyye (Qualita- 
tive Movement), I 45 n. 2. 



Hareket-i Khdrij, class of 
Muderris, II 399. 

Hasb-i Hal (Plaint), II 78 
n. 3. 

Hashish, II 340 n. i ; III 
89 n. i. 

Hdtif, the unseen, III 124. 

Hdtif-i Jdn (Inward Moni- 
tor), I 313. 

Hawd, the two meanings 
of, II 204 n. 3, 206 n. i, 209 
n. 2, 221 n. ii; III 157 n. 4. 

Hawd-engiz, II 204 n. 3. 

Hawaii-Top (sky-cannon), 
II 239 n. 4. 

Hayder (Lion), surname of 
the Caliph c Ali, III 289 n. 3 ; 
IV 123 n. 2; V 93 n. 3. 

el-Hayy (the Living), a name 
of God, II 202 n. 3. 

Hazf, name of a rhetorical 
figure, I 121. 

Hazrdt-i Khamsa (The Five 
Planes), 1 55. 

Hazret-i c Amd (Plane of the 
Nebulosity), I 55. 

Hazret-i Ghayb-i Mutlaq 
(Plane of the Absolutely In- 
visible), I 55. 

Heft Manzar (the Seven 
Pavilions), III 367. 

Hekim Bashi (Chief Physi- 
cian), II 399 n. 2. 

Helwd-yi raqib (rivaPs 
sweetmeat), II 108 n. i. 

Hemshire-i sdqi-i sheng, III 
269 n. 4. 

Heyiild (Matter), I 45. 

Hezej, name of a metre, I 
88 n. i, 89, 107, no, 309, 
376; III 213. 

Hezeliyydt (Facetiae), I 98. 

Hijdb-i niirdni (veil of ra- 
diance), I 405 n. 2. 

Hijdb-i zulmdni (veil of 
darkness), I 405 n. 2. 

Hijdz, name of a musical 
mode, III 150 n. 2. 

Hijre (the Muhammedan 
era), I 98. 

Hijv (Satire), I 98. 

Hikdyet-i Mundsib (Apposite 
Tale), II 145. 

Hikmet-i ^Amaliyye (Practi- 
cal Philosophy), I 40. 

Hikmet-i Nazariyye (Theo- 
retic or Speculative Philo- 
sophy), I 39. 

Hinna (henna), pronounced 
qina in Turkish, III 98 n. i. 

Hisdb-ul-Bendn (Finger- 
Counting), I 104 n. 2. See 
Parmaq Hisdbi. 

Hiss-i Mushier ek the (Com- 
mon Sense), I 50. 

Hubut, astrological term, I 
328 n. i. 

Hu-hang, III 139 n. i. 

Hulul (immanence of God 
in Man), I 382 n. i. 

Humd, the, I 331 n. 5 and 
6 ; II 90 n. i and 2, 2IO n. 3 
221 n. II ; III 153 11. 3; IV 
27 n. 2, 92 n. i. 

Huqqa-bdz (juggler), II 38 
n. 4. 



Hurriyyet (liberty), II V 19. 

Huseyni, IV 132 n. 10. 

Husn-i Maqtcf (Beauty of 
the Maqta c ), I 81. 

Husn-i Matlaf (Beauty of 
the Matla c ), I 81. 

Husn-i Tcflil (Aetiology), 
I 113, 220 n. 3, 333 n. 3 and 
4; II 36 n. 2, 37 n. 4, 87 n. 
i, 246 n. 8, 279 n. 3, 361 n. 
10; III 55 n. 5/9311. 2, 152 n. 
4, 154 n. 3, 156 n. 3, 282 n. 
3, 301 n. 2; IV 63 n. 2, 127 
n. i. See Aetiology. 

Fade (Epanastrophe), I 116. 

Iblis, derivation of, IV 172 
n. i. 

Ibn, used an a patronymic, 
III 12 n. 2. 

Ibtidd-i Altmishlu, class of 
Muderris, II 399. 

Ibtidd-i Ddkhil, class of Mu- 
derris, II 399. 

Ibtidd-i Khdrij, class of Mu- 
derris, II 399. 

Ich guwegisi (indoor bride- 
groom), IV 304 n. i. 

I chine qan olmaq, II 320 
n. 2. 

Idrdk (perception), IV 172 
n. 3. 

Ighrdq, I 112 n. i. 

'Ihdm (Amphibology), I 
113, 215 n. i, 216 n. 2, 230 
n. 5, 295 n. 3, 364 n. 5; II 
137 n. i; III 144, 150 n. 2, 
156 n. 2, 157 n. 4, 178 n. 8, 

186 n. i, 249 n. i; IV 156 
n. 3. See Amphibology. 

' Ihdm-i Tendsub (Amphibo- 
logical Congruity), I 113. 

Iki-telli qabaq, a kind of 
lute, IV 170 n. 3. 

c llm (Knowledge), I 197 n. i. 

c llm-i Ahddis (Tradition), 
II 397. See Hadis and Tra- 
ditions of the Prophet. 

c llm-i Akhldq (Ethics), I 40. 

c llm-i A c td (the Higher 
Science), I 40 n. 3. 

^Ilm-i "Aqd^id (Dogmatics), 

II 397- 

c llm-i Bed? (Art of Eu- 
phuism), I ill, 112; II 396. 

c llm-i Beldghat (Art of Rhe- 
toric), I III; II 396 n. 3. 

^Ilm-i Bey an (Art of Expo- 
sition), I ill; II 396. 

^Ilm-i Edeb (Humanity), II 


c llm-i Esfel (the Lower 
Science), I 40 n. 3. 

c llm-i Evsat (the Interme- 
diate Science), I 40 n. 3. 

c llm-i Fiqh (Jurisprudence), 

II 397- 

c llm-i Hendese (Geometry), 

II 396. See Geometry. 

c llm-i Hey'et (Astronomy), 
II 396. See Astronomy. 

c llm-i Huruf (Science of 
the Letters), I 341. 

c llm-i Ildhi (Metaphysics), 
I 40. 

c llm-i Keldm (Scholastic 


Philosophy), II 396. See Mu- 
tekellimin and Scholastics. 

^Ilm-i Ma c dni (Science of 
Significations), I 1 1 1 ; II 396. 

^Ilm-i Mantiq (Logic), I 40 
n. 4; II 396. 

c !lm-iNahv (Syntax), II 396. 

^Ilm-i Reml (Geomancy), I 
389 n. i. 

c llm-i Riydzi (Mathematics), 
I 40. 

c llm-i Sarf (Grammar), II 


c llm-i Tabfi (Physics), I 40. 

c llm-i Tcfbir (the Science of 
Interpretation of Dreams), I 
389 n. i. See Dreams. 

c llm-i Tasavvuf (Sufiism, 
I 15. See Sufiism; Stiff; Mys- 
ticism ; Mystics. 

c llm-i Tedbir-ul-Medine (Po- 
litics), I 40. 

c llm-i Tedbir-ul-Menzil 
(Oeconomics), I 40. 

-i Teressul, I 257. 

Tevhid (Knowledge 
of the Unity), I 166 n. 6, 304 
n. 2, 328 n. i. 

c llm-i Tivil (Exegesis), II 


c llm-i Yaqin (the Know- 
ledge of Certainty), I 328 n. i. 

Iltizdm (Supererogation), I 
75 n. i, 122. 

Imdle (Inclination), I 106-; 
III 14, 15, 53, 143, 256. 

Imdm, meaning of, II 218 
n. i. 

Imdm = precentor, III 215 
n. 4. 

Imkdn (Contingent Exi- 
stence), I 42 n. 2. See Being, 

I c ndt, name of a rhetorical 
figure, I 122. 

Injfdl (Passivity), I 41 n. 2. 

Insdn (Man), I 48. 

Insdn-i Kdmil (the Perfect 
Man), I 52. See Man, the 

Ipsiz, IV 131 n. 2. 

Iqtibds (Quotation), I 112. 

Irddi (voluntary), I 44. 

Irsdd (Preparation), I 121. 

Irsdl-i Mesel (Proverbial 
Commission), I 114; III 329; 
IV 76. 

Isfahan, name of a melody, 
IV 49 n. 3. 

Ishtiqdq (Paronymy), I 120. 

Ism-i A c zam (the Most Great 
Name), I 379 n. 2 ; III 56 n. 6. 
See Name, the Most Great ; and 
God, the Most Great Name of. 

Ism-i Rabb (the Name Sus- 
tainer), I 410 n. 3. 

Ism-i Zdt (the Name of 
Self), I 409 n. i. 

Ismid (stibium), II 274 n. i. 

1st? are (Trope), I m n. i. 

Izdfet (Persian genitive con- 
struction), III 8 1 n. 2. 

Izdfet (Relation), I 41 n. i. 

"Izdr (cheek), III 183 n. 4. 

*Izzet (Excellence), IV 157 
n. 2. 



Jam (bowl, III 156 n. 5. 

Jdm-i Giti-numd (the World- 
displaying Cup), II 71 n. i. 

Jdm-i Jem, Jdm-i Jemshid. 
See Jemshid, the cup of. 

Jdm-i Jihdn-numd (the 
World-displaying Cup), II 71 
n. i. 

Jdn-i "Alem (the World- 
Soul), I 42 n. 3. 

Jdn-i Jihdn (the World- 
Soul), I 42 n. 3. 

Janizari, II 76 n. i. See 

Jdriye (slave-girl), II 361 n. 7. 

Jeberut (Might), I 55 n. 4, 
56 n. 2. 

Jeberiitiyye, I 55 n. 4. 

Jeldl (the Awful), I 171 n. 
2. See Attributes of Awfulness. 

Jemdl (the Beautiful), I 171 
n. 2. See Attributes of Beauty. 

Jemdzi, the Latter, IV 298 
n. 2. 

Jennet (Paradise), III 183 n. 
6; V 30. 

Jennet-i ^Adn (Garden of 
Eden), I 36. 

Jennet-ul-Firdevs (the Gar- 
den of Paradise), I 36 n. i. 

Jennet-ul-Khuld(\ho. Garden 
of Eternity), I 36 n. i. 

Jennet-ul-Mewd (the Garden 
of the Abode), I 36 n. i. 

Jennet-un-Na'im (the Gar- 
den of Delight), I 36 n. i. 

Jennet-ul-Qardr (the Gar- 
den of Abidance), I 36 n. i. 

Jerid, III 287. 

Jerr (Traction), I i87n. 2. 

Jevher (Substance), I 41. 

Jevher-i ferd (atom), I 67 
n. i, 217 n. 5, 295 n. 3. 

Jevher chichegi (jewel- 
flower), IV 286 n. 3. 

Jevher ddr (Gemmed), I 98. 

Jevherin (Gemmed), I 98. 

Jewdb (Response), I too. 

Jewdb-i shdfi (healing ans- 
wer), II 273 n. 4. 

Jinds (Homonymy), I 116 

Jinds-i Muzdevij (Coupled 
Homonymy), I 119. 

Jinn, the, I 38, 245 n. 5 ; 

II 2l8 n. 2; III 113 n. 2; 

IV 201 n. 2. 

Jism (Body), definition of r 
I 45 n. 3. 

Jism-i Kull (Universal Body), 
I 43 n. 3. See Primum Mobile. 

Jism-i Mutlaq (Body in the 
Abstract), I 45. 

Kafir (infidel), name for a 
beauty, II 44 n. 3. See Infi- 
del and Paynim. 

Kafir qizi (paynim maid), 

III 85. 

Kdfiri kharti, II 78. 

Kdtib-i Diwdn (Secretary of 
Divan), II 98 n. 2. 

Kebab, IV 214 n. i. 

Keh-Keshdn (the Straw- 
bearers), III 147 n. 3. See 
Strawbearers' path, the. 


20 1 

Kelime (the Muslim Confes- 
sion of Faith), II 218 n. 4. 

Kern (Quantity), I 41 n. 2. 

Kemend, (lasso), II 1 14 n. 6. 

Kendini oqut, IV 25 n. i. 

Kenez, (title) V 105 n. i. 

Kerake, IV 132 n. 4. 

Keshf (unveilment), I 59, 
327 n. 2. 

Keshkul, (begging-bowl), IV 


Kesre-i khafifa, III 212, 
213 n. i ; IV 184 n. i. 

Kevn u Fesdd (Generation 
and Corruption), I 47. 

Keyf (Quality), I 41 n. 2. 

Keyfiyydt (Qualities), I 47. 

Keymus (chyme), IV 340 
n. 2. 

Ktfdb-i bi-ghaflet (sleep 
unoblivious), II 210 n. 2. 

Ktfdb-i ghaflet (sleep obli- 
vious), II 210 n. 2. 

Khafif, name of a metre, 
I 109, 305; II 144, 199 n. 3. 

Khaftdn Aghast (Master of 
the Robes of Honour), IV 212. 

Khald (vacuum), I 44. 

Khalil (Intimate), II 253 n. 5. 

Khalil-ulldh (God's Inti- 
mate), title of Abraham, II 
118 n. 2, 253 n. 5. 

Khalldqu ^l-Mcfdni (Creator 
of Ideas), title of Kemal-ud- 
Din of Isfahan, II 291 n. 2; 
III 51 n. i. 

Khalqin gozlerini boyardi, 
a Turkish idiom, I 300 n. i. 

Khan, meanings of, I 413 
n. 2. 

Khdnim, title given to Tur- 
kish ladies, II 123 n. i. 

Khdqdn, title of the Empe- 
rors of Tartary, II 115 n. 
6; III 139 n. i. 

Khdrchin, name of a metal, 

I 276. 

Khdrij (External), class of 
Muderris, II 398. 

Khdrij (External) medreses, 

II 396. 

Khdss Hdjib (Privy Coun- 
cillor), I 71. 

Khatib (preacher), II 73 n. 6. 

Khatt (writing or down), II 
89 n. 5, 137 n. i, 282 n. 2, 
315 n. 7. See Down. 

Khatti (Scriptory), I 119. 

Khatt-i reyhdni, a kind of 
handwriting, II 282 n. 2. 

Khatt-i Ydquti, a kind of 
handwriting, III 220 n. 2. 

Khatim (Lady), II 123 n. i. 

Khawdmis-i Suleymdniyye, 
class of Muderris, II 399. 

Khaydl (Fantasy), I 50; 
II 36 n. 7, 208 n. 2; IV 172 
n. 3. See Fantasy. 

Khayfd, rhetorical figure, I 

Khayr-ul-'Al (the Best of 
Families), II 239 n. 3. 

Khayr-ul-Besher (Best of 
Mankind), title of Muhammed, 
I 243 n. i. 

Khayr-ul-Endm (Best of 



Mankind), title of Muhammed, 
I 243 n. i. 

Khazina Odasi (Treasury 
Chamber), IV 227. 

KhiFat (robe of honour), IV 
133 n. 8. 

Khirman (stackyard), II 55 

n. 3- 

Khirman-i mdh (stackyard 
of the moon), II 63 n. 3. 

Khirqa (frock worn by der- 
vishes), IV 133 n. i. 

Khit dm-ul-misk (a musky 
close), IV 181 n. i. 

Khitta-i Sham, double 
meaning of, III 343 n. 2. 

Khoja (government master- 
clerk), III 194. 

Khoja (preceptor), I 164 n. 
i; II 395 n. 2, 399 n. 2. 

Khoja Merjdn (Master Co- 
ral), II 340 n. i. 

Khojaliq (Master-Clerkship), 

HI 333- 

Khordsdni turban, the, IV 
262 n. 4. 

Khoshdb (Khoshaf), II 335 
n. 2. 

Khuddvendgdr (the Master), 
I 384 n. 3. 

Khulefd-yi Rdshidin (the 
Just Khalifas), II 150 n. i ; V 

93 3- 

Khuriis-i c Arsh (the Cock 
of the Throne), II 333 n. 3. 

Khtisrev, Khusraw, title of 
the Persian Emperor, III 139 
n. i. See Chosroes; Kisrd. 

Khusrev (Chosroes) used for 
c Sultan 3 or Trince 3 , II 91 n. 
5, 115 n. 6; IV 112 n. 4. 

Khutbe (homily), II 73 n. 
6; V 101 n. 3. 

Khutbet-un-ndrt (prayer), II 
73 n. 6. 

Khutbet-ul-waz (homily), II 
73 n. 6. 

Kibdr-i Muderrisin (Grand 
Principals), II 400. 

Kif, III 89 n. i. 

Kilar Kyahyasi (Comptrol- 
ler of the Buttery), IV 279. 

Kilid (lock), II 323 n. 7. 

Kilid-i Endishe (the key 
of care) II 323 n. 3. 

Kindye (Metonymy), I 1 1 1 
n. i. 

Kinz (title), V 105 n. i. 

Kirdmu ^l-Kdtibin (the Noble 
Scribes), IV 115 n. 3. 

Kisrd (Chosroes), I 270 n. 
I ; II 62 n. 4, 63 n. 4; III 
139 n. i, 148 n. 6. 

Kiswet (the covering of the 
Ka c ba), IV 91 n. i. 

Knyaz (title), V 105 n. i. 

Kokona, title given to Greek 
ladies, IV 241 n. 2. 

Kosti (girdle), II 44 n. 4. 
See Zunndr; Girdle ; and Cord, 
the paynim. 

Kith-ken (Mountain-hewer), 
title of Ferhad, I 322 n. i. 

Kuhl (stibium), II .274n. i. 

Ktilkhan (stove-room), II 
75 n. i. 



Kulklian-beyi, II 75 n. i. 

Kulkhani, II 75 n. i. 

Kun (Be), III 112 n. 4. 

Kurdiyye, IV 132 n. 9. 

Kursi (Footstool), I 35, 68, 
172 n. 2. 

Kuse, kose (a beardless man), 
IV 153 n. i, 321 n. 2. 

