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Full text of "A history of Pendleton County, West Virginia"

APFAL. RM 



LIBRARY I 
WEST VIRGINIA 
UNIVERSITY K 



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F247.P3^"|** ^'^9'"'^ University Libraries 
SPmnm^^°" County. W ^P™ 




3 0802 0008^455 6 



West Virginia University Library 

This book is due on the date indicated below. 







OCT l9^'co 









MAP OP 
PENDLETON CO 



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HISTORY 



OF 



PENDLETON COUNTY 

WEST VIRGINIA 



BY 

OREN F. MORTON 

AUTHOR OF "UNDER THE COTTONWOODS". "WINNING OR LOSING)" "LAND 
OF THE LAUREL". "PIONEERS OF PRESTON COUNTY". 



FRANKLIN. WEST VA. 
PUBUSHED BY THE AUTHOR 
1910 



APPAL. RM. 



Vtsi Virginia Fnlvergfty 



Copyright April. 1910 
By OREN F. MORTON 

All Rights Reserved 



Printed by 

RUEBUSH-ELXINS CO. 

DAYTON. VA. 





CONTENTS 




Chapter 


Page 


I 


Physical Geography of Pendleton 


1 


II 


Before the White Man Came 


15 


III 


America and Virginia in 1748 


23 


IV 


Period of Discovery and Exploration 


28 


V 


The Beginning of Settlement 


33 


VI 


Period of Indian War 


39 


VII 


A Time of Peace 


52 


VIII 


Pendleton Under Rockingham 


60 


IX 


Early Laws, Customs, and Usages 


66 


X 


Formation of Pendleton 


85 


XI 


Early Middle Period— 1788-1818 


92 


XII 


Later Middle Period— 1818-1861 


96 


XIII 


Slavery in Pendleton 


103 


XIV 


Period of Interstate War 


107 


XV 


Recent Period 


117 


XVI 


Church, School, and Professional His- 






tory 


122 


XVII 


The Town of Franklin 


129 


XVIII 


The Pendleton of To-Day 


133 


XIX 


A Forward Look . 


138 


\ 


PART II 




I 


The Nature of Family-Group Histor- 






ies 


143 


II 


Illustrative Family-Group Sketch 


150 


III 


Given Names and Surnames 


155 


IV 


Index to Names of Pioneers and Sub- 






Pioneers 


163 


V 


Origin, Arrival, and Location of the 






Pioneers 


165 


VI 


Sketch-Histories of Existing Fami- 






lies 


173 


VII 


Certain Extinct Families 


318 


VIII 


Other Extinct Families 


326 


IX 


Recent Families 


328 


X 


Highland Families 


332 



PART III 

Section I—Historical 

Edmund Pendleton 338 

List of Pioneers of the Indian Period 338 

Naturalizations of Pioneers 339 

Form of Colonial Land Patent 340 

An Apprenticeship Indenture 341 

An Emancipation Paper and Other Forms 342 

Washington's Visit to Pendleton 343 

The Lincolns of Rockingham 343 

Pendleton Journalism 344 

The Masonic Order in Franklin 344 

Law, Order, and Charities 345 

Franklin in 1844 345 

The County Buildings 347 

A School of 1830 349 
The Bennetts of Other West Virginia Counties 350 

Section II— Statistical 

Population of Pendleton in Each Census Year 352 

Postoffices 352 

Slaveholders in 1860 353 

Prices for Entertainment at Ordinaries 353 

Levies, Taxes, Salaries, and Fines 355 

Bounties on Predatory Animals 357 

Prices of Store Goods in 1820 358 

Church Buildings and Ministers 359 

County Officials before 1865 362 

County Officials Under West Virginia 364 

The School Districts of 1846 366 

Educational Statistics 367 

Abstracts from Census Reports 369 

Pendleton Legislators 372 

Pendleton Men in the Professions 374 

County Finances 375 

Surveys and Patents Prior to 1788 375 

Some Conveyances of Land Prior to 1788 386 

List of the Tithables in 1790 387 

Section III~Military 

Supplies for Military Use, 1775 393 

Supplies for Military Use, 1782 393 

A Pension Declaration of 1820 ""^^ 394 
Citizens Exempt From Military Service in 1794 395 



Militia Districts, Companies, and Officers 395 

Muster Roll of Pendleton Militia in 1794 396 

Pendleton Soldiers of the French and Indian 

War— 1754-60 
Pendletonians in Mililary Service between 

1775 and 1861 401 

Pendletonians in the War of 1861 — Federal 

and State Service 402 

Some Accounts of the Regiments of the Con- 
federate Service Containing Pendleton Men 406 
The Battle of New Market 410 

Roster of Pendleton Men in the Confederate 
Service ^ 411 

APPENDIX 

Brief Sketch of the Author of the Book. 430 

Sidelights on Historical Subjects 

1. The Meaning of History. 2. America an Old 
World. 3. The Men Who Settled the Thirteen Colo- 
nies. 4. Appalachian America and the American 
Highlander. 5. A Landmark Year — 1848. 6. Amer- 
ican Slavery. 7. The Disruption of Virginia. 8. 
The Mission of America. 9. American Tendencies. 
10. An Interpretation in the War of 1861 

List of Suggestive Questions on Pendleton History 

Corrections 

Illustrations 

Map of Pendleton 

An Indian Spoon 16 

Summit of Spruce Knob 32 

Site of Fort Seybert 48 

A House of the Later Pioneer Period 80 

A House of the Early Middle Period 96 

A Group of Revolutionary Relics 112 

View of Franklin 128 

The Seneca Rocks 144 

A House of the Modern Time 208 
The Blue Hole: A Water-Gap on the South Branch 272 

The Old Schoolhouse at Franklin 352 

The Courthouse of 1817 336 

The McCoy Mill 400 



FOREWORD. 

The public records of this region, beginning with the or- 
ganization of Augusta county in 1745, are almost wholly in- 
tact, and the examination of these was of very great service 
in verifying and filling out the statements given by our older 
people. But records are perishable, and it needs no argument 
to show that by the time the present people of middle age 
have become old, it might then be out of the question to 
present a satisfactory history of Pendleton. 

It is still generally possible for our older people to follow 
the links which connect them with the pioneer ancestor. 
However, this can seldom be done in full detail, and some- 
times the result is quite imperfect. And as the pioneer an- 
cestor is usually the great-grandparent, it is very evident 
in the general absence of continuous family records, that the 
day is near at hand when it will be practically impossible to 
trace the line of descent. 

It is true enough that if the present effort had been under- 
taken even no more than ten years since, it would have been 
decidedly easier to link the pioneer days to the present. But 
on the other hand an increasing sense of the remoteness of 
those days, and of learning the story they convey to us, has 
imparted to the people of this county a keener zest to know 
its history. It is also to be considered that a railroad and a 
consequent industrial readjustment are scarcely more than a 
question of time. An economic change is more or less un- 
settling, and on that account it is better that the history 
appear now, rather than later. 

Pendleton has a good degree of historical perspective. 
There is an interesting background of legend relating to the 
days of pioneer privation, of a gradual subduing of the wild- 
erness, and of peril from the Indian. The men and women 
who were the real pioneers are strangers to the present gen- 
eration, and their ways of thinking and doing have a fresh- 
ness and interest to us of this new century. Moreover, the 
recent days of domestic war with their differing conceptions 
of duty, and their lessons of sacrificing obedience to these con- 
ceptions, will be to the future period what the pioneer period 
is to the present. 

The person who imagines it is not worth while to give a 
second thought to the people of yesterday has no right to ex- 
pect that the people of to-morrow will give a second thought 
to himself. Such a creed is narrow, sordid, and selfish. It 



VII 

begets an indifference to the future as well as the past, and 
shirks the patriotic duty of helping to make to-morrow better 
than to-day. It is not wise to live as though one were in the 
past, yet the individual who neither knows nor cares what 
others have done before him has never really outgrov/n his 
childhood. Very true words are these of Jefferson : ' 'History 
by apprising us of the past enables us to judge of the future; 
it avails us of the experiences of other times, and qualifies 
US to judge of the actions and desires of men." Equally 
true words are these of John Sharp Williams of Mississippi : 

"A country without memories is without history; a coun- 
try without history is without traditions; a country without 
traditions is without ideals and aspirations; a country with- 
out these is without sentiment, and a country without senti- 
ment is without capacity for achieving noble purposes, de- 
veloping right manhood, or taking any truly great place in 
the history of the world." 

He could have added that local attachment and a true pat- 
riotism cannot exist apart from one another. 

It was no small task in itself to examine the numerous 
pen-written volumes of public records which have accumu- 
lated in 165 years. Neither was it a light task to look up the 
information that could only be had by word of mouth. This 
led to a tour of the county, covering sixty-eight days 
and causing 593 miles of travel, nearly all on foot, and was 
followed by visits to Richmond and to the county seats of 
Augusta and Rockingham. But the reception of the writer 
by the people relieved this field work of a sense of drudgery. 
He was freely and cordially received in their homes, was 
piloted over footpaths, and farm work was ungrudgingly sus- 
pended to give him the information needed. 

In a very true sense the gathering of material for a history 
is never done. A second tour of the county would have 
turned over no small amount of fresh soil. But the work 
achieved had to be done within a very limited time, and to a 
certain degree under much disadvantage. An expensive 
volume was out of the question. 

It will be noticed that this volume touches lightly on the 
subject of current history, which is history only in the mak- 
ing. A writing up of the present men and present activities 
of a community is description and not true history, and be- 
gins to diverge from the actual fact as soon as the ink is dry. 
Neither is extended biographic mention a feature. This is a 
great money-making adjunct to the customary local history. 
But it is often criticized as singling out particular citizens 
whose biographies are bought and paid for, irrespective of 
the matter of personal service to the community. It is also 



vin 

criticized as tracing ancestry in a single instead of a collect- 
ive line, and thus discriminating in favor of particular indi- 
viduals. In this volume, as a rule and so far as information 
permits, all the adult posterity of the pioneer ancestor are 
traced, and there are statements of fact with respect to per- 
sons who have rendered their county special service. This 
method is less showy, but has the merit of an attempt at 
completeness and impartiality. 

In a work of this kind it is quite unavoidable that there 
shall be some omissions and some error of statement. No 
writer of history is infallible, and he can only do the best he 
can with the oftentimes incomplete, ill-arranged, and even 
contradictory material that comes to his hand. Some of the 
deficiencies of this book are not properly chargeable to the 
writer, and are due to an absence of needed information. 

Owing to the need of sending the earlier pages of the man- 
uscript to the printer before the latter pages were written, 
it has not been possible to insure a complete harmony of 
the dates occurring in more than one place. But such dis- 
crepancies as had to remain are of no great importance. 

If in the following pages is now and then a remark which 
some reader may think conveys a criticism, the remark is 
given with an entirely friendly spirit and purpose. 

During the progress of the work it has been a pleasure and 
a great encouragement to note the constant expressions of 
kindly and substantial interest in the undertaking. Several 
citizens have in special ways rendered invaluable assistance, 
and without this aid the work could scarcely have succeeded. 

While the greater part of the material for this work has 
been derived from original investigation, acknowledgement 
is made to the published histories and historical collections of 
Augusta, Rockingham, Hampshire, Tucker, and Randolph 
counties, and to various publications of broader scope, partic- 
ularly with reference to the Shenandoah Valley. 

Franklin, West Va., OREN F. MORTON. 

Feb. 23, 1910. 



CHAPTER I 
Physical Geography of Pendleton 

History cannot be understood very fully without the help 
of physical geography. For example, the four states of 
Florida, Kansas, Nevada and West Virginia are strikingly 
unlike one another in position, surface, soil, climate and pro- 
ductions. Had they all been settled by the same kind of 
people their historical development would nevertheless have 
proceeded along four diverging paths. In each case the new 
soil and the new seasons would modify the style of farming. 
The new climate would modify the type of dwelling. New 
ways of doing things would spring up, and there would thus 
result a difference in customs and modes of thinking. The 
grandchildren of four brothers settling in the four states 
would recognize themselves as belonging to four distinct types 
of people. 

In position Pendleton lies a very little way to the west, 
but considerably more to the north of the the center of Vir- 
ginia before the state was divided. Before its curtailment in 
1846 iv lay between the parallels of 38 degrees 15 minutes 
and 38 degrees 53 minutes, and between the meridians of 2 
degrees and 2 degrees and 42 minutes west longitude. The 
county is nearly midway between the extreme northern and 
southern confines of the United States. It lies in the middle 
distance between the extremities of the Appalachian High- 
land, a region as large as France or Germany; a region of 
forested hills, fertile valleys, wholesome air, and picturesque 
scenery; a region of which a noted economist has remarked 
that "nowhere else in the United States, in an equal area, is 
to be found such an opportunity for diversity of employment 
in agriculture, mining, metallurgy, or varied manufactures." 
From the county seat the airline distance to Richmond, and 
also to Charleston, is 131 miles. To Hampton Roads, the 
harbor of the old state, the distance on trade routes is 279 
miles, and to Chicago, the metropolis of the Great West, the 
distance is 714 milep. New York, the commercial center of 
America, is 415 miles away, while Washington, the political 
center, is only 187 miles distant. In the mere matter of dis- 
tance to important points Pendleton is more highly favored 
than most counties of America. 

In form the countv is a not very irregular rectangle. ^ The 
Sn^eatest length is 32 miles and the greatest breadth is 24 



2 

miles. The diagonal distance between the northern and 
Bouthern angles is 88 miles. The corners of Pendleton look 
toward the four carHiral points of the compass. The area is 
usually given as 650 square miles. But according to the 
books of the county surveyor, the true area is 707 square 
miles or more than 450,000 acres. 

On two sides tne boundaries follow natural lines. On the 
west the border follows the crest of the divining ridge of the 
Alleghany system. On the east it follows the crest of the 
Shena^idoah Mountain. North and south the boundaries are 
artificial courses connecting the two ranges. The bordering 
counties are eight. They are Rockingham, Augusta, and 
Highland in Virginia, and Hardy, Grant, Tucker, Randolph, 
and Pocahontas in West Virginia. 

The contour of Pendleton is typical of the whole eastern 
slope of the northern Alleghanies. In other words, it ex- 
hibits a succession of parallel ranges inclosing parallel valleys. 
These valleys are three in number, there being two continu- 
ous divides within the county. These divides are the North 
Fork Mountain toward the west, and the South Fork Moun- 
tain toward the east. The three valleys are watered by the 
South Fork of the Potomac and its two leading tributaries, 
the North Fork to the West and the South Fork to the east. 
The valley of the Sauth Fork is a little narrov/er than either 
of the others, but in none of the three is there an open width 
of eight miles on the average. In each valley are minor 
ridges, sometimes short and sometimes long, all following the 
same general course of the divides. It thus follows that a 
river of Pendleton is sometimes closely bordered on one or 
both banks by a mountain wall of considerable height. Each 
ridge, whether primary or secondary, rather closely pre- 
serves its average elevation. 

Shenandoah Mountain attains an altitude of 4200 feet to- 
ward the south, but the conspicuous point is High Knob, 
nearly opposite Brardywine. The western slopp, four to 
five miles broad, is interrupted toward the South Foik by a 
very much lower ridge. This foothill range opens broadly in 
places to let through the streams flowing down the main 
mountain, and is relatively higher and more conspicuous to- 
ward the north, where for an unbroken distance of six miles it 
is known as Sweedland Hill. 

The South Fork Mountain is less elevated than the Shenan- 
doah, and its eastern slope is not more than half as broad. 
This declivity is very rugged, heavy foothills rising from the 
very edge of the South Fork bottoms. Toward the west is a 
companion hill of almost equal height, not a watershed, how- 
ever, and between the two is a belt of table land, 3000 feet 



9 

above the sea and interrupted by deep lateral valleys opening: 
toward the South Branch. Very close to that river is a foot- 
hill range. 

The North Fork Mountain is higher than the South Fork 
Mountain and its eastern slope is not only twice as broad but 
is largely covered by a complex series of minor ridges and 
knobs, separated by narrow valleys. These elevations have 
local names, the most conspicuous, proceeding from south to 
north, being Ruleman, Cassell, Big and Cave mountains to- 
ward the west, and Simmons Mountain, Bob's Mountain. Pickle 
Mountain. Entry Mountain, Collett's Mountain, Sand Ridge, 
Tract Hill, and Little Mountain toward the east. Immed- 
iately to the east of the South Branch Jack Mountain enters 
from Highland and runs to the mouth of the Thorn. In the 
north Middle Mountain enters from Grant for a few miles, 
separating the two branches of Mill Creek. Toward the 
High'and line the North Fork Mountain loses the nniformity 
of height which is generally true of the ridges in Pendleton. 
It here towers up in several prominences, chief among which 
are Panther Knob and Snowy Mountain, 4500 feet high. The 
former was for a while supposed to be the loftiest peak in 
West Virginia. 

The western slope of North Fork Mountain is in its gen- 
eral features similar to the corresponding side of Shenandoah 
Mountain. Like the latter it has a foothill range closely 
hugging the right bank of the North Fork. This elevation, 
which we will call the East Seneca Ridge, has a remarkable 
feature that will be mentioned farther on. 

Beyond the North Fork, in the southwest of the county, 
a lofty mountain wall rises from the margin of the river bot- 
tom and is interrupted only by the valley of Deep Run. Below 
this tributary the expansive tableland known as the Hunting 
Ground begins at the brink of the mountain rampart and 
stretches west to the Alleghany divide on the border of the 
county. The latter is 4200 to 4500 feet high and without any 
deep gaps. Yet it appears low when viewed from the lofty 
Hunting Ground. Spruce Mountain runs from this plateau 
to the great bend in Seneca Creek, a distance of 
twelve miles. Spruce Knob. 4860 feet high, is the 
culmination of this ridge and the highest land in all West 
Virginia. Between Spruce Mountain and the North Fork is 
the low chain called Timber Ridge. As in the case of the 
East Seneca Ridge it opens here and there to make a passage 
for the streams from the west. Below the Seneca Creek the 
Alleghany divide bends eastward, coming within four miles 
of the river, and an arm is thrust southward to the mouth of 
the tributary. In this quarter the summit of the Alleghany 



is broad, as in the case of the Roaring Plains at the head of 
Koanng Creek. 

The three rivers of the county and their leading affluents 
are bordered by considerable areas of bottom land. Along 
the North and South Forks these bottoms are fairly contin- 
uous, seldom broad, and in going up stream they become 
very narrow. The bottoms of the South Branch occur in 
broad, detached bodies, having the appearance of dried up 
lake^, and are more extensive. Around Upper Tract is an 
areaof20!»0 acres looking like the prairie land of the West 
Considerable amounts of not very uneven land occur on the 
plateau of South Fork Mountain, in the broad, open expanse 
below Upper Tract, on the tilting plain between North Fork 
Mountain and East Seneca Ridge, on the Hunting Ground, 
and in the valley behind Timber Ridge. But in general the 
surface of the county is very uneven and abounds in steep 
hillsides and narrow gorges. 

The South Branch of the Potomac rises at Hightown in 
Highland at the altitude of 3000 feet, flows eight miles to the 
Pendleton line, and courses 36 1-2 miles within the county. 
From an elevation of 2400 feet at the Highland line it sinks 
to 1300 at the Hardy line, a fall of 30 feet to the mile. Above 
Franklin the river falls twice as fast as it does below. It 
gathers volume rapidly, and in the more quiet reaches the 
breadth rises to 30 or 40 yards Just below Upper Tract it 
turns aside from the natural direction down Mill Creek val- 
ley, flowing through a picturesque gorge between Cave and 
Little mountains into the canoe-shaped valley known as the 
Smokehole. 

The Indians called the South Branch the Wappatomika, 
meaning "River of Wild Geese." This term went out of 
use a century ago. It is to be regretted that it gave way to 
the present long and clumsy designation, insomuch as no dis- 
tinctive Indian word has been retained to mark the many 
natural features of Pendleton. Wappatomika may seem a 
long word, yet it is perfectly easy to pronounce, quite as 
much so as Susquehanna, Rappahannock, and others of the 
numerous native names which have been retained on the sea- 
board. 

Three miles above Franklin the South Branch receives its 
largest tributary, the Thorn, a stream nearly as large at the 
junction as the main river itself. The Thorn is formed of 
two large branches, the Blackthorn and Whitethorn, both 
rising close to the Highland line. The other feeders of the 
South Branch are small. On the east, passing from South 
to North, the chief ones are Trout, Deer, Poage, and Mal- 
low's runs. On the west they are East Dry Run, Hammer'p 



6 

Run, Smith Creek, Friend's Run, Hedrick's Run, and Reed's 
Creek. Trout Run was formerly called Buffalo Run. Poage 
Run was Licking Creek, Mallow's Run was Shaver's Run, 
Friend's Run was Richardson's Run, and Hedrick's Run 
was Skidmore's Mill Run. 

The North Fork rises a little within the Highland line and 
is somewhat smaller than the South Branch. From a height 
of 2U(jO feet at Circleville it drops 459 feet in the 13 miles to 
Seneca. With four exceptions its tributaries are unimpor- 
tant. A few miles above Circleville it is joined by Big Run 
flowing from the Alleghany divide. The Seneca waters the 
narrow, elevated valley between the same divide and Spruce 
Mountain, and joined by Horsecamp Run, Brushy Run, and 
Roaring Creek, adds a large volume to the main river. Deep 
Spring Run is very short, but is an outlet of an immense 
spring which gathers the underground drainage of the lime- 
stone plateau to the east. West Dry Run rises between 
Paniher Knob and Snowy Mountain. 

The South Fork likewise takes its head in Highland and is 
similar in size to the North Fork. Its tributaries are small, and 
all the important ones flow out of Shenandoah Mountain. 
They are Brushy Fork, Little Fork, Hawes Run, Rough Run, 
and Lick Run. 

Below Upper Tract North and South Mill creeks flow north 
into Grant and there join the South Branch. Otherwise the 
entire county is drained by the three river systems de- 
scribed, except that east of Jack Mountain is the source 
and possibly a mile of the headwaters of the Bullpasture, the 
parent stream of the James. 

The courses of the three Pendleton rivers are remarkably 
direct The bends are small v;ith broad necks. Thus the 
loops of the South Fork add only three miles to the airline 
distance across the county. The course of the South Branch 
is somewhat less straight than in the case of the other riv- 
ers. This persistence in a given direction is due to the geo- 
logic structure of the county, as will hereafter be mentioned. 
It is true, however, that in the broader bottoms their chan- 
nels are not permanent. The streams now behave much like 
the rivers of the West. At one side the current will be eat- 
ing into the bank, and on the other a rockbar will be form- 
ing. A reach of swamp or stagnant pool will mark a re- 
cently abandoned course, while a still older one may be traced 
by a shallow depression wherein the rockbar has become 
hidden by a covering of soil and vegetation. 

The streams of Pendleton are unsurpassed for clearness 
and purity. Except in the deeper or shadier places, or for a 
short time after heavy rains, the rocks in the river-bed may 



be distin^ished with the greatest ease, and the finny inhabi- 
tants may as readily be seen darting hither and thither. The 
streams, both large and small, have also a very high degree 
of permanence, even in the face of prolonged dryness. To- 
ward the close of the past summer, at a point seven miles 
below Franklin, the writer found the flow of the South 
branch to be 330 cubic feet per second. It was nearly eight 
weeks more before the drowth was fairly broken, and even 
then the smaller streams were running in nearly every in- 
stance. This permanence is due to the numerous springs is- 
suing from the high, broad, and often forest- covered hills. 
A seeming exception to this rule is observable in some of the 
tributaries. A stream of some volume will suddenly disap- 
pear. Below such a point the bed will show nothing but dry, 
water worn stones. Lower down the waters agam become 
visible. An extreme instance is Reed's Creek, which for a 
mile below its source is too large to be crossed readily with 
dry feet. Yet it presently dwindles and is a small brook 
even near its mouth. These disappearing waters pursue an 
underground course, especially in the presence of limestone 
strata. 

A number of mineral springs exist. These are chiefly blue 
or white sulphur waters issuing from strata of shale. There 
is also an occasional chalybeate, or iron spring. Springs of 
common drinking water are very numerous, and the quality 
is generally excellent. 

With little exception the rocks of Pendleton are limestones, 
sandstones, and shales. Here will be noticed a thick bed of 
hard, gray sandstone; there a projecting ledge of blue, wa- 
ter-worn limestone, or a riverside cliff of gray limestone pre- 
senting numerous seams. Here will be a black, flaky shale, 
upon which one may write as on a blackboard, or else a mass 
of iron ore thickly crowded with the imprints of shellfish. 
In certain hillsides we see rotten, crumbly layers of brown- 
ish shale intermingled with thin seams of sandstone or lime- 
stone of similar color. On a river-bank one may in a few 
moments gather a dozen stones, no two of which will agree 
in color or texture. Some of these are of so fine a grain as 
quickly to bring an edge to a steel blade. 

Another fact of ready observation is that the various strata 
are tilted at all sorts of angles, and at times are nearly ver- 
tical. Still another fact is that nearly all these rocks are of 
sedimentary origin. They were built up from the washings 
of other rocks and were deposited in water. None of them 
is of volcanic origin, and none is primitive or original like 
granite or quartz. The sandstones were once sand. The 
shales were once mud. The blue massive limestone was 



formed in deep water, either by chemical action or from the 
skeletons of almost microscopic animals. The coarser lime- 
stone with its shell-casts was formed in shallower water 
near the shore. The iron ore was formed as iron ore is being 
formed today. Iron exists in almost every kind of soil or 
rock. Where it is most plentiful it appears in springs as a 
reddish oxide, a scum that gradually sinks to the bottom, and 
In time solidifies into bog iron ore. 

Bat every form of sediment tends to settle on a level. If 
it falls on too sloping a surface it rolls downward. How 
then do these strata come to be so crumpled and broken that 
their very edges are exposed to view ? 

To find an answer to this question we are carried back to 
the time when the only dry land in North America was a 
mountain ridge lying east of the Alleghanies but preserving 
the same general direction. Its position is marked by what 
is known as the "Fall Line" in such rivers as the Potomac 
and the James. The cities of Baltimore, Washington, and 
Richmond are on the Fall Line. This primitive mountain 
was thrust up from the bed of the ocean in the form of a 
long wrinkle and by an internal force. It was not composed 
of sedimentary rocks, because there had been no dry land to 
cause them. Atmospheric agencies began at once to attack 
this old mountain and in the course of millions of years it 
has been worn completely down to a base level. Nothing re- 
mains of it except the beds of granite, gneiss, and other 
hard primordial rocks which cause the rapids and cascades 
at Washington and Richmond. 

By the persistent wearing away of the lost mountain ridge 
new land was built up around it. Life had appeared on the 
globe, and plants and animals in great variety assisted in the 
work. Layer after layer of gravel, sand, and fine textured 
mud was laid down in the ocean waters and these were in- 
terspersed with limy deposits, composed of the shells of 
minute marine animals. The shells and skeletons of larger 
animals became entangled in the various strata, and their casta 
are known to us as fossils. Heat and pressure hardened the 
sand, mud and marl into firm layers of sandstone, shale, and 
Hmestone. The new land crept steadily westward. Beyond 
the central line of where are now the Alleghanies was an im- 
mense swamp covered with a jungle of strange vegetation. 
In this swamp were formed the coal beds of West Virginia. 

In time there was a new wrinkling in the earth's crust 
There was a steady, upward push, exerted an inconceivably 
long time, and in this way the Appalachian highland was 
formed. But this mountain system is itself very old. If it 
were a young mountain that has not had time to be worn 



8 

down very much, we would find a lofty central ridge with 
short spurs extending outward, as in the case of the Sierra 
Nevada. But while the Alleghanies are broad they are not 
lofty. They are furrowed into a complex network of small 
valleys. Furthermore, the ridges are often interrupted by 
streams which How directly across them by means of gaps. 
For example the New River flows westward across the entire 
breadth of the Appalachians with the exception of the ridge 
in which it rises. 

We read of the "everlasting hills," yet rivers may be older 
than hills. When we see a river passing through a water- 
gap, it is because the upheaval of the mountain has been so 
very slow that the river has been able to keep its channel 
open. From the great range that once stood on the Fall 
Line, rivers flowed westward. Some of these, like the New, 
were able in part, as the Appalachians arose, to maintain 
their direction. The waters thrown eastward completed the 
tearing down of the Fall Line mountain. 

Water will wear away soil that is already formed, but its 
unaided action on flinty sandstone is inconceivably slow. By 
rolling along sand, pebbles, and boulders it exerts a scouring 
action that tells in the end. But rocks are more rapidly worn 
down in other ways. The crumpling of rocks by their up- 
heaval and the jarring elfect of earthquakes fills them with 
innumerable cracks. Into these water finds its way, freezes, 
and pries the rocks apart, and extends the loosening. The 
roots of trees exert a similar influence. The heating of rocks 
that are turned toward the sun causes a blistering of the sur- 
face. Mosses and other plants gain a foothold and slowly 
crumble the exposed surfaces into dust. The soil which in 
these ways is gathered from the naked rock is added 
to by the dissolving effect of vegetable acids. Rainwater, 
charged with these acids widens every crevice it can find in 
an underlying bed of limestone. Immense caverns are in 
I this way formed. The roof of the cavern falls in places, 
leaving funnel-shaped depressions on the surface. In these 
localities surface streams are few, but at a lower level the 
sunken waters reappear in great springs. 

The rivers of Pendleton are quite straight, simply because 
they cannot be crooked. They flow in troughs lying between 
the tilted strata. The edges of these strata may often be seen 
running diagonally across the channel or even in nearly the 
same direction as the waters. Waterworn stones have ac- 
cumulated in the>e troughs and support a coating of soil. In 
this way the narrow bottoms have been built up. This soil, 
sometimes three to four feet deep, is quite fine and dark, be- 



9 

cause deposited by overflowing waters and intermixed with 
vegetable mould. 

West of the North Fo; k Mountain is a belt of limestone two 
miles broad. Another belt appears on the plateau of the 
South Fork Mountain. Elsewnere the soil is mainly formed 
by the weathering of sandstone and shales, especially the 
latter. The shales of the South Branch valley weather buff 
and thus impart a yellowish tint to the soil. In the South 
Fork valley the rocks exposed on the mountain sides are not 
such as afford a superior soil, and in consequence very little 
of the upland has been reduced to tillage. In the South 
Branch valley this is less the case, while in the North 
Fork valley much of the upland soil is of good quality and it 
is of this that most of the farms of the valley are found. 

The minerals of the county have not been thoroughly pros- 
pected. There has been traced for a distance of 24 miles along 
the crest of South Fork Mountain a deposit of red hematite 
iron ore, which according to a conservative estimate of the 
state geological survey will yield a supply of 20,000,000 tons 
of good iron. A sample of this ore took a premium at the 
World's Fair at St. Louis. Some years ago Henry Dickenson 
reduced some of the ore at his forge and made therefrom a 
horseshoe and several other article>. This deposit is the 
largest in the county, but the brown limonite, found es- 
pecially in the South Branch valley and North Fork mountain 
IS estimated to be capable of yielding an additional supply of 
10,000,000 tons. In view of the enormous consumption of 
iron and steel in the United States, it is only a question of 
time when these ores will be needed. The estimated supply 
would keep three large blast furnaces in operation for 60 
years. 

The Helderberg limestone, cliffs of which appear along the 
South Branch, affords good cement and good lime. The 
white Medina sandstone is a glass sand. Some of the shales 
when treated by modern machinery will doubtless make ex- 
cellent brick. Houses of brick are scattered about the 
county, but brick has been made only as wanted. The rocks 
of Pendleton are geologically too old to permit the presence 
of coal of commercial importance, unless in the extreme 
west. The same fact makes it needless to look for oil or gas 
unless in the Big Injun Sand, also in the west of the county. 
The caves contain nitrous earth from which saltpetre has at 
times been made. With this exception the mineral wealth of 
Pendleton has never been drawn upon for outside use. 

Ever since the advent of the white hunter and trader there 
have been mysterious legends of lost lead mines in this and 
adjoining counties. These "mines" have never been redis* 



10 

covered, because they never had any existence. The Indian 
did not mine metals. Even if he had known of lead, it could 
have been of no particular use to him until he became ac- 
quainted with firearms, and this was only a few years before 
the period of settlement. That the red man then became a 
miner and possessed the skill to find what no one since has 
found is too absurd for serious consideration. Furthermore, 
the usual ores of lead do not fuse under the influence of a 
common fire. 

In the absence of systematic weather records one can 
speak only in a general way as to the climate of Pendleton. 
The mean altitude being about 2500 feet, the climate is de- 
cidedly cooler than eastward on the coast or westward on 
the Ohio. The annual temperature in the lowest parts of the 
county is apparently about 52 degrees, varying from 32 de- 
grees in winter to l] in summer. The mercury seldom rises 
into the 90's and a temperature of 22 degrees below zero is 
the lowest that has been observed. The sea is too remote to 
yield any appreciable influence, while on the other hand the 
Alleghany divide shelters the valleys from the storms of the 
West. There is a large proportion of bright, sunny days. 
The atmosphere, however, is humid, as is evidenced by the 
moss occurin< in shaded places and by the mugginess of a 
warm and rainy spell. But these oppressive days are not 
many, and the summer nights are restful. Tornadoes and 
destructive high winds are unknown. 

With some qualifications Pendleton may be considered 
healthful. The records of 50 years mention 120 persons who 
passed their eightieth birthday. Of these, 21 reached or ex- 
ceeded the age of 90. One man is credited with having at- 
tained the century mark, and several other persons are 
alleged to have done so. Aside from constitutional diseases, 
which are by no means specially common here, the chief ail- 
ments are of the respiratory and digestive organs. For the 
former class the humid climate is largely responsible, as it 
also is for rheumatism. In times of prolonged drowth the 
drinking water becomes impure and induces disturbances of 
the digestive tract. Typhoid fever occasionally assumes a 
severe form. 

The river bottoms have a rich and durable soil, capable of 
bearing large crops of corn, grain, and hay. Much of the 
upland, especially in the limestone belts, is also productive. 
Yet the amount of waste or unprofitable land is large There 
are many acres of barren shingle in the bends of the larger 
water-courses. Many more acres are occupied by deep ra- 
vines, by exposed ledges, and by slopes too steep to reclaim, 
or too heavily burdened with rock. Adjacent to the rich bot- 



11 

toms are hillsides of black shale too poor for tillage or pas- 
ture and capable only of sustaining a scattered growth of 
stunted pines. When these slopes lie to the south the sum- 
mer sun falls on them with tropic power and blisters the 
thin layers of shale into four-sided pencils. On one of these 
exposures the writer found a large patch of cactus. Though 
foreign to the locality, it was thriving as well as in its native 
home on the far Western plains. 

The cool upland climate with its generally seasonable rains 
and its heavy dews is highly favorable to forest and meadow. 
Land once cleared will quickly return to wood if left alone. 
"Sprouting" a neglected field is a well recognized feature of 
farm work. In its wild state Pendleton was to all intents 
and purposes an unbroken forest, although the woods were 
nearly free of undergrowth. There is mention of savannahs 
on the bottoms. These were damp openings covered with 
native grass and with clumps of bushes. Whether the In- 
dians had enlarged these by fire we do not clearly know. 
But all open land not in tillage or reverting to wood is cov- 
ered with pasture grass and does not possess that naked ap- 
pearance so characteristic of the lowland South. Even with- 
out this protection the hillsides do not have anything like the 
same tendency to wash that is so noticeable in the South. 

The trees and shrubs of Pendleton are of great variety and 
are intermixed with many herbs and flowering plants. The 
following trees have been recognized here : aspen, ash, 
birch, black gum, box elder, white beech and red beech, ce- 
dar, both red and white, chestnut, cooperwood, cucumber, 
dogwood, red and white elm, red, white, and shellbark hick- 
ory, ironwood, juniper, linden, white, yellow, and honey 
locust, red maple and sugar maple, mulberry, oak, (chestnut, 
white, black, red, ground, swamp, Spanish, and bastard), 
pine, (white, yellow, pitch, spruce, hemlock, and water), per- 
simmon, poplar, (yellow and white), sycamoie, sassafras, yel- 
low and weeping willow, wild cherry and may cherry, water 
ash, and white and black walnut. The oaks are the domi- 
nant forest trees. Pines occur frequently, especially along 
the watercourses and on the dry slate hills. Walnut is of 
extremely common occurrence. 

Among the shrubs are the crabapple, witch-hazel, hazel- 
nut, rhododendron, sumach, elder, red bud, chinquapin, pussy 
willow, ninebark, wild rose, bearwood, spicewood, choke 
cherry, haw, sloe, buckberry, red-drop, dog-rose, and honey- 
suckle. 

Of wild fruits the grape, huckleberry, blackberry, common 
and mountain raspberry, and teaberry are common. 

While Pendleton remained a wilderness, and for sometime 



afterward, it was full of ^ame. The buffalo and the elk soon 
disappeared. Deer remained numerous a long while, and a 
single hunter is said to have killed 1700 during his lifetime. 
But the animal is now nearly extinct The panther is gone, 
although a few black bears remain. The wolf, so destructive 
to sheep and calves, has not been known for nearly 20 years. 
But the county treasury still pays many bounties on foxes 
and wild cats, and a few eagles. The other small animals 
that still linger are the same as are found in almost every 
corner of the North Atlantic states. Of reptiles, frogs are 
particularly numerous, and toads, lizards, newts, and several 
species of non-venomous snakes are common. The rattle- 
snake and the copperhead are occasionally met, but are less 
plenty than in former years. The abundance of forest at- 
tracts the feathered tribe, although the sportsman's shotgun 
has made the gamebird rare. Yet in spring and summer the 
woodland is vocal with song. The clear waters of the rivers 
are tenanted by trout and a variety of other small fish. In- 
sect life is in evidence, both in number and variety, and in- 
cludes several of the farmer's enemies. A few mosquitoes 
are in the woods but they seldom venture into the open. 
Probably the greatest insect damage was that wrought dur- 
ing the early 90's by a pest which nearly destroyed the 
standing pine. 

Appalachian America has unusual landscape beauty, and 
Pendleton enjoys its full share. On a bright day in June 
there is an inspiration in standing on some elevated point 
and looking out ov^er a succession of ridges and knobs, all 
heavily clothed in a vesture of deep, vivid forest green; or in 
looking down into a valley with its ribbon of shimmering wa- 
ter, its succession of meadows and tilled fields, and its com- 
fortable, white-painted farmhouses. 

A special feature of scenic interest is the almost vertical 
stratum of Tuscarora quartziie which forms the core of the 
East Seneca Ridge the entire length of the county. This 
rock is of flinty hardness. To this fact is due the very exist- 
ence of the ridge. The thin seam is like a plank set on edge 
and banked up on each side with a buttress of earth that 
slopes away at a sharp angle. It is broken at a number of 
places by gaps which lead from the North Fork to the lime- 
stone plateau on the east. These gaps are very narrow, the 
rock standing out from the hillside like a finger-bone from 
which the flesh has shrunk away. During unnumbered cen- 
turies the ledge has been pushing upward. Meanwhile the 
streams from the North Fork have been sawing notches in 
it. On the summit of the ridk^e the seam of rock is little 
more than discernible, except for instance in the short, knob- 



11 

like section at the Judy gap, where it rises above the curva- 
ture of the ground some 60 feet, reminding one of repres- 
entations of the Great Wall of China. At this and also at 
the Riverton gap, the appearance of the ledge is typical. 
The sky-line presents a ragged appearance, like the blade of 
a knife that has been much used in opening tin cans. 

Opposite the mouth of the Seneca the seam presents its 
most massive guise. Here it has been pictured ever since 
the artist "Porte Crayon" gave it notoriety in a drawing. 
At this point the ledge cuts obliquely through the end of a 
mountain spur. Owing to this circumstance, the softer con- 
stituents of the hill have very largely disappeared, leaving 
the ledge towering into the air like the crumbling wall of 
some gigantic castle. In the Miley gap, four miles below, 
the view is even more striking. Instead of a single massive 
ledge it here rises in two parallel sheets inclining at an al- 
most imperceptible angle from a true perpendicular. The 
sheets are so thin, especially toward the top, that small holes 
appear in them. The edges facing the ravine are nearly ver- 
tical, and when the observer is squarely in front of either 
seam the effect is much as though he were viewing a slender 
spire rising 600 feet into the sky. To view these cliffs is 
worth a special trip, and it is to be regretted that the nar- 
rowness of the ravine forbids an effective photograph. 

At any gap the Seneca ledge presents a variety of color. 
Brown, drab, greenish, and blackish tints appear on the 
gray background, giving place to anocherish hue wherever a 
mass has lately fallen. Deep fissures are to be seen, but the 
lines of cleavage are horiz«mtal as well as vertical. Large 
masses fall from the sides as well as the top, causing a deep 
accumulation of brick-shaped fragments. An occasional tree, 
usually a pine, clings to the side of the chff and manages to 
flourish. 

In other mountains of the county ledges of the same na- 
ture occur, as in the Smith Creek gap between Rule man and 
Cassell Mountain, on the South Branch at the entrance to the 
Smokehole, and at the McCov mill, but they never present 
the imposing scenery of the East Seneca Ridge 

Another striking scenic feature is tne crest of North Fork 
Mountain when viewed from the west. Immediately below 
the sky-line is an apparently vertical wall, 100 to 200 feet 
high, except in the occasional depressions, where it becomes 
practicable to cross. This precipice may be followed for 
many miles, but it disappears at each border of the county. 
It is the exposed edge of the Oriskany sandstone, which con- 
stitutes the upper eastern slope of North Fork Mountain, 
where the covering of broken rock is so heavy as to make 



14 

the slope of no value save for pasturage and forestry. Dur- 
ing the severely cold weather of February, 1899, a huge mass 
of rock fell out of the precipice above the house of E. B. 
Helmick and plowed a broad path westward down the moun- 
tain side. It happened just before dawn and was thought to 
be an earthquake. 

