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Full text of "A history of the parish of Trinity Church in the city of New York"

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Copyright, 1906 

BY 

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 



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CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

HOBART CORRESPONDENCE. PART VII, KROM HIS RETURN FROM 

EUROPE TO MARCH, 1S27 ...... 

Letter from the Rev. Seth Hart Welcoming the Bishop back to his 
Diocese — The Ringing of Church Bells ; Letter from Bishop Hobart — 
Letter from Bishop Croes Acknowledging Generosity of Trinity Corpo- 
ration — From Thomas Bold Announcing Despatch of a Gift of Books 
from England — From the Rev. H. H. Norris and .Serjeant Sellon on the 
Bishop's Sermon Preached on his Return from Europe — From Miss 
Norris to the Rev. Dr. Lowndes— From Bishop Hobart to the Rev. 
H. H. Norris— From Serjeant Sellon— From the Rev. H. U. Onder- 
donk on the Criticism in the Theological Quarterly Review of the 
Bishop's Sermon — Bishop Hobart's Letter of Introduction for Mr. J. 
Fenimore Cooper — Steamboat Travel in 1826 — Letter from the Rev. 
Jasper Adams on the Presidency of Geneva College — From the Rev. 
Evan M. Johnson on his Having Requested the Masons to Lay the 
Corner-stone of his Chapel in Brooklyn — From the Rev. Henri Pene- 
veyre on Ecclesiastical Affairs in Switzerland — From the Rev. Alonzo 
Potter Introducing his Brother Horatio — From the Rev. Samuel F. 
Jarvis on a Gift of Books from England for the Seminary and the 
Duty Levied on them — From Bishop Skinner .Acknowledging Gift of 
Books from Bishop Hobart — From Mr. Francis S. Key on Church 
Matters — From Bishop Bowen and the Rev. William Meade on the 
Proposed Changes in the Prayer-Book — The Merging of the Two 
Prayer-Book Societies and Letter from Mr. William E. Dunscomb 
— Invitation from the Vestry of St. Paul's, Detroit, to Bishop Hobart 
to Hold a Confirmation in their Church, and Letter from the Rev. 
Richard F. Cadle. 



iv Contents 

CHAPTER II. 

HOBART CORRESPONDENCE. PART VIII. FROM MAY, 1827, TO 

HIS DEATH ......... 

Letter from the Rev. Dr. Beach — From Colonel Troup on St. John's 
Park — The Rev. John L. Blake on The American Pulpit of the Pro- 
testant Episcopal Church in the United States — The Rev. C. Griffin Re- 
questing Information on New York Church Affairs before and after the 
Revolution — The Rev. Edward K. Fowler on the Omission of the Ante- 
Communion Service — Dr. J. Smyth Rogers on Ministrations to Scat- 
tered Church Families — Bishop Inglis — The Rev. H. U. Onderdonk on 
his Successor at Brooklyn — And on the Successor to Dr. Peneveyre at 
the Church du St. Esprit — Correspondence with the Bishops of Nova 
.Scotia and Quebec on the Status of the American Clergy — The Rev. 
Horatio Potter — The Rev. G. W. Doane— The Rev. B. T. Onderdonk 
— On the Church at Corlear's Hook — Bishop Hobart on the General 
Sunday-School Union— Letter from the Rev. W. R. Whittingham on 
the Sunday-School Union' — Bishop Hobart to the Rev. H. H. Norris — 
From the Rev. Dr. Lacey on The Clergyman s Companion — From Mr. 
Floyd Smith on the Establishment of the Protestant Episcopal Press 
— The Rev. J. Adams on his Resignation of the Presidency of Geneva 
College — Mr. Trowbridge on the Consecration of St. Paul's Church, De- 
troit — Commodore Chauncey on the Launching of the Fairfield — Dr. 
MacNeven on the Emmet Monument — The Rev. L. P. Bayard Asking 
for an Orthodox Trinity Church Surplice — Mr. L. Huntington Young 
on the Hoiniletic Monthly — The Rev. John Hopkins on his Election to 
St. Stephen's Church, New York — Bishop Hobart Declines an Invitation 
to a Public Dinner at Tammany Hall— Thomas Swords on the Estab- 
lishment of the Protestant Episcopal Press — The Rev. Eleazar Williams 
on his Work among the Oneidas — Messrs. T. and J. Swords on the Un- 
fair Rivalry of the Episcopal Press — Bishop Brownell on his Tour of 
the Southwest — The Rev. J. C. Rudd on the Name of the Church — 
On Geneva College, and on the Coming Visit of the Bishop to Rochester 
— Daniel W. Kissam on Sad Plight of Church at Huntington — Last Let- 
ter from the Rev. L. S. Ives to the Bishop. 



Contents v 

CHAPTER III. 

FAGS 

LAST DAYS AND DEATH OF BISHOP HOBART .... 87 

Bishop Hobart Visits Auburn — Holds a Confirmation— Is Taken Seri- 
ously 111 — Dies September 12th — Account of Last Moments by the Rev. 
Dr. Rudd — Account of the Funeral —Bishop Onderdonk Preaches the 
Funeral Sermon — Action Taken by the Vestry — Letters of Condolence 
from Various Bodies — Annuities Granted by the Corporation to the 
Bishop's Widow — Letter of Acknowledgment Received from the Bishop's 
Family — Monument Erected to the Bishop's Memory — Incident at His 
Funeral — Verses Suggested by the Funeral — Tributes from Bishop White; 
Rev. Dr. Berrian; Rev. Dr. Schroeder Rev. Dr. Wainwright; Dr. 
Matthews; Governor King; Bishop Coxe — Summary of Bishop Hobart's 
Character and Influence — Conclusion. 

CHAPTER IV. 

WILLIAM BERRIAN, EIGHTH RECTOR ...... 121 

Mourning for Bishop Hobart — Election of Dr. Onderdonk as Bishop 
and of Dr. Berrian as Rector — The Induction — Separation of the Bishop- 
ric from the Rectorship — State of the Church in the City of New York — 
Action of the Vestry in Providing for Bishop Hobart's Widow and 
Family — And in Regard to the Episcopal Fund — Consecration of Dr. 
Onderdonk — Appointment of Mr. Whittingham as Preacher at Trinity 
Church — His Former Career — Election of Henry Anthon as Assistant 
Minister — Establishment of Sunday-schools — Memorial from Pew- 
Holders of St. John's Chapel — Their Request for a Settled Clergyman 
over Each Church — Letter of Colonel Graham in Connection There- 
with — Action of the Vestry. 

CHAPTER V. 

THE PARISH AND THE CITY ....... I38 

Death of President Monroe — The Funeral — Organization of the New 
York Mission Society — The Church of the Holy Evangelists — Grant 
Made by Trinity Parish to the Mission Society — Interments in Church- 
yards of Trinity and St. Paul's Forbidden — Finances of the Corporation — 



vi Contents 

PAGE 

Resolution as to Confining Aid to Churches on Manhattan Island Only 
— Oratorios Held in Churches — Condition of Church Music — Sunday- 
schools — Lectures and Methods of Teaching — Dr. Berrian's Views 
— The Cholera in New York — Bishop of New York's Pastoral — Church 
Observance of the Fourth of July — Fast Day Appointed by the Munici- 
pality — The Rector's Action Thereon — Meeting of General Convention 
of 1832 — The Ohio Case — Action of House of Bishops — Consecration of 
Four Bishops in St. Paul's Chapel — The Erection of Monument to Bishop 
Hobart — ^Payment to the Sculptor — Proposal to Build a New Church 
near Hudson Street Cemetery — Repairs to the Organ in Trinity Church 
— ^Cutting of a Street through Trinity Churchyard — Remonstrance of the 
Vestry. 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE SYSTEM OF THE PARISH AND ITS DIFFICULTIES . . . 158 

Remarks on the System of the Parish — Formation of the Education So- 
ciety of the Parish of Trinity Church — Its Organization — Memorial from 
St. John's Sunday-school — Reply of the Rector — Assignment of the 
Assistant Ministers over Different Sunday-schools — Dr. Schroeder's 
Scheme of Lessons — Committee Appointed to Consider the State of the 
Church in Trinity Parish — Relation of the Parish to the Episcopate — 
Action of the Vestry toward the Endowment of the Episcopal Fund — 
Petition from St. Jude's Church, Peoria — Aid to Geneva College — Dr. 
Anthon Offers his Resignation — Memorials from Pew-holders of St. 
Paul's and St. John's Chapels — Report of the Committee on the State of 
the Church — The Bishop Relieved from all Parochial Duties — Assign- 
ment of Assistant Ministers to Separate Chapels — Standing Resolution as 
to Manner of Electing Assistant Ministers — Election of Dr. Wainwright 
— Assignment of the Different Assistants to the Several Chapels — Order 
of Precedence among Assistant Ministers Defined — Duties of the Rector 
— Objections of Dr. Anthon to New Regulations — The Rector's Report 
on them — Declination of Dr. Wainwright — Election of the Rev. Ed- 
ward Young Higbee as Assistant Minister — Collection of Materials for 
the History of the Church in America — Grant to Dr. Hawks as His- 
toriographer. 



Contents vii 

CHAPTER VII. 

PAGE 

PARISH ACTIVITIES 185 

The Question of the Residence of the Bishop — Action of the Vestry 
Thereon — Election of the Rev. James T. Johnston to Succeed Dr. 
Anthon as Assistant Minister — He Declines — Election of Dr. Wain- 
wright — His Acceptance — The Use of Churches to Hold College Ex- 
ercises in Condemned — Report of Committee on Qualifications of Elec- 
tors of Wardens and Vestrymen — Committee on Supplies and Repairs 
Appointed — Allowance for House Rent Granted to Assistant Ministers 
— Repairs on St. John's Chapel — Contract for New Organ — State of 
Church Music in the Parish — Grant to Dr. Schroeder — The Need of a 
Rural Cemetery — The Division of the Diocese — Purchase of an Epis- 
copal Residence — Repairs to Roof of Trinity Church — Resolution in 
Regard to Interments — Report of Committee on Music — Precedence 
of Senior Presbyter — Action of Vestry — Letter of the Rector to Dr. 
Schroeder — Dr. Schroeder's Reply — Correspondence Laid before the 
Vestry— Resignation of Dr. Schroeder Accepted by the Vestry. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

PAROCHIAL MATTERS ......... 205 

Dr. Hodges Appointed Organist — Repairs to Roof of Trinity Church 
— Erection of Houses for the Assistant Clergy — Congregation of St. 
Paul's Chapel Memorializes Vestry to be Set Off as a Separate Parish 
— Memorial Presented to the Vestry — Referred to a Special Commit- 
tee — Who Report Adversely to the Memorialists — Schroeder Contro- 
versy Closed — Unstable Condition of Trinity Church — Repairs Ordered 
— Plans for a New Building .Accepted — Mr. Richard Upjohn Ap- 
pointed Architect. 

CHAPTER IX. 

RECTORIAL RIGHTS AND OTHER MATTERS 2l8 

The Rector's Right to the Distribution of the Communion Alms — His 
Report Thereon — Claim on Certain Market Sites — The New Organ for 
Trinity Church — Recital in St. John's Chapel — Establishment of a Classi- 



viii Contents 

PAGE 

cal School Proposed — Episcopal Fund and Action of the Vestry Thereon 
— Journey of Dr. Berrian to Santa Cruz — Election of Dr. Wainwright as 
Temporary Assistant Rector — Act of the Legislature to Validate Actions 
of the Vestry in Rector's Absence — Return of the Rector — Resignation of 
Dr. Wainwright as Temporary Assistant Rector — The Instruction of 
Students of the General Theological Seminary in Music — Report on the 
Poor Fund and the Assistant Ministers Considered — Canon LII. and its 
Meaning — Letter of Thanks from Mr. John Henry Hobart — Laying of 
the Corner-stone of the New Trinity Church. 

CHAPTER X. 

GROWTH AND INFLUENCE OF THE PARISH ..... 231 
Recurrence of the Question of the Bishop's Salary — Remarks on the 
Outlook — The General Convention of 1841 — The Archives of the Diocese 
of New York Cared for by the Vestry — St. John's Park — Resignation of 
William Johnson as Comptroller — Election of W. H. Harison — Paint- 
ings and Portraits Belonging to the Corporation— The Action of the 
Vestry in Regard to a Rural Cemetery — Purchase of the Cemetery at 
155th Street — Improvements in Church Music under Dr. Hodges — Es- 
tablishment of Musical Scholarships — Repairs on St. Paul's Chapel — 
New Organ for Trinity Church — Memorial from St. John's Chapel for 
its Erection into a Separate Parish — Petition Refused by Vestry — Judge 
Furman's Report on the Bogardus Claims — Party Feeling in the Diocese 
— Ordination of Arthur Cary — Stormy Scene in the Diocesan Convention. 

CHAPTER XI. 

LIFE OF THE PARISH SYMBOLIZED BY ERECTION OF NEW CHURCH 252 
Death of Thomas Ludlow Ogden — Neglected Condition of Monuments 
in Trinity Churchyard — The .Site for the Bishop Hobart Monument — 
The Monuments and the Tablets in the Old Church and their Position 
in the New — Stained-Glass Windows — Cross Adopted as Finial to Spire 
of New Church — Chimes for the New Tower — Music for Trinity School 
— Memorial of the City Mission Society for Assistance — Grant Given — 
Memorial from St. George's Church for Endowment — Proposal to Place 



Contents ix 

Wilmington College under Control of Vestry Declined — Ordinance for 
Election of Wardens and Vestrymen — Building of the New Church — 
Aims and Expectations — Committee Appointed on Plan for Daily Ser- 
vices in the New Church — Their Report — Views of the Rector — Dr. 
Hodges Appointed Organist of Trinity Church, and Henry W. Greatorex 
of St. Paul's Chapel — Arrangements for Consecration of New Church — 
Rules for Conduct of the Services in the New Church Considered — 
Appointment of Cornelius R. Duffie as Deacon — Presentation to the 
Bishop of Michigan — Attack on the Corporation — Pamphlet by "Lay 
Delegate" — Meetings in New York — Memorial to the State Legislature 
— Committee Appointed by Vestry to Take Action on the Memorial — 
Prepares "A Remonstrance to the Legislature" — Which is Printed — 
"A Reply to the Remonstrance" — "An Answer to the Reply" — 
Petition to the Legislature against the Memorial Signed by Members of 
Trinity Parish — The Legislature Decides against the Memorialists — 
Resolution of Senate Calling for a Return of all the Property of Trinity 
Corporation — The Vestry Comply. 

CHAPTER XII. 

CONSECRATION OF THE NEW CHURCH 273 

Preparations for the Consecration of the New Church — Invitations to the 
Clergy — Protest from Nine Clergymen — The Consecration Service — Re- 
port of the Committee on Arrangements — Committee on Pews in New 
Church Appointed. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

THE EVER-WIDENING INFLUENCE OF TRINITY PARISH . . . 285 

Daily Services in the New Church — The Question of the Utility of 
Deacons Raised by the Assistant Clergy — The Rector's Reply— Appoint- 
ment of the Rev. Francis J. Clerc as Deacon — Missionary Committee 
Authorized to Rent Tea Auction Rooms as a Mission Chapel — Return by 
Christ Church of Old Communion Plate Loaned by Trinity Church Vestry 
— Lease Granted to New York Fire Department — Repairs and Improve- 
ments on St. Paul's Chapel — Request from Columbia College for Use of 



X Contents 

PAGE 

St. John's Chapel for College Commencement Refused — Alms Boxes 
Ordered to be Placed in each Chapel — William Dunlap Appointed Keeper 
of Trinity Cemetery — Monument to Captain Lawrence Ordered to be 
Repaired — Monument Changed from its Former Site — Design of Monu- 
ment — Rev. Martin P. Parks Elected an Assistant Minister — His Ac- 
ceptance — Report of Committee on the Erection of the New Church 
Presented — Leave of Absence Granted to Dr. Higbee — Fresh Agitation 
for Repeal of Act of 1814 — Action of Vestry — Memorial Against Repeal 
by Vestry — Remonstrance' and Memorial Presented to Assembly — 
Summary of Memorial — Assembly Rejects the Petition of the Remon- 
strants — Request of St. Andrew's Church, Harlem, for Erection of a 
Chapel in Connection with it — Report of Committee on Church Exten- 
sion — Application of the New York Protestant Episcopal School — 
Reservation of Lots near Hudson Street for Chapel and Cemetery — 
Calvary Church — Altar Presented to it by Vestry — Death of Mrs. 
Hobart — Annuity Continued to her Daughter — Publication of Dr. 
Berrian's Sketch — Its Purpose. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

THE P.\RISH, THE CITY, AND THE STATE ..... 302 

Danger Threatening the Parish — Application from Geneva College — 
Withdrawal of State Aid — Application from St. George the Martyr for 
Sanction to Exchange Certain Lots on Reade Street for Plot on Fifth 
Avenue — Application of Dr. McVickar for Aid in Erection of Chapel 
on Governor's Island — Annual Appropriation Granted — Loan to Con- 
gregation s of Holy Evangelists and Church of the Epiphany Saves these 
Churches — Right of Congregations to Erect Separate Parishes Examined 
into by Dr. Berrian — His Report — Albany Street Extension Brought Up 
Again — Letter of Thanks to Vestry from Mrs. Lawrence for Completion 
of Monument to Memory of her Husband — First Anniversary of Con- 
secration of New Church — The Choral School of St. John's Chapel — 
Bogardus Suit Decided in Favor of Trinity Corporation — Communion 
Plate Belonging to Parish — Establishment of Parish of The Interces- 



Contents xi 

PAGB 

sion, near Trinity Cemetery — General Convention of 1847 — Sermon by 
Bishop Hopkins — Discontinuance of Mission Chapel in Tea Salesrooms 
— Appointment of the Rev. Sullivan H. Weston as Deacon — Financial 
Condition of Parish — Report of Rector on Strength of Parish — Resolu- 
tion Presented by General Dix. 

CHAPTER XV. 

RELATIONS OF TRINITY CHURCH TO OTHER CITY CHURCHES . 328 

Vestry Agree to Transference of Lot on Fifth Avenue to St. George 
the Martyr for Erection of a Hospital — Request for an Advance from 
the Rector of St. George the Martyr to Enable him to Collect Funds 
in England — Resignation of Rev. Cornelius R. Dufiie — Parish of St. 
John Baptist Organized — Endowment of Geneva College Granted by 
Vestry — Leave of Absence Granted to Dr. Wainwright — The Passing of 
the Parish Clerk — Donation Granted to the Late Clerk — Grant to Church 
of the Intercession — Sermons of Dr. Barclay Presented by Dr. Ducachet 
to Vestry — Report of Committee on Church Extension — Review of the 
Negotiations with St. George's Church — Agreement Reached with the 
Vestry of Trinity Church — Use of Old St. George's Granted to Church 
of Holy Evangelists — Leave of Absence Granted to Dr. Parks — Memo- 
rial from Calvary Church to be Incorporated as a Chapel of Trinity 
Church — Conferences Held — Approval at First of the Plan by Dr. 
Berrian, who Afterwards Withdraws his Approval to it — Petition of Cal- 
vary Church Declined — Purchase of Lots on Twenty-fifth Street Author- 
ized — Appointment of Messrs. Walter and Bristow as Organists — Ap- 
plication for Permission to Build on St. Paul's Churchyard Refused — 
Death of Dr. Ogilby — Destruction by Fire of St. Thomas's Church — 
Friendly OfHces of Trinity Parish. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

TRINITY CHURCH AND THE ANGLICAN COMMUNION . . . 349 

The Jubilee in 1851 of the S. P. G. — Letter from the Archbishop of 
Canterbury — Reply from Diocese of New York — Committee Appointed 
by Trinity to Take Action — Resolutions and Address of Vestry Sent 
to the Venerable Society — Commemoration Service in Trinity Church — 



xii Contents 

PAGE 

Sermon by Dr. McVickar — Special Offering by the Parish — Suggeston by 
Bishop Hopkins for a Pan-Anglican Council — Reply of the S. P. G. — 
Invitation from Archbishop of Canterbury to American Church to Send 
a Delegation to England for the Concluding Jubilee Services — Informal 
Meeting of House of Bishops — Dr. Wainwright Selected to Represent 
American Church — Leave of Absence and Donation Granted by Vestry 
— Presentation by Bishop De Lancey of Portrait of Caleb Heathcote — 
Arrangements for Transfer of St. George's Chapel to Congregation of 
the Holy Evangelists — Application from St. George's Chapel for Certain 
Repairs Granted by Vestry — Portrait of Bishop Provoost Presented to 
Corporation — Resignation of General Laight as Warden — Plans for 
Chapel on Twenty-fifth Street Considered — Financial Condition of 
Parish — Resolutions as to Building Chapel on Twenty-fifth Street — 
Plans and Specifications for New Chapel Adopted — First Public Service 
of Church Choral Society — Death of General Laight and Adam Tred- 
well — Increase of Clerical Staff Considered — Petition of Geneva College 
for Modification in Terms of Endowment Considered and Granted — 
Election of Dr. Creighton as Bishop of New York — His Declination — 
William Augustus Muhlenberg — His Plans for a Hospital — Site on Fifth 
Avenue Belonging to St. George the Martyr Transferred with Consent 
of Trinity Parish to the New St. Luke's Hospital^Conditions of Transfer. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

EDUCATIONAL AND MATTERS AFFECTING THE CHURCH AT LARGE 37I 
Appeal of Bishop Strachan to American Churchmen on Behalf of Trinity 
College, Toronto — Donation by Trinity Parish — Donation by Corpora- 
tion to Nashotah— Sale of Church of the Holy Evangelists and Its Site 
Approved of by Vestry — Extension of Albany Street Again Defeated — 
Erection of Monument to the Revolutionary Patriots — Diocesan Con- 
vention of 1852 — Election of Dr. Wainwright as Provisional Bishop — 
His Consecration — Sermon by Bishop of New Hampshire — Sermon by 
Bishop Fulford — Another Assistant Minister to be Appointed — Election 
of Rev. Morgan Dix as Assistant Minister — He Declines Election — 
Claim of Christopher C. Kiersted as an Anneke Jans Heir Dismissed by 



Contents xiii 

PAGE 

Supreme Court — Dr. and Mrs. Berrian Go Abroad— Death and Funeral 
of Dr. Parks — The General Convention of 1853 — Delegation from S. P. 
G. — Admission of California as a Diocese — Deposition of Bishop Ives — 
Consecration of Dr. Atkinson as Bishop of North Carolina, and Dr. 
Davis as Bishop of South Carolina — Office of Registrar to Convention 
— Consecration of Dr. Kip as Bishop of California. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

FINANCIAL AND BUSINESS MATTERS ...... 385 

Resignation of Mr. Harison as Comptroller — Revival of the Scheme for 
the Extension of Albany Street — Opposition of the Vestry — Sermon by 
Mr. Weston — Extension Stopped by Municipality — The Anneke Jans 
Claims Again — Action by Rutgers B. Miller — Action by Christopher 
Kiersted — .\ction by A. Lozier — Report Requested by the Assembly of 
the Financial Condition of Trinity Parish — Report Furnished by the 
Vestry — Spiritual Destitution of Lower Part of the City — Resolutions 
Offered by General Dix — Queries Propounded by the Vestry to the 
Rector— The Rector's Detailed Reply to Them — Reorganization of the 
Clerical Staff in 1855. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

DIOCESAN MATTERS ......... 399 

Administration of Bishop Wainwright — -His Death — Funeral Services 
— Sermon by Dr. Higbee — Resolutions Adopted by the Vestry — Con- 
vention of the Diocese — Sermon by Dr. McVickar — Election of Dr. 
Horatio Potter as Provisional Bishop — Consecration of Dr. Potter — 
Action of the Vestry Looking to the Support of the Bishop — Action of 
Legislature in Regard to Trinijy Corporation — Reply of the Vestry — 
Resolutions Regarding Assistant Ministers — Their Election — And Re- 
muneration — Assignment of Assistant Ministers to the Various Chapels 
— Election of Messrs. Hobart, Eaton, and Haight as Assistant Ministers 
— Also of the Rev. William Henry Odenheimer — Nominations Made for 



xiv Contents 

PAGE 

an Additional Assistant Minister — Preparations for Consecration of 
Trinity Chapel — Letter from the Bishop of Fredericton Expressing 
Regret at Inability to Preach Sermon at Consecration — Its Consecration 
— Sermon by Bishop Potter — The Music — Sermon by Dr. Berrian. 

CHAPTER XX. 

RAPID EXTENSION OF PARISH WORK ...... 416 

Renewal of the Attack upon the Church — Action of the Vestry — Election 
of Dr. Vinton as Assistant Minister — Resignation of Dr. Tuckerman as 
Organist — Assignment of the Assistant Ministers — Election of the Rev. 
Dr. Frederick Ogilby, the Rev. John F. Young, and the Rev. Morgan Dix 
as Assistant Ministers — Organization of Work in the Several Churches — 
Convention of 1855 — Dr. Berrian Vnhlishes J''acls A g-ainsi Fancy — Rapid 
Extension of Parish Work — Offer of the Rev. Mr. Rowland Declined — 
Resignation of Mr. William H. Harison — St. John's Park ; Proposal to 
Sell to United States Government — Report of Dr. Berrian on the Con- 
dition and Work of the Parish. 

CHAPTER XXI. 

ATTACKS ON THE CORPORATION ...... 430 

Meeting of the Senate Committee on the Property of Trinity Corporation 
— Examination of Witnesses — Testimony of Various Clergy against 
Trinity Corporation — Report of the Senate Committee — Hearing before 
the Senate — Committee Amends its Report — Substitute Bill Offered — ; 
And Passed — Opening of St. John's Chapel after its Restoration — 
Memorial to the Revolutionary Soldiers in Trinity Churchyard — Address 
by Dr. Vinton on the Opening of Albany Street. 

CHAPTER XXII. 

CONCLUSION OF DR. BERRIAn'S RECTORSHIP .... 45 1 

The Atlantic Cable Laid— Service in Trinity Church — Sermon by the 
Bishop of New Jersey — Death of Dr. Hodges— Report of Special Com- 
mittee on Finance — Nomination of Rev. Morgan Dix to Assistant 



Contents xv 

PAGE 

Rectorship — Memorial of the Assistant Clergy to the Vestry Urging that 
Action on the Nomination be Deferred — Election of Mr. Dix — His 
Acceptance — One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of Trinity School 
— Fiftieth Anniversary of the Ordination to the Diaconate of Dr. Berrian 
— Sermon by Dr. Berrian — Visit of the Prince of Wales — Trinity Choir 
Surpliced — Attendance of the Prince of Wales at Service in Trinity Church 
— Interference of Dr. Vinton in the Prearranged Plans for that Service — 
Remonstrance from the Committee of Arrangements Presented to the 
Vestry — Completion of Schoolhouse of Trinity Chapel — Death of Dr. 
Berrian — Funeral Services — Sermon by Mr. Dix — Accession of Morgan 
Dix as Ninth Rector of Trinity Church. 

APPENDIX. 

i. remarks on the monument to bishop hob.\rt sculp- 
tured by ball hughes ..... 485 

n. resolutions on the duties and precedence of as- 
sistant ministers ...... 488 

iii. — sketch of the rev. edward young higbee, d.d. . 492 

iv. sketch of the rev. henry anthon, d.d. . . 494 

v. — letter from colonel green giving details about 

the rev. dr. johnston ..... 50o 

vi. memorial to set apart the congregation of st. 

Paul's chapel as an independent parish . 502 

VII. — the ACT OF 184I ....... 509 

VIII. — BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE CONTROVERSY AND ATTACK UPON 

TRINITY CHURCH, 1856-1857, WITH EXTRACTS . 5IO 

IX. — THE CONSECRATION OF TRINITY CHURCH, A.D. 1846 . 517 

X. SKETCH OF THE REV. MARTIN P. PARKS, D.D. . . 526 

XI. — INSCRIPTIONS ON THE SHIELDS IN ST. CORNELIUS'S CHAPEL 529 

XII. — SKETCH OF THE REV BENJAMIN I. HAIGHT, D.D. . 530 

XIII. — THE SERMONS OF THE REV. HENRY BARCLAY, D.D. . 532 



xvi Contents 

PAGE 

XIV. THE SOCIETY LIBRARY ...... 533 

XV. THE CATECHETICAL SCHOOL '..... 534 

XVI. THE FIRST APPEARANCE OF A SURPLICED CHOIR IN 

TRINITY CHURCH ...... 534 

XVII. STATEMENT OF GRANTS, GIFTS, AND LOANS MADE BY 

TRINITY CHURCH ...... 535 

XVIII. — THE CLERGY OF TRINITY PARISH, A.D. 1697-A.D. I905 . 564 
XIX. — WARDENS AND VESTRYMEN OF TRINITY PARISH, A.D. 

1697-A.D. 1905 572 

XX. LIST OF WORKS REFERRED TO IN PART IV. . . . 583 

INDEX 591 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



The Rev. William Berrian, D.D. 



Frontispiece 



Letter from Bishop Hobart to Bishop Luscombe Intro 
DuciNG Mr. Fenimore Cooper 

Bishop Hobart's House at " The Short Hills " 

The Grounds at "The Short Hills" 

Trinity Church from the Architect's Drawing 

Exterior View of Trinity Church. 1846 . 

Interior View of Trinity Church 

Chapel of St. Cornelius the Centurion 

The Memorial Shields in St. Cornelius's Chapel 

Trinity Chapel and the Present Rector's Study 

The Old Rectory. From a View Taken September, 1905 

The Rev. Morgan Dix, D.D. 

Letter from Dr. Berrian to Mrs. W. R Whittingham 



no 

113 
258 
278 
282 

410 
424 

474 



The letter from Bishop Hobart to Bishop Luscombe is reproduced 
by permission of the Rev. Samuel Hart, D.D., Registrar of the Gen- 
eral Convention. 

The illustration from a pen-and-ink sketch of Trinity Church by 
Mr. Upjohn, the architect, is reproduced by permission of the Rev. 
Joseph Hooper, M.A. 

The letter from Dr. Berrian to Mrs. Whittingham is reproduced 
by permission of the Rev. Joseph Hooper, M.A. 



INTRODUCTORY. 

SEVEN years and a half have passed away since I 
wrote the preface to the first volume of this His iory 
of the Parish of Trinity Church ; and now, with a fourth 
volume, I bring my work to a close. It is high time, for 
the days of my life are far spent, and it is natural to wish 
to rest from one's labors. 

This volume contains the story of the termination of 
the Rectorship of that great and eminent man, John Henry 
Hobart, no unfit introduction to the record of his worthy 
successor. To Dr. Berrian the remainder of this volume 
is devoted ; it ends with the day on which his mortal re- 
mains were committed to the grave, and I took his place. 
Through the goodness of our Heavenly Father, my life, 
though far protracted, has been prolonged to a point at 
which I could complete the work ; another must take it up, 
if the Corporation desire that it be brought down to these 
times : my task is at an end. 

In one sense of the adjective, this work deserves the title 
of opus magnum ; as descriptive of its bulk, at least, though 
not, of necessity, of the merit or success of the author. 
But his object has been rather to present the material for 
a History, than to give a popular narrative, such as we 
often find expressive of the individual opinions and possi- 
bly the interested, if not partisan, views of the writers. 
Our venerable Parish needs no such aid from any man ; 
its History fully told, without prepossession or advocacy, is 
its best defence from ignorant misrepresentation and vul- 
gar abuse and assault. It has been the object to tell the 



XX Introductory 

story, straight and clear, from the beginning, and so to 
enable the right-minded and the just to comprehend the 
events of the past two centuries, and to see how things 
came to be, and why things are as they are to-day. " Let 
not him that girdeth on his harness boast himself as he 
that putteth it off." If the editorial harness was put on 
in no boastful spirit, but with the simple intention of let- 
ting a story tell itself, free from notes and comments, 
perhaps misleading and in any event injurious to the 
clearness of the narrative and obstructive to the candid 
reader, he who finally puts it off may do so with a good 
conscience, and with a deep sigh of relief, as he lays down 
the pen and writes the final consiimmatum est. 

I hope this story will be carried on, by and by. There 
will be much to tell since 1862. When I then succeeded 
to the administration of the Parish, the number of our 
clergy was eight, there are now twenty-five ; there were 
four churches, there are now nine. Christian education is 
carried forward upon a large scale in seventeen schools of 
various kinds, of which several are permanently endowed ; 
a Parish Hospital, and a burial ground for the poor, are 
parts of our equipment : the Annual Year-Book grows in 
size as time goes on. We have come through our trials, 
as in past years, fighting battles against aggression from 
outside, but, thank God, at peace within our borders, and 
almost, if not absolutely, free from controversies, dissen- 
sions, or whatever might have disturbed the peace of our 
household of faith. The future historiographer of the 
Parish, whoever he may be, will have material for a con- 
tinuation of the record such as may rejoice the hearts of 
the faithful, and give fresh occasion to praise the God 
of our fathers by Whose Hand His people still are blessed. 

It gives me pleasure to renew the thanks heretofore 
expressed to him who almost from the beginning has 



Introductory xxi 

labored with me in the collection of the material for this 
Historj'^and in its compilation, the Rev. Arthur Lowndes, 
D.D., and also to the Rev. Joseph Hooper, to whom I am 
indebted for various notes and for investigations relating 
to the rectorship of Dr. Berrian. 

To the gentlemen of the Vestry, who, from the first, 
have enthusiastically approved of the design and liberally 
provided the means of carrying it out, no words suffice to 
express my gratitude. 

And, now, it remains to say to the reader, Farewell. 
God prosper, protect, and defend the venerable Parish, 
and keep us all, clergy and people, loyal to the principles 
which have held us together, from generation to genera- 
tion, and faithful to the Doctrine, Discipline, and Worship 
of our Branch of the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic 
Church of Christ. 

Trinity Rectory, 

Eve of the Feast of St. Andrew, 

November 29, 1905. 



A HISTORY OF 
THE PARISH OF TRINITY CHURCH 



CHAPTER I. 

HOHART CORRESPONDENCE. 
PART VII. KROiM HIS RETURN FROM EUROPE TO MARCH, I 82 7, 

Letter from the Rev. Seth Hart Welcoming the Bishop back to his Diocese — The 
Ringing of Church Bells ; Letter from Bishop Hobart — Letter from Bishop Croes 
Acknowledging Generosity of Trinity Corporation — From Thomas Bold Announcing 
Despatch of a Gift of Books from England — From the Rev. H. H. Norris and 
Serjeant Sellon on the Bishop's Sermon Preached on his Return from Europe — 
From Miss Norris to the Rev. Dr. Lowndes — From Bishop Hobart to the Rev. 
H. H. Norris — From Serjeant Sellon — From the Rev. H. U. Onderdonk on the 
Criticism in the Theological Quarterly Review of the Bishop's Sermon — Bishop 
Hobart's Letter of Introduction for Mr. J. Fenimore Cooper — Steamboat Travel 
in 1826 — Letter from the Rev. Jasper Adams on the Presidency of Geneva Col- 
lege — From the Rev. Evan M. Johnson on his Having Requested the Masons to 
Lay the Corner-stone of his Chapel in Brooklyn — From the Rev. Henri Peneveyre 
on Ecclesiastical Affairs in Switzerland — From the Rev. Alonzo Potter Introducing 
his Brother Horatio — From the Rev. Samuel F. Jarvis on a Gift of Books from 
England for the -Seminary and the Duty Levied on them — From Bishop Skinner 
Acknowledging Gift of Books from Bishop Hobart — From Mr. Francis S. Key on 
Church Matters — From Bishop Bowen and the Rev. William Meade on the Pro- 
posed Changes in the Prayer-Book — The Merging of the Two Prayer-Book So- 
cieties and Letter from Mr. William E. Dunsccmb — Invitation from the Vestry of 
St. Paul's, Detroit, to Bishop Hobart to Hold a Confirmation in their Church, and 
Letter from the Rev. Richard F. Cadle. 

IN the brief introduction to the third volume of this 
History, the writer gave the reason why a fourth 
had been added to the series. This, the fourth, will be 
found to contain the account of the rectorship of the Rev. 

VOL. IV. 1. I 



2 History of Trinity Church [1825- 

William Berrian, D.D., the immediate predecessor of the 
present incumbent. But before proceeding to the record 
of his acts, it is necessary to relate the pathetic story of 
the closing scenes in the earthly life of Bishop Hobart. 
To this shall be prefixed copies of some additional letters 
belonging to the Correspondence, of which specimens have 
already been given. The present chapter contains that 
part of the said correspondence which dates from the 
Bishop's return from Europe to March, 1827. We begin 
with one from Mr. Seth Hart, which was received by him 
on his return home. 

" Hemps'* i6th Oct. 1825. 
" Rt. Revd. & DEAR Sir : 

"I have this moment heard of your arrival in N. Y. — but nothing 
particular — and in the joy of my heart and with sincere gratitude to 
God our preserver, for bringing you again to the bosom of your family, 
and of the Church which has so long been deprived of your Episcopal 
ministrations and Pastoral care, I improve this first opportunity of our 
now starting stage to congratulate you on your return at this favour- 
able time that we may mutually enjoy the blessing of meeting next 
week, (Bp., Presbyters, Deacons, and Lay Delegates) in Convention — 
which I anticipate as a more joyful event than the expected f?teeting of 
the waters of the Ocean and the Lakes." 

" Before you be otherwise engaged in Episcopal duties of that kind, 
I take the liberty of reminding you of your having said here on the eve 
of your going abroad that your first official act in any of the country 
churches after your return should be to confirm in mine. We shall 
hope it may be soon. With the best feelings my hard heart is suscepti- 
ble of, I am, my dear Bishop 

" Your affectionate Presbyter & friend, 

" Seth Hart. 
"Right Revd. J. H. Hobart, D.D." 

Soon after the Bishop's return a correspondence was 
started in the newspapers as to the utility of bell-ringing 
in the city. At first the remarks were confined to the 
ringing of bells as alarms in cases of fire, and then ob- 

' Alluding to the completion of the Erie Canal. 



1825] A Plea for Church Bells 



jectors condemned all bell-ringing. The following draft 
of a letter in the Bishop's handwriting is among the Ho- 
bart MSS. It is an eloquent plea for the continuance of 
ringing the church bells, as a call to Divine Worship. 

"To THE Editors of the American. 
" Gentlemen 
" It is the immemorial custom of every Christian nation to announce 
the hours of public worship by the ringing of bells, thus reminding the 
community at large of the great duty of worshipping their divine Bene- 
factor & Father. But it seems that this, one of those public observ- 
ances by which Christian nations are distinguished, & which like other 
external observances is not without its effect on the religious habits of 
the people is considered by some of your correspondents as a ' great 
nuisance.' How does it happen that the delicate nerves & sensibilities 
which are so shocked at the sound of 'The Church going bell,' should 
not display themselves any where but in the city of New- York. Ages 
have rolled away, during which all Christian nations have thus been 
accustomed to mark the ' holy hours of prayer.' The crowded cities & 
the lonely villages of our own country, resound with these calls to assem- 
ble at the temples of the Most High, proclaiming the religious sense of 
the community, and reminding the careless & indifferent of their duty. 
' The great nuisance ' of this practice, so general in every age and coun- 
try that it may be considered as a dictate of a powerful religious prin- 
ciple, has been no where discovered except in this city. Is it grievous 
to the sick & dying ? But an argument which proves too much, proves 
nothing. The clattering of pleasure carriages & the heavy thundering 
of carts are often seriously annoying to the sick & the dying. Why 
not put a stop to these ? In cases of peculiar nervous irritability in 
sick persons, the noise of carriages is guarded against by strewing the 
streets with tan. And in every case where requested as necessary to 
the comfort of a sick person the ringing of a neighbouring bell has 
been either entirely suspended, or diminished in frequency & loud- 
ness. It really seems to me wonderful that only in this city should 
there be that exquisite sensibility which is so much agonized at ringing 
of bells, which in England & in some places in our own country, par- 
ticularly in the neighbouring city of Philad' where the quiet habits of 
the Friends prevail is frequently resorted to as an amusement. With 
this view solely, Christ Church bells in Philad^ sound a merry peal for 
an hour or more two evenings in the week. 



4 History of Trinity Church [1826- 

" The usage of all religious denominations to summon their people 
to Church on Sundays, & of some on \.\\^ festival ox prayer days of the 
week has been of so long standing, & is so justified & sanctioned by the 
long immemorial practice of all Christian nations, that it may be con- 
sidered as a religious right; and I confess I cannot for a moment think, 
that in this free country where legislation is managed with so much 
regard to the religious feelings & habits of the people, the corporation 
of the city will depart from the wise maxim of not governing too much, 
& will attempt to invade a right which is respected in the strong mon- 
archy of England & in the despotic governments of the old world. 

" A Friend to Old Customs. 

" Dec: 29: 1825 " 

With some slight alterations the letter appeared in the 
issue of the New- York American for December 30th. 

Bishop Croes, with that modesty of character which so 
distinguished him, thus acknowledged the generosity of 
the Trinity Corporation : 

"New Brunswick, Jan. nth 1826. 
" Very Dear and Rt. Revd. friend and brother, 

" I received your kind letter, last evening; but the contents of it 
were wholly unexpected. When, at your request, I cheerfully engaged 
to perform for you the duties that might be necessary in your Diocese, 
during your indispensable, but regretted absence ; I considered it not 
a labour, but a pleasure, as an opportunity was thus afforded me — 
however distressing the cause — to oblige you, and thus shew you my 
regard. And during the exercise of the office, I cheerfully and pleas- 
urably did everything that I thought would promote the interests of 
the Diocese, without exposing myself to the charge of being too assum- 
ing or officious. In this I was abundantly rewarded by the pleasure, I 
received, in the exercise of the office itself, in assisting to keep the 
Diocese in order, and in progress, and from the courteous, and re- 
spectful manner, in which, I was invariably treated by those of your 
Presbyters and Deacons, with whom I had intercourse, especially those 
in the town and its vicinity. 

" I cannot, therefore, accept of the very liberal sum you state in 
your letter, if I must view it in the light of a compensation or reward 
for any services, I may have, done ; but I will not refuse it, on 
the other hand, I will gratefully accept it, as a generous donation. 



1826] Letter from Thomas Bold 



from the respected Rector, Wardens and Vestrymen of an opulent Ch. 
— always liberal in their favours — to the Head of a Diocese, which is 
unhappily deficient in the means necessary to afford him a proper 
support. 

" I accept also their thanks, with emotions of pleasure. 
" I am, my dear brother and friend, 

" affectionately and sincerely yours, 

" John Croes. 
" Right Rev. Bishop of New York." 

The Bishop's friends in England kept up their corre- 
spondence with him on his return to this country ; some, 
like the Rev. G. Holden, sending copies of their works to 
the General Theological Seminary. 

" My DE.A.R & Right Rev. Sir 

'■ Your note of the i^' Sept' was perused with pleasure, tho' not un- 
mi.xed with regret that my return home only a few days after you had 
embarked for America, had deprived me of the still higher gratification 
of personally congratulating you upon the improved state of your 
health, & of introducing you to my Family. I have, however, to re- 
joice with you upon the truly gratifying & distinguished manner in 
which your safe return to your Diocese was welcomed ; & I partici- 
pate, in common with the rest of your Friends, in those feelings to 
which such an interesting occurrence must give birth. 

" It was my intention to have thanked you by the Canada on her 
last visit to N. Y. for the Sermon delivered by you in Rome — the 
place, the occasion were in a high degree extraordinary & interesting ! 
Does it ' not warrant the hope that a favourable change has taken place 
in the Vatican ? Your benevolent efforts, I trust, were rewarded with 
the success which they so well merited. The subscriptions in this 
Country, I am concerned to observe, do not advance as might be 
wished ; but the times are adverse ; and the increasing difficulties in 
the commercial world, will, I fear, for a while continue to obstruct 
the stream of charity. 

" But I will account for my silence — Soon after you left Liverpool 
for the Continent, one or two of the Pamphlets for which I am in- 
debted to your kindness, were lent to a Clerical Friend, Mr. Holden, 
who, probably, may not be unknown to you as an Author. Mr. H. was 

' " the permission I me-in granted to you &c." 



6 History of Trinity Cliurch [1826- 

much gratified with the perusal of your Pamphlets, and requested that 
I would present to you, for the use of the Theological Seminary in N. 
Y. a copy of his works, w'' then consisted of the following : — 

" Illustration of the Proverbs 

" " " " Ecclesiastes 

" Scripture Testimonies &c. 

" Disputation on the Fall. 
These Volumes were sent to a Relative of his in Liverpool to be for- 
warded to me, but, taught to look for your return in the Autumn of 
1824, I desired they might remain in Liverpool. Deprived of the 
pleasure of presenting them in person by my absence at Harrogate, I 
asked for the Volumes upon my return, but they were not to be found 
— part of his books were out of Print — application was made to Riving- 
tons ; and not many days have elapsed since Mr. H. was enabled to 
furnish me with a complete Set. ' The Xtn Sabbath ' the production 
of his pen, only a few weeks old, he has added to the Vols, above. 

" Mr. H. has deemed it proper to accompany his Offering with a 
letter to you, as it afforded him an opportunity of expressing the inter- 
est which he feels in the Protestant Episcopal Church in America, in 
which feeling I need not assure you how fully I participate. Mr. 
Roughsedge our worthy & venerable Rector, as well as many others of 
our Brethren, who had the pleasure of being introduced to you, have 
expressed their concern that your short stay in Liverpool, did not allow 
them an opportunity of renewing their acquaintance with you. 

" Have the goodness to offer my best respects to Mrs. Hobart, and 
to accept the good wishes of 

" Your very faithful Servant 

" Thos Bold. 

" Duke Street Liverpool 
" Jan'^ 31. 1826, 
" The Books are sent by the New York Packet." 

The following letter from the Bishop's staunch friend, 
the Rev. H. H. Norris, deals so well with the sermon the 
Bishop preached on his return from Europe that it deserves 
to be placed permanently on record. 

" March 6th 1826. 
" My dear Friend, 

"Tho I am really at this time overwhelmed with engagements 
I must not suffer the Packet to leave England without a letter to you. 



1826] Letter from Rev. H. H. Norris 



because my silence might have the appearance of having taken offence 
at your comparative view of our two countries and at all events would 
keep you in painful suspense upon a point on which I know you feel a 
lively sensibility. I have read your sermon with great attention and it 
is very evident to me that there are two objects aimed at throughout. 
The first of these is to proclaim your own unaltered attachment to 
your own Church and its institutions — to stimulate the same feeling 
amongst its members and to give a popularity to it, which has been 
kept in check by its Episcopal character, allying it in appearance 
more to England than to the Civil Government established amongst 
yourselves; and the second is to do this without giving your friends 
here reasonable offence, by qualifying all your animadversions with 
strong testimonies in favour of the Church of England and the warm- 
est expressions of respect and affection. 

" I do not conceive it to have been possible to have promoted the 
first object more effectually than you have done, and if you have not 
succeeded in your second to the extent which I am sure it was your 
desire to do, you have fully manifested that desire, and have only 
fallen into the same dilemma which Uu Moline fell into before you 
when, in attempting to defend the Geneva platform against some 
French assailant, he ran rather foul of our Episcopal Establishment, 
and incurred the displeasure of our first James. The correspondence 
which this produced between him and Bishop Andrewes was published 
last year in the " Xtian Rem*""' and you will there see Du Moline 
very much in your present situation. You will judge I trust from 
what I have already said that I am not the least out of charity 
with you for your Patriotic effusions. I desire as heartily as you 
can do the extension of the American Church; and if there are defects 
in our system, which I readily admit, next to seeing them corrected my 
prayer is that you may avoid them and you give me not the least um- 
brage by pointing them out; but I think with all your inquisitiveness 
and keenness of observation, your opportunities here did not enable 
you to get to the bottom of all points upon which you speak with con- 
fidence, and that you have consequently committed yourself in some 
particulars. I honour most cordially that devotedness to your own 
native land which makes you cherish a preference to it when com- 
pared with all other lands ' in almost every point of comparison.' 
This is a genuine English as well [as] American feeling. It predomi- 
nates with me so strongly, that I have never set foot out of England, 
though I have the means at my command, and am delighted with the 
' Abbreviation for Christian Remembrancer. 



8 History of Trinity Church [1826- 

contemplation of men, manners and scenery more than I can express; 
but when in disparagement of splendid structures, you ascribe their 
erection to the gratification oi p?-iva(e luxury or pride, and in panegyris- 
ing your own substantial, neat, commodious dwellings, you describe 
them as belonging emphatically io freemen and as presenting a land- 
scape not alloyed by the /^/;«/«/ consideration of their being erected by 
the hard labour of degraded vassals, nor painfully contrasted with the 
meaner habitations, and the miserable hovels that mark a dependent, 
and sometimes a wretched peasantry, I think you have been carried 
away by the enthusiasm of the moment and speaking unreservedly 
where you ought to have guarded your words by strong qualifications. 
The mansions of our nobility and of our untitled aristocracy are many 
of them exceedingly splendid — and without doubt there are instances, 
perhaps many, where the motives to which you ascribe the building of 
them may accurately apply — but this is far from being so obviously 
the case in all instances as to warrant any one in the use of so sweep- 
ing a denunciation. Their size and their splendour arose in very many 
instances out of the genius of our constitution, which preserves a regu- 
lar gradation in Society and does not affect that dead level which the 
American taste inclines to; and if your freemen upon a small scale 
' -waWi protidly over their land,' whilst it is an admission on your part 
that pride has as much to do in the erection of the neat, commodious 
dwelling as of the immense structure, I can assure you from my own 
knowledge that many of our freemen upon a large scale walk with the 
greatest humility over their land, not so much exulting in the idea that 
it is their own, as in the opportunity which it affords them of being 
what Job was, a Father to the surrounding neighbourhood, and provid- 
ing its inhabitants both with honest occupation and support. 

" I now turn to the other side of your picture. That I mean to 
be contemplated amongst yourselves and I cannot see in the first 
place why the owners of the soil with you are so pre-eminently free in 
comparison with our yeomanry that you are warranted in making the 
term emphatic — for as it appears to me every landed proprietor with us 
is under less restraint than with you, in as much as he can direct the 
appropriation of the property which his own industry has accumulated 
in what proportions he pleases to his children's children as well as 
to the immediately succeeding generation, whereas yours are legally 
disqualified in this particular, and if any one among you, who has 
realized property, has the misfortune of having a spendthrift son, he 
cannot provide against his squandering propensities by a tenancy for 
life and a reversion to his grandchildren, but must leave these objects 



1826] Letter, from Rev. H. H. Norris 



of his affection unprovided for unless he altogether excludes his son 
from the inheritance. Neither can I see why our tenantry and even our 
labouring classes are not as free to all the genuine benefits of freedom as 
your own owners of the soil. I recollect you remarked upon the differ- 
ence between our servants and yours, but I think my Francis, who has 
lived with me these ten years, and could be a soil owner to-morrow if 
he pleased, stood rather high in your scale of comparison. Then again 
I do not understand why in setting off your own landscape you are not 
content with what actually belongs to it but must introduce to no- 
tice certain hideous objects — such as degraded vassals and miserable 
hovels — to advantage your picture by the alledged absence of these 
imaginary deformities. It should seem from your statement that these 
painful spectacles are common to all countries but yours — which I am 
sure is very far from your meaning. Were it to be said to any of our 
Bricklayers or Carpenters that they were degraded vassals, I should be 
very sorry to receive the retort which would follow, nor should I like 
my situation much better if the reproach were cast upon their resi- 
dences instead of themselves. I cannot think that you mean to in- 
clude England in these disparaging expressions, but by applying 
" sometimes " exclusively to the last member of the sentence, you 
make all your previous descriptions general; and indeed in a few pages 
forward you speak specifically of the 'often abject condition of the 
lower orders here,' as an unavoidable result of the aristocratic nature 
of our government, which is very much in unison with the former, but 
I cannot admit to be borne out by fact, except where vice or thought- 
lessness has produced it. Nor will the fact bear you out in your 
assertion that fear is our governing principle. Yours may be a 'broad ' 
freedom, ours is a deep one. But it seems we Tories are all wrong and 
government though in its general powers and sanctions it is the ordi- 
nance of God, yet in its form of administration it is the ordinance of 
Man and St. Peter so pronounces it. You must be desperately put to 
it to alledge that mistranslation of ours to bolster up your democracy 
with Scriptural authority. Where will you find a Scriptural critic of 
any chararacter who puts the construction that you do on avOpconivt) 
HTt'ffii? The literal translation of these words is 'human creature,' 
which as Lesley remarks does not mean a creature of man's making, 
but that ' creature which is man.' The Apostle first lays down the 
duty generally and then particularises. God is the Maker, the thing 
made is human government, or the government of man under God by 
men. Look at Parkhurst, look at Schleusner, look at Wolfius, look at 
Hammond — you will see your text sink under you and democracy go 



lo History of Trinity Church [1826- 

down to the bottomless pit to which it belongs, for you will find 
no countenance for it from one end of the Bible to the other except in 
the narrative of Absalom's rebellion where Hushai acting the part of a 
democrat, to lull Absalom into security, pledges himself to obey him 
whom ' God and this people should choose.' Let me recommend Lesley's 
Rehearsals to your serious study. There should by all means be a copy 
in the library of the Theological Institution and every student should 
study it. I will present a copy if you will promise me it shall be read. 
" From the politics of your Sermon I turn to your remarks upon 
our Universities, which are incorrect with respect to the difficulty of 
admission as far as Cambridge is concerned, where not only are the 
Collegiate accommodations doubled within the last ten years but 
also Lodgings provided in the town where they fail to any extent. As 
applyed to Oxford the remarks are true. That University will only 
admit that number of students which can be received within the walls 
of the Colleges. The alternative is that all disappointed applicants go 
to Cambridge or else to Scotland. But all this is come upon us since 
the peace; and if war was to break out again, our Collegiate accom- 
modations would be ample. I do not, however, mean to justify Ox- 
ford. Some of the Colleges whose provisions are antiquated might 
help the case materially and the limitation of admissions ought to be 
suspended while the influx is so great. There is more correctness in 
what you say of our deficiencies with reference to the study of the- 
ology. Our system only carries Collegiate education to the point 
where general knowledge is acquired, and it branches off to the 
different professions. Those designed for the Law then go for the 
prosecution of that Study to the Inns of Court — those designed for 
Physic either to London or Edinburgh — and certainly those designed 
for the Church are left too much to cater for themselves, and the 
consequence is that war of religious systems which prevails amongst 
us. The evil which results is not an absolute dearth of theologians, 
for the Clergy form Schools of Theology amongst themselves; there 
are in most neighborhoods, men matured in their profession and dis- 
posed to afford counsel and instruction to their younger brethren, and 
if you look to the fruit produced, I mean the theological productions 
of our Clergy, the inference I think will be that they are not very 
deficient — still I admit that Colleges for the Study of Theology like 
the Inns of Court for the Study of Law is a great desideratum amongst 
us especially with reference to its effects in producing uniformity of 
religious opinion. I should however tell you that Dr. Lloyd is not 
merely lecturing at Oxford, but forming classes amongst the A.B's 



i826] Letter from Rev. H. H. Norris 



and young fellows at Colleges and is in that way rendering most 
valuable service, at an immense expense of voluntary labour to him- 
self; for he has two classes attendant upon him to each of whom he 
devotes three alternate mornings every week. 

" Your next point of comparison is the religious arrangements of 
Europe and America. Those of Rome and Geneva, the Equatorial 
and Arctic regions of Xtianity, are of course soon dismissed as bear- 
ing no analogy to yours, — but Mother and Child must of course 
have many lineaments in common and so the comparison resolves 
itself into one in which our respective Countries are exclusively con- 
cerned; and as age acts upon everything human — religious estab- 
lishments as well as men with a certain wear and tear, — it may be 
admitted without disparagement to an Establishment many centuries 
old, that it is not so vigorous in its energies as one that is only rising 
into manhood. I have no doubt that a similar comparison might be 
drawn in your own family to Mrs. Hobart's disadvantage, tho' proba- 
bly your marriage was so happily timed that she is contented to yield 
the palm of beauty to her daughters. But to the point — your system 
is the equal protection of what you call religion, i. e. false doctrine, 
heresy and schism, equally with Xtian truth and Unity; and so equally 
does the State hold the balance between you that I think I recollect 
the motion for appointment of a Chaplain either to Congress or one 
of your State Conventions being negatived, because the appointment 
must necessarily involve a preference of some one or other of the 
parties at issue upon this momentous question. Our system is that of 
protecting one confession of faith and tolerating all the others. The 
differences upon which you expatiate flow naturally out of these 
different arrangements. Both have their advantages and disadvan- 
tages which you admit, but on your drawing them out, these properties 
appear divided, and yours are all of the former description — ours all of 
the latter, the' I can scarcely think that human nature is so much in 
perfection with you that if I were to traverse the Diocess of New 
York I should not discover some spots in your feasts of Charity; 
however of this I know nothing and will therefore hope all things. 
The first defect in our arrangements which you point out is that of 
patronage, the general tendency of which you consider as one of the 
clogs to the Church of England's progress, one of the alloys to her 
Apostolic and spiritual character. You have, however, in a note to 
the following page given a description of the other mode of forming 
the pastoral connection, and it applies to all cases, and I think that 
every one will admit that the choice being vested in a single individual 



12 History of Trinity Church [1826- 

offers a much fairer prospect of falling upon a worthy object than it 
would do if placed in such a popular Assembly. For us, therefore, 
constituted as we are, patronage is evidently best — our elected Pastors 
are for the most part religiously factious men — our presented and 
collated ones, taken as a whole, do the duties required of them 
with zeal, judgment and efficiency. I should not in the least hesi- 
tate to weigh them in the ballance either for professional learning 
or moral worth with any other bodies of men in the Kingdom, for I 
am confident that the result would be, as it ought to be, very greatly 
in their favour. The livings bought and sold in our Church are but 
as a drop in the ocean, comparatively with the whole. The great bulk 
of them being in the gift either of the King, the Bishops, the Universi- 
ties, the Corporations or the Nobility, who have derived their rights 
from the original founders of the Churches, who both built the edifices 
and endowed them. With you I perceive an approach to patronage in 
your great towns where the appointment has taken the first step towards 
it, being moved from the congregation at large to an aristocracy, and I 
think very judiciously so, for the best way for taking the se^ise of any 
body of men is to exclude the greatest number from the deliberations. 
In your smaller Churches, where the population is as you say humble 
and scattered, the elective plan will do very well, particularly when 
there is a master spirit of great energy to manage the whole. Popular 
election, under such circumstances, is a capital tub to throw out to the 
whale. He will play with it and become very manageable. I pray 
God the humility may continue when the population becomes dense, 
and then your system will go on working as well as at present, un- 
clogged by our obstructions. Tythes are the next disparaging point 
of comparison and I think you are a bold man to make it, for you 
hold all the soil of New York as Church property by endowment ' and 
where the difference in principle is from a tenth being so devoted to 
the Church of God and your entire lordship of the soil I cannot per- 
ceive. Those who possessed the soil gave a tenth of its produce 
towards the maintenance of a standing Ministry and it has changed 
hands ever since saddled with that payment and when sold or given, 
always with a special exemption of that portion from the transfer and 
in the former case with a deduction of purchase money equal to the 
amount, and if abolished to-morrow would rather prejudice the culti- 
vator and only benefit the Landlord. But your objection is not against 
the reasonableness, but the expediency. There were times and cir- 
cumstances when you will admit it was a most wise appointment, and 
' The writer evidently thought the grant of the Crown covered the whole city. 



1826] Letter from Rev. H. H. Norris 



those times were not exclusively the Jewish economy, for tythes were 
anterior to that intercalary institution given by Abraham and vowed 
by Jacob; you say they are calculated to prevent etc., surely this a 
strong word considering who appointed them. It would have been 
more accurate to have used the word liable. They do produce this 
evil in some instances where passion and prejudice predominate, but 
in numberless others they are paid with the greatest cheerfulness, the 
farmer knowing that it is much more to his advantage that the Clergy- 
man should hold them than the landed proprietor, and I can assure 
you that the Tythe Day in a great many of our parishes brings the 
Clergyman and all his farming parishioners together at his own table to 
partake of his hospitalities, with as cheerful countenances and as much 
good will towards each other as any party of neighbours meet on any 
convivial occasion, and there is this obvious advantage in the means 
of maintenance that whilst it makes it the interest of the Clergyman 
to do his duty, that he may make his parishioners feel that they have 
their money's worth in benefit received, and also enables him to in- 
gratiate himself into their affections by various good turns in the way 
of accommodations as to payment and remittances, it also places him 
sufficiently in a state of independence to be under no temptation to 
please them otherwise than to their edification or to withhold his re- 
proof when their conduct merits it. Your own case which you may 
take pride and pleasure in recounting as being equally creditable to 
yourself and to the Trustees of Trinity Church, is you must recollect 
a very singular one. They are not called upon to put their hands into 
their own pockets, but have a fund to go to which they must spend, 
because by the laws of the Union they cannot hold anything like 
what in consequence of its increased and increasing value it is an- 
nually producing.' I do not, however, mean to say that they would 
have acted otherwise than they did had they been under the necessity 
of providing for you from their own resources. A life so valuable as 
yours was worth any sum that could be devoted to its reparation and I 
pray God that the profuseness with which you are now e.xpending its 
renovated energies may be sustained by adequate supplies. 

" I now come to the last point of comparison — our respective 
Hierarchies. In America the appointment is vested in the Clergy of 
the Diocess and the Lay Delegates. In England, in the King, and vir- 
tually, for the most part but far from always, in his Prime Minister. 
Yours is precisely as it ought to be in an un-established Church, except 

' Mr. Norris was misinformed; there was no general limitation as to the amount 
of property religious corporations could hold. 



14 History of Trinity Church [1826- 

that I doubt the latter introduction; ours is as it always has been b)' 
Royal influence, if not assumed right, since Kings became her nursing 
fathers and Queens her nursing mothers, till the Papacy usurped the 
supremacy in this respect, and thus upon the abrogation of that power, 
it passed with the Supremacy to our Sovereigns. What the operation 
of your system is as to the appointments which it secures of course I 
know little. One specimen we have seen, I will admit, above all praise, 
but we have seen another who I believe to have been as meagre in all 
Episcopal qualifications as he was expert in those arts which constitute 
the successful religious empyric and I have heard it whispered that 
when your Church shall sustain the loss of its venerable surviving 
Father he will in all probability be succeeded by another who will be 
no great gem in the Episcopate. From hence I argue that the Elec- 
tive method does not always answer, but I am so anxious for the 
prosperity of the American Church, that I pray God you may long be 
preserved in this particular at least from party politics, and that he 
may direct you always to the best. In stating the operation of our 
system you have hazarded an assertion in which the fact will not bear 
you out, that almost all our Prelates have owed their advancement to a 
secular interest, extraneous from Spiritual or Ecclesiastical considera- 
tions. There are instances on the Bench at present, where professional 
talents have been the sole cause of the Prelate's elevation. I could 
point out two without consideration, but there are many, and always 
have been, in which tho' the party would not have been elevated if he 
had possessed no interest, yet it cannot be said with any semblance of 
truth that the choice was made without respect to his Episcopal quali- 
fications. It was in fact his pre-eminent learning and good conduct, 
which put him in the way of gaining that interest thro' which he is 
elevated, and thus his first move towards Episcopacy was the produce 
of actual desert. You are quite right in the distinction which you 
draw between the Church in her Apostolic character and the Church 
as connected with the State, when you speak of her as the religious 
benefactor to America, and the State has been punished as she de- 
served for listening to the dissenters rather than to her, by the loss of 
her Colonies. She has as you say learnt wisdom in this particular, but 
you never hazarded a more groundless assertion than in describing 
our Colonial Bishops as dependent upon the Cabinet Ministry of Eng- 
land, and as not only appointed but controuled by them. For it is 
impossible for Court interest to have been more cast aside than in 
their selection, or for men to be more ])erfectly free than they are to 
exercise their own judgment in the administration of the great inter- 



1826] Letter from Rev. H. H. Norris 15 

ests committed to their care. Bishop Coleridge is quite indignant at 
being so represented and loudly protests against the representation. 

" I come at length to our two Churches in their representative ca- 
pacity, and here I admit that you enjoy what we are virtually deprived, 
but deprived of by the abuse of the privilege by the Church herself at the 
period of the suspension ; and if it were to be restored to us to-morrow, 
whilst we continue distracted by religious differences within ourselves 
and there is amongst us an overweening party whose maxim is ' by our 
tongues we will prevail,' I very much doubt whether the restoration 
would contribute to our peace and not rather multiply our confusions. 
You are not, however, right in making the Convocation so compleat a 
nullity as you have done, for the King does not dissolve it but with the 
Parliament it adjourns itself, and on one occasion a few years ago held 
several sittings to deliberate. 

" I have now gone thro' the topics of your sermon and I hope have so 
expressed myself as to shew you I am in perfect good humour both with 
yourself and it. I have not spared it, and why should I ? Truth comes 
out by the collision of statements and opinion, and I think the result 
of this investigation will be that you will know our Church better than 
you did. I admire the Sermon as an excellent stroke of Policy. You 
could not more effectually have conveyed the sensation to your whole 
Diocess, and indeed throughout the States, that the twenty horse 
power, whose energies had been for two years suspended, was at work 
again, and, I have no doubt, have called the attention of your whole 
communion to yourself with all the enthusiasm of popularity. I have 
little doubt also that your Sermon will conciliate esteem and awaken 
consideration amongst aliens and that Episcopacy will become more in 
favour and nothing will rejoice me more than such an effect. But I 
must have done, having both fagged myself and I fear wearied you 
and now I remain with the greatest regard and the best wishes both for 
your private welfare and public usefulness 

"Your affectionate friend, 

" Grove St.— March 6th 1S26. " ^- ^- Norris. 

" P. S. Mr. Watson desires me to say that he defended you tooth 
and nail till he read the Sermon, and that made his voice faulter, for that 
he could not but think that you [had] given both our radicals and the 
Presbyterians advantages which were not called for in, the straight- 
forward course of your own argument. This was sent as a message, 
for he has been under surgical discipline, and I have had no oppor- 
tunity of talking with him since the sermon came to hand. He is, I 



i6 History of Trinity Church [1S26- 



am happy to say, just abroad again, and I hope in a much better state 
of health than when you took leave of him at Cheltenham. I have 
mislayed your letter, and, till I find it, cannot call to mind the Books 
you wish me to send you. Southey's Vandura is capital and you shall 
have it as also Molesworth's reply to Davison on Sacrifice. 

Serjeant Sellon also wrote the Bishop in regard to his 
sermon, and we make two short extracts from his letters. 

" Chapter-House, St. P.aul's, May i, 1S26. 
" Mv Dear Sir, 

" I was much gratified by the sight of your handwriting, for the 
next blessing to personal intercourse with a friend, is a letter from him. 
I had been for some time in expectation of hearing from you, finding 
from the public papers that you had arrived at New- York, and been 
most cordially received by your countrymen. 

" Many thanks for your sermon — but one had reached my hands 
before yours arrived. It is written with great nerve and spirit, as if 
the heart felt what the mind dictated. I almost fancied you in your 
Episcopal arm-chair at the Chapter-House fire-side, expressing, in your 
usual animated style, eulogiums on your country. But I rather expect 
that your animadversions will not pass su6 silentio. Some, I believe, 
have taken umbrage at the sermon, but chiefly on account of the notes. 

"With regard to the work itself, I concur with you in many main 
points, but not in all. Whatever faults may be inherent in our consti- 
tution by reason of the aristocracy, I look upon an hereditary nobility 
as a defence and ornament to a state. 

" And although evil does in some respects result from the disposi- 
tion of our Church preferment of pluralities and the like, I cannot but 
disapprove of ministers and pastors being placed in a dependent state 
on their congregations, and even exposed to the temptation of seeking 
the favour of men rather than of God. As to your mode of training 
young men to the Church, and electing your ministers and bishops, it 
may be far preferable, I think, to ours ; but, I should like them, when 
elected, to be perfectly independent by a fixed stipend or endowment. " ' 

In another letter he writes : 

" I have often lamented the uncomfortable sensations which I fear 
were excited in your mind by the irascible and ill founded criticism 
which appeared in the Theological Quarterly Review; but I think they 
' Berrian's Memoir, p. 356. 



1826] Letter from Miss Norris 17 



sank into insignificance by the side of the sound, manly and sensible 
answer which afterwards appeared in another periodical publication. 

"At the same time, if every one knew your heart, temper, and dis- 
position as well as myself, every ill-natured observation would have 
been spared." ' 

Since the Third Part of this History went to press a 
letter was received by the Rev. Dr. Lowndes from Miss 
Annie H. Norris which reads in part as follows : 

" Adderburv, 

" N? Banbury, 

" OXON. 
"As the granddaughter of the Rector of South Hackney, Henry 
Handley Norris, I am glad to say that 4 letters, dated Liverpool, Oct. 
30, 1823, York, Dec. 8, 1823, Rome, May 25, 1824, and New York, Jan. 
15, 1828 are in my possession as well as copy in my grandfather's hand- 
writing of a letter, 3 large sheets ! to Bp. Hobart, but this is undated, 
cSf evidently refers to a Sermon of the Bishop's preached on his return 
to America, to some of the terms of which my grandfather objected. 
There were other letters from Bp. Hobart & I hope to find and send 
them to you, with the ones I have on hearing from you . . . Af- 
ter my grandfather's death in 1851 my father and I looked over — it 
took months of hard work — the enormous correspondence that was 
stored away at Grove S' South Hackney, which had belonged to our 
family for several generations and was not the Rectory, though the 
Rector (my grandfather, who built the Church and was its first Rec- 
tor) lived in it — he had been at first Curate to my great uncle. Arch- 
deacon Watson, Rector of Great Hackney. The old house at Grove 
St. was a rendezvous for very many of the Colonial and other Bishops 
— with all, or nearly all of whom my grandfather was in constant cor- 
respondence. I well remember meeting Bp. Inglis, and Bp. Coleridge 
there, and among the letters were many from the Scotch and Irish Bps. 
as well as the English — " 

The " long letter " referred to by Miss Norris from her 
grandfather is the one which we have just presented to 
our readers. It shows the importance which Mr. Norris 
attached to it that he kept an exact copy of it. 

' Berrian's Memoir, p. 357. 



VOL. IV. — 2 



i8 History of Trinity Church L1823- 

The four letters from Bishop Hobart which Miss 
Norris sent, and which are now in the possession of Dr. 
Lowndes, are a valuable addition to the Hobart corre- 
spondence. 

Although somewhat out of their chronological order 
we print three of them here, and the fourth will be found 
later on in its proper place. 

"Liverpool. Oct. 30. 1823. 
" My dear Sir, 

"I set my foot on English ground which on so many accounts I 
deeply venerate, but especially as the seat of that Apostolical & primi- 
tive Church which the American Church acknowledges & reveres as 
her parent, this morning. And to my great mortification I find that a 
letter from you which arrived a few days since to the care of Mr Law- 
rence has been sent by the last packet to America. 

" I shall remain in Liverpool until Monday next when I purpose to 
set off with all speed for London, and as soon as I can, after my ar- 
rival there, will endeavour to ascertain whether you are at Hackney & 
for this purpose will call at the Messrs Rivingtons. 

"When I left N. Y. I was too weak to walk down to the vessel on 
which I embarked, but the sea voyage has so much improved my 
health, that I am almost afraid when you see me, you will think that 
my sickness has been only pretence. 

"Believe me that I look forward to meeting you with the highest 
pleasure & that I am 

" most faithfully 
" & truly yrs 

"J. H. Hobart." 

The above letter unexpectedly verifies the view we 
took, when commenting on the actual date of the Bishop's 
landing in England, that the day must have been Thurs- 
day, October 30th.^ 

" York, Dec: 8: 1823. 
" Mv DEAR Sir, 

"I conclude that by the time this letter reaches Hackney, you will 
have returned to your own mansion, which, whatever you may think of 
' See Part III., p. 297. 



1824] Letters of Bishop Hobart to H. H. Norris 19 

it, is the pleasantest which I have yet seen in this country, and I am 
confident 1 shall not find any more interesting to me. For I feel with 
you as with the friend of my earliest years, &, allow me to say, I am 
inexpressibly happy in the enjoyment as I trust of your friendship. 

"I passed yesterday in this place; &, as usual, having no duty to 
perform myself, was solicitous to know how others performed their 
duty. The Cathedral service in that most magnificent building was 
truly grand. I think incomparably better performed than at either 
London or Westminster. 

" I shall feel somewhat solicitous to know what course my brother 
Bp C. is pursuing. If you hear anything do let me know. Direct me 
to the care of your friend the Rev: Mr Walker at Edinburgh. 

" I am very desirous that the Bp of Durham should be kept right in 
this business. Mr Watson intimated to me the day before I left Lon- 
don that it would be proper for me to wait on his Lordship, which I 
had previously supposed it would not be proper for me to do without 
an introduction. The intimation however came too late. I requested 
the young man at Rivingtons Waterloo Place to send to him the docu- 
ments published by me & the number of the British Critic. I hope he 
has done so. 

" I promised Mr Coleridge to prepare for the next Remembrancer 
a short account of the American Church. Please to let him know that 
I will forward this to him next week from Edinburgh. 

"I am much delighted with the Bp of Llandaff, there is great sim- 
plicity & frankness of manners. 

"With my best regards to Mrs Norris, I am my dear Sir; 

" most truly & affec'> yrs 

"J. H. Hobart." 

"Rome. May 25th, 1824. 
" Mv DEAR Norris, 

" My absence at Naples prevented the earlier receipt & acknow- 
ledgement of your kind letter. 

" I am afraid you think that Italy has such attractions for me that 
I am disposed to forego in order to enjoy them all the religious & in- 
tellectual & moral joys of England, some of which with the view of 
exciting my feelings, you drip off in your letter. But you must recol- 
lect my dear friend, that my flight from England was a flight from 
cares, perplexities and business which to the serious detriment of my 
health had occupied me thro' the winter, & spring. And tho' I do not 
pretend to be insensible to those charms of climate & of scenery, & to 



2o History of Trinity Church [1826- 

those interesting antiquities which have been so often seen with de- 
light, by wiser & better men than myself; & the' I do not think even 
the view of the mummeries of the Church of Rome in the seat of its do- 
minion, an unedifying sight to a Protestant, yet I would certainly have 
wished that my original arrangement of spending the winter in Italy 
& the spring in London had not been defeated by circumstances which 
you well know. 

"I arrived at Rome on Easter Even; & when I found that the 
holy Communion was administered by some Church of England 
Clergyman on Easter morning, I did not hesitate for an instant to give 
up (which is more than some Chh of Eng: Clergy at Rome did) for the 
enjoyment of this privilege the view of the spectacle of the Pope's 
benediction &c, &c, &c, which took place at the same hour, nor did I 
see as you suppose the ftiH illumination at St Peters. There were 4 
Clergy at the Communion. But as I did not know them I participated 
among the Laity. Afterwards on my way to Naples, I formed an ac- 
quaintance with one of them, & found to my great mortification that I 
had missed an opportunity of becoming acquainted with Dr Nott, the 
author of the Bampton lectures who was one of the Clergy who offici- 
ated. I also became acquainted at Naples with another Clergyman 
who intended to pursue on his return the very route which would 
gratify me; & he was exceedingly desirous we should travel in com- 
pany. But I was so desirous to get to London, as I promised you, by 
the loth of June that I resisted every solicitation; & made arrange- 
ments for returning in time. But alas! I shall be disappointed. I was 
taken on my way from Naples to Rome with slight chills & fever, 
which have yielded to active medicines, but I am too weak to travel, & 
have found it necessary to lie by. I shall go on as soon as possible. 
As writing fatigues me, I wish you would have the goodness to write 
a line to Mr Wheaton, 16 Chapel place. Cavendish Square, informing 
of my having made arrangements for reaching England by the time I 
mentioned, & of the cause of my detention. And will you ask Mr Riv- 
ington to give the same information to his neighbour Serj' Sellon. 
With my kind remembrances to Mrs Norris, Mr Joshua Watson & all 

our friends, I am 

" faithfully & affec''' yrs 

" J. H. HOBART." 

As soon as the Theological Quarterly Reviezv contain- 
ing the article in criticism of the Bishop's sermon reached 
these shores, the Rev. H. U. Onderdonk, as will be seen 



1826] Letter of H. U. Onderdonk to Bishop Hobart 21 

in the following letter, immediately wrote a reply, natur- 
ally thinking that the Bishop would not himself deign to 
answer his critic, but leave it to his friends to defend him 
from all such attacks. 

"Brooklyn, Sept. 22nd, 1826. 
"Rt: Rev: & Dear Sir 

" I trouble you again, to exonerate the Messrs. Swords from any 
blame as to the publication of a notice of the English Review of your 
sermon. When I first heard of that Review, the hope was expressed 
(by whom I do not recollect, but I have since heard it from several) 
that no answer should be given it by the Bp, whether anonymously or 
otherwise, & in this I fully agreed, & was more positively confirmed after 
obtaining and reading it. In this feeling the notice of it was written, & 
taken to Swords', but they told me of your wish that none but an an- 
swer from yourself should appear in the Journal. My own opinion as 
to the propriety of your not noticing it was & (pardon me for saying 
so) is still unchanged. It was not on that ground, however, that I 
urged them to print my piece, but for other reasons, you had seen 
the Review but a short time before leaving town, & your intention 
to answer it was formed under the excitement whh such venomous 
abuse would of course occasion, you were to send them copy (so they 
expected) within, say a week or ten days, (they expected it from Boston, 
& Mr. J. Swords wrote to you at Albany), whh not being done led 
me to believe that you had changed your intention of answering 
it, the decision to insert mine was delayed some days after it was 
handed in, the setting up some days longer, & the first half sheet was 
not worked off till all expectation of hearing from you on the subject 
was at an end, these were strong & I supposed sufificient reasons for 
proceeding, so that for at least a week past I have not had the least 
fear or anxiety as to the view you would take of the measure; but the 
final & conclusive reason for proceeding to print my piece was that the 
entire Review was to precede your remarks, & to print it entirely in the 
smallest type would occupy ten or twelve pages of the Journal (so said 
Mr. T. Swords), & your remarks could hardly occupy a less space, 
whh would engross more in proportion than is ever appropriated to 
one subject in any one number of a miscellaneous Journal. In this 
latter respect the Messrs. Swords agreed with me that you would 
not probably wish the Review &your answer to appear in the Journal, 
should you still intend to print any thing on the subject, but would 
give it in a pamphlet. In every other particular, the blame is mine, as 



22 History of Trinity Church [1826- 

I was very urgent with them. More especially if your notice was to be 
too large for the Journal, & therefore be a pamphlet, it seemed a mat- 
ter of course that the Journal was open to a notice of the Review from 
any other quarter. I speak of your issuing a pamphlet, not that I be- 
lieved you would answer the Review, but only in case you should still 
retain the intention with whh you left the city. I did tiot think that you 
would, because the Reviewer has defeated himself by his violence with 
even the English who are tolerably informed, & because his uniting 
you with America at large in his denunciations will secure you a still 
deeper & more extended affection from our citizens, & therefore no 
answer to it is necessary, except for form's sake, if I may so express it, 
that is, that it may not be alledged that it cannot be answered. Such 
arguments as these I hoped were the occasion of your not sending 
copy to Messrs. Swords, & nothing more to them on the subject. 

" In a sentence on the other page, I say that the opinion that the 
Bp. ought not to answer an anonymous & gross reviler was not my rea- 
son for urging Messrs. Swords to print my piece, I mean that I had no 
view of defeating any wishes of yours to whh you might adhere, without 
denying that I spoke very frankly to those gentlemen on that point. 
It struck me as highly probable that you would recede from your pur- 
pose when you found a volunteer enlisted in your place. How far my 
extreme repugnance to the very idea of an American Bp's answering a 
blustering foreign scribbler may have insensibly influenced me in wish- 
ing my piece to appear & in urging Messrs. Swords to allow it to do 
so, it is impossible for me to say. If nothing more should appear in 
England, nothing of a respectable stamp, will it not be a great pity that 
you should have condescended to notice this beastly effusion ? & will 
it not show that the English do not concur with this Reviewer ? If, 
on the other hand, any thing fit for answering should appear there, 
might not your vindication of yourself be much better grounded on 
that, tho' including also your defence against the Theol: Quarterly ? 

" New York, Sept. 23rd. I have seen Messrs. Swords on the sub- 
ject. They are setting up the Review & the communication from 
yourself whh will appear in the present number of the Journal, proba- 
bly as an appendix. The article by myself it was at first intended to 
cancel, but some of the half-sheets have already got abroad, whh ren- 
ders that measure impracticable, it contains some prominent Extracts 
from the Review & was put as the first article of the Number. I still 
do regret that you condescend to notice such a production. The 
Chh Register of to-day contains an article in your defence, the Xtian 
Journal has one printed, the other Episcopal magazines will of course 






.^^^^ c^c^'!^^^ ^ ^^ /-^'^ ^.«i^ ^ ^^«j> 



Py^./^^ 






1826] Letter of Introduction for Fenimore Cooper 23 

defend you, then why should you appear in person, for your style will 
infallibly speak for any anonymous signature ? why not wait till you 
have a respectable article to answer ? Mr. Swords has the English 
periodicals down to August, & they contain nothing on the subject. 
My only regret in this matter is that what I have done is so very con- 
trary to your wishes, & that there is now no remedy. Believe me 
when I again assure you that before any part of my piece was printed, 
we all (Messrs. Swords, Stanford & myself) were of opinion that you 
had relinquished your intention of writing your own defence. 
" Very respectfully and affectionately, 

" Your obed' serv| 

" H. U. Onderdonk." 

The following letter is one introducing Fenimore 
Cooper to a brother bishop, undoubtedly to Bishop Lus- 
combe who was in charge of the congregation of Eng- 
lish churchmen upon the continent of Europe but resided 
principally at Paris, acting as chaplain to the British 

Ambassador : 

" New-York, May 29, 1826. 
" Rt Rev & D"' Sir, 

" I esteem myself happy in the opportunity of introducing to you 
my friend Jas. F. Cooper, Esq. whose reputation as an Author the pride 
of his countrymen is doubtless known to you, as his works have been 
republished at Paris & London. 

" Mr. Cooper is a Churchman & married into one of the oldest 
& most respectable of our New-York Church families. Mrs. Cooper's 
Father, (J. P. DeLancey Esq) is a principal supporter of the Church in 
the place of his residence near this city; & her brother (the Rev Wm 
DeLancey) is a distinguished Clergyman of our Church in Philadelphia. 
As a Communicant of the Church Mrs. Cooper will exceedingly value 
the favor of your acquaintance. And as she & Mr. Cooper purpose to 
spend some time abroad, it may be in your power to enable them, when 
they leave Paris, to form some clerical acquaintance in the places which 
they may visit. 

" Your civilities to them will confer a great favor on, 
" Rt Rev & D' Sir, 

" your faithful 

" & affectionate 
" brother, 

" J. H. HOBART." 



24 History of Trinity Church [1826- 

This letter is reproduced, not only for the sake of the 
literary interest attaching to it on account of its intro- 
ducing Mr. Cooper, but also as giving a specimen of the 
Bishop's handwriting in his mature years. This makes 
the third example of the Bishop's writing which we have 
reproduced; the first (facing p. 91, Part III.) written 
when but a lad; the second (facing p. 358, Part III.) 
showing his usual hand when writing rapidly, and this 
one, when writing carefully. 

Among the letters of 1826 there is a circular of the 
Steam Navigation Company, which is interesting as show- 
ing the method of transportation on the river in those 
days. A steel engraving shows a paddle steamer towing 
an excursion barge. It is claimed that this method ensures 
the greatest possible safety and comfort to passengers. 

" Passengers on board the Safety Barges will not be in the least 
exposed to any accident which may happen by reason of fire, or 
steam on board the Steam Boats. The noise of the machinery, the 
trembling of the boat, the heat from the furnace, boilers, and kitchen, 
and every thing which may be unpleasant or dangerous on board of a 
Steam Boat are entirely avoided." 

We may nowadays consider this method of travel 
rather antiquated ; still in view of recent disasters it is 
open to doubt as to whether it might not be wiser both 
on the score of safety and comfort to revert to some such 
mode of travel for Sunday-School excursions where speed 
can be no great object. 

The Rev. Jasper Adams became Principal of the Col- 
lege at Charleston, S. C, in 1824, but owing to the great 
difficulties which he encountered in raising the stand- 
ing of that College, he gladly accepted the invitation 
of Bishop Hobart and the other trustees to take the 
Presidency of Geneva College. This position, however. 



1826] Letter from Jasper Adams 25 

he resigned in the spring of 1828, returning in April of 
that year to Charleston College, as its prospects had 
materially improv'ed since he had left it, and there he 
remained till the close of 1836. In 1837 he became Pro- 
fessor of Ethics at the Military Academy at West Point, 
and died in 1841. 

"Charleston, July 5th 1826. 

" RT. ReVD. & DEAR SIR, 

" Your obliging favour of June 23d was received five days since, 
and for the sentiments of regard and confidence which it contains, 
I hope you will accept my sincere and very respectful acknowledgments. 

" The letter of Rev. Mr. Clark and Mr. De Zeng in relation to my 
election at Geneva, was received on the 13th of June, who informed 
me that they had consulted with yourself on the subject, and that you 
were favourably disposed towards me. It was very gratifying to hear 
of your favourable impression with respect to me, from any source, but 
it is especially so to be informed of this by yourself. The Rev. Mr. 
Wainwright and Rev. Mr. Barlow, were also so kind as to write to me. 
Even before receiving their letters, I was well furnished with informa- 
tion respecting the condition and prospects of the college at Geneva, 
and it was, therefore in my power, to send an early answer to Messrs 
Clark and DeZeng, that I was prepared to accept the appointment 
which it was proposed to confer on me. The institution with which I 
am at present connected, must, from circumstances, be always limited 
in its sphere of operation, compared with what may be expected in 
reference to the college at Geneva. If I should be elected there, I 
shall contemplate an extensive field of useful and interesting labour. 

" Permit me, tho' late, to express my gratification that your travels 
in Europe have restored your health, and that you have returned in 
safety to resume your station of eminent dignity and usefulness. 

" I am, Rt. Revd. and dear sir, with sentiments of great respect 
" Your very obt. servant 

" J. Adams." 

The Rev. Evan M. Johnson won for himself such a 
unique position in Brooklyn that the following letter is 
worth placing on record. 

Bishop Hobart was unalterably opposed, as we have 



26 History of Trinity Church [1826- 

already seen, to the Masons taking any part in Church 
functions. 

" New-Town, L. I., July i8th 1826. 

" Right Rev. Sir, 

" I regreted not finding you in town when I last was there. My 
Brother R — communicated in a letter to me his conversation with 
yourself relative to laying the corner stone of the chapel in Brooklyn. 
I am extremely sorry Right Rev. Sir, that the procedure on that oc- 
casion did not meet your approbation and am doubly more so, if 
you consider that any personal slight was intended by me, in permit- 
ting the masons to perform that ceremony. I think, Right Rev. Sir, 
that this undertaking must be viewed in a different light from that of 
the ordinary proceedings of a congregation. I do not know that the 
plan will succeed. If it should fail and I cannot raise an Episcopal 
congregation I do not wish to do any act, which would be in the way 
of any other disposal of the Building. 

" Should the plan succeed, should a congregation be gathered, I 
never have thot, but in that case, to have a vestry organised, the 
chapel consecrated and to place the whole, like other churches under 
your Episcopal care. I know. Sir, the whole undertaking is novel ; it 
may be visionary; I am determined, let the expense and sacrifice be 
what it will, to make the trial. I should wish in all things to have your 
approbation and yet, considering the matter with reference to the other 
congregation, I have felt unwilling to ask of you at present the taking 
of any decided stand. 

" I learn by the papers that you will soon visit some of the churches 
on Long-Island. I hope. Right Rev. Sir the one to which I minister 
will be among the number. I will esteem it a favour if you will, at as 
early a day as may suit your convenience inform me of the time. I 
trust. Right Rev. Sir, you will give me credit, when I say, that if in 
some points of doctrine or policy I am compelled to differ with you 
in opinion, there is not a clergyman in Diocese more anxious and 
willing in all things to pay you a canonical obedience than your dutiful 
servant 

" Evan M. Johnson. 

" Right Rev. Bishop Hobart." 

The Rev. Henri Peneveyre, who had lately resigned 
the Church du St. Esprit gives the Bishop a chatty 



1826] Letter from Dr. P^neveyre 27 

account of his return home to Switzerland, his native 
country. 

" Lausanne, Switzerland, 
" August 25th, 1826. 
"Right Revd. and Dear Sir: 

" I have to apologize for my delaying so long before letting you 
hear of me. It was my duty, certainly, to write soon after my arrival 
in my country; but I have been so much engaged with my friends and 
relations, as well as in several excursions, that it proved impossible for 
me to find an earlier opportunity. I hope. Sir, you will be so much in- 
dulgent as to pardon my too long protraction. 

" I have taken care of all your orders, except the atlas which is still 
waiting for an opportunity for the mount of St. Bernard. With respect 
to the books for the Valleys of Pi^mont, I left them with the Revd. Mr. 
Claparede in Lyons, who promised me to forward them by an early and 
safe opportunity. Your pamphlet for Mr. Beasley in Havre had been 
taken by mistake in my trunk to Switzerland, but I have sent it to a 
friend in Paris who will forward it to Havre, free of expenses. 

" Now, Sir, I am happy to inform you of my safe arrival in the land 
of my forefathers, where I met with a kind brother, an excellent sister, 
and a number of good friends, who welcomed me very heartily; but their 
kindness cannot oblitterate the remembrance of the kind and valuable 
friends I left in New-York; their memory is still, and will ever be dear 
to my heart. 

" I did not meet Dr. Luscombe in Paris; he was upon an excursion 
in the country to perform his Episcopal duties. I saw but the son of 
that Gentleman, and he told me that his father being intended to visit 
Switzerland in August, he would probably call upon me in Lausanne: 
hereto however, I have not heard of him at all. 

" I preached but twice in this country, and there is very little 
probability of my being called to preach to any Episcopal congrega- 
tion, as on account of the disturbances caused by the methodists, 
lately intruded in Switzerland, our government has enforced the 
laws against the introduction of any new or foreign doctrine. An ex- 
ception may be granted in favor of foreigners only; they enjoy the 
liberty of their own worship, in their own language; as for me, would I 
attempt to raise an Episcopalian congregation, I should be considered 
either as a controvertist or a dissenter. Therefore I would rather 
choose to go back to New-York, than to attempt anything the conse- 
quences of which could be a contest with the rulers of my country; for 



28 History of Trinity Church [1826- 

I am certain that in the present circumstances such attempt, instead of 
contributing to the glory of God, would cause serious disturbances in 
the church. 

" It was a source of great pleasure for me and of gratitude to God, 
to find that the Clergy of Lausanne have guarded themselves against 
the contagion of Socinianism which has infected the Clergy of Geneva. 
This city which was called formerly the Rome of the Protestant World, 
is now a Babylon for infidelity. With the exception of a few, who have 
retained the orthodox faith, all the rest have adopted secretly the opin- 
ions of Socinians, which they have betrayed every ways, either in their 
new translation of the bible or the alteration of their Liturgy; so that 
one cannot guard too much against anything which comes from that 
quarter. 

" I was informed, when in Lyons, that a Clergyman of Geneva, 
called Mr. Defernex, had left this last city for New- York, with strong 
recommendations from General La Fayette; he is reported to be a very 
learned man, but a poor preacher. If so, he is not the man for the 
French Church du St. Esprit. 

"Were I not afraid of being too much indiscreet, and perhaps over- 
bold, I would request you very respectfully, Rt. Revd. Sir, to be so 
good as to remember me to my Revd. Bretheren, the Gentlemen of the 
Clergy in general, and above all of that of New- York: their kindness 
I will never forget, and their remembrance I will cherish to the last. 

" Please to accept for yourself, Right Revd. and dear Sir my best 
wishes and the protestation of my everlasting gratitude and sincere 
affection 

" Yours respectfully 

" Hri. P^neveyre, D.D." 

The following note of introduction is of double inter- 
est on account of the writer who gives the note, and also 
on account of the person introduced : 

" U. College, Sept. 23d 1826. 
"Right Rev. and Dear Sir, 

" I beg leave to introduce to you Mr. H. Potter who is about 
to enter your Theological Seminary. He is a brother of mine and 
one in whom I feel peculiar interest. I look forward with deep solici- 
tude to his future progress and tho' I have so often trespassed on 
your kindness I cannot forbear requesting on his behalf your kind 
consideration. 



1826] Books for Seminary Library 29 

" Occasions may arise when young men in his situation need pa- 
ternal admonition and counsel and I shall esteem it a great favour if 
on such occasions you will permit him to resort to you. 
" I am with sincere affection as ever 

" Yours 

" A. Potter. 

" The Right Rev. J. H. Hobart, 

" Hudson-Square." 

In a letter from " Paris, October 26th 1826," the Rev. 
Samuel F. Jarvis mentions the gift to the Seminary Li- 
brary through him by the Rev. Thomas Bowdler, Rector 
of Addington, near West Mailing, Kent, of standard Eng- 
lish theology including the works of Bishop Bull, Dr. 
Waterland, G. Ridley On the Holy Ghost, Matthew's 
Greek Testament, Critici Sacri, Macknight's Translations 
of the Epistles, Dr. Jackson's Works, and other books on 
Theology. He speaks also of the good Dr. Luscombe was 
doing on the Continent and encloses an estimate of the 
number of British residents in the various cities and large 
towns. He says that it is proposed to build a church for 
him in Paris, and refers to the interview with Mr. Canning 
on the subject. 

A memorandum of the Rev. William R. Whitting- 
ham, upon the books presented by the Rev. Thomas H. 
Home mentions the fact that Mr. James F. DePeyster as 
the agent of Dr. Jarvis paid duties of $26 upon them, 
and with other expenses the charges due to Mr. DePeyster 
were $28.47. -^^ application for the remission of duty on 
the ground that the Seminary was an incorporated literary 
institution was met by the Collector of the Port of New 
York with a refusal " on the ground that literary insti- 
tutions are entitled to exemption of duties only in the 
case of books ordered by them." The e.xtracts forming 
the memorandum are in a letter to the Rev. Henry U. 



30 History of Trinity Church [1827- 

Onderdonk, D.D., Secretary of the Standing Committee 
of the General Theological Seminary, March 5, 1827. 

The Scottish Bishops were much drawn towards Bishop 
Hobart, and this letter from the Bishop of Aberdeen is 
but one selected out of many : 

"Aberdeen 13th of Jan? 1827. 
"Right Revd. and dear Sir: 

" It was with very sincere pleasure that I received the other day 
a call from Mr. David Hadden of your city, a townsman of my own, 
but with whom I had no previous acquaintance, & who most kindly 
looked in upon me to say that he had left you and your family in 
excellent health, and, as usual, in full & active employment in the 
discharge of your manifold & highly important official duties. It 
was a grievous disappointment to your friends in Scotland, & to none 
more than to this family, to be denied the confidently anticipated 
pleasure of a visit from you, before you quitted our British Shores — 
and to the very last moment, until your departure was actually an- 
nounced, I cherished the hope of once more seeing you in Scotland, 
as you had never made good your promise of writing and informing 
either my brother or myself, what benefit your health had received 
from your continental residence, and from the relaxation which it 
afforded from the cares and toils of business. I am quite aware how 
much you must be occupied by unavoidable correspondence, & 
what little time you can have to bestow on mere letters of friendship, 
but a very few lines would have been most gratifying to us, and have 
prevented us from entertaining even a suspicion, that your Scottish 
friends no longer found a place in your regards, which I am confident 
is not the case. I cannot indeed acquit myself of blame & apparent 
ingratitude for not acknowledging, what I nevertheless assure you, 
were duly valued by me, your excellent selection of sacred Music, & 
two volumes of Sermons; and tho' the offer is far too late, yet I hope 
you will not disdain to accept my best thanks for these testimonies of 
your much esteemed friendship. I feel a very warm interest in the 
continued prosperity of your thriving branch of the Catholic Church, 
& regard its acts & Ministers with affection nothing short of frater- 
nal. But I greatly fear, since my Boston correspondent Dr. Jarvis left 
America, I cannot hope to receive any such interesting information 
respecting its ecclesiastical affairs, as I have of late years been favoured 
with thro' his kind attentions. I esteemed him indeed a most valua- 



1827] Letter from Bishop Skinner 31 

ble correspondent in that respect, & look forward with pleasure to a 
personal acquaintance, when he shall make good his promised visit to 
Scotland next Spring. 

" In regard to our own little church, no event has occurred of any 
importance, since the Consecration and Mission of Bp Luscombe. 
It is very gratifying to find that the cautious & prudent conduct of 
that good man is likely to realise all the benefits so fondly anticipated 
by some from the experiment: and in time, I would hope, very con- 
siderable advantages may accrue from his labours to the cause of pro- 
testant Episcopacy on the Continent of Europe; but in order to his 
success extreme caution & prudence seem requisite. 

" There was an intention of renewing, in the ensuing Session of 
parliament, the application for a public pecuniary grant towards the 
support of the Bishops & Clergy of our communion: and upon feel- 
ing our way a little among persons of influence we have met with 
considerable encouragement, but the aspect of the times & of our 
political relations with respect to Spain & Portugal is rather forbid- 
ding, & it now seems not a little doubtful whether it would be prudent 
in us to agitate our application at all, & whether we may not have a 
better chance of ultimate success by waiting for a more favourable 
season. 

" I doubt not but my Colleagues Bps Jolly and Torry have felt 
highly gratified by the mark of brotherly regard & attention bestowed 
on them by your Universities; we all indeed feel it as such, & most 
gratefully acknowledge the kindness. 

" Should a leisure moment ever fall in your way — a most rare 
occurrence I fear — need I say, what gratification I should feel in hear- 
ing particularly of your welfare & continued usefulness & happiness. 
For a most abundant portion of all these to yourself & family, & for 
many happy years, be assured of the hearty and fervent prayers of, my 
dear Sir, Your very faithful and aff'" 

" friend & brother, 

" W. S. Skinner. 

" My Wife and daughter make offer of their very kind remem- 
brance, as I am confident my brother at Forfar would gladly have 
done, had he known I was writing to Bishop Hobart." 

Mr. Key, famous as the writer of our stirring National 
Anthem, " The Star Spangled Banner," was an active and 
zealous Churchman of the Diocese of Maryland. He was 



32 History of Trinity Church [1827- 

a personal friend of Bishop Meade and other leaders of 
the Evangelical school. He was prominent in the Gen- 
eral Conventions of the American Church for a long 
series of years, and served as a member of the Committee 
on Hymns which prepared the collection of two hundred 
and twelve set forth in 1826. 

To this collection he contributed the well-known hymn, 
" Lord with Glowing Heart I 'd Praise Thee," which is 
retained in our present hymnal as No. 443. It has had 
a wide circulation and is deservedly a favorite. It has 
been styled by a competent hymnologist as " very genu- 
ine," and "as memorable a piece of work as 'The Star 
Spangled Banner.' " 

" Geo Town 
" Feby 4 — 27 
"Rev'^ & Dear Sir, 

" I had the pleasure of receiving )'Our letter yesterday, & as I have 
an opportunity of writing to Mr. Meade to morrow or the next day, & 
as I know it will be gratifying to him, I will enclose it to him. 

" The circumstance you mention about the first proposition from the 
House of Bishops, did create unfavorable impressions in some persons, 
but they were more suspicious persons than either Meade or myself. 
They were suggested to him, though I know not by whom. I should 
never have supposed that anything unfair was attempted by it. The 
frank and conciliatory course pursued by you would certainly have 
exonerated you from any share in the suspicion, even if it could have 
been entertained towards others. 

" I regret with you that the measures proposed & adopted were not 
received with unanimity and gratitude, as proofs that a spirit of har- 
mony and confidence was vouchsafed to the Church. 

" But I am thankful whenever I reflect upon the occurrences of our 
last meeting, for two things — One is that I have a far more favorable 
and (I truly believe) a far more just impression as to the religious char- 
acters of those I there met with, than I had entertained (as I candidly 
acknowledge) before — The other is that I believe you and others re- 
ceived the same gratification. We may still differ, (as I have no doubt 
we do), about many things ; but they are small, very small, indeed 
nothing compared with the great concerns in which we all agree, and 



1827] Letter from F. S. Key 33 



in which, I hope, we shall always endeavour to think that we do 
agree. 

" I have been looking for the hymns & supposed that some such dif- 
ficulty had occurred. 

"I have lately had an interesting letter from the Rev"! Mr. Horrel 
of our Church who moved out a few years ago to Missouri. — He has 
established a Congregation at St. Louis which is a very important 
station, & they have begun a Church, but are unable to finish it 
without calling for help. It is very desirable that our Church should 
have a respectable establishment in that growing State. Here we are, 
I fear, too poor to do much, if any thing, in their behalf. But you may 
have it in your power to send them aid. In my answer to him, I told 
him I would suggest it to you. 

" I know him well as a most excellent man, who, I am sure, will be 
a blessing to the people of that Country. 

" With sincere regard, 

" I am, truly yrs., 

"F. S. Kev." 

The work of the Rev. Thomas Horrel in St. Louis 
was effective and acceptable. This town was one of the 
early mission stations of the Domestic and Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society. A stipend was allowed to Mr. Horrel 
for five years, and in 1829 withdrawn, since " the Church 
may be considered as permanently established." 

The Bishop of South Carolina had been for some 
years before his elevation to the Episcopate the beloved 
Rector of Grace Church, New York City. He had been 
on very intimate terms with Bishop Hobart, and thus ex- 
pressed himself freely in his letters. 

The sudden death of his daughter in October, 1826, 
called him home from the General Convention of 1826 
which was held in Philadelphia. He received the 
formal sympathy of his brethren in the Episcopate 
through a Committee composed of Bishop Hobart and 
Bishop Croes. 

The following letter gives some particulars, otherwise 
unknown, of the previous discussion of the proposed 



34 History of Trinity Church [1827- 

changes in the Book of Common Prayer in the Conven- 
tion of 1826. 

The periodical mentioned is one then pubHshed in 
Charleston under the control of the Bishop, and entitled 
The Gospel Messenger. It continued several years and 
had not only a local but general circulation. The year of 
this letter is 1827. 

"Charleston, Feby 13. 
"Right Rev. & Dear Sir, 

" Your affectionate condolence in my sorrow has been affectionately 
& thankfully received. It has indeed, pleased God to deal with me 
most severely. My bereavement is bitter beyond any possibility of ex- 
pression. My daughter was the delight of my affections, my son the 
pride & confidence of all my hopes & prospects, as the father of a 
large and helpless family. 

" God has seen it good for me that all such too temporal sensibili- 
ties should be frustrated, and even give place to an extreme of 
parental anguish of heart. How I have been kept from utterly failing 
God knows. I have endeavoured to bear the burden he has seen fit 
to put upon me, and the effort to sustain myself has, I will hope, been 
blessed and seconded. The interest of life remains to me yet large, I 
was permitted to see & feel, in the obligations due my Diocess, my 
Parish, & my family — and I have struggled to meet its demands. 

" Occupation the most active and various, if not laborious, I have 
found next to prayer my best means of strength; and thus, my 
dear Sir, I am able to attend to the particular subject of your com- 
munication. I could in writing to you fill my paper even to over- 
running with the subject of my sorrows. For converse with those who 
have hearts to feel is a real relief to me. But I must not trouble you 
more, with things on which, if permitted I should weary even you. 

" You are perfectly right in your recollection of the conversation 
which passed between us at Dr. Wainwright's in reference to altera- 
tions in the Liturgy to be proposed, according to the impression which 
I have retained of it. 

" I not only had not any objection to the suggestion of alteration 
as to the office of Confirmation, the first particular in that interview 
which was adverted to, but even anticipated your communication of 
the sentiments with which you were affected respecting it. In refer- 
ence to the license to be given as to the lessons & Psalms, we were also 



1827] Letter from Bishop Bowen 35 

not at variance, although I had not as fully made up my mind as I 
have since that the alteration proposed in these particulars would be 
useful. I think it indeed desirable that some modification at any rate 
should be made of the Ministers' duty in their reading the Psalms & 
other Scriptures, and at present am under the impression that a new 
appointment of lessons, as the result of revision, in many instances 
would be the best plan, and the adoption into the Book of Common 
Prayer of a greater number than the present of short selections of 
Psalms, shorter than those we have now, any of which the Minister 
might be at liberty to use. 

" As to the license to omit the Litany except at certain times, I 
signified to you dislike of it, & I well recollect your saying you should 
be by no means so anxious for that yourself, as for other particulars. 
Indeed the alteration in the office of Confirmation, appeared to us the 
only one of them that was indispensably necessary; while we hoped 
the other might be found practicable without opposition or difficulty. 

" I regret that you should have been affected as you have by the 
article that appeared in the Messenger. The expression, ' undignified,' 
was not meant to qualify the conduct of the Bishops but the whole 
proceeding as a measure of the Convention should it become so. So 
the writer of it assures me. He is a very high Chhman, and I saw 
the piece before it was given for insertion. INIy sentiments as differing 
from those of the writer were frankly expressed; but not considering 
the manner of the thing offensive, I expressed a willingness that it 
should be published lest I should be charged with controlling the 
course of opinion relative to this subject. 

"I had intended, at our Convention, which has just adjourned, to 
express myself fully on the subject of the proposed alterations, had 
the Journal been received, but as it had not been, the want of authen- 
tic communication of them was good reason for saying nothing about 
them. 

" I shall, whenever occasion is duly afforded advocate the measure 
as to the 3 particulars of which I now understand it to consist. We 
differ only on one point. 

" The 8th Article of the Constitution, and the 44th Canon compared, 
completely & clearly satisfy me that the State Conventions may, if 
they see fit, take the alterations under consideration, and express by 
instructions to their Delegates to the Gen Con" their sense as to their 
adoption or rejection. 

" I think with you, that the probability is against their adoption in 
any shape. 



36 History of Trinity Church [1827- 

" It is taken for granted by a numerous party opposed to them, that 
they now have the license of necessity for abbreviation or garbling to 
any extent they please. They would not have this restrained by legal 
definition, and they with some who are excellent Chmen, but who 
know not enough practically & experimentally of the grounds on 
which we wish such alterations, will be a majority against their 
adoption. 

" I think it probable y' pastoral letter will have effect out of y' 
diocese, but fear that still the majority will be of another mind than 
we. 

" With our best regards to your excellent Mrs. H., and my fervent 
prayer that you may always be exempted from any such affliction as 
that under which we are labouring, 
" I remain, 

" Affectionately & respec':' 

" Y' Friend & B' 

" N. BOWEN. 

" Bishop Hobart." 

This frank letter of Dr. Meade, a leader of the Evan- 
gelical party and afterward the Bishop of Virginia, will be 
read with interest. It shows that, while opinions of the 
merits of the proposed liberty in the use of the Book of 
Common Prayer were largely adverse, there were some 
who appreciated the motive which prompted Bishop Ho- 
bart's resolution and arguments. Expressions similar to 
those of Dr. Meade were used by writers in our own day 
previous to the revision of 1892. 

" Millwood, Frederick county, 
" Virginia, 

" February 22, 1827. 
"Right Rev" and dear Sir, 

" I received a few days since from my friend Mr. Key a letter 
enclosing one from yourself which appears to be designed for us both. 
I should be wanting in common courtesy as well as Christian feeling 
not to acknowledge the same, especially as it states that you would 
have written to myself had you known my direction. It is true as 
stated to you by Judge Emot that a very unpleasant impression was 
made upon me by the manner in which the Canon relative to the Ante 



1827] Letter from Bishop Meade 37 



Communion service was introduced. It was the more painful not only 
because unexpected after what had passed between us, but because it 
fell upon a heart softened by the assurance that a spirit of conciliation 
was to be the ruling spirit of the Convention. I was previously pre- 
pared to rejoice in the proposition of the Bishops because the subject 
had for the last six months, in a very unusual manner occupied my 
thoughts & encited my prayers. I earnestly desired & could not but 
believe that some method might & would be devised to put a stop to a 
dispute which I had long considered as disgraceful to the Church & 
prejudicial to religion. I had almost come to a conclusion to bring 
forward some proposition myself if no one else would. At any rate I 
had determined (as I mentioned to you in New York) to speak of it to 
Bishop White, well knowing his sentiments on the subject, & urge him 
to do this last act of kindness to the Church. The transactions of the 
Philadelphia Convention & certain intimations thrown out (as I was 
informed) and indeed Bishop White's address would have prevented 
me, however, for reasons sufficiently obvious. It was therefore, with 
equal pleasure and surprise that I found from yourself and Bishop 
Croes, that other heads and hearts had been engaged in the same 
work, and must we not believe under the influence of one spirit. The 
pleasure I felt was for a time suspended by the Canon above mentioned 
but the readiness with which the desired alteration was made at once 
restored me to my first pleasing assurance. It gives me additional 
pleasure to learn that yourself was the author of the change. At the 
very moment of receiving your letter I was engaged in reviewing the 
Psalms & lessons for Sunday in order to determine my opinion as to 
the changes proposed. The result as to the Psalms is a decided con- 
viction that the plan proposed (and which was advocated by Bishop 
White & others in the first Convention) is the best & only good one. 

" I am only surprised that I was never before made sensible of the 
great imperfection of the present plan for the general use of the 
Church. Let any read over the Psalms & strike out those which are 
peculiar to David's state of mind under his troubles and which in 
their present translation at least contain passages which cannot be edi- 
fying in public worship, those also which are peculiar to the Jewish 
nation & to the ancient times, & are not (by comparison at least) suit- 
able for Christian worship, and he will find the number very much re- 
duced. Let us also consider that since four fifths of our congregations 
are in the country or in villages where there is only one service, of 
course one half of the Psalms are never read to them at all ; again 
some of the morning divisions contain certain imprecatory passages 



38 History of Trinity Church [1827- 

which we do not like to read, and therefore turn to a selection by which 
means we lose some of the best psalms which are contained in those 
same divisions & and are also led to the undue use of the selections 
especially of a few of the shortest of them. Lastly two fifths of the 
Psalms at least of the Morning Psalms are read over twice or three 
times in the year, and it often happens these are among the most in- 
different or unsuitable. Surely any minister might do better than 
this for himself & make a more profitable use of the Psalms. 

" As to the lessons for Sunday & holy days, certainly many of them 
might be innocently, or profitably abridged. Witness the 6th Chap- 
ter of St. John's Gospel and particularly the 25th of St. Matthew, the 
whole of which is appointed to be read at one lesson whereas it consists 
of three distinct parables, the first of which is too short but the other 
two of sufficient length for separate lessons & which read separately 
would in my opinion make a deeper impression than if all three were 
read together. So far as they go I am pleased with the alterations & 
cannot see the evil that some seem to apprehend from them. I think, 
however, that it would be very desirable to abridge the service on Com- 
munion days by permitting the omission of the Litany on such occa- 
sions. This is more necessary in Country Congregations because all 
persons young & old, whether communicants or not must remain in the 
Church during celebrations or else be tempted to spend the time of 
waiting for their friends improperly around the Church. 

" It cannot be proper to use a lengthened service before a mixed 
assembly of Children and irreligious persons who are wishing it over. 
I hope such alternative will yet be made or at least silently permitted. 
Upon the whole I am more & more deeply convinced that if some 
arrangement suitable to the varying circumstances of the Church & 
according with the general opinion as to its undue length is not made a 
heavy guilt will rest upon us. Nothing can prevent it but pride, obsti- 
nacy, prejudice & uncharitableness, and if we continue to bite &: devour 
one another we must expect to be consumed & to be made a laughing- 
stock to our enemies which malign us. I have seen the objections of 
the Recorder & Gospel Messenger & should like to see the defence in 
the Christian Journal. If you can procure a copy you would oblige me 
by forwarding it to me. I have said nothing as to the proposed change 
in the Confirmation service, not having examined it as I wish & intend 
to do. 

" It seems to be good so far as it goes but I could most heartily 
wish that another Prayer on the same plan were introduced into the 
Baptismal service & allowed to be used in place of that which I never 



1827] The Prayer Book Societies 39 

use without pain because its plain literal meaning contradicts my 
belief. 

" The explanation afforded by the proposed prayer in the Con- 
firmation office is certainly a help & relief. 

" I have thus, my dear Sir, freely laid before you my sentiments as 
to the subjects now agitating the Church. I sincerely hope for a 
favourable issue, and that a fruitful cause of most unchristian strife 
may thus be removed. These things are not the faith for which we are 
bound earnestly to contend. 

" Permit me in conclusion to say that altho' I am not a High 
Churchman according to the standard you erect, yet my conviction of 
the excellency & scriptural character of the Episcopal Church and my 
attachment to her doctrines, discipline & worship will I trust ever 
make me desirous to know & do what will promote her real welfare. 