Kushdda (opened) = joyful, 
III 155 n. 5. 

Kushti (girdle), II 44 n. 4. 
See Kosti. 

Kiiy (ward), II 66 n. 2. 

Kyaya (Steward), III 180, 
325, 364- 

La havla ve Id quvveta ilia 
bflldh, Arabic phrase, IV 29 
n. 3. 

Ldhiq (Contiguous), I 118. 

Lala (tutor), II 263 n. i. 

Lala, the Turkish, V 45 n. i. 

Lam, the letter, I I2on. i. 

Ld-mekdn (the Placeless), III 
54 n. 2. 

Leb-i dilber (Sweetheart D s 
lip), name of a confection, II 
108 n. i. 

Leff u Neshr (Fold and 
Spread), I 1 15 ; II 1 14 n. 5, 
216 n. 5. 

Levh-i Mahfiiz (the Preser- 
ved Tablet), IV 316 n. 4, 338 
n. I. See Tablet, the Preserved. 

Levitiyd (Leviathan), 1 39 n. I . 

Leylet-ul-Berdt (The Night 
of Assignments), I 293 n. 4; 
III 221 n. r. 

Leylet-ul-Qadr (the Night 
of Power), I 293 n. 4. See 
Night of Power. 

Lisdn-ul-Gliayb (the Tongue 
of the Unseen World), I 166 
n. 3. 

Lisdn-i Hal (mute eloquen- 
ce), II 216 n. 2. 

Lisdn-i Qdl (uttered lan- 
guage), II 216 n. 2. 

Lop injiri (a kind of fig), 
II 385 n. 2. 

Lu c bet (puppet), II 209 n. i. 

Lughaz (Riddle), I 100. 

Luzum-i md Id Yelzem (Ma- 
king Necessary the Unneces- 
sary), I 122. 

Ma c ani, I 124. See "Ilm-ul- 
Ma c dni. 

Maghdrib, I 396 n. i. 

Maghrib (setting place), I 
396 n. i. 

Mahalla (ward), IV 213 n. i. 

Mahjub (screened), I 122. 

Mdhiyydt (Essences), I 406. 

Ma* hud, IV 132 n. 12. 

Mahzuf, I 121. 

Md-jerd (event), II 88 n. 8. 

Ma c jun (Electuary), IV 157 
n. 5. 

Makhlas (pen-name or pseu- 
donym), I 103, 2IO; IV 177. 

Makhlas (pen-name), first 
use of a, by a Turkish poet, 
I 253 n. i. 

Mdliyya Tezkirejisi, IV 68, 




Mtfmur (flourishing), II 59 
n. 4. 

Mani (Ottoman folk-verses), 
I 90. 

Maqdla (Discourse), III 126. 

Maqdm (Station), III 125. 

Maqdm-i Mahmud (the Sta- 
tion Laudable), II 59 n. 7. 

Maqsad, Maqsiid (Purpose), 
I 84. 

Maqsad-i Aqsd (the Utmost 
Goal), I 326 n. i. 

Maqtcf (the last Couplet of 
a Ghazel), I 80 seq. 

Maqiildt-i ^Ashere (the Ten 
Categories), I 41 n. 2. See 
Categories, the Ten. 

Mardumek (pupil of the eye), 
III 154 n. 4. 

Mar pick (snake), IV 161 n. i. 

Md-sewd (What is beside), 

I 181 n. i. 

Md-sewd^lldh (what is be- 
side God), I 181 n. i. 

Mathbakh Emini (Comptrol- 
ler of the Imperial Kitchens), 

II 319. 

Matlcf (the first Couplet of 
a Ghazel), I 79 sqq. 

Mawzim, IV 128 n. 6. 

Mayddn shuardsi (Public- 
square poets), V 52 n. i. 

Mebde-i Evvel (First Cause), 
I 40. 

Medhiyye Eulogy), I 98. 

Medrese (College), II 395 sqq. 

Mefd^ilun, in Arabic Pro- 
sody, V 49 n. i. 

Mefriiq (Disjoined), I 117. 

Mejdz-i Mursel (Synecdo- 
che), I in n. i. 

Mejidiyye, coin, V 59 n. 2. 

Mejidiyye, order, V 109 n. 8. 

Mejmc-ul-Ba1ireyn (Conflu- 
ence of Two Seas), II 249 
n. 8. 

Mekteb-i Edebiyye (The 
School of Humanities), V 44 
n. 2. 

Mektubji (Chief Secretary), 

IV 93- 

Meld (plenum), I 44. 

Mele-i A Q ld (the Heavenly 
Host), I 58. 

Melek (Angel), used as a 
name, II 253 n. i. 

Melekut, I 55 n. 5, 56 n. 2. 
See Angels, the. 

Meliket-ul-Hayydt (Queen of 
the Serpents), I 433 n. 2. 

Mimuniyye, a kind of short- 
bread, II 334 n. 13. 

Mendzil (mansions), II 360 
n. 8. 

Menqiit, rhetorical figure, 
I 121. 

Merfii (Repaired), I 1 17, 186 
n. i, 212. 

Merjdn dtfdsi, III 1 84 n. 6. 

Merkeb (vehicle), II 313 n. 4. 

Mersiye (Elegy), I 98. 

Meshtfikh (Sheykhs), I 26 
n. i. 

Mesnevi verse, 171, 76, 103. 

Mesnevi-Ktfdn (Mesnevi- 
chanter), IV 213. 



Mesnevis, I 101, 102, 107 

Metd (Time), I 41 n. 2. 
Mevjiid (Actualised), I 407. 
Mevldnd, title, I 145 n. i. 
Mevlid, Mevlud (Birthsong), 

I 232 n. 4, 233. 

Mevlid-Ktfdn, I 238. 

Mevlud Jem c iyyeti (Birth- 
song Meeting), I 237. 

Mevludji, I 238. 
Mewdlid-i Seldse (the Three- 
fold Offspring), I 48. 

Mihr, double meaning of, 

II 204 n. i ; III 97 n. 5. 
Mihrdb (prayer-niche), I 224 

n. i ; II 35 n. 2, 210 n. r, 
249 n. 4, 252 n. 4, 283 n. 2; 

III 94 n. i, 115 n. 2. 

Mil (needle), II 274 n. i. 

Millet (the Nation), V 19. 

Milli romdn (national novel), 
V 14. 

Minder (cushion), III 1 89 n. 2. 

Mintan, IV 131 n. 5. 

Mir-i Mejlis (Master of the 
Feast), II 333 n. 2. 

Mfrdj (Ascension of the 
Prophet), I 77, 236, 366 n. 2; 

IV 19. See Muhammed, the 
Ascension of. 

Misrd c , misra^ (Hemistich), 
I 79. 

Misrd^-i ' Azdde (Indepen- 
dent Hemistich) I 79. 

Mistar, an instrument for 
ruling paper, II 241 n. 6, 342 
n. 6. 

Miydn (Middle), musical 
term, I 97. 

Miydn-Khdne (Middle- 
House), I 97. 

Mu c dd, I 1 1 6. 

Mtfammd (Enigma), I 100. 

Mu c arrif (mosque-choris- 
ter), II 368. 

Mifashsher (Tensome), 194; 

IV 122. 

Mubdlagha (Hyperbole), I 


Muderris (Principal), II 30, 
395 sqq.; Ill 219. 

Muderris (Principal), classes 
of, II 398 seq. 

Mu* esses rhyme, I 75 n. i. 

Mufred (Unit), I 79. 

Mufti, II 353 n. 2. 

Mufti, official dress of the, 
III 295 n. 2. 

Mufti-us-Saqalayn (Mufti of 
the Two Ponderables), II 354. 

Mughildn (acacia), IV 263 
n. i. 

Muhaddid-ul-Jihdt (Limiter 
of Directions), I 43 n. 3. See 
Primum Mobile. 

Muharref (Altered), I 118. 

Muharrem, the first month 
of the Muhammedan year, II 
387 n. i. 

Muhmel (Unmarked), I 98. 

Muhtdj (Dependent), I 42. 

Muhlesib (censor of public 
morals), II 77 n. 2 ; III 59 n. 2. 

Mrfid (Repetiteur), II 397. 

Mujtes metre, I 109. 



Mukhammes (Fivesome), I 
92; III 97. 

Muldzim (Bachelor) II 287, 


Mulemmcf (Pied), I 124, 149, 

230, III 171 n. 2. 

Mulk (Kingdom), I 56 n. 2. 

Mulk (Possession), 141 n. 2. 

Mum sugtmdiren, I 358 n. I. 

Mumkin-ul- Vujitd (Possible 
or Contingent), I 41. 

Mumsconduren, I 358 n. i. 

Mumtenf-ul- Vujud (Impos- 
sible) I 41. 

Mundjdt (Hymn addressed 
to God), I 101. 

Mundzara (Contention), III 
21, 137 n. i, 363. 

Munajjim Bashi (Chief 
Astrologer), II 399 n. 2 ; IV 37. 

Muqattcf, rhetorical figure, I 


Murdqaba (spiritual commu- 
nion), I 1 80 n. 2, 425 n. 2. 

Murassaf (Bejewelled), 1 123. 

Murebbcf (Foursome) verse, 
I 72, 9194; II 231; IV 


Murebbcf-i Mutekerrir (Re- 
peating Foursome), I 91. 

Murebbc-i Muzdevij (Pai- 
ring Foursome), I 92. 

Murgh-isheb-khiz, the night- 
ingale, III 29 n. 2. 

Murid (Wilier), a name of 
God, I 409 n. i. 

Musalld (Oratory), I 383 n. i. 

Musammat. See Musemmat. 

Musarrcf (Rhymed), I 79, 


Musebbcf (Sevensome), I 94. 

Museddes (Sixsome), I 93. 

Musejja^ verse, I 72 n. i. 

Musellesdt (Triplicities), I 
328 n. 3. 

Musemmat verse, I 72, 97 ; 
III 264. 

Musemmen (Eightsome), 1 94. 

Mushdkele, I 120. 

Mushir (marshal), III 18 n. 2. 

Mushir, the grade of, V 
105 n. 3. 

Musile-i Sahn (Avenue to 
the Sahn), II 396, 399. 

Musile-i Suleymdniyye 
(Avenue to the Suleymaniyye), 

II 399- 

Musmul, a corruption of 

bismil, I 174 n. 2. 

Mustefilun, in Arabic Pro- 
sody, V 50 n. i. 

Mustezdd (Complemented), 
I 87; IV 333 n. i, 348. 

Mutaqdrib metre, I 105, 109, 
226 n. I ; II 144. 

Mutaqarrin (Adjacent), 1 

Mutasarrif (governor), V 70. 

Mutasarrifa (the faculty of 
arranging), IV 172 n. 3. 

Mutekellimin (Scholastics), 
I 33, 67 n. i, 407 n. 3. 

Mutekerrir (Repeating), I 
9294; II 231 n. i. 

Mutelevvin (Polychromatic), 
I 124. 



Mutessd: (Ninesome), I 94. 

Mutevelli (administrator), 
II 46. 

Muveshshah (Acrostic), I 

Muwassal, rhetorical figure, 

I 121. 

Muzdrf metre, I 109. 
Muzdevij (Pairing), 1 92 94 ; 
IV 235. 

Nahs-i Asghar (the Lesser 
Infortune), II 125 n. I. 

Nahs-i Ekber (the Greater 
Iniortune), II 125 n. i. 

Ncfib (Deputy-judge), II 397. 

Naqardt (Chorus), I 97. 

Naqd-i Rewdn, double mea- 
ning of, IV 126 n. 3. 

Naqib-ul-Eshrdf (Dean of 
the Sherffs), II 399 n. 2 ; IV 
351; V 107 n. i. 

Ndqis (Defective), I 118. 

Ndqisat-ul-^Aql (Deficient 
in Reason), term applied to 
women, II 130 n. i. 

Naqqdsh (miniaturist, etc.) 

II 98 n. i. 

Naqsh her db (a picture upon 
water), II 242 n. 5. 

Ndr (fire), symbolical mea- 
ning of, I 171 n. 2. 

Ndrgil, IV 65 n. 3. 

Nasb (Fixture), I 187 n. 2. 

Nasib (portion), II 108 n. i. 

Nasib, meaning of in the 
Qastamuni dialect, II 108 n. i. 

Naft (Hymn to the Prophet), 

I 101 ; III 319; IV 19, 216, 
338; V 49 n. 2. 

Nazira (Parallel), I 99, 228. 

Nazm, I 87. 

Nebid, nebiz, III 89 n. 2. 

Nefs (lust), I 198 n. i. 

Nefs (the Psychic), I 42. 

Nefs (self) contrasted with 
*Aql (reason), II 296 n. 2, 389 
n. i. 

Nefs-i Emmdre (the Com- 
manding Flesh), I 198 n. i ; 
IV 277 n. 3. 

Nefs-i Evvel (the First Soul), 
I 42. 

Nefs-i Haywdniyye (the Soul 
Sensible), I 48, 198 n. i. 

Nefs-i Kull, (the Univer- 
sal Soul), I 42. 

Nefs-i Levivdme (the Up- 
braiding Flesh), I 198 n. i. 

Nefs-i Mutmctinne (the Pa- 
cified Flesh), I 198 n. i. 

Nefs-i Ndtiqa (the Soul Rea- 
sonable), I 48. 

Nefs-i Nebdtiyye (the Soul 
Vegetable), I 48, 198 n. i. 

Nehdvend(\\z.vf\o. of a melody) 
IV 49 n. 3. 

Nehr-ul- c ' Asi (the Rebel 
Stream), IV 147 n. 2. 

Nejdshi, title, III 139 n. i. 

Nesib (Exordium), I 84. 

Nesim (Zephyr), I 370 n. 3. 

Neskh, a kind of handwri- 
ting, I 420; IV 78 n. 2. 

Nevbet (performance by a 
military band), II 248 n. 4. 



Nev-ruz (New-Year's Day), 

III 160 n. i, 360. See New 
Year, Festival of the. 

Nev-ruz, name of a musi- 
cal air, III 347 n. i. 

Newd, name of a melody, 

IV 49 n. 3. 

Ney (reed-flute), IV 176 n. 
i. See Flute, the. 

Neyyirdn (the Two Lumi- 
naries), II 91 n. 4. 

Nigdr (picture), term applied 
to a beauty, II 209 n. i. 

Nihuft (Hidden), name of 
a musical note, II 207 n. i. 

Nim-fatha, III 213 n. i. 

Nim-ten, IV 131 n. 5. 

Nisdr (strewage), II 62 n. 
5 ; IV 22 n. 2. 

Nishdn (engagement-pre- 
sent), IV 292 n. 6. 

Nishdn-i Iftikhdr (Order of 
Glory), IV 336. 

Nishdnji (Chancellor), I 428 
n. 3; II 25, 264, 366; III 
147 n. 5. 

Nun, the letter, III 168 
n. 7. 

Nuql (appetizers), II 345, 
n. 5. See Appetizers. 

Nur (light), symbolical mea- 
ning of, I 171 n. 2. 

Nur-i Ahmed (Light of 
Ahmed), I 34 n. i. See Mu- 
hammed, Light of. 

Nur-i Muhammed (Light of 
Muhammed), I 34. See Mu- 
hammed, Light of. 

Nur-i Siydh, (Black Light) 
I 66 n. i. 

Oghlu (son), used as a patro- 
nymic, III 12 n. 2. 

Ojaq oghli, III 211, 218. 

C 0smdni, name of a coin, 

I 262 n. 2. 

^Osmdniyye order, the, V 
109 n. 8. 

^Osmdnli (Ottoman), I 10 

Pacha, double meaning of, 
IV 291 n. i. 

Pachalarini sighamaq, col- 
loquial phrase, V 73 n. 5. 

Pdk-ddmen (clean-skirted), 

II 101 n. 5. 

Pdlude, II 335 n. 3 and 4. 

Parmaq-Hisdbi (Finger- 
Counting), I 104; IV 280. See 

Penche tutmaq (to lock fin- 
gers), II 342 n. 5. 

Perchem, III 55 n. 5, 177 n. 3. 

Perde, double meaning of, 
I 425 n. 5 ; II 207 n. 2; III 

93 I- 

Perde-ddr (Chamberlain), III 
239 n. i. 

Pide, a kind of cake, II 
37 n. 2. 

Pir (Spiritual Director) I 
179 n. I ; III 21 1 n. I, 232 n. 4. 

Piydz (hashed onions), figu- 
rative use of, IV 169 n. 3. 

Portugal, double meaning of, 
IV 265 n. 6. 



Qaddyif, II 335 " 6. 

Qddi- c Asker, See Qdzi- ''Asker '. 

Qadin (Lady), II 123 n. i. 

Qddir (Able), a name of 
God, I 409 n. i. 

Qafes (Cage), name of a 
head-dress, IV 262 n. 4. 

Qaftan a kind of robe, IV 
131 n. 4. 

Qalavi, a kind of head- 
dress, III 295 n. 2. 

Qalb (Anagram), I 119. 

Qalb-i Mustevi (Palindrome), 
I 119. 

Qalem (Reed-pen), III 272 
n. 3. See Reed-pen. 

Qalem-ddn (Pen-and-ink 
case), III 308 n. 4. 

Qalender, I 357 n. i, 385 
n. i and 3. 

Qalldb (hook, perch), IV 
116 n. 3. 

Qalyonji Odasi (Barracks of 
the men-of-war's men), IV 
301 n. 3. 

Qalyonjis (galleon-men), the, 
IV 301 n. 3. 

Qan bichaq olmaq, idioma- 
tic phrase, II 321 n. 4. 

Qand^at tashi (Stone of con- 
tentment), III 56 n. i. 

Qdnun (Code of Laws), III 8. 

Qara (Black), used as a so- 
briquet, II 138 n. i. 