In the limestone belt above the East Seneca Ridge are 
many sink-holes. Some of these have yawning mouths at 
the bottom, as in the case of the "hell-hole" near the Cave 
schoolhouse. Stones thrown in are heard to s.rike from 
point to point until the sound grows faint. The caverns be- 
low may extend several miles but have never been explored. 

Pendleton is endowed with a happy combination of farm- 
ing, grazing, and forestral resources; with a healthful cli- 
mate and an abundant supply of clear, wholesome water; 
with mineral deposits of much consequence, and mineral 
springs of hygienic value; and finally with features of scenic 
interest that in time will develop financial importance. 

It remains for us to consid*-r the suitability of the region 
to the people who came to settle it. Almost without excep- 
tion these people were from Germany and the British Isles. 
A land without turf was in their eyes a desert. The climate 
of this upland is of much the same quality and temper- 
ature as that of the ancestral home. There was hardly any 
acclimating to be undergone. There was no new method of 
farming to learn and they could grow the same crops as in 
Europe. That the foreign stocks have flourished abundantly 
well in the new home is not open to question. 

The influence of geographic conditions on the history of 
the county will manifest itself from time to time in the fol- 
lowing pages. 



CHAPTER II 
Before the White Man Came 

When the Valley of Virginia became known to the white 
people it was an almost uninhabited land. On the South 
Branch of the Potomac was a clan of the Shawnees, only about 
150 strong. In Berkeley county were a few of the Tusca- 
roras. On the Susquehanna, a hundred miles to the north- 
east, was the Mingo tribe. Much farther to the south were 
the Catawbas, dwelling on the river in North Carolina which 
bears their name. Yet the long intervening distance did not 
keep these red men from warring upon one another. They 
made of the valley a military highway, their trails taking 
advantage of its leading watercourses. The weak tribe of 
the Senedos, living near the forks of the Shenandoah, had 
lately been crushed between these upper and nether mill- 
stones. Westward of the Alleghanies was an unoccupied 
forest reaching to the very banks of the Ohio. 

When America was discovered, the Indian population of 
what is now the United States is supposed to have been less 
than 400.000. This would yield a ratio of only 8,000 for the two 
Virginias. The whole Shawnee tribe, which committed so 
much havoc for half a century, counted only a thousand 
souls. To the red man in 1725 the valley of the Shenandoah 
and the intricate hills of West Virginia were little else than 
one immense game preserve. Yet the lowlands of the Shen- 
andoah, a region which takes naturally to a forest growth, 
were then an open prairie, the result of burning the grass at 
the end of each hunting season. The "Indian old field" in 
Hardy was another of these prairies. 

The word Shawanogi means "Southerners." In the mouth of 
the white man the word became Shawanoes, or Shawnees. 
These Indians were of Algonquin stock and therefore related 
to the tribes of New England and the Middle States. They 
had pushed southward from their early home in the far 
North, until turned back by the Catawbas and other tribes 
in the South Atlantic region. Two centuries ago they claim- 
ed ownership of the valleys of Pendleton. In mental attri- 
butes and general ability, the Shawnees stood above the 
average of the Indian race. In the person of Tecumseh they 
gave the world one of the ablest Indians known to history. 
They could very often converse in several tongues, and be- 
fore they left the South Branch they could generally talk 



16 

with the pioneers. They were active, sensible, manly, and 
high-spirited. They were cheerful and full of jokes and 
laughter, but in deceit and treachery they were not rut- 
classed by any tribe. They despised the prowess of other 
Indians, and it became their boast that they killed or carried 
into captivity ten white persons for every warrior that they 
lost. According to the Indian standard, the Shawnees were 
generous livers and their women were superior housekeepers. 

We can better understand the early pioneer period in Pen- 
dleton if we pause a HiOment to look into the habits of the 
r^-d man and his ways of thinking. What was true of the 
Shawnees was in a very large sense true of the Indian race 
in general. 

No tribe was more restless than the Shawnee, yet it is not 
correct to suppose it was in the nature of the red man to be 
ever on the go. His sense of inhabitiveness was strong. 
He would make a long and even dangerous journey to see 
the place where his tribe used to live and to gaze upon the 
graves of his forefathers. The roving of the Indian was only 
in response to pressure from without. Each tribe claimed a 
definite territory, and for another people to disregard the 
boundary line was a cause of war. Nevertheless, he had no 
knowledge of territorial citizenship. He always thought of 
himself as a member of his tribe, wherever that tribe might 
chance to dwell. Consequently it never occurred to a Shaw- 
nee to speak of himself as a Virginian or an Ohian. As a 
natural result there was no such thing as individual ownership 
of the soil The land of the tribe belonged to the tribe as a 
people and could be sold only by the tribe. The right of the 
individual to his truck patch was respected, but his claim 
ceased when he quit using the ground. 

Neither did the Indian count relationship as we do. The 
tribe was made up of clans, or groups, each with its own dis- 
tinctive name, and each living in a village by itself. The 
members of a clan counted themselves as brothers and sis- 
ters, and the Indian no more thought of marrying within his 
clan than of marrying his blood sister. The clan looking up- 
on itself as a family, an injury to a member thereof was held 
as an injury to the family as a whole, and any warrior 
thought it his duty to avenge the hurt. If the injury came 
from another tribe, vengeance was inflicted upon any mem- 
ber of that tribe. There was no thought of punishing the 
innocent for the guilty, since the members of the offending 
clan were likewise brothers and sisters. And as the Indian 
meted out redress against people of his own race, so did he 
meet it out upon the white man. Because the people of his 



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tribe were brothers he thought the whites were brothers 
among themselves. He could not at first comprehend cus- 
toms or thought which were unlike his own. He judged 
the white man by his own measuring stick. 

The families of a clan never lived in isolated homes but al- 
ways in a single village. A limited agriculture was carried 
on in an open space around the village. Subsistence how- 
ever was mainly upon game and fish. A people Hving in 
this manner requires a very large area from which to draw 
its support. As a natural result the Indian never butchered 
game out of sheer wantonness, after the manner of some 
people who style themselves civilized. 

A Shawnee hut was made of long poles bent together and 
fastened at the top and a covering of bark laid on. The only 
openings were a place to go in or out and a crevice for 
the smoke. The art of weaving was unknown to this tribe. 
Clothing was made of skins tanned by a simple process. Un- 
til there was contact with white traders the only weapons or 
other implements were of stone or bone. There were bas- 
kets, but the pottery was not fireproof, water being boiled 
by dropping heated stones into a vessel. 

Custom took the place of law and was rigidly enforced. 
An offence against custom was punished by a boycott. Gov- 
ernment was nearly a pure democracy.* Matters of pub- 
lic interest were settled in a council, where there was a gen- 
eral right to speak and to vote. The speeches were often 
eloquent, but the long-winded orator was not tolerated. Men 
of address and daring were of course influential, and with- 
out uncommon abihty no person might be a chief or military 
leader. 

In his own way and to the extent of the light given him 
the Indian was religious. After death he believed the soul 
of the warrior took its flight to a happy hunting ground in the 
region beyond the setting sun. Here the departed one fol- 
lowed the chase without limit of days. But no coward and no 
deformed person might enter this abode of bliss. In mutilating 
a slain enemy he was simply following out this belief. In 

* In this, as in some other chapters, the word "democracy" does not 
refer to a political party. It means the government of a community by 
itself, the members thereof being on a footing of equality with respect 
to civil rights. Democracy is thus distinguished from monarchy, which 
is government in a more or less arbitrary form by some privileged per- 
son, or from aristocracy, which is government by a privileged class. 
When the Democratic or Republican party is mentioned in this book, the 
word begins with a capital letter. 

PCH 2 



18 

common with all unenlightened people the Indian was a 
believer in witchcraft and a slave to superstition. 

The Indian commonly had but one wife. Children were 
treated with kindness. They belonged to the clan of the 
mother, and were under the authority of the chief of that 
clan. The father had no particular authority over his own 
children, yet exercised control over the children of sisters. 
The red man has been called lazy because his wife cared for 
the truck patch as well as the cabin. This charge is not al- 
together just. The braves spent many long and toilsome 
hours in making their weapons and in stalking game. To 
pursue wild animals and follow the warpath requires supple 
limbs, and supple limbs do not go with hard labor. 

Among the whites the Indian was silent, generally sus- 
picious, and always observant. Among his own kind he was 
social and talkative. He had no fixed hours for his meals 
and was a great eater, though able on occasion to go without 
food for a long while. He discovered the tobacco plant, but 
not the filthy practice of chewing or snuff-dipping. Smoking 
was done in great moderation, and was thought to be a 
means of communing with the Great Spirit. It was also a 
form of oath. A treaty between tribes was made valid 
through a mutual smoking of the "pipe of peace." 

In making marks on a stone, in carving a spoon, or in 
weaving a basket, there was always ornamentation, and this 
was never without a purpose. A given style of decoration 
conveyed a story of some other meaning. 

The Indian had a large fund of folk-lore and of tribal 
history, this being passed from father to son in the form of 
oral tradition. He had a keen sense of humor, as his proverbs 
bear witness. The following are some of these : 

No Indian ever sold his daughter for a name. 

A squaw's tongue runs faster than the wind's legs. 

The Indian scalps his enemy; the paleface skins his friends. 

Before the paleface came, there was no poison in the Indian's com. 

There will be hungry palefaces so long as there is any Indian land to 
swallow. 

There are three things it takes a strong man to hold ; a young warrior, 
a wild horse, and a handsome squaw. 

A civilized people does not consider a country occupied 
unless the soil is brought under private ownership and culti- 
vation. The colonials were increasing in number and needed 
more land. Here in the wilderness was plenty of it. The 
thought of millions of good acres lying wild was insufferable 
to the pioneer. He believed the red man should live as he 
himself was doing. He figured it out that in this manner 



19 

the native would need only a little ground for his own use, 
and that he himself had a perfect right to the vast remainder. 
The resistance of the Indian maddened the aggressive and 
resolute frontiersman. 

So the settler looked him out a choice spot, blazed such 
boundaries as he saw fit, and built his cabin. The Indian 
regarded the act as a high-handed trespass. He proceeded 
to burn the cabin and to relieve the builder of his scalp. 
Cruelty on one side was repaid with cruelty on the other. If 
an unruly frontiersman murdered an unoffending native,— 
and this not infrequently happened, —the first white man the 
friends of the victim could waylay was promptly slain in ac- 
cordance with their ideas of relationship and their rules of 
warfare. And as the Indian made no distinction between 
offender and non-offender, so neither did the white man. He 
learned to scalp, and even to make leather of his adversary's 
skin. But among the tribes east of the Mississippi, the 
female captive was not violated. 

The Indian would use craft to gain his end in time of war, 
but was true to the promise he gave in time of peace. Several 
families secured permission from the red men to settle and 
hunt on the Monongahela. In 1774 Governor Dunmore sent 
a messenger to warn them to return because of an impending 
Indian war. An Indian heard the message delivered and 
sent this reply : "Tell your king he damned liar. Indian 
no kill these men." Nor did they. These frontiersmen 
stayed where they were and lived in safety throughout the 
Dunmore war. 

We shudder at the cruel torture inflicted by the Indian on 
the captives condemned to death. Yet he was no more cruel 
than the religious zealots of Europe, who in the very same 
century that the colonies were founded, were skinning and 
disemboweling the heretics under the hideous misbelief that 
they were saving their souls. In his own way the Indian 
was no less logical or consistent. He sought to make his foe 
incapable of harming him again. If possible he made sure 
of killing his adversary. He scalped and mutilated, not 
merely to preserve a trophy of his victory, but in accordance 
with his belief that no man may enter the future world who 
is disfigured in body or limb. He killed the wife so that she 
might not bear any more children to grow up and avenge the 
slain husband. He killed the boys because they would grow 
into ^varriors, and he killed the girls, because they would be- 
come the mothers of more warriors. If he spared a life, it 
was to adopt the cantive into his own tribe in order to in- 
crease its strength. Finally he burned the house in order to 
damage the enemy that much more. 



The captive was either put to the torture, made a slave, or 
adopted outright into the tribe. Adoption was a prerogative 
of the women and was often exercised. The story of the 
saving of John Smith's life by Pocahontas may be a myth, 
but as there have been authentic instances of the same 
nature, it holds good as an illustration. The Indian girl was 
simply following a well known custom of her people, and her 
behavior was entirely misunderstood by the boasting leader 
of tne Jamestown colony. Pocahontas chose to adopt the 
captive into the tribe, and the tribesmen respected her right 
to do so. 

The Indian was kind to the captive be spared. Many of 
those taken in childhood and returned to their friends in 
maturer years, have still preferred the rude tepee of the 
native to the cozy cottage of the white man. It would seem 
that if civilization is not the unalloyed good that we assume 
it to be, none the more is barbarism an unmixed evil. There 
is in fact no hard and fast line between the two. Barbarism 
is the childhood of civilization, and as the child survives in 
the man, so in our own latter-day culture there lingers no 
small amount of barbaric impulse. 

The Indian could recognize the power of the white man's 
civilization, yet for himself he saw no increase of happiness 
in the complex and artificial culture brought to his shore by 
the European. His contact with the Caucasian usually 
meant a contact with drunkenness, immorality, and boundless 
greed. It meant the persistent breaking by the white man 
of treaties he had solemnly sworn to. It meant the preaching 
of a pure religion, which nevertheless was practiced by few 
of those who had dealings with him. It meant an exchange 
of his forest freedom for the slums, the social rivalry, the 
class distinctions, and the false estimates of manhood 
which are as yet inseparable features of our boasted civiliza- 
tion. When he visited the great city he saw on every hand 
the restless man of business pursuing his vision of the 
Dollar as the wolf pursues the fleeing sheep. 

The native ability of the Indian is superior to that of the 
negro. If he rebelled against the thralldom he saw in the 
methods of the white man, he was nevertheless feeling his 
way toward a civilization constructed on the lines of his own 
nature. The powerful Iroquois, the "Romans of the New 
World," were but following the very example of the Romans 
in conquering a general peace among the American tribes. 
What the Iroquois had already accomplished in their home 
south of Lake Ontario may be seen by the destruction wrought 
among them by the army of Sullivan in 1779. Forty towns 
were destroyed, in one of which were 128 houses. There was 



destroyed 160,000 bushels of corn, and in a single orchard 
1500 fruit trees were cut down. The framed houses of these 
Indians were large and painted. That their farming was 
none of the poorest will appear from the circumstance that 
one of the ears of corn was twenty-two inches long. 

The red man was in some degree a teacher to the white. 
He had many ways of preparing corn as food, and he im- 
parted these methods to the newcomer. He taught the pio- 
neer how to make deer-skin sieves, how to utilize cornhusks, 
how to recognize medicinal herbs, and how to clear farm 
land by deadening the trees. All in all, the experience of 
the native entered very materially into the mode of life of 
the white frontiersman. The costume of the latter was an 
approach to that of the native, and sometimes his cabin was 
no more inviting than the Indian hut. 

The red man had great skill in finding his way through an 
unbroken forest, yet during their centuries of occupancy the 
tribes had established a network of footpaths with the help 
of their stone tomahawks. In Pendleton the paths usually 
follow the rivers, travel thus being easier and game more 
plentiful And as the rivers of this region run parallel with 
the mountain ridges, with only a slight divide parting the 
waters of two diverging streams, the succession of water 
courses in one continuous valley constitutes a natural high- 
way. But in crossing from one valley to another the Indian 
preferred following a ridge. It was easier than to descend a 
narrow, rocky gorge with its danger of ambuscade. 

The Seneca trail is much the best known of the local In- 
dian paths, and in early days it was used by the white set- 
tlers. It entered the county near its northwest angle, cross- 
ing from the valley of the Cheat on the crest of a long ridge 
and descending to the level of the Seneca a little above 
Onego. Thence its course to the South Branch at Ruddle ap- 
proximated that of the present highway. East of the North 
Fork only uncertain vestiges of the old trail remain, but 
along the ridge to the west of Roaring creek it may easily be 
followed, and in places is deeply worn by the gullying action 
of rain. 

On the bottom lands of Pendleton are clear signs of early 
and prolonged occupancy by the native. These indications 
are found in the mounds, the rings of earth, the graves, and 
the arrowheads which in certain localities have been plenti- 
fully found. The old inhabitants planted their villages along 
the rivers, where the soil is richest and most easily cleared. 
Stone arrowheads require time, skill, and patience to fashion 
into shape, and would not be used wastefully. Their com- 
parative abundance points to centuries of occupation. In 



8 

disposing of their dead the tribes of this region covered the 
corpse with a circular pile of stones. Many of these graves 
have been detected and sometimes opened. 

In a mound opposite the Hoover mill above Brandywine 
seven skeletons were found placed in a circle with their feet 
together. On the farm of Major Sites at the mouth of 
Seneca was formerly a mound six feet high and twelve 
feet broad at the top. At Mitchell's mill, a mile above 
Sugar Grove, on the farm of Sylvester Simmons, a 
little below Brandywine, on the Hammer bottom be- 
low Franklin, and elsewhere, were unmistakable signs 
of villages. On the Simmons farm there was visible 
until a recent date a ring inclosing nearly an acre 
and apparently forming the basis of a palisade. On the 
Trumbo farm, a mile farther down the South Fork, was a 
burial mound. On the Conrad farm, southeast of Fort Sey- 
bert, was also a mound, once of some size, but now demol- 
ished by repeated plowing. A mile south of Upper Tract 
village is a mound still preserving a height of two feet. One 
that was probably still larger stood a short distance west of 
the McCoy mill above Franklin. That one of these remains 
of a vanished race has not been preserved in its original ap- 
pearance is unfortunate. The Indians of the historic period 
were not themselves great mound-makers, and some of these 
levelled hillocks may have been of surprising age. 



CHAPTER III 
America and Virginia in 1 748 

The actual settlement of Pendleton begins with the open- 
ing of the year 1748. Before taking up this topic it is well 
worth while to spend a few moments in a general survey of 
the region which within thirty years took the name of the 
United States of America. 

There were then thirteen colonies. These were to every 
intent and purpose thirteen English-speaking, independent 
nations, except that Delaware was under the authority of 
the government of Pennsylvania. Georgia, the youngest 
colony, had been established sixteen years. The settled area 
extended a thousand miles along the coast. Nearly all the 
people lived within a hundred miles of the shore, and the 
frontier settlements had scarcely crept more than two hun- 
dred miles inland at any point. As yet the dividing ridge of 
the Alleghanies was the westward boundary of this region. 
By the terms of their charters some of the colonial grants 
extended clear across the continent, but no colony had as yet 
asserted any rights west of the mountains, and the French 
were occupying the Mississippi valley. Consequently Pen- 
dleton lay at this time directly on the American frontier. 

The population of the colonies was about 1,150,000, or 
nearly the same as the present number of people in West 
Virginia. The negroes were about 220,000, not over a tenth 
of them being north of Maryland. The number of inhabi- 
tants was doubling every twenty-three years. Only one- 
twentieth of the people lived in towns. The largest cities 
were Boston and Philadelphia, each having about 15,OoO in- 
habitants. Philadelphia was a comparatively new place, 
having been founded only sixty-five years bef« re. Virginia, 
the oldest and most populous colony, contained 150,000 whites 
and 90,000 blacks. The region below a line drawn through 
Richmond and Alexandria was quite well settled. Above that 
Hne the country was more thinly occupied, and settlement 
nearly ceased at the foot of the Blue Ridge. In the Valley 
of Virginia were possibly 5,000 people, all these having set- 
tled there within twenty years. The Virginians were dis- 
tributed among the plantations and farms. Williamsburg, 
the capital, was only a village. Norfolk, the only town, had 
possibly 3,000 people. 

The roads being very bad and the streams seldom bridged, 



there was no journeying by land when it was possible to 
travel on the bays and rivers. To be in a stage coach was 
torture. There was an active commerce with England and 
the West Indies, but there was no intercourse with South 
America, and the waters of the Carribean were infested 
with pirate ships. The great Pacific was less known 
than is the Arctic today. Africa was known only along the 
coast, and the lands east of Russia or beyond our own Mis- 
sissippi were little else than a blank space on the map. It 
took several weeks for the sailing vessels of that day to make 
the voyage to Europe. 

In the few cities and towns, and along the navigable 
waters, the people who were thought well to do had built as 
good homes as those they had gone out of in Europe. These 
houses were often roomy and comfortable, but inside they 
would look quite bare in comparison with the less substan- 
tial but belter furnished houses of almost any American town 
of the present time. Inland the log house was the one al- 
most universally seen. Manufacturing was discouraged by 
law, the British government wishing to use the colonies as 
a market for the products of its own workshops. Farming 
was the one great occupation, and it was carried on in a 
crude, laborious, and wasteful way. 

There were a few colleges, but outside of New Eng- 
land there was no scheme of general education. In all the 
Colonies were not a few persons who were well versed in the 
higher education of that day. A large share of these were 
ministers and lawyers. The daily newspaper was entirely 
unknown, and the very few weekhes were in size about Hke 
our present Sunday school papers. The mails were few, 
slow, and irregular, and the frontier settlement did well if it 
received a mail once a month. In 1692 Virginia had estab ish- 
ed one postoffice in each county. For a letter of a single 
sheet, the postage was 4 cents for a distance of not more 
than 80 miles, and 6 cents for a greater distance. For two 
sheets, the corresponding rates were 7 cents and 12 1-2 cents. 

Religion was free only in Rhode Island and Pennsylvania. 
Elsewhere, a state church was supported by general taxation 
and all people were expected to attend; at least a certain num- 
ber of times a year. In Virginia this church was the Episco- 
pal, known also as the Church of England. Religious 
interest, even with the law behind it, was not of a high or- 
der, and with some worthy exceptions the Episcopal clergy 
were a disgrace to their calling. 

The methods of legal procedure are very conservative, and 
since the time of which we speak they have undergone no 
radical change. All the colonial governments had a more or 



£5 

less aristocratic color, and the right to vote was very re- 
stricted. Even when the Federal government went into 
operation in 1789, less than four per cent of the American 
people were qualified voters. 

The practice of medicine was barbaric. Quacks were 
numerous. In the South the doctor was not much thought of. 

Taverns were quite frequent, and always kept liquor, 
the use of which was general. Southern taverns were very 
poor, but the traveler was sure of free entertainment in the 
homes of the planters. His visit was an appreciated break 
in the sameness of life in a sparsely settled country. 

It is next in order to consider who were the white inhabi- 
tants of the colonies. Probably four-fifths of them were of 
English origin. These were of different types, like the Cav- 
aliers of Virginia, the Puritans of New England, the Quakers 
of Pennsylvania, and the Catholics of Maryland. The differ- 
ences between them were due in part to religious belief and 
in part to social condition. But they were of one common 
stock, and in England their ancestors had lived side by side. 

In New York were many people of Dutch descent. In 
Delaware and Pennsylvania the few Swedes were fast losing 
their identity among the English settlers around them. In 
all the colonies there was a considerable though unequal 
sprinkling of Huguenots, Irish, and Welch. They mingled 
with the English colonists and did not maintain a separate 
identity. 

Two new streams of immigration had lately set in to the 
American shore. These were the Scotch-Irish and the Ger- 
man. Some of the Scotch-Irish landed at Charleston. But 
by far the greater portion came direct lo the port of Phila- 
delphia, because of the liberality of the Pennsylvania gov- 
ernment But the inhabitants of the settled part of the col- 
ony preferred to see the newcomers pass on. So they moved 
inland in search of unoccupied land. The Scotch-Irish being 
on the whole the more venturesome went furthest. They 
penetrated the mountain valleys, spread northward and 
southward, and thus formed a heavy rim of settlement clear 
along the western frontier. 

As now represented in Pendleton, the leading pioneer ele- 
ments would be the German, the Scotch-Irish, and the Eng- 
Hsh, in the order in which they are named. But for the 
purpose of historical presentation, it is better to consider 
them in the reverse order. However, the first element actu- 
ally to show itself here was the Dutch, although it is now 
represented by only three or four families. The Dutch were 
thrifty and industrious, and of strong trading and money* 
making propensities. Thus it came that a Dutch trader was 



26 

the first pathfinder in Pendleton. Intermingled with the 
leading elements were also a few Irish, French, and Welch 
settlers. These as we have seen were never inclined to band 
themselves into settlements of their own in any part of 
America. 

We first consider the English element, because it was the 
first to colonize Virginia. Pendleton being a part of Virginia, 
it was settled in accordance with English-American law and 
usage, and some of the Virginians fell in with the tide of 
immigration. 

The Virginians east of the Blue Ridge were of three types; 
the large planters, the small planters, and the poorer whites. 
The large planter was found chiefly in the tidewater country. 
He was dictatorial, but generous, courteous, honoi able, and 
high-minded. His high sense of family pride gave him 
a contempt for baseness, though it also gave him a contempt 
for manual labor. He was fond of outdoor sports, of fine 
horses, handsome furniture and elegant table ware. He 
kept open house and was open-handed. He was public-spir- 
ited, jealous of his rights, and not slow to assert them. He 
had no use for towns and villages, and there was nothing to 
be seen at a county seat except a courthouse and a few other 
buildings. He held his neighbors at a distance by owning a 
large estate, and building his large house in the center. He 
was looked up to by the rest of the community, and in mat- 
ters of church, politics or society his authority was nearly 
supreme. His only intimate associates were the other plant- 
ers of the same class. He owned many slaves and grew to- 
bacco for the European market. He considered Virginia in 
his own keeping and he made and administered the laws. He 
governed well, though always in a conservative manner. 

We have described the large planter at some length, for 
though the rugged hills of Pendleton did not appeal to him 
as a residence, it was his hand that had shaped the Virginia 
of 1748. 

The small planters were much more numerous, and they 
gave complexion to the upland district toward the Blue 
Kidge. Sometimes they owned a few slaves, but very often 
they had none at all. In their ranks were the doctors, 
tradesmen, tavern-keepers, and other people of miscellaneous 
vocations. 

The third class was considered as far below the small 
planter. As to origin it was either criminal or unfortunate 
In large part it sprang from the 120,000 convicts who were 
hustled off to America, and especially to Virginia, between 
the dates 1650 and 1775. The Revolution causing this very 
undesirable immigration to cease, the British government 



27 



then began sending its riffraff to Australia. In America 
these people were sold into servitude to the planters at $50 
to $100 apiece during tne continuance of sentence. Some be- 
came fair or even good citizens, but often they remained 
constitutionally worthless, always lazy, and often trouble- 
some. 

The other section of the poorer whites were the redemp- 
tioners. These had seldom a criminal record. They were 
persons bound out to servitude a term of years in return 
for the cost of passage. Some entered into this condition 
voluntarily, while others were forced into it, oftentimes by 
kidnapping. Such persons were often poor debtors and other 
derelicts, sent here to be out of sight and out of mind. To a 
far greater extent than in the case of the convict, the re- 
demptioner on regaining his liberty became a useful citizen. 
As for the ne'er-do-well, whether convict or redemptioner, 
he gravitated to the sandhill regions or to the mountam coves 
of the Blue Ridge, there to lead a shiftless existence only a 
few removes above that of the savage. 

The supremacy of the planter aristocracy was not alto- 
gether unchallenged, especially in the part of the colony now 
known as Middle Virginia. Bacon's rebellion of 1676 was an 
armed protest of the small planters of that section against 
the policy of the governing class. Near half a century later 
Governor Spottswood administered this aristocratic rebuke to 
the democratic leanings of the assertive small planters: 
* 'The inclinations of the country are rendered mysterious by 
a new and unaccountable humor, which hath obtained in 
several counties, of excluding gentlemen from being bur- 
gesses, and choosing only persons of mean figure and char- 
acter." 

The English element in Pendleton, which there is no 
reason to suppose was derived wholly from the older Vir- 
ginia, seems chiefly representative of the small planter class. 

Among the earlier pioneers of Pendleton, the Scotch-Irish 
element was numerously represented. These people entered 
by way of Pennsylvania, and except in matters of local ad- 
ministration or legal usage did not come into much contact 
with the influence of the large planter class. The same re- 
mark may be made of the Germans, who also came wholly 
from Pennsylvania, excepting a few that drifted over the 
Blue Ridge from the German colonies planted in Spottsyl- 
vania and adjacent counties to the west 



y 



CHAPTER IV 
Period of Discovery and Elxploration 

In 1716 Vir^nia had been a colony 109 years. There were 
24 counties and nearly 100,000 people. The tidewater sec- 
tion was quite well peopled, the upland section very sparsely. 
But the country west of the Blue Ridge, less than 200 miles 
from the capital by trail, remained almost entirely unknown. 
It was believed to be a dismal region that people would do 
well to keep out of. It is true that John Lederer and a 
very few other persons had ventured into this region and 
brought back a few items of information. But these ex- 
plorers were obscure men. In those days of no telegraphs 
and few newspapers, it took a person of prestige to make a 
discovery bear fruit. 

In the year mentioned Alexander Spottswood was gov- 
ernor of Virginia. Being a man of enterprise he thought it 
high time to learn the truth regarding the land beyond the 
mountains. Believing the Greet Lakes nearer than they 
really are, he officially recommended that settlements be es- 
tablished on those lakes and that a line of forts be built to 
preserve a communication between them and the Virginia 
coast. 

Spottswood left the capital with a mounted party of 50 
persons, chiefly gay "gentlemen," and after entering a road- 
less, almost unpeopled district, the cavalcade crossed the 
Blue Ridge at Swift Run gap near Elkton. They pushed 
forward to the west bank of the North Fork of the Shenan- 
doah, which was named the Euphrates. Here they ban- 
quetted on the luxuries they had brought along, and then 
began their return. They were absent eight weeks, during 
which time they traveled 440 miles. 

Before the disbanding, Spottswood proclaimed a new order 
of chivalry, "the Knights of the Golden Horseshoe,*' having 
as its motto, "sic jurat transcendere montes." A free trans- 
lation of this Latin phrase is "So let it be a joy to pass over 
the mountains."* 

Spottswood and his companions were highly pleased with 
what they saw. Instead of an uninviting region peopled 

• Other authorities put it, "sic jurat transcendere montes," mean- 
ing, "thus be swears to cross the mountains". 



m 

with frightful beasts, they beheld a broad, grassy plain with 
a more fertile soil than that of the settled region. There 
were no woods to be cleared away, except on the mountains, 
and there were no Indians. The valley needed only people 
to make it the garden of Virginia. 

As Columbus was not the first European to cross the At- 
lantic, but nevertheless the first to make the American con- 
tinent definitely known to the Eastern, so was Spottswood 
the first white man to make the Valley of Virginia a known 
country. The county of Spottsylvania— "Spotts-Wood"— 
was set off in 1720 and named in his honor. Its western 
boundary was the Shenandoah river. In the state capitol at 
Richmond may be seen his portrait in oil, representing a 
red-coated gentleman with smooth face, powdered wig, and 
ample neckcloth. 

The published reports drew attention on both sides of the 
Atlantic to the new land of promise. Hunters, traders, and 
prospectors were very soon exploring the region. In only 
eleven years the Calfpasture was known by name, and 
Robert and William Lewis were heading a movement to se- 
cure 50,000 acres near the head of that stream and people 
the tract with fifty families. This is somewhat singular in 
view of the circumstance that the more inviting lowlands of 
Rockingham and Augusta were not yet colonized. 

In 1726 Morp^an ap Morgan became the first actual settler 
in the Shenandoah. Other men were soon coming, and by 
1734 there were forty families in the vicinity of Winchester. 
The lower section of the Valley excepting the counties of 
Clarke and Warren, was occupied by Germans, and the upper 
section around Staunton filled with Scotch-Irish. Both 
classes of immigrants came from Pennsylvania. That colony 
was receiving the heaviest inflow from Europe. The district 
toward the coast being occupied, these people had to press 
inland. It was not far to the South Mountain, and just be- 
yond lay the broad Cumberland valley, affording a natural 
highway into Virginia. The Germans were particularly at- 
tracted to this direction because of race prejudice in Pennsyl- 
vania and government neglect. Land was also cheaper in 
Virginia. 

Until 1720 there was no county organization west of the 
Blue Ridge. Orange was taken from Spottsylvania in 1704 
and made to include all the territory beyond the mountains. 
Forty years later the latter region was divided into the dis- 
tricts of Augusta and Frederick, named for two members of 
the English royal family. These districts were to become coun- 
ties as soon as there were enough people in them to justify the 
step. In 1742 there were already 2,500 people in the district 



/ 



80 

of Augusta. Wolves were so troublesome that the settlers 
petitioned the court of Orange to levy a tax so that a bounty 
might be paid for wolf scalps. Orange accordingly levied a 
tax of 33 cents per capita on the settlers in Augusta and ap- 
pointed a trustee to collect the same. The continued immi- 
gration probably held back but little in consequence of a 
small war with the Delaware Indians in 1743-4, made urgent 
the need of a county organization, the courthouse of Orange 
being about 70 miles from Staunton. So the first court of 
Augusta began its opening session December 9, 1745. 

Events were meanwhile taking place in the north that had 
a direct bearing on the settlement of Pendleton. Pursuant 
to his practice of being liberal with land that did not especi- 
ally belong to him, King Charles II in 1681 gave a large 
grant in the Northern Neck to Lord Hopton, Earl St. Albans, 
Lord Culpeper, Lord Berkeley, Sir William Norton, Sir Dud- 
ley Wyatt, and Thomas Culpeper. This grant extended 
west of the Blue Ridge, but as there had been no exploration 
in that quarter, the boundaries were vague. The other 
grantees sold their interests to Lord Culpeper, whose daugh- 
ter married Thomas, fifth Lord Fairfax. The succeeding 
Lord Fairfax thus became sole owner of the grant. 

Two Englishmen, John Howard and his son, visited the 
South Branch, crossed the Alleghanies, and went down the 
Ohio and Mississippi. They were captured by the French 
and taken to Europe where they were released. Lord Fair- 
fax met the two explorers, heard their glowing account of 
the South Branch, and saw a prospect of lining his pockets 
with coin. He proceeded to see about the surveying and 
settling of his domain of 2,540 square miles, or 1,625,600 
acres. To determine his south boundary, three commission- 
ers were appointed by himself and ihree by the crown. 
They decided on a line connecting the source of the North 
Branch of the Potomac with the source of Conway river in 
Fauquier. The survey of the boundary was begun at the 
eastern end in 1736 and it reached the Fairfax stone ten 
years later. The new line became the boundary between 
the counties of Frederick and Augusta. It crossed the pres- 
ent counties of Hardy and Grant near their center. 

Being of thrifty inclination, Fairfax began issuing 99 year 
leases to tenants at the rate of $3 33 for each hundred acres. 
When he sold a parcel outright, he exacted for each hundred 
acres $3.33 in "composition money" and an annual quit rent 
of 33 cents. But the frontiersman did not relish this English 
practice in a new country. He wanted land in his own 
name, and so he pushed higher up the Shenandoah and 
South Branch valleys. 



Unrary 



81 

So far as definitely known the first white man to visit 
Pendleton was John Vanmeter, a Dutch trader from New 
York. He accompanied a band of Delawares on a raid 
against the Catawbas. Near Franklin, perhaps near the 
mouth of the Thorn, they met the enemy, got whipped, and 
concluded not to go farther. On his return Vanmeter told 
his sons that the lands on the South Branch were the best he 
had ever seen. He particularly described the bottoms just 
above the Trough, in what is now Hampshire. His advice 
was taken, and and a tract of 40,000 acres located by war- 
rant. 

Four men, Coburn, Howard, Walker, and Rutledge, came 
into the South Branch about 1735, but took no titles and ran 
against the Fairfax claim. Isaac Vanmeter and Peter Casey 
arrived shortly afterward, as did also two men by the names 
of Pancake and Foreman. The tide of immigration became 
more rapid. When Washington was in the valley in 1748, 
surveying for Fairfax, he found 200 people located along his 
course. Many of these were newly arrived Germans, and 
their antics, probably misunderstood by the young surveyor, 
did not give him a favorable opinion of their intelligence. 
Always a good judge of land, Washington prospected on his 
own account, and mentions going up the valley as far as the 
home of a certain horse jockey. He puts the distance from 
the mouth of the river at 70 miles, but Hu Maxwell 
thinks there is an over-estimate of 10 miles. The airline dis- 
tance to the Pendleton border being not quite 60 miles and 
the river nearly straight in its general course, it thus appears 
that practically the whole distance was settled. The earliest 
patents in this region seem to have been issued in 1747. A 
large number bear the date 1749. 

By the year 1747 two streams of immigration had touched 
the border of Pendleton. The stronger one was moving up 
the valley of the South Branch and was composed largely of 
Germans. The minor one, the Scotch-Irish, was pushing out- 
ward from Staunton, and was occupying the headwaters of 
the James. 

But already the triple valleys of Pendleton had been visited 
by hunters and prospectors, and the features of the region 
had become known. It is probable that names had been 
given to some of the minor streams. One of the hunters, 
whose name is said to have been Burner, built himself a 
cabin about 1745. The site is a half mile below Brandy wine, 
on the left bank of the river, and near the beginning of a 
long, eastward bend. From almost at his very door his 
huntsman's eye was at times gladdened by seeing perhaps 



fifty deer either drinking from the stream or plunging in 
their heads up to their ears in search of moss. After living 
here a few years he went up the valley to the vicinity of Doe 
Hill. He seems to have lived alone, and it is obvious that 
such occupation is by its very nature self-limited. But so 
far as we know, Abraham Burner was the first white man to 
build a hut and establish a home in Pendleton county.* 

* In this book Pendleton and its adjacent counties and the State of 
West Virginia are ordinarily spoken of as though always having the 
same boundaries as at present. This is done for the sake of brevity, and 
to avoid the repeated use of the explanatory words that would other- 
wise be necessary. No injustice is thus done to the spirit of historic 
fact. When the qualifying words are deemed necessary, they are ac- 
cordingly given. 



CHAPTER V 
The Beginning of Settlement 

The monopolizing of public land in our time, with its fraud- 
ulent entries, its bribery of officers of trust, and its disre- 
gard of both public and private right, is at once a disgusting 
spectacle of greed and a scandal to civilization. The earlier 
methods may not always have been so high-handed as in this 
age of gilded opportunity, but the underlying motive is al- 
ways the same. It is that of locking out the public from the 
bounty of nature, and then charging an admittance fee. 
When the law permits the individual to levy on the public a 
tax that benefits only himself, the state becomes a direct 
partner in the injustice. 

The spirit of the eighteenth century was aristocratic. 
The colonial government of Virginia had not risen above the 
idea that the public domain should be a perquisite to the few. 
The governor and his council— the state senate of that day- 
would issue an order in favor of "John Smith, gentleman," 
permitting that gentleman to select from the public lands 
20,000 acres, or perhaps 100.000. Sometimes the grantee 
acted alone, and sometimes with associates. The tract was 
probably not selected in a single body, but in a considerable 
number of choice parcels, the surrounding culls being left on 
the hands of the state. 

If saturated with old English ideas to the exclusion of the 
freer spirit of America, the grantee acted the part of Lord 
Fairfax and sought to make himself a feudal baron sur- 
rounded with a population of tenants, so that he and his 
might be supported by a tax on their industry. If he some- 
what Americanized he sold his holdings to actual settlers and 
not always at an excessive price. A word in fact may be 
said in behalf of the colonial land-grabber. By advertising 
his lands he could facilitate the sale of the public domain. 
Yet even this excuse is not very substantial. The intelli- 
gent homeseeker was capable of acting for himself, and a 
price no more than nominal might still be a burden to him. 

In 1746 and 1747, Robert Green of Culpeper, entered a 
number of tracts in Pendleton by virtue of an order of 
council. With him were associated in a considerable degree 
James Wood and William Russell, the former of Frederick 
county. No other surveys are on record prior to 1753. The 
selections of these men were almost wholly in the middle and 

PCH 3 



84 

lower parts of the South Branch and South Fork valleys, 
where the bottoms are broadest. They located nineteen 
parcels of land aggregating 15.748 acres. A few of these 
surveys extended into the present county of Grant, or were 
wholly beyond the present boundary line. The survey of 
2643 acres at Fort Seybert was more than six miles in length, 
the lines being run so as to include the whole bottom within 
that distance a*" das little as possible of the hilly upland. 
The survey of 1650 acres on Mill Creek was nearly as long 
and consequently narrower. This monoply of nearly thirty 
square miles of the very best of the soil, left the three part- 
ners in control of the situation. Later comers had perforce 
either to buy of them, take the odds and ends of bottom 
land they had not gathered in, or else retire into the moun- 
tains. 

Robert Green did not confine his operations to Pendleton. 
On the Shenandoah river he entered the still larger amount 
of 23.026 acres. Another non-resident speculator was John 
Trimble, a deputy surveyor of Augusta, v^^ho located several 
tracts toward the Highland line. In 1766 Thomas Lewis of 
Augusta patented a tract of 1700 acres which had been sur- 
veyed the year previous for Gabriel Jones and five other 
persons. This survey was a long narrow strip lying on the 
crest of South Fork Mountain and described as "barren 
mountain land." Whether chosen for pasturage or because 
of its iron ore is a matter of doubt. Other early selections by 
non-resident persons appear to be few and small. 

The first bona-fide settlers of Pendleton appear to be the 
six families who on the fourth and fifth days of November, 
1747 were given deeds of purchase by Robert Green. The 
heads of these families were Robert Dyer, his son Willaim, 
and his son-in-law Matthew Patton; also John Patton, Jr., 
John Smith and William Stephenson. These men purchased 
1860 acres, paying therefor 61 pounds and 6 shillings, or 
$203.33. The price looks very nominal, but it is to be re- 
membered that the purchasing power of a dollar was greater 
then than now. It is also to be borne in mind that the set- 
tlers,— perhaps 5,000— who had come into the valley of Vir- 
ginia within just 20 years, were scattered over an area 150 
miles long and 50 miles broad. This was an average of only 
one family to each 5,000 acres. The county organization of 
Augusta was barely three years old. Staunton had not yet 
received its name. The locality was known as "Beverly's 
Mill Place." There was in fact no designated town in the 
whole valley. The nearest approach to one was Winchester, 
then only ten years old and not to become a town until 1752. 
As for highways, there were none worthy of the name. 