" Sincerely hoping that you may succeed in infusing the same sen- 
timents which you hold on the subject before into those who usually 
agree with you but now differ from you & that you may enjoy the 
satisfaction of seeing much good arise from your exertions, 
" I remain with the best wishes & prayers, 

"Yours respectfully & affectionately, 

"William Meade." 

At this time there was a strong conviction among 
Churchmen in New York that there was no need of two 
Prayer Book societies. The New York Bible and Com- 
mon Prayer Book Society was estabhshed in 1809; the 
Auxiliary New York Bible and Common Prayer Book So- 
ciety was founded in 18 16, and obtained an act incorporat- 
ing it for a period of twenty years. At the expiration of 
that term the two societies were merged under the common 
title of the New York Bible and Common Prayer Book 
Society, which society was incorporated April 22, 1841. 

"New York, February 26, 1827. 
"Sir, 

" I beg leave to call the attention of the New York Bible and 
Common Prayer book Society to the following Preamble and Resolu- 
tions adopted at a meeting of the Board of Managers of the Auxiliary 
New York Bible & Common prayer book Society held on the 20th 
instant. 



40 History of Trinity Church [1827- 

" ' Whereas, it has been unofficially represented to this Board that a 
proposition for uniting this Society with the New York Bible and Com- 
mon Prayer book Society would in all probability be favourably re- 
ceived by the Managers of that Institution — Therefore Resolved that a 
Committee of three be appointed of whom the President shall be one to 
confer with a similar Committee to be appointed by the Managers of 
the New York Bible & Common Prayer Book Society. 

" ' Resolved, that it shall be the duty of the President of this, to ap- 
prise the President of that Society of the appointment of this Commit- 
tee and to request the appointment of a like Committee on their part. 

" ' Resolved, that it shall be the duty of this when met in consultation 
with the other Committee to ascertain precisely the terms on which a 
union can be effected and then to call a meeting of the Board of Man- 
agers to whom they shall submit their Report for further instructions. 

" ' Resolved, that it shall also be the duty of this Committee to ascer- 
tain and report to the Board at the same time, what alteration in our 
act of Incorporation will be necessary in case such union should take 
place.' 

" Messrs. Bradish & Brown in conjunction with tlie President were 
appointed a Committee for that purpose. 
" I am Respect*^ 

" Your ob. Ser' 

" Wm. E. Dunscomb 
" Pres' Aux?- N. Y. B. & C. P. Book Socy 

" Pres' B. & P. B. Socy N. Y." 

At a meeting of the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, 
Detroit, Michigan Territory, March 24, 1827, it was 

" Resolved, that it would be most gratifying to the Vestry of St. 
Paul's Church, Detroit, to receive a visit from the Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Hobart in the course of the ensuing summer; and that their wishes on 
the subject to be communicated to him at an early date by the Rector 
of this Church. 

" A true copy from the Records. 

" Jos. W. TORREY, 

" Sec*! " 

Detroit, March 26* 1827. 
" Right Rev. and dear Sir, 

" I am very happy in being the medium of expressing to you the 
desire of the Vestry of the Church in this city, and we should greatly 



1S27] Letter from Richard F. Cadle 41 



rejoice to see you in this distant settlement. The interests of the infant 
congregation which I serve would be much promoted by your presence 
& counsels. I think it will soon be in our power to commence the 
building of a Church. 

" If you have no objections, may I solicit the favour of your ad- 
ministering Confirmation in this place. There are not perhaps many 
persons who would present themselves as candidates for that rite, but 
it would be a gratification to me for the few that might offer to have 
the benefit of it. In the meantime I will make particular inquiries on 
this subject, and endeavour to prepare them for its reception, so that 
no obstacle may exist in their want of due consideration of its nature 
& importance. 

" I have understood that a steam boat will run to Green Bay this 
summer, which will render the time of passage inconsiderable, although 
the distance from Detroit is about five hundred miles. A treaty will 
be held there in the course of two or three months by Gov. Cass & 
some other Commissioners with the Indian tribes. 

" With the earnest hope of seeing you shortly in Michigan, 
" I remain Respectfully & Affec'' yours, 

" Richard F. Cadle. 

"Right Rev. John H. Hobart, D.D." 



CHAPTER II. 

HOBART CORRESPONDENCE. 
PART VIII. FROM MAY, 1 82 7, TO HIS DEATH. 

Letter from the Rev. Dr. Beach — From Colonel Troup on St. John's Park — The Rev. 
John L. Blake on The American Pulpit of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 

United States — The Rev. C. Griffin Requesting Information on New York Church Af- 
fairs before and after the Revolution — The Rev. Edward K. Fowler on the Omission 
of the Ante-Communion Service — Dr. J. Smyth Rogers on Ministrations to Scat- 
tered Church Families — Bishop Inglis — The Rev. H. U. Onderdonk on his Successor 
at Brooklyn — And on the Successor to Dr. Peneveyre at the Church du St. Esprit — 
Correspondence with the Bishops of Nova Scotia and Quebec on the Status of the 
American Clergy — The Rev. Horatio Potter — The Rev. G. W. Doane — The Rev. 
B. T. Onderdonk — On the Church at Corlear's Hook — Bishop Hobart on the General 
Sunday-School Union — Letter from the Rev. W. R. Whittingham on the Sunday- 
School Union — Bishop Hobart to the Rev. H. H. Norris — From the Rev. Dr. Lacey 
on The Clergyman' s Companion — From Mr. Floyd Smith on the Establishment of 
the Protestant Episcopal Press — The Rev. J. Adams on his Resignation of the Presi- 
dency of Geneva College— Mr. Trowbridge on the Consecration of St. Paul's Church, 
Detroit — Commodore Chauncey on the Launching of the Fairfield — Dr. MacNeven 
on the Emmet Monument — The Rev. L. P. Bayard Asking for an Orthodox Trinity 
Church Surplice — Mr. L. Huntington Young on the Homiletic Monthly — The Rev. 
John Hopkins on his Election to St. Stephen's Church, New York — Bishop Hobart 
Declines an Invitation to a Public Dinner at Tammany Hall — Thomas Swords on 
the Establishment of the Protestant Episcopal Press — The Rev. Eleazar Williams on 
his Work among the Oneidas — Messrs. T. and J. Swords on the Unfair Rivalry of the 
Episcopal Press— Bishop Brownell on his Tour of the Southwest — The Rev. J. C. 
Rudd on the Name of the Church — On Geneva College, and on the Coming Visit of 
the Bishop to Rochester — Daniel W. Kissam on Sad Plight of Church at Huntington 
— Last Letter from the Rev. L. S. Ives to the Bishop. 

THE Rev. Dr. Beach served the Parish so well and so 
loyally for so many years that what is probably 
his last communication to Bishop Hobart is worthy of 
preservation. 

Dr. Beach was the link between the old order and the 
new. He had been ordained in England, and had been 



1827] Letter from Dr. Beach 43 

a missionary in New Jersey of the S. P. G., and, as we 
have already mentioned, he continued the wise administra- 
tive poHcy of Bishop Provoost under the feeble Rector- 
ship of Bishop Moore, and only resigned to make way for 
the appointment of Bishop Hobart as Assistant Rector. 

" Raritax i6th May 1827. 
" Right Reverend & dear S^ 

" I have heard of the appointment of the Rev'? H. Underdonk to 
be Ass! Bishop of the Dioces of Pennsilvania; in case of his acceptance 
St. Ann's Church at Brooklyn will become vacant ; it would be very 
agreeable to me to have Mr. Carter thought of as his Successor, indeed 
there is no earthly good that would so sooth the few days remaining for 
me on this side the grave, as having my daughter & her family near 
me ; & being relieved from the anxiety I feel on account of the climate 
in which they now live; will you as far as is consistent with your own 
judgment aid me in this my earnest wish ? 

" This is probably the only request of a similar nature I shall ever 
make to an earthly friend. I trust you will excuse the liberty of mak- 
ing it to you. 

" I take this opportunity to thank you for the Pamphlets you was 
so kind as to send me, I have read them with attention, & with re- 
gret & surprise at the acrimonious spirit evinced by the English 
Reviewer. 

"With unabated affection for yourself & dear Mrs. Hobart, I 
am. Right Reverend and dear Sir, 

"your long attach '' 

& sincere Friend 

" .\br"' Beach " 

Dr. Beach died September 14, 1828 aged eighty-eight. 
The following communication refers to the adornment 
of St. John's Park by the Corporation. 

" Hudson Square 23rd May 1827. 
" Dear Sir: 

" The Proprietors of lots fronting on the Park, in Hudson Square, 
held a general meeting last night, and, with great unanimity, adopted 
the necessary measures for carrying into effect the objects contem- 
plated by the deed lately executed by the Corporation of Trinity 
Church. 



44 History of Trinity Church [1827- 

" The Committee, charged with the execution of these measures, 
consists of two Proprietors living on each side of the Square, with the 
addition of such person, to represent the interests of the Church, as the 
Vestry shall for that purpose appoint. 

" The meeting were desirous of appointing you the additional mem- 
ber; but I expressed a doubt whether you would consider it proper to 
act, as a member of the Committee, without being associated with a 
Layman also representing the Church interest and to be appointed by 
the Vestry. And, on this suggestion, the meeting, thinking that two 
additional members would make the Committee rather too large, 
resolved to have but one person to represent the Church, and to refer 
his appointment to the Vestry. 

" I communicate, as Chairman of the meeting, this account of their 
proceedings; and I beg leave to request you to oblige the meeting by 
laying the account before the Vestry at their next ineeting. 

" With sentiments of the most perfect esteem, I remain. Dear 
Sir, 

" Your humble servant 

" RoBT. Troup. 

" The Right Revd. 

Bishop Hobart." 

In May, 1827, the Rev. John L. Blake, of Boston, an- 
nounced to Bishop Hobart his intention of publishing 
The America7i Pulpit of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
in the United States. It was to be an octavo of twenty- 
four pages and issued monthly. For it he requests 
Bishop Hobart's sermon at the Institution of Professor 
Potter as Rector of St. Paul's Church, Boston. 

On July 20, 1827, the Rev. C. Griffin, an English 
clergyman in Halifax, wrote requesting information con- 
cerning 

" certain pamphlets & other papers relating to Church affairs published 
before the Revolution." 

He was especially anxious 

" to collect information relative to the state of Church affairs in New 
York &c., during the troubles occasioned by the revolution, when the 



1827] Letter from Edward K. Fowler 45 

Rev. Mr. Inglis who had been a missionary at Dover in Pennsylvania, 
was Rector of Trinity Church at New York, and afterwards Bishop 
of Nova Scotia, where he died in i8i5. Reports say that he was a 
native of Ireland and began his career in America as an itinerant 
schoolmaster. While at New York he was remarkable for changing 
sides adapting his doctrines to the necessities of time and place. All 
this and much more appears to have been set forth in a Pamphlet 
complaining of the proceedings of 55 associated loyalists printed in 
New York more than forty years ago. The copy in my possession is 
without a title and many other pages and much torn & defaced." 

The pamphlets desired were : Dr. Mayhew's " Ob- 
servations on the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel," 1730; Dr. Apthorp's "Answer," 1750; Dr. 
Mayhew's " Remarks on an Anonymous Tract," circa 
1 750 ; Dr. Apthorp's " Review of Dr. Mayhew's ' Re- 
marks '"; Bishop's "New England Judged"; the Rev. 
Noah Hobart's "First Serious Address"; Hobart's "Sec- 
ond Serious Address"; Beach's "First Address in Vindi- 
cation of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts," 1749; Beach's "Second Address," 1751 ; 
other pamphlets and papers in answer to Archbishop 
Seeker; a pamphlet published against the 55 Associated 
Loyalists in Nova Scotia, printed in New York about 
I 787, the author said to be a clergyman. 

This next letter, from a worthy and laborious mission- 
ary who spent his life in small and almost unknown parishes 
and missions, and died at Monticello, Sullivan County, 
after an incumbency of nearly fifty years, shows the prac- 
tical difficulties of the "full morning service": 

" June 10, 1827. 
" Rt. Rev. & Dear Sir, 

" Knowing the desire of my Bishop & other chief ministers to have 
the Ante Communion service read every Sunday, I have ever since my 
ordination regularly performed it, but must say that it is now with me 
almost impracticable; for the two last Sundays I have curtailed the 
lessons; this is some little relief, but not sufficient; when I tell you 



46 History of Trinity Church [1827 

that I am at this moment full of pain from the exertions of Sunday, 
you will readily perceive that it is necessary that I should shorten the 
morning service by the omission of the Ante Communion. The ru- 
brick with regard to this service is considered by some to be of doubt- 
ful construction & therefore has been taken advantage of. 

" This, however, is not my disposition, I am willing & wish to be 
regular in its performance, and yet at the same time it is injuring me. 

" Do you not think I would be justified in omitting it ? The ser- 
vices of the Church here are well attended, on last Sunday there were 
both morning & evening more than the house in which I preached 
could contain. The prosperity of the Church depends more upon our 
receiving the missionary stipend, with this I shall be barely able to 
live, without it I cannot; and therefore I shall be under the painful 
necessity of returning to my friends for support. The sooner you 
reply to this letter the better, for we have in contemplation the build- 
ing of a new Church, the accomplishing of which requires our im- 
mediate exertions, as the Presbyterians are becoming paralysed in 
their attempts to keep their minister owing to their differing among 
themselves. 

"Your Obedient Servant, 

"Edward K. Fowler. 

" Rt. R° Hobart." 

Churchmen scattered throughout the State of New 
York were heartened by the Bishop's unflagging zeal, 
and requests came to him from every direction for the 
establishment of the ministrations of the Church. This 
is a typical appeal : 

" Rt. Rev? Bp. Hobart 
" Dear Sir 

"Permit me to remind you of your promise to attend to the 
wants of one of the villages within your Diocess, & to solicit you to 
visit it, in your approaching tour thro' the State: Georgetown, Madison 
County, has been represented, as in the most destitute situation, in 
respect of religious advantages — at least to those connected with our 
Church : a single fact from among many that have been mentioned, will 
strikingly illustrate, the spiritual necessities of that part of the country; 
a few months since Mr. Stephen Hoffman, (a gentleman vvho, I believe 
was not unknown to you when he resided a few miles from this city) 
was obliged to send upwards of 40 miles for a clergyman to baptize his 



1828] Letters from Bishop Inglis 47 

child. It is stated that, there are several Episcopal families in that 
vicinity, who gladly would exert themselves to aid in the support of 
the regular ministration of the services. Mrs. Ann Moore, an aunt of 
my mother, who is now living with Mr. Hoffman, has repeatedly 
written to urge us to state to you their situation, & to beg that if 
possible, some provision may be made for their relief: she expresses 
an anxious hope that you may visit that town, & extend your ride to 
Mr Hoffman's place, which is within a few miles of the village. 
" I am Dear Sir 

" Respectfully 

"Your Obt Servt 
" Tuesday ) " J. Smyth Rogers 

June 27 " ) 

There is no record in the Journals of Bishop Hobart 
ever visiting Georgetown. The Rev. Joseph B. Youngs, 
deacon, missionary at Perryville, Madison County, reports 
in 1827 : 

" In the course of the summer past, I have visited the south part 
of the County twice, where I found a number of families that had 
formerly belonged to the Church, and who have lived years without 
enjoying the privileges of her service. On my last visit the Rev. 
Mr. Wheeler accompanied me to Georgetown and Lebanon where I 
preached to a small but respectable congregation after which we bap- 
tised three children, and Mr. Wheeler administered the Communion 
to the scattered flock who had collected for that purpose." ' 

The Rev. Russel Wheeler was Rector of Zion Church, 
Butternuts, and St. Andrew's, New Berlin. 

This fixes the probable date of the letter from Dr. 
Rogers, who was a well-known physician of New York 
City, as June 27, 1827. 

The two follovying letters from Bishop Inglis are of 
peculiar interest, as exhibiting the warm friendship be- 
tween the two Bishops. 

" Philadelphia, July 16. 1828. 
" My Dear Bishop, 

" Your letter of the 8th was handed to me by our dear Bishop 
White upon my return from Washington. You cannot doubt that I 

' Journal, 1827, p. 56. 



48 History of Trinity Church [1828- 

have every feeling on the score of your duty that you would wish me 
to cherish, and I would readily sacrifice every private gratification in 
preference to an interference with the public claims upon you. But 
at the same time I must express an ardent hope that you may find it 
practicable to adhere to our proposed plan. Of the thousand things 
we have to talk about, very few have yet been mentioned, and inde- 
pendently of this, the pleasure to which I had looked forward in 
your society from New York to Niagara cannot be yielded without a 
struggle. 

" We consider ourselves very heroic in having withstood an engag- 
ing party that was made or proposed by the Swedish Minister for a 
visit to Mount Vernon, because it would have detained us another day 
at Washington, and another for a visit to Mr. Carroll, because that 
would have required another day at Baltimore. I think I may confi- 
dently say that we shall be ready to leave New York for the Northern 
Tour on Monday the 28th or certainly the following day, if that can 
be made consistent with your arrangements. 

"We shall try to quit this place for Long Branch tomorrow, and 
hope to be in New York on Monday, Deo volente. 

" Many thanks for what you say on the Snug Harbour matter. 
" Your very affectionate Brother, 

" John Nova Scotia. 

" Kind remembrances around you. 

"The Right Reverend 
"The Bishop of New York." 



" New York, Friday 
"July 2Sth 1828. 
" My dear Bishop, 

" I have greatly regretted that I have not seen you, and still more 
regret the cause of my disappointment. I have been uneasy lest the 
delays we propose to make in going up the River should be tedious and 
perhaps inconvenient to you — and this uneasiness is increased by the 
sickness in your family, I must therefore beg, that if it will be more 
convenient to yourself to remain here till Monday August 4th and join 
us at Albany, you will adopt that plan, for although I am unwilling to 
lose an hour of your society, I am still more unwilling to expose you to 
inconvenience or delays that may be irksome, unless you can continue 
to weave a little duty among them. 



1827] Letter from H. U. Onderdonk 49 

" Mr. Elmendorf will be our escort to Albany, if it is more con- 
venient to you to remain here, till the 4th of August. 

" Yours with every wish for the recovery of your child, and with 
much regard and affection 

" John Nova Scotia. 

"Right Revd Bishop of New York." 

Mr. Mcllvaine was not a persona grata either to 
Bishop Hobart or to the Assistant Bishop-Elect of Penn- 
sylvania, and consequently the latter did not hesitate to 
endeavor to prevent Mr. Mcllvaine from succeeding him 
in his Brooklyn parish. 

"July 23rd 1827. 
" My Dear Sir 

" In a note I sent you sometime since, I mentioned that I had, at 
Cuming's request, written to Mr. Sam' I. Andrews, of Roch' respecting 
Mcllvaine, — Mr. A. wrote me some days since that he had shown my 
letter to .\tkinson, — & to-day I learn by a letter from Cuming that he 
has shown it to Mcllvaine, who has taken a copy. I remember having 
been cautious in writing, tho' I certainly had no tho't of its being ex- 
hibited. The amount of it was (as I recollect), that as it was rumoured 
that McI. was not liked at Georgetown & West Point on account of 
being dogmatic, I would recommend to Mr. A. to make enquiries at 
those places respecting him, — my advice being grounded on my ac- 
quaintance with Mr. Andrews, & on the part I had formerly taken in 
the chh affairs of Roch', — the chief motive however being to prevent, 
on your ace-, the Settlement of McI. there, — a'id hoping to have him 
defeated in both Brook^ & Roch-. 

" I have no copy of my letter, & cannot answer for every word^ but 
am confident as to its general tenour. — Cuming expresses his total dis- 
appointment in the reliance he has placed in Mr. Andrews, — the son 
of an old Conn- clergyman: — & one too, I believe, who went to Nova 
Scotia after the Revolution: McI. may make a noise about my having 
mentioned these rumours respecting him at both Brook- & Roch-, call 
it persecution. I am half sick with mortification. 

" Yours truly, 

" H. U. Onderdonk. 

"(Rt: Rev: Bishop Hobart)" 



50 History of Trinity Church [1827- 

The following letter was evidently written after Mr. 
Onderdonk's election as Assistant Bishop of Pennsylvania. 
It is undated, but was written probably in the beginning 
of October, 1827. 

" Saturday night 
" Dear Sir 

" I enclose you a letter of Mr. Cuming's, just received. I have 
written to him, that it would not be prudent to have a rival to McI. on 
the same day, lest it look like too glaring opposition, and lest McI. 
should surpass him in eloquence, that Sellon will not do, & Doane will 
not probably go to Rochester, & if we can defeat McI. in both Roch' & 
Brook'", it will materially diminish his fame, and perhaps his party, 
may drop him. 

" Is it not highly important to have a clergyman sent on to Roch' 
if possible & very soon ? 

" My people are prepared not to like McI. to-morrow. They are 
also in a good train to concentrate on O. Clark. 

" Yours truly 

" H. U. Onderdonk " 

The return of Dr. Henri Peneveyre to Switzerland 
left a vacancy in " I'Eglise du Saint Esprit," the ancient 
Huguenot Church which conformed to the Church in 
America early in the nineteenth century. Dr. Onder- 
donk explains the canonical difficulties encountered in or- 
daining his successor, and the letter of Bishop Stewart 
shows the method proposed for overcoming them. Mr. 
Verren finally was made deacon by Bishop Hobart in 
Trinity Church, New York, on Wednesday, October i, 
1828. 

" New York, Sept. 5, 1827, 
" My dear Bishop : 

" I fear you think me very remiss ; but indeed the time has passed 
since Saturday in such an endless succession and pressure of engage- 
ments, that I could hardly think of one half that I had to do. I how- 
ever, satisfied myself as soon as I could, by looking at the records of 
the Committee, that there is no candidate recommended, whose resi- 



1827] Letter from B. T. Onderdonk 51 

dence you will reach agreeably to the printed schedule of your visita- 
tion, before a letter written any time this week will be received. The 
only names I find on the records of the Committee as Deacons recom- 
mended for Priests' Orders for several months past, are those of 
Messrs. Weber, M'Carty, W. H. Adams, and J. A. Clark. 

" 1 know of nothing new here in ecclesiastical matters, except the 
arrival of the new French Clergyman, the Rev. Anthony Verren. His 
Testimonials are very ample and are in Mr. Berrian's hands to be laid 
before the Standing Committee. The gentlemen of the Vestry of that 
church are anxious that his ordination should take place as soon after 
your return as possible. He has been regularly ordained on the prin- 
ciples of the French Reformed Church. He is a young man about 25 
years of age and of very prepossessing appearance. His countenance 
and demeanour give evidence of great ingeniousness and amiability of 
character ; and his testimonials show him to have been held at home 
in more than ordinary respect and affection. He has some knowledge 
of English, and I will endeavour to call his attention, by reading and 
conversation, to the distinctive points in the principles of our Church. 

" I had written nearly thus far when the 5th Canon of the General 
Convention of 1820 all at once came into my mind. It requires resi- 
dence of one year in the United States, before a person not a citizen 
can be ordained. The Canon surely could not have had the case of a 
Church like St. Esprit, where only a foreigner can officiate, in view, 
but only ordinary cases in which imposition may be practiced upon us 
by intriguing foreigners. A case like this where a call is given to an 
individual of another nation to accept of a particular situation, 
grounded on ample evidence of character, and he comes for that spe- 
cific purpose, with all the Canonical Testimonials, must be widely dif- 
ferent from the cases against which the convention wished to guard, 
and yet the Canon literally is binding in this case. The delay, how- 
ever, would be a heavy disappointment to all parties concerned and 
serious injury to that parish inasmuch as no American can be its pastor. 
The unusual efforts also now making by the Papists are a strong rea- 
son for restoring as soon as possible, a French protestant service. The 
case will, of course. Right Rev. Sir, be fully and fairly considered by 
you. Your just indulgence will not suffer me to hesitate in taking the 
liberty of making two suggestions which at the moment have presented 
themselves to my mind. One is that on the ground of its being ob- 
viously a case not within the design of the Canon, which indeed 
if such were its design, might as well destroy at once all foreign 
Churches in our Communion, its literal application might be set aside 



52 History of Trinity Church [1827- 

upon the unanimously expressed opinion of all the Bishops acting by 
the advice of their respective Counsels, and the Standing Committees 
where there are no Bishops. This to be the ground of the apology to 
the next General Convention for the violation of one of its Canons, 
when there can be no doubt there will be a qualification of this Canon 
in the case of foreign Churches necessarily requiring foreign pastors. 
Secondly, might not the Bishop of Quebec at your request be prevailed 
on to ordain Mr. Verren. He might then immediately officiate in St. 
Esprit ; although by the 36th Canon of 1808 he could not become its 
settled minister until at least one year's residence in this country. Will 
you allow me, Rt. Rev. Sir, to ask the favour of such observations in 
reply as your leisure will admit, and as soon as will comport with your 
convenience ? The bearing of the Canon of 1820 is I believe in no 
one's mind but my own. And if you think that the difficulty can in any 
way be surmounted I should be glad to be able to say so as soon as the 
difficulty itself may become known. In so multitudinous population 
as we have the performance of our services in what may be considered 
as almost a universal language may perhaps be considered a matter of 
interest to our Church at large. 

" Very respectfully and sincerely, I remain, Dear Sir, 
" Your affectionate son in the Gospel, 

" Benj" T. Onderdonk." 

Superscribed : 

" To THE Right Rev: 

"John H. Hobart, D.D. 
" Care of Mr. William Tuttle, 

" Windham, Greene County, New York. 
" To be delivered immediately or forwarded if ) 
the Bishop should have left Windham." ) 

"Quebec, Sept' 26, 1827. 
" My dear Bishop, 

" It will always give me pleasure to consult your wishes, and to 
promote the interests of the Church in your Diocese as far as I can, 
but I am of opinion that my powers of ordination do not extend to my 
dispensing with the oath of the King's Supremacy and subscription to 
the articles the 36th Canon required of all persons admitted into holy 
Orders in the Church of England. Some of these conditions I con- 
clude a foreigner c"* not well come under. The Archd" of Quebec 
has written to Dr. Onderdonk & stated our various difficulties on the 
subject. 



1827] Correspondence on American Orders 53 

" By the Act Chap. 35 George 3.24, I perceive that the B^ of Lon- 
don or any other B"" appointed by him, is empowered to ordain a 
foreigner without his taking the oath of allegiance. I have requested 
the B"" of London to extend this power to me, & to favor me with 
information with regard to the present case according to his ability & 
judgment. Enclosed I send you my letter to him, which you will have 
the goodness to forward and I shall without delay send a duplicate via 
the River St. Lawrence. I trust I need not add anything to assure you 
of my sincere desire to comply with your wishes as far as lies in my 
power. 

" I am, my dear Bishop, 

"Your faithful and affect" Brother, 

" C. J. Quebec. 

" I have left the enclosed letter open and I request you to read it." 

Inscribed 

" The Right Reverend 
" Bishop Hobart, 

" New York." 

"Quebec, Septem' 27, 1827. 
" Mv dear Lord, 

" I trust your Lord"* will excuse the trouble I am about to give 
you in the following letter. 

" I have received a request from the Bishop of New York which I 
cannot comply with unless your Lord"* afford me assistance. The 
Bishop applies to me to ordain ' a clergyman of the French Reformed 
Church who has arrived in N. York to take charge of the French 
Protestant Episcopal Church there. It is essential,' the Bishop con- 
tinues, ' that he receive episcopal ordination, but a Canon of our 
Church forbids this until he has resided a year in this country; & un- 
fortunately the situation of the congregation requires his immediate 
services.' 

" Should I be enabled to ordain him, Mr. Verren, Deacon, accord- 
ing to the Bishop's request, on satisfactory evidence, Mr. V. could 
then immediately officiate, tho' he could not until a year's residence 
have the stated charge of the congregation. 

" By Act 24 George III ch. 35, I perceive that your Lord"" or any 
other Bishop appointed by you is empowered to ordain a foreigner 
without his taking the oath of allegiance.' 

' I therefore beg leave that this power may be granted to me in the present 
instance, if there be no objection to the measure. 



54 History of Trinity Church [1827- 

" I do not see, however, that I can be warranted in dispensing 
with Mr. Vs subscription to the three articles of the 36th Canon; the 
second of wliich appears to involve some difficulty in a case like his 
unless it can be considered that the Liturgy of the American Episcopal 
Church being nothing else than the English Liturgy with some neces- 
sary adaptations to local circumstances, the words ' the Book of 
Common prayer' &c. are capable of an application to the former. 

" I do not anticipate any hesitation on the part of Mr. Verren in 
subscribing the first of these three articles, because he can have no 
difficulty in stating his opinion of the King's sovereignty within his 
Majesty's own dominions. 

" It will aflord me pleasure to meet the wishes of the B^ of N. 
York in the event of my being authorised to do so by the powers & 
information I may receive from home. 

" By communicating any opinion you may obtain, bearing on the 
particular subject in question, together with your own private senti- 
ments regarding it, your Lord"" will confer an obligation on me. 

"As the Bishop is anxious that Mr. Verren sh"" be ordained with- 
out unnecessary delay, I venture to suggest that the letter may be sent 
open, under cover to B"" Hobart, N. York, in order that the issue of 
this application may be known as speedily as possible to the parties 
concerned. By this means sh** the result be favorable Mr. V. will be 
enabled to proceed to Quebec for ordination without loss of time. 

" I would further request your Lord'' to enclose the whole to my 
correspondents at Liverpool, Messrs. Shand, Ellis & Shand whom I 
shall direct to forward it immediately. 

'■ I have the honor to be, my dear Lord, 

" Your faithful and affectionate Brother, 

"C. J. Quebec." 

Inscribed 

" The Right Hon""^ and Right Reverend, 
"The Lord Bishop of London, 
" London." 

When Bishop Hobart was in England he felt keenly 
that, notwithstanding the attention which he received, he 
could not ofificiate in even the humblest village church. 
Although he visited and was entertained by the Arch- 
bishop and Bishops, they could not request him to preach 
in their cathedrals or private chapels. 



1828] Correspondence on American Orders 55 

The following correspondence shows the first attempt 
to remedy this discourtesy to American clergymen. 

Under certain conditions priests and deacons of the 
American Church can now officiate and hold benefices in 
the Church of England, but the legal status quo of Amer- 
ican Bishops remains precisely the same to-day as it was 
when Bishop Hobart visited England. 

American Bishops may preach in England but they 
are as liable to penalties as Bishop Hobart was. They 
simply do so because all parties agree to wink at the in- 
fraction of the law, or else are ignorant of its provisions.^ 

" Quebec 13th September 1828. 
" Right Reverend & dear Sir, 

" We have conferred upon the subject which was made doubly 
interesting to us by your recent conversation respecting it, namely 
some of the provisions of the act of the British Parliament which 
authorised the Consecration of the first Bishops for the United States. 

" Feeling with you the anomaly of that part of the Act which 
would seem to prohibit clergymen ordained by American Bishops 
from performing the ordinary offices of their Profession whenever they 
may be within the British dominions, we are desirous of endeavour- 
ing to call the notice of our brethren in England to the inconsistency 
& inconvenience of such restriction. But we should be assisted in 
this endeavour & much gratified in our own feelings, if we could be 
favoured with the sentiments of our Brethren of the Church in 
America upon this point before we take any measures respecting it. 
If it should be thought expedient by the Bishops in the United States 
to make a direct appeal from themselves to the Archbishop & Bishops 
of Great Britain & Ireland upon this subject we shall be thankful to 
be favoured with a copy of such appeal. 

" Earnestly desiring & fervently praying for the peace & prosperity 
of our Zion in every part of the world, 

" We are, Right Reverend & dear Sir, 

" Your affectionate Brethren, 

" John Nova Scotia, 
" C. J. Quebec." 

' The reader is referred for a clear statement of the law on this subject to an 
article by the Rev. Henry Barker in the Church Eclectic for December, 1904. 



56 History of Trinity Church [1827- 

The Rev. Horatio Potter thus writes to Bishop Hobart 
at the beginning of his ministry : 

"Saco, October 15th 1827. 
" Rt. Rev. and dear Sir, 

" I hasten to inform you of an engagement which I have made for 
a few months. You may remember the conversation you had with me 
a few days before I left N. Y., & what was then said of my return 
to Union College. From what passed at that time I considered it 
my duty to enter College, if I could do so with propriety and accord- 
ingly I held myself in readiness to accept of the appointment whenever 
it should be made. But my brother who mentioned to me that Dr. 
Nott was ready to make an arrangement if it was desired, informed me 
at the same time of some who anticipated it and who were prepared to 
misconstrue it. Such a consequence though natural, would have been, 
by no means agreeable. I immediately requested that the appoint- 
ment might be withheld. You was then at the west. I recalled the 
particulars of our conversation, but I felt persuaded that under the 
circumstances you would be the last to condemn my decision. Pardon 
me if I say that I derive confidence from the reflection that the gentle- 
man whose opinion I thus ventured to conjecture, was my own Bishop, 
celebrated throughout America & Great Britain for his highminded 
& independent course. Soon after the wants of this people were 
represented to me. For six months they had been struggling with the 
greatest difficulties. In a quarter where the church was unknown a 
congregation had been formed, & a house nearly finished whilst they 
were depending upon occasional ministrations. The country was un- 
inviting and young men could not be prevailed upon to come this 
distance & subject themselves to the privations of such a place 
for a trifling consideration. Every day they were in danger of giv- 
ing way to despair. You had insisted that if ordained I must place 
myself in a situation to be useful. I felt anxious to show my attach- 
ment to the church & my respect for your wishes. Declining there- 
fore situations of some usefulness and far greater comfort, I resolved 
to begin my labours here. My engagement is indefinite. I have de- 
clined making a permanent arrangement at present. I have not asked 
for letters dimissory because I am willing to indulge the hope that I may 
return to my native diocese, a diocese, regarded by all, I believe, with 
pride, and left, by all who do leave it, with reluctance. After a few 
months should no field of usefulness open to me in your diocese and 
the situation of this Parish seem to demand my continuance here, I 



1827] "The Episcopal Watchman" 57 

shall beg leave to lay before you its claims and to ask your advice. 
My hope is that it will soon be able to offer a sufficient inducement for 
some person to come & take charge of it permanently. Whenever 
that time shall have arrived the principle object of my visit will be ac- 
complished. I am sorry to trouble you with this long account of 
myself. It has been the more particular because the circumstances 
of my ordination placed me in a delicate situation. Professions of 
personal attachment are cheap. Perhaps time will enable me to offer 
a surer pledge. 

" With sincere respect 
" Yours 

" Horatio Potter. 
" My respects to Mrs. H. " 

The Episcopal Watchman was the successor of the first 
American Church periodical, The Chtirchmaiis Magazine, 
the final series of which ended in December, 1826. 

The new weekly was issued in January, 1827, under 
the editorship of the Rev. Professor George W. Doane, 
afterward Bishop of New Jersey, and the Rev. William 
Croswell. It was able, vigorous, and sound in the faith, 
carrying out the principles of Seabury and Jarvis. It was 
continued until 1831. 

Professor Doane writes the Bishop as follows : 

" Washington Coll., 

" Decem' 3 1827. 
" Rt. Rev. & dear Sir, 

" A thought has within a few days occurred to me, which without 
waiting to think how you will receive it I shall freely suggest to you. 

" In your address to the New York Convention you allude to an 
intended change in the Christian Journal from the monthly to the 
weekly form. If arrangements to this effect have not already been 
made might not the Episcopal Watchman be made to answer the ends 
desired ? You will perhaps be startled at the boldness of this pro- 
posal, I cannot help it, it is honest and well intended & that in these 
times is a good deal. Should you entertain the suggestion at all, my 
plan would be to enlarge & improve the sheet making it superior to any 
in the country, to have it delivered in New York by a carrier on 



58 History of Trinity Church [1827- 

Saturday morning, to publish with the name or names of responsible 
editors, and to make any arrangement which would secure to Messrs. 
Swords a fair proportion of the advantage. My object in proposing 
this arrangement, for which wise or unwise, I only am answerable, is the 
more efficient promotion of the interests of the Church. The division 
and subdivision of our efforts but too common among us is highly in- 
jurious. The Watchman has been & will continue to be devoted to 
the vindication and assertion of primitive & apostolic principles. It 
has been everywhere well received, and with very inadequate exertions 
thus far numbers 1200 subscribers in all parts of the Union. 

"The Christian Journal in its present shape is eminently useful. 
A weekly paper cannot be made as that is the repository of ecclesias- 
tical documents worthy of presentation without detracting from that 
variety which will be e.xpected. 

" For my own part, I should wish the C. J. to be continued. And 
I do not believe that the circulation of the E. W. under your authority 
in your city & diocese would diminish its subscription materially, & 
perhaps with the additions which our influence might obtain here not 
at all. I refrain from going into further details until I hear from you 
in reply, which I hope, though my late experience is averse to the 
hope, you will allow me to do, anxious that it may receive your 
approbation. 

" I remain with sincere respect & affection 

" Your son & serv', 

" G. W. DOANE. 

" I owed you an apology for not going to your house the evening 
after I dined there, but before night I lost my voice entirely & the next 
day when I called you were out of town." 

The attempt of Mr. Bergh and his friends in 1822 to 
form a free church on the East Side was followed by 
an effort to maintain services in the neighborhood of 
Corlear's Hook. The Rev. Dr. Aydelott, under the en- 
couragement given by Dr. Benjamin T. Onderdonk, who 
felt much disturbed over the neglect of that portion of 
the city, agreed to make the experiment of gathering a 
congregation in 1827. 

Dr. Onderdonk was very sanguine of ultimate success, 



1827] A Free Church Proposed 59 

as may be seen by his letter to Bishop Hobart, undated ; 
it cannot be earlier than September, or later than De- 
cember, 1827. 

Sunday gth p.m. 
" Rt. Rev. Sir, 

" Not knowing whether I shall be able to see you to-morrow 
before the Vestry meeting, I take the liberty of mentioning to you 
in this way that I accompanied Dr. .\ydelott this morning to Corlear's 
Hook. We had service in the school room which had been offered by 
Mr. Dick in Goerck street. The notice had been very short & be- 
tween 40 & So persons assembled. It was considered, however, a very 
good beginning and great interest was expressed in the undertaking by 
the persons with whom I conversed. The Dr. holds service there 
again this afternoon. He says that if he can be certain of compensa- 
tion for his services, by way of experiment he will locate himself in 
that quarter and do his best. He says that compensation in the pro- 
portion of $800 per annum is all that he will require in addition to 
what may be done by the good people there. 

" Accordingly he will engage to labour there in endeavouring to 
form a parish as long as he can be assured of $200 per quarter. There 
is certainly a most promising field there for the increase of our Church 
which has gained but one new congregation (St. Philip's) on this island 
for 10 years, in which period the population has probably increased at 
the very least 20,000. In y° district of the city bounded by a line 
drawn from the East River to the Rutgers Street Presb" Meeting 
thence to y' Methodist Meeting in Allen Street & thence to St. Mark's 
Church, containing probably 10,000 inhabitants there are but three 
places of worship, & those small ones. 

" An effort cannot but succeed. I have taken the liberty of 
troubling you with these particulars in order to submit to you whether 
they will not constitute a sufficient ground for bringing the subject 
before the Vestry to-morrow, and inducing them to aid us in so promis- 
ing an effort for the increase of our Church & for extending the ordi- 
nances of the Gospel to a too greatly neglected portion of our city. 

" I am sure you will appreciate Dr. A's motive for anxiety to be 
immediately settled after his family have been so long in a deranged 
& uncomfortable state. 

" What the Vestry may chuse to do ought not to be looked upon 
as a pledge of any permanent assistance but only as aiding in a very 
promising experiment. I think I see the first moving of a spirit, in 



6o History of Trinity Church [1827- 

the part of the city to which I now refer which will carry the enterprise 
thro' the divine blessing to a most prosperous issue. 

" You will pardon me, Rt. Rev. Sir, for troubling you thus much, 
but I felt as if no time should be lost. 

" Very sincerely & respectfully, 

" Your son in y° Gospel, 

" Benj. T. Onderdonk." 

The actual population of New York was 166,136 in 
the year 1825. 

Dr. Aydelott soon after became Rector of Christ 
Church, Cincinnati, Ohio, and the mission was abandoned 
until, six years later, the Rev. Lot Jones established the 
Church of the Epiphany in Stanton Street, recently known 
as the Pro-Cathedral. 

The good work that had been done by the New York 
Sunday-School Society and similar organizations made 
Bishop Hobart and others prominent in Sunday-school 
affairs desirous for the establishment of a general society 
under which Sunday-schools could be fostered, suitable 
instruction books provided, and interesting literature for 
children published. 

In the fall of 1827, a meeting was held in the city of 
New York for this purpose. There was a fair attendance, 
with some enthusiasm, and a careful scheme of work was 
laid out. In his Convention Address, Bishop Hobart 
makes this reference to it : 

" It is with high gratification I state to you the complete organiza- 
tion of the General Episcopal Sunday School Union. The Rev. Mr. 
Whittingham has bestowed much time and labour in drafting the plan 
of instruction and in preparing the books for publication and in at- 
tending to the printing of them. Several members of the Executive 
Committee and especially our Secretary and some laymen, to whom 
this and other institutions are much indebted, have been actively em- 
ployed in this laborious work, and the unwearied labour and attention 
of our agent, Mr. Stanford, are devoted to it. 



1827] Sunday Schools 61 

" The tracts can now be furnished at a very cheap rate, and I hope 
and pray that the clergy of our Church and others who have charge of 
our Sunday Schools will connect their Schools with the General Epis- 
copal Union, and avail themselves of its publications. Sunday Schools 
ought to be considered as the seats of the religious instruction of the 
young and the ignorant; and that instruction primarily directed by the 
minister of the parish ought to be conducted agreeably to our own re- 
ligious tenets, and surely ought not to be subject to any extraneous 
influence or supervision." ' 

The following memorandum or letter of Mr. Whitting- 
ham shows that Bishop Hobart's interest in the work was 
not merely in words. It was probably written soon after 
the organization in 1827. 

" Right Reverend Sir, 

" I have the honour to inform you of the appointment of the fol- 
lowing Committees of the Board of Managers of the General Protestant 
Episcopal Sunday School Society held on Friday, the 22d inst. 

" A Committee to consider the expediency of, and if deemed ex- 
pedient to report measures for raising funds to provide books tracts 
&c. for the use of the Protestant Episcopal Sunday Schools; and also 
to consider the establishment of a General Depository and such branch 
Depositories as may be necessary: also to consider the expediency of 
establishing auxiliary Societies, and if deemed expedient to draft a 
form of a constitution to be recommended for such purpose: and to 
prepare a circular in relation thereto. 

" This Committee consists of yourself as Chairman of the Board 
of Managers, the Secretary, the Treasurer, the Rev. Benjamin T. On- 
derdonk, D.D., and Mr. Floyd Smith. 

"A Committee to prepare and report such By Laws as may be 
necessary for the government of the Board, and for the transaction of 
its business. 

"This Committee consists of yourself as Chairman of the Board of 
Managers, the Secretary, the Treasurer, the Rev. J. F. Schroeder, and 
Mr. Thomas N. Stanford. 

" A Committee to digest and report a system of Sunday School 
Instruction to be recommended to the Protestant Episcopal Sunday 
Schools. 

' yournal. Diocese of New York, 1827, pp. 26, 27. 



62 History of Trinity Church [1828- 

"This Committee consists of yourself as Chairman of the Board of 
Managers, the Secretary, the Treasurer, the Rev. William Creighton, 
the Rev. Harry Croswell, the Rev. Wm. H. DeLancey, Mr. J. W. In- 
graham, Mr. J. W. Mitchell, and G. C. Morgan. 

" It was resolved that the Chairman of the Board be Chairman of 
each of the above special Committees ; provided that the Chairman 
have the power of appointing another member of each Committee to 
act as a Chairman in his absence. 

" According to the above resolution and to your appointment of 
the gentlemen first named on each committee in addition to the Chair- 
man, Secretary and Treasurer as provisional Chairmen, Dr. Onder- 
donk is provisional Chairman of the Committee on Funds, Depositories, 
and Auxiliary Societies; Mr. Schroeder of the Committee on By- 
Laws ; and Mr. Creighton of the Committee on a system of 
Instruction. 

" The following gentlemen were elected by ballot to constitute in 
addition to the Rt. Rev. the Bishop, the Executive Committee : Rev. 
Dr. Onderdonk, Rev. Dr. Wainwright, Rev. Mr. Creighton, Rev. Dr. 
Lyell, Dr. J. S. Rogers, Mr. Floyd Smith, and the Rev. Mr. Whit- 
tin gham. 

" The special Committees are ordered to report to the Executive 
Committee at a meeting of that Committee to be held on the 3rd 
Tuesday in January, the said Committee having full powers to act in 
the premises. 

" Dr. J. Smyth Rogers was unanimously appointed Treasurer of 
the Society. 

" Your most obed' serv' 

" W. R. Whittingham. 

"Right Reverend John Henry Hobart, D.D." 



Bishop Hobart amid his constant cares was still mind- 
ful of his English friends, and especially of that devoted 
one, the Rev. H. H. Norris. He writes him : 

"New-York, Jany 15, 1828. 

" I am truly ashamed my very dear & excellent friend that so long 

a time has elapsed since I wrote to you. But really the pressure of my 

engagements & consequent cares &c, &c, have not left me that quiet 

time in which the heart delights to commune with an absent friend. 



1828] Letter from Bishop Hobart to H. H. Norris 63 

nor those few moments of leisure in which I would detail what I know 
interests you, our Chh affairs. 

" I now send you by Mr Syms of Quebec who is acquainted with 
Bp Stewart & Archdeacon Mountain, some Chh pamphlets, & at 
some subsequent opportunity thro' Mr Simpson of Liverpool, will add 
to their number for the purpose of asking you to send them to some of 
the Bps & my other friends. For I do not, & never shall forget that 
there are many in England to whom I feel the deepest obligations, & 
whose virtues & kindness are most warmly cherished. With how much 
interest have I looked on all the recent changes in your country, & 
calculated on their effect on the Church, much I fear that low-Church- 
men & low Chh principles will be exalted & flourish. May God 
overule all for the good of his Chh & Kingdom. 

" Is it possible that Sumner is to be promoted to Winchester in 
preference to such a Bishop as Bloomfield. 

"But I want to know of your health, of that of Mrs Norris, of 
your son, & of all your friends whom I know. May I ask you to give 
them my kindest regards. I write now in haste, being in the midst of 
an unusually busy parochial season. But the additional duties which 
my absence imposed having been nearly discharged I really hope here- 
after to have time for writing to my friends. Indeed I feel that I must 
have it. 

" ever truly & affec''' yrs 

"J. H. Hobart. 

" How is Mr Watson. I have been concerned to hear that his 
health is bad." ' 

In a letter from Albany, January 31, 1828, the Rev. 
Dr. Lacey is glad to know of a proposed new edition of 
The Clergynnans Companion and that the Bishop will in- 
sert in it prayers for the Legislature and other officers of 
the State. 

" Although in officiating as chaplain to the Legislature I have 
made many attempts at composition, selection, and emendation I have 
never pleased myself and consequently have nothing worthy of your 
perusal. I am now in the habit of using portions of the Liturgy 
almost exclusively." 

' Hobart letters in possession of the Rev. Arthur Lowndes, D.D. 



64 History of Trinity Church [1828- 

The following communications relate to the establish- 
ment of the Protestant Episcopal Press : 

"New York Feby. 28th 1828. 
" Rt. Revd. & DEAR Sir, 

" At a meeting of the Com. of ' Publications and Sales ' held on the 
26th inst. it was Resol'' to request an early meeting of the ' Execu- 
tive Committee ' at which time a proposition would be submitted to 
their consideration for the establishment of a 'Sunday School Maga- 
zine' under the auspices of the ' Union.' 

" At the same time a proposition by the Editors of the ' Episcopal 
Watchman ' will also be submitted for the publication of a ' Children's 
Magazine' under the auspices, and for the benefit of the 'Union.' 
Be so good Sir as to give the requisite authority to Mr. Whittingham 
for calling the Committee together. 

" From a sence of duty, and a feeling of sincere respect to Mr. 
Standford, I communicated to him by letter the project of the 'Pro. 
Epis. Press,' and it gives me the most unfeigned pleasure to say that his 
answer was worthy of himself, and in perfect keeping with the known 
generosity of his nature. 

" I herewith give you a literal copy. 

" ' New York, Feby. 28th, 1828. 
" ' Mr. Floyd Smith, 

" ' Dear Sir, 

" ' Your communication of this day apprising me of the intention 
of several friends of the church to erect an establishment under the 
title of the " Pro. Epis. Press " has been rec*! Nothing I assure you 
would be more gratifying to my feelings than to see such an institu- 
tion named in our city, and from the bottom of my heart I wish it 
Godspeed. 

" ' In reference to myself I beg the gentlemen concerned in this [to] 
understand that I am ready when the proper moment arrives to sur- 
render the three agencies I now hold, together of course with the 
business attached to them, into such hands as may be agreed upon. 

" ' Very truly yours 

" ' J. N. Standford.' ' 

" This manly and honourable declaration has I confess relieved my 
mind from an oppressive load of anxiety. To sever connections which 
have long existed is all times a painful thing; but in cases like the 

' So spelt in original. 



1828] Geneva College 65 

present, where that connection was most intimate and confidential was 
to my feelings truly distressing and nothing, I am persuaded but a 
paramount sence of duty to the interests of the Church, as connected 
with our societies would have induced me to venture upon such a step. 

" Very sincerely and truly 

" Your obt. servant 

" Floyd Smith. 
" Rt. Revd. Bishop Hobart." 



We have already given the letter from the Rev. Jasper 
Adams accepting the Presidency of Geneva College ; this 
one communicates to the Bishop his reasons for desiring 
to leave Geneva and returnintr to Charleston. 



"Geneva, March 7th 1828. 
"Rt. Revd. & respected Sir, 

" Circumstances have led me to wish to resign my ofifice as Presi- 
dent of Geneva college & 1 have given notice to the trustees of my 
intention to do so. It becomes, therefore, my duty to make you 
acquainted with the step which I have taken, as it is necessarily con- 
nected with a request for a letter dimissory from your Diocess. 

" The circumstances which have led me to wish to resign are almost 
entirely of a domestic nature. We have no relations & no intimate 
acquaintances in this country, & Mrs. A. would not be likely to be- 
come contented here, unless all hope of an advantageous return to her 
native state were cut off. Such a return has been offered me in Charles- 
ton. The trustees of the college of Charleston are erecting a large 
& beautiful building for the use of the college & are using vigor- 
ous means to put their institution on a first rate foundation. The pros- 
pect of usefulness & personal comfort, therefore, strongly lead me to 
a return. All the causes which induced me to resign in Charleston 
are now removed, we prefer to live in Charleston rather than in any 
other place & under present circumstances my duty appears to me 
to coincide with my inclination. 

" I beg leave, therefore, to request that you will give me a letter 
dimissory to Dr. Bowen and I embrace the present opportunity to 
make my respectful acknowledgments to you for the friendly disposi- 
tion which you have manifested to me since I have been resident in 
your Diocess. 



66 History of Trinity Church [1828- 

" As a new stage road is opened from this place to Washington, I 
shall be likely to go that way & not through New York. 

" You must have had previous information of the decease of our 
friend Revd. Dr. Clarke and I am informed that Dr. McDonald & 
Major Rees have written to you. 

" I am with great respect, Rt. Rev. Sir, 
" Your most obt. s!. 

" J. Adams." 

An account of Bishop Hobart's visit to Detroit in the 
summer of 1827 has already been given in Part III of this 
History, with the formal invitation from the Rector and 
Vestry of St. Paul's Church. When the new church ap- 
proached completion the desire was naturally felt that 
Bishop Hobart should consecrate it. 

" Detroit March 25th 1828. 
" Dear Sir, 

" I have the honour to transmit to you the subjoined resolution of 
the Vestry of St. Paul's Church in this City and to add to it in behalf 
of the members of the Vestry individually, their sincere desire that it 
may comport with your convenience to comply with the invitation con- 
tained therein. 

" With great respect 

" I am. Sir, your Obed. Servant 

"C. C. Trowbridge. 
" To the Right Revd. Bishop Hobart. 
" New York." 

" At a meeting of the Vestry of St. Paul's Church on Monday the 
24th March 1828. 

Resolved, That, expecting the completion of St. Paul's Church in 
this City by the first of July next, and unwilling except in a case of 
necessity to permit its occupation as a place of worship previously 
to its consecration, the Vestry of said church do hereby respectfully 
invite the Right Reverend Bishop Hobart to perform that office ; and 
assign to the Secretary of their Board the charge of communicating 
to him their wishes on that subject. 

" C. C. Trowbridge 

"Secretary." 

At the time of the visit of Bishop Inglis the courtesy 



1828] Thomas Addis Emmet 67 

was extended to the Bishops of New York and Nova 
Scotia to be present at the launching of the Fairfield. 

"Commodore Chauncey presents his respects to Bishop Hobart 
and takes the liberty to inform him that a Sloop of War will be 
launched from this Yard on Saturday Morning at 10 o'clock precisely. 
If Bishop Hobart with his friends Bishop Inglis and Judge Halliburton 
with any other friends could make it convenient to come over at that 
early hour Com. Chauncey would be highly gratified to see them. 
Commodore Chauncey takes the liberty of suggesting Carriages as the 
most certain and pleasant conveyance to the Yards — Boats shall con- 
vey the party back if prefered.' 

"U. S. Navy Yard. 

" 26th June 1828. 

"Right Rev. Bishop Hobart." 

The following application of Dr. MacNeven to the 
Vestry for ground for the erection of a monument to 
Thomas Addis Emmet was speedily granted, as all the 
city delighted to do honor to its adopted son. 

" To THE Right Reverend the Rector, to the Wardens and 

Vestrymen of Trinity Church: 
" Gentlemen, 

" As Chairman of the Committee for erecting a monument to 
our late fellow citizen, Thom^ Addis Emmet, I have the honour of 
presenting to you our unanimous request that you would be pleased 
to dispose of a spot of ground to us for that purpose, in the grave 
yard of St. Paul's Church, inside the railing on the South side and 
in view of the street. 

" We are willing to pay for it, if required. 

" As Mr. Emmet died a member of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, and as his family are members of it, his monument would be 
placed with more propriety in a cemetery of that Church than in 
one belonging to any other. 

'We are informed, by a communication under date of July 15, 1904, from the 
Bureau of Construction and Repair, Navy Department, in Washington, that the first- 
class Sloop of War Fairfield, 20 guns, tonnage 700, was built at the Navy Yard, 
New York, having been begun in 1S26, and was launched June 28, 1828. This is 
evidently the ship referred to in Commodore Chauncey's letter, since June 28 fell on 
a Saturday in the year 1828. 



68 History of Trinity Church [1828- 

" According to the plan of the architect twelve square feet will 
be requisite for the foundation under ground, & six feet six inches 
square for the plat-form on the ground. 

"Your compliance, Gentlemen, will very much oblige the Com- 
mittee and more especially, 

"Your most humble & devoted Serl, 

" W" J^ MacNeven 
" New York, 
" loth Octob' 1828." 

Thomas Addis Emmet was one of the little company 
of determined men known as " United Irishmen." 

He was the son of Dr. Robert Emmet, a well-known 
physician, and a brother of that Irish patriot, Robert 
Emmet, executed for high treason in 1803. 

He graduated from Trinity College, Dublin ; studied 
medicine at Edinburgh, and afterward the law, in which 
he became, even as a young man, famous. 

For his part in the "rising of 1798" he was confined 
in jails in England and Scotland. He served as the 
representative of the United Irishmen in France in 1803, 
and in 1804 came to New York with his family. He soon 
took at the bar of his adopted country a very high rank. 
His pleas were made in clear-cut sentences with words 
fitly chosen. His power of argument and method of 
pleading his cause before a judge or jury are said to have 
been both thrilling and eloquent, but without the least ad- 
mixture of false sentiment or melodrama. Personally and 
socially he was admired and sought after. 

He died suddenly, November 14, 1827, while he was 
defending the title of the trustees of the Sailors' Snug 
Harbor to the property bequeathed to them by Captain 
Thomas Randall. 

The monument to which this letter of Dr. MacNeven 
refers was afterward erected. It is a tall granite obelisk, 
bearing upon its front face a bust in bas-relief of Mr. 



1828] Thomas Addis Emmet 69 

Emmet, and the harp of Erin ; an English inscription, 
from the pen of the Hon. GuHan C. Verplanck, a Latin 
inscription from the pen of the Hon. John Duer, and an 
Irish inscription from the pen of Dr. England, the Roman 
Catholic Bishop of Charleston, South Carolina. The in- 
scriptions tell fully the merits of the man. 

His associates at the bar erected in the Supreme 
Court room a bust of Mr. Emmet with a Latin inscrip- 
tion by Mr. Duer. It is now in the County Court House 
in one of the rooms used by the Supreme Court. 

The following are the inscriptions on the monument 

in St. Paul's Churchyard : 

" In memory of 

THOMAS ADDIS EMMET 

who 

Exemplified in his conduct, 

And adorned by his 

Integrity, 

The policy and principles 

Of The United Irishmen 

' To forward a brotherhood 

Of affection, 

A community of rights. 

An identity of interests 

And a union of power 

Among Irishmen 

Of every religious persuasion 

As the only means of Ireland's 

Chief good, 

An impartial and adequate 

Representation 

In an Irish Parliament.' 

For this 

(Mysterious fate of virtue !) 

Exiled from his native land. 

In America, the land of freedom. 

He found a second country, 

Which paid his love 
By reverencing his genius. 

Learned in our laws. 

And in the laws of Europe, 

In the literature of our times 

And in that of antiquity, 



JO History of Trinity Church [1828- 

AU knowledge 

Seemed subject to his use. 

An Orator of the first order, 

Clear, copious, fervid, 

Alike powerful 

To kindle the imagination. 

Touch the affections, 

And sway the reason and the will. 

Simple in his tastes. 

Unassuming in his manner, 

Frank, generous, kind-hearted, 

And honourable, 

His private life was beautiful 

As his public course was 

Brilliant. 

Anxious to perpetuate 

The name and example of such a man. 

Alike illustrious by his 

Genius, his virtues, and his fate ; 

Consecrated to their affections 

By his sacrifices, his perils, 

.\nd the deeper calamities 

Of his kindred, 

In a just and holy cause: 

His sympathizing countrymen 

Erected this monument and 

Cenotaph. 

"Born at Cork, 24th of April, 1764 
He died in this City, 
14th November, 1827 " 

"M. S 
THOM^ ADDIS EMMET 

Qui 

Ingenio illustri, studiis altioribus 

Moribus integris, 

Dignum 

Se prtestabat laudibus illis. 

Ilia reverentia, illo 

Amore 

Quae semper eum viventem 

Prosequebantur; 

Et subita illo erepto, morte 

Universe in luctum civitatis 

Se effuderunt. 

Quum raro extitit vir 



1828] Thomas Addis Emmet 71 

Naturaeve dotibus, doctrinaeve subsidiis 

Omnibus illo instructior; 

Turn eloquentia alta illia et vera 

Qualem olim mirabantur Roma 

Athenaeque, 

Prsecipue alios anteibat; 

Gravis, varius, vehemens, fervidus 

Omnes animi motus sic regere novit, 

Uti eos qui audirent, quo vellet 

Et invitos impelleret. 

Hibemia natus, 

Dilectam sibi patriam diu subjectam 

Alieno, servis tantum ferendo, jugo, 

Ad libertatem, ad sua jura vocare 

Magno est ausus animo; 

At prseclara et consilia et vota 

Fefellere fata. 

Tum infelicis littora lernse 

Reliquit, 

Spe, non animo, dejectus 

Nobilis exsul: 

Et haec Americana libens Respublica 

Ilium excepit, civemque, sibi 

Gratulans adscivit; 
Dein Hkc civitas illi domus, 

Haec Patria fuit, 

Hjec gloriam illi auxit, hjec 

Spiritus ultimos 

Recepit 

Maerentium civium voluntas 

Hoc exegit monumentum " 



" Do mianni se ardmath 

Cum tir a breit 

Do tug se clue es fuit se 

MoUad a tter a bass " 

The translation of the Irish inscription is: 

" He contemplated invaluable benefits for the land of his birth. 
He gave dclat to the land of his death, and received in return her love 
and admiration." ' 

' P. 242, et seq.. The Emmet Family, with some incidents relating to Irish History, 
and a Biographical Sketch of Prof . John Patten Emmet, M.D., and other members. 
By Thos. Addis Emmet, M.D., LL.D. 

Quod potui perfeci. 

Privately printed, New York, 1S98. 



72 History of Trinity Church [1828- 

Upon the west side is found inscribed the exact 
latitude and longitude of the monument : 

" 40° 42' 40' 
74° 03' 21" 5 W. L. G." 

W. L. G. means West Longitude, Greenwich. 

It is a pleasant coincidence that a monument to the 
memory of the writer of this application to the Corpora- 
tion stands upon the opposite side of the churchyard. 

Dr. MacNeven was an intimate friend of Mr. Emmet, 
and was long known as a skilful physician, and especially 
for his work among the poor, to whom he often gave his 
services gratuitously. 

The following letter shows how much Trinity Church 
was looked upon as a standard for the conduct of Divine 
worship. 

" Geneseo, 26th Nov. 1828. 
" My dear Bishop, 

" Your letter of 15th inst. was not rec"! as you have remarked 
by my hasty line on 24th until the evening of that day. Under the 
impression that you, ere that, heard from McCarty who promised 
immediately to write but from what I since learn he did not receive 
my letter — I did not write which I ought to have done. All I hope 
will be right, if you receive his letter. Our workmen have been sick 
wh. has retarded us grievously, but we shall be ready by 15th doubtless 
As I have on this occasion already troubled your composure — it will 
be I fear an unfortunate moment to ask a favour, a great one you may 
be sure. As Rector of Trinity Church, you no doubt have suprevie 
jurisdiction. In this wooden country you know the Church with all 
her sober beautiful decencies is not much known by the people gener- 
ally. (I am not agoing to ask for funds). I wish to begin in my new 
church as I mean to proceed, with everything entire — complete — our 
ladies are very willing to use their needles, but they want a pattern, 
in a word, the loan of a real orthodox Trinity Church surplice 
which I will guarantee shall be restored to your wardrobe when ours 
is completed. Would my good Bishop incline favourably, to such a 
a petition ? I trust and hope you will have better roads than the 
present & better weather. Be so kind as to let me know by return of 



1828] "The Churchman" 73 

post, whether you will appoint any other day than the one above 
named or whether you can come at so late a day. It would almost 

ruin us if you did not come. 

" Ever your devoted fd and Br. 

" L. P. Bayard. 

" They are very an.xious at Avon to have morning service which I 
cannot give them without serious detriment here. Could not this be 
made a missionary station and would not Matthews of Belleville answer 
for it ? He intimated to me that he should like to come into this 
Diocese and I found he was not afraid of being laborious — I could find 
him also some help from Dansville where I hope to establish the 
Church — that is 20 miles from Geneseo." 

The Homiletic Monthly or Review proposed by Mr. 
Young, in the following letter, under the title of The 
CJmrchman, is not to be confounded with The Church- 
mans Magazine, which was established in 1804 and ceased 
to exist in 1826. 

" Norwich, Dec. 15, 1828. 
" Rt. Rev. Bishop J. H. Hobart 
"Sir 

" At my request, the Rev. Mr. Paddock, of this city, addressed a 
letter to you some months since, desiring your opinion of a work pro- 
posed to be published by myself, consisting of Monthly Numbers con- 
taining Sermons to be furnished by the Rt. Rev. Bishops and Clergy 
of the P. E. Church. This letter was never answered, as you were ab- 
sent at the time it was written, and probably overlooked it in the multi- 
plicity of business. All the Bishops and several other of the Clergy 
were consulted at same time. Seven of the former have replied, 
and all the latter; and their answers have induced me to proceed. 

" The work to be is called ' The Churchman,' to be of equal size 
with ' National Preacher,' but exclusively Episcopal. The Rev. Mr. 
Paddock will have the necessary editorial care of it, which will prob- 
ably be slight, as the Sermons will undoubtedly comt prepared iox the 
Press. But it will nevertheless be expedient, it is thought, to have the 
supervision of a competent theologian. 

"I shall be happy. Sir, to have your approval and recommendation of 
the plan (if consistent with your feelings) previous to issuing the first 
number; and should likewise be glad to consider you as a contributor, 
and receive a Sermon, if convenient, as soon as the middle of January. 



74 History of Trinity Church [1828- 

" The Bishop of this State will furnish the first, and if received it 
would please me to make yours the second. 

" A Prospectus was mailed for you a day or two since. Any 
suggestions which I may have from you, Sir, relative to this work, and 
any aid in advancing it, will be very acceptable. 
" I am. Sir, very respectfully, 

" Your obedient servt, 

" L. Huntington Young. 

" I have sent 12 copies of Prospectus, and would thank you, if I 
am not trespassing too much on your time, to hand them to such 
persons as you may know to be friendly to the Church, and who 
would probably favor the work. May I desire also that you will pro- 
pose to such clergymen as you think proper (as you may meet them) 
to become contributors to this work. I shall send to all as soon as 
possible; but a request from you may reach them before I write. 

" Please excuse me for the many requests made, but do not let 
them put you to any inconvenience." 

The vacancy in the rectorship of St. Stephen's Church, 
New York, by the death in the summer of 1828 of the 
Rev. Dr. Henry J. Feltus, caused much speculation as to 
his successor. The popular Dr. Mcllvaine, of St. Ann's 
Church, Brooklyn, the powerful Dr. Ives, of St. Luke's, and 
the energetic and nervous Dr. Anthon, of Utica, were dis- 
cussed and had their advocates. Finally the Rev. John 
Henry Hopkins, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who had left 
a large law practice to enter the ministry, and had been 
very nearly chosen Assistant Bishop of Pennsylvania, was 
selected. He afterward became Bishop of Vermont and 
Presiding Bishop of the American Church. 

This letter shows his high conscientiousness. A por- 
tion of Dr. Hopkins' draft is found on p. 120 of his Life, 
by the Rev. Dr. John Henry Hopkins. 

"Pittsburgh, December 29*, 1828. 
" Right Rev" & Dear Sir, 

" It is not without pain that I take up my pen in reply to your 
kind & friendly letter of the nth inst. rec*^ by Mr. T. H. Hawes, for the 



1828] Letter from John Henry Hopkins 75 

purpose of announcing the determination adopted in relation to St. 
Stephen's. I believe I must remain in my present situation. I have 
considered the subject as well as I could in all its lights & bearings, 
& can truly say that the interest which you were pleased to take in the 
matter was the prominent point with my feelings as well as my judgment 
during the whole of my debate within myself. 

" But inasmuch as I saw the strength of the arguments on either 
side to be such as to render it impossible for me to form a clear deci- 
sion, I concluded to leave it to ray Vestry & the Bishops of this Diocese, 
hoping that some guide might be furnished as to the course I ought to 
pursue. The meeting of my Vestry (at which I of course did not at- 
tend) was very warmly expressive of their resolution to oppose my leav- 
ing them. 

" All the letters sent to me were laid before them, & the result 
was an unanimous vote that my departure would dissolve the Congre- 
gation. My letter to Bp. White received an answer last evening, and 
in it he states the concurrent opinion of himself & Bp. Onderdonk that 
New York presented no greater field of usefulness than my present 
location, as well as the assurance that they should, exceedingly regret 
my leaving the Diocese. 

"Under these circumstances I could not have the clear warrant of 
my own conscience in going, and favored as I have been here of success 
far exceeding the common average of ministerial calculation, and on 
the eve I trust of more usefulness than ever I conceive that it is plainly 
my duty to continue where I am. 

" And now, my Dear Sir, allow me to thank you from my heart for 
the expression of confidence & esteem conveyed to me by your letter. 

" The idea of being near to you, & your family, and being consid- 
ered one of those whom you felt disposed to admit to an intimate 
& friendly intercourse with you, did, I frankly acknowledge, incline me 
powerfully to accept the opportunity afforded to me by this call, for, 
however warm my attachment to you became while I enjoyed the hos- 
pitality of your house I yet supposed it not likely that you could toler- 
ate, as a near friend, any one troubled with so much awkward obstinacy 
of opinion as then & since, I have manifested on some subjects. 

" The magnanimity and kindness with which your letter convinced 
me that in this respect I had undervalued your character, almost upset 
all my prudence and well-nigh persuaded me to leave Pittsburgh, on this 
personal ground alone. 

" In reference to the subject of our difference of sentiment at the 
late Gen' Convention, I recollect nothing said by you which either did 



76 History of Trinity Church [1829- 

excite at the time or ought to have excited any unpleasant feelings on 
my part, save only the impression that my own blunt freedom of opin- 
ion, had perhaps lost me a highly valued friend. That I was mistaken 
in this fear I rejoice to discover, and if for no other reason than this, I 
should prize the circumstances of my call to St. Stephen's as among 
the most gratifying of my life. 

" With the kindest regards to Mrs. H. and your family, 
" I remain, Right Rev'' & Dear Sir, 

" With the highest respect & affection, 
" Yours, 

"John H. Hopkins." 

We have in the text of this History already alluded 
at some length to the attitude the Bishop took in regard 
to the notice which the Church and her clergy ought to 
take of civil and political events.' 

In accordance with his custom to decline all invitations 
to attend public functions, Bishop Hobart sent a courte- 
ous note of regret to the Chairman of " The Friends of 
Ireland," who had given him the following invitation to a 
dinner on St. Patrick's Day : 

" New York, March the loth, 1829. 
" The friends of Ireland and of civil and religious liberty in New 
York invite the Right Rev** Bishop Hobart to dine with them at 
Tammany Hall on the 17* inst at 5 o'clock. 

"William Ja? MacNeven. 

" Chairman." 

The Bishop's reply was : 

"New York, March 14, 1829. 
" Dr. Sir, 

" I have uniformly deemed it expedient to decline invitations to 
all public dinners which might be regarded as having a party aspect, 
or as contemplating objects or measures in respect to which there 
might be in the community a difference of opinion. I have been gov- 
erned by a paramount regard to my influence and usefulness as a 
clergyman and as a Diocesan. 

" I shall therefore be deprived of the gratification of meeting the 
' Part III., p. 446. 



t829] The Protestant Episcopal Press ']■] 

friends of Ireland and of civil and religious liberty at their dinner on 
the 17th inst. to w"" they have done me the honour through you to 
invite me. 

" You have rendered me no more than justice in considering me 
as the friend of civil & religious liberty,' the equal enjoyment of which 
by all descriptions of men & all denominations of Christians whether 
Roman Catholic or Protes- is the proud characteristic of this happy 
country. 

" I beg also to assure you & your respectable associates tliat I take 
the liveliest interest in the fate of Ireland; and that my prayers will 
not cease to be offered that thro' the good Providence of God its long 
course of trial and suffering may be terminated. 
" I am, my dear Sir, 

" With sincere esteem & respect 

" Yr very ob" f & Serv' 

" J. H. HOR.ART " 

In regard to the establishment of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Press, Mr. Swords writes to the Bishop : 

" New York, 27th April 1829. 
" Right Revd. and dear Sir, 

" You will recollect that on Tuesday last, at Trinity Church, I 
ijientioned to you something about a building for the Protestant Epis- 
copal Press. In continuation I now take the liberty to present an out- 
line of my plan to the consideration of yourself and the trustees of the 
institution, that is to say — 

" If the ground can be used for the purpose (and the gentlemen of 
the law who are members of the Vestry of Trinity Church, no doubt, are 
competent to decide) I would recommend, that a spot at the north-east 
corner of Trinity Church yard, adjoining, or near to, Mr. Vandevoort's 
house, be laid out, and a neat two story building, with a room on the 
first floor as an office for the agent, or superintendent, and another 
sufficiently large to contain a small supply of each of the publications 
of the society, and for the purpose of packing up the same ; and on 
the second floor a room for the trustees of the institution to meet 
in and transact their business, etc. etc. etc. Such a building, if ju- 
diciously managed, could be put up at a small expense, and at the 
same time be neat and imposing. The location being so conspicuous, 
and so very interesting to every Episcopalian in the city, that I have 
' " In Ireland " erased in MS. 



78 History of Trinity Church [1829- 

no doubt subscriptions could, in a very short time, be raised to carry 
the plan into effect. It would have this advantage too, the trustees 
need not lay out the money of the institution for a building to contain 
a printing-office and bindery, etc. etc. etc. and for types, presses, cases, 
racks, and all other apparatus appertaining to a printing establishment; 
with binders' tools and materials for bookbinding ; and in addition to 
these expenses, the hands employed in the printing and bindery depart- 
ments will require their wages, weekly; — and I verily believe the 
trustees will, at all times, be able to get their mechanical work done 
by others at a lower rate than they would be enabled to do it at an 
establishment of their own. 

" As far as I have seen, or can understand the views of the managers 
of the Protestant Episcopal Press, I am persuaded, that when they have 
expended twenty thousand dollars they will find that they will want thirty 
thousand dollars more — and after all their institution will be but a weak, 
languid, and feeble establishment. The American Bible and Tract 
Societies have enlisted in their behalf persons belonging to every de- 
nomination and every class in the community from one end of the Union 
to the other, and their funds are enormous. They can accomplish al- 
most any object. And the Methodists have these advantages — every 
preacher in their communion (and there are some thousands in the 
United States) is a travelling agent for their book establishment, and 
every Methodist feels an interest in promoting the same. Episcopa- 
lians have not the same excitement, neither do they feel the same in- 
terest, and for the want of which their institution, upon its adopted 
plan, will be a feeble establishment. 

■' If the foregoing suggestions should have any weight with the 
gentlemen engaged in forwarding the Episcopal Press, I will feel my- 
self somewhat gratified. At any rate I am willing they should go for 
what they are worth. 

" Most sincerely yours, 

"Thomas Swords. 

" Right Rev. Bishop Hobart." 

Mr. Eleazer WilHams, the faithful missionary to the 
Indians, writes to Bishop Hobart : 

" Green Bay (Michigan Ter.) 
" 27th June 1829. 
" Right Revd. Father, 

" You would have undoubtedly heard from me before this, had I 
not been so unfortunate as to be taken sick soon after my return, last 



1829] The Church Almanac 79 

year, to this place. I have been confined to my room, now, nearly five 
months with a complicated disease. 

" I have, however, through the kindness of Providence, so far re- 
covered my health and strength, as to be able to officiate on Sundays. 

" I am happy, Right Revd. Father, to inform you that the Oneidas 
are firm in the Christian Faith and continue to adhere strictly to the 
Liturgy of the Protestant Episcopal Church. I have been requested 
by them to say that they will expect to see their Father at G. Bay 
this season. Were we so happy as to receive a visit from our Spiritual 
Father I have no doubt it will have a good effect upon the Oneidas as 
well as the Whites. 

" May I presume. Right Revd. Father, to remind you, that I still 
anticipate to receive a similar assistance, this year, from the Trinity 
Church, which was afforded me in the last. 

" A draft enclosed in a letter will answer. Please to present my 
respectful compliments to your Lady & Family. I am. Right Revd. 
Father, your most dutiful 
" Son in the Gospel. 

" E. Williams. 

" Right Revd. Bishop Hobart." 

The following official letter from Messrs. T. & J. 
Swords tells the same old story of the apathy of Church- 
men in regard to the maintenance of Church publications. 
The Pocket Almanac there referred to continued to be 
published till the year i860 and then went out of ex- 
istence. The Church Almanac was first published under 
the editorship of its founder, the Rev. Dr. Schroeder, the 
first issue being for the year 1830. Since that date it has 
been published continuously with only a slight change in 
title as the American Church Almanac. Seventy-five 
years old, it is a monument to the foresight of its founder, 
who early divined the needs of the American Church and 
foresaw its great growth in the immediate future. 

" New York, 30th Nov. 1829. 
" Right Reverend and dear Sir, 

" We printed 1500 copies of our Pocket Almanack for the year 
1829, and in consequence of the publication of the Episcopal Press's 



8o History of Trinity Church [1829- 

Churchman's Almanack, we have, thought it adviseable to print but 1000 
copies for the year 1830, thus reducing the receipts of our hard-earned 
labour with this trifling work one third. Again, when the Press pub- 
lished their edition of the Canons of the Church they advertised them 
for sale at 37+ cents per copy. This we did not think too high, and pur- 
chased a number of them ; but several of our correspondents, in dis- 
tant parts, wrote to us, wishing to have some copies sent to them, but 
wanted a cheaper edition. On this we concluded to print a small im- 
pression, on smaller type, so as to compress it in a less number of pages, 
and of course inferior to the copy published by the Press, and we ad- 
vertised it on the cover of the November number of the Christian Jour- 
nal at 25 cents, though not published at this day — to-morrow it will be. 
This difference we considered as about equal. Had we published an 
edition in every respect the same as the one by the Press, and offered 
it at a reduced price, we should consider ourselves as acting unfairly. 
Now, respected Bishop, to our astonishment we see on the cover of the 
last number of the Weekly Visitor, which came into our hands on Sat- 
day evening, the Press advertising their copy of the Canons at ^''eighteen 
and three fourths cents." Would it not have been judicious in the con- 
ductors of the Press to have seen our edition before this step was 
taken ? Are we to construe it, in connection with the Almanack busi- 
ness, as a settled hostility to us ? Surely we cannot form any other 
conclusion, and we shall be compelled to abandon a part of our busi- 
ness to them, and act on the defensive, and in our warfare no benefit, 
but an injury will result to the Church. We should have let the Al- 
manack business pass, but a repetition of the injury in relation to the 
Canons is what we did not expect from some of the most influential 
members of the Press, and compels us to complain. 

" This interference is not confined solely to us. There are a num- 
ber of poor Printers, worthy men, and advanced in years, who have 
been engaged in the profession from their youth, now suffering for the 
want of employment, and the Protestant Episcopal Press grasping at 
the trifling share of business they receive for the very scanty support 
of themselves and their families. Is this as it should be ? Is this to be 
the conduct of a religious institution said to be under the control of the 
Bishop and Clergy of the Diocese of New York ? We are not yet dis- 
posed to believe that the Episcopal community are prepared to coun- 
tenance a combination at the sacrifice of individual interest and 
happiness. The Bible Society, which we have always denominated a 
Presbyterian institution, have guarded against this interference by 
their constitution ; and shall Episcopalians, who have always boasted 



1830] Letter from Bishop Brownell 81 

of their liberality, act thus ? We have heard it remarked, they are in 
some measure under the necessity of doing so, to enable them to proceed with 
their business. Is it possible that any man, on serious reflection, would 
justify the doing of a wrong act that it might enable him to do a right 
one ? It cannot be ! 

" To you, our good Bishop, as head of this establishment, we sub- 
mit the foregoing remarks. It is mortifying to us to do so, but really 
we think it is a duty we owe to you, Sir, and to ourselves. 
" With the highest respect 

" Believe us to be, 

" Most sincerely yours, 

"T. & J. Swords. 
"Right Revd. Bishop Hobart." 

Bishop Brownell was at this time making an extensive 
missionary tour in the Southwest, at the request of the 
Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society, in which much 
was accomplished for the expansion and encouragement 
of the Church in that region. 

The following letter explains itself. Mr. John C. 
Porter had been made deacon by Bishop Hobart July 7, 
1828, but died a few months after his ordination to the 
priesthood, while on a visit to his friend. Major Trask, 
at Woodville, Miss., October 21, 1830. 

"New Orleans, Jan*" 13, 1830. 
" Rt. Rev" and dear Sir, 

" I have recently felt myself called upon to deviate from one of 
the canons of the Church in a case which regards your jurisdiction, 
but hope you think me justified by the circumstances of the case. 
The Rev*" Mr. Porter of your Diocese is now the only Episcopal 
Clergyman remaining in the Diocese of Mississippi. During my visit 
to that place he received and accepted a call to the City of Natchez, 
and it became very desirable that he should be admitted to Priest's 
Orders. 

" To return to your Diocese for this purpose would cost him a jour- 
ney of 5000 miles, besides the loss of time. He produced the requisite 
testimonials from the Wardens and Vestry of his Parish, and from the 
Rev. Mr. Fox from personal knowledge for the period of his Residence 
in Mississippi, and as he came to this State very soon after his admis- 

VOL. IV.— 6. 



82 History of Trinity Church [1830- 

sion to Deacon's Orders in New York the Standing Committee deemed 
these testimonials sufficient, and gave him the requisite testimonials 
for Priest's Orders. 

" Under these circumstances, I took it upon myself to admit him to 
the Priesthood without waiting for a dimissory Letter from you. I 
hope you will think the circumstances of the case, and the friendly 
relations on which we stand, as a sufficient apology for this irregu- 
larity, and that you will rectify it in some degree, by giving his Dimis- 
sory Letter a date anterior to his Ordination. 

" The Rev"" Mr. Muller, late of Natchez, is now in New Orleans, 
and thinks of going to Tuscaloosa, in Alabama. The Rev. Mr. Wall, 
lately officiating at Port Gibson, has this day left N. Orleans with a 
view of settling at Attakapas, West of the Mississippi. The Rev"* Mr. 
Fox has removed to this City, for the purpose of settling the estate of 
his late Father-in-law, and with the view of assisting the Rev? Mr. Hull. 

" I find fewer prejudices against the Church in this Western 
region than I had anticipated. On the contrary the intelligent and in- 
fluential portion of the community generally regard it with the most 
favourable sentiments. It is greatly to be deplored that we have not 
a greater number of intelligent and pious young Clergymen to supply 
the increasing wants of the Church. 

" I remain, your affectionate Friend & Brother, 

" Tho"* C. Brownell. 
" Rt. Rev° Bp. Hobart." 

The Rev. J. C. Rudd was a life-long friend of the 
Bishop. It was at his house that the latter was taken 
with his fatal illness. D'' Rudd was the editor of The 
Gospel Messenger. He, like his friend and Bishop, be- 
lieved in the potency of printer's ink. In these days when 
so much is forgotten of the men who laid the foundations 
of that movement for the restoration of the Church's full 
heritage both in worship and doctrine, it may be instruc- 
tive to note that D"' Rudd was one of the earliest advo- 
cates of a change of the present name of the Church in 
America. The designation which he advocated was that 
of the " Catholic Church in America." In his paper he 
quoted with commendation the following note by D' 



1830] The Name of the Church 83 

Johnson to a sermon of his on the occasion of the ordi- 
nation at New Albany, Indiana, of the Rev. D"' Wyhe, 
formerly a Presbyterian minister : 

"My Western reader, be not startled by the word 'Catholic' 
Our Saviour Christ established but one Church upon earth. This 
extended itself into various countries, and in them continued One. It 
filled the land of England among others, where it kept at divers times 
more or less of its original purity; and at the period of the Reforma- 
tion especially, while it adhered to every essential of its primitive or- 
dinance and belief, dropt certain modern corruptions. It was one 
before doing so, one in doing so, and one after doing so. . . . 

" What can elevate separatists in the mother land to be the Old, 
True Church here ? We who are named Episcopalians are the legiti- 
mate offspring of that ancient mother ; our Bishops were consecrated 
by her Bishops ; our ministry is derived from Christ through her ; 
from her we spring as a child from the mother, of the same blood, 
nature, and spiritual inheritance. We form not one of many Christian 
denominations, but are the original Christian Family from which the 
other denominations separated, contradictory to the Saviour's will and 
ordinance ; they are sects — we the Church. Christians removing from 
their own country into another, never in ancient times thought of 
starting as a new denomination there, but always fell into the regular 
ranks of Christ's common Church. Thus, ours is the True, and only 
Catholic Church of Christ in these United States, and to it all Christ's 
disciples should belong. This ought to be our only designation, and 
then others and we ourselves would see our claim and our position 
aright. The history of a few years, or one selected principle, should 
not in any nation give name to the Church of Christ, which belongs to 
all Christian centuries, and which has all the elements of truth. If it 
may be named, ' The Protestant Episcopal ' because it has protested 
against Roman additions, and testified to the Episcopal Succession, as 
well might it be named 'The Witnessing Baptist,' because beyond any 
other religious society in the land, it clearly and fully witnesses true 
Christian Baptism ; testifying to the truth of its mode of administra- 
tion, excluding none of its lawful modes; — testifying to the truth as to 
its subjects, excluding none of its lawful subjects ; — testifying in its in- 
structions to the truth of its nature, excluding none of its lower offices 
or its higher and supernatural mysteries of gift and nature; — testifying 
to the very essence of the sacrament, by the unquestionable validity of 
the ministry which administers the sacrament. I look for it, that the 



84 History of Trinity Church [1830- 

Churchmen in the West, the plain-spoken, the straightforward West, 
which ever likes to call things by right names, will be those, who 
knowing that they have the reality, will take the lead in claiming the 
rightful name of The Church of Christ, The Catholic, in 
America." ' 

Little did Mr. Rudd know, when urging the Bishop to 
pay his visit to Rochester and consecrate the church 
there, that it would be the last church he was to conse- 
crate and that his last official act would be in his own 
church at Auburn. 

"Auburn Feb. 7th 1S30. 
"Rt Rev. & Dear Sir, 

" I am much perplexed to know what to think of Geneva College 
matters, at the very moment when I supposed Mr. Potter would be 
elected, I found while in Albany, this day week that new negotiations 
were going on to obtain Dr. Reed who is Mr. Spencer's man and who 
he thinks will come now. On my return on Friday I found a long 
letter from Dr. Reed, but how to reconcile it with one from him to Dr. 
Lacey I am utterly at a loss. From what I understand Dr. Reed thinks 
of Mr. Potter, of your being in his favour & from his letter to me it 
does seem that we are getting into a very curious state of things. There 
could have been no meeting of the Trustees at Geneva last Wednesday, 
and when a meeting will be held I am not yet informed ; but I am 
anxious to know your views before we are called together. I had a 
long letter some time since assuring me that Mr. Humphreys of Hart- 
ford would take the office, & I have recently learned from good author- 
ity that he is the most popular & efficient man in Washington College. 

"I hope your Columbia College movement will produce the de- 
sired effect. I was glad to find Gov. Throop, and, as I understood, the 
Regents generally, entirely with you. Is that man of Grace Church 
determined to knock out his own brains ? I shall take a brief notice of 
the subject in the next Messenger, by which you will see that Troy 
has done nobly for our little Press. Albany is a dull place just now, 
owing, I fear, as much to an unpleasant state of things in St. Peter's, 
as to the unhappy depression of poor Bury and St. Paul's. 

" It will perhaps be well not to mention what I have said respect- 
ing Dr. Reed's letters to Dr. Lacey and myself. They are surely very 

' See note C, pp. 13, 14, The Testimony of Jesus, by Samuel Roosevelt Johnson, 
and Gospel Messenger. March 19, 1842. 



1830] The Last Letter to the Bishop 85 



strange ones, all things considered. Will Kearney be able to sustain 
his ground at Canandaigua ? I pray they may not be doomed to 
another convulsion, &: I very much fear they will suffer one if he 
continues. Do you expect to consecrate St. Paul's at Rochester this 
winter ? If so will you inform me very soon ? as I shall be more or 
less from home I wish to make such arrangements as will prevent my 
being disappointed of the pleasure of seeing you. 

" Yours as ever, 

"J. C. RUDD. 
" Right Revd. Bishop Hob.\rt." 

The difficulties of maintaining the Church in rural dis- 
tricts is shown repeatedly throughout this correspondence, 
although the difficulties at Huntington appear, from the 
following quaintly expressed letter, to have been many 
and varied. 

"Huntington [L. I.], Ap' 20* 1830 
" Rev° Sir 

" The Episcopal Church in our Village is unoccupied and a Small 
society of anabaptists with a Cooper by trade for their Preacher have 
applied for the use of it. They have offered to repair the building 
and to pay as much as their infant society can afford. I refused to 
give them any encouragement untill your approbation could be ob- 
tained. The Woodpeckers have made a great number of holes through 
the shingles and I believe birds have laid & hatched annually, between 
the ceiling in considerable numbers. The man supports a moral Char- 
acter and preaches with considerable Celebrity. I hope you will act 
soon, either pro or con (& decidedly) to rid me of frequent importunity. 

" Yours respectfully 

" Daniel W. Kissam 

"N.B. The church members by death & removal have almost 
become extinct. 

"The Right Rev" Bishop Hobart." 

One of the very last letters addressed to the Bishop 
was from his son-in-law, the Rev. L. S. Ives, who writes 
from Short Hills, September 3, 1830. As the letter is re- 
addressed from Auburn, it is evident it did not reach that 
place till after the Bishop had passed away. 



86 History of Trinity Church [1830] 

The writer, after giving an account of his own state of 
health, ends the letter with these words, pathetic in im- 
port, since the advice they contained was destined to 
arrive too late : 

" Do take care of yourself. You think me imprudent, and perhaps 
I am, but do let me persuade you to profit by my sad experience, at 
least to avoid all unnecessary exposure. 

" most affec"*' yours 

"L. S. Ives." 

With this extract we close our review of the Hobart 
Correspondence, conscious of the fact that nothing has 
been suppressed, or ignored, which could in any way 
make us of this generation understand the Seventh Rec- 
tor of Trinity Church, and the friends who rallied round 
him and were so staunch in their devotion to him. 

We have allowed the letters to speak for themselves, 
to tell their own tale and to reveal the man himself. 

No letter has been suppressed because it revealed a 
fault or an infirmity ; on the other hand there has been 
no undue selection, designed to magnify the great quali- 
ties of John Henry Hobart. 



CHAPTER III. 

I.AST DAYS AND DEATH OF BISHOP HOBART. 

Bishop Hobart Visits Auburn — Holds a Confirmation — Is Taken Seriously 111 — Dies 
September 12th — Account of Last Moments by the Rev. Dr. Rudd — Account of the 
Funeral— Bishop Onderdonk Preaches the Funeral Sermon — Action Taken by the 
Vestry — Letters of Condolence from Various Bodies — Annuities Granted by the Cor- 
poration to the Bishop's Widow — Letter of Acknowledgment Received from the 
Bishop's Family — Monument Erected to the Bishop's Memory — Incident at His 
Funeral — Verses Suggested by the Funeral — Tributes from Bishop White; Rev. Dr. 
Berrian; Rev. Dr. Schroeder; Rev. Dr. Wainwright; Dr. Matthews; Governor King; 
Bishop Coxe — Summary of Bishop Hobart's Character and Influence — Conclusion. 

OUR story of the acts of Bishop Hobart draws now 
to an end. It remains only to give some account 
of the passing of that great heart and holy soul. He was 
called when far away from his home, on a visitation in a 
distant part of his diocese, engaged in official duty as 
chief pastor of the flock committed to his charge. Spared 
a long illness, with comparatively little suffering, in the 
house of loving and devoted friends, without fear, in full 
faith in the power of his Divine Master, fortified with the 
great sacrament of our salvation, steadfast through hope, 
patient in tribulation, he fell asleep in Jesus Christ, and 
rested from his labors. 

It was after his visit to Rochester, as recorded in the 
third volume of this History, that the Bishop proceeded 
to Auburn, where he was received by his old and faithful 
friend, the Rev. J. C. Rudd. Reaching that place on 
Wednesday, September i, 1830, he administered the rite 
of Confirmation on the following day. It was his last 

87 



88 History of Trinity Church [1830- 

official act. He was suddenly taken ill, and after alterna- 
tions between hope and fear, rallying and failure of 
strength, which lasted for nine days, he expired on the 
1 2th day of the month. 

We are indebted to Dr. Rudd, at whose house the 
Bishop breathed his last, for a minute account of that fatal 
illness. The greater part of that narrative we give in full : 

" The right Reverend prelate and pious servant of God expired at 
the parsonage house of St. Peter's church in this village, the residence 
of his friend, the writer of this article, at four o'clock on Sunday morn- 
ing, September 12, 1830, being it is believed, about 56 years of age. 

" The following article is not designed to draw the character of 
this distinguished ornament and defender of the Christian cause; in 
it there is no attempt made to delineate the features of that noble 
and energetic mind, nor will it be employed in ordinary obituary 
reflections. 

" The writer is under the impression that the public, especially that 
portion of it which is attached to the Episcopal Church will be impa- 
tient to have before them the particulars of the last days of this exten- 
sively known and ardently beloved individual. Under the pressure of 
no common emotions he deems it his duty to employ the first moments 
he has, after having finished his attentions to the body of the friend of 
nearly thirty years, in giving the afflicted members of the Church, and 
the weeping relatives and personal friends of the deceased, such partic- 
ulars as cannot be expected from another, and which a sense of pain- 
ful responsibility impels him not to delay. Should the task be found 
imperfectly performed, let my apology be read in that oppressive 
weight of feeling which cannot be removed till time has reconciled 
me to the prevailing stillness and gloom of a dwelling visited by death, 
to the absence of assiduous physicians, the retiring of anxious atten- 
dants and inquiring friends. 

" Bishop Hobart arrived at my house on the evening of Wednesday 
the ist instant, in ordinary health, with the exception of a slight cold, 
which made him a little chilly. He rested well that night, and com- 
plained of nothing unusual the following morning. He preached 
that morning in St. Peter's church, and administered confirmation to 
nine persons. His sermon, alas! his last sermon, was uttered in his 
usually impressive manner, and listened to by a full congregation with 



1830] Last Illness of Bishop Hobart 89 

a profound stillness and attention. The text was Job, xxviii, 28. 
' The fear of the Lord, that is wisdom.' 

" On returning to the parsonage-house, he complained of coldness 
and of oppression at the stomach from which his friends have known 
him to suffer very severely for more than twenty years. He ate little 
at dinner, and shortly after retired to his room where he slept some 
time. At tea he ate nothing, and soon after returned to his room, and 
went to bed. On entering his room as he was dressing himself, to 
hand him some letters, I found he complained still more of being un- 
well. He was urged to abandon the idea of meeting his appointments 
for the two next days. To this measure he expressed great reluctance, 
though it was repeatedly pressed upon him by different members of 
the family. The Rev. Mr. Hollister of Skaneateles called about 12 
o'clock noon, with a conveyance to take the bishop to Pompey, where 
there was a church to be consecrated the following day. About half an 
hour before this, Dr. Morgan, of this village, called to pay his respects. 
On discovering the bishop's tendency to indisposition, he seconded the 
remonstrance of the writer, against proceeding on his tour of duty. 
The bishop yielded to his advice. 

" It may be interesting to some, to be informed of a coincidence 
which will be here stated. On the 9th of September, 1826, the writer 
having been but a few weeks a resident of this place, Bishop Hobart 
held confirmation in the church here. Towards evening of that day 
he was taken suddenly ill while alone in his room; a young man who 
has attended him in his last illness being in an adjoining apartment 
heard him fall; the writer was alarmed, and ran to his assistance, and 
found him lying on his face, faint, and somewhat convulsed. Orders 
were instantly given to call a physician, and Dr. Morgan, then an entire 
stranger to all concerned, was providentially found in the street, and in 
a few minutes was with the bishop. By a timely prescription and 
careful attention the threatened illness passed over, and the next day 
found our prelate consecrating a church at Moravia, nearly twenty 
miles from this place. Whenever the bishop has subsequently made 
any stay in this village, the doctor has called upon him. The bishop 
was from the first much pleased with this gentleman, and as will be 
seen, grew fond of him and placed the utmost confidence in him to the 
last. We now return to the narrative. 

" He rested well for the greater part of the night of Friday the 3d; 
and though during most of the following day, Saturday the 4th, he suf- 
fered considerably, he found himself much better and more comfort- 
able on Sunday the sth. It was evident however, that, under the most 



90 History of Trinity Cliurch [1830- 

favourable circumstances, he could not in safety attend to his appoint- 
ments for the two following weeks. During the middle of the day, a 
letter, dictated by himself, was addressed to his son. Dr. William H. 
Hobart, in the city of New York, expressing the opinion of the bishop 
himself that he was convalescent; but as he concluded that he should 
not have sufficient strength to perform the duties of his visitation ap- 
pointments, it would be advisable for him to return home as soon as he 
should be able to travel, and he wished his son to come on for the pur- 
pose of attending him on the way. 

" On Tuesday the 7th the symptoms were more unfavourable, but 
there was nothing by any means alarming either to the physician or 
himself. During Wednesday the 8th the bishop's disorder assumed 
a severer character, but he was evidently much more comfortable 
through a large portion of Thursday the 9th; but on Friday the loth, 
the symptoms became seriously alarming, and towards the evening of 
that day assumed a fatal aspect. 

"About nine the bishop's son arrived. His introduction into the 
room of his venerated father produced emotions better imagined than 
described and which will not be soon forgotten by those present. The 
bishop was in full possession of his powers of mind and voice. The 
inquiries he made after his family, the pious counsels he addressed to 
his child, the fervour of his religious feelings, the ardour of his affec- 
tionate language, produced for a time a most thrilling and overwhelm- 
ing effect. Painfully interesting as this interview was, it was truly 
gratifying to those who had hitherto surrounded the bishop's bed, that 
Dr. Hobart could hear from his father's mouth, not only his last ad- 
monitions and affectionate entreaties to make the Saviour of his soul 
the supreme object of his love, but that he might have from it an 
assurance that his father had the fullest confidence in what his physi- 
cians had done for him. This sentiment was very frequently expressed 
during the whole of his sickness. Though he had the advantage of 
the counsel of several of the most distinguished and able medical 
gentlemen from other villages and though he was very much gratified 
by their visits and still more by their untiring attentions, he never 
failed to assure both them and his attending physician that he had the 
most entire confidence in the latter. To him he addressed the most 
grateful, pious and tender remarks. Again and again he would say, 
'My dear Doctor, give me your hand, it soothes me; you have been 
very kind and faithful to me; you have been most judicious in your 
treatment of me; you will not lose your reward; for whether I live or 
die, you have done your duty. God will bless you; my Saviour will 



1830] Last Illness of Bishop Hobart 91 

bless you.' To his other attendants he was continually addressing the 
warm acknowledgments, imploring upon them the richest blessings. 
On receiving the slightest refreshment or relief, his first expression 
was ' God be praised ' and then he would tenderly and repeatedly thank 
the immediate agent. Time will not permit any thing like a narrative of 
his conversation and remarks to those in his room. Throughout his 
sickness none were admitted who were not necessary to his comfort. 

"Though Bishop Hobart did not consider himself alarmingly ill 
till the latter part of his sickness, still he frequently observed, even in 
the earlier part of it, that it was the third attack of the kind; and such 
he had no doubt ' would some day be his end.' ' Perhaps,' said he, 
' this may be that one: if so, God's will be done. O pray for me, that 
I may not only say this, but feel it as a sinner; for, bear me witness, 
I have no merit of my own; as a guilty sinner, would I go to my 
Saviour, casting all my reliance on him — the atonement of his blood. 
He is my only dependence — my Redeemer, my Sanctifier, my God, 
My Judge.' Such was the tenour of much of his conversation; and it 
was most earnestly wished that the writer had the ability as well as 
time to record, in the glowing language of the departed prelate, the 
evidence he gave of deep humility, of lively faith, of animating hope 
of the joys of heaven. 

"On Sunday the 5th he requested the writer to perform in his 
room the office of visitation for the sick, in which, with his Prayer 
Book lying on his bed before him, he joined with that delightful 
fervour for which his manner has been so often admired. Frequently 
through the day and the night, he would request either the writer or 
the reverend brother who was with him all the time from Tuesday 
P.M. till he died, to use a short prayer. This practice was continued 
till he became too much exhaused to be benefitted by it. He often 
asked for some portion of Bishop Andrewes' Litany to be read. In 
his own repetition of them there was a thrilling effect upon those 
[jresent. 

" On Saturday morning the indications were so wholly discouraging 
that his physicians advised that he should be informed that they con- 
sidered him in a very dangerous situation. Though the bishop had 
evidently regarded his case as very doubtful, he might not be aware 
that his time was so near out as it has proved to have been. 

" The painful office of making the communication fell upon the 
writer, and it was suggested that if he had any thing to do or say there 
should be no delay, and allusion was made to his wishes as to the 
Lord's supper. ' Oh yes,' said he, ' the sacrament, the sacrament ; 



92 History of Trinity Church [1830- 

that is the last thing — that is all — let me have it.' There was a firm- 
ness and composure in his manner as he uttered the words, ' Well, 
God's will be done,' which moved every heart, and confirmed all 
present that the pious affection of this venerated and beloved bishop 
could not be shaken by the approaches of death. 

" The sacrament was soon administered by the writer, and long 
will that solemn scene be remembered by all who beheld the trans- 
action, as one of the most tender and moving character. When the 
person officiating came, in the confession, to the words, ' by thought, 
word or deed,' the bishop stopped him and said, ' You know the 
Church expects us to pause over those words ; pause now, repeating 
one of the words at a time till I request you to go on.' This was 
done and the pauses in each case were so long that a fear passed over 
our minds that he had lost his recollection, or had fallen asleep. This, 
however, proved not to be so ; He repeated each word, and after the 
third pause added 'Proceed, I will interrupt you no more.' At the 
proper place he requested to hear read the 93d hymn. As soon as the 
reading was ended, he sung clearly the second and third verses.' 

" From this time, which was about nine o'clock in the morning, 
there was no very important change. During the night he said very 
little, and for about four hours before he e.xpired, was nearly if not 
quite insensible to what was passing around. He sunk into the arms 
of death without a struggle; and his face soon assumed that engaging 
expression which had in life so often delighted those who loved him. 

" The most expeditious preparations were made for his removal to 
the city for interment. A very respectable body of the inhabitants of 
the village assembled at the parsonage-house, where after a few remarks 
by the writer, he performed that service in the Clergyman's Companion, 
prepared by the bishop himself for similar occasions. The body being 
placed in a hearse, (Sunday, 3 o'clock p.m.) a procession was formed; 
the writer and some members of his family, with the wardens and ves- 
trymen of St. Peter's church, with some other members of the congre- 
gation, followed the corpse in carriages. Dr. Hobart having previously 
taken his departure. The bell of St. Peter's church was tolled till the 
procession reached the edge of the village, when the people on foot and 
some others returned, and several carriages proceeded with the body to 
Weedsport where a canal-boat was in readiness; and it was committed 
to the care of the Rev. Francis H. Cuming, who, it should be stated, 
had been the constant attendant of the bishop, night and day from 
' The number in our present Hymnal is 456. The first line is, 
" Thou God, all glory, honor, power," 



1830] Death of Bishop Hobart 93 

Tuesday, p.m. The qualifications of this gentleman for a nurse, and 
his untiring assiduity made him a most important aid to the writer 
and his family during those trying days. He was so acceptable to the 
bishop, that he was unwilling to have him a moment from his room, 
except now and then he would command him to go and get some rest. 
" The foregoing has been written to meet the supposed expecta- 
tion of the distant public, and the bishop's more immediate friends, 
that the writer would make them acquainted with the most prominent 
facts and incidents in the last days of that eminent man whose death 
fills the Church with mourning. 

" John C. Rudd." ' 

A letter from Dr. Rudd, giving additional particulars, 
is incorporated in Dr. Schroeder's Metnoir, the first part 
of which is here given. 

"Auburn, November 17, 1S30. 

"The preceding account was written, as it states, for the purpose 
of meeting the anticipated anxiety of the public to learn the particu- 
lars of the last days of one who filled a space unusually large in the 
public eye, and a still larger one in the affections of his people. It was 
a leading aim of the writer in that account to present only the promi- 
nent points immediately connected with the mournful event. There 
were very many incidents in the illness of Bishop Hobart, which might 
have been related with propriety, but for the desire that the earliest 
possible information might be sent off, and brevity was requisite in 
order to do this. 

"The worthy publishers of 'Memorials of Bishop Hobart' have 
expressed a wish that I would extend the account already given, by 
adding a number of particulars, which have been related in private con- 
versations. I am fully aware of the difficulties, and frequent im- 
proprieties attending the detail of sick-room occurrences; and I am 
admonished on this subject by the recollection of the lively sensibility 
with which it was regarded by my venerated friend. Still I conclude 
I should have done injustice to the public, to him, and to myself, had 
I said less, and much more might doubtless have been expressed. In 
a case like the one which has filled the Church with an uncommon de- 
gree of interest, it would be reasonable to suppose that, under the 
peculiar circumstances of its occurrence, many incidents and remarks, 
gratifying to be known to the public, or to the immediate friends, 
would be remembered. 

' The Gospel Messenger, Aubum, September 13, 1830. 



94 History of Trinity Church [1830 

" To the writer and his wife, Bishop Hobart, as had been custom- 
ary for him for many years, had much to say in relation to his domestic 
affairs, and the different members of his family. On such topics it is 
well known that he was not in the habit of conversing much, except 
with very intimate friends. On these subjects, during the earlier part 
of the Bishop's illness, and when none were in his room but Mrs. Rudd 
or myself, or both, he conversed in his usual way, expressing all that 
tenderness and anxiety for which he was distinguished, regretting 
repeatedly, that Mrs. Hobart and her sister could not be with him. It 
was, I think, in the course of Saturday the nth, that he called me to 
his bedside and asked respecting the days upon which I had written 
to certain persons, and then moving his fingers in a calculation of the 
movements of the mail, he remarked, 'If I can hold out for two or 
three days longer, I shall undoubtedly see my dear wife; ' and then, 
with some ardent expressions of attachment, he added, ' But if it be 
God's will that I should not see her, I trust there is a place of meeting 
for us, where no separations will be known.' This, and many other 
particulars, have been detailed to the Bishop's family and particular 
friends during our visit to the city of New York in October. 

"Very few men, under any circumstances, ever evinced more 
gratitude for attentions of every kind, and surely no one under such 
circumstances of pain and suffering ever more carefully noted what 
was done for him. On one occasion there was a military parade 
in a field near the parsonage, the music of which, it was perceived, dis- 
turbed him. The writer went to the officers, and on stating the situa- 
tion of his friend, the music was instantly suspended, and the soldiers 
were soon marched off silently. On discovering what had been done, 
the Bishop wished to know the commander's name and observed, ' That 
was very kind in him — thank him and the officers for me.' . . ." ' 

The news of the Bishop's death spread rapidly, and 
stirred the heart of the community. The towns and vil- 
lages through which the body was borne in a canal-boat — 
at that time the vehicle of travel in that part of the State 
— displayed signs of mourning, and the bier was watched, 
on its transit, with tearful eyes. At Albany it was trans- 
ferred to the steamboat Constellation, which arrived at 
New York on the i6th of September. The press of that 

' Schroeder's Memoir, p. 24.3. 



1830] Funeral of Bishop Hobart 95 

day gave much space to the details of the funeral service. 
From the account in the New York American the follow- 
ing particulars are taken : 

" The remains of the lamented Bishop of this diocese reached this 
city yesterday morning in the steam-boat Constellation, from Albany, 
and were interred with the appropriate ceremonies last evening, beneath 
the chancel of Trinity Church. 

" The procession formed at his late residence in Varick-street, in 
the following order: — 

The Clergy. 

Pall Bearers. Corpse. Pall Bearers. 

The Assistant Ministers of Trinity Church. 

The Church Wardens and Vestrymen of Trinity Church, as mourners. 

Physician to the Family. 

Acting Governor of the State. 

The Mayor of the City. 

The Faculty and Students of the General Theological Seminary. 

The Faculty and Trustees of Columbia College. 

The President of the Senate and the Court for the Correction of 

Errors. 

The Judges of the several Courts. 

The Vestries of the several Episcopal Churches. 

Society for Promoting Religion and Learning in the State of New 

York. 

The New- York Bible and Common Prayer Book Society. 

The Au.xiliary New- York Bible and Common Prayer Book Society. 

The New-York Protestant Episcopal Missionary Society. 

The New- York Protestant Episcopal Tract Society. 

The New-York Protestant Episcopal Sunday School Society. 

The Trustees of the New-York Protestant Episcopal Public School. 

The Trustees of the New-York Protestant Episcopal Press. 

The Literary and Philosophical Society. 

The New- York Historical Society. 

Trustees of the City Library. 

Citizens. 

" The procession moved at a quarter before five, and arrived at Trinity 
Church about half-past six. It was preceded by nearly eighty clergy- 
men, and extended about a mile in length — the number of persons 
belonging to the various societies to whom places were assigned being 



96 History of Trinity Church [1830- 

about 700. The church, and the streets through which the procession 
passed, were thronged to excess. The burial service was read by 
Bishop Moore, of Virginia, assisted by the Rev. Dr. Lyell and the 
Rev. Mr. Schroeder. After the service an impressive and affecting 
discourse was pronounced by the Rev. Dr. Onderdonk, from the 35th 
verse of the fifth chapter of John: — 

" ' He was a burning and a shining light ; and ye were ivilling for a 
season to rejoice in his light.' 

" The earth which closed over the remains of this venerated indi- 
vidual has seldom held one more deeply deplored within its bosom. 
Beside the irreparable loss to the religious society of which he was the 
head, and the bitter bereavement to the circle of his immediate friends, 
the public at large have sustained a lamentable deprivation in the with- 
drawal of so active a character from the scene of his usefulness. 

"'Be ye wise as serpents, yet harmless as doves,' is the precept 
which seems to have guided the conduct of Bishop Hobart throughout 
his arduous career. Bland, frank, and affable, he mingled with the 
world like one who knew that the cure of souls is not incompatible 
with the courtesies of society; and the amenity of his manners concili- 
ated as many as the candour of their avowal taught to respect his 
opinions. . 

" It was these features that gave an almost apostolic colouring to his 
character, and enabled him, when walking among men in the zealous 
and indefatigable promulgation of his religious tenets, to claim the 
reverence even of those opposed to them. But one of the most 
marked characteristics of Bishop Hobart — and it is one that cannot be 
too highly honoured — was the noble, the almost romantic spirit of pa- 
triotism that animated his bosom. His country, her institutions, and 
her national character, was ever with him a theme of the most glowing 
enthusiasm: nor was it a blind devotion, a mere instinctive fondness 
for the land of his birth. His was a cast of mind, above all others, 
whose observation and research would lead the possessor to scrutinize 
the structure, and enable him to measure the value of such a political 
fabric as ours. He had studied the nature of this government in his 
closet; he had watched its influence upon the character of the people, 
while in the pursuance of his official duties; he had contrasted it as a 
whole with the establishments of Europe, and compared it in its details 
with that from whence it sprung. When to these he had added per- 
sonal observation, and had witnessed the operations of other systems 
from the nearest vantage ground, need we remind the reader how ener- 
getically and feelingly he poured forth his convictions on the subject ? 



1830] Tributes to Bishop Hobart's Character 97 

" We need not dwell upon the accomplishments of Bishop Hobart 
as a scholar and a divine, nor assert that, with his talents, they were 
such as became his eminent and responsible station. The ability and 
diligence with which he laboured in his vocation are too well known to 
need commemorating here. But, in addition to the official care and 
general interest in the welfare of his fellow-men, so unceasingly mani- 
fested by Bishop Hobart, there was in him a warmth of disposition, 
that, blending as it did with both his personal and professional charac- 
ter, and giving equal fervour to his friendships and his faith, added 
ardour to sanctity, and enforced piety with affection. The disappear- 
ance of such a man from the accustomed places where his friendly 
hand was ever stretched out to warn or to support, where his exhorta- 
tions were always near to admonish, his prayers ever ready to console, 
is a mournful and a solemn subject for reflection. We would not in- 
vade the holiness of sorrow by drawing from such a cause of grief the 
usual trite consolations; yet surely if men realize in the spirit a reward 
for deeds done in the body, he has now the recompense that all would 
attain. He died in the immediate exercises of his duties ; and though 
called at so brief a warning — unlike the son of Aaron, who was struck 
from heaven for putting strange fire into his censer — the mandate that 
bade him thither found him kindling the true flame upon the altar." ' 

The action of the Corporation, on this occasion, ap- 
pears from this transcript of the Records : 

" Having received the afflicting intelligence of the death (while on 
a visitation to a distant part of his Diocese) of the Rt. Rev. John 
Henry Hobart, D.D., Bishop of the Diocese, and Rector of this 
Church, and fully sensible of our duty to bend with humble submis- 
sion to the ordering of a wise and overruling Providence — it was 

" ' Resolved unanimously, That we shall ever hold in the most grate- 
ful and respectful remembrance, the truly Christian and Apostolic char- 
acter and eminent services of our deeply lamented Rector. 

" ' That as part of the Diocese of New York, and of the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church in the United States, we feel it a duty to our 
venerated and beloved friend and pastor, to express, as we do hereby 
express, our high sense of his promptitude, unexampled zeal, and un- 
wearied exertions to promote every object connected with the best 
interests of religion, and of the Church, of whom he was one of the 
most able, disinterested, and indefatigable servants. 
' Schroeder's Memoir, p. 15. 



98 History of Trinity Church [1830 

" ' That the respectful and affectionate condolence of the Vestry be 
tendered to the afflicted Relict and family of the deceased. 

