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Full text of "History of the Peloponnesian war"

THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY" JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 
EDITED BY 

fT. E. PAGE, C.H., LiTT.D. 
tE. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. tW. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, M.A. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.r.hist.soc. 



THUCYDIDES 

IV 




ALCIBIADES 

MUSeO CHIARAMONTI 
ROME 



THUCYDIDES 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
CHARLES FORSTER SMITH 

OF THB UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 



IN FOUR VOLUMES 
IV 



HISTORY OF THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR 
BOOKS VII AND VIII 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MCMLVIU 



First printed 1923 
Reprinted 1935, 1953, 1958 



->^ 



iLigRARv); 



Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS 



PAOE 



Frontispiece: Alcibiades .... Facing Title 

BOOK VII 1 

BOOK VIII 133 

INDEX 395 

MAPS : 

Retreat of the Athenians : At end 

Siege of Sjracuse „ 

Aegean Sea „ 

Peiraeus „ 

Battle of Cynossema , 



THUCYDIDES 
BOOK VII 



ΘΟΥΚΥΔΙΔΟΥ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΩΝ 



Ι. Ό δε Γύλί7Γ7Γ09 teal ό ΥΙυθην €Κ του Ύάραν- 
τος, eVel βττβσκεύασαν τα? ναυ<;, τταρίττΧβυσαν €<? 
Αοκρους τον•^ Έττιζεφυρίους. και •πυνθανόμ€νοί 
σαφβστβρον ήΒΐ] οτι ου παντβΧώς πω άττο- 
τετείχίσ/χει^αί αϊ Χυράκουσαί ecaiv, αλλ' en 
οΙόν re κατά τα? Έττίττολά? στρατιά άφικομ€ΐ>υυς 
eaeXOeiv, ίβουΧβύοντο etV ev he^ia Χαβύντβς 
την Έ,ικβΧίαν διακινδυνβύσωσιν εσττΧεΰσαι, etV 
iv αριστερά e? Ίμέραν ττρώτον ττλεύσαί/τβς καΐ 
αυτούς τ€ εκείνους καϊ στρατιαν αΧΧην ττροσ- 
Χαβόντα, ο&9 αν τΓβίθωσι, κατά yP]V εΧθωσιν. 

2 καϊ eSo^ev αύτοΐς evl της Ιμέρας ττΧβΐΐ', άλΧως 
Τ€ καϊ των Αττικών τεσσάρων νέων ούττω 
τταρουσων εν τω '^η'^/ιω, ας ο Νικίας όμως, 
ττυνθανόμενος αυτούς εν ΑοκροΙς είναι, αττ- 
εστειΧεν. φθύσαντες δε την φυΧακην ταυτην 
ττεραιοϋνται Βια του πορθμού, και σχ^οντες 
'Ρη'γίω καϊ Μεσσί/ι^τ; άφικνοΰνται ες Ίμεραν. 

3 εκεί 8ε οντες τους τε Ίμεραίους έπεισαν ξυμπολε- 
μεΐν, και αυτούς τε επεσθαι και τοις εκ των νέων 



THUCYDIDES 
BOOK VII 

I. Gylippus and Pythen, after refitting their ships, 
sailed from Tarentuin along the coast to Epizephy- 
rian Locri ; and receiving ηοΛν more positive informa- 
tion that Syracuse Avas not yet completely invested, 
but that it was still possible to come with an army 
and enter it by way of Epipolae, they deliberated 
whether they should risk sailing into the harbour, 
keeping Sicily on the right, or, keeping it on the 
left, should first sail to Himera and then, after having 
added to their forces the Himeraeans themselves 
and such others as they might persuade, should 
proceed overland. They decided to sail to Himera, 
especially since the four Athenian ships — which 
Nicias did after all ^ despatch when he learned that 
the enemy's shij)s were at Locri — had not yet arrived 
at Rhegium. They succeeded in crossing the strait 
before the arrival of this watch-squadron, and after 
touching at Rhegium and Messene, arrived at 
Himera. While there they persuaded the Hime- 
raeans to help them in the war, not only by going 
on the expedition themselves, but also by furnishing 

' Nicias had paid little attention to the first reports of the 
approach of Gylippus, thinking tliat he was on a privateering 
mission rather than on one of war (vi. civ. 3). 

3 



THUCYDIDES 

των σφβτβρων vavrac^ όσοι μη el^^ov οττλα 
τταρασγ^βΐν (τά? γαρ vaii<i άνζίΧκυσαν iv Ιμέρα), 
και τους ^€\ινουντίου<; 'ΤΓβμ•^αντ€<; cKeXevov άττ- 

4 ανταν στρατιά e? τι 'χ^ωρίον. ττεμ-^ειν δε τιν 
αύτοΐς υττεσ'χοντο στρατιαν ου ττοΧλην καΐ οι 
ΓεΧωοι καΐ των ΧικβΧών τινβς, οι ττολυ ττρο- 
θυμότ€ρον ττροσγωρζΐν έτοιμοι ήσαν του τ€ 
^ΑρχωνίΒου νεωστί τεθνηκότος, ος των ταύττ] 
Χικ€\ών βασιΧβύων τινών και ων ουκ άΒύνατο'ζ 
τοί9 Άθηναίοις φίλο? ην, και του ΤυΧίτητου €Κ 

5 ΑακεΒαίμονος ττροθύμως Βοκοΰΐ'το<; ηκ€ΐν. καΐ 6 
μ€ν ΓύΧηττΓος άνάΧαβων των re σφβτβρων ναυτών 
και βτΓΐβατών τοι^ς ώπΧισμύνους έτττακοσίους 
μάΧιστα, 'Ιμ€ραίυυ<; 8e οπΧιτα<{ και Λ/τιλού? 
ζυναμφοτ€ρου<; 'χ^ιΧίους καΐ ίττττεας €κατον καΐ 
Ί,ίΧινουντίων τέ τινας ψιΧούς και ίτητέας καΐ 
ΤεΧώων οΧίΎου<ί, Έ,ικεΧών τ€ €ς ΎΐΧίους τού<; 
τταντας, εχωρβι ττρος τα? Συρακουσας. 

II. Οί δ' €κ της ΑβυκάΒος Κορίνθιοι ταΐς τ€ 
αΧΧαις ναυσιν ώς ΐΐγ^ον τ άγιους έβοηθουν και 
Toyy6Xo<;, el? τών Κορινθίων άργ^όντων, μια νηι 
τβΧβυταΐος ορμηθείς πρώτος μεν άφικνεΐται ες 

2 τας ^υρακουσας, oXiyov Βε ττρο ΓυΧίπττου' και 
καταΧαβών αυτούς ττερί άπaXXayής του ττοΧέ- 
μου μέΧΧοντας εκκΧησιάσειν ΒιεκώΧυσέ τβ και 
τταρεθάρσυνε, Xεyωv ότι νηές τ€ άΧΧαι ετι 
ττροσττΧέουσι και ΓύΧηττΓος ό ΚΧεανΒρίΒου 

3 ΑακεΒαιμον'ιων άποστειΧαντων άρ'χ^ων. και οί 
μεν Χυρακόσιοι ειτερρώσΐΐησάν τ€ και τω Τν- 
Χίπττω εύθίις ττανστρατια ώς άτταντησόμενοι 
εζηΧθον ήΒη yap και βγγι)? οντά 'ρσθάνοντο 



BOOK VII. I. 3-11. 3 

arms for such of the crews of their ships as had none 
(for their ships they had beached at Himera), and 
also sent a request to the Selinuntians to meet them 
at a certain place with all their forces. A small 
body of troops was also promised them by the 
Geloans and some of the Sicels, who were now ready 
to join them with far greater alacrity, both because 
of the recent death of Archonidas, who, being king 
of certain Sicel tribes of that region and a man of 
influence, had been a friend of the Athenians, and 
also because Gylippus liad apparently come from 
Lacedaemon full of zeal. So Gylippus, taking of his 
own seamen and of the marines those that were 
equipped with arms, about seven hundred, of Hime- 
raean hoplites and light-armed troops together one 
thousand and one hundred cavalry, of the Selinun- 
tians some light-armed troops and cavalry, a few 
Geloans, and of the Sicels about one thousand in all, 
advanced against Syracuse. 

II. Meanwhile the Corinthians had put to sea from 
Leucas with the rest of their ships and were bring- 
ing aid as fast as they could ; indeed, Gongylus, one 
of the Corinthian commanders, though he had set 
out last with a single ship, was the first to arrive at 
Syracuse, being a little ahead of Gylippus. Finding 
the Syracusans on the point of holding an assembly 
to discuss the abandonment of the war, he prevented 
the meeting and encouraged them, saying that not 
only were still other ships about to arrive, but also 
Gylippus son of Cleandridas, who had been sent by 
the Lacedaemonians to assume the command. The 
Syracusans were encouraged, and at once went out 
with their whole army to meet Gylippus ; for they 
were informed that he was already near. He, after 



THUCYDIDES 

αυτόν, ο δε Ίετάς ^ τότ^ τ€Ϊχ^ο<; ev τ^ παρόΒω 
των Έ.ικ€\ών εΧων και ξυνταξάμενος ως is μάχην 

i άφικν€Ϊταί €<; τας Έττ^ττολα?' καΐ άναβας κατά 
τον ΚύρύηΧον, rjirep και οι Άθηταΐοι το ττρώτον, 
ξ-χ^ώρει μετά των ^νρακοσίων ivl το τείχ^ισμα 
των 'Αθηναίων, ετυχ^ε Be κατά τούτο καιρού 
εΧθων ev φ επτά μεν η οκτω σταδίων η8η εττ- 
ετετεΧεστο τοις Άθηναίοις ες τον p^yav Χιμενα 
SlttXouv τείχος, ττΧην κατά βραχύ τι το ττρος 

5 την θάΧασσαν' τούτο δ' ετι ωκοΒόμονν. τω Βε 
άΧΧω του κύκΧου προς τον Ύρώ^ιΧον εττΐ την 
ετεραν ΘάΧασσαν ΧΊΘοι τε τταραβεβΧημενοι τω 
πΧεονι ήΒη ήσαν και εστίν ά και ημίεργα, τά Βε 
και εξειρ'^ασ μένα κατεΧείττετο. τταρά τοσούτον 
μεν Έ,υράκουσαι ηΧθον κινΒύνου. 

III. Οί δε 'Αθηναίοι αίφνιΒιως τού τε ΓυΧίπ- 
ΤΓου καΐ των Έυρακοσίων σφίσιν εττιοντων 
εθορυβήθησαν μεν το ττρώτον, τταρετάζαντο Βε. 
ό Βε θεμενος τά οττΧα ε-/-/ύς κήρυκα ΤΓροσττέμτΓει 
αυτοίς XeyovTa, ει βούΧονται εξιεναι εκ της 
ΈικεΧίας πέντε ημερών Χαβόντες τά σφετερα 

2 αυτών, έτοιμος είναι σπένΒεσθαι. οι Βε εν 
οΧι^ωρια τε εποιούντο καΐ ούΒεν άποκρινάμενοι 
απέπεμψαν, και μετά τούτο άντιπαρεσκευά- 

3 ζοντο άΧΧιίΧοις ώς ες μάχην. καΐ 6 ΤύΧιππος 
όρων τους Έυρακοσίους ταρασσομένους και ου 
ραΒ'ιως ξυντασσομένους, επανή^ε το στρατόπεΒον 
ες την εύρυχωρίαν μάΧΧον. και ό Νί/ί/ας ουκ 
επή'γε τούς 'Αθηναίους, αλλ' ησύχαζε προς τω 

^ 'ΐ6τάϊ, Goeller's correction from Steph. Byz. of uncertain 
MS, readings. 



BOOK VII. II. 3-III. 3 

taking on his way the Sicel fort of letae and 
marshalling his men in readiness for battle, reached 
Epipolae ; and ascending it by way of Euryelus, 
where the Athenians also had made their ascent at 
first,^ he formed a junction \vith the Syracusans and 
advanced against the wall of the Athenians. And 
he ha])pened to have come at the critical moment 
when the double wall ^ of seven or eight stadia in 
extent had already been completed by the Athenians 
down to the Great Harbour, except for a short 
stretch next to the sea, where they were still 
building. As for the rest of the encircling line, 
stones had already been dumped along the greater 
part of the stretch which ran to Trogilus and the 
outer sea, and it was left so, some parts half finished, 
other parts quite finished. So close had Syracuse 
come to destruction. 

III. The Athenians were at first thrown into a 
tumult by the sudden attack of Gylippus and the 
Syracusans, but drew up to meet them. But Gylip- 
pus halted near them under arms and sent forward 
a herald to say that if they were Avilling to quit 
Sicily within five days, taking what belonged to 
them, he was ready to make a truce. They, how- 
ever, treated the messenger with contempt and sent 
him back Λvithout any answer. After this they 
prepared for battle against one another. But Gylip- 
pus, seeing that the Syracusans Avere in a state of 
confusion and could not readily get into line, led his 
troops back into the more open ground. And Nicias 
did not lead the Athenians against him, but kept 

^ c/. VI. xcvii. 2. 
* c/. VI. ciii. 1, 



THUCYDIDES 

kavrov τ€ΐχ«. ώς δ €'^νω ο ΤυΧιτητος ου ττροσ- 
ιόντας αύτού<;, αττηηαη^ την στρατιάν eVi την 
άκραν την Ύβμΐνϊτιν καΧουμένην καΐ αυτού 

4 ηύΧίσαντο. ττ} δ' ίιστεραία ά'^ων την μ€ν πλεί- 
στην της στρατιά<; τταρβταξε προς τα τβί^η των 
^Αθηναίων, δττως μη έττιβοηθοΐεν aWoae, μβρος 
δε τι ττεμψας ττρος το φρούριον το ΑάβΒαΧον 
alpei, και όσους βΧαβεν iv αύτω ττάντας άττ- 
eKTeivev' ην δε ουκ €7Γΐφαν€ς τοις Άθηναίοις το 

5 γ^ωρίον. και τριήρης τη αύτη ημέρα αΚισκεται 
των Αθηναίων υττο των Έ,υρακοσίων εφορμούσα 
τω \ιμ€νι. 

IV. Και μετά ταύτα βτείχιζον οΐ Χυρακόσιοι 
και οι ξύμμαχοι 8ια των ΈπιττοΧων από της 
ττόΧεως άρξάμ€νοι άνω ττρος το eyKUpaiov τείχος 
άττΧούν, οττως οι \\θηναΐθί, el μη 8ύναιντο 

2 κωΧύσαι, μηκετι οίοι τε ωσιν άποτειχισαι. και 
οι τ€ Αθηναίοι άνεβεβήκεσαν ηΒη άνω το επϊ 
θαΧάσση τεΐ'χ^ος έττιτεΧεσαντες, καϊ ο ΤυΧιττ-πος 
{ην 'yap τι τοις ^ Αθηναίο ις τού τείχους ασθενές) 
νυκτός άναΧαβων την στρατιάν εττηει ττρος αυτό. 

3 Οί δ' 'Αθηναίοι (ετυχον yap εξω αύΧιζόμενοι) ώς 
ησθοντο, άντεττησαν' ό δε γνούς κατά τάχος 
άτΐηηαηε τους σφετερους ττάΧιν. εττοικοΒομή- 
σαντες δε αυτό οί ^Αθηναίοι ύψηΧοτίρον αύτοϊ 
μεν ταύτη εφύΧασσον, τους δε άΧΧους ξυμμάχους 
κατά το άλλο τείχισμα η8η Βιέταξαν ηττερ εμεΧ- 
Χον έκαστοι φρουρεΐν. 

4 Τω δε Nt/cta έΒόκει το ΤΙΧημμύριον ^ καΧούμενον 
τειχίσαι' εστί δε άκρα άντιττέρας της ττόΧεως, 

^ Hude writes ΠΚημύριον >vith C. 



BOOK VII. III. 3-iv. 4 

quiet near his own wall. When Gylippus saw that 
they were not coming up, he led his army offthe field 
to the height called Temenites, and they bivouacked 
there. But on the next day he led out the main 
body of his army and stationed it opposite the Λν3ΐΐ8 
of the Athenians, in order to prevent their sending 
reinforcements to any other point ; then, sending a 
detachment against the fort at Labdalum, he cap- 
tured it and put to death all whom he took in it ; 
for the place (it should be explained) was not within 
sight of the Athenians. On the same day, too, an 
Athenian trireme that was keeping watch at the 
mouth of tlie Great Harbour was captured by the 
Syracusans. 

IV. After this the Syracusans and their allies 
proceeded to build a single wall running upwards 
from the city across Epipolae at an angle with the 
Athenian wall, in order that the Athenians, if they 
could not prevent its completion, might no longer be 
able to wall them off. By this time the Athenians 
had finished their wall next to the sea and had come 
up to the high ground ; and Gylippus, since a certain 
part of the Athenian wall Λvas weak, took his army 
by night and advanced against this. But the Athe- 
nians, who happened to be bivouacking outside the 
walls, perceived this movement and advanced against 
him ; and he, on observing this, quickly led his men 
back again. The Athenians accordingly built this 
part of the wall higher and kept guard there them- 
selves ; but their allies they now disposed along the 
rest of the wall, at the points where they were each 
to keep guard. 

Nicias determined also to fortify the place called 
Plemmyrium, a headland opposite the city, which 



THUCYDIDES 

rjTTep Ίτρουχουσα του /μεγάλοι; Χιμβνος το στόμα 
στ€νον TTOiei, καΐ el τ€ίχ^ισθ€ίη, ραων αύτω 
€φαίΐ'€το η εσκομιΒη των ίττιτηΒβίων βσεσθαι' όι 
βΧίίσσονο^ yap ιτρος τω Χιμύι^ί τω των \υρα- 
κοσίων ζφορμησειν σφΰς, και ουχ ωσττβρ νυν 
€Κ μνχοΰ του Χιμέΐ'ος τας ετταναγωγά? ττοιησε- 
σθαι, ην τι ναυτικω κινωνται. irpoaeiy^e re ηοη 
μάΧλον τω κατά θάΧασσαν ττοΧέμω, ορών τα 
€Κ της 'γης σφίσιν, βττβιΒη ΤύΧιτητος ηκβν, 

5 άνεΧττιστότβρα οντά. Βιακομισας ουν στρατιαν 
και τάς ναΰς έξετβίχισβ τρία φρούρια' και ev 
αύτοις τά τε σκβυη τα ττΧεΐστα βκβιτο και τα 
ττΧοΐα η8η €κεΐ τα με^αΚα όψμβι καΐ αϊ ταχεΓαί 

6 νήες. ώστε καΐ tow ττΧηρωμάτων ού^ ηκιστα 
τότε ττρώτον κάκωσις eyeveTO' τω τβ yap ΰΒατι 
σπανίω -χρώμβνοι καΐ ουκ iyyodev, καΐ €7τι 
φpυyavισμov άμα οττότε e^eXOoiev οι ναΰται, 
ΰττο των ίτητέων των Έυρακοσίων κρατούντων 
της yης Βίζφθβίροντο. τρίτον yap μέρος των 
ΙτΓ-πεων τοις Ένρακοσίοις 8ια τους ev τω YiXyjp- 
μυρίω, "να μη κaκoυpyησovτeς e^ioiev, eVt tjj ev 

7 τω ΌΧυμττιείω ττοΧί-χντ] ετετά^ατο. έττυνθάνβτο 
he και τας Χοιττας των Κορινθίων ναύς ττροσ- 
ττΧεούσας ο οικίας' και Trepirei €ς φυΧακην 
αυτών είκοσι ναΰς, αίς βϊρητο irepi τε Αοκρους 
και Yiiyiov καΐ την ττροσβοΧην της ΧικεΧιας 
ναυΧογ^βΐν αύτάς. 

\. Ό he ΓύΧηττΓος άμα μεν ετείγ^ιζε το 8ια 
των Ε^τητΓοΧών τείχος, τοις Χιθοις ■χρωμενος ους 
οι Άθηΐ'αΐοι ΤΓροτταρεβάΧοντο σφισιν, άμα he 
τταρετασσεν e^άyωv aiel ττρο του τεΐ)(ίσματος 



ΙΟ 



BOOK VII. IV. 4-v. I 

juts out in front of the Great Harbour and makes its 
entrance narrow. If this were fortified^ it seemed to 
him that the bringing in of suppHes would be an 
easier matter ; for the Athenians could keep watch 
upon the harbour of the Syracusans at nearer range, 
and would not, as now, be obliged to j)ut out against 
the enemy from the inner bay of the Great Harbour, 
should they show any activity with their fleet. And 
in general from now on he gave his attention more 
to naval warfare, seeing that matters on land were 
less hopeful for themselves, now that Gylippus had 
come. Accordingly, taking over his ships and some 
troops he built three forts, in which most of the 
stores were deposited ; and the large boats and the 
ships of war were now moored there. And it was 
especially in consequence of this that the condition 
of the crews then first began to decline. For their 
water supply was scanty and not near at hand, and 
at the same time, whenever the sailors went out to 
fetch firewood they suffered heavily at the hands of 
the Syracusan horsemen, who overran the country. 
For the Syracusans had posted a third part of their 
cavalry at the hamlet near the Olympieum on 
account of the troops at Plemmyrium, that these 
might not go out and commit depredations. Mean- 
while Nicias, learning that the rest of the Corinthian 
ships were sailing up, sent twenty vessels to watch 
for them, with orders to waylay them in the neigh- 
bourhood of Locri, Rhegium, or the approach to 
Sicily. 

V. Gylippus, on the other hand, continued to build 
the wall across Epipolae, using the stones which the 
Athenians had previously dumped along the line for 
their own use, and at the same time he continually 

II 



THUCYDIDES 

τους '^.νρακοσίους καΐ τού^ ξυμμάχ^ους' και οι 

2 αθηναίοι άντιτταρετάσσοντο. ίττει^η he eBo^e 
τω ΓυΧίτΓΤΓω καιρο<; elvai, ηρχ€ της €φό8ου' 
και ev χ€ρσΙ γινόμενοι βμάχοντο μεταζυ των 
τειχισμάτων, τ] τή<; Ίτητου των Έ,υρακοσΙων 

3 ούΒβμία χρησις ην. και νικηθ€ντο)ν των Έυρα- 
κοσίων και των ζνμμάχων καΐ νεκρούς νττο- 
σττόνΒονς άνε\ομενων και των 'Αθηναίων τροτταΐον 
στησάντων, 6 ΤύΧιτητος ξυγκαΧεσας το στρά- 
τευμα ουκ εφη το αμάρτημα εκείνων, άΧΧ' εαυτού 
'γενέσθαι' τής yap "τητου και των ακοντιστών 
την ωφεΧίαν τη τάξει, εντός Χιαν των τειχ^ών 
ττοιησας, άφεΧέσθαι• νυν ουν αύθις εττάξειν. 

4 καΐ 8ιανο€Ϊσθαι ούτως εκεΧευεν αυτούς ύ>ς τη 
μεν τταρασκενη ουκ εΧασσον εξοντας, τη δε 
ηνώμη ουκ άνεκτον εσόμενον, ει μη άξιώσουσι 
ΤΙεΧοτΓοννήσιοί τε οντες καΐ Αωριής Ιώνων και 
νησιωτών και ζυ^κΧύΒων άνθρώττων κρατήσαντες 
εξεΧάσασθαι εκ της χώρας. 

VI. Και μετα ταύτα, εττειΒη καιρός ην, αύθις 
έττψ/εν αυτούς, ό δε ^^ικίας και οι \\.θηναΐοι 
νομίζοντες, και ει εκείνοι μη εθεΧοιεν μάχης 
αρχειν, avajKalov είναι σφισι μη ττεριοράν 
ττ αροικοΒο μού μενον το τείχος (ήΒη yap και όσον 
ου τταρεΧηΧνθει την των 'Αθηναίων τού τείχους 
τεΧευτην η εκείνων τείχισις, και ει παρέΧθοι, ταύ- 
τον ηΒη εττοίει αύτοΐς νικάν τε μαχομενοις Βια 
παντός και μηΒ'ε μάχεσθαι], άντεττησαν ούν τοις 
2 Έ,υρακοσίοις. και ό ΥύΧίτητος τους μεν όττΧίτας 

12 



BOOK VII. V. i-vi. 2 

led out the Syracusans and their allies and drew 
them up before the wall ; and the Athenians would 
always draw up to meet them. But Λvhen it seemed 
to Gylippus that the right moment had come, he 
commenced the onset ; and coming to close quarters 
they fought between the walls, where the cavalry of 
the Syracusans was of no use. And when the 
Syracusans and their allies had been defeated and 
had taken up their dead under a truce, and the 
Athenians had set up a trophy, Gylippus called his 
troops together and said that the mistake was not 
theirs but his own, for by arranging his line of battle 
too much betΛveen the walls he had deprived them 
of the benefit of their cavalry and javelin-men. He 
would therefore now lead them on again, and he 
urged them to make up their minds to this — that in 
j)oint of men and equipment they Avould not be 
inferior ; and as for their spirit, it was not to be 
endured if they, being Peloponnesians and Dorians, 
confronting lonians and islanders and a mixed rabble, 
were not going to make it a point of honour to 
conquer them and drive them out of the country. 

VI. After this, when there was a favourable 
opportunity, he led them on again. Now Nicias 
and the Athenians thought that, even if the Syra- 
cusans were unwilling to begin fighting, they them- 
selves could not possibly look idly on while the wall 
was being built past their own — for already the 
enemy's wall had all but passed the end of the 
Athenians' wall, and if it once got by, from then on 
it would be all one to them whether they fought and 
conquered in every battle or did not fight at all — 
accordingly they advanced against the Syracusans. 
And Gylipjius, leading forth his hoplites more outside 

13 



THUCYDIDES 

βζω των τ€ΐχων μα\\ον "η irporepov ττροα^α^ων 
ξυι4μισ^€ν αντοΐς, τους δ' ίττπβας καϊ τους 
άκοντίστας €Κ TrXayiov τάξας των ^Αθηναίων 
κατά την ΐυρυ'χ^ωρίαν, τ] των τ€ΐχων αμφοτέρων 

i α'ι epyaalaL 'έΧη^ον. καϊ ττροσ βα\οντ€ς οί ιττ-π-ης 
Ιν τγι μάχυ τω εύωνύμω κέρα των Αθηναίων, 
OTrep κατ^ αυτούς ην, έτρεψαν καϊ δί' αύτο καϊ το 
άΧΧο στράτευμα νικηθεν ύττο των "Σνρακοσίων 

4 κατηράχθη ες τα τειχίσματα. καϊ τγ ετηούστ) 
νυκτϊ έφθασαν τταροικοΒομήσαντες καϊ τταρεΧ- 
θόντες την των ^Αθηναίων οΙκοΒομίαν, ώστε 
μηκετι μήτε αύτοϊ κωΧύεσθαι υπ αύτων, εκείνους 
τε και τταντάττασιν άττεστερηκέναι, εΐ καϊ κρατοΐεν, 
μη αν ετι σφάς άττοτειχίσαι. 

VII. Μετά δέ τούτο αϊ τε των Κορινθίων νήες 
καϊ ^Αμττρακίωτών καϊ ΑενκαΒίων εσέττΧευσαν αϊ 
ύττόΧοίΤΓΟί ΒώΒεκα, Χαθούσαί την των ^Αθηναίων 
φυΧακήν (τ]ρ~χε δέ αύτων Έ,ρασινίΖης Κ,ορίνθίος), 
καΐ ζυνετείχισαν το Χοιττον τοις "ϊ,υρακοσίοίς ^ 

2 του εηκαρσίου τείχους, καϊ 6 ΤύΧιτττΓος ες την 
άΧΧην 'ΣικεΧίαν επΙ στρατιάν τε ωχετο καϊ ναυτι- 
κην καϊ ττεζικην ζυΧΧεζων, καϊ των ττόΧεων άμα 
ΐΓροσαξόμεΐ'ος εϊ τις ή μη πρόθυμος ην η τταντά- 

3 πασιν ετι άφειστηκει του ττοΧεμου. ττρεσβεις 
τε άΧΧοι των Έυρακοσίων καϊ Κ,ορινθίων ες Αακε- 
8αίμονα καϊ Υίόρινθον άττεστάλησαν, οττως στρατιά 
€τι ττεραιωθη τρόπω φ αν εν όΧκάσιν η πΧοιοις η 
άΧΧως όπωσούν προχωρ-η, ώς καϊ των ^Αθηναίων 

4 επιμεταπεμπομένων. οι τε ^υρακόσιοι ναυτικον 

^ μέχρι, before τοΰ ΐ•γκαρσΙου in MSS., is deleted by Holm. 

^ c/. cli. ii. 7 ; iv. 7 ; also vi. civ. 1. 
14 



BOOK VIl. VI. 2-vii. 4 

the walls than before, closed with the enemy, having 
his cavalry and javelin-men posted on the flank of 
the Athenians, in the open space where the work on 
both walls ended. And in the battle his cavalry 
attacked the left wing of the Athenians, which was 
opposed to them, and routed it ; and in consequence 
of this the rest of the army also was beaten by the 
Syracusans and driven headlong within the fortifi- 
cations. And the following night they succeeded in 
building tlieir wall beyond tiie works of the Athe- 
nians and in getting past, so that they themselves 
were no longer hampered by them, and had 
altogether deprived the Athenians, even if they 
should be victorious, of the possibility of ever 
investing them. 

VII. After this the remaining twelve ships of 
the Corinthians, Auibraciots, and Leucadians,^ which 
Λvere under the command of Erasinides, a Corinthian, 
sailed into the harbour, eluding the watch kept by 
the Athenians, and helped the Syracusans to build 
the rest of their cross-wall. And Gylippus went 
into the other districts of Sicily to collect reinforce- 
ments for both his army and his navy, and at the 
same time to win over any of the cities that were 
either not zealously supporting the war or still held 
altogether aloof from it. And another set of envoys 
representing the Syracusans and the Corinthians 
were despatched to Lacedaemon and Corinth, in 
order that further troops might be sent across the 
sea in whatever way might be available — in merchant- 
ships, small craft, or in any other way whatever — 
in view of the fact that the Athenians also were 
sending home for fresh troops. Moreover, the 
Syracusans were manning a fleet and practising with 



THUCYDIDES 

iifki'ipovv καί aveireipoiVTO ώς καΐ τούτω cvi- 
'χ^ειρησοντβ^, καί e? τάΧΧα ττοΧύ €π€ρρωντο. 

VIII. Ό δε Ni/cias• αίσθόμενο^; τούτο κα\ όρων 
καθ" rjpLepav βττώιΒοΰσαν την τβ των ττοΧζμίων 
Ισχυν καΐ την σφβτεραν άττορίαν, eVe/ivre και 
αύτος βς τας Ά^ί^ι^α? άy'y€λXωv ττοΧλάκις μβν καΐ 
άΧΧοτε καθ' βκαστα των Ji'yvoμevωv, μάΧιστα Se 
καΐ τότ€, νομίζων ev Βεινοΐ•; τε elvai καί, el μη ώς 
τάγ^ιστα η σφάς μεταττέμψουσιν ή άΧΧου<; μη 
oXiyov^ άτΓοστβΧοΰσιν, ούΖεμίαν etvai σωτηρίαν. 

2 φοβούμενος Be μη οι πεμττόμενοι, η κατά του 
Xeyeiv άΒυνασίαν η καΐ μνήμη<; ^ εΧΧιττεΙς yevo- 
μενοι η τω ογΧω ττρος χάριν τι XeyovT€<i ου τα 
οντά ά^πayyeίXωσ^v, eypa-^ev επιστοΧην, νομιζων 
οΰτω<ί αν μάΧιστα την αυτού yvώμηv μηΒβν ev τω 
άγν^'^ζ^ άφανισθεΐσαν μαθόντα<ί τους 'Αθηναίους 

3 βουΧεύσασθαι ττερϊ της άΧηθείας. καΐ οι μεν 
ωχοντο φέροντες ους^ εττεστειΧε Tay ράμματα και 
οσα εΒει αυτούς είττεΐν 6 Be τα κατά το στρατό- 
ττεΒον Βιά φνΧακής μάΧΧον ηΒη έχων η Βι εκουσίων 
κινΒύνων εττεμεΧετο. 

IX. Έν Bk τω αύτω θερει τεΧευτώντι και Έύ- 
ετίων στpaτηyoς 'Αθηναίων μετά ΤΙερΒικκου στρα- 
τεύσας εττ ΆμφίττοΧιν (Ρ)ραξι ττοΧΧοΐς την μεν 
πόΧιν ούχ εΐΧεν, ες Be τον Χτρυμόνα ττερικομίσας 
τριήρεις εκ τού ποταμού εττοΧιόρκει ορμώμενος εξ 
Ίμεραίου. καΐ το θέρος ετεΧεύτα τούτο, 

Χ. ΤοΟ δ' ε^Γιyιyvoμevoυ χειμώνος ήκοντες ες 
τας Άθηνας οι τταρά τού Ί^ικιου οσα τε άττο 
yXώσσης εϊρητο αύτοΐς είττον και εΐ τις τι εττηρώτα 

1 With ΒΗ, the other MSS. yvd^ris. 
^ So MSS., Hude writes i>s, with Stahl. 
i6 



BOOK VII. νπ. 4-x. 1 

a view to trying their hand at sea also ; and in 
general they wei'e much encouraged. 

VIII. Nicias, perceiving this and seeing the 
enemy's strength and his own perplexities increasing 
day by day, on his part also sent word to Athens on 
many occasions, giving detailed reports of what was 
happening, and especially now, because he thought 
that they were in a critical situation and that there 
was no hope of safety unless the Athenians, with all 
possible speed, should either recall them or send out 
reinforcements in no small numbers. But fearing 
that his messengers might not report the actual 
facts, either through inability to speak or from lapse 
of memory,^ or because they wanted to please the 
crowd, wrote a letter, thinking that in this way the 
Athenians would best learn his own view, obscured 
in no way by any fault on the part of the messenger, 
and could thus deliberate about the true situation. 
So the messengers whom he sent departed, bearing 
the letter and the verbal reports which they Λvere to 
deliver; but as regards the camp, the ol)ject of his 
care was now rather to keep on the defensive than 
to run voluntary risks. 

IX. At the end of the same summer Euetion, an 
Athenian general, made in concert with Perdiccas an 
expedition against Amphipolis with a large force of 
Thracians, and though he failed to take the city, 
brought some triremes round into the Strymon and 
blockaded it from the river, using Himeraeum as his 
base. So the summer ended. 

X. The following winter the messengers of Nicias, 
on reaching Athens, gave the messages which they 
had been ordered to give by word of mouth, answer- 

* Or, reading "γνώμη!, " from want of intelligence." 

17 



THUCYDIDES 

άτΓβκρίνοντο και την έτηστοΧην άττβΒοσαν. 6 Sk 
'γραμματβύς της ττόλεως τταρεΧθων άζ^εγ/'ω τοις 
^ Αθηναίοις ΖηΧούσαν TOiahe. 

XI. "Τα, μβν ττρότερον ττραχθβρτα, ω 'Αθη- 
ναίοι, ev άΧλαις ττοΧλαΐς βιτιστοΧαΐς ϊ'στε• νυν Be 
καιρός οΰχ ήσσον μαθοντας υμάς ev φ βσμβν 

2 ^ούΧεύσασθαι. κρατησάντων •yap ημών μάχ^αις 
ταΐς ττΧείοσι %υρακοσίονς βφ' ους έττέμφθημβν και 
τα τείχη οΙκοΒομησαμενων ev olairep νυν έσμεν, 
ηΚθβ νύΧιτητος ΑακβΒαιμονιος στρατιαν βχων €κ 
τε ΐΙεΧοτΓοννησου καΐ άττο των ev Σί/τβλία ττόΧεων 
εστίν ων. καΐ μάχη τη μεν ττρώτη νικάται νφ' 
ημών, τη δ' ύστεραια Ιτητεύσί τε ττοΧΧοις και 
άκοντισταΐς βιασθεντες άνεχωρησαμεν ες τα 

3 τείχη, νυν ουν ημείς μεν τταυσάμενοι του ττερι- 
τειχισμοϋ hta ττΧήθος των ενάντιων ησυχάζομεν 
(ούΒε yap ξυμττάση τη στρατιά Βυναίμεθ' αν 
χρησασθαι άττανηΧωκυίας της φυΧακι/ς των τει- 
χών μέρος τι του υπΧιτικού), οί δέ τταρωκοΒομη- 
κασιν ήμΐν τείχος άττΧούν, ώστε μη είναι ετι 
ττεριτειχίσαι αυτούς, ην μή τις το τταρατείχισμα 

4 τοΰτο TToXXfi στρατιά εττεΧθών εΧη. ξυμβεβηκε 
τε τΓοΧιορκεΐν 8οκοΰντας ημάς άΧΧους αυτούς 
μάΧΧον, οσα ^ε κατά yrjv, τοΰτο ττάσχειν ού8ε 
yap της χώρας εττι ττοΧύ 8ια τους Ιτητεας ^ξερ- 
χόμεθα. 

XII. Ώεπόμφασι Βε καΐ ες ΤΙεΧοπόννησον πρέσ- 
βεις eV άΧΧην στρατιαν, και ες τάς εν 'Σ.ικεΧία 
ττόΧεις ΤύΧιπττος οϊχεται, τας μεν καΐ ττείσων 
ξυμποΧεμεΐν οσαι νυν ησυχάζουσιν, άττο Βε τών 
ετι κα\ στρατιαν ττεζην καΐ ναυτικού τταρασκευήν, 

ι8 



BOOK νΠ. χ. i-xii. 1 

ing any questions that were asked, and delivered the 
letter. And the clerk of the city came before the 
Athenians and read them the letter, which ran as 
follovi's : 

XI. " What has been done before this, Athenians, 
you have been informed in many earlier letters ; but 
now it is more than ever the time for you to learn in 
what condition we are and then to take counsel. When 
in most of our battles we had beaten the Syracusans, 
against whom we were sent, and had built the forti- 
fications in which we now are, there came Gylippus, 
a Lacedaemonian, with an army collected from the 
Peloponnesus and from some of the cities in Sicily. 
In tiie first battle he was defeated by us, but on the 
next day, under pressure from their numerous cavalry 
and javelin-men, we drew back \vithin our walls. 
At the present time, then, we have discontinued our 
work of circumvallation on account of the superior 
numbers of the enemy and are keeping quiet ; for 
we cannot use our whole army because the guarding 
of the Λvalls has absorbed a part of our heavy-armed 
force. The enemy meanwhile have built a single 
wall past ours, so that it is no longer possible to 
invest them, unless one should assault this counter- 
wall with a large force and take it. So it has turned 
out tliat we, who are supposed to be besieging 
others, are rather ourselves under siege, at least by 
land ; for v>e cannot even go far into the country 
because of their cavalry. 

XII. " And they have also sent envoys to the Pelo- 
ponnesus for another army, and Gylippus has gone to 
tiie cities of Sicily, to persuade sucii of them as are 
now neutral to join them in the war, and to bring 
from other cities, if he can, still further reinforce- 

19 



THUCYDIDES 

2 ην Βύνηταί, άζων. Βιανοοΰνται jap, ώ? eyo) 
•πυνθάνομαι, τω re ττεζω άμα των τβιχών ημών 

3 7Γ€ΐράν καΐ ταΐς ναυσΐ κατά θαΚασσαν. και 
heivov μηΒβνΙ υμών Βόζτ] elvat ότι και κατά 
ΘαΚασσαν. το yap ναυτικον ημών, f/irep κάκβίνου 
ττννθάνονται, το μεν πρώτον ήκμαζε καΐ τών νεών 
ττ} ξηροτητί και τών ττΧηρωμάτων ttj σωτηρία• 
νυν he αϊ τε νήες Βιάβρο^χ^οι, τοσούτον χρόνον ηΒη 
θαΧασσβύουσαι, καΐ τά ττΧηρώματα βφθαρται. 

4 τα9 μεν yap vav<i ουκ βστιν άνε\.κύσαντα<; hia- 
■ψΰζαι Βιά το άντιπά\ου<; και τω ττΧήθει και Ι'τι 
7r\etou9 τάς τών ποΧεμίων ούσα'; aiei ττροσΒοκίαν 

5 τταρεχειν ώς εττητΧεύσονται. φανβραΐ Si είσιν 
άνατΓβιρώμεναι, και αϊ €7ηχ€ΐρήσει<; eV εκείνοι•; 
και άτΓοξηράναι τα? σφετέρας μάΧλον εξουσία' 
ου yap εφορμουσιν άΧΧοις. 

XIII. Ήμΐν δ' εκ ττοΧΧής αν περιουσίας νεών 
μόΧι•; τούτο ύττήρ'χ^ε και μη άvayκaζoμεvoι<;, 
ώσπερ νύν, πάσαις φυΧάσσειν. el yap άφαιρη- 
σομεν τι κα\ βραχύ της τηρήσεως, τά εττιτηΒεια 
ούχ εζομεν, παρά την εκείνων ποΧιν χαΧεπώς καϊ 
2 νύν εσκομιζόμενοι. τά 8ε πΧηρώματα 8ιά τόΒε 
εφθάρη τε ημΐν και ετινύν φθείρεται, τών ναυτών^ 
μεν Βιά φpυyavισμov και άpπayηv καϊ ύΒρείαν 
μακράν νττο τών ιππέων άποΧΧυμενων οι Βε 
θεράποντες, επειΒη ες άντίτταΧα καθεστι]καμεν, 
αύτομοΧούσι, και οι ζενοι οι μεν άvayκaστoι 
ίσβάντες ευθύς κατά τας πόΧεις άποχωρούσιν, οι 

^ τών, after ναυτών in MSS., deleted by Poppo. 

^ Lit. " dryness," as opposed to a water-logged condition 
(διάβροχοι). 

20 



BOOK VII. XII. i-xiii. 2 

ments for his army and navy. For they plan, as I 
hear, to make an attempt upon our walls with their 
land-force and at the same time to try their luck at 
sea also with their fleet. And let it not seem in- 
credible to any of you that they will try also by sea. 
For our fleet, as the enemy also have learned, 
though at first it was in prime condition as regards 
both the soundness^ of the ships and the unimpaired 
condition of the crews, is not so now ; the ships are 
water-logged, from having been at sea for so long a 
time already, and the crews have wasted away. For 
it is not possible to draw the ships up on shore and 
dry them out, because the fleet of the enemy, which is 
quite a match for us and in number is even superior, 
keeps us in continual expectation that it will sail 
against us. They keep practising in plain view ; the 
initiative to make attack lies with them ; and they 
have a better opportunity to dry their ships than we, 
for they are not blockading others. 

XIII. "We, on the contrary, could hardly enjoy 
this advantage even if we had a great superiority in 
the number of our ships, and were not compelled, as 
now, to use them all for guard-duty. For if we relax 
our vigilance ever so little, we shall not have our 
supplies, which are even now with difficulty brought 
past their city and into our camp. And our crews 
have been and are still being wasted, for the reason 
that our sailors, forced to go out to a distance for 
wood and forage and water, are constantly being 
killed by the cavalry. And now that we have been 
reduced to equal terms with the enemy, our servants 
are deserting. Of the mercenaries also, some, who 
embarked on our ships under compulsion, go home 
to their cities on the first opportunity ; others, who 

31 



THUCYDIDES 

oe ύτΓΟ μβ'/άΧου μισθού το ττρωτον €7rap0€i'r€<; καϊ 
Οίομξροι 'χ^ρημαηβΐσθαί μαΧΧον η μαχ^βΐσθαι, 
€π€ΐΒη τταρα '^/ΐ'ώμην ναυτικόν Τ€ δη καϊ ταΧλ,α 
άτΓΟ των τΓοΧβμίων άνθεστωτα όρώσιν, οι μ€ν eV 
αντομο\ία<ί ιτροφάσβί άττέρ-χονται, οι Be ώς 
€καστοι Ζύνανται (ττοΧΧη δ' η ΙικβΧία), etVt δ' ο'ί 
και, αύτοΙ ^ βμττορβυομβνοι, ανΒράποΒα 'Ύκκαρικα 
άντβμβιβάσαι virep σφων TretVat-re? τους τριη- 
ράρχ^ους την άκριββιαν του ναυτικού άφτίρηνται, 

XIV. 'ΚτΓίσταμενοις δ ίιμΐν 'γράφω 'ότι βρα- 
χεία άκμη ττΚηρώματο^ καϊ oXiyoi των ναυτών οι 
εξορμώντας τ€ ναύν και ξυνέχοντες την είρεσίαν. 

2 τούτων δε πάντων άττορώτατον τό τε μη οΙόν τε 
είναι ταύτα εμοί κωΧύσαι τω στρατη'^/ω (-χαΧετται 
yap α'ι ύμετεραι φύσεις άρξαι) καϊ ότι οι)δ' οττοθεν 
ετΓίττΧηρωσόμεθα τα? ναύς εχομεν, ο τοις ττοΧε- 
μιοις ΤΓοΧΧαχοθεν ΰττάρχει, αΧΧ ανάγκη αφ ων 
έχοντες ηλθομεν τά τε οντά καϊ άτταναΧισκομενα 
'γίγνεσθαι' αι yap νύν ουσαι ττόΧεις ξύμμαχοι 

3 άΒύνατοι, Νάξος και Κ^ατάνη. ει Βε ^Γpaσyεvη- 
σεται εν ετι τοις ττοΧεμίοις, σιστε τα τρεφοντα 
ημάς χωρία της 'Ιταλίας•, όρώντα εν ω τε εσμεν 
και υμών μη εττιβοηθούντων, ττρος εκείνους χωρή- 

^ αυτοί, Hude prefers αυτοϋ, with most M8S. 

^ i. e. as they would profess after they had got within the 
enemy's lines. Or, "on any occasion for deserting," i.e. 
wlienever the deserters thought themselves unobserved by the 
Athenians or found tliemselves in the neighbourhood of the 
Syracusan troops, πρύφασι^ being used not of a pretended, but 
of a real occasion, as in i. xxviii. , xxiii. 5 ; cxviii. 1. 

22 



BOOK νΠ. xm. 2-xiv. 3 

were in the first place stirred by the prospects of 
high pay and thought they were going to make 
money rather than to fight, now that, contrary to 
tlieir expectation, they see on the enemy's side the 
fleet and everything else offering i-esistance, either 
go over as professed ^ deserters, or get away as best 
they can — for Sicily is large — and there are also some 
who, being themselves engaged in traffic, have 
persuaded the trierarchs to take Hyccarian slaves 
on board in their stead, and thus have robbed our 
navy of its perfection of discipline. 

XIV. "You to whom I write understand that a crew 
only keeps at its prime for a short space,^ and that it 
is only a few of the sailors who can both set a ship 
in motion and keep the oar-strokes in time. But of 
all these difficulties, that which causes me most 
distress is that I, the general, cannot prevent these 
abuses — for the temper of you Athenians is hard to 
control — and that we have no source from Avhich to 
get recruits for manning our ships, while the enemy 
has many sources of supply ; on the contrary, the 
resources that we brought with us must suffice for 
our present needs as well as make up for our 
constant losses ; ^ for the only cities that are now 
in alliance with us, Naxos and Catana, cannot 
help us in this. And if but one advantage 
more shall be gained by the enemy — that the 
regions of Italy which supply us with food, seeing 
in what plight Λve are and that you are not sending 
reinforcements, should go over to the enemy — the 

' Or, " the really efficient part of a crew is always small." 
' Or, "the men we brought with us must serve for our 

present force as well as make up for our ever-recurring 

losses." 

23 



THUCYDIDES 

σαί, 8ία7Γ€7Γθ\€μησ€ται αύτοΐς άμαχ€ΐ €Κ7ΓθΧί- 
ορκηθβντων ημών ό ττόλβ/ζο?.^ 

"Ύούτων εγώ ή8ίω μ€ν αν εΐχον νμΐν erepa 
iTTiareWeiv, ου μβντοι -χ^ρησιμώτερά ye, el Set 
σαφώς €/δότα9 τα evOahe βουΧεύσασθαι. και 
άμα τας- φύσει•; €7Γΐστάμ(νο<; υμών, βουΧομένων 
μεν τα ηΒιστα άκούειν, αίτιωμενων Be ύστερον, ην 
τι υμίν ατΓ αυτών μη ομοΐον εκβτ}, άσφαΧεστερον 
ηγησάμην το άΧηθες ΒηΧώσαι. 

XV. ΚαΙ νΰν ώς εφ^ α μεν ηΧθομεν το πρώτον 
καΐ τών στρατιωτών και τών ηΎεμόνων ύμϊν μη 
μεμτΓτών '^/ε'γενη μένων, οΰτω την '^/νώμην Ιχβτβ' 
εττειΒη δέ η Έ,ικεΧία τε άττασα ξννίσταται και εκ 
ΏεΧοττοννησου αλλ?; στρατιά ττροσΒόκιμος αύτοΐς, 
βουΧεύσασθε η8η ώς τών γ' ενθάΒε μηΒε τοΖ? 
•παρουσιν άνταρκούντων, αλλ' η τούτους μετα- 
ττέμττειν Βέον η άΧΧην στρατιαν μη εΧάσσω εττι- 
ττεμττειν και ττεζην και ναυτικην, και γ^ρήματα μη 
oXiya, εμοί Be ΒιάΒοχ^ύν τίνα, ώς άΒύνατός εΙμι 
Βια νόσον νβφρίτιν τταραμενειν. άξιώ δ' υμών 
ξυ'γ^νώμης τυγχ^ύνειν' και yap ότ ερρώμην ττολλά 
εν ψ/εμονίαις υμάς ευ εττοίησα. 6 τι Βε μεΧΧετε, 
άμα τω ηρι ευθύς καΐ μη ες άναβοΧάς ιτράσσετε, 
ώς τών ΤΓοΧεμίων τα μεν εν ΧικεΧία Βι oX'iyou 
ΤΓοριουμενων, τα δ' εκ ΐΙεΧοποννήσου σχοΧαίτερον 
μεν, όμως Β\ ην μη 7Γροσεχ^ΐ]τε την yvώμηv, τα 
μεν Χησουσιν υμάς, ώσττερ και ττρότερον, τα Βε 
φθήσονται.^ 

XVI. Ή μεν του 1>^ικίου επιστοΧη τοσαΰτα 

^ δ ττό\(μο5 omitted by Hude, as not read by the 
Scholiast. 

24 



BOOK Vll. XIV. 3-xvi. i 

war will be all over for them Avithout a battle, for 
we shall be besieged into surrender. 

" 1 could have written you things more pleasant 
than these, but certainly not more useful, if you are 
to have full kno\vledge of the situation here before 
deciding upon your course ; and, besides, knowing 
as I do your tempers — that you do indeed prefer to 
hear what is most pleasant, but afterwards find fault 
if the results are in any respect disappointing — I 
have thought it safer to reveal the truth. 

XV. " And now I beg you to believe that neither 
your soldiers nor your generals have been blame- 
worthy so far as concerns the original objects of our 
expedition ; but since all Sicily is united and the 
enem}^ expects another army from the Peloponnesus, 
decide at once upon a course of action, knowing that 
the troops which are now here are not a match even 
for the enemy which at present confronts us, but that 
you must either recall these or send to reinforce it 
another armament equally large, both army and fleet, 
and no small amount of money ; and you must send 
a general to relieve me, since I am unable to remain 
because of a disease of the kidneys. And I submit 
that I have a claim upon your indulgence, for when 
I was strong I served you well in many a position of 
command. But Avhatever you intend to do, do it 
promptly at the opening of spring and without post- 
ponements, knowing that the enemy will procure 
fresh resources, some near at hand in Sicily, and others 
from the Peloponnesus, and that these last, though 
they Avill arrive less promptly, nevertheless, if you do 
not take care, will either elude you as they did before, 
or else outstrip you." 

XVI. Such were the disclosures made by the letter 

VOL. IV. R ^5 



THUCYDIDES 

iSrjXov. ol he ^Αθηναίοι άκούσαντβ'ί αυτη<ί τον 
μβν Νίκίαν ου -παρβΧυσαν της άρ-χ^ής, αλλ αντω, 
€ως αν βτβροί ξυνάρ-χ^οντ€<; αίρξθέντβς άφίκωνται, 
των αντου €κβΙ δύο ττροσείΧοντο, ^levavSpov καΐ 
ΚύθύΒημον, οττω? μη μόνο'ί iv aaOeveLa ταΧαι- 
ττωροίη' στρατιαν δέ aXXi]v ζ^Ιτηφίσαντο ττέμττβιν 
καϊ ναυτίκην καΐ πβζικην \\θηναίων τβ €κ κατα- 
\oyov καϊ των ζυμμά-χων. καϊ ξυνάρχ^οντας αύτω 
eXXovTO Αημοσθβνη τ€ τον ΑΧκισθενους καϊ 
2 Έιύρνμβδοντα τον ^ουκΧέους. καϊ τον μβν Έύρυ- 
μέΒοντα εύθύ<ί ττερϊ ήλυου τροττας τα<ζ 'χ^ειμβ ρίνας 
άτΓοττβμπουσι,ν 69 την -.tKeXtav μβτά Βεκα νεών, 
ayovTa βΐκοσί καϊ εκατόν ^ τάΧαντα αργυρίου καϊ 
άμα ayyeXoOi'Ta τοις eVet οτι ήξει βοηθζία καϊ 
€7ΓΐμέΧ€ΐα αυτών βσται. 

XVII. Ό δέ Αημοσθένης υπομένων τταρ- 
βσκβυάζβτο τον εκττΧουν ώς άμα τω ηρι ττοιη- 
σόμβνος, στρατιαν re ετταγγελλων e? τους 
ξυμμά^ους καϊ -χ^ρηματα αύτοθεν καϊ ναύς καϊ 

2 όπΧίτας €Τθΐμάζων. πεμτΓουσί δέ καϊ ττβρϊ την 
ΐΙεΧοττόννησον οι ^Αθηναίοι είκοσι ναΰς, οττως 
φυΧάσσοιεν μηΒενα άττο Js^opivOov καϊ της Πβλο- 

3 τΓοννήσου ες την ^ικεΧίαν ττεραιοΰσθαι. οι yap 
Κ.ορίνθίθΐ, ώς αύτοίς οΐ πρέσβεις ηκον καϊ τά εν 
TTJ ΧικεΧία βεΧτίω ■liyyeXXov, νομίσαντες ουκ 
άκαιρον καϊ την προτέραν ττεμψιν των νεών 
ποιησασθαι, ποΧΧω μάΧΧον επερρωντο, καϊ εν 

» With Η and Valla, the other MSS. omit »cai 
ΐκατόν. 

* Already mentioned as one of those who signed the treaty 
of Nicias, 422 B.C.; cf. v. xix. 2 ; xxiv. 1. 

' Last mentioned in active service in iv. 66-69. 

26 



BOOK VII. XVI. i-xvii. 3 

of Nicias. But when the Athenians heard it read, they 
did not reHeve Nicias of his command, but in order 
that he might not to have to face his difficulties alone 
while in ill-health, they chose two men who were on 
the spot, Menander and Euthydemus,^ to assist him 
until the arrival of the other two who should be chosen 
as his colleagues. And they voted to send another 
armament, both land-force and Heet, to be recruited 
from the Athenians on the muster-roll and from the 
allies. And as colleagues for Nicias they elected 
Demosthenes ^ son of Alcisthenes, and Eurymedon ^ 
son of Thucles. Eurymedon was despatched to Sicily 
immediately, about the time of the winter solstice, 
with ten ships ; and he took with him one hundred 
and twenty talents of silver,^ and at the same time 
bore a message to the army in Sicily that reinforce- 
ments would come and that care would be taken of 
them. 

XVII. But Demosthenes remained behind and 
busied himself Avitii preparations for his depar- 
ture, Λvhich he planned to make at the opening of 
spring, sending to the allies requisitions for troops 
and getting ready at home money and ships and 
hoplites. And the Athenians also sent twenty ships 
round the Peloponnesus, to see that no one should 
cross over from Corinth and the Peloponnesus to 
Sicily. For the Corinthians, when the Syracusan 
envoys arrived and reported that the situation in 
Sicily was more favourable, felt much greater con- 
fidence than before, thinking that their former 
despatch of the fieet had been well timed, and 

^ He had been fined after the unsuccessful expedition to 
Sicily in 424 B.C.; cf. iv. Ixv. 3. 
« £-24,000; $116;G40. 

27 



THUCYDIDES 

οΧ,κάσι τταρβσκβνάζοντο αυτοί τβ αττοστελοΰντες 
οττΧίτας e? την ^iKeXiav και €κ της άΧΧης ΐΙβΧο- 
ΤΓΟννήσον οι Αακζδαιμονιοί τω αύτω τρόττω 

4 7Γ€μψοντ€ς. ναΰς τε οί Κορίνθιοι ττέντε καϊ βϊκοσι 
ίττΧήρονν, όπως ναυμαχίας τβ άττοττει ράσωσι ττρος 
την iv TTJ Ναυττάκτω φυΧακην, και τάς όΧκάΒας 
αυτών ησσον οί iv τη Καυπάκτω ^Αθηναίοι 
κο}Χύθί€ν άτταίρειν, ττρος την σφετβραν άντίταξιν 
των τριηρών την φυΧακην ττοιονμενοι. 

XVIIL ΥΙαρβσκευάζοντο he και την €ς την 
^Αττικην εσβοΧην οί Αακεδαιμόνιοι, ώσττερ τε 
TTpouhehoKTO αύτοΐς και των Έ,υρακοσίων και 
Κορινθίων ενα^/οντων, επειΒη εττυνθάνοντο την 
ατΓΟ των 'Αθηναίων βοήθειαν ες την Έ,ικεΧίαν, 
όπως 8η εσβοΧής '^/ενομενης ΒιακωΧυθη. και ό 
^ΑΧκιβιά87]ς προσκείμενος εΕι8ασκε την Αεκε- 
Χειαν τειχίζειν καϊ μη άνιεναι τον πόΧεμον. 

2 μάΧιστα 8ε τοις ΑακεΒαιμονίοις ε'^/ε^ενητό τις 
ρώμη, Βιοτι τους Αθηναίους ενομιζον ΒιπΧοΰν τον 
πόΧεμον έχοντας, προς τε σφάς καϊ —ΐκεΧιώτας, 
εύκαθαιρετωτερους εσεσθαι, και ότι τάς σπονδάς 
προτέρους ΧεΧυκεναι i)yo\JvTO αυτούς' εν 'yap τω 
προτερω ποΧεμω σφετερον το παρανόμημα μάΧΧον 
•γενέσθαι. Οτι τε ες ΐΐΧάταιαν ηΧθον Θηβαίοι εν 
σπονΖαΐς και, είρημενον εν ταΐς προτερον ζυνθή- 
καις όπΧα μη επιφερειν, ην Βίκας εθεΧωσι Βώόναι, 

^ The Athenian squadron, generally twenty triremes, 
stationed on guard here during the whole war ; cf. ii. Ixix. 1. ; 
Ixxx. 4. 

' The Archidamian War, or the first decade of the 
Peloponnesian War. ^ cf. ii. ii. 1. 

* Referring to the Thirty Years' Truce ; cf. i. cxv. 1, 

28 



BOOK VII. XVII. 3-XV111. 2 

accordingly not only were they themselves pre- 
paring to send hoplites to Sicily in merchant-ships, 
but also the Lacedaemonians were intending in the 
same manner to despatch troops from the rest of the 
Peloponnesus. The Corinthians were also manning 
tAventy-five ships, in order that they might try an 
engagement with the squadron on watch at Nau- 
pactus^ and that the Athenians at Naupactus might 
not find it so easy to prevent their merchant-vessels 
from putting to sea, since tliey would be busy keep- 
ing watch upon the triremes arrayed against them. 

XVI 1 1. The Lacedaemonians were also making 
ready for their invasion of Attica, both in accordance 
with their previous resolution and because the Syra- 
cusans and Corinthians urged it, when they heard of 
the reinforcements to be sent from the Atiienians to 
Sicily, so that, as they said, these might be wholly 
prevented by the invasion. And Alcibiades was 
likewise insistently telling them that they should 
fortify Deceleia and not relax their efforts in the 
war. But most important of all was the fact that a 
degree of confidence had come to the Lacedaemo- 
nians, because they believed that the Athenians, 
once they had on their hands a twofold war — with 
themselves and witli the Siceliots — would be more 
easily overthrown, and because they regarded the 
Athenians as having been the first to break the 
treaty. In the former war 2 they felt that the trans- 
gression had been rather on their own part ; for the 
Thebans had entered Plataea in time of truce,^ and, 
although it had been stipulated in the former agree- 
ments * that neither party was to resort to arms if 
the other were willing to submit the question to 
arbitration, yet they themselves refused to respond 

29 



THUCYDIDES 

αύτοϊ ούχ^ ύττήκουον i<; Βίκας ττροκαΚονμβνων των 
Αθηναίων, και Βια τούτο ξΐκότως Βυστυχ^ξΐν re 
βνόμιζον καϊ iveUv μουντό την τε ττβρί ΤΙύΧον ξνμ- 

3 φοράν και βϊ τις άΧΧη αύτοΐς yevoiTO. €7Γ€ΐΒη δε 
οι Άθΐ]ναίοι ταί9 τριάκοντα ναυσίν Ιζ "Αργοΐ'9 
ορμώμενοι ΈττιΒαύρον re τι και Ώρασιών και 
aWa ehrjfjdaav καϊ εκ Πύλου αμα εΧηστεύοντο, 
και οσάκις ττερι του οιαφοραΐ yevoivTo των κατά 
τάς στΓΟνΒάς αμφισβητουμένων, ες οίκαςττροκαλου- 
μένων των Λακεδαιμονίων ουκ ήθεΧον εττιτρέττειν, 
τότε Βη οί ΑακεΒαιμόνιοι νομισαντες το τταρανό- 
μημα, όπερ και σφίσι ττρότερον ημάρτητο, αύθις 
ες τους Αθηναίους το αύτο ττεριεστάναι, πρόθυμοι 

4 ήσαν ες τον ττολεμον. και εν τω γ^ειμώνι τούτω 
σίΒηρόν τε ττερη'ρ/^/εΧΧον κατα τους ξνμμάχους 
καϊ τα άΧΧα εpyaXεΊa ητοιμαζον ες τον εττιτειχ^ι- 
σμόν. και τοις εν τη ΧικεΧία άμα ως άττο- 
ττέμψοντες εν ταΐς οΧκάσιν εττικουρίαν αυτοί τε 
επόριζον και τους άΧΧους ΐΙεΧοττοννησίους ττροσ- 
ηνά'^/καζον. και ο 'χειμών ετεΧεύτα, και 6y8oov 
καϊ Βεκατον έτος τω ποΧεμω ετεΧεύτα τάδε ον 
©ουκυΒίΒης ζυνε^ρα^εν. 

XIX. Ύού δ ετΓΐηι^νομένου ηρος ευθύς άργο- 
μενου ττρωτατα Βη οι ΑακεΒαιμόνιοι και οί 
ξύμμα'χ^οι ες την Αττικην εσεβαΧον' η^είτο Βε 
^Α'γις ο Αρχ^ιΒάμου, ΑακεΒαι μονίων βασιΧεύς. 
καϊ πρώτον μεν της γ^ωρας τά περί το πεΒίον 
εΒηωσαν, έπειτα ΑεκεΧειαν ετείγ^ιζον, κατά πόΧεις 



ι iv. 26-41. 2 φ VI. CV. 1. 

3 March, 413 B.C 

* Situated almost due noi'th of Athens, at the highest 

30 



BOOK VII. XVIII. 2-xix. i 

to the summons when the Athenians invited them 
to arbitrate. On this account they considered that 
thev deserved their misfortune, having in mind both 
the disaster at Pylos^ and any other that had befallen 
them. But ηοΛν the Athenians, setting out from 
Argos with thirty ships,^ had ravaged a part of 
Epidaurus and Prasiae and other places, and at the 
same time Λvere making predatory excursions from 
Fylos ; and as often as diflerences arose about any of 
the points of dispute in the treaty and the Lacedae- 
monians proposed arbitration, they were unwilling 
to resort to it ; at this time, therefore, the Lacedae- 
monians, considering that the unlaΛvful conduct, 
of which they had themselves formerly been guilty, 
had shifted round and now rested upon the 
Athenians, were zealous for the war. And during 
this winter they sent out requisitions for iron 
to their allies, and in general were making ready 
the tools needed in the fortification of Deceleia. 
And at the same time they were not only devising 
on their own part ways and means for sending 
reinforcements in merchant-ships to the army in 
Sicily, but were also compelling the rest of the 
Peloponnesians to do likeΛvise. So the winter ended, 
and with it the eighteenth year of this war of which 
Thucydides wrote the history. 

XIX. At the very beginning of the next spring,^ 
earlier than ever before, the Lacedaemonians and 
their allies invaded Attica, under the command of 
Agis son of Archidamus, king of the Lacedae- 
monians. And at first they ravaged the plain of 
Attica and then proceeded to fortify Deceleia,* 

point of the pass λυΙιθγθ the road to Boeotia cuts through the 
eastern Parnes, the site of the present village of Tato'i. 

31 



THUCYDIDES 

2 Βΐ€\όμ€νοι το epyov. άττβγ^βί he η AexeXeia 
σταΒίους μάΧιστα τη•; των ^Αθηναίων ττολεως 
είκοσι καΐ εκατόν, τταραπΧιίσιον δε ου ττολλω 
ττΧέον^ καΐ άτΓΟ της Βοιωτίας, έττΐ he τω Trehio) 
και της 'χωράς τοις κρατίστοις ες το κaκoυpyεΐv ^ 
ωκohoμεΐτo το τείχος, εττιφανες μέχρι της των 

3 'Αθηναίων ττόΧεως. καΐ οι μεν εν Trj Άττικη 
ΐΙεΧοποννήσιοι και οι ξύμμαχοι ετείχιζον' ο'ι δ' 
εν τρ ΙΙεΧοτΓοννησω άπεστεΧΧον ττερί τον αύτον 
χρόνον ταΐς όΧκάσι τους όττΧίτας ες την "ΣικεΧίαν, 
Aaκehaιμόvιoι μεν των τε ΚΐΧώτων εττιΧεζάμενοι 
τους βεΧτίστους καΐ των vεohaμώhωv, ζυναμφο 
τερων εξακόσιους όττΧίτας καΐ "Εκκριτον S-rrap- 
τιάτην άρχοντα, Βοίωτοι hε τριακόσιους οττΧιτας, 
ων ηρχον Έ.ει>ων τε και Ί^ίκων ^)]βαΐθί και 

4 Ή.yήσavhpoς (ύεσττιεύς. ούτοι μεν ονν εν τοις 
τρωτοί όρμησαντες από του Ταινάρου τΡις 
\.ακωνίκής ες το ^7ΓeXayoς άφεΐσαν μετά he τού- 
τους Κορίνθιοι (ιύ ποΧΧω ύστερον ττεντακοσίους 
όπΧίτας, τους μεν εξ αυτής Κορίνθου, τους he 
ττροσμισθωσύμενοι ΆρκάΒων, άρχοντα ^ ^ΑΧεξ- 
αρχον Κ-ορίνθιον ττροστάξαντες άττέττεμψαν. 
άττέστειΧαν hε και Χικυώνιοι hιaκoσίoυς όπΧίτας 
ομού τοις Κορινθίοις, ων ηρχε ^αρ^εύςΐ,ικυώνιος. 

5 αϊ hε πέντε και είκοσι νήες των Κορινθίων αϊ 
του χειμωνος πΧηρωθεΐσαι άνθώρμουν ταΐς εν τ^ 
Ναυττά/ίτω είκοσι Αττικαΐς, εωσπερ αύτοΐς οι 
όπΧΐται ταΐς οΧκάσιν από της ΪΙεΧοποννήσου 
άπήραν ούπερ ένεκα και το πρώτον επΧηρώθησαν, 

• ου τοΚλψ ττλίον deleted by Hude. 

* (s rh κακουρ-^ΰν deleted by Hude with Kriigerand Stahl. 
^ και, before άρχοντα in the MSS., deleted by Hude. 

32 



BOOK VII. XIX. 1-5 

apportioning the work to the several allied states. 
Deceleia is distant from the city of Athens about one 
hundred and tΛventy stadia, and about the same 
distance, or not much more, from Boeotia. The 
purpose of the fort they were building was to domi- 
nate the jilain and the most fertile parts of the 
country, with a view to devastating them, and it was 
visible as far as the city of Athens. And while the 
Peloponnesians in Attica and their allies were build- 
ing this fort, those in the Peloponnesus were at the 
same time despatching the ho})lites in merchant- 
ships to Sicily, the Lacedaemonians having picked 
out tlie best of the Helots and Neodamodes,^ of both 
together about six hundred hoplites, with Eccritus 
the Spartan as commander, and tlie Boeotians having 
selected three hundred hoplites, in command of 
whom were Xenon and Nicon, both Thebans, and 
Hegesander, a Thespian. Now these set out in the 
first contingent from Taenarus in Laconia and made 
for the open sea ; and following them, but not long 
afteiwards, the Corinthians sent out five hundred 
hoj)lites, some from Corinth itself, others being 
Arcadians Avhom they had taken on for hire, ap{)oint- 
ing in command of them Alexarchus, a Corinthian. 
Tiie Sicyonians also despatched at the same time as 
the Corinthians two hundred hoplites under the 
command of Sargeus, a Sicj'onian. Meanwhile the 
twenty-five Corinthian ships, which had been manned 
during the winter, lay opposite the twenty Athenian 
ships at Naupactus, until their hoplites in the 
merchant-ships had got well on their voyage from 
the Peloponnesus; it was for tiiis purpose, indeed, that 

* cf. v. xxxiv. 1. These were clans of new citizens made 
up of Helots emancipated for service in war. 

33 



THUCYDIDES 

οττως μη οι ^Αθηναίοι πρ'υς τας οΧκάΒας μάΧΧον η 
77/30? τάς τρίηρ€ί<; τον νούυ βχωσιν. 

XX. Έϊ/ Be τούτω καΐ οι 'Αθηναίοι αμα Ae/ce- 
λείας τω τειχισμω καΐ του ηρο^ €ύθύς άρχ^ομένου 
Ίτερί τ€ ΐΙβΧοττόννησον ναϋς τριάκοντα 'έστειΧαν 
και ^apiKXea τον ΆττοΧΧοΒώρου άργ^οντα, ω 
€Ϊρητο καΐ €9 "Apyo^ άφίκομβνω κατά το ζνμ- 
μαχικον irapdKaXeh' ' Apyeiwv ^ οττΧίτας βττΐ τά? 

2 ναυ^, καΐ τον Αημοσθβΐ'η e? την Έ,ικεΧίαν, ωσττβρ 
βμβΧΧον, άπβστεΧΧον βζήκοντα μεν ναυσίν 'Αθη- 
ναίων καΐ "ττέντε Χίαις, όττΧίταις Be έκ KaTaXoyov 
'Αθηναίων Βιακοσίοα και 'χ^ιΧίοις, καΐ νησιωτών 
οσοις βκασταχ^όθεν οΙόν τ' ην πλειστοί? χρή- 
σασθαι, και €κ των άΧΧωρ ζνμμάχων των υπη- 
κόων, €ί Ίτοθεν τι είχον εττιτήΒειον ες τον ττόΧεμον, 
ξνμτΓορίσαντες. εΐρητο δ αντω πρώτον μετά του 
^αρικΧέους αμα περιπΧέοντα ξυστρατεύεσθαι 

3 περί την Αακωνικην. καΐ ο μεν Δημοσθένης ες 
την Ai'yivav προσπΧευσας του στρατεύματος τε 
ει τι ύπεΧεΧειπτο περιεμενε και τον Χ,αρικΧέα 
τους Apyείoυς παραΧαβεΐν. 

XXI. Έν Be τη Έ,ικεΧία ύπο τους αυτούς γ^ρόνους 
τούτου του ηρος και 6 ΓύΧιππος ηκεν ες τάς Έ,υρα- 
κούσας, άyωv άπο τών πόΧεων ων έπεισε στρατιαν 

2 οσην εκασταχόθεν πΧείστην εΒύνατο. καΐ ζυyκa- 
Χεσας τους Έ,υρακοσίους εφη χρήναι πΧηρούν 
ναύς ώς Βύνανται πΧείστας καΐ ναυμαχίας άπό- 
πειραν Χαμβάνειν εΧπίζειν yap άπ' αυτού τι 
epyov άξιον του κινΒύνου ες τον πόΧεμον κατ- 

3 epyάσeσθaι. ξυνανεπειθε Βε και ό 'Κρμοκράτης 

^ Τ6, after Άργίίοΐ' in MSS., deleted by Reiske, followed by 
Hiide. 

34 



BOOK VII. XIX. 5-xxi. 3 

they had been manned in the first place — that the 
Athenians might not give their attention so much to 
the mercliant-ships as to tlie triremes. 

XX. Meanwhile the Athenians, simultaneously 
with the fortification of Deceleia and at the very 
beginning of spring, sent thirty sliips round the 
Peloponnesus under the command of Charicles son 
of Apollodorus, whose orders were on reaching Argos 
to summon to the ships Argive hoplites, in accord- 
ance with the terms of their alliance. And they 
also were setting Demosthenes on his way to Sicily, 
as they had plaimed to do, Avith fifty Athenian ships 
and five Chian, twelve hundred Athenian hoplites 
from the muster-roll, and as many islanders as it was 
possible to get into their service from each place ; 
and from their other allies who were subjects they 
collected whatever these had anywhere that was 
serviceable for the war. But Demosthenes had 
received instructions first of all, as he was sailing 
round, to co-operate with Charicles in his operations 
on the coast of Laconia. So he sailed to Aegina 
and waited there for any part of the armament that 
had been left behind, and also until Charicles should 
take on board the Argive hoplites. 

XXI. In Sicily, during the same spring and at 
about the same time, Gylippus returned to Syracuse, 
bringing from each of the cities which he had 
prevailed upon as large a body of troops as he could 
secure. And calling together the Syracusans, he 
told them that they should man as many ships as 
possible and try their luck in fighting at sea; for he 
hoped thereby to accomplish something for the 
furtherance of the war that would be worth the risk. 
And Hermocrates most of all joined in urging them 

35 



THUCYDIDES 

ουχ ή/αστα ^ ταΓς• ναυσΐ μη άθυμβίν βττίγ^ειρησαι 
ττρος τους ^Αθηναίους, \e'ywv ovoe eKeivov^; πάτρίον 
την €μτΓ€ΐρίαν ovl>e aiSioi> της θαλάσσης βχ^ειν, 
αλλ' η7Γ€ΐρώτας μάΧλον των %υρακοσιων οντάς 
καϊ άναΎκασθβντας ίητο ^Ιη^ων ναυτικούς yeve- 
σθαι. καΐ προς άνΒρας τοΧμηρούς, οίους καϊ 
^Αθηναίους, τους άντίτοΧμώντας χαΧβπωτάτους 
αυτοΐς'^ φαίνεσθαι' ώ yap eKeivot τους ττβΧας, ου 
Βυνάμβι €στίν οτε ττρούχ^οντες, τω δε θράσβι 
Ιττΐ')(€ίρονντες, καταφοβοΰσι, και σφάς αν το 

4 αυτό ομοίως τοις €ναντίοίς ύποσχβΐν. καϊ Χυρα- 
κοσίους βΰ elSevai €φη τω τοΧμήααι άττροσ^οκητως 
ττρος το Αθηναίων ναυτικον άντιστήναι ττΧεον τι, 
8ιά το τοιούτον βκττΧα^ΐντων αυτών, ττβριεσο- 
μβνονς η ^Αθηναίους τη επιστημί] την Έ<υρακοσίων 
άττ€ΐρίαν βΧάψοντας' levai ουν βς την ττβΖραν του 

5 ναυτικού και μη άττοκνεΐν. καϊ οι μεν Έ,υρακόσιοι, 
του Τ6 ΤυΧίπτΓου και του Κρμοκράτους καϊ el 
του άΧΧου ττειθ όντων, ωρμηντο τ€ βς την ναυμαχ^ίαν 
και τας ναΰς βττΧηρουν. 

XXII. Ό he ΓύΧιτΓΤΓος, eireihi] τταρεσκεύαστο 
το ναυτικον, ayayaiv ύπο νύκτα ττάσαν την 
στρατιαν την ττεζην αύτος μεν τοις ev τω ΤΙΧημ- 
μυρίω τ€ΐ^€σι κατά yrjv έ'/χβλλε ττροσβαΧεΐν, αϊ 
he τριήρεις των ^υρακοσιων άμα καϊ άττο ζυνθή- 
ματος ττεντε μεν καϊ τριάκοντα εκ του μεyάXoυ 
Χιμενος εττεττΧεον, α'ι he. ττεντε καϊ τεσσαράκοντα 
€Κ του εΧάσσονος, ου ην καϊ το νεώριον αύτοΐς. 



1 του, after Ύΐκιστα in MSS., deleted by Hude with GM. 
* For tiv αύτοΓϊ of the Vulgate. 



36 



BOOK VII. XXI. 3-χχπ. I 

not to be faint-hearted about attacking the Athenians 
with their ships, saying that with the Athenians also 
their maritime skill Λvas not a legacy from their 
fathers or a possession for all time, but that on the 
contrary they Λvere originally more landsmen than 
the Syracusans, and had only taken to the sea when 
forced to do so by the Persians. He added that 
those who with daring confront daring men like the 
Athenians appear most formidable to them ; for that 
quality which enables the Athenians to terrorize 
their neighbours, to whom they are sometimes not 
superior in power, though they always attack them 
with confidence — this very quality the Syracusans 
Avould likewise exhibit to their opponents. And he 
said that he was well aware that the Syracusans, by 
daring unexpectedly to make a stand against the 
Athenian fleet, would have an advantage over them, 
dismayed as they would be on that account, which 
would more than outweigh the damage which the 
Athenians might inflict by their skill on the inex- 
perience of the Syracusans. He urged them, there- 
fore, to proceed to tiie trial of their fleet and not to 
shrink from it. So the Syracusans, under the per- 
suasions of Gylippus, Hermocrates, and perhaps 
others, were eager for the sea-fight and began to 
man the ships. 

XXII. When the fleet was ready, Gylippus led 
out his whole land-force under cover of night, 
intending in person to make an assault by land upon 
the forts of Plemmyrium, and at the same time, on 
a preconcerted signal, thirty-five Syracusan triremes 
sailed to the attack from the Great Harbour, while 
forty-five sailed round from the lesser harbour, where 
their ship-yard was, purposing to form a junction 

37 



THUCYDIDES 

ΤΓ6ρί€7Γ\€ον,^βον\όμ€νοι ττρος τά"? ef το? ττροσμείξαί 
και άμα ζττιττΧβΙν τω ΥΙΧημμυρίφ, οττως οι Λθη- 
2 ναΐοι άμφοτέρωθβν θορυβώνται. οι δ' Αθηναίοι 
Sia τάχους άντ ίττΧη ρωσ avre^ ζξήκοντα ναΰς ταΐς 
μεν ττεντε καΐ είκοσι ττρος τάς• ττέντε καΐ τριά- 
κοντα των Έ,νρακοσίων τάς iv τω μεηάΧω Χιμβνι 
ενανμάχ^ουν, Tai<i δ' εττίΧοίττοις άπήντων eVt 
τά? €κ του νεωρίου ΤΓερητΧεούσας. και €ύθύ<; 
ττρο τον στόματος τοΰ με^γάΧου Χιμενος ενανμά- 
χονν, και άντείχον άΧΧηΧοις εττΐ ττοΧύ, οι μεν 
βιάσασθαι βουΧομενοι τον εσπΧονν, οι Βε 
κωΧνειν. 

XXIII. 'El•» τούτω 8ε ο Τύλιτητος, των εν τω 
ΤΙΧημμνρίω 'Αθηναίων ττρος την θάΧασσαν εττι- 
καταβάντων και τ[] ναυμαχία την Ύνώμην ττροσ- 
εχόντων, φθάνει ΤΓροσττεσών άμα ττ} εφ αΙφνιΒίως 
τοις τείχεσι, και αίρει το με^ιστον πρώτον, εττειτα 
δε και τά εΧάσσω δύο, ονχ ύπομεινάΐ'των τωι- 
φυΧάκων, ώ? εΙΒον το με-'/ΐστον ραΒίως Χηφθέν. 

2 καΐ εκ μεν του ττρώτου άΧόντος χαΧεπώς οι 
άνθρωτΓοι, όσοι και ες τά ττΧοΐα και οΧκάΒα τινά 
κατεφυ^ον, εζεκομιζοντο ες το στρατόττεΒον' των 
yap Έ,υρακοσίωΐ' ταΐς εν τω με^γάΧω Χιμένι νανσΧ 
κρατούντων ττ) ναυμαχία υττο τριήρους μιας και 
ευ ττΧεούσης εττεΒιώκοντο' εττειΒη Βε τά δύο τειχί- 
σματα ήΧισκετο, εν τούτω καΐ οί Ένρακόσιοι 
ετύγχαναν ηΒη νικώμενοι, καΐ οί εζ αυτών 

3 φεύ'γοντες ραον τταρέιτΧευσαν. αί "yap τών 
Χυρακοσιων αί προ τον στόματος νήες ναυμα- 
χοΰσαι βιασάμεναι τάς τών ^Αθηναίων νανς 

^ καΐ before irfpiinAeoi', omitted witli Η and Valla. 
38 



BOOK VII. XXII. i-xxiii. 3 

with those inside the harbour and simultaneously 
attack Plemmjrium, so that the Athenians, thus 
assailed from both directions, might be thrown into 
confusion. But the Athenians, hastily manning sixty 
ships to oppose them, with twenty-five engaged the 
thirty-five Syracusan ships that were in the Great 
Harbour, and with the rest went to meet the squad- 
ron that was sailing round from the ship-yard. And 
so they at once engaged in battle in front of the 
mouth of the Great Harbour, and for a long time 
held out against one another, one side wishing to 
force the entrance, the other to prevent this. 

XXIII. Meanwhile Gylippus, noticing that the 
Athenians on Plemmyrium had gone down to the 
sea and were giving their attention to the sea-fight, 
surprised them by making a sudden attack at day- 
break upon the forts ; and first he captured the 
largest, and afterwards the t\vo smaller ones also, 
their garrisons not awaiting the attack when they 
saw the largest so easilj^ taken. Of the garrison of 
the fort that was taken first, all that succeeded in 
escaping to the boats and to a certain merchant ship 
were rescued and brouglit to camp, but it was with 
diHiculty ; for the Syracusans were at the time 
having the best of the fight with their ships in the 
Great Harbour, and a trireme, and that a fast sailer, 
was sent in pursuit. But when the other two forts 
were taken, the Syracusans, as it chanced, were by 
this time losing the fight, and those who fled from 
these forts had less difficulty in sailing past them. 
For the Syracusan ships that were fighting in front 
of the entrance, after they had forced back the 
Athenian ships, sailed into the harbour in disorder, 
and falling foul of one another made a present of 

39 



THUCYDIDES 

ovBevl κόσμω iaeirXeov και ταραχθείσαι trepi 
άΧΧηΧας irapehoaav την νίκην ΎθΙ<; ^Αθηναίοις. 
ταύτας τε yap έτρεψαν και ύφ' ων το ττρώτον 
i ενικώντο ev τω Χιμενι. και ερΒεκα μεν ναυς των 
Χνρακοσίων κατεΒυσαν καΐ τους ττοΧΧούς των 
άνθρώττων άττέκτειναν, ττΧην όσον εκ τριών νεών, 
ονς εζώ^ρησαν των δε σφετερων τρεις νήες 
Ζίεφθάρησαν. τα Βε vavdjia άνεΧκύσαντες των 
Έ,υρακοσίων καΐ τροπαΐον εν τω νησιΒιω στησαντες 
τω ττρο του ΤΙΧημμυρίου, άνε^ζ^ωρησαν ες το 
εαυτών στρατόττεΖον. 

XXIV. Οί hi ^υρακόσιοι κατά μεν την ναυμα- 
χίαν ούτως επεττρά'^/εσαν, τα δ εν τω ΙΙΧημμνρίω 
τείχ7] εΐ'χον καΐ τρόπαια έστησαν αυτών τρία. 
και το μεν έτερον τοΐν 8υοΐν τειχ^οΐν τοΐν ύστερον 
Χηφθεντοιν κατεβαΧον, τα δέ δύο εττισκευάσαντες 

2 εφρούρουν. άνθρωποι δ εν τών τειχ^ών τη άΧώσει 
άπεθανον καΐ εζω'^/ρηθησαν ποΧΧοι, καΐ 'χ^ρηματα 
ΤΓοΧΧά τα ^ύ μπάντα εάΧω' ώστε yap ταμιειω 
γ^ρω μένων των 'Αθηναίων τοις τεί'χ^εσι ποΧΧά μεν 
εμπόρων χρήματα καΐ σίτος ενήν, ποΧΧα δε και 
τών τριηράρχ^ων, επεί και ιστία τεσσαράκοντα 
τριηρών και τάΧΧα σκεύη ε^κατεΧήφθη καΐ 

3 τριήρεις άνειΧκυσ μεναι τρεις, με^ιστον δε καϊ 
εν τοις πρώτον εκάκωσε το στράτευμα το τών 
^Αθηναίων 7] του ΐΙΧημμυρίου Χήψις' ου jap 
έ'τί ούδ' οί εσπΧοι άσφαΧεΙς ήσαν της ε'τταγωγτ}? 
τών επιτήδειων (οί jap Έ,υρακοσιοι ναυσϊν αυτόθι 
ίφορμοΐιντες εκώΧυον και δια μάχης ηδη iyiyvovTO 
40 



BOOK VII. xxiii. 3-XXIV. 3 

their victory to the Athenians, who routed not only 
this squadron but also the ships by which they were 
at first being beaten inside the harbour. And they 
sank eleven of the Syracusan ships, slaying most of 
the men, except only the crews of three ships, whom 
they took alive ; but of their own ships three were 
destroyed. And drawing up on shore the wrecks of 
the Syracusan ships and setting up a trophy on the 
little island that faces Plemmyrium, they Avithdrew 
to their own camp. 

XXIV. The Syracusans had fared thus in the 
sea-fight, but they held possession of the forts on 
Plemmyrium and set up three trophies for these. 
One of the two forts last taken they demolished, but 
the other two they repaired and garrisoned. In the 
capture of the forts many men were killed or made 
prisoners, and much property in all was taken ; for 
since the Athenians used the forts as a warehouse, 
there were in them many wares belonging to mer- 
chants as Avell as food, and also much property 
belonging to the trierarchs' — in fact the sails and 
other tackle of forty triremes Avere taken there, as 
well as three triremes that had been drawn up on 
shore. But the greatest and most serious blow 
suffered by the Athenian army was the taking of 
Plemm\Tium ; for the work of bringing in provisions 
through the entrance to the harbour could no 
longer be carried on with safetv (since the Syra- 
cusans lying in wait there with ships hindered this, 
and from now on the convoys could only make their 

^ The trierarchs, appointed yearly from a selected list of 
well-to-do citizens, received from the state at the beginning 
of their year of service the bare ship, without rigging @r 
equipment, Λvhich each had to provide for himself. 

41 



THUCYDIDES 

al ζσκομιΒαί), e? re τά άλΧα κατάττΧηζιν irapea^e 
και αθυμιαν τω στρατεύμ,ατι. 

XXV. Μετά he rovro ναν<; re ξκττβμττουσί 
ΒωΒεκα οΐ ^υρακόσιοί και W.yaeap)(ov err αυτών 
Ι^νρακόσιον άργοντα. και αυτών μία μεν βς 
ΥΙεΧοπόννησον ωχετο, ττρεσβεις ά-^ουσα, οίττερ 
τά τε σφετερα φράσουσιν οτι εν εΧτησιν etai 
καΐ τον εκεί ττόΧεμον ετι μάΧΧον εττοτρυνοΰσι 
ηΐ'^νεσθαι• αΐ δέ εν8εκα νήες προς την ΙταΧιαν 
επΧευσαν, ττυνθανόμενοι ττΧοΐα τοί9 ^±\θηναίθίς 

2 Ύεμοντα γ^ρημάτων ττροσττΧεΐν. καΐ των τε 
ττΧοίων ετΓίτυχοϋσαι τα ποΧΧα Βιέφθε/ραν καΐ 
ζύΧα ναυττη^ήσιμα εν Trj ΚαυΧωνιάτίΒι κατε- 

3 καυσαν, α τοις \\θηναίοι<; ετοΐμα ην. ες τε 
Αοκρούς μετά ταύτα ήλθον, και ορμουσών αυτών 
κατεττΧευσε μία τών oXkuScov των άττο ΥΙεΧοττον- 

4 νήσου αηουσα %εσ•ηιών οττΧίτας' καΐ άναΧα- 
βόντες αυτούς οι "ϊ-υρακόσιοι εττϊ τάς ναύς 
τταρέττΧεον βττ' οίκου. φυΧάζαιτες δ' αυτούς οΐ 
^Αθηναίοι είκοσι ναυσΐ ττρος τοις ΑΙε'^/άροις, μιαν 
μεν νανν Χαμβάνουσιν αύτοΐς άν8ράσι, τας 81 
άΧΧας ουκ ε8υνήθησαν, αλλ' ά■πoφεύyoυσιv ες τας 
'^υρακούσας. 

5 'Ky'zvero he καΐ ττερί τών σταυρών άκροβο- 
Χισμος εν τω Χιμενι, ους οι Έ,υρακόσιοί ττρο τών 
τταΧαιών νεωσοίκων κατεπηξαν εν τη θαΧάσση^ 
οττως αύτοΐς αϊ νήες εντός ορμοΐεν καΐ οι Αθη- 
ναίοι επιττΧεοντες μη βΧάτττοιεν εμβάΧΧοντες. 

6 ττροσαηαηόντες ηαρ ναύν μυριοφόρον αύτοΐς ο' 
42 



BOOK VII. XXIV. 3-xxv. 6 

entrance by fighting), and in general this event 
brought consternation and discouragement to the 
army. 

XXV. After this the Syracusans sent out twelve 
ships under the command of Agatharchus, a Syra- 
cusan. One of these headed for the Peloponnesus, 
having on board some envoys who were to explain 
the situation in Sicily, that they were full of hope, 
and to urge the still more vigorous prosecution of 
the war on the continent of Greece. The other 
eleven ships sailed to Italy,^ since they heard that 
boats laden with supplies for the Athenians were 
approaching. And falling in with these boats, they 
destroyed most of them ; and they also burned some 
timber in the territory of Caulonia, which Avas lying 
there ready for the Athenians to use in ship-building. 
After this they went to Locri, and while they were 
lying there at anchor, one of the merchant-ships 
that had sailed from the Peloponnesus arrived in 
port, bringing some Thespian hoplites. Taking 
these on board their ships, the Syracusans sailed 
along the coast toward home. But the Athe- 
nians, Avho were watching for them at Megara with 
twenty ships, captured one ship together Avith its 
crew, but they could not take the rest, which escaped 
to Syracuse. 

skirmishing also occurred in the harbour about the 
piles which the Syracusans drove down in the sea in 
front of their old dockyards with the object that 
the ships might lie moored inside the piles and the 
Athenians might not sail up and ram their ships. 
The Athenians brought up against the piles a ship 

' In Thuc^'dides the term is used only of the part of the 
peninsula south of the river Laus and Metapontura. 

43 



THUCYDIDES 

^Αθηναίοι, TTupyov^ re ξύλινους ί'χονσαν καΧ 
7Γapaφpάyμaτa, βκ re των ακάτων ών€υον 
άναΒούμβΡΟί τους σταυρούς και άνεκΧων κάϊ 
κατακο\νμβωντβ<ί e^errpiov. οι he "Σ^υρακόσιοί 
άτΓΟ των νεωσοίκων εβαΧλ-ον οΐ δ' e« της οΧκάΖος 
αντββαΧλον καΐ τβΧος τους ττοΧλούς των σταυ- 

7 ρων άνεΐΧον οι \\θηναΐοι. ^αΧεττωτάτη δ' ην της 
σταυρώσεως y) κρύφιος• ήσαν yap των σταυρών 
ους ούχ υπερέχοντας της θαΧάσσης κατεττηξαν, 
ώστε 8εινον ην προσττΧεΰσαι, μη ου ττροϊΖων τις 
ώσττερ ττερϊ έρμα ττεριβάΧη την ναύν. άΧΧα και 
τούτους κοΧυμβηταΙ Βυομενοι εζέπριον μισθού. 

8 όμως δ' αύθις οι —υρακόσιοι εσταύρωσαν. ττοΧΧα 
δε και άΧΧα ττρος άΧΧηΧους, οίον είκος των 
στρατό ττε'δω ν βγγ'^'ί όντων και άντιτετ ay μένων, 
εμηχανώντο και άκροβοΧισμοΐς καΐ ττείραις 
τταντοίαις εχρωντο. 

9 "Κττεμψαν δε και ες τας πόΧεις ττρεσβεις οι 
Έ^υρακοσιοι Κορινθίων και Αμττρακίωτών και 
Λακεδαιμονίων, άyyε\Xovτaς την τε του ΥΙΧημ- 
μνρίου Χηψιν καΐ της ναυμαχίας ττέρι ώς ου 
τη των τΓοΧεμίων ίο-χύι μάΧΧον ή τη σφετερα 
ταραχή ησσηθείεν, τά τε αΧ\α 8ηΧώσοντας οτι 
εν εΧτΓίσιν είσι και άξιώσοντας ζυμβοηθείν eV 
αυτούς καΐ ναυσΐ καΐ ττεζω, ώς καΐ τών ^Αθη- 
ναί'ον ττροσΒοκίμων όντων άΧΧη στρατιά και, ην 
φθύσωσιν αυτοί ττρότερον όιαφθείραντες το 

^ About 250 tons. 
44 



BOOK VII. XXV. 6-9 

of ten thousand talents ^ burden on whose deck were 
wooden towers and bulwarks; then from small boats 
they attached ropes to the piles and pulled them 
up with windlasses or broke them off, or else they 
dived down and sawed them off. Meanwhile the 
Syracusans kept hurling missiles at them from 
the dockyards, and they returned the fire from the 
merchant-ship ; and finally the Athenians destroyed 
most of the piles. But the most troublesome part 
of the stockade was that which was out of sight ; 
for there were some of the piles which they had 
driven down so that they did not project above 
the surface of the water, and consequently it was 
dangerous to approach the stockade, for any one if 
he did not look out might impale his ship as on a 
sunken rock. But these also were disposed of by 
divers, who dived down and sawed them off for pay. 
But nevertheless the Syracusans drove their piles 
down again. And they contrived many other devices 
against one another, as might be expected when the 
two armies were in hostile array so near to each 
other ; and they resorted to skirmishing and to 
stratagems of every sort. 

The Syracusans also sent to the Sicilian cities 
Corinthian, Ambraciot and Lacedaemonian envoys, 
to report the capture of Plemmyrium and to exj)lain 
in regard to the sea-fight that they had been 
defeated, not so much by the strength of the enemy, 
as by their own confusion ; and in general they were 
to declare that they were full of hope and to beg 
the cities to give them aid against the enemy with 
both ships and land-forces, seeing that the Athe- 
nians on their part were expecting another army, 
and, if the Syracusans could forestall them by de- 

45 



THUCYDIDES 

τταρον στράτευμα αυτών, ΒιαπεττοΧεμησόμενον. 
καΐ οι μ€ν iv ττ} ^ικεΧία ταύτα βττρασσον. 

XXVI. Ό he Αημοσθενης, eVet ^vveXeyt] αύτω 
το στράτευμα ο eSei εχ^οντα ες την ΧικεΧίαν 
βοηθείν, άρας εκ της Χΐ^ίνης καΐ -πΧεύσας ττρος 
την ΥΙεΧοττοννησον τω τε ΧαρικΧεΐ καΐ ταΐς τριά- 
κοντα ναυσΐ των Αθηναίων ξυμμίσ-'/ει, και 
τταραΧαβοντες των \\ρ~/€ίων οπΧίτας εττΐ τας 

2 ναΰς εττΧεον ες την λακωνικήν' καΐ ττρώτον μεν 
της ^Εττώαύρου τι της Αιμηράς εδηωσαν, έπειτα 
σχόντες ες τα καταντικρύ Κυθ)ίρων της Αακω- 
νικης, ένθα το ιερόν του ΑττόΧΧωνός εστί, της 
τε '^/ής εστίν α εΒηωσαν και ετειγ^ισαν ισθμώΒες 
τι 'χ^ωρίον, ίνα Βη ο'ί τε Είλωτες τών Χακί^αιμο- 
ν'ιων αύτόσε αύτομοΧώσι καΐ άμα ΧησταΙ εζ 
αυτοί), ώσττερ εκ της Πύλοι^, άρττα^ην ττοιώνται. 

3 καΐ 6 μεν Αημοσθένης ευθύς εττειΒη ξυ^κατεΧαβε 
το γ^ωρίον τταρεττΧει εττΐ της Κ,ερκύρας, οττως 
και τών εκείθεν ξυμμάχ^ων τταραΧαβών τον ες 
την ^ικεΧίαν ττΧούν ότι τάγ^ιστα ττοιήται• ό Be 
^αρικΧής ττεριμείνας εως το ■χ^ωρίυν εζετειχ^ισε 
και καταΧίττών φυΧακην αυτού αττεκομιζετο και 
αύτος ύστερον ταΐς τριάκοντα νανσΐν eV οϊκυυ 
και οι \\p'y€ioL άμα. 

XXVII, Άφικοντο 8ε και τών Θρακών τών 
μαχαιροφόρων του Αιακού γένους ες τ ας \\.θηνας 
ττεΧτασταϊ εν τω αύτω θερει τούτω τριακόσιοι 
και ■χ^ίΧιοι, ους εΒει τω Αημοσθενει ες την Ί,ικε- 

2 Χίαν ξυμττΧεΙν. οΊ δ Αθηναίοι, ώς ύστερον ηκον, 
Βιενοούντο αυτούς ττάΧιν Οθεν ηΧθον ες &ράκην 
αποπεμττειν. το 'yap εχ^ειν ττρος τον eK της 

46 



BOOK VII. x.vv. 9-xxvii. 2 

stroying the present army before the new one came, 
the war would be at an end. The forces in Sicily 
were thus occujjied. 

XXVI. But as for Demosthenes/ when the army 
was collected with which he was to bring aid to Sicily, 
he set out from Aegina, and sailing to the Pelo- 
ponnesus effected a junction with Charicles and the 
Athenian fleet of thirty ships. Then taking on 
board some Argive hoplites, they sailed against 
Laconia, ravaging first a part of Epidaurus Limera ; 
then landing on the coast of Laconia opposite 
Cythera, where the sanctuary of Apollo is, they 
ravaged portions of the land and fortified a place 
shaped like an isthmus, in order that the Helots of 
the Lacedaemonians might desert thither and that 
at the same time marauders might make it, as they 
had made Pylos, a base for their operations. Im- 
mediately afterwards, when he had taken part in 
occupying this place, Demosthenes sailed on toward 
Corcyra, in order that he might first take aboard 
some allied troops there, and then make the voyage 
to Sicily as quickly as possible. As for Charicles, he 
waited until he had completed the fortification of 
the place, and then, leaving a garrison there, sailed 
back home with his thirty ships, as did the Argives 
also at the same time. 

XXVII. During this same summer there arrived at 
Athens thirteen hundred peltasts of the dirk-bearing 
Thracians of the tribe of Dii, who were to have 
sailed to Sicily with Demosthenes. But since they 
came too late, the Athenians were disposed to send 
them back to Thrace Λvhence they had come. To 
keep them for the war that was being carried on 

^ Resuming the narrative at ch. xx. 3. 

47 



THUCYDIDES 

Αεκελβίας πόΧεμον αύτού<; ττολυτβλες etjbaiVeTO* 
Βραχμην ηαρ τή<; ήμ€ρα<; €καστος βΧάμβανβν. 

3 €7Γ€ΐ8η jap ή AcKeXeia το μεν ττρώτον νττο τταστ/ς 
της στρατιάς iv τω Oepei τούτω τβΐ'χ^ισθβΐσα, ύστε- 
ρον Be φρουραΐς άπο των ττόΧεων κατά ζια8οχ^ην 
χρόνου ετΓίονσαίς ttj χωρά επωκεΐτο, ττολλά 
ββΧαπτε τους Αθηναίους καΐ εν τοις ττρώτον 
χρημάτων τ οΧεθρω καΐ ανθρώπων φθορά εκά- 

4 κωσε τα ττρά^ματα. ττρότερον μεν yap βρα- 
χεΐαι ^ι^νόμεναι αϊ εσβοΧαΙ τον άΧΧον χρονον 
τΡ)ς yής άποΧαύειν ουκ έκώΧυον τότε he ζυνεχώς 
εττίκαθημενων, και οτε μεν καΐ ττΧεονων ετηόντων, 
ότε δ εζ ανάγκης της ϊσης φρουράς καταθεουσης 
τε την χώραν καΐ Χηστειας ττοιουμενης, βασίΧεως 
τ€ παρόντος του των ΑακεΒαιμονίων Άγιδος•, δς 
ουκ εκ πάρεργου τον πόΧεμον εποιεΐτο, με^άΧα 

5 οΐ ^Αθηναίοι εβΧάπτοντο. της re yap χώρας 
άπάσης εστέρηντο και άνΒραπόΒων πΧεον η 
8ύο μυριάδες ηύτο μοΧηκεσαν , καΐ τούτων ποΧύ 
μέρος χειροτεχναι, πρόβατα τε πάντα άπόΧώΧει 
και υποζύγια' 'ίπποι τε, όσημεραι εξεΧαυνόντων 
των ιππέων, προς τε την ΑεκέΧειαν καταδρομής 
ποιούμενων και κατά την χώραν φυΧασσόντων, οι 
μεν άπεχωΧούντο εν yrj άποκροτω τε και ξυνεχώς 
ταΧαιπω ροΰντες , οι δ' ετιτρώσκοντο. 

XXVIII. "Η τε των επιτηδείων παρακομιΒη εκ 
της Κύβοίας, πρότερον εκ του ίίρωπού κατά yrjv 

48 



BOOK VII. XXVII. 2-xxviii. i 

from Deceleia seemed too expensive, since each 
received as pay a drachma a day. It should be 
explained regarding Deceleia that, from the time 
when it was first fortified during this summer by the 
entire army and was then regularly occu{)ied for the 
annoyance of the country by garrisons furnished by 
the several allied states and succeeding each other 
at fixed intervals of time, its occupation did much 
harm to the Athenians, and by destruction of 
j)roperty and wastage of men was one of the chief 
causes that brought ruin to their cause. For before 
this summer the enemy's invasions, being of short 
duration, did not prevent the Athenians from making 
full use of the land during the rest of tile year ; but at 
this time, the occupation being continuous, the enemy 
sometimes invading the country with a larger force 
and at others the regular garrison overrunning the 
country, as it Avas compelled to do, and carrying 
off booty, while Agis, the king of the Lacedaemonians, 
who was })resent in person, carried on the war in no 
desultory fashion, the Athenians were suffering great 
damage. For they Avere dej)rived of their whole 
territory, more than twenty thousand slaves had 
already deserted, a large proj)ortion of these being 
artisans, and all their small cattle and beasts of 
burden were lost; and now that the cavalry \vere 
sallying forth every day, making demonstrations 
against Deceleia and keeping guard throughout the 
country, some horses were constantly going lame 
because of the rocky ground and the incessant hard- 
ships they liad to endure, and some Avere continually 
being wounded. 

XXV^llI. There was this further disadvantage : the 
bx'inging in of piOvisions from Euboea, which had 

49 



THUCYDIDES 

Bia της Ae/ceXeia? θάσσων ούσα, ττερί Χούνιον 
κατά, θάΧασσαν ττοΧυτβΧης iyLyvero' των δε 
πάντων ομοίως βττακτών βόβΐτο ι) πόΧις, καΐ άντΙ 

2 του τΓοΧις euvat φρονριον κατέστη, ττρος yap 
τη βττάΧξει την μεν ημβραν κατά Βια8ο)^ην οι 
^Αθηναίοι φυΧάσσοντες, την he νύκτα καΐ ζύμ- 
τταντβς ττΧην των ίτητβων, οι μεν εφ' οττΧοις 
Ίτοιούμενοί, οι δ' εττΐ του τβί-χους, καΐ θέρους 

3 καΐ 'χ^ειμώνος εταΧαητωροΰντο. μάΧιστα δ' 
αυτούς εττίβζεν οτι δύο ττοΧεμους άμα είγον, κα\ 
€ς φιΧονίκίαν καθεστασαν τοιαύτην ην ττρίν 
'γενέσθαι, ητηστησεν αν τις άκουσας, το yap 
αυτούς ττοΧίορκου μένους επιτεΐ'χ^ισμω ύττο Πελο- 
ΤΓοννησίων μηΒ" ως άττοστΐιναί εκ '%ικεΧίας, άΧΧα 
εκεί Έ,υρακούσας τω αντω τρυττω άντιττοΧιορκεΐν, 
ττόΧιν ού^έν εΧάσσω αύτην ye καθ^ αύτην τΡ]ς 
των 'Αθηναίων, καΐ τον irapaXoyov τοσούτον 
ΤΓΟίήσαι τοΐς"}^ΧΧησί της Βυνάμεως και τόΧμης, 
όσον κατ άρχ^ας του ττοΧέμου οι μεν ενιαυτόν, οι 
δε Βύο, οι δε τριών ye ετών ούΒεΙς ττΧείω 'χρόνον 
ενόμιζον ττεριοίσειν αυτούς, ει οΙ ΐΙεΧοττοννησιοι 
εσβάΧοιεν ες την χώραν, ώστε ετει έβόόμω καΐ 
Βεκάτω μετά την ττρωτην έσβοΧην ηΧθον ες 
"ΣίκεΧίαν, ηΒη τω ττοΧέμω κατά ττάντα τετρυ- 
'χωμένοί, καΐ πόΧεμον ούΒέν εΧάσσω ττροσανεί- 
'λοντο του πρότερον ύττάρ-χοντος εκ ΥΙεΧοττοννήσ ου . 



5ο 



BOOK VII. χχνπι. 1-3 

formerly been managed more expeditiously by way 
of Oropus overland through Deceleia, now became 
expensive, the route being by sea round Sunium. 
Everything alike which the city needed had to be 
imported, and Athens ceased to be a city and became 
a garrisoned fortress. For the Athenians had to keep 
guard at the battlements, during the day by relays, 
but at night everybody except the cavalry, some 
doing duty at the watch-posts, others uj)on the wall, 
both summer and winter, and so suffered great hard- 
ships. But Λvhat weighed most heavil}' upon them 
Λvas that they had two wars on their hands at the 
same time ; and yet they had been brought to such 
a pitch of determination as no one would have 
credited before it happened, if he had heard of it. 
That they, who were themselves being besieged by 
the Peloponnesians by naeans of a fortress in their 
country, should not even thus abandon Sicily, but 
should in turn be there besieging Syracuse in the 
same manner, a city which taken by itself is not 
smaller than the city of Athens; and that they 
should have caused the Hellenic world to make so 
amazing a miscalculation of their power and daring 
■ — inasmuch as at the beginning of the war some 
thought that they could hold out one year, others 
two years, others longer but never more than three 
years, if the Pelojionnesians should invade their 
country — that in the seventeenth year after the 
ijrst invasion of Attica they should have gone to 
Sicily, when already war-worn in all respects, and 
should have undertaken another war no whit less 
serious than that Λvhich was already being waged 
with the Peloponnesus — this, I say, was incredible. 
For all these reasons, and because at that time 

51 



THUCYDIDES 

4 δί' α καΧ τότε ύττό τε τ% Ae/ceXeta? ττολλα 
βΧατΓτούση'ζ καΐ των άλλων άναΧωμάτων μβ'γά- 
\ων ττροστΓίπτόντων άΒύνατοι eyevovro τοις 
-χρημασι, καϊ την βίκοστην υττο τούτον τον 
χρόνον των κατά ΘάΧασσαν άντϊ του φόρου τοις 
ύττηκοοις εττοίησαν, ττλειω νομίζοντβς αν σφίσι 
■χ^ρήματα ούτω ττροσιεναί,• αϊ μεν yap Βαττάναι 
ούχ^ ομοίως καϊ πριν, άΧΧα ττοΧΧω μβίζονς 
καθβστασαν, οσω καϊ μαζών ο ττόΧβμος ην, αΐ δε 
ττρόσοΒοι άπώλΧυντο. 

XXIX. Ύούς ουν αρακάς τους τω Αημοσθενεί 
ΰστ€ρησαντας, Βια την τταροΰσαν άττορίαν των 
•χ^ρημάτων ου βουΧομενοι Βαττανάν, ευθύς άπ- 
€7Γ€μ7τον, ττροστάζαντβς κομισαι αυτούς Αιειτρεφει 
καϊ είττόντες άμα ev τω τταράττΧγ (εττορεύοντο 
yap δί' ΙίύρίΤΓου) καϊ τους ττοΧεμίους, ην τι 

2 Βύνηται, άττ' αυτών βΧάψαι. ο δε βς τε την 
Tavaypaiav άττεβίβασβν αυτούς καϊ apTrayi'jv 
τίνα €7Γθΐήσατο δίά τάγ^ους, καϊ €Κ ΧαΧκίΒος 
της Κύβοίας αφ' εσπβρας ΒιεττΧευσε τον Κνριττον 
καϊ άποβιβάσας ες την Ί^οιωτίαν rjyev αυτούς 

3 εττϊ ^ΙυκαΧησσόν. καϊ την μεν νύκτα Χαθων 
προς τω Ερμαίω ηύΧίζετο (άπεχ^βί δε της \1υκα- 
Χησσον εκκαΙΒεκα μάΧιστα σταδίου?), άμα δε τη 
ήμερα τη πύΧει προσεκειτο ουση ου μεyάXη, και 
αίρει άφυΧάκτοις le επιπεσων καϊ απ ροσΖοκητοίς 
μη άν τΓοτε τίνα σφίσιν άπο θαΧάσσης τοσούτον 
επαναβάντα επιθεσθαι, του τείχους ασθενούς 
οντος καΐ εστίν /; καϊ πεπτωκοτος, τού δε βρα- 
χεο? ωκοΒομημενου, καϊ πυΧών άμα δίά την 

^ cf. XX νϋ. 1. 
52 



BOOK V^II. xxviii. 4-xxix. 3 

Deceleia was doing them much injury and the 
general expenses which were accruing were very 
great, they became crippled in the matter of money ; 
and it was at this time that they imposed upon their 
subjects, instead of a tribute, a duty of five per cent, 
on all commodities imported or exported by sea, 
tliinking that in this Λvay they should derive more 
revenue. For their expenses were not on the same 
scale as before, but had become far heavier, in pro- 
portion as the Avar had become greater, and their 
revenues were steadily failing. 

XXIX. As for the Tiiracians,^ then, who had 
come too late for Demosthenes, the Athenians im- 
mediately sent them back, being unAvilling on account 
of the present shortage of money to incur expense ; 
and they commissioned Dieitrephes to conduct them, 
giving him instructions to use them, as he sailed 
along the coast (for they would go by way of the 
Euripus), in doing whatever damage he could to the 
enemy. So he disembarked them in the territory of 
Tanagra and made a hasty raid ; then he sailed 
immediately after nightfall from Chalcis in Euboea 
across the Euripus and landing the Thracians in 
Boeotian territory led them against Mycalessus. 
During the night he bivouacked unobserved near 
the sanctuary of Hermes, about sixteen stadia dis- 
tant from Mycalessus, but at daybreak assaulted the 
town, which was not large, and took it ; for he fell 
upon the people oft' their guard and not expecting 
that anybodv would ever march so far inland from 
the sea and attack them ; furthermore, their Avail 
Avas weak, and at some points had even fallen down, 
while elseAvhere it had been built low, and at the 
same time the gates were open because of their 

53 



THUCYDIDES 

4 aSeiav ai'€u)j μέρων, ζσττβσόντε^ he ol SpuKC^ 
69 την \Ινκα\ησσον τάς Τ6 οικίας και τα lepa 
βττόρθονν, καΐ Ύθύ<; άνθρώττονς ^φόνευαν φβώόμβ- 
νοι οΰτβ πρεσβυτέρας οΰτε ιεωτέρας ήΧικίας, 
άΧλα ττάντας έξης, οτω έντύχοιεν, καΐ τταΐΒας 
καΐ Ύυναΐκας κτβίνοντες, καϊ ττροσετί και νττο- 
ζνγια καϊ όσα άΧΧα εμ-^υγ^α thoiev. το yap yevos 
το των (βρακών ομοΐα τοις μάΧιστα του βαρ- 
βαρικού, εν φ αν θαρσήστ], φονικώτατόν εστίν. 

5 καϊ τότε άΧλ,η τε ταρα'χ^η ουκ ιίΧι^η και Ihea 
πάσα καβειστηκει οΧεθρου, καϊ επιπεσόντες 
ΒιΒασκαΧείω παίΖων, όπερ με^ιστον ην αυτόθι 
καϊ άρτι έτυχαν οΐ παΐ8ες εσεΧ7]\υθότες, κατέ- 
κο-^αν πάντας' και ζυμφορα ττ} πόΧει πάστ] 
ούΒεμίας ησσων μάΧΧον ετέρας άΒόκητός τε 
επέπεσεν αύτη καϊ 8εινή. 

XXX. Οι δε Θηβαίοι αισθόμενοι εβοηθουν, 
καϊ καταΧαβοντες προκεχ^ωρηκοτας η8η τους 
βράκας ου ποΧυ την τε Χειαν αφειΧοντο και 
αυτούς φοβήσαντες κατο.8ιωκουσιν επϊ τον JLupi- 

2 πον} ου αύτοίς ταπΧοΙαα ψ/α^εν ωρμει. καΐάπο- 
κτείνουσιν αυτών εν τ?} εσβάσει τους πΧε'ιστους, 
ούτε επισταμένους νεΐν, των τε εν τοις πΧοίοις, 
ώς εώρων τα εν τη yfj, ορμισάντων εξω τοξ- 
εύματος τα πΧοΐα' επεί εν ye τη άΧΧη άνα- 
•χ^ωρήσει ουκ άτοπως οι βράκες προς το των 
Θηβαίων ίππικόν, όπερ πρώτον προσεκειτο, 
προεκθεηντές τε και ζυστρεφόμενοι εν επί'χ^ωρίω 
τάζει την φυΧακην εποιούντο, και oXiyoi αυτών 
εν τούτω Βιεφθάρησαν• μέρος δε τι καϊ εν τη 

' καϊ την θάλασσα•' after Ευρίττυν in the MSS., deleted hy 
Badham ; Stahl deletes rhv Εΐψίπον καί. 

54 



BOOK VII. XXIX. 3-xxx. 2 

feeling of security. So the Thracians burst into 
Mycalessus and fell to plundering the houses and 
the temples and butchering the people, sparing 
neither old nor young, but killing all whom they 
met just as they came, even children and women, 
aye, pack-animals also and whatever other living 
things they saw. For the Thracian race, like the 
worst barbarians, is most bloodthirsty whenever it 
has nothing to fear. And so on this occasion : in 
addition to the general confusion, which was great, 
every form of destruction ensued, and in particular 
they fell upon a boys' school, the largest in the 
town, which the children had just entered, and cut 
down all of them. And this was a calamity inferior 
to none that had ever fallen upon a whole city, and 
beyond any other unexpected and terrible. 

XXX. When the Thebans heard of this event they 
hastened to the rescue, and overtaking the Thracians 
before tliey had advanced far they took away their 
booty and putting them to flight pursued them to 
the Euripus, where the boats which had brought 
them lay at anchor. And most of those who fell 
Avere slain by the Thebans during the embarkation, 
for they could not swim, and the crews of the boats, 
when they saw Avhat was happening on shore, 
anchored the boats beyond bowshot ; for elsewhere 
as they Avere retreating ^ the Thracians made their 
defence against the Theban cavalry, which was the 
first to attack them, not unskilfully, dashing out 
against them and closing up their ranks again after 
the manner of fighting peculiar to their country, and 
in this few of them perished. And a certain number 

^ Thucydides explains why their chief loss was "during 
the embarkation.'' 

55 



THUCYDIDES 

voXei αύττ} 8l άρττα^ην €<γκαταΧηφθ€Ρ άπώΧετο. 
οι Be ξύμτταντβς των &ρακών πεντήκοντα καϊ 
Βιακοσιοί άττο τριακοσίων καϊ γ^ιΧίων άττεθανον• 
3 Βιβφθβίραν 8e καϊ των Θηβαίων καΐ των άΧΧων 
οΐ ξυνεβοήθησαν i<i είκοσι μάΧιστα ίτητεας τ( 
καϊ όττλίτας όμοΰ καϊ (Θηβαίων των βοίωταρχ^ών 
^κιρφώνΒαν των Se Μ,υκαΧησσιων μέρο<^ τι 
4 άττανηΧώθη. τα μεν κατά την ^ΙυκαΧησσον 
πάθει γ^ρησαμενην ούΒενος ώς επΙ με'γεθει των 
κατά τον πόΧεμον ήσσον οΧοφύρασθαι άζίω 
τοιαύτα ξννεβη. 

XXXI. Ό Ζε Αημοσθένί]ς τότε άποπΧεων 
επΙ τή<; Ιίερκύρα'^ μετά την εκ τΓ;? Αακωνικη'ς 
τείχ^ισιν, όΧκά8α ορμούσαν εν Φεια τι) Ήλεί-ωζ^, 
εν fi οι Κ,ορίνθιοι όπΧΐται e? την ΧικεΧίαν 
εμεΧΧον περαιοΰσθαι, αυτήν μεν διαφθείρει, οι 
δ' άνΒρε^ αποφν^όντε'ί υστέρου Χαβόντε^ άΧΧην 

2 επΧεον. καϊ μετά τούτο άφικόμενο^ 6 Αημο- 
σθ(:νης ες την Ζάκυνθον και ΚεφαΧΧηνίαν 
οπΧιτας τε παρεΧαβε και εκ της Ναυπάκτου 
των ^Ιβσσηνίων ματεπεμψατο, καϊ ες την άντιπε- 
ρας ηπειρον της Ακαρνανίας 8ιεβη, ες ^ ΑΧύζειάν 

3 τε και Ανακτόριον, ο αύτοι είχ^ον. οντι δ' 
αύτω περί ταύτα 6 ΕύρυμεΒων άπαντα εκ τΡ]ς 
ΈικεΧίας άποπΧεων, ος τότε του χ^ειμωνος τά 
'χ^ρήματα άηων τη στρατιά άπεπέμφθη, καϊ 
άyyέλXει τά τε άΧΧα καϊ οτι πύθοιτο κατά 
πΧούν ηΒη ων το ΤΙΧημμύριον ύπο των Έυρα- 



^ cf. ch. xxvi. 3. " The port of Olynipia. 

•' cf. ch. xvii. 3 ; xix. 4. 



56 



BOOK VII. XXX. 2-xxxi. 3 

also Avere slain in the town itself, being caught there 
while engaged in plundering. All together there 
were slain of the Thracians two hundred and fifty 
out of thirteen hundred. Of the Thebans and the 
others who took part in the rescue^ in all about 
twenty horsemen and hoplites perished, and among 
them Scirphondas, one of the Theban Boeotarchs ; 
and of the population of Mycalessus a considerable 
portion lost their lives. Such was the fate of My- 
calessus, which suffered a calamity that, for the size 
of the city, was not less deplorable than any of the 
events of this war. 

XXXI. At this time Demosthenes had finished 
building the fort in Laconia and was on his way to 
Corcyra ; ^ at Pheia ^ in Elis he found lying at anchor 
a merchant-ship in which the Corinthian hoplites ^ 
were about to be carried across to Sicily, and 
destroyed it ; but the crew and the hoplites, having 
escaped, afterwards found another vessel, and con- 
tinued their voyage. After this Demosthenes 
arrived at Zacynthus and Cephallenia, where he 
took on board some hoplites and sent to the 
Messenians of Naupactus for others ; he then 
crossed over to the opposite mainland of Acar- 
nania,* to the ports of Alyzeia and Anactorium, 
which the Athenians held. VVhile he Avas attending 
to these matters, he was met by Eurymedon, who 
was returning from Sicily, Λvhither he had been sent 
during the preceding winter ^ with the money for 
tlie army ; and he reported, among other things, 
that when he was already on his return voyage he 
had heard of the capture of Plemmyrium by the 

* The scene of his campaign in the summer of 426 B.C. 
(iii. 94 ff.)• ' cf. ch. xvi. 2. 

VOL. IV. c 57 



THUCYDIDES 

4 κοσίων ίαΧωκό^. άψικνεΐται 8e και Ιίονων 
τταρ' αυτούς, 09 VPX^ Ναυττά^του, ayyeXXwv 
ΟΤΙ αϊ 7Γ€ΡΤ€ και είκοσι νήες των Κ.ορινθίων αϊ 
σφίσιν ανθορμοΰσαι ούτε καταΧνουσι τον ττοΧε- 
μ,ον ^ ναυμαγ^είν τβ μβΧΧουσιν' ττεμπειν ονν €κέ- 
Xevev αυτούς ναν<;, ώ? ούχ Ικανάς ούσας Βυοΐν 
Ββονσας είκοσι τας εαυτίον ττρος τας εκείνων ττέντε 

δ και €Ϊκοσι νανμαγ^εΐν. τω μεν ουν Υ^όνωνι 
Βέκα ναΰς ό Δημοσθένης καΐ ο ΚύρυμεΒων τας 
άριστα σφίσι ττΧεούσας άφ^ ων αύτοΙ είχον ^ 
ξνμπέμτΓονσι ττρος τας εν τγ Ναυττάκτω' αύτοι 
8ε τα ττερί της στρατιάς τον ζύΧΧο^ον ητοιμά- 
ζοντο, Κύρυμε8ων μεν ες την Κ,ερκυραν ττΧεύσας 
και 7Γεντεκαί8εκά τε ναυς ττΧηροΰν κεΧεύσας 
αυτούς καΐ οττΧίτας καταλε^ομενος {ζ^νηρ'χΒ 
jap ή8η Δημοσθένει απ οτ pair ό μεν ας, ωσττερ καΐ 
ηρεθη), ύ^ημοσθένης δ' εκ των ττερι την Άκαρ- 
νανίαν 'χωρίων σφεν8ονήτας τε και άκοντιστάς 
ξυνα^είρων. 

XXXII. Οί δ εκ των Συρακουσών τότε μετά 
την του ΤΙΧημμυρίου ΙΊΧωσιν πρέσβεις οΐχόμενοι 
ες τας πόΧεις, επειΒη έπεισαν τε καΐ ξυνα^εί- 
ραντες εμεΧΧον άξειν τον στρατόν, 6 Νικίας 
προπυθόμενος πέμπει ες των Έ,ικεΧών τους την 
ΒίοΒον έχοντας και ^υμμάχους, Κεντόριπάς τε 
και ΆΧικυαίους καϊ άΧΧους, όπως μη Βιαφρή- 

^ rhv ττόλΐμον deleted by Hude, following Madvig. 
- αφ' ων αυτοί (ϊχον deleted by Hude. 

* Prominent toward the end of the Peloponnesian War and, 
later, restorer of the walls of Athens. 

'^ cf. ch. xvii. 4 ; xix. 5. ^ cf. eh. xxv. 9. 

58 



BOOK VII. XXXI. 3-xxxii. i 

Syracusans. These two were joined by Conon,^ 
who was in command at Naupactus and biOUght 
word that the twenty -five Corinthian shi])s - which 
were lying at anchor opposite tliem did not abandon 
their hostile attitude, but were intending to fight. 
He therefore begged them to send him some ships, 
on the ground that his own eighteen ships were too 
few to contend against the twenty-five of the 
enemy. Accordingly Demosthenes and Eurymedon 
sent with Conon ten ships, the best sailers of all 
their fleet, to reinforce the ships at Naupactus. 
They then directed their own attention to the 
preparations for collecting troops for the expedition, 
Eurymedon sailing to Corcyra, where he made levies 
of hoplites and directed the Corcyraeans to man 
fifteen ships — he was now exercising the joint 
command Λvith Demosthenes, to which he had been 
elected, and turned his face again toward Sicily — 
while Demosthenes gathered slingers and javelin- 
men from the region of Acarnania. 

XXXII. Meanwhile the envoys, who after the 
capture of Plemmyrium had gone from Syracuse to 
visit the cities of Sicily,^ had succeeded in their 
mission, and having raised a body of troops were about 
to bring them home, when, Nicias, hearing of this 
in time, sent word to the Sicels ^ who Avere allies of 
the Athenians and controlled the territory through 
which the troops would have to pass — and these 
were the Centoripes,^ Alicyaeans and others — that 

* Sicels, aboriginal inhabitants of Sicily ; Siceliots, Hellenic 
colonists of Sicily. 

* Centoripa was situated on tlie Syruaethus above Catana 
and about twenty-five miles south-west of Aetna. It is now 
Centorbi (Holm, Gcsch. Sic. i. 68). A town Alieyae in this 
region is unknown. 

59 



THUCYDIDES 

σουσι του? ττοΧεμίους, άΧλα ξνστραφεντες κω\υ- 
σονσι Βΐ€\θ€Ϊν' αλλτ; yap αυτούς ovBe ττειρασειν 
AxpayavTivot yap ουκ iSiSoaav δ<ά της ίαυτών 
2 όδό^. Ίτορβυο μίνων δ' η^η των Έ,ίκβΧιωτών οι 
ΈικεΧοί, καθάττβρ iSeovTo οι ^Αθηναίοι, ivehpav 
τινά τΓΟίησάμβνοί άφνΧάκτοις Τ€ καΐ βξαίφνης 
eTTiyevopevoi Βιέφθειραν 6<? οκτακοσι,ον^ μάΧιστα 
και τους πρέσβεις ττΧην ενός του Κορινθίου 
ττάντας' ουτο<ί he τους 8ιaφυyovτaς, €ς irev- 
τακοσίους καΐ γ^ιΧίους, εκόμοσεν e? τας Έυρα- 
κούσας. 

XXXIII. Και 7Γ€ρϊ τας αύτας ημέρας και οι 
Καμαριναΐοι άφικνοΰνται αύτοίς βοηθοΰντες, ττβν- 
τακόσιοί μεν όττΧΐται, τριακόσιοι he άκοντισται 
καΐ τοζόται τριακόσιοι, βττεμψαν Be και οΐ 
VeXuiOi ναυτικόν τ€, ες ττεντε ναϋς, και άκον- 
τιστάς τετρακόσιους και ίτητεας διακόσιους. 

2 σ-χεΖον yap τι ηΖη πάσα η ΈικεΧία, ττΧην 
ΆκpayavτLvωv, ούτοι δ ούΒε μεθ' έτερων ήσαν, 
οι δ' άΧΧοι εττι τους Αθηναίους μετά των 
Χυρακοσίων οι πρότερον ττεριορώμενοι ξυστάντες 
ε βοηθούν, 

3 Και οι μεν Έ,υρακόσιοι, ώς αύτοΐς το εν τοις 
ΧικεΧοΐς ττάθος εyεvετo, εττεσχ^ον το ευθέως τοις 
^ Αθηναίοις εττιχειρεΐν' ό δε Α7]μοσθενης και 
ΚύρυμεΒων, έτοιμης ηΒη της στρατιάς ουσίας εκ 
τε της Κερκύρας και από της ηπείρου, έπεραιω- 
θησαν ξυμπάση ttj στρατιά τον ^Ιονιον επ 

4 άκραν ^\aπυyίav' και όρμηθέντες αύτόθεν κατ- 
ίσχ^ουσιν ες τάς ΧοιράΒας νήσους 'laπυyίaς, καΐ 



6ο 



BOOK VII. XXXII. i-xxxiii, 4 

tliey should not allow the enemy to pass, but should 
get together and prevent their coming through ; 
they would not, he said, attempt it by any other 
route, since the Agrigentines had refused to give 
tliem passage through their territory. And Avhen 
the Siceliots were already on the march, the Sicels 
did as the Athenians requested, and setting an 
ambush and falling suddenly upon the Siceliots 
while they were off their guard, destroyed about 
eight hundred of them and all the envoys except 
one, the Corinthian ; and he conducted those who 
made their escape, about fifteen hundred in number, 
to Syracuse. 

XXXIII. About the same time the Camarinaeans ^ 
also arrived with reinforcements, consisting of five 
hundred hoplites, three hundred javelin men, and 
three hundred bowmen. The Geloans ^ also sent a 
squadron of five ships and four hundred javelin-men 
and two hundred cavalry. For already almost the 
whole of Sicily — except the Agrigentines, who were 
neutral, but the rest without exception who had 
before been watching the course of events — had 
united with the Syracusans and was giving them aid 
against the Athenians. 

As for the Syracusans, after the disaster that 
happened to them in the country of the Sicels 
they put off their project of attacking the Athenians 
immediately ; but Demosthenes and Eurymedon, 
the army being now ready Avhich tliey had gathered 
from Corcyra and the mainland, sailed with all their 
forces across the Ionian Sea to the lapygian pro- 
montory. Proceeding from there, they touched at 
the Choerades, which are islands of lapygia, and took 

* cf. VI. Ixxxviii. 1, 2. * cf. vi. Ixvii. 2 ; vii. i. 4. 

61 



THUCYDIDES 

άκοντιστάς re τινας των ^Ιαττύγων ττβνΎηκοντα καΐ 
€κατ6ν τον ΜεσσατΓίοι; edvovi αναβιβάζονται, 
€7τΙ τα9 νανς, καΐ τω 'Αρτα, οσττβρ καϊ τους 
άκοντίστας Βυνάστης ων τταρεσχ^βτο αύτοΐ?, 
άνανεωσαμβνου τίνα τταΧαιαν φιΧιαν άφικνονν- 

5 ταί 69 Μβταττόντιον τ?}? Ίταλι'α?. καϊ τους 
^ΙβτατΓοντίους ττβίσαντες κατά το ^νμμαγικον 
άκοντιστάς re ςυμττεμττβίν τριακόσιους καϊ τρι- 
ήρεις Βύο καϊ άναΧαβύντβς ταύτα τταρβπΧευσαν 
69 (^ονριαν. καϊ καταΧαμβάνουσι νβωστΧ στήσει 
τους των ^Αθηναίων εναντίους εκττετΓτωκότας' 

6 καϊ βουΧόμενοι την στρατιαν αυτόθι ττάσαν 
άθροίσαντες εϊ τις ύττεΧεΧεηττο εξβτάσαι καϊ 
τους θούριους ττεΊσαι σφισι ζυστρατεύειν τε 
ώς προθυμότατα και, εττειΒήττερ εν τούτω τύχης 
είσί, τους αυτούς εχθρούς καϊ φίΧους τοις 
^ Αθηναιοις νομίζειν, ττεριεμενον εν ttj Κουρία 
καϊ εττρασσον ταύτα. 

XXXIV. Οί hε ΥΙέΧοττοννησίοι ττερϊ τον αύτον 
χρόνον τούτον οι εν ταΐς ττεντε καϊ εϊκοσι ναυσίν, 
α'ίττερ των όΧκάΒων ένεκα της ες Έ,ικεΧίαν 
κομιΒής άνθώρμουν προς τας εν Ναυπάκτω 
ναύς, τταρασκευασάμενοι ως εττϊ ναυμαχία καϊ 
ττροσττΧηρώσαντες ετι ναύς, ώστε οΧί^ω εΧάσ- 
σους είναι αύτοΐς των Α^ττικών νέων, ορμίζον- 
ται κατά ^Kpiveov της ^Αχαίας εν ττ) 'Ρυπικτ}. 
2 καϊ αύτοίς τού χωρίου μηνοειΖούς οντος εφ' ω 
ώρμουν, ό μεν ττεζος εκατέρωθεν ττροσβεβοηθη- 

62 



BOOK VII. χχχπι. 4-λχχιν. 2 

on board their ships some lapygiaii javelin-men, one 
liundred and fifty in number, belonging to the Mes- 
sapian tribe ; and after they had renewed an old 
alliance of friendship with Artas, who being a 
chieftain there had furnished them with, the javelin- 
men, they arrived at Metapontum in Italy. There 
they persuaded the Metapontines to send with 
them, in accordance with the terms of their alliance, 
three hundred javelin-men and two triremes, and 
taking up these they sailed along the coast to 
Thuria.i At Thuria they found that the faction 
opposed to the Athenians had recently been ex- 
pelled in a revolution ; and as they were desirous, 
after collecting their whole armament at that place, 
to hold a review of it, on the chance that anyone 
had been left behind, and also to persuade the 
Thurians both to take part with tiiem in the 
expedition with all zeal and, in view of the 
Athenians' present good fortune, to regard the same 
persons foes and friends as the Athenians did, they 
waited at Thuria and dealt with these matters. 

XXXIV. About this same time the Pelopon- 
nesians in the twenty-five ships which lay facing 
the Athenian fleet at Naupactus in order to cover 
the passage of the merchant-ships to Sicily, having 
made preparations for a fight and having manned 
some additional ships, so that theirs were now but a 
little fewer than the Athenian ships, anchored off 
Erineus - in Achaea in the district of Rhypae. The 
place where they were anchored was crescent- 
shaped, and the land army, consisting of the 

^ The city, not the country. Steph. Byz. says that the 
name of the city was written Θουρία and Θούριον as well as 
Θοίρωι. ^ A small place east of Rhium. 

63 



THUCYDIDES 

«ότ69 TO)v re Κορινθίων καΙ τό)ν αύτόθεν ζυμμ,ά- 
χων €7γΙ τα69 άν€χούσαί^ άκραι<ί τταρετβτακτο, 
αϊ Be νήες το μεταξύ είχον έμφάρξασαι' ηρχε 

3 δε του ναυτικού ΤΙοΧυάνθης Ινορίνθιος. οΐ 
δ' * Αθηναίοι €κ της Καυττάκτον τριάκοντα ναυσΐ 
και τρισίν (ηρχ€ δε αυτών ΑίφιΧος) βττέττΧευ- 

4 σαν αύτοΐς. καΐ οι Κορίνθιοι το μεν ττρώτον 
ησύχαζον, €7Γ€ίτα άρθέντος αντοΐς του σημβίου, 
ε'ττεί, καιρός iSoKet elvai, ωρμησαν ε'ττΐ τους 
^Αθηναίους και βνανμάχουν. καΐ χρόνον αντεΐ- 

5 χον τΓοΧύν ά\\ή\οις• καΐ των μβν Κορινθίων 
τρείς νήες Βιαφθείρονται, των δε Αθηναίων 
κατεΒυ μεν ούΖεμία άττΧώς, επτά δε τίνες άττΧοι 
iyevovTO, άντητρωροι εμβαΧΧομεναι καΐ άναρ- 
payeiaai τας τταρεξειρεσιας ύττο των Κορινθίων 
νεών ε'τΓ αύτο τούτο τταχυτέρας τας επωτίΒας 

6 εχουσών• νανμαχήσαντες δε άντίτταΧα μεν καΐ 
ώς αυτούς εκατερους άξιοΰν νικαν, 'όμως δε των 
ναυα'^ίων κρατησάντων των ^Αθηναίων δία τε 
την του άνεμου άττωσιν αυτών ες το ττελαγος 
καΐ 8ια την τών Κορινθίων ούκετι εττανα'^ωηήν, 
Βιεκρίθτησαν άττ αΧΧηΧων, καΐ Ηωξις ούΒεμία 
ε^/ενετο, ουΚ άνΖρες ούΒετέρων εάΧωσαν' οι μεν 
ηαρ Κορίνθιοι καΐ ΥίεΧοττοννήσιοι ττρος τη yfj 
ναυμαχούντες ραΒίως ^ Βιεσωζοντο, τών δε \\θη- 

7 ναίων ούΒεμία κατεόυ ναύς. άττοττΧευσάντων 
δε τών ^Αθηναίων ες την Ναύττακτον οΐ Κορίν- 
θιοι ευθύς τροτταΐον έστησαν ώς νικώντες, ότι 

^ ρ:ι5ίω$ with Vat. Hude reads κλ\ Οίΐσί^ζιντο with 
most MSS. 



64 



BOOK VII. XXXIV. 2-7 

Corinthians and tlie allies from the neighbourhood, 
having come to their support, was drawn up on 
either side of them on the projecting headlands, 
while the ships held the intervening space blocking 
the entrance ; and the commander of the fleet was 
Polyanthes, a Corinthian. Against these the Athe- 
nians sailed out from Naupactus with thirty-three 
ships under the command of Diphilus.^ At first the 
Corinthians kept quiet ; then the signal was raised, 
when the moment seemed favourable, and advancing 
against the Athenians they engaged them. And for 
a long time they withstood one another. Three 
ships of the Corinthians were destroyed ; of the 
Athenian ships, none was sunk outright, but some 
seven were rendered unseaworthv, being struck full 
in front and having their foreships stove in by the 
Corinthian galleys, which had their catheads ^ 
thicker for this very purpose. The fight was un- 
decided, so that either side claimed the victory — 
although the Athenians got possession of the wrecks 
because the wind drove these out to sea and the 
Corinthians no longer advanced against them — and 
they drew apart from one another. And no pursuit 
Λν35 made, nor were prisoners taken on either side ; 
for the Corinthians and Peloponnesians were fighting 
near the shore and thus easily saved themselves, 
and on the side of the Athenians no ship was sunk. 
But when the Athenians had sailed back to Nau- 
pactus, the Corinthians at once set up a trophy in 
token of victory, because a larger number of the 

^ He seems to have brought a reinforcement of fifteen 
ships and to have superseded Conon {cf. eh. xxxi. 4). 

* Beams projecting on either side of the beak and serving 
to strengthen it. The anchors hung from them. 

65 



THUCYDIDES 

ττλβίου? των ivavr'iwv ναύς άττΧου^ βττοίησαν 
καΐ νομίσαντ€•ί δί' αύτο ούχ^ ησσάσθαυ hC oirep 
ούΒ' οι erepoi νικάν' ο'ί τ€ yap ]ίθβίνθιοι ηγη- 
σαντο κρατβΐν, el μί] ττοΧύ βκρατούντο, οΓ τ 
^Αθηναίοι βνομιζον ησσάσθαι, el μη ττοΧύ ενικών. 
8 (ΐττοττΧευσάντων 8e των ΤΙεΧοττοννησίων και τον 
7Γ6ζον ΒίαΧυθέντος οΐ Αθηναίοι έστησαν τροπαΐον 
καΐ αύτοΙ ev ττ) Ά^αί'α ojs" νικήσαντες, άττεγ^ον 
του Ερινεοΰ, εν ώ οί Κορίνθιοι ώρμουν^ ώ? είκοσι 
σταΒίους. καΐ η μεν ΐ'αυμαχ^ία οΰτως ετεΧεύτα• 

XXXV. Ό 8ε Δημοσθένης και ΚύρυμέΒων, 
εττειΒη ξυστρατεύειν αύτοΐς οι Ηούριοι τταρεσκευά- 
σθησαν επτακοσίοις μεν οττΧίταις, τριακόσιοι^ δε 
άκοντισταΐς, τάς μεν ναΰς παραπΧεΐν εκεΧευον 
ετΓΐ της Κροτωνιάτιδος, αύτοϊ δβ τον ττεζον πάντα 
εζετύσαντες ττρώτον εττι τω Χνβάρει ττοταμω rjyov 

2 8ιά της &ουριάΕος γΓ;ς• καΐ ώς eyevovTO εττΙ τω 
Τλια ττοταμω καΙ αύτοίς α Κ,ροτωνιάται ττροσ- 
ττέμψαντες είπαν ουκ αν σφισι βουΧομενοις είναι 
8ιά της 'γης σφών τον στρατον ίεναι, επικατα- 
βάντες ηύΧίσαντο προς την θάΧασσαν και την 
εκβοΧην του 'ΎΧίου' καΐ αϊ νήες αύτοΐς ες το 
αύτο άπήντων. τη δ' ύστεραία άναβιβασάμενοι 
παρέπΧεον, ϊσχοντες προς ταΐς πόΧεσι πΧην 
Αοκρών, εως άφίκοντο επι ΙΙέτραν της Ύ*Ί]'γίνης. 

XXXVI. Οί' δέ Έ,υρακύσιοι εν τούτω πυνθα- 
νόμενοι αύτων τον επίπΧονν αύθις ταΙς ναυσϊν 
άποπειράσαι εβούΧοντο καΐ τη άΧΧη παρασκευή 
του πεζού, ηνπερ επ" αύτο τούτο, πρϊν εΧθεΙν 

^ cf. ch. xxxiii. 6. 
66 



BOOK VII. XXXIV. 7- XXXVI. I 

enemy's ships had been disabled by them, and they 
considered that they liad not been beaten for the 
very reason that made the other side consider them- 
selves not victorious. For the Corinthians regarded 
themselves as conquerors if they were not decisively 
beaten, and the Athenians considered themselves 
defeated if they were not decisively victorious. 
When, however, the Peloponnesians had sailed away 
and their army on land had dispersed, the Athenians 
also set up a troj)hy in token of victory, in Achaea 
at a distance of about twenty stadia from Erineus, 
where the Corinthians were formerly stationed. 
And so the sea-fight ended. 

XXXV. Demosthenes and Eurymedon,i when the 
Thurians had been induced to join in the campaign 
with them Avith seven hundred hoplites and three 
hundred javelin-men, gave orders that the ships 
should sail along the coast toward the territory 
of Croton, while they themselves, after first re- 
viewing all their land forces at the river Sybaris, 
advanced through the territory of Thuria. And 
when they came to the river Hylias and the Croto- 
niates sent word to them that their army could not 
go through their territory with their consent, they 
went down and bivouacked near the sea at the 
mouth of the Hylias ; and their ships met them at 
that point. On the next day they embarked their 
army and proceeded along the coast, touching at the 
various cities, with the exception of Locri, until they 
reached Petra in the territory of Rhegium. 

XXXVI. The Syracusans, meanwhile, hearing of 
their approach, wished to make another trial with 
their fleet, and also with their land-force, which they 
had been collecting for the very purpose of striking 

67 



THUCYDIDES 

2 αντου<; φθάσαι βουΧόμενοι, ^uviXeyov. τταρβ- 
σκ€υάσαντο Be τό re άΧλο ναυτικον ώ? e'/c τ^9 
7rpoTepa<; ρανμαχ^ία<; τί ττΧβον evelZov σχ^7]σοντ€<;, 
καϊ τας πρώρας των νβών ξυντ6μοντες e? 'έΧασσυν 
στ€ρίφωτ€ρας ζττοίησαν, καϊ τάς βττωτ'ώας eire- 
θεσαν ταΐς ττρωραις τταχε/ας, καϊ άντηρί8α<; αττ 
αντων υ7Γ€Τ€ΐναν ττρος τους τοίχους ώς eVl €ξ 
•πήχεις βντός re καϊ 'έζωθβν ωπερ τροττω καϊ 
oi Κ.ορίνθίθΐ ττρος τας ev ττ) Νανττάκτω ναύς 

3 εττεσκενασμενοι πρωραθβν βναυμάχονν βνομισαν 
yap οι ^υρακόσίΟί ττρος τάς των 'Αθηναίων 
ναΰς ούχ ομοίως άντινεναυττη^ημενας, άΧΧα 
ΧβτΓτα τα ττρωραθεν έχουσας δια τό μη άντι- 
πρωροι,ς μάΧΧον αυτούς ή βκ ττεριιτΧου ταΐς 
εμβοΧαΐς χρήσθαι, ουκ εΧασσον σχησειν, καϊ 
την εν τω με^άΧω Χιμενί ναυμαχίαν, ουκ εν 
τΓοΧΧω ττοΧΧαΐς ναυσίν ουσαν, προς εαυτών 
εσεσθαι' άντιπρωροις yap ταΐς εμβοΧαΐς χρώ- 
μενοι άναρρηζειν τα πρωραθεν αύτοΐς, στερίφοις 
καϊ παχεσί προς κοΐΧα και ασθενή παίοντες 

4 τοις εμβόΧοις• τοις δε ^ Αθηναίο ις ουκ εσεσθαι 
σφών εν στενοχώρια ούτε περιπΧουν οΰτε 8ιεκ- 
πΧουν, ωπερ της τέχνης μάΧιστα επίστευον' 
αυτοί yap κατά τό Βυνατον το μεν ου Ζώσειν 
ΒιεκπΧεΐν,^ το Βε την στενοχωρίαν κωΧύσειν 

' Deleted by Hude, following Cobet, as probably not read 
by the Schol. 