85 

There was no established road or even bridle path for miles 
down the South Fork. It would easily have taken a week to 
ride to Philadelphia, then the metropolis of America. The 
man of San Francisco or Seattle can today reach Philadel- 
phia fully as soon. 

Roffer Dyer was at least on the border of middle apre and 
for that period was a person of quite good circumst nces. 
He evidently went into the wilderness of his own free choice, 
and seems to have possessed the qualities of leadership and 
venturesomeness. On coming" to Virginia from Pennsylvania 
he first located near Moorefield, but finding the damp bottom 
land malarious, he moved higher up the valley in search of a 
healthful spot. Two of the other members of the group 
were of his own family, and the other three were presum- 
ably former neighbors if not relatives also. 

Whether the little colony occupied its lands the sam*» fall 
or waited until spring we do not know. But because of the 
short distance to Moorefield the settlers may have moved to 
the new home at once. 

A pathway to the outer world was of pressing importance, 
and by county order of May 18, 1749, John Smith and Mat- 
thew Patton were appointed to survey and mark a road from 
the house of John Patton to the forks of Dry River. Other 
persons east of Shenandoah Mountain were to extend the 
road to the Augusta courthouse. Almost precisely two years 
later— May 29, 1751.— in consequence to a petition to the 
Augusta court, John Patton, Rog^^r Dyer, Daniel Richardson, 
and Dube Collins, together with the "adjacent tithables" 
were ordered to clear a way from Patton's mill to Coburn's 
mill by the nearest and best way. They were also to set up 
posts of direction and keep the road in repairs according to 
law. 

Changes in ownership soon crept into the colony. The 
first was in 1750, when Roger Dyer sold to Matthew Patton 
his place of 190 acres for the same price he paid for it— $27.50, 
The plder man at once bought of Robert Green a new tract 
of 620 acres. In the same year Peter Hawes, another son-in- 
law to Dyer, bought an entire Green survey paying only 
$75.83 for the entire 750 acres. Whether still other families 
joined the Dyer settlement prior to 1753 we do not clearly 
know. There is no record of surveys or purchases by such 
men, yet there may have been a few non-landholders pres- 
ent, and in the vicinity, possibly a few squatters. 

We must now turn a moment to the South Branch valley. 
The largest of the Green surveys in this section was from 
the very beginning designated as the "upper tract," to dis- 
tinguish it from a "lower tract" a little farther down in 



the Mill Creek valley. The name persisted, and finally be- 
came that also of the little village that has grown up on the 
J9row of Tract Hiil. The upper survey is the largest 
single expanse of bottom land in the county, and would have 
been a shining mark to the land prospector. As to exact 
information relating to the earliest settlers in this locality, 
we are singularly in the dark. The tract is known to have 
been conveyed in part or in whole to one William Shelton, 
and by him to others, but there are no details in regard to 
these transactions. 

In what year the tract received its first inhabitants is 
therefore a matter of some doubt. It is not probable that 
they came earlier than the people in the Dyer settlement, 
neither could they have been much behind them. The actual 
time was anywhere from 1748 to 1751, probably nearer the 
first date than the spcond. Somewhere within this short 
period one Peter Reed built a mill here and gave his name to 
the small stream that winds lazily through the bottom. By 
petition of the settlers around him, an order of court was is- 
sued November 15, 1752 for the building of a road to Reed's 
mill. Whether this road was to the Dyer settlement or di- 
rectly down the South Branch is not stated. The viewers 
and markers were James Simpson and Michael Stump. The 
tithables ordered to turn out and build the road were Henry Al- 

kire, H Garlock, Henry Harris, Philip Moore, Henry Ship- 

ler, Jeremiah and George Osborn, and John, Jacob, and Wil- 
liam Westfall. From this it would appear that the settle- 
ments in the two valleys were of similar size. 

For some cause, the exact nature of which is not clearly 
apparent, there was a sudden wave of immigration in 1753. 
In this year 27 tracts were surveyed for 21 different persons, 
16 of whom were newcomers. John Davis located on the 
South Fork near the northern end of Sweedland Hill, and 
Henry Hawes surveyed a plot in Sweedland Valley. West of 
the Dyer settlement were Ulrich Conrad, Jacob Seybert, 
John Dunkle. and Jacob Goodman, located on the plateau of 
the South Fork Mountain. Michael Mallow made a large 
star-shaped survey at Kline P. 0., on Mallow's Run. Peier 
Moser and Michael Freeze settled close to Upper Tract. 
John Michael Propst settled two miles above Brandywine. 
and John Michael Simmons went higher up the valley. On 
Walnut Bottom on the North Fork surveys were made by 
Benjamin Scott, Frederick Sherler, and John, James, and 
William Cunningham. 

But still other settlers were here by this time or else they 
came quickly afterward. Jacob Zorn lived near Propst. He 
was seemingly the first settler to pass away. His estate was 



87 

appraised in 1756 by Jacob Seybert, John Dunkle, Charles 
Wilson, and Christian Evick. In the inventory are men- 
tioned 55 items. Catharine, the widow of Zorn, seems to 
have been a sister to Jacob Ruleman, who also was most 
probably here as well as Mark Swadley and Henry Stone. 
Frederick Keister, still another son-in-law to Dyer, had come 
by 1757 and probably earlier. Michael and Jacob Peterson 
appeared to have settled near Upper Tract. In 1754 we find 
mention of Samuel Bright on Blackthorn, Joseph Skidmore 
and Peter Vaneman on Friend's Run. Skidmore and Vane- 
man were forehanded and enterprising, and became active in 
land transactions. Another man of this character was Jacob 
Eberman who was in Augusta by 1750, but may not have 
come to Pendleton for several years afterward. In 1756 Hans 
Harper had come from Augusta and was living near the head 
of Blackthorn. The Indians were now coming on, and until 
1761 there was an entire letting up in the matter of survey- 
ing, except for the parcels taken by John and William Cun- 
nmgham on Thorny Branch and those of James and Thomas 
Parsons between Trout Rock and the mouth of East Dry 
Run. 

Meanwhile there were a few more changes within the 
Dyer settlement. In 1755 Jacob Seybert purchased John 
Patton's farm of 210 acres, and two years later William 
Stephenson sold his own place to Mathias Dice. In the latter 
year Roger Dyer fell into a term of ill health and made a 
will wherein he mentions 29 persons with whom he had had 
business dealings of one sort or another. It is quite impos- 
sible to draw the line between those who were living within 
Pendleton and those who were not. The persons named 
weie Thomas Campbell, William Corry, John Cravens, Michael 
Dicken, Patrick Frazier, Michael Graft, William Gragg, 
Jesse Harrison, Johnston Hill, Peter Hawes, Frederick 
Keister, Joseph Kile, Arthur Johnston, James Lock, Daniel 
Love, Michael Mallow, John McClure, John and Jane McCoy, 
Hugh McGlaughlin, David Nelson, Matthew Patton, John, 
Nicholas, and Thomas Smith, William Semple, Herman 
Shout (Shrout?) John Saulsbury, Robert Scott and Robert 
Walston. 

By the close of 1757, not less than about 40 families, or 200 
individuals were living in what is now Pendleton county. 
They were not unequally divided between the South Branch 
and the South Fork, and they were most numerous toward 
Upper Tract and the Dyer settlement. Whether actual set- 
tlement had yet been made on the North Fork is uncertain. 

We may picture to ourselves a primeval forest broken only 
by a few dozen clearings, nearly all of those lying on or near 



the large watercourses. In these clearings were the small 
houses, usually of unhewn logs. Around the house were 
small, stump-dotted fields of corn, grain, and flax. The 
pens for the livestock were strongly built, so as to protect 
the animals from the bears, wolves, and catamounts that 
were the cause of continual anxiety and occasional loss. 
The "broads" leading out from the settlements were simply 
bridle-paths, and commodities were carried on the backs of 
animals. 

There was a little mill at the Dyer settlement and another 
at Upper Tract. Doubtless there was also a blacksmith in 
each valley. But there was neither church, schoolhouse nor 
store. In the Dyer settlement, judging by the character of 
its people, it is probable there was some makeshift to provide 
elementary instruction for the young people. Elsewhere it is 
not likely that anything was being done in this line, unless 
through direct parental effort. 

But a time of trouble had now come and this episode next 
demands our attention. 



CHAPTER VI 
Period of Indian War 

Jefferson tells us the Indian Claims in the Valley of Vir- 
ginia were purchased **in the most unexceptionable manner." 
At all events the few iShawnee and Tuscarora tribesmen 
were at peace with the whites until 1754. To that date the 
Shawnees remained on the South Branch. They often vis- 
ited the homes of the settlers and in this way learned to 
speak English quite well. When they appeared at a house 
they expected something to eat and were not backward in 
letting the fact be known. The Indian was himself very 
hospitable. He therefore expected something set before 
him, just as he was wont to provide the best he had when a 
stranger came to his own cabin. To boil their venison a 
hunting party would sometimes borrow a kettle, but they 
would bring some meat in return for its use. 

Yet the feeling between the settler and the native was not 
cordial. The former would sooner do without the visits of 
the red man. The latter was not at all pleased with the per- 
sistent pressure of the tide of colonial settlement. 

Killbuck, the chief o^" the little band of Shawnees, was an 
Indian of much ability and strong mental power. Peter 
Casey, a pioneer of Hampshire, once promised him a pistole 
($3. 60) if he would catch his run-away slave. The chief 
found and brought back the negro, but Casey quarreled 
about the reward, knocked down the Indian with his cane, 
and went back on his word. When Killbuck in his old age 
was visited by a son of Casey, he did not forget to tell the 
son that he ought to pay his father's debt. 

The English and the French were rivals in America. They 
had already fought three colonial wars, and a life and death 
struggle for supremacy was now on the point of breaking out. 
That the weak, scattered settlements of the French beyond 
the AUeghanies were let alone by the Indians was because of 
the difference in habits between the French and English pio- 
neer. The former came not to clear the land but to trade for 
furs. He almost made himself a native when among the 
Indians, and if a trapper he took an Indian wife. The hunt- 
ing grounds were let alone and the Indian was benefited by 
the articles he received in return for his pelts. 

But the English colonist had his own wife, and he felled 
the trees and cleared the ground as he came along. The 



40 

game was thus scared away and the Indian had to fall back 
before him. Furthermore the Englishman did not go to the 
same pains to win and keep the will of the red man. Thui 
the Frenchnian had much the greater influence. 

In the fall of 1753 the Shawnees on the South Branch were 
visited by Indians from the Ohio river, who urged them to 
move out to their country. The invitation was accepted and 
the removal took place very abruptly the following spring. 
The Shawnees now sided with the French and with dire re- 
sult to the border settlements. By the defeat of Braddock 
in 1755, the frontiers of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Vir- 
ginia were left totally exposed, and during the next four 
years the entire line was harassed by raiding parties of the 
enemy. Sometimes the Indians actt^d alone, and sometimes 
they were accompanied by French soldiers. The damage in- 
flicted was very great and it was done by a comparatively 
small number of warriors. To make matters still worse 
white miscreants would disguise themselves as Indians and 
commit depredations on their own account. For aiding and 
abetting the Shawnees and trying to mislead the Cherokees, 
one Hugh McNamara was committed in April, 1753. Only a 
few months after the defeat of Braddock Washington reports 
71 persons killed or missing within a few days and crowds of 
fugitives flying through the Blue Ridge. 

In 1756 Virginia appropriated $33,833 for the building of 
23 forts, these to comprise a chain extending from the great 
Cacapon in Hampshire to the Mayo in Halifax. Washington 
was sent to the frontier with his headquarters at Winches- 
ter. He was not given enough troops to cover his line of de- 
fense and his men of one county were not willing to aid in 
protecting another. His letters give a vivid idea of the dis- 
tressful times and show his irritation in having too weak a 
force. Thus he writes under date of April 15, 1766 : "All 
my ideal hopes of raising a number of men to search the ad- 
jacent mountains have vanished into nothing." A week 
later he has this to add : "I am too little acquainted with 
pathetic language to attempt a description of the people's 
distresses." Only two days later he writes as follows: 
"Not an hour, nay, scarcely a minute passes that does not 
produce fresh alarms and melancholy accounts." In another 
letter he says, * 'the deplorable situation of these people is no 
more to be described than is my anxiety and uneasiness for 
their relief . " Or again : "Desolation and murder still in- 
crease." September 28, 1757 he writes these words : "Tha 
inhabitants ot this valuable and very fertile valley are terri- 
fied beyond expression. " 

In 1757 there were 1873 tithables in Augusta. The 



41 

following year the number had fallen to 1386, showing that 
n )twithstanding the rangers who had been sent to watch the 
frontier, many of the people had fled to places of greater 
safety. No doubt some of the Pendleton pioneers took part 
in this general flight, yet so far as we can see they remained 
pluckily on the ground, even though in constant peril, except 
in the dead of winter when the Indians did not go out on the 
warpath. Their houses were made bullet prool' and the walls 
were pierced with loopholes. Several houses of this charac- 
ter are yet standing, though of somewhat later date than che 
period under consideration. In time of alarm a family would 
seek the protection of the nearest iort. 

The colonial government deciding to fight the foe with its 
own weapons, it offered in 1755 a bounty of iO pounds 
($33.33) for the scalp of any hostile Indian over 12 years of 
age, but making it a felony to kill a friendly Indian. This 
law was enacted for two years and was renewed with a fur- 
ther reward of $50 for taking a prisoner. But proving futile 
the measure was repealed in September, 1758. Cherokee 
allies were hired by the colony and a reward not to exceed 
$10,000 was voted them. In the fall of 1757 twenty of these 
allies brought in two scalps from the South Branch. That 
this sort of help was double-edged would appear from an act 
passed in the fall of 1758 taking account of the damage done 
by the Cherokees. 

In 1756 three bloody battles were fought in Hampshire and 
on January 4 of the same year Washington thus writes of 
the weak settlements in Pendleton : '"I have now ordered 
Capt. Waggoner with 60 men to build and garrison two oth- 
ers (forts) at places i have pointed out high up the South 
Branch." August 16, he makes this further report : "We 
have built some forts and altered oihers as far south on the 
Potomac as settlers have been molested; and there only re- 
mains one body of inhabitants at a place called Upper Tract 
who need a guard. Thither I have ordered a party." 

We have no account of any raids into Pendleton prior to 
1757, and if any took place it would not appear that the loss 
or damage was serious. In February of the year r>.entioned 
Jacob Peterson, living on North Mill Creek near the Grant 
line lost six children by capture, one of them soon afterward 
escaping. On May 16 of the same year the Indians killed 
Michael Freeze and his wife, who lived close to Upper Tract. 
On March 19, 1758 there was another and more destructive 
raid upon the Upper Tract settlement. Peter Moser, who 
lived opposite the mouth of Mallow's Run, was shot dead 
while unloading corn at his crib. Nicholas Frank and John 
Conrad were also killed, George Moser and Adam Harper 



42 

were wounded, and John Cunningham and two other persons 
were captured. These casualties happened the same day, 
though it is not certain that all of them took place at Upper 
Tract. It is rather strange that these tv\o raids should have 
occurred so close to the fort if there was an efficient garrison 
in it at the time. It is very possible that a reenforcement 
was thrown into it shortly after. 

It was perhaps the tragedy at the Freeze home that led to 
the commissioning, March 16, 1757, of Jacob Seybert as the 
first captain of militia for what is now Pendleton county. 
Captain Seybert had come from Frederick county, Maryland, 
four years earlier. He was one of seven brothers, natives of 
the very town in Germany that gave birth to Martin Luther. 
Some of these settled in the Shenandoah valley. Moses Sey- 
bert, a brother to the captain, sold the farm he there owned 
for $2500 and went to Guilford Courthouse, N. C, about the 
time the war of the Revolution broke out. He was siill there 
at the time of the battle between Greene and Cornwallis, and 
the family had to stay in the cellar while bullets were flying. 
Noncombatants being allowed to depart the next day, Sey- 
bert hurried away and sought a new home in the natural 
fastness of the Fort Valley within the Massanutten. He 
thought an armed force not likely to disturb him here. 

Fort Upper Tract and Fort Seybert appear to have been 
built in 1756. Where the former stood is not positively 
known. One tradition places it near the house of John S. 
Harman, but in view of the killing of Moser this would not 
seem probable. Another view places it on the very brink of 
the river a mile above Harman's. This spot is very advan- 
tageous, being at the angle of a bend in the river and the 
opposite bank much lower. The river bluff is steep and a 
ravine affords some protection on two other sides. The in- 
closed space is however very limited. A building once stood 
here and the foundation may easily be traced. But it disap- 
peared before the recollection of any person now living. The 
spot lies a mile south of Upper Tract village and on the west 
bank of the river. 

Fort Seybert stood on what is now the houseyard of Wil- 
liam C. Miller, who lives a fourth of a mile south of the Fort 
Seybert postoffice. There was a circular stockade with a 
two-storied blockhouse inside. The diameter of the stockade 
was about 90 feet. According to the practice of the day, the 
wall was composed of logs set in contact with one another 
and rising at least ten feet above the ground. For going in 
or out there was a heavy gate constructed of puncheons. 
The blockhouse stood near the center of the circle, and was 
apparently about 21 feet square. From the loopholes in the 



upper room the open space around the stockade could be com- 
manded by the garrison. There is no evidence of a well to 
make the defenders independent of the fine spring then ex- 
isting within a walk of two minutes. Mr. Miller deserves 
the thanks of the public in preserving in its original site a 
foundation stone of the blockhouse, and in not obliterating 
the arc of a circle that shows where the wall used to rise. 
Among the relics he has found and preserved are bullets 
that present the appearance of having been chewed, as was 
the custom of the Indians. 

Presumably Fort Upper Tract was built after much the 
same general plan, but as already observed its very situation 
is involved in some doubt. Such little fortifications would 
have been of no avail against a force of white men equipped 
with field guns, but as against a band of Indians a successful 
defense was liitle more than a question of resolute defenders 
supplied with food, water, and ammunition. The Indian 
thought it foolhardy to storm a fortified post, and he de- 
pended on blockade, fire, and stratagem. 

A most severe blow now befell the weak settlements of 
Pendleton. The defense of Fort Upper Tract was intrusted 
to Capt. James Dunlap, who had commanded a detachment 
in the Big Sandy expedition. A band of French and Indians 
appeared in the valley, and on April 27, 3758, they captured 
and burned the fort and killed 22 persons, including Dunlap 
himself. * No circumstantial account of the disaster seems to 
have been written, and we have no assurance that any of the 
defenders were spared. If the massacre were complete, it 
would go far to explain the silence of local tradition. So 
exceedingly little in fact has been handed down in this way 
that some Pendleton people have thrown doubt on the exis- 
tence of the fort, to say nothing of the burning and killing. 
There is documentary proof, however, on all these points. 

The tragedy at Fort Seybert took place on the following 
day— April 28, 1758. In this case our knowledge is far more 
ample. There were survivors to return from captivity and re- 
late the event. The account they gave us has been kept very 
much alive by their descendants in the vicinity. In the 
course of a century and a half some variations have indeed 

• The names of the slain were as follows : Captain John Dunlap, 
Josiah Wilson, John Hutchinson, Thomas Caddon, Henry McCullom, 
John Wright, Thomas Smith, Robert McNulty, William Elliott, Ludwig 

Falck and wife, Adam Little, Brock, John Ramsay, William Burk, 

Rooney, William Woods; John McCuUey, Thomas Searl, James 

Gill, John Gay, and one person unknown. 



44 

crept into the narrative. Yet these divergencies are not very 
material. Through a careful study and comparison of the 
var.ous sources of information it is possible to present a fairly 
complete account of the whole incident. 

The attacking party was composed of about 40 Shawnees 
led by Killbuck. There is a vague statement that one French- 
man was among them. This force was doubtless in contact 
with the one that wrought the havoc at Upper Tract. But 
since the recollections of Fort Seybert are nearly silent as to 
anything that happened at Upper Tract, it is probable that 
Killbuck took an independent course in returning to the In- 
dian country. The only mention of Upper Tract in the Fort 
Seybert narrative is that an express was sent there for aid, 
but turned back after coming within sight of the telltale col- 
umn of smoke from the burning buildings. 

The number of persons *'forting" in the Dyer settlement 
was perhaps 40. Very few of these were men, several hav- 
ing gone across the Shenandoah Mountain the day previous. 
Some of the women of the settlement also appear to have 
been away. There was a fog shrouding the bottom of the 
South Fork on this fateful morning, and the immediate pres- 
ence of the enemy was unsuspected. 

Eastward from the site of the stockade the ground falls 
rapidly to the level of the river bottom. At the fuot of the 
slope is a damp swale through which was then flowing a 
stream crossed by a log bridge. A few yards beyond was the 
spring which supplied water for the fort. A willow cutting 
was afterward set near this spring. It grew into a tree four 
and a half feet in diameter and dried up the fountain. A 
woman going here for water was unaware at the time that 
an Indian, supposed to be Killbuck himself, was lurking un- 
der the bridge. The brave did not attempt a capture, prob- 
ably because the bridge was in sight of the fort and also 
within easy shooting distance. 

The wife of Peter Hawes went out with a bound boy 
named Wallace to milk some cows. While following a path 
toward the present postoffice they were surprised by two In- 
dians and captured. Mrs. Hawes is said to have had a pair 
of sheep-shears in her hand and to have attempted to stab 
one of the Indians with the ugly weapon. It may have been 
the same one who sought to tease her, and whom Mrs. 
Hawes, collecting all her strength, pushed over a bank. Re- 
appearing after his unceremonious tumble, the maddened 
redskin was about to dispatch the wom m, but was prevented 
by his laughing comp mion who called him a squaw man. 
Bravery, wherever shown, has always been admired by the 
American native. 



46 

William Dyer had gone out to hunt and was waylaid near 
the fort. His flintlock refused to prime and he fell dead 
pierced by several balls. The presence of the enemy now 
being known, Nicholas Seybert, a son of the captain and 
about fifteen years of age, took his station in the upper room 
and mortally wounded an Indian who had raised his head 
from behind the cover of a rock in the direction of the spring. 

This seems to be the only loss the enemy sustained. It is 
said a horseman was riding toward the fort, but hearing the 
firing and kno\^ing that something was wrong, he hastened 
to spread the alarm among the more distant settlers. 

Killbuck called on the defenders to give up, threatening no 
mercy if they did not but good treatment if they did. Captain 
Seybert took the extraordinary course of listening to this de- 
ceitful parley. Whether the fewness of adult men or a 
shortage in supplies and especially ammunition had anything 
to do with his resolve is not known. A thoroughly vigorous 
defense may not have been possible, but there was nothing 
to lose in putting up a bold front. Voluntary surrender to a 
savage foe is almost unheard of in American border war. 
There was the more reason for resisting to the very last ex- 
tremity, since Killbuck was known to have an unenviable 
name for treachery in warfare. It is certain that the com- 
mander was remonstrated with, but with what looks like a 
display of German obstinacy he yielded to the demand of the 
enemy, which included the turning over of what money the 
defenders possessed. 

Just before the gate was opened an incident occurred 
which might yet have saved the day. Young Seybert had 
taken aim at Killbuck and was about to fire when the muzzle 
of his gun was knocked down, the ball only raising the dust 
at Killbuck's f- et. Accounts differ as to whether the aim 
was frustrated by the boy's father or by a man named Rob- 
ertson. Finding the surrender determined upon, the boy 
was so enraged that he attempted to use violence on his par- 
ent. He did not himself surrender and was taken by being 
overpowered. 

As the savages rushed through the open gate, Killbuck 
dealt the captain a blow with the pipe end of his tomahawk, 
knocking out several of his teeth. After the inmates were 
secured and led outside, the fort was set on fire. A woman 
named Hannah Hinkle, perhaps bedfast at the time, perished 
in the flames. Taking advantage of the confusion of the 
moment, the man Robertson managed to secrete himself, and 
as soon as the savapes withdrew, he hurried toward the 
river, followed a shelving bluff that his footsteps might the 
less easily be traced, and made his way across the Shenan- 



46 

doah Mountain. He was the only person to effect his escape. 

The captives appear to have been halted on a hillside about 
a quarter of a mile to the west. Here after some delibera- 
tion on the part of the victors they were gradually separated 
into two rows and seated on logs. One row was for captiv- 
ity, the other for slaughter. On a signal the doomed per- 
sons were swiftly tomahawked, and their scalps and bleeding 
bodies left where they fell. Mrs. Hawes fainted when she saw 
her father sink under the blow of his executioner, and to this 
circumstance she may have been indebted for her own ex- 
emption. James Dyer, a tall, athletic boy of fourteen years, 
broke away, and being a good runner he attempted to reach 
a tangled thicket on the river bank, a half mile eastward and 
the same distance above the present postoffice. He nearly 
succeeded in reaching and crossing the river, but was finally 
headed off and retaken. 

It was now probably past noon, and the Indians with their 
convoy of 11 captives and their wounded comrade borne on 
an improvised litter, began the climbing of South Fork Moun- 
tain. A woman whose given name was Hannah had a squall- 
ing baby. An Indian seized the child and struck its neck 
into the forks of a dogwood. The mother found some con- 
solation in the belief that her infant was killed by the blow 
and not left to a lingering death. Greenawalt gap, nine 
miles distant, was reached at nightfall by taking an almost 
airline course regardless of the nature of the ground. Here 
the disabled Indian died after suffering intensely from a 
wound in his head. He was buried m a cavern 500 feet up 
the steep mountain side. Until about 60 years ago portions 
of the skeleton were yet to be seen. The next halt was near 
the mouth of Seneca, and without pursuit or mishap the 
raiding party returned to its village near Chillecothe in Ohio. 

The people slain in the massacre were 17, some accounts 
putting the number at 21 or even more. Among them were 
Captain Seybert, Roger Dyer, and the bound boy Wallace, 
whose yellow scalp was afterward recognized by Mrs. Hawes. 
It is the brunette captives that Indians have preferred to 
spare. 

Including William Dyer, the four names are the only ones now 
remembered. It is worthy of note that apart from Seybert 
and the two Dyers none of the heads of families in the region 
around appear to be missing. Possible exceptions are John 
Smith, William Hevener, and William Stephenson. Even 
the wives of Roger and William Dyer were not among the 
killed. The infant son of William Dyer was with its mother's 
people east of Shenandoah Mountain. 



47 

Of the captives the only remembered names are those of 
Nicholas Seybert, James Dyer, the wives of Peter Hawes 
and Jacob Peterson, and a Hevener girl. This girl either es- 
caped or was returned, and she counseled the settlers to be 
more careful in the future in exposing themselves to the risk 
of capture. A brave took pity on Mrs. Peterson and gave 
her a pair of moccasins to enable her to travel with greater 
comfort. It is not remembered whether any of the captives 
returned except the two boys mentioned, Seybert and Dyer, 
and the Hevener girl. 

As the party was about to cross the Ohio, young Seybert 
remarked upon a flock of wild turkeys flying high in the dis- 
tance. 'You have sharp eyes," observed Killbuck. "Wasn't 
it you that killed our warrior ?" "Yes," replied the boy, 
"Yes, and I would have shot you too. if my gun hadn't been 
knocked down." "You little devil." commented the chief, 
"if you had killed me, my warriors would have given up and 
come away. Brave boy. You'll make a good warrior. But 
don't tell my people what you did." Several years after his 
return tf.e young man sold his father's farm to John Bliz- 
zard and he made a new home on Straight Creek. Some of 
his descendants still live in that vicinity. 

James Dyer was among the Indians about two years. He 
sometimes accompanied a trading party on a visit to Fort Pitt, 
now Pittsburg. On the last trip he resolved to attempt his es- 
cape. He eluded the Indians, slipped into the cabin of a 
trader, and the woman within hid the boy behind a large 
chest, piling over him a mass of furs. In trying to find him 
the Indians came into the hut and threw off the skins one by 
one. until he could see the light through the openings among 
them. But fortunately for his purpose the Indians thought 
it not worth while to make the search thorough. After re- 
maining a while at the old home in Pennsylvania, the young 
man returned to Fort Seybert, and for more than forty years 
was one of the most prominent citizens of the county. 

James Dyer is said to have been instrumental in effecting 
the recovery of his sister, Sarah Hawes, whose captivity 
lasted three and a half years. She thought better of the In- 
dians than of the French who sometimes visited the village. 
There was usually an abundance to eat, but in time of scarcity 
colt steak was prominent on the Indian bill of fare, and to 
this she demurred. But Killbuck asked her why she should 
have prejudice against an animal that eats only clean food, 
when all palefaces were fond of eating the flesh of the hog, an 
animal that searches in all manner of filth for something to 
eat. Her captivity worked some change in her appearance 
and manner, and when she returned her little daughter was 



48 

not for a while willing to own her, but at length accepted the 
fact of identity. Her hasband died either before her return 
or shortly afterward, and she then married Robert Davis. 

Killbuck had good ground for using stratagem to cut short 
the siege. It was no great distance to the more thickly set- 
tled region of the Shenandoah Valley. A relief party under 
the command of Captain Brock soon appeared, but was too 
late to do anything more than bury the slaughtered victims. 
Their ghastly corpses were interred in one common grave un- 
doubtedly very near the spot where the tragedy was enacted. 
An inclosing wall of stone was thrown up and it stood for 
nearly a century. It was then torn down by a road overseer, 
who in order to fill up a mudhole was willing to forego the 
respect to the resting place of the dead which common de- 
cency requires. 

At the time of this raid the home of Michael Mallow lay in 
a very exposed position. He in some way escaped, but his 
wife and son were carried off. Being told the wife was no 
longer living, Mallow was on the point of taking a second 
helpmate. But news of a different tenor reached him in 
time, and the two were reunited. The boy was recovered 
and was identified only through a mark on his thumb. An- 
other son, Henry, was born during the wife's captivity. The 
infant was quite promptly soused in a stream with a view of 
washing off the taint of his white blood and making him a 
good Indian. But in spite of this style of regeneration he 
grew up a good white man. 

Other incidents of capture have come down to us. Thus a 
Harper girl of the connection of Philip Harper, living above 
the mouth of Seneca was carried away. In compai.y with a 
girl taken from Grant she fled from the Indian village while 
the braves were away from home. The Ohio was crossed by 
means of a log Both girls were in rags when they re- 
gained their homes. The Harper girl married a Peterson. 

Before the Kiles had come from Rockingham, George and 
Jacob of that family were taken prisoners. Jacob was very 
strong and was made to carry burdens. One night he gnawed 
the rope open that was holding him and released his brother. 
They had come back as far as the Roaring Plains when 
George lay down in some brush, utterly unable to proceed. 
The brother went on to the blockhouse at the mouth of Sen- 
eca, and because of his Indian costume came near being fired 
on by a sentry. A relief party was sent out and the ex- 
hausted brother brought in. During the time this Seneca 
blockhouse was used as a rallying-point, the towering cliff 
nearby served as a lookout. 

John Reger had bought of Green, Wood and Russell 407 




O Si 0T3 



acres on North Mill Creek, but before conveyance of title he 
was killed by the Indians and his children, John, Dorothy, 
and Barbara, carried away. To preserve the title to the 
heirs, Matthew Patton, the administrator, obtained title in 
his own name in 1768, on condition that if the heirs returned 
he was to turn over the property to them. The girls re- 
appeared soon afterward, but the boy did not. To fulfill his 
bond, Patton made a conveyance to Barbara, now the wife of 
John Keplinger, Jr , binding her in turn to convey a moiety 
to her brother, should he eventually come back. 

Another incident, vouched for on excellent authority, ex- 
hibits the more humane side of Indian character. A woman 
taken about the time of the massacre at Fort Seybert was 
carried to Ohio. A brave made known a decision to burn 
her, and said he would eifect a rescue. He made her 
a pair of deerskin moccasins and told her that while she was 
absent from the village for firewood he was going to follow 
her steps. This program was carried out, and when they 
reached a large stream he told her to wade in. He helped 
her atross to shallow water, and then took the woman on his 
back to a cranny in a bluff. He bade her stay here till his 
return. He explained that her trail would be followed to the 
river and that it would be noticed that an Indian had pur- 
sued her. No tracks being found on the farther shore except 
his own, and these in a semicircle, it would be understood 
she had drowned. He left provisions promising a return af- 
ter the search and excitement were over. The Indian kept 
his word and conducted her to within sight of her home in 
Pendleton. A log-rolling was in progress. The guide re- 
fused to leave the shelter of the woods, unless she could bring 
assurances that he would be well treated. This she was 
able to do, although at first some of the men wished to kill 
him. The rescuer remained over night before starting on his 
return. 

Soon after the Indian incursion of 1758. Captain Abraham 
Smith was sent to the South Branch. He was brought be- 
fore a courtmartial for cowardice on complaint of one Ed- 
ward McGary, but the charge was disproved. The accuser 
was fined 40 shillings besides 5 shillings for using a profane 
oath. 

The total loss at Upper Tract and Fort Seybert was esti- 
mated by Washington at 60 persons. The burning of the 
forts and the general havoc wrought during the foray were a 
most severe blow to the infant settlements of the two val- 
leys. Some of the remaining people may temporarily have 
gone aivay. But the ground was not abandoned. With in- 
domitable resolution the pioneers went about repairing their 

PC H4 



losses, and we soon find them settling up the estates of their 
murdered neighbors. An Act of Assembly was passed for 
the rebuilding of Fort Seybert, but it does not seem that it 
was carried out. After the disaster the settlers of the South 
Fork adopted the plan of secreting their families in the coves 
of Shenandoah Mountain, whence they made trips to the river 
to cultivate their lands. Trusty watchdogs were also brought 
into requisition. 

With the utter collapse of the French power in America in 
1760, the Indian peril became less acute, and although raid- 
ing parties came from the Greenbrier and destroyed settle- 
ments to within a few miles of Staunton, there is no explicit 
account of any further attack upon Pendleton. Yet the In- 
dians prolonged the war on their own account. It was not 
until 1764 that a respite was given to the frontier. The red 
men were required to give up their captives, and of the 82 
men and 58 women and children thus restored to their Vir- 
ginia homes, it is more than probable that some belonged in 
this county. A number of these, taken when quite >oung 
and who had nearly or quite lost the recollection of their par- 
ental home, were very unwilling to part with their dusky 
friends and had to be brought away by force. The Indians 
were no less unwilling to see them go. Hunting parties fol- 
lowed for days the returning captives, in oider to keep them 
supplied with food. 

Sometimes the Indianized person refused to give up the 
wild life. Isaac Zane, taken when nine years old, lived with 
the Indians ever after, but never forgot his mother tongue. 
He married the sister of a Wyandot chief and reared a large 
family. The boys were true Indians, but the girls married 
white men and became fine women. Mary Painter, taken 
from the Shenandoah in 1758, also at the age of nine, lived 
with the Indians until 1776. She was found among the Cher- 
okees by a man named Copple, who had likewise been a pris- 
oner. By a well-meant deception he induced her to go back 
with him to her people. She married Copple and they lived a 
while on the Painter farm near Woodstock, but yielded to the 
"call of the wild," and went West. They always used the 
Indian tongue in their household. 

Though but one hostile visit to Pendleton can be identified 
as takng place after 1764, another war broke out in 
1774, as we shall presently see, and did not come to an end 
until Wayne's decisive victory in 1795. During this long 
period there was always the chance that some war party 
might pass through the broadening zone of settlement west 
of the AUeghanies, and once more bring the tomahawk and 



n 

the torch to the reah'zation of people who knew from experi- 
ence what these things meant. 

During the ten years of peace there was recorded in the 
deed book of the county a conveyance of 200,000 acres of 
land from the Iroquois Delaware, and Shawnee Indians. The 
date of the transaction is November 4, 1768, and the tract 
lay in the angle between the Ohio and Monongahela rivers. 
Among the signatures are those of governors of Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey. The payment was to be made in blankets, 
shirts, stockings, ribbon, calico, serge, thread, gartering, 
strouds, and callimancoe; also in knives, needles, tobacco, 
tongs, brass kettles, powder, lead, gunflints, vermillion, and 
finally ten dozen jewsharps. 

We have treated this episode of frontier war at some 
length, because it is at once the most picturesque and the 
most lurid feature in the background of Pendleton history. 
Not even the four trying years of 1861-5 with their scenes of 
domestic guerilla war can go beyond the perilous years of 
1755-9. That early period shows to us a young, sparsely set- 
tled frontier community, compelled to live in the shadow of 
the stockade: compelled to use watchful care, lest at any 
moment the stealthy foe lurking in the deep woods mig"ht 
burn the farm house, kill or maim the adults of the family 
regardless of age or sex, and carry away young children who 
though spared might yet be lost to the parents. It shows 
also an unconquerable will to maintain the foothold that was 
costing so heavily in danger, suffering, and disaster. Of 
those days of grim fortitude and final victory we have only 
fragmentary accounts. It is therefore not easy to form an 
idea that will do justice to the probable reality. 



CHAPTER VII 

A Time of Peace 

The annals of Pendleton fall into three groupings. The 
first is the Pioneer Period, closing with the organization of 
the county in 1788. The second is the Middle Period, contin- 
uing to the close of the War of 1861. The third is the Ke- 
cent Period, beginning in 1865 and continuing into our own 
time. The first of these periods has three natural subdivi- 
sions. The opening sub-period runs from the close of 1747 to 
the close of 1758; the second runs from the opening of 1759 
to the organization of Rockingham in 1778: the third in- 
cludes the next ten years, during which time this region was 
a part of Rockingham. 

The first stage of the Pioneer Period is brief yet vivid. It 
marks little more than the gaining of a foothold on the new 
soil. It is the story of a pair of weak settlements in a re- 
mote corner of a huge county. But for the fact that it tells 
of the actual beginnings of these settlements, and but for 
the further fact that it tells of frontier war, its annals might 
seem rather commonplace. Yet the two considerations we 
have named make the story one of interest and color. 

The second stage, which we now take up, is one of peace 
except for a not quite vanished warcloud at the beginning 
and a risen warcloud at the close. But within the county 
these disturbances were not deeply felt. Population rapidly 
increased and became more diffused over the region. Land 
values rose and highways were extended. The church and 
the schoolhouse made their appearance. A local civil organ- 
ization took form, and the area embraced in the future county 
began to assume individuality. Natural conditions pointed 
unerringly to a separate administrative organization. 

The shock caused by the ravaging of the infant settle- 
ments on the South Branch and the South Fork was rendered 
less heavy by the fall in the very same year of Fort Du- 
quesne. This post was the keystone of the French power 
west of the AUeghanies. When it fell the French resistance 
was utterly broken, and as a natural consequence the back- 
bone of the Indian resistance was broken. There was now 
a correct feeling that the Indian peril was practically a thing 
of the past, so far as the country east of the Alleghany 
divide was concerned. 

Business confidence is a good index to public feeling, and 



we need no better index to the mood of the Pendleton set* 
tiers than is found in the renewed immigration that began in 
1759, and in the land sales of 1761 and 1763. In those two 
seasons the Green syndicate alone sold 7073 acres at more 
than double ihe price paid by the pioneers of the Dyer set- 
tlement. 

The estate of Peter Moser, killed in March, 1758, was ap- 
praised June 'Zd, of the same year, only two months after the 
twin disasters of Upper Tract and Fort Seybert. The admin- 
istrator was Michael Mallow, and the valuation was fixed at 
$366.24. In 1761 we find mention of the ''sail bill" of the 
George Moser estate. The executors in this mstance were 
Elizabeth Moser, Daniel Smith and Philip Harper. 

The will of Roger Dyer was proved by William Gibson. 
He left his homestead to his son James, his tract of 427 acres 
near Mooretield to his daughter Hannah Keister, and a be- 
quest of $66.67 to his grandson Roger Dyer. His wife Han- 
nah was named as executor. An inventory, taken August 
14, 1759, shows an estate of $2099.71, inclusive of $82 30 in 
gold coin and $140 in other cash. There were several notes 
and bonds held against various settlers and other persons. 
The public sale, which took place the same year, resulted in 
the proceeds of $364.04. The estate of William Dyer was 
$713.03. What these amounts would signify in our day we may 
better judge when we find a mare and colt selling for $10, a 
cow for $7.58, a heifer and calf for $6. 75, an axe for 54 cents, 
and a spade for 58 cents. 

Reference has been made to the sales of land by Robert 
Green and his associates. The parcels conveyed were 30 in 
number, and were situated in all three of the leading valleys. 
The aggregate price, no mention being entered in two of the 
transactions, was $2942.27. The average price per acre was 
44 cents, and the maximum was $1.15. The last named fig- 
ure looks cheap enough to us now, yet at that time it would 
not strike one as particularly low, when the rawness of the 
country is taken into account and also the difference in the 
purchasing power of a given sum of money. Nine settlers 
on the South Fork were granted deeds on the same day in 
May, 1761. Four others secured deeds on a single day in 
May two years later. As some of these persons had already 
been here several years without any recorded locations, they 
appear to have lived on the Green surveys, either as squat- 
ters or as tenants at will. There is some appearance that the 
purchasing was done to quiet the title. 

Immigration was now quite active, and was directed most 
heavily into the South Branch ani North Fork valleys, owing 
to the early colonization of the ISouth Fork and the meager 



64 

supply of good land along that stream. Between 1761 and 
1767 we find Ludwig Wagoner and Gabriel Pickens located 
near Fort Seybert. Postle Hoover was below Brandywine 
and Sebastian Hoover was above. Jonas Pickle was at the 
mouth of Brushy Fork and near him was Michael Wilfong. 
Robert Davis, who married the widow of Peter Hawes, was 
living on a purchase from Matthew Patton. 