Qara Bataq (Cormorant), 
name of a melody, III 346 n. 5. 

Qara-qulluqji (Black Watch- 
man), title, III 185 n. 5. 

Qara yel (the black wind), 
II 1 20 n. 5. 

Qasida (Purpose-Poem), 183 
sqq., 101, 102, 144. 

Qasida-i Behdriyya (Spring 
Qasida), I 101. 

Qasida-i Ddriyya (Mansion- 
al Purpose-Poem), III 177 n. 9. 

Qasida-i Rd*iyya(R. Qasida), 

I 101. 

Qasri (Compulsory), I 44. 

Qavs-i Nuzid (the Arc of 
Descent), I 52. 

Qavs-i c Uruj (the Arc of 
Ascent), I 52. 

Qawwds, qawas, V 43 n. 2. 

Qaysar (Caesar), I 259 n. 
7; III 139 n. i. 

Qaysar-i Rum (Caesar of 
Rome), I 149 n. i. 

Qdzi-^Asker (Army-Judge), 

II 24 n. 3, 394 seq., 398 seq. 
Qdzi-ul-Hdjdt, a title of God, 

I 365 n. 6. 

Qibla, I 361 n. 4; II 59 n. 2. 
Qi&la-ndme, V 92 n. 5. 
Qibla-numd, V 92 n. 5. 
Qich levendi, IV 114 n. 2. 
Qilij-Timari (Sword-Fief), 

III 216 n. i. 

Qina, the Turkish pronun- 
ciation of hinna (henna), III 
98 n. i. 

Qifa (Section), I 87. 

Qiydm (standing up), III 
150 n. 4. 

Qiz naqshi (maidenly), II 




Qiz yashmaghi (girl's veil), 
IV 289 n. 3. 

Qizil Bash (Red Head), II 
259 n. 2; III 44 n. 4. 

Qontosh, a kind of robe, IV 
133 n. 7. 

Qoqu ne, (Turkish phrase), 
IV 241 n. 2. 

Qubbe-i Khazrd (the Green 
Dome), I 151 n. 3. 

Qudum (kettle-drum), IV 176 
n. i. 

Qudum-zen (kettle-drum 
player), IV 176. 

Qumdri, the best variety of 
aloes-wood, III 32 n. 4. 

Qurb-i Feraiz, mystical 
term, I 348 n. 2. 

Qurbdn Bayrdmi (Festival 
of the Sacrifices), I 361 n i. 

Qurna (basin), III 56 n. 3. 

Qurret-ul-^Ayn (Coolness of 
the Eye), a term of endear- 
ment, I 247 n. i. 

Qurret-ul-^Ayn, used figura- 
tively; III 177 n. 5. 

Qush dili (Bird 3 s language), 
II 385 n. i ; IV 239 n. 2. 

Quvvet-i v Alime (the Virtue 
Speculative), I 51. 

Quvvet-i v Amile (the Virtue 
Practical), I 51. 

Quvvet-i Ddffa (the Virtue 
Expulsive), I 49. 

Quvvet-i Ghdziya (the Vir- 
tue Nutritive), I 49. 

Quvvet-i Ghazabiyya (the 
Virtue Irascible), I 49. 

Quvvet-i Hdfiza (the Virtue 
Memorative), I 50. 

Quvvet-i Hdzime (the Virtue 
Digestive), I 49. 

Quvvet-i Jdzibe (the Virtue 
Attractive), I 49. 

Quvvet-i Mdsike (the Virtue 
Retentive), I 49. 

Quvvet-i Mudrike (the Virtue 
Apprehensive), I 49. 

Quvvet-i Muharrike (the 
Virtue Motive), I 49. 

Quvvet-i Musavvira (the 
Virtue Informative), I 49. 

Quvvet-i Mutasarrifa (the 
Virtue Ordinative), I 50. 

Quvvet-i Muvellide (the Vir- 
tue Generative), I 49. 

Quvvet-i Ndmiye.(i\\Q Virtue 
Augmentative), I 49. 

Quvvet-i Shehviyye (the Vir- 
tue Concupiscible), I 49. 

Quvvet-i Wdhime (the Virtue 
Estimative), I 50. 

Quzum (my lamb), a form 
of familiar address, I 150 n. 3. 

Raqi, III 89 n. 2. 

Raqib, double meaning of, 
I 364 n. 3. See Rival. 

Raqtd, rhetorical figure, I 

Rdst (True), name of a mu- 
sical note, I 222 n. 5. 

Rastiq, a kind of ointment, 
IV 101 n. 3. 

Rebdb (Rebeck), I 152; II 
1 16 n. i. 


21 I 

Rebf, the First, name of a 
month, I 237 n. i. 

Redd-ul-^Ajzi c ale-s-Sadr 
(Epanadiplosis), I 116. 

Redd-i Matte? (Return of 
the Matla c ), I 80; III 272 n. i. 

Redif, metrical term, I 73, 
75; 995 V 49 n. 3. 

Ref (Elevation), I 187 n. 2. 

Refref, the, IV 23 n. 6. 

Riis Efendi, title, III 216 
n. 4, 304 n. i; IV 324 seq. 

Rfis-ul-Ktittdb (Master of 
the Scribes), III 216 n. 4; IV 
222 n. i. 

Rejeb, name of a month, IV 
298 n. 2. 

Rejez, name of a metre, I 
108; II 101. 

Remel, name of a metre, 
I 105, 108, 109, 185, 2ii n. 

2, 39> 43 i n - i; II *9 J 
n. i. 

Remel-i Museddes, name of 
a metre, I 185 n. i. 

Revi (Rhyme-letter), I 75 
n. i. 

Revzen (window), II 60 n. 6. 

Roman (Novel), V 13. See 

Rubtfi (Quatrain), the, I 88 
sqq., 1 02, no. 

Rubd c i-i Musarrcf (Rhymed 
Quatrain), I 88 n. 2. 

Rub*i Meskun (the Habi- 
table Quarter), I 47 n. i ; III 
9 n. i. See Habitable Quarter, 

Ruh-i Haywdni (the Spirit 
Vital), II 313 n. 4. 

Ruh-i Nefsdni (the Spirit 
Animal), II 313 n. 4. 

Ruh-i Tabfi (the Spirit Na- 
tural), II 313 n. 4. 

Ruju c (Epanorthosis), I 112; 
III 293. 

Rukh (rook, in chess), III 
249 n. i. See Chess. 

Rukh-be-rukh, double mea- 
ning of, III 249 n. i. 

Rumi Grecian, II 361 
n. 6. 

Rumi (Roman), I 149 n. i. 

Ru*us, name of a diploma, II 


Ru-yi Nigdr (Beauty 5 s face), 
of a kind of grape, V 36 n. i. 

Ruzgdr, double meaning of, 

I 114. 

Rnzndmche-i Humdyun, 
name of an official register, 

II 397- 

Sabd, name of a musical 
air, III 347 n. i. 

Sachi, IV 22 n. 2. 

Scfd-i Asghar (the Lesser 
Fortune), an astrological term, 
II 125 n. i. 

Safd-i Ekber (the Greater 
Fortune), an astrological term, 
II 125 n. i. 

Safd, used amphibologically, 
II 87 n. 3. 

Saff-i Nfdl, (Shoe-rank), III 
139 " 35 V 107 n. 2. 



Sahn (the Court), II 396 

Sahn (Court), class of Mu- 
derris, II 398. 

Sahn-i Muderrisi (Court 
Principal), II 23 n. 2. 

Sahn-i Meddris-i Semdniye 
(the Court of the Eight Col- 
leges), II 23 n. 2. 

Sahn-i Semdn (the Court of 
the Eight), II 396 sqq., 399 
seq. ; III 41. See Eight, Court 
of the. 

Salawdt getir mek, I 242 n. 4. 

Sa^leb, IV 25 n. 5. 

Salep, name of a drink, IV 
25 n. 5. 

Salma, a sort of stew, II 
335 n. i. 

II 268 n. 2. 

San c at (Rhetorical Figure), 

I 112. 

Sanem (Idol), name for a 
beauty, II 209 n. i. See Idol. 

Sanjaq (Department of a 
province), II 47 n. 3 ; III 60. 

Sanjaq Begi (the Sanjaq 
Bey), II 47 n. 3. 

Saqanqur (Skink), the, II 
331 n. 5. 

Sdqi (Cup-bearer), the, II 
327 n. i. See Cup-bearer. 

Sdqi (Cup-bearer), the, invo- 
ked by Turkish poets, III 127. 
See Cup-bearer. 

Sdqi-Ndme (the Book of the 
Cup-bearer), a name given to 

certain poems, I 101 ; II 325 ; 
III 1 66. 

Sdqi-Ndmes, Turkish, III 
225 seq., 248. 

Saqiz (mastic), IV 113 n. 
4, 114 n. i. See Mastic. 

Saqqd (water-carrier), the, 
III 16 n. 5. 

Sebil (charity), IV 112 n. 6. 

Sebil (fountain), IV 112 n. i. 

Setf-ul-Mesdni (the Seven of 
the Repetition), I 339 n. i. 

Sedir, a piece of furniture, 
III 189 n. 2. 

Sehl-i Mumtenf (Unap- 
proachable Simplicity), I 240 
n. 2. 

Semd c (Mystic Dance), III 
219, 292; IV 176 n. i, 203, 
204 n. i. See Dervishes, dan- 

Semdniye Muderrisi (Eight 
Principal), II 23 n. 2. 

Semt (parish), IV 213 n. i. 

Segbdn-Bashi (Chief Hound- 
Keeper), II 268 n. 2. 

Segbdnlar (Hound-keepers), 
II 268 n. 2. 

Senbuse (Lady's kiss), name 
of a sweet, II 345 n. 7. 

Serdy (Seraglio), III 147 n. 2. 

Ser-halqa (ring-centre), used 
figuratively, II 341 n. 3. 

Serf, name of a metre, I 

Sevdd (Melancholia), II 65 
n. 2, 206 n. 2. 

Sewdd-i A c zam (the Most 



Great Blackness), mystical 
term, I 377 n. i. See Dazzling 
Darkness and Light, the black- 

Seyyid, title, I 343 ; II 390. 

Shcfbdn, the month of, IV 
298 n. 2. 

Shah, title, 433 n. 2. 

Shah-Bey t (Couplet-Royal), 
I 8 1. See SJuh-Beyt. 

Shahna-i Mejlis (Master of 
the Feast), II 333 n. 2. 

Skah-suwdr (Cavalier), IV 
114 n. 2. 

Shalwdr (trousers), IV 131 
n. 3. 

Shalwdr li shindver, IV 131 
n. 3. 

Shdmi (Syrian), meaning 
c dark D , III 150 n. 2. 

Shaqq (Cleavage), a mode 
of execution, II 279 n. 7. 

Sharqi (Oriental) V 7. 

Sharqi, the, a verse-form, 
I 96, 103; III 319 seq., 322; 
IV 8, 44 sqq., 211, 280 seq. 

Shdyagdn hoard, the, IV 
262 n. i. 

Sheb-chirdgh (Night-Lamp), 
a fabulous gem, I 291 n. i; 
IV 145 n. i. 

Shefaq (After-glow), II 89 
n. i. 

Sheftdlii (peach), term for 
a kiss, II 371 n. i ; III 58 
n. 3, 156 n. 2 ; IV 149 n. I. 
See Kiss and Peach. 

Sheh-Beyt (Couplet-Royal), 

I 8i; III 174 n. 4. See Shdh- 

Shehid( Martyr), III 155 n. 3. 

Shthirli, II 227 n. 2. 

Shehndma, books entitled, 
III 4. 

Shehndmaji, the office of, 
III 4. 

Shehndz (Coquetry), name 
of a musical note, I 222 n. 5. 

Shehr oghlani (City lad), 

II 227 n. 2. 

Shehr-engiz (City-Thriller), 
the, II 232; III 55; IV 15, 
121, 228. 

Sheker-kuldhi (Sugar-cap), 

I 238. 

Shekker Bayrdmi (the Feast 
of Sweetmeats), IV 62 n. 4. 

Shemse (Solar disc), II 60 
n. 5. 

Shemse-i zer-kdr (gilt sun), 

II 341 n. i. 

Shemsi dulbend, name of a 
head-dress, II 242 n. 7. 

(iUJjoyi, a word used by 
tailors, IV 132 n. 2. 

5^r<?/(Exaltation), an astro- 
logical term, I 328 n. 3. 

Sheref (Honour), used as a 
proper name, IV 157 n. 2. 

Sherif (descendant of the 
Prophet), IV 351. 

Shewwdl, the month of, IV 
62 n. 4, 68 n. i. 

Sheykh-ul- Harem (the Elder 
of the Sanctuary), title, III 
265 n. 3. 



Sheykh-ul-Isldm,t\\\Q, II 395 . 

Shibh-i Ishtiqdq (Quasi-Pa- 
ronymy), I 120. 

Shfa, a, I 1 20 n. 2. 

Shirdb size bdqiyor, idioma- 
tic phrase, IV 40 n. 2. 

Shirden, name of a dish, II 
334 n. 8. 

Shishe-Khdne (Mirror-cham- 
ber), III 342 n. i. 

Shifba (Branch), III 126. 

Shu c le-i Jevwdle (Whirling 
Spark), I 67 n. 2. 

U^J^w, IV 128 n. 6. 

Si murgh (thirty birds), II 
280 n. 5. 

Sidret-ul-Muntehd (the Lote- 
Tree of the Limit), IV 23 n. 
3. See Lote-Tree, the celestial. 

Sifdt (Attributes of God), I 
61 n. 2. 

Sihr-i haldl (Licit magic), 
III 175 n. i. 

Sipdhis, the, III 216 n. 3. 

Sip end (rue), used as a 
charm, IV 64 n. 4. 

Siydh-dil (black-hearted), II 
250 n. 3. 

Soqaq super gist, name for a 
prostitute, IV 289 n. 2. 

Su malikesi, V 40 n. i. 

Su qizi, V 40 n. i. 

Su-Baslii (Police Magistrate), 
III 217 n. i. 

Subh-i sddiq (the true dawn), 
III 151 n. 3. 

Subhdna'lldh (I recite the 
praise of God), II 244 n. 2. 

Subut (Potentiality), I 407. 

Suheyl (Canopus), virtues 
attributed to, II 89 n. 3. 

Sukhan (the Logos), IV 187. 

Sukun (Rest), grammatical 
term, I 187 n. 2. 

Sujud (prostration in wor- 
ship), III 150 n. 4. 

Suleymdniyye, class of MUT 
derris, II 399. 

Suls, a kind of handwriting, 
I 420; IV 78 n. 2. 

Sunnet (the practice of the 
Prophet), IV 321 n. 2. 

Surdhi (flagon), II 333 n. i. 

Suret (Form), I 45. 

Suret-i Jismiyye (Corporeal 
Form), I 45. 

Suret-i Neifiyye (Specific 
Form), I 45. 

Surme (stibium), II 274 n. 
I; III 66 n. 2, 98 n. 2; IV 
70 n. 4. 

Surme-ddn, II 274 n. i. 

Surre (purse), II 317 n. 2. 

Suwdri Miiqdbelejisi (Col- 
lator for the Cavalry), III 326. 

Suweydd (the black core of 
the heart), IV 64 n. 4. 

Suyu yumskaq (Soft of 
temper), IV 240 n. 4. 

Td Hd, the Chapter of, I 
257 n. 2. 

Tcfayyun (Particularisation), 
I 61. 

Tabaqdt (Strata), I 46 n. i. 

Tabdyf (Natures), I 47. 



Tabfi (Natural), I 44. 

Taj (Crown), name of a 
couplet, I 85; III 150 n. 6. 

Tajik, I 1 86 n. 2. 

Takhmis, name of a verse- 
form, I 92, 93; II 78 n. 3. 

Tdlib (Student), II 396. 

Ta^liq, a kind of handwri- 
ting, I 394 n. 2; III 220 n. 
2; IV 78. 

Ta c miye(E,mgm atizing), 198. 

TVfy (Arch), II 59 n. i, 60 
n. 6, 62 n. 4, 63 n. 4. See 
Taq-i Kisra. 

Tdq-i muqarnes, a kind of 
dome, IV 42 n. 2. 

Tdqche, II 60 n. 6. 

Taqdis, name of a throne, 


Tagsim, double meaning of, 

III 347 n. 5. 

Tar, different meanings of, 

IV 132 n. 4. 

Tard u c Aks (Epanodos), I 

Tdrikh (Chronogram), I 87, 
98. See Chronogram, Oriental. 

Tdrikh-i Tdmm (Perfect 
Chronogram), I 98. 

Tariq-i Mebde (the Outward 
Track), I 52. 

Tariq-i Ma^dd (the Home- 
ward Track), I 52. 

Tazddd (Antithesis), I 112. 

Tazmin (Quotation), I 113; 
II 49 n. 4. 

Tebligh, a kind of Hyper- 
bole, I 112 n. i. 

Tedvir (Epicycle), I 45 n. i. 

Tegellemek, a tailor's term, 
IV 131 n. 10. 

Tejdhul-i c ' Arif (Feigned 
Ignorance), I 114; II 59 n. 3. 

Tejelli (Epiphany), I 408 
n. i. 

Tejnis (Homonymy), I 116, 
212; II 77 n. 3, 221 n. 5 ; III 
156 n. 5, 183 n. 4. 

Tekye, I 357. 

Tekfur, title, II 194 n. 2. 

Tekur, title, II 194 n. 2. 

Tel qirmaq, double mea- 
ning of, III 347 n. 4. 

Telmf a rhetorical figure, 
I 124. 

Telmih (Allusion), I 112. 

Teng (closed), meaning Sor- 
rowful 3 , III 155 n. 5. 

Ter (wet), II 101 n. 5. 

Terdne, a name for the Ru- 
bd"i, I 89. 