^ i.e. did not attack front to front with the prow, but 
sailed round {inpiirXous) and struck the hostile ship in the 

68 



BOOK VII. XXXVI. 1-4 

a blow before the Athenian reinforcements came. 
They liad prepared the fleet generally in such a way 
as, after the experience of the former sea-fight, 
seemed likely to offer some advantage, and in 
particular had shortened the prows of the ships, and 
had made them stouter by attaching to them 
thick catheads and stretching underneath stay- 
beams extending from them to the ships' sides for 
the length of six cubits both inside and outside 
the vessel, adopting the same plan as that followed 
by the Corinthians when they reconstructed their 
ships at the prows for the battle fought against the 
Athenian fleet at Naupactus. For the Syracusans 
thought that, in a contest Λvith the siiips of the 
Athenians which had not been built in the same 
manner for defence against their own, but were of 
light structure about the prows, inasmuch as the 
Athenians did not use pro\v-to-prow attacks so 
much as deploying and ramming the sides ^ — they 
themselves Avould not be at a disadvantage, and 
that the fighting in the Great Harbour, where there 
would be many ships in a narrow space, would be 
favourable to them ; for by employing prow-to-prow 
attacks they would crush the prows of the enemy's 
ships, striking as they would with beaks stout and 
solid against ΙιοΙΙοΛν and weak ones. The Athenians, 
on the other hand, would not find it possible in the 
narrow space to use either the deploying or the 
breaking-through manoeuvre, on their skilled use of 
which they depended most ; for they themselves 
would as far as possible give them no opportunity of 
using the latter, and the narrow space would prevent 

side. The δίΕκπλοιυ was breaking through the line so as to 
ram the enemy's ship in the flank or astern. 

69 



THUCYDIDES 

5 ώστε μη TrepiTrXelv. rfj re Trporepov άμαθία 
των κνββρνητων Ζοκούστ} elvai, τω αντίττρωρον 
ξνγκροΰσαι, μάΧιστ αν αύτοΙ χ/3>;σασ^αί• ττΧεΐ- 
στυν yap iv αύτω σγ^ήσειν' την yap άνάκρουσιν 
ουκ βσεσθαι τοΐ<; Αθηναίοι,ς βξωθουμβνοις άΧλοσβ 
η €9 την yrjv, και ταύτην Βι oiXiyov και €9 
oXiyov, κατ^ αυτό το στρατόττΐΖον το εαυτών 

6 του δ' αΧλου Χιμβνος αυτοϊ κρατήσ€ΐν. καΐ 
ξυμφ€ρομ€νους αύτού<ί, ην ττη βιάζωνται, €ς 
oXiyov τβ καϊ ττάντας e? το αυτό, ττροσττί- 
τττοντας άΧΧηΧοις ταράξεσθαί {οττερ και ββΧατττβ 
μάΧιστα τους 'Αθηναίους iv άττάσαις ταΐς ναυμα- 
χίαί?, ουκ ούσης αύτοΐς ες ττάντα τον Χιμίνα 
της άνακρούσβως, ώσττβρ τοις Έυρακοσίοις)' wepi- 
ττΧβΰσαι Be €ς την εύρνχ^ωρίαν, σφών βγ^όντων 
την εττίτΓΧζυσιν άττο του ^τeXάyoυς Τ€ και άνά- 
κρουσιν, ου Βυνήσεσθαι αυτούς, άΧΧως τ€ και 
του ΤΙΧημμυριου ττοΧβμιου re αύτοίς €σομενου καϊ 
του στόματος ου μeyάXoυ οντος του Χιμίνος. 

XXXVII. Ύοιαΰτα οι Έ,υρακόσιοι προς την 
εαυτών εττιστημην τβ και Βύναμιν έτηνοή- 
σαντες και άμα τεθαρσηκότες μαΧΧον ηΒη άττο 
της ττροτίρας ναυμαχ^ίας επεχείρουν τω τε 
2 ττεζω άμα και ταΐς ναυσ'ιν. καϊ τον μεν ττεζον 
oXiyo) πρότερον τον εκ της πόΧεως ΤύΧιτητος 
7ο 



BOOK VII. XXXVI. 4-XXXV11. 2 

them from deploying. But on the other hand 
they themselves would chiefly employ that method 
of crashing into their opponents prow to prow 
which had formerly been imputed to the ignorance 
of their pilots, because they would find it greatly to 
their advantage to do so ; for it would not be 
possible for the Athenians, if forced out of line, to 
back water in any other direction than towards the 
land, and that, too, for only a short distance and to 
a short stretch of shore — the space in front of their 
own camp — inasmuch as the Syracusans would 
command the rest of the harbour. And the enemy, 
if they were forced to yield at any point, would be 
driven together into a small space and all to the 
same point, so that they would fall foul of each 
other and be thrown into confusion — the very thing 
that caused the Athenians most damage in all the 
fighting there, since it \vas not possible for them, as 
it was for the Syracusans, to back water to any part 
of the harbour. The Syracusans saw, moreover, 
that the Athenians would not be able to sail i-ound 
into open water, since they themselves would 
control not only their entrance into the harbour 
from the sea outside, but also their backing out of 
the harbour into the sea, especially as Flemmyrium 
would be hostile to them and the mouth of the 
harbour was not large. 

XXXVII. Such were the devices adopted by the 
Syracusans as appropriate to their own skill and 
strength, and at the same time they had now gained 
greater confidence as the result of the former sea- 
fight ; so they made their preparations to attack 
simultaneously by land and by sea. And a short 
time before the fieet left its station Gylippus led 

71 



THUCYDIDES 

TTpoe^aya'ycuV Trpoaijye τω τ€ίχ€ΐ των ^Αθηναίων, 
καθ^ 'όσον προς την ττοΧιν αυτού εώρα' καΐ οι 
άτΓο του ΌΧυμτΓΐβίου, ο'ί re οττΚίται όσοι Ικύ 
ήσαν και ο'ι Ιττττής και ή 'γυμνητεία των '%υρα- 
κοσίων, €Κ του βπϊ θάτβρα τΐροσ-ήει τω τείχει• 
αί Se vrj€<; μ€τά τοΰτο εύθυ<; eire^eTrXeov των 

3 Έυρακοσίων και ξυμμάχ^ων. καΐ οι Αθηναίοι το 
ττρωτον αυτούς οΐόμενοι τω ττβζω μόνω ττειρά- 
σειν, όρωντες Βε και τας ναΰς εττιφερομενας άφνω, 
εθορυβουντο, καΐ οι μεν επι τα τείχ^η και προ 
των τει-χων τοις προσιοΰσιν άντιπαρετάσ σοντο, 
οι 8ε προς τους από του ^ΟΧυμπιείου και των 
εξω κατά τά-χος •χ^ωρουντας Ιππέας τε ποΧλούς 
και άκοντιστάς άντεπεζησαν, άΧΧοι δβ τας ναύς 
επΧηρουν, και άμα επι τον aiyiaXov παρεβοη- 
θουν, και επει8η πΧηρεις ήσαν, άντανη^ον 
πέντε και εβ^ομηκοντα ναΰς' καΐ αί των Ί,υρα- 
κοσιων ήσαν ό^^οήκοντα μάΧιστα. XXXVIII. 
Ύης δε ημέρας επι ποΧύ π ροσπΧεοντες και 
άνακρουομενοι ^ πειράσαντες άΧΧηΧων και ούΒέ- 
τεροί δυνάμενοι άξιον τι Χό^ου παραΧαβεΐν, ει μη 
ναύν μιαν ή 8ύο των ^Αθηναίων οΐ Χυρακοσιοι 
καταΒύσαντες, Ζιεκρίθησαν και ό πεζός άμα από 
των τειχ^ων άπήΧθεν. 

2 Τ^ δ' ύστεραία οι μεν ^υρακόσιοι ήσύχ^αζον, 
ου^εν δηΧοΰντες οποίον τι τό μεΧΧον ποι^ίσουσιν 
6 Βε Νικίας ιΒων άντίπαΧα τα "^ της ναυμα)(ίας 
'γενόμενα και εΧπίζων αυτούς αύθις επιχειρησειν, 
τους τε τριηράρχ^ους ηνά^καζεν επισκευάζειν τάς 
ναύς, εϊ τις τι επεπονήκει, και οΧκάΒας προ- 



^ καϊ before ireipa(TavT€s in the MSS., deleted by Classen. 
^ τά rrjS with BH, Hude rf/s. 



72 



BOOK VII. XXXVII. 2-xxxviii. 2 

out the land-force from the city and brouglit it up 
against that part of the Athenians' wall that faced 
the city ; and the troops stationed at the Olyrupieium 
— all the hoplites that were there and the cavalry 
and the light-armed forces of the Syracusans — 
advanced against the wall from the other side ; and 
immediately after this the ships of the Syracusans 
and their allies sailed out against the Athenian 
fleet. The Athenians, Λνΐιο at first thought that the 
enemy would make an attempt with his land-forces 
only, were thrown into confusion when they saw the 
ships also suddenly bearing down upon them. Some 
arrayed themselves upon the walls and in front of 
them to meet their assailants there ; others went out 
to confront the forces that were rapidly advancing 
from the Olympieium and the country outside, consist- 
ing of cavalry in large numbers and javelin-men ; and 
still others began to man the ships or to run down 
to the beach to give aid. And when the vessels 
were manned they put out to meet the Syracusans 
with seventy -five ships ; the ships of the Syracusans 
numbering about eighty. XXXVIII. But after 
they had skirmished with one another for a great 
part of the day, advancing and backing away, and 
neither side was able to win any advantage worth 
mentioning, except that the Syracusans sank one or 
two of the Athenian ships, they separated ; and the 
land-force at the same time withdrew from the walls. 
On the next day the Syracusans kept quiet, 
giving no indication of what they would do next. 
Nicias, on the other hand, seeing that the issue of 
the sea-fight had been a draw and expecting the 
enemy to attack again, compelled the trierarchs to 
repair their ships, in case any had suffered damage, 

73 



THUCYDIDES 

ώρμισβ προ του αφετέρου σταυρώματος, ο αύτοΐ<ί 
προ των νέων άντϊ \ipevos κΧγστοΰ ev ττ} 

3 θαΧάσστ] ζπβπψ/ει. ΒιαΧειπούσας δε τάς οΧκά- 
δας όσον 8ύο πΧβθρα αττ' άλΧήΧων κατεστησβν, 
όπως, et τις βιάζοιτο ναΰς, εϊη κατάφβυξις 
άσφαΧης καΐ πάΧιν καθ' ησυχίαν εκπΧους. 
παρασκευαζόμενοι Βε ταύτα οΧην την ήμέραν 
ΒιετέΧεσαν οι 'Αθηναίοι μέχρι νυκτός. 

XXXIX. Τ^ δ' υστεραία οι —υρακόσιοι της 
μεν ώρας πρωτερον, τη 8έ επιχειρήσει τη αύτη 
του τε πεζού καΐ τού ναυτικού προσέμισ'^/ον 

2 τοις Άθηναίοις, καΐ άντικαταστάντες ταις ναυσΐ 
τον αυτόν τρόπον αύθις επϊ ποΧύ hiriyov της 
ημέρας πειρώμενοι άΧΧΊ^Χων, πρΙν 8η Άριστων ο 
ΐΐυρρίχου Κ^ορίνθιος, άριστος ων κυβερνήτης των 
μετά "Συρακοσίων, πείθει τους σφετέρους τού 
ναυτικού άρχοντας, πέμψαντας ώς τους εν τη 
ποΧει επιμεΧομένους κεΧεύειν Οτι τάχιστα την 
άιγοραν τών πωΧον μένων επι την θάΧασσαν μετα- 
στήσαι κομίσαντας, και όσα τις έχει έ8ώ8ιμα, 
πάντας εκεΐσε φέροντας avajKaaai πωΧεΙν, 
όπως αυτού εκβιβάσαντες τους ναύτας ευθύς 
πάρα, τας ναύς άριστοποιησωνται και Βι" όΧί'^/ου 
αύθις και αυθημερόν άπ ροσ8οκητοις τοις Άθη- 
ναίοις επιχειρώσιν. 

XL. Κα ι οι μεν πεισθέντες έπεμψαν άγγεΧον, 
καϊ η ayopa παρεσκευάσθη, καΐ οι ^υρακόσιοι 
εξαίφνης πρύμναν κρουσάμενοι πάΧιν προς την 
ποΧιν έπΧευσαν, και ευθύς εκβάντες αυτού 

2 άριστον εποιούντο• οι δ' 'Αθηναίοι νομίσαντες 
αυτούς ώς ήσσημένους σφών προς την πόΧιν 



74 



BOOK νΠ. XXXVIII. 2-xl. 2 

and anchored merchant-ships in front of the 
Athenian stockade, which had been planted in the 
sea in front of their ships to serve in place of an 
enclosed harbour. These merchant-ships he placed 
at intervals of about two hundred feet from one 
another, in order that any ships which should be 
hard pressed might find safe refuge inside and 
again sail out at leisure. In these preparations the 
Athenians spent the whole day until nightfall. 

XXXIX. On the day following the Syracusans 
came into conflict Avith the Athenians at an earlier 
hour, but using the same offensive as before both by 
land and by sea. The two fleets faced one another 
in the same fashion and again spent a great part of the 
day in skirmishing, until at last Ariston son of Pyrrhi- 
chus, a Corinthian, the best pilot of the Syracusan 
fleet, persuaded the commanders of the Syracusan 
naval forces to send word to the oflicers in control 
in the city and request them to move down to the 
shore as quickly as possible the market in which 
goods are offered for sale, forcing all the hucksters 
to bring there whatever food supplies they had and 
sell them, in order that the crews might land and 
at once take dinner close to the ships, and then 
after a short interval on the same day make a 
second attack on the Athenians when they were 
not expecting it. 

XL. The Syracusan commanders accordingly, 
being won over to this plan, sent a messenger, and 
the market was prepared. Then the Syracusans, 
suddenly rowing astern, sailed back to the city, 
where they disembarked and at once made their 
dinner on the spot. But the .Athenians, thinking 
that the enemy had withdrawn to the city because 

75 



THUCYDIDES 

άνακρουσασθαί, καθ ησνχίαν εκβάντ6<; τα re 
άλλα Βιεττράσσοντο καΐ τα άμφΐ το άριστον, ως 
της ye ήμβρας ταύτης ούκέτί οίόμενοι αν νανμα- 
χ^ήσαι. βξαίφνης δέ οΊ Έυρακόσιοι ττΧηρώσαντζς 
τάς νανς iireTrXeov αύθις' οι he Sea ττοΧλοΰ θορύβου 
καΐ ασίτοι οι πΧείους ovSevl κόσμφ €σβάντ€ς 
μόΧις 7Γ0Τ€ άντανί'ρ/οντο. καΐ χρόνον μβν τίνα 
άτΓβσχ^οντο άΧληΧων φυΧασσομβνοί• έπειτα ουκ 
iSoKei τοις ^Αθηναίοις ύττο σφών αυτών ΒιαμέΧ- 
Χοντας κόπω άναΧίσκβσθαι, άΧΧ eVt^eipeiy οτι 
τάγ^ιστα, καΐ ετηφερόμενοι e« τταρακέΧεύσεως 
εναυμάχουν. οΐ Be Έ,υρακόσιοι Βεξάμενοι καΐ ^ 
ταΐς τ€ ναυσϊν άντατρωροις 'χ^ρώμενοι, ώσττβρ 
Βΐ€νο7ίθησαν, των εμβόΧων ττ] τταρασκευτ] avep- 
ρη^νυσαν τας των ^Αθηναίων ναύς errl ττοΧύ της 
τταρεξειρεσίας, καΐ οι άττο των καταστρωμάτων 
αύτοίς άκοντίζοντες με^άΧα εβΧατττον τους 
Αθηναίους, ποΧύ δ' ετι μείζω οι εν τοις Χετττοΐς 
ττΧοίοις τΓερίττΧβοΐ'τες των Έ,υρακοσίων καΐ ες 
Τ€ τους ταρσούς ύποτητττοντες των ττοΧεμίων 
νεών καΐ ες τα TrXayia τταρατιΧεοντες καΐ εζ 
αυτών ες τους ναύτας άκοντίζοντες. 

XLI. ΎεΧος he τούτω τω τρόπω κατά κράτος 
ναυμαχοϋντες οι ^υρακόσιοι ενίκησαν, καΐ οι 
'Αθηναίοι τραπόμενοι hia των όΧκάΒων την 
κατάφευξιν έποιούντο ες τον εαυτών ορμον. αϊ 
hk των Χυρακοσίων νΡ]ες μέχρι μεν τών όXκάhωv 

^ κα). deleted hy van Herwerden, followed by Hude. 



^ Doubtless through the port-holes through which the oara 

passed. 

76 



BOOK VII. XL. 2-XlA. 2 

they believed themselves to be outmatched, dis- 
embarked at their leisure and busied themselves 
with various other duties as well as with their dinner, 
in the belief that for that day at least there Avould 
be no more fighting at sea. But suddenly the 
Syracusans manned their ships and again sailed 
against them ; Λvhereupon the Athenians, in great 
confusion and most of them without food, embarked 
in disorder and at last with much ado got 
under weigh. For some time they held off from 
one another, keeping on their guard ; but after 
a while the Athenians thought it unwise, by further 
delay, to exhaust themselves with fatigue by their 
own act, and decided to attack as quickly as possible, 
and accordingly bore doΛvn upon the enemy and 
with a cheer began the fight. The Syracusans 
received them, and employing their ships in prow- 
to-prow attacks, as they had planned to do, with 
their specially prepared beaks stove in the forward 
parts of the Athenian vessels for a considerable 
distance, while the men on the decks hurled their 
javelins at the Athenians and inflicted great damage 
upon them. But far greater damage was done by 
the Syracusans who rowed around in light boats, 
darted under the oar-banks of the hostile ships, and 
running up alongside hurled javelins from their 
boats in among the sailors.^ 

XLI. Finally, by pursuing this manner of fighting 
with all their strength, the Syracusans won, and the 
Athenians took to flight, endeavouring to make 
their escape through the line of merchant-ships ^ 
into their own place of anchorage. The Syracusan 
shijis pursued them hotly as far as the merchant- 

* cf. ch, xxxviii. 2. 

77 



THUCYDIDES 

ΐττβ^ίωκον €7Γ€ΐτα αυτούς αϊ κβραΐαι υττβρ των 
€σττ\ων αί άττο των οΧκάΒων ΖβΧφινοφόροί 

3 ηρμβναί εκώΧνον. 8ύο δέ νήα των Έ,υρακυσίων 
€7ταιρόμ€ναι rfj vlkt} ιτροσεμειζαν αυτών eyyv^ 
καΐ Βίβψθάρησαν, καΐ η ετβρα αυτοί'; άνΖράσιν 

4 βάλω. καταΒύσαντε'ί δ οί ^υρακόσιοι των \\θη- 
ναίων €7Γτά ναΰ<; καΐ κατατρανματίσαντβς ττολ- 
λάς, άνδρας τε τους μβν ττολλοι)? ζω^ριίσαντί^;, 
του? 8e άττοκτείναντες άττε'χ^ώρησαρ, καϊ τροτταΐά 
τ€ αμφοτέρων των ναυμαχιών έστησαν καΐ την 
ελττ/δα ηδη εχ^νράν είχον ται? μεν ναυσΐ ττοΧύ 
κρείσσου<; είναι, εΒόκουν Βε καϊ τον ττεζον χ^ι- 

5 ρώσεσθαι. καϊ οί μεν ώ? επιθησόμενοι κατ 
αμφότερα τταρεσκευάζοντο αΰθις. 

XL11. Εΐ' τούτω Βε Αημοσθενη'; καϊ Κύρυμεδων 
εχοντε<ί την άττο τών Αθηναίων βοηθειαν τταρα- 
<yiyvovTai, ναΰς τε T/oet? καϊ εβδομήκοντα μάλιστα 
ξυν ταΐς ξενικαΐς καϊ υ7Γ\ίτας ττερί ττεντα- 
κισχιΧιους εαυτών τε καϊ τών ζυμμάχων, 
άκοντιστάς τε βαρβάρους καϊ 'ΈΧΧηνας ουκ 
οΧί^ους καϊ σφενδονήτας καϊ τομάτας καϊ την 
2 αΧλην τταρασκευην Ικανην. καϊ τοις μεν Έ,υρα- 
κοσίοις καϊ ζυμμαχοις κατάττΧηξις εν τω αύτίκα 
ουκ οΧίΎη iyiveTO, εΐ ττερας μηδέν εσται σφίσι του 
aTraXXayijvai του κινδύνου, όρώντες ούτε δια 
την ΑεκέΧειαν τειχιξομενην ούδεν ησσον στρατον 
ϊσον καϊ τταραττΧήσιον τω ττροτερω εττεΧηΧυθοτα 
την τε τών 'Αθηναίων δύναμιν ττανταχόσε ποΧΧηι 
78 



BOOK VII. ΧΙΛ. 2-XUl. 2 

men, but there the dolphin-bearing cranes ^ that 
were suspended from the merchantmen over the 
channels bet\veen the vessels checked them. Two 
Syracusan ships, however, elated by their victory, 
approached too close to the cranes and were 
destroyed, one of them being captured together 
with its crew. The Syracusans, having sunk seven 
of the Athenian ships and damaged many others, 
and having taken prisoner most of the men upon 
them and killed the rest, then Avithdrew and set up 
a trophv for both the sea-fights. They now 
cherished the confident belief that they were far 
superior to the Athenians on the sea, and they 
thought that they should get the better of the 
army on land as well. So they, on their part, 
proceeded to make preparations to attack the 
enemy again on both elements. 

XLII. At this juncture, ho\vever, Demosthenes 
and Euryniedon arrived Avith the reinforcements 
from Athens, consisting of about seventy-three 
ships, including the foreign vessels, and nearly five 
thousand hoplites, both Athenian and allied, and 
not a few Barbarian and Hellenic javelin-men, 
slingers, and bowmen, together with an adequate 
supply of other equipment. The Syracusans and 
their allies were seized with no little consternation at 
the moment, wondering if they were never to have 
any final deliverance from their peril ; for they saw 
that in spite of the fortification of Deceleia an army 
equal or nearly equal to the first one had come to 
reinforce it, and that the power of the Athenians 

* Projecting beams of a crane supporting heavy metal 
weights in the shape of dolphins, ready to be dropped upon 
hostile vessels passing near. 

79 



THUCYDIDES 

φαινομβνην' τω δε ττροτερω στρατβύματι των 

3 'Αθηναίων ώ? €Κ κακών ρώμη τις ^'^ζ'^ίνητο. ό 
he Δημοσθένης Ιδών ώς εΙχ£ τα ττράγ/χατα καΐ 
νομίσας ούχ^ οΙόν re eh'ai Βιατρίβειν ούΒβ τταθείν 
OTvep ό ΝίΛτίας βτταθεν {άφυκόμβνος yap το πρώτον 
ο οικίας φοβερός, ώς ουκ ευθύς προσεκειτο ταΐς 
Ί,υρακούσαις, αλλ' εν Κατάνη Βιεχ^είμαζεν, 
υττβρώφθη τε και εφθασεν αύτον εκ της Πελο- 
ττοννησου στρατιά ο ΤνΧιτΓττος άφικόμενος, ην 
ουδ' αν μετεττεμψαν οί Έ,υρακόσιοι, ει εκείνος 
ευθύς εττεκειτο' Ικανοί yap αύτοΙ οΐόμενοι είναι 
άμα τ' αν εμαθον ησσους οντες καΐ άττοτετει- 
γ^ισμενοι αν ήσαν, ώστε μηΒ> ει μετεττεμψαν ετι 
ομοίως αν αυτούς ώφεΧεΐν), ταύτα ούν άνασκοττών 
ό Δημοσθένης καΐ yιyvώσκωv οτι και αύτος εν τω 
τταρόντι Tjj ττρώτη ημέρα μάΧιστα δεινότατος εστί 
τοις εναντίοις, εβουΧετο ο τι τά'χ^ος άττο-χ^ρησασθαι 

4 TTj τταρούστ) του στρατεύματος εκττΧηξει. καΐ 
όρων το τταρατείχισμα τών ^υρακοσίων, ώ 
έκώΧυσαν ττεριτεΐ'χ^ισαι σφάς τους 'Αθηναίους, 
άττΧούν τε ον και, ει κρατι^σειε τις τών τε 
ΈπιτΓοΧών της αναβάσεως και αύθις του εν 
αύταΐς στρατοττεΒου, ραΒίως αν αύτο Χηφθεν 
(^ούΒε yap ύττομεΐναι αν σφάς ούΒενα), η^Γείyeτo 
ετΓίθεσθαι TJj ττείρα, καΐ ξυντομωτάτην ^ ηyεlτo 

^ ταΰτην, after ξυντομωτάτηρ, inserted by Aladvig, followed 
bj' Hude. 

^ Or, "by a natural rebound after their misfortunes." 
80 



BOOK VII. xLii. 2-4 

was apparently great in all directions. The first 
Athenian army, on the other hand, had, considering 
their past misfortunes,^ recovered a certain con- 
fidence. Demosthenes, seeing how matters stood, 
Avas of the opinion that it would not do to Λvaste 
time and thus invite the same experience that Nicias 
had met Avith. For Nicias ΛνΙιεη he first came 
inspired terror ; but as he did not immediately 
attack Syracuse but spent the winter at Catana, he 
came to be despised, and Gylippus forestalled him 
by coming (rom the Peloponnesus with an armv. 
This force the Syracusans would not even have sent 
for if he had attacked without delay ; for they 
would have supposed that they could cope with him 
unaided, and would not, therefore, have discovered 
that they were too weak until they had been 
completely walled in, so that, even if they had 
sent for reinforcements then, these would no longer 
have availed them to the same extent. Demos- 
thenes, therefore, taking these facts into considera- 
tion and realizing that he also at tlie present time 
Avas most formidable to his opponents on the very 
first day after his arrival, Avished at the earliest 
possible moment to reap the full benefit of their 
present consternation at his army. Accordingly, 
seeing that the Syracusan cross-Avall, by which they 
had prevented the Athenians from completing 
their investment, was a single one, and that, if one 
should get control of the ascent to Rpipolae and 
after that of the camp upon it, the wall itself 
could easily be taken — for the enemy would not 
tiien stand his ground against them — he was eager 
to make the attempt. He thought this to be the 
shortest way to end the war ; for he would either 

8i 



THUCYDIDES 

5 ΒιατΓοΧξμησιν η yap κατόρθωσα^; βξειν 'S.vpa- 
κούσας ή άττάξειν την στρατίαν και ου τρίψβσθαι 
α\Χως ^Αθηναίους re τους ξυστρατευομβρονς και 
την ξύμττασαν ττόΧιν. 

6 ΐΐρώτον μβν ουν την τ€ 'γήν ^ζεΚθόντε^ των 
Έ,νρακοσίων 'έτεμναν οί^ Αθηναίοι ττερί τον'Άναττον 
και τω στρατεύματι βττβκράτουν, ώσττερ το ττρω- 
τον, τω τ€ ττεζω καΐ ταΐς ναυσίν {ovhe yap καθ' 
erepa οι Έυρακόσιοι άντβττεξησαν ότι μη τοις 
ίτΓΤΓβνσι και άκοντισταΐς αττο του ΌΧνμτηειον)' 

XLIIL "Εττείτα μηχαναΐς eSo^e τω Αημοσθβνβι 
ττρότερον άττοτΓβιράσαι του τταρατ^ΐ'χισ ματος. ώς• 
he αύτω Trpoaayayovri κατεκαυθησάν re νττο των 
εναντίων άττο του τείγ^ου'^ αμυνομένων αί μηχ^αναί 
και τη άΧΧη στρατιά ττοΧΧα'χη 7rpoa/3aXXovTe<; 
άττεκρούοντο, ούκέτι iSoKei Βιατρίβειν, άΧΧά 
ττει'σα? τόν Τ6 ^ικίαν και τους άΧΧονς ξυνάρ- 
'χοντας, ώ? evrevoei, και την έττι^χειρησιν των 

2 'ΈJ^τι7ΓoXώv έττοιεΐτο. και ημέρας μεν αδύνατα 
έδόκει είναι ΧαθεΙν ττροσεΧθόντας τε και άνα- 
βάντας, ^τapayyείXaς δε ττέντε ήμερων σιτ'ια και 
τους XιθoXόyoυς και τέκτονας ττάντας Χαβων καΐ 
άΧΧην τταρασκευην τοζ^υμάτων τε και οσα εΒει, 
ην κρατώσι, τειχίζοντας έ'χ^ειν, αίιτος μεν άττο 
πρώτου ΰττνου και Έ,ίιρυμέΖων και ^Ιένανόρος 
άναΧαβων την ττάσαν στρατιάν έχ^ώρει ττρος τάς 
ΈτΓίΤΓολας, οικίας Be εν τοις τείχ^εσιν ύττε- 

3 XeXeiTTTO. και έττειΒη έyεvovτo προς αύταΐς 

82 



BOOK VII. XLii. 4-XLiii. 3 

be successful and take Syracuse, or else would lead 
his army home and not wear out to no purpose both 
the Athenians who took part in the expedition and 
the entire state. 

In the first place, then, the Athenians Avent out 
and proceeded to ravage the land of the Syracusans 
in the region of the Anapus river, and at this 
time, as at first, they had the upper hand with their 
army both by land and by sea ; for on neither 
element did the Syracusans come out to meet them 
except with their cavalry and javelin-men from the 
Olympieium. 

XL! 1 1. Afterwards it seemed best to Demos- 
thenes, before going further, to make an attempt 
with engines upon the cross-wall. But when he 
brought his engines up they were burned by the 
enemy, who defended themselves from the wall, 
and the assaults which he made at many points 
with the rest of his army were regularly repulsed ; 
it therefore seemed best not to waste more time, 
and so with the consent of Nicias and his other 
colleagues he undertook, as he had planned, the 
attack upon Epipolae. Now it seemed impossible 
to approach the heights in the daytime and make 
the ascent without being observed ; he accord- 
ingly ordered provisions for five days, took with 
liim all the stonemasons and carpenters, and also 
a supply of arrows, and whatever things they 
would need while building a wall, in case they 
should succeed in their undertaking, and after 
t?le first watch, accompanied by Eurymedon and 
Menander, led out the entire army and advanced to 
Epipolae, leaving Nicias behind in the fortifications. 
When they had reached Epipolae, taking the route 

33 



THUCYDIDES 

κατά τον ΈύρνηΧον, fjirep καϊ η πρότερα στρατιά 
το ττρώτον άνεβη, Χανθάνονσί τ€ τού^ φνΧακα<; 
των Έυρακοσίων καϊ ττροσβάντες το τβίχισμα ο 

4 ην αυτόθι των %υρακοσίων αίροΰσι καϊ άνΒρας 
των φυΧάκων άποκτείνουσίν οΊ Be ττλβιους Sta- 
φυ'γόντες ευθύς 7rpo<; τα στρατόπεΒα, α ην iirl 
των ΈτΓίτΓοΧών τρία, ev pev των 'Σ.υρακοσίων, €V 
Be των άΧλων ^ικεΧιωτών, ev Be των ξυμμά'χ^ων, 
άγγέΧλουσι την εφοΒον καϊ τοα? €ξακοσίοι<; των 
^υρακοσίων, οΐ και πρώτοι κατά τούτο το pepo<; 

δ των ΚτητΓοΧών φυΧακες ήσαν, βφραζον. οι δ' 
έβοηθουν τε ευθύς, καϊ αύτοΐς 6 Αημοσθενης καϊ 
οι ^Αθηναίοι εντυ'χ^όντες αμυνόμενους ττροθύμως 
έτρεψαν, καϊ αύτυΐ μεν ευθύς ε'χωρουν ες το 
ττρόσθεν, οττως τη τταρούση άρμη του irepaive- 
σθαι ών ένεκα ήΧθον μη βραΒεΙς ^ενωνται• αΧΧοι 
Βε άτΓΟ της πρώτης το παρατεί^χ^ισ μα των ^υρα- 
κοσίων, ουχ υπομενόντων των φυΧάκων, ^ρουν τε 

6 και τάς εττάΧ^εις άπεσυρον. οι Βε Έ,υρακόσιοι 
και οι ξύμμαχ^οι καϊ ό ΓύΧιππος καϊ οι μετ 
αυτού έβοηθουν εκ των προτεΐ'χ^ισμάτων, καϊ 
άΒοκητον του τοΧμηματος εν νυκτϊ σφίσι γενο- 
μένου προσεβαΧόν τε τοΙς ^ Αθηναίοις εκπεττΧη'^- 
μενοι καϊ βιασθέντες ύττ' αυτών το πρώτον 

7 ύπεχώρησαν. προϊόντων Βε τών 'Αθηναίων εν 
αταξία μάΧΧον ήΒη ως κεκρατηκότων καϊ βουΧο- 
μένων Βια παντός του μήπω μεμαχημενου τών 
εναντίων ώς τάχιστα ΒιεΧθεΐν, 'ίνα μη άνεντων 
σφών της εφόΒου αύθις ξυστραφώσιν, οΐ ΒοίωτοΙ 
84 



BOOK VII. xLiii. 3-7 

by Euryelus, which had been followed by the 
former army in the first ascent, they got by the 
Syraciisan guards without being observed, and 
advancing to the Syracusan fort at that point 
captured it and killed some of the guards ; most of 
these, hoAvever, fled at once to the camps, of which 
there were three upon Epipolae — one belonging to 
the Syracusans, one to the other Siceliots, and one 
to the allies — and brought word of the attack, 
informing also the six hundred Syracusans who 
were posted as an advanced guard on that part of 
Epipolae. These hastened at once to the rescue, 
but Demosthenes and the Athenians met them and 
put them to rout despite their vigorous resistance. 
This body of Athenians then straightway pressed 
forward, in order that, taking advantage of their 
present impulse, they might not be too late to 
accomplish the purpose for Λvhich they had come ; 
Avhile another party at the very first proceeded to 
seize the cross-wall of the Syracusans, where the 
guards did not wait to receive them, and to lay low 
the battlements. But the Syracusans and their 
allies, as well as Gylippus with his own troops, 
came up from the outworks; yet, since this daring 
attempt had been made upon them unexpectedly at 
night, they were still dazed as thev attacked the 
Athenians and were at first forced back by them. 
But while the Athenians were by now going 
forward, in some disorder, considering themselves 
victorious and wishing as quickly as possible to push 
their way through all the enemy's forces that had 
not yet been engaged, in order that they might not 
rally again when they themselves relaxed their onset, 
it was the Boeotians who first made a stand against 

8S 



THUCYDIDES 

πρώτοι αντοΐς άντβσ'χ^ον καΐ ΊτροσβαΧόντίς 
βτρεψάν τ€ καΐ ες φν^/ην κατέστησαν. 

XLIV. Και, βνταΰθα ή8η iv ττοΧλί} ταρα^^τ] και 
απορία iyiyvovTO οι ^Αθηναίοι, ην ovSe πυθεσθαι 
ράΒιον ην οϋδ' αφ" έτερων ότω τρόπω έκαστα 
ξυνηνεχθη. εν μεν yap ήμερα σαφέστερα μεν, 
ομω'ί Βε ούΒε ταΰτα οΐ παραΎενόμενοι πάντα π\ην 
το καθ' εαυτόν έκαστος μόΧις olBev εν 8ε νυκτο- 
μα'χ^ία, η μόνη Βη στρατοπεΒων με^αΚων εν Τ(ΖΒε 
τω ποΧεμω ε'γενετο, πώς αν τις σαφώς τι fjBei ; 

2 ην μεν yap σεΧηνη Χαμπρά, εώρων Be ούτως 
άΧΧηΧονς ώς εν σεΧηνη εΙκος την μεν όψιν του 
σώματος προοράν, την Βε γνώσιν του οικείου 
άπιστεΐσθαι. όπΧΐται Βε αμφοτέρων ουκ οΧί^γοι 

3 εν στενοχώρια άνεστρεφοντο. και τών Αθη- 
ναίων οί μεν ηΒη ενικώντο, οι Βε ετι τη πρώτη 
εφόΒω άησσητοι έχώρουν' ποΧύ Βε και του άΧΧου 
στρατεύματος αύτοΐς το μεν άρτι άνεβεβηκει, το 
δ' ετι προσανηει, ώστ ουκ ηπίσταντο προς 6 τι 
ΧΡν χωρήσαι. ηΒη yap τα πρόσθεν της τροπής 
y£yεvημεvης ετετάρακτο πάντα και χαΧεπά ην 

4 ύπο της βοής Bιayvώvaι. οι τε yap ^υρακόσιοι 
καΐ οί ξύμμαχοι κρατούντες παρεκεΧεύοντό τε 
Kpauyfj ουκ oXtyrj 'χρώμενοι, άΒύνατον ον εν νυκτΐ 
άΧΧω τω σημήναι, καΐ άμα τους προσφερόμενους 
εΒέχοντο' οι τε Αθηναίοι εζήτουν τε σφάς αυτούς 
και πάν το εζ εναντίας, και ει φίΧιον εϊη τών ηΒη 

86 



BOOK VII. xLiii. 7-xLiv. 4 

them, and by making a charge routed and put them 
to flight. 

XLIV. By this time the Athenians were getting 
into a state of so great confusion and perplexity tliat 
it has not been easy to learn from either side just 
how the several events occurred. In the daytime 
things are clearer, of course, yet even so those who 
are present do not know everything that happens, 
but each man barely knows what happens near 
himself; but in a battle by night — the only one 
that took place in this war between large armies — 
how could anyone know anything clearly ? For 
though there was a bright moon, they could only 
see one another, as it is natural to do in moonlight — 
seeing before them the vision of a person but mis- 
trusting their recognition of their own friends. 
There were, besides, large numbers of hoplites 
belonging to both sides moving about in a narrow 
space. And on the Athenian side, some were 
already being defeated, while others, still in their 
first onset, were advancing unchecked ; but of the 
rest of their army a large portion had only just 
finished the ascent and others were still coming up, 
so that they did not know which body to join. For 
the front lines were already all in confusion in 
consequence of the rout that had taken place, and 
the two sides were difficult to distinguish by reason 
of the outcries. The Syracusans and their allies, as 
they Λvere winning, Avere cheering one another and 
indulging in no little shouting — it being impossible 
in the night to communicate in any other way — 
while at the same time they held their ground 
against their assailants ; the Athenians were trying to 
find their own comrades, and regarded as hostile what- 






THUCYDIDES 

τΓοΧιν φeυ<yόvτωv, πο\€μιον €ΐ>όμιζον, καΙ τοίς 
€ρωτημασι του ξννθήματος ττυκνοΐς -χρώμενοί Sia 
το μη elvai αλλω τω ^νωρισαί-, σφίσι re αύτοί? 
θόρνβον ποΧνν Ίταρεί'χον άμα ττύντες (ρωτώΐ'τβς, 

5 καϊ τοις ττοΧεμίοις σαφές αύτο κατάστησαν το 
δ εκβινων ουγ^ ομοίως ηττίσταντο, Βιά το κρα- 
τουντας αυτούς καϊ μη Βιεσττασμένους ησσον 
ά'γνοβΐσθαι, ωστ, el μβν εντύχ^ούν τισυ κρβίσσους 
οντβς των ττοΧεμίων, Βιέφευ'γον αυτούς άτ€ εκείνων 
€7τισταμ€νων το ζύνθημα, et δ' αύτοΙ μη ύττο- 

6 κρίνοιντο, Ζιεφθείροντο. μί^ιστον δέ καΐ ούχ^ 
ηκιστα 'έβΧα^^ε καϊ ο τταιανισμός' άττο yap 
αμφοτέρων τταραττΧησως ων άττορίαν τταρεΐ-χεν. 
ο'ί τβ yap ^ApyeioL καϊ οι Κ,^ρκυραΐοι καϊ όσον 
Αωρικον μ€τ ^Αθηναίων ην όιτότβ τταιανίσειαν, 
φόβον τταρβΐγ^β τοις ^Αθηναίοις, ο'ί τβ ττοΧίμιοι 

7 ομοίως, ώστε τέλος ξυμττβσόντβς αύτοΐς κατά 
ΤΓοΧΧ,α του στρατοπάΒου, errel άπαξ εταρά'χθησαν, 
φίΧοί τβ φίΧοις καϊ ττοΧΐται ττοΧίταίς, ου μόνον 
€ς φόβον κατέστησαν, άΧΧα καϊ €ς 'χείρας aXXij- 

8 Χοις εΧθόντες μόΧις άττεΧύοντο. καϊ Βιωκόμενοι 
κατά τ€ των κρημνών ττοΧΧοϊ ^ ρίτττοντες εαυτούς 

^ οί ΐΓολλϋ! MSS., Kriiger deletes οί. 

88 



BOOK VII. XLiv. 4-8 

ever came from the opposite direction, even though 
it might be a party of friends belonging to the troops 
ah-eady in flight, and as they were constantly calling 
out the demand for the watchword, the only means 
they had of distinguishing friend from foe, they not 
only caused much confusion in their own ranks, 
everybody making the demand at the same time, 
but also made their watchword known to the enemy. 
They had not the same opportunity, however, of 
learning the enemy's watchword, because the Syra- 
cusans, Λνΐιο were Avinning the day and had not 
become scattered, had less difficulty in recognizing 
one another. The result was that if a body of 
Athenians, even though superior in number, fell in 
with a j)arty of the enemy, these would make their 
escape, inasmuch as they knew the Athenian watch- 
word, whereas if they on their part could not give 
the answer they were put to the SAvord. But that 
which put the Athenians at the greatest disadvantage 
and did them most harm Avas the singing of the 
paean ; for the song of both armies was very similar 
and caused perplexity. Whenever, that is, the 
Argives or the Corcyraeans or any Dorian con- 
tingent of the Athenian army would raise the paean, 
the Athenians \vere just as much terrified thereby as 
when the enemy sang. And so finally, when once 
thev had been thrown into confusion, coming into 
collision with their own comrades in many different 
parts of the army, friends Λνΐίΐι friends and citizens 
with felloΛv-citizens, thev not only became panic- 
stricken but came to bloAvs with one another and 
were Λvith difficulty separated. And as they Λvere 
being pursued bv the enemy many hurled them- 
selves down from the bluffs and perished ; for the 

vol,. IV D "9 



THUCYDIDES 

άττωλ-Χυντο, arevfj'i ονση<ς τή<; άττο των ΕττιττοΧών 
ττάΧίν καταβάσεως, καΐ eneiBrj e? το όμαΧον οΐ 
σωζόμενου άνωθεν καταβαΐεν, οι μεν ποΧλοΙ 
αυτών καΐ όσοι ήσαν των ττροτερων στρατιωτών 
εμττειρία μάΧλον ττ}? ■χ^ώρα^ e? το στρατόττεΖον 
8ιεφύγ^/ανον, οι δε ύστερον ηκοντε<; είσϊν ο'ί Sia- 
μαρτόντες των οΒών κατά την 'χ^ώραν εττΧανήθησαν' 
ους, εττειΒη ήμερα iy ενετό, οι Ίττττής των 'ϊ.υρα- 
κοσίων 7Γεριε\άσαντε<; Ειεφθειραν. 

XLV. Ύτ] δ' ύστεραία οι μεν 'ϋυρακόσιοι 8ύο 
τροτταΐα έστησαν, επί τε ταΐς Εττίττολαΐς η η 
■πρ6σβασι<; και κατά το χωρίον y οι Βοιωτοί 
ττρώτον άντεστησαν, οΐ δ' 'Αθηναίοι τού<ϊ νεκρούς 
ίιΤΓοσττόνΒονς εκομισαντο. άττεθανον δε ουκ 
oXiyoi αυτών τε και των ξυμμάχων, οττΧα μεντοι 
€τι ττΧείω η κατά τους νεκρούς εΧήφθη• οι yap 
κατά των κρημνών βιασθεντες άΧΧεοθαι ψιΧοΙ^ 
οι μεν άπώΧοντο, οι δ εσώθησαν. 

XLVI. Μετά δε τούτο οΐ μεν Έ,υρακόσιοι ώς 
€7Γΐ άττροσΒοκήτω εύ^τpayίa ττάΧιν αυ άναρ- 
ρωσθεντες, ώσττερ κα\ ττρότερον, ες μεν ^AKpayavTa 
στασιάζοντα πέντε και Βέκα ΐ'αυσΐ Έ,ικανον απέ- 
στειλαν , όπως επayάyoιτo την πόΧιν, ει Βύναιτο• 
ΤύΧιππος δε κατά yi]v ες την άΧΧην ΧικεΧίαν 
φχετο αύθις, άξων στρατιαν ετι, ώς εν εΧπίΒι ων 
καΐ τά τείχη των "Αθηναίων αίρησειν βία, επειΒη 
τά εν ταΐς "ΈπιποΧαΐς ούτω ξυνέβη. 

XL VII. 01 δέ των \\θηναίων στpaτηyol εν 
τούτω έβονΧενοντο προς τε την yεyεvημέvηv 
ξυμφοράν και προς την παρούσαν εν τω 



9θ 



BOOK Vir. XLIV. 8-XLVII. I 

way down from Epipolae Λναβ narroΛv ; and of those 
who in their attempt to escape got down to the 
level ground, the greater part, and especially those 
who belonged to the first expedition and therefore 
had a better acquaintance Avith the country, got 
through to the camp, but of those who had come 
later, some missed the roads and wandered about 
over the country, and these >vhen day came were 
destroyed by the Syracusan cavalry, which were 
scouring the fields. 

XLV. On the next day the Syracusans set up 
two trophies on Epipolae, one where the Athenian 
ascent was made, the other at the place where the 
Boeotians made the first resistance; and the Athenians 
recovered their dead under truce. Not a few were 
killed, both of the Athenians and their allies ; the 
arms taken, however, were out of all proportion to 
the dead, for while some of those \vho were forced 
to leap down the bluffs perished, some escaped. 

XLVI. After this the Syracusans, their earlier 
confidence now being restored as a result of their 
unexpected good fortune, sent Sicanus with fifteen 
ships to Agrigentum, which was in a state of revolu- 
tion, in order that he might if possible win over 
that city ; and Gylippus went out once more by 
land to the other parts of Sicily to secure additional 
troops, being in hope that he could even carrv the 
walls of the Athenians by storm, now that the 
engagement on Epipolae had turned out thus. 

XLVII. Meanwhile the Athenian generals were 
deliberating about the situation in view both of the 
calamity that had happened and of the utter dis- 

1 &vev των aairibaiv , in the MSS. after ψιλοί, rejected bj' 
Pluygers. 

91 



THUCYDIDES 

στρατοτΓβΒω κατά ττάντα άρρωστίαν. τοί? re 
7«/3 €7Γ ί^ειρήμασιν βώρων ου κατορθονντα και 

2 τους• στρατιώτας άχ^θομύρονς ττ} μοντ). νόσω τ€ 
yap εττύζοντο κατ'' αμφότερα, τη<; τ€ ό)ρας του 
eviavToO ταύτη'; ούσ'η'ζ ev § άσθενοΰσιν άνθρωττοι 
μάλιστα, και το 'χωρίον αμα iv ω βστρατο- 
TTehe^ovTo eXo}8e<; και ■χαλ.βττον ην τά τβ άλλ,α 

3 ΟΤΙ άνεΧτΓίστότατα αύτοΐ? βφαινετο. τω ονν 
Αημοσθένεί ουκ ehoKei 'έτι χρήναι μβνειν, άλλ' 
άττ€ρ καΐ ΒιανοηθεΙς e? τά? Έττίττολά? Bie- 
KLvSovevaev, €7Τ€ΐδη €σφα\το, έξιεναι εψηφίζετο 
καΐ μη ^ιατρίβειν, έω9 eVt το ττελαγος οΙοί' τ€ 
ττβραιούσθαι καΐ του στρατεύματος ταΓ? yodv 

i εττεΧθούσαις νανσΐ κρατεΐν, και ττ} ττόΧβι ώφε- 
Χιμώτερον εφη είναι ττρος τους εν τι] χώρα σφών 
έττιτειγίζοντας τον ττόΧεμον ττοιεΐσθαι η Χυρα- 
κοσίους, ους ούκετι pdStov είναι χειρώσασθαΓ 
ούδ' αν άΧΧως χρήματα ποΧΧα Βαττανώντας εικός 
είναι προσκαθήσθαι. 

XLVIII. ΚαΙ ό μεν Αημοσθένης τοιαύτα 
ε^ί^νωσκ^ν ό Se οικίας ενόμιζε μεν και αυτό? 
ττόνηρα σφών τα ττρά^ματα είναι, τω οε λόγω 
ουκ εβούΧετο αυτά ασθενή άττοΒεικνύναι, ούΒ' 
εμφανώς σφάς ψηφιζο μένους μετά ποΧΧών την 
άναχώρησιν τοις ττοΧεμίοις καταγγεΧτονς ηί'/νε- 
σθαι' ΧαθεΙν yap αν, υττοτε βουΧοιντο, τούτο 

2 ποιούντες ττοΧΧω ησσον. το δε τι και τά των 
ΤΓοΧεμίων, άφ ων εττι ττΧεον η οι άΧΧοι ησθάνετο 
αυτών, εΧττίΒος τι ετι τταρέΐχε πονηρότερα των 
92 



BOOK VII. xLvii. i-XLviii. 2 

couragement that now prevailed in tlie army. They 
saw tliat they were not succeeding in their under- 
taking, and that the soldiers were finding their stay 
burdensome. For they were distressed by sickness 
for a double cause, the season of the year being that 
in which men are most liable to illness, while at the 
same time the place in which they were encamped 
was marshy and unhealthy ; and the situation in 
general appeared to them to be utterly hopeless. 
Demosthenes, therefore, was of the opinion that 
they should not remain there any longer, but since 
the plan which had induced him to risk the attack 
upon Epipolae had failed, his vote was for going 
away without loss of time, Λνΐιΐΐε it was still possible 
to cross the sea and to have some superiority over 
the enemy Avith at any rate the ships of the arma- 
ment Avhich had come to reinforce them. From 
the point of view of the State, also, he said, it was 
more profitable to carry on the war against the 
enemy who were building a hostile fortress in their 
own territory than against the Syracusans, whom it 
was no longer easy to conquer ; and furthermore, it 
was not right that they should continue the siege 
and spend a great deal of money to no purpose. 

XLVII I. Such was the judgment of Demosthenes. 
Nicias, however, although he also thought that their 
situation was bad, did not wish expressly to reveal 
their weakness, or that they should be reported to 
the enemy as openly voting in full council for the 
retreat ; for, he urged, they Avould be far less likely, 
Avhen they should Avish to retreat, to do this un- 
observed. Besides, the affairs of the enemy, from 
such information as he had beyond the rest, still 
afforded some hope that they would turn out to be 

93 



THUCYDIDES 

σφβτέρων eaeadai, ην καρτβρωσι ττροσ καθήμενοι' 
'χ^ρημάτων^/αρ άττορία αυτούς βκτρυχ^ώσβιν, άλλως 
τ€ καϊ €ΤγΙ ττΧβον Ί]8η ταΐς υτταρ'χούσαΐ'ί ναυσχ 
θαΧασσοκρατονντων καϊ ην yap τι καϊ iv ταΓς 
XvpaKovaai<i βουΧόμβνον τοις ^Αθηναίοις τα 
■πράγματα ivBoOvai, ζ-πεκηρυκβύετο ώς• αύτον και 

3 ουκ 6Ϊα άττανίστασθαι. α βτηστάμβνος τω μ€ν 
έργω €τι eV αμφότερα 'έ\ων και Βιασκοττών 
άνεΐχ€, τω δ' βμφανβΐ τότ€ λόγω ουκ βφη άττάζβιν 
την στρατιάν. ev yap eihevai ότι 'Αθηναίοι 
σφων ταύτα ουκ άττοΒεξονται ώστε μη αυτών 
ψηφισαμένων άττέλθεΐν. καϊ yap ου τοι/ς αύτου<ί 
■^^ηφιβΐσθαί τ€ ττβρί σφών αυτών κα\ τα 7τpάyμaτa 
ώστΓ^ρ και αύται ορώντα<ί και ουκ άΧΧων βττιτι- 
μησει άκούσαντας yvuuaeaOai, αλλ' e^ ων αν τις 
ev \eyωv Βια^άΧΧοι, εκ τούτων αυτούς πείσεσθαι. 

4 τών τ€ τταρόντων στρατιωτών ττοΧλους καϊ τους 
ττΧείους εφη, οΊ νυν βοώσιν ώς εν Βεινοΐς οντες, 
εκεΐσε άφικομενους τάναντία βθ7]σεσθαι ώς ύπο 
-χ^ρημάτων καταττροΒόντες οΐ στpaτηyoL άττηΧθον. 
ούκουν βούΧεσθαι αυτός γε εττιστάμενος τάς 
'Αθηναίων φύσεις εττϊ αίσχ^ρα τε αίτια και αδίκως 
ύτΓ 'Αθηναίων άποΧεσθαι μάΧλον η ύπο τών 
ΤΓοΧεμίων, ει Βεΐ, κινΒυνεύσας τούτο τταθεΐν ί8ία. 

5 τύ τε 'Σ,υρακοσίων εφη όμως ετι ήσσω τών 



^ The mental tliought to be supplied is: "And it would 
iuvolve them in personal danger if they did, for . . . ." 

94 



BOOK VII. xLviii. 2-5 

worse than their ΟΛνη, if they persisted in the siege ; 
for they would wear the enemy out by cutting off 
his supplies, especially since now with their present 
fleet they were to a greater extent than before the 
masters of the sea. And, in fact, there was a party 
in Syracuse that favoured submitting to the Athenians, 
and it was secretly sending proposals to him and 
urging him not to withdraw. Having knowledge 
of these things, although in reality he still wavered 
between the two alternatives and kept pondering 
them, yet in the speech which he openly made at 
that time he refused to lead the army away. For 
he knew well, he said, that the Athenians would 
not approve of the generals withdrawing Avithout 
any vote of their own to that effect. For ^ those 
who would vote on their case would not be men 
who would form their judgments from seeing the 
facts with their ΟΛνη eyes, as they themselves had 
seen them, and not from listening to the harsh 
criticisms of others ; on the contrary, whatever 
calumnies any clever speaker might utter, by these 
the Athenians would be persuaded. And of the 
soldiers now present in Sicily, many, he said — aye, 
the majority — who were now crying out that they 
were in a desperate plight, as soon as they arrived 
in Athens would cry out just the reverse, that their 
generals had been bribed to betray them and with- 
draw. Accordingly, he at any rate did not Avish, 
knowing as he did the character of the Athenians, 
to be put to death on a shameful charge and unjustly 
at the hands of the Athenians, but rather to fight 
and die, if so he must, his own death at the hands 
of the foe. And bad as their own situation was, 
that of the Syracusans, he said, was still worse ; for 

95 



THUCYDIDES 

σφ€τ€ρων elvar καΐ 'χρήμασι yap αύτονς ξενοτρο- 
φούΐ'τας και ev 7Γ€ρι,7Γο\ίθί<ζ άμα ανα\ίσκονΎα<ί 
καΐ ναυτίκον ττοΧύ €τι iviavTOV ηΒη βόσκοντας 
τα μεν airopelv, τα δ' ert άμηχ^ανήσαν 8ισ-χ^ίΧια 
Τ€ yap ΎοΚαντα. η8η άνηΧωκεναι και ert ττοΧλα 
7Γ ροσοφβίΧβιν, ην τ€ καΐ ότιοΰν βκΧίττωσί της νυν 
παρασκευής τω μη διΒόναι τροφήν, φθβρεΐσθαι 
αύτων τα ^τpάyμaτa, εττικουρικά μάΧΧον ή Si 

6 άvάyκης ωσττερ τα σφετβρα οντά. τρίβειν ουν 
εφη 'χ^ρΡ]ναι ττροσκαθημενους και μη ■χ^ρήμασιν, 
οίς^ ττοΧύ κρβίσσους είσί, νιχηθεντας άπιεναι. 

XL1X. Ό μβν Νικίας τοσαυτα Xeyωv ίσχυρί- 
ζετο, αίσθόμενος τα εν ταΐς Χυρακούσαις ακριβώς, 
και την των -χρημάτων άττορίαν και ότι ην αυτόθι 
το '^ βουΧόμενον τοις "Άθηναίοις yLyvεσθaι τα 
^Γpάyμaτa και εττικηρυκευομενον ττρος αυτόν ώστε 
μη άττανίστασθαι, και άμα ταΐς yodv ναυσίν, η ^ 

2 ττρότερον, εθάρσει * κρατηθείς.^ ο δε Δημοσθένης 
ττερί μεν του ττροσκαθήσθαι ούΒ^ όπωσοΰν ενε- 
Βέχετο' ει 8ε 8εΐ μη άττά^/ειν την στρατιαν άνευ 
^Αθηναίων -ψηφίσματος, άΧΧα τρίβειν αΰτοΰ,^ 
εφη χ^ρήναι η ες την (Βάψον άναστάντας τούτο 
ττοιεΐν ?} €9 την Κ,ατάνην, όθεν τω τε ττεζω εττΐ 

^ Conjecture of Coraes for a>s of most MSS. 

* τό, Willi all MiSS., except BH ττου τό. Linwood con- 
jectures τΓολϋ for ττου, which many editors adopt. 

* Stahl's correction for ?j of the MSS. 

* Gertz's conjecture for θαρσ-ησει of most MSS., 4θάρ- 
(TTjffe B. 

^ Kol before κρατηθείς is inserted by Classen, followed by 
Hude. 

^ Kriiger's correction for abrous of the MSS. 

96 



BOOK VII. xLviii. 5-XLix. 2 

in point of money, since they Λvere supporting a 
mercenary force and at the same time bearing the 
expense of patrol guard-posts, and had now for a 
year been maintaining a large fleet besides, they 
were already embarrassed, and hereafter ΛνουΜ be 
quite Λvithout resources ; ^ indeed, they liad spent 
two thousand talents already and Avere in debt for 
many talents more, and if they should lose any 
portion whatsoever of their present force by not 
being able to pay for its maintenance, their cause 
would be ruined, since it depended upon mercenary 
troops and had not, like their own, the backing of 
necessity.^ They ought, therefore, he concluded, to 
stay on and continue the siege, and not go back 
home beaten by money, in which they had by far 
the greater resources. 

XI JX. To such effect Nicias spoke \vith confidence, 
because he had accurate knowledge of affairs in 
Syracuse, both of their lack of money and that a 
party existed tliere that wished the government to 
come under the control of the Athenians and was 
constantly making overtures to him to keep liim 
froni withdrawing ; and at the same time, thougli 
beaten in the field, he had as much confidence as 
ever in the fleet at any rate. Demosthenes, how- 
ever, \vould not consent on any consideration what- 
ever to continue the siege ; if they could not lead 
the army home Avithout a vote of the Athenians, but 
must stay on in Sicily, he said that they should do 
this only after removing to Thapsus or to Catana. 

^ Or, "were in some respects already ill-provided, and in 
still others would be utterly at a loss what to do." 

* i. c. mercenary troops had to be bribed, but the Athenians 
were compelled to fight. 

97 



THUCYDIDES 

TToWa της 'χ^ώρας €πιόντ€<ί θρεψονταί 7Γορθονντ€<; 
τά των 7Γθ\€μίων καϊ €κείνον<; βΧάψονσι, ταΐ? re 
ναυσιν iv TreXayeL καϊ ουκ ev στΐνο^χ^ωρια, η ττρο'ζ 
των ττόΧβμίων μάΧλόν εστί, τους αγώι^ας τταη- 
σονται, αλλ' ev βυρυγ^ωρία, iv rj τά re της 
εμπειρίας -χ^ρήσιμα σφων εσται καϊ άναχ^ωρήσεις 
καϊ επίττΧονς ουκ εκ βρα•χεος καϊ ττερι^ράτττου 

3 ορμώμενοι τε καϊ καταίροντες εξουσιν. το τε 
ξύμπαν είττεΐν, ούΒενϊ τρόττω οι εφη άρεσκειν εν 
τω αύτω ετι μένειν, αλλ' οτι τάχ^ιστα ήΒη εζανι- 
στασθαι και μη μελΧειν. καϊ ό ΕύρνμεΕων αύτω 

4 ταύτα ξννηΎορευεν. άντιλ.ε'^οντος δε του Νικιου 
οκνος τις και μεΧλ-ησις iveyivCTO καϊ άμα ύττονοια 
μη τι καϊ ττΧεον ει8ώς 6 οικίας ίσχ^νρίζηται. καΙ 
οι μεν ^Αθηναίοι τούτω τω τροττω ΒιεμέΧΧησαν τε 
και κατά ■χ^ώραν εμενον. 

L. Ό δε ΓύΧιτΓΤΓος καϊ ό Έ,ικανος εν τούτω 
τταρησαν ες τας Ι,υρακουσας, ο μεν 2.ικανος 
άμαρτών του "Ακράγαντος (εν Γέλα <yap οντάς 
αυτού ετι η τοις "^υρακοσίοις στάσις φιΧια ^ 
εξεττετΓτώκει)• ό δε ΤύΧιτητος αΧΧην τε στρατιαν 
ΤΓοΧΧην έχων ηΧθεν άττο της %ίκεΧιας και τους εκ 
της ΙΙελθ7Γθΐ'ΐ'>;σου τού ηρος εν ταΐς οΧκασιν 
όττΧίτας άττοσταΧεντας, άφικομενους αττο της 
2 Αιβύης ες Έ,εΧινούντα. άπενεχθεντες yap ες 
Αιβύην, καϊ Βόντων Κυρηναίων τριήρεις δύο καϊ 
τού ττΧού Ίρ/εμόνας, καϊ εν τω τταραττΧω Ευε- 

^ Bauer's conection for is φίλια, is φίλια, is φιλίαν, is 
φιλία (Β) of the MSS. 

1 cf. cli. xlvi. 2 cf. cli. xix. 3. 

98 



BOOK VII. XLIX. 2-L. 2 

From this new base they could overrun with their 
army large tracts of the country and support them- 
selves by ravaging the enemy's property, and at the 
same time do him damage ; and as for the fleets they 
\vuuld thenceforth do their fighting, not in a narrow 
space, wliich was more in the enemy's favour, but in 
the open sea, where there was plenty of room and 
the advantages of skill would be on their side, and 
they would not have to make their retreats and ad- 
vances setting out from and falling back into a scant 
and circumscribed base. To sum up liis position in 
a Λvord, he said that he did not at all approve of 
remaining any longer in the same place, but urged 
tiiat they should now as quickly as possible move to 
another place and make no delay. And Eurymedon 
concurred Avith him in these vieΛvs. But since Nicias 
objected, some hesitation and delay ensued ; and at 
tlie same time there was a suspicion that it was 
because of some superior knowledge tiiat he insisted. 
And so in this Avay the Athenians delayed to the end 
and continued to remain where they were. 

L. Meanwhile Gylippus and Sicanus ^ had re- 
turned to Syracuse. Sicanus had failed to win over 
Agrigentum, for while he was still at Gela the 
party at Agrigentum that Λvas friendly to the 
Syracusans had been driven out ; but Gylippus 
brought with him a large additional force from 
Sicily as well as tlie hoplites that had been sent 
on board the merchant-ships from the Peloponnesus 
the preceding spring,'- and had reached Selinus on 
their way from Libya. It seems that they had 
been driven out of their course to Libya, where the 
Cyrenaeans had given them two triremes and pilots 
for their voyage ; as they sailed along the shore of 

99 



THUCYDIDES 

στΓβρΐταις ττοΧιορκονμένοίς ύττο Αιβνων ξυμμα-χη- 
σαντ€<; καΐ viK7JaavTe<; τους Αιβν;, καΐ αύτόθεν 
ΤΓαραττΧεύσαντες e? Neat» ττόΧιν, Κ.αρχηΒοΐΗακον 
βμττόρίον, οθενττβρ Έ,ικβΚία eXa^iarov 8ύο ημερών 
καΐ ννκτος ττΧοΰν inrkyei, και αττ' αυτού ττεραιω- 

3 θβντες άφίκοντο e? "^βΧιΐ'οΰΐ'τα. καΐ οί μεν 
Έ^υρακόσιοι εύθύ^; αυτών εΧθόντων παρεσκευά- 
ζοντο ώς ετΓίθησόμενοί κατ αμφότερα αΰθις τοί? 
"Αθηναίοι^;, και ναυσΐ καΐ ττεζω' οί δέ τών 'Αθη- 
ναίων στρατηγοί όρώντες στρατιάν τε άΧΧην 
7Γροσ'γε'γεν7]μενην αύτοΐς, καΐ τα εαυτών άμα ουκ 
εττϊ το βέΧτιον -χωρουντα, άΧΧα καθ' ημεραν τοΐ? 
ττάσί -χαΧεττώτερον ϊσχοντα, μάΧιστα δε ττ} 
ασθένεια τών άνθρώττων πιεζόμενα, μετεμέΧοντό 
τε πρότερον ουκ άναστάντες, καΐ ώς αύτοΐς ού8ε 
ό Νί/ί/α? ετι όμο'ιω'ζ ηναντιούτη αΧ\ η ^ μη 
φανερώ'ί ye αξιών ψηφίζεσθαι,^ ττροεΐττον ώς 
εΒύναντο ά8η\ότατα εκπΧουν εκ τον στρατοπέΒου 

4 ττάσι καϊ τταρεσκευάσθαι όταν τις σημηνη. και 
μεΧΧόντων αυτών, εττειΒη έτοιμα ην, άττοττΧεΐν η 
σεΧηνη εκΧείπει• ετύγχανε yap ττανσεΧηνος ούσα. 
και οι 'Αθηναίοι οί τε ττΧειους ειτισ'χείν εκεΧευον 
τους στpaτηyoυς ενθύμιην ττοιούμενοι, και ο 
οικίας {ήν yap τι καϊ ayav θειασμώ τε και τω 
τοιοντω προσκείμενος) ούδ' αν ΒιαβουΧενσασθαι 
ετι εφη, ττρίν, ώ? οι μάντεις εξηyoΰvτo, τρΙς εννέα 
ημέρας μεΐναι, οττως αν ττρότερον κινηθειη. και 
τοις μεν Άθηναίοις μεΧΧησασι hta τούτο η μονή 
εyeyεvητo. 

^ Hude's correction for άλλο el of the M8S ; Vulg. αλλ' ή. 
* μτ) in the MSS. Ijefore \^ιηφίζίσθαί, omitted by Steph. 



BOOK VII. L. 2-4 

I-ibya they had joined forces with the Euesperitae, 
who Λvere being besieged by the Libyans, and liad 
defeated the latter ; and saihng thence along the 
coast to Neapolis, an emporium of the Carthaginians, 
from which place the distance to Sicily is shortest — 
two days and one night — and from there crossing to 
Sicily, they arrived at Selinus. As soon as these 
reinforcements arrived, the Syracusans began their 
preparations to attack the Athenians again on both 
elements — by sea and by land. The Athenian 
generals, on the other hand, seeing that the enemy had 
been reinforced by a fresh army, Avhile their ΟΛνη situa- 
tion was not only not improving, but on the contrary 
was daily growing worse in all respects, and especially 
through the distress caused by the sickness among 
the troops, repented that they had not moved away 
before. And since even Nicias no longer opposed 
as earnestly as before, but only urged that the 
matter be not openly put to a vote, they sent out 
Λvord as secretly as possible to all the officers for a 
de))arture by sea from the camp, and that they 
should be ready whenever the signal should be given. 
But after all was ready and when they were about 
to make their departure, the moon, which happened 
then to be at the full, was eclipsed.^ And most of 
the Athenians, taking the incident to heart, urged 
the generals to wait. Nicias also, who Λvas some- 
what too much given to divination and the like, 
refused even to discuss further the question of their 
removal until they should have waited thrice nine 
days, as the soothsayers prescribed. Such, then, 
was the reason why the Athenians delayed and 
stayed on. 

1 August 27, 413 b.o. 



THUCYDIDES 

LI. Οι Se Χνρακόσιοί καΐ αυτοί τούτο ττνθό- 
μ€νοι ΤΓοΛ,λώ μάΧλον ί.^η'^βρμενοι ήσαν μη avLevat 
τα των ^Αθηναίων, ώ? κα\ αυτών κaτe'yvωκότωv 
ηΒη μηκίτι κρεισσυνων elvat σφων μήτβ ναυσΐ 
μητ€ ττεζω (ου ηαρ αν τον βκττΧουΐ' βττιβουΧβυσαι), 
και άμα ου βουΧομβνοι αυτούς ά'λλοσε ττοι της 
ΈικεΧίας καθεζομίνους ■χαΧεττωτερους elvai ττροσ- 
ΤΓοΧβμεΐν, αλλ' αυτού ως τάγ^ίστα και iv ω 
σφίσι ζυμφέρει avayKaaai αυτούς νανμανεΐν. 

2 τάς οΰν νανς έττΧήρονν και άνεπειρώντο ημέρας 
οσαι αύτοϊς εΒοκουν ικαναι είναι. επειδή Βε 
καιρός ην, ττ] μεν ττροτερα ττρος τα τείχ^η των 
^Αθηναίων ττροσέβαΧΧον, καΐ εττεξεΧθοντος μέρους 
τίνος ου ττοΧΧού και των οττΧιτών και των ίτητεων 
κατά τινας ττύΧας, άττολαμβάνουσί τε των όπΧιτα)ν 
τινας και τρεψάμενοι καταδιώκουσιν ούσης Βε 
στενής της εσο8ου οι Αθηναίοι ΐττττους τε εβδομη- 
κοντα άποΧΧύουσι και των οττΧιτών ου ττοΧΧούς. 
LII. Και ταύττ] μεν τη ήμερα άττεχωρησεν η 
στρατιά των '^υρακοσίων τη δ' ύστεραία ταΐς 
τε ναυσιν εκττΧεουσιν οΰσαις εζ καΐ εβύομήκοντα, 
και τω πεζω άμα ττρος τα τείχη εχώρουν. οι δ' 
^Αθηναίοι civTavTj'yov ναυσΙν εξ και 6•γζοήκοντα 

2 και ττροσμείξαντες έναυμάχουν. καΐ τον Έύρυμέ- 
Βοντα, έχοντα το δεξιον κέρας των ^Αθηναίων και 
βουΧόμενον ττερικΧήσασθαι τας ναύς των εναντίων 
καΐ ε7τεζά<γοντα τω ττΧω ττρος ti]V yi}v μάΧΧον, 
νικήσαντες οι Έυρακόσιοι και οΐ ξνμμαχοι το 
μέσον ττρώτον των 'Αθηναίων άττοΧαμβάνουσι 
κάκεΐνον εν τω κοίΧω καΐ μυχω ^ τού Χιμένος και 

^ iv τφ κοίλψ και μυχψ, Hude omits καΐ with C and brackets 
μυχψ with Bothe. 



BOOK VII. LI. i-Mi. 2 

LI. The Syracusans on their part, on learning 
about this, were far more aroused than before and 
determined not to give the Athenians any respite, 
seeing tliat these had now of their own act confessed 
themselves no longer superior either with their fleet 
or with their land-force, for otherwise they ΛνουΜ 
not have laid plans for their departure ; and at the 
same time, because they did not Avant them to settle 
down somewhere else in Sicily where it would be 
more difficult to carry on Avar against them, they 
were determined to force them to fight a sea-battle 
as quicklv as possible on the spot, in a place that 
suited themselves. Accordingly they regularly 
manned their ships and practised for as many days 
as they thought sufficient. Then, when the favour- 
able moment came, they assaulted on the first day 
the Athenian walls, and when a small body of 
hoplites and of horsemen came out against them by 
certain gates, they cut ofi" a number of the hoplites, 
and putting them to flight followed in pursuit ; and 
as the entrance to the camp was narrow, the Athenians 
lost seventy horses and a few of the hoplites. 

LII. So on this first day the Syracusan army with- 
drew ; but on the following day they sailed out with 
their ships, seventy-six in number, and at the same 
time advanced Avith their land-force against the walls. 
The Athenians put out to sea to meet them with 
eighty-six ships, and closing with them commenced 
the battle. Eurymedon, who commanded the right 
wing of the Athenians, wished to surround the ships 
of the enemy, and had therefore steei^ed his ships out 
from the line rather too near the shore, when the 
Syracusans and their allies, after they had defeated 
the Athenian centre, cut off him also in a recess 

103 



THUCYDIDES 

αυτόν re Βιαφθείρονσι καΐ τας μετ αυτούς ναύς 
€7Τΐσπομ€ΐ^α<;' βττβιτα he και τας πάσας ναΰς η8η 
των 'Αθηναίων κaτehLωκov τβ καΐ εξεώθουν e? την 

LIII. Ό he νύΧιτητος ορών τας ναύς των 
7Γθ\€μίων νικωμενας καΐ βζω των σταυρωμάτων 
καΐ του εαυτών στpaτoπehoυ καταφερομενας, 
βου\όμ€νος hίaφθeίpeιv τους εκβαίνοντας καΐ τάς 
ναΰς ράον τους Έ,υρακοσίους άφίΧκβιν της ^ής 
φίλιας ούσης, τταρεβοι^θει eirl την ■χηΧην μ€ρος 

2 TL βχων της στρατιάς, καΐ αυτούς οι Ύυρσηνοί 
(ούτοι yap εφυΧασσον τοΐς Χθηναίοις) όρώντες 
ατάκτως -προσφερόμενους, επεκβοηθησαντβς και 
προσπεσοντβς τοις πρώτοις τρβπουσι και εσβάΧ- 
Χονσιν ες την Χ'ιμνην την ΑυσιμεΧειαν καΧον- 

3 μενην. ύστερον δε πΧείονος ηhη τον στρατεύματος 
παρόντος τών Έυρακοσίων καϊ ξυμμά-χ^ων, καΐ οι 
'Αθηναίοι επιβοηθήσαντες καΐ hείσavτeς περί ταΐς 
ναυσιν ες μά)(ην τε κατέστησαν προς αυτούς και 
νικήσαντες ετ.εhίωξav καϊ όπΧίτας τε ου ποΧΧονς 
άπεκτειναν καϊ τάς ναΰς τάς μεν ποΧΧάς Βιέσωσάν 
τε καϊ ξυνη^α^ον κατά το στpaτόπehov, hυoΐv hk 
hεoύσaς είκοσι οΐ "Σ,νρακοσιοι καϊ οι ξύμμαχ^οι 
εΧαβον αυτών, καϊ τους άι>hpaς πάντας άπεκτειναν. 

4 καϊ επϊ τας Χοιπας εμπρήσαι βουΧομενοι όΧκάόα 
παΧαιάν κΧηματίΒων καϊ hahoς ^βμίσαντες {ην 
yap επϊ τους 'Αθηναίους 6 άνεμος ούριος) άφεΐσαν 
την ναΰν^ πΰρ εμβαΧοντες. καϊ οι ^Αθηναίοι 
hείσaι'τeς περϊ ταΐς ναυσϊν άντεμηγ^ανήσαντό τε 
σβεστήρια κωΧυματα καϊ παύσαντες την φXόya 

1 την ναΰΐ' deleted by Bothe, followed by Hude. 
104 



BOOK VII. Lii. 2-uii. 4 

of the inner bay of the harbour and destroyed both 
him and the ships that followed him ; and after that 
they set about pursuing the entire Athenian fleet 
and driving them ashore. 

LI II. Now Gylippus, when he saw the ships of 
the enemy being defeated and driven ashore at a 
point beyond the stockades and their own camp, 
wishing to destroy the men as they landed, and also 
that the Syracusans might more easily tow the ships 
away from a shore that Avould be friendly to them, 
came down to the causeway ^ with part of his armv to 
assist them. The Tyrrhenians, however, who were 
guarding the causeway for the Athenians, saw these 
troops rushing to the attack in disorder and went 
out against them, and falling upon the first comers 
put them to flight and drove them into the marsh 
called Lysimeleia. But afterwards, when a larger 
force of the Syracusans and their allies had now 
arrived, the Athenian troops also went out against 
them and, fearing for their ships, engaged in battle 
with the enemy, whom they defeated and pursued, 
killing a few hoplites; and as for the ships, they 
saved most of them and assembled them at their 
camp, but eighteen were captured by the Syracusans 
and their allies and their crews slain to a man. 
Against the ships also that remained the Syra- 
cusans, wishing to set them afire, turned loose an 
old merchant-ship which they had filled Avith faggots 
and pine-Avood, after casting fire into it, the wind 
being in the direction of the Athenians. And the 
Athenians, alarmed for their ships, devised in their 
turn means for hindering and quenching the flames, 

^ A quay \vhich ran along by the swamp Lysimeleia toward 
the Athenian camp. 

105 



THUCYDIDES 

καϊ το μη ττροσβΧθεΐν εγγ*^? ^V^ ο\κά8α του 
κινδύνου άττηΧΧά'γησαν. LIV. Μβτά δε τούτο 
^υρακόσιοι μβν της τβ ναυιια-)^ία<; τροτταΐον 
'έστησαν καϊ τη'ί ανω της προς τω ret^et άποΧι']- 
■ν/Λβως TCuv όττλίτών, όθεν και τους ΐτΓττονς εΧαβον, 
Άθηΐ'αΐοί δέ ης τε οί ΎνρσηνοΙ τρο7Γ?}ς εποιήσαντο 
των ττεζών ες την Χίμνην καϊ ής αύτοί τω αλλω 
στρατοπεΒω. 

LV. Τε'^ενημενης 8ε της νίκης τοις ^νρακοσίοις 
Χαμττράς ήδη και του ναυτικού {ττρότερον μεν ηαρ 
εφοβούντο τάς μετα του Δημοσθένους ναύς 
εττεΧθ ούσας), οί μεν Αθηναίοι εν τταντί δ/; αθυ- 
μίας ησαΐ' καϊ ο τταράΧο^/ος αντοΐς μέγας ην, 
ΤΓοΧύ 8ε μείζων ετι της στρατείας ό μετάμεΧος. 
2 ΊτοΧεσι <γάρ ταύταις μόναις ή8η όμοιοτρόττοις 
έττεΧθόντες, 8ημοκρατουμεναις τε, όισττβρ καϊ 
αύτοί, και ναυσι καϊ ΐπττοις καϊ μεγεθει ^ ίσ-χυού- 
σαις,^ ου δυνάμενοι έττενεγκεΐν οίιτ εκ ττοΧιτείας 
τι μεταβοΧής το Βιάφορον αύτοΐς, ω Ίτροσηγοντο 
αν, υύτ εκ τταρασκευής ποΧΧω κρεισσονος, σφαΧ- 
Χόμενοι 8ε τα ττΧειω, τά τε ττρο αυτών ήπόρουν 
καϊ επειδή γε καϊ ταΐς ναυσιν εκρατήθησαν, ο 
ουκ αν φόντο, ποΧΧω δη μάΧΧον ετι. 

LVI. Οι δε Έυρακόσιοι τον τε Χιμενα ευθύς 

^ ναυσΙ καΐ "mrois καΐ μ^γΐΟΐί, so most MSS. except Β, Avhich 
has vavs Kcd 'Irnrovs ical μ(•)€θϊ} ixoi'aais. 

* ισχυούσαίί. Duker's correction for 4χούσαΐ5 of the 
MSS. 

' cf. ch. li. 2. 

2 It ΜΆΆ the usual policy of Athens to overthrow oligarchies 
and establish democracies as a means of extending their 

io6 



BOOK VH. LIU. 4-ΙΛΊ. I 

and having stopped the fire and prevented the ship 
from coming near, escaped the danger. Ll\^ After 
this the Syracusans set up a trophy, both for the 
sea-fight and for the cutting off of the hopHtes at the 
wall — the engagement in which they had captured 
the horses ; ^ and the Athenians set up a trophy for 
the fight in Avhich the Tyrrhenians drove the Syra- 
cusan infantry into the marsh, and also for their own 
victory with the main body of the army. 

LV. The victory of the Syracusans having now 
proved decisive by sea also — for before this they 
had always been afraid of the new fleet that had 
come with Demosthenes — the Athenians were in 
utter despondency. Great had been their mis- 
calculation, and far greater still Avas their regret at 
having made the expedition. For of all the cities 
with which they had gone to war, these alone were 
at that time similar in character to their own, demo- 
cratic in constitution like themselves, and strong in 
ships, cavalry and size. And so, finding themselves 
unable either to bring about a change in their form 
of goverrnnent,^ and thus introduce among them 
that element of discord by Avhich they might have 
brought them over to the Athenian side, or to 
subdue them by means of a military force that was 
greatly superior, and having failed in most of their 
undertakings, they had even before this been at 
their wits' end, and now that they had suffered 
defeat even with their fleet, a thing that they could 
never have anticipated, they were in far greater 
perplexity still. 

LVI. The Syracusans, on the other hand, began 

empire ; but this resource was not open to them in democratic 
Syracuse. 

107 



THUCYDIDES 

irapeirXeov αδεώ? καϊ το στόμα αυτού Βιβνοονντο 
KXijaeiv, οττως μηκβτι, μηό' el βούΧοιντο, Χάθοιβν 

2 αυτούς οι 'Αθηναίοι έκττΧβυσαντβς. ου 'yap irepi 
τον αυτοί σωθήναι μόνον ετι την βττιμέΧειαν 
βτΓΟίούντο, αλλά καϊ οττως βκείνους κωΧύσουσι, 
νομίζοντβς, όπερ ην, από τβ των τταρόντων ττοΧύ 
σφών καθυτΓβρτβρα τα ττρά^ματα elvai και, el 
8ύναιντο κρατήσαι Αθηναιοίν τβ και των ζνμ- 
μάχων και κατά yrjv καϊ κατά θάλασσαν, καΧον 
σφίσιν 69 τους' ΈίΧΧηνας το αΎωνισμα φανεΐσθαΐ' 
τους τβ yap άΧΧονς' ΕιΧΧ7]νας εύθυς τους fiev εΧευ- 
θεροΰσθαι, τους Be φόβου αττοΧύεσθαι [ου yap 
έ'τί 8υνατην €σ€σθαι την ύπάΧοιττον 'Αθηναίων 
Βνναμιν τον ύστερον επενβγ^θ ησόμενον πόΧεμον 
evejKeiv), καϊ αυτοί Βόζαντες αυτών αϊτιοι είναι 
ύττό τε των άΧΧων άνθρώττων καϊ γτγο των εττειτα 

3 τΓοΧύ θαυμασθησεσθαι. καϊ ην Βε άξιος 6 ά^ων 
κατά τε ταύτα καϊ 'ότι ούγϊ 'Αθηναίων μόνων 
Ίτεριε^ί^νοντο, άλλα κα\ των άΧΧων ττοΧΧών 
ζυμμα'χων, και, ουο αυτοί αύ μονοί, άλλα καΐ 
μετά των ξυμβοηθησάντων σφίσιν, ηγεμόνες τε 
γενόμενοι μετά Υίοριιθίων και ΑακεΒαιμονίων, 
καϊ την σφετεραν ττοΧιν εμτταρασ-χ^όντες ττρο- 
κινΒυνεύσαι τε ^ και τού ναυτικού με^α μέρος ^ 

4 ττροκόψαντες. έθνη yap ττΧεΙστα Βη επΙ μίαν 
ττόΧιν ταύτην ξυνήΧθε, ττΧην ye Βη τού ξυμτταντος 
ογΧου 3 τού εν τάδε τω ττοΧεμω ττρος την 'Αθη- 
ναίων τε ττόΧιν καϊ ΑακεΒαιμονίων. 

1 re, deleted b^' Kriiger, followed by Hude. 
^ /xeoos, deleted b\• Kriif^er, followed by Hude. 
^ Kriigei's emendation for \6you of the MSS. 

io8 



BOOK VII. Lvi. 1-4 

at once to sail fearlessly about the harbour and 
determined to close up the entrance to it, in order 
that the Athenians might no longer be able, even if 
they wished, to sail out unobserved. For the Syra- 
cusans were no longer concerned with merely saving 
themselves, but also with preventing the Athenians 
from being saved, thinking, as indeed was the case, 
that in the present circumstances their own position 
was much superior, and that if they could defeat the 
Athenians and their allies both b}' land and by sea 
the achievement would appear a glorious one for 
them in the eyes of the Hellenes. All the other 
Hellenes, they reflected, would immediately be 
either liberated from subjection or relieved from 
fear, since the military forces that would remain to 
the Athenians would not be strong enough to 
sustain the war that would afterwards be brought 
against them ; and they themselves, being i-egarded 
as the authors of all this, Avould be greatly admired 
not only by the world at large but also by posterity. 
And indeed the struggle was a worthy one, both in 
these respects and because they were showing them- 
selves superior, not to the Athenians only, but to 
their numerous allies as well, and that too not stand- 
ing alone but associated with the friends ΛνΙιο had 
come to their aid, thus taking their place as leaders 
along with the Corinthians and Lacedaemonians, 
having also given their own city to bear the brunt 
of the danger and taken a great step forward in sea- 
power. Indeed, a larger number of nations than 
ever before had gathered together at this one city, 
if one except the vast throng of those who in this war 
rallied to the support of the city of Athens and the 
city of the Lacedaemonians. 

109 



THUCYDIDES 

LVII. ToaoiSe yap βκάτβροι eVt ^LKekiav^ t€ 
Koi TTepl ^ίκβΧίας, τοις μβν ξν/κτησόμβνοι την 
γ^ώραν βλθόρτβς, τοις δε ξυνΒιασωσοντες, βττΐ 
^υρακούσαις ^ εττόΧίμησαν, ου κατά 8ίκην τι 
μάΧλον ovSe κατά, ^vyyeveiav μβτ άΧληΧων 
στάντες, αλλ' ώ? εκάστοις της ξυντυχ^ίας η κατά 

2 το ξυμφέρον η avayKr) βσ-χεν. ^Αθηναίοι μβν 
αύτοΙ "\ων€ς eVt θωριάς Έ,νρακοσίους εκόντβς 
η\θοΐ', καΐ αύτοΐς τη αύτη φωνή καΐ νομιμοις έτί 
χ^ρώμενοί Αήμνιοι καΐ "Ιμβριοί καΐ \Γ/ινήται, οϊ 
τότε \Xyivav είχον, καΐ ετι Εστίαίϊ}? οι εν 
Έίίιβοία 'Κστίαιαν οίκοΰντες,^ αττοικοι οντες, 

3 ξυνεστράτευσαν, των 8ε αλΧων οι μεν νττηκοοί, 
οΐ Κ άττο ζυμμα'χίας αυτόνομοι, είσΐ δε καΧ οΊ 

4 μισθοφόροι ζυνεστράτευον. καΐ των μεν ΰττη- 
κόων και φόρου ύττοτεΧωνΈ^ρετριής καΙ\αΧκιΒής 
καΐ Ί,τυρής και ϋαρύστιοι άττ Κύβοιας ήσαν, 
ατΓΟ δέ νήσων Ketoi καΐ "Ανάριοι καΐ Ύιίνιοι, εκ 
δ' Ιωνίας Μίλ^^σίΟί καΐ Έ,άμιοι καΐ \ΐοι. τούτων 
Χίοί ούχ ύτΓοτεΧεΐς οντες φόρου, ναύς δε τταρ- 
έχοντες αυτόνομοι ξυνειττοντο. καΐ το ττΧεΙστον 
'\ωνες οντες ούτοι ττάντες καΐ άττ Αθηναίων 
ττΧην Κ,αρυστίων (ούτοι δ' είσι Αρύοττες), υπήκοοι 

^ Kriiger 2ικ6λι'α, followed by Hude. 

^ Bauer's correction for ^υοακούσατ of the MSS. 

^ 'Έ-στίαιαν oiKovvTes, deleted bj' Hude, following Kriiger. 



^ Or, bj• adopting Heilnmun's and Boehnie's conjecture 
is ΐκαστοί riji ^υντνχ'ία$ . . . ΐ'ίχοι•, "severally choosing 
their side, not so much from a sense of right or from obliga- 
tions of kinship, as from the accident of compulsion or their 
own interest." 



BOOK VII. Lvii. 1-4 

LVII. For the following nations on either side 
had entered the war at Syracuse, coming against 
Sicily or in behalf of Sicily, to aid the Athenians 
to M'in the country or the Syracusans to save it ; and 
they chose sides, not so much on the ground of right 
or even of kinship, but either out of regard for their 
own advantage or from necessity, according to the 
circumstances in which they each happened to be 
placed.^ The Athenians themselves, as lonians, 
went of their own free will against the Syracusans, 
Λνΐιο were Dorians, and with them Λvent as members 
of the expedition the Lemnians, the Imbrians,^ and 
the Aeginetans, Λνΐιο at this time held Aegina, as 
also the Hestiaeans who inhabit Hestiaea in Euboea, 
all these being colonists of the Athenians and having 
the same language and institutions as they had. Of 
the rest, some took part in the expedition as sub- 
jects, others in consequence of an alliance, although 
independent, and some were mercenaries. The 
pcoj)les that Avere subjects and tributaries Λvere the 
I'.retrians, Chalcidians, Styreans and Carystians from 
Ruboea ; from the islands the Ceans, Andrians and 
Tenians ; and from Ionia the Milesians, Samians and 
Chians. Of these last, however, the Chians followed 
as independent allies, not subject to the payment 
of tribute but furnishing ships instead."^ Of the 
above-mentioned almost all were lonians and colonists 
of Athens — except the Carystians, who are Dry- 

2 cf. IV. xxviii. 4. The occupation of Lemnos was effected 
by Miltiades a few years after the battle of Marathon 
(Herodt. vi. 137-140), that of Imbros probably about the 
same time ; of Aegina in 431 B.C. (ii. xxvii. 1) ; of Hestiaea 
in 446 B.C. (i. cxiv. 5). 

3 cf. VI. Ixxxv. 2. 



THUCYDIDES 

δ' ovres και avayKrj όμως "Ιωι^ε'ς ye eirl Αωρίας 

5 ήκοΧούθονν. προς δ αύτυΐς ΑίοΧής, ^ΙηθυμναΙοι 
μβν ναυσϊ και ου φορώ υττήκοοι, TepeSioi δέ καΐ 
Αϊνιοι ύτΓοτβΧεΐς. ούτοι δε ΑίοΧής AioXevai 
τοις κτίσασι ΒοίωτοΖς τοίς^ μετά 'Ε,υρακοσίων 
κατ άνά^κηΐ' έμάγ^οντο, Τίκαταιης he και " 
αντικρυς Βοίωτοι ΒοίωτοΓς μονοί βίκότως κατά 

6 το 'ύχθος. 'ΡόδίΟί δε και }^υθήβΐοι ίΧωριής 
άμφΰτβροι, οι μεν ΑακεΒαιμονίων άττοικοι, Ku- 
θηριοι, €7τι Αακεοαιμονίους τους ίιμα ΤυΧίττΎτω 
μετά ^Αθηναίων ό'ττλα βφερον, PoSioi δε, ^Apyeiot 
yevoς, ^υρακοσίοις μεν ιΑωριεΰσι, ΓεΧωοις δε 
καΐ άποικοις εαυτών ουσι, μετά Ί,υρακοσ'ιων 

7 στρατευομενοις, ηvayκάζovτo ποΧεμεΐν. των τε 
ττερι ΤΙεΧοτΓοννησον νησιωτών ΚεφαΧΧηνες μεν 
και Ζακύνθιοι αυτόνομοι μεν, κατά δε το νησιωτι- 
κον μαΧΧον κaτειpyoμεvoL, οτι θαΧάσσης εκρά- 
τουν \\θηναΐοί, ξυνείττοντο' Κερκυραίοι δε ου 
μόνον Αωριης άΧΧα και Κορίνθιοι σαφώς εττι 
Κορινθίους τε και "^υρακοσίους, τών μεν άττοικοι 
οντες, τών δε ζυyyevelς, nvayKrj μεν εκ του 
εύττρεττοΰς, βουΧήσει δε κατά εγθος το Κορινθίων 

8 ούχ ήσσον εΐποντο. καϊ οΐ "^Ιεσσηνιοι νυν καΧού- 

^ τοΓγ, Lindau's conjecture confirmed b}• Μ. 
^ καί αντίκρυί, Boehme's correction for κατάντικρυ of the 
MSS. 



1 An aboriginal people, dwelling near Mount Oeta ; cf. 
Herodt. VIII. 43. 

2 cf. in. 1. 2 ; VI. Ixxxv. 2. 

^ Those who had e.scaped to Atliens at the siege of Plataea 
(m. xxiv. 3), or those who had settled in Scione (v. xxxii. 1). 



BOOK VII. Lvii. 4-8 

opians ^ — and although they followed as subjects 
and under compulsion, nevertheless they Avere 
lonians going against Dorians. Besides these there 
were Aeolians : the Methyninaeans,^ who paid 
service with ships and not with tribute, and as 
tributaries the Tenedians and Aenians. These, 
though Aeolians, Λvere constrained to fight against 
Aeolians, that is, the Boeotians, their founders, who 
were on the side of the Syracusans ; while the 
Plataeans ^ were the only outright Boeotians who 
were opposed to Boeotians — as Avas natural consider- 
ing their hatred. And there were the Rhodians and 
Cytherians, both Dorians ; the Cytherians, although 
colonists of the Lacedaemonians, bore arms with the 
Athenians against the Lacedaemonians who were 
with Gylippus, while the Rhodians, Argives by 
descent, were compelled to make war not only 
upon the Syracusans, who were Dorians, but also 
upon the Geloans, their own colonists,^ Λvho were 
serving with the Syracusans. Of the inhabitants 
of the islands off the shores of the Peloponnesus, 
the Cephallenians and Zacynthians ^ Avent with the 
Athenians as independent allies, it is true, but on 
account of their insular position were under a 
measure of restraint, because the Athenians were 
masters of the sea. The Corcyraeans, who were 
not only Dorians but confessedly Corinthians, were 
serving against the Corinthians and Syracusans, 
though colonists of the former and kinsmen of the 
latter, under the specious pretext indeed of com- 
pulsion, but really quite as much from choice, on 
account of their hatred of the Corinthians. Also 
the Messenians, as they are now called, who live in 

* cj'. vi. iv. 3. * cf. II. vii. 3; vii. xxxi, 2. 

113 



THUCYDIDES 

μ€νοι €κ Ί^αυττάκτου ^ και εκ Πύλου τότε νττ 
^^θηυαίων €χομ£νης €ς τον ττόΧεμον τταρεΧη- 
φθησαν. καΐ en Μίγαρεωι» φυγάδες ου ττοΧΧοί 
^ieyapeOai 'S.eXLVouvTLOi^ ονσι κατά ξυμφοραν 
9 €μά~^οντο. TCOV Be άΧΧων €κούσίθ<; μάΧλον η 
στρατεια eylyveTO ήΒη• Apyeloi μεν ου τή<ί 
ξυμμαχία<ί eveKa μάΧΧον ή τή<ί ΑακεΒαίμονιων 
τ€ έχθρας καΐ τήζ τταραυτίκα έκαστοι ιΒίας 
ώφεΧίας Αωριής εττΐ Αωριας μετά 'Αθηναίων 
^Ιώνων ηκοΧούθουν, ^Ιαντιν?}^ δε και αΧΧοι 
^ΑρκάΒων μισθοφόροι, επΙ του? αίει ττοΧεμιους 
σφ'ισιν iiTToheiKw μένους ίέναι εΐωθότες, και τότε 
τους μετά Κορινθίων εΧθόντας ΆρκάΒας ού8εν 
ησσον 8ια κέρΒος ψ/ούμβνοι ττολεμιους, Κρήτες 
δε και ΑίτωΧοΙ μισθω και ούτοι ττεισθεντες- 
ζυνεβη δε τοις Κ/3/;σί. την ΤέΧαν 'ΡοΒίοις ^ujkti- 
σαντας μη ξύν τοις άττοίκοις, άΧΧ εττΐ τους 

ι υ άτΓ οίκους εκόντας μετά μισθού εΧθεΐν. καΐ 
Άκαρνάνων τίνες άμα μεν κερΒει, το δε ττΧεον 
Δημοσθένους φιΧία και 'Αθηναίων εύνοια ζύμ- 

11 μαχ^οι οντες εττεκούρησαν και οϊΒε μεν τω 
Ίονίω κόΧττω οριζόμενοι• ΊταΧιωτών δε θούριοι 
και ^Ίεταττόντιοι, εν τοιαύταις άνά^καις τότε 

^ Hude reads L• Νανπάχτω 4κ 'Ναυπάκτου. 

^ Settled by the Athenians at Naiipactus since 462 b.c. 
(I. ciii. 3). Some of them were employed in garrison duty 
at Pylos in 425 B.C. (iv. xli. 2). 

2 IV. Ixxiv. 2 ; vi. 43. » vi. iv. 2. 

* Five hundred according to vi. 43. 

114 



BOOK VII. Lvii. 8-1 1 

Naupactus/ as well as the Messenians at Pylos, 
which was now in the possession of the Athenians, 
were taken along as participants in the war. Further- 
more, there were a few exiles from Megara^ who, 
because of their misfortune, were fighting against 
the Selinuntians,^ who were Megarians. So far as 
the rest were concerned, their part in the expedition 
was, as compared with the others, of a more voluntary 
character. The Argives,* on the one hand, were 
led to take part, not so much by their alliance, as 
by their hatred of the Lacedaemonians, and out of 
regard each for his own immediate advantage, 
associating themselves, Dorians against Dorians, with 
the Athenians Λνΐιο were lonians ; the Mantineans, 
on the other hand, and other Arcadians went as 
mercenaries, for they were accustomed to go against 
any who at any time were pointed out to them 
as enemies, and at this time were led by desire of 
gain to regard as enemies tiie Arcadians who were 
with the Corinthians.^ The Cretans and the Aeto- 
lians were also induced by pay ; and in the case of 
the Cretans it so fell out that, although they had 
assisted the Illiodians in the founding of Gela,"^ 
they went, not with their colonists, but against 
them, and of their own free will, for hire. Some 
of the Acarnanians served, it is true, for gain, but 
the greater portion were moved by friendship for 
Demosthenes and goodwill ^ toward the Athenians, 
whose allies they were, to come to their aid. All 
these were within the boundary of the Ionian Gulf; 
but of the Italiots the Thurians and Metapontians 
took part in the expedition, being reduced at this 

^ cf. ch. xix. 4. * cf. VI. iv. 3. 

' cf. m. vii. 1, xciv. 2, cv. 3, evil. 2, cxiv. 1. 



THUCYDIDES 

στασιωτίκών καιρών κατ€ί\ημμ€νοί,^ ξυνβστρά- 
revov καϊ ^ικεΧιωτών Κάξιοι καΐ Καταναΐοί, 
βαρβάρων δε ΈγεσταΓοί τ€, ο'ίττερ eTnjyayovTO, 
καϊ ΈικβΧώρ Ύο TrXeov, καϊ των βξω Si/ceXta? 
Ύυρσηνών re τινβς κατά, Βιαψοραν Έ,υρακοσίων 
καϊ Ίαττυγες μισθοφόροι. τοσάΒε μβν μβτα 
'Αθηναίων έθνη ^στράτευον. 

LVIII. Έ,νρακοσίοις Se άντββοηθησαν Καμαρι- 
ναΐοι μεν όμοροι oj-'re? και ΤβΧωοι οίκουντες μετ 
αυτούς, εττειτα ^κρα^αντίνων ήσυχ^αζόντων εν 

2 τω ετΓ εκείνα ΊΒρυμένοι ΧεΧινούντιοι. καϊ o'ihe 
μεν της ΈικεΧίας το ττρος Αιβύην μέρος τετραμ- 
μενον νεμόμει οι, Ίμεραΐοι Βε άττο του ττρος τον 
Ύυρσηνικον ττόντον μορίου, εν ω και μονοί 
"ΕΧληνες οίκοΰσιν' ούτοι δέ καϊ εξ αυτού μόνοι 

3 ε βοήθησαν. καϊ 'ΚΧληνικα μεν έθνη των εν 
^ικεΧία τοσάόε, Αωριης τε καΐ^ αυτόνομοι 
ττάντες, ζυνεμάχουν, βαρβάρων δε ΖικεΧοΙ μόνοι 
όσοι μη άφέστασαν ττρος τους \\θηναιους' των 
δ' εξω ^ικεΧίας 'Ε,ΧΧήνων ΑακεΖαιμόνιοι μεν 
ηγεμόνα Έ,τταρτιάτην τταρεγόμενοι, νεοΒαμώΒεις 
δέ τους άΧ\ους καϊ Είλωτα?,^ Κ,ορίνθιοι δε καϊ 
ναυσΐ καϊ ττεζω μόνοι τταρα^ενομενοι και ΑευκάΒιοι 
καϊ Άμιτρακιώται κατά το ξυγ^/ενές, εκ δε 

' κατ^ίληαμίνοί Reiske's emendation for καπιΧ-ηαμίνων of 
theMSS. 

' αυτόνομοι, οι preceding deleted by Bekker. 

^ After Εϊλαιταϊ the MSS. give δύναται 5e xb νεωδααώδεϊ 
ΐλΐύθΐ^ον η57] eli'ai, " Neodamodes means 'being now free.'" 
The words are generally deleted, as not read by the Schol. 

ii6 



BOOK VII. Lvii. ii-i.vni. 3 

time to such straits by party crises that they could 
not do other\vise ; and of the Siceliots the Naxians 
and the Catanaeans. Of Barbarians there were the 
Egestaeans, who had brought the Athenians to Sicily, 
and the greater part of the Sicels ; and of tliose 
outside of Sicily a certain number of Tyrrhenians/ 
who had a quarrel Avith the Syracusans, and some 
lapygian mercenaries. ^ So many were the peoples 
who took part in the struggle on the side of the 
Athenians. 

LVIII. The Syracusans, on the other hand, were 
aided by the Camarinaeans,^ who were their next 
neighbours, and the Geloans, λυΙιο lived next to the 
Camarinaeans ; then, since the Agrigentines Avere 
neutral,* by the Selinuntians,^ λυΊιο were settled in 
the country beyond. All these occupied that part 
of Sicily Avhich faces Libya, but the Himeraeans^ 
came from the part which faces the Tyrrhenian Sea, 
where they were the only Hellenic inhabitants ; and 
they alone from that region came to the aid of the 
Syracusans. Such were the Hellenic peoples in 
Sicily, all Dorians and independent, that fought on 
their side ; but of Barbarians, the Sicels alone — 
those, that is, that had not gone over to the side of 
the Atlienians. Of the Hellenes outside of Sicily 
there were the Lacedaemonians, who furnished a 
Spartan as commander-in-chief, but no troops except 
Neodamodes ' and Helots ; the Corinthians, who alone 
were at hand with both a fleet and a land-force ; the 
Leucadians and Ambraciots, both induced by the tie 

' cf. VI. Ixxxviii. 6, ciii. 2. * cf. ch. xxxiii. 4. 

' cf. ΛΙ. Ixvii. 2; vii. xxxiii. 1. * cf. ch. xxxiii. 2. 
5 cf. VI. vi. 2, Ixv. 1, Ixvii. 2. 

β cf. VI. Ixii. 2 ; vri. i. 3. ' See on ch. xix. 3 

117 



THUCYDIDES 

Ά/3ΛΓαδια9 μισθοφόροι νττο Κ^ορινθίων άττο- 
σταλβντβς καϊ Σικυώνιοι avajKaarol στρα- 
T€vovT€<; καϊ των βξω JleXoTrovi'riaov Βοιωτοί. 
4 προς δε τους εττβΧθοντας τούτους οΐ Έ,ικεΧιώται 
αύτοί πΧήθος ττΧβον κατά τταντα τταρεσχ^οντο, άτβ 
μβ^/αΚας ττόΧβις οίκονντες• και ηαρ όττ\1ται ττοΧλοΙ 
καϊ νηβς και ΐτητοί καϊ άΧΧος ομιΧος άφθονος 
ξυνβΧίγ]. καϊ ττρος άτταντας αύθις ώς είττείν 
τους άΧΧους Έυρακόσιοι αύτοι ττΧβίο} επορίσαντο 
Sia μέ'^μθός τε ττόΧεως καϊ ότι iv μ€yίστω κινΒύΐ'ω 
ήσαν. 

LIX. Και αι μεν εκατίρων ετηκουρίαι τοσαίΒε 
ζυνεΧε'^ησαν, καϊ τότε ηΖη ττάσαι άμφοτβροις 
τταρήσαν καϊ ούκβτι ού^βν ούΒετέροις εττηΧθβν. 

2 0(' δ' ουν Έ,νρακόσιοι εΐκότως ενόμισαν καΧον 
αηωνα σφισιν είναι εττϊ Tjj 'γ€'^/εν7]μέντ] vlktj της 
ναυμαχίας eXeiv re το στρατόττ€8ον ατταν των 
^Αθηναίων τοσούτον 6ν, καϊ μηΒε καθ' έτερα 
αυτούς, μήτε 8ια θαλάσσης μήτε τω ττεζω, Sia- 

3 φυγείν. εκΧρον ουν τον τε Χιμενα ευθύς τον 
με^αν, ε)ζοντα το στόμα οκτώ σταδίων μάΧιστα, 
τριηρεσι ττΧα^ίαις καϊ ττΧοίοις καϊ άκάτοις eV 
ιυγκυρ'ον όρμιζοντες, καϊ τάΧΧα, ην ετι ναυμα'χε'ίν 
οί \\θηναΙοι τοΧμησωσι, τταρεσκευάζοντο, καϊ 
oXiyov ού8εν ες ούΒεν εττενοουν. 

LX. Ύοΐς δέ \\θιμ'αίοις την τε άττοκΧτ^σιν 



^ Syracuse {\ι. iii. 2), Leucas (ι. χχχ. 2) and Ambracia 
(ιι. Ιχχχ. 3) were sister states having Corinth as μ-ητρόπολίί. 

* cf. ch. xix. 4. 

' Because since 418 B.C. an oligarchic constitution had 
been forced upon them (v. Ixxxi. 2). 

ii8 



BOOK VH. Lviii. 3-Lx. i 

of kinship ; ^ from Arcadia ^ mercenaries sent by the 
Corinthians ; the Sicyonians, who served under com- 
pulsion;^ and, from outside the Peloponnesus, the 
Boeotians.* As compared with all these, who came 
from abroad, the Siceliots themselves supplied a 
greater number of troops of every kind, inasmuch 
as the cities they inhabited Avere large ; and in fact 
the forces they collected comprised hoplites in large 
numbers, as well as ships, horses, and a miscellaneous 
horde of vast numbers. And again, in comparison 
with all the rest, speaking roughly, the Syracusans 
themselves provided the larger number, both on 
account of the greatness of their city and because 
they Avere in the greatest danger. 

LIX. Such were the forces that had been brought 
together for the assistance of either side, and at this 
time ^ both had all their contingents at hand, and 
no further reinforcements came to either. 

The Syracusans and their allies, then, naturally 
conceived the thought that it would be a glorious 
achievement for them to crown the victory Avhich 
they had won in the sea-fight by taking the whole 
vast armament of the Athenians and preventing 
their escape in either way, either by sea or by land. 
Accordingly, they began at once to close the entrance 
to the Great Harbour, which was about eight stadia 
wide, Avith triremes ranged broadside and with large 
and small boats, mooring them at anchor ; and they 
made other preparations in case the Atheniaiio 
should still venture to fight at sea, and there was 
nothing small about any of the designs thcA' formed. 

LX. But the Athenians, observing the closing of 

* rf. ch. xix. 3. 

* The latter part of the summer of 413 B.C. 

119 



THUCYDIDES 

όρωσί και την άΧΧην Ζίάνοιαν αυτών αίσθομύνοι^; 

2 βον\ευτ€α ehoKei. καΐ ξυν€\θόντ€<; οι re στρα- 
τη'γοί καΐ οι ταξίαρχ^οί 7rpo<i την παροΰσαν άττο- 
ρίαν των τβ άΧλων καϊ ότι τα βτητήδεια ούτε 
αύτίκα βτι gl^ov {"προττζμ-^αντ^^ 'yap ες Κατάνην 
ώς €κπ\€υσόμενοι άττεΐπον μη eTrayeiv) ούτβ το 
ΧοιτΓον εμεΧΧον e^eiv, el μη ναυκρατήσουσιν, 
εβονΧβύσαντο τα μβν τβί'χ^η τα άνω εκΧιττεΐν, 
7Γ/0Ο9 δε αύται? rat? νανσΐν άττοΧαβόντες 8ια- 
τβιχ^ίσματι όσον οίον re εΧά-χ^ιστον τοΐς re 
σκεύεσί καϊ τοις άσθενεσιν Ίκανον ηενεσθαι, 
τούτο μεν φρονρεΐν, άττο Be του άΧΧου πεζού 
τάς ναύς άπάσας, οσαι ήσαν και ΒυναταΙ καϊ 
άττΧοωτεραι, ττάντα τίνα εσβιβάζοντες ττΧηρώσαι, 
καϊ Βιαναυμαχ^ήσαντες, ην μεν νικώσιν, e? Κατά- 
νην κημίζεσθαι, ην 8ε μη, εμττρήσαντες τάς ναύς 
•πεζή ξυνταξάμενοι άττοχωρεΐν η αν τάχ^ιστα 
μεΧΧωσί τίνος ■χωρίου i) βαρβαρικού ή 'ΚΧΧηνικού 
φιΧίου άντιΧη-^εσθαι. κα\ οι μέι>, ώς ε^οζεν 

3 αύτοΐς ταύτα, και εποίησαν εκ τε yap των άνω 
τεί'χ^ών ύττοκατεβησαν καϊ τας ναύς εττΧηρωσαν 
ττάσας, άνα^κάσαντες εσβαίνειν όστις και όττωσ- 
οΰν εΕόκει ηΧικιας μετέχων εττιτήδείος είναι. 

4 καϊ ξυνεττΧηρώθησαν νηες αϊ ττΰσαι Ζεκα μάΧιστα 
και εκατόν τομάτας τε επ αύτάς ττοΧΧούς και 
άκοΐ'τιστάς των τε ^Ακαρτάνων και των άΧΧων 
ξένων εσεβίβαζον καϊ τάΧΧα ώς οΐόν τ ην (ξ 

^ i.e. the upper extremity of their lines, under the bluffs 
of Epipolae and furthest from the harbour. 

'^ The reference is to contingents from peoples who, like 
the Anarnanians, were not under the Athenian empire but 
served for pay ; cf. ch. Ivii. 10. 



BOOK VII. Lx. 1-4 

the harbour and being aware of the general plans of 
the enemy, thought it desirable to hold a council. 
So the generals and the taxiarchs came together and 
took counsel with reference to the difficulties which 
now confronted them both in other ways, and 
especially OΛving to the f;ict that they no longer 
had supplies for their immediate needs — for in the 
expectation that they would sail away they had 
already sent word to Catana and stopped the bring- 
ing in of provisions — and were not likely to have 
them in the future, unless they should hold the 
mastery at sea. They determined, therefore, to 
abandon their upper walls,i and cutting off by means 
of a cross-wall the smallest possible space, close to 
the ships, tliat would suffice for the stores and for 
the sick, to put a garrison in this : they would then 
take the rest of their land-force and man all their 
ships, not only those which were fit for service, but 
also the less seaworthy, putting aboard every avail- 
able man, and fight the issue out at sea ; if they Λνοη, 
they ΛVϋuld proceed to Catana, but if not, they would 
burn their ships, and, forming in line of battle, make 
their retreat by land, taking whatever route Avould 
enable them soonest to reach some friendly place, 
Avhether Barbarian or Hellenic. These plans having 
once been determined upon, they acted accordingly : 
they descended stealthily from the upper walls and 
manned all their ships, compelling everyone to 
embark who, provided he was of militai-y age, seemed 
to be at all fit for service. So there were manned 
altogether about one hundred and ten ships ; and 
they put on board a large number of archers and 
javelin-men, both of the Acarnanians and of the other 
foreigners,^ and in general they made such provision 



THUCYDIDES 

αναγκαίου re καΐ τοιαύτη'^ Βιανοία<; βττορίσαντο. 
5 ο δε ΝίΛ:/α9, €7Γ€ί8η τα ττοΧΧά βτοΐμα ην, όρό>ν 
και τους στρατιώτας τω τ€ τταρα το €ίωθ6<ί ττοΧύ 
ταί? νανσϊ κρατηθήναι άθυμοΰντας και Sia την 
των 67Γΐτη8€ίων σττάνιν ώς ταχίστα βουΧομένους 
StaKivSvveueiv, ζνγκαΧεσας απαντάς TrapefceXev- 
σατό τε ττρωτον καΐ eXe^e τοιάΒε. 

LXI. ""AvSpe^ στρατιώταί ^Αθηναίων τ€ καΐ 
των άΧΧων ξυμμάχ^ων, ό μεν ayoov ό μέΧΧων 
ομοίως κοινός άττασιν €σται ττβρί τβ σωτηρίας καΐ 
7Γατρί8ος βκάστοις ούχ^ ησσον ή τοις ποΧεμίοις• ^ 
ην yap κρατησωμβν νυν ταΐς νανσίν, εστί τ(ρ 
την ύττάρχουσάν ττου οίκείαν ττόΧιν einhelv. 

2 άθυμεΐν Be ου γ^ρη ούΒε ττάσχ^ειν οττερ οι άττειρό- 
τατοι των άνθρώττων, οΐ τοις πρώτοις aycoai 
σφαΧβντες έπειτα Sia παντός την εΧπίΒα τον 

3 φόβου όμοίαν ταΐς ξυμφηραΐς εχ^ονσιν. αλλ' 
όσοι Τ€ Αθηναίων πάρεστβ, ποΧΧώνηΒη ποΧέμων 
έμπειροι οντες, καΐ όσοι των ξυμμάχων, Συστρα- 
τευόμενοι αΐεί, μνησθητε των εν τοις ττοΧεμοις 
πapaXόyωv, καΐ το της τύχης καν μεθ' ημών 
εΧπίσαντες στήναι καΐ ώς άναμαχούμενοι άξιως 
τοΟδβ του πΧήθους, όσον αύτοι υμών αυτών 
εφοράτε, παρασκευάζεσθε. 

LXII. 'Α Βε άpωyά ενειΒομεν επΙ τη του 
Χιμενος στενότητι προς τον μέΧΧοντα οχΧον των 
νεών εσεσθαι και προς την εκείνων επΙ των 
καταστρωμάτων παρασκευην, οίς πρότερον 

^ ούχ ΐ]σσον ί/ τοίϊ πο\€μίοΐ5, deleted by Stalil, followed by 
Hude. 



BOOK VII. LX. 4-Lxii. i 

as was possible under the stress of necessity and with 
the object they had in view. But wlien almost all 
their preparations were ready, Nicias, seeing that the 
soldiers were not only discouraged, because contrary 
to their wont they had been badly beaten at sea, 
but that they also, on account of the scarcity of 
provisions, were anxious to risk a battle as soon as 
possible, called them all together before giving the 
order for battle and exhorted them, speaking as 
follows : 

LXI. "Soldiers of Athens and of our allies, the 
impending contest will concern you all alike — a 
contest both for salvation and for fatherland for each 
of you no less than for the enemy ; for if we win the 
present battle with our fleet, it is possible for every- 
one to live to see his own city, Avherever it may be. 
And we ought not to be discouraged, much less feel 
as do the rawest recruits, who, when they have been 
defeated in their first contests, cherish ever after- 
wards a foreboding, inspired of their fear, that takes 
on the colour of their disasters. But as many of you 
here present as are Athenians, and have already had 
experience in many wars, and you our allies, who 
ahvays take part in our campaigns, remember the 
unexpected turns in war, and in hope that fortune 
may take her stand on our side also, and with the 
resolve to retrieve your defeat in a manner worthy 
of this vast multitude of your army that you see 
before you, make ready for battle. 

LXII. "But as regards anything that could be 
helpful to us, in view of the narrowness of the 
harbour, in combating such a throng of ships as 
will fill it and the forces which the enemy has placed 
on their decks — conditions which injured us before 



THUCYDIDES 

^βΧατΓΤομβθα, ττάντα καΐ ημΐν νυν Ικ των 
τταροντων μξτά των κνββρνητων βσκβμμβνα ητοι- 

2 μασται. καΐ yap τοξόται ttoWoI καΐ ακοντισταΐ 
€ττίβ7']σονταί καΐ οχΧος ω νανμαχί,αν μεν ποιού- 
μενοι iv TreXayei ουκ αν εχ^ρώμβθα δια το 
βΧάτΓτβιν αν το της εττιστήμης τι] βαρντητι τό^ν 
νέων, εν 8ε Trj ενθάόε ηνα^κασμεντ] άττο των νέων 

3 ττεζομαχία ττρόσφορα εσται. ηϋρηταί ο ημΙν 
οσα -χρη άντιναυττη^εΐσθαι, καΐ ττρος τα? των 
εττωτίΒων αύτοΐς παχύτητας, ωττερ 8η μαΚιστα 
εβλατΓτόμεθα, γ^ειρων σιδηρούν εττιβοΧαί, αΐ 
σ)ι^ήσουσι την ττάΧιν άνάκρονσιν της προσττε- 
σούσης νεώς, -ην τα εττΐ τούτοις οι εττιβάται 

4 υτΓονρ^ωσιν. ες τούτο yap 8η ηvayκάσμ6θa 
ώστε ττεζομαχείν άττο των νέων, καΐ το μήτε 
αυτούς άνακρούεσθαι μητ' εκείνους εάν ώφεΧι- 
μον φαίνεται, άΧΧως τε καΐ της yής ττΧην όσον 
αν ό πεζύς ημών εττεχη ττοΧεμιας ούσης. 

LXIII. ^Ω.ν χρη μεμνημενους διαμάγ^εσθαι 'όσον 
αν 8ννησθε, καΐ μη έξωθεΐσθαι ες αύτην, άΧΧα 
ξυμττεσούσης νηϊ νεως μη ττρότερον άξιοΰν άττο- 
λ ύεσθαι η τους άττο του ποΧεμίου καταστρώματος 

2 όπΧίτας άτταράξητε. καΐ ταύτα τοις οττΧίταις 
ούχ ησσον των ναυτών παρακεΧεύομαι, οσω τών 
άνωθεν μάΧΧον το εpyov τούτο' ύττάρχει δ' ημΙν 

3 έ'τί νύν yε τα ττΧείω τω ττεζώ επικρατεΐν. τοις 
8ε ναύταις παραινώ και εν τω αυτω τω8ε και 

1 i.e. if they board the hostile ships and fight hand to 
hand. 
124 



BOOK VII. Lxii. i-i,xiii. 3 

— all this has now been made ready by us also, as 
fai• as our circumstances permit, after consultation 
with our pilots. Indeed, many bowmen and javelin- 
men will go on board, and a multitude such as v/e 
should not use if we were making a fight in the open 
sea, because they ΛνοηΜ hamper our skill by in- 
creasing the Λveight of our ships, whereas in the 
land-battle that we are forced to fight here from the 
decks of our ships they Λνϋΐ be of advantage. And 
we have contrived whatever counter-devices Avere 
necessary in the construction of our ships, and 
especially to combat the thickness of the enemy's 
catheads, a device from which we suffered most 
injury, we have provided grappling-irons, which will 
prevent the ship that has rammed us from backing 
off" again, if the marines perform the service that 
will then devolve upon them.^ For we have been 
forced to the extremity of having to fight a land- 
battle on shipboard, and it is manifestly to our 
interest neither to back Λvater ourselves nor to suffer 
them to do so, es{)ecially since the whole shore, 
except the small part of it that our land-force holds, 
is hostile. 

LXIII. " Remembering these things, you must 
fight to the last Avith all your strength and not 
allow yourselves to be driven ashore, but Avhen ship 
collides with ship be resolved never to separate until 
you have swept into the sea the hoplites on the 
enemy's decks. And these things I urge upon the 
hoplites not less than upon the sailors, inasmuch as 
such Λvork belongs rather to those on deck ; and, 
besides, we still have the better of the enemy in 
most points with our land-force. As for the sailors, 
I exhort them, and at the same time I even implore 

125 



THUCYDIDES 

δέομαι μη €Κ7Γ€7Γ\ήχΘαί τι ταϊ? ξυμφοραΐς ayav, 
την τβ τταρασκευηρ άττο των καταστρωμάτων 
βεΚ,τίω νυν €χ^οντας καΐ τας ναΰ<; 7r\eiov<;, €κεινην 
τ€ την η^ονην (νθυμεΐσθαί ώ? άζία εστί hia- 
σώσασθαι, οΊ τέως \\θηναΐοι νομιζόμβνοι, καϊ μη 
οντες, ημών ^ της τε φωνής τη εττιστήμη καϊ των 
τρόττων τι] μιμησεί εθανμάζεσθε κατά την 
Ελλάδα, κα\ της άρχ^ής της ημετέρας ουκ 
έλασσον κατά το ώφεΧεΐσθαι, ες τε το φοβερον 
τοις ύττηκόοις καϊ το μη ^ άΒικεΐσθαι ποΧύ πΧεΐον,^ 
4 μετεί-χετε. ώστε κοινωνοί μόνοι ελευθέρως ημίν 
της αρχής οντες δικαίως αν ^ αύτην νυν μη κατά- 
ττροζίΒοτε, καταφρονησαντες δε Κ,ορινθίων τε, 
ους τΓοΧλάκις νενικήκατε, καϊ "Σ,ικίλιωτών, ών 
θί)δ' άντίστήναι ούΒεΙς εως ήκμαζε το ναυτικον 
ημΐν ηζίωσεν, άμύνασθε αυτούς καϊ οειζατε οτι 
καϊ μετ^ ασθενείας καϊ ξυμφορών η υμέτερα 
επιστήμη κρείσσων εστίν ετέρας εύτυχ^ούσης 
ρώμης. 

LXIV. Ύούς τε 'Αθηναίους υμών ττάλιν αυ 
καϊ τάδε ύπομιμνήσκω, 'ότι ούτε ναύς εν τοις 
νεωσοίκοις άλΧας όμοιας ταΐσΒε ούτε όττΧιτών 
ηΧικίαν ύπεΧίττετε, εϊ τε ξυμβήσεταί τι άΧΧο ή 
το κρατεΐν ύμΐν, τους τε ενθάΖε πολεμίους ευθύς 
εττ' εκείνα πΧευσουμενους καϊ τους εκεί υπο- 
λοίπους ημών ά8υνάτους εσομενους τους τε αυτού 
καϊ τούς επεΧθόντας άμύνασθαι. καϊ οι μεν αν 

' With Codex Paris : all the best MSS. υμών. 
^ Hiule omits μή, which is found only in Β of the 
better MSS. 

^ Hude rejects πολΰ ττΚΐΊον, after Kriiger. 

126 



BOOK VII. Lxiii. 3-Lxiv. i 

them, not to be overmuch dismayed by our calami- 
ties, since the forces we now have on the decks are 
better and our ships more numerous ; and I Avould 
have you — those of you that is Avho have hitherto 
been accounted Athenians without being so^ — reflect 
how Λν^Ι worth preserving is the proud feehng that 
because of your knowledge of our language and your 
imitation of our ways you have been admired through- 
out Hellas, and in point of advantage have had no 
less a share in our empire than ourselves, Avhile as 
regards the fear you inspired in our subjects and the 
freedom from injury you enjoyed you have had a 
much greater share. Do you, therefore, Avho alone 
are partners Λvith us in our empire as free men, be 
just and do not utterly betray it; but with scorn 
both for the Corinthians, whom you have frequently 
beaten, and for the Siceliots, not one of whom, when 
our navy was at its best, ever presumed even to 
stand up against us, Avard them off, and show that 
even amid weakness and misfortune your skill is 
more than a match for the strength and good fortune 
of your opponents. 

LXIV. "As to those of you who are Athenians, 
I remind you once more that you left behind you in 
your docks at home no other ships like these nor 
hoplites of military age, and if the outcome shall be 
aught else but victory for you, your enemies here 
will straightway sail yonder, and our fellow-citizens 
Λνΐιο are left at home Λvill be unable to ward off both 
the enemies there and the new invaders. Those of 

^ Referring to the resident aliens ; cf. Schol. tovs μΐτοίκου! 
\(yet. 



*■ The text is corrupt; ; most editors bracket &p. 

127 



THUCYDIDES 

ίιττο ^υρακοσίοίς evOu^ yLyvoiaOe, οίς αύτοΙ ί'στε 
οία <γνώμτ} βττήΧθετ^, οι δε ifcet ύττο ΑακβΒαιμονίοι^;. 
2 ωστ€ ev evl τω8β ίιττίρ αμφοτέρων αηώνι καθε- 
στώτ€9 καρτ€ρησατ€, βϊττβρ irore, καΐ βνθνμβΐσθε 
καθ' εκάστου^; re καϊ ζνμτταΐ'τβς δτί οΐ iv ταΐς 
νανσΐν υμών ννν βσόμενοί καϊ ττεζοί τοί'ζ Άθη- 
ναίοις 6ίσΙ καί vfje^; καϊ ή ΰιτό\οίττο<; 7Γθ\ί<; καϊ το 
/Αβγά όνομα των 'Αθηνών, irepX ών, et τί<; τι 
βτβρος έτερον προφέρει η επιστημί] η εύψνχ^ία, 
ουκ αν εν άΧΧγ μάΧλον καιρώ άττοΒειζάμενος 
αυτός τε αυτώ ωφέλιμος ηένοιτο και τοις 
ξυμττασι σωτηρίος.' 

LXV. Ο μεν Νικίας τοσαύτα τταρακεΧευσά- 
μενος ευθύς εκεΧευε πΧηρονν τας ναΰς. τώ 8ε 
ΤυλίτΓΤτω καΐ τοις Ί,υρακοσίοις τταρήν μεν 
αίσθάνεσθαι, ορώσι και αύτην την τταρασκευην, 
ΟΤΙ ναυμαχησουσιν οι Αθηναίοι, ττροηγ^/έΧθη δ' 
αύτοΐς και η εττιβόΧη τών σιδηρών ■χ^ειρών, καϊ 
προς τε τάΧΧα εξηρτυσαντο ώς έκαστα και προς 

2 τοΰτο' τας ηαρ πρώρας καϊ της νεώς άνω επϊ 
ποΧύ κατεβύρσωσαν, όπως αν άποΧισθανοι και 

3 μη εχοι άντιΧαβην η χειρ επιβαΧΧομενη. καϊ 
επειδή πάντα έτοιμα ήν, παρεκεΧενσαντο εκείνοις 
οϊ τε στρατηγοί καϊ ΤύΧιππος και εΧεξαν τοιά8ε. 

LX\^I. "Ότι μεν καΧά τα προειρ^ασμένα και 
ύπερ καΧών τών μεΧΧόντων ο άyωv εσται, ώ 
Χυρακόσιοι και ζύμμαχοι, οι τε ποΧΧοΙ δοκεΐτβ 

128 



BOOK VII. Lxiv. i-i.xvi. i 

you who are here Avould at once come under the 
power of the Syracusans — and you yourselves know 
with Avliat purpose you came against them — and 
those who are there under the power of the 
Lacedaemonians. So, therefore, since you are con- 
strained to fight this one battle on behalf of both 
yourselves and them, be steadfast now, if ever you 
were, and remember, one and all, that those of you 
who will now be aboard the ships are for the 
Athenians both army and navy, and all that is left 
of the State and the great name of Athens. For 
her sake, if anyone surpasses another in skill or in 
courage, he will never find a better occasion for 
displaying them, at once for his own advantage and 
for the salvation of us all." 

LXV. After making this exhortation Nicias im- 
mediately gave orders to man the ships. Gylippus 
and the Syracusans, on the other hand, observing 
the actual preparations Avhich they Avere making, 
could easily perceive that the Athenians were going 
to fight at sea ; furthermore, the device of the 
grappling-irons had already been reported to them, 
and while they Avere equij)ping their ships to meet 
e\ery other contingency, they also took precautions 
against this. For they stretched hides over the 
prows and a considerable portion of the upper works 
of the ships, in oi'der that when the grapnel was 
thrown it might slip off" and not get hold. And 
when all \vas ready, Gylippus and his generals 
exhorted their men as follows : 

LXVI. " That the deeds which have already been 
achieved are glorious and that the contest \vill be 
for glories still to come, you, Syracusans and allies, 
seem to us most of you to be aware — otherwise you 

129 



THUCYDIDES 

ημίν elBevai (ουδέ yap αν οΰτω<ί αυτών ττροθύμως 
άντβΧάββσθε), και βϊ ης μη eVi όσον Ββΐ τίσθηται, 

2 σημανουμβν. ^Αθηναίους yap e? την ■χ^ώραν τήνΒε 
ζΧθόντας πρώτον μβν eVi. της Έ,ικεΧίας κατα- 
ΒουΧώσεί, έ'ττβίτ', et κατορθώσβιαν, και της 
ΤΙεΧοτΓοννησου καϊ της άΧΧης Έλλάδο?, και 
άρχ^ην την η8η /xeyicrTi/t' των τ€ ττριν 'ΚΧΧϊίνων 
και των νυν κβκτημβνους, ττρώτοί άνθ ρώττων ύπο- 
στάντες τω ναυτικω, ωττερ ττάντα κατεσχον, τας 
μβν νενίΚ}]κατ€ ναυ μαγείας, την δ' εκ του εικότος 

3 νυν νικήσετε. άνδρες yap εττειΒάν φ άξιοΰσι 
προυγ^ειν κοΧουσθώσι, το y' ϋπόΧοιττον αυτών 
της Βόξης άσθενεστερον αύτο εαυτού εστίν η ει 
μη8 ωήθησαν το πρώτον, καϊ τω παρ" εΧπί8α 
του αύγ^ήματος σφαΧΧόμενοι και πάρα ισχ^ύν 
της δυνάμεως ενΒιΒόασιν ο νυν ^Αθηναίους εικός 
πεπονθεναι. 

LXVII, 'Υίμών hk τό τε ΰπάρχ^ον πρότερον, 
ωπερ καϊ άνεπιστήμονες ετι οντες άπετοΧμήσαμεν, 
βεβαιότερον νυν, καϊ της Βοκήσεως πpoσyεyεvη- 
μβνης αύτω κρατίστους είναι,^ ει τους κρατίστους 
ενίκήσαμεν, ΒιπΧασία εκάστου η εΧπίς. τα hk 
ποΧΧά προς τάς επΐ)(ειρήσ€ίς ή με'/ίστη εΧπΙς 
2 μεyίστηv καϊ την προθυμίαν παρεχ^εται. τά τε 
της άvτLμιμy]σεως αυτών της παρασκευής ημών 
τω μεν ήμετερω τρόπω ζυνήθη τε εστί καϊ ουκ 
ανάρμοστοι προς εκαστον ^ αυτών εσόμεθα' οι δ', 

*■ rh κρατίστουε elvai MSS., Hude τυν, following Kriiger ; 
most editors delete τό. 

* ΐκαστον, Β, most MSS. την ΐκάστ-ην. Hude reads την 
τΐχνην ΐκάστην. 

' Or " unexpectedly deceived in their self-confidence." 
130 



BOOK VII. Lxvi. i-Lxvii. 2 

would not have laid your hands to the task so 
zealously ; but if anyone has not perceived this as 
clearly as he should, we will make it plain. The 
Athenians came against this country in the first 
place for the enslavement of Sicily, and after that, 
if they should be successful, for that of the Pelopon- 
nesus also and the rest of Hellas, having already 
acquired a dominion greater than that of any 
Hellenes either of the past or of the present time ; 
but you, the first men who ever Avithstood their 
fleet, Avith which they had obtained the mastery 
everywhere, have already defeated them on the sea 
and in all probability will defeat them in this present 
battle. For when men have once suffered abate- 
ment just where they claim to be superior, what is 
left of their self-esteem is Aveaker than it ever was 
— than if they had never thought themselves 
superior at all — and their pride being mortified by 
the disappointment,^ they give way out of all pro- 
portion to their actual strength. And at the present 
moment this is \vhat the Athenians have probably 
suffered. 

LXVII. " With us, however, the feeling that 
before animated us, which led us, even though we 
were inexperienced, to venture our all, is now more 
fully confirmed ; and since there has been added to 
it the conviction that we are strongest, because we 
have defeated the strongest, the hope of each man 
is doubled. And, generally speaking, the greatest 
hope inspires in men the greatest zeal for their 
undertakings. Furthermore, as regards their imita- 
tion of our arrangements, whereas these are familiar 
to us as a part of our manner of fighting and we 
shall be able to adapt ourselves to meet each one of 

131 



THUCYDIDES 

eweiBav ttoWoI μβν οττΧΐται iirl τώρ καταστρω- 
μάτων τταρα TO καθεστηκος ωσι, iroWoi 8e καΐ 
άκοντισταί, -χερσαίου ώ? είττείν Ακαρνάνες re 
καΐ aWoc εττΐ ναΰς άναβάντε'ζ, οΐ ούδ' ό'ττως 
καθεζομβί'ονς χρη το /3ελο? άφεΐναι ευρήσουσι, 
ττώς ου σφαΧοΰσί τβ τάς ζ^αΰ? καΐ ev σφίσιν 
αύτοΐς ττάντες ουκ ev τω αυτών τρόπω κινούμβνοι 

3 ταράζονται ; eirel και τω ττ\ηθ€ί των νέων ουκ 
ώφεΧησονται, εϊ τις καΐ τοδε υμών, οτι ουκ 'ίσαις 
ναυμαχήσει, πεφόβηται• εν οΧί'γω yap ποΧλαϊ 
άριγότεραι μεν ες το 8ράν τι ων βούΧονται έσονται, 
ρασται δέ e? το βΧάτττεσθαι αφ' 6)v ήμΐν 

4 τταρεσκεΰασται. το δ' άΧηθεστατον ^νώτε, εξ 
ων ημείς οΐόμεθα σαφώς ττεττύσθαΐ' υττερβαΧ- 
Χόντων yap αύτοΐς τών κακών και βιαζόμενοι υττο 
της Ίταρούσης άττορίας ες άττονοιαν καθεστήκασιν 
ου παρασκευής πιστει μίιΧΧον η τύχης άπο- 
κιν8υνεύσαι ούτως όπως Βύνανται, 'ίν η βιασά- 
μενοι εκπΧεύσωσιν η κατά yrjv μετά τούτο τήν 
άποχώρησιν ποιώνται, ώς τών yε παρόντων ουκ 
αν πράξαντες χείρον. 

LXVIII. Ώρος οΰν άταζίαν τε τοιαύτην καΐ 
τύχην άνΒρών εαυτην παρα8ε8ωκυΐαν ποΧεμιωτά- 
των opyfj προσμειζωμεν, και νομισωμεν άμα μεν 
νομιμώτατον είναι προς τους εναντίους οΐ αν ώς 
επΙ τιμωρία του προσπεσοντος Βικαιώσωσιν 
άποπΧήσαι της yι^ώμy-|ς το θυμούμενον, άμα δέ 

^ For such men Λνοιι1(1 not be able to stand up on deck. 
132 



BOOK VII. LXVII. 2-LXVIlI. I 

them, yet from their point of view, as soon as they 
find many hoplites upon their decks, contrary to 
their estabUshed usage, and many javeUn-men also, 
landlubbers so to speak — Acarnanians and others — 
put aboard ships, men who will not even know how 
to discharge their darts sitting doAvn,i will they not 
inevitably imperil their ships and all be in confusion 
among themselves, as they move about in a ftishion 
not their own ? Even by tlie superior number of 
their ships they Λνΐΐΐ not be profited — in case any 
one among you has become afraid from the fact that 
he will have to fight against an unequal number; 
for in a small space a large number of ships \vill be 
slower to carry out any action they may plan, but 
very easily damaged by the devices which Ave have 
adopted. But if you seek the absolute truth, learn 
it from intelligence which we consider certain : 
it is through the overwhelming character of their 
misfortunes and because they are compelled bv their 
present difficulties, that they have reached the 
desperate resolution — trusting more to fortune than 
to their own preparation — of risking a battle in 
whatever way they can, in order that they may 
either force their way out and sail away, or after 
defeat may make their retreat by land ; for they 
know that in any case they could not fare worse 
than at present. 

LXVIII. "Against a disorderly array like this, 
therefore, and against the fortune of our bitterest 
foes that has surrendered itself into our hands, let 
us give battle with fury ; and let us consider that 
against enemies it is a most lawful act if for the 
punishment of the aggressor anyone thinks fit to 
glut his heart's animosity ; and again, that vengeance 

^33 



THUCYDIDES 

εχθρούς άμύνασθαι β'γγβνησόμβρον ημίν, το ^ 

2 Χβ'^όμζνόν ΐΓου ηόιστον elvai. ώς Se βχθροί καΐ 
βχθίστοι, 7Γάντ€ς tare, οί η& inl την ήμβτέραν 
ηΧθον 8ου\ωσομεροί, ev ω, el κατώρθωσαν, 
uvSpdat μβν αν τα άΧ^ιστα προσέθεσαν, τταισΐ 8e 
καΐ Ύνναίξί τα αττρεττεστατα, ττόΧει δε τ^ ττάσί] 

3 την αίσ-χ^ίστην βττίκλησιν. ανθ' ων μη μαΧα- 
κισθΡ]ναί τίνα TrpeTrei, μη^β το άκινΒννως άττεΧθζΙν 
αύτοί"? Kepho<; νομίσαι. τούτο μεν yap, καΐ eav 
κρατήσωσιν, ομοίω<; Βράσουσιν το Se ττραζάντων 
€κ του είκοτοζ α βουΧύμεθα τovσhe τβ κοΧασθ Ρ/ναι 
καΐ ττ) πάση ΈικεΧία καρπουμενη καΐ ττρίν 
ζΧενθερίαν βεβαιοτεραν τταραΒοΰναι, καΧος ό 
aycov. καϊ κινδύνων ούτοι σττανιώτατοί οΐ αν 
€Χά)^ιστα εκ του σφαΧηναι βΧάπτοντες ττΧεΐστα 
δίά το εύτυ^ήσαί ώφεΧώσιν.^ 

LXIX. Και. Οί μεν των Έ,υρακοσίων στρατηγοί 
καϊ νύΧίΤΓΤΓος τοιαύτα καϊ αύτοΙ τοις σφετέροις 
στρατίώταις παρακεΧευσάμενοι άντεττΧηρουν τα? 
ναύς εύθυς εττεώη καϊ τους 'Αθηναίους -ησθάνοντο. 
2 6 8ε Νικίας ύττο των παρόντων εκπεπΧη^ μένος 
καϊ όρων οίος ό κίνδυνος και ώς ε^^ύς ηΒη, επει8η 
και όσον ουκ εμεΧΧον άνά'γεσθαι, καϊ νομίσας, 
Οπερ πάσ'χ^ουσιν εν τοις μeyάXoις άyώσι, πάντα 
τ€ εpyω ετι σφισιν εν8εΰ είναι καϊ Xoycp αύτοΐς 
ούπω Ίκανα ειρήσθαι, αύθις των τριηράρ-χ^ων ενα 
εκαστον άνεκάΧει, πατρόθεν τε επονομάζων καϊ 

^ καϊ before rh λΐ-γόμΐ^ον, omitted by one inferior MS. and 
Valla, is deleted by most editors. 



BOOK VII. Lwiii. i-Lxix. 2 

on foes will be within our power — and that, as the 
proverb has it, is of all things the sweetest. And 
that they are enemies, and the worst of enemies, 
you all know ; since they came against our land to 
enslave it, and, if they had succeeded in that, would 
have inflicted upon our men all that is most painful, 
upon our women and children the worst indignities, 
and upon the city as a whole the most shameful of 
appellations.^ Wherefore it is fitting that no one of 
us should be soft-hearted, or count it a gain that 
they should depart Avithout risk to us. For this, 
even if they win the victory, they will do all the 
same ; whereas if Λνβ accomplish, as it is likely we 
shall, that which we wish — that these men be 
punished, and that we hand over to Sicily, which 
enjoyed it before, a liberty still more secure — 
how glorious the prize ! And of all hazards those 
are rarest which harm least in consequence of failure 
but benefit most because of success." 

LXIX. Gylippus and the Syracusan generals also, 
after they in their turn had thus exhorted their 
soldiers, began immediately to man their ships as 
soon as they saw that the Athenians were doing so. 
But Nicias, dismayed by the situation that con- 
fronted him and realizing the nature of the struggle 
and how near at hand it was now, since in a moment 
more they would put to sea, and thinking, as men 
usually do on the eve of great battles, that every- 
thing that had been done on their side was still 
incomplete, and what had been said by the generals 
was not yet adequate to the occasion, again called 
up the trierarchs one by one, addressing them by 
their father's name, their own name, and that of 

^ That of subject or slave. 

135 



THUCYDIDES 

αυτούς ονομαστί και φυ\ην, άξιων τό τε καθ' 
(αυτόν, ω υττήρχ^β \αμπρότ)]τός τι, μη irpohihovai 
τίνα καΐ τάς ττατρικάς άρ€τάς, ων εττιφανβΐς ήσαν 
οΐ TTpoyovoi, μη άφανίζβιν, ττατρίΒος τε της eXev- 
θερωτάτη<ί ύττομιμν^σκων κα\ της iv αύτη άνε- 
ΤΓίτάκτου ττάσιν ες την Βίαιταν εξουσίας, ά\\α 
τε Χε-γων όσα εν τω τοιούτω ή8η του καιρού οντες 
ανθρωττοι ού ττρος το οοκεΐν τινι άρ-χ^αιοΧο^εΙν 
φυΧαξάμενοί εϊττοιεν αν, κηΐ ύττερ άττάντων τταρα- 
πΧησια ες τε <yυvalκaς και τταΐΒας και θεούς 
ττατρωους ττροφερόμενα, αλλ' eVi. τη παρούση 

3 έκττΧηξει ώφβΧιμα νομιζοντες εττιβοώνται. και 
6 μεν ου^γ ικανά μα.ΧΧον η και ava'-jKala νομισας 
τταρηνήσθαι, άττοχωρησας η^ε τον ττεζον ττρος 
την θάΧασσαν και τταρέταξεν ώς επι ττΧεΐστον 
εΒύνατο, οττως Οτι μεγίστη τοις εν ταΐς ναυσιν 

ί ωφεΧία ες το θαρσεΐν ηΐ'^νοιτο. ο 8ε Δημοσθένης 
και ΜενανΒρος και ΈύθύΒημος (ούτοι jap εττι τας 
ναύς των Αθηναίων στρατηγοί εττέβησαν) άραν- 
τες άτΐο τιιύ εαυτών στρατοττέΒου ευθύς εττΧεον 
ττρος το ζεύ-γμα του Χι μένος καΐ τον τταραΧει- 
φθεντα ζιέκττΧουν, βουΧόμενοι βιάσασθαι ες το 
εξω. 

LXX. Τίροεξα^α^όμενοι δε οι Ζυρακόσιοι και 
οΐ ξύμμαχ^οι ναυσι τταραπΧησ'ιαις τον αριθμόν καΐ 
ττρότερον, κατά τε τον εκττΧουν μέρει αυτών εφύ- 
Χασσον και κατά τον άΧΧον κυκΧω Χιμενα, οττως 
ττανταχ^όθεν άμα ττροσττηττοιεν τοις ^Αθηναίοις, 



1 In tliis fashion, e.g. Θησΐΰ Alyews Αΐ-)είδη. There were 
ten Attic tribes at that time. 

2 cf. ch. lix. 2. 

136 



BOOK VII. Lxix. 2-Lxx. r 

their tribe/ and admonished them : if anyone liad 
any claim to distinction, lie urged him not to prove 
false to his ΟΛνη reputation ; if any had illustrious 
ancestors, they should not dim the glory of their 
fathers' deeds of valour ; he also reminded them of 
their fatherland, the freest in the world, and of the 
uncontrolled liberty in daily life that all possessed in 
it; and then went on to add whatever else men 
would be likely to say at so critical a moment, Avhen 
they do not guard themselves against uttering \vhat 
might to some seem trite and commonplace — appeals 
to Λvives and children and ancestral gods such as are 
put forward in almost the same words in sup[)ort 
of every cause — but in the dismay of the moment, 
thinking that these sentiments will be useful, 
shout them at the top of their voices. And when 
lie thought that he had exhorted them, not enough, 
but as much as the scanty time allowed, he Λvith- 
drew, and leading the infantry down to the sea 
drew them up so as to cover as large a space as 
possible, in order that they might render the 
greatest possible service in inspiring courage in the 
men on board the ships. But Demosthenes and 
Menander and Euthydemus — for these went on 
board to take command — putting off from the 
Athenian camp, sailed at once to the barrier ^ of 
the harbour and the outlet that had been left in it, 
wishing to force their way to the outer sea. 