" ' That with the concurrence of the family of the deceased, his 
funeral be conducted under the direction and at the expense of the 
Corporation of Trinity Church, and that the expenses attending his 
last illness, and the removal of his remains to this city, be also defrayed 
by this Corporation. 

" ' That Mr. McEvers, Judge Irving, Mr. Hone, Mr. Lawrence and 
Mr. Johnson, be a committee to make such arrangements for conduct- 
ing the funeral of the deceased, as they may think best suited to 
manifest the feelings of this Church on this melancholy event. 

" ' Resolved, That in further testimony of our high respect for the 
memory of our late Rector, the members of this Vestry will attend his 
funeral as mourners, and wear the usual badge of mourning thirty 
days. 

" ' Resolved, That Trinity Church, and St. Paul's and St. John's 
Chapels be hung in the customary mourning until the festival of 
Christmas. 

" 'Resolved, That a certified copy of the foregoing resolutions be 
delivered to Mrs. Hobart, the respected Relict of our late Bishop.' " ' 

And at a meeting on the 4th of October, the follow- 
ing resolutions were adopted unanimously : 

" Resolved, That the thanks of this Vestry be presented to the 
Rev. John C. Rudd, D.D., Rector of St. Peter's Church at Auburn, for 
the affectionate and devoted attentions of himself and of his family 
to our late Rector during his last illness. 

" Resolved, That the thanks of this Vestry be presented to the 
Rev. Francis H. Cuming, Rector of Christ's Church, Binghampton, 
and to Mr. Thomas Y. How, Junr., for their attentions to our late 
Rector, during his last illness, and in attending his remains to this city. 

" Resolved, That the Comptroller, under the direction of the 
Standing Committee, pay all the expenses of every description attend- 
ing the last sickness of our late Rector, and the removal of his remains 
to this city, so as in their discretion, fully to indemnify those who may 
have incurred the same. 

" Resolved, That the salary and allowance of the late Rector be 
continued to his widow until the end of the current half year, and that 
she have the use of the Rector's house until the last day of May next. 
' Records, Liber iii., folio 49. 



1830] Tributes to Bishop Hobart's Character 99 

" Resolved, That the Standing Committee consider and report to 
the Vestry, what further provision ought to be made for the support of 
the widow and family of the late Rector. 

" Resolved, That a suitable monument be erected in Trinity 
Church to the memory of the Rt. Rev. John Henry Hobart, D.D., late 
Bishop of the Diocese of New York, and Rector of this Church, and 
that Mr. Hone, Mr. Johnson, Mr. Weeks, Mr. McEvers and Mr. Laight, 
be a Committee for this purpose." ' 

Letters of condolence and various resolutions on the 
occasion of the death of Bishop Hobart, late Rector of 
the Church, were presented and read to the Vestrj^, viz.: 

From the Vestries of St. John's Church, Elizabeth- 
town, St. Andrew's Church, New York, and St. Paul's 
Parish, Baltimore ; from the Clergy of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, Baltimore ; from the congregation of 
Shearith Israel, New York, and from a meeting of the 
Lay Members of the Protestant Episcopal Society for the 
Promotion of Religion and Learning in the State of New 
York ; the Trustees of the New York Protestant Episco- 
pal Public School ; the New York Bible and Common 
Prayer Book Society ; the Auxiliary New York Bible and 
Common Prayer Book Society ; the New York Protestant 
Episcopal Tract Society ; the New York Protestant Epis- 
copal Missionary Society ; the New York Protestant Epis- 
copal Sunday School Society ; the New York Protestant 
Episcopal Press, and the Executive Committee of the Gen- 
eral Protestant Episcopal Sunday School Union. It was 
thereupon ordered, that the Clerk of the Board acknow- 
ledge the receipt of the same several communications. 

On the 15th October, the Standing Committee made 
the following report : 

"The Standing Committee to whom was referred, to consider and 
report what further provision ought to be made for the widow and 
family of the late Rector — Report; that having duly considered the 

' Records, Liber iii., folio 50. 



loo History of Trinity Church [1830 

subject referred to them, they recommend to the Vestry the adoption 
of the following preamble and resolutions, viz.: — 

" It appearing by the report of the Standing Committee, that the 
family of the Rt. Rev. John Henry Hobart, deceased, late Bishop of 
the Diocese of New-York, and Rector of this Parish, are, by his sudden 
death, left without any adequate provision for their future mainte- 
nance; — and this Vestry being sensible that the unceasing labours and 
exertions of this ever active and faithful servant of the Redeemer, in 
the discharge of the arduous duties incident to the various stations he 
has so long occupied in the Protestant Episcopal Church, whilst 
greatly contributing, under the blessing of Heaven, to the extension 
and prosperity of that Church, and eminently useful to the cause of 
sound religion and morals, have necessarily led to the neglect of his 
private concerns, and to the sacrifice of his private interests ; 
Therefore, 

" I. Resolved, That there be paid to the widow of the late 
Rector, for the support of herself and family, an annuity of two 
thousand dollars during her life, to commence from the first day of 
March next, when the temporary provision made by the resolution of 
the Vestry of the fourth instant, will cease. 

" 2. Resolved, That the sum of three hundred dollars per annum, 
be appropriated to the education and support of John Henry Hobart, 
the youngest son of the late Rector, until he shall attain the age of 
twenty-one years. 

"In behalf of the Standing Committee 

" Wm. Johnson, Comptroller. 

" October 15, 1830." ' 

A communication from the family of the late Rector, 
in the following words, was read and ordered to be en- 
tered on the minutes : 

"The family of the late Rt. Rev. Bishop Hobart, having received 
from the Clerk of the Vestry of Trinity Church, a copy of a resolution 
passed at a late meeting of that body, whereby it appears that a very 
liberal and ample provision has been made for their future support, 
would beg leave most respectfully to express to the Wardens and 
Vestrymen their sincere and grateful acknowledgments. 

"The afflicting dispensation of Providence, which deprived the 

'Records, Liber iii., folio 55. 



1830] Monument to Bishop Hobart loi 

family of their head and protector, had thrown them on the generosity 
of the representatives of that Church, in whose service he had spent 
the spring-time of his life, and to whose bountiful liberality he had 
often been indebted for so much of his worldly comfort and happiness. 

" With what kind and with what generous feelings they were re- 
garded by the Vestry, the late act of that Board abundantly testifies, 
and while it may be considered as an evidence of their grateful recol- 
lection of the faithful labours of him to whom they had so long stood 
in the near and endearing relations of Vestry and Rector, it is no less 
a proof of their lively and delicate sensibility to the necessities, and 
natural expectations of those whom he has left dependent. 

"While the family of the late Bishop Hobart would endeavour 
thus feebly to express to the Vestry of Trinity Church their grateful 
sense of the timely and munificent provision made for their support, 
they do not fail to recognize in it, the hand of that kind Providence, 
who has thus disposed the hearts of his creatures, and who has 
promised to be the ' support of the widow and the father of the 
fatherless.' 

"New York, Nov. 1830.' 

The monument for the erection of which the Vestry 
had taken order may now be seen in the room at the end 
of the south aisle, commonly known as " the Bishop's 
room." Two designs were offered for inspection, one of 
which, being that of Mr. Ball Hughes, was selected and 
approved. It was decided that the monument should be 
placed in the centre of the large western window in the 
chancel beneath which the body was buried, and that 
some alterations should be made in the arrangement of 
the chancel, in order to give it that position. When the 
Church was rebuilt, some years later, the monument was 
removed and set up in the place in one of the sacristies 
which it now occupies. It is a large and ambitious work 
in Italian marble, representing the Bishop seated in an un- 
comfortable chair, and apparently moribund ; beside him 
stands a draped figure of a woman, representing faith or 

' Records, Liber iii., folio 57. 



I02 History of Trinity Church [1830 

religion, and pointing to a cross above. Up to that date 
no piece of portrait sculpture so elaborate had been erected 
in this country. 

An interesting incident on the occasion of the funeral 
is thus noticed in the Eveiiing Post of September 1 7, 1830 : 

" The funeral of the Right Rev. John Henry Hobart, bishop of 
the diocese of New York, took place yesterday afternoon. The 
procession was formed at his house in Varrick-street, at a little 
before five o'clock. It was exceedingly numerous, and consisted not 
only of the members of the Episcopal Church, but of respectable indi- 
viduals of every other denomination, who came to pay their last token 
of respect to the remains of this eminent divine. Nearly eighty clergy- 
men, it is said, were in the procession, which included also about 700 
persons belonging to different institutions and societies, and extended 
to the distance of a mile. As it proceeded through Broadway, some 
independent companies, which had been called out that day for mili- 
tary exercise, halted and divided to allow it a passage. The men were 
ordered to place their arms in the usual position for doing military 
honours, and stood with their faces bowed over their pieces in a natural 
and expressive attitude of respect and sorrow. The company by whom 
this striking and most fit tribute of the soldiers of earth to the remains 
of the higher soldier of the cross was rendered, was the corps of Scott's 
Cadets, commanded by Capt. Jackson." 

The local bards of the period did not fail to make their 
contributions to the common sorrow. We find in a publi- 
cation of the period these " Lines Suggested by the Burial 
of Bishop Hobart" : 

" Hark! from yon consecrated tower. 
At twilight's dim and cheerless hour, 
With mournful tone, the muffled bell 
Slowly tolls his solemn knell. 

With measured step and streaming eye. 
And hearts which heave affection's sigh, 
Drooping and sad, the mourning throng 
In pensive silence move along. 



1830] Bishop White on Bishop Hobart 103 

Their feet ascend the house of prayer, 
And Zion's sons assemble there, 
With budding youth and withering age 
In holy rites their souls engage. 

The sacred preacher's voice is heard 
Breathing the solace of the ti>ordj 
Praying for hope's celestial power 
To cheer them in affliction's hour. 

Alas! their tears do faster flow — 
Loud moans attest their heartfelt woe: 
Their burning and their shining light 
They feel, hath set in death's dark night. 

But weep not, soldier of the cross — 
Thine, not thy captains is the loss: 
Clothed in the armour of the Son, 
He fought the fight — the conquest won! 

And with triumphant hosts on high, 
Now reaps the fruits of victory: 
His life approved — his labours done — 
Salvation crowns her faithful son. 

"C" 

Bishop White, immediately on learning of the death 
of the Bishop of New York, wrote to the clergyman who 
had communicated the news to him in the following 
terms : 

" During my long life. Sir, I have not known any work of death, 
exterior to the circle of my own family, so afflictive to me as the pres- 
ent. I have known, and have had occasion to remark, the character 
of my now deceased friend, from his very early boyhood; and I can 
truly say, that I have never known any man on whose integrity and 
conscientiousness of conduct I have had more full reliance than on his. 
In contemplating what must be the brevity of my stay in this valley of 
tears, it has been a gratification to me to expect that I should leave 
behind me a brother, whose past zeal and labours were a pledge that 
he would not cease to be efficient in extending our Church and in the 

' The Ne~M- York American, September 22, 1830. 



I04 History of Trinity Church [1830 

preservation of her integrity. But a higher disposal has forbidden 
the accomplishment of my wishes; much, as I verily believe, to his 
gain, although greatly to our loss, and to that of the Church." 

On the Sunday following the funeral. Dr. Berrian 
preached a sermon in Trinity Church, from which we 
take the following : 

" The powers of his mind, though very advantageously displayed 
in the public exercises of his ministry, appeared still more remark- 
able in his intercourse with mankind, and in the practical business 
of his office, and of life in general. Here his habit of acting on gen- 
eral principles, and of carrying them out to their true and legitimate 
consequences, his keen and ready detection of any departure from 
these principles, the happy illustration of his arguments, the fertility 
of his invention, the abundance of his resources, gave him an immense 
superiority over men of loose reasoning and unsettled minds. The 
soundness of his thoughts, whether in public debate or private conver- 
sation, was aided by the ease and fluency of his expression, and no one 
lost any of the force of his arguments by the want of clearness and 
precision in his language. And the very occasions which would have 
confounded ordinary men and embarrassed their efforts, seemed always 
to rouse his energies to a higher pitch, and to make him rise above 
himself. 

" This fitness for the practical business of life, which his en- 
larged intercourse with the world, from the duties of his Episcopal 
office and his connexion with many literary and religious institutions, 
rendered every day more striking, increased his ascendency over the 
minds of men. We should not notice this influence, except that it was 
all exerted for the interests of true religion and virtue, and for the 
promotion of sound learning in connexion with faith and piety. 

" And here let me remark, that he was thought by many to be 
an ambitious man, who mingled too much of human pride with the 
high and holy duties of his calling. He was ambitious, but his ambi- 
tion was the noble and insatiable desire of doing good. In the pursuit 
of this object he set no limit to his plans; in defending and propagating 
the truth he cared not whose path he crossed; in guarding the Church 
against its outward enemies and secret foes, he was thankful for any 
superiority which God had given him, as he devoutly believed it 
redounded to his glory. 

" But for his own sake, whether for present reputation or post- 



1830] Sermons on Bishop Hobart 105 

humous fame, as unconnected with the promotion of the temporal and 
eternal happiness of men, he was not ambitious. He stooped to the 
humblest duties of his calling with as much pleasure as he engaged in 
the most exalted. One of the latest and most admirable of the works 
upon which he bestowed the attention of his powerful mind, was a 
simple Catechism for children, and it was compiled with so much 
judgment, arranged with so much order, expressed with so much 
clearness, and made so agreeable in every part to scriptural truth, that 
I never teach the young out of it, without feeling instructed myself. 
He composed one book, which, without adding to his literary reputa- 
tion, will ever be the commendation of his piety, that has furnished 
thousands with holy thoughts and devout ejaculations at the altar, and 
that will continue perhaps to excite the fervour of Christian souls, 
when works of more ambitious pretensions are forgotten. The Festi- 
vals and Fasts, that excellent expositor of the institutions of the 
Church and summary of Christian doctrine, the Christian's Manual, 
the Clergyman's Companion, the Commentary on the Bible, were all 
prepared with much labour and care, and without any view to the 
reputation of authorship or pecuniary reward. In the revision, im- 
provement, and enlargement of these works, he kept a single eye to 
the welfare of the Church, the promotion of piety, and the advance- 
ment of sound doctrine among men. The only original work of any ex- 
tent in which he was ever engaged, his " Apology for Primitive Order," 
together with all his other controversial pieces, were written with a 
simple view of defending the truth against the misrepresentations of 
error. If the time which he spent in these unostentatious but useful 
labours had been employed with more selfish and ambitious ends, it 
might have gained for him an enviable pre-eminence among literary 
men. What a striking proof of his humility and faith." ' 

Many other notable sermons were preached of which 
the subject was the deceased prelate, and the language 
that of enthusiastic eulogy : those of Dr. Schroeder and 
Dr. Wainwright deserve a passing mention. But we re- 
frain from adding excerpts from obituary discourses to 
those already before the eye of the reader. There is a 
certain monotony in the praises of the dead, as heard in 
the pulpit, which blends them confusedly together in the 

' Berrian's Recollections of Departed Friends, pp. 43, 47, and Schroeder's Memoir, 
p. 26 ct seq. 



io6 History of Trinity Church [1830 

perspective of the past. We find, however, among the 
records of that day some which have an interest as graphic 
personal descriptions. Thus, for example. Dr. Matthews, 
the Chancellor of the recently formed University of New 
York, contributed, in 1852, his recollections of Bishop 
Hobart to the well-known Annals of which Dr. Sprague 
was the editor. 

" Bishop Hobart had one characteristic that may be said to have 
pervaded the whole man — physical, intellectual and moral — I mean 
great quickness and energy; and it was this, more than anything else, 
that made him what he was. 

" He was of not quite the ordinary height, with rather a broad face, a 
clear, piercing eye, and a highly intellectual expression. Though there 
was nothing in his countenance that betokened an unamiable spirit, 
I never thought that his face indicated anything like the amount 
of benevolence which he possessed. His eye, his countenance, his 
whole frame seemed never at rest. His manners were dignified and 
courtly, though without any great artificial polish. He walked with 
so much rapidity that you might have supposed he was walking for a 
wager. And the movements of his mind and his tongue were as rapid 
as those of his limbs. He talked on every subject with great earnest- 
ness, and sometimes made mistakes in his statements; but it never 
seemed to cost him the least effort to correct them when they were 
made known to him. Though he talked a great deal in every company 
into which he was thrown, yet I believe nobody ever felt that he was 
assuming, or manifested any disposition to monopolize the conversa- 
tion. He had great general intelligence, and was instructive as well 
as agreeable in his social intercourse." ' 

Governor John A. King, in the course of an apprecia- 
tion of his old friend, written in 1857 for the same 
volume, says : 

'' I think I may say with great confidence that Bishop Hobart's 
whole character bore the stamp of greatness. His mind was at once 
quick in its movements, and powerful in its grasp. He took an 
intense view of every subject to which his thoughts were directed, and 
he had the power of presenting it with equal intensity to other minds. 
His faculties were highly cultivated, and his large stores of knowledge 
' Sprague's Amtals, vol. v., p. 450. 



1830] Bishop Coxe on Bishop Hobart 107 

were fully at his command. You could not place him in any circum- 
stances but that he would display a master mind. What he was as the 
Rector of a Church, or the Bishop of a Diocese, or I had almost said, 
in a casual meeting that you might have with him in the street, would 
satisfy you that if Providence had placed him at the head of an army, 
or even the head of a nation, he had qualities which would not have dis- 
honoured the position. I well remember to have heard my father 
speak of him as possessing powers of debate which were almost un- 
rivalled. In the discharge of his official duties, he was just what you 
would expect from the qualities which I have attributed to him. He was 
one of the high Churchmen of his day, and admitted no compromise in 
regard to the opinions he held as an Episcopalian; but he was still in the 
most agreeable relations with many clergymen of other communions. 
As a preacher, he was natural, earnest, bold, effective, and you seemed 
not only to feel the glow, but see the flash, of the inward fire. His 
appearance in the pulpit was dignified and commanding. His sermons 
were written with conciseness and point, as well as great vigour, and 
were designed to find their way to the life rather through the under- 
standing than the passions. As the Head of the Diocese, you could 
hardly fix a limit to his influence — there were those indeed who dis- 
sented from his views and policy on some points, but it was not at the 
option of any body whether or not to respect him; and with the great 
mass of the Clergy it is not too much to say that his will was law. He 
thought, felt, spoke, acted, in this as in every other relation, as one 
having authority." ' 

To these reminiscences, we add some interesting pas- 
sages from the Recollections of that accomplished scholar 
and poet, Arthur Cleveland Coxe, one of the grandest 
gentlemen and most earnest Christians of his day, himself 
also some time a Bishop in the Church. His admiration 
for Bishop Hobart partook of the nature of veneration, 
and the following recollections deserve to be kept in re- 
membrance as those of one of the warm admirers and 
lovers of our great father in God. 

" Bishop Hobart died in the Autumn of 1830. The last time I 
ever saw him was in Easter Week of that year. It was the custom, in 
his time, for all the Sunday Schools to assemble, once a year, for a 

' Sprague's Annals, vol. v., p. 452. 



io8 History of Trinity Church [183° 

Service and a Sermon to the children. This was originally designed 
for ' Innocents' Day,' as a fitting celebration of that festival; but the 
bad weather generally prevalent at that season, to say nothing of the 
too prevalent consequences among children of Christmas enjoyments 
of another sort during the holidays, created a change to the glad 
season of the Resurrection. I remember well the appearance of the 
Bishop, as he presided for the last time at that festival of the children, 
in St. John's Chapel, New York. Many of the city Clergy were with 
him, and I recollect that the preacher began with an expression of self- 
distrust, as a proper preacher for children. A young Seminary student, 
who stood by me, said something to another, which caught my ear. It 
is true, I fear, that ' to preach so as to interest children, is a gift very 
few can lay claim to.' The student, I think, was in after life the Rev. 
Dr. Van Ingen, of my own diocese. 

" I can see him now — the Bishop, I mean — as he knelt at the altar, 
offered concluding prayers, and gave us his blessing. Little did I 
then suppose I should never hear that voice again. I never had seen 
any other bishop, and though I knew many others by their engraved 
portraits, which adorned the window of Stanford & Swords' Church 
Book Warehouse, nobody looked just like a bishop to my eyes, save 
only that energetic prelate, with his quick, earnest utterance and his 
commanding appearance in the pulpit. 1 say ' in the pulpit,' particu- 
larly, for he was little of stature, like Zacchasus, and did not look so 
grand when he stood in the chancel. Yet, nobody but a mere boy 
would probably have thought of this. There was somewhat about his 
bearing, and almost military look of command, that made all men feel 
his apostolic dignity, his conscious call to preside among men, as an 
ambassador for Christ. 

"In 1831, I again attended the festival in St. John's Chapel. 
Bishop Onderdonk had succeeded my venerated paragon of apostolic 
merit, and I had to learn new ideas of a bishop's presence and per- 
sonal bearing. The change was at first distasteful, but the successor 
of Hobart had qualities which soon endeared him, also, to the Church. 
And now for what happened in 1831 ; my experience may be inter- 
esting to children. It was the custom as the children passed out of 
the Church, on these occasions, to give each of them a little book and 
a New Year's cake. The New Year's cake or ' cookey ' of New York 
was inherited from the original Dutch settlers of Manhattan Island. 
Imitations abound; but even in New York I know of only one baker 
who can produce the genuine article at the present day. The cookey 
was generally stamped with Christmas devices, and was not much in 



1830] Portrait of Bishop Hobart 109 

vogue after Septuagesima. I never saw one at Easter, except at these 
festivals, and the custom of giving New Year s cakes at this time was 
a survival from the earlier use of Innocents* Day, or Childermas, for 
this celebration. Under the great tower-door of St. John's were two 
enormous baker's baskets, filled with the crisp and fragrant cakes. A 
kinsman of mine was one of the Sunday School authorities who pre- 
sided over the distribution, and as I passed out with the rest, he ac- 
costed me with a smile: ' Here, Cleve, is your cake, but be sure to read 
the book.' And I did read the book. It was embellished with the 
picture of a clergyman, in 'gown and bands'; the dignified costume 
which Bishop Hobart always wore in the pulpit, except when he was 
officiating in some Episcopal duty, such as Confirmation, or conse- 
crating a Church. I saw him often in this attire, in different churches, 
and as often, perhaps, when he wore his rochet and lawn sleeves.' 

" I did ' read the book.' It told how Bishop Hobart had been 
with us and helped the children the year before, and then added the 
story of his decease, at Auburn, in the month of September. It 
said: — ' He died like an apostle.' We must recollect that, after Bishop 
Seabury, no man did so much to settle the American Church on sure 
foundations of ' Evangelical Truth and Apostolic order,' as this truly 
great man. For two years or more he was Seabury 's successor in 
Connecticut as ' Provisional Bishop,' and Connecticut should not 
forget it. 

' " Of the portrait, which forms the frontispiece of this sketch, I tell the story as it 
was told to me. When Bishop Hobart was consecrated, in iSil, he was only 35 
years old, and a mere youth in appearance. Hair-powder was then in vogue, and I 
remember some who used it in the thirties. As Bishop Provoost always wore a wig, 
like those of the English Bishops (only recently disused), and as Bishop Moore was a 
venerable man, with long white locks, a youthful Bishop was something very distaste- 
ful to the old people of that Diocese, especially in Trinity parish. New York, of which 
he was minister. In deference to them he therefore slightly sprinkled his locks; but 
when he became grey-headed enough to do so, without notable change of appearance, 
he discontinued a very useless and annoying fashion of the day. His portrait had 
been painted, however, with the youthful features and a prematurely grey head. He 
therefore disliked it, but as it was valuable (I never found out who painted it), he gave 
it to Mrs. Murray, a dear friend of his whole family. It was inherited by the Rev. 
John Murray Guion, former rector of the Church at Seneca Falls, from whom I tried 
to purchase it for Hobart College. He was attached to it, however, as a family in- 
heritance, and wished to bequeath it to a beloved daughter. She has allowed it to be 
copied by Kent, photographic artist, in Rochester, N. Y., and anybody who wishes to 
own a fine work of art, which preserves a likeness of the great Bishop in his prime, 
would do well to order it, through J. Pott & Co., 114 Fifth Avenue, New York. 
A. C. C. 

" There is a copy of the portrait, painted in oils, at Trinity College, Hartford." 



no History of Trinity Church [1830 

"It was my happy lot, during my College days, to become very 
intimate with Mrs. Hobart and her family, visiting them often at 'the 
Hills,' in New Jersey (near the present village of Summit), where the 
Bishop used to spend his summers, at his pleasant country seat, very 
modest and unpretending, but affording him rest and quiet, and the 
enjoyments of a garden, which he dearly loved. Concerning his last 
days at this retreat, I have to tell an anecdote, which Mrs. Hobart 
herself told me, with tender emotions. But first let me say, that, as 
he went upon the journey from which he never returned, my own dear 
father was on the steamboat with him, and had a very animated con- 
versation with him, as they admired together the charming scenery of 
the Hudson. My father landed at Newburgh, and said, ' I preach 
next Sunday, for the Presbyterian bishop of Canterbury.' ' Oh! call 
him " Archbishop" ' was the merry rejoinder — ' why not ? ' 'I was not 
arch enough for that,' replied my father, and with these pleasantries 
they parted. Only a few weeks after, my father opened the morning 
newspaper, and said, with feeling, 'My son. Bishop Hobart is dead ! ' 
He then began our family prayers, and prayed for the Bishop's 
afflicted widow and her children. When I told Mrs. Hobart of this 
she said: ' It was very kind in your father and I am happy to know it. 
He saw him later than I did; my husband had just parted with me for 
the last time.' 

" I was sitting with her, on the little verandah, at the Hills. After 
a few moments, she said: 'He left me here, and went thoughtfully, 
out of my sight, to take his carriage, there, at the gate; but he soon 
came running back, for something he had forgotten. This gave me 
one more last look at him and one more tender farewell. "Oh ! my 
dear," said I, as he again tore himself away, "you are doing too 
much." " How can I do ioo much," he answered — " for Him who has 
done everything for me ? " ' These were the last words that passed be- 
tween this loving, faithful wife, and her devoted husband, who indeed 
lived and died like an Apostle."' 

The portrait to which Bishop Coxe refers as being at 
Hartford, is the one which formed the frontispiece to the 
third volume of this History. 

In the Hobart correspondence there are various bills 

^Recollections of Bishop Hobart, by the Rt. Rev. Arthur Cleveland Coxe, D.D. 
No. 6 in the Soldier and Servant Series of the Junior Auxiliary Publishing Company, 
Hartford, 1895. 




31 






(1^ 



^ 

i 
t 

3 



1830] "Short Hills" 



and memoranda relating to shrubs and plants for the 
Bishop's residence at Short Hills. In many of the letters 
from his friends and correspondents are allusions to gifts 
of seeds or cuttings for the garden or orchard. 

Judging from the bills we would say that the Bishop 
was especially fond of roses and honeysuckles. In one 
bill alone, that for the spring of 1821, we find no less 
than ten different varieties of roses, and six varieties of 
honey-suckles. 

The Bishop used to call his place the " Short Hills," 
but the location is rather in Summit, New Jersey, than in 
the adjacent village now known as Short Hills. Through 
the courtesy of Mr. Charles W. L. Roche, we are able to 
present to our readers two views of the Bishop's place, 
which is now known as " Brantwood," and owned by Mr. 
Roche. Mr. Roche's present residence occupies the exact 
site of the house in which the Bishop lived and which was 
burned down some years ago. The view which we give of 
the old house is as it was a short while before it was burned. 

Mr. Roche's house is practically on the same site as 
that of the Bishop's Farm-house, and for practical as well 
as for sentimental reasons Mr. Roche used the foundation 
stones of the Bishop's house as far as they would go in 
his own, and as nearly as he could he preserved the 
original contour of the land about the house, together 
with the shrubs and shade trees which the Bishop planted, 
among which were some fine old specimens which he had 
imported from foreign lands. There was a cedar of Leba- 
non which was still alive when the present owner took up 
his residence there, but it has since died because the roots 
were in some manner interfered with. The trunk and 
some of the branches still stand and serve as a trellis for 
vines. The Bishop also planted patches of lilies and 
rocket (the latter a flower somewhat similar to flox) which 



History of Trinity Church [1830 



have spread over a large territory and which in Springtime 
make the hillside aglow with beauty. The Bishop was 
very fond of the locust tree and he planted a number of 
them around his place, the result of which is very apparent 
for some miles around, as the seed-pods have evidently 
blown and gradually spread this tree to a great distance 
from the original spot. 

The second view gives a very good idea of how the 
grounds looked in Bishop Hobart's time. The estate of 
the Bishop contained about 175 acres. In digging about 
the place the present owner recently found the key to the 
old house and the Bishop's doorplate, bearing the inscrip- 
tion " HOBART." It is about ten inches long by four 
inches wide. 

The elevation is over four hundred feet and the 
steeple of Trinity Church can be seen plainly from the 
grounds. It is true that the spire of the old church was 
only 180 feet high, while the present one is 284 feet, yet 
the complete absence of tall buildings near it made it con- 
spicuous. The tradition, therefore, is very likely true 
that the Bishop used to be signalled from the church 
spire when his services were unexpectedly required. 

And now this part of our History, which deals with the 
Hobart period comes to an end. It would seem fitting to 
close it with what is styled, in recent parlance, an " ap- 
preciation " of its subject. Such a summary I was about 
to write, when I received, unexpectedly, from that friend 
and fellow-laborer in this protracted work, the Rev. Dr. 
Lowndes, to whom I have already referred in the introduc- 
tions to the volumes of this History, a paper which consti- 
tutes so clear a presentation of the several claims of 
Bishop Hobart to our gratitude, that it may well serve 
as the close of this presentation of the life of this great 
man. With the views of the writer, candidly and forcibly 



1830] Conclusion 113 

as he has expressed them, we may not all entirely agree ; 
but in the main, the portrait is well drawn, and the con- 
clusions constrain assent. 

This statement I shall, accordingly, make the finale of 
this branch of the work, presenting it, without change, to 
the reader, and commending it to the thoughtful con- 
sideration of lovers of our Church and admirers of honest 
and loyal men. 

" When Hobart ascended to the Episcopate the idea current as to 
the duties of that Office was that it had to be filled with dignity: apart 
from that qualification little else was demanded. Hobart infused into 
the ministrations of the Episcopate a zeal, an ardour and an enthusiasm 
which had been absolutely alien to it for centuries. 

" This enthusiasm was partly due to his restless and nervous tem- 
perament, a temperament which was peculiarly American. High- 
strung, quick in all his actions, repose was unknown to him. He 
never could have filled any situation with ' ease and dignity.' But be- 
yond all this natural temperament there was with him a new conception 
of the Office of the Episcopate. He held lofty ideas as to the value 
and worth of the Episcopate. He magnified his Office. He believed 
the Episcopate to be an absolute necessity. He believed as few men 
before him did in the reality of that Office, he firmly believed in the 
words of his Prayer Book which told him that he stood in the ' place of 
the Apostles ' when ministering to Christian congregations. He ante- 
dated by several years the teachings and the thought in the Anglican 
Church which has come to be known under the name of ' Tractarian- 
ism ' or the Oxford Movement, or the Catholic Revival. His activity 
in printing tracts and pamphlets, his strong belief in the true Catho- 
licity of the American Church, his untiring zeal to have those principles 
taught by his clergy, and his own constant advocacy of them, entitle 
him to the title of being the ' First Tractarian ' as well as the remodel- 
ler of the Anglican Episcopate. His influence on the Canadian 
Bishops with whom he was more in sympathy than with those in 
America has still to be told. 

"The Church of England does not yet recognize to the full the 
great benefits she owes to the Canadian Bishops of the early part of the 
nineteenth century, and she is equally far from understanding the debt 
she is under to John Henry Hobart. 



114 History of Trinity Church [1830- 

" In the American Church his influence was, almost from the very 
earliest days of his Episcopate, rapidly felt. He had official oversight 
not only of New York State, which was his own diocese, but he had 
at various times the oversight of Connecticut, New Jersey and the 
Western Reserve in Ohio. Men from the East, the South and the 
West applied to Bishop Hobart for help and guidance in Church mat- 
ters ; parishes even in the South asked him to recommend them 
suitable persons as Rectors. 

"He was looked up to as a leader by men of diverse opinions; he 
was appealed to as if he had been the Metropolitan of the American 
Church. His energies were untiring. With him it was not the scab- 
bard wearing out the sword, but the sword wearing out the frail 
scabbard. 

" From the onset of his life he was a frail, nervous being and the 
frailties which we are forced to recognize in his character, his quick- 
ness of speech, his hasty actions, his irritability at all opposition, his 
outbursts of quick temper, all these faults and frailties were we are in- 
clined to believe the result of his physical condition. A dyspeptic 
man is rarely evenly balanced. 

" Frail as his body was, the mind was ever clear and the ardent 
spirituality of the soul triumphed over all. 

" It is a common tradition in the Diocese of New York that all 
progress in Church matters dates from the Hobart epoch. 

" While such a statement is not strictly accurate, because even in 
Trinity Parish Hobart would have been able to accomplish but little 
had not broad and stable foundations been laid by wise and good men, 
as the course of this History has abundantly shewn, yet the statement 
is sufficiently true to merit consideration. 

" When Hobart assumed the Rectorship of the Premier Parish in 
New York, he found that the finances of the Corporation had been wisely 
and conservatively administered through most trying times, while what 
may be called the spiritualities had been but little attended to. 

" As a necessary consequence of the darkened days of Bishop 
Provoost's concluding years, and the health of Bishop Hobart's imme- 
diate predecessor the latter years in the history of the Parish and 
Diocese had been rather barren of good works. 

"Institutions had indeed been created before Hobart's day, but 
when he became Rector he found them languishing for lack of leader- 
ship. To him, therefore, the merit belongs of having infused new life 
into them and made them valuable auxiliaries to the work of the 
Church in the city and State. 



1830] Conclusion 115 

"When we re-read the list of Societies which sent their tributes of 
respect and condolences on the death of Bishop Hobart, we feel that 
the Church was in a very different position in this country after Bishop 
Hobart's Episcopate than she was at its commencement. 

" The Society for the Promotion of Religion and Learning did not 
owe its origin to Bishop Hobart, but he made it effective. 

"The New York Bible and Prayer Book Society seems to have 
been an outgrowth of meetings of young men for religious instruction 
in Trinity Parish and other city churches. They realized the good 
which might be done by an organized society for distributing the Bible 
and the Book of Common Prayer. In the Churchman s Magazine for 
March and April, 1809, is found the Constitution, to which is prefixed 
an address upon the utility of such a Society, in which the arguments 
and phrases are not only those used by Bishop Hobart in sermons, 
charges, and addresses, but the style throughout is eminently charac- 
teristic of the Bishop. As this Society was, so a note prefixed to the 
Constitution and Address says, to be general and its object to diffuse 
its benefits throughout the Country, there was subsequently founded 
under the direct auspices of the Bishop himself an Auxiliary New 
York City Bible and Prayer Book Society, which was to be more local 
in its work. 

" The school known originally as the ' Charity School,' founded 
in 1709, by the S. P. G. and Trinity Church, had maintained an hon- 
ourable and useful existence for nearly a century, when new life was 
infused into it largely by Dr. Hobart and some of the younger clergy 
and laity by its incorporation in 1806 under the name of the New York 
Protestant Episcopal Public School. It is now known as Trinity School, 
the name given to it in 1845. 

" The New York Protestant Episcopal Tract Society was founded 
as an offshoot of the Bible and Prayer Book Society in 1810. Its early 
publications were largely from the pen of Dr. Hobart, Dr. Howe, Dr. 
Beasley and other of the intellectual clergy of the day. This Society 
is still in nominal existence. 

" The Sunday School Society was founded in Dr. Hobart's Episco- 
pate, in 1 81 7, and continued in active existence for about thirty 
years. 

" The Protestant Episcopal Press, established in 1829, was the result 
of the Bishop's influence. It had a career of great usefulness for nearly 
fifteen years. 

" Not only in the formation of Societies which did good work 
for the Church at large was Bishop Hobart active, but he founded 



ii6 History of Trinity Church [1830- 

Church papers. It must be remembered that Hobart did not look 
upon the territorial limits of Trinity Parish as bounding the sphere 
of his activities ; it may be truly said that New York State was his 
Parish. 

" This is true because in his anxiety for the spread of Evangelical 
Truth and Apostolic Order he did not confine his work in his Diocese 
to what may be called simple Episcopal Acts, such as Confirmation 
and the settling of clergy in parishes, but he made specific enquiries as 
to the actual needs of the parish, just as if he were the Rector, and the 
clergy his Vicars. 

"The Churchman's Magazine was published from 1804-1808 in 
Connecticut under the direction of the Convocation of the Clergy of 
the Diocese. After the year 1805 Dr. Hobart and other New York 
clergymen and laymen became financially interested in the venture. 
Dr. Hobart also contributed to its columns. In 1808 the magazine 
was removed to New York and Dr. Hobart became its editor. It was 
continued until the year 181 2. A new series commenced in 1813 
under the editorship of the Rev. John C. Rudd, then of Elizabeth 
Town, New Jersey, but still under the supervision of Bishop Hobart. 
This series continued until 1816. 

" Bishop Brownell, at the request of the Convention of the Diocese 
of Connecticut, commenced a new series in 1821 and continued it for 
two years. The Convocation of the Clergy of Connecticut, at a meeting 
in Cheshire on November 24, 1824, considered several plans for its re- 
vival. Finally a resolution was adopted that it was expedient to revive 
The Churchman's Magazine, and the Rev. Dr. Tillotson Bronson, of the 
Episcopal Academy, was elected editor. It was continued till the 
close of the year 1826, when it ceased to exist. It is a storehouse of 
information for the period covered by its existence, its literary merit 
was always high and its Churchmanship sound and proclaimed with 
no uncertain voice. 

"The Christian yournal was established in 1817, by Bishop Ho- 
bart himself, as a diocesan paper under his own editorial manage- 
ment assisted by the Rev. Benjamin T. Onderdonk. 

" It had many interesting articles on Church Doctrine and Practice, 
besides giving diocesan and general Church news. In its columns 
are found records of Church events which cannot be found else- 
where so far as the period covered by the years 1817-1831 is con- 
cerned. Its last number was for December, 1830. In a valedictory 
the publishers say that the paper is discontinued for lack of financial 
support. The self-evident reason is that its founder and sustainer 



1830] Conclusion 117 

had passed away a few months before, and the untiring and fertile 
brain that had controlled its fortunes for fifteen years was at last 
' at rest.' 

" The Churchman s Almanac we have already noticed. Founded 
by Dr. Schroeder, it was an outcome of that literary zeal which Dr. 
Hobart so impressed on his friends and fellow-labourers. It is un- 
doubtedly the oldest Church almanac of the Anglican Communion 
and it has gone on flourishing and increasing in bulk and usefulness, 
being now in its seventy-sixth year. 

" The Pocket Almanac was founded by Bishop Hobart, it was 
published continuously from the year 1816 to i860. 

"In addition to these publications the Bishop edited a consider- 
able number of works. 

''The Companion for the Altar appeared in 1804, being taken 
largely from English sources; it is still in use by old-fashioned Church 
people and is to be found on some publishers' shelves. The portion 
containing the Service of the Holy Communion, with devotions at the 
time of reception was published separately, under the title of The 
Altar. 

"In 1805 the Bishop published The Companion to the Book of 
Comtnon Prayer, annexed to an edition of the Prayer Book. This is 
the first American attempt to comment on, and explain the Prayer 
Book. It is based upon the works of Dean Comber, Bishop Cosin, Dr. 
Wheatley and other English Divines. 

"In 1806 he edited a Collection of Essays on the Subject of 
Episcopacy which had originally appeared in the Albany Cehtinel and 
other newspapers, and had been written by himself, Dr. Beasley, and 
Dr. Howe. 

"He edited Nelson's Companion to the Festivals and Fasts of the 
Church, adapting it to the American Church. This publication after- 
wards appeared under his own name, and passed through many 
editions. 

" The Clergyman s Companion was taken from D'Aubeny's Guide 
to the Church, the writings of Jones of Nayland, Bishop Burnett's 
Pastoral Care and other standard works on the Pastoral Office. In 
addition it included in large type the 'Services to be Used by the 
Clergy in their Private Ministrations.' It remained in constant use 
until about 1850, when The Clergyman's Fade Mecum appeared. 

" The New York Catechism was compiled from a Catechism of 
a Scottish Bishop which was first reprinted in this country by Bishop 
Seabury. Bishop Hobart found copies in circulation in Connecticut. 



ii8 History of Trinity Church [1830- 

He adapted it for use in his Diocese without any indication of the 
original source.' 

"He published in 1814 The Christian Manual of Faith and Devo- 
tion. This was a compilation mainly from Bishop Hicks' Office, Dr. 
Spinckes' Churchman' s Companion for the Closet, and other devotional 
writers of the Church of England. With some alterations and addi- 
tions, it remained a standard until quite recently. 

"In 1 8 16 the Bishop published The Candidate for Confirmation 
Instructed. This tract passed through several editions. 

" From 1817 to 1823 Bishop Hobart published the American 
edition of D'Oyley and Mant's Family Bible. This work was the 
most extensive and critical one which had yet appeared in England. 
To the English Edition the Bishop supplied many notes taken from 
standard English and American divines. These notes added greatly 
to the usefulness of the book for family worship or for private 
reading. 

" It will thus be seen how true the claim is that Bishop Hobart 
was the first ' Tractarian.' Amidst such manifold duties as Rector 
of a great city parish and as having the spiritual oversight of more 
than a third of that part of the United States that was then settled, 
the wonder is that Dr. Hobart was able to find time for such a quantity 
of literary work. Besides all this Church propaganda, the Bishop 
edited Chandler's Life of Dr. Samuel J^ohnson, the first President of 
King's College, New York, and entered, with vigour, into several 
controversies, notably the one with Dr. Mason which resulted in 
his Apology for Apostolic Order in 1807. He published sermons, 
charges, addresses. It may with truth be said that his pen was never 
idle. 

"A remarkable feature that the correspondence which we have 
published in part abundantly proves is that Dr. Hobart retained his 
friends to the last. No matter what he said on the spur of the moment 
which their better judgment might disapprove of, no matter whether 
he answered their letters or not, no matter whether he scolded them or 
not, his correspondents all remained staunchly loyal to him. 

"It may be said in disparagement of Bishop Hobart that he was a 
party man, that he was a pronounced High Churchman and that he did 
not favour Low Churchmen; all of which is true, but it must always be 
remembered that every man who feels strongly must be a party man. 

' Bishop Seabury's adaptation and abridgment of " A Catechism, or the Princi- 
ples of the Christian Religion Explained in a Familiar and Easy Manner, by Bishop 
Innes of Brechin," appeared in I7gi. 



1830] Conclusion 119 

It is only the man who has no convictions, that is indifferent to the 
welfare and progress of the organization that he belongs to, that can 
be truly said to be a no-party man. Bishop Hobart was not a man of 
that mould. He thought deeply and strongly, he had firmly rooted 
convictions. He believed with all his heart and soul that the welfare 
of the Church in America was bound up in those doctrines which he 
advocated. 

"His position has been justified, since there are few thoughtful 
clergy or laity who do not, to-day, hold as axioms the principles Dr. 
Hobart inculcated. 

"The wonder is not that Dr. Hobart died so young, but that he, 
lived so long. He literally wore himself out in the cause of Christ and 
His Church. 

" If he was strict and hard on some of his clergy it was because, 
hard working himself, he could find no excuse for laziness, and clear- 
headed as he was, he had no patience with men who had a nebulous 
belief. 

" Bold to a fault, at any rate, friend and foe knew where to find 
Dr. Hobart. What he meant he said. For courage, there is no ex- 
ample equal to his in the American Episcopate, when he refused to 
accept the usual platitudes of esteem offered to him in his Dio- 
cesan Convention on his return from England. He was perfectly right 
in his indignant scorn. ' Men,' he cried out, 'know what I stand for 
and what I fight for, and if those principles are not worth recognition 
and I am not to be recognized as their champion let me at any rate 
be spared the indignity of colourless resolutions.' 

" That one act is typical of Hobart's whole attitude to the public. 

" If the Bishop was not a wise administrator of funds it must be 
said in his defence that in his zeal to spread his Master's kingdom he 
never stopped to reckon the cost. If there was money in the treasury 
of the Corporation, why could it not be spent ? If the Corporation had 
credit, why could not money be borrowed ? He saw present needs 
and did not pause to consider that the Trinity endowments were a 
trust for future generations. 

" Ardent, eager, impetuous, zealous, he could brook no difficulties 
which hindered or delayed the gathering in of his countrymen into 
the fold of that Church which he firmly believed had the Apostolic 
Ministry, the Catholic Faith and the Evangelical Mission. 

"The opening years of the Nineteenth Century were times of 
transition. The old order was giving place to the new. Looking 
back we perceive how sharp the line of demarcation is between the 



I20 History of Trinity Church [1830] 

two orders of things. All modern thought dates back to those fruitful 
years covered by the Rectorship of Dr. Hobart. Well, indeed, was it 
for the Church in the Parish and in this broad Country of ours, and 
well also for that Country, that the Supreme Arbiter of events had 
placed in the position of leadership so fearless and so true a man as 
JOHN HENRY HOBART." 



CHAPTER IV. 

WILLIAM BERRIAN, EIGHTH RECTOR. 

Mourning for Bishop Hobart — Election of Dr. Onderdonk as Bishop and of Dr. 
Berrian as Rector — The Induction — Separation of the Bishopric from the Rectorship 
— State of the Church in the City of New York — Action of the Vestry in Providing for 
Bishop Hobart's Widow and Family — And in Regard to the Episcopal Fund — Con- 
secration of Dr. Onderdonk — Appointment of Mr. Whittingham as Preacher at Trinity 
Church — His Former Career — Election of Henry Anthon as Assistant Minister — 
Establishment of Sunday-schools — Memorial from Pew-Holders of St. John's Chapel 
— Their Request for a Settled Clergyman over Each Church — Letter of Colonel 
Graham in Connection Therewith — Action of the Vestry. 

A MONTH of mourning was allowed to elapse after 
the death of their Rector, before the Vestry of 
Trinity Church proceeded to the choice of his successor. 
Dr. Berrian and Dr. Onderdonk were at that time the 
Senior Assistant Ministers of the Parish, Dr. Berrian being 
also the Assistant Rector. Both enjoyed the esteem and 
affection of the people, as formerly the chosen companions 
and confidants of the great Bishop of New York. 

The Convention of the Diocese was held in St. John's 
Chapel, October 7 and 8, 1830. At that Convention, Dr. 
Onderdonk was, with great unanimity, chosen Bishop. 
The other candidates were the Rev. Henry Anthon and 
the Rev. Dr. J. M. Wainwright.' 

Three days after the Convention, October 11, 1830, 
the Vestry met in their office.' 

' See yournal. Diocese of New York, 1830, p. 18. 

' The minutes record the attendance of 

Church Wardens : Nehemiah Rogers, Charles McEvers. 

Vestrymen : Teunis Quick, James Bleecker, John Onderdonk, Peter A. Mesier, 
William Johnson, Ezra Weeks, Robert Thomas, Anthony L. Underbill, William E. 
Dunscomb, Gabriel Furman, Jonathan H. Lawrence, Thomas Swords, Edward W. 



122 History of Trinity Church [1830- 

After a declaration of the vacancy in " The Rectory of 
this Church" by the death of the Right Reverend John 
Henry Hobart, D.D., it was resolved to "proceed to sup- 
ply the said vacancy by the Election of a Rector to 
be made by ballot." The record thus continues: "The 
Church Wardens and Vestrymen present then proceeded 
to the choice of a Rector by ballot, and the ballots having 
been counted and canvassed, it was found that the Rev. 
William Berrian, D.D., was unanimously elected." ' 

In accordance with Parish precedents, Mr. William 
Johnson, the Comptroller, and Mr. Jacob Lorillard, were 
appointed a committee to notify Dr. Berrian of his elec- 
tion. "These gentlemen, having retired, soon afterwards 
returned, and introduced Dr. Berrian to the Vestry ; upon 
his acceptance of the office, it was resolved unanimously, 
that the Revd. William Berrian D.D. be called and in- 
ducted to the Rectory of Trinity Church, in the City of 
New York."- 

Order was then taken for the ceremony of Induction 
on the following day, at 2 o'clock, p.m., at the Parish 
church. This ancient form, derived from English use, 
but not connected with any religious function, has always 
been observed in the Parish. It is very brief, but highly 
significant as a solemn investiture of the Rector with all 
the rights, spiritual and temporal, incidental to his office. 
The persons present were the Rector-elect, the Church 
Wardens, fifteen members of the Vestry, and the sextons 
of the Parish church and chapels. The ceremony was 
probably held in the front porch of the church, where the 

Laight, John T. Irving, Jacob Lorillard, George Jones, Philip Hone, Thomas L. 
Ogden. 

Those absent were : Messrs. Jonathan Ogden and Henry McFarlane. 

Records, liber iii., folio 51. 

■ Hid. 



1830] Dr. Berrian Elected Rector 123 



delivery of the keys took place, as a part of the function. 
The Wardens and Vestrymen present were : 

Wardens, Nehemiah Rogers, Charles McEvers. 

Vestrymen, James Bleecker, Teunis Quick, Peter A. 
Mesier, William Johnson, Philip Hone, Thomas L. Ogden, 
Jonathan H. Lawrence, Edward W. Laight, Anthony L. 
Underhill, Thomas Swords, Wm. E. Dunscomb, John T. 
Irving, Robert Thomas, George Jones, Ezra Weeks. 

The Vestry Minutes state that 

" the Reverend William Berrian, D.D., Rector-elect of Trinity Church, 
in the City of New York, was duly inducted into the said Church and 
its Chapels by delivering to him the keys of the said Church, and 
of St. Paul's Chapel, and of St. John's Chapel, such delivery being 
made by the Church Wardens in the presence of the Vestrymen, 
and also in the presence of Edward Coates, Richard Slack, and 
Albert Wunnenburgh, the se.xtons of the said Church and Chapels 
as witnesses." ' 

The election of Dr. Berrian marked the departure from 
the custom of nearly half a century, that the offices of 
Bishop of New York and Rector of Trinity Church should 
be united in the same person. The change was the inevi- 
table result of the growth of the Church. The develop- 
ment of the Diocese under Bishop Hobart had made it 
apparent that no one man could maintain and carry for- 
ward its manifold interests, while also burdened with the 
care of the large and growing Parish of Trinity. 

The new Rector was in the forty-fourth year of his 
age, and in the twentieth of his service in Trinity Parish. 
With the exception of several months of a diaconate 
passed in Belleville. New Jersey, as minister in charge of 
the "chapel of ease" of Trinity Church, Newark, his 
whole life had been spent in New York City. He had 
become familiar with its people, its methods, and its work. 

' Records, liber iii., folio 51 ; see also Dr. Berrian's Historical Sketch, p. 311. 



124 History of Trinity Church [1830- 

Knowing the far-reaching plans of Bishop Hobart, he was 
ready to carry them into operation. 

During the Episcopate of Dr. Hobart there had been 
a notable increase in the number of parishes in the city. 
The influence of the Church was felt in civic, social, 
and business life. Without excitement or extraordinary 
methods there was a healthy growth, marked by many 
accessions from other Christian bodies. The city clergy 
of the period were men of marked ability and homiletic 
power. Dr. Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright ministered to 
a devoted congregation in Grace Church, immediately 
south of Trinity, on the corner of Rector Street. In the 
upper part of the city, in the Governor's " Bouwerie," St. 
Mark's Church was under the direction of Dr. William 
Creighton. In Anthony (now Worth) Street, stood Christ 
Church, where Dr. Thomas Lyell, " genial and warm- 
hearted," as his friend Dr. Berrian styled him, served for 
more than forty years. Among the wealthy merchants, 
butchers, and drovers of the East Side, the Rev. Henry 
Anthon was gaining a wide reputation in St. Stephen's 
Church on the corner of Broome and Chrystie Streets. 
St. Thomas's Church, on Broadway, at the corner of 
Houston Street, had recently come under the charge of 
Dr. George Upfold. At St. George's, on Beekman 
Street, Dr. James Milnor was the Rector of that oldest 
daughter of Trinity. At All Saints', on Scammell Street, 
under the charge of its founder, the Rev. William A. Clarke, 
a large and important work was done on the populous 
East Side. In the quaint old church built by the Huguenot 
refugees in 1 704, in Pine Street, and then known as "I'Eglise 
du Saint Esprit," the Rev. Antoine Verren, lately arrived 
from France, ministered to the descendants of those suf- 
ferers for their faith, in their mother tongue. Zion Church, 
on Mott Street, was under the pastoral care of the Rev. 



1830] Dr. Onderdonk Elected Bishop 125 

Thomas Breintnall. The Rev. Dr. Manton Eastburn had 
acquired a wide reputation as a preacher and pastor from 
his ministrations in the plain edifice of the Church of the 
Ascension on Canal Street. In the upper portion of 
Manhattan Island, the Rev. William Richmond was min- 
istering to three parishes, St. Michael's, Bloomingdale ; St. 
James, Hamilton Square ; and St. Mary's, Manhattanville. 
The parish of St. Clement had been organized in the sum- 
mer of 1830, and its substantial church building was then 
in process of erection on Amity Street, in the immediate 
neighborhood of a part of the city where many prominent 
and wealthy citizens were taking up their residence. In 
the village of Harlem, St. Andrew's Church had been 
recently organized, under the care of the Rev. George L. 
Hinton. 

Such were the men with whom the new Rector was 
to lead the general advance of the Church in the city. 
There was not one of their parishes but had received 
financial aid from Trinity, and all looked up to her as their 
leader in good works. A letter of congratulation from his 
colleague, Dr. Schroeder, to Dr. Berrian, has been pre- 
served, in which the writer expresses his satisfaction " at 
the recent change in your official relation to the parish 
and to myself." He also comments on the election of Dr. 
Onderdonk to the Episcopate. " I do indeed rejoice with 
you ; my confidence in him as a sincere christian, a sound 
churchman, and a man of integrity, is without any reserva- 
tion. So happy a state of things as that which existed in 
the Convention was scarcely to be expected ; our diocese 
has truly been favored in an eminent degree." ^ 

The Standing Committee on the i8th of October pre- 
sented a report upon a suitable support for the family of 
Bishop Hobart, his widow and children having been left 

' No. gS. Berrian MSS. 



126 History of Trinity Church [1830- 

without adequate provision for their maintenance. Two 
resolutions were appended to the report, one providing an 
annuity for the support of the widow and family of the 
late Rector of two thousand dollars, " to commence from 
the first day of March next, when the temporary pro- 
vision made by the resolution of the Vestry of the fourth 
instant will cease," the other appropriating the sum of 
three hundred dollars per annum, for " the education and 
support of John Henry Hobart, the youngest son of the 
late Rector, until he shall attain the age of twenty-one 
years." 

The report was unanimously approved, and the appro- 
priations made.' 

The elections of Dr. Onderdonk to the Bishopric and of 
Dr. Berrian to the Rectorship brought up once more the 
question of the support of the Episcopate. The Diocese 
had contributed but meagerly to the object ; the Episco- 
pal Fund was small and comparatively unproductive. So 
long as the offices of Rector of Trinity Church and Bishop 
of New York were united in one person, the Diocese was 
naturally slow to take active steps towards the support of 
its head, and threw the responsibility for his maintenance 
upon the Parish. The effort made in 181 2 to provide a 
proper fund had failed. The Vestry received a memorial 
from the Convention in that year, suggesting that as soon 
as the Episcopal Fund should amount to $100,000, the 
Bishop should cease to be connected with a parish.^ To 
this proposal the Vestry did not only assent, but also 
promised to give the sum of $15,000, on condition that the 
balance of the amount required should be otherwise se- 
cured. The work lagged ; it seemed impossible to im- 
press the clergy and laity throughout the Diocese with the 

' Records, liber iii., folio 55. 

' For the earliest actions on the Episcopal Fund see yournal. Diocese of New York, 
1808, p. 177 ; reprint, 1809, pp. 186-igi. 



1830] Separation of Rectorship and Bishopric 127 

necessity for action, although influential committees were 
appointed, and plans formed for obtaining subscriptions. 
When, at length. Dr. Onderdonk was elected Bishop, 
October 8, 1830, and Dr. Berrian Rector, October 11, 

1830, and the two offices were severed, although the 
Bishop was still to hold a certain relation to the Parish, it 
became evident that renewed efforts must be made to 
secure a proper support for the Bishop of the Diocese, 
now no longer the Rector of Trinity Church. The Vestry 
came forward, as usual, with a new offer, to contribute $30,- 
000, provided the sum of $70,000 should be raised outside 
by January i, 1833.^ This generous offer was the subject 
of congratulation and discussion in the Convention of 

1831, and a committee was appointed to consider the most 
feasible method of meeting the conditions of the offer, and 
also to request of Trinity Church an extension of time for 
the completion of subscriptions throughout the Diocese.^ 

The Vestry considered this request and declined to 
comply with it. Their action was taken in self-defence, and 
under a conviction that the Diocese was unwilling to do its 
full share in the support of the Bishop. In their report they 
declared that their sole object had been, " to second and 
give effect to the recent measures of the Convention for the 
immediate increase of the Episcopal Fund to such an 
amount as would enable the Convention to appropriate 
a portion of the income of the said Fund to the inde- 
pendent support of the Bishop so as to release him from 
parochial engagements." 

It was fully expected and relied on by the Vestry 
that there would be a " prompt, vigorous, and united effort 
in all parts of the Diocese stimulated by the influence and 
authority of the Convention." Such an expectation had 

' Records, liber iii., folio 56, 57. 

* Journal, Diocese of New York, 1831, pp. 58, 70-73. 



128 History of Trinity Church [1830- 

not been reaUzed, as " no appeal to the Diocese, calcu- 
lated to call forth any extraordinary exertions for carrying 
into effect the object above mentioned, appears to have 
been made or contemplated." The Vestry, while express- 
ing a desire for the advancement of the Church and will- 
ingness "to aid and co-operate in objects of general 
interest," felt obliged to refuse to remove or extend the 
limitation contained in their resolution above mentioned, 
or to consider themselves bound by it otherwise than was 
intended at the time of its adoption. 

An allowance of one thousand dollars annually " was 
granted for the travelling and other necessary expenses 
of the Bishop of the Diocese in the exercise of his Epis- 
copal duties, in addition to the existing provision for sup- 
port of the Episcopate, which was to be continued " so 
long as the Bishop shall reside in the City of New York 
and continue in connection with this corporation." ^ 

The Consecration of Dr. Onderdonk took place in St. 
John's Chapel, on Friday, November 26, 1830. The 
venerable Presiding Bishop, Dr. White, was the Con- 
secrator, assisted by the Assistant Bishop of Pennsylvania, 
Dr. Henry U. Onderdonk, and the Bishop of Connecticut, 
Dr. Thomas Church Brownell. Morning prayer was said 
by the Rev. Dr. Lyell, the Rev. Dr. Milnor reading the 
lessons. The sermon was preached by the Bishop of Con- 
necticut, from the text, " Take heed to the ministry which 
thou hast received in the Lord, that thou fulfil it." "' 

After a clear and earnest statement of " the dignity and 
importance of the Christian Ministry, and the qualifica- 
tions required for the faithful performance of its duties," 
he said, addressing the Bishop-elect : 

" To you, my Reverend Brother, I need add no exhortations con- 
cerning the nature of your holy office, or the interesting relations in 
' Records, liber iii., folio 72, 73. ^ Colossians, iv., 17. 



1830] Consecration of Dr. Onderdonk 129 

which it places you. The observations which have already been 
made upon the dignity and importance of the Christian Ministry, and 
the qualifications required for the faithful performance of its duties, 
have long been familiar to your mind; and your reflections on the 
solemn responsibilities of the office to which you are now to be conse- 
crated will not have failed to give emphasis and force to the admonition 
of the Apostle contained in our text, — ' Take heed to the ministry 
which thou hast received in the LORD, that thou fulfil it.' You will 
exercise an unwearied circumspection, in regard to yourself, and a con- 
scientious fidelity in the discharge of your Episcopal duties. The ex- 
ample of your revered and beloved predecessor will be continually 
before you. You will emulate his virtues; — his benevolence, his zeal, 
his vigilance, his promptitude; — his generous hospitality, his affectionate 
attachment to the clergy, and the people of his charge, and his honorable 
frankness towards all men. You will follow his example in his ardent 
love of the Church, and his unceasing labours for her welfare; in his 
truly evangelical faith, and in his unaffected and devoted piety. You 
will fix your eyes upon the still higher example of your divine Master 
and the holy Apostles. You will take their heavenly precepts as the rule 
of your conduct, and the guide of your life; and you will constantly and 
earnestly seek the aids of divine grace to enable you to discharge your 
duties with faithfulness and success. And now may the Great Shepherd 
and Bishop of souls take you into his holy keeping, may he enlighten 
you by his heavenly wisdom, protect you by his Almighty power, and 
sanctify you to his service by the inspiration of his HOLY SPIRIT." ' 

The Bishop-elect was presented by the Assistant 
Bishop of Pennsylvania, and the Bishop of Connecticut, 
to Dr. White, the Presiding Bishop. 

The testimony from the Convention was read by the 
Rev. Levi S. Ives, assistant secretary of the Diocese of 
New York ; the consent of the Standing Committees by 
the Rev. Dr. Upfold, secretary of the Standing Commit- 
tee of the Diocese, and the consent of the Bishops by the 
Rev. Dr. Berrian, president of the Standing Committee. 
His attending presbyters, the Rev. Dr. Wainwright and 
the Rev. William Richmond, invested him with the rest 

' A sermon preached at the Consecration of Dr. Onderdonk, pp. 23, 24. 

VOL. IV. — 9 



130 History of Trinity Church [1830- 

of the Episcopal Habit, the three Bishops joining in the 
solemn act of Consecration. Immediately after, the patri- 
arch of the American Church, standing at the altar rail, 
made this brief address : 

" Brethren, it is trusted by the Presiding Bishop, that he will be 
borne with, while with brevity he gives vent to the sensibilities which 
possess him on this interesting occasion. 

" It will easily be believed that the duty of the day cannot have been 
discharged without the tenderest recollection of a. friend' for whom 
there has been cherished an affection from his very early years. With 
the grief occasioned by his decease, there is the consoling recollection 
of the virtues, and of the services which embalm his memory in the 
estimation of his friends, of the churches which have been under his 
superintendence, of our Church generally throughout the Union, and 
of that large portion of society, which knew him only as a man, as a 
fellow citizen, and as a Christian minister exterior to their respective 
pales. It is within a few months of twenty years, since, in Trinity 
Church, in this City, he was consecrated to the Episcopacy by the im- 
position of the hands of the present speaker. On that occasion, as 
may be seen in his printed sermon, the Consecrator, affirming an inti- 
mate knowledge of the subject of the ceremony, probably more exact 
than that of any other individual then present, did not hesitate to 
anticipate an abundant measure of usefulness. At the same time he 
indulged the expectation, grounded on the disparity of years, that 
when called from this earthly scene, he would leave behind him such 
a laborer in the vineyard of the LORD. The anticipation of usefulness 
has been amply realized; the expectation of survivorship was not un- 
reasonable, but has been disappointed by the sovereign disposal of 
the great Being, whose ways are unsearchable, and in whose hands are 
the ' issues of life.' Brethren, there has been the expression of these 
sentiments, partly from the wish to mingle the sorrows of the deliverer 
of them with that of the bereaved diocese, and partly to felicitate it on 
the choice of a successor, to whose merit it cannot but be a powerful 
testimony, that he is the individual, on whom the deceased Bishop 
would have wished the choice to fall; a fact known to him who now 
affirms it; and who anticipates, as confidently as is consistent with the 
uncertainty of all human affairs, a verifying of the opinion of your late 
Diocesan, and that of the lately assembled representatives of your 
' The late lamented Right Reverend Bishop Hobart. 



1830] W. R. Whittingham Appointed Preacher 131 

diocese. That this may be the result, will, it is to be expected, be a 
subject of your prayers." ' 

The Presiding Bishop then proceeded to the celebration 
of the Holy Communion, and dismissed the large congre- 
gation with the apostolic benediction. 

In pursuance of the promise to relieve the new Bishop 
as far as possible from his parochial duties, the Rector, on 
behalf of the Vestry, invited the Rev. William R. Whit- 
tingham to become preacher in Trinity Church. " Most 
unexpected to me," says Mr. Whittingham, in his Diary, 
" Dr. Berrian called to inform me that I had been appointed 
temporary preacher at Trinity Church till an assistant 
should be chosen." " 

Mr. Whittingham, whose profound knowledge of both 
theology and letters was already recognized, although he 
was only twenty-five years old, had been for two years 
editor of the publications of The Protestant Episcopal 
Press, whose office was immediately in the rear of Trinity 
Church, on Lumber Street. 

After a brilliant career at the General Theological 
Seminary, from which he was graduated in 1825, he re- 
tained his connection with it as librarian and fellow. He 
also gave valuable assistance to Professor Turner in his 
preparation of a translation of Jahn's Introdtiction. Af- 
ter his ordination in St. John's Chapel, New York City, by 
Bishop Hobart, on Sunday, March 11, 1827, he had be- 
come successively and successfully chaplain to the Pro- 
testant Episcopal Public School, travelling agent of the 
newly organized Protestant Episcopal Sunday-School 
Union, and minister of St. Mark's Church, Orange, New 
Jersey. In 1830 he resigned his parochial charge, in order 

' Sermon at the Consecration of Dr. Onderdonk, pp. 25-27. 
' MS. Diary of Bishop Whittingham, p. I. For the resolutions of the Vestry, see 
Records, liber iii., folio 58. 



132 History of Trinity Church [1831- 

to give his whole attention to the Press. Mr. Whitting- 
ham's Diary shows that he was constant in his attendance 
at Trinity Church, and St. John's and St. Paul's Chapels. 
His sermons were simple in style, forcible in argument, 
and delivered in an attractive manner. He was highly 
appreciated by the members of the Parish for his services, 
which terminated in the spring of 183 1, when he was 
granted five hundred dollars by the Vestry.' 

The arrangement with Mr. Whittingham was only 
temporary ; it was deemed essential to the prosperity of 
the Parish that the clerical staff should be permanently 
increased. On the loth of January, 1831, the Vestry pro- 
ceeded to the appointment of an Assistant Minister, " to 
hold his office in conformity with the principles expressed 
in the resolution of the Vestry passed upon the 12th day 
of December, 181 1, and to be placed in respect to salary 
upon the footing of the other assistant ministers now em- 
ployed by the Corporation."- The Rev. Henry Anthon, 
Rector of St. Stephen's Church, was then nominated by 
the Rector, and "it was resolved unanimously, that the 
said nomination be approved." " 

Mr. Anthon had been brought up in the Parish. 
During his ministry of twelve years he had acquired 
much experience as missionary at Red Hook, by occa- 
sional work in South Carolina, where he went, in 18 19, 
for his health, as Rector of Trinity Church, Utica, N. Y., 
and as the successor of the beloved Dr. Feltus, in St. 
Stephen's Church. Trained under Bishop Hobart, he was 
connected by many ties with the old mother Parish. Mr. 

' " At the Press, found Dr. Berrian to inform me that $500.00 had been granted 
me by Trinity Church. This enables me to pay all my debts, to give something to the 
Tract Society, to make some presents, and to buy some books at the approaching 
sale." — The Diary of the Rev. W. R. Whittingham, quoted in Li/c\ i., pp. 102. 

' Records, liber iii., folio 59. 

» /iid. 



1831] Sunday-Schools 133 

Anthon accepted the position in a letter to the Hon. 
Thomas L. Ogden, clerk of the Vestry, in which he says : 

" I now beg leave to convey to the Vestry through you my accep- 
tance of this appointment and my thanks, which this expression of 
their sentiments has conferred upon me. It is, I hope, under a due 
sense of the trust they repose in me, and the solemn responsibility 
connected with my decision, that I assent to their wishes — Permit 
me therefore. Sir, to avail myself also of this opportunity to say to the 
Vestry, that I will endeavor, with such ability as God giveth to dis- 
charge the duties of the station, looking to Him for guidance and 
strength, and to them with animating confidence for that candour and 
indulgence which I am fully sensible I shall so indispensably require." ' 

In a previous chapter of this History, mention was 
made of the first establishment of Sunday-schools in this 
country in the year 1805, and of the views of Bishop Ho- 
bart on the subject, when the experiment was tried. It 
was not until 181 7 that schools of this kind were organized 
in Trinity Parish : the Bishop had become, by that time, a 
strong advocate of them ; and the Sunday-school of St. 
John's Chapel thrived and grew to be the largest in 
the city. Oddly enough, it was in connection with that 
movement that the first sign appeared of dissatisfaction 
with the arrangements for clerical work in the Parish. 
The Sunday-school just referred to had earnest and active 
managers. From time to time the Rector and his assist- 
ants visited it ; but the lay managers considered such 
occasional visits as insufficient for its development, and de- 
sired the appointment of a head, whose clerical character 
and theological learning would invest him with full author- 
ity over the " Conductor," the Visiting Committees, and 
the children. The Directors of the School proceeded, ac- 
cordingly, to hold a meeting, December 30, 1830, at which 
resolutions were adopted, and a memorial was drawn up, 

' Records, liber iii., folio 6i. 



134 History of Trinity Church [1831- 

signed by several pew-holders of St. John's, and sent to the 
Vestry, praying 

" that there might be stationed permanently at each of the churches 
of the Parish an Assistant Minister, to perform his duty in such 
church only, and that the motive of preaching in the different 
churches as hitherto practised should be d'scontinued, except as 
to the Rector, whose duty as to preaching should be continued as 
before." 

A dispute as to the mode of conducting a Sunday- 
school might well be considered as a tempest in a teapot ; 
but the point raised in this memorial touched the organi- 
zation and settled routine of the Parish, and gave to that 
document no small importance. Colonel Charles Graham, 
an eminent lawyer of the day, at once came to the fore, in 
strong dissent to the proposed action, which dissent he ex- 
pressed as follows, in a letter addressed to Dr. Berrian, 
January 8, 1831 : 

" I have been a director of St. John's Sunday-School since it was 
first organized, but was prevented from attending the above meeting 
by the extreme inclemency of the weather. I should, however, have 
made it a duty to attend if any intimation had been made of the extra- 
ordinary proceedings to be proposed : and inasmuch as it appears to 
me that in your care of the Church you may desire to know the senti- 
ment of directors not present at the above meeting, I hope I may with- 
out subjecting myself to the charge of a want of courtesy to my fellow 
directors, explain my views upon the subjects embraced in the resolu- 
tion and communication above referred to. 

" I do not believe in the assertion upon which the resolutions 
are based, that the present organization of the Parish of Trinity 
Church with regard to the performance of its ministerial and parochial 
duties has been found to impede the growth of piety, or the advance- 
ment of the best interest of religion and the Church : on the contrary, 
I consider in relation to ministerial duty that the preaching of different 
ministers has the effect to keep the attention alive and our facul- 
ties upon the alert, and induce reflection upon and examination 
of many subjects which no regular preacher could call into action. 



1831] Memorial from Pew-Holders 135 

" If such be the fact, as I sincerely believe it to be so, then the 
present organization of Trinity Church in relation to ministerial duty 
is decidedly preferable to that proposed by the resolution. In respect 
to the performance of parochial duty, I was not aware of any complaint 
upon that subject, nor do I know or believe that our ministers have 
afforded any ground of complaint. On the contrary, myself and the 
circle of my acquaintance acknowledge not only attention but polite- 
ness of yourself and the other clergy of the Church in visiting when no 
special circumstances called for it. I may safely venture to assert, that 
in no large parish in this city has the parochial duty of visiting been 
better or more scrupulously performed than in that of Trinity. Can- 
dour and my duty do not permit me to pass unexamined the extracts 
appended to the resolutions. These extracts appear to me to convey 
censure upon you and our ministers wholly undeserved and not war- 
ranted by any fact within my knowledge ; I will not allow myself to 
comment upon it farther than to express my conviction that your visits 
alone independent of those of the other clergy will be a triumph- 
ant vindication of the clergy, and show that the charges and insinua- 
tions contained in that extract are wholly destitute of solid or other 
foundation." ' 

Colonel Graham evidently represented the opinion of 
many others in the congregation of St. John's. The action 
of the Directors was a cause of serious anxiety and much 
discussion. Their memorial, presented to the Vestry on 
January 10, 1831, was referred to a committee consisting 
of the Rector, Messrs. Edward W. Laight, Philip Hone, 
Charles McEvers, Jonathan H. Lawrence, and Peter 
Lorillard. In their report, which was made at the next 
meeting of the Vestry, the subject is fully discussed and 
the conclusion reached, "that for a variety of reasons the 
Committee consider such a change inexpedient." They 
apprehended that " it would be difficult and embarrassing 
to assign the assistant ministers to the different churches 
by any plan which might be devised in such a way as would 
give general satisfaction." They assigned as another cause 
for denying the prayer of the memorialists that " the 

• No. loi Berrian MSS. 



136 History of Trinity Church [1831- 

abundant resources of this corporation are all employed in 
promoting the interests of religion and learning and fur- 
thering the prosperity of the church throughout the State," 
and it " is therefore important that they should be kept 
together that they may be used with greater advantage 
and effect ; as the connection of the Parent Church with 
the Chapels gives a wide range for choosing intelligent, 
upright, and faithful guardians of the sacred trust, the 
Committee would regret the adoption of any measure 
which might have the remotest tendency to weaken this 
common bond of union or to lessen the power of this body 
in doing good." They were further persuaded that 

" such would be the tendency of the plan proposed ; that a gradual 
alienation of the several congregations from each other would be 
natural and almost inevitable ; that the different assistant ministers 
would be bound together by no common tie ; that the Rector would 
necessarily stand in a much closer relation to the whole parish than 
they would to the respective parts of which they had the charge ; and 
that he might therefore find it difficult to exercise that general super- 
intendence and control which are essential to its unity and peace ; 
that there would be danger both among pastors and people of separate 
interests, conflictions, opinions, impatience, jealousy, and strife." 

Against an assignment of the parochial visiting to the 
several Assistant Ministers reasons similar in their nature 
are assigned. 

As to the Sunday-schools the Committee speak 
strongly. Considering their condition 

" as a subject intimately connected with the state of the Parish, and 
the due attention to their welfare to be the peculiar care of the Rector, 
they confidently look to him for such a general supervision over both 
on Sundays and in the meetings of the board of Directors as his other 
duties will permit and for such attention to all their wants and wishes 
as may afford no reasonable ground for remark and complaint." 

In one particular the Committee finds that it can 
gratify the wishes of the memorialists : " The only way in 



1831] Sunday-Schools 137 

which they deem it expedient to confine the attentions of 
the several assistant ministers to particular churches is in 
the catechetical and other religious instruction of the 
young a measure which has been before partially adopted 
and which it is now intended to carry out more fully." 
In closing the report the Committee commend the industry, 
fidelity, and zeal of the Bishop " which have been seldom 
surpassed " and express the confident hope that when he 
is " released from his present connection with Trinity 
Church and the Rector and all the assistant ministers will 
be more directly engaged in promoting the interests of 
their cure, discontent will die away and the Parish will be 
peaceful, flourishing, and happy." 

This report appears to have been received with favor 
by a great proportion of the people of the Parish.' In 
pursuance of its final recommendations, Mr. Anthon was 
made responsible for the Sunday-school of St. John's 
Chapel ; to Mr. Schroeder was assigned the general over- 
sight of the schools of St. Paul's and Trinity ; while the 
Rector was to have the direction of those to whom this 
special branch of the work was entrusted. 

' Records, liber iii., folio 60, 6t 



CHAPTER V. 

THE PARISH AND THE CITY. 

Death of President Monroe — The Funeral — Organization of the New York Mission 
Society — The Church of the Holy Evangelists — Grant Made by Trinity Parish to the 
Mission Society — Interments in Churchyards of Trinity and St. Paul's Forbidden — 
Finances of the Corporation — Resolution as to Confining Aid to Churches on Man- 
hattan Island Only — Oratorios Held in Churches — Condition of Church Music — 
Sunday-schools — Lectures and Methods of Teaching — Dr. Berrian's Views — The 
Cholera in New York — Bishop of New York's Pastoral — Church Observance of the 
Fourth of July — Fast Day Appointed by the Municipality — The Rector's Action 
Thereon — Meeting of General Convention of 1832 — The Ohio Case — Action of House 
of Bishops — Consecration of Four Bishops in St. Paul's Chapel — The Erection of 
Monument to Bishop Hobart — Payment to the Sculptor — Proposal to Build a New 
Church near Hudson Street Cemetery — Repairs to the Organ in Trinity Church — 
Cutting of a Street through Trinity Churchyard — Remonstrance of the Vestry. 

ON the 4th of July, 1831, James Monroe, fifth President 
of the United States, died at the residence of his 
son-in-law, Samuel L. Gouverneur, in New York. The 
city authorities determined to do honor to the venerated 
patriot and statesman by a public funeral. 

A Committee of the Common Council, of which John 
Yates Cebra was chairman and John R. Rhinelander sec- 
retary, had charge of the arrangements. On Thursday, 
July 7, at three o'clock in the afternoon, the funeral train 
moved from the house of Mr. Gouverneur, An escort of 
cavalry accompanied the body ; and in the procession were 
the family, the members of the Common Council, and 
many military organizations. 

On arriving at the City Hall the coffin was placed on 
a raised platform, extending from the southern front, 
heavily draped in black. In the presence of an audience 

138 



183 1] Funeral of President Monroe 139 



which filled the City Hall Park, the Hon. William A. 
Duer, President of Columbia College, delivered an oration 
upon the life and services of the late President. 

With the Tompkins Blues, a well-known infantry or- 
ganization of the day, as guard of honor, the procession 
moved to St. Paul's Chapel, the interior of which was 
draped in mourning. The Burial Service having been said 
by Bishop Onderdonk and Dr. Wainwright, the body was 
taken from the chapel, attended by the clergy of the 
city and many civic, literary, and social organizations, in 
addition to those who had formed the procession from the 
City Hall. The line of march was up Broadway to Bleecker 
Street and thence to the junction of Bleecker and Second 
Streets, the site of the old Marble Cemetery. Bishop 
Onderdonk and Dr. Wainwright preceded the hearse in a 
carriage, to the place of burial, where the body was placed 
in a tomb specially prepared for the purpose ; the Com- 
mittal was said, three volleys were fired, and the long 
procession disbanded. The ceremonial was one of the 
most impressive ever seen in New York. During the 
services the bells of the city were tolled, and minute guns 
were fired from Fort Columbus.' 

After the completion of the Erie Canal in 1825, there 
was a notable increase both in the population and impor- 
tance of New York City." Of those who sought a home 
in the metropolis many were unable to find suitable accom- 
modations for themselves and their families in the various 
churches. So great was the need of extensive spiritual 
work among these new inhabitants and so small were 
their pecuniary resources, that ordinary methods would not 

' See, for a full account of the death and burial of President Monroe, The Nfw- 
York Spectator (semi-weekly edition of The Commercial Advertiser), July 8, 1831, 
July 13, 1831 ; also Removal of the Remains of yames Monroe. New York : H. B. 
Price, 1859. 

' The population in 1820 was 123,706 and in 1830, 202,589. 



140 History of Trinity Church [1831- 

meet the emergency. The subject was much discussed by 
Churchmen and it was agreed that a special effort should 
be made to reach these sheperdless souls. 

The mother Parish could not take upon herself this 
great burden ; her income was fully employed in the 
building of churches throughout the State, the partial 
support of feeble parishes within the city, aid to various 
institutions of learning, and her own parochial require- 
ments. 

The desire for the formation of a general society for 
church extension in the city, which had the cordial appro- 
bation of the Bishop, took final shape in an invitation 
from the Missionary Association of Christ Church,^ and 
the Female Auxiliary Association of that parish to the 
members of the city parishes to meet in the basement of 
Christ Church on the evening of Thursday, September 
15, 1831. At that meeting the Rev. Thomas Breintnall, 
Rector of Zion Church, presided. After a reference of 
the subject to a committee, the meeting was adjourned to 
await its report ; and the result was that on the feast of 
St. Michael and All Angels, September 29, it was resolved 
to form " The New York Mission Society." A president, 
four vice-presidents, a secretary and a treasurer, together 
with the clergy of the city and four laymen from each 
parish as managers, were chosen. To Trinity and her 
two chapels were assigned twelve lay managers, and two 
of her prominent vestrymen were appointed third and 
fourth vice-presidents. An Executive Committee, of which 
the Rev. Dr. Wainwright of Grace Church was chairman, 

'The officers of the Association in 1831 were: the Rev. Dr. Lyell, President; 
the Rev. J. A. Clark, Vice-President ; Elijah Guion, second Vice-President ; John 
McDonough, Treasurer ; Dr. Galen Carter, Secretary, and twelve managers. The 
officers of the Auxiliary were : Mrs. Thomas Lyell, ist Directress ; Mrs. J. 
Surgit, 2d Directress ; Miss Catharine Osborn, Secretary ; Miss Phebe Milner, 
Treasurer, and eight Managers. 



1831] New York Mission Society 141 

and the Rev. John F. Schroeder of Trinity Parish secretary, 
was also appointed.' 

It was the desire of the Bishop that the Society should 
at once commence its work in the crowded and neglected 
portion of the city east of Broadway, where there were 
thousands of people without church privileges. A build- 
ing was found in Vandewater Street, which seemed well 
adapted for mission work. It had been for some years a 
Dutch Reformed place of worship, and was for sale on 
reasonable terms.' The Executive Committee recom- 
mended to the Society that funds be secured for its pur- 
chase. Subscriptions were at once solicited, required 
changes and improvements were made, and on Saturday, 
November 19, 1831, in the presence of a congregation of 
clergy and laymen it was solemnly consecrated by the 
Bishop of the Diocese under the name of the " Church of 
the Holy Evangelists." Until the appointment of the 
Rev. B. C. Cutler as City Missionarj', the Bishop and 
clergy of the city officiated according to a routine pre- 
pared by the Bishop. The Rector of Trinity preached in 
the church on the Sunday after its consecration.^ 

' The principal officers chosen at this meeting were : President, the Rt. Rev. 
Benjamin Onderdonk ; first Vice-President, the Rev. Dr. Thomas Lyell ; second Vice- 
President, the Rev. Dr. John McVickar ; third Vice-President, Jacob Lorillard ; fourth 
Vice-President, Edward W. Laight ; Secretary', James M. Pendleton, M.D.; Assistant- 
Secretary, Wm. R. Wadsworth ; Treasurer, J. A. Perry. 

' A list of churches in New York City in The A'ivj York Spectator. January 14, 
1831, has this item : 

■■REFORMED DUTCH 
******* 

Paraclete Church in Vandewater Street between Pearl and Frankfort, area 4,800 
feet. 

Minister, Rev. R. V. Dey." 
^ The facts concerning the origin of the City Mission are found in the documents pre- 
served among the papers of the Rev. Dr. Schroeder, now in possession of his daughter, 
Mrs. Wright, of New Milford, Conn. They include the report on the purchase of the 
church, the .sentence of Consecration, quarterly reports of the Executive Committee and 
other valuable historical material. See also p. 46, " History of the Church of Zion 
and St. Timothy of New York. iygy-i8g4. Printed for Private Circulation — New York 



142 History of Trinity Church [1S31- 

In addition to the private subscriptions and gifts of 
members of the Parish, the Vestry in 1832 made an allow- 
ance of six hundred dollars a year to the newly organized 
Society, which was increased in 1834 to eleven hundred 
dollars, and in 1837 to eighteen hundred dollars, and thus 
continued until 1846, when it was thought that the Society 
was sufficiently strong to dispense with an annual grant.' 

While the Parish was thus actively interesting itself in 
the general work of the Church, a matter of importance to 
the public was determined by the Vestry. 

The menace to health from interments in the populous 
portions of the city had been a subject of enquiry and de- 
bate by the authorities, but no action had been taken. 
Without waiting for the slow and deliberate methods of 
the city fathers, the Vestry, on July 25, 1831, passed 
an ordinance interdicting " interments in graves " in the 
churchyards of Trinity and St. Paul's Chapel " unless in 
ground belonging to individuals."" 

During the fall of this year St. Paul's Chapel had its 
aisles paved with " marble flagging."^ 

The requests continually made to the corporation for 
aid outside the Parish, and the generous responses of the 
Vestry, desirous to advance every worthy enterprise for the 
Church within the State, began to cause serious anxiety ; 
outlays were often in excess of income, and it became 
obvious that such a course could not be continued without 
ultimate disaster. 

& London. G. P. Putnam's Sons (by Gen. David Clarkson), pp. 389-390," and The 
Cenle7inial History of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of New York, 
1783-1885. Edited by James Grant Wilson. New York : D. Appleton & Co., 1886. 
These entries are found in the Diary of the Rev. Dr. Berrian for 1831 : " Nov. 19 
attended the consecration of the Mission Church. Nov. 20 I preached my 254th ser- 
mon at night in the Mission Church." — Berrian MSS. 

' Berrian's Historical Sketch, p. 373. Records, liber iii., folio 76. 

'' Records, liber iii., folio 66. A city ordinance was passed in 1832 on the subject. 

^ Records, liber iii., folio 76. 



1831] Aid to Churches 143 

The Standing Committee, in a report upon several 
petitions from " Countrj' Churches," which under a stand- 
ing rule was always referred to them, recommended that the 
Vestry, in view of the state of the funds, reafifirm a resolu- 
tion of August 14, 1820, refusing to "extend its aid, either 
by donations or land, to any church not upon Manhattan 
Island, until its annual income is equal to its necessary 
expenditures." Among the reasons assigned for this 
course were the necessity of granting assistance " to 
new churches in this city rendered necessary by its rapid 
growth and increase of population ; the provision for the 
family of the late Rector ; and the contribution to the 
Theological Education Fund and other objects." The 
Committee was 

" not insensible to the great benefit which would result to the cause of 
religion by a judicious extension of the bounty of this corporation to 
necessitous congregations of the Communion engaged in the laudable 
but arduous undertaking of erecting commodious and substantial 
houses for public worship, and the committee are persuaded that the 
vestry entertain on this point the same feelings." 

After outlining a plan to be pursued in all future 
grants, the report closes with these words : 

" Ardently as the friends of the Church may look forward to the 
period when such a system may be carried into practical operation, the 
Committee are constrained to say that in their judgment that period 
has not yet arrived, and it would be ine.xpedient at the present time to 
grant any aid to churches not within the city of New York." ' 

The report was adopted. 

In those days, the city had no hall suitable for musical 
and artistic performances. The assembly rooms, in which 
dances and social entertainments were held, were not 
adapted to the presentation of music of a high grade. The 

' Records, liber iii., folio 69. 



144 History' of Trinity Church [1831- 

church buildings were used, apparently as a matter of 
course, and with no sense of impropriety, for many pub- 
lic functions. In Dr. Berrian's Diary we find these 
memoranda : 

"1831. 

Nov. 9. Called on several of the Vestry in relation to the 
Oratorio. 

Nov. 18. Attended the Oratorio of the Messiah at St. Paul's." ' 

These Oratorios were given by the New York Musi- 
cal Society, with other important works of similar char- 
acter ; and, as a result, a critical and cultured musical taste 
was developed, and many members of the Parish began to 
wish for improvement in the music in the Parish church 
and its chapels. 

The subject was brought before the Vestry, and the 
Rector was requested " to devise and report a plan for the 
improvement of the Church music." His report is deserv- 
ing of notice as the earliest formal step towards a more 
effective musical rendering of the service in the churches 
of the Parish. 

After an allusion to the right and privilege of the Rec- 
tor " by usage and the standing order of the Church to 
attend to all that relates to this matter with such assist- 
ance as he can obtain from persons skilled in music " and 
expressing his natural fondness for music, and the oppor- 
tunity he had enjoyed " of witnessing it in a degree of 
perfection unknown in our own country," he proceeds to 
say, " that the state of our own choirs in Trinity and St. 
John's, at least, is too low for the standard of taste among 
ourselves is evident from the frequent complaints which 
are made of them." 

In seeking a remedy for this condition of musical mat- 



183 1] Church Music 145 

ters he had instituted an inquiry into the way in which 
" this matter was arranged by those churches in our city 
where the music was most approved." He stated that he 
had ascertained that 

" at ' Ascension ' Church the leader of the vocal part was a young lady 
of great taste and talent, who has been advantageously known in the 
musical world for many years. She was the only person in that choir, 
though full and effective, who received any pecuniary compensation. 
The rest were all drawn by their love of music and skill and by the 
celebrity of the leader. The salary in this case was $250. The sister 
of this lady is employed at St. Luke's at a still smaller salary, and, who 
but little less distinguished, is like her surrounded by singers whose 
services are entirely voluntary. 

" In Grace Church there is a standing appropriation for the music 
of $1050 per annum. 

The organist receiving $300 

The alto and clerk 200 

The I St Treble 1 00 

The 2nd Treble 150 

The Tenor 150 

■ The Bass 150 

$1050 

" In the associate Dutch Churches the clerks alone received $400 
a year." 

The conclusion drawn from these facts was 

" that if we would have better music greater inducements must be pre- 
sented to persons of musical talent to enter our choirs. Either the 
whole or the greater part of our present allowance for all the singers 
in each choir must be made to one skilful and competent leader alone, 
trusting to his or her reputation to attract the voluntary services of 
others ; or the several sums allowed to the different voices must be 
materially enlarged." ' 

The reception of this report, February 13, 1832, led to 
the appointment of Messrs. McEvers, Brown, and Thomas 

' No. 123, Berrian MSS. 

VOL. IV.— 10. 



146 History of Trinity Church [1832 

in concert with the Rector, to adopt such measures in re- 
lation to this subject as they should deem advisable.' 

And now the Sunday-school question cropped up 
again. The managers and directors of the school at St. 
John's Chapel, full of zeal and impatient for advance, ap- 
peared to have been chagrined, because the conservatism 
of the Parish authorities interfered with their plans and 
proposals, and particularly with their wish to introduce 
methods of instruction which, as they alleged, had been 
used with great benefit in the Sunday-schools of other 
city parishes. Dr. Berrian gave his views on that sub- 
ject, with much frankness and fulness, took occasion to 
outline the method of instruction which had commended 
itself to his mature judgment and that of his colleagues, 
and declined to comply with their request. 

During the summer of 1832 Asiatic cholera first made 
its appearance in New York. It was brought to America 
by the Carrie ks, a vessel filled with Irish emigrants, many 
of whom died of cholera on the passage to Quebec. From 
Quebec it rapidly spread to Montreal and other Canadian 
cities and towns. 

It reached New York City by way of the Hudson 
River, notwithstanding strict regulations of the Board of 
Health. The first case was in Cherry Street near James 
Street on June 25th. It soon excited general alarm and 
apprehension ; after July 3d many new cases were daily 
reported. In addition to a well-organized Board of 
Health, a medical council of eminent physicians, of which 
Dr. Alexander Stevens was president, had full control of 
the health of the city. Four large temporary hospitals 
were at once established, and another soon became neces- 
sary. Medical stations for free treatment were opened in 
every ward. The epidemic raged for ten weeks, and then 

' Records, liber iii., folio 72. 



i] Cholera Epidemic 147 



gradually disappeared. Contemporary records show that 
there were reported 5835 cases and 2996 deaths. It is to 
be remembered that many citizens had left the city for the 
seaside, the mountains, or the towns above the Highlands 
on the Hudson River, at the first alarm, so that this mor- 
tality is really larger than it seems. 

Bishop Onderdonk set forth special prayers to be used 
in the churches of the Diocese.' He accompanied them 
with a pastoral letter in which, after mentioning that " the 
pestilence that walketh in darkness and the sickness that 
destroyeth at noon day " had commenced " its ravages in a 
province bordering on the United States and on this Dio- 
cese," he exhorted his brethren " to think seriously of the 
impending judgment of God, to consider the things 
which belong to your everlasting peace before they be for- 
ever hidden from you," and urged the clergy to diligence 
and earnestness in impressing upon all Christian people 
" their exposure to death and their responsibility at the 
great judgment to which death will be the summons." 

He subsequently sent to the Hon. Walter Bowne, 
Mayor of the city, a letter in which he alluded to the 
Church's recognition of days appointed by the civil au- 
thority, expressing the opinion that a general civic fast 
appointed by the city authorities would be better ob- 
served than one designated by any meeting of citizens 
however numerous and respectable. 

In a brief letter to the clergy of the city, June 26th, 
the Bishop suggested the propriety of " opening their 
churches for public worship and instruction on the fourth 
day of July next." ' 

There is no contemporary evidence to show whether 
this suggestion was followed in Trinity Parish. 

' The Pastoral Letter and Prayers are in TAe New- York Spectator, Friday, June 
22, 1832. • The New-York Spectator, June 2g, 1832. 



148 History of Trinity Church [1832 

In the Diary of the accompHshed Philip Hone, 
sometime Mayor of New York, and for many years a 
Vestryman of this Parish, there is this entry : 

" Wednesday July 4. It is a lovely day but very different fromjall 
previous anniversaries of independence. The alarm about the cholera 
has prevented all the usual jollification under the public authority. 
There are no booths in Broadway, the parade which was ordered has 
been countermanded, no corporation dinner and no ringing of bells. 
Most of the stores are closed and there is a pretty smart canonade 
of crackers by the boys : but this is not a regular Fourth of July." ' 

Three hundred well-known citizens presented on the 
28th of July a memorial to the Common Council in which 
they speak of being " deeply impressed with the melan- 
choly visitation under which our city is placed by the con- 
tinued prevalence of pestilence among us." They " feel 
the obligation to acknowledge the Divine Hand which 
hitherto hath greatly prospered us and now is afflicting us." 
They are convinced that "the efforts of our Common 
Council are directed to the best good of the suffering " and 
that a recommendation from it " of a day of fasting, 
humiliation, and prayer," would be " in unison with the 
best feelings of the inhabitants at home and abroad of our 
favoured city." They " therefore unite in asking for the 
appointment of a day not far distant for our citizens to 
unite in their supplications to Almighty God that He will 
be pleased to remove from them this heavy judgment and 
to save our country at large from all similar visitations." 
The memorial was considered by the aldermen and the 
assistant aldermen and a resolution was unanimously 
adopted, designating Friday, August 3d, as the day. 

On Monday, July 30th, the Mayor issued a Proclama- 
tion recommending to all inhabitants of the city "a due 

' Diary of Philip Hone, i., 58. 



1832] Day of Humiliation 149 

observance of the day so designated as a day of supplica- 
tion to Almighty God that He will of His infinite mercy 
be pleased to remove from us this frightful sickness and 
speedily deliver our country from similar calamities." ' 

As the Bishop was absent from the city, no special 
order could be set forth for the service and each Rector 
was at liberty to arrange the service, as he thought best. 
The Rector of Trinity sent to Mr. Schroeder and Dr. 
Anthon this note : 

" Rev. and dear Sir : 

"Both Boards of Aldermen and the Mayor having concurred in 
recommending Friday next, August 3rd, as a day of humiliation and 
prayer, I conclude that it would be in agreement with the wishes of the 
Bishop had we an opportunity of consulting him, that we should ob- 
serve the day — Our three Churches will, therefore, be opened in the 
morning for divine service and a sermon. It will, of course, be neces- 
sary that each one of us should be prepared with an appropriate 
discourse. 

" Yours truly, 

" Wm. Berrian. 
"Tuesday Evening, July 31st." 

The note enclosed a " special routine " ~ which assigned 
Mr. Schroeder to Trinity Church, Dr. Anthon to St. 
John's Chapel, and Dr. Berrian to St. Paul's Chapel.^ 

The day was generally observed. It is said " there 
was a manifest exhibition of sobriety and solemnity of 
demeanour in the people, and the churches were well 
attended considering the number who are absent, 

' For the proceedings of the Board of Aldermen and the Mayor's Proclamation see 
The Evening Post, Aug. I, 1832. 
' The " routine " is in this form : 

Friday, Aug. 3, 1832 

S T. 

B P. 

A J. 

'Schroeder MSS. Mrs. Wright, New Milford, Conn. 



150 History of Trinity Church [1832 

constituting a decided majority of the Church-going 
community."^ 

In some of the churches offerings were received for 
the benefit " of those who are constrained to look for the 
support of existence at this junction to the benevolence of 
their fellow citizens." 

The dreary summer finally ended after much extra 
work and many sad scenes for the clergy who remained in 
the city, as the larger number did ; and many stories of 
brave and humane deeds by clergymen and others were 
long traditional though few of them have appeared in print. 

Dr. Berrian's Diary shows his frequent attendance 
upon the sufferers from the pestilence. In a letter to Mr. 
William Johnson, the Comptroller, September 8, 1832, 
he says : 

" The constant pressure of parochial engagements for some time 
past has greatly interfered with all my other duties. I have been 
almost daily among the tombs and very much among the sick and 
dying. I have, happily, however, suffered neither in body nor mind, 
though I have been occasionally exhausted, and in some degree en- 
feebled from uninterrupted confinement to the city through the whole 
summer. But in regard to the clergy it was so plain a duty to remain, 
and the discharge of it has in every way been attended with so many 
advantages, that had the fatigues and dangers been greater than they 
were, yet on any future occasion I think I should pursue the same 
course." ^ 

On Wednesday, Oct. 17, 1832, the General Conven- 
tion assembled in St. John's Chapel. It was a memorable 
session, particularly in its closing scenes ; it marked an 
epoch in the history of the Church in the United States. 
Among the subjects under consideration were the condi- 
tion of the scattered congregations in the Southwest, the 
missions in the West, the Indian work at Green Bay, and 
the work commenced by Drs. Robertson and Hill in 

' The New- York Spectator, Monday, Aug. 6, 1S32. ■ No. 131, Berrian MSS. 



1832] The "Ohio Case" 151 

Greece. The sermon at the opening of the session was 
preached by the Right Rev. Henry U. Onderdonk, D.D., 
Assistant Bishop of Pennsylvania, and the celebrant at 
the Holy Communion was the venerable and revered 
" patriarch of the American Church," the Right Rev. 
William White, D.D. 

Much time was spent over what was known as the 
" Ohio case." The Right Rev. Philander Chase, one of 
the most remarkable figures in our Episcopal line, had 
resigned his ofiice the preceding year, Sept. 9, 1831. For 
fourteen years he had toiled as a missionary in the wilds 
of "far Ohio," as it was then called; he had organized 
many a mission and parish ; had raised funds in England 
for the establishment of a theological seminary and college 
which he put into successful operation, and had been for 
twelve years Bishop of Ohio. Nevertheless, on account 
of differences with his fellow trustees of Kenyon College 
and the Gambler Theological Seminary, he had, to use his 
own words, resigned " the Episcopate of the Diocese, and 
with it, what I consider constitutionally identified, the 
Presidency of the Theological Seminary of the Diocese of 
Ohio."^ 

The Convention of Ohio acted at once upon his resig- 
nation, and elected to the Episcopate of Ohio the Rev. 
Dr. Charles P. Mcllvaine, of St. Ann's Church, Brooklyn. 
Some doubt having arisen as to the legality of this action, 
no measures for the consecration of the Bishop-elect were 
then taken. At the Diocesan Convention of 1832, Dr. 
Mcllvaine was again elected, and all the papers bearing 
on the case were presented by the Ohio delegation to the 
House of Clerical and Lay Deputies for confirmation or 
rejection. 

' Extract from " Form of Resignation " sent to the Convention of the Diocese of 
Ohio by Bishop Chase. Bishop Chase's Reminiscences, 



152 History of Trinity Church [1832 

The debate in the House of Deputies was long and 
briUiant. The learned canonist, Dr. De Lancey of St. 
Peter's, Philadelphia, Dr. Jonathan M. Wainvvright, Pres. 
Wm. A. Duer, Mr. William Meredith, Mr. Samuel J. 
Donaldson, Peter A. Jay, and many others took part in it. 

In the House of Bishops the subject was earnestly 
discussed. 

Finally a compromise substitute for one of the many 
series of resolutions which had been offered and rejected 
was adopted and approved by the Bishops, who sent 
down a canon of Episcopal Resignations which was duly 
passed. The whole Church breathed more freely when the 
question was settled.' 

Bishop Chase, after his resignation, withdrew from the 
State of Ohio, and, in the heart of a virgin forest in the 
rich lands along the St. Joseph River in Branch Co., 
Michigan, near the Indiana line, formed a new home for 
himself and his family, which he named " Gilead." 

But by far the most interesting and important event 
was that which occurred Oct. 31st, 1832. On that aus- 
picious day, four Bishops-elect were consecrated together in 
St. Paul's Chapel ; Drs. John Henry Hopkins, Bishop-elect 
of Vermont ; Benjamin Bosworth Smith, Bishop-elect 
of Kentucky ; Charles Pettit Mcllvaine, Bishop-elect of 
Ohio ; and George Washington Doane, Bishop-elect of 
New Jersey. A sight so impressive had never been pre- 
sented before in our Communion." 

' A portion of the debate of the House of Deputies will be found in the New 
York Gazette during October, 1832. also in the New York Commercial Advertiser. 
Of the proceedings in the House of Bishops, nothing but the final action was made 
known, as they sat with closed doors. 

°- The only other instance of the consecration of four Bishops on the same day was 
during the General Convention of 1859, in Richmond, Virginia, on Sunday, October 
13, 1859 : Dr. Gregg for Texas, in the Monumental Church ; Dr. Odenheimer for 
New Jersey, and Dr. Bedell, as Assistant Bishop of Ohio, in St. Paul's Church ; and 
Dr. Whipple for Minnesota, in St. James's Church. 



1832] Consecration in St. Paul's Chapel 153 

The service was held in St. Paul's Chapel, beginning 
at 10.30 o'clock, A.M. Morning Prayer was said by the 
Rev. Dr. VVyatt, President of the House of Deputies and 
Rector of St. Paul's Church, Baltimore, assisted by the 
Rev. Dr. Bird Wilson, Secretary of the House of Bishops, 
and Professor in the General Theological Seminary. The 
Tenth Selection was used 'instead of the Psalms for the 
day. The Presiding Bishop commenced the Communion 
Office, Bishop Bowen of South Carolina being Epistoler, 
and Bishop Griswold of the Eastern Diocese, Gospeller. 
The sermon was preached by Dr. Onderdonk, Assistant 
Bishop of Pennsylvania, from Isaiah Ixvi., 31, who dwelt 
upon the necessity for a ministry, and answered many of 
the arguments then current against Episcopacy. Immedi- 
ately after the sermon an anthem from the Messiah, 
" Comfort ye my people," was sung. This was severely 
criticised by some as an innovation in the services. A 
writer in " The Banner of the Church " says : " We 
thought it seasonably introduced and fitted to add to their 
interest and solemnity, and peculiarly so as regards the 
minds of the Candidates." 

The four Bishops elected were then presented to the 
Presiding Bishop, each in order of seniority of election. 
The Presiding Bishop was the consecrator ; for Dr. Hop- 
kins the co-consecrators were Bishop Griswold and Bishop 
Bowen ; for Dr. Smith, Bishop Brownell and Bishop H. 
U. Onderdonk ; for Dr. Mcllvaine, Bishop Griswold and 
Bishop Meade ; for Dr. Doane, Bishop B. T. Onderdonk 
and Bishop Ives. The newly consecrated Bishops were 
received within the sanctuary, and the Presiding Bishop 
proceeded to the celebration of the Holy Communion, 
assisted in the administration by his colleagues. 

The consecration of the four Bishops in St. Paul's 
Chapel was an event of the utmost importance in the 



154 History of Trinity Church [1832 

history of our branch of the Church in this country ; 
the signal for an advance along the whole line, and the 
expression of a resolve to extend far and wide the know- 
ledge of the Gospel as we have received the same. It 
closed a period of uncertainty and hesitation, and inau- 
gurated an era of earnest missionary work, east and west ; 
it was the outcome, under God's Providence, of the work 
of the great Bishop Hobart, in asserting the cause of the 
Church, repelling the assaults of her jealous adversaries 
and rivals, and proclaiming her principles fearlessly and 
without reserve. The service would probably have been 
held in Trinity Church, had not some alterations been 
going on at the time, caused by the setting up of Bishop 
Hobart's monument in the chancel of the edifice. The 
solemn function to which we are referring is commemo- 
rated by a panel in one of the bronze doors presented to 
Trinity Church by the Hon. William Waldorf Astor, in 
the year 1890. 

Referring to the monument in memory of Bishop 
Hobart, of which mention has already been made in a 
preceding chapter of this work, we learn from the Diary 
of Mr. Hone, that it was completed and ready for erection 
in October.' He also mentions a commission given to 
Mr. Hughes for the construction of a "beautiful altar-table 
of white Italian Marble," and adds " I think the effect of 
the whole will be much finer than anything of the sort in 
this country." ^ 

A description of the interior of the church before the 
enlargement says that "the Communion table was placed 
against the western wall and the desk and pulpit were 
directly in front of it, without the chancel rail." When 

' For certain criticisms on this monument see Appendix. 

"P. 651, Diary of Philip Hone. The date when the chancel was enlarged and 
the recess made for the monument is fixed by an entry in the Diary, October 22, 1832: 
We are preparing to alter the pulpit and desk to suit it." 



1832] The Organ in Trinity Church 155 

the Improvements were finished a "recess was built in the 
rear of the Church, the great altar window, whose mag- 
nificent proportions were so justly admired, being removed 
for that purpose." ' 

The alterations in the church and the use of the 
former vestry room for the Sunday-school made it neces- 
sary that the portraits of the former Rectors, that of the 
Rev. Dr. Ogilvie and several rare engravings, then hang- 
ing in that room should be removed to the vestry ofifice, 
and on December loth, 1832, it was so ordered." A 
monograph upon the present collection of portraits be- 
longing to the Corporation will be found in the Year- 
Book for the year 1900. 

The growth of the city above Hudson Square toward 
Greenwich village made it expedient to consider the 
building of a church between St. John's Chapel and St. 
Luke's church in upper Hudson Street, which last was 
considered the parish church of Greenwich. The Rev. 
Prof. McVickar, of Columbia College, was an earnest and 
enthusiastic advocate of free churches in the days when 
they were hardly thought of by any American Churchman.^ 
In a communication to the Vestry he suggested that such 
a church be built by the Corporation near the Hudson 
Street cemetery. After considering the subject the 
Vestry referred it on February 11, 1833, to the Standing 
Committee to report at a future date. 

The organ in Trinity Church was made in London, by 
H. Holland in 1791. It is described as "a large but 

' This window was the largest in the United States, and " contained altogether in 
its three compartments, one thousand and thirty-nine panes of glass." See Onder- 
donk's History of the Churches in Nc-u York City, Part I. 

'^ Records, liber iii., folios 82, 83. 

'St. Mark's Church, Lewiston, Pennsylvania, ol which the Rev. Robert Piggott 
was Rector, organized in 1S33, claims the honor of being the first entirely free 
church. 



156 History of Trinity Church [1832 

inferior toned instrument." ^ It had become very much out 
of order, and needed extensive repairs ; the superintend- 
ent of repairs was ordered to have the work done " with 
all practical despatch." But this action was reconsidered 
on February 11, 1833, when the Rector, Mr. Ogden, Mr. 
Johnson, and Mr. Jones were appointed a committee 
together with the superintendent of repairs, " to con- 
sider and report upon the expediency of procuring a new 
organ for Trinity Church instead of repairing the old 
one."^ 

As early as 1813 a few individuals, desiring to add to 
the value of their property west of Lumber Street, con- 
ceived a plan of putting a street through the northern 
portion of Trinity churchyard. Favorable action on their 
selfish scheme was taken by the Common Council, and 
nothing but a thorough and vigorous protest from the au- 
thorities of this Parish and many influential citizens pre- 
vented the desecration of ground which for nearly one 
hundred and fifty years had been used as a burial-place. 
The part of the churchyard which it was proposed thus 
sacrilegiously to invade, was that in which many of the 
soldiers and officers of the American Army, victims of 
cruel treatment and disease, who had been prisoners in 
the old Sugar House in Liberty Street during the British 
occupation of New York City, were buried. Every patri- 
otic instinct, every tender regard for men who had suffered 
intensely, every feeling of respect for those who had 
passed beyond the grave, revolted at the proposition. 

In 1832 the project was renewed. Though meeting 
with approval from a portion of the daily press, it was re- 
sented by the more thoughtful as an indignity and a mis- 
use of private property.^ 

' Onderdonk's History of the Churches in New York City. 

' Records, liber iii., folio 83 iii., December 10, 1833, and February II, 1834. 

^ Mr. Grant Thorburn in his Reminiscences of New York ; or. Leaves from the 



1832] Albany Street Extension 157 

As soon as the Vestry was informed of this proposal, 
September 25, 1832, a resolution was adopted disapprov- 
ing of " the opening of any street through the said Ceme- 
tery." The Comptroller' and Clerk'- with Messrs. Brown, 
Hone, and Graham, "were appointed a Committee to re- 
monstrate against the opening of said street, and to pursue 
such course as they may deem expedient to prevent the 
same."^ 

An editorial in the New York Mir 7- or, written in 
vigorous indignation, thus commences : 

" It is not easy to say whether the project of extending Albany 
street through Trinity Churchyard is regarded by the disinterested 
portion of our fellow citizens with more of surprise or indignation. 
Beyond doubt the City Corporation betray on this, as they have betrayed 
on many other occasions, a most reprehensible disregard of Moral 
right, and of the true meaning of the laws, and a deliberate intention to 
make the best use of their time for the accomplishment of local and 
private interests and enterprises." ' 

After negotiations and hearings before the Supreme 
Court, extending over nearly two years, the advocates of 
the invasion of the sacred precincts were finally baffled and 
defeated in their selfish purpose. 

Garden of Laurie Todd (New York, D. Fan^haw, 1845, i6mo, pp. 28S) gives a 
vivid picture of the horrors of the prison life of the American soldiers and sailors. 
See especially pp. 166-17S. 

' Mr. William Johnson. 

' Mr. Thomas L. Ogden. 

' Records, liber iii., folio 78. 

* P. 253. The New York Mirror, vol. x., No. 32, Saturday, February g, 1833. 
In the following number is " A Protest," by " An old man of four-score," pp. 262-263. 
February 16, 1S33. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE SYSTEM OF THE PARISH AND ITS DIFFICULTIES. 

Remarks on the System of the Parish — Formation of the Education Society of the 
Parish of Trinity Church — Its Organization — Memorial from St. John's Sunday-school 
— Reply of the Rector — Assignment of the Assistant Ministers over Different Sun- 
day-schools — Dr. Schroeder's Scheme of Lessons — Committee Appointed to Consider 
the State of the Church in Trinity Parish — Relation of the Parish to the Episcopate — 
Action of the Vestry toward the Endowment of the Episcopal Fund — Petition from St. 
Jude's Church, Peoria — Aid to Geneva College — Dr. Anthon Offers his Resignation — 
Memorials from Pew-holders of St. Paul's and St. John's Chapels— Report of the Com- 
mittee on the State of the Church — ^The Bishop Relieved from all Parochial Duties — 
Assignment of Assistant Ministers to Separate Chapels — Standing Resolution as to 
Manner of Electing Assistant Ministers — Election of Dr. Wainwright — Assignment of 
the Different .Assistants to the Several Chapels — Order of Precedence among Assistant 
Ministers Defined — Duties of the Rector — Objections of Dr. Anthon to New Regula- 
tions — The Rector's Report on them — Declination of Dr. Wainwright — Election of 
the Rev. Edward Young Higbee as Assistant Minister — Collection of Materials for 
the History of the Church in America — Grant to Dr. Hawks as Historiographer. 

THE history of Trinity Parish must of course be made 
up, in great part, from the Minutes of the Cor- 
poration. Those records show, at this period, the presence 
of disintegrating tendencies which required close watching 
and discreet handhng, to prevent them from working seri- 
ous mischief. The unity of the Parish was threatened from 
two sides : by discontented congregations and by ministers 
jealous of their rights and prerogatives. As individualism is 
the bane of civic life, Congregationalism is the disease of 
ecclesiastical existence. Where there is but one parish 
church, with one clergyman, and one company of attend- 
ants, the circumstances are favorable to placid and 
contented repose ; but under a collegiate system, where 
158 



1833] The Collegiate System 159 

several churches are included in one organization, and a 
number of clergy labor together, danger is always at 
hand. The Parish of Trinity Church was growing rapidly : 
already it had three churches, and three congregations ; 
its Rector and Assistant Ministers formed a considerable 
body of able and distinguished men ; additions to the cleri- 
cal staff must soon be made. It is no wonder that, from 
time to time, the wish for independence should manifest 
itself among groups of the people, under a sense of the 
superior importance of their own portion of the Parish, or 
under the impression that their local interests were not 
sufficiently studied, nor yet, that among the clergy some 
should be found nursing imaginary grievances or brood- 
ing over matters which appeared to them derogatory to 
their dignity. Neither was it surprising, but inevitable, 
that the people should have their favorites, to whom they 
became so strongly attached, as to be willing, if necessary, 
to follow them out of the Parish, should they feel in- 
clined to set up independent organizations. To meet the 
tendencies inherent in the collegiate system, to preserve 
the peace of the Parish and maintain its unity, two things 
were needed : first, a central government, too strong to be 
shaken by discontented and factious persons, steady in its 
policy and firm in its management of the trust committed 
to it ; and secondly, an honest and conscientious purpose 
to do justice to all ; to administer the Parish wisely and 
impartially ; and to allow to each congregation the fullest 
measure of liberty and freedom consistent with the integ- 
rity and safety of the system of which it formed a part. 