Terbf, .name of a verse- 
form, I 92, 93. 

Ter-ddmen (wet-skirted), II 
101 n. 5. 

Terjf-Bcnd, name of a verse - 
form, I 90, 91; III 64; V65, 
75, 86 sqq. 

Terjf-Khdne, metrical term, 
I 90. 

Terkib-Bend, name of a 
verse- form, I 91, 94; III 90. 

Terkib-Khdne, metrical 
term, I 91. 

Tersf (Beje welling), a rhe- 
torical figure, I 123. 



Tesdis, name of a verse- 
form, I 92, 94. 

Teshbih (Comparison), I 1 1 1 
n. i. 

Teshshir, II 36 n. 2. 

Te^sis, metrical term, 1/5 
n. i. 

Tetimme (Complement), II 
396 n. i. 

Tevejjuh, mystical term, I 
425 n. 2. 

Tevkid(Ken of Unity), 1325. 

Tevjihy metrical term, 1/5 
n. i. 

II 319. 

Tevriye (Amphibology), I 
113; III 144. See Amphibo- 
logy and ' Ihdm. 

Tezkires, Turkish, I 1 39 seq. 

Tezkiret-ush-Shifard (Dic- 
tionary of the Poets), I 139 
n. i. 

Timar, a kind of fief, III 
216 n. i. 

Tirydq (Theriack), II 1 1 2 
n. 6. 

Tugh (pennant of horse- 
hair), II 71 n. 3; III 17 n. i, 
177 n. 3; IV 129 n. 2, 205 n. 2. 

Tughrd (the Cipher of the 
Sovereign), I 428 n. 3 ; II 25 
n. i ; III 147 n. 5. 

vJLJLo> s^yik, IV 115 n. i. 

Turbe (mausoleum), II 47. 

Turki (Turkish popular bal- 
lad), I 95; III 246, 3 19 seq. ; 
IV 9 seq.; V 95. 

Turnajilar (Crane-keepers) 

II 268 n. 2. 

Titti (Parrot), a title given 
to elderly ladies, IV 301 n. 2. 

Tuti-i Asrdr, a name of 
hashish, II 340 n. i. 

Tutiyd (tutty), II 49 n. 4. 

Tuyugh, Tuynq, name of a 
verse-form, I 90, 105,211 seq. 

Tuyughdt, I 210 n. 2. 

Uchmaq (Paradise), V 30. 

Uchqur, IV 132 n. i, 297 
n. 3. 

Ulagh (Courier), II 237 n. 2. 

c Ulemd, the, I 31 n. i; II 
21, 24; IV 350; V 20, 93 n. 6. 

c Ulemd, the Hierarchy of 
the, II 394 sqq. 

'Ulemd, official dress of the, 

III 295 n. 2. 

c Ulemd, well-known phrase 
used by the, I 346 n. 3. 

^Uliim-i Kulliyye (Universal 
Sciences), I 261 n. 2. 

Umm-ul-Kitdb (the Mother 
of the Book), I 339 n. 3. See 
Mother of the Book. 

Ummehdt-i Erbcfa (the Four 
Mothers), I 48. 

Ummeti (My Folk), III 2 1 5 
n. 8. 

Umiir-i Ddkhiliyya Ndziri 
(Minister of the Interior), IV 
326 n. i. 

Umur-i Khdrijiyya Ndziri 
(Minister of Foreign Affairs), 

IV 325. 


Umur-i Milkiyya Ndziri 
(Minister of Civil Affairs), IV 
325 n. i. 

c Unndb (the fruit of the ju- 
jube-tree), II 92 n. 2. 

Urdi-bihisht, the Old Persian 
month of, III 265 n. I. 

^Urf, a kind of turban, III 
295 n. 2. 

^Ushshdq (Lovers), a name 
for the Sufis, I 26 n. i. 

Ustd, title, IV 302 n. 8. 

Usul-i Qalem (the Bureau- 
cratic style), IV 328 n. i. 

Vaq^a-Nevis (Imperial An- 
nalist), IV 67. See Wdqfa- 

Vebdl (Fall), an astrological 
term, I 328 n. 3, 

Vehm (Fancy), IV 172 n. 3. 

Vesme, a kind of ointment, 
IV 101 n. 3. 

Vesmelu (painted with in- 
digo), III 98 n. 4. 

Vezir (Minister), III 18 n. 2. 

Vilayet (province), I 164. 

Vujub (Necessary Existence), 
I 42 n. 2. 

Vujiid (Actuality), I 407, 
408 n. i. 

Vujiid (All-comprising Exi- 
stence), I 42 n. 2. 

Vujudiyye, a heretical sect, 
I 406. 

Wdjib-ul- Vujiid (Necessary), 
I 41. 

Wall, the office of, V 109 
n. 7. 

Wdqfa-Nevis (Imperial An- 
nalist), IV 58. See Vaq'a- 

Warsaghi, a kind of ballad, 

I 1 66 n. 5. 

Wdsita (Link), name of a 
couplet, I 90, 91, 94. 

Watan (Fatherland), V 19. 
Waz c (Situation), I 41 n. 2. 

Yd c amu (O uncle) ,11 389 n. 2. 

Yd Hu (Oh He!), IV 204 
n. 3. 

Yd Sin, name of a chapter 
of the Koran, V 38 n. i. 

Yagh qapani (Oil weigh- 
house), IV 301 n. 4. 

Yashmaq, a veil worn by 
Turkish ladies, III 180 n. i; 
IV 219 n. i, 294 n. 2. 

Yawuz (Grim), title of Sul- 
tan Selim I, II 257 n. i. 

Yazili elma (written apples), 
the, of Aspuzi, III 318 n. 4. 

Yede tashi, a magic stone, 

II 120 n. i. 

Yel-qowan (wind-chaser), 
name of a bird, IV 277 n. i. 

Yenicheri (Janissary), I 179 
n. i ; II 76 n. i. See Janissaries. 

Yenicheri Aghast (General 
of the Janissaries), II 268 n. 2. 

Yeshil toz (the green poplar), 

III 98 n. 4. 

Yetishme, Yetishmesi ( Mayst 
thou not grow up !) IV 294 n. 3. 




Yildiz chichegi (Star-flower), 
IV 286 n. 3. 

Zabtiyye Mushiri (Marshal 
of Police), V 71 n. i. 

Zdde, used in patronymics, 
III 12 n. 2. 

Zddehu ^lldh (God give him 
increase!), II 312 n. 3. 

Zdgh, name of a vitriolic 
substance, IV 101 n. 3. 

Zagharjilar (Bloodhound- 
keepers), II 268 n. 2. 

Zdhid (Zealot), III 67 n. 3. 

Zamime (Addition), I 92. 

II 369 n. 3. 

Zaqqiim, name of a tree in 
hell, II 369 n. 5. 

Zdt-i c lmdd (Many-colum- 
ned), epithet of Irem, II 59 n. 6. 

Zdt-ul-Matdlf , a kind of 
Qasida, I 85 n. i. 

Zebdn-i Hal (Mute elo- 
quence), II 216 n. 2. 

Zemin-i Khdver (Land of the 
West), III 1 10. 

Zen-biise (Lady's kiss), name 
of a sweet, II 345 n. 7. 

Zenji (Negro), a type of 
blackness, II 214 n. 2. 

Zerde, name of a dish, II 
334 n. 10. 

Zerrin-kuldh (golden-cap), 
a name for the narcissus, II 
278 n. 3. 

Zevq (Taste), a mystical 
term, I 326 n. 2. 

Zevraq-i Sahbd (the Wine- 
skiff), IV 1 06 n. 2. 

Zfdmet, a kind of fief, III 
216 n. i. 

Zihdf, a fault in prosody, 
III 14 n. 2, 53, 256. 

Zi-l-Hijja, the month of, 
III 41 n. 4. 

Zinjir-i c addlet (the Chain 
of justice), II 63 n. 4. 

Zinjir-i Nushirewdn (the 
Chain of Nushirewan), II 63 
n. 4. 

Zird^ati (husbandman), I 
358 n. i. 

Ziydde (Complement), I 87. 

Zu *l-Faqdr, the sword of 
the Caliph c Ali, III 289 n. 3. 

Zu ^l-Haydt (Living), III 
289 n. 3. 

Zu-l-Qdfiyeteyn (Double- 
Rhyme), I 122. 

Zu-l-Qawdfi (Poly rhyme), I 

Zunndr (Zone), an emblem 
of infidelity, II 44 n. 4. See 
Zone ; Girdle ; Cord, the Pay- 



'Abbas, enigma on, I 100 
n. i. 

c Abbasid Caliphs, black 
standards of the, II 213 n. I. 

c Abdullah, used in naming 
slaves, II 93 n. 2. 

Ablution, the canonical, II 
218 n. 6. 

Absorption in the Deity, I 

S9> 63- 

Acrostic, the, I 124. 

Adam, worshipped by the 
angels, IV 211 n. i. 

Admiral, the Grand, official 
dress of, III 295 n. 2. 

Admiral, the Lord High, 

IV 47- 

Adrianople, Treaty of, IV 

Aetiology, II 220 n. 4, 273 
n. 5, 281 n. 5. See Husn-i 

Ages of Man, the Seven, 
I 184. 

Ahmed, the Light of, III 
196 n. 3. 

c Ajemi Oghlans, Corps of, 
III 118. 

Alexander's Dyke, IV 103 
n. 3. 

Alexander, the Mirror of, 
I 284; II 339 n. 2. 

"Alien 3 , the, I 360 n. 7. 

Allah (God), I 181 n. i, 
379 n. 2, 409 n. 2. 

Allah, definition of, I 409 
n. 2. 

Almond, the, type of a 
beautiful eye, II 371 n. 2. 

Alms, the public, II 89 
n. 7. 

Aloes- wood, the best variety 
of, III 32 n. 4. 

Aloes-wood, perfume of, I 
215 n. i. 

Alphabet, the Ottoman, I 
98 n. i. 

Ambergris, the type of 
darkness, III 32 n. 2. 

Amphibology, II 87 n. 3, 108 
n. i, ii4n. 9, 127 n. 4, 137 n. 
i, 204 n. i, 207 n. 2. See Word- 
plays, 'Ihdm, and Tevriye. 

Anagram. See Qalb. 

Angels, the, I 38. See Me- 

Angels, the, called Hea- 
venly Birds, IV 204 n. i. 

Angels, Recording, II 213 
n. 7. 



Angora, Battle of, 250, 255, 
428, 429. 

Anthologies, Turkish, III 

Antistrophe, I 115. 

Appetizers, things eaten as, 

II 92 n. i, 345 n. 5. 
Apples, the written, of As- 

puzi, III 318 n. 4. 

Aquila, constellation, IV 53 
n. 2; V no n. 3. 

Arc of Ascent, the. See 
Qavs-i *Uruj\ 

Arc of Descent, the. See 
Qavs-i NuzuL 

Arithmetic, I 40. 

Artificial School of Turkish 
poets, the, III 245 sqq., 259, 
278, 329. 

c 'Ashiq Chelebi, account of, 

III 162 n. 4. 

Asper, value of the, II 26 
n. i. 

Ass, considered undignified 
to ride an, IV 277 n. 5. 

Astrology, Muhammedan, 
I 328 n. 3 ; II 69 n. 3, 125 n. i. 

Astronomy, I 40, 41. See 
c llm-i Hefet. 

Astronomy, the new, IV 356 
n. 3. 

Athletes, Oriental, II 72 n. 4. 

Atomistic Theory, the, I 
67 n. i. 

Attributes of Awfulness, I 
66 n. 2, 171 n. 2. See Jeldl. 

Attributes of Beauty, I 66 
n. 2, 171 n. 2. See Jemdl. 

Attributes, the Divine, I 66, 
407 n. 3, 408 n. 3 and 4, 409 
n. I. 

Autumn, the, compared to 
Zelikha, III 31 n. i. 

Autumn, personified as a 
rich householder, III 149 n. 3. 

'Azerbayjani dialect of Tur- 
kish, III 75. 

Azerbayjani poems, collec- 
tion of, III 1 06 n. 2. 

'Azerbayjani Turkish poets, 

III 1 06. 

Badakhshan, rubies of, II 
255 n. 4, 340 n. 2; IV 216 
n. i. See Rubies of Badakhshan. 

Balance, the allegorical, I 
174 n. 4. 

Ball, the Golden, in the 
dome of S*. Sophia, II 142 
n. i. 

Ban, military title, II 91 n. 
6; III 154 n. 7. 

Band, the military, IV 205 
n. 4. 

Banquet, the Primal, I 23; 

IV 313 n. 2. See E-lest, the 
Feast of. 

Barber-Books, III 248. 

c Bare-headed D , equivalent to 
c half-drunk 3 , II ill n. 4. 

Bath, the Eastern, II 255 
n. 6. 

Baths, public, in Turkey, 
IV 127 sqq., 303 n. 3. 

Bath-room, windows of the, 
IV 128 n. 10. 



Bayezfd I, date of his ac- 
cession, I 225 n. i. 

Bayram Festival, I 84; III 
109 n. 2, 287 n. i, 310 n. 4; 
IV 167 n. 4, 299 n. 5. 

Beads, what Moslems say 
when they tell their, II 244 
n. 2. 

Beaker, the, conceived as a 
magician, II 341 n. 8. 

Bear, the Great, III 17 n. 2. 

c Bear in one's hand' = c make 
much of 3 , II 340 n. 7. 

Beard, shaving of the, V 
25 n. i. 

Beard, wearing of the, IV 
321 n. 2. 

Beauty, Absolute, I i6seq., 
59 seq. 

Beauty, the Celestial, III 64 
n. 2, 65 n. i and 3, 66 n. 2. 

Beauty, the diwan of = a 
fair face, IV 316 n. 3. 

Beauty, the walk of a, com- 
pared to that of a partridge, 
IV 217 n. 4. 

Bed, nine mattresses of the, 
compared to the nine Ptole- 
maic spheres, III 58 n. 2. 

Beds, Eastern, III 58 n. i. 

Beggars, compared to ba- 
thers, III 56 n. 4. 

Beggars, phrase used in re- 
fusing alms to, II 87 n. 6. 

Begging-bowl, the, IV 173 
n. 2. 

Being, Absolute or Neces- 
sary, I 15 sqq., 41, 42 n. 2. 

Being, Contingent or Possi- 
ble, I 18, 41, 42 n. 2. 

Bells, horns, or gongs, sound- 
ed to warn travellers that 
the caravan is about to start, 

III ii n. 3. 

Beloved, the, addressed as 
a physician, III 168 n. 2. 

Beloved, the, compared to 
a falcon, III 281 n. 5. 

Beloved, the, compared to 
an idol, I 218 n. i. 

Beloved, the, compared to 
a lamp, III 308 n. 6. 

Beloved, the, compared to 
a sapling, IV 46 n. 2. 

Beloved, the, compared to 
a Turk, I 214 n. 6. 

Beloved, the, first described 
as golden-haired by Nedim, 

IV 46 n. i. 

Beloved, the, generally de- 
scribed as black-haired, IV 46 
n. i. 

Beloved, the, in mysticism, 
I 21 seq. 

Beloved, the, a personifica- 
tion of the Ideal, II 316 
n. 5. 

Beloved, the dog of the, II 
247 n. 4, 362 n. 9. 

Beloved of God, the, title 
of Muhammed, II 217 n. 5. 

Beyram, Festival of. See 

Bibliomancy, 1149, I98n. i. 

Bird language, IV 239 n. 2. 

Biting upon the finger, an 



expression of bewilderment, I 

33 1 n - i- 

Black Stone, the, I 38. 

Blackness, the Most Great. 
See Sewdd-i A c zam. 

Blackness of face, typifying 
disgrace, IV 72 n. 6. 

Blood, to take blood upon 
one's neck, IV 262 n. 5. 

Blue and green, regarded as 
shades of one colour, I 151 
n. 3 ; II 112 n. 7; III 31 n. 
6, 98 n. 4. 

Body, the, compared to a 
cage, I 190 n. 4. 

Body, definition of, I 4$n. 3. 

Books, the four, I 375 n. 2. 

Books, want of reverence 
for, II 355 n. 2. 

Bosom, the, compared to a 
sepulchre, IV 171 n. 2. 

Bowl, the Elder of the, IV 
205 n. i. 

Brazil-wood, II 213 n. 2, 
254 n. 8. 

Bread and salt rights, II 
315 n. 6. 

Breath of God, the, title of 
Jesus, III 214 n. 3. 

Breath, holding of the, prac- 
tised by dervishes, III 240 n. 3. 

Breezes playing on water, 
likened to chains, II 242 n. 4. 

Bride, the Spheral = the 
sky, II 60 n. 6. 

Brides, the faces of, orna- 
mented with gilt spangles, III 
3i " 3- 

Bridge, the, of Hell, I 174 
n. 2. See Sirat. 

Bridle-fere, IV 49 n. I. 

Brocade, Venetian, II 255 
n. 2. 

Bud, a, compared to a go- 
blet, IV 334 n. i. 

Bull, the, in Muhammedan 
cosmogony, I 39. 

Burning Bush, the miracle 
of the, IV 104 n. i ; V 94 
n. 7. 

Buttons, alluding to a lady's 
breasts, III 97 n. 2. 

Cadi, the office of, II 394 

seq-, 397 sqq- 

Cadiasker, the office of, II 
24 n. 3. See Qdzi-^Asker. 

Caiques, the public, IV 44 
n. 3. 

Calf, the golden, V 89 n. i. 

Caliphs, the Orthodox. See 
Khulefd-yi Rdshidin. 

Camels, unruly, II lion. 4. 

Camphor, the type of any- 
thing white, III 16 n. 7, 32 n. 2. 

Canaan, the Moon of, IV 
265 n. 2. 

Canopy surmounting the 
Sultan's throne, III 309 n. 6. 