LXX. But the Syracusans and their allies, who 
had already put out with about the same number of 
ships as before, were now on guard at the exit with 
a squadron of them and also round the rest of the 
harbour, their purpose being to fall upon the 
Athenians simultaneously from all directions ; and at 

137 



THUCYDIDES 

καΐ 6 τΓβζος άμα αύτοΐς τταρββοήθει rjirep καΐ αΐ 
νηε^ κατίσ-χ^οιβν. ήρχον Be του ναυτικού τοις 
Ένρακοσίοις Έ,ικανος μίν καΐ \\.^άθαρ'χ^ος, κέρας 
βκάτβρος του τταντος '^χων, Τίυθην he και οι 
1 Κορίνθιοι το μέσον. iireiSr) δε οι ^ ΧθηναΙοι ^ 
πpoσeμισyov τω ζeύyμaτι, Trj μβν πρώττ) ρύμτ} 
έττητΧέοντες έκράτουν των τεταγμένων νεών ττρος 
αύτω, καΐ έπβιρωντο Χύειν τάς• κΧτίσεις' μετά Se 
τούτο τταντα-χ^όθεν σφισι των Έ,υρακοσίων και 
ξνμμάχων επιφερομένων ου προς τω ζεύ'^/ματι ετι ' 
μόνον η ναυμα-χ^ία αλλά καΐ κατά, τον Χιμένα 
έyLyvετo, και ην καρτ€ρά και οία ουχ ετέρα των 

3 ττροτερων. ττοΧΧη μεν yap έκατέροις προθυμία 
άπο των ναυτών ες το έπιπΧεΐν οπότε κεΧευσθείη 
εyίyvετo, πυΧΧη 8ε ή άντηέγνησις των κυβερνη- 
τών και άyωvίσμbς προς άΧΧηΧους' οι τε επι- 
βάται εθεράπευον, οπότε προσπέσοι ναύς νη'ι, μη 
Χείπεσθαι τα άπο τού καταστρώματος της άΧΧης 
τέχνης• πάς τέ τις εν ω προσετέτακτο αυτός 

4 έκαστος 7]πείyeτo πρώτος φα'ινεσθαι. ξυμπεσου- 
σών Βέ εν ολίγω ποΧΧών νεών (πΧεΙσται yap δη 
αύται εν εΧαγ^ίστω έναυμάχ^7]σαν• βραχ^ύ yap 
άπέΧιπον ξυναμφοτεραι Βιακόσιαι yεvέσθaι), α'ι 
μεν εμβοΧαΙ Βιά το μη είναι τάς ανακρούσεις και 
διέκπΧους oXiyai iyiyvovTO, α'ι Βέ προσβολαί, ώς 
τνχ^οι ναύς νηι προσπεσούσα η 8ιά το φεύyeιv ή 

5 άΧΧη επιπΧεουσα, πυκνοτεραι ήσαν. και όσον 
μεν γ^ρόνον προσφέροιτο ναύς, οι από των κατα- 

^ οι Άθψ'αΊοι. with Β ; Hude reads οί άλλοι Ά. with 
most of the MSS. and Dion. Hal. 



13S 



BOOK VH. Lxx. 1-5 

the same time their troops on land came up to help 
them wherever the Athenians' ships put to shore. 
In command of the Syracusan fleet were Sicanus and 
Agatharchus, each having a wing of the main fleet, 
while Pythen and the Corinthians held the centre. 
Now when the Athenian fleet drew near the barrier 
they charged and in the first onset had the better 
of the ships stationed there, and they set about 
trying to break the chains which fastened the boats 
together ; but afterwards, when the Syracusans and 
their allies bore down upon them from all directions, 
the battle no longer raged next to the barrier only, 
but was becoming general all over the harbour. And 
it was obstinately fought, beyond any of the battles 
that had gone before. For on both sides much zeal 
was shown on the part of the sailors to make the 
charge Avhenever the order was given, and on the 
part of the pilots much pitting of skill against skill 
and mutual rivalry ; and the marines took good care, 
whenever ship collided with ship, that the service on 
deck should not fall short of the skill of the rest ; 
and everyone was eager to show himself foremost at 
the post of duty to which he had himself been assigned. 
And since many ships had come into conflict in a 
small space — for never did so many ships fight in so 
small a space, both sides together falling little short 
of two hundred — attacks with the beak were few 
because it was not possible to back water or to break 
through the line.^ But chance collisions were more 
frequent, as ship fell foul of ship in the attempt to 
flee or in making a charge upon another ship. And 
as long as a ship was bearing down^ the men on the 

' On the manfeuvre Βι4κπ\ου5, see note on ch. xxxvi. 4. 

139 



THUCYDIDES 

στρωμάτων τοΐ<ί άκοντίοι<; και τοζ€υμασι και 
\ίθοί<; άφθόνοί<; eV αυτήν έχ^ρώντο- €ττ€ώη 8e 
ττροσμβίξειαν, οΐ Ι-πιβάται ες 'χείρας ίόντβς evret- 

6 ρώντο ταΐς άΧλιίΧων νανσΐν Ιττιβαίνειν. ξυνβ- 
Tvy^ave τε ττοΧΧαχού 8ία την στενοχωριαν τα 
aev άΧΧοις εμβεβΧηκεναι, τα he αυτούς εμβββΧή- 
σθαι, δυο re irepl μίαν καΐ εστίν γ και ττΧειους 
ναΰς κατ άνά'γκϊ]ν ξυνηρτήσθαι, καΐ τοις κυβερνη- 
ταις των μεν φυΧακην των S' επιβονΧην, μη καθ 
εν εκαστον, κατά ττοΧΧά 8ε ττανταχοθεν, ττεριε- 
στάναι, καϊ τον κτύποι' piyav άττο ττοΧΧών νέων 
ξνμττίτττουσών εκττΧηξίν τε άμα καϊ άττοστερησιν 
της ακοής ων οι κεΧευσταΙ φθέγγοίντο τταρεχειν. 

7 τΓοΧΧη yap 8η η τταρακεΧευσις καϊ βοη αφ ίκ- 
ατερων τοΐς κεΧευσταΙς κατά τε την τεχνην καϊ 
ττρος την αντίκα φιΧονίκίαν iytyveTO, τοΐς μεν 
^Αθηναίοις βιάζεσθαί τε τον εκττΧουν εττιβοώντες 
καϊ ττερί της ες την ττατρίΒα σωτηρίας νυν, ει 
ΤΓΟτε καϊ αύθις, ττροθύμως άντιλαβεσθαι, τοΐς δε 
Ί,νρακοσίοις καϊ ξυμμάχοις καΧον είναι κωΧΰσαι 
τε αυτούς hιaφυyelv καϊ την οικειαν εκάστους 

3 ττατρίδα νικησαντας ετταυξήσαι. καϊ οι στρα- 
T7]yol ττροσετι εκατερων, εϊ τινά που ορωεν μη 
κατ άvάyκηv πρύμναν κρουομενον, ανακαΧοΰντες 
ονομαστί τον τριηραρχον ηρώτων, οι μεν Αθη- 
ναίοι, ei την ποΧεμιωτάτην yrjv οίκειοτεραν η8η 
της ου 8ι 6Xίyoυ πόνου κεκτημένης θαΧασσης 
Ι40 



BOOK VII. Lxx. 5-8 

decks of the opposing ship used against it javelins 
and arrows and stones \vithout stint; but when they 
came to close quarters, the marines fought hand to 
hand in the attempt of each side to board the sliips 
of the other. And it happened in many places, on 
account of the narrowness of the space, that while 
the ships of one side were ramming the enemy they 
were also being rammed themselves, and that two 
ships, sometimes even more, had unavoidably got 
entangled about one ; it also devolved upon the 
pilots to make defence on one side and plan attack 
on the other, not at one point at a time, but at many 
points and in every direction ; and the great din 
arising from the collision of many ships not only 
caused consternation, but also prevented the men 
from hearing the orders of their boatswains. For 
there was constant exhortation and shouting on the 
part of the boatswains on either side, both in carry- 
ing out their duties and as the rivalry of the moment 
inspired them ; on the Athenian side they shouted 
to their men to force the passage out, and, if they 
would win a safe return to their fatherland, now, if 
ever hereafter, to set themselves zealously to the 
task ; on the side of the Syracusans and their allies 
they cried that it would be glorious to prevent the 
enemy's escape, and, by winning the victory, to 
exalt the honour each of his own native land. 
Moreover, the generals on each side, if they saw any 
ship in any part of the field drawing back when it 
was not absolutely necessary to do so, would call out 
the name of the trierarch and demand, the Athenian 
generals whether tiiey were withdrawing because 
they considered the land of bitterest foes to be now 
more their own than the sea Avhich Athens had 

141 



THUCYDIDES 

η'γονμβνοί υττογωροΰσίν, οι he Έ,υρακόσιοι, ei ους 
σαφώς ϊσασι ττ ροθ υ μου μίνους ^ παντί τροττω 
Bίaφυy€Lv, τούτους αύτοΙ φζύ^οντας φεύΎουσίν. 

LXXI. "Ο re €κ της γ?}? ιτβζος αμφοτέρων 
ΙσορρότΓου της Ί>αυμα)(ίας καθεστηκυίας ττοΧυν 
τον αηώνα και ξύστασιν της Ύνώμης βΐχβ, φι\ο- 
νίκών μεν 6 αύτόθεν περί του ττΧείονος η8η καΧού, 
ΒεΒιότες δέ οί εττεΧθόντες μη των παρόντων ετι 

2 -χ^είρω ττράζωσι,ν. πάντων yap 8η άνακείμενων 
τοις ^ Αθηναίοις ες τα? ναύς 6 τε φόβος ην ύττερ 
του μέ\\οντος ούΒειΊ εοικώς καΐ 8ια το άνώμαΧον 
της τάξεως " άνώμαΧον καΐ την enoyjnv της ναυ- 

3 μανίας εκ της ^ής ηνα^κάζοντο εχειν. δί' oXiyou 
yap ούσης της θέας καΐ ου πάντων άμα ες το 
αύτο σκοπούντων, ei μεν ηνες ϊ^οιεν πτ) τους 
σφετερους επικρατοϋντας, άνεθάρσησάν τε αν και 
προς άνάκΧ')]σιν θεών μη στερήσαι σφάς της 
σωτηρίας ετρεποντο' οί Β επί τι ήσσώμενον 
βΧεψαντες οΧοφυρμω τε άμα μετά βοής εχρώντο 
και άπο των Βρωμενων της όψεως και την yvώμηv 
μάΧΧον τών εν τω epyω εΒουΧοΰντο• άΧΧοι 8ε καΐ 
προς άντιπαΧόν τι της ναυμαχίας άπι8όντες, 8ια 
το άκρίτως ξυνεχίς της άμίΧΧης και τοΐς σώμασιν 
αύτοΐς ίσα τη 8οξη περι8εώς ζυναπονευοντες εν 

^ 'AOrjvaiovs, after προθνμουμίνουί, deleted by Duker. 
^ άνώμαΧον ttjs τάξεωχ, added by Classen. 

"■ Classen's emendation of the incomprehensible Vulgate 
seems to have the support of the Schol. δια την ανωμαΚίαν 
■t9)S χύψα$ άλλοι άλλοϋ$ ίθΐώρουν την ναυμαχίαν. Bekker's 
emendation, δι' avrh ανώμαλην . . . for δια rb . . ., is con- 
firmed by one M.S. (ao) and makes good sense if we take 
aurh to refer either to the idea i\\a,t their fear was unparalleled 
Of that the stake was so great: "For since the Athenians had 

142 



BOOK νΠ. Lxx. 8-LXxi. 3 

acquired with no little toil, and the Syracusan, 
whether, when they knew clearly that the Athenians 
were eager to escape no matter how, they would 
themselves flee before men who were in flight. 

LXXI. And the armies on the shore on both 
sides, so long as the fighting at sea was evenly 
balanced, underwent a mighty conflict and tension 
of mind, the men of Sicily being ambitious to 
enhance the glory they had already won, while 
the invaders were afraid that they might fare even 
worse than at present. For the Athenians their all 
was staked upon their fleet, and their fear for the 
outcome like unto none they had ever felt before ; 
and on account of the different positions which they 
occupied on the shore they necessarily had different 
views of the fighting.^ For since the spectacle they 
\vere Avitnessing was near at hand and not all were 
looking at the same point at the same time, if one 
group saw the Athenians prevailing anywhere, they 
would take heart and fall to invoking the gods not 
to rob them of their safe return ; while those Avhose 
eyes fell upon a portion that was being defeated 
uttered shrieks of lamentation, and by the mere 
sight of what was going on were more cowed in 
spirit than the men who were actually fighting. 
Others, again, whose gaze was fixed on some part 
of the field where the battle Λvas evenly balanced, 
on account of the long-drawn uncertainty of the 
conflict were in a continual state of most distress- 
ing suspense, their very bodies swaying, in the 
extremity of their fear, in accord with their opinion 

tlieir all staked upon the ships, there \v;is fear for the out- 
come like to none they had ever felt, and on this account 
they necessarily had different views of the sea-fight. " 

143 



THUCYDIDES 

Tot? χ^αΧβττώτατα Ζιη^ον alel yap map oXtyov 

4 ή hie^evyov η άττώΧΧυντο. ην re iv τω αύτω 
στρατβύματι το)ν ^ Κθηναίων, έως άy^χ^ώμa\a ivav- 
μά-χ^ουν, ττάντα ομού άκοΰσαι, 6\οφυρμο<ί, βοη, 
νικώντε^, κρατούμβίΌΐ, άΧ\α 6σ αν iv μeyάXω 
κινΒύνω μeya στρατόττβΒον ττοΧν^ιΒή άvayκάζoιτo 

5 φθeyyeσθaι. τταραττΧησια 8e καΐ οι eVl των 
veoiv αύτοΐς βττασ'χ^ον, ττρίν ye Βη οΐ ^υρακοσιοι 
καϊ οΐ ξνμμαχ^οι eVt ττοΧύ άντισγούση^ τή^ 
ναυμαγία^; βτρεψάν re τού<ί Αθηναίους και eiri- 
κείμ^νοι Χαμττρω^;, iroXXfi Kpavyfj καϊ Βιακε- 

6 Χευσμω -χ^ρώμξνοι, κατεΖίωκον €9 την yrjv. rare 
δε ό μίν ναυτικο'ζ στρατός, άΧΧοί άΧΧη, όσοι μη 
μετέωροι ίάΧωσαν, κατβνε-χθεντες εξέπεσαν ες το 
στρατόπεδον 6 8ε ττεζος ούκετι 8ιαφορως, αΧ\ 
άττο μιας ορμής olμωyf| τε καϊ στονω τταντες, 
δνσανασ-χ^ετοΰντες τα yιyvόμεva, οΐ μεν εττΐ τάς 
ναυς τταρεβοήθουν, οι δε ττρος το Χοιττον του 
τεί'χ^ους ες φυΧακήν, άΧΧοι δε, καϊ όί ττΧεΐστοι, 
η8η ττερί σφάς αυτούς καϊ οττη σωθησονται hie- 

7 σκότΓουν. ην τε εν τω τταραυτίκα ουδεμιάς 8η 
των ζυμττασών εΧάσσων εκπΧηξις. τταραττΧησιά 
τε εττεττόνθεσαν καϊ έδρασαν αύτοϊ εν ΤΙυΧφ• δια- 
φθαρεισών yap των νέων τοις Αακεδαιμονιοις 
ττροσαττώΧΧυντο αύτοΐς και οι εν τη νήσω άνδρες 
διαβεβηκότες, και τότε τοις ^Αθηναιοις άνεΧπι- 

1 cf. iv. 14. 
144 



BOOK Vll. Lx.xi. 3-7 

of the battle ; for always they were within a hair's 
breadth of escaping or of perishing. And in the 
same Athenian army one might hear, so long as 
the combatants were fighting on equal terms^ every 
kind of cry at the same time — wailing, shouting, 
" We are winning," " We are beaten," and all the 
divers kinds of cries tliat a great army in great 
danger \vould be constrained to utter. The men 
also on board the Athenian ships Avere affected in 
a similar way, until at last the Syracusans and their 
allies, after the fighting had been maintained a long 
time, routed the Athenians and pressing on triumph- 
antly, with loud cries and exhortations, })ursued 
them to the land. Thereupon as regards the naval 
force such ships as had not been captured in the 
deep water were driven to shore, some to one place, 
some to another, and the men tumbled out of the 
ships and rushed for the camp ; as for tlie army on 
land, their emotions Avere no longer at variance, but 
\vith one impulse all broke forth into wailing and 
groaning, being scarcely able to bear what was hap- 
pening, and ran along the shore, some to the ships, in 
order to help their comrades, some to what remained 
of their wall, in order to guard it ; while still others, 
and these the greater number, were ηοΛν concerned 
only about themselves and how they might be saved. 
And at the moment there reigned a consternation 
greater than any fear felt before. These men had 
now suffered a fate not unlike that Avhich they had 
themselves inflicted upon the Lacedaemonians at 
Pylos ; for when their fleet had been destroyed 
there, the men who had crossed over to the island 
were also as good as lost to them.^ And so at the 
present time the Athenians could have no hope of 

145 



THUCYDIDES 

στον ην ΊΟ κατά ytjv σωθήσβσθαι, ην μΐ] τι τταρα 
Xoyov yiyvrjTai. 

LXXII. Τ€νομ€ν7]ς δ' ίσχ^υράς της ναυμαχίας 
καΐ ττοΧΧών νβών άμφοτβροις καΐ άνθρώττων άπο- 
Χομύνων οι Χνρακόσιοι καΐ οι ξνμμαχ^οι, εττικρατή- 
σαντβς τά τε vauayia και τους νεκρούς άνβίΧοντο 
και άττοπΧεύσαντες προς την ττόΧιν τροτταΐον 

2 έστησαν, οι δ' ^Αθηναίοι ΰττο μeyeθoυς των παρ- 
όντων κακών νεκρών μεν ττερι η vaυayίωv ούΒε 
εττενόουν αΐτήσαι άναίρεσιν, της δέ νυκτός εβου- 

3 Χεύοντο ευθύς άναχ^ωρεΐν. Αημοσθενης δέ Νί/ί/α 
ττροσεΧθών yvώμηv εττοιεΐτο ττΧηρώσαντας ετι 
τας Χοίττας τών νεών βιάσασθαι, ην Βύνωνται, 
άμα εω τον εκπΧουν, Xέyωv ότι ττΧείους ετι αϊ 
Χοιτταί είσι νήες -χ^ρησιμαι σφίσιν η τοις ττοΧε- 
μιοις• ήσαν yap τοις μεν Άθηναιοις ττεριΧοιττοι 
ώς εζήκοντα, τοις δ εναντίοις εΧάσσους η ττεντη- 

1 κοντά, και ξυyγ^ωpoΰv^oς δίκιου τη yvώμη και 
βουΧομενων ττΧηροΰν αυτών οι ναύται ουκ ηθεΧον 
εσβαίνειν Βια το καταττεττΧηγθαι Trj ήσση καΐ μη 

5 αν ετι οϊεσθαι κρατήσαι. καΐ οι μεν ώς κατά 
yrjv άναχωρ)}σοντες η8η ξύμτταντες την yvώμηv 
είχον. 

LXXIII. Έρμοκράτης δε 6 Χυρακόσιος υττο- 
νοήσας αυτών την hicuoiav καϊ νομίσας 8εινον 
είναι ει τοσαύτη στρατιά κατά yijv άττοχ^ωρησασα 
καΐ καθεζομενη ττοι της ΖικεΧίας βουΧησεται 
αύθις σφίσι τον ττόΧεμον ποιεΐσθαι, εσηyεΐτaι 
εΧθών τοις εν τέΧει ουσιν ώς ου \ρεών άττοχωρή- 
σαι της νυκτός αυτούς ττεριιΒεΐν, Xiytuv ταύτα α 
καϊ αύτω ε8όκει, άΧΧά εξεΧθόντας ηδη ττάντας 

146 



BOOK VII. Lxxi. 7-L\xiii. i 

getting safely away by land unless something quite 
extraordinary should happen. 

LXXII. The battle having been thus stubbornly 
fought and many men and ships lost on both sides, 
the Syracusans and their allies were victorious and 
gathered up their Avrecks and their dead and after 
that sailed home and set up a trophy. The Athe- 
nians, however, were so affected by the magnitude 
of their present ills that they did not even give a 
thought to wrecks or dead, or ask leave to take 
them up, but were planning an immediate retreat 
during the night. But Demosthenes went to Nicias 
and proposed that they should man once more what 
remained of their fleet and force their way out, if 
they could, at daybreak, saying that a larger number 
of seaAvorthy ships still were left to them than to 
the enemy ; for there yet remained to the Athenians 
about sixty, but to their opponents less than fifty. 
Nicias agreed to this proposal, and the generals 
desired to man the ships at once ; but the sailors 
refused to embark, because they were utterly de- 
jected by their defeat and felt that it Λvas no longer 
possible for them to win. So they Avere now 
unanimously of the opinion that they must make 
their retreat by land. 

LXXIII. But Hermocrates the Syracusan, suspect- 
ing their intention and thinking that it would be 
a serious matter if so large an army, retreating 
overland, should settle somewhere in Sicily and be 
disposed to renew the war upon Syracuse, went to 
those in authority and explained that they ought 
not to permit the Athenians to withdraw during 
the night — giving the reason which led him to 
this opinion — but that the Syracusans and their allies 

147 



■JHUCYDIDES 

%νρακοσίους καΐ τού<; ξυμμάχονς τάς re ό8ού<; 
άτΓοικοΒομήσαι καΐ τα στένόττορα των -χλωρίων 

2 Ίτροφθάσαντας φνΧάσσβίν. οι δε ξυνβ'^/ί'γνωσκον 
μβν και αντοί ού'χ^ ήσσον ταύτα εκείνου και βΒόκει 
ποιητύα elvai, τού<; 8e άνθρώι,-ους άρτι άσμβνονς 
άτΓο νανμα'χ^ίας τε μ^/άΧης άναττετταν μένους καΐ 
άμα εορτής ούσης {ετνχε 'yap αύτοΐς ΉρακΧεΐ 
ταύτην την ημέραν θυσία ούσα) ου Ζοκεΐν αν 
ραΒίως εθεΧήσαι ύπακοΰσαί' υττο yap του ττερι- 
χαρους της νίκης ττρός ττόσιν τβτρύφθαι τους 
ποΧΧούς εν τη εορτή, καΐ πάντα μαΧΧον εΧττίζειν 
αν σφών πείθεσθαι αυτούς ή οττΧα Χαβόντας εν 

3 τω τταρόντι εξεΧθεΐν. ως he τοις άρχ^ουσι ταύτα 
Χο^ίζομένοίς εφαίνετο άττορα και ούκίτι εττειθεν 
αυτούς 6 'Κρμοκράτης, αύτος εττΐ τούτοις τάδε 
μη-χ^αναται, δεδίώ? μη οι Αθηναίοι καθ* ησυγιαν 
ττροφθάσωσιν εν τη νυκτΐ ΒιεΧθοντες τα ■χ^αΧεττώ- 
τατα των -χ^ωριων ττεμπει των έταίρωι> τινας 
των εαυτού μετά ίττττεων ττρος το των ^Αθηναίων 
στρατόττεΖον ήνίκα ξυνεσκόταζεν οΐ ττροσεΧά- 
σαντες εξ όσον τις εμεΧΧεν άκουσεσθαι και 
άνακαΧεσάμενοί τινας ώς οντες των \\θηναίων 
ε7Γΐτ?)8ειθί {ήσαν yap τίνες τω Ί^ικία 8ιάγ^/εΧοι 
των ενΒοθεν) εκέΧευον φράζειν Κικία μη άττάηειν 
της νυκτός το στράτευμα, ώς ^υρακοσιων τας 
οόούς φυΧασσόντων, άΧΧα καβ' ήσνχιαν τής 

4 ημέρας τταρασκενασάμενον άττοχ^ωρεΐν. και οι 
μεν ειττόντες άττήΧθον, και οι άκούσαντες 8ιήγγει- 
Χαν τοις στρατη^οΐς των ^Αθηναίων 



* cf. ch. xlviii. 2. 
148 



BOOK νΠ. Lxxiii. 1-4 

should immediately march out in full force and 
build barricades across the roads and forestall the 
enemy by guarding the narrow passes. Now the 
officials Avere as firmly of this oj)inion as Hermo- 
crates and thought that these steps should be taken, 
but since the soldiers had as yet hardly had the 
rest they so eagerly desired after the great battle 
and, besides, there was a festival— for the Syracusans 
happened on this day to be oflTering a sacrifice to 
Heracles — they believed it would be no easy matter 
to induce the men to answer the summons ; for in 
their great joy over the victory most of them had 
taken to drinking at the festival ; and "We expect," 
they said, " that they would obey any orders from 
us rather than to take up arms and march out." So 
when it was clear to the officials, considering all 
these things, that the plan Avas impracticable, and 
Hermocrates was no longer making any impression 
upon them, he himself thereupon devised the 
following plan : fearing that the Athenians might 
leave quietly during the night and get through 
the most difficult places before they could prevent 
this, he sent certain of his own friends Avith some 
horsemen to the Athenian camp Avhen it was 
growing dark. These rode up close enough to be 
heard and called upon certain persons by name, as 
though they were friends of the Athenians — for 
there ^\•eτe some who regularly reported to Nicias 
all that went on in Syracuse ^ — and bade them tell 
Nicias not to lead his army away that night, since 
the Syracusans were guarding the roads, but to 
withdraw at his leisure, in the daytime, after having 
made full preparations. After saying this these 
men departed, and those who had heard reported 
it to the Athenian generals. 

149 



THUCYDIDES 

LXXIV. Οι δε 7Γ/30ς το a'yyeX^a ίττίσγ^ον την 
νύκτα, νομίσαντα ουκ αττάτην elvai. καΐ βττβιΒη 
καΐ ώς ουκ βύθΰς ωρμησαν, eho^ev αύτοΐς καΐ την 
βτηοΰσαν ημβραν ττβριμεΐναι, ό'ττω? ξυσκ€υάσαιντο 
ώ<{ €Κ των Βυνατών οΐ στρατιώται ότι χρησίμώ- 
τατα, και τα μεν άλΧα πάντα κατάΧιττεΙν, αναΧα- 
βόντ€ς he αυτά 'όσα Trepl το σώμα e? Βίαιταν 

2 υττηρ'χεν €τητή8€ία άφορμάσθαι. Ζυρακόσιοι Se 
καΐ Γι/λίττπο? τω μ€ν ττεζω ττροεξεΧθόντε^ τάς 
τ€ όΒούς τάς κατά την χώραν η et/co? ην τους 
^Αθηναίους ίβναί, άττεφάρ'^/νυσαν καΐ των ρείθρων 
καΐ ποταμών τάς Βιαβάσ€ΐ<ϊ εφύΧασσον και e? 
νποΒο^ην του στρατεύματος; ως κωΧύσοντες η 
εΒόκει ετάσσοντο' ταΐς 8e ναυσΐ π ροσπΧεύσαντες 
τάς ναύς τών Α,θηναιων άπο του alyiaXov 
άφεΐΧκον ενέπρησαν δε τ ίνας οΧί'γας, ώσπε,ρ 
Βιενοηθησαν, αντοί οι Αθηναίοι, τας δ' άΧΧας 
καθ^ ήσυγίαν ούΒενος κωΧύοντος ώς εκάστην ποι 
εκπεπτωκυΐαν άναΒησάμενοι εκομίζον ες την 
πόΧιν. 

LXXA . \\ετά δε τούτο, επειΒη εΒόκει τω Νί«ια 
καΐ τώ Αΐ]μοσθενεί ίκανώς παρεσκευάσθαι, καϊ η 
άνάστασις η8η του στρατεύματος τρίτη ήμερα 

2 άπο της ναυμαχίας ε'^ί'^νετο. Βεινον ούν ην ου 
καθ' εν μόνον τών πρα'^μάτων, οτί τάς τε ναύς 
άποΧωΧεκότες πάσας άπεχ^ώρουν καϊ άντΙ με^άΧης 

1 i.e., though an immediate departure seemed forced on 
them by the circumstances. 
8 c/. ch. Ix. 2. 



BOOK νΠ. Lxxiv. i-Lxxv. 2 

LXXIV. So the Athenians, in view of the an- 
nouncement, in which they saw no trickery, stayed 
on for that night. And since, even as things were,i 
they had not set out immediately, it seemed to them 
best to wait during the following day also, in order 
that the soldiers might pack up Avhat was most 
useful, as well as they could in the circumstances, 
and then be off, leaving everything else behind and 
taking along only such of the supplies on hand as 
would serve for the sustenance of the body. But 
the Syracusans and Gylippus went out ahead of 
them with their infantry and blocked up the roads 
in the country by which it was likely that the 
Athenians \vould travel, set guards at the fords 
across the streams and rivers, and posted them- 
selves, at such points as seemed favourable, for the 
reception of the Athenian army, with the intention 
of opposing its progress. They also sailed up Λvith 
their ships and began to haul down the Athenian 
ships from the beach and tow them away ; the 
Athenians themselves had already, it is true, burned 
some few of their ships, as had been their purpose 
with the whole fleet,^ but all the rest the Syra- 
cusans, at their leisure and without opposition, 
taking them one at a time according as they hap- 
pened to have run aground, lashed to their own 
ships and brought to the city. 

LXXV. After this, when it seemed to Nicias and 
Demosthenes that adequate preparations had been 
made, the departure of the army at last took place 
— on the third day following the sea-fight. And 
it was terrible, not in one aspect only of their 
fortunes, in that they were going away after losing 
all their ships, and, in place of high hopes, with 

151 



THUCYDIDES 

ελ,τΓίδο? καΐ αύτοϊ καΐ ή ττόΧις KtvhvveuovTe<;, 
άΧλ,α καΐ ev rf] ηττοΧβίψβί του στρατοπέδου 
ζυνββαινε ττ} τβ oyjrei βκάστω aXyeiva καΧ ττ) 
^νώμτ] αίσθεσθαι. των τβ yap νβκρων άταφων 

3 όντων, όττότβ τις ϊ8οι τίνα των βττιτηΒβίων κείμβ- 
νον, e? Χύττην μβτα φόβου καθίστατο, καΐ οι 
ζώντβς καταΧειττόμβνοι τραυματιαι τβ καΐ άσθβνβΐς 
ποΧύ των τβθνβώτων το?9 ζ'Ί^σί ^ Χυπηροτεροι. 

4 ήσαν καΐ tcov άττοΧωΧότων άθΧιώτβροι. ττρος 
yap άντίβοΧίαν καΐ οΧοφυρμον τραπόμενοι β? 
άτΓορίαν καθίστασαν, ajeiv τβ σφά<; άξιονντβς 
καϊ βνα βκαστον βττιβοώμβνοι, βϊ τινά ττού τί? 
ϊΒοι ή βταίρων η οίκβίων, των τβ ξυσκήνων ήΖη 
άτΓΐόντων βκκρβμαννύμβνοί καϊ βττακοΧουθούντβς 
όσον δύναιντο, βϊ τφ 8β ττροΧίττα ή ρώμη καΐ το 
σώμα, ουκ άνευ ολί'γων βπίθβιασμών καϊ οίμωγι^ 
άτΓοΧβίΤΓομβνοί, ώστε Βάκρυσι ττάν το στράτευμα 
ττΧησθβν καϊ άττορια τοίαύττ] μη ρα8ίως άφορ- 
μάσθαι, καίττβρ βκ ττοΧεμίας τβ καϊ μβίζω ή κατά 
δάκρυα τα μβν ττεττοιθότας ήδη, τα δε ττβρϊ τών 

5 εν άφανεΐ δεδιοτας μη ττάθωσιν. κατήφβιά τβ 
τις άμα καϊ κατάμεμψις σφών αυτών ττοΧΧη ήν. 
ούδεν yap άΧΧο ή ττόΧβι εκττετΓοΧιορκημβντ] εφκεσαν 
υ■τΐoφευyoΰσr|, καϊ ταύτη ου σμικρά• μυριάδες yap 
του ξύμτταντος οχΧον ουκ εΧάσσους τεσσάρων 

^ ζΰσι, Classen's suggestion ; δρωσι is adopted by Hude. 

^ " Faint " is Classen's interpretation of όλί-γων, as used of 
the Aveak, scarcely audible voice of the dying, in their last 
complaints and appeals to the gods. Cf. Od. xiv. 492, 
ψθΐ'γΙάμ^νο$ oK'iyrj οπί, speaking vdth faint voire. On the 
other hand, μΐ -yas is often used of a loud shout. But most 
editors object to oKlywv. Arnold thinks that the negative 



BOOK VII. Lxxv. 2-5 

danger threatening botli themselves and their State, 
but also in that, on the abandonment of their camp, 
it fell to the lot of each man to see things that \vere 
painful both to sight and mind. The corpses were 
still unburied, and whenever a man saw one of his 
own friends lying dead, he was plunged into grief 
commingled with fear ; and the living who were 
being left behind, Λvounded or sick, far more than 
the dead seemed piteous to the living, and were 
more Avretched than those that had perished. For 
turning to entreaty and lamentation, they drove the 
men to distraction ; begging to be taken along and 
calling aloud upon each one if they saAV anywhere 
a comrade or a kinsman, clinging to their tent- 
mates now going away and following after them as 
long as they \vere able, and then, \vhen the bodily 
strength of one or another failed, falling behind, 
though not without faint ^ appeals to the gods and 
lamentations ; so that the whole army, being filled 
with grief and in such perj)lexity, found it hard to 
depart, even out of a country that Λvas hostile, and 
though they had endured already sufferings too 
great for tears and feared for the future Avhat they 
might still have to suffer. There was also a general 
feeling of dejection and much self-condemnation. 
For indeed they looked like nothing else than a city 
in secret flight after a siege, and that no small city ; 
for in the entire throng no fewer than four myriads 

must be repeated, as if we had ούκ avfv ουκ 6\iywv, and Valla 
translates, nonsine mullis ohtestationihus ac ploratibiis. Various 
conjectures have been offered as substitutes, e.g-. λΐί7ρώί' (Heil- 
mann), συχνών (Poppo), οικτρών (van Herwerden), άλίίγων 
(Madvig). Stahl deletes ολίγων as arising from a gloss, 
ολοΚν/ών. 

VOL. IV. F 153 



THUCYDIDES 

αμ,α βττορβυοντο. καΐ τούτων οΐ τ€ άΧλοι ιτάντβ<ζ 
βφβρον 6 Τί τί9 eBuvuTO €καστο<; ^ γ^ρησιμον, καΐ 
οι όττΧΙταί καϊ οι ίτητής τταρα το ειω^ο? αυτοί ye 
καΐ τα σφβτβρα αυτών σιτία,^ οι μεν απορία 
άκοΧουθων, οι Se άτηστια' άττηντο μο\ηκβσαν yap 
ΊταΚαι, τ€ καϊ οι ττΧεΐστοι τταραγ^ρημα. βφερον 
he ouhe ταύτα ικανά• σίτο? yap υύκέτι ην iv τω 

6 στρατοτΓ€8ω. καϊ μην η άΧΧη αΐκία καϊ ή ^ 
ισομοιρία των κακών βχουσά τίνα όμως το μβτα 
τΓοΧΧών * κούφισιν, ούδ' ω? pahia iv τω τταρόντι 
ζΒοζάζβτο, άΧΧως τε κα\ άττο οίας Χαμττρότητος 
και ανχήματος τον ττρώτον ες οίαν TcXevT-qv καϊ 

7 ταττεινότητα άφίκατο. με^ιστον yap Βη το Βιάφο- 
ρον τούτο ΈΧΧηνικώ στρατεύματι iy ενετό, οίς 
άντΙ μεν τού άΧΧους 8ονΧωσομενους ηκειν αυτούς 
τούτο μάΧΧον ΒεΒιότας μη ττάθωσι ζυνεβη άττιεναι, 
άντι δ' εύχ^ής τε καϊ τταιάνων, μεθ' ων εζέττΧεον, 
ττάΧιν τούτων τοις εναντίοις εττιφημίσμασιν άφορ- 
μάσθαι, ττεζούς τε άντΙ νανβατών ττορευομενους 
και όττΧιτικώ προσέχοντας μάΧλον η ναυτικώ. 
όμως δε ύττο μεyeθoυς τού εττ ι κ ρε μα μεν ου ετι 
κινδύνου πάντα ταύτα αύτοΐς οίστα εφαίνετο• 

LXXVI. 'Ορών 8ε 6 Ί^ίκίας το στράτευμα 
άθυμούν καϊ εν μεyάXr] μεταβοΧη 6ν, επιπαριων 
ώς εκ τών υπαρχόντων ίθάρσυνε τε και παρεμν- 
θεΐτο, βοη τε χρώμενος ετι μάΧΧον εκάστοις καθ' 

^ ΐκαστοί Β, all other MSS. κατά τό. 

* All MSS. except C read, after σίτία, uwh to7s οπλοΐί, 
" under their arms." 

' η Ισομοιρία, Hude deletes ή, Λvith Dobree, and reads 
Ισομοιρία with B. 



154 



BOOK VII. Lxxv. 5-Lxxvi. i 

were on the march together. And of these, the rest 
all bore whatever each could tliat was useful, while 
the hoplites and the horsemen, contrary to their 
wont, carried their own food, some for want of 
attendants, others through distrust of them ; for 
there had been desertions all along and in greatest 
numbers immediately on their defeat. But even so 
they did not carry enough, for tliere Avas no longer 
food in the camp. Furthermore, the rest of their 
misery and the equal sharing of their ills — although 
there was in this very sharing with many some allevi- 
ation — did not even so seem easy at the moment, 
especially when one considered from what splen- 
dour and boastfulness at first to what a humiliating 
end they had ηοΛν come. For this was indeed the 
very greatest reversal that had ever happened to an 
Hellenic armament ; for it so fell out that in place 
of having come to enslave otiiers, they were now 
going away in fear lest tliey miglit rather them- 
selves suffer this, and instead of prayers and pa?ans, 
with Λvhich they had sailed forth, were now de- 
parting for home with imprecations quite the reverse 
of these ; going too as foot-soldiers instead of seamen, 
and relying upon hoplites rather than a fleet. And 
yet, by reason of the magnitude of the danger still 
impending, ail these things seemed to them tolerable. 
LXXVI. Hut Nicias, seeing the despondency of 
the army and the great change it had undergone, 
passed along the ranks and endeavoured to en- 
courage and cheer the soldiers as well as the 
circumstances permitted, shouting still louder in 
his zeal as he came to each contingent, and being 

* -rh μΐτα noWuv, deleted by Hude, as probably not read 
by the Schol. 



THUCYDIDES 

0U9 yiyvoiTO ύτΓΟ προθυμίας καΐ βουΚόμενος ώ? 
eVi ττΧεΐστον '^β^ωνισκων ώφεΧεΐρ. 

LXXV11. ""Ετί καΐ e/c των τταρόντων, ω 
^Αθηναίοι καΐ ξυμμα^οι, ελττιδα ■χ^ρη βχ^ειν (ηδη 
Tive<i καΐ €κ δβίνοτβρων η roicovSe βσώθησαν), 
μηδβ καταμβμφβσθαι υμάς clyav αυτούς μήτ€ ταΐς 
ξυμφοραΐς μήτε ταΐς τταρα την άξι,αν νυν κακο- 
ί τταθίαις. Αταγώ τοι ούδενος υμών ούτε ρωμτ) 
ττροφερων (αλλ' οράτε 8η ώς Βιάκειμαι υττο της 
νόσου) ούτ εντυχ^ία δοκών ττου ύστερος του είναι 
κατά τε τον Ίδιον βίον και ες τα άΧλα, νυν εν 
τω αύτω κινδύνω τοις φαυΧοτάτοις αιωρούμαι' 
καίτοι τΓολλά μεν ες θεούς νόμιμα δεδιτ]τημαι, 
ΤΓολλά δε ες ανθρωττους δίκαια καΐ άνεπίφθονα. 

3 άνθ^ ων η μεν εΧπΙς Ομως θρασεια του μεΧΧοντος, 
αϊ δε ξυμφοραΐ ου κατ άζιαν 8η φοβούσιν. ra -χα 
δε αν καϊ Χωφήσειαν Ικανά, yap τοις τε ττοΧεμίοις 
ηύτύχηται, καϊ εϊ τω θείον εττίφθονοι εστρατεύ- 

4 σαμεν, άττοχρώντως ηδΐ] τετιμωρήμεθα. ηΧθον 
yap τΓου καΐ άΧΧοι τίνες ηδη εφ" έτερους, και 
άνθρώττεια δράσαντες ανεκτά ετταθον. καϊ ημάς 
εικός νυν τά τε άττο του θειου εΧττίζειν ηττιώτερα 
εζειν {οϊκτου yap άττ αύτων άξιωτεροι ήδη εσμεν 
η φθόνου), καϊ όρωντες υμάς αυτούς οίοι όπΧΐται 
αμα κα\ όσοι ξυvτετayμεvoι χωρείτε μη κατα- 
ττέττΧηχθε ayav, \oyιζεσθε δε ότι αυτοί τε ττόΧις 

156 



BOOK VII. Lxxvi. i-Lxxvii. 4 

dcsirouSj by making his voice heard as far as possible, 
to do some good : 

LXXVII. "Even in your present condition, Athe- 
nians and allies, you should still have hope — in the 
past men have been saved from even worse straits 
tlian these — and not blame yourselves too much 
either for your reverses or for your present un- 
merited miseries. 1 myself, who have tlie advantage 
of none of you in strength of body — nay, you see 
how I am afflicted by my disease — and who was 
once thought, perhaps, to be inferior to no one in 
good fortune as regards both my private life and 
my career in general, am now involved in the same 
danger as the meanest among you. And yet my 
life has been spent in the performance of many a 
religious duty toward the gods and many a just and 
blameless action towards men. Wherefore, in spite 
of all, my liope for the future is still confident, and 
our calamities do not frighten me as much as they 
might \vell have done. Perhaps they may even 
abate ; for our enemies have had good fortune 
enough, and if Λve have roused the jealous}• of any 
of the gods by our expedition we have already been 
punislied suiliciently. Others have ere now, we 
know, gone against their neighbours, and after act- 
ing as men will act, have suffered what men can 
bear. It is therefore reasonable that we also should 
now hope that the divine dispensations will be more 
kindly towards us — for we are now more deserving 
of the gods' pity than of their jealousy — and, further- 
more you should, when you look upon yourselves 
and see what fine hoplites you are and Avhat a 
multitude you are when marching in battle array, 
not be too greatly dismayed ; nay, remember that 

157 



THUCYDIDES 

€ύθύς €στ€ οττοι αν καθέζησθβ, και αΧΧη ούΒβμία 
ύμά<ί των iv Έ,ικεΧία οντ αν iiriovTa^ Ββξαιτο 
ραδ/ω? out' αν ιΒρυθεντας που βξαναστήσειεν. 

5 την Be iropelav ωστ άσφαΧή καΐ εύτακτου elvai 
αύτοΙ φνΧάξατε, μη αΧλο τι ή^ησάμενος έκαστος 
η εν ω αν ai>ayKao0rj -χ^ωρίω μ'Ί'χ^εσθαι, τούτο και 

6 ττατρίδα καΐ τεΐχ^ο^ κρατήσας εξειν. σπουΒί) Be 
ομοίω<^ και νύκτα καΐ ημεραν εσται της οΒού• τα 
yap επιτήΒεια βραχ^εα εχ^ομεν, και ην άντιΧα- 
βώμεθά του φιΧίου -χ^ωρίου των Έ,ικεΧών (ούτοι 
yap ημίν Βια το '^υρακοσίων Βεος ετι βέβαιοι 
είσιν), ηόη νομίζετε εν τω εχυρω είναι, ττροττε- 
πεμτΓται δ' ώ? αυτούς, και άτταντάν ειρημενον και 

7 σιτια άμα κομίζειν. τό τε ξύμτταν γ^^ώτε, ώ 
ανΒρες στρατιώται, avayKalov τε ον ύμΐν άνΒράσιν 
aya9ol<; yiyvεσθaι, ως μη οντος "χλωρίου e'YVi'S 
οττοι αν μαΧακισθεντες σωθείτε, και ην νυν 
Βιαφυ-/7]τε τους ττοΧεμίους, οί τε άΧλοι τευζυμενοι 
ων επιθυμείτε που επιΒεΐν, και οί Αθηναίοι την 
μεyάXηv Βύναμιν της πόλεως καίπερ πεπτωκυΐαν 
επανορθώσοντες• άνΒρες yap πόΧις, και ου τείχτ] 
ούΒε ν>ϊες άνΒρών κ^ναί.^^ 

LXXVIII. Ό μεν Κικίας τοιάΒε παρακεΧευό- 
μενος άμα επιζεί το στράτευμα και, εϊ πη ορωη 
Βιεσπασμενον και μη εν τάζει "χ^ωρυύν, ξυvάyωv 
και καθιστάς, και ό \ιιμοσθένης ούΒέν ησσον τοις 
καθ' εαυτόν τοιαύτα τε και παραπΧήσια Xέyωv. 
2 τό Βε ε-χωρει εν ΒιπΧαισ'ιω τετayμέvov, πρώτον 

^ For the sentiment, cf. Alcaeus, frg. 22 &vopis irohrios 
irupyos apevtot ; Soph. 0. 'J'. 5ϋ ; Aeseh. Fe>s. 349 ; Eur. frg. 
825 ; Plut. Lycnrg. 19; Dem. xviii. 299; Dio C. LVi. v. 3; 
Cic. ad. Att. vii. 11. 

iS8 



BOOK VII. Lxxvii. 4-LXXV111. 2 

wherever you establish yourselves you are at once 
a city, and that in all Sicily there is no other city 
which could either sustain an attack from you or 
drive you out if you once made a settlement any- 
where. And as to the march, you yourselves must 
see to it that it is safe and orderly, and each one of 
you must have no other thought than this — that the 
place, wherever it may be, in which you will be 
forced to fight, will be, if you conquer, both your 
country and your fortress. And we must make 
haste upon our journey both night and day alike, 
for such supplies as we have are scanty ; and if we 
reach some friendly place in the country of the 
Sicels — and we can still depend upon them because 
of their fear of the Syracusans — then only you may 
consider tliat you are in security. Directions have 
been sent ahead to the Sicels that they are to meet 
us and bring provisions with them. Know the 
whole truth, fellow-soldiers : you must of necessity 
be brave men, since there is no place near at hand 
which you can reacli in safety if you are cowards ; 
and if you esca])e your enemies now, the rest of 
you will win all that you surely long to see once more, 
and those who ai-e Athenians will raise up again, 
however fallen, the great power of their State; for 
it is men that make a State, not walls nor ships 
devoid of men." ^ 

LXXVIII. Such were the Avords of exhortation 
which Nicias uttered as he passed along the ranks ; 
and if he saw any part of the army straggling or not 
marching in line, he brought them together and 
into order; and Demosthenes did likewise, speaking 
in much the same terms to the soldiers under him. 
And now the army began the march, arrayed in a 

159 



THUCYDIDES 

μεν η-γούμβρον το δίκιου, εφεττόμβρον δε το Αημο- 
σθβνον^' τούΐξ δέ σκενοφορους καΐ τον ττΧεΙστον 

3 οχΧον ivTO<i εΐ'χον οΐ όττΧΐταί. καΐ iireihr) eyevovTO 
im τι) διαβάσει του Wvairov ποταμού, ηύρον eV 
αύτω ■παρατετα'^/ μένουν; των Έ,^φακοσίων και ζυμ- 
μάχ^ων, και τρεψάμενοι αυτούς καϊ κρατησαντες 
του πόρου εχ^ώρουν ες το προσθεν οι δέ Supa- 
κοσιοί παριππευοντές τε προσεκειντο καϊ εσα- 

4 κοντίζοντες ο'ι "ψιΧοί. καϊ ταύτρ μεν ττ} ήμερα 
προεΧθοντες στα^ιους ώς τεσσαράκοντα ηύΧισαντο 
προς Χύφω τινί οι Αθηναίοι' ττ} δ' ύστεραία πρω 
επορεύοντο καϊ προηΧθον ώς είκοσι στα^ίους, και 
κατέβησαν ες γ^ωριον άπεΒόν τι καϊ αύτου εστρα- 
τοπεΒεύσαντο, βουΧόμενοι εκ re των οικιών Χαβεΐν 
τι εΒώΒιμον (ωκεΐτο yap ο -χ^ώρος) καϊ ΰΖωρ μετά 
σφών αύτων φερεσθαι αύτόθεν εν yap τω πρόσθεν 
επϊ ποΧΧα στάΒια, f] εμεΧΧον ίέναι, ουκ άφθονον 

5 Ί]ν. οΐ δβ ^υρακόσιοι εν τούτω προεΧθόντες την 
hiohov την εν τω πρόσθεν απετεί'χιζον• ήν Ιε 
Χόφος καρτερος και εκατεροίθεν αυτού ■χ^αράΒρα 

6 κρημνώδης, εκαΧεΐτο Βε Ακραΐον Χεπας. τ(] δ' 
ύστεραία οι ^Αθηναίοι προίϊσαν, καϊ οι των ^υρα- 
κοσίων καϊ ξυμμάχ^ων αυτούς Ίππής καϊ άκοντισταϊ 
οντες ποΧΧοϊ εκατέρωθεν εκώΧυον και εσηκοντιζόν 

7 τε καϊ παρίππευον. καϊ 'χρόνον μεν πολύν εμά- 
γ^οντο οι ^Αθηναίοι, έπειτα άνεχώρησαν πάΧιν ες 
το αύτο στρατόπεΒον. καϊ τα επιτήδεια ούκέτι 
ομοίως εΐ'χον ου yap ετι άποχωρεΐν οΙόν τ ην 
ύπο των ιππέων. 

^ Second day of the retreat. 

^ "Bald" is a term applied to several bare (unwooded) 
suniiuits ill the Appalachian range in the United States. 

i6o 



BOOK VII. Lxxvm. 2-7 

hollow square, first the division of Nieias leading the 
way, then tiuit of Demosthenes following. The 
baggage-carriers and most of the miscellaneous 
throng were enclosed inside the ranks of the hoji- 
lites. When they reached the crossing of the river 
Anapus, they found some of the Syracusans and 
their allies drawn up there, and after routing these 
and securing the passage they went forward; but the 
Syracusan cavalry rode alongside and kept attack- 
ing them, while their light-armed troops showered 
javelins upon them. On this day the Athenians 
advanced about forty stadia and bivouacked at a hill ; 
but on the next day ^ they began the march early 
and after proceeding about twenty stadia descended 
into a level place, where they encamped ; for they 
wished to get something to eat from the houses, the 
place being inhabited, and to get there a supply of 
water to take with them, since for many stadia 
ahead in the direction in which they were to go 
water was not plentiful. Meanwhile the Syracusans 
had gone ahead and were engaged in making a wall 
across the pass in front ; and this was over a steep 
hill, with a jirecipitous ravine on either side, called 
the Acraean Bald.^ On the next day ^ the Athenians 
went forward, and the cavalry and javelin-men of 
the Syracusans and their allies, being in consider- 
able force, sought to impede their march on either 
side by hurling javelins and riding alongside. For a 
long time the Athenians kept up the fight, but at 
length returned to the camp of the day preceding. 
And they no longer had provisions as before, for by 
reason of the enemy's cavalry it was no longer 
possible to leave the main body. 

^ Tliird day of the retreat. 

161 



THUCYDIDES 

LXXIX. ΐΐρφ Se άραντβς eiropeuovTO αυθι<ί, 
καΐ ββίάσαντο ττρό? τον Χόφον βΧθβΐν τον άττο- 
τ€Τ€ΐχ^ίσμ€νον, καΐ ηύραν ττρο εαυτών VTTcp του 
ατΓοταχίσματος την '/τεζην στρατιάν τταρατεταγ- 

2 μ^νην ουκ 67γ' οΧί'γων άσττίΒων' στενον '^αρ ην 
το γ^ωρίον. καΐ ττροσβαλόντβς οι αθηναίοι eret- 
■χ^ομάχ^ουν και βαΧΧόμενοι ύπο ττοΧΧών άπο του 
Χοφου βττάντους οντο^ (βΐίκνοΰντο yap pdov οι 
άνωθεν) καΐ ου δυνάμενοι βιάσασθαι άνεχώρονν 

3 ττάΧίν και άνετταύοντο. ετυχ^ον Βε και βρονταί 
τινε<; αμα ^ενόμεναι και ΰΒωρ, οΙα του €του<; ττρός• 
μετόττωρον η8η οντος φιλεΐ ^ί^νεσθαΐ' αφ' ών 
οΐ \\θηναΐοι μάΧΧον ετι ηθύμουν και €νόμιζον επΙ 
τω σφετερω οΧεθρω και ταύτα ττάντα ^ί^νεσθαι. 

4 άνατταυομενων δ' αυτών ο ΤύΧιτητος καϊ οι %υρα- 
κοσιοι ττεμτΓουσι μερο<ζ τι τή<ζ στρατιά'^ άττοτειχι- 
ούντα•^ εκ του οττισθεν αύτού<; η ττροεΧηΧύθεσαν 
άντίττεμψαντε^ 8ε κάκεΐνοι σφών αυτών τινας 

5 ΙιεκώΧυσαν. και μετά ταύτα ττάση τ^ στρατιά 
άναγ^ω ρησαντε^ ττρο'ί το πεΒιον μάΧΧον οι Αθη- 
ναίοι ηύΧίσαντο. τη δ' ύστεραία ττρουχ^ώρουν, 
και οι "Ζυρακόσιοι ττροσεβαΧΧόν τε ττανταχτ} 
αύτοΐ^ κύκΧω και ττοΧΧούς κατετ ραυ μάτιζον , και 
€1 μεν επίοιεν οι ^Αθηναίοι, ύπεχ^ώρουν, ει δ' 
άνα^χ^ωροΐεν, εττεκειντο, και μάλιστα τοις ύστάτοι<; 
προσττίτΓτοντες, εϊ ττως κατά βραγ_ύ τρεψάμενοι 

6 πάν το στράτευμα φοβήσειαν. καϊ εττι ττοΧύ 
μεν τοίούτω τρόττω άντείγ^ον οι \\.θηναΐοι, έπειτα 
προεΧθόντε<ζ πέντε ή εξ σταΒίους άνεπαύοντο εν 

^ Fourth day of the retreat. * cf. vi. Ixx. 1. 

* Fifth da}' of the retreat. 

162 



BOOK VII. Lxxix. 1-6 

LXXIX. Early the next morning ^ they set out 
again upon their niarcli, and forced their Avay 
through to the hill Λvhere a wall had been built 
across the pass ; there tliey found in front of them 
the enemy's infantry drawn up behind the wall, not 
a few shields deep, for the place was narrow. The 
Athenians attacked and tried to storm the wall ; 
but when they found tliemselves targets for the 
missiles of large numbers of the enemy on the hill, 
which was steep — and of course the men up above 
them could reach them more easily — and were 
unable to force their way through, they drew back 
and rested. It so happened, furthermore, that at 
this same time there was some thunder and rain,^ 
as is apt to be the case toward the fall of the year; 
and this caused the Athenians to be still more 
despondent, for they believed that all these things 
too were conspiring for their destruction. While 
they were resting, Gylippus and the Syracusans sent 
a part of their army to build a wall across the line of 
march in their rear, at a point on the road by which 
they had come; but the Athenians sent a detach- 
ment of their own men and j)rc vented it. After 
that the Athenians moved their whole army back 
into the more level country and bivouacked. On 
the next day ^ they advanced again, and the Syra- 
cusans surrounded them and attacked them on every 
side, wounding many ; if the Athenians attacked 
they retreated, but if they retreated they would 
charge, falling chiefly upon the rearmost in the hope 
that by routing them a few at a time they might 
put the whole army in a panic. Now for a long 
time, fighting in this fashion, the Athenians resisted, 
then after they had advanced five or six stadia they 

163 



THUCYDIDES 

τω τΓβΒίφ• άΐ'βχώρησαν 8e και οί ζ,νρακόσιοι άττ 
αυτών e? το εαυτών στρατόττεΒον, 

LXXX. Ύής 8e νυκτός τω Νικία καϊ Αημοσθενει 
ε8όκ€ΐ, επειΒη κακώς σφίσι το στράτευμα είχε τών 
TC εΐΓίτηΒείων ττάντων απορία η8η καϊ κατατετραυ- 
ματισμενοι ήσαν τγοΧΧ,οι εν ττοΧλαΐς ιτροσβοΧαΙς 
τών ΤΓοΧεμίων 'γε'γενημεναις, ττυρά καύσαντες ώ? 
ττΧεΐστα ά^Γάyειv την στρατιάν, μηκετι την αυτήν 
6S6v fi Βιενοήθησαν, ά\\ά τουναντίον ή οί 'Σ,υρα- 

2 κόσιοι έτήρουν, ττρος την θάΧασσαν ην δε ή 
ξύμττασα ό8ος αύτη ουκ επΙ Κ.ατάνη<; τω στρατευ- 
ματί, άΧλα κατά το έτερον μέρος της Έ,ικεΧιας 
το προς Κ,αμίίριναν καϊ ΤέΧαν και τάς ταύτη 

3 ττόΧεις καϊ ΈΧΧηνίΕας καϊ βαρβάρους, καύσαντες 
συν ττυρά τΓοΧΧα εχώρουν εν τη νυκτι. καϊ αύτοΐς, 
οίον φιΧεΐ και ττάσι στρατοττέΒοις, μάΧιστα 8ε 
τοις με^ίστοις, φόβοι και 8είματα εγ^ί^νεσθαι, 
αΧΧως τε καϊ εν νυκτί τε καϊ 8ιά ττοΧεμιας και 
ΤΓοΧεμίων^ ου ποΧύ άττεχοντων ίονσιν, εμπίπτει 

4 ταραχ^ή' καϊ το μίν Νικίου στράτευμα, ώσπερ ^ 
η'^εΐτο, ζυνέμενε τε και προύΧαβε ποΧΧω, το 8ε 
Δημοσθένους, το ήμισυ μάΧιστα καϊ το πΧεον, 

5 άπεσπάσθη τε καϊ άτακτότερον εχ^ώρει. αμα 8ε 
τη εω άφικνοΰνται όμως προς την θ Χασσαν, καϊ 
εσβάντες ες την ό8ον την 'ΚΧωρίνην καΧονμενην 
επορεύοντο, όπως, επεί8η ^ενοιντο επϊ τω ποταμω 
τω Κ.ακυπάρεί, παρά τον ποταμον ιοιεν άνω 8ιά 
μεσο•/είας' ηΧπιζον yap καϊ τους ΧικεΧους ταύτη 

6 ους μετεπεμψαν άπαντιίσεσθαι. επει8η δ' iyi- 
νοντο επϊ τω ποταμω, ηύρον καϊ ενταύθα φυΧακην 

' άπί) before πολΐμίων deleted by Reiske. 
- Hude adopts Dobree's conjecture, οσπ(ρ. 
104 



BOOK VII. L.xxix. 6-Lxxx. 6 

rested in the plain ; and the Syracusans on their 
part left them and went back to tlieir own camp. 

LXXX. During the night, finding their army in 
wretched plight, since by now they were in want of 
all supplies and many had been Λvounded in many 
assaults made by the enemy, it was determined by 
Nicias and Demosthenes to kindle as many fires as 
possible and then withdraAv the army, not now by 
the route which they had at first planned, but in the 
opposite direction to that in which the Syracusans 
were watching for them — that is, towards the sea. 
(But previously the line of march which I have been 
describing had not been toward Catana,i but toward 
the other side of Sicily, in the direction of Camarina 
and Gela and the cities in that region both Hellenic 
and Barbarian.) So they kindled many fires and then 
set out during the night. And just as in all armies, 
and most of all in the largest, terrors and panics are 
apt to arise, especially at night and when they are 
marching through a hostile country with the enemy 
not far away, so confusion fell upon them also. The 
army of Nicias, as it was in the van,- kept together 
and got a long distance ahead, but that of Demos- 
thenes, about half or more of the whole, became 
separated and [)roceeded in considerable disorder. 
Nevertheless at dawn they reached the sea, and 
taking the road called Elorine marched on, intending 
when they reached the river Cacyparis ^ to follow this 
stream up into the interior of the island ; for they 
hoped that the Sicels, whom they had sent for, 
would meet them in that region. But when they 
came to the river, there also they found a Syracusan 

' i.e. towards the sea. * cf. ch. Ixxviii. 2. 

* Modern Cassibili. 

165 



THUCYDIDES 

riua των ~,νρακοσίων άτΓοτεί^ίζυυσάν τ€ κα\ άττο- 
σταυροΰσαν τον ττόρον. καΐ βιασάμενοι αύτην 
Βιεβησάν τβ τον ττοταμον και €χωρονν ανθις 
7 προς άΧλον ττοταμον, τον ^Rptveov ταύττ) yap 
οι ή'γεμόνβς eKeKevov. 

LXXXI. Έι^ τούτω δ' οΐ Έ,νρακοσίοι καϊ οι 
ζύμμαχοι, ώ? η τβ ήμβρα eyeveTO και β^νωσαν 
τους ^Αθηναίους άττέληΧυθότας, iv αιτία re οΙ 
ποΧλοΙ τον νύΧητττον βΐ'χον €κοντα αφεΐναι του? 
Αθηναίους, καϊ κατά τάχ^ος Βιώκοντβς, τ) ου 
'χαΧεττώς τ]σθάνοντο κεχ^ωρηκότας, καταΧαμβά- 

2 νουσι ττερί αρίστου ωραν. και ωσπβρ Ύτροσέμβιζαν 
τοις μετά του Αημοσθά'ους, ύστβροις τ' οΰσι καϊ 
σ'χ^οΧαίτβρον και άτακτότβρον 'χ^ωροΰσιν, ώς της 
νυκτός τότε ξυνεταρά-χθησαν, ευθύς ττροσττεσόντες 
εμά'χ^οντο, και οι ίτΓττή^ των %υρακοσίων εκυ- 
κΧοΰντό τε ραον αυτούς 8ιχ^α δη οντάς και ξυνη'γον 

3 β? ταύτό. το δε Νικίου στράτευμα άττεΐ-χ^εν εν 
τω ττρόσθεν και ττεντήκοντα στα?>ίους' θάσσον τί 
yap ό Κίκίας η^ε, νομίζων ού το ύπομενειν εν τω 
τοιουτω εκόντας είναι καϊ μάγεσθαι σωτηοιαν, 
άΧΧα το ώς τάχ^ιστα ύττοχωρεΐν, τοσαΰτα μα-χ^ο- 

4 μένους οσ' αν άνα'γκάζωνται. ο δε Δημοσθένης 
ετύγχανε τε ^ τα πΧε'ιω εν ττονω ξυνεχβστερω ων 
δια το υστερώ άνα'χ^ωροΰντι αύτω ττρώτω επικεΐ- 
σθαι τους ττοΧεμίους, καϊ τότε 'γνους τους '^υρακο- 
σίους διώκοντας ού ττρουχ^ώρει μάΧΧον η ες μά-χΊ^ν 
ζυνετάσσετο, εως ενδιατριβων κυκΧούταί τε ύττ 
αυτών καν ποΧΧω θορυβώ αυτός τε καϊ οί μετ 

^ re deleted by Dobree, followed by Hude. 

^ Modern Cavallata. 
t66 



BOOK VII. Lxxx. 6-Lxxxi. 4 

guard blocking the way with a wall and a palisade. 
Forcing their way past them, they crossed the river 
and advanced again toAvards another river, the 
Erineus ; ^ for their guides bade them take that 
route. 

LXXXI. Meanwhile, when day came ^ and the 
Syracusans and their allies realized that the Athe- 
nians had gone away, most of them blamed Gylip- 
pus, saying that he purposely had let the Athenians 
get away ; and pursuing them in hot haste, follow- 
ing the road which they could readily see that the 
enemy had taken, they overtook them about dinner- 
time. And when they came up with the troops 
under Demosthenes, which were far in the rear and 
proceeding in a rather leisurely and disorderly 
fashion, due to the confusion into which they had 
fallen the night before, they fell upon them at once 
and began a battle ; and since they were separated 
from the others the Syracusan cavalry found it easier 
to surround them and drive them together. The 
division of Nicias was about fifty stadia ahead ; for 
Nicias marched his men more rapidly, thinking that 
in the circumstances safety lay, not in standing firm 
and fighting of their own choice, but in retreating as 
rapidly as possible, fighting only as they were forced 
to do so. But it Λvas the fortune of Demosthenes to 
be for the most part in more continual trouble 
because, being far in the rear on the retreat, the 
enemy pressed upon him first, and now also, Avhen 
he saw the Syracusans in pursuit, he was more taken 
up with ordering his troops for battle than with 
pressing forward, and so wasted time until he was 
surrounded by the enemy and both he and his men 

* Sixth clay of the retreat. 

167 



THUCYDIDRS 

αύτον^ ήσαν άΐ'βιΧηθβντες yap e9 τι γ^ωρίον ω 
κνκ\ω μίν τ€ΐ)^ίον ττβριψ', oEo<i 8e evdev κα\ evOev, 
€\άας Be ουκ oXiywi βΙ'χ^εν,ββάΧΚοντο ττβρισταΒΰν. 
δ τοιαύταις Be ττροσβοΧαΐς καΐ ου ξυσταΒον μάγ^αΐζ 
οι Έ,υρακοσιοί ειΆτότω? βχ^ρώντο' το yap άττο- 
κιι>Βυν€ύ€ΐν ττρος άνθρώττους άπονενοημέρους ου 
ττρο? εκείνων μάΧΧον ην ert η 7rpo<; τών\\θηι>αίων, 
καΐ άμα φίίΒω τ€ τις iyiyvero eV evTrpayia ηΒη 
σαφεΐ μη ττροαναΧωθήναί τω και ενόμιζον και 
ω? ταύττ] ττ) ίόία καταΒαμασάμενοι Χή^εσθαι 
αυτούς. 

LXXXII. Έπείδ/; δ' οίιιι ^ Βι' ημέρας βάΧΧηντες 
τταιταχ^όθβν τους Αθηναίους και ξυμμάγους έύψων 
ηΒη τεταΧαιττωρη μένους τοις τε τραύμασι και τη 
άΧΧη κακώσει, κήpυyμa ττοιοΰνται ΤυΧιτΓΤΤος και 
Έυρακόσιοί και οί ξύμμα'χ^οι πρώτον μεν των 
νησιωτών εΐ τις βουΧεται eV εΧευθερια ώς σφάς 
άτΓίεναι• καΐ άττε'χ^ώρησάν τίνες ττόΧεις ου ττοΧΧαί. 

2 εττειτα ο ύστερον και ττρος τους άΧΧους άτταντα^ 
τους μετά Δημοσθένους oμoXoyιa yiyveTUi ώστε 
οττΧα τε τταραΒονναι καΐ μη άττοθανεΐν μηΒενα 
μήτε βιαίως μήτε Βεσμοΐς μήτε της άvayκaιoτάτης 

3 ενΒείη Βιαίτης. καΐ τταρεΒοσαν οί ττάντες σφάς 
αυτούς εξακισγ^ιΧιοι, και το apyupiov ο είχον άτταν 
κατέθεσαν εσβαΧόντες ες άσττίΒας ύπτιας, καΐ 
ενέπΧησαν άσπίΒας τεσσάρας, και τούτους μεν 
ευθύς άπεκόμιζον ες την ποΧιν δικιάς Be και οί 
μετ αυτού άφικνούνται τη αύτη ήμερα επι τον 

^ ΆθηναΊοι, after μ(τ' αΰτον, Krii^'er deletes. 
^ Dobree's correction for yodv of the ilSS. 

^ cf. ch. l\'ii. 4, ΰττήκοοι !jvt€s καΐ avdyKji . . . riKo\ov8c-jp, 

i68 



BOOK VII, Lxx.xi. 4-LXXX11. 3 

were in a state of utter confusion. For huddled 
together in a plot of ground surrounded by a wall, 
on either side of which a road passed, there being 
inside the wall a considerable number of olive trees, 
they were pelted with missiles from every side. And 
the Syracusans had good reason to adopt attacks of 
this kind rather than contests at close quarters ; for 
to risk their lives against men in despair was not 
now to their advantage, so much as to that of the 
Athenians. Besides, they considered that success 
was already assured ; therefore everyone spared 
himself somewhat, not wishing to throw away his 
life before the end, and they all thought that even 
as it was, and following this manner of fighting, they 
would subdue and capture the enemy. 

LXXXII. And so Avhen they had assailed the 
Athenians and their allies Avith missiles from all 
sides throughout the day and saw that they were at 
length worn out by reason of their wounds and 
general misery, Gylippus and the Syracusans and 
their allies made proclamation, first, that any of the 
islanders ^ who so wished might come over to their 
side on a guarantee of freedom ; and some states, 
but only a few, came over. Afterwards, however, an 
agreement was made with all the rest of the troops 
under Demosthenes that if they would surrender 
their arms no one should suffer death either by 
violence or by imprisonment or by deprivation of 
the bare necessities of life. So they all surren- 
dered, six thousand in number ; and they gave up 
all the money they had, casting it into upturned 
shields ; and four of these were filled. These 
captives the Syracusans immediately took to the 
city ; as for Nicias and his men, they reached the 

1 69 



THUCYDIDES 

ΤΓΟταμον τον ^Fjpiveov, και Βιαβας tt/do? μετύωρον 
TC καθΐσβ την στρατιάν. 

LXXXIII. Οι he Ί,νρακόσιοί ττ} ΰστβραία κατα- 
Χαβόντε<; αύτον eXeyov ότι οι μετά ί^ημοσθενονζ 
TrapaSeBcoKoiev σφάς αυτού';, Ke\evovTe<; κάκύνον 
το αντο 8ράν• ο δ' άτηστών σπένΒβται ίττττεα 

2 ττεμψαι σκβψόμενον. ώς• δ' οΐ'χ^όμβνο^ anriyyeiXe 
ττάλιν παραδβδω/ίότα?, εττίκηρυκεύβται ΤυΧίττττω 
κα\ ^υρακοσίοίς είναι έτοιμος νττερ \\θηναίων 
ζυμβηναι όσα άνηΧωσαν γ^ρηματα Έ,υρακόσιοι e? 
τον ττόΧεμον, ταΰτα άττοΒονναι, ώστε την μετ 
αυτού στρατιάν άφεΐναι αυτούς• μ^χρί- ου δ' αν 
τα γ^ρι^ματα άττοΒοθτ}, άν8ρας Βώσειν Αθηναίων 
όμηρους, ει α κατά τάΧαντον. οι 8ε ^υρακόσιοι 
και ΤύΧιπτΓος ου ττροσεΕέχοντο τους Xόyoυς, άΧΧη 
ττροσττεσόντες και ττεριστάντες ττανταχόθεν εβαΧ- 

3 Χον και τούτους /^^ΧΡ^ όψε. ^^ιχον 8ε καΐ ούτοι 
ττονηρως σίτου τε και των επιτη8είων άττορία. 

4 όμως 8ε της νυκτός φυΧάζαντες το ησυχάζον 
εμεΧΧον ττορεύσεσθαι. και άναΧαμβάνουσ ί τε τα 
όττΧα και ο'ι Έ,υρακόσιοι αισθάνονται και ετταιά- 

5 ΐ'ΐσαν. yvovτες 8ε ο'ι \\θηναΐοι οτι ου Χανθά- 
νουσι, κατέθεΐ'το ττάΧιν ττΧην τριακοσίων μάΧιστα 
άνΒρών ούτοι 8ε 8ια των φυΧάκων βιασάμενοι 
εχώρουν της νυκτός f] ε8ύναντο. 

LXXXIV. οικίας δ' εττειΒη ήμερα εyεvετo yye 

την στρατιάν οι 8ε ^υρακοσιοι καΐ οι ζύμμαχοι 

ττροσεκειντο τον αύτον τρόττον ττανταχόθεν βάΧ- 

2 Χοντες τε καΐ κατακοντιζοντες, και οί Αθηναίοι 



^ Seventh day of the retreat. 
* Eighth day of the retreat. 



170 



BOOK V^II. Lx.vxii. 3-LXXXIV. 2 

river Erineus that same day, and aftei" crossing it 
Nicias encanijied his army on a height. 

LXXXIII. The next day ^ the Syracusans over- 
took Nicias and told him that the troops under 
Demosthenes had surrendered, bidding him do like- 
wise ; but Nicias was incredulous, and obtained a 
truce that he might send a horseman and find out. 
And w hen the horseman had gone and brought back 
word that they liad indeed surrendered, Nicias 
announced by herald to Gylippus and the Syracusans 
that he was ready to agree, on behalf of the Athe- 
nians, to repay to the Syracusans all the money 
which they had spent upon the Avar, on condition 
that they should let his army go ; and until the 
money should be paid, he would give Athenians as 
hostages, one man for each talent. Gylippus and 
the Syracusans, however, would not accept these 
terms, but renewing the attack and surrounding the 
Athenian army plied these men also with their 
missiles until evening. And they Avere in a wretched 
plight through Avant of food and of all necessaries. 
Nevertheless they waited for the quiet time of night 
and intended then to proceed. But no sooner had 
they taken up their arms than the Syracusans 
perceived it and raised the paean. So the Athe- 
nians, seeing that their movements were detected, 
again ])ut down their arms — all except about three 
hundred men, λνΐιο forced their way through the 
guards and proceeded during the night by whatever 
way they could. 

LXXXI\'. When day came - Nicias led his army 
forward ; but the Syracusans and their allies ke])t 
attacking in the same fashion, hurling missiles and 
striking them down with javelins on all sides. The 

171 



THUCYDIDES 

ηττεί'γοντο ττρο<; τον Άσσίναρον ττοταμόν, άμα 

μεν βίαζόμενοί υττο της πανταχόθεν ττροσβοΧής 
ΙτΓΤΓβων τ€ ποΧλων καΐ του άΧΧου οχΧου, οΐόμενα 
ραόν τί σφίσιν βσεσθαί, ην ζιαβώσι τον ττοταμόι•, 
άμα δε ύττο της ταΧαιττωρίας καΐ του ττιεΐν eVi- 

3 θυμία. ως Be yiyvovTat eV αύτω, βσττίπτουσιν 
ούΒβιΊ κόσμω έ'τί, αλλά ττά? re τις δίαβΡ]ναι αύτος 
Ίτρώτος βουΧομενος καΐ οι ττοΧεμιοι ετηκείμενοι 
'χαΧεττην ή8η την 8ιάβασιν εποίουν αθρόοι jap 
άνα-'/καζομενοι χ^ωρεΐν εττεττιτΓτόν τε άΧΧήΧοίς και 
κατεττάτουν, περί τε τοις Βορατίας και σκεύεσιν 
οΐ μεν εύθυς Βιεφθείροντο, οι he εμπαΧασσόμενοι 

4 κατέρρεαν, ες τα επι θάτερά τε του ποταμού 
παραστάντες οι ^υρακόσιοι (ην Βε κρημνώδες) 
εβαΧΧον άνωθεν τους Αθηναίους, πίνοντας τε 
τους ποΧΧούς άσμενους και εν κοίΧω οντι τω 

5 ποταμω εν σφισιν αύτοΐς ταρασσομενους. οι τε 
ΤΙεΧοποι vjjaioi επικαταβάντες τονς ev τω ποταμω 
μάΧιστα εσφαζον. και το ΰΖωρ εύθυς διεφθαρτο, 
αλλ' ούΒεν ήσσον επίνετο ομού τω πηΧω 'ρμα- 
τωμενον και περιμάχ^ητον ην τοις ποΧΧοΐς. 

LXXXV. ΎέΧος 8ε νεκρών τε ποΧΧών eV 
άΧΧήΧοίς η8η κείμενων εν τω ποταμω και διεφθαρ- 
μένου του στρατεύματος του μεν κατά τον ποτα- 
μόν, του 8ε και, εϊ τ/. Βιαφύ'^/οι, υπό των Ιππέων, 
Κικίας ΓυΧίππω εαυτόν παρα8ί8ωσι πιστεύσας 
μαΧΧον αύτω η τοις Χυρακοσίοις• και εαυτω μεν 
'χ^ρήσθαι εκεΧευεν εκείνον τε καΐ Αακε8αιμονίους 

^ The modern Falconara, called also Fiume di Xoto. 
* Thucydides is silent as to the number of the slain. 
Diodorus (xiii. 19) puts the lo^s at the river at 18,000 and 

172 



BOOK VII. LXXXIV. 2-LXXXV, I 

Athenians i)iished on to the river Assinarus,^ partly 
because they thought, hard pressed as they were on 
all sides by the attack of numerous horsemen and of 
the miscellaneous troops, that they would be some- 
what better off if they crossed the river, and partly 
by reason of their weariness and desire for water. 
And when they reached it, they rushed in, no longer 
preserving order, but everyone eager to be himself 
the first to cross ; and at the same time the pressure 
of the enemy now made the crossing difficult. For 
since they were obliged to move in a dense mass, 
they fell upon and trod one another down, and 
some perished at once, run through by their own 
spears, while others became entangled in their 
trappings and were carried away by the current. 
The Syracusans stood along the other bank of the 
river, which was steep, and hurled missiles down 
upon the Athenians, most of whom were drinking 
greedily and were all huddled in confusion in the 
hollow bed of the river. Moreover, the Pelopon- 
nesians went down to the \vater's edge and butchered 
them, esj)ecially those in the river. The water at 
once became foul, but Avas drunk all the same, 
although mudd}• and dyed with blood, and indeed 
was fought for by most of them. 

LXXXV. At length, when the dead ^ now lay in 
heaps one upon the other in the river, and the army 
had perished utterly, part in the river, and part — if 
any got safely across — at the hands of the cavalry, 
Nicias surrendered himself to Gylippus, having more 
confidence in him than in the Syracusans ; and he 
bade him and the Lacedaemonians do with himself 

tlie captured at 7000 ; but it is evident tliat he includes the 
army of Demosthenes. 



THUCYDIDES 

δ TL βούΧονται, τού^ Se άΧλονς στρατιώτας τταύσα- 

2 σθαι φονεύοντα'^, καΐ ό ΓύλίτττΓος μβτα τούτο 
ζωΎρβΐν ηΒη eKeXevev καΐ τους τε λοίττούς, 6σου<; 
μη άττεκρύψαντο (ττολΧοι δέ οντοί eyevovTo), ξυνε- 
κόμισαν ζώντα'ζ, και επΙ τους τριακόσιους, ο'ί την 
φνΧακην οιεζηΧθον της νυκτός, ττβμψαντβς τους 

3 Βιωξομίνους ξυνεΧαβον. το μεν ουν άθροισθεν 
του στρατεύματος ες το κοινον ου ττοΧύ ε^ενετο, 
το hk ΒιακΧαττεν ττοΧύ, καΐ ΒίεττΧήσθη ττάσα Si/ce- 
Χία αυτών, ΙΊτε ουκ άττό ξυμβάσεως ώσττερ των 

4 μετά Δημοσθένους Χηφθεντων. μέρος 8ε τι ουκ 
oXiyov καϊ άττεθανεν ττΧεΐστος yap Βη φόνος 
ούτος καϊ ούΒενος εΧάσσων των εν τω Έ,ικεΧικω ^ 
ΤΓοΧέμω τούτω iyiveTO. καϊ εν ταΐς άΧΧαις προσ- 
βοΧαΐς ταΐς κατά, την ττορειαν συ'χναΐς yεvoμε- 
ναις ουκ oXiyoi ετεθνηκεσαν. ττοΧΧοΙ 8ε όμως 
καϊ SLεφυyov, οΐ μβν κα\ τταραυτίκα, οι 8ε και 
ΒουΧεύσαντες καϊ 8ια8ί8ράσκοντ^ς ύστερον τού- 
τοις δ' ην άναχώρησις ες Κατάν7]ν. 

LXXXV1. Έυναθ ροισθεντες 8ε οι Έυρακόσιοι 
και οι ξύμμα^ι^οι, των τε αιχ^μαΧώτων όσους ε8ύ- 
ναντο ττΧείστονς καϊ τα σκύΧα αναΧαβοντες, 
2 άνε')(^ώρησαν ες την ττόΧιν. καϊ τους μεν άΧΧους 
^Αθηναίων καϊ των ξυμμάχων οττοσους εΧαβον 
κατεβίβασαν ες τας Χιθοτομιας, άσφαΧεστάτην 
eivai νομίσαντες τηρησιν, ^,ικίαν 8ε καϊ ιΔημο- 

^ '^,ίΚΐΧικψ deleted by Dobree, followed by Hude. 

* Not more tlian 1000; for the total number of the 
captives was about 7000 (oh. Ixxxvii. 4), and of these 6000 
had belonged to the division of Demosthenes (ch. Ixxxii. 3). 
But the full magnitude of the catastrophe is seen in the fact 

174 



BOOK VII. Lxxxv. i-Lxxxvi. 2 

whatever they pleased, but to stop slaughtering the 
rest of the soldiers. Whereupon Gylippus at last 
gave orders to make prisoners ; and those of the 
survivors λυΙιο had not been secretly aj)propriated 
by the Syracusan soldiers — and these were many — 
were brought in a body to Syracuse alive. They 
also sent men in jnirsuit of the three hundred, 
who had got through the guards the night before, 
and captured them. Now that part of the army 
which Avas collected into the common stock was 
not large,^ but that which was secretly taken by 
the soldiers was large, and all Sicily was filled with 
them, inasmuch as they had not been taken by 
capitulation, as had the force under Demosthenes. 
Besides, no small number had been killed ; for the 
slaughter at the river had been very great — in fact, 
not inferior to any in this Sicilian \var. And in the 
other frequent encounters Λvhich occurred on the 
march not a few had lost their lives. Notwith- 
standing all this, many escaped, some at the time, 
others afterwards, having become slaves and then 
making their escape ; and the refuge for these was 
Catana. 

LXXXVI. When the forces of the Syracusans and 
their allies had been brought together, they took with 
them as many of the captives as they could and the 
booty and returned to the city. All the rest of the 
prisoners they had taken of the Athenians and their 
allies they sent down into the stone-quarries, think- 
ing it the safest way to keep them ; but Nicias and 
Demosthenes they put to the sword, though against 

that eight davs before the final surrender the Athenian army 
numbered 40,000. 



THUCYDIDES 

σθένη άκοντος; ΤυΧίτητου άττβσφαξαν. ο yap 
ΓύλίΤΓΤΓΟ? καΧον το αγώνισμα ένόμιζίν ol ecvat 
€7Γί τοΪ9 άΧΧοις καΐ τους άντιστρατή^ου<; κομίσαί 

3 ΑακζΒαιμονίοις. ξυνίβαίνε he τον μ€ν ττοΧεμιω- 
τατον αύτοΐς elvai, Αημοσθίνη, Βια τα ev tjj 
νήσω και Πι^λω, τον δέ hia τα αυτά βτητηόβίο- 
τατον τους yap εκ της νήσου άνδρας των Αακε- 
Βαιμονίων 6 Νικίας ττρουθυμήθη, σττονΒας ττευσας 

i τούς'Αθηναίους τΓΟίήσασθαι, ώστ€ άφεθήναι. άνθ 
ων ο'ί τε Αακε^αιμόνίοι ήσαν αύτω ττροσφιΧεΐς 
κάκεΐνος ούχ ηκιστα ^ Sia τούτο τηστεύσας εαυτόν 
τω ΤυΧίττΎτω τταρε^ωκεν. άΧΧα των Έ,υρακοσιων 
τίνες, ώς eXeyeTO, οΐ μεν Βείσαντες, οτι ττρος αύτον 
εκεκοινοΧό^/ηντο, μη βασανιζόμενος 8ιά το τοιού- 
τον ταραχήν σφίσιν εν ευτrpayLa ττοιήση, άΧΧοι 
Βέ, και ουχ^ ηκιστα οι Κ.ιιρίνθιοι, μη "χ^ρήμασι όη 
Ίτείσας τινάς, ότι ττΧούσιος ην, άττοδρα και αύθις 
σφίσι νεώτερόν τι άττ' αυτού yivqTai, τΓεισαντε<ς 

5 το ι;? ξυμμάχους άττέκτειναν αυτόν, και 6 μεν 
τοιαύτη ι) ΟΤΙ εγγύτατα τούτων αιτία ετεθνήκει, 
ηκιστα Βή άξιος ων των yε εττ εμού ΚΧΧήνων ες 
τούτο Βυστυγ^ίας άφικεσθαι Βιά την πάσαν ες 
άρετην νενομισμένην εττιτήόευσιν. 

LXXXV1I. Ύούς Β εν ταΐς Χιθοτομίαις οι ^υρα• 
κόσιοι χ^αΧεττώς τους πρώτους χρόνους μετε'χεί- 

' δια τοΰτο, with Β; Hude omits. 

' cf. V. xvi. 1. 
17O 



BOOK VII. I.XXXVI. 2-LXXXVII. I 

the wish of Gylippus. For he thought that it would 
be a glorious achievement if^ in addition to his other 
successes, he could also bring the generals of the 
enemy home to the Lacedaemonians. And it so 
happened that the one, Demosthenes, was regarded 
by the Lacedaemonians as their bitterest foe, on 
account of what had taken place on the island of 
Sphacteria and at Pylos ; the other, for the same 
reason, as a very good friend ; for Nicias had eagerly 
desired ^ that the Lacedaemonian prisoners taken on 
the island should be released, when he urged the 
Athenians to make peace. For these reasons the 
Lacedaemonians were friendly towards him, and it 
was not least on that account that he trusted in 
Gylippus and surrendered liimself to him. But it 
was said that some of the Syracusans \vere afraid, 
seeing that thev had been in communication with 
liim, lest, if he were subjected to torture on tliat 
account, he might make trouble for them in the 
midst of their success ; and others, especially the 
Corinthians, were afraid, lest, as he was wealthy,^ 
he might by means of bribes make his escape and 
cause them fresh difficulties ; they therefore per- 
suaded their allies and put him to death. For this 
reason, then, or for a reason very near to this, Nicias 
was put to death — a man who, of all the Hellenes of 
my time, least deserved to meet with such a calamity, 
because of his course of life that had been wholly 
regulated in accordance with virtue. 

LXXXVII. The prisoners in the stone-quarries 
were at first treated harshly by the Syracusans. 

^ He was worth 100 talents, according to Lysias, xix. 47. 
His property was chiefly in silver mines. He employed 
1000 slaves in the mines at Laurium (Xen., De Ved. iv. 14). 

177 



THUCYDIDES 

ρίσαν. ev yap κοί\ω χω/οιω οντάς καί ολιγω 
7Γθλ.λοι/9 οί' τ€ ηΧιοι το ττρωτον καί το ττνί^ος βτι 
iXvTrei Βία το άστύ<γαστον, καΙ αΐ νύκτβ'ζ eTTiyiyvo- 
pevai τουναντίον μβτοπωριναί καΐ -ψ-υ-χραΐ ττ) 

2 μεταβοΧτι e? aaOeveiai' βνβωτέριζον, ττάντα re ττοι- 
ούντων αυτών 8ια στβνογ^ωρίαν iv τω αύτω και 
ττροσβτι των νεκρών ομού eV αΧΧηΧοις ζυννε- 
νημενων, οι εκ τε τών τραυμάτων κα\ 8ίά την 
μεταβοΧην καΐ το τοιούτον άττεθνγσκον, καΐ οσμαΐ 
ήσαν ουκ ανεκτοί, καΐ Χιμώ άμα και Βιψτ] εττιε- 
ζοντο (^εΒίΒοσαν yap αυτών εκαστω εττϊ οκτώ 
μήνας κοτύΧην ί/δατο? καΐ Βύο κοτύΧας σίτου), 
άΧΧα τε οσα εικός εν τω τοιουτω ■χ^ωριω εμττε- 
Ίττωκότας κακοπαθΡ]σαι, ούΒεν 6 τι ουκ ε^Γεyεvετo 

3 αύτοΐς. και ημέρας μεν εβΖομήκοντά τινας ούτω 
8ιτ]τηθησαΐ' άθροοΐ' εττειτα ττ^ην Αθηναίων καΐ 
ει τίνες -ΐκεΧιωτών ή ΙταΧιωτών ζυνεστ ράτευσαν , 

4 τους άΧ\ους άττεΒοντο. εΧηφθησαν Βε οι ξύμτταν- 
τες, ακρίβεια μεν γ^αΧεττον εξειττείν, 'όμως δε ουκ 
εΧάσσους ετττακισχ^ιΧίων. 

5 Έ,υνεβη τε 'ipyov τούτο ^ τών κατά τονττόΧεμον 
τόνΒε uiyiaTOV yεvεσθaι, Βοκειν δ' εμoιyε και ών 
άκοη 'Έ^ΧΧηνικών ϊσμεν, και τοις τε κρατι^σασι 
Χαμττρότατον και τοις Βιαφθαρεΐσι Βυστυχε- 

6 στατον κατά ττάντα yap ττάντως νικηθεντες και 

^ Έκληνοών, after τούτο, deleted by Kriiger. 
178 



BOOK VII. Lxxxvii. 1-6 

Crowded as they were in large numbers in a deep 
and narrow place, at first the sun and the suifocating 
heat caused them distress, there being no roof; while 
the nights that followed were, on the contrary, 
autumnal and cold, so that the sudden change 
engendered illness. Besides, they were so cramped 
for space that they had to do everything in the same 
place ; moreover, the dead were heaped together 
upon one another, some having died from wounds 
or because of the change in temperature or like 
causes, so that there was a stench that was intoler- 
able. At the same time they were oppressed by 
both hunger and thirst — ^the Syracusans having for 
eight months given them each only a half-pint of 
water and a pint of food a day ^ ; and of all the 
other ills which men thrown into such a place would 
be likely to suffer there Avas none that did not befall 
them. Now for some seventy days they lived in 
this way all together ; then all the rest, excej)t the 
Athenians and any Siceliots and Italiots that had 
joined the expedition, were sold. The total number 
of prisoners taken, though it is difficult to speak 
with accuracy, was nevertheless not fewer than 
seven thousand. 

This event proved to be tlie greatest of all that had 
iiappened in the course of this war, and, as it seems 
to me, of all Hellenic events of Avhich we have record 
— for the victors most splendid, for the vanquished 
most disastrous. For the vanquished, beaten utterly 

1 The scantiness of this allowance — only half the amount 
of food given to slaves — is best seen by a comparison with 
tiiat which was allowed the Lacedaemonians taken on the 
island of Sphacteria, namely', "two quarts of barley-meal 
for each man and a pint of wine" (v. xvi. 1). 

179 



THUCYDIDES 

ovSev oXljov e? ovBev κακοπαθησαντες, πανω- 
Χΐθρία hrj το Χβηάμενον καΐ ττεζος καΐ νηε<; καϊ 
ovSel• 6 τί ουκ άττώΧβτο, καϊ oXiyoi άττο ττοΧΧών 
eV οίκον άττενόστησαν. ταύτα μεν τα irepl ^ικε- 
Χ'ιαν '^/ενομβνα- 

' According to Plutarch {N'ician, 2.ί), many of tlie Athenians 
obtained their freedom, others who had alread\' escaped 
got food and shelter by repeating verses from Euripides, who 



1 80 



BOOK VJI. Lxxxvii. 6 

at every point and having suffered no slight ill in 
any respect — having met, as the saying goes, with 
utter destruction — land-force and Heet and every- 
thing perished, and few out of many came back 
home.^ Such was the course of events in Sicily. 

was more popular with the Sicilians than any other foreign 
autiior. The thanks of these survivors, many of whom on 
their return expressed their gratitude to him, were doubtless 
the sweetest praise the poet ever heard. 



tSl 



BOOK VIII 



INTRODUCTION 

Τηκ article on the life and style of Thucydides, 
which goes by the name of Marcellimis, contains 
the following passage : 

" Some say that the eighth book is spurious and 
not the work of Thucydides, while others say that it 
is his daughter's work, others Xenophon's. To these 
we say that it is clearly not his daughter's, for it is 
not in woman's nature to imitate such excellence 
in art. Besides, if she were so gifted, she would 
not have taken pains to conceal her identity, nor 
would she have written the eighth book only, but 
Avould have left many other things betraying her 
own sex. And that it is not Xenophon's Avork, tlie 
style all but cries aloud ; for there is a wide interval 
between tlie plain and the lofty style. Nor indeed 
is it the Avork of Theopompus, as some have main- 
tained ; but to some, and especially the more 
accomplished, it seems to be indeed the work of 
Thucydides, but unadorned, written in rough out- 
line and full of many matters in summary form, 
and admitting of embellishment and amplification. 
Wherefore we say further, that the exposition is 
rather weak and feeble, inasmuch as he apparently 

VOL. IV. G 1S5 



INTRODUCTION 

composed it while ailing. And when the body is a 
little sick, the reasoning power also is Avont to be 
rather languid." ^ 

The genuineness of Book VIII has been the 
object of attack in modern as well as in ancient 
times, but it may now be regarded as an accejited 
fact. Probably no scholar really doubts it. Ancient 
writers quote the book just as they do the other 
seven. The general characteristics are the same as 
in the other books. " There is," as Arnold rightly 
claims, " the same impartiality, the same clear and 
calm view of political transactions." And Jowett 
eloquently says : " The love of truth, the power of 
thought, the absence of moral approbation or dis- 
approbation, the irony, the perception of character, 
the moderation of statement, the general excellence 

^ Afjovai 54 Tipes την 6'/5όην Ιστορίαν νοθΐύΐσθαι καΐ μ^ elvai 
(ί>ουκώίΖου• α\\' οί μ^ν φασιν elvai rfjs Qvyarpos αΰτοΰ, ol δβ 
Έ.ίνο<ρΰιντοί. irphs ovs Κΐ'γομΐν 'ότι ttjs μΐν OvyaTphs ώε ουκ ΐστι 
δηλον ου yap yvvaiicuas ήν (puaecvs τοιαΰτην άρΐτ-ην Τ6 καΐ 
τίχνην μίμησασθαι. (ττΐΐτα, €Ϊ τοιαύτη Tis ήν, ουκ au β^πουδασβ 
\αθίΊΐ', ούδ' αν την cιyδόηv fypa\p€ μόνον, άλλα καΐ α\\α πολλά 
κατΐ\ητ(ν &ν, την οΊκβίαν (κφαίνουσα φύσιν. 'ότι δί οΰδε s.€vo- 
φώντ05 Ιστίν, ό χαρακτηρ μόνον ουχί βοά' ττολυ yap rb μΐσον 
Ισχνού χαρακτηρο! κα\ ύψηλοΟ. ου μην ούδί Θίοπομττου, καθα 
TiVfs ηξίωσαν τισϊ δί κα\ μάλλον τοΓϊ χαραστ4ροιε &ουκυ5ί5ου 
μ(ν elvai δοκβΓ, άλλου δ' ακαλλώπιστοΒ, δι' 4κτύπων yfypaμμfvη 
κα\ πολλών ττληρηί ev κΐψαλαίω πpayμάτwv καλλούΤτισθηναι κα\ 
λαβίΐν ficTaaiv 5υναμ4νων. ΐΐ'θίν κα\ λeyoμev ws ασθ€ν(στΐρον 
ττίφρασταί καΐ bλ^yov καθότι άρρωστων αυτήν φαινΐται συντΐ- 
θ^ίκώί. ασθίνοϋντοί Si σωματοί βραχύ τι κα\ ό λογισμ^ϊ 
ατονώτ€ρο$ (ΐναι φιλ(ϊ. 

ι86 



INTRODUCTION 

. . . ' cry aloud '" for Thucydides. The vigour and 
terseness of style are as marked as ever. There is, 
it is true, occasional roughness and inaccuracy of 
expression to a greater extent than in the other 
books ; but one who may have read criticisms before 
reading the book itself is sure to be astonished to 
find comparatively so few traces of the unfinished, 
either in style or content. The argument against 
the genuineness on the score of alleged "un- 
Thucydidean " words, phrases, or constructions falls 
to the ground on close examination. When the 
number of αττα^ Aeyo/Aeva, of unusual adverbs and of 
new-coined verbal substantives found in Book VIII 
is compared with similar forms in the other books, 
as for example Goodhart has done in his Intro- 
duction, the conclusion in favour of genuineness is 
unavoidable. Even the suggestion that the book 
was edited and revised by Xenophon rests on no 
better basis than the fact that his Hellenica is a 
continuation of it. 

The most striking thing about the book is the 
omission of direct speeches, so marked a feature of 
all the preceding books (except V). The state- 
ment attributed to Cratippus, a contemporary of 
Thucydides (Dionysius, de Time. lud. p. 847), that 
speeches were omitted in Book VIII because the 
author realized that they interfered with the narra- 
tive and bored the reader, is so absurd as to be 
amusing. It has been plausibly argued that the 

187 



INTRODUCTION 

omission does not necessarily imply either a de- 
liberate change of practice on the part of the 
historian or even lack of revision. Any view on 
these points will doubtless always remain a matter 
of private judgment. My own view is that, if the 
historian had not been suddenly cut down, either 
by assassination at the hands of a robber, as one 
tradition has it, or by disease, the book would have 
received fuller revision, and the indirect speeches 
at several important points would have been turned 
into direct discourse. 

Professor Goodhart well expresses the feeling of 
the reader in turning the pages of Book viii. : 

"The war enters upon a new phase after the 
defeat of the Sicilian expedition. The scene 
changes from Greece to Asia. But there is some- 
thing more than a mere change of scene. Athens 
herself appears under new conditions, fallen greatly 
from her high estate, but appealing more than ever 
to our interest and sympathy. We have seen her 
before in the full blaze of Periclean splendour. But 
perhaps our admiration has been qualified by some 
feeling of aloofness. The people of Pallas Athene 
seem to dwell upon sunlit heights too far removed 
from the darkling ways of humanity. The picture 
of their life is like the fabric of a vision, and they 
themselves partake of its unreality. But the feeling 
vanishes Avhen we see them in the grij) of fate. 
Pity, akin to love, takes the place of admiration, 
i88 



INTRODUCTION 

and we follow their fortunes with sympathy as keen 
and active as that which swayed the spectators of 
the final battle in the great harbour of Syracuse. 
So it may be that Ave get nearer to tliem in the 
closing scene than we have ever been before." 



189 



ΘΟΥΚΥΔΙΔΟΥ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΩΝ Η 

Ι. Έ? δέ τα? \\θήνας βττβώη η'yye\θη, βττΐ 
7Γθ\ν μ€ν ηττίστουν καϊ τοις πάνυ των στρατιω- 
τών €^ αυτού του €ρ^ου ^ίαττεφευ'/οσι καϊ σαφώς 
αγγελλουσί, μη ούτω ye αν ττανσυΒϊ 8ιβφθάρθαι• 
eTTeiBij τβ έγνωσαν, χαλέττοι μεν ήσαν ταΐς 
ξυμπροθυμηθβΐσί των ρητόρων τον βκττΧουν, 
ώσττερ ουκ αύτοί "^ηφισάμενοί, ωρ^υζοντο he κα\ 
τοις "χ^ρησμοΧο^οις τε καϊ μάντεσι και οττοσοι τι 
τότε αυτούς θαιάσαντες εττήΧπισαν ώς Χήψονται 
2 ^ικεΧίαν. πάντα δε παντα'χ^όθεν αυτούς εΧύπει 
τε καϊ περιειστήκει επΙ τω '^/ε'^/ενημεν(ύ φόβος 
τε καϊ κατάπΧηξις μεγίστη hi], άμα μεν jap 
στερομενοι καϊ Ihia έκαστος καϊ ή ττολί? οπΧίτών 
τε τΓολλώΐ' καϊ ιππέων καϊ ηΧικίας οΊαν ούχ^ 
ετεραν εώρων υπάρ-χουσαν εβαρύνοντο• άμα hε 
ναυς ούχ ορώντες εν τοις νεωσοίκοίς ικανάς oύhε 
χ^ρηματα εν τω κοινω odh' υπηρεσίας ταΐς 
ναυσίν ανεΧπιστοί ήσαν εν τω παρόντι σωθή- 
σεσθαι, τους τε άπο της ΈικεΧίας ποΧεμίους 
ευθύς σφίσιν ενόμιζον τω ναυτικω επΙ τον ΐΐεί- 
ραιά πΧευσεΐσθαι, άΧΧως τε καϊ τοσούτον κρα- 
τησαντας, καϊ τους αύτόθεν ποΧεμίους τότε hr) 
καϊ hιπXaσίως πάντα παρεσκευασ μένους κατά 
κράτος ηΒη καϊ εκ γ?}ς καϊ εκ θαΧάσσης επικεί- 
σεσθαί, και τους ζυμμάχ^ους σφών μετ αυτών 

190 



BOOK VIII 

I. When the news reached Athens, even though 
tlie actual soldiers who had escaped from the action 
itself gave a clear report, they for long refused to 
believe that the armament could have been so utterly 
destroyed. When, however, they were convinced, 
they were angry with the orators who had taken 
part in promoting the expedition — as though they 
had not voted for it themselves — and they Avere also 
enraged at the oracle-mongers and soothsayers and 
whoever at that time by any j)ractice of divination 
had led them to hope that they would conquer Sicily. 
Everything indeed on every side distressed them, 
and after what had happened they Avere beset with 
fear and utmost consternation. For having lost, 
both each man separately and as a state, many 
hoplites and horsemen and the flower of the youth, 
while they saw none like it lett them, they were 
heavy of heart ; and again, seeing no shijjs in the 
docks in sufficient number nor money in the treasury 
nor crews for the ships, they were at the moment 
hopeless of safety. They thought that their enemies 
in Sicily Avould sail Avith their fleet straight for the 
Peiraeus, especially as they had won so great a 
victory, and that their foes at home, now doubly 
prepared in all respects, Avould attack them at once 
with all their might both by land and by sea, and 
that their own allies would revolt and join them. 

191 



THUCYDIDES 

3 άτΓοστάνταζ. όμως Se ώ? €κ των ύτταρχόντων 
iBoKei ■χ^ρΡ)ναί μη ivhihovai, uWa τταρασκευά- 
ζβσθαι και νανηκόν, οθβν αν Βνρωνται ξύΧα ξνμ- 
7Γορισαμ€νου<ί καΐ ■χρήματα, και τα των ζυμμά-χτυν 
e'v άσφάΧειαν ττοιεΐσθαι, και μάΧιστα την Εύ- 
βοιαν, των Τ€ κατά την ττοΧιν τι e? euTeXeiav 
σωφρονίσαι καΐ άρχην τίνα πρεσβυτέρων άντρων 
€λ€σθαι, οΓτα'ε? nrepl των τταρόντων ώ? αν καιροί 

4 fi ττροβον\βύσουσιν. ττάντα τε προις το τταρα- 
■χ^ρημα TrepiSee^, οττβρ φιΧεΐ Βήμο<; ττοιεΐν, έτοιμοι 
ήσαν εύτακτεΐν. καΐ ώς εΒοξεν αύτοΐς, καΐ 
εποίουν ταύτα, και το depci ετεΧεύτα. 

II. Ύοΰ δ' εττίΎΐΎνομενον •χ^ειμωνος ττρος την εκ 
τή<ί Έ<ικε\ία<; των Αθηναίων με'γάΧην KaKOTrpayiav 
ευθύς οι ''ΆΧΧηνε'ζ ττάντες εττηρμενοι νσαν, οΐ μεν 
μη^ετερων οντες ξύμμαγ^οι, ως, ήν τις καΐ μή τταρα- 
καΧη σφάς, ουκ άττοστατεον ετι του ττόΧεμου 
εϊη, αλλ' εθεΧοντΙ ίτεον επϊ τους 'Αθηναίους, 
νομίσαντες καν εττΐ σφάς έκαστοι εΧθεΐν αύτου<;, 
ει τα εν τη Έ,ικε^ία κατωρθωσαν, καΐ άμα βρα- 
-χ^ύν εσεσθαι τον Χοιττον ττόΧεμον, ου μετασχεΐν 
καΧον είναι, οι δ' αΰ των Αακε^αιμονίων ζύμμα'χοι 
ξυμτΓροθυμηθεντες εττι ττΧεον η ττρίν άτταΧΧά- 
2 ξεσθαι 8ια τάχους ττοΧΧής ταΧαιττωρίας. μάΧι- 
στα Βε οι των Αθηναίων ύττήκοοι έτοιμοι ήσαν 
καΐ τταρά. Βύναμιν αυτών άφιστασθαι 8ια το 
ορΎωντες κρίνειν τα -πράγματα και μηΒ' ύττοΧεί- 
ττειν Xoyov αύτοΐ<; ώ<; τό y εττιον θέρος οΐοί 
192 



BOOK Vlll. I. 2-II. 2 

Nevertheless it was their opinion that, as far as their 
present circumstances permitted, tliey should not 
give uj), but should both make ready a fleet, pro- 
viding timber and money from whatever source they 
could, and put their relations Λvith their allies, and 
especially with Euboca, on a safe footing ; moreover, 
that they should reduce the expenses of the city to 
an economical basis, and should select a board of 
elderly men who should prepare measures with 
reference to the present situation as there might be 
occasion. In the panic of the moment they were 
ready, as is the way with a democracy, to observe 
discipline in everything. And as they had deter- 
mined, so they proceeded to act ; and the summer 
ended. 

II. The following winter, in νίβλν of the great Nov., 
disaster that had befallen the Athenians in Sicily, ^^^c.c. 
there \vas at once excitement among all the Hellenes. 
Some, Λνΐιο were allies of neither party, thought that, 
even if they were not called upon for aid, they should 
no longer hold aloof from the war, but should go of 
their own accord against the Athenians ; for they 
believed, one and all, that the Athenians Avould have 
come against them if they had succeeded in Sicily ; 
they also believed that the rest of the war would be 
short and that it would be glorious to have a part in 
it. The allies of the Lacedaemonians, on the other 
hand, were more than ever animated by a common 
eagerness quickly to be relieved of their great hard- 
ships. But most of all the subjects of the Athenians 
were ready, even beyond their power, to revolt from 
them, because they judged of the situation under 
the influence of passion and would not even leave 
them the plea that they would be able to hold 

193 



THUCYDIDES 

3 τ' eaovTUt, TrepiyeveaOai. η he των ΑακεΒαιμονίων 
TToXis ττάσί re τουτοΐ'ί iOapaei καΐ μάΧιστα otl 
οι €κ της ^ικεΧίας αντοΐς ξύμμαχ^οι ττολλ?} 
8υνάμ€ί, κατ άνά'^/κην ηδη του ναυτικού ττροσ- 
^ε'^βνημίνου, άμα τω ηρι ώ<ί εΙκος τταρβσβσθαι 

i €μεΧλον. ττανταχόθεν τβ edeXiriSe^ οι;τ69 άττρο- 
φασιστω? άτττβσθαί Βιενοονντο του ττοΧβμου, 
Χο'^ιζόμβνοι καΧώς τεΧευτησαντος αυτού κίνδυ- 
νων Τ6 τοιούτων άττηΧΧάχ^θαι αν το Χοιττον οίος 
και 6 άτΓΟ των ^Αθηναίων ττεριέστη αν αυτούς, 
el το Έ^ικέΧικον ττροσέΧαβον, και καθβΧοντες 
εκείνους αύτοΙ της πάσης Ελλάδο? ηδη άσφαΧώς 
ήΎήσεσθαι. 

III. Έ,ύθύς ούν Άγί? μεν ο βασιΧεύς αυτών 
εν τω 'χ^ειμώνι τούτω ορμηθείς στρατω τινι εκ 
ΑεκεΧείας τά τε των ξυμμάχ^ων ηρ'^υροΧό'^ησεν 
ες το ναυτικόν, καϊ τραπομενος εττΐ τού ^ΐΊ]Χιώς 
κόΧτΓου ΟΙταίων τε κατά την παΧαιάν ε'χθραν 
της Χείας την ττοΧΧην άττοΧαβων -χ^ρήματα 
έττράξατο, και ^ Κγαιούς τους Φθιωτας και 
τους άΧΧους τους ταύτη (~)εσσαΧών ύττηκοονς, 
μεμφομενων καϊ ακόντων των ^εσσαΧών, ομήρους 
τε τινας ηνά'γκασε δούναι καϊ -χ^ρήματα, καϊ 
κατεθετο τους όμηρους ες Κόρινθον, ες τε την 

2 ζυμμαγ^Ιαν εττειράτο ττροσά'^ειν. Αακεδαιμονιοι 
δέ την ττρόσταξιν ταΐς πολεσιν εκατόν νεών της 
ναυττη'γίας εττοιούντο, καϊ εαυτοΐς μεν καϊ Βοιωτοΐς 
Ίτεντε καϊ είκοσι εκατεροις έταξαν, Φωκεύσι δε 

^ cf. iii, 92 fF. The enmity was due to the establishment 
of Heracleia. The Trachinians being harassed by their 
neighbours, the Oetaeans, had appealed to Sparta for aid and 

194 



BOOK VIII. II. 2-πι. 2 

out through the following summer. The Lacedae- 
monian state was encouraged by all these things^ 
and especially because their allies in Sicily would in 
all probability be present to help them with a large 
force as soon as spring came, since necessity had 
now compelled tliein to acquire a navy. Being 
hopeful, then, in every way, they determined to set 
their hands to the war wholeheartedly, reckoning 
that when it should have ended successfully they 
would thereafter be free from such dangers as Avould 
have beset them from the side of the Athenians if 
these had acquired the resources of Sicily in addition 
to their own ; and that, having overthrown them, 
they would themselves now hold securely the 
hegemony of all Hellas. 

III. Accordingly Agis their king set out with an 
army at once during this same Λvmter from Deceleia, 
and levied money from the allies for the maintenance 
of the fleet; then turning toward the Malian Gulf, 
he carried off from the Oetaeans, in pursuance of 
a long-standing enmity,^ the greater part of their 
cattle and exacted money from them. Furthermore, 
he compelled the Achaeans of Phthiotis and the 
other subjects of the Thessalians in that region — 
though the Thessalians were unwilling and remon- 
strated — to give him hostages and money ; then he 
deposited the hostages at Corinth and tried to bring 
their countrymen into the alliance. The Lacedae- 
moni.nns, moreover, made requisition upon the states 
for the building of one hundred ships, fixing the levy 
for themselves and the Boeotians at twenty-five each, 

the Spartans had colonizer! Ileracleia to protect tliem. The 
colony fell owing to the hostility of the Thessalians and the 
bad conduct of iSpartan governors. 

195 



THUCYDIDES 

και Αοκροΐς TTevre και Βεκα, καΐ JiopivOiois ττίντε 
και 8εκα, Άρκάσι δε καΐ H€Wi]veuai και Έικυω- 
viOLf δέκα, We^/apevai he και 'ϊροζηνίοΐ'; και 
ΕτΓΐ8αυρίοι>ί καΐ 'ϊίρμιονβύσι δβκα' τά re άΧλα 
τταρξσκβυαζοντο ώς βνθυς -προ^ το tap βξομβνοι 
του ΤΓοΧβμον. 

IV. ΥΙαρβσκευάζοντο he και ^ ΧθηναΙοι, oiaTrep 
hievo7i9)]aai>, ev τω αντω •χβιμώΐΊ τούτω την τε 
νανττηηιαν, ξύΧα ξυμ7Γορίσάμ€ΐ>οι, και —ούνιοί' 
τ€ΐ-χ^ίσαντΒ^, οττω? αύτοΐς άσφάλeia τα?9 σιτα'^ω- 
yoi<i ναυσιν βίη του ττεριττΧου, καϊ τό τε ev ttj 
Αακωνικτ) τeί^χ^ισμa εκ'λιττοντβς ο ivωκυhόμησav 
irapairXeovTe'i e? XiKeXiav, καϊ τα dXXa, ei παν 
τί ihoKei άγ^ρ^ΐον ανα'λ.ίσκ€σθαι, ξυστεΧΧομενοι 
e? evTeXeiav, μάΧιστα he τα των ξυμμά-χων 
hiacTKOTrodvTes οττως μη σφών άττοστησυνται. 

V. ΥΙρασσόντων he ταύτα αμφοτέρων καΐ 
όντων ovhev άΧΧη ?) ώσττερ άρχ^ομένων ev κατα- 
σκευτ) τον ττοΧέμον, ττρώτοι Κν/3οής ώς ^Ayiv 
irepl άτΓοστάσεως των 'Αθηναίων έττρεσβευ• 
σαντο ev τω ■)^€ΐμωνι τούτω, ο δε ττροσΖεζά- 
yu-efo? Toy? Xayou^ αύτων μeτalτeμ^Γeτaι Ικ Αακε- 
δαίμονο<; ΆΧκαμβνη τον "^eeveXahou και ΛΙελα;^- 
θον άρχ^οντα^ ως ε? την Ενβοιαν οι δ ηΧθον 
'έ'χοντες των veohaμώhωv ώς τριακοσΊους, καϊ 

2 7Γαρ€σκ€ναζ€ν αύτοΐς την διάβασιν. ev τούτω 
he καϊ Αάσβίοι ήΧθον, βουΧόμενοι και αύτοϊ 
άτΓοστήναί' και ξνμττρασσόντων αύτοΐς των 
Βοιωτών avaTreieeTai 'A7i9 ώστε Έ,ύβοίας μβν 

' cf. VII. xxvi. 2. 

^ The clans of new citizens formed of Helots emancipated 
for service in war. Cf. v. xxxiv. 1 ; vii. xix. 3. 
196 



BOOK νΐΐί. ΠΙ. 2-ν. 2 

for the Phocians and Locrians at fifteen, for the 
Corintliians at fifteen, for the Arcadians, Pellenians 
and Sicyonians at ten, and for the Megarians, Troezen- 
ians, Epidaurians and Hermionians at ten. And 
they went on Avith their other preparations witli the 
expectation of beginning the war promptly with the 
opening of spring. 

IV. During this same winter tlie Athenians also 
were making their preparations to build ships, in 
accordance with their decision, and for this they had 
collected timber ; and they fortified Sunium, in order 
that there might be protection for their grain-ships 
as they rounded the promontory. Furthermore, 
they abandoned the fortress in Laconia ^ which they 
had built as they sailed along the Peloponnesian 
coast toward Sicily ; and in general, if there seemed 
to be any useless expenditure anywhere, they re- 
trenched in order to save money ; but above all they 
kept an eye on their allies, that they might not 
revolt from them. 

V. While both sides were carrying out these 
measures and busily equipping themselves for the 
war precisely as if they were just beginning it, 
first of all the Euboeans in the course of this winter 
sent envoys to Agis to discuss revolting from Athens. 
Receiving theirproposals, he summoned from Lacedae- 
mon Alcamenes son of Sthenelaidas and Melanthus 
to take command in Euboea, and they came with 
about three hundred neodamodes,^ Λvhile Agis began 
arranging for their crossing. But in the meantime 
the Lesbians also came, they also desiring to revolt ; 
and as the Boeotians assisted them in their negotia- 
tions, Agis Avas persuaded to delay matters so far as 
the Euboeans were concerned and began arranging 

197 



THUCYDIDES 

Trept €7Γΐσχ€ίν, τοις δε Αβσβίοις τταρεσκεύαζί 
την άττόστασιν, ^ΑΧκαμβνη re άρμοστην δίόούς, 
09 69 Κύβοιαν vXelv εμβΧλε, καΐ Βύκα μ€ν 

3 Βοίωτοι ναΰς ύττέσχ^οντο, Ββκα Se ' Ayi^. καΐ 
ταύτα avev τή<ί ΑίΐκεΒαιμονί.νν ττόΧεως iirpaa- 
σ€το' 6 yap Άγί? όσον χρόνον ην ττβρί Ae/ci- 
\eiav ^'χ^ων την μεθ' βαυτοΰ Βύναμιν, κύριος 
ην καΐ ατΓοστεΧΧειν βϊ ττοί ηνα ββούΧετο στρα- 
τιαν και ^urayeipeiv και γ^ρήματα ττράσσβίν, 
καϊ ΤΓολύ μάΧΧον ώς elrrelv κατά τούτον τον 
καιρόν αυτού οι ξύμμαχ^Οί υττήκουον η των 
iv TJ7 iroXeL Αακβοαιμονίων Βύναμιν yap βχων 

4 αύτος ευθύς εκασταγόσε Βεινος τταρήν. καϊ ό 
μβν τοις Αεσβίοις εττρασσβ, \ΐοι Be και Έρι;- 
θραΐοι, άτΓοστ?}ναι καϊ αύτοΙ έτοιμοι 6vτeς, 
προς μεν ' Ayiv ουκ βτράττοντο, ες Be την Αακε- 
Βαίμονα. κα\ πάρα Τισσαφέρνους, ος βασιΧεΐ 
Ααρείω τω Άρταξερξου στpaτηyoς ην των 
κάτω, πρεσβευτής άμα μετ αύτων παρην. 

5 επηyeτo yap καϊ 6 Τισσαφέρνης τους ΙΙεΧοπον- 
νησίους καϊ ύπισχνεΐτο τροφην παρεξειν. ύπο 
βασιΧεως yap νεωστϊ ετύyχavε πeπpay μένος 
τους εκ της εαυτού αρχής φόρους, ους δί' Ά^τ;- 
ναίους άπο των ΈιΧΧηνίΒων ποΧεων ου Βυνά μένος 
πράσσεσθαι επωφείΧησεν τους τε οΰν φόρους 
μάΧΧον ενόμιζε κομιεΐσθαι κακώσας τους 'Αθη- 
ναίους, καϊ άμα βασιΧεΐ ξυμμάχους ΑακεΒαιμο- 
νΐους ποιησειν, καϊ ^Aμόpyηv, τον Τίισσούθνου 

1 The oligarchs, as shown b}' chs. ix and xiv. Chios had 
hitherto been noted for its loyalty to Atiiens. 

2 Darius II reigned 423-404. 

5 Mentioned r.s satrap at Sardia in 440 B.C. (i. 115) and 

iqS 



BOOK VIII. V. 2-5 

their revolt for the Lesbians, giving them as harmost 
Alcanienes, who Λvas to have sailed to Euboea; 
furthermore, the Boeotians promised them ten ships 
and Agis the same number. These negotiations 
were carried on without the authority of the Lace- 
daemonian state ; for so long as he Λvas stationed at 
Deceleia with his ολνη force Agis possessed full 
power to send troops anywhere he Λvished as well as 
to levy them and to exact money. And at that time 
the allies hearkened to him far more, one might say, 
than to the Lacedaemonians in Sparta ; for he had a 
force at his own disposal and his appearance any- 
where instantly insj)ired fear. So he Avas working 
in the interest of the Lesbians, but the Cliians ^ and 
Erythraeans, Λvho also \vere ready to revolt, betook 
themselves, not to Agis, but to Lacedaemon. And 
with them Λventan envoy from Tissaphernes, who was 
military governor of the coast-lands for King Darius - 
son of Artaxerxes. For Tissaphernes was also trying 
to induce the Peloponnesians to come over to Asia, 
promising to furnish them maintenance. For the 
King, as it chanced, had lately demanded of him the 
tribute from his own province, for which he had 
fallen into arrears, since he Λvas not able to exact it 
from the Hellenic cities because of the Athenians. 
He therefore thought that if he should weaken the 
Athenians he would be better able to collect his 
tribute ; he also intended at the same time to make 
the Lacedaemonians allies of the King, and, in accord- 
ance with tiie King's command, either to take alive 
or to kill Amorges, bastard son of Pissuthnes,^ who 

again in 428 (iii. 31). Soon after the latter date he revolted. 
Tissaphernes was sent to suppress the revolt and, succeeding, 
became satrap himself. 

199 



THUCYDIDES 

υίον νοθον, άφβστώτα irepl Jiapiav, ωσττερ αύτω 
ττροσίταξβ βασιΧβύς, ή ζωντα άξαν η άττοκτε- 
velv. οι pev ουν \Ιθί καΐ Ύισσαφερνης Koivfj 
κατά το αύτο βττρασσον. 

VI. Ka\\iy€iTO<i Se ό Ααοφωντο<;, yieyapev^, 
καΐ Ύίμ.α-'/ορα'ί ο ΚΟηνα^ορου, Κυζίκηνό<;, φνγά- 
δε? της βαυτών αμφότεροι τταρά Φαρναβάζ(ρ τω 
Φαρνάκον κατοίκονντ€<;, άφίκνούνται ττερί τον 
αύτον καιρόν e? την Αακβ^αίμονα ττβμψαντο-; 
Φαρναβάζου, ό'ττω? vav'i κομίσβιαν e? τον Έλ- 
Χησττοντον, και αυτός, el Εύναιτο, αττβρ ό Τίσ- 
σαφερνης ττρονθυμβϊτο, τάς Τ€ ev ttj eavToO 
^PXV "^όΧβίς άποστήσ€ΐε των 'Αθηναίων δίά τους 
φόρους, καΐ άφ εαυτού βασιΧεΐ την ξυμμαχ^ίαν 

2 των ΑακεΒαίμονίων ττοιησειεν. ττρασσόντων δε 
ταΰτα χωρίς εκατβρων, των τβ άπο του Φαρνα- 
βάζου καϊ των άττό του Τισσαφέρνους, ττοΧΧη 
άμιΧλα iyiyveTO των εν τ^ ΑακεΒαίμονι, οττως οι 
μεν ες την λωνίαν καϊ Xtot», οι δ ες τον Ελλί^σ- 
ΤΓοντον ττροτερον ναύς καϊ στρατιάν ττεισουσι 

3 ττεμιτειν. οι μέντοί ΑακεΒαιμόνιοι τα των \ίων 
και Τισσαφέρνους τταρα ττοΧύ ττροσεΖεζαντο 
μάΧΧον. ξυνεττρασσε yap αύτοίς καϊ Άλκιβιά- 
Βης, ΈνΒίω εφορεύοντί πατρικός ες τα μάΧιστα 
ξένος ων, όθεν καϊ τουνομα Αακωνικόν ή οικία 
αυτων^ εσχεν "Έ,ν^ιος 'yap ΆΧκίβιάΒου εκα- 

^ κατά ■τΊ]ν ^eviav deleted hy Kriiger and van Herwerden 
as gloss to οβίν, followed by Hade. 

2 00 



BOOK VIII. V. 5-vi. 3 

was in revolt in Caria. Accordingly the Chians and 
Tissaphernes were negotiating in common for the 
same object. 

VI. About the same time Calligeitus son of 
Laophon, a Megarian, and Timagoras son of 
Athenagoras, a Cyzicene^ both being fugitives from 
tiieir own countries and living at the court of 
Fharnabazus ^ son of Pharnaces, came to Lace- 
daemon. They had been sent by Pharnabazus to 
bring ships to the Hellespont, in order that he too, 
just as Tissaphernes was eager to do, might, if 
possible, cause the cities in his Ολνη province ta 
revolt from the Atiienians on account of the tribute, 
and by his own efforts secure for the King the alliance 
of the Lacedaemonians. As the two sets of envoys, 
those from Pharnabazus and those from Tissaphernes, 
were negotiating these matters separately, there 
Λvas much rivalry among the people of Lacedaemon, 
one side trying to persuade the people to send ships 
and troops to Ionia and Chios first, the other to the 
Hellespont. The Lacedaemonians, however, were 
by far more inclined to accej)t the proposals of the 
Chians and Tissaphernes. For Alcibiades was co- 
operating with them, being an hereditary friend of 
the ephor P^ndius and on the most intimate terms 
with him. (This was, in fact, the reason why their 
house had acquired its Laconian name ; for Endius 
was called Endius son of Alcibiades).^ But in spite of 

* Satrap of the territory along the Hellespont. 

* The proof that Alcibiades was a Laconian name : it was 
borne b}• alternate generations in the family of Endius. 
Cleinias, Alcibiades' great-grandfather, determined that in 
his family also the name Alcibiades should alternate with his 
own name. 

201 



THUCYDIDES 

4 XetTo. ομω<; Be οι Αακ^Βαιμόνιοι ττρωτον κατά- 
σκοπον e? την XtOf ττέμΛίταντβ^; Φρύνιν, avhpa 
irepioiKOv, el αϊ re νήες αύτοΐς βίσΐν όσασττερ 
eXeyov και τα άΧΧα η ττοΧις Ικανη eart 7rpo<i την 
Xeyoμevηv Βόζαν, aTrayyeiXa-i'Toq αύτοΐς ώ? eΐη 
ταύτα άΧ7]θη άττβρ ήκουον, του? re Χ/ους• και 
τους Ερυθραίους ευθύς ξυμμάχ^ους εττοιήσαντο 
καΐ τ€σσαράκοντα ναυς e -^ηφΊσαντο αύτοΐς ττέμ- 
Treiv, ώς e'/cet ουκ βΧασσον η βζηκοντα αφ ων οι 

5 Χΐοι eXeyov υτταργ^ουσων. και το μεν ττρώτοί' 
Βεκα τούτων αύτοΐς βμεΧΧον ττεμψειν και Μελαγ- 
'χ^ρίΒαν, ος αύτοΐς ναύαρχος ην εττβιτα σεισμού 
yevo μενού άντ\ τυύ Μελαγχρίδου \αΧκιΒεα 
εττεμτΓοί' και άντ\ των Βεκα νεών πέντε τταρε- 
σκευάζοντο εν ττ} Αακωνικτ}. καΐ ό χειμων 
ετεΧεύτα, και ενός Βεον είκοστον έτος τω ττοΧεμω 
έτεΧεύτα τω8ε ον (~)ουκυΒίΒης ξυvεypaψev. 

VII. Ύοΰ δ' iiriyLyvo μενού θέρους βύθύς 
επ€Γ/ομένων των ^ίων άττοστεΐΧαι τας ναύς 
και ΒεΒίότων μη οι ^Αθηναίοι τα ττρασσόμενα 
αϊσθωνται (ττάντες yap κρύφα αυτών έττρε- 
σβεύοντο),ά7Γθ7Γέμ7Γουσιν οι ΑακεΒαιμόνιοι άνΒρας 
Χτταρτιάτας ες Κόρινθον τρεις, οττως αττο της 
ετέρας θαΧάσσης ώς τάχιστα εττΐ την προς 
^Αθήνας ύπ^ρενεη κόντες τας ναύς τον ισθμον 
κεΧεύσωσι ττΧεΐν ες Χίον πάσας, και ας ο Ayις 
παρεσκεύαζεν ες την Αέσβον και τάς άΧΧας. 
ήσαν δε αϊ ξύμπασαι τών ξυμμαχικών νήες 
αυτόθι μιας ΒέουσΆΐ τεσσαράκοντα• 

VIII. Ό μεν ούν K.aXXiyeiTOi και Ύιμayopaς 
υπέρ τού Φαρναβάζου ούκ έκοινούντο τον στυΧον 
ές την Χίον, ούδε τα χρήματα έΒΊΒοσαν α ηΧθον 

202 



BOOK VIII. VI. 3-viii. i 

their inclination, the Lacedaemonians first sent 
Phrynis, one of the Perioeci, to Chios to see whether 
the Chians had as many ships as they claimed, and 
whether in other respects the power of the city was 
equal to the representations made. When he brought 
back word that \vhat they had heard was true, they 
at once made the Chians arid the Erj'thraeans allies, 
and voted to send them forty ships, there being, 
from Avliat the Chians said, no fewer than sixty 
already there. And at first they were going to 
send them ten of these under the command of 
Melanchridas, Λνΐιο was their admiral ; but after- 
wards, when an earthquake occurred, instead of 
Melanchridas they sent Chalcideus, and instead of 
ten ships they made ready five in Laconia. So the 
winter ended, and with it the nineteenth year of 
the war of which Thucydides wrote the history. 

VII. At the beginning of the following summer, March, 
as the Chians pressed them to send the ships, and " ^'^' 
were afraid that the Athenians might become aware 

of their negotiations — for all these embassies were 
kept secret from them — the Lacedaemonians sent 
to Corinth three Spartans, that they might as 
quickly as possible haul the ships over the Isthmus 
from the Corinthian Gulf to the sea on the side 
toward Athens, and give orders for the whole fleet 
to sail to Chios — the ships Avhich Agis was getting 
ready for Lesbos as well as the rest. And the 
number of ships of the allied contingents at that 
place was all together thirty-nine. 

VIII. Accordingly, Calligeitus and Timagoras, 
who were acting on behalf of Pharnabazus, did not 
join in the expedition to Chios, nor did they give 



203 



THUCYDIDES 

€^οντ€<; e? την άποστοΧ)']ν, irivTe και είκοσι 
τάλαντα, άλλ' ΰστβρον β'φ' βαυτών Βιενοούντο 

2 αλλω στόΧγ ττΧεΙν. ό δε Αγί? iveiBr] ίωρα 
τους ΑακεΒαι,μονίους e? την Χίον ττρωτον ώρμη- 
μενους, οι)δ' αύτος άλ\ο τί ε.'^Ίηνωσκεν, άΧλα 
ξννεΧθόντες ες JiopivOov οΐ ξύμμαχ^οι εβου- 
Χεύοντο, KCU εΒοξε πρώτον ες Xtov αυτούς 
πΧεΐν αρχ^οντα εχ^οντας Χαλ/ίίδεα, δ•? εν τι} 
Αακωνίκτ] τας ττέντε ναΰς τταρεσκεύαζεν, εττειτα 
ες Αεσβον και ^ΑΧκαμενη άρχοντα, ονττερ καΧ 
Άγί9 8ιενθ€ΐτο, το τεΧευταΐον δε ες τον Έλλ?;σ- 
ΤΓοντον άφικεσθαι [ττροσετέτακτο δε ες αύτον 

3 άρχων Κ,Χεαρχος ό 'ΐ*αμφίου), 8ιαφέρειν δε τον 
Ισβμον τας ημισεας των νεών ττρωτον, και ευθύς 
ταύτας άττοττΧεΐν, όπως μη οι 'Αθηναίοι προς τας 
άφορμωμενας μάΧΧον τον νουν εχωσιν η τας 

4 ύστερον Βιαφερομενας. καΐ yap τον πΧούν ταύττ) 
εκ του προφανούς εποιούντο, καταφρονήσαντες 
των Αθηναίων αΖυνασιαν, οτι ναυτικον ού8εν 
αυτών ποΧύ πω εφαίνετο. ώς δε ε^οζεν αύτοΐς, 
καΐ Βιεκόμισαν ευθύς μιαν καΐ είκοσι ναΰς. 

IX. Οί δε Κορίνθιοι, επει<yoμεvωv αυτών τον 
πΧούν, ου προυθυμι'^θησαν ζυμπΧεΙν πρΧν τα 
"Ισθμια, α τότε ην, Βιεορτάσωσιν. ^Α'γις δε 
αύτοΐς έτοιμος ην εκείνους μεν μη Χύειν Βη τας 
^ΙσθμιάΒας σπονΒάς, εαυτού δε τον στόΧον ΪΒιον 
2 ποιησασθαι. ου ξυyχωpoύvτωv δε τών Κοριν- 



1 £5000, $23,900. 

^ The Istliinian Games were held in Corinthian territory, 
and under the presidency of Corinth. Tliey were a τρκτηρΪ!, 
i, e. held every two years, in early spring or summer. 

204 



BOOK VIII. VIII. i-ix. 2 

the money — twenty-five talents ^ — which they had 
brought with them for the despatching of the ships, 
but intended to sail later with another armament by 
themselves. Agis, on the other hand, when he saw 
the Lacedaemonians eager for the expedition to 
Chios first, did not himself maintain a different 
view ; but \vhen the allies came together at Corinth 
and deliberated, they decided : in the first place, to 
sail to Chios Avith Chalcideus in command, he being 
in charge of the equipping of the five ships in 
Laconia ; then to proceed to Lesbos with Alcamenes 
as commander — the one whom Agis was intending 
to send ; and, finally, to go to the Hellespont, 
Clearchus son of Ramphias having already been 
assigned to command in this region. Furthermore, 
they decided to carry across the Isthmus half of 
the ships at first, and that these were to set sail 
immediately, in order that the attention of the 
Athenians might not be directed toward the ships 
that were setting out more than toward those that 
were afterwards being carried across the Isthmus. 
For they proposed to make the voyage from here 
to Chios openly, despising the impotence of the 
Athenians, because no considerable fleet of theirs 
was as yet making its appearance. And in accord- 
ance Avith their decision they at once conveyed 
twenty-one ships across. 

IX. The Corinthians, however, although the 
others were impatient for the voyage, were not 
disjjosed to sail Avith them until they should have 
celebrated the Isthmian Games, Avhich were held at 
that time. And Agis was quite ready to allow them 
to preserve inviolate the Isthmian truce ^ while he 
made the expedition an affair of his own. But as 

205 



THUCYDIDES 

θίων, αλλά Βιατριβής ^γγΐ'γνομίνης, οΐ ^Αθηναίοι 
fjodovTo τα των Χ/,ωί^ μάΧΧον, και ττύμ'^αντβ^ 
eva των στρατιρ/ων ^Αριστοκράτη iinjTioyvTO 
avTOv<i, καί άρνονμβνων των \ίων, το ττιστον 
ναΰ^ σφίσι ξνμττεμττβιν eKeXcvov €9 το ξυμμα- 
3 χικόν οί δ' βπβμψαν επτά. αίτιον δ' eyeveTO τή<; 
άτΓοστοΧΡις των νέων οί μβν ττοΧλοΙ των Χι'ωΐ' 
ουκ είδατε? τα ττρασσομβνα, οι δε oXiyoi και 
ξυνει8ότ6<; ^ τό τε ττΧήθος ου βουΧόμβνοί πω ττολε- 
μιον β'χειν ττριν τι καΐ ισχυρον Χάβωσι, καΐ 
τού<; Ώ.εΧοτΓθννΐ]σίους ούκέτι προσΒε-χ^όμενοιήζειν, 
ΟΤΙ Βιέτριβον. 

Χ. Έί/ δε τούτω τα "Ισθμια iyiyveTO, κα\ οί 
Αθηναίοι (e7Γ)]yyeXθησav yap) ^θεωρούν βς αυτά, 
και κατά8ηΧα μαΧΧον αύτοί? τα των }ίίων 
€φάνη. καΐ ε'ττείδΡ; άνεχ^ώρησαν, τταρεσκευάζοντο 
εύθυς ό'ττω? μη Χησουσιν αυτούς αί νΡ]€<; €κ των 

2 Keyxpeiow άφηρμηθεΐσαι. οί δε μετά την εορτην 
aviiyovTO μια και είκοσι ναυσιν ες την Κίον, 
άρχ^οντα^ΑΧκαμενη ε^χοντες. καϊ αύτοΐς οΐ 'Αθη- 
ναίοι τό ττρωτον ϊσαις ναυσΐ τΓροστΓΧεύσαντες 
hirriyov ε'? τό ττελαγο?. ώς δ' ε'ττΐ ττοΧύ ουκ 
εττηκοΧούθησαν οί ΐΙεΧοττοννησιοι αλλ' άπετρά- 

3 πόντο, επανεχώρησαν και οί \\θ ηναΐοι• τάς yap 
των Χιω^ επτά ναΰς εν τω αριθμώ μετά σφών 
εχ^οντες ού πίστας ενομιζον, άΧΧ ύστερον άΧΧας 
π ροσπΧη ρωσαντ ες ες - ετττά κα\ τριάκοντα, παρα- 

^ καί IwiiSoTis Β, the other MSS. omitting καί ; Hude in- 
serts οί. 

2 €ϊ added by Westennann. 

^ During the truce, states which were at war Λv•ith each 
other were allowed to send contestants and deputies to the 

200 



BOOK VIII. IX. 2-x. 3 

the Corinthians did not agree and delay ensued, the 
Athenians became more aware of the designs of 
the Chians, and sending Aristocrates, one of their 
generals, they charged them with the plot, and when 
they denied it, bade them, as their guarantee of 
good faith, send some ships along with the Athenian 
fleet as a contribution to the allied force ; and they 
sent seven. Their reason for sending these shij)s 
was that most of the Chians had no knowledge of 
the negotiations, and the oligarchs, who were in the 
plot, were not only unwilling as yet to incur the 
hostility of the populace, before they had acquired 
any strength, but also because of the delay of the 
Peloponnesians no longer expected them to come. 

X. In the meantime the Isthmian Games were 
celebrated, and the Athenians, since the truce had 
been proclaimed,^ sent deputies to them ; and so 
the designs of the Chians became more manifest 
to them. And when they returned they immedi- 
ately made arrangements that the ships should not 
set sail from Cenchreiae Λvithout their knowledge. 
But the Peloponnesians, after the festival, put to sea 
for Chios Λvith twenty-one ships under the command 
of Alcamenes. And the Athenians at first sailed up 
to them with an equal number of ships, and tried to 
draw them out into the open sea. But when the 
Peloponnesians did not follow them very far but 
turned back, the Athenians also Avithdrew ; for they 
had the seven Chian ships in the ranks of their fleet 
and did not consider them trustworthy. But they 
afterwards manned additional ships, bringing their 
number up to thirty-seven, and then pursued the 

common games, these having a safe pass to and from the 
celebration. 

207 



THUCYDIDES 

7r\eovTa<i αντού<; καταΒιωκουσιν is Yleipaiov τϊ}? 
Κοριΐ'θία^' βστί Be Χιμην βρημ,ο^ κ(ΐΙ έσχατο? ττρος 
τα μζθόρια τή^ 'Κτη^αυρίας. και μίαν μβν ναύν 
άττόΧλ-ύασι μβτβωρον οι ΙΙεΧοποΐ'ίησιοι, τας Be 
4 aWas ^uvajayovre^ όρμίζουσιν. καΐ ττροσβα- 
Χόντων των ^Αθηναίων καΐ κατά θάΧασσαν ταΐς 
νανσΐ και €<? την yrjv άττοβάντων θόρυβος τ€ 
iyeveTo ττοΧύς καΐ άτακτος, καΐ των τβ νεών τας 
ττΧείους κατατ ρανματίζονσιν iv τη yfj οΐ ^Αθη- 
ναίοι και τον άρ-χ^οντα ΑΧκαμύνη άττοκτανουσιν 
και αυτών τίνες άττεθανον, 

XI. Αιακριθεντες Be ττρος μεν τας ποΧεμίας 
ναυς εττεταξαν εφορμεΐν Ικανάς, ταΐς δε ΧοιτταΙς 
ες τι ^ νησίΒιον ορμιζονται, εν ω ου ττοΧν άττ- 
ε'χ^οντι εστρατοττεΖεύοντο, και ες τας Αθήνας εττΐ 

2 βοήΡειαν εττεμττον. τταρησαν ηαρ καΐ τοις ΥΙεΧο- 
τταννησίοις τη υστεραία οι τε Κ,ορίνθιοι βοη- 
θουντες εττι τάς ναΰς, και ου ττοΧΧω ύστερον και 
οι άΧΧοι ττρόσχωροι. και όρώντες την φυΧακην 
εν γ^ωρίω ερήμω εττιττονον ουσαν ηττ ορούν καΐ 
εττενόησαν μβν κατακαΰσαι τάς ναύς, έπειτα δε 
εΒοξεν αύτοΐς άνεΧκύσαι καϊ τω πεζω ττροσκα- 
θημενους φυΧακί]ν ε'χ^ειν, εως αν τις τταρατύ'χΎ) 
bιaφυJη ετΓίτηΒεία. εττεμψε Β' αντοΐς καΐ^ Ay ις 
αίαθόμενος ταύτα άνΒρα Έτταρτιάτην θερμωνα. 

3 τοις δε ΑακεΒαιμονιοις ττρώτον μεν η^^εΧθη ότι 
αΐ νηες άνη^μεναι είσιν εκ του Ισθμού (εϊρητο yap, 
όταν yεvητaι τούτο, ΆΧκα μένει ύττο τών εφόρων 
Ιτητεα ττεμψαι), καϊ ευθύς τάς παρά σφών πέντε 

^ τι, for rh of the MSS., Stahl's correction. 

2o8 



BOOK VIII. χ. 3-.M. 3 

enemy as they sailed along the coast, until they put 
in at Peiraeum in Corinthian territory. This is 
a deserted port, the last toward the borders of 
Epidauria. The Peloponnesians lost one ship out 
at sea, but brought the rest together and cast 
anchor. And now, when the Athenians attacked 
them, both by sea with their fleet and on land, 
having put men ashore, there was great confusion 
and disorder ; and most of the Peloponnesian shi})s 
were disabled by the Athenians on the beach and 
their commander Alcamenes was slain. And some 
Athenians also v. ere killed. 

XI. After drawing off, the Athenians posted a 
suHicient number of shi[)s to keep watch upon those 
of the enemy, but Avith the rest cast anchor at an 
islet not far distant, on Λνίπείι they proceeded to 
make their camp ; and they also sent to Athens for 
reinforcements. For the Corinthians had joined the 
Peloponnesians the day after the battle, bringing 
reinforcements to their fleet, and not long afterward 
the peoples of the neighbourhood also came. And the 
Peloponnesians, seeing the difficulty of guarding 
the ships in a desert place, were in perplexity ; and 
they even thought of burning the ships, but after- 
wards determined to draAv them up on shore and, 
settling doAvn tliere with their land-force, to keep 
guard over them until some favourable opportunity 
of escape should offer. And Agis, hearing of their 
predicament, sent to them Thermon, a Spartan. 
Now the first news that came to the Lacedaemon- 
ians was that the ships had put to sea from the 
Isthmus — for orders had been given to Alcamenes 
by the ephors to despatch a horseman as soon as that 
should happen — and they were planning to send 

209 



THUCYDIDES 

vav^ και \a\Kihea αρχ^οντα καΐ ΑΧκιβίάΒην μ€τ 
αυτού ββούΧοντο ΤΓβμττειν' εττειτα ώρμημενων 
αυτών τα rrepl την iv τω Ώειραιω των νέων 
καταφυ'^/ην ηγγέΧθη, καΐ άθυμησαντες, οτι ττρώ- 
τον άτΓτόμενοι του ^Ιωνικού ττοΧεμου εττταισαν, 
τα? νανς τας εκ τΓ;? εαυτών ούκετι Βιενοοΰντυ 
ττεμττειν, άλλα και τίνας ΤΓροανιιημενα<^ μετακα- 
\εΐν. 

XII. Τνού<; Βε ό \\\κιβιάόη<ί πείθει αύθις^'ί^ν^ίον 
καΐ τοι/ς ά\\ους εφόρους μη άττοκνήσαί τον ττΧοΰν, 
Χέ^ων ότί φθήσονταί τε ττΧεύσαντε^ ττρίν την των 
νεών ξυμφοράν \ίονς αισθεσθαι, καΐ αύτος, όταν 
ΊτροσβάΧτ) Ιωνία, ραΒίω<; ττείσειν τά? ττόΧεις άφί- 
στασθαι,τήν τε τών\\θηναίων Χέ^ων άσθενειαν καΐ 
την τών ΑακεΒαιμονίων ττροθυμίαν. ττιστότερο'ί 

2 yap αΧλο)!' φανεΐσθαί. Εζ'δ/,ω τε αύτω ΙΒία έ'λβγε 
καΧον είναι hi εκείνου άττοστήσαι τε Ιωνιαν καΐ 
βασιλέα ζύμμα^ον ττοιήσαι Αακεδαιμονίοι*;, καϊ 
μη "Αγίδο? το αγώνισμα τούτο γενέσθαι' ετύγχανε 

3 yap τω "Αγίδί αυτός 8ιάφορο<; ων. καϊ ό μεν 
ττείσα? τοΐ'9 τ€ άΧΧους εφόρους καϊ "KvSlov ανηηετο 
ταΐς ττεντε ναυσΐ μετά ΧαΧκιΒέως τού ΑακεΒαι- 
μονίου καϊ hia τάγου? τον ττΧούν εποιούντο. 

XIII. "Άνεκομίζοντο δε ύττο τον αύτον χρόνον 
τούτον καϊ αϊ άττο της ΈικεΧίας ΐΙεΧοττοννησίων 
εκκαίΖεκα νήες αϊ μετά ΥυΧίττττου ζυμττοΧεμη- 
σασαΐ' και ττερί την ΑενκαΒίαν αττόΧηφθ είσαι καϊ 
κοττεΐσαι ύττο τών 'Αττικών ετττα καϊ εϊκοσι 



^ He was suspected of an intrigue with the wife of Agis 
(Plutarch, Alcib. 23). 



BOOK VIII. XI. 3-xiii. i 

immediately their own five ships under the command 
of Chalcideus, and Alcibiades with him ; afterwards, 
when they were eager to sail, word came to them 
about their ships having taken refuge at Peiraeum ; 
and they were so discouraged, because in this their 
first undertaking in the Ionian war they had failed, 
that they from that time on ceased planning to send 
out the ships that were in liome Avaters, but on the 
contrary even thought of recalling some that had 
previously gone out to sea. 