On the South Branch the names are more numerous. The 
Haigler, Harpole, and Wise families settled near the north 
line of the county. John Poage, an active and influential 
citizen, was at Upper Tract and owned land on the Black- 
thorn. Paul Shaver was a neighbor to Mallow. A little 
higher up the river were Ebern-.an and Vaneman. Still fur- 
ther up were George Hammer and George Coplinger. Near 
by on Trout Run was Jacob Harper, and at the mouth of the 
same tributary was the Patterson family. On Friend's Run 
were Richardson, Power, Hornbarrier, and Cassell. A little 
above the site of Franklin was Henry Peninger. At the 
mouth of Thorn Ulrich Conrad had built a mill in 1766, or 
very soon afterward. Still higher up the river were Leonard 
Simmons and Matthew Harper. Gabriel Kile was well up 
the Blackthorn. 

Turning to the North Fork we find the Scotts and Cun- 
ninghams joined by Justus Hinkle, Moses Ellsworth, John 
Davis, and probably the Teter brothers. From the mouth of 
Seneca downward the partners Daniel Harrison and Joseph 
Skidmore had picked out a dozen of choice tracts, embracing 
nearly a thousand acres. 

During the ten years closing with 1777, we find Jacob 
Dickenson below Brandywine and George Puffenbarger on 
Brushy Fork. On the South Branch we notice Henry Fleisher 
at the present county line. On Dry Run was Henry Buzzard. 
On the Blackthorn were Christopher Eye and George Sum- 
wait. George and Francis Evick had come to the Evick 
Gap. George Dice was a neighbor to them, and Jacob Con- 
rad and George Kile were below the Ruddle postofRce. On 
the North Fork we now find the Bennetts above and Nelsons 
below the mouth of Dry Run. William Gragg is on the pla- 
teau between the Mouth of Seneca and Roaring Creek. Near 
him is Andrew Johnson and below the Seneca is Daniel 
Mouse. Mosee Thompson is elsewhere on the river. 

Gristmills and blacksmith shops were multiplying, and the 
settlements were assuming a degree of stability. In 1769 
Michael Propst conveyed a plot of ground for the erection of 
a Lutheran church, and what seems the earliest schoolhouse 
made its appearance on the land of Robert Davis. 

The earliest mention of local public officials of a regular na- 



66 

ture is in 1756 when William Dyer and Michael Propst were 
appointed road overseers in place of William Hevener. Later 
on we find Mark Swadley and Henry Stone acting in the 
same capacity. The first mention of an authorized road on 
the North Fork is in 1767, when Michael Eberman, Philip 
Harpole and Andrew Johnson were ordered to view a road 
from Joseph Bennett's to the mouth of the North Fork. 
About this time Jonas Friend and Henry Peninger were con- 
stables, and Matthew Patton and John Skidmore were cap- 
tains of militia, the date of Skidmore's commission be- 
ing August 19, 1767. But down to 1764 at least, we do not 
notice that any Pendletonian seems to have been drawn for 
the grand jury of 24 members. 

These years of peace and development were interrupted in 
1774. There now broke out that strife with the red man 
which is known as the Dunmore war. The period of quiet 
had greatly broadened the belt of settlement in and beyond 
the Alleghanies, and Pendleton was much more populous 
than in 1758. A damaging inroad by the Indians was there- 
fore scarcely possible. Augusta raised 400 men for the army 
under General Andrew Lewis, with which he fought and won 
the great battle of Point Pleasant. In one of the Augusta 
companies it is said every man was at least six feet in height. 
Pendleton men formed a portion of the Augusta contingent, 
and Captain John Skidmore was wounded at Point Pleasant. 

We now devote a little space to the opening of the Revolu- 
tionary period. 

The people of the thirteen colonies were overwhelmingly of 
British descent. They were proud of their ancestry, and so 
long as their liberties were respected they were not inclined 
to break the tie that linked them to England. This tie they 
regarded as little more than nominal. They willingly acknowl- 
edged their allegiance to the king of England, but did not 
freely recognize the authority of any lawmaking body except 
their own legislatures. They did not see why the statutes 
under which they lived should be made or passed upon by a 
legislative body representing only the British people. They 
were suspicious of every act of Parliament which included 
them in its provisions, but so long as no particular harm was 
done to their rights they remained quiet. 

When the ignorant, stubborn George III became king and 
tried not only to rule as an autocrat but to control Parlia- 
ment by bribery, then it was that the Americans were 
thrown into a ferment. His attempt to make them pay 
taxes in which they had no say drove them into armed re- 
sistance. If the claim of the king were conceded, there was 



16 

no tellinsr what else it might lead to. It had all along beeq 
expected of them that they would keep out of manufactur- 
ing, trade only with England, and be content with exchang- 
ing the products of their fields for the products of her work- 
shops. But the colonies were rapidly growing in population 
and wealth, and this shackling of industry was becoming in- 
tolerable. 

The War of the Revolution was fought by the Americans 
to gain commercial freedom and to maintain their rights as 
iBritish subjects. These claims did not necessarily lead to in- 
dependence. Independence was asserted and accomplished 
because the king was too blind and obstinate to recognize the 
rights of the Americans to the full exercise of the same privi- 
leges the British citizen possessed. Canada, Australia and 
South Africa remam British because their home government 
has learned wisdom from the lesson of 1783. 

As the quarrel developed, the Americans were generally 
agreed that the British government was overleaping its pow- 
ers. They were not so fully agreed as to the expediency of 
political separation. Wealth is timid and conservative. The 
well-to-do merchants, professional men, and large landhold- 
ers were to a great extent unfriendly to independence. Ii is 
estimated that a third of the American people were of this 
opinion. Such men were styled tories and their opponents 
were called patriots. In New York and Pennsylvania the 
tories were as numerous as the patriots. In South Carolina 
and Georgia they were more numerous. In the other colo- 
nies the patriots were clearly in the lead. The American 
climate became too warm for the tories, and during the Rev- 
olution or at its close 200,000 of them went into exile. 

The most unanimous of the Americans were the Scotch- 
Irish on the frontier. They stood by the cause of American 
independence almost to a man. It was they that Washing- 
ton had in mind when he said that as a last resort he would 
retire to the mountains of West Augusta and find in its men 
a force that "would lift up our bleeding country and set her 
free." By West Augusta he referred to the Distiict of West 
Augusta in its original boundaries as described in a previous 
chapter. 

The English and Germans are of the same general origin, 
and the German immigrants in America could not feel that 
they were under a very alien rule. The king of England was 
also king of Hanover, a country of Germany. He was in 
fact the grandson of a German-born and German-speaking 
monarch. Though the Germans have had many wars, they 
have not in modern times been a truly militant nation. They 
have fought from necessity and not from glory. The Amer- 



ican Germans could not forget that for a century their father- 
land had been most cruelly wasted by a rapid succession of 
civil, foreign and religious wars. It had lost three-fourths 
of its population and had been set back for two hundred 
years. It is therefore not to be wondered at that as British- 
American citizens these peace-loving people would sooner put 
up with injustice than go to arms. Being also clannish, un- 
familiar with the English tongue, and living much to theni- 
selves, the quarrel did not strike them so forcibly as it did 
the Americans of British ancestry. So while many of the Ger- 
mans did good service in the American army, many others 
were tories. 

We have gone into this discussion to explain why Pendle- 
ton though an inland region was divided in its sympathies. 
All the Scotch- Irish and a great share of the English element 
stiffly upheld the American cause. A few of the English, 
some of the Highland Scotch, and many of the Germans took 
the tory side. 

Pendleton was at this time a part of Augusta, and Augusta 
had been established by the Scotch-Irish and was dominated by 
them. The temper of its people will appear in the instruc- 
tions drawn up at Staunton, February 22, 1775, and given to 
the delegates to the House of Burgesses. They read as 
follows : 

"The people of Aug^usta are impressed with just sentiments of loyalty 
to his majesty. King George, whose title to the crown of Great Britain 
rests on no other foundation than the liberty of all his subjects. We 
have respect for the parent state, which respect is founded on religion, 
on law, and on the genuine principles of the British constitution. On 
these principles do we earnestly desire to see harmony and good under- 
standing restored between Great Britain and America. Many of us and 
our forefathers left our native land and explored this once savage wilder- 
ness to enjoy the free exercise of the rights of conscience and of human 
nature. These rights we are fully resolved with our lives and fortunes 
inviolably to preserve; nor will we surrender such inestimable blessings, 
the purchase of toil and danger, to any ministry, to any parliament, or 
any body of men by whom we are not represented, and in whom we are 
not represented, and in whose decisions, therefore, we have no voice. We 
ar« determined to maintain unimpaired that liberty which is the gift of 
Heaven to the subjects of Britain's empire, and will most cordially join 
our countrymen in such measures as may be necessary to secure and per- 
petuate the ancient, just, and legal rights of this colony and all British 
subjects." 

The above paper, drawn up in a remote frontier county, 
Bhpws that the f ramers knew how to use thier mother tongue 



68 

with clearness and force. It reveals a profound sense of the 
justice of their claims, and it breathes a resolution to uphold 
them to the bitter end. Incidentally it recognizes that the 
Americans and British are not one in nationality. 

A memorial from the county committee, presented to the 
state convention, May 16, 1776, is thus mentioned by the 
latter : 

"A representation from the committee of the county of Augusta was 
presented to the Convention and read, setting forth the present unhappy 
condition of the country, and from the ministerial measures of revenge 
now pursuing, representing the necessity of making a confederacy of the 
United States, the most perfect, independent, and lasting, and of framing 
an equal, free and liberal government, that may bear the trial of all future 
ages." 

This memorial is said by Hugh J. Grigsby to be the first 
expression of the policy of establishing an independent 
state government and permanent confederation of states 
which the parliamentary journals of America contain. It is 
worthy of a most careful reading by every class in American 
history. 

It is a natural consequence that the men who could draw 
up such papers as these should forward a shipment of 
137 barrels of flour from Augusta in 1774 for the use of the 
people of Boston. The savage iniquity of the Boston Port Bill, 
a measure of Parliament, had put an end to the commerce of 
the city and reduced its people to straits. 

It is hardly necessary to add that the Augustans backed up 
their words with bullets. They served very numerously in 
the American army, but owing to the scantiness of the pre- 
served records we have only a very partial knowledge as to 
the names of the Augusta men who fought on the American 
side. As to the men who went out from Pendleton our in- 
formation is therefore fragmentary. But Augusta men 
helped to win the brilliant victories of Stony Point, and the 
Cowpens. Augusta volunteers under Captain Tate marched to 
the support of General Greene in 1781 and took part in the 
battle of Guilford. There the Virginia militia fought so 
nobly that Greene said he wished he had known beforehand 
how well they were going to acquit themselves. He was ex- 
cusable for his previous distrust, since the American militia 
had often behaved very badly in battle. But at Guilford the 
Virginia riflemen did their part in inflicting upon Cornwallis 
what was in reality a crushing defeat. He lost a third of his 
men, and had to get out of North Carolina in hot haste. This 
result paved the way for his final capture at Yorktown. Sev- 
eral of Tate's company were killed in the battle of Guilford. 



I 



69 

The companies raised in Augusta were expected to consist 
of expert riflemen. Each man was to "furnish himself with 
a good rifle, if to be had, otherwise with a tomahawk, com- 
mon firelock, bayonet, pouch or cartouch box, and three 
charges of powder and ball." On affidavit that the rifleman 
could not supply himself as above, he was to be supplied at 
public expense. For furnishing his equipment he was al- 
lowed a rental of one pound ($3 33) a year. His daily pay 
was to be 21 cents. Out of this was an allowance for 
"hunting shirt, pair of leggings, and binding for his hat." 

Of the six regiments called for by Virginia in 1775, one 
was to be of Germans from the Valley of Virginia and from 
the colony in Culpeper. 



CHAPTER VIII 
Pendleton Under Rockingham 

Because of its vast extent in the first place, Augusta has 
truly been a mother of counties. The spread of population 
and the increasing inconvenience of attending court caused 
one county after another to be lopped off. In 1777 Rocking- 
ham was created, and its first court met April 17, 1778, at 
the house of Daniel Smith, two miles north from where Har- 
risonburg now stands. The town itself did not begin its ex- 
istence until two years later. It was named after the Har- 
risons, a prominent family of the early days. 

John Smith, father of Daniel, came from England as an 
officer in the French and Indian war. He was compelled to 
surrender a fort at Pattonsburg in Botetourt county. His 
French and Indian captors being angered that he had held 
them off with a very weak force, they took him to Point 
Pleasant, treated him with harshness, and made him run the 
gauntlet. He was passed on to New Orleans and taken to 
Paris. Here he showed a copy of the terms of surrender. 
He was noiV released, treated with respect, and at London 
was given quite an ovation. He married a lady of Holland, 
returned to .\merica, and settled in Rockingham. He wished 
to serve in fae American army and was indignant when he 
was adjudged too old. However, he had eight sons in the 
service of his adopted country, Abraham being another of 
these. Daniel Smith, a son of Daniel, became an eminent 
jurist. 

The new county was defined as being all of Augusta east 
of a line "to be^in at the South Mountain, and running thence 
by Banjamin Yardley's plantation so as to strike the North 
River below James Bird's house; thence up the said river to 
the mouth of Naked Creek, thence leaving the river a direct 
course so as to cross the said river at the mouth of Cunning- 
ham's Branch in the upper end of Silas W *s land to the 

foot of the North Mountain: thence 55 degrees west to the 
Alleghany Mountain and with the same to the line of Hamp- 
shire." 

It will be remembered that the Fairfax line, passing near 
Petersburg and Moorefield, was at first the boundary between 
Frederick and Augusta. In 1753 the western part of Fred- 
erick became the county of Hampshire. When Rockingham 
was created, the boundary line between Hampshire and the 
new county was moved southward nearly to the present po- 



sition of the north h'ne of Pendleton. Its definition in the 
legislative act reads thus : * 'beginning at the north side of 
the North Mountain, opposite to the upper end of Sweedland 
Hill and running a direct course so as to strike the mouth of 
Seneca Creek, and the same course to be continued to the 
Alleghany Mountain; thence along the said mountain to the 
line of Hampshire." 

It was not quite all of Pendleton that formed a part of 
Rockingham. A strip along the southern border was still a 
part of Augusta, and a fringe on the opposite side was a part 
of Hampshire. 

Of the men designated to comprise the first court of Rock- 
ingham at least four were Pendletonians; John Skidmore, 
Robert Davis, James Dyer, and Isaac Hinkle. Skidmore and 
Davis were not present, being probably with the army. 
Thomas Lewis, previously surveyor of Augusta, became the 
first surveyor of Rockingham. The population appears to 
have been rather less than 5000, about a fourth being in the 
Pendleton section. There was neither a tavern nor a wagon in 
the new county. The act creating Rockmgham provided that 
its voters should elect May 1, 1778, twelve '*ableand discreet 
persons" to form a vestry. 

America was now in the midst of the Revolution, and the 
infant county had at once to deal with the grave problems in- 
terwoven with the questions of enlistment and finance. 

In October, 1778, some counties had not raised the quota of 
soldiers required by an act of the preceding year. The state 
now called for 2216 men for the Continental service. Each 
soldier was to have a bounty of $8C0 if enlit-tirg for eighteen 
months, and $400 if enlisting for three jears. He was al^o to 
receive clothing and a Continental land bounty. In May, 
1779, 10 battalions of 500 men each were ordered, a bounty of 
$50 being ofi"ered. Two of these battalions were for service on 
the frontier. In October, 1780, the quota for Kockinpham was 
49 men out of a levy of 8000. The same Act of Assembly 
offered a bounty of $8000 for an enlistmerjt of three years, 
and $12 000 for an enlistment during the continuance of the 
war. The man serving to the close was to have his choice of 
these two additional rewards : either a "healthy, sound negro 
between the ages of ten and thirty years," or $200 in coin and 
800 acres of land. Whether any Pendletonian became priv- 
ileged to choose between a reward of living darkness or solid 
ground and jingling cash, we are not informed. In May, 
1781. a bounty of $10,000 was promised, to be paid when the 
solflier was sworn in. 

Six months later the army of CornwalUs was added to the 
1€00 prisoners the state was feeding at Winchester, and the 



long war was practically at an end. It had never been popu- 
lar with the English people, and even before the surrender 
at Yorktown William Pitt, speaking in the British Parlia- 
ment, had pronounced the struggle the "most accursed, 
wicked, barbarous, cruel, unnatural, unjust, and diabolical 
of wars." 

The reader has noticed the seemingly enormous bounties 
offered toward the close of hostilities. Other transactions 
were on a like footing. In 1781 the poll tax was $40, and in 
1781 a man taking his dinner at an ordinary could be charged 
the stunning price of $30, when perhaps he had eaten noth- 
ing more luxurious than corn pone, bacon, potatoes, and 
sauerkraut, washed down with a cup of herb tea and a mug 
of "cyder." 

But such prices shrivel like a bursted balloon when we re- 
flect that they were based on the paper currency issued in 
liberal amount by a Congress having an almost childlike ig- 
norance of financial science. The ratio between com and 
paper became one to forty in 1780, and did not stop 
even there, although the penalty for counterfeiting certifi- 
cates had been made death without benefit of clergy. A 
month after the surrender of Cornwallis, the legislature 
ordered paper money to be turned into the treasury by the 
first of October of the following year. "Worthless as a 
Continental bill" became a byword for many a year. 

The county was hard put to raise enough revenue for the 
public needs. In 1779 something had to be done for the 
families of indigent soldiers. The tax on a conveyance of 
land was $3.33. In 1781 and 1782 the sheriff was ordered to 
collect a tax of one shilling on every glass window. A tax 
of two per cent in specie was levied on all property. Yet it 
was permitted to make payment in tobacco, hemp, bacon, 
flour or deerskin. 

As to the royalism in the Pendleton section of Rockingham, 
the recorded information gives only a partial glimpse, and for 
the rest of the story we have to depend on the recollections 
that have come down to us through the space of a hundred 
and thirty years. The trouble was evidently most acute in 
the later years of the war. The American cause was then 
hanging in the balance, taxation, as we have seen was very 
high, and very hard to meet, and the depreciated paper cur- 
rency was causing great hardship. The disaffection in 
Pendleton took the form of an armed resistance that fell 
within the verge of domestic war. There were petty raids 
by the tories, but there would seem to have been little blood- 
shed. The only loss of life that we locate was the killing of 
Sebastian Hoover by a settler from Brushy Fork. The Vir- 



0$ 

ginia law of 1781 declared the man civilly dead who opposed 
by force the statute calling- out the men to the public de- 
fense. The disaffected person might be exiled, and if he re- 
turned he could be executed without benefit of clergy. 
Free male inhabitants had to swear allegiance to the state 
through commissioners appointed by the county court. 

In Hampshire was John Claypole, a Scotchman, who had a 
band of GO to 70 men. They resisted the payment of taxes, 
and at their meetings they drank toasts to the health of the 
king and damnation to Congress. General Daniel Morgan, 
the hero of the Cowpens, was sent against them in the summer 
of 1781, and smothered the insurrection in a few days. The 
tories were pardoned, Claypole appealing for clemency and 
pleading ignorance of the real situation. There was no fight- 
ing, although one toty was accidentally shot. 

Claypole had followers on the South Fork in Pendleton. 
One of these at Fort Seybert, who claimed his oath of al- 
legiance was not binding, was taken to Patton's still- tub. He 
was doused three times in it before his German obstinacy 
was sufficiently soaked out to permit him to hurrah for 
Washington. This style of baptism does not seem to have 
been administered by Morgan's men. who scarcely came this 
far up the river. It was perhaps at the same time that a 
party of tories, pursued through Sweedland valley, were no- 
ticed to throw the corn pone out of their haversacks, so as to 
make better time with their feet. 

The other center of disturbance was in the south and south- 
west of the county, where its memory lingers in the name of 
Tory Camp Run, Randolph county. Here Uriah Grady headed 
a band of tory refugees. The leader in this quarter was one 
William Ward. There were two men of this name, an older 
and a younger, the latter being perhaps no more than a boy 
at the time of the Revolution. The elder William Ward was 
a South Carolinian and is first mentioned in 17.^)3. In 1763 
he was a road surveyor, and in 1774 he was a soldier in the 
Dunmore war. In 1765 he was under sheriff of Augusta. In 
1781 he was living on the Blackthorn. For "tumult and se- 
dition words" he was bound over by the court of Rocking- 
ham in the sum of 1000 pounds, Andrew Erwin being his 
surety. The next year (1780) he was delivered up by Erwin 
and Ralph Loftus, another surety, was given a jury trial, 
fined 100 pounds, and given twenty-four hours in jail. The 
records at Staunton say that he was found guilty of treason 
in Augusta and sent to the capital for trial. Erwin was him- 
self indicted for "propagating some news tending to raise 
tumult and sedition in thestatp." 

John Davis, apparently a resident of the North Fork, was 



adjudged guilty of treason by the Rockingham court and 
sent up to the General Court. His bondsmen were Seraiah 
Stratton, William Gragg, and James Rogers. In 1779 Henry 
Peninger was indicted for "speaking disrespectful and dis- 
graceful words of the Congress and words leading to the de- 
preciation of the Continental currency." A true bill was re- 
turned against him. His bond was fixed at 5000 pounds, and 
those of his sureties, Sebastian Hoover and Henry Stone, 
were each of half that amount. Peninger informed on one 
Gerard, but he himself did not appear for trial. 

One Hull was a lieutenant of Ward's, and Robert Davis 
seems to have been particularly obnoxious to the tories. Vis- 
its with hostile intent were sometimes made to his vicinity, 
but an Eckard woman from Brushy Fork usually gave the 
settlement a forewarning. On one occasion, believing Davis 
home on furlough, the band came down to seize him, and 
in their disappointed vexation Hall called Mrs. Davis a 
damned liar. Her son John, a boy of about fourteen years, 
took aim at Hull, unobserved by the latter, but the mother in- 
terfered to prevent a tragedy and a burned home. The fac- 
tional strife was ended by a conference between Davis and 
Ward held near the site of the schoolhouse. The principals 
were unarmed, but a neighbor of Davis posted himself near 
to STuard against treachery. 

The capture of Cornwallis in the fall of 1781 made it highly 
advisable for the tories to accept the situation. It would 
seem that the episode was passed over lightly. At all events 
we find the former tories remaining on the ground, acting as 
good citizens, and holding positions of trust. 

In 1782 a list of claims for the furnishing of military sup- 
plies came before the Rockingham court for settlement. The 
claims were very numerous, though of small individual value. 
Many of them were from Pendleton. For registering these 
claims Henry Erwin was allowed 100 pounds ($333.33), a 
good salary for that day. 

In 1781 took place what seems the last Indian raid into this 
county. A party of redskins, led by Tim Dahmer, a white 
renegade, came by the Seneca trail to the house of William 
Gragg, who lived on the highland a mile east of Onego. Dah- 
mer had lived with the Graggs, and held a grudge against a 
daughter of the family. Gragg was away from the house 
getting a supply of firewood, and seeing Indians at the 
house he kept out of danger. His mother, a feeble old lady, 
and with whom Dahmer had been on good terms, was taken 
out into the yard in her chair. The wife was also unharmed, 
but the daughter was scalped and the house set on fire, after 
which the renegade and his helpers made a prudent retreat 



65 

The girl was taken up the river, probably to the house of 
Philip Harper, but died of her injuries. 

There was now a long period of domestic peace, broken 
only by the incident of the Whiskey Insurrection of 1794. At 
least one company of Pendleton militia— under Captain James 
Patterson— formed a part of the army of Governor Henry 
Lee that marched to the Redstone district of Pennsylvania, 
the scene of trouble. At a Pendleton court martial sitting 
the same year, it was ordered that the names of the officers 
and privates who marched from this county to Redstone be 
recorded. If this was done the list does not seem to be in 
existence. A fine of $36 was imposed upon each of the 11 
men who avoided going. In one instance the fine was re- 
mitted. 

In 1782 there were three militia districts. Robert Davis 
commanded the company on the South Fork. Garvin Ham- 
ilton, the company on the South Branch, and Andrew John- 
son was captain of the North Fork company. John Skidmore 
was recommended as major the same year the county was or- 
ganized, but he was not commissioned. Other militia officers of 
the period were the following: Captains, Roger Dyer and 
Michael Cowger; Lieutenants, Frederick Keister and John 
Morral: ensigns, John Skidmore, James Skidmore, and Jacob 
Hevener. 

Among the civil officers we find Isaac Hinkle, a deputy 
sheriff in 1780, and Robert Davis, commissioned sheriff, 
October 30, 1786. As constables we find James Davis, George 
Kile, George Mallow. Jacob Eberman, Samuel Skidmore, and 
Lewis Waggoner. Thirty road overseers were appointed in 
1778. Of those serving in Pendleton during the ten year 
period— 1778-88— we have the names of George Mallow, Jacob 
Eberman, Samuel Skidmore, Lewis Waggoner, and James 
Davis. In 1779 Joseph Skidmore had charge of the roads of 
the middle valley to the line of Hampshire. The next year 
George Kile had the territory from the Coplinger ford to the 
Hampshire line, and George Coplinger had the roads from 
the same ford to the Augusta line. In 1786, Pendleton, as 
the portion of Rockingham "west of North Mountain," was 
made the fourth overseer of the poor district, and Robert 
Davis was appointed to superintend the election of the neces- 
sary official. 

The bounty of wolves at this time was $6.25, and there is 
mention of scalps being presented by Roger Dyer, Burton 
Blizzard, and Daniel and Frederick Propst. 

Our narrative now brings us to the establishment of Pen- 
dleton county. 

P C H 6 



CHAPTER IX 
Early Laws, Customs, and Usages 

Before taking up the organization of our county it will be 
a good use of our time to look over the general features of 
the period we are now in the midst of. This survey will 
cover the lifetime of a person born when the settlement act- 
ually began, and reaching in 1818 the full natural term of 
seventy years. Yet very much will remain true until the 
close of our Middle Period in 1865. While our survey will 
have very particular reference to this county, it will very 
largely be true of Virerinia in general. It will open when the 
state was yet a British colony, and it will follow many of the 
changes which have since taken place. All this is a great 
deal of ground to cover, and our general look must necessarily 
be brief. 

The first capital of Virginia was as a matter of convenience 
located in the earlier settled section. It remained at Williams- 
burg until April 30, 1780. when it was moved to Richmond to 
keep it nearer the center of population. Before the Revolu- 
tion there was a legislative assembly as there is now, and 
with much the same powers. At the head of the state was 
a governor appointed by the sovereign of Er gland. He was 
the proxy of the British king; his representative and spokes- 
man. He lived in great style, so as to befit the aristocratic 
ideas of that time, but his salary was paid by the colony. He 
was looked up to, yet so far as being the king's proxy he was 
an ornamental figure head and expected to know his own 
place. Virginia kept her purse-strings in her own hands, 
and if he sought to govern after the royal ideas of Europe he 
was liable to find himself in hot water. 

From our distance of time the American is inclined to sup- 
pose that in cutting loose from England his country threw off 
one suit of clothes and stepped at once into a brand new suit 
cut to an entirely different style. There was nothing of that 
sort. The same suit was dusted, some of the wrinkles pressed 
out, and then it was put on again. The General Assembly 
was nothing more than the House of Burgesses under a new 
name. The Virginia Constitution of 1776 was only a restate- 
ment of the source of Virginia law, so that it might conform 
to the fact of separation from England. The king's name 
was of course left out where it had been used in proclama- 
tions and official forms. Otherwise Virginia went on living 



under very much the same laws and institutions. The new 
governors lived in style and were looked up to. They were 
elected by the Assembly and not by the people There was 
a Governor's Council of eight members, according to the 
former custom. The native governor appointed justices and 
signed land patents, just as the king had been doing through 
his proxy, the royal governor. The coming in of the new or- 
der of things is a good illustration of the fact that men are 
willing to progress by steps but are very slow to progress by 
jumps. 

From 1776 to 1829 each county chose by popular vote two 
delegates to the lower house of the state legislature. A sen- 
ator was likewise chosen at the same time, Augusta, Rocking- 
ham, and Shenandoah forming in ]778 one senatorial district. 
Beginning with 1788, the voters also elected a representative to 
the Federal Congress. But the exercise of the right to vote 
went very little farther. The government of Viiginia was 
very centralized. The citizens of a county had no direct say 
in the choice of their local officials. When a new county was 
organized, the governor commissioned a number of men to act 
as "worshipful justices." These men were not only justices 
of the peace, but they were also a board of county commission- 
ers. They held office for life, except that the governor might 
remove a justice for cause. Vacancies were filled or the 
court enlarged by new men recommended to the governor by 
the court. The county court was therefore self-perpetuating. 
It was a close corporation, and this feature remained in vogue 
until 1852. From its own body the court recommended a 
senior justice to act as sheriff, and he was commissioned by 
the governor, becoming a justice once more when his term 
was out. The clerk of the court, the jailer, and the con- 
stables were appointed by the court. 

The Virginia Bill of Rights of 1776 laid down the doctrine 
that "magistrates are the trustees and servants of the 
people." But in practice the structure of society remained 
as aristocratic as it was before. The justices were supposed 
to be chosen from that small number of well-to-do and influ- 
ential citizens who alone were styled "gentlemen." The 
office often descended from father to son. It will thus be 
seen that the favored families might greatly influence the 
county to their own ends whenever they chose to be am- 
bitious or domineering. 

A century ago a man to be a voter had to own a plot of 25 
acres, including a house 12 feet by 12, or its equivalent; or 50 
acres of unimproved land; or a lot and similar house in a 
designated tov;n. Voters were exempt from arrest while go- 



ing: to or returning from the polls, one day being: allowed for 
each 20 miles. The voter mi^jht be required to take oath. 

Under the crown the governor and his council formed a 
General Court or judiciary. There were also quarterly courts 
of four or more justices. Under independence the state had 
a court of appeals of five judges, any three constituting a 
court for appellate cases. A jieneral court of ten judges met 
twice a year at Richmond, whence they were sent out by 
twos to hold district courts. Augusta, Pendleton, Rocking- 
ham and Rockbridge formed one of these circuits, the judges 
having full jurisdiction in civil and criminal causes, and or- 
iginal jurisdiction in all causes involving a consideration of 
more than 100 pounds ($333.33) . After 1819 each of the fifteen 
judges held one circuit court a year in each county of his dis- 
trict. After 1818 there was a superior court of chancery in 
each of the nine districts. 

Until 1776, a county court was opened by the reading of 
the royal commission to the justices: "Be it remembered 
(date was here given) his majesty's commission directed to 
(names of commissioned justices here given) to hear and de- 
termine all treasons, petit treasons, or mispripons thereof, 
felonies, murders, and all other offenses or crimes, was openly 
read." A single justice had jurisdiction in matters not ex- 
ceeding the value of one pound ($3.33). Each county was 
then a parish, and as such it had its vestry authorized to levy 
and assess tithes, provide a glebe and support for a minister 
of the established chuich, see to the poor, bind out appren- 
tices and any bastard liable to become a public charge. All 
persons had to pay taxes imposed by the vestry, and also at- 
tend services at least once in two months or pay a fine. Until 
1776, therefore, the annals of Augusta contain frequent men- 
tion of the church wardens, as the members of the vestry 
were called. The doing away of the English custom of sup- 
porting a particular church at public expense also did away 
with the other English custom of local government through 
that church. By an Act of 1788, the county court was "for 
the trial of all presentments and criminal prosecutions, suits 
at common law and in chancery, where the sum exceeds five 
pounds ($16 67), or 500 pounds of tobacco, depending therein 
and continue for the space of six days unless the busi- 
ness be sooner determined." It had general police and pro- 
bate jurisfiiction, control of levies, of roads, actions at law, 
and suits in chancery. The justices served without pay, and 
their number was not limited by law. The greatest number 
in Pendleton present at any one term appears to have been 
nineteen. A quorum consisted of four, and some justices 
were seldom present at all. For the levy term the sheriff was 



directed to summon the attendance of all acting: members. 
One duty of the justice was to prepare the hst of titnabies. 

The grand jury of 24 members, sworn for an * inquest on 
the body of tnis county," was selected by the shentf from 
the freeholders. Constables, surveyors of roads, keepers of 
ordmaries, and owners or occupiers of mills were exempt 
from jury service. Under the crown the term of the shentf 
was two years. Afterward and until 1852, the length of term 
was rather less, dependmg on the time of the year when the 
commission was issued, tiome sheritts did not act as such 
themselves, but farmed out the office to a deputy. The sal- 
ary of the office in Pendleton was at hrst only $zO. The clerk 
of the court held his office during life or good behavior, and his 
salary was the princely sum ot $30. The jailer received $26. 

The language of the law cUngs very tenaciously to time- 
honored models. The changes since the colonial era are more 
in the direction of leaving out certain features than of modi- 
fying what is retained. The word "'hath" for instance re- 
mained in legal use long after it had disappeared from every- 
day speech. Imprisonment for debt was an absurdity not 
put aside until within the recollection of people still living. 
In the early court records, therefore, we often tind the form, 
* 'Thereupon came A. B. and undertook for the said defend- 
ant in case he be cast in this suit, he shall pay and satisfy 
the condemnation of the court, or render his body to prison 
in execution for the same, or that he, the said A. B., will do 
it for him." 

The leading purpose of a jail appeared to be that of a 
boarding house for the delinquent debtor. The poor prose- 
cutor could select his court, have free attorney and free 
writs, and costs were not exacted in the event of failure to 
win his case. The person giving a bond was until the Revo- 
lution "indebted to our Sovereign Lord the King." He was 
then "indebted to his excellency the governor of Virginia." 
But this monarchical adherence to venerable usage is an- 
other of the things that has had its day. 

The man selling a parcel of ground followed until 1776 the 
English practice of giving hrst a deed of lease and directly 
afterward a deed of release. The first was valid "from the 
day before the sale for one whole year to be completed and 
ended, yielding and paying thereior the rent of one pepper- 
corn on Lady-day next, if the same shall be lawfully de- 
manded, to the intent and purpose that by virtue of these 
presents and of the statute for transferring uses into pos- 
session, the said (A. B.) may be in actual possession of these 
premises and be thereby enabled to accept and take a grant 
and release of the possession and inheritances thereof." A 



70 

consideration of five shillings (83 cents) was paid by the pur- 
chaser. The deed of release, which was the real and effciive 
instrument, was usually dated one day later than the dted of 
lease. 

Considerable fun has been poked at the New England people 
for their stringent laws on personal conduct. But all America 
was Puritan wherever the Calvinistic faith prevailed, as among 
the Scotch-Irish, and the laws on the observance of Sunday 
were strict. Even in Cavalier Virginia a Sunday law ol 1658 
declared that **no journeys be made except in case of uigent 
necessitie, no goods be laden in boates, no shooteing in 
gunns." In 1791 a merchant of Franklin was indicted for 
"retailing goods and selling liquor by the small" on Sunday. 
About the same time two men were indicted for digging gin- 
seng, another for carrying a gun, and still another for driv- 
ing a wagon and hauling dirt. 

The offenses most numerously before the courts were as- 
sault, slander, bastardy, neglect of road supervision, the il- 
legal selling of liquor, drinking, and swearing. This list en- 
ables us to form some estimate of the nature of the times. 

In 1798 a woman of Pendleton was presented for "beating 
and keeping the sheriff off from collecting revenue." This 
was not a solitary instance, for three years later both a man 
and his wife were brought up for beating the sheriff and 
rescuing property taken by him, and in still the same year a 
deputy sheriff had a like experience. As late as 1837 a cer- 
tain laborer was sentenced to receive 33 lashes on the bare 
back for stealing a hog worth $5. At an earlier day the 
same law was made to apply to the other sex as well. In 
the Augusta records we read that a sheriff was ordered to 
punish a female thief with 39 lashes "well laid on," and to 
attend to the matter at once. For stealing a pipe worth one 
shilling a Pendleton woman in 1790 was required to give a 
bond of 40 pounds ($133.33) with two sureties. About 1774, 
one Cash, a poor prisoner, was ordered from Staunton to the 
state capital for further trial on a felonious crime. He pro- 
tested that the expense would totally luin him, and said he 
would humbly submit to such punishment as the court would 
choose to inflict, and asserted the hope that "by his future 
conduct he would convince the court and the world of his 
thorough reformation." To remind him of his pledge, the 
court let him off with a sentence of 39 lashes. In bastardy 
the female offender did not escape punishment. A redemp- 
tioness in Augusta was ordered to serve her master an ad- 
ditional year in consequence of her having an illegitimate 
child. For maiming, a not infrequent felony, the law of 
1796 permitted damages of $1000, three-fourths of this sum 



n 

to go to the injured party. There was a further penalty 
of imprisonment from two to ten years. Counterfeiting, 
another frequent offense, and easier to accomplish than at 
present, carried at one time the penalty of death without 
benefit of clergy. Later the penalty was made a fine of 
$luOO, and a term in prison of from four to fourteen years. 
In 1797 there was a suspicion that counterfeit coin was in 
circulation in this county. For swearing or getting drunk 
the penalty was a fine of five shillings for each offense, or the 
choice of ten lashes. This law was impartially carried out 
against the first clerk of court, who for "swearing two round 
oaths in open court" had to pay ten shillings ($1.67). The 
colonial laws permitted the branding of a criminal in open 
court, the jailer making with a hot iron a letter R in the palm 
of the left hand. The culprit was meanwhile to proclaim, 
"God save the commonwealth." Possibly the scorching 
enabled him to say the required words with considerable em- 
phasis. Road overseers in this county were often indicted 
for failing to keep their roads in proper condition, and for 
failing to put up "indexes." In 180 L there must have been 
a flagrant offense in one of these particulars, for the grand 
jury used this sarcastic wording : "We do present surveyor 
of road, if any there be." The penalty for Sunday work 
was twice as large as the fine for drinking or swearing. For 
hog stealing the law of 1793 was savagely severe. For the 
first offense the thief, if a free man, was to receive 35 lashes 
on the bare back, to be fined $30, and to pay the owner $8 
for each hog stolen. For the second offense he was to stand 
two hours in the pillory on a public day with his ears nailed 
fast. At the end of two hours the ears were to be cut loose. 
For the third offense the punishment was death. If the hog- 
thief were a slave the punishment was even more severe. 
Even the man buying a hog without ears was adjudged a 
thief unless he could prove property. For forgery, stealing 
a land warrant, or stealing a cask of tobacco lying on the 
highway the punishment was death. 

In the colonial period each courthouse inclosure was sup- 
posed to be equipped with pillory, stocks, whipping post, 
and perhaps also a ducking stool. The whipping post needs 
no explanation. The essential feature of the pillory was a 
pair of short planks coming together at the edge, and with 
an oval segment cut into each, so that a person's neck might 
be fitted into the opening. The stocks differed from the pil- 
lory in confining the ankles in place of the neck, and in not 
compelling the culprit to stand. Neither position was par- 
ticularly agreeable, especially if the flies were bloodthirsty 
and the spectators inclined to use their skill in flinging sticks, 



n 

pebble3, and eggs of uncertain quality. But it is not prob* 
able that this British amusement was much practiced in Vir- 
ginia. The ducking stool was a long plank, pivoteu in the 
center and furnished at one end with a chair to which the 
prisoner was contined. The purpose of the apparatus was to 
plunge the culprit into a mill-pond or river. It was a favor- 
ite punishment for a scolding woman. 

In this county the order was twice given for a whipping 
post, but it IS not certain that it was ever carried out. It 
may have been thought as at Harrisonburg that a well rooted 
tree of good size was amply sufficient. But there was a pair 
of stocks and perhaps aiso a pillory, for we read in 17y0 of 
one Peter Litile being ordered into tke stocks for ten min- 
utes for misdemeanor in court. There is no mention of a 
ducking stool, and in spite of the nearness of the river it is 
not probable that any was furnished. An Augusta court is- 
sued an order for one, but it became apparent that there was 
not enough water within a half mile lo give a proper degree 
of wetness to a gimlet-tongued offender. 

With many otlenses punishable by death, with the nailing 
of ears to the pillory, with imprisonment for debt, and with 
whippings, it might look as though there was sufficient terror 
in tne law to keep people in the path of rectitude. Yet the 
law was violated more often than it is now. The spirit of the 
times was harsh and coarse, as is reflected in the severity of 
the laws and the frequency with which even these laws were 
broken. The familiar spectacle of pubhc punishment dulled 
the sensibilities of the people and did not reform the law- 
breaker. Yet a feeling of humanity existed then as well as 
now. It is related of a sheriff of Rockingham that in carry- 
ing out an order to flog a certain prisoner, he went into the 
delinquent's cell at the jail and administered the lashing to 
the bed, telling the culprit to howl every time he did so. It 
is to be supposed that the howls were forthcoming. 

A will, begmning *'in the name of God, amen," often con- 
tinued in a piously worded preamble, which in general may 
have reflected a religious spirit in tne will-maker. Personal 
property was parceled out among the heirs with a great deal 
of preciseness. The widow was often to have a half-bushel 
of flaxseed sowed yearly for her necessities, and various do- 
mestic arrangements were to be observed so long as the 
parties could agree. A distiller of the South Branch under 
the date of 18J5 stipulated that his widow was to have yearly 
"five gallons whiskey or appel brandy for her youse." 
The thrift of the Pendletonian is often apparent in the will- 
ing of lands situated in another county or even in another 
state. Once in a while an heir was cut off with one English 



n 

shilling, or with a bequest of "one dollar to be enjoyed by 
him and his heirs forever." Zacharian Kexroad, iSr., who 
died in 1799, wills that his son Leonard "shall maincain his 
mother with food and drink, wood and lignt, and a warm 
atove." 