Caravan, the, of human in- 
dividuals, I 193 n. i. 

Caravanseray, I 193 n. I. 

Carlowitz, the Peace of, III 


Carnelians of Yemen, II 89 
n. 2 and 3; IV 216 n. i. 



Categories, the Ten, 141 n. 
2. See Maquldt-i *Ashere. 

Cause, the First, I 40 n. i. 
See Mebde-i EvveL 

Censer, the, used at wine- 
feasts, II 338 n. 3. 

Censor, the, a type of con- 
ventionality, I 360 n. i. 

Cercis Siliquastrum, III 30 
n. 3. 

Chaghatay dialect, the, V 
79. See Jaghatay. 

Chapter of Light, the, II 


Cheek, the (mystical term), 
I 23. 

Cheek, the, compared to a 
rose, III 197 n. 3. 

Cheeks, of a beauty, com- 
pared to a garden, II 35 n. 6, 
298 n. 2. 

Cheeks, the lustre of, com- 
pared to pomegranate-blos- 
som, III 16 n. 3. 

Chess, III 176 n. 2, 249 
n. i. 

Child of the grape, the, IV 
43 n. i. 

Children, querulous, threat 
sometimes used towards, IV 
169 n. i. 

Chin, of a beauty, compa- 
red to an apple or orange, II 
122 n. 2; IV 25 n. 3. 

Chin, the well of the, IV 
26 n. i. 

China, the land of fragrance, 
IV 44 n. i. 

China, the native land of 
musk, II 65 n. 6, 112 n. 4. 

China, use of, in Turkish 
poetry, II 313 n. 5. 

c Chinese D = artistically be- 
autiful, II 383 n. i. 

Chinese Idol, term applied 
to a beautiful person, III 185 
n. 2. 

Chosroes (title), III 139 n. 
I, 148 n. 6; IV ii2n. 4. See 
KhiLsraw; Khusrev ; and Kisrd. 

Christian pictures and ima- 
ges, III 65 n. 3. 

Christians, the Eastern, II 
197 n. i. 

Chronograms, English, IV 
273 n. i, 

Chronograms, Oriental, 1 87, 
98; II 99, 265 n. i; III 39, 
41, 85 seq., no, 126 n. 2, 
235, 295 n. 3, 299; IV 90, 
108 seq., 159, 175 n. 2, 179 
n. 2, 181 n. i, 211 n. 3, 224, 
233, 246, 256, n. i, 258, 265 
sqq., 275 n. i. 

Churchill affair, the, IV 325 
seq., 328. 

Circassian, the typical, IV 
41 n. 4. 

Circle of Existence, the, 152, 
5 3 n. i . See Deverdn-i Vujud. 

Civilians, arms seldom car- 
ried by, IV 322 n. i. 

Climates, the Seven, I 47 
n. i, 289 n. 3; III 9 n. i. 

Clouds, compared to women 
mourning the dead, II 3 14 n. 3. 



Coaches, reserved for wo- 
men, IV 298 n. i. 

Cock's eye, a term applied 
to red wine, IV 51 n. i. 

Coinage, the Ottoman, I 
262 n. 2. 

Coins, the first Ottoman 
gold, II 26 n. 2. 

Coins, scattered among the 
people on festival days, II 
113 n. 9. 

College for Muslim Ladies, 

IV 349- 

Collyrium, II 49 n. 4; IV 
66 n. i. 

Comb, the, use of in poetry, 
III 157 n. 5, 269 n. i. 

Concubines in Muhamme- 
dan countries, III 333 n. i. 

Confession of Faith, the 
Muslim, II 218 n. 4. 

Conscience, the eye of, III 
323 n. i. 

Conqueror, the, surname of 
Mehemmed II, II 22. 

Constantinople, the capture 
of, I 406. 

Constantinople, the names 
of, III 214 n. i. 

Coolness of the eye, a term 
of endearment. See Qurret- 

Coolness of the eye =. tran- 
quillity, III 177 n. 5. 

Copernican System, the, I 
43 n. i. 

Cord, the paynim, IV 71 
n. i. See Zunndr and Girdle. 

Card of Unity, the, IV 71 
n. i. 

Cosmogony, Muhammedan, 

I 34 sqq. 

c Cotton hands 3 , IV 300 n. i. 

Cotton-wool, put in the 
mouth of a corpse, II 216 n. 4. 

Couplet. See Beyt. 

Crane-eye, epithet of wine, 
IV 148 n. 2. 

Crow, the, a bird of ill omen, 

II 214 n. 3. See Ghurdb-ul- 

Crow, black, typifying 
night, II 115 n, 3. 

Crucifixion of Jesus, the, 
Muhammedan belief concer- 
ning, I 233 n. 3. 

Crystal, epithet applied to 
a clear white skin, I 330 n. 6. 

Culture, Eastern and Wes- 
tern, in the Middle Ages, I 444 

c Cup-bearer D =. the author's 
poetic genius, II 338 n. i. See 

Cup-bearer, the ideal, IV 
340 n. 3. 

Curl, of a beauty, compared 
to a hyacinth, I 296 n. 2. 

Curl, of a beauty, compa- 
red to a snake, I 294 n. 7, 
330 n. 3; II 36 n. i. 

Curls, of a beauty, compa- 
red to chains, I 330 n. 5. 

Curls, of a beauty, compared 
to the wards of a key, II 
323 n. 2. 



Curtains, Eastern, I 330 n. 7. 

Cypress, the, called c free D , 
II 208 n. 8. 

Cypress, type of a graceful 
figure, I 331 n. 7; II 64 n. 
4, 101 n. 3, 361 n. 4. 

Cypress, type of a noble 
man, II 246 n. 6. 

Dagger of the beloved, the, 
IV 356 n. 2. 

Daggers, worn by Turkish 
ladies, IV 356 n. 2. 

Damascening of sword- 
blades, IV 101 n. 3. 

Dancing, Eastern, IV 126 
n. 4. 

Dancing-boys, IV 235 seq. 

Dancing-girls, II 113 n. 2. 

Dancing-girls, Greek, IV 289 
n. i. 

Daughter of the Grape, the, 
IV 113 n. i. See c Childofthe 
grape 3 and dukhter-i rez. 

Daughter of the Vine, the 
eyes of the, IV 168 n. 3. 

Dawn, the breath of, II 68 
n. 6. 

Dawn, the shaft or column 
of, IV 40 n. 3. 

Dazzling Darkness (Sufi 
phrase), I 66 n. i. See Light, 
the blackest. 

Dead, examination of the, 
IV 297 n. 2. 

Decarchy, the West-Turk- 
ish, I 11, 141, 178 n. i, 249. 

Demons, the, said to have 

been created from fire, IV 202 
n. i. 

Deri, dialect of Persian, IV 

Dervish orders, the, I 25, 
146, 149, 151, 179 n. i, 195 
n. 3. 

Dervishes, dancing, I 146 
n. 3; IV 83, 203. See Semd c . 

Dervishes, phraseology of, 
III 231 n. 2. 

Dervishes, a practice of, in 
ecstatic trance, II 382 n. 2. 

Dewdrops conceived as sil- 
ver studs, II 277 n. 2. 

Dimple, the, on the chin of 
a beauty, conceived as a pit, 
II 126 n. 4, 223 n. 3. 

Directions, the Six, I 425 
n. 4; III 46 n. i. 

Dishes, Eastern, glossary of, 

II 335 " 7- 

Divan, the, II 24. 

Divination, I 58 n. i, 166 
n. 3. See Fdlji. 

Doctors, Eastern, IV 101 
n. 2. 

Dog, a, popularly called 
fitne, I 257 n. 3. 

Dogs frequenting the belo- 
ved's ward, II 315 n. 5. 

Domes, raised over the 
tombs of saints, III 93 n. 2. 

Donkeys, Turkish proverb 
concerning, V 37 n. i. 

Down (khatt), double mea- 
ning of, II 89 n. 5; IV 104 
n. 2. See Khatt. 



Down, on the cheek, com- 
pared to the nap on satin, IV 
133 n. 4. 

Down on the face, compa- 
red to a turquoise, II 372 n. 3. 

Down on the face, compa- 
red to writing, II 67 n. 6, 
89 n. 5. 

Dowry, the, in Muhamme- 
dan law, IV 188 n. i. 

Drama, the Ottoman, V 14 

Dreams, I 57 n. i. See 
*Ilm-i Tcfbir. 

Drinking-vessels, shaped 
like the crescent moon, II 338 
n. 2. 

Drunkenness, (mystical 
term), I 364 n. 4. 

Drunkenness, four degrees 
of, II 329 n. i. 

Dulcimer, the, compared to 
a mistar, II 342 n. 6. 

Dust on the heart = chag- 
rin, II 243 n. 7. 

Eagle, the, trained for the 
chase, II 115 n. 4. 

Ear of the mandoline peg, 
III 347 n. 3. 

Ears of the lute, the, III 
290 n. i. 

Ear-shell, the, III 99 n. 2. 

Earths, the Seven, I 38, 399. 

East-Turkish dialects, I 4 
n. i. 

Ecstasy, I 59. See HdL 

Eggs, red, IV 241 n. 3. 

Eglantine, the, usually as- 
sociated with the idea of white- 
ness, II 222 n. i. 

Egypt, the tribute of, I 
262 n. i. 

Eight, Court of the, III 172. 
See Sahn and Sahn-i Semdn. 

Elder of the Magians, the, 

III 232 n. 4, 269 n. 4. 
Elements, the four, I 46, 

48, 187 n. 2. 

Elif, the letter, type of a 
slight and erect figure, II 192 
n. i. 

Elixir, II 49 n. 2, 

Emanation, the doctrine of, 
I 42, 60. 

Empyrean, the, III 55 n. 3, 
310 n. 3; IV 100 n. 2, 136 
n. i. See c Arsh. 

English, used as an epithet 
in Turkish poetry, IV 1 13 n. 2. 

English, the, reckoned ex- 
perts in the use of fire-arms, 

IV 146 n. 3. 

English women, description 
of, IV 241. 

Enigmas, I 100. See Lughaz 
and Mifammd. 

Epanadiplosis. See Redd-ul- 
c Ajzi ^ale-s-Sadr. 

Epanastrophe. See I c dde. 

Equivoque, IV 332 n. 2. 
See 'I ham ; Jinds ; Tejnis ; 
and Word-plays. 

Eternal youths, I 37. See 

Ethics. See c llm-i Akhldq. 



Eunuch, the chief, official 
dress of, III 295 n. 2. 

Euphuism, Art of, I in 
sqq. See ^Ilm-i Bedf. 

Evil, the mystery of, I 18. 

Execution, barbarous Per- 
sian mode of, II 279 n. 7. 

Existence, the Circle of, I 
52 seq. 

Eye, the arrow of the, I 
214 n. 5. 

Eye, of a beauty, conceived 
as restless, I 216 n. i. 

Eye, of a beauty, compa- 
red to a witch, I 295 n. 4. 

Eye, of a beauty, compared 
to a narcissus, I 296 n. 3. 

Eye, of a beauty, described 
as c drunken 3 or Sleeping 3 , II 
301 n. 2. 

Eye, of the beloved, com- 
pared to Mars, II 373 n. 3. 

Eye of Certainty, the, I 328 
n. i, 425 n. 4. See ^Ayn-i 

Eye, the, compared to a 
mirror, II 273 n. 5. 

Eye, coolness of the tran- 
quillity, III 177 n. 5. 

Eye, the evil, II 274 n. 6 ; III 
168 n. 3 ; IV 64 n. 4, 295 n. 4. 

Eye, the house of the, II 

359 " 4- 

Eye of understanding, the, 
I 160 n. 5. 

Eyebrow, the, compared to 
a bow, I 214 n. 5; II 64 n. 
3; III 98 n. 3 and 4. 

Eyebrow, the, compared to 
a crescent moon, III 308 n. 2. 

Eyebrow, the, compared to 
a prayer-niche (mihrdb), I 361 
n. 3 and 4. 

Eyebrow, the, compared to 
a scimitar, III 324 n. 4. 

Eyebrows, compared to brid- 
ges, II 360 n. 7. 

Eyebrows, compared to a 
pavilion, II 373 n. 4. 

Eyebrows, compared to 
tents, II 67 n. 2. 

Eyelashes, compared to ar- 
rows, II 279 n. i. 

Eyelashes, compared to 
ranks of spearmen, II 361 n. i. 

Eyes, of a beauty, compa- 
red to Turks, I 214 n. 6. 

Eyes, the light of the, a 
term of endearment, III 177 
n. 4. 

Fables, composed by 
Shinasi, V 33 seq. 

Face, of a beauty, compa- 
red to a lovely day, II 69 
n. i. 

Face, of a beauty, compa- 
red to a moon, II 69 n. 3; 
IV 219 n. i. 

Face, of the beloved, com- 
pared to the sun, II 69 n. 6, 

! n. i. 

Face, blackness of, II 213 
n. 9, 249 n. 10. 

Face, a sallow, compared to 
a gilt plate, II 69 n. 5. 



Face, a sallow, compared 
to a lotus II 360 n. 5. 

Falcon, a habit of the, II 
279 n. 3. 

Fantasy, the, II 36 n. 7, 
302 n. i ; II 362 n. 4. See 

Fate, the, of every man 
written on his skull, 1191 n. i. 

Fawn, image for a grace- 
ful beauty, II 62 n. 2. 

Felt, worn by the poor, 
IV 133 n. 6. 

Feudal system, the Otto- 
man, III 216 n. I. 

Figures (rhetorical), I 1 1 1 

Finger-counting (native 
Turkish syllabic metres), V 79. 
See Parmaq hisdbi. 

Fire, the sphere of, II 315 
n. i, 316 n. 2. 

Fire, symbolic meaning of, 

I 171 n. 2; V 94 n. 7. 
Fish, the, in Muhammedan 

cosmogony, I 39; 1111411.7. 
Fishes, rings of silver fas- 
tened through the noses of, 

II 242 n. i. 

Flax, cloth of, supposed to 
go into shreds when exposed 
to moonlight, IV 117 n. i. 

Florin, the Ottoman, II 26 
n. 3. 

Flowers, wet red, compa- 
red to drops of blood, II 240 
n. i. 

Flute, the, sacred instrument 

of the Mevlevi dervishes I, 
425 n. 5. See Ney. 

Flute, finger of the, III 36 
n. 2. 

Flute, the wail of the, III 
92 n. i, 157 n. 4. 

Flytings, IV 248. 

Folds, the Seven, I 195 n. i. 

Footprint, a, compared to 
a prayer-niche, II 35 n. 2. 

Form, I 45 seq. See Suret. 

Fountain, the jet of a, com- 
pared to a lasso, III 346 n. 4. 

Fountain of Life, the, I 219 
n. 3, 281 sqq. See Life, the 
Water of. 

Friend, the = God, I 173 
n. 2. 

Funeral prayers, II 261 n. 2. 

Furniture, of an old-fashion- 
ed Turkish room, III 189 n. 2. 

Fuzuli's Turkish, peculiari- 
ties of, III 76 n. i. 

Games of children in the 
East, IV 116 n. i, 277 n. 4, 
320 n. i, 

Games, military, of the 
Turks, IV 28 n. i. 

Garden, the, red with tulips, 
compared to a sea of blood, 
III 267 n. i. 

Gems and metals believed to 
ripen in mines, III 46 n. 2. 

Generation, meaning of, I 
47 n. 2. 

Genies confined in bottles, 
II 331 n. 4. 



Geography, Muhammedan, 

I 47 n. i. 

Geometry, I 40. See ^Ilm-i 

Ghazel, the, I 80, 102, 144. 

Ghazels, introduced into the 
mesnevi, I 309. 

Ghazels, introduced into 
qasidas, III 149 n. 8. 

Ghost, the Holy, III 308 n. 6. 

Gipsy wedding customs, IV 

Girdle, the, worn by Chris- 
tians and pagans in the East, 

II 44 n. 4. See Zunndr and 
Cord, the paynim. 

Glances, compared to ar- 
rows, I 64 n. 3; III 98 n. 3. 

God, the fourteen letters 
of, I 340. 

God, the Most Great Name 
of, I 379 n. 2. See Ism-i A c zam. 

God, the thirty-two words 
of, I 368 n. i. 

Godhead, the Effulgence of 
the, I 66, 327 n. i, 377 n. i. 

Good, Absolute, I 16 sqq. 

Grapes, a bunch of, com- 
pared to the Pleiades, III 287 
n. 4. 

Greek girls, the gait of, IV 
240 n. 3. 

Greek in Persian characters, 
I 152. 

Greek pronunciation of 
Turkish, IV 239 n. i. 

Greek women, description 
of the, IV 238 sqq. 

Green, the sacred colour, 
II 239 n. 2. 

Habitable Quarter, the, III 
139 n. 2. See Rutf-i Meskiin. 

Hail-stones, compared to 
cannon-balls, II 239 n. 4. 

Hail-stones, compared to 
glass balls, II 243 n. 2. 

Hair, of the beauty, regar- 
ded as a dragon, II I2on. 7. 

Hair of the beloved, scen- 
ted with ambergris, II 35 n. 5. 

Hair, black locks of, com- 
pared to snakes or scorpions, 
IV 155 n. 2. 

Hair, compared to the ba- 
sil, I 294 n. 6. 

Hair, compared to clouds, 

II 88 n. i. 

Hair, compared to a snare, 
I 385 n. i; III 168 n. 6. 

Hair, compared to the vio- 
let, II 89 n. 4. 

Hand = leaf, II 113 n 7; 

III 158 n. 2. 

Hand-mill, the Eastern, II 
245 n. 3. 

Harem dialect, poems in 
the, IV 283 sqq. 

Hare's sleep, II 201 n. 2. 

Harp, the Eastern, II 342 
n. 3, 372 n. 2. 