XII. Now when Alcibiades learned of this, he 
again urged Endius and the other ephors not to 
shrink from the expedition, saying that their fleet 
would have completed the vo3age before the Chians 
could hear of the disaster to their ships, and that 
he himself, Avhen he reached Ionia, would easily 
persuade the cities to revolt by telling them of the 
weakness of the Athenians and the zeal of the 
Lacedaemonians ; for he would be more readily be- 
lieved than others. And to Endius he said privately 
that it would be an honour for him, through the 
agency of Alcibiades, to cause Ionia to revolt and 
to make the King an ally to the Lacedaemonians, 
urging him not to let this become the achievement 
of Agis ; for he happened himself to be at variance 
with Agis.^ So having p.ersuaded Endius and the 
other ephors, he put to sea with the five ships in 
company with Chalcideus the Lacedaemonian, and 
they made the voyage with all speed. 

XIII. About the same time the sixteen Pelopon- 
nesian ships, which had served with Gylippus in 
Sicily throughout the war, were on their way home ; 
and as they were off Leucadia they were intercepted 
and roughly handled by the twenty-seven Athenian 



THUCYDIDES 

vecuv, ων ηρχ^ν 'λττττοκΧΐβ Μβνίττπου, φυΧακηυ 
εχωΐ' των άπο τζ/ς Χικβλίο'ί veCov, αΐ Χοιπαί ττΧην 
μιας ^ιαφνγοΰσαί τους \\θηναίους κατβπΧβυσαιι 
€9 τηΐ' Κ^όρινθον. 

XIV. Ό Sk ΧαΧκιΒεύς και ό ^ΑΧκιβιάΒης 
πΧβοντε'ί οσοις re βττίτύχ^οιβν ξυνεΧάμβανον του 
μη i^ayyeXroi yeveaOai, και ττροσβαΧόντβς ττρώτον 
Κωρύκ(ύ της ηττβίρου και άφβντες βνταΰθα αυτούς, 
αυτοί μίν π ροξυγγειόμενοι των ξυμττρασσόντων 
Χ,ιων τισΐ καΐ κβΧευόντων καταπΧβΐν μη irpoenrov- 
τα? €9 την ττόΧιν, άφικνοΰνται αΙφνίΒιοι τοις 

2 Xtot<?. και οι μίν ττοΧΧοϊ ev θαύματι ήσαν και 
βκττΧηζβί' τοις δ' 6Xίyoίς τταρβσκβύαστο ώστε 
βουΧην ^ τυχβΐν ξυΧΧβ^ομίνην, καΐ ^ενομβνων 
Χο^ων άτΓΟ τ€ του ΧαΧκιΒβως καΐ Αλκιβιάοου ως 
άΧΧαι νΤμς ττοΧΧαΙ ττροσπΧβουσι και τα ττβρί της 
τΓοΧιορκίας των ev τω Ώειραιω νέων ου 8ΐ]Χωσάν- 
των, αφίστανται Χΐοι και αύθις 'ϊίρυθραΐοι Αθη- 

3 ναίων. και μετά ταύτα τρισΐ ναυσΐ πΧεύσαντες 
καΐ ΚΧαζομενάς άφιστάσιν. Βιαβάντες 8ε οι Κλα- 
ζομενιοι ευθύς ες την ηττειρον την ΏοΧίχ^ν7]ν έτεί- 
'χ^ιζον, ει τι Sioi σφίσιν αύτοΐς εκ της νησίΖος εν 
η οΐκοΰσι ττρος άναχ^ώρησιν. καΐ οι μεν άφεστώ- 
τες εν τϊΐχ^ισμω τε πάντες ήσαν καΐ παρασκευή 
ποΧεμου. 

XV. Έ? Be τάς ^Αθήνας τα-χύ άγγεΧία της Xtoi/ 

^ Τ6 after βονλην deleted by Kriiger ; so also after &\\ai 
below. 

^ There were several places called Corj'cus. This one was 
the southernmost point of the Erythraean peninsula, about 
forty miles from Chios. Of. Livyxxxvii. 12, Corycum Tciorum 
promonturium. 

212 



BOOK VIII. XIII. i-xv. i 

ships under the command of Hippocles son of 
Menippus, Avho \vas on the look-out for the ships 
from Sicily ; but all except one escaped the 
Athenians and sailed into Corinth. 

XIV. Meanwhile Chalcideus and Alcibiades as 
they sailed for Chios seized all whom they en- 
countered, that their coming might not be reported. 
The first point on the mainland at which they 
touched was Corycus,^ where they released their 
captives ; then after a conference with some Chians 
who Avere co-operating with them and λυΙιο urged 
them to sail to Chios without giving any notice, 
they arrived at Chios suddenly. Now the people at 
large were in a state of wonderment and consterna- 
tion, but the oligarchs had arranged that the council 
should chance to have just assembled ; speeches were 
accordingly made by Chalcideus and Alcibiades, who 
announced that many additional ships Λvere on the 
Avay, but did not disclose the fact of the blockade 
of their fleet at Peiraeum, and then the Chians 
revolted from Athens, and so later on did the 
Erythraeans. After this three ships were detached 
from the fleet and brought about the revolt of 
Clazomenae. And the Clazonienians immediately 
crossed over to the mainland and fortified Polichne, 
on the chance that they themselves might have 
need of it in case they should withdraAv from the 
island 2 on which they lived. These peoples, then, 
being in revolt, were all engaged in fortifying and 
preparing for war. 

XV. News of the revolt of Chios came quickly 

- According to Pausanias (vii. iii. 9), the Clazomeniana 
had removed to the island through fear of the Persians. 

213 



THUCYDIDES 

αφικνεΐταΐ' καΐ νομισαντα μβ'γαν η8η καϊ σαφή 
τον KLvhvvov σφά<; περιεστάναι, καϊ τους λοίττού? 
ξυμμά-χους ουκ iOeXijaeiv της /χεγίσττ;? ττόλεως• 
μ^θζστηκυίας ησυχ^άζζΐν, τά τ€ χί^ια τάλαντα, ων 
Βια τταντος του ττοΧβμου iyXi'X^ovTO μη άψασθαι, 
βϋθύς βΧνσαν τας^ βτηκειμενας ζημίας τω βίττόντι 
η βτΓίψηφίσαντι υττο της παρούσης έκττΧήζεως καΐ 
εψηφίσαντο Ktveiv καϊ ναΰς πΧηροΰν μη οΧί'γας, 
των τε 6V τω ΐίαραιω έφορμουσών τας pev οκτώ 
η8η τΓβμττβίν, αΐ άττοΧίττοΰσαι την φυΧακην τας 
μετά ΧαΧκιΒέως όιώξασαί καϊ ου καταΧαβοΰσαι 
άνεκεγ^ωρήκβσαν (ypxe δέ αυτών 'ϊ,τρομβίχίΒης 
Αιοτίμου), (ίΧΧας δε ου ττοΧύ ύστερον βοηθεΐν 
8ώ8εκα μετά ("ύρασυκΧβους, άττοΧίττούσας καϊ ταύ- 
2 τα9 την εφόρμησιν. τάς τ€ των χίίων επτά ναΰς, 
ac αύτοίς ξυνεττοΧιόρκουν τας iv τω ΐΐβιραιω, 
ατΐα'^αηόντες τους μίν ΒούΧους έξ αυτών ήΧευ- 
θβρωσαν, τους δ' εΧευθβρους κατβΒησαν. ετέρας δ 
άντϊ ττασών τών άττεΧθουσών νεών ες την εφόρμη- 
σιν τών ΪΙβΧοτΓοννησίων Βιά τάχους ττΧηρωσαντες 
άντέπεμψαν καϊ άΧΧας Βιενοοΰντο τριάκοντα 
ττΧηροΰν. καϊ ττοΧΧη ην η ττ ραθυμία καϊ 6Χί<γον 
εττράσσετο ούΒεν ες την βοηθειαν την εττϊ την 
Χίον. 

XVI. Έν δε τούτω ΧτρομβιχίΒης ταΐς οκτώ 



^ τά? ^ΈίΚίίμίνα$ ζημίας deleted by Widniann, followed by 
Hude. 



^ cf. ii. 24. Pericles bad set this fund aside in the first 
year of the war, to be touched only in case a hostile fleet 
threatened the Peiraeus. 

214 



BOOK VIII. XV. i-xvi. i 

to Athens, and they felt that the danger Avhich 
encompassed them was by now great and manifest, 
and that the rest of their allies would not be in- 
clined to keep quiet when the greatest state of all 
had seceded. And so the}• took up the question 
of the fund of a thousand talents,^ which during the 
whole war they had jealously refrained from touch- 
ing, and under the influence of their consternation 
immediately rescinded the penalties which had 
been imposed upon any speaker who should propose 
to touch this money, or any presiding officer who 
should put such a proposal to a vote, and then 
voted to use this fund and man a considerable 
number of ships. They also voted that of the 
ships which were employed in the blockade at 
Peiraeum there should be sent at once the eight 
that, leaving guard-duty, had gone in pursuit of 
the fleet under Chalcideus, but after failing to over- 
take it had returned to their post — the commander 
of these eight being Strombichides son of Diotimus — 
and that soon afterwards twelve others under 
Thrasycles should leave the blockade and go to the 
rescue. As for the seven Chian ships that were 
assisting them in the blockade of the vessels at 
Peiraeum, they withdreΛv them, freeing the slaves 
aboard them and putting the freemen in fetters. 
And in place of all the ships that had gone away 
they speedily manned others and sent them to 
continue the blockade of the Peloponnesians, and 
it was their intention to man thirty more. Great 
indeed was their ardour, and there was nothing 
trivial in their efforts to send out reinforcements 
against Chios. 

XVI. Meanwhile Strombichides with his eight 

215 



THUCYDIDES 

νανσΐν άφικνείται e? Έάμον, καΐ ττροσΧαβων 
^α μίαν μίαν επΧευσβν eV Ύβων καΐ ησυχ^άζειν η^ίου 
αύτού'ί. βκ Be ττ)•? Xt'ou e? την ΐεων καΐ ό ιίαλκι- 
δεϊ'? μ€τα τριώΐ' καΐ εϊκοσί νέων eireTrXet, καΐ ο 
πeζ6'i άμα 6 Κ.Χαζομ€νίωΐ' καΐ \ίρυθραίων iraprjei. 

2 7Γ ροαισθόμ€νο<; δε ό —τρομβιχ^ίΒη^; irpoavrj'yero, καΐ 
μετεωρισθείς εν τω ττεΧά^γει ώς εώρα τάς ναΰς 
ττοΧΧας τας άττο της Χίου, φυγην εττοιεΐτο επΙ τ/}? 

3 Χάμον αΐ δέ εΖίωκον. τον Βε ττεζυν οι Ύήιοι το 
πρώτον ουκ εσΒεχ^όμενοι, ώς εφυ^ον οι ^Αθηναίοι, 
εση^ά'^/οντο. καΐ εττεσγον μεν οι ττεζοι και ^ 
ΧαΧκιΒεα εκ της Βιώξεως ττεριμενοντες• ώς Βε 
εχρόνιζε, καθ η ρουν αύτοΙ το τείχος ο ενωκοΒόμησαν 
οι Αθηναίοι της Ύηίων ττόΧεως ττρος ήττειρον, 
ξυ^καθί]ρονν Βε αύτοΐς καΐ των βαρβάρων εττεΧ- 
θόντες ου ττοΧΧοι, ών ηρχ€ Χτά'γης, ΰτταρχος 
Ύισσαφερνους. 

XVII. ΧαΧκιΒενς Βε καΐ ΆΧκιβιάΒης ώς κατε- 
Βίωζαν ες Έ,άμον Έ,τρομβιχίΒην, εκ μεν των εκ 
ΙΙεΧοτΓοννήσου νεών τους ναύτας όπΧίσαντες εν 
Xiw καταΧιμττάνουσιν, άντιττΧηρώσαντες Βε ταύ- 
τας τε εκ Χίου καΐ άΧΧας εϊκοσι εττΧεον ες ^ΙίΧητον 
2 ώς άτΓοστήσοντες. εβούΧετο yap ο ΑΧκιβιάΒης, 
ών ετΓΐτήΒειος τοις ττροεστώσι των ^ΙιΧησιων, 
φθάσαι τάς τε άττο της ΥΙεΧοττοννήσον ναΰς ττροσ- 
α^α^όμενος αυτούς καΐ τοις Χίο/ς και εαυτω και 
Χαλκίδε? και τω άττοστείΧαντι ^ΕνΒιω, ώσττερ 
υττέσχετο, το αγώνισμα ττροσθεΐναι, οτι ττΧειστας 

^ καϊ deleted hy Blooiiifield, followed by Hude. 

^ cf. ch. xii. 2. 
2i6 



BOOK VIII. XVI. i-.\vii. 2 

ships arrived at Samos ; then after taking on an 
additional Samian ship he sailed to Teos, Λvhose 
inhabitants he begged to keep quiet. But at this 
moment Chalcideus bore down upon him, sailing 
from Chios to Teos with twenty-three ships, and 
at the same time the land-force of the Clazomenians 
and Erythraeans was moving along the shore. 
Strombichides, however, observed the enemy in 
time and promptly put out to sea, and when he was 
in the open sea and saw how numerous were the 
ships from Chios, he made flight toward Samos ; 
and the enemy pursued him. As for the land-force, 
the Teians would not at first admit them, but when 
the Athenians fled they brought them into the city. 
These troops waited for a while, expecting Chal- 
cideus to join them after the pursuit ; but when he 
tarried, they proceeded on their own account to 
demolish the fort Λvhich the Athenians had built on 
the mainland side of the city of Teos ; and in this 
work they Λvere assisted by a few of the Barbarian 
troops that had come up, their commander being 
Stages, a lieuteiiaiit of Tissaphernes. 

XVTI. Chalcideus and Alcibiades, after pursuing 
Strombichides to Samos, armed the sailors from the 
Peloponnesian ships and left them at Chios, and 
replacing the crews of these ships with substitutes 
from Chios and manning twenty additional ships, 
they sailed to Miletus, with the intention of causing 
it to revolt. For Alcibiades Λvished, since he was a 
friend of the leading men of Miletus, to win the 
Milesians over before the arrival of the Pelopon- 
nesian ships, and to fulfil his promise^ to secure 
for the Chians and himself and Chalcideus and for 
Endius the author of the expedition the credit of 

VOL. IV. Η 217 



THUCYDIDES 

rwv ΤΓοΧεων μβτα της Χιωζ^ Βυνάμβως καΐ Χαλ«ί- 

3 δβω? άττοστήσας. Χαθόρτβς ουν το ττΧεΐστον του 
■π\ού και φθάσαντες ου ττοΧύ τον τε ^τρομ,3ι•χ^ί8ην 
και τον SpaavKXea, ο? €τυχ^€ν €κ των \\θηνών 
δώδεΛ-α νανσΐν άρη τταρων και ξυνόιώκων, άφί- 
στασι τΐ]ν ^ΙίΧητον. και οι \\θηναΐοι κατά ττόδας 
μιας Βεούσαις είκοσι ναυσίν επιττΧβύσαντες, ώς 
αυτούς ουκ έόεχ^οντο οι ^ΙιΧησιοι, ev Xahrj ttj eVi- 

4 κβιμέντ) νήσω εφωρμουν. και η ττρος βασιΧεα 
ζυμμα'χία ΑακεΒαιμονιοις ή ττρώτη \1ι\ησίων 
ευθύς άττοστάντων δίά Ύίσσαφβρνους και Χαλκί- 
Βεως iy ενετό ήΒε. 

XVIII, " ΈτΓί. τοΐσΒε ξνμμαγ^ίαν εττοιήσαντο 
ττρος βασιΧεα και Ύισσaφepvy] ΑακεΒαιμόνιοι καΐ 
οι ^ύμμα'χοι• 

" Οττόσην ■χ^ώραν και πόΧεις βασιΧευς e%ei και 
οΐ ττατερες οι βασιΧεως εΐγ^ον, βασιΧεως έστω και 
εκ τούτων των ττόΧεων υττόσα ^ Αθηνα'ιοις εφοιτα 
-χ^ρηματα -η άΧΧο τι, κωΧυόντων κοιντ} βασιΧευς 
και ΑακεΒαιμόνιοι καΐ οι ξύμμαχ^οι όττως μήτε 
■χρήματα Χαμβάνωσιν ^Αθηναίοι μήτε αΧΧο μηΒέν. 

2 " Kat τον ττόΧεμον τον ττρος ^Αθηναίους KOivfj 
ΤΓοΧεμούντων βασιΧεύς και ΑακεΒαιμόνιοι καΐ οι 
ξύμμαχοί• και κατάΧυσιν του ττοΧεμου του ττρος 
'Αθηναίους μή εξεστω ττοιεΐσθαι, ην μή άμφο- 
τεροις 8οκη, βασιΧεΐ και ΑακεΒαιμονιοις και τοις 
ξυμμάχοις. 

3 "' Η;-» ce τίνες άφιστωνται άττο βασιΧεως, ττοΧε- 

2ΐ8 



BOOK VIII. XVII. 2-xviii. 3 

having, in concert with the Chian forces and 
Chalcideus, brought to revolt the largest possible 
number of cities. Accordingly they made most 
of the voyage without being detected, barely 
anticipated the arrival of Strombichides and 
Thrasycles — who by chance had just come from 
Athens with twelve ships and joined in the pur- 
suit — and induced Miletus to revolt. The Athenians 
followed at their heels with nineteen ships, and, 
when the Milesians would not admit them, took 
up their station at Lade, the island that lies off 
Nliletus. And now, immediately after the revolt 
of Miletus, the first alliance between the Lace- 
daemonians and the King was concluded through 
Tissaphernes and Chalcideus, on the following 
conditions : 

XV^in. The Lacedaemonians and their allies have 
concluded an alliance with the King and Tissaphernes 
on the following terms : 

" L Whatsoever territory and cities the King 
holds or the forefathers of the King held, shall 
belong to the King ; and from these cities what- 
soever money or anything else came in for the 
Athenians shall be stopped by the King and the 
Lacedaemonians and their allies acting in common, 
to the end that the Athenians shall receive neither 
money nor anything else. 

"2. And the war against the Athenians shall be 
waged in common bv the King and the Lacedae- 
monians and their allies ; and an end of the war 
against the Athenians is not to be made except 
with the consent of both parties, the King as well 
as the Lacedaemonians and their allies. 

" 3. If any revolt from the King, they shall be 

219 



THUCYDIDES 

μιοι ίστων καΧ Αακβζαίμονίοις και τοις ξυμμάγ^οις. 
καΐ ην τίνες άφιστώνται άττο ΑακβΒαιμονίων καΐ 
των ξυμμά'χ^ων, ττοΧίμιοι εστων βασιΧβΐ κατά 
ταύτα." 

XIX. Ή μ€ν ^νμμαχία οΰτη iyeveTO. μ€τα Sk 
ταύτα οι Χΐοι βνθύς Βέκα ίτερας ττΧηρώσαντβς ναυς 
βττΧβυσαν e? 'Αιγαία, βουΧομενοι ττερί τ€ των iv 
Μίλϊ;τω ττυθέσθαι και τας ττόλβί? άμα άφιστάναι. 

2 καΐ €Κθουσης πάρα Χαλκίδεως ayyeXia^ αύτοΐς 
άτΓΟΤτΧεΐν ττάΧιν,^ οτί Aμopyr|ς τταρίσταυ κατά yrjv 
στρατιά, βττΧευσαν e? Αιος lepov και καθορωσιν 
eKKalhcKa ναΰς, ας ύστερον tVi ΗρασυκΧεους Αιο- 

3 μέΒων βχων απ 'Αθηνών ττροοέττΧβι. καΐ ώς 
elBov, eφevyov μια μεν νηΐ ες 'Άφεσον, αΐ 8ε Χοιτται 
εττΐ της Ύεω. και τεσσάρας μεν κενας οι 'Αθηναίοι 
Χαμβάνουσι, των άνΒρών ες την yr}v φθασάντων 

4 α'ι δ' άΧΧαι ες την Ύηίων ττόΧιν κaτaφεύyoυσιv. 
καΐ οί μεν Αθηναίοι εττΐ της Έ,άμου άττεπΧευσαν, 
οι Βε \ΐοι ταΐς Χοιτταΐς νανσΐν άvayayόμεvoι και 
ο ττεζος μετ αυτών Αέβεδον άττεστησαν και ανθις 
Αιράς.~ και μετά τούτο έκαστοι επ οϊκου άττεκο- 
μίσθησαν, και ο πεζός καΐ αϊ νηες. 

XX. 'Ύπο Βε τους αυτούς χρόΐ'ους α! εν τω 
ΥΙειραιώ είκοσι νήες τώι» ΏεΧοπονί'ησίων, κατα- 
Βιωγβεΐσαι τότε και εφορμούμεναι ϊσω αριθμώ ύπο 
Αθηναίων, επεκπΧονν ποιησάμεναι αΙφνίΒιον καΐ 

κρατησασαι ναυμα'χ^ία τεσσάρας τε ναύς Χαμβά- 
νουσι των Αθηναίων καΐ άποπΧεύσασαι ες Κεγ- 

^ και. before 'ότι, deleted by Poppo (with Valla). 
2 With Meisterhans, Jtt. Ins. 17. 11 ; MSS. "Epas. 

^ On the mainland opposite. 
220 



BOOK νΐΐί. xviii. 3-xx. i 

enemies to both the Lacedaemonians and their 
allies, and if any revolt from the Lacedaemonians 
and their allies, they shall be enemies to the King 
in like manner. " 

XIX. Such was the alliance. And immediately 
after this the Chians manned ten more ships and 
sailed to Anaea,^ wishing to learn about the situa- 
tion in Miletus and at the same time to induce the 
cities to revolt. But a message came from Chalcideus 
ordering them to sail back again, since Amorges 
would soon arrive by land with an army, and so they 
sailed to the temple of Zeus ; there they descried 
sixteen ships approaching with Λvhich Diomedon had 
left Athens even after the departure of Thrasycles. 
When thev saw these ships, they fled to Ephesus 
with one ship, while the rest made for Teos. Four 
empty ships were captured by the .Athenians, their 
crews having escaped to the land ; the other five 
took refuge at the city of Teos. The Athenians 
then sailed for Samos ; and the Chians, putting out 
to sea with the rest of their ships and acting in 
concert with the army on land, induced Lebedos 
to revolt and then Haerae.•^ After this each con- 
tingent returned home, both the army on land and 
the fleet. 

XX. About the same time the twenty Pelopon- 
nesian ships at Peiraeum, which had been chased 
to shore at the time above mentioned ^ and were 
being blockaded by an equal number of Athenian 
ships, made a sudden sally, and winning the victory 
in an engagement captured four of the Athenian 
ships ; they then sailed back to Cenchreiae, where 

^ A .small town of the Teians (Strabo, p• 644). 
3 Ch. X. 3. 



THUCYDIDES 

)(p€iaq τον e? την Κίον καΐ την ^Ιωνίαν ττΧονν 
αύθις τταρεσκΐνάζοντο. καΐ ναΰαρ'χ^ος αύτοΐς etc 
ΑακβΒαίμονο'; Άστιίοχος βπήΧθεν, ωττβρ iyiyveTO 
ηΒη ττάσα ή ναναρχια. 
! Αναγ^ω ρησαντο<ί Se του €Κ. της Ύύω ττβζού καΐ 
Ύίσσαφίρνης αύτος στρατιά τταρα^βνόμβιος και 
ζττικαθβλών το ev τι) Τεω τβΐχ^ος, el τι ΰττεΧζίφθη, 
άνεχ^ώρησεν. και Αιομβ^ων άπβΧθοντος αύτοΰ ου 
ΊΓοΧύ ΰστ€ρον heKa ναυσιν ^Αθηναίων άφικόμενος 
βστΓβίσατο Ύηίοις ώστε Βέχ^εσθαι και σφάς. και 
τταραττΧβύσας eVi Αίρας και ττροσβαΧών, ώ? ουκ 
βΧάμβανε την ττοΧιν, άττβττΧευσβν. 

XXI. 'KyeveTO δε κατά τον γ^ρόνον τούτον και 
η ev ^άμω εττανάστασις ύττο ^ του 8ήμου τοις 
Βυνατοΐς μβτά ^Αθηναίων, οΐ ετυχ^ον ev τρισΐ ναυσι 
παρόντες, και 6 8ήμος 6 Χαμίων €ς διακόσιους 
μεν τινας τους πάντας των δυνατών άττεκτεινε, 
τετρακόσιους 8ε φνγτ} ζημιώσαντες καΐ αύτοΙ την 
•γήν αυτών και οικίας νειμάμενοι, 'Αθηναίων τε 
σφίσιν αυτοΐ'ομιαν μετά, ταύτα ώς βεβαίοις η8η 
ψηφισαμένων, τα Χοιπα διώκουν την ττόΧιν, και 
τοις Ύεωμόροις μετεδιδοσαν ούτε άΧΧου ούδενός, 
ούτε εκδούναι οι)δ' ά'γα'γεσθαι τταρ εκείνων ούδ' 
69 εκείνους ούδενϊ ετι τού δήμου εξην. 

XXII. \1ετα δε ταύτα τού αυτού θέρους οίΧ.ΐοι, 
ώσττερ ηρζαντο, ούδεν άττοΧείττοντες ττροθυμιας 
άνευ τε ΤΙεΧοττοννησίων ττΧηθει -παρόντες άττοστη- 
σαι τας ττόΧεις και βουΧόμενοι άμα ώς πΧειστους 

' νττό, omitted by Hude with F. 

^ cf. ch. xix. 1. 
222 



BOOK VIII. XX. i-xxii. i 

they proceeded again to prepare for the voyage to 
Chios and Ionia. And Astyochus came to tliem from 
Lacedaemon and on him now devolved, as admiral, the 
command of the entire fleet. 

Now when the land-forces withdrew from Teos, 
Tissaphernes came there in person with an army, 
demolished >vhatever was left of the fortification 
at Teos, and then withdrew. After his departure 
Diomedon, who arrived a little later with ten 
Athenian ships, made an agreement with the Teians 
to receive them also. He then sailed along the 
coast to Haerae, and after making an assault upon 
the city without success sailed away. 

XXI. There also occurred at this time the uprising 
at Samos which Λvas made against the nobles by the 
common people in conjunction with some Athenians, 
who happened to be present on board three ships. 
And the conniion people of Samos slew some two 
hundred in all of the nobles, and having condemned 
to exile four hundred others, distributed among 
themselves their land and houses; and when the 
Athenians, after these events, granted them auto- 
nomy on the ground that they Λvere now assured 
of their fidelity, they administered the affairs of the 
city thenceforth ; and they neither gave to the land- 
owners any other privilege nor permitted any one 
of the common people from that time on either to 
give his daughter in marriage to them or to take a 
wife from them. 

XXII. After this, during the same summer, the 
Chians showed no abatement of the zeal λυΙηοΙι they 
had displayed from the beginning,^ in approaching 
the various cities in force, even without the Pelopon- 
nesians, and inducing them to revolt ; and Avishing at 

223 



THUCYDIDES 

σφίσι ^vyKivSweveiv, στρατεύονται αυ~οί re τρισΐ 
κα\ Βέκα νανσιν βττΐ την Αβσβον, ώσττερ εφητο 
ντΓΟ των ΑακεΒαιμονίων δεύτερον eV αύτην Ιεναι 
και εκείθεν εττΐ τον ΆΧλησττοντον, και ό ττεζος αμα 
ΥΙεΧοτΓοι νησιών τε των τταρονι ων και των αύτοθεν 
ξυμμά-χων τταρηει εττι ΚΧαζομενών τε και Κύ/χ?;?• 
ηρχε δ' αυτού Εύάλας Έτταρτιάτη^, των Βε νέων 
2 ^εινιά8α<; ττερίοικο'ζ. και αί μεν νήε^ καταπΧεύ- 
σασαι ^ϊηθυμναν πρώτον άφιστασι, και καταΧεί- 
πονται τέσσαρες νήες εν αυτί}• καΐ αύθις αί Χοιτται 
^ίυτιΧιίνην άφιστασιν. 

XXIII. Αστύοχος Βε ό Αακ^Βαιμόνιος ναύαρχος 
τεσσαρσι ναυσίν, ωσττερ ωρμητο, ττΧέων εκ των 
Κ.ε^χρειθ)ν αφικνεΐται ες Χ,ίον. καΐ τριτην 
ημέραν αυτού ηκοντος αΐ ΆττικαΙ νήες πέντε καΐ 
εϊκοσι εττΧεον ες Αεσβον, ων ηρχε Αέων καΐ 
ΑιομέΒων Αέων yap ύστερον Βέκα ναυσι προσε- 

2 βοηθησεν εκ των ^Αθηνών, άνα^α^όμενος δε και 
ο Αστύοχος τη αύτη ημέρα ες οψέ, καΐ προσΧα- 
βων Χίαι» ναύν μίαν, επΧει ες την Αέσβον, όπως 
ωφεΧοίη, εϊ τι Βύναιτο. και αφικνεΐται ες την 
ΙΙύρραν, εκείθεν δε τη ύστερηία ες ' Ι^ρεσον• ένθα 
πννθάνεται ότι ή ^ϊυτιΧηνη υπο των ^Αθηναίων 

3 αύτοβοεί έάΧωκεν' οΐ yap Αθηναίοι ωσπερ επΧεον 
άπροσΒόκητοι κατασχόντες ες τον Χιμένα των 
τε ^ίων νέων ε κράτησαν και αποβάντες τους 
άντιστάντας μάχη νικήσαντες την πόΧιν εσ\<'ν. 

4 ά ττυνθανόμενος ό Αστύοχος των τε Κρεσίων 
και των εκ της ^Ιηθύμνης μετ ΚύβουΧου Χ.ιων 

1 cf. ch. viii. 2. 

224 



BOOK VIII. XXII. i-xxiii. 4 

the same time that as many as possible should share 
the danger with them, they made an expedition on 
their own account with thirteen ships against Lesbos. 
For they had been ordered by the Lacedaemonians 
to go against it next, and afterwards to proceed to 
the Hellespont.^ At the same time the land-force, 
consisting both of the Peloponnesians Avho Λvere 
present and of the allies from that region, moved 
along the shore toward Clazomenae and Cyme, 
being under the command of Eualas, a Spartan, 
while the fleet was in charge of Deiniadas, one of 
the Perioeci. The fleet put in at Methj'mna and 
induced it to revolt first, and four ships were left 
there ; the rest then effected the revolt of Mytilene. 
XXIII. Meanwhile Astyochus, the Lacedaemonian 
admiral, sailed with four ships from Cenchreiae, as 
he had purposed, and arrived at Chios, And on the 
third day after his coming the twenty-five Athenian 
ships sailed to Lesbos, being under the command 
of Leon and Diomedon ; for Leon had arrived after- 
wards with a reinforcement often ships from Athens. 
On the same day, but at a later hour, Astyochus put 
to sea, and taking besides his own one Chian ship 
sailed to Lesbos, in order to give what aid he could. 
On that day he reached Pyrrha, and thence on the 
next day Eresus, where he learned that Mytilene 
had been taken by the Athenians at the first assault. 
For the Athenians, arriving unexpectedly, had 
immediately sailed into the harbour and got the 
better of the Chian ships ; they then landed and 
after defeating in battle those that resisted them 
took possession of the city. Now Λvhen Astyochus 
learned of this from the inhabitants of Eresus and 
from the Chian ships that came from Methymna 

225 



THUCYDIDES 

veo)v, at Tore καταΧ€ΐφθβΐσαι και, ώς η \\υτιΧηνη 
€άΧω, φβύ^/ουσαί ττεριέτυχ^ον αύτω τρεΐ<; (μία 'yap 
εάΧω ύπο των ^Αθηναίων), ούκίτι εττϊ την Μυτί- 
Χηνην ωρμ-ησβν, ά\\α την "Epeaov άποστησα^ 
καΐ όττλίσας•, καϊ τους άττο των εαυτού νβων 
όπΧίτας ττεζη τταματτβμττει επΙ την "Αντισσαν 
καϊ ^{ηθυμναν άρχοντα 'EjTeoviKov ττροστά^ας. 
καϊ αΰτο? ταΐ<ί τβ μεθ εαυτού ναυσΐ καΐ ταΐς 
τρισΐ rat? Χιαί? τταρεπΧει, εΧτηζων τού<; }>1ηθυμ- 
ναίον<; θαρσησεί,ν τε ϊδόι^τα? σφάς καϊ εμμενεΐν 

5 ττ} αττοστάσει. ώς Βε αύτω τά εν τη Αεσβω 
ττάντα ηναντιούτο, άττεττΧευσε τον εαυτού στρατον 
αναΧαβών ες την \lov. άττεκομισθη Βε ττάΧιν 
κατά ττόΧείς καϊ ο άττο των νέων ττεζός, ος εττΐ 
τον 'ΚΧΧήσποντον εμεΧΧησεν Ιεναι. καϊ άττο 
των εν Κ-εγχ^ρεια ^υμμαχ^ιΒων ΥΙελοττοννησίων 
νεών άφικνούΐ'ται αύτοΐς εξ μετά ταύτα ες την 

6 Χι'οίΛ οί Βε 'Αθηναίοι τά τ εν τη Αέσβω ττάΧιν 
κατεστήσαντο καϊ ττΧευσαντες εξ αυτής ΚλαζΌ- 
μενίων την εν τη ηττείρω \\οΧίχνην τειχιζομενην 
εΧοντες Βίεκομισαν ττύΧιν αυτούς ες την εν ττ) 
νήσω ττόΧιν ττΧην των αίτιων της άττοστάσεως' 
ούτοι Βε ες Ααφνούντα άπήΧθον. καϊ αύθις 
Κ,Χαζομεναϊ ττροσεχώρησαν Άθηναίοις. 

XXIV. Ύού Β αυτού θέρους ο'ί τ εττΐ ΛΙιΧητ(ύ 
'Αθηναίοι ταΐς είκοσι ναυσιν εν τη ΑάΒη 

^ cf. ch. xxii. 2. 

* The text is most probably corrupt. Tliese facts practi- 
cally all conimentators agree upon : Astyochus leaves first, 
taking with him his own force (rbv kavrov στρατοί'), ?. e. the 
hoplites wlioni he had sent against Antissa and Methj-mna 
(§ 4). Tlie force here designated must be ό iref^s Πελοπο;'- 

220 



BOOK VIII. XXIII. 4-xxiv. i 

Avith Eubulus — the ships which had been left behind 
on the occasion above mentioned/ and now fell in 
with him in their fli<;ht after the capture of Mytilene, 
being three in number, for one had been captured by 
the Athenians — he no longer advanced against Myti- 
lene, but instead induced Eresus to revolt, supplied it 
with arms, and then sent the hoplites on his own ships 
by land along the coast to Antissa and Methymna, 
placing Eteonicus in command of them. He himself, 
meanwhile, took his own and the three Chian ships 
and sailed along the coast, hoping that the Methym- 
naeans ΛνουΜ be encouraged by the sight of his fleet 
and would persevere in their revolt. But since 
everything at Lesbos was going against him, he took 
his hoplites aboard and sailed back to Chios. And 
the forces which had been landed from the ships '^ 
and were intending to proceed to the Hellespont 
were conveyed again to their several cities. After 
this, six of the allied ships from the Peloponnesus 
that were at Cenchreia joined them at Chios. As 
for the Athenians, they restored conditions at Lesbos, 
and sailing from there caj)tured Polichne,^ the 
Clazomenian settlement on the mainland which was 
i)eing fortified, and carried all the inhabitants back 
to the city on the island, except the authors of the 
revolt ; for these had got away to Daphnus. And 
so Clazomenae again came back to the Athenian 
alliance. 

XXIV. During the same summer the Athenians, 
who were at Lade with their twenty ships keeping 

νησΙων re των παρόντων icai των αυτόθ(ν συμμάχων (cll. xxii. 1). 
But no satisfactory explanation has been given of airh των ν(ών 
in this connection. 
' cf. eh. xiv. 3. 

227 



THUCYDIDES 

€φορμοΰντε<; άττοβασίν ττοιησάμ,ενοί βς 11άνορμοι> 
της ΜιΧησίας Χαλ^ίδβ'α re τυν ΑακβΒαιμόΐΊον 
άρχ^οντα μετ οΧί'γων τταραβοηθησαντα άττοκτεί- 
νουσι, καΐ τροτταΐον τρίττ} ήμερα ύστερον δία- 
ττλευσαντες έστησαν, ο οι ^Ιι\7]σΐθί ώ<; ου μετά 

2 κράτους της 'γης σταθεν άνεΐΧον' καΐ Αεων και 
Αιομε8ων εχ^οντες τάς εκ Αεσβου'Αθηναίων ναΰς, 
εκ τε Οίνουσσων των irpo Xi'ou νήσων κα\ εκ 
ΧίΒούσσης καΐ εκ ΥΙτεΧεοΰ, α εν ττ} 'Άρνθραία 
είχον τείγ^η, και εκ της Αεσβου ορμώμενοι τον 
ττρος τους Χίους ττόΧεμον άττο των νέων εττοιοΰντο' 
εΐ'χ^ον δ' επιβάτας ιών οττΧιτών εκ καταΧό^ου 

3 άνα^καστούς. και εν τε Υ^αρ^αμύΧτ] άττοβάντες 
και εν Υ^οΧίσκω τυυς ττροσβοηθήσαντας των Χί-ων 
μά^η νικήσαντες και ττοΧΧούς Βιαφθείραντες 
ανάστατα εττοίησαν τα ταύτη γ^ωρία, και εν 
Φάναις ανθις άΧΧη μά'χ^ΐ) ενίκησαν κα\ τρίτη εν 
Αευκωνιω. και μετά τούτο οι μεν Xtoi ήΖη 
ούκετι επε^Ρ/σαν, οι Βε την •χ^ώραν καΧώς κατε- 
σκευασμενΐ]ν και άτταθή ονσαν άττο των ^^ΙηΒικων 

4 μβχ^ρι τότε Βιεττόρθησαν. Κΐοι <yap μονοί μετά 
ΑακεΒαιμονίους ών iyo) ησθομην ηύΒαιμόνησάν 
Τ€ άμα καΐ εσωφρόνησαν, και οσω επεΒίΒου η 
ττόΧις αυτοίς εττΐ το μείζον, τόσω και εκοσμούντο 

5 ε^υρώτερον. και ονΒ' αυτήν τήν άττόστασιν, ει 
τούτο Βοκούσι παρά το άσφαΧεστερον ττράζαι, 
ττροτβρον ετύΧμησαν ττοιήσασθαι ή μετά ττοΧΧών 
τε και άβαθων ξυμμάχ^ων εμεΧΧον κινΒυνεύσειν και 
τους 'Αθηναίους ησθάνοντο ούΒ' αυτούς άντιΧε^ον- 

^ Α register kept by the taxiarch of each tribe in which 
the name of every Athenian was entered at the age of 
eigliteen. The liability for service extended from 18 to 60. 

228 



BOOK VIII. XXIV. 1-5 

watch upon Miletus, made a descent at Panormus 
in Milesian territory and slew Chalcideus, the 
Lacedaemonian commander, wiio had come to the 
rescue with a few men ; and two daj's later they 
sailed across and set up a trophy, which, however, 
the Milesians tore down on the ground that the 
Athenians did not have control of the country when 
they set it up. And now Leon and Diomedon, with 
the Athenian ships from Lesbos, began to make war 
upon the Chians by sea from the Oenussae islands, 
which lie off Chios, and from Sidussa and Pteleum, 
fortresses which they held in Erythraean territory, 
as well as from Lesbos ; and they had on board as 
marines some hoplites from the muster-roll ^ who had 
been pressed into the service. And landing at 
Cardamyle and Boliscus, they defeated in battle 
those of the Chians who came out to oppose them 
and slew many, and devastated the settlements in 
that region ; and again at Phanae in another battle 
they were victorious, and also in a third battle at 
Leuconium. After this the Chians no longer came 
out against them, but the Athenians ravaged their 
country, which was well stocked and had been 
unharmed from the Persian wars doΛvn to that time. 
For next to the Lacedaemonians the Chians alone, 
of all the peoples that I have known, have been at 
once j)rosperous and prudent, and the greater their 
city grew the more securely they ordered their 
government. And even as regards this revolt, if 
men think that they did not consult their safety 
in undertaking it, they did not venture to make it 
until they were sure of incurring the danger in 
concert with many brave allies and perceived that 
not even the Athenians themselves, after the Sicilian 

229 



THUCYDIDES 

τα9 en μ€τα την 'Σ.ίκβΧικην ξυμφοραν ως ου ττάνυ 
ΤΓονηρα σφων βββαίως τα ττρά^/ματα εϊη' el Be τι 
ev τοις άνθρωττείοις του βίου irapaXoyoi'; €σφάΧη- 
σαν, μετά πολλών ots" τα αυτά eho^e, τα των 
Αθηναίων τα'χυ ξυναιρεθήσεσθαι, την άμαρτίαν 
6 ξυνβ^νο^σαν. elpyopevoi^ δ ουν αύτοΐς της 
θαΧάσσης καΐ καταΎην ττορθουμενοις ενε'χείρησάν 
Tive^ ττρος ^Αθηναίους ά'^/α'^/είν την ττόΧιν' ου 
αίσθόμενοι οΐ άρχ^οντες αύτοΙ μεν ησύ^χ^ασαν, 
^ Αστΰογον Se εζ 'Κρυθρών τον ναύαργον μετά 
τεσσάρων νεών, at τταρήσαν αυτω, κομίσαντες 
εσκοτΓουν οττως μετριώτατα ή όμηρων Χήψει η 
αΧΧω τω τρόττω κατατταύσουσι την έττιβουλήΐ'. 
καΐ οι μεν ταύτα εττρασσον. 

ΧΧΛ^. Έλ: δέ το)ν ^Αθηνών του αυτού θέρους 
τεΧευτώντος ■χ^ίλιοι υττΧϊται^ Αθηναίων καΐ ττεντα- 
κόσιοι και γίΧιοι ^ Αρχείων (τους yap ττεντακοσίους 
των 'Αρχείων ψιΧούς οντάς οίττΧισαν οι \Αθηναΐοι) 
και ^ίΧιαι των ζυμμά^ων ναυσϊ Βυοΐν Βεούσαις 
ττεντήκοντα, ων τ]σαν και ο•πΧιτσ.~/(ύ^οι, Φρυιίγ^ου 
και ^ΟνομακΧεους καΐ Έ,κιρωνίΒου στ ρατη'^/ούντων 
κατέττΧενσαν ες Έ,άμον, και Βιαβάντες ες }^Ιίλητον 

2 έστρατοττεΒεύσαντο. ^ΙιΧησιοι δε εζεΧθόντες 
αυτοί τε, οκτακόσιοι οττΧΐται, και οι μετά 
Χαλ/τίδεω? εΧθόντες ΐΙβΧοττοννήσιοι και Τισ- 
σαφέρνους τι ^ ετΓίκουρικον καΐ αύτος Τισσα- 
φέρνης τταρων καΐ ή ϊττττος αυτού ξυνεβαλον τοις 

3 ^ Αθηναίο ις και ξυμμάγ^οις. και οι μεν Wpyeioi 

* ^(ViKhv of the MSS. deleted by Scliaefer. 



BOOK νΐίΐ. XXIV. 5-xxv. 3 

disaster, could any lono^er deny that their circum- 
stances were be^'ond a doubt exceedingly bad. And 
if in the unexpected turns that belong to human life 
they were somewhat deceived, they made their mis- 
judgment in common with many others Avho were 
of the same opinion — that the power of the Athenians 
would speedily be uttei'ly overthrown. Now, how- 
ever, that they were shut off from the sea and were 
being despoiled by land, some of them attempted 
to bring the city over to the Athenians. Their 
rulers perceived this, but themselves kept quiet; 
however, they fetched from Erythrae the Lacedae- 
monian admiral Astyochus with the four ships which 
were with him tliere, and considered what were the 
mildest measures, either the seizing of hostages or 
some other plan, by Avhich they could put an end to 
the plot. They, then, were thus occupied. 

XX\^ At the end of the same summer there sailed 
i'rom Athens to Samos one thousand Athenian and 
fifteen hundred Argive hoplites — for the five hundred 
of the Argives that Avere light-armed the Athenians 
had provided with heavy arms — together \vith one 
thousand from the allies. These troops were carried 
by forty-eight ships, some of which were transports, 
and were under the connnand of Phrynichus, 
Onomacles, and Scironides. From Samos they 
crossed over to Miletus and encamped there. But 
the enemy marched out against them — the Milesians 
themselves, to the number of eight hundred hoplites, 
the Peloponnesians who had come with Chalcideus, 
and a body of mercenaries belonging to Tissaphernes, 
together with Tissaj)hernes himself, who was present 
Avith his cavalry — and attacked the Athenians and 
their allies. Now the Argives with their wing rushed 

231 



THUCYDIDES 

τω σφβτίρω αυτών κέρα Tzpoe^a^avTC-M καΧ κατά• 
φρον7^σαντες a)<i eV Ίωι^α? τε καΐ ου όβξομβρους 
άτακτότβρον χωροΰντ€<;, νίκώνται υττο των Μίλτ;- 
σίων καϊ Βιαφθβίρονταί αύτων oXiyo) βΧάσσους 
τριακοσίων άνΒρών Αθηναίοι δέ τους τ€ 
ΥΙέΧοτΓοννησίους ττρωτους νικησαντ£<^ καϊ τους 
λ^αρβάρους καϊ τον άΧλον οχΧον ώσάμβνοι, τοις 
^ίιΧησίοις ου ξυμμζίξαντες, cuOC ύττοχ^ωρησάντων 
αυτών άπα της των Αρχείων τροττης ες την πόΧιν, 
ώς ίώρων το άΧλο σφών ήσσώμενον, προς αύτην 
την ττόΧιν των ^ΙίΧησίων κρατούντες ηΒη τα οττλα 
τίθενται, καϊ ξυνεβη εν ττ} μάχ^η ταύτη τους 
"Ιωνας αμφοτέρων των θωριών κρατήσαΐ' τους 
τε yap κατά σφάς ΤίεΧοττοννησίονς οι ^Αθηναίοι 
ενικών και τους Άρ'γείους οι ^{ιΧησιοι. στη- 
σαντες Βε τροτταΐον τον ττεριτεΐ'χ^ισμον ισθμώΒους 
δντος του 'χωρίου οι Αθ)μ>αίοι τταρεσκενύζοντο, 
νομίζοντες, εΐ ττ poaayayoivTO ^ΙίΧητον, ραΒίως 
αν σφίσι καϊ ταΧΧα -προσχωρήσαι. 

XXVI. Κν τούτω Βε ττερί ΒείΧην ηΒη οψίαν 
ά'γ^εΧΧεται αύτοΐς τάς άττό ΐΙεΧοττοννι'ισου καϊ 
^ικε^ίας ττεντε καϊ "πεντήκοντα ναύς όσον ου 
■παρεΐναι. των τε yap "ϊ,ικεΧιωτών, 'Κρμοκράτους 
του Έυρακοσίου μάΧιστα εvάyov^oς ξυνεττιΧα- 
βεσθαι καϊ της ύττοΧοιττου Χθηναίων καταΧύσεως, 
εϊκοσι νηες 'Σ,νρσκοσίων ηΧθον καϊ Έ,εΧινούντιαι 
Βύο, αϊ τε εκ ΙΙεΧοττοννησον, ας τταρεσκευαζοντο, 
ετοΐμαί ηΒη οΰσαι• και ^ηριμενει τω ΑακεΒαι- 
μονίω ξυναμφότεραι ώς Άστύοχον τον ναύαρχον 
Ίτροσταχθ είσαι κομίσαι, κατέττΧευσαν ες Αερον ^ 

^ hipov, Hude reads ^Έ,Κΐόν with most MSS. But c/. 
xxvii. 31. 
2?2 



BOOK VIII. XXV. 3-xxvi. i 

out ahead of the rest and advanced in some disorder^ 
feehng contempt of the enemy as being lonians and 
men who would not await their attack, and so were 
defeated by the Milesians and not fewer than three 
hundred of them destroyed. But the Athenians, 
after defeating the Peloponnesians first and then 
driving back the barbarians and the miscellaneous 
croAvd — yet without engaging the Milesians, who 
after their rout of the Argives had Avithdrawn into 
the city, when they saw that the rest of their army 
was being worsted — finally halted, as being already 
victorious, close to the city itself. And it so 
happened in this battle that on both sides the 
lonians were victorious over the Dorians ; for the 
Athenians defeated the Peloponnesians opposed to 
themselves, and the Milesians the Argives. But 
the Athenians, after setting up a trophy, made 
preparations for shutting oil' the place, Avhich had 
the shape of an isthmus, with a wall, thinking that, 
if they should bring Miletus over to tlieir side, the 
other j)laces would readily come over also. 

XXVI. In the meantime, when it Λvas already 
approaching dusk, word was brought to them that 
the fifty-five ships from the Peloponnesus and from 
Sicily Avere all but there. For from Sicily, where 
Herniocrates the Syracusan took the lead in urging 
the Siceliots to take part in Avhat remained to be 
done for the complete destruction of the Athenians, 
there had come twenty Syracusan and two Selinuntian 
ships, besides those from the Peloponnesus, which 
they had been equipping and Avhich were at last 
ready ; and both squadrons Avere put in charge of 
Tiierimenes the Lacedaemonian with orders to take 
them to Astyochus the admiral. They first put in 

^33 



THUCYDIDES 

2 πρώτον την ττρο ^ίιΧητου νησον. eireLTa eKeWev 
αίσθόμβνοι eVi Μίλ?)τω οντα<; \\θηναίονς e? τον 

Ιασικον κοΧττον ττροτβρον ττΧβνσαντβς ΐβουΚοντο 

3 elSevai τα rrrepl τή'ί }>Ιι,Χητον. ζΧθόντος δε 
ΆΧκιβιά^ον Ίτητω i<; Ύβιγ^ιοΰσσαν τ/}? ^ΙίΧησία^, 
olirep του κοΧπον ττΧβυσαντε^ ηύΧίσαντο, ττυνθά- 
νονταί τα ττβρί της μά-χ^ης (τταρήν yap 6 ΆΧκι- 
βιάΒης και ξυνβμάχετο τοί? ^ΙίΧησίοις καϊ 
Ύισσαφβρνα), καϊ αύτοΐς τταρηνβι, el μη βού- 
Χονται τά Τ€ iv ^Ιωνια και τα ξνμτταντα 
ΤΓρά^ματα hioXeaai, ώς τάγ^ιστα βοηθβΐν Μίλτ^τω 
καΐ μη ττεριιΒβΐΐ' άττοτειχίσθβΐσαν. 

XXVII. Καί. Οί μ€ν άμα τη εω epeXXov βοη- 
θήσειν Φρύνιχος δε 6 τών^ Αθηναίων στρατηγός, 
ά>ς άτΓο της Aepov έττύθετο τά των νεών σαφώς, 
βονΧομβι ων τών ξνναρχόντων ύττομείναντας δια- 
ναχιμαχείν, ουκ βφη οΰτ αύτος ττοιήσειν τούτο 
ούτ e\'et;Oi? ούδ" άΧΧω ούΒενΙ ες Βύναμιν 

2 εττίτρε^^είν. οττον yap ^ εν υστερώ, σαφώς 
εί^οτας ττρος οττόσας τε ναΰς ττοΧεμίας καϊ οσαις 
ττρος αυτάς ταΐς σφετεραις, Ικανώς καϊ καβ' 
■ησυχίαν ττα ρασ κευασ α μένους εσται άyωvίσaσθai, 
ούζετΓοτε τω αισχρω ^ ε'ίζας aXόyως ΒιακινΒυι εύ- 

3 σειΐ'. ου yap αίσχρον είναι ΆΘ>)ναίου^ ναυτικω 
μετά καιρού ίττοχωρήσαι, άΧΧα και μετά οτουοΰν 
τρότΓου αϊσχιον ζυμβήσεσθαι ην ήσσηθώσιν. 
καϊ την ττόΧιν αν ^ ου μόνον τω αισχρω, άΧΧα 
καϊ τω μεyίστω κινΒύνω ττερητηττειν η μοΧις 

' ΐξΐστιν, after οττον γάρ, deleted by DoVjree. 
^ o»ii5f!. after αίσγράΐ, deleted by Kriiger. 
^ av, added by Dobree. 

234 



BOOK VIII. XXVI. i-xxvii. 3 

to harbour at Leros, the island off Miletus ; and 
from there, on finding that the Athenians were at 
Miletus, they sailed into the lasic Gulf, Avishing to 
know the state of affairs at Miletus. And when 
Alcibiades came by horse to Teichiussa, a town in 
Milesian territory on that part of the gulf to which 
they had sailed and where they had bivouacked, 
thev learned the story of the battle ; for Alcibiades 
had been present and had fought with the Milesians 
and with Tissaphernes. And he urged them, if 
they did not Avish to ruin matters in Ionia and their 
whole cause, to aid Miletus as quickly as possible, 
and not to suffer it to be invested. 

XXVII. Accordingly thev were proposing to go to 
its aid at daybreak ; but Phrynichus, the Athenian 
general, when he received from Leros accurate in- 
formation about the enemy's fleet, though his 
colleagues wished to Avait and fight a decisive 
battle, refused either to do this himself or to per- 
mit them or anybody else to do it, so far as he 
had power to prevent it. For in a case where it 
would be possible to fight at a later time, after 
leisurely and adequate preparation and possessing 
full information as to the number of the enemy's 
ships they must meet and how many of their own 
they would have, he Avould never, he declared, 
yielding to the consideration of disgrace, hazard a 
decisive battle unreasonably. It was not disgraceful, 
he said, for Athenians to give Avay before a hostile 
navy uj)un occasion, but it would be more disgraceful 
if under any circumstances whatever they should be 
defeated and have to make terms. The state Avould 
incur, not only disgrace, but also the greatest 
danger ; for, after their past misfortunes, it was 

235 



THUCYDIDES 

€7γΙ ταΐς ηεηβνημίΐ'αί<ί ζνμφηραΙ<; βνΖςγ^ξσθαι μβτα 
βββαίον 7Γαρασκ€υή^ καθ ίκουσίαν} η -πάνυ ye 
άνά^/κτ), ττροτέρα ττοι βττιχ^βιρβΐν, η ττου ^ 8η μη 
βιαζομεντ] ye ττρος αύθαιρβτονί κιν8ύνον<; ίέναι. 

4 ώς τάχ^ιστα δε iiceXeve τους τ€ τραυματίας άναΧα- 
βόντας και τον ττβζον και των σκβυών όσα ηΧθον 
€\οντ€ς, α δ €κ της ττοΧεμίας είΧήφασι κατα- 
Χίττόντας, οττως κοΰώαι ωσιν αί νηβς, άττοττΧβΐν 
€ς Έ,άμον, κάκβίθβν ηΒη ^vvayay όντας ττάσας τάς 
ναΰς τους επητΧους, ην ττου καιρός τ], ττοιβΐσθαι. 

5 ως Be eireiae, καΐ eBpaae ταύτα' και eBo^ev ουκ 
ev τω αύτικα μάΧΧον η ύστερον, ουκ €ς τούτο 
μόνον, αλλά και e? όσα αΧΧα Φρυνι-χ^ος κατέστη, 

6 ουκ ασύνετος elvai. και οι μεν Αθηναίοι αφ' 
εσπέρας ευθύς τούτω τω τροττω άτεΧεΐ τη νίκΐ] 
άττό της ^ΙιΧητου άνεστησαν, καΐ οι 'Apyeloi 
κατά τάχ^ος και ττρος opyrjv τ/}? ξυμφοράς άττ- 
εττΧευσαν εκ της Έ,άμου εττ οικον. 

XXVIII. Οι Be ΐΙεΧοτΓοννήσιοι άμα τη εγ εκ 
Trjs 'Γειχιούσσης άραντες eiriKaTUyovTai, και 
με'ιναντες ήμεραν μιαν τη ύστεραια καΐ τάς Χιας 
ναύς ττροσΧαβόντες τας μετά \αΧκιΒεως το πρώ- 
τον ζvyκaτaBLO)■χθeίσaς εβούΧοντο πΧεύσαι επΙ 
τα σκεύη, α εζείΧοντο, ες Ύεΐ'χ^ιοΰσσαν πάΧιν. 
2 και ύις ηΧθον, Τισσαφέρνης τω πεζω παρεΧθών 
πείθει αυτούς επΙ "Ιασον, εν η \\μόpyης ποΧέμιος 

^ καθ' ίκουσίαν, Hiide omits v.ith Cod. C, which simplifies 
the sentence. 

* -ή που, from ποΰ of the MSS., Lindan. που δή, ktL, would 
mean hmv then could they tchen there was no presstcre go into 
self-ch'Jken dangers? 

^ i.e. when not fully prepared. 
236 



BOOK VIII. xxvii. 3-xxviu. 2 

scarcely permissible for it when securely prepared of 
free λνίΐΐ, or ^ through absolute necessity, to take 
the offensive in any direction, much less was it per- 
missible, when there was no pressure, to rush into 
self-chosen dangers. He urged them, therefore, as 
speedily as possible to take up their wounded and 
their forces on land and whatever stores they had 
brought Avith them, leaving behind, however, the 
spoils thev had taken from the enemy's country, in 
order that the ships might be light, and sail back 
to Samos ; then, making that their base, after 
bringing all their ships together, they might sally 
forth for attacks if opportunity should offer any- 
where. As he advised, so he also acted ; and 
consequently, though not on the present occasion 
more than afterΛvards, nor as regards this decision 
only, but in general in Λvhatever circumstances he 
found himself, Phrynichus won the reputation of 
being a man of sagacity. Thus the Athenians, their 
victory incom))lete, retired from Miletus immediately 
after nightfall ; and the Argives, in all haste and 
indignant at what had happened, sailed liome from 
Samos. 

XXVIII. At daybreak the Peloponnesians weighed 
anchor from Teichiussa and put to shore, and then, 
after waiting one day, took into their fleet on the 
next day the Chian ships that under the command 
of Chalcideus had been pursued to port.^ They now 
wished to sail back to Teichiussa after the stores 
which they had put ashore there. On their arrival 
Tissaphernes, who had come up with his land-forces, 
persuaded them to sail against lasus, Avhere Amorges, 

" r/. ch. xvii. 3. 

237 



THUCYDIDES 

ων κατβΐχβ, πΧζΰσαι. καΐ ιτροσβαΧόντβ'ί τ-ρ 
Ιάσω αΙφνίΒιοι και ου ττροσ^β^ομβνων αλλ,' ι) 
Άττικας τάς ναΰς €ΐναι αίροΰσιν καΐ μάΧιστα 

3 ev τω epycp οι ^vpaKoaLOL εττυΐ'βθησαν. και τόν 
τ€ Άμόρ'γην ζωντα Χαβόντες ^ nrapaSiSoaaiv οΐ 
ΥΙβΚοττονί'ήσιΟί Ύισσαφβρι>ει ατταγαγ^^''» ^^' βον- 
Xerai, βασιΧβΐ, ωσττβρ αύτω ττροσβταξβ, καΐ την 
"Ιασορ Βιβπόρθησαν και γ^ρήματα ττάνυ ττοΧΧα η 
στρατιά βΧαββν τΓαΧαιυττΧουτον yap ην το 

4 -χωρίον. Tov'i τ' €7Γΐκούρους τού<; irepl τον 

Αμόρψιν παρά, σφας αυτούς κομίσαντβς και ουκ 
ahiKi]aavTe<; ξυνεταζαν, οτι ήσαν οι ττΧβΐστοί €κ 
Τί€Χοπονν7']σον' το τε ττοΧισμαΎισσαφέρνει τταρα- 
SovTe<i και τά αΐ'δματτοδα ττάντα, και ΒουΧα και 
eXevOepa, ων καθ^ εκαστον στατήρα SapeiKov 
Trap' αυτού ξυνεβησαν Χαβεΐν, ειτβιτα άνεχ^ώρησαν 

5 ες την ^ΙίΧητον. και ΏεΒάριτόν τε τον Αεοντος 
ες την \ίον άρχοντα ΑακεΒαιμονιων ττεμψάντων 
άτΓοστέΧΧουσι ττεζη μέχρι ^Ιίρυθρων έχοντα το 
τταρα Aμόpyov εττικουρικόν, και ες την ΜίΧητον 
αυτόν ΦίΧίΤΓΤΓον καθιστασιν. καΐ το θέρος 
ετεΧευτα. 

XXIX. Ύοΰ δ' ε7Γιyιyvoμεvoυ χειμώνος, εττειΒί] 
την Ίασον κατεστήσατο ο Ύισσαφερνης e? ^ 
φνΧακήν, τταρηΧθεν ες την ΜίΧητον, και ΐ'ηνος 
μεν τροφήν, ωσττερ υπέστη εν τη ΑακεΒαίμονι, 
ες Ζραχμην Αττικην εκάστω πάσαις ταΐς ναυσΐ 
ζιέδωκε, του δέ Χοιποΰ χρόνου εβούΧετο τριώ- 

^ After λαβάντΐί the MSS. give Ιϊισσούθνου νάθον υίόν, 
άφβστώτα δέ βασιλίωί, wliich van Herwerden deletes, cf. 
cli. V. 5. 

* is, deleted by Hude, following van Herwerden. 

238 



BOOK VIII. XXVIII. 2-xxix. i 

an enemy, was in occupation. So they made a 
sudden attack upon lasus and took it, as the in- 
habitants had no thought but that the ships were 
Athenian ; and in the action the Syracusans won 
most praise. Amorges was taken alive by the Pelo- 
ponnesians and delivered over to Tissaphernes to 
lead home to the King, if he so wished, according 
to his orders ^ ; and they sacked lasus, the army 
taking very much treasure, for the place was one 
of ancient wealth. As for the mercenaries ΛνΙιο 
served with Amorges, they took them into their own 
camp, and without doing them any harm put them 
into their ranks, because most of them were from 
the Peloponnesus. The town they delivered to 
Tissaphernes, together Avith all the caj)tives, both 
bond and free, agreeing to accept from him a Daric 
stater- for each one of them. They then withdrew 
to Miletus. Pedaritus son of Leon, who had been 
sent by the Lacedaemonians to be governor at Chios, 
thev dispatched by land as far as Erythrae in com- 
mand of the mercenary force of Amorges, and there 
in Miletus they appointed Philippus governor. So 
the summer ended. 

XXIX. During the following winter, after he had 
placed lasus in charge of a garrison, Tissaphernes 
came to Miletus, Avhere he distributed to all the 
ships a month's pay, as he had promised at Lace- 
daemon to do, to the amount of an Attic drachma 
a day for each man ; for the future, however, he 
proposed to give only three obols ^ until he should 

' cf. ch. V. 5. 

^ Equivalent to twenty Attic drachmae, about 13s. Ad. ; 
$.3 25. It was named after Darius the Great who first 
coined it. 

* i.e., one half of a drachma. 

239 



THUCYDIDES 

βοΧον 8ί8όναι, έ'ω? αν βασιΧζα βττβρηται• ην te 
2 Kekevr], βφη Βώσειν ivreXij την Βρα'χμην. Ερμο- 
κράτους Se άντβίττυντο^ του Έ,ιφακοσίου στρατί]- 
yov (ό yap &ηρίμ€νη<; ου ναύαρχ^Ο'ζ ων, άΧΧ 
Άστυόχ^ω τταραΒούναί τας ναΟς ξυμττΧίων, 
μαΧακ6<ϊ ην ττερϊ του μισθού), ομω^ Be πάρα 
τΓβντε ναΰ<; ττΧέον άνΒρΙ εκάττω η τρβΐς οβοΧοΙ 
ώμοΧο-γήθησαν. €^ yap ττζντβ ναΰ<; καΐ πεντή- 
κοντα τριάκοντα τάΧαντα βΒιΒου του μηνο•^' καϊ 
τοις άΧΧοίς, οσω ττΧείους νήες ήσαν τούτου του 
αριθμού, κατά τον αύτον Xoyov τούτον βΒΙΒοτο. 

XXX. Ύού δ' αυτού 'χ^ειμώνος τοις iv τη Έ,άμω 
^ Αθηναίοις ^τpoσaφιyμ€vaι yap ήσαν καϊ οίκοθεν 
αΧΧαι νΡ]€ς ττεντε καϊ τριάκοντα καϊ στpaτηyol 
Χ,αρμΐνος και ^τρομβιχ^ίΒης και Κύκτήμων, καϊ 
τάς άττο \ίου καϊτάςυΧΧας -πάσας ξvvayayol'τeς 
εβούΧοντο ΒιακΧη ρωσ ά μενοι επι μεν τη Λ1ίλ/;τω 
τω ναυτικω εφορμεΐν, προς Βε την Xt'ol•' καϊ 

2 ναντικον καϊ πεζον πεμψαι. καϊ εποίησαν 
ούτως' Έτρομβιχ^ίΒης μεν yap καϊ ΟνομακΧής 
καϊ Κύκτήμων τριάκοντα ναύς εχ^οντες καϊ των ες 
ΜίΧητον εΧθ όντων γ^ιΧ'ιων όπΧιτων μέρος άyovτες 
iv ναυσϊν όπλιτayωyoΐς επϊ Xtoi/ Χαχόντες 
επΧεον, οι Β' άΧλοι εν %άμω μένοντες τέσσαρσι 
καϊ έβΒομίίκοντα ναυσϊν εθαΧασσοκράτουν, και 
έπίπΧους τη Μίλί^'τω εποιούντο. 

XXXI. Ό δ' Άστύοχος ως τότε εν τη Χιω 

^ cf. ch. V. 5. 

* i.e. fiftj'-five ships got the pay of sixty. Thirty talents 
(1,080,000 obuls) would be the pay of sixty ships a month at 
the rate of three obols a man a day (3 obolsx200 men χ 60 
ships). This sum being given to tifty-five ships instead of 

240 



BOOK VIII. χλίχ. i-xxxi. I 

ask the King; if the King should so order, he would 
give the full drachma. But when Hermocrates the 
Syracusan general remonstrated — for Therimenes, 
not being admiral, but sailing with the fleet only 
to turn it over to Astyochus, was complaisant about 
the pay — a sum was agreed upon notwithstanding 
that was larger by five ships than three obols for 
each man.^ For he gave for fifty-five ships thirty 
talents a month "^ ; and to the others, according as 
there were more ships than this number, pay was 
given in the same proportion.^ 

XXX. The same winter, when the Athenians in 
Samos had received from home a reinforcement of 
thirty-five ships under the command of Charminus, 
Strombichides and Euctemon, after bringing together 
their ships which were at Chios and all their other 
ships, they proposed to blockade Miletus with the 
fleet and to send a force of ships and infantry 
against Chios, assigning the commands by lot. And 
this they did. Strombichides, Onomacles and Euc- 
temon, with thirty ships and a portion of the 
thousand hoplites that had come to Miletus, whom 
they took on transports, sailed against Chios ac- 
cording to their lot, while the others, remaining at 
Samos with seventy-four ships, controlled the sea 
and made descents upon Miletus. 

XXXI. But Astyochus, who chanced to be at 

sixty, Thucydides calls it πάρα TreVre vavs ττκίον, iiiore hy five, 
shipa than the ordinary rate. The payment of three oliols per 
man was calculated on si.xty ships instead of fifty-five and 
the whole divided between the fifty-five crews. 

' Fifty ships is the original number which came over 
(ch. xxvi. I), and for these a definite sum (30 talents) is agreed 
upon. The " others " were shi[)S that came later, or possibly 
the Chian ships (ch. xxviii. i). 

241 



THUCYDIDES 

€τυ)(€ Bia την ττροΒοσίαν τους όμηρου<; κατα- 
Χβ^όμβνος, τούτου μεν εττεσχ^βν, eireiSr) τ}σθ6το 
τά? τ€ μετά (~)ηριμ€ν Ίυς ναύς ήκούσας καϊ τα 
περί την ζυμμα^χ^ίαν βελτίω οντά, Χαβων δε ιαΰς 
τάς τ€ ΙΙεΧοποννησίων δέκα καϊ Χ/α9 Βεκα 

2 άνά'^/εται, καϊ ττροσβαΧων ΤΙτεΧεφ καϊ ούχ^ 
εΧων τταρεττΧενσεν εττΐ Κ.Χαζομενά'ζ, καϊ εκεΧευεν 
αυτών τους τα Αθηναίων φρονοΰντας άνοικίζε- 
σθαί ες τον Ααφνοΰντα καΐ ττροσχ^ωρεΐν σφίσιν. 
ζυνεκεΧευε δε καϊ ϊάμως Ιωνίας ϋττ άρχος ων. 

3 ώς δ' ουκ εσήκουον, ττροσβοΧην ττοιησάμενος ttj 
πόΧει ούστ} άτεΐ'χι,στψ καϊ ου δυνάμενος εΧεΐν, 
άττέττΧευσεν άνεμω με'^/άΧω, αύτος μεν εςΦωκαιαν 
καϊ ϋύμην, αι δε άΧΧαι νηες κατηραν ες τάς 
ετΐίκειμενας ταΐς ΚΧαζομεναΐς νήσους ^Ιαρα- 

4 θοΰσσαν καϊ Υΐ7']Χην καϊ Αρνμοΰσσαν. καϊ οσα 
ύττεξέκειτο αυτόθι των ΚΧαζομενίων ημέρας 
εμμείναντες δια τους άνεμους οκτώ τα μεν δι- 
ηρπασαν καϊ άνήΧωσαν, τα δε εσβαΧόμενοί 
άττεπΧευσαν ες Φώκαιαν καϊ Κ.ύμ7]ν ώς 
^Αστύοχον. 

XXXII. "Of το? δ' αυτοί) ενταύθα Αεσβίων 
άφικνοΰνται "πρέσβεις βουΧόμενοι αύθις άττο- 
στηναί' καϊ αύτον μεν ττείθονσιν, ώς δ' οι τε 
Κ,ορίνθιοι καϊ οι άΧΧοι ξυμμαχ^οι απρόθυμοι ήσαν 
δια το ττρότερον σφάλμα, άρας εττΧει επϊ της 
Χίου. καϊ ■χ^ειμασθεισών των νεών ύστερον 

' cf. ch. xxiv. 6. 

* i.e. the four under himself from Erj'thrae (ch. xxiv. 6) 
and the six wliich had come from Ceuchreiae to Chios 
(ch. xxiii. 5). 

' cf. ch. xxii. 

242 



BOOK VIII. x.xxi. i-xxxii. ι 

Chios at this time, engaged in collecting hostages as 
a precaution against the treachery above mentioned/ 
desisted from tliis work, Avhen lie observed that the 
ships under the command of Therimenes had come 
and that the affairs of the Peloponnesian alliance 
were improved, and taking the ten Peloponnesian 
ships " and ten Chian he put to sea, and after 
attacking Pteleum without success proceeded along 
the coast to Clazomenae. There he ordered tiiose 
who favoured the Athenian cause to remove 
iidand to Daphnus and come over to the Pelopon- 
nesian side. In this order Tamos, who was lieu- 
tenant-governor of Ionia, also concurred. When 
the inhabitants of Clazomenae would not obey, he 
made an assault upon the city, which was un walled, 
but being unable to capture it, he took advantage 
of a strong Avind to sail aAvay, he himself going to 
Phocaea and Cyme, while the rest of the fleet made 
harbour among the islands which lie off' Clazo- 
menae — Maratliussa, Pele, and Drymussa. There 
they remained eight days on account of the winds, 
and meanwhile either plundered and consumed the 
property of the Clazomenians that had secretly 
been stored on the islands or else put it aboard their 
ships; they then sailed to Phocaea and Cyme to join 
Astyochus. 

XXXII. While Astyochus was still at Phocaea 
and Cyme, envoys of the Lesbians arrived, pro- 
posing to renew their revolt.^ And in fact Astyo- 
chus was persuaded, but as the Corinthians and the 
other allies were without zeal, in consequence of 
their former failure, he weighed anchor and sailed 
for Chios. There his ships, which had been 
scattered by a storm, arrived at length, some 

243 



THUCYDIDES 

Ί άφίκνοΰνταί άΧΧαι άΧΧοθβν e? την Xlov. και 
μβτα τούτο ΏεΒάριτος, τοτβ τταριων ττεζτ) εκ της 
^ίίΧητου, '^/βνόμ,ενος iv ¥^ρυθραΙς ΒιατΓβραιοΰται 
αυτός Τ€ και η στρατιά e? Χ.ίον• νττηρ-χον δέ 
αύτω καϊ €κ των ττβντε νβων στρατιώται ύττο 
ΧαλΛΓίδεως 6ς ττεντακοσίους ξύν οττΧοις κατα- 

3 Χειφθεντες. eirayyeXXo μένων 8e τίνων Αεσβίων 
την άπόστασιν, ττροσφβρει τω τ€ Πεδαρ/τω καϊ 
τοις Χίοις Άστύοχος Xoyov ά>ς -χρη Trapayevo- 
μενονς ταΐς νανσΐν ηττοστήσαί την Aea/Sov η 
<γάρ ζυμμά-χους ττΧείους σφάς εξειν η τους 'Αθη- 
ναίους, ην τί σφάΧΧωνται, κακώσειν. οι δ' ουκ 
έσήκουον, ούδε τα? ναΰς ο ΤΙεΒύριτος βφη των 
ϋίων αύτω ιτροήσειν. 

XXXIII. Kii/cetiO? Χαβων τάς τ€ των 1\ορίν- 
θίων TrivTe καϊ βκτην AleyapiBa καϊ μίαν Ερμι- 
oviha καϊ ας αύτος Αακωνίκάς ηΧθεν €χ^ων, βττΧει 
i -πϊ της Μίλ>;'τοι; ττρος την ναυαρχ^ίαν, ττοΧΧα 
άτΓ6ΐΧήσας τοις Χιθί9 η μην μη εττιβοηθήσβιν, ην 

2 Τί Βεωνται. καϊ ττροσβαΧων Κωρύκ(ύ της 'Κρυ- 
θραίας ΙνηυΧίσατο. οι δ' άττο της Έ,άμου 'Αθηναίοι 
eVt την \ίον ττΧεοντες τη στρατιά καΐ αύτοΙ €Κ 
του €7γΙ θάτβρα, Χόφου 8ιείρ-/οντος,^ καθωρμι- 

3 σαντο, καϊ εΧεΧήθεσαν άΧΧήΧους. βΧθούσης he 
τταρα ΥΙεΒαρίτου υπ 6 νύκτα εττιστοΧής ώς Έρυ- 
θραίων άνΒρες αΙ'χ^μάΧωτοι εκ ^άμου εττΐ προΒοσία 
ες 'Κρυθράς ήκουσιν άφειμενοι, άvάyετaι ο Αστύ- 

^ ZitipyovTos, for hifipyovro και of the MSS., Krtiger. 



^ cf. ch. xxviii. 5. ^ cf. ch. xvii. 1. 

** Four ill number ; cj. ch. xxiii. 1. 



244 



BOOK VIII. XXXII. i-xxxiii. 3 

coining from one quarter and some from anothej. 
After this Pedaritus, >vho at the time mentioned 
above ^ was moving along the shore from Miletus 
with a body of infantry, arrived at Erythrae and 
then crossed over with his army to Chios ; and 
Astvochus also had ready to his hand soldiers from 
the five ships, to the number of five hundred, who 
had been left, together with their arms, by Chal- 
cideus.^ Since, now, certain Lesbians were renewing 
their proposals to revolt, Astyochus suggested to 
Pedaritus and the Chians that they ouglit to take 
their fieet to Lesbos and bring about the revolt of 
the island ; for thus, he urged, they Avould either 
increase the number of their allies or, if they met 
with fiiilure, would injure the Athenians. But they 
would not listen to the suggestion, and, furthermore, 
Pedaritus refused to deliver to him the ships of the 
Chians. 

XXXIII. Astyochus therefore took the five Corin- 
thian ships, a sixth from Megara,one from Heruiione, 
and those Avhicli he himself had brought with him 
from Laconia,^ and sailed for Miletus in order to 
take over the office of admiral, with many threats 
against the Chians, and pledging himself not to 
aid them if they should have any need of him. 
Touching at Corycus in the territory of Erythrae, 
he spent the night there. And the Atl)enian fleet 
from Samos, which was on its way to Chios with the 
troops, also came to anchor there at the other side of 
the town, a hill intervening, so that neither fleet had 
seen the other. But Astyochus received during the 
night a letter from Pedaritus saying that some Ery- 
thraean prisoners that had been set at liberty had 
arrived at Erythrae from Samos for the purpose of 

245 



THUCYDIDES 

οχο9 εύθύζ e? τά? ^Κρυθρας ττάΧιν, καΐ τταρά 
τοσούτον iyevero αύτω μη Trepnreaeiv τοις ^Αθη- 
4 ναίοις. SiaTrXevaa^; 8e καϊ 6 ΤΙεδάηιτος τταρ' 
αύτον και άναζητησαντ€<; τα περί των 8οκούντων 
irpoBiSovai, ώ? ηνρον ατταν eVl σωτηρία των 
άνθρώττων €κ τΓ/? '%άμου ττροφασισθίν, άττοΧύ- 
σαντες ττ}? αΙτία<; αττζττΧευσαν, ό μεν 69 την Χίοι», 
ο he e<i την ΛΙιλτ/τοί' εκομισθη, ωσττερ ScevoeLTO. 

XXXIV. Έι^ τούτω δέ καϊ η των Αθηναίων 
στρατιά ταΐς νανσΐν βκ του Κ.ωρύκον ττεριπΧεουσα 
κατ ^Apytvov έττ ίτν^-χ^άνβι τρισΐ ναυσΐ των Χ ίων 
μακραΐς, καϊ ώ<; elhov, εΒίωκον.^ καϊ -χ^ειμών τε 
με^α<ί eTrijLyveTai καϊ αί μεν των Χιω;' μόΧι•ί 
καταφεύηουσιν ες τον Χιμενα, αί Se των ^Αθηναίων 
αί μεν μάλιστα ορμήσασαί τρεις διαφθείρονται 
καϊ εκπίτΓΤουσι ττρος την ττόλιν των Χ ίων, καϊ 
άνδρες οι μεν άΧίσκονται οι δ' άττοθνησκονσιν, 
αί δ' άΧΧαι καταφεΰηουσιν ες τον ίητο τω ^Ιίμαντι 
Χιμενα Φοινικούντα καΧονμενον. εντεύθεν δ' 
ύστερον ες την Αεσβον καθορμισάμενοι τταρε- 
σκευάζοντο ες τον τει\ισμόν. 

XXXV. 'E/c δε της ΥΙεΧοποινησου του αυτού 
'χειμώνας Ιτητοκράτης ο Αακεδαιμονιος εκττΧεύσας 
δέκα μεν ^ουρίαις ναυσίν, ων ηρχε Αωριεύς 6 
Αια^ΰρου τρίτος αυτός, μια δε Αακωνικη, μια δε 
Έ,νρακοσία, καταττΧεΐ ες Κ^νίδον η δ' άφειστηκει 

2 ηδη ύτΓΟ Τισσαφέρνους, καϊ αυτούς οι εν τη 
MiX'yTfi), ώς ησθοντο, εκεΧευον ταΐς μεν ήμισειαις 
των νεών Κιαδοι» φυΧάσσειν, ταΐς δε ττερϊ Ύορι- 

• ws f'lSov, 4δίωκον, Κι iiger and Boehme with Β ; Hude reads 
SitTtrep iiSoy, iireSiicKoy ; Stahl and Classen ωσττΐρ ^Ιχον ISoprts 
(ϋίϋύκον. 
246 



BOOK νΠί. x\xiii. 3-.\\xv. 2 

betraying it ; he therefore immediately set sail again 
for Erythrae, and thus narrowly escaped falling in 
with the Athenians. Pedaritus also crossed over 
and joined him at Erythrae ; and they, having 
investigated the charges against those who were 
supposed to be intending to betray the town, when 
they found that the whole story had been given out 
only to effect the men's escape from Samos, acquitted 
them and sailed away, Pedaritus to Chios, and 
Astyochus to Miletus, as he had originally intended. 

XXXIV. In the meantime the Athenian armament 
also left Corycus, and as it was rounding the point of 
Arginum met with three Chian ships of war ; and no 
sooner did they see them than they made pursuit. 
Now a great storm came on, and the Chian sinps 
with great difficulty escaped to the harbour ; but of 
the Athenian ships the three that had pursued most 
hotly were wrecked and cast ashore at the city of 
Chios, where the men aboard were either taken 
captive or put to death ; the rest of the fleet escaped 
to the harbour called Phoenicus that lies at the foot 
of Mt. Mimas. Sailing tlience they afterwards came 
to anchor at Lesbos and began preparing to build 
their fortifications.^ 

XXXV. During the same winter Hippocrates the 
Lacedaemonian sailed from the Peloponnesus with 
ten Ihurian shijis, under the command of Dorieus 
son of Diagoras and two colleagues, and one Laconian 
and one Syracusan ship, and put in at Cnidos, which 
had at length revolted at the instigation of Tissa- 
phernes. And when those in authority at Miletus 
heard of their coming, they gave orders that one half 
of the newly arrived ships should guard Cnidos and 

^ At Delphinium (ch. Ixxxviii. 2). 

247 



THUCYDIDES 

ττιον οΰσαις τας αττ' Αιγύτττου ο\κά8α^ ττροσ- 

3 βα\\ούσα<; ξυΧλαμβάνειν eart Be το Ύριόττιον 
άκρα τή<ί ΚνίΒίας ττρούχουσα, Άττόλλωί/ο? lepov. 
ττνθομβνοι Se οι 'Αθηναίοι καΐ irXevaavre'; i/c τ?}? 
Έ,άμου Χαμβάνονσι, τάς έττϊ Ύριοττίγ φρουρούσα<ί 
βξ ναΰς- οι δ' avhpes άττοφεύ^ουσιν έξ auroyv. 
και μετά τοΰτο 69 τηΐ' Ι^νι'όον καταπΧενσαντβ^ 
καϊ ττροσβαΧοντα rfi iroXei άτειχ^ίστω οΰστ) 

4 oXiyov elXuv. rfj δ' ύστβραία ανθις ττροσββαΧΧον, 
και ώς άμ€ΐνυν φαρξαμένων αυτών ύττο νύκτα και 
€ττ6σ{λθόντων αντοΐς των άττο του Ύριοπίου €κ 
των ν€ών διαφυγόντων ovkW ομοίων; €βλαπτον, 
άττεΧθόντες καϊ 8}]ώσαντε'=; την των Κνιίίων ^ήν 
is την -,άμον άττεττΧευσαν. 

XXXVI. Τπό δέ τον αυτόν 'χρόνον Άστυόχον 
ήκοντος e? την ^ΙίΧητον εττϊ το ναντικόν, οι Πβλο- 
TTOvvTjaioi ενττορω'ί ετι εΐ^χον άτταντα τα κατά το 
στρατόττεΒον. καϊ jap μισθοί εΒίΒοτο αρκούντως, 
και τα εκ τή<; Ιάσου με^άΧα 'χ^ρηματα Βιαρ- 
ττασθέντα ύττήν τοις στρατιώταις, ο'ί τε ΛΙίλ>;σίθί 

2 ττροθύμως τα του ττοΧεμου εφερον. irph's Βε τον 
Τισσαφέρνη εΒόκονν 6μω<; τοις ΥΙεΧοττοννησίοις 
αί Ίτρώται ζυνθηκαι, αϊ ττρος \aXKiBea -γενόμεναι, 
ενΒεεΐς είναι και ου ττρος σφών μάΧΧον, καϊ 
αΧΧας εττϊ (&ηριμενονς -παρόντος εττοίονν καϊ 
είσΐν αϊΒε. 

XXXVII. " ρ,ννθηκαι ΑακεΒαιμονίων και των 
ζυμμά'χ^ων προς βασιΧέα Ααρεΐον και τους τταΐΒας 
τους βασιΧεως καϊ Τισσαφέρνη' σττονΒας είναι 
και φιΧίαν κατά τάΒε. 



248 



BOOK νΠί. xxxv. 2-xxxvii. i 

that the other half should cruise around Triopium 
and seize the merchantmen that touched there on 
the way from Egypt. Now this Triopium is a head- 
land projecting from the territory of Cnidos and 
sacred to Apollo. The Athenians, being informed of 
their intentions, also sailed from Samos and captured 
the six ships that were on guard at Triopium, though 
their crews escaped. After this they sailed to Cnidos, 
and attacking the city, which was without walls, 
almost captured it. The next day tiiey made a 
second assault, but as the inhabitants had strength- 
ened their defences during the night and had been 
reinforced by the men who had escaped from the 
ships at Triopium, the Athenians could not do so 
much damage as before, and so tiiey withdrew and, 
after ravaging the territory of the Cnidians, sailed 
back to Samos. 

XXXVI. At about the same time Astyochus 
arrived at Miletus to take command of the Heet. 
Tile Peloponnesians were still Avell provided with all 
that their camp required, for sufficient pay was being 
given, the large amount of property plundered from 
lasus was in the possession of the soldiers, and the 
Milesians were zealously prosecuting the war. Never- 
theless, the Peloponnesians felt that tiie first compact 
Λvith Tissaphernes, which had been concluded between 
him and Chalcideus, was defective and not so much 
to their interest as to his, and so they drew up 
another Λνΐιϋβ Therimenes was there. And its terms 
were as follows : 

XXXVII. "Compact of the Lacedaemonians and 
their allies with King Darius and the King's sons and 
Tissaphernes. There shall be a treaty and friendship 
on the following terms : 

VOL. IV. I 249 



THUCYDIDES 

2 "Όττόση χώρα καΐ ττόΧβις βασιΧβως elal Aapeiov 
η του ττατρο'^ ήσαν -η των ττρο~/ονων, ίτη ταυτα<} 
μη levai επΙ ττοΧεμω μηΒε κακω μη^€νΙ μητ€ 
ΑακεΒαιμονίους μήτε τους ξνμμάχους του? Αακ€- 
8αιμονίων, μηΒβ φόρους ττράσσεσθαι €κ των 
ττόΧεων τούτων μητ€ ΑακεΒαιμονίους μι'ιτβ τους 
ξυμμάχους τους ΑακβΒαιμονίων μηΒε /\αρ€Ϊον 
βασιΧέα μηΒε ών βίίσιΧεύς ap^et eVt ΑακβΒαιμο- 
νίους μηΒέ τους ξυμμάχους ievai εττϊ ττοΧέμω 
μη^β κακω μηΒενί. 

3 "'Ην Be τι Ββωνται ΑακεΒαιμόνιοίή οί ξύμμαχοί 
βασιΧεως, η βασιΧευς ΑακβΒαιμονίων ή των 
ζυμμάχων, ο τι αν ττείθωσιν άλΧιίλους, τούτο 
ΤΓΟίοΰσι καΧώς e^eiv. 

4 " Ύον Be ττόΧεμον τον ττρΌς ^Αθηναίους ^ καϊ 
τους ξυμμάχους KOLvfj αμφότερους ποΧεμεΐν. ην Βε 
κατάΧυσιν ττοιώνται, κοιντ} αμφότερους ττοιεΐσθαι. 

" Όττόσί; Β αν στρατιά εν ττ) χώρα ττ} βασιΧεως 
Τ] μεταττεμψαμενου βασιΧεως, την Βαττάνην βα- 
σιΧεα τταρεχειν. 

5 '"Ην Βε τις των ττόΧεων όττόσαι ξυνεθεντο βα- 
σιΧεΙ εττΐ την βασιΧεως ΐτ] χώραν, τους άΧΧους 
κωΧύειν και άμύνειν βασιΧξΐ κατά το Βυνατόν 
και ην τις των εν ττ/ βασιΧεως χοορα η όσης 
βασιΧεύς άρχει εττι την ΑακεΒαιμον'ιων Ί'τ) η των 
ξυμμάχων, βασιΧεύς κωΧυέτω καϊ άμυνετω κατά 
το Βυνατόν.^ 

XXXVIII. ΛΙβτά Βε ταύτας τας ζυνθηκας 

^ηριμενης τταραΒούς Άστυόχω τας ναΰς άττο- 

2 ττΧεων εν κεΧητι αφανίζεται, οΐ Β εκ της Αεσβου 

' Hude inserts here βασιλία καϊ Αακ€5αιμοί'ίυυί, following 
Kirchhoff. 

250 



BOOK VIII. xxxvii. 2-xxxviii. 2 

" I. Whatsoever territory and cities belong to 
King Darius or belonged to his father or their 
ancestors, against these shall neither the Lace- 
daemonians nor their allies go either for war or to 
do any harm ; nor shall either the Lacedaemonians 
or their allies exact tribute from these cities. Nor 
shall King Darius or those over whom the King 
rules go against the Lacedaemonians or their allies 
for war or to do any harm. 

" 2. If the Lacedaemonians or their allies have 
need of anything from the King or the King from the 
Lacedaemonians or their allies, whatever they shall 
persuade one another to do, this shall be right for 
them to do. 

" 3. The war against the Athenians and their 
allies both parties shall wage in common ; and if 
they make peace, both shall make it in common. 

" 4. Whatsoever forces shall be in the territory of 
the King, on the summons of the King, shall be 
maintained at the expense of the King. 

" 5. If any of the cities that have entered into 
this compact Avith the King shall go against the 
country of the King, the rest shall strive to prevent 
this and aid the King to the extent of their power; 
and if any of those who inhabit the King's territory 
or any territory over which the King has dominion 
shall go against the territory of the Lacedaemonians 
or of their allies, the King shall strive to prevent 
this and give aid to the extent of his power." 

XXXVIII. After making this compact Tiierimenes 
turned over the command of the fleet to Astyochus 
and sailing away in a skiff" was never seen again. ^ But 

^ He was doubtless lost at sea. The word is used of 
unexplained disappearance in iv. Ixxx. 4. Cf. also Xen. 
Hdl., I. vi. .38. 

251 



THUCYDIDES 

^Αθηναίοι ήΒη Βιαβ€βηκότ€<; e? την ^ίον ttj 
στρατιά και κρατούντες καΐ ^ής καΐ θαΧάσσης 
^εΧφίνίον βτείχ^ιζον, ■χωρίον άλλως Τ€ e/c 7^9 
καρτβρον καΐ Χιμενας '^Χ'^ν και τη<; των Χ ίων 
Ά ποΧεως ου ττοΧύ άπεχον. οι Be ΧΓοί ev ττολΧαΖ? 
ταΐς ττρίν μάχαις ΤΓεττΧη^/μβνοί, και άλλως iv 
σφίσιν αύτοί? ου πάνυ ευ διακείμενοι, αλλά καΐ 
των μ€τα ΎνΒεως του Ίωνος η8η ΰττο ΤΙεΒαρίτου 
67γ' άττικισμω τεθνεώτων καΐ της αλΧτ;? ττόλεως 
«ατ' avajKyjv ες οΧί^ους ^ κατεχόμενης νπότττως 
διακείμενοι ά\\ή\οις Ί)σύχαζον, και ούτ αύτοι 
Βια ταύτα ούτε οι μετά ΙΙεΒαρίτου επίκουροι 

4 αξιόμαχοι αύτοΐς εφαίνοντο. ες μεντοι την ΛΙιλτ;- 
τον εττεμτΓον, κβΧεύοντες σφίσι τον ^Χστύοχον βοη- 
Θεΐν ώς δ' ουκ εσήκουεν, επιστεΧΧει ττερί αυτού 
ες την ΑακεΒαίμονα ο ΤΙεΒάριτος ώς άΒικονντος. 

5 και τα μεν εν τη Χιω ες τούτο καθειστήκει 
τοις ^Αθηναίοις• αϊ δ' εκ της ^άμου νήες αύτοΐς 
επίπΧους μεν εττοιούντο ταΐς εν τη Μίλ;/τω, εττει 
8ε μη άντανά^οιεί', άναχωρούντες iraXiv ες την 
Έ,άμον ϊ)σύχαζον. 

XXXIX. 'E/c Βετής ΥΙεΧθ7Γοννί']σου εν τω αύτφ 
'χειμώνι αϊ τω Φαρναβάζω }ζ.aXXιyείτov ^ του 
^iεyapεως καϊ Τιμαγόρου του Κυζικηνού ττρασ- 
σόντων τταρασκευασθεΐσαι ύττο ΑακεΒαιμονίων 
ετΓτά καΐ είκοσι νήες άρασαι εττΧεον εττΐ Ιωνίας 
ττερι ηΧίου τροττάς, και άρχων εττέπΧει αυτών 
2 Αντισθένης Σπαρτιάτης, ξυνέπεμψαν Βε οι Αακε- 



^ oAlyovs, for oXiyov of the MSS., Dobree's correction. 
^ ΰττό, before Καλλιγί/του, deleted by Poppo. 



252 



BOOK VIII. XXXVIII. 2-xxxix. 2 

the Athenians at Lesbos, who had already crossed 
over with their army to Chios and exercised con- 
trol over both land and sea, proceeded to fortify 
Delphinium, a place Avhich in any case was strong on 
the landward side and also possessed harbours and 
was not far distant from the city of Chios. As for 
the Chians, since they had been beaten in many 
battles already, and, besides, Avere not on very good 
terms among themselves — nay, now that Tydeus 
son of Ion and his adherents had already been put 
to death on the charge of Atticism by Pedaritus and 
the rest of the city was by compulsion reduced to the 
rule of an oligarchy, they were now filled with 
suspicion of one another — they kept quiet; and it 
was thought that neitiier they themselves, for these 
reasons, nor the auxiliaries under the command of 
Pedaritus Avere a match for the enemy. However, 
they sent to Miletus urging Astyochus to help them; 
but when he Λvould not hearken, Pedaritus sent a 
letter about him to Lacedaemon, accusing him of 
wrong-doing. Such was the condition into which 
the Athenians found that affairs had got in Chios ; 
and their fleet at Samos made a number of descents 
upon the Peloponnesian fleet at Miletus ; but when 
the latter did not come out to meet them, they 
retired again to Samos and kept quiet. 

XXX IX. During the same Avinter the twenty- 
seven ships that had been equi))ped by the Lace- 
daemonians for Pharnabazus,^ through the influence 
of Kalligeitus of Megara and Timagoras of Cyzicus, 
set sail from the Peloponnesus for Ionia about the 
time of the solstice ; and Antisthenes, a Spartan, 
sailed with the fleet as its commander. And the 
^ cf. ch. viii. 1. 

253 



THUCYDIDES 

δαιμόνιοι καϊ e'pSeKa άνδρας Έ,τταρτιατών ξυμβού- 
Xof? 'Λστυό;γω, ων el? ην Λιχας ό "ΆρκβσιΧάον. 
και €Ϊρητο αΰτοΐ9 βς ^Ιίλ,ητον άφικομβνον; των re 
άΧΧων ξννβΤΓΐμβΧεσθαι fj peWei άριστα e^eiv, 
καϊ τάς ναΰ^ ταύτας- ή αύτας η ττλείοι»? η καϊ 
(Χάσσους e? τον 'ΚΧΧιίσττοντον ως Φαρνάβαζον, 
ην hofcf], άτΓοπβμττειν, K\eap\ov τον Ραμφίον, 
09 ζυνίττΧζί, άρχ^οντα προστάξαντας, και Άστύ- 
θ)(^ον, ην Βοκη ^ τταύειν της ναυαρ'χίας, ^Αντισθένη 
Be καθιστάναί' ττρό? yap τάς του UeSapiTov 

3 €7Τίστο\ά<; ύττώπτβνον αύτον. ττΧέουσαί ούν α'ι 
νηβ'ζ άτΓο Μαλεα? ττέΧά^ιαι Λ1?;λω ττροσύβαΧον, 
καϊ τΓβριτνχ^οντα νανσι Βεκα Αθηναίων τα? τρεις 
Χαμβάνονσι κενα^ καϊ κατακαίονσιν. μ€τα δε 
τούτο ΒεΒιοτβς μη αί Biaovyouaai tojv ^Αθηναίων 
€κ της \l?'jXou νήες, οττβρ eyeveTO, μηνύσωσι τοις 
iv τη 'Σ.άμω τον επιττΧουν αυτών, ττρος την 
Κρί^ττ/ι» ττΧεύσαντες καϊ ττΧείω τον ττΧοΰν Βια 
φυΧακής ττοιησάμεΐΌΐ βς την }ζ.αύνον της ^ Ασίας 

4 κατήραν. ivTevdev 8ή, ώς iv άσφαΧβΙ οντες, 
ayyeXiav βττεμττον eVt τας ev τη ^ΙιΧητω ναυς 
του ξυμτταρακομίσθήναι. 

XL. Οι Be ^ΐοί και ΐΙεΒάριτος κατά τον αύτον 
■χ^ρόνον ούΒεν ησσον, καίττερ ΒιαμεΧΧοντα, τον 
Άστύοχοι^ ττεμττοντες άyyeXoυς ηζίουν σφισι 
ΤΓοΧιορκουμενοις βοηθησαι άττύσαις ταΐς ναυσΐ 
και μη ττεριιΒεΙν την /ζεγί'σττ^ζ^ των εν Ιωνία 
ξυμμα-χ^ίόων ττόΧεων εκ τε θαΧάσσης εlpyoμεvηv 
2 και κατά yrjv Χηστειαις ττορθουμενην. οι yap 

* To'is eVSf/io ά'.'δράσι, of the MSS., deleted by van Her- 
werden. 

254 



BOOK VIII. XXXIX. 2-XL. 2 

Lacedaemonians also sent Avith him eleven Spartans 
to act as advisers to Astyochus, one of whom was 
Lichas son of Arcesilaus. Their orders were, on 
an-iving at Miletus, to share with Astyochus the 
general oversight of affairs in whatever way \vould 
be for the best, and also to send this fleet, with 
either the same number of ships or more or fewer, 
to Pharnabazus in the Hellespont, should this 
course seem expedient, appointing as its com- 
mander Clearchus ^ son of Ramphias, who was sail- 
ing with them ; also, if it should seem best, to 
depose Astyochus from his office as admiral and put 
Antisthenes in his stead ; for in view of the letter 
of Pedaritus they were suspicious of him. Accord- 
ingly these ships, sailing from Malea across the 
open sea, touched at Melos, and falling in with ten 
Athenian ships captured three of them, but without 
their crews, and burned them. After this, fearing 
that the Athenian ships that had escaped from Melos 
might, as actually happened, inform the Athenians 
at Samos of their approach, they sailed toward Crete, 
making the voyage longer as a measure of precaution, 
and put in at Caunus in Asia. From there, feeling 
that they Λvere now in security, they sent a message 
to the ships at Miletus \vith a view to being convoyed 
along the coast. 

XL. At this time the Chians and Pedaritus sent 
messages to Astyochus, notwithstanding his con- 
tinuing to hold back, urging him, since they were 
being l)lockaded, to come to their aid with all his 
ships and not to look on and see the largest of the 
allied cities in Ionia shut off from the sea and 
devastated by forays on land. For the slaves of 
^ cf. ch. viii. 2. 



THUCYDIDES 

OLKerai τοις Xtoi<? ttoWoI 6ι>τ€ς και μια ye ττολεί 
ττΧην ΑακβΒαιμονίων ττΧβΐστοι yevo^evoi καΐ άμα 
Βια το 7τ\ήθο<ϊ -χ^αΧβττωτέρως iv ταΐ<; α8ικίαι<; 
κοΧαζόμβνοι, ώς ή στρατιά των \\θηΐ'αίων βίβαίως 
eho^e μετά τίίχ^ους ίΒρΰσθαι, €υθυ<ί αύτομοΧία 
τβ βχρήσαντο ττοΧΧοΙ ττρος αυτούς και τα ττΧζΙστα 
κακά €7Γΐστάμ€νοι την )(ωραν ούτοι eBpaaav. 
3 εφασαν ουν -χρήναι οΐ ^ΐοι, έω? έ'τί ελττις• καϊ 
Βυνιιτ'ον κωΧΰσαι, τειχιζομενου του ΑεΧφινίου 
και ατελοΰ? οντος, καϊ στρατοττβΒω και ναυσίν 
€ρνματος μείζονος ττροσττβριβαλΧομενου, βοηθή- 
σαι σφίσιν. ο Be "Άστυοχ^ος καίιτβρ ου hiavoov- 
μενος Βια την τότε άττβιΧην, ώς βώρα καϊ τους 
ξυμμά-χ^ους ττροθύμους οντάς, ωρμητο €ς το 
βοηθεΐν. 

XLI. 'El•" τούτω he εκ της ]^αύνου -rrapayiyveTai 
ayyeXia ότι αΐ ετττα και είκοσι νήες καϊ οι των 
ΑακεΒαιμονιων ξύμβουΧοι ττάρεισι, και νομισας 
ττάντα ύστερα είναι τα αΧΧα ττρος το ναύς τ€, 
οττως θαΧασσοκρατοΐεν μάΧΧον, τοσαυτας ζυμ- 
τταρακομίσαι και τους Αακε8αιμονίους, οι ηκον 
κατάσκοτΓΟί αυτού, άσφαΧό^ς ττεραιωθΐιναι, εύθυς 
2 άφείς το ες την Xtoy επΧει ες την Κ,αύνον. καϊ 
ες Κών την Μεροττίδα εν τω τταράττΧω άττοβας 
την τε ττόΧιν άτεί-χιστοί' ονσαν καϊ ύττο σεισμού, 
ος αύτοΐς ετυχ^ε με^/ιστό^ yε 8η ων μεμνήμεθα 
yεvόμεlΌς, ξυμττετττωκυ'ίαν εκττορθεΐ, των άνθρώ- 

^ cf. ch. xxxiii. 1. 
2ς6 



BOOK VIII. XL. 2-XLI. 2 

the Chians, who were numerous — and indeed the 
most numerous in any single city except that of 
the Lacedaemonians — and at the same time, on 
account of their multitude, were punished more 
severeiy for every misdeed, now that the Athenian 
army seemed, with the advantage of a fortified 
position, to be firmly established, immediately began 
to desert to them in large numbers ; and these, 
because of their knowledge of the country, wrought 
the greatest damage to it. So the Chians said that 
he ought to come to their aid now, while there was 
still hope and a possibility of checking the enemy, 
and while the fortification of Delphinium was still in 
progress and not yet completed, a stronger line of 
breastworks being ηοΛν in process of construction 
round the camp and ships. And Astyochus, although 
he had not intended to do so, on account of his 
threat some time before,^ Λvhen he saw that the 
allies also were eager for the undertaking, was 
disposed to give the desired aid. 

XLI. Meanwhile tidings came from Caunus that 
the twenty-seven ships and the Lacedaemonian 
advisers had arrived ; Avhereujion Astyochus, think- 
ing that everytlnng else was of secondary importance 
compared with convoying so large a reinforcement 
of the fleet, so that they might be more completely 
masters of the sea, and with getting the Lacedae- 
monians, who had come to observe his conduct, safely 
across, immediately gave up the expedition to Chios 
and sailed to Caunus. As he proceeded along the 
coast he landed at Cos Meropis and sacked the 
town, which was without walls and by reason of an 
earthquake that had befallen it — the most violent 
of all within our memory — was now in ruins, 

257 



THUCYDIDES 

Ίτωΐ' e? τα ορη ττεφενγοτων, καΐ την -χωράν κατα- 
^ρομαΐ<ί Xeuav iiroielTo, ττΧην των iXevOepwv 

3 τούτους δε άφίίΐ. t'/c 8e της Κω άφικόμβνος e? 
την KvlSov νυκτός αναΎκάζβται υπο των Κνί^ίων 
τταραινούντων μη βκβιβάσαι τους ναύτας, αλλ' 
ωσττερ et^e ττ\βΙν εύθυς βττΐ τάς των Αθηναίων 
ναΰς €Ϊκοσί, ας €χων ιίαρμΐνος, εις των εκ '^άμου 
στρατη'γών, εφυΧασσε ταύτας τας ετττα καΐ εΐκοσι 
νανς εκ της ΥΙεΧοΎτοννήσου ττ ροσττΧεούσας, εφ' 

4 άσττερ καΐ ο Άστυοχος τταρεπΧει. εττύθοντο 8ε 
οι εν τη 2.άμω εκ της ΜηΧου τον επίττΧουν αυτών, 
καΐ η φυΧακη τω Χ^αρμυνω ττερί την Έ,ύμην καΐ 
ΧάΧκην καΐ Ρύ3ον καΐ ττερΙ την Αυκίαν ην η8η 
<γάρ ησθάνετο καΐ εν τη Κ,αυνω ούσας αύτάς. 

XLII. ΈτΓεττλεί ουν ώσττερ €ΐχ€ ττρος την 
^ύμην ο ^Αστύοχος ττρίν εκττυστος '^/ενεσθαι, εϊ 
ττως ττεριΧάβοι ττου μετεώρους τας ναΰς. καΐ 
αύτω ύετος τε και τα εκ του ουρανού ζυννεφεΧα 
οντά πΧάνησιν τών νεών εν τω σκότει καϊ ταραχην 

2 παρεσχεν. καϊ αμα τη εω, Βίεσττασμενου του 
ναυτικού, καϊ τού μεν φανερού ή8η οντος τοις 
^Αθηναίοις, τού ευωνύμου κερως, τού 8ε αΧΧου 
ττερΙ την νησον ετι ττΧανωμενου, iiravd'yovTai 
κατά τάχος ο Χ.αρμΐνος καϊ οΐ Αθηναίοι εΧάσ- 
σοσιν ή ταΐς είκοσι ναυσι, νομίσαντες άσττερ 
εφύΧασσον ναύς τας αττο της Υί^αυνου^ ταύτας 

3 είναι. και ττροσττεσοντες εύθυς κατε8υσάν τε 
τρεις καϊ κατετραυμάτισαν άΧΧας, καϊ εν τω 
έ'/3γω επεκράτουν, μβχρι ου εττεφάνησαν αντοΐς 
παρά 8όζαν αΐ ττΧείους τών νεών και πανταχόθεν 

^ TOS άπί) TTJs Καύνου, deleted by Hude, 

258 



BOOK VIII. xu. 2-xui. 3 

the inhabitants having fled to the mountains ; and 
by forays he despoiled the country of everything, 
except the free population, which lie let go. Coming 
then from Cos to Cnidos by night, he was forced by 
the importunity of tlie Cnidians not to permit his 
sailors to land, but, just as he was, to sail straight 
against the twenty Athenian ships, Avith which 
Charminus, one of the generals from Samos, was 
on the look-out for the twenty-seven ships that 
were approaching from the Peloponnesus — the ships 
which Astyochus was sailing along the coast to meet. 
For the Athenians at Samos had received word 
from Melos of their approach, and the outposts of 
Charminus were on the look-out for them in the 
neighbourhood of Syme, Chalce, Rhodes and the 
coast of Lycia ; for he was already aware of their 
being at Caunus. 

XLII. Astyochus, therefore, sailed directly to 
Syme before his arrival was reported, on the 
chance that he might find the Peloponnesian ships 
somewhere on the high seas. But rain and the 
foggy state of the atmosphere caused his ships to 
lose their way in the darkness and confusion. At 
daybreak, when his fleet was still scattered and one 
part of it, the left wing, was already visible to the 
Athenians, while the rest of it was still wandering 
round the island, Charminus and the Athenians 
hastily put to sea against them with fewer than 
their twenty ships, thinking that these were the 
ships from Caunus which they Λvere Avatching for. 
And falling upon them at once they sank three 
and damaged others, and in the general action were 
having the advantage until, to their surprise, the 
larger body of ships came in sight and they found 

259. 



THUCYDIDES 

4 αττ€κ\τ)οντο. eireira he eV φνγην καταστάντα 
€ζ μ€ν νανς άτΓοΧλνασί, ταΪ9 8e Χοιτταΐς καταφβύ- 
yovaiv €ς την ΎευτΧοΰσσαν νησον, ivrevOev δβ 

5 69 ΑΧίκαρνασσον. μετά δε τούτο οι μ€ν Πβλο- 
ττοννησίοί ές 1\vlBov κατάραντες και ξυμμί'^εισων 
των €Κ της Καυνου ετττά κα• είκοσι νέων αύτοΐς 
ξυμπάσαις ττΧεύσαντες και τροτταΐον εν Tjj "^νμ-ρ 
στήσαντες ττάΧιν ες την ΚνίΒον καθωρμίσαντο. 

XL1II. Οί he ^Αθηναίοι τοις εκ της ^άμου 
ναυσϊ ττάσαις, ώς rjaOovTO τα της ναυμαχ^ίας, 
ττΧεύσαντες ες την Έύμην καΐ eVi μεν το εν τγι 
Κί/ίδω ναντίκον ούγ^ όρμησαντες, ουδ' εκείνοι εττ' 
εκείνους, Χαβοντες δε τα εν ττ) Χύμτ} σκεύη των 
νέων και Αωρύμοις τοις εν τη ηττείρω ττροσ- 
βαΧόντες, άττέπΧευσαν ες την Έ,άμον. 

2 " Αττασαί δ ηΒΐ] ονσαι εν τη Κι^/δω αί των ΏεΧο- 
ΊΓΟννησίων νηες εττεσκευάζοντό τε εϊ τι eBei, και 
Ίτρος τον Τισσαφέρνη (τταρεγενετο yap) λόγου? 
ετΓοιονντο οι ενΒεκα αν8ρες των Αακε^αιμονίων 
ττερί τ€ των ηδη ττεττ pay μένων, εϊ τι μη ήρεσκεν 
αύτοΐς, και ττερι του μέλΧοντος ττοΧέμου, οτω 
τρόττω άριστα καΐ ξυμφορώτατα άμφοτέροις ττοΧε- 

3 μησεται. μάΧιστα δε ο Λίχας εσκόττει τα ποιού- 
μενα, και τάς σττονδας ούδετερας, ούτε τας 
^αΧκι8εως ούτε τας ^ηριμένους, εφη καΧώς 
ξυyκεlσθaι, άΧΧά δεινον είναι ει 'χ^ώρας όσης 
βασιΧεύς καΐ οι Trpoyovoi ηρξαν πρότερον, ταύτης 
καΐ νυν αξιώσει κρατεΐν (ενήν yap καΐ νήσους 
άττάσας ττάΧιν ΒουΧεύβιν και @εσσαΧιαν και 
Αοκρούς και τα μέχρι Βοιωτών), και άντ εΧεν- 
26ο 



BOOK VIII. xui. 3-xuii. 3 

themselves being hemmed in on all sides. There- 
upon they took to flight, losing six ships, but with 
the rest they fled for refuge to the island of 
Teutlussa, and thence to Halicarnassus. After this 
the Peloponnesians put in at Cnidos, where they 
were joined by the twenty-seven ships from Caunus, 
whereupon they sailed out with the whole fleet, set 
up a trophy at Syme, and finally came to anchor 
again at Cnidos. 

XLIII. When the Athenians heard about the 
sea-fight, they sailed to Syme with all the ships 
they had at Samos. They did not, however, make 
an attack upon the fleet at Cnidos, nor the Pelopon- 
nesians upon them, but took aboard the naval stores 
that were at Syme and, after touching at Lorymi on 
the mainland, sailed back to Samos. 

All the Peloponnesian ships were now at Cnidos 
and were engaged in making the necessary repairs ; 
and as Tissaphernes had arrived, the eleven Lace- 
daemonian advisers were holding conferences with 
him touching matters that had already been 
negotiated, if any point in the agreements was 
unsatisfactory to them, as well as concerning future 
hostilities, in what way the war might be waged 
best and most advantageously for both parties. And 
it was Lichas ΛνΙιο examined most closelv what was 
being done, saying that neither of the treaties, 
neither that of Chalcideus nor that of Therimenes, 
was wisely framed ; nay, he said that it was mon- 
strous that tlie King should even now claim authority 
over all the territory which he and his ancestors had 
formerly ruled — for that would mean that all the 
islands should again be in slavery, as well as Thessaly, 
Locri and everything as far as Boeotia — and that 

261 



THUCYDIDES 

θβρίας αν Μ,ηδικηρ άρχην τοΐ<; "Ελλτ^σί τους 
4 ΑακεΒαιμονίου^ ττ^ριθεΐναι. ίτέρας ουν cKeXeve 
βεΧτίους σπένΒεσθαι, ηταύται^ ye ου ')(_ρήσζσθαι, 
oiihe τή<; τροφής βττΐ τούτοις Βεΐσθαι ovBev. aya- 
νακτών Se 6 μεν Τισσαφέρνης άττεχ^ώρησεν άττ 
αυτών δί' ορ^/ής και άττρακτος. 

XLIV. Οι δ' €9 την 'νόύον, επικηρυκευομενων 
άτΓΟ των Βυνατωτάτων ανδρών, την yvώμηv είχ^ον 
ττΧεΐν, εΧπίζοντες νΡ]σον τε ουκ άΒύνατον καΐ 
ναυβατών ττΧηθει και ττεζών ττροσάξεσθαι, καΐ 
αμα ηyoύμevoL αύτοΙ άττο της ύπαρ'χ^ούσης Συμ- 
μαχίας ΒυνατοΙ εσεσθαι, Τισσαφέρνη μη αιτούντες 

2 χρήματα, τρεφειν τας ναΰς. ττΧεύσαντες ουν 
ευθύς εν τω αύτω χειμώνι εκ της Κι^ίδου, καΐ 
ττροσβαΧόντες Καμίρω της ΡοΒίας πρώτη ναυσΐ 
τεσσαρσι κα\ ενενήκοντα, εξεφόβησαν μεν τους 
ΤΓοΧΧούς ουκ εΙΒότας τα ττρασσόμενα, και εφευyov, 
αΧΧως τε και ατείχιστου ούσης της ττοΧεως' 
€ΐτα ζvyκaXεσavτ€ς ο Ι ΑακεΒαιμόνιοι τούτους τε 
καΐ τους εκ τοΐν Βυοΐν πόΧεοιν, Αίνδου τε καΐ 
^ΙηΧύσου,'ΡοΒίους εττεισαν άττοστηναι^ Αθηναίων. 

3 κα\ ττροσεχώρησε 'Ρόδο? ΤΙελοττοννησίοις. οΐ δέ 
^Αθηναίοι κατά τον καιρόν τούτον ταΐς εκ της 
"Σάμου ναυσίν αίσθόμενοι ^ττΧευσαν μεν βουΧό- 
μενυι φθάσαι και εφάΐ'ησαΐ' πεXάyιoι, ύστερή- 
σαντες Βε ου ποΧΧω το fUiv τταραχρήμα άττεττΧευ- 
σαν ες ΚάΧκην, εντεύθεν δ' ες 'ϊ,άμον, ύστερον Be 
262 



BOOK VIII. xLiii. 3-xLiv. 3 

instead of bringing freedom the Lacedaemonians 
would place the Persian ΛΌke upon the Hellenes. 
Accordingly he urged that another and better treaty 
be concluded; at any rate, the Lacedaemonians 
would not abide by this, nor did they want his 
support at all upon such terms. Tissaphernes was 
offended at this and went away from the conference 
in a rage without having settled anything. 

XLIV^ The Lacedaemonians, however, were 
minded to sail to Rhodes, since overtures were 
coming to them from the most influential men 
there ; for they hoped that they could bring over 
to their side an island that was no mean power 
because of the large number of seamen and soldiers 
which it could furnish, and at the same time they 
thought that they Avould be able by themselves to 
maintain their fleet, on the basis of the existing 
alliance, without asking Tissaphernes for money. 
They therefore sailed at once that same >vinter 
from Cnidos, and touching first at Camirus in 
Rhodian territory with ninety-four ships, they so 
terrified most of the inhabitants, who knew nothing 
of the plan that Avas being negotiated, that they 
fled, especially since the city had no walls. After- 
\vards the Lacedaemonians called them together as 
Λvell as the inhabitants of the two cities Lindus 
and lalysus, and persuaded the Rhodians to revolt 
from the Athenians. So Rhodes came over to the 
Peloponnesian side. But the Athenians at this 
juncture, getting notice of their designs, sailed with 
the fleet they had at Samos, wishing to forestall 
them, and made their appearance out at sea ; but 
finding that they were a little too late, they sailed 
back for the moment to Chalce, and thence returned 

263 



THUCYDIDES 

€/t της ΧαλΑί/;? καΐ €κ της Κω και ίκ της Έάμου 
τους eViTrXof? ττοιουμβνοι. iirl την 'Ρόδοζ' eVo- 

4 Χέμονν. οι Se γ_ρηματα μβν ΙξεΧεξαν ες Βύο καΐ 
τριάκοντα τάλαντα, οΐ Τ[ε\οτ:οννήσιοί, τταρα των 
'Ροδί'ωΐ', τα δ' άΧλα ησύγ^αζον ημέρας oySotJKOVTa 
ανβ\κύσαντες τας ναΰς. 

XLV. ^Έ,ν he τούτω κα\ έ'τί ττρότβρον, ττρΧν ες 
την 'Yohov αυτούς άναστήναι, τάΒε εττράσσετο. 
\\.\κιβίά8ης μετά τον ΧαΧκίΒεως θάνατον καΐ 
την εν Μίλ?/7ω μά-χ^ην τοις ΥΙεΧοττοννησίοις 
ΰττοτττος ων και άττ αυτών άφικομενης εττιστοΧής 
ττρος Άστύοχον εκ ΑακεΒαίμονος ώστε άττοκτεΐναι 
{ην yap τω "XjlSl εχ^θρΌς καΐ άλλως• άπιστος 
εφαίνετο), ττρώτον μεν ίιττογ^ωρεΐ Βείσας τταρα 
Τισσαφέρνη, έπειτα εκακου προς αύτον όσον 
εδννατο μαΧιστα των ΤΙεΧοποννησίων τα ττράγ- 

2 ματα. καΐ ΒίΒάσκαΧος πόντων ^ιηνόμενος την τε 
μισθοφοραν ξυνίτεμεν, άντι Βραχ^μής \\.ττίκής 
ώστε τριώ^ΒοΧον, καΐ τούτο μη ξυνεχώς, ΒιΒοσθαι, 
Xeyeiv κεΧενων τον Τισσαφέρνη προς αυτούς ώς 
^Αθηναίοι εκ πΧείονος χ^ρόνου^ επιστήμονες οντες 
του ναυτικού τριώβόΧον ^ τοις εαυτών ΒιΒόασιν, 
ου τοσούτον πενία όσον Ινα αυτών μη οι ναύται 
εκ περιουσίας υβρίζοντες, οι μεν τα σώματα 
■χείρω εχωσι Βαπανώντες ες τοιαύτα αφ' ων η 
ασθένεια ξυμβαινει, οΊ Βε τας ναύς άποΧείπωσιν 

' χοόνου, deleted by Hiide, following Kriiger's suggestion. 
* Hude follows .Stahl in assuming a lacuna here, και τοντ' 
oxj Ivvfxais, or woids of this purport, being lost. 

264 



BOOK VIII. xLiv. 3-XLv. 2 

to Samos. Afterwards, ho\vever, making raids from 
Chalce and Cos and Samos, they carried on hostilities 
against Rhodes. The Peloponnesians, on the other 
hand, levied money from the Rhodians to the amount 
of thirty-two talents,^ but otherwise they remained 
inactive for eighty days, drawing their ships up on 
shore. 

XLV. But in the meantime, and even before the 
Peloponnesians removed to Rhodes, the following 
negotiations were going on. After the death of 
Chalcideus and the battle at Miletus, Alcibiades, 
finding himself under suspicion with the Pelopon- 
nesians, and Astyochus having received a letter from 
Lacedaemon ordering him to be put to death — for 
he was a personal enemy of Agis and in general 
appeared untrustworthy — at first withdrew in alarm 
to Tissaphernes and then proceeded to damage the 
Peloponnesian cause with him as much as he possibly 
could. Becoming his adviser in all matters, he cut 
down the pay of the troops, so that instead of an 
Attic drachma - only three obols were given, and 
that not regularly, and he urged Tissaphernes to tell 
them that the Athenians, who had had experience 
in naval matters for a longer time, gave onlv three 
obols to their men,^ not so much through lack of 
money as with the purpose of keeping their sailors 
from growing insolent by reason of abundance ; for 
some would injure their health by spending their 
money on things which bring on sickness, while 
others would desert their ships without leaving 

' £64,0rX): $.30.5,900. 
^ i-f. ch. xxix. 1. 

^ The part of the sentence that follows would seem to be 
Thucydides' explanation of the reasons of the Athenians. 

265 



THUCYDIDES 

ούχ^^ υτΓοΧίΤΓοντβς e<; όμηρείαν τον ττροσοφει- 

3 \όμ€νον μισθόν και τους τρίηράργ^ους και τους 
στρατη'^ους των πόΧεων ehihaaKe Βόντα^ XPV' 
ματα αύτον ττβΐσαι ώστε ξυγχ^ωρήσαι ταύτα 
€αυτω ττΧην των Ί,υρακοσίων τούτων δε 'Κρμο- 
κράτης ηναντιοντο μονός inrep τοΰ ζύμτταντος 

4 ξυμμαχικοΰ. τάς τε ττόΧβις Βεομενας γ^ρημάτων 
άττήΧασεν, αύτος άντιΧύ^/ων ύττερ τοΰ Τισσαφέρ- 
νους ώς οι μεν \ΐοι άναίσγνντοί εΐεν, ττΧουσιώ- 
τατοί οντες των ΕΧΧήνων, εττικουρια 8ε όμως 
σωζόμενοι άζιούσι και τοις σώμασι καΐ τοις 
γ^ρίίμασιν αΧΧονς ύττερ της εκείνων εΧευθερίας 

5 κίνΒυνεύειν τας δ' άΧΧας ττόΧεις εφη άΒικεΐν, αΐ 
ες 'Αθηναίους ττροτερον τ) άττοστηναι άνηΧουν, ει 
μη και νυν τοσαΰτα και ετι ττΧείω ύττερ σφών 

6 αυτών εθεΧήσουσιν εσφερειν. τον τε Τισσαφέρνη 
άττ έφαινε νύν μεν, τοις ιδίοις γ^ρημασι ττοΧεμούντα, 
είκότως φειΒομενον, ην δε ττοτε τροφή καταβη 
τταρα βασιΧεως, εντεΧη αύτοΐς άττοΒώσειν τον 
μισθον καΐ τας ττοΧεις' τα εικότα ωφεΧησειν. 

ΧΣΛ^Ι. ΥΙαρηνει δε και τω Τισσαφερνει μη 
ayav εττεΐ'^/εσθαι τον ττοΧεμον ΒιαΧύσαι, μy]Sε 
βουΧηθΡ]ναι ή κομίσαντα ναύς Φοινίσσας ασττερ 
τταρεσκευάζετο η ' ΚΧΧησι ττΧειοσι μισθον ττορί- 
ζοντα τοις αύτοΐς της τε ^ης και της θαΧάσσης 
το κράτος Βούναι, εγειν δ' αμφότερους εάν δι'χα 

* So Β only, most MSS. αποΧι-πόντΐ^. 
- ίίστΐ, liefore ^6uTa, deleted by Reiske. 

^ Or, reading avoKfiwxatv viio\nrovTes, "desert their ships, 
leaving behind," etc. The guarantee would be an inducement 
to the captain to grant leave of absence to the detriment of 

266 



BOOK VIII. xLv. 2-xLvi. I 

behind ^ as a guarantee the part of their pay that 
was still due. He also taught him how by the use 
of money to persuade the trierarchs and generals 
to agree with him in these matters — all except the 
Syracusans, and of them Hermocrates alone opposed 
him, doing so on behalf of the alliance as a whole. 
Furthermore, when the several cities asked for 
money he dismissed them, taking it upon himself to 
answer on behalf of Tissaphernes that the Chians 
were shameless people, for though they were the 
wealthiest of the Hellenes and owed their salvation 
to outside help, nevertheless they expected others 
to risk their lives and their money also for the 
defence of their liberty. And as for the other 
states, which before they revolted used to lavish 
money upon the Athenians, he said that they were 
doing wrong unless they were willing at this time 
also to contribute as much or even more for their 
own protection. And he further explained that, 
though Tissaphernes, now that he was Avaging war 
on his own resources, was quite properly frugal, yet 
if ever supplies should come down from the King he 
would give the men their full pay and would render 
to the states all reasonable aid. 

XLVI. Alcibiades also urged Tissaphernes not to 
be too eager to bring the war to an end, nor to take 
such a course, either by bringing there the Phoe- 
nician fleet which he was equipping or by providing 
pay for a larger number of Hellenes, as would give 
the command of both the land and the sea to the 
same people, but to let the dominion be divided 
between the two sides, so that it would be possible 

the service. On the smaller pay the sailors would have uo 
balance in the hands of their captains. 

267 



THUCYDIDES 

την αρχήν καΐ βασιΚ.€Ϊ i^eivai eVt τους αύτω 

2 λυτΓί/ρού? τους έτερους εττά^ειν. '^/ενομίνης δ' αν 
καθ^ εν της ες yrjv καϊ θάΧασσαν άρ-χ^ης, άπορείν 
αν αύτον οίς τους κρατούντας ζυ^καθαιρήσει, ην 
μη αύτος βούΧηται με^άΧη hairavr) καϊ κινΒύνω 
άναστάς ττοτε ^ια•^/ωνίσασθαι. εύτεΧεστερα Βε 
τάδ' είναι, βραγεί μορίω της Βαττάνης καϊ άμα 
μετά της εαυτοί) ασφαλείας αυτούς περί εαυτούς 

3 τούς ' Κ\\ηνας κατατρίψαι. εττ ιτηΒειοτερους τε 
εφη τούς Αθηναίους είναυ κοινωνούς αύτω της 
άρ'χϊ)ς• ησσον yap των κατα yrjv εφίεσθαι ^ τον 
\oyov τ€ ξυμφορώτατον καϊ το ερ^ον έχοντας 
ΤΓοΧεμεΐν' τούς μεν yap ^uyKaTahovXovv αν 
σφίσι τε αύτοΐς το της θαλάσσης μέρος και 
εκείνω όσοι εν τη βασιλέως ΚΧληνες οίκούσι, 
τού<ί he τουναντίον εΧευθερωσοντας ηκειν. και 
ουκ €ΐκος είναι Αακε8αιμονίους άττο μεν σφων 
των 'ΈιΧΧηνων^ ελευθερονν νυν τούς "ΈΧληνας, 
άττο δ' εκείνων των βαρβάρων,^ ην μη ττοτε 

4 αυτούς εξελωσι,^ μη εΧευθερώσαι. τριβειν ονν 
εκέΧευε πρώτον αμφότερους, καϊ άττοτεμόμενον 
ώς μεyLστa άττο των ^ Αθι^ναιων εττειτ ή8η τούς 

5 ΤίεΧοτΓοννησίους άτταΧΧάξαι εκ της χώρας, καϊ 

^ καί, after ίφί€σθαι, added by Gertz, followed by Hude. 
' των 'ΐ.\λΎΐνων, bracketed by Huile and most editors, after 
Valckenaer. 
' τών βαρβάρων, deleted by Hude, with B. 
' μ4), before ΐζίλωσι, deleted by Madvig. 

268 



BOOK VIII. xLvi. 1-5 

for the King to lead the one party or the other 
against those that were troublesome to hiui. But if 
the dominion of both land and sea were united, 
the King himself would have no one with whom he 
could co-operate in destroying the stronger, and 
would have no alternative but sooner or later to rise 
up himself^ and, at great expense and risk, fight a 
decisive struggle. The cheaper course was this — at 
a small fraction of the expense and at the same time 
Λvith security to himself to wear the Hellenes out 
one upon the other. The more suitable partners, 
he said, with whom to share the sovereignty Avere 
the Athenians ; for they were less desirous of 
possessions on land and both their principles and 
practice in carrying on war were most consistent 
with his interests ; for whereas the Athenians would 
co-operate with him in making subject to themselves 
the department of the sea and to him such of the 
Hellenes as lived in the King's country, the Lace- 
daemonians, on the contrary, had come to liberate 
these. It was not reasonable, he added, to suppose 
that the Lacedaemonians \vould now be liberating 
the Hellenes from men who, like themselves, were 
Hellenes, and would not liberate them from the 
Persians who were Barbarians, unless these sooner or 
later got them out of the way. He therefore urged 
him, first to wear out both sides, then to curtail the 
power of the Athenians as much as possible, and 
finally to get the Peloponnesians out of his country. 

^ The word α.ναστα$ seems to be used because Alcibiades 
has in mind the f<pi5pos or third combatant in the games, who 
sits by to fight the victor. Ttie policy he urges is that the 
King should sit by while the Athenians and Lacedaemonians 
fight and weaken each other, as otherwise he may have to 
"enter the ring" against a strong opponent. 

269 



THUCYDIDES 

8ί€ΐΌ€Ϊτο το irXeov οίίτως ο Ύισσαφ€ρνη<;, όσα ye 
άτΓΟ των ΤΓΟιουμβνων ην ^ βίκάσαι. τω yap ^Α\κι- 
βΐίΙΒτ] 8ια ταύτα, ως €v ττβρί τούτων τταραινούντι, 
ττροσθβις eavTov e? ττίστιν την τε τροφην κακώς 
βττόρίζε τοις ΥΙεΧοττοννησίοις και ναυμαχ^εΐν ουκ 
6Ϊα, άΧλα και τας Φοινισσας ώάσκων ναΰς ηζβιν 
καΐ €Κ ττεριοντος αιγωνιεΐσθαι βφθβιρε τα irpay- 
ματα καΐ την άκμην του ναυτικού αυτών άφείΧβτο 
η€νομ€.νην και πάνυ Ισχυράν, τά τ€ άΧλα κατα- 
φανεστβρον η ώστε Χανθάνειν ου ττροθύμως 
ξννετΓοΧβμει. 

ΧίιΎΙΙ. Ό he ΆΧκιβιάΒης ταύτα αμα μεν τω 
Ύίσσαφερνει καϊ βασιΧεΐ, ών παρ' εκείνοις, άριστα 
είναι νομίζων παρ^νει, αμα Be την εαυτού κάθοΒον 
69 την πατρίδα επιθβραπεύων, εΙΒώς, εΐ μη Βια- 
φθερεΐ αυτήν, Οτι εσται ποτέ αύτώ πεισαντι 
κατεΧθεΐν πεΐσαι δ αν ενόμιζε μάλιστα εκ τού 
τοιούτου, εΐ Τισσαφέρνης φαινοιτο αύτώ επιτήδειος 
2 ών όπερ και iyiveTO. επειΒή yap ησθοντο αύτον 
Ισγύοντα παρ αυτώ οι εν τη Χάμω 'Αθηναίων 
στρατιώται, τα μεν καϊ ΆΧκιβιάΒου προσπέμ- 
^ρ-αντος Xόyoυς ες τους Βυνατωτάτους αυτών 
άνΒρας ώστε μνησθήναι περί αυτού ες τους βεΧ- 
τίστους τών ανθρώπων ότι επ' oXiyap -χ^ια βούΧεται 
και ου πονηρία' τη εαυτόν εκβαΧούση κατεΧθών 
και παρασ-χων Τισσαφέρνη φίΧον αύτοίς ξυμπο- 

^ i)v, deleted by Kriiger, followed by Hude. 
* οι'»δ6 ζημοκρατία, in the MSS. after πονηρία, deleted by 
van Hei'werden, 

270 



i 



BOOK VIII. xLvi. 5-xLvii. 2 

And Tissaphernes was more inclined to this course, 
so far as it was jjossible to conjecture from what he 
was doing. For he consequently gave his support 
and confidence to Alcibiades, as though he thought 
his advice in the matter good, and not only furnished 
wretched maintenance to the Peloponnesians, but 
also would not allow them to fight at sea; instead, 
he kept telling them that the Phoenician ships 
would come and that they Avould then contend with 
superabundant strength ; and thus he injured their 
cause and diminished the vigour of their fleet, 
which had been very strong ; and in general it was 
too evident to escape notice that he was not zealously 
co-operating in the war. 

XLVI I. This advice Alcibiades gave to Tissa- 
phernes and the King while he was under their 
protection, not only because he believed it to be 
best, but also because he was at tlie same time 
working for his own restoration to his fatherland, 
knoΛving that, if he did not ruin that prospect, it 
would some day be possible for him to gain the 
consent of his countrymen and be restored. And 
the means by which he thought he could best per- 
suade them was this — to make it appear that Tis- 
saphernes was on intimate terms with him ; and 
that, in fact, is what happened. For the Athenian 
soldiers at Samos perceived that he had great influ- 
ence with Tissaphernes, partly because Alcibiades 
sent word to the most influential men among them 
to make mention of him to the best people and say 
that he wished to come home on condition of there 
being an oligarchy and not the villainous mob-rule 
that had banished him, and after securing the 
friendship of Tissaphernes to be a fellow-citizen 

271 



THUCYDIDES 

XiT€V€iv, TO δε TrXeov και άττο σφό>ν αυτών οι 
iv TTJ Έάμω τριηραργοί τ€ των Αθηναίων και 
Βυνατώτατοι ώρμηντο e? το καταΧΰσαι την 8ημο- 
κρατίαν. 

XLVIII. Και έκινήθη ττρότβρον iv τω στρατο- 
ττεδω τούτο και e? την ττοΧη• evTevOev ύστερον, 
τω Τ€ \\.ΧκιβιάΒτ) Βια/3ύντ€ζ TiV€<; €Κ της Ί,άμου 
e? λόγου? ηΧθον, καΐ ύττοτβινοντος αύτοΰ Τισ- 
σαφέρνη μβν ττρώτον, eireiTa Be και βασιΧεα 
φίΧον Ίτοιησβιν, el μη Βημοκρατοΐντο (ούτω yap 
αν ΤΓίστεΰσαί μάΧΧον βασιΧάα), -ττοΧΧάς ελττίδας 
εΐγ^ον αυτοί τ€ €αντοΐ<; οι Βυνατοϊ των ττοΧιτών τα 
ΐΓ ράμματα, oXirep και ταΧαιττωρούνται μάΧιστα, 
€9 εαυτούς ιτεριττοιησειν καΐ των ττοΧεμιων eiri- 

2 κρατήσειν. e? τε την ^άμον εΧθύντες ζυνιστασάν 
τε των άνθ ρωττων τους ετητηόειους ες ξυνωμοσίαν 
και ες τους ττοΧΧούς φανερώς εΧε-γον ότι βασιλεύς 
σφίσι φίΧος εσοιτο και •χρήματα τταρεξοι ΆΧκι- 
βιάΒου τε κατεΧθόντος και μη Βημο κρατουμένων. 

3 και ό μεν οχΧος, ει και τι τταραυτικα η-χθετο τοις 
ττρασσομενοις, Βια το εΰττορον της εΧττίΒος τοΰ 
Ίταρα βασιλέως μισθού ήσύχαζεν οι Βε ξυνι- 
στάντες την οΧΐ'^/αργ^ίαν, επειΒη τω πΧήθει εκοίνω- 
σαν, αύθις καν σφίσιν αύτοΐς και του εταιρικού 
τω ττΧεονι τα άττο τοΰ ^ΑΧκιβιάΒου εοκόττουν. 

4 και τοις μεν αΧΧοις εφαινετο εύπορα καΐ ττιστά, 
Φρυνίχ^ω Βε στρατηγώ ετι οντι ούΒεν ήρεσκεν, 
αλλ' ο τ€ ^ΑΧκιβιάΒης, όπερ καΐ ην, ούΒεν μάΧΧορ 
όΧΐ'^αρ'^ζ^ίας ή Βημοκρατίας Βεϊσθαι εύόκει αντω 
272 



BOOK V^III. xi.vii. 2-XLvin. 4 

with them ; but of still greater moment was tlie 
fact that even on their own initiative the Athenian 
trierarchs at Samos and the most influential men 
were bent upon overthrowing the democracy. 

XLVIII. Tiiis movement began first in the camp 
and from there spread to the city of Athens. Then 
certain men crossed over from Samos and had a con- 
ference with Alcibiades, and when he held out to 
them that he would first make Tissaphernes a friend 
and then the King also, if there were not a democracy 
— for so the King would have more confidence in 
them — tlie influential citizens, who are apt to bear 
the heaviest burdens, had great hopes for themselves 
personally that they would get the government into 
their own hands and prevail over the enemy as well. 
So they Avent to Samos and set about combining in 
a conspiracy such men as were suitable, at the same 
time saying openly to the people that the King would 
be a friend to them and would furnish money if 
Alcibiades were restored and they Λvere not ruled by 
a democracy. The multitude, even if at the moment 
it was somewhat dissatisfied with the scheme, none 
the less kept quiet because the prospect of pay from 
the King seemed easy of attainment ; while those 
who were trying to establish the oligarchy, as soon 
as they had made their designs known to the j)eople, 
once more took up the proposals of Alcibiades for con- 
sideration among themselves and the majority of the 
members of the political clubs. And to most of these 
the proposals appeared practicable and trustworthy ; 
Phrynichus, however, who Avas still general, did not 
find them at all satisfactory, but was of opinion that 
Alcibiades had really no more desire for an oligarchy 
than for a democracy, and had no other object in 



THUCYDIDES 

ούδ' aXXo ^ τι σκο7Γ€Ϊσθαι η οτω τροττφ €Κ του 
τταρόντος κόσμου την ττόΧίΡ /Χ6ταστ?/σα9 ύττυ τώι• 
βταίρωί' - τταρακΧηθβΙς κάτβισι, σφίσι Be irepi- 
OTTTeov elvai τούτο μάΧιστα ό'ττω? μη στασιά- 
σωσιν τω βασιΧβΐ τ€ ουκ ΐΰττορον elvai, και 
ΐΙβΧοτΓοννησίων ήζη ομοίω'ζ ev ττ) θαΧάσστ) 
όντων καΐ ττόΧβις βχ^όντων ev τη αυτού (J-Pxfl 
ουκ ^Χαγ^ίστα^, ^ Αθηναίοι^ 7Γροσθέμ€Ρον, οΙ<; ου 
TTiaTeuei, ττρά'^/ματα €)(^eiv, e^ov ΪΙεΧοττοννησίους, 
ύφ' ων κακόν ovSev TTeTTOvOe, φίΧους ττοίήσασθαί. 

5 τα9 re ξυμμα-χ^ίΒας ττόΧβις, αίς υττοσ-χ^ησίσθαι^ 
όη σφά? οΧί^αρχ^ίαν, οτι Βη καΐ αύτοΙ ου 8ημο- 
κρατησονται, 6υ eloevat €φη ότι ovhev μάΧΧον 
σφίσιν οΰθ αι άφβστηκυΐαι ττροσ'χ^ωρησονται 
ούθ^ αϊ ύττάρχ^ονσαι βεβαίότ€ραί βσονταΐ' ου 
yap βονΧ7']σεσθαι αύτού<; μβτ oXr/apx^iwi η 
δημοκρατίας δουΧβυβιν μάΧΧον η μβθ οττοτβρου 

6 αν τύχωσι τούτων e\eu(9e/9ou>• elvar τους re 
καΧούς κάλαθους ονομαζόμενους ουκ έΧάσσω 
αυτούς νομίζ^ιν σφίσι ττρά-ιματα τταρέξζΐν τού 
Βημου, ττοριστας οντάς καΐ €ση^ητας των κακών 
τω Βημω, βξ ων τα ττΧβίω αυτούς ό^φβΧβισθαΐ' 
και το μ^ν eir^ έκ€ΐνοις ehai και άκριτοι αν και 

^ οϋ5' άκλο, Vat., Hude reads ^ άλλο with the other ^J8S. 
^ ΐταίρων, with Μ, Hude retains ίτίρων, with most of the 
MSS. 

* ΰτΓοσχ-ησ^σθαι, Boehme, for ύττίσχησθαι of the MSS. 

^ i. e. the aristocrats. 

* The πορισταΐ at Athens were a board appointed in times 

274 



BOOK VIII. xLvin. 4-6 

view than in some manner, by bringing about in the 
state a change from its present order, to secure his 
ΟΛνη return at the invitation of his party associates. 
The Athenians, however, in the opinion of Plu-y- 
nichus, must make it their chief concern to avoid 
being rent Avith factions. Neither Avas it in the 
interest of the King, he said, now that the Pelopon- 
nesians were at home on the sea quite as much as 
the Athenians and held possession of cities in his 
empire which Λvere not the smallest, to attach himself 
to the Athenians, whom he did not trust, and thus 
involve himself in trouble, when it Avas possible to 
make friends of the Peloponnesians, from whom he 
had suffered no harm. As for the allied cities, to 
which forsooth they would promise an oligarchical 
form of government for the reason that they them- 
selves would not be under a democracy, he said that 
he knew well that neither those which had revolted 
from the Athenians would be any more likely to 
come back into the alliance nor would those Avhich 
still remained allies be more staunch ; for they would 
not want to be slaves Avith either an oligarchy or a 
democracy in preference to being free with which- 
ever form they might perchance have such freedom. 
And as to those who were called " the good and 
true " men,i he said that the allies believed that they 
would bring them no less trouble than the popular 
party, being as they were providers ^ and proposers 
to the people of evil projects from \vhich they them- 
selves got the most benefit. Indeed, so far as it 
rested with these men, they, the allies, would be 
put to death not only Avithout trial but by methods 

of financial difSculty to devise and propose {ίσηγ^Ίσθαή new 
sources of revenue. 

275 



THUCYDIDES 

βιαιοτβρον άττοθντ]σκ€ίν, τον he 8ημορ σφων τε 
7 καταφν/ην elvai καΐ εκείνων σωφρονιστήν. καΐ 
ταύτα ■παρ' αυτών των έργων εττισταμενας τάς 
ττόλεί? σαφώς αύτο<; εΙΒεναι οτι ούτω νομίζουσιν. 
οΰκουν εαυτω γε τ6η> άττο ^ ΧΧκιβιάΖου και ^ εν 
τω τταρόντι ττρασσομενων άρεσκειν ovSev. 

XLIX. Οί Βε ξυΧΧεγεντες των εΐ' ττ} ζυνωμοσία, 
ώσιτερ καΐ το ττρώτον αύτοΐ<; εΒόκει, τά τε τταρόντα 
εΒεχ^οντο καΐ ες τάς \\θήνας ττρεσβεις ΤΙείσανΒρορ 
και άΧΧονς τταρεσκενάζοντο ττεμττειν, όπως ττερί 
τε της του ^ΑΧκιβιάΒον καθόΒου ττράσσοιεν και 
της του εκεί Βήμου καταΧύσεως και τον Τισσα- 
φέρνη φίΧον τοις \\θΐ]ναΊοις ττοιησείαν. 

L. Γνονς δε ο Φρύ/ιχ^ος οτι εσοιτο ττερΙ της 
του ΆΧκιβιάΒου καθόΒου λόγο? και ητι ^Αθηναίοι 
ενΒέξονται αυτήν, Βείσας ττρος την εναντίωσιν των 
Χε'χθεντων ύφ' αυτού μή, ην κατεΧθη, ως κωΧυτην 

2 οντά κακώς Spa, τρέπεται εττΐ τοιόν8ε τι. ττεμπει 
ώς τον \\στύοχ^ον, τον ΑακεΒαιμονιων ναυαργ^ον, 
ετι οντά τότε ττερΙ την ^ΙίΧητον, κρύφα εττιστείΧας 
οτι \\Χκιβίά87]ς αυτών τά πράγματα φθείρει 
Τισσαφέρνη Α.θηναΙοις φίΧον ποιών, και ταΧΧα 
σαφώς εγγράψας' ζυγγνώμην Βε είναι εαυτω περί 
άν8ρ6ς ποΧεμίου καϊ μετα τον της πόΧεως άξυμ- 

3 φόρου κακόν τι βουΧεύειν. 6 Βε ^ Αστύοχος τον 
μεν \\.Χκιβιά8ην, άΧΧως τε και ούκέτι ομοίως ες 
'χείρας ιόντα, ούΒε Βιενοεΐτο τιμωρεΊσθαι, άνεΧθών 
Βε παρ" αύτον ες \1αγνησΐ(ΐν καϊ παρά Ύισσα- 

^ και, in MSS. before if, bracketed by Hude, following 
Valla. 

^ cf. VI. xcii. 2 for similar excuse. 
276 



BOOK VIII. xLviii. 6-L. 3 

even more violent, whereas the people were a refuge 
to themselves and a check upon the oligarchs. This 
understanding of the matter, he asserted, the allied 
cities had gained from the facts themselves, and he 
was quite sure that this was their opinion. There- 
fore, to himself at least not one of the schemes that 
were being advocated by Alcibiades at the present 
time was satisfactory. 

XLIX. But the members of the conspiracy who 
had assembled went on as they had originally deter- 
mined and accepted the present proj)osals, and pre- 
pared to send Peisander and others as envoys to 
Athens, that they might negotiate both about the 
return of Alcibiades and the overthrow of the de- 
mocracy in tiiat city and might make Tissaphernes a 
friend to the Athenians. 