We have already noted instances of this tendency 
towards parochial disintegration, and of the mode in 
which it was dealt with by the Corporation ; other in- 
stances will appear as we proceed. 

In January, 1833, ^^ Educational and Missionary .Soci- 



i6o History of Trinity Church [1833 

ety was formed within the Parish. On the request of a 
committee of the Vestry consisting of Messrs. Thomas 
L. Ogden, William Johnson, Philip Hone, and Benjamin 
M. Brown, the Rector called the several congregations 
together to consider the subject. The Society was to be 
an auxiliary to the Educational and Missionary Society of 
the Diocese, and to assist divinity students in their pre- 
paration for the Ministry.' As finally organized Decem- 
ber I, 1833, it consisted of a Board of Managers, of which 
the Rector was ex officio president, and the Assistant 
Ministers vice-presidents. Each congregation was repre- 
sented by what was called a " delegation," consisting of 
four members : these delegations were to raise funds and 
nominate beneficiaries. The Society appears to have 
been a useful adjunct to the Church in the Diocese. 
There have recently been discovered A Stateniait and 
Appeal of the St. John's " delegation," signed by the Rev. 
Henry Anthon, and a similar document emanating from 
St. Paul's Chapel, and written by Dr. Schroeder.^ 

The formation of that Society, with its provision for 
" delegations " from each church and special duties of the 
Assistant Ministers as heads of such delegations, probably 
gave an additional impetus, in some quarters, to the ten- 
dency to congregational independence. And now the inter- 
minable Sunday-school question came up once more, to add 
material to the agitation. In June, 1833, we find the 
"Directors" of the Sunday-school of St. John's Chapel 
coming to the Vestry with a Memorial, alleging that, in 

'No. 132, Berrian MSS. 

* " ' Education Society of the Parish of Trinity Church, New York.' New York 
Protestant Episcopal Press Print, 1834, i6mo., pp. 8," on front cover. Education So- 
ciety of the Parish of Trinity Church, St. John's Chapel. 

That for St. Paul's is similar with the title on the front cover substituting for 
"St. John's Chapel" "St. Paul's Chapel," and the date on the title page 
•MDCCCXXXV." 

Both are in the collection of the late Rev. Dr. Schroeder. 



1833] Special Assignments of Clergy 161 

their opinion, great and important advantages would result 
to the school " if the Rector, or one of the Assistant 
Ministers, were to take an active part in its arrangement." 
But, continue the ingenious memorialists, as they are 
persuaded that the work should not and cannot be thrown 
on the Rector, who has already in their judgment more 
than he can attend to, they suggest that the whole charge 
of the school be committed to one of the Assistant Minis- 
ters ; and it was no secret that they had in view the Rev. 
Dr. Anthon, already a great favorite. This petition 
drew out the Rector, who replied in a communication 
which takes a place of importance in the documentary 
history of the Parish. Hoping that the observations 
which he offers will be received "in the spirit of kindness 
and candour in which they were made," he proceeds to 
object to special assignments of the kind proposed, on 
the ground that they will disturb the unity of the Parish ; 
accounts for his apparent neglect in giving close personal 
attention to all the Sunday-schools of the Parish, by his 
having been constantly occupied in writing the Life of 
Bishop Hobart, which work had at last been completed ; 
and declares his ability and intention to bestow all needed 
care, from that time forward, on the special work under 
consideration.' 

A copy of this letter, which was of great length, 
was presented to the Vestry, who, having considered 
it, adopted a resolution asking the Rector to invite 
the Assistant Ministers to co-operate with him in visit- 
ing the Sunday-schools of the Parish. Their intention 
appears to have been, to maintain the prerogative of 
the Rector, and at the same time to secure efficient aid in 
the performance of duties which might seem too great for 

' No. 113, Berrian MSS. The substance of the letter is incorporated into a letter 
to the Assistant Ministers, dated July 25, 1833. 

VOL. IV. — I I. 



i62 History of Trinity Church [1835 

any one man to discharge properly. It was a step in the 
direction of a comprehensive plan, carried into effect 
many years after. The result was that Dr. Anthon 
became more fully identified with the Sunday-school of 
St. John's Chapel and Dr. Schroeder with that of St. 
Paul's, the Rector reserving his right of general over- 
sight and control. Both schools appear to have been 
much helped and bettered by the new arrangement. Dr. 
Schroeder, in particular, devoted much care and thought 
to his department of the work. 

The changes in the management of the schools and 
the decided advantages resulting from the new arrange- 
ment soon suggested additional measures, in the adminis- 
tration of the Parish, and brought again into prominence 
the plan of permanently assigning the Assistant Minis- 
ters to some particular church or chapel. The members of 
St. John's Chapel who had previously petitioned for the 
change, and others who deemed it desirable, already 
formed a considerable body, and were acquiring more in- 
fluence, though still in a minority. Occasional expressions 
of dissatisfaction with one or other of the clergy were 
heard, and agitation and controversy were the unfortunate 
result. It required wisdom and sound judgment to meet 
the difficulties of the hour. The Vestry took the matter 
up and finally, April 13, 1835, ^^ the instance of Mr. Thomas 
L. Ogden, a committee was appointed consisting of two 
members of the Vestry from each Congregation 

"to consider and report on the state of the Church in this Parisli, and 
whether any, and if any what, measures may be advantageously adopted 
by this Vestry for its improvement, and that the said Committee be in- 
structed to confer with the Rector, and also as far as may be practica- 
ble to ascertain the views of the members of each Congregation in 
relation to such measures as the Committee may think proper to 
recommend in reference to the object of this resolution." 



1835] Support of the Episcopate 163 

After balloting, Mr. Charles McEvers and Mr. Thomas 
L. Ogden of Trinity Church, Hon. John T. Irving, An- 
thony L. Underhill of St. Paul's Chapel, Mr. Thomas 
Swords and Mr. Jacob Lorillard of St. John's Chapel 
were chosen to constitute the said committee. 

It was a long time before the Vestry took final action 
upon this subject; meanwhile other important matters de- 
manded attention. There was great dissatisfaction with the 
position of the Bishop, who was still connected with the 
Parish, while the Diocese required his assiduous care and 
constant oversight. The strength developed by some 
parishes in the western counties had already suggested a 
division of the Diocese,' and the subject was mentioned by 
Bishop Onderdonk in his address in 1834. Uncertainty also 
existed as to the Bishop's place of residence and permanent 
support. What more would be done by the Parish with 
which he was still connected ? And what could be obtained 
from the rest of the Diocese ? Again the interminable 
subject of the Episcopal Fund was brought before the 
Vestry, in a letter from the Bishop , " in relation to 
the necessary expenses of sustaining the Episcopate in the 
City, and to arrangements connected with his future resi- 
dence." The communication was referred to Messrs. 
Jacob Lorillard, Thomas L. Ogden, John T. Irving, Ed- 
ward W. Laight, and Peter A. Mesier.'^ 

An elaborate report giving a full account of the rela- 
tion of the Parish to the Episcopate of New York from 
1787 was made on April 13. It said that the principal 
object of the Bishop's letter was " to induce the Vestry 

' " In 1835 this portion of the Diocese numbered sixty clergymen, ninety-two 
parishes, and thirty-five hundred communicants in a population of a little over one 
million, having gained over four-fold upon the population within twenty-five years." 
Semi-centennial Sermon, Trinity Church, Geneva, by Charles W. Hayes, D.D. , p. 22. 
See also Dr. Hayes' Diocese of Western New York, History and Recollections. 

-Records, liber iii., folio 116. 



164 History of Trinity Church [1835 

during his residence in this city and whilst they shall remain 
charged with the support of the Episcopate to increase 
his stated allowance to an extent equal to the rent of a 
suitable house." It showed how the occupants of the 
Episcopal Chair had all been connected with Trinity 
Church. With respect to Bishop Provoost and Bishop 
Moore it showed that "an addition appears to have been 
made to their previous salaries as Rectors." For Bishop 
Hobart a house had been provided and " five hundred 
dollars per annum granted to him to support the expenses 
of the Episcopal office." This was increased in 18 14 to 
$1100, in 1816 to $1250, and in 1828 to $2710, and 
various intermediate grants had been made to him in the 
form of donations, until during the later years of his 
Episcopate, his whole income as Bishop was $6500. For 
Bishop Onderdonk there had been granted $2000, which 
was increased in 1832 to $3000, at which amount it then 
stood. Several donations had been made to him in 
addition. 

Rehearsing the various efforts to increase the Episco- 
pal Fund, the pledge of the Vestry for that purpose and 
the failure to meet the conditions imposed, the committee 
say that as the whole subject will come before the Con- 
vention, and considering the principles which have hither- 
to guided the Vestry, " it would not be expedient at the 
present time to increase his annual allowance, nor to make 
any provision of a more permanent character for the 
Bishop's support whilst in this city." The committee 
was constrained to add 

"the expression of their conviction, after a full consideration of all the 
circumstances connected with this important subject, and in reference 
more particularly to the increasing solicitude of the Church to secure 
to the diocese at large the undivided services of the Bishop that ' the 
period has in their judgment arrived for raising the Episcopal fund to 



i83s] Grant to the Episcopal Fund 165 



an amount which will enable the Convention to make such arrange- 
ments for this purpose, as the welfare of the Church may appear to 
them to demand.' " ' 

The offer is renewed of the sum of $30,000 to increase 
the Episcopal Fund to $100,000, to be paid whenever the 
fund amounted to $70,000. The Comptroller was author- 
ized to pay the amount thus pledged whenever the other 
sum had been secured, but only upon condition that in 
case of a division of the Diocese one half of the whole 
fund " shall belong to and be at the disposal of the Con- 
vention of that part of the Diocese in which the city of 
New York may be situated, to be applied to the support 
of a Bishop within the same.'"" The report was approved 
by the Vestry and a copy was sent to the Secretary of the 
Diocese to be communicated to the Convention. Upon 
the fulfilment of the condition in 1836 the gift of thirty 
thousand dollars was paid to the Treasurer of the Episco- 
pal Fund.'* 

The pressure from all quarters to share in the bounty 
of Trinity Parish is illustrated by an application received 
at this time from St. Jude's Church, Peoria, Illinois, re- 
questing " a loan of seven thousand and five hundred 
dollars to aid in the erection of a church edifice at that 
place." The Vestry, while expressing "a deep interest in 
the extension of the Protestant Episcopal Church in 
Illinois and other parts of the United States," are com- 
pelled to declare that " they are unable, for want of the 
necessary funds, to grant the application," and that " the 
numerous and pressing calls from destitute congregations 
in the Diocese make it inexpedient to extend its aid for 
the relief of Churches in other states."* 

' Records, liber iii., folios Ii8, 119. 

' For the report in full, see Records, liber iii., folios 117-119. 

'Berrian's Historical Sketch, pp. 312, 373. 

■•Records, liber iii., folio 113. 



i66 History of Trinity Church [1835 

On September 28, 1835, the credit of the Corporation 
was loaned to the Society for Promoting Religion and 
Learning for the sum of thirty thousand dollars to enable 
Geneva College to erect buildings. A graduated scale 
for the reduction of interest, to be a lien upon the property 
of the Society, was also adopted.' 

Referring to the appointment of a committee on the 
state of the Church, April 13, 1835, ^he subject of the re- 
organization of the Parish came up again, in October, on 
the report of that committee. At the same time, Mr. 
Harison presented a substitute consisting of certain reso- 
lutions in relation to the appointment and duties of Assist- 
ant Ministers. Passing on to January 25, 1836," we come 
to the final action upon the report and substitute, which 
appears to have been of the nature of a compromise 
between the views of the Committee and those of Mr. 
Harison. Personal complications had meanwhile arisen, 
which made the matter more difficult to decide. A letter 
had been received by the Vestry from Dr. Anthon, in 
which he tendered his resignation as one of the Assistant 
Ministers. A memorial was also presented from pew- 
holders in St. Paul's and St. John's Chapels, praying for 
"a change in the present system of performing parochial 
duties in the different congregations of the Parish." These 
acts, distinctly in the line of disunion and disintegration, 
called for very firm and very judicious treatment. 

During November and December, 1835, three special 
meetings of the Vestry were held. A second memorial 
came in from pew-holders of St. John's Chapel, December 
28th. Finally, at a very full meeting of the Vestry, held 
January 25, 1836, the long discussion of these matters 
crystallized into action. 

The report is entered in full upon the Minutes ; it marks 

' Records, liber iii., folios 124-129. - Records, liber iii., folio 130. 



1836] Report on Associate System 167 

an era in the liistory of the Parish. Calm in tone, judicial 
in character, and clear in its conclusions, it was prepared 
after conference with the Rector, inquiry of the Assistant 
Ministers, and endeavor by interviews with various mem- 
bers of the several congregations to learn their views and 
wishes. The report frankly admits that "the Church in 
this Parish is in an unsettled and excited state, and that a 
feeling of dissatisfaction is apparent among the congrega- 
tions." While there may be a possibility that "defects 
more or less incidental to our associate system " had some 
influence, yet the immediate origin is to be traced to 
causes of "a more particular and temporary character" 
which, however, were " of a nature so delicate " that the 
committee declined to dwell upon them, only remarking 
in a general way upon the necessity of confidence and 
esteem between pastors and people for the growth in the 
spiritual and temporal concerns of any Parish. It was 
to remedy this unhappy condition and tranquillize the 
Church that these measures were proposed. The need 
of at least three active Assistant Ministers is recognized. 
The committee further treat of the relation of the 
Bishop to the Parish, and show that " the duties of the 
Episcopate require so much of his time and care that his 
parochial services must be of necessity limited and precari- 
ous," and admit, though reluctantly, that as the Diocese can- 
not be neglected, the Parish must practically dispense with 
his services, "valuable and acceptable as those services 
always were to our congregations," and allow him "greater 
leisure for the discharge of his Episcopal functions, and 
give increased assurance to the Church at large that it 
will continue to receive an efficient supervision, while the 
whole of this extensive diocese shall remain under his ex- 
clusive charge." 

The committee then recommend the election of some 



i68 History of Trinity Church [1836 

individual of such approved talents and qualifications as 
to render him generally acceptable to the congregations 
as Assistant Minister. The committee stated in con- 
nection with the proposed appointment that two plans had 
been considered by them as to permanent arrangement 
for duty. One was to assign one Assistant to each church, 
making it his duty to preach statedly in such church, to 
take the special charge of the Sunday-school, to visit the 
sick, and perform other parochial duties among the con- 
gregations, " the Rector retaining a general supervision 
of the whole concerns of all the churches, and both he and 
the Bishop to preach occasionally, as they may find con- 
venient." The other was to assign the Assistant Ministers 
to duty, as in the first plan, with the exception of preach- 
ing, " leaving this duty to be performed by the Assistant 
Ministers in rotation subject to like occasional relief by 
the Bishop and Rector." 

As to the first plan, it was predicted by many that it 
" would lead to disunion among the congregations, and 
their final separation." The committee were of the opin- 
ion that "there is an unsurmountable objection to it, 
founded on the decided conviction of the Committee that 
it will be impracticable at present to make any assignment 
of the individual assistants among the different congrega- 
tions, so as to give satisfaction to all." Therefore they 
recommended the adoption of the second plan. 

" It is hoped and believed that its tendency will be to fix an indi- 
vidual responsibility upon each assistant as to the particular service 
required of him, and thus to secure the more vigilant attention of all 
to the high and important duty of cultivating an intimate intercourse 
with their parishioners, and, especially in time of sickness and trouble, 
of administering to them the comforts and consolations of our holy 
religion." 

The suggestions of the committee were embodied in three 



1836] Nomination of Assistant Ministers 169 

resolutions appended to the report. Briefly they pro- 
posed, 

1st, to reheve the Bishop from all parochial duty ; 

2d, to call an additional Assistant Minister ; 

3d, to adopt a stated plan for the assignment of the 
Assistant Ministers to particular duties. 

Of these resolutions the ist and 2d were approved ; a 
long discussion took place on the 3d ; final action was post- 
poned. It was ultimately decided that the system of 
parochial administration should be changed when " there 
shall be three Assistant Ministers officiating in this Parish, 
so that one shall be assigned to Trinity Church, one to St. 
Paul's Chapel, and one to St. John's Chapel during the 
pleasure of the Vestry." Their duties were plainly defined, 
and included the supervision of the Sunday-schools and 
the catechising of the children ; all, however, to be done 
under the general supervision of the Rector.' A special 
committee, consisting of the Comptroller, Mr. William 
Johnson, Mr. William H. Harison, General Edward W. 
Laight, Hon. John T. Irving, Mr. Peter Mesier, Mr. 
William E. Dunscomb, Mr. Benjamin M. Brown, Mr. 
Thomas Swords, and Mr. Jacob Lorillard, was appointed 
February 15, 1836, to take into consideration and report 
upon the best method of carrying into effect the reso- 
lutions passed January 25th. 

The consideration of this subject was resumed at a 
meeting of the Vestry held March 23, 1836. Prior to 
final action on the several propositions before that body, 
the question of the method of nomination of Assistant 
Ministers came up. There are only two charter officers 
in Trinity Parish, the Rector and the official known as the 
"Assistant to the Rector"; both have a life tenure of 
office, and cannot be removed but for grave and sufficient 

' Records, liber iii., folios 140, 141. 



I/O History of Trinity Church [1836 



cause. All other ministers hold office "during the pleas- 
ure of the Vestry," as has already been shown (see Part. II., 
pp. 226, 227 of this History). Doubt existed as to the 
right of nomination. For many years past it had been 
the custom that the Rector should nominate, after a pre- 
vious ballot by the members of the Vestry with a view to 
designate the person to be so nominated. But, by a reso- 
lution adopted at this meeting, the right was vested con- 
currently in the Rector and each member of the Vestry.^ 
They then proceeded to act on the several propositions 
before them. Upon the question of the call of a third 
Assistant Minister, the vote being in favor of such action, 
the Vestry proceeded to a ballot; and, it appearing that 
the Rev. Jonathan M. Wainwright, D.D.. of Boston, had 
a majority of the votes of all the members present, he was 
declared to be duly appointed an Assistant Minister to the 
Parish to hold his office during the pleasure of the Vestry." 

It was intended by this election to bring back a former 
Assistant of the Parish whose varied talents had entitled 
him to a high place in the Church. Dr. Wainwright's 
executive ability, his graceful and forceful eloquence, his 
technical skill in music, his refined and cultivated tastes, 
had made him a commanding figure both in New York 
and Boston. It was at one time thought probable that 
his brethren would elevate him to the Assistant Bishopric 
of Massachusetts, as the burden of the Eastern Diocese 
was proving too great for Bishop Griswold. Dr. Wain- 
wright's freedom from controversial bitterness, his suavity 
of manner, his firm conviction of fundamental Catholic 
truth, caused many to think of him as the only one capa- 
ble of bringing a diocese, rent with internal strife and 
angry debate, to a state of peace and harmony. 

The Vestry next proceeded to adopt the resolution 

' Records, liber iii., folio 146. ' Records, liber iii,, folio 147. 



1836] Duties of Assistant Ministers Defined 171 

providing for the assignment of the three Assistant Minis- 
ters to the several congregations. It was ordered that 
the members of the Vestry from each congregation might 
be severally permitted simultaneously to nominate to the 
Vestry the individual to be assigned to such congregation. 
The members of the Vestry from St. John's nominated 
the Rev. Dr. Anthon. The major part of the Vestrymen 
from St. Paul's nominated the Rev. Jonathan M. Wain- 
wright, D. D., and the major part of the Vestrymen from 
Trinity also nominated Dr. Wainwright. Dr. Anthon 
was then, by ballot, assigned to St. John's Chapel. Dr. 
Wainwright was in the same manner assigned to Trinity 
Church. It was determined to assign by resolution an 
Assistant Minister to St. Paul's, and the Rev. John F. 
Schroeder was accordingly assigned.' 

At an adjourned meeting held two days later, it was 
further resolved that the assignments should be for one 
year, from the first day of May next ensuing. 

Another resolution was then adopted, defining the duties 
of the Assistant Ministers in the respective congregations. 
They were to preach statedly every Sunday morning, in 
the church or chapel to which they were assigned, and in 
rotation in the afternoon, according to a " Routine " to be 
prepared for their guidance by the Rector. 

Another resolution authorized each Assistant Minister 
to appoint such season of the year and such times for the 
catechetical and other special instruction of the young of 
the congregation to which he had been assigned, as he 
might think most fit and proper for such purpose. The 
Vestry suggested that the Rector might supplement this 
instruction, and thought it desirable to have a special plan 
and course outlined each year by the Rector and Assistant 
Ministers in consultation. It was further made the duty of 

' Records, liber iii., folio 147. 



172 History of Trinity Church [1836 

each Assistant Minister to report cases of distress to the 
Rector, and to account to him, quarterly or otherwise, for 
all moneys belonging to the Communion Fund, which the 
Rector might give him for distribution; and also to report 
to the Rector any " failure, or neglect, or disobedience, on 
the part of any of the organists, clerks or sextons, in the 
performance of their several duties." The Rector was to 
appoint the days on which the several canonical collections 
should be made, and no other collections were to be made 
in any of the churches without his consent. He was also to 
" appoint the times for the celebration of the Lord's Sup- 
per" ; and the Assistant Ministers were required to assist 
in the celebration thereof, except on the greater festivals, 
when it was to be administered at the same time in all the 
churches. 

Finally, it was ordered that " the arrangements directed 
by these resolutions go into operation on the first day of 
May next."^ By their passage it was hoped that irrita- 
tion and excitement would be allayed, that the ties be- 
tween the clergy and the people would become closer, 
and that new strength and devotion would be given to 
their united work. 

At this meeting some additional matters were con- 
sidered, discussed, and dealt with by resolution. Among 
them was a question as to the order of precedence among 
the Assistant Ministers so long as the office of " Assistant 
to the Rector" was not filled, whenever from any cause 
the Rector could not act. These resolutions afterwards 
became a subject of bitter controversy, although there 
seems to have been no other motive than to make definite 
a rule, which had hitherto been vague and uncertain, but 
which in practice had been interpreted to give precedence 
to the senior Assistant Minister by election. The first 

' Records, liber iii., folio 148. 



1836] The Assistant to the Rector 173 

resolution authorized the Rector " while the office of 
assistant to the Rector shall not be filled in pursuance of 
the charter," in case of his disability through sickness or 
any other cause, to designate one of the Assistant Ministers 
"to perform the duties incident to his office." Should he 
neglect to do this, those duties were " to devolve on, and 
belong to such one of the Assistant Ministers as shall at 
the time be the senior Presbyter according to the dates of 
their ordination." ' 

The second resolution affirmed " the indispensable im- 
portance to the harmony of the Parish, and the edification 
of the parishioners, that a feeling of mutual confidence 
and satisfaction should be maintained between the minis- 
ter and people," and expressed the firm determination of 
the Vestry " to supply all the congregations with clergy- 
men, whose character and ministrations shall be satisfac- 
tory and acceptable." It was probably during the progress 
of the debate upon the change of system, that the Rector 
presented a statement of the duties of his position. He 
said that it had hitherto been the province and duty of the 
Rector to have the care of the churches, and to regulate 
generally the order of the service ; to assign the Assistant 
Ministers by a Routine their several places ; to judge of the 
fitness and expediency of introducing any new modes of 
instruction or any extra services, and if proposed by others, 
to approve or reject them at his discretion ; to appoint the 
times for the Holy Communion, and to administer it him- 
self if present, except when, as matter of respect and 
courtesy, he has given place to the Bishop ; to have the 
charge and distribution of the Communion Fund ; to ex- 
ercise a general supervision over the Sunday-schools of 
the Parish ; to examine the various notices which are sent 
to be given out in our churches, and to determine on the 

' Records, liber iii., folio 149. (For the full text of these resolutions, see Appendix.) 



174 History of Trinity Church [1836 

propriety or expediency of having them read ; to have 
the control and direction of the sextons and choirs ; to 
have the custody of the registers and cause to be recorded 
therein all marriages, baptisms, and funerals in the Parish ; 
to make the parochial report at the annual Convention 
of the Diocese ; and to nominate Assistant Ministers.' 

That the full meaning and import of these resolutions 
were known at the time of their passage, was well un- 
derstood. There are extant notes of a conversation of 
Dr. Schroeder with the Rector, in which the whole subject 
was fully discussed. The high courtesy and consideration 
shown on both sides, and the remote contingency which 
would make necessary the elevation of the "senior" 
presbyter above the "senior" Assistant, made both that 
Assistant and the Rector inclined to await the course of 
events. 

Certain portions of the new regulations, however, were 
so distasteful to the Rev. Dr. Anthon, that he sent a letter 
to the Vestry on the subject. His chief objections were 
to the requirement that all the Assistant Ministers should 
assist the Rector in the administration of the Holy Com- 
munion ; to the custody by the Rector and distribution 
under his control of the Communion Fund ; and to general 
oversight and authority of the Rector in the instruction 
of the young people in the Sunday-schools. He also in- 
timated that no additional facility was afforded for pastoral 
intercourse, and that the resolutions " impose upon him 

'In sending out on April 26, 1S36, a Routine for the "evening lectures," the 
Rector remarks that he has followed "the old routine, although it was intended 
by the mover of the resolution that ' its principle should be carried out in all its 
details.' But as nothing was said on this point in the resolution itself, I do not wish 
to take upon myself a responsibility which might seem odious and unauthorized, but 
prefer waiting for the further explanation or action of the Vestry. In adhering, 
however, for the present to the old order, I do not intend to be understood as com- 
mitting myself, with regard to the future." — The Rev. Dr. Berrian to the Rev. J. T. 
Schroeder, April 26, 1836. No. 194, Berrian MSS. 



I 



1836] Remonstrance from Dr. Anthon 175 

shackles indicating distrust of his fideHty and discre- 
tion." 

This letter was referred to Mr. Thomas L. Ogden, Mr. 
Jonathan Lawrence, and Mr. Peter A. Mesier, to consider 
and report. In a communication to the committee upon 
the objections of Dr. Anthon, the Rector examined in 
detail their essential features and embodied several partic- 
ulars from the report made in 1831, upon the Memorial 
from parishioners in St. John's Chapel. Commenting upon 
the objection that the Rector had no right to compel the 
attendance of the Assistants at the celebration of the Holy 
Communion, although it is conceded that it is a matter of 
manifest propriety, he suggests that the phraseology of 
the ninth resolution be altered from "it is the duty," to 
" it is thought desirable whenever it is practicable " ; for 
" if they have not the power to command, they have at 
least the privilege to request, and were to intimate their 
views of duty where they have reason to think it has been 
neglected." Dr. Berrian's exposition of the right to the 
custody and disbursement of the Communion alms is full 
and clear. He shows from the canons of the American 
Church that it is to be absolutely under the control of the 
Rector. 

" This point, it appears to me, is unequivocally established by the 
52nd Canon of our Church : 'the alms and contributions at the ad- 
ministration of the Holy Communion shall be deposited with the min- 
ister of the Parish, or with such church officer as shall be appointed by 
him, to be ap])lied by the minister, or under his superintendence, to 
such pious and charitable uses as shall by him be thought fit." The 
direction of them may be determined by himself; the application of 
them if he see fit may be made by himself; whether he distributes them 
personally or appoints another one to do it, is left entirely to his own 
discretion." 

' ?. 34, "Constitution and Canons," in Joiittial, General Convention, 1832. 
Canon Lll., of Alms and Contributions at the Holy Communion. 



176 History of Trinity Church [1836 



Examining the allegation, that by the " minister of the 
Parish " may be meant any one serving in a parish, and 
especially a deacon to whom by the ordinal the charge is 
given, and the solemn vow made by him " to search for 
the sick, poor and impotent people of his Parish, that they 
may be relieved with the alms of the parishioners or 
others," Dr. Berrian says : 

" There cannot be a doubt that by the ' minister of the Parish ' is 
meant the chief, the Rector of the Parish, and not the Assistant Minis- 
ter ; order, propriety, and analogy admit of no other construction, and 
common usage, which is the interpreter of law, explains the meaning of 
the canon, and settles the question. Now the charge and distribution 
of the Communion Fund in our Parish has from time immemorial been 
committed to the Rector. No claim to any participation in this charge 
and distribution has ever been made before these new arrangements, 
and none it appears to me can be justly made until the Assistant 
Ministers have a control entirely independent of the Rector." 

The fifty-second canon, he further says, 

" is in no wise contradicted by the twenty-sixth and twenty-eighth 
Canons quoted by Dr. Anthon, which Dr. Anthon seems to think settle 
the interpretation of the fifty-second Canon, but do not appear to 
me to have the slightest bearing on the question. They refer to min- 
isters who have the independent charge of parishes or cures." ' 

The propriety of a control given to the young by an 
Assistant is fully treated, the Rector undertaking an ex- 
amination of authorities, especially for the ordination of 
priests, in which occurs, in the examination of the can- 
didate, the phrase, " other chief ministers." He per- 
tinently observes : 

"If an Assistant Minister is in no degree subject to the authority or 
control of the Rector, the office of the latter is a mere mockery, for he 
has the responsibility of ordering things well in the Parish, without 
the power of regulating its affairs." 

' Pp. 21, 22, "Constitution and Canons" in jfoiirnal. General Convention, 1S32. 
Canon XXVI., of the Duty of Ministers in Regard to Episcopal Visitations. Canon 
XXVIII., of Parochial Instruction. 



1836] Authorization of Text-Books 177 

Upon the authorization of text-books to be used, he 
remarks : 

" We live in an age of great religious excitement, from which our 
Church at present is very happily exempted. Books of all kinds for 
the religious instruction of the young are daily issuing from the press. 
New modes of interesting them in the subject of religion are constantly 
invented. Some of them are happy improvements, others should be 
most cautiously shunned; is it an unreasonable apprehension that with 
a succession of assistant ministers (for I beg to be understood as mak- 
ing no allusion to the present), differing perhaps entirely from each 
other in their views and practice in regard to the religious edification 
of the young, text-books, or books of questions might on some occa- 
sions be introduced, and injudicious modes of instruction be adopted, 
which might call for the interposition of the Rector ? " ' 

The Committee's report was presented on May 9, 1836. 
It commenced by alluding to " the inconvenience " it would 
be to the Vestry " to be obliged constantly to review 
its proceedings on objections offered by the Assistant 
Ministers." 

An exception to this general rule should be made when 
such objections involve "essential principles connected 
with the rights of the clerical office." The Vestry were 
always willing to give them " a ready and candid exam- 
ination." 

The fifth resolution was intended to direct that the 
same text-books should be used in all the congregations. 
It was understood by " Dr. Anthon as applying to every 
form of instruction, and he protests against it as subject- 
ing him to a control inconsistent with the free exercise of 
his ministry." It was recommended that the phraseology 
of the resolution should be altered to remove any ambi- 
guity. Dr. Anthon's argument upon the two other objec- 
tions the Committee does not find convincing, and calls 
particular attention to the citations from the Ordinal. The 

' No. 196, Berrian MSS. 



178 History of Trinity Church [1836 

attendance of all the clergy at the celebrations of the Holy 
Communion is regarded as " more solemn and imposing," 
and makes the service "less laborious and protracted." 
Who was the proper custodian of the Communion Fund 
is not determined in the report, but the Committee claims 
that the Vestry can make such regulations as will best 
supply the necessities of the poor in each congregation. 
The action of the Vestry is thus stated : 

" On introducing a new and important change in relation to which 
great differences of opinion are found to exist, the Vestry in every stage 
of its proceedings have acted with cautious deliberation; whilst anxious 
on the one hand to secure to the congregations the benefit of a more 
intimate connection with an individual pastor, they have been desirous 
on the other to preserve the unity of the Parish, and by defining the 
appropriate duties of the clergy, to secure its peace and harmony. If 
the change has been less complete than desired by some, it goes far 
beyond the wishes of other portions of the Parish." ' 

It was a surprise and a disappointment when Mr. 
Ogden, the Parish clerk, announced to the Vestry Dr. 
Wainwright's declination.'^ It was known to many that the 
position would be agreeable to him, and that there seemed 
no obstacle to his acceptance ; but parochial and diocesan 
considerations required him to remain in Boston for some 
months longer. On the 19th of April, 1836, Mr. Thomas 
L. Ogden, Mr. William Johnson, and Mr. Adam Tredwell 
were appointed a committee " to inquire and report as to 
the name of a suitable person to be nominated to the 
ofifice of Assistant Minister, in place of Dr. Wainwright." 

After some extensive inquiries the committee on June 
13, 1836, reported the name of the Rev. Edward Young 
Higbee, Rector of Trinity Church, Washington, D. C. 
He had acquired a wide reputation as an effective reader 
of the Church service, and a preacher of force and origin- 

' Records, liber iii., folios 154, 155. '■' Records, liber iii., folio 152. 



1836] Church Records 179 

ality. In addition to the formal notification from the 
clerk, the Rector sent him a letter of congratulation and 
welcome, in which, referring to the unanimity of his elec- 
tion, he adds : 

" There was not the slightest difference of opinion on the subject, 
a circumstance which I do not remember in any other case but one 
in five and twenty years, and which of course must be gratifying 
to you. I was exceedingly desirous that you should receive the 
appointment, and I am much gratified by the perfect unanimity with 
which it was made." ' 

The serious illness of Mrs. Higbee and her death early in 
the summer of 1836 delayed the removal of Mr. Higbee 
to New York for more than six months. 

I shall close this chapter with a brief reference to a 
matter of great interest to the whole Church, in which the 
Corporation of the Parish rendered assistance at a time 
when it was much needed and particularly welcome. 
There had been, from the beginning of our ecclesiastical 
history, a total indifference, an almost culpable negligence, 
respecting the preservation of records of our history as a 
separate communion. No general effort appears to have 
been made to secure and arrange the materials for an in- 
telligent survey of the work of the Church in the American 
Colonies for nearly two centuries. Traditions survived, 
documents and registers were often missing. Parochial 
archives yielded scantily when searched for facts and 
incidents. To Dr. Hobart belongs the credit of seeing 
the value of historical continuity in the American Church, 
and perceiving the advantage and necessity of familiariz- 
ing churchmen with the annals of their past. His publica- 
tion in 1805 of the Life of Samuel fohiisoti, D.D., written 
by that champion of the Colonial Church, Dr. Thomas 
Bradbury Chandler, was the first effort in that direction, 

' No. 201, Berrian MSS. For a sketch of Dr. Higbee see the Appendix. 



i8o History of Trinity Church [1836 

if we except some sketches of Connecticut parishes in 
the early numbers of The Churchmans Magazine} As 
for the general records of the Church, with contempo- 
rary documents and pamphlets, letters and records, serious 
obstacles were met and gradually surmounted. The dififi- 
culty of obtaining complete sets of the journals of the 
General Convention led to a reprint of those journals, 
undertaken under the care of Bishop White in 1817. 
When a desire was felt in 1820 to gather documents illus- 
trative of the history of the Church in various dioceses, to 
be preserved with archives of the General Convention, it 
was discovered that many of real interest and value had 
disappeared ; and had it not been the habit of Dr. White 
to preserve letters and printed matter sent to him, many 
original letters and rare pamphlets would be lacking now 
in our Convention archives." 

To the Rev. Dr. Francis L. Hawks the Church is 
under great and lasting obligation for the prosecution of 
the work begun by Dr. Hobart and continued by Bishop 
White. With his friend the Rev. Edward Rutledge, of 
South Carolina, as his helper, he planned a complete his- 
tory of the various dioceses of the American Church, 
beginning with Virginia. The initial volume appeared in 
1836.' The death of Mr. Rutledge deferred the prosecu- 
tion of the work. When it was again resumed. Dr. 
Hawks became impressed with the necessity of access to 
the archives of the Arch-diocese of Canterbury, and the 
Diocese of London, and the records of the venerable Pro- 
pagation Society, before any true and just history of the 
Colonial Church could be completed. He held several 

' The Life of Samuel Johnson, D.D. By Thomas Bradbury Chandler, D.D. 

' Pp. 46, 5g, Journal, General Convention, 1820 ; pp. 47, 63, 69, 73, Journal, 
General Convention, 1S23. 

' Contributions to the Ecclesiastical History of the United States of America. By 
Francis L. Hawks. 



1836] 'Church Records 



interviews with Bishop White, who cordially approved his 
plan, as did many other Bishops, clergymen, and laymen. 
The subject was brought before the General Convention 
of 1835, in a communication from Dr. Hawks, who also 
gave to the Convention files of several church periodicals 
and collections of documents. Upon the favorable report 
of a joint committee of the two Houses, Dr. Hawks was 
appointed conservator of the archives, and constituted, with 
Bishop White, a committee to procure in England tran- 
scripts of documents and printed volumes bearing upon 
the history of the Colonial Church.' The election of the 
" Conservator" as a missionary Bishop, " to exercise Epis- 
copal functions in the State of Louisiana, and in the Terri- 
tories of Arkansas and Florida," at the same Convention 
seemed likely to postpone indefinitely the fulfilment of his 
purpose. But as no provision was made either by the 
General Convention or the Board of Missions for his 
support, and the few parishes in the Southwest, with the 
exception of Christ Church, New Orleans, which offered 
him its Rectorship, could not in their poverty pledge him 
an adequate salary. Dr. Hawks felt compelled to decline 
the burden and honor of the Missionary Episcopate, and 
the work of historical collection proceeded. It was sug- 
gested in the report of the joint committee upon Dr. 
Hawks's communication, that he solicit pecuniary con- 
tributions to the accomplishment of his design, and " that 
it be recommended to the churches to appropriate a small 
portion of their annual contributions for this purpose."* 
The experience of others in soliciting funds for general 
purposes induced him to confine his efforts to a very small 
number. And this brings us to the connection of Trinity 
Parish with this great work. On March 14, 1836, the 

' Pp. 21, 65, 91, 100, jfoiirnal, Gciwrtil Convention, 1835. 
' Records, liber iii., folio 144. 



i82 History of Trinity Church [1836 

Conservator made a formal application to the Vestry for 
aid in carrying out his design of proceeding to England, 
as the agent of the General Convention in obtaining 
material illustrative of the history of the Colonial Church. 
He enclosed a letter from the Bishop of the Diocese, and 
an abstract of the proceedings of the General Convention 
of 1835. Upon the representation of the Rector and 
other members of the Vestry, that "the Church is desti- 
tute of funds by which to defray the expenses of the said 
voyage," the sum of fifteen hundred dollars was granted 
" towards the expenses incident to the prosecution of his 
labors, with the laudable design above mentioned." 

It is not necessary to detail here the successful accom- 
plishment of his purpose by Dr. Hawks. The eighteen 
folio volumes of transcripts now in the General Conven- 
tion archives, and other documents obtained by him, are 
for our colonial period a mine of historic information, 
which has been only partially explored. Only a small 
portion has been printed.' 

In his report to the General Convention of 1838, Dr. 
Hawks says : 

" These volumes have cost two thousand dollars, and I am happy to 
inform the Convention that they are paid for. As the agent of the 
Convention under the resolution passed at the last Triennial Meeting, 
I applied to the Corporation of Trinity Church in New York, asking 
its aid to procure these valuable documents for the Church, and the 
Vestry very liberally appropriated $1500, toward the expense of copy- 

' Dr. Hawks, aided by the Rev. William Stevens Perry, afterwards Bishop of Iowa, 
continued the preparation of a complete series of "Historical Collections" of the 
Colonial Church. The Documentary History of the Church in Connecticut was issued 
in numbers (New York ; James Pott, 1862, 1S63) and afterwards bound in two small 
octavo volumes (Part I., 328, Part II., 360) with annotations and appendices. 

-A. single pamphlet, Documentary History of the Church in South Carolina, was 
issued in August, 1862 (New York : James Pott). In 1S70 Dr. Perry commenced the 
publication of the volumes remaining. 

They were in large quartos, and sumptuous in style. The transcripts printed were 
Virginia, 1870, Pennsylvania, 1871, Massachusetts, 1873, Maryland and Delaware, 
1878. They were copiously annotated. The edition was limited to 250 copies. 



1836] Death of Bishop White 183 

ing. A gentleman of the Church of the Ascension, in New York, gave 
me for the same purpose $125, the residue, I was happy to be able to 
give myself. In the name, and on behalf of the Convention, I wrote 
a letter of thanks to the Corporation of Trinity Church, and informed 
them of the good they had done to the Church in procuring these 
MSS." ' 

To show their appreciation of the services rendered to 
the American Church by Bishop White, whose death oc- 
curred on July 17, 1836, a special meeting of the Vestry 
was called for Monday, July 25th, when the following reso- 
lutions written by the Rector were unanimously adopted : 

" Resolved: That this Vestry in the recollection of his mild and 
paternal virtues, his sincere and unaffected piety, his peaceful and 
heavenly temper, and the unsullied purity of his life, hold his personal 
character in the highest esteem. 

" Resolved: That in the extent and variety of his theological learn- 
ing, the general prudence and wisdom of his counsels, the wholesome 
influence of his example, and the usefulness of his long protracted 
labours, they find abundant reason for gratitude to the Author of all 
good, and the sincerest sorrow for his loss. 

"Resolved: That a copy of the foregoing resolutions be sent to 
the family of the late Right Rev. Bishop White, together with an 
expression of the unfeigned sympathy of this body in the bereavement 
they have sustained." ' 

Upon the 12th of September, 1836, plans for alterations 
to be made to the building in the rear of St. John's 
Chapel were submitted by the Standing Committee. The 
Vestry approved and the alterations were ordered to be 
carried out under the supervision of the Committee. An 
old Sunday-school scholar thus describes the building 
when completed : 

" The chancel of the Church has now usurped the place of the 
former Sunday-school building, which was a stone structure three 
stories in height, whose upper and lower floors were devoted to the 
boys and girls respectively and were furnished with square, white 

'P. 133, jfournal. General Convention, 1838. 
' Records, liber iii., folios 158, 159. 



184 History of Trinity Church [1836 

wooden forms for the convenience of the classes. The main floor was 
fitted up after the fashion of a chapel, with organ and reading desk, 
and here we all assembled on Sunday morning at ten o'clock, to be 
catechised by the Rev. Dr. Wainwright, whose dignified presence, set 
off by a black silk gown and bands, kept the most of the restless boys 
in order." ' 

The Rev. William Creighton, Rector of St. Mark's 
Church in the Bowery, presented his resignation to the 
Vestry of that Parish on May 5, 1836, which was reluct- 
antly accepted. As his successor the Vestry turned to 
the brilliant Assistant in Trinity Parish, and in the fall of 
1836 called Dr. Henry Anthon as their Rector. 

Upon December 23, 1836, Dr. Anthon presented his 
resignation as an Assistant Minister, which was accepted. 
As St. Mark's Church was then in the process of altera- 
tion and repair, Dr. Anthon courteously offered to remain 
until his new Parish church was ready to be used. The 
Vestry accepted the offer with thanks and requested him 
to continue his services in the Parish so long, until his 
place shall be supplied, as may suit his convenience." Dr. 
Anthon assumed his new duties in May, 1837,'^ growing 
in the confidence and affection of his parishioners until his 
death in 186 1. At St. Mark's he had full scope for his 
extraordinary power as a preacher, his fidelity as a pastor, 
his talents as an organizer, his keenness as a controver- 
sialist, and his power as a leader of men."* 

Under authority from the Vestry the Rector made a 
temporary arrangement with the Rev. Samuel Seabury, 
then editor of The Ckurcknian, afterwards the well-known 
theologian and professor of Biblical Learning, to officiate 
in the Parish. 

' p. 152, IVaU-s in our Churchyards. Old New York Trinity Parish. By Felix 
Oldboy. 

° Records, liber iii., folio 170. 

'P. 86, Memorial of St. Mark's Church in the Bowery, New York, 1S99. 

* A sketch of Dr. Anthon will be found in the Appendix. 



CHAPTER VII. 

PARISH ACTIVITIES. 

The Question of the Residence of the Bishop — Action of the Vestry Thereon — Elec- 
tion of the Rev. James T. Johnston to Succeed Dr. Anthon as Assistant Minister — He 
Declines — Election of Dr. VVainwright — His Acceptance — The Use of Churches to 
Hold College E.\ercises in Condemned — Report of Committee on Qualifications of 
Electors of Wardens and Vestrymen — Committee on Supplies and Repairs Appointed 
— Allowance for House Rent Granted to Assistant Ministers — Repairs on St. John's 
Chapel — Contract for New Organ — State of Church Music in the Parish — Grant to 
Dr. Schroeder — The Need of a Rural Cemetery — The Division of the Diocese — 
Purchase of an Episcopal Residence — Repairs to Roof of Trinity Church — ^Reso- 
lution in Regard to Interments — Report of Committee on Music — Precedence of 
Senior Presbyter — -.Action of Vestry — Letter of the Rector to Dr. Schroeder — Dr. 
Schroeder's Reply— Correspondence Laid before the Vestry — Resignation of Dr. 
Schroeder Accepted by the Vestr)'. 

IN the early part of the year 1837, the needs of the Epis- 
copate in the Diocese of New York were brought 
before the Vestry in a communication addressed to that 
body by Dr. Onderdonk. While the ofifices of Rector of the 
Parish and Bishop of the Diocese were held by the same 
person the charge of the Episcopate was borne by the 
Corporation. But now, in the changed condition of things, 
new arrangements were in order. It was the general 
opinion that the Bishop should reside in the city and not 
in some country place outside of it ; but the Episcopal 
Fund was inadequate even to the decent maintenance of 
the Bishop and much less adequate to providing him 
with a residence ; so that the detis ex machina was in im- 
mediate demand ; for it seems to have been the habit of 



i86 History of Trinity Church [1837 

every body to fall back, confidingly, on Old Mother Trinity 
whenever anything was required in the ecclesiastical line. 
The Vestry generously faced the emergency. After a 
reference of the communication to a committee, and on 
their report, it was ordered, ist, that a house should be 
built for the Bishop ; 2dly, that he should be allowed 
$1500 for house rent until the Episcopal residence should 
be completed and ready for occupation, and 3dly, that the 
Standing Committee should proceed forthwith " to select 
a suitable lot of land on which to erect the said building, 
to procure the necessary plans and estimates, and to re- 
port thereon to the Vestry."^ Among the arguments 
urged in favor of a residence in town was this : that the 
Bishop's presence there would serve " to prevent the in- 
troduction of unsound principles and dangerous irregu- 
larities, and to regulate and balance the various machineries 
of the Church and preserve them in harmonious opera- 
tion " ; while his removal from the city would be very 
likely "to tend to rivalries and jealousies."*^ Moreover it 
was urged that he ought to be " in free and constant in- 
tercourse with the leading members of our communion 
throughout the United States which is best afforded in 
this great Emporium." 

A communication was received from Bishop Onder- 
donk, dated March 13th, in which he cordially thanked 
the Vestry for their action. 

The resignation of Dr. Anthon, as related in the pre- 
ceeding chapter, having taken effect, a committee consist- 
ing of Messrs. Charles Graham, Benjamin M. Brown, and 
Thomas L. Ogden was appointed, on the choice of a suc- 
cessor. At the meeting held May 8, 1837, three names 
were presented to the Vestry for consideration.^ No 

' For this report, and the action upon it, see Records, liber iii., folios 172-175. 
''Ibid., iii., folio 177. ^ Ibid., iii., pp. 170, 179. 



1837] Election of Dr. Wainwright 187 



choice was made till the month of September following, 
more than ordinary caution being observed in view of 
recent troubles in the Parish. On the 25th day of that 
month, the Rev. James T. Johnston, Rector of St. Paul's 
Church, Alexandria, Va., was elected an Assistant Minis- 
ter. His reputation as a parish priest and preacher was 
well-known. He had spent several years in New York, 
in the practice of the law, and in preparing for the minis- 
try, and had won the regard and esteem of all who met 
him. But, to the great regret of the Vestry and the 
people, Mr. Johnston declined the election, being unwill- 
ing to leave his parish, the only one held by him during 
a long life. That life was spent in the quietness and 
peace of the ancient city in the "Old Dominion" ; a life 
of singular purity and usefulness, from which not even 
a call to the Bishopric of Alabama could move him to 
withdraw.' 

At a special meeting, held December 15, 1837, the 
Vestry, proceeded to another election : the Rev. Jonathan 
M. Wainwright, D.D., of Boston, was chosen. The choice 
was most gratifying to the Parish. Dr. Wainwright's 
letter of acceptance was received February 12, 1838, soon 
after which date he entered upon his duties, being assigned 
to St. John's Chapel, as his especial charge. Thus was 
brought back to his old friends one who had been greatly 
missed during the five years of the Boston rectorship. The 
reasons which impelled him to decline the previous call to 
the Parish were no longer operative, as he had publicly 
and formally refused to be considered as a candidate for 
the Episcopate in the State of Massachusetts as assistant 
to the venerable Bishop Griswold. Dr. Wainwright's 
response to a letter from Dr. Berrian informing him of 
the action of the Vestry is highly entertaining. 

' For letter of Colonel J. W. (jreene upon Dr. Johnston, see Appendix. 



i88 History of Trinity Church [1837 

" I shall give my answer as soon as I can get my Vestry to- 
gether to communicate with them. You cannot doubt as to what 
my answer will be. Not even an Archbishoprick would induce me 
to remain here, and as for the situation to which I am called, I do 
assure you that I would rather be called to it than to a Rectory." ' 

A question came up about this time, which led to 
much disputation in the ecclesiastical and academic circles 
of the city. For many years, the commencements of 
Columbia College had been held in Trinity Church or St. 
John's Chapel, not without scandal, as a disgraceful scene, 
terminating in a mild form of riot, had actually occurred 
in Trinity Church at the commencement in 181 1. There 
was a growing sense of the impropriety of the use of con- 
secrated buildings as concert halls and lecture rooms, and 
for public functions. The connection between the Church 
and the College, however, had always been intimate, and 
the use of the Parish church or one of the chapels for 
the public graduation of the students had come to be 
taken as a matter of course. 

In 1833, the Rector had refused to permit the rooms 
in the rear of St. John's Chapel to be used by a temperance 
association. A year later, after consultation with mem- 
bers of the Vestry, he had declined to sanction a musical 
performance in St. John's Chapel. In January, 1837, he 
received a communication from Bishop Onderdonk, allud- 
ing to "a recent appropriation of St. George's Church, 
Hempstead, to a meeting of citizens growing out of the 
recent melancholy shipwrecks in that neighborhood, and 
designed for the consideration of the pilot laws, and other 
matters growing out of those events." Taking that as 
his point of departure, the Bishop proceeded to express 
strong disapproval of the use of consecrated churches for 
any secular purpose, and instanced the commencements 

' No. 229, Berrian MSS. 



1837] Secular Functions in Churches 



of Columbia College in the churches of Trinity Parish as 
cases in point. The Bishop admitted that he felt "a pe- 
culiarly painful difficulty in the way of an honest expres- 
sion of his conscientious views," in that instance, as the 
College was his Alma Mater, and the Parish the home of 
his youth and the field of his ministry ; but he felt it his 
duty, notwithstanding, to express the conviction that 
" such an appropriation of a consecrated edifice is incon- 
sistent with the tenour of the Office of Consecration, and 
with the honesty of purpose in procuring such consecra- 
tion." Referring to the words about setting churches 
apart from " unhallowed, worldly, and common uses," he 
concluded that college commencements, being in no sense 
religious functions, must be excluded by the terms of the 
Office. He concluded in this way : 

" Our commencements of Columbia College being held in one of 
our city churches being supposed of course to have my sanction has 
been my most serious difficulty in discouraging the use of churches 
for various secular and ordinary, worldly and common purposes. I 
have, therefore, come in the fear of God and in the face of much 
that renders it difficult to the natural man, to the conclusion that I 
must on all proper occasions bear my testimony against it." ' 

Bishop Onderdonk had also written on the subject to 
the Rev. Wm. M. Carmichael, Rector of St. George's, 
Hempstead. A previous Rector, the Rev. Dr. Richard 
Hall, had in 1834 objected to the use of that church for 
the Fourth of July celebration without a previous re- 
ligious service. He quoted in his support the resolution 
of the Convention of New York in 1801 on the use of 
churches.' 

' No. 220, Berrian MSS. 

■'See pp. 228-230, History of St. dorgn's Church, Hempstead, Long Island, 
N. v., by the Rev. W. W. Moore, D.D., Rector of St. George's Church. r2mo, 
pp. 308, New York, E. P. Dutton & Company, 1881. 



igo History of Trinity Church [1837 

The matter soon came to a practical issue in the 
Parish. At the Vestry meeting held September 25th, the 
usual application from the Trustees of Columbia College 
for leave to hold the next annual commencement of that 
institution in St. John's Chapel was received and read. 
After having entertained a motion, which was seconded, 
granting permission to use the Chapel, 

" the Rector informed the Vestry that he had received a communica- 
tion from the Bishop of the Diocese expressing his disapprobation of 
such use of church edifices as being improper and inconsistent with 
the office of consecration, on the ground of which communication and 
in the exercise of his official rights, the Rector declared his dissent 
from and objection to a compliance with, the said application, where- 
upon, after mature deliberation, the following resolution was carried 
against the vote of the Rector : 

" Resolved, that the request of the Trustees of Columbia College 
for permission to hold the next annual commencement of that institu- 
tion in St. John's Chapel be granted." ' 

Much discussion followed, both in public and private. 
Many were not prepared to abandon at once their loose 
conceptions of the purpose of consecrated buildings. A 
letter from Bishop Onderdonk to the Rector dated Sep- 
tember 21, 1837, reiterates what he had said in January, 
and proceeds : 

"Have their Bishops, Rectors, Vestries or People, aright to draw 
back, to appropriate otherwise what has thus passed by their own act 
from the right of disposal and become His house? Under a deep 
sense of my responsibility to Him, and a fearful apprehension of the 
Character of any act which makes this solemn form of consecration a 
mere thing of nought, I must say No ! " 

All parties should pause before they determine to set 
aside both the spirit and letter of the consecration service 
and the godly judgment of their Diocesan. 

' Records, liber iii., folio 185. 



1838] Qualifications of Electors 191 

"If such a part is taken by the Corporation of Trinity Church it 
will give to the best portion of our Diocese a degree of pain and ex- 
cite therein an agitation which I am sure they will themselves be 
brought to regard as a fearful price at which to have gained a point in 
opposition to their Rector and their Bishop. I have made extensively 
known your decision as to the use of one of your churches for com- 
mencement — and as extensively the assurance given me by President 
Duer that he would unite with me in opposing the holding of Com- 
mencements in our churches, if I would not interfere in the case of 
the late semi-centennial Anniversary, and it has met with universal 
satisfaction." ' 

The letter of the Bishop and the firm stand taken by 
the Rector and several other clergymen in New York City 
ultimately carried the day in favor of a general recogni- 
tion by all Churchmen of the sacredness of places set apart 
for divine service and public worship. 

At this time there seems to have been uncertainty in 
the minds of some of the parishioners as to the qualifica- 
tions of electors of Churchwardens and Vestrymen of 
this Corporation. The matter, one of vital importance, re- 
ceived careful consideration. Judge Irving, Mr. Graham, 
and Messrs. Lawrence and Ogden were appointed a com- 
mittee to consider and report "whether any alterations or 
additions to the existing ordinances relating to elections be 
expedient." 

On the 1 2th of February the committee presented a 
carefully drawn report ' reviewing the original qualifications 
of electors in the charter of 1697, with the modifications 
made by the act of April 7, 1 784, the general act of April 
5, 1813, and the special act of January 25, 1814. It also 
quotes from the Vestry ordinance of June 24, 1816, which 
required the Comptroller to keep a book, " in which shall 
be entered the names of the holders of pews and seats in 
Trinity Church and its Chapels," and section six of that 

' No. 22O, Berrian MSS. ' Records, liber iii., folio 195, 



192 History of Trinity Church [1838 

ordinance which provided that only such pew-holders can 
vote as are enrolled in that book. 
It concludes that 

"The right of voting for Church Wardens and Vestrymen is thus 
made to depend upon the following qualifications : 

" I. Church membership for one year prior to the election. 

" 2. The holding by purchase or hiring of a pew or seat, or the 
reception of the Holy Communion within the year. Both these quali- 
fications are necessary. The Committee considers the ordinance of 
1816 sufficient and recommend no new legislation. " ' 

The report was unanimously approved and the com- 
mittee discharg'ed. 

Several matters of minor importance may be noted 
here in passing. 

A change in the administration of the Parish was 
made by the appointment of a Committee on Supplies 
and Repairs, and the abolition of the office of Superin- 
tendent of Repairs. 

On the petition of several prominent members of the 
Parish, steps were taken to provide residences for the 
Assistant Ministers. 

During the summer of 1838, the steeple and roof of 
St. John's Chapel were repaired, and certain alterations 
were made in the interior of that edifice. 

The property No. 106 Franklin Street was purchased 
from Mrs. Henry Phelps, for $16,500, to be used as an 
Episcopal residence, and it was voted to provide furniture 
for the same.' 

It was decided to purchase a new organ for Trinity 
Church. Two bids having been received, from Henry 
Erben and Firth & Hall, the bid of the latter was ac- 
cepted, for $2350, with extra stops, and a contract was 
made for the same.^ 

' Records, liber iii., folio 197. 
''Ibid., iii., folio 216. ^ Ibid., iii., folio igi. 



1838] Prohibition of Burials 19; 



The subject of the permanent improvement of the 
music throughout the Parish being under consideration, a 
committee was appointed, consisting of the Rector, Dr. 
Wainwright, and the Rev. Mr. Schroeder, the Hon. PhiHp 
Hone, and Messrs. Benjamin H. Brown and Peter A. 
Mesier, " to take into consideration the present state of 
the Church music in Trinity Church and its chapels, and 
to report what plan or further measures they may deem 
expedient to be adopted by the Vestry for the improve- 
ment of the same."' Dr. Wainwright, a trained and cul- 
tured musician, was also authorized to order and personally 
superintend the erection of the new organ. 

In May, 1838, the Rev. Mr. Schroeder requested leave 
of absence for the benefit of his health. The request was 
granted with continuance of his salary and a loan of $1500 
to defray travelling expenses." The Rev. John D. Ogilby, 
Professor in Rutgers College, New Brunswick, a young 
man of great ability and promise, was engaged to supply 
Mr. Schroeder's place during his six months' leave of 
absence. 

The prohibition of burials within the city limits, except 
in family vaults, led to the formation of companies for 
laying out rural cemeteries. The vaults in Trinity and 
St. Paul's churchyards did not meet the requirements of 
the congregation, while St. John's burying-ground, on 
Hudson and Clarkson Streets, was used by a portion only 
of the people connected with St. John's Chapel.'^ The 
acquisition of a cemetery remote from the city became the 
subject of discussion among the parishioners and in the 

' Records, liber iii., folio 205. '■ IbiJ., iii., folio 206. 

' "The people who attended St. John's Chapel never took kindly to the little 
rustic cemetery. Many of them owned vaults in the churchyard of Trinity and St. 
Paul's or elsewhere, and not one of the families I have named is represented in the old 
Clarkson Street plot. Yet there have been more than ten thousand interments there 
and eight hundred monuments stand over the dead." — Pp. 159, 160, Walks in our 
Churchyards. By Felix Oldboy. 



ig4 History of Trinity Cliurcli [1838 

Vestry ; and the matter was referred to the Standing 
Committee for consideration and report. 

At the General Convention in 1835 ^ change in Article 
V. of the Constitution, providing for the division of dio- 
ceses, was proposed ; having been made known to the 
several dioceses, it was finally adopted in the General 
Convention of 1838.^ The obstacles to a division of the 
Diocese of New York, which had been under consideration 
for some time, being now removed, a diocesan committee 
consisting of seven clergymen and six laymen was ap- 
pointed to determine the boundaries of a new diocese and 
to report to a special convention to be held previous to the 
meeting of the annual Convention in September, 1838." 

The accomplishment of the division of the Diocese of 
New York by the joint action of the General Convention 
and the Diocesan Convention presented once more the 
problem of the support of the Episcopate, with new diffi- 
culties added to the former. The division was to take 
effect November i, 1838. The Vestry met in special ses- 
sion, at the call of the Rector, on the i8th of September 
to consider a communication from the committee of the 
Diocesan Convention upon the division of the Episcopal 
Fund, and requesting a conference with a committee of 
the Vestry. Messrs. Ogden, Johnson, and Lawrence were 
made a committee of reference, to report on the expedi- 
ency of granting aid towards the support of the Episcopate 

' See pp. 19, 25, 57, 60, 63, 68, S", 94, 9S, 102, Journal General Convention, 
1835, and pp. 19, 23, 26, 89, 93, yotirnal General Convention, 1838. 

The Joint Committee of the General Convention of 1835 on this subject consisted 
of Bishops White, Brovvnell, Benjamin T. Onderdonk, the Rev. Drs. Crosvi'eU, Reed, 
Hanckel, Hawks, the Rev. Mr. Prestman, Messrs. Peter A. Jay, Thomas L. Ogden, 
John E. Cook, John B. Eccleston, and William Meredith. 

' For a summary of the action leading to the division, see The Present State of 
the Question in Regard to the Division of the Diocese of New York, July, 1838, espe- 
cially pp. 4-8 ; Journal Special Convention, New York, August, 1S38, September, 
1838 ; Journal General Convention, 1838, pp. 46, 70, 106, 107. 



1838] The Episcopal Fund 195 

within the two dioceses erected by the late action of the 
Convention.' 

It seems unnecessary to present in detail the series of 
demands and proposals which followed. A brief summary 
may suffice. The Corporation of Trinity Church made 
an offer to pay to the support of the Bishop of the new 
diocese the sum of $1600 annually for thirteen years. 
This offer was based on a review of the origin of the 
Episcopal Fund, the part taken by Trinity Parish in its 
formation, the burden of the support of the Bishop of 
New York hitherto assumed, and the supposition that 
of the amount already pledged for the Episcopal Fund of 
New York, $90,000 would remain intact, leaving only 
$10,000 available for the purpose of division.- This 
offer was rejected by the Diocesan Convention, on the 
ground that a virtual pledge had been given to divide 
the disposable Episcopal Fund equally between the 
two dioceses, and that $35,000 had been assigned 
already to Western New York ; and the Diocesan 
committee asked that the temporary aid pledged to 
Western New York might be received by the old diocese. 
After further references and negotiation, it was agreed 
that the action of the Vestry " in granting conditionally 
its further aid towards the support of the Episcopate in 
the new diocese, ought, under the change of circumstances 
produced by the division of the Episcopal Fund between 
the two dioceses, to be applied under similar conditions 
toward the same object in the present diocese of New 
York." The conditions of this annual grant were that the 
parochial collections for the Episcopal Fund should be 
continued and accumulate for at least thirteen years or 
until the fund should reach the sum of $90,000, when 

' Records, liber iii.. folio 2I2. 
' Ibid., folios 212, 215. 



196 History of Trinity Church [1838 

the grant from Trinity was to cease. The report was 
unanimously approved and adopted and a copy of the 
resolutions sent to Dr. Wainwright, chairman of the 
committee of the Convention. 

Before proceeding to a matter of much greater interest, 
it remains to note two or three items connected with the 
story of the Parish. 

On the 1 2th of November, 1838, the Committee of 
Supplies and Repairs were directed to look to and secure 
the roof of Trinity Church, which was in a dangerous 
condition, threatening the safety of the structure ; and a 
complete examination of the state of the edifice was or- 
dered. This is of importance, as the precursor of the re- 
building of the Church, which soon occurred. 

A complete series of Rules and Regulations concern- 
ing interments in the cemeteries of the Parish and the 
duties of sexton was formulated and published as an 
official Ordinance on that subject. 

Upon a report of the special committee on the music 
of the Parish, already referred to, the Vestry ordered the 
appointment of a chorister who under the Rector " shall 
have charge of the vocal music in all the churches and 
whose duty it shall be to have the three choirs frequently 
practiced at one time and place," and the establishment 
of a school of music for the younger members of the 
Parish where the elements of the art should be taught and 
where the music designed for public worship should be 
practised. 

A further report was made by this committee Decem- 
ber 10, 1838, and upon its suggestion the Rector and 
Assistant Ministers were made a permanent Music Com- 
mittee to have under their direction all matters relating 
to the music of the Parish. They were authorized to 
expend annually a sum not exceeding $4500 for the three 



1838] The Schroeder Episode 197 

churches, and required to present each year detailed state- 
ments of their expenditures.' 

We come now to a matter whicli I shall designate as 
"the Schroeder Episode." It illustrates in a very striking 
way what was observed in a previous chapter of this His- 
tory about the difficulty of protecting a great institution 
like Trinity Parish from the assault of the destructive 
temper of individualism, and the tendency to resolve into 
separate elements under the influence of dissatisfaction on 
the part of the clergy or the people. In it were the ele- 
ments best adapted to lead to that result : a clergyman of 
talent and ability, but exceedingly sensitive on the subject 
of prerogative and right, and a considerable number of 
admirers, devoted to him and reluctant to see any one 
preferred before him or even for a while taking the place 
of their special and beloved priest. 

The trouble arose out of a question about the meaning 
of the term " Senior Assistant Minister." Certain duties 
in connection with the granting of permits and orders to 
sextons were assigned in the absence or inability of the 
Rector "to the Senior Assistant Minister," and to clear 
the term from ambiguity it was thus defined by the 
Vestry : 

"Resolved, That the words Senior Assistant Minister in the fore- 
going ordinance, and in all other cases be deemed to mean and refer to 
such one of the assistant ministers in the service of the corporation as 
in the order of his ordination may be the senior Presbyter." ^ 

The term had been in use before that time, but it had 
not been decided whether seniority by date of ordination 
was meant or seniority by date of appointment in the 
Parish. It appears that the Rector shrank from deciding 
the point, for fear of stirring up jealousy among the As- 
sistants ; so, at last, as the matter was causing a good deal 

' Records, liber iii., folio 224. ''Ibid., folio 221. 



198 History of Trinity Church [1838- 

of discussion, the Vestry decided to act, and, if I may so 
express myself, to decide Who was Who. This was done 
at a meeting held December 10, 1838, and thus the Rector, 
though relieved of responsibility, came into no small trou- 
ble. By a rule made March 25, 1836, precedence had been 
given to " the senior Presbyter," and now it was decided 
that the man who had been longest in Holy Orders should 
be deemed such senior, and entitled to the precedence 
attached to that rank ; and, to make all plain and clear, 
the Rector was instructed, " by an informal but unanimous 
vote," to give in all respects the place of honor to " the 
Senior Presbyter," as thus designated and qualified. 

The points of precedence appear to have been these : 

(a) To read the funeral service in the absence of the 
Rector ; 

(^) To read the sentences, if present, when the full 
service was performed ; 

(c) To stand at the left of the Rector in all funeral 
processions ; 

{cC) To take the place opposite to the Rector at the 
left-hand end of the Communion Table during the Holy 
Communion, the Rector having the right-hand end ; 

{e) To administer the consecrated bread to the people 
on his side of the rail. 

(/") To follow the Rector in the order of the " Rou- 
tine" in the evening lectures at St. Paul's Chapel. 

All these privileges, functions, and prerogatives had 
been for some time enjoyed by the Rev. Dr. Schroeder, 
the admired, beloved, and very popular Minister assigned 
to St. Paul's. But now, a new-comer, the Rev. Dr. Wain- 
wright, having been called to the Parish, and being Dr. 
Schroeder's senior in Holy Orders, a change was at hand. 
It became the unpleasant duty of Dr. Berrian to notify 
Dr. Schroeder to that effect. Shrinking, very excusably, 



1839] The Schroeder Episode 199 

from his taslc, he deferred it until the " Routine" for De- 
cember, already published, had run out, and waited till the 
Order for January was ready. Then the Rector sent to 
Dr. Schroeder, ci-devaiit Senior Assistant, a formal notifi- 
cation of the action of the Vestry, with his instructions 
" to carry out in all its details the precedency of the Senior 
Presbyter over all the Assistant Ministers who were his 
juniors in the time of ordination." The Rector wrote in 
conclusion : " It is not a pleasant office, I assure you, to 
make a communication which will probably give you pain. 
It is my opinion that the action of the Vestry on the 
subject is decisive and final." * 

The commotion caused by this notice was prodigious. 
It shook the Parish, and parts adjacent, and led not only 
to the resignation of Dr. Schroeder but to a movement of 
his friends of St. Paul's Chapel to cut that chapel off from 
the Parish and set up as a separate church. 

Written December 31, 1838, it was received by Dr. 
Schroeder January 2, 1839. While he could not have 
been entirely surprised at its contents, as there had been 
a possibility of its enforcement for nearly three years, and 
as the subject had been discussed by Dr. Berrian and him- 
self, the formal announcement gave him not only pain but 
a feeling of indignation. It was a reversal of a long estab- 
lished custom of the Parish, and seemed to be an unmerited 
indignity to one whose labours had been abundant and at 
various times highly commended. Dr. Schroeder had 
previously determined that he would never submit to a 
rule which would practically lower him in the opinion of 
the congregations and the churchmen of the city. Hav- 
ing taken three days for consultation with the Bishop and 
other judicious friends of the clergy and laity he wrote 
a reply to the communication on January 5, 1839. He 

' Berrian MSS. 



200 History of Trinity Church [1839 

acknowledged the "very unexpected communication 
dated Dec. 31," which had been handed to him on Janu- 
ar)^ 2d, and expressed his surprise that a great and to him 
" an important change is to be made in our parochial 
arrangements." He alluded "to a long and well estab- 
lished usage in the Church," which was now to be "disre- 
garded, and the senior assistant minister as respects the 
length of time he has been ofificiating in our Parish, is to 
be superseded by the most recently called of the junior 
assistant ministers who has been officiating among us for 
a few months and has hitherto been content to occupy the 
place which usage assigned to him." ' He criticises the 
settling by "an informal vote" of "a regularly adopted 
rule of the Vestry and one of very long standing too." 
He cites the instance of the relative positions of the Rev. 
Cave Jones and the Rev. John Henry Hobart. 

Mr. Jones, the Senior Presbyter "was not to take pre- 
cedence of the Rev. Mr. Hobart, because the Rev. Mr. 
Hobart although he was the Rev. Mr. Jones' junior in 
years and in ordination had been previously elected as an 
assistant minister." Dr. Schroeder asserts that what was 
styled " the carrying out of certain measures adopted by 
the Vestry" bears nothing of the kind upon the face of 
them. " They relate," he continues, " simply to a provision 
for the occasional supply of the Rector's place, in case of 
his absence or inability to perform some one or more of 
the duties appertaining to his office." He is convinced 
that " to acquiesce in the state of things which the alleged 
carrying out of the new measures brings to light, would, I 
think, be an act at variance with long established usage, and 
with a regularly adopted rule of our parish, and would be 

' The reference is to Dr. Wainwright, who was ordained priest in Christ Church, 
Hartford, Conn., on August 15, 1817, by Bishop Hobart. Dr. Schroeder was ordained 
priest in Baltimore, Md., by Bishop Kemp on April 22, 1824. Mr. Higbee was 
ordained priest about 1S31, probably by Bishop Stone, of Maryland. 



1839] The Schroeder Episode 201 

unsanctioned by any record on the minutes of the Vestry." 
It would also require him to submit to a removal from 
the clerical grade to which he was elevated agreeably to the 
rule which was in existence when he was called into the 
Parish. "If by any new measures I am to be displaced 
from my station as Senior Assistant, to be superseded and 
even made to occupy a lower grade, my sense of self-re- 
spect and my regard for the opinions of those to whom I 
minister in sacred things, imperatively demand of me 
rather to withdraw altogether from my situation." He 
requests the Rector to call a meeting of the Vestry without 
delay and submit to them this letter for their action. 

He adds, " I have availed myself of advisers for whose 
opinions both yourself and the Vestry have great defer- 
ence," and thus announces his final decision : "that if the 
Vestry think proper to decide on carrying out the new 
measures, in the manner that you have mentioned in your 
communication, I wish them to consider that, as a neces- 
sary consequence, this letter is to be regarded as the 
resignation of my place." 

The Rector acted immediately upon the request of Dr. 
Schroeder, and summoned the Vestry to meet on Tuesday, 
January 5th. There was a very full attendance, as might 
have been expected. The correspondence with Dr. 
Schroeder was submitted by the Rector. It was dis- 
cussed and considered. The previous action of the Vestry 
was affirmed. It was declared to be the sense of the 
Vestry " that on all occasions precedence should be given 
to the assistant minister who shall be the senior presbyter 
in the order of ordination," and it was ordered that a copy 
of these resolutions be sent to Dr. Schroeder.' 

' For copies of the letters of Dr. Berrian and Dr. Schroeder, see Records, liber 
iii., folios 225, 226, and also Berrian MSS. Documents ConcuriiiHg Recent Measures 
0/ the Vestry of Trinity Church in the City of New York. Svo, pp. 12. A. Hanford, 
Printer, i6 Cortland Street, New York. 



202 History of Trinity Church [1839 

When this action became known the friends of Dr. 
Schroeder in the Parish, and especially in St. Paul's 
Chapel, were indignant. They asserted with vehemence 
that their pastor had been treated with indignity and in- 
justice, and that a spirit of rivalry and favoritism was being 
fostered in the Parish. Many messages of sympathy were 
brought and sent to him in this trying emergency. His 
supporters used the newspapers of the city for their state- 
ments, appeals, and arraignments of the Vestry, and the 
journalists rejoiced to take part in the fray. Several of 
the city clergy and prominent laymen in the other parishes 
of the city were warmly enlisted in the cause of Dr. 
Schroeder. Much then written was written under the 
impulse of strong and excited feeling. 

Still, though Dr. Schroeder felt himself sorely injured 
and aggrieved, he acted with his characteristic courtesy 
and moderation. He deemed it necessary to publish a 
small pamphlet entitled Documents, containing his corre- 
spondence with Dr. Berrian, and the official notice of the 
action of the Vestry, with a few brief comments. In his 
prefatory note he states that he printed these documents 
" to prevent error and misapprehension in regard to the 
subject of them." He says : " The case is simply this : 
One of the Assistant Ministers of Trinity Parish is to be 
elevated by the sudden and wrongful depressing of an- 
other." He comments on "long established and well 
known usage," and thus concludes : 



" The measure either is, or is not, important. If it be unimportant, 
why should the Vestry introduce and agitate the subject to the dis- 
quiet of the Parish ? If on the other hand it be important what 
warrant have they for displacing me, and putting me in such an atti- 
tude that I cannot, in the opinion of my clerical brethren, continue to 
officiate in the parish with proper self respect and a due regard for my 
future influence and usefulness ?" 



1839] Resignation of Dr. Schroeder 203 

An answer was prepared by a layman, which he en- 
titled A Brief Statement. The whole controversy is 
treated in a satirical vein but with candor and good sense, 
the evident intention being to silence opponents of the 
Vestry's action. He is especially severe upon Dr. Schroe- 
der's allegation that it was the intention of the Vestry to 
elevate Dr. Wainwright. He gives in full the letter of 
Dr. Berrian to Dr. Schroeder of April 26, 1836, and one 
from Dr. Berrian to Dr. Wainwright of January 28, 1839. 
The reasons given by Dr. Schroeder for his resignation 
he calls " unimportant." ' 

To this Dr. Schroeder replied in a " Letter" main- 
taining his position and traversing the whole ground of 
the controversy. He includes in this publication a letter 
from Dr. Anthon upon precedence and correspondence 
with the Rector on supplying his place at St. Paul's for the 
feast of the Epiphany, Sunday, January 6th, and gives, in an 
appendix, letters from the committees of St. Paul's Chapel 
congregation, the Sunday-school, the ladies, and a fare- 
well address signed by one hundred and fourteen men 
worshipping in that chapel. He reaffirms as the cause of 
his resignation the " being displaced from my grade," and 
endeavors to fortify his attitude by argument. This ended 
the publications directly bearing upon this unhappy 
episode." 

While the resignation was being discussed in conversa- 
tion, the daily press, and pamphlets, the Vestry was await- 
ing some intimation that Dr. Schroeder withdrew from 
the position he had taken. As no assurance was given, 

' A Brief Statement Touching the Rev. Dr. Schroeder' s late Publication Entitled 
Documents Concerning Recent Measures of the Vestry of Trinity Church in the City 
of New York. Submitted to the Consideration of the Members of the Congregation 
of Trinity Church, New York. 

' Letter to the Members of the Congregations of the Parish of Trinity Church. 
By Rev. J. F. Schroeder, D.D., with an Appendix. 



204 History of Trinity Church [1839 



final action was taken on his letter at the regular meeting, 
January 14, 1839. The Rector having stated, on interro- 
gation, that the Senior Assistant had not officiated in the 
Parish since sending his letter of January 5th, a preamble 
and resolutions were offered, embodying the facts of the 
case, the resolutions of the special meeting, and the con- 
cluding paragraph of Dr. Schroeder's letter to the Rector ; 
whereupon it was " resolved, that the conditional resigna- 
tion contained in the above letter of Dr. Schroeder, under 
the circumstances above stated, having b)' the terms thereof 
become absolute, such resignation be, and the same is 
hereby accepted." It was also resolved to continue his 
salary until December 1st, to continue his house rent until 
May ist, and to cancel the note for fifteen hundred dollars 
advanced to him for his European tour.^ 

Thus, so far as the principal actor was concerned, the 
"Schroeder Episode" ended. As for the ground swell 
which followed the storm, there is more to come in the 
next chapter of this work, to which the ingenuous reader 
is referred, with the assurance that it will surprise him 
even more than that which has been already related on 
this painful subject. 

' Records, liber iii., folio 22S. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

PAROCHIAL AIATTERS. 

Dr. Hodges Appointed Organist — Repairs to Roof of Trinity Church — Erection of 
Houses for the Assistant Clergy — Congregation of St. Paul's Chapel Memorializes 
Vestry to be Set Off as a Separate Parish — Memorial Presented to the Vestry — Re- 
ferred to a Special Committee — Who Report Adversely to the Memorialists — 
Schroeder Controversy Closed — Unstable Condition of Trinity Church — -Repairs 
Ordered — Plans for a New Building Accepted — Mr. Richard Upjohn Appointed 
Architect. 

AN event of no small importance in the history of 
church music in the United States occurred at this 
time. On the 14th of January, 1839, .the Rector nomi- 
nated Edward Hodges, Doctor in Music, as an organist 
in the Parish, " at the usual salary." His appointment 
was speedily confirmed by the Vestry.' The new Music 
Committee amply justified its existence by securing this 
musical genius. A native of Bristol, England, trained 
from boyhood in the best and most severe school of 
English cathedral music, he had been from his youth 
a composer and performer of rare skill and originality. 
He knew the theory and practice of music, understood the 
mechanical construction of the organ, and other musical 
instruments, and had invented improvements in them. A 
visit to Canada, where he had been appointed organist of 
St. James's Cathedral, Toronto, had been extended to New 
York. There he had renewed his acquaintance with Dr. 
Wainwright, formed that of others in Trinity Parish, and 
was induced to remain, at least temporarily, in the city. 
With his entrance upon his position improvement and 

' Records, liber iii., folio 231. 
205 



2o6 History of Trinity Church [^§39 

progress in sacred music in the parish, diocese, and country 
was both systematic and rapid. His influence was more 
strongly felt as years passed by. 

A number of minor matters received attention at this 
time. The Rev. Professor Ogilby was temporarily ap- 
pointed to supply the place of Dr. Schroeder.' The 
Standing Committee recommended that a house for an 
Assistant Minister be built "on Lot No. 92, fronting 
on Vesey St. " ; and suggested that a similar house be 
built "on the rear of the ground attached to St. John's 
Chapel, or elsewhere on land belonging to the Corpora- 
tion," for the accommodation of another of the clergy. 
Alarm continuing to be felt aboutthe roof of Trinity Church, 
steps were taken to cause a careful survey of the building 
by the most competent builders that could be found, with 
a view to securing the safety of the structure." It was 
finally determined that the Committee of Supplies and 
Repairs " do forthwith take all needful measures for put- 
ting a new roof on said church, and that they be further 
directed to procure a suitable plan on which to finish the 
interior of said church, together with an estimate of the 
expense, and that they report thereon to the Vestry at its 
next meeting."^ 

A modification of the terms for the annual grant for 
the salary of the Bishop was made at the request of a 
committee of the Diocesan Convention. It was agreed 
to continue it for thirteen years whether the fund should 
sooner be made up to $90,000 or not. 

We must now return to the story of the Schroeder 
controversy, and relate what followed on his resignation 
and withdrawal from the Parish. The immediate result 
was a well organized and persistent attempt by a consider- 
able number of the congregation of St. Paul's Chapel to 

' Records, liber iii., folio 231. '•' Ibid folio 223. ^ Ibid folio 234. 



1839] Petition to Set off St. Paul's Chapel 207 



be set off as a separate church. A meeting, very largely 
attended, was held at the house of Mr. Anthony Barclay, 
on Monday evening, January 21, 1839; Professor James 
Renwick, of Columbia College, was made chairman, and 
Mr. Theron Wilbur secretary. A prolonged and ani- 
mated discussion took place, the attempt being to show, 
theoretically, the evils and disadvantages of the collegiate 
system of church organization, and practically to demon- 
strate that if St. Paul's were made an independent church 
it would be better managed and more effective. It was 
then determined to prepare and send to the Vestry a 
memorial praying for a separation. Messrs. Christopher 
Wolfe, Anthony Barclay, John Ruthven, William H. Falls, 
F. A. Booth, and Jonathan Dodge, Prof. James Renwick, 
Mr. Wm. E. Wilmerding, Dr. E. R. Chilton, Messrs. C. 
B. Bostwick, Caleb Ticknor, and Philip Henry, were 
appointed a committee to draft the memorial and present 
it to the Vestry. A copy of that paper is given in the 
Appendix to this volume ; a brief outline of its contents 
will sufifice for those who do not care to go more fully into 
the story of the movement. The memorialists began by 
objecting to collegiate churches, and pointing out the 
evils which they considered inherent in the system. They 
complained that the congregation of St. Paul's Chapel 
had little or no influence in the call of Assistant Ministers 
or their assignment to duty ; citing the instance of the 
first call of Dr. Schroeder to that chapel, as leading to a 
withdrawal of many dissatisfied persons from its services, 
and their replacement by others who had now become his 
devoted friends. They alleged that under the collegiate 
constitution of the Parish, no separate congregation could 
be considered as represented in the Vestry, presenting an 
ingenious argument to show the result in a loss of interest 
in " each church and in the greneral concerns of the united 



2o8 History of Trinity Church [1839 

parish " ; admitting at the same time that a large propor- 
tion of the memorialists, although stated worshippers 
and occupants of pews, had never thought it necessary to 
qualify themselves by written evidence to vote at the 
annual election for Vestrymen. They complained of a 
crrowing apathy in relation to the temporal concerns of 
the Church, leading directly to similar indifference in 
spiritual matters, and insisted that the collegiate system 
tends to deterioration in the clergy and a great diminution 
of their usefulness ; alleging further that it had proved a 
failure in other denominations of Christians, and was re- 
tained in Trinity and the Dutch Reformed Churches 
merely as a safeguard to their large and extensive endow- 
ments. Reference was made to alleged abuses of the 
system on the continent of Europe, and particularly in 
Switzerland, where, according to the memorialists. It 
had been the direct cause of decay in religion and a re- 
lapse into a cold and almost heathen morality. They 
stated that the setting off of St. Paul's Chapel would 
exempt them and their posterity from a recurrence of 
strife in the Parish, collisions between the Vestry and the 
Assistant Ministers, and the occurrence of divisions, party 
spirit, and schism In the congregations. Anticipating 
criticism of the signatories of the memorial, they 
presented an argument to show that they constituted 
a very large majority of the worshippers In St. Paul's 
Chapel, and two thirds of the owners and lessees 
of pews, and claimed that if personal considerations 
could have been left out of the question, there might 
have been obtained an almost unanimous expression 
of opinion that the time had arrived when St. Paul's 
Chapel ought to cease to be one of the collegiate connec- 
tion. The document, containing here and there suitable 
conventional expressions of "strong attachment to the 



1839] Petition to Set off St. Paul's Chapel 209 

venerable and Apostolic Church of which they are un- 
worthy members," closes with a eulogy of both of those 
Assistant Ministers whose disputes " as to priority of 
rank have caused the present desolation of their earthly 
Zion." The memorial is dated January 29, 1839, and a full 
list of the signers is added to it. 

The Vestry granted a hearing to the committee 
having the memorial in charge. Their requests were 
summed up under three heads : 

" I. That the Congregation of St. Paul's be set apart and consti- 
tuted a distinct parish, with its own Rector, Wardens and Vestrymen. 

" 2. That the present Building known as St. Paul's Chapel, and the 
grounds attached to the same as a burying ground, be assigned to them. 

" 3. That there be an endowment granted to the new parish for the 
support of the clergyman and other officers of the Church, or an 
annual stipend adequate to meet its e.xpenses. 

ITEMS OF EXPENSE 

Clergyman $3000 

House 1000 

Sexton, etc 600 

Organist 500 

Choir 1 200 

Fuel 350 

Lights 200 

Sunday School 250 

$7100 

Whitewashing, etc 200 

Repairs, etc 1700 

$9000 " 

This paper, having been read, was referred to a select 
committee consisting of Messrs. William E. Dunscomb, 
Adam Tredwell, Peter A. Mesier, Thomas L. Ogden, 
William Johnson, Jonathan H. Lawrence, and Robert 
Hyslop, who were directed to confer as requested with 

VOL. IV. — 14. 



2IO History of Trinity Church [1839 

the committee of the memoriaHsts, and make a report to 
the Vestry.^ Several meetings were held in St. Paul's 
Chapel, where the committee listened to able arguments 
on the subject of the reference. 

On the iith of March, the Committee reported, and 
after a full and final consideration of the subject, it was 
" Resolved: that it is inexpedient at this time to comply 
with the application of the Memorialists to set apart the 
Congregation of St. Paul's Chapel as an independent 
parish." - 

The report, which is very carefully written, examines 
the arguments and allegations of the Memorial. It dis- 
misses with a few words the question of the comparative 
advantages of independent and collegiate churches as a 
subject upon which " there has been and is some diversity 
of opinion." It denies that in collegiate churches colli- 
sions between Vestries and Assistant Ministers are more 
frequent than in other parishes. In the "more than forty 
years " that some of the Committee have been in the Ves- 
try, " only one occurrence of this kind, prior to that which 
has given rise to the present memorial, is recollected." 
On both these occasions " the Assistant Ministers have 
brought their supposed grievances before the public, thus 
giving to the controversies unnecessary notoriety, and 
whilst closing the door of peace and reunion, wantonly 
inflicting on the Church and its ministers, and the cause 
of religion, all the evils which are deprecated in the State- 
ment as consequential on collegiate systems." The pres- 
ent system of the Parish was " neither entirely collegiate, 
or distinct" ; its advantages are set forth, and it has, "so 
far, appeared to be successful in two of the congregations ; 

' Records, liber iii., folio 234. The memorial and other documents relating to 
the subject will be found in the Appendix. The text of these is copied from the 
Schroeder MSS. 

^ Records, liber iii., folio 237. 



1839] Separation Deemed Unwise 211 

and if not so in the third, this result may possibly be 
traced to extraneous causes, not necessarily connected 
with the system itself; it would then be unwise, on this 
ground, suddenly to abandon it." The Committee then 
examined the numerical strength of the Memorialists, and 
their representative character. " Pew-owners, occupants 
of pews, by consent of the Vestry, and communicants, are 
the only classes of worshippers who have any legal right 
to act on a question of separation, and of these, the pew- 
owners are the most deeply interested." An inquiry insti- 
tuted by members of the Committee, " aided by informa- 
tion from the collector of pew rents, and from the Rector," 
gave this result : 

Pew-holders^ 124, females, 34, together 158 

Communieants, not pew-holders 12 

170 

Of these, there appear to have signed the Memorial, 

Pew-owners, males, 19, females, 4, together 23 

Heirs of deceased owners 8 

Occupants and lessees of pews, males, 9, females 2 11 

(according to the pew book) 

Commumcants, not pew-holders 8 

50 
It was the duty of the Vestry to guard the rights of the 
whole Parish and to grant a separation without the concur- 
rence of a like majority of the other two congregations 
would be inexpedient and wrong. Danger to the " vested 
rights of the Parish might be incurred by placing the power 
now in three Congregations in two." With the conclusion 
that it would be inexpedient and improper in the Vestry 
now to set apart the congregation of St. Paul's Chapel as 
a separate parish, the Committee say they would have 
closed their Report, " were it not for remarks which are to 



212 History of Trinity Church [1839 

be found in the statement of the Committee of St. Paul's, 
and also in various publications, some of them bearing the 
signature of respectable members of the congregation of 
that chapel, reflecting on the conduct of the Vestry in its 
recent proceedings relative to the duties of the Assistant 
Ministers." In view of these attacks upon the body which 
they represented, the Committee took up and examined 
in detail the literature of the controversy, and contended 
that the present Vestry had acted with perfect consistency 
and in conformity with the precedents of nearly thirty 
years, explaining the reasons for the desire to have pre- 
cedency given to the Senior Presbyter in certain contin- 
gencies, and expressing the opinion that the principle 
adopted in March, 1836, was a sound one. The charge 
that its direct intent was to exalt over his fellow-clergymen 
a distinguished presbyter then to be called to the Parish," 
and that " private pledges of such advancement were given 
to that individual," was dismissed as frivolous, since at that 
time both the Bishop and Dr. Anthon were assistants, and 
senior to the clergyman then named. The Vestry had not 
made the subject of precedence a matter of inquiry or 
investigation. Precedency among the Assistants was given 
to the Bishop, as he was then both Senior Presbyter and 
Senior Assistant. This produced " no change as to grade 
or power, and could give offence to no one." The motive 
for the adoption of the ordinance which had led to all this 
trouble was without any personal reference whatever ; it 
was a precautionary measure providing for the case of the 
inability of the Rector to act ; it was in the line of prece- 
dent, and it " was based on the supposition that age, experi- 
ence, general custom, and the difficulty of gratifying the 
wish of congregations for the appointment of Assistant 
Ministers of approved talents, character, and standing 
make the adoption of such a rule expedient." 



1839] The Precedence of the Clergy 213 

The Rector appears to have expressed a wish to re- 
ceive directions from the Vestry on the general subject ; 
but they very wisely declined to give them, on the ground 
that " rules of etiquette among the clergy are not fit sub- 
jects of legislation." On his request, however, they gave 
their individual opinions, with no dissenting voice, " in 
favour of applying the principle of seniority in ordination to 
all cases," adding, however, that " this expression was not 
to be taken as a deliberative act, or properly a matter of 
Parish administration, but as " merely advisory and alto- 
gether individual and informal." The Vestry did not re- 
gard the matter as of " any great importance ; much less 
was it supposed that the application to this Parish of rules 
of courtesy, recognized throughout the Church at large, 
would be deemed so derogatory to the dignity of any one 
of the Assistants, as to justify his abrupt severance of his 
connection with the Parish. The resignation of the clergy- 
man who had taken that course was tendered without any 
effort to convince the Vestry that it had acted on mistaken 
or erroneous principles ; and although time was allowed 
for more mature reflection, the proffered resignation was 
left unrevoked, and by its terms became absolute.' Dep- 
recating " any hasty measures by which to weaken the 
triple cord of union which now binds together the three 
congregations," it offers in conclusion the resolution al- 
ready given, withholding consent to the separation of St. 
Paul's Chapel. 

In immediate connection with this report there was 
presented to the Vestry a letter to the Rector by Dr. Wain- 
wright, in which, after expressing his repugnance to being 
involved in the controversy, he denied any private under- 
standing as to precedence when he had been called in 
March, 1836, and enclosing a copy of the private letter of 

' This report will be found on Records, liber iii., folios 237-241. 



214 History of Trinity Church [1839 

Mr. Ogden to him, dated " March 30th, 1836." These let- 
ters were placed upon the minutes. With the publication 
of the report and a rejoinder from the Committee of Me- 
morialists, the controversy ended, and this unfortunate 
incident was considered closed.^ 

Brief mention has already been made of the alarm felt 
by many members of the congregation of Trinity Church 
when the effect of the winter's weight of snow upon the 
roof was seen in the spring of 1839 to have caused the apex 
of the roof to sink several inches and thus made the 
rafters to expand the side walls to such an extent that 
many justly considered the Church in danger. Repairs 
promptly ordered by the Vestry and iron rods stretched 
across the Church connecting the rafters on either side of 
the roof did not allay the excitement. 

On May 6, 1839, ^^ important report was made by the 
Committee of Supplies and Repairs, which suggested " al- 
terations not required for the safety of the building." It 
was very fully discussed, and finally Mr. Adam Tredvvell, 
Mr. Jonathan H. Lawrence, and Mr. Thomas L. Ogden 
were appointed a joint committee with the Committee on 
Supplies and Repairs " to consider and determine on the 
repairs of said building, and also on the style and plan of the 
new ceiling, if it shall be necessary to take down the pres- 
ent ceiling, and as these matters shall be decided on that 
the Committee of Supplies and Repairs proceed to have 
the work executed." ~ The committee were also to " con- 

' " Report of the Vestry on the Memorial of Members of St. Paul's Chapel, with the 
letters of Dr. Wainwright, and Mr. T. L. Ogden," March, 1839. 8vo., pp. 10. 

" Remarks of the Committee of St. Paul's Congregation upon the Report of the 
Committee of the Vestry of Trinity Church, and upon the Decision of the Vestry on 
the Memorial of the Pewholders and Worshippers of St. Paul's Chapel, Praying 
that the said Chapel may be Set Apart as a Separate Church." 8vo., pp. 12. New 
York, 1839. 

* Records, liber iii. , folio 246. The members of this committee were Mr. William 
H. Harison, Mr. William E. Dunscomb, and Mr. Robert Hyslop. 



1839] Report on Trinity Church 215 

sider and report on the propriety of any alterations in the 
church edifice." They were empowered " to employ a suit- 
able person as draughtsman and superintendent of such 
repairs and alterations." 

On May 7th the committee organized by the election 
of Mr. Ogden as chairman, and appointed Mr. Richard 
Upjohn, who had then recently come to New York, as 
draughtsman. A report was made to the Vestr)- on June 
10, 1839, '" which it was stated after a thorough examina- 
tion of Trinity Church that " the side walls of the edifice 
are not plumb," and expressing the apprehension that 
they would have to be rebuilt. It recommended that the 
present exterior appearance of the building should be pre- 
served, the interior put in complete order, the opening in 
the rear of the church enlarged " to the extent of the space 
between the outer arch, so as to enlarge the chancel and 
afford room for enlarging the pews. It was also proposed 
"to remove the monument of Bishop Hobart to another 
position, so as to extend the body of the church between 
the galleries to the line of the present projection in the 
rear."' The estimated cost of the repairs and improve- 
ments was thirty thousand dollars. The Vestry approved 
the plans and authorized the committee to carry them out. 

Before the repairs had proceeded far, the slight and un- 
substantial character of the whole building became ap- 
parent. A contemporary writer says : 

" When the roof had been taken off, and the walls of the building un- 
covered, they were found in several places much more defective than their 
age would have warranted, the church having been built but fifty years. 
The western and side walls were several inches out of perpendicular; and 
about fifty feet of the heavy rear wall of the tower, which was supposed 
to have rested on a substantial arch was found to be supported by two 
oak beams, twenty inches square, which were almost entirely decayed. 
The superstructure, therefore, was in imminent danger of falling, and 
' Records, liber iii., folio 247. 



2i6 History of Trinity Church [1839 

indeed it seems surprising that it kept its position as long as it did, for 
the mortar used in its construction was destitute of adhesion, owing to 
the sand and lime having been poor and improperly mixed." ' 

This unexpected state of dilapidation was brought be- 
fore the Vestry by the committee on August 5th, when the 
written statements of several master builders were sub- 
mitted, all agreeing, after a thorough examination, that 
" the present tower and spire are defective and insecure." 

After this startling announcement the Vestry agreed 
that it would be both useless and bad economy to attempt 
to strengthen the old church, and that a new one must be 
built. The committee was then directed to procure a plan 
of the new church edifice, with estimates of the cost, to be 
submitted to the Vestry at its next meeting.'- 

On September 9th the plans and drawings of a new 
church edifice were laid before the Vestrj', accompanied 
by an estimate of the cost, which was to be "somewhat 
less than $85,000." If the spire were to be built of stone, 
the cost would be five thousand dollars more. It was also 
stated " that the tower and spire of the proposed edifice 
exceed by fifty feet in height those of the old church. 
The width is the same, and the interior length of the 
church is greater by fifteen feet." Could the length of the 
new church " be farther increased to the extent of one or 
two intercolumniations," the cost would not much exceed 
the estimate already given and greatly improve its ap- 
pearance. The committee mention the solicitude of some 
pewholders as to their rights in the new building, and ask 
for action by the Vestry upon that matter.' 

The Vestry acted first upon the rights of pewhold- 
ers and " Resolved that the present owners of pews in 

' p. II, H. M. Onderdonk's History of tlu Protestant Episcopal Churches in the 
City of New York, 1844. 
' Records, liber iii. , folio 250. 
' The report will be found in Records, liber iii., folio 251. 



1839] Report on Trinity Church 217 

Trinity Church shall be entitled to pews in the new edi- 
fice to be situate as nearly as may be in the same relative 
position as their old pews."' Mr. Upjohn then explained 
the plans and drawings to the Vestry, after which it was 
resolved " that the spire of the new church and the 
columns to support the galleries and clear story be con- 
structed of stone." The joint committee was directed 
" to proceed in the construction of the new church edifice 
in conformity with the foregoing resolution and with the 
plans and drawings now e.\hibited." ~ It was left to the com- 
mittee's discretion to increase the length of the building as 
had been suggested by Mr. Upjohn. 

While the church edifice was only fifty years old, its 
appearance suggested a much more venerable building. 
It had grown into the life and affection of many New 
Yorkers, and in conversation and the periodicals of the 
day much regret was expressed at the necessity for its 
removal. At least two poems were written when the work 
of demolition was commenced in August, 1 839. From that 
in The New-York American, then edited by Mr. Charles 
King, a son of that distinguished Warden of Trinity Church, 
the Hon. Rufus King, these stanzas may be quoted : 

" Farewell! Farewell! They 're falling fast, 

Pillar and arch and architrave; 
Yon aged pile to me the last 
Sole record of the by-gone past, 

Is speeding to its grave: 
And thoughts from memory's fountain flow 

(As one by one, like wedded hearts, 

Each rude and mouldering stone departs) 
Of boyhood's happiness and woe, 
Its sunshine and its shade. 
And though each ray of early gladness 
Comes mingled with the hues of sadness, 
I would not bid them fade." 
' Recoids, liber iii., folio 251. '^ Records, liber iii., folio 252. 



CHAPTER IX. 

RECTORIAL RIGHTS AND OTHER MATTERS. 

The Rector's Right to the Distribution of the Communion Alms — His Report Thereon 
— Claim on Certain Market Sites — The New Organ for Trinity Church — Recital in St. 
John's Chapel — Establishment of a Classical School Proposed — Episcopal Fund and 
Action of the Vestry Thereon — Journey of Dr. Berrian to Santa Cruz— Election of Dr. 
Wainwright as Temporary Assistant Rector — Act of the Legislature to Validate .Actions 
of the Vestry in Rector's Absence — Return of the Rector — Resignation of Dr. Wain- 
wright as Temporary Assistant Rector — The Instruction of Students of the General 
Theological Seminary in Music — Report on the Poor Fund and the Assistant Ministers 
Considered — Canon LII. and its Meaning — Letter of Thanks from Mr. John Henry 
Hobart — Laying of the Corner-stone of the New Trinity Church. 

AN account has been already given of the discussion 
upon the subject of the distribution of the Communion 
Alms ; the Rector asserting his right to receive and dis- 
burse them ; the Assistant Ministers objecting, and claim- 
ing that they were entitled to a share ; and Members of 
the Vestry inclined to take ground against the Rector, 
and in favor of the Assistants. It seems strange that 
there should have been dispute upon the subject, as Canon 
LII. of the Canons of 1832 provided that the alms and con- 
tributions at the administration of the Holy Communion 
"shall be deposited with the Minister of the Parish or 
with such Church officer as shall be appointed by him, to 
be applied by the Minister, or under his superintendence, 
to such pious and charitable uses as shall by him be 
thought fit." This Canon, without change of phraseology 
is still the law of the Church.' The Rector was right in his 

' Canon XV., § ii.. Section iv. of Canoyis and Constitutions, etc. 1904. 
218 



[1839] Communion Alms 219 

contention ; and the Vestry, finally convinced of that fact, 
withdrew their objections. The law of the Church is clear, 
that the distribution of the Communion alms is exclu- 
sively under the control of the Rector of each Parish, and 
that the Vestry have no authority in the case. Dr. Ber- 
rian states that the fund was not large ; that it averaged 
annually about $1340 ; and that the whole amount within 
about one dollar was given to stated pensioners and those 
in the habit of receiving occasional relief.' It may be 
added here, that as time has gone on, and great changes 
have come throughout the Church, different arrangements 
have been made as to the alms and the offerings in the 
Parish, subject always to Canon Law. At the period about 
which we are now writing, the Holy Communion was ad- 
ministered only about six times in the course of the year : 
on Christmas Day, Easter, Whitsunday, of course, and in 
the intervals during the summer and autumn. But now 
there is a celebration in every Church on every Sunday and 
Holy Day, and a daily celebration throughout the year 
at the Parish Church, with daily celebrations elsewhere 
during Lent, Holy Week, and Advent. Still the Rector 
has the right to all the alms given at all these services ; but 
as it would be grossly unfair and unjust to insist on this, 
an arrangement has been made, by which the Rector re- 
ceives one offering each month from each Church in the 
Parish, for his private fund ; one offering each month is 
for some stated object, as specified in a published " order " 
for the year, and all the remaining offerings are given to 
the Minister in charge of the church, to be distributed by 
him at his discretion. 

September 14, 1840, Mr. Ogden, as counsel for the cor- 
poration, made a report on the subject of certain market 
sites at the foot of Duane and Christopher Streets, and 

' Berrian MSS. 



History of Trinity Church [1840 



action was taken to assert the claims of the Church to 
the said sites.^ 

An organ had been built for Trinity Church. This in- 
strument, having received certain additions which greatly 
increased its power and brilliancy, was put into St. John's 
Chapel in the spring of 1840, and finally finished in No- 
vember." Dr. Hodges made its completion the occasion 
for an organ recital ; the event was long memorable in 
the annals of Church music in New York, on account of 
the excellence of the instrument and the skill of the per- 
former. The recital was given on Friday evening, No- 
vember 27, 1840. The seats in the Church were free, 
none being reserved. Mr. George F. Handel Hodges, 
son of the great organist, gives this lively description of it 
under date of December 1st : 

" Last Friday evening we had virtually a sacred concert ; though 
nominally an exhibition of the new Organ at St. John's Chapel, where 
Papa is organist. I went round to the Church a little before half-past 
five and found everything right, a man lighting the lamps and another 
putting the programmes in the pews. . . 

" I then went home to tea and went to Church again at 7 o'clock. 
It was then almost full and the people were pouring in from the North 
and from the South, from the East and from the West. . . . I thought 
I would go up the middle aisle to see the organ and how it looked, 
and was in danger of being left there, for I could with difficulty get to 
the door as the people were pouring in so fast ; this was about twenty 
minutes before the time. . . . I sent you a ZTifz-a/f/ which you will 
receive before this and which will give you an account of the per- 
formances, and also contains a high compliment to Papa." ' 

On the nth of January, 1841, the Vestry received a 
series of resolutions concerning the establishment of a 
" classical school," and requesting for that purpose the use 

' Records, liber, iii., folio 275. 
' The Parish Church, for which the new organ was intended, was at that time in 
process of reconstruction. 

^V^. \\?i-\\cj, Edward Hodges. 



1841] The Episcopal Fund -21 

of the building in the rear of Sl John's Chapel.^ They 
embodied the sentiment of a well-attended meeting of 
parishioners in St. John's who thought the existing facili- 
ties for education were not sufficiently accessible to those 
who most needed them, although the Protestant Episcopal 
Public School, the " Columbia College " Grammar School 
and the " School of the Collegiate Reformed Dutch 
Church " were institutions which did honest and faithful 
work.'- 

The resolutions were referred to a special committee 
consisting of the Rector, Mr. Ogden, Mr. Mesier, and Mr. 
Wolfe, who were empowered and instructed " to associate 
with them the Assistant Ministers of this Church and also 
the Rector of St. George's Church and the Rector of 
Grace Church." They were also to confer with the Trus- 
tees of the New York Protestant Episcopal Public School. 
Their report was to be made to the Vestr}'. 

And now once more comes in the everlasting question 
about the Episcopal Fund, like the ghost of Hamlet's 
father. The Corporation had learned wisdom by experi- 
ence. Xo serious effort had been made by the Diocese 

' Records, liber iii.. folio 2S1. 

- The school known as the " Charity School " was established in 1709. and until the 
Revolution was supported jointly by the venerable Propagation Society and Trinity 
Church, and after that event by this Parish alone. It was endowed by Trinity Church 
in iSoo. It was incorporated under its own Trustees in 1S06 by the title of the New 
York Protestant Episcopal Public School. In iS32 the endowment was increased by 
the lease at a nominal rent of five lots on Canal, Varick, and Grand Streets. In 1S45, 
with some modifications in its curriculum, it assumed the name of "Trinity School." 
Its first master was William Hnddlestone. Its present building on West Xinety-first 
Street adjoins on the South and West the property of this Corporation in connection 
with St. Agnes' Chapel. 

The school of the Collegiate Dutch Reformed Church was established in 1633. Its 
first master was Adam Ronaldson. It has continued uninterruptedly until the present 
day. Its present building is on West Seventy-seventh Street, in the rear of the West 
End Avenue Collegiate Church. The Grammar School of Columbia College was 
established in 1763. Its first master was Matthew Cashing, .■\bout thirty years ago 
it ceased to have any connection with the College. It is still continued under the name 
of Columbia Grammar School. 



222 History of Trinity Church [1841 

of New York since 1838 to increase that fund. It seemed 
to be the fixed opinion of large numbers that the Vestry 
of Trinity Church ought not only to assume a large part 
of the support of the Bishop and furnish him with a 
suitable residence, but also patiently to assume additional 
responsibilities without any expectation of the fulfilment 
of the conditions on which their aid up to that time had 
been granted. On the 8th of February, 1841, the Stand- 
ing Committee was instructed " to enquire how far the 
Convention of the Diocese had complied with the con- 
ditions on which the annual sum of $1600 had been lately 
appropriated for a limited period towards the support of 
the Episcopate in this Diocese." ^ The reply to this in- 
terrogation must have been in the vocative case. 

On the 13th of March, 1841, the Rector, accompanied 
by Mrs. Berrian, sailed for the West Indies. His journey 
was sad and sudden. A beloved daughter had been 
spending the winter at Santa Cruz, in the Danish West 
Indies, in hope of arresting the progress of a rapid con- 
sumption. The gravity of her condition was made known 
to her father early in the month of March. The anxiety 
and apprehension of the Rector are shown in this letter 
to the clerk of the Vestry : 

" My Dear Sir, 

You are probably aware that one of my daughters went to St. 
Croix last winter for the benefit of her health. Our hopes have been 
grievously disappointed, and each successive account of her is more 
distressing than the former. We have learned since the last meeting 
of the vestry that both she and the friends who are with her most 
earnestly desire that we should go out and see her. 

" For her sake and our own, we know not how to resist this desire, 
and accordingly Mrs. Berrian and myself intend to sail for St. Croix 
on Saturday. This determination was so suddenly and unexpectedly 
made that there was no time for convening the vestry in order to ob- 

' Records, liber iii., folio 2S1. 



184 1] Dr. Wainwright Assistant Rector 223 

tain their leave of absence, and I therefore throw myself upon that 
kindness and indulgence which I have so long and so often experi- 
enced at their hands. 

" May I beg the favour of you to communicate this to the vestry. 
We are going out in the Emily, a very fine and fast sailing ship, in the 
hope, though a faint one, of finding our dear child alive and of bring- 
ing her back immediately in the same vessel. 

" Yours very truly, 
" William Berrian.' 
" Thos. L. Ogden, Esq. " 

A brief note, placed in the care of Jonathan H. Lawr- 
ence, to be communicated to the Vestry, and dated, March 
12, 1841, nominated the Rev. Jonathan M. Wainwright, 
D.D., as Assistant to hold his office during the Rector's 
absence. 

A special Vestry meeting was held on March 22d. Mr. 
Rogers, the senior warden, who presided, explained that 
the sudden departure of the Rector for the West Indies 
made necessary immediate action, by the Vestry "on the 
measures proper to be pursued to carry on the business of 
the Corporation in his tibsence." After reading Dr. Ber- 
rian's letter to the clerk and the letter nominating an 
Assistant Rector, it was resolved " that Mr. Ogden, Mr. 
Johnson, Mr. Harison, Mr. Howe, and Mr. Tredwell be 
a committee to take into consideration the several com- 
munications above mentioned and the present state of the 
Church as connected with the Rector's absence, and to 
report thereon." The committee was also authorized to 
seek the advice of counsel and to apply for relief in the 
premises to the Legislature, if it is deemed necessary.- 

At the Vestry meeting on April loth, the nomination 
of the Rev. Dr. Wainwright as Assistant Rector was duly 

' Berrian MSS., p. 284 ; Records, liber iii. Miss Mary Chandler Berrian died at 
-Santa Cruz, on March 26, 1841, in her-twentieth year. Her fatlierand mother arrived 
four days after her death. 

■' Records, liber iii., folio 285. 



224 History of Trinity Church [1841 

considered, and " such nomination was consented to by 
all the Church-wardens and Vestrymen present." It was 
thereupon resolved unanimously " that the Reverend 
Jonathan M. Wainwright be Assistant Rector pursuant 
to the said nomination." ^ 

Dr. Wainwright was introduced into the Vestry by 
Mr. Harison and Mr. Dunscomb. He signified his ac- 
ceptance of the ofiice, " was conducted to the chair, and 
the Vestry, being thus organized, proceeded to business. 
Dr. Wainwright presiding."'" 

On Easter Tuesday, April 13th, the annual election for 
wardens and vestrymen was held. Dr. Wainwright pre- 
siding. As Assistant Rector he signed the returns of the 
election made by the inspectors. 

When Mr. Ogden, Mr. Harison, and other legal mem- 
bers of the Vestry were made aware of the departure of 
the Rector and had read the letter of nomination left by 
him, they knew that legal complications might arise, unless 
they proceeded with care and caution. For this reason a 
special committee was appointed by which a case was pre- 
pared and submitted to the Hon. Peter A. Jay, an eminent 
counsellor. His opinion was that the nomination, "being 
for a limited time, was invalid." No act of the Vestry 
could validate it and make Dr. Wainwright a legal member 
of the Vestry. 

" The validity of the election without the presence of 
the Rector would be questionable and, as he inclined to 
think, invalid." His advice was "that under all the cir- 
cumstances of the case" the Vestry should assent to the 
nomination of Dr. Wainwright, and apply by petition to 
the Legislature for an act confirming this proceeding, and 
legalizing the next annual election. A petition was pre- 
pared, duly signed, and Mr. Ogden and Mr. Harison 

' Records, liber iii., folio iS6. '^ Ibid. 



1841] Musical Instruction 225 



presented it at Albany. It was explained to the leading 
members of the Senate and Assembly. An act was drawn 
in accordance with the state of the case. This passed the 
Senate after reference to the Judiciary Committee and 
was then presented in the Assembly and referred to its 
Judiciary Committee, who reported it favorably. " But it 
having been treated in the Senate as one requiring the 
concurrence of two thirds of all the members, the House 
was found to be so thin that the required number of mem- 
bers could not be collected together to secure its passage 
prior to the day of the annual election." After the elec- 
tion a second section validating the acts of the Vestry 
" since the departure of the Rector and prior to the 
passage of this act" was added. In its enlarged form it 
was passed April 22, 1841, and promptly signed by the 
Governor.' 

A Vestry meeting was held April 26th, soon after the 
return of the Rector, at which the special committee on 
the Rector's absence made a full report, with a copy of the 
relief act passed by the Legislature. 