Head = selfhood, I 163 
n. 2. 

Head-bounden = bound to 
obey, IV 262 n. 4. 

Headdresses, extravagant, 



worn by English ladies, IV 
242 n. i. 

Headlessness, mystical term, 

I 163 n. 2. 

Heads, of lovers, compared 
to cups spun by a juggler, II 
38 n. 4. 

Heart, of the beauty, com- 
pared to a stone, I 214 n. 4. 

Heart, of the lover, com- 
pared to a glass or crystal 
vial, I 214 n. 4; II 66 n. i. 

Heart, of the lover, com- 
pared to a piece of roast meat, 

II 37 n. 2. 

Heart, the compared to a 
flint, II 360 n. 4. 

Heart, the, compared to a 
mirror, II 250 n. 3, 332 n. 3, 
372 n. i. 

Hearts, of lovers, conceived 
as hanging from a beauty's 
tresses, II 120 n. 7. 

Heat and cold = all things, 
IV 200 n. i. 

Heavens, the Seven, I 37, 


Hells, the Seven, I 399. 

Henna, used as a dye, III 
31 n. 5, 98 n. i. 

Henna night, IV 290 n. 3. 

Hindu, type of blackness, 
II 214 n. 2. 

Hips, the, of a girl, compa- 
red to a mountain, IV 27 n. i. 

Holy men, a lamp lit over 
the graves of, IV 205 n. 3. 
See Saints, the tombs of the. 

Holy men, pilgrimage to 
the tombs of, I 180 n. 2. See 
Saints, the tombs of the. 

Holy Spirit, the, a title of 
Gabriel, II 217 n. 4. 

Homonymy. See Jinds and 

Honey, popularly regarded 
as a universal panacea, II 65 
n. 4. 

Hoopoe, the, II 386 n. 5. 

Houris, the, I 37 n. I. 

Humour in Turkish poetry, 
IV 15 seq. 

Humours, the four, I 301 
n. i ; II 65 n. 2, 329 n. i. 
See Akhldt-i erbcfa. 

Huseyn, son of c Ali, elegies 
on, IV 350. 

Hyacinth, the, a type of 
luxuriant locks, III 153 n. 6, 
156 n. i. 

Hyperbole, I 112. 

Ideas, the Platonic, III 114 
n. i. See A c ydn-i Sdbita. 

Idioms, Persian, II 246 n. 
i, 270, 272 n. i. 

Idol, name for a beauty, I 
218 n. i; II 44 n. 2; III 185 
n. 2, 265 n. 7; IV 171 n. i. 
See Sanem. 

Idol, a type of false reli- 
gions, I 170 n. i. 

Idol, Chinese, name for a 
beauty, II 313 n. 5/31411. I. 

Immortality of the Soul, 
the, I 52. 



Incense, burned in the in- 
vocation of spirits, III 179 n. I. 
Infidel, name for a beauty, 

II 44 n. 3. See Paynim and 

Ink, Eastern, IV 318 n. 3. 

Inscriptions, the Achaeme- 
nian, III 310 n. 5. 

Insomnia, remedy for, II 
204 n. 8. 

Intelligence, the Primal, I 
188 n. 4; III 129 n. 2. See 
^Aql-i Evvel. 

Intelligence, the Universal, 
I 42, 60. 

Intelligences, of the nine 
Spheres, the, I 44. 

Intimacy, mystical term, I 
151 n. 2. 

Islam, less rigid than is gen- 
erally supposed, I 24. 

Istambol, derivation of, III 
280 n. 2. 

Istambol, the fawns of IV, 
138 n. i. 

Jaghatay dialect of Turkish, 

I 72, 127; II 10; III 75, 76. 
See Chaghatay. 

Jami, derivation of his name, 

III 156 n. 5. 

Janissaries, the, I 179 n. i ; 

II 228, 248, 249 n. 3, 257, 
266, 268; III 185 n. 5, 206, 
319; IV 248 n. i. ^Qejanizari. 

Jasmine-breast, term for a 
beauty, I 331 n. 2. 

Jemshid, the cup of, II 71 

n. i, 90 n. 4, 221 n. 6, 339 
n. 4, 392; III 129 n. i, 220 
n. i ; IV 148 n. i. 

Jesus, the life-giving breath 
of, II 1 20 n. 6. 

Jewellers = dealers in 
beautiful fancies, III 308 n. 3. 

Jonquil, flower of the, com- 
pared to a golden bowl, III 
282 n. 2. 

Joseph, the type of youth- 
ful beauty, III 179 n. 3. 

Joseph, the shirt of, III 
287 n. 3. 

Joseph and Zelikha, the ro- 
mance of, IV 28. 

Joseph and Zelikha, poems 
on the subject of, II 148 n. 2. 

Journey, the homeward, 
mystical term, I 52, 53 n. i. 

Judas-tree, the, III 30 n. 3, 
152 n. 5; IV 348 n. 2. See 

Judgment, the Day of, IV 
209 n. 3, 2ii n. 2. 

Jug, an earthenware, used 
as a target, V 43 n. i. 

Jujube-tree (zizyphus), the, 
II 92 n. 2. 

Juniper, the, III 30 n. 4. 

Jurisprudence. See ''Ilm-i 

Jurist, the, a type of con- 
ventional respectability, III 
67 n. 5. 

Ka c ba, circumambulation of 
the, I 243 n. 3. 



Ka c ba, the Heavenly, II 59 
n. 3, 61 n. 2. 

Ka c ba, the Lord of the, II 
320 n. 3. 

Kebabs, cooking of, II 37 
n. 2. 

Kerbela, the Martyrs of, 
Elegies on, IV 350. 

Keys, Eastern, II 323 n. 5. 

Khalveti order of dervishes, 
I 232 n. 2; II 148 n. 2, 213 
n. 4, 374; III 108, 3.12. 

Khoten, the deer of, III 
301 n. 2. 

Kingdom, the Fair = Per- 
sia, III 207. 

Kiss, a, compared to a peach, 
III 58 n. 3. See Peach and 

Koran, the first revelation 
of the, II 219 n. 5. 

Koran, the Fourteen letters 
of the, I 340 n. 3. 

Koran, sanctity of the, IV 
319 n. 4. 

Lasso, the, a weapon of the 
Persian heroic age, II 1 14 n. 6. 

Lawsonia inermis (henna), 
III 98 n. i. 

Leather, a piece of, used as 
a chess-board, III 176 n. 2. 

Leaves, yellow, compared to 
gold fish, III 31 n. 2. 

Leaves, yellow, compared 
to meteors, III 31 n. 7. 

Leonine verse, III 264. See 

Letters, Arabic, metaphors 
derived from, II 373 n. 2 ; III 
1 68 n. 7; IV 67 n. 5. 

Letters, the shape of, word- 
plays on, II 373 n. 2; III 320 
n. 2. 

Letters of God, the Four- 
teen, I 340. 

Leviathan, I 39 n. i. 

Leyla, a type of the Di- 
vine Beauty, III 65 n. i. 

Leyla and Mejnun, poems 
on the subject of, II 172. 

Library, the first private, 
among the Ottomans, II 31. 

Licences, metrical, IV 184. 

Life, the Water of, III 168 
n. 4, 198 n. 2, 209 n. i ; IV 
45 n. i, in n. 6, 317 n. i. 
See Fountain of Life, the. 

Life, the Water of = gentle 
speech, etc., Ill 321 n. 4. 

Life of me, term of endear- 
ment, IV 238 n. 2. 

Light, the blackest, III 272 
n. 2. See Dazzling Darkness. 

Light, mystical meaning of, 
V 94 n. 7. 

Light, symbolic meaning of, 
I 171 n. 2. 

Light of Ahmed. See Mu- 
hammed, Light of. 

Light of Muhammed, the, 
I 34, 68. See Muhammed, 
Light of. 

Light of my eyes, a term 
of endearment, IV 172 n. 6. 

Lily, the leaf of the, com- 



pared to a sword, II 239 
n. 3. 

Lily, the tongue of the, III 
112 n. 3. 

Lily, the tongues of the = 
petals, II 361 n. 9. 

Lines and Curves = letters, 

I 166 n. 4. 

Lion, the Persian, III 289 
n. 3. 

Lip, of a beauty, compared 
to a rose-bud, IV 65 n. i. 

Lip, the, compared to a 
ruby, II 372 n. 3. 

Lips, red, described as pearl- 
bestrewing rubies, III 285 n. 3. 

Liver, the, believed to con- 
sist of solid blood, II 359 n. 
3; III 92 n. 3. 

Liver, the, the seat of pas- 
sion, I 294 n. 3; II 35 n. i. 

Locks, of a beauty, com- 
pared to a snare, I 360 n. 2. 

Locks, of a beauty, dark 
and sweet-scented, II 64 n. 6. 

Locks, of the beloved, com- 
pared to a girdle, II 44 n. 4, 
66 n. 6. 

Locks, of the beloved, com- 
pared to ornamental crucifixes, 

II 283 n. i. 

Locks, of the beloved, com- 
pared to a snake or dragon, 
II 87 n. 4. 

Locks, black, of a beauty 
compared to charcoal, I 215 
n. i. 

Locks, sweet-scented, com- 

pared to the violet and hya- 
cinth, II 345 n. 2. 

Logic, I 40 n. 4. See c llm-i 

Logos, the, I 42 n. i, 158 
n. i, 374 n. 2; IV 187 seq., 
199. See c Aql-i Evv'el. 

Lote-tree, the celestial, I 
35. See Sidret-ul-Muntehd. 

Love, in Sufiism, I 20 sqq., 


Love, in Turkish poetry, 

111-83 sqq. 

Love, Platonic or masculine, 

I 64; II 380; III 122 sqq.; 
IV 230 seq. See Misogyny. 

Love, Typal and Real, I 21 ; 

II 86 n. i; III 174 n. 2. See 
c Ashq-i haqiqi; ^Ashq-imejdzi. 

Love, the man of, I 222 n. 
4, 247 n. 4. 

Loved One, the = God, I 
173 n. i. 

Love-letter compared to a 
carrier-pigeon, II 121 n. 4. 

Lover, the, in Sufiism, I 22, 
23, 160 n. 2, 162 n. i, 173 n. 5. 

Lover, the wasted form of 
the, compared to a shadow, 
II 212 n. 3. 

Lute, the ears of the, II 86 
n. 2. 

Macrocosm, the, I 62, 63 n. 
i, 187. 

Mad, mystical term, I 159 
n. 2, 192 n. i. 

Madmen, chained in the 

3 2 4 


East, I 330 n. 5, 360 n. 8; II 
222 n. 5. 

c Magian D , use of, in Persian 
and Turkish poetry, III 232 
n. 4. 

Magic, Muhammedan, III 
175 n. i. 

Magic lantern, the. See Fd- 
nus-i KhaydL 

Magic rite, a, practised by 
the Tartars, II 120 n. i. 

Man, the Microcosm, I 194 
n. i, 366 n. 7 and 8. 

Man, the Perfect, II 284 n. 
3. See Insdn-i KdmiL 

Mandoline, ears of the, II 
342 n. 4. 

Mantles, trimmed with 
squirrel-fur, IV 355 n. i. 

Market, a c hot D or c warm D , 
III 67 n. 4. 

Marriages, Muslim, IV 1 14 
n. 4. 

Mars, the Sphere of, II 373 
n. 3. 

Mastic, proverbial phrase in 
connection with, IV 38 n. i. 
See Saqiz. 

Mathematics, I 40 n. 3. 

Matter, I 45 seq. 

Meat, pieces of, compared 
to prayer-rugs, II 335 n. i. 

Mejniin, Arabic poems as- 
cribed to, II 178 n. i. 

Mekka pilgrims, the sandal 
worn by the, IV 263 n. i. 

Melancholia, II 65 n. 2. See 

Mercury, the planet, III 147 
n. 4. 

Mercury, the Sphere of, II 
in n. i. 

Mercy to the Worlds, title 
of Muhammed, II 217 n. 2. 

Mermaid, the, V 40 n. I. 

Metal, a thin leaf of, placed 
beneath precious stones, IV 
286 n. 2. 

Metaphysic, I 40 n. 3. 

Metaphysical poets, the 
English, I 28 n. i. 

Metonymy, I in n. i. See 

Metres, used in Ottoman 
poetry, I 107 sqq. 

Mevlevi costume, the, 1423. 

Mevlevi orchestra, the, IV 
176 n. i. 

Mevlevi order of dervishes, 
the, I 146, 149, 151, 195 n. 

3, 421, 422; II 356 n. i; III 
61 n. 3, 186, 211, 219, 292, 
297, 312; IV 80, 83, 124 n. 

4, 125 n. i. 137 n. i, 159, 175 
n. i, 176 n. 3, 177 sqq., 203, 
207, 212, 320 n. 3, 337. 

Mevlevi poets, I 411, 422 

Mevlevi poets, biographical 
work on the, IV 197. 

Microcosm, the, I 62, 63 n. 
i,. 66, 187, 194 n. i. 

Mine, the, a type of gene- 
rous wealth, III 149 n. 2. 

Miracles. See Saints ; Moon, 
splitting of the. 



Mirror, the magic, of Alexan- 
der the Great, III 324 n. 2. 

Mirrors, metallic, III 189 n. 
4; IV 127 n. 3. 

Mirrors = phenomena, III 
316 n. 2. 

Misogyny, III 42, 85, 179 
sqq., 238 seq., 284. See Love, 

Mohacz, Battle of, II 358 
n. 2. 

Mole, the, regarded as a 
beauty, II 279 n. 6, 286 n. I. 

Mole, of a beauty, compa- 
red to a grain in a snare, I 
360 n. 2; III 168 n. 6. 

Mole, of a beauty, compa- 
red to her Indian slave, I 214 
n. 6. 

Mole, a black, compared to 
a pepper-corn, IV 169 n. i. 

Mollas, the, ignorance of, II 
386 n. 2. 

Money, given to the bearer 
of good news, III 283 n. 2. 

Mongols, sack of Baghdad 
by the, IV 42 n. 3. 

Moon, the, compared to the 
white forehead of the beloved, 
III 157 n. 3. 

Moon, 28 mansions of the, 
II 360 n. 8; IV 349 n. I. 

Moon, name for a beauty, 
I 328 n. 2; II 119 n. i. 

Moon, the new, compared 
to a skiff, II 360 n. 9. 

Moon, the c palm 3 of the, III 
55 n. 2. 

Moon, personification of the, 
III 147 n. 4. 

Moon, splitting of the, I 
374 n. 3; III 55 n. 2. 

Moonlight, exposure to, in- 
jurious, IV 125 n. 2. 

Moonlight ghazel, the, by 
Beh'gh, IV 119, 124. 

Moth, symbol of the per- 
fect lover, II 55 n. 4, 280 n. 
4; IV 100 n. i. 

Moth and Taper, IV 64 n. 3. 

Mother of the Book, I 339, 
374. See Umm-ul-Kitdb. 

Mother of the world, a name 
of Cairo, IV 93 n. i. 

Mothers, the four, I 48. 

Mouth, of a beauty, com- 
pared to an atom, I 21711. 5. 

Mouth, of a beauty, com- 
pared to a ruby casket, I 294 
n. 5 ; IV 168 n. 4. 

Mouth, of the beloved, com- 
pared to the Fountain of Life, 
I 219 n. 3; II 121 n. 3, 126 
n. i, 298 n. 2. 

Mouth, of the beloved, com- 
pared to a rosebud, II 281 n. 
4; IV 155 n. i. 

Mouth, smallness of the, a 
charm of the conventional 
beauty, I 217 n. 5, 295 n. 2; 
III 149 n. 9. 

Movement, kinds of, I 45 
n. 2. 

Muhammed, the Ascension 
of, I 236, 366 n. 2; II 57 n. 
4, 150. See Mfrdj. 



Muhammed, the body of, 
supposed to cast no shadow, 
III 54 n. 3; IV 210 n. 3. 

Muhammed, date of his 
birth, I 237 n. i. 

Muhammed, Light of, I 34, 
68, 236, 240, 247 n. 3, 399, 
410; II 239 n. i; III 54 n. 3, 
196 n. 3; IV 313 n. I. 

Murad, the name of, III 177 
n. 8. 

Murad III and his sons, elegy 
on, by Nev c i, III 175 sqq. 

Music, I 40. 

Musk, how obtained, I 294 
n. 4. 

Musk, where procured, III 
157 n. i. 

Musk, parcels of, wrapped 
in red silk, II 68 n. 2; III 
156 n. 3. 

Musk, the usual simile for 
hair, II 67 n. 6. 

Musk-pod, the, II 112 n. 4. 

Musky = dark-coloured, IV 
127 n. 6. 

Mysticism. See Sufiism. 

Mysticism in Turkish poetry, 
III 311. See Sufiism. 

Mystics, famous sayings of 
the, I 21, 187 n. 3, 192 n. 
3, 369 n. i; IV 102 n. i, 123 
n. i, 150 n. 2, 158 n. i, 167 
n. 6, 210 n. 3. 

Nakhsheb, the Moon of, IV 
265 n. 3. 

Name, the Most Great, I 379 

n. 2 ; III 56 n. 6 ; IV 1 1 1 n. 3. See 
God, the Most Great Name 
of, and Ism-i A^zam. 

Names, the Most Comely, 
III 114 n. i, 192 n. i. 

Names of God, the, I 61, 
172 n. 3, 407 n. 3, 408 n. 3, 
409 n. I, 410 n. i; III 315 
n. i. 

Narcissus = eye, I 360 n. 
3; II 101 n. 2; III 321 n. 3. 

Narcissus, the, described as 
languishing, I 364 n. 6. 

Narcissus, the, called gol- 
den-cap 3 , II 278 n. 3. 

Narcissus, the eye of the, 
II 101 n. 3; III 112 n. 2. 