L. But Phrynichus, knowing that there would be 
a proposal for the recall of Alcibiades and that the 
Athenians would accept it, and also fearing, in view 
of the opposition he had shown in his own speech, 
that if Alcibiades came back he would do him injury 
as one who had been in his way, now had recourse 
to the following device. He sent to Astyochus, the 
Lacedaemonian admiral, who Avas at this time still 
in the neighbourhood of Miletus, secret ijiformation 
by letter that Alcibiades was ruining the Lacedae- 
monian cause by making Tissaphernes a friend of 
the Athenians, and also wrote an explicit account of 
his other doings; he added that it was pardonable 
in himself to devise evil for an enemy, even though 
this involved detriment to his state. ^ But Astyochus 
did not even think of j)unishing Alcibiades, especi- 
ally as he no longer came within his reach as 
formerly, but going up to Magnesia to visit him and 

«77 



THUCYDIDES 

φερνη αμα Xeyei re αύτοΐς τα eiriarakevra Ικ 
της Ζαμου καί ηιηνεται αυτός μηνυτής, ττροσευηκξ 
re, ώς iXeyeTo, eVt ΙΒίοις κερΒβσι Ύισσαφβρνει 
εαυτόν καΐ irepl τούτων καΐ ττερϊ των αΧλων Si' 
07Γ€ρ και, irepl της μισθοφοράς ουκ (ντεΧοΰς ούσης 

4 μαΧακωτερως άνθήτττετο. ό δε ^ΑΧκίβίάΒης ττεμ- 
ττει ευθύς κατά Φρυνί'χου γράμματα ες την Σά/χου 
ττρος τους εν τέΧει οντάς οία Βε8ρακε, καΐ αξιών 

5 αύτον άτΓοθνησκειν. θορυβούμενος 8ε 6 Φρύνιχ^ος 
καΐ ττάνυ, εν τω μεγίστω κινΒύνω ων δίά το 
μήνυμα, εττιστεΧΧει αύθις ττρος τον Αστύογ^ον, 
τά τ€ ττροτερα μεμφόμενος ότι ου καΧώς εκρυφθη, 
και νυν οτι οΧον το στράτευμα το των 'Αθηναίων 
έτοιμος εΐη το εν rfj Χάμω ^ τταρασχεΐν αύτοΐς 
Βιαφθεΐραι, >γράψας καθ' έκαστα, ατείχιστου 
ούσης ζάμου, φ αν τρόπω αυτά ττράζειε, και οτι 
άνετΓίφθονόν οι η8η εϊη ττερϊ της ψνχης Si' εκεί- 
νους κινΒυνεύοντι και τούτο και άΧΧο ττάν 8ράσαι 
μάΧΧον η υττο των εχθίστων αύτον 8ιαφθαρηναι. 
6 8ε Άστύοχος μηνύει και ταύτα τω ΆΧκι/ΒιάΒη. 

ΙΛ. Και ώ? προ)']σθετο αύτον 6 Φρύνιχος aSi- 
κούντα καΐ όσον ού τταρούσαν άττο τού ΑΧκιβιάΒου 
ττερι τούτων εττιστοΧην, αύτος ττροφθάσας τω 
στρατεύματι εξάγγεΧος ^ι^νεται ώς οι ττοΧεμιοι 
μεΧΧουσιν, ατείχιστου ούσης της Χάμου και άμα 
τών νεών ού ττασών ενΒον 6ρμουσο)ν, εττιθήσεσθαι 
τω στρατοττεδω, και ταύτα σαφώς ττεττυσμενος 
εΐη, και χρήναι τειχίζειν τε "ϊ,άμον ώς τάχιστα 

^ rh if τγ 'Σίμψ, bracketed by Hude, following Stalil. 
278 



BOOK VIII. L. 3-u. I 

Tissaphernes he not only told them the contents 
of the letter he had received from Samos, himself 
becoming an informer, but also attached himself, as 
it was said, to Tissaphernes for his own private gain, 
both in this and in other matters ; and it was for 
tliis reason that in dealing with the question of the 
pay, Λvhich was not being paid in full, his insistence 
was rather feeble. Alcibiades immediately wrote a 
letter against Phrynichus to the authorities at Samos, 
telling them what he had done and urging that 
he be put to death. Phrynichus was exceedingly 
disturbed, since he was in the very greatest danger 
on account of the information he had given ; he 
accordingly wrote again to Astyochus, reproaching 
him because his former information had not been con- 
cealed, as in honour it should have been, and adding 
that now he was ready to furnish the Lacedaemonians 
the opportunity to destroy the whole Athenian army 
at Samos, stating in detail how he could do this, 
since Samos was without walls ; it was not culpable 
in himself, he concluded, now that he was in danger 
of his life through their actions, to do this or 
anything else rather than perish himself at the 
hands of his bitterest enemies. But Astyochus gave 
information of this also to Alcibiades. 

LI. And when Phrynichus learned betimes that 
Astyochus was working to injure him and that a 
letter from Alcibiades about these matters had all 
but come, he anticipated it by himself informing the 
army that the enemy intended, seeing that Samos 
had no Λvalls and that not all the ships were anchored 
inside the harbour, to attack the camp ; he said that 
he had certain information of this, and that they 
ought to fortify Samos as quickly as possible and 

279 



THUCYDIDES 

καΐ ταλλα ev φυΧακτ] e^eiv. iaTparrj'yei he κα\ 

2 κύριος ην αύτος ττράσσων ταύτα, και οι μβν 
τον τειχ^ισμον τε τταρεσκευάζοντο και εκ του τοι- 
ούτον, και ώ? μεΧλ-ουσα, Έ,άμος θΰσσον ετεΐ'χίσθη' 
αϊ Βε τταρα του ^ΑΧκιβιάΒου εττιστοΧαΙ ου ττοΧύ 
ύστερον ηκον ότι τταραΒΊΒοταί τε το στράτευμα 
ΰτΓΟ Φρυνίχου και οι ττοΧεμιοι μεΧΧουσιν εττι- 

3 θησεσθαι. Βόζα^; 8ε 6 Άλ«ί/9<αδί;ς• ου ττιστος 
είναι, άΧΧα τα άττο των ττυΧεμίων ττροείδώ? τώ 
Φρυνίχίύ ώ? ζυνειΒότι κατ εχ^θραν άνατιθεναι, 
ούΒεν εβΧαψεν αυτόν, άΧΧα και ξυνεμαρτύρησε 
μάΧΧον ταύτα ^ εξαγγείΧας. 

LII. Μετά 8ε τούτο ^ΑΧκιβιάΒης μεν Τισσα- 
φέρνη τταρεσκεύαζε και άνεττειθεν οττω? φίΧος 
εσται τοις ^Αθηναίοις, ΒεΒιότα μεν τους Πελο- 
ΤΓοννησίους, οτι ττΧειοσι ναυσι των ^Αθηναίων 
τταρΤ^σαν, βουΧόμενον Be όμως, ει Βύναιτό ττως, 
ττεισθήναι,^ άΧΧως τε και εττειΒη την εν ττ} ΚνίΒω 
Βιαφοραν ττερί των %ηριμένους σττονΒών ^σθετο 
των ΙΙεΧοποννησίων {ηΒη yap κατά τούτον τον 
καιρόν εν τη 'Ρόδω όντων αύτω ε^ε^ένητο), εν η 
τον του ^ ΑΧκιβιάΒου Xoyov ττρότερον είρημένον 
ττερϊ τού έΧευθερονν τους ΑακεΒαιμονίους τας 
άττάσας ττόΧεις εττηΧήθευσεν ό Λί;!^ας, ού φάσκων 
άνεκτον είναι ζυyκεlσθaι κρατεϊν βασιΧέα των 
ττόΧεων, ων ττοτε καΐ ττρότερον ή αυτός η οί πατέρες 
ηρχ^ον. και ό μεν Βη ΑΧκιβιάΒης, ατε ττερΙ μεyά- 

' Heilniann's correction for ταΠτα of the MSS. 
2 iteiaey]vai, Hude reads πίστ€υθ,>αί with CG. 

280 



BOOK VIII. LI. i-Lii. I 

keep a \vatch upon everything, Now he was general, 
and was within his powers in acting thus on his own 
authority. So they set about preparing the fortifica- 
tionSj and in consequence of this Samos, which in 
any case Avould soon have been ready, was more 
quickly fortified. Not long afterward came the 
letter from Alcibiades, saying that the army was 
being betrayed by Phrynichus and that the enemy 
would soon attack. But since Alcibiades was not 
regarded as a trustworthy man, but was believed, 
as he knew beforehand the plans of the enemy, to 
be actuated by personal enmity in attributing to 
Phrynichus a guilty knowledge of them, the accusa- 
tion did Phrynichus no harm, but rather confirmed 
his statement by giving the same information. 

LII. After this Alcibiades continued to work on 
Tissaphernes and to urge him to be a friend to the 
Athenians. Now though Tissaphernes Λvas afraid of 
the Peloponnesians, because they were there with 
a larger fleet than the Athenians, nevertheless he 
wanted to follow this advice if in any way he could 
do so, especially now that he had become aware of 
the disagreement that had arisen at Cnidos among 
the Peloponnesians ^ about the treaty of Theri- 
menes — for by this time the Peloponnesians were at 
Rhodes, so that the dispute had already taken place 
— in the course of which disagreement Lichas had 
verified the statement made before by Alcibiades, that 
it was the Lacedaemonian policy to liberate all the 
cities, declaring that it was intolerable to agree that 
the King should be master of all the cities over 
which he himself or liis fathers had ever before held 
sway, Alcibiades, then, as one that contended for 

^ cf. ch. xliii. 3. 
VOL. IV. ^ 281 



THUCYDIDES 

\ων ά'γωνιζόμενο'ϊ, ττροθύμως τω Ύίσσαφέρνει 
θβραττεύων ττροσέκειτο. 

LIII. Οί Be μετά του ΐΙεισάρΒρον ττρεσβεις ^ 
άτΓοσταΧεντες €κ της "Σ,άμου, άφικόμβνοί e? τά? 

Αθι^νας, Xoyov<; βποίοΰντο iv τω 87)μω κεφαΧαι- 
οΰντβς €Κ ΤΓοΧΧών, μάΧιστα 8e ώ? εξείη αύτοΐς 

ΑΧκιβιάΒ7]ν KaTayajouat καΐ μη τον αυτόν τρο- 
ΤΓον Βημοκρατουμενοί^ βασιΧεα τε ξύμμαχ^ον εχειν 

2 καΐ ΤΙεΧοτΓοννησίων ττερι^ενεσθαι. άνηΧε^όντων 
he ποΧΧών καΐ άΧΧων ττερί της Βημοκρατίας καΐ 
των ^ΑΧκιβιάΒου άμα εχ^θρών Βιαβοώντων ώ? 
Βεινον εϊη ει τους νόμους βιασάμενος κάτεισι, και 
Έ^ύμοΧτΓΐΒών καΐ Κηρύκων ττερΙ των μυστικών, Si' 
άπερ εφυ^ε, μαρτυρομενων και εττιθειαζόντων μη 
KaTayeiv, ό ΐΙείσανΒρος τταρεΧθών ττρος ττοΧΧην 
avTiXoyiav και σχετΧιασμον τ/ρώτα ενα εκαστον 
7τapάyωv των άvτιXεyovτωv, ηντινα εΧττίΒα έχει 
σωτηρίας τη ττοΧει, ΐΙεΧοποννησίων ναΰς τ€ ουκ 
έΧάσσους σφών εν τη θαΧάσση αντιττρωρους εχόν- 
των και ττόΧεις ξυμμαχίΒας ττΧείους, βασιΧεως 
τε αύτοις και Τισσαφέρνους χρήματα τταρεχόντων, 
σφ'ισι Be ούκετι όντων, ει μη τις ττείσει βασιΧεα 

3 μεταστήναι παρά σφάς. όττότε Βε Βη μη φαΐεν 
ερωτώμενοι, ενταύθα Βη σαφώς εXεyev αύτοΐς ότι 
" ΤοΟτο τοίνυν ουκ εστίν ημϊν yεveσθaι, ει μη 
ποΧιτεύσομεν τε σωφρονεστερυν καΐ e? 6Xίyoυς 

^ των 'Αθηναίων, after πρίσβ€ΐ5, deleted by Dobree. 

^ The priestly clan which provided the hierophants of the 
Eleusinian Mysteries and the interpreters of laws touching 
impiety. 

^ The other great priestly house, who actually slew the 

282 



BOOK VIII. Lii. i-Liii. 3 

a great prize, was assiduously paying court to 
Tissapliei'iies. 

LIII. MeanAvhile the envoys that had been sent 
from Samos Avith Peisander arrived at Athens and 
made a statement before a meeting of the people, 
offering a summary of many arguments but urging 
Avith special emphasis that it was possible for them, 
by recalling Alcibiades and adopting a different form 
of democratic government, both to have the King as 
their ally and to prevail over the Peloponnesians. 
But as to the democracy, many others spoke against 
the scheme, and at the same time the enemies 
of Alcibiades loudly protested that it Avould be an 
outrage if, after defying the laws, he should be 
restored; the Eumoljndae^ also and the Ceryces ^ 
bore witness against him on the score of the mysteries, 
for whose violation he had been banished, and pro- 
tested in the name of the gods against bringing him 
back. VVMiereupon Peisander came forAvard and in 
the face of much protest and abuse took each one of 
the objectors aside and asked him what hope he had 
of the salvation of the state, ηοΛν that the Pelopon- 
nesians had no fewer ships than they confronting 
them at sea and a larger number of allied cities, with 
the King and Tissaphernes furnishing the enemy 
with money, Λvhile they themselves no longer had 
money, unless someone should persuade the King to 
change over to the Athenian side. And when, in 
answer to this question, they all admitted there was 
no other hope, he thereupon told them plainly : 
"Well, this cannot be attained by us unless we form 
a Aviser government and put the offices to a greater 

victims ; they are generally mentioned in association with 
the Eumolpidae. 

283 



THUCYDIDES 

μάΧΧον τα? άρχ^ας ττοιησομβν,^ ίνα ττιστεντ) ημΐν 
βασιΧβύς, και μη ττερί πολίτεια? το ττΧέον βου- 
Χβύσομβν^ iv τω τταρόντίη irepX σωτηρία'^ [varepov 
•yap βζβσται ημΐν καΐ μ^ταθίσθαι, ην μη τι άρύσκη), 
'AX/ct/SirtS?;/' τ€ κατάξομεν, δ? μονο<ί των νύν οΙός 
τε τούτο Λτατεργασασ^αί." 

LIV. Ο Be 8ήμο<; το μ€ν ττρώτον άκηύων -χ^αΧβ- 
ττώ? €φ€ρ€ το irepl της 6Xiyap)(^La^• σαφώς Se 
ΒιΒασκόμβνος υττο του UeiaavSpov μη elvai άΧΧην 
σωτηρίαν, δεισα? καΐ αμα βττεΧττίζων ^ ώς και 

2 μβταβαΧβΐται, βνέΒωκεν. και ε^Ιτηφίσαντο irXev- 
σαντα τον YleiaavSpov και Βέκα άνΒρας μετ αυτού 
ττράσσειν οττη αύτοΐς Βοκοίη άριστα βξειν τά Τ6 

3 ττρος τον Τισσαφέρνη και τον ^ΑΧκιβιάΒην. αμα 
τ€ ΒιαβαΧόντος και Φρύνιχον τού ΐΙεισάνΒρου 
τταρίΧυσαν της άργ^ης και τον ξυνάρχ^οντα Sa:*- 
ρωνίΒην, άντβττεμψαν Be στρατη'^ους επι τά? ναύς 
ΑιομέΒοντα και AeovTa. τον Be Φρύνιχον 6 ΐΐεί- 
σανΒρος φάσκων '\ασον ττροΒούναι και ^Αμόρ'γην 
ΒιέβαΧεν, ου νομίζων ετητήΒειον elvai τοΐς ττρος 

4 τον \\\κιβιάΒην 7Γρασσομ€νοις. και ό μεν Ilet- 
σανΒρος τά? τε ξυνωμοσίας, αΐπερ ετύ^γχανον 
ττρότερον εν τη ττόΧει ούσαι εττΐ Βίκαις και άργ^αΐς, 
άττάσας εττεΧθων και τταρακεΧευσά μένος οττως 
ξυστραφεντες και κοινή βουΧευσάμενοι καταΧύ- 

5 σουσι τον Β?ιμον, και ταΧΧα τταρασκευάσας ε•π\ 
τοϊς τταρούσιν ώστε μηκετι ΒιαμίΧΧεσθαί, αυτό? 
μετά των Βεκα άνΒρών τον ττΧούν ως τον Τισσα- 
φέρνη ττοιβΐται. 

^ ras άρχάϊ ττοι-ησομ^ν, omitted by Hude with C. 
^ βον\(νσομ(ν, Β ; Hude adopts βουΚΐύωμΐν of C, and begins 
the parenthesis at καί. 

284 



BOOK VIII. Liii. 3-Liv. 5 

extent into the hands of a few, in order that the 
King may trust us, and unless in our deHberations 
we take less heed at present about the form of our 
government than about our salvation (for afterwards 
it will be possible for us to make a change if there 
is anything we do not like), and recall Alcibiades, 
who is the only man in the world to-day who is able 
to bring this result to pass." 

LIV. The assembly was at first displeased when 
they heard the proposal concerning an oligarchy ; 
but when they had been plainly shown by Peisander 
that there was no other salvation, through fear and 
at the same time because they expected to make 
a change later, they yielded. So they voted that 
Peisander and ten others should sail and conduct 
the negotiations with Tissaphernes and Alcibiades 
in whatever way might seem best to them. At the 
same time, Λvhen Peisander brought a false accusa- 
tion against Phrynichus, they deposed him and his 
colleague Scironides from command and sent in their 
stead Diomedon and Leon to take charge of the 
fleet. For Peisander alleged that Phrynichus had 
betrayed lasus and Amorges, and slandered him, 
because he did not believe him to be friendly to the 
negotiations with Alcibiades. And Peisander also 
visited all the clubs which chanced previously to 
exist in the city for the control of courts and officials 
and exhorted them to unite, and by taking common 
counsel to overthro\v the democracy. Then, after 
he had made whatever other arrangements the 
circumstances demanded, so that there might be 
no further delay, he himself and the ten other men 
made their voyage to Tissaphernes, 

^ (ττ(\-πιζοιν, Hurle (Κπ'ιζων with CG. 

285 



THUCYDIDES 

LV. Ό δε Κίων καΧ 6 ΑιομέΒων ev τω αυτω 
'χ^ειμώνί ά.φί'^μ,βνοι ήΒη errl τα? των 'Αθηναίων 
ναύ<ί βττίττΧονν τύ} 'Ρόδω βττοιήσαντο. κα\ τα? 
μβν ναΰ<; καταΚαμβάνουσ lv άν€ΐ,\κυσμ€να<; των 
ίΐ€\θ7Γοννΐ]σίων, e? δε την γηΐ' άπόβασίν τίνα 
ΤΓΟίησάμενοι καΐ τους ττροσβοηθήσαντα'ζ 'Ροδίων 
νικήσαντβ'ζ μίίχη άττβ'χ^ώρησαν ε'? την ^άΧκην, 
καΙ τον τΓοΧεμον βντεύθβν μάΧλον ή ^ εκ τή<; Κώ 
ετΓοιοΰντο• εύφυΧακτότερα <γαρ αύτοΐς eyiyveTo, ει 
ποι άτταίροι το των ΐΙεΧοττοννησίων ναυτικον. 

2 "ΉΧθε δ' ες ΤΓ^ι^'Ρόδοι^ και 'Ξ.ενοφαντίδας Αάκων 
τταρα ΪΊεδαρίτου εκ Xtou, \εyωv οτι το τεΓχος 
των Αθηναίων η8η ετητετεΧεσται και, εΐ μη 
βοηθησουσι ττάσαα ταΐς ναυσίν, άττοΧεΙται. τα 
εν Χίω lτpάyμaτa. οΐ δε 8ίενοοΰντο βοιιθησείν. 

3 εν τούτω δε ό Πεδάρίτο? αυτός τε καΐ το ττερϊ 
αυτόν ετΓίΚονρικον εχ^ων καΐ τους Χίου? ττανστρα- 
τιά ττροσβαΧων των 'Αθηναίων τω ττερϊ τας νανς 
ερύματι αίρει τε τι αυτοί) και νεών τίνων άνειΧ- 
κνσμένων εκράτησεν. ε7ΓεκβθΊ]θησύντων δε των 
'Αθηναίων καΐ τρεψαμένων τους Xtof? ττρώτονς 
νικάται καΐ το αΧΧο το ττερΙ τον ΐΙεΒάριτον, καΐ 
αύτος άποθντίσκει και των \ίων ττοΧΧοΙ καΐ οττΧα 
εΧήφθη ποΧΧά. 

LVI. Μετά δε ταύτα οι μεν Χΐοι εκ τε 7% Λ'Λί 
θαΧάσσης ετι μάΧΧον η πρότερον εττοΧιορκοΰντο 
και ό Χιμος αυτόθι ην μεyaς• οΐ δε ττερϊ τον ΥΙεί- 
σανδρον 'Αθηναίων ττρεσβεις άφικόμενοι ώς τον 
Ύισσαφερν7] λόγοι;? ττοιουνται ττερϊ της oμoXoyιaς. 

1 With Μ. 
286 



BOOK VIU. Lv. i-Lvi. I 

LV. in the same winter Leon and Diomedon, 
who had by now readied the Athenian fleet, made 
an advance upon Rhodes. They found the ships of 
the Peloponnesians hauled up on the shore, and 
having effected a landing and having defeated in 
battle the lihodians λυΙιο rallied to the defence, they 
retired to Chalce and continued to carry on the war 
from there rather than from Cos ; for it was easier 
for them to keep watch there in case the Pelopon- 
nesian fleet should put to sea in any direction. 

Meanwhile Xenophantidas, a Laconian, had come 
to Rhodes from Pedaritus at Chios, bringing Avord 
tliat the Athenian fortification ^ was now completed 
and that, unless they came to their aid \vith all their 
ships, tlie Peloponnesian cause at Chios would be 
lost. And they intended to go to their aid ; but 
meanwhile Pedaritus himself, together with the 
mercenaries under his command - and the Chians 
in full force, attacked that part of the Atiienian 
fortification which protected the ships, capturing a 
portion of it and getting possession of some ships 
tliat had been hauled up on shore. But when the 
Athenians had come out to the rescue and turned 
the Chians to flight at the outset, the mercenary 
force that was with Pedaritus was also defeated, and 
he himself and many of the Chians were killed and 
arms Λvere captured in great (juantity. 

LVI. After this the Chians were besieged by both 
land and sea more closely than ever and there was 
a great famine in the place. Mean\vhile the 
Athenian envoys led by Peisander had reached 
Tissaphernes and were holding conferences regard- 

^ cf. ch. xxxviii. 2 ; xl. 3. 
^ cf. c!i. xxviii. 5 ; xxxviii. 3. 

287 



THUCYDIDES 

2 ^Α\κιβιά8ης Se {ου yap αύτω -πάνυ τα άττο Ύισσα- 
φέρΐ'ονς βέβαια ην, φοβούμενου τους ΪΙβΧοπον- 
νησίονζ μάΧλον καϊ ert, βουΧομένον, καθάττβρ 
καΐ ύττ' εκείνου εΒιΒάσκετο, τρίβειν άμφοτ€ρου<;) 
τρβτΓβται εττΐ roiavSe είδος ώστε τον Τισσαφέρνη 
ως μέγιστα αιτούντα τταρα των \\θηναίων μη 

3 ξνμβήναί. Βοκεΐ Βέ μοι καΐ ό Τισσαφέρνης το 
αυτό βουΧηθήναι, αυτός μεν Βια το Βεος, ό δέ 
\\ΧκιβιάΒης, επειΒη εώρα εκείνον και ως ου ζυμ- 
βησείοντα, Βοκεϊν τοις Άθηναίοις εβούΧετο μη 
άΒύνατος είναι ττεΐσαι, ά\Χ ώς ττεττεισμενω Τισσα- 
φερνει και βουΧομένω ττροσχωρήσαι τους Άθη- 

4 ναίους μη ικανά BiSovai. ητει jap τοσαυτα 
ύττερβάΧΧων ό \\.Χκιβιάδης, Χέ^ων αύτος ύττερ 
■παρόντος του Τισσαφέρνους, ώστε το ^ των \\θη- 
ναίων, καίττερ εττι ττοΧύ 6 τι αιτοιη ξνγχ^ωρουντων, 
όμως αίτιον γενέσθαι• Τωνίαν τε yap ττάσαν 
7]ξίου ΒίΒοσθαι καΐ αύθις νήσους τε τάς εττικει- 
μένας καϊ άΧΧα' οίς ουκ εναντιουμένων των Αθη- 
ναίων τέΧος εν τη τρίτΐ] η8η ξυνόΒω, Βείσας μη 
ττάνυ φωραθη αδύνατος ων, ναύς ηξίου εάν βασι- 
Χέα ττοιεΐσθαι καϊ ΤΓαραττΧεΐν την εαυτών yrjv 

5 ότΓΟί αν και οσαις αν βούΧηται. ενταύθα 8η 
ονκέτι τι, αλλ' ^ άττορα νομίσαντες οι Αθηναίοι 
καϊ υττο τού \ΚΧκιβιά8ου έζηττατησθαι, δί οργής 
άπεΧθόντες κομίζονται ες την Έ,άμον. 

> With Β, the other MSS. omit τό. 

^ ουκίτι τι, αλλ', Hude omits η with C and adopts ^ after 
αλλ' with Lindau. 

288 



BOOK VIII. Lvi. 2-5 

ing the agreement. But Alcibiades (for his rela- 
tions with Tissaphernes Avere not altogether firm, 
he being now more afraid of the Peloponnesians 
and still wishing to follow the policy inculcated by 
Alcibiades and wear out both parties) ηοΛν had 
recourse to this device — that Tissaphernes should 
make as great demands as possible upon the 
Athenians and in this way come to no agreement 
with them. And Tissaphernes also, as it seems to 
me, wished the same thing, fear being the motive in 
his case ; but Alcibiades, as soon as he saw that 
even on his own terms he did not want to reach 
an agreement, wished it to appear to the Athenians, 
not that he Λvas unable to persuade him, but that 
the Athenians, after Tissaphernes had been per- 
suaded and in spite of his wishing to come to terms, 
were not conceding enough. For Alcibiades made 
such excessive demands, speaking himself on behalf 
of Tissaphernes and in his presence, that although 
for a long time the Athenians yielded whatever he 
demanded, the blame for the failure must neverthe- 
less fall upon them; for he insisted that all Ionia 
should be given up, after that the adjacent islands, 
and so on. When the Athenians did not oppose 
these demands, finally, at the third conference, fearing 
that his utter lack of influence would be openly ex- 
posed, he insisted that the King be ])ermitted to build 
ships and sail along the Athenian coasts wherever 
he wished and with as many ships as he pleased. 
At that point the Athenians yielded no further, but 
believing that there Λvas no way out of the matter 
and that they had been deceived by Alcibiades, 
departed in anger and made their way back to 
Samos. 

289 



THUCYDIDES 

LA^II. Ύισσαφ€ρΐΊ]<; 8e βύθύς μετά ταύτα καΐ 
ii> τω αύτω -χβίμώνί rrapepy^eraL €9 την Καύνον, 
βουΧόμενο'; τους ΤΙεΧοποννησίονς ττάΧιν re κομί- 
σαί €9 την ^ίΧητον και ξυνθήκας ετι άλλα? 
ττοιησάμβνος, ας αν Βύνηται, τροφήν τε τταρεγειν 
και μη τταντάττασιν εκττεποΧεμωσθαι, 8εΒιως μη, 
ην άτΓορωσι ποΧλαΐς νανσι της τροφής, η τοις 
^Κθηναίοις αναη κασθ έντ ες ναυμα'χείν ήσσηθωσιτ 
η κενωθεισών των νέων άνευ εαυτού ^ενηται 
τοις Άθηναίοις ά βούΧονταΐ' ετι δέ εφοβείτο 
μάΧιστα μη της τροφής ζητήσει ττορθήσωσι την 
2 ήπειρον. πάντων οΰν τούτων Χο^ισμω και ττρο- 
νο'ια, ωσττερ εβούΧετο εττανισούν τους ' ΚΧΧΐ]νας 
προς άΧΧηΧους, μεταιτεμ'ψάμενος ουν τους ΙΤελο- 
ΊΓοννησιους τροφ/^ν τε αύτοίς 8ι8ωσι και σπονΒας 
τρίτας τάσΒε σττένΒεται. 

LVIII. "Ύρίτω και Βεκάτω ετει Ααρείου βασι- 
Χεύοντος, εφορεύοντος Βε ^ ΑΧεξιτητίΒα εν Αακε- 
Βαίμονι, ξυνθήκαι i'y ενόντα εν ΜαιάνΒρου πεΒίω 
ΑακεΒαιμονιων καϊ των ξυμμάχ^ων ττρος Τισ- 
σαφέρνη καΐ Ιεραμενη καϊ τους Φαρνάκου τταΐοας 
περί των βασιΧεως πραγμάτων και ΑακεΒαι- 
μονίων και των ξνμμάχ^ων• 

2 " ^ώραν την βασιΧεως, οση της Ασίας εστί, 
βασιΧεως ειναί' καϊ περί της ■χ^ώρας της εαυτού 
βουΧευετω βασιΧεύς όπως βούΧεται. 

3 " ΑακεΒαιμονίους Βε κα\ τους ξυμμάγ^ους μη 
ιεναι επΙ γ^ώραν την βασιΧεως επΙ κακω μηΒενί, 
μηΒε βασιΧεα επι την ΑακεΒαι μονίων μηΒε των 

4 ζυμμάγ^ων επϊ κακω μηΒενί. ήν Be τις Αακε- 
290 



BOOK Vlll. Lvii. i-Lviii. 4 

LVII. Immediately after tliis, in the course of 
the same winter, Tissaphernes proceeded to Caunus, 
wishing to bring the Peloponnesians back to Miletus, 
and after concluding with them such other agree- 
ments as he found practicable, to supply them with 
maintenance, and not be in a state of complete 
hostility ; for he was afraid that, if they should be 
in dirticulty about the maintenance of a large Heet, 
they miglit either be forced to fight the Athenians 
and suffer defeat, or that, their ships being emptied 
of men by desertion, the Athenians might get what 
they wanted \vithout his help ; and he was afraid, 
furthermore and chiefly, that in searching for sup- 
plies they might ravage the mainland. Taking all 
these possibilities into consideration, therefore, and 
as a precaution against them, and acting consistently 
with his policy to reduce the Hellenes to an equality 
with each other, he sent for the Peloponnesians and 
gave them supplies, and concluded with them a 
a third treaty to tlie follo\ving effect : 

LVIII. '' In the thirteentli year of the reign of 
Darius, wiiile Alexippidas was ephor at Lacedaemon, 
an agreement Avas made in the plain of the Maeander 
by the Lacedaemonians and their allies with Tis- 
saphernes, Hieramenes, and the sons of Pharnaces 
respecting the King's affairs and those of the 
Lacedaemonians and their allies. 

1. "The King's country, as much of it as is in 
Asia, shall be the King's ; and concerning his own 
country the King shall determine as he pleases. 

2. " The Lacedaemonians and their allies shall 
not go against the country of the King to do any 
harm, nor the King against that of the Lacedae- 
monians or their allies to do any harm. If any of 

291 



THUCYDIDES 

δαιμονίων ή των ζυ μ μάγιων εττΐ κακω ϊτ) eVt την 
βασίΧβω^; ^ώραν, Αακε^αιμονίους και τού? ζνμ- 
μάχονς κωΧύειν και ην τις €κ της βασιΧεως 
ϊτ) iirl κακω εττΐ ΑακεΒαιμοΐ'ίους η τους ζ^μ- 
μάγ^ους, βασιΧβύς κωΧυέτω. 

5 " Ύροφην Se ταϊς νανσι ταΐς νυν τταρούσαιςΎισ- 
σαφέρΐ'η irape^eiv κατά τα ζυ^ κείμενα μέχρι αν αϊ 

6 νΡ]€ς αΐ βασιΧβως εΧθωσιν ΑακβΒαιμονίους δέ και 
τους ξυμμάχους, εττην αϊ βασιΧεως νήες άφικων- 
ται, τας εαυτών ναύς, ην βούΧωνται, τρεφειν 
εφ' εαυτοΐς είναι. ην he τταρα Τισσαφέρνους 
Χαμβάνειν εθεΧωσι την τροφην, Τισσαφέρνη 
τταρεχειν, ΑακεΒαιμονίους Βε και τους ξυμμάχους 
τεΧευτώντος του ττοΧεμου τα χρήματα Τισσα- 
φερνει άτΓοδοΟ/'αί οττόσα αν Χάβωσιν. 

7 "ΈτΓ?)!^ δέ αΐ βασιΧεως νήες άφίκωνται, α'ί τε 
ΑακεΒαιμονίων νήες καΐ αϊ των ξυμμάχων και 
αΐ βασίΧεως KOivfj τον ττόΧεμον ττοΧεμούντων 
καθ' ο τι αν Τισσαφερνει 8οκη και ΑακεΒαι- 
μονίοις καΐ τοις ξυμμάχοις. ην 8ε καταΧύειν 
βούΧωνται ττρος Αθηναίους, εν ομοίφ κατα- 
Χύεσθαι. 

LIX. At μεν σττονΒαΙ αύται ε'γενοντο. καΐ 
μετά ταύτα τταρεσκευάζετο Τισσαφέρνης τάς τε 
Φοινίσσας ναύς άξων, ώσττερ ειρητο, και ταΧΧα 
δσαττερ ύπεσχετο, και εβούΧετο παρασκευαζό- 
μενος ^ούν δήΧος είναι. 

LX. Βοιωτοί Βε τεΧευτώντος ηΒη τού χειμώνος 
^ΠρωτΓον εΙΧον ττροΒοσία Αθηναίων εμφρουρουν- 
των. ξυνέττραξαν Be 'Ρψετριών τε άνΒρες καΐ 
αυτών ^ίίρωττίων επιβουΧεύοντες άττοστασιν της 

292 



BOOK VIII. Lviii. 4-Lx. i 

the Lacedaemonians or their allies shall go with 
harmful intent against the country of the King, the 
Lacedaemonians and their allies shall prevent it ; 
and if any from the King's country shall go with 
harmful intent against the Lacedaemonians or their 
allies, the King shall prevent it. 

3. " Maintenance for the ships now present shall 
be provided by Tissaphernes according to the com- 
pact until the King's ships shall come ; and the 
Lacedaemonians and their allies, after the King's 
ships arrive, shall be at liberty to maintfxin their 
own ships if they so wish. If, however, they desire 
to receive maintenance from Tissaphernes, he shall 
furnish it; but the Lacedaemonians and their allies, 
when the war ends, shall pay back to Tissaphernes 
whatever money they have received. 

4. "And when the ships of the King arrive, the 
ships of the Lacedaemonians and their allies and 
those of the King shall wage war in common, accord- 
ing as it may seem best to Tissaphernes and to the 
Lacedaemonians and their allies. And if they wish 
to end the Avar with the Athenians, it shall be 
ended on the same footing for both." 

LIX. Such was the treaty they made. After 
this Tissaphernes set about preparing to bring the 
Phoenician ships, as had been agreed, and to carry 
out all the other things he had promised ; and he 
Avished it to be evident that at all events he was 
making preparations. 

LX. \Vhen the Avinter Avas now ending the 
Boeotians took Oropus, Avhere the Athenians had 
a garrison, by treachery. And they had the co- 
operation of some men of Eretria and of Oropus 
itself Λνΐιο were plotting for the revolt of Euboea. 

293 



THUCYDIDES 

Κνβοίας• iirl yap rfj Έρβτρία το γ^ωρίον ov 
αδύνατα ην ^Αθηναίων βγ^όντων μη ου μβ^άΧα 
βΧάτττβιν καΐ Έρβτριαν και την αΧλ,ην Έ,ΰβοιαν. 

2 €χοντ€<ζ ονν ήΒη τον ^ΠρωτΓον άφικνοΰνται i<{ 
'PoSov οι ^Ερετριη<;, βττικαΧουμενοι e? την Ευ- 
βοιαν τους ΐΙεΧοττοννησίους. οί Se ΤΓρος την της 
Χίου κακουμένης βοηθβιαν μαΧΧον ωρμηντο, καΐ 
αραντβς ττάσαίς ταΐς νανσΐν i/c της Ρόδου knXeov. 

3 καΐ ιγενόμενοί ττβρί το Ύριό'πιον καθορώσι τας 
των \\θηναίων ναΰς ττβΧα^ίας άττο της ΚάΧκης 
ττΧεούσας' καΐ ώς οΰΒετβροι άΧΧήλοις iireTr^eov, 
άφικνοΰνται οί μβν e? την Έ,άμον, οί δε e? την 
^ΙίΧητον καΐ βώρων ουκετι άνβυ ναυμαχ^ίας οΙόν 
Τ€ elvai €ς την Χ.ίον βθ)]θήσαί. καΐ ο 'χ^βιμων 
ετεΧβύτα ούτος, καϊ είκοστον €τος τω ττοΧβμγ 
βτεΧβύτα τωδβ ον ^ουκυΒί8ης ξυνβγραψεν• 

LXI. Ύοΰ δ' €7ΓΓ/ΐ'γνομ€νου θέρους άμα τω 
ηρί βύθύς άρχ^ομενω Α,ερκυΧίΒας Τ€, άνηρ 'Στταρ- 
τιάτης, στρατιαν βχ^ων ου ττοΧΧην παρεττεμφθη 
ττεζΐ] €φ' Έ,ΧΧησττόντου "ΑβυΒον άττοστήσων 
{είσΐ 8e }^1ίΧησίων άποικοι), καϊ οι Χΐοι, ev οσω 
αύτοίς ό\\στύο)(ος ηττόρβι όττως βοηθησοιναυμα- 
'χ^ησαι πιεζόμενοι τη ττοΧιορκια ηνα^κάσθησαν. 
2 ετυγον δε έ'τί εν 'Ρόδω οντος ^Αστυόχου εκ της 
Μ,ιΧητου Αεοντά τε, άνΒρα Έ^τταρτιάτην, ος 
^ Αντισθενει επιβάτης ξυνεξήΧθε, κεκομισμενοι^ 
μετά τον ΥΙεΒαρίτου θάνατον άρ~χοντα και ναύς 
Βΐύ^εκα, α'ί ετυχ^ον φύΧακες ^ΙιΧιίτου ονσαι, ων 
ήσαν Ηούριαι πέντε καϊ Χυρακόσιαι τέσσαρες 
και μία Άναιΐτις καϊ μία ^ίιΧησια καϊ Αεοντος 

^ τούτον, before K€K-o/xiffyueVo/, omitted by Ilude, with C, 
294 



BOOK νΐίΐ. LX. I-LXI. 2 

For since the place is opposite Eretria, it was im 
possible, Avhile the Athenians held it, that it should 
not injure greatly both Eretria and Euboea in 
general. Now, therefore, that they had Oropus in 
their possession, the Eretrians came to Rhodes and 
invited the Peloponnesians to Euboea. They, how- 
ever, \vere more intent upon relieving Chios, which 
was in distress ; so they put off from Rhodes and 
sailed with all their ships. When they had arrived 
in the neighbourhood of Triopium they saw the 
Athenian fleet on the high seas as they were sailing 
from Chalce ; ^ as neither fleet, however, advanced 
to attack the other, the Athenians arrived at Samos, 
and the Peloponnesians at Miletus, when they saAv 
that it was no longer possible to bring succour to 
Chios without a fight. So this winter ended, and 
Avith it the twentieth year of this war of Avhich 
Thucydides wrote the history. 

LXI. During the following summer season, at the March, 

411 Β C 

very opening of spring, Dercylidas, a Spartan, Λvas 
sent overland with no small army to the Hellespoiit 
to effect the revolt of Abydus, a Milesian colony ; and 
the Chians, while Astyochus was still at a loss as 
to how he should bring relief to them, were so hard 
pressed by the siege that they were compelled to 
risk a fight at sea. Now it so happened that while 
Astyochus was still at Rhodes they had brought 
from Miletus as commander, after the death of 
Pedaritus, a Spartan named Leon, who had come 
Dut with Antisthenes as a marine, and also twelve 
ships which chanced to be on guard at Miletus, of 
which five Λvere Thurian, four Syracusan, one Anaean, 
one Milesian, and one Leon's own. After, there- 
1 cj. ch. Iv, 1, 

295 



THUCYDIDES 

3 μία, eire^eKO όντων Be των Χ.ίων ττανΒημεΙ και 
καταΧαβύντων τί (ρυμνον χ^ωρίον και των νεών 
αντοΙ<; άμα 'έξ καΐ τριάκοντα επί, τας των ^Αθη- 
ναίων Βύο και τριάκοντα άνα^/α^ομενων ivav- 
μάγ^ησαν και καρτεράς '^/ενομενη^; ναυμαχίας 
ουκ εΧασσον e^^Ofxe? iv τω βρ'γω οΐ Χΐοί καΐ 
οι ξύμμαχοι {ή8η yap και ογβ ην) άνβχ^ώρησαν 
e? την τΓοΧιν. 

LX1I. λίετά δε τούτο εύθυς του ^βρκνΧίζου 
Ίτεζτι εκ της λΐίλτ^τοι; τταρεΧθόντος, "ΑβυΒος εν 
τω ΈΧΧησττόντω αφίσταται ττρος ΑερκυΧίΒαν 
και Φαρνάβαζον, καΐ Αάμψακος Βυοΐν ημεραιν 

2 ύστερον. Έτρομβιχ^ίΒης δε εκ της Χίου ττυθό- 
μενος κατά τάχ^ος βοηθήσας ναυσιν Αθηναίων 
τεσσαρσι και εϊκοσι, ό)ν και στρατιωτικές ήσαν 
οττΧίτας ά^ονσαι, εττεξεΧθόντων των Ααμψα- 
κηνων μάχη κρατησας και αύτοβοεί Αάμψακον 
άτείχιστον ουσαν εΧών, και σκεύη μεν και 
άνΒράτΓοΒα apTraytjv ττοιησάμενος, τους δε ε'λευ- 
θερονς ττάΧιν κατοικίσας, ε'ττ' "ΑβυΒον ηΧθεν, 

3 και oVi ούτε ττροσεχώρουν ούτε τροσβαΧων 
εΒύνατο εΧεΐν, ες το άντιττερας της ^ΑβύΒυο 
άττοττΧεύσας ^ηστον ττόΧιν της Χερσονήσου, ην 
ΤΓΟτε ^ ΜΓ;δοι είχον, καθίστατο φρούριον καΐ 
φυΧακήΐ' του παντός ΚΧΧησττόντου. 

LXIII. Εί^ τούτω δε οι Χΐοί τε θαΧασσο- 
κράτορες μαΧΧον ε^ενοντο καΐ οι εν τη Μί,λ/;τω 
και ό \Αστύοχος ττυθόμενος τα ττερί την ναυμα- 
χίαν καΐ τον ΈτρομβιχίΒηΐ' καΐ τάς ναύς άττεΧη- 
2 Χυθότα εθάρσησεν. καΐ τταραπΧεύσας Βυοΐν 
νεοΐν ^Αστύοχος ες Χιον κομίζει αύτόθεν τάς 

^ ποτ€, with Β ; Hude reads rare with the other MSS. 
296 



BOOK VIII. Lxi. 2-Lxiii. e 

fore, the Chians had sailed forth in full force and 
seized a strong position, and their ships at the same 
time to the number of thirty-six had put to sea 
against the thirty-two of the Athenians, they came 
to battle. It proved to be a stubborn fight, and the 
Chians and their allies did not have the Λvorst of it 
in the action, but since it was by this time late they 
withdrew to the city. 

LXII. Immediately after this, when Dercylidas 
had completed his march overland from Miletus, 
Abydus on the Hellespont revolted to Dercylidas 
and Pharnabazus, as did Lampsacus also two days 
afterwards. But Strombichides, learning of this, 
came from Chios with all speed to the rescue with 
twenty-four Athenian ships, of which some were 
transports and carried hoplites ; and having defeated 
in battle the Lampsacenes who came out against him 
and taken at the first assault the city of Lampsacus, 
which was without walls, he made booty of goods 
and slaves but restored the free men to their homes, 
and then went against Abydus. And when its 
inhabitants would not yield and he was unable to 
take the city by assault, he sailed back to the coast 
opposite Abydus and made Sestus, a city of the 
Chersonese Avhich the Persians once held, a fortress 
and Avatch-station for the control of the whole 
Hellespont. 

LXI II. In the meantime not only had the Chians 
strengthened their command of the sea, but Astyochus 
also and the Peloponnesians at Miletus, learning the 
result of the sea-fight and about the departure of 
Strombichides and his fleet, took courage. So 
Astyochus sailed along the coast to Chios with two 
ships, took on the ships which were there, and with 

297 



THUCYDIDES 

ναΟς, και ξυμττάσαις ή8η ζττίττΧουν Trocecrai eVi 
την Έ,άμοί'' και ώς αντω Sta το άΧΧηΧοις 
ύπόπτω? ^χ^ίν ουκ avTaviiyovTO, άττεττλευσε 
ττάΧιν €9 την ΜίΧητον. 

3 ΤτΓΟ yap τούτον τον χρονον καΐ €tl ττρότζ- 
ρον ή €v ταΐς ^Αθήναι<; Βημοκρατία κατΐΧύβτο. 
ineiSi] yap οΊ ττβρί τον ΤΙβίσαν^ρον ττρβσββις τταρά 
του Τισσαφέρνους e? την Έ,άμον ηΧθον, τά τ€ ev 
αύτω τω στρατευματι ετι βββαιότβρον κατ- 
έΧαβον, καΐ αυτών των Ταμιών ττρουτρβψαντο 
τους Βυνατούς ώστε ττβιράσθαι μβτα σφών οΧι- 
yap■χ^]θr)vaL, καίττβρ βτταναστάντας αυτούς άΧ- 

4 Χιίλοις Ίνα μη oXiyapx^SyvTai. και ev σφίσιν 
αύτοΐς αμα ο'ι ev τη "^άμω τών \\θηναίων κοινο- 
XoyoύμevoL €σκ€ψαντο ^ΑΧκιβίάΒην μεν, iirei- 
SyJTTep ου βούΧεται, iav {καΐ yap ουκ έττιτηΒζίον 
αύτον eivai e? oXtyap^^iav iXOelv), αυτούς Be 
€7γΙ σφών αυτών, ώς ηΒη κα\ κινΒυνβύοντας, όράν 
οτω τρόττω μη άνζθήσεται τα irpaypaTa, και 
τα του ΤΓοΧεμου αμα avTe)(€iv, και εσφβρειν 
αυτούς €Κ τών ΙΒιων οίκων ττρ^θύμως -χρήματα 
και ην τί αΧΧο Βεη, ώς ούκέτι άΧΧοις η σφίσιν 
αύτοΐς ταΧαιπωροΰντας. 

LXIV. ΐΙαρακβΧενσάμενοί ούν τοιαύτα τον μεν 
ΠείσανΒρον ευθύς τότε καΐ τών ττρεσβεων τους 
ημίσεις άττεστεΧΧον eV οϊκου Ίτράξαντας τάκεΐ, 
και εϊρητο αύτοΐς τών υπηκόων ττοΧεων αις αν 
2 ϊσχωσιν oXiyap^iav καθιστάναί' τους Β ημί- 
σεις ες τάΧΧα τα υττήκοα χωρία άΧΧους άΧΧη 

^ cf. ch. xlviii. 1. 



BOOK VIII. Lxm. 2-lxiv. 2 

what was now the entire fleet advanced against 
Samos ; but when the Athenians, because tlieir two 
factions entertained susjiicions of one another, would 
not come out to meet him, he sailed back again to 
Miletus. 

For it Avas about this time, or somewhat earlier, 
that the democracy at Athens was being overthrown. 
When the envoys led by Peisander had come to 
Samos from Tissaphernes, they had got matters in 
the army itself still more firmly under their control 
and had instigated the influential men among the 
Samians also to attempt in concert with them to 
establish an oligarchy, although the Samians had 
risen in revolt against their own countrymen in order 
to avoid being governed by an oligarchy. At the 
same time the Athenians at Samos, after conferring 
among themselves, had determined, since Alcibiades 
would not agree \vith them, to let him alone — for he 
was not a suitable person, they thought, to come into 
an oligarchy — but by themselves, as being already 
actual! V in peril, to see to it that the movement 
should not be abandoned, and at the same time to 
hold out so far as the Avar was concerned ; they had 
also resolved zealously to contribute from their own 
])rivate resources either money or Avhatever else 
should be necessary, feeling that from now on the 
burdens they would bear would be for no others than 
themselves.^ 

LX1\ ". Having thus encouraged one another, they 
at once proceeded to send Peisander and half of the 
envoys home in order to arrange matters there, but 
also with instructions to establish oligarchies in any 
of the subject cities at which they should stop ; the 
other half they sent to the rest of the subject 

299 



THUCYDIDES 

Βΐ/τΓβμτΓον καΐ Αιβιτρβφη, οντά ττβρί Χίον, -ηρημί- 
νον he 6f τα eirl (Θράκης άργ^βιν, aTreareWov €7γΙ 
την άρχ^ήν. και άφικομβί'ος ες την Saaov τον 

3 8ήμον κατεΧνσεν. καΐ άττεΧθόντος αυτού οΐ 
λάσιοι Βευτύρω μηνΐ μάλιστα την ττοΧιν ετεί- 
•χ^ίζον, ώ? της μεν μετ ^Αθηναίων αριστο- 
κρατίας ονΒεν ετί ττροσδεόμενοι, την Βε άττο 
Λακεδαιμονίων εΚευθερίαν οσημεραι ^ ττροσΒεγ^όμε- 

4 νοι. καΐ yap και φνγη αυτών εζω ήν ύττο των 
^Αθηναίων τταρα τοις ΐΙε\ο7Γοννησίοις, και αΰτη 
μετά των εν τη πόΧει επιτηδείων κατά κράτος 
εττρασσε νανς τβ κομίσαι καΐ την &άσον άπο- 
στήσαι. ξυνεβη ουν αυτοίς μάΧιστα ά εβού- 
\ovTO, την ττόΧιν τ€ ακινδύνως ορθοΰσθαι και τον 

5 εναντιωσόμ^νον 8ήμον καταΧεΧύσθαι. ττερί μεν 
ουν την ^άσον τάναντία τοις την 6\ι~/αρχ^ίαν 
καθιστάσι των Αθηναίων eyiveTO, Ζοκεΐν 8ε μοι 
καΐ εν άΧλοις ττοΧλοΐς των υττηκόων σωφρο- 
σύνην yap Χαβούσαι αΐ ττόΧεις καΐ αΖειαν των 
ττρασ σο μένων εχ^ώρησαν εττΐ την άντικρυς ε\ευ- 
θερίαν, της άττο των Αθηναίων υπούΧου ευνο- 
μίας ^ ου ττροτιμησαντες. 

LXV. 0/ δε άμφ\ τον ΙΙεισανΒρον ιταρα- 
πΧε'οντες τε, ωσπερ ε8ε8οκτο, τους 8ήμους εν ταΐς 
ττόΧεσι κατεΧυον, καΐ ά,μα εστίν αφ ών •χλωρίων 
και οττΧίτας έχοντες σφισιν αύτοΐς ξυμμάχους 
2 ηλθον ες τάς ^Αθήνας, καΐ καταΧαμβάνουσι τά 
■πΧεΙστα τοις εταίροις ^τpoεLpyaσμεva. και yap 
^ ΑνΒροκΧέα τε τίνα του Βήμου μάΧιστα ττρο- 

1 ότημίροί, Β ; Hiule reads οσαι ΐ^μίραι λλϊΙΗ C. 
* The reading of IJion. Hal. and the Schol. for τιμ . , 
ύπουλο f αυτονομ'ιαν of most MSS. 

300 



BOOK VIII. Lxiv. 2-Lxv. 2 

countries, some to one and some to another ; and 
Dieitreplies, who was in the neighbourhood of Chios 
but had been elected to have command on the coast 
of Thrace, they sent to his post. When he reached 
Thasos he abolished the democracy there. About two 
months, however, after his departure the Thasians 
fortified their city, feeling that they no longer had any 
need of an aristocracy attached to Athens and daily 
looking for freedom to be given them by the Lace- 
daemonians. For there were Thasian fugitives, who 
had been expelled by the Athenians, now present 
with the Peloponnesians, and these, in concert with 
their friends in the city, were working with might 
and main to bring ships and effect the revolt of Thasos. 
They found, therefore, that the things they most 
desired had happened — the city had been brought 
to order and the democracy that would have opposed 
them had been abolished. In Thasos, then, the 
result was the opposite of what the Athenians who 
were establishing the oligarchy there desired, and it 
was the same, as it seems to me, in many others of 
the subject states ; for the cities, having acquired 
soberness of sj)iritand immunity in carrying out their 
designs, aimed at downright freedom, caring nothing 
for the holloΛv sham of law and order offered by the 
Athenians. 

LXV. Peisander, then, and his companions pro- 
ceeded along the coast abolishing the democracies in 
the cities, as had been determined upon, and came 
to Athens, bringing with them from some places 
hoplites as supporters. There they found that most 
of the business had already been accomplished by 
their associates. For some of the younger men had 
combined and secretly put to death a certain 

301 



THUCYDIDES 

βστώτα ξυστάντες τιρβς των νεωτέρων κρνφα 
άτΓΟκτείνονσιν, οσττΐρ καϊ τον 'ΑΧκιβί(Ί8ην ούχ^ 
ηκοστα εξήΧασβ, καϊ αύτον κατ αμφότερα, T7j<i 
τ£ Βημαγω'^/ίας ένεκα καϊ οΙόμ€νοί τω Ά\κιβιά8τ} 
ώ? κατιοΐ'τί καϊ τον Ύίσσαφερνη φίΧον ττοιησοντι, 
'χ^αριείσθαι, μάΧλον τί Βιέφθειραν καϊ άλλου? 
τινας άνετΓίτη^είου'ί τω αύτω τρόπω κρύφα 

3 άνήΧωσαν. λόγο? Τ€ εκ του φανερού ττροείρ- 
γαστο αντοΐς ως ούτε μισθοφορητεον εϊη άλλοι/ς 
ή τους στρατευόμενους, ούτε μεθεκτεον των irpay- 
μάτων ττλείοσιν η ττεντακισχ^ίΧίοις, καϊ τούτοις 
οϊ αν μάΧιστα τοις τε ^χ^ρήμασι καϊ τοις σώμασιν 
ώφεΧεΐν oIol τε ωσιν. 

LXVI. Ήι/ δε τούτο εύτΐρεττες προς τους 
πΧείους, επεϊ εξειν "γε την πόΧιν οϊπερ καϊ 
μεθίστασαν^ εμεΧΧον. δήμος μεντοι όμως ετι 
καϊ βουΧη ή άπο τού κνάμου ξυvεXεyετo' εβού- 
Χευον 8ε ούδεν 6 τι μη τοίς ζυνεστωσι δοκοίη, 
αλλά καϊ οι ΧεΎοντες εκ τούτων ήσαν καϊ τα 

2 ρηθησομενα προτερον αύτοΐς προύσκεπτο. άντε- 
λεγε τε ούδεϊς ετι των άΧΧων, Βεδίως καϊ " όρων 
ΤΓοΧύ το ξυνεστηκός' εΐ δε τις καϊ άντείποι, 
ευθύς εκ τρόπυυ τινός επιτηδείου ετεθνηκει, καϊ 
των δρασάντων ούτε ζητησις ούτ εΐ ύπο- 

^ ufQiaraaav, Β and Valla, Hude μ^θιστάναι with other 
MSS. 

* και, Hude reads 5e5ia.'s δ^ών with C, tlie other MSS. 
ha\'e SeStais καΙ όρων. 



^ cf. VI. Ixxxix. 5. Androcles, according to Plutarch (.-/fcii. 
19), was the demagogue who produced slaves and nietics as 
witnesses to prove Alcibiades guilt}' of mutilating the Hermae 

302 



BOOK VIII. Lxv. 2-Lxvi. 2 

Androcles, the most prominent leader of the popular 
party, the man Λνΐιο had done most to bring about 
the banislnnent of Alcibiades.^ And him they 
destroyed for tAvo reasons — on account of his being 
a popular leader, and somewhat the more because 
they thought it would gratify Alcibiades, wlio was 
likely to be recalled and to make Tissaphernes a 
friend; and some others that were inconvenient they 
secretly made away with in the same manner. More- 
over, a proposal had already been openly made by 
them that no others ought to receive jiay except those 
Λvho Avere serving in the war, and that not more than 
five thousand should share in the government, and 
they only so far as they were especially competent 
to serve the state with both property and person. 

LXVI. ΝοΛν this was only a specious pretext 
intended for the masses, for the very same men who 
were endeavouring to change the government were 
going to have control of the state. The people, 
however, and the council chosen by the bean ■^ were 
none the less still convened ; but tliey discussed 
nothing that was not approved by the conspirators ; 
nay, not only were the speakers from this party, but 
Avhat should be said had been previously considered 
by them. And no one of the otliers any longer 
spoke against them, through fear and because it was 
seen that the conspiracy was widespread ; and if any 
one did oppose, at once in some convenient way he 
was a dead man. And no soarcli was made for those 
who did the deed, nor if they were susjiected was 

and profaning the Mysteries (Thuc. vi. xxviii. 1). See also 
Andocides, Mi/st. 27. 

^ i.e. by lor, the bean being used in drawing lots. This 
definition distingiiislies the popular council, or βουλή of 500, 
from the Areopagus, ή βουΧη ή e| 'kpdov irayov. 

303 



THUCYDIDES 

TTTevoivTO Βίκαίωσι<; eylyveTO, αλλ' ησυχίαν ei'yev 
ο 8ήμος και κατάττΧηξιν τοιαύτηρ ώστε κβρδος 
ο μη πάσχ^ων τι βίαιου, el και σιηφη, €νόμιζ€ν. 

3 καΐ το ζυνεστηκος ποΧύ ττΧεον ηγούμενοι eivai η 
ετΰ^γανεν ον ησσώντο ral<i 'γνώμαις, καΐ βξευ- 
peiv αυτό,^ άΖύνατοι 6ντ€ς Sia το yu-eye^o? τή<; 
ττόλβω? καΐ την άΧ\7']Χων ά^νωσίαν, ουκ είχον. 

4 κατά he ταυτο τούτο και ττροσοΧοφνρασθαί τινι 
ά^ανακτησαντα, ώστε άμύνασθαι e^ΓlβoυXeύ- 
σαντα, αδύνατον ην η yap α^νωτα αν ηνρεν φ 

5 epel η^νώριμον άττιστον. άΧΧήΧοι<ϊ yap άπαντες 
ύττότττως ττροσησαν οι του Βήμου, ώ? μετεγ^οντά 
τίνα των yιyvoμevωv. ένησαν yap και ους ουκ άν 
TTOTe τις ωβτο e<» oXiyap^iav τραττεσθαι, και το 
άττιστον ούτοι μέγιστον προς τους ττοΧΧούς 
€7Γ0ΐησαν καΐ ττΧεΐστα ές tijv των 6Xίyωv άσφά- 
Xeiav ώψεΧησαν, βέβαιον την αττιστίαν τω ^ημω 
ττρος εαυτόν καταστήσαντβς. 

LXVII. Έΐ' τούτω οΰν τω καιρώ οι irepl τον 
TleiaavSpov εΧθόντες ευθύς των Χοιττών εϊ-χοντο. 
και ττρώτον μεν τον Βήμον ζυΧΧεζαντες είττον 
yvώμηv Βεκα άνδρας εΧεσθαι ξυyypaφeaς αυτο- 
κράτορας, τούτους Be ξυyy ράψαντας yvώμηv 
εσεvεyκeΐv ες τον Βήμον ες ημεραν ρητην καθ' ο 
2 τί άριστα η ττοΧις οικησεται. εττεηα εττειΒη η 
ήμερα εφήκε, ξυνεκΧτ]σαν την εκκΧησ'ιαν ες τον 
^ αϋτιί, C, the other MSS. αυτοί. 

^ Or, "so as to defend himself against one who was 
plotting against him." 

304 



BOOK VIII. LXVI. 2-LXVII. 2 

any legal prosecution held ; on the contrary, the 
populace kept quiet and were in such consternation 
that he who did not suffer any violence, even though 
he never said a word, counted that a gain. Imagin- 
ing the conspiracy to be much more widespread than 
it actually was, they were coAved in mind, and owing 
to the size of the city and their lack of knowledge of 
one another they were unable to find out the facts. 
For the same reason it was also impossible for any 
man that was offended to pour out his grievances to 
another and thus plot to avenge himself,^ for he 
would discover any person to whom he might speak 
to be eitiier a stranger or, if an acquaintance, faithless. 
For all the members of the popular party approached 
each other with suspicion, as though every one had 
a hand in what was going on. And, indeed, there 
were among them men whom one would never have 
expected to change over and favour an oligarchy ; 
and it was these Λνΐιο caused the greatest distrust 
among the masses and rendered the most valuable 
service toward the few in securing their safety by 
confirming in the populace this distrust of their own 
people. 

LXVII. It was at this crisis that Peisander and 
his colleagues arrived and immediately applied 
themselves to the work that still remained to be 
done. First they called the popular assembly 
together and proposed a resolution that ten men 
should be chosen as commissioners, with full powers, 
for the drafting of laws, and that these men, after 
drafting such laws, should bring before the assembly 
on an appointed day a pi-oposal embodying provisions 
for the best administration of the state. In the 
second place, Λν1ΐ6η the day came they convened the 

305 



THUCYDIDES 

Κ,οΧωΐ'όν (έ'στί Be lepov Ή.οσβί^ωνο'; ε^ω ττολεως 
άττε^οι/ σταόίους μάΧιστα Βεκα), και iaa^veyKav 
οΐ ^vyy ραφής άΧΧο μ^ν ov8ev, αύτο he τούτο, 
e^elvai μ€ν \\θηναίων avarel eiTrelv ^ ^νωμην ην 
άν τις βούΧηται• ην 8e τις τον ειττοντα η 'γράψη- 
ται τταρανάμων η άΧλω τω τροττω βΧαψτ], μ€'γα- 
3 λας ζημίας eTreOeaav. ενταύθα Βη Χαμττρώς 
eXeyeTO ή^η μήτε άρχ^ήν άρχειν μηΖεμιαν eVt e/c 
του αυτού κόσμου μήτε μισθοφορείν, ττροβορους 
τε εΧεσθαί ττεντε άνδρας, τούτους he εΧεσθαι 
εκατόν άνΒρας, καΐ των εκατόν εκαστον ττρος 
εαυτόν τρεις' εΧθόντας he αυτούς τετρακόσιους 
οντάς ες το βουΧευτήριον άρ-χ^ειν οττη αν άριστα 
^ί^νώσκωσιν αυτοκράτορας, καΐ τους ττεντακισ- 
•χίΧίους he ξυXXeyeιv όττόταν αύτοΐς Βοκη. 

LXVIil. 'Hy hk 6 μεν την yvώμηv ταύτην 
είττων I\eίσavhpoς, καΐ ταΧΧα εκ του προφανούς 
προθυμότατα ξυyκaτaXύσaς τον Βήμον ό μεντοι 
άπαν το πpάyμa ξυνθείς ότω τρόπω κατέστη ες 
τούτο καΐ εκ πΧειστου επιμεΧηθεΙς Αντιφών ην, 

^ OLfaTfl βΐπίΐΐ', Saiippe's correction for avarpineiv or auenruv 
of the MSS. 

^ The -γραφή -παρανόμων, regarded as the great safeguard of 
the Attic coiistiUition, was provided for annulling an illegal 
decree or law, and also for punishing the proposer. The 
latter could be held personally responsible only for a A'ear 
from the time of the proposal of a decree or the enactment of 
a law ; after a j'ear the decree or law could be attacked and 
annulled by the same process as that against the proposer. 
U'hoever brought a -γραφή -τταρανόμαιν bound himself b\- oath 
to prosecute the case : after the oath was taken a decree or 
law was sus) 'ended if already enacted, and a -ηροβούλ^υμα could 
not be brought before the assembly until the suit had been 
tried and settled. The proposer, if the court decided against 

306 



BOOK VIII. LXVII. 2-LXVlII. I 

assembly at Colonus, ΛνΙιίοΗ is a precinct sacred to 
Poseidon lying at a distance of about ten stadia 
outside the city, and tlie commissioners brought in 
no other measure except tlie bare proposal that any 
Athenian should be permitted Avith impunity to 
offer any motion he pleased ; and if anyone should 
move to indict the speaker for making an illegal 
proposal/ or should in any other manner seek to do 
him harm, they imposed severe penalties upon him. 
After that, the proposal was at length offered without 
concealment that no one should any longer liold 
office under the constitution as at present established 
or receive a salary, and that they should choose five 
men as presidents, and these should choose one 
hundred, and each of the hundred three others in 
addition to himself; then these, being four hundred, 
should enter the senate-chamber and govern as they 
should judge best, being clothed with full powers, 
and they should convene the Five Thousand whenever 
it seemed to them advisable. ^ 

LXVII I. It was Peisander Λνΐιο proposed this 
resolution and in other respects assisted most 
zealously, to all appearances, in overthrowing the 
democracy. The man, however, who devised the 
method by which the whole matter was brought to 
this issue and who had for the longest time devoted 
himself to the problem was Antiphon, a man inferior 

him, was punislied by death or fine. See Sehoemann, Gt. 
Alt. i, 497 ff. (2ud ed.)• 

^ cf. eh. Ixv. 3. Tliere had been talk of limiting the 
franchise to 5000, and it was resolved at this same assembly 
to appoint 100 men to draw up a list of the 5000 (Aristot. 
Ά9. ToA.,ch. xxix. ad fin .). But the list was never published. 
See ch. xcii. 11 and Ά9. Tto\. ch. xxxii. For the somewhat 
divergent account of Aristotle, see Aristot. Άβ. πολ. xxix.- 
xxxii. 



THUCYDIDES 

ανηρ Αθηναίων των καθ eavrov άρβττ} τ€ ovSev6<; 
ύστ€ρο<; και κρατιστος ένθυμηθηνα yevopevo'i καΐ 
α yvoLij elireiv, real e? pev Βήμον ου τταριων ούδ' 
e? άΧΧον ayayva εκούσιος ovheva, αλλ' ■'■ ύττότττω? 
τω ττΧηθβί 8ιά Βόζαν Ββινότητος διακείμενος, τους 
μεντοι αγωνιζόμενους καΐ iv Βικαστηρίω καΐ iv 
Βήμω ττΧεΐστα βΐς άνηρ, όστις ^υμβουΧεύσαιτό τι, 

2 Βυνάμενος ωφεΧεΐν. καϊ αυτός τ€,^ επειΒη τα 
των τετρακοσίων εν υστερώ μεταττεσόντα ΰττο 
του Βήμου εκακοΰτο,^ άριστα φαίνεται των με'χ^ρι 
εμού ύττερ αύτων τούτων, αίτιαθείς ώς ξυ^κατε- 

3 στήσε, θανάτου Βίκην αττοΧο^ησάμενος. τταρ- 
έσχ^ε Βε καϊ Φρύνιχ^ος εαυτόν ττάντων Βιαφερόντως 
ττροθυμοτατον ες την οΧι^αρ~χ^ίαν, ΒεΒιώς τον 
^ ΑΧκιβιάΒην και εττιστάμενος εΙΒότα αύτον Οσα 
εν ττ) Σί/'/ζω ττρος τον Άστυο^οΐ' έπραξε, νομίζων 
ουκ αν τΓΟτε αύτον κατά το είκος ύπ' οΧι^αρ^ζ^ίας 
κατεΧθεΐν ττοΧύ τε ττρος τά Βεινά, εττειΒήττερ 

4 ύττεστη, φερε-^γυωτατος εφάνη. καϊ %ηραμενης 
ο του' Α^νωνος εν τοις ξυ^καταΧύουσι τον Βήμον 
ττρωτος ην, ανηρ οίιτε ειττεΐν ούτε yron>ai άΒύνατος. 
ώστε άττ άνΒρων ττοΧΧών και ξυιετών ττρα'χθεν 
το ερ^ον ουκ άπεικοτως καιττερ pkya ον ιτρουγώ- 

^ αλλ', deleted by Hude, after Gertz. 

" Tf, Hude adopts γβ, after Goeller. 

^ €η•€ιδί) τά TOif TtT i>a.Koaiu3V if ύστΐρω μΐταιτΐσόντα vTrh τον 
5-ημου (κακοΰτο, the Vulgate \vith C and the Schol. Most of 
the best MSS. give eVeiSi; μετβ'στη ή δημοκρατία καϊ is aywuas 
κατίσττ] μΐτα των τΐτρακοσίων κ. τ. Α. 

' Antiphon, of Rhamuus, was the earliest of the ten 
orators of the 'canon,' and the first Koyoypi<pos. Thucydides 
was said to have been a pupil of his, but the tradition is of 
doubtful authority, e. cj. a second-hand remark of Pseudo- 

308 



BOOK Vm. Lxviii, 1-4 

to none of the Athenians of his own day in force of 
character and one λνΐιο had proved himself most able 
both to formulate a plan and to set forth his con- 
clusions in speech ; and although he did not come 
before the assembly or \villingly take part in any 
public contest, but Avas under suspicion with the 
people on account of his reputation for cleverness, 
yet he was the one man most able to help any Λνΐιο 
were involved in contests, either in court or before 
the assembly, in case they sought his advice. And 
in his own case, when at a later time the acts of the 
Four Hundred had been reversed and were being 
severely dealt with by the popular assembly, and he 
was under charge of having assisted in setting up 
that government, he manifestly made the ablest 
plea for his life of all men up to my time in 
defending these very acts.^ Phrynichus also showed 
himself beyond all others most zealous for the 
oligarchy, through fear of Alcibiades and the 
certainty that Alcibiades was aware of all the intri- 
gues 2 he had carried on at Samos Avith Astyochus ; 
for he thought that in all probability Alcibiades 
would never be recalled by an oligarchical govern- 
ment ; and Avhen face to face with dangers, after he 
had once set to Avork, he proved himself a man who 
could quite be depended upon. Theramenes also, 
the son of Hagnon, was foremost among those who 
attempted to overthrow the democracy, being a man 
of no small capacity either in speech or in judgment. 
Consequently, conducted as it was by many able 
men, the plot not unnaturally succeeded, even 

Plutarch {VU. X. Oral.). Fifteen oiations are extant under 
his name. See Jebb, Attic Orators, i. i. 
* cf, chs. 1. and 11. 

309 



THUCYDIDES 

ρησβν y^aXeiTov '-jap ην τον ^Αθηναίων Ζημον krei 
€κατοστω μάλιστα ε'ττβίδ/; οι τύραννοι κατβΚύθη- 
σαν iXevOepLa'i ττανσαι, και ου μόνον μη ίιττηκοον 
οντά, άλλα και virep ήμισυ του 'χ^ρονου τούτου 
αύτον άΧλων άρχ^βιν εΐωθοτα. 

LXIX. Έττείδ?) he y) €κκ\νσία ούΒενος άντα- 
ττόντο^ άμα ^ κυρώσασα ταύτα ΒιεΧύθη, του? 
τετρακόσιους τρόττω τοιωΒε ύστερον η8η ες το 
βονΧευτηριον €σήyayov. ήσαν δ' \\θηναΐοί πάν- 
τες αΐεί, οι μεν εττΐ τείχει οι δ' εν τάξει, των εν 

2 ΑεκεΧεία ττοΧεμιων ένεκα εφ' όττΧοις. ττ} ούν 
ήμερα εκείντ) τους μεν μη ξυνεώότας εΐασαν, 
ώσττερ εΐώθεσαν, άττεΧθεΐν, τοις δ' εν τη Συνω- 
μοσία εϊρητο η(τυχ^η μη εττ αύτοίς τοις οπΧοις 
αλλ' άττωθεν ττεριμενειν, καΐ ην τις ενίστητ αι τοις 
ΤΓΟίουμένοις, Χαβοντας τα ΌττΧα μη εττιτρέπειν. 

3 ήσαν δέ καΐ "AvSpioi και Ύηνιοι και Καρυστίων 
τριακόσιοι καΐ Αιγινητών των εττοικων, ους οι 
^Αθηναίοι εττεμψαν οΐκήσοντας, επ αύτο τούτα 
ηκοντες εν τοις εαυτών όττΧοις, οίς ταύτα ττρο- 

4 είρητο. τούτων δέ διατεταγμένων ούτως εΧθόντες 
οι τετρακόσιοι μετά ξιφιΒίου αφανούς έκαστος, 
και, οι είκοσι και εκατόν μετ αυτών νεανίσκοι,^ 
οις εχρώντο εϊ τί ττου 8εοί χειρουρ^είν, επέστησαν 
τοις άτΓο τού κυάμου βουΧευταΙς ούσιν εν τω 

1 Wilamowitz"s correction for αλλά of the MSS. αλλά 
will construe, but there is no real opposition here. 
• With BC ; "Ελλη^βί νεανίσκοι, AEF. 

1 Really 99 years : from 510 to 411. 
310 



BOOK VIII. Lxviii. 4-LXIX. 4 

though it was an arduous task ; for it was difficult, 
after the lapse of almost one hundred years ^ since 
the tyrants had been overthrown, to deprive of their 
liberty the Athenian people, who had been, not only 
not subject to anyone else, but for more than half 
of that period had themselves been accustomed to 
rule over others. 

LXIX. When the assembly had been dissolved, 
with no opposition from anyone and immediately 
after sanctioning these measures, the leaders of the 
oligarchy then introduced the Four Hundred into 
the senate-cliamber in the following manner : all 
the Athenians were at all times under arms, as a 
precaution against the enemy at Deceleia, some 
on tlie walls and some in the ranks. On that day, 
then, they let tliose who were not privy to tlieir 
design go away as usual, but those λυΙιο were 
in the conspiracy had been quietly told to remain, 
not close by their arms, but at some distance from 
them, and if anybody tried to oppose what was going 
on, to take their arms and permit no interference. 
And there were at hand some Andrians and Tenians 
and three hundred Carystians and some of their 
colonists from Aegina,^ whither tliey had been sent 
by the Athenians to inhabit the island, who had 
come for this very j)urpose in their own armour, and 
to these the same order had already been given. 
When these forces had been thus disposed, the Four 
Hundred, each carrying a concealed dagger and 
accompanied by the one hundred and twenty young 
men whom they made use of wherever there wiis 
any need of tlieir handiwork, broke in upon the 
regular senators who were in the senate-chamber, 
» In 431 B.C. ; cf. ii. 27. 




THUCYDIDES 

βου\€ντηρίγ, καΐ είττον αντοΐς i^Levat Χαβουσι 
τον μισθόν εφερον δε αύτοΐς του ύττοΧοίττον 
■χ^ρόνου 7Γαντο<ί αύτοΙ καΐ Ιζιονσιν βΒίδοσαν. 

LXX. Ω<? δε τούτω τω τρόττω η τε βουΧη ouBev 
άντειτΓοΰσα ύττεξήΧθε καϊ οι άλΧοι, ττοΧΐται ovhev 
βνβωτεριζον αλλ ησνχ^αζον, ol τετρακόσιοι ^ εσεΧ- 
θόντε^ ε9 το βον\ευτΐ)ριον τότε μεν ττρυτάρίΐς τε 
σφών αύτων άττεκΧήρωσαν, καϊ οσα προ^ τού<; 
θεον<;, εύχαΐς και θυσίαις καθιστάμενοι ες την 
^ΡΧν^ ^XP^cravTO, ύστερον δε ττοΧύ μεταΧΧάξαν- 
Τ€9 τ^9 του 8ήμου Βιοικιίσεως, ττΧην τους φεύ-^/ον- 
τα9 ου κατΐ]<^ον του ΚΧκιβιά^ου ένεκα, τα he 
2 άΧΧα ενεμον κατά κράτος την ττοΧιν. και άνΒρας 
τε τινας άκεκτειναν ου ττοΧΧούς, οΐ εΒόκουν επι- 
τήδειοι είναι υττεζαιρεθηναι, και άΧΧους ε8ησαν, 
τους δε καϊ μετέστησαν ττρός τε ^Ayiv τον 
Λακεδαιμονίων βασιΧεα οντά εν ττ) ΑεκεΧεία 
εττεκη ρυ κεύοντο , Χε^οντες SiaXXayf/vai βούΧεσθαι 
και είκος είναι αυτόν σφισι και ουκετι τω άπιστφ 
Βημω μαΧΧον ξυγχ^ωρεϊν. 

LXXI. Ό δε νομίζων ^ οΰτ ευθύς ούτω τον 
ΒΡ]μον την τταΧαιάν εΧευθεριαν τταραΒώσειν, ει τ€ 
στρατιάν ττοΧΧην ί'δοί, σφων, ουκ αν ησυχ^άζειν, 
οΰδε εν τω τταροντι ττανυ τι ττιστευων μη ουκετι 

^ The MSS. have ol δέ τετρακόσιοι, Haacke deletes Ζ4. 
* την -πάλιν ουχ Ί^συχάζΐΐν, ιη the MSS. after νομίζουν, 
deleted b}' Dobree, who also changes οΰδ' to οΰτ'. 

^ A drachma each day ; see Boeckh, Piih. Econ. Ath., i. 327. 
For that da}• they took their pay from the regular official; 
for the rest of the month the 4(X) paid it to them. 

* They were proceeding in the constitutional way. In the 
regular "βουΚη, the ten tribes took in turn the πρυτανεία or 
executive control of public affairs for one-tenth of the yeai 

312 



BOOK VIII. Lxix. 4-Lxxi. i 

and told them to get tlieir pay ^ and go out ; and 
they themselves brought them their pay for all the 
remainder of their term, and as they went out gave 
it to them. 

LXX. When in this manner the senate had quietly 
withdrawn without making any opposition, and the 
citizens at large raised no disturbance but kept quiet, 
the Four Hundred entered the senate-chamber and 
for the present chose by lot prytanes^ from their 
own number, and with respect to the gods observed 
all the usual rites of prayers and sacrifices as they 
assumed office. Afterwards, however, they departed 
widely from the democratic manner of administration 
— except that they did not recall the exiles, because 
of Alcibiades — and in general governed the city in a 
high-handed way. A certain number of men, though 
not many, they put to death, for they thought it 
convenient to have them out of their way, Λνΐιΐΐε 
others they imprisoned, and also removed others 
from the city. Moreover, they made overtures to 
Agis, king of the Lacedaemonians, who was at 
Deceleia, saying that they wished to make peace and 
that it Avas only reasonable that he should be more 
ready to come to terms with them, having no longer 
to deal with the faithless democracy. 

LXXI. But Agis, thinking that the people would 
not in this way immediately surrender their ancient 
liberties, and that if they saw a large army of 
Lacedaemonians they would not remain quiet, and also 
not being quite sure at present that the Athenians 
were no longer in a state of disturbance, did not 

(about thirtj'-five days). The prytanes would have been now 
forty in number instead of fifty as usual, as the new council 
consisted of forty from each tribe (Aristot. Άθ. πολ., cli. xxxi.). 

VOL. IV. L 313 



THUCYDIDES 

ταράσσεσθαι αυτούς, τοις μβν άττο των τετρακο- 
σίων €\θοΰσιν ovBev ξυμβατίκον άττβκρίνατο, 
ττροσμετατΓβμψάμβνος δε e/c ΤίεΧοττοννήσου στρα- 
τιαν ττοΧλ,ην ου ττολλω ύστερον και αύτος ττ} €κ 
της ΑεκεΧείας φρουρά, μετά των εΧθόντων κατεβη 
ττρος αυτά τα τείχη των ^ Χθηΐ'αίων, εΧττίσας η 
ταραγθεντας αυτούς μάΧΧον αν -χειρωθήναι σφίσιν 
γι βούΧοΐ'ται, ή και αύτοβοεί αν δια τον ενΒοθεν 
τ€ καΐ έξωθεν κατά το είκος <^ενησόμενον θόρυβον 
των yovv μακρών τειχών Βια την κατ' αυτά ερη- 

2 μίαν \7']ψεως ούκ αν άμαρτεΐν. ώς he ττροσεμείξε 
τε β'γ^ύς καΐ οι \\θηναΐθί τά μεν ενΒοθεν ούδ' 
όττωστιουν εκίνησαν, τους 8ε Ιττττεας εκπεμψαντες 
καΐ μέρος τι τών οττΧιτών καΐ ψιΧών καΐ τοξοτών 
άνΒρας τε κατεβαΧον αυτών Βιά το εγγι/ς ττροσεΧ- 
θεΐν καΐ οττΧων τινών και νεκρών εκράτησαν, 
ούτω Βη 'γνούς άττψ/α^ε ττάΧιν την στρατιάν. 

3 και αύτος μεν και οι μετ αυτού κατά χώραν εν 
ΤΤ] ΑεκεΧεία εμενον, τους δ' εττεΧθόντας οΧίηας 
τινάς ημέρας εν τη yfj μείναντας απέττεμψεν εττ 
οϊκου. μετά δέ τούτο παρά τε τον ^Ayiv εττρε- 
σβενοντο οι τετρακόσιοι ούΒεν ησσον, κάκείνου 
μάΧ'Χον ηΒη ττροσΒεχομενου και τταραινούντος 
εκττεμτΓουσι και ες την ΑακεΒαίμονα ττερί ξυμ- 
βάσεως πρέσβεις, βουΧόμενοι SiaXXayijvai. 

LXXII. ΤΙέμπουσι δε και ες την Έ,άμον Βεκα 
άνδρας, παραμυθησομίνους το στρατόπεΖον καΐ 
ΒιΒάξοντας ώς ούκ επΙ βΧάβη της ποΧεως καΐ 
τών ποΧιτών η οΧι^αρχία κατέστη, αλλ επ\ 
314 



BOOK VIII. LXXI. I-LXXII. I 

make a conciliatory response to those who had come 
as envoys from the Four Hundred. He sent instead 
for a large additional force from the Peloponnesus, 
and not long afterwards himself took the garrison at 
Deceleia together with the new arrivals and came 
down to the very walls of Athens, lioping either 
that the Athenians, being now in confusion, would 
more readily submit on terms pleasing to the 
Lacedaemonians, or else that, in consequence of 
the turmoil that would in all probability prevail both 
inside and outside the city, he would not fail at the 
first assault to capture the long walls at any rate 
owing to the absence of troops to defend them. But 
when he came close and the Athenians made no 
move whatever from Avithin the walls, but sending 
out the cavalry and a portion of the hoplites, light- 
armed troo[)s and bowmen, shot down some of his 
men in consequence of their approaching too near 
and got possession of a number of arms and dead 
bodies, he at length recognized his mistake and led 
back his army. He himself, then, and his own 
troops remained at their post in Deceleia, but the 
reinforcements that had come he sent back home 
after they had remained a few days in Attica. 
After this the Four Hundred, notvvithstanding their 
earlier experience, kept sending envoys to Agis, and 
as he now received them more readily and advised 
them to do so, they sent envoys also to Lacedaemon 
to negotiate an agreement, since they were now 
desirous of making peace. 

LXXII. They also sent ten men to Samos to 
reassure the army there and to explain that the 
oligarchy had been set up, not for the injury of 
the city or the citizens, but for the salvation of the 

3^5 



THUCYDIDES 

σωτηρία των ξυμττάντων Trpayp.a των, π€ντακίσ- 
'X^lXiol re Οτι elev καΐ ου τετρακόσιοι μόνον οΐ 
ττράσσοντβς• καίτοι ου ττωττοτβ ^Αθηναίους Sia 
τας στρατ€ΐας καΐ την ύττερορίαν άσχ^οΧίαν is 
ούΒβν ιτρο-Ύμα ούτω /χεγα iXOeiv βουΧβύσοντας, 
2 (-ν ω 7Γ€ντακισχι\ίους ξυνβΧθεΙν. και ταΧΧα 
€7ΓΐστείΧαντ€<ί τα ΤΓρβττοντα είττβΐν αττεττεμ-^^αν 
αυτούς ευθύς μετά την αυτών κατάστασιν, Ζείσαν- 
τες μη, οττερ ε'γενετο, ναυτικός οχΧος ούτε αυτός 
μενειν εν τω oXiyapxiKO) κόσμω εθεΧτ], σφάς τε 
μη έκείθεί' άρξαμενου του κακού μεταστησωσιν. 

LXXIII. Έι^ yap τη Έ,άμω ενεωτερίζετο 7;δ?; 
τα ττερί την oXiyap)(iav, και ξυνεβη τοιάΒε γενέ- 
σθαι ύπ' αυτόν τον γ^ρόνον τούτον όνπερ οι τετρα- 

2 κόσιοι ξυνίσταντο. οι yap τότ6 των Ταμιών 
έτταναστάντες τοις Βυνατοΐς και όντες 8ήμος, 
μεταβαΧΧόμενοι αύθις και ττεισθέντες ύττό τε τον 
ΐΙεισάνΒρου, οτε η\θε, και των εν τη Χάμω 
ξυνεστώτων Αθηναίων, iyevovTo τε ες τριακόσιους 
ξυνωμόται και εμεΧΧον τοις άΧΧοις ώς ζήμω οντι 

3 εττιθήσεσθαι. και 'ΎττέρβοΧόν τε τίνα των 'Αθη- 
ναίων, μο'χθηρόν ανθρωττον, ωστρακισμένον ου 
Βια Βυνάμεως καΐ αξιώματος φοβον άΧΧα 8ιά 
ΤΓονηρίαν και αισ'χυνην της ττοΧεως, άττοκτείνουσι 
μετά χ\.αρμίνου τε, ενός τών στpaτηyώv, και τίνων 
τών τταρά σφίσιν ^Αθηναίων, ττιστιν 8ιΒόντες 
αύτοΐς, και αΧΧα μετ αυτών τοιαύτα ξυνεττραζαν, 

1 cf. ch. xxi. * cf. ch. Ixiii. 3. 

* Probably in 418 B.C. He was the constant butt of the 
jokes of Aristophanes. See also Plutarch, Xicias 1 1 ; Aristides 
7 ; Alcihiades 13. 

♦ cf. ch. XXX. 1 ; xli. 3 ; xlii. 2. 

316 



BOOK VIII. ι,χχπ. i-Lxxiii. 3 

whole Athenian cause ; and also to explain that 
there were five tliousand, not four hundred only, who 
were participating in the government, altliough, 
because of their military expeditions and their 
activities abroad, the Athenians had never yet come 
to consult upon any matter so important that five 
thousand had assembled. So after giving them 
these and other instructions as to the proper 
explanations to offer, they sent them off immediately 
after their ΟΛνη assumption of office, fearing lest — 
as actually hajipened — a crowd of sailors might of 
itself not be willing to abide by the oligarchical 
form of government, and so, the mischief having 
once begun at Samos, bring about their own 
overthrow. 

LXXIII. For in Samos a reaction had already set 
in against the oligarchical movement, and the follow- 
ing events took place at about the very time when 
the Four Hundred were organizing. Those of the 
Samians who at the earlier time ^ rose up against 
the aristocrats and were of the popular party changed 
sides again, being persuaded both by Peisander, on 
his arrival, 2 and by his Athenian accomplices at 
Samos, and became conspirators ; they were fully 
three hundred in number, and were intending to 
attack the others, as being of the democratic party. 
And Hyperbolus, one of the Athenians, a depraved 
fellow who had been ostracized,^ not through any 
fear of his power and consequence, but because he 
was a villain and a disgrace to the city, they put to 
death, herein acting in concert with Charminus,*one 
of the generals, and a group of the Athenians at 
Samos, thus giving them a pledge of good faith. 
And in other like deeds they co-operated with them 



THUCYDIDES 

4 τοις re ττ\είοσιν ώρμηντο βττηίθβσθαι. οι Be 
αίσθύμενοί των re στρατηγών Aeovri και Αιομέ- 
Βοντι (οντοι <γάρ οι)χ €κόντβ<; 8ια το ημασθαι ίιττο 
του Βήμου eφepOl' την οΧι^αρ'χ^ίαν) το μέΧλον 
σημαίνουσι καΐ &ρασνβού\ω καΐ (^ρασύΧλω, 
τω μεν τριηραρχ^ουντί, τω Be όττΧιτεύοντι, καΧ 
άΧΧοίς οι eBoKovv alel μάΧιστα εναντιοΰσθαι τοΓ<? 
ξννεστώσι, και ουκ ηξίουν Trepuhelv αυτούς σφάς 
τε Βιαφθαρεντας καΐ Έ,ύμον Άθηναίοις άΧΧοτριω- 
θεΐσαν, Βι ην μόνην η (ίρχη αύτοΐς βς τούτο ξυνε- 

5 μεινεν. οι Be άκούσαντες των τε στρατιωτών ενα 
εκαστον μετγσαν μη εττιτρεττειν, και ουγ^ ήκιστα 
τους ΤΙαράΧους, άνΒρας ^Αθηναίους τε καΐ εΧευθε- 
ρους ττάντας εν ττ} νηΐ ττΧεοντας •'■ καϊ αΐεϊ Βή 
7Γ0Τ€ 6Xiyap\ia και μη τταρούστ) επικείμενους• 
6 τε Αεο)ν καϊ ο ΑιομεΒων αύτοΐς ναύς τινας, 

6 όττότε ττοι ττΧέοίεν, κατεΧειττον φύΧακας. ώστε 
εττειΒη αύτοΐς επετίθεντο οι τριακόσιοι, βοηθη- 
σάντων πάντων τούτων, μάΧιστα Βε των ΪΙαρά- 
Χων, TrepieyevovTO οΊ των Ταμιών ττΧείονες. και 
τριάκοντα μεν τινας τους αίτιωτάτους ^ άπεκτει- 
ναν των τριακοσίων, τρεις Βε φυ^η εζημίωσαν 
τοις δ' άΧΧοις ού μνησικακούντες Βημοκρατούμενοι 
το ΧοιτΓον ξυνεττ οΧίτευον . 

LXXIV. Ύην Βε ΥίάραΧον νανν και \aipeav 
eV αύτης τον ^ Αργεστράτου, άνΒρα 'Αθήναιον, 
<γενόμενον ες την μετάστασιν ττροθυμον, άττοττεμ- 

1 e^ τρ νηϊ TrX4ovTas, apparently not read by Schol. ; deleted 
by Velsen, followed by Hude. 

* aWiwraTous, in the MSS. before ψυ-γΐι, transposed by 
van Herwerden 



BOOK VIII. L.vxm. 3-ι,Λχιν. ι 

and were eager to attack the populace. But the 
people, becoming aware of their design, disclosed 
it to Leon and Dioniedon, two of the generals — for 
these submitted to the oligarchy unwillingly, because 
they held their office by the choice of the popular 
party — and also to Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus, the 
former of whom was a trierarch and the latter a 
hoplite, as well as to others who were reputed to 
be always foremost in opposition to the conspirators ; 
and they begged these not to look on and see them 
destroyed and Samos alienated from the Athenians, 
the island to which alone it was due that the empire 
had held together up to this point. These men, on 
hearing their plea, went to the soldiers one by one 
and besought them not to permit this thing, and 
especially to the men of the Paralus,^ those who 
sailed on the Paralus being Athenians and free men 
one and all and always opposed to an oligarchy even 
before it came ; and Leon and Diomedon, whenever 
they sailed to any other place, used to leave the 
Samians some ships as a guard. Consequently, 
when the three hundi'ed attacked them, all these, 
and especially the creΛv of the Paralus, joined in 
the defence, so that the popular party in Samos 
prevailed. And they put to death of the three 
hundred some thirty who were chieHy responsible 
for the plot, and three they punished with banish- 
ment ; as for the rest, they declared an amnesty, 
and enjoying a democratic government lived together 
henceforth as fellow-citizens. 

LXXIV. The ship Paralus, having on board Chae- 
reas son of Archcstratus, an Athenian, who had 
zealously worked for the change in government, 

^ For this state ship, see note at iii. xxxiii. 1. 



THUCYDIDES 



τάχ^ος e? τάς \θηι•ας αττα'/'/εΚονντα τα ^(ε•(€νη- 
μβνα• ου yao fjceadv ττω του? τετρακοσίον; αρχ^ον- 

2 τας. και καζα7τ\ενσάντο)ν αυτών ειθεως των 
μεν ΐΐαρ ι\ων τινας οι τετρακόσιοι όυ η τρεις 
έζησαν, του^ί oe ά\\ου'ζ άώεΧόμενοι την ναΰν και 
uετεκ3ιβάσavτες ες αΧΧην στρατιώτιν ναΰν έταζαν 

3 φρουρεϊν ττερί Κΰβοιαν. 6 δε \αιρεας ευθύς 
cia\aea)V ~ως, ώς elhe τα τταρόντα, ττάΧιν ες την 
Έάμον εΧθων ά'/•/εΧ\ει τοϊς στρατιωταις εττΐ το 
μείζον Ίτάντα οεινώσας τα εκ των Αθηνών, ώς 
ττΧη'/αΐς τε ττάντας ζημιονσι και άντειττείν εστίν 
ουοεν ττρος τους έχοντας την ττοΧιτείαν, και οτι 
αυτών και γυναίκες και τταΐΕβς ΰ;3ρίζονται, και 
Ειανοοΰνται, οτόσοι εν Σά//ω στρατεύονται μη 
οντες της σφετβρας "/νώμης, τούτων ττάντων τους 
ττροσηκοντας Χαβόντες εϊρζειν, ινα, ην μη ύττακού- 
σωσι, τεθνηκωσιν και άλλα ττοΧΧα εττικατα^ευ- 
Βόμειος ε\ε'/εν. 

LXX\ . Οί de άκούοντες εττι τους την oXiyap- 
•χ^ίαν μάΧιστα ττοίησαντας και εττι τών άΧΧων 
τους μετασγόντας το μεν ττρώτον ωρμησαν 
βάΧΧειν εττειτα μεντοι ΰττο τών Βια μέσου 
κωΧυθεντες και Ζιύα-χθέντες, μη τών ττοΧεμίων 
άντιττρώρων ε^fyύς εφορμονντων αττοΧεσωσι τα 
2 ττρά^ματα, ετταύσαντο. μετά δε τοΰτο Χαμ7Γρο)ς 
ήόη ες οημοκρατίαν βουΧόμενοι μεταστήσαι τα 
εν rfi Χάμω ο re &ρασυβουΧος ο του Χύκου και 
^ράσυΧΧος ^οντοι yap μάλιστα ττροειστήκεσαν 

320 



BOOK νΐΐί. i.xxiv. i-i.xxv. 2 

was sent by the Samians and the Athenian soldiers 
with all speed to Athens to announce what had been 
done ; for they did not yet know that the Four 
Hundred were in power. As soon as they came to 
port the Four Hundred at once threw some two or 
three of tlie crew into prison, and deprivinj^ the rest 
of their ship and transferring them to another vessel, 
a troop-ship, they assij^ned them to guard duty in tlie 
neighbourhood of Euboea. But Chaereas, on seeing 
the present state of afTairs, immediately managed in 
some way to get off unobserved and returned to 
Samos, where he gave the soldiers an account of 
the situation in Athens, going beyond the facts in 
making them worse than they were. He said that 
they were scourging everybody by way of punish- 
ment, that it was not permitted to say a word 
against those who controlled the government, that 
the wives and children of citizens were being in- 
sulted, and that the oligarchy intended to seize and 
keep in confinement the relatives of all the men 
serving in the army at Samos who were not of their 
way of thinking, in order that, if they did not 
submit to their authority, these might be put to 
death ; and he added many other false statements. 

LXXV^ On hearing these things the soldiers at 
first rushed upon those who had been the chief 
promoters of the oligarchy, and such of the others 
as had had a hand in it, to stone them ; afterwards, 
however, when restrained by those who took a 
neutral position and admonished by them not to 
ruin their cause when the enemy's ships were lying 
so near in hostile array, they desisted. After this, 
Thrasybulus son of Lycus and Thrasyllus, who had 
been the cliief leaders in the revolution, being now 

321 



TilUCYDIDES 

τΓ/9 μβταβοΧής) όψκωσαν ττύντας τους στρατι- 
ώτας τους μέγιστους όρκους, καϊ αυτούς τους 
€κ της οΧΐ'γαρχ^ίας μάΧιστα, η μην Βημοκρατή- 
σβσθαί τβ καΐ ομονοησβιν, καϊ τον ττρος ΙΙέΧοττον- 
νησίους ττοΧεμον ττροθύμως hio'iaeiv, καϊ τοις 
τβτρακοσίοις ττοΧβμίοί τβ 'ύσβσθαι και ovhev εττί- 
3 κηρυκ€νσ€σθαί. ζυνωμνυσαν δέ κα\ "Σαμίων 
ττάντες τον αύτον ορκον οι iv Trj ηΧικια, καϊ τα 
ττρά^ματα ττάντα καϊ τα άττοβησόμενα 4κ των 
κινδύνων ^ννβκοινώσαντο οι στρατιώται τοις 
Έ,αμίοις, νομίζοντες ούτε εκεινοις άττοστροφην 
σωτηρίας ούτε σφισίν elvai, άΧΧ εάν τε οι 
τετρακόσιοι κρατησωσιν εάν τε οΐ εκ ^ΙιΧητου 
ΤΓοΧεμιοι, Βιαφθαρήσεσθαι. 

LXXVI. Ες φιλονικιαν τε καθεστασαν τον 
■χρονον τούτον οί μεν την ττοΧιν άνα^κάζοντες 
Βημοκρατεΐσθαί, οί 8ε το στρατόπεΒον oXiyap- 

2 'χ^εΐσθαι. εποίησαν δε καϊ εκκΧησίαν ευθύς οί 
στρατιώται, εν η τους μϊν ττροτερους στρατψ/ους 
καΐ εϊ τίνα των τριηραρχιών ΰττώπτευον, έπαυσαν, 
άΧΧους δέ άνθείΧοντο και τριηράρχους και στρα- 
τηΎούς, ων %ρασύβουΧός τε καϊ Θρασυλλο? 

3 ύπήρχον. καϊ παραινέσεις άΧΧας τε εποιοΰντο 
εν σφίσιν αύτοΐς άνιστάμενοι, καϊ ώς ου 8εΐ 
άθυμεΐν Οτι η ποΧις αυτών άφέστηκεν τους 
yap εΧάσσους από σφών των πΧεονων καϊ ες 

4 πάντα ποριμωτερων μεθεστάναι. εχόντων yap 
σφόχμ το πάν νηυτικον τάς τε άΧΧας πόλεις ων 

^ i.e. Athens, 
322 



BOOK νΐΐί. Lxxv. 2 lAxvi. 4 

openly in favour of changing the government at 
Samos to a democracy, bound all the soldiers by the 
most solemn oaths, and particularly those who were 
of the oligarchical faction, that they would in very 
truth maintain a democracy and live in harmony, 
would zealously prosecute the war Avith the Pelopon- 
nesians, and would be foes to the Four Hundred and 
would make to them no overtures for peace. The 
same oath was also taken by all the Samians who 
were of military age, and in all they did and in 
\vhatever might result from the risks they ran the 
soldiers made common cause with the Samians, 
being convinced that neither for these nor for 
themselves was there any haven of safety, but that, 
should either the Four Hundred prevail or the 
enemy stationed at Miletus, they were doomed to 
utter destruction. 

LXXVl. So during this period they had come to 
a state of bitter contention in Samos, the one party 
attempting to compel the city to accept a democracy, 
the other to impose an oligarchy upon the army. But 
the soldiers immediately held an assembly, in which 
they deposed their former generals and such of the 
trierarchs as they suspected, and chose others in 
their stead, among whom \vere Thrasybulus and 
Thrasyllus. Moreover, they rose in their places 
and made various recommendations for their own 
guidance, in particular urging that there was no 
need to be discouraged because the city ^ had revolted 
from them ; for it was the minority who had aban- 
doned them, who were the majority, and also were 
in every way better provided with resources. For 
since they themselves possessed the entire fleet, 
they would compel the other cities under Athenian 

323 



THUCYDIDES 

άρ-χρυσιν avayKuaeiv τα -χρήματα ομοίως Βώόναι 
κα\ ei eKeWev ώρμώντο (ττόΧιν τβ <yap σφισιν 
υττάρχειν ^άμον ουκ άσθβνή, αλλ ή τταρ' eXd- 
χιστον 8η ήλθβ το Αθηναίων κράτο<ί της θάΧάσ- 
σης, οτε ίττοΧίμησ^ν, άφζΧβσθαι, τους τε ττοΧβ- 
μίους €κ του αυτού χωρίου άμυνείσθαι ^ ovirep 
καϊ ττρότβρον), καΐ 8υνατώτ€ροΰ elvat σφείς 
έχοντες τας ναύς ττορίζεσθαι τα ετητή^εια των 

5 εν ττ) ττόΧει. καϊ Βί εαυτούς τε εν ττ] "Χάμω 
προκαθημένους καϊ ττρότερον αυτούς κρατείν του 
ες τον Ueipaia εσττΧου, καϊ ~ ότι νυν ες τοιούτο 
καταστήσονται μη βουΧόμενοι σφίσι ττάΧιν την 
ποΧιτείαν άττοΒούναι, ώστε αύτοΙ καϊ 8υνατώ- 
τεροι είναι ειρ^ειν εκείνους της θαΧάσσης η ύττ 

6 εκείνων εϊρΎεσθαι. βραχύ τέ τι είναι και ούΒενος 
άξιον, ω ^ ττρος το ττερΓ/ί'γνεσθαι των ττοΧεμίων 
η ττοΧις σφίσι χρήσιμος ήν, καϊ ούόεν άποΧωΧε- 
κεναι, οι ye μήτε αργύρων ετι είχον ιτέμττειν, 
αλλ' αύτοΙ εττορίζοντο οί στρατιο}ται, μήτε βου- 
Χευμα χρηστόν, ουττερ ένεκα ττόΧις στρατοπέδων 
κρατεί, άλλα καΐ εν τούτοις τους μεν ήμαρ- 
τηκέναι τους ττατρίους νομούς καταΧύσαντας, 
αύτοΙ Βέ σώζειν και εκείνους ττειράσεσθαι ττροσα- 
ναγκάζειν. ώστε ού8έ τούτους, οΐττερ αν βου- 
Χεύοιέν τι χρηστόν, τταρα σφίσι χείρους είναι. 

^ αμυνΰσθαι, M'ith Β ; Hude reads αμύνΐσβαι with the rest 
of the MSS. 

^ καϊ ΟΤΙ νυν (s τοιοντο καταστ-ήσονται, Hude inserts οτι, 
because κατασττισονται in the midst of infinitives is intoler- 
able. Stahl assumes, with Haase, a lacuna after καϊ νϋν. 

3 4:, Avith most MSS. ; Hude reads t> with CG. 

^ In 440 B.C. (i. ex v.). 



BOOK VIII. Lxxvi. 4-6 

sway to make their regular contributions precisely 
as it" their headquarters were at Athens. And they 
had, in Samos, a state that was not weak ; on the 
contrary, it had come within a very little of Avresting 
from Athens the control of the sea when it waged war 
with her ; ^ and as for the enemy, they would defend 
themselves against them from the same strong base 
as before. Furthermore, they were better able, 
since they possessed the fleet, to provide themselves 
with supplies than were the people of Athens. 
Indeed it was because they themselves had been 
stationed at Samos as an advanced guard that the 
Athenians at home had even before this commanded 
the entrance to the Peiraeus ; and now, they added, 
the others would be brought to such a strait, in case 
they should not consent to give them back their 
constitution, that they themselves would actually be 
better able to exclude them from the sea than the 
others to exclude them. Trifling and indeed in- 
significant was the help which the city was able 
to give them in overcoming the enemy, and they 
had lost nothing, seeing that the people at home 
were able neither to send them money any longer — 
the soldiers now providing it for themselves — nor 
to give them good counsel, which is the object for 
which a state exercises control over armies in the 
field. Nay, even in this respect ^ the other party 
had erred in abolishing the laws of their fathers, 
whereas they themselves were trying to preserve 
them and would endeavour to compel the oligarchs 
also to do so. Thus the men in the army Λνΐιο could 
give good counsel were at least as good as those 

* i. e. in giving them good counsel (eV τώ βυνλΐυμα χρηστ}>ν 
napexeiv). 



THUCYDIDES 

7 ΑΧκίβιάΖην τ€, ην αύτω άΒβιάν re και κάθοΒον 
ΤΓΟίήσωσιν, άσμ^νον την τταρα βασιΧέως ^νμ- 
μα-χ^ίαν irape^ew. τό τ€ μβ'γιστον, ην απάντων 
σφάΧΧωΐ'ται, eivai αύτοΐς τοσούτον βγ^ουσι ναυ- 
τίκον τΓολλάι? τα? άτΓοχ^ωρήσ€ΐ<; ev αίς καΐ ττόλει? 
καϊ Ύην βύρησονσιν. 

LXXVII. Τοιαύτα iv ά\Χή\οι<; βκκΧησίύ- 
aavTe<i καϊ 7Γαραθαρσύναντ€<ί σφάς αυτούς καϊ 
τα τον τΓοΧβμου τταρβσκευάζοντο ovBev ησσον. 
οι he άπο των τετρακοσίων 7Γ€μφθ€ντ€<ί €? την 
^άμον ^ ώς ταύτα ev ttj ΑηΧω η8η 6ντ€<; ησθά- 
νοντο, ήσύχ^αζον. 

LXXV^III. 'ΎτΓο Se τον γ^ρόνον τούτον καϊ οι 
ev τι) Μίλ?;τω των ΥΙεΧοττοννησίων ev τω ναυ- 
τικω στρατιώται κατά σφάς αυτούς Βιεβόων ώς 
νττό τ€ ^Αστυόχον καϊ Τισσαφέρνους φθείρεται 
τα ΤΓ ράμματα, του μεν ουκ εθεΧοντος ούτε προ- 
τερον ναυμαχ^εΐν, εως ετι αυτοί re ερρωντο μαΧ- 
Χον καϊ τό ναυτικον των ^Αθηναίων oXiyov ην, 
ούτε νύν, οτε στασιάζειν τε Χέζονται καϊ αϊ νήες 
αυτών ούΒεττω εν τω αύτω είσιν, αΧΧα τας τταρα 
Τισσαφέρνους Φοινίσσας ναύς μένοντες, άΧλως 
όνομα καϊ ουκ epyov, κινΒυνεύειν Βιατριβήναί' 
τον δ' αύ Τισσαφέρνη τάς τε ναύς ταύτας ου 
κομίζειν, καϊ τροφην ότι ου ξυνεχ^ώς ούΒ εντεΧη 
ΒιΒούς κακοί το ναυτικον. ούκουν εφασαν χ^ρήναι 
μεΧΧειν ετι, άΧΧα Βιαί'αυμαχεΐν. καϊ μαΧιστα 
οι Χνρακόσιοι ivP]yov. 

' οΐ 5ίκα πμ(σ0(υταί, after Ιάμον, deleted by van Her- 
wenleii. 



326 



BOOK VIII, Lxxvi. 7-LXXV111. I 

in the city. Alcibiades, furthermore, if they would 
merely secure for him immunity from punishment 
and restoration from exile, would gladly procure for 
them the alliance of the King. Finally, and most 
important of all, if they should Λvholly fail to attain 
their ends, so long as they possessed so large a fleet 
there were many places of refuge where they could 
find both cities and territory. 

LXXVI 1. Having thus deliberated together in 
public assembly and encouraged one another, they 
went on Λvith their preparations for war no less than 
before. And the envoys who had been sent to 
Samos by the Four Hundred, learning how matters 
stood after they had already reached Delos, remained 
there inactive. 

LXXVIII. About this time the Peloponnesian 
soldiers in the fleet at Miletus were clamouring 
among themselves, saying that their cause was being 
ruined by Astyochus and Tissaphernes ; by the former 
because he was unwilling to fight, either before this 
while they themselves were still the stronger and 
the Athenian fleet was small, or now when the 
enemy were said to be rent with factions and their 
ships had not yet been brought together ; nay, 
they kept waiting for the Phoenician ships which 
Tissaphernes was to furnish — a mere pretence and 
not a fact — and thus ran the risk of being worn 
out by delay; as for Tissaphernes, on the other 
hand, he was not only not producing these ships, 
but he was even doing harm to the fleet by not 
giving it maintenance regularly or in full. There- 
fore, they said, they ought to wait no longer but 
should fight to an issue. In all this it was the 
Syracusans who were most insistent. 

327 



THUCYDIDES 

LXXIX, Αίσθόμενοί he οι ζύμμα'χ^οί καΐ 6 
"Άστύοχ^ος τον θρουν, καϊ Βόξαν αύτοΐς άττο 
ξυνοΒον ώστε 8ιανανμα)(€ίν, έττβιΒη και iarjy- 
yeWero αύτοΐ<; η iv ττ} Έάμφ ταρα-χ^η, άραντβς 
ταϊς νανσϊ ττάσαί<; οΰσαις ΒώΒεκα καϊ εκατόν 
καϊ τους ^Ιιλησιους ττβζτ} Κ€\€ύσαντ€<; iirl της 
ΜνκάΧης τταρύναι eirXeov ως ττρος την Ί^ΙνκάΧην. 

2 οι δέ ^Αθηναίοι ταϊς €κ Ί,άμου ναυσΐ 8ύο κα\ 
6'yhorj κοντά, αΐ ζτνχ^ον iv ΤΧαύκτ] της ^ΙυκάΧης 
όρμοΰσαι {Βιέχ^ει Be oXiyov ταύττ] η Έ,άμος της 
ήτΓζίρον ττρος την Μ,υκάΧην), ώς elSov τάς των 
ΤΙεΧοτΓοννησιων ναΰς ετηττΧεουσας, ύττεχ^ώρησαν 
€ς την Έ,άμον, ου νομίσαντες τω ττΧηθει ΒιακινΒυ- 

3 veOaai nrepX του τταντος Ικανοί είναι, καϊ άμα 
(ττροησθοντο yap αυτούς εκ της ^ΙιΧήτου ναυ- 
μαχ^ησείοντας) ττροσεΒεχ^οντο καϊ τον Χτρομβι- 
χιΒην εκ του ΚΧλησττοντου σφισι ταΐς εκ της 
Χίου ναυσιν εττ' ^ΑβύΒου άφικομεναις ττροσβοη- 

4 θήσειν ττρουπεπεμτΓΤο yap αύτω άyyεXoς. καϊ 
ο'ί μεν ούτως εττΐ της Έ,άμου άττεχ^ώρησαν, οι Be 
ΥίεΧοττοννήσιοι καταττΧευσαντες εττΐ της ^ΙυκάΧης 
εστρατοττεΒεύοντο καϊ των \ΙιΧησίων καϊ των 

5 πΧησιοχ^ωρων ό ττεζός. καϊ τη υστεραία μεΧ- 
Χόντων αυτών εττιττΧεΐν τη ^άμω άyyελXετaι 6 
"^τρομβιχίΒης ταΐς άττο του ΚΧΧησττόντου ναυσϊν 
άφιyμεvoς' καϊ ευθύς άττεττΧεον ιτάΧιν εττϊ της 

6 ^ΙιΧήτου. οΐ Βε ^Αθηναίοι 'πpoσyεvo μένων σφίσι 
των νεών επίττΧουν αύτοϊ ττοίοΰνται τη ΛΙίλτ^τω 
ναυσϊν οκτώ καϊ εκατόν, βουΧόμενοι Βιαναυ- 
328 



BOOK VIII. Lxxix. 1-6 

LXXIX. Astyochus and the allies were aware of 
their murmuring, and it was determined after a 
council to fight a decisive battle ; so when the 
disturbance at Samos was also reported to them, 
they put to sea with their entire fleet, one hundred 
and twelve in all, and bidding the Milesians proceed 
by land towards Mycale they sailed in the direction 
of Mycale themselves. liut the Athenians, with 
the eighty-two ships whose base was at Samos and 
which happened then to be lying at Glauce on the 
promontory of Mycale — where Samos is only a 
short distance from the mainland, in the direction 
of Mycale — when they saw the Peloponnesian 
ships sailing against them, retreated to Samos, not 
thinking themselves strong enough in point of 
numbers to hazard their all on a battle. Besides, 
they had learned beforehand from Miletus that the 
enemy desired to fight, and they were expecting 
Strombichides to come to their aid from the Helles- 
pont with the ships from Chios that had gone to 
Abydus ; ^ for a messenger had previously been sent 
to him. So they retired to Samos ; but the Pelo- 
ponnesians sailed on to Mycale and encamped there, 
together with the Milesians and the troops of the 
neighbouring peoples that constituted the army on 
land. The next day, when they were about to 
advance against Samos, word was brought to them 
that Strombichides had arrived with the ships from 
the Hellespont; so they sailed back at once to 
Miletus. The Athenians, on the other hand, on 
receiving these reinforcements, themselves made an 
advance upon Miletus with one hundred and eight 
ships, wishing to come to a decisive battle ; but when 

* cf. ch, Ixii. 2. 



THUCYDIDES 

μ,αχήσαΐ' καϊ ώ? ov8el<; αύτοΐς avraviiyero, 
άττεττΧευσα^ ττάΚιν e? την Έάμον. 

LXXX. 'Ey δε τω αύτω Oepet μετά τούτο 
ευθύς οι Τΐ€\θ7Γοννήσιοι, eiretS)] άθρόαις ταΐς 
ναυσιν ουκ άξιόμα-χ^οι νομίσαντε'; είναι ουκ ανταν- 
ηΎοντο, άτΓορήσαντε^ όττόθεν τοσαύταις ναυσΐ 
γ^ρηματα βξουσιν, αΧΧως τ€ και Τισσαφέρνους 
κακώς ΒιΒοντος, άττοστεΧΧουσιν ώς τον Φαρνά- 
βαζον, ωσττερ κα\ το πρώτον εκ της 1ϊ1ε\οποννι']σου 
ττροσετάχθη, Κ,Χεαρχ^ον τον 'Ραμφίου ε•χοντα ναΰς 

2 τεσσαράκοντα. εττεκαΧεΐτο τε <yap αυτούς ό 
Φαρνάβαζος καϊ τροφην έτοιμος ην ιταρε-χειν, 
καϊ άμα καϊ το ΰυζύντιον ετΓεκιιρυκεύετο αύτοΐς 

3 αττοστηναι. καϊ αί τεσσαράκοντα τών ΥΙε\οττον- 
νησίων αύται νηες άπάρασαι ες το ττελαγο?, οττως 
Χάθοιεν εν τω ττλω τους ^Αθηναίους, •χ^ειμα- 
σθεΐσαι, αί μεν^ Δ?;λου Χαβόμεναι αί ττΧείους 
μετα ΚΧεάρχ^ου καϊ ύστερον ττάΧιν εΧθοΰσαι ες 
^ΙιΧητον (ΚΧεαρ)(^ος δβ κατά yr]v αύθις ες τον 

Έ,ΧΧήστΓοντον κομισθείς ηρχ^ν), αί Βε μετα 
ΚΧιξου του ^Ιε^αρεως στρατηΎου 8εκα ες τον 
'ΚΧΧηστΓοντον 8ιασωθεΐσαι Έυζάντιον άφιστασιν. 

4 καϊ μετα ταΰτα αί εκ της Χάμου ττεμττουσιν 
αίσθόμενοι νεών βοηθειαν καϊ φυΧακην ες τον 

ΚΧΧ7ίσ7Γθντον, και τις καϊ ναυμαχία βραχεία 
yiyveTai προ του Έυζαντίου ναυσιν οκτώ προς 
οκτώ, 

LXXXT. Οί δε προεστώτες εν ττ) Έ,άμω καϊ 

^ καί, before αί μΐν, deleted by Stahl. 

^ cf. cb. viii. 2; xxxix. 2. 



BOOK VIII. Lxxix. 6-Lxxxi. i 

nobody came out against them they sailed back again 
to Samos. 

LXXX. During the same summer, immediately 
after this, when tlie Peloponnesians, though their 
whole fleet had come together, failed to come out 
to meet the enemy, thinking themselves unequal to 
the contest, they were perplexed, not knowing from 
what source they should get money to maintain so 
many ships, especially since Tissaphernes provided 
it wretchedly ; so they sent Clearchus son of Rham- 
phias with forty ships to Pharnabazus, according 
to the orders Λvith Avhich he had originally set out 
from the Peloponnesus.^ For Pharnabazus was in- 
viting them to come to him and was ready to 
furnish maintenance ; moreover at tlie same time 
overtures were made to them for the revolt of 
Byzantium. So these forty Peloponnesian ships put 
out into the open sea, in order that they might 
escape detection by the Athenians as they made 
the voyage. Meeting λνΐίΐι a storm, the greater 
number, under Clearchus, took refuge at Delos and 
afterwards came back to Miletus ^ (though Clearchus 
afterwards Avent by land to the Hellespont and 
assumed command) ; the rest, to the number of ten, 
got safely into the Hellespont with their commander, 
Helixus of Megara, and effected the revolt of By- 
zantium. Afterwards, when the Athenians at Samos 
heard of this, they sent some ships to the Hellespont 
as a reinforcement and guard, and an insignificant 
sea-fight occurred off Byzantium, eight ships opposing 
eight. 

LXXXI. Now among those who held control at 

* The finite verb is omitted ; either there is anacoliithon 
or the text is corrupt. 



THUCYDIDES 

μαΚιστα (^ρασνβου\ο<;, aiei <y€ της αυτοί) <γνώμη<; 
€)(όμενο<;, βττβιΒη μβτβστησβ τα ττρά'γματα, ώστβ 
Karayeiv ^ΑΧκιβιάδηρ, και τεΧο•; άττ έκκΧησια^ 
eireiae το ττΧήθος των στρατιωτών, καΐ ψηφ:~α- 
μβνων αυτών ^ΑΧκιβίάΒΐ) κάθοΒον και aheiav 
ττΧεύσας ώ? τον Τισσαφέρνη κατη'^εν €ς την 
"^άμον τον ^ΑΧκιβιάδην, νομίζων μόνην σωτη- 
ρίαν, €1 Τισσαφέρνη αύτοΐς μεταστήσειβν άττο 

2 ΥΙεΧοτΓοννησίων. 'γενομένη'} 8ε εκκΧησίας, την 
τ€ ιΒίαν ξνμφοραν τή<; φνγη'ί '^ εττητιάσατο καΐ 
άνωΧοφνρατο ο ^ΑΧκιβιάΒη^, κα\ ττερί τών ττοΧι- 
τικών ποΧΧά είττών ες εΧττίΒας τε αυτούς ου 
σμικρας τών μεΧΧόντων καθιστή καΐ ύττερβάΧΧων 
εμε^άΧυνε την εαυτού Βύναμιν τταρα τω Τισ- 
σαφερνει, ίνα οι τε οΐκοι την οΧι^αρχίαν έχοντες 
φοβοΐντο αύτον και μάΧΧον αϊ ζυνωμοσ'ιαι ΒιαΧυ- 
deiev, κα\ οΐ εν τη Ί^άμω τιμιώτερόν τε αύτον 
ayoiev καΐ αύτο] εττι ττΧεον θαρσοίεν, οΧ τε ττοΧε- 
μιοι τω Τισσαφερνει ώς μάΧιστα ΒιαβάΧΧοιντο 

3 και τών ύτταρχουσών εΧττιΒων εκπίτττοιεν. ύπι- 
σχνεΐτο δ' ούν τάδε μέγιστα εττικομττών ο ^ΑΧκι- 
βιάΒ-ης, ώς Τισσαφέρνης αύτω ύττεΒέξατο η μην, 
εως αν τι τών εαυτού Χείπηται, ην Άθηναίοις 
ΤΓίστεύση, μη άττορησειν αυτούς τροφής, οϋδ' ήν 
Βέτ} τεΧεντώντα την εαυτού στρωμνην έζαρ'γυρώ- 
σαι, τάς τε εν ΆσττενΒω ήΒη ούσας Φοινίκων 
ναΰς κομιειν ^ Αθηναίοις και ου ΐΙεΧοποννησίοις• 

* rrjs φν/η^, with Vat. ; Hude brackets, after van Her- 
werden. 

^ Those elected leaders in ch. Ixxvi. 



BOOK VIII. Lxxxi. 1-3 

Samos,^ Thrasybulus, after he had effected the 
revolution, always held very strongly to the same 
opinion, that they should recall Alcibiades, and 
finally in a meeting of the assembly he won the 
majority of the soldiers to his view. And when 
these had passed a resolution recalling Alcibiades 
and granting him immunity, he sailed across to 
Tissaphernes and brought Alcibiades back to Samos, 
thinking that their only salvation was to convert 
Tissaphernes from the Peloponnesian side to their 
own. Accordingly, an assembly was held, in which 
Alcibiades complained with much lamentation of his 
personal misfortune in being exiled ; he also spoke 
at length on matters of state, inspiring in them no 
slight hopes regarding the future, and Avent on to 
magnify to excess his own influence with Tissa- 
phernes. His object was that those who were in 
control of the oligarchy at home should fear him and 
that the political clubs which conspired against him 
should more surely be broken up ; also that the 
army at Samos should hold him in greater honour 
and feel a greater degree of confidence themselves ; 
and finally that the enemy should be filled with all 
possible suspicions of Tissaphernes and so deprived 
of their present hopes. Accordingly, Alcibiades in 
a spirit of boasting went on and made these great 
promises : that Tissaphernes had solemnly pledged to 
him that, if he could but trust the Athenians, so 
long as he had anything left of his own they should 
not lack subsistence, no, not even if in the end he 
had to sell his own bed ; and that he would bring 
the Phoenician ships, which were already at As- 
pendus, and deliver them to the Athenians and not 
to the Peloponnesians ; but^ he had added, he could 

333 



THUCYDIDES 

τΓίστενσαί δ' αν μονως ^Αθηναίοις, el σώς αντος 
κατέλ-θων αντω άναΒίξαιτο. 

LXXX1I. 01 Be (iKovovTe^ ταΰτά τ€ καΐ ά\Χα 
τΓολλά στρατη'^/όν τε αύτον euOv^ e'iXovro μ€τά 
των ττροτέρων καί ra ^rpάyμaτa πάντα averi- 
Oeaav, την τε παραντίκα ε'λττιδα €καστος τη^ 
Τ€ σωτηρίας καΐ της των TeTpaKoaiwv τιμωρίας 
ovBevo^ αν ήΧλάξαντο, καΐ €τοΐμοι η8η ήσαν ^ 
τους τε ^ τταροντας ττολε/χιου? eK των \e^)(θevτωv 
2 καταφρον€Ϊν καϊ rrXelv^ €πΙ τον Tleipaid. 6 δε 
το μβν ε'τΓΐ τον Ileipaid TrXetv τους ^γγυτ^ρω 
^Γo\eμίoυς υττοΧίΐτοντας και πάνυ hieKciiXvae ττολ- 
\ων €π€ΐ'γομέΐ'ων, τα δε του ποΧέμου πρώτον 
'έφη, €πειΒη και στρατηγός ηρητο, πXeύσaς ως 
Τισσαφέρνη πράξειν. και άπο ταύτης της €κ- 
κΧησίας evθvς oi^eTO, 'ίνα Βη Βοκτ} πάντα μετ' 
eKeivou κοινοΰσθαι, καϊ άμα βουΧόμ€νος αύτω 
τιμιώτ€ρός τε elvai καϊ evBeίκvυσθaι οτι καϊ 
στρατηΎος ηΒη ηρηται καϊ el• καΐ κακώς οΙός τε 
εστίΐ^ αύτον ποιεΐν. ξυνββαινε Be τω ^ΑΧκιβιάΒη 
τω μ€ν Ύισσαφερν€ΐ τους \\θηναίους φοβειν, 
€κείνοις Be τον Τισσαφέρνη. 

LXXXIII. Οί δε ΐΙεΧοποννήσιοι ev τη ^ΙιΧητω 
πυνθανόμενοι την ^ΑΧκιβιάΒου κάθοΒον, καϊ πρό- 
Tepov τω Τισσαφίρνει άπιστοΰντες, ποΧΧω Βη 

^ δ«ά rh αντίκα, after 9ισαν : MSS. vary between δίά and 
κατά- As an expression of time κατά Th αντίκα is not found, 
and Sia Th αντίκα in this sense is impossible. The simplest 
remed}' is, with Classen, to omit the phrase as a gloss on 
■παραντίκα above. Hude reads δια Th <tovs> αϋτίκα rort 
vapovrai . , . 

^ Tovs T€, C reads rJre, all other MSS. tovs t(, 

334 



BOOK VIII. Lxx.vi. 3-Lxxxiii. i 

place confidence in tlie Athenians only on condition 
that he, Alcibiades, should be restored in safety and 
become surety to him. 

LXXXII. As they heard these and many other 
promises, they not only elected Alcibiades general 
without delay, to act Avith the generals already in 
office, but also entrusted to him all their affairs ; and 
there was not a man of them that would have ex- 
changed for anything his present hopes both of his 
ΟΛνη safety and of having revenge upon the Four 
Hundred, and they were ready at that moment 
both to despise their present enemies on the strength 
of the words they had heard and to sail to the 
attack of Peiraeus. But Alcibiades roundly objected 
to their leaving behind them their nearer enemies 
and sailing against the Peiraeus, though many in- 
sisted upon that course ; his first business, he said, 
since he had been elected general, \vould be to sail 
to Tissaphernes and arrange Avith him the conduct of 
the war. So after this assembly he at once went 
away to Tissaphernes, in order that he might be 
thought to be in communication with him about 
everything ; at the same time he wished to be held 
in greater honour by him and to shoAv him that he 
had now been elected general and was therefore in 
a position to do him either good or evil. And thus it 
fell out that Alcibiades Avas merely using Tissaphernes 
to frigiiten the Athenians and the Athenians to 
frighten Jissaphernes. 

LXXXIII. When the Peloponnesians at Miletus 
heard of the recall of Alcibiades, although they 
were before this distrustful of Tissaphernes, they 

3 Kol τΓλίΓ^, so B, tlie other MSS, πλβΓν re, Hude omits 
both καϊ and re. 

335 



THUCYDIDES 

2 μά\\ον en Β^βββΧηντο. ξννηνβχθη yap αντοΐς, 
κατα^ τον eVi την ^ΙίΧητον των ^Αθηναίων 
ίττίττΧουν ώ? ουκ ηθςΧησαν avTavayayovTe^ ναυ- 
μα'χ^ήσαι, ττολλώ ες την μισθοΖοσίαν τον Τίσσα- 
φβρνη άρρωστότβρον yevopevov καΐ £9 το μισ€Ϊσθαι 
υτΓ αυτών ττρότβρον έτι τούτων 8ια τον 'AX/ci- 

3 βίά8ην βτΓίΒεΒωκβναι. καϊ ξυνιστάμενοί ττρο? 
αλλτ/'λου? οΐάττερ καϊ ττρότβρον οι στρατιώται 
άνεΧο^γίζοντο και τινβ^ καϊ των άΧλων των άξιων 
\oyov άνθ ρώττων καϊ ου μόνον το στρατιωτικόν,^ 
ώ? 0UT6 μισθον ivTeXrj ττώττοτε Χάβοιεν το re 
ΒίΒόμενον βρα'χυ καϊ ovBe τούτο ξυνεχώ^' καϊ 
el μη τί<; η hiavav μαχησει η άπαΧλάξβταί όθεν 
τροφην e^ei, άττοΧβίψειν τους άνθρώ•που<ί τας 
ναΰζ' πάντων τε ^Αστύοχον eivai, αίτιον, εττι- 
φεροντα οργά? Ύισσαφβρνεο δίά ΐ8ια κερΖη, 

LXXXIV. Όι^τωι» δ' αυτών iv τοιούτω άνα- 
\ο^ισμω ξυνηνεχθη καϊ τοιόσΒε τις θόρυβος 

2 ττερϊ τον ^Αστύοχον. τών jap %υρακοσίων καϊ 
©ουριών οσω μάΧιστα καϊ εΧεύθεροι ^ ην το 
ττΧηθος οι ναΰται, τοσούτω καϊ θρασύτατα ττροσ- 
ΤΓβσόντες τον μισθον άπήτουν. ό δε αυθαΒεστερόν 
τέ τι άττεκρίνατο καϊ ηττείΧησε καϊ τω γε Αωριεΐ 
ξυνα^ορεύοντι τοις εαυτού ναύταις καϊ εττανήρατο 

3 την βακτηρίαν. το δε ττΧήθος τών στρατιωτών 

^ κατά, Duker's correction for καΙ of the MSS. 

^ καϊ ου μόνον rh στρατιαιτικόν, deleted by Kriiger. as 
pleonastic, followed by Hude. 

^ i\eu(!epoi, so most MSS. Hude reads iKeudtpov with C, 
and brackets oi ναΰται. 

336 



BOOK VIII. Lxxiii. i-lxxxiv, 3 

were now filled with a still greater suspicion of him. 
For they had had this experience of him, that after 
they had refused to go out against the Athenians 
and fight when these made their advance against 
Miletus, Tissaphernes became far more slack in the 
matter of giving them their pay and thus intensified 
the hatred in which even before these events he 
was held by them on account of Alcibiades. So the 
soldiers would gather in groups, as had been their 
Avont — and not the soldiery only, but also some of 
the others, who were men of consideration — and 
would cast up their accounts with one another, 
proving that tliey had never yet received their pay 
in full, but that what Avas given was short and even 
that not paid regularly ; and they declared that 
unless they were either to have a decisive battle or 
get away to some place where they could get sub- 
sistence the crews would desert the ships ; and for 
all this, they held, Astyochus was to blame, because 
he bore with Tissaphernes' Avhims for the sake of 
his private gain. 

LXXXIV. While they were thus reckoning up 
their grievances the following disturbance occurred 
in connection Avith Astyochus. It seems that the 
Syracusan and Thurian sailors, in proportion as the 
majority of them Avere allowed most freedom, were 
to that degree also the most bold and importunate 
in demanding their pay from him. But he answered 
them somewhat haughtily and made threats ; and 
against Dorieus, Avho was supporting the plea of his 
own seamen, he even raised his stick. ^ When the 
mass of the troops saw this, in sailor fashion they 

^ Which he carried according to the custom of Spartan 
generals, 

337 



THUCYDIDES 

ώ? elBov, οία Βη ναΰται, ώρμησαν iyKpayovra 
€7γΙ τον Άστύοχοι/ ώστ6 BaWeiv ό Be ττροϊΒών 
καταφεύ^βι eVl βωμόν τίνα. ου μέντοι ββΧηθη 

4 ye, άλ\α Βί€\ύθησαν αττ αλλ,ί^λωι^. €Χαβοι> oe 
καΧ το ev ττ} ΜιΧήτφ ζνωκούομημβνον του Ύισσα- 
ώβρνου<ί φρονρίον οι Μίλ?/σίοι, Χάθρα εττίττεσοιτε?, 
καϊ του? ΐνόττας φνΧακα^ αυτού βκβάΧΧουσιν. 
ζυνεΒόκει Be καϊ τοις άΧΧοί<; ζυμμάχ^οις ταύτα, 

5 καϊ ούχ ηκίστα τοις Έυρακοσίοις. ό μεντοι 
Αίχας ούτ€ ηρίσκετο αύτοΐς, βφη re ■χ^ρηναί Ύισ- 
aacpepvei καϊ ΒουΧεύειν yL•XησLoυς και τους 
άΧΧους τους ev ttj βασιΧεως τα μέτρια καϊ 
eTTieepaireoeiv, €ως αν τον ττόΧεμον ευ θοίνται. 
οι Be \ΙίΧ7]σίθί ωpyίζovτό τ€ αύτω καϊ Βια ταύτα 
καϊ Bi άΧΧα τοιουτότροπα, καϊ νόσω ύστερον 
άτΓοθανόντα αύτον ουκ εϊασαν θάλΙται ου εβουΧοντο 
οι παρόντες των ΑακεΒαιμονιων. 

LXXXV. Κατά Βη τοιαύτην Βιαφοραν όντων 
αύτοΐς των ■πpayμάτωv ττρός τε τον Άστυοχον 
καΐ τον Ύισσαφερνη ^ΙίνΒαρος ΒιύΒοχ^ος της 
^Αστυόχ^ου ναυαρχίας εκ ΑακεΒαίμονος εττηΧθε 
καϊ τταραΧαμβάνει την αρχήν ό Be \\στύοχος 
2 άττεττΧει. ξυνεττεμψε Βε καΐ Τισσαφέρνης αύτω 
ττρεσβευτην των παρ' εαυτού, ΤαυΧίτην όνομα, 
Κ.άρα BίyXωσσov, κaτηyopήσovτa των τε Μίλτ;- 
σίων περί τού φρουρίου καϊ περί αυτού άμα 
άπoXoyησόμεvov, είΒως τους τε lslίXησioυς ττο- 
ρευομενους επΙ καταβο^ τη αυτού μάΧιστα καϊ 
τον 'Ειρμοκράτη μετ αυτών, ος εμεΧΧε τον Ύισσα- 
φέρν7] άποφαίνειν φθείροντα των ΥΙεΧοποννησίων 
τα πpάyμaτa μετά ΆΧκιβίάΒου καϊ επαμφοτερυ- 

338 



BOOK VIII. Lxxxiv. 3-Lxxxv. 2 

cried out in rage and rushed at Astyochus with the 
intention of stoning him ; he, however, saw this in 
time and took refuge at an altar. But he was not 
actually stoned, and they were separated. The 
Milesians, furthermore, took the fort of Tissaphernes 
that had been built in Miletus, falling upon it 
unawares, and drove out the garrison that was in it. 
These doings were approved by the allies in general, 
and especially by the Syracusans. Lichas,^ however, 
was not pleased with them and said that the Milesians 
and other inhabitants of the King's country ought 
even to slave for Tissaphernes in a reasonable way 
and to court his favour until the}'^ should bring the 
war to a successful conclusion. But the Milesians 
were angry with him for these and similar sayings ; 
and when he afterwards fell sick and died they did 
not suffer him to be buried where the Lacedae- 
monians who Avere present wished to lay him. 

LXXXV. While the relations between the soldiers 
and Astyochus and Tissaphernes were in such dis- 
cord, Mindarus came from Lacedaemon to succeed 
Astyochus as admiral and took over the command ; 
and Astyochus sailed home. But Tissaphernes sent 
Avith him as envoy one of his retinue, Gaulites, a 
bilingual Carian, to lay accusation against the 
Milesians for taking his fort and at the same time 
to make a defence of himself, since he knew that 
the Milesians were on their way to Sparta chiefly 
to denounce him, and that Avith them went Hermo- 
crates, who was intending to shoAvthat Tissaphernes, 
together with Alcibiades, was ruining the cause of 
the Peloponnesians and pursuing a two-faced poHcy. 

* Who had been so firm before in his demands (ch. xliii. 3) 
and his protests (ch. lii. ), 

339 



THUCYDIDES 

3 ζοντα. β'χθρα Se προ<ς αύτον ην αύτω aiet Trore 
irepl τον μισθού της αττοδοσίως• καΐ τά τβΧευταΐα 
φυ^όντος €Κ Ί,υρακονσών του 'Έ^ρμοκράτους καΐ 
ετέρων ηκόντων iirX τάς• ναύ<; των ^υρακοσιων 
€9 την ^ΙίΧητον στρατηγών, ΙΙοτύμιΒος καΐ Μύ- 
σκωνος καΐ ^ημάρ'χ^ον, ενεκειτο ο Τισσαφέρνης 
φνγάΒί οντι i']By] τω Ερμοκράτει 7Γθλ.λω ετι 
μάΧλον καΐ κατηγορεί άΧΧα τε και, ώ? "χρήματα 
ΤΓΟτε αΙτΐ]σας εαυτόν καΐ ου τνχων τήν εχθραν 

4 οί ττρόθοιτο. ό μεν ονν Κστυο-χος και οι ΜιΧη- 
σιοι καΐ 6 Έ,ρμοκράτης άττεπΧενσαν ες την 
ΑακεΒαίμονα' 6 Ι ε ΆΧκιβιάΒης Βιεβεβήκει ττάλιν 
ηΒη πάρα του Τισσαφέρνους ες τήν Έ,άμον. 

LXXXVI. ΚαΙ οί εκ της ^ήΧου άττο των τετρα- 
κοσίων 1 ους τότε εττεμψαν τταραμυθησο μένους καΐ 
άναΒιΒάξοντας τους εν τη Σα/χω, άφικνοϋνται 
Ίταρόντος του ^ΑΧκιβιά8ου, καΐ εκκΧησίας ηενομέ- 

2 νης Χέ'^ειν έττεγε'ιρουν. οί Sk στρατιώται το μεν 
ττρωτον ουκ ηθεΧον άκούειν, άΧΧ αττοκτεινειν 
εβόων τους τον Βημον καταΧύοντας• εττειτα 

3 μέντοι μόΧις ησυγ^άσαντες ηκουσαν. οί δ' αττί/'γ- 
ηεΧΧον ως ούτε εττΐ Βιαφθορα της ττόΧεως ή μετά- 
στασις 'γένοιτο, αλλ' eVl σωτήρια, οΰθ' ίνα τοις 
ΤΓοΧεμίοις τταρα^οθή (εξεΐΐ'αι "yap, οτε έσέβαΧον 
ήζη σφών άρχ^όντων, τούτο ποιήσαι), των τε 
ττεντακισ'χ^ιΧίων οτι τιάντες εν τω μέρει μεθέ- 

'^ ττρΐσβΐυταΐ, after των τετρακοσίων, deleted by van Her- 
werden. c/. ch. Ixxvii., note. 



1 cf. ch. Ixxv. 3. 2 cf. Xen. Hell. i. i. 27 fif. 

* cf. ch. Ixxii. 1. 



340 



BOOK VIII. Lxxxv. 2-Lxxxvi. 3 

Tissaphernes had always been at enmity with 
Hermocrates in connection with the payment of 
the wages ; ^ and more recently, when Hermocrates 
had been banished from Syracuse and another set 
of generals had come to Miletus to take command 
of the Syracusan fleet ^ — and they were Potamis, 
Myscon and Demarchus — Tissaphernes set upon 
Hermocrates, now that he was an exile, much 
more violently than ever, charging against him, 
among other things, tliat he had once asked him 
for money, and because he did not obtain it had 
shown him enmity. Astyochus, then, together with 
the Milesians and Hermocrates, sailed away to 
Lacedaemon ; Alcibiades, on the other hand, had 
already left Tissaphernes and crossed over again to 
Samos. 

LXXXVI. And the envoys who had been sent 
by the Four Hundred, at the time above mentioned,^ 
to appease the soldiers at Samos and explain 
matters, now arrived from Delos when Alcibiades 
was already there ; and at a meeting of the assembly 
they attempted to speak. But the soldiers were 
at first unwilling to hear them, and with shouts 
threatened to kill the subverters of the democracy; 
afterwards, however, when with difficulty they 
had quieted down, they heard them. The envoys 
announced that the revolution had been made, not 
for the destruction of the state, but for its preserva- 
tion, not in order that Athens might be betrayed to 
the enemy (for that could have been done at the 
time of the Lacedaemonian invasion, when the 
revolutionists were already in power) ; they stated, 
moreover, that all the Five Thousand would partici- 
pate in the government in their turn ; furthermore, 

34Ϊ 



THUCYDIDES 

ζουσιν, οι re οΙκεΐοι αυτών οΰθ^ υβρίζονται, 
ωσττερ jiaipea<; ΒιαβάΧλων aiDiyyeWev, ούτε 
κακόν βχουσίν ούΒέν, αλλ' eVt τοΐ? σφβτβροι^; 

4 αυτών βκαστοί κατά 'χ^ώραν μενονσιν. άλΧα 
τ€ ποΧΧα είττοντων ούΒβν μάΧλον εσηκουον, 
αλλ' βγ^αΧβτταινον καΐ >γνύύμας άΧλοι άλλα? 
eXeyov, μάΧιστα 8e eVt τον Ώβιραιά ττΧβΙν. 
καΐ SoKet ^ ^ΑΧκίβίάΒη'ί πρώτος ^ τότε καϊ 
ούΒενος βΧασσον την ττόΧιν ώφεΧησαι, ώρμη- 
μένων yap των iv Χάμω ^Αθηναίων irXeiv eirl 
σφάς αύτού<ί, ev ω σαφβστατ αν Ιωνίαν και 
'YjXXi]aTTOVTOv εύθυς ^Ιχον οι ττοΧεμίοι, κωΧυτης 

5 yeveaOai. καϊ ev τω τότ€ άΧΧος μεν ούδ' αν 
βίς Ικανο<ζ eyeveTO κατασγ^βΐν τον 6'χΧον, βκεΐνος Be 
του τ εττίττΧου ετταυσβ καϊ τους Ihia τοις ττρβ- 

6 σβεσιν 6pyιζoμeJ>oυς ΧοιΒορών άττέτρεττεν. αύτος 
δε άττοκρινάμβνος αύτοΐς άττεττεμιτεν, otl τους 
μβν ττβντακίσχίΧίους ου κωΧύοί άρχβιν, τους μεν- 
τοί τετρακόσιους εκεΧευεν άτταΧΧάσσειν αυτούς 
καϊ καθιστάναι την βουΧην ώσττερ καϊ ττρότε- 
ρον, τους πεντακόσιους' ει Βε ες ευτεΧειαν τι 
ξυντετμηται, ώστε τους στρατευόμενους μάΧΧον 

7 εχειν τροφήν, ττάνυ ετταινεΐν. καϊ ταΧΧα εκε- 
Χευεν άντέχειν καϊ μηΒεν ενΒιΒόναί τοις ττοΧε- 
μίοις' ΤΓ ρος μεν yap σφας αυτούς σωζόμενης 
της ττόΧεως ττοΧΧην ελττίΒα είναι καϊ ξυμβήναι, 
el Βε άπαξ το έτερον σφαΧήσεται, η το εν 
Σάμω -η ^κεΐνο, ούΒε ότω BιaXXayησετaL• τις ετι 
εσεσθαι. 

8 ΊΊαρήσαν Βε και ^Apyeίωv πρέσβεις, επayyeX- 

^ 5oKe7, Classen's correction for eSOKtt of the MSS. 
^ πρώτοί, many editors accept πρώτον of B. 

342 



BOOK VIII. Lxxxvi. 3-8 

their relatives were neither being insulted, as 
Chaereas was slanderously saying, nor suffering any 
ill, but remained in their homes, each in possession 
of his own property. But though they said all this 
and more, the soldiers were none the more inclined 
to give heed to them, but were angry, and one after 
another offered various suggestions, but particularly 
that they should sail against the Peiraeus. And 
Alcibiades seems then in an eminent degree, and 
more than anyone else, to have benefited the state ; 
for when the Athenians at Samos were bent upon 
sailing against their own people — and if they had 
the enemy would most certainly have been masters 
of Ionia and the Hellespont — it was he who pre- 
vented it. And in that critical moment no other 
man would have been able to restrain the crowd, 
but he stopped them from sailing, and reproaching 
those who were on their own private account angry 
at the envoys, he caused them to desist. And he 
sent the envoys away with this answer from himself: 
he did not object to the Five Tliousand ruling, but 
bade them depose the Four Hundred and set up 
the senate as it had been before — the body of Five 
Hundred; and if there had been any curtailment 
with a view to economy, so that the soldiers in the 
field might have better maintenance, he quite ap- 
proved of that. As for the rest, he bade them not 
yield a step to the enemy ; for so long as the city 
was saved there was great hope of a reconciliation 
among themselves, but if once one party or the 
other should go to the ground, whether the one at 
Samos or that at Athens, there would be no one left 
to be reconciled \vith. 

Envoys from the Argives also came to Samos with 

343 



THUCYDIDES 

Χομ€νοι τω iv rfj Έάμω των * Αθηναίων Βήμω 
ωστ€ βοηθβΐν 6 Be ^ΑΧκιβίάΒη<; i7raiveaa<; 
αυτούς και βίττών, όταν τί? KaXfj, τταρβΐναι, 

9 ούτως άττβττεμττ^ν. άφίκοντο he οι ^Apyetoi 
μετά των ΏαράΧων, οι τότε βτάχ^θησαν ev ττ} 
στρατιώτίΒι νηΐ νττο των τετρακοσίων irepi- 
ττΧύν Ιίνβοιαν καΐ clyeiv ^ ^Αθηναίων ες Αακ€- 
8αίμονα άττο των τετρακοσίων πρέσβεις ^ Ααισ- 
ΤΓοΒίαν καϊ ^Αριστοφώντα καΐ ^εΧ7]σίαν' οΐ 
iireiBrj iyivovTo ττΧεοντες κατ "Αργό?, τους 
μεν πρέσβεις ξυΧΧαβόντες τοις "Άρ^είοις παρε- 
Βοσαν ώς των ούχ ηκιστα καταΧυσάντων τον 
Βήμον οντάς, αυτοί Βε ούκετι ες τάς ^Αθήνας 
άφίκοντο, αΧΧ άγοντες εκ του Apyovς ες την 
%άμον τους πρέσβεις άφικνοΰνται ηπερ είχον 
τριηοει. 