Taxes were seemingly low, yet no easier to meet than they 
are today. This was particularly true of the poll-tax, the 
size of which varied considerably irom year to year, before 
the Revolution Augusta ottered a bounty on hemp, and 
many certiticates were issued therefor. These ceriincates, 
seldom for more than 20U0 pound tiber, were receivable lor 
taxes. Of Pendletonians who became entitled to these we 
find the names of Matthew Patton, Postle Hoover, James 
Patterson, Michael Propst, and George Coplinger. Taxes 
were sometimes paid in produce, in iV92 a tax of 32 cents 
was paid at Franklin in flax, and another of $3 in rabbit and 
deer skins and butter. 

Under the broad powers exercised by the county courts of 
the pioneer epoch, the records became voluminous. This was 
very true of Augusta, her Scotch- Irish people causing law- 
suits that were almost beyond count. The old recora-books 
contain very many more words to the page than those of 
our time, even with the use of the book typewriter. 'Ihe 
lines are near together, and in general the writing is neatly 
and carefully done, and the entries put down in systematic 
shape. The small letters are neaily of uniform height, and 
when a coarse-pointed quill was used there are no hairlines 
and the writing may be read with ease. But when a hne- 
pointed quill was employed, the writing becomes almost mi- 
croscopic and is tedious to make out Instead of covering his 
pages with a hurried unreadable scrawl, the copyist look 
time to write the name of the presiding judge in large, 
round, handsomely formed letters, and to begin a long entry 
with a highly ornamented initial. Indexing was done on the 
flyleaves and with extreme economy of space, eight lines 
being sometimes brought within the compass of a single 
inch. The ink was often very durable, and the writing is in 
better preservation than if steel pens had been in use. The 
acid of the ink acting on a metallic pen has a tendency to 
corrode the paper in the course of time. 

Immigration was usually in the spring and settlers came in 
bodies. The wagon being all but unknown and the roads 
were trails, the newcomer brought his belongings on a pack- 
saddle made by nailing or tying two pieces of board to a pair 
of crotched sticks cut from a young tree. The cow was made 
a pack animal as well as the horse. The tirst season was 
likely to be one of poor and unsuitable hving until there was 



74 

time for the first crop to come to the rescue. Certain men 
of influence and means were active in bringing in new people. 
James Patton, first sheriff of Augusta and also county lieu- 
tenant, is said to have crossed the ocean twenty-five times 
for this purpose. He was the cause of many redemptioners 
being brought to the Augusta settlements. 

A wedding was one of the great events of the year. It 
was an occasion of feasting and of rude, boisterous mirth. 
The company proceeded in double file from the home of the 
groom and when within a mile of the home of the bride, two 
young men gave an Indian warwhoop and rode forward at 
full speed, the one arriving first being given a bottle that had 
been made ready beforehand. On their return it was passed 
around and then came back to the victor. All were expected 
to tip the bottle, women as well as men. A big dinner at 
the bride's home followed the wedding ceremony, and 
this in turn was followed by the infare at the groom's house. 
Pewter spoons battered around the edges were used at these 
feasts, and hunting knives were unsheathed if the supply of 
table knives run short. The dancing which followed lasted 
till morning. Slighted or envious neighbors trimmed the 
manes and tails of the riding horses or tied grapevines across 
the path in front of the wedding party. As a further annoy- 
ance guns would be fired off. 

In the Revolutionary days the marriage certificate was 
presented to the justice of the peace to whom it was directed. 
He then gave authority to the minister of the parish, or par- 
ish reader, who after publishing the banns, performed the 
ceremony, kept a record and gave a certificate, the latter not 
being deposited with the county clerk. But a dispensation 
from the governor could enable a minister who was not an 
Episcopalian to perform a marriage ceremony. 

In the same year the settlement of Pendleton began "an 
act to discourage matrimony" was placed on the statute- 
book of Virginia. It fixed the governor's fee at $3.33, the 
clerk's fee at 83 cents, the minister's fee at $3.33, if the 
marriage were by license, and at 83 cents if by banns. The 
publishing of the banns cost 25 cents. By an act of 1775 the 
minister's fee was made double the former amount, but the 
old figures were restored the following > ear. These excessive 
charges had doubtless much to do with the prevalence of 
marriage by consent. At a later time any person author- 
ized to perform the marriage ceremony could demand a fee 
of one dollar. 

The recording of marriages began in 1784. As a prelimi- 
nary thf» groom was required to put up a bond of 50 pounds 
($166.67). If either groom or bride were under the age of 



75 

twenty-one, and this was very often the case, the consent of 
the parent or paients hb6 to acccn i.any the bond, the clerk 
then issuing a license. The bond was commonly written on a 
half-sheet or quarter-sheet of unruled, bluish paper. The con- 
sent of the parent was written on a narrow scrap and often 
with poor ink. The signature, if not in the form of a mark, 
and this was also very common, was usually crabbed and 
more or less difficult to make out. This scrap, not always 
unsoiled was folded into a small compass, making it look like 
a paper of ep^om salts as put up by a doctor before tablets 
and capsules had come into use. The consent was tucked in- 
side the bond. A certain on« of them has this import : 

"November the 3 da 1810 Sir pleas to grant John 

h and naly m a gal that I Rast Lisence acorting 

to Law and so doing you will a blidg yours friend Michael 
A " 

The law of 1769 increased the penalty on bastardy with a 
view of lessening the burden to the counties of illegitimate 
children supported at public charge. By an earlier la»v the 
female offender might be whipped and fined. 

Where there are children there are games, and the 
nature of their games is determined by the nature of their 
activities in after life. A prominent frontier game was that 
of throwing the tomahawk. By practice the player could 
make the blade hit the mark with the handle upward or 
downward as desired. Boys learned to imitate the sounds of 
animals. When twelve years of age or upward, the boy was 
given a gun and he began to practice shooting at a mark. The 
long-barreled flintlock was usually fired from a rest, and one 
was easily made by turning a gimlet into a tree. 

In any American frontier community it has been noticed 
that the force of its public opinion has been more effective 
in the maintenance of order than is the legal government of 
an older district. This is largely due to the sparse popula- 
tion, and to the fact that everybody is known to everybody 
else. The thief was given the choice of a jailing or a flog- 
ging and then had to clear out. A breach of contract killed 
credit. The tattling woman was listened to, but her story 
was not believed. The shirk at a "frolic" was called a "law- 
rence." The man who avoided military duty was "hated out" 
as a coward, and for a soldier to be short in his equipment was 
deemed disgraceful. A tongue-lashing once under way might 
be kept up for years. 

What the frontier itself could not supply made necessary 
the caravanning trip eastward ; first to the commercial points 
east of the Blue Ridge, and later to Staunton or Winchester. 
The journey would therefore consume several days and a sup- 



n 

ply of provisions was taken along. At nightfall the horses 
were turned loose after opening tneir bells and hobbling tbeir 
feet, other horses were somecimes left at various points to be 
used on the return. Supplies were carried by packsaddle, two 
bushels of salt (168 pounds) being considered a load. This 
amount of alum sale was worth two cows and their calves. 

Mention has been made of prices at the Dyer sale in 1759. 
That there was no particular advance by 1773 will appear by 
the sale in that year of Michael Mallow's property. 22 cattle 
sold at an average of $5 per head. 11 horses went for $271.- 
67, a silver watch for $13.33. a pair of boots for $1.50, and a 
pair of speatacies for 25 cents. There were present at this 
sale Thomas Bland, Michael Boucher, Casper Bogart, James 
Cunningham, Jacob Harper, Philip Harper, Sarah Harman, 
Mary Hetfner, Martin Judy, Eve Moser, Michael Peterson, 
and Jacob Springstone. 

A great share of the pioneers had had no schooling and could 
sign their names only with a mark. Paper was costly and a 
little was made to go a great way. Writing was done alto- 
gether with a goose or turkey quill. Ink was not sold in bot- 
tles but in the form of powder to be dissolved as wanted. 
A very fair ink was made from maple bark or pokeberr.es 
with the addition of alum and vinegar. Books were few and 
seen only in occasional homes. Many of them, including 
hymnala, were of a religious nature. Books in the German 
tongue were as frequent as those in the English. At the 
George Cophnger sale in 1773, the books were a Bible, selling 
at $1.50, a "Key of Paradise," a psalm book, and a few of 
little value not specified. At the William Davis sale in the 
same year there were mentioned "one old Bible," "Explana- 
tion of the Shorter Catechism, " * 'The Fourfold State, " ' *Bax- 
ter on the Covenant, " "Closet Devotions," one small history, 
and two small paper books. In several of the Pendleton 
homes may yet be seen a German Bible fully as large as an 
unabridged dictionary, with clear print, commentaries, and 
illustrations, and bearing date from 1763 to 1788. 

In the costume of the real frontiersman the most promi- 
nent feature was the hunting shirt. It was of blue woolen 
cloth, was open in front, lapping a foot or more when belted, 
and fell half way down the thighs. The cape was large 
enough to come over the head. The sleeves were ample. 
The edges of the garment were fringed with a raveling of 
another color. The bosom was a receptacle for provisions or 
tow. The belt tied behind held the mittens. Tne tomahawk 
was carried to the right, the scalping knife to the left. 
Breeches and leggings supplemented the hunting shirt. On 
the man's head was a fur cap with a tail or tassel drooping be- 



ft 

hind. On his feet— provided it were winter time— were moc- 
casins with a gathering seam up the heel and on the top of 
the foot. The moccasin was stuffed with deer hair or leaves. 
It came well up to the ankles and was tied with "wangs." 
The hunting shirt was retained until well toward the period 
of the civil war, as was also the fur cap. Until near the same 
period, also, the wardrobe was quite exclusively made from 
the fabrics of wool and linen that were woven on the looms 
in the farmhouses and dyed with various barks helped out 
with copperas and other mordants. The linen garments would 
shrink after a washing but would lengthen again. Unless a 
new linen shirt were well rubbed before putting on, it felt as 
though full of the spines of a chestnut burr. The apparel 
worn by both sexes was plain and durable and subject to 
little variation in style, except for the change imposed by the 
season of the year. The dresses, hoods and sunbonnets of 
the women were made without any help from the fashion 
plates in the "Delineator." Going barefoot throughout the 
warm weather was usual with all persons. 

Stoves being unknown, cooking was done before or over 
the fire, or in the bake oven. Kettles were suspended from 
a hook in the fireplace. The skillet to hold over the fire was 
long-handled, and it was an art to toss up a flapjack and 
catch it on its other side. The stone bakeoven with a smooth 
slab or an iron plate for its floor was made hot with a fire of dry 
wood. When the fiames had died away the ashes were 
swabbed out and the loaves set in with a long paddle, and the 
door of charred boards tightly closed. 

Fires were kept alive as much as possible. If the coals 
went out and it was too far to fetch live ones from a neigh- 
bor's fireplace, resort was had to fiint and steel, or to the 
priming from a flintlock rifle, tow, punk, and fat pine being 
the materials for starting a fire. 

The dietary was simpler than at present, the staff of life 
being pone, johnny cake, or mush, more often than the 
white loaf. Until gristmills were built, hard corn was 
pounded with a pestle in a hominy block, and softer corn was 
rubbed on a grater. Game meat was much in use so long as 
it remained plenty. Vegetables were fewer in variety and not 
so early as with us. During the cold season there was no 
fruit except stored apples and the various kinds of dried fruit, 
the process of airtight canning being unknown. The potpie 
was a feature of the big dinner at the frolic. Coffee and tea 
had to come from the seaport by means of wagon or pack- 
saddle, and being therefore expensive various substitutes 
were used. 

China was seen in the homes of the more prosperous set* 



n 

tiers, but pewter dishes were more common, as were like- 
wise bowls and other utensils of wood. Cedar ware was 
made with alternate red and white staves. 

The log house was wellnigh universal, and at first the logs 
were generally unhewn. Nails being made by hand from ex- 
pensive iron, pegs generally took their places. The floor was 
commonly of puncheons made very smooth with a broadaxe. 
The roof was of clapboards and weightpoles. The stairway 
was a ladder. Windows were small and few, w« oden shut- 
ters often taking the place of the small panes of glass. 
Greased paper was sometimes a substitute for glass. The 
chimney was a massive stone structure occupying a consid- 
erable part of the house, and the fireplace was so broad as to 
render it possible to sit within it at one end while a fire was 
burning at the other. A t the first the only way to make boards 
was for two men to saw them out with a whipsaw. A good 
day's work was 50 feet of lumber to each man. For a very 
long while the few sawmills were quipped only with the up 
and down blade, and the sawing was slow and uneven. In 
some of the poorer cabins and earlier schoolhouses, there was 
no floor at all, except the earth floor provided by nature. 

None of the very earliest houses remain. A few are yet 
occupied that were built within the time of Indian peril, 
as is evident from the loopholes now hidden by the weather- 
boarding. A specimen of the older type was the one stand- 
ing near Cave postoflfice, until about 1870, on the farm of 
Henry Simmons. It was two storied and built of oak and 
hickory, the round logs being notched and the ends project- 
ing. One end was built sloping with a chinking of mud and 
straw held in place by laths. This was for an additional 
protection against bullets. The fireplace was nine feet broad 
and high enough for a person to pass into without stooping. 
The poplar joists wer^ eight inches square. The planks were 
of pit-sawed poplar. Some of the windows had only a single 
light. 

In 1779 Virginia opened a land office and inaugurated a 
homestead policy. Any person could get title to unoccupied 
land at the rate of ^2 per hundred acres, the land office 
to issue a warrant authorizing the survey. The warrant was 
lodged with the chief surveyor of the county, an official who 
held his place during good behavior. The surveyor was to 
mark trees, leave no open lines, and when practicable to 
make the breadth at least one third of the length. Within 12 
months after the survey the claimant was to return to the 
general land oflfice the plat and certificate of survey. Within 
6 to 9 months thereafter, the register of the land office issued a 
deed executed on parchment. This was signed by the go v- 



79 

ernor and stamped with the seal of the state. A caveat might 
be entered against an issuance of title. No land could be 
entered if settled on for 30 years. A squatter holding pos- 
session that length of time could gain title. A foreigner 
could take land with the proviso of becoming a citizen within 
two years after returning his plat to the land office. He 
could also transfer his right to a citizen. An inclusive sur- 
vey and new grant might be authorized by the county court 
if it were desired to put two or more tracts into one, or if 
errors were discovered in the boundaries. The cost of the 
land patent, if for less than 100 acres, was $1.78. The cost 
of the warrant of survey was 75 cents. 

There were still other modes of acquiring unoccupied pub- 
lic lands. 

Building a cabin and growing a crop of grain, even if a 
small crop, entitled a man to 400 acres, and a preemption 
right to 1000 acres adjoining. The certificate therefor was 
granted by a board of three commissioners appointed by the 
governor. After lying with the board six months, and no 
caveat being hied, a patent was issued. 

The tomahawk right consisted of deadening a few trees, 
especially around the head of a spring, and cutting: the man's 
initials on a few trees along the boundary. This sort of 
claim had no actual standing in law, yet in some cases was 
bought and sold. Sometimes the title was quieted by the 
application of a hickory rod. 

The corn right gave a claim to 100 acres by inclosing and 
cultivating a single acre. The cabin right gave a claim to 
40 acres by building a log hut on a certain tract. 

However, these more liberal regulations were of no exten- 
sive advantage to this county, the best of the land having 
already passed into private ownership. 

For the better care of the public highways, the county was 
divided into road precincts, one for every militia district. 
All white males above the age of 16, except ferrymen and 
the owner of two or more slaves, were required to work the 
roads, and so were all slaves of similar age. For repair 
work, the overseer was empowered to impress help. A pub- 
lic road was supposed to be 30 feet wide and to be kept in 
repair, but the provision as to width was seldom carried out. 
An "index board" was required at every fork. For this pur- 
pose the overseer might take timber from the adjoining 
lands, although it haH to be paid for. Bridges were supposed 
to be 12 feet wide. There was a fine of $50 for felling a tree 
across a public road, or into a stream above a bridge, and 
not removing the same within 24 hours. The law was also 
very strict on the bribery of viewers. While a piece of road- 



80 

making was going on, it was a felony to accept presents or 
even "meat or drink." Until 1820, the viewer seems to have 
served without pay. He was then allowed 75 cents a day, 
although in 1830, the per diem allowance is mentioned as 50 
cents. 

Virginia was early covered by a militia organization. 
Aside from the persons specially exempt or physically dis- 
qualified, all free white males and all apprentices between 
the ages of 16 and 50 were enlisted in companies of from 32 
to 68 men. They were required to assemble one day in every 
two weeks— excepting the three winter months— at the hour 
of ten in the morning, and give two hours to regimental 
muster. Millers and ferrymen were exempt from militia 
duty but not from actual service. Each private had to pro- 
vide rifle,— or tomahawk, firelock, and bayonet,— cartouch 
box, three charges of powder and ball, and keep on hand one 
pound of powder and four of lead in reserve. 

Under American statehood the militia of Virginia were 
grouped into five divisions and 18 brigades, Hardy, Hamp- 
shire, and Pendleton constituting one brigade territory. To 
each division were attached one regiment of cavalry and one of 
artillery. The regiment, consisting of at least 400 men and 
commanded by a colonel, was divided into two battalions, one 
commanded by the lieutenant colonel and one by the major. 
Each battalion had a stand of colors. In each company were 
one captain, two first lieutenants, two second lieutenants, 
five sergeants, and six corporals. The ensign, a commis- 
sioned officer having charge of the colors and ranking below 
the first lieutenant, was dispensed with after the war of 
1812. On the staff of the colonel were one quartermaster, 
one paymaster, one surgeon, one surgeon's mate, one adju- 
tant with the rank of captain, one sergeant major, one quar- 
termaster sergeant, two principal musicians, and drum and 
fife majors. To each company was one drum and also a fife 
or bugle. Officers received their commissions through recom- 
mendation to the governor from the county court. It would 
seem, however, that the captains and lieutenants were pri- 
marily chosen by the privates. A rigid anti-duelling oath 
was exacted of the officers. The best men to be found were 
appointed to office under the militia system. A position 
therein was considered very honorable and as a stepping 
stone to something higher. 

Company musters took place in April and October, battal- 
ion musters in October or November, and regimental musters 
in April or May. 

Non-attendance at muster led to a fine usually of 75 cents, 
and this was turned over to the sheriff for collection. Fines 



ft 

were numerous, whether or not they were generally collected. 
Excuses for cause were granted by a court martial, the clerk 
of the same having in 1794 a yearly salary of $6.67. In the 
same year we find one man excused for an impediment in his 
speech, and another for "a deficiency in intellect." Others 
are excused until "in a better state of health." 

During the later years of the militia system, musters were 
less frequent, the men went through the evolutions without 
arms, and the practical value of the drill was not very great. 
The ofllicers did not pay much attention to costume, the regi- 
mental and some of the company officers wearing coats of 
the pattern of 1812; a dark-blue garment with long, swallow- 
tail, epaulettes, and brass buttons. 

As a colony, and for some years as a state, Virginia ad- 
hered to the British coinage of pounds, shillings, and pence. 
For some cause not well understood, the value of these coins 
fell off nearly one-third from the British standard. As early 
as 1714 it took 26 Virginia shillings to equal one guinea of Eng- 
lish money. During the period of the Revolution and later, 
the value of the Virginia pound was $3.33. The shilling was 
16 2-3 cents and the penny was worth 1 1-3 cents. Ameri- 
can familiarity with the dollar standard came through ac- 
quaintance with the Spanish milled dollars, which were cir- 
culating freely throughout the colonies during the yeais of 
the Revolution. Our decimal currency, so much more con- 
venient than the cumbersome English system, was mainly 
the work of Thomas Jefferson.* 

But old habits are hard to break, especially at a distance 
from the large commercial centers. The British notation 
was used in this country almost exclusively until after 
1800. It then began to yield, though very slowly. An ap- 
praisement at a sale would be reckoned by one method, and 
the result of the sale by another. It was not until the up- 
heaval of 1861 that the last vestiges of the old system were 
driven out of use. 

By 1830 the word pound had fallen into disuse, but smaller 

* Jefferson wished to extend the decimal system to other denominate 
numbers. His plan for reconstructing the table of long measure was as 
follows : 

10 points make 1 line 

10 lines " 1 inch 

10 inches " 1 foot 

10 feet " 1 decad 

10 decads " 1 rood 

10 roods " 1 furlong 

10 furlongs " 1 mile 

PCH6 



sums were still reckoned in terms of shillings and pence. There 
were as yet no nickels, dimes, and quarters of Federal coin- 
age, but there were Spanish coins in general circulation. 
These were the ftp (five-penny bit), worth 6 1-4 cents; the 
levy (eleven penny bit), worth 12 1-2 cents; and the 25 cent 
piece. Six shillings were counted to the dollar. A sixpence 
was 8 1-3 cents, a ninepence was 12 1-2 cents, and 25 cents 
was called eighteen pence. 37 1-2 cents was called "two 
and threepence," 62 1-2 cents was "three and ninepence," 75 
cents was "four and sixpence," 87 1-2 cents was "five and 
three-pence," $1.25 was "seven and sixpence." The sum of 
$1.50 was spoken of as 9 shillings. The term "fifteen shil- 
ling lawyer" referred to a practitioner who did not charge 
more than the usual fees, the minimum being commonly 
$2 50. 

Until 1794 tobacco was legal currency in Virginia, 100 
pounds of the weed being reckoned equal to one pound in 
coin. The value of one pound of tobacco was therefore 3 1-3 
cents. In the colonial records of Augusta, and even in the 
earliest records of Pendleton we find county levies and wit- 
ness fees computed not in pounds, shillings, and pence, but 
in pounds of tobacco. 

The Spanish dollar was not the only foreign coin in circula- 
tion prior to 1800. The pioneer with a hoard of coin in his 
specie pouch might be able to produce gold coins known as 
pistoles, doubloons, "loodores," and the "Joe Portuguese." 
The first was worth $3. GO. The second was equal to two pis- 
toles. The loodore (louis d'or) was worth $4.44, and the Jo- 
hannes was worth $8. 

The practice of agriculture was rude and the tools were 
primitive. An undue share of labor was done by hand, but 
this was partly because of the losses which would result from 
the forays of the Indians. Oxen were preferred as work ani- 
mals. The harrow was a thorn bush. The wooden plow did lit- 
tle more than scratch the ground. The scythe had a straight 
handle. A forked sapling, peeled and dried, made a grain 
fork. 

The gristmill was as primitive as the style of farming. The 
earliest form was the tubmill with its five foot water-wheel 
lying in a horizontal position. Since the burrs could rotate 
no faster than the wheel, a strong current was secured if 
possible. The handmill with a pair of burrs about as large 
as a common grindstone was much used, and by dint of back- 
aching work a bushel of meal could be made in a day. 

Tobacco, formerly the great staple of Virginia, was 
grown for export even in the mountains. Two crops were 
usually taken in succession from a new field. After 1794 



83 

wheat was crowding out tobacco, and though it brought from 
$1.00 to $2.50 a bushel on navigable waters, Pendleton lay loo 
remote to profit thereby. Its farmers had to do as they are still 
doing: grow their home supplies of corn, grain, and minor 
products, and send their surplus to market in the form of 
cattle, sheep, and wool. But the little fields of flax and hemp, 
once so common and so important, have all but disappeared. 

Until within the memory of living persons, produce was 
wagoned to Fredericksburg, at a head of deep water navi- 
gation, or to Scottsville. where it could be transferred to a 
canal boat. As these points are distant from Franklin 105 
and 74 miles by airline, it was a matter of some days to make 
the roundtrip. As late as 1845 store goods sold high because 
of the small amount disposed of. In 1770 sugar cost 17 cents 
a pound at Staunton, gunpowder was 67 cents, and a single 
nutmeg cost 10 1-2 cents. 

In the earlier days the pioneer took his rifle to market and 
if possible one or more scalps of animals. A single wolf 
■?calp, worth 160 pounds of tobacco, would more than cover 
his tax bill, and the rifle, worth about $7, might put still an- 
' other scalp in his hands while going home. The larger beasts 
of prey were not ordinarily inclined to molest man, though it 
was not prudent to go defenseless. The bear-trap weighing 
50 pounds was a feature of every huntsman's outfit, and the 
hunting camp, perhaps miles from his home, was his shelter 
while looking for deer. 

The practice of medicine was like a dark age to the well 
read physician of our own time. Perhaps it was as well that 
physicians were few in those days, and that recourse was 
often had to the trained instinct and good judgment of the 
"old woman doctor." At all events her herb teas were far 
less expensive than the well-labeled bottles we now buy of 
the druggist. 

Whatever the forrs of the medicine then in use. there was 
nothing small in the size of the dose. Worms were thought 
to be the chief ailment of children, and there was accordingly 
a dosing with salt or green copperas. A poultice of meal or 
scraped potatoes was used for burns, and oneof slinperyelm, 
flaxseed, or turnips for wounds. Croup was treated with the 
juice of roasted onions; itch with sulphur and lard. Snake- 
root was used to produce a perspiration in fever, yet the fever 
patient was denied cold water and fresh air, and if he left 
his bed it was perhaps with an enfeebled circulation. A high 
birthrate was partially offset by a high mortality. The infec- 
tious nature of some diseases was not understood, and an 
ignorance of what we now consider the elementary principles 
of hygiene and antiseptic precaution led to a loss of life that 



is now usually preventable. For these reasons, croup, wounds, 
and childbirth were not infrequently fatal. Among the herbs 
in common use were boneset, lovage, horehound, chamomile, 
wild cherry, prickly ash, and "old man's beard." 

Vaccination was unknown at the outset of the period and 
pock-marked faces were common. In 1777 we find the physi- 
cians in Rockingham authorized to inoculate persons living 
within three miles of a point where small-pox had broken 
out. By this now abandoned method, the disease was com- 
municated in a mild form, although the patient became as 
dangerous to the exposed person as though having small-pox 
in full vigor. The doctor at the courthouse was the only sub- 
stitute for the professional dentist, yet he did little else than 
clamp an ailing tooth between the jaws of an instrument of 
torture and jerk it forth in blissful ignorance of anesthetics. 
However, the unsound tooth was comparatively infrequent, 
thanks to the thorough chewing required by the hard-crust- 
ed corn bread, the less common use of sweets, and the ab- 
sence of the modern soft foods that favor the stomach at the 
expense of the teeth. 

Despite a very common opinion to the contrary, the people 
of that early day were no more healthy than we are. We 
hear much of the grandpa and grandma of iron constitution 
and long life, but they were a survival of the strongest. We 
hear little of the weaklings who existed then as well as now, 
and of the hosts of people who went into their graves at too 
young an age. 

The old times were unlike the present times, so much so 
that we can understand them very imperfectly unless we 
give no little time and thought to the points of d fference. 
Even the manner in which people wrote and conversed was 
not quite the same. We have abandoned many of the ex- 
pressions once in everyday use and have taken up others 
which would puzzle our foreparents to understand. It is 
often imagined that the old times were better than the pres- 
ent. Without doubt we have in our modern haste lost some 
of the features of the olden time which it would have been 
well to keep. We have cares they knew little of, yet on the 
whole it would prove a very unpleasant experience to be 
thrown back into the environment of the early pioneer days. 

'"Tis distance lends enchantment to the view, 
And robes the mountains in their azure hue." 



CHAPTER X 
Formation of Pendleton 

At the close of 1787 the population of Rockingham was 
nearly 7000, including about 700 slaves. With at least two- 
fifths of its area lying beyond the high, broad, and infertile 
Shenandoah Mountain, the time had come when it was too in- 
convenient to travel from 30 to bO miles to reach the courthouse. 
Accordingly the 6tate legislature passed, December 4, 1787, 
the following act : 

'1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly, That from and 
after the first day of May next, all those parts of the counties 
of Augusia, Hardy, and Rockingham within the following 
bounds, to-wit: Beginningon the Une of Rockingham county, 
on the Nortn mountain, opposite to Charles Wilson's on the 
South Fork, thence a straight line to the Clay Lick on the 
North Fork, thence to the top of the Ailegana, and along the 
same and the east side of the Greenbrier waters to the south- 
west fountain of the South Branch, and thence between the 
same and the waters of James River, along the dividing ridge 
to the said North Mountain, and with the top of the same 
to the beginning, shall form one distinct county, and be 
called and known by the name of Pendleton. 

"2. A court for the said county of Pendleton shall be held 
by the justices thereof on the first Monday in every month, 
after such county shall take place, in like manner as is pro- 
vided by law for other Counties, and shall be by their com- 
missions directed. And the Court of quarterly sessions for 
the said County of Pendleton, shall be held in the months of 
April, June, September, and December, in every year. 

"3. The justices to be named in the commission of the 
peace for the said County of Pendleton, shall meet at the 
house of Zeraiah Stratton in the said County, upon the first 
Court day after the said County shall take place, and having 
taken the oaths prescribed by law, and having administered 
the oath of ofl^ice to, and taken bond of the sheriff according 
to law, proceed to appoint and qualify a clerk, and fix upon a 
place for holding Court in the said County, at or as near the 
center thereof as the situation and convenience will admit of; 
and thenceforth the said Court shall proceed to erect the 
necessary pubHc buildings at such place; and until such 
buildings be completed, to appoint any place for holding 
courts as they think proper. Provided always, That the 



appointment of a place for holding courts and of a clerk, shall 
not be made unless a majority of the justices of the said 
county be present; wnere such majority shall have been pre- 
vented from attending by bad weather, or their being at the 
time out of the county, in such case the appointment shall be 
postponed until some Court day when a majority shall be 
present. 

"4. The Governor, with advice of the Council, shall ap- 
point a person to be first sheriff of the said County, who 
shall continue in office during the term, and upon the same 
conditions as are by law appointed for the sheriff. 

"5. Provided also, and be it fqrther enacted, That 
it shall be lawful for the sheriff of each of the said counties 
of Augusta, Hardy, and Rockingham to collect and make dis- 
tress for any public dues and officer's fees which shall remain 
unpaid by the inhabitants thereof, at the time the said 
county shall take place, and shall be accountable for the same 
in like manner as if this act had not been made. 

"6. And the Courts of the said Counties shall have juris- 
diction of all actions and suits which shall be depending 
before them at the time the said County of Pendleton shall 
take place; and shall try and determine the same, and award 
execution thereon. 

*7. In all future elections of a senator, the said county of 
Pendleton shall be of the same district as the county of 
Augusta." 

Within the limits defined by the Act of 1787, the area of 
Pendleton was perhaps 850 square miles. On the east, north 
and west, the original boundaries have remained unaltered. 
On the south there have been two subsequent changes. The 
original boundary included the northern portion of the Crab- 
bottom and all the rest of the present county of Highland 
that lies north of the watershed between the streams flowing 
into the Potomac and those forming the upper basin of the 
James. Near Doe Hill the line therefore fell even north- 
ward of its present location. 

The population of Pendleton in its beginning was about 
2200, almost exclusively white. The distribution of the in- 
habitants between the three valleys was not very unequal. As 
yet the people lived mainly along the larger watercourses, 
the mountains being still an almost unbroken forest. 

The house of Seraiah Stratton, where it was decreed that 
the new county should be organized and the first term of 
court be held, lay about a fourth of a mile south of the Rud- 
dle postoffice, only a few yards to the west of the present 
highway, and close to a watering trough. The only present 
vestige of the dwelling is a mound of rocks marking the site 



of the chimney and from the midst of which rises a young 
tree. Tradition states that the court used the barn instead 
of the house. If so it was doubtless because the dwelling it- 
self was too small to atiord a sufficient surplus of room. But 
whether house or barn, or both, the charge of four dollars 
for the whole period of time dunng which the premises were 
used as a county seat does not look exorbitant. 

The organization of the county government is thus de- 
scribed in the records : **Be it remembered that at the house 
of beraiah iStratton, in the county of Pendleton, on the 2nd 
day of June and in the year of our Lord 1788, and in the 12 
year of the Commonwealth, Commissions of the Peace and of 
Oyer and Terminer, directed to Robert Davis, John bkidmore, 
Moses Hinkle, James Dyer, Isaac Hinkle, Robert Poage, 
James Skidmore, Matthew Patton, Peter Hull, James Patter- 
son, and Jacob Hoover, Gentlemen, was Produced and Read, 
and thereupon the saiu Robert Davis took the Oaih appointed 
by the Act of Assembly giving assurance of fidelity to 
the Commonwealth, and look the Oaths of a Justice ot the 
Peace, of a Justice of the County Court in Chancery, and of 
a Justice of Oyer and Terminer, all of which Oaths were ad- 
ministered to him by the said John Skidmore and Moses 
Hinkle. And thus the said Robert Davis administered all the 
aforesaid Oaths to the said John Skidmore, Moses Hinkle, 
James Dyer, Isaac Hinkle, James Skidmore, Matthew Patton, 
and James Patterson. 

**A Commission from his excellency the Governor to Robert 
Davis, Gent, to be high Sheritf of this County during pleas- 
ure was produced by the said Robert Davis and read, there- 
upon together with Seraiah Stratton, Francis Evick, Roger 
Dyer, James Davis, Isaac Hinkle, and George Dice, 
his securities, entered into and acknowledged two Bonds for 
the said Robert Davis's due and faithful performance of his 
Office, which are ordered to be recorded. And then the said 
Robert Davis took the Oath for giving Assurance of fidelity 
to the Commonwealth and was sworn sheriff of Said County. " 
Of the eleven justices, Davis, Dyer, and Patton were 
brothers-in-law. The Hinkles were of one family, and the 
Skidmores were of one other, and were related to the Hinkles. 
It is quite probable that still other relationships existed. 

The organization of the county government was perfected 
by the following selections : 

President of the Court, John Skidmore. 

Clerk of Court, Garvin Hamilton. 

Prosecuting Attorney, Samuel Reed. 

Deputy Sheriffs, John Davis, and John Morral. 



Overseers of the Poor, James Dyer, John Skidmore, 
Christian Ruleman, Ulrich Conrad, John Dunkle. 

County Surveyor, Moses H inkle. 

Constables, Gabriel Collett, George Dice, Jacob Gum, 
Johnson Phares, Isaac Powers, William Ward, George Wil- 
keson. 

County Lieutenant, James Dyer. 

Regimental Militia Officers : Colonel, Robert Poage; 
Lieutenant Colonel, Peter Hull: Major, Henry Fleisher. 

Overseers of Roads: North Fork; (proceeding from 
north to south) Michael Eberman, Abraham Hinkle, Isaac 
Hinkle, Moses Hinkle. South Branch (in same order); George 
Fisher, Michael Alkire, Francis Evick, Christian Pickle, 
Nicholas Harper, McKenny Robinson, George Nicholas. South 
Fork (also in same order) ; John Wortmiller, James Dyer, 
Roger Dyer, Henry Swadley, Jacob Hoover, Christian Rule- 
man. 

After deciding to build the courthouse on the lands of 
Francis Evick, and to hold the next court at his house, James 
Patterson was directed to attend the surveyor in laying out 
the courthouse grounds. He was also appointed jailer. To 
make the seat of local government more accessible, road sur- 
veys were ordered to Roger Dyer's, to Brushy Fork, and to 
the North Fork at Joseph Bennett's. 

Voting places were established at "Frankford" for the 
middle vallev, at George Teter's for the North Fork, and at 
Henry Swadley's for the South Fork. By 1847 the number 
had increased to eight; namely, the courthouse; John Riser's; 
Doe Hill; Jacob Sibert's on Straight Creek; Circleville; Mouth 
of Seneca; Mallow's mill; Jacob Wanstaff's in Sweedland 
Valley. 

Moses Hinkle was authorized to solemnize marriages, the 
county clerk was appointe^i to draw the deed for the court- 
house lot, and Thomas Collett was granted the contract to 
erect the county buildings, for which in due course he re- 
ceived $16fi.67. Samuel Black was paid $18.67 for making 
the courthouse desk. 

The first grand jury met September 1, Jacob Conrad being 
foreman. The other members were Michael Arbogast. Lewis 
Bush, Jacob Coplinger. Abraham Eckard, Nicholas Harpole, 
Isaac Hinkle, George Kile. Adam Lough, Robert Minniss, 
Frederick Propst. George Paffenbarger, Jacob Root, Joseph 
Skidmore, John Sumwalt, Philip Tf'ter, and Peter Vaneman. 
They proceeded to "fire" three of the newly appointed road 
overseers; to indict three residents of the North Fork for 
breaking the peace, and another (a woman) for bastardy; 



and to indict two residents of the South Fork for absenting 
themselves from grand jury service. 

With Hardy and Hampshire, Pendleton became a judicial 
district with the court sitting at "Hardy Courthouse." 

The report of the surveyors on the line between Pendleton 
and Hardy was presented in March, 1789, and reads as fol- 
lows : '*Beginning at three chestnut oaks, a white oak, and 
chestnut tree on the top of the North Mountain, opposite the 
north point of Sweedland Hill, and running thence W. 51 de- 
grees W., crossing the tsouth Fork at the point of Sweedland 
Hill, through the land and above the dwelling house of 
Charles Wilson, and crossing South Mill Creek through the 
land and above the dwelling house of Charles Borrer, and 
crossing North Mill Creek through the land and above 
the dwelling of Nicholas Judy, and crossing the South 
Branch through the land and below the dwelling house of 
David Hutson, and crossing the North Fork through the land 
and below the dwelling house of Samuel Day; thence through 
the Clay Lick a straight course lo the top of Alleghany 
Mountain, containing 21 miles in distance." 

The report was signed by Mosf s Hinkle, surveyor of Pen- 
dleton, and by John Foley, assistant to Joseph Nevill, sur- 
veyor of Hardy. 

The new county being thus launched on its career, it re- 
mains for us to know more of the men who were instru- 
mental in effecting the organization. Our task is the more 
difficult because there are no voluminous "write-ups" to be 
dug out of the yellowing filts of some local newspaper. 

Robert Davis was of a Welch family that settled in North 
Carolina and moved thence to Virginia. He may have been 
the son of Robert Davis, an early settler of Augusta and its 
first constable. He settled a half mile below Brandy wine, at 
least as early as 1764, purchasing land in that year of Mat- 
thew Patton. About this time he married Sarah, daughter 
of RoRer Dyer and widow of Peter Hawes. His older broth- 
ers, John and William, settled also on the South Fork. 
Whether John Davis was the one who was a justice of Rock- 
ingham and was appointed to let the building of its first 
courthouse is not known. William died in 1773, and Robert 
was his executor. Robert was a major in the Continental 
army and saw active service, especially among the Indians 
west of the AUeghanies. He was present at the killing of 
Big Foot, a noted chief. In 1779 he was commissioned Cap- 
tain of militia for Rockingham, resigning in 1781. He was 
one of the first justices of that county, but owing to his 
military duties, he was not present to take his oath of 
office until May 25, 1779. In 1780 and 1781 he was the leader 



90^ 

of the South Fork patriots against the tory faction. The dis- 
turbance was brougnt to an end by a truce he arranged with 
Ward and Hull, in 1784 he was recommended as coroner. 
In 1785 he and James Davis were the committee to view the 
repairs on the new Kockingham courthouse. In 1786 he be- 
came sheriff of Kockingham, and held this office until he be- 
came the first sheriff oi I'endleton. He was again sheriff in 
18o4, and he served his county as member of the House of 
Delegates in 1793-4. He was a justice of the peace from 
1778 until his death in 1818 at an advanced age. He was 
frequently called upon in the settlement of estates and in 
other matters of puolic business, thus indicating a high de- 
gree of practical judgment. He was one of the substantial 
residents on the i>outh Fork. On his land stood with one ex- 
ception the first mill in that valley and probably the very 
first schooihouse. 

Garvin Hamilton is first mentioned in 1774. when he pre- 
sented a bill to the county court of Augusta for retaking a 
runaway slave. He was a member of the first county court 
of Kockingham and was for two years a member of the legis- 
lature. At what time he came to Pendleton is not known, 
but probably it was not earlier than the breaking out of the 
Revolution. He owned land at Thorny Meadow on Trout 
Run, and on the organization of the county he settled in 
Franklin. The December term of court for 1788 was held in 
his house. In the spring of 1783 he thought of moving to 
Georgia, and as that state required the new settler to pro- 
duce a ceriificate of character and conduct, he applied for 
one to his county court It was ordered of the clerk that he 
"certify that Garvin Hamilton had been many years an in- 
habitant of the county, a surveyor, a magistrate, a lieuten- 
ant colonel, a man of uprightness, integrity, spirit, and reso- 
lution; of true whiggish principles in the long contest with 
Great Britain.** 

Captain Seraiah Stratton was apparently from the east of 
Virginia. His name first appears about 1767, when he was 
licensed to keep an ordinary. In 1774 he served on a com- 
mittee to view the new prison at Staunton. He appears to 
have settled on the South Branch earlier than 1778. In that 
year he was granted a permit to build a gristmill. In 1781 
and 1782 he was a tax commissioner for Kockingham, and in 
the former year he produced an account for building a pub- 
lic granary to receive the tax in grain. For collecting the 
same he was allowed $11.67. He became a large landholder 
in the South Branch valley. In 17^2 he removed to Ken- 
tucky» after selling his homestead of 393 acres to Moses Hinkie 



91 

for $516.67. He appears to have been an active and able cit- 
izen. 

Matthew Patton was one of the very first members of the 
Dyer Settlement, and after the murder of Roger Dyer he be- 
came a leading citizen of the Pendleton territory. He was 
commissioned a justice of the peace, August 19, 1761, and 
for a number of years he took the lists of tithables for this 
portion of Augusta. 

James Dyer, brother-in-law to Patton, has been elsewhere 
mentioned. He was a prominent and well-to-do citizen, and 
much concerned in the public affairs of the county. 

The Skidmores of the South Branch were enterprising cit- 
izens and large landholders. Captain John Skidmore had a 
military career in the Indian wars and doubtless also in the 
Revolution. He was wounded in the battle of Point Pleas- 
ant, and is said on one occasion to have killed an Indian in 
single combat. 