Narcissus, the flower of the, 

II 278 n. 4. 

Narcissus, the yellow centre 
of the, compared to a gold 
sequin, II 113 n. 8. 

National spirit, the, in Ot- 
toman poetry, I 1 30 sqq. ; IV 
3 sqq. 

Natural School of Ottoman 
poetry, the, III 245 sqq., 259 
sqq., 278, 329. 

Nature, the four-columned 
dome of, III 112 n. 6. 

Neo-platonism, I 42 n. i and 
3, 53, 64 n. i, 359. 

New Turks, the, V 73. See 
Young Turkey Party. 

New Year, Festival of the, 

III 33 n. i. See Nev-ruz. 
Newspaper, the first non- 

ofricial in Turkey, V 9. 



Nibelung hoard, the, IV 262 
n. i. 

Night, called the c lndian 
Sea D , II 62 n. 7. 

Night of Assignments, the, 

I 293 n. 4. 

Night of Power, the, I 293 
n. 4; II 125 n. 2; III 33 n. 
i. See Leylet-ul-Qadr. 

Nightingale, the, called a 
minstrel, II 386 n. 4. 

Nightingale, the, invoked 
by Turkish poets, III 127. 

Nightingale, the, lover of the 
rose, II 55 n. 4. See Rose and 

Not-Being, I 17 sqq. ; IV 
330. See *Adam. 

Nous, the, of Plotinus, I 42 
n. i. 

Novel, the Ottoman, V 12 

Ocean, the, a type of bounty, 

II 114 n. 7 and 9, 244 n. i. 
Ocean, the Encircling, I 38^ 

398. See Bahr-i Muhit. 

Open-eyed = generous, II 
341 n. 4. 

Orange/ the, figurative use 
of, IV 265 n. 6. 

Oriental Translation Fund, 
the, II 124 n. i. 

Orphanlike behaviour, mea- 
ning of, IV 130 n. 5. 

c Osman, the sword of, II 
26, 258. 

c Osmanli dialect, the, II 6; 

III 76. See Ottoman dialect, 

Ottoman, meaning of the 
name, I 1 1 n. i. 

Ottoman dialect, the, III 
75, 91. See c Osmanli dialect, 

Ottoman Empire, the inte- 
grity of the, V 104 n. 4. 

Owl, the, described as an 
eremite, II 385 n. 3. 

Ox = stupid fool, V 39 n. 3. 

Oyster-shell, the, III 308 n. 5. 

Pages, the Imperial, IV 227. 

Palm, the, type of a grace- 
ful figure, III 286 n. 2. 

Paradise, II 66 n. 4, 67 n. 
5, 88 n. 3, 134 n. 4; III 318 

n. 5- 

Paradise, sensual pictures 
of, IV 100 n. 4, 214 n. i. 

Paradise, the streams of, 
III 66 n. 5. 

Paradises, the Eight, I 36, 
399; IV 55 n. 3, 64 n. i. 

Paronomasia, II 221 n. 5 ; 
III 184 n. i. See Tejnis. 

Paronymy. See Ishtiqdq. 

Parrot, the = the beloved, 
III 44 n. i. 

Parrot, the, in Eastern poetry, 

I 214 n. 3. 

Parrot, the, invoked by Tur- 
kish poets, III 127. 

Parrot, name for a beauty, 

II 62 n. 3; IV 239 n. 2 ; IV 
294 n. 4. 

2 3 8 


Parrot, a title given to eld- 
erly ladies. See Tiiti. 

Parrots, taught to speak by 
means of a mirror, II 333 n. 
5; IV 116 n. 2. 

c Pasha of three tails 3 , III 
17 n. i. 

Pashas, the Turkish, III 343 

Path, the mystic's, I 157 
n. 4. 

Patron, prayer for the, which 
should conclude every ode, 

III 151 n. 2. 

Pattens, worn in the bath, 

IV 127 n. 5. 

Paynim, name for a beauty, 
II 44 n. 3. See Infidel and 

Peach, term for a kiss, II 
371 n. i ; IV 149 n. i. See 
Kiss and Sheftdlu. 

Peacock, the, in Muhamme- 
dan legend, III 339 n. i. 

Peacock of Paradise, the, II 
67 n. 5 ; IV 194 n. 2. 

Pearl, generation of the, II 
121 n. 2; IV 84 n. 4, i$6n. 4. 

Pearls of Aden, the, II 89 
n. 2, 278 n. 9 and n. 

Pebble, a, thrown into a 
beaker as a signal, III 151 n. 6. 

Pehlevi dialect of Persian, 
the, IV 258. 

Pen, the Divine, I 35; III 
113 n. i; IV 316 n. 4. 

Pen-names in Turkish 
poetry. See Makhlas, 

Persia, title of, III 207. 

Persian genitive construc- 
tion, the, III 8 1 n. 2. 

Persian genius, the true 
nature of the, I 24 seq. 

Persian language, the, Tur- 
kish prejudice against, V 46 
n. 3. 

Persian mystical poetry, I 
21 sqq. 

Persianism, meaning of the 
term, I 5 n. i. See Fenn-i Furs. 

Persians, the, connected by 
Turkish poets with the tulip, 

III 44 n. 4. 
Perspiration, regarded as a 

charm, II 278 n. 8. 

Petals of the almond-tree 
compared to silver coins, II 
238 n. 2. 

Philosophy, Muhammedan, 
I 39 sqq. 

Philosophy, mystic, the first 
rule of, III 64 n. i. 

Phrases, Arabic, II 273 n. 
7; IV 276 n. i. 

Physic, I 40 n. 3. 

Physiognomy, the science 
of, II 199 seq. 

Piastre, value of the, I 262 
n. 2. 

Pigeon, the, often associa- 
ted with the cypress, II 242 
n. 3. 

Pine, the, type of a grace- 
ful figure, II 281 n. 5. 

Pistols, Arnaut or Albanian, 

IV 322 n. 2. 



Planes, the Five, I 55. 

Plane-tree, palmated leaves 
of the, III 30 n. 5, 31 n. 5. 

Planets, the, personified in 
poetry, III 147 n. 4. 

Planets, the Seven I 43, 
48, 183. 

Plato, the Ideas of, I 55. 

Plurality, symbol for the 
illusory nature of, IV 71 n i. 

Poet, necessary qualifica- 
tions of the, V 80 sqq. 

Poetry, compared to a ros- 
ary, II 244 n. 2. 

Poetry, native Turkish, III 
14 n. i. 

Poetry, Ottoman, its devel- 
opment described by Ziya 
Pasha, V 80. 

Poetry, Ottoman, the New 
School of, I 4, 8, 43 n. i, 64, 
132 sqq. 

Poetry, Ottoman, the Old 
School of, I 4 seq., 8. 

Poetry, Ottoman, the origin, 
character, and scope of, I i sqq. 

Poetry, Ottoman, outline of 
its development, I 125 sqq. 

Poetry, Persian, character 
of, I 13 sqq., 26 sqq. 

Poetry, Turkish popular, I 
70 sqq., 95 sqq., 104 seq. 

Poets, the Ottoman, Dic- 
tionaries of the, I 139 seq. 

Points, the diacritical, III 
128 n. i. 

Pole of Saints, the, a title, 
I 157 n. 3. 

Pomegranate pips, dish made 
from, II 113 n. 6. 

Pond, the Spheral, II 212 
n. 4. 

Poplar, the green, III 98 n. 4. 

Prayer, salutation of the 
guardian angels in, IV 1 1 5 n. 3. 

Prayers, uttered at dawn, 
V no n. i. 

Prayers, for the dead, V 38 
n. i. 

Prayers recited over mad 
or sick persons, II 25 n. i ; 
IV 25 n. i. 

Preacher, the, a type of 
orthodoxy, II 68 n. 3 ; III 290 
n. 2. 

Pride of the World, the, 
title of Muhammed, III 197 
n. 4. 

Primal Compact, the, I 22. 
See E-lest. 

Primal Feast, the, I 23. See 
Banquet, the Primal ; and E- 
lest, the Feast of. 

Primum Mobile, the, I 43 
n. 3; III 310 n. 3; IV IOO 
n. 2, 136 n. i. See Sphere, 
the Ninth. 

Prophets, the, regarded as 
Muslim, I 233 n. 4. 

Prophets, the render, wild 
creatures docile, II 202 n. 2. 

Prosody, Perso-Arabian, I 
104 sqq. 

Proverbs, Arabic, I 192 n. 
2, 218 n. 4, 230 n. 3, 298 n. 
2, 360 n. 6, 363 n. 7, 369 n. 



i; II 263 n. 2, 344 n. 6; III 
297 n. I, 365 n. i ; IV 63 n. 

1, 73 n. 2, 102 n. i ; V 74 
n. i. 

Proverbs, Persian, IV 73 n. 

2, 152 n. i. 

Proverbs, Turkish, II 66 n. 

5, 67 n. 4, 118 n. i, 206 n. 

6, 256 n. I, 320 n. 5; III 182 
n. 2, 183 n. 2 and n. 5, 215 n. 
5, 217 n. 2, 238, 323 n. 2, 
329, 340 n. 2, 344 n. 4; IV 
28 n. 2, 29 n. 2, 38 n. i, 63 
n. i, 72 n. 6, 73 n. 2, 89 n. 
i, 101 n. i, 115 n. i, 129' n. 
8, 130 n. 4, 131 n. i, 163, 276 
n. 2, 290 n. 3, 294 n. i and n. 
5, 295 n. 3, 297 n. 3, 298 n. 
3 and 5, 299 n. 1,2, 3, 300 n. 
2 and 3, 302 n. i, 303 n. 5. 

Pseudonyms in Turkish 
poetry. See Makhlas. 

Psychology, Muhammedan, 
I 48 sqq. 

Ptolemaic system, the, I 43 
sqq., 68 seq. 

Punctuation, introduced into 
Turkish by Shinasi, IV 30 n. i . 

Pupil of the eye, called the 
c mannikin 3 , II 68 n. 4. See 

Pustules on the lips, com- 
pared to pieces of cotton, II 
314 n. 5. 

Qasida, the, the usual ve- 
hicle for didactic poetry, IV 

33 n - i- 

Qastamuni dialect, the, II 
107 n. i. 

Qinali-zade, derivation of, 

III 199 n. i. 

Quatrain. See Rubofi and 
Ruba c is, the first Turkish. 

Radiance incorporate = the 
beloved, III 19 n. 7. 

Ramazan, the month of For- 
giveness, IV 321 n. 6. 

Ramazan, the moon of, III 
308 n. 2, 310 n. 4. 

Ramazan, the Muslim Lent, 
I 84; III 308 n. 2, 310 n. 4; 

IV 57 n. i, 62 n. 4, 167 n. 4. 
Reason. See c Aql. 
Reason, Carnal, III 128 n. 5. 
Reason, Universal. See c Aql-i 

Kull; c Aql-i Evvel. 

Reckoning-Day, the, III 94 
n. 3. 

Red Apple, the, an old name 
for Rome, IV 25 n. 2, 265 
n. 5. 

Red Heads, the, II 259 seq. 
See Qizil Bash. 

Reed, a long, used by chil- 
dren in the East to ride on, 
IV 1 16 n. i, 320 n. i. 

Reed = reed-pen, III 19 
n. 6. 

Reeds, Persian, IV 3 17 n. 2. 

Reeds, used by weavers, IV 
319 n. 2. 

Reed-flute, the, I 152; IV 
83, 137 n. i, 176 n. i, 204 
n. i, 320 n. 3. See Ney. 



Reed-pen, the, III 154 n. 
5 seq. 

Resurrection, figurative use 
of the term, II 312 n. 13. 

Revelation, Oriental theory 
of, I 58 n. i. 

Rhetoric, Persian, I 26. 

Rhetoric, Perso-Arabian Art 
of, I in sqq. See c llm-i Be- 

Rhyme, in Ottoman poetry, 
I 74 sqq. 

Riddle, the, in Ottoman 
poetry, I 100; IV 157 n. 2. 

Ring, the collet of a, called 
in Turkish the 'eyebrow 3 , II 
246 n. 2. 

Ring, the stone of a, called 
in Turkish the c eye D , II 246 
n. 2. 

Rival, the, in Eastern love- 
poetry, I 293 n. 3 ; III 340 
n. i. See Raqib. 

Rome, an old name for, IV 
25 n. 2, 265 n. 5. 

Roofs, the flat, of Eastern 
houses, IV 157 n. 4. 

Room, the Chamberlains', 
II 45 n. i. 

Rope-dancers, II 370 n. i. 

Rose, the, compared to a 

tumbler pigeon, III 29 n. 7. 

Rose, the, conceived as a 

book, II 89 n. 6. 243 n. 2. 

Rose, petal of the, compa- 
red to the ear, III 29 n. i ; 
321 n. 3. 

Rose, a species of, the smell- 

ng of which produces a cold 
in the head, III 343 n. i. 

Rose and Nightingale, the, II 
55 n. 4, 204 n. 5, 242 n. 2 
and 6. See Nightingale. 

Rose of Scio, the, IV 285 
n. 2. 

Rosebud, the, conceived as 
a pot or jug used as a target, 
II 242 n. 9. 

Rosebud, the calyx of the, 
called a c garment D , III 322 n. i. 

Rosebud, the drooping, com- 
pared to a head, II 240 n. 3. 

Rosebud, the mouth of the, 
II 246 n. 8, 255 n. 7. 

Rosebud, the shut, compa- 
red to a rolled-up scroll, III 
267 n. 3. 

Rosebud, stamens of the, 
compared to sequins, III 283 
n. 2. 

Rose- oil, the way of making, 
II 116 n. 2. 

Ruba c is, Turkish, III 226 

Ruba c is, the first Turkish, 
I 211. 

Rubies of Badakhshan, the, 
I 333 n. 2; II 89 n. 2. See 

Rubies, lips compared to, I 
214 n. i. 

Rubies, supposed to be com- 
mon stones reddened by the 
sun, III 128 n. 3. 

Rue, seeds of the wild, used 
as a fumigation, III 32 n. 3. 




Rue, used as a charm against 
the evil eye, IV 64 n. 4. 

Rum, the people of, repre- 
sentative of the fair-skinned 
races, II 361 n. 7. 

Rush-mat, lines imprinted 
on the skin by a, II 315 n. 2. 

Rust, used figuratively for 
sorrow, I 223 n. 2. 

Sable, a favourite figure for 
dark hair, IV 41 n. 5, 46 
n. 3. 

Saddles, embroidered, when 
first brought into Turkey, III 
20 n. i. 

Saffron, the virtues of, IV 
275 n. 3. 

Saints, miracles of the, I 
412 n. i. 

Saints, the tombs of the, I 
180 n. 2; III 93 n. 2. See 
Holy men. 

Salankeman, Battle of, III 
303 n. i. 

Salt, sprinkled over new- 
born infants, IV 299 n. 6. 

Sandal, the, worn by the 
Mekka pilgrims, IV 263 n. i. 

Sappan, a dye-wood, II 213 
n. 2. 

Saturn, personified in poetry, 
III 147 n. 4. 

Scales, the, of Judgment- 
Day, II 250 n. i. 

Scholasticism. See ^Ilm-iKe- 
Idm ; Mutekellemin ; and Theo- 
logy, Scholastic. 

Scholastics, the, I 33, 67 n. 
I. See Mutekellemin. 

Science, Disciplinary, I 40 
n. 2. 

Sciences, the Ten, II 396. 

Scio, the scarlet dye and 
cloth of, IV 302 n. 5. 

Scorpio, an inauspicious 
sign, II 69 n. 3. 

Scriptures, the four, III 191 
n. 3, 3, 215 n. 2. 

Sea, the, a type of gene- 
rous wealth, III 149 n. 2. 

Seal of the Prophets, the, 
title of Muhammed, I 244 n. 3. 

Seals, Oriental, IV 232 n. i. 

Seas, the Seven, I 38; II 
101 n. 4, 249 n. 9 and 10. 

Sects, the Seventy-Two, I 
379 n. i. 

Seh'm I, Sultan, Elegy on, 
by Kemal-Pasha-zade, III 17 
sqq., 154 n. 6. 

Seljuq dialect of Turkish, 
the, I 152. 

Sense, the Common, I 50. 

Senses, the Five Inner, I 
50; IV 172 n. 3. 

Senses, the Five Outer, I 
50; IV 172 n. 3. 

Seraglio, the Imperial, II 
26 n. 3 ; IV 221 seq., 228 seq. 

Seven Towers, Wardens of 
the, III 1 80. 

Shade, meaning protection, 
III 55 n. 4. 

Shadow of God, title of the 
Sultan, III 153 n. 5, 217 n. 4. 



Shaving of the head, III 55 
n. 5. 

Sheep's trotters, a favourite 
dish, IV 291 n. i, 295 n. 5. 

Shirin, meaning of the name, 
IV 29 n. 4. 

Shooting-stars, Muhamme- 
dan legend concerning the, II 
341 n. 7; III 31 n. 7. 

Showers, heavy, compared 
to cords, II 112 n. 2. 

Sighs, always pictured as 
ascending, II 316 n. 2. 

Sighs breathed at dawn, more 
efficacious, II 95 n. 4, 3 16 n. i. 

Sighs, compared to smoke, 

I 393 n. 4; II 120 n. 4, 214 
n. 6; III 153 n. i. 

Sighs, fire-enkindling, II 

315 " i- 

Signet-ring, the Eastern, II 
246 n. i; IV 72. 

c Signs 3 , meaning miracles, 
IV 321 n. 4. 

Silk, red, presented to a 
bride, IV 295 n. 2. 

Silver- wire drawers, IV 261 
n. i. 

Silvery-bodied white- 
skinned, II 340 n. 3. 

Siren, the, V 40 n. i. 

Sires, the Seven, I 48. 