LXXXVII. Του δ' αυτού θέρους Τισσα- 
φέρνης, κατά τον καιρόν τούτον εν ω μάΧιστα 
Bed τ€ ταΧΧα καϊ την ^ΑΧκιβιάΒου κάθοΒον 
η~χθοντο αύτω οι ΤΙεΧοποννήσιοί ως φανερώς 
ηΒη άττικίζοντί, βουΧόμενος, ώς εΒόκει Βη, άπο- 
Χύεσθαι προς αυτούς τάς ΒιαβοΧάς, παρεσκευά- 
ζετο πορεύεσθαι επΙ τάς Φοινίσσας ναύς ες 
"ΑσπενΒον, καϊ τον Αίχ^αν ξυμπορεύεσθαι εκέ- 
Χευεν τη Βε στρατιά προστάξειν εφη Τάμων 
εαυτού υπάρχον, ώστε τροφην εν οσω αν αύτος 

2 άπη ΒιΒόναί' Χέζεται Βε ου κατά ταύτό, ούΒε 
ράΒιον elBevai τίνι /γνώμη παρήΧθεν ες την 

^ ayeiv, Portus' correctiou for ayovTis of the MSS. 
344 



BOOK VIII. Lxxxvi. 8-lxxxvii. 2 

offers of assistance to the Athenian democracy there ; 
but Alcibiades dismissed them with words of com- 
mendation, telHng them to come \vhen summoned. 
Now the Argives had come with the crew of the 
Paralus, who at the time above mentioned ^ had 
been sent out in the troop-ship with instructions to 
cruise round Euboea and to convey to Lacedaemon 
the three Athenian envoys from the Four Hundred, 
Laespodias, Aristophon and Melesias. But when 
they had got as far as Argos on their voyage, the 
crew had seized the envoys and delivered them 
to the Argives, on the ground that they were 
among those who had been chiefly instrumental in 
overthroΛving the democracy. They themselves, 
hoAvever, did not go back to Athens thereafter, but 
came from Argos to Samos, bringing with them the 
envoys in their trireme. 

LXXXVII. During the same summer, at the 
very moment when, for various other reasons and 
especially because of the recall of Alcibiades, the 
Peloponnesians were vexed with Tissaphernes, 
feeling that he was now openly favouring the 
Athenians, he, wishing, as it seemed, to clear 
himself in their eyes of these calumnies, prepared 
to go to Aspendus after the Phoenician shijis, and 
bade Lichas accomjiany him ; but as regards the 
army he Avould a])point Tamos in his place, so as to 
ensure supplies during his own absence. But the story 
is told in different ways, and it is not easy to be 
certain what motive he had for going to Aspendus, 

^ cf. cli. Ixxiv. 2. 

* ■lreμ■nτoί■s, before πρ€σβ(ΐ5, Μ — other MSS. ττ^μπονσι — 
generally deleted by editors. 

VOL. IV. Μ 345 



THUCYDIDES 

"ΑστΓβιιΒον καί τταρβλθων ουκ τ/γαγ6 τα? ναυ<ί. 

3 οτι μβν yap αί Φοίνισσαι νήβς ετττα καΐ τεσσαρά- 
κοντα καΐ βκατον μ^χρι Wairevhov άφίκοντο 
σαφ€<; εστίν- hi 6 τι δε ουκ ηΧθον "ποΧΚαγ^ 
είκαζβταί. οι μεν yap ίνα Βιατρίβτ] άττεΧθών, 
ωσπερ καΐ ^ιενοηθη, τα των ΥΙεΧοττοννησίων 
(τροφην yovv ονΒεν βεΧτιον, άλλα καΐ 'χείρον ό 
Ύάμως, ω ττροσετάγβη, παρεΐχεν), οι Be Ίνα τους 
Φοίνικας Trpoayaycov ες την "ΑσπενΕον εκχρη- 
ματίσαιτο άφβίς (καΐ yap ως αύτοϊς ouSev εμεΧλε 
χρήσεσθαι), αΧλοι δ' ως καταβοής ένεκα της 
ες ΑακεΒαιμονα, του \έyεσθaι ώς ουκ aSiKei, 
άλλα καΐ σαφώς οϊχεται εττΐ τάς ναύς άΧηθώς ττε- 

4 ττΧηρωμενας. εμοί μεντοι Βοκεΐ σαφεστατον είναι 
τριβής ένεκα καϊ άνοκωχής των ΈΧΧηνικών το 
ναυτικον ουκ άyayεΐv, φθοράς μεν, εν οσω 
Ίταρ-ήει εκεΐσε και ^ιεμεΧΧεί', άνισώσεως δε, 
όπως μΊ]8ετερους προσθεμένος ισχυρότερους 
ττοιηστ), επεί, εϊ yε εβουΧηθη, οιαττοΧεμήσαι αν ^ 
επιφανείς ^ Βηπου ουκ ενΒοιαστώς• κομισας yap 
αν Αακε^αιμονίοις την νίκην κατά το είκος 
εΒωκεν, οι yε καϊ εν τω παροντι άντιπάΧως 
μάΧΧον η ύποΒεεστερως τω ναυτικω άνθωρμουν. 

5 κατάφωρα δε μάΧιστα και ην είπε πρόφασιν ου 



' &ν, added bj' Dobree. 

^ iiripavels, Reiske's conjecture for (πιφανΐ$ of MSS. 



346 



BOOK VIII. Lxxxvii. 2-5 

and why, after going, he did not bring back the 
ships. For that the Phoenician ships, one hundred 
and forty-seven in number, came as far as Aspendus 
is certain; but the reason why they did not finish 
the journey is variously conjectured. Some say that 
his purpose Avas to accompHsh by his absence what 
he actually designed — to exhaust by delay the 
resources of the Peloponnesians (at any rate supplies 
were furnished no better, but even worse than 
before, by Tamos, to Avhom this duty had been 
assigned) ; others say that it Avas with the idea of 
bringing the Phoenician shi{)s as far as Aspendus 
and then exacting money from them for their dis- 
charge (for in any case he was not intending to 
make any use of them) ; and still others say that it 
was because he was being denounced at Lacedae- 
mon, and wanted the report to go out that he was 
not acting wrongly but, as everybody could see, had 
gone for the ships and these were really manned for 
service. To me, however, it seems perfectly clear 
that it Avas Avith the purpose of wearing out the 
resources of the Hellenes and keeping matters in 
suspense that he did not bring the fleet — of 
exhausting them while he Λναβ making the journey 
to Aspendus and delaying there, and also of 
equalizing them, that he might make neither side 
stronger by joining it. For if he had indeed Avished 
it, he could, it seems plain, by appearing on the 
scene have brought the war to a definite conclusion ; 
for by bringing his fleet he would in all probability 
have given the victory to the Lacedaemonians, who, 
in fact, even as it was were confronting the Athenians 
with a fleet that fully matched theirs and was not 
inferior to it. But that Λvhich convicted him most 

347 



THUCYDIDES 

κομίσας τας ναΰς. €φη yap αύτα<; έΧάσσον; η 
οσα^ βασι\€ύ<; 'έταξε ξυΧΚβ^ηναί' 6 he χάριν 
αν 8ήττου ev τούτω μείζω βτι βσχεν, ούτε άνα- 
Χώσα^ ττοΧλα των βασιΧέω^, τά re αύτα άττ' 
G ξΧασσονων ττράξας. e? δ' ονν την "ΑσττβνΒον 
fjTivi Βη Ύνώμτ) 6 Ύίσσαφβρνη^; άφικνεΐταί καΐ 
τοις Φοίνιξι ^vyyiyveTar καΐ οι ΥΙεΧοττοννήσιοι 
έπεμψαν ως iirl τάς ναυς κεΧβυσαντος αυτού 
ΦίΧιτΓΤΓον dvSpa Αακεζαιμόνιον Βύο τρίηρεσιν. 

LXXXVIII. ΆΧκίβιάδης δέ iirecBrj και τον 
Ύισσαφέρνη ijaOeTO τταριόντα eVt της WairevSov, 
έ'ττΛ,βί• καΐ αύτος Χαβων τρεις και 8εκα ναύς, 
ύτΓοσχόμβνος τοις εν ttj Έ,άμφ άσφαΧη και 
με'γάΧην χάριν (η yap αντος άξειν Αθηναιοις 
τας Φοινίσσας ναυς η ΙΙεΧοποννησίοις ye κωΧύ- 
σβιν βΧθεΐν), εΐόώς, ώς εικός, εκ ττΧείυνος την 
Τισσαφέρνους yvώμηv Ότι ουκ άζειν εμεΧΧε, και 
βουΧόμενος αυτόν τοις ΐΙεΧοττοννησίοις ες την 
εαυτού καΐ ^Αθηναίων φιΧίαν ώς μάΧιστα Βια- 
βάΧΧειν, οττως μάΧΧον δί' αύτο σφ'ισιν avay- 
κάζοιτο -προσχωρεΐν. και ό μεν άρας ευθύ της 
Φασ>;λίδο? καΐ Κ^αύνου άνω τον ττΧούν εποιεΐτο. 

LXXXIX. Οί δ' εκ της ^άμου άττο των τετρα- 
κοσίων Ίτεμφθέντες ττρβσβεις εττειΒη αφικομενοί 
ες τάς Αθήνας aiDjyyeiXav τα παρά τού ΑΧκι- 
βιάΒου, ώς κεΧεύει τε άντεχειν καΐ μηοέν ivhihovai 
τοις ποΧεμιοις, εΧπι8ας τε Οτι ποΧΧάς έχει κακει- 
νοις το στράτευμα 8ιαΧΧάξειν και ΐΙεΧοποννησιων 
περιέσεσθαι, άχθομενους καΐ πρότερον τους ποΧ- 

^ Referring, not only to tliH Four Huiulred, but especially 
to the rest of the citizens who, in ch. Ixix. 2, are designated 
as ot iv TTi ξυνούμοσί^. 

348 



BOOK VIII. Lxxxvii. 5-Lxxxix. r 

clearly was the excuse he gave for not bringing the 
ships, Λvhen he said that they were not so many as 
the King had ordered to be collected ; but he, on 
the contrary, would surely have Λνοη all the more 
gratitude in such a case, by saving a great deal oi 
the King's money and obtaining the same results 
with smaller outlay. At any rate, whatever his 
intentions, Tissaphernes went to Aspendus and 
conferred with the Phoenicians ; and the Pelopon- 
nesians by his orders sent Philippus, a Lacedae- 
monian, with two triremes to bring the shi2)s back. 

LXXXVlll. But Alcibiadcs, when he learned 
that Tissaphernes as well was on his way to 
Aspendus, sailed thither himself with thirteen ships, 
j)romising the army at Samos a sure and great 
benefit; for he would either secure the shij)s him- 
self for the Athenians, or else at any rate prevent 
their joining the Peloponnesians. It is likely that he 
had long been aware of the purpose of Tissaphernes 
— that lie had no intention of bringing the ships — 
and wished to prejudice him as much as possible in 
tiie eyes of the Peloponnesians on the score of his 
friendship for himself and the Athenians, that so 
he might be under greater compulsion to join the 
Athenian side. So he put to sea, laying his course 
eastward, straight toward Phaselis and Caunus. 

LXXXIX. When the envoys sent by the Four 
Hundred arrived at Athens on their return from 
Samos and reported what Alcibiades had said — 
urging them to hold out and make no concessions to 
the enemy, and saying that he had great hopes both 
of reconciling the army to the people at home and 
of ])revailiiig over the Peloponnesians — most of 
those who shared in the oligarchy,^ who were even 

349 



THUCYDIDES 

Χους των μβτ€)(οντων τή'ί oXiya p)(^La<; και τ^δεως 
αν ατταλλαγεζ'τα? tttj άσφαΧώς τον ττράγ/ίΐατο? 

2 ΤΓοΧΧφ 8η μάΧΧον βττζρρωσαν. καΐ ζυνίσταντό 
τ€ ή8η καΐ τά TrpaypaTa 8ΐ€μβμφοντο, βχονΎ€<; 
'i)yepova<i των πάνυ ■"■ των ev ttj oXiyapxla καΐ 
iv άρχαΐς όντων, οίον %ηραμίνη τ€ τον " Ajvwvo^ 
και ^Αριστοκράτη τον ^κβΧίου καΐ άΧΧου<;, οΐ 
μβτεσχ^ον μβν ev τοις ιτρωτοί ^ των πραγμάτων, 
φυβούμβνοι Si, ώς 'έφασαν^ τό τ€ iv ttj Χάμω 
στράτευμα καΐ τον ΆΧκί/3ιά8ί]ν σττουΒτ) ττάνυ,^ 
τους τ€ €ς την ΑακβΒαίμονα ττ ρβσ ββνομβνους * μή 
TL• άνευ των ττΧβιόνων κακόν Βράσωσι την ττόΧιν, 
ούτοι uTTaXXa^eieiv ^ του ciyav €9 οΧί^ους iXOeiv, 
αΧΧά τους ττεντακισχ^ιΧίονς epytp καΐ μη ονόματι 
"χ^ρηναι άττοΒβικνύναι καΐ την ττοΧιτείαν Ισαιτβραν 

3 καθιστάναι. ην Se τούτο μεν σ-χ^ημα ΊτοΧιτικον 
τού Xoyov αύτοΐς, κατ' ίΒίας 8e φιΧοτιμίας υί 
ττοΧΧοΙ αυτών τω τοιούτω ττροσεκειντο, ev φττερ 
και μάΧιστα 6Xiyap)(^La εκ δημοκρατίας yεvoμevη 
άποΧΧυται• ττάντες yap αυθημερόν άξιούσιν ούχ^ 
οττως ϊσοι, άΧΧά καΐ ττοΧύ ττρώτος αύτος έκαστος 
εΙναί' εκ 8ε 8ημοκρατίας αίρεσεως yLyvoμevης 
ραον τα άττοβαίνοντα ώς ουκ άττο των ομοίων 



^ στρατη-/ών, after των πάνυ, deleted by Classen. For των 
irivj cj. cli. i. 1. 

^ iv rois "πρώτοι, Bekker's correction ; iv τοΓ$ πρωτοα Β, 
eV irpiiTois, the other MSS. 

' σπουζί] ττάνυ, Hude omits with CM and Schol. 

* ΐΓρίσβίυομ4νου5, CM and Schol., ΐΓρ(σβΐυομΐνου$ ίτκμττον, 
ABEFG and Thorn. Mag. It is possible to construe the 
latter reading by changing ovs to tovs, with Goeller. 

' ούτοι airaWa^iUiv for ου rb άτταλλάξίΐί' of the MSS. οΰτοι 

35° 



BOOK VIII. Lxxxix. 1-3 

before this in distress, and would have been glad to 
be safely rid of the business in any way, were far 
more encouraged. And they were already beginning 
to form groups and criticize the state of affairs, 
having as their leaders some of the very men who 
were members of the oligarchy and held office, such 
as Theramenes son of Hagnon, Aristocrates son of 
Scelias, and others. These had been among the 
foremost of those who had taken an active part in 
the revolution, but being afraid in real earnest, as 
they said, of the army at Samos and of Alcibiades, 
as well as of those who were sending envoys to 
Lacedaemon, who they thought might, by acting 
without the sanction of the greater number, work 
some harm to the city, they did not indeed openly 
profess that they wanted to avoid reducing the 
government to an extreme oligarchy, but maintained 
that they ought to appoint the Five Thousand in 
fact and not merely in name, and to establish the 
government on the basis of a greater equality. 
NoAv this phrase of theirs Λν38 a mere political 
catchword, and in their personal ambitions most of 
them eagerly pursued the sort of methods by which 
an oligarchy formed out of a democracy is most sure 
to come to ruin; for all demand forthwith, not 
equality, but each that he shall be quite the first 
himself; whereas under a democracy an election is 
held and every man acquiesces more readily in the 
result because he feels that those to whom he owes 



is Stahl's correction, απαΚλα^ύαν, Abresch's (c/. Scliol. άπαλ• 
KaxTiKws (χουσή. Some verb like ikeyov has dropped cub or 
is understood. 



THUCYDIDES 

€Χασσούμ€ν6<; Τί? φβρβι. σαφέστατα δ' αυτου•^ 
eirfipe τά ev rfj Σα/χω του ^ΑΧκιβιάΒου Ισ'χυρα 
οντά καϊ ότι αύτοΐ<; ουκ iBoKei μόνιμον το της 
6Χΐ''/αρχ^ία<; eaeaOar ιρ/ωνίζετο ουν βΐς βκαστος 
αυτός ττρωτο'ζ ττροστάτης τον Βήμου 'yeveaOai. 

XC. Ot δε των τετρακοσίων μάΧιστα ενάντιοι 
6ντ€<; τω τοίούτω e'lBet καϊ ττροεστώτες, Φρύνΐ'χ^ός 
τ€, ος καϊ στρατήγησαν ev τί] Χάμω τω ^ΑΧκι- 
βιά8τ] τότε διην€χθ7], και ^Αρίσταρχος, άνηρ ev 
τοις μαΧιστα καϊ εκ πΧειστου ενάντιος τω δήμω, 
καϊ ΥΙείσανΒρος καϊ Αντιφών καϊ aXXot οι Βυνα- 
τύύτατοι, ττρότερον τε, εττεϊ τάχ^ιστα κατέστησαν 
καϊ €7Γ€ΐΒη τά εν τ^ Έάμω σφών ες 8ημοκρατίαν 
άττεστη, Ίτρεσβεις τε άττεστεΧΧον σφών ες την 
Αακεόαίμονα καϊ την όμoXoyίav ττρουθυμούντο 
και το εν τη Ηετιωνεία καΧουμεντ) τείγος 
ετΓοιονντο, ττοΧΧώ τε μάΧΧον ετι, εττειΒη καϊ 
οι εκ της ^άμου πρέσβεις σφών ηΧθον, όρώντες 
τους τε ττοΧΧούς καϊ σφών τους Βοκονντας ττρό- 

2 τερον τηστους είναι μεταβαΧΧο μένους, καϊ αττε- 
στειΧαν μεν ^Αντιφώντα καϊ Φρύνιγρν καϊ 
άΧΧους 8εκα κατά τάχ^ος, φοβούμενοι καϊ τά 
αυτού καϊ τά εκ της Ί,άμου, εττιστείΧαντες τταντϊ 
τρόττω 'όστις καϊ οττωσούν ανεκτός ξυναΧΧα^ηναι 

3 προς τους Αακεόαιμονίους. ωκοΒόμουν δέ ετι 
προθνμότερον τό εν τη ^Ηετιωνεία τείχος, ην 8ε 

^ i. e. the majority. 

^ i. e. in an oligarchy all are of the same class, and the 
promotion of one is a slight upon the rest ; but in a democracy 
the defeated candidate ma\' claim that the electors were 
ignorant or prejudiced, that be was not beaten on his merits, 
and so pass the matter over. 

3 cf. chs. xlviii., 1. * cf. ch?. xlix., liii. ^ cf. ch. Ixviii. 1. 



BOOK VIII. Lxxxix. 3-xc. 3 

his defeat' are not his equals.^ But Λvhat most 
evidently encouraged these men was the fact that 
Alcibiades' position at Samos was so strong, and 
their opinion that the power of tlie oligarchy 
Avould not last long. Each one, therefore, strove to 
become the foremost leader of the people himself. 

XC. But those of the Four Hundred Λνΐιο were 
most opposed to such a course — the leading spirits 
like Phrynichus, who had been general at Samos 
and had then quarrelled with Alcibiades,•* and 
Aristarchus, a man \vho had been conspicuously 
and for the longest time opposed to the democracy, 
and Peisander,^ Antij)hon,^ and other men of the 
greatest influence — before this time, that is, as soon 
as they were established in power and then when 
the army at Samos had revolted from them in favour 
of a democratic form of government, had been 
sending ambassadors of their Ολνη to Lacedaemon ^ 
and making earnest efforts to come to an under- 
standing, and had also been constructing their fort 
in the place called Eetioneia ; and now far more 
than ever, Λvhen their ambassadors returned from 
Samos, did they bestir themselves, seeing that not 
only the majority of the people but also men of 
their own party Avho had before been esteemed 
trustworthy were changing their views. So they 
despatched Antiphon, Phrynichus, and ten others in 
all haste, since they were alarmed by the situation 
both at home and at Samos, enjoining upon them 
to effect a reconciliation with tiie Lacedaemonians 
on any terms that would be at all tolerable. And 
they set to work Λvith greater zeal than ever build- 
ing their fort at Eetioneia.' And the purpose of 
' cf. ch. Ixxi. 3 ; Ixxxvi. 9. ' See map at end. 

353 



THUCYDIDES 

του τείχους η <γνώμη αΰτη, ώς βφη Θηραμένης και 
οι μετ αύτου, ούχ 'ίνα τους iv Ί,άμω, ην βία 
ε'ΤΓίττΧβωσι, μη Βέξωνταί 6? τον Ώειραιά, αλλ' 
ίνα τους ττοΧεμίους μάΧΧον, όταν βούΧωΐ'ται, 

4 καϊ ναυσϊ και πεζω Ββξωνται. χηΧη yap εστί 
του ΐίειραιώς η ^Ηετιώνεια, καϊ τταρ αύτην ευθύς 
6 εσττΧους εστίν. ετειχίζετο ουν ούτω ξύν τω 
ττρότερον προς ηττειρον ύπάρχοντι τείχει, ώστε 
καθεζομενων ες αύτο ανθρώπων oXiy ων άρχειν του 
εσπΧου•^ ες αύτον <yap τον επΙ τω στόματι του 
Χι μένος στενού οντος τον έτερον πύρ^ον ετεΧβύτα 
τό τε παΧαών το προς ήπειρον καϊ το καινον το 

5 εντός τείχος τειχιζόμενον προς θάΧασσαν. Βιω- 
κοδόμησαν Βε καϊ στοάν, ηπερ ην μεγίστη και 
iyyvTaTa ^ τούτου ευθύς εχομένη εν τω ΐίειραιεΐ, 
καϊ ήρχον αύτοΙ αύτης, ες ην καϊ τον σΐτον rjvay- 
καζον πάντας τον υπάρχοντα τε καϊ τον επεσ- 
πΧέοντα εζαιρείσθαι καϊ εντεύθεν προαιρούντας 
πωΧεΐν. 

XCI. Ύαύτ ουν εκ πΧέονός τε 6 Θηραμένης 
Βιεθροει καϊ επειΒη οι εκ της ΑακεΒαίμονος πρέ- 
σβεις ούΒεν πράξαντες άνεχώρησαν τοις ξύμπασι 
ξυμβατικόν, φάσκων κινΒυνεύσειν το τείχος τούτο 
2 καϊ την ποΧιν διαφθεΐραι. άμα yap καϊ εκ της 
ΏεΧοποννιίσου iTOyxavov Ένβοέων επικαΧου- 
μένων κατά τον αύτον χρονον τούτον Βύο καϊ 
τεσσαράκοντα νήες, ων ήσαν καϊ εκ Ύάραντος καϊ 
εκ Αοκρών ΊταΧιώτιΒες καϊ "ΖικεΧικαί τίνες, 
όρμούσαι ηΒη επϊ Λα της Αακωνικής καϊ παρα- 

' του ίσ-πΧου, ΒΜ ; Hude follows Classen in changing to 
rov T€ ίσττΧου κα! ίκττΚου. 

2 iyyuraTa, bracketed by Hude following van Herwerden. 

354 



BOOK VIII. xc. 3-xci. 2 

this fort was, as Theramenes and his adherents said, 
not that they might prevent the Saniian fleet from 
entering the Peiraeus in case they should attempt 
to force their way in, but rather that they might 
admit the enemy wlienever they Avished with both 
his army and fleet. For Eetioneia is a mole extend- 
ing out from the Peiraeus, and immediately beside 
it is the entrance to the harbour. It was therefore 
being connected by a Λvall with the wall which 
already existed somewhat inland, and in such a way 
that if only a few men were stationed inside it 
Avould control the entrance ; for both the old wall 
running inland and the new inner wall that Avas 
being built facing the sea came to an end in the 
second of the two towers, the one that lay exactly 
at the mouth of the harbour, which Avas narrow. 
They also cut off Avith a wall inside the harbour 
a portico which was very large and immediately 
adjoined this inland wall; and this they controlled 
themselves, and compelled everybody to deposit in 
it the corn that was already on hand as Avell as to 
discharge there that which came in by sea, and to 
take it from there if they wished to sell it. 

XCI. Now Theramenes had been freely talking 
about these proceedings for some time, and after 
the ambassadors came back from Lacedaemon with- 
out having accomplished anything toward an agree- 
ment for the people as a whole, he kept saving that 
this fort would in all probability bring ruin upon 
the city. For at this very time it so happened 
that, on the invitation of the Euboeans, ships from 
the Peloponnesus to the number of forty-two, among 
which were Italian vessels from Tarentum and Locri 
and some from Sicily, were already lying off Las in 

355 



THUCYDIDES 

σ/<€υαζόμ€ναι τον eV την Έϋβοιαν ττΧοΰν {ηρχβ 
Be αυτών Ί^Ύησαν^ρίΒας Ή'γησάνΒρου "Σ-τταρτιά- 
τη<ϊ)' ας βφη (Θηραμένης ουκ Κύβοία μάΧΧον ή 
τυΐς τειγ^ίζουσι την ^Ιλετίώνειαν προσττΧεΐν, κα\ 
el μη τις τ';δ>; φυΧαξεται, Χήσ€ΐν Βιαφθαρεντας. 

3 ην Be τι καΐ τοιούτον άττο των την κατη'^/ορίαν 
έ'χ^όντων, καΐ ου ττάνυ ΒιαβοΧη μόνον του Χό'^/ου. 
€Κ€Ϊνοι yap μάλιστα μβν ίβούΧοντο oXiyap- 
•χ^ονμβνοι άρχ^βιν και των ξυμμάχ^ων, ei Be μη, τάς 
ye ναΰς καΐ τα τει^τ; €χοντ€ς αύτονομ€Ϊσθαι, 
eζeLpyόμevoι Be και τούτου μη ουν υττο Βήμου 
ye αύθις yevoμevoυ αύτοΙ ττρο των άΧΧων μά- 
Χιστα Βιαφθαρήναι, άΧΧα και τους ττοΧεμίους 
eσayayόμ€voι άνευ τειχών καΐ νεώΐ' ξυμβήναι καΐ 
όττωσυΰν τα της ττοΧεως εχειν, el τοΐς ye σώμασι 
σφών aheia βσται. 

Χ< 'II. Δί' oTrep καΐ το τείχος τούτο, και 
ττυΧίόας έχον και ^σόΒονς και ^ e■πeσayωyaς τών 
ΤΓοΧεμίων, ετείχιζόν τε ττροθύμως καΐ φθηναι 

2 εβούΧοΐ'ΤΟ εζepyaσάμevoι. ττρότερον μεν ουν 
κατ 6Xίyoυς τε και κρυφά μάΧΧον τα Xεyoμ^va 
ην €7Γ€ΐΒη Be ο Φρύνιχος ήκων εκ της ες Αακε- 
Βαίμονα ττρεσβ^ιας 7ΓXηyε\ς ύττ άνΒρος τών ττερι. 
ΊτύΧων τίνος εζ εττ ι βουΧης εν τη ayopd ττΧηθούση 
και ου τΓοΧύ άττο τον βουΧευτηρίου άττεΧθών 
απέθανε παραχρήμα, και 6 μεν πατάτας Bιέφυyεv, 
ό Βε ξυvεpyός, ^Apyεΐoς άνθρωπος, ΧηφθεΙς και 
βασανιζόμενος υπο τών τετρακοσίων ούΒενος 
^ και, omitted by Hude Λvith C. 



BOOK VIII. xci. 2-xcii. 2 

Laconia and preparing for their passage to Euboea, 
under the command of Hegesandridas son of Hege- 
saiider, a Spartan ; and Theramenes declared that 
these were on their way, not to Euboea, but to 
Eetioneia to help the men who Λvere fortifying it, 
adding that unless they immediately took precautions 
their cause would be lost before thev knew it. And 
in fact there was something of the kind afoot on the 
part of those whom he thus accused, and what he 
said was not altogether mere calumny. For the 
persons in question wished above all, preserving 
their oligarchy, to rule both Athens and the allies, 
but, failing in that, to keep their ships at least and 
their fortifications and be independent ; and if they 
were debarred from this course also, at any rate not 
to be themselves the first to meet with destruction 
at the hands of the restored democracy, but actually 
to bring in the enemy and, giving up walls and 
ships, make any sort of terms as to the fate of the 
city, if only they might have immunity for their 
own persons. 

XCI I. It Avas with this object in view that they 
were now diligently building this fort, which was 
furnished Λvith posterns and entrances and ways for 
letting the enemy in, and they Λvished to have it 
finished in time. Now hitherto the talk had been 
confined to small groups and indulged in with some 
attempt at secrecy ; but finally Phrynichus, after his 
return from his mission to Lacedaemon, was stabbed 
in full market as the result of a plot by a man of the 
frontier-patrol, and before he had gone far from the 
senate-chamber suddenly died. The assassin escaped, 
while his accomplice, an Argive fellow, was seized 
and put to the torture by the Four Hundred, but 

357 



THUCYDIDES 

όνομα του Kekevaavro^ elirev ovSe αλ> ο τι η on 
εΙΒβίη ΤΓοΧΧούς άνθρωττους καΐ e? του ττβρι- 
ττολ.άρ'χ^ου και άΧλοσβ «ατ' οΐκία-ί ζννίοντα<ί, rare 
Βη ov8evo<; ^^ΐ^ενημβνου άττ αυτού νεωτέρου καΐ 
ό (^ηραμβνης ηοη θρασύτβρον καΐ Άρίστοκράτ7]ς 
καΐ οσοί άΧλοί των τετρακοσίων αυτών καΐ των 
βξωθβν ήσαν όμοΎνώμονες ^σαν eVi τα 7τρά-/ματα. 

3 άμα yap καΐ άπο της Λα? αϊ νήβς η8η irepi- 
ΤΓβττΧενκυΐαί καϊ ορμισάμβναι e? την Έττ/δαυροι» 
την Aiyivav κατεΒεΒραμήκεσαν καϊ ουκ 'έφη ό 
Θηραμένης είκος elvai eV Έιΰβοίαν ττλβουσας 
αύτας e? Al'jLvav κατακοΧττίσαι καϊ ττάλιν iv 
"'Έιτη^αυρω όρμβΐν, el μη τταρακΧηθβΙσαι ηκοιβν 
εφ' οίσττζρ καϊ αυτός alel κατηγόρα• ούκέτι ουν 

4 οΙόν τ€ elvai ησνχ^άζβιν. τβΧος δε ττοΧλών καϊ 
στασιωτικών Χόγων καϊ ύττοψιών irpoayevo μένων 
καϊ epycp ήΒη ητττοντο των ττραγμάτων οι yap 
iv τω Uetpaiet το της ^Ηετιωνείας τβΐχος όττΧΐται 
οι Koho μουντές, εν οίς καϊ ^Αριστοκράτης ην 
ταξιαρχών καϊ την εαυτού φυΧην έχων, ξυΧ- 
Χαμβάνουσιν ΑΧεξικΧεα, στρατηγον οντά εκ 
της οΧιγαρχίας καϊ μάΧιστα ττρος τους εταίρους 
τετραμμενον, καϊ ες οίκιαν ay άγοντες εΐρξαν. 

C ξυνεττεΧάβοντο 8ε άμα αύτοΐς καϊ άΧΧοι καϊ 
"Ερμων τών ττεριττόΧων τις, τών ^Ιουνιχίασι 
τεταγμένων άρχων το 8ε μεγιστον, τών οττΧιτών 

6 το στίφος ταύτα εβούΧετο. ώ<; 8ε εσηγγεΧθη 
τοις τετρακοσίοις (ετυχον 8ε εν τώ βουΧευτηρίω 
35S 



BOOK VIII. xcn. 2-6 

did not reveal the name of anyone who instigated 
the deed nor anytliing else, except that he knew 
many who were wont to come together in the 
house of the commander of the frontier-patrol 
and at other houses. So now at length, when no 
signal action had been taken in consequence of 
this, Theramenes and Aristocrates and all the rest of 
the Four Hundred and those outside that body Λvho 
were of the same Avay of thinking, Λvent to work 
more boldly. For at this same time the Pelopon- 
nesian ships had already sailed round from Las, and 
after taking station at Epidaurus had overrun Aegina ; 
and Theramenes said it was not likely, if their destina- 
tion were Euboea, that they would have run up the 
gulf as far as Aegina and then put in to Epidaurus 
to anchor, unless they had come on invitation for 
the purposes which he himself had always been de- 
nouncing; it was therefore impossible, he concluded, 
to keep quiet any longer. Finally, when there had 
been many other seditious speeches and insinuations, 
they at last took hold of the situation in earnest. 
The hoplites in the Peiraeus who were engaged in 
building the fort at Eetioneia — one of their number 
being Aristocrates, a taxiarch who commanded the 
contingent of his own tribe — arrested Alexicles, who 
was a general of the oligarchical faction and very 
favourably inclined toward the members of the 
political clubs, took him into a house and confmed 
him there. Among those who took part with them 
in this exploit was Hermon, one of the frontier- 
patrol and commander of the detachment stationed 
at Munichia ; and, most imjiortant of all, the mass 
of the hoplites were in sympathy with all this. But 
when the act was announced to the Four Hundred, 

359 



THUCYDIDES 

ξνγκαθήμβνοι), βύθυς πΧην ^ οσοι<; μη βουΧο- 
μ6νοί(; ταντα ην, βτοΐμοι ήσαν 69 τα οττλα ievai 
καϊ τω Ηηραμβνει και τοις μετ αυτοί) ηττζίΧουν. 
ο Se άττοΧοΎουμενος €Τθΐμος βφη elvai ξυναφαιρη- 
σομενος levai η8η. καϊ τταραΧαβων eva των 
στρατΐ]^ων όστις ην αύτω όμογνώμων €χώ/3βί 
€9 τον Tleipaid• εβοήθει δε καΐ Αρισταρ-χος καϊ 

7 των ίτητβων νβανίσκοί. ην Be θόρυβος ττοΧύς 
καϊ εκττΧηκτικός' οι τε yap iv τω άστβι, η8η 
ωοντο τον re Tleipaid κατειΧηφθαι καϊ τον 
ξυνειΧημμίνον τεθνάναι, αϊ τε iv τω TLeipaiet 
τους εκ του άστεως όσον οΰττω eVt σφάς τταρεΐιαι. 

8 μόΧις δε των τε πρεσβυτέρων ΒιακωΧυοντων τους 
εν τω άστει Βιαθεοντας καϊ εττϊ τα οττΧα φερο- 
μένους καϊ ^ουκυΒίΒον τον ΦαρσαΧίον του προ- 
ξένου της ττόΧεως παρόντος καϊ προθύμως εμποΒών 
τε εκάστοις •γΐ'γνομενου καΐ επιβοωμενον μη 
εφεΒρευόντων εγγύς των ποΧεμίων άποΧεσαι την 
πατρΙΒα, ησύγ^ασάν τε καϊ σφών αυτών άπε- 

9 σ)(οντο. καϊ 6 μεν %ηραμενης εΧθων ες τον 
ΐίειραια (ην δε καϊ αντος στρατηιγός^ όσον άπο 
βοής ένεκα, ώρ'γίζετο τοΐς όπλίταις' ό Βε Αρί- 
σταρχος καϊ οι ενάντιοι τω πΧήθει εγ^αΧεπαινον. 

10 οΐ Be οπΧΐται ομόσε τε εχ^ώρουν οι πΧεΐστοι τω 
epjfp καϊ ου μετεμεΚοντο, καϊ τον Ηηραμενη 
ηρώτων el Βοκεΐ αύτω εττ' ά<γαθω το τείχος 
οΙκοΒομεΙσθαι, καϊ εΐ άμεινον είναι καθαιρεθεν. 
ό δε, είπερ καϊ εκείνοις Βοκεΐ καθαιρειν, καϊ 

^ iT\i]v, deleted by Hude, following Haase. 



λ. e. the present conduct of the Four Hundred. 



360 



BOOK VIII. xcii. 6-IO 

who happened to be in session in the senate-chamber, 
immediately all except those who disapproved of 
this state of thin<is ^ were ready to rush to arms 
and began to threaten Tiieramenesand his followers. 
But he, justifying himself, said that he was ready to 
go immediately and assist in the rescue of Alexicles. 
So he took one of the generals who was in accord 
with him and proceeded to the Peiraeus ; and 
Aristarchus and some young men of the Knights 
also went to the rescue. There ensued a tumult 
that was widespread and alarming ; for the people 
in the city thought that the Peiraeus had been taken 
and that the man under arrest had been put to 
death, while the people in the Peiraeus thought 
that the men of the city were all but upon them. 
But owing to the efforts of the older men to stop 
those in the city who were running hither and thither 
and flying to their arms and also of Thucydides, the 
Athenian proxenus at Pharsalus, Avho was then in 
Athens and zealously threw himself in everybody's 
way and loudly called upon them not to ruin the 
state when the enemy was near at hand awaiting his 
turn, the people were with difficulty quieted and 
refrained from attacking one another. As for Thera- 
menes, he went to the Peiraeus (he was himself one 
of the generals) and, so far as shouting was concerned, 
showed anger at the ho])litcs ; but Aristarchus and 
those who were opposed to the populace were really 
displeased. Most of the hoplites, however, grappled 
with the task in hand and showed no change of 
purpose, and they asked Theramenes Avhether he 
thought that the fort was being built with any good 
end in view, and Avhether it Avere not belter demol- 
ished. He answered that if it seemed good to them 

361 



THUCYDIDES 

ίαυτω βφη ξυρ8οκ€Ϊν. καΐ ivTevOev βύθύς άνα- 
βάντ€^ οι Τ€ όπλίταί και ττοΧλοΙ των €κ τον 
ΤΙβιραιώς άνθρώττων κατβσκατττον το Τ€ί•χ^ισμα. 
11 ην Be 7Γ/309 τον οχΧον η τταράκΧησις ως χρη, 
όστις τους ττβντακισχ^ιΧίονς βούΧβται άργβιν 
άντΧ των τ€τρακοσίων, ievai επι το epyov. 
iireKpvTTTOVTO "yap όμως ετι των ττεντακισχιλίων 
τω ονόματι, μη άντικρνς 8ήμον όστις βούΧεται 
apyeiv ονομάζβιν, φοβούμενοι μη τω οντι ωσι 
και ττρός τίνα ΐίττών τις τι άγνοια σφαΧη. και 
οι τετρακόσιοι Βια τοΰτο ουκ ηθεΧον τους ττβντα- 
κισχιΧίους οντβ elvai ούτε μη οντάς δ>;λοι/9 
elvai, το μεν καταστησαι μετόχους τοσούτους 
άντικρνς ^ Βήμον ηΎούμεΐΌΐ, το δ' αυ αφάνες 
φόβον ες άΧΧι']Χους τταρεξειν. 

XCIII. Τ^ δ' υστεραία οι μεν τετρακόσιοι ες 
το βουΧευτήριον όμως και τεβορνβημενοι ξυνεΧέ- 
yovTO• οι δ εν τω ΐίειραιεΐ οττΧΐται τόν τε 
ΑΧεξίκΧεα ον ζυνέΧα β ον αφέντες καΐ τότείχισμα 
καθεΧόντες, ες το προς τη ^Ιουνιχία Αιονυσιακόν 
θεατρον εΧθόντες καΐ θεμενοι τα οπΧα έξεκΧη- 
σίασάν τ€ και Βόξαν αύτοΐς ευθύς εχώρουν ες το 
άστυ καΐ εθεντο αυ εν τω ^Ανακίφ τα όττΧα. 
2 εΧθόντες 8ε άττο των τετρακοσίων τίνες ηρημενοι 
ττρός αυτούς άνηρ άι8ρι SieXiyovTO τε και 
εττειθον ους I'Soiev άνθρώττους επιεικείς αυτούς 

' Uv after avTiKpvs, deleted by Hude, following Kriiger. 

^ i. e. that the man to whom he suggested a democratie 
revolution might himself be one of the Five Thousand. 

* The precinct of the Dioscuri, to whom the title of 
άνακτεϊ was applied. 

362 



BOOK VIII. xcii. lo-xcHi. 2 

to demolish it, so it seemed to him also. Thereupon 
the hoplites and many of the people of Peiraeus at 
once mounted the fortification and began to tear it 
down. And the exhortation addressed to the crowd 
was, " Whoever wants the Five Thousand to rule in 
place of the Four Hundred, let him set to work." 
For in spite of everything they were still concealing 
their purpose under the name of the " Five Thou- 
sand," so as not to say outright, " Whoever wants 
the people to rule " ; for they were afraid that the 
Five Thousand did in reality exist and that one man 
in speaking to another might without knowing it 
get into trouble.^ And in fact this Λvas the reason 
why the Four Hundred did not wish either that 
the Five Thousand should actually exist or that it 
should become knoΛvn that they did not exist — 
because they thought, on the one hand, that to 
make so many men partners in the government was 
outright democracy, and, on the other hand, that 
the uncertainty would inspire fear in each against 
his neighbour. 

XCII I. On the next day the Four Hundred, 
though much disturbed, assembled nevertheless in 
the senate-chamber. But the hoplites in the 
Peiraeus, after they had released Alexicles, whom 
they had arrested, and demolished tlie fortification, 
went to the theatre of Dionysus in Munichia, and 
grounding arms held a meeting of the assembly ; 
then, a vote to that effect having been passed, they 
proceeded straightway to the city and again halted 
in the Anacium.- But certain men came to them 
from the Four Hundred, who had been chosen as 
their delegates, and talked with them, man Λvith 
mattj and tried to persuade any that they saw were 

363 



THUCYDIDES 

τ€ ησνχάζειν καΐ τους άΧΧους παρακατεχ^ειν, 
Xeyovre^ τους re ττ^ντακισχ^ιΧίους άποφανβΐν, και 
€Κ τούτων €v μβρβι fj αν τοΐ? •πβντακισ'χ^ιΚίΟΐ'ί 
Ιοκ?ι τους τίτρακοσίους 'έσβσθαι, τέως δε την 
ττόλιν μηΕζνΙ τρυττω Βιαφθειρβίν μη^ 69 τους 
3 ττοΧβμίους άνώσαι. το he ττάν πΧήθος των 
οττΧίτων, άτΓο ττοΧΧων καΐ προς ττοΧΧους Xoywv 
ηΓ/νομβνων, ηττιώτβρον ην η ττρότβρον, και 
εφοβεΐτο μάΧιστα irepl του τταντος ττοΧί,τικου. 
ξυνβχώρησάν τε ώστε €ς ημεραν ρητην βκκΧησυαν 
ΤΓοιησαι iv του Αιονύσου TrepX ομονοίας. 

XCIV. ΈτΓβίδ^ δβ ίττηΧθεν η iv Διονύσου 
ΐκκΧησία και 'όσον ου ξυνειΧε^μΙνοι ήσαν, ayyeX- 
Χονται αΐ δύο καΧ τβσσαράκοντα νήες καΐ ο 
' ]\^ησ αν^>ρίύας άττο των Μεγάρων την Έ<αΧαμΐνα 
TrapairXelv καΐ ττάς τίς των όττΧιτών αύτο τούτο 
βνόμιζβν elvai το ττάΧαι Χβ^όμενον υττο Θηρα- 
μένους καΐ των μ€τ αύτον, ώς e? το τείχισμα 
eirXeov αΐ νήες, καΐ -χρησίμως iBoKei κατα- 

2 ττβτΓτωκίναι. ό he ΉyησavhpLhaς τιίχα μέν τι 
καϊ άττο ζυ^κειμενου Χυ^ου vrept re την Εττι- 
haupov και ταύτη άνεστρβφετο, εικός he αύτον 
και ττρος τον τταρόντα στασιασμον των Αθηναίων, 
hi ελττίδο*? ώς καν ες heov irapayevoiTo, ταύττ) 

3 άνεχ^ειν. οι δ' ονν ^Αθηναίοι, ώς ψ/^εΧθη αύτοΐς, 

' γ/, ch. xci. 2 ; xciii. 2. 
364 



BOOK VIII. xciii. 2-.\civ. 3 

reasonable both to keep quiet themselves and to 
help to keep the rest in restraint, saying that they 
would publish the names of the Tive Thousand, and 
that from these should be constituted in turn the 
Four Hundred in whatever way should seem best to 
the Five Thousand ; meanwhile, they urged, they 
should by all means not ruin the city or drive it 
into the arms of the enemy. Finally, the whole 
body of hoplites, as speeches were made by many 
and to many, Λνββ more calm than before, and was 
now alarmed chiefly about the general safety of the 
state. So they came to an agreement to hold, on an 
appointed day, a meeting of the assembly in the 
precinct of Dionysus and consider the question of 
concord. 

XCIV. When the time had come for the meeting 
of the assembly in the precinct of Dionysus and they 
had all but gathered there, it Avas announced that 
Hegesandridas with his forty-two ships iiad left 
Megara and Λν38 sailing along the coast of Salamis ; 
and the hoplites to a man believed that this was 
precisely the move tliat had long since been predicted 
by Tlieramenes and his party ^ and that the ships 
were coming in to occupy the fort ; and they felt 
that its demolition had served a useful purpose. 
Now it may λve\\ be that Hegesandridas was acting 
in accordance with some prearranged understanding 
when he hovered about Epidaurus and that neighbour- 
hood, but it is probable that in tarrying there he 
also had regard to the dissension prevailing among 
the Athenians, and was hopeful that possibly he 
might arrive in the very nick of time. However 
this may be, when his movements were reported to 
the Athenians they immediately advanced at a run 

365 



THUCYDIDES 

ευθύς Βρομώ e? τον YleipaLa ττανΒημβΙ β-χ^ώρουν, 
ώς του ΙΒίου ττοΧβμου μείζονος ^ άττό των ττολε- 
μίο^ν ούχ^ ίκας άΧλα ττρος τω Χιμίνι οντος. και 
ο! μβν βς τας τταρούσας ναΰς €σββαη>ον, οι δε 
άΧΧας καθεΙΧκον, οι oe τίνες εττΐ τά τεί^>; και το 
στόμα του Χιαενος τταρεβοήθουν. 

XCV. Αί δε των ΏεΧοττοννησίων νηβς παρα- 
ττΧεύσασαι και ττεριβαΧοΰσαι ^ούνιον όρμίζονται 
μεταξύ QopiKod τε καΐ ΤΙρασιών, ύστερον 8ε 

2 άφίκνοΰνται ες Ω,ρωπόν. Αθηναίοι 8ε κατά, 
τάχ^ος και αξυ^/κροτητοι<; ττΧηρώμασιν avajKa- 
σθεντες γ^ρησασθαι, οΙα ττόΧεώς τε στασιαζούσης 
και ττερί τοΰ με'^ιστου εν τάχ^ει βουΧόμενοι βοη- 
θήσαι (Έ,ύβοία yap αύτοΐς άττοκεκΧτ^μενης της 
Αττικής ττάντα ην), ττεμττουσι &υμο'χ^άρη στρατη- 

3 yov και ναΰς ες ^Ε,ρετριαν. ων ΰφικομενων ξύν 
ταΐς προτερον εν Έ,ύβυία ούσαις εξ καΐ τριάκοντα 
εγενοντο. καΐ ευθύς ναυμαγ^είν ηνα^κάζοντο' ό 
yap llyησavSpLBaς άριστοποιησάμενος εκ τοΰ 
ΏρωτΓοΟ aviqyaye τας ναΰς, Βιέχ^ει δε μάΧιστα 6 
^Ω,ρωτΓος της των ^Ερετριών ττόλεως θαΧάσσης 

4 μετρον εξήκοντα σταΒίους. ως ουν εττέπΧει, 
ευθύς εττΧήρονν καΐ οΐ Αθηναίοι τας ναΰς, οΐόμενοι 
σφίσι τταρα ταΐς ναυσΐ τους στρατιώτας εΙναί' οι 
δε ετυ-χον ουκ εκ της άyopάς άριστον εττισιτιζό- 
μενοι (ούΒεν yap επωλεΐτο άττο "προνοίας των 
^Κρετριων), αλλ' εκ των εττ εσ^ζ^ατα τοΰ άστεως 
οΙκιων, όπως σχ^οΧη ττΧηρουμεΐ'ων φθάσειαν οι 

1 ^, after μΐίζονο;, deleted by Hude, following the Scholiast. 

^ i. e. through the occupation of Deceleia by the enemy ; 
rf. vii. 27, 28. 

:{66 



BOOK VIII. xciv. 3-xcv. 4 

with all their forces to the Peiraeus, thinking that 
a new war^ launched by the enemy and more 
serious than their own domestic feud, was not far 
aAvay, nay, was actually at their port. Some Λv•ent 
aboard the ships that were lying ready, others 
began launching additional ships, while others still 
hastened to the defence of the walls and the entrance 
of the harbour. 

XCV. But the Peloponnesians' ships, after sailing 
along the coast and doubling Sunium, came to anchor 
between Thoricus and Prasiae, but afterwards went 
on to Oropus. And the Athenians, in all haste and 
making use of unpractised crews under stress of 
necessity, inasmucli as the city was in a state of 
sedition and they Λvere eager with the least delay to 
rally to the defence of their chief possession — for 
Euboea now meant everything to them, since they 
were debarred from Attica^ — sentThymochares and 
some ships to Eretria. When they arrived and were 
joined by those already at Euboea the fleet numbered 
thirty-six ships. And they were forced to fight 
immediately; for Hegesander had no sooner break- 
fasted than he led out his ships from Oropus, and 
Oropus is only about sixty stadia distant from the 
city of Eretria by sea. When, therefore, he began 
his advance, the Athenians on their part began at 
once to man their ships, supposing that the crews 
were beside their vessels. But they chanced to be 
providing themselves with food for their breakfast, 
not in the maiket-place — for by design on the part of 
the Eretrians nothing was being offered for sale there 
— but from the houses in the furthest parts of the 
town ; and this had been so arranged in order that 
while they were manning at their leisure tlie enemy 

367 



THUCYDIDES 

•πολβμίΟί TTpoaireaovreq καΐ i^avayKaaeiai' τού<; 
^Αθηναίον<{ οΰτω'ζ οττως τύχοΐ€ν άνά^εσθαι. 
σημβΐον Be αύτοΐς e? τον ^Πρωττον εκ τΡ)ς Έρε- 

5 τ/3ί.α9, οτΓοτε ^ρη avayeaOai, ήρθη. 8ια τοιαύτης 
8η παρασκευής οι \\θηναΐοο avaya<y6pievuL καΐ 
νανμα'χ^7)σαντες ύττ'βρ του Χιμενος των 'Έιρετριων 
oXiyov μεν τίνα γ^ρυνον όμως καΐ αντεσ'χον, 
εττειτα ες φν^ην τραττόμενοί κατα8ίώκονταί ες 

6 τηΐ' ^ήν. καΐ baoi μεν αύτων ττρος την ττόΧιν 
των ^Ερετριων ώς φιΧίαν καταφεύγουσι, χ^αΧεττώ- 
τατα εττραζαν φονενυμενοι ύττ αυτών οΐ 8ε e? το 
ετΓίτείχισμα το εν τη ^Ερέτρια, ο είχ^ον αυτοί,, 
TrepLjiyvovTai καΐ οσαι ες Χ.αΧκί8α άφικνοΰνται 

7 των νεών. Χαβόντες 8ε οι ΥΙεΧοποννήσιοί 8ύο 
καΐ εϊκοσι ναΰς των Αθηναίων καΐ άν8ρας τους 
μεν άτΓοκτείναντες τους 8β ζωypήσavτες τροτταΐον 
έστησαν, καΐ ύστερον ου ττοΧΧω Κΰβοιάν τε, 
άπασαν ηποστήσαντες πΧι^ν Ω.ρεοΰ •ταύτην 8ε 
αύτοΙ ^Αθηναίοι ει^^ν), καΐ ταΧΧα τα περί αύτην 
καθίσταντο. 

XCVI. ΤοΓ<? δε ^Αθηναίοις ώς ηΧθε τα περί την 
Εί'βοιαν ^ε^ενημενα, εκπΧηξις μεγίστη 8η των 
πριν παρέστη, οντε yap η εν τη ΈιΐκεΧία ξυμφορά, 
καίπερ μεyάXη τότε Βΰξασα είναι, ούτε άΧΧο ού8εν 
2 πω ούτως έφοβησεν. οπού yap στρατοπέδου τε 
τον εν Ζ.άμω άφεστηκοτος, άΧΧων τε νεών ουκ 
ούσών ού8ε των εσβησομενων, αυτών τε στασια- 
ζόντων καί άόηΧον ον οπυτε σφισιν αύτοΐς 
ξυρράξουσι, τοσαύτη η ξυμφορά επεyεyεvητo, εν 
368 



BOOK VIII. xcv. 4-xcvi. 2 

might surprise them by their attack and force them 
to put to sea in haphazard fashion. Besides, a signal 
had been hoisted at Eretria to apprise the Pelopon- 
nesian fleet at Oropus when to put to sea. So the 
Athenians put to sea under sucii disadvantage as 
regards jjreparation and engaged in battle off the 
harbour of Eretria ; for some little time, however, 
they nevertheless did hold their own, but afterwards 
turned to flight and were pursued to shore. And 
such of them as took refuge in the city of Eretria, 
assuming that it was friendly, surfered a most cruel 
fate, being butchered by the inhabitants ; but those 
who escaj)ed to the fort in Eretrian territory Λvhich 
the Athenians themselves held were saved, as also 
all the ships that reached Chalcis. The Pelopon- 
nesians, having captured twenty-two Athenian ships 
and having either slain or taken prisoner their crews, 
set up a trophy. And not long afterwards they 
succeeded in persuading all Euboea to revolt except 
Oreus, Λνΐιΐΰΐι the Athenians themselves held, and 
proceeded to set in order the general affairs of the 
island. 

XCVI. When the report of what had happened 
in Euboea reached Athens, there was greater 
consternation than ever before. For neither the 
disaster in Sicily, great though it seemed at the time, 
nor any other event had ever yet so frightened them. 
At a time when their army at Samos was in revolt, 
when there -were no more ships to be had nor men 
to man them, when they were in a state of sedition 
at home and there was no telling when a conflict 
might break out among themselves, when, to crown 
all, a disaster had now come upon them of this 
magnitude, in which they had lost both their fleet 

369 



THUCYDIDES 

77 ναΰ<ί re καΐ το μβ^γιστον Κΰβοίαι> άττοΧωΧί-κβσα}', 
βξ ης ττΧβίο) ?} τΓ/9 Αττικής ωφβ\ούντο, ττώς ουκ 

3 €ίκοτως ηθυμονν ; μάΧιστα δ αυτούς καΐ δί' 
€γγυτάτου έθορύβεί, ei οι ττοΧβμιοι τοΧμησουσί 
νενικηκοτες βύθύ^ σφών eTrl τον Yleipaia βρήμον 
οντά νέων irXeLV και όσον ουκ ϊ)δ// βνόμιζον αυτούς 

4 irapelvai. οπβρ αν, el το\μηρότ€ροι ήσαν, ραΒίως 
αν ετΓοίησαν, καΐ ή Βιέστησαν αν en μαΧλον την 
ττοΧιν έφορμοΰντες η, el eiroXiopKOvv μένοντες,^ 
και τας αττ Ιωνίας ναΰς ηνά^κασαν αν Kanrep 
ττοΧεμιας ούσας τη 6Xiyap)(^ia τοις σφετεριος 
οίκείοις και τη ξυμττάση ττόΧει βοηθήσαΐ' καΐ iv 
τούτω ΚΧΧησττοντος re αν ην αύτοΐς καΐ Ιωνία 
και α'ι νήσοι καϊ τα με\ρι Κύβοίας και ώς elirelv 

5 η ^Αθηναίων άρχ^η ττάσα. αλλ,' ουκ iv τούτω 
μόνω ΑακεΒαιμόνιοι Άθηναιοις ττάντων δ?; 
ξυμφορώτατοι ττροσττοΧεμήσαι eyevovTO, άΧΧά 
και ev αΧΧοις ποΧΧοΐς. διάφοροι yap ττΧεΙστον 
οντες τον τρόπον, οι μεν οξείς οι 8β βραχείς, και 
οι μεν εττιγειρηταΧ ο'ι he ΆτοΧμοι, άΧΧως τε καν 
ναυτική αρχή ττΧεΙστα ώφέΧουν. έδειξαν he οι 
—υρακυσιοι' μάΧιστα yap ομοιότροττοι yεvoμεvoι 
άριστα καϊ ττ ροσεττοΧε μησαν . 

XCVIL ΈτΓί, δ' ουν τοις ήyyεXμevoις ο'ι 'Αθη- 
ναίοι ναΰς τ€ εϊκοσι όμως εττΧήρουν καϊ εκκΧησ'ιαν 
ζυveX€yov, μιαν μεν ευθύς τότε πρώτον ες την 

^ ΐνθν, Lobeck's conjecture for (υθυ5 of the MSS. 
' Hude reads with C, against the rest of the MSS., καϊ 
ζί^στησαν ίν en μάΚΧον την ττόλιν, ίΐ 4πο\ιορκουν μ4νοντ(5 κ. τ. λ. 

^ cf. VII. 1ν. 2, where the same reason for the success of the 
Syracusans is given. 



BOOK VIII. xcvi. 2-xcvii. i 

and, ΛνοΓ5ΐ of all, Euboea, from which they derived 
more benefit than from Attica — had they not every 
reason to be despondent? But what alarmed them 
most and touched them most nearly was the possi- 
bility that the enemy, now victorious, might dare to 
make straight for Athens and attack the Peiraeus, 
which was now without ships to defend it ; and they 
believed that they were all but there already. And 
indeed, if tliey had been more bold, the enemy could 
readily have done this very thing, and they would 
either, by setting up a blockade, have caused the 
city to be still more torn by factions, or else, if they 
had remained and laid siege to it, \vould have com- 
])elled the fleet in Ionia, though hostile to the 
oligarchy, to come to the rescue of their own 
relatives and of the city as a whole ; and thereby 
the Hellespont Avould have been theirs, and Ionia, 
and the islands, and everything as far as Euboea — 
indeed almost the whole empire of the Athenians. 
But it was not on this occasion only that the Lace- 
daemonians proved the most convenient peo])le in 
the world for the Athenians to make war upon, but 
on many others also. For being widely different 
in character — the one people being quick, the other 
slow ; the one adventurous, the other timorous — it 
was especially in the case of a naval power that they 
Avere most helpful. And the Syracusatis proved this ; 
for it was because they were most similar in character 
to the Athenians^ that they made Avar upon them 
most successfully. 

XCVI I. However this may be, after the announce- 
ment of their defeat the Athenians, in spite of their 
difficulties, manned twenty ships, and also called 
meetings of the assembly — one immediately, which 

371 



THUCYDIDES 

ΊΙύκνα καΧονμβνην, ovnep καΐ άλλοτε βΐώθεσαν, 
ev iJTrep καΐ του? τετρακόσιους κατατταύσαντες 
TOt? ττ€ντακίσχι\ίοις βψηφίσαντο τά ττρά^/ΐΜατα 
παρα^ονναι• elvai Se αυτών όπόσοι καΐ οπΧα 
τταρίχονται• καΐ μισθον μηΒενα φβρειν μηΒεμιάς 

2 ί//ογ>}ς•, €L Be μη, εττάρατον έττοιησαντο. Ι'^'ιηνοντο 
he κα) αλΧαι ύστερον ττυκναί ' έκκΧησίαι, άφ' ων 
και νομοθέτας καϊ τα άΧ\α €ψ7]φίσαντο ες την 
τΓοΧιτείαν, καΐ ούγ^ ηκιστα Βη τον ττρώτον 'χ^ρόνον 
ετΓί 7β εμοΰ Αθηναίοι φαίνονται ευ ποΧιτεύσαντες• 
μετρία yap ή τε ες τους οΧίΎους και τους ττοΧΧούς 
^ύ^κρασις ε^ενετο, καϊ εκ ττονήρων των -πραγ- 
μάτων γενομένων τούτο ττρώτον άνήνε^κε την 

3 ττόΧιν. εψηφίσαντο Βε καΓ ΑΧκιβιάΒην καΐ άΧΧους 
μετ αυτού κατιεναι, και τταρά τε εκείνον και 
τταρα το εν Χάμω στρατόττεΒον ττεμψαντες Βιεκε- 
Χεύοντο άΐ'θάτττεσθαι τών ττρα^μάτων. 

XCVIII. Κν Βε τη μεταβηΧΐ) ταύτη ευθύς ο! 
μεν ττερί τον ΏείσανΒρον καϊ ΆΧεξικΧεα και όσοι 
ήσαν της 6Χι^αρ-)ζίας μάΧιστα, ύττεζερ^ονται ες 
την ^εκεΧειαν ^Αρίσταργ^ος Βε αυτών μόνος (ετυ-χε 
<γάρ καϊ στρατη'/ών) Χαβών κατά τάχ^ος τοξότας 
τινάς τους βαρβαρωτάτους εχώρει ττρος την 
2 Οίνόην. ην Βε ^Αθηναίων εν μεθυρίοις της Βοίω- 

' -πυκναί, for this reading of the MSS. Hade adopts eV 
XluKvi, tlie conjecture of van Herwerden and Wecklein. 



' i. f. this was the first recognition of the Pnyx as once 
more the true seat of the assembly. Tlie last assembly 
which had formally met had been held atColonus (ch. Ixvii. 
2) ; one appointed, but not held, was to have Qiet at the 
theatre of Dionysus (ch. xciii. 8). 

372 



BOOK νΐίΐ. xcvii. i-xcvui. 2 

was called to meet on that occasion for the first 
time in the place called Fnyx, Λν1ΐ6Γ€ at other times 
also they had been wont to meet.^ At this meeting 
tiiey deposed the Four Hundred, voted to deliver 
the management of affairs to the Five Thousand 
(and all who could furnish themselves with a hoplite's 
outfit were to belong to this number), and decided 
that no one was to receive pay for any office, the 
offender to be accounted accursed. Other meetings 
also were held later, at frequent intervals, as a result 
of w Inch they appointed supervisors of the laws ^ and 
voted the other measures pertaining to their form 
of government. And during the first period the 
Athenians appear to have enjoyed the best govern- 
ment they ever had, at least in my time ; for there 
was a moderate blending of the few and the many, 
and this it was that first caused the state to recover 
from the wretched plight into which it had fallen. 
And they also voted to recall Alcibiades and others 
with him ; and sending envoys both to him and to 
the army at Samos, they urged them to take a hand 
in their affairs. 

XCVII I. At this change the jiarty of Peisander 
and Alexicles and all the leading supporters of the 
oligarchv at once secretly left the city and went to 
Deceleia ; but Aristarcluis, alone of these, since he 
ciianced to be a general, hastily took some bowmen 
of the most barbarous sort•^ and proceeded to Oenoe. 
It was an Athenian fortress on the borders of Boeotia, 

^ The νοαοθ(ται were a committee of jurors (ήλιαστοϊ) to 
whom ambiguities and contradictions in tlie laws, as well as 
proposed changes in them, were referred by the Senate. 

* The τοξότοι in question are the police or city-guard of 
slaves, mostly drawn from Scythia whence /3ip/8apji). See 
Boeckh, Uecon. i. '270-278. 

373 



THUCYDIDES 

τίας τ€Ϊχος, βττοΧιόρκονν δ' αύτο δίά ξυμφοραν 
σφίσιν εκ της Olvotj^ "/ενομένην ανδρών €κ Αεκ€- 
λε/ας άνα'χωρούντων διαφθοράς οι Κ^ορίνθιοί iOe- 
Χοντηδόν, ττροστταρακαΚζσανΎζς τους Βοιωτοί;?. 

3 κοίνολ.ογισάμ€νος ονν αύτοΐς ο ^ Αρίσταρ-χος αττατα 
τους iv ττ) Olvorj, λεγωι/ ως και οι iv ττ} ττολει 
ταΧλα ξυμβββήκασί ΑακβΒαιμονίοις, κάκβίνους 
hei ΒοίωτοΓς• το χωρίον τταραδουναί' εττΐ τούτοις 
yap ξυμβεβάσθαι. οΐ he ττιστβύσαντες ως άνΐρΐ 
στρατψ/ω και ουκ εΙΒότες ούδεν δίά το ττοΧιορκβΙ- 

4 σθαι, ύποσττονδοι εξβρχ^ονται. τούτω μεν τω 
τρόττω ΟΙνόην Τ6 Χηφθεΐσαν^ ΒοίωτοΙ κατίΧαβον 
καΐ η iv ταΐς ^Αθήναις oXiyapxia καΐ στάσις 
Ιτταύσατο. 

XCIX. 'ΎτγΌ δε τους αυτούς γ^ρόνους του θέρους 
τούτον καΐ οΐ έν ττ} ^ΙιΧήτω ΐΙεΧοττοννήσιοι, ως 
τροφην τ€ ού8ε\ς εδίΒου των ύπο Τισσαφέρνους 
τότε ότε εττΐ την "Ασττεΐ'δον Ίταρ-ηει ^ ττροσταγθέν- 
των, και αΐ Φοινισσαι νήες ούδε ο Τισσαφέρνης 
Ίτω ηκον, 6 τε ΦίΧιπττος 6 ξυμττεμφθείς αύτω 
εττεστύΧκει Ί^Ιινδάρω τω νανάρ'χ^ω καΐ άΧΧος, 
Ίττποκράτης, άνηρ "^τταρτιάτης και ων εν Φασι']- 
Χιδι, ότι ούτε αΐ νήες τταρεσοιντο ττάντα τε 
άδικοΐντο ύττο Τισσαφέρνους, Φαρνάβαζός τε εττ- 
εκαΧεΐτο αυτούς και ήν πρόθυμος κομισας τας 

' ληφθΰσαν, with MSS., Hude emends to Χ^ιφθΐ'σαν. 
^ δτ6 €7γ1 ττιν'ΆστΓΐν^ον τταρ-ρ^ι, deleted by Hude as not read 
b}^ the Scholiast. 

^ The general purport; there is no verb in the text for the 
subject oi if T7) Μι\τ}τψ UeXoTTovuri^ioi. After the long 
parenthesis the subject is resumed in οΰτω δη δ MivSapos, 
"In these circumstances, then, Mindarus." 

374 



BOOK νΠΙ. xcviii. 2-xcix. i 

and the Corinthians, having called to their aid the 
Boeotians, were besieging it on their own account, 
because of a misfortune they had suffered at the 
liands of the garrison at Oenoe when they lost some 
men as they were returning from Deceleia. So 
Aristarchus, after first making his plans known to 
the besiegers, deceived the garrison at Oenoe by 
telling them that their partisans in the city had 
made terms with the Lacedaemonians, and that, 
among other things, this garrison must surrender 
the place to the Boeotians ; for the agreement had 
been made on these conditions. The garrison 
trusted him because he Avas a general, being in 
complete ignorance because they were in a state of 
siege, and evacuated the fort under a truce. In this 
manner Oenoe was taken and occupied by the 
Boeotians, and thus the oligarchy at Athens and 
the struggle between the factions came to an end. 

XCIX. During this summer, about the same 
time as these events, the situation of the Pelopon- 
nesians in Miletus Λvas as follows : ^ None of the 
officers appointed by Tissaphernes at the time when 
he went to Aspendus would give them maintenance, 
and neither the Phoenician ships nor Tissaphernes 
himself had yet come ; Philippus, who had been 
sent Avith him,^ and also another person, a Spartan 
named Hippocrates who was at Phaselis, had written 
letters to Mindarus, the admiral, saying that the 
ships would never come and that they were being 
wronged in all things by Tissaphernes ; moreover, 
Pharnabazus was inviting them to come and was 
eager, when he should have got the assistance of 
the Peloponnesian fleet, to do just what Tissaphernes 

* cf. ch. Ixxxvii. 6. 

375 



THUCYDIDES 

ΐ'αυς και αύτος τας Χοιττας en ττόλείς της eavrov 
ίΐρχ^ι^ άτΓοστησαί των Κθηναίων, ωσττβρ καΧ ό 
Ύίσσαφβρνης, έΧττΙζων ττΧέον τι σχησειν άπ 
αύτου, ούτω δη ο Ι^ΙινΒαρος ττολλω κόσμω και 
άτΓΟ τταραγ^/βΧματος αιφνίδιου, οττως Χάθοι τους 
iv Έ,άμω, άρας άττο της ^ϊιΧητου ναυσΧ τρισΐ και 
ζβδομηκοντα eirXei εττΐ τον Έ^ΧΧηστΓοντον (ττρό- 
τερον he iv τω αυτω θέρει τώδε βκκαίδεκα ες 
αύτον νήες επβττΧευσαν, αΐ καΐ της Χερσονήσου 
τι μέρος κατέΒραμον)• γ^ειμασθείς δε άνεμω καΧ 
άνα'γκασθείς καταίρει ες την "Ικαρον, και μείνας 
εν αύττ) υπο αττΧοας ττεντε η εξ ημέρας άφικνεΐται 
ες την Χίον. 

C. Ο δε &ράσυΧΧος εκ της Χάμου, επειδή 
εττνθετο αύτον εκ της ΜιΧήτου άττηρκότα, εττΧει 
και αύτος ναυσίν ευθύς ττεντε καΐ ττεντήκοντα, 
εττει^όμενος μη φθάσ-ρ ες τον Έ,ΧΧήσττοντον εσ- 

2 ττΧεύσας. αίσθόμενος δε ότι εν τη Χίςο εϊη και 
νομίσας αύτον καθεξειν αυτού, σκοττούς μεν κατε- 
στήσατο καΐ εν τη Αέσβω καϊ εν τη άντιττερας 
ηττείρω, ει αρα ττοι κινοΐντο αι νήες, οττως μη 
άΧθοιβν, αύτος δε ες την ^^ήθυμναν παραπΧεύσας 
άλφιτά τε και τα αΧΧα εττιτήδεια τταρασκευάζειν 
εκέΧευεν ώς, ην ττΧείων -χ^ρόνος ε^/^ίηνηται,^ εκ 
της Αέσβου τους επίττΧους τη Xtio ποιησόμενος. 

3 άμα δε ("Ερεσός yap της Αεσβου άφειστηκει) 
εβούΧετο επ' αύτην ττΧεύσας, ει δύναιτο, εζελεΐν. 
^Ιηθυμναιων yap ούχ ο'ι άδυνατώτατοι φυγάδες, 
διακομίσαντες εκ τε της Κύμης ττροσεταιριστούς 
οττΧιτας ώς ττεντήκοντα και των εκ της ήττειρου 

1 6γγιγί/ηται, Kriiger's correction for yiyyr]rat of the MSS. 



BOOK VIII. xcix. i-c. 3 

was to have done and to cause the rest of the cities 
within his province to revolt from the Athenians^ 
lioping to gain some advantage thei-eby. In these 
circumstances, then, Mindarus put off from Miletus, 
in good order and, giving his fleet the command 
without previous notice that his move might not 
become known to the Athenians at Samos, he sailed 
for the Hellespont with seventy-three ships ; for 
earlier in this same summer sixteen ships had sailed 
thither and had overrun a jiortion of the Chersonesus. 
Mindarus, however, was caught b}' a storm and 
forced to make harbour at Icarus ; there he remained 
five or six days by reason of bad weather and then 
went on to Chios. 

C. When Thrasyllus heard that Mindarus had put 
to sea from Miletus, he also sailed at once from Samos 
with fifty-five ships, making all haste that the enemy 
might not enter tlie Hellespont before him. But 
learning that Mindarus Avas at Chios and believing 
that he could keep him there, he posted scouts both 
at Lesbos and on the mainland opposite, in order 
that, if the enemy's ships should make a move in 
any direction, he should have knowledge of it ; as 
for himself, he sailed along the coast to Methymna, 
and gave orders to prepare barley-meal and general 
provisions, with the idea that, if a considerable time 
elapsed, he would use Lesbos as a base for attacks 
upon Chios. At the same time, since Eresus in 
Lesbos had revolted, he wished to sail against it 
and take it if possible. For some exiles who had 
been driven out of Methymna, and those the most 
influential citizens, had brought over from Cyme 
about fifty hoplites that had been taken into their 
clubs, had hired still others from the mainland, and 

VOL. IV. Ν 377 



THUCYDIDES 

μισθωσάμενοι, ξύμττασιν ως τριακόσιοι^, Ά^α- 
ζύρχου (Ρ)ηβίηου κατά το ^vyyeve^ η'^/ουμ^νον, 
ττροσββαΧον πρώτϊ] ^Ιηθύμντ]• καΐ άττοκρονσθβντα 
τή<; ΤΓβίρας Βιά τους €κ τής ΜυτίΧιίνης ^Αθηναίων 
φρουρούς ττροεΧθόντας, αύθις βξω μ^ίχΐ) άττωσθβν- 
re? καΐ Bta του ορούς κομισθβντες άφιστάσι την 

4 Έρεσοι». πΧβύσας ουν ό %ράσυ\\ος eV αύτην 
ττάσαις ταΐς ναυσΐ Βιβνοεΐτο ττροσβοΧην ποιεΐσθαι. 
7Γ ροαφί'γμβνος Se αύτόσ€ ην καΐ 6 ^ρασνβουΧος 
7Γ€ντ€ ναυσίν etc της Έάμου, ώς t^yyeXOi] αύτοΐς 

5 /; των φυΎαΒων αύτη Βίάβασις' ύστβρίσας Be eVt 
την "Κρεσον εΧβνων εφώρμει. TroaeyevovTO Be 
και εκ του ΈΧΧησττόντου τίνες Βύο νήες εττ οϊκου 
άνακομιζόμεναι και Μηθυμναΐαι^ ττεντε•^ και αϊ 
ττάσαι νήες τταρήσαν ετττα καϊ εξήκοντα, άφ ων 
τω στρατεύματι τταρεσκευάζοντο ως κατά κράτος 
μηχαναΐς τε και τταντί τροττω, ην Βύνωνται, 
αίρήσοντες την ' Κρεσον. 

CI. Ό Βε \Ιίΐ'Βαρος εν τούτω καϊ αί εκ τής 
Χίου των ΤΙεΧοττοννησίων νήες, εττισιτισάμεναι 
Βυοΐν ημέραιν και Χαβόντες τταρα των Χ,ίων τρεις 
τεσσαρακοστας έκαστος Χίας, ττ} τρίτη Βια ταχέων 
άτταίρουσιν εκ τής Χίοι» ού^ ττεΧά'γιαι, ίνα μη 
ττεριτύχωσι ταΐς εν τή Έρεσω ναυσιν, άΧΧα εν 
αριστερά την Αεσβον έχοντες επΧεον έττΐ την 
2 ήττειρον. καϊ ττροσβαΧόντες τής ΦωκαίΒος ες τον 

' οί μηθυμναϊαί Β. ^ ireVre, added by Dobree. 

^ 01), added by Haacke. 



' cf. ch. V. 2, where the Boeotians support the Lesbians in 
their application to Agis for assistance ; also iii. 2, where 
the Boeotians are said to be kinsmen of the Mytilenaeans. 



BOOK VIII. c. 3-ci. 2 

now with these troops, about three hundred in all, 
commanded by Anaxarchus a Theban on the strength 
of kinship,^ had made an attack upon Methymna 
first ; and when they had been foiled in this attempt 
by the timely arrival of the Athenian garrison in 
Mytilene, and had been again repulsed in a battle 
fought outside the walls, they had made their way 
over the mountain and had brought about the revolt 
of Eresus. Thrasyllus therefore now sailed thither 
with all his fleet, intending to assault the town. 
Thrasybulus also had already arrived there from 
Samos with five ships, after word had been brought to 
him of the crossing of the exiles; but being too late 
to save Eresus, he had merely anchored there on his 
arrival. The Athenian fleet was likewise reinforced 
by two vessels that were returning home from the 
Hellespont and by five- Methymnaean ships, so that 
there were present in all sixty-five ships. It was 
with the troops fiOm these ships that they were 
preparing to take Eresus by assault, with the aid 
of engines or in any way they could. 

CI. Meanwhile Mindarus and the Peloponnesian 
ships at Chios, having spent only two days in pro- 
visioning and having received from the Chians tliree 
Chian tessaracosts ^ for each man, on the third day 
set sail in all haste from Chios, avoiding the open 
sea that they might not fall in with the Athenian 
fleet at Eresus, but keeping Lesbos on their left, 
and making for the mainland. They first touched 
at the harbour of Cartereia in the territory of 

" Or, reading at Μηθυμναΐαι, with B, "(all) the Methym- 
naean ships." 

* Literally "fortieths" of some local coin, possibly the 
golden stater ; about id. ; 8 cents. 

379 



THUCYDIDES 

iv Κ,αρτερβίοις Χιμβρα και άριστοττοιησάμενοι, 
τταραττΧενσαντες την Ιίνμαίαν SeiTn'onoiovvrai 
iv Apyivovaaai^^ τη<; ηπείρου'^ ev τω άντι- 

3 7Τ€ρας τής Μυτι\7']νη<ί. βντβΰθεν δέ eVt ττοΧλής 
νυκτο<; ττ αραττΧβύσ αντε^ καΐ άφίκόμβνοί της ηττβί- 
ρου 69 Αρματονντα καταντικρύ Ί^'Ιηθνμνης, upt- 
στοτΓοί'ησάμβνοι Βιά ταχέων παρατΓΧεύσαντβς 
Αεκτον καϊ Ααρισαν καΐ ' Αμαζιτον καΐ τα ταύτ-ρ 
γ^ωρία άφικνούνται €9 'Poltccov ηΒη του 'Κ\λη- 
σττυντου, ττρωτερον μέσων νυκτών, είσΐ δ' αΐ των 
νεών καϊ eV Χί'γειον κατήραν καΐ άΧλοαε των 
ταύττ) 'χωρίων. 

CII. Οί δε ^Αθηναίοι εν ττ} "ϊ,ηστω Βυοΐν Βεού- 
σαις είκοσι ναυσίν δντε<ί, ώς αύτοΐς οί τε φρυ- 
κτωροί εσημαινον και τ^σθάνοντο τα πυρά εξαίφνης 
ττοΧΧα εν τη ττοΧεμία φανεντα, εΎΡωσαν οτι εσ- 
ττΧεουσιν οΐ ΥΙεΧοττοννήσιοι. καϊ της αύτης ταύτης 
νυκτός ώς είχον τάχους ύττομείζαντες τη Χερσο- 
νησω, τταρεττΧεον εττ' ΚΧαιονντος, βουΧόμενοι 
εκπλεΰσαί ες την εύρυχωρίαν τάς των ττοΧεμίων 

2 ναΰς.^ καϊ τας μεν εν ^ΑβύΒω εκκαίΒεκα ναύς 
εΧαθοί', ττροειρημεΐ'ης ώυΧακης τω φιΧίω εττίιτΧω, 
οττως αυτών άνακώς εξουσιν, ην εκττΧεωσιν τάς 

^ καΐ, added by Gertz after 'Apywovaaais, is adopted by 
Hade. 

* Kriiger deletes ri^s -ηπείρου. 

^ Tas των πυΚίμίων vaiis, deleted by Hude, following Dobree. 

' If TTJs -ηπίίρου is genuine, there must have been a town 
Arginussae on tlie mainland opposite the islands of that 
name. The Schol. on Af. Frags. 33 mentions a town Argi- 
misa. Deleting ttjs ηπύρου, as Kruger suggests, we should 
have, "at the Arginussae, opposite Mytilene." With Hude's 

380 



BOOK VIII. CI. 2-cit. 2 

Phocaea, where they dined, and then, sailing along 
the Cymaean coast, supped at Arginussae ^ on the 
mainland opposite Mytilene. Thence they proceeded 
long before dawn along the coast until they came 
to Harmatus, on the mainland opposite Methymna ; 
there they breakfasted in haste and then sailed along 
the coast past Lectum, Larisa, Hamaxitus and the 
other places in that region, arriving at Rhoeteum 
before midnight. Some of the ships even made 
harbour at Sigeium and other places in that neigh- 
bourhood. 

CII. But the Athenians who were at Sestus with 
eighteen ships, when their signallers gave them 
notice and they observed the sudden blaze of 
numerous fires on the hostile shore, realized that 
the Peloponnesians ware entering the straits. So 
that same night, making what speed they could and 
keeping close to the shore of the Chersonesus, they 
sailed toward Elaeus, Avishing to get by the enemy's 
ships and out into the open water. And they did 
elude the sixteen ships at Abydos,'-^ although these 
had been cautioned by a friendly boat that sailed ^ 
up to be on the alert in case the Athenians should 
try to leave the straits ; but the ships commanded 

text (adding καΐ) the meaning would be that they supped, 
some at tlie inlands, others on the mainland. 

■■^ cf. ch. xcix. (end). 

* The passage was so understood by the Scholiast {τφ 
φιΚίω επίπλο) ύττί) τοΰ φιλίου ίττιπλου, rovTfiTTiv vnh του στόλου 
τοΰ μΐτά Μινζάρου). liiit commentators find the construction 
harsh and unexampled in Tlmcydides with irpoeiprjaCai. 
Tucker explains: "They escaped the notice of the ships 
at Abyrlos, who had given warning to their approaching 
friends (Miiidarus) to keep a watch for them in case of 
their trying to sail out." So also Goodhart. 



THUCYDIDES 

δέ μετά του ^livhc'ipov αμα τ^ βω καη^οντα ^ την 
Ζίωζιν €νθυ<; ττοιανμβνα^^ ου φθάνουσι ττασαί?,^ 
αλλ' αΐ μ€ν τΓλείου? eVt. της "Ιμβρου και Αημνου 
^ιίφυηον, τβσσαρες Be των νεώι> αϊ ύσταταί ττλε- 
ονσαι καταΧαμβάνονται irepl τον ΈλαιοΓ'ί^τα. 

3 καΐ μίαν μίν βττοκβίΧασαν κατά το iepov του 
ΪΙρωτεσιΧάου αύτοΐς άνΕράσι Χαμβάνουσι, 8ύο Se 
€Τ€ρας άνευ των άνΒρών την δε μίαν ττρος ττ} 
"Ιμβρω κενην κατακαίονσιν. 

cm. Μετά δε τούτο ταΐς τε εξ ^ΑβύΒου 
ξυμμίΎβίσαις καΐ ταΓ? άΧλαίς, ζυμττάσαις βξ καΐ 
οηΒοηκοντα, 7Γθ\ιορκ7]σαντες ΕλαίοΟζ^τα ταύτην 
την ημίραν, ώ? ου προσβ-χ^ωρει, άττβττΧευσαν ε'<? 
"Αβυδον. 

2 Οι δε ^Αθηναίοι ■ψευσθεντβ'; των σκοττών και 
ουκ αν οίόμενοί σφάς Χαθεΐν τον τΓαράττΧουν 
των ΊΓοΧβμίων νέων, άΧΧα καθ^ ησυχ^οαν τει- 
•χομα'χ^οΰντες, ώ<? ιίσθοντο, ευθύς άττοΧίττόντες την 
^'Κρεσον κατά τά^ο? εβοηθονν ες τον Ελλτ;- 
σττοντον καΐ δύο τε ναύς των ΤΙεΧθ7Γονν)]σίων 
α'ιροϋσιν, αΐ ττρος το ττεΧα^ος τότε θρασύτερον 
εν ττ) 8ιώξεί άττάρασαί ττεριεττεσον αύτοΐς, καΐ 
ήμερα ύστερον άφικόμενοί όρμίζονταί ες τονΈΧαι- 
ούντα καΐ τας εκ της Ίμβρου οσαι κατεφυ^ον 
κομίζονται και ες την ναυμαχ^ίαν πέντε ημέρας 
τταρεσκευάζοντο. 

CIV. Μετά δε τούτο εναυμά-χουν τρόττω τοίωδε. 
01^ Αθηναίοι τταρέττΧεον εττϊ κέρως ταξάμενα τταρ^ 
αύτην την yrjv εττϊ της %ηστού, οι δε ΐΙεΧοττον- 

1 κατιδοι/τίί, Hade reads κατώό^το^, with Gertz. 
^ ΐΓοιουμ4να5, Classen's correction for ττοιούμΐΐΌί of the 
WSS. ; Hude -ποιουμίνου with Kriiger. 

382 



BOOK VIII. cii. 2-civ. i 

by Mindarus, >vhich they descried at dawn — and 
these immediately gave chase — they could not out- 
strip with their entire fleet, but though most of their 
ships made good their escape to Imbros and Lemnos, 
four of them that brought up the rear were over- 
taken near Elaeus. One of these, which was 
stranded at the sanctuary of Protesilaus, was cap- 
tured with all on board, and two others without 
their crews ; the fourth, which had been deserted 
by its crew, the enemy burned close to Imbros. 

cm. After this Mindarus took all his ships, in- 
cluding those Avhich had been at Abydus and were 
now united with his fleet, eighty-six vessels in all, 
and for that day invested Elaeus ; but when it would 
not yield they all sailed back to Abydus. 

The Athenians at Eresus, on the other hand, 
misled by their scouts and never imagining that 
the enemy could sail past them unobserved, were 
assaulting the walls at their leisure ; but when they 
learned the truth they abandoned Eresus at once 
and hastened with all speed to the defence of the 
Hellespont. And they captured two of the Pelo- 
ponnesian ships, which fell in with them at that 
moment, having put out into the open sea too boldly 
in their pursuit. A day later they reached Elaeus 
and cast anchor; then they brought thither the ships 
at Imbros that had taken refuge there and spent the 
next five days preparing for the battle. 

CIV. When that time had elapsed they began the 
battle in the following manner. The Athenians, 
arrayed in single column, were sailing close in to 
shore in the direction of Sestus, when the Pelo- 

® πάσαυ, Reiske's conjecture for πασσι of most MSS. 



THUCYDIDES 

νησιοι αίσθόμβνοί βκ τή<; ^ Αβύδου avravrj'yov και 

2 αύτοί. καΐ ώ? β^νίοσαν ναυ μαγ^ησοντε^, τταρέ- 
reivov το κβρας οΐ μβν Αθηναίοι τταρα την Χβ/οσό- 
νησοί', άρξάμ€νοι άττο ΙΒάκου μ^χρί ^Αρριανων, 
vi]e<i βξ καΐ εβΒομήκοΐ'τα, οΐ δ' αυ ΥΙβΧοποννησιοι 
άτΓΟ ΆβυΒον μέχρι ΑαρΒάνον, νήες βξ και oySo}}- 

3 κοντά, κέρας Se τοις μεν ΤΙεΚοττοννησίοις βίχον 
το μίν he^iov Έ,υρακόσιοι, το δ' eWepov αύτος 
Μ.ίν8αρος καΐ των νβών αί άριστα ττΧέουσαι, 
^ Αθηναίοις δε τύ μεν άριστερον (~)ράσυΧλος, 6 Be 
%ρασύβον\ος το 8εξιόν οι 8e aWoi στpaτηyol 

4 ώς έκαστοι 8ΐ€τάξαντο. εττεΐ'^ομενων he των TieXo- 
ΤΓοννησίων ττρότερόν τε ξυμμεΐξαι, καΐ κατά μεν 
το Βεζιον των Αθηναίων ύττερσχοντες αύτοΙ τω 
εύωνύμω άττοκΧτισαι του εζω αυτούς εκττΧον, el 
SvvaivTo, κατά 8e το μέσον εζώσαι ττρος την yijv 
ούχ εκάς ουσαν, οΐ \\θηναΐοι <γνόντ€ς, y μεν 
εβούΧοντο άτΓοφάρξασθαι αυτούς οι ενάντιοι, 

5 άντεττεξή^ον καΐ TrepieyiyvovTO τω ττΧω• το δ' 
εύώνυμον αύτοΐς ύττερεβεβΧήκει η8η την άκραν ή 
Ίίννος σήμα καΧεΐται. τω δέ μέσω, τοιούτου 
ζυμβαίνοντος, άσθενέσι καΐ Βιεσττασμεναις ταΐς 
νανσΐ καθίσταντο, άΧΧως τ€ καΐ εΧάσσοσι χρω- 
μενοι το ττΧήθος καΐ τον χωρίου του ττερί το Ι^υνος 
σήμα οξεΐαν και γωνιώδη την περιβοΧην έχοντος, 
ώστε τά εν τω εττ εκείνα αυτού ^ι^νόμενα μη 
κάτοτΓτα elvai. 

CV. ΤΙροσττεσόντες ουν οΐ ΥΙεΧοττοννησιοι κατά 
το μέσον εζέωσάν τε ες το ξηρον τάς ναΰς των 
^Αθηναίων καΐ ες την <^ήν επεξεβησαν, τω ερ^ω 
2 ττοΧύ ττερισχόντες. άμύναί δε τω μέσω οΰθ' οι 
ττερΙ τον ©ρασύβουΧον άττο του δεξιού ύττο ττΧη- 
384 



BOOK VIII. CIV. i-cv. 2 

ponnesians, observing their movements from Aby- 
dus, went out to meet them. When they both 
realised that a battle was imminent, the Athenians, 
with seventy-six ships, extended their line parallel 
with the shore of the Chersonesus, from Idacus to 
Arrhiana, while the Peloponnesians, with eighty-six 
ships, extended theirs from Abydus to Dardanus. 
The right wing of the Peloponnesians was held by 
the Syracusans, the other by Mindarus himself, who 
had there his fastest ships ; on the Athenian side, 
Thrasylliis had the left \ving and Thrasybulus the 
right, the other generals being stationed at intervals 
throughout the line. The Peloponnesians Λvere 
eager to strike the first blow, and by outflanking 
the Athenian right with their own left wing to cut 
them off from the exit to the straits, if possible, 
meanwhile in the centre driving them to the shore, 
which was not far distant. The Athenians perceived 
their intention, and at the point where their op- 
ponents wished to bar their way they proceeded to 
extend their line to prevent it, and were succeeding in 
this manceuvre ; indeed, their left had already passed 
the headland called Cynossema. But in the centre, 
as the result of this movement, their line of ships 
became weak and straggling ; and especially since 
the number of their ships was smaller and the turn 
of the coast at Cynossema is sharp and angular, so 
that what was happening on the other side of it was 
not visible. 

CV. Accordingly the Peloponnesians, falling upon 
their centre, drove the Athenian ships ashore and 
landed to follow up their victory, having had a 
decided advantage in the action. To assist their 
centre was in the power neither of Thrasybulus and 

385 



THUCYDIDES 

θους των €7Γΐκ€ΐμ€νων νεών iSvvavTo ούθ' οι irepl 
τον (*')ράσυΚ\ον άττο του ευωνύμου (άφανβ'ί τ€ 
yap ην 8ta την άκραν το Kfi^o? σήμα ^ καΐ άμα 
οι ^νρακόσιοι καΐ οι άΧλοί ουκ εΧάσσους eiriTe- 
ταγ/χά'Οί. elpyov αυτούς), ττρίν οΐ ΥΙεΚοττοννησιοί 
Βιά το κρατιίσαντες άΕεώς aWoi άΧλην ναύν 
Βιώκ€ΐν ^ ηρξαντο pepet τινί σφών άτακτότβροί 

3 yeveaOai. yvovTe<i Be οι ττερί τον (^ρασύβουΧον, 
τα? eVt σφίσι ναΰ'ζ επε^^ούσας, τταυσάμενοί της 
ε7Γ€^αγωγΓ^9 ηΒη του κερως καΐ ετταναστρβψαντες 
ευθύς, ήμύναντό τε καΐ τρεττουσι, καΐ τας κατά, 
το νίκησαν των ΐΙεΧοττοννησίων μέρος νποΧα- 
βόντες ττεττΧανημενας εκοτττόν τε καΐ ες φόβον 
τας ττΧείους άμαχεϊ καθίστασαν. οϊ τε Ι,υρα- 
κόσιοι ετύγχ^ανον και αύτοΙ ηΒη τοις ττερί τον 
%ράσυ\\ον ενΒεΒωκότες καϊ μάΧΧον ες φνγην 
όρμι'^σαντες, εττειΒη καϊ τους άΧΧους εώρων. 

CVI. Τε^ενημενης Be της τροπής καϊ καταφυ- 
ηόντων των ΐΙεΧοττοννησίων ττρος τον ΤΙύΒιον^ 
μάΧιστα ττοταμον το ττρωτον, ύστερον Βε ες 
"ΑβυΒον, ναΰς μεν οΧί'γας εΧαβον οί ^Αθηναίοι 
(στενός yap ων ό 'ΚΧΧησπ οντάς βραχείας τάς 
ά'π■oφυyaς τοις εναντίοις τταρεΐχε), την μεντοι 
νίκην ταύτης τής ναυμαχίας εττικαιροτάτην Βη 

2 εσχον. φοβούμενοι yap τέως το των ΐΙεΧοττον- 
νησίων ναυτικον Βιά τε τα κατά βραχύ σφάΧματα 
καϊ Βιά την εν τη ΈικεΧία ζυμφοράν, άπηXXάyησav 

'■ rh Kvvhs σήμα, deleted by van Herwerden, followed by 
Hude. 

■■= διώ /ieiv, Vulgate, though a majority of the better MSS. 
have SidiKovTes, 

3 So C, MUSiov ABEF. 

386 



BOOK VUI. cv. 2-cvi. 2 

his men on the right, by reason of the multitude 
of the ships that were pressing hard upon them, nor 
of the followers of Thrasyllus on the left ; for that 
part of the field \vas concealed from him by the 
headland of Cynossema, and at the same time the 
Syracusans and the rest who were arrayed against 
him, being not inferior in number, hemmed him in. 
But finally the Peloponnesians, pursuing fearlessly 
in the flush of victory, some chasing one vessel, some 
another, began to fall into disorder in a part of 
their own line. The Athenians under Thrasjbulus, 
realizing this, ηοΛν ceased extending their flank, and 
immediately facing about began to fight the ships 
that were bearing down upon them, and put them 
to rout ; then intercepting the ships in the vic- 
torious part of the Peloponnesian line that had 
strayed out of line, they smote them and drove 
most of them into headlong flight without re- 
sistance. It so chanced that the Syracusans on 
their part had already given ground to Thrasyllus 
and his division, and they took to flight still more 
when they saw the rest fleeing. 

CVI. After the rout was thus eff'ected, the Pelo- 
ponnesians fled for refuge for the most part to the 
river Pydius at first, but afterwards to Abydus, The 
Athenians took only a few ships — for the Helles- 
pont is narrow and afforded their opponents places 
of refuge near at hand — yet the victory which they 
won in this battle was indeed most opportune. 
Hitherto they had been afraid of the Peloponnesian 
fleet, on account not only of the gradual losses ^ they 
had suffered, but especially of their disaster in 
Sicily; but now they ceased either to reproach 

' c/, ch. xlii. 4 ; xcv. 7 ; cii. 2. 



THUCYDIDES 

τοΐι σφας re αυτούς καταμβμφβσθαι καΐ τους 
ΤΓοΧβμίους έ'τί άξίου<ς του €9 τα ναυτικά νομίζβιν. 

3 ναύ<ί μβρτοι των ενάντιων Χαμβάνουσί Χι'ας μεν 
οκτώ, Κορινθίας Se irevTe, ΑμττρακιώτιΒας Se 8ύο 
και Βοίωτ/ας Βύο, ΑευκαΒίων δέ καΐ Αακε8αιμο- 
νίων καΐ ^υρακοσίων κα\ ΥΙεΧΚηνβων μίαν 
εκάστων αύτοΙ 8ε ττεντε καΐ Βέκα ναΰς άττοΧ- 

4 Χύασιν. στήσαντες δβ τροτταΐον εττϊ τγ άκρα 
ου το Κννος σήμα καΐ τα ναυά'^/ια ιτροσαηα'-^όμενοι 
και νεκρούς τοις εναντιοις ύττοσττόνζους άττο^όντες 
άττεστειΧαν καΐ ες τάς ^Αθήνας τριήρη ajjeXov 

5 τ^ι? νίκης. οι Βε άφικομένης της νεώς και 
άνέΧτΓίστον την εύτυγίαν άκούσαντβς i-rri τ€ ταΐς 
ττερι την Έιύβοιαν άρτι ξνμφοραΐς και κατά την 
στάσιν <^ε'^/ενημεναις ποΧύ εττερρώσθησαν και 
ενομισαν σφισιν ετι Ζυνατα είναι τά ^Γpάyμaτa, 
ην ττροθύμως άντιΧαμβάνωνται, ττερι^ενεσθαι. 

CVII. Μετά δε την ναυμα'χ^ίαν ήμερα τετάρτη 
υτΓΟ στΓουΒής εττισκευάσαντες τάς ναϋς οι εν 
Χηστω ^Αθηναίοι εττέττΧεον εττΐ Κύζικον άφεστη- 
κυίαν καϊ κατιΒόντες κατά 'Aprrayiov και 
ΐΙρίατΓον τάς άπο του Βυζάντιου οκτώ ναΰς 
όρμούσας, εττιττΧευσ σ.ντες καϊ μα-χτ} κρατησαντες 
τους εν τη <γη εΧαβον τάς ναΰς. άφικόμενοι δε 
και ετΓΐ την Κ,ύζικον άτείγ^ιστον ουσαν 7Γροση<γά- 
2 yovTO πάΧιν καϊ 'χρήματα άνεττραξαν. εττΧευσαν 
δε εν τούτω καϊ οι ΥΥεΧοττοννήσίοι εκ της ^ ΑβΰΒου 
εττΐ τον 'FjXaiodvTa και των σφετερων νεών των 
αίχμαΧώτων οσαι ήσαν ύ'γιεΐς εκομίσαντο (τά? 
δε άΧΧας ^ΚΧαιουσιοι κατέκαυσαν), καϊ ες την 
Κΰβοιαν άττέπεμψαν Ιπποκράτη καϊ ^ΕπικΧεα 
κομιοΰντας τάς εκείθεν ναϋς. 
388 



BOOK VIII. CVI. 2-CVII. 2 

themselves or to consider their enemy any longer 
of any account in naval matters. However, they 
did capture of the enemy's fleet eight Chian ships, 
five Corinthian, two Ambracian, two Boeotian, and 
one each belonging to the Leucadians, Lacedae- 
monians, Syracusans, and Pellenians ; and they lost 
fifteen themselves. So they set up a trophy on the 
headland Λvhere the Cynossema stands, brought in 
the wreckage, restored to the enemy their dead 
under a truce, and sent a trireme to Athens to 
announce their victory. When the ship arrived 
and the Athenians heard the news of the good 
fortune that was beyond their hopes, coming as it 
did on the heels of the disasters that had recently 
befallen them in Euboea and in the course of their 
factional dissensions, they were greatly encouraged, 
and believed that their cause might still prevail if 
they should zealously lay their hands to the work. 

CVII. On the fourth day after the battle, after 
they had hastily refitted their ships, the Athenians 
at Sestos sailed against Cyzicus, which had revolted ; 
and descrying the eight ships from Byzantium ^ lying 
at anchor off Harpagium and Priapus, they sailed 
against them, defeated in battle the forces which 
on shore aided them, and captured the ships. Then 
going on to Cyzicus, they brought it back into the 
Athenian alliance, since it had no walls, and levied 
upon it a fine of money. MeanΛvhile the Pelopon- 
nesians on their part left Abydus and sailed to 
Elaeus, Avhere they recovered such of their captured 
ships as were sound — the Elaeusians had burned the 
rest — and sent Hippocrates and Rpicles to Euboea 
to fetch the shijis that were there. 

* cf. cb. Ixxx. 4. 

389 



THUCYDIDES 

CVIII. ΚατέπΧενσε Se υπο τούδ αυτούς 'χ^ρονους 
τουτου<; και ο ΑΧκιβιάΒης ταΐς τρισϊ καΐ Βέκα 
υαυσίν άττο της Καύνου καΐ ΦασήΧιΒος e? την 
ζάμον, ayyeWwv 'ότι τά<; re Φοινίσσας ναΰ<; 
άτΓΟτρεψαβ ΙΊέλοπονι/ησίοις ώστε μη ζΚθεΙν, καΐ 
τον Ύισσαφβρνη οτι φίΧυρ •πβ•ποιηκοι μαλΧον 
1 Αθηναυοις η ττρότβρον. και τΓΧηρώσας ναΰ<; 
ei'vea 7rpo<i αις βΐ'χβν ΛΧικαρνασσβας re ττολλά 
■χ^ρήματα e^errpa^e και Κώμ βτείχίσβν. ταύτα δέ 
Ίτράζα•; άρ-χοντα ^ ev τη Κω καταστήσας ττρος το 
μβτόττωρον ήΒη eV την )ίάμον κατέττΧενσβν. 

3 ΚαΙ ο Ύισσαφβρνιις άττο της ΆσττβνΒου, ώς 
ϋττύθετο τα9 των ΐΙεΧοττοννησίων ναΰς βκ της 
Μίλί/'τοι; ες τον 'Ϊ^ΧΧήσποντον ττβττΧευκυιας, 

4 άναζεύξας ηΧαυνβν iwl της ^Ιωνίας, όντων δε 
των ΙΙεΧοτΓοννησίων ev τω 'ΈιΧΧησττόντω, Άι^τ- 
dvSpLoi (βίσΐ δε ΑίοΧης) τταρακο μισημένοι βκ της 
^ΑβύΒου ττεζί) Sia της "18ης του ορούς όπΧίτας 
€ση^ά^οντο ες την πόΧιν, νττο Αρσάκου του 
Τίέρσου, Τισσαφέρνους ΰττάργου, αδικούμενοι, 
όσπερ καΐ ΑηΧίονς τους ^ Ατραμύττειον κατοικη- 
σαντας, οτε ύττ' ^Αθηναίων ΑήΧου καθ άρσεως 
ένεκα άνεστησαν, εγθραν ττροσττοιησάμενος άΒη- 
Χον και ετταγ/είΧας στρατείαν αυτών τοις 
βεΧτίστοις, i^ayayoiv ως επΙ φιΧία καΐ ξυμμα-χια, 
τηρι]σας άριστοττοιου μένους και ττεριστησας τους 

5 εαυτού κατηκόντισεν. φοβούμενοι ουν αύτον δ/α 
τούτο το ερηον μη ττοτε και ττερί σφας τι τταρα- 
νομηση, και άΧΧα^ ετηβάΧΧοντος αυτού α φερειν 



^ άρχοντα. Β, Hude άρχονται with most MSS. 
2 άλλα, Hude reads 'άμα with Poppo-Stahl. 



390 



BOOK VIII. cviii. 1-5 

CVIII. At about this same time Alcibiades sailed 
back to Samos with the thirteen ships ^ from Caunus 
and PhaseHs, reporting that he had prevented the 
coming of the Phoenician shij)s to join tlie Pelopon- 
nesians and that he had made Tissaphernes more 
friendly to the Athenians than before. He then 
manned nine ships in addition to those he had, 
and exacted much money of the Halicarnassians, and 
also fortified Cos. Having done these things and 
appointed a governor at Cos, when it was already 
nearing autumn he returned to Samos. 

As for Tissaphernes, on hearing that the Pelopon- 
nesian fleet had sailed from Miletus to the Hellespont, 
he broke up his camp at Aspendus and set out for 
Ionia. For while the Peloponnesians were in the 
Hellespont, the Antandrians, who are Aeolians, had 
brought some hoplites from Abydus overland by way 
of Mount Ida and introduced them into their city, 
since they were being unjustly treated by Arsaces the 
Persian, lieutenant of Tissaphernes. Now this was the 
man who, when the Delians settled at Atramytteium,^ 
at the time when they were removed from Delos 
by the Athenians for the purpose of purifying that 
island, professing a quarrel which he did not openly 
declare and proffering opportunity of military service 
to their leading men, had led them out on an 
expedition on a pretence of friendship and alliance, 
and then, waiting until they were at their midday 
meal, had surrounded them with his own troops and 
shot them down. The Antandrians, therefore, fear- 
ing that on account of this act of his he might some 
day commit some outrage upon them also, and 
because, furthermore, he was imposing upon them 

* c/". ch. Ixxxviii. 1. ^ c/. v. 1. 

39» 



THUCYDIDES 

ουκ iBvvavTO, ζκβάΧΧουσι tou? φρουρούς αυτού 
€κ της ακροτΓο\εο)ς. 

CIX. Ό δε Τισσαφέρνης αίσθόμβνος καΐ τούτο 
των ΤΙβΧοτΓοννησιων το epyov καΐ ου μόνον τα iv 
τη Μίλ7;τω καΐ ΚνίΒω {καΐ ενταύθα 'yap αυτού 
€^€7Γ€7Γτώκ€σαν οι φρουροί), ΒιαβεβΧησθαΙ τ€ 
νομίσας αύτοΐς σφο8ρα καΧ Ββίσας μη και ά\\ο 
τ/, έ'τί βΧάτΓτωσι, καΐ άμα ά-χθόμενος el Φαρνά- 
βαζος εξ εΧάσσονος 'χρόνου ι<α\ Βαττάνης δε^ά- 
μενος αυτούς κατορθώσει τί μαΧΧον των ττρος 
τους Αθηναίους, ττορεύεσθαι 8ίενοεΐτο ττρός 
αυτούς εττι τού Ε,ΧΧησττοντου, οττως μεμψηταί 
τε των ττερι Τ)]ν ΑντανΒρον 'γε'^/ενημένων καϊ τας 
ΒίαβοΧας καϊ ττερΙ των Φοίνίσσών νέων καϊ 
των αΧΧων ώς εύττρεττέστατα άττοΧοΎησηται. 
καϊ άφικομενος ττρώτον ες Εφεσον θυσίαν 
έποιήσατο Ty ^Αρτεμώί» 



392 



BOOK VIII. cviii. 5-cix. i 

burdens which they were not able to bear, had 
driven his garrison out of their acropolis. 

CIX. Wlien Tissaphernes heard of this further act 
on the part of the Peloponnesians, in addition to 
what they had done at Miletus^ and Cnidos,^ — for 
there also his garrisons had been expelled — thinking 
that he had got into exceeding disrepute with them 
and fearing that they might do him some further 
inischief still, and at the same time because he Avas 
vexed that Pharnabazus should accept their services, 
and in less time and at less expense than himself be 
more successful in coping with the Athenians — fur 
all these reasons he determined to go to the Helles- 
pont and see the Peloponnesians, that he might 
complain of what had been done at Antandros and 
might also defend himself as plausibly as he could 
against the slanderous charges they made against 
him in connection with the Phoenician ships and 
other matters. And so he came first to Ephesus 
and offered sacrifice to Artemis. 

* cf. ch. Ixxxiv. 4. * cf. ch. xxxv. 1. 



393 



INDEX 



Abdera, ITymphodorus of Abdera, Π. 
x.\i.\-. 1 ; situation of, Π. xcvii. 1. 

Abydus, a Milesian colony, revolts, 
vill. Ixi. 1 ; revolts: Strombichides 
recalled from, vm. Ixxix. 3 ; 
liacedaeinonian headquarters, Vlll. 
cii.-cviii. 

Acamantis, an Athenian tribe, IV. 
cxviii. 11. 

Acanthus, an Andrian colony, IV. 
Ixssiv. 1 ; addressed by Brasidas, 
ib. Ixxxv.-lxKxvii. ; revolts, ib. 
Ixxxviii. ; Acanthiau troops with 
Brasidas, ib. cxxiv. 1 ; provision 
respecting, in the treaty between 
Lacedaemon and Athens, v. χλ uL 6. 

Acanthus, a Lacedaemonian, swears 
to the treaty of peace, V. xix. 24. 

Acaman, son of Alcmacon, ciJony- 
nious hero of Acarnania, il. cii. 6. 

Acarnaiiia, people of, carry arras, I. 
v. 3 ; allies of Athens, Π. vii. 3 ; 
ix. 4; Ixviii. 7; in. xcv. 2; cii. 3; 
IV. Ixxvii. 2 ; Ixsxix. 1 ; ci. 3 ; 
VII. Ivii. 10; Ix. 4; Ixrii. 2; in- 
vaded by the Ambraciots, ll. Ixxx.- 
Ixxxii. ; skilful slingers, Π. Ixxxi. 8; 
vn. xxxi. 5; expedition of Phormio 
against Oeniadae, Π. cii.; request 
a relation of Phoraiio as comman- 
der, in. vii. 1 ; attack Leucas, xciv 
1, 2; common council of, cv. 1 
defeat the Ambraciots, cv.-cxiii. 
conclude a treaty with the Ambra 
ciots, ciiv. 3 ; colonize A-nactorium, 
IV. xlix. 

Achaea [in Peloponnesus], Achaeans 
early name of the Hellenes, I. iii. 3 ; 
allies of the Athenians, I. iii. 3; 
restored to the Lacedaemonians, 
cxv. 1 ; at first neutral, except the 
Pellenes, II. ix. 2 ; colonize 
Zacynthus, 11. Ixvi. ; not allowed 
to join in the foundation of Hera- 
cleia, lu. xcii. δ; redemanded from 
the Lacedaemonians by Cleon, IV. 



xxi. 3 ; support the Pelopormesians 
in the engagement oft Erineus, vn. 
xxxiv. 2. 

Achaea [Phthiotis], IV. Ixxv iii.l ; 
subject to the Thessalians, vm. iii. 1. 

Acharnae, largest of the Attic demos, 
ravaged, 11. xix. 2 ; reasons why 
the Lacedaemonians halted there, 
XX. ; distress of the Athenians at 
seeing Acharnae ravaged, xxi. ; 
ravage continued, xxiii. 

Aciielous, the river, Π. cii. 2 ; m. vii. 
4; cvi. 1. 

Acheron, river in Thesprotis, I. xlvi. 4. 

Acherusian lake in Thesprotis, I. xlvi. 4. 

Achilles, followers of, the original 
Hellenes, I. iii. 3. 

Acrae, in Sicily, founded by the 
Syracusans, VI. v. 2. 

Acraean Bald, in Sicily, vn. I.'cxviii. 5. 

Acragas, a river in Sicily VI. iv. 4. 

Acropolis of Athens, taken by Cylon, 
I. cxxvi. ; treasure on the Acro- 
polis, Π. xiii. 3 ; formerly the city, 
XV. 3 ; preserved from occupation 
in the plague, xvii. 1 ; treaties of 
peace recorded on tablets there, 
V. xviii. 11 ; xxiii. 4; xlvii. 11 ; in- 
scription there commemorating the 
oppression of the tyrants, VI. Iv, 1. 

Acrothous, in Acte, IV. cix. 3. 

Acte, the peninsula, iv. cix. 1. 

Actium, in the territory of Anao 
torium, I. xxix. 3 ; xxx. 3. 

Admetus, King of the Molossians, 
I. cxxxvi., cx.xxvii. 

Aeantides, son-in-law of Hippias, 
husband of Ajchiedice, VI. lix. 3. 

Aegaleos, Mt., in Attica, ll. xix. 2. 

Aegean Sea, I. xcviii. 2 ; iv. cix. 2. 

Acgina, early fleets of; first wars 
between Aeginetans and Athenians, 
I. xiv. 3 ; xli. 2 ; sends delegates to 
Lacedaemon, Ixvii. 2 ; second war 
between the two, cv. 2 ; Aeginetans 
capitulate, eviii. 4; the independ- 

395 



INDEX 



ence of the Aesinetans dominded 
by the Lacedapnionions, cxxxix. 1; 
cxK 3 ; expellf-d by the Athenians, 
who send tliitlier colonists from 
Athens, and settled by the Lace- 
daemonians at Tliyrea, Π. xxvii. ; 
assist Lacedaemonians in the war 
of Ithome, ibi ; attacked by the 
Athenians in Thyrea, iv. Ivi. 2; 
Ivii. 1. 4; Aegina on the direct 
route from Atliens to Argos, v. !ui. ; 
tlie Atlienian settlers in Ae^ina at 
Mantineia, V. Ixxiv. 3 ; the Sicilian 
expedition races to Aegina, vi. 
xxxii. 2 ; Athenian settlers in 
Ae^a at Syracuse, vn. xxxvii. 2 ; 
aid in the oligarchical conspiracy 
at Athens, VUI. Ixix. 3. 

Aegitium, in Aetolia, m. xcvi. 2. 

Aeneas, a Corinthian representative 
in treaty, IV. cxix. 2. 

Aenianians, in Malis, V. li. 1. 

Aenesias, ephor at Sparta, II. ii. 1. 

Aenus, in Thrace, iv. sxviii. 4; 
founded by the Boeotians but 
tributary to the Athenians, VII. 
Ivii. 4. 

Aeolian countries and cities : Cyme, 
in. xxxi. 1; Boeotia, VII. Ivii. 5; 
Lesbians, VII. Ivii. 5 ; Antandrus, 
vin. cviii. 4. 

Aeolian subjects of Athens, vn. Mi. 5. 

Aeolians ancient occupants of Corhith, 
IV. xlii. 2. 

Aeolis, ancient name of Calydon, ni. 
cii. 5. 

Aeolus, islands of, allies of the 
Syracusans, III. Ixxxviii. 

Aesimides, a Corcyraean commander, 
I. xlvii. 1. 

Aeson, an Argive envoy to Lace- 
daemon, V. xl. 3. 

Aethaea, Lacedaemonian Perioeci of, 
I. ci. 2. 

Aetliiopia, plague said to have started 
tliere, Π. xh-iii. 1. 

Aetna, eruption of, ΠΙ. exvi. 1. 

Aetolia, custouis of, I. v. 3 ; ΙΠ. xciv. 
4 ; disastrous campaign of the 
Athenians in, ΙΠ. xciv.-xcviii. ; 
persuade the Lacedaemoniaas to 
send an expedition against Nau- 
pactus. III. c. ; pai-ticipate in the 
expedition, in. cii. ; Aetolians 
before Syracuse, vn. IviL 9. 



Agamemnon, power of, I. ix. 

Agatharchidas, a Corinthian com- 
mander, n. Ixxxiii. 4. 

Agatharchus, a Sicilian commander, 
VII. XXV. 1 ; Ixx. 1. 

Agesander, Lacedaemonian envoy to 
Athens, I. cxxxix. 3. 

Agesandridas, a Spartan commander, 
vm. xci. 2 ; xciv. 1 ; xcv. 3. 

Ag&sippidas, a Lacedaemonian com- 
mander, V. Ivi. 1. 

Agis, King of Lacedaemon, ΠΙ. Ixxxix. 
1 ; leads invasion of Attica, IV. ii. 1 ; 
retreats, IV. vi. 1 ; swears to the 
treaty of alliance, V. xix. 24; 
marches toward Argos but retires, 
V. liv. ; attaclis Ai-gos, V. Ivii. ; 
surrounds the Argives, V. Iviii., 
lix. ; makes a truce with the Argives, 
V. Ixi. 1 ; censured, Ix. 2 ; Ixiii. 2 ; 
ten Spartiatae chosen as advisers 
to him, Ixiii. 4; operations against 
the Argives, V. Ixv. ; surprised by 
the enemy, V. Ixvi. 1 ; defeats the 
enemy, v. Ixx.-lxxiv. ; leads a 
new expedition to Argos, V. Ixxxiii. 
1 ; invades Attica and fortifies 
Deceleia, vn. xix. 1 ; xxvii. 4 ; 
raises money for a navy, vill. iii. 
1 ; his great powers, Vin. v. 3 ; 
enemy of Alcibiades, vni. xii. 2 ; 
xlv. 1 ; rejects the overtures of 
the Athenian oligarchs, Vin. Ixx. 2 ; 
Ixxi. 1 ; repul-ed from the walls of 
Athens, Ixxi. 2 ; advises the Four 
Hundred to send envoys to Sparta, 
Ixxi. 3. 

Agraeaas, in Aetolia, n. cii. 2 ; m. 
cvi. 2 ; in. 4 ; cxiv. 3 ; forced 
into the Athenian alliance, iv. 
Ixxvii. 2 ; employed in a descent 
upon Sicyon, IV. ci. 3. 

Agrianians, a people in Paeonia, Π. 
xcvi. 3. 

Agrigentum (Acragas), founded by 
the Geloans, VI. iv. 4 ; won over 
to the Atheniaas by Phaeax, V. iv. 
6 ; remains neutral between Syra- 
cuse and Athens, Vll. xxxii. 1 ; 
xxxiii. 1 : Iviii, 1 ; falls into 
revolution, Vll. xlvi. ; pro-Syra- 
cusan party driven out, VII. I. i. 

Alcaeus, arclion at Athens, v. xix. 1; 
XXV. 1. 

Alcamenes, a Lacedaemonian com- 



396 



INDEX 



mander, VUI. v. 2 ; ordered to 
Lesbos as commander, vni. viii. 2 ; 
slain by the Athenians at Peiraeum, 
vrn. X." 4. 
Alcibiades, urgent to annul the 
treaty with the Lacedaemonians, 
V. xlui. ; Lacedaemonian proxenus, 
xliii. 2 ; negotiates an alliance 
with Argos, Mantineia and Elis, 

V. xliv., xlvi. ; intrigues against 
the Lacedaemonians, V. xlv.; 
activity in the Peloponnesus, v. 
lii., liii., Iv. ; persuades the Athen- 
ians to declare the treaty broken 
and resettle Helots at Pylos, v. 
Ivi. 3; ambassador at Argos, v. 
Ixi. 2 ; Ixxri. 3 ; seizes some sus- 
pected Argives, V. Ixxxiv. 1 ; 
appointed one of the generals of 
the Sicilian expedition, vi. vui. 2 ; 
extravagant character, VI. χϋ. 2 ; 
unpopularity helped to ruin Athens, 

VI. XV. ; victories at Olympia, 
VI. xvi. ; speech, VI. xvi.-xviii. ; 
accused of mutilating the Hermae 
and profaning the mysteries, vi. 
xxviii. 1 ; begs in vain to be tried 
before sailing, VI. xxix. ; opinion 
given in council of war, Yl. xlviii. ; 
unsuccessful in proposals to Mes- 
sene, vi. 1. 1 ; Salaminia comes 
to take him home, VI. liii. 1 ; escapes 
at Thurii and is condemned to 
death, VI. Ixi. 6, 7; causes failure 
of plot to betray Messene, VI. Ixxiv. 
1 ; goes to Lacedaemon, VI. Ixxxviii. 
9 ; speech there, vi. Ixxxix.- 
xcii. ; persuades the Lacedae- 
monians to fortify Deceleia, VII. 
xviii. 1 ; supports the Chians at 
Sparta, vm. vi. 3 ; persuades the 
Spartan government not to give 
up the Chian expedition, vm. xii. ; 
sails to Ionia with Chalcideus, 
Vin. xii. 3 ; induces the revolt of 
Chios, Erythrae, and Clazomenae, 
vm. xiv. ; chases Strombichides into 
Samos, vm. xvi. ; induces revolt 
of Miletus, VIII. xvii. ; urges the 
Lacedaemonians not to permit the 
investment of Miletus, vm. xxvi. 
3 ; in disfavour with the Lace- 
daemonians, he withdraws to 
Tissaphemes and endeavours to 
ruin the Lacedaemonian cause 



with him, repulsing the revolted 
cities when they beg money, 
vm. xlv. ; advises Tissaphemes to 
wear out the Lacedaemonians and 
Athenians one upon the other, 
VIII. xlvi. ; conspires witii the 
Athenians at Samos to overthrow 
the democracy, vm. xlvii.-xlLx. ; 
opposed by Phrynichus, Vlll. xlviii. 
4-7; endeavours to ruin Phry- 
nichus, vm. 1. 1, 4; seeks to draw 
Tissaphemes over to the Athenian 
cause, vm. lii. ; persuades Tissa- 
phemes to make impossible de- 
mands of Peisander, VIII. Ivi. ; 
recalled by the Athenians at 
Samos, he encourages the army 
witli extravagant hopes, Vm. Ixxxi. ; 
elected general, he restrains the 
army from proceeding against the 
Peiriieus; goes to Tissaphemes, 
VIII. Ixxxii. ; again restrains the 
people from sailing to the Peiraeus 
thus perfonning an eminent ser- 
vice, vm. Ixxxvi. ; sails to 
Aspendus, promising to keep back 
the Phoenician fleet, vm. Ixxxviii.; 
recalled by the Athenians at home, 
VIII. xcvii. 3 ; returns from Caunus 
professing to have secured Tis- 
saphemes' friendship for the 
Athenians, vm. cviii. 1 ; returns 
to Samos, vm. cviii. 2. 

Alcidas, takes command of the 
Peloponnesian fleet sent to Lesbos, 
vn. xvi. 3 ; fleet despatched, m. 
xxvi. 1 ; determines to return, 
III. xxxi; slaughters his captives, 
III. xxxiii 1 ; chased to Patmos 
by the Athenians, m. xxxiii. ; 
Ixix. 1 ; sails to Corcyra, m. Ixix., 
Ixxvi. ; engages the Athenians, 
III. Ixxvii., Ixxviii. ; retires, Ixxix.— 
Ixxxi. ; one of the founders of 
Heracleia, m. xcii. 5. 

Alcinadas, a Lacedaemonian, swears 
to tli« treaty, v. xix., xxiv. 

Alcinous, sanctuary of Zeus and 
Alcinous at Corcyra, m. Ixx. 4. 

Alciphron, an Aigive, proxenus of 
the Lacedaemonians, v. lix. 4. 

Alcmaeon, son of Amphiaraus, story 
of, II. cii. 5. 

Alcmaeonidae, aid in the deposition 
of Hippias, vi, lix. 4. 

397 



INDEX 



Alexnnder, father of Perdicoas, 
king of Macedonia, I. Ivii. 2 ; 
cxx-xvii. 1 ; of Argive descent, 
II. xcLx. 3. 

Alexarchus, a Corintiiian commander, 
VII. .xis. 4. 

Alexicles, an Athenian general of 
tlie oligarchical party, arrested, 
vni. xcii. 4 ; released, xciii. 1 ; 
flees to Deceleia, xcviii. 1. 

Alexippidas, ephor at Lacedaemon, 
vui. Iviii. 1. 

Alicyaeans, in Sicily, VII. xxxii. 1. 

Allies of the Athenians : character 
of the alliance, I. xis. ; used to 
meet at Delos, I. xcvi. ; merabere 
orii^inally independent, I. xcvii. 1 ; 
their gradual subjugation, I. xcix. ; 
allies at opening of the Pelopon- 
nesian War, Π. ix. 4 ; allies present 
before Syracuse, vil. Ivii. 

Allies of the Lacedaemonians : for- 
mation of the league, I. xvui. ; 
its character, I. xix. ; allies sum- 
moned to Sparta, I. Ixvii. ; again 
summoned, I. cxix. ; vote for war, 
I. cxxv. 

Almopia, in Macedonia, n. xcix. 5. 

Alope, in Locris, Π. xxvi 2. 

Alyzeia, in Acamania, vn. xxxi. 2. 

Ambracia, sends troops to Epidamnus, 
L xxvi. 1 ; furnishes ships to the 
Corinthians, I. xxvii. 2 ; xlvi. 1 ; 
xlviii. 4; allies of the Lacedae- 
monians, II. is. 2 ; attack the 
Ajnphilochian Argives, Π. Ixviii. ; 
invade Acarnania, n. Ixjxx. ; retire, 
n. Ixxxii. ; send reinforcements to 
Alcidas, in. Lxix. ; persuade the 
Lacedaemonians to attack Amphilo- 
chian Argos, m. cii. 6 ; join the 
Lacedaemonians in the expedition, 
m. cv., cvi. ; defeated by the 
Acamanians under Demosthenes, 
ΠΙ. cvii., cviii. ; most warlike of 
the Epirots, m. cviii. 2 ; deserted 
by the Peloponnesians, m. cix., 
cxi. ; total destruction of thf ir 
reinforcements, m. cxii., cxiii. ; 
conclude a treaty with the Acar- 
nanians, m. cxiv. 3; receive a 
Corinthian garrison. III. cxiv. 4 ; 
assist Gylippus with ships, VI. 
civ. 1 ; vn. vii. 1 ; Iviii. 3 ; Am- 
braciot envoys sent to the Sicelioi 



cities after the capture of Plem- 
myrium, vn. xxv. 9; slain by the 
Sicels, vn. xxxii. ; Ambraciot ships 
present at Cynossema, vni. cvi. 3. 

Ambracian gulf, I. xxix. 3 ; Iv. 1. 

Ameiniades, an Athenian envoy, a 
guest of Sitalces, ll. Ixvii. 2, 3. 

Ameinias, a Lacedaemonian envoy, 

IV. cxxxii. 3. 

Ameiuocles, a Corinthian shipbuilder, 

I. xiii. 3. 

Ammeas, a leader in the escape of 
the Plataeans, in. xxii. 3. 

Amorges, bastard son of Pissuthnes, 
in revolt in Caria, vill. v. 5 ; cap- 
tured in lasus, and hs.nded over 
to Tissaphemes, VIII. xxviii. 3 ; 
said by Peisander to have been 
betrayed by Phrynichus, Vin. liv. 
3. 

Ampelidas, a Lacedaemonian envoy 
to Argos, V. xxii. 2. 

Amphias, an Epidaurian, representa- 
tive in a treaty, iv. cxix. 2. 

Amphiaraus, father of Amphilochus, 

II. Ixviii. 3 ; of Alcmaeon, n. cii. 
5. 

Amphilochia, colonized by Amphilo- 
chus, Π. Ixviii. 3; the Amphilo- 
chians invite in Ambraciots and 
coalesce with them; learn Greek 
from them, ll. ΙχΛ -iii. 5 ; place 
themselves under the protection 
of the Acarnanians, Π. Ixviii. 7; 
Achelous river runs through i\jn- 
philochia, ll. cii. 2 ; Amphilochian 
Argos invaded by Ambraciots and 
Lacedaemonians, UI. cv. ; A τη. 
philochians in the battle of Ido- 
mene, m. cxii. 6 ; make treaty 
with the Ambraciots, in. cxiv. 3. 

Amphilochus, son of Amphiaraus, 
II. Ixviii. 3. 

Amphipolis, formerly called " Kine 
Ways " ; unsuccessful settlement 
of, by the Atlienians, I. c. ; at- 
tempted colonization of by Arista- 
goras; colonized by Hagnon, rv. 
cii. ; captured by Brasidas, iv. 
cii.-cvi. ; battle of Amphipolis, 

V. vi.-xi. ; " Thracian gates " of, 
V. X. 1 ; makes Brasidas founder, 
V. xi. 1 ; ordered to be surrendered 
under treaty, V. xvui. 5; not 
surrendered, v. xxi., xxxv., xlvi. ; 



39S 



INDEX 



Athenian expedition against it 
abandoned, V. Ixxxiii. 4; unsuc 
cessiully attacked by the Athenians 
VU. ix. 

Amphissa in Ozolian Locris, m. ci. 2 

Amyclae, temple of Apollo at, V, 
xviii. 10; xxiii. 5. 

Amyntas, son of Philip of Macedon 
Π. xcv. 3 ; c. 3. 

Amyrtaeus, " king of the Marshes,' 
in Egypt, I. ex. 2 ; cxii. 3. 

Anacium, a precinct of the Dioscuri 
at Athens, νπΐ. xciii. 1 ; aids the 
Corintliians, I. xlvi. 1. 

Anactorium, at moutii of the Am- 
bracian gulf, I. Iv. 1 ; ally of the 
Lacedaemonians, ll. ix. 3 ; aids 
Lacedaemonians against Acamania, 
II. Ixxx. 5 ; lxx:xi. 3 ; betrayed to 
the Acarnanians, IV. xlix. ; not 
surrendered in the treaty of peace, 
V. XXX. 2; vn. xxxi. 2. 

Ajiaea, a town of tlie Teians, vn. xix. 
1 ; the Anaeitans, with Oarians, 
destroy Lysicles and ids army, in. 
xix. 2 ; remonstrate with Alcidas 
for the slaughter of his captives, 
m. xxxii. 2 ; a menace to Samos, 
IV. Ixxv. 1 ; aid the Chians, Vlll. 
Ixi. 2. 

Anapus, a river in Acamania, n. 
Ixxxii. 

Anapus, a river at Sj'racuse, vi. \x\i. 
2 ; xcvi. 3 ; vn. xlii. 6 ; Ixxviii. 1 ; 
Ixxviii. 3. 

Anaxilas, tyrant of Rhegiom, VI. iv. 
6 ; founder of Messene, ibi. 

Andocides, Athenian commander of 
reinforcements sent to Corcyra 
after Sybota, I. li. 4. 

Androcles, Athenian popular leader, 
active against Alcibiades, mur- 
dered, vm. Ixv. 

Androcrates, shrine of , at Plataea, ni. 
xxiv. 1. 

Andromedes, Spartan envoy to 
Athens, V. Ixxii. 1. 

Andros, island ; the Andrians subjects 
and tributaries of Athens, IV. xlii. 1 ; 
vn. Ivii. 4. ; employed by the 
oligarchs at Athens, vm. Ixix. 3. 

Androsthenes, Olympic victor, V. 
xlix. 1. 

Antriitus, Laccdaemunian envoy to 
Persia, put to death, n. Ixvii. 



Antandrus, Aeolian town in the 
Troad, captured by the Lesbians, 

IV. lii. 2 ; recaptured by the 
Athenians, IV. Ixxv. 1 ; introduces 
a Lacedaemonian garrLson, ex- 
pelling the Persians, vm. cviii. 4. 

Aiithamus, in Macedonia, n. xcix. 6 ; 

c. 4. 
Anthesterion, Attic month, n. xv. 4. 
Anticles, an Athenian commander, 

I. cxvii. 2. 

Antimenidas, a Lacedaemonian envoy, 

V. xlii. 1. 

Antiochus, King of the Orestians, 

II. Ixxx. 6. 

Antiphemus, joint founder, with 
Entimus, of Qela, VI. iv. 3. 

Antiphon, soul of the oligarchical 
conspiracy at Athens, Vlll. Ixviii. 
1; xc. 1; characterization of, ibi; 
sent to malie peace witli Lace- 
daemon, ibi. 

Antippus, a Lacedaemonian, swears 
to the treaty of peace, V. xix., xxiv. 

Antissa, in Lesbos, defeats the 
Methymnaeans, in. xviii. 2 ; taken 
by tlie Athenians, m. xxvlii. 3 ; 
Astyochus sends lioplites thither, 
VIII. xxiii. 4. 

Antisthenes, a Lacedaemonian com- 
mander, vni. xxxix. 1. 

Aphrodisia, in Laconia, IV. Ivi. 1. 

Aphrodite, temple of at Eryx, VI, 
xlvi. 3. 

Aphytis, in Pallene, I. Ixiv. 2. 

Apidanus, river in Thessaly, iv. 
Ixxviii. 5. 

Apodotians, tribe in Aetolia, m. 
xciv. 5. 

Apollo, Polycrates dedicates RheT'.cia 
to, I. xiii. 6 ; m. civ. 2 ; temple of, 
at Actium, I. xxix. 3 ; at Nau- 
pactus, n. xci. 1 ; at Leucas, nL 
xciv. 2; at Delium, IV. Ixxvi. 4; 
xc. 1 ; at Amyclae, V. xviii. 11 ; 
xxiii. 4; at Argos, V. xlvii. 11; 
opposite Cythera, vn. xxvi. 2; 
on Triopium, VIII. xxxv. 3 ; of the 
Pythian Apollo, at Athens, Π. xv. 4; 
at Delphi, IV. cxviii. 1; V. xviii. 2; 
of Apollo Pythaeus at Argos (?), 
V. liii. ; altar of Apollo the Founder, 
at Naxos in Sicily, VI. iii. 1; of 
the Pythian Apollo in the Athenian 
Agora, VI. liv. 7 ; festival of Apollo 

399 



INDEX 



Maloeis, rn. iii. 3; shriiie of Apollo 
Temenites at Syracuse, vi. Ixxv. 
1 ; c. 2 ; ancient oracle of Apollo 
to Alcmaeon, n. cii. 5; Homeric 
hymn to Apollo quoted, m. civ. 
4. 

Apollonia, a colony of Corinth, I. xxvL 
2. 

Arcadia, did not change its inhabi- 
tants anciently, I. ii. 3; fumkhed 
with ships by Agamemnon for 
the Trojan War, I. ix. 3 ; Arcadian 
mercenaries at Notium, in. xxxiv. 
2; part of Arcadia subjected to 
the Mantincans, V. xxis. 1 ; allies 
of the Lacedaemonians against the 
Argives, V. Ivii., Iviii., Ix. ; sum- 
moned by the Lacedaemonians to 
Tegea, V. Ixiv. 3; present at Man- 
tinea, V. Ixvii. 2 ; Ixxiii. ; war 
between some Arcadians and 
Lepreans, V. xxxi. 2 ; fumi~h ships 
to the Lacedaemonians, vm. Hi. 

Arcadians on the Athenian side at 
Syracuse, vn. Mi. 9 ; on the Syra- 
cusan side, VII. xix. 4 ; Ivii. 3. 

Archedice, daughter of Hippias, VI. 
ILx. 3 ; her epitaph, ibi. 

Archelaus, son of Perdiccas, King of 
Macedonia, Π. c. 

Archers, at Athens, numbers of the 
horse and foot archers, Π. xiii. 8; 
horse archers sent to Melos, V. 
IxYTi v. 1; to Sicily, VI. xciv. 4; 
barbarian archers, Yin. xcviii. 1. 

Archestratus, an Athenian com- 
mander at Potidaea, I. Ivii. 6. 

Archetimus, a Corinthian comman- 
der, I. XXLS. 2. 

Arciaas, of Camarina, betrays 
Oamarina to the Syracusans, IV. 
XXV. 7. 

Archias, a Heracleid, founder of 
Syracuse, VI. iii. 2. 

Arciiidamus, king of the Lacedae- 
monians, I. Ixsix. 2; speech of, 
I. Ixxx.-lxxxv. ; characterizes the 
Lacedaemonians, I. Ixxxiv. ; leader 
of second expedition into Attica, 
Π. X. 3 ; second speech of, Π. xi. ; 
sends a herald to Athens, Π. xii. ; 
invades Attica, n. xii. 4; leads 
his army to Oenoe, Π. xriii. 1 ; 
censured as dilatory, xviii. 3, 5; 

400 



ravages Thriasian plain, xix. 2 ; 
reasons for his halt at Achamae, 
XX. ; retires, xxiii. 3 ; invades 
Attica a second time, Π. xlvii. 2 ; 
Iv.-lvii. ; attacks Plataea, n. Ixxi. ; 
ambassadors sent to Archidamus 
by the Plataeans, n. Ixxi. 2 ff. ; 
offers terms to the Plataeans, n. 
Ixxii.-Ixxiv. ; invests Plataea, Ixxv., 
Ixxrvi., Ixxrii. ; walls in Plataea, 
Ixxv'iii. ; invades Attica a third 
time, m. i. ; a^ain, in. xxvi ; 
starts again but is turned back at 
the Isthmus by earthquakes, m. 
Ixxxis. 3. 

Archonidas, King of the Sicels, 
friend of the Athenians, vn. i. 4. 

Archons, their former powers at 
Athens, I. cxxvi. 8 ; the archon- 
ship kept in their own family by 
the PeisLstratidae, vi. liv. G. 

Arcturus, rising of, Π. Ι-ΐςχνΙΗ. 2. 

Ai^lus, an Andrian colony; a man 
from there servant of "Pausanias, 
I. cxxxii., cxxxiii. ; revolts from 
Athens and receives Brasidas, 

IV. ciii. 3; V. vi. 3; pro\Tsions 
respecting it in the treaty of peace, 

V. xviii. 5. 

Arginus, Mt., opposite Cliios, vm. 
xxiiv. 

Arginussae, a town on the mainland 
opposite the islands, vm. ci. 2. 

Argos, Amphilochian, founded by 
Amphilochus, Π. Ixviii. 3 ; invaded 
by the Ambraciots, n. Ixviu. ; m. 
eii., cr., cvii. 

Argos, iji Peloponnesus : Argives a 
Homeric name of the Hellenes, I. 
iii. 3; conclude alliance with 
Athens, I. cii. 4; assist Athenians 
at Tanagra, I. c^ni. 5 ; residence 
of Themistocles there, after his 
ostracism, I cxxxv. 3 ; cxxsvii 3 ; 
time reckoned there by succession 
of high priestesses, Π. ii. 1 ; neutral 
at opening of war, n. ix. ; Mace- 
donian kings originally from Argos, 
Π. xcix. 3 ; refuse to renew the 
treaty of peace with Lacedae- 
mon, v. xiv. 4 ; xxii. 2 ; lead 
confederacy against the Lacedae- 
monians, v. xxvii., xxviii. ; aspire 
to lead the Peloponnesus, V. xxviii. 
2 ; alliance with the Mantineans, 



INDEX 



V. χχίχ. ; with the Bleans, V. xxxi. ; 
with the Corinthians and Chalci- 
dians, V. xxxi. 6; their alliance 
sought by the Lacedaemonians, v. 
xjLxvi. ; negotiations for alliance 
with the Boeotians, V. xxsvii., 
xxxriii. ; compelled to make terms 
with Sparta, v. xl., xli. ; negotia- 
tions with Athens, V. xliii., xliv. ; 
alliance with Athens, V. xlvii. ; 
ineffectually urge the Corinthians 
to join their league, V. 1. 5 ; aid 
the Eleans to exclude the Lacedae- 
monians from the Olympic Games, 
V. 1. 3 ; aid Alcibiades in organizing 
the affairs of the confederacy, 
V. lii. 2 ; invade Epidaurus, V. 
liii. ; liv. 3; liv. 4; Ivi. 5; take 
the field against the Lacedae- 
monians, V. Iviii. ; surrounded by 
the Lacedaemonians, v. lix 1 ; 
obtain truce, V. Ix. 1 ; blame 
Thrasyllus and Alciphron for 
making truce, V. Ix. 5 ; join in 
besieging Orchomenus, V. Ixi. 4; 
prepare against Tegea, V Lxii. 2 ; 
again attacked by the Lacedae- 
monians, V. Ixiv. ; dissatisfied with 
their generals, V. Ixv. 5; position 
of the Argives at battle of Man- 
tineia, v. Ixvii. 2 ; defeated by the 
Lacedaemonians, V. Ixx.-lTxiv. ; 
make peace and alUance with the 
Lacedaemonians, v. Ixxvi.-lxxx ; 
renounce their allies, V. Ixsriii. ; 
have their government changed 
by the Lacedaemonians and the 
oligarchical party, V. Ixxxi. ; the 
popular party defeat the oligarchs 
and renew the Athenian alliance, 
V. Ixxxii. ; begin the long walls, 
V. Ixxxii. 5, 6 ; ravage Phliasia, 
V. Ixxxiii. 3; three hundred 
Argives of the Lacedaemonian 
party deported by Alcibiades, v. 
Ixxxiv. 1 ; their fate, vi. Ixi. 3 ; 
Argives again invade Phliasia, V. 
cxv. 1 ; suspect some of their citi- 
zens of instigating a Lacedae- 
monian invasion, V. cxvi. 1 ; 
treacherously attack and capture 
Omeae, VI. vii. 2 ; induced by 
Alcibiades to join the Sicilian 
expedition, Tl. xxix. 3 ; xliii ; vn. 
Ivii. 5 ; present in the various 



engagements before Syracuse, VI. 
ixvii. 1 ; bcx. 2 ; c. 2 ; vii. xliv. 
6 ; invade Tliyrean territory, VI. 
xcv. 1 ; their lands wasted by the 
Lacedaemonians, vi. cv. 1 ; ravage 
Phliasia, VI. cv. 3 ; reinforce the 
Athenians before Miletus, vm. 
XXV. 1,3; go home in a rage, 
vm. xxvii. 6; offer assistance to 
the Atlienians at Samos, VUI. 
Ixxxvi. 8 ; an Argive one of the 
murderers of Phrynichus, VUl. 
xcii. 2. 

Ariaiithidas, a Theban Boeotarch at 
Delium, IV. xci. 

Aristagoras of Miletus, attempts to 
found a colony at Ennea-Hodoi, 
IV. cii. 2. 

ArLstarclius, a conspicuous leader of 
the oligarchical party at Athens, 
vni. xc. 1 ; vainly endeavours to 
prevent the destruction of the 
fort Eetioneia, vni. xcii. 9 ; betrays 
Oenoe to Boeotia, vni. xcviii. 

Aristeus, son of Adeimantus, com- 
mander of the Corinthian forces 
sent to Potidaea, I. Ix. 2 ; chosen 
general of the Chalcidian forces, 
lxii. 2 ; engages the Athenians, 
lxii. 6 ; fights his way into Potidaea, 
Ixiti. 1 ; sails out of Potidaea, and 
destroys the force of Sermylians, 
Lsv. 2 ; envoy to the King, n. 
ixvii. 1 ; given up by the Thracians 
to the Athenians and put to death, 
Ixvii. 3, 4. 

Aristeus, son of Pellichus, a Corintliian 
commander, I. xxix. 2. 

Aristeus, a Lacedaemonian envoy, 
IV. cxxxii. 3. 

Aristides, son of Archippus, an 
Athenian general, rv. 1. 1 ; Ixxv. 1. 

Aristides, son of Lysimachus, envoy 
to Sparta, I. xci. 3 ; settlement of 
Athenian tribute in liis time, V. 
xviii. 5. 

Aristoclcs, brother of Pleistoanax, 
accused of bribing the Delpliian 
priestess, V. xvi. 2. 

Aristocles, a Lacedaemonian pole- 
march, V. Ixxi. 3 ; banished for 
cowardice at Mantineia, Lsxii. 1. 

Aristocrates, an Athenian general, 
swears to the treaty of peace, V. 
xLx. 2 ; xxiv. 1 ; sent to Chios 

401 



INDEX 



to enquire into the treachery of 

the Ctiians, VIII. ix. 2. 
ArLstocrates, son of Scelias, a leader 

in the oliiiarchical revolution and 

one of the heads of the moderate 

party, VIII. Ixxxix. 2, 3 ; works 

with Theramenes, arrests Alexicles, 

Vin. xcii. 2, 4. 
Aristogeiton, slayer of Hipparchus, 

I. XX. 2; VI. liv. 1, 2; Ivi.-lviii. 
Ariston, ablest pilot in the Corinthian 

fleet, VU. xxxix. 2. 
Aristoneus, joint founder, with 

Pystilus, of Agrii^entum, vi. iv. 4. 
Aristonus, of Larissa, a Thessalian 

commander, Π. xxii. 3. 
Aristonymus, an Athenian, sent to 

proclaim the one-year truce, iv. 

cxxii. 1 ; refuses to admit Scione, 

ibi. 
Aristophon, an Athenian envoy, vm. 

Ixxxvi. 9. 
Aristotle, son of Timocrates, an 

Athenian commander, III. cv. 3. 
Arras, the custom of carrying arras once 

common to all Hellenes, 1. v. 3 ; 

vi. 1 ; first abandoned by the 

Athenians, ibi. 
Arnae, in Chalcidice, IV. ciii. 1. 
Arne, the Boeotians expelled from, 

I. xii. 3. 
Arnisa, in Macedonia, IV. cxxviii. 3. 
Arrhiani, in the Thracian Chersonese, 

VIII. civ. 2. 
Arrfiabaeus, King of the Lyncestians, 

IV. Isxix. 3 ; attacked by Per- 

diccas, IV. Ixxxiii. ; defeated, IV. 

Ixxxiv ; defeated by Brasidas and 

Perdiccas, IV. cxxiv. ; Perdiccas' 

Ulyrian troops desert to him, 

IV. cxxv. 1 ; defeated by Brasidas, 

IV. cxxvii, cxxviii. 
Arsaces, a lieutenant of Tissaphemes, 

vm. cviii. 4 ; massacres the Deleans, 

ibi. 
Artabazus, son of Phamaces, mes- 
senger of Xerxes to Pausanias, 

I. cxxix. 1 ; cxxxii. δ. 
Artaphemes, a Persian envoy to 

Ijacedaemon, intercepted by the 

Athenians, IV. 1. 
Artas, an lapygian prince, fumLshes 

javelin-men to the Athenians, vn. 

xxxiii. 4. 
Artaxerxes, son of Xerxes, Xing of 

402 



Persia, I. civ. 1 ; succeeds to the 
throne, I. cxxxvii. 3; Themistocles' 
letter to, Jbi; reception of Themis- 
tocles, I. cxxxviii. ; death of, rv. I. 
3 ; father of Darius Nothus, Vin. 

V. 4. 

ArtemLs, temple of, at Ehegium, 

VI. xJiv. 3 ; at Ephesus, Vlll. cix. 
1. 

Artemisium, a Spartan month, V. xix. 
1. 

Artemisium, battle of. III. Ivii. 4. 

Artynae, magistrates at Argos, V. 
xlvii. 9. 