The Rev. Dr. Wainwright presented a written resigna- 
tion of the office of Assistant Rector " which he had 
accepted upon the condition annexed to the nomination 
by the Rector." He was thanked for his services, and the 
resignation was accepted. 

On the loth of May, the Rector, on behalf of the 
Music Committee, presented a plan by which the eminent 
musical gifts of Dr. Hodges might be made useful to a 
greater number, and a knowledge of sacred music be more 
widely diffused. He was to receive an augmented salary 
and give instruction to students in the General Theologi- 

' These particulars are condensed from the Report of the Special Committee. 
As a part of the legal history of the Parish, a copy of the Act is inserted in the 
Appendix. 



226 History of Trinity Church [1841 

cal Seminary. The plan as presented was modified by 
reference to a special committee, consisting of the Rector, 
the Assistant Ministers, and Messrs. Ogden, Harison, and 
Wolfe. These gentlemen were " to consider and report 
on the details of a system for the instruction of the stu- 
dents of the Theological Seminary in sacred music in 
connection with a plan for the gratuitous instruction of 
beneficiaries and other young persons attached to the dif- 
ferent Church Institutions, also for the instruction of such 
young persons of the Parish and other Parishes as may be 
desirous to attend him as pay scholars." 

The committee for the relief of the Assistant Minis- 
ters from requests from the poor made a report, which 
was deferred for future consideration. 

The long-continued agitation on the disbursement of 
Communion alms, and the relieving the Assistant Min- 
isters of constant importunity for assistance, led to a 
proposal of Mr. William H. Harison, that "Alms-chests 
or poor-boxes" be placed in each one of the Chapels by the 
Committee of Supplies and Repairs, and also in the Parish 
Church when completed. The keys of these boxes were 
to be in the custody of the Assistant Ministers, " who 
shall until further order of the Vestry have the distribution 
of the Alms thus collected." ^ 

The Rector sought from several eminent canonists of 
the Church their opinion upon the meaning of Canon LH. 
The answers are clear and uphold the obvious intent of 
that Canon. As the principles upon which it was based 
are not obsolete, these words of our worthy Church fathers 
might well serve as a contemporary interpretation of the 
Canon. ^ 

' Records, liber iii., folio 366. 

^ The opinions are by Bishops B. T. Onderdonk, Ives, and DeLancey, and Dr. 
Samuel F. Jarvis. They are dated early in July, 1841, and concur in their conclu- 
sions. They are in the Berrian MSS., General Theological Seminary. 



1841] Corner-Stone of New Church Laid 227 



A letter was read in the Vestry June 14th, from Mr. 
John Henry Hobart, for whose education the Corporation 
had provided, thanking the Vestry " for the favour con- 
ferred on him," and announcing that he would soon be 
made a deacon. 

It is well known that after his graduation Mr. Hobart, 
with his classmates, James Lloyd Breck, and William 
Adams, of pious memory, went to the wilds of Wisconsin 
to found in that spiritual desert the associate mission 
which grew into the noble institution called Nashotah 
House. 

Mention has been made of the dangerous condition of the 
parish church building, of the alarm felt upon the subject, 
and of attempts made from time to time to repair it and 
ensure its safety. It became evident that nothing effect- 
ual could be done, and that a new edifice must take the 
place of the old one. The architect selected was Mr. 
Richard Upjohn ; the structure then upon the ground was 
removed, and the corner-stone of the new church was laid, 
Thursday, June 2, 1841, the structure being by that time 
sufficiently advanced to proceed with that ceremony. It 
is uncertain whether the Bishop and other clergymen were 
present, and whether the Office of the Laying of a Cor- 
ner-Stone was said ; if any was used, it must have been 
that set forth by Bishop Hobart for the Diocese of New 
York.' 

The stone was " in the northerly buttress of the tower 
of the new edifice." The Building Committee in its report 

' The earliest printed form for the Laying of a Comer-Stone known in the Ameri- 
can Church is that used at the laying of the Corner-Stone of Trinity Church, New 
Haven, Connecticut, on May 17, :8l4. It was compiled by the Rev. Samuel F. 
Jarvis of St. Michael's, Bloomingdale, New York. He acknowledged that the actual 
words for the laying of the stone and the use of the 118th Psalm were suggested by the 
Rev. Philander Chase of Hartford. The New York service is substantially that of Dr. 
Jarvis. The New Haven service was reprinted by Mr. Edward C. Beecher (Parish 
Clerk of Trinity Church, New Haven), Easter, 1886. 



228 History of Trinity Church [1841 

mentions only " the presence of the Rector and several 
members of the Vestry." 

A leaden box was placed within the stone containing the 
following documents and memorials : 

A printed copy of the Charter of Trinity Church. 
The Holy Bible, 1841, i2mo. bound. 
The Book of Common Prayer, 1841, i2mo. bound. 
Memoirs of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 

U. S., by William White, D.D., 8vo., calf, bound. 
Canons of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 1838. 
Journals of the General Convention of 1829, 1832, 

1835, 1838. 
Journals of the Annual Convention of the Diocese of 

New York for : 
1792, 1793, 1794, 1804, 1805, 1806, 1807, 1808, 1809, 
1810, 1811, 1812, 1813, 1814, 1815, 1816, 1817, i8[8, 
1819, 1820, 1823, 1824, 1825, 1826, 1827, 1828, 1829, 
1833, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1839 (with a copy of 
the Canons), and 1840 with the Journals of the special 

Conventions of 181 1 and 1838. 
Church Almanac for 1841, gilt-edged and orna- 
mented, presented by the Protestant Tract Society. 
Swords' Pocket Almanac for 1841. 
A wood engraving of the perspective view of the 

Church. 
Church edifice as designed to be completed. 
A lithographic engraving of the last edifice. 
The Churchman, newspaper of 8th of May 1841. 
One each of the silver coins of the U. S. of the latest 

coinage, all except the quarter-dollar being of 1841. 
The lid of the box was engraved with this inscription : 

" LAUS DEO : 

The Corporation of Trinity Church in the City of New 
York Commenced the Erection of this Edifice in the Au- 



1841] Contents of Corner-Stone 229 

tumn of the Year of our Lord 1839 • •" ^^^ ninth Year of 
the Episcopate of 

BENJAMIN TREDWELL ONDERDONK, D.D., 

Bishop of the Diocese of New York, 
upon the site of a former Edifice then Become Decayed 
and Insecure in front of which was a tablet with the fol- 
lowing inscription : 

D. O. M. 

TRINITY CHURCH 

was first Founded in the year 1696 

was Enlarged and Beautified in 1737 

and entirely Destroyed in the great Conflagration of the 

City, 1776. This building was Erected on the Site of the 

former Church in the Year 1788. 

The Right Revd. Samuel Provost, D.D., 

Rector. 

Tames Duane, Esq., ] r-i u 1 » 

■; , ^ „ ^ y Church-wardens. 

John Jay, Esq., ) 

On one side of the box was inscribed : 

"This box was here deposited 3rd. June 1841. 

William Berrian, D.D., 

Rector. 

Jonathan M. Wainwrio;ht, D.D. ) , . ^ ^ at- • ^ 
■L , , ,r ,T- , > Assistant M misters. 

Edward Y. Higbee, ) 

Nehemiah Rogers and Thomas Ludlow Ogden, 

Church-wardens, James Bleecker, Teunis Quick, Jonathan 

H. Lawrence, Thomas Swords, Edward W. Laight, Peter 

A. Mesier, William Johnson, Anthony L. Underbill, 

Philip Hone, William E. Dunscomb, William H. Hari- 

son, Adam Tredwell, Robert Hyslop, Henry Cotheal, 

John D. Wolfe, Thomas Clarke, William Moore, William 

H. Hobart, Henry Youngs, Alexander L. McDonald. 

Vestrymen." 



230 



History of Trinity Church 



[1841 



^BuildinCT Committee. 



Upon the other side of the box was this inscription : 
" Thomas Ludlow Ogden ^ 
Jonathan Lawrence 
WilHam E. Dunscomb 
William H. Harison 
Adam Tredwell 
Robert Hyslop 
Richard Upjohn, Architect, 
James Thom, Sculptor, 
James Vandenbergh, Master Mason, 
Samuel Martin, Master Carpenter." 



CHAPTER X. 

GROWTH AND INFLUENCE OF THE PARISH. 

Recurrence of the Question of the Bishop's Salary — Remarks on the Outlook — The 
General Convention of 1S41 — The Archives of the Diocese of New York Cared for by 
the Vestry — St. John's Park — Resignation of William Johnson as Comptroller — Elec- 
tion of W. H. Harison — Paintings and Portraits Belonging to the Corporation — The 
Action of the Vestry in Regard to a Rural Cemetery — Purchase of the Cemetery at 
155th Street — Improvements in Church Music under Dr. Hodges — Establishment of 
Musical Scholarships — Repairs on St. Paul's Chapel — New Organ for Trinity Church 
— Memorial from St. John's Chapel for its Erection into a Separate Parish — Petition 
Refused by Vestry — Judge Furman's Report on the Bogardus Claims — Party Feeling 
in the Diocese — Ordination of Arthur Cary — Stormy Scene in the Diocesan Convention. 

THERE is a painful and dreary monotony in the 
Records of our Parish whenever we strike the 
subject of the maintenance of the Episcopate in the Dio- 
cese of New York. It is a humiHating fact that this 
Diocese, the first, the largest, and the wealthiest of all, has 
never had, and has not to this day a fund adequate to the 
decent and dignified support of its head. For this culpa- 
ble negligence there is, in later times, no excuse. So long 
as the Bishop of New York was also the Rector of Trinity 
Church, it was right that the Parish should provide for 
him ; but when the double relation ended, the Diocese 
should have taken the lead in the maintenance of the 
Episcopate. To this duty it remained indifferent for 
many years ; and the record is one of incessant and humili- 
ating petition to the Vestry for help to do what Churchmen 
throughout the State were able to do and ought in con- 
science and honor to have done. These petitions, almost 
abject, and the responses to them, often sharp and justly 
231 



232 History of Trinity Church [1841 

reproachful, are strewn profusely on our records. An 
instance occurs during the summer of 1841, when fresh 
appeals were made, backed by the admission that out of 
148 parishes only 36 had contributed to the salary of the 
Bishop, and when the Vestry, perceiving the indifference 
of the people to their duty, determined "that the conven- 
tion of this Diocese having failed in the performance of 
the condition on which the annual appropriation for the 
support of the Episcopate in the Diocese was made by 
the Vestry and assented to by the Convention, it is no 
longer obligatory to contribute to the said fund," and 
ordered that the appropriation should cease at the ex- 
piration of one year from the adjournment of the next 
Convention.' 

Here this painful subject shall be dismissed : the reader 
shall not be annoyed by further details. But, to sum up 
all, let this be observed, that at the period now reached in 
this history, there is ground for a suspicion that something 
worse than mere inertia was at the bottom of the neglect 
of duty. Dark days were coming fast : the Oxford Move- 
ment had been felt on this side of the water ; it had 
attracted and repelled with a force proportioned to the 
power and vital issues of that glorious and salutary revival. 
Party spirit had been kindled to flaming point ; it grew 
ever stronger and more bitter ; high church and low church 
joined in mortal conflict ; it was well known that the 
Bishop, the Rector of Trinity Church, and many of the 
clergy and laity of the Parish were in sympathy with 
the cause of catholic recovery and restoration ; and per- 
haps, for that very reason, under the influence of vague 
alarm, and theological views, many had become alienated, 
the sense of obligation to the chief office in the Church 

' Records, liber iii., folio 300. Journal of the Diocese of AVtw York, 1841, pp. 
34-36. 



1841] General Convention of 1841 233 

being dulled by personal dislike of its incumbent for the 
time being. And so things drifted on ; perilous times 
were at hand ; times of sharp controversy and mutual de- 
testation ; and the hour was not far off when the venerable 
head of the Diocese, assailed with vigor by his foes, and 
borne down by what we believe to have been unfounded 
calumny and false accusation, was brought to trial, and 
received a cruel and intolerable sentence of " indefinite 
suspension from the exercise of his Episcopal office," and 
so, when at the zenith of his power and influence, was 
suddenly dragged from his chair and buried alive. 

Let us pass on. The General Convention met in St. 
Paul's Chapel, on Wednesday, October 6, 1841. It was 
attended by twenty-one bishops, seventy-nine clerical, and 
fifty-seven lay deputies. The venerable Bishop of the East- 
ern Diocese, Dr. Griswold, although feeble, presided in the 
House of Bishops with the dignity which distinguishedhim. 
Dr. Wyatt was chosen President of the House of Cleri- 
cal and Lay Deputies, and Dr. Henry Anthon, Secretary. 
The deliberations were animated, the special topics of con- 
sideration being the expediency of extending the Episco- 
pate to the Republic of Texas and the Maryland Colony 
on the West Coast of Africa, the increase of the term of 
probation of ministers from other Christian bodies, and 
the regulation of clergymen Episcopally ordained remov- 
ing into the United States from a foreign country. 

A protest against the legality of the election of the 
deputies from New York and Delaware was referred to 
a special committee,' of which the Rev. Dr. Wm. Cooper 
Mead, of Connecticut, was chairman. The report lucidly 
explained the rights of a diocese in the passage of Canons, 
and declared the legality of the elections." 

'The deputies from New York were Drs. Lyell, Anthon, Bei.ian, McVickar, 
Messrs. Thomas L. Ogden, Peter A. Jay, James Emmett, and Stephen Warner. 
' yournal of Getitral Convention, 1841, pp. 9, 18, 22. 



234 History of Trinity Church [1841 

On Tuesday, October 12th, the Rev. Alfred Lee, D.D., 
Rector of Calvary, Rochdale, Pennsylvania, was conse- 
crated Bishop in St. Paul's Chapel. The Presiding 
Bishop, Dr. Griswold, was Consecrator, assisted by Bishops 
Moore, of Virginia, Chase, of Illinois, Brownell, of Con- 
necticut, and Onderdonk, of Pennsylvania. Morning 
Prayer was read by the Rev. Stephen W. Prestman, of 
Emmanuel Church, Newcastle, Delaware, assisted by the 
Rev. Dr. Harry Croswell, of Trinity Church, New Haven, 
Connecticut. The Testimonial from Delaware and the 
Consent of the House of Bishops were read by the Rev. 
Dr. Wainwright, Secretary of the House ; the Testimonial 
from the Lower House by the Secretary, the Rev. Dr. 
Mead.' The presenters were Dr. Meade Assistant Bishop 
of Virginia and Dr. Onderdonk Bishop of New York.* 

Dr. Lee had been elected on May 26, 1841, as Bishop 
of Delaware, a diocese which, although organized in 1791, 
had previously, on account of financial weakness, been 
under the charge of the Bishop of Pennsylvania. The 
first Bishop of Delaware lived to become the ninth Pre- 
siding Bishop of the American Church.'^ 

The sessions of the Convention after the opening ser- 
vice were held in St. John's Chapel ; the House of Bishops 
occupying one of the Sunday-school rooms. The closing 
service was held in St. John's Chapel, on Friday morning, 
October 19th. The pastoral letter was read by the Pre- 
siding Bishop. The subject was the " Doctrine of our 
Church on the Article of Justification by Faith in con- 
nection with that on the necessity and place of good 
works." * 

' The Rev. Dr. Anthon, owing to illness, had resigned early in the session the office 
of Secretary, to which Dr. Mead succeeded. 

- yoiD'nal of the General Convention^ ^^41, p. 95. 

' Bishop Lee died April 12, 1SS7, in the eightieth year of his age. 

* Dr. Stone's Life of Bishop Griswold, p. 423. 



1842] St. John's Park 235 

This was the last appearance of Bishop Griswold at any 
general gathering of Churchmen. It will be remembered 
that he was consecrated in Trinity Church with Dr. Ho- 
bart in 181 1, whom he survived nearly thirteen years.' 

In the Diocesan Convention of 1841, it was made 
known that there was no proper receptacle for the ar- 
chives of the Diocese of New York. They were too 
important to be allowed to suffer from neglect, or to 
remain in private houses ; it was suggested that Trinity 
Church might provide a place for them.^ 

Acting upon this suggestion the Vestry offered " to 
allow the records and papers of the Convention to be 
deposited for safe keeping in the safe belonging to the 
Vestry offices."'^ The offer was made known to the Con- 
vention of 1842, and gratefully accepted. The Rev. Dr. 
Benjamin I. Haight, Secretary of the Diocese, Mr. Charles 
N. S. Rowland, and Mr. William H. Harison were ap- 
pointed a committee to arrange details.^ 

It is pleasant to make a brief digression into a region 
of trees, flowers, and song birds, and so to lighten the 
dulness of parish annals. St. John's Chapel, a^stately and 
noble edifice, faced a great garden spot, known to church 
people as St. John's Park, but called by the common folk 
Hudson Square. That was the aristocratic quarter of 
the town. Next to the Church was the Rectory, No. 50 
Varick St., in which Bishop Hobartonce dwelt, and which 
was then occupied by Dr. Berrian. The Park was one of 
the finest, if not the finest, in the city. It contained speci- 
mens of almost every American tree, with others of for- 
eign sorts, as for example some Chinese mulberry trees, the 



' Bishop Griswold died February 15, 1843, in his seventy-seventh year. 

' Journal of the Diocese of A'ew York, 1841, p. 41. 

' Records, liber iii.. p. 316. 

* Journal of the Diocese of Neiu York, 1842, p. 36. 



236 History of Trinity Church [1842 

gift of Mr. Richard H. Haight, accepted with thanks by 
the Vestry, May 13, 1833. Dr. John W. Francis mentions, 
in his worl-c on Old New York, that St. John's Park had 
in it " a greater variety of trees than any other plot of 
ground of its size in the world " ; in short it was the pride 
and glory of the city, surrounded on all sides by private 
dwellings, the residences of the best people of the town. 
In the Parish records mention is made of "the privileges 
of the square " ; the Standing Committee presented a re- 
port upon it, based upon official documents and "a declar- 
ation and agreement executed by the Corporation and 
bearing date on the 2 2d of May, 1827." There were 
" proprietors," comprising the owners of property facing 
on the square. Trinity Church was entitled to grant 
the privileges of the square to five persons and their 
families, so long as the land occupied and annexed to St. 
John's Chapel should continue to be owned by the Church, 
in addition to the privileges appurtenant to lot No. 27, 
the Rector's house. It had the right of representation at 
meetings of the proprietors, and five votes ; one twelfth 
of the cost of maintaining the Park was chargeable to 
the Corporation. At that time the Rector and his family 
had the privileges of the square ; they were extended, at 
a meeting of the Vestry, to the Assistant Ministers, the 
Comptroller, Mr. Lawrence, and Mr. Dunscomb.' 

The further history of that beautiful spot was a melan- 
choly one. As time passed on and the character of the 
neighborhood changed, the owners of the property front- 
ing on the Park were filled with the usual desire to sell for 
business purposes. This could not be done without the 
consent of the Church, which consent the Corporation re- 
fused to give. Dr. Berrian, then old and ill, plainly told 
the applicants that the Park should not be sold while he 

' Records, liber iii., folio 314. 



1842] Resignation of Mr. William Johnson 237 

lived, and there is little doubt that the horrible sight of its 
destruction would have broken his heart. The present 
Rector had not been in office forty-eight hours before the 
people who had tormented his predecessor came throng- 
ing about him, to ask whether he would follow the example 
of the old man, and likewise withhold his consent. To 
him, not yet resident in the Rectory, it seemed that it 
would have been unwise and selfish to oppose the general 
wish, and so the Corporation consented. Then followed 
a shocking scene : the felling of the trees, the uprooting 
and upturning of the whole place, and the erection of an 
unsightly and vast freight depot, covering the whole ex- 
tent of the square. And so before the rolling car of the Busi- 
ness-Juggernaut, the grace and beauty passed away forever. 

The Standing Committee, in reporting upon the appli- 
cation of two city parishes for aid, commented on the de- 
ficiency of income, and the great expense incurred in 
rebuilding the Parish Church. A resolution was adopted 
that " until the completion or suspension of that work, no 
grants to any outside object be made." The permanent 
allowances were, however, continued. 

Mr. William Johnson, who had been for nearly fifteen 
years Comptroller of the Corporation, presented a letter 
March 14, 1842, resigning that office. This action was 
" compelled by the state of his health for the year past." 
He requested that this resignation might take effect as 
soon as it should be practicable for the Vestry to appoint 
a successor. In conclusion he says : " On resigning the im- 
portant trust so long reposed in me, and which I have en- 
deavored faithfully to discharge to the best of my ability, 
I cannot refrain from expressing my warmest thanks to 
the Vestry for their continued confidence and kindness." ' 

' Records, liber iii., folio 309. Mr. Johnson remained an honored member of the 
Vestry until 1847. 



238 History of Trinity Church [1842 



The Vestry accepted the resignation, to take effect 
April 30th. 

Mr. William H. Harison was on April nth elected 
Comptroller. 

On the 9th of May, Mr. Johnson's Annual Account 
and Report as approved by the Standing Committee was 
presented and read ; upon accepting the report it was 
" Resolved, that the Vestry on receiving this last ofificial 
communication from the late Comptroller, as contained in 
his annual report just read, take occasion to express their 
unanimous sense of the fidelity and ability with which he has 
uniformly discharged the important duties of his office." ^ 

It is not generally known that the Corporation of 
Trinity Church are the possessors of a small but very in- 
teresting collection of pictures and engravings illustrating 
the history of the Parish. The series of portraits of the 
Rectors is now complete ; and in addition to these there 
are other portraits of value. Among the artists repre- 
sented by these works are Wollaston, West, Copley, 
Paradise, Inman, Huntington, and Wenzler. The latest 
additions are the work of Mr. James L. Reilly, an artist 
of very remarkable merit, to whom commissions were given 
to copy a portrait of Bishop Charles Inglis in the National 
Gallery of Portraits in London, a portrait of Bishop 
Henry Compton from the orignal in Fulham Palace, and 
another of the same Bishop from a full-length picture in 
Castle Ashby, the residence of his descendant the Lord 
Marquis of Northampton. A full account of the portraits 
referred to may be found in the Year Books for 1900 and 
1902. As to the water-color sketches and engravings, 
they have been coming in from time to time for many 
years. In December, 1841, Mr. James Barrow, who had 
long been connected with the Corporation as Clerk to the 

' Records, liber iii., folio 331. 



1842] The Collection of Portraits 239 

Comptroller, presented a painting " Exhibiting a view of 
Trinity Church edifice and the Rector's house after the 
great conflagration in 1776."' The Bishop of Nova 
Scotia, during a brief visit to his native city, presented 
two fine engravings of the Right Rev. Dr. Charles Inglis, 
one for the Vestry Room of Trinity Church, and the other 
for that of St Paul's Chapel ; they were suitably framed, 
and put in the designated places." 

The collection of portraits belonging to the Corpora- 
tion was enriched in the autumn of 1842 by a portrait of 
Bishop Hobart, painted by J. Paradise. It was the gift 
of Mr. Henry Cotheal, a member of the Vestry.'' This is 
the best known of the Bishop's portraits, and has been 
frequently reproduced.^ 

' Records, liber iii.. folio 331. This painting was drawn by J. Evers, and litho- 
graphed by G. & W. Endicott for Dr. Berrian's Sketch, opposite p. 144. A 
softened and improved reproduction is given in Part I. of this History, opposite p. 392. 
Another painting of the ruins, differing in some details from that of Mr. Barrow, has 
been more recently acquired ; this also is in the Vestry office collection. 

'Records, liber iii., folio 326. John, the second son of Charles Inglis, was 
born in New York City, on December g, 1777. He was educated both in New York and 
in Nova Scotia, and was ordained by his father in iSoi. He served as Rector of Ayles- 
ford, 1801-08, assisted his father in St. Paul's, Halifax, of which church he became 
Rector in 1816. He served as Commissary of the second Bishop of Nova Scotia, 
Dr. Stanser, 1817-24. He was consecrated at Lambeth March 27, 1S25. His 
Diocese included the West Indies. He died in London, England, October 
27,1850. 

' Records, liber iii., folio 318. 

* Bishop Coxe preferred a portrait painted presumably by Jarvis, which repre- 
sented the Bishop in the early days of his Episcopate, with youthful features and a 
prematurely gray head. As the first Bishop of New York wore the full Episcopal 
vrig, and the second had flowing white locks, many, and especially in Trinity Parish, 
did not like to see a young-looking Bishop. In deference to this feeling. Bishop 
Hobart followed the prevailing fashion and slightly powdered his hair. This portrait 
was long a treasured possession of the Rev. John M. Guion of Seneca Falls, N. Y. 
This portrait forms the frontispiece to Part III. of this History. Another portrait, 
" never a favorite of the Bishop's family," is in the General Theological Seminary 
collection. The Paradise portrait was engraved by W. Moir for Dr. Schroeder's 
Memorial of Bishop Hobart (New York, T. & J. Swords, 1833). It is also the frontis- 
piece of Posthumous [Vorks of Bishop Hobart (New York, Swords, Stanford & Co., 
1833). This engraving was by J. W. Paradise. In 1894, a copy was made by Mr. W. 
R. Hyde, of New York for the See House in Lafayette Place. 



240 History of Trinity Church [1842 

The purchase of a site for a parish cemetery was 
made about this time. The subject had been under 
consideration for some years. There were those who 
desired that a plot in Greenwood Cemetery sufificiently 
large for the purpose should be subscribed for or secured 
by the Vestry ; but it was determined after full discussion 
that it was " inexpedient for this Corporation to connect 
itself with the Greenwood Cemetery by purchasing lots, 
or being in any way concerned in such purchase."^ A 
suitable plot was offered at Morrisania, by Mr. Gouver- 
neur, but the report of the committee to whom the 
selection had been confided was adverse to the proposal. 
Finally, on the 2 2d of September, 1842, the committee 
reported that they had purchased from Mr. Richard F. 
Carman "a piece of land in the 12th ward, bounded on 
the East by the middle of the loth Avenue, on the West 
by Hudson River, on the North by the middle of 155th 
street, and on the South by the middle of 153d street, 
containing 23 acres and 94/100 for $9570." 

The Vestry approved the purchase, and in October 
appointed the same committee with the addition of the 
Comptroller (Mr. William H. Harison) and Clerk (Mr. 
William E. Dunscomb) to obtain plans for laying out 
as a cemetery that part of the land lying between the 
loth and nth Avenues and 153d and 155th Streets. 
They were also to take the proper measure to ob- 
tain an alteration of the commissioners' map of the city 
"so as to abolish 154th St. between the Kingsbridge 
Road and the Hudson River, or between loth Avenue 
and the Hudson River" and unite with the owners of the 
land on 153d Street in a like application for that street.^ 
This committee was, until further order of the Vestry, to 
be in charge of the Parish cemetery. 

' Records, liber iii., folios 275-278. • Hid 318. 



1843] The New Cemetery 241 



During the early spring of 1843, the work upon the 
new Cemetery was progressing favorably ; in February 
the first purchase of a plot in the new Cemetery was made, 
and in March the Cemetery Committee was authorized 
to expend two thousand dollars in laying out the land, 
planting trees, making three vaults, and building a tem- 
porary lodge. A pamphlet was published containing 
" Rules and Regulations," with a paragraph giving 
information as to the methods of transportation to the 
Cemetery. ^ 

At the meeting of the Vestry, September 11, 1843, 
two plans for laying out the easterly division of the new 
Cemetery grounds were presented, one by Mr. Upjohn, 
and the other by Mr. Renwick. That by Mr. Renwick 
was selected, with some slight alterations and omissions. 
Paths were also to be laid out in the lower or easterly 
division of the Cemetery grounds, and the building of a 
stone wall along the west or river front of this division, 
" five feet thick at the bottom and two feet thick at the 
top, to stand eight feet above and two feet below the 
surface of the ground," was authorized. 

The new Cemetery was opened for interments in the 



' This paragraph deserves to be quoted as showing a curious contrast with the 
present facilities for reaching the upper portion of the island; 

" The Manhatlanville line of Stages leaves the corner of Chatham St. and Tryon 
Row every half hour for the Cemetery, and by an arrangement with the Proprietor, 
Mr. Moore, passengers are taken to the Cemetery for iS3^ cents. From, on, and 
after the loth of April, the proprietors of the steamboat, Boston, plying from the 
foot of Canal St., have agreed to convey funerals to the Cemetery grounds as 
follows : — 

For the Cemetery For the City 

At 10 o'clock A.M. At quarter past 12 p.m. 

At 2 o'clock P.M. At " " 4 P.M. 

The charge for Carriage or Hearse, 75 cents each way, the charge for each 
passenger not in a carriage ii'/^ cents each way." (P. 4, " Rules and Regulations 
for Trinity Church Cemetery, in the 12th Ward of the City of New York." New 
York, E. B. Clayton & Son. 1845,) 



242 History of Trinity Church [1843 

late summer of 1843, ^ri*^ ^ temporary keeper appointed 
for it. It soon became endeared to many as the sleeping- 
place of their loved ones, and, as time went on, grew both 
in the beauty given by artistic treatment and nature, and 
the adornment of sculptured stones and massive tombs. 

In view of the improvement in the music of the 
Parish since it had been under the charge of Dr. Hodges, 
the Trustees of Trinity School were desirous to extend 
the benefit of his instruction to the pupils under their 
charge, an arrangement which required the approval and 
co-operation of the Vestry. Resolutions on the subject were 
referred to the music Committee, who made a report, 
May 8, 1843, announcing that they had obtained from the 
trustees of the school an outline of an agreement be- 
tween the Vestry and the school. This being approved, 
Dr. Hodges, "the Director of the Parish Music," was 
appointed "instructor in Music in Trinity School " at a 
salary of five hundred dollars per annum. After some 
further conference between the committee and the 
trustees, several modifications of the original plan were 
made and agreed to by both parties. By the provisions 
of the contract in its final shape, the Vestry of Trinity 
Church was to establish in Trinity School " a depart- 
ment for the instruction of its scholars in Church vocal 
Music"; the professor to be appointed, and his salary 
to be paid by Trinity Church. "Sixteen musical scholar- 
ships, with stipends varying from twenty to forty dollars 
a year, were also to be established by the Vestry, with 
authority to fill them on nomination of the music pro- 
fessor ; and the holders of these scholarships were to be 
under his absolute direction as choristers of Trinity 
Church." 

The music scholarships were to be open to com- 
petition to all the scholars of Trinity School, whether 



1843] Church Music 243 



pay or free. Should a scholar be chosen " already 
enjoying the stipend of a free scholarship, such stipend 
to be diminished by the Trustees, so as to make the sum 
of the two stipends not to exceed seventy dollars." 
Musical instruction was to be given by the Professor 
to the whole school, " on at least two days in the 
week." The additional instruction to the music scholars 
was to be arranged so as not to interfere with their 
other studies, and to be subject to the direction of the 
Music Committee of Trinity Church. ' 

The department proved very useful, and many youths 
were trained in Church music, who would have been 
unable otherwise to acquire a practical knowledge of the 
art. Miss Faustina Hasse Hodges, in her interesting 
and fascinating biography of her father, says of this 
episode in Dr. Hodge's life : " The musical training he 
gave his Trinity boys was valuable for all their lives, 
but that seemed, when they afterwards spoke of him, 
almost ignored in the face of the great love they all 
cherished for him, and the veneration they all had for his 
memory. A strict disciplinarian, whose laws were made 
to be enforced, he was yet their loving and sympathetic 
friend. He had a real sympathy for the young; and his 
ways, so singularly transparent, appealed to their boyish 
natures ; at the same time they dreaded his reproof, 
and owned his severe judgments right. One way he 
had was of keeping all the money the bad boys paid in 
fines to buy prizes for the good ones, etc. Though now 
grown up and married and plunged in the thick of the 
hard battle of life, I have found over and over again, that 
this one spot of love for my father keeps green within 
their hearts— the Bible he gave them — the writing he 
wrote — the likeness of him treasured up — all say one and 

' Records, liber iii., folio 33S. 



244 History of Trinity Church [1843 

the same thing : that the memory of the dear Doctor and 
old Trinity will not fade away with years." ^ 

The Vestry at this time gave attention to the condition 
of St. Paul's Chapel. The sacred edifice, a survival of the 
colonial days, appealed to every passer-by, and was held in 
veneration not only in the Parish but generally by all good 
citizens of New York. It was evidently the intention of 
the Corporation to keep it in such condition that it might 
stand unshaken and secure for generations. To that end, 
repairs wherever needed were ordered : the tower and 
steeple, which were of wood, were to be painted ; the gal- 
lery was to be lowered, and the organ to be repaired." Of 
that ancient instrument, Mr. George Hodges thus writes in 
jocose vein : 

" The organ is no great shakes though I make some 
great shakes upon it occasionally. It is an old one, built 
by G. P. England, London. There are no pedals, and 
each rank of keys is separate and distinct from the other, 
and incapable of coupling or combining."'^ 

Final arrangements were also made for an organ for 
the new Parish Church, the Building Committee being 
authorized to contract for an instrument, to be constructed 
under the supervision of^a competent person to be de- 
signated by them ; the organ to be furnished and put up 
on the completion of the church edifice, and the entire 
cost, including the expense of supervision and all inci- 
dental charges, not to exceed ten thousand dollars.* Mr. 
Henry Erben was chosen as the builder, and it was to be 
constructed " according to the plans and specifications of 
Dr. Hodges." In January, 1843, upon consideration of a 

' Edward Hodges. By his daughter, Faustina H, Hodges, pp. 145, 146. G. P 
Putnam's Sons, New York — London, 1896. 
■Records, liber, iii., folios 275, 292. 
* Folio 117, Life of Edward Hodges. ^ Ibid., folio 315. 



1843] Proposed Setting off of the Chapels 245 

communication from several members of the Vestry, it 
was determined "that the Music Committee shall here- 
after consist of the Rector and the Assistant Ministers of 
the Parish, and of two members of the Vestry from each 
of the Congregations." Messrs. W. H. Harison and 
William H. Hobart of Trinity Church, Messrs. Peter 
Mesier and William E. Dunscomb of St. Paul's Chapel, 
and Messrs. Henry Youngs and A. L. McDonald of 
St. John's were then appointed members of that Com- 
mittee.' 

Notwithstanding the failure of the previous attempt to 
break up the Parish by separating one of its chapels from 
the system, some members of the congregation of St. 
John's, moved by the old spirit of unrest, presented a me- 
morial to the Vestry, Sept. 1 1, 1843, in which they declared 
that "great dissatisfaction exists throughout the congrega- 
tion of St. John's Chapel, in consequence of its present 
organization, and the manner in which the services are 
performed." The alleged dissatisfaction seemed to be 
with the manner in which the Assistant Ministers were 
appointed and assigned ; and the wish was expressed that 
there should be a fuller representation of the Chapel in 
the Vestry. They say : 

" For many years, St. John's Church, in which we now 
worship, has been without a permanent pastor ; its services 
during that long period have been performed by a succes- 
sion of ministers, all perhaps unquestionable for piety, but 
no one of them linked to us by a closer tie than links him 
to the other churches of this Parish. The consequence 
of this has been lukewarmness towards our own, and a 
tendency to wander to other churches. 

" We want a settled minister who shall regularly offici- 
ate in our pulpit. We want for the Vestry of this Church, 

' Records, liber iii., folio 322. 



246 History of Trinity Church [1843 

not a controlling but a strongly influential voice in his elec- 
tion, and we want the same voice in the minor, but highly 
important parts of our church ministrations." ^ 

This communication was at once referred to a commit- 
tee of gentlemen eminent for conservatism and sound 
judgment, consisting of Messrs. T. L. Ogden, Jonathan 
A. Lawrence, Peter A. Mesier, Alexander L. McDonald, 
and Samuel G. Raymond. 

The Rector made inquiry as to the reason of the me- 
morial, and communicated his conclusions to the committee 
and the Vestry. He stated that there were nearly 200 
families in St. John's congregation ; and that he had seen 
about 50 of them, all of whom, with one exception, were 
opposed to any change in the arrangements of the Parish, 
and many of whom looked on the movement with the 
strongest disapprobation and concern ; adding that some 
of the signers already regretted their action as inconsid- 
erate and rash. He gave a list of several prominent mem- 
bers of the congregation who had refused to sign and were 
opposed to the movement. 

The committee presented their report at the meeting 
held October loth. It is a clear and able demolition of the 
case of the petitioners. They stated, that they had found 
it difficult to obtain exact knowledge of the wishes of 
the subscribers. They called attention to the unguarded 
language of the memorial as to a more influential voice in 
the choice of " the Vestry of this Church " ; observing that, 
" as the Vestry mentioned can refer only to the Vestry of 
St. Johns Chapel, some new organization, incompatible 
with the provisions of the subsisting Charter and involving 
a separation of St. John's from the other churches of the 
Parish, would seem to be contemplated." Assuming that 

' Memorial of members of St. John's Congregation as quoted in report to the 
Vestry, by the special Committee ; Records, liber iii., folios 341, 342. 



1843] Report on the Setting Off 247 

this was the ultimate object of the memoriaHsts, the com- 
mittee reported it as their opinion that the point had been 
already ruled upon in the case of the application from mem- 
bers of St. Paul's Chapel some years before by the action of 
the Vestry, March 11, 1839. The committee proceeded to 
say, that if it were hoped to effect a change of organization 
by which a separate pastor, with independent powers in 
regard to preaching and other parochial duties, should be 
assigned to St. John's, it brought forward once more "a 
question of expediency," which had frequently received the 
consideration of the Vestry, and needed not to be re- 
opened. The application " looked not to amendment in 
the details of the present system, but to a fundamental 
change in it." The committee had not found any general 
dissatisfaction with the operation of the system, nor was 
there in the observation of those members of the commit- 
tee who worshipped at St. John's, any considerable num- 
ber of that congregation who were dissatisfied. No 
manifestation whatever could be found of a general desire 
throughout the Parish to introduce the important changes 
proposed by the memorialists, nor did any new circum- 
stances require such changes. Therefore, acting in accord- 
ance " with the well considered views of the Vestry as 
heretofore expressed, understood, and still entertained," 
the committee were of the opinion that it was "inexpedi- 
ent to adopt the plan recommended by the Memorial from 
St. John's." ' 

The report was unanimously adopted ; no further action 
was taken ; and no similar requests were heard for many 
years. 

An important and exceedingly interesting document 
was received at this meeting by the Vestry from a former 
fellow-member, and a local antiquarian of great accuracy 

' Records, liber iii., folios 341, 342. 



248 History of Trinity Church [1843 

and untiring research, the Honorable Gabriel Furman of 
Brooklyn, Kings County. It related to the claim of the 
heirs of Anneke Jans Bogardus, widow of Domine Bo- 
gardus, to a part of the estate of the Corporation, called the 
Domine's Bowery and the Domine's Hook. It was referred 
to Mr. Ogden, counsel of the Board. In his report, Novem- 
ber 18, 1843, he describes the document as the laborious re- 
sult of an investigation which Judge Furman had occasion 
to make into the claim, and as furnishing a conclusive refuta- 
tion of it. Among historical facts, Judge Furman refers 
to a petition of the Bogardus claimants in i 784, in which 
they located the tract called the " Domine's Bowery " with- 
in the limits of the confiscated estate of James de Lancey, 
and otherwise known as the Domine's Hook, and shows 
that the only tract known as the Domine's Hook was on 
Long Island. The Vestry accepted the report, ordered 
Judge Furman's communication "to be deposited among 
the title papers of the Corporation relating to that part of 
the Estate called ' The Church Farm,' " and sent its thank- 
ful acknowledgments to him " for the valuable information 
contained in the above mentioned communication."' In 
this connection it may be added that in July, 1844, the 
ancient and adjudicated claim of the heirs of Anneke Jans 
Bogardus came up on a proposition from Mr. Willian Linn 
Brown of Philadelphia for a compromise with the Vestry. 
They emphatically refused, saying that they would " enter 
into no negotiation for the compromise of any claim by 
the heirs of Anneke Jans Bogardus to the property of the 
Vestry or any part of it." At the same time a similar prop- 
osition from Mr. Remsen Teller was also declined." 

The stormy days referred to at the beginning of this 

' Records, liber iii., folio 344. Mr. Nash in his monograph. A History of the 
Title to King's Far?n, in Part II. of this History, refers to the location of the Do- 
mine's Hook (see p. 308). "Ibid., folio 361. 



1843] The Carey Ordination 249 

chapter were now fast coming upon the Church in the 
Diocese of New York. An era of angry strife, heated 
controversy, bitter accusation, and harsh recrimination had 
begun. Party spirit and parish rivalry were rampant ; old 
friends were separated, associates flung off the bonds by 
which they had been connected ; those who should have 
dwelt together in unity were divided, persistently mis- 
understanding and misrepresenting one another. Scenes 
were about to be witnessed, perhaps the most deplorable 
in our diocesan history. 

Of course the mainspring of this agitation was the 
widely spreading influence of the Oxford Tracts, and the 
movement for which they gave the signal. The event long 
remembered as " the Carey ordination " led to a fierce 
and protracted controversy. Mr. Carey, a cultured and in- 
genuous youth, was ordained by the Bishop of New York, 
on Sunday, July 2, 1843, •" the face of an open protest by 
the Rev. Dr. Henry Anthon and the Rev. Hugh Smith, 
presbyters of the Diocese and rectors of parishes in the 
city, who charged him with holding some of the errors of 
the Church of Rome. No occurrence added such fuel to 
the controversial flame as this.' 

The Diocesan Convention met in the month of Septem- 
ber under the pressure of agitation and vehement conten- 
tion. While much of the time was, as usual, occupied with 
routine business, enough was left for a long and acrimoni- 
ous debate upon the recent ordination. The Bishop, in 
his address to the Convention, considered his rights in the 
case ; this led to some sharp and caustic talk from gentle- 
men whose theological opinions differed from his. And 
again came up the topic of the condition of the Episcopal 
Fund, and the reluctance of parishes to meet their obliga- 
tions by making offerings for its increase. The Bishop 

' See article by the Rev. W. F. Brand, D.D., in the Church Eclectic, July, igoo. 



250 History of Trinity Church [1843 

alluded to the deficiency in his income, which had been 
partly made up by the generosity of Trinity Church, and 
added that the anxiety and disagreeable sensation of an 
insufficient income had determined him, unless the defi- 
ciency were met by the Convention, to remove from the city 
of New York. His announcement was received with 
mingled emotions by the Convention. 

The closing scenes of the Convention, which was held 
in St. Paul's Chapel, were long remembered. The debate 
was distinctly personal. The peremptory command of the 
Bishop to a prominent layman, who claimed the floor, 
" Sit down, sir," precipitated a series of resolutions, 
amendments, and other parliamentary action, until the 
motion to adjourn was made, and put. The Bishop an- 
nounced the " Gloria in Excelsis" in the midst of much 
confusion and angry remonstrance against his action.^ 
This, of course, allowed no opportunity to consider the 
measures best adapted to secure the increase of the Fund 

' In the Life of Dr. Hodges, the event is thus graphically mentioned : " My father 
had great power at the organ, in governing a large body of people singing. He said it 
was an art, but to him it seemed nature. It was evinced grandly on one occasion, at 
which the writer was present, and one never to be forgotten, viz., the Convention held 
in St. Paul's Chapel, during which that scene took place which inaugurated the pain- 
ful drama ending in the suspension of the esteemed Bishop of New Vork. The church 
was crowded in every part, and intense excitement prevailed ; the Bishop on this oc- 
casion having maintained his position with a decision and manliness seldom witnessed, 
giving no time for further remark, he said in a full tone of voice, ' Let the Gloria in 
Excelsis now be sung ! ' Before my father could get to the keys, or rap for wind, this 
hymn was begun by a voice below, and taken up by many others. I watched my 
father as he first felt softly for the key in which they were singing, then by degrees he 
led them all, till, backed by the organ, the voices all swelled in ; every one in the 
crowded body of the church, and the crammed galleries above, joining in the sound. 
It was grand in the words ' Heavenly King ! God, the Father Almighty,' rich and 
subduedly grand in the prayer part, and culminated when my father, catching the full 
significance of the scene, and the power of the words, rolled out his full organ at the 
words, ' Thou only, O Christ, with the Holy Ghost, art most high in the Glory of God 
the Father.' The effect was superb. The music, of course, was the old ' Gloria in 
Exeelsis,' known and sung by every one in the Church, and the power and volume 
given to it by that unity was immensely enhanced by the deep feelings which were then 
stirred." — Pp. 142, 143, Edward Hoilges, Doctor of Music. 



i84i] Diocesan Convention of 1843 251 

eitiier by pledges then made, or the appointment of a 
committee to canvass the Diocese, although a committee 
had been appointed on the Episcopal Fund. 

After the Convention had adjourned there was a largely 
attended meeting of the clergy of the Diocese. The 
only hope of any relief to the Bishop in their judgment 
was in the Vestry of Trinity Church. A communication 
was sent to the Vestry, in which the reasons why no 
measures were taken in the Convention were set forth, and 
reference was made to the Bishop's determination to leave 
the city of New York, unless the present deficiency should 
be made up to him ; it earnestly solicited the interposition 
of the Vestry to avert the necessity of his removal from 
the city, by an appropriation for the current year, and until 
the meeting of the next annual Convention. There were 
members of the Vestry who thought that the manner in 
which the Diocese had imposed additional burdens on the 
Parish should be rebuked by withholding any allowance to 
the Bishop. After a long debate, a younger member spoke 
earnestly and forcibly upon the shame and disgrace which 
would come upon the Church, and especially at this time, 
if the Bishop of the Diocese were allowed to suffer. He 
spoke also of the probability of an adequate provision be- 
ing made through the labors of the Special Committee of 
the Convention on the Episcopal Fund. His address car- 
ried conviction to those who hesitated, and it was ordered 
that twelve hundred dollars towards the support of the 
Bishop be granted for one year, to commence on the first 
day of November next, and to be paid quarter-yearly 
thereafter.' 

' Records, liber iii., folio 343. The particulars concerning the debate in the Vestry 
meeting are condensed from a letter of Dr. Berrian to Bishop Onderdonk in October, 
l843(No. 364, Berrian MSS.). The Special Committee on the Episcopal Fund was Hon. 
Samuel Jones, the Rev. Horatio Potter, D.D., Frederick J. Belts, the Rev. Reuben 
Sherwood, D.D., Stephen Warren (p. 25, Journal of the Diocese of N'ew York, 1S4J). 



CHAPTER XI. 

LIFE OF THE PARISH SYMBOLIZED BY ERECTION OF 
NEW CHURCH. 

Death of Thomas Ludlow Ogden — Neglected Condition of Monuments in Trinity 
Churchyard — The Site for the Bishop Hobart Monument — The Monuments and the 
Tablets in the Old Church and their Position in the New — Stained-Glass Windows — 
Cross Adopted as Finial to Spire of New Church — Chimes for the New Tower — Music 
for Trinity School — Memorial of the City Mission Society for Assistance^Grant Given 
— Memorial from St. George's Church for Endowment — Proposal to Place Wilmington 
College under Control of Vestry Declined — Ordinance for Election of Wardens and 
Vestrymen — Building of the New Church — Aims and Expectations — Committee Ap- 
pointed on Plan for Daily Services in the New Church — Their Report — Views of the 
Rector — Dr. Hodges Appointed Organist of Trinity Church, and Henry W. Greatorex 
of St. Paul's Chapel — .Arrangements for Consecration of New Church — Rules for Con- 
duct of the Services in the New Church Considered — Appointment of Cornelius R. 
DuflSe as Deacon — Presentation to the Bishop of Michigan — Attack on the Corporation 
— Pamphlet by "Lay Delegate" — Meetings in New York — Memorial to the State 
Legislature — Committee Appointed by Vestry to Take Action on the Memorial — 
Prepares "A Remonstrance to the Legislature " — Which is Printed — ^" A Reply to 
the Remonstrance" — "An .\nswer to the Reply" — Petition to the Legislature 
against the Memorial Signed by Members of Trinity Parish — The Legislature Decides 
against the Memorialists — Resolution of Senate Calling for a Return of all the Prop- 
erty of Trinity Corporation — The Vestry Comply. 

ON the 17th day of December, 1844, Mr. Thomas 
Ludlow Ogden departed this Hfe. He had been 
connected with the Parish in an efficient capacity for 
nearly forty years ; as Vestryman, Warden, and Clerk of 
the Vestry he had been a devoted guardian of the 
name and fame of the ancient establishment, had shaped 
much of its legislation, and had been among the foremost 
in planning for the spiritual and temporal advancement 
of the Church. The Vestry, on motion of William 
Johnson, Esq., seconded by Philip Hone, Esq., adopted 
252 



i84s] The Completion of the New Church 253 

a series of resolutions upon his death, in which his 
" singular prudence and discretion " are noted, and " the 
zeal, integrity, and uprightness" with which he performed 
his many duties were recognized.* 

At this time attention was given to the monuments 
in the churchyard, some of which were in bad condition, 
having received no care from the friends and admirers 
by whom the memorials had been erected or the families 
of the illustrious dead.^ As to the monument to Bishop 
Hobart, previously referred to, an order was made that it 
should be placed " in the centre of the Bishop's room 
against the wall in the rear of the Chancel, the body to 
be deposited under the Chancel."^ The old church 
contained many mural tablets ; and it was desired that 
these should be placed in the body of the new church in 
positions corresponding to those which they formerly 
occupied. To this the architect and others objected on 
the ground that they would give the walls a spotty 
appearance, and the Standing Committee finally decided 
that it would be best to place them in the largest 
apartment, or sacristy, in the rear of the new edifice, 
and this was done.* 

Upon a detailed report by the Building Committee 
on the new church, with information regarding unfinished 
contracts, and the progress made on them, it was resolved : 
"That the Committee should proceed in the erection and 
completion of the edifice, including the spire, in pur- 
suance of the plan originally adopted by the Vestry." ° 

The art of glass staining or glass painting was at 
that time almost entirely unknown in the United States. 
Plain glass, sometimes set in geometrical patterns, with 
green or Venetian blinds, was the rule in all the churches. 

' Records, liber iii., folio 373. '^ Ibid., folio 370. 

'■'/W(/., folio 363. * Ibid., folio 352. ^ /i5ii/., folio 352. 



254 History of Trinity Church [1845 

The few attempts at color decoration for church windows 
were crude, harsh, and unsatisfactory. Even in England 
there was little modern glass of merit until the revival of 
Gothic architecture. It was therefore not only a de- 
parture from precedent, but a bold experiment for the 
Vestry to entertain the thought of filling any window 
in the new Parish church with painted glass. 

The Vestry inspected " several drawings prepared by 
the architect of subjects for the bays of the large Altar 
window of Trinity Church and for the painting of the 
whole window." The estimated cost was stated to be 
"about four thousand dollars." 

The whole subject was then referred to the Building 
Committee "with power." ^ 

A long discussion occurred as to the finial of the 
spire. Should the old-fashioned ball and vane be used ? 
should a weathercock, perched high in the air, turn with 
every wind ? or, above the mart of traffic and gain, should 
there gleam the symbol of the Christian's faith and hope ? 
Sundry designs prepared by the architect were submitted 
by the Committee and inspected by the Vestry, and 
finally, after a further inspection and debate, they decided 
May 12, 1845, "that the plan terminating with the cross 
be adopted." * The Building Committee were also au- 
thorized to make a contract for a tower clock and " to 
restore the ring of bells formerly in the old edifice to its 
former number, or in their discretion to enlarge the 
same." ^ 

In their report upon the chime for the new tower, the 
Building Committee recommended " that the large bell 
belonging to the chime now at St. Paul's Chapel be not 
removed but remain there," also the purchase of a new 
bell " in place of the smallest bell of the chime which is 

' Records, liber, iii., folio 376. '• //i/o'., folios 373, 375, ^ /diii., iolio 364. 



i84S] Loan to City Mission 255 

so much out of tune as to render it expedient to order a 
new one." 

It further recommended that " the three bells requisite 
to complete the chime " and a new bell in the place of 
the one to remain at St. Paul's Chapel be ordered from 
Mears and Company of London.' 

In November, 1845, the bells to complete the chime 
arrived from England. They were excellent in tone and 
harmonized with the other bells of the chime. 

A rearrangement of the various bells was now made. 
The two smaller bells were to be removed from the chapels 
of Trinity Church, and the smallest bell now in Trinity 
churchyard to be placed in one of the chapel towers 
" in lieu of one of those removed to Trinity." The 
Committee of Supplies and Repairs was authorized "to 
procure and put up another small bell in the tower of 
the other Chapel." ^ 

The City Mission Society having sent a memorial 
to the Vestry in April, 1844, praying for immediate 
relief from financial embarrassment, the Standing Com- 
mittee reported, February 10, 1845, recommending that 
the interest upon the loan from the Corporation of ten 
thousand dollars be remitted for the current year and that 
a grant be made of six hundred dollars in addition to the 
sum annually allowed, " one half thereof to be paid on 
the 1st of September next, and the other half on the ist 
of March, 1846." The condition of this extra allowance 
was that " there shall be raised by donations of indi- 
viduals in addition to the present subscriptions for the 
objects of the Society the sum of twelve hundred dollars," 
to liquidate the present demands upon it.'^ 

Such grants are but the occasion for renewed 
requests : it is so to-day, and it seems to have been so 

' Records, liber, iii., folio 376. '' Ibid., folio 381. ' Ibid, folio 368, 



256 History of Trinity Church [184S 

always. As the work of the City Mission Society grew, 
additional funds were needed, and again application must 
be made to the Mother of Churches. Notwithstanding 
the annual allowance of $1800, it was felt that a per- 
manent endowment might be — not to say, ought to be 
— secured from the Corporation. This desire, with a 
petition for additional aid to relieve the Society from 
immediate and pressing necessities, found utterance in a 
memorial from the rectors of parishes, and other 
clergymen residing in the city, and laymen from the 
various churches, which came before the Vestry in the 
spring of 1844.^ 

At the same time St. George's Church, in Beekman 
Street, the eldest child of Trinity, came forward with a 
request for help to build a chapel uptown in some 
position convenient for removed and fast removing 
parishioners. One of the last acts of the good Dr. 
Milnor was to memorialize Trinity for $25,000 to 
purchase lots uptown ; while it was hoped and expected 
that at the least $60,000 might be made up for the 
erection of a new building. It is an ancient and inveterate 
habit to look to Trinity whenever help is needed. 
Another instance of the reputation of the Parish for 
" boundless wealth " was given in a proposal made at 
this time by the Rev. Corry Chambers, of Wilmington, 
Delaware, that the Wilmington Literary Institute, whose 
Principal he was, and which was about to be incorporated 
into a college — should be entirely controlled by Trinity 
Church. The Vestry "respectfully declined." '~ 

The plea of many of these memorialists was that the 
original endowment of Trinity Church by the British 
Crown was a trust fund for Church Extension in the 
city of New York. Similarly it was held by some at 

' Records, liber iii., folio 356. ' Ibid., folio 356. 



1845] The New Church 257 

a later day that all the communicants of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the city were corporators and had a 
right to vote at our elections, no matter from what 
parishes they came. So great is the power of the 
imagination, when unrestrained by sound judgment and 
a knowledge of historical and financial facts. 

The subject of the regulations necessary in relation 
to the admission of corporators, the record of such 
admissions, and the qualifications of voters, has previously 
been referred to in these pages. It was under the con- 
sideration of a select committee from April 2, 1839, until 
March 25, 1844, on which date the conclusion was 
reached that, while no further legislation was necessary, 
the Vestry should provide, by the adoption of a carefully 
framed ordinance, for carrying out the provisions of the 
Charter. Such an ordinance was accordingly drafted, 
covering the questions of the qualifications of voters at 
the Easter elections, the manner in which they were to 
be admitted, and the method of election. This ordinance 
in its fundamental provisions has been in force from that 
time to the present day. 

The building of the new church was not only an event 
of great importance to the Parish, but also a sign to the 
whole community. A sense of larger relations of their 
work, and of its value in the direction of Christian art and 
Catholic worship, though latent, must have been in the 
minds of those charged with the great enterprise. The 
officers of the Church were fortunate in their architect, 
that staunch Churchman, Richard Upjohn ; they were 
fortunate in having been trained in the old Anglican 
theology of which Bishop Hobart and Bishop Onderdonk 
were masters ; they were fortunate in their freedom from 
narrow views and contracted notions, such as go with an 
imperfect and limited education in Church principles. A 



258 History of Trinity Church [1845 

general feeling was abroad that the new building was to 
exceed in splendor and dignity anything ever seen thus 
far in the city or the country, and that everything must 
correspond to that exalted character. To such an im- 
pression of the fatness of things was due the decision that 
the lofty and beautiful spire should be surmounted by the 
cross of Christ. To the same feeling was due the decision 
that the chancel was to be much more spacious than 
might seem necessary to the average mind, and that it 
should be extended to the large Altar window, so as to 
give room for grand services, and, as some may possibly 
have ventured to think, for the accommodation of a choir, 
after the fashion of the cathedrals in the mother country. 
As the new church approached completion, its great 
beauty and dignity became more and more apparent. 
The Rector strenuously advocated whatever the architect 
advised ; the Vestry, by their votes, assented ; and thus 
there was secured the largest chancel that had ever been 
seen in this country, one in which great Church functions 
could be held with all the impressiveness that might be 
demanded or desired.' 

Nor was the question about the order of services in 
the new church forgotten. There was a general wish that 
the full beauty of the Church's worship should be made 
manifest by frequent services and strict attention to the 
rubrical law of the Book of Common Prayer. The 
Rector, Messrs. Gulian C. Verplanck, William Moore, 
and Dr. William H. Hobart were appointed a special 
committee " to consider and report at some time before 
the consecration of the sacred edifice, a plan for the 
celebration of daily service and other ministrations of the 
Church therein, and how the same shall be supplied and 
supported."" That committee in their report announced 

' Records, liber iii., folios 382, 383. ■ Ibid., folio 383. 




l^^:^.^i 



^■7t^n,cly^^Aii^cA.Jrt?ni t/ieJ^c A //<//./ f/rtr/ff h^^. 



1845] The New Church 259 

that, after much earnest thought, they had agreed upon 
the principles which ought to guide the action of the 
Vestry. Its members knew that much was expected : 
they were prepared for whatever recommendations might 
be made. The committee aimed, in their report, to make 
clear to all the Parish, and (note this expression care- 
fully) to Churchmen in general, the true ideal of common 
worship ; to extend the influence of the Church ; and to 
express, by word and deed, a profound sense of their 
accountability to the great Head of the Church for the 
treasure committed to their care. An interesting paper 
is found among the manuscripts of Dr. Berrian ; it is 
probably a series of suggestions for the committee's 
report ; and it states with some minuteness the principles 
which underlay the committee's recommendations. 

Dr. Berrian says in the beginning of his paper : 
" Though not entitled to the name of a cathedral, inas- 
much as the Bishop of the Diocese has no closer connec- 
tion with it than any other of the churches under his 
jurisdiction, yet this edifice on account of its size and 
beauty, as well as the antiquity of its site, and the wealth 
of the parish to which it belongs, does now and will here- 
after to a greater extent, gather around it many of the 
interesting associations which spring from such establish- 
ments in our Mother Church of England." As the new 
church was "the most costly and magnificent and the best 
endowed of our places of public worship," there was a 
general expectation that there would be " a more frequent 
and more elaborate order of service than has heretofore 
existed in Parish Churches." Two measures to carry out 
this expectation, " which is both reasonable in itself, and 
one which it would be unwise in reference to the pro- 
motion of true piety in the Church to disappoint," are 
proposed. The first, that " there should always be two 



26o History of Trinity Church [184s 

clergymen to officiate at Trinity on Sundays and holy 
days, one to read and the other to preach." The second, 
that " Trinity Church should be opened for prayer daily 
at 9 o'clock in the morning, and 3 o'clock in the after- 
noon." The Rector says that " the revival of a practice 
which the Liturgy itself so manifestly declares to be 
proper and expedient, or rather its introduction so far 
as this City is concerned, has long been advocated by 
many of the best friends of the Church ; it has been 
partially attempted by several parishes in this City, and 
in other Dioceses, and the result has uniformly proved to 
be in the highest degree satisfactory." He dwells upon 
the satisfaction which the opportunity of daily service 
would afford to many, such " as the merchants on their 
way to and from their places of business, and strangers 
visiting the City." Considering the peculiar location of 
Trinity Church, he anticipates that there " might be 
likely to spring up a custom amongst the female members 
of Episcopal families in the upper part of the City to 
come down for the evening service, and meet their 
husbands, parents, or brothers, to join with them in 
grateful offerings of prayer and praise." He next con- 
siders, that 

" as the lower part of the City has been deserted by the fashionable 
and wealthy inhabitants, but a large population of the poorer classes 
remain, and will remain, and probably even increase, Trinity Church, 
then, being the only place of worship of any denomination below John 
Street would seem to be discharging only a bounden duty, while at 
the same time it would unquestionably secure for itself the approbation 
of all the devout members of our communion by taking the pastoral 
care as far as possible of the poor in this part of the City." 

To accomplish this increased work it was proposed to 
have two Assistant Ministers assigned to Trinity Church. 
Their Sunday duty would be to preach alternately every 



1846] The New Church 261 



Sunday morning, and to read prayers, " except whenever 
the Rector wishes to perform that duty." The daily duty 
was to be done according to a routine arranged by the 
assistants. On Sunday afternoon " one assistant to read 
prayers, and the other to exchange, according to a settled 
routine with the ministers attached to St. Paul's and St. 
John's Chapels." A more prominent place was to be 
given to the due administration of the Holy Communion. 
It was suggested that it be celebrated monthly on suc- 
cessive Sundays in Trinity Church, and her two chapels. 
This approximated to a weekly celebration, which had 
been urged by some in the Parish, and which had then 
recently become the rule in some parishes in England.' 

Such were the views of the Rector, and, as the report 
shows, they were substantially shared by the lay members 
of the committee. It was realized that the whole American 
Church was waiting to see what forward step would be 
taken by Trinity. Provision must be made for additional 
clergy, for special services for the destitute people of the 
first ward, and for systematic visiting and relief ; and it 
was further proposed that, in addition to the priests in 
charge, two deacons should be employed subject to the 
Rector's control, and to be assigned to such duties as 
might seem to him best. A full report, using largely the 
Rector's suggestions, and embodying the new proposal 
for an increase of the clerical staff, was presented to the 
Vestry March 30, 1846. Its consideration was deferred 
until the May meeting. 

Before the time fixed for action on the report arrived, 
several matters of minor importance were disposed of. A 
committee was appointed to make a proper assignment 
of pews in the new church to those who owned pews in 
the edifice which it replaced." Dr. Hodges was appointed 

' No. 370, Berrian MSS. '' Records, liber iii., folio 390. 



262 History of Trinity Church [1846 

organist at Trinity Church, at a salary of $500, and a sum 
not to exceed $1500 per annum was appropriated for the 
choir. It was also determined that the date for the conse- 
cration should be the Feast of the Ascension, May 21, 
1846, and a committee consisting of the Rector, Messrs. 
Adam Tredwell, Philip Hone, William H. Harison, and 
William E. Dunscomb was appointed to make all neces- 
sary arrangements for the function. * 

The report of the committee on increased services 
and duties was taken up at the May meeting, and fully 
discussed, with unusual earnestness and animation. The 
suggestions of the Rector had been closely followed ; it is 
probable that the report was from his pen. Briefly, it was 
recommended that the services in the new church should be 
on a scale commensurate with its dignity and beauty ; that 
there should never be less than four clergy present at the 
administration of the Holy Communion whenever practi- 
cable ; that the ministrations of the Church to the spiritual 
needs of the lower wards should be careful and constant ; 
that one Assistant Minister in addition to the three already 
provided for should be appointed, and also one young 
man in Deacon's orders to assist in the work. 

As the outcome of the report, a resolution was adopted 
appointing two Deacons for one year at a salary of $600 
each, one of whom should reside near the church. No other 
action was taken at the time, but the usage of the Parish 
became conformed, eventually, to its recommendations. 

The Rev. Cornelius R. Duffie was then appointed as 
one of the two Deacons provided for in the resolution. 
He was well known to the Rector and Vestry. His father 
had been the founder and first Rector of St. Thomas's 
Church, contributing to that purpose largely from his pri- 
vate means. Mr. Duffie had spent the preceding month 

' Records, liber iii,, folio 390. 



1846] Impeachment of the Bishop 263 

of his diaconate in Connecticut and in assisting various 
clergymen in New York City. 

At the close of the meeting it was resolved " that when 
this vestry adjourn, it adjourn to meet on Thursday the 
2 1 St inst. at half past 10 o'clock a.m. at the house of Wil- 
liam S. Bunker, No. 39 Broadway, to attend the consecra- 
tion of the New Edifice of Trinity Church." 

The Bishop of New York being under a sentence of 
indefinite suspension, the Diocese was in commission. 
The Standing Committee, being the ecclesiastical author- 
ity, had invited the Right Rev. Samuel A. McCoskry, 
D.D., to make a visitation of the Diocese. That visita- 
tion was just completed ; but the Bishop, at their request, 
kindly consented to prolong his stay in the city for a short 
time, in order to consecrate the new church. The Vestry, 
in grateful acknowledgment of his courtesy, authorized 
the Rector to present him with a new set of Episcopal 
robes, and a set of communion plate for use in private 
ministration to the aged and the sick. 

Before proceeding to the account of the consecration, 
another and a painful subject demands attention. In the 
midst of their preparations for the event, which, it was 
hoped, would promote the glory of Almighty God, and 
advance the interests of His Kingdom, a storm broke upon 
the people of the Parish. Prominent position awakens 
jealousy, and when to this are added the motives of suspi- 
cion and fear, trouble must ensue. It was a painful era 
in the history of the Diocese. The Bishop had been im- 
peached, tried, adjudged guilty of the charges against 
him, and condemned to a punishment so peculiar and 
cruel, that the canon law of our Church now prohibits the 
like to be pronounced at any future time. Great numbers 
were fully convinced of his innocence ; his friends were as 
devoted as his foes were persistent ; and among those 



264 History of Trinity Church [1846 

friends were the Rector of Trinity Church and many of 
the most prominent persons of the Parish, who loyally 
maintained his cause, and drew upon themselves the bitter 
reproaches of his censors. Added to this, as a cause of 
discontent, was the reluctance of the Vestry to contribute 
with as liberal a hand as before, to applicants for aid ; a 
not unnatural disposition, considering the great burden of 
expense incurred in rebuilding the church on so splendid 
a scale and carrying on meanwhile the work under their 
charge. In fact the rebuilding of the church had been 
severely criticised, by persons who whispered, or muttered, 
that mission chapels and chapels of ease scattered about 
in different parts of the city would do more good than a 
great temple like that which was slowly rising at the head 
of Wall Street. The growth of the city was rapid ; 
church accommodations did not keep up with it ; and the 
impression prevailed widely that the work of ministering 
to all who were uncared for belonged, as a duty, to Trinity.^ 
To these causes of irritation in certain quarters should 
be added the election of the Rev. Samuel L. Southard, 
Rector of Calvary Church, to be an Assistant Minister of 
Trinity Church, as it was known that he was a staunch 
friend of the suspended Bishop. He declined the call ; 
but the fact that it had been given afforded an additional 
ground for innuendo. 

For these and other reasons, a feeling of hostil- 
ity to the Parish had grown up, and was spreading, fos- 
tered by disappointed applicants for bounty, and by 

' The injustice of the charge of dereliction to duty in this particular is shown by 
the fact that the subject had been already discussed in the Vestry, and that upon a 
resolution introduced by Mr. Gulian C. Verplanck, January 14, 1846, a committee had 
been appointed to plan for the extension of the work by the erection of chapels and 
large additions to the clerical staff, thus demonstrating that the Vestry, while realizing 
the duty of maintaining the ancient churches in the lower part of the town, were not 
overlooking or forgetting the needs of Church people elsewhere. 



1846] Attack on the Parish 265 

others who sincerely considered the Parish to be a nest 
of superstition and an ally and abettor of deadly error 
in religion. 

A point of attack seemed to be needed. It was found 
in the well-known Act of 1 814, by which the legal title of 
the Corporation had been changed from that of ''The 
Rector and Inhabitants of the City of New York " to that 
of ''The Rector, Church Warde7is, and Vestrymen of 
Trinity Church." The malcontents moved at last, and 
seized the favorable opportunity to level what they hoped 
and expected to be a telling blow at the status of the 
Corporation. 

The attitude of the assailants is well illustrated in a 
pamphlet published anonymously and signed " A Lay 
Delegate." The writer is reviewing a document entitled, 
" A report to the Vestry of St. Peter's Church, Albany, by 
the Hon. John C. Spencer, on the Convention of 1845." 
After outlining the course of debate in that Convention, 
and alleging that those who spoke in favor of Bishop 
Onderdonk were recognized as being in the way of pro- 
motion and advancement by Trinity Church, he thus 
proceeds in caustic vein : 

" The prominent position of Trinity Church and its influence upon 
the Diocese have been of late years frequent topics of remark. More 
than thirty years since, Mr. Cadwalader D. Golden predicted in some 
degree that which has come to pass. He said; ' In the Convention of 
the Churches, the Religious Croesus (Trinity Church) has of course its 
representation; and can it be expected that other members of the 
Convention who represent Congregations that are or have been de- 
pendent on Trinity Church will not have a bias to that course pointed 
out by the representatives of the vestry ? ' " 

The sectarian distribution of the pecuniary patronage 
of that Corporation seems to the writer to indicate an 
entire forgetfulness on the part of the Vestry, that the 



266 History of Trinity Church [1846 

original grant from King William was " for use and be- 
half of the inhabitants from time to time inhabiting and 
to inhabit, within our city of New York in communion of 
our Protestant church of England," and that the subse- 
quent grant under Queen Anne was expressed in the same 
clear and general terms and conferred no right upon the 
managers of the charity to use it for individual purposes 
or party ends. Since, however, the passage of the act of 
the State of New York in 18 14, changing the title of the 
Corporation and restricting the right of voting, originally 
given to every Episcopalian in the city, to the few who 
belong to Trinity Church and her chapels, the number of 
electors has been growing smaller and smaller until the 
Vestry are become virtually a close corporation able to fill 
their own vacancies. And the property which they hold 
in trust has increased so prodigiously in value that the 
facility to turn its management to individual profit or sec- 
tarian ends, and the impunity from all investigation or 
punishment, tend to present temptations which may not 
always be successfully resisted. 

The floating rumors, in some cases too well substanti- 
ated, of large sums paid to relieve favorites of their debts 
or of succor extended to long-established and comparatively 
wealthy parishes whose delegates in Convention had voted 
with Trinity, while the merest pittance was refused to a poor 
free church struggling with want because her minister, 
the father of a large family, had incurred the displeasure of 
the party ; the giving of money as a reward and the with- 
holding it as a punishment, — these things were, it was 
claimed, entirely foreign to the intentions and expectations 
of its royal founders. 

The publication of this pamphlet was soon followed by 
" meetings of the Episcopalians " from various parishes, 
especially St. Mark's, St. George's, Ascension, and Grace, 



1846] Attack on the Parish 267 



in which learned gentlemen of the legal profession spoke 
persuasively of the great wrong done to the whole body of 
" Episcopalians " in New York by those portions of the 
Act of 1814 which defined the rights of the Corporation 
and changed its name. 

At these meetings a course of action was determined 
upon. A committee of fifteen was appointed to draft and 
present to the Legislature at its session in January, 1846, 
a memorial on this subject. The persons selected for the 
committee were conspicuous for social rank, ability, and 
legal knowledge. Their memorial set forth the facts of the 
change made thirty-two years before, claiming that it dis- 
franchised the great body of the "Episcopalians" of the 
city ; that the present corporators of the mother Parish 
were few in number ; that the Vestry of Trinity was prac- 
tically a self-perpetuating body ; that the Trust Fund of 
which it was the custodian was managed solely for the 
benefit of Trinity Parish and not for the extension and aid 
of " the Episcopal Church " at large in the city of New 
York. The memorial prayed for the repeal of the Act of 
1814, or those sections which related to the right of suf- 
frage in Trinity Church. 

Copies of the memorial were industriously circulated 
for signature. It is said that several clergymen when they 
received their friends on New Year's day, 1846, had copies 
upon a convenient table to which the attention of guests 
was called and which they were invited to sign. Notices 
were also published in the daily press, of times and places 
where signatures would be received. 

Thus assailed the Vestry took action. The Comp- 
troller had already placed before the Standing Com- 
mittee " a copy of the Public Notice, given as prescribed 
by law, of an intention to apply to the legislature at 
its present session for the repeal in whole or in part 



268 History of Trinity Church [1846 

of the act of January 25, 18 14, relating to this Cor- 
poration." It was recommended at a meeting held 
January 12, 1846, that a "special Committee be ap- 
pointed to conduct the opposition of this Corporation to 
certain intended applications to the Legislature of which 
notices have been given in the public newspapers." ^ This 
committee was to do its work in the way it thought best, 
and had authority to employ counsel and to issue such 
publications as might be advisable. It was also directed 
to prepare at once on behalf of the Corporation, " A Re- 
monstrance to the Legislature." 

The suggestions and recommendations of the Standing 
Committee were approved by the Vestry ; and the Comp- 
troller, William H. Harison, the clerk, William E. Duns- 
comb, Mr. David B. Ogden, Mr. John I. Morgan, and 
Mr. Samuel G. Raymond were appointed as the commit- 
tee. ~ They reported January 14th. The Remonstrance 
was ordered to be engrossed, and signed officially by the 
Rector, Comptroller, and Clerk. It was also to be signed 
by the Churchwardens and the Vestrymen, " or such of them 
as shall see fit to sign the same." The Comptroller and 
Clerk were authorized to afifix the seal of the Corporation 
and forward the document to Albany for presentation to 
the Legislature.^ 

As might have been expected the "Remonstrance" 
was calm, dignified, and deliberate. It recited the pro- 
visions of the charter, and claimed that under its direc- 
tions, the Colonial Act of 1704, and the State Acts of 1784 
and 1788, a definite corporation was intended. It showed 
that even in the early days of the Corporation it was popu- 
larly known as Trinity Church. The sole reason for the 
Charter and the several acts was to form a parish of the 

' Records, iii., folio 3S3. '' Hid., folio 383. 

^ Ibid., folio 384. A Remonstrance. 8 vo. New York, James A. Sparks, 1846. 



1846] Attack on the Parish 269 

Church of England in the City of New York and to con- 
form the legal status of that parish to the political changes 
from Colony to State. It enforced the arguments used by 
Bishop Hobart in his pamphlet written at the time when 
the Act of 1814 was passed and also the lucid explanations 
of Col. Troup before the Council of Revision. It then 
commented on the time chosen for this application and 
the questionable taste of the memorialists in seeking to 
throw a firebrand into the Church at a time of great excite- 
ment, when very many of its members unfortunately could 
not calmly and temperately act on any matter of great 
interest. 

An attempt at a reply to the " Remonstrance " was 
made by the Committee for the Memorialists, in which the 
arguments there presented are traversed by the recital of 
facts concerning the original Charter and other acts. The 
claim is made that the broad and liberal terms by which 
the only qualification for membership was inhabitancy in 
the City of New York, could not be abrogated by an act 
of the Legislature, and that, while there could not be any 
legal claim set up to the property of Trinity Church by the 
other Church Corporations of Episcopalians, " or a right as 
corporations " to participate in the management of the 
affairs of the mother Parish, yet the rights of individual 
members of those corporations, being inhabitants of the 
City of New York in communion of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, could not be abrogated by "non-user." 
The memorialists say that they do not seek to disturb 
Trinity Church in the possession of the property which is a 
Trust Fund for the benefit of all the inhabitants of the 
City of New York, but seek to be reinstated in their legal 
rights by a judicial decision of the courts of the State as 
soon as the obstacle of the Act of 18 14 shall have been re- 
moved by the Legislature. The date of this "reply" is 



270 History of Trinity Church [1846 

February 2, 1846. It is signed by all the members of 
the committee. ' 

To this reply an answer was made, by a writer signing 
himself "A Vestryman of Trinity Church " ; it appeared in 
print in the New York Express for February 7, 1846, and 
in it many of the positions of the reply are refuted. The 
literature of this controversy is extensive, but of small 
value ; no further citations need be made. " 

A petition to the Legislature protesting against the 
Memorial was drawn up to be signed by members of 
Trinity Parish. The fact that for nearly one hundred and 
fifty years the Wardens and Vestrymen had been elected 
solely by members of the Parish, and the confusion and 
disorders that a new method would introduce, were dwelt 
upon. There was great danger that by such a course the 
property of the Corporation would be dissipated. Upon 
these grounds the petitioners prayed that the request of 
the memorialists be not granted. This was signed by one 
hundred and fifty-eight representative members of the 
Parish. Another petition of remonstrance, to be signed by 
" members of the Protestant Episcopal Church not in the 
Parish of Trinity Church," was circulated and received the 
signatures of seven hundred and sixty-four persons from 
various parishes. 

The Memorial and the Remonstrances were duly pre- 
sented in the Senate of the State of New York and by 
that body referred to its Committee on Charitable and 
Religious Societies. Arguments for the memorialists and 



' Their names were Luther Bradish, Peter G. Stuyvesant, Frederic De Peyster, 
Isaac Carow, Robert B. Minturn, Frederick L. Winston, John Smyth Rogers, 
Stewart Brown, James W. Dominick, Peter Lorillard, Jr., Stephen Cambreleng, 
Philip S. Van Rensselaer, Richard L. Schiefflin, Jeremiah Van Rensselaer, M.D., etc.. 
Prosper M. Wetmore. 

- A list of documents and pamphlets in this controversy, with such extracts as 
seem most important, is given in the Appendix. 



1846] Attack on the Parish 271 

remonstrants were heard by the committee. A majority 
report recommended that no legislative action be had on 
the subject, and that the prayer of the petitioners be denied. 
Mr. Orville Clark of Washington County presented a 
minority report recommending the repeal of the Act of 
1 8 14. He presented an elaborate argument in justification 
of his opinion and accompanied it with " so many extraor- 
dinary statements, and what are deemed erroneous repre- 
sentations of facts and documents and so many inferences 
believed to be entirely unwarranted," that a full examina- 
tion of it was made by a writer who ably exposes his 
fallacies and shows the essential justice of the report of the 
majority of the committee.^ 

On the 5th of February, 1846, a resolution was 
adopted in the Senate of the State of New York calling 
for a detailed return of the property of the Corporation of 
Trinity Church, both real and personal, a full description 
of " the several lots or parcels of land owned by them, or 
from which they draw an annual rent," their gross income 
and annual expenditures, " with a summary of the purposes 
to which it is applied." 

The return was to be made within thirty days after the 
receipt of a certified copy of the resolution. After due con- 
sideration by the Vestry, it was ordered that, without ad- 
mitting the legal obligation to make a return, " the 
information desired by the Hon. Senate of the State be 
given to that body as soon as it can be prepared, and if 
possible within the time they ask to have it in." '~ 

The draft of the return to the Senate of the State was 
presented by the Comptroller at the March Vestry meeting, 
and, after consideration, adopted. It was resolved that it 
be signed and sworn to by the Comptroller, and that " a 

' p. 3, An Examination of the Minority Report Made by the Hon. Orville Clark. 
'Records, liber iii., folio 385. 



272 History of Trinity Church [1S46 

proper certificate signed by the Rector and Clerk under 
the seal of this Corporation be annexed thereto, stating 
the same to be the return of this Corporation, made in pur- 
suance of the said resolution of the Senate." ' 

The Legislature adjourned without taking action, and 
so, for the time, the affair terminated. The renewal of this 
assault upon the Corporation, with the final vindication 
and victory of the Church, will be related in a subsequent 
chapter. 

' Records, iii., folio 387. 



CHAPTER XII. 

CONSECRATION OF THE NEW CHURCH. 

Preparations for the Consecration of the New Church — Invitations to the Clergy — 
Protest from Nine Clergymen — The Consecration Service — Report of the Committee 
on Arrangements — Committee on Pews in New Church Appointed. 

THE preparations for the consecration of the new- 
edifice proceeded rapidly ; but the committee 
having them in charge met with peculiar difficulties in 
their work. Embarrassment was caused by the antagonism 
developed through the movement to obtain a repeal of the 
Act of 1814, and many stood aloof, regarding the pro- 
ceedings with discontent, and refusing to participate in 
the joy of the occasion. Under the peculiar circumstances 
and the anomalous position of the Diocese, it seemed in- 
expedient to invite all the Bishops of the American Church 
as guests. To discriminate was impossible ; so that it 
was finally resolved to limit the invitation to the Bishop 
of Western New York, Dr. William Heatchcote De Lancey. 
His paternal ancestors had borne an honorable part in the 
affairs of Trinity, for he was a lineal descendant of Col. 
Caleb Heathcote. 

The correspondence with the Bishop is as follows : 

" New York, May 9, 1846. 
" My dear Bishop: — 

'' You are invited by me as Chairman of the Commiuee of Arrange- 
ments to attend the Consecration of Trinity Church on the Festival of 
the Ascension May 21st. The hope is entertained that you will be 
able to come on a variety of accounts, but more especially from the 

VOL. IV. — jS. 273 



2 74 History of Trinity Church [1846 

deeply grateful sense of your important services in behalf of our Cor- 
poration in our recent difficulties. 

" In case you should find it convenient to come, I beg you will 
make my house your home. 

" Yours very respectfully, 

" William Berrian. 

" P. S. You are the only Bishop to whom a special invitation has 
been extended ; there being thought to be a peculiar propriety in send- 
ing it to you : much delicacy and difficulty in going any farther." 

" Geneva, May 15, 1846. 
" My dear Doctor: — 

"I found your letter hereon my return home from a visitation. 
" It will afford me great pleasure to be present at the Consecration 
of Trinity Church. Under its walls lie the remains of my ancestors, 
one of whom, Col. Caleb Heathcote, was a vestryman appointed by 
the Charter of 1697. 

" I remain sincerely 

" Your friend and brother, 
" W. H. De Lancey. 
" Rev. Dr. Berrian, 

" Chairman of Com. of Arrangements." ' 

Special invitations were also issued to all the clergy- 
men of the city and Diocese, and to those clergymen of 
the American Church " who manifested, pursuant to a 
published request, an inclination to be present."" 

A selected list of laymen, who held offices of honor or 
trust in the Church, was made, and invitations sent to the 
persons thus chosen. 

It was also determined that admission to the Church 
should be by cards, which were issued to all corpora- 
tors, the families of the city clergy, and to others who 
had any special claim. 

And now came a new cause of dispute and discussion 

'Nos. 440, 441, Berrian MSS. 

' See Consecration Correspondence, Appendix. 



1846] Consecration of New Church 275 



which is not without its comical side. The invitations to 
the clergy ran thus : 

"Office ok the Corporation of Trinity Church. 
" New York, May 7, 1846. 
" Dear Sir: — 

" The vestry of Trinity Church in the City of New York, respect- 
fully invite you to be present at the Consecration of their new Parish 
Church on the feast of the Ascension of our Blessed Lord, (21st instant) 
at half past ten o'clock, and to meet at the residence of Mr. William 
J. Bunker, No. 39 Broadway. 

" If agreeable to you to accept this invitation you will please send 
a surplice and scarf for your use upon the occasion, to the place and 
before the hour on the day before named. 

" We are very sincerely, 

" Your Obedt. Servts., 
"William Berrian, D.D., \ 
Adam Tredwell, | Committee 

Philip Hone, )- of 

Wm. E. Dunscomb, I Arrangements." 

Wm. H. Harison, J 

In this invitation there appears a clause which caused 
great searchings of heart, and gave rise to a brief but 
mighty sensation. The request to appear in surplice and 
scarf was thought to symbolize the Rome-ward tendencies 
of the Puseyites. The columns of the city newspapers 
and of the Pi-ostestant Cliurchmati were filled with in- 
dignant and sorrowful communications. A writer in The 
Commercial Advertiser, after expressing the great interest 
all Episcopalians took in the welfare of Trinity and the 
"noble building which will remain we trust for centuries as 
a monument of the liberality, and, in most respects, the 
taste of that venerable Corporation, which caused it to be 
erected," says there is " one cause of deep regret with 
respect to the approaching consecration, and that is the 
novel terms on which the acceptance of the invitation to 
the clergy has been placed by the Rector and lay Com- 



276 History of Trinity Church [1846 

mittee of arrangements." In his opinion "the surplice is 
ever associated with the offering of prayer and the admin- 
istration of the sacraments in houses set apart for the wor- 
ship of Almighty God." To wear " this vestment in public 
processions in the streets we look upon as an innovation 
on established customs and also not justified by good 
taste." This is not "the first nor the second, nor the 
tenth, nor the twentieth innovation ; to submit in silence 
any more strikes us as a plain dereliction of duty." He is 
troubled at the attempt to unprotestantize the very name 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church itself. He considers 
" all and every innovation as tending in one way, and that 
toward a church which anathematizes our own." He 
thinks that all the members of " our Protestant Church " 
will appreciate the reason why " all reflecting Protestant 
Episcopal clergymen " will refrain from " participation in 
the services of the occasion." * 

Nor was this all ; nine clergymen of New York City 
and its vicinity joined in a note of declination to the 
committee. Their remarkable communication is given 
here in full, as an apt illustration of the temper of the 
alarmists of that day : 

" New York, May 18, 1846. 

"The Rev. William Berrian, D.D., 
Adam Tredwell, Committee 

Philip Hone, r on 

Wm. E. Dunscomb, Arrangements. 

Wm. H. Harison, 

" Gentlemen: — 

" The undersigned have been respectfully invited by you on the 
part of the Corporation of Trinity Church to be present at the Conse- 
cration of the new Parish Church on the 21st inst., at the residence of 
Mr. Bunker, 39 Broadway. 

' T/u' Nc-v-York Commercial Advertiser, Tuesday afternoon, May iq, 1S46. 



1846] Consecration of New Church 277 

" This invitation is accompanied with a request that if agreeable to 
us to accept it, each one will please to send a surplice and scarf and 
before the hour mentioned. 

" It has heretofore been the custom of the clergy with the sanction 
of the ecclesiastical authority of the Diocese to appear at Consecrations 
in the gown and bands, and we have not learned that on the present 
occasion any change has been thought needful or expedient by the 
acting Bishop or the Standing Committee of our Church. 

"In our judgment a deviation from the established usage of the 
Diocese in such case is uncalled for, and at this time especially open to 
much animadversion. 

" We are unwilling to sanction such innovation or to accept an invita- 
tion based upon such a condition and must therefore respectfully 
decline to be present at the approaching Consecration. 
"We remain. Gentlemen, 

" Very sincerely your 
" Obt. Servants, 

" Henry Anthon,' 
Hugh Smith,' 
B. C. Cutler,' 
Robert Bolton,* 
John S. Stone,'' 
Kingston Goddard,' 
R. C. Shimeall,' 
John W. Brown,' 
Wm. H. Lewis." ° 

And here is another letter on the subject : 

" Brooklyn, May 18, 1846. 
" Rev. and dear Sir : — 

"The invitation from the Committee of Arrangements of which 
you are chairman, to be present at the Consecration of Trinity Church 

' Rector of St. Mark's Church in the Bowerie, New York City. 
■ Rector of St. Peter's Church, New York City. 
^ Rector of St. Ann's Church, Brooklyn, New York. 
■* Rector of Christ Church, Pelham, New York. 
' Rector of Christ Church, Brooklyn, New York. 
' Rector of St. John's Church, Clifton, Staten Island, New York. 
' Rector of St. Jude's Church, New York. 

* Rector of St. George's Church, Astoria, New York, and Editor of The 
Protestant Chitrchman. 

' Rector of Calvary Church, Brooklyn, New York. 



278 History of Trinity Church [1846 

has been duly received, and I deem it respectful to you to assign my 
reasons for not attending. 

" It is expected if the invitation be accepted that I should send 
my surplice for ray use on that occasion. 

" Now as our own Bishops heretofore have never made any such 
requisition : as it appears an innovation particularly uncalled for in 
the present state of affairs, and it gave much offence on a recent 
occasion,' when left to the voluntary choice of the clergy, I shall feel 
it my duty to decline the acceptance of your invitation, regretting at 
the same time that any further obstacles should be thrown in the way 
of that unity and peace which all must desire for our diocese. 
" Very respectfully, 

"Your friend and brother in Christ, 

" Wm. H. Lewis. 
"Rev. Dr. Berrian, 

" Chairman, etc." 

The attitude of these nine clergymen, their parish- 
ioners and sympathizers, did not, however, checlc the 
enthusiasm of Churchmen throughout the Union ; nor 
did the warning against " innovation " repress the desire 
of many clergymen to attend the Consecration or the 
urgent request of laymen for cards of admission. Dr. 
Berrian says in his Historical Sketch : " The consecration 
of Trinity Church awakened a more general curiosity 
and excited a deeper interest than anything of the kind 
I have ever known. In some, indeed, whose families had 
been for generations connected with it, and some who 
had been connected with it for generations themselves, 
but who still surviving remained as scattered monuments 
of the past, this interest was intense." ^ 

Upon the morning of the Feast of the Ascension, the 
invited guests assembled in the spacious rooms of the 
Mansion House in lower Broadway, which had been 
courteously offered for the occasion by Mr. William 

' The Consecration of Grace Church, Broadway, above Tenth Street, on March 7, 
1846. 'Pp. 316, 317, Dr. Berrian's Historical Sketch. 




■ y/f<' ///'f:j/'/// /•//// /-f// z/'r/.) r/:rA?///r/^i'//Y'<'r/ r/f /fS^S/^ *///// rt/z/z/f //-/fr/ <// /tV.^^. 



1846] Consecration of New Church 279 



Bunker, the proprietor. Clergy from New York and 
the neighboring dioceses were in attendance, as well as 
many laymen who held official positions in the Diocese, 
beside the wardens and vestrymen of the various city 
parishes, and the scholars of Trinity School. 

The procession was formed in the following order : 

1. The sextons and their assistants, with staves. 

2. The Rector, teachers, and scholars of Trinity School, 

founded in 1709, and from that time continued with- 
out interruption. 

3. The architect, his assistants, and master workmen. 

4. The Vestry of Trinity Church, with the officers of the 

Corporation. 

5. The vestries of the city churches, in reverse order of 

dates of organization, viz., the last organized to be 
first in line. 

6. Students of the General Theological Seminary of the 

Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States. 

7. Lay Trustees of the Protestant Episcopal Society for 

Promoting Religion and Learning in the State of 
New York. 

8. Trustees of Columbia College. 

9. Lay members of the Standing Committee of the Dio- 

cese, and lay delegates and supernumerary dele- 
gates to the General Convention. 

10. Strangers especially invited. 

1 1. Clergy in surplices, not of the degree of D. D. 

12. Doctors in Divinity in surplices. 

The Church was filled long before the appointed hour 
by the fortunate holders of tickets. Hundreds gathered 
on Broadway and Rector Street to view the procession 
and hear the strains of the organ and the first joyous peal 
of the chimes. As the clergy and laity approached the 



28o History of Trinity Church [1846 

great central entrance, the iron gates swung open. The 
massive oaken doors were thrown back ; the procession 
divided to allow the Bishop and clergy to pass through, 
and re-formed. One observer notes the thrill of pleasure 
which came to many when Dr. Morris preceded the Bishop 
and clergy leading by the hand the two youngest pupils 
of Trinity School: "when these children came into the 
church love filled every bosom, and admiration and love 
mingled their streams to brighten the eye of the world." ^ 

The sextons, the architect, and the Wardens and Ves- 
trymen of the Parish had previously entered the Church by 
another door. The Bishop was received at the foot of the 
middle aisle by Mr. Adam Tredwell and General Edward W. 
Laight, the Wardens, and the other members of the Vestry, 
and escorted by them to the chancel, followed by the laity 
bringing up the rear. The processional psalm was read 
responsively by the Bishop and clergy as they marched up 
the aisle to the chancel. While the procession was being 
seated the organ burst forth with the strains of Dr. Hodges' 
"Voluntary" composed for the occasion. The Bishop 
having taken his chair at the right of the altar, Mr. Tred- 
well, the Senior Warden, read the " Instrument of Dona- 
tion and Request to Consecrate," which was received by 
the Bishop and placed on the altar, after which he pro- 
ceeded with the office of Consecration. The Sentence of 
Consecration was read by the Rev. Thomas H. Taylor, 
D.D., Rector of Grace Church.' 

Dr. Hodges' anthem, " The Lord is in His Holy 
Temple," was then sung with wonderful precision and 
effect by an excellent choir which included many well- 
known vocalists of the day, both men and women. '^ 

' Gen. Geo. P. Morris in The National Press, Saturday, May 23d, as quoted in 
The Churchman for May 28, 1846. 

^For a copy see notes to this chapter, " Consecration Documents." 
' See " Notices of the Consecration," in Appendi.x. 



1846] Consecration of New Church 281 



The Morning Prayer was commenced by the Rev. 
Dr. Wainwright ; the proper Psalms, Ixxxiv., cxxii., 
cxxxiii., were chanted. The first Lesson, i Kings viii., 
22-63, was read by the Rev. Samuel L. Southard, Rector 
of Calvary Church. 

The Te Deum was sung to music composed for this 
occasion. It is one of the best of Dr. Hodges' works and 
became very popular.' 

The second Lesson, Hebrews x., 19-26, was read by 
the Rev. Benjamin L Haight, Rector of All Saints' Church. 
The Benedicttis was also a special composition of Dr. 
Hodges which gained much praise for its beauty and 
melody. The concluding portion of the Morning Prayer 
was said by the Rev. Dr. Higbee. 

The Introit, as the rubric then directed, was the twenty- 
first selection of the Psalms in Metre, the second and 
third stanzas.* This was announced and read by the Rev. 
Dr. Thomas Lyell, of Christ Church. It was sung by the 
choir to the tune of Bristol. 

' " Hodges in E." For Miss Hodges' estimate of her father's Consecration 
music, see " Notices of the Consecration," Appendix. 

^ " 2. I '11 wash my hands in innocence, 
And round thine altar go ; 
Pour the glad hymn of triumph thence, 
And thence thy wonders show. 

3. My thanks I '11 publish there, and tell 
How thy renown excels ; 
That seat affords me most delight. 
In which thine honour dwells." 

The rubric in the Consecration office required the singing of " Psalm xxvi., verses 
6, 7, 8, with the Gloria Patri." When the " Selection of Psalms" was finally adopted 
in 1832, a resolution of the General Convention of 1832 declared that this rubric "will 
hereafter be duly complied with by singing verses 2 and 3 in the selection from the 
26th Psalm included in the Psalms in Metre " (Journal, p. 77). 

The rubric was stricken out by the General Convention of 18S3 and ratified in 
1886. {Journal, 1883, pp. 343-389 ; Journal, 1SS6, pp. 457-510.) 



282 History of Trinity Cliurch [1846 

The Communion Service was begun by the Rev. Dr. 
Lyell, Rector of Christ Church, the Epistle was read by 
the Rev. Dr. Berrian, Rector of the Parish, and the Gospel 
by Rev. Henry J. Whitehouse, Rector of St. Thomas' 
Church. The Kyrie Eleison and Gloria Tibi were from 
Dr. Hodges' Consecration service in E. 

A contemporary account says ; 

" Thus far the services were performed in their distinctive places, 
viz.: — the Morning Prayer from the reading desk on the right and in 
advance of the altar in a line with the centre of the middle range of 
pews and outside of the chancel. The lessons from a bronze lecturn — 
a fac-simile of an ancient lecturn in the parish church of Lynn in 
England. It is made in the form of a spread eagle mounted on a globe 
which revolves on its axis, and is placed immediately in front of the 
centre aisle at the foot of the first flight of steps leading into the 
chancel." ' 

The seventy-ninth selection was then sung to the tune 
of Old Hundreth by the choir and congregation;"*^ 

During the singing of this selection the Bishop of 
Michigan ascended the pulpit, "which is attached to the 
second column on the north side and ranges diagonally 
with the south entrance of the church,"" and delivered his 
sermon from the text : " Reverence my sanctuary: I am 
the Lord" — Leviticus xix., 30. 

' Gen. George P. Morris in The National Press, as quoted in The Churchman for 
May 28, 1846. 

■ This is Hymn 469 in the present Hymnal. 

" I. With one consent let all the earth 
To God their cheerful voices raise, 
Glad homage pay with awful mirth, 
And sing before him songs of praise," etc. 

The rubric in the Consecration office requiring this selection was with three others 
following abolished by the General Convention of 1889, ratified in i8g2, and a new 
rubric inserted (Jourtial, iSSg, pp. 189, 453-454 ; 1892, pp. 16, 233). 

^ Gen. George P. Morris in The National Press, as quoted in The Churchman, 
May 28, 1S46. 




^/ 



/ 



History of TriTnty ^^jiuicti [1846 

Miimunion Service was begun by the Rev Dr. 

ctor of Christ Church, the Epistle was read by 

. Kcv. Dr. Berrian, Rector of the Parish, and the (jospel 

1/'. Rev. Henr>' J. Whitehouse, Rector of St. Thomas' 

Church. The Kyrie Eleison and Gloria Tibi were from 

Dr. Hodges' Consecration service "' "^ 

A contemporary account says 

"Thus far the services were perfomi iistinctive places, 

viz.: — th»' Morning Prayer from the rea. the tight and in 

advaiii f of the altar in a line with the c>- Me range of 

pewh .i.d outside of the chancel. The les : ■: ierturn — 

.1 1' -simile of an ancient lecturn in the pansli church of Lynn in 
!":,j,l .lid. It is made in the form of a spread eagle mounted on a globe 
which revolves on its axis, and is placed immediately in front of the 
centrt: aisle at the foot of the first flight of steps leading into the 
chancel." ' 

I y-ninth selection was then sung to the tune 

of ^ ' th\iy the choir and conereeation.* 

During the singing of this select 
Michigan ascended the pulpit, "whitii 
second column on the north side and rai 
with the south entrance of the church.' 'vcrcd his 

sermon from the text : " Rpvercnre " :y: 1 am 

the Lord ' — Leviticus a 

.i» .{uuted in The Churchman for 

in the pru!>tut ilymanl. 

I. With one consent let all the earth 
To God their cheerful voices raise. 
Glad homage pay with awful mirth. 
And sing before him songs of praise," ctr 

The rubric in the Consecration office requiring this selection vv«, wifh three other:, 
followi ... ".enerai Convention of 1889, ■ 'iJ, and a new 

rubric a, pp. 1S9, 453-454 : 1892. 

= (; ^ in The N'ational Press ■» ■ Ckunkman, 

May 28, IS46. 




- /////■/■//'/■ f 'J ■ //■/////// .' / /f // /■r// . 



1846] Consecration of New Church 283 

At the conclusion of the sermon Dr. Boyce's anthem 
was sung : " I have surely built Thee a house." Among 
those who performed the vocal parts were : Mrs. Loder, 
Mrs. Botswick, Mrs. Bourne, Miss Sinclair, Miss Hodges, 
Messrs. Manett, Maynard, Clark, Demarest, Leach, Kyle, 
Watson, Crabb, Gilliand, Loomis, George Loder, and others 
well known in the musical world of New York at that 
time. 

The alms of the people then received were gathered in 
the ancient alms basons, the gifts of various English sov- 
ereigns, by members of the Building Committee. They 
were solemnly presented and placed by the consecrating 
Bishop upon the Holy Table. " This offering was appro- 
priated to the use of the Missionary Committee of the Di- 
ocese, and the hope is reasonably indulged that in grateful 
acknowledgement of the many privileges which we enjoy, 
of which this occasion must strongly remind us, our liberal- 
ity will show to our less favored brethren of the household 
of faith that they are here remembered in love." 

After the prayer for Christ's Church militant a volun- 
tary upon the organ was performed by Dr. Hodges. 

The music for the remainder of the Communion office 
was simple and well known, but rendered with much power 
and effect. The hymn after the Consecration was No. 95 
in the hymnal bound up with the Prayer Book and set 
forth by the General Convention in 1826. 

The Bishop proceeded to the celebration, and was as- 
sisted in the administration by Rev. Drs. Lyell, Creighton, 
Burroughs, Wain wright, Whitehouse, and Higbee. There 
were said to be between four and five hundred communi- 
cants. The Bishop closed the service and pronounced 
the Benediction. 

The Bishop and clergy re-formed, while the chimes 
in the tower rang a merry peal as the clergy and others 



284 History of Trinity Church [1846 

returned to the Mansion House. The Committee of Ar- 
rangements presented their report May 25, 1846, accom- 
panied with the printed forms of invitation, and of the 
tickets issued, and list of the clergy and some of the 
laymen who were in the procession on the occasion. The 
programmes of the Service and the Music are copied into 
the Minutes.' 

The thanks of the Vestry were presented to the com- 
mittee, for the very satisfactory manner in which their 
arrangements were made and carried out, and the Comp- 
troller was ordered to pay the expenses incurred by the 
said committee. The thanks of the Vestry were also 
given to Mr. William J. Bunker, proprietor of the Man- 
sion House, for its use as the place of meeting. To 
Bishop McCoskry, in addition to thanks for his services, a 
request was made that he furnish a copy of his sermon for 
publication. 

' Records, liber iii., folios 397, 399-400. Also Dr. Berrian's Sketch, p. 350, The 
Sentence of Consecration is copied in the Records, liber iii., folios 399-400, and a 
framed copy of the order of Music in the Office in Fulton Street. The report is 
printed in Dr. Berrian's Sketch, pp. 349-351. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE EVER-WIDENING INFLUENCE OF TRINITY PARISH. 

Daily Services in the New Church — The Question of the Utility of Deacons Raised 
by the Assistant Clergy — The Rector's Reply— Appointment of the Rev. Francis J. 
Clerc as Deacon — Missionary Committee Authorized to Rent Tea Auction Rooms as 
a Mission Chapel — Return by Christ Church of old Communion Plate loaned by Trinity 
Church Vestry — Lease Granted to New York Fire Department — Repairs and 
Improvements on St. Paul's Chapel — Request from Columbia College for use of St. 
John's Chapel for College Commencement Refused — Alms Boxes Ordered to be 
Placed in each Chapel — William Dunlap Appointed Keeper of Trinity Cemetery — 
Monument to Captain Lawrence Ordered to be Repaired — Monument Changed from 
its Former Site — Design of Monument — Rev. Martin P. Parks Elected an Assistant 
Minister — His Acceptance — Report of Committee on the Erection of the New Church 
Presented — Leave of Absence Granted to Dr. Higbee — Fresh Agitation for Repeal of 
Act of 1814 — Action of Vestry — Memorial Against Repeal by Vestry — Remonstrance 
and Memorial Presented to Assembly— Summary of Memorial — Assembly Rejects 
the Petition of the Remonstrants — Request of St. Andrew's Church, Harlem, for 
Erection of a Chapel in connection with it — Report of Committee on Church Exten- 
sion — Application of the Nesv York Protestant Episcopal School — Reservation of 
Lots near Hudson Street for Chapel and Cemetery— Calvary Church — Altar Presented 
to it by Vestry — Death of Mrs. Hobart — Annuity Continued to Her Daughter — 
Publication of Dr. Berrian's Sketch — Its Purpose. 

THE new Trinity Church was opened for divine 
service on Trinity Sunday, June 7th, 1846. The 
congregation filled every part of the building. The 
music was rendered by Dr. Hodges and his admirable 
choir. The sermon was preached by Dr. Berrian ; it does 
not appear to have contained any special allusion to 
the occasion ; but in the opening of his Historical 
Sketch, of which an account will be given hereafter, 
he thus describes his emotions at this service : " In rising 
for the first time to address the vast multitude, with 
which this solemn and stately temple was thronged, I was 
285 



286 History of Trinity Church [1846 

affected with feelings which I could not express. That I 
had been spared to see that day, I regarded as a special 
reason for thankfulness to God ; for how many who desired 
it had looked forward impatiently for the completion of 
the work, but died before it ! This spot was to me, as to 
them, endeared by the holiest and tenderest recollections." 
Of few sacred edifices can it be said, as of Trinity, that 
from that pleasant Sunday morning in June more than 
fifty-nine years ago, its doors have not been closed by day, 
nor has daily prayer ceased to be offered. 

The first ordination in the new Parish Church was 
held by the Bishop of Western New York, the Rt. 
Rev. Dr. William Heathcote De Lancey. Many of 
his ancestors had worshipped in the parish, and some 
had served upon the Vestry. It was fitting that, in 
the inability of the Bishop of New York, Bishop De 
Lancey should be the first Bishop to admit young men 
into the ministry in the splendid edifice, which was then 
practically the Cathedral of the Metropolitan Diocese. 
The ordination was held on the 3d Sunday after Trinity, 
June 28, 1846, when John Creighton Brown, William 
Alfred Jenks, William Long, Charles Reynolds, and 
Washington Rodman were made Deacons. They were all 
graduates of the General Theological Seminary in the 
class of 1846. Each did good work for the Master during 
the years of his active ministry, and one of them, Mr. 
Rodman, still lives in a green old age. 

Mention has been made of the proposal to employ 
young men in Deacon's Orders in the Parish, in view of 
the expected increase in the number of services, conse- 
quent on the establishment of daily morning and evening 
prayer and the extension of the work in other ways. A 
difference of opinion on this subject invites a passing 
notice ; there is an element of the humorous in it ; and 



1846] Assistance of Deacons 287 

as it became the occasion of discussion in the Vestry, a 
few words may be said about it. The Rev. Drs. Higbee 
and Wainwright filed objections to the plan. To judge 
from their correspondence with the Rector, which is pre- 
served among the Berrian papers, they seem to have had 
no strong admiration of Deacons as ofificiants. Services 
conducted in whole by men of that Order would, they 
thought, lack dignity, while the people would lose the 
benefit of Absolution. If the Reverend gentlemen should 
be in the chancel with Deacons, they would insist on taking 
the whole service themselves, leaving the inferior clergy 
nothing to do. Therefore they requested that the idea of 
employing Deacons should be abandoned, and offered to 
take all the services themselves. " For ourselves we must 
say, that whenever we shall be present in our surplices, it 
will be our desire to perform the entire service," Deacons 
or no Deacons. They add that they did not intend to dis- 
parage the Office of Deacon, but considered it the duty of 
such persons to search for the sick, sorrowful, and poor, 
and administer relief to their bodies and souls, the Priests 
meanwhile performing divine service in the churches of 
the Parish. 

To the communication addressed to him on the sub- 
ject, the Rector made a long reply.* Eventually, the mat- 
ter came before the Vestry, in a second communication 
from the Assistant Ministers relating to the appointment 
of a second Deacon, and the Daily Service at Trinity. 
The whole subject was laid on the table, and it was re- 
solved to " proceed to the appointment of the remaining 
young man in Deacon's Orders," one having already been 
appointed, " in pursuance of the resolution heretofore 
adopted by the Vestry," - and so the matter came to an end. 

' For the correspondence see No. 444, Berrian MSS. 
' Records, liber iii., folio 416. 



288 History of Trinity Church [1846 

The Rev. Francis J. Clerc, of Hartford, Connecticut, 
was the clergyman so appointed. He was a young man of 
great promise, a son of the well-known educator Mr. 
Laurent Clerc, colleague of the Rev. Dr. Thomas H. Gal- 
laudet in his work at the American Asylum for Deaf Mutes 
in Hartford. In a letter to Mr. Clerc, Dr. Berrian ex- 
plains the motive for requesting the service of deacons. 

" The objects for which the appointment of deacons is needed in our 
Parish, are to assist in the reading of Prayers at Trinity both on Sun- 
day and week days, to preach at a station, already selected and pre- 
pared, to the poor and needy, and to perform any other duties in the 
Parish, which the Rector under whose direction they are placed may 
see fit to assign them. It is thought it will be found a profitable school 
for them, giving them a right standing in the various functions of their 
ofifice, and fitting them the better for the independent charge, which at 
a later date they are expected to take." " As the Deacons will in all 
probability preach alternately at the missionary station and be occa- 
sionally assisted by the elder clergy of the Parish, ' it will also be a 
great relief and advantage ' in the preparation of sermons, as one a 
week will be the most that will be required of them, and sometimes not 
even that. As it was intended to have a succession of them upon their 
very entrance into the ministry when a permanent and comfortable 
settlement was scarcely to be looked for, it was thought unnecessary 
that the salary should exceed $600 per annum. This it was thought 
would be sufficient for a single man during his diaconate." 

The plan of the services in the lower part of the city 
being under consideration, the Missionary Committee was 
authorized " to engage, for a term not exceeding one year 
at a rate not exceeding five hundred dollars per annum," 
the tea salesrooms of Mr. McCullough on Maiden Lane. 
They were thought to be central, and to be in the vicinity 
of water-men, sailors, and others who would not enter a 
church, but might be induced to attend a plain service in a 
secular building. The experiment was the first made by 
any religious body to endeavor to secure the interest and 



1846] Old Communion Plate 289 

attention of the churchless and Godless poor and forlorn 
folk in that part of the city. 

The Rector at this meeting told the Vestry that he 
had learned from the Rev. Dr. Lyell, of Christ Church, 
that there was in possession of that Parish some Com- 
munion plate of Trinity Church, which had been loaned 
to it many years before, in Bishop Moore's time. On 
inquiry they were found to consist of two large massive 
flagons weighing one hundred and twenty-five ounces, 
marked with the initials G. R., and the royal arms, which 
were gifts of the Crown to Trinity Church. The sugges- 
tion was made to Dr. Lyell that as Christ Church had no 
special associations with these holy vessels, their restora- 
tion to Trinity Church would be a graceful act, and that 
the Vestry would very cheerfully give them an equivalent 
in new vessels of the same weight and in such form as 
might be agreeable to them- Dr. Lyell received the pro- 
position with great cordiality, and the arrangement was 
made, as appears from a resolution, March 8, 1847, "that 
upon the return of the Communion Plate now in use 
in Christ Church, which formerly belonged to this Cor- 
poration, an equivalent in weight be given for it, and in 
such form as may be desired, and that an inscription be 
made on each vessel — 'The gift of Trinity Church to 
Christ Church, New York, in the forty-second year of the 
Rectorship of the Rev. Thomas Lyell, D.D.'"' 

On the 9th of November, 1846, the Vestry made an 
arrangement with Mr. Cornelius V. Anderson, Chief En- 
gineer of the New York Fire Department, for a new lease 



'The report in full is No. 452, Berrian MSS. It is summarized on folio 435, 
Records, liber iii. The gift of several pieces of Communion plate of excellent design 
and workmanship was made early in June, 1847, and the thanks of the Vestry of Christ 
Church returned for it. It is still in use in that Parish, as appears from a Report from 
Mr. William G. Davis, Historian of Christ Church and some time Senior Warden. 



290 History of Trinity Church [1846 

of the lots on the corner of Vesey and Church Streets. 
Two rooms were to be used, one for the engine, the other 
for the accommodation of the men, and the remainder of 
the building erected on that site was to be at the disposal 
of the Corporation. The lease was to be for fifteen years, 
without rent. How imperfect were the methods of the 
Fire Department at that time is shown by the fact that 
the members of the third fire district made a request to be 
permitted to use the bell of Trinity Church as an alarm 
bell for fires.^ It was considered, at that day, that the 
establishment of an engine-house at the corner of St. 
Paul's churchyard was of great advantage in the protec- 
tion of the church property, and particularly of St. Paul's 
Chapel, and the firemen were welcomed as desirable 
neighbors. 

That ancient edifice, St. Paul's Chapel, was greatly and 
justly venerated, not merely as the only surviving relic of 
the Colonial period, but also because it had served twice 
as the Parish Church ; first, during the period between 
1776 and the evacuation of the city by the British forces 
at the conclusion of the Revolution, while Trinity Church 
was a mere pile of ruin, having been destroyed in the con- 
flagration in the former year ; and, secondly, while the 
present church was in building, for several years prior to 
1846. The condition of the edifice was satisfactory, and 
no extensive repairs had been needed ; but some improve- 
ments and alterations were now made, of which the more 
important were as follows : the pews were lowered about 
four inches, the Sunday-school gallery was set back, the 
organ was enlarged and improved, the walls were painted, 
the spire carefully examined, and the Altar window was 
filled with stained glass. The ancient chapel was closed 
during the summer, while these improvements were in 

'Records, liber iii., folio 431. 



1846] The Lawrence Monument 291 



progress ; nothing was done to alter its general appear- 
ance or mar its classic beauty.^ 

Several minor matters may be noted here. 

A letter from President Moore, of Columbia College, 
requesting on behalf of the Board of Trustees " the use 
of St. John's Chapel for the approaching commencement " 
was read, and carefully considered ; and it was resolved 
"that it is inexpedient to comply with the application." 

In consequence of the complaints of the Assistant 
Ministers of their inability to relieve pressing cases of dis- 
tress, it was ordered that alms chests be placed in the 
Parish church and chapels, " to the intent that the par- 
ishioners may put into them their alms for their poor 
neighbours." The keys of these chests were to be kept 
by the Assistant Ministers, and to them was given the 
disbursement of the alms thus collected." 