Moses and Isaac Hinkle, cousins to Captain Skidmore, were 
progressive and energetic and of more than usual ability. 
Isaac was a sheriff of Rockingham a little prior to 1783. 



CHAPTER XI 
Early Middle Period- (1788- 1818) 

The county of Pendleton began its separate existence as 
the ninth of the counties which now constitute West Vir- 
ginia. It entered upon a long career of peaceful and steady 
development. The Redstone insurrection of 1794 and the 
war of 1812 were remote from its borders. In the former 
instance Moorefield was the meeting-point of the troops from 
the nearby counties, whence they marched to Cumberland 
and thence to the Monongahela. In the latter instance, Nor- 
folk, more than 300 miles distant by road, was the only point 
in Virginia seriously threatened by the enemy. 

The hne between Pendleton and Bath is thus defined by 
the county surveyor in 1792 : "Beginning at the top of the 
North Mountain opposite the lower end of John Redmond's 
land on the Cowpasture, and N. 63 1-2 degrees W., crossing 
Shaw's Fork through the lands and below the dwelling house 
of Thomas Devereux, and crossing the Cowpasture run 
through the lands and below the dwelling house of Joseph 
Mathew, and crossing the Crab Run about 21-2 miles above 
the Blue Hole: thence through the land and below the house 
of Joseph Bell, and thence to the top of the Chestnut Ridge 
through the lands of William Lewis, and thence through 
lands of Adam Boyers; thence crossing Back Creek and the 
Laurel Fork to the top of the Alleghany Mountain, to a red 
oak and maple on the top of said mountain; containing 20 1-2 
miles." 

But this southern boundary stood only eight years. In 
1796 another line was established, running through the cen- 
ter of what is now Highland, and giving Pendleton an area 
of 990 square miles. This second line was surveyed in 1797, 
at a charge to the county of $42.92, and it is described as 
follows by Act of Assembly: "All that part of the county of 
Bath within the following bounds, to wit : beginning at the 
top Oi the Alleghany Mountain, the northwest side of the 
line of the county of Pendleton, thence a straight line to the 
lower end of John Slavin's plantation on Greenbrier River, 
thence to Dinwiddle's Gap on Jackson's River, thence cross- 
ing the Bullpasture so as to leave Edward Stewart in the 
county of Bath, thence to Stewart's Gap on the Cowpasture, 
thence to the top of the mountain which divides the waters 
of the Cowpasture and Calfpasture rivers, thence a north- 



easterly course along the said mountain to the line of the 
county of Pendleton." 

The increase in area helped to give the county in 1800 a 
population of 3962, an increase in two years of nearly 62 per 
cent. But during the next twenty years, the growth was 
only to 4846. an increase in twice as long a time of only 22 
per cent. This falling off in the rate of growth is due to 
an active emigration westward. The Indian peril had van- 
ished to the farther bank of the Mississippi, and the fertile 
lands now open to unmolested settlement enticed many a 
Pendletonian to cross the Alleghanies. During this period 
we therefore lose sight of many a name mentioned in the 
early records. 

But with nearly 5000 people in 1820, and with mors than 
70 years of settled history, Pendleton had assumed the ap- 
pearance of a comparatively old and staid community, even 
though it was yet a remote region and largely covered with 
virgin forest. 

A road up the Seneca and over the Alleghany divide had 
been ordered in 1774, so as to communicate with the infant 
settlements on the Cheat and Tygart's Valley rivers. If the 
order was carried out, it could have resulted in no more than 
a bridle-path. A new order for a road was issued in the 
first year of Pendleton's history, and Joseph Ray was ap- 
pointed to construct the thoroughfare to the top of the Alle- 
ghany. There is little doubt that he opened a wagon road. 
This natural route across the mountains was too important 
and the country beyond filling up too rapidly to permit the 
further neglect of a more adequate highway. 

In 1811 the new county became the home of a congress- 
man. General William McCoy was row chosen to represent 
his district in the National House of Representatives, and he 
continued to hold his seat for 22 years. This was no small 
honor to the county as well as to himself, for Pendleton was 
the least populous of the six counties composing the Eleventh 
District. Augusta, Hardy, Pendleton, Rockbridge, Rocking- 
ham, Shenandoah. 

In 1799 the log courthouse was repaired, and in 1817 it 
gave way to a larger and more substantial building of brick. 

The records for this period of 30 years present little else 
than a routine recognition of the usual breaches of public or 
social order, the more quiet details of chancery work, the 
lev.\ing of varying sums for the county's needs, the recom- 
mendations of citizens to official positions, and the granting 
of licenses and permits. One of the cares of the first county 
court was to authorize a bounty of one pound ($3.33) on 



94 

wolf scalps. The witness fee of 53 cents a day and the mile- 
age fee of three cents long remained in force. 

The first permit for a gristmill after Pendleton was organ- 
ized appears to have been issued in 1803 in favor of James 
and John Dyer. The need of gunpowder in the war of 1812 
stimulated the making of saltpetre from the nitrous earth 
found in the caverns of Cave Mountain, Trout Rock, and the 
Harman hills. This industry continued until after the break- 
ing out of the war of 1861. 

A good index to the continued growth and broader devel- 
opment of the county may be found in the reports of public 
sales. 

George Cowger lived in the Fort Seybert neighborhood, 
where the estates of the two Dyers had been settled up 30 
years earlier. At the "praising" of his property, Novem- 
ber 6, 1788, the 10 horses were rated at $10 to $40 each, the 
35 cattle at $6.67 to $10.83 each, the 7 hogs at $3 each, and 
the 8 sheep at $1 33. A wagon and gears were put at $24. 17, 
a gun and pouch at $20, a loom at $9.17, a bed and bedding 
at $10, cotton coat, jaeket, and breeches at $5, two pairs of 
leather breeches at $3.67, a hat and a pair of stockings at $2, 
an overcoat at $7.25, a saddle at $2, a flax hackle at $1.67. a 
coverlet at $1.37, and a hunting shirt at $1. Among smaller 
items we find mention of a silver teaspoon at 58 cents, a 
churn and bucket at 42 cents, an iron stove at 25 cents, and 
a tin lantern at 21 cents. It is hardly more than necessary 
to add that the stove was merely a small contrivance for 
holding a few live coals. Failed linen sold at 66 cents a yard 
and some other linen at 25 cents. 

In 1795 the sale of the estate of George Dice near Frank- 
lin resulted in the sum of $689.05. Henry Janes in the south 
of the county had been a more prosperous farmer, his sale 
August 30-31, 1804, resulting in $1303.97. Yet of the 221 
items mentioned, scarcely one would now be considered an 
article of luxury. Of these items 124 sold at less than a dol- 
lar each. There was not a book or a musical instrument. 
The story conveyed in the sale is simply that of a farmstead 
well supplied with appliances of actual need. Christian Hy- 
necker was a far poorer man, his sale in ]802 realizing but 
$134.90. although it included $7.32 in cash, and books selling 
at $1.69. 

The sale in 1807 of the personal property of James Dyer 
netted $1975. The inventory including 8 horses, 65 cattle, 52 
hogs, and 23 sheep. There were 15 books, a Bible going at 
$9. and a copy of Johnson's Dictionary at $3.33. The fur- 
nishings of the house amounted to $189.09, including a clock 
selling at $60 and a desk at $25. We here have a glimpse of 



96 

a man who read books, who was considered rich, and whose 
log house was perhaps the best furnished dwelling in the 
county. 

At the other end of the scale was John Turnipseed of the 
Deer Run settlement, whose sale took place in 1801. His 
livestock netted $36.02, and his 45 items of house furnishings 
amounted $29.13. 

The estate of Roger Dyer in 1810 was $6403.33. that of 
Sebastian Hoover was $4048.33, that of Nicholas Judy was 
$2183. 33. and that of Leonard Simmons was $3300.56. Abra- 
ham Hinkle left notes and accounts valued at $4634. Less 
forehanded men were Joseph Bennett, worth $713.33 Joseph 
Skidmore, worth $259.08, and George Evick, whose avails 
were $223.33. 



CHAPTER XII 
Later Middle Period (1818.1861) 

This epoch of Pendleton history, even apart from the up- 
heaval of war coming at its close, is more eventful than the 
epoch discussed in the last chanter. 

During the 43 years the population did not quite double, 
even making allowance for the portion of Pendleton that 
went to form Highland. From 1820 to IbSO there was in- 
deed a rapid growth, the county adding a third to its num- 
bers in these ten years. But during the next ten year period 
the rate of increase fell off one-half, and after 1840 it was 
even slower. It will appear on a little study of this matter, 
that as Pendleton was then industrially organized, there was 
elbow room for only a limited number of people. The sur- 
plus had to find space for itself either in the fertile West or in 
the cities of the East. 

Nevertheless, the industries of the county during this pe- 
riod were more diversified than at any other time. Never be- 
fore or since has Pendleton come so near living within its 
own resources. The annual product of 50 tons of maple sugar 
nearly made the Pendletonian independent of the sugar and 
molasses wagoned from the distant seaport. Almost every 
farmer raised sheep and grew flax if not also hemp. The 
wool and the flax fiber, with a little aid from the hemp and from 
cotton brought over the Shenandoah Mountain were woven 
on the looms that were very common all over the county. Pen- 
dleton not onlv clothed itself, but made a surplus of cloth. 

Other handicrafts also flourished, not only in the one village 
at the county-seat, but on the farms as well. One man was a 
wagon-maker, another a cooper, another a tailor, another a 
hatter, another a potter, another a sickle-maker, another a 
tanner. The iron used in these little home industries was 
brought from without the county, but it was possible enough 
to have smelted it from the ores in the South Fork Mountain. 

Along the rapid streams were water-turned mills for 
grinding the corn and wheat and for sawing the small 
amount of lumber required for home needs. There were also 
the saltpeter works and the rather frequent distilleries. A 
portion of the saltpeter was made into gunpowder. And 
finally, on the eve of the war, a woolen factory was built and 
equipped, though soon destroyed by fire. 




cdX 



9f 

In making: saltpeter the nitrous earth was leached and the 
leaching water boiled down. On cooling, the saltpeter rose 
to the surface and was afterward clarified. 

Within recent years we have witnessed the comparative ex- 
tinction of these domestic industries. Tanning has lingered 
because of the mountain forests. The gristmill continues to 
run. because the absence of a railroad enables it to compete 
with the flour from Minnesota. The handicrafts are repre- 
sented only by the blacksmith, the wheelwright, and the 
shoemaker, and their work is almost limited to repair service. 
That the homeweaving of cloth is not totally extinct is due 
to the absence of a railroad and the consequent lingering of 
oldtime habits. But that only one distillery remains is a fact 
not mourned by good citizens. 

The falling away of the little home industries is easily ac- 
counted for, but we cannot here pause to discuss the matter. 

The growing of flax is now all but extinct in Pendleton as 
well as throughout the Appalachians in general. Yet the 
little field of a quarter or a half acre was once a feature of 
almost every farm, and it entailed no small amount of care 
and labor. The plants had to be pulled by hand and tied into 
bundles with the poorer stems. After the manner of wheat 
sheaves these bundles were put into capped shocks until dry. 
Then after the seed had been threshed out with a flail, the 
stems were spread out on a meadow for two or three weeks 
to KO through the retting process. Then a simple hand ma- 
chine was used to break the stems so as to loosen the hard 
sheath from the interior fibers. The next step was the 
swingling, when each handful of the fiber resting on a board 
was struck with a not very sharp paddle to break off the 
shives. The yellow threads were now ready for the spinning- 
wheel, and the linen which was afterwards woven was of 
several grades depending on the quality of the fiber. 

The tall, yellow-flowered hemp was much grown, not only 
for the excellent rope and cord which were made from the 
strong fiber, but as a fabric also. A linen chain with a filling 
of hemp made a coarser cloth than the linen alone, and it was 
not so smooth, although it was exceedingly durable. The 
cloth was at first greenish-gray, finally becoming white. The 
hemp plant is as persistent as a weed, and has been known 
to maintain itself on the same ground for more than sixty 
years. 

Wagons were rare. The block wagon with a solid wheel 
cross-sectioned from a log and banded with a hoop was very 
serviceable in lodging. Until about 1840 there were only two 
light wagons. When Zebulon Dyer drove from his home to 
Franklin in his carryal, people came to look at the strange 

PCH7 



sight as a few years ago they turned out to gaze at the auto- 
mobile. 

The first mower, appearing about 1858, cost $130. It had 
one large driving wheti and a wooden cutter-bar. The old- 
fashioned plow with its curved oak mouldboard was not 
swift in yielding to its metallic rival, since the mouldboard of 
iron did not scour so well as the one of steel which has since 
come into use. 

The "frolic," ei=:pecia11y for husking a farmer's crop of 
corn, was a recognized feature of farm labor. The absence 
of any but the simplest forms of farming tools made the col- 
lective display of human muscle absolutely necessary. 

In keeping a lookout for venomous snakes, the reaper 
might cut his hand on his sickle. But when his work was 
done he was free to hunt or fish at any time, and the consid- 
erable area of wild land still sheltered a considerable amount 
of game. Several hundred fish would be snared on a single 
occasion, but the small ones wo aid be returned to the river. 
The hams of a deer could be sold for $2.50. 

Some men acquired much local fame as huntsmen, and were 
able to tally a long list of the deer and other animals thafc 
they killed. One of these men while on his way from 
Brandywine as a witness at court saw the trail of a bear and 
turned aside to follow it. Not being present when his name 
was called at court, a postponement was moved. The judge 
was inconveniently inquisitive, and drew out the cause of 
the man's absence. He then made the remark that the Day 
of Judgment would have to be postponed if it found this per- 
son trailing a wild animal. 

The roads were still poor, yet were slowly becoming bet- 
ter. In 1850 we find provision for assessing the damages 
along the right of way of the Moorefield and South Branch 
turnpike. 

Tlie militia system kept alive until dissipated under the 
heat of civil war. Each district supplied one company which 
assembled for muster in April and October. The regimental 
muster took place at the county seat toward the close of 
May. Thursday and Friday were training days for the ofl^- 
cers, and Saturday was the day of general muster. Only 
the officers appeared in uniform, and they furnished their 
own blue, brass-buttoned costumes. A high-topped hat with 
a feather in front was worn, and also a low hat with its brim 
turned up on one side and its ostrich plume leaning back. 
The pantaloons had a yellow stripe on each side. A broad 
red sash was passed twice around the waist and tied in a loop 
with the ends drooping nearly to the ankle. The spectacular 
drill day took somewhat the place now filled by the traveling 



circus, and its close was marked by drinking and brawling". 

The affairs of the county seem to have been prudently ad- 
ministered, the increase of revenue from the tithables just 
about keeping pace with the growth in population. Taxation 
was very low in comparison with the assessments we are 
now familiar with. In 1846 a resident of the Seneca valley 
was taxed one cent on a tract of 130 acres. That by hard 
effort he was able to keep this ground out of the delinquent 
tax list will appear from the fact that the title was still in his 
name several years later. 

After the colonial davs the citizen of foreign birth became 
very rare, and in 1854 it looks like a strange incident to find 
a record of the naturalization of two Irishmen. 

In 1851 we find mention of but four mercantile firms out- 
side of Franklin. These were W illiam Adamson at the Mouth 
of Seneca, William S. Arbogast at Circle ville. Addison Hari er 
on the South Fork, and I. A. and Enoch Graham at Upper 
Tract. 

In 1846 the community was stirred up by the atrocious 
crime perpetrated by William Hutson, a resident of Reed's 
Creek. He murdered his wife and several children. The 
trial took place October 2. Daniel Smith presiding as judge. 
The 24 jurors appear to have been the following: Benjamin 
Arbogast, Thomas Beveridge, Daniel Cotton, George Eagle, 
Samuel C. Eagle, Henry Fleisher, John Jack, Jacob Hull, 
John Lightner. Henry McCoy, James Moyers, James Morton, 
Jacob Smith. Benjamin Rexroad, Isaac Seybert, Joseph Siron, 
Abraham M. Wilson, and Samuel Wilson. These jurors 
were chiefly from the southern end of the county. The 
names withdrawn do not appear. The deputy sheriffs, Peter 
H. Kinkead, and John M. Jones, gave the oath to the jury. 
That body appears to have come to a speedy agreement. It 
reported that "we, the jury, find that William Hutson, the 
prisoner at the bar, is guilty of murder in manner and form 
as in the indictment against him is alleged, and we so decide 
and sustain that he is guilty of murder in the first degree." 
In accordance with this verdict the prisoner was hanged near 
Franklin. It was the first legal execution in the county. 
Though at this distance of time it would appear that Hutson 
was a victim of some mental derangement, the prompt and 
unequivocal punishment is thought to have bad a salutary 
influence for many years. 

Soon after the Hutson trial the county of Highland was 
formed from portions of Bath and Pendleton. Its boundaries 
are thus defined by the legislative act of March 19, 1847: 
"Beginning where the North River gap road crosses the 
Augusta county line, and running thence to the top of Jack- 



100 

son's Mountain, so as to leave Jacob Hiner's mansion house 
in Pendleton county; thence to Andrew Fleisher's so as to in- 
clude his mansion house in the new county: thence to the 
highland betwen the Dry Run and Crab Bottom, and thence 
along the top of the main ridge of said highlands, to the top 
of the High Knob; thence N. 65 degrees W. to Pocahontas 
county line " 

The area of Pendleton was thus reduced from 990 square 
miles to 707, and its length of more than 40 miles was cor- 
respondingly shortened. The number of inhabitants in the 
section thus lost to Pendleton was about 2100. In 1850, the 
new county had a population of 4227. Of this number, 3837 
were whites, 23 were free blacks, and 364 were slaves. The 
war with Mexico was then going on, and the name of Mon- 
terev, the county seat of Highland, commemorates a victory 
by General Taylor. 

Those political events of this period which directly concern 
Pendleton county are highly important, even if we have left 
them to the close of our chapter. 

The state constitution of 1776 remained in force until 1830. 
It allowed two members in the House of Delegates to each 
and every county; no more and no less, except that the towns 
of Williamsburg and Norfolk were each entitled to one 
member. But the aristocratic complexion of the document 
grew more and more obnoxious to the counties west of the 
Blue Ridge. In 1825 a convention met at Staunton and issued 
an appeal to the legislature, that a new constitution be 
framed. The direct result was the constitutional convention of 
1829, of which General McCoy was one of the 96 members 
and the representative for Pendleton county. But the new 
instrument was not progressive. The counties east of the 
Blue Ridge were able to outbalance those to the westward, 
and the new constitution was drawn almost wholly in their 
interest. It was so displeasing to the counties which now 
form West Virginia that they gave 8365 votes against its 
adoption and only 1383 in its favor. But as the correspond- 
ing votes in the rest of the state were 7198 and 24,672, the 
new charter carried by a majority of nearly 11,000. The new 
constitution fixed the membership of the House of Delegates 
at 135, only 29 being apportioned to what is now West Vir- 
ginia. The representation from the two divisions of the 
state was to remain unchanged, regardless of any unequal 
growth in population. As the weak counties were now lim- 
ited to a single delegate, the representation of Pendleton was 
reduced from two to one. There was a little broadening in 
the matter of voting qualifications, but in general there was 
no liberalizing of the forms of government. 



101 

Other features of the new constitution were these : Just- 
ices were commissioned as before, but the limit to each county 
was 12. The board was to make three nommations for the 
office of sheriff at the November term, the governor to com- 
mission that officer for a term of a little more or a litile less 
than a year and a half, according to the date of commission. 
The governor also chose the coroner from two nommees, the 
office being held during good behavior. The county clerk was 
appointed by the court for a term of seven years. Constables 
were appointed by the court for two years. There was to be 
a quarterly term of county court, and supplementary terms in 
each alternate month. The fourth Thursday in April was 
made election day, except for presidential electors. Female 
slaves above the age of 16 were counted as tithables. 

The western counties of the state were restive under the 
illiberal features of the constitution of 1829, and in 1850 a 
new convention met at Richmond, deliberated nine and a 
half months, and framed the instrument which was ratified 
the next year by a vote of 75,748 against 11,069. The mem- 
ber of the convention for Pendleton was A. M. Newman. 
The new constitution became effective January 1, 1852. 

Under this new charter, each magisterial district elected 4 
justices, one of whom presided, the others being divided into 
classes. They were now allowed a per diem of $3. County 
officers were also chosen by the people. The county clerk 
and county surveyor held office for 6 years, the prosecuting 
attorney for 4 years, and the sheriff and commissioner of 
revenue for 2 years. The right to vote was now freed from 
all property qualifications. The time of state elections was 
changed to the fourth Thursday in May. Pendleton was put 
with Augusta, Bath, Hardy, Highland, Rockbridge, Rocking- 
ham, and Shenandoah to form the Ninth Congressional Dis- 
trict, and with Hardy, Highland, Page, Rockbridge, Shenan- 
doah, and Warren to form the Twelfth Judicial Circuit. 

Of the 82 state senators, 19 were to come from east of the 
Blue Ridge. Of the 152 members of the house of Delegates, 
47 were allotted to the counties now in West Virginia. In 
apportioning this representation, slave property was thrown 
into the scale, and as a vast majority of the slaves were east 
of the Blue Ridge, the East of the state retained the balance 
of power in its own hands. But as a concession to the West, 
it was provided that in 1865, or in any tenth year thereafter, 
and in the event that the General Assembly should fail to 
agree on a principle of representation, the voters of the state 
were to decide between four different schemes of suffrage. 
These four plans were as follows: 1. A suffrage basis resting 
solely on votes. 2. A mixed basis, one delegate being as- 



102 

signed to each seventy-sixth of the number of whites, and one 
to each seventy-sixth of all state taxes on licenses and law 
processes, plus the capitation tax on freedmen. 3. A taxa- 
tion basis, the senators being apportioned on the taxation basis 
as aforesaid, and the delegates on the suffrage basis. 4. 
The senate to be chosen by the mixed basis, the lower house 
by the suffrage basis. 

But the year 1865 found the state of West Virginia an ac- 
complished fact, and this elaborate scheme of the convention 
for retaining a control to the East as long as possible has now 
only an historic interest. 



CHAPTER XIII 
Slavery in Pendleton. 

The Appalachian highland is seldom adapted to large farm- 
ing operations. In early limes the access to an oulbide 
market was far more inconvenient than in the lowland bouth. 
But neither the Scotch-Irish nor the German settlers of this 
mountain land were as a class lavorabie to slavery. iSome 
of the religious secis among the Germans were decidedly op- 
posed to it. West of the blue Kidge, therefore, slavery never 
had the foothold it possessed east of the mountains. 

In 1756 there were 40 black lithablf s in Augusta, indicating 
a slave population of not more than one-tweniieth of the 
whole. Kunaways appear to have been of frequent occur- 
rence. Yet slavery grew more rapidiy than the general in- 
crease. In 1779 Rockingham had lb5 colored tithables, one- 
ninth of the inhabitants being negroes. The capitation list 
for Pendleton in 1790 mentions only three colored tithables, 
these being the property of Francis Evick. In 1834 there 
were 280 slaves. In 1850 there were 322 slaves and 31 free 
colored, a total of 353. This was six per cent of the entire 
population. The same date nearly or quite coincides with 
the high water mark of the negro race in Pendleton. 

If this county were destitute of river bottom and of large 
and smooth areas of fertile upland, the number of slaves 
would always have been exceedingly small. But the river 
bottoms with their adaptability to large and profitable farm- 
ing gave a conspicuous advantage to those fortunate peisons 
who owned these lands. This geographic condition quickly 
created a class of prosperous river-valley farmers, who under 
the industrial ideas of a former day were not slow to resort 
to slave labor. Yet very few became slaveholders on any- 
thing like a large scale, and few of the hill farmers followed 
their example. This geographic condition helped greatly to 
accustom the people of the county to the mode of social and 
political thought which was prevalent east of the Blue Ridge. 
It had in consequence an important bearing on the attitude 
of Pendleton during the crisis of civil war. 

The old laws relative to negro lawbreakers were severe, 
yet not without reason. The slave had not the forethought, 
the initiative, nor the self-restraint which the white man had 
acquired through centuries of effort. He was a savage by in- 
itinct and heredity. Force, not suasion, was the one argu- 



104 

ment he could comprehend, and he expected it to be applied 
swiftly and vigorously. Leniency led only to a loss of re- 
spect toward tnose in authority over him. Thus we find that 
the negro who stole a horse or a hog was hanged. In i77y a 
slave of Rockingham who killed a man was ordered hanged 
and his head set on a pole. 

The early records of Pendleton contain considerable men- 
tion of negro crime. In 1810 a negro felon was branded in 
the hand and returned to his ma&ter. In 1811 negro Stevens 
was tried for plotting to kill, but was discharged. In 1812 
negro Daniel was branded in the hand for stealing a calico 
habit and a piece of muslin. In 18^13 negro Lucy was sold for 
$11.25, the amount of jail fees, of which she was the occasion. 
In the same year a negro named Ben stabbed John Davis. 
He was ordered burnt in the hand, given ten lashes on the 
bare back well laid on, and remanded to jail subject to the 
order of his master. The most serious crime was in 1843, 
when a girl named Maria, the slave of William McCoy, fatally 
stabbed a negro youth belonging to John McClure. Tke 
tragedy occurred in Franklin near the house recently torn 
down by John McCoy. Her trial took place in December. 
She was reprieved and sent South. 

Sometimes the slave was the occasion of lawbreaking on 
the part of the white man. In 1811 two men in the south- 
west of the county were tried for stealing a wench, but 
were discharged. In 1859 a resident of the North Fork was 
jailed for giving a pass to a negro, though not convicted. In 
the same year another man committed a felony by helping 
three negroes to get away. 

The colonial records of Augusta tell us the age of a 
slave child was passed upon by the county court and ordered 
certified in the records. The whereabouts and the doings 
of the slave were kept under scrutiny, and his liberty of move- 
ment was very much restricted. If a slave left his master's 
premises without a pass, any person might bring him before 
a justice, who at his option might order a whipping; or for 
every such olfense he might be given ten lashes by the land- 
owner upon whom he had trespassed. He might not carry a 
gun except by the permit of a justice. If he gave false testi- 
mony, each ear might by turn be nailed to the pillory 
and afterwards cut olf, in addition to his receiving 39 lashes 
at the whipping post. The law of 1851 forbade the sale of 
poisons to negroes. For any slave or free negro to * prepare, 
exhibit, or administer any medicine whatsoever," was a fel- 
ony punishable by death, unless there were no ill intent or 
result. He might not give medicine even in his own family 
without the consent of his master. 



106 

Before 1776 the slave was real estate in the eye of the law. 
After that date he was regarded as personal property. The 
person with at least one-iourih of negro blood— and there 
was a large and increasing number of such— was counted as 
a mulatto. 

Toward the period of the civil war, there were few whip- 
pings in Pendleton In consequence of the disfavor with which 
the institution was generally regarded. Ihe non-siavehoider 
found his chief grievance against slavery to lie in the too 
great petting which he thought the slave received, and 
which he found to make him impudent Ihe dates of slave 
births were recorded in the family Biole, though on the fly- 
leaves. With the master's consent the slave might be bap- 
tized. When the estate was settled up, the slaves were 
divided among the heirs, a single slave being sometimes held 
in plural ownership. The small amount of slavehoiding thus 
became much diffused. Perhaps the largest holder m the 
earher years of the county was Daniel Capuo. On the settUng 
of his estate in 1828, the 12 slaves were sold at auction lor 
$2511.50. 

The capitation tax on a slave was 44 cents in 1800, and 
$1.20 in 18b0. 

Sometimes the freeing of a slave at a certain age is men- 
tioned in a will. Thus Nicholas Harper provides that his 
slave Lydia be set free when she is '60, if she behave herself, 
and that her child Polly be free at the age of 21. Some- 
times there is a proviso that a slave be freed at a certain 
age, "should the law permit." More emancipating would 
have been done, but for the embarrassing status of the freed 
negro. So long as slavery remained in force it was not de- 
sirable that such persons be numerous. They continued in a 
certain degree to be the wards of their former owners who 
were thus in a measure responsible for their conduct. If the 
negro were under 21, or over 45, or of unsound mind, he was 
supported by the estate of the former owner. The constitu- 
tion of 1851 required the registering of the freedmen every 
five years. In the registry were mentioned age, color, and 
identifying marks. A copy of the paper was given to the 
freedman. A county court might then grant him permission 
to Hve within its jurisdiction during good behavior. Some- 
times the application was refused. Such a refusal was put up 
against Elizabeth Dice in 1850. In 1845 the petition of the 
negro Randall was overruled, but two years later it was ac- 
cepted. The freedman might not carry a gun without a li- 
cense, and if he worked in another county, his certificate had 
to be registered there. He could not himself hold slaves ex- 
cept by descent. If over 21 and a male, or under 18 and a 



I 



106 

female, there was permission to choose a master. Removal 
from the state forfeited a certificate, and the free negro of 
another state was forbidden entrance into Virginia. 

The behavior of a negro, whether slave or tree, was nat- 
urally the measure of the tolerant feeling extended toward 
him. It is said of a free negro named Hayes, who in the 
early years of the last century lived on a mountain northeast 
of Ruddle, that his boys and girls were by general consent 
allowed to attend the same school with the white children. 

The war of 1861 overthrew the institution which Henry A. 
Wise denounced as "a blight on the economic development 
of the South, that repressed inventive talent, paralyzed 
Saxon energy, and left hidden the South's commercial re- 
sources.*' The slaves and freedmen of 1860 were to be found 
in most neighborhoods of the county. Soon after the close of 
the war they had mostly disappeared. In the valleys of the 
South Fork and the North Fork there are now none at all, with 
perhaps a solitary exception in Circleville district. The con- 
tinuance of a desire for black labor on the part of some of the 
residents of the county seat led to the rise of a settlement of 
colored people a mile south of Franklin. The settlement is 
known locally as "Africa." It contains about 70 persons, a 
number of whom are immigrants from other counties. The 
only other group of colored people is composed of a few fam- 
iUes on the west side of the Blackthorn valley, and is known 
as Moatstown. These people were never slaves. The negro 
element in Pendleton, especially that of Moatstown, shows a 
large admixture of white blood. 



CHAPTER XIV 
Period of the Interstate War 

The purpose of the present chapter is to tell the story of 
Pendieion during the great upheaval of 1861. It will deal 
no more wuh events happening outside the county than seems 
necessary to the intelligent underbtanding of events happen- 
ing within. 

Having its commercial outlet toward the Valley of Vir- 
ginia, this county was in social and political touch with that 
region. During the controversy over the expediency of se- 
cession, the Valley was in strong sympathy with the Eastern 
district of the state, and quite as a matter of course, the pre- 
vailing attitude of the Pendleton people was the same as that 
of the Valley. 

The secession issue reached an acute stage when a conven- 
tion of the Virginia people met at Richmond in February of 
1861. April 17 it adopted an ordinance of secession, by a 
vote of 88 to 55, the counties beyond the Alleghanies gen- 
erally opposing the mtasure. The delegate from Pendleton 
was Henry H. Masters, who voted with the majority and in 
doing so he reflected the views of a large majority of his own 
people. It was only after nine weeks of debate that the con- 
vention came to the point where it was willing to pass the 
ordinance. That which quickly turned the scale in favor of 
secession was the call of President Lincoln for troops to put 
down the revolution in the cotton states. This meant coer- 
cion, which the prevaihng political thought of Virginia held 
to be inconsistent with the nature of the Federal bond. In the 
popular vote held May 22, the 48 counties now forming West 
Virginia repudiated the ordinance by an overwhelming ma- 
jority, but not nearly large enough to overcome the heavy 
affirmative vote in the rest of the state. There seems to be 
no record as to the number of votes for and against which 
were thrown in Pendleton county. 

The action of the state as a whole led to favorable or unfavor- 
able action in the various counties. On the 10th of May the fol- 
lowing resolution was adopted by the county court of Pendle- 
ton: * 'Whereas, the Constitution of Virginia by the Ordinance 
of Secession having dissolved all connection between the 
United States and the State of Virginia, and the said Ordi- 
nance having been ratified by an overwhelming majority of the 
voters of the state, and thus exempting all officers of Virginia 



108 

from their obligation to support the said Constitution: Be it 
therefore resolved by this Court that if any member or 
members of the Court have any scruples or doubts upon the 
subject, it is hereby declared to be tneir duty to resign their 
offices herewith." 

All the justices in attendance then came to the clerk's desk 
and took the oath to support the constitution of the Confede- 
rate States of America. The justices present and signing 
were James Boggs, president, bamson Day, John W. Doily, 
Jacob Dove, William F. Dyer, James A. Harding, Daniel 
Harold, Solomon Hedrick, Benjamin Hiner, John Kiser, 
Samuel Putfenbarger, Harry F. Temple, Isaac Teter, Jacob 
Trumbo, Salisbury Trumbo, and Jesse Waybright. 

The same day an order was passed, "Whenever the Colonel, 
Lieutenant Colonel, and First Major of the Regiment of the 
count} , or two of them, shall certify to the commissioners that 
a volunteer company of at least 60 effective men, rank and tile, 
the larger number of whom belong to said regiment, has been 
organized by the election of officers, these commissioned by 
the governor, and that the assistance of the county is neces- 
sary to uniform and arm such company in whole or part, that 
the said commissioners shall draw on the Treasurer not over 
$30 per capita. " Each captain and one or more sureties were 
to give bond for the faithful application of the money, the 
amount to be disbursed among the soldiers not to exceed 
$6000. The justices were to ascertain within their several 
districts the wants of the families of soldiers, and to supply 
these wants, reporting monthly to the commissioners, and 
their vouchers to be honored to an amount not exceeding $500. 

In accordance with this order a bond issue of $6500 was 
voted, the bonds not to be sold at less than their par value, 
and to be in sums of $25 redeemable in six yearly instal- 
ments. The commissioners to attend to this sale of bonds 
were Jacob F. Johnson, William McCoy, and Samuel John- 
son. The moneys raised were to be deposited with Henry H. 
Masters for the benefit of the county. 

The order for the disposition of the fund reads as follows: 
"For the purpose of taking into consideration and making an 
allowance for the relief of the Volunteer Company of this 
county, and for all others that may be called into service from 
the county.*' 

The body of troops thus raised and equipped was given the 
name of the Franklin Guards. It numbered 140 men, rank 
and file. They were the pick of the county, and are spoken of 
as a remarkably fine body of soldiers. The Guards were at- 
tached to the 25th Regiment, but a number captured at Rich 



109 

Mountain and paroled were taken into the 62d upon their 
exchange early in 1862. 

The beginning of hostilities was not entirely abrupt. The 
mails were carried between Franklin and Petersburg until 
after Federal and Confederate had elsewhere come into armed 
collision. 

Daring 1861 the actual shock of war was not felt within 
the limits of Pendleton. Volunteers numerously enlisted to 
serve in the Confederate army, yet aside from the with- 
drawing of labor from the farms, the industries and the 
government of the county proceeded in much the same 
paths as usual. A portion of Garnett's army, in its long and 
roundabout retreat from Beverly marched up the North Fork, 
but was not pursued, nor did any Federal force seek to enter 
the county from the north, the direction most open to inva- 
sion. There had, as we have seen, been an old road from 
the valley of the Seneca into that of the Cheat, but it was 
rough, it led through a very rugged and thinly peopled re- 
gion, and was therefore not suited to the movement of a 
strong force. But a little south of the county line lay the 
Staunton and Parkersburg turnpike, a well-constructed and 
very important thoroughfare. After the failure of the Con- 
federate operations in the Greenbrier valley. General Edward 
Johnson of Georgia was posted on the summit of the Alle- 
ghanies to defend this route against attack from the west. 

Here was established Camp Alleghany, 9 miles from the 
Crabbottom. In Johnson's force were some Georgia troops, 
who keenly felt the severe winter weather of this mountain 
height. An attack was made on this position by Milroy, 
commanding a Federal force in the Greenbrier valley. Be- 
fore daybreak on December 12th, two columns each of 900 
men, moved upon the Confederate camp. They failed to 
strike in unison, and were repulsed in detail by the 1400 de- 
fenders, each side losing about 140 men. For his success 
Johnson was given a vote of thanks by the Confederate Con- 
gress. He then strengthened his position and held it till the 
following April. 

As the year 1861 drew toward its close, it brought out 
with increasing clearness a division of sentiment within Pen- 
dleton county. The county was disrupted as well as the 
state. There was an element squarely opposed to a new and 
peremptory call for Confederate recruits. It was found in 
neighborhoods in all three of the valleys, but was most pro- 
nounced in the districts of Union and Mill Run, especially the 
former. The situation was much the same as around Camp Al- 
leghany, where Johnson reported much Union sentiment, but 
also a disinclination to take up arms for either side. The re- 



no 

sistance to Confederate enlistment on the part of these Pendle- 
ton people led them to organize un'ier the West Virginia 
government into companies known officially as Home Guards, 
and in common usage as Swamp Dragons, or Swamps. These 
men were not enlisted Federal soldiers, though in effect they 
were Federal auxiliaries. 

The general war between North and South was not prop- 
erly a civil war at all, although it is usually so termed. But 
the local hostilities which laged in Pendleton as in other 
counties along the border line were in the nature of true civil 
war with its unhappy result of a deep and lingering ill-feehng. 
It was war in a more terrible sense than in the case of coun- 
ties lying at a distance from the zone of fighting. Families as 
well as neighborhoods were divided, and the weakness of the 
civil power loosened the usual respect for law. Broad room 
was given for the display of private grudges and of personal 
cupidity. The families of the two factions continued to dwell 
side by side, and neighborly regard was not always sup- 
pressed by the division of sympathy. Yet there was an ex- 
treme tension, and in the inflammable state of the social at- 
mosphere this led quite inevitably to bushwhacking and to 
burning and pillage. With neighbor against neighbor, and 
with a paralysis of trade and industry, destitution hitherto un- 
known, began to appear in these valleys. The bullet from the 
rifle of a former neighbor was an almost constant peril, and 
as a place to sleep the screen of the brush was sometimes 
safer than the house. 

In these pages there is no attempt to enumerate the de- 
tails of the guerrilla war in Pendleton. No good purpose 
could be served in doing so. 

The government of Virginia, as it stood at the pa'^sing of 
the ordinance of secession, continued in force until the close 
of hostilities. But as the state was divided within itself, and 
as the views of the opposing sides were irreconcilable, the 
Union counties set up what became known as the Reorganized 
Government of Virginia, with its capital at Alexandria. 
Neither state government recognized the legitimacy of the 
other, and the line between their spheres of influence was 
defined by Federal and Confederate bayonets. The western 
counties now saw their chance to obtain statehood, and they 
pressed their claim with great vigor. The Reorganized Gov- 
ernment was entirely friendly to this purpose, because it rep- 
resented only 7 counties aside from the 48 of West Virginia. 
As a result of two conventions at Wheeling in May and June, 
the Reorganized Government passed a division ordinance, 
which was submitted to the people October 24, 1861, and 
carried by a vote of 18,408 to 781. A convention to frame a 



Ill 

constitution met one month later, and the document it drew 
up was ratiried April 3, 1862. 

The boundary fixed by the division ordinance included 
Pendleton in the new state. Yet Pendleton remained within 
the Confederate lines, and a majority of its people adhered 
to the Richmond government. It was not represented in 
either of the Wheeling conventions, but in the constitutional 
convention John L. Boggs sat as a delegate for the Union ele- 
ment. The inclusion of Pendleton in the new state was a 
war measure, and was never submitted to a vote of the 
people. Even the vote on the constitution of 1862, repre- 
sented only about two-fifths of the whole voting population 
belonging to the western counties. 
. In 1862 the county court of Pendleton levied an appropria- 

l tion of $300 for the benefit of the militia, and app< inted one 

^ member from each district to apportion the fund, equally 

among the districts, and among the families, of those needing 
aid. The members of the committee were John E. Wilson, 
John Kiser, Salisbury Trumbo, Andrew W. Dyer, John W. 
Dolly, and Isaac Teter. The attention of the court was also 
called to an "inundation of spurious currency, which will 
soon depreciate and the poorer class will lose thereby." 
It decided that "the issue and circulation of county treas- 
ury notes will banish same and give a safer currency, and 
also enable the commissioners to realize a large amount of 
money upon the credit of our county." It further decided 
that the county bonds should be hereafter issued in denom- 
inations of $25. $20, $i5, and $10, as occasion might require. 
Bonds of smaller values and also fractional currency were to 
be redeemable in these larger bonds. 

In the soring of the same year Pendleton came within the 
theater of war in earnest. The first collision within its bor- 
ders of Federal and Confederate troops seems to have taken 
place at Kiverton on the opening day of March. Lieuten- 
ant Weaver with 40 men of the Eighth Ohio advanced from 
Seneca, and had a skirmish in the Riverton gap with a Con- 
federate force composed of "Dixie Boys," a band of Pen- 
dleton infantry, and a troop of Rockbridge cavalry. The 
position of this force in the narrow defile was very strong. 
It was expected that the Dixie Boys from behind the cover 
of the rocks would repulse or at least check the Federals, 
and that the cavalry would then charge down upon them. 
Yet the cavalry retired without putting up any fight at all, 
and it is claimed that it made no pause until it reached 
Franklin. The infantry squad had to fall back, losing two 
of its number killed and several prisoners. Bland and Pow> 



era, the two men killed, had lived in the near neighborhood. 
Weaver did not attempt to get far into Germany. He re- 
tired to the mouth of the Seneca, and camped there that 
night. 