Asia : the barbarians of Asia wear 
girdles in wrestUng and boxing, I. 
vi. 5 ; Pelops brought his wealth 
from Asia, I. ix. 2 ; no single 
nation, even in Asia, could com- 
pare with the Scythian-s if united. 
II. xcvii. 6 ; the Thracians of 
Asia, IV. Ixxv. 2 ; " The King's 
country in Asia," vill. Iviii. 2. 

Asine, a city in Laconia, IV. xiii. 1 ; 
liv. 4 ; VI. xciii. 3. 

Asopius, son of Phormio, ravages the 
Laconian coast. III. vii. 1 ; attacks 
Oeniadae, vii. 4; falls in descent 
upon Leucas, vii. 5. 

Asopus, river in Boeotia, 11. v. 2. 

Aspendus, station of Phoenician fleet, 
VIII. Ixxxi. 3 ; Ixxxvii. 1 ; Ixxxviii. 
1 ; xcix. 1 ; cviii. 3. 

Assembly of the Athenians : sum- 
moned by Pericles as general, 
n. lix. 3 ; Peisander summons an 
assembly at Colonus, vm. Lxvii. 2; 
assembly summoned to the temple 
of Dionysus in Munychia "for the 
restoration of harmony," vm. 
xciii. 1 ; xciv. 1 ; assembly usually 
held in the Pnyx, vm. xcvii. 1. 

Assembly of the Lacedaemonians : 
mode of voting, L Ixxxvii. 2. 

Assinarus, river in Sicily; capture 
there of Nicias division, vn. Ixxxiv. 

Assyrian character used by the 
Persians, IV. 1. 2. 

A?tacus, in Acamania, captured by 
the Athenians, who expel Evar- 
clms, II. XXX. 1 ; town retaken 
and Evanchus restored to power, 
n. xxxiii. 1, 2 ; landing of Phormio 
near Astacus, Π. cii. 1. 

Astymachus, spokesman of the 



INDEX 



Plataeans in their defence to force 
the Lacedaemonians, UI. lii. δ. 
Astyochus, a Lacedaemonian admiral, 
assigned to command of the wliole 
navy in Asia, Vin. xx. ; sails from 
Cenchreiae, vni. xxiii. 1 ; too late 
for Mj'tilene, he induces Eresus 
to revolt, xxiii. 7, 3 ; summoned 
to Chios to avert a revolution, 
vm. xxiv. 6; fails to recover 
Pteleum and Clazomenae. viir. 
xxxi. 2, 4; enraged with the 
Chians for refusing to aid in the 
revolt of Lesbos, ym. xxsiii. 1 ; 
X vv viii ; narrowly escapes the 
Athenians, xxxiii. 2 ; arrives at 
Miletus to take command of the 
fleet, vm. xxivi. 1 ; complained 
of, to Sparta, vni. xxxviii. 4 ; at 
last determines to aid the Chians, 
vm. xl. 3 ; sails to Caunus to 
meet the Lacedaemonian advisers, 
vm. xli. 1 ; sacks Cos Meropis, 
sli. 2 ; defeats an Athenian squad- 
ron, vm. xlii. ; receives orders 
from Sparta to put AJcibiades to 
death, vm. xlv. 1 ; betrays Phry- 
nichus to Alcibiades, ilil. 1. 2 ; 
believed to have sold himself to 
Tissaphernes, 1. 3 ; sails to Miletus 
with a view to relieve Chios, vm. 
Ix. 2, 3; offers battle to the 
Athenians at Samos, vm. Ixiii. 1, 
2; murmured against by the 
soldiers of the fleet, vm. Ixxviii. ; 
offers battle to the Athenians, but 
declines when they offer it, vm. 
Ixxix. ; the fleet dissatisfied, vm. 
Ixxxiii. 3 ; stoned by sailors when 
he offers to strike Dorieus, vm. 
Ixsxiv. ; superseded by Mindarus, 
vm. Ixxxv. 1. 

Atalante, island off Locris, garrisoned 
by the AtheniaiLS. Π. xxxii. ; in- 
undation, m. Ixxxix. ; ordered to 
be restored to the Lacedaemonians 
under the treaty, v. sr\-iii. 7. 

Atalante in Macedonia, ii. c. 3. 

Athenaeus, a Lacedaemonian, iv. 
cxlx. 2; cxxii. 1. 

Athenagoras, a popular leader at 
Syracuse, VI. xxxv. 2 ; speech of, 
xxxvl.-lx. 

Athena, of the Brazen House, curse 
of, I. cxxviii. 2 ; chryselephantine 



statue of, in the Acropolis, II. 
xiii. δ; temple of, at Lecythus, 
IV. cxvi. 2 ; at Amphipolis, V. x. 2. 

Athenian empire : ri^e of, I. xix., 
Ixxxix.-cxviii. ; justification of, I. 
Ixxv. ; VI. Ixxxii., Ixxxiii. 

Athens : appearance of as compared 
with Sparta, I x. 2; rebuilt after 
the Persian War, I. Ixxxix. 3 ; 
buildmg of the city walls, i. xc, xci., 
xciii. ; of the long walls, I. cvii. 
1 ; cvlii. 3 ; resources of, Π. xiii. ; 
formed from the ancient com- 
munes, II. XV. 1 ; the early Poli~, 
XV. 3 ff. ; freedom of life in, ll. 
xxxvil. ; " School of Hellas," li. 
xli. 1 ; plague of Athens, n. xlvii.- 
liv. ; Iviii; m. Ixxxvii.: revolu- 
tion at Athens, vm. xlvu.-lxxii. ; 
restoration of the democracy, vm 
Ixxiu.-lxxvii. ; Ixxxvi. ; Ιυττπτ ,- 
xciii. ; xcvii. 

Athenians : have always inhabited 
the same land, I. ii. 5; send 
colonies to Ionia and the islands, 
I ii. 6 ; xii. 4 ; the first Hellenes 
to adopt refined habits, I. vi. 3; 
governed by tyrants, I. xviii. 1 ; 

VI. liii. 3-lix. ; became sailors, 
I. x\-ui. 2 ; xciu. 7 ; rv. xii. 3 ; 

VII. xxvi. 3; their iiegemony, I. 
xviii., xix., xcv., xcvi., xcix. ; 
treatment of their allies, I. xix. ; 
Ixxvi., xcix.; m. x. ; VI. Ixxvi., 
Ixxxiv., Ixxxv. ; ignorance of their 
own history, I. xx. 2 ; Vl. liii. 3 , 
liv., Iv. ; alliance with Corcyra, 
I. xliv. ; send assistance to Corcyra, 
I. xlv.; fight with Corcyraeans 
against the Corinthians, I. xlix. 7 ; 
send reinforcements, I. I. δ ; li. ; 
order the Potidaeans to raze their 
walls, I. Ivi. 2; quarrel with Per- 
diccas, I. Ivii. 2 ; despatch troops 
to Potidaca, I. Ivii. 6; l.xi. 1; 
Ixiv. 2 ; come to terms with 
Perdiccas, I. 1x1. 3 ; defeat the 
Chalcidians, I. Ixii., Ixiii. ; invest 
Potidaea, I. Ixiv. ; ill feeling 
against the Corinthians, I. Ixvi. ; 
ciii. 4; exclude the Megarians 
from their harbours, I. Ixvii. 4; 
cxxxix. 1 ; speech of, at Sparta, 
I. Ixxiii.-lxxviii. ; build their walls 
and the Peiraeus, I. xci., .xciii.; 



INDEX 



join In the capture of Byzantium 
and Cyprus, I. xciv. ; subject 
Eion, Scyros, Carystus, Naxos, 
I. xcviii. ; conquer the Persians 
at the Eurymedon, I. c. ; subdue 
the revolted Thasiaas, I. c, ci. ; 
fail in attempt to colonize Amplii- 
poUs, I. c. 3 ; called in by the 
Lacedaemonians during tlie siesre 
of Ithome, I. ci., cii.; dismissed 
by the Lacedaemonians, I. cii. 3 ; 
alliance with Argos, I. cii. 4; 
settle Helots at Naupactus, I. 
ciii. 3 ; form alliance with the 
Megarians and occupy NLsaea, I. 
ciii. 4 ; aid the revolted Egyptians, 
I. civ. : defeated by the Corinthians 
and Epidaurians, I. cv. 1 ; defeat 
the Peloponnesians ofiE Cecry- 
phaleia, I. cv. 1 ; war again with 
the Aeginetans, I. cv. 2 ; defeat 
the Corinthiaas, I. cvi. ; begin to 
build the long walls, I. evil. 1 ; 
complete them, cviii. 3 ; defeated 
by the Lacedaemonians at Tanagra, 
I. cviii. 1 ; defeat the Boeotians 
at Oenophyta, I. cviii. 3 ; compel 
Aegina to capitulate, I. cviii. 4; 
take Chalcis and defeat the 
Sicyonians, I. cviii. 5 ; driven out 
of Memphis, I. cix. ; their rein 
forcements destroyed, I. ex. ; attack 
Pharsalus without success, I. cxi. 
1 ; defeat the Sicyonians and 
attack Oeniadae, I. cxi. 2 ; send 
ships to Egypt and Cypru<:, I. cxii. : 
take Chaeroneia but are defeated 
at Ooronea, I. cxiii. ; the Athenian 
garrison at Megara slaughtered, 
I. cxiv. 1 ; first invasion of Attica, 
I. oxiv. 2 ; Euboea revolts but is 
reduced, ibi ,• make a truce with 
the Lacedaemonians, I. cxv. 1 ; 
establish a democracy at Samos, 
I. cxv. 2 ; the Samians and Byzan- 
tines revolt, I. cxv. 5 ; defeat the 
Samians and blockade Samos, I. 
cxvi. ; send remforcements to 
Samos and capture it, L cxvii. ; 
desire the Lacedaemonians to drive 
away the curse of Taenarus and 
of Athene, I. cxxviii., cxxxv. 1; 
discuss the demands of the Lace- 
daemonians, I. cxxxix. ; final offer 
of arbitration to the Lacedae- 

404 



monians, I. cxlv. ; seize the 
Boeotians in Attica and garrison 
Plataea, u. vi. ; make ready to 
send embassies to the King, 11. 
vii. 1 ; embassies to countries 
lying about the Peloponnesus, 
Π. vii. 3 ; their allies, II. ix. 4 ; 
refuse to hear a messenger from 
Archidaraus, Π. xii. 1, 2 ; their 
resources, Π. xiii. 3-6; collect 
into the city by Pericles' advice, 
II. xiv.-svi. ; fondness for country 
life, II. XV. 1 ; send an expedition 
round the Peloponnesus, u. xvii. 
4; xxiii., xxv., xxx. ; angry with 
Pericles for not leading them out, 
n. xxi. ; defeated at Phrygia; 
receive aid from the Thessalians, 
Π. xxii. ; set apart a reserve for 
the war, Π. xxiv. ; send a fleet to 
Locris, Π. xxvi. ; expel the Aetrine- 
tans, Π. xxvii. 1 ; make Nym- 
phodorus their proxenus, and 
become allies of Sitalces, II. xxix. ; 
invade Megara, 11. xxxL ; fortify 
Atalante, Π. xsxii. ; celebrate the 
funeral of the fallen, n. xxxiv. ; 
funeral oration, xxxv.-xlvL ; suffer 
from the plague, n. xlvii.-liv., 
Iviii. ; again restrained by Pericles 
from going out against the enemy, 
Π. liii. 2 ; send expedition round 
the Peloponnese, n. Ivi. ; attack 
Potidaea, without success, n. Iviii.; 
angry at Pericles, they send envoys 
to Sparta, n. lix. ; addressed by 
Pericles, Π. Ix.-lxiv. ; fine Pericles, 
then turn and elect him general, 
II. Ixv. ; capture Aristeus of 
Corinth and other envoys and put 
them to death, n. Ixvii. ; send 
Phormio to the aid of tiie Am- 
philochians, n. Ixviii. ; send 
Phormio with a fleet round the 
Peloponnesus, Π. Ixix. 1 ; de- 
spatch ships to collect money in 
Asia, Π. Ixix. ; capture Potidaea, 
Π. Isx. 1,3; blame their generals ; 
send colonists to Potidaea, n. 
Ixx. 4; encourage the Plataeans 
to resist, Π. Ixxiii. ; send expedi- 
tion to Chalcidice, but are de- 
feated, II. Ixxix. ; Phormio defeats 
the Peloponnesiaas at sea, Ixxxiii., 
1 xxxiv. ; defeats them a second 



INDEX 



time, π. Ixxxri., xoii. ; Athens 
thrown into a panic by Brasidas' 
raid in Salamis, Π. xciii., xciv. ; 
expedition into Acarnania, n. cii. ; 
warning received of the Lesbian 
revolt, III. ii. ; attempt to suφrise 
Mytilene, m. iii. ; engage the 
Lesbians, m. iv. ; blockade Mytilene, 
in. vi. ; send expedition round 
the Peloponnesus, in. vii. ; send 
another expedition, m. xvi. 1 ; 
their great expenditure in the war, 
in. xvii. ; send reinforcements to 
My tilene, and complete the blockade, 
in. xviii. 3; impose a property 
tax, III. XLx. 1 ; take Mytilene, 
m. xxvii., xxviii. ; capture ΝΌ- 
tium, in. xxxiv. ; reduce Pyrrha 
and Eresus, ΠΙ. xxxv. ; put 
Salaethus to death ; condemn all 
the grown-up citizens, then repent, 
ni. xxxvi. ; summon a second 
assembly ; speeches for and against 
repealing the decree, m. χχχλΜ.- 
xlviii. ; send a ship to save Myti- 
lene, in. xlix. ; execute the Lesbians 
judged most guilty, divide the 
island among Athenian cleruclis, 
in. 1. ; occupy Minoa, ni. li. ; 
arrest envoys from Corcyra, m. 
Ixxii. 1 ; send a fleet to Corcyra, 
in. Ixxv. ; engage at sea with the 
Peloponnesians, lU. Ixxvii, ΙχχΛΪϋ. ; 
send twenty ships to Sicily, m. 
Ixxxvi. 1 ; the plagne reappears, 
in. Ixxxvii. ; the Athenians ravage 
the Aeolian islands, in. Ixxxviii. ; 
proceedings in Sicily, m. xc, xcix., 
ciii., cxv. ; IV. xxiv., xxv. ; send 
a fleet round the Peloponnese, 
m. xci. 1 ; land at Oropus and 
win a battle at Tanagra, ibi ; 
alarmed by the founding of Ilera- 
cleia, ΠΙ. xciii. ; attack Leucas, 
m. xciv. ; disastrous expedition 
into Aetolia, in. xcv.-xcviu. ; 
purify Delos and restore the fes- 
tivals, m. civ. ; send reinforce- 
ments to Sicily, ΠΙ. cxv. ; fortify 
Pylos, IV. iv; take and lose again, 
Mon, IV. vii; repulse the Lace- 
daemonians, IV. xi., xii. ; defeat 
the Lacedaemonians in the harbour, 
rv. xiv. ; cut off the Spartans in 
Sphacteria, iv. xv. ; grant a truce 



to the Lacedaemonians, rv. xvi.: 
demand impossible terms, I v. xxi., 
xxii. ; renew the blockade, rv. 
xxiii. ; find blockade difficult, IV. 
xxvi. ; despatch Cleon with rein- 
forcements, IV. xxvii., xxviii. ; 
attack Sphacteria and capture the 
Lacedaemonians, IV. χχχί.-χχχΛ'ίϋ. ; 
again reject peace proposals from 
the Lacedaemonians, IV. xli. 3, 4; 
invade Corinthian territory, rv. 
xlii.-xlv. ; aid the Corcyraeans 
to capture Istone, iv. xlvi. ; 
deliver the prisoners to the 
Corcyraeans, IV. xlvii. ; proceed 
to Sicily, IV. xlviii. 6 ; aid tlie 
Acamanians to capture Anac- 
torium, IV. xlix. ; capture a Persian 
envoy to Sparta, rv. 1. 1, 2; send 
him back with a message of their 
own, IV. 1. 3; order the Chians 
to dismantle their walls, IV. U. ; 
capture Cythera, iv. liii., liv. ; 
ravage the Laconian coast, IV. 
liv. 4 ; Iv. ; capture Thyrea, IV. 
Ivii. ; quit Sicily ; punish their 
generals, rv. Ixv. ; make an un- 
successful attempt upon Megara, 
IV. Ixvi.-lxviii. ; capture Nisaea, 
IV. Ixix. ; engage the Boeotian 
cavalry, IV. Ixxii. ; unwilling to 
engage Brasidas, IV. Ixxiii. ; re- 
capture Antandrus, iv. Ixxv. 2 ; 
plan invasion of Boeotia, iv. Lxxvi., 
Ixxvii. ; declare Perdiccas an 
enemy, iv. Lxxxii. ; defeated at 
Delium, rV. xc.-xcvi. ; the Boeo- 
tians refuse to give up the dead, 
IV. xcvu.-xcLx. ; the Athenian 
garrison captured and the dead 
then given up, IV. c, ci. 1 ; re- 
linked by the Sicyonians, iv. ci. 
4 ; lose Amphipolis, iv. eii.-cvi. ; 
Thucydides saves Eion, iv. cv. ; 
driven from the long walls of 
Megara, iv. cix. 1 ; lose Acte, rv. 
cix. 2-5 ; lose Torone, iv. cx.-cxiii. ; 
lose Lecythus, rv. cxiv.-cxvi. ; 
make truce for a year with the 
Lacedaemonians, iv. cxvii.-cxix. ; 
Scione revolts and is excluded 
from the treaty, IV. cxx., cxxii. ; 
its destruction decreed, iv. cxxii. 6 ; 
defeated by the Mendaeans, who 
revolt, IV. cxxix. ; capture Mende, 



INDEX 



IV. czrx. 6, 7; come to an under- 
standing with Perdiccas, iv. cxxxii. 
1 ; again purify Delos, V. 1 ; send 
Cleon to Chalcidice, V. ii. ; cap- 
ture Torone. v. iii. ; send embassy 
to Phaeax in Sitily, V. iv., v. ; de- 
feated at Anipliipolis, V. vi.-xii. ; 
both sides eager for peace, V. xiv. ; 
make treaty witli the Lacedae- 
monians, V. xvU.-xix. ; conclude 
alliance with tfie Lacedaemonians, 

V. xxii.-xxiv. ; release the prisoners 
from the island, xxiv. 2 ; take and 
destroy Scione, v. xxxii. 1 ; replace 
the Delians in Deles; refuse a 
ten days' amii-tice to the Corin- 
thians, ibi; betiin to nustrust the 
Lacedaemonians, V. xxxv. ; with- 
draw the Helots from Pylos, xxxv. 
7; send ambassadors to Sparta, V. 
xxxvi. 1 ; negotiate inefifectually 
with the Lacedaemonians, IV. 
xxxix. ; indignant at tlie destruc- 
tion of Panactum, V. xlii. 2; the 
war party at Alliens intrigue for 
the abrogation of the treaty, v. 
xlui. ; treaty and alliance witii the 
Argives, V. xlvii. ; replace the 
Helots at Pylos, V. Ivi. .", ; solemnly 
record that the Lacedaemonians 
have broken their oaths, ibi ; send 
a force to Argos, v. Ixi. 1 ; par- 
ticipate in the battle of Mantineia, 
V. Ixix. ; Ixxii.-lxxiv. ; invest 
Epidaurus, V. Ixxv. 5; their 
alliance is renounced by the 
Aleves, V. lx:xviii. ; withdraw 
their troops from Epidaurus, V. 
Ixxx. 3 ; the Dians revolt, V. 
Ixxxii. 1 ; again court the alliance 
of the Athenians and proceed to 
build long walls, V. Ixxxii. 5, 6 ; 
shut οίϊ Perdiccas from the sea, 
V. Ixxxui. 4; carry ofi 3U0 Argives 
whom they suspect, V. Ixxxiv. 1 ; 
expedition against Melos, ibi: con- 
ference with the Melian authorities, 
V. Ixxxv.-cxiii ; blockade Melos, 
V. cxiv., cxv., cxvi; capture Mclos. 
enslave the inhabitants and 
colonize the island, V. cxvi; deter- 
mine to send an expedition to 
Sicily, VI. i. ; vi. 1 ; vote to send 
envoys to Egesta, vi. vi. 3 ; decide 
on war, Vl. viii. ; debate in the 

406 



Assembly, VI. viii.-xxlii. ; en- 
thusiasm for the expedition, vi. 
xxiv. ; greatly disturbed by the 
mutilation of the Hermae, VI. xxvii. ; 
Alcibiades accused of profaning 
the mysterie;;, but sent, as general, 
to Sicily untried, VI. xxviii., 
xxix. ; the expedition sails, vi. 
xxx.-xxxii.; review of the troops 
at Corcyra, vi. xlii. ; arrival at 
Rhegium, vi. xliii., xliv. ; deceived 
by the Egestaeans, VI. xlvi. ; 
council of the generals, vi. xlvii.- 
xlix. ; Alcibiades' opinion prevails, 
VI. I.; they sail to Syracuse, ibi; 
obtain possession of Catana, VI. Ii. ; 
not received at Camarhia, VI. Iii. ; the 
Athenians summon Alcibiades 
home, VI. liii., Ixi. ; Alcibiades 
escapes and is condemned to death, 
VI. Ixi. (J, 7; proceedings of the 
Athenians in Sicily, Vi. Ixii., Ixiii. ; 
capture Hyccara, VI. Ixii. 3 ; sail 
to Syracuse, VI. Ixiv., Ixv. ; defeat 
the Sj'racusans, VI. IxvL-lxxi. ; 
fail in attempt on Messene owing 
to information given by Alcibiades, 
VI. Ixxiv. ; send home for money 
and cavalry, ibi; embassy to 
Camarina, VI. Ixxv. 3, 4 ; Euphemus' 
speech, VI. 1 xxxii. -Ixxxvii. ; they 
fail to win over the Camarinaeans, 
VI. Ixxxviii. 1, 2; negotiate with 
the Sicels, winter at Catana, and 
prepare for tlie spring campaign, 
ibi ; receive aid from home, vi. 
xciii. 4; xciv. 4; prosecute the 
campaign, VI. xcvii. ; capture 
Epipolae and fortify Labdalum, 
VI. xcvi., xcvii. ; receive reinforce- 
ments from Egesta, Xaxos and the 
Sicels, \l. xcviii. 1 ; begin wall of 
circumvallation and defeat the 
Syracusans in various engagements, 

VI. xcviii.-ci. ; repulse the .Syra- 
cusans from Epipolae, VI. cii. ; 
begin double wall from Epipolae 
to the sea, vi. ciii. 1; vn. ii. 4; 
openly violate the peace with the 
Lacedaemonians, VI. cv. ; Athenian 
ships arrive at PJiegium too late 
to head off Gylippus, VII. i. 2; 
make no answer to Gylippus' 
demand that they quit Sicily, 

VII. iii. 1, 2; are driven from 



INDEX 



Labdalum. νπ. iii. 4; repulse an 
attack on their lilies, vn. iv. 3 ; 
fortity Plemmyrium, Vll. iv. 4; 
defeat the Syracusans, vn. v. ; 
defeated by the Syracusans, Vll. 
vi. ; aided by Perdiccas attack 
Amphipolis, vn. ix. ; the Athenians 
at home receive Nicias' despatch, 
vn. xi.-xv. ; send second expedi- 
tion to Sicily under Demosthenes, 
vn. xvi. ; send fleet round the 
Peloponnese, vn. xx. ; conquer the 
Syracusans at sea, but lose Plem- 
myrium, vn. xxii., xxiii. ; skiiniisli 
with the Syracusans in the har- 
bour, vn. xxY. 5 ; ravage Laconian 
coast and fortify an isthmus there, 
vn. xxvi. ; resolve to send back 
some Thracians who arrive too 
late for Demosthenes, vn. xxvii. 
1; these sack Mycalessus, vn. 
xxix., XXX.; suffer terribly from 
the occupation of Deceleia, vn. 
xxvii., xxviii. ; Demosthenes meets 
Eurymedon with news from Sicily, 
vn. ixxi. 2 ; the two collect troops 
in Acamania and Corcyra, ibi ; 
the Athenians in Sicily induce the 
Sicels to destroy reinforcements on 
their way to Syracuse, vn. xxxii. ; 
Demosthenes arrives at Thurii, 
vn. xxxjii. ; the Atheniaas at 
Naupactus fight an indecisive sea- 
fight with the Corinthians, vn. 
xxxiv. ; defeated at sea by the 
Syracusans, vn. xxxvii.-xli. ; re- 
pulsed in night attack on Epipolae, 
vn. xlui.-xlv. ; generals hold a 
council, vn. xlvii.-xlix. ; Kicias 
wishes to delay and Demosthenes 
yields, vn. xlix. 4; Kicias at last 
consents to move, but terrified 
by an eclipse of the moon decides 
to remain 2 7 days longer, vn. 1. ; 
again defeated at sea by the 
Syracusans, vn. Iii. ; gain a slight 
advantage by land, vn. liii. ; why 
they fafied to conquer Syracuse, 
vn. Iv. ; list of allies, vn. Ivii. ; 
determine to fight their way out, 
vu. Ix. ; Nicias addresses the 
troops, vn. lxi.-L\iv. ; addresses 
the trierarchs, vn. Ixix.; com- 
pletely defeated, vn. Ixx., Ixxi. ; 
troops overwhelmed by misery 



refuse to renew the struggle, vn. 
Ixxii. ; misled by information they 
delay their retreat three days, vn. 
Ixxiii., Ixxiv. ; misery and terror 
when commencing the retreat, vn. 
Ixxv. : encouraged and consoled 
by Nicias, vn. Ixxvi., Ixxvii. ; 
harassed for four days and at 
lengtli confronted by the enemy, 
vn. Ixxviu., Ixxix. ; fall back, 
Ixxix., 5 ; recommence the retreat, 
changing their route, VU. Lxxx. 1 ; 
seized with panic, vn. lxxx. 3 ; 
the division of Demosthenes over- 
taken and compelled to surrender, 
vn. Ixxxi., 1 xxxii. ; Nicias' di\Tsion 
meets the same fate at the river 
Assinarus, vn. Ixxxlil.-lxxxv. ; 
three hundred escape, but are 
captured, vn. Ixxxiii., 5 ; Ixxxv. 
2 ; Nicias and Demosthenes are 
put to death, vn. Ixxxvi. ; the 
prisoners are cruelly treated, vn. 
Ixxxvii. ; the Athenians at home 
in dismay but determined not to 
yield, vni. i. ; feeling among the 
allies of Athens and neutrals, vm. 
11. 1, 2; prepare to build ships, 
fortify Sunium, retrench expenses 
wherever possible, vni. viii. 4; 
defeat a Peloponnesian squadron 
and blockade them in Peiraeum, 
vm. X. 11; consternation on the 
revolt of Chios; rescind the decree 
forbidding use of the reserve fund ; 
prepare a great fleet for Asia under 
Strom bichides and Thrasycles, vni. 
XV. ; proceedings of the fleet, VUI. 
xvi.-xx. ; grant Samians Inde- 
pendence, vm. XX. ; fleet sails to 
Lesbos and takes Mytilene, vm. 
xxiii. 1, 2; invade Milesian terri- 
tory, \τη. xxiv. 1 ; war with the 
Chians, ibi; victory at Miletus, 
vm. XXV. ; restrained by Phry- 
nlchus from battle at Miletus, 
vm. xxvii. ; blockade Miletus with 
part of the fleet, sail to Chios 
with the rest; fail to take Cnidos 
wliich had revolted, vm. xxxv. ; 
blockade Chios, vm. jrxxviii. 1 ; 
fail to draw Peloponnesians at 
Miletus out to battle, ibi; defeated 
at sea, vm. xli., xlii., xliii. ; Rhodes 
revolts and is attacked from 

407 



INDEX 



Clialce, Cos ami Samos, vm. xliv. ; 
the oligarchical party at Samos, 
at Alcibiades' instigation, prepares 
the way for a revolution, VIII. 
xlvii., xlviil. ; Phrynichos opposes, 
ibi ; Peisander sent to Tissaphemes, 
vm. xlix. ; Phrynichus outman- 
oeuvres Alcibiades, who seeks to 
ruin him, vui. 1., li. ; the Athenians 
at home agree to change the 
government, πτΐ. liii., liv. ; send 
Peisander to negotiate with Alci- 
biades, vm. liv. 2 ; remove Phry- 
nichus and appoint Leon and 
Diomedon generals, ibi ; make 
descent upon Rhodes ; defeat the 
Chians and press blockade, Vlll. 
Iv. ; Peisander's mission fails 
through Alcibiades' unreasonable 
demands, \ui. Ivi. ; Oropus be- 
trayed to the Boeotians, vm. Ix. ; 
fleet retires to Samos for the 
winter, ibi: indecisive sea-fight 
with the Chians, vm. Ixi. ; Lamp- 
sacus and Abydus in revolt, vm. 
Ixii. ; Strombichides retakes Lamp- 
sacus, but fails against Abydus, 
ibi; Astyochus' offer of battle de- 
clined, vm. Ixiii. 2 ; the conspirators 
at Samos give up Alcibiades, but 
prosecute their plan, vm. Ixiii.; 
put down democracy in the cities. 
vm. Ixiv. ; the conspirators at 
Athens declare for a government 
of 5UU0, vm. Ixv. ; terrorism pre- 
vails, vm. Ixvi. ; repeal the ypa(\>r\ 
τΓαρ<ίνόμ.ΐύν•, a government of 40U 
proposed, vm. Ixvii. ; leaders 
of the coasjjiracy : Peisander, 
Antiphon, Phrynichus, Tlieramenes, 
vm. Ixviii. ; install Four Hundred 
in place of the senate, vm. Ixis., 
Ixx. ; send heralds to Agis at 
Deceleia, vm. Ixx. ; send envoys 
to Sparta, vm., Ixxi; to Samos, 
vm. Ixxii. ; an oligarchical con- 
spiracy at Athens defeated, vm. 
Ixxiii.; Chaereas sent to Atheas 
on the Paralus, vm. Ixxiv ; he 
brings back an unfavourable re- 
port, and the Samians swear 
alleijiance to the democracy, vm. 
Ixxv. ; Thrasyllus and Thnisybulus 
elected generals by the army, 
vm. Lxxvi. ; the men encourage 

408 



one another, ihi ; commLssioners 
sent by the Four Hundred do not 
venture beyond Delos, vm. Ixxvii. ; 
Athenians at Samos refuse battle 
with Astyochus, but afterwards 
offer it, vm. Ixxix. ; recall Alci- 
biades, vm. Ixxxl. ; army eager 
to sail to the Peiraeus but restrained 
by Alcibiades, νπι. Ixxxii. ; the en- 
voys of the Four Hundred now come 
to Samos, vm. ΙχχχλΙ. ; Alcibiades 
again di-suades the army from 
sailing to Peiraeus, ibi ; the Argrivea 
offer assistance, ibi ; the Four 
Hundred in alarm send envoys 
to Sparta for peace on any terms, 
vm. xc. ; fortify Eetioneia, ibi ; 
the envoys return unsuccessful, 
vm. xci. ; Theramenes begins to 
withdraw from the oligarchs, ibi; 
the hoplitps, at his instigation, 
destroy Eetioneia, vm. xcii. ; the 
Four Hundred induce the people 
to fix a day for an assembly " to 
restore harmony," vm. xciii. ; a 
Lacedaemonian squadron ap- 
proaches and the Athenians 
hurriedly equip a fleet, vm. xciv. ; 
they are utterly defeated at sea and 
lose Euboea, vni. xcv. ; panic- 
stricken by their defeat, vm. xcvL; 
tliey recall Alcibiades, ibi : the leaders 
of the oligarcliy retire to Deceleia, 
vm. xcviii. ; the Athenian fleet 
sails to the Hellespont, vm. c. ; 
attacks Eresus on the way, ibi ; 
the Athenian squadron at Sestua 
chased by the Lacedaemonian 
fleet, %ΊΠ. cii. ; the fleet at Lesbos 
at once sails from Eresus to Elaeus, 
wn. citi. ; defeats the Lacedae- 
monians off Cynossema, vm. civ., 
cv. ; encouraged by this good 
fortune, vm. cvi. ; recover Cyzicus, 
which had revolted, vm. cvii. ; 
Alcibiades returns to Samos pro- 
fessing to have secured T^a- 
phemes' friendship for the Athen- 
ians, vm. c\Tii. 

Athletes wore loin-cloths in early 
times, I. vi. 5. 

Athos, Mt.. IV. cix. 2; V. iii. G ; 
XXXV. 1; Ix-xxi). 1. 

Atintauians, a people in Epirus, Π. 
Ixxx. C, 



INDEX 



Atreus, son of Pelops, l. ix. 

Attica, early history of, I. ii 5 ; 
Ionia colonized therefrom. I. ii. 6 ; 
lii. 4 ; U. XV. ; anciontly divided 
into communes, II. xv ; invaded 
by the Lacedaemonians, I. cxiv. ; 
Π. xsi. ; invasion in first year of the 
war, Π. xviii,-ixiii. ; in the second, 
U. xlvU., Iv., Ivl. ; in the third, 
Plataea attacked instead. Π. Ixxi; 
in the fourth, III. i.; in the fifth, 
ΠΙ. xxvi. ; in the sixth averted 
by an earthquake, III. Ixxxix. ; 
in tlie seventh, IV. ii. 1 : vi. ; in 
the nineteenth, vn. xix. 1. 

Atramytteium, V i. ; VIII. cviii. 4. 

Aulon, in Clialcidice, rv. ciii 1. 

Autocharidas, a Lacedaemonian 
general, V. xii. 1. 

Autocles, an Athenian general, IV. 
liii. 1 ; representative in treaty, 
IV. cxix. 2. 

Awful Goddesses, altars of, I. cxxvi. 
12. 

Axius, a river in Macedonia, n. xcix. 
4. 

Barbarian, term not used in Homer, 

I. iii. 3 ; piracy of, I. v. ; carry 
arms in daily life, I. vi. 1 ; Xerxes 
called " the Barbarian," I. xiv. 3 ; 
xviii. 2 ; barbarian allies of 
Cnemus, n. Ixxx. 5, 6 ; various 
barbarous races : Aetolians, III. 
xciv. 5 ; Amphilochians II. Ixriii. ; 
in Athos, IV. cix. 4 ; the Epirots, 

II. Ixxx., Ixxxii. : the Illyrian>, iv. 
cxxvi. 3 ; in Sicily, VI. ii. ; xi. 7 ; 
the Taulantians, I. xxiv. 1 ; the 
Thracians, Π. xcvi., xcviii., ci. 

Battus. a Corinthian commander, 

IV. xliii. 1. 
Bells, used by sentinels, IV. cxxxv. 1. 
Beroea, in Macedonia, I. Ixi. 4. 
Bisaltia, in Macedonia, ll. xcix. 6. 
Bithynian Thracians, IV. Ixxv. 2. 
Boeotarchs : Pythangelas, Π. ii. 1 ; 

Dicmporus, II. ii. 1 ; Pagondas, 

IV. xci.; Arianthidas, IV. xci. ; 

Scirphondas, vil. xxx. 3; their 

powers, V. xxxvii., xxxviii. 
Boeotia : early condition, I. ii., 3, 

4; formerly called Cadmeis, I. xii. 

3 ; four councils of, V. xxxviii. 
Boeotians : expelled from Ame by 

VOL. IV. 



the Thessalians, I. xii. 3; subdued 
by the Athenians after Oenophyta, 
I. cviii. 3; allies of the Athenians, 
I. cxi. ; regain their freedom at 
Coronea, I. cxiii. 4 ; cf. m. Ixii. 5 : 
Ixvii. 3 ; rv. xcii. 6 ; those in 
Attica seized by the Athenians 
after the attempt on Plataea, Π. 
vi. 2 ; furnish cavalry to the Lace- 
daemonians at the opening of the 
war, n. ix. 3 ; xii. 5 ; ravage 
Plataea. Π. xii. 5 ; worst Athenian? 
in cavalry skirmish at Phrygia 
in Attica, Π. xxii. 2 ; supply hall 
the besieging force at Plataea, II, 
Ixxviii. 2 : medism of the Boeotians 
referred to, m. Ixii. 2 ; invaded by 
the Athenians, ra. xci. ; assist Brasi- 
das to save Megara, iv. Ixx., Ixxii. ; 
the democratic party in Boeotia 
consort in Athenian invasion, iv. 
Ixxvi., Ixxvii. ; the plot betrayed, 

IV. Ixxxix. ; Delium fortified by 
the Athenians under Hippocrates, 
Π. xc.; defeat the Athenians, rv. 
xci.-xcvi. ; quibble about giving 
up dead to the Athenians, rv. 
xcvii.-xcix. ; capture Delium, rv. 
c. ; Panactum betrayed to the 
Boeotians, V. iii. 5. ; refuse to join 
in the fifty years' peace, v. ivii. 2 ; 
had only a ten days' armistice 
with the Athenians, v. xxvi., 2 ; 
xxxii. ; fail to gain ten days' 
armistice for the Corinthians, t5t ; 
the Lacedaemonians promise to 
bring the Boeotians into the treaty, 

V. XXXV. ; the new ephors propose 
that they join the Argive alliance, 
V. xxxvi. ; the Boeotians at first 
agree, v. xxxvii. ; tlie Boeotian 
Councils reject the oScr, V. xxxviii. ; 
form a separate alliance with 
Lacedaemon, surrounding Pan- 
actum and their Athenian prisoners, 
V. xxxix. ; take possession of 
Heracleia, v. Iii. 1 ; take part in 
the Lacedaemonian invasion of 
Argos, V. Ivii.-lx. ; summoned by 
the Lacedaemonians to Mantineia, 
V. Ixiv. 4; invite a small Lacedae- 
monian force to the Lsthmus and 
then raise suspicion against Alci- 
biades, VI. Ixi. 2 ; send aid to 
Sicily, vn. xix. 3; Iviii. 3; Myca- 



O 



409 



INDEX 



lessus in Boeotia sacked by 
Thracians, vn. xxix., xxx. ; make 
the first stand against the Athenians 
on Epipolae, vil. xliii. 7 ; furnish 
ships to the Lacedaemonians, vni. 
iii. 2 ; aid the revolt of Lesbos, 
vm. V. 2 ; Oropus is betrayed to 
the Boeotians, vui. Ix. 1 ; lose two 
ships at Cynossema, vin. cvi. 3. 

Boeum, in Doris, I. cvii. 2. 

Bolbe, Lake, in Macedonia, I. Iviii. 2 ; 
rv. ciii. 1. 

Bolissus, in Chian territory, vm. 
xxiv. 3. 

Bomieans, in Aetolia, m. xcvi. 3. 

Bottiaea, a district of Macedonia, 
I. xcix. 3 ; c. 4. 

Bottiaeans revolt from Athens, I. 
Ivii. 5 ; Iviii. 1 ; in conflict with 
the Athenians, Π. Ixxix. ; invaded 
by Sitalces, Π. ci. 1 ; aid the 
Chalcidians to expel the Athenians 
from Eion, iv. vii. 

Bottice, in Chalcidice, devastated by 
Phormio, I. Ixv. 3 ; Athenians de- 
feated there, n. Ixxix. ; ravaged by 
Sitalas, II. ci. 5. 

Brasidas, son of Tellis, relieves 
Methone, n. xxv. 2 ; the first to 
gain distinction (formal thanks) 
in the war, ibi ; sent as adviser 
to Cnemus, n. Ixxxv. 1 ; daring 
attempt against the Peiraeus, n. 
xciii. ; sent as adviser to Alcidas, 

III. Ixix. ; conspicuously valiant 
at Pylos, iv. xi. 4 ; xii. 1 ; opera- 
tions at Megara, IV. Ixx.-lxxiii. ; 
resumes preparations for expedi- 
tion to Thrace, IV. Ixxiv. ] ; 
marches through Thessaly to 
Chalcidice, iv. Ixxviii. ; favour- 
able impression made by him, 

IV. Ixxxi. ; expedition against 
Acanthus, IV. Isxxvii. ; speech to 
the Acanthians, IV. Ixxxv.-lxxxvii. ; 
captures Amphipolis, IV. ciii.- 
cvi. ; repulsed from Eion, sets 
matters in order at Amphipolis, 
IV. cvii. ; good name, iv. cviii. ; 
proceeds against Acte, iv. cix. ; 
takes Torone and Lecythus, iv. 
cx.-crvi. ; receives public honours 
from the Scionaeans, IV. cxxi. ; 
refuses to surrender Scione under 
the truce, iv. cxjii. ; receives the 

410 



Mendaeans in defiance of the 
truce, IV. cxxiii. ; garrisons Mende 
and Scione, ibi ; defeats the Lyn- 
cestians, iv. cxxiv. ; deserted by 
the Macedonians, IV. cxxv. ; his 
speech to his soldiers, IV. cxxvi. ; 
defeats the Illyrians, rv. cxxvii., 
cxxviii. ; arrives at Amisa, IV. 
cxxviii. 3 ; receives commissioners 
Irom. Lacedaemon, iv. cxxiii. ; 
attempt on Potidaea, IV. cxxxv. ; 
defeats the Athenians at Araphi- 
polLs, V. vi.-x. ; speech of, v. ix. ; 
his death, v. x. ; buried in the 
agora at Amphipolis, v. xi. ; 
honoured as " founder," ibi .• a 
great enemy of peace, V. xvi. 1 ; 
his Helot soldiers settled at 
Lepreum, V. xxxiv. 

Brauro, wife of Pittacns, King of the 
Edonians, assists In his assassina- 
tion, iv. cvii. 3. 

Bricinnlae, in Leontine territory, V. 
iv. 4. 

Brilessus fPentelicus), Mount, in 
Attica, π xxiii 1. 

Bromiscus, in Chalcidice, iv. ciii. 1. 

Bucolion, in Arcadia, iv. cxxxiv. 2. 

Budonmi, a watch post in Salamis 
against Megara, 11. xciv. 3 ; m. 
li. 2. 

Buphras, in Laconia, IV. cxviii. 4. 

Byzantium, captured by Pausanias, 
I. xciv. 2 ; revolts from Athens, 
I. cxv. 5 ; capitulates, cxvii. 3 ; 
Pausanias' intrigues from there 
with Xerxes, I. cxxviii.-cxxxi. ; 
Pausanias expelled from there, I. 
cxxxi. 2 ; revolts again, Vlll. 
Lxxx. 2, 3. 

Cacyparis, a river in Sicily, vn. 
lxxx. δ. 

Cadmeis, ancient name of Boeotia, 
I. xii. 3. 

Caeadas, a chasm into which male- 
factors were flung at Sparta, L 
xxxiv. 4. 

Caecinus, a river at Locris in Italy, 
ΠΙ. ciii. 3. 

Cales, a river near Heracleia on the 
Pontus, IV. Ixxv. 2. 

Callias, Athenian name : (1) father- 
in-law of nippias the tyrant, VL 
Iv. 1 ; (2) father of Happonicus, 



INDEX 



in. xci. 4 ; (3) son of Calliades, an 

Athenian commander, I. Ixi. 1 ; 

Ixii. 4; slain at Potidaea, I. Ixv. 3. 

CalUcrates, a Corintliian commander, 

I. xxix. 2. 

Callieans, an Aetolian tribe, ΠΙ. 
xcvi. 3. 

Calligeitus, a Megarian exile at 
the court of Pharnabazus- sent as 
emissary to Sparta, Viri. vi. 1 ; 
viii. 1. 

Calirrhoe, ancient name of the 
fountain Enneacrunus at Athens, 
Π. XV. 5. 

Oalydon, name given to ancient 
Aeolis, in. cii. 5. 

Camarina, in Sicily, ally of the 
Leontines, III. Ixxxvi. 2 ; plan 
to betray it to Syracuse, IV. xxv. 
7 ; makes truce with Gela, iv. 
Iviii. 1 ; assigned Morgantina by 
the Syracusans. iv. Ixv. 1 ; colonized 
by the Syracusans, Vi. v. 3 ; re- 
colonized by Hippocrates, and 
again by Gela, ibi ; refuse to 
receive the Athenians, Vl. lii. ; 
send a small force to the Syra- 
cusans, VI. Ixvii. 2 ; receive and 
hear envoys from Syracuse and 
from Athens, vi. Ix.xv.-lxxxvii. ; 
resolve on neutrality, VI. Ixxxviii. 
1 ; send aid to Syracuse, VII. .xxxiii. 
1 ; allies of the Syracusans, vil. 
Iviii. 1. 

Cambyses, son of Cyrus, King of 
Persia, I. xiii. 6 ; xiv. 2. 

Camirus, a port in Khodes, revolts 
from Athens, VIII. xliv. 2. 

Canal, " King's " (Xerxes'), cut by 
the Persians across the isthmus of 
Athos, IV. cix. 2. 

Can?straeum, a promontory in 
Pallene, IV. ex. 2. 

Carcinus, an Athenian commander, 

II. x.xiii. 2. 

Cardamyle, in Chios, VIII. xxiv. 3. 

Caria : the Carians expelled by 
Minos from the Cyclades, I. iv. ; 
addicted to piracy ; mode of 
burial, I. viii. ; Athenians send 
lookout ships to the Carian coast 
in the Samian insurrection, I. 
cxvl. 1 ; maritime Oaria subject 
to Athens, II. ix. 4; Athenians 
send a squadron of ships to the 



Carian coast to protect their 
Phoenician trade, II. Ixlx. 1 ; 
destroy an Athenian expedition, 
III. xix. 2 ; Amorges in Caria 
revolts from the King, Vlll. v. 5. 

Cameia, festival at Lacedaemon, V. 
Ixxv. 2, 5. 

Cameus, sacred month among the 
Dorians, V. liv. 2. 

Cartcria, an island in Phocaean 
territory, VIII. ci. 2. 

Carthage : the Carthaginians de- 
feated at sea by the Phocaeans, I. 
xiii. 6 ; Alcibiades" ambitious plans 
for attacking Carthage, VI. xv. 2 ; 
xc. 2 ; always in fear of an 
Athenian invasion, VI. xxxiv. 2. 

Caryae, in Laconia, v. Iv. 3. 

Carystus, in Euboea, of Dryopian 
origin (Vll. Ivii. 4), subjected by the 
Athenians, I. xeviii.2; the Carystians 
become allies of the Athenians, IV. 
xiii. 1 : xliii. 3 ; subject allies of the 
Athenians, vn. Ivii. 4. 

Casmenae, in Sicily, colonized by the 
Syracusans, Vl. v. 2. 

Catana : territory devastated by 
eniption of Aetna, ΠΙ. cxvi. 1 ; 
founded by Chalcidians under 
Thucles, VI. iii. 3 ; declines to 
receive the .'Vthenians, VI. 1. 3 ; 
alliance with Athens voted, VI. 
li. 2; VII. Ivii. 11; Syracusan 
army eager to be led pgainst 
Catana, VI. l.xiii. ; the Athenians 
by a false message draw the 
Syracusans to Catana while they 
sail to Syracuse, VI. Ixiv., Ixv. ; 
the Athenians retire to Catana as 
winter comes on, vi. Ixxiv. 1 ; their 
encampment at Catana destroyed 
by the Syracusans, VI. Ixxv. 2 ; 
they rebuild it, VI. Ixxxviii. 5 ; 
start on various expeditions from 
Catana, Vl. xciv. ; abandon Catana, 

VI. xcvii. 1 ; are supplied with 
horses from Catana, vi. xcviii. 1 ; 
Nicias informs the Athenians that 
Naxos and Catana are unable to 
support the Athenian army, ΥΠ. 
siv. 2 ; Demosthenes thinks the 
winter spent at Catana a mistake, 

VII. xiii. 3 ; after defeat on 
Epipolao wishes to retire to Catana, 
VII. xlis. ; the Athenian army 

41J 



INDEX 



supplied from Catana, vn. 1ς. 1 ; 
Athenians at first retreat not 
towards Catana, vin. Ixxx. 2 ; 
Athenian fugitives find refuge at 
Catana, VII. Ixxxv. 4. 

Caulonia, in Italy, νπ. xxv. 2. 

Caunus, in Caria, Athenian fleet, in 
the Samian revolt, sails toward, 
I. cxvi. 3 ; the Lacedaemonian 
commissioners put in there, VIII. 
xxxix. 3 ; Astyochus sails for 
Caunus, Vin. xli. 1 ; TLssaphemes 
comes to Caunus, Vlll. Ivii. 1 ; Alci- 
biades sails ior Caunas, vm. 
lixxviii. 

Ceans, subject allies of Athens, vn. 
Ivii. 4. 

Cecrops, state of Attica in time of, 
Π. XV. 1. 

Cecryphaleia, victory of the Athenians 
off, I. cv. 1. 

CfJiaeura in Euboea, m. xciii. 1. 

Cenchreiae, eastern port of Corinth, 

IV. xlii. 4; xliv. 4; a Lacedae- 
monian fleet starting thence is 
driven into Peiraeum, VllI. x. 1 ; 
escapes and returns to Cenchreiae, 
vm. XX. ; Astyochus starts from 
Cenchreiae, vm. xxiii. 1. 

Centoripa, a Sicel town, captured by 
the Athenians, VI. xciv. 3; allied 
to Athens, Vll. xxxii. 1. 

Cephallenia, furnLsh convoy to Athen- 
ians, I. xxvii. 2 ; Atlienian envoys 
sent thither, II. vii. 3 ; xxx. 2 ; 
xciv. 1 ; xcv. 2 ; vn. xxxi. 2 ; Ivii. 
7 ; descent of Corinthian fleet 
upon the coast of, Π. xxxiii. ; with 
Demosthenes against the Leu- 
cadians, lll. xciv. 1 ; xov. 2 ; 
Messenians from Pylos settled at 
Cranii, v. xxxv. 7 ; withdrawn, 

V. Ivi. 3. 

Cerameicus, in Athens, public funeral 
of the fallen, Π. xxxiv. 5 ; street of, 

VI. Ivii. 1; Iviii. 1. 

Cercine, Mt., in Macedonia, n. 

xcviii. 1. 
Oerdylium, Mt., near Amphipolis, 

V. vL 3, 5; viii. 1. 
Geryces, at Athens, protest against 

recall of Alcibiades, vm. liii. 2. 
Cestrine, in Epirus, I. xlvi. 4. 
Chaereas, an Athenian, sent from 

the army at Samos to Athens, 

412 



vm. Ixxlv. ; brings back exag- 
gerated report, ibi. 

Chaeroncia, in Boeotia, tributary to 
Boeotian Orchomenus, its inhabi- 
tants sold into slavery, I. cxiii. I. ; 
plot for its betrayal to the 
Athenians, IV. Ixxvi. 3 ; the plot 
fails, IV. lixxix. 

Chalaeans, a tribe of Ozolian 
Locrians, ΙΠ. ci. 2. 

Chalce, island near Rhodes, vm. 
xli. 4 ; xliv. 3 ; Iv. 1. 

Chalcedon, a Megarian colony, IV. 
Ixxv. 2. 

Chalcideus, a Spartan admiral, vm. 
vi. 5 ; viii. 2 ; sent to Ionia with 
Alcibiades, vm. xi. 3 ; induces the 
revolt of Chios, Erythrae, Clazo- 
menae, vm. xiv. 2, 3 ; pursued 
by the Athenians, vm. xv. 1 ; 
operations at Samos and Teos, 
VIII. xvi. ; sails with Alcibiades to 
Miletus and induces it to revolt, 
vm. xvii. ; negotiates treaty be- 
tween the King and Sparta, vm. 
xviii., xxxvi., xliii. ; slain, Vin. 
xxiv. 1. 

Chalcidian cities of Sicily, allies of 
the Leontines, m. Ixxxrvi. 2 ; 
fotmded from Chalcis in Euboea, 
VI. iii.-v. ; share in treaty of 
Zancle, VI. iv. 5. 

Chalcidice, revolts from Athens, I. 
Ivi.-lviu. ; pull down their cities 
and retire to Olynthus, I. Iviii. 2 ; 
devastated by Phormio, I. Ι.τν. 3 ; 
the Chalcidians defeat the Athen- 
ians, II. Ixxix. ; invaded by Sitalces, 
II. xcv. 1 ; ci. ; retake Lion from 
the Athenians, IV. vii. ; invite 
Brasidas, iv. Ixaix., Ixxi. ; Chal- 
cidian ambassadors with Brasidas 
on his Macedonian campaign, rv. 
Ixxxiii. ; Chalcidians instigate re- 
volt of Amphipolis, IV. ciii. ; 
Thucydides in command there, 
IV. civ. 4 ; aid in garrisoning Mende 
and Scione, IV. cxxiii. 4 ; furnish 
troops to Brasidas against Arr- 
habaeus, IV. cxxiv. 1 ; Cleon's 
expedition against Chalcidice, V. 
ii.-xi. ; Chalcidian prisoners taken 
in Torone sent to Athens, but 
afterwards exchanged, V. iii. 4; 
Chalcidian targeteers with Brasidas, 



INDEX 



V. vl. 4; X. 9; provisions respect- 
ing tlie Chalcidian cities in tlie 
treaty, V. xviii. 5-7, 9, 10 ; refuse 
to accc))t the treiitr, V. xxi. 2 ; 
join ttie Argive alliance, v. xxxi. 
0; renew alliance with the Lace- 
daemonians and Argives, V. Ixxx. 
2 ; receive the Dians, who had 
revolted from the Athenians, V. 
Ixxxii. 1 ; maintain a ten-days' 
truce with the Athenians, VI. vii. 
4; allies of Athens, vill. Ivii. 4. 

Chalcis, in Aetolia, taken by the 
Athenians, I. cviii. 5 ; II. Ixxxiii. 3. 

Chalcis, in Euboea, war with Eretria, 
I. XV. 3 ; mother-city of the 
Chalcidian cities in Sicily, VI. iii.-v. ; 
subject to the Athenians. VI. Ixxvi. 
2 ; VII. Ivii. 4 ; the Athenians 
retreat to Chalcis after the sea- 
nght oS Eretria, vm. xcv. 6. 

Chaonians, a barbarian people of 
Epirus, II. Ixviii. 9; with the 
Ambraciots induce the Lacedae- 
monians to invade Acarnania, II. 
Ixxx. 1 ; have no king, n. Ixxs. 5 ; 
esteemed excellent fighters, ll. Ixxxi. 
4 ; defeated by the Stratians, ibi. 

Charadrus, place of military trials 
at Argos, V. Ix. 6. 

Charicles, an Athenian commander, 

VII. XX. 1 ; xxvi. 1, 3. 
Channinus, an Athenian comnjander, 

VIIL XXX. 1 ; xli. 2 ; defeated by 

the Lacedaemonians, vill. xlii. ; 

abets the murder of Hyperbolus, 

vm. Ixxiii. 3. 
Charoeades, an Athenian commander 

in Sicily, ΠΙ. Ixxxvi. 1 ; slain, ill. 

sc. 2. 
Charybdis, the whirlpool, IV. xxiv. 4. 
Cheimerium promontory in Thes- 

protia, I. xxx. 3 ; xlvi. 4. 
Cbersonesus, in Corinthian territory, 

IV. xlii. 2 ; xliii. 2. 
Chersonese, in Thrace, cultivated by 

the Greeks at Troy, I. xi. 1 ; 

ravaged by the Lacedaemonians, 

VIII. xcix. ; cii.-cv. 

Chionis, a Lacedaemonian, swears to 
the treaty, V. xxiv. 1. 

Chios, independent ally of Athens, 
I. xix. ; assists Athens against 
Samos, I. cxvi., c.xvii. ; ally of 
Athens, II. ix. 4 ; Ivi. 2 ; furnishes 



ships in the siege of Potidaea, ll. 
Ivi. 2 ; free allies. III. x. 5 ; VI. 
Ixxxv. 2; νπ. Ivii. 4; Alcidas 
puts some Cliian prisoners to 
death, ΙΠ. xxxii. ; releases the 
rest, ibi ; Homer at Chios, ni. civ. 
5, 6 ; the Chians aid the Athenians 
at Pylos, iv. xiii. 2 ; ordered by the 
Athenians to dismantle their walls, 
IV. li. ; furnish ships against Merde 
and Scione, iv. cxxix. 2 ; against 
Melos, v. Ixxxiv. 1 ; aid the 
Athenians at Syracuse, VI. xliii. 1 ; 
Ixxxv. 2; Vll. XX. 2; Ivii. 4; 
negotiate with the Lacedaemonians 
about revolting, VUI. v. 4 ; received 
into the Lacedaemonian alliance, 
VTII. 6 ; Chian intrigues, Vin. ix. 
2, 3; revolt, Vlll. xiv. ; Chian 
ships withdrawn from Peiraeum, 
in dl-itrust, Vin. xv. ; employed by 
Alcibiades to foment revolt in 
Ionia, VIII. xvii. ; four Chian ships 
taken by the Athenians, vm. xix. 
3 ; induce Lebedus and Haerae to 
revolt, VIII. xix. 4 ; then Methymna 
and Mytilene, VIII. xxii. ; defeated 
in three battles by the Athenians, 
VIII. xxiv. ; aid in the capture of 
lasus, VIII. xxviii. 1 ; about to be 
attacked by the Athenians, VIII. 
XXX.; refuse to assist Astyochus 
about the revolt of Lesbos, VIII. 
xxxii. 3 ; xxxiv. 1 ; government 
changed by the Lacedaemonians, 
VIII. xxxviii. 3 ; xl. 1 ; completely 
blockaded, Vin. xl. ; defeated by 
the Athenians and closely block- 
aded, VIII. Iv. 3; Ivi. 1; indecisive 
sea-fight with the Athenians, vm. 
Ixi. 2 ; regain command of the sea, 
vm. Ixiii. 1 ; Athenians plan fresh 
attack on Chios, VUI. c. ; the 
Lacedaemonians slip away, vill. 
ci. ; the Chians lose eight ships 
at Cynossema, VIII. cvi. 3. 

Choenix, an Athenian measure, iv. 
xvi. 1. 

Choerades, lapygian islands, VII. 
xxxiii. 3. 

Cliromon, a Messenian guide of 
Demosthenes in Aetolia, m. xcviii. 
2. 

Chrysippus, murdered by Atreus, I. 
ix. 3. 



INDEX 



Chrysis, priestess of Ileni, at Argos, 

II. ii. ; causes conflagration of the 
temple; flees to Plilius, iv. cxxxiil. 

Cilicians defeated at Salamis in 
Cyprus, I. cxii. 4. 

Cinion, son of Miltiades, captures 
Eion, I. xcviii. 1 ; conquers the 
Persians at tlie Eurymedon, T. c. 
1 ; brings aid to the Lacedae- 
monians at the siege of Ithome, I. 
cii. 2 ; dies in Cyprus, I. cxii. 4. 

Cithaoron, Mt., Π. Ixxv. 1 ; ΙΠ. 
xxiv. 1. 

Citinium, in Doris, I. cvii. 2. 

Citium, in Cyprus, I. cxii. 3. 

Claru?, in Ionia, iil. xxxiii. 1. 

Clazoraenae revolts from Athens, 
vni. xiv. 3 ; Clazomenians fortify 
Polichne, ibi ; aid in the revolt 
of Teos, VIII. xvi. ; subdued by 
the Athenians, Vin. xxiii. 6 ; 
repulse a Peloponnesian attack, 
VIII. xxxi. 3. 

Clearchus, son of Rhamphias, a Lace- 
daemonian commander, VIII. viii. 
3 ; appointed to the Hellespont, 
VIII. xxxix. 2 ; sent to Phamabazus 
with 40 ships, vni. Ixxx. 2, 3. 

Clearida«, a Lacedaemonian, governor 
of AnipdipolLs, IV. cxxxii. 3; col- 
league of Brasidas in battle of 
Amphipolis, v. vi.-xi. ; sets in 
order matters at Amphipolis af er 
Brasidas' death, V. xi. 3; refuses 
to give up AmpliipolLs, V. xxi. ; 
brings home troops of Brasidas, 
V. xxxiv. 1. 

Cleippides, an Athenian commander, 

III. iii. 2. 

Cleobulus, ephor at Sparta, v. χχχλ-ϊ. 

1 ; favours the vrar party, ibi ; 

negotiates with the Boeotians and 

Corinthians, v. xxxvi.-xxxviii. 
Cleomedes, Athenian commander in 

attack on Melos, V. Ixxxiv. 3. 
Cleomenes, king of Sparta, expiels 

the " accursed persons " from 

Athens, I. cxxvi. 12. 
Cleomenes, uncle and regent for 

Pausanias at Sparta, III. xxvi. 2. 
Cleou, influential demagogue at 

Athens. III. xxxvi. G; IV. xxi. 3; 

carries the decree condemning the 

Mytilenaeans to death, ill. xxxvi.; 

speech against repeal of the decree, 

414 



III. xxxvii.-xl. ; moves and carries 
decree for slaughter of 1000 
Mytilenacan captives at Athens, 

III. 1. 1 ; causes breaking off of 
negotiations with Sparta, iv. xxi., 
xxii. ; boast of what he would 
do at Pylos if he were general, 

IV. xxvii. 5 . is offered his place 
by Nicias and forced to accept, 
17. xxviii. ; chooses Demosthenes 
as colleague, IV. xxix. ; arrives at 
Pylos, IV. XXX. 4; with Demos- 
thenes attacks Sphacteria, IV. 
xxxi.-xxxvii. ; surrender of the 
Lacedaemonians, IV. xxxvi. : Cleon's 
mad promise fulfilled, IV. xxxix. ; 
carries decree for the destruction of 
Scione, iv. cxxii. 6 ; leads expe- 
dition to Thrace, V. 2 ff. ; captures 
Torone, v. ii. 3 ; takes Galepsus 
and attempts Stageirus, V. vi. 1 ; 
operations against Brasidas, v. 
vi.-xi. ; slain, V. x. 9. 

Cleonae, in Acte, iv. cix. 3. 

Cleonae, in ArgolLs, in alliance with 
Argos, V. Ixvii. 2 ; sends troops 
to Mantineia, v. Ixxii. 4 ; Ixxiv. 
2 ; a Lacedaemonian army in- 
vading Argos turns back at 
Cleonae in consequence of an 
earthquake, VI. xcv. 1. 

Cleopompus, an Athenian commander, 

II. xxvi. 2 ; colleague of Hagnon 
against Potidaea, 11. Iviii. 

Cnemus, a Spartan commander, 
ravages Zacynthus, II. Ixvi. 2 ; 
invades Acarnania, II. Ixxx.-lxxxii. : 
defeated by Phormio, 11. Ixxxiii., 
Ixxxiv. ; second defeat, II. Ixxxvi.- 
xcii. ; exhortation to his fleet, II. 
Ixxxvi. ; concerts with Bra.sidas an 
attack upon the Peiraeus, Π. xciii., 
xciv. 

Cnidos : the Liparaeans colonists of, 

III. Ix.xxviii. 2 ; revolts from 
Athens, Mil. XXXV. 1 ; attacked 
by the Athenians, VIII. xxxv. 3; 
persuades Astyochus to attack the 
Athenians under Charminus, VIII. 
xli. 3 ; Lacedaemonian fleet as- 
sembles at Cnidos, vill. xlii. 5 ; 
Lacedaemonian commi<;sioners con- 
fer at Cnidos witli Tissaphemes, 
Vin. xUii. 2-4 ; Tissaphemes' garri- 
son exj)elled from Cnidos, vm. cix. 



INDEX 



C!olonne, In the Troad, i. cxxjd. 1. 

Colonus, near, temple of Poseidon 
there, viu. Ixvii. 2 

Colophon, taken by Paches and made 
an Athenian colony, m. xxxiv. 

Conon, an Athenian governor of 
Naupactiis, VTI. xxxi. 4. 

Copaeans, from Copae on Lake 
Copais in Boeotia, in the battle 
at Delium, IV. xcai. 4. 

Cophus, port near Torone, V. ii. 2. 

Corcyra, earliest sea-fight known, 
fought between the Oorcyraeans 
and the Corinthians, I. siii. 4; 
mother-city of EpiJamnus, I. xxiv. 
2; refuses aid to the Epidamnians, 
I. xxiv. 7 ; neglect of the mother- 
city (Corinth), I. xxv. Ά ; wealth, 
power and glory of; once occupied 
by the Phaeacians, I. xxv. 4; 
besieges Epidamnus, I. xxvi. ; sends 
embassy to Corinth, I. xxviii. ; 
victory over the Corinthians, Γ. 
xxii. 4; slaughters prisoners after 
the battle, I. xxx. 1 ; sends emb:issy 
to Athens, I. xxxi. 2 ; sjieecli, 
of Corcyraeans, I. xxxii.-xxxvi. ; 
importance of Corcyra, I. xxxvi. ; 
xliv. 3 ; Ixviii. 4 ; obtains alliance 
of the Athenians, I. xliv. ; sea- 
fight against the Corinthians, I. 
xhnii.-li. ; offer the Corinthians 
battle, I. lii. ; want to kill the 
Corinthian messengers, I. liii. 3 ; 
set up trophy on Sybota, I. liv. 1; 
driven from Anactoriiun by the 
Corinthians, I. Iv. 1 ; Corinthians 
intrigue with their Corcyraean 
prisoners, tbi ; under obligation 
to Themlstocles, but afraid to 
shelter him, I. cxxxvi. 1 ; receive 
an embassy from Athens, Π. vii. 3 ; 
furnL~h ships to the Athenians, 

II. ix. 6 ; XXV. 1 ; fall into sedition, 

III. Ixix. 2 ; Ixx. 1 ; oligarchs, 
worsted in a law-suit by Peithias, 
murder him and his partisans. III. 
Lxx. ; seek to win over the people, 
ΛΙ. Ixxi. : attack and defeat the 
people, III. Ixxii. ; fail to win over 
the slaves, ΠΙ. Ixxiii. ; the people 
defeat the oligarchs, ΙΠ. Ixxiv. ; 
Nirostratus, the Athenian com- 
mander, tries to effect a recon- 
ciliation, III. Ixxv. ; negotiations 



and plots; the people diqarm and 
remove the oligarchs from the 
temple of Hera to an island, ibi ; 
the Corcyraeans and Athenians 
defeated by the Lacedaemonians, 
in. χ,χνϋ , Ixxviii. ; pri.-oners 
replaced in the temple of Hera, 
III. Ixxix. 1 ; people persuade some 
of the aristocratic party to help 
man a fleet, ΠΙ. Ixxx. ; the Lace- 
daemonian fleet retirees on the 
approach of the Athenians, and the 
people ma.ssacre their opponents, 

III. Ixx.xi. ; reflections on the 
Corcyraean atrocities, ΙΠ. Ixxxii.- 
Ixxxiv. ; this ma.ssacre tlie first 
example of the horrors of revolu- 
tionary warfare in Hellas, III. 
1.XXXV. 1 ; the surviving oligarchs 
occupy Mt. Istone, lu. Ixxxv. ; 

IV. ii. 3 ; xlvi. 2 ; the people 
capture Mt. Istone and treacher- 
ously massacre their prisoners, UI. 
xlvi.-xlviii, ; the Sicilian expedi- 
tion musters at Corcyra, \1. xxx. 
1; xxxii. 2; xxxiv. 6; xlii. ; 
xliii. 1 ; Demosthenes sails to 
Corcyra with reinforcements for 
Sicily, VII. xxvi. 3 ; the Corcyraeans 
send aid to the Athenians at Syra- 
cuse, VII. xxxi. 5; xliv. 6; Ivii. 7; 
alarm the Athenians in the night- 
battle on Epipolae by their Doric 
paean, VII. xliv. 6. 

Corinth : triremes first built there, 
I. xiii. 2 ; earliest naval engage- 
ment between the Corinthians and 
Corcyraeans, ibi. an early centre 
of commerce ; άφ^ιόι•, ibi ; take 
the Epidamnians under their protec- 
tion : hatred toward the Corcyraeans, 
I. XXV. ; send aid to Epidamnus, 
I. xxvi. 1 ; send also a colony, I. 
xxvii. 1 ; receive an embassy from 
Corcyra, I. xxviii. ; beaten at sea 
by tlie Corcyraeans, I. xxix. ; send 
embas.sy to Athens, I. xxxi. 3 ; 
speech of, I. xxxvii.-xliii. ; the 
Corinthians have the aid of many 
barbarian tribes of Epirus, I. 
xlvii. 3 ; sea-fisht with the Corcy- 
raeans, I. xlviii.-l. ; retire before 
the Athenian reinforcements, I. Ii. ; 
parley with the Athenians, I. liii. ; 
set up a trophy at Sybota, claim 



INDEX 



the victory, I. liv. ; capture 
Anactorium, I. Iv. 1 ; their alliance 
Bought by Perdiccas, Π. Ivii. ; send 
troops to Potidaea, I. Lx. ; bitter 
hatred of the Athenians, I. Lxvi. ; 
cf. I. ciii. 4; summon the allies to 
Sparta, I. Ixrii. ; speech of their 
delegates, I. 1χτϋί.-1χτΐ. ; make 
war on the Megarians, L ciii. 4; 
defeat the Athenians at Hialleis, 
1. cv. 1 ; invade Megara, ibi ; are 
defeated, ibi ; suffer great loss, 
I. cvi. ; assist the Megarians to 
revolt, I. cxiv. 1 ; urge on the 
war, I. cxix. 3 ; second speech of 
the Corinthians, I. cxi.-cxxiv. ; 
furnish ships to the Lacedae- 
monians, n. ix. 3 ; lose SoUitmi, 
n. TTT , 1 ; restore Evarchus, I. 
xxxiii. 1, 2 ; defeated in Cephal- 
lenia, ibi ; prepare to assist the 
Lacedaemonian invasion of Acar- 
nania, n. Ixxx. 3 ; attacked and 
defeated by Phormio, Π. Ixxxiii., 
Ixxxiv. ; second defeat, n. xc— 
xcii. ; share in the projected sur- 
prise of the Peiraeus, Π. xciiL- 
xcv. ; induce their Corcyraean 
prisonere to attempt an oligarchical 
revolution at Corcyra, in. Ixx. ; 
refuse to aid the oligarchs at Istone, 
m. Ixxxv. 3 ; garrison Ambracia, 
in. cxiv. 4 ; IV. xlii. 3 ; repulse an 
Athenian invasion, IV. xliii., xliv. ; 
driven out of Anactorium by the 
Athenians, IV. xlix. ; aid Brasidas, 
rv. Ixx. 1 ; Ixxiv. 1 ; join in one 
year's truce, IV. cxix. 2 ; dis- 
satisfied with the treaty between 
the Athenians and Lacedaemonians, 
V. xviL 2 ; XXV. 1 ; xxxv. 1 ; send 
envoys to Argos, V. xxvii. ; re- 
monstrated with by the Lacedae- 
monians, V. XXX. ; join the Argive 
alliance, V. xxxi. 6 ; apply to the 
Boeotians, v. ν ν «ii 5 ; the new 
Spartan ephors wish them to 
bring the Argives into the Lace- 
daemonian alliance, v. xxxvi. ; the 
negotiation fails, V. xxxviii. ; refuse 
to join the Athenian and Argive 
alliance, v. xlviii; 1. 4; prevent 
construction of a fort at Ehium 
by Alcibiades, V. lii. 2 ; Corinthian 
envoy at Mantineia, V. Iv. 1 ; 

416 



send a contingent with the Lace- 
daemonians against the Argives, 
V. Ivii. 2; engage the Argives, V. 
lix. 2 ; too late for Mantineia, V. 
Lxiv. 4 ; Ixxv. 2 ; do not join the 
Lacedaemonians against Argos, V. 
Ixxxiii. 1 ; declare war against the 
Athenians, v. cxv. 3 ; withhold 
support from a Lacedaemonian 
attack on Argos, vi. vii. 1 ; receive 
an emba.ssy from Syracuse, VL 
Ixxiii. ; Ixxxviii. 7 ; vote to send 
the Syracusans aid, Π. Ixxxviii. 8; 
send envoys with them to Sparta, 
ibi ; send ships and troops to 
Sicily, VI. xciii. 2, 3 ; civ. 1 ; vii. 
ii. 1 ; iv. 7 ; vii. 1 ; xvii. 3 ; xix. 
4 ; xxxi. 1 ; encouraged by reports 
from Sicily and man 25 ships 
against the Athenian fleet at 
Kaupactus, vn. xvii. 4; Corinthian 
envoys go from Syracuse to the 
Sicilian states, Vll. ixv. 9; fight 
Athenian fleet oS Xaupactus, VlL 
xxxvii. ; claim victory, ibi ; their 
forces before Syracuse, Vll. Iviii. 
3; Agis deposits Phthiote Achaean 
hostages at Corinth, Tin. iii. 1 ; 
contribute ships to the Lacedae- 
monian fleet, ibi ; allies in con- 
ference at Corinth, vm. viii. ; refuse 
to join the Chian expedition till 
after the Isthmian Games, vm. 
ix. 1 ; the fleet is chased into 
Pe-raeum by the Athenians, vnL 
X. ; Corinthians come to its aid, 
vni. xi. 2 ; the fleet breaks the 
blockade, vm. xx. 1 ; the Corin- 
thians discourage a second Les- 
bian revolt, vm. xxxii. 1 ; send 
five ships to Astyochus, vni. xxxiiL 
1 ; besiege Oenoe, vm. xcviii. ; 
lose five ships at C^nossema, vm. 
cviii. 
Coronaeans in battle at Delium, 17. 

xciii. 4. 
Coronea, in Boeotia, defeat of 
Athenians there, L cxiii. 2; m. 
Lxii. 5 ; Ixvii. 3 : rv. xcii. 6. 
Coronta, in Acamania, 11. cii. 1. 
Corycus, a port on the Erythraean 
peninsula, vm. xiv. 1 ; τχτίϋ. 2 ; 
xxxiv. 
Coryphasium, Lacedaemonian name 
of Pylos, IV. iii. 2 ; cxviiL 3 ; 



INDEX 



ordered to be restored under the 

treaty, V. xviii. 7. 
Cos ileropis sacked by Astyochus, 

vm. xli. 2; cf. iliv. 3; Iv. 1 ; 

fortified by the Athenians, \va. 

cviii. 2. 
Cotyle, a measure, solid or liquid, 

IV. xvi. 1 ; VII. Ixxxrij. 2. 
Cotyrta, in Laconia, iv. Ivi. 1. 
Cranil in Oephallenia, settlement of 

the Helots there by the Athenians, 

V. XXIV. 7 ; removal of these 
Helots, V. Ivi. 3 ; the Cranians, 
Π. XXX. 3 ; xxxiii. 3. 

Crannonians, of Thessaly, n. xxii. 3. 
Crataemenes, from Chalcis, one of 

the founders of Zancle, vi. iv. 5. 
Crenae, in Amphilochia, m. cv. 2. 
Crestonians, in Acte, iv. cix. 4. 
Cretan Sea, IV. liti. 3 ; v. ex. 1. 
Crete, campaign of Athenians in, 

Π. Ixxxv. 6 ; Alcidas caught in 

storm off, vu. Ixix. 1 ; Cretan and 
Rhodian origin of Qela, vi. iv. 3 ; 

Vn. Ivii. 9 ; Cretan archers, VI. 

XXV. 2 ; xliii. ; Cretan mercenaries 

with the Athenians before Syra- 
cuse, vn. Ivli. 9. 
Crisaean Gulf, I. cvii. 3 ; Π. Ixix 1 ; 

Ixxxiu. 1 ; its mouth, Π. Ixxxvi. 3 ; 

Siphae thereon, IV. Ixxvi. 3. 
Crocyleium, in Aetolia, m. xcvi. 2. 
Croesus, conquered by Cyrus, I. xvi. 
Crommyon, between the Isthmus and 

Megara, IV. xlii. 4; xliv. 4: xlv. 1. 
Cropia, a deme in Attica, n. xix. 2. 
Crotoruats. in Italy, refuse passage 

to an Athenian army, VII. xxxv. 2. 
Crusis, in Alygdonia, n. IxxLx. 4. 
Cyclades, colonized by Minos, I. iv. ; 

all subject to Athens except 

Melos and Cythera, li. ix. 5 
Cyclopes, oldest inhabitants of Sicily, 

VI. iL 1. 
Cydonia, in Crete, Π. Ixxxv. 5. 
C^llene, shipyard of the Eleans, I. 

XXX. 2 ; II. Ixxxvii. 5 ; Ixxxvi. 1 ; 

ΙΠ. Ixix. 1 ; Ixxvi. 1 ; vi. Ixxxviii. 9. 
Cylon, con-piracy of, T. cxxvi. 
Cyme in Aeolis, m. xxxi. 1; vm. 

xxii. 1; xxxi. 3, 4; c. 3 ; ci. 2. 
Cyme, in Italy, a colony from Chalcis 

in Euboea, vi. iv. 5. 
Cynes, an Acamanian, Π. cii. 1. 
Cynossema, a promontory in the 



Hellespont, vm. civ. 5; cvL 4; 

battle there ,vill. civ.-cvi. 

Cynuria, on the border of Argos and 
Laconia, IV. Ivi. 2 ; dispute about, 
V. xiv. 4 ; xli. 2. 

Cypnrs, subdued by Pausanias, I. 
xciv. 2 ; civ. 2 ; cxxviii. 5 ; attacked 
by the Athenians, I. ciii. 2, 4. 

Cypsela, in Arcadia, v. xxxiii. 1. 

Cyrene, I. ex. 1 ; the Cyrenaeans 
assist the Lacedaemonians on their 
way to Syracuse, VU. 1. 2. 

Cyrrhus, in Macedonia, II. c. 4. 

Cyrus, King of Persia, father of 
Cambyses, I. xvi. ; son of Darius, 
Π. Ixv. 12. 

Cythera, island south of Laconia, 
attacked by the Athenians, iv. 
liu.-lvii.; the Athenians plunder 
Laconia therefrom, V. xiv. 3 ; to 
be restored to the Lacedaemonians 
under the treaty, V. xviii. 7 ; the 
Cytherians allies of the Athenians 
before Syracuse, VII. Ivii. 6. 

Cytinium, in Doris, I. cviL 2; m. 
xcv. 1 ; cii. 1. 

Cyzicus, revolts from Athens, but 
is retaken, vm. cvii. ; Timagoras 
of Cyzicus, exile in Phamabazus' 
service, vm. vi. 1 ; viii. 1 ; xxxix. 1, 

Dalthus, a Lacedaemonian, swears 

to the treaty of alliance, V. xix., 

xxiv. 
Damagetus, a Lacedaemonian, swears 

to the treaty, V. xix., xxiv. 
Damagon, a Lacedaemonian, one of 

the founders of Heracleia, m. icii. 

5. 
Damotimus, a Sicyonian, rv. cxix. 2. 
Danaans, a name of the Hellenes In 

Homer, I. iii. 3. 
Daphnus, near Clazomenae, vn. ττηϋ 

6 ; xxxi. 2. 
Dardanus, in the Hellespont, vm. 

civ. 2. 
Daric stater, vm. xxviii. 4. 
Darius, King of Persia, succeeds 

Cambyses, I. xiv. 2 ; reduces the 

islands, I. xvi. ; Artstagoras, the 

Milesian, fleeing from Darius, IV. 

cii. 2 ; influence of Lampsaceiie 

tyrants with Darius, VI. lix. 3; 

Hippias takes refuge with Darius, 

tut. 



INDEX 



Darius II, son of Artaxerxes, Kin? of 
Persia, VIII. v. 4; xxxvii. ; Iviii. 1. 

Dascon, joint founder with Menecolus 
of Camarina, VI. τ. 3. 

Dascon, near Syracuse, VI. Ixvi. 2. 

Dascyltium, satrapy in Asia Minor, 
I. cxxix. 1. 

Daulia, ancient name of a part of 
PhocLs, 11. xiix. 3 ; tiie " Daulian 
bird," ibi. 

Deceleia, fortification of, suggested by 
Alcibiades, VI. xci. 6 ; vn. xviii. 
1 ; this plan carried out by the 
Lacedaemonians, vi. xcUi. 2 ; vil. 
xviii. 4 ; xix. 1 ; terrible mischief 
to the Athenians therefrom, vil. 
xivii., xxviii. ; Agis at Deceleia, 
vin. iii. 1 ; the occupation of 
Deceleia causes the whole Athenian 
population to be on service, vin. 
Ixix. 1 ; the Four Hundred send 
heralds to Agis there, vm. Ixx. 2 ; 
Agis marches thence to Athens, 
VIII. Ixxi. 1 ; returns ; the Four 
Hundred resume negotiations, ibi ; 
Corinthian troops in the garrison, 
Vin. xcviii. 2. 

Deiniadas, a commander of the 
Spartan fleet, \ΉΙ. xxii. 1. 

Delium, temple of Apollo, near 
Tauagra, rv. Ixxvi. 4, δ ; fortified 
by the Athenians, IT. xc. ; battle 
of, IV. xciii.-xcvi. : Boeotians 
charge the Atlieuians with sacrilege, 
IV. xcvii., xcviii. : captured by the 
Boeotians, rv. c. ; effect of their 
defeat at Delium upon the Athen- 
ians, V. xiv. 1 ; XV. 2. 

Delos, purification of, by the Athen- 
ians, I. viii. 1 ; m. civ. ; first 
treasury of the Athenian alliance, 
I. xcvi. 2 ; earthquake in Delos, 
Π. viii. 3 ; Peloponnesian fleet 
reaches Delos, m. xxix. 1 ; puri- 
fication of and ancient games at 
Delos, III. civ. ; the Delians settled 
at Atramytteium in Asia, ν i. ; 
VIII. cviji. 4 ; the Delians brought 
back to Delos, V. xxxii. 1 ; 
treacherous massacre of the Delians 
at Atramytteium, vm. cviii. 4. 

Delphi, temple of, returned to the 
Delphians by the Lacedaemonians, 
I. cxii. 5 : by the Athenians to 
the Phocians, ibi ; treasury of, 

418 



I. cxii. 3 ; cxliii. 1 ; tripod at, 
I. cxxxii. ; in. Ivii. 2 ; alleged 
corruption of the priestess by 
Phistoanax, V. xvi. 2 ; provtion 
respecting Delphi in the treaty 
between the Lacedaemonians and 
Athenians, V. xviii. 2 ; see also 

V. xviii. lU. 

Delphinium, in Chios, fortified by the 

Athenians, VIII. xxxviii. 2 ; xl. 3. 
Demaratus, an Athenian general 

VI. cv. 2. 

Demarchus, a Syracusan naval com- 
mander, vm. ixxxv. 3. 
Demiurgi, a magistracy at Mantineia, 

V. xlvii. 9 ; at Elis, ibi. 
Democracy : Pericles' description of 

the Athenian democracy, II. xxxvij.- 
xl. ; Cleon's, m. xxxvii., xxxviii. ; 
Diodotus', ΠΙ. xlii., xliii. ; weak- 
nesses of, II. Ixv. 2; III. xxxvii.; 
everywhere friendly to Athens, III. 
xlvii. 1 ; Ixxxii. 1 ; VI. Ixxxix. 6 ; 
all classes equal in a democracy, 

VI. xxxix. ; more stable than oii- 
garciiy, VIII. Ixxxix. 3. 

Demodocus, an Athenian general, TV, 
Ixxv. 1. 

Demosthenes, son of AJcMhenes, 
commands Athenian expedition 
round the Peloponnesus, m. xci. 
1 ; expedition against the Leu- 
cadians. III. xciv. 1, 2; against the 
Aetolians, lit ,• defeated by the 
AetoUans, m. xcviii. ; saves Nau- 
pactus, m. cii. 3, 4 ; takes command 
of the Acarnanians against the 
Ambraciots, III. cv. 3 ; defeats the 
Ambraciots, III. cvii.-cxi. ; secret 
agreement with Menedalus, ni. 
cix. ; destroys the Ambraciot re- 
inforcements, III. cxii., cxiii. ; 
Demosthenes' share of booty ; 
return liome, m. cxiv 1 ; sent on 
a special commission, rv. ii. 4 ; 
fortifies Pylos, iv. iii.-v. ; disposi- 
tion of his forces, IV. ix. ; speech 
of, IV. X. ; repulses the Lacedae- 
monians, IV. xi., xii. ; chosen by 
Cleon as his colleague at Sphac- 
teria, IV. xxix. 1 ; plans and 
executes attack on Sphacteria, 
IV. xxix.-xxxvii. ; forces the Lace- 
daemonians to surrender, iv. 
xxxviii. : attempts Megara, rv. 



INDEX 



livi.-Ixviii. ; captures Nisaea, iv. 
Ixis. ; plans invasion of Boeotia, 
IV. Ixxvi., IxxTU. ; attempt fails, 
IV. Ixxxis. ; descent upon Sicyonia, 
IV. ci. 3, 4 ; swears to the treaty 
of peace, v. xii., xxiv. ; sent to 
Epidaurus, IV. Ixxx. 3 ; chosen 
colleague of Nicias, VII. xvi. 2 ; 
xTii. 1 ; XX. 2 ; effects junction 
with Charicles, VII. xxvi. 1 ; ravages 
Laconian coast and fortifies an 
isthmus there, then sails to 
Corcyra, VU. ixvi. ; meets Eury- 
raedon at Corcyra and sends rein- 
forcements to Naupactus, vil. 
xxxi. ; holds review at Thurii, 
vn. ixxiii. 6 ; arrives at Syracuse, 
VU. xlii. 1 ; resolves to strike blow 
at once, VII. xlii. 3 ; fails in nisht 
attack on Epipoiae, vn. xliii.- 
xlv. ; votes in a council of war 
for immediate withdrawal, Vll. 
xlvii. 2-4 ; xlix. ; commands in 
the last sea-fight, VII. Ixix.-lxxi. ; 
proposes to renew the engage- 
ment, VII. Ixxli. ; commands one 
division on retreat, vil. Ixxvii ff. ; 
overtaken and forced to surrender, 
vn. Ixxxi., Ixxxii. ; put to death 
by the Syracusans, vn. Ixxxvi. 2. 

Demoteles, a commander of Italian 
Locrians, IV. xxv. 11. 

Dercyllidas, a Spartan, sent to tlie 
Hellespont, Vm. Ixi. 1 ; brink's 
Abydos and Lampsacus to revolt, 
VIII. Ixii. 1. 

Derdas, a Macedonian, I. Ivii. 3 ; 
lix. 2. 

Dersaeans, a Thracian tribe, n. ci. 3. 

Deucalion, father of Hellen, I. iii. 2. 

Dians, take Thyssus on promontory 
of lit. Athos,"v. XXXV. 

Diasia, festival of Zeus Meilichius, 
I. cxxvi. 6. 

Didyme, one of the Liparaean islands, 
m. Ixxxviii. 2. 

Dieitrephes, an Athenian commander, 
vn. xxix. 1; vin. Ixiv. 1. 

Diemponis, a Theban Boeotarch, ll. 
ii. 1. 

Dii, a Thracian tribe, n. xcvi. 2 ; 
xcviii. 4; too late for Demos- 
thenes' expedition to Sicily, VII. 
xxvii. 1 ; sack Mycalessu.s, Vll. 
xxix., TXT. 



Diodotus, an Athenian, opposes the 
slaughter of the Mytilenaeans. III. 
xlii.-xlviii. 

Diomedon, an Athenian commander. 
Vlll. xix. 2 ; makes an agreement 
with the Telans, vm. xx. 2 ; sent 
with Leon to Lesbos, vin. xxiii. 
1 ; wages war against Chios, vni 
xxiv. 2 ; appointed with Leon to 
chief command at Samos, Vlll 
liv. 3 ; makes descent upon Rhodes. 
VIII. Iv. 1 ; supports the democratic 
reaction at Samos, Vin. Ixxiii. 4. 

Diomilus, an Andrian exile, com- 
mander of 600 Syracusans, VI. 
xcvi. 3 ; slain in battle, vi. xcvii. 4. 

Dionysia, the ancient, II. xv. 4 ; 
city Dionysia, V. xx. 1. 

Dionysus, temple of, " in the 
marshes," II. xv. 4; at Corcyra, 
m. Ixxxi. 5 ; theatre near Muny- 
chia, vni. xciii. ; xciv. 1. 

Dioscuri, temple of, at Corcyra, ui. 
Ixxv. 3 ; at Torone, iv. ex. 1. 

Diotimus, an Athenian commander, 
I. xlv. 2. 

Diphilus, an Athenian commander, 
vn. xxxiv. 3. 

Dium, in Macedonia, iv. Ixxviii. 6. 

Dium, at Mt. Athos, iv. cix. 3 ; v. 
Ixxxii. 1. 

Doberus, in Paeonia, n. xcviii. 2 ; 
xcix. 1 ; c. 3. 

Dolopia, in Epirus, n. cii. 2. 

Dolopians, in Thessaly, v. li. 1. 

Dolopians, ancient inhabitants of 
Scyros, I. xcviii. 2. 

Dolphins, leaden weights, used to 
sink an enemy's ship, Vll. xli. 2. 

DorcLs, successor to Pausanias, I. 
xcv. 6. 

Dorians, settlement in the Pelo- 
ponnesus, I. xii. 3 ; colonize Lace- 
daemon, I. xviii. 1 ; their mother- 
land attacked by Phocians, I. evii. 
2 ; contrasted with lonians, I. 
cxxiv. I ; V. ix. 1 ; VI. Ixxvii. 2 ; 
Ixxx. 3 ; Ixxxii. 2 ; vn. v. 4 ; vm. 
XXV. 5 ; Dorians in Asia Minor 
Athenian subjects, II. ix. 4 ; Dorian 
cities in Sicily allies of the Syra- 
cusans against the Leontines, in. 
Ixxxvi. 2; Dorian dialect spoken 
by the Messenians, in. cxii. ; iv. 
xli. 2 ; mixed with Chalcidian at 

419 



INDEX 



Himera, VI. v. 1 ; Dorian paean of 

their allies alarms tlie Athenians, 
vn. xliv. 6 ; Dorian cities allies of 
Syracuse, vn. Iviii. 1-3. 

Dorieus, of Khodes, twice victor at 
Olympia, III. viii. 

Dorieus, son of Diagoras, commands 
ten Thurian ships, vm. xxxv. 1 ; 
threatened violence by Astyochus, 
VIII. Isxxiv. 2. 

Dorus, a Thessalian, IV. Ixxviil. 1. 

Drabescus, in Thrace, Athenian 
colonists slaughtered there, I. c. 
2 ; IV. cii. 2. 

Drachma : Corinthian, I. xxrii. 1 ; 
Aeginetan, V. xlvii. 3; Athenian 
mercenaries paid one drachma per 
day, VII. xxvii. 2 ; one drachma 
per day paid by Tissaphernes, Vlll. 
xxix. ; on Alcibiades' advice Tissa- 
phemes cuts tliis to one half 
drachma, VIII. xlv. 2. 

Droans, a Thraeian tribe, II. ci. 3. 

Droughts in the Peloponnesian war, 
1. xxiii. 3. 

Drymussa, island off Clazomenae, 
vni. xxxi. 3. 

Dryopians, Carysttis of Euboea in- 
habited by, VII. Ivii. 4. 

Dryoscephaiae, in Boeotia, m. xxiv. 

Dyme, in Achaea, n. l.xxxiv. 3. 

Earth, temple of, at Athens, Π. xv. 4. 

Earthquakes : frequency of, during 
the Peloponnesian war, I. xxiii. 3 ; 
before the siege of Itliome, I. ci. 
2 ; cxxviii. 1 ; m. liv. 5 ; at Delos, 
n. viii. 3 ; in the fifth year of 
the war, m. Ixxsvii. 4 ; Ixxxix. 1 ; 
probable cause of inundation, in. 
Ixxxix. 5 ; Lacedaemonian expedi- 
tions stopped by, in. Ix.xxix. 1 ; 
VI. xcv. 1 ; assemblies interrupted 
by, V. xlv. 4; 1. 4; earthquake at 
Athens, V. xlv. 1 ; at Corinth, V. 
1. 4; at Cleonae, VI. xcv. 1; at 
Sparta, vni. vi. δ; at Cos, vm. 
xli. 2 ; the Lacedaemonians change 
admirals because of an earthquake, 
vni. vi. 5. 

Eccritus, a Spartan commander, vn. 
xix. 3. 

Echecratides, King of Thessaly, I. 
cxi. 1. 

420 



Echinades, islands at the month of 

the Achelous, II. cii. 3. 
Eclipses of the sun, I. xxiii. 3 ; Π. 

xxviii. ; iv. lii. 1 ; they occur only 

at new moon, II. xxviii. 1 ; cf. iv. 

lii. 1 ; eclipse of the moon, vil. 

1. 4. 
Edoni, old inhabitants of Amphipolis, 

I. c. 3 ; expelled from Mygdonia. 

II. xcix. 4; defeat Arl-~tagoras' 
atiempt to colonize Amphipolis, 
IV. cii. 2 ; destroy tlie Athenian 
settlers, ibi ; driven out by Hagnon, 
ibi ,• Myrcinus, an Edonian town, 
IV. cvii. 3 ; Pittacus, King of, ibi ; 
their whole force summoned by 
Brasidas, V. vi. 4. 

Eetioneia, part of the Peiraens, 
fortified by the oligarchs; de- 
scription of, VTII. xc. ; sci. 2 ; 
xcii. 1 ; destroyed by the soldiers 
at the instigation of Theramenes, 
■VTII. xcii. 10. 

Egesta, town in Sicily, of Trojan 
origin, VI. ii. 3 ; at war with 
Selinus; appeal to Athens for 
aid against the Syracusans, VI. vi. ; 
deceive the Athenians about their 
wealth, VI. viii. 1 ; xlvi. ; aid the 
Athenians in capturing Hyccara; 
supply 30 talents, VI. Ixii. ; ap- 
pealed to for horses by the 
Athenians, VI. Ixxxviii. 6 ; xcviii. 1 

Egypt, revolts from the King, I. civ 
1 ; subdued by the Persians, I. 
cix., ex. ; destruction of Athenian 
reinforcements, I. ex. 4 ; Egyptians 
in the fens most warlike, I. ex. 4; 
third Athenian fleet sent to Egypt 
without results, I. cxii. 3, 4 ; 
Egyptian body-guard of Pausanias, 

I. cxxx. 1 ; visited by the plague, 

II. xlviii. 1. 

Eidomene, in Macedonia, π. c. 3. 

Ei^'htv, Council of, at Argos, V. 
xlvii. 9. 

Eion, in Chalcidice, a colony of 
Mende, iv. vii. 

Eion, upon the Strymon, besieged 
by Cimon, I. xcviii. 1; taken by 
Simonide.=, iv. vii. ; Artaphemes 
arrested there, IV. 1. 1 ; Attic-nian 
base in colonizing Ajnphipolis, IV. 
cii. 4; saved by Thucydides, IV. 
cvi. 4; cvii. 1; Cleon's base in 



INDEX 



operations against AmphipoIIs, V. 
vi. 1. 

Elaeus, In the Thracian Chersonese, 
VIII. cii. 1 ; ciii. 2 ; cvii. 2. 

Elaphebolion, Attic month, rv. cxvui. 
IL"; V. xix. 1. 

Eleatis, part of Thesprotia, I. xlvi. 4, 

Bleusinium, a temple at Athens, n. 
xvii. 1. 

Bleusis, in Attica, I. cxiv. 2 ; Π. xix. 
2 ; rx. 3 ; xxi. 1 ; IV. Ixviii. 5 ; 
war of the Eleusinians against 
Erechtheus, Π. xv. 1. 

Elimiots, a Macedonian tribe, Π. 
xcix. 2. 

Elis, the Eleans aid the Corinthians 
against Corcyra, I. xxvii. 2 ; xlvi. 
1 ; their naval arsenal, Cyllene, 
burned by the Corcyraeans, I. 
XIX. 2 ; furnish a naval contin- 
gent to the Lacedaemonian con- 
federacy, Π. Lx. 3 ; defeated by 
the Athenians, Π. xxv. 3 ; dis- 
satisfied with the treaty between 
the Lacedaemonians and Athenians, 
V. xvii. 2; join the Argive alliance, 
V. xxxi. 1 ; quarrel with the Lace- 
daemonians about Lepreum, ibi ; 
alliance with the Athenians, V. 
xliii. 3 ; xliv. 2 ; xlvii. 1 ; exclude 
the Lacedaemonians from the 
Olympic Games, V. xlix., 1. ; aid 
the Argives, V. Iviii. 1 ; angered 
about Lepreum, they return home, 
V. Ixii. 2 ; aid the Mantineans 
against Epidaurus, V. Ixxv. 5 ; 
deserted by the Argives, V. Ixxviii. 

Ellomenus, in Leucadia, m. xciv. 1. 

Elorine road, VI. Ixvi. 3; Ixx. 4; 
reached by the retreating Athenians 
on the night after the fifth day, 
VII. Ixxx. 5. 

Elymi, a partly Trojan race in 
Sicily, VI. ii. 3. 

Embatum, in Erythraea, m. xxix. 
2 ; xxxii. 1. 

Empedias, a Lacedaemonian, swears 
to the treaty of peace, V. xix., 
xxiv. 

Endius, Spartan envoy to Athens, 
V. xliv. 3 ; Ephor at Sparta, 
hereditary friend of Alcibiades, 
VIU. vi. 3 ; persuaded by Alci- 
biades not to give up ttie expedi- 
tion to Chios, νια. xli. 



Engine, battering, used at Plataea, 
n. lixvi. 4; at Minoa, n. li. 3; 
used to fire a wooden wall at 
Delium, iv. c. ; at Lecythus, IV. 
cxv. 2. 

Enipeus, a river in Thessaly, rv. 
Ixxviii. 3. 

Ennea Hodoi, Nine Ways, ancient 
name of Amphipolis, which see. 

Ennearrunus, a fountain at Athens, 
U. XV. 5. 

Enomoties, the smallest divisions in 
the Lacedaemonian army, v. Ixviii. 

Enyalium, sanctuary of Ares, near 
Megara, IV. Ixvii. 2. 

Eordia, a district in Macedonia, n. 
xcix. 5. 

Ephesian games, m. civ. 3. 

Ephesus, reached by Themistocles in 
his flight, I. cxxxvii. 2 ; Alcidas 
at Ephesus, m. xxxii., 3 ; xxxiii. 
1 ; Athenian envoys to the King 
return thence, iv. 1. 3; a Chian 
ship escapes to Ephesus, vill. xix. 
3 ; Tissaphemes sacrifices to Arte- 
mis at Ephesus, VIII. cix. 

Ephors at Sparta; their powers, L 
Ixxxvii. 1 ; cxxxi. 1. 

Ephyre, in Thesprotia, I. xlvi. 4. 

Epicles, a Lacedaemonian general, 
VIII. evil. 2. 

Epicydidas, a Lacedaemonian general, 
V. xii. 1. 

Epidamnus, a colony of the Corcy- 
raeans; its situation and origin, 
I. xxiv. ; asks aid of Corcyra ; 
is refused, I. xxiv. ; applies to 
Corinth, I. XXV.; receives aid in 
colonists from Corinth, I. xxvi. 1 ; 
besieged by the Corcyraeans, I. 
xxvi. 5 ; surrender, ibi ; the affair 
of Epidamnus, one of the avowed 
causes of the Pelopomiesian war, 
I. xxiii. 6 ; cxlvi. ; the Cor- 
cyraean prisoners taken at Epi- 
diimnus won over by the Oorin- 
tliians. III. Ixx. 

Epidaurus, furnishes a contingent of 
ships to Corinth, I. xxvii. 2; 
defeated by the Athenians at 
Halieis. I. cv. ; assists the Megarians 
to revolt, I. cxiv. 1 ; territory 
ravaged by the Athenians, n. 
Ivi. 4 ((•/. VI. xxxi. 2); IV. xlv. 2; 
war with the Argives, v. liii. ; 

421 



INDEX 



liv. 3; Iv. 2; Ivi. 4; garrisoned 
by the Lacedaemonians, v. Ivi. 1 ; 
invades Argos, V. Ixxv. 4; besieged 
by the Argive allies, V. Ixxv. 5, 6 ; 
the Argives agree by treaty to 
evacuate Epidaurus, V. Ixxvi. 3 ; 
Ixxvii. 2 ; the Athenians evacuate 
Epidaurus, V. Ixxx. 3 ; the Epidauri- 
ans supply ships to the Lacedae- 
monians, VIII. iii. ; a Peloponnesian 
fleet anchors at Epidaurus, vm. 
xcii. 3 ; xciv. 2. 

Epidaurus Limera, in Laconia, IV. Ivi. 
2 ; VI. cv. 2 ; VU. xviii. 3 ; xxvi. 2. 

Epipolae, its situation and importance, 
VI. xcvi. ; VII. ii ; captured by 
the Athenians, VI. xcvii. ; fortified, 

VI. ci. 1 ; attaclced by the Syra- 
cusans, VI. cu. ; Gylippus enters 
by way of, VII. i. 2 ; the Syra- 
cusans defeated there, vn. v. ; the 
Syracusans victorious and carry 
their cross-wall past the Athenian 
wall, vn. vi. ; night-battle on 
Epipolae, vn. xliii.-xlv. 

Bpirus, tribes from there join Cnemus, 

II. Ixxx. 5, 6. 
Epitadas, Lacedaemonian commander 

on Sphacteria, IV. xxxi., xxxiii. ff. 
Epizephyrian Locri, Gylippus and 

Pythen arrive, vn. i. 1. 
Erasinides, a Corinthian commander, 

VII. vii. 1. 

Erochtheus, King of Athens, n. xrv. 1. 

Eresus, strengthened by the Les- 
bians, m. xviii. 1 ; captured by 
Paches, III. xxxv. 1 ; Astyochus 
causes a revolt there, vin. xxiii. 2, 
4 ; it again revolts, VIII. c. 3 ; 
besieged by the Athenians, ci. 1 ; 
ciii. 2. 

Erctria, war with Chalcis, I. xv. 3 ; 
subject ally of Athens, vil. Ivii. 
4; betrays Oropus to the Boeo- 
tians, VIII. Ix. 1; asks assistance 
from tlie Lacedaemonians, Vin. 1.x. 
2 ; aids the Lacedaemonians to 
defeat the Athenians, vm. xcv. 

Erineum, in Doris, I. cvii. 1. 

Erineus, in Achaea, VII. xxxiv. 1. 

Eriueus, a river in SiCily, VII. Ixxx. 
7 ; Ixxxii. 3. 

Erytlirae, in Boeotia, in. xxiv. 2. 

Ei-ytlirae, in Ionia, HI. xxxiii. 2 : 
revolts from Athens vm, v. 4 ; 

422 



vi. 2 ; xiv. 2 ; assists in the revolt 
of Xeos, vni. xvi. 1 ; the Athenians 
hold forts in Erythraean territory, 
Vlll. xxiv. 2 ; Pedaritus sails 
from Erythrae for Chios, vm. 
xxviii. 5 ; xxxii. 2 ; Astyochus 
returns thither from Corycus, vm. 
xxxiii. ; trick of certain Erythraean 
prisoners there, ibi. 

Eryx, in Sicily, vi. ii. 3 ; temple of 
Aphrodite there, VI. xlvi. 3. 

Eteonicus, a Lacedaemonian com- 
mander, vm. xxiii. 4. 

Etruscan (Tyrrhenian) sea, IV. xxiv. 4. 

Etruscans (Tyrrhenians), ancient in- 
habitants of Lemnos, IV. cix. 4. 

Eualas (Evalas), a Spartan com- 
mander, VIII. xxii. 1. 

Euarchus (Evarchus), tyrant of 
Astacus, Π. XXX. 1; xxxiii. 1, 2. 

Euarchus (Evarchus) chosen as 
founder by the Catanaeans, VI. 
iii. 3. 

Euboea, revolts from Atliens, but 
is subdued, 1. cxiv. ; Athenian 
flocks removed thither, II. xiv. ; 
precautions for the safety of 
Euboea, 11. xxvi (c/. m. xvii. 2); 
plundered by Locrian pirates, n. 
xxxii. ; Lacedaemonians form de- 
signs upon Euboea, m. xcii., 
xciii. ; Athens supplied from 
Euboea, vn. xxviii. 1 ; negotia- 
tions with Agis about a fresh 
revolt, VIII. v. 1, 2; all Euboea 
except Oreos revolts, VIII. xcv. 7; 
effect of its loss on the Athenians, 
vni. xcvi. 1. 

Eubulus, a Chian commander, vm. 
xxiii. 4. 

Eucles, an Athenian general, I v. civ. 
4. 

Eucles, a Syracusan general, VI. 
ciii. 4. 

Eucleides, one of the founders of 
Himera, VI. v. 1. 

Euctemon, an Athenian commander, 
Vin. XXX. 

Euesperitae, in Libya, vn. 1. 2. 

Euetion, an Athenian commander, 
attacks Amphipolis, without suc- 
cess, VU. ix. 

Eumachus, a Corinthian commander, 
II. x.xxiii. 1. 

Eumolpidae, at Athens, proti-^t 



INDEX 



against recall of Alcibiades, vm. 
liii. 2. 

Eupalium, a town in Ozolian Locris, 
m. xcvi. 2 ; cU. 1. 

Euphamidas, a Corinthian com- 
mander, II. xxxiii. 1 ; IV. cxix. 1 ; 

V. Iv. 1. 

Eupheraus, Athenian envoy at 

Camarina, VT. Ixxv. 4; speech 

there, VI. Ixxxii.-lxxxvii. 
Eupompidas, a Plataean, ΙΠ. xx. 1. 
Euripus, strait between Euboea and 

the Mainland, VII. xxix. 2. 
Europus, in Macedonia, II. c. 3. 
Eurybatus, a Corcyraean commander, 

I. xlvii. 1. 
Euryelus, western ridge of Epipolae, 

VI. xcvii. 2 ; vn. ii. 3. 
Burylochus, Spartan commander in 

expedition against li.iupactus. III. 
c.-cii. ; brings reinforcements to 
the Ambraciots at Olpae, ni. cvi. ; 
defeated, ΠΙ. cvii., cviii. ; his 
death, in. cix. 

Eurymachus, negotiates intrigue with 
Plataean traitors, Π. ii. 3 ; killed 
by the Plataeans, II. v. 7. 

Eurymedon, river in Pamphylia, 
Persian defeat there, I. c. 1. 

Eurymedon, son of Thucles, an 
.Athenian commander, sent to 
Corcyra, ΙΠ. Ixxx. 2 ; Ixxxi. 4 ; 
Ixxxv. 1 ; joins expedition of 
Nicias, III. xci. 4; despatched 
with fleet to Sicily, IV. 2; fleet 
detained at Pylos, iv. iii. ; sum- 
moned by Demosthenes to his aid 
from Zacynthus, IV. viii. 3 ; sails 
from Pylos for Sicily, stopping at 
Corcyra, IV. xlvi. 1 ; operations 
tliere, ibi ; fined by the Athenians, 
IV. Ixv. 3 ; sent to Sicily as col- 
league of Nicias, vil. xvi. 1 ; 
returning from Sicily, meets 
Demosthenes at Corcyra, VII. xxxi. 
3 ; returns with Demosthenes, VII. 
xxxiii. 3 ; joins in attack on 
Epipolae, vil. xliii. 2 ; concurs 
with Demost'ienes in urging with- 
drawal from Syracuse, vn. xlix. 
2 ; slain, vii. Iii.' 2. 

Eurystheas, slain in Attica by the 
Heracleidae, l. ix. 2. 

Eurytanians, an Aetolian tribe, in. 
xciv, 5, 



Eustrophus, Argive envoy to Lace- 
daemon, V. xl. 3. 

Euthydemus, an Athenian, swears to 
the treaty of peace, V. xix.. xxiv. ; 
appointed colleague of JS'lcias be- 
fore Syracuse, VII. xvi. 1 ; com- 
mands with Demosthenes in the 
last sea-fight, vn. Ixix. 4. 

Euxine Sea, II. xcvi.; xcvii. 1. 

Eveniis, river in Aetolia, n. Ixxxiii. 3. 

Famines during the war, I. xxiii. 1 ; 
in Cyprus, I. cxii. 4; in Potidaea, 
II. Ixx. 1; in Plataea, m. Iii. 1; 
in Corcyra, IV. ii. 3. 

Festivals : of Zeus Meilichius, I. 
cxxvi. ; the Synoecia at Athens, 
II. XV. 2 ; of Apollo MaloeLs at 
Mytilene, in. iii. 3 ; Dionysia, v. 
xxiii. 4; Hyacinthia at Sparta, 
ibi ; v. xli. 3 ; Panathenaea at 
Athens, v. xlvii. 10 ; Ivi. 2 ; Θ5τη- 
nopaediae at Sparta, V. Ixxxii. 2 ; 
Cameia at Sparta, V. liv. 2 ; Ixx. 
5; of Heracles at Syracuse, vil. 
Ixxiii. 2. 

Five Hundred, council of, or senate, 
viil. Ixvi. 1; Ixix. 4; Ixxxvi. 6. 

Five Thousand, the sham govern- 
ment offered by the oligarchical 
conspirators at Athens, viII. Ixv. 
3 ; Ixvii. 3 ; l.xxii. 1 ; Ixixvi. 3, 
6 ; cloak for restoration of the 
democracy, vill. Ixxxix. 2 ; xcii. 
1 1 ; the oligarchs promise to 
publish the names, Vlll. xciii. 2 ; 
established by the Athenians, VIII. 
xcvii.; excellence of the constitu- 
tion, ibi. 

Four Hundred, government of, intro- 
duced by the oligarchical con- 
spirators at Athens, viu. Ixvii.- 
Ixx. ; despatch heralds to Agis 
and to Sparta, vni. Ixx. 2 ; Ixxi. 
3 ; send commissioners to Samof, 
VIII. Ixxii. 1 ; detain crew of the 
Paralus who announce revolution 
at Samos, vui. Ixxiv. ; reception 
of their envoys at Samos, \Ίη. 
Ixxxvi. 1-4 ; their envoys delivered 
to the Argives, VIII. Ixxxvi. 9 ; 
their envoys return to Athens and 
report from Alcibiades, VIII. Ixxxix. 
2 ; the leaders willing to betray 
Athens in order to save their own 



INDEX 



power, vra. xc. 1; icl. 3; enter 
into negotiations with the populace 
after the destruction of Ectioneia, 
VIII. xciii. ; deposed, vni. xcvii. 1. 
Funeral, public, of those who first 
fell in the war, 11. xxxiv. ; Pericles' 
funeral oration, Π. ixxv.-xlvl; 
Brasidas' public funeral, V. xi. 1. 

Galepsus, a Thasian colony in Thrace, 
joins Brasidas, IV. cvii. 3; taken 
by Cleon, V. vi. 1. 
Qaulites, a Carian, sent by Tissa- 
phenies to Sparta to accuse the 
Milesians, VIII. Ixxxv. 1. 
Qela, in Sicily, founded by Anti- 
phemus and Entimus, VI. vi. 3 ; 
conference there, IV. Iviii. ; receives 
and assists Gylippus, vn. i. 4, 5; 
sends aid to the Syracusans, vn. 
ixxiii. 1 ; Iviii. 1. 
Qelon, tyrant of Syracuse, expels the 
inhabitants of Megara Hyblaea, 
VI. iv. 2 ; xciv. 1 ; colonizes 
Camarina a third time, vi. v. 3. 
Gkraestus, in Euboea, m. iii. 5. 
Geraneia, Mt., I. cv. 3 ; cvii. 3 ; cviii. 

2 ; IV. Ixx. 1. 
Gerastins, a Spartan month, TV. 

cxix. 1. 
Getae, a people bordering on the 

Scythians, II. xcvi. 1 ; xcviii. 4. 
Gigonus, in Chaloidice, I. Ixi. 5. 
Glauce, in the territory of Mycale, 

viu. Ixxix. 2. 
Glaucon, an Athenian conamander, 

I. li. 4. 
Goaxis, whose sons killed Pittacus, 

King of the Edonians, IV. cvii. 3. 
Gold mines in Thrace, worked by 

Thucydides, IV. cv. 1. 
Gonjylus, an Eretrian, envoy of 

Pausanias, I. cxxviii. 6. 
Gongylus, a Corinthian commander, 

vn. ii. 1. 
Gortynia, in Macedonia, Π. c. 3. 
Gortys, in Crete, II. Ixxxv. 5. 
Grala, a district in Boeotia, Π. xxiii. 

3; III. xci. 3. 
Graphe paranomon, at Athens, re- 
pealed, vm. Ixvii. 2. 
Grasshoppers, golden, ornaments once 

worn at Athens, I. vi. 3. 
Grestonia, a district of Macedonia, 
Π. xcix. 6 ; c. 4. 

424 



Guardians of the Law, Thesmo- 
phylae, a magistracy at Elis, V. 
xlvii. 9. 
Gylippus, a Spartan, appointed com- 
"mander at Syracuse, VI. xciii. 2 ; 
arrives at Tarentum, VI. civ. 1 ; 
fails in mission to Thurii, VI. civ. 
2 ; makes his way to Syracuse, 
vn. i. 2 ; offers battle on Epipolae, 
vn. 3 ; captures Labdalum, ibi ; 
fails in attack on Athenian lines, 
vn. iv. 1; defeated, vn. v.; 
defeats the Athenians, vil. vi. ; 
goes to seek reinforcements, vn. 
vii. 2 ; sends to Lacedaemon and 
Corinth for reinforcements, vn. vii. 
3; encourages the Syracusans to 
try sea-fight, vn. xxl. ; takes 
Plemrayrium, vn. xxiii., xxiv. ; 
makes " diversion by land while 
the Syracusan fleet attacks, vn. 
xxxvii. ; goes to collect reinforce- 
ments, VII. xlvi. ; returns, vn. 1. 
1 ; supports with land-troops the 
naval attack, VU. liii. 2; prepares 
for the great sea-fight, vn. Ixv. ; 
addresses the troops, vn. L-cvi.- 
Ixviii. ; blocks roads by which the 
Athenians would retreat, VII. Ixxiv. 
2 ; captures Demosthenes' division, 
VII. Ixxxii. ; refuses terms offered 
by Nicias; harasses retreating 
Athenians, vn. Ixxxiii. ; receives 
Nicias' surrender, vn. ixxxv. ; 
opposes putting Nicias and Demos- 
thenes to death, VII. Ixxxvi. 2. 
Gymnopaediae, festival at Sparta, V. 

Ixxxii. 2, 3. 
Gyrtonians, a Thessalian people, Π. 
xxii. 3. 

Habronichus, Athenian ambassador 

to Sparta with Themistocles, I. 

xci. 1. 
Haemus, Mt., in Thrace, II. xcvL 

1. 
Haerae, in the territory of Teos, 

revolts from Athens, VIII. xix. 4; 

resb-ts assault of the Athenian 

fleet, vin. sx. 2. 
Hagnon, son of Nicias, colleague of 

Pericles at Samos, I. cxvii. 2; 

brings reinforcements to Potidaea, 

II. Iviii. 1 (c/. VI. xxxi. 2); returns 

to Athens, u. Iviii. 3; commander 



INDEX 



in Chalcidice, II. xcv. 3 ; settles 
Ajnphipolis, IV. cii. 3, 4; edifices 
of Hagnon (Haguoneia) pulled 
down there, V. xi. 1 ; swears to 
the treaty of peace, v. six., xxiv. 

Halex, a river in Italian Locris, III. 
xcix. 

Haliartians, in battle at Delium, rv. 
xciii. 4. 

Halicamassus, an Athenian fleet 
escapes thither, Tin. ilii. 4; 
Athenians exact money there, 
vm. cviii. 2. 

Halieis, defeat of the Athenians 
there, I. cv. 1 ; ravaged by the 
Athenians, II. Ivi. 5 ; again, IV. 
civ. 2. 

Halys, river in Asia Minor, I. xvi. 

Hamaxitus, in the Troad, vm. ci. 3. 

Hamippi, v. Ivii. 2. 

Harbour, the Great, of Syracuse, VI. 
ci. 3 ; vn. iv. 4 ; xxii. 2 ; defeat 
of the Syracusans at the mouth 
of, VII. xxiii. ; second sea-Cght 
there, vn. xxxvu.-xli. ; third sea- 
fight, vrr. lii. ; fourth sea-fight, 
vn. Ixx., Ixxi. ; the lesser harbour, 
vn. xxii. 1. 

Harmatus, opposite Methymna, vm. 
ci. 3. 

Harmodius and Aristogeiton, con- 
spiracy of, against Hipparchus, I. 
IX. 2 ; VI. liv. 1 ; Ivi.-lviii. 

Harpagium, on the Propontis, vm. 
cvii. 1. 

Harpina, in the valley of the Alpheius, 
V. 1. 3. 

Hebrus, a river in Tlirace, n. xcvi. 4. 

Hegesander, a Thespian commander, 
II. xix. 3. 

Hegesandridas, a Spartan, naval 
commander, vm. xci. 2 ; xciv. ; 
his fleet victorious over the 
Athenians, vra. xcv. 

Hegesippidas, Lacedaemonian gover- 
nor of Heracleia, v. lii. 1 ; dismissed 
by the Boeotians, ibi. 

Helen, suitors of, I. ix. 1. 

Helixus, a Megarian commander, 
VIII. Ixxx. 3. 

Hellanicus, inaccuracy of, I. xcvii. 2. 

Hellas, agitation in, before the war, 
I. i. ; 11. vui. ; xi. ; early condition 
of, I. ii. ; Trojan war, first com- 
mon action of, I. iii. 1 ; name 



derived from Hellas and not given 
at first to the whole country, I. 
iii. 2 ; Minos first possessor of a 
navy in, I. iv. ; piracy honor- 
able in Hellas, I. iv. 5 ; ancient 
cuitom of carrying arms, I. vi. 1 ; 
older towns built inland, I. vii. ; 
colonies sent out, I. xii. ; rise of 
tyrannies, I. xiii. 1 ; the war be- 
tween Chalcis and Eretria, the 
first in which Hellas took sides, I. 
XV. 3 ; hegemony in Hellas trans- 
ferred from Lacedaemon to Athens, 
I. sviii., xcv., xcvi. ; excitement in 
Hellas over failure of the Sicilian 
expedition, vm. ii. 

Hellen, gave name to Hellas, I. iii. 2. 

Hellenotamiae, the officers who re- 
ceived the tribute of the allies at 
Athens, I. xcvi. 

Hellespont, the allies in the Persian 
war at the Hellespont, I. lixxix. ; 
Pausanias in command there, I. 
xcv. ; cxxviii. 3 ; Phamabazus, 
satrap at the Hellespont seeks 
aid of Lacedaemon, vm. vi. ; the 
Lacedaemonians determine to send 
a fleet thither under Clearchus, 
VIII. viii. 3 ; Dercyllidas sent 
thither overland, vm. Ixi., Ixii. ; 
the Athenian fleet leaves the 
Hellespont for Samos, vm. Ixxix. ; 
Clearchus proceeds thither, Byzan- 
tium revolts, vm. Ixxx. ; the 
Hellespont saved to Athens by 
Alcibiades' preventing the fleet 
sailing to the Peiraeus, vm. 
Ixxxvi. 4; xcvi. 4; the Pelo- 
ponnesian fleet sails for the Helles- 
pont, vm. xcix. ; the Athenians 
follow, vm. c. ; operations in the 
Hellespont and battle of Cynos- 
sema, vm. cϋ.-CΛ-ii. ; Tissaphemes 
annoyed on hearing that the 
Lacedaemonians had gone to the 
Hellespont, VIII. cviii. 3 ; cix. 1. 

Helos, town in Laconia, iv. liv. 3. 

Helots, revolt and go to Mt. Ithome, 
I. ci. 2 (c/. II. xxvii. 2; m. liv. 
6 ; IV. Ivi. 2) ; surrender, I. ciii. 
1 ; settled at Naupactus by the 
Atlienians, ibi ; murder of. at 
Taenarus, I. cxxviii. 1 ; carry 
supplies into Sphacteria, iv. xxvi. 
7; desert to the Messenians in 



INDEX 



Pylos, rv. xU. 3; offer of freedom 
to and butchery of Helots, iv. 
Ixxx. 3, 4; 700 Helots sent with 
Brasidas, IV. Ixxx. 5 ; nfterwards 
settled at Lepream, V. xxxiv. 1 ; 
withdrawn from Pylos, v. xxxv. 
7 ; replaced, V. Ivi. 3 ; a body 
of Helots and Neoilamodes sent 
by the Lacedaemonians to Sicily, 
vn. xix. 3 ; Iviii. 3 ; taken by 
the Athenians to SyraciLse, vu. 
xxxi. 2 ; Ivii. 8. 

Hephaestus, fon^e of, believed to be 
in Hiera, m. Ixxxviii. 3. 

Hera, temple of, at Corcyra, I. xxiv. 
7; in. Ixxv. 5; IxxLx. 1; Ixxxi. 
2; at Plataea, in. Ixviii. 3; at 
Argos, burned down IV. cxxxiii. 2; 
at Bpidaurus, V. Ixxv. 6. 

Heracleia, in Trachis, founded by 
the Lacedaemonians, III. xcii. ; c. 
2 ; failure of the colony, ΙΠ. xciii. ; 
Brasidas reaches Heracleia, IV. 
Ixxviii. 1 ; regulated by the Lace- 
daemonians, V. xii. ; the Hera- 
cleians are defeated by the neigh- 
bouring tribes, V. li. ; taken over 
by the Boeotians, V. lii. 

Heracleia, in Pontus, IV. Ixxv. 2. 

Heracles, temple of, at Mantineia, V. 
Ixiv. 5; Ixvi. 1; festival at Syra- 
cuse, vn. Ixxiii. 2. 

Heracleidae, slay Eurystheus in 
Attica, I. ix. 2 ; conquer the Pelo- 
ponnesus, I. xii. 3 ; Phalius, a 
Corinthian, one of the Heracleidae. 
I. xxiv. 2 ; Archias, founder of 
Syracuse, a Heracleid, VI. iii. 2. 

Heracleides, a Syracusan general, VI. 
Ixxiii. ; deposed on a charge of 
treachery, VI. ciii. 4. 

Heraeans, of Arcadia, V. Ixvii. 1. 

Hermae, mutiliation of the, vi. 
xxvii., rxviii. ; excitement at 
Athens about, VI. liii., Ix. ; con- 
fession of one of the prisoners. 
VI. Ix. 

Hermaeondas, a Theban, in. v. 4. 

Hermes, temple of, near Mycalessus, 
VIII. xxix. 3. 

Hermione, furnishes a convoy to 
the Corinthians, I. xxvii. 2 ; 
Pausanias uses a trireme of, I. 
c.xxviii. 3 ; οχ.ώϊ. 1 ; territory 
ravaged by the Athenians, II. hi. 

426 



5; supplies ships to the Lacedae- 
monians, vni. iii. 2 ; .xxxiii. 1. 
Hermocrates, son of Hennon, speech 
at Gela, IV. lix.-liiv. ; second 
i;i)oech, VI. xxxiii., xxxiv. ; en- 
courages the Syracusans after 
defeat, VI. Ix.xii. ; chosen general, 

VI. l.xxiii. ; xcvi. 3 ; xci.x. 2 ; 
speech at Camarina, vi. Ixxvi.- 
Itsx. ; deposed, vi. ciii. 4; 
heartens the Syracusans for naval 
enterprise, VII. xxi. ; stratagem 
to delay the Athenian retreat, 

VII. Ixxiii.; urges the Siceliots to 
continue the war for the destruc- 
tion of Athens, Vlll. xxvi. 1 ; 
remonstrates with Tissaphernes for 
reducing the ships' pay ; goes 
to Sparta to expose him, viil 
Ixxxv. 

Hermon, an Athenian, commander of 
the Peripoli, Vin. xcii. 5. 

He.siod, said to have been killed at 
Nemea, in. xcvi. 1. 

Hessians, an Ozolian Locrian tribe, 
in. ci. 2. 

Hestiaea, in Euboea, the Hestiaeans 
expelled by the Athenians, I 
cxiv. 3 ; as colonists from Athens, 
warring at Syracuse on Athens' 
side, VII. Ivii. 2. 

Hestiodorus, an Athenian commander 
at Potidaea, n. Ixx. 1. 

Hiera, one of the Liparaean islands, 
III. Ixxxviii. 2. 

Hieramenes, mentioned with Tissa- 
phernes in the third treaty with 
the Lacedaemonians, Vin. Iviii. 1. 

Hiereans, in Malis, ni. xcii. 3. 

Hierophon, an Athenian commander, 
in. cv. 3. 

Himera, invaded by the Athenians 
and Sicels, m. civ. ; colonized 
from Zancle, VI. v. 1 ; only 
Hellenic city on north coast, VI. 
Ixii. 2 ; VII. Iviii. 2 ; reinforces 
Gylippus, vn. i. 5 ; ally of the 
Syracusans, VII. Iviii. 2. 

Himeraeum, in Thrace, vn. ix. 

Hippagretas, one of the Spartan 
commanders at Sphacteria, IV. 
xxxviii. 1. 

Hipparchus, son of Peisistratus, never 
tyrant, i. xx. 2 ; slain by Harmo- 
dius and Aristogeiton, I. xx. ; VI. 



INDEX 



Iv. ; lii.-Iviii. ; left no children, 
VI. Iv. 1. 
Hippias, eldest son of Peisistratus, 
I. ΧΪ. 2 ; VT. liv. 1 ; Iv. 1 ; his 
children, vi. Iv. 1 ; deposed by 
the Lacedaemonians. VI. lix. ; goes 
to Persia ; at Marathon, ibi. 
Hippias, commander at Notium, 

murdered by Paches, III. xxiiv. 
ELippocles, an Athenian commander, 

Vin. siii. 
Hippocrates, colleague of Demos- 
thenes; operations at Megara, IV. 
Ixvi.-lxis. ; plans with Demos- 
thenes invasion of Boeotia, IV. 
Ixxvi., Ixxvii. ; attempt fails, IV. 
Ixxxix. ; fortifies Delium, IV. xc. ; 
speech of, IV. xcv. ; commander 
at Delium, IV. xcvi. ; slain, IV. 
ci. 2. 
Hippocrates, a Lacedaemonian com- 
mander, loses part of liis fleet 
oflE Triopium, vni. xxxv. ; informs 
Mindarus of Tissaphemes' treachery, 
vm. xcix. ; sent to Euboea, viH. 
cvii. 2. 

Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela, VI. v. 
3 ; refounds Camarina, ibi. 

Hippolochidas, a friend of Erasidas 
in Thessaly, IV. Ixxviii. 1. 

Hipponicus, an Athenian general, 
m. xci. 4. 

Hipponoidas, a Spartan polemarch 
at Mantiueia, V. Ixji. 3; banished 
lor cowardice, V. Ixxii. 1. 

Homer, how he names the early 
inhabitants of Hellas, I. iii. 3 ; as 
witness, I. ix. 3 ; x. 3 ; xiii. 5; 
hymn to Apollo, ni. civ. 4, δ. 

Hyacinthia, a Lacedaemonian festival, 
V. xxiii. 4. 

Hyaeans, an Ozolian Locrian tribe, 
ra. ci. 2. 

Hybla Geleatis, in Sicily, attacked 
by the Athenians, Vl. Ixii. 5 ; Ixiii. 
2 ; their com burnt, VI. xciv. 3. 

Hyblon, a Sicel King, VI. iv. 1. 

Hyccara, in Sicily, taken by the 
Athenians, VI. Ixii. 3 (c/. vn. xiii. 
3). 

Hylias, a river in Italy, νπ. xxxv. 2. 

Hyllaic harbour at Corcyra, in. l.xxii. 
3 ; Ixxxii. 2. 

Hyperbolus, an Athenian demagogue, 
put to death, vm. Ixxiii. 3. 



Hysiae, in Argos, captured by the 

Lacedaemonians, V. Ixx.xiii. 2. 
Hysiae, in Boeotia, m. xxiv. 2. 

lalysus, in Rhodes, vin. xliv. 2. 

lapygia, promontory in Italy, VI. 
XXI. 1 ; xxxiv. 3 ; VTI. xxxiii. 4 : 
lapygians hired allies of the 
Athenians against Svracuse, VII. 
Ivii. 11. 

lasian Gulf, Vm. xxvi. 2. 

lasus, in Ionia, wealth of, sacked, 
VIII. xxviii. 3 ; Phrynichus accused 
by Peisander of its betrayal, vill. 
liv. 

Iberians : the Sicanians oricrinally 
Iberians, VI. ii. 2 ; most warlike ot 
Barbarians, VI. xc. 

Icarus, island in the Aegean, III. 
xxix. 1 ; VIII. xcix. 

Ichthys, promontory in Elis, II. 
XXV. 4. 

Ida, Mt., in the Troad, IV. lij. 3; 
VIII. cviii. 4. 

Idacus. in the Thracian Chersonese, 
VIII. civ. 2. 

Idomene, hill in Amphilochia, battle 
there, in. cxii., cxiii. 

letae, a fort of the Sicels, VII. ii. 3. 

Illyrians, hired by Perdiccas, IV. 
cxxiv. 4 ; deserti, cxxv. 1 ; defeated 
by Brasidas, IV. cxxvii., cxxviii. 

Imbrians, stand by Athens in the 
Mytilenaean revolt. III. v. 1 ; Im- 
brians taken by Cleon to Pylos, 
IV. xxviii. 4 ; with Cleon at Am- 
phipolis, V. viii. 2 ; allies of Athens 
at Syracuse, vn. Ivii. 2. 

Inarus, king of the Libyans, revolts 
from the King, I. civ. 1 ; captured 
and impaled, I. ex. 3. 

Inessa, a Sicel town, attacked by the 
Athenians, m. ciii. 1 ; crops burnt, 
VI. xciv. 3. 

lolaus, lieutenant of Perdiccas, I. 
Ixii. 2. 

lolcius, an Athenian, who swears to 
the treaty, V. xix. xxiv. 

Ionia, colonized from Athens, I. ii. 
6; xii. 4; xcv. 1: n. xv. 4; iil. 
Ixxxvi. 3 ; habits of life common 
to the older Athenians and lonians, 
I. vi. 3 ; loiiians possess a great 
fleet in the time of Cyrus, I. xiii 
6 ; subdued by Gyrus and Darius 

427 



INDEX 



I. xvi. ; accept hegemony of Athens, 
I. xcv. 1 ; VI. Ixxvi. 3 ; Ionian 
exiles urge the Lacedaemonians 
to rake revolution in Ionia, m. 
xxxi. ; excluded from Heracleia, 
m. icii. 5 ; lonians and Tissa- 
phemes beg aid at Sparta, vrn. 

V. 6 ; Ionia revolts, vill. xiv.- 
xxii. ; Tissaphemes demands all 
Ionia for the King, vni. Ivi. i. 

lonians, contrasted with Dorians, 

see under Dorians. 
Ionian Gulf, I. xxiv. 1 ; II. xcvil. 5 ; 

VI. xiii. 1; xxx. 1 ; xxxiv. 4; xliv. 
1 ; civ. 1 ; vu. xxxiii. 1 ; Ivii. 
11. 

Ionian festivals : the Dionysia, n. 

XV. 4 ; at Delos, in. civ. 2 ; at 

Ephesus, m. civ. 3. 
Ipnaeans, an Ozolian Locrian tribe, 

m. ci. 2. 
Iponieaas, colonists of the Locrians 

in Italy, v. v. 3. 
Isarchidas, a Corinthian commander, 

I. xxix. 2. 

Ischagoras, a Lacedaemonian com- 
mander, sent to reinforce Brasidas, 
IV. cxxxii; swears to treaty of 
peace, V. xix., xxiv. ; envoy to 
Chalcidice, v. xxxi. 

Isocrates, a Corinthian commander, 

II. Ixxxiii. 4. 

Ister, the river, II. xcvi. 1 ; xcvii. 1. 

Isthmian Games, vin. ix. 1 ; x. 1. 

Isthmionicus, an Athenian, swears to 
treaty of peace, V. xix., xxiv. 

Isthmus, of Corinth, advantageous 
situation of, I. xiii. 1-5 ; Lacedae- 
monian allies summoned to the 
Istlmius, Π. X.; xiii. 1; xviii. 3; 
Π1. XV. 1 ; earthquakes stop Lace- 
daemonian army at the Lsttimus, 

III. Ixxxix. 1 ; treaty of peace to 
be inscribed on a pillar at the 
Isthmus, V. xviii. 11; a small 
Lacedaemonian force comes thither 
during the excitement about the 
Hermae, VI. Ixi. 2. 

Isthmus of Leucas, m. Ixxxi. 1 ; rv. 

viii. 2. 
Isthmus of Pallene, I. Ivi. 2; Ixii. 

5; Ixiv. 1. 
Istone, Mt., on Corcyra, occupied 

by the oligarchs, m. Ixxxv. 4 ; 

IV. ii. 3 ; xlvi. 1 ; capture of, ibi. 



Italus, a Sicel King who gave name 
to Italy, V. ii. 4. 

Italy, named from King Italus 
(VI. ii. 4), most of the Hellenic 
colonies in Sicily founded from 
the Peloponnesus, I. xii. 4 ; Lace- 
daemonians order their Italian 
allies to furnish ships, II. vii. 2 ; 
the Italian Locrians side with the 
Syracusans, the Khegians with the 
i-ieontines. III. Ixxsvi. 2 ; mission 
sent by the Athenians to Italy, 
IV. iv. 1 ; V. ; Hermocrates advises 
the Syracusans to seek allies in 
Italy, VI. xxxiv. ; Italian cities 
refuse to receive the Athenians, 
VI. xliv. ; Syracusan envoys to 
Corinth and Sparta, sent to win 
over Italian cities, VI. lx.xxviu. 7; 
Athenians obtain supy)lies there- 
from, VI. ciii. 2 ; Gylippus goes 
to Thurii and Tarentum, VI. civ. ; 
the second Athenian expedition 
reaches Italy, vn. xxxiii. ; Italian 
allies of the Athenians before 
Syracuse, \ίι. Ivii. 11; Italiot 
prisoners of the Syracusans re- 
tained, with the Siceliots and 
Athenians, after the others are 
sold, vn. 1 xxx vii. 3 ; Italian vessels 
with the Lacedaemonian fleet, 
VIII. xci. 2. 

Itamenes, a Persian commander, ΠΙ. 
xxxiv. 1. 

Ithome, Mt., seized by Helots, 
I. ci. 2 (cf. m. liv. 5) ; besieged by 
the Lacedaemonians, L cii. 1 ; 
surrendered, I. ciii. 

Itys, legend of, Π. xxix. 3. 

Labdalum, a fort built by the 
Athenians on Epipolae, VI. xcvii. 
δ; garrisoned by the Athenians, 

VI. xcviii. 2 ; captured by Gylippus, 

VII. iu. 4. 

Lacedaemon : dress and habits of 
living of the Lacedaemonians, I. 
vl. 4; first to strip in the games, 
I. vi. 5 ; Lacedaemon contrastecl 
with Atlaens, I. x. 2 : had good 
laws, never subject to tyrants, I. 
xviii. 1 ; assume liegemony of the 
Hellenes, I. xviii. 2 ; their hege- 
mony contrasted with the Athenian, 
I. xix. ; enforce strict oligarctiiea 



428 



INDEX 



among their allies, ibi ; ef. I. 
Ixivi. 1 ; V. Ixxxi. 2 ; promise 
aid to the Potidaeans, I. Iviii. \ ; 
summon their allies to Lacedae- 
mon, I. Ixvii. 1 ; their sloDhful 
character as contrasted with the 
Athenians, I. liix., Ixx. ; Ixxxiv. 
1; VIII. xcvi. 5; "liberators of 
Hellas," I. Ixix. 1 ; n. viii. 4 ; m. 
lix. 4; IV. Ixxxv. 1; cviii. 2; V. 
ix. 9; VU. xliii. 3; xlvi. 3; lii. ; 
vote the treaty broken, I. Ιχχχτϋ. ; 
they vote by cry not by ballot, 
ibi ; their reason for considering 
the treaty broken and going to 
war, I. Ixxxviii., cxAiii. ; endeavour 
to prevent the rebuilding of the 
Athenian walls, I. xc. 1 ; deceived 
by Themistocles, I. xc.-xcii. ; 
summon Pausanias to Lacedaf-mon, 
I. xcv. 3 ; cxxxi. 1 ; the Helots 
revolt, I. ci. 2; Athenians called 
in, I. cii. ; dismissed, ibi ; cause 
of the first open quarrel between 
the Lacedaemonians and Athenians, 
ibi ; assist the Dorians against 
the Phocians, I. evil. 2 ; defeat 
the Athenians at Tanagra, ibi ; 
cviii. 1 ; engage in the " sacred 
war," I. cxii. 5; invade Attica, I. 
cxiv. 2 ; conclude thirty years 
truce, I. cxv. 1 ; alarm at growth 
of the Athenian empire, I. οχΛ•ϋ1. ; 
consult the oracle, I. ex viii. 3; 
summon allies again, I. cxix. ; vote 
for war, I. cxxv. ; send embassies 
to Athens, I. cxxvi. 1 ; bid the 
Athenians drive out the " curse of 
the goddess," ibi ; Athenians 
answer, drive out the curse of 
Taenarus, I. cxxvii. 1; treatment 
of the Helots, I. cxxviii. 1 (c/. IV. 
Ixxx. 3) ; final demand upon the 
Athenians, 1. cxxxix. ; Pericles 
refei-s to their expulsion of aliens, 
I. cxliv. 2 (c/. n. xxxLx. 1); medi- 
tate sending embassies to the 
King, Π. vii. 1 ; list of their allies, 
n. ix. 1 ; summon allies to the 
Isthmus before invading Attica, 
Π. X. ; attack Oenoe, II. xviii. ; 
ravage Attica, II. xix.-xxii. ; defeat 
Athenians at Phrygia, II. xxii. 2 ; 
retire, II. xxiii. 3 ; settle the 
Aeginetans at Thyrea, n. xxvii. ; 



(2nd year) again invade Attica, Π. 
xlvii. 2 ; reach Laureium, ll. Iv. ; 
quit Attica, II. Ivii. ; reject offers 
of peace, il. lix. 2 ; attack Zacyn- 
thus, II. Ixvi. ; send envoys to 
the King, II. Ixvii.; Lacedae- 
monian slaughter of traders, ibi ; 
(3rd year) attack and finally invest 
Plataea, n. Ixxi.-lxxvui. ; invade 
Acamania, Π. Ixxx. ; defeated at 
sea by the Athenians, II. Ixxxiii., 
Ixxxvi. ; send advisers to their 
admiral, Π. Ixxxv. 1; again 
defeated, Π. Ixxxvi.-xcii. ; plan 
attack on Peiraeus; ravage 
Salamis, Π. xciii., xciv. ; (4th 
year) invade Attica, III. i. ; send 
the Mytilenaean envoys to Olym- 
pia. III. viii. ; receive the Myti- 
lenacans into their alliance, m. 
XV. 1 ; summon the allies to the 
Lsthmus, ibi ; prepare to send a 
fleet to Lesbos, ill. xvi. : send 
Salaethus to Mytilcne, in. xxv. 1 ; 
(5th year) invade Attica, m. 
xxvi. ; too late to sa\e Lesbos, 
III. xxix. ; bring Plataea to sur- 
render, m. Hi. ; put the Plataeaus 
to the sword. III. Ixviii. ; raze 
Plataea, ibi ; prepare an expe- 
dition to Coriyra, III. Ixix. ; engage 
the Athenians and Corcyraeans, 
III. Ixxvi.-lxxviii. ; retire, m. 
Lxxix.-lxxxi. ; (Cth year) deterred 
by earthquakes from invading 
Attica, III. Ixxxi.x. 1 ; colonize 
Heracleia, III. xcii., xciii., c. ; bad 
administration of Heracleia. III. 
xciii. 3 ; v. lii. 1 ; send expedition 
against Naupactus, m. c.-cii. ; 
invade Amphilochia, iii. cv., cvi. ; 
defeated, III. cvii., cviii. ; desert 
the Ambraciots, ΠΙ. cix., cxi. ; 
(7th year) invade Attica, iv. ii. 1 ; 
return on the news of the capture 
of Pylos, IV. vi. ; occupy Sphac- 
teria, IV. viii. ; assault Pyloa 
unsuccessfully, IV. xi., xii. ; their 
niilitary prestige on land, IV. xii, 
3 ; defeated in the harbour, IV. 
xiv. ; make truce and send envoys 
to Athens, IV. xv., xvi. ; speech 
there, IV. xvii.-xx. ; break off 
negotiations, iv. xxi., xx. ; their 
troops in Sphacteria attacked and 

429 



INDEX 



forced to surrender, IV. xixi.- 
xxrviii. ; common beli'-f that Lace- 
daemonians would never sur- 
render. IV. xl. 1 ; sue for peace, 
rv. xli. ; negotiate with the King, 

IV. 1. ; (8th year) the Athenians 
take Cythera, iv. liii., liv. ; the 
Lacedaemonians panic-stricken at 
their ill success in the war, iv. 
Iv. ; their garrison at Nisaea 
surrenders to the Athenians, rv. 
Ixix. 3 ; encourage the expedition of 
Brasidas into Chalcidice, iv. Ixxi. ; 
capture Amphipolis, iv. ciii.-cvi. ; 
(9th year) truce for a j-ear, IV. 
cxvii.-cxix. ; Brasidas' attempt on 
Potidaea, IV. cxxxv. ; (luth year) 
he defeats the Athenians and falls 
at Amphipolis, V. vi.-xi. ; (11th 
year) Lacedaemonians eager for 
peace, V. xiv. ; bring home 
Pleistoanax from exile, v. xvi. 2, 
3 ; make a treaty with the 
Athenians, V. xv-ii.-xix. ; alliance 
with the Athenians, v. xxiii., xxiv. ; 
fall into contempt with and dis- 
please the Peloponne=ians, V. xxviii. 
2 ; xxix. ; send envoys to Corinth, 

V. XXX. ; support the Lepreans 
against Elis, V. xxxi. 4 ; make 
war upon the Parrhasians, V. 
xTxiii. ; emancipate the Helot 
soldiers of Brasidas and disfran- 
chise the prisoners from Pylos, 
V. xxxiv. ; conclude an alliance 
with the Boeotians in order to 
gain Panactum, V. xxsix. ; (12th 
year) prepare to conclude a treaty 
with the Argives, v. xl., xli. ; an- 
nounce the destruction of Panac- 
tum at Athens, V. xlii. ; their 
envoys at Athens are tricked by 
Alcibiades, V. xliii.-xlv. ; refuse 
to give up the Boeotian alliance 
at the demand of the Athenians, 
V. xlvi. 4 ; excluded by the Eleans 
from the Olympic Games, v. xlix. ; 
(13th year) exjielled from Hera- 
clcia by the Boeotiaas, V. li., lii. ; 
start against Argos, but turn back 
owing to unfavourable sacrifices, 
V. liv. 1, 2 ; again start and return, 
V. Iv. 3 ; garrison Epidaurus, V. 
Ivi. 1; (14th year) march against 
Argos, V. Ivii. ; surround the 



Argives, V. h'iii., lix. : furious 

with Agis for liis trace with the 
Argives, v. Ix. 2; Ixiii. : march 
to support of Tegea, v. Ixiv. 1 ; 
surprised by the Argives before 
Mantineia, v. Ixvi. ; gain great 
victory, V. ' xx.-bcxiv. ; alliance 
with Argos, v. Ixxvi.— Ixxix. ; 
(15th year) send expedition to 
Argos but retire, v. Ixxxii. 3; 
another expedition, V. Ixsxiii. 1, 
2; (16th year) again start, but 
sacrifices are unfavourable, v. 
cxvi. 1 ; ravage Argos, vi. vii. 1 ; 
settle the Argive exiles at Omeae, 
ibi ; order the Chalcidians to 
assist Perdiccas ; they refuse, ibi ; 
(17th year) send force to the 
Isthmus, which increases the panic 
over the Hermae at Athens, VI. 
Ixi. 2; receive Corinthian and 
Syracusan envoys, VI. l.xxxviii. 7, 
8; Alcibiades speaks in their 
behalf, vi. Ixixix.-xcii. ; appoint 
Gylippus commander of the Syra- 
cusan army, VI. xciii. 2; (ISth 
year) invade Argos, but are stopped 
by an earthquake, vi. xcv. ; con- 
sidering the Athenians guilty of 
breach of the treaty (VI. cv. 1, 2), 
they prepare for war with good 
spirit, vn. xviii. ; (19th year) in- 
vade Attica and fortify Deceleia, 
vm. xix., 1, 2; send troops to 
Sicily, vn. xix. 3 ; Iviii. 3 ; elated 
over the failure of the Sicilian 
expedition, vin. ii. 3, 4; raise 
money and order ships, vm. iii. ; 
Agis at Deceleia negotiates with 
the Lesbians and Euboeans about 
revolt, Vin. iv. ; send a commis- 
sioner to Chios, and make alliance 
with Chios and Erythrae, vm. vi. ; 
(20th year) order a fleet to Chios, 
vm. vii., viii. ; defeated at sea and 
driven into Peiraeum, vm. x., xi. ; 
discouraged, vm. iii. ; encouraged 
by Alcibiades, vm. xii. ; cause 
the revolt of Chios, Erythrae, 
Clazomenae, Teos, Miletus, vm. 
xiv.-xvii. ; make alliance with the 
King, VIII. xviii. ; break out of 
Peiraeum, Vlll. xx. 1 ; induce 
Mytilene and Methymna to revolt, 
vm. xxii. ; baffled in their designs 



INDEX 



upon Leshos, vin. xxiil. ; defeated 
by the Athenians before Miletus, 
VIII. xxT. ; capture lasus, Vin. 
xsviii. ; fail to retake Clazomenae, 
vill. xx.xi. ; lose six ships off Trio- 
pium, VIII. x.xxv. ; make a new 
treaty with the King, VIII. xxxvi., 
xxxvii. ; alter the government of 
Chios, vni. xxxviii. 3 ; send aid to 
Pliarnabazus, VIII. xxxix., Ixxx. ; 
send advisers to Astyochus, vill. 
xxxix. 2 ; defeat an Athenian 
squadron, Vin. xlii. ; distrust Alci- 
biades and order his death, VIII. 
xlv. 1 ; Astyochus believed to 
have sold himself to Tissaphcrnes, 
VIII. 1. 3 ; Pedaritus, their governor 
at Chios, is killed in battle, vili. 
Iv. 3 ; third treaty with the 
Persians, Vlll. Ivii., Iviii. ; invited 
by the Eretrians to Euboea, vill. 
Ix. 2; (21st year) send Uercyllidas 
to the Hellespont, VDI. Ixi. 1 ; 
Ixii. 1; offer the Athenians battle 
off Samos, VUI. Ixiii. 1 ; Agis at 
Decelcia receives heralds from the 
Four Hundred, vn. Ixx. 2; their 
envoys sent also to Sparta, VIII. 
Ixxi. 3; the sailors at iJilelus 
complain of Astyochus and TLs- 
sapliemes, VIII. Ixxviii. ; Astyochus 
again offers battle to the Athenians, 
but declines it when they offer, 
VUI. IxxLx. ; the Lacedaemonians 
send aid to Pharnabazus and 
cause revolt of Byzantium, MU, 
Ixxx. ; open violence against 
Astyochus, vm. Ixxxiv. 2, 3 ; 
Mindarus sent to succeed Astyo- 
chus, VIII. Ixxxv. 1 ; receive 
twelve ambassadors from the oli- 
garchs at Athens, Vin. xc. 2 ; do 
not come to terms with them, 
VIII. xci. 1 ; despatch a fleet to 
Euboea, ibi ; defeat the Athenians 
at sea. VUI. xcv. ; do not follow 
up their success, VUI. xcvi. ; leave 
TLssaphernes in disgust and sail to 
the Hellespont, VIII. xcLx. ; arrive 
at Rhoeteum, vni. ci. 3; chase 
the Athenian squadron at Sestus 
and capture a few vessels, VIII. 
cii. ; defeated off Cynossema, vm. 
civ., cv. ; lose ciglit more ships, 
VIII. cvii. 1 ; aid in expelling the 



Persian garrison from Antandrus, 
vin. cviii. 4. 