On the 14th of September, 1846, William Dunlap was 
appointed " Keeper of Trinity Cemetery, and one of the 
sextons of this corporation." He was to be exempt from 
the ordinance of January 14, 1839, ^^^ its amendments of 
January 13, 1S45, ^ special set of regulations for his duties 
was formulated, and he was in every particular to be sub- 
ject to the Committee on the Cemetery.'^ 

The care bestowed upon the churchyard of Trinity, 
after the completion of the new church, made the ruinous 
state of the monument erected many years before to the 
memory of Captain James Lawrence more obvious by 
contrast. On motion of Mr. Hone it was determined to 
restore the monument, and regulate " the circumjacent 
grounds." * 

It was also determined that the name of Lieuten- 
ant Ludlow should be inscribed on the monument, and 

' Records, liber iii., folios 411, 412. ' /iii/., folio 413. 

■•' /ill/., folio 412. * Ibiil., folio 411. 



292 History of Trinity Church [1846 

also " the birthplace of Captain Lawrence, and the inter- 
ment of his child," ^ and that its site should be changed 
from the one formerly occupied by it in the rear of the 
churchyard to a place near to and southeast of the porch 
of the new Trinity edifice.^ The monument is a prominent 
object of interest to all who enter the church, or pass by on 
Broadway. The eight cannon, which form the posts for the 
enclosure, were from the arms taken by the United States 
in the War of 18 12. It is stated that each had an inscrip- 
tion noting the circumstances of its capture, and also, that, 
by order of the Vestry, "with a courtesy worthy the imita- 
tion of all Christian bodies," they were buried so deep 
that no evidence of triumph should be paraded before the 
public eye, so as to seem unfriendly to the stranger within 
our gates/ 

The long existing vacancy in the corps of Assistant 
Ministers, since the resignation of Dr. Schroeder in 1839, 
had been the subject of much deliberation by a commit- 
tee, who, on September 14th, submitted for the consid- 
eration of the Vestry the names of the Rev. Francis 
Vinton, of Emmanuel Church, Brooklyn, the Rev. Martin 
P. Parks, Chaplain of the United States Military Acad- 
emy, and the Rev. Edward Ingersoll, of Trinity Church, 
Buffalo. All of these clergymen had eminent qualifica- 
tions and brilliant careers in the ministry. An election 
resulted in favor of the Rev. Martin P. Parks, of West 
Point. Mr. Parks was a native of North Carolina, and 
a graduate of West Point. ^ 

Mr. Parks signified by letter his acceptance of the call 
tendered to him, and his willingness to be assigned at 
once to such duties as the Rector may desire, while 

' Records, liber iii., folio 414. - Ibid., folio 421. 

'P. 21, Felix Oldboy's (Colonel John Flavel Mines) Walks in Our Churchyard. 
* Records, liber iii., folio 419. For a sketch of Dr. Parks see Appendix. 



1847] The Health of Dr. Higbee 293 

his family is removing to the city. Five hundred dollars 
were granted him to cover the expenses of removal. 

The Building Committee, which had in charge the 
construction of the new Church, presented their final re- 
port on the nth of January, 1847, together with the book 
of their minutes. The report was accepted and approved, 
the Committee of Supplies and Repairs were authorized 
to discharge any outstanding liabilities of the Building 
Committee, and the Minute Book with a fair copy of 
the same was ordered to be deposited and preserved with 
the books and papers of the committee in the Comptrol- 
ler's office.' 

The health of the Rev. Dr. Higbee, who had labored 
in the Parish for eleven years without any extended period 
of rest, caused much anxiety among his friends. On the 
1st of February, 1847, the Rector presented a communica- 
tion on the subject from several Vestrymen, in which the 
necessity of a voyage to Europe was mentioned. The 
Vestry at once granted Dr. Higbee leave of absence for 
fifteen months, the continuance of his salary, and an 
allowance of two thousand dollars. The Rector was au- 
thorized to engage a clergyman to officiate in Dr. Higbee's 
place at a salary not to exceed fifteen hundred dollars per 
annum. ^ Dr. Berrian, in a letter expressing gratification 
at the partial restoration of Dr. Higbee's health and hop- 
ing to see him at the end of his year of absence, says : " In 
the meantime it will be a gratification for you to know 
with certainty, what you were before persuaded of, that 
your place is well and acceptably supplied ; no one could 
be more faithful, laborious, and attentive to all his duties 
than Dr. Haight."'^ 

'Records, liber iii., folio 428. The report was copied in full in the Records, 
liber iii., folios 425-428. It was also printed in Dr. Berrian's Sketch, pp. 343-349. 
"'Ibid., folio 420. 
•^New York, August 14, 1S47, No. 404, Berrian MSS. 



294 History of Trinity Church [1847 

The attack on the Corporation, of which an account 
was given in Chapter XI., was soon renewed. The failure 
of the attempt to obtain, from the State Legislature, the 
repeal or modification of the Act of 18 14, did not deter its 
promoters from one more effort to attain their end. Pub- 
lic notice of the intention to send another memorial to 
Albany was given early in December, 1846. The Vestry 
thus forewarned reappointed the special committee which 
had the matter in charge during the previous session, with 
power to conduct, in whatever way they might deem best, 
the opposition of the Corporation to the impending 
assault.^ 

The promoters of the scheme were much the same as 
before, and their new application was almost identical in 
phraseology with that made the previous year. It is un- 
necessary to repeat an old story. It was again asserted 
that the sole intention was to restore to all the " inhabitants 
of the City of New York in communion of the Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church " their rights taken away by the 
Act of 1814, and especially "the right of voting at the 
annual election of the trustees of the Common Property," 
thus insuring by its wise exercise " the most advantageous 
management of the trust property, and a faithful applica- 
tion of its income to its original and true objects." It was 
again said that no division of the property was contem- 
plated by any of those who had moved in this matter. 
This statement is signed by the members of the Com- 
mittee for the Petitioners, dated December 31, 1846." 

The old tactics were pursued, of soliciting signatures, 
by sending copies of the document to public places. It 

' Records, liber iii., folios 383 and 421. 

■This summary is taken from a document, numbered 18, in Trinity Church 
Pamphlets, General Theological Seminary Library. The names of the committee 
are Hon. Luther Bradish, Frederic de Peyster, R. B. Minturn, F. S. Winston, P. 
M. Wetmore. 



1847] Attack on the Corporation 295 

would seem that party rancor and personal interest had 
been influenced by disappointed expectation. 

On the iith of February, 1847, the Vestry adopted a 
form of remonstrance, on the subject of this fresh attempt 
upon the rights of the Parish, and sent it to the Legisla- 
ture, duly signed and sealed. Recalling the memorial 
sent by them a year before, they added that " the appli- 
cants for the repeal of the act were largely the same as in 
that year." The argument of the Church was substan- 
tially unchanged. It was added that the assailants were 
chiefly " members of a few, and not exceeding five or six, 
religious corporations of the City of New York, some of 
which have been largely endowed, and made rich and in- 
dependent by and out of the property of your Memorial- 
ists, such aids in money as relieved them from debt and 
embarrassment, and to such amounts as must preclude all 
just expectations of having future contributions volun- 
tarily made from the same sources." No church organ- 
ization in its corporate capacity had joined in the 
memorial, while ten of the religious corporations in the 
City of New York, in the communion of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, had joined in a petition that there 
should be no change in the Act of 18 14, or the status of 
Trinity Church ; and there were also petitions against the 
repeal signed by members of various parishes amounting 
in all to eight hundred and twenty-five. These facts were 
cited on the part of the Church ; while attention was 
further called to the fact that another election for War- 
dens and Vestrymen had taken place while the proceed- 
ings in the Legislature were pending, and that no re- 
monstrance or objection was made to the requirements 
of the Act of 18 1 4 during the said election. In conclu- 
sion, the memorialists " pray that they may not be dis- 
turbed in those rights, which they have now so long 



296 History of Trinity Church [1847 

beneficently exercised, but if there is any doubt of the 
validity or construction of the said law the decision may 
be left to the rightful jurisdiction of the courts of our 
country." ^ This remonstrance was presented in the Assem- 
bly by Mr. Newman, on February 10, 1847, and promptly 
referred to the Committee on the Judiciary, of which the 
members were Mr. Burrell, Chairman ; Messrs. Shumway, 
J. R. Flanders, Mr. Balcom, John Develin, E. P. Pottle, 
and Francis Upton Fenno. With it went also various 
petitions and memorials for the repeal of the Act of 18 14. 
A brief memorial was also sent, signed by forty-five per- 
sons who had previously favored the repeal of the Act. 
These memorialists perceive with regret that another at- 
tempt at repeal is to be made, and think that any inter- 
ference of the Legislature with such law would have been 
and is inexpedient ; they deprecate the disturbance of Trin- 
ity Church in " the rights they have enjoyed for a century 
and a half," not only on account " of the peace and quiet 
of the Church, but for various other reasons." 

There was a long and thorough hearing before the 
Judiciary Committee. The Parish and the petitioners 
were represented by learned counsel, and every point 
was fully contested. On March 30, 1847, the Judiciary 
Committee presented its report to the Assembly, in 
which the facts are recited and the conclusion reached 
"that further legislative action is inexpedient." The 
reasons for this conclusion, which was unanimous, are 
clearly and fully stated. The committee fails to see any 
incongruity between the charter of 1697 and the colonial 
act of 1704, giving to the Corporation in the original 
charter the power to choose Vestrymen from its own 
members, instead of being under the control of a vestry 

' Memorial and Remonstrance, Trinity Church Pamphlets, General Theological 
Seminary. 



1847] Attack on the Corporation 297 

chosen by all the inhabitants of the city. The acts of 
1784 and 1788 were only confirmations of the chartered 
rights of a corporation which for nearly a century had 
enjoyed a legal existence, as modified by the altered civil 
relations. The act in dispute, that of January 25, 1814, 
was framed on the same lines, imposing still further 
" modifications, which were rendered necessary by changed 
conditions." Trinity Church was " no longer the only 
Episcopal Parish in the City," and it was only fair and 
just that, as it claimed no right to interfere in the affairs 
of other Parishes, those other Parishes, either in bodies 
corporate or through their individual members, had no 
legal or equitable right to Interfere with its affairs. Ac- 
cordingly the right to vote for " Wardens and Vestrymen 
of Trinity Church was restricted to the Communicants, 
and contributors of that particular parish." This had 
" been the actual practice for many years, and was legally 
confirmed with the full acquiescence of other Parishes and 
of all their individual members," with the exception of a 
very few malcontents. It is a matter of contemporary 
evidence that the act was not prepared hastily, and with- 
out opportunity for the members of the churches in New 
York City to make such remonstrance as they saw fit. It 
had the cordial approbation of a jurist of great and 
varied knowledge, the Attorney General, Abraham Van 
Vechten.^ 

As the law had been in force for thirty-two years 
without any remonstrance, " it would be contrary to pub- 
lic policy to repeal it, and absolutely destroy unquestioned 
vested rights of twenty years' standing, even if there were 
hypothetical rights involved, which the committee does 

' See Part II. of this History, pp. 231-235 ; also, Mr. Stephen P. Nash's 
monograph : "Note on the use of the Term ' Chapel,' " in ^ Narrative 0/ Events con- 
nected with the Bi-Ceiileimiai of Trinity Churfh, pp. 74-77. 



298 History of Trinity Church [1847 

not believe." The argument of the petitioners "that 
membership in another city parish does not impair their 
rights in Trinity Parish" is considered by the committee 
" false both in law and in equity." As this is the most 
material point of the petitioners, the committee devote 
several paragraphs to its refutation, citing many examples 
to show its fallacy. 

" No one can vote in one town, and then claim the 
right to vote in another, even if he be a taxpayer in the 
second town. The laws relating to religious corporations 
expressly recognized this incompatibility." The com- 
mittee in conclusion quote from a legal opinion attached 
to one of the memorials, in which it is stated " that it is 
doubtful whether the church to which the significant sec- 
tion of the Act of 1784 refers, is the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church in general, or Trinity Church in particular." 
When thus the memorialists concede their main conten- 
tion and reliance for favorable action, the committee 
cannot do otherwise than reject their prayer. 

With the adoption of this report by the Assembly, the 
Parish had rest from any public agitation concerning its 
legal rights, property or policy for seven years.' 

The growth of the city northward is indicated by an 
application received February 8, 1847, from the Rev. 
Richard M. Abercrombie, of St. Andrews, Harlem, re- 
questing the Corporation to build a chapel in Trinity 
Cemetery, which should be in connection with Harlem Par- 
ish.' A report from the Committee on Church Extension 

' The summary of the committee's report is taken from the copy in the Trinity 
Pamphlets in the General Theological Seminary, where it is numbered 22; the full 
title is : " Unanimous Report of I he Judiciary Committee of the Assembly of the State 
of New York, March joth, 1847. Against the Petition for the repeal or modification 
of the Act of B^th of January, 1814, entitled 'An Act to alter the name of the 
Corporation of Trinity Church, and for other purposes.'" 8 vo., pp. 20. Alb?ny : 
C. Van Benthuysen & Co., Public Printers, 1847. On the first page : " State of New 
York, No. 14, In Assembly, March, 1S47." ' Records, liber iii., folio 431. 



1847] Church Extension 299 

was presented and read by Mr. Verplanck. The popula- 
tion of the city had been increasing upon the west side. 
Hudson Street and its vicinity were improving, and new 
houses were constantly being built. To provide for the 
spiritual needs of this new population, a plan was pro- 
posed to reserve " the whole or a part of the ground 
between Clarkson and Le Roy Streets on the east side of 
Hudson Street, for a church and Cemetery." It was 
also recommended that a committee should examine the 
ground, and report as to the quantity of land to be re- 
served, and the plan of a church, and that a church should 
be built as soon as the funds of the Corporation would 
permit. The report was laid on the table for future 
deliberation. 

In March, the Committee on Church Extension 
made a further report upon the subject. They urged 
that no part of the Hudson Street front should be sold 
for any private purpose, lest stores or shops might be 
built in a manner unsuitable to the close neighbor- 
hood of a church, and recommended "that the whole 
of the Cemetery grounds between Clarkson and Le Roy 
Streets be set apart for a church and cemetery, and 
that the portion fronting on Hudson St., where inter- 
ments have not been made, be designated as the intended 
site for a church or chapel." ' The recommendation was 
approved. 

The trustees of the New York Protestant Episcopal 
Public School at this time applied for a grant in fee 
simple of the lots on Varick and Grand Streets which, in 
1832, had been leased to them at a nominal rental; the 
matter was placed in the hands of the Standing Com- 
mittee for consideration. ~ 

The parish of Calvary, one of the earliest formed 

' Records, liber iii., folio 438. 'IbiJ., folio 437. 



300 History of Trinity Church [1847 

uptown,' after passin;^ through various vicissitudes, was at 
that time completing a handsome Gothic church. To 
this building the Vestry presented the marble altar de- 
signed by Ball Hughes, which had been in the second 
Trinity Church." 

On the morning of Easter Day, April 4, 1847, Mrs. 
Mary Goodin (Chandler) Hobart, the widow of the great 
Bishop of New York, departed this life in her seventy- 
second year. All who knew her agree in ascribing to her 
the graces of a noble and Christian womanhood.^ At a 
Vestry meeting held April 12, 1847, a preamble and reso- 
lutions were introduced by Mr. Harison and unanimously 
adopted. The Vestry offered to the family of Mrs. Hobart 
" their heart-felt sympathy in this aiTlicting bereavement, 
and the condolence of this body, and every member of it 
individually upon the loss of their mother, who was truly 
a help-meet for our late revered father and Rector." It 
was resolved to continue the annuity which had been paid 
to Mrs. Hobart to May, 1848, and after that date to 
pay to Miss Mary Goodin Hobart, "the only unmarried 
daughter of Bishop Hobart, an annuity of six hundred 
dollars," so long as she shall remain unmarried.^ 

In closing this chapter, mention may be made of Dr. 
Berrian's work, entitled A Historical Sketch of Trinity 
Church. The first attempt at a history of the Parish, 
it was a production of the agitation for the repeal of the 
Act of 1 8 14. The book, a handsome octavo embellished 
with steel engravings, was published in 1847, by the veteran 

• Calvary Church was organized in 1835 and incorporated October 4, 1S36 ; the 
first Rector was the Rev. Thomas C. Dupont, 1835-1S37. The corner stone of the 
present church, corner of Fourth Avenue and 21st St., was laid on March 10, 1S46. 

' Records, liber iii, folio 43S. 

^ For a sketch of Mrs. Hobart, see Dr. Berrian's Recollections of Departed 
Friends, pp. 94-100. 

■■ Records, liber iii., folio 439. 



1847] Berrian's Sketch 301 

churchmen Messrs. Stanford & Swords. Long since out 
of print, it may occasionally be picked up in one of those 
shops where they deal with antiquities. It contains a 
large amount of information, which it was deemed desira- 
ble and important to give to the public, that they may 
know how to form a correct judgment of the nature of the 
attacks on the Parish and the misrepresentation of its ene- 
mies. The fault of the work is defective arrangement and 
confusion of material ; but these facts should be borne in 
mind : that it was partly compiled for a definite object ; 
that the writer had neither time nor means for extensive 
research among the documents preserved in our State ar- 
chives and in England ; and that much of the historical 
material which can now be used was then inaccessible ; for 
the early history of the province of New York, during 
both the Dutch and English periods, was in 1847 under 
investigation, nor were the papers relating to those days 
printed until many years after its publication. Notwith- 
standing these drawbacks, however, the book has its 
value ; and the author of the present history has drawn 
upon it for much that deserves preservation in our ar- 
chives, and might, but for the timely and praiseworthy act 
of Dr. Berrian under great difficulties, have been lost or 
forgotten. It may be added, that 250 copies of the work 
were purchased by the Vestry for distribution to clergy- 
men, vestries, and parish libraries, with a view to diffuse 
information about the Parish where little or nothing was 
known of its history and its magnificent benefactions to 
the Church in the City and State of New York. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE PARISH, THE CITY, AND THE STATE. 

Danger Threatening the Parish — Application from Geneva College — Withdrawal of 
State Aid — Application from St. George the Martyr for Sanction to Exchange Certain 
Lots on Reade Street for Plot on Fifth Avenue — Application of Dr. McVickar for 
Aid in Erection of Chapel on Governor's Island — Annual Appropriation Granted — 
Loan to Congregations of Holy Evangelists and Church of the Epiphany Saves These 
Churches — Right of Congregations to Erect Separate Parishes Examined into by Dr. 
Berrian — His Report — Albany Street Extension Brought Up Again — Letter of Thanks 
to Vestry from Mrs. Lawrence for Completion of Monument to Memory of Her Hus- 
band — First Anniversary of Consecration of New Church — The Choral School of St. 
John's Chapel — Bogardus Suit Decided in Favor of Trinity Corporation — Commun- 
ion Plate Belonging to Parish — Establishment of Parish of The Intercession, near 
Trinity Cemetery — General Convention of 1847 — Sermon by Bishop Hopkins — Dis- 
continuance of Mission Chapel in Tea Salesrooms — Appointment of the Rev. Sullivan 
H. Weston as Deacon — Financial Condition of Parish — Report of Rector on Strength 
of Parish — Resolution Presented by General Dix. 

IN the appendix to Dr. Berrian's Historical Sketch of 
Trinity Church is a " list of the gifts, grants, and loans 
of the Corporation to churches, institutions, and individuals 
from the year 1745 to 1846." Prior to 1745 the Church 
had little or nothing to give away ; after that date its 
benefactions were lavish and incessant ; the aggregate 
value of those donations is estimated at upwards of 
$2,000,000, a sum representing more than two thirds of the 
value of that part of the Church property which remained 
in 1846. While these statistics furnish an ample defence 
against the charges of illiberality and selfishness, made 
from time to time by adversaries of Trinity, they can 
hardly be regarded with entire complacency by the friends 
of the Parish. It was to the credit of the earlier managers 



1847] Finances 303 

of the estate that they considered themselves as, in a 
measure, trustees for the whole of our communion in the 
City and State of New York, and bound to act as an Ad- 
vancement or Propagation Society, so building up the 
Church far beyond parochial limits ; but it is equally clear 
that the policy of a bounty so lavish could not continue in- 
definitely, and that the time must come when it would be 
necessary to put on the brakes and check the speed at 
which the Corporation, impelled by generous impulse, was 
running towards bankruptcy. If modern valuations should 
be substituted for those of fifty years ago, the amount of the 
grants, gifts, and donations would vastly exceed that which 
was reported by the Rector in 1846. And still, at that 
time, the open-hand policy was continued, with no appa- 
rent regard to changes which had already come and still 
greater changes which were coming. It reminds us of 
the well-known comment on the charge at Balaclava, 
when the Light Brigade were galloping into the jaws 
of certain destruction ; a French officer, watching the same, 
exclaimed, "C'csi magnifique, niais ce ti est pas la guerre ! " 
Without reflecting on the acts of our venerable predeces- 
sors, one might with justice make a similar criticism of the 
course of the Vestry at the date which we have reached in 
our history, while reading the details of the rate at which 
the endowment of the Parish was melting away : it was 
grand from the standpoint of altruistic benevolence ; but 
were trustees justified in steady elimination of the Church's 
estate ? One thing is clear, that they lacked the pro- 
phetic instinct ; they did not see that the time was to 
come, and soon, when the wealth of Trinity Church would 
be the only means of providing for the spiritual wants of 
a vast section of the city, and when, but for that resource, 
it would have presented, for miles, below Tenth Street 
and from river to river, a scene of religious desolation 



304 History of Trinity Church [1847 

without a parallel in the great cities of the world. If 
a financial policy, or, to speak more plainly, a habit of 
spending, which had become by that time unjustifiable 
and dangerous, had not been checked, our churches of 
Trinity, St. Paul's, and St. John's must have been aban- 
doned for lack of funds to maintain them, and business 
structures would have taken the place of the ancient 
churchyards and the vanished houses of God, in the dis- 
tricts down in town. The tide, however, was about to turn. 
In this chapter, I shall note certain additional grants and 
donations, to Geneva College, the Church of St. George 
the Martyr, a chapel on Governor's Island, the congrega- 
tion of the Holy Evangelists, and the Church of the 
Epiphany, made just before the time when a halt was 
called and a movement began on the line of prudence and 
economy, which saved what remained of the Royal Grant 
to the Church in the reign of Queen Anne. 

To speak, first, of Geneva College. It was the result of 
the efforts of Bishop Hobart to found and maintain a school 
of high grade under the auspices of the Church in the Dio- 
cese of New York. In 1802 the Rev. Davenport Phelps 
became the pioneer missionary in western New York.^ 
He soon founded a parish in Geneva, on Seneca Lake. 
The Rev. Orin Clark became his assistant in 18 12. Upon 
the death of Mr. Phelps, in 18 13, he succeeded to the 
rectorship of Trinity Church, Geneva. Both were deeply 
interested in Christian education. They fostered and 
aided the recently founded Geneva Academy, serving, it 
is understood, both as trustees and instructors. 

In 182 1 the Rev. Dr. Daniel McDonald, a born edu- 
cator, removed with his theological class which he had 
instructed in the Academy to Geneva. It was at the 

' See pp. 95, 96, Part III., of this History for the instructions from Bishop 
Moore to Mr. Phelps. 



1848] Geneva College 305 

request of the Bishop who caused his appointment as the 
chief professor in the Interior Theological School, which 
was located at Geneva by the New York Education So- 
ciety. Dr. McDonald, in addition to his duties as theo- 
logical professor, became the Principal of the Geneva 
Academy. ' So vigorous and effective was his admin- 
istration that the Academy was chartered as a college, un- 
der the name of Geneva College, in 1825. A State annuity 
was granted to it by the Legislature, and continued for 
many years. Bishop Hobart, deeply interested, aided it, 
by influence with men of means, suggestions as to the 
course of study, and personal interest in its professors and 
the youth under their charge. In 1846, the College re- 
ceived a heavy blow. The new constitution forbade per- 
manent endowment by the State, and the annual stipend 
ceased. The College, in great financial difficulties, turned, 
of course, to Trinity Church Corporation in its dark hour. 
The appeal was full, precise, and pathetic ; it set forth the 
needs of the College, showed the results already attained 
with scanty resources, and invoked the name of Bishop 
Hobart, former Rector of Trinity, who had been its foster- 
ing father and practically its founder. The Bishop of 
Western New York, the Convention of the Diocese, and 
men of the highest character, both in Church and State, 
added their solicitations to the formal application from 
the authorities of the College. The Vestry listened with 
much interest to the appeal, and referred it to a special com- 
mittee for consideration." On the loth of January, 1848, 
they reported, recommending that the College should be 
endowed with one entire block of the Astor lease, but action 
on the report was deferred.'^ 

' See pp. 184, 185, 195, 196, 197, 199, 201, 202, Part III., of this History for the 
relations of Dr. McDonald and Dr. Clark to Geneva College. 

'' Records, liber iii., folio 444. 'Hid., folio 472. 



3o6 History of Trinity Church [1848 

Next came an application from the " Rector, Church 
Wardens and Vestrymen of the Emigrant Strangers Free 
Church of St. George the Martyr," praying that the Cor- 
poration of Trinity Church release its claim to the land at 
the foot of Duane Street granted in 1800 to the city for a 
market. The application stated that the City Corpora- 
tion had agreed with the authorities of the Church of St. 
George the Martyr to grant to that organization, "as an 
equivalent for the claim of the City to the piece of land 
bounded by Reade, West, Washington, and Duane Streets, 
a part of a block marked 73 on a map in the City Comp- 
troller's office, of the public lands in the twelfth Ward of 
this City, viz, 200 feet by 300 feet of said block containing 
twenty-four building lots, and lying on the West side of the 
Fifth Avenue, between 53rd. and 54th. Streets." ' 

The parish whose project for a church and free hospi- 
tal thus came before the Vestry had been organized in 
1845, by th^ Rev. Moses Marcus, an English clergyman of 
great benevolence and unwearied energy, whose work 
among the emigrants, and especially those of his own 
nation, had shown him, in those days of lax methods by 
the State and National authorities, the impositions they 
endured, and the sufferings they encountered. He seems 
to have been the first person in the City of New York to 
have conceived and formulated a plan for a free hospital 
under church auspices. He had interested his colleagues 
of the St. George's Society, of which he was Chaplain, 
in the scheme, and they aided both with advice and 
money. He had, it is understood, applied informally for 
a plot of ground for the church and hospital, to the Cor- 
poration of Trinity Church, but there was none large 
enough for the purpose available. Having learned that 
Trinity Church had the right of re-entry upon the plot at 

' Records, liber iii., folio 445. 



1847] St. Cornelius's Chapel 307 

the foot of Duane Street, he entered into negotiations 
with representatives of the city, finally obtaining from them 
a promise to grant the Fifth Avenue plot as an endow- 
ment for St. George the Martyr, and the work it con- 
templated among the poor emigrants if he could obtain 
from Trinity Church a release of its claim to the Duane 
Street plot. 

The application of the Church of St. George the 
Martyr was referred to the Standing Committee,' with 
power, and " the Comptroller and clerk were authorized to 
affix the seal of this Corporation to any proper deeds or in- 
struments, and to carry any arrangements or order directed 
by the Committee into effect." ' 

The agreement with the city was soon made, and the 
plot on "the Fifth Avenue" was granted to the Church of 
St. George the Martyr, for a church and free hospital, 
provided it be occupied within three years. There, in 
after years, stood St. Luke's Hospital, and thence was 
it removed to its present position on Cathedral Heights. 

We come next to the story of the church on Gover- 
nor's Island known as St. Cornelius's Chapel. In 1844, the 
Rev. John McVickar, D.D., Professor in Columbia College, 
was appointed Post Chaplain to the U. S. Army post at 
Fort Columbus. Dr. McVickar became deeply interested 
in his duties, which he discharged with constancy and 
regularity, at all seasons of the year, passing to and from 
Governor's Island in an open barge, even in the bitterest 
days of winter, for, at this time, there was no steam vessel 
in use at the post. It was then the custom to send all 
new recruits to Fort Columbus ; the Chaplain found 
among them many cases of pressing need and great spir- 
itual destitution. With an energy and devotion character- 
istic of him, he set about building a chapel ; sought the 

' Records, liber iii., folio 453. ' Hi J., 453 ; also folic 475. 



3o8 History of Trinity Church [1847 

aid of friends among New York Churchmen ; contributed 
largely of his own means ; and planned an appropriate 
structure in the Gothic style to be erected by permission 
of the U. S. Government. Finally, he applied to the Cor- 
poration of Trinity for aid, proposing to style the building 
" The Trinity Church Mission Chapel." The application 
was referred to the Standing Committee, who reported 
on the 14th of June, 1847, disavowing any act on the part 
of the Vestry towards making the building a chapel of the 
Parish or assuming its full support, but recommending, in 
view of the very interesting character of the work and the 
wish of the Vestry that it should be permanent and suc- 
cessful, that at the proper time a moderate contribution 
should be made to the funds in course of collection by Dr. 
McVickar. At a subsequent date an annual appropriation 
of $250 was made towards the support of the chapel, with 
a distinct declaration, however, that it was not to be 
considered as a Chapel of the Parish.^ 

The only provision for divine service at the post was 
the permitted use on Sunday morning of the room used 
for post headquarters. The inconvenience of this ar- 
rangement and the unattractiveness of a bare room with- 
out any spiritual associations were very soon apparent to 
the Chaplain. His influence with high army officials, and 
especially General Scott, the Commander-in-Chief, re- 
sulted in " a personal lease from the Government of about 
one hundred and fifty feet square on the south side, sub- 
ject to the exigencies of war."~ 

Dr. McVickar put into the building of the chapel much 
time and great energy. Writing to his son, the Rev. 

' Records, liber iii., folio 447 ; also folio 453. 

2 P. 310, The Life of the Reverend John McVickar, S.T.D., Professor of 
Moral and Intellectual Philosophy, Belles-Lettres, Political Economy and the Evi- 
dences in Columbia College. By his son, William A. McVickar, D.D. New York. 




^ 






1847] St. Cornelius's Chapel 309 

Henry McVickar, then a missionary near Lake George, in 
1846, he says : 

"My church goes on beautifully. It grows upon me every time I 
see it. It has, beyond any little church I know, the two elements I 
want in a rural church of God — humility and reverence. These are 
both strongly awakened, and when summer comes you cannot imagine 
a more beautiful spot. It is true it is something against architectural 
rule, but I have chosen to work rather with the ' elements ' than under 
' models,' and thus to work out the same problem by original methods, 
I look to the effect and work it out as I can. This is great talk for a 
little church, but I think you will like it. As to cost, it will sum up 
when finished to near $2500. What I can raise by the help of friends 
I will ; what I cannot I must bear, and hold it as a consecrated gift 
laid on God's altar, a trespass offering for years of over-devotion to 
the acquisition of wealth." ' 

While the chapel was building, and occasionally after- 
wards, it is a tradition of the island that Dr. McVickar 
held open-air services. The chapel was completed early 
in 1847, and was consecrated by the Bishop of Western 
New York, Dr. DeLancey, on April 19, 1847, by the 
name of "The Chapel of Saint Cornelius the Centurion." 

It was in every respect adapted to the work the Chap- 
lain intended to do among the soldiers of the garrison and 
the hundreds who were sent there as raw recruits awaiting 
orders for joining the regiments to which they were as- 
signed. Dr. McVickar found among them men of rare 
culture and high education, who sometimes through fam- 
ily reasons, discouragement, or want of money had joined 
the army. He was able in many cases to be the consoler, 
the confidential friend, and generous almoner of men who 
had almost lost hope and courage. Several instances are 
given in his Life of the gratitude of those to whom he 
had ministered spiritually and temporally. The activity 
at the post was very great during the earlier years of his 

' Pp. 310, 311, Life of Dr. McVickar. 



3IO History of Trinity Church [1847 

chaplaincy, for it was the period of the Mexican War. It 
shows his fidelity to the soldiers going to the field when it 
is known that several bequests for the benefit of the chapel 
were made by privates who had died in Mexican hospitals. 

A survival of his work is to-day of very great interest 
to army officers and civilians. These are the shields hung 
upon the walls of his chapel bearing proper devices and 
inscriptions. The first to be thus made a votive offering in 
the house of God were by two regiments returning from 
Mexico. Each is blazoned with a cross and an appropriate 
motto. From time to time other shields were set up, un- 
til now they make the chapel unique in this, for there is 
nothing like them anywhere else.* 

Dr. McVickar had both a deep sense of duty and also 
a vein of tender sentiment which found expression in this 
method of thanking Almighty God for deliverance in the 
day of battle and danger. 

He gathered the communicants among the commis- 
sioned officers in the several regiments, and after reading 
to them from the Bible and praying Avith them, the project 
of placing a shield for each in the chapel was set before 
them and they were requested to choose an appropriate 
text for it. In 1849 Dr. McVickar writes : 

" The little church of St. Cornelius is growing in historic interest 
as well as in beauty. The three successive commands of the island 
have all their mementoes on its walls, texts selected by them with ap- 
propriate shields ; and what is more satisfactory yet, I never had a 
better attendance from the officers."^ 

Dr. McVickar continued his work to an advanced age, 
and until an order was made by the War Department that 
all chaplains should reside at their posts, a regulation with 
which it was impossible for him to comply. After his 
resignation, and the abolition of the Post Chaplaincy at 

' For the inscription see Appendix. - P. 315, Life of Dr. Mc Vickar. 







1 
N 



1847] St. Cornelius's Chapel 311 

Fort Columbus, on the ground that the good people of 
New York ought to have interest enough in the soldiers 
to look after them without expense to the Government, 
the chapel was in danger of secularization ; to avert which 
disaster, the Corporation of Trinity offered to maintain a 
chaplain at the post on condition that they should be al- 
lowed the exclusive use of the building. The Govern- 
ment willingly entered into that arrangement, and since 
the year 1868 St. Cornelius's has been practically one of the 
Mission Chapels of the Parish. 

Now that the little chapel is to give way to a larger 
modern church built by this Corporation, these details of 
its history have a peculiar appropriateness. 

To continue the narrative of applications made about 
this time : The City Mission Society, finding itself in 
great financial difficulty, applied to this Corporation for 
immediate aid. Mortgages upon two of its church edi- 
fices, the Church of the Holy Evangelists, in Vandewater 
Street, and the Church of the Epiphany, in Stanton Street, 
were about to be foreclosed, and the sale of those churches 
ordered by the Court of Chancery. It was determined to 
aid the Society by loaning the congregations worshipping 
in them, should they become the purchasers, " so much of 
the proceeds of the sale as shall be payable to it by reason 
of the present mortgage upon the premises, the amounts, 
with interest, to be secured by bonds and mortgages, which 
last may be subsequent and subject to previous mortgages, 
to be given by such Church Corporations, for the purpose 
of raising the remainder of the purchase money." The 
Standing Committee was authorized to act for the Cor- 
poration in the way they should deem best for the protec- 
tion of its interests. By this prompt action the two edifices 
were saved to the Church.' 

' Records, liber iii., folio 44S. 



312 History of Trinity Church [1S47 

Another incident of this period shows that the way for 
legislation on a subject of great importance was prepared 
and made ready in the proceedings of the Corporation. 
It will be conceded that the establishment of churches 
in places where they are not needed, and their multiplica- 
tion without regard to the wants of the district, far from 
being a blessing, is a misfortune and an evil. There must 
be limits to freedom in the formation of new parishes. 
The matter was brought up by the removal of several 
churches, notably St. George's, from their old positions, 
and the following of their parishioners to other parts of 
the town. This led the Vestry to inquire of the Rector 
" by what authority and permission new parishes are 
formed in this City, and how, and in what way the assent 
of this Corporation is given, if it is necessary in any case." 
They also desired to know whether a new parish " formed 
out of others, in any part of the City, can change its loca- 
tion without the consent of any other previously estab- 
lished parish whatever." ' The Rector, having given the 
subject careful and immediate attention, read an elaborate 
statement on the subject. 

He cited the provisions of Canon XXXI concerning 
parish boundaries and clerical intrusion. For both pur- 
poses, where definite territorial boundaries had not been 
"made in any town or city, it was necessary before any new 
parish could be formed, or any clergyman officiate " in any 
other place than one of the churches thereof," to obtain the 
consent " of the major number of the parochial clergy of 
the city or town." ~ The practice had obtained in New York 
of asking consent of the neighboring clergy only whenever 
a new parish was formed. Consent was usually given, but 

' Records, liber iii., folio 448. 

-Canon XXXI of 1832, see p. 22, Constitution and Canons appended to General 
Convention Journal, 1S47, is substantially incorporated in Title I, Canon XVIII, Sec. 
VI, of the present Digest; p. 56, Digest, appended to Journal, General Convention, igoi. 



1847] Organization of New Parishes 313 

such "action was often based upon considerations of deli- 
cacy, from the apprehension of being thought indifferent 
to the general good on mere selfish grounds, or from per- 
sonal regard and concern for the projector, inducing to 
concealment of their views of the case, however inex- 
pedient or unpromising it may appear." Such considera- 
tions would have no weight with the rest of the clergy, 
■who might feel no restraint from these motives, and be 
prepared to express their opinions and dissent both freely 
and justly. The present course violated both the letter 
and the spirit of the Canon. 

" The careful observer must have noted that some of the projects, at 
least, that have been started for raising up new congregations among 
us, were not only of doubtful utility in reference to their location and 
usefulness, but apparently, so mixed up with personal considerations, 
however unconsciously to the parties themselves, as to make strict 
inquiry on the part of this Corporation in regard to every new estab- 
lishment, an act of prudence and duty, since upon this body the main 
burden of the support of a large portion must eventually fall." 

The Rector, however, " did not have the least desire to 
discourage any plan which gives a reasonable prospect of 
usefulness and success." His only thought and design 
were " to counsel a just discrimination, and a right exer- 
cise of the bounty of this munificent Corporation."' 

The Rector was thanked for his report, and it was de- 
termined that measures be taken to inquire carefully into 
the circumstances of the organization of each new parish, 
before granting aid to it. 

Reference has already been made to the attempt to in- 
vade Trinity churchyard by an extension of Albany Street 
to Broadway. The effort was renewed, its advocates 
claiming that such extension would not disfigure the an- 
cient place of sepulture. The petitioners, though few in 

'No. 472, lierrian MS.S. Also, Records, liber iii., folio 465. 



314 History of Trinity Church [1847 

number, were persistent ; it was a scheme to benefit a 
small group of property holders, without regard to the 
needs of the public or the rights of the dead ; nor could 
there be imagined a more preposterous idea than to make 
a new street parallel, to another, and not more than fifty 
feet distant from it, as if any benefit could result to the 
people from the establishment of such additional thorough- 
fare. The Clerk and Comptroller were authorized and 
directed to present a remonstrance to the Board of Alder- 
men on behalf of the Corporation.' The result was favor- 
able. Mr. Harison made the gratifying announcement 
that the Board of Assistant Aldermen had adopted a 
report adverse to the scheme. 

On the loth of May, 1847, a letter to Mr. Hone, chair- 
man of the Committee on the Restoration of the tomb of 
Captain Lawrence, from his widow, Mrs. Julia Lawrence, 
was communicated to the Vestry, conveying the expression 
of her warm and most grateful acknowledgments for the 
" kindness and delicacy which had marked their proceed- 
ings in the erection and completion of the appropriate 
monument in memory of her brave and gallant husband." 

The first anniversary of the consecration of the new 
church was reverently observed. It is recorded in the 
Minutes, that the Vestry, "having heard with much pleas- 
ure and satisfaction that on Thursday next, the Festival 
of the Ascension, and the Anniversary of the Consecra- 
tion of the Church, the Rector has appointed the full 
service and a sermon, resolved that the members of the 
Vestry will attend in a body." The music, on that occa- 
sion, was of the most devotional and inspiring character ; 
the sermon was preached by the Rev. Benjamin L Haight, 
D.D. From that day to the present time, the day has 
been celebrated, with due formality and great joy, and the 

' Records, liber iii., folio 446. 



1847] The Choral School 315 

Resolution to attend the services at Trinity Church on 
Ascension Day appears, every year, on the Minutes of the 
Vestry. 

A report of the condition of the Choral School at St. 
John's Chapel, made June 14, 1847, by the Music Com- 
mittee, stated that it had been in active operation for six 
months, the boys receiving both religious and secular 
training, and the "best daily teaching and practice in 
Music." The cost of maintaining was estimated at about 
five hundred dollars a year, "in addition to the sum paid 
the musical instructor, which is derived from the ordinary 
appropriation for the music of St. John's Chapel "; and the 
Committee added, " should the sum of two hundred and 
fifty dollars be appropriated to St. Paul's Chapel, and 
another like sum to St. John's, they may both have the 
privilege which St. John's now enjoys, of music upon all 
prayer days, and a valuable addition to the choirs for 
Sunday service." It was thought that it would require at 
least a year, and most probably two years, to get a set of 
boys fully prepared, after which there would " be a regular 
succession of boys, and it is believed they may then be a 
substitute for female singers, and the above mentioned 
appropriation be no longer needed." ' The appropriation 
requested was made for the half-year ending October ist. 
The school had the careful oversight of Dr. Wainwright, 
who was a skilled musician ; and if it had been possible to 
maintain it at its original high standard, it would have 
changed the character of the music throughout the Parish, 
and conformed it sooner to the English cathedral type. 

On the 28th of June, 1847, the special Committee on 
the proceedings at Albany, in relation to the repeal of the 
Act of 18 14, made a full and detailed report of its action, 
which was approved, and the report ordered to be entered 

' Records, liber iii., folio 449. 



3i6 History of Trinity Church [1847 

in the Report Book. The Vestry also heard with great 
satisfaction that the troublesome and vexatious suit of 
John Bogardus, an heir of Anneke Jans, claimant to a 
portion of the church farm, which had been dragging its 
slow length through the various courts of the State for 
seventeen years, in every one of which without exception 
judgment had been given in favor of the church, had on 
that day been finally decided by the Vice Chancellor, 
Judge Sandford, in the High Court of Chancery, in 
favor of the Corporation, in an elaborate opinion.' The 
Vestry, recognizing the great importance of that opinion, 
ordered that it be printed and widely circulated. Judge 
Sandford states with clearness the various aspects of the 
case brought before him ; and examines the claim of Mr. 
Bogardus, the manner in which it was supported, and the 
plea of Trinity Church of long possession, at great length. 
He concludes his opinion by saying, " that a plainer case 
has never been presented to him as a judge." The magni- 
tude of the interests involved alone prompted him to give 
a written judgment. 

" If the titles to land were to be litigated successfully upon a 
claim which had been suspended for five generations," he declares, 
" few titles in this country would be secure under such an adminis- 
tration of the law ; and its" adoption would lead to scenes of fraud, 
corruption, and foul injustice, and legal rapine far worse in their 
consequence upon the peace, good order, and happiness of society, 
than external war or domestic insurrection."" 

From his decision no appeal was ever taken. Claim- 
ants, however, at various times have given annoyance to 

' The monograph of Mr. Nash upon the " Title to the King's Farms," printed on 
pp. 292-310 of Part II. of this History, gives all the facts in this and other legal con- 
tests for the property of Trinity Church. The Bogardus case is noticed on pp. 305-307. 
Records, liber iii., folio 451. 

'See Sandford's Chanary Rfports, vol. iv., pp. 633-762, quoted in Part II., of 
this History, pp. 306-307. 



1847] Church Work at Carmansville 317 

the Corporation by repeated and always futile attempts at 
church robbery.' 

At a meeting held September 13, 1847, the Rector 
presented an interesting report upon the Communion 
plate of the Parish. Much of it had been the gift of 
former sovereigns of England, some had been presented 
by individuals, very little had been directly purchased. 
The old silver was massive, but without any great orna- 
mentation, beyond the royal arms and cypher. In all 
there were forty-two pieces, of which eight were flagons, 
varying in weight from sixty-four and a half to forty-four 
and a half ounces. Most of these sacred vessels are still 
in use, and are a precious heritage from the past.- 

It was the intention of the Corporation to build, at 
some proper time, a chapel within the cemetery at Car- 
mansville, and a plot of ground, still unoccupied, was 
reserved for that purpose. The Cemetery Committee 
brought in a report on the subject, stating that it would 
cost $4500 to build such a chapel, and $500 in addition to 
provide an organ ; and further that Mr. Carman, from 
whom that district had been named, had offered the use of 
a room in a large building opposite the grounds, by way 
of preparation for the work. A small appropriation was 
made for the purpose but the design was forestalled 
by the establishment of services in Carmansville, under 
the auspices of St. Andrew's Church, Harlem, the Rev. 
Stephen Douglas being the officiant ; and it was ordered 
that the amount appropriated be given to him as a contri- 
bution to his work. Subsequently, December 22, 1847, a 
parish was organized under the name of the Church of the 
Intercession, of which the Rev. Richard M. Abercrombie, 

'Seethe opinion of Col. William Jay, the present counsel, clerk, and Junior 
Warden of the Parish, in the Year Book for 1902, pp. 188-192. 

'' Records, liber iii., folio 455. See also Inventory of Church Plate, 1905. 



3i8 History of Trinity Church [1847 

Rector of St. Andrew's, was chosen Rector. The first 
Wardens were Mr. Abel T. Anderson, a member of Trinity 
Parish, and afterwards a Vestryman, 185 2-1 855, and Mr. 
J. R. Morewood. 

On the 6th of October, 1847, the General Convention 
met in St. John's Chapel. It was a time of great excite- 
ment over " Puseyism," aggravated by the conditions of 
the Diocese of New York. The interest centred around 
the House of Bishops, in connection with the strong desire 
for restoration of Dr. Onderdonk to the exercise of his 
office. A particularly aggressive partisanship was shown 
by both the " High" and " Low" Churchmen ; but in the 
solemn opening service no intimation of the undercurrent 
of strife and debate appeared. Twenty-five bishops, one 
hundred and three clerical, and eighty-three lay, deputies 
were in attendance. The preacher was the Rt. Rev. Dr. 
John Henry Hopkins, Bishop of Vermont. His theme was, 
" Unity of the Church Consistent with the Division of 
Party." Treating the question from the historic point of 
view, he argued that the Judaistic and Gentile parties 
in the Apostolic Church had at least the tacit approbation 
of the Apostolic College. Without dwelling upon the 
divisions of the Church in the earlier centuries, and the 
party controversies, which were conducted without de- 
stroying its unity, he sketched briefly the characteristics 
of the two great parties in the Church of England. " I 
need hardly remind you, brethren, that these two parties 
were, on the one side, those who were partial to the tastes 
and habits derived from Romanism, and on the other side, 
the Continental reformers of the Zwinglian and Calvinistic 
schools, who had preceded the English Bishops in their 
great effort to restore the Church of Christ to its primitive 
purity." He pleads for parties as a necessity of our human 
nature, as allowing wide toleration of opinion ; by their 



1847] The Onderdonk Case 319 

contentions affording "the best security for truth in our 
present state of imperfection " ; they stimulate enquiry ; 
and are indispensable to completeness in the Church, as 
each is based upon some element of truth. He admits 
the evil that results from party spirit, but insists " that 
even the violence of party spirit shall never be allowed to 
destroy the substantial unity of the Church of God, for it 
is built upon the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, 
Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner-stone" ; but to 
alleviate the danger lying in party spirit, we must look 
to the grace of Christian charity. " Errors of judgment, 
errors of temper, errors of insincerity, we must expect to 
find, for who is perfect?" "Charity can always bear 
in mind, that notwithstanding all their attendant evils, 
parties in the Church are like parties in the State, the 
conservators of her liberties, and the guardians of her 
constitution." ^ 

Discussions in the House of Bishops are only known 
by the voluntary disclosures of members of that House. 
The opposition to any reconciliation, or the restoration of 
Dr. Onderdonk was strong, and was supported by arguments 
by skilled parliamentarians, and those who called themselves 
the " defenders of the purity of the Church." The friends 
of Bishop Onderdonk could not overcome a feeling pub- 
licly expressed and widely entertained, that signs of " re- 
pentance" should be seen in the suspended Bishop before 
any effectual measures could be taken for his restoration 
to the duties of his office. There was a long, animated, 
and bitter debate in the lower house on the canons in- 
tended to meet the exigencies of the Diocese of New York, 
which had been prepared in response to the request of that 
Diocese by a joint Committee, the first providing a method 
for remitting judicial sentences, the second determining the 

' p. 22, Bishop Hopkins's Convention Sermon, 1847. 



320 History of Trinity Church [184.7 

time of suspension of a Bishop, and the third making the 
Standing Committee of a diocese, whose Bishop is under 
any disability, the ecclesiastical authority, and providing 
that it may be placed under the provisional charge of any 
Bishop, on invitation of the Standing Committee. The 
most remarkable speeches in the course of the debate were 
those of Dr. Hawks, arguing that the Diocese of New York 
was vacant, which was eloquent and sarcastic, and the 
reply of Dr. John Ogilby, which was calm, judicial, and 
convincing. Finally, after many amendments and counter 
propositions, the canons were adopted.' 

Among the acts of the Convention were the signing of 
the testimonials of the Bishop-elect of Maine, Dr. George 
Burgess, and the consent to the erection of Wisconsin into 
a diocese, and the election of Bishop Kemper as its di- 
ocesan. The Rector of this Parish was a clerical deputy, 
and chairman of the Committee on New Dioceses. Among 
the deputies were two members of the Vestry, Mr. Gulian 
C. Verplanck, and Mr. David B. Ogden. The sessions 
extended from Wednesday, October 6th, to Thursday, 
October 28th. 

It was with very great reluctance that the Committee 
on Mission Work in the lower part of the city reported, 
October 11, 1847, on the attempt to maintain a mis- 
sion in Maiden Lane. The service in McCullough's 
salesrooms had been discontinued ; the attendance had 
never been encouraging ; many Churchmen, and some 
members of the Vestry had been doubtful of its expedi- 
ency or success. It was stated that three months after 

• See pp. 62, 63, Constitution and Canons for the Governmmt of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in the United States of America, 1847, appended to the Journal of the 
Convention of 1847. An almost verbatim report of the debate in the House of 
Deputies will be found in the New York Morning Courier and Enquirer, during the 
month of October, 1847. It is the work of the Rev. John Henry Hopkins, then a 
reporter. 



1847] Mission Work 321 

the services were inaugurated, there were on a bright 
Sunday, five persons present.^ 

The story of that experiment is best told by one of the 
deacons engaged in the work. Rev. Dr. Clerc : 

" Dr. Seabury most strenuously declared to me that the mission 
work outlined in the Parish for the poor of the lower part of New 
York City was altogether an error. They all ought to find their home 
in Trinity Church, was his dictum. Dr. Berrian and Mr. Moore were 
so heartily interested in the mission project at McCulIough's tea sales- 
rooms, upper story of a building near Peck Street Ferry, East River, 
that they frequently and regularly climbed the three staircases to en- 
courage, by their presence at the appointed services there, the deacons 
who were assigned alternately to Trinity Church, and to the mission 
every Sunday. It soon became so apparent that the poor, the lame, 
the halt, and the blind, etc., could not, and that others would not, as- 
semble in that spacious and well-furnished upper room, that Mr. Duffie 
and I agreed upon a canvass of that part of New York ; the report of 
families residing there showed the utter hopelessness of future success 
from the continuance of these services. There were many emigrants 
and strangers, landing, but not remaining ; Jewish residents were nu- 
merous. The fixed population was larger than we supposed, but the 
families had connections with the Roman, Lutheran, or other congre- 
gations, not remote, and the privilege of attendance at Trinity. I do 
not recall that there was any formal assignment of special visits or 
search for poor and needy persons, except as such made application 
at the Church ; and were cared for, apparently, by committees or 
workers of the Parish, and by the Rector's apportionment of relief."' 

The system of appointing deacons to serve in the 
Parish was continued, notwithstanding the failure of that 
first attempt at a mission ; from a communication by the 
Rev. Dr. Haight, accompanying the Committee's report, it 
appeared that " there is ample call for their services in the 

' Note, p. ig. A Brief Statement of Facts as connected with the Application by 
the Rector^ Warden, and Vestrymen of St. yude's Protestant Episcopal Church to the 
Corporation of Trinity Church, N'. V., first presented April 25, 1843, for an appropria- 
tion towards the support of said Church, and renewed November 6, 1846. 

*' Letter of the Rev. Francis J. Clerc, D.D., Phillipsburgh, Pa., November 5, 
1902, to the Rev. Joseph Hooper. 



322 History of Trinity Church [1847 

proper office of that order of the ministry, independently 
of any public performances of church services." On the 
8th of November, 1847, the Rector nominated the Rev. 
Sullivan H. Weston as one of the deacons of the Parish. 
Mr. Weston was a native of Maine ; after spending many 
years of his earlier life in teaching, he studied theology 
privately, and was made deacon in Trinity Church, New 
York, on October 9, 1847, by Bishop Alonzo Potter. He 
was temporarily assigned to duty in the Parish from the 
day of his ordination, and thus commenced a useful and 
honorable ministry, which terminated only with his earthly 
life forty years later. 

About the year 1850, or shortly before that time, 
anxiety about the condition of the Parish appears to have 
increased. The feeling was due, in part, to the changes 
which were rapidly taking place in the city, and, in part, to 
the expenditures referred to in the beginning of this chap- 
ter ; expenditures out of proportion to the resources of the 
Corporation. For several years the better class of the 
population had been removing from the vicinity of St. 
John's Square, and, in the cross streets, business was fast 
encroaching upon the residential quarter of the town ; 
Bleecker and Houston Streets were no longer fashionable, 
while the rich and prominent citizens were seeking new 
homes in Union Square, Madison Square, Fifth Avenue, 
and the streets in that vicinity. The effect of this mi- 
gration was already sensibly felt, and the authorities 
of the Parish, especially the Rector and the Assistant 
Ministers, noted with pain a lessening attendance and a 
loss of strength in the congregations under their charge. 

A Report by the Rector is extant, dated March 13, 
1848, in which he calls the attention of the Vestry to the 
changes which had taken place in the Parish in eight years. 
To no one more than himself, he says, had these changes 



1848] Condition of the Parish 323 

come with greater " heaviness and pain, involving the 
rending asunder of ties which had been long in forming 
and which no new ones could ever replace." He attributed 
those removals 

" largely to the increase of trade in the great Metropolis, and the need 
therefore of further accommodation for it. This upward current of 
our population has been becoming more rapid from year to year till 
it has gained at last such velocity and strength as to carry almost every 
one with it and to threaten us at no distant period with a very general 
loss of our oldest and most valued parishioners. The deep solicitude 
with which the subject has for a long time filled me, brought home 
more closely to my thoughts since the beginning of the year by the 
comparative ease with which I have already, in less than a month, 
nearly completed my annual visitation of the Parish, has induced me 
to enter into a minute and laborious investigation into its past and 
present condition to consider whether it may not be practicable to pro- 
vide some safeguard against so alarming a change." 

Then follows a comparative statement of the strength 
of the Parish as shown by families and individuals compos- 
ing it on January I, 1840, " just after the building of our new 
church was commenced," and January i, 1848. The 
number of families at the former date as nearly as can be 
ascertained was five hundred and fifty-four (554); of adult 
unmarried individuals, one hundred and nine (109). On 
January i, 1848, three hundred and thirty-five (335) of 
those families and seventy individuals appear to have left 
the Parish. Two hundred and nineteen (219) families 
and thirty-nine individuals remained. 

An analysis of the causes of removal as far as possible 
is given. This may be omitted ; but we note, particularly 
his statement, that the families who had removed were 

" in great part born and brought up in the Parish and completely 
identified with it, anxious for its growth, jealous of its interests, 
accustomed to its arrangements, attached to its usages, friendly to 
its clergy and to each other, and linked to it by such sacred and 



324 History of Trinity Church [1848 

endearing associations as nothing but the force of circumstances could 
have induced them to sever." 

Forty-four families are reported 

" who still hung on to the Parish from lingering attachment, but 
who have also removed to such a distance as in the common course 
of things, from the great inconvenience of attending churches so re- 
mote, must gradually drop off from it, and six other families I have 
just learned are on the eve of similar change in their residence." 

As a remedy for this state of things the Rector pro- 
posed " as an imperative duty" the provision of "a chapel 
immediately for the reception of our people who are con- 
stantly straying from us in the very direction to which our 
population is flowing." Dr. Berrian estimates that one 
hundred and fifty families formerly of the Parish could be 
gathered in at once as worshippers. As to the plan, 
already proposed, to erect a new chapel on Hudson Street 
between Clarkson and Le Roy Streets, the Rector consid- 
ered that it would not meet the exigency. The number of 
families which had removed to that quarter of the town 
was only eight; so that he adds: "It is perfectly plain 
then that the motive for giving priority to the plan which 
I have ventured to suggest and deferring the one already 
in contemplation is nearly twenty times as urgent as the lat- 
ter in reference to the great objects of influence, security, 
and strength. The chapel in Hudson street would not be 
in the line of the emigration of our people." Dr. Berrian 
closes with these strong words : " I cannot help thinking 
that we shall make a fatal mistake if we do not seize at 
once upon some site which may be more fit for our purpose 
before it slips out of our hands, and it seems to me that 
none would be more suitable than in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Madison Square." ^ 

' No. 543, Berrian MSB. The substance of this statement without any figures is 
on folios 474, 475, Records, liber iii. 



1848] Finances of Parish 325 

This statement was listened to with great attention by 
the Vestry. His figures were larger than the members had 
supposed ; action was imperative. The statement was re- 
ferred to the Committee on Church Extension to which 
Mr. John R. Livingston was added. 

But the loss of parishioners, by removal, was not the 
only cause of anxiety to the Corporation ; the financial con- 
dition of the Parish was justly becoming a matter of most 
serious consideration. The indebtedness of the Corpora- 
tion, already great, had been increased by the building of 
the new church. The income was absorbed by parochial 
expenditures, the care of the property, and the gifts and 
allowances to various objects which still went on as before. 
It was beginning to be seen that the debt could not be paid 
except by prompt and decided measures in the direction 
of retrenchment and economy. That great alarm was felt 
is evident from a report presented December 13, 1847, by a 
Special Committee on the debt of the Church and its 
reduction. The resolutions accompanying the said report 
were discussed, and on the loth of January, 1848, adopted 
as follows : 

" Resolved : First. That hereafter two thirds at least of the pro- 
ceeds (whether in cash or securities) of all future sales of the real 
estate shall be sacredly set apart as a fund for the gradual extinction of 
the Church debt, under such rules and regulations as may be devised 
by the Vestry, and that such fund shall be deemed and declared to be 
absolutely and inviolably appropriated to that purpose, until such time 
at least as the Vestry shall be of opinion that the debt is reduced 
to within safe and reasonable limits. 

" Second. That under no circumstances shall any aid be granted 
which shall or may at any given time increase the indebtedness of the 
Church, or which shall in any degree impair the fund as so above set 
apart for its liquidation." 

A third Resolution was submitted, laid over, and 
adopted October 9, 1848. 



326 History of Trinity Church [1848 

" Resolved : That under no circumstances shall any aid be granted 
by grants of land belonging to this Corporation, whether in possession 
or reversion, whilst the resolutions for the reduction of the debt adopted 
by the Vestry on the loth of January last continue in force." 

The progress of the movement for financial reform was 
aided by General John A. Dix, who became a member of the 
Vestry in 1849, ^"^ was a strenuous advocate for economy 
in expenditure and administration. He introduced a series 
of resolutions, April 14, 1851, providing that the Standing 
Committee should formulate a plan, by which the expendi- 
tures of the Corporation should be limited to its income ; 
and further that they should consider the expediency 
of making the pews in Trinity Church, St. Paul's and 
St. John's entirely free, and should also devise a method for 
the support of the new chapel which it was proposed to 
build, on the distinct understanding that the funds of the 
Corporation should thereafter be used, " as far as may be 
practicable, in the education and religious instruction of 
the poor of the city." At the mover's request, these 
resolutions were referred to the Standing Committee for 
consideration and report.' 

In talking with me about those old times, my father 
often mentioned his trials and difficulties in the cause of 
that greatly needed reform. At first his views met with 
no support. But, by and by, through the force of reason- 
ing and the clear grasp of a subject with which no man 
was more competent to deal, he gained, first one sup- 
porter, and then another, and another, until the large 
majority fell in with his ideas, and carried them out. To 
him, I have no doubt, great credit was due for the success 

' Testimony of Hon. John A. Dix, before the Senate Committee, Stale of New 
York, on p. 255, Report of the Select Committee of the Senate on the Affairs of Trin- 
ity Church -with the Testimony Relative thereto. Albany : Van Benthuysen, printer, 
1857. 



1848] Financial Reform 327 

of a movement which averted financial disaster and se- 
cured to the Corporation a residuum of its old estate suf- 
ficient to carry on the work for which it stands to-day 
responsible to Almighty God, and to the cause of the 
Christian religion in the city of New York. 



CHAPTER XV. 

RELATIONS OF TRINITY CHURCH TO OTHER CITY CHURCHES. 

Vestry Agree to Transference of Lot on Fifth Avenue to St. George the Martyr for 
Erection of a Hospital — Request for an Advance from the Rector of St. George the 
Martyr to Enable him to Collect Funds in England — Resignation of Rev. Cornelius 
R. Duffie — Parish of St. John Baptist Organized — Endowment of Geneva College 
Granted by Vestry — Leave of Absence Granted to Dr. Wainwright — The Passing of 
the Parish Clerk — Donation Granted to the Late Clerk — Grant to Church of the Inter- 
cession — Sermons of Dr. Barclay Presented by Dr. Ducachet to Vestry — Report of 
Committee on Church Extension — Review of the Negotiations with St. George's 
Church — Agreement Reached with the Vestry of Trinity Church — Use of Old St. 
George's Granted to Church of Holy Evangelists — Leave of Absence Granted to Dr. 
Parks — Memorial from Calvary Church to be Incorporated as a Chapel of Trinity 
Church — Conferences Held— Approval at First of the Plan by Dr. Berrian, who 
Afterwards Withdraws his Approval to it — Petition of Calvary Church Declined — 
Purchase of Lots on Twenty-fifth Street Authorized — Appointment of Messrs. Walter 
and Bristow as Organists — Application for Permission to Build on St. Paul's Church- 
yard Refused — Death of Dr. Ogilby — Destruction by Fire of St. Thomas's Church — 
Friendly Offices of Trinity Parish. 

IT is necessary now to retrace our steps and resume the 
consideration of certain matters referred to in the 
preceding chapter. On the loth of April, 1848, the Stand- 
ing Committee made a special report upon the tripartite 
agreement to be carried out by Trinity Corporation, the 
City of New York, and the Anglo-American Church of 
St. George the Martyr. Citing the facts in the case, they 
recommended that the conveyance to the city of the plot 
at the foot of Duane Street be made. After considera- 
tion, it was ordered " that a release or quit claim of all and 
every right of the Corporation " to the land " bounded by 
Washington, Reade, West, and Duane Streets be executed 
328 



1848] St. George the Martyr 329 

to the City Corporation without covenant of warranty of 
title " on compHance with 

" resolutions passed by the City Corporation on the loth day of May 
last as to the conveyance by it of that part of block No. 73 of the 
common lands bounded by the 5th avenue, 53rd and 54th streets, ex- 
tending from the 5th avenue three hundred feet west of the same and 
parallel thereto, to the Rector, Church Wardens, and Vestrymen of 
the Anglo-American Church of St. George the Martyr for the erection 
of a Hospital and Chapel for the benefit of British emigrants." 

It wa.s also determined to refer back the application of 
that church to the Standing Committee with power in 
order " that it may the more effectually secure the prem- 
ises to be conveyed to the church permanently for the 
uses intended."^ 

At the same meeting an application was received from 
the Rev. Mr. Marcus, Rector of St. George the Martyr, 
" for an advance of his stipend for a certain period, or 
a special appropriation hereafter to be returned by him, to 
enable him to go to England for the purpose of raising 
money to establish and endow the Church and Hospital 
of St. George the Martyr in this city for the benefit of 
poor British emigrants."" 

The request of Mr. Marcus for an advance of his 
stipend was granted, on condition that the Church of St. 
George the Martyr acquiesced, and Mr. Marcus soon 
after .sailed for England. 

In a letter to Dr. Berrian, written March 9, 1849, in 
which Mr. Marcus speaks of various dignitaries, mutual 
friends, and the state of the Church, he laments the changes 
that have occurred during his years of absence in America, 
and the many appeals from the United States "which 
have almost drained the springs of benevolence." 

" But I do not despond, nor doubt of success. I will 

' Records, liber iii., folios 475, 476. ■ IhiJ., folio 476. 



330 History of Trinity Church [1848 

put on a frieze gown and with the cross in my hand stand 
at the corners of the streets and beg for Christ's sake the 
alms of the Church before I give up what I have begun 
in faith." ^ 

After a service of nearly two years as Deacon, the 
Rev. Mr. Dufifie presented his resignation, April 10, 1848. 
With the aid of his immediate family and some friends, he 
organized a new church, to be called the Church of St. 
John the Baptist, for which a handsome edifice in the 
Gothic style was built on the corner of Lexington Avenue 
and East Thirty-fifth Street, on a site given by his family. 
Mr. Dufifie remained connected with that parish through- 
out his life, serving forty-five years as its Rector, and 
seven more as Rector Emeritus. He was also Chaplain 
of Columbia College for many years. 

Upon a report made May 12, 1848, on the subject of 
Geneva College, a resolution was adopted by the Vestry 
declaring it expedient, for the purpose of promoting re- 
ligious education, to endow the College with an annuity 
of $6000, to commence on the ist of May, 1866. The 
sum so appropriated was 

" to be thereafter annually expended in the support of professors and 
tutors and upon terms, conditions, and provisoes, and with checks to 
be hereafter settled so as to ensure its application to the uses intended; 
provided the College shall raise by subscription and other grants a 
sufficient sum to ensure the continuance of the institution in its late 
efficiency until the endowment of this Church shall be available, and 
it was referred to the same Committee to consider and report the 
proper terms, conditions, provisoes, and checks aforesaid." 

The Rector was added to the Committee." 

The Board of Trustees of Geneva College sent its 
thanks for the proposed endowment. Their communica- 
tion was accompanied by a letter from the Bishop of 

• No. 518, Berrian MSS. '' Records, liber iii., folio 483. 



1848] The Passing of the Parish Clerk 331 

Western New York, Dr. De Lancey, expressing his 
" heart-felt thanks for this great benefit to his diocese." 

The Rev. Dr. Wainwright, who in addition to his pa- 
rochial duties, held several offices of responsibility in con- 
nection with the general work of the Church, found 
himself in the fall of 1848, in an enfeebled condition from 
the effects of a prolonged attack of whooping-cough. 
Rest and change were needed. Leave of absence was 
granted to him for a term not exceeding one year, with a 
continuance of his salary and a gratuity of two thousand 
dollars. ^ Dr. Wainwright sailed for Europe in the month 
of September 1848, accompanied by some members of his 
family, and travelled extensively and leisurely through 
portions of Europe, Egypt, and the Holy Land. 

During his absence which extended to October 1849, 
the Rev. John Henry Hobart was invited to officiate in the 
Parish. 

One effect of the Oxford Movement was the gradual 
withdrawal from service of that eighteenth century institu- 
tion, the Parish clerk, who was really a survival of the sing- 
ing men and boys who were found in every parish before 
the Reformation. Many complaints had been made to the 
Music Committee in the spring of 1848 about the style of 
music at St. Paul's. In this condemnation the clerk and 
organist were included. After an anxious discussion by the 
committee (for musical matters are difficult and delicate to 
handle) the Rector finally determined to bring the matter 
before the Vestry. This was done at the March meeting, 
when he stated that the music of St. Paul's Chapel was 
generally disapproved of, and that another organist and a 
reorganization of the choir were deemed requisite for its im- 
provement. An order was then adopted " that the Rector 
be authorized to receive the resignation or, if necessary, 

' Records, liber iii., folio 497. 



332 History of Trinity Church [1848 

proceed to the dismissal of the present organist and clerk 
of that chapel." ^ 

It appears that the resignations took effect at the 
beginning of the fall and that a new organist and choir 
were then installed to the great satisfaction of the congre- 
gation. With the withdrawal of the clerk from St. Paul's 
Chapel that functionary disappeared from the Parish, and 
his place knew him no more. 

Mr. James A. Sparks, who had been the clerk for five 
years, felt his removal keenly. In September he sent a 
petition to the Vestry stating his destitute circumstances, 
mentioning his long continuance in the choir and his in- 
cumbency of the clerkship " at two hundred dollars a year." 
The Vestry kindly considered his case, and in view of the 
fact that he had been " unexpectedly deprived of his situa- 
tion," and of his long membership in the choir of St. 
Paul's Church they gave him a donation of three hundred 
dollars." 

On the 9th of October, 1848, the new Parish of the In- 
tercession at Carmansville petitioned for aid. An annuity 
of one hundred dollars was granted, on condition " that its 
church can be used for funerals at the cemetery and its 
Rector officiate at them when requested, also in the ceme- 
tery at burials." ^ 

November 13, 1848 a communication was received from 
the Rev. Henry W. Ducachet, in his youth a member of 
this Parish, and then Rector of St. Stephen's, Philadelphia. 
In his letter to Dr. Berrian he stated that he had " in his 
possession a large collection of the manuscript discourses 
of the Rev. Dr. Henry Barclay, the second Rector of this 
Church, and an ancestor of his wife, some of which were 
preached to the Mohawk Indians, and others in the Parish, 
from his induction in November 1746 to 1764 when he 

' Records, liber iii., folio 474. '' Hid., folio 493. ^ Ibid., folio 494. 



1848] St. George's Church 333 

died : and, for the purpose of securing their permanent 
preservation, offering to present them to the Vestry of 
this Church." ' 

The gift was accepted and the Rector was requested 
to convey to Dr. Ducachet, " the thanks of this Vestry 
for these memorials of olden times." ~ The proposed gift 
was, however, never made, or else the sermons have dis- 
appeared, as they are not now among the archives of the 
Parish. 

An important report was made about this time by the 
Committee upon Church Extension. The opinions of 
eminent counsel, such as Mr. David B. Ogden, the Hon. 
John C. Spencer, and Mr. Benjamin F. Butler were ap- 
pended to the report. They agreed that it would be 
hazardous, in view of the provisions of the charter and the 
general laws governing religious corporations, either to 
purchase land for a new chapel or to erect a church within 
grounds purchased for a cemetery. The Committee em- 
bodied their conclusions in these resolutions which were 
unanimously adopted by the Vestry : 

" Resolved that it is not expedient for this Corporation to purchase 
any additional real estate for the erection of a chapel thereon or for 
other purposes. 

" Resolved that the cemetery grounds, under the law as it now 
stands, should not be used for the erection thereon of a chapel, or for 
any purpose not mentioned in the act under which it was purchased." ' 

We come now to the case of St. George's Church in 
Beekman Street. 

The story of the removal of St. George's Church from 
the site in Beekman Street occupied by it for nearly forty 
years, to Stuyvesant Square, is a long one, and very much 
complicated. The record of the proceedings, as given in 

' Records, liber iii., folio 494. ■' Ibid., folio 497. ''■Ibid., folio 498. 



334 History of Trinity Church [1849 

the Vestry Minutes, would furnish material for a good- 
sized pamphlet. I shall not attempt to present it in full, 
but confine myself to a condensed account, made as brief 
as Is consistent with the design of presenting a clear and 
coherent view of the subject. 

St. George's Chapel, built in the old Montgomerie 
ward in 175 1-2, was the first Chapel of Ease in Trinity 
Parish. In the year 181 1, it was set off as a separate 
parish, and endowed with an amount of property in real 
estate sufficient to ensure its maintenance. In the year 
1844, the Vestry of St. George's Church made an applica- 
tion to Trinity for help to build a chapel up-town ; they 
asked for a gift of $25,000 to purchase lots for that pur- 
pose, believing that the additional amount needed for the 
erection of a suitable edifice, $60,000, would be forthcom- 
ing from other quarters. The Corporation of Trinity did 
not accede to the request. 

In the month of January, 1849, ^ communication was 
received from the Vestry of St. George's Church, repre- 
senting that their church in Beekman Street had become 
less desirable as a place of worship, on account of the 
removal of many of the inhabitants of that part of the city, 
and the conversion of dwellings into warehouses, shops, 
and manufactories ; and that in 1846 they had commenced 
the erection of a large, substantial and elegant church edi- 
fice in 1 6th Street, which was so far completed as to be fit 
for occupancy, but of which the cost had largely exceeded 
the estimates ; and they asked for a release of the condi- 
tions of the deed of August 4, 181 2, conveying the chapel 
in Beekman Street to them, which conditions were, that 
the said chapel should be forever used for divine service, 
and that the corporation of St. George's should keep and 
maintain forever at least one public church as a place of 
worship in the city ; and they requested a grant of power 



1849] St. George's Church 335 

to mortgage or sell their property received from Trinity 
Church, in order to meet the expense of a proposed 
removal to the upper part of the city. They further prom- 
ised that on the granting of such release the same condi- 
tions would be annexed to the tenure of the property in 
1 6th Street, which had been given them by Peter G. 
Stuyvesant, Esq. The Vestry of St. George's also asked 
that they might be heard, through a committee which they 
had appointed for that purpose. 

The negotiations which followed at this request con- 
tinued for about two years before a conclusion satisfactory 
to both sides was reached. Repeated conferences were 
held with the committee of St. George's Church, and many 
reports and references appear on our Minutes. It seems 
that a considerable number of the congregation of the 
church in Beekman Street were opposed to the removal, 
being strongly attached to their old home, and desirous 
that it should be kept up on the ancient site ; and they 
memorialized the Vestry of Trinity, in earnest remon- 
strance against the design to abandon the church and 
alienate the property. 

The first conference was held in the Vestry office, 187 
Fulton Street, February 19, 1849. The Committee ob- 
serve, that " in the long lapse of thirty-seven years, this is 
the first instance of any conference being held as re- 
quested." The committee of St. George's Church urged 
that the real estate be released from the conditions of 
the gift from Trinity Church, "so that it may be advan- 
tageously disposed of and the proceeds thereof applied to 
the payment of their debt." To this the Vestry did not 
assent and the conference produced no result. 

Meanwhile, the new St. George's, on Stuyvesant Square 
and 1 6th Street, was opened for divine service during the 
winter of 1848-9, and consecrated on Tuesday, December 



336 History of Trinity Church [1850 

4, 1849, ^he Rector, Church Wardens, and Vestrymen of 
Trinity being present at the service.' 

Negotiations were soon resumed. At a meeting of the 
Vestry, held February 1 1, 1850, resolutions were presented 
and adopted as follows : 

" Resolved, that in the opinion of this Vestry the church edifice of 
St. George's in Beekman Street, ought, if possible, to be preserved for 
the original purpose of maintaining public worship according to the 
rites and doctrines of the P. E. Church, in that part of the City, as well 
in pursuance of the spirit of the original grants and foundation, as with 
a regard to the religious wants of the persons of our communion 
resident in the Fourth Ward of the City and parts of the adjoining 
wards." 

'■'■Resolved, that the resolutions reported by the Standing Com- 
mittee be referred back to them with instructions to confer with the 
Vestry of St. George's Church, or its Committee, in order to ascertain 
if an arrangement can be made with said Vestry on the following 
terms : viz., That the Corporation do release from all conditions 
reserved by them all or any (as may be desired) of the property 
formerly granted by them to St. George's Church; upon the said 
St. George's Church conveying the lots at the corner of Beekman and 
Cliff Streets, as originally conveyed to said St. George's Church (ex- 
clusive of the additions afterwards made) with the building thereon, 
to said Trustees, or to such Religious Corporation, now existing, or 
hereafter to be created, as the Corporation of Trinity Church may 
direct, and upon such conditions and covenants as said Corporation 
may prescribe for the better securing the said church edifice and its 

' It may be of interest to note that the Rev. Dr. Berrian was the first clergyman 
invited to preach in the new church, which he did on the evening of Sunday, January 

7> 1849- 

" It has always been my purpose and desire that you should be the first clergy- 
man invited to preach in our new Church both from my personal regard for yourself and 
my high respect for that ancient mother of churches over which you preside and from 
which St. George's has received so much. I had intended to wait, however, until we 
were more completed. But I have been laid up all the week with sickness and must 
have some help to-morrow. Will you do me the great favor to preach for me to- 
morrow evening at 7| o'clock?" — Extract from a letter from the Rev. Stephen H. 
Tyng, D.D., to the Rev. William Berrian, D.D., dated "56 East i6th St., Sat., 
Jan. 6,1849," No. 514, Berrian MSS. 

Dr. Berrian 's Diary shows that he accepted the invitation. 



1850] St. George's Church 337 

grounds for the maintenance of the worship and doctrine of the P. E. 
Church in the vicinity thereof, and the parts of the city adjoining." 

The Vestry of St. George's refused their assent to the 
proposals contained in these resolutions. 

The next proposal was as follows : that the Vestry- 
would release the condition or conditions of the old grant 
to St. George's Church, if the Vestry of that church 
would agree to transfer the said conditions to the tenure 
of the property on Stuyvesant Square, and would also pay 
to the Corporation of Trinity Church the sum of $25,000 
as a valuable consideration therefor ; the Corporation 
agreeing "to pay and apply interest upon the said sum at 
the rate of six per cent, per annum, half-yearly forever, for 
the maintenance of a separate church located or to be lo- 
cated within the bounds of the former Montgomerie's ward 
in the City of New York, as the Vestry of this Corporation 
shall from time to time elect." The object of the Vestry was, 
evidently, to save the old church in Beekman Street, or to 
compel the Vestry of St. George's to assist in maintaining 
divine services in the quarter of the city from which they 
had removed. 

To this proposal the Vestry of St. George's made reply, 
agreeing, 

1st. To pay to Trinity Church the sum of $25,000 for 
the removal of all restrictions on their property received 
from that Corporation. 

2d. To place the same restrictions on the property in 
i6th Street, as those existing on the church in Beekman 
Street. 

3d. To sell to Trinity Church or to any Corporation 
which it may designate and whose obligation for payment 
it will guarantee, the church and ground on the corner of 
Cliff and Beekman Streets, for the sum of $25,000, pro- 
vided the Corporation of Trinity Church will release the 



VOL. IV.— 2, 



338 History of Trinity Church [1850 

property possessed by St. George's Church and received 
from Trinity Church, from all restrictions contained in the 
deed of gift. 

4th. That the Corporation will not comply with the 
resolutions passed by the Vestry of Trinity Church re- 
quiring a payment of $25,000, and a transfer of the 
restrictions to the church in Stuyvesant Square, while the 
debts of the Corporation to any considerable amount 
remain unpaid. 

This communication was received April 8, 1850. 

Another conference followed. 

To pass over the details of these tedious discussions, 
and to give the final result : it was at length agreed, that 
instead of making a payment of $25,000 to Trinity Church 
the Vestry of St. George's should convey the church in 
Beekman Street with the land on which it stood, " together 
with all its furniture, bell, clock, and organ to such person 
or persons or body corporate as Trinity Church shall 
appoint upon the execution and delivery to St. George's 
Church of a bond of Trinity Corporation for $25,000 
payable in five years with interest at six per cent." The in- 
struments proposed for the purpose of carrying out the 
arrangements between the two Corporations were to be in 
the following form : 

1st. A General Mutual Agreement providing for all 
the particulars of the arrangement as settled and approved 
by the counsel of the two Corporations. 

2d. An indenture of mortgage to be executed by the 
Corporation of St. George's Church to Trinity Corpora- 
tion, on the new edifice on Stuyvesant Square and the lot 
on which it stood, conditioned for the restricted use of the 
present edifice and any other building to be erected on it 
as a Protestant Episcopal Church, or on failure thereof the 
payment of $50,000 as damages liquidated in the mort- 



1851] St. George's Church 339 

gage, and also containing a covenant for such restricted 
use of the buildings and the usual power of sale. 

It was further agreed that " no release of the conditions 
mentioned in the General Mutual Agreement or of any 
part of the same shall be executed by the parties of the 
second part, their successors or assigns, except upon the 
request of the parties of the first part, their successors or 
assigns, and to such persons as they shall appoint, un- 
less otherwise required so to do by a judgment or order 
in an action or proceedings in such form as counsel may 
approve." 

Thus, in the month of December, 1850, the long 
negotiation between the two Corporations was concluded. 

The property in Beekman Street having thus been se- 
cured from loss by alienation or sale, the Corporation of 
Trinity Church made such appropriations as were needed to 
maintain religious services in Old St. George's, until such 
times as it could be transferred to some religious corporation 
for permanent occupation. An opportunity soon presented 
itself. It will be remembered that in the year 1847 the 
Church of the Holy Evangelists, in Vandewater Street, 
belonging to the City Mission Societj^ and subject to a 
mortgage which that Society was unable to pay, had been 
saved by a loan from Trinity Church. That church, of 
which the Rev. Benjamin Evans was the Rector, being 
still in embarrassed circumstances, a plan was formed for 
abandoning the site in Vandewater Street, and removing 
to the old church in Beekman Street. Consent was 
required for this purpose from Trinity Church and St. 
George's, and negotiations were commenced with these two 
Corporations, looking to the carrying out of the design. 
The negotiations were successful ; and in the spring of the 
year 185 1, St. George's Church conveyed to the Rector, 
Church Wardens, and Vestrymen of the Church of the 



340 History of Trinity Church [1851 

Holy Evangelists, the church on Beekman Street, with 
all the furniture, clock, bell, and organ, in pursuance of 
the conditions and stipulations contained in the General 
Mutual Agreement already mentioned ; and with the un- 
derstanding that a bond and mortgage to Trinity Church 
for $50,000, the purchase money, should be executed by 
the Corporation of the Holy Evangelists ; that the Vande- 
water Street property should be abandoned to pay the mort- 
gages upon it ; that no person should be called to ofificiate 
as Rector or Minister in St. George's Chapel without the 
approval of the Vestry of Trinity ; that the name, " St. 
George's Chapel," or " Old St. George's Chapel," should 
be maintained always, and that Trinity should be allowed 
to place a marble slab in front of the tower, inscribed with 
that name, and bearing the dates of its erection, destruc- 
tion by fire, and rebuilding. The Rev. Mr. Evans, in a 
letter addressed to Mr. William H. Harison, March 5, 
1 85 1, informed him that there would be a cheerful and 
ready compliance with all the proposals made by the Cor- 
poration of Trinity Church, and his statements were 
confirmed by the action of the Vestry of the Holy Evangel- 
ists at a meeting held April 28, 185 1. For fourteen years 
therefore, until June, 1865, the work continued to be car- 
ried on by Mr. Evans and his successor, the Rev. J. H. 
Hobart Brown, under the oversight, and with the assis- 
tance of Trinity Church, given from time to time as the 
difficulty of maintaining the Parish increased. 

The health of the Rev. Mr. Parks was seriously im- 
paired, causing anxiety in the Parish. Upon communica- 
tions made by the Rector and Dr. Hoffman, the Vestry 
granted him nine-months leave of absence, a continuance 
of his salary, and an arrangement for such advances of sal- 
ary as might be necessary.' 

' Records, liber iii., folio 498. 



i8si] Church Extension 341 

The need of a larger staff of clergy was becoming ap- 
parent if the Parish was to fulfil her duty to all sorts and 
conditions of men. Pending the question about perma- 
nent appointments, at a meeting held November 12, 1849, 
the Rev. Dr. Haight and the Rev. Mr. Hobart were re- 
quested to continue their services in the Parish for another 
year " under the direction of the Rector." ' 

Recurring to the necessity, now conceded, of making 
provision for the spiritual wants of parishioners who had 
removed to the upper part of the city and still desired to 
retain their connection with the Parish, the Committee on 
Church Extension were requested to enquire into the ex- 
pediency of erecting an additional chapel, or chapels, 
either on ground then owned by the Corporation, or on 
ground to be acquired for that purpose, and of applying, 
if necessary, to the Legislature of the State for an act 
authorizing the acquisition of land for that purpose. 
While this subject was under consideration, it happened 
that a vacancy occurred in Calvary Church, 4th Avenue 
and 2 1 St Street, caused by the resignation of the 
Rev. Mr. Southard, the Rector. The Vestry of that 
Parish, by a formal vote, requested the clergy of Trinity 
Church to take it under their pastoral care, and " to sup- 
ply the ordinary duties thereof for such period as the 
Church may continue without a Rector." In a letter to 
the Vestry, Dr. Berrian and the Assistant Ministers say 
that " they have come to the conclusion that it would be 
desirable to accede to the request." ' 

Under this arrangement the Rev. Dr. Wainwright 
officiated frequently in Calvary Church, the other Assis- 
tants taking their turns also in supplying the services. 
That Parish was then in an unquiet state ; it was also bur- 
dened with a great and increasing debt ; and there was a 

' Records, liber iii., folio 529. '■ Ibiii., folio 529. 



342 History of Trinity Churcli [1851 

lack of the peace and harmony essential to progress. The 
ministrations of the Trinity clergy were evidently accept- 
able to the people of Calvary, while the clergy found it a 
great pleasure to render them. It was not surprising that 
when it became known that the Corporation of Trinity 
were thinking of building a chapel up-town, that the Ward- 
ens and Vestrymen of Calvary should have addressed a 
memorial to them, April 4, 1850, praying them to take that 
Church into their system, as a chapel of Trinity Parish, 
and for that purpose, proposing to convey to them their 
church edifice, furniture, etc., with the ground on which it 
stood, upon certain terms and conditions specified in the 
memorial. 

At first the proposition was received by members of 
the Parish, and some of the Vestry, with enthusiasm. It 
seemed to be a method for securing at once at a compara- 
tively small cost a new church building and a congrega- 
tion already gathered in the upper and fashionable part of 
the city, and thus avoiding the risk attending the collec- 
ting of an entirely new congregation. It was frankly stated 
that the chief object of the proposed union with Trinity 
Church was relief from pecuniary embarrassments of the 
Parish. The memorial was accompanied with a copy of 
the Act of March 30, 1850, and its amendments, amend- 
ing the general act for the Incorporation of Religious So- 
cieties which had been passed on April 5, 181 3 ; and "a 
statement of the debts and obligations of Calvary Church." 
A Committee of Conference had been appointed by the 
Vestry of Calvary Church. After some earnest discussion 
the whole subject was committed to the Standing Com- 
mittee for report.^ 

Meanwhile the proposition from Calvary was warmly 
discussed by the clergy, the parishioners, and the Vestry- 

' Records, liber iii., folio 544. 



1851] Calvary Church 343 

men. Some were eager to welcome the Parish and extend 
to her all the rights and privileges enjoyed by themselves : 
the more thoughtful and conservative, however, were doubt- 
ful. As for the Rector who had watched with interest the 
growth of Calvary under its young and ardent head, he 
regarded the proposal with favor, at first, but afterwards 
changed his mind, perceiving many and grave objections to 
the plan. He addressed the Vestry in a statement of his 
views upon the subject. Alluding to his strong desire for 
an up-town chapel, he had finally concluded that it was 
better to build one, than to annex an existing church and 
congregation. He admits a change of mind upon the 
subject. 

" When the scheme of incorporating Calvary Church into the Parish 
was first proposed, it so far fell within the scope of my general views, 
and seemed to hold out, in some respects, so easy and hasty a means 
of accomplishing them, that I looked upon it with a certain degree of 
favor. But it was never so hearty and confident as that which appeared 
to be entertained by others, nor was it ever so strong as to interfere 
with my preference for the original plan." 

Dr. Berrian found himself in the embarrassing situation of 

" having in appearance at least acted with fickleness. In matters of 
principle there is not a point in my character of which I am more 
jealous than the preservation of consistency. But the question con- 
cerning Calvary Church involves no principle but resolves itself merely 
into expediency." 

Upon this subject 

" I freely acknowledge that my mind has undergone a material change. 
I have thought much of it myself and conferred much with others and 
have come to the conclusion that it is neither safe or wise." 

The reason for this conclusion he gives with great care. 
In answer to the question " what are the motives which 
influenced Calvary Church to make this request?" he says 



344 History of Trinity Church [1851 



" was it purely and simply from their decided preference of the system 
of a collegiate Church ? Was it, with the exception of a few of our 
parishioners, from any peculiar attachment to the Parish of Trinity 
Church itself ? The supposition in either case can by no means be 
granted. . . . Would they of their own heart and mind without 
regard to convenience and interest have been disposed themselves, or 
have urged their representatives to solicit this union with Trinity 
Church on mere abstract grounds ? I do not believe it myself nor do 
I think there are many others who would admit it. There is no 
shadow of doubt in my mind, then, that it is mainly if not entirely to 
get rid of an urgent pecuniary difficulty, and not with any such regard 
for the mere advantage of the Parish of Trinity Church as should dis- 
pose it with corresponding good feeling to step forward itself and 
cheerfully receive them." 

If this is "the genuine and leading motive," there is no 
security for permanence in its union with Trinity and as 
soon as it is 

" relieved from the pressure of its wants by the proposed connections 
and enabled to breathe freely and look around upon its new relations 
there is a strong probability that it would find occasion for new com- 
plaints. I do not call in question the sincerity and good faith of the 
proposition itself at the present moment." 

The Rector then contrasts the present independence of 
the congregation of Calvary with its dependence in the 
collegiate system of Trinity and anticipates that at some 
day not far distant it will " desire again its freedom with 
an ample endowment." He urges the rapid growth of 
Calvary as a source of apprehension : 

"Calvary Church after a feeble and protracted childhood has all at 
once had a sudden and unnatural growth which is but seldom accom- 
panied with healthiness and strength. This has been mainly owing to 
the rapid population of the waste places around it and the accidental 
circumstance of an almost unprecedented popularity on the part of the 
clergyman who very lately had the charge of it." 



1851] Calvary Church 345 

After a brief laudatory notice of the late Rector of 
Calvary, Dr. Berrian considers the question of the danger 
to the settled principles of Trinity by the addition of cor- 
porators who were not in sympathy with her soberness, 
soundness, and invariable attachment to high-church 
principles. He makes a careful estimate of the voters in 
the Parish church, St. Paul's and St. John's Chapels, and 
concludes that the new constituents from Calvary could 
outvote them in any contested election and " thus if it de- 
sired, change the whole character of the Parish." In con- 
clusion he says : 

" For my own part with a fearful example at this very moment before 
me of the overshadowing influence of what was merely designed to be 
a chapel, which has deranged and inverted the relations of an ancient 
Parish and in fact by the mere force of numbers changing the Vestry, 
has completely paralyzed and very nearly destroyed it, I am disposed to 
pause, to consider, to weigh the probabilities and look well to the con- 
sequences of a measure before adopting it, which with whatever 
prospect it may hold out of present advantages may possibly lead to 
mischief and evil which can never be retrieved." ' 

The Standing Committee presented on the 12th of 
May, 1850, a special report upon the subject : it was signed 
by every member. During its discussion a communication 
was received, signed by Drs. Wainwright and Higbeeand 
Mr. Parks. Those gentlemen were earnestly in favor of 
the annexation of Calvary to the Parish, and did all in 
their power to prevent the measure from falling through. 
But the counsels of the Rector and the judgment of his lay 
colleagues in the Corporation prevailed and the resolution 
brought in by the Standing Committee was adopted : 

" Resflheil, that the ap]ilication of Calvary Church in the City of 
New York to be allowed to unite with this Corporation as a Chapel be 
respectfully declined." 

' No. 563, Berrian MSS. 



346 History of Trinity Church [1851 

The offer of Calvary Church having been decHned, 
proceedings were hastened for the erection of a new 
chapel in the Parish. The Rector and the Committee on 
Church Extension were busily occupied during the summer 
and fall in examining proposed sites. An amendment to 
the General Act of 1813 had been obtained from the Legis- 
lature, authorizing the purchase of land for that purpose, 
and thus removing the last obstacle that stood in the way. 

The Committee reported verbally, November 2, 1850. 
After some discussion, it was resolved " that it is ex- 
pedient for this Corporation to purchase land in the upper 
part of the city of New York and erect a chapel thereon in 
connection with its Parish church."' 

Upon the further report of the committee that five lots 
of land belonging to Mr. Drake, four of which are situated 
on the north side of 25th Street and numbered 56, 57, 58, 
and 59 on the map of lands of the Farmers' Loan and 
Trust Company, and one on the south side of 26th Street 
number 14 on the same map lying between Broadway and 
the Sixth Avenue, could be purchased for about $3300 
each, the committee were authorized to contract for the 
purchase thereof " and also of three other lots adjoin- 
ing same either in the rear of the lots on 25th Street, or 
lying on either side thereof." 

The purchase of the lots having thus been completed, 
Mr. Richard Upjohn was appointed architect, and re- 
quested to make plans and designs for the new building 
and submit them, with specifications, to the Vestry. 

During the summer of 1850 two young musicians be- 
came organists in the Parish who afterward attained emi- 
nence in their chosen professions ; Mr. William H. Walter 
was appointed to St. Paul's Chapel and Mr. George F. 
Bristow to St. John's. 

' Records, liber iv. , folio 14. 



iSsi] Death of Dr. Ogilby 347 

On the nth of November, 1850, an allowance of $150 
was made to the Rector to provide for services in the Old 
St. George's, and $250 to a special committee for that 
purpose. 

An application by Hose Co. No. 8 for ground in the 
rear of St. Paul's Chapel on which to build an Engine 
House was declined, on the ground that it vvas inexpedient 
" to hazard any disturbance of graves a large number of 
which have been made in a space where only such can be 
placed." ' 

The Rev. John Ogilby, D.D., Professor of History in 
the General Theological Seminary, a man of great and 
growing usefulness, had been travelling in Europe for 
more than a year in the hope of restoring his impaired 
health. He was most affectionately remembered in the 
Parish, and frequent prayers for his recovery were offered. 
On the loth of February, 185 1, the Vestry granted five 
hundred dollars towards his travelling expenses. Before 
the letter announc'ng the gift had reached Europe, he had 
ended his earthly life at Paris, on Sunday, February 2, 
1 85 1, in the forty-first year of his age. The funeral ser- 
vice was held in Trinity Church, with a sermon by his inti- 
mate friend, Bishop Doane of New Jersey. The Vestry 
attended the funeral in a body. 

The destruction of St. Thomas's Church by fire early 
in March, 185 1, led to the appointment of the Rector, the 
Hon. Samuel Jones, and Mr. Robert Hyslop, as a com- 
mittee to express the sympathy of Trinity Church with 
that congregation, and to offer it " such accommodation 
as its church and chapels may afford." " It also offered 
" the use of St. George's Chapel in Beekman Street for 
service at night, in case it should either be needed or 
desired."'^ The answer from St. Thomas's Church was 

' Records, liber iv.. folio 21. '• II'iiL, liber iii., folio 30. ^ Ibid., folio 36. 



348 History of Trinity Church [1851 

received in April, in a letter from the Rector and the War- 
dens, enclosing a resolution of the Vestry of St. Thomas's 
Church on April 11, 1851, in which the sympathy of the 
venerable Corporation of Trinity Church is received with 
peculiar gratitude, and thanks are returned " for the offer of 
temporary accommodation." In the letter of the Rector and 
Wardens, it is said : " That some, influenced by old associa- 
tion, and others, by the knowledge of your kind invitation, 
have already found their temporary place in your Churches ; 
and will continue to do so, during what we fear must be a 
long interruption, if not fatal disturbance of our own 
household of faith." 



CHAPTER XVI. 

TRINITY CHURCH AND THE ANGLICAN COMMUNION. 

The Jubilee in 1851 of the S. P. G. — Letter from the Archbishop of Canterbury — 
Reply from Diocese of New York — Committee Appointed by Trinity to Take Action — 
Resolutions and Address of Vestry Sent to the Venerable Society — Commemoration 
Service in Trinity Church — Sermon by Dr. McVickar — Special Offering by the Parish — 
Suggestion by Bishop Hopkins for a Pan-Anglican Council — Reply of the S. P. G. — 
Invitation from Archbishop of Canterbury to American Church to Send a Delegation 
to England for the Concluding Jubilee Services — Informal Meeting of House of 
Bishops — Dr. Wainwright Selected to Represent American Church — Leave of Absence 
and Donation Granted by Vestry — Presentation by Bishop De Lancey of Portrait of 
Caleb Heathcote — Arrangements for Transfer of St. George's Chapel to Congregation 
of the Holy Evangelists — Application from St. George's Chapel for Certain Repairs 
Granted by Vestry — Portrait of Bishop Provoost Presented to Corporation — Resigna- 
tion of General Laight as Warden — Plans for Chapel on Twenty-fifth Street Considered 
— Financial Condition of Parish — Resolutions as to Building Chapel on Twenty-fifth 
Street — Plans and Specifications for New Chapel Adopted — First Public Service of 
Church Choral Society — Death of General Laight and Adam Tredwell — Increase of 
Clerical Staff Considered — Petition of Geneva College for Modification in Terms 
of Endowment Considered and Granted — Election of Dr. Creighton as Bishop of New 
York — His Declination — William Augustus Muhlenberg — His Plans for a Hospital — 
Site on Fifth Avenue Belonging to St. George the .Martyr Transferred with Consent 
of Trinity Parish to the New St. Luke's Hospital — Conditions of Transfer. 

THE Society for the Propagation of the Gospel ob- 
served its third Jubilee year, June 16, 1 85 I to June 16, 
1852, with a series of thanksgiving services held in Enor. 
land and the various countries to which its missionaries 
had gone. These services were not only reminiscent and 
historical, but also adapted to increase the interest in 
missionary work throughout the world. 

It was also determined to receive the alms and offer- 
ings of the faithful for a Jubilee Fund for the e.xtension of 
the work of the Society. 

349 



350 History of Trinity Church [1851 

A circular letter from the President of the Venerable 
Society the Most Reverend John Bird Sumner, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, was sent to every American Bishop 
suggesting " the joint celebration of a jubilee in which all 
the members of our Church must feel a common interest," 
and expressing a desire for closer union with the Church 
in America. The Archbishop expressly disclaimed any 
wish that the offerings at these services should be given 
to the Jubilee Fund: "We desire no gift, but only your 
Christian sympathy and the Communion of Prayer. If, 
however, the alms of your congregations be added to their 
prayers we should rejoice to see them appropriated to the 
behalf of the present needs of your own Church." 

The letter for the Diocese of New York, addressed 
" To the Acting Bishop in the Diocese of New York," and 
dated at Lambeth, March 28, 1851, reached New York 
early in May. 

Upon the Standing Committee, then acting as the Ec- 
clesiastical Authority of the Diocese, devolved the duty of 
making reply to this invitation. In doing so they recipro- 
cated the sentiments of good-will expressed by the Arch- 
bishop and acknowledged the indebtedness of the Church 
in America to the Venerable Society. Accepting his sug- 
gestion, they informed him that 

" the opening of the Jubilee year will accordingly be celebrated in 
Trinity Church, New York, the mother church of the Diocese, on 
Monday June, 16, by divine service and a sermon and the administration 
of the Holy Communion on which occasion the clergy and laity, gen- 
erally, have been invited to attend ; and we have also recommended, 
that, on the first Sunday after Trinity, June 22, or on the first Sunday 
thereafter, which may be more convenient, appropriate sermons be 
preached in every church in the Diocese, and a Collection made to be 
appropriated to the Oregon Mission, or some branch of the Missions 
of the Church." 

The Vestry next considered the proper action to be 



1851] Jubilee of the S. P. G. 351 

taken by them in reference to that most interesting oc- 
casion. It was resolved to attend the service in a body, 
and make an offering of the sum of $3000 to be applied 
to sustaining missions in the Diocese of New York, and 
also, as a further testimonial of their gratitude for the 
great things done by the Venerable Society, that an an- 
nuity of $250 be paid to " the Right Reverend Incumbent 
of the Missionary Bishopric of Cape Palmas in Africa, 
until this Vestry shall see fit to pay to some person or 
persons, or body thereto authorized by the General Con- 
vention, a capital sum of five thousand dollars to be duly 
secured to that object." It was also resolved that a copy 
of the resolutions and an address of congratulation be 
sent to the Venerable Society in London " to be signed by 
all the Members of the Vestry : and that the Reverend, 
the Clergy of the Parish, be requested to join in and sign 
the same." ' The address, sealed with the corporate seal 
of the Church, was forwarded to the Rev. Prebendary 
Hawkins, Secretary of the Society. 

On the day appointed for the commemoration of the 
Jubilee by the Diocese of New York, Trinity Church was 
filled long before the hour of service. It is said that two 
thousand persons occupied Broadway and the approaches 
to the church, unable to enter. Special invitations had 
been sent to the Wardens and Vestrymen of the parishes of 
the city and vicinity. The faculty and students of Col- 
umbia College assembled at the College ^ and marched in 
procession to Trinity Church, wearing the academic cos- 
tume. Each class was preceded by a marshal with a 
white baton.'' The procession was met at the north 

'Records, liber iv., folio 445. 

'' The College was then in College I'lace, its original site. It was removed to 
Forty-ninth Street in 1857. 

'The Rector and pupils of Trinity School and the Rev. Mr. Powell's Military 
School on Staten Island also attended the services and had specially reserved seats. 



352 History of Trinity Church [1851 

sacristy door by the Wardens and Vestrymen of Trinity 
Church, other vestries, and the assembled clergy. The 
augmented procession moved around the chancel to the 
south side of the church and thence to the great tower 
entrance, and up the middle aisle. The ofificiants, six 
deacons and twelve priests, vested in surplices and stoles, 
entered from the south sacristy and took their places in 
the chancel. The priests occupied the stalls and the 
deacons seats in front of them. 

The opening voluntary was from the Messiah : " The 
Lord gave the word." 

Morning Prayer was begun by the Rev. Martin P. 
Parks. The Ninth Selection was used instead of the Psalm 
for the day. The First Lesson, Isaiah liv., was read by Rev. 
Dr. R. U. Morgan of Christ Church, Rye.' The Second 
Lesson, St. John xvii., was read by the Rev. Charles H. 
Halsey, Rector of Christ Church, New York City. 

The Benedictus was also from the Consecration ser- 
vice. The Creed and the remainder of the Morning 
Prayer were said by the Rev. Dr. Edward Y. Higbee. 
The Introit was four stanzas of the Forty-second Selection 
of the Psalms in Metre, sung to the tune of St. Anns : 

" The Lord the only God is great. 
And greatly to be praised, 
In Sion on whose happy mount, 
His sacred throne is raised." 

The Communion Service was commenced by the Rev. 
Dr. Berrian, assisted by the Rev. Dr. Seabury, Epistoler, 
and the Rev. Dr. John J. Robertson, of St. Anne's, Fish- 
kill, Gospeller."^ 

'The Ninth Selection then was Tsalm viii., " O Lord our Governor "; portions 
of Psalm xxxiii., " Rejoice in the Lord ye Righteous"; Psalm cxvii., "O Praise the 
Lord"; and Psalm Ivii., " Set up thyself O God above the heavens." 

° The Collect, Epistle, and Gospel were those for Trinity Sunday, this being the 
Monday in Trinity week. 



1851] The Jubilee of the S. P. G. 353 

The well-known anthem by Travers, " Ascribe unto 
the Lord," was magnificently sung by Dr. Hodges's choir; 
no one could accompany as did that great master of the 
organ. 

It was expected that the Bishop of Western New York, 
then provisionally performing Episcopal duty in the Dio- 
cese of New York, would be the preacher, but imperative 
engagements compelled him to decline. The Rev. Dr. 
John McVickar of Columbia College was then invited to 
preach, and consented. His text was Leviticus xxv. 11, 
" A Jubilee shall the fiftieth year be to you." After men- 
tioning the reason for the service, the summons " of the 
earliest and greatest missionary society since the Refor- 
mation, and the one to whose labors we, under God, are 
here indebted for our Gospel light, as well as for a long 
continuance of care and liberal support," he examined the 
twofold significance of Jubilee, rejoicing and obligation. 
Without dwelling upon the past work of the Society, he 
sketched the condition of the Anglican Communion at 
home and abroad. Commending the institution of pro- 
vincial synods in Australia and Newfoundland, and plead- 
ing for the provincial system in the American Church, he 
cited opinions of several illustrious men in the early days 
of our independent existence. He glanced rapidly at 
some salient features of the American Church in the co- 
lonial and formative period, and reminded his hearers that 
as "we are not intruders in any part of the country our 
cure of souls should have no other local limits than our 
country's boundaries." Concisely outlining the religious 
condition of the whole Church of Christ, he ventured to 
urge closer communion with the Holy Eastern Church, 
and especially the Russian Church. In conclusion he 
thinks the Jubilee should be "a day of restitution in the 
Diocese so sorely divided and beset ; from it should come 



354 History of Trinity Church [1851 

peace and wise union, more love and confidence among 
brethren." They should believe that as there 

" are deeper grounds of rejection of Rome than questions of cross or 
surplice or solemn decoration of God's altar, so there are deeper and 
safer grounds of preference of our Church than its proximity to Calvin 
or Luther: and safer tests of our attachment to it than any wholesale 
condemnation of whatsoever is found within the limits of the Roman 
Communion. . . . We may humbly trust that this Jubilee will 
bring a blessing upon at least one thankful branch: and that the great 
reunion of this day will not be without its happy influence on all. We 
close with the cheering hope that the dark days of the Church of Eng- 
land are past and that in finding its voice, it will find its strength: and 
the great and good society whose Jubilee we celebrate and on whose 
name and labors we here invoke a blessing, will continue to be a praise 
and glory in the whole earth till its own mission be closed through the 
fullness of the Gentiles being gathered in. Amen — Amen." ' 

At the conclusion of the sermon the Rev. Dr. Benja- 
min I. Haight read the Offertory sentences, the alms 
being collected by the six deacons. While this was in 
progress, Mr. Wm. H. Harison, the Comptroller, ap- 
proached the altar rail, bearing in an ancient alms bason, 
the gift of William and Mary, three thousand dollars in gold 
coin, the Jubilee thank-offering of the Parish. The Rev. 
Dr. Wainwright proceeded with the Communion Service, 
the Trisagion being from Dr. Hodges's Communion Ser- 
vice in F. The Rector was celebrant. Three verses of 
the 26th Hymn were sung after the Consecration." 

' Response from the Diocese of New York to a Letter from his Grace the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, Inviting the Church of America to Unite with the Church of 
England in the Celebration of the Third Semi-Centennial Jubilee of the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. By authority. New York Church 
Depository, 20 John Street, 1851. 8vo. Pp. xvi.-38. This pamphlet contains a 
full account of the proceedings in connection with the Jubilee, including correspond- 
ence, services, and the sermon in full. 

'^ " Behold the innumerable host 
Of angels clothed in light 
Behold the spirits of the Just 

Whose faith is changed to sight," etc. 



1851] The Jubilee of the S. P. G. 355 

The Rev. Dr. Henry J. Whitehouse, Rector of St. 
Thomas's Church, and the Rev. Gregory T. Bedell, Rector 
of the Church of the Ascension, assisted in the adminis- 
tration to a very large number of clergy and laity. The 
service was closed and the Benediction pronounced by 
the Rev. Dr. Berrian, Rector of the Parish, and President 
of the Standing Committee of the Diocese. 

Thus closed a service which was long considered one 
of the grandest ever held in the Parish. The music under 
the direction of Dr. Hodges was by a selected choir of 
twenty-seven voices, some being from other choirs of the 
city. The final voluntary as the congregation was de- 
parting was the first chorus in the Messiah : " And the 
Glory of the Lord." ' 

The services in the United States during the Jubilee 
year served to draw the Church of England and the 
Church in America more closely together. Bishop Hop- 
kins, of Vermont, made the response to Archbishop Sum- 
ner's letter, in which the possibility of a council of all the 
Bishops in communion with Canterbury was suggested ; it 
was the first definite proposal by any Bishop upon the 
subject. Sixteen years after, in 1867, the first Lambeth 
Conference was held, and the Bishop of Vermont, then 
Presiding Bishop, was in attendance." 

Our English brethren determined to mark the close of 
the Jubilee year by a special service, June 15, 1852, in 
Westminster Abbey, with the Bishop of Oxford, the Rt. 
Rev. Dr. Wilberforce, as preacher. 

' A brief account of this service in connection with the notice of the Bi-Centennial 
of the Venerable Society is given on pp. 163-166, Year Book of 1901. A full account 
of all the English, Colonial, and American services is found in the Report of the 
S. P. G. for 1851, pp. 85-107; also in The First IVefk of tin- JiibiUe, London, 1851. 
A condensed notice is in Classifiid Digest of the Records of the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 1701-1892. London, 1893, pp. 81-83. 

" Pp. 392, 393, Life of Bishop Hopkins. 



356 History of Trinity Church [1851 

The very cordial manner in which the letter of Arch- 
bishop Sumner had been received in America and the 
affectionate greetings of American bishops, clergy, and 
diocesan conventions induced the Society to express by 
a formal vote, February 20, 1852, its wish for " a fuller 
and more complete intercommunion between the distant 
portions of the Church," and as an evidence thereof the 
Bishops in the United States were invited to delegate two 
or more of their number to take part in the concluding 
services in Westminster Abbey. This invitation was com- 
municated to the Bishops of the American Church in a 
letter from the Archbishop of Canterbury, expressing the 
hope that the invitation would be accepted, and promising 
a brotherly welcome ; the secretary of the Venerable So- 
ciety also wrote to second the invitation of the President. 
The " Senior Bishop," ' Dr. Chase, being at Robin's Nest, 
Illinois, a delay of a number of days would have occurred 
if action had been deferred until hearing from him. Dr. 
Wainwright, Secretary of the House of Bishops, was 
authorized to proceed to Hartford to confer with the 
Bishop of Connecticut, Dr. Brownell, " the Senior Bishop 
east of the mountains." Bishop Brownell was of the 
opinion that " an informal call of the House of Bishops 
was necessary or at least expedient." Bishop Chase de- 
clining to summon the Bishops for such a meeting, although 
desirous and anxious that American representatives should 
go to England, the call was issued by Bishop Brownell. On 
Thursday, April 29, 1852, ten Bishops assembled in St. 
John's Chapel, New York City. The Bishops of Michigan 
and Western New York were asked to represent their 
brethren at the closing Jubilee Service, and the Rev. Dr. 
Wainwright was appointed to present in person the resolu- 
tions to the President of the Society, Archbishop Sumner. 

' He was thus styled in all accounts of the proceedings, and not Presiding Bishop. 



1852] Mission to the Jubilee 357 

Another baleful shadow was then impending over the 
American Church. The lion-hearted and noble Bishop of 
New Jersey, Dr. George W. Doane, had been attacked by 
embittered and active enemies, and presented for trial. 
June 23rd was the day fixed for the procedure: no Bishop 
could cross the ocean. The Bishops in attendance at the 
meeting, and others who were unable to be present, pressed 
on Dr. Wainwright the necessity of his going to England, 
and representing them in Westminster Abbey. 

The matter came before the Vestry May 10, 1852. 
The case was fully stated, and the letters to Dr. Wain- 
wright were read. It was also represented that Dr. 
Wainwright " could not comply with the wishes ex- 
pressed in these letters unless this Vestry would grant him 
leave of absence and make provision for his expenses." 
Three months' leave of absence and an allowance of one 
thousand dollars were granted to him.' Dr. Wainwright 
sailed soon after and was warmly received in England. 
His presence was everywhere welcomed. He made many 
public addresses which were both pertinent and inspiring. 
He was formally received by Oxford University, and hon- 
ored with the degree of Doctor of Civil Law. His visit 
knit more closely the bonds of union between English and 
American Churchmen." 

The Rev. Dr. Wainwright returned from his mission 
to the Jubilee in September bringing with him many 
expressions of good-will and brotherly love from English 
Churchmen. 

' Records, liber iv., folio 88. 

^ In a letter to the Rector, Dr. Wainwright describes the Services in Westminster 
Abbey and the receptions, breakfasts, and other entertainments in honor of the Ameri- 
can visitors, particularly those by the .VrchbLshop of Canterbury and fiishop of London. 
A full account of the Services in connection with the close of the Jubilee will be found 
in The Mission to Ihe yiihiUe. — Bishop De Lancey's Report to the Convention of the 
Diocese of Western New York of the Mission of England to attend the closing services 
of the Third Jubilee of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 1S52. 



358 History of Trinity Church [1852 

On the 9th of June, 185 1, the Vestry accepted from 
Bishop De Lancey with thanks " an engraved Hkeness of 
Caleb Heathcote, Esq., deceased, and ordered that it be 
placed in the Robing room of Trinity Church." ' 

The committee on St. George's presented several com- 
munications and documents in relation to the transfer to 
the Church of the Holy Evangelists of St. George's Chapel.^ 

An application from the Committee of the Church of 
the Holy Evangelists " to have St. George's Chapel in 
Beekman Street cleaned, painted, and repaired at an esti- 
mated expense of about eight hundred to a thousand 
dollars, which improvements the applicants have not the 
ability to make themselves," was referred to the Committee 
of Supplies and Repairs "with power." 