On the 18th of March the force under Johnson, counting 
the present and absent, was about 4000 men. He had five 
regiments of Virginians and one of Georgians. There were 
three batteries with 12 guns. The bulk of this force lay at 
Camp Alleghany, but there were outlying commands at 
Huntersville, Monterey, and Crabbottom. Of the several 
bodies of cavalry, one of 40 men was posted at Franklin. In 
the opening week of April the Federal activity in the direc- 
tion of Keyser induced Johnson to evacuate his mountain 
stronghold, and fall back behind the Shenandoah Mountain, 
his advance reaching West View, only seven miles from 
Staunton. This retrograde movement created somewhat of 
a panic at that place. 

Milroy now crossed the Alleghanies, reaching Monterey 
about April 9th, after a march in bad weather. A number of 
refugees joined his column, in consequence of a call for new 
recruits for the Confederate army. May 1st he was at Mc- 
Dowell. A strong force under Fremont was advancing from 
Keyser to the support of Milroy. Schenck with the advance 
of this army marched rapidly up the South Branch and joined 
Milroy on the 8th. Fremont with the rest of the column 
reached Petersburg on the afternoon of the 7th. 

Meanwhile Stonewall Jackson was executing one of his 
swift movements. He left Ewellat Swift Run Gap, marched 
a large force to Mechum's River, and conveyed it by rail to 
Staunton. He was there joined by his trains and artillery. 
On the 5th he advanced to the aid of Johnson, who had faced 
about, driving Milroy's advance parties from Shenandoah 
Mountain on the 6th. Two days later he occupied the long 
Sitlington Hill, two miles east of McDowell. Here was 
fought in the closing hours of daylight the action known as 
the battle of McDowell. 

It is claimed that it was not Jackson's purpose to bring on 
a battle, if, without fierhting, he could push back the Federal 
force from its threatening position on the flank of the Shen- 
andoah Valley. The engagement was fousrht on the Confed- 
erate side under the immediate command of Johnson, who 
was desirous of coming to blows. His opponent. Milroy, was 
more brave and pugnacious than skillful. Schenck did not 
think the Confederate position on the crest of the steep hill 
could be taken, but as Milroy had prepared to fight he left 
the matter with him. From his position on a ridge toward 
the Bullpasture river, Milroy shelled the opposing heigh t» a 



i 



us 

compliment to which Johnson was unable to reply, his artil- 
lery not having come up. After skirmishing as well as shell- 
ing, Milroy advanced to the attack at five o'clock. The 
fighting was close and bloody and continued four hours. At 
times the Federals almost gained the crest. But the posi- 
tion was too strong and too well defended to be taken and 
the Federals were driven back. During the night they 
buried their dead and fell back on McDowell. Jackson had 
arrived on the ground, and his artillery was in rosition for a 
renewal of the fight at daybreak. The cadets of the Virgi nia 
Military Institute were with the reenforcing column, but ar- 
rived too late for the battle and the only injury they sus- 
tained was the ruin of their fine clothes. 

The Confederate force engaged at McDowell is said to 
have been about 6000 strong. The Federal force was prob- 
ably somewhat larger. Despite the advantage of position 
the Southern loss appears to have been the heavier. The 
victory cost 499 men. Among the wounded was Johnson 
himself, and among the dead were a number of Pendleton 
soldiers. 

Schenck, in command of the Federals, retreated by way of 
Straight Creek and the South Branch, arriving at Camp Mil- 
roy, two miles south of Franklin on the morning of the 10th. 
Here he camped with two brigades, waiting to be joined by 
Blenker, who reached Franklin the next day, but with his 
men too fatigued to move farther. This fo? ce had been on 
the road since three o'clock in the morning. Schenck thought 
Jackson would move on Philippi. But with his usual vigor, 
that general marched in direct pursuit of Schenck, moving 
down the valley as far as McCoy's mill. Schenck fell back 
on Franklin, posting himself on the ridge above the town. 
There was skirmishing all day, but with trifling loss to either 
side. 

Leaving a small force to keep up a noisy demonstration on 
the Federal front, Jackson made a rapid return to the Shen- 
andoah Valley, where he soon again confronted the Federals 
at Port Republic. On the 12th, Schenck was doubting 
whether the whole of Jackson's army was before him. He 
suspected an attempt to turn his right flank, and was all the 
more of this opinion when scouts told him they heard the 
rumbling of wheels. A few days passed, Fremont in com- 
mand of the whole Federal army was not molested, and then 
came the tidings that Jackron was again in the Shenanr^oah. 
Being ordered in the same direction, Fremont marched do^vn 
the South Branch to Mdorefield, and thence across the moun- 
tains to Strasburg. 

While the Federal army was in camp around the county 

PCHJ 



114 

seat, the townspeople were treated with a reasonable degree 
of consideration, except in certain commands, where the offi- 
cers did not have a firm control over their soldiers. There 
was a scarcity of provisions and forage to supply a host per- 
haps equal to the whole population of the valley. The grist- 
mills near by were pressed into service to grind what grain 
could be had, and the brick tannery of John McClure was 
torn down to make bake-ovens for the camp. The county 
was never ag-airi visited by a numerous force, whether Fed- 
eral or Confederate. 

In the third year of the war the loss of its foreign com- 
merce through the rigorous blockade of the seaports was al- 
ready causing great hardship throughout the South. The 
legislature appropriated $32,000 to provide a supply of salt. 
A levy of 200 bushels a month for 12 months was made upon 
the salt-works of the state. Benjamin Hiner wa<? appointed 
agent for Pendleton, and Jacob Dove and E. W. Boggs were 
made salt distributors. Persons of little or no property were 
to receive not over 30 per cent of a share. The ratio 
was to rise with people better situated, until it reached 75 
per cent. The surplus was to go to people of still more 
property. The standard allowance was 12 pounds to each 
familv and 2 pounds to each horse. The distributors were 
required to take the oath or affidavit of any applicant as to 
his loyalty, the number of persons in his family, and the 
number of his stock. The county court appropriated $300 for 
the purchase of salt, and later a levy of $3000 was made for 
this purpose. At the close of the year the county agent was 
authorized to borrow $3400 for the purchase of salt, the loan 
to be replaced when the salt was sold. 

David C. Anderson was appointed to visit the Southern 
mills and buy cotton yarn and cloths for the needs of the 
people. For the aid of the destitute $300 was voted at the 
levy term, and the capitation tax was raised by one dollar to 
relieve the poor. In December, Edward J. Coatney was ap- 
pointed bv Act of Assembly to attend to the wants of the 
destitute families of soldiers. At the last term of the year 
the masfistrates were instructed to report at the following 
term the number and names of indigents. They brought in 
the name'' of 53 families, and on their behalf Coatney was 
authorized to borrow on the credit of the county a sum of 
not more than $2000. 

At the opening of 1864 the county court adjourned to the 
Vint schoolhouse and then to a private house. Only three 
members were present. Another session was to meet at the 
same schoolhouse. "providing the presence of the public 
enemy prevents its meeting at the courthouse.*' Owing to 



116 

the insecurity of the Frankh'n jail, use was now made of the 
one at Staunton. In October the jail was burned by the 
Home Guards, so that it might not hold any more of their 
number taken captive. 

In 1864 the stagnation of industry and commerce had made 
the distress of the South very severe. Prices were soaring 
skyward. In the summer wheat was worfh $30 a bushel at 
Staunton and a lady's dress cost $400. The number of the 
destitute in Pendleton continued to grow. At the May term 
Coatney was ordered for the relief of indigents to impress 
an amount of grain and meat to the value of not over $5000 
at any one time. His bond was placed at $10,000. In June 
it was ordered that the outstanding notes in the hands of 
Benjamin Hiner be collected, signed by the county clerk in 
Hiner's name, and placed with Coatney for the benefit of the 
indigents. An additional amount was to be borrowed to make 
a total of not more than $10. COO. 

John E Wilson, appointed agent by the legislature, was 
authorizf»d to borrow on the credit of the county a sum not to 
exceed $5000 at any one time, and with such fund to purchase 
and distribute cotton, cotton yarns, cotton cloths, and hand 
cards. Receiving families were classified in five grades. 
Wilson was also bonded in the sum of $10,000, and was al- 
lowed $5 a day for his services. 

The county levy, now in the depreciated Confederate cur- 
rency, was placed at $5203.50. A tax of two percent on land 
was ordered collected, according to the assessment of 1860; 
also a tax of one dollar on each $300 of personal property, 
according to the assessment of the current year. 

There were several raids into the county this year. During 
the first week of March 400 men of the 12th New York 
Cavalry under Lieutenant Colonel Root destroyed the salt- 
peter works above Franklin, and proceeded to Circleville, but 
without meeting an enemy. In May the county seat being 
threatened the court adjourned to the Kiser schoolhouse. On 
the 18th of August, the 8th West Virginia moved up the 
North Fork and a battalion up the South Fork. The next 
day Averill moved nearly to Franklin with the 3d West Vir- 
ginia, the 14th Pennsylvania, and Ewing's battery. His ob- 
ject was to finish the destruction of the saltpeter works. 

February 9, 1865, the sheriff was "notified to have the 
courthouse windows returned and replaced, the house cleaned, 
and if Imboden's wagon train be not removed from the court- 
house yard, it will be moved by him. Soldiers who will 
pledge their honor that they will not in anv way deface the 
property belonging to the courthouse will be allowed the 
privileges heretofore granted them." 



116 

April 6th a settlement with the sheriff was reported. It 
was the last session of the county court under the laws of 
Virginia. As the war proceeded the terms had grown in- 
frequent, and in the territory controled by the Home Guards 
the county government was little heeded. Three days later 
came the surrender at Appomattox. Fighting now ceased, 
and Pendleton emerged from the cyclone of war as one of the 
counties of West Virginia. 

The earnestness and the sacrificing spirit of the Pendleton 
people in these four years of trial may be read in the very large 
number of soldiers it sent into the Confederate army, even 
allowing for that share of its people who joined the Home 
Guard movement. There were few men and grown boys 
who did not choose one side or the other. Boys too young at 
the outset of the war were enrolled at its close in the Frank- 
lin Reserves, although the old soldiers with their rough and 
ready wit dubbed them by a rather coarse epithet. The gray- 
bearded reserves were known by them as the "groundhog 
battery." Men detailed for labor in the saltpeter caverns 
were known as the "peter-monkeys. " 

In general the Pendletonian was true to the convictions 
formed during the spring of 1861. yet there was an occasional 
instance where the individual abandoned the first choice and 
transferred his allegiance to the other side. 



CHAPTER XV 
Recent Period 



No state suffered more severely from the effects of the four 
years war than the Old Dominion. The share of this county 
in the general devastation was probably not below the aver- 
age. The returning soldiers came back to farms that bore 
deep traces of long neglect, and to homes that had been plun- 
dered from garret to cellar. The number of domestic animals 
had become small, and it was no easy matter to find enough 
wearing apparel to serve for everyday needs. There was 
little n*.oney in circulation and little to sell. The only money 
of purchasing power was the slender amount of specie that 
had come through the war and the paper currency of the vic- 
torious North. Added to these results and to the disorganiz- 
ation of civil authority, the fortune of war had detached the 
county from Virginia, and had included it with no expression 
of its own opinion in the new state of West Virginia. It was 
necessary to learn wherein the administration of the new 
state differed from that of the old. 

In one respect the county had an advantage over most 
Southern communities. There had been very few slaves. 
The people were accustomed to helping themselves. In the 
labor situation there was consequently no material change. 
The ex-soldiers went manfully to work to repair the damages 
of war and to get back as soon as possible to something like 
their material condition at the outset of the struggle. That 
they succeeded may be read in the books of the assessor for 
1860 and 1868. The taxable value of the real estate and 
buildings of the county rose from $1,064,994 to $1,187,987. 

By becoming a part of West Virginia Pendleton was spared 
the direct exp)erience of going through the reconstruction un- 
dergone by the seceding states. Yet for six years there was 
a transition period of somewhat similar tendency so far as 
the ex-Confederate minority was concerned. Those who 
had borne arms against the Federal government were de- 
barred the full exercise of their privileges of citizenship. To 
see the right to vote and hold office withheld from them- 
selves, and the affairs of the county conducted by that minor- 
ity of the people who had espoused the Home Guard move- 
ment was very irritating, even to the one who was ready and 
willing to accept the results of the war. 



m 

This was not all. The constitution of 1862 was the work 
of an actual minority of the people whom the close of hos- 
tilities found living in West Virginia. In forming and organ- 
izing the new state the influence of the Northern Panhandle 
had been exceedingly powerful. But this tongue of land, 
though wealthy and populous, contains only two per cent of 
the area of the state. As a portion, first of Virginia and 
then of West Virginia, the Panhandle has been a geographic 
absurdity. It serves to show how little respect geographic 
law has for arbitrary lines. The Panhandle is naturally a 
part of either Pennsylvania or Ohio, and to this day its 
people do not take their political connection with West Vir- 
ginia seriously. In the interest of preserving its unity, Vir- 
ginia would have done well to cede it to either of those states. 

Baing in accord with the Ohio people except in the fact of 
political connection, the Panhandle influence followed the 
Ohio model in framing a new constitution and new laws. But 
to a decided majority of the West Virginia people many of the 
changes were a broader departure than they were ready to 
take at a single step. These points of difference were alien 
to their modes of thought and* consequently displeasing. 
One of the changes in county government was that of sup- 
planting the County Clerk with a Recorder and the County 
Court with a Board of Supervisors. 

Soon after the close of the war, William H. H. Flick, an 
Ohioan by birth and a Federal soldier, settled at Franklin as 
a lawyer and was chosen to the state legislature. Though 
standing for men, principles, and political opinions that most 
of the people he had come among had opposed. Flick was of 
liberal views. He saw the plain injustice in withholding in- 
definitely from a large class of West Virginia people the full 
rights of citizenship. The general result of the war being 
settled beyond cavil, these disabilities stood in the way of a 
restoration of good feeling. The state was being ruled by a 
class and not by its citizens as a whole. It had need of the 
experience and the cooperation of those it was discriminat- 
ing against. 

While in the legislature Flick introduced and secured the 
pas-jage of a measure known to history as the "Flick amend- 
ment," whereby the disabilities of the ex-Confederates were 
removed. This act of justice endeared him to the Pendle- 
tonians. His erstwhile foes named their sons for him, and 
they scratched the ticket of their preference in order to 
support him with their votes. 

A prompt effect of the amendment was a political revolu- 
tion in the state. A majority of the previous voters had 
supported the Republican party, and that organization had 



U9 

thus far controled the state. The names restored to the 
polling list were almost exclusively Democratic. The Repub- 
lican party at once went out of power, and for 22 years the 
dominance of its rival was unshaken. Another result was 
the constitution of 1872. In this instrument the innovations 
of the war constitution were largely thrown aside, and the 
old names and usages were restored. In their haste to get 
rid of the things they disliked, the framers no doubt re- 
jected some features which were intrinsically better than the 
older ones they put back. They threw aside a constitutional 
garment really good, but to themselves ill-fitting. They put 
on a constitutional garment more comfortable to wear. 

If the new constitution and the new state administration 
seemed reactionary, it was none the less a proof that the 
normal method of progress is by steps and not by leaps. If 
the unfamiliar names and terms of the discarded constitution 
were put away with scant ceremony, it was because of their 
unpleasant associations during the half dozen years that ihe 
disfranchised citizens were chafing under the illiberal re- 
strictions imposed upon them. 

The political revolution presented the apparently singular 
spectacle of the state becoming an asset for more than 20 
years of the "solid South." The ex-Confederate element 
came into control of the Democratic party of the state, and 
thus gave to West Virginia its political complexion. Yet the 
West Virginia of 1872 was simply the sort of state it would 
have been had it peacefully separated from the parent state 
prior to 1860. As a whole it was another Kentucky, not an- 
other Pennsylvania or Ohio. It had been an artificial rather 
than a natural process which had created West Virginia in 
1861-3, and given it the administration of its first ten years 
of independent statehood. The new commonwealth had now 
the laws and administration which reflected the prevailing 
sentiment of its people, and the counties which were arbi- 
trarily incorporated with West Virginia were now in a fair 
way to become much better reconciled to their new alle- 
giance. The political revolution of 1872 did rot and could not 
check the steadily growing economic revolution, which 
through the peaceful processes of time changed the industrial 
character of the state and brought back the Republican party. 

As a result of the new constitution, Pendleton reorganized 
its county court, this event taking place February 25, 1873. 
But though the old names were restored, the spirit of the old 
order of things was forever gone. A new day had arrived. 
A person is forcibly reminded of this fact in comparing the 
county record books of before 1865 and after. Until the date 
mentioned the books of a Virginia courthouse follow a time* 



120 

honored model that reaches back into the colonial days. 
There is but slight change from one decade to the next. But 
since that date a new model has come into view. The new 
books do not look like the old ones. They are not kept like 
the latter and therefore do not read like them. For a while 
the phrase "gentlemen justices" is still used, but is felt to 
be hopelessly out of date, and soon is quietly dropped. What 
is true as between the old and the new county records is true 
of things American in general. It is a very superficial idea 
which sees in the war of 1861 nothing more than the forcible 
settling of a political dispute. That event was a deep-seated 
upheaval, leaving nothing untouched in American society, 
whether North or South. 

The first county court under the reorganization gave the 
districts of Pendleton county the names they now bear. 
Previously they had been designated by number. The June 
term of court was made the fiscal term, and the December 
term was made the police term. The salaries of sheriff, 
county clerk, circuit clerk, prosecuting attorney, and jailer 
were placed resoectively at $175, $200, $135, $240, and $40. 
The next year 25 road precincts were announced. 

War is always accompanied by a weakening of the re- 
straints of morality, integrity, and social order. The ill- 
feeling between the two factions of the Pendleton people 
during the great war had made the county a scene of disorder 
and violence. It was happily not followed by any murders 
after the return of peace, yet the resentments called into 
being could not at once utterly subside. The effects of the 
four years of civil turmoil were now apparent in an increase 
in the number of instances of assault and illegitimacy. 

Pendleton is one of the three counties of the state which 
do not limit themselves to a board of three commissioners. 
Since January 1, 1903. there has been a commissi* ner from 
each district, thus giving to purely local interests a better 
recognition. 

The jail burned in 1864 was replaced by another, and this 
in turn was destroyed by fire in 1905. The present building 
is of modern architecture. In 1882 a levy of $1000 a year for 
six year s was ordered, so as to provide a fund for a new 
courthouse In 1889 the contract for the present structure 
was awarded to John A. Crigler for $7900. 

In 1873 the air began to be filled with rumors of approach- 
ing railroads, none of which have as yet been definitely re- 
alized. In October of the year named there was a proposal 
to vote $50 000 to the "Shenandoah Valley and Ohio Rail- 
road," the bonds to be in amounts of $50 and upward, to run 
24 years, and not to be sold for less than their par value. 



121 

The conditions were imposed that the road must be under 
actual contract from Franklin to the terminus in the Shen- 
andoah Valley, and that no part of the subscription should be 
spent outside of the county. D. G. McClung, J. E. Penny- 
backer, and J. D. Johnson were appointed agents for the sub- 
scription, but the financial panic of the same year gave the 
projected road an effectual quietus. 

The next railroad project to take serious form was the 
"Chesapeake and Western." April 20th, 1895, a vote was 
ordered as to whether *'the county shall issue the bonds of 
Pendleton county to the amount of $32,000, to be subscribed 
to the capital stock of any responsible and reliable company 
that builds a railroad through this county along the South 
Branch valley from and connecting with some general line 
of railroad passing or to the county seat, and also secure to 
such company the right of way for such railroad through the 
county." Franklin and Mill Run districts were each to pay 
one-fourth of the issue, and each of the other districts one- 
eighth, the bonds having a maximum and minimum life of 2 
and 15 years. But the order was rescinded, and June 1st 
made the election day on the following apportionment of 
$40,000: the county at large, $20,000; Franklin, $11,000; Mill 
Run, $8,000; Bethel, $1,000. Still another election was or- 
dered for December 7th of the same year for $50,000, the 
projected road to run by way of the South Fork, Franklin, 
Smith Creek, and Circleville. 

Another paper railroad appeared four years later. A vote 
was ordered for September 16th on a levy of not more than 
$26,000 to pay for the right of way of the "Seaboard and 
Great Western" from Skidmore's Fork in Rockingham 
to the line of Grant county. This order in turn was re- 
scinded, and a vote ordered 14 days later, enabling the dis- 
tricts of Sugar Grove, Franklin, Mill Run, and Bethel to vote 
a subscription to pay the damages on a width of 100 feet in 
the right of way. 

Still another project was the "C. and I." railroad in 1902, 
in behalf of which an election was called for the third of 
May, the bonding of Bethel district to be $5000, and that of 
Franklin $15,000. 

The county has thus far escaped the unenviable fate of 
having to pay bonds on a fraudulent project. But the only 
appearance of railroad construction within its borders is found 
in about 50 yards of grading a mile south of Franklin. The 
embankment is in good order, and nothing stands in the way 
of its bf»ing a portion of a trade route except a certain num- 
ber of miles of grade above and below, with ties, rails, rolling 
stock, and various other accessories and conditions. 



CHAPTER XVI 
Church, School, and Professional History 

Early colonial Virginia was not a land of religious freedom. 
The Church of England was supported by the taxation of all 
the people. As to other sects their houses of worship were 
limited in number, and these had to be licensed and registered. 
Their preachers had to take various oaths and could not cele- 
brate marriages. The clergyman of the established church 
attended mainly to cultivating his glebe, or parsonage farm. 
Sometimes he was coarse and rough, intemperate, profligate, 
and a gambler. In fact the eighteenth century was one of 
religious lethargy, and was characterized by drunkenness, 
profanity, and a general coarseness of speech and conduct. 

But while this was still true of the east of Virginia at the 
time the settlement of Pendleton began, the established 
church never gained a real foothold west of the Blue Ridge. 
The Scotch-Irish settlers of the western section were solidly 
Presbyterian, and they were assured by Governor Gooch that 
they would not be molested in their religious preference. 
The German settlers adhered mainly to the Lutheran and 
German Reformed churches, and they were treated with a 
similar tolerance. The new counties west of the mountains 
had at first their vestries and church wardens, the same as 
other counties, and through this mechanism the church exer- 
cised certain functions in civil government. But west of the 
mountains the vestrymen were not Episcopalian, because 
there were scarcely any people of that belief to be found. 
Good and true men believed the highest interests of the state 
required the support of the church by the state and compul- 
sory attendance on public worship. But as the period of 
the Revolution approached, the opinion grew strong that the 
long continued experiment of trying to make people religious 
by statute law had proved an utter failure. Accordingly Vir- 
ginia adopted December 16, 1785, the following declaration : 
"Whereas, Almighty God hath created the mind free; that 
all attempts to influence it by temporal punishments, or bur- 
thens, or by civil incapacitations tend only to beget habits of 
hypocrisy and meanness, and are a departure from the plan 
of the Holy Author of our religion : No man shall be com- 
pelled to frequent or support any religious worship, nor en- 
forced, restrained, molested, or burthened in his body or 



128 

goods, nor otherwise suffer on account of his religious opin- 
ions or belief." 

Not until 1785, therefore, was religion free in Virginia. 
Pendleton being made a county almost precisely two years 
later, never had a vestry or any church wardens. 

The Scotch-Irish, as we have seen, were Presbyterian. 
This class of settlers was particularly strong on the South 
Branch. But being restless and venturesome, many of them 
passed on to newer locations, and thus caused a relative de- 
cline in their number. The oldest of their churches is that 
of Upper Tract. There was with little doubt an organiza- 
tion here prior to 1797, but we have no definite knowledge of 
it. In that year Isaac Westfall deeded one acre to the joint 
use of the Lutherans and Presbyterians. There was already 
on this lot a newly built church. It stood on the east side of 
the river. A little prior to 1860 the congregation built for its 
exclusive use a new church in Upper Tract village. About 
1880 a church was built at Franklin, and there is a third one 
near Ruddle. 

The large German element was chiefly of the Lutheran and 
German Reformed churches. The latter faith gradually ois- 
appeared by merging with the former. The earliest organiz- 
ation of which we have any record is that of the Propst 
church, two miles above Brandywine. It was founded in 
1769, and is the earliest church in the county of which we 
have any record. The Lutheran faith has maintained a 
strong foothold wherever the German element is strongest 
and most tenacious in holding to ancient customs. We there- 
fore find the Lutheran churches chiefly in the upper parts of 
the South Fork and South Branch valleys. In the North Fork 
valley, partly owing to the division of sentiment during the 
civil war, it has proved less tenacious, and one of its churches 
was then burned. The best known of its ministers was the 
Reverend George Schmucker, who came in 1841 and preached 
for forty years. His territory was forty-five miles long, 
reaching into Hardy and Highland. Many of his congrega- 
tions grew very large, but the civil war almost paralyzed his 
work. His marriage fee was one dollar if the couple came to 
him, two dollars if he went to them. It was taken sometimes 
in maple sugar, grain, and "suits." At a wedding in the 
Smoke Hole he lost his way and arrived after the supper had 
been eaten. The discouraged groom had concluded to call the 
wedding off, but was led to reconsider. People came to him 
for temporal as well as spiritual advice. He sometimes 
united the children and even the grandchildren of the earlier 
weddings. 

The United Brethren, Church of the Brethren, and Men- 



m 

nonite sects are all of German ori^n, and their adherents 
are very largely of the German element, though not to the 
same degree as in the case of the Lutherans. The first and 
second have a strong membership. 

The first Methodist society in America was organized at 
Frederick, Maryland, in 1763, but during the Revolutionary 
days the Methodist preachers, generally English-bom, were 
under suspicion as to their loyalty. In consequence the 
church had but slight foot-hold on American soil until 1788. 
After that time its success became very phenomenal. Its 
earnestness and its itinerant system were admirably adapted 
to the newer parts of the country, and west of the Blue 
Ridge its gains were particularly large. That Methodism is 
so strong in Pendleton comes almost as a matter of course. 
The first Methodist sermon in this county is said to have been 
the one preached by the Reverend Ferdinand Lair on the 
farm of L. C. Davis near Brandywine. He spoke in the open 
air, resting his Bible on the limb of a sycamore. The spot is 
about a mile from Brandywine and on the right of the road 
leading to Oak Flat. One of the unhappy results of the dis- 
pute over slavery was the rending of the Methodist as well 
as other Protestant churches. Yet the Baltimore conference, 
of whose territory Pendleton was a part, remained united 
until 1866. Since that year there have been represented 
within the county both the great divisions of the parent 
church; the Methodist Episcopal and the Methodist Episco- 
pal South. 

At an early day there were adherents of the Baptist faith 
in Pendleton, and in 1795 we find mention of the Reverend 
George Guthrie, a Baptist preacher in the south of the 
county. This church, usually very strong throughout the 
United States, has no organization here. 

The Disciples Church, originating in West Virginia and 
becoming a strong and aggressive denomination, has two 
societies. 

A few adherents of the Latter Day Saints have showed 
their own earnestness by building a chapel on Smith Creek. 

The absence of the Catholic Church, now so strong in 
America, is significant of the absence of the foreign im- 
migration of the last sixty years. 

In i860 there were fifteen church buildings in Pendleton. 
Of these four were Lutheran, four were MethoHist, two were 
United Brethren and one was Presbyterian. The other four 
were union churches. The seating capacity of the fifteen 
was 1450 and the average value was $540. 

For perhaps thirty years after the settlement of Pendle- 
ton, we have no positive knowledge of any schools within the 



125 

county. It is doubtful if there was anywhere a building used 
specially as a schoolhouse, though it is far less probable that 
there was an entire neglect of school training. Teaching in 
those days was considered a private not a public matter, and 
to a large extent it was an adjunct to the ministerial office. 
We may safely conclude, therefore, that among the German 
settlers the ministerial head of the Propst church gave in- 
struction through the medium of the German tongue. Other- 
wise, and among German-speaking as well as English-speak- 
ing settlers, the only education was doubtless by private 
tutoring or by such heads of families as were competent to 
teach the rudiments to their own children. 

In those days and for years afterward the amount of illit- 
eracy was very great, and the women were more illiterate 
than the men. Some of the more prominent settlers could 
sign their names only by means of a mark. Oftentimes both 
husband and wife had to make use of this expedient in sign- 
ing a deed or a marriage bond. Sometimes an initial letter 
was used instead of the simple cross. Thus Francis Evick 
uses an E, or F. E. Sebastian Hoover uses a B as an initial 
for "Bastian," or "Boston." Positive illiteracy was prob- 
ably least rare among the Germans. Usually the German 
settler signed his name in German script, but once in a while 
he used a mark in signing a paper written in English. 

But even with a general abilitv to read and write, there 
was very little to read, and the high postage and infre- 
quent mails were not favorable to correspondence. Books 
were very few, and these few were mostly of a religious na- 
ture. No newspapers were published nearer than the sea- 
coast cities, and before the Revolution it was no doubt al- 
most a curiosity to see a copy in these Pendleton valleys. 
In 1796 the nearest college was Washington, just established 
at Lexington. As for reading and instruction in the Ger- 
man tongue, the nearest press was the one set up at New 
Market by Ambrose Henkle, in 1806, and the first school of 
high grade was the New Market School, founded in 1823. 

So far as known the first schoolhouse in Pendleton stood on 
the farm of Robert Davis. It was in existence shortly after 
the close of the Revolutionary fighting in 1781. A second 
schoolhouse on the same farm was nearly rotted down in 
1845. In 1791 there was a schoolhouse on the farm of An- 
drew Johnson on the east side of North Fork. The oldest 
one in Franklin district stood near the home of George W. 
Harper above Cave postoffice. The second oldest in the same 
district stood northwest of the home of Henry Simmons. 

The first teacher of whom there is any recollection was a 
forger, who had been sold as a convict to Frederick Keister. 



126 

He taught in the first schoolhouse on the Davis farm, and 
John Davis and Zebulon Dyer were among his pupils. 

A school at that period was purely a matter of neighbor- 
hood enterprise. The state or the county had nothing to do 
with it. Instruction was limited to reading, writing, and 
arithmetic. The rule of three— simple proportion— came 
before fractions, and it was thought a great accomplishment 
to master it. Grammar, geography, and history wpre let 
very much alone. If the pupil came to know something of 
these topics, it was through his own efforts after leaving 
school. 

The state constitution of 1776 is as silent as a dam on the 
subject of popular education. There was no official recog- 
nition of this matter until 1810. A law of 1820 created a 
"Literary Fund," made up of various fines and penalties and 
other odds and ends of public monevs Each county was to 
have a collection agent to serve without salarv. and each 
county or city was entitled to a board of five to fifteen com- 
missioners, one of whom was to be a bonded treasurer. This 
board was to determine how many indigent children it would 
educate, and what it would pay for this purpose. Each 
member could select his own indigents, but had to gain the 
assent of parent or guardian. This secured, the pupil had to 
attend, or the parent could be charged the tuition for absent 
days. Books and other necessaries were furnished but only 
the three R's were taught. Under this law Thomas Jones 
was director of the Literary Fund for Pendleton and treas- 
urer of the school committee. 

By the law of 1845. a petition of a third of the voters em- 
powered the county court to submit the question of a system 
of public schools, a two-thirds vote being necessary to put it 
in force. Schools under this law were maintained by a uni- 
form rate of increased taxation. Of the three trustees in 
each district, two were elected by the voters and one by the 
board. The trustees were to build the schoolhouse, employ 
or discharge the teacher, visit the school at least once a 
month, examine the pupils, and address them if they chose, 
"exhorting them to prosecute their studies diligently, and to 
conduct themselves virtuously and properly." A weak fea- 
ture of this law consisted in leaving such school establish- 
ment to the option of the several counties. 

Under this new law General James Boggs was county 
superintendent, and continued in office until his death in 
1862, when he was succeeded by David C. Anderson. In 
1856 General Bogers made the following report : "The com- 
missioners have established schools in various parts of the 
county with the aid of the primary school fund, where they 



127 

could not have been established without it. The school funds 
are insufficient to educate all the poor of the county, even if 
competent teachers could be obtained." The report is signed 
also by William McCoy, Jacob F. Johnson, Benjamin Hiner, 
Andrew W. Dyer, J. Trumbo, James B. Kee, Cyrus Hopkins, 
and J. Cowger. 

In 1865 Pendleton became in fact a part of West Virginia, 
which had adopted a stronger public school law. Its system 
of sub-trustees came in the following year. At that time five 
grades of certificates were recognized, the applicant being 
able to secure a one if he could write and had knowledge of his 
birth-date. In 1873 came the district board of education, and 
a year later the county board of three examiners. Subse- 
quent changes have been made in the direction of greater 
efficiency in superintendence and in teaching, and in the 
length of term. 

The history of fraternities in Pendleton may be briefly 
given. The social life of the county has remained simple, 
because of the rural nature of the county and the absence 
from large industrial centers. The Masonic order had a lodge 
at Franklin before 1840, and after a long slumber it was re- 
vived, but is no longer in existence. The Highland Divi- 
sion of the Sons of Temperance was granted the use of the 
courthouse in 1848. but went down before the war. After 
that event there was for about two years a lodge of the 
Friends of Temperance. The Knownothings, a once famous 
political society, had a foothold in the county during the 50's, 
and in much more recent years the Farmers* Alliance was a 
local power. Beginning with about 1855 a literary society 
called the "Pioneers" held weekly meetings at the court- 
house until about 1867. It owned a library of about 250 
volumes. These have since been scattered. 

Neither is the political history of Pendleton a complex epi- 
sode. During the administration of Washington the people 
of America gathered into two opposing schools of political 
thought. The teachings of Jefferson were taken up with en- 
thusiasm by the people of what were then the backwoods. 
His creed was more acceptable to them than the tenets of the 
Federalists. Agricultural communities, especially those least 
in touch with economic movements, are slow to yield convic- 
tions deliberately formed. It is therefore a quite natural re- 
sult that the supremacy of the Democratic party in Pendle- 
ton has had very little interruption. The Whig party had, 
however, quite a following in its day, and now and then 
elected its nominee, especially in the "landslide" year of 1,840. 

The close of the war between the states found the up- 
holders of the Confederate cause massed in a single party, re- 



128 

gardless of former differences, while another party, the ex- 
ponent of the nationalist idea, was in power in the North, 
and to a certain extent, also, in the Unionist sections of the 
former slave states. In general these distinctions obtain in 
this county. Thus in the main, the line of cleavage between 
the Democratic and the Republican parties coincides with the 
divisions of sympathy during the years of war. But. as in 
other counties of the state, the present industrial epoch has 
shown a tendency to gain on the part of the Republican or- 
ganization. After the war and until the adoption of the 
Flick amendment, the Republican party was in control. Since 
then the Democratic party has been uniformly successful in 
county elections, and no general primary is held by its oppo- 
nent. It has local control in all the districts except Union 
and Mill Run, although its majority in Sugar Grove is small. 

Previous to 1860 the bar of the county was represented al- 
most wholly by attorn*^ys who were not Pendletonians by 
birth or training. Among them were Samuel Reed in 1788, 
Thomas Griggs in 1802, William Naylor in 1803, Samuel 
Harper in 1805, Robert Gray in 1812, George Mays in 1813, 
Joseph Brown in 1814, and James C. Gamble in 1816. Some 
of these were doubtless lawyers residing in other counties. 
Robert Gray was prosecuting attorney in 1817, Nathaniel 
Pendleton in 1822. and 1. S. Pennybacker in 1831. 

A similar remark may be made of the other professions. * 

• See Part III. 



I 



CHAPTER XVII 
The Town of Franklin 

In 1769 Francis and George Evick surveyed 160 acres of 
land on the left bank of the South Branch. It is on a portion 
of this tract that Franklin is built. George appears to have 
lived across the river at the mouth of the Evick gap. The 
early home of Francis was near a spring that issues from the 
hillside above the upper street and near the Ruddle tannery. 

In June of 1788 the first county court of Pendleton met at 
the house of Captain Stratton, six miles below the Evicks. 
One of the duties assigned to it by the legislative act creating 
the county was to determine a central position for the court- 
house. Just what motives led to the selection of the Evick 
farm we do not know. As the southern county line then 
stooJ, the position was much less near the center than it is 
now. The Peninger farm near the mouth of the Thorn would 
more nearly have met the geographical condition. But 
Francis Evick appears to have been thrifty and business-like, 
notwithstanding his inability to write his name, at least in 
English. It is probable that he presented a more attractive 
proposition to the county court than did anyone else. 

The Evicks had been living here about twenty years, yet 
the neighborhood was thinly peopled. Up the river the 
nearest neighbors appear to have been Ulrich Conrad and 
Henry Peninger. Conrad built a mill at the mouth of the 
Thorn about the time the Evicks came. Down the river near 
the present iron bridge was James Patterson. A nearer 
neighbor in the same direction was George Dice. Above 
Dice along Friend's Run were the Friends, Richardsons, 
Powers, and Cassells. 

Within a few weeks after the action of the county court, 
Francis Evick laid off a town site along the foot of the ridge 
above his meadows. Incidentally thereto, but probably a 
little later, George sold his interest in the tract of 160 acres, 
and moved to a larger farm on Straight Creek. The date of 
the transaction is August 16, 1788, and the consideration is 
250 pounds ($833.33). The place was for several years called 
Frankford, apparently an abbreviation of "Frank's ford," as 
the crossing of the river at the mouth of the Evick gap was 
known. In the older states it was usual for a town to grow 
up at haphazard, with little regularity or system in its pas- 
sage-ways or in the shape of its lots. But the county seat of 

PCH9 



ISO 

Pendleton was laid out with a method that does credit to all 
who were concerned in the matter. The amount of ground 
covered by the original survey is 46 1-2 acres, the county 
according to statute law requiring two acres for its public 
buildings. Within this original area the streets and alleys 
are straight and the lots are parallelograms. 

The selling of lots and the building of houses began at 
once. As will presently be shown, Evick did not always 
yield full possession of the ground. Yet he had some ad- 
vanced ideas. He seems to have been unwilling to sell lots 
for merely speculative purposes or to permit a lot to harbor a 
public nuisance. 

Robert Davis, the sheriff, bought a lot on the same day 
that Francis Evick bought out the interest of George. For 
the single lot of one-half acre Davis paid 5 pounds ($16.67). 
The deed stipulates that the purchaser is to build within two 
years a good dwelling house, at least 16 by 20 feet in size, 
and with a chimney of brick or stone. There was to be no 
distillery on the premises. Each New Year's day he was to 
pay a ground rent of 33 cents in gold or silver at its current 
value. If no building were put up, tke rent was to be three 
shillings, or 50 cents. 

Samuel Black, a cabinet-maker, was already in the town, 
but there is no record of his purchase of a lot. He may have 
occupied the old Evick home, for Francis Evick was already 
living in a stone dwelling, now a part of the Daugherty Hotel 
and not in full alignment with the main street. Garvin 
Hamilton, the county clerk, was also prompt to locate in the 
new town. He lived on the Anderson lot in front of the 
courthouse, and the first term of court at the county seat was 
held in his house in September of the same year. 

We have no record of further sales until 1790. In that year 
a double lot was sold to Joseph Ewbank for $43.33 and a 
ground rent of one dollar. This property lay close to Evick's 
old home and springhouse. A single lot was sold to John 
Skidmore at the same price and on the same terms as to 
Davis. Single lots were also sold to Hamilton and to James 
Patterson for $20 and $15 respectively and without condi- 
tions. About the same time a lot was sold to George Ham- 
mer with conditions and price the sam^ as to Davis, and a lot 
to Jacob Reintzel without conditions. Reintzel, whose lot was 
on the upper street, sold two years later to Sebastian Hoover. 
John Painter bought a half lot at half price. 

The price of town property was soon rising. In 1792 
Michael McClure bought a lot without conditions for $33 33. 
Edward Brpakiron paid $41.67 for another, which he resold 
to Stephen Bogart. In the same year James Patterson sold 



131 

his property, then the home of John Roberts, to Jonas Chris- 
man for $366.67. In 1795 Oliver and William McCoy paid $40 
for a lot originally granted to William Black and then occu- 
pied by William Lawrence. Before 17y7 George Dahmer 
owned the lot which was later the property of Adam Evick. 
In 1800 lots were purchased by Aaron Kee, a merchant, and 
by a man whose name is written "John Steal." In 1803 
Francis Evick, Jr., sold a house and lot for $800. In the 
same year John Roberts moved awav. selling his lot opposite 
the courthouse to Peter Hull for $1333.33. 

Within a half dozen years there was a cluster of dwellings 
of sufficient importance to cause the legislature to designate 
it as a town under the name of Franklin. The Act of As- 
sembly is dated December 19, 1794. The name Frankford 
would doubtless have been retained, had not the legislature 
in 1788 deaignated a town in Hampshire by that nane, to say 
nothing of the Frankfort in what is now the state of Ken- 
tucky. The new name evidently commemorates the eminent 
statesman and philosopher, Benjamin Franklin. 

The trustees of Franklin, as named in the legislative act 
were Joseph Arbaugh, Jacob Conrad, James Dyer, Sr., John 
Hopkins. Peter Hull. Joseph Johnson, William McCoy, Oliver 
McCoy. James Patterson, and John Roberts. By another act, 
dated Christmas day, 1800. the trustees were authorized to 
make and establish legal regulations for protecting property 
from fire, for keeping hogs from running at large, to prohibit 
the galloping and racing of horses in streets and alleys, and 
preserving good order generally. 

The population at the opening of the new century was 
probably about 100, and the growth has ever since been slow 
though steady. The changes among the residents are too 
numerous, however, to be followed. But step by step the 
hamlet springing up around the log courthouse developed into 
the completeness of an inland town. 

James Patterson appears to have been a merchant as well 
as justice, although the first recorded license to sell goods 
was that granted to Perez Drew in Aupust, 1790. From the 
frequency of his mention in the early records, John Roberts 
would appear to be one of the early merchants. He removed 
to Washington county, Pennsylvania. Aaron Kee opened a 
store in 1800. But until his drowning in Glady Fork, while 
on his way to Beverly about 1825, Daniel Capito wa«» the 
leading man of business. The first licence for an ordinary 
was that granted to Joseph Johnson in 1795. 