Lacedaemonius, son of Cimon, an 
Athenian commander, I. xlv. 2. 

Laches, son of Melanopus, Athenian 
commander in Sicily, III. Ixxxvi. ; 
attacks Mylae and Messene, III. 
xc. 2-4 ; attacks Italian Loeris, 
in. ciii. 3 ; invades Hiinera, ΠΙ. 
cxv. 1 ; superseded by Pythodorus, 
ibi ; moves conclusion of one 
year truce, IV. cxviii. 11; swears 
to treaty of peace, v. xix., xxiv. ; 
brings an Athenian force to Argos, 

V. Ixi. 1 ; reduces Orchomenus, ibi ; 
slain at Mantineia, V. Ixxiv. 2. 

Lacon, a spokesman of the Plataeans, 

III. lii. 5. 

Lade, island opposite Miletus, VUI. 
xvii. 3 ; xxiv. 1. 

Laeaeans, a Paeonian tribe, U. xcvi. 3. 

Laespodias, an Athenian general, VI. 
cv. 2 ; envoy, vui. Ixxxvi. 9. 

Laestrygonians, in Sicily, VI. li. 1. 

Lamachus, son of Xenoplianes, an 
Athenian commander, leads expe- 
dition to the Pontus, IV. Ixxv. 1 ; 
swears to treaty of peace, v. xix., 
xxiv. ; elected one of the three 
generals for Sicily, VI. viii. 2 ; 
advocates immediate attack on 
Syracuse, vi. xlix. ; votes with 
Alcibiades, vi. 1. 1 ; killed in 
battle, VI. ci. 6 ; his body recovered, 

VI. ciii. 1. 

Lamis, leads colony from Megara, 

VI. iv. 1. 
Lampon, an Athenian, swears to 

treaty of peace, V. xix., xxiv. 
Lampsacus, given by the King to 

ThemLstoclcs for wine, I. cxxxviii. 

5 ; refuge of Hippias ; its tyrants, 

VI. lix. ; revolts from Athens, VUI. 

Ixii. 1 ; recovered, ibi. 
Laodicium, battle of, in Arcadia, 

IV. cxxxiv. 

Laphilas, a Lacedaemonian, swears 
to treaty of peace, V. xLx., xxiv. 

Larissa, in the Hellespont, VUI. ci. 3. 

Larissa, in Thessaly, assists the 
Athenians in the first invasion of 
Attica, II. xxii. 2, 3. 

Las, in Laconia, \ΉΙ. .xci. 2; xcii. 3. 

Laurium, U. Iv. 1 ; Vl. xci. 7. 

Learchus, sou of Callimachus, 



INDEX 



Athenian envoy to Sitalces, U. 

Ixvii. 2, 3. 
Lebedos, in Ionia, revolts from 

AthetLs, Virr. xix. 4. 
Lectum, a promontory, Vni. ci. 3. 
Lecythus, citadel of Torone, iv. cxiii. 

2 ; captured by Brasidas, IV. 

cxiv.-civi. : dedicated by Brasidas 

to Athena, IV. cxvi. 2. 
Lemnos, Athenians deposit SamL-in 

hostages there, I. cxv. 3 ; visited 

by the plague, Π. xlvii. 3 ; supports 

Athens in the Lesbian revolt, 

m. V 1 ; Lemnians with Cleon 

at Pylos, rv. xxviii. 4; colonized 

from Athens, ibi ; the island once 

inhabited by Tyrrhenians, IV. cix. ; 

with Cleon at Ampiiipolis, V. 

Ixxxii. : ally of Athens at Syracuse, 

VII. Ivii. 2. 
Leocorium, a temple at Athens, L 

XX. 2 ; VI. Ivii. 3. 
Leocrates, son of Stroebus, an 

Athenian commander, I. cv. 2. 
Ι«οη, a Lacediemonian, one of the 

founders of Heracleia, in. xcii 5; 

another goes as envoy to Athens, V. 

xliv. 3 ; another succeeds Pedaritus 

at Chios, vra. Ixi. 2. 
Leon, an Athenian, swears to the 

treaty of peace, v. xix., xxiv. ; 

general sent to Lesbos, vill, xxiii. 

1 ; with Diomedon wages war 

upon the Chians, vni. xxiv. 2, 3 ; 

appointed with Diomedon to chief 

command at Samos, vui. liv. 3; 

makes a descent upon Rhodes, 

vni. liii. 1 ; supports democratic 

reaction at Samos, Vin. Ixxiii. 4. 
Leon, a place near Syracuse, VL 

xcvii. 1. 
Leontlni, its people of Ionian descent, 

at war with Syracuse, m. Ixxxvi. 

1; VI. xliv. 3; xlvi. 2; 1. 4; 

Ixxvi. 2 ; Ixxvii. 1 ; Ixxix. 1 ; at 

war with Syracuse, ru. Ixxxvi. ; 

obtain assistance from Athens, ibi ; 

attack ilessene, iv. xxv. 10 ; 

factional strugfjles, V. iv. ; founded 
from Chalcis in Euboea, vi. iii. 3 ; 
restoration of L/€ontini an excuse 
for Athenian interference in Sicily, 

VI. viii. 2 ; xix. 1 ; xxxiii. 2 ; 
xlvii. ; xlviii. ; Ixiii. 3 ; IxxvL 2 ; 
lixr\ii. 1; Ixxxiv. 2. 



Leotychides, king of Sparta, 1. 
Ixxxix. 2. 

Lepreum, in Triphylia of Elis, cause 
of quarrel between the Eleans 
and Lacedaemonians, v. xxxi. ; 
Helots and Neodamodes settled 
there, v. xxxiv. 1 ; a Lacedae- 
monian garrison there, v. xlix. 1; 
the Lepreans do not attend the 
Olympic festival, v. 1. 2. 

Leros island otf Miletus, vin. xxvi. 1. 

Lesbos : the Lesbians independent 
allies of Athens, I. xix. ; aid the 
Athenians against the Samians, L 
cxvi., cxvii. ; furnish ships to the 
Athenians, Π. ix. 5 ; revolt from 
Athens, ill. ii. ; kinsmen of the 
Boeotians, m. ii. 3 ; vn. Ivii. 5 ; 
received into the Lacedaemonian 
confederacy, m. xv. 1 ; affairs 
in Lesbos set in order by Paches, 
m. XXXV. ; the land divided among 
Athenian citizens, m. 1. ; L«sbian 
refugees capture Antandrus, IV. 
Iii. 3 ; negotiate with Agis about 
a fresh revolt, vni. v. 2 ; are 
again subdued, VTll. xxii., xxili. ; 
renew negotiations with Astyochus, 
vm. xxxii. 1 ; Pedaritus refuses 
them aid from Chios, ibi ; the 
Athenian fleet puts in at Lesbos 
and prepares to attack Eresiis, 
Vin. c. 

Leucas, a Corinthian colony, I. xxx. 
2 ; devastated by the Corcyraeans, 
ibi ; the Leucadians send troops 
to Epidamnus, I. xxvi. 1 ; furnish 
ships to Corinth, I. xxvii. 2 ; xlvi. 
1 ; furnish ships to the Lacedae- 
monians, II. ix. 3 ; assist in the 
invasion of Acamania, n. Ixxx. 
5 ; Ixxxi. 3 ; a lieucadian ship 
sunk by an Athenian off Xaupactus, 
Π. xci. 3 ; xcii. 3 ; the Jjeuca- 
dians repulse an Athenian descent, 
m. νϋ. ; send a squadron to reinforce 
Alcidas, m. Ixix. 1 ; the Leucadian 
isthmus, ΠΙ. Ixxxi. 1 ; xciv. 2 ; 
rv. viii. 2 ; Demosthenes sets out 
from Leucas against the Aetolians, 
m. xcv. 1 ; Gylippus reaches 
Leucas, VI. civ. 1 ; the leucadians 
allies of the Syracusans, VII. vii. 
1 ; Iviii. 3 ; lose one ship in the 
battle off Cynossema, vm. cvi. 3. 



INDEX 



Leaciinne, a promontory in Corcyra, 
I. ixx. 1, 3; xItu. 2; li. 4; m. 
lixix. 3. 

Leuconium, in Chios, vnr. xxiv. 3. 

L«uctra, in Laconia, v. lir. 1. 

Ijbya : the king of Libya, Inarus, 
I. civ. 1 ; ex. 3 ; visited by the 
plague, n. xlviii. 1 ; trade with 
Laconia, IV. liii. 3; Phocians 
returning from Troy are driven 
to Libya, VI. ii. 3 ; a Peloponnesian 
fleet on the way to Syracuse driven 
to Libya, vil. 1. 2 ; the Libyans 
besiege the Euesperitae, tbi. 

Lichas, a Lacedaemonian, envoy to 
Argos, V. xxii. 2 ; victor at Olym- 
pia, V. 1. 4; struck by the umpires, 
I'M ; envoy to Argos again, V. 
Ixrvi. 3 ; sent with ten others 
as adviser to Astyochus, vin. 
xxxix. 2 ; objects to the treaties 
made with the King, vin. xliii. 3 ; 
lii. ; reproves the Milesians for 
driving out the Persian garrison, 
vm. Isjndv. 5 ; goes with Tissa- 
phemes to Aspendus, Vin. Ixxxvii. 
1 ; dies there. 

Ligurians, drove the Sicanians out 
of Iberia, vi. ii. 2. 

Limnaea, in Acamania, n. Ixxx. 8. 

Lindii, the acropolis of Gela, vi. iv. 3. 

Lindas, in Rhodes, vin. xliv. 2. 

Liparaean (or Aeolian) islands, m. 
Ixxxviii. 2 ; the Liparaeans are 
colonists of the Cnidians, ibi ; 
invaded by the Athenians, ibi ; 
again, m. cxv. 1. 

Ix)crians, Opuntian, give hostages 
to the Athenians, I. cviii. 3; 
present at the battle of Coronea, 
i. ciiii. 2 ; furnish cavalry to the 
Lacedaemonians, ll. ix. 2 ; Locrians 
defeated by the Athenians, Π. 
xxvi. ; Atalante, islet off Locris, 
seized to prevent privateering 
from ports of Locris (cf. V. sviii. 
7), Π. xxxii. ; inundation on the 
LCK^rian coast, m. Ixxxix. 3 ; 
Athenians ravage Locrian coast, 
m. xci. 6; Locrian cavalry pursue 
the Athenians after battle of 
Delium, IV. xcvi. 8; allies of the 
Jvacedaemonians, v. Ixiv. 4 ; supply 
the Lacedaemonians with ships, 
vm. iu. 2. 



Locrians, Ozolian, always carry arms, 

I. V. 3 ; old inhabitants of Nau- 
pactus, I, ciii. 3 ; allies of Athens, 
ΠΙ. xcv. 3 ; co-operate with the 
Lacedaemonians, m. ci. ; go to 
war with the Phocians, V. ττχϋ , 

Locris, in Italy, in alliance with the 
Syracusans, m. Ixxxvi. 2 ; defeated 
by the Athenians, ΠΙ. xcix. ; again, 

III. ciii. 3; cause Messene to revolt 
from Athens, IV. i. 1 ; join the 
Syracusans in attacking the 
Rhegians, rv. xxiv., xxv. ; invited 
to Messene during a revolution, 
V. V. 1 ; expelled ; make a treaty 
with Athens, ibi ; hostile to the 
Athenian expedition to Sicily, VI. 
xliv. 2 (cf. vn. XXXV. 2); send 
sliips to the Lacedaemonians, vm. 
xci. 2. 

Loryma, in Oaria, vm. xliii. 1. 

Lycia, Π. Ixix. 1 ; Vm. xli. 4. 

Lycopiiron, a Lacedaemonian, ad- 
viser to Cnemus, u. Ixxxv. 1. 

Lycophron, a Corinthian general, iv. 
xliii. 1, 4; xliv. 2. 

Lyncus, in Upper Macedonia, ll. 
xcLx. 2 ; under the rule of Arrha- 
baeus, iv. Ixxxiii. 1 ; invaded by 
Perdiccas and Brasidas, ibi ; in- 
vaded a second time, iv. cxxiv. 1 ; 
Brasidas retreats through 1-yncus, 

IV. cxsv.-cxxviii. ; cxxlx. 2. 
Lysicles, an Athenian commander, 

sent to exact money in Caria and 

Lycia, m. xix. ; falls in battle, 

ibi. 
Lysimeleia, a marsh near Syracuse, 

VII. liii. 2. 
Lysistratu.s, an Olynthian, rv. ex. 2. 

Macarius, a Spartan commander, 
accompanies Eurylochus, m. c. 2 ; 
slain at Olpae, m. cix. 2. 

Macedonia, Athenian expedition 
agamst, I. Ivii.-lxi. ; Invaded by 
Thracians under Sitalces, II. xcv.- 
ci. ; early history of, II. xcix. ; 
its Kings Temenids from Argos, 

II. xcix. 3 ; its military strength 
increased by Archelaus, Π. c. 1 ; 
Brasidas in Macedonia, rv. Ixxviii 
6 ; Ixxxii., Ixxxiii. ; second expe- 
dition of Brasidas into Macedonia 



433 



INDEX 



IV. cxxvi.-cxxviii. ; the Athenians 

blockade Macedonia, V. Ixxxiii. 4; 

ravaged from Methone by the 

Athenians, VI. vii. 3. 
Maehaon, a Corinthian commander, 

n. Ixxxiii. 4. 
Maeander, plain of the, m. lii. 2 ; 

VIII. Iviii. 1. 
Maedians, a Thracian tribe, ll. xcviii. 

Maenalia, part of Arcadia, v. Ixiv. 1 ; 
Maenalians at Mantineia, v. Ixvii. 
1 ; their hostages taken by the 
Argives, V. Ix-wii. 1. 

Macrnesia, in Asia, memorial of 
Tliemistocles there, I. cxxxviii. 5 ; 
given to Tliemistocles by the 
King for bread, ibi ; Astyochus 
goes thither to Tissaphemes, viu. 
I. 3. 

Magnesians, subjects of the Thes- 
salians, Π. ci. 2. 

Malea, cape in Lesbos, m. iv. 5; 
vi. 2. 

Malea, cape in Laconia, IV. liii. 2 ; 
liv. 1 ; VIII. xxxix. 3. 

Malian Gulf, III. .xcvi. 3; vm. iii. 1; 
darters and slingers therefrom, IV. 
c. 1. 

Malians, ΠΙ. xcii. 1 ; V. li. 1. 

MaloeL';, Apollo, festival of, at 
Mytilene, III. iii. 3. 

Mantineia, troops of at the battle 
of Oljiae, III. cvii. 4 ; cviii. 3 ; 
they escape by a secret treaty 
with Demosthenes, III. cix., cxi. ; 
the Mantineans fight with the 
Tegeans, IV. cxxxiv. (cf. v. Ixv. 4); 
frequent violations of the treaty 
of peac» in the Mantinean and 
Epidaurian wars, V. xxvi. 2; join 
the Argive alliance, V. xxix. 1 ; 
conquer a part of Arcadia, ibi; 
send at Alcibiades' bidding an em- 
bassv to Athens, v. xliii. 3; xliv. 
1 ; alliance with Athens, V. xlvi., 
xlvii. ; send a guard to the Olympic 
Games, V. 1. 3 ; conference of the 
Argive allies at Mantineia, V. Iv. 
1 ; aid the Argives when invaded 
by the Lacedaemonians, V. Iviii. 
1: compel the Argives to break 
their truce with the Lacedae- 
monians, V. l.xi., Ixii. ; invaded by 
the Lacedaemonians. V. Ixiv. 5 ; 



IxT. ; battle of Mantineia, v. Ixvi.- 
Ixxiv. ; one of the greatest of 
Hellenic battles, V. Ixxiv. 1 ; it3 
moral effect, V. Ixxv. 1 ; the Man- 
tineaiLs invade Epidaurus with their 
allies, ibi ; the Mantinean alliance 
renounced by the Argives,v. 1χ.τνϋϊ. ; 
compelled to come to terms with the 
Lacedaemonians, v. Ixxxi. 1 ; in- 
duced by Alcibiades to join the 
Athenian expedition against Syra- 
cuse, VI. xxix. 3 ; xliii. ; Ixi. 5 ; 
Ixvii. 1 ; Ixvui. 2 ; Mantinean 
troops before Syracuse are mer- 
cenaries, νπ. Ivii. 7. 

Marathon, battle of, I. xviii. 1 ; the 
Athenians boast that they fought 
alone, I. Ixxiii. 4; the dead buried 
on the field, n. xxxiv. 5 ; Hippias 
at Marathon, VI. lix. 4. 

Marathussa, an island off Clazomenae, 
vm. xxxi. 3. 

Marc-ia, in Egypt, I. civ. 1. 

Massalia, colonized by the Phocaeans, 
I. xiii. 6. 

Mecybema, in Ohalcidice, provision 
respecting, in the treaty of peace, 
V. xviii. 6 ; captured by the 
Olynthians, V. xxxix. 1. 

Medeon, in Acamania, III. cvi. 2. 

Medes, part of the garrison of the 
White Castle in Memphis, I. civ. 
2 ; part of the body-guard of 
Pausanias, I. cxxx. 1 (see Persians). 

Medmaeans, colonists of the Locrians 
in Italy, v. v. 3. 

Megabates, Persian satrap of Das- 
cylium, I. cxxix. 1. 

Megabazus, a Persian, ambassador 
to Lacedaemon, I. cxlx. 2. 

Me^abyzus, son of Zopyrus, a 
Peniian, reconquers Egypt, I. cLx. 
3; ex. 

Megara, furnishes aid to the Corin- 
thians against the Corcyraeans, 
I. .-cxvii. 2 ; xlvi. 1 ; xlviii. 4 ; 
grievances against the Athenians, 
I. Ixvii. 4; forms alliance with 
Athens, I. ciii. 4; builds long walls 
of Megara, ibi ; ravaged by the 
Lacedaemonians, I. cviii. ; revolts 
from Athens, I. cxiv. 1 ; Thea- 
genes, a tyrant of Megara, I. cxxv. 
3 ; Athenian restrictions against 
Megara required to be removed 



434 



INDEX 



by the Lacedaemonians, I. cxxxix. ; 
counter charges of the Athenians, 
ibi ; funiLihes the Lacedaemonians 
with troops, II. ix. 2; invaded by 
the Athenians, n. xxxi. ; invasions 
repeated later until the capture 
of NUaea, ibi ; some Megarians 
suggest to Brasidas surprise of the 
Peiraeus, Π. xciii., sciv. ; Minoa, 
island in front of Megara, captured 
by the Athenians, lU. li. ; popular 
leaders attempt to bring in the 
Athenians, IV. Ixvi., Ixvii. ; the 
Athenians capture the long walls 
and Nisaea, IV. Ixviii., IxLx. ; 
Megara saved by Brasidas, IV. 
Ixx.-Lxxiii. ; Brasidas received into 
the city, IV. Ixxui. ; the exiles 
recalled, IV. Ixxiv. ; their revenge, 
ibi ; long duration of oligarchical 
government at Megara, j6i ; the 
Megarians reinforce the Boeotians 
after Delium, iv. c. 1 ; assent to the 
one year truce, iv. cxix. 2 ; dis- 
satisfied with the treaty between the 
Lacedaemonians and Athenians, V. 
-xvii. 2 ; refuse to join the Argive 
alliance, V. xxxi. 6 ; act with the 
Boeotians, v. xxxviii. 1 ; aid the 
Lacedaemonians In the invasion 
of Ai^os, V. Iviii. 3 ; lix. 2 ; Ix. 3 ; 
Megarian exiles allies of the Athe- 
nians, VI. xliii. 1 ; vn. Ivii. 8 ; 
Megarians furnish ships to the 
Lacedaemonians, VIII. iii. 2 ; X3cxiii. 
1. 

Megara Hyblaea, in Sicily, founded 
from Thapsus, mother-city of 
Selinus, VI. iv. 1 ; depopulated by 
Gelon, vi. iv. 2 (c/. xciv. 1); 
Lamachus wished to make it the 
Athenian naval station, VI. xlix. 
4 ; garrisoned by the Syracusans, 
VI. l.xxv. 1 ; ravaged by the 
Athenians, VI. xciv. 2 ; the 
Atlienians capture a Syracusan 
ship off Megara, vil. xxv. 4. 

Melanchridas, a Spartan admiral, 
vm. vi. 5. 

Melanthus, a Lacedaemonian com- 
mander, VIII. V. 1. 

Meleas, a Lacedaemonian envoy to 
Mytilene, ill. v. 4. 

Melcsander, an Athenian general 
sent to collect tribute in Lycia 



and Caria; slain in Lycia, Π. 
IxLx. 

Melesias, envoy from the Four 
Hundred to Sparta, vm. Ixxxvl. 9. 

Melesippus, a Lacedaemonian, sent 
to Athens with final demands, I. 
cxxxix. 3 ; sent by Archidamus 
to Athens, Π. xii. ; parting words, 
ibi. 

Meliteia, in Achaea, iv. Ixxviii. 1. 

Melos, one of the Cyclades, hostile 
to the Athenians, π. ix. 6; rav- 
aged, m. xci. 1 ; a colony of the 
Lacedaemonians; attacked by the 
Athenians, V. Ixxxiv. 2 ; con- 
ference with the Athenians, V. 
Ixxxv.-c.xiii. ; blockaded by the 
Athenians, V. cxiv., cxv., cxvi. ; 
captured ; fate of its citizens, v. 
cxvi. ; capture of three Athenian 
ships near it, vm. xxxix. 3. 

Memphis, the " White Fortress " of, 
attacked by the Athenians, I. civ. 
2 ; the city captured by the 
Persians, I. cix. 4. 

Menander, an Athenian in Sicily, 
chosen colleague of Nicias, vil. 
xvi. 1 ; participates in the night 
attack on Bpipolae, vn. xliii. 2 ; 
and in the last sea-fight, vil. Ixix. 4. 

Menas, a Lacedaemonian, swears to 
the treaty of peace, v. xix., xxiv. ; 
envoy to Thrace, v, xxi. 1. 

Mende, an Eretrian colony in Pallene, 
revolts from Athens, rv. cxxi. 2 ; 
cxxiii. 1 ; cxxiv. 4 ; repulses the 
Athenians, IV. cxxix. ; taken by 
the Athenians, IV. cxxx. ; the 
Pelnponnesian garrison escapes, iv. 
cxxxi. 3. 

Mendesian, mouth of the Nile, I. 
ex. 4. 

Menecolus, joint founder with Dascon 
of Camarina, VI. v. 3. 

Menecrates, a Megarian, swears to 
the one year truce, iv. cxix. 2. 

Menedalus, a Spartan commander 
with Eurylochus, III. c. 2 ; deserts 
his Ambraciot allies, ΠΙ. cix., cxi. 

Menon, a Thessalian commander, in. 
xxii. 3. 

Mercenaries : Peloponnesian, I. Ix. 
1 ; IV. Iii. 2 ; l.xxvi. 3 ; viil. xxviii. 
4; Thracian, ll. xcvi. 2; iv. 
cxxix. 2 ; V. vi. 2 ; VII. xxvii. 2 ; 

435 



INDEX 



xxix. 1 ; Arcadian, ΠΙ. xxxiv. ; 
vn. xix. 4; Iviii. 3; Mantinean, 
m. cix. 2; vn. Ivii. 9; lapygian, 
VII. xxiiii. 4; Ivii. 11; Aetoiian, 
VII. Ivii. 9 ; Cretan, VU. Ivii. 9 ; 
under Tissaphemes, vni. xxv. 2 ; 
foreign sailors in Athenian service, 
I. csxi. 3 ; vn. xiii. 2. 

Messapians, an Ozolian Locrian tribe, 
m. ci. 2. 

Messene, in Sicily, submits to the 
Athenians, III. xc. 4; revolts 
from Athens, IV. i. ; strategic 
position, ibi ; VI. xlviii. ; war 
base of the Syracusans against 
Bhegium, rv. xxiv. ; defeated by 
the Naxians, rv. xxv. 7, 9; 
attacked by the Athenians and 
Leontines, IV. xxv. 10; originally 
named Zancle, VI. iv. 6 ; refuses 
to receive Alcibiades, vi. 1. 1 ; 
attempt to betray Messene to 
the Athenians frustrated by Alci- 
biades, VI. Ixxiv. 

Messenians, in the Peloponnesus, old 
inhabitants of Laconia, I. c. (c/. 
IV. xli. 2) ; settled by the Athenians 
at Kaupactus, I. ciii. ; Π. is. 4 ; 
accompany the Athenians in cruise 
round the Peloponnesus, ll. xxv. 
5 ; aid Phormio at Naupactus, Π. 
xc. ; serve with Phormio in Acar- 
nania, n. cu. 1 ; hoplites and 
ships with the Athenians at Cor- 
cyra, m. Ixxv. 1 ; Ixxsi. 2 ; per- 
suade Demosthenes to attack the 
Aetolians, m. xciv. 2 ; xcv. 2 ; 
xcvii. 1 ; bore brunt of battle at 
Olpae, m. cvii. ; cviii. 1 ; deceive 
by their speech the Ainbraciots 
at Idomcne, m. cxii. 4; Demos- 
thenes wishes to settle them at 
Pylos, IV. iii. 3 ; a Messenian 
privateer joins Demosthenes there, 
IV. ix. 1 ; the Messenians assist 
in the capture of Spliacteria, iv. 
xxxii. 2; stratagem of their 
general, IV. xxxvi. ; garrison at Pylos, 
TV. xli. 2 ; withdrawn, v. xxxv. 7 ; 
replaced, V. Ivi. ; with the Athenians 
before Syracuse, vn. Ivii. 8 (c/. 
Helots). 

Metagenes, a Lacedaemonian, swears 
to the fifty years peace, v. xix., 
xxiv. 



Metapontum, in Italy, allied to the 
Atheniaas, vn. xxxiii. 5 ; Ivii, 11. 

Methana, between Epidaurus and 
Troezen, IV. xlv. ; to be restored 
to the Lacedaemonians undertreaty, 
V. x\iii. 7. 

Methone, in Laconia, n. xxv. 2. 

Methone, in Macedonia, a force of 
Methonaeans with Nicias at Mende, 
I f. cxxix. 4 ; from Methone 
Athenians ravage Macedonia, vi. 
vii. 3. 

Methydrium, In Arcadia, V. IvliL 2. 

Methymna, in Lesbos; the Methy- 
mnaeans do not join in the revolt 
of Lesbos, m. ii. 1 ; v. 1 ; attacks 
AntLssa, m. xviii. 2; independent 
allies of Athens, m. 1. 2 ; VL 
Ixxxv. 2 ; vn. Ivii. 5 ; colonized 
from Boeotia, VIL Ivii. 5; revolt 
from Athens, vm. xxii. 2 ; re- 
covered, Vin. xxiv. 6 ; exiles make 
attempt on the city, vm. c. 3 ; 
induce Eresus to revolt, ibi. 

Metics, or resident aliens, at Athen-;, 
serve in the fleet, I. cxliiL 1; ill. 
xvi. 1 ; hoplites at Athens, II. 
xiii. 7 ; xxxi. 2. 

Metropolis, in Acamania, m. cvii. 1. 

Miletus, war with the Samians, I. 
cxv. 1 ; the Athenians sailing 
from Miletus defeat the Samians, 
I. cxvi. 1 ; Milesians with the 
Athenians in expedition against 
Corinth, rv. xiii. 1 ; aid in the 
capture of Cythera, rv. liiL, liv. ; 
allies of Athens before Syracuse, 
vn. Ivii. 4; the Milesians on 
Alcibiades' persuasion revolt from 
■.thens, Vin. xrii. ; defeated by 
che Athenians, vm. xxiv. 1 ; con- 
quer the Argive allies of the 
Athenians, but forced to retreat 
by the Athenians, Vin. xxv. ; 
Alcibiades urges relief for Miletus, 
vm. xxvi. 3; the Athenians retire 
from Miletus, vm. xxvii. 6 ; Tis- 
saphemes comes thither, vm. xxix. 
1 ; an Athenian division watches 
Miletus, vm. XXX. ; Astyochus 
assumes command of the fleet 
there, vm. xxxiii.; the Pelopon- 
nesians at Miletus, vm. xxxv., 
xxxvi., xxxix. ; Astyochus leaves 
Miletus, vm. xli. ; Tissaphemes 



INDEX 



invites the Peloponnesians to 
Miletus, vin. Ivii. ; Ix. 3 ; the fleet 
at Miletus offers battle to the 
Athenians, VIII. Ixiii. 1 ; discontent 
of Peloponnesian sailors at Miletus, 
Vin. Ixxviii. ; the Milesians, acting 
in concert with the fleet, offer 
battle to the Athenians, Vin. 
Ixxix. ; the sailors at Miletus in 
open violence against Astyoohus, 
vm. Ixxxiii. ; Ixxxiv. 1 ; the 
Milesians exjjel the Persian garri- 
son, vm. Ixxxiv. 4; resent Lichas' 
reproof, ibi ; send envoys to 
Sparta to complain of Astyochus, 
vm. Ixxxv. 2, 4 ; the Pelopon- 
nesian fleet leaves Miletus for the 
Hellespont, vm. xclx. ; c. 1 ; cviii. 3. 

Mimas, Mt., vm. xxxiv. 

Mindarus, a Lacedaemonian, succeeds 
Astyochus, vm. Ixxxv. 1 ; sails 
to the Hellespont, vm. xcLx. ; 
escapes the Athenian watch, vm. 
ci. ; captures four of the Athenian 
squadron, in the Hellespont, vm. 
cii. ; defeated off Cynossema, vm. 
civ., cv. 

Mines, gold, on the coast opposite 
Thasos, IV. c. 2 ; cv. 1 ; silver 
mines at Laurium, π. Iv. ; VI. 
xci. 7. 

Minoa, island off Megara, captured 
by Nicias, m. li. ; Athenian opera- 
tions there, rv. Ixvii. ; retained by 
the Athenians under the truce, 
IV. cxviii. 4. 

Minos, first lord of the sea, I. iv. ; 
conquers the Cycladcs; expels the 
Carians, ibi ; puts down piracy, 
I. Tui. 2. 

Minyan, Orchomenus formerly called, 
rv. Ixxvi. 3. 

Molossians, Admetus, their king, 
shelters Themistocles, I. cxxxvi., 
cxxxvii. ; they assist the Lacedae- 
monians against Acarnania, il. 
Ixxx. 6. 

Molycrium, a Corinthian colony sub- 
ject to Athens, II. Ixxxiv. 4; taken 
by the Peloponnesians, III. cii. 2 ; 
the Molycrian Rhium, II. Ixxxvi. 2. 

Moi-gantine, in Sicily, handed over 
to the Camarinaeans, IV. Ixv. 1. 

Motye, a Phoenician settlement in 
Sicily, VI. ii. G. 

VOL. IV. 



Munlchia, a harbour of Athens, Π. 

xui. 7 ; Peripoli stationed there, 

vm. xcii. 5 ; a Dionysiac theatre 

near, VIII. xciii. 1. 
Mycale, battle of, I. Ixxxlx. 2 ; 

Athenian and Peloponnesian fleets 

there, vm. IxxLx. 
Mycalessus, in Boeotia, sacked by 

the Thracian Dii, vil. xxix., xxx. 
Mycenae, I. ix. ; the meagre remains' 

do not disprove its former great- 
ness, I. X. 
Myconus, one of the Cyclades, m. 

xxix. 1. 
Mygdonia, part of, assigned by 

Perdiccas to the Chalcidians, i. 

Iviii. 2 ; once inhabited by the 

Bdonians, ll. xcLx. 4; ravaged by 

Sitalces, II. c. 4. 
Mylae, a town of the Messenians in 

Sicily, m. xc. 2 ; captured by the 

Athenians, ibi. 
Myletidae, Syracusan exiles, take 

part in colonizing Himera, vi. v. 1. 
Myoneans, an Ozolian Locrian tribe, 

m. ci. 2. 
Myonnesus, near Teos, m. xxxii. 1. 
Myrcinus, an Edonian town, goes 

over to Brasidas, rv. cvii. 3; 

Myrcinian t:irgeteers at the battle 

of Amphipolis, V. vi. 4; Cleon 

killed by a Myrcinian targeteer. 

V. X. 9 ; Myrcinian cavalry there, 
ibi. 

Myronidcs, an Athenian commander, 
defeats the Corinthians, I. cv. 4; 
defeats the Boeotiaas at Oeno- 
phyta, I. cviii. 3 ; cf. IV. xcv. 

Myrrhine, daughter of Callias, wife 
of Hippias, VI. Iv. 1. 

Myrtilas, an Athenian, swears to 
the treaty of peace, v. xix., xxiv. 

Myscon, a Syracusan naval com- 
mander, vm. Ixxxv. 3. 

Mysteries, profanation of, at Athens, 

VI. xxviii. ; Alcibiades accused ; 
supposed to be part of a plot 
against the democracy, ibi ; ix. ; 
Ixi. ; Alcibiades called home for 
trial, VI. liii. 1 ; Ixi. 4. 

Mytilene, revolts from Athens, ni. 
ii. 3, 4; concludes an armistice, 
m. iv. 4 ; sends envoys to Athens 
and Lacedacnion, m. Iv. 4, 5 ; 
to Lacedaemon again, m. liv. ; 

Ρ 437 



INDEX 



Mytilene blockaded, m. vi. ; their 
envoys attend the Olympic festival 
at the bidding of the Lacedae- 
monians, in. viii. ; their speech, 
m. ix.-iiv. ; admitced to the 
Lacedaemonian alliance, UT. xv. ; 
attack Methymna, ni. xviii. 1 ; 
blocked by land, tbi ; Salaethus 
from Lacedaemon encourages them 
to hold out, m. XXV. ; they capitulate 
to Paches, ill. xxvii., xxviii. ; 
Teutiaplus advises an immediate 
attack on Mytilene, in. xxix., xxx. ; 
Paches sends the most guilty to 
Athens, m. XXXV.; all grown up 
Mytilenaeans condemned to death, 
m. xxxvi. 2 ; revulsion of feeling 
at Athens, ibi ; speech of Clrou 
against the repeal of the decree, 
vn. xxxvii.-xl. ; Diodotus urges 
repealing it, m. xli.-xlviii. ; repeal 
of the decree, in. xlix. 1 ; a second 
ship to Athens sent to stay the 
slaughter, arrives in time, ibi ,• 
the captives at Athens put to 
death, Mytilene razed, in. 1.; 
Lesbian refugees take Rhoeteum 
and Antandms, IV. lii. ; driven 
out again from Antandrus by the 
Athenians, IV. Ixxv. 1 ; Mytilene 
revolts again, vm. xxii. 2 ; re- 
captured by the Athenians, vm. 
xxiii. 2 ; garrisoned by the Athen- 
ians, vin. c. 3. 
Myus, a city in Caria (ui. xix. 2), 
given to Themistocles for meat by 
the King, I. cxxxviii. 5. 

Naucleides, a Plataean traitor, u. 
ii. 2. 

Naupactus, settled by Helots from 
Ithome, i. ciii. 3 ; ally of Athens, 
Π. ix. 4 ; headquarters of an 
Athenian fleet, ll. Ixix. 1 ; Ixxxiv. 
4 ; xcii. 7 ; in. cxiv. 2 ; iv. xiii. 
2 ; the Peloponnesians hope to take 
it, Π. Ixxx. 1 ; victory of the 
Athenians off Naupactus, n. Ixxxiii., 
Ixxxiv. ; feigned attack of Pelopon- 
nesians on Naupactus, Π. xc. 1, 2; 
second victory of the Athenians, 
II. xci., xcii. ; Phormio proceeds 
from Naupactus into Acaniania. 
U. cii., ciii. ; Phormio's son, 
Asopius, succeeds him at Nau- 



pactus, m. vii. ; the Messenians 
of Naupactus peKuade Demos- 
thenes to invade Aetolia, m. 
xciv. 3-5 ; xcviii. ; Demosthenes 
remains at Naupactus after his 
defeat, in. xcviii. 5 ; the Aetolians 
persuade the Lacedaemonians to 
make an expedition against Nau- 
pactus, III. c. ; Demosthenes, with 
the aid of the Acamaniaus, saves 
the place, m. cii. ; the Messenians 
of is'aupactus send a force to 
Naupactus, IV. xli. 1, 2 ; the 
.\thenian force at Naupactus cap- 
tures Anactorium, IV. xlix.; 
Demosthenes comes to Naupactus 
to aid Ilippocrates in the invasion 
of Boeotia, IV. Ixxvi., Ixxvii. ; 
tlie Corinthians prepare to attack 
the Athenian fleet at Naupactus, 
vn. xvii. 4 ; xix. 5 ; Demosthenes 
and Eurymedon give Conon at 
Naupactus some ships, vn. ν κ « i . 
5 ; indecisive action off Naupactus, 
\TI. xxxiv. ; the Slessenians of 
Naupactus with the Athenians 
before Syracuse, vn. Ivii. 8. 

Naxos, the island, subjugated by the 
Athenians, I. xcviii. 4 ; Themis- 
tocles in his flight narrowly escapes 
the Athenians at Naxos, I. cxxxvii. 

Naxos, in Sicily, defeats the Mes- 
senians, IV. XXV. 7 ; settled by Chal- 
cidians from Euboea, VI. iii. 1 ; 
altar of Apollo the Founder there, 
ibi ; kinsmen of the Leontines, 
VI. XX. 3 ; receive the Athenian 
expedition to Sicily, VI. 1. 3 ; 
become allies of tlie Athenians, 
vn. xiv. 2; Ivii. 11; winter- 
quarters of tlie Athenians, vi. 
Ixxii. 1; Ixsiv. 2; Ixxv. 2 ; change 
to Catana, vi. Ixxxviii. 5 ; furnish 
cavalry to the Athenians, VI. 
xcviii. 1. 

Neapolis, a Carthaginian factory in 
Libya, vn. 1. 2. 

Nemea, in Locris, where Hesiod was 
killed, ni. xcvi. 1 ; temple of 
Nemean Zeus there, ibi. 

Neodamodes, class of new citizens 
made up of Helots emancipated 
for service in war : at Lepreum, 
V. xxxiv. 2 ; at Mantineia, v. 
Ixvii. 1 ; sent to Syracuse, VU. 



43δ 



INDEX 



six. ; Iviii. 3 ; sent to Agis, vrn. 
T. 1. 

Nericus, in Leucas, m. vii. 5 

Nestus, a river in TUrace, rt. xcti. 4. 

Nicanor, a Chaonian leader, Π. Ixxx. 
5. 

Kicasus, a Megarian, swears to the 
one year truce, IV. cxix. 2. 

Niciades, an Athenian, presiding 
officer of the assembly, IV. cxviii. 
11. 

Nicias, of Crortys, in Crete, n. Ixxxv. 
5. 

Nicias, son of Niceratus, captures 
Minoa, m. li. ; ravages Melos, 
m. xci. 1 ; defeats the Tanagraeans, 
tW ; ravages Locris, ibi ; resigns 
command to Cleon, iv. xxvii., 
xx\'iii. ; leads an expedition into 
Cormthian territory, IV. χ1ίί.-χΙν. ; 
captures Cythera, iv. liii., liv. ; 
swears to the treaty with the 
Lacedaemonians, IV. cxix. 2 ; leads 
an expedition against Mende and 
Scione, iv. cxxix.-cxxxi. ; his 
anxiety for peace, v. xvi. 1 ; vn. 
Ixx-xvi. 3 ; swears to the treaty 
of peace, V. six., xxiv. ; against 
Alcibiades he urges alliance with 
the Lacedaemonians, V. xlvi. 1 ; 
envoy to Sparta, v. xlvi. 2 ; ex- 
pedition to Chalcidice under Nicias 
frustrated by Perdiccas, v. Ixxxiii. 
4 ; elected one of the generals of 
the Sicilian expedition, VT. viii. 2 ; 
his speech, VI. ix.-xiv. ; second 
speech, VI. xx.-xxiii. ; gives esti- 
mate of forces required, Vl. xxv. ; 
argues in council of war for an 
attack on Selinus, VI. xlvii. ; goes 
to Egesta, vi. Ixii. ; exliortation 
to hLs army, VI. Ixviii. ; defeats 
the Syracusans, VI. Ixix., Ixx. ; saves 
Epipolae, VI. cii. ; his ill-health, 
VI. cii. 2 (cf. vn. XV. 2 ; Ixxvii. 2) ; 
sole commander after the death of 
Lamachus, vi. ciii. ; treats with con- 
tempt Gylippus' force as privateers, 
VI. civ. 4 ; fails to prevent coming 
of Gylippus, VII. i, ii. ; fortifies 
Plemmyrium, VII. iv. 4 ; sends 
twenty ships to waylay the 
Corinthian ships, vn. iv. 7 ; writes 
report to Athens of the situation 
at Syracuse, vn. viii. ; report. 



xi.-xv. ; by an ainbush destrojrs 
some Syracusan reinforcements, vn. 
xxxii. ; his dilatoriness, vn. xlii. 
3; left in camp while Demosthenes 
attacks Epipolae, vil. xliii. 2 ; 
refuses to lead the army away, 
vn. xlviii., xlix. ; superstition at 
eclipse of the moon causes him 
to decide to remain thrice nine 
days, vn. 1. 4; addresses the 
troops to hearten them for the 
great sea-fight, vn. Ixi.-lxiv. ; 
exhorts the tricrarchs, vn. Ixtx. ; 
leads infantry down to the shore 
to encourage and support the fleet, 
vn. Ixix. 4; Nicias' and Demos- 
thenes' proposal to renew the 
contest frustrated by the army, 
vn. Ixsii. ; retreat begun, vn. 
Ixxv. ; final exhortation, vn. 
Ixxvi., Ixxvii. ; Nicias leads the 
van, vn. Ixxviii. 2 ; Nicias and 
Demosthenes fail to give the 
Syracusans the slip, vn. Ixxx. 1 ; 
Nicias' division crosses the Evenus, 
vn. Ixxxii. 3 ; overtaken and 
compelled to surrender, vn. 
lixxiii.-Lxxxv. ; Nicias and Demos- 
thenes put to the sword, vn. 
Ixxxvi. 

Nicolaas, a Lacedaemonian envoy 
to the King, put to death, n. 
Ixvii. 

Nicomachus, a Phocian, betrays 
Demosthenes' plan against the 
Boeotians, iv. Ixxxls. 1. 

Nicomedes, a Lacedaemonian, general 
in place of King Pleistoanax, I. 
cvii. 2. 

Nicon, a Boeotian, a commander of 
reinforcements for Syracuse, vn. 
xix. 3. 

Nicondas, a Tliessalian, friend of 
Perdiccas, IV. Ixxviii. 2. 

Nicostratus, son of Diitrephes, 
Athenian commander in Corcyra, 
m. Ixxv. ; his humane conduct there, 
ibi ; commands an expedition to 
Cythera, rv. liii., liv. ; swears to 
the one year tnjce, iv. cxix. 2; 
with Nicias against Mende and 
Scione, iv. cxxix.-cjcxxi. ; with 
Laches brhigs an expedition to 
Argos, V. Ixi. 1 ; falls at Mantineia, 
V. Ixxiv. 2. 

439 



INDEX 



Nightingale, " Daulian Bird," Π. 
xxix. 3. 

Nilp, I. civ. 2 : ex. 4. 

KiiK^ Ways, Ennea Hodoi, old name 
of Amphipolis, I. c. 3 ; IV. cii. 3. 

Nlsaea, the harbour of Mpgara, con- 
nected with the city by the long 
walls, I. ciii. ; occupied by the 
Athenians, I. cxiv. 1 ; restored 
under the thirty years peace, L 
cxT. ; Brasidas starts from Is'isaea 
for da.sh against the Peiraeus, Π. 
xciii. 1 ; Cleon demands its sur- 
render after the blockade of Sphac- 
teria, iv. ixi. 3 ; Lacedaemonian 
garrLson there, IV. Ixvi. 4; cap- 
tured by the Athenians, IV. Ixix. ; 
Brasidas too late to save it, IV. 
Ixx. 2 ; cavalry engagement before 
NLsaea, IV. Ixxii. 4 ; the Athenians 
at Xisaea before battle with 
Brasidas, IV. Ixxiii (c/. Ixxxv. 7 ; 
cviii. 5.) ; not given up under the 
treaty, v. xvii. 2. 

Nlsus, temple of, at Nisaea, rv. cxroi. 
4. 

Nomothetae, appointed at Athens 
after the deposition of the Four 
Hundred, vm. xcvii. 2. 

Notium. port of Colophon, taken 
by Paches ; recolonized by the 
Athenians, m. xxxiv. 

Kymphodorus, of Abdera, proxenus 
of Athens, negotiates alliance be- 
tween Sitalces and the Athenians 
and reconciles Perdiccas and the 
Athenians, II. xxix. 



Obol, Aeginetan, V. xlvii. 6. 

Odomantians, a people in Thrace, 
in. ci. 3. 

Odrysians, a people in Thrace, n. 
xxLs. ; Sitalces, their king, be- 
comes an ally of the Athenians, 
ibi ; his campaign against Per- 
diccas, Π. xcv., xcviii.-ci. ; the 
greatness and wealth of his king- 
dom, n. xcvi., xcvii. 

Odysseus, his passage of Charybdis, 
IV. xxiv. 4. 

Oeantheans, an Ozolian Locrian tribe, 
III. ci. 2. 

Oeneon, a town in Ozolian Locris, 
III. xcv. 2 ; xcviii. 3 ; cii. 1. 



' eniadae, in Acamania, attacked by 
the Athenians, I. cxi. 2 ; hostile 
to the Athenians, II. Ixxxii. ; XIL 
xciv. 1 ; itssituation,n. cii ; refuses 
to yield to Asopius, ΠΙ. vii. 4; 
fugitives from Olpae find refuge 
there, m. cxiv. 2 ; compelled to 
enter the Athenian alliance, IV. 
Ixxvii. 2. 

Oenoe, an Athenian fort on the 
Boeotian frontier, II. xviii. 1; 
unsuccessfully attacked by the 
Lacedaemonians, Π. xix. 1 ; be- 
sieged by the Corinthians and 
Boeotians, viil. xcviii. 2 ; betrayed 
to the Boeotians, vm. xcvui. 3, 4. 

Oenophyta, battle of, I. cviii. 3 
(cf. IV. xcv. 3). 

Oenussae, islands before Chios, ΥΙΠ. 
xxiv. 2. 

Oesyme, in Thrace, a Thasian colony, 
revolts from Athens, rv. cvii. 3. 

Oetaeans, a people in Thessaly, m. 
xcii. 2; vm. iii. 1. 

Oligarchy : oligarchies everywhere 
favoured the Lacedaemonians, rrr, 
Ixxxii. 1 ; their selfishness, VI. 
xxxix. 2; their cruelty and un- 
Ecrupulousness, vm. xlviii. 6 ; fall 
victims to private ambition, vm. 
Ixxxix. 3. 

Olophyxus, in Acte, iv. cix. 3. 

Olpae, a hill fort in Acamania, m. 
cv. 1; battle of Olpae, ill. cvi.- 
cix. ; the Peloponnesians steal 
away from Olpae under truce with 
Demosthenes, III. cxi. ; destruc- 
tion of Ambraciot reinforcements 
on the way to Olpae, m. ex., cxii., 
cxiii. 

Olpaeans, a tribe in Ozolian Locris, 
III. ci. 2. 

Olympia, treasury at, I. cxxi. 3 ; 
cxliii. 1; meeting-place of the 
council of the Peloponnesians, m. 
viii. ; treaties inscribed on pillars 
there, v. x^iii. 11; exclusion 
of the Lacedaemonians from the 
games by the Eleans, V xlix. 

Olympian victors : Cylon, L exxvi. 
3 ; Dorians, m. viii. ; Andros- 
thenes, V. xlix. 1 ; Lichas, V. 1. 
4; the Olympic truce, V. xlix. 

Olympian Zeus, V. xxxi. 2 ; I. 1. 

Olympieum, temple near Syracuse, 



440 



INDEX 



VI. Ixiv. 1; Ixv. 3; Ixx. 4; Ixxv. 
1 ; VII. iv. 7 ; xxxvii. 2, 3 ; xlii. 6. 

Olympus, Mt., in Thessaly, iv. 
Ixxviii. 6. 

Olynthus, in Chalcidice, occupied by 
the Ohalcidians, I. Iviii. 2; situa- 
tion, I. Ixiil. 2 ; battle of, I. Ixii., 
Ixiii. ; Olynthians decide engage- 
ment before Spartolus, Π. Ixxix. ; 
receive Mendaean and Scionaean 
women and children sent by 
Brasidas, IV. cxxiii. 4; ransom 
prisoners taken by Cleon at Torone, 
V. iii. 4 ; provision respecting 
Olynthus in the treaty, v. xvi. 5 ; 
the Olynthians capture Mecybema, 
V. xxxix. 1. 

Onasimus, a Sicyonian, swears to 
the one year truce, iv. cxix. 2. 

Oneum, Mt., in Corinthian territory, 

IV. xliv. 4. 

Onomacles, an Athenian commander, 
Vin. XXV. 1 ; XXX. 2. 

Opiiioneans, an Aetolian tribe, m. 
xciv. 5 ; xcvi. 1 ; c. 1. 

Opicans, drove the Sicels out of 
Italy, VI. u. 4; Opicia, VT. iv. 5. 

Opus, in Locris, II. xxsii. 

Oracle, Delphian, consulted by the 
Epidamnians, I. xxv. 1 ; forbida 
to let go the suppliant of Ithomean 
Zeus, I. ciii. 2 ; consulted before 
beginning the war, I. cxviii. 3 
(cf. I. cxxiii. 1): consulted by 
Cylon, I. cxxvi. 4; orders Pau- 
sanias to be buried in the temple 
of Athena, I. cxxxiv. 4; oracle 
about the Pelargicum, ll. xvii. 1 ; 
about " pestilence " or " famine," 
II. liv. 3 ; consulted by Alcmaeon, 

II. cii. 5 ; about colonizing Ifera- 
cleia, lii. xcii. 5 ; about llesiod, 

III. xcvi. 1 ; about the restoration 
of Pleistoanax, v. xvi. 2 ; about 
thrice nine years as duration of 
the war — only oracle verified, v. 
xxvi. 4; about the restoration 
of the Delians, v. xxxii. 1 ; oracles 
recited at the beginning of the 
war, II. viii. 2 ; xxi. 3 ; oracles 
helpless in the plague, II. xlvii. 4; 
often ruin those who tnist them, 

V. ciii. ; unpopularity of orarle- 
mongers after the Sicilian expedi- 
tion, VIII. i. 



Orchomenus, in Arcadia, besieged 
and taken by the Argives and 
Athenians, V. Ixi . 3. 

Orchomenus, in Boeotia, I. cxiii. 1 ; 
visited by earthquakes. Hi. Lxxxrii. 
4; formerly called " Minyan," 
IV. Ixxvi. 8 ; conspiracy to betray 
the city, ibi ; Orchomenians in 
the batt.e at Delium, iv. xciii. 4. 

Orestes, exiled son of a ThessaUan 
king, I. cxi. 1. 

Orestheum, in Maenalia, v. Ixiv. 3. 

Orestians, a people in Epirus, II. 
Ixxx. 6. 

Oresthis, IV. cxxxiv. 1. 

Oreus, in Euboea, the only city 
retained by Athens on the island 
after the second revolt, VIII. xcv. 
7. 

Orneae, in Argolis, its people on the 
Argive side at Mantineia, v. Ixvii. 
2 ; Ixxii. 4 ; Ixxiv. 2 ; Argive 
exiles settled at Orneae, vi. vii. ; 
the town treacherously captured 
by the Argives, ibi. 

Orobiae, in Euboea, III. 1 xxxix. 2. 

Oroedus, king of the Paravaeans, II. 
Ixxx. 6. 

Oropus, in Boeotia, subject to the 
Athenians, ll. xxiii. 3 ; III. xci. 3 ; 
IV. xcvi. 7, 8; on the Athenian 
border, IV. xci., xcix.; provisions 
from Euboea pass through Oropus 
for Athens, VII. xxviii. 1 ; be- 
trayed to the Boeotians, VIII. Ix. 
1 ; a Peloponnesian squadron puts 
in at Oropus, vill. xcv. 

Ortygia, the original site of Syracuse, 
VI. iii. 2. 

Oscius, a river in Thrace, ll. xcvi. 4. 

Ostracism of Themistocles, I. cxxxv.; 
of Hyperbolus, Vlll. bcxiii. 3. 

Paches, an Athenian commander, 
sent with reinforcements against 
Mytilene, ill. xviii. 3 ; obtains 
possession of the city, ill. xxvii., 
xxviii. ; takes possession of Antissa, 
III. xxviii. 3 ; pursues Alcidas, 
III. xxxiii. 3 ; captures Notium 
by treachery, m. xxxiv. ; reduces 
Pyrrha and Eresus, m. xxxv. ; 
sends Salaethus, with the most 
guilty of the Mytilenaeans, to 
Athens, ibi ; ordered to put to 

441 



INDEX 



death all the grown up citizens, 
ID. xxxvi. 2, 3 ; order counter- 
manded, in. xllx. ; about 1000 
Mytilenaeans put to death on 
motion of Cleon, lU. 1. 1. 

Paeonians, subjects of Sitalces, Π. 
χολΊ. 2 ; xcviii. 

Pagondas, a Boeotarch in the battle 
at Delium, iv. xci. ; his speech, 
IV. xcii. ; defeats the Athenians 
at Delium, IV. xciii., xcvi. 

Palaereans, in Acarnania, ll. xxx. 1. 

Pale, in Gepallenia, I. χχτϋ. 2 ; ll. 
XXX. 1. 

Pa'lene, peninsula in Chalcidice, I. 
Ixiv. 1 ; IV. cxvi. 2 ; cxx. 1 ; cxxiii. 
1 ; cxxix. 1 ; its isttmaus, I. Ivi. 
2 ; IV. cxx. 3. 

Pammilus, founder of Selinus, VI. 
iv. 2. 

Paniphylia, I. c. 1 

P:inaf-tum, on the borders of Attica, 
betrayed to the Boeotians, v. iii. 
5 ; to be restored imder the treaty, 
v. xviu. 7 ; the Lacedaemonians 
promise to get it bacls: for the 
Athenians, V. xxxv. δ ; entreat 
the Boeotians to give it up to 
them, V. xxxvi. 2 ; demolished by 
the Boeotians, V. xxxix. 3 ; rage 
of the Athenians at its destruc- 
tion, V. xlii. ; the Lacedaemonians 
demand Pylos in return for it, v. 
xliv. 3 : the Athenians request the 
Lacedaemonians to rebuild and 
restore it, v. xlvi. 2. 

Panaeans, U. ci. 3. 

Panaerus, a friend of Brasidas in 
Thessaly, IV. Ixxviii. 1. 

Panathenaea, I. xx. 2 ; V. xlvii. 10 
VI. Ivi. 2 ; Ivii. 1. 

Pandion, King of Athens, Π. xxix. 3 

Pangaeus, Mt., in Thrace, π 
xcix. 3. 

Panormus, in Achaea, n. Ixxxvi. 1 
xcii. 1. 

Panormus, in Milesian territory, 
Vin. xxiv. 1. 

Panormus, a Phoenician settlement 
in Sicily, VI. ii. 6. 

Pantacyas, a river in Sicily, vi. iv. 1. 

Paralians, a part of the Malians, ΠΙ. 
xcii. 1. 

Paralus, a district in Attica, II. Iv. 
1; !vi. 1. 3. 

442 



Paralus, Athenian sacred vessel, 

III. xxxiii. 1 ; Ixxvii. 3 ; the 
crew all freemen and enemies of 
the oligarchy, VIII. Ixxiii. 5, fi ; 
Ixxiv. 1 ; sent to cruise off Euboea, 
VIII. Ixxxvi. 9 ; mutiny and give 
up the Athenian envoys to the 
Argives, ibi ; come to Samos 
with Argive envoys, ibi. 

Pa»avaeans, a people in Epirus, Π. 

Lxxx. 6. 
Parnassus, Mt., ΠΙ. xcv. 1. 
Parnes, Mt„ in Attica, ll. xxiii. 1 ; 

IV. xcvi. 7. 

Parians, Thasos, a colony of the, IV. 
civ. 4. 

Parrhasians, in Arcadia, v. xxxiii. 

Pasicelidas, Lacedaemonian governor 
at Torone, iv. cxxxii. 3 : loses 
Torone to Cleon and is slain, V. 
iii. 1. 

Patmos, island, ΠΙ. xxxiii. 3. 

Patrae, in Achaea, Π. Ixxxiii. 3 ; 
Ixxxiv. 3 ; extends walls to the 
sea, v. Iii. 2. 

Pausanias, guardian of king Pleist- 
archus, I. cxxxii. 2 ; victor at 
Plataea, n. Ixxi. 2 ; Ixxii. 1 ; m. 
liv. 4; Iviii. 5; Lxviii. 1: takes 
command of the twenty ships, I. 
xciv. : takes Byzantium, ibi ; 
becomes unpopular, I. xcv. 1 ; 
summoned to Sparta, ibi ; acquitted 
of conspiracy, ibi ; negotiates 
with Xerxes, I. cxxviii.-cxxx. ; 
recalled to Sparta and imprisoned, 
I. cxxxi. ; charges against him, 
ibi ; intrigues with Helots, I. 
cxxxii. 4; betrayed by his ser- 
vant, ibi ; cxxxiii. ; escapes to 
the temple of Athena of the 
Brazen House, I. cxxxiv. 1 ; is 
starved to death, ibi : ordered 
by the Delphian oracle to be buried 
in the temple, ibi. 

Pausanias, son of Pleistoanax, king 
of Sparta, ΙΠ. xxvi. 2. 

Pausanias, a Macedonian, brother of 
Derdas, I. 1x1. 4 (<•/. I. lix. 2). 

Peace, treaty of five years between 
the Peloponnesians and Athenians, 
I. cxii. 1 ; thirty years treaty, 
1. cxv., cxlvi. ; n. ii. 1; Π. vii. 1; 
fifty years peace, v. xviii. ; only 
nomioal, V. xxvi. ; peace and 



INDEX 



alliance for 100 years between the 
Acarnanians and Ambraciots, III. 
cxiv. 3 ; treaty between Argos 
and Lacedaemon, v. Ixxvii. ; 
alliance, V. Ixxix. ; three treaties 
between Lacedaemon and Persia, 
VIII. xviii., xxxvi., Iviii. ; treaties 
inscribed on columns, V. xviii. 10 ; 
xxiii. 5 ; Ivi. 3. 

Pe laritus, Lacedaemonian governor 
of Chios, vni. ixviii. 5 ; refuses 
to aid Astyochus in the revolt of 
Lesbos, VIII. xxxii. ; deceived by 
a trick of some Erythraean 
prisoners, VIII. xxxiii. 3, 4; alters 
the government of Chios, vin. 
Xuviii. 3 ; complains to Sparta 
of Astyochus, vill. xxxviii. 4; 
requests the aid of Astyochus, 
VIII. xl. ; falls in battle before 
Chios, vui. Iv. 2, 3. 

Pegae, a harbour in Megaris, subject 
to the Athenians, I. ciii. 4 ; 
evil. 3 ; cxi. 2 ; restored under 
the thirt)' years treaty, I. cxv. ; 
demanded by the Athenians after 
Sphacteria, rv. xsi. 3 ; occupied 
by Mcgarian exiles, IV. Ixvl. 1 ; 
these brought back therefrom, iv. 
Ixxiv. 2. 

Ppiraeum, a harbour in Corinthian 
territory, where a Peloponnesian 
fleet was blockaded, vill. x. 3 ; 
xi. 3 ; xiv. 2 ; xv. 2 ; blockade 
broken, VIII. xx. 1. 

Peiraeus, port of Athens, fortified 
by Themistocles, I. xcui. ; circuit 
of, Π. xiii. 7 ; visited by the jilague, 
n. xlviii. 2 ; Brasidas' scheme to 
attack Peiraeus, ii. xciii., xciv. ; 
final capture referred to, V. xxvi. 
1 ; attack of the enemy on Peiraeus 
expected after the disaster in Sicily, 
vin. i. 2 ; Peiraeus protected from 
attack by the army at Samos, 
VIII. Ixxvi. 5 ; the army at Samos 
want to sail to the Peiraeus, vni. 
Ixxxii. ; Ixxxvi. 4 ; the oligarchs 
fortify Eetioneia to protect the 
Peiraeus, VIII. xc. ; tumult, the 
fort destroyed, viri. xcii. ; the 
hoplites in the Peiraeus march 
to Athens, vni. xciii. 1 ; citizens 
rush to Peiraeus when a Lacedae- 
monian fleet appears off Salamis, 



VIII. xciv. ; attack on Peiraeus 
expected after defeat off Euboea, 
vm. xcvi. 

Peisander, sent to Athens to for- 
ward the oligarchical conspiracy, 
VIII. xlix. ; gains the consent of 
the people, viii. liii., liv. ; sent to 
negotiate with Aloibiades and 
Tissaphernes, vra. liv. 2 ; baflled 
by Alcibiades, vm. Ivi. ; sent 
home with orders to put down 
democracy in the cities, VUl. 
Ixiv. ; Ixv. 1 ; proposes govern- 
ment of Four Hundred, Vlll. 
Ixvii. ; breaks up the old Senate 
and installs the Four Hundred, 
VIII. Ixix., Ixx. ; stirs up an oli- 
garchical revolution at Samos, vm. 
Ixxiii. 2 ; retreats to Deceleia on 
the dissolution of the Four Hun- 
dred, VIII. xcviii. 1. 

Peisistratidae, moderate character of 
their government, VI. liv. 5 ; 
overthrown by the Lacedaemoni- 
ans, VI. liii. 3 ; lix. 4. 

Peisistratus, tyrant of Athens, I. xx. ; 
VI. liii. 3 ; liv. 2 ; his purification 
of Delos, III. civ. 1. 

Peisistratus, grandson of the tyrant, 
VI. liv. 6, 7. 

Peithias, a Corcyraean popular leader, 
murdered by the oligarchs, m. 
Ixx. 

Pelargicum, on the Acropolis at 
Athens, ll. xvii. 1, 2. 

Pelasgians, most widely spread of 
ancient tribes in Greece, I. iii. 2 
the Pelasgians of Acte, IV. cix. 4. 

Pele, island off Cliizomenae, vm 
xxxi. 3. 

Pella, in Macedonia, ll. xcix. 4; c. 4 

Pelleue, in Achaea; the PeUenians 
were allies of the Lacedaemonians, 
II. ix. 1 ; Pellene was regarded as 
mother-city of the ScionaeanSi 
IV. cxx. 1 ; join the Lacedae- 
monians in the invasion of Argos, 
v. Iviii. 4 ; lix. 3 ; Ix. 3 ; furnish 
ships to the Lacedaemonians, vm. 
iii. 2 ; lose one ship in the battle 
of Cynossema, vm. cvi. 3. 

Peloponnesus, frequent changes of 
early inhabitants, I. ii. 3 : name 
derived from Pelops, I. ix. 2 ; 
divided into five parts, I. x. 2 ; 

443 



INDEX 



conquest by the Heracleidae, I. 
lii. 3 ; the greater part of Sicily 
and Italy colonized from the 
Peloponnesus, I. sii. 4 (c/. vi. 
Ixxvii. 1); all the Peloponnesus, 
except Argos and Achaea, included 
in the Lacedaemonian alliance, II. 
ii. 2 ; the plague little felt in the 
Peloponnesus, ll. liv. 5 ; pro- 
visions respecting the Pelopon- 
nesian cities in treaties between 
Lacedaemon and Argos, V. Ixxvii. 
5, 6; Ixxlx. 1, 2, 4; employment 
of mercenaries from the Pelopon- 
nesus, I. xxxi. 1 ; IV. Hi. 2 ; Ixxvi. 
3 ; Ixxx. 5 ; VI. xxii. 1 ; vu. sis. 
4; VII. Ivii. 9; Iviii. 3; Yin. xxviii. 
4 ; Pericles' account of the Pelo- 
ponnesian character, I. cxli., cxlii. 
(For actions of Peloponnesians, 
performed under Lacedaemonian 
leadership, see Lacedaemonians.) 

Pelops, gives his name to the Pelo- 
pormesus, I. ix. 2. 

Peloponnesian War, length of, V. 
xxvi. (See War.) 

Pelorus, a promontory near Messene, 
in SicUy, iv. xxv. 3. 

PentecostVs, a division of the Lace- 
daemonian army, v. Ixviii. 2. 

Peparethus, island of, m. Ixxxix. 4. 

Perdiccas, King of Macedonia, 
quarrels with the Athenians, I. 
Ivi., Ivii.; sends envoys to Sparta, 
I. Ivii. 4; persuades the Chal- 
cidians to revolt, i. Ivii. 5 ; Iviii. 1 ; 
assigns the Chalcidians part of 
Mygdonia, I. Iviii. 2 ; reconciled 
to the Athenians, I. Ixi. 3 ; deserts 
them, I. Ixii. 2 ; again reconciled 
to the Athenians, ll. xxix. 6 ; 
sends assistance to the Ambra- 
ciots, Π. Ix xT . 7; his perfidy 
to Sitalces, Π. xcv. ; attacked 
by Sitalces, u. xcvi.-ci. ; gains 
against Sitalces, n. cL 6; marries 
his sister to Seuthes, ibi ; invites 
Brasidas, rv. Ixxix. ; declared an 
enemy by the Athenians, iv. 
Ixxxii. ; with Brasidas wars upon 
Arrhabaeus, iv. Ixxxiii. ; assists 
Brasidas at Amphipoli?, IV. cui. 
3 ; cvii. 3 ; with Brasidas defeats 
the Lyncestians, IV. cxxiv. ; loses 
his army by a panic, IV. cxxv. 1 ; 

444 



quarrels with Brasidas, TV. cxrviii. 
δ; joins the Athenians, IV. cxxxii. 
1 ; asked by Cleon for reinforce- 
ments, V. vi. 2 ; joins the Lace- 
daemonian alliance, v. Lxxr. 2; 
blockaded by the Athenians, V. 
Ixxxiii. 4; his territory ravaged 
by the Athenians, VI. vii. 3 ; aids 
the Athenians against Amphipolis, 
vu. ix. 

Pericles, son of Xanthippus, de- 
feats the Sicyonians and attacks 
Oeniadae, I. cxi. 2 ; subdues 
Euboea, I. cxiv. ; victor in sea- 
fight against the Samians at 
Tragia, I. cxvi. 1 ; sails for Caunus, 
I. cxvi. 3 ; Samians capitulate, 
I. cxvii. 3 ; under the " curse of 
the Goddess," I. cxxvii. 1 ; leader 
of the Athenian State, ibi ; speech, 
I. cxl.-cxliv. ; his counsel followed, 
I. cslv. ; n. xii. 2 ; offers his 
lands as public property, n. xiiL 
2; State's resources explained, 
ibi ; the Athenians angry with 
him, n. xxi., xxii. ; leads in in- 
vasion of ilegara, n. \xx\. 1 ; 
funeral oration, n. xxxv.-xlvl; 
leads expedition round the Pelo- 
ponnesus, Π. Ivi. ; censured and 
fined by the Athenians, Π. lix. ; 
his speech in defence, Π. Lx.- 
Lxiv. ; elected general. Π. Ixv. 1; 
characterization of Pericles, his 
death, n. Ixv. 

Perieres, one of the founders of 
Zancle, Tl. iv. δ. 

Perioeci, of Laconia, aid the Helots 
in revolt, I. cL 1 ; assist in the 
foundation of Heracleia, m. xciL 
5 ; present at the attack on Pylos, 
IV. viii. 1 ; the Perioeci of Cythera, 
IV. liii. 2 ; Phrjmis, one of the 
Perioeci, sent to Chios, vm. vi. 
4; Deiniadas, one of the Perioeci, 
a naval commander, vm. xxii. 2. 

Perrhaebia, in Thessaly, iv. Ixxviii. δ. 

Persia : the Persians form part of 
the garrison at Memphis, I. civ. 
2 ; Persian luxury affected by 
Pausanias, I. cxxx. ; the language 
learned by Themistocles, I. cxxxviU. 
1 ; Persian spoil on the Acropolis, 
Π. xiii. 4; visited by the plague, 
Π. xlvlii. 1. 



INDEX 



Persian War. (See War.) 

Perseus, I. ix. 2. 

Petra, a promontory near Rhegium, 

vn. XXXV. 2. 
Phaciuiu, in Tliessaly, IV. Ixxviii. 5. 
Phaeacians, ancient naval renown of, 

I. XXV. 4. 
Phaeax, an Athenian envoy to 

Thessaly, V. iv. 5. 
Phaedimus, a Lacedaemonian envoy, 

V. xlii. 1. 
Phaeinls, priestess of Hera at Argos, 

IV. cxxxiii. 3. 
Phaenippus, an Athenian clerk at 
the conclusion of the one year 
truce, I. xcix. 11. 
Phagres, in Thrace, Π. xcix. 3. 
Phalenun, one of the harbours of 
Athens, I. cvii. 1 ; the Phaleric 
wall, Π. xiii. 7. 
Phallus, a Corinthian, founder of 

Epidamnus, i. xxiv. 1 ; xxv. 2. 
Phanae, in Chios, VIII. xxiv. 3. 
Phanomachus, an Athenian com- 
mander at Potidaea, II. Ixx. 1. 
Phanoteus, place in Phocis, XV. 

Ixxxix. 1. 
Phanotis, district in Phocis, rv. 

Ixxxix. 1. 
Phamabazus, satrap of territory on 
the Hellespont, seeks to con- 
ciliate the Lacedaemonians, vill. 
vi. 1 ; viii. 1 ; Ixxx. 2 ; xcix. ; 
Abydus revolts to him, VIII. Ixii. 
1 ; Clearchus sent to him, vni. 
Itt-t . 1. 
Pharnaces, son of Phamabazus, ii. 
Ixvii. 1 ; gives the Delians at 
Atramytteium, V i. {cf. vill. cvtii. 
4) ; sons of Pharnaces, Vlll. Iviu. 1. 
Pharos, in Egypt, I. civ. 1. 
Pharsalus, ia Thessaly, attacked by 
the Athenians. I. cxi. 1 ; sends aid 
to the Athenians, II. xxii. 3 ; 
friends of Brasidas there, iv. 
Ixxviii. 1, 6 ; Thucydides of Phar- 
salus, proxenus at Athens, vill. 
xcii. 8. 
Phaselis, in Lycia, II. Ixix. 1 ; VXII. 

Ixxxviu. ; xcix., cviii. 1. 
Phaea, in Ells, II. xxv. 3 ; \l\. xxxi. 1. 
Pheraeans, in Thessaly, ll. xxii. 3. 
Philip of Macedon, brother of Per- 
diccas, I. Ivii. 3 ; lix. 2 ; Ixi. 5 ; 
II. xcv. 2 ; c. 3. 



Philip, a Lacedaemonian, governor 
of Miletus, VIII. xxviii. 5; Ixxxvii. 
6 ; xcix. 

Philocharidas, a Lacedaemonian, 
swears to the one year truce, iv. 
cxix. 1 ; swears to the treaty, v. 
six., xxiv. ; envoy to Thrace, v. 
xxi. 1 ; envoy to Athens, V. xliv. 3. 

Philocrates, an Athenian, coniraander 
of reinforcements for Melos, V. 
cxvi. 3. 

Phuoctetes, commander of the 
smallest ships that went to Trov, 
I. X. 4. 

Philomela, story of, ll. xxLx. 3. 

Phlius, in the Peloponnese, money 
asked of it, for expedition against 
Epidamnus, I. xxvii. 2 ; Phliasiau 
troops with Brasidas at Megara, 
IV. Ixx. 1 ; the priestess Chrysis 
llces for refuge to Phlius. iv. 
cxxxiii. 3 ; meeting-place of the 
Lacedaemonian alliance before the 
invasion of Argos, v. ivii. 2 ; the 
Phliasians participate in the cam- 
paign against the Argives, v. Iviii. 
4 ; llx. 1 ; Ix. 3 ; invaded three 
times by the Argives, V. Lxxxiii. 
3 ; cxT. 1 ; vi. cv. 3. 

Phocaea, in Ionia, the Phocaeans 
found Jlas-salia, I. xiii. 6 ; con- 
quer the Carthaginians in a sea- 
fight, ί6ί ,• Piiocaean stater, iv. 
lu. 2. 
Phocaeae, a part of Leontini, v. iv. 

4. 
Phocis, the Phocians invade Doris, 

I. cvii. 2 ; become allies of the 
Athenians, I. cxi. 1 ; receive the 
temple of Delphi from the Athen- 
ians, I. oxii. 5 ; allies of the Lace- 
daemonians at the beginning of 

• the Peloponnesian war, II. ix. 2 ; 
Phocis once occupied by Thracians. 

II. xxix. 3 ; Demosthenes plans 
to win them over. III. xcv. 1 ; at 
enmity with the Locrians of 
Amphissa, III. ci. 1 ; certain 
Phocians shaie in the Athenian plan 
to subdue Boeotia, iv. Ixxvi. 3 ; the 
plan betrayed by Nicomachus, a 
Phocian, IV. Ixxxix. 1 ; go to 
war with the Locrians, v. xxxii. 
] : summoned by the Lacedae- 
niouiaus to Mantineia, v. Ixiv. 4 ; 

445 



INDEX 



furnish the Lacedaemonians with 
ships, VIII. iii. 2. 
Phoenicians, addicted to piracy, I. 
viii. 1 ; services of the Phoenician 
ships to Persian Kings, I. X7i. ; c. 
1 ; ex. 4 ; cxii. 4 ; cxvi. 1 ; trade 
between Attica and Phoenicia, 
II. Ixix. ; their colonization of 
Sicily, V. ii. 6 ; policy as to the 
fleet urged on Tissaphernes by 
AJcibiades, VIII. xlvi. ; provisions 
of the treaty with regard to the 
ships, VIII. Iviii. 3, 4; the Pelo- 
ponnesians impatient as to Tis- 
saphernes' delay of the ships, 
VIII. Lxxviii. ; Alcibiades pretends 
that he will secure the ships for 
the Athenians, VIII. Ixxxi., Ixxxviii., 
cviii. ; Tissaphernes goes to Aspen- 
dus for the fleet; why he did not 
bring it, VIII. Ixxxvii. ; the Pelo- 
ponnesians abandon hope of the 
fleet, VIII. xcix. ; Tissaphernes 
determines to explain to them 
about the delay of the ships, \ΊΙΙ. 
cix. 

Phoerdcus, a harbour under Mt. 
Mimas, VIII. xxxiv. 

Phormio, son of Asopius, sent against 
Potidaea, I. Ldv. ; ravages Chal- 
cidice, I. Ixv. 3 ; colleague of 
Pericles at Samos, I. cxa-u. 2 ; 
sent as general to the Amphilo- 
chians, ll. Ixviii. 7; makes Nau- 
pactus his base, II. Ixix. 1 ; Ixix. 
4 ; summoned by the Acarnanians, 
II. Ixxxi. 1 ; defeats the Lacedae- 
monian fleet, II. Ixxxiii., Ixxxiv. ; 
asks for reinforcements, ll. Ixxxv. 
4 ; speech to his troops, lI. Ixxxix. ; 
defeats the Lacedaemonians afzain, 
II. xc, xci. ; leads an expedition 
into Acarnania, II. cii. ; returns to 
Athens, II. ciii. 

Photius, a Chaonian leader, ri. lixx. 
5. 

Phrygia, in Attica, ll. xxii. 2 

Phrynichus, an Athenian commander, 
brings reinforcements to Miletus, 
VIII. XXV. 1 ; overrules his col- 
leagues and declines battle, viii. 
xxvii. ; sagacious temper of, ihi ,• 
VIII. Lxviii. : opposes the proposals 
of Alcibiades to overthrow the 
democracy, VIII. xlviii. 4-7 ; out- 



wits Alcibiades, Vlll. 1.. li. ; depoacj, 
VIII. liv. 3, 4; a leader in the 
oligarchical conspiracy at Athens, 
VIII. Ixviii. 3; xc. 1; sent to 
Lacedaemon to make peace, vili. 
xc. 2 ; idlled, \ΊΙΙ. xcii. 2. 

Phrynis, a Lacedaemonian commis- 
sioner to Chios, VTir. vi. 4. 

Phthiotis, see Achaea (Phthiotis). 

Phryous, a fortress in Elis, V. xlix. 1. 

Physca, in Macedonia, ii. xcix. 5. 

Phytia, in Acarnania, iii. cvi. 2. 

Pieria, in Macedonia, ii. xcix. 3 ■ 
c. 4. 

Pierium, in Thessaly, v. xiii. 1. 

Pindus, Mt., in Thessaly, ii. cii. 2. 

Piracy, put down by Minos, I. iv. ; 
honourable in ancient Hellas, I. 
V. ; put down by the Corinthians, 
I. xiii. 5. 

Pissuthnes, Persian satrap of Lower 
Asia Cm. xxxi. 2) aids the Samians 
to revolt, I. cxv. 4 ; assists the 
Persian party at Notium, lii. 
xxxiv. 2. 

Pitanate, division at Lacedaemon, 
an error, I. xx. 3. 

Pittacus, king of the Edonians, 
murdered by his wife, rv. cvii. 3. 

Plague, at Athens, I. xxiii. 3; ll. 
xlvii.-lii. ; appeared before in 
Lemnos, II. xlvii. 3 ; lawlessness 
caused by it, ll. liii. ; not serious 
in the Peloponnesus, ll. liv. ; in 
the fleet, II. Ivii. ; in the army at 
Potidaea, II. Iviii. ; second out- 
break at Athens, lii. ΙχχχΛ-ϋ. 

Plataea, the Plataeans always allies 
of the Athenians, II. ii. 2• ix. 4; 
III. Iv. 1 ; Ixi. 2 ; Ixviii. 5 ; VII 
Ivii. 5 ; the town surprised by 
the Thebans in time of peace, ii. 
ii. (<■/. III. Ixv.); surrender of, it. 
iii. 1 ; rally and attack the in- 
vaders ibi ; night battle in the 
streets, Tl. iv. ; kfll their Theban 
prisoners, ll. v. 7 ; send messen- 
ger to Athens, ll. vi. 1 ; receive 
a garrison from Athens, II. vi. 4; 
their territory ravaged by the 
Boeotians, II. xii. 5 ; Plataea 
attacked by the Lacedaemonians, 
II. Ixxi. 1 ; protest of the Plataeans 
to Archidamus, ll. Ixxi. 2; nego- 
tiations with Archidamus, u. 



446 



INDEX 



lixii.-lxxiv. ; Plataea invested II. 
Ixxv.-lxxviii. ; part of the 
Plataeans break out of the town, 
III. xs.-xsdv. ; surrender of 
Plataea, lit. Hi.; plea of the 
Plataeans to their Lacedaemonian 
judges, III. liii.-lix. ; Plataeans 
put to death and Plataea razeil, 
in. Ixviii. ; Plataeans serve with 
the Athenians at Megara, iv. 
Isvii. ; Plataea not given up under 
the treaty, v. xvii. 2 {cf. in. lii. 
2); Scione given to the Plataeans 
by the Athenians V. xxxii. 1 ; 
against their Boeotian country- 
men at Syracuse. VII. Ivii. .5. 

Plataea, the battle of, I. cixx. 1 ; III. 
liv. 4; Iviii. 3-5 

Pleistarchus, son of Leonideis, king 
of Sparta, I. cxxxii. 1 

Pleistoanax, king of Lacedaemon, 
I. cvii. 1 ; invades Attica, I. cxiv. 
2 : accused of being bribed to 
retreat, ll. xxi. ; accused of brib- 
ing the Pythia, V. xvi. 2, 3 ; eager 
for peace, v. xvii. 1 ; swears to 
the treaty, V. xix., xxiv. ; leads an 
expedition against the Parrhasians, 
V. xxxiii. ; starts to reinforce Agis, 
V. Ixxv. 1. 

Pleistolas, ephor at Lacedaemon, 
swears to the treaty of peace, V. 
xix., xxiv. 

Pleraiiiyrium, a promontory opposite 
Syracuse, fortified by Nicias, VII. 
iv. 4; captured by Gylippus, VII. 
xxii. 1 ; xxiii. 1 ; garrisoned by 
the Syracusans, Vll. xxdv. 1 ; 
seriousness of its loss, VII. xxiv.; 
xxxvi. 6. 

Pleuron, in Aetolia, ill. cii. 5. 

Pnyx, where the Athenian assembly 
met, VIII. xcvii. 1. 

Polemarchs, magistrates at Man- 
tineia, V. xlvii. 9 ; military officers 
at Lacedaemon, v. Ixvi. 3; Ixxi. 3. 

Polichne, near Clazomenae, fortified 
by the Clazomenians, VIII. xiv. 3 ; 
retaken by the Athenians, Vlll. 
xxiii. 6. 

Policlmitae, inhabitants of Polichne 
in Crete, II. Ixxxv. f>. 

Folis, in Locris, ill. ci. 2. 

PoUes, king of the Odomantians, 
in Thrace, v. vi. 2. 



Pollis, of Argos, unofiBcial envoy to 
the King, li. Ixvii. 1. 

Polyanthes, a Corinthian commander, 
vill. xxxiv. 2. 

Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, con- 
secrates Kheneia to the Delian 
Apoilo, I. xiii. 6 ; Til. civ. 2. 

Polydamidas, a Lacedaemonian com- 
mander, IV. cxxiii. 4 ; defeats the 
Athenians at Mende, IV. cxxix. ; 
disobeyed and attacked by the 
Mendaeans, IV. cxxs. 

Polymedes, of Larissa, II. xxii. 3. 

Pontus, the Euxine, the liCsbians 
send thither for troops and 
supplies, III. ii. 2 ; Lamachus sails 
into, IV. Ixxv. 1 ; Chalcedon at the 
mouth of, ibi. 

Poseidon, temple of, at Taenarus, 
I. cxxviii. 1 ; cxxxiii. 1 ; at Nisaea, 
IV. cxviii. 4 ; on the coast of 
Pallene, iv. cxxix. 3 ; ships dedicated 
to him after a victory, τΐ. Ixxxiv. 4; 
Colonus, a sacred precinct of 
Poseidon, VIII. Ixvii. 2. 

Potamis, a Syracusan naval com- 
mander, VIII. Ixxxv. 3. 

Potidaea, a colony of Corinth on 
the isthmus of Pallene, required 
to dismantle its walls and give 
hostages to Athens, I. Ivi. 2 ; 
Ivii. 6 ; Athenian expedition sent 
thither, I. Ivii. 6 ; Ixi. 1 ; revolts 
from Athens, I. Iviii. 1 ; receives 
aid from Corinth, I. Ix. ; battle of, 
I. Ixii., Ixiii. ; Aristeus retreats into, 
I. Ixiv. ; invested, I. ixiv.; Aristeus 
departs, I. Ixv. ; the affair causes 
great feeling between Corinth and 
Athens, I. Ixvi. ; the Corinthians 
complain at Sparta, I. Ixvii. ; beg 
assistance, I. Ixxi. 4, 5 ; Archi- 
damus urges moderation, I. Ixxxv.; 
the Corinthians urge on the war, 
I. cxix., cxxiv. ; the Lacedae- 
monians bid the Athenians quit 
Potidaea I. cxxxix., 1 ; cxl. 3 ; 
3000 hoplites thereat, ii. xxxi. 
2 ; Hagnon brings reinforcements 
and with them the plague, ll. 
Iviii. ; Aristeus seeks Sitalccs' 
assistance therefor, ll. Ixvii. ; 
it capitulates, and is colonized by 
the Athenians, II. Ixx. ; expense of 
the siege, ll. Ixx. 2; in. xvii. 3; 

447 



INDEX 



VI. xxxj. 2 ; the Atheuians escape 
thereto after the battle of Sp-irtolus, 
Π. Imnr 7; Brasidas plans attack 
thereon, IV. cxxi. 2; *\icias 
starts from Potidaea against 
Mende, iv. cxxix. 3 ; Brasidas' 
attempt fails IV. cxxxv. 

Potidania, in Aetolia, ΠΤ .xcvi. 2. 

Prasiae, in Attic.i, vill. scv. 1. 

Prasiae, in Laconia, destroyed by 
the Athenians, II. Ivi. 6 ; ravaged, 
VI. cv. 2 ; VII. xviii. 3. 

Priapus, on the Propontis.Vlll.cvii. 1. 

Priene, in Ionia, I. cxv. 1. 

Procles, (1) an Athenian commander, 

III. xci. 1 ; xcviii. 5 ; (2) swears 
to the treaty of peace, v. xix., xxiv. 

Procne, wife of Tereus, ll. xxix. 3. 
Pronnians, in Cephallenia, II. xxx. 2. 
Propylaea, of the Acropolis, II. xiii. 3. 
Proschium, in Aetolia, III. cii. 5. 
Prosopitis, an island in the Kile, T, 

cix. 4. 
Prote, an island near Pylos, rv. 

xiii. 3. 
Proteas, an Athenian commander, 

sent to Corcyra, I. xlv. 2 : cruises 

round the Peloponnesus, ll. xxiii. 2. 
Protesilaus, sanctuary of, near Elaeus, 

Vin. ciii. 2. 
Proxenus, a Locrian commander, Π. 

ciii. 8. 
Prytanes, at Athens, IV. cxriii. 14 ; 

V. xlvii. 9; VI. xiv. ; Till. Lxx. 1; 

cf. IV. cxviii. 11. 
Ptcleum, urbs incerta, to be restored 

to the Lacedaemonians under the 

treaty, V. xviii. 7. 
Pteleum, a fort in Erythraean terri- 
tory, VIII. xxiv. 1 ; xxsi. 2. 
Ptoeodoms, a Theban exile, IV. Ixxvi. 

2 
Ptychia, a small island near Corcjra, 

iv. xlvL 3. 
Pydius, a river in the region of the 

"Hellespont, vill. cvi. 1. 
Pydna. in Macedonia, besieged by 

the Athenians, I. Ixi. 3 ; Themis- 

tocles sent tMther by Admetus, 

I. cxxxvii. 1. 
Pylos, in Messenia, called Cory- 

"phasium by the Lacedaemonians, 

4U0 stadia from Sparta, IV. ili. 

2 : fortified by the Athenians, 

IV. iv., 7. ; the news recalls the 



Lacedaemonians from Attica, rv.• 
6 ; unsuccessfully assaulted by 
the Lacedaemonians, rv. si., xii.; 
the Athenians defeat the Lacedae- 
monian fleet and cut off the troops 
in Sphacteria iv. xiii., xiv. ; Lace- 
daemonians obtain truce and send 
envoys to Athens, iv. xv., xvi, ; 
the truce ends and the Atheniana 
retain the Peloponnesian ships, 

IV. xxiii. ; sufferings of the 
Athenians blockading Pylos, IV. 
xxvi. ; garrisoned by the Mes- 
senians from Xaupactus, IV. xli. 
2 ; Cleon's success at Pylos in- 
creases his confidence at Amphi- 
polis, V. vii. 3 ; the Athenians 
repent that they did not make 
peace after Pylos; the Lacedae- 
monians disheartened by its cap- 
ture, V. xiv. ; the Athenians with- 
draw the Messenians at Pylos, V. 
XXXV. 6, 7 ; the Lacedaemonians 
negotiate with a view to the 
exchange of Pylos for Panactum, 

V. xxxvi. 2 ; xxxis. 2 ; xliv.— 
xlvi. ; the Athenians put the 
Helots back in Pylos, V. Ivi. 3; 
marauding expeditions from Pylos, 
V. cxv. 2; VI. cv. 2; vii. xviii. 3; 
xxvi. 2 ; the Lacedaemonians 
consider their misfortune at Pylos 
deserved because they began the 
war, VII. xviii. ; the Athenian 
defeat in the Great Harbour at 
Syracuse like that of the Lace- 
daemonians at Pylos, vil. Ixxi. 7 ; 
Demosthenes, the greatest foe of 
the Lacedaemonians, Nicias their 
greatest friend, in the matter of 
Pylos, VII. IxxxvL 3. (See Sphac- 
teria.) 

Pyrasians, people of Pyrasus in 
Thessaly, Π. xsh. 3. 

Pyrrha, in Lesbos, III. xviii. 1 ; xxv. 
1; XXXV. 1 ; ντπ. xxiii. 2. 

Pystilus, joint founder with Aris- 
tonous of Agrigentum, VI. iv. 4. 

Pythangelus, a Theban Boeotarch, 
surprises Plataea, il. ii. 1. 

Pythen, a Corinthian commander, VI. 
civ. 1 ; sails with GyUppus to 
Himera, VII. i. 1 ; one of the 
commanders of the Syracusan fleet 
in the last sea-fight, vn. Ixx. 1. 



448 



INDEX 



Pythodorus, an Athenian archon, 
at the opening of the war, ll. ϋ. I ; 
supersedes Laches in Sicily, in. 
cxv. 2 ; exiled, IV. Ixv. 3 ; swears 
to the treaty of peace, V. xix., 
ixiv. ; commands an expedition 
to Laconia which violates the 
treaty, VI. cv. 

Quarries, at Syracuse, used as a 
prison for the Athenian captives, 
VII. Ixxsvi., Ixxxvii. 

Reserve fund and ships set apart 
by the Athenians, to be touched 
only if the enemy attacked the 
city with a fleet, II. xxiv. ; VIII. 
xv. 1. 

Eevenue, Athenian : six hundred 
talents yearly from subject allies, 
IT. xiii. 3 ; property-tax for the 
first time resorted to, ill. xix. 1 ; 
revenues from the Laureian silver 
mines, profits from the land and 
the law courts, vi. xci. 7 ; the 
tribute commuted for a duty of 
five per cent, on all imports and 
exports, vil. xxviii. 4. 

Rhamphias, a Lacedaemonian, one 
of the envoys who bring the last 
demands upon the Athenians, I. 
cxxxix. 3 ; returns from Chalcidice 
on the news of Brasidas' death, 
v. xii., xiii. 

Rhegium, in Italy, the Rhegians 
are lonians and kindred of the 
Leontines, III. Ixxxvi. 2 ; VI. 
xliv. 3 ; xlvi. 2 ; Liiix' 1 : sent 
with the Athenians against the 
Lipari islands, III. Ixxxviii. ; 
Athenian reinforcements arrive at 
Rhegium, III. cxv. ; in revolution 
and at war with the Locrians, 
IV. i. 3 ; xxiv., xxv. ; important 
position of, iv. xxiv. 4 ; Anaxilaus, 
tyrant of, VI. iv. 6 ; refuses to 
receive the Athenian expedition 
to Sicily, vi. xliv. ; part of the 
Athenians stay at Rhegium till 
assured of a reception at Catana, 

VI. 1., li. ; Gylippus puts in there, 

VII. i. 2 ; the Athenians lie in 
wait there for the Corinthian 
fleet, VII. iv. 7. 

Rheiti, in Attica, ll. xix. 2. 



Rheitus, a stream in Corinthian 

territory, iv. xiii. 2. 
Rheneia, island near Delos, I. xiii. 6; 

III. cxiv. 2. 
Rhiuin, the Molycrian, ll. Ixxxiv. 4; 
xxxvi. 1 ; the Achaean, ll. Ixxxvi. 

3; xcu. 5; v. lii. 2. 
Rhodes, assists in the colonization 

of Gela, vi. iv. 3; VII. Ivii. 6, 9; 

Rhodian troops serve in the 

expedition to Sicily, VI. xliii.; 

vij. Ivii. 6 ; revolts from Athens, 

VIII. xliv. 2 ; Athenian fleet makes 

descents upon Rhodes, Vlll. xliv. 

4 ; Iv. ; the Peloponnesians quit 

Rhodes, viil. Ii. 
Rhodope, Mt., in Thrace, ll. xcvi. 1. 
Rhoeteum, in the Troad, TV. lii. 2. 
Rhypae, in Achaea, vil. xxxiv. 1. 

Sabylinthus, a Molossian, guardian 
of king Tharyps, ll. Ixxx. 6. 

Sacon, one of the founders of Himera, 
VI. V. 1. 

Sadocus, son of Sitalces, made a 
citizen of Athens, ll. xxix. 5 ; 
gives up Aristeus and the Lace- 
daemonian envoys to the Athenians, 
II. Ixvii. 2, 3. 

Salaethus, a Lacedaemonian sent to 
Mytilene, III. xxv. 1 ; arms the 
commons there. III. xxvii. 2 ; 
captured and sent by Paches with 
other captives to Athens; put 
to death. III. xxxv. 

Salaminia, one of the two Athenian 
sacred vessels, in. xxxiii. 1 ; 
Ixxvii. 3 : Vl. liii. 1 ; Ixi. 4. 

Salamis, battle of, I. Ixxiii. 4 ; cxxxvii. 
4; overrun by Brasidas, li. xciii., 
xciv. ; the Athenians blockade 
Megara from Salamis, II. xoiii. 4 ; 
xciv. 3; III. li. 2; guarded by 
Attic ships. III. xvii. 2 ; a Pelo- 
ponnesian fleet off Salamis causes 
a panic at Athens, VIII. xciv. 

Salamis, in Cyprus, I. cxii. 4. 

Salynthius, king of the Agraeans, III. 
cxi. 4 ; cxiv. 2 ; IV. Ixxvii. 2. 

Samaeans, in Cephallenia, ll. xxx. 

Saminthus, in Argolis v Iviii. 5. 

Samos, one of the first Hellenic 
states to possess a navy, I. xiii, 
2, 6; Polycrates, t3rant of, tbi; 

449 



INDEX 



III. civ. 2 ; revolts from Athens, 
I. xl. 5; xli. 2; cxv. 3; defeated, 
cxvi. ; surrenders, cxvii. ; war 
with the Milesians about Priene, 
I. cxv. 2 ; Samian exiles settle 
at Anaea, ill. xix. 2 ; xxxii. 2 ; 

IV. Ixxv. 1 ; Samians expel the 
Chalcidians from Zancle and are 
themselves driven out by Anaxilas, 

VI. iv. 5 ; subject allien of the 
Athenians before Syracuse, vil. 
Ivii. 4 ; Strombichides with an 
Athenian fleet sails to Samos, viil. 
xvi. 1; xvu. 1; xix. 4; uprising 
of commons against the nobles, 
VTII. xxi. ; Samos becomes head- 
quarters of the Athenian fleet, 
vill. XXV. 1; xxvii. 4; xxx. 1; 
xxxiii. 2 ; xxxv. 3 ; xxxviii. 5 ; 
xxxix. 3 ; xli. 3 ; xliv. 3 ; xlvii. 2 ; 
xlviii. 1; Ix. 3 ; Ixiii. ; Lxxix. ; 
leailing Athenians at Samos plot 
with Alcibiades the overthrow of 
the democracy, vill. xlvii -liv. ; 
plan to establish an oligarchy, 
VIII. Ixiii. 3, 4 ; the oligarchical 
revolution crushed, vill. Ixxiii. ; 
the Samians unite with the Athe- 
nians against the Four Hundred, 
VIII. Ixxv.-lxxvii. ; part of the 
Athenian fleet leaves Samos for 
the Hellespont, vill. Ixxx. 4; 
the Athenians at Samos recall 
Alcibiades, Vlll. Ixxxi. 1 ; Alci- 
biades at Samos, VIII. Ixxxi., 
Ixxxii. ; envoys of the Four 
Hundred come to Samos, viil. 
Ixxxvi. 1 ; Argives offer aid. Tin. 
Ixxxvi. 8; Alcibiades leaves Samos 
to join Tlssaphernes, Vlll. Ixxxviii.; 
the Pcloponnesians sailing for the 
Hellespont try to avoid the 
Atheuians at Samos, viii. xcix. ; 
pursued, vill. c. ; Alcibiades re- 
turns to Samos, vill. cviii. 

Sandius, a hill in Caria, in. xix. 2. 
Sane, an Andrian colony- in Acte, 

IV. cix. 3 ; V. xviii. 6. 
Sardis, i. cxv. 4. 
Sargeus, a Sicyonian commander, 

VII. xix. 4. 
Saronic Gulf, III. xv. 1. 
Scandeia, city in Cythera, iv. liv. 4. 
Scione, in Pallene, founded by 

Pellenians returning from Troy, 

45° 



rv. crx. 1 ; revolts from Athens, 
ibi ; the Scionaeans crown Erasi- 
das, IV. cxxi. ; disagreement of 
the Lacedaemonians and Athenians 
about Scione, iv. cxxii. ; the 
Athenians decree its destruction, 
IV. cxxii. 6 ; prepare to attack it, 

IV. cxxix. 2 ; the Scionaeans aid 
the llendaeans, iv. cxxix. 3 ; the 
Peloponnesian garrison of Mende 
flees to Scione, iv. cxxxi. 3 ; Scione 
is invested, iv. cxxxii. 1 ; cxxxiii. 
4; provisions respecting Scione in 
the treaty, v. xviii. 7, 8 ; captured 
by the Athenians, the people slain, 
and the place given to the Plataeans, 

V. xxxii. 1. 

Sciritis, a district of Laconia, v. 

xxxiii. 1; the Sciritae held left 

wing of the Lacedaemonian army 

in battle, v. Ixvii. 1 ; Ixviii. 3 ; 

Ixxi. 2 ; Ixxii. 3. 
Scironides, an Athenian commander, 

viii. XXV. 1 ; deposed, vill liv. 3. 
Scirphondas, a Theban Eoeotarch, 

VIII. XXX. 3. 
Scombrus, Mt., in Thrace, II. 

xcvi. 3. 
Scyllaeum, promontory near Troezen, 

V. liii. 

Scyros, island of, subdued and 

colonized by the Athenians, I. 

xcviii. 2. 
Scytale, the use of, at Lacedaemon, 

I. cxxxi. 1. 
Scythians, II. xcvi. 1 ; xcvi . 6. 
Seiinus, in Sicily, founded by colonists 

from Megara Hyblaea, VI. iv. 2 ; 

the Selinantians war on Egesta, 

VI. vi. 1 ; xiii. 2 ; Seiinus a power- 
ful city, VI. XX. 4 ; attack on Seiinus 
instead of Syracuse urged by 
Nicias, VI. xlvii. ; the Athenians 
sail toward Seiinus, VI. Ixii. 1 ; 
joins Syracuse, Vl. Lxv. 1 ; Lxvii. 
2 ; assist Gylippus, VII. i. 5 ; allies 
of the Syracusaiis, vri. Iviii. 1 ; 
contribute to the SicUian fleet 
despatched to Asia, Vlll. xxvi. 1. 

Sermyle, in Sithonia; defeat of the 
Sei-mylians by Aristeus, I. Isv. 
2 ; provision respecting, in the 
treaty of peace, v. xvui. 8. 

Sestus, siege and capture of (in the 
Persian war), 1. 1 xxxix. 2 ; becomes 



INDEX 



Athenian headquarters in the 
Hellespont, viii. IxU. 3 ; cii. 1 ; 
civ. 1 ; ovii. 1. 
Seuthes, successor of Sitalces as king 
of the Odrysians, II. xcvii. 3 : iv. 
ci. 5 ; marries sister of Perdiccas. 

II. ci. 6. 

Sicania, ancient name of SicOy, VI. 
ii. 2. 

Sicanus, a river in Iberia, VI. ii. 2. 

Sicanus, a S.vracusan tieneral, VI. 
Ixxiii. 1; sent to Agrigentum, VII. 
xlvi. ; unsuccessful there, Vll. I. 1 ; 
commands a squadron 01 the 
Sjracusan fleet in the last sea- 
fight, VII. Lsx. 1. 

Sicels, the majority join the Athenians, 

III. ciii. 1 ; cxv. 1 ; iv. xxv. 9 ; 

VI. Ixv. 2 ; Ixxxviu. 6 ; xcviii. 1 ; 
ciii. 2; VII. Ivii. 11; aid the 
Kaxians, IV. xxv. 9; came over 
on rafts from Italy to Sicily, VI. 
ii. 4 ; gave their name to the 
island, vi. ii. δ ; occupy central 
and northern parts, ibi .• the 
Syracusans negotiate with the 
Sicels, VI. xlv. ; Lsxxviii. 3 ; 
Sicels of the interior friendly 
with the Athenians, VI. Lxxxviii. 
3-5 ; some Sicels aid Gylippus, 

VII. i. 4; Ivii.. 3; Sicel allies of 
the Athenians destroy reinforce- 
ments on the way to Syracuse, 
VII. xxxii. 2 ; the Athenians expect 
aid from the Sicels in their retreat, 
VII. Ixxvii. 6 ; Lxxx. 5. 

Sicily : expedition sent thither by 
the Athenians under Laches, III. 
Ixxxvi., lxxxviii., xc, xcix., ciii. ; 
reinforcements under Pythodorus, 
III. cxv. ; eruption of Aetna, iil. 
cxvi. ; proceedings of the second 
Athenian expedition in Sicily, IV. 
ii., xxiv., XXV., Ixv. ; conference 
of the Siceliots at Gela, rv. Iviii.- 
Ixv. ; embassy of Phaeax from 
Athens to Sicily, v. iv. 5; original 
settlement of Sicily, VI. ii. ; 
anciently called Sicania, before 
that Trinacria, VI. ii. 2 ; Hellenic 
colonies there, VI. iii.-v. ; third 
and great Sicilian expedition : pre- 
paration for it, VI. i., vi., viii.- 
xxix. ; the armament leaves 
Peiraeus, VI. xxx., xxxii. ; its 



magnitude, vi. xxxi., iliii. ; ντι. 
Ixxv. δ; reception of the news 
of it in Sicily, vi. xxxiii.-xli. ; the 
Athenian fleet reaches tatana, 
VI. xlu.-lii. ; course of the cam- 
paign until Syracuse is almost 
completely invested, VI. Ixii.-civ. ; 
Gylippus arrives and enters Syra- 
cuse, VIZ. i., ii. ; the good for- 
tune of the Athenians begins to 
decline, VII. iii.-xvi. : Demosthenes 
to bring reinforcements, VI. xvii., 
xviii. 1 ; xx. ; the Athenians at 
Syracuse lose command of the sea, 
vil. xxi.-xxv., xxxvi.-xli. ; the 
Syracusans gain a fresh victory at 
sea, VII. xlvi.-lvi.; enumeration of 
the hostile forces, Vll. Ivii., Iviii. ; 
last sea-fight, vil. lix.-lxxi. ; retreat 
and final surrender, Vll. Ixxii.- 
Ixxxvii.; a Sicilian contingent is 
sent to the Lacedaemonian fleet in 
Asia, VIII. xxvi. 1 ; Sicilian ships 
in the fleet destined for Euboea, 
VIII. xci. 2. 

Sicyonians, defeated by the Athenians, 
I. cviii. δ ; cxi. 2 : aid the Megarians 
to revolt, I. cxiv. 1 ; furnish ships 
to the Lacedaemonians, ll. ix. 3 ; 
prepare ships for the Lacedae- 
monian invasion of Acarnania, ll. 
Ixxx. 3 ; with Brasidas at Megara, 
IV. Ixx. 1 ; attacked by Demos- 
thenes, IV. ci. 3, 4; aid in pre- 
venting Alcibiades' plan for forti- 
fying Khium, V. lii. 3 ; join in the 
invasion of Argolis, v. Iviii.-lx. ; 
a more oligarchical form of govern- 
ment established there by the 
Lacedaemonians, v. Ixxxi. 2 ; send 
troops to Sicily, vii. xix. 4; Iviii. 
3 ; contribute ships to the Lace- 
daemonian fleet, \ΊΙΙ. tii. 2. 

Sidussa, a fort in Erythraean terri- 
tory, VIII. xxiv. 2. 

Sigeiiim, on the Hellespont, VIII. ci. 3. 

" Silver plow-share," V. xvi. 2. 

Simaethus, a river in SicUy, VI. 
Ixv. 1. 

Simonides, an Athenian general, IV. 
vii. 

Simus, one of the founders of Himera, 
VI. V. 1. 

Singaeans, of Singus, in Sithonia, v. 
xviii. (i. 



INDEX 



Slntians, a people on the borders of 
Macedonia, II. xCTiii. 1. 

Siphae, port of Thespiae, in Boeotia, 
plan to betray it, IV. Ixxvi. 3 ; 
Lsxvii. ; failure of the plot, IV. 
Ixxxix., ci. 3. 

Sitalccs, King of the Odrysians, ally 
of the Athenians, II. xxix. ; ex- 
pedition against Perdiccas, ll. 
xcT.-ci. : dies and is succeeded by 
i?euthes, iv. ci. 

Six Hundred, the, council at Elis, 
V. xlvii. 9. 

Socrates, an Athenian commander, 

II. xxiii. 2. 

Sollium, a Corinthian town, taken 
by the Athenians, II. xxx. 1 ; De- 
mosthenes stops there on his 
way to Aetolia, III. xcv. 1 ; not 
recovered for the Corinthians, v. 
XXX. 2. 

Soloeis, a Phoenician settlement in 
Sicily, VI. ii. 6. 

Solygeia, a village in Corinthian 
territory, IV. xlii. 2 ; xliii. i. 4. 

Sophocles, son of Sostratidas, an 
Athenian commander, III. cxv. 5 ; 
sent with Eurymedon to tiicily, 

IV. ii. 2 ; proceeds with Eury- 
medon to Corcyra, IV. xlvi. 1 ; 
exiled, iv. Ixv. 3. 

Sparta. (See Lacedaemon.) 
Spartolus, in Bottice, Athenians 
defeated there, II. Ixxix. ; pro- 
vision respecting it, in the treaty, 

V. xviii. 5. 

Speeches : of Alcibiades at Athens, 

VI. xvi., xviii. ; at Sparta, vi. 
Ixxxix.-xcii. ; of Archidamus : (1) I. 
Ixxx.-lxxxv. ; (2) ii. xi.; the 
Athenians at Sparta, I. Lxxiii.- 
Lxxviii. ; of Athenagoras, Vl.xxxvi.- 
xJ. ; of Brasidas : at Acanthus, iv. 
Ixxxv.-lxxsvii. ; to his army in 
Macedonia, iv. cxxvi.; at Amphi- 
polis, v. ix. ; of Cleon, iii. xxsvii.- 
xl. ; of Corinthians : at Athens, I. 
xxxvii.-xliii. ; at Sparta, (1) I. 
Ixriii.-lxxi. ; (2) I. cxx.-cxxiv. ; 
of Corcyraeans, I. xxxii.-xxxvi. ; of 
Demosthenes, iv. x. ; of Diodotus, 

III. xliii.-xlviii. ; of Euphemus, vi. 
Ixxxu.-lxxxvil. ; of Uylippus, vil. 
Ixvi.-lxviii. ; of Hermocrates: at 
Gela, IV. lix.-Lxiv. ; at Syracuse, 

452 



VI. xxxiil.-xxxiv. ; at Camarina, 
VI. Ixxvi.-Lxxx. ; of Hippocrates, 
IV. xcv.; of the Lacedaemonian 
ambassadors at Athens, IV. xvii.- 
XX.; of the Mytilenaeans, III. ix.- 
xiv. ; of Xicias: at Athens, (1) VI. 
ix.-xiv.; (2) VI. XX.- xxiii.; at 
Syracuse: (1) Vl. Ixviii.; (2) vn. 
Ixi.-lxiv. ; (3) VIII. Ixxii. ; of 
Pagondas, IV. xcii. ; of the 
Peloponnesian commanders (off 
Naupactus), ll . Lxxxvii. ; of Pericles : 
(1) I. cxl.-cxliv.; (2) (funeral 
oration), II. xxxv.-xlvi.; (3) II. 
Ix.-lxiv.; of Phormio, II. Ixxxix.; 
of Plataeans, III. liii.-lix. ; of 
Sthenelaidas, I. Ixxxvi. ; of 
Teutiaplus, ill. xxx.; of Thebans, 

III. Ixi.-lxvii. 

Sphacteria, island off Pylos, 
occupied by the Lacedaemonians, 

IV. viii. ; blockaded by the Athe- 
nians, IV. xiv. 5 ; xxvi. : success- 
ful attack upon, iv. xxxi.-xxxix. ; 
the calamity in Sphacteria the 
severest Sparta had ever experi- 
enced, V. xiv. 3 ; restoration of 
the prisoners taken there, V. xxiv. 
2 ; these diafrancliised at Sparta, 

V. xxxiv. 2. 

Stages, a lieutenant of Tissa- 
phernes. 

Stageirus, in (Jhalcidice, an Andrian 
colony, revolts from Athens, iv. 
Ixxxviii. 2 ; attacked unsuccess- 
fully by Cleon, v. vi. 1 ; treaty 
provision respecting, v. xviii. 5. 

Stesagoras, a Samian commander, 
I. cxvi. 3. 

Sthenelaidas, a Spartan ephor, I. 
Ixxxv. 3 ; his speech, I. Lxixvi. 

Stolus, treaty provision respecting, 
v. xviii. 5. 

Stratodemus, a Lacedaemonian envoy 
to the King, put to death, II. 
Ixvil. 1. 

Stratonice, sister of Perdiccas, wife 
of Seuthes, II. ci. 6. 

Stratus, in Acarnania, II. Ixxx. 8; 
defeats the Chaonians, II. Lxxxi. 
5 ; certain Stratians expelled by 
the Athenians, II. cii. 1 ; the 
Peloponnesians on their way to 
Olpae pass Stratus, ni. cvi. 

Strepsa, in Mygdonia, l. Ixi. 4. 



INDEX 



Strombichides, an Athenian com- 
mander seat against Chios, viil. 
XV. 1 ; avoids fight with Chal- 
cideus, VIII. xvi. 1, 2 ; too late to 
prevent revolt at Miletus, VIII. 
svii. 3 ; sent to Chios, viii. sxx. ; 
faUs to recover Abydus, viii. 
bdi. 3 ; ibi ; returns to Samos, 
VIII. Ixxix. 6. 

Strongyle, one of the Aeolian islands, 
II. Ixxxviii. 2. 

Strophacus, a friend of Brasidas in 
Thessaly, iv. Ixxviii. 1. 

Strymon, a river in Thrace, l. c. 2 ; 

II. xcvi. 3; xcix. 3; Iv. cii. 1, 
4; ciii. 4; cviii. 1, ϋ; vil. ix. 1; 
rises in Mt. Scombrus, II. xcix. 3 ; 
lake formed by it, V. vii. 4. 

Styphon, one of the Lacedaemonian 
commanders at Sphacteria, iv. 
soLxvui. 1. 

Styreans, a people of Euboea, Vll. 
Ivii. 4. 

Sunium, promontory in Attica, VII. 
xxviii. 1; vill. iv. ; xcv. 1. 

Sybaris, a river in Italy, vii. xxxv. 1. 

Sybota, (1) islands off Thesprotia, I. 
xlvii. 1 ; liv. 1 ; (2) a harbour in 
Thesprotia, I. 1. 3; lii. 1; liv. 1; 

III. Ixxvi. 

Syce, in Epipolae, vi. xcviii. 2. 

Syme, island between Ehodes and 
Cnidos, VIII. xli. 4. 

Synoecia, a festival, II. xv. 2. 

Syracuse, at war with Leontini, III. 
Ixxxvi. 2 ; Syiucusans defeat the 
Athenians, III. ciii. 2; cause 
Messene to revolt, IV. i. 1 ; attack 
the Khegians, IV. xxiv., xxv.; 
hand over Morgantine to the 
Camarinaeans, iv. l.xv 1 ; aid the 
oligarchs at Leontini, V. iv. ; 
Syracuse founded from Corinth 
by Archias, VI. viii. 2 ; mother- 
city of various places in Sicily, 
VI. v.; equal in size and 
resources to Athens, vi. xx.; vil. 
xxviii. ; at the news of the coming 
Athenian expedition, the Syra- 
cusans first doubt, tiien prepare, 
VI. xxxii. 3; xli., xlv.; the 
Athenians sail to Syracuse, then 
return to C'atana, VI. l.-lii. ; the 
Athenians entice them to Catana 
to cover their landing at Syracuse, 



VI. Ixiv., Ixv. : defeated by the 
Atheniaas, VI. Ixvi.-lxxi. ; en- 
couraged by Hermocrates, Vl. 
Ixxii. ; send envoys to the Pelo- 
ponnesians, VI. "ixxiii. ; extend 
their walls, and send envoys to 
Camarina, VI. Ixxv. ; promised 
aid by the Corinthians, VI. Ixxxviii. 
8 ; the Lacedaemonians appoint 
Gylippus to command the Syra- 
cusan forces, VI. xciii. ; the Syra- 
cusans make some resistance to 
the Athenians near Megara and 
at the river Terias, vi. xciv. ; 
defeated on Epipolae, VI. xcvi., 
xcvii. ; receive another check, and 
their counter-wall is destroyed, 

VI. xcviii.-c. ; again defeated, vi. 
ci. ; repulsed in an attack on 
Epipolae, vi. cii. ; negotiate with 
Nicias, VI. ciii. ; change com- 
manders, and are on the point of 
capitulating, vil. ii. 2 ; hear of 
Gylippus' approach and go out 
to meet him, VII. ii. 3 ; take 
Labdalum, VIII. iii. 4; build a 
counter-wall, vii. iv. 1; fail in 
an attack, VII. v. ; defeat the 
Athenians and carry their wall 
past the Athenian line, VII. vi. ; 
begin to form a navy, VII. vii. 4; 
sii., xxi. ; sea-fight in the Great 
Harbour; defeated, but capture 
Plemmyrium, vil. xxii., xxiii. ; 
scatter an Athenian supply fleet, 

VII. xxv. 1, 2; skirmish in the 
Great Harbour, vil. xxv. 5; send 
envoys to the Sicilian cities, vil. xxv. 
9 ; Sicilian reinforcements arrive, vii. 
xxxiii. 1 ; prepare for sea-fisiht, 
Vll. xxxvi. ; engagement indecisive, 
VII. xxxviii. ; ruse to deceive the 
Athenians, vil. xxxix. ; Syra- 
cusans victorious, VII. xl., xli.; 
confident of success, VII. xli. 4; 
spirits dashed by Demosthenes* 
arrival, vii. xlii. 1 ; defeat the 
Athenians in a night-battle on 
Epipolae, Vll. xUii.-x!v. ; a party 
of the Syracusans willing to come 
to terms with the Athenians, VII. 
xlviii. 1 ; the Syracusans attack 
by sea and land, vil. li.-liv. ; 
encouraged by their success, VI I. 
Ivi. ; enumeration of the Syra- 

453 



INDEX 



cusan allies, VII. Iviii . ; close the 
mouth of the Great Harbour, vil. 
lis.; prepare for final struggle, 
VII. Ixv. ; win complete victory, 
VII. Ixx., Ixxi. ; break up the 
retreat of the Athenians and force 
surrender, VII. Ixxviii.-lxxxv. ; put 
Niciiis and Demosthenes to death, 

VII. Ixrxvi. 2; cruel treatment of 
their prisoners, VII. Ixxxvii.; send 
a fleet under Ilermocrates to Asia, 

VIII. xxvi. 1 ; XXXV. 1 ; distin- 
guish themselves in the capture of 
lasus, VIII. xxviii. 2 ; their sailors, 
mostly freemen, boldly demand 
full pay, viii. Ixxxiv. 2; change 
commanders and banish Ilermo- 
crates, vill. Ixxxv. 3 ; participate 
in the battle of Cynossema, VIII. 
civ.-cvi. 

Taenarus, a promontory in Laconia, 
temple of Poseidon there, I. 
cxxviii. 1 ; cxxxiii. 1 ; curse of 
Taenarus, I. cxxviii. 1 ; VII. xix. 
4. 

Tamos, a Persian, lieutenant of 
Tissaphemes, VIII. xxxi. 3 ; Ixxxvii. 
1, 3. 

Tanagra, victory of the Lacedae- 
monians over the Athenians there, 
I. cvii. ; cviii. 1 ; its walls razed 
by the Athenians, I. cviii. 3; the 
Tanagraeans defeated by the 
Athenians, ill. xci. 5 ; Boeotians 
gather there, IV. sci. 1 ; the 
Tanagraeans on the left wing in 
the battle of Delium, IV. xciii. 4 ; 
the Boeotians retire to Xanagra 
after the battle, iv. xcvii. 1 ; 
Tanagra ravaged by Thracians 
under Dieitrephes, vil. xxix. 

Tantalus, a Lacedaemonian governor 
of Thyrea, IV. Ivii. 3. 

Tareutum, hostile to the Athenians, 
VI. xxxiv. 4, S ; xliv. 2 ; civ. 2 ; 
Tarentum ships in the Lacedae- 
monian fleet intended for Euboea, 
VIII. xci. 2. 

Taulantians, of Illyria, I. xsiv. 1. 

Taurus, a Lacedaemonian, swears 
to the one year truce, iv. cxix. 2. 

Tegea, the Tegeaiis fight with the 
Mantineans at Laodoeeum, IV. 
cxxsiv. ; refuse to join the Argive 

454 



alliance, V. xxxii. 1 ; take part 
in the Lacedaemonian expedition 
against Argos, V. Ivu. 1 ; about 
to be attacked by the Argives, 
V. Ixii. 2 ; Tegea occupied by 
the Lacedaemonians, v. Ixiv. 1 ; 
Tegeans on the right wing at 
Mantineia, V. bcvii.-lxxiv. ; the 
Lacedaemonian dead buried at 
T?gea, V. Ixxiv. 2 ; Lacedaemonian 
reinforcements under PleUtoanax 
get as far as Tegea, V. Ixxv. 1 ; 
the Lacedaemonians negotiate with 
the Argives from Tegea, v. Ixxvi. 1 ; 
Ixxviii. 

Teichium, in Aetolia, in. xcvi. 2. 

Teichiu.ssa, a town in Milesian terri- 
tory, Vlll. xxvi. 3; xxviii. 1. 

Teisamenus, a Trachinian envoy to 
Lacedaemon, III. xeii. 2. 

Teisander, aa Aetolian envoy, III. 
c. 1. 

Teisias, an Athenian commander at 
Melos, V. Ixxxiv. 3. 

Tellias, a Syracusan general, vi. ciii. 4. 

Tellis, a Lacedaemonian, father of 
Brasidas, swears to the treaty of 
peace, v. xix., xxiv. 

Temenidae, ancestors of the Mace- 
donian kings, II. xcix. 3. 

Temenites, on Epipolae, VII. iii. 3 ; 
shrine of Apollo Temenites, n. 
Ixxv. 1 ; xcix. 3 ; c. 2. 

Tenedos, colonized from Eoeotia 
(VII. Ivii. 5) ; warns the Athenians 
of the Lesbian revolt, III. ii. 1 ; 
Mytilenaean prisoners placed there, 
III. xxviii. 2 ; xxxv. 1 ; subject 
ally of Athens, vil. Mi. 5. 

Tenos, one of the Cyclades; the 
Tenians subject allies of Athens, 
VII. Ivii. 4 ; Tenians in the service 
of the oligarchs at Athens, vill. 
Ixix. 3. 

Teos, captives there butchered by 
Alcidas, III. xxxii. 1 ; revolts 
from Athens, vill. xvi. ; xix. 3 ; 
agrees to neutrality with the 
Athenians, Vlll. xx. 2. 

Teres, King of the Odrysians, II. 
xxix. ; Ixvii. 1 ; xcv. 1. 

Tereus, King of Daulia, in Phocis, II. 
xxix. 3. 

Terias, a river in Sicily, VI. 1. 3; 
xciv. 2. 



INDEX 



Terinaean Gulf, in Southern Italy, 

VI. civ. 2. 
Tessaracost, a Chian coin, vill. ci. 2. 
Teutiaplus, an Elean ; his speech, III. 

XXX. 

Teutlussa, an island near Ehodes, 
VIII. xlii. 4. 

Thapsus, near Syracuse, colonized by 
Lamis from Jlegara, VI. iv. 1 ; 
VI. xcvii. 1; xcix. 4; ci. 3; cii. 
3 ; VII. xlix. 2. 

Tharyps, king of the Molossians, ll. 
Ixxx. 6. 

Thasos, a Parian colony, revolts from 
Athens, I. c. 2 ; incites the Lace- 
daemonians to invade Attica, I. 
ci. 1 ; subdued, ibi ; Thucydides 
at Thasos, IV. civ. 4 ; cv. 1 ; mother- 
city of Galepsus and Oesyme, iv. 
cvii. 3 ; V. vi. 1 ; government 
changed by the oligarcliical con- 
spirators at Samos, viii. Ixiv. 2 ; 
prepares to revolt, VIII. Ixiv. 4. 

Theaenetus, a Plataean diviner, 
suggests plan of breaking out of 
Plataea, III. xx. 1. 

Theagenes, tyrant of Megara, father- 
in-law of Cylon, I. cxx^a. 3, 4. 

Thebes, aids Corinth against the 
Corcyraeans at Epidamnus, I. 
xxvii. 2 ; once friendly to Persia, 
I. xc. 2; III. Ivi. 4: "iviii. 5: llx., 
ixii.; Thebans surprise Plataea 
in time of peace, ll. ii. (cf. in. 
Ivi. 2; Yll. xviii. 2); are de- 
feated, II. iii. ; surrender, ii. iv . ; 
send reinforcements, II. v. 1 ; 
come to terms, ibi ; their speech 
against the Plataeans, ni. Ixi.- 
Ivii. ; raze Plataea, III. Ixviii. 3, 
4; defeated by the Athenians at 
Tanagra, III. xci. 5 ; Thebans on 
the right wing at Delium, IV. xciii. 
4; dismantle the walls at Thesjiiae, 
IV. cxxxiU. ; suppress a rising at 
Thespiae, vi. xcv. ; send aid to 
Syracuse, VII. xix. 3 ; pursue the 
Thracians after the sack of 
Mycalessus, VII. xxx. 

Themistocles, founder of the Athe- 
nian naval power, I. xiv. 3; sfiii.; 
victor at Salamis, I. Ixxiv. ; 
honoured at Sparta, ibi ; outwits 
the Lacedaemonians about the 
walls at Athens, I. xc, xci.; 



founder of the Peiraeus, I. xciii.; 
implicated in the medism of 
Pausanias, I. cxxxv. 2 ; ostracized, 
I. cxxxv. 3; takes refuge with 
Admetus, I. cxxxvi.; flees to 
Ephesus, I. cxxxvii. ; letter to 
Xerxes, I. cxxxvii. 4; goes to 
the Persian court, I. cxxxviii. 2 ; 
characterization, ibi ; dies, I. 
cxxxviii. 4 ; the King's gifts to him, 

I. cxxxviii. 5 ; buried in Attica, ibi. 
Theori, a magistracy at Mantineia, 

v. xlvii. 9. 

Thera, one of the Cyclades, not allied 
to Athens, ll. ix. 4. 

Theramenes, a leader in the oli- 
garchical revolution at Athens, vil. 
Lxviii. 4; forms moderate party 
within the oligarchy, VIII. Ixxxix., 
xc. 3 ; xci. ; instigates the soldiers 
to destroy the fort at Eetioneia, 
YiU. xcii. 

Therimenes, a Lacedaemonian ad- 
miral, brings reinforcements to 
Astyochus, viil. xxvi. 1 ; xxix. 
2; persuaded by Alcibiades to 
go to the relief of Miletus, vill. 
xxvi. 3 ; xrvii. 1 ; xxviii. 1 ; 
negotiates treaty with the King, 
VIII. xxxvi. 2 ; xxxvii. ; lost at 
sea, VIII. xxxviii. 1. 

Therme, in Macedonia, taken by the 
Athenians, I. Ixi. 2 ; restored to 
Perdiccas, II. xxix. 6. 

Thermon, a Spartan commander, 
sent by Agis to Peiraeum, vill. xi. 

Thermopylae, ll. ci. 2 ; ill. xcii. 6 ; 

the battle compared to that at 

Sphacteria, rv. xxxvi. 3. 
Theseus, unites the Attic communes 

into one city, ll. xv. 2 ; Theseum 

at Athens, VI. Ixi. 2. 
Thesmophylaces, Guardians of the 

Law, a magistracy at Elis, v. 

xlvii. 9. 
Thespiae, in Eoeotia, V. Ixxvi. 3; 

Thespians fight at Delium against 

the Athenians, iv. xciii. 4; their 

walls dismantled, IV. cxxx.ii. 1 ; 

sedition of, vi. xcv. 2; Thespian 

hoplites on the way to Syracuse, 

VII. XXV. 3. 
Thesprotia, I. xxx. 3; xlvi. 4; 1. 3; 

II. Ixxx. 5. 

455 



INDEX 



Thessalus, brother of Hippias, I. xx. 

2; VI. Iv. 1. 
Thessaly, fertile, I. ii. 3 ; in early 
times the Thessalians drive the 
Boeotians from Ame, I. xii. 3 ; allies 
of Athens, I. cii. 4 ; desert the 
Athenians at Tauagra, I. cvii. 7 ; 
Athenians make an expedition 
thither, I. csd ; assist the Athe- 
nians in the first invasion of Attica, 
Π. xxii. 3 ; alarmed at the ex- 
pedition of Sitalces, ll. ci. 2 ; make 
war on Heracleia, III. xciii. 2; 
V. Ii. 1 ; traversed by Brasidas, 
IV. Ixxviii. ; under a dynasty of 
powerful men, ibi ; refuse passage 
to Rhamphias, V. xiii. : angry with 
Agis for extorting money from the 
Achaeans of Phthia, VIII. iil. 1. 

Thoricus, in Attica, viil. xcv. 1. 

Thousand Argives, the, a select force 
trained at state expense, V. Lsvii. 
1 ; Ixxji. 3 ; Ixxiii. 3. 

Thrace, gold mines in, I. c. 2; IV. 
cv. 1 ; the Ttu-acians destroy the 
Athenian colonists of Ennea Hodoi, 
I. c. 3 ; IV. cii. 2 ; march under 
Sitalces against Perdiccas, ii. xcv.- 
ci. ; the Thracians prefer receiving 
to giving, II. xcvii. 4 ; Thracian 
mercenaries in Athenian service 
at Mende, IV. cxxix. 2 ; Thracians 
asked for aid by Cleon, v. vi. 2 ; 
Thracian mercenaries with Brasi- 
das, ibi ; Thracians sack Myca- 
lessus, VII. xxvii. 1 ; xxx. 

Thracians, the Bithynian, in Asia, 
IV. Ixxv. 2. 

Thrasybulus, one of the steadiest 
opponents of the oligarchs at 
Athens, vill. Ixxiii. 4; persuades 
the army and the Samians to 
swear allegiance to the democracy, 
VTII. Ixxv.; elected general, viii. 
Ixxvi. ; secures recall of Alcibiades 
by the army, VJU. Ixxxi. 1 ; sails 
against Eresus, viii. c. 4; aids 
Thrasyllus at Cynossema, VIll. 
civ., cv. 

Thrasycles, an Athenian commander, 
swears to treaty of peace, V. xix., 
xxiv. ; sent with Strombichides to 
Chios. VIII. xvi. 1 ; too late to 
prevent revolt at Miletus, Vlll. 
xvii. 3. 



Thrasyllus, a steady opponent of 
the oligarchs at Athens, vill. 
Ixxiii. 4; gets allegiance sworn 
to the democracy, vill. Ixxv.; 
elected general with Thrasybulus, 
VIII. Ixxvi. ; follows Mindarus to 
Chios, VIII. c. ; defeats him off 
Cynossema, viii. civ., cv. 

Thrasyllus, an Argive general, makes 
teruis with Agis, V. lix. 4 ; Ix. 6 ; 
attacked by the Argives, ihi. 

Thrasymelidas, a Spartan admiral 
at Pylce, IV. xi. 2. 

Thria, in Attica, I. cxiv. 2; II. xix. 
2 ; XX. 3 ; xxi. 1. 

Thronium, in Locris, Π. xxvi. 

Thucles, founder of iiaxos in Sicily, 

VI. lii. 1 ; of Leontlni and Catana, 
VI. lii. 3. 

Thucydides, son of Olorus : motives 
for writing his history, I. 1.; its 
truthfulness, I. xxi.-xxiii.; V. 
xxvi. δ ; the speeches only gener- 
ally accurate, I. xxii. 1 ; "a posses- 
sion for all time," I. xxii. 4; reasons 
for describing the period between 
the Persian and Peloponnesian 
wars, I. xcvii. ; attacked by the 
plague, II. xlviii. 3 ; general on 
the coast of Thrace, I v. civ 4; 
worked gold mines there, iv. cv. 
1 ; arrives at Eion, but faUs to 
save Amphipolis, iv. cvi. ; repu'ses 
Brasidas from Eion, iv. evil. 1; 
reasons for reckoning by seasons, 
V. XX. ; exiled, V xxvi. δ ; lived 
throughout the war, ibi. 

Thucydides, an Athenian commander, 
at Samos, I. cxvii. 2. 

Thucydides, Athenian proxenus at 
Pharsalus, VIII. xcii. 8; helps to 
prevent the panic after the des- 
truction of Ee*^ioneia, ibi. 

Thuria, In Laconla, I. ci. 2. 

Thiu-ii, in Italy : Alcibiades conceals 
himself there, vi. 1x1. 6, 7 ; Lxxxviu. 
9; refuses to receive Gylippus, vi. 
civ. 2 ; expels the anti-Athenian 
party, VII. xxxiii. ; aids Demos- 
thenes, VII. XXXV. 1 ; allies of 
the Athenians before Syracuse, 

VII. Ivii. 11; sends ships to the 
Peloponnesian fleet In Asia, \ΊΙ1. 
XXXV. 1 ; 1x1. 2 ; their sailors 
mostly freemen, and demand full 



456 



INDEX 



pay horn Tissapherncs, VIII Ixxxiv. 
2. 

Thyamis, a river on the border of 
Thesprotia, I. xlvi. 4. 

Thyamiis, Mt., in Aetolia, III. 
cvi. 3. 

Thymochares, an Athenian com- 
mander, VIII. xcv. 2. 

Thyrea, in Laconia, given to the 
expelled Aegmetans by the Lace- 
daemonians, II. xxvii. 2 ; ravaged 
by the Athenians, IV. Ivi. 2 ; 
Ivii. 3 ; stipulation with regard 
to Thyreatis inserted by the 
Argives in their treaty with Lace- 
daemon, V. xli. 2 ; invaded by the 
Argives, TI. xcv. 

Thyssus, a city in Acte, IV. cix. 3 ; 
taken by the Dians, V. xxxv. 1. 

TUataeans, a Thracian tribe, II. 
xcvi. 4. 

Timagoras, a Cyzicene exile at the 
court of Pharnabazus, goes as 
emissary of Pharnabazus to Lace- 
daemon, VIII. vi. 1. 

Timagoras, a Tegean envoy to Persia, 
II. Ixvii. 

Timanor, a Corinthian naval com- 
mander, I. xxix. 2. 

Timocrates, an Athenian, swears to 
the treaty of peace, V. six., xxiv. 

Timocrates, a Lacedaemonian, sent 
as adviser to Cnemus, II. Ixxxv. 1 ; 
kills himself, II. xcii. 3. 

Timoxenus, an Athenian commander, 
II. xxsiil. 1. 

Tisamenus, a Trachinian envoy to 
Sparta, ill. xcii. 2. 

Tissaphernes, Persian military gover- 
nor of the coast lands of Asia, 
sends envoy with the Chians to 
Sparta, VIII. V. 4 ; intrigues of, 
VIII. V. 5 ; negotiates a treaty 
between Sparta and the King, 
VIII. xvii. 4; xviii.; demolishes 
a fort at Teos, vill. xx. 2 ; present 
with cavahT at the battle before 
Miletus, VIII. xxv. 2; persuades 
the Lacedaemonians to go against 
lasus, VIII. xxviii. 2 ; reduces the 
pay of the fleet, VIII. xxix. ; causes 
Cuidos to revolt, Vin. xxxv. 1 ; 
makes a second treaty with the 
Lacedaemonians, VIII. xxxvii. ; 
ofiEended at Lichas' objections, he 



goes away, VIll. xliil. 4; balances 
Lacedaemonians and Athenians 
against one another, Viil. xlv., 
xlvi. ; inclined to follow Alci- 
biades' advice, Vlll. lii. ; per- 
suaded by Alcibiades, he makes 
impossible demands of Peisander, 
VIII. Ivi. ; makes third treaty with 
the Lacedaemonians, VII. Ivii., 
Iviii.; more ready to fulfil his 
engagements, viil. lix. ; his dilatory 
conduct complained of by the 
fleet, VIII. Ixxviti. ; Ixxx. 4; be- 
comes more hateful to the Lace- 
daemonian fleet, vui. Ixxxiii ; 
his garrison in Miletus driven out, 
viii. Ixxxiv. 4; sends complaint 
to Sparta against the Milesians, 
VIII. Ixxxv. 1 ; hiis malignity 
against Hermocrates, VIII. LxixT. ; 
goes to fetch the Phoenician ships, 
but does not bring them, vni. 
Ixxxvii.; sets off for Ionia, VIII. 
cviii. 3 ; starts for the Hellespont 
to remonstrate with the Lacedae- 
monians, VIII. cix. ; goes to 
EphesuS to offer sacrifice to 
Artemis, ibi. 

Tlepolemus, colleague of Pericles, at 
Samos, I. cxvii. 2. 

Tolmides, an Athenian, commands 
expedition round the Peloponnesus, 
I. cviii. 5; leads expedition against 
Boeotia, I. cxiii. ; defeated at 
Coronea. 

Tolophonians, an Ozolian Locrian 
tribe. III. ci. 2. 

Tolophus, an Aetolian envoy to 
Corinth, III. c. 1. 

Ton;eus, Mt., near Pylos, IV. 
cxviii. 4. 

Torone, in Chalcidice, taken by 
Lrasidas, IV. cx.-cxiv. ; watched 
over by Brasidas, iv. cxxix. 1 ; 
entrusted to Pasitelidas, iv. cxxxii. 
3 ; retaken by the Athenians, V. 
ii., iii. ; provision in the treaty 
respecting it, v. xviii. 8. 

Torylaus, a friend of Brasidas in 
Thessaly, IV. Ixxviii. 1. 

Trachinians, a Malian tribe, III. 
xcii. 1. 

Tragia, an island off Sanios, I. cxvi. 
1. 

Treres, a Thracian tribe, II. xcvi. 4. 

457 



INDEX 



Triballi, a Thracian tribe, ll. xcvl. 4 ; 

IV. ci. 5. 
Trinrioria, ancient name of Sic-ily, VI. 

ii. 2. 
Triopium, promontory of Cnidos, 

VIII. XXXV. 3, 4; Ix. 3. 
Tripod at Delphi, dedicated as a 

memorial of the Persian war, I. 

cxxxii. 2 ; III. Ivii. 2. 
Tripodiscus, in Megara, rv. Ixx. 
Tritaeans, an Ozolian Locrian tribe, 

III. ci. 2. 

Troezen, in the Peloponnesus, ally 
of the Corinthians, l. sxvii. •_' ; 
restored by the Athenians under 
the thirty years peace, I. cxv. 1 ; 
ravaged by the Athenians, il. 
Ivi. 5 ; its restitution demanded 
by Cleon, IV. xxi. 3 ; the Athenians 
raid it from Methone, IV. xlv. 2 ; 
furnishes ships to the Lacedae- 
monian ileet, VIII. iii. 2. 

Trogilus, near Syracuse, VI. xcix. 1 ; 
VIII. ii. 5. 

Trojan colonists in Sicily, V. ii. 3; 
took, together with the Sicanians, 
the name of Elvmi, ihi. 

Trotilus, founded from Megara by 
Lamis, VI. iv. 1. 

Twelve Gods, altar of, in Athenian 
Agora, VI. liv. 6. 

Tydeus, a Chian, executed on a 
charge of conspiracy with the 
Athenians, vill. xxxviii. 3. 

Tyndareus, oath of Helen's suitors 
to him, I. ix. 1. 

Tyrants in Hellas : Anaxilas of 
Khegium, vi. iv. 6 ; Evarchus of 
Astacus, II. XXX. 1 ; χττίϋ. 1, 2 ; 
Hippocles of Lampsacus, VI. lix. 
3 ; Hippocrates of Gela, vi. v. 3 ; 
the Peisistratidae at Athens, I. 
XX. ; VI. liii. 3-lix. 4 ; Polycrates 
of Saraos, I. xiii. 6; ill. civ. 

Tyrrhenia (Etruria), the Tyrrhenians 
friendly to Athens, VI. 1 xxxviii. 6 ; 
aid the Athenians, vi. ciii. 2 ; 
VII. liii. 2; liv.; Ivil. 11. 

Tyrrhenian GuLf, VI. Ixii. 2 ; vil. 
Iviii. 2 ; Tyrrhenian Sea, IV. sxiv. 
a. 

Tyrrhenians, the old Pelasgian in- 
habitants of Lemnos and Athens, 

IV. CIS. 4. 



Walls of Athens : rebuilding of. 
after the Persian War, I. xc.-xciii. ; 
the Long Walls, I. Ixix. 1; cvii. 1, 
4 ; cviii. 3 ; II. xiii. 7 ; of the 
Peiraeus, I. xciii.; ll. xiu. 7; of 
Phalerum, il. xiii. 7. 

War : the Peloponnesian, length 
and greatness of, l. ixiii. : causes 
of or reasons for the war, I. xxiii. 
G— Iv. 2 ; Iv.-lxvi., cxviii., cxlvi. 
(cf. I. Lxxxviii.) actual commence- 
ment of the war, n. i. ; ii. 1 (cf. 
V. XX. 1); preparations and allies 
of either side, ii. vii.-ix. 

War, the Persian, I. xiv. 2 ; xviii. 
3 ; xxiii. 1 ; xli. 2 ; Ixix. ό ; Ixxiii., 
Ixxlv., Ixxxix. ; xc. 1 ; xciii. 8 ; 
xcv. 7 ; xcvii. ; cxlii. 7 ; vi. Ixxxii. 
3 ; vill. xxiv. 3 ; events of : Mara- 
thon, I. xviil. 1 ; Lxxiii. 4 ; ll. 
xxxiv. 5 ; VI. lix. 4 ; Thermopylae, 
rv. xxxvi. 3 ; Artemisium, in. Liv. 
4 ; Salamis, l. Ixxiii. 4 ; cxxxvii. 4 ; 
Mycale, I. Lxxxix. 2 ; Plataea, I. 
cxxx. 1 ; III. liv. 4 ; capture of 
Byzantium, I. cxxviii. 5 ; capture 
of Eion, Scyros, Kaxos, I. xcviii. ; 
battle of the Eurymedon, I. c. 1 ; 
Persian occupation of Sestus alluded 
to, VIII. Ixii. 3 ; dedication of the 
tripod at Delphi, I. cxxxii. 2 ; III. 
Ivii. 2. 

War, the Sacred, I. cxii. 5. 

War, the Trojan, first common enter- 
prise of Hellas, I. Iii. ; compared 
to later wars, I. ix.-xi. ; reason ol 
its length, i. xi. ; changes in Hellas 
after the return from Troy, I. xii. 
(c/. II. Ixviii. 3). 

Xenares, (1) a Spartan ephor, v. 
xxxvi. 1 ; xlvi. 4 ; favours the 
war party, V. xxxvi. 1 ; negotiates 
with the Boeotians and Corinthians, 
V. xxxvi.-xxxviii. ; (2) a Lace- 
daemonian governor of Heracleia, 
slain in battle, v. Ii. 2. 

Xenocleides, a Corinthian commander, 
I. xlvi. 2 ; III. cxiv. 4. 

Xenon, a Theban commander, VII. 
xis. 3. 

Xenophantidas, a Lacedaemonian, 
sent by PedarituB to Bhodes, vm. 
Iv. 2. 

XcDopbori, an Athenian commander. 



45S 



INDEX 



at Potidaea, li. Ixx. 1 ; in Chal- 
cidice, li. Ixxix. 
X^erxes, his expedition against Hellas, 
I. xiv. 1 ; cxviii. 2 ; ill. Ivi. 5 ; 
Icttor to Pausanias, I. cxj:ix. ; 
warned by Themistocles after 
Salamis, I. cxxxvii. 3. 

Zacynthus, the island of, aids the 
Corcyraeans, i. xlvli. 2 ; ally of 
the Athenians, II. vii. 3; ix. 4; 
III. xciv. 1; xcv. 2; vii. Mi. 7; 
its position, il. Ixvi. 1 ; invaded 
by the Jyacedaemonians, ll. Ixxx. 
1 ; an Athenian fleet at Zacynthus, 
17. vui. 2 ; xiii. 2 ; furnishes troops 



to Demosthenes, Vll. xxxl. 2 ; 
Irii. 7. 

Zeus, God of Freedom, II. Ixxi. 2; 
Ithomean, I. ciii. 2; the Gracious, 
I. cxxvi. 6; Nemean, ill. xcvi. 1; 
Olympian, II. xv. 4 ; III. xiv. 1 ; 
V. xxxi. 2 ; xlix. 5 ; 1. 1 ; temples 
of Zeus: at Athens, ll. xv. 4; 
Corcyra, III. Ixx. 4 ; Mt. Lycaeum, 
V. xvi. 3 ; between Lobedus and 
Colophon, VIII. xix. 2 ; Mantineia, 
V. xlvii. 11 ; Olympia, ill. xiv. 1 ; 
V. 1. 1. 

Zeuxidas, a Lacedaemonian, swears 
to the treaty of peace, v. xix., 
xxiv. 



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