Skink, the, used as a cure, 

II 331 n. 5. 

Skirt, the, used figuratively, 
II 360 n. 2. 

Sky, the, compared to a 
blue dome, V 87 n. 2. 

Sky, the, compared to a 
blue-tiled belvedere, III 310 
n. i. 

Sky, the, compared to an 
inverted bowl, II 116 n. 6; 
IV 157 n. 3. 

Sky, the starry, compared 
to a spotted leopard, III 149 
n. i. 

Sky, the starry, compared 
to a steel bowl inlaid with 
gold, III 151 n. 4. 

Sleep, compared to surme, 

IV 101 n. 3. 

Smile, to said of a bud, II 
208 n. 7, 209 n. 5. 

Snake, guarding a treasure, 
myth of the, I 330 n. 3 ; IV 
155 n. 2. See Treasure, guar- 
ded by a serpent. 

Society, the French Asiatic, 

V 27. 

Society, the Royal Asiatic, 
I 1 39 n. 3 and 5 ; II 1 24 n. I ; 
III 297. See Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society. 

Solomon, the Seal of, I 379 
n. 2; II 39 n. i, 339 n. i; 
III 56 n. 6; IV ill n. 3. 

Soul, the human, called a 
'slave 3 , I 162 n. 2. 

Soul, the Sufi theory of the, 
I 56 sqq. 

Soul, three degrees of, I 48 

Soul, the Universal, I 42, 60. 

Souls of the Nine Spheres, 
the, I 44. 



Spark, the Whirling, I 67 
n. 2. 

Sphere, the, compared to a 
mill, III 240 n. i. 

Sphere, the, meaning the 
vault of heaven, II 113 n. 5, 
311 n. i; IV 157 n. 3. 

Sphere, the, personified as 
a beggar clad in blue, II 247 
n. 2. 

Sphere, the, regarded as an 
evil power, I 44 n. 3 ; II 36 
n. 6, 38 n. i, 113 n. 4, 116 
n. 8, 247 n. 2. 

Sphere, the, represented as 
a chess-player, I 259 n. 6. 

Sphere, the Ninth, I 43; II 
243 n. 7. See Sphere, the, re- 
garded as an evil power, and 

Sphere, the Satin, IV 157 
n. i. See Felek-i Atlas and Pri- 
mum Mobile. 

Sphere, the starless, III 310 
n. 3. 

Sphere of Spheres, the, I 
42 seq. See Felek-ul-Efldk and 
Primum Mobile. 

Spheres, the, of Fire, Air, 
and Water, IV 339 n. 7. 

Spheres, the Nine, I 43, 242 
n. 2; II 60 n. i and 3, 316 n. 
5 ; III 46 n. I, 64 n. 4. 

Spheres, the seven plane- 
tary, called c seven goblets 3 , 
III 310 n. 7. 

Spheres, the motion of the, 
I 44 n. 2. 

Spheres, the theory of the 
revolutions of the, in Ottoman 
poetry, I 44 n. 3. 

Spirit, the Animal. See/?/c/W 

Spirit, the Holy, I 239 n. 2. 

Spirit, the Vital. See Ruh-i 

Spirit, degrees of, II 313 
n. 4. 

Spirit of God, the, a title 
of Jesus, III 214 n. 3. 

Spoons, made of box-wood, 
IV 298 n. 6. 

Squint-eyed people, I 161 
n. 5. 

Standing on one foot, the 
conventional attitude of awe, 
II 112 n. 3. 

Stars, compared to coins or 
gems, II 62 n. 5. 

Stars, the, compared to 
grains, III 240 n. I. 

Stars, compared to ships, 
II 62 n. 7. 

Stars, representing gold em- 
broideries, III 283 n. i. 

State, Pillars of the = Min- 
isters, III 178 n. 5. 

Stone, the Black, in the 
Ka c ba, I 38. 

Stone, the Philosopher's, II 
49 n. 2. 

Stone, a, tied against the 
stomach to repel hunger, V 
92 n. 5. See Qan&at tashi. 

Stork, popular name for the, 
II 386 n. 9. 



Straps, attached to the sad- 
dle, IV 148 n. 3. 

Strawbearers 3 path, the, III 
241 n. i. See Keh-keshdn. 

Streamlets likened to jug- 
glers, III 30 n. 2. 

String, a long, used to un- 
latch a door, IV 303 n. i. 

Substance and Accident, I 
51 n. 2. 

Sufi, double sense of the 
term, I 26. 

Sufi, the, a type of pietism, 
IV 65 n. 5. 

Sufiism, I 15 sqq., 33 seq., 
53 sqq., 145 sqq., 153, 336 
sqq., 407 n. 3; II ii, 14, 55 
n. 4, 197 n. 2. 

Sufiism in Ottoman poetry, 
II II, 14 seq. 

Sufiism, the origin of, I 53 
n. 2, 64 n. i. 

Sufism, the ultimate aim of, 
I 63. 

Sufis, aphorisms of the. See 
Mystics, famous sayings of the. 

Sugar = sweet words, III 
44 n. i. 

Sugar-bale, the, a type of 
sweetness, I 214 n. 2. 

Suleyman I, Sultan, elegy 
on, by Baqf, III 146, 151 sqq. 

Suleymanic Age, the, III i 

Sultan, the, a title of God, 
I 162 n. 3. 

Sultans, Ottoman, who were 
poets, I 417 n. i. 

Sun, the, compared to a 
candle, III 151 n. 3. 

Sun, the, compared to a 
cannon-ball, II no n. 6. 

Sun, the, compared to Jo- 
seph, III 31 n. i. 

Sun, the, compared to a 
king, II 62 n. 4 and 5. 

Sun, the, compared to a pea- 
cock, II 63 n. 2. 

Sun, the, compared to a ship, 
II 63 n. i. 

Sun, the, described as a 
yellow rose, II 211 n. 4. 

Sun, the, figured as a tam- 
bourinist, III 148 n. i. 

Sun, the, personified as a 
sovereign, III 147 n. 4. 

Swan-maidens, the, I 437. 

Swearing, forms of, II 254 
n. 6. 

Sword, the Prayer of the, 
II 304 n. 2. 

Sword-cutlery, Turkish, IV 
101 n. 3. 

Synecdoche, I in n. i. 

Tablet, the Preserved, 135, 
339 n. 3, 423 n. i ; II 59 n. 
8; III 113 n. i; IV 316 n. 
4, 338 n. i. See Levh-i Mahfuz. 

Tabret, the, II 342 n. 7, 
346 n. 5. 

Tailor-Books, III 248. 

Talismans, II 67 n. 6. 

Tambourine, the, II 342 n. 7. 

Taper, the, conceived as 
laughing, II 55 n. 2. 



Taper, the, loved by the 
Moth, II 55 n. 4, 280 n. 4, 
308 n. i. 

Taper, the, a symbol for a 
beauty, I 215 n. 3; II 42 n. 
2, 205 n. 7. 

Taper, the, a symbol for 
the beloved, II 87 n. i, 280 
n. 3. 

Taper, the tongue of the, 
meaning its wick, I 215 n. 3; 
II 87 n. i. 

Tattooing, of the beloved's 
name, IV 240 n. 6. 

Tavern, the, mystical signi- 
fication of. I 23. 

Tavern folk, i.e. mystics, III 
290 n. 2. 

Tea-drinking, Persian cus- 
tom of, IV 68 n. 2. 

Tears, compared to stars, II 
69 n. 6, 89 n. 3. 

Tears, described as children 
of the pupil of the eye, II 
315 n. 3; III 154 n. 4. 

Tears, supposed to consist 
of blood, I 217 n. i; II 35 n. 
4, 37 n. i; III 100 n. i. 

Teeth, compared to pearls, 
II 372 n. 4, 379 n. 3. 

Theology, I 40. 

Theology, Scholastic, I 254. 
See Scholasticism. 

Theriaca (Theriack), II 112 
n. 6. 

Things, known through their 
opposites, I 17, 61 n. i, 327 
n. 4. 

Thirty-two, the Hurufi sym- 
bol for, I 372 n. i. 

Thirty-two, a sacred num- 
ber, I 340, 372 n. i. 

This and that 3 , denoting 
individuality as opposed to 
Unity, IV 77 n. 4. 

Thorn, the, conceived as a 
lancet, II 278 n. i. 

Thorns, looked upon as the 
guardians of the rose, II 206 
n. 8. 

Thread, custom of tying a, 
round one's finger, II 343 n. 2. 

Throne of God, the. See 

Tiles, blue-green, III 310 
n. i. 

Tobacco, IV 65 n. 2. 

Tongueless 3 , meaning of, in 
mysticism, I 150 n. 4. 

Topers, term applied by the 
old poets to themselves, V 
80 n. i. 

Torment, name applied to 
a beauty, III 182 n. 4. 

Tradition, the Science of. 
See c llm-i Ahddis. 

Traditions of the Prophet, 
the, I 16, 34 n. 2, 54; III 112 
n. 5, 114 n. 2, 196 n. 2, 214 
n. 6, 292 n. 2, 300 n. i, 316 
n. 3. See Hadis. 

Transition Period, the, III 
247 seq., 260, 277 seq., 319, 
328, 330, 337, 351; IV 3 
sqq., 59. 

Treasure, guarded by a ser. 



pent, II 334 n. 9; IV 262 n. 
i. See Snake. 

Treasure, the Hidden, Tra- 
dition regarding, I 16, 367 n. i. 

Treasures, hidden in ruins, 
I 361 n. 2. 

Tresses, mystical significa- 
tion of, I 23. 

Trinity, the Christian doc- 
trine of the, II 230. 

Trotters 3 Day, the, IV 295 
n. 5. 

Troubadours, the, I 28 n. i, 

Trouser-knot, the, IV 262 
n. 2. 

Trust, the, offered by God 
and accepted by Man, I 350 
n. i; II 316 n. 6; IV 76 n. 
i. See Emdnet. 

Truth, the, the last degree 
in the perception of Unity, I 
326 n. 4. 

Truth, the, meaning God, I 
15, 60. See Haqq. 

Tuba tree, the, I 36, 292 
n. i ; II 61 n. 6, 251 n. i. 

Tulip, the brand of the, II 
361 n. 12. 

Tulip, the, compared to a 
gaily dressed beauty, II 277 n. i . 

Tulip, the flower of the, 
compared to a cup of red 
wine, II 205 n. 8. 

Tulips, red, compared to 
musk-pods, II 112 n. 4. 

Tunic of the rose, i.e. its 
corolla, II 359 n. 6. 

Turban, the Khorasani, IV 
262 n. 4. 

Turk-land = Turkistan, III 
63 n. i. 

Turkish. See Ottoman. 

Turkish, the vowels in, I 
104 n. i. 

Turks of Asia Minor, the, 
IV 274 n. 3. 

Turks of Azerbayjan and 
Persia, III 74. 

Turks, characteristics of the, 
I 6 seq. 

Tutty, II 49 n. 4. 

Tychonic system, the, I 43 
n. i. 

Unity, the Sufi doctrine 
of, illustrated, IV 105 n. i. 
Universe, the. See c ' Alem. 
Uyghur dialect, the, I 71. 
Uzbek dialect, the, I 72. 

Vagrants, Eastern, IV 277 
n. 2. 

Vamiq and c Azra, the ro- 
mance of, III 26, 183 n. 4. 

Vedanta philosophy, the, I 
53 n. 2, 64 n. i. 

Veil, of phenomenal exi- 
stence, the, I 294 n. i, 405 n. 2. 

Veil worn by brides, the, 
IV 292 n. 6. 

Venetian treacle, II 1 12 n.6. 

Verities, the Divine, I 407, 
408 n. 3 and 4, 410 n. i 3. 

Verse-forms, the Perso- 
Arabian, I 70 sqq. 



Verses, compared to pearls, 
II 115 n. 2. 

Vezfr, the Grand, official 
dress of the, III 295 n. 2. 

Viewers, female friends of 
would-be bridegrooms, IV 294 
n. 6. 

Vintner, the, a mystical 
term, I 23. 

Viol, the c shaft 3 of the, II 

343 " I- 

Violet, the bowed head of 
the, III 112 n. i. 

Violet, the, a symbol for a 
beauty's hair, II 323 n. 5. 

Violet, used as an epithet 
of hair, I 293 n. i. 

Vision, the Beatific, I 37 ; 
II 66 n. 4, 252 n. 3; IV 100 
n. 3, 206 n. i. 

Vowels, the, in Turkish, I 
104 n. i. 

Waist, of a beauty, compa- 
red to a silver arch, II 299 n. 3. 

Waist, the slender, compa- 
red to a hair, II 221 n. I, 
2 99 n - 3> 3 r 3 n - 2;IV47n. i. 

Waist, the slender, a point 
of beauty, I 217 n. 6; II 221 
n. i, 313 n. 2. 

Walnuts, used for playing 
games, V 50 n. 2. 

Water, of the face, meaning 
c honour D , I 294 n. 2. 

Water, the surface of, con- 
sidered as a prayer-rug, III 
338 n. i. 

Water of Life, the. See Life, 
the Water of. 

Water-wheel, the, II 1 10 n. 
3> 34i n. 9. 

Waves, rippling, compared 
to the teeth of a file, III 324 
n. i. 

Way, the, meaning e Sufiism 3 , 

I 157 n. 4, 182 n. 3. 
Waywoda, the, IV 160. 
Wedding festivities, Turkish, 

IV 290 n. 3, 295 n. 5, 296 
n. i. 

Wedding-chests, IV 295 n. i. 

Wedding-palm, the, IV 202 
n. 2. 

West-Turkish dialects, I 4 
n. i. 

White, symbolising good, 

II 99 n. 4. 

Willow, leaves of the, com- 
pared to daggers, II 246 n. 6. 

Willow, type of a graceful 
figure, III 150 n. 3. 

Willow, the weeping, image 
for a thoughtful man, II 246 
n. 6. 

Wind, the Black, II 120 n. 5. 

Wind-chaser, the, name of 
a bird, IV 277 n. i. 

Wine, the discovery of, II 
330; V 93 n. 7. 

Wine, forbidden by the law 
of Islam, II 341 n. 5. 

Wine, a mystical term, I 23. 

Wine, red, described as 
c roses D , III 285 n. i. 

Wine, sold in Persia by 



Magians and Christians, III 232 
n. 4. 

Wine, usually diluted with 
water, IV 113 n. 3. 

Wine-drops, compared to 
stars, II 341 n. 6. 

Winter, conceived as a po- 
lice magistrate, II 1 1 1 n. 3. 

Woe, term applied to a 
beauty, III 184 n. i. 

Woman, the assertion that 
a soul is denied to, I 36 n. 3. 

Word, mystical term, I 158 
n. i. 

Word-plays, I 43 n. 2, 355, 
364 n. 3, 425 n. 5; II 66 n. 
6, 67 n. 3, 89 n. 5, 108 n. i. 
204 n. 3, 206 n. i, 209 n. 2, 
221 n. 5 and n, 246 n. 3, 248 
n. 7, 282 n. 2, 290 n. 3, 298 
n. 3, 361 n. 7; III 93 n. i, 
97 n. 5, 144, 150 n. 2, 316 
n. 5, 347 n. 5; IV 18, 126 
n. 2, 128 n. 7, 131 n. 6, 157 
n. i, 193 n. 3, 240 n. 2, 241 
n. 2. See Jinds; Tejnis; ' Ihdm. 

Words, beautiful, compared 
to pearls, I 359 n. 2. 

World, the, called a house 
of mourning, IV 77 n. 2. 

World, the, compared to an 
ancient hospice, III 310 n. 2. 

World, the, compared to a 
juggler's stage, III 310 n. 6. 

World, the, compared to a 
market, IV 62 n. i. 

World, the, compared to an 
orchard, III 342 n. 2. 

World, the, compared to a 
parterre, a fair, and a workshop, 

III 340 n. 3. 

World, the, compared to a 
woman, II 128 n. i. 

World, the Aquose. See 
v Alem-i 'Ab. 

World, the Intermediate. 
See * Alem-i Berzakh. 

World, trie Invisible. See 
' Alem-i Ghayb. 

World of Form, the. See 
c 'Alem-i Suret. 

World of Similitudes, the. 
See 'Alem-i MisdL 

World, the Sensible. See 
c 'Alem-i His si. 

World, the Visible. See 
'Alem-i Shehddet. 

Worlds Kingdoms of nat- 
ural objects, V 88 n. i. 

Worlds, the eighteen thou- 
sand, I 54 n. i, 340, 366 n. 

7> 373- 

Worlds, the Five, I 54, 60. 
See c Awdlim-i Khamsa. 

Worlds, the Three, I 56. 

Worlds, the Two, I 56, 221 
n. 2. 

Wounds, compared to flo- 
wers, III 10 n. i ; IV 294 n. i. 

Writing, compared to surme, 

IV 70 n. 4. 

Yak, tail of the, used as a 
standard, III 17 n. i. 

Young Turkey Party, the, 

V 7, 8, 60 sqq., 69, 73 n. 4. 



Zealot, the, a type of rigid 
orthodoxy, III 67 n. 3, 18911. 3. 

Zephyr, the, II 64 n. 6, 101 
n. 5. 

Zerati, a name given to the 
Bektashis, I 358 n. i. 

Zodiac, Signs of the, 1 328 n. 3. 

Zone, the, an emblem of 
infidelity, II 363 n. i; III 155 
n. 4. See Zunndr. 

Zoroastrian religion, the, V 
89 n. 2. 


The following words should be added to Index III. 

Feylaqus, name of a wonderful stone, I 276. 
Filuri (florin), II 26 n. 3. 
Jubbe, IV 132 n. 5. 


First lines of the Turkish Text of the Poems translated 
in Volume V. 

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PL Gibb, Elias John Wilkinson 

A history of Ottoman poetry