On June 14, 1852, a formal resolution of the Vestry of 
the Church of the Holy Evangelists was presented, in 
which it was declared that " thanks are eminently and 
justly due to the Rector, Wardens, and Vestrymen of 
Trinity Church for their aid and kind assistance in procur- 
ing our present location and church edifice." 

The regard of the members of the Vestry for a former 
Assistant Minister of the Parish was shown by the grant of 
one thousand dollars to the Rev. Dr. John F. Schroeder, 
" who has been of late for a number of years the pastor of 
a congregation in this city and receiving therefore but a 
very small and inadequate compensation." 

On the 13th of October, 1851, the Rev. William White 
Bronson offered to the Vestry " an old oil portrait of 
Bishop Provoost," which was accepted with thanks. There 
seems to be no present knowledge of the portrait, nor is 
it certain that it ever came into possession of the Corpora- 
tion. The portrait of Bishop Provoost in the Parish col- 
lections is by Benjamin West. It was purchased, March 

■ Records, liber iv., folio 47. " IHJ., folio 4S. 



1852] Trinity Chapel 359 

13, 1865, on the recommendation of a committee of the 
Vestry, the Reverend Rector, and Mr. John Travers. 

November 10, 1851, General Laight resigned his office 
as Warden owing to ill-health. In accepting this resigna- 
tion the Vestry expressed their regret at the cause, and 
testified to the faithfulness with which he had discharged 
his duties both as Warden and Vestryman during a period 
of more than forty years. Mr. William E. Dunscomb was 
then elected Warden and George P. Cammann, M.D., 
Vestryman.^ 

The Committee on Church Extension having already 
submitted preliminary plans for the chapel on Twenty- 
fifth Street, the consideration of these plans was resumed. 
A preamble and series of resolutions offered at the previous 
meeting, June 9th, by the Hon. John A. Dix, were then 
discussed.'- The preamble declared that " in view of the 
heavy debt of this corporation it is not expedient to engage 
in a large expenditure of money without a diminution of 
the said debt, or an increase of the available means of the 
corporation." The first resolution provided that the Ves- 
try would not build the new chapel until the debt had been 
reduced to two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, or the 
property of the Corporation by investments in bonds and 
mortgages, other than those of churches, " shall be so in- 
creased as to be equivalent to such a reduction of said 
debt." The second resolution provided that when the 
bonds and mortgages for the reduction amount to two 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars they shall be used for 
the purpose as the obligations mature : when the terms of 
the first resolution are complied with, the proceeds of all 
sales of property may be applied to the building of the 
new chapel ; when completed, two thirds of the sales were 
to be applied as heretofore for the extinction of the debt. 

' Records, liber iv., folios 63, 64. ■' Ihid., folio 50. 



360 History of Trinity Church [1852 

The debt limit was fixed at two hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars. 

There was a full and animated discussion ; several 
agreeing with General Dix, that the financial condition of 
the Corporation needed strengthening, while no one de- 
sired to put any needless obstacles in the way of the build- 
ing of a new chapel. Finally the preamble was stricken 
out, the second resolution disagreed to, and the remainder 
so amended as to make the debt limit three hundred 
thousand dollars and providing that the chapel should not 
be built until that reduction had been effected.^ 

After the adoption of the amended resolutions another 
series of resolutions was adopted. The first asserted that 
it is highly desirable to commence the erection of the 
chapel. The second approved and adopted the plan and 
elevation prepared by Mr. Upjohn "with such modifica- 
tions as economy or convenience may suggest." The 
third resolution directed the Committee to commence the 
work as soon as there shall be personal assets on hand to 
reduce the debt to three hundred thousand dollars. The 
expense of the work, as far as practicable, was limited to 
forty thousand dollars. 

On the 14th of July, the Comptroller made the 
gratifying announcement that when certain sales were 
completed, the state of the finances would admit of pro- 
ceeding with the erection of the new chapel." 

The Church Extension Committee consisting of 
Messrs. Verplanck, Jones, Young, Harison, Livingston, 
Strong, and Moore were then made the Building Com- 
mittee of the new chapel and were empowered " to pur- 
chase additional grounds so as to increase the width to one 
hundred and twenty-five feet."^ They were also requested 
to construct the foundation during the present year. 

' Records, liber iv., folio 51. ' Ibid., folio 54. ''■Ibid., folio 55. 



1852] Trinity Chapel 361 

September 16, i85i,the Building Committee requested 
authority to make a contract " for all the brown or 
sand stone that may be wanted for the chapel, at certain 
specified prices from the quarry at Little Falls, New 
Jersey," and reported the purchase of " two additional lots, 
one on 25th and the other on 26th Street, known as lots 
number 12 and 60, adjoining the easterly side of the 
lots heretofore purchased for the sum of seven thousand 
five hundred dollars for both." ^ 

October 13th, proposals to furnish the brown stone for 
the chapel were accepted, and the plans and elevations 
were laid before the Vestry with an itemized estimate of 
the cost, which was to be $79,000. The plans were ap- 
proved and the Committee were directed to proceed with- 
out delay. So rapid was the progress, that at the March 
meeting in 1852, the Rector was requested to make ar- 
rangements for the laying of the corner-stone. It can- 
not be ascertained whether that ceremony was or was not 
omitted ; no notice of such a ser\ace appears in the 
public press, nor is there any mention of it on the Vestry 
Minutes. 

Notwithstanding the objection of the economically in- 
clined members of the Vestry the cost of the new chapel 
kept continually increasing. A change was made in the 
quality of the glass for the chancel window, at a cost far 
exceeding the original estimate. The intention was that the 
interior walls should be of light brick ; but it was decided 
to line them throughout with Caen stone. Thus step by 
step the expenses grew. The persuasive power of archi- 
tects and the docility of building committees must always 
be taken into account, when estimates for new structures 
are under consideration. 

Dr. Edward Hodges, the distinguished organist of 

' Records, liber iv. , folio 57. 



362 History of Trinity Cliurch [1852 

Trinity Church, was earnest and indefatigable in his 
efforts to gather young men of abihty about him and 
train them in the highest order of church music, and in 
methods largely the result of his own experience in Eng- 
land. To that end he formed a society, composed in 
great part of gentlemen in training for the ministry, and 
of pupils under his instruction in Trinity School. It was 
known as the Church Choral Society, and, to quote the 
words of one of the original members, " its object was the 
study of the Cathedral Music of the Church of England, 
and its ambition the public performance of the choral 
service in this city, if by any fortunate change of affairs 
and abatement in prejudice permission could be obtained 
to exhibit so fearful and startling an innovation on all uses 
then known among us." ' " Dr. Hodges," continues the 
writer, " was our drill master, Choragus and Coryphaeus, 
and the Rev. John Henry Hopkins the enthusiastic secre- 
tary." The meetings of the Society were held in a room 
in the rear of St. John's Chapel, the use of which was 
granted for that purpose by the Rector. 

" When the Society felt strong enough to appear in public they 
decided to sing a choral service, and, if possible, in Trinity Church. 
It was not easy to obtain permission, but at length consent was given, 
on condition that the performance should not take place at either hour 
of daily service, and should be conducted under careful observance 
and with due restriction. At 3 p.m., on the afternoon of Tuesday, in 
Easter Week, the service was held in Old Trinity. The Rev. Dr. John 
W. Shackelford, the Rev. William T. Webb, the Rev. John J. Elmen- 
dorf, and the Rev. John Henry Hopkins were the officiating clergy. 

" The responses and choral parts were rendered by the Society 
with great beauty and sweetness. 

"The effect upon the feelings of conservative churchmen was 
marked. The church was filled to overflowing, and the impression 
produced was profound. After that it was only a question of time 

' Letter of the Rev. Dr. Morgan Dix to Miss Hodges — (Trinity Rectory, New 
York, November 6, 1S82), in Edward Hodges, p. 250. 



1852] Employment of Deacons 363 

how long it would be until the fulness of our triumph over the fears 
and dislikes of the crude and untaught people. To your father belongs 
a large share of the honors of that memorable occasion." ' 

The deaths of Mr. Adam Tredwell, the Senior Warden, 
and General Edward W. Laight, formerly Warden, called 
forth, from a Special Committee, consisting of the Rev- 
erend Rector, the Comptroller, and the Clerk, a memorial 
minute which was unanimously adopted. It expressed the 
sincere love and veneration which they bore toward them, 
and testified to " the meekness and humility joined with 
firmness and justice in the one, the frank and benevolent 
impulses and sympathy of the other." Their " active life- 
long piety has set them as shining lights for the direction 
of our respective courses." Their associates 

" bless God's Holy name that they were spared to long lives of use- 
fulness and honor, and that their bereaved families and friends have the 
consolation of a sure belief, that, after serving God in their generation 
they were gathered unto their fathers having the testimony of a good 
conscience, in the Communion of the Catholic Church, in the confi- 
dence of a certain faith, in the comfort of a reasonable, religious, and 
holy hope, in favour with their God and in perfect charity with the 
world." " 

The question of increasing the number of clergy in the 
Parish was at this time engaging the careful consideration 
of the Rector and Vestry. One Deacon was at work most 
acceptably among the poor in the lower part of the city, 
but he felt a natural and proper desire to be advanced to 
the priesthood. A letter from the Rev. Sullivan H. 
Weston to the Rector asking advice as to his status in the 
Parish should he take priests' orders was presented by the 
Rector, laid over for consideration, and discussed ; and it 
was resolved to refer the whole subject of the employment 
of Deacons in the Parish and " the necessity, or expediency 

' Letter of the Rev. Dr. Morgan Dix to Miss Hodges ill Edward Hodges, pp. 
250, 251. ' Records, liber iv., folio gi. 



364 History of Trinity Church [1852 

of a change in the Regulations heretofore adopted " to a 
Special Committee consisting of the Rector, Mr. Anthony 
J. Bleecker, Mr. Gulian C. Verplanck, Mr. William H. 
Harison, and Mr. William E. Dunscomb. 

The Committee presented a report in which the plan 
adopted at the opening of Trinity Church of employing 
Deacons was mentioned, its usefulness considered, and the 
manner in which the new and important work of the Parish 
could best be accomplished set forth. ^ The conclusions 
reached were put in the form of resolutions, the first advis- 
ing the relinquishment of the system of the appointment 
of Deacons, without prejudice to the present incumbent ; 
the second substituting, for the plan established by the 
resolution of May 11, 1846, the appointment of "one or 
more presbyters, at a salary of twelve hundred dollars." 
As to their duties these clergy were to be under the direc- 
tion of the Rector."^ No action was taken until March 8, 
1852, when it was resolved to retain Mr. Weston at a salary 
of $1200, his duties to be assigned by the Rector. 

The state and affairs of Geneva College came up once 
more, compelling the renewed attention of the Vestry. 
The grant of 1848, to take effect in 1866, had encouraged 
the friends of the College, but the lack of funds available 
for current expenses was so keenly felt, and the condition 
of the institution was becoming so serious, that a fresh ap- 
plication was now made for present rather than future 
assistance. At the meeting of the Vestry held November 
10, 185 1, a petition asking for immediate annual aid 
was presented, together with letters and communications 
from President Hale, N. B. Kidder, Esq., special trustee 
for the endowment of the Bishop Hobart professorship, 
and others, and petitions In behalf and support of the 
application of the College, signed by large numbers of the 

' Records, liber iv., folio 76. ■ Ibid., folio 78. 



1852] Geneva College 365 

clergy and laity in Utica, Buffalo, and other places in 
the western part of the State. On the 14th of November, 
the Vestry took final action, by the adoption of this 
resolution : 

'^Resolved, that the promised endowment to Geneva College by this 
Vestry on the 12th of May, 1848, of $6000 per annum, to commence 
on the ist of May, 1866, be so modified as to allow instead thereof 
$3000 per annum, in perpetuity, payable quarterly, to commence from 
the first day of the present college term; provided that the Trustees of 
Geneva College shall assent to such modification: And this grant being 
also upon the express conditions (in addition to the terms of the resolu- 
tion of May 12, 1848 aforesaid) that there shall be no charges against 
the students for tuition and room-rent; and further that the College 
shall hereafter be named the Hobart Free College at Geneva, and that 
a law for that purpose shall be obtained as soon as practicable." ' 

The conditions of the endowment, in their final and 
completed state, included these items : 

I. The Bishop, or Bishops of the Diocese of New York 
and the Rector of Trinity Church to be made official 
visitors of the College. 

II. The College to report annually to this Corporation 
at the same time that it does to the Regents of the Uni- 
versity of the State of New York. 

III. The President always to be a Presbyter of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. 

IV. The establishment of a professorship of Christian 
Ethics which may be held by the President or any Pro- 
fessor in conjunction with other duties or branches of 
learning. 

At the meeting of January 12, 1852, a communication 
was received from the Board of Trustees of Geneva 
College, gratefully acknowledging the annuity granted to 
it, and acceding to the conditions imposed. The annuity 
has been continued to the present day. 

' Records, liber iv. , folios 65, 66. 



366 History of Trinity Church [1852 

The Diocese of New York, after looking in vain to 
the House of Bishops for the remission of the sentence of 
suspension inflicted upon its Bishop, had received partial 
relief by the passage of a Canon by the General Conven- 
tion of 1850, allowing a diocese, whose Bishop was unable 
by reason of a judicial sentence to perform his duties, to 
elect a provisional Bishop.' At a Special Convention, 
held in St. John's Chapel, November 27, 1850, an at- 
tempt at an election was made, but it was not successful. 
The Rev. Dr. William Creighton, the Rev. Dr. Wain- 
wright, and the Rev. Dr. John Williams were the most 
prominent candidates. The attempt was renewed at the 
annual Convention, held on September 24, 1851. The 
contest was long and exciting. Upon the eighth ballot 
the Rev. Dr. William Creighton received a majority of 
the votes, Drs. Vinton, Taylor, and Wainwright being also 
among the prominent candidates. It was hoped that Dr. 
Creighton, who had been the President of the Convention 
for several years, and was cordially esteemed by all Church- 
men, would accept, and thus heal the divisions in the 
Diocese. Under this impression a committee was ap- 
pointed to make arrangements for the consecration in 
Trinity Church. ~ But to the great regret of his friends 
and the whole Diocese, Dr. Creighton was obliged, for 
urgent family reasons, to decline the honor. 

The reader is already familiar with the history of the 
grant by the city Corporation of certain lots on Fifth Ave- 
nue, between 54th and 55th Streets, to the Anglo-Ameri- 
can Free Church of St. George the Martyr, and of the efforts 
of the Rev. Mr. Marcus to raise a sum of money sufificient 
to carry out his plans for the establishment of a hospital 

'See yournal. General Convention, 1S50, pp. 41, 57, 60, 70, 90, 94, 126, 133, 137, 
145. It is Canon III. o£ Canons of 1850, p. 57. "Constitutions and Canons" 
pended to the yournal, -Records liber iv., folio 6g. 



1852] St. Luke's Hospital 367 

and chapel on that site. Notwithstanding his devotion to 
the cause and his visit to England, his native land, in the 
hope of obtaining subscriptions, those efforts had failed. 
The situation was critical, as the trustees of St. George 
the Martyr were required as a condition to build upon the 
ground conveyed to them within three years, while there 
was no prospect of their being able to do so. Another 
man appeared at this juncture, with peculiar qualifications 
for accomplishing work on the same line but broader in its 
scope. The name of William Augustus Muhlenberg will 
be everlastingly remembered in the church. As a lover 
of humanity, an educator, a preacher of power and grace, 
a poet, a pastor, and an advocate of the free-church system 
and a practical demonstrator of its success, he had become 
a power in the community. No enterprise of the many 
which he undertook will carry his name and fame to future 
generations more distinctly than the foundation and com- 
pletion of St. Luke's Hospital in the City of New York. 

The story has been well told by Dr. Muhlenberg him- 
self.^ Observing with pain that the poor had but a slender 
chance of obtaining ready admission to any of the existing 
hospitals, and were exposed in consequence to much suffer- 
ing and distress, he formed his plan for their relief. From 
St. Luke's Day, 1846, when the offering at the service in 
the Church of the Holy Communion was set aside toward 
the building of a free hospital for the poor under the 
auspices of the Christian Church, until the winter of 1849- 
1850, when he began to plead in the city churches for 
St. Luke's, that plan was maturing in his mind.'^ 

' Sietdi of Ihc Origin and Progress of St. Luke's Hospital, New York, 1859. 

' " In the following winter his earnest plea for a church hospital was written, con- 
sisting of two lectures which were delivered first before his own congregation and af- 
terwards in St. Paul's and .St. John's and perhaps some other of the city churches." 

Pp. 215, 216, The Life and Work of William Augustus Muhlenberg, Doctor in 
Divinity. By Anne Ayres. 



368 History of Trinity Church [1852 

Dr. Muhlenberg had the confidence, sympathy, and aid 
of all the church people and benevolent citizens of New 
York. He had also as his earnest helper and constant 
adviser Mr. Robert B. Minturn, a man of eminence in 
the city. 

In May 1850 Saint Luke's Hospital was incorporated 
with Mr. Minturn as chairman of the Board of Managers. 
To find a site healthy, elevated, and large enough for the 
spacious buildings intended was a difficult task. After 
examining many plots of ground, the attention of the cor- 
porators of St. Luke's Hospital was called to the lots on 
Fifth Avenue which had been granted by the city to the 
Church of St. George the Martyr. They appeared to 
meet every requirement, and Dr. Muhlenberg and Mr, 
Minturn determined to make an effort to secure them, as 
the grant was about to lapse. For that purpose, a nego- 
tiation with the city authorities was begun, and also with 
Trinity Church, as an interested party, the plot having 
been conveyed to St. George the Martyr with the under- 
standing that no other transfer could be made without the 
consent of the Corporation. The matter came before the 
Vestry, Decembers, 185 i, in the form of a request for their 
assent " to a transfer by the Corporation of the City of New 
York of the block of ground on the Fifth Avenue from the 
Church of St. George the Martyr to the Incorporators of 
St. Luke's Hospital." ^ The request was referred to the 
Standing Committee, which made a report in the shape of 
a preamble and resolutions, January 12, 1852. The pre- 
amble recited the history of the release and grant ; the 
conveyance of the Fifth Avenue plot May 8, 1848, to St. 
George the Martyr, and the failure of that Corporation to 
fulfil the condition on which the conveyance was made 
notwithstanding an extension of the time to 1853. It fur- 

' Records, liber iv., folio 67. 



i8s2] St. Luke's Hospital 369 

ther set forth the proposal and negotiations for a new con- 
veyance by the city to the incorporators of St. Luke's 
Hospital, the assent of the Mayor and city authorities to 
the said transfer, and the need of the consent of Trinity 
Church to the change. The Committee recommended 
that consent to the proposed arrangement be given, on 
condition that the original intent of the grant should be 
preserved ; and that for this purpose there should be 
attached to the deed of transfer, or expressed in some other 
instrument, under the seal of the new hospital, a state- 
ment of the terms on which the assent of Trinity Church 
was given. The terms were to be as follows : 

I. The land to be used only for a hospital and chapel 
with all necessary buildings, and for no other purpose. 

n. No further release, modification, or discharge of 
the conditions by the city Corporation without the consent 
of this Corporation. 

HL The head of the hospital, whether called Gover- 
nor, Warden, or Superintendent, to be always a communi- 
cant of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 

IV. The religious services and instructions in the 
hospital to be always according to the forms, rites, 
ceremonies, and sacraments of said Church. 

V. That there shall be at all times beds at least to the 
number of twenty appropriated in such hospital to the use 
of British emigrants arriving in the City of New York, 
being members of a Church in communion with the Pro- 
testant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, 
having no settled place of residence, who require medical 
or surgical skill, for which beds when vacant such emigrants 
shall be entitled to a preference. 

The Vestry adopted the resolutions recommended in 
the report. A modification of the conditions of the trans- 
fer was subsequently made ; the fifth specification was so 



370 History of Trinity Church [1852 



altered as to reserve twenty beds at least for the use 
of emigrants, with a preference for them when the beds 
were vacant, and a proviso was inserted that the Corpora- 
tion of St. Luke's should have power to adopt regulations 
and by-laws concerning the terms of admission to the 
hospital.' 

' Records, liber iv., folio 76. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

EDUCATIONAL AND MATTERS AP^FECTING THE CHURCH AT 
LARGE. 

Appeal of Bishop Strachan to American Churchmen on Behalf of Trinity College, 
Toronto — Donation by Trinity Parish — Donation by Corporation to Nashotah — Sale 
of Church of the Holy Evangelists and Its Site Approved of by Vestry — Extension of 
Albany Street Again Defeated — Erection of Monument to the Revolutionary Patriots 
— Diocesan Convention of 1852 — Election of Dr. Wainwright as Provisional Bishop — 
His Consecration — Sermon by Bishop of New Hampshire — Sermon by Bishop Fulford 
— Another Assistant Minister to be Appointed — Election of Rev. Morgan Dix as As- 
sistant Minister — He Declines Election — Claim of Christopher C. Kiersted as an 
Anneke Jans Heir Dismissed by Supreme Court — Dr. and Mrs. Berrian Go Abroad 
— Death and Funeral of Dr. Parks — The General Convention of 1853 — Delegation 
from S. P. G. — .■\dmissinn of California as a Diocese — Deposition of Bishop Ives — 
Consecration of Dr. Atkinson as Bishop of North Carolina, and Dr. Davis as Bishop 
of South Carolina — Office of Registrar to Convention — Consecration of Dr. Kip as 
Bishop of California. 

IN the city of Toronto, in Upper Canada, as the Prov- 
ince of Ontario was then called, a college existed 
before the year 1850, which was built by Churchmen and 
carried on as a church institution. The local government, 
unwarrantably and unjustly, laid hands upon and secular- 
ized it, in spite of the efforts of Dr. Strachan, the indefati- 
gable Bishop of Toronto. He, unable to prevent the 
spoliation, set himself to work to repair the mischief, and 
founded a new school of arts, to be known as Trinity Col- 
lege, in which it was intended to give both a secular and a 
religious training to students. It was to be a thorough 
church institution, with an influential council and the 
Bishop at the head. A partial endowment having been 
secured in Canada and England, it was hoped to obtain 

371 



372 History of Trinity Church [1852 

an increase of it from American Churchmen. The Bishop 
commissioned the Rev. WilHam McMurray to visit the 
United States and obtain pledges for the endowment 
fund. He was cordially received in New York Cit}% and 
preached in many of the churches upon the educational 
work of the Church in Canada. On Tuesday in Whitsun- 
week, June i, 1852, a meeting was held in behalf of Trinity 
College, Toronto, in the Sunday-school room of St. Paul's 
Chapel. At that meeting, which was largely attended. 
Dr. McMurray explained Bishop Strachan's plan, and de- 
tailed the reasons why the College might appeal to the 
generosity of American Churchmen. At the conclusion 
of his address resolutions expressing sympathy and confi- 
dence in the work which he represented were adopted. 
An Advisory Committee of eleven clergymen and eight lay- 
men was then chosen, with Dr. Berrian as Chairman. In 
view of the fact that the closing of the Jubilee Year was 
to be celebrated by a service in Trinity Church, the Vestry 
resolved 

"as an expression of the gratitude which the American branch of the 
Catholic Church owes to the Venerable Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel and of our sympathy with the Diocese of Toronto, that the 
wardens be authorized to contribute the sum of one thousand dollars 
for the benefit of Trinity College, Toronto, at the Collection to be 
made in the Parish Church on the 15th of June inst., the closing com- 
memoration of the Jubilee Year of the Venerable Society." ' 

The Council of Trinity College sent a formal and 
hearty vote of thanks to the Vestry for their Jubilee gift 
to that institution.^ 

The noble venture of faith by four friends and fellow- 
students of the Class of 1841 in the General Theological 
Seminary, which planted an associate mission at Prairie 

' Records, liber iv., p. gi. For a brief sketch of Trinity College (now University), 
Toronto, see p. 778, Digest, S. P. G. " Records, liber iv., p. 96. 



1852] Albany Street Extension 373 

Ville, now Waukesha, Wisconsin, and from that centre 
firmly established the Church in many villages and hamlets 
of the vicinity, resulted in the founding of a seminary for 
the training of young men for the holy ministry, known as 
Nashotah House. It was dependent upon the offerings 
of the faithful, having no endowment nor stated income 
from any source. The benefit to the Church in the whole 
Northwest was only partially realized by Eastern Church- 
men. The Rev. Dr. Azel D. Cole had become a member 
of the mission soon after its organization, and was then its 
head. An appeal from him to Trinity Church was re- 
ported upon favorably by the Standing Committee, which 
says that " aid in spreading the Church in the Western 
country cannot be more efificiently given than by assisting 
to support this college." The Vestry granted twenty-five 
hundred dollars " to be applied during the next five years 
towards the payment of the salary of the Rev. Professor 
of Systematic Divinity." ' 

The Rev. Dr. William Adams filled that chair for 
nearly fifty years. 

On the 8th of November, 1853, the Standing Com- 
mittee reported the agreement for the sale of the church 
edifice and lot on Vandewater Street, formerly occupied 
by the Church of the Holy Evangelists. The clerk and 
comptroller were authorized to sign a proper certificate 
of the satisfaction of the mortgage, or mortgages, on the 
premises held by the Corporation. ~ 

The attempt to carry Albany Street through Trinity 

' Records, liber iv., folio Ii6, March 14, 1853. ''Ibid., folio 97. 

" The Church in Vandewater street was then sold by its own vestry, and, after 
paying off all prior incumbrances, the balance of $1200 was paid over to Trinity Cor- 
poration, who expended this amount, together with a much larger sum, in preparing 
St. George's Church for their accommodation," — Testimony of General John A. Dix 
before Senate Committee, February 23, 1859, p. 125, Testimony in the Matter of 
Trinity Church. 



374 History of Trinity Church [1852 

churchyard received great encouragement, when in 1851 
that street was extended to Trinity Place in the rear of 
the church. It was the determined purpose of a few 
property owners in the neighborhood, to agitate for the 
extension, absurd and useless as it would have been. The 
public sentiment was as strongly against this invasion of 
a churchyard as twenty years before. Many of the city 
officials were opposed to the project. So high ran the 
state of feeling upon this matter that a public meeting 
was held at the City Hall, June 8, 1852, presided over by 
the Mayor, the Hon. A. C. Kingsland, with Gen. Charles 
W. Sandford as Vice-President, and Messrs. R. T. Compton, 
President of the Board of Aldermen, and Jonathan Stroth- 
ers were appointed as Secretaries. Addresses were made 
showing why such a project should be opposed, and referring 
to the constant use of the ground for burial purposes for 
more than two hundred years, and especially its use during 
the Revolution as the place where many of the prisoners 
confined by the British in the old Sugar House on Liberty 
Street, after dying by the hundred from cruelty and 
neglect, were buried. A preamble and resolution were 
adopted, setting forth these facts and respectfully request- 
ing the Corporation of Trinity Church to erect " a be- 
coming monument, with appropriate inscriptions, to the 
memory of those great and good men." The proceedings 
of the meeting and an attested copy of the preamble and 
resolutions having been communicated to the Vestry, 
Messrs. John R. Livingston, Alexander L. McDonald, 
and Robert Hyslop were appointed June 14, 1852, a com- 
mittee to consider the subject.' A favorable report was 
made, November 8, 1852, and a resolution was presented 
declaring the intention of the Corporation " to erect a 
suitable monument in memory of the officers and soldiers 

' Records, liber iv., folio go. 



1852] Consecration of Dr. Wainwright 375 



of the Revolution who died in British captivity in the 
City of New York, many of whom are buried in the north 
part of Trinity Churchyard opposite to Pine Street." ' 
Plans and estimates were obtained, and the sum of $7000 
was voted for the purpose. 

The Diocesan Convention met again on the 30th of 
September. It had before it the difficult task of choosing 
a Provisional Bishop. Jealousy and party strife still pre- 
vailed. Those more prominently mentioned for the Epis- 
copate were Dr. Wainwright, Dr. William I. Kip, Dr. 
Samuel Seabury, Dr. Thomas H. Taylor, and Dr. Francis 
Vinton. Upon the ninth ballot Dr. Wainwright was 
elected. He was respected for his ability, cordiality, and 
impartiality, by both the friends and opponents of Bishop 
Onderdonk. 

Wednesday, November 10, 1852, was the day ap- 
pointed for the consecration of Dr. Wainwright. Trinity 
Church was filled with those who were able to obtain 
tickets. The Rev. Dr. Haight was master of ceremonies. 
The procession formed in the north sacristy in this order : 
Students of the General Theological Seminary, deacons, 
priests in order of seniority, the Bishop-elect with his at- 
tending presbyters, the Rev. Dr. William Creighton and 
the Rev. Dr. Edward Y. Higbee, the Bishops, and the 
Rt. Rev. Dr. Brownell, of Connecticut, Presiding Bishop. 
More than two hundred surpliced clergymen were in at- 
tendance, including the greater number of those in the 
Diocese, and distinguished clergymen of other Dioceses. 
The Bishops present were : Dr. Brownell, Dr. Kemper, 
of Wisconsin, Dr. Doane, of New Jersey, Dr. De Lancey, 
of Western New York, Dr. Whittingham, of Maryland, 
Dr. Potter, of Pennsylvania, Dr. Chase, of New Hamp- 
shire, Dr. Upfold, of Indiana, Dr. Williams, Assistant of 

' Records, liber iv. , folios gS, gg. 



376 History of Trinity Church [1852 

Connecticut, and the Most Rev. Dr. Francis Fulford, 
Lord Bishop of Montreal and Metropolitan of Canada. 

The sermon was preached by the Rt. Rev. Dr. Chase 
of New Hampshire from the text : " This is a faithful say- 
ing and worthy of all acceptation that Christ Jesus came 
into the world to save sinners." i Timothy, i., 15. 

It was with much satisfaction that New York Church- 
men learned that the Bishop of Montreal had prolonged 
his stay in the city, and would preach in St. Paul's Chapel 
on the evening of Sunday, November 14th. It was the 
first time that a Bishop of the Mother Church had stood 
in the pulpit of St. Paul's since that Sunday in September, 
1776, when the Chaplain of Admiral Lord Howe, the Rev. 
Thomas L. O'Bierne, afterward Bishop of Meath, preached 
words of comfort and cheer to the almost panic-stricken 
congregation, whose holy house had been burned in the 
great fire of the day before.' 

An abstract of Bishop Fulford's sermon appeared in 
the New York Tribune of Monday, November 15, 1852. 

The consecration of Dr. Wainwright made it necessary 
to readjust the clerical staff of the Parish, in order to allow 
the Provisional Bishop the leisure necessary for due at- 
tention to the work of the Diocese, which had been ac- 
cumulating for some time past. The precarious condition 
of the health of Dr. Parks was giving great uneasiness. It 
seemed an appropriate time to consider the expediency of 
revising the system of the appointment of Assistant Min- 
isters and their assignment to duty. Resolutions upon the 
subject led to report, careful discussion, and action. The 
salary of the Rev. Sullivan H. Weston was increased to 
$1700; and Drs. Haight and Hobart were to have $2500 
each. A proposal to appoint a clergyman who should reside 
in the city below Canal Street was also made, and referred 

' See Part I., pp. 395-7 of this History. 



''^^53] Morgan Dix Assistant Minister 377 



to the Committee on the State of the Parish, and it was 
decided that such an appointment should be made. The 
salary of the said clergyman was to be $1000 ; he was to 
reside down-town ; he was to hold his office during the 
pleasure of the Vestry, and in the mode and with the under- 
standing had in all appointments of clergymen other than 
the Rector and the " Assistant to the Rector."' 

Under these resolutions, at a subsequent meeting, the 
Rev. Morgan Dix was unanimously elected an Assistant 
Minister of the Parish." He declined the call, as he was at 
that time officiating in St. Marks Church, Philadelphia, as 
Rector's Assistant. The Rector, the Rev. Joseph P. B. 
Wilmer, D.D., afterwards Bishop of Louisana, was at that 
time seriously ill, and it would have embarrassed him and 
the Vestry of St. Mark's, if Mr. Dix had left them. 

The ghost or spook of the late Anneke Jans now came 
up again. Mr. Christopher C. Kiersted, as an heir of that 
respectable and most prolific person, appeared, and peti- 
tioned the Legislature for the passage of a law, which 
should give the preference to the action brought by him 
against the people of the State of New York and the Rec- 
tor of Trinity Church, and make possible a speedy decision 
of his claim. His demand in the suit was 

" that the State be required to demand possession of the lands from the 
Church and an account from the Church of all moneys received by it 
since the year 1783, and that the State render possession of the lands 
to the said heirs by proper conveyance, and that if the State make de- 
fault, the Church be required to do the same thing, and that a receiver 
be appointed and an injunction be granted." ' 

' Records, liber iv., folios 91, loi, 107, no. 

''Ibid., folio 117 ; also see a letter from Dr. Berrian to the Rev. William E. 
Wyatt, of Baltimore, Nov. 29, 1853 ; No. 759, Berrian MSS., General Theological 
Seminary. 

' P. 3, Opinion of the Supreme Court in the Case of Christopher C. Kiersted. The 
People of the State, the Rector, &c., of Trinity Church, and others. Decided April 
9, 1855. 



378 History of Trinity Church [1853 

A memorial to the Legislature upon this petition was 
prepared and adopted by the Vestry. It showed, from the 
circumstances under which Mr. Kiersted made his petition, 
that his real object was not to obtain the passage of a 
general law, but "to excite suspicion of the title of your 
memorialists to a large portion of the real estate they have 
held and enjoyed without any successful molestation for 
one hundred and fifty years." The memorial gave a brief 
abstract of the various grants under which the corporation 
held its property and a summary of the suits brought by 
the so-called heirs of Anneke Jans. The memorialists 
also stated that they had no objection to a general act 
" by which a preference shall be given in all courts to 
actions in which the people of the State are parties or are 
interested." ^ 

The attempt of Mr. Kiersted failed, but the agitation 
was renewed from time to time, until the grand and final 
assault in 1857. 

Colonel Nicholas Haight, commanding the veteran 
corps of the War of 1 8 1 2, offered at this time the services of 
that corps " in any public movement that may be made in 
relation to the monument in the course of erection in 
Trinity churchyard to the memory of the Patriots of the 
Revolution there interred." ~ 

A curious proposition was laid before the Vestry, April 
nth, in a communication from Mr. Jonathan Lawrence 
" to improve space by erecting buildings of a peculiar plan 
over the churchyards of Trinity and St. Paul's Chapel 
without disturbing the remains there interred." It was 
ordered to be filed. No action seems to have been taken 
upon it. ^ 

' p. 18, The Trinity Church Title. Report of the Commission of the Land Office 
Made to the House of Assembly, May 12, 1836. Memorial of the Corporation of 
Trinity to the Legislature, March 26, 1853. 

- Records, liber iv., folio 122. " Ihid., folio 124. 



i8s3] Dr. Berrian Visits Europe 379 

On the 9th of May, 1853, the Rector informed the 
Vestry "that it was seemed advisable for Mrs. Berrian's 
health that she should make a voyage to Europe, in which 
he proposed to accompany her with the consent of the 
Vestry, and asking leave of absence for a few months." ' 

The Vestry resolved "that after the next meeting of 
the Vestry Rev. Dr. Berrian have leave of absence for the 
above purpose for three months, and that the sum of fifteen 
hundred dollars be appropriated and paid for his expenses." 
It was also determined that the meeting usually held on 
the first Monday in September should be held on the last 
Monday of the month. The Standing Committee were 
requested to consider and report the requisite action to be 
taken by the Vestry " for the carrying on the business of 
the Corporation, the government of the Church, servants, 
and the care and disposition of the property during the 
Rector's absence."-' 

The Standing Committee made its report on this sub- 
ject June 9th. It proposed to vest in the Standing Com- 
mittee, during the intermission of Vestry meetings, all the 
powers of the Vestry, and in all matters over which the 
Committee has not now control, the assent of at least five 
members of the Committee was to be obtained to make its 
action valid. This authority was not to extend to grants 
and donations of either money or lands. No sales of land 
were to be consummated until approved by the Vestry. 

In all matters directly under the control of the Rector 
and also concerning the duties of the servants of the Cor- 
poration the Wardens were to have full authority.'^ 

Soon after this meeting the Rector and Mrs. Berrian 
sailed. The summer was spent, very much to the benefit 
of their health, in Switzerland. Some weeks were passed 
in England and Ireland. 

' Records, liber iv., fulio I2g. -Ibid., folio 129. ^ IhiJ., folio 130. 



380 History of Trinity Church [1853 

In the spring of 1853, the Reverend Dr. Parks, whose 
health had given much anxiety to his friends, was obliged 
to give up all parochial duty. The Vestry granted him 
six months' leave of absence and a generous allowance for 
expenses. Dr. Parks, growing gradually weaker he de- 
termined to return home. He died, within sight of his 
native land on board the steamer Arctic, July 21, 1853, 
in the fiftieth year of his age. 

On Tuesday, July 25th, the funeral was held from 
Trinity Church, and on the 31st, a memorial sermon 
was preached in St. Paul's Chapel by the Rev. Dr. 
Higbee. 

The General Convention of 1853, was memorable in 
the annals of the American Church. A delegation of 
eminent Churchmen from the mother Church in England 
and the Church in Canada attended it. Many important 
questions came up for consideration : that of missionary 
extension to the Pacific coast ; the admission of Iowa as a 
Diocese ; the method of dealing with the former Bishop of 
North Carolina, Dr. Ives, who had perverted to the Church 
of Rome ; the need of adapting the Church to all sorts 
and conditions of men by making the Prayer Book more 
flexible, in its use ; the appointment of a special order of 
Evangelists ; and the relaxation of the scholastic require- 
ments for ordination. 

The opening service was held in Trinity Church, on 
Wednesday, October 5th. A contemporary account says 
that " there could not have been many short of three 
thousand present." 

The Litany was said by the Venerable John Sinclair, 
Archdeacon of Middlesex, England. 

The Presiding Bishop, Dr. Brownell, commenced the 
service of the Holy Communion, the Epistle being read 
by the Rev. Dr. William Jones Boone, Missionary Bishop 



i8s3l General Convention of 1853 381 



to China, and the Gospel by the Right Rev. George John 
Trevor Spencer, sometime Bishop of Madras.' 

The sermon was preached by the Right Rev. Charles 
P. Mcllvaine, Bishop of Ohio, from the text St. Matthew 

ix., 2>7< 38. 

Both houses organized for business immediately after 
the services. The Bishops assembled in the Vestry-room, 
and the clergy and laity in the church. There were 
present in the lower house one hundred and fifteen cleri. 
cal, and eighty-five lay, deputies from thirty Dioceses." 

The Rev. Dr. Creighton was unanimously chosen 
President and Dr. Howe Secretary. After organization 
the Convention adjourned to meet for business in St. 
John's Chapel on Thursday morning. 

At the session of Friday the Rev. William Bacon 
Stevens, of Philadelphia, offered a preamble and resolu- 
tions welcoming to the lower house the delegation from 
the Venerable Propagation Society "appointed in re- 
sponse to an invitation from the Bishops of the Protestant- 
Episcopal Church assembled in New York City, on the 
29th of April, 1852." •* 

The members of the delegation were Bishop Spencer, 
Archdeacon Sinclair, the Rev. Prebendary Hawkins, Sec- 
retary and Annalist of the Venerable Society, and the Rev. 
Henry Caswell, Vicar of Figheldean. Mr. Caswell had 
previously been in the United States, doing pioneer mis- 
sionary work in Ohio under Bishop Chase, by whom he 
was ordained. 

' Dr. Spencer succeeded the Right Rev. David Cowie, the first Bishop of Madras 
1835-1837. He was consecrated in Lambeth Piilace Chapel, on November 19, 1837, 
by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. William Ilowley, the Bishop of Litchfield, Dr. 
Samuel Butler, and the Bishop of Salisbury, Dr. Edward Davidson. He resigned 
in 1849, and became an efficient worker in England for the S. P. G. 

'The Rev. Dr. Higbee was a clerical, and the Hon. John A. Dix a lay, deputy 
from the Diocese of New York. 

' Pp. 28. 29, Journal of the General Coiivenlioii, 1S53. 



382 History of Trinity Church [1853 

Among the perplexing matters discussed at that Con- 
vention was the admission of California as a Diocese. 
Many hesitated to accept the report advising the admis- 
sion, as there was no acceptance of the Constitution and 
Canons of this Church in the papers laid before the Con- 
vention. Finally, under a provision of the previous Canon 
concerning Missionary Bishops, the Rev. Dr. Kip, of 
Albany, was elected for California, and the Rev. Dr. 
Scott of Georgia for Oregon. 

The Bishops early in the session considered what 
action should be taken in regard to Dr. Ives. On Octo- 
ber 8th, the Bishop of Vermont, Dr. Hopkins, reported 
from the Committee on Canons a Canon " Of the Aban- 
donment of the Communion of the Church by any Bishop, 
Priest, or Deacon " which was adopted by both houses.' 

Resolutions on the subject by Bishop Freeman, of the 
Southwest District, and Bishop Upfold, of Indiana, having 
been offered and laid on the table, Bishop Whittingham, 
of Maryland, presented a preamble and resolutions clearly 
stating the whole subject, and validating the action of the 
Diocese of North Carolina in electing Dr. Atkinson. 
The Hou§e of Bishops, agreeing with the principle of 
the resolution, proceeded to formulate an act of deposi- 
tion of Dr. Ives. 

It was deemed essential that this act, which was signed 
by all the Bishops present, should be solemnly pronounced 
in the House of God in the presence of the whole Con- 
vention. The afternoon of Friday, October 14th, was 
appointed for the formal deposition. 

The Bishops went in procession from St. John's school- 
room into the church, where they were received by the 
deputies. 

Appropriate collects having been said by the Bishop 

' Canon I., Canons of iSjj, p. 59. 



1853] General Convention of 1853 383 

of Virginia, Dr. Johns, the whole congregation arose and 
remained standing while the Presiding Bishop, seated in 
his chair near the altar, pronounced the formal sentence of 
deposition. 

On Monday, October 17th, a large congregation as- 
sembled in St. John's Chapel to witness the consecration 
of Dr. Atkinson, as Bishop of North Carolina, and Dr. 
Davis as Bishop of South Carolina. 

The sermon was preached by the Right Rev. John 
Medley, Bishop of Fredericton, New Brunswick, who 
with Bishop Spencer took part in the act of consecration. 
The presence of the English consecrators was noted as an 
additional mark of friendly union and concord in the 
Anglican Communion.' 

During this Convention a Canon was adopted providing 
for a Registrar of the General Convention, whose duty it 
should be to preserve all the Journals and other docu- 
ments, both manuscript and printed, and secure all possible 
material for past conventions and keep them in some safe 
place. 

It was also to be his duty to obtain a record of all past 
consecrations of Bishops in this Church, enter them in a 
suitable book, and keep an accurate record of all future 
consecrations. 

To this new ofifice the Rev. John Henry Hobart was 
unanimously chosen." 

The election of Missionary Bishops for the Pacific 
coast was necessarily delayed until the closing days of the 
session. It finally took place on Friday, October 21, and 

' In the Letters of Consecration of Bishop Davis and Bishop Atkinson, as given 
on p. 402, Journal of the General Convention, 1853, the signatures of Bishop Medley 
and Bishop Spencer are wanting, although those prelates are named in the Letters of 
Consecration. 

'See pp. 121, 122, ig6. 197, 208, 215, yournal of General Convention^ 1853. 
For the Canon see p. 60, appended to the yournal. 



384 History of Trinity Church [1853 

the Convention adjourned on Wednesday, October 26, 
after a laborious but interesting session of nineteen days. 

In response to letters and telegrams sent by several of 
his friends in the House of Bishops, the Rev. Dr. Kip 
came to New York from his home in Albany to confer 
with the Bishops on his election to California. The situa- 
tion of the Church in that State was so grave that Dr. 
Kip was urged to consent to an immediate consecration 
and to leave for his new and distant home soon after. 
" So hurried was this matter," says Dr. Kip, " that I never 
received any official notice of my election, nor did I in 
any way send an acceptance. The Bishops talked to me 
as if my going were taken for granted, and they acted 
accordingly." ' 

It was arranged that the consecration should take place 
on the Feast of St. Simon and St. Jude, Friday, October 
28th, in Trinity Church. 

As the Presiding Bishop, Dr. Brownell, was exhausted 
by the long session, which had severely taxed his health 
and strength, he assigned the duty of presiding to the 
Rt. Rev. Dr. Kemper, the first elected Missionary Bishop 
of the American Church, who is truly styled an Apostle 
of the West. 

' p. 6, The Early Days of My Episcopate, William Ingraham Kip, D.D., LL.D., 
Bishop of California. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

FINANCIAL AND BUSINESS MATTERS. 

Resignation of Mr. Harison as Comptroller — Revival of the Scheme for the Extension 
of .-Mbany Street — Opposition of the Vestry — Sermon by Mr. Weston — Extension 
Stopped by Municipality — The Anneke Jans Claims Again — Action by Rutgers B. 
Miller — .Action by Christopher Kiersted — .Action by A. Lozier — Report Requested by 
the Assembly of the Financial Condition of Trinity Parish — Report Furnished by the 
Vestry — Spiritual Destitution of Lower Part of the City — Resolutions Offered by Gen- 
eral Dix — Queries Propounded by the Vestry to the Rector — The Rector's Detailed 
Reply to Them — Reorganization of the Clerical Staff in 1855. 

MR. WILLIAM H. HARISON, who had for many 
years held the office of Comptroller of the Cor- 
poration of Trinity Church, finding his health failing, re- 
signed his ofifice in the month of October, 1853, and 
Mr. William E. Dunscomb was appointed Comptroller 
pro tern.' 

At the Vestry Meeting of October 24th, a resolution 
was unanimously adopted : 

" That the thanks of the Vestry are due and are hereby tendered 
to William H. Harison, Esq., on his regretted retirement from office 
through impaired health, for his long, able and faithful services as 
Comptroller of this Corporation, and as a mark of appreciation on the 
part of the Vestry that an appropriate piece of plate or pieces of plate 
be presented to him.'" 

At the next meeting of the Vestry, held November 
14th, the following letter from Mr. Harison was read : 

"To THE Vestry of Trinity Church: 

" It would be most ungrateful. Reverend Sir, and iny other friends 
and colleagues of the Vestry, were I to depart on this journey, whence 

' Records, liber iv., folio 137. '^ Ibid., folio 141. 

VOL. IV.— 35. 

385 



386 History of Trinity Church [1853 



it is very possible I will never return, without some expression of the 
deep feeling I entertain of your kindness and consideration, in the 
affliction that I in the Providence of God am enduring. My inability 
to perform my duties for the last five months has not only been toler- 
ated but considered excusable, and no reluctance whatever has been 
shown by any one of my fellow Vestrymen however inconvenient it 
may have been to him to do the work that I was unable to do. I hope 
to be excused if I particularly mention the cheerfulness with which 
my brother Warden assumed the responsibilities and performed the 
duties of my office for several months at great charge upon his valu- 
able time: and also that invaluable assistance received from Mr. 
Rogers, the Comptroller's clerk, without which the affairs of the Cor- 
poration ct)uld hardly have been conducted. But nothing has touched 
me so much as the burst of sympathy manifested and the unanimous 
wish expressed that I should continue in office, and take leave of 
absence. 

" Be sure, My Dear Sirs, that the impression made upon my heart 
on that occasion can never be effaced. For the vote at the last meet- 
ing I beg of you now to accept my sincere thanks. With all the faults 
in my conduct of the office, and all the mistakes I have committed, 
and I am conscious they have been numerous, my sole desire and 
motive has ever been the promotion of the interests and prosperity, 
the honor and dignity of our beloved Church. 

" It is an inestimable satisfaction that I carry along the down-hill 
of life this proof of your approbation. That it is to be accompanied 
by a substantial testimony of that approbation is a mark of your abun- 
dant favor as unexpected as unnecessary for my fullest gratification. 
But I have to make a suggestion at the risk of its being considered 
ungracious, in regard to the form and nature of your gift. I have no 
inclination or opportunity for display, so that your munificence if 
expended as proposed will be little heard of. 

" Besides in this country Plate does not continue long even in one 
family, on account of the rapid vicissitudes of fortune and the infini- 
tesimal division of property among heirs and relations. Too often do 
such presents find their way at last to strangers, like the tankard given 
to the officers of the 33d (or Royal Welsh) Regiment, which was 
discovered among old silver intended for the crucible. 

" I have, therefore, to ask as a particular favor, even after all you 
have shown to me, that your gift may be changed to that which I trust 
you will agree with me in considering more appropriate for a Church 
to bestow, as uniting a pious object and enduring devotion of its wealth 



1853] Resignation of Mr. Harrison 387 

to the salvation of souls and the praise of God, with the compliment 
which is the immediate motive of the action. 

"I have for some time intended to erect a chapel in the parish of 
Canton at the village of Morley about five and a half miles from the 
Parish Church, and in the centre of a large tract of land of which my 
father was the proprietor. The beautiful site has been given by his 
eldest child. The plans have been some time drawn and approved, 
and the material such as stone, timber, and lumber provided. If my 
life shall be spared this will employ much of my hoped-for leisure ; if 
not I trust my son will go on and complete it. 

"It must be perceived that the whole will be necessarily a memo- 
rial of my father, to whose memory however it is intended more par- 
ticularly to appropriate one of the stained glass windows. 

^^ Now I earnestly ask of you that instead of the purchase of Plate 
I may be permitted to expend the sum you intended for it in procuring 
a stained glass window as a memorial of the first Comptroller of your 
Corporation, in the purchase of a set of Communion Plate suitable for 
the little wayside chapel, and if there be anything left, of other furni- 
ture, a font or bell for instance, as may be required, and shall not be 
otherwise provided. Grant me, then, this favor with the permission to 
present the articles so purchased in your behalf and name to Trinity 
Chapel at Morley, and to put on them suitable inscriptions to that effect. 

" For the imperfections of this communication I trust you will find 
excuse, in that it is written in a sick room amid the confusion of 
preparation for my voyage. 

" My dear friends, I bid you all an afifectionate farewell. 

" May God bless you, is the fervent prayer of your affectionate 
friend and colleague. 

" Wm. H. Harison. 
"At Dr. Ludlow's, 

"No. 49 E. 23d St., 

"New York, Nov. 5th, 1853."' 

The letter was referred, with power, to Messrs. Falls, 
Strong, and Hyslop. 

On the 13th of November, 1854, they reported, recom- 
mending that " the sum of eight hundred dollars be appro- 
priated to the payment for a stained glass window in a 
chapel to be erected in or near the village of Morley in 

' Records, liber iv., folios 142, 143. 



388 History of Trinity Church [1854 

St. Lawrence County, in this Diocese, to be called Trinity 
Chapel to the memory of Richard Harison, the first Comp- 
troller of this Corporation and for suitable Communion 
Plate for said Chapel." ^ They also recommended that 
other articles of furniture for the chapel should be pro- 
cured, if the sum were sufficient. 

The Albany Street scheme was revived in the closing 
weeks of 1853. Articles appeared in several newspapers, 
and meetings of those interested were held. The matter 
came once more before the Board of Aldermen, and at 
their last session in 1853 an amendment was offered and 
carried, that Albany Street be extended to Broadway. 

Prompt action was taken by the Vestry. On the 9th 
of January, 1854, a committee of five was appointed to 
oppose the measure, with power to call to their aid "any 
persons whose co-operation they may deem useful in carry- 
ing out the objects of their appointment." 

While the members of the Parish and the whole city 
were discussing this desecration of a plot of ground used 
for burial purposes for at least two hundred years, with 
indignant comments upon the motives of the Aldermen, 
the Rev. Sullivan H. Weston preached a sermon in Trinity 
Church, on Sunday, February 5, 1854, upon the " Sanctity 
of the Grave." * 

It was a vigorous, sensible, and manly protest against 
the proposition of the Aldermen, and it showed that in 
every nation the abodes of the dead had been respected 
and guarded sacredly from profanation. A hearing before 
the Street Committee of the Board of Aldermen was held 
in February, and adjourned from time to time, while argu- 
ments were made in favor of the alleged improvement by 

' Records, liber iv., folio 1S2. 

- A sermon on the " Sanctity of the Grave," preached in Trinity Church, Sunday, 
February 5, 1854, and repeated by request in St. Paul's Chapel, February 12, 1854, 
by the Rev. S. H. Weston, A.M. 



1854] Extension of Albany Street 389 

the Hon. Edward Sandford, and against it by Mr. Peter 
Y. Cuyler. The execution of the resolution was then de- 
ferred. In January, 1855, a new Board of Aldermen at 
the first meeting passed an ordinance " to stay all proceed- 
ings in the matter." This was fortified by an order of the 
Supreme Court that all proceedings be discontinued. And 
so the invaders of the grave were bailed once more. 

But the time was one of resolute and bitter conflict. 
While this attack upon the churchyard was in progress, 
the old attempts to get possession of the entire estate of 
the Corporation were renewed. Not only in the City of 
New York, but throughout the State, a firm conviction 
prevailed among certain persons, that the title of Trinity 
Church to its property was defective ; nor did the failure 
of the heirs of Anneke Jans to prove their claims, nor the 
decisions of the Courts, in every instance favorable to the 
Corporation, deter individuals from the search for means 
to obtain possession of the landed estate. The long 
history of popular delusions presents no more striking in- 
stance than this of their persistence and of the apparent 
impossibility of enlightening the victims of the erroneous 
impressions, from which such delusions take their rise. 

Mr. Rutgers B. Miller, a prominent lawyer of Utica, now 
appears upon the scene, asserting a claim by the State to 
the " King's Farm," on the ground that it was never legally 
conferred ; that the lease by Governor Fletcher had lapsed ; 
and that the lease by Governor Cornbury was null and 
void, as contrary to an act of the Provincial Assembly 
confirmed by the Queen. By dint of persistent letter- 
writing, he succeeded in interesting many persons in his 
contention ; he also submitted a hypothetical case to 
counsel, based on his alleged discoveries, and even gained 
the attention of the Commissioners of the School Fund 
and those of the Land Ofifice of the State. In furtherance 



390 History of Trinity Church [1854 

of the scheme, he proceeded to form an association for the 
recovery of the land for the State, of which the members 
were to receive a percentage of the value of the lands 
illegally held. It is hardly necessary to observe that Mr. 
Miller was President of this company of aggressors, and 
that he asserted that he had discovered and was in the 
possession of evidence amply sufficient to prove the 
invalidity of the Trinity Church title. 

And now enters once more that conspicuous and persis- 
tent adversary of the Corporation, Mr. Christopher C. 
Kiersted. An account of his attacks on us July, 1851, 
when a suit was commenced in the Court of Common 
Pleas in the City of New York, and in April, 1852, when a 
similar action was begun in the Supreme Court, together 
with their signal failure, has already been given in this 
History. This indomitable individual again comes to the 
fore. A petition from him was presented in the Senate 
February 27, 1854, by Mr. W. Clark, "relative to the title 
of the State of New York to the King's farm : which was 
read and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary." ' 

On Tuesday, March 7, the Committee reported, through 
Mr. Hopkins, their Chairman. He asked and obtained 
leave to bring in "a bill entitled An Act appointing Com- 
missioners to ascertain, adjust, and enforce the claims of 
the people of the State of New York to the King's farm 
and garden as claimed by the Rector, Wardens, and Ves- 
trymen of Trinity Church in the city of New York," which 
was read the first time and by unanimous consent was 
read the second time, and committed to the Committee of 
the Whole.= 

The matter seems to have ended there for the time, 
no further action being taken ; and so another storm blew 
over, without damage to the Church. 

'P. 260, Senate Journal, 1854. '' /bid., p. 315. 



i8s4] The Anneke Jans Claims 391 

On Friday, March 17, 1854, a petition was presented 
in the Senate, signed by citizens of New York, and pray- 
ing " that the Attorney-General be authorized to call the 
trial in the Supreme Court of this State of the suit of 
Christopher Kiersted and others against Trinity Church." 
This petition was read and referred to the Committee on 
the Judiciary.' A similar petition was presented in the 
Assembly on the same day, and a Bill was reported to ex- 
pedite the suit, which after some discussion was passed, 
April 15, 1854." 

Under all these attacks the Church maintained a calm 
and dignified attitude, confident in the validity of her title. 
Nothing seems to have come of them at the time, beyond 
a strong desire to ascertain the exact condition of the 
Corporation. Exaggerated rumors were in circulation as 
to the value of the property, the alleged selfishness of 
the trustees, and the habit ascribed to them of using the 
means at their disposal for partisan purposes and the 
benefit of high-church parishes and individuals. Such 
current stories as these induced Mr. A. Lozier, of 
Livingston County to offer in the Assembly, on the 4th 
of March, 1854, a resolution calling on Trinity Church 
to present a report before April ist, containing "a de- 
tailed statement of the number of lots of land, where 
situated, if under lease, when the leases will expire, the 
annual rents and incomes of all their property from what- 
ever source derived, and also the amount of debt owing 
by the Vestry of said Church, and the dates when each 
debt will be payable."^ 

This action of the Assembly was considered by the 

' P- 393. Si-natf jfotiinal, 1S54. A printed form on behalf of Mr. Kiersted was 
widely circulated and signed. A large number of signed petitions are among the 
Archives of the State, now preserved in the Manuscript Department of the State 
Library. ''jfoiirnal 0/ Assembly, 1854, pp. 590, 1074, 1076. 

' P. 463, Journal of Assembly, 1854. 



392 History of Trinity Church [i8S4 

Vestry, March 13, 1854. The Comptroller was " directed 
to make the report as so required, and for that purpose be 
authorized to employ such assistance as he may deem 
necessary." The Vestry also resolved " to meet again on 
the twenty-seventh day of March instant for the purpose 
of hearing the report." ' And when the Vestry were in- 
formed of the proposed appointment of a commission to 
investigate the claim of the State to the King's farm, a 
committee of five was appointed to take charge of the 
whole matter. That committee was composed of Mr. 
Dunscomb, the Comptroller, Mr. Richard Ogden, the 
Clerk, Mr. Gulian C. Verplanck, General John A. Dix, and 
Mr. Anthony J. Bleecker.- 

At the meeting, held on the 27th of March, the Vestry 
approved the report which had been prepared by Mr. 
Dunscomb, and, after being signed by the Clerk and 
Comptroller, it was forwarded to the Assembly at Albany. 
It contained all the information desired and other items 
not called for. The Vestry, however, stated emphatically 
that it was prepared and sent merely out of respect and 
courtesy, without acknowledging any right on the part of 
the Legislature, or either branch of it, to require such a 
report from the Corporation. 

Little cause for alarm appeared in these repeated as- 
saults on the title and property of the Church. But much 
anxiety was felt as to the state of the Parish, and with 
good reason. A heavy debt had been incurred, on account 
of unlooked-for expenditure and continued contributions 
to other parishes, which the Vestry were unwilling to 
abridge. The cost of the new chapel, on the plan sub- 
mitted by the architect and approved by the Vestry, was 
to have been $40,000. Subsequently another plan was sub- 
mitted and adopted, increasing the estimate to $79,000, 

' Records, liber iv., folio 157. ' Ihiii., folio 158. 



1854] Church Extension 393 



the Vestry never intending that the cost should exceed 
that sum. But little by little they found themselves 
involved, greatly to their disappointment and annoyance, 
in an expenditure of $230,000, for the chapel and its site. 
The corporate debt amounted, in 1854, to $668,000. 

The character of the city was rapidly changing. The 
wealthy part of the population had removed to the upper 
districts ; the churches had follovi^ed them ; the North 
Dutch, the Methodist Church in John Street, and St. 
Peter's Roman Catholic Church in Barclay Street still held 
their ground ; with these exceptions. Trinity Church, St. 
Paul's, and the church in Beekman Street, formerly known 
as St. George's, alone remained in the almost deserted field. 
It was evident that heavy responsibilities and very heavy 
expenditures must be faced by the Vestry in order to save 
what remained and to prevent the lower part of the city 
from presenting an awful example of religious destitution. 

It was under these circumstances that, on the loth of 
April, 1854, General John A. Dix introduced a series 
of resolutions as follows : 

" Resolved^ that the Standing Committee be instructt-d to report a 
plan by which the expenditures of the Corporation shall be limited to 
its income. 

"Resolved^ that the said Committee be instructed to inquire into 
the expediency of making the seats in Trinity Church, and in St. Paul's 
and St. John's Chapels, free. 

" Resolved^ that the said Committee be instructed to inquire into 
the expediency of establishing free schools in connection with Trinity 
Church and its chapels. 

" Resolved^ that the said Committee be instructed to inquire into 
the expediency of devoting the funds of the Corporation, as far as may 
be practicable, after making provision for the support of the new 
chapel in Twenty-Fifth St., to the education and religious instruction 
of the poor of the city." ' 

' Records, liber iv. See also General Uix's testimony before the Senate Commit- 
tee, February 23, 1S57. 



394 History of Trinity Church [1854 

Upon the mover's motion, these resolutions were laid 
upon the table, without record at the time. They were sub- 
sequently taken up, considered, and substantially adopted. 

In the course of the consideration of these very import- 
ant subjects, and the state of the Parish in general, an- 
other was brought before the Vestry, of equal, if not 
greater, importance : that of the status, duties, and rela- 
tions of the clergy. The charter of the Parish provides 
for the election and support of a Rector, and also for one 
additional Minister described as " Preacher and Assistant 
to the Rector of the said Parish and his Successors." 
These two are charter ofificers, and the only ones who 
have a life tenure of ofifice. As the Parish grew, it became 
necessary to have other ministers, besides the " Assistant 
to the Rector." These stood on a different footing ; and 
as has been seen, difficulties arose from time to time, about 
their relations to the Parish, the Rector, and each other, 
their rank and precedence, their assignments to duty, and 
the places, rules, and order of their performance of their 
work. A series of questions was sent to the Rector by 
the Standing Committee asking his opinion on points con- 
nected with this subject, on several of which the Vestry 
appeared to be uncertain. The occasion was, probably, 
the addition of the up-town chapel to the number of the 
churches of the Parish, and the necessity of calling more 
Assistant Ministers, in order to secure an efificient perform- 
ance of the work in the deserted parts of the city. Dr. 
Berrian made reply to the questions referred to, June 22, 
1854. His answer is of considerable length ; it contains 
much that is personal, referring to the clergy of the Parish, 
their preferences and the wishes of their friends ; these 
matters may be passed over as of slight interest and less 
importance. But his views on certain fundamental points 
may very properly be presented in this connection. 



1854] The Preacher Assistant 395 

Having been asked the meaning of the clause in the 
charter : " Preacher and Assistant to the Rector of the 
said Parish and his Successors," he says : " The obvious 
meaning is that he is appointed for the purpose of aiding 
the Rector in the performance of his duties in the Parish 
when from its growth they might become not only too 
burdensome, but altogether impracticable to himself." 
Dr. Berrian quotes from the charter to show that this 
" Preacher Assistant " stands in a very close relation to 
the Rector, and consequently it is provided that he is to 
be nominated by the Rector, with the consent of the 
Wardens and Vestrymen, and to hold his office during 
his natural life or continuance in the city, unless displaced 
by the Rector for misconduct reasonably proved. Beyond 
this he says there is nothing in the charter which throws 
light on the subject. 

The second query related to the status of Assistant 
Ministers. Were their duties recognized by the charter 
or defined by regulations and ordinances of this Corpora- 
tion ? In his answer the Rector says that there was 
" nothing in the charter relating to Assistant Ministers, 
such a case in the infancy of the Parish not being contem- 
plated." As to the duties of such Ministers, the charter 
is, of course, silent. It does, however, mention what is 
expected of the " Preacher and Assistant," who was 
" to aid the Rector in the celebration of the divine offices of 
praying and preaching, and other duties i^icident to be per- 
formed in the same Chiirch and Parish as the said Rector 
shall require of him." The Rector then considers the 
development of the Parish and the necessity which arose 
for other clergymen beside the Rector and Preacher Assist- 
ant. By implication the duties of the Assistants would be 
some portion of the work assigned to the Preacher Assist- 
ant. From his study of the charter and knowledge of 



396 History of Trinity Church [1854 

the Parish the Rector is strongly convinced that " the 
language of the charter, however, implies, and uniform 
practice confirms it, for nearly one hundred and forty 
years in regard to them all, that the regulation of these 
duties and all of the matters connected with the interests 
of the Parish were under the direct and immediate care of 
the Rector." 

Dr. Berrian then gives briefly the history of the change 
in the relation of the Assistant Ministers, and the asser- 
tion by the Vestry of authority over their appointment 
and duties, which was made in 1836. 

The third query concerned the exact position of the 
Rev. Mr. Hobart and Dr. Haight in the Parish. Did they 
hold their ofifice by the same tenure, and were their duties 
the same as those of other Assistant Ministers as Dr, 
Higbee, Bishop Wainwright, and the late Dr. Parks? 

"These gentlemen," the Rector in reply said, "were appointed 
in the first place to fill up vacancies in the Parish made by partic- 
ular emergencies and were continued in part for the same reason and 
in part for other reasons connected with the supposed interests of the 
Parish when those emergencies in some instances had passed away. 
They are now in the Parish without any special appointment to the 
peculiar duties of the Assistant Ministers devolving on those who have 
a more peculiar charge of a particular congregation, but to perform all 
the duties of a general nature which may be required of them by the 
Rector. Like the other Assistant Ministers their tenure of office is 
'during the pleasure of the Vestry.' " 

In answer to the query as to the competency of the 
Rector or Vestry to appoint any person to the ofifice of 
" Preacher Assistant" unless he was in Priests' Orders and 
had been regularly nominated, the Rector replies that it is 
not seen how any further light can be thrown upon it than 
by the express language of the charter itself which makes 
it essential " that he should be in Priests' Orders and nom- 



1854] The Assistant Ministers 2)9'j 

inated and chosen by the Vestry on a footing of entire 
equality with all other Assistant Ministers." The Rector 
remarks that " the nomination in all cases by the Rector 
was continued until 1836 or 1837, and then changed upon 
grounds which never appeared to me entirely satisfactory," 

As to the question of the assignment of Assistant 
Ministers, the Rector considered it to be "surrounded 
and perplexed with almost inconceivable difficulties as to 
the judicious and delicate settlement of it by the Vestry 
in all its parts." The only Assistants then permanently 
assigned were Dr. Higbee at Trinity Church, and Dr. 
VVainwright at St. John's Chapel. No assignment had 
been made for St. Paul's, and nothing had been deter- 
mined in regard to an assignment to the new chapel. New 
assignments were necessary ; to return to the old rotary 
system would be unadvisable ; the question was whether 
the places at St. Paul's and Trinity Chapels should be 
filled by clergy within the Parish, or by others to be 
brought in from outside. Dr. Berrian confesses his em- 
barrassment in his closing words : " It is a painful ques- 
tion, the decision of which is to be determined on grounds 
much higher than any which are personal." ' 

The discussion of these matters seems to have been 
informal : nothing appears on the Vestry Minutes. But it 
prepared the way for action of great importance to the 
Parish, and a complete reorganization of the clerical staff 
which took place some years later, and was adopted and 
in full operation in or about the year 1855, when the 
writer of this History came into the Parish as what was 
known as a "Junior Assistant." Under that system the 
Assistant Ministers were of two grades, distinguished 
as Senior Assistants and Junior Assistants. The Senior 
Assistants were assigned one to each church, by resolution 

' No. 57S, Berrian MSB. 



398 History of Trinity Church [1^54 

of the Vestry, the Junior Assistants were placed under 
the direction of the Rector with power to designate their 
special work, to assign them to any church of the Parish 
in his discretion, and to change them from place to place 
at will. Before the end of the year 1855, the clergy of 
the Parish were so distributed among the several churches, 
each having a Senior Assistant ministering therein under 
special regulations by the Vestry, and a Junior Assistant 
taking his directions solely from the Rector. The plan 
had its advantages and disadvantages ; but the latter were 
found by experience to outweigh the former, and the sys- 
tem, after a trial of many years, was discontinued in favor 
of another which now exists, with no friction, and with 
much better results. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

DIOCESAN MATTERS. 

Administration of Bishop Wainwright — His Death — Funeral Services — Sermon by 
Dr. Higbee — Resolutions Adopted by the Vestry — Convention of the Diocese — Ser- 
mon by Dr. McVickar — Election of Dr. Horatio Potter as Provisional Bishop — Con- 
secration of Dr. Potter — Action of the Vestry Looking to the Support of the Bishop 
— Action of Legislature in Regard to Trinity Corporation — Reply of the Vestry — 
Resolutions Regarding Assistant Ministers — Their Election — And Remuneration — 
Assignment of Assistant Ministers to the Various Chapels — Election of Messrs. 
Hobart, Eaton, and Haight as Assistant Ministers — Also of the Rev. William Henry 
Odenheimer — Nominations Made for an Additional Assistant Minister — Preparations 
for Consecration of Trinity Cha|iel — Letter from the Bishop of Fredericton Express- 
ing Regret at Inability to Preach Sermon at Consecration — Its Consecration — Sermon 
by Bishop Potter — The Music — .Sermon by Dr. Berrian. 

FOR seven years the Diocese of New York was without 
the benefit of an Episcopal head, its Bishop being 
under a sentence of indefinite suspension. 

Bishop Wainwright, thoroughly aware of the condition 
of things, applied himself with vigor to the work which 
lay before him. He planned and carried out a complete 
visitation within a year after his consecration. He recon- 
ciled conflicting interests ; he was the friend and confidant 
of the clergy and the judicious adviser of the laymen in 
the various parishes. In the Diocesan Boards and gen- 
eral institutions he at once became a power for good. In 
his intercourse with the suspended Bishop, he was consid- 
erate and courteous. In addition to the Diocesan work 
he still retained his connection with this Parish, and was 
conscientious in the discharge of his pastoral work. 

But, alas ! the energy with which he strove to meet 

399 



400 History of Trinity Church [1854 

every duty in that large and heavy work, and the frequent 
long and wearisome journeys through the Diocese soon 
told on his health. 

During a visitation at Haverstraw on Sunday, August 
27, 1854, a chill came on, when driving from the room 
used for services to the home of the missionary, the 
Rev. J. B. Gibson. On his return to New York it 
developed into a severe cold, and this was aggravated 
by his attendance at an important meeting of the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Church Book Society on the 30th 
of the month, in the evening, and his presiding on the 
following evening at an adjourned meeting, although 
hardly able to sit up. It was his last public act. Typhoid 
symptoms developed, and it soon became evident that no 
care or skill could prolong his life. He entered into the 
rest of Paradise on St. Matthew's Day, September 21, 
1854, in the sixty-third year of his age. The sorrow felt 
in the Parish, the Diocese, and the whole city was sincere 
and profound. A great man and a beloved Father had 
been taken away, just as his work and character were be- 
ginning to bring peace and harmony to a Diocese which 
had suffered unspeakably in its deep distress. 

On Saturday, September 23d, the funeral was held 
from Trinity Church. 

From eleven o'clock in the morning until one o'clock 
in the afternoon the body of the Bishop lay in state in the 
north Vestry-room of the Church, where it was viewed by 
many hundreds of friends. 

At twelve o'clock a meeting of the clergy was held in 
the south Vestry-room. The Rev. Dr. Creighton was 
made Chairman, and the Rev. Charles D. Jackson, of St. 
Peter's Church, Westchester, Secretary. In one of his 
most impressive and touching speeches the Rev. Dr. 
Hawks spoke of the sense of loss which the death of 



i8s4] Death of Bishop Wainwright 401 

Bishop Wainwright had brought to all the clergy and 
alluded to some of the prominent characteristics of their 
venerated Father in God. The preamble and resolutions 
which he then offered were seconded by the Rev. Dr. Van 
Kleeck in a few feeling words, and adopted. 

A procession of nearly two hundred clergymen in sur- 
plices took their appointed places in the middle aisle, at one 
o'clock in the afternoon. 

The officiating bishops, clergymen, and pall-bearers 
headed by David Lyon, the sexton of Trinity Church, 
with his staff draped in mourning, then moved slowly 
down the middle aisle to the great west door of the 
Church where the body was received. The pall-bearers ' 
ranged themselves on either side of it and the procession 
advanced toward the chancel, the Rev. Dr. Berrian, Rector 
of the Parish, reading the sentences. 

The Lesson was read by the Bishop of Illinois, Dr. 
Whitehouse. 

The Rev. Dr. Higbee was then conducted to the 
pulpit, and thus commenced his funeral address : 

"Brethren, in endeavoring to obey the request made of me a 
burden is laid upon me this day heavier than I can bear. My own 
spirit is not yet schooled to the weight of this affliction. How can 
I then, my brethren speak as your teacher and your comforter ? 

" Could personal grief and anguish be suppressed, could I for the 
time forget that my faithful, affectionate friend, my associate and com- 
panion of many years, lies there upon his bier ; could the mind be 
arrested and occupied alone by the great public calamity which has 
befallen us, the bereavement of the Church in the death of the Bishop ; 
still so unexpected and so crushing has been the blow that it must 
needs paralyze the sufferer. As one suddenly hurled from some high 
cliff into the sea, I hear only confused mournful sounds of death amid 

' They were the Rev. William Creighton, the Rev. Dr. Francis L. Hawks, the 
Rev. John McVickar, the Rev. Evan M. Johnson, the Rev. William A. Muhlenberg, 
the Rev. Dr. Henry .\Mthon, the Rev. Stephen A. Tyng, the Rev. William Richmond. 

VOL. IV.— 36, 



402 History of Trinity Church [1854 

the waves, save as those sounds are overborne by God's awful voice 
saying to all human hearts and all human tongues, ' Be still, be 

still ! ' " 

Dr. Higbee proceeded to sketch the work of Dr. 
Wainwright, showing how well he adapted himself to his 
new position and the gifts and graces with which he 
adorned it. Quoting from an obituary in the New York 
Times : 

" Since the period of his election he has known but little rest. We 
have often seen him wrapped in an ample cloak, waiting in severe storms 
the arrival of conveyances to take him to and from the city. The 
Clergy respected him, the Laity supported him, his friends honored and 
loved him "; 

Dr. Higbee makes this comment : 

" Waiting, waiting, in severe storms. Aye, in every part of the Dio- 
cese has he been waiting in the summer's heat and in the winter's cold. 
No, not waiting, but everywhere on the great highways and aside from 
the thoroughfares of travel, in lonely vales, and along bleak hills, braving 
the inclement seasons, and wet with the unhealthy dews of night, he has 
been seen pursuing his way, by any conveyance which might be presented 
to him from one distant point to another to visit the populous town, or 
the humble country Church, or the obscure school-house, hastening to 
bestow his blessing, whether on the great congregation, or on two or 
three gathered together in God's name." 

After alluding to the entreaties of the Bishop's friends 
that he would spare himself needless fatigue, and dwelling 
upon his absolute devotion to his Episcopal work, the 
speaker closed with these words of affectionate counsel : 

"And now, brethren, we are about to perform the last office for 
our beloved friend and Bishop. With what fitting memorial shall we 
honor his closing tomb ? Can we do better honor to his memory ? Can 
we really and truly promote our own well-being, nay, can we more 
earnestly and fully express our faithfulness to his kind Lord and ours, 
than by resolving now that we will plant deep upon his grave, with 
united fraternal hands the heavenly virtues of charity, peace, and 



i8s4] Funeral of Bishop Wainwright 403 

brotherly love ? That henceforth, day by day, and year by year, we 
will tend and cherish the trees of divine promise thence arising, fairest 
of all things that adorn the green earth, until they fill the land and the 
hills be covered with the shadow thereof; their fruits increasing and 
niMturing unto eternal life! 

" And, oh, if there be in any heart one germ of unfraternal feeling, 
root it out and destroy it this day. If there be among us any remain- 
ing incarnation of the Demon of strife, bury it in the profoundest 
darkness of death. Let it lie in the dust and ashes of a sepulchre from 
whose doors neither men nor angels shall ever roll away the stone."' 

At the close of the address Mrs. Bostwick, who for 
years had enjoyed the personal friendship of Dr. Wain- 
wright, sang the solo from Handel's Messiah: " I know 
that my Redeemer liveth." 

The conclusion of the service was said by the Rt. Rev. 
Dr. Doane, Bishop of New Jersey. The burial was in 
Trinity Cemetery, Dr. Muhlenberg and Dr. Higbee ac- 
companying the family to the grave. 

At a meeting held October 9, 1854, the Vestry 
adopted a preamble and resolutions upon the death of 
Bishop Wainwright. Holding "in grateful remembrance 
the great labours and services of our respected and deeply 
lamented Assistant Minister," they bore testimony to " the 
ardent zeal and devotion to the duties of his high calling, 
and his untiring exertion to promote the great interests of 
religion and the Church of which as an Assistant Minister 
of the Parish and Provisional Bishop of the Diocese he 
was an eminent and faithful servant." " Respectful con- 
dolence" was tendered "the afflicted Relict and family of 
the deceased in their heavy bereavement." The proceed- 
ings of the Standing Committee in respect to the funeral 
of the Bishop were approved." 

' Pp. 13, 14, ig, 21, 22, of A Memorial Volume, Thirty-four Sirmons, by Rt, 
Rev. Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright, D.U. 
' Records, liber iv., folio 178. 



404 History of Trinity Church [1854 

The Convention of the Diocese of New York met in 
St. John's Chapel, September 28, 1854. 

The opening sermon was preached by the Rev. Pro- 
fessor McVickar ; an appreciative estimate of the departed 
Bishop and a tender tribute to his memory. 

The election of a new Provisional Bishop occupied 
a large portion of the time of the Convention. 

At a late hour, upon the feast of St. Michael and All 
Angels, September 29, 1854, on the eighth ballot, the Rev. 
Horatio Potter, of St. Peter's Church in the city of Albany, 
was duly chosen, having received ninety-seven clerical and 
seventy-five lay votes. 

The needs of the Diocese requiring a speedy consecra- 
tion, it took place in Trinity Church on Wednesday, 
November 22, 1854. The church was filled long before 
the appointed hour. Morning Prayer was said by the 
Rev. Dr. Thomas H. Taylor, of Grace Church, the First 
Lesson being read by the Rev. Francis Vinton, of Grace 
Church, Brooklyn Heights, and the Second Lesson by the 
Rev. Dr. Robert W. Harris, of Grace Church, White 
Plains. 

The Creed and Prayers were said by the Rev. Dr. Jo- 
seph H. Price, of St. Stephen's Church, New York City. 

The Communion Service was begun by the Presiding 
Bishop, Dr. Brownell of Connecticut ; the Bishop of Ver- 
mont, Dr. Hopkins, read the Epistle, and the Bishop of 
Illinois, Dr. Whitehouse, read the Gospel. The Rt. Rev. 
Dr. Francis Pulford preached the sermon from St. John, 
xvii., 1 1. 

Dr. Hodges's Consecration Anthem from the 104th 
Psalm, " Behold, now praise the Lord," was then admir- 
ably rendered. The Bishop-elect, vested in his rochet, 
was presented to the Presiding Bishop by the Rt. Rev. 
Dr. Potter, of Pennsylvania, and the Rt. Rev. Dr. 



i8s4] Consecration of Bishop Potter 405 

Williams, of Connecticut. The Rev. William E. Eigen- 
brodt, the Assistant Secretary of the Diocese of New- 
York, read the Testimonial from the Convention of New 
York, the Rev. Dr. Haight the Consents of the Standing 
Committees, and the Rev. Dr. Van Kleeck the Consents 
of the Bishops. 

The Rt. Rev. Dr. Eastburn, Bishop of Massachusetts, 
read the Litany ; the attending Presbyters were the Rev. 
Dr. Bedell and the Rev. John Ireland Tucker. The Pre- 
siding Bishop, the Bishop of Montreal, the Bishops of 
Vermont, New Jersey, Michigan, and Pennsylvania were 
the Consecrators. 

The Presiding Bishop proceeded to the celebration 
of the Holy Communion, assisted by several of the Bishops 
present, and pronounced the Benediction. The Service 
was said to have been more stately than any previously 
held in the American Church. 

With the election and consecration of a new Bishop, 
came up the old question of the support of the Episcopate. 
The Convention had promised the Bishop a salary of 
$6000 and a suitable residence. The income of the Epis- 
copal Fund was small ; out of it Bishop Onderdonk had 
received a salary of $2500 and Bishop Wainwright a salary 
of $3000, the Parish, in which he was still an Assistant 
Minister, though head of the Diocese, making up the 
remainder of the amount required for his support. This 
arrangement, of course, could not be allowed to continue. 
The Convention appointed two committees, one to provide 
for the new Bishop, the other to consider means for increas- 
ing the fund ; and the Corporation appointed a similar 
committee to confer with those of the Convention. Nu- 
merous meetings were held, of which it is unnecessary to 
give the details ; they belong rather to the history of the 
Diocese than to that of the Parish. A report on the 



4o6 History of Trinity Church [i8S4 

subject was presented to the Vestry, November 13, 1854. 
It dealt with the subject, from a business point of view ; 
and on the iith of December the following resolutions 
were recommended for adoption : 

'■'■Resolved, that in addition to the capital sum of $30,000 hereto- 
fore paid by the Vestry, and in order to provide for the due support of 
the Episcopate of this Diocese the sum of $20,000 be paid by this Cor- 
poration, as soon as practicable and convenient, to the Trustees of the 
Episcopal Fund of the Diocese of New York in aid of the same, when- 
ever and as soon as the said Fund shall (including the amount of the 
accumulating Fund) be raised by additional subscriptions amounting 
to $50,000 to the gross sum of $150,000 upon the following specific 
conditions, namely, 

" I. That the Capital of the said Fund shall be augmented to the 
said sum ot $150,000 by the 26th day of September next, the day of 
the meeting of the next annual Convention. 

" 2. That in case of any future division of the Diocese, the said 
sum of $30,000 heretofore paid, and $20,000 now agreed to be paid, 
and at least one half of $100,000, the remainder of the Fund, shall 
belong to that Diocese in which the city of New York shall be em- 
braced, the interest thereof to be applied to the support of the Episco- 
pate within the same. 

"3. That the said Capital Fund of $150,000 shall remain inviolate 
and that the annual interest or income thereof or so much thereof as 
the Convention may deem adequate be applied to the support of the 
Episcopate of the Diocese. 

"4. Resolved 'C^aX. until the sum of $20,000 above granted shall be 
paid by this Corporation as above provided, the Comptroller do pay to 
the Trustees of the Episcopal Fund the sum of $1200 per annum, 
being the interest on the same at 6 ^, commencing the first day of 
January next and payable quarterly to be applied to the support of 
the Provisional Bishop of the Diocese. 

"5. Resolved that a copy of the above report and resolutions be 
transmitted by the clerk to the Chairman of the two Committees and 
also to the Secretary of the Convention of this Diocese to be com- 
municated to the Convention, at its next annual meeting. 

"All of which is respectfully submitted." 

The war upon the Church was now resumed. On the 
nth of January, 1855, Mr. Mark Spencer introduced into 



i8s4] Attack on the Corporation 407 

the Senate of New York a resohition inquiring of the At- 
torney-General " whether he has since the adjournment of 
the Legislature of 1854 commenced suit in behalf of the 
people of this State against the Corporation of Trinity 
Church, and if any suit has been or is about to be so com- 
menced, that he be requested to communicate to the Sen- 
ate his authority or reasons for such proceedings." ' 

On Monday, January 22d, the President laid before 
the Senate a report from Mr. Ogden Hoffman, the At- 
torney-General, in which he said : 

" No such suit had been commenced. The authority to commence 
such suit is given by the resolutions of the Board of Land Commis- 
sioners, passed June 10, 1854, and amended August 31, 1854, a copy 
of which is hereunto annexed; by reference to which it will be seen 
that such authority depends upon certain conditions to be performed 
on the part of the relator or memorialist named in the said resolutions. 
Those conditions not having been complied with on his part, as neither 
the evidence nor the bond required has been furnished to the Attorney- 
General no proceedings have been instituted by him." 

Appended to the report are the minutes of the meeting 
of the Board of Land Commissioners on June 10, 1854, 
when the Memorial of Rutgers B. Miller and others already 
referred to was presented, and it was resolved that the 
Attorney-General " should commence a suit to test the 
title of this State to the King's farm provided that the State 
should be indemnified against all costs," and further that 
the person furnishing evidence which would lead to the 
recovery should be entitled to 25^ of the value of the 
lands recovered." 

On Monday, February 12th, Mr. Spencer offered in 
the Senate a resolution that no other proceedings "are 

' p. 67, Senate Journal, 1855. 

' In Senate Document No. 21, 1855; also The Trinity Church Title. New 
York: Pudney & Russell, 1855. It contains Report of Commissioners of Land 
Office, May 12, 1836, Memorial of the Corporation of Trinity Church, 1853, and 
Report of Mr. Hoffman. 



4o8 History of Trinity Church [1855 

required except those authorized by the act of the 15th of 
April, 1854." This was debated and on motion of Mr. Z. 
Clark was laid on the table.' 

The report of Mr. Hoffman was laid before the Vestry, 
February 12th, and the Standing Committee was author- 
ized to pursue such measures as they shall be advised are 
proper for the protection of the rights and property of 
this Corporation and with power to act for and in the 
name of the Corporation and of the Vestry. 

At a meeting of the Vestry, held March 5, 1855, the 
subject of the appointment and assignment of Assistant 
Ministers being once more before that body, Mr. Bleecker 
offered a resolution that it was inexpedient to alter the 
present system of assigning clergymen to ofificiate in the 
churches and congregations as directed by an order of 
the Vestry of the 25th day of January, 1836. 

Mr. Skidmore then offered a series of resolutions, the 
first of which mentioned the death of two Assistant Min- 
isters and the building of the new chapel, and declared 
that three Assistant Ministers should be elected, and " that 

this Vestry will hold a special meeting on the day of 

for the purpose of electing by ballot three Assis- 
tant Ministers as hereafter mentioned." 

In the second resolution their salaries were fixed at 

" dollars per annum, payable in quarterly payments, 

and provided that ' they shall hold their office during the 
pleasure of the Vestry' according to the resolution of 
December 12, 181 1." The third resolution provided that 
these new ministers were to be assigned respectively by 
ballot to each of the congregations in accordance with 
the resolutions of January 25, and March 25, 1836. The 
fourth resolution provided that "at least twelve votes 
shall be in favor of or for the same person," and that to be 

' p. 222, St-naU Journal, 1855. 



1855] Assistant Ministers Elected 409 

eligible, nomination must have been made at some pre- 
vious meeting of the Vestry. The fifth resolution pro- 
vided that should any one or more of the clergy then 
officiating in the Parish be not elected, such person or 
persons should be made Assistant Ministers at large 
under the same tenure as other Assistant Ministers, their 
duties to be prescribed by the Rector. 

At a meeting held March i 2th, it was ordered that the 
blank in the first resolution adopted March 5th, should be 
filled by inserting " Monday, the 26th of March." ^ The 
following gentlemen were then nominated as Assistant 
Ministers by various members of the Vestry : the Rev. 
Mr. Weston, the Rev. Mr. Hobart, the Rev. Dr. Haight, 
the Rev. Edward H. Cressey, of Auburn ; the Rev. Ed- 
ward Ingersoll, of Buffalo ; the Rev. Homer Wheaton, 
the Rev. William H. Odenheimer, of Philadelphia ; the 
Rt. Rev. Horatio Southgate, the Rev. Christopher Wyatt, 
the Rev. George J. Geer, the Rev. Frederick Ogilby, the 
Rev. Francis Vinton, and the Rev. Mr. Stuart, of 
Newark.^ 

The plan of having Assistant Ministers at large was 
rejected ; all those to be elected were to be assigned 
to duty either by the Vestry or by the Rector. The 
salaries of the new Assistants were fixed at three thou- 
sand dollars each, and an allowance of " not more than 
eleven hundred dollars " for house rent. After these 
preliminaries, balloting was commenced, and the Rev. 
John Henry Hobart, the Rev. Sullivan H. Weston, and 
the Rev. Benjamin I. Haight were duly elected.'^ 

It being thought that a fourth Assistant was necessary in 
view of the increased work in the Parish, another ballot 
was taken, and the Rev. William Henry Odenheimer, 
Rector of St. Peter's Church, Philadelphia, was elected. 

' Records, liber iv., folio Ig8. ° Hid., folio lc;8. ^ Ibid., folio 200. 



4IO History of Trinity Church [1855 

The need of other clergymen being apparent, the Ves- 
try nominated as additional Assistant Ministers, the Rev. 
John Freeman Young, of Louisiana ; the Rev. Mr. Carter, 
of Yonkers ; the Rev. William E. Eigenbrodt, of New 
York ; the Rev. Dr. J. H. Price, the Rev. Morgan Dix, and 
the Rev. William F. Morgan, of Norwich, Connecticut.' 

The next event in the history of the Parish was the 
consecration of the new chapel in 25th Street. As the 
time drew near an invitation was sent to the Right Rev. 
Dr. Medley, the Bishop of Fredericton, to preach on that 
occasion. He declined, however, " owing to the state of 
the roads and other causes." The Vestry expressed by 
resolution, their great regret. The day fixed for the func- 
tion was the second Tuesday after Easter, April 17, 1855. 

The Vestry met at 10 o'clock on the morning of that 
day, at the residence of Mr. Owen, on 25th Street, oppo- 
site the chapel. The clergy robed in the houses of two 
other gentlemen, who had kindly offered them for that 
purpose. Nearly one hundred were present in their sur- 
plices, and many were in their ordinary dress. Bishop 
Potter officiated, assisted by the Right Rev. Dr. White- 
house, Bishop of Illinois. The Rector, Dr. Berrian, with 
Drs. Haight, Hobart, Higbee, Vinton, and Seabury, took 
part in the service. The sermon was preached by the 
Provisional Bishop, from the text Hab., ii., 20: " The Lord 
is in His Holy Temple." 

At the conclusion of the sermon Dr. Hodges's anthem 
Lcstatus Stim taken from the i22d Psalm : " I was glad 
when they said unto me, We will go into the House of the 
Lord," was sung. A competent critic says : 

" The rarest gem of the day, however, was the most appropriate 
and elaborate anthem composed by Dr. Hodges especially for this con- 
secration. Its words embraced the words of the Psalm, Latatus Sum, 
' Records, liber iv. , folios 200, 209. 







1 



X 

^ 



v^ 



.-I 



iSss] Consecration of Trinity Chapel 411 

and their peculiar arrangement by the composer showed not only inge- 
nuity but thoughtful and true feeling. The suggestive movement of 
the opening chorus, ' Let us go,' the severe yet deep and trustful joy of 
the barytone solo sung by the Rev. J. Sebastian B. Hodges, and the 
subsequent vigorous chorus 'Thither the tribes go up,' admirably pre- 
pare the way for an exquisite trio which was the most striking feature of 
the anthem. This trio was for male voices, 'O pray for the peace of 
Jerusalem, they shall prosper that love thee.' And with beautiful 
appropriateness this exhortation to peace was sung only by priests and 
deacons (six singing, two in each part) the ordained messengers of the 
Prince of Peace. 

"Another solo for a soprano (sung by Miss Hodges) 'For my 
Brethren and Companions' sake ' was given with great feeling and no 
little power. 

" It was both preceded and followed by the choruses ' Peace be 
within Thy Walls and Plenteousness within Thy Palaces,' in which the 
brooding stillness of ' peace,' the measured calm, the influence descend- 
ing cool and clear from above, like falling dew, was alternated and in- 
terwoven with the liquid, long drawn, and full swelling and many 
changing exuberances of ' plenteousness.' None who heard that anthem 
will be likely easily to forget it." ' 

The Bishop of Illinois proceeded in the Communion 
Service, to the Consecration, which was the act of Bishop 
Potter. The number of communicants was very large, in- 
cluding nearly the whole congregation. The remainder 
of the Ofifice was taken by Bishop Potter who also pro- 
nounced the Benediction. 

The whole service was impressive and dignified, and 
had only been equalled by that of nine years before when 
the Parish church was consecrated. 

Miss Hodges speaking of her father's interest in Trinity 
Chapel says : 

" It is hardly known with what intelligent interest my father entered 
into the work of the erection of this noble chapel ; . . . He took 
great pleasure in his friendship for Richard Upjohn, the eminent Eng- 
lish architect of both buildings (Trinity Church and Trinity Chapel). 

' The Rev. John Henry Hopkins in The Church y^xrwa/ for April 19, 1855. 



412 History of Trinity Church [1855 

"On the nth of November, 1851, his Diary says : 'I went down 
to Upjohn's office and inspected the plans of the new chapel. Mr. 
Upjohn treated me very kindly and explained portions of them. I am 
to see him again. If I can only be trusted by this people I think I can 
make a most delightful organ effect there.' 

"And when the Consecration Day came, with its unparalleled ser- 
vice of musical solemnity and beauty, yet remembered by many, organ 
effects were indeed produced which have never been excelled. The 
occasion called forth the now published anthem. Psalm 122, than 
which not one that my father wrote seems more full of devotional sci- 
ence, and lofty, chaste imagination. . . . With a pathetic and 
prophetic spirit he gathered around him on this occasion all his four 
children, seeming to realize it would be perhaps his last memorable 
service in the parish — and it was so. 

" On the title page of his own copy of this anthem my father has 
written : ' The sermon reported to have occupied twenty-four minutes ; 
the anthem twenty-two minutes — Balance in favour of the former two 
minutes." 

Upon the Second Sunday after Easter, April 22, 1855, 
the Rector preached a sermon in Trinity Chapel which 
was received with much interest, although it occasioned 
some unfavorable comment from persons unfriendly to 
the mother Parish. Dr. Berrian selected as his text, i 
Samuel vii., 12, and Psalm xxxvi., 10, without, as he said, 

" any reference to the circumstances under which they were respec- 
tively written but simply because in their conjunction they seemed 
peculiarly suited to the present occasion. This is a new and striking 
era in the history of our Parish. It carries back our thoughts, through 
the past, to the commencement of its existence almost in the infancy 
of the Colony, a period, indeed, not very remote from it in point 
of time, but yet so wonderful in tlie rapid changes which have taken 
place in the interval that its progress might almost be considered 
the work of ages." 

Quoting Edmund Burke on the rapidity with which the 
American Colonies had grown, applying his words to the 
advance of the City of New York, and sketching the earlier 

' Pp. 134, 137, 138, Edward Hodges. 



i85s] Dr. Berrian's Sermon 413 

history of Trinity, and commending the prudence and wis- 
dom with which from the beginning its parochial affairs had 
been conducted, Dr. Berrian said : 

" It has been blessed with a long line of ministers as well fitted for 
their work by their talents, their piety and zeal, and as free from 
infirmity and sin as the imperfect condition of our nature could well 
have led us to expect. No less than ten of the clergy who were either 
temporarily or permanently connected with it have been raised to the 
Episcopate, five having become Bishops of the Diocese of New York,' 
and five Bishops of Western New York, Connecticut, New Jersey, 
Indiana, and Maryland. '' 

"From the formation of the Parish in 1697 to the present time 
there have been eight Rectors, the first of whom laboured in it nearly 
fifty years, and the last, who is now before you, somewhat less than 
forty-three years, making their united ministry but little short of a 
century." ' 

The preacher then went on to mention the growth of 
the city northward, the consequent removal of families 
from the vicinity of the older chapels, and the danger of 
losing nearly all of the old parishioners, and said : 

" To guard against an evil of such magnitude, and to provide for 
the return of a portion at least of our faithful and long tried friends 
it was thought expedient to build a new Church at their very door. 

"I cannot but personally express the pleasure that gladdens my 
heart and in which so many before me most deeply sympathize at 
beholding the object so happily accomplished. I here see the old 
and familiar faces of many to whom I had ministered in the outset 
of life and who are endeared to me by the most sacred and tender 
associations." 

He then briefly summarizes "the agency of this 
Parish in promoting the growth of the Church and the 
spiritual interests of men " and observes that " unreasonable 

' Dr. Samuel Provoost, Dr. Benjamin Moore, Dr. John Henry Hobart, Dr. 
Benjamin T. OnderJonk, and Dr. Jonathan M. Wainwright. 

'' Dr. William llealhcote DeLancey, Dr. Thomas C. Brownell, Dr. George W. 
Doane, Dr. George Upfold, Dr. William R. Whittingham. 

^ MS. .Sermon, No. 473, Berrian MSS. 



414 History of Trinity Church [i8S5 

expectations on the part of many from the exaggerated 
opinion of her unbounded resources, and the narrow jeal- 
ousy of wealth, however usefully and beneficially applied, 
on the part of more, have made malcontents of some and 
ingrates of others." 

In speaking of the influence of Trinity Church upon 
the community, the State, and the Church, the preacher 
said : " It has not only been enlarged by the direct and sea- 
sonable aid which it has rendered to others but by the 
silent and wholesome influence which it has exerted in the 
promotion of sound Church principles in just and harmo- 
nious connection with true religion and virtue." He pays 
an affectionate tribute to Bishop Hobart whose " com- 
manding influence " and "the operation of circumstances" 
have given to Trinity Church " a marked and decided 
character which I trust in God may never be changed." 

In mentioning members of the Vestry in the early 
years of the Republic he thus alludes to several men of 
national reputation : 

" Lewis and Livingston, one of whom was a member of the Old 
Congress and the other Chancellor of the State and Minister to Paris 
under the Consulate and Empire, and both signers of the Declaration 
of Independence; Duane and Morris who had held the most honour- 
able appointments both under the General Government and the State; 
the pure and honoured Jay who had borne so conspicuous a part both 
at home and abroad in the settlement of public affairs in those troub- 
lous times, are found among the Vestry on the return of peace, guard- 
ing the interests of the Parish, allaying the force of popular prejudice 
and securing to it its just and lawful rights as we trust forever. 

" But, my brethren, carried away by the subject, and scarcely 
knowing where to stop, I have made a hurried sketch of the past, and 
have left but a moment for the future. Man's foresight is but folly, 
and that future is solely in the hands of God, to Whom we cheerfully 
submit it. But how beautiful and glorious does it nevertheless appear ! 
A new and important work is yet before us. In the course of things, 
and in the providence of God, nearly the whole of the lower part of 



iSss] Trinity Chapel 415 

the City has been brought under our spiritual care, and as it has thus 
become our especial province, so it is a source of grateful reflection 
that we have it in our power to discharge the duty which is set before 
us. The condition and character of our congregations have materially 
changed, but the population has not decreased. The Gospel may still 
be preached to the poor, for whom our Lord had a peculiar concern; 
to the strangers who visit our City, and who find it as freely given as 
it was freely received; to the young men engaged in mercantile or 
mechanical pursuits, who, in many instances, far from their paternal 
roof, and the wholesome influences of home, are exposed to temptations 
in every form, and who therefore stand in special need of pastoral care 
and tender guidance of the ministers of God; to the casual attendants 
led thither by curiosity or convenience, who, unaccustomed to our 
service, and ignorant of our system, are there very often disabused of 
their prejudices, and receive their first impressions in favour of the 
Church. With these several classes our churches may once more be 
filled to overflowing. 

" With wisdom and liberality also on the part of the Vestry in 
establishing Parochial Schools, and in carrying out all needful arrange- 
ments for the prosecution of this work; with self-denial and patience, 
with untiring labour, with unconquerable perseverance, and unquench- 
able zeal on the part of the clergy; with the hearty co-operation of 
zealous young men and devout and benevolent women in this Mission- 
ary cause; and above all, with the help of God, without Whom all labour 
is fruitless, all efforts are vain; it is impossible to conceive, though de- 
lightful to anticipate, the amount of good which may be done." 

The pastoral charge of the congregation of Trinity 
Chapel and the development of the work to be done 
there were committed to the Rev. Drs. Higbee and Hobart, 
under the direction and oversight of the Rector. The 
two clergymen thus assigned by the Vestry were both of 
the superior grade of Assistant Ministers, and therefore 
equal in rank, but Dr. Higbee had the seniority in age, in 
date of ordination, and in length of service in the Parish. 
Under those able and devoted men a very large congrega- 
tion was rapidly gathered, and the chapel soon became a 
centre of wide influence and a position of great importance 
in the church and the city. 



CHAPTER XX. 

RAPID EXTENSION OF PARISH WORK. 

Renewal of the Attack upon the Church — Action of the Vestry — Election of Dr. Vin- 
ton as Assistant Minister — Resignation of Dr. Tuckerman as Organist — Assignment of 
the Assistant Ministers — Election of the Rev. Dr. Frederick Ogilby, the Rev. John F. 
Young, and the Rev. Morgan Dix as Assistant Ministers — Organization of Work in the 
Several Churches — Convention of 1855 — Dr. Berrian ViihVishes Facts A e;ainsi Fancy — 
Rapid Extension of Parish Work — Offer of the Rev. Mr. Rowland Declined — Resigna- 
tion of Mr. William H. Hanson — St. John's Park ; Proposal to Sell to United States 
Government — Report of Dr. Berrian on the Condition and Work of the Parish. 

DURING the month of April, 1855, the attack on 
Trinity Church was resumed in the Legislature. 
At a meeting of the Vestry, held May 14th, a committee 
of five, consisting of Messrs. William H. Harison, William 
E. Dunscomb, Richard H. Ogden, Gouverneur M. Ogden, 
and Samuel T. Skidmore, was appointed, with power to take 
such measures as might be thought advisable to repel any 
attempts that might be made to alter the charter of the 
Church, or any attempted invasion of its rights and privi- 
leges by or through the Legislature. It seems unnecessary 
to cumber the pages of this History with the details of the 
futile and indefensible proceedings on the part of the ene- 
mies of the Church about that time. They were met, 
calmly and with dignity, by the officers of the Corporation, 
and fell through, one after the other. If any one desires 
further information upon a subject which long ago ceased 
to have any interest or practical importance, he may consult 
the records of that period.^ 

' See Journal of the Senate, 1855, pp. 67, 121, 687, 688, 797, 798-801, and Min- 
utes of the Vestry of Trinity Church, vol. iv., p. 214 ; Report of the Commissioners 
of the Land Office Made to the House of Assembly, May 12, 1838 ; and Memorial of 
the Corporation of Trinity Church to the Legislature, March 26, 1853. 
416 



iSss] The Parish Clergy 417 

Several resolutions concerning the appointment of ad- 
ditional Ministers were adopted at the May meeting, of 
which the most important was one proposing the election 
of four clergymen to be under the direction of the Rector. 
Nominations were made as follows : the Rev. James A. 
BoUes, D.D., the Rev. Milo Mahan, the Rev. Mr. Hud- 
son, the Rev. A. N. Littlejohn, the Rev. Gurdon S. Coit, 
the Rev. I. R. Davenport, the Rev. Dr. McMurray, and 
the Rev. John I. Tucker. 

Subsequently, June iith, the Vestry proceeded to as- 
sign by ballot the Rev. Benjamin I. Haight, D. D., to 
Trinity Church, the Rev. Sullivan H. Weston to St. 
John's Chapel, and the Rev. Edward Y. Higbee to Trinity 
Chapel. At the same meeting the Rev. Dr. Francis Vinton, 
Rector of Grace Church, Brooklyn Heights, was elected 
an Assistant Minister and assigned to St. Paul's Chapel. 

Dr. S. Parker Tuckerman, who had for some months 
been an organist in the Parish, presented his resignation, 
on the ground that his position was embarrassing and un- 
pleasant, it being doubtful whether he was to be organist 
at Trinity Church or Trinity Chapel.' Dr. Tuckerman's 
withdrawal from the Parish was greatly regretted. 

In the year 1855, the reorganization of the clerical 
force in the Parish was completed. This very important 
matter had been the subject of much discussion in the 
Vestry and among the parishioners. Special committees 
had been appointed to consider it ; they had reported in 
due course of time, and their reports had been carefully 
weighed. It had been deemed advisable by some to re- 
turn to the old system of unassigned clergy ; the Vestry 
by a strong vote had decided not to do so. Embarrass- 
ment had been felt as to some of the assignments, where 
clergymen of equal rank as to salary and standing must 

' Records, liber iv., folio 218. 



4i8 History of Trinity Church [1855 

be assigned to the same church. Full accounts of these 
discussions may be found in the Minutes of the Vestry 
and the Berrian Manuscripts. At last a system was 
adopted, by which the whole Parish came into good work- 
ing order. To that end it was found necessary to elect 
three additional Assistants, of a secondary grade to work 
under those of the higher grade, under the direction of 
the Rector. The clergymen so chosen and elected were 
the Rev. Frederick Ogilby, D.D., the Rev. John F. Young, 
and the Rev. Morgan Dix.' 

The organization as thus completed was as follows : 

Trinity Church: the Rev. Benjamin I. Haight, D.D. ; 
the Rev. Frederick Ogilby, D.D. 

St. Paul's Chapel: the Rev. Francis Vinton, D.D. ; 
the Rev. Morgan Dix. 

St. John's Chapel : the Rev. Sullivan H. Weston, the 
Rev. John Freeman Young. 

Trinity Chapel: the Rev. Edward Y. Higbee, D.D. ; 
the Rev. John H. Hobart, D.D. 

Drs. Higbee and Hobart were assigned to Trinity 
Chapel by the Vestry, though of the same rank, with the 
understanding that Dr. Hobart, when not on duty at 
Trinity Chapel, should perform such duties as the Rector 
should direct. 

These arrangements appear to have been acceptable 
to the people ; their good results were very soon perceived 
in the enlargement of the work, and in the spirit of ani- 
mation and increasing interest which marked its several 
departments. Particularly was this observed in the lower 
wards of the city. 

Dr. Haight, a man of great administrative ability, 
mapped out the city in the vicinity of Trinity Church for 
regular visitation by competent lay visitors. He insti- 

' Records, liber iv. , folio 220. 



[855] Church Extension 419 



tuted a series of service-cards to be placed in the hotels 
and boarding-houses, invitint;; strano;ers to attend Trinity 
Church. He commenced work for the poor English, 
Scotch, and Irish immigrants at Castle Garden under the 
auspices of the Commissioners of Emigration, of which 
Board an honored Vestryman of the Parish, IVIr. Gulian 
C. Verplanck, was President. Sewing schools and paro- 
chial schools were also soon formed with prospects of 
permanent usefulness. A relief bureau and frequent visi- 
tations of the sick and suffering were among the newer 
agencies employed in carrying on Christian work at Trinity. 
Dr. Haight' was ably seconded by Dr. Ogilby, Second 
Assistant. At St. Paul's Chapel, Dr. Vinton opened a 
clergy office, at No. 29 Vesey Street, on St. Paul's church- 
yard, where the clergy were in daily attendance, and from 
which temporal relief was dispensed to worthy and needy 
applicants. A Parochial School was also founded by the 
Vestry, the first of its kind in the Parish for a great many 
years. This school, for girls only, was placed under the 
care of Mr. Dix, who visited it daily and gave it close 
attention. A Benevolent Society was formed of the 
women of St. Paul's, under the charge of Miss Sarah W. 
Thorne, of blessed memory among us to this day, for the 
aid of the poor, in the various branches of practical 
charity. 

At St. John's Chapel, to which Mr. Young was assigned, 
Mr. Weston in addition to the ordinary parochial duty, 
caused a house to house canvass to be made, for the allevia- 
tion of distress and securing the attendance of parents and 
children at Church and Sunday-school. An Industrial 
School which commenced with four little girls in March, 
1855, soon increased to nearly eighty, and the results of 
the experiment were remarkably gratifying ; classes in 

' For bketch of Dr. Haightsee Appendix. 



420 History of Trinity Church [iSss 

sacred music were organized and attractive courses of 
lectures upon Church doctrine given with success. At 
Trinity Chapel the work was in the experimental stage, 
for the pew-holders were largely from the wealthier portion 
of the community and little more than the stated services, 
visits, necessary clerical offices, and the gathering of chil- 
dren into the Sunday-school could be expected. Dr. Hig- 
bee and Dr. Hobart instituted a thorough canvass of the 
district in which the chapel was situated. A Charity School 
conducted by some ladies of the congregation sprang into 
being, with which the Industrial School already in ex- 
istence was merged. 

The Annual Convention of the Diocese in 1855 '^^s 
held, as usual, in St. John's Chapel. At that Convention 
an assault was made upon the venerable Corporation. 
The demands of the speakers were as unreasonable as their 
language was violent. The question of the better support 
of the clergy in the country parishes was brought up, in 
connection with a report of the Parochial Aid Society, at 
that time straitened for means to carry on its work ; and 
the ground was taken that the real Sustentation Fund for 
the whole Diocese consisted of the property of Trinity, 
which practically belonged to all Churchmen of the State. 
The report of the Committee on the salary of the Pro- 
visional Bishop, showing a very small response from the 
parishes, was the occasion of another demand that the 
burden of his support should be removed from the Diocese 
at large, and thrown entirely upon the Corporation of 
Trinity. With sarcasm and innuendo, and in impassioned 
speeches, these wild views were ventilated, by most re- 
spectable and worthy gentlemen, both of the clergy and 
laity, many of whom in after years deeply regretted what 
they had said. Over those scenes it is well to draw the 
veil ; they are forgotten ; and it would be unkind to recall 



i8s6] Diocesan Convention of 1855 4^1 



them to a full report of what occurred. They were, how- 
ever, on the line of an agitation at that time proceeding 
with ever-increasing acrimony. So sudden and unexpected 
was this attack that the representatives and friends of 
the Parish in the Convention made little or no response. 
Subsequent consideration led to the conclusion that it was 
premeditated, and that the way had been carefully pre- 
pared for it by inflammatory articles in a religious journal 
of the period. Under this impression, the Rector, Dr. Ber- 
rian, prepared Facts against Fancy, a pamphlet, intended 
and well adapted to allay suspicion, correct erroneous 
statements, and demonstrate the impartial liberality, the 
unfailing generosity, and the spotless integrity with which 
the affairs of the Corporation had been conducted.' 

The scene in the Diocesan Convention stimulated the 
efforts of those who were seeking legislative interference 
with the Church, and formed a fitting prelude to the proceed- 
ings at Albany during the following winter. It was the 
settled purpose and determination of a large number of 
persons to attempt once more to obtain control of the 
property, by reviving the claim that the grant was to " the 
Inhabitants of the City of New York," and not exclusively 
to those within the Parish of Trinity Church. Evidently 
an informal organization was made for that purpose and 
plans were laid for action. 

Meanwhile the new agencies for reaching the neglected 
and destitute in the lower parts of the city.and extending the 
influence of the Church were making themselves felt, and 
justifying their projectors. Grants were made to the 

' The literature bearing on this episode is ample, and may be referred to in collec- 
lections of the pamphlets and journals of that day. See Facts against Fancy, or a 
True and Just View of Trinity Church, by the Rev. William Berrian, D. D., 1856; 
The Rector Rectified, in reply to Facts against Fancy, from the Protesant Churchman, 
1856; A Letter to Dr. Berrian, by William Jay; and files of the Churchman, Prot- 
estant Churchman, and Church Journal, passim. 



422 History of Trinity Church [1856 

Assistant Ministers to enable them to provide for unusual 
and unexpected needs. It was decided to erect a proper 
building for the accommodation of the Sunday-school of 
Trinity Chapel which had increased greatly in size.^ That 
prudence was observed, however, in the extension of the 
work, is shown by the fact that the Vestry declined, 
though very reluctantly, to assent to a proposal of the 
Rev. Robert H. Howland, who generously offered to give 
$6000 to the Church of the Holy Apostles, and $10,000 
to build an edifice for St. Timothy's Church, with an 
annual stipend of $500 for the salary of a clergyman for the 
latter church, provided the Corporation would give equal 
amounts for the same objects. The Standing Committee, 
to whom the subject had been referred, and before whom 
Dr. Howland appeared, gave it as their opinion, that " the 
condition of the affairs of this Corporation and the state 
of its finances do not justify its granting the assistance 
applied for in the various generous proposals of the Rev. 
Mr. Howland." ^ 

About this time Mr. Harison, Junior Warden, offered 
his resignation, and the following resolution was unani- 
mously adopted : 

" Resolved, that the Vestry in accepting the resignation of Wm. 
H. Harison, Esq., as Junior Warden of this Corporation express to 
him their sincere regret at his separation from the duties and councils 
of this body, in which he has laboured so many years; that they bear 
witness to the ability, application, and devotion to the best interests of 
the Church which he has always manifested and they tender to him 
their heartfelt thanks for the eminent services which he has rendered to 
the Corporation and to the sacred interests confided to their charge." 

When the lots in the vicinity of St. John's Chapel 
were sold, the Corporation reserved a plot of ground, 
which was made into a small but very attractive and beau- 

' Records, liber iv., folio 218. - Ibid., folio 248. 



i8s6] St. John's Park 423 

tiful park, with shaded walks, and a very large fountain 
in the centre. Entirely private, like the Gramercy Park 
of our own day, and free from the intrusion of the general 
public, it was one of the chief delights of the neighbor- 
hood, where dignity and fashion held sway around its 
enclosure. It was known as St. John's Park or as Hudson 
Square. As the residents in the vicinity moved up-town, 
the character of the neighborhood changed, and many of the 
owners of property, no longer resident about the square, 
indicated their willingness to sell the park, especially as it 
was thought that the Government desired it for a general 
post-ofifice. Meetings of the proprietors had been held, 
government officials had been approached, and the sale 
at a large price was thought certain, if the Corporation of 
Trinity Church would give consent, for the property which 
they held on the square. On June 17th, the Vestry re- 
solved that it would consent to the sale of the park " to 
the Government of the United States for government 
purposes, and to be used for government buildings only, 
as requested by the owners of more than two thirds of the 
lots fronting on the same, provided the portion of the 
consideration money for such conveyance to be paid to 
this Corporation for their use shall not be less than four 
hundred thousand dollars," and with the further proviso, 
that two thirds of the owners of lots fronting the square 
should give their written consent under their seals. Of 
this proposal, which had been the result of several con- 
versations and conferences with property owners on the 
square. General Dix says in his testimony before the 
Senate Committee : 

" I was not present at the first meeting when that subject was 
brought up before the Vestry. I was present, I think, at the meeting 
at which that subject was discussed. My impression is that the 
Vestry at first refused to entertain the proposition at all; but at the 



424 History of Trinity Church [1856 

earnest solicitation of nearly all the owners around the Park they 
finally agreed to release their interest if they could receive the sum of 
four hundred thousand dollars. I never understood this to be con- 
sidered the value of the property, but rather as the estimate of the 
damage that would be done to Trinity Church by destroying the Park. 
That was my own view of the subject, and I considered the interest of 
Trinity Church so remote and contingent, that I would not have 
undertaken to put a valuation upon it in money." ' 

Through this action of the Vestry, the destruction of 
one of the most beautiful objects in this city was delayed 
for twelve years. No one was more grateful for this res- 
pite from the merciless progress of so-called city im- 
provement than Dr. Berrian. He had lived in his house 
opposite the lovely Square for the greater part of his life. 
He contemplated with horror the pending devastation of 
the place ; with pathetic emphasis, he used to beg that 
the park might not be destroyed until after his death. 
He could not have borne to see the horrible sight which 
his successor in the Rectorship beheld ; it would have 
killed the old man. He said, firmly, and again and again, 
that he would never consent, as long as he lived, to sell 
the park. 

There was a strong desire on the part of the Vestry 
to know the exact condition of the Parish at that time. 
The Rector was requested to prepare a full report upon 
its work, and authorized to call upon the Assistant Minis- 
ters for such information as they could give. 

The report was presented to the Vestry October 15, 
1856. It met with their approval, and the Rector was 
thanked for the manner in which he had carried out their 
desire ; he was also requested to print it " with such portions 
of the accompanying documents as he may think best."~ 

' Testimony of the Hon. John A. Dix before the Senate Committee, Monday, 
February 23, 1857. — Pp. 119, 130, Testimony before the Committee, Senate Docu- 
ment No. 95. - Records, liber iv., folio 270. 



1856] The Rector's Report 425 

The report commences with this expression of sat- 
isfaction : 

"The condition of the Parish, with its present effective force and 
under its new arrangements, is exceedingly gratifying. Notwithstand- 
ing so great a number of the parishioners have removed to the upper 
part of the city, the attendance at Trinity Church still continues to be 
large; it has materially improved at St. Paul's Chapel, it is well sus- 
tained at St. John's; and Trinity Chapel is often filled to its utmost 
capacity." ' 

The Rector gives in detail the statistics for the Parish 
Church and each chapel for the Conventional year end- 
ing September 24, 1856, showing a total of 33 adult 
baptisms, 400 infant baptisms, 1 14 marriages, 751 burials, 
176 confirmations, 1 100 communicants, and 901 Sunday- 
school children. The aggregate of the offerings was 
$16,430.84. There had been a large increase in the num 
ber of services, the total being "about 2000." The Holy 
Communion was administered weekly in the Parish by a 
regular rotation in the several church edifices. The 
Rector makes this earnest plea for parochial schools : 

" In concluding this Report, the Rector begs leave to make some 
remarks on a subject of deep interest, as he conceives, to this Parish, 
which should serve as a model for others, and of vital importance to 
the Church at large. He refers to a plan which is already begun in it, 
but which it would be well to extend — the firm establishment and liberal 
support of Parish schools. 

" Indeed, this is no new thing in Trinity Church, but one which is 
almost coeval with the existence of the Corporation itself. The Charity- 
school, which was founded nearly a century and half since, though in a 
great measure sustained, under the Colonial Government, by the bounty 
of the Venerable Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, has al- 
ways been so identified with Trinity Church, as to be regarded as an 
institution of her own. With what fostering care, with what anxious con- 
cern, with what affectionate interest, this humble school was regarded 
by the great and good men who founded it, the annual reports of the 
' P. 3, Report to the Vestry. 



426 History of Trinity Church [1856 

Clergy of this Parish to the Venerable Society, for seventy years, will 
abundantly show. 

" But when this relation was broken up, and it was left entirely to 
the support of the Parish itself, the civil and religious benefits which it 
had conferred from generation to generation upon the poor, and by a 
retro-active influence upon the community at large, were so manifest 
and striking, that it was by no means abandoned or neglected. As 
soon as Trinity Church had in some measure recovered from the losses 
which she had sustained in the calamities and destructions of civil war, 
the Charity-school was revived; it was aided by the annual contribu- 
tions of the parishioners; it was revived at successive periods by 
liberal grants, and at length, amply endowed by this Corporation; and 
it is now on the eve, through the munificent donations of an individual, 
made vastly more valuable in the providential arrangements of God, 
than was ever dreamed of by the donor, about to become one of the 
richest and most important Institutions in the land. 

" Our past experience, then, in this matter, is a strong ground of en- 
couragement for the future. The extension of the Parish, in the 
course of time, from one Church to four, and the altered condition of 
things with respect to the worshippers in their social position, leaving 
few comparatively of the wealthy, and increasing greatly the number 
of the poor, present powerful motives for the enlargement of our plans. 

" It is thought by some among the more intelligent and refined, and 
acted upon by more among the ignorant and unreflecting, that our 
Public Schools have superseded the necessity of Charity and Parochial 
Schools, and that the system of instruction in the former is much more 
thorough and efficient. It would be unbecoming to call in question the 
honesty of this conviction, while we may be permitted to doubt its cor- 
rectness, or to disparage the advantages of a mere civil education, except 
as a substitution for a higher. Elementary learning in all the useful 
branches of knowledge, is desirable for the whole mass of the people, 
and is intimately connected with the well-being of society. It fits 
them for the practical business of life, it develops their faculties, it 
increases their resources, it multiplies their enjoyments, it refines their 
minds, softens their manners, and elevates their condition, however 
lowly in degree or humble their occupation. 

"But it does not answer all the purposes of their being, nor satisfy 
all the wants of the human heart. This can alone be done by ihcit wis- 
dom which Cometh from above that maketh wise unto salvation. All else 
is but of little account in comparison w'nh the excellency of the knowledge 
of Christ Jesus our Lord. 



i8s6] The Rector's Report 427 

"It is this which exalts our minds, which purifies our hearts and 
sanctifies our lives, which enlarges our aims and elevates our hopes, 
which gives grace and dignity to life, and peace and comfort to death. 
When human learning is made the hand- maid of religion, the union is 
lovely and perfect; but when unsanctified and unblessed, it often 
proves both to the possessor and to the world, the bitterest curse. 

" But this, it may be said, is not intended by any who call them- 
selves Christians. There are other modes of securing the young 
against spiritual ignorance and viciousness of life; parental training 
at home, catechetical and other instruction from their pastors, and the 
more frequent opportunities of increasing in wisdom and grace at the 
Sunday-School. These are all important auxiliaries in the religious 
education of the young, but still they are by no means a substitute for 
the fuller instruction of a Parish-School. 

" As to parental training at home, how few are there in the gay 
and busy world around us, even among the well-educated and devout, 
who discharge this duty with such fidelity and patience, as effectually 
to accomplish it! On the contrary, how many are there who, with an 
unnatural indifference to the highest interests of their children, either 
devolve this duty on others, or pay no attention to it at all. 

" But in respect to the class of persons from which, for the most 
part, the children are gathered for the Parish-School, what suitable 
training can be expected from them? Even those who are well dis- 
posed, are generally too ignorant to become instructors of others. 
Many are as insensible to their parental obligations towards their off- 
spring, as they are neglectful of their own duty towards God. And 
others are so utterly depraved and brutalized by all manner of vice, 
that their sons, unless placed under better influences, must almost in- 
variably become the sons of Belial, and their daughters the victims of 
sin and shame. 

" These evils may indeed be partially remedied, though not effect- 
ually cured, by the wholesome instructions of the Sunday-School. 
But these lessons recurring only weekly, and not followed up in the 
intervals by line upon line and precept upon precept, as they would be in 
the daily and hourly teaching of the Parish-School, the good impres- 
sions which are made can scarcely be expected to be so deep and 
abiding. 

"Of the Catechetical and other instruction of their pastors, which 
comes with the advantage of a riper knowledge in holy things, and the 
higher sanction of their ministerial authority, it may indeed be said 
that in wliatever measure it may be meted out, it is always attended 



428 History of Trinity Church [1856 



with a proportionate degree of God's favor and blessing towards those 
who meekly receive it. But as the theory and practice of a Parish- 
School imply the immediate and daily supervision of a Clergyman of 
the Parish, to impart religious instruction according to the views of 
the Church, in how much more abundant measure would the blessings 
be poured out, if these constant' opportunities were afforded by the 
establishment of such schools in the Church at large. 

" It may here however be proper, after this general statement, to 
give the views of the Rector in regard to matters of detail. 

" The first is that we should endeavor to do the greatest amount 
of good with the smallest degree of expense consistent with the sub- 
stantial objects of the plan itself. A feeble beginning, in the natural 
development of its growth, may lead to a healthy and successful end. 

"The buildings suited for the purpose, of which one is already in 
existence, another in progress, and the third in contemplation, provide 
for one part of the scheme. The teachers for the simple elementary 
branches of a common English education provide for the second. 
The books of instruction and stationery, the premiums for the reward 
of good conduct and merit, the compensation to those who have the 
care of the apartments, form the third. As to clothing and feasting, 
they should be left to the kind charities of the congregations, who 
will feel more interest in the objects which they themselves have 
endeavored to promote. 

" But even with these limitations the scheme proposed may still 
seem too large. It may increase in magnitude, beyond its just pro- 
portion the expenses of the Parish, and yet accomplish but little in 
comparison with its cost. It may attempt, what after all, may appear 
to be only a drop in the bucket. 

''^ Be not faithless, but believing. Who can tell what the result of 
our action may be in this matter, and how far a little leaven may serve 
to leaven the rvhole lump ? Who can tell how much the respect and 
attachment may be increased for this Corporation, which, with all its 
reputed wealth, and all its pretended arrogance and pride still conde- 
scends to the lowly, and seeks their good rather than its own ? Who 
can tell how far its liberality may serve as an example for others, and 
have an unseen influence on ages to come ? 

"To these views, it is believed, the whole body of Assistant Min- 
isters will give their hearty concurrence." 

To the " Report " are appended the returns from the 
ministers in charge of the Parish Church and the chapels. 



i8s6] The Rector's Report 429 

These are full of information, give many facts of great 
interest, and prove that the old Parish was thoroughly 
alive. A summary of them has already been given. 

An edition of fifteen hundred copies was printed and 
speedily distributed.' 

' Report to the Vestry of Trinity Church on the Slate of the Parish, by William 
Berrian, D.D., Rector of the same. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

ATTACKS ON THE CORPORATION. 

Meeting of the Senate Committee on the Property of Trinity Corporation— Examina- 
tion of Witnesses — Testimony of Various Clergy against Trinity Corporation — Report 
of the Senate Committee — Hearing before the Senate — Committee Amends iis Re- 
port — Substitute Bill Offered — And Passed — Opening of St. John's Chapel after its 
Restoration — Memorial to the Revolutionary Soldiers in Trinity Churchyard — Address 
by Dr. Vinton on the Opening of Albany Street. 

WE have now to resume the story of the aggressions 
on the venerable Corporation during the years 
1856 and 1857. 

A resolution was adopted, in the Senate of the State 
of New York, on motion of Mr. Brooks, a member of that 
body, that the Vestry of Trinity Church be requested to 
answer without delay the questions propounded in the 
resolutions adopted on the 10th of April, 1855, requiring 
certain information therein specified to be laid before the 
Senate on the 7th day of January, 1856.' 

On Wednesday, January 30th, the following letter of 
the Comptroller was presented to the Senate : 

"New York, January 28, 1856. 
" To THE Hon., the Senate of the State of New York : 

"The undersigned, the Comptroller of Trinity Church in the City 
of New York, has received a copy of the resolution of your honorable 
body requesting the Vestry to answer by the first day of February 
next, certain questions propounded by previous resolutions of the 
Senate. A report in response to such questions is now in the course 
of preparation by the undersigned by direction of the Vestry. But 
owing to the fact that a part of the information asked for is required 
to be brought down to the first of November last, to the complication 
' See yotirnal of the Senate, 1856 , pp. 17, 73, 83, 112, 2ig, 226, 248, 386, 626. 
430 



1856] Letter to the Senate 431 



and difficulty attending the task of estimating the value of the real 
estate of this Corporation, and of each lot and parcel thereof, irre- 
spective of the leases thereon, and to the great labor required to 
answer that, and the other heads of inquiry and to the circum- 
stance that shortly after said first of November last the principal clerk 
in the office of the undersigned, who was familiar with the subject, 
was incapacitated by sickness to attend to his duties and still remains 
so, the undersigned fears that the report cannot be ready by the time 
indicated. Its preparation is proceeding with diligence, and the re- 
spect of the Vestry for the Honorable Senate will induce them not to 
delay its presentation to the Senate one day longer than is absolutely 
necessary. 

"They pray that in order that there may not be any seeming dis- 
respect shown by a failure to give the desired information at the time 
fixed by the Senate, that the time for a response may be extended by 
the Senate until the 15th day of February next. 
" Respectfully, 

" I am your obedient servant, 

"Wm. E. Dunscomb, 

" Comptroller.'' 

The request for extension of time having been granted, 
the report was presented, February 20, 1856. It was 
full in every particular required and gave the information 
asked for. The Vestry, however, mindful of their rights 
and dignity, asserted their independence of legislative 
control, in the following words : 

" But before entering upon the statements hereinafter contained, 
the Vestry beg leave respectfully to aver that they furnish the informa- 
tion requested by the Senate, not acknowledging the power of the 
Senate to exact such information, but in order that they may not be 
deemed wanting in respect for your honorable body, or unwilling to 
display to the public the statement of this Corporation, its financial 
condition, and management by this Vestry of its property. They feel 
satisfied that the facts presented in this paper will remove any un- 
favorable impressions detrimental to the interest of Trinity Church, 
which have been occasioned by representations which it is conjectured 
have inclined your honorable body to pass the resolutions above con- 
tained. But being charged with the guardianship of a large property 



432 History of Trinity Church [1856 

and important rights, they beg leave respectfully to represent tliat the 
requiring of such reports as that asked for by the resolutions of the 
Honorable Senate is not justified by any legal principle, and is op- 
pressive to this Corporation.' If there should be at any time any 
cause for complaint against this Corporation, the Courts are open, and 
are adequate to afford a remedy ; and the entering by the Legislature 
upon an investigation into the affairs of any single Corporation, which 
investigation if it has any materiality, properly belongs to such Courts, 
is an assumption of their powers, and is burdensome upon the Cor- 
poration affected, by calling upon it to justify itself, by laborious 
statements or productions of evidence to a tribunal which has no 
power to decide. 

"This Corporation has within a few years past made answer to 
two similar calls for information from the houses of the Legislature, 
the one contained in the resolutions of your honorable body of the 9th 
day of March, 1846, and the other contained in the resolutions of the 
honorable the House of Assembly, of March 4, 1854. 

"There is no provision in the Charter of this Corporation, and the 
general statute requiring it to report to the Legislature, and because 
this Vestry have found the answers to those repeated requirements 
expensive and onerous, and believed them to be an infringement of the 
chartered rights of Trinity Church, they humbly protest against the 
right of the Legislature, or either branch of it, to call for reports from 
this Vestry, relative to the condition of affairs of this Corporation." ' 

The Report, when received, was referred to a Special 
Committee Consisting of Messrs. Mark Spencer, of New 
York City, James Noxon, of Onondaga, and J. H. Ram- 
sey, of Schoharie. Agitation on the subject ceased for a 
space, it being understood that the Committee would 
make investigation into the matter of reference, and visit 
the city for that purpose before presenting a report to the 
Senate. ^ 

' Records, liber iv., folio 244. - Report of Trinity Church, pp. 3, 4. 

' See Memorial of the Rector, Church Wardens, and Vestrymen of Trinity 
Church, in the City of New York, to the Commissioners of the Land Office of the State of 
New York, 8 vo, p. 11. In Trinity Church Collection, State Library, Albany. Also 
Senate Documents, No. 45. In .Senate, February 20, 1856, communicaiion of the 
Vestry of Trinity Church in the City of New York, to the Honourable the Senate of 
the State of New York, in reply to resolutions of the Senate passed April 13, 1855. 



i8s7] Action of the Senate 433 



It was announced to the Vestry, at their stated meet- 
ing on the loth of November, 1856, that the Committee 
of the Senate was about to visit the city for the pur- 
pose of examining the Report made to the Senate at 
its last session by the Corporation. The Committee 
arrived in due time, and held meetings on Tuesday, 
December 3d, Wednesday, December 4th, and Thursday 
and Friday, December 19th and 20th. Many witnesses 
were summoned to appear, eleven of them being clergy- 
men, of whom only three were Assistant Ministers of the 
Parish. Among the laymen summoned was the Comp- 
troller of the Corporation. A summary of the testimony 
taken at that time shows that the Committee was following 
a preconceived plan, as only answers to questions already 
prepared by them were allowed, and no voluntary state- 
ments were admitted. The sessions were held with closed 
doors, and there appears to have been no effort to call 
friends and members of Trinity Church. 

The Committee, having completed their investigation, 
presented a report, with the testimony, and the draft of a 
proposed act amending the Act of 18 14. This report, 
dated January 29, 1857, was ordered to be printed.' The 
Committee gave it as their opinion that the property of 
the Corporation was held in trust for all the inhabitants of 
the City of New York ; they also charged the Corporation 
with partiality in grants and extravagant expenditure 
within the Parish, and arraigned it for not building free 
churches for the general use of the citizens of the 
metropolis. 

The report, upon its face, was so partial, that even 
those Senators who cared little or nothing for Trinity 
Church thought that it needed further consideration, and 
it was recommitted. The representatives of the Parish 

' See Journal of the Senate, p. 142. 



434 History of Trinity Church [1857 

now asked for and obtained an opportunity of being heard 
and of calling witnesses in behalf of the Corporation. Such 
hearing was commenced on Friday, February 13, 1857, and 
continued for ten days from that date. The Corporation 
was represented on that occasion by the Hon. Amasa J. 
Parker and Mr. Orlando Meads. Mr. John K. Porter ap- 
peared before the Committee on behalf of those seeking 
the modification of the law of 1814. The witnesses for 
the Church were Bishop Potter, Dr. Berrian, Drs. Hig- 
bee, Haight, Hobart, and Vinton, and S. H. Weston, 
Bishop De Lancey, and Messrs. Samuel F. Skidmore, 
Gulian C. Verplanck, John A. Dix, William Moore, and 
Richard H. Ogden. The several charges of partiality, 
inefficiency, neglect of the poor, and failure to build free 
churches, and the contention that all Episcopalians resi- 
dent on Manhattan Island were corporators of Trinity 
Church, were fully covered in the course of the testimony. 
In further illustration of this subject, the following ex- 
tracts are here given, from a communication of the Hon. 
John A. Dix, addressed to the Chairman of the Committee 
of the Senate, at a time when he supposed that it would 
be impossible for him to appear before the Committee in 
person. The communication may be found, either among 
the Senate Documents at Albany, or, in the Appendix 
to the Memoirs of my father.' It contains several 
tables of figures, exhibiting the revenue and ordinary ex- 
penditures of the Corporation for the year ending April 
30, 1856, with a statement of receipts and disbursements, 
the annual deficits of income, and the allowances and loans 
to other churches for the ten years preceding the date of the 
communication. These tables, prepared by General Dix 
from the books of the Corporation, and examined and 
compared by the Comptroller, with the aid of an expert 

^Memoirs of yohn Adams Dix, compiled by his son Morgan Dix. 



1857] Report of General Dix 435 

accountant, are omitted in the following extracts ; only 
such portions of the communication being given as tend 
to show the general policy of the Corporation in the man- 
agement of the estate, and vindicate them from aspersions 
on their character and actions as trustees. 

On the 23d of February General Dix presented him- 
self as a witness, and after being sworn, and asked to state 
generally any facts within his knowledge in regard to the 
charges made against the Vestry of Trinity Church, he 
replied that when he was subpoenaed he was engaged in 
the transaction of important business, from which he 
feared he would not be released till the labors of the Com- 
mittee were closed. He had, therefore, prepared a com- 
munication, addressed to the chairman of the Committee, 
and sent it to Albany a week before, by Mr. Livingston, 
one of his associates in the Vestry. The session of the 
Committee having been continued to a later period than 
he had expected, he had thought proper to appear before 
them in person. He added that he had the communica- 
tion with him, and if the Committee would permit him to 
read it he thought it would save them a good deal of time 
in preparing questions, and himself a good deal of incon- 
venience in writing out answers. The Committee having 
assented to the suggestion, he read the communication, as 
a part of his testimonj-. 



" New York, February 11, 1857. 
" Hon. M. Spencer, Chairman of the Select Committee of the Senate on 
the Report of Trinity Church: 

" Sir: — I have just seen and read the Report made to the Senate 
on the 29th ult. by the Committee of which you are chairman, together 
with the testimony appended thereto; and as there are imputations 
therein derogatory to the character of the Vestry of Trinity Church, 
of whom I am one, both as regards their fairness and their discreetness 



436 History of Trinity Church [1857 

in the execution of their trust, 1 ask leave to submit to the Committee 
the following statement. Business of a very urgent nature, affecting 
the interests of others, which I should be inexcusable for neglecting, 
prevents me from visiting Albany. I should otherwise have appeared 
before the Committee and asked them to take my testimony orally, 
instead of soliciting their indulgence so far as to allow me to present 
it in the form of a written communication. 

"I was appointed a vestryman in the autumn of 1849, and have 
served in that capacity to the present time. With the exception of ten 
months in 1854 and 1855, during which I was absent from the country, 
and occasional temporary absences from the State at other times, I 
have attended with a good deal of regularity the meetings of the 
Vestry, and have taken a somewhat active part in its proceedings. 

" I do not propose to trouble the Committee with any discussion 
of the legal rights of the Corporation under the original grants by 
which it holds its property, or the legislative enactments by which its 
corporate powers have been confirmed or enlarged; nor do I intend to 
offer to the Committee any opinion with regard to the true interpreta- 
tion of those enactments or grants. The sole object of this statement, 
which is made on my own responsibility, is to present such explanations 
as seem to me necessary to exonerate myself and my associates from 
charges which have been brought against us by some of the witnesses, 
aftd which do us, as I conceive, great injustice. 

" I beg leave to say farther, with perfect respect for the Committee 
and the- body by which it was appointed, that, in presenting this state- 
ment, I have not overlooked the vital relation which an inquiry 
instituted by one branch of the Legislature through the action of a 
committee, into the administration of the internal affairs of a religious 
corporation, bears to the rights of every ecclesiastical body in the 
State. I do not admit the existence of such an authority as has been 
exercised in regard to the body with which I am connected, more 
especially when carried so far as to solicit ex parte opinions concerning 
the motives under which individuals may have been supposed to act; 
and I cannot but think, when the question is deliberately considered, 
that it will be found to possess a most important bearing upon the 
rights of conscience, which it was one of the leading objects of the 
Constitution to secure — a question well worthy, under this aspect, of 
the most serious public regard. If I have chosen to meet, with a res- 
ervation of rights which I deem inviolable, the imputations cast upon 
me and my associates, instead of passing them by in silence, it is in 
order that the minds of the Committee, the Legislature, and the com- 



i8s7] Report of General Dix 437 

munity may not be misled by the testimony in which those imputations 
are contained. 

" Soon after my connection with the Vestry commenced, my at- 
tention was attracted to the financial condition of the Corporation, 
which seemed to me very unsatisfactory. Its debts amounted to 
nearly half a million of dollars; and by reason of the large donations 
it was in the habit of making to other churches, its revenue had 
become inadequate to its expenditures, and the annual deficits were 
made up by a sale of property. I regarded this practice, though 
founded upon a generous consideration for the wants of other parishes, 
and a desire to promote the advancement of the interests of the Epis- 
copal Church in the city and the State, as opposed to all sound prin- 
ciples of finance. No fund or endowment can long withstand a 
regular consumption of its principal. Encumbered as the Church 
property was by leases, it could rarely be sold, in any considerable 
parcels, without serious sacrifice; and it was my opinion that the con- 
tributions of the church, instead of being enlarged, should be cur- 
tailed; that its debt should not be increased; that its expenditures 
should, if possible, be brought within its income; and that its property 
should, as a general rule, be preserved until the expiration of its leases, 
when it could be sold without loss; thus leaving the church in condi- 
tion to carry out with vigor and success the great plan of ministration 
which seemed to me to be clearly marked out by changes in progress 
in the distribution of business and population throughout the city. 

" In accordance with these views, when it was decided to build a 
chapel in the upper part of the city, in order to preserve to the church 
its ancient parishioners, who had removed in large numbers from the 
neighborhood of Trinity Church, St. Paul's and St. John's, I intro- 
duced a resolution providing that the corporate debt should never 
exceed the sum of $250,000 beyond the amount of its bonds and 
mortgages, exclusive of those given by churches. The latter were 
excepted for the reason that they have never been regarded as an 
available resource. No interest is collected on them, and they are, in 
fact, held by the Corporation for the purpose of preventing, in case of 
emergency, the property to which they attach from being devoted to 
secular uses. The resolution referred to, after being amended so as 
to increase the limit of the debt to $300,000, was adopted. 

" It is due to entire frankness to say that I was opposed to the 
construction of Trinity Chapel, believing the private wealth of the 
district, for which its ministrations were designed, sufficient to furnish 
them without the aid of Trinity Church. At the same time there were 



438 History of Trinity Church [1857 

arguments in favor of the measure, on the score of justice and prac- 
tical usefulness, which it was not easy to answer, and solicitations from 
old and faithful friends of the church, who had removed to the upper 
part of the city, too earnest and persuasive to be resisted by the 
Vestry, many of whom had been their associates from an early period 
in life, and who were naturally reluctant to dissolve the connection as 
they approached its close. 

" The measure having been resolved on, the Vestry adopted a plan 
which the architect estimated to cost $40,000. I urged its adoption 
on the ground of its comparatively small cost, and I particularly 
pressed on the Vestry the consideration that in the principal parish 
church enough had been done by them for the embellishment of the 
architecture of the city. At a subsequent meeting a majority of the 
Vestry, deeming the proposed edifice too small, or perhaps too plain 
for the position it was to occupy, adopted another plan, estimated by 
the architect to cost $79,000. It was never intended by the Vestry to 
exceed that sum. But those who have had any experience in building 
churches know not only how little confidence is to be placed in such 
estimates, but how difficult it is to adhere to original designs; and 
they will be disposed to consider the Vestry — who ultimately found 
themselves involved, greatly to their disappointment and annoyance, 
in an expenditure of $230,000 for the chapel and site — as objects of 
sympathy rather than censure. 

" This unlooked-for expenditure, and the continued annual con- 
tributions to other parishes, which the Vestry were unwilling to 
abridge, have carried the corporate debt up to the enormous sum of 
$668,000, exceeding by the sum of $469,000 its available bonds and 
mortgages. 

" It is well known that the greater part of the city below Cham- 
bers Street is devoted to purposes of business, and that private dwell- 
ings have given place to stores and warehouses. The wealthy portion 
of the population has gone to the upper districts, and most of the 
churches of all denominations have followed them. The North Dutch, 
which is still engaged in useful spiritual labors in the neighborhood of 
St. Paul's; the Methodist church in John Street, unhappily rent by 
internal strife; and St. Peter's, a Roman Catholic church, in Barclay 
Street, still maintain their ground. With these exceptions. Trinity 
Church, St. Paul's, and the church in Beekman Street, formerly St. 
George's, purchased and now entirely supported by Trinity, stand 
alone in this great deserted field of labor. The same process is going 
on above Chambers Street, and in a few years there will in all proba- 



1857] Report of General Dix 439 

bility be no churches below Canal Street but those of Trinity parish. 
Notwithstanding this exodus of wealth, the vast population, the inhab- 
itants, in greater part, of alleys, garrets, and cellars, estimated to exceed 
120,000 souls, occupy the field it has abandoned; and if Trinity Church 
had followed the same instincts which have drawn off the other relig- 
ious societies of the city to its more attractive districts, if she also had 
abandoned to their fate the poor and necessitous whom wealth and 
fashion have bequeathed to her, the lower part of the city would have 
presented an example of religious destitution unparalleled in the history 
of Christian civilization. 

" It was in view of this great change in the condition of the popula- 
tion of the city that I introduced into the Vestry, on the loth of April, 
1854, the following resolutions: 

'' '■Resolved, That the Standing Committee be instructed to report 
a plan by which the expenditures of the Corporation shall be limited to 
its income. 

" ' Resolved, That the said Committee be instructed to inquire 
into the expediency of making the seats in Trinity Church, and in St. 
Paul's and St. John's Chapels, free. 

" ' Resolved, That the said Committee be instructed to inquire into 
the expediency of establishing free schools in connection with Trinity 
Church and its chapels. 

" ' Resolved, That the said Committee be instructed to inquire 
into the expediency of devoting the funds of the Corporation, as far as 
may be practicable, after making provisions for the support of the new 
chapel in Twenty-fifth Street, to the education and religious instruction 
of the poor of the city.' 

" The last resolution, as originally presented, was confined to the 
poor of the city below Canal Street; and, on the suggestion of a mem- 
ber of the Vestry, it was, in view of future contingencies, amended so 
as to embrace the whole city. 

" This is the plan which nearly four years ago I deemed it my duty 
to bring before the Vestry. It was supported by a somewhat labored 
argument, which was not committed to paper, and which I will not tax 
the patience of the Committee by attempting to recall to remembrance. 
I trust, indeed, that no such exposition is necessary, and that the reso- 
lutions sufficiently explain their purpose. Their design was to rescue 
the lower part of the city — that portion which has not only an 
immense body of resident poor, but which receives into its bosom 



440 History of Trinity Church [1857 

the greater part of the destitute who seek a refuge here from hardship 
in other countries — to rescue this combined mass of permanent and 
temporary indigence from the utter spiritual abandonment with which 
it was threatened by the removal of those to whose wealth and liberal- 
ity it had been accustomed to look for sympathy and pecuniary aid to 
more congenial districts. The plan comprehended not only the spirit- 
ual instruction of the adult inhabitants of this deserted district, once 
the seat of nearly all the wealth of the city, but the education of their 
children, and to the extent of the means of the Corporation, a minis- 
tration to their temporal wants. Trinity Church, with its endow- 
ments — fortunately growing more valuable with the progess of the city 
— was to stand in the place of the individual opulence which has fled 
from a district where its tastes could no longer find suitable fields for 
indulgence, and established itself in others, where it has rivalled 
Genoa in its streets of palaces, and where, in all its appointments 
and manifestations of in-door and out-door life, there is a concentra- 
tion of refinement, luxury, and splendor unequalled excepting by a few 
of the great capitals of Europe. 

'' It is possible that I may have looked upon this plan with that 
undue partiality which individuals are apt to feel for suggestions origi- 
nating with themselves. But it seemed to me to have been among the 
designs of Providence that Trinity Church should have been planted in 
this great district, ready with her ample endowments, to make provision, 
when the emergency should arrive, for those whom individual wealth 
has left upon her hands. I hold this to be the great mission of Trinity 
Church; and I have pressed on the Vestry, on all proper occasions, the 
duty of preparing for it, and of commencing the work with the utmost 
diligence. Though the plan has not been formally adopted, it has 
been practically acted on; and it is due to my associates in the 
Vestry to say that they have responded to all appeals in behalf of 
the destitute districts below Canal Street by as liberal an expenditure 
as the income of the Corporation, crippled by a heavy debt and bur- 
dened by large annual contributions to other churches, has admitted. 
The clerical force of the parish has been nearly doubled; the Sunday- 
schools have been greatly enlarged; parish schools for the gratuitous 
education of children have been established; by far the greater part of 
the pews in Trinity Church, one hundred and four out of one hundred 
and forty-four in St. Paul's, and a large number in St. John's, are free; 
efforts have been put forth to bring into the church those who have 
not been accustomed to attend any religious worship; Trinity Church 
is opened twice a day throughout the year for divine service; a mission 



1857] Report of General Dix 441 



office has been established to receive applications for aid; lay visitors 
are eni])loyed to seek out want and relieve it; missionary agencies 
have been instituted in connection with the Commissioners of Emigra- 
tion; the whole lower part of the city has been virtually made a field 
of missionary labor; and a degree of energy has been infused into the 
ministrations of the church, temporal and spiritual, which compensates 
in a great degree for the lost support of the religious societies re- 
moved to other districts. In the midst of all this earnest effort, with 
five of her clergy residing within this neglected field of labor, con- 
versant with little else than its destitution, and devoting themselves to 
the relief of its wants, Trinity Church finds herself assailed as faithless 
to her trust by those, for the most part, whose lives are passed amid 
the social amenities of the upper districts, and in an atmosphere redo- 
lent with indulgence and luxurious ease. 

" It was not supposed by me when this plan was brought forward 
that it could be fully carried out until a considerable portion of the 
leased property of the Church should become available for the pur- 
pose. It was only expected that a beginning should be made, and 
that the plan, in its great outlines, should have a practical adoption. 
However earnest the desire to put it in operation at an earlier period, 
the unexpected augmentation of her debt not only renders such a de- 
sire hopeless, but manifests that it may be even farther postponed, or 
possibly defeated, without a prudent husbandry of her resources. 

" The expenditures of the Parish cannot be materially abridged 
without prejudice to its interests ; and the Vestry are unwilling to re- 
duce the annual allowances to other churches, believing that such a 
reduction would cause great inconvenience to the recipients, and in 
some cases impair, to a serious extent, the efficiency of the parishes 
thus assisted. 

" In regard to the necessity of allowing the capital of her endow- 
ment to be consumed by the current expenses of the Church, I have 
differed in opinion with a majority of the Vestry. While they have 
deplored it, and yielded to it as a necessity, I have been in favor of 
meeting it by retrenchment, and bringing down the expenditure, as 
nearly as may be, to the standard of the income. I have urged this 
duty on the Vestry as one demanded by every maxim of financial pru- 
dence, and with the less hesitation, as the inconvenience to result 
from it would be of short duration ; for if the real estate disposable in 
1862, or the great mass of it, can be kept undiminished until that 
time, the Church will be in condition to prosecute the great plan 
of ministration she has entered on with nn efficiency which cannot fail 



442 History of Trinity Church [i8S7 



to produce results of the highest importance to the City and State. If 
I have thought the Vestry in error in this respect, it is not because I 
have considered them lacking in liberality, but because they have 
yielded, under impulses highly honorable to their feelings, to an outside 
pressure for contributions, which in view of the deep and lasting inter- 
ests involved in the question, I would have resisted. 

" This is, in truth, the only ground of apprehension in regard to the 
success of the plan of religious instruction for the poor of the lower 
part of the city. It must utterly fail, if Trinity Church, for the pur- 
pose of meeting a regular series of annual deficits in her revenue, 
caused to a great extent by her contributions to other Churches, shall 
consume her real estate ; and for this reason I would incur a tempo- 
rary inconvenience for the purpose of carrying out a great system, 
the benefits of which would be incalculable in value and endless in 
duration. 

" To hold her real estate until it is unencumbered and can be sold 
without sacrifice is in no just sense an accumulation of capital. To 
accumulate is to augment by a reinvestment of income ; or, in other 
words, to convert revenue into principal. If her income exceeded her 
necessary expenditures ; if, instead of contributing it to the wants of 
others she were to withhold it and use it for the augmentation of her 
capital, she would be fairly obnoxious to the imputations cast upon 
her. Instead of erring in this direction, she has, as has been shown, 
been for a series of years expending large portions of her principal, 
and mainly for the purpose of making donations to other parishes. 

" Several of the witnesses have testified that in granting aid to other 
churches, the Vestry have acted under the influence of party feeling, 
refusing assistance to those who differ with them in opinion, and grant- 
ing it freely to those whose views are in accordance with their own. 
I feel it to be my solemn duty to repel this imputation by stating my 
own experience. I have been more than seven years a member of the 
Vestry, and have been on terms of the most unreserved and confiden- 
tial communication with my associates. I have discussed with them 
the propriety of granting and declining applications for aid, not only 
at nearly all the meetings of the Vestry, but in many cases in private 
interviews; and no reference has ever been made by me or any one of 
them, at any meeting, official or private, to the party views of any of 
the Rectors or religious societies presenting such applications. The 
party divisions which have existed for several years in the Episcopal 
Church, and which have not only impaired its capacity for doing good, 
but dishonored those on both sides who have been active in keeping 



1857] Report of General Dix 443 

them alive, have never been a subject of discussion at any meeting of 
the Vestry, which I have attended, nor have they been alluded to in 
connection with applications for aid. I have taken a deep interest in 
several applications myself, and have, perhaps, had some influence 
in securing grants of money to the applicants; and in no instance have 
I inquired what were the particular views of the Rector or the parish 
to which they belonged. I do not even know to this day whether they 
are High Church or Low Church. The only inquiries I ever made 
were in regard to their pecuniary and social condition, and their need 
of assistance; and these considerations, together with the ability of 
Trinity Church at the time to make the grants asked for, and the prob- 
ability that the grants would be effective for the objects in view, have 
been the only ones which have guided me in my votes. I believe the 
other members of the Vestry have been equally free from the influence 
of party motives. My belief is founded upon my knowledge of them 
as enlightened, conscientious, and liberal men, and upon all they have 
said and done in my presence through a familiar association of seven 
years. I cannot be supposed to have been deceived in regard to their 
principles of action but upon the hypothesis of a depth of dissimulation 
on their part, and an obtuseness of perception on my own, too gross 
for the largest credulity. 

" I can say with the same confidence that I do not believe those 
who have the management of the affairs of Trinity Church have sought, 
during the period of my connection with them (a jieriod of a good deal 
of excitement), to influence Rectors of parishes on any question in the 
diocese through the instrumentality of her donations. It is due to 
others to add that I have for several years attended the Conventions of 
the diocese, and become acquainted with a large number of the clergy. 
I have rarely met a more intelligent or independent body of men; and 
I regard the intimation that they would be governed in the doctrines 
they teach, or in the official acts they have to perform, by considera- 
tions arising out of the pecuniary aid their parishes may have received 
from Trinity Church, as alike ungenerous and unjust. 

" In a word, I consider all these imputations of influence on the 
one hand, and of subserviency on the other, as the offspring of mere 
groundless suspicion; and they are, in some instances, so loosely 
hazarded as to make it the part of charity to refer them to the same 
narrow and distempered views of duty which are falsely imputed to the 
Vestry of Trinity. 

"I have thus laid before the Committee with entire frankness a 
statement of my connection with Trinity Church, and the part I have 



444 History of Trinity Church [i8S7 

borne in the management of her financial affairs, and the great scheme 
of religious and temporal ministration which I desire to see carried out, 
under her auspices and through the aid of her endowments, in the 
lower districts of the city. I do not believe the importance of giving 
effect to this plan can be overstated. The funds of Trinity Church are 
the only resource for accomplishing it: she must execute it, or it will 
fall to the ground, and the district in which three of her church 
edifices stand become nearly desolate for all spiritual purposes. The 
prosperity of the city is deeply involved in it. Destitution, temporal 
and spiritual, goes hand in hand with crime, and when even now the 
spirit of acquisitiveness, which is characteristic of the age and has be- 
come its greatest scourge, is dishonoring it by forgeries the most bare- 
faced, and staining it by murders the most foul, what shall be our 
social condition if, in a large portion of the city, destitution and 
spiritual neglect shall combme with cupidity to arm the hand of 
violence, and stimulate it to still grosser outrage ? What higher office 
can Trinity Church fulfil, what higher benefit can she confer on the 
classes which have the deepest stake in the security of property and 
life, than by devoting herself, as she is now doing, to make the lessons 
of religious and social duty familiar to those who, under the pressure 
of their physical wants, have the strongest temptation to forget them ? 
In the upper districts the possessors of nearly the whole private wealth 
of the city have become domesticated. There is more than one con- 
gregation the individual possessions of which are believed to exceed in 
value, with the largest estimate ever put on it, the entire property 
Trinity Church holds for the support of her four congregations. Those 
whom Fortune has thus overburdened with her gifts should be willing 
to leave unimpaired the endowments of Trinity Church, that she may 
make suitable provision for the poor whom they have left to her care. 
And whatever may be the narrowness of spirit which presides over 
particular circles, no doubt is entertained of the generous and catholic 
feeling which pervades the great body of the opulent classes. No city 
has more cause to be thankful for the munificence with which some 
of her richest men have contributed to great objects of social improve- 
ment within her limits; and it is most gratifying to add that in more 
than one instance the wealth which exists in the largest masses has 
been poured out with the noblest profusion to build up literary and 
charitable institutions for the common benefit. To such a spirit of 
munificence no appeal to relieve the destitution which hangs upon the 
outskirts of the upper districts need be addressed in vain. If among 
those to whom Providence has committed the spiritual guidance of 



i&Sj] Report of General Dix 445 

these favored classes there are any who seek to compel Trinity Church 
to scatter her endowments broadcast over the city, and thus disqualify 
herself for the great work of charity devolved on her in the district in 
which her lot has been cast; if there are any who are engaged in incul- 
cating an antiphonal beneficence the utterances of which are to be 
given only in response of those of Trinity, it is suggested, with the 
profoundest deference, whether a nobler field for the exercise of their 
influence does not lie directly before them — whether the great ends of 
their calling will not be better subserved by laboring to infuse into 
surrounding atmospheres, overcast with penury and want, some of the 
golden light which irradiates their own. 

"The State, nay, the whole country, has a deep interest in this 
question. The city of New York, embodying as she does, to a great 
extent, the commercial and financial power of the Union, must exert a 
sensible influence upon the moral and intellectual character of all with 
whom she is brought into association. The slightest agitations on her 
surface undulate in all directions to the great circumference of which 
she is the centre. On Trinity Church are devolved, in the order of 
events, the spiritual instruction and guidance of the district by which 
she is brought most directly into contact with all that lies beyond her 
limits. If this duty is not faithfully performed, no voice should be 
raised in palliation of the delinquency. On the other hand, if any of 
those who have withdrawn from this part of the city the wealth which 
Providence has, in such disproportion, bestowed on them shall seek to 
deprive the destitute whom they have left behind of the sole resource 
for spiritual instruction and for the alleviation of temporal want — if 
they shall succeed, by misstating the condition and unjustly impeach- 
ing the motives of Trinity Church, in defeating her efforts to carry out 
the great system of labor with which she is occupied — they will incur 
the gravest and most odious of all responsibilities — that of consigning 
one of the most important districts in the emporium of the Union to 
an intellectual and spiritual death. 

" I have the honor to be. Sir, your obedient servant. 

"John A. Dix." 

On the conclusion of the examination of witnesses, the 
Committee listened to the arguments of counsel. Mr. 
Porter appeared for those who considered themselves as dis- 
franchised corporators ; Judge Parker and Mr. Gouverneur 
M. Ogden spoke for the Corporation. The Committee 



446 History of Trinity Church [i8S7 



then, having^ concluded their work, presented an amended 
report to the Senate, in which, however, none of the alle- 
gations of misuse and abuse of the trust were withdrawn. 

The debate upon this amended report was long and 
not without bitterness ; finally a substitute bill was offered 
by Mr. Brooks, providing that all Episcopalians should be 
made corporators of Trinity Church, but that the property 
of the parish should remain in its own custody. Remon- 
strances against the proposed measures, and especially 
against the amendment or repeal of the law of 18 14, came 
from many parts of the State. Similar remonstrances 
against the disturbance of vested rights were largely 
signed by business men in New York and elsewhere.' 
Special memorials came from Individual parishes. Among 
those who took an active part in the debate was the Hon. 
Daniel E. Sickles, afterwards a Major General in the 
U. S. service during the Civil War, who strongly and 
ably opposf-d the injustice proposed by the bill. On 
Monday, April 6th, the substitute offered by Mr. Brooks 
was adopted by a vote of 19 to 12, and the bill was en- 
grossed and sent to the Assembly, where its fate was 
sealed, as it failed to be reached for final action before the 
adjournment of the Legislature. 

Thus, providentially, was averted a great evil, not only 
to the parish of Trinity Church, but to all the churches in 
our communion ; for no more radical measure could have 
been imagined, nor one better calculated to affect injuri- 
ously the rights and interests of corporations in general. 
The case for the Church was managed with great skill, 
wisdom, and dignitj', and from that day to the present, a 
period of nearly half a century, there has been no renewal 
of that bold and unjustifiable assault. 

' Copies of these remonstrances are on file among the archives in the State 
Library at Albany. 



i8s7] St. John's Chapel 447 

We pass to a subject of a more agreeable nature. 
During these proceedings and the pending of the bill, the 
Corporation had given attention to an enlargement of St. 
John's Chapel and its adjacent buildings. Of the im- 
provements made at that time, by which the interior be- 
came one of the most beautiful and imposing in the city, 
the architect's contemporary description is on file. 

The additions comprehended a three-story building, 
31 X 50, attached to the rear of the church and intended 
for Sunday and parochial schools ; a chapel to be used for 
committee rooms during convention, and a chancel, apsidal 
in form, covered with a semi-dome, and lighted through 
the cupola. We quote from the architect's description : 

"The chancel is 24 feet deep and elevated from the nave by four 
steps of American Tennessee marble, which is equal to any foreign 
production, and is the first of its kind ever used in this city. The 
chancel is also paved with this and other marbles, inlaid. The altar 
which stands in the centre of the sacrarium is of marble ornamented 
with inlayings of Sienna and Rose vif, and surrounded with columns 
of Tennessee marble shafts, statuary capitals, and black marble plinths 
and bases. On the front are medallions gilded, with appropriate 
emblems. The central one has the I. H. S., the S being the ancient 
form of that letter found in old manuscripts. 

" Around the chancel is a screen composed of columns and arches 
decorated in polychrome. The caps and carved work are gilded on 
red and blue fields. This decorating in polychrome is of great assist- 
ance to architecture. It increases the effect very considerably with 
very little expense, and individualizes details which might perhaps 
pass otherwise unnoticed. Attached to the screen are the stalls for 
the clergy and Bishop. The latter is distinguished from the rest 
by being central and by a pedimented canopy surmounted by an em- 
blematic mitre. The chancel rail is of iron with gilded ornaments. 
There are prayer-desks on either side of the choir. The pulpit is 
attached to the Gospel side of the chancel-arch and will be approached 
by a handrailing of iron, which is being made. The chancel is sup- 
ported by an entablature, which runs around the Church. The arch 
has a broad, deep and enriched soffit. The cupola is of good size 



448 History of Trinity Church [1858 



and is glazed with stained glass, to mellow the effect of the light 
throughout the chancel. The semi-dome has been left perfectly plain 
as the proper field for a painting. Mr. Oertel has been consulted with 
reference to a picture, and has one which is thought appropriate, and 
which if it is secured will be a great acquisition to the artistic decora- 
tions of the Church, not only from its intrinsic merits as a painting, 
but also on account of the position and light. 

" The pews have been lowered a little, and those which encum- 
bered the space in front of the chancel have been removed, to afford 
more room around the chancel than formerly. The colouring of the 
walls is of French gray with ornaments. Throughout the additions 
care has been taken to carry out in all details the Corinthian order in 
which the Church is built. 

" R. M. Upjohn & Co., 

"Architects, Trinity Building. 
"February 28, 1857."' 

The church, thus enlarged and beautified, was opened 
for divine service on Quinquagesima Sunday, February 
I5> 1857- The officiants were the Provisional Bishop of 
the Diocese, the Rector of Trinity Church, the Rev. 
Messrs. Young, Ogilby, and C. B. Wyatt. The Rev. Dr. 
Higbee preached from St. Luke, iv., 18, "The Spirit of 
the Lord is upon me, because He hath anointed me to 
preach the Gospel to the poor." He spoke particularly 
of the missionary character of the Church, alluded to the 
greatly increased accommodations in the new school 
rooms, capable of receiving a thousand children, and 
made affectionate reference to the late Bishops Hobart 
and Wainwright and to Dr. M. P. Parks. It was indeed 
a day of rejoicing throughout the parish, then so angrily 
assailed by the adversary's hand. 

During the early part of the year 1858 the monument 
in memory of the Revolutionary soldiers and sailors 
buried in Trinity churchyard was completed and put in 

' Church Journal, March 4, 1857. 



i8s8] Albany Street Extension 449 

position. It is a striking and effective tribute to those 
who perished in the prison ships and in the old Sugar 
House on Liberty St. It stands near Broadway, directly 
opposite to Pine St., on the Hne on which the proposed 
extension of Albany St. was to have been carried out. 

The promoters of the scheme for opening that street 
gave one last gasp before the death of their nefarious 
plan. On the night of Dec. 31, 1857, the city govern- 
ment passed an ordinance repealing the ordinance of 
1855, and allowing a street to be cut through Trinity 
churchyard. In the course of the hearings in opposition 
to it the Rev. Dr. Vinton made a notable and effective 
plea in opposition to the measure. As the last word, it 
invites notice. He thus concludes his argument. 

" It so happens, I think you will discover, that the City never was 
vested with the fee of this part of the grave-yard of Trinity Church. 
For in the ' Dongan charter,' under the royal seal of George II., by 
which this City was incorporated, all waste and unoccupied lands 
were ceded to the City; saving and excepting ground devoted '^^ to pious 
and charitable uses." This north part of Trinity Churchyard was, as I 
have already stated, the old public cemetery at the date of the Dongan 
charter, devoted to that ' pious and charitable use.' The City pos- 
sessed it as a burial place and was charged with the duty of burying 
the dead. 

"By the Deed of 27th April, 1703, the City transferred her title, 
with her obligations of burying the dead, to Trinity Church, which 
accepted and performed the conditions, until 1823. In that year, the 
City by an ordinance prohibited further burials within the <:ity limits. 
The City herself revoked the conditions of the deed of 1703; and thus, 
what was before conditional, is become unconditional. So that, as 
against the City, the title of Trinity Church to the land, is fee simple. 
The idea of a condition to a deed, being revoked by the grantor, is, to 
my plain mind, preposterous and absurd. Such law would work 
finely for sellers of property which is on the rise. Such law would 
bring back to their former owners many of those princely lots on 
Broadway, which have enhanced in price a hundred fold or less. But 
I leave this question for the lawyers. 



450 History of Trinity Church [1858 

" Gentlemen of the Committee : You have an office to fulfil, full 
of dignity. Your report to the Common Council, I doubt not will be 
intelligent and honest. You are called on to advise the repeal of a 
hasty act of your immediate predecessors, which permitted Albany 
Street to be extended through the Churchyard; and to restore the 
deliberate well-advised ordinance of 1855, which directed a " stay of 
all proceedings " in the matter. 

" Put an end, Gentlemen, to this grasping avarice of private spec- 
ulation, which is battling with humanity and religion and the public 
good. 

" This controversy is become vexatious. Settle it forever on the 
principle of Reverence. The blessing of God and the gratitude of 
the people and the approval of your conscience shall be your reward. 

That was the end of the matter, and the scheme has 
not been revived. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

CONCLUSION OF DR. BERRIAN's RECTORSHIP. 

The Atlantic Cable Laid — Service in Trinity Church — Sermon by the Bishop of New 
Jersey — Death of Dr. Hodges — Report of Special Committee on Finance — Nomination 
of Rev. Morgan Dix to Assistant Rectorship — Memorial of the Assistant Clergy to the 
Vestry Urging that Action on the Nomination be Deferred— Election of Mr. Dix — 
His Acceptance — One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of Trinity School — Fiftieth 
Anniversary of the Ordination to the Diaconate of Dr. Berrian — Sermon by Dr. Ber- 
rian— Visit of the Prince of Wales — Trinity Choir Surpliced — Attendance of the Prince 
of Wales at Service in Trinity Church — Interference of Dr. Vinton in the Pre- 
arranged Plans for that Service — Remonstrance from the Committee of Arrangements 
Presented to the Vestry — Completion of .Schoolhouse of Trinity Chapel — Death of 
Dr. Berrian — Funeral Services — Sermon by Mr. Dix — Accession of Morgan Dix as 
Ninth Rector of Trinity Church. 

NO one who was present on the occasion can forget the 
service held in Trinity Church, September i, 1858, 
upon the completion of the great work of laying the At- 
lantic cable between Ireland and Newfoundland, and thus 
securing communication with Europe by telegraph. Mr. 
Cyrus W. Field, the enthusiastic and indefatigable agent 
in that project, saw the accomplishment of his design on 
the 1 8th of August; and a fortnight later the celebration 
took place in the Parish Church. 

The church, of course, was filled to its utmost ca- 
pacity, or, rather beyond its capacity, for a dense mass 
of humanity covered the entire space from wall to wall, 
seated, or standing, or piled up to the sills of the 
windows in the aisles north and south. A procession 
of one hundred clergy or more closed by the Right Rev. 
George W. Doane, Bishop of New Jersey, passed from the 
451 



452 History of Trinity Church [1858 



northwest door, along the walk towards Broadway, and 
thence, by the central doorway, in the tower, entered the 
building, while the organ pealed forth a voluntary, in 
which were heard the familiar strains of " Hail Columbia" 
and " God Save the Queen." The official guests formed 
a part of the procession, including the Mayor of the city, 
the members of the Common Council and Board of Alder- 
men, and Captain Hudson of the U. S. frigate Niagara, 
with the officers of that frigate and her English consort 
in laying the cable ; these officials marched under the flags 
of the United States and Great Britain. Across the 
chancel was a vast temporary frame work, having the ef- 
fect of a gigantic rood-screen, and entirely covered by 
flowers. 

The service began with an opening anthem, " The 
Lord is in His Holy Temple," composed by Dr. Hodges, 
who was himself at the organ, and given with great effect 
by a full choir. 

The officiants at Morning Prayer were the Rev. Dr. 
Berrian, Rector, assisted by the Rev. Drs. Creighton, 
Hawks, and Bedell. The lessons specially appointed for 
this service were Isaiah xliii. and Rev. iv. A solemn 
Te Deum was sung, which is thus described by a writer 
of the period : 

"This Te Deum was 'a verse service' in the key of D, commonly 
known as the New York service, and was composed by Dr. Hodges in 
1840, shortly after he had been appointed director of music in Trinity 
Parish. It was a varied composition interspersed with solo and duet 
passages and written in the English style of Cathedral music, though 
rather more fiorid than most of the English services. It opened with 
a full chorus in plain counterpoint in a majestic and dignified style. 
This was succeeded by a fugue passage at the words 'The glorious 
company of the Apostles praise Thee,' in which the subject was ad- 
mirably carried through all the voices, while the immediately succeed- 
ing verses were announced without repetition of words, arriving at a 
grand climax at the verse, ' Thou art the King of Glory, O Christ.' 



1858] The Atlantic Cable 453 



Here the magnificent outburst of harmony from the full organ and 
choir was exceedingly impressive. The rest of the Te Deum was an 
alternation of solos, duets and choruses, closing with a slow and digni- 
fied fugue movement of moderate length, but admirably adapted to 
leave the mind of the listener in a state of elevated devotion." 

Before the General Thanksgiving a special thanksgiv- 
ing was said, which had been approved by the Bishop for 
the occasion : 

" O God Whose never-failing Providence ordereth all things both 
in heaven and earth, we, Thy humble servants, bow before Thee own- 
ing that from Thee all strength, all power and might do come. We 
praise Thee for Thy goodness and wonderful works to the children of 
men and acknowledge Thy gracious hand in all that we accomplish 
on earth. Especially this day do we recognize Thy goodness and 
mercy in the wonderful work for which we now bless and magnify Thy 
glorious Name. Thou, who alone spreadest out the heavens and rulest 
the raging of the sea, didst in Thy mercy guide Thy servants through 
the perils of the great deep and enable them to lay in the mighty 
waters that band which now unites distant nations. Grant, O Lord, 
that those who are so wonderfully joined together may never be put 
asunder by enmity or strife, by prejudice or passion. May it be an 
instrument in bearing only messages of peace, extending the glad tid- 
ings of salvation, the Gospel of Thy dear Son, and hastening the day 
when from every corner of the earth shall rise that blessed song : 
' Peace on earth, good-will towards men,' and to Thy great Name shall 
be ascribed all honour and praise, through Jesus Christ our Lord. 
Amen." 

After the singing of Dr. John Clark's anthem from 
Psalm cxxxiii., " Behold how good and joyful a thing it is, 
brethren, to dwell together in unity," the Bishop of New 
Jersey ascended the pulpit and delivered the address, with 
a brilliancy and an intense earnestness characteristic of 
himself : 

'"Glory be to God on high, and on earth peace; good-will 
towards men.' 

" This was the message of the Angels to the shepherds on the plains 
of Bethlehem when the Incarnate Saviour of the world was cradled in 



454 History of Trinity Churcli [1858 

a manger. This was the message of the Angli by the Atlantic Tele- 
graph to their western sons. And this shall be the Anglo-American 
message to the ends of the whole world : ' Glory be to God on high, 
and on earth peace ; good-will towards men.' 

" Was ever utterance so fit ? Was ever fittest utterance so startling, 
so solemn, so sublime ? A consecrated lightning ! flashing out from 
the burning love of Christian hearts in Ireland ; flashing along through 
the caverns of the sea; flashing along among the buried treasures of 
the deep; flashing along by the lair of old Leviathan; flashing along 
over the remains of them who perished in the flood; flashing up 
among the primeval forests of Newfoundland; and flashing out from 
there throughout the world. 

" A consecrated lightning, consecrating the wondrous chain the 
completion of which we celebrate to-day; consecrating the very ocean 
which it traverses; consecrating this glorious blessed day; consecrat- 
ing anew that time-honored red-cross flag, the banner of a thousand 
fights; consecrating the stars that glitter on that flag of freedom 
which in less than a century has won for this nation a place among 
the ancient empires of the world, and which, whenever the rights of 
men are to be asserted, forever floats and blazes in the van. Conse- 
crating shall I not say, beloved friends, anew our hearts to the love of 
man and to the glory of the living God. 

" It is recorded of the father that he took his son, almost an infant, 
to his heathen altar to swear eternal hatred against Rome ! Shall we 
not come up here to-day — have we not come up here to-day — to renew 
before this holy altar our vows of love and peace? Shall we not here 
renew the vows of our holy baptism ? — that so far as in us lies we will 
promote that which makes for peace, and quietness, and love, among 
all men; that so far as in us lies, each in his several place by prayers, 
by gifts, by services, by sufferings, by death, if God so please, we will 
do what lies in us, to bear out to all the world lying in darkness, lying 
in wickedness, lying in sin, the peace and love of the glorious Gospel 
of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ. 

" It seems to me, if I may speak it without irreverence, that one- 
ness is the great idea of God. The unity of God is the great truth of 
Holy Scripture. ' There are three that bear record in heaven, the 
Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.' And 
that beseeching prayer when our dear Saviour was about to enter the 
garden of agony: ' that they may be one as We are, I in Thee and 
Thou in Me, that they may be one in Us.' St. Paul instructs us that 
' there is one body and one Spirit, one God and Father of all, one 



i8s8] The Atlantic Cable 455 



Lord, one faith, one baptism.' And then only will tlie mediatorial 
glory be accomplished when there shall be one fold under one Shep- 
herd, Jesus Christ, our Lord. The highest happiness on earth is when 
men are ' of one mind in an house.' And to be one in heart and life is 
human love's devoutest, most delightful consummation. Now it seems 
to me that among the thousand thoughts that crowd upon the mind 
in the contemplation of the subject of this day's assembling, the ten- 
dency to oneness is the chief. It seems to me that in a sort the edict 
of Babel is reversed: that so the kingdoms of the world may become 
' the kingdoms of our Lord and of His Christ.' The dispersion of 
the nations is to be outdone in God's time and in God's way by bring- 
ing them together as one in Him. And I might almost venture to say 
that we have in prospect, as it were, the renewal and repetition of the 
Pentecostal wonder, when all the nations of the world heard in their 
own tongue the wonderful works of God, when man shall speak to 
man from one end of the world to the other of the Gospel of the 
Saviour and of the glory of the Lamb. 

" Beloved friends, I am here among you, travelling through the 
night to be here, from the field of my own labors in New Jersey and 
from the care of my two hundred children,' that with my brethren 
and companions I might worship in this holy and beautiful house, 
and with them and with you all, and with all England, and with all 
Europe, and with the islands of the sea, rejoice in the consummation 
of this great work. 

" Beautifully and well did this venerable corporation seek for 
itself a place in the rejoicings of this day. Trustees they are from 
venerable hands in that dear mother-land, now gathered to the grave; 
trustees they are for carrying out their views and purposes. And 
great and glorious as are the good works they have done, none greater 
and more glorious than in lending the consecration of this house, the 
consecration of that altar, and the consecration of these prayers, to 
the Atlantic telegraph. 

" I said, my friends, that I came to you from New Jersey, and I 
have brought something of New Jersey with me. I hold here the oldest 
of the cables. This " (exhibiting a piece of wire) " is the germ which has 
grown to what is so great and glorious. So far as I know and believe, 
this is a part of the telegraph wire set up at the Speedwell Iron Works 
in Morristown, New Jersey, more than twenty years ago, under the 
direction of Professor Morse, known to all the world, and Mr. Alfred 

' The Bishop referred to the great school at Burlington, St. Mary's Hall. 



456 History of Trinity Cliurch [1858 



Vail, his associate and fellow laborer. It was set up for a length of 
three miles, and it served to transmit intelligent signals in the tele- 
graphic language. . . . We have all read of that beautiful 
ceremony which was once annually celebrated, the wedding of the 
Adriatic by the Doge of Venice. 

" The Bucentaur with the fleet of gondolas has made a radiant 
picture on the heart of every child. It was a splendid pageant, but it 
has vanished from the world. Venice is no longer among the sover- 
eign nations. The glory of the Adriatic has departed. But now 
another wedding follows. The day breaks upon the rugged shores of 
Newfoundland. A little company is landing from a boat. They form 
a line. They bear in their hands, and touch it as a sacred thing, a 
small wire, and they proceed with solemn step and slow to the 
place appointed to deposit it. With that same Cyrus at their head 
they form a procession in comparison with which the heroes of an- 
tiquity must look to their laurels. Carefully they proceed, charged 
not only, as they feel, with the destiny of nations, but with the inter- 
ests of the Church of the Living God, and repose it in its place of 
annexation. . . England and America are wedded by that Atlantic 
ring, a ring of love, a ring of peace, shall I not say the ring of God ? 
Shall I not add, — and will not every heart respond Amen — ' Those 
whom God hath joined together, let no man put asunder' ? " 

Among the many appropriate decorations for the occa- 
sion were the English and American flags, displayed from 
the spire. As the wind blew, they " were blown across 
each other in mutual embrace." It is upon this incident 
that Bishop Doane wrote the following poem : 

" THE WEDDED FLAGS. 
"A Song of the Atlantic Cable. 

" Hang out that glorious old red Cross! 
Hang out the Stripes and Stars! 
They faced each other fearlessly 
In two historic wars ; 

" But now, the ocean circlet binds 
The Bridegroom and the Bride; 
Old England, Young America — 
Display them, side by side. 



1859] Report on Finance 457 

" High up from Trinity's tall spire, 
We '11 fling the banner out; 
Hear how the world-wide welkin rings 
With that exulting shout! 

" Forever wave those wedded flags, 
As proudly now they wave! 
God, for the lands, His love has blessed, 
The beauteous and the brave. 

" But, see! the dallying wind the Stars 
About the Cross has blown. 
And see, againi the Cross around 
The Stars its folds has thrown. 

" Was ever sign so beautiful 

Hung from the heavens abroad ? 
Old England, Young America 
For Freedom and for God." ' 

This was the last occasion on which Dr. Hodges 
directed the music at Trinity Church. The close of his 
official career was in accord with the whole of his admira- 
ble work as a church musician. On the 20th of September, 
the Vestry were informed, by a letter from Dr. Edwin 
Wilkes, that the health of the venerable organist was so 
seriously impaired as to disqualify him for the performance 
of the duties of his office. Leave of absence was granted 
to him, and Dr. Henry S. Cutler was appointed " temporary 
organist at Trinity Church."" Dr. Hodges went to Eng- 
land, where he spent nearly a year. On his return he lived 
in retirement at " Woodlawn on the Hudson," the residence 
of Mr. William Moore, his brother-in-law. Finally return- 
ing to England in 1863, he died in his native city, Bristol, 
on Sunday, September i, 1867. 

A long-expected report of the special Committee on 
Finance was presented to the Vestry January 10, 1859. 

' Pp. 127-128, Son^s by the Way. The Poetical Writings of the Right Rev. 
George Washington Doane, D.U., LL.D. Arranged and edited by his son, William 
Croswell Doane. • Records, liber iv., folio 330. 



458 History of Trinity Church [1859 

It showed the necessity of curtailing allowances and gifts. 
Its conclusions are embodied in these resolutions : 

" Resolved, i. That all appropriations of money for other than paro- 
chial purposes, with the exception of those for which the faith of the Ves- 
try is pledged, and those specified in the third resolution, be discontinued 
until the expenditures of the Corporation are reduced to its income. 

" 2. That the annuity of $1000 to James Barrow be discontinued 
after the first of June, 1859. 

" 3. That the annual allowance to St. Luke's Church and to the 
Church of the Holy Evangelists, be reduced from and after the 30th 
April, 1859 ; the former to $3000, and the latter to $2500. That the 
annual allowances for the following churches and missionary pur- 
poses, if continued by the Vestry shall not exceed the sums herein 
specified, viz : — 

The Church of the Advent $200 

The Church of the Holy Innocents 200 

Rev. Mr. Hoyt, of the Church of the Good Shepherd.... 200 

St. Timothy's 200 

All Angels 200 

Free Chapel of St. Thomas 800 

Protestant Episcopal Seaman's Mission 800 

St. Mary's, Manhattanville 200 

Intercession, Carmansville 200 

The Nativity 1000 

The Holy Martyrs 300 

St. John's the Evangelist 400 

St. Ann's 300 

All Saints 300 

St. Stephen's 300 

St. Clement's 3°° 

St. Philip's 620 

St. Paul's, Williamsburg 200 

" 4. That the real estate of the Corporation under lease be sold, as 
advantageous opportunities occur, and the proceeds as far as practica- 
ble, applied to the payment of its debt, or set apart for that purpose 
until such debt is wholly extinguished. 

"5. That productive property yielding an income adequate to the 
support of Trinity Parish be sacredly preserved, and as soon as the debt 
of the Corporation shall have been fully paid or provided for, and there 
shall be a surplus of revenue beyond the requirements of the Parish, 
such surplus be dedicated to the aid of other Parishes, the religious 
instruction of the poor in the City of New York, the extension of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, and other pious and charitable objects. 



i8s9] Status of Assistant Rector 459 



'■ 6. That the property of the Corporation, whenever its debt shall 
have been extinguished, should be preserved, in as large proportion as 
possible, in the shape of real estate under lease, rather than in bonds 
and mortgages and money securities. 

" 7. That an Auditing Committee be appointed, to consist of 
three members, whose duty it shall be to examine and audit all bills 
and accounts for work done, articles purchased or procured, and ser- 
vices rendered for the Corporation, and to report the same for ap- 
proval to the Vestry, and that no such bill or account be paid without 
the order of the Vestry. 

" 8. That whenever an appropriation of money is made for any 
purpose, the expenditure for such purpose shall not be permitted by 
the Committee or person having the matter in charge, to exceed the 
amount so appropriated, until a further appropriation is made by the 
Vestry." 

The report had been printed in full " in confidence " for 
the information of the Vestry and other corporators. It 
was fully discussed, the resolutions were amended and then 
adopted. An edition of the report was printed for gen- 
eral circulation ' which oinitted the resolutions, some de- 
tails and " matter uninteresting to the public." 

At a special meeting of the Corporation of Trinity 
Church, held Wednesday, September 28, 1859, action was 
taken upon a subject of great importance to the Parish. 
The office of Assistant Rector had been filled from time to 
tiine, when the exigencies of the Parish required it. Dr. 
Beach was appointed in 181 1, Bishop Hobart in 1813, Dr. 
How in 1 816, Dr. Berrian in 1823, and Bishop Wain- 
wright in 1841. The Assistant Rector has no right of 
succession ; in fact, the terms of his appointment are in- 
consistent with such an assumption : he is designated by 
the charter an " Assistant to the Rector and his succes- 
sors." Neither is it necessary that he should be chosen 
from the clergy of the Parish ; the Vestry are free to 
choose from the whole body of the clergy of the Church. 

' Report of a Committee on the Condition of the Finances of Trinity Church. 



460 History of Trinity Church [1859 

According to the provisions of the Charter, no meeting of 
the Vestry can be held without the presence of one of the 
two charter officers, the Rector or the Assistant Rector, 
except in case of the vacation of the office of the Rector 
by death, resignation, or other causes, when the Vestry 
may meet and elect a successor. The health of Dr. Ber- 
rian was so seriously impaired, through advanced age and 
infirmities, that anxiety began to be felt on the subject, 
for if he should become unable to attend the meetings of 
the Corporation, they would be paralyzed. Under these 
circumstances, and deeming it wise to prepare for an 
emergency, it was intimated to the Rector as the wish of 
the Vestry that he should nominate an Assistant Rector, 
the right to such nomination being vested .solely in him. 
To this suggestion, after due consideration, he assented, 
and, having decided to make a nomination, he addressed 
a letter to the Rev. Dr. Higbee, stating his intentions and 
explaining his reasons for the choice of the clergyman 
whom he had decided to nominate ; a copy of the letter 
was sent to every clergyman of the Parish except the pro- 
posed nominee, who remained in absolute ignorance of 
what was occurring, and having no suspicion, and receiv- 
ing no intimation from any quarter, of the Rector's design. 
Under these circumstances the special meeting was 
held. There were present : 

The Rev. William Berrian, DD., 

William E. Dimscomb and Robert Hyslop (Church Wardens), 

Alexander L. McDonald, Abel T. Anderson, 

Gulian C. Verplanck, Frederick Pentz, 

Anthony J. Bleecker, Gouverneur M. Ogden, 

George Templeton Strong, Francis R. Tillou, 

Samuel T. Skidmore, John H. Swift, 

William H. Falls, John J. Cisco, 

John A. Dix, Alexander W. Bradford, and 

Cyrus Curtiss, Nelson Jarvis. 



i8s9] Nomination of Morgan Dix 461 

The Rector read the following communication to the 
Vestry : 

" Gentlemen: 

" You are called together on this occasion, in consequence of an 
earnest and respectful request which has just been made to me in a 
memorial signed by most of you here present, to nominate an Assistant 
Rector. I have been approached on this subject at different times by 
individual members of this Vestry, but I always felt such a reluctance 
to entertain the measure, as I had not hitherto been able to overcome. 
This was not owing to any sensitiveness in regard to my age, nor for- 
getfulness of the infirmities and maladies so apt to accompany it, 
which though life were spared, might, nevertheless, incapacitate me 
both physically and mentally for the discharge of my duties; but 
simply from the embarrassment I should find in making the choice, 
and the pain and disappointment which might be felt by others. But 
as there ought not to be any further delay, I have made up my mind 
to act at once in the matter, and to do my duty, however trying it may 
be to me, conscientiously and firmly, leaving the consequences to God. 
The person upon whom my choice is fixed, and which I trust may meet 
with your approbation and concurrence, though comparatively young 
in years, is mature in manhood and mind, accomplished in letters and 
the arts, a ripe scholar, a sound divine, an edifying and attractive 
preacher, and a most laborious, devoted, and faithful pastor. 

" But it is not on these accounts alone that he is the object of my 
choice, but of other qualifications also which are rarely combined with 
high intellectual gifts, but which are nevertheless essential to the proper 
discharge of the duties of the office about to be filled. 

" From my long and close observation of him he appears to me to 
be pre-eminently fitted for the place by the practical turn of his mind, 
by his orderly, methodical, and businesslike habits; and by his remark- 
able minuteness and accuracy in all matters of detail. 

"I may likewise add, that I have entire reliance in his prudence, 
discretion, and judgment, and from his unaffected modesty, his well- 
regulated temper, and courteous manners, I look forward in case of his 
appointment and acceptance to a pleasant and harmonious intercourse 
with him for the rest of my days 

" I, therefore, beg to nominate the Rev. Morgan Dix (to be 
preacher and assistant to the Rector and his successors in the celebra- 
tion of the divine offices of praying and preaching and other duties 
incident to be performed in the Parish Church and the Parish, as the 



462 History of Trinity Church ['859 

said Rector shall require of him), as provided in the Charter of this 

Corporation. 

" William Berrian, 

_ „ ,, " Rector of Trinity Church. 
New York, September 28, 1859. 

A communication to the Vestry was then presented 
and read; it was signed by Edward Y. Higbee, D.D., 
Francis Vinton, D.D., John H. Hobart, D.D., Sullivan H. 
Weston, Frederick Ogilby, D.D., Benjamin I. Haight, 
D. D., and John F. Young, assistant ministers in the Parish, 
who stated that they had been informed by the Rector of 
his intention to make the nomination now made by him, 
and asked that action thereon be deferred for the present. 
A motion was thereupon made that action upon the 
nomination now made by the Rector be postponed until 
the next meeting of the Vestry. The ayes and noes being 
called for on this motion, it was lost by the following vote : 
Ayes. Noes. 

Alexander L. McDonald, William E. Dunscomb, 

Anthony J. Bleecker, Robert Hyslop, 

Abel T. Anderson — 3. Gulian C. Verplanck, 

George T. Strong, 
Samuel T. Skidmore, 
William W. Falls, 
Cyrus Curtiss, 
Frederick Pentz, 
Gouverneur M. Ogden, 
Francis R. Tillou, 
John H. Swift, 
John J. Cisco, 
Alexander W. Bradford, 
Nelson Jarvis — 14. 
The following resolution was then moved : 
"Whereas the Reverend, the Rector, has in the communication 
just read nominated the Reverend Morgan Dix, being an able Protes- 
tant minister in Priest's orders, to reside in the Parish (being now a 
resident therein) to be preacher and assistant to the Rector and his 
successors in the celebration of the divine office of praying and preach- 



1859] Election of Morgan Dix 463 

ing and other duties incident to be performed in the Parish Churcli 
and Parish as the said Rector shall require of him, as provided in the 
Charter of this Corporation : Resolved that the Church Wardens and 
Vestrymen do consent to such nomination. 

" The ayes and noes being called for upon the foregoing resolution 
it was passed by the following vote: 

" In the affirmative, 

" Church Wardens : William E. Dunscomb, Robert Hyslop. 

''''Vestrymen: Alexander L. McDonald, Gulian C. Verplanck, 
George Templeton Strong, Samuel T. Skidmore, William H. Falls, 
Cyrus Curtiss, Abel T. Anderson, Frederick Pentz, Gouverneur M. 
Ogden, Francis R. Tillou, John H. Swift, John J. Cisco, Alexander 
W. Bradford, Nelson Jarvis — 16. 

" In the negative, 

" Vestryman : Anthony J. Bleecker — i. " 

A copy of the resolution was made and attested as fol- 
lows : 

" In testimony whereof we have hereto subscribed our names: 
"William E. Dunscomb, Robert Hyslop, Alexr. L. McDonald, G. 

C. Verplanck, George T. Strong, Saml. T . Skidmore, W. H. Falls, 

Cyrus Curtiss, Abel T. Anderson, F. Pentz, Gouv M. Ogden, John E. 

Swift, John J. Cisco, A. W. Bradford, F. R. Tillou, Nelson Jarvis. 

Gouv. M. Ogden, Clerk." ' 

On the first of October, 1859, Mr. Dix sent his formal 
acceptance of the office." 

The accompanying portrait represents Mr. Dix as he 
was at about that period. In the following m'onth, the 
Rev. Dr. Vinton was transferred to Trinity Church, and 
the Assistant Rector and the Rev. Dr. Haight were as- 
signed to the charge of St. Paul's Chapel. 

An interesting commemoration occurred in the latter 
part of this year. The trustees of the New York Protes- 
tant Episcopal Public School, better known as Trinity 
School, which under various forms had been conducted 
since 1709, were desirous of celebrating its one hundred 

' Records, liber iv., (olios 370, 371. ' Ibid., folio 373. 



464 History of Trinity Church [1859 

and fiftieth anniversary. On their behalf, the Rev. Dr. 
John McVickar, President of the Board, sent a communica- 
tion to the Vestry, November 14, 1859, requesting the use 
of Trinity Church or Trinity Chapel for the service and 
the assistance of the Vestry in providing souvenirs of the 
occasion for the scholars. The application was cordially 
granted and two hundred and fifty dollars appropriated. 

The anniversary was held in Trinity Chapel on Tues- 
day, December 20, 1859. It was an occasion of more than 
passing interest. This enthusiastic account accords with 
the recollections of the writer. 

The day appointed for the service was Tuesday, the 
twentieth of December, in the year of our Lord eighteen 
hundred and fifty-nine. The weather was very inclement, 
but, notwithstanding the severity of the storm, a large 
congregation manifested their interest by their presence in 
the chapel. The chancel, already decorated for the ap- 
proaching Festival of the Nativity, was, on account of the 
darkness of the day, lighted by the corona which hangs 
from its ceiling. The scholars comprised in five classes, 
and in all more than one hundred in number, were placed 
in one body in the open space before the chancel-arch 
chapel-wise, on seats arranged longitudinally. Charles 
D'Urban Morris, M. A., Rector of the school, formerly 
fellow of Oriel College, Oxford University, England, in 
academic cap and gown and hood of his order, was present 
with the staff of teachers. 

The music was supplied by the scholars under the 
direction of Mr. James A. Johnson, the Instructor in that 
department of the school. Mr. William H. Walter, the 
accomplished organist of Trinity Chapel, kindly presided 
at the organ, accompanying and sustaining the voices with 
his own rare taste and ability. Of the clergy there were 
present the Rev. William Berrian, D.D., Rector of Trinity 



1859] Trinity School Service 465 

Church, and twenty-seven others whose names are given, 
besides others whose names are not recorded. 

The venerable Dr. Berrian presided on the occasion. 

A Christmas Carol, the Three Kings of Orient, con- 
sisting of three solos, which represented by voices the 
three Kings, and were each preceded by a Trio, and fol- 
lowed by a chorus, was sung, as composed and arranged 
by the Rev. J. H. Hopkins, Jr., by the scholars. 

Morning Prayer was said by the Rev. Dr. Eigenbrodt, 
Secretary of the Trustees and Chaplain of the school, and 
the Rev. Dr. Haight, formerly and for many years the 
laborious and indefatigable Secretary. The first two 
verses of the 79th selection, being the looth psalm of 
David, were sung as the Introit to its own tune of The 
Old Hundredth. The Ante-Communion Service was said 
by the Rev. Dr. Berrian, assisted in the Epistle by the 
Rev. Dr. Price, and in the Gospel by the Rev. Dr. S. R. 
Johnson. 

The Nicene Creed was then chanted, after which the 
first and second verses of the I02d hymn were sung to the 
tune Duke Street. The Rev. Dr. McVickar then ascended 
the pulpit, and delivered the anniversary discourse, dur- 
ing the latter part of which the whole school arose and 
remained standing until its close. 

At its conclusion, the Christmas Cantata, a chant 
composed of the various titles ascribed in Holy Scripture 
to the Saviour, being announced by the Chaplain, was 
sung, as arranged by the Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg. 

The sermon by Dr. McVickar was one of marked 
felicity and appreciation of the position held by the 
school and the Parish which endowed it. His conclusion 



"Scholars of Trinity School: To you I speak one word of affec- 
tionate interest, of warm commendation, and of Christian warning. It 



466 History of Trinity Church [i860 

may be the last I shall ever address to you. Continue worthy, in 
school and out of school, of the name you bear, and the Christian 
lineage that belongs to it ; and you will then be a daily comfort and 
blessing to those who love you at home, an honor and a joy to your 
School and Teachers, and hereafter, if spared in life, a blessing to 
your Church and country, either as Ministers at Christ's Altar or as 
members of Christ's flock; 'not slothful in business, fervent in spirit, 
serving the Lord.' 

" Remember that you are Scholars of no Mushroom school, here 
to-day and gone to-morrow. You bear in your hands and on your 
consciences the reputation of a Christian School that numbers its 
One Hundred and Fiftieth year. You should, therefore, feel this day 
as in foreign lands does the youthful heir of some old baronial line, 
looking back with honest pride and forward with a noble courage, 
eager to show in the self-denying duties of life, that he is worthy of his 
blood. When you name yourself, therefore, a scholar of Trinity, let 
that word of Faith sink deep into your heart, even as it stands indel- 
ibly imprinted on the volume each of you is about to receive in mem- 
ory of this day, a volume of mark ' in memoriam,' bearing on its front 
a noble seal prepared for this Jubilee, and to be henceforward the 
school-banner, a shield of gold, with an inscribed Cross, and the ad- 
monitory words, ' Labore et Yirtute,' emblematic alike of the 
Scholar and of the Christian; emblematic, too, I trust, of your own 
future course of usefulness and honor to yourselves, your Church, and 
your country. That noble career I may not hope to see; but still, as I 
behold it now in the vision of faith I bless God that I have been per- 
mitted thus to speak to you on this day of happy remembrance. God 
be with you! Amen." 

Another interesting anniversary was soon observed : 
that of the fiftieth year since the ordination of the Rector 
to the Diaconate. The service was held in St. John's 
Chapel, on Sunday, March 18, i860. His special sermon 
on that occasion was heard with great attention. The 
Vestry presented congratulations to their venerable head, 
and ordered the sermon to be printed.' 

'Records, liber iv., folio 403. The title is: Semi-Centennial Sermon, by the 
Rev. William Berrian, D.D.. Rector of Trinity Church, New York. Published at 
the Request and by Order of the Vestry. 



i86o] Address by Dr. Berrian 467 

The following passages contain reminiscences which, 
after the lapse of forty-five years, read like very ancient 
history, so rapid have been the changes since that already 
distant day. 

"In this venerable Parish, endeared to me by the tenderest and 
holiest associations, I was baptized. In St. George's Chapel I was con- 
firmed, and received my first communion. In St. John's Chapel I was 
ordained Deacon' ; in St. Paul's I preached my first sermon; and in 
each part of it, during the whole of my professional course, with the 
excepiton of one brief period, I have ministered ever since. To have 
lived in the same place for more than three-score and ten years among 
a people so migratory and shifting as ours; to have walked before you 
from my childhood unio this day; to have been connected with you for the 
greater part of that time by the most sacred and hallowed ties, are 
circumstances so unusual as to call for some special notice, and to 
awaken recollections mutually interesting to us both. 

"When I call to mind the various changes and chances of a life so 
comparatively uniform and peaceful as mine, gladdened, indeed, by in- 
numerable blessings, yet chequered, also, with many troubles and 
trials; when I think of the multitudes who have gone before me, the 
playmates of my childhood, the companions of my youth, the friends 
of my riper years, and those in still closer relations who were as dear 
to me as tny own soul, instead of my days appearing to me only as a 
span they seem to have been lengthened out beyond the ordinary limits 
allotted to man. 

"But this illusion of the imagination can hardly seem strange, 
when the other changes are considered, which, in the course of a single 
life, have taken place in all the objects around me. I am old enough 
to have seen nearly the whole growth of this city, now ranked among 
the largest and wealthiest throughout the world. Within my recollec- 
tion, from an inconsiderable population of about 35,000 souls, it has 
risen to more than twenty times that number, and is still going on, 
from year to year, with a more rapid progression. 

"Indeed, when I look back to its appearance at the time to which 
my memory reaches, and compare it with what it is at this moment, 
my life seems like a dream. The great thoroughfare of this city, 

' On Sunday, the i8th of March, iSlo, and by a singular coincidence this sermon 
was preached in St. John's on Sunday, the l8th of March, l86o, the same day of the 
week, the same month, and the same day of the month, just fifty years since. 



History of Trinity Church [i860 



(Broadway), so thronged and bustling, now lined for miles with 
splendid dwellings, and costly stores, the pride of our people, and the 
admiration of strangers, was then, except to a small extent, not even a 
regulated street, but crossed a little beyond the Hospital by an elevated 
fort, built in the Revolutionary War, in which, with childish curiosity 
and painful recollections, I witnessed, with a multitude of others, a 
public execution in 1797. 

"The plot of ground forming St. John's Park, a breathing-spot 
amidst the confinement and suffocation of a crowded city, a picture of 
repose and rural beauty amidst noise and confusion, a landscape on a 
miniature scale, tastefully adorned with shrubs and trees, some of 
which, from their size and stateliness, might be supposed to have 
sprung up before I was born, 1 nevertheless remember when it was a 
naked and sandy plain. In the intermediate space between this spot 
and Broadway, there was an extensive meadow, or wild morass, serv- 
ing as a resort, in winter for skaters, and at other seasons for gunners, 
and which, though at this time so valuable, was then regarded as ut- 
terly worthless. On the other side of the city, in what is now called 
East Broadway, opposite to the house in which I lived in early child- 
hood, near Chatham Square, there was only to be seen for a long dis- 
tance a succession of green fields, with rail fences, unbroken by a 
single dwelling. From these points both on the East and West, there 
was nothing North of them, with the exception of a few scattered 
buildings, but a rural suburb, consisting of kitchen gardens and coun- 
try seats, the sites of which it could never have been thought would be 
so completely blotted out and forgotten as they have been by the 
marvellous encroachments of this great city. 

" In fact, there is one curious circumstance which I distinctly 
remember, that will indicate the narrow limits to which it was then 
confined. A younger brother of mine was lost on the 4th of July, on 
the Battery, and the town crier was sent out to find him. 

" The changes in the state and condition of our Church are not 
less remarkable than those which have taken place in other respects in 
the city at large. Almost within the reach of my own recollection it 
was a unit, comprehending one parish alone. Trinity Church with its 
Chapels, St. George's and St. Paul's, and served by only four clergy- 
men, the Rector, Bishop Provoost, Dr. Moore, Dr. Beach, and Mr. 
Bisset. The Episcopal system, however, of doctrine, polity, and wor- 
ship, having a strong hold from ancient prescription upon the respect 
of the people in general, and still stronger upon the affections of many, 
as the religion of their fathers, kept pace in its progress with the 



i86o] Visit of Prince of Wales 469 

growth of the city, and in a few years there were added to the number 
by the offsets from Trinity, Christ Church, St. Mark's in the Bowery, 
the Church du St. Esprit, St. John's Chapel, Zion Church, St. Stephen's, 
and Grace. This was the condition of the Church in this city, when I 
was called to the Parish, in 1811." ' 

We come now to an event which completely upset the 
city of New York. In the year i860, Albert Edward, 
Prince of Wales, visited this country, and was received 
with tumultuous demonstrations of respect and affection 
by the citizens of New York and their official represent- 
atives. It being understood that he would be present at 
the Morning Service in Trinity Church on Sunday, Oct. 
14th, the Rector and Vestry took order in preparation for 
the event. A sudden illness prevented Dr. Berrian from 
being present, and the duty of carrying out the arrange- 
ments was finally left to the Rev. Dr. Vinton, Senior 
Assistant at Trinity. An immense throng of people 
eager to see the Prince took possession of Broadway long 
before the appointed hour ; admission to the church was 
by ticket only, and perfect order was preserved by a strong 
force of police. 

The royal party were received at the front entrance, 
by the Wardens, Mr. William E. Dunscomb and Mr. 
Robert Hyslop, each bearing a staff of office, and con- 
ducted to the seats provided for them at the head of the 
south side of the middle aisle. As the Prince and his 
cortege passed up the aisle, the organist, Mr. Henry S. 
Cutler, played a prelude on the great organ. Lord 
Lyons, the Duke of Newcastle, General Bruce, Dr. Ack- 
land, and the Earl of St. Germain were with the Prince. 

The officiants included Dr. Potter, the Provisional 
Bishop of the Diocese ; Dr. De Lancey, Bishop of West- 
ern New York ; Dr. Odenheimer, Bishop of New Jersey ; 

' Semi-Centennial Sermon, pp. io-l6. 



470 History of Trinity Church [i860 

Dr. Talbot, Bishop of the Northwest ; the Rev. Drs. 
Vinton, Ogilby, Creighton, and Payne, and the Rev. J. 
F. Young. Besides these there were present upwards of 
thirty clergy, including Drs. McVickar, Seabury, and three 
from the British provinces. 

The service was mainly choral. The Litany was 
intoned by the Rev. John Freeman Young, the responses 
being chanted. The Nicene Creed was sung to "the 
Gregorian tune 8." The Introit was Marcello's anthem 
from the eighth psalm : " O Lord our Governor, how 
excellent is Thy name." 

The sermon was preached by the Rev. Dr. Vinton 
from Daniel vi., 4, 5. It concluded with this reference to 
the presence of the heir to the throne of England : 

" On this august and honorable occasion let me say to every one, 
the prayer of every American Churchman is to the Lord our heavenly 
Father, high and mighty, King of Kings, Lord of Lords, the only 
Ruler of Princes, and Fountain of all goodness, that he would bless 
Victoria, Queen of Great Britain, the Prince of Wales, the Prince 
Consort, and all the royal family; that He would enrich them with 
His heavenly grace, prosper them with all happiness and bring them 
to His everlasting Kingdom; and let the lesson of this sermon be to 
each and every one — Be thou pious and faithful; be thou a man, a 
man of honesty, industry, uprightness and prayer; be thou a whole 
man — a man of true integrity of character, a Christian man, a Church- 
man; so that it may be said of each of us that there can he found none 
occasion against us except it be for the law of our God. And may 
God graciously visit on all of us the excellent spirit of His servant 
Daniel, for the sake of His Son, Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory and 
power and might and dominion world without end." 

After the sermon the Gloria in Excelsis was sung, ap- 
propriate Collects were read by the Rev. Dr. Creighton, 
and the Benediction was pronounced by the Provisional 
Bishop. 

A Prayer-book provided by the Vestry for the Prince 



i86o] Visit of Prince of Wales 471 



is thus described in a contemporary account. It was 
" bound in red morocco, of royal octavo size, and magnifi- 
cently embellished ; the gold clasp alone, on which was 
engraved the Prince's plumes with the motto ' Ich Dien^ 
having cost $250.00." 

On the inside of the cover was another plume inlaid 
with gold, and on the richly embossed fly leaf was the follow- 
ing inscription in letters of gold tinted with various colors : 

"To His Royal Highness, 

Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, 

from 

The Corporation of Trinity Church, New York, 

in memory of the Munificence of the 

Crown of England, 

Nineteenth Sunday after Trinity, 

A. D. i860." 

On this occasion the choir of Trinity Church appeared 
for the first time in surplices. The men and boys had 
been transferred, some years before, from the organ gallery 
at the east end to the chancel, where they occupied 
benches, and presented a motley array of secular costume, 
in frock-coats, jackets, and garments of divers colors and 
patterns, with variegated neckties. A full set of vestments, 
presented by a generous layman, had been carefully put 
away in the sacristy, objection being made by certain in- 
fluential members of the Parish to their use. When, 
however, it was known that " His Royal Highness, Albert 
Edward, Prince of Wales," would visit the church, a self- 
constituted delegation from the Vestry, consisting of 
General Dix and one other member of that body, called 
on the venerable Rector, and conjured him to allow the 
choir to be " decently habited " on that occasion, lest the 
Prince and his companions should be provoked to derisive 
laughter at the sight of the motley crowd of singers, and 



472 History of Trinity Church [i860 

scandal be thereby brought upon the Parish. The Rector 
gave his consent, just for that once ; and the vestments 
were brought forth with joy. Once on, they were never 
removed, for the sight of the secular costume could not 
again be endured by persons who had seen the effect of 
the proper ecclesiastical habit. And so it fell out that we 
were indebted to one of the royal family of England for the 
advantage and enjoyment of our surpliced choir. 

Unfortunately, this occasion did not pass without some 
untoward circumstances. The absence of the Rector was 
a misfortune. The Assistant Ministers at Trinity Church 
appear to have taken order, in the exuberance of high 
spirits and no doubt with the best intentions, for the in- 
troduction of certain things not contemplated by the 
Rector and the Vestry. Thus, for instance, ignoring the 
preparation of the Prayer-book to which reference has 
been already made, they went to the trouble and expense 
of another, as their private gift to the Prince. It was of 
pocket size, " richly bound in brown Russia leather, secured 
with silver clasps adorned with the Royal Arms, and 
having the edges of the leaves embossed with gold, silver, 
and ultramarine. On the inside of the cover was the 
Royal Crown, encircled with the garter bearing the motto : 
Honi soit qui mal y pense ; and on the gorgeous fly-leaf 
was the inscription : 

" To His Royal Highness 

The Prince of Wales, 

From Francis Vinton, D.D., 

Frederic Ogilby, D.D., 

As a Memorial of the Nineteenth Sunday 

after Trinity, October 14, 

i860." 

Thus it will be seen that the distinguished visitor was 
more than sufficiently provided with Prayer-books. What 



i86i] Death of Bishop Onderdonk 473 



other things the Assistants at Trinity did on their own 
motion, and without authority from the Rector, deponent 
saith not. But it is evident, from subsequent proceedings 
in the Vestry, that they were regretted as having made an 
impression on the public not gratifying to the Corpora- 
tion. At the meeting of the Vestry held November 12th, 
the following report was presented : 

" The Committee of Arrangements appointed at an informal meet- 
ing of the Vestry, in reference to the proposed attendance of His 
Royal Highness, the Prince of Wales, at Trinity Church, on the Sunday 
he was to pass in the city, presented a report detailing the proceedings 
of the committee and of the Rector in the performance of their duty, 
and shewing that the arrangements of the Committee and of the Rector 
which if carried out would have given soberness and dignity to that 
interesting occasion were so thwarted in many essential respects, in 
spirit if not in letter, as to lead very naturally to such strictures both 
in the religious and secular press as ought never to have been pro- 
voked: affecting not only the parties concerned, but subjecting also 
this venerable Corporation to misapprehension, popular prejudice, and 
unmerited abuse, for occurrences in which it had no share, and which 
with zealous apprehension and prudent forecast it earnestly though 
vainly endeavoured to prevent. 

"Resolved, That the open disregard of the counsel and authority of 
the Rector and the unanimous wishes of the Committee and Vestry, is 
viewed by this body with unfeigned regret and decided reprobation. 

" Resolved, That as the peace, order, and well-being of the Parish 
depend in a great measure upon the harmonious working of all its parts 
and a due submission to its Head, that this Vestry deem it their deter- 
mination to sustain the Rector in the just exercise of his official rights 
and in matters pertaining to themselves to protect their own dignity 
and maintain their self-respect. 

"Resolved, That a copy of these Resolutions be transmitted to the 
Rev. Dr. Vinton." 

The schoolhouse for Trinity Chapel was finished and 
occupied in the fall of 1861. 

The death of Dr. Onderdonk, the suspended Bishop 
of New York, upon April 30, 1861, aroused universal 



474 History of Trinity Church [1862 

sorrow. For sixteen years he had lived in retirement, 
bowed down under the weight of a sentence by his brother 
Bishops which was believed by many to be of doubtful 
validity. The funeral was held from Trinity Church, on 
Tuesday, May 7th. Although the day was gloomy, clergy 
and laity came from far and near to pay the last token of 
respect to one who had been their Bishop and their friend. 
In the course of the service, the Rev. Dr. Vinton read a 
statement of his last visit to the Bishop, when lying at 
the point of death, in which he asserted his innocence of 
the crimes laid to his charge. The sermon, from the text, 
" He was a burning and a shining light," was by the Rev. 
Dr. Samuel Seabury, who for many years was the pastor 
of the Bishop. The burial was in Trinity Cemetery. 

Visitors to Trinity Church still view with admiration 
the monument of Bishop Onderdonk, in the north sacristy, 
erected by his devoted friends Mrs. Ludlow and Miss 
Willink. 

It is an altar tomb of Gothic design, with the recum- 
bent effigy of the Bishop, in episcopal robes. Above, a 
triplet window of richly painted glass, with portraits of his 
three predecessors in the Diocese of New York, sheds a 
softened light upon the memorial of one who did and 
suffered much for the Church of God.^ 

The hour drew near when the venerable Rector was to 
be released from his earthly labors. In April, i860, Mrs. 
Berrian died. From that time his health steadily declined. 
He shut himself up in the Rectory, rarely receiving vis- 
itors, the oversight and administration of the Parish being 
left to the Assistant Rector. During the summer of 1862 
he failed rapidly, a fall which he had in the previous year 

' For a full account of the funeral, the sermon, a sketch of Bishop Onderdonk, 
and a consideration of his suspension, see Obsequies of the Rt. Rev. Benjamin T. 
Onderdonk, New York, 1861. A large edition of the sermon was printed by the Cor- 
poration of Trinity Church. 




-. /V,..^.,^ ^.rf^— ^-^''■' ^ 

(^ y4^^^^ (5Ai«r , ,>y<€^^ 












i862] Death of Dr. Berrian 475 



aggravating the symptoms of growing weakness. After 
passing the autumn quietly at home, he contracted a cold, 
which developed into a serious and fatal attack, to which 
he succumbed. On the morning of Friday, November 
7th, a heavy snowstorm began, the precursor of foul 
weather, which lasted several days. The night set in 
wild and dark, with driving snow and hail. That evening, 
at twenty minutes before 8 o'clock, the soul departed. 

The funeral was held in Trinity Church, on Monday, 
November loth, at 3 o clock in the afternoon. The 
church was filled with parishioners, and the clergy of New 
York and other dioceses. 

The burial service was begun by the Rev. Dr. Haight, 
who said the opening sentences as the procession ad- 
vanced to the chancel. The pall-bearers were : the Rev. 
Drs. John McVickar, William A. Muhlenberg, Samuel 
Seabury, Samuel R. Johnson, Evan M. Johnson, and the 
Rev. Lot Jones. The anthem was sung by the surpliced 
choir. The Lesson was read by the Rev. Dr. Higbee. 
The Committal was pronounced by the Bishop of the 
Diocese, Dr. Potter, and the prayers were said by the 
Rev. Dr. Vinton. 

The burial was in the family vault in St. Mark's 
churchyard. The Rev. Dr. Morgan, of St. Thomas' 
Church, and the Rev. Mr. Weston accompanied the 
mourners to the grave. Appropriate Collects were said 
by Dr. Morgan and the Benediction pronounced by Mr. 
Weston. 

Having given facsimiles of the hand-writing of previous 
Rectors we here reproduce a letter from Dr. Berrian to 
Mrs. W. R. Whittingham. Her husband, who was after- 
wards Bishop of Maryland, was at that time Rector of St. 
Luke's Church, New York. 

On the evening of the same day, Monday, Nov. 10th, 



476 History of Trinity Church [1862 

the Vestry of Trinity Church held their stated meeting, 
and elected the Rev. Morgan Dix as successor to Dr. 
Berrian in the Rectorship. On the following day the Induc- 
tion took place in the porch of Trinity Church at 2 o'clock 
post meridiem, in the presence of a few witnesses. This 
ancient ceremony, a tradition from Colonial days, is ob- 
served in our parish only. The small company assembled 
in the Vestry. The four sextons of the parish, each bearing 
his mace, passed down the south aisle, immediately fol- 
lowed by the Senior Warden, escorting the Rector and fol- 
lowed by the Vestry and the few spectators of the scene. 
Passing out of the Church by the south porch, they pro- 
ceeded to the front door, which was locked, the key being 
in the lock. The Rector having placed his hand upon 
the key, the Senior Warden read a document giving to the 
Rector possession of the four churches and the temporal- 
ities of the Parish. The keys of the several churches were 
then delivered by him to the sextons, the front door was 
unlocked, the procession entered, and passed in, and so 
the ceremony ended. 

On Sunday, Nov. i6th, being the Twenty-second after 
Trinity, Mr. Dix preached a sermon in Trinity Church in 
memory of the late Rector. The text was Romans xiv., 
12: "So then every one of us must give account of himself 
to God." From that sermon the following extracts are 
made : 

" The sign of mourning is here, upon the ancient Church; and not 
here alone, but throughout the Parish. Death has set up the standard 
of his power; we hear the footsteps of his passage through the midst. 
The Hand of God has been put forth; the Giver hath taken away, the 
Sender hath removed; and that, in silence, almost, and in haste. 
How like a dream appear the scenes through which we have been 
passing! Those stormy days, in the falling of the leaf. The early 
and untimely snow, piled on the trees still green. One of those cold 
storms which come, at intervals of many years, too early in the sea- 



1862] Sermon by Morgan Dix 477 



son, by far; which bring to our doors, prematurely, and ere we are 
ready to admit it, the chill of unwelcome Winter. Then, in the midst 
of the darkened air, and of the drifting snow, and of the night; in the 
fore-front of such a storm, which it turned into the storm of death; 
passed the Dread Presence through the midst, the shadow falling sud- 
denly, the stillness of dissolution beneath the labouring skies. In such 
a night of storm, the spirit of one with whom we all had to do returned 
to God Who gave it. Then two days and two nights more of wind 
and hail, of snow and sleet; and at the end of the third day, the sun- 
shine again. But yet, the sunshine, slant and low, towards the setting; 
kindling a glory upon the world far and near; shining through the 
rubied windows of the Parish Church, resting in the tracery of their 
painted tops, and falling broad across the chancel, and looking in 
upon the silent multitude, where, around a bier, and on either side of 
a coffin there rose and swelled the cadences of the Office for the 
Dead and the diapasons of the grave. 

"Since these scenes are fresh in the mind of all; and as I now ad- 
dress you for the first time since their enactment, let me bid you to 
reflection awhile, especially with reference to him who has been called 
away. 

"He was a man, not of this age and generation, but of the past. 
He had been left behind by the long wave of time. That wave has 
borne the world and the century onward upon its ample breast; and us 
with itself; but it left him in its wake. Not as the tide leaves the 
fragments of a wreck, to the darkness and forgetfulness of an ebbing 
into everlasting night: but he was left standing like a clear beacon- 
light on the shore of another period: as a beacon is passed by travel- 
lers on their rapid course, but still descried by them, shining on them, 
but less distinctly, as they are hurried away. Such to us, are the good men 
of the past; and such did he seem to be. A man, not of this age, but 
of other days. A friend to us, in our times; but latterly not often 
seen among us. Some of you, indeed, never saw him; many of you 
remember him but imperfectly; of those to whom he ministered when 
first he was called to this parish, scarce one is left. He said, from 
this pulpit, in his sermon preached on the soth anniversary of his en- 
trance into this field, " I am a stranger among my own people." Yes, 
always, to the Eye of God; of late, visibly, to our eyes; a stranger and 
a pilgrim on the earth. Such is the common lot of man; such there- 
fore, was his. But yet, what reverence was there about that venerable 
head! It seemed to grace the old Church well. When we, so much 
his juniors in years, entered here to minister, it was a wholesome contrast 



478 History of Trinity Church [1862 

to see him come in among us. His white hairs were the sign of old 
age, set forth in our busy and restless present. His voice was like a 
call to us from the past, reminding us that our time must also come; a 
call which we heard more faintly, till it was swallowed up in silence 
and lost to the ears, which hear it no more. 

"Yet, though left behind by the age, his sympathies with it were 
strong. While he had the strength, in his own time, no worker more 
laborious, more faithful than he. After bodily infirmity had cut 
off the old man from active duty, in spirit and in heart he was still 
young. He felt the deepest interest in all that was occurring around 
him. He knew whatever was done in his parish. As for that parish, 
he loved it and gave himself for it. He knew how the Lord's work 
here was going on. His mind directed; his will determined. His 
counsels were not wanting; his influence always great, was felt, and 
powerfully, up to the very moment when for him the curtain fell upon 
these scenes forever. 

" He was jealous, and wisely, of prerogatives. He exercised his 
office, to the last moment of his ability. He never called on any other 
to divide the labor; rarely even to lessen it: when assistance was prof- 
fered, he declined it, in effect, if not in terms. This grew not of that 
weakness common to old age, which seems to dread admitting the 
failure of the vital powers. But it was the result of the long habit of 
Duty. He had been a wonderfully active man; a marvellously industri- 
ous man. What a weight of care and responsibility did he bear! and 
how well he bore it! The habits of half a century and more, are not 
readily thrown off. Place in such hands as his the symbol of office; or 
the implements of useful labor; and the hands will hold them firm, to 
the hour, when Death, advancing, lays hold of the fingers, and gently 
but inexorably disengages the grasp. It was so with him who is gone. 
He never dreamed of laying down his office; in advancing infirmity, 
he exercised it; almost to the very last. He died, sitting in his chair. 
He had such wonderful recuperative power, that he never thought of 
giving in. He met the Enemy face to face; not even lying down when 
that Enemy was before him full in view. If he could have stood up, I 
believe he would have met him so. 

Do not lay this to the score of any unwillingness to depart. There 
was no fear of that, so far as we have heard or suspect. May we all be 
as ready to die, as was that aged servant of God ! He had set his 
house in order, long before the appointed time. Six or seven years 
ago, a friend called to see him. He was found engaged in carefully 
arranging his papers. He showed that visitor file after file of letters. 



1862] Sermon by Morgan Dix 479 

documents, memoranda, and the like, most of them fairly copied out 
all orderly arranged, and marked for reference. These, he said, were 
the records of his active, official life. He had, thus early, made ready 
to go out of the world. He had finished that work. He looked to his 
departure, as calmly, as a soldier to the striking of the tent ere he 
marches on. For him, years ago, the earthly house of this tabernacle 
was seen as if dissolved: but the sight did not affect him, for he knew 
of that building of God, that house not made with hands, eternal in the 
heavens. When the order arrived, he was ready. " Arise, let us go 
hence," said the spirit. And straightway, as in a moment, he had 
obeyed and was gone. 

" He died, of a wild and wintry night, at 20 minutes before 8, or 
thereabouts, in the evening of Friday, the 7th of November. He de- 
parted, as it were, in the fore-front of that storm. Not that there was 
any storm within. His decease was so tranquil, that they who were 
watching could not discern, precisely, at what moment it occurred. 
They thought that it was at the hour I have mentioned: but no one 
could be sure. No one knew which breath was his last, save the min- 
istering spirits of God. But, when the tempest was rising high through 
the heavens, his soul was not, for God had called it to Himself. In 
the Place of Departed Spirits, all is still. 

" There shall I bathe my weary soul 
In seas of heavenly rest; 
And not a wave of trouble roll 
Across my peaceful breast." 



APPENDIX. 



VOL. IV.— 31. 481 



APPENDIX. 



CONTENTS. 



II. 

III. 

IV. 
V. 

VI. 

VII. 
VIII. 



IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 
XIII. 
XIV. 

XV.- 
XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 
XIX.- 

XX. 



— Remarks on the Monu.ment to Bishop Hobart 
Sculptured i;y Ball Hughes . . . . 

— Resolutions on the Duties and Precedence of 
Assistant Ministers ...... 

— Sketch of the Rev. Edward Young Higbee, D.D. 

— Sketch of the Rev. Henry Anthon, D.D. . 

— Letter from Colonel Green Giving Details 
about the Rev. Dr. Johnston .... 

— Memorial to Set Apart the Congregation of St. 
Paul's Chapel as an Independent Parish . 

— The Act of 1841 ....... 

— Bibliography of the Controversy and Attack 
UPON Trinity Church, 1856-1857, with Ex- 
tracts ........ 

— The Consecration of Trinity Church, a.d. 1S46 

— Sketch of the Rev. Martin P. Parks, D.D. 

— Inscriptions on the Shields in St. Cornelius': 
Chapel ... .... 

—Sketch of the Rev Benjamin I. Haight, D.D. 

— The Sermons of the Rev. Henry Barclay, D.D 

—The Society Library ..... 

—The Catechetical School .... 

—The First Appearance of a Surpliced Choir in 
Trinity Church ...... 

—Statement of Grants, Gifts, and Loans Made by 
Trinity Church ...... 

—The Clergy of Trinity Parish, a.d. 1697-A.D. 1905 

—Wardens and Vestrymen of Trinity Parish, a.d 
1697-A.D. 1905 ...... 

—List of Works Referred to in Part IV. 
Index ........ 



48s 



492 
494 



500 



502 
509 



510 
517 
526 

529 
53° 
532 
533 
534 

534 

535 
564 

572 
583 
591 



483 



I 



REMARKS ON THE MONUMENT TO BISHOP HOBART, 
SCULPTURED BY BALL HUGHES. 

This is a mural structure of about twenty feet in height, executed in 
white Italian marble, and situated in the recess of the chancel of Trinity 
Church, New York. 

In commenting upon the merits of this work as a specimen of fine 
art, it will not be necessary to enter into detailed descriptions of the 
monument. We confine ourselves to such reflections as have resulted 
from a crucial examination of the sculptured group, consisting of two 
figures in alto relievo, somewhat larger than life, and which form the 
principal and most interesting portion of the monument. 

The Bishop, which is the most prominent figure, is represented in 
the last moments of existence. He is seated in a chair in a reclining 
posture, with his head supported by the left arm of a female figure 
standing beside him, and said to personify Religion. With her right 
hand she points to a cross seen floating in the distant sky amidst 
a pencil of rays, intended, we presume, to represent the Divine light. 
Such is the general conception of the group, which is copied from the 
monument erected to Mrs. Howard, in the church at Corby, England, 
some forty years ago. It is a design of Nollekins, an English sculptor, 
who, like all his British cotemporaries, never knew how to appreciate, 
much less to imitate, the style and beauty of Greek compositions. In 
all his works, and they are numerous, we see nothing of classic purity 
and antique grace, and it is much to be regretted that the design 
before us has been transferred to these shores; or that on its new 
dress, although it is here exhibited as the pure offering of other hands, 
it should have made such feeble approaches to a chaster and nobler 
style. On the first view of the monument, after entering the church, 
the effect is picturesque and imposing, and the whole group imparts a 
favourable impression. But as we approach the work, and begin to 
contemplate the author's intention, in its composition and design, we 
find him failing in his object at every step. Upon the features of the 
485 



486 History of Trinity Church 

dying Prelate there is not a trace or expression that wears the impress 
of a devout heart. He is pointing to the cross of Jesus as the door of 
Hope, yet no emotion of the soul is portrayed on the face, lighting it 
up with a believer's joy, and his inward assurance of resting soon in 
the realms of peace and everlasting beatitude. No, not a line nor 
trait is given to the man of God that responds to the uplifted hand of 
Religion; not even an eyelid of the departing saint is raised heaven- 
ward, nor the joint of a finger moved. All is dumb, motionless and 
void of sentiment. 

The left arm is too short for the figure; and it hangs withal so 
tame, so lifeless and perpendicular from the shoulder joint as to 
render the effect very disagreeable. Both the hands of the Bishop are 
altogether too fleshy and full-veined for a person in the latest stage of 
a fatal disease; and the same may be said of the legs, so far as they are 
uncovered. 

The high praise bestowed upon this work by the daily press was 
certainly unmerited, and calculated grossly to mislead the public mind. 
The fulsome puffs in the newspapers were truly sickening. Indeed, 
the copious nonsense and misstatements contained in one of the enco- 
miastic articles, which were bestowed upon this group, induce us to 
think that the writer had never seen the monument ; after telling us 
the height of the monument and figure, he says, " The whole subject is 
cut out of a solid block of the finest Carrara marble." 

But what will the reader think and say when we come to tell him 
that this same '■'■solid block" consists of many separate pieces, joined 
and stuccoed together! Both hands of the female figure are reported 
cut separate and stuck on, and also the left hand of the Bishop. We 
consider this a very paltry system of working out a group in relief, 
yet we should never have dissected these unnatural joints had the 
would-be connoisseurs des beaux arts kept truth in view. However, 
Mr. Hughes has shown himself to be a faithful student of Nollekins, 
who was famous for making monumental statues and groups of several 
pieces of marble. Cunningham, his historian, says, " There is sufficient 
proof that Nollekins frequently made up his monuments from many 
smal