There is mention of a "meeting house" in 1790, but this can 
hardly refer to a church building within the corporate limits. 
The first mention of a school is in 1802, when the use of the 



132 

courthouse was granted for this purpose. In 1809 Francis 
Evick, Jr., deeded two and one-half acres on the west side 
for the purposes of church, school, and cemetery. A com- 
modious frame church was erected thereon by Campbell 
Masters. The site is between the houses of John McClure 
and H. M. Calhoun. It remained many years a plain weath- 
erbeaten structure without bell or belfry, but was painted 
and improved some years prior to the civil war. This build- 
ing was a union church, though at first used mainly by the 
Lutherans. Later it was used chiefly by the United Brethren, 
Methodists, and Presbyterians. The last two congregations 
finally put up brick houses of worship of their own, and the 
union church having fallen into decay was torn down. A 
schoolhouse was built on the hillside above the Evick spring, 
and the summit of the knob beyond was used many years as 
a place of interment. But at present the property is not 
used for any of the three original purposes. The three 
roomed schoolhouse stands on the main street, and the town 
cemetery lies a mile north on the Harrisonburg pike. 

In 1834, after the town had had an authorized existence of 
forty years, there were two stores, two tanyards, three sad- 
dlers, two carpenters, two shoemakers, two blacksmiths, one 
gunsmith, one tailor, one hatter, and one cabinet and chair- 
maker. The professions were represented by two attorneys 
and one physician. There were also a school, a temperance 
and Bible society. 

In 1867 a photograph taken from nearly the same position as 
the picture appearing in this book does not show a very 
striking contrast with respect to the upper end of the town, 
save in the appearance of the Union church. The houses 
were generally weatherboarded and painted. 

The last fifteen years have witnessed a decided growth to- 
ward the north and also on the Smith Creek road. Houses 
of modern design have arisen, and the greater share of the 
oblong two-storied log dwelling houses have been removed. 
The number of private houses has increased to about 100, 
and Franklin in its present guise is one of the handsomest of 
the small towns of West Virginia. There are three stores, 
two drugstores, two hotels, two tanneries, a bank, a printing 
office and newspaper, a carding mill, an undertaker's shop, a 
photographic gallery, a planing mill, a blacksmith shop, a 
wheelwright shop, and a grocery. There are two resident 
ministers, four attorneys, four physicians and a dentist. 



CHAPTER XVIII 
The Pendleton of To-Day 

As "all Gaul is divided into three parts," so is Pendleton 
divided into three well defined valleys, with broad, timbered 
ridges lying between. 

Along the South Fork there is found a somewhat narrow 
ribbon of fine bottom land, extending very nearly the entire 
length of the county. This ribbon is cross-sectioned into a 
rapid appearing of well-tended farms. Through the six 
miles of Sweedland valley, and up Brushy Fork, Stony Run, 
Big Run, and Hawes' Run are other series of farms of less 
productive soil and very much less extent. To the east of 
the river there is an otherwise unbroken forest rising to the 
crest of Shenandoah Mountain, and used only as a wood re- 
serve and as pasturage. To the west is a much narrower and 
and more rugged belt of woodland. 

At Sugar Grove is a hamlet rather than a village. Here we 
see a church, two stores, a blacksmith shop, a gristmill, a 
resident physician, and a half dozen dwellings. There were 
a store, a mill, and a postoffice here before lb60, but there 
has since been a nearer approach to the characteristics of a 
village. Ten miles below is Brandywine, the name a re- 
minder of Revolutionary settlers who fought in the battle of 
Brandywine in Pennsylvania, Here the only thoroughfare 
from the east of any importance reaches the South Fork. 
Ten years ago there were but five houses in the place. The 
number rose to about 20 in consequence of a "plant" being lo- 
cated here for the manufacture of walnut bark extract. After 
a few years the works closed down, but the houses generally 
remain occupied. Here are two store buildings, a modern 
church building, and a schoolhouse of two rooms. Three 
miles below is Oak Flat, where we find little else than a store 
and a resident physician. Three miles still further down, 
and at the entrance to Sweedland valley is the historic name 
of Fort Seybert, applied to a store and postoffice, a black- 
smith shop, and three dwellings. Yet within the radius of 
a mile are two churches, a schoolhouse, and a well settled 
neighborhood. From each of the four points along the river, 
roads cross the South Fork Mountain. 

On the tableland beyond the mountain summit, as at Deer 
Run, the Dickenson settlement, and Mitchell and Dahmer 
poBtofHces, are clusters of hilly but good farms with lime- 



stone soil. The double valley of the Thorn is in the nature 
ol a pocket, the lower course of the stream being walled in 
with steep hills. At the heads of the two Thorns, the valley 
becomes broad rather than narrow, presenting the aspect of 
a tolerably smooth and well settled plateau, the watershed 
between the sources of the Thorns and those of the Bull- 
pasture and Cowpasture being a pair of insignificant cross 
ridges. 

Unlike the South Fork the South Branch presents a series 
of ovals or pockets, these detached river bottoms growing 
larger as one goes northward. A mile below Franklin the 
river gives up an apparent purpose of climbing the valley of 
Trout Run, which opens in the same direction as the stream 
is pursuing. It now breaks abruptly through a ridge to cross 
a pocket of bottom land. Just below Upper Tract it turns 
aside from what would seem its natural course down the 
broad, open Mill Creek valley, the water-parting between the 
source of the smaller stream and a bend of the larger being 
scarcely perceptible. The river now enters a long and pic- 
turesque defile, at the right summit of which may be seen a 
long, perpendicular cliff, wherein lies the entrance to an ex- 
tensive cavern. 

Immediately above Upper Tract Reed's Creek enters the 
main valley through a clift of verv unusual appearance. It 
looks as though some titanic hand had cut a narrow scarf 
across a long and not very lofty ridge, just as a woodcutter 
sinks a scarf of similar appearance into the tree he is in the 
act of felling. The utter lack of a rounded outline at the 
outer end of the gorge is very exceptional. In fact the 
gorge gives little warning of its existence until one is quite 
near to it. Yet beyond the ridge thus unexpectedly opened 
lies a valley several miles long, the stream in seeming de- 
fiance of hydrographic law becoming larger toward its source. 

The bottoms of the South Branch are rather more exten- 
sive than those of the South Fork, the pear-shaped Upper 
Tract containing fourteen farms. The tributaries are also 
more important with respect to the farming lands they em- 
brace. Again, the bordering hill lands are somewhat less 
exclusively in wood, especially in the broad basin northeast 
of Upper Tract known as the "Ridges." 

Apart from the county seat the only centers of population 
In this valley are Ruddle and Upper Tract. The former, at 
the mouth of Hedrick Run. has a store and several houses, 
and nearby a church and a mill. Upper Tract, overlooking 
the bottom known by the same name, though having less 
than a dozen houses, has the air of a village center. It has 
thrt^e churches, a store, and a schoolhouse of two rooms. 



185 

The valley of the North Fork resembles that of the South 
Fork in the character and amount of its bottom lands, but 
differs widely with respect to its uplands. Below the preci- 
pice which marks the escarpment of the North Fork Moun- 
tain, and as far down as the East Seneca Kidge, a large share 
of the ground is in cultivation or pasturage. West of the 
river, on the Hunting Ground, behind Timber Ridge, on the 
slopes of Spruce Mountain, and on the plateau beyond the 
mouth of Seneca, are other areas of tilled and productive up- 
land. The North Fork has a somewhat moister climate than 
the other valleys, and is a better grazing region. Its pres- 
ent greater nearness to a railroad is of much importance to 
its farmers. The long, brush-covered summit of Spruce 
Mountain and the high Roaring Plains are of local interest 
from the huckleberries which grow plentifully on these 
elevations. 

Circleville, taking its name from a Zirkle who once kept 
store here, has more the genuine appearance of a village 
than any other place in Pendleton save the county seat itself. 
Two stores, a mill, a hotel, several minor concerns, a church, 
and a schoolhouse of two rooms together with about ten 
dwelling houses, make a very compact appearance. The 
river is here crossed by an iron bridge. Riverton, about six 
miles below, is a hamlet with an air of newness. Macksville, 
a few miles beyond Riverton with its store and mill is like 
Fort Seybert the trading point for a well settled neighbor- 
hood. Mouth of Seneca and Onego, though having two 
stores each, are likewise little more than trading points. 
With ready access to the outer world the imposing rock 
scenery opposite the mouth of the Seneca and at the Miley 
Gap will attract not a few sightseers from abroad. 

The roads of the county are fairly good, and on the lead- 
ing thoroughfares the automobile is frequently seen. Yet 
the three rivers are spanned by only four wagon bridges, and 
in very high water crossing becomes impossible. There is a 
special embarrassment in the case of school districts that are 
divided by the rivers. The narrow planked foot bridges are 
sometimes swept away, and the high, swaying suspension 
bridges cannot be used by all persons. 

The Pendletonian farmhouse is generally commodious. 
Very many of the log houses of an earlier day are still in 
dse and contain the broad fireplace that was once universal. 
But the modern white-painted dwelling is also very frequent 
The telephone is of general occurrence, both in the newer 
and the older homes. The churches, which outside of Franklin 
and Upper Tract are usually frame structures, are a credit 



136 

to the community. But as a rule the schoolhouses are by no 
means up lo date 

Wnatever their ancestry, the Pendletonians of to-day are 
practically nomogeneous in blood and even more so in man- 
ners and customs. In demeanor they are plain and straight- 
for>vard, and exceptionally free from caste feeling. A closer 
approach to social equality would be difficult to find else- 
wnere in America. They are industrious and thrifty, and 
awake to the desirability of comfort. The table fare is liberal 
and varied. A good living is general and destitution dees not 
exist. Modern furniture, musical instruments, articles of 
ornament, and potted plants are as likely to be seen in the 
weatnerbeaten farm house a3 in the modern cottage. In his 
home the dweller in these valleys is the most hospitable of 
Americans. The visitor from abroad is not viewed as a 
stranger, but is made welcome to table and lodging. The na- 
tive citizen has numerous friends and relatives who have 
gone out to make homes in the newer states or in the rail- 
road towns. Of those who remain are some who work a por- 
tion of the time in the industrial communities without. In 
going or coming, a walk of forty miles a day across mountain 
and valley is not unusual among these hardy mountaineers. 
The number of the younger Pendletonians who teach in the 
adjacent counties is about one-half the number required to 
supply the schools at home. 

Tae typical Peniletonian is a blending of German, Scotch- 
Irish, and English, with a small infusion of the Irish, the 
French, the Dutch, and the Welch. Yet he differs from all 
these ancestral stocks. He is an American of the Ameri- 
cans; a type of the native who has developed in the free 
atmosphere of the one-time frontier. 

The Englishman is of the same blood as the German, yet a 
quite different person. The American citizen of British an- 
cestry is very unlike his English cousin. The Americanized 
citizen of German ancestry is quite as unlike his German 
cousin. He is in fact but little distinguishable from the 
American of British stock. His patient and successful in- 
dustry and his good mental qualities render him a superior 
citizen. But wherever the descendant of the German settler 
permits his tendency to clannishness to stand in the way of 
his Americanization, he falls below his opportunities, and is 
the loser by doing so. 

The first duty of an American is to be American; to be in 
harmony with American institutions, to throw himself 
squarely into the current of American life, and to use the 
American tongue in his daily conversation. Whenever he 
shuts himself up in a corner he narrows and shrivels, and 



187 

labels himself an unprogressive stranger to the land of his 
birth. To a very great degree the Pendletonian of German 
ancestry is an American In the fullest sense of the word. 
But in one portion of the county this cannot be said. In this 
locality we find people with a century and ahalf of American 
ancestry still clinging to a speech that is merely a bastard 
German. These people cannot read the German Bibles re- 
maining in their homes, nor can they read German script. 
Yet they use among themselves and teach their children to 
use a mongrel jargon that has no literature and no written 
form. Its dwindling and meager vocabulary has to be eked 
out with English words and phrases. 

For this stubborn custom there is no sound excuse. Those 
who follow it are standing in their own light. The habit 
stands decidedly in the way of an easy use of English and a 
correct English pronunciation. It is a very needless handi- 
cap to the child who starts to school or goes among other 
people. It sets up an artificial and needless barrier toward 
the rest of the community, and narrows the intellect and the 
sympathies of the person behind the barrier. It tends to 
produce citizens of narrow and illiberal views. It fosters an 
air of self depreciation, and seeks to excuse its unpro- 
gressiveness by the phrase, "we are only Dutch here." This 
district was the only one of the county to vote down the 
school levy in a recent election. The adverse vote had no ef- 
fect in defeating the levy, yet it was the logical result of a 
dwarfing, retrogressive practice. 



CHAPTER XIX 
A Forward Look 

The doings of to-day become the history of to-morrow. We 
may forecast the doings of to-morrow by understanding the 
tendencies of to-day. 

The present inhabitants of this county are with an occa- 
sional exception the posterity of its pioneer settlers. The 
posterity of the present inhabitants will continue to pos- 
sess the soil to a very far day in the future. This is the 
more certain to be the case for the very reason that Pen- 
dleton is not an unbroken expanse of smooth, fertile land. 
If it were we would witness a drift of the landowners into 
the towns, and the tilling of their farms by an inferior tenant 
population. Yet the industrial development which is certain 
to arrive will bring in new people. So far as the new element 
is of like flesh and blood to the old, it will be assimilated, 
just as the sub-pioneer settlers were absorbed into the fami- 
lies of the early pioneers. So far as the new element may 
be alien in blood and thought, it will be largely of a tem- 
porary character. It will assimilate slowly, and it will gain 
little of a permanent foothold because there will be little 
room for it. There will continue to be a steady drift of 
people from the county, because the rural community is al- 
ways the feeder of the city and the town, and Pendleton will 
remain predominantly rural. 

What the Pendletonian has been and is, he will continue to 
be, except so far as new phases of activity may commend them- 
selves to him as an outcome of the forces now operating like 
a leaven in American society. Books and periodicals contain 
some highly colored rhetoric as to the wonderful creature the 
"coming man" will be and the wonderful things he will per- 
form. Bat the coming man will be as much like the present 
man as the present man is like the man of yesterday. The 
differences in either case are chiefly a matter of changing en- 
vironment, and scarcely at all a question of inherent capacity. 
We may therefore expect the social customs, the methods of 
work, and the activities of church, school and business to re- 
main much the same as now, save for the influence upon 
them of tendencies now in progress. 

The Pendletonian usually expresses himself in favor of a 
railroad. Herein he recognizes the fact that an absence of 
rapid transit prevents a community from making the most 



188 

of its varied resources and from enjoying a due share of 
the privileges of the present age. As these pages go to press, 
one or two railroads are projected to run into or through 
this county. Whether or not there is any fuifiillment, the 
undeveloped iron ores will sooner or later compel the coming 
of the steam locomotive. Scarcely less probable is an elec- 
tric line, either across the county or along one of its valleys. 

Improved transit will open the way to a fuller utilization of 
the material resources of the county and to a greater diversi- 
fication of the products of the farm. The broader oppor- 
tunities will attract new people, while on the other hand they 
will keep at home a larger share of the native population. 
A larger number of summer guests will come to enjoy the 
mountain air and to view the scenic attractions. The county 
will grow more wealthy, and the closer contact with city 
standards will cause a falling away from the freedom and 
spontaneity of the old-time country life. Yet there may fol- 
low a compensation in the broader life that can be lived. 

The little, uninviting country schoolhouse with its slim en- 
rollment is already a back number in American development. 
As a practical question it is as out of date as the flail 
and the spinning wheel. Except in occasional instances it 
will give place to the centralized school with its better equip- 
ment, its graded work, and its more stable attendance. In- 
creased intelligence on the part of the individual is the con- 
dition of success in modern life. The most advantageous 
way of imparting this training is a consequent necessity. 
The contour of Pendleton, with its population massed in nar- 
row valleys, is exceptionally favorable to a system of central 
schools. 

The railroad train enables American agriculture to make 
the most of special conditions of soil and climate. A gen- 
eral type of farming was once the only kind possible, except 
within a few miles of a large town, and quite regardless of 
the quality of the soil. Rapid transit has made it much more 
practicable for a given locality to turn its chief attention to 
the crons for which it is specially adapted. 

The Pendleton farmer has had to grow nearly all his sup- 
plies, simply because no other course was open to him. With 
the railroad once at his door it will become less necessary to 
raise crops that he now produces at a disadvantage. The 
rich bottoms will remain in tillage, but to the production in 
part of what are now esteemed the minor products of the 
farm. The hills will be given chiefly to grazing. For beef, 
mutton, wool, and dairy products, the position of the Appa- 
lachian highland is increasingly secure. For the competition 
of the West it will have little to fear in the future. Com- 



140 

mercial fruit culture will also become possible. New orchards 
will appear in the least frosty localities. Poultry will like- 
wise become more profitable. Along with a more diversified 
agriculture will come more scientific and more remunerative 
methods. The yearly per capita value of farm produce in 
the United States is about $85. A proportionate share to 
Pendleton with its present population would be about $800,- 
000; a mark which with railroad transportation might be 
reached without difficulty, notwithstanding that the county 
might not at first blush be thought of average productivity. 

The mines of America have a per capita output of $22. A 
corresponding share to Pendleton would be about $200,000. 
Its iron ores alone, according to the conservated estimate of 
expert authority, are capable of maintaining that share for a 
century and a half. 

In a large measure Pendleton is naturally designed as a forest 
reserve. Soil and climate are highly favorable to the growth 
of wood, and a very large proportion of its surface cannot 
profitably be cleared. Such tracts should not n»erely be kept 
in forest and guarded against fire. Such negative care is not 
enough. They should be so looked after as to yield a large 
and regular supply of fuel and lumber. The nation has been 
reckless and wasteful with its timber supply. The process 
has gone to such a length that even a temporary famine in 
timber is inevitable in the near future. Stern necessity is 
compelling the American people to resort to systematic for- 
estry on a large scale, and to take lessons in this matter from 
Germany, France, and Japan. Germany and Japan supply 
their own needs in spite of their dense population. But 
Germany and France do not find it necessary to use six times 
as much timber per capita as the extravagant American. 
Under scientific forestry an acre of woodland yields three 
times as large a supply as an acre left wholly to nature. 
This method does not permit the appearance of such trees as 
are in the nature of weeds, and therefore of little value. 
Neither does it permit a tree to become decrepit and unsound. 
As soon as mature it is felled and another started in its 
place. German forests growing on a soil not particularly 
fertile yield a yearly income per acre of $2.50. At the same 
rate the 200,000 Pendleton acres that could well be spared to 
forestry would yield an annual return of $500,000. The 
county would not only be secure of a supply for itself, but 
it would have a surplus for less favored communities. Trees 
like the walnut, for which Pendleton soil is well suited, have 
a secondary value as producers of nuts. The conservation of 
the forest land would tend to preserve stability in the flow of 



141 

the rivers, thus rendering them less destructive to the bottom 
lands and more trustworthy as sources of water power. 

Forests and forest streams are the natural home of game 
and fish. The Indian killed only enough for his own needs 
and thus lived within his income. The white man, far more 
numerous, slaughtered without restraint, using up principal 
as well as interest, and bringing the supply of game to the 
point of extinction. Sharp restriction in this matter is of 
course chafing to the man used to long continued freedom. 
Yet the intent of the recent laws is far-sighted and salutary 
and deserving of support. It is a radical measure to conserve 
the limited supply remaining, and thus in some degree to 
return to the policy of the red man. The American has 
been far too indiscriminate in his destruction of animal life. 
If he had been less fond of shooting small birds, his self- 
restraint would now be lessening the yearly toll of $500,000,- 
000 which insects levy on the products of the farm. 

Pendleton has not as stable a supply of water as a region 
of lakes, yet the rapid fall of its streams and their degree of 
permanence render them of no little value in turning ma- 
chinery. The use of electricity is on the increase, and moun- 
tain streams are a cheap source of supply. Such water- 
courses are being looked up nowadays, and the landowners 
of this county will'do well to be circumspect in the matter of 
alienating their water rights. A considerable share of the 
electric force which the streams of Pendleton are capable of 
supplying can be used to advantage within the county itself. 

It is scarcely to be expected that this region will become 
the seat of large manufacturing interests. Yet there is no 
reason why this line of industry should not rank with the 
farm, the forest, and the mine. There are some indications 
that the tendency to build mammoth mills and factories in 
large cities has about reached its zenith. With electricity 
permitting cheap travel as well as economical water power, 
there will in some measure be a return to the day of the less 
expensive and more healthful workshop in the country. There 
ia also the dawn of a revival of handicraft. Ingenious ma- 
chinery works wonders, yet there are certain thinps which 
deft fingers can do even better, and there is a growing de- 
mand for these. When Pendleton becomes industrially 
symmetrical, it will yield a regular supply of certain raw 
materials, which may in part be turned into manufactured 
goods within its own limits. 

Still another source of income, as yet quite insignificant, 
lies in the merits of the county as a place of summer outing. 
American cities are numerous and growing, and to the toilers 



142 

immured within their ofRces and factories, the summer vaca- 
tion has come to be a necessity. 

When the railroad appeared, the day of good country high- 
ways was indefinitely postponed. Solid, smooth, and mud- 
less roads are expensive to build, but easy to maintain. They 
are now appearing in America, and the network of such will 
rapidly extend. Unlike many level localities Pendleton has 
a limitless supply of good road-building material. 

With the coming diversification of industries, this county 
can support a much larger population than it now has con- 
venient room for. Several towns of respectable size will 
gradually develop, and they will bring many of the conven- 
iences of the city to the very door of the "dweller in the 
hills." 

All in all. the Pendleton of the not distant future should be 
an even better place in which to live than it is now. The 
people of these triple valleys will have small reason to re- 
gret that their home is among them. If nature has discrim- 
inated against their county in some respects, she has highly 
favored it in others. It remains for the Pendletonian of to- 
morrow to make a good use of the better features of his 
American civilization, and not to permit the greed of capi- 
talism to elbow him out of his heritage in favor of the alien 
stranger. 



PART II 
FAMILY -GROUP HISTORIES 



CHAPTER I 
The Nature of Family-Group Histories 

A complete record of the pioneers of a county should cover 
these facts : the name of each pioneer, the full maiden name 
of his wife, the national origin of both man and wife, and 
the country, state, county, or town that the couple moved 
from; the full names of their descendants, generation by gen- 
eration, and the names of the persons they married; dates of 
birth, marriage and death; facts as to residence, occupation, 
civil and military services, and other matters of interest. 

But where a county has been settled more than a century 
and a half, where no systematic genealogical records have 
been kept and preserved, and where no newspaper has ex- 
isted for more than a small fraction of the time, no such de- 
gree of completeness can be reached, even with an unlimited 
amount of time at the disposal of the local historian. He 
must depend very largely upon family tradition. It does not 
belong to him to set any of this tradition aside, except in so 
far as unreliability is plainly manifest. Again, information 
of this kind is certain to vary a great deal both in fullness 
and accuracy. One family will contain a member of strong 
and trustworthy recollection, while in some other family there 
will be found a discreditable degree of ignorance and indif- 
ference regarding the ancestral line. One person has sought 
to acquire and preserve a knowledge of family history, while 
another has never bothered himself with such matters. As 
a result of all these considerations, gaps in a given record are 
almost certain to occur, and with respect to what is given as 
fact, the memory or judgmentof the informant may have de- 
ceived him. In short, the compiler of a local history can do 
no more than exercise his very best discretion. He can by no 
rneans vouch for the absolute accuracy of his work. 

The people who live and have lived in Pendleton may be 
classed as the Pioneer, Sub-Pioneer, Recent, and Extinct 
groups. In the first may be placed those families who ar- 
rived prior to 1815. In the second belong those who came 



144 

later, but not later than 1865. In the third class belong those 
people whose arrival has been subsequent to 1865 and who 
have become thoroughly identified with the county. Th« ex- 
tinct families represent those of the first and second groups, 
where the name but not necessarily the blood has disap- 
peared from the county. 

The year 1815 marks the close of our pioneer period proper, 
because up to that time the westward movement of the 
American people had been very much held in check by the 
hostilities of the British and Indians. After that date the 
war cloud drifted beyond the Mississippi. The migration to 
the vast, level, and fertile West became more rapid than 
ever. Large numbers of the people of Pendleton joined in 
this movement, as the record of our families bears witness. 
Up to this time immigration into the county was active. 
Henceforward it grew small, there being a very limited 
amount of good land to be had. For this reason the number 
of existing families of the Sub-Pioneer class is not large. 
Pendleton has never fallen behind in population in any decade, 
yet the continuous movement to newer localities has drawn 
heavily upon the natural increase even with the small rein- 
forcement of newcomers from the older counties. The drift 
westward accounts in a great measure for the numerous ex- 
tinct families. 

The year 1865 may well mark the beginning of the Recent 
Period. Not only had the county changed its state alle- 
giance, but there had come a period of far-reaching change, 
the nature of which is elsewhere sketched. As one of the fea- 
tures of the new period, emigration from Pendleton began to 
spread eastward as well as westward, a portion of the 
outflow locating in the Valley of Virginia, or even beyond. 

The number of our Pioneer, Sub- Pioneer, and Recent 
families may be ascertained with much exactness. But with 
the families of the Extinct Group, the case is different. The 
number of such is very large, but it is practically out of the 
question to make up a complete list. It is not altogether im- 
portant to do so. Many of these families were little more 
than birds of passage. Oftentimes we find little or no evi- 
dence of intermarriage with other resident families. Often- 
times, also, the very name has been forgotten except to a 
few of the elderly people. But in some instances the name 
has remained here a lone: while, there have been many inter- 
marriages with the families who are yet here, and in the fe- 
male line there is still no lack of posterity. This portion of 
the Extinct Group is slowly growing larger. A very few of 
the Pioneer or Sub-Pioneer groups are represented at the 
present time by only a single individual in the male line, a 



145 

a person advanced in years and without prospect of offspring*. 

A little thought will explain this tendency. Let A be a 
pioneer with two sons and two daughters, each of whom 
marries and has likewise two sons and two daughters. The 
two daughters lose the family name as soon as wedded. Half 
the children of the sons are girls and they too lose the fam- 
ily name. Out of the 16 grandchildren, only 4 retain the 
surname of the paternal grandparent. If these 16 have chil- 
dren in the same number and proportion, there will be 64 
great grandchildren, only 8 of whom will hold to the name. 
With each succeeding generation the proportion of offspring 
in the female line will become still larger. Thus we see that in 
an average of instances posterity is more numerous in the 
female line than in the male line. The tendency may in- 
crease even faster than in the typical instance given, and 
thus lead to entire failure of the family surname. It is of 
course true that the operation of the rule is modified by the 
intermarrying of cousins of the same surname, no matter 
how many degrees apart the cousinship may be. 

In an old settled community the threads of relationship 
spread out in all directions. There are in this county per- 
sons of the seventh remove from the pioneer settler. Now 
as any individual has four grandparents, a little computation 
will show that if cousin-marriages are left out of the ques- 
tion, any such person would find his ancestry to comprise 64 
of the pioneer families. At the close of another century the 
question before the young Pendletonian of that day will not 
be what certain pioneer families fall into his line of ancestry. 
It will be whether they do not one and all fall into the col- 
umn. As a fact of the present day, it is very few indeed of 
the residents of Pendleton who are not in some way related 
to the comparatively small number of pioneers who settled 
the county. Scarcely anything short of some profound eco- 
nomic or industrial change can prevent the progeny of those 
same pioneers from retaining the same firm hold on the soil. 

The natural course of legitimate descent is broken by every 
instance of bastardy, wherein the surname borne by the bas- 
tard is not that of the actual father. Illegitimate births have 
never been few in Pendleton, and the present ratio of about 
ten per cent is apparently lower than in earlier times. Such 
instances seldom now occur except singly, whereas in former 
years entire families were reared whose paternity was out- 
side of wedlock. Among those persons and their offspring* 
are some of the most worthy members of the communitv. It 
goes without saying that these broken links in the chain of 
family descent complicate the work of the compiler of local 
history. He cannot ignore them utterly, even if he would, 

PCH 10 



146 

while on the other hand he has no desire to make himself a 
party in attaching a public label to instances of illegitimacy 
any more than to instances of crime, divorce, feeble-minded- 
ness, or other matters over which the mantle of charity 
should for the purpose of his work be drawn. No person of 
illegitimate parentage is therefore mentioned as such in the 
following pages. In placing instances of this class among 
the various family groups, no one rule has been followed, and 
every rule used has been applied as liberally as a due regard 
for historic truth would permit. The person who has knowl- 
edge of a particular instance can read into the sketch where 
it occurs the necessary modification. But where the name of 
the individual could not be given without inevitably disclos- 
ing the circumstance of birth, there seemed no other course 
but to withhold the mention. 

The posterity of a given pioneer is called in this book a 
group-family. One of these group-families may include sev- 
eral hundred persons, and those of the latest generation are 
sometimes as far removed from each other as the sixth de- 
gree of cousinship. In general, descent is reckoned only in 
the male line. A vast amount of undesirable repetition is 
thus avoided. The progeny of married daughters is to be 
sought among the families into which they have married. 
But in special instances, as when a daughter has married a 
newcomer, the resulting family is counted along with the 
male line. 

In compiling this book it was needful to economize space. 
Therefore facts which are given elsewhere are not repeated 
in these group-family histories. Facts pertaining to public 
office or military history are presented in Part III. Various 
other topics in Part III, and in general the whole of Part I, 
will throw additional side information on these sketches. 
Our aim in presenting each family history as a skeleton-out- 
line is to make it the easer to trace the line of descent. If 
the account were burdened with biographic information, it 
would be more difficult to do so. But at the close of a sketch 
is given a general account of the family, or of particular in- 
dividuals, wherever it has seemed desirable to add such in- 
formation. The reader having personal knowledge of a given 
family can supply minor details out of his own- observation. 

A line of family descent may be given in a logical manner, 
and yet be hard to follow to a person unfamiliar with works 
on genealogy. In this volume the writer has therefore used 
a system of his own. With a view of making his method as 
clear as possible, an illustrative family history is presented 
and explained a little further on. This specimen sketch is 
80 framed as to bring within a brief compass all the points in 



147 

the real sketches that are likely to need explaration. The 
surnames used are entirely fictitious so far as Pendleton fam- 
ilies are concerned. It is constantly to be b»rne in mind that 
it is an imaj^inary history and not a real one. By reading it 
closely, together with the explanation which follows, it is 
hoped that the real group-family sketches will present no 
difficulty. 

Given names are written in full. The name of a married 
conpanion follows in parentheses immediately after the name 
of the consort. If two or more names occur within the par- 
entheses, it means the person has been married a correspond- 
ing number of times. When the name of a county or state 
appears in place of the name of a person, it means that the 
consort was from that county or state, and the actual name 
probably unknown. Immediately following "ch." the chil- 
dren of the pinoeer are given; following "line" the children 
of a son are given, and before the next "line" is taken up, 
the first "line" is traced out in its own children, grandchil- 
dren, etc. Therefore in each "line" the children of each 
son are considered as a "branch." In each "branch" the 
children of each son are given under the heading "Ch." 
Under each group with the heading "Ch." the children of a 
son are given with the new heading "C." This is done to 
avoid confusion. So in each minor group under the heading 
"C," the children of a son are given under the new heading 
"Cc." If still further division were necessary, "Ccc." 
would be u^ed. In some instances where the family descent 
begins very far back, the children of the son of a pioneer are 
given under the heading "family," and the children of the 
son's sons under the heading "line" as before. 

In the matter of residence, when the name of a county 
is not followed by that of the state to which it belongs, 
a county of Virginia or West Virginia is to be understood. 
There are no counties of the same name in these two states, 
and few well known towns have duplicate names. By 
"W. Va." is meant that part of the state beyond the Alle- 
ghanies. By "W"— for "West"— is meant any part of the 
United States beyond the same mountains. Why we put this 
broad meaning on these two abbreviations is because of the 
indefiniteness of the terms in the minds of some of the peo- 
ple who gave information for this book. 

It has been our effort to give the names of all the older 
people. — especially tho?e no longer living, — so far as it 
seemed possible to collect them. It has not, however, been 
our aim to make the list entirely complete with respect to 
persons of the rising generation. We would gladlv have 
done so but for these reasons : first, the book had to be com» 



US 

piled within a limited time and at the least possible expense, 
and given to the public at the lowest possible price; further- 
more, to collect such additional data would have made neces= 
sary a great amount of special search, requiring much extra 
time and labor and adding to the cost of the book; and finally, 
such additional lists would be correct only for the present 
moment, because marriages and removals are constantly 
taking place among these younger persons, and also because 
in many instances a family of ungrown children is likely to 
become larger. Nevertheless we have included some of 
these young families where this could be done without a spe- 
cial search. There are indeed instances where the line of 
descent has not been carried so far forward as could be de- 
sired. Bat this shortage is by no means intentional. It is 
sometimes due to the failure of certain persons to respond to 
requests for information. As already stated, there was a 
sharp limit to the time and expense within which any results 
could be accomplished at all. It was not possible to give a 
"whole loaf," yet the compiler has gone as far in this direc- 
tion as ten months of uninterrupted labor would permit. 

After all, a genealogic list is not the positive skeleton which 
at a first glimpse it appears to be. The interested reader, 
especially if having a familiar knowledge of certain group- 
families, can easily supply many a detail which will help to 
fill in the outline. It is not easy to enumerate the variety 
and scope of these details, but in addition to what is said 
along this line in other chapters of this book, a few obser- 
vations will here be given. 

It is sometimes noticed that the children of the pioneer 
himself seem few and perhaps wholly of the male sex. This 
is because the surnames of the married daughters, and even 
the very existence of either married or single daughters, 
easily become lost to view. It is also because of forgotten 
youths and infants, the mortality among such in pioneer days 
having been large. In numerous instances we have only the 
given name of mother or of married daughter. If our infor- 
mation were more ample, many an unsuspected relationship 
would doubtless appear. 

It is often to be observed that the original homestead re- 
mains in the family, and that the connection bearing the 
family name is still to be found within a short radius of the 
same. If the homestead has passed to another name, it is 
sometimes only in consequence of marriage, and if a branch 
of the group-family appears in a distant locality it is very 
lik<*ly a result of a marriage in that neighborhood. This ad- 
hesion to the original settlement is more marked in Pendle- 
ton than in the generality of American counties, and is because 



this region has never yet come fairly within the area of in- 
dustrial revolution. Emigration has indeed been very active, 
yet there has been no wholesale displacement of the earlier 
inhabitants by an influx of a quite different type, as is often 
observable in the North and West. This long continued local 
attachment has gone far to develop the peculiarities which 
distinguish the various districts. It also goes far to account 
for the prevalence of marriages between first cousins, a 
practice forbidden by law in a number of states. 

The record of group-family with respect to thrift, enter- 
prise, educational attainment, professional, industrial, or 
commercial occupation, and conformity to the standards of 
social or moral behavior, it is a matter which will force it- 
self on the attention of many a reader. If here and there 
should appear a shortage in these matters, the shortage will 
suggest the cause. When pursued in the proper spirit a gen- 
ealogical search will result in new inspiration to effort rather 
than the reverse. 



CHAPTER II 



Illustrative Group-Family Sketch. 

The special abbreviations used in the family histories are 
given below. 



Pdn 
S-B 
N-F 
B-T 
W-T 
B. D. 
S.G.D. 
F. D. 



Pendleton Co. 
South Branch 
North Fork 
Blackthorn 
Whitethorn 
Bethel District 
Sugar Grove " 
Franklin " 



M R.D. Mill Run 



C. D. Circleville " 

U. D. Union 

Fin. Franklin town 

Ft. S. Fort Seybert 

C'ville Circleville village 

S. G. Sugar Grove " 

U. T. Upper Tract 

M. S. Mouth of Seneca 

C - B Crabbottotn [ley 

S. V. Shenandoah Val= 

Aug. Augusta County 

Rkm Rockingham " 

Hdy Hardy 

Tkr Tucker " 

Rph Randolph " 



b. bom 

m. married 

h. husband 

w. wife 

Bsr Bister 

bro. brother 

S. unmarried 

D. died — of a married adult, or 
d. young unmarried 

adult when not fol- 
lowed by a date. 
" " youth 
dy " "an infant 

n. near 

k. killed— in war of 1861 

out outside of Pendleton 

others othtr members of same family 

unp. unplaced 

unkn whereabouts unknown 

inf. infant child 

infs infant children 

C and Cc children 

Hamp. Hampshire County 

Shen. Shenandoah " 

G' brier Greenbrier " 

Hid Highland 

Poca. Pocahontas " 



Bee. Adam (Eve Duff. Penn— Mary Smith, Smith, m. 
1796)-b. 1757,* d. Mar. 1, 1838— eh.— ** 

1. Adam (Susan Poe)— b. May 1, 1780— homestead. 

2. Eve (John Paul)— m. 1808. 

3. girl ( McMinn)— 0. 1825*. 

4. Valentine— k. at Tippecanoe, 1811. 

5. Mahulda— S. 

6. Isaac 

7. John ( ) 



151 

a D. (out)* 

By 2d m.— 
9. Catharine (Hdy)* 

10. William (Ann Dott, B— T)— W. 

11. Noah (Jane Barley, Rkm) — Aug. late. 
12. Abel (Lucy Duff, Poca.)— U. T. 

Before entering upon a detailed explanation of the above, 
the reader is referred to the next chapter for a statement of 
the following facts, so far as known: the national origin of 
Adam Bee; his residence before coming to Pendleton; the 
year of his arrival; the farm or locality where he settled; his 
occupation, if not a farmer. For his military record, or for 
any important civil office he may have held, the reader is re- 
ferred to the appropriate articles in Part III. But as hereto- 
fore stated, "Adam Bee" is an imaginary person, and is used 
only for the purpose of illustration. As a matter of fact, 
therefore, his name will not actually be found in the places 
referred to. 

Now for the explanation. Adam Bee was born about the 
year 1757. The star after the date means that the exact 
year is not known, but that 1757 is considered a close guess. 
He died in 1838, and in this county, since he never moved 
out of it so far as known. He had two wives. The first 
was Eve Duff of Pennsylvania. The second was a widow 
when he married her. Her maiden name was Mary Smith, 
and as her first husband was a Smith, she did not change her 
name. The second marriage took place in 1795. Since noth- 
ing is said as to the second wife not being a Pendletonian, it 
may be considered that she was living in the county. 

The twelve recorded children of Adam Bee are given by 
number, eight being of the first marriage and four of the 
second. The double star after ch ("ch. — **) means that the 
twelve are given in order of age. When the double star does 
not appear, we have no certain information on this point to 
guide us throughout, but sometimes can present results that 
are partially correct. We now take up the twelve children 
one by one. 

Adam, Jr., was born May 1, 1780. He married Susan Poe 
of this county, and succeeded to the occupancy of the family 
homestead. 

Eve married John Paul of this county in 1808. 

The third child was a daughter. Her name is forgotten, 
but she is known to have married a McMinn, and to have 
gone with him to Ohio about 1825. 

Valentine was killed in the battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. 
He was then single, so far as we know. 



Mahulda never married. 

Nothing whatever is remembered of Isaac, and we only 
know that there was such a person. 

John married, but the name of the wife is forsrotten. 

We have only the initial letter of the next name, and there- 
fore we do not know what it stands f'-r. Neither do we 
know whether the person was a son or daughter. He or she 
married some person from without the county, and settled 
in the same county or state where the consort lived. 

Catharine married and lived in Hardy county. 

William married Ann Datt, who lived on the Blackthorn. 
They went West. 

Noah married Jane Barley of Rockingham. They moved 
to Augusta at a late period in his lifetime. 

Abel married Lucy Duff of Pocahontas, and settled at Up- 
per Tract. 

Reviewing the record of the original Bee family, we find 
that only three of the married members remained within the 
county. These three were Adam, Eve, and Abel. Eve mar- 
ried into a Pendleton family, and to learn who her descend- 
ants may have been, the reader is expected to look up the 
article on the Paul family. As to the male line, the posterity 
of Adam, Sr. would divide into two groups, the * line" of 
Adam and the "line" of Abel. However, since Noah lived 
most of his life in Pendleton, we may also find posterity of 
his living here We next take up the 
Line of Adam: — 

1. Adam (Rith Birch, S. V.) — homestead. 

2. Silas (Mahala Birch, ssr to Ruth)— C. D. 
8. others? 

Br. of Adam: — 

1. Adam (Naomi Dee, Mrs. Ley) 

2. boy— d. 

3. girl — dy, burn. 

4. John — k. 

5. Samuel — Penn. 

6. Noah (Eliza J. Merle Epns Green)— W, Va. 

7. Jemima (George Bluff, England) — unkn. 

8. Andrew — left in boyhood. 

a Nicholas (Elizabeth Bee)— M. S. 

Ch. of Adam:— 
1. Adam (Eunice Green, C-B)— S. G. 
2-8. infs (dy) 

1. Adam (Cora Bell), James B., William E, 

Cc. of Adam:-= 
1. Adam 



15§ 

We thus find Adam, Junior, had at least two sons, 
Adam and Silas. There are believed to have been still other 
children, but we are without delinite knowledge. The third 
Adam married Ruth Birch of the Shenandoah valley and 
lived on the family homestead. Silas married Mahala, a sis- 
ter to Ruth. Both brothers remained in the county, and al- 
though our field notes tell us that Silas was without issue, 
nothing is said thereon in the sketch. The fact, however, 
may be inferred. 

The nine children of the third Adam are next mentioiied. 
The oldest ot these is a fourth Adam. He married Naomi 
Dee, and afterward a widow, whose maiden name is un- 
known to us. Therefore, we mention her as "Mrs. Loy." 
The second child was a boy who died in youth. The third was 
a girl who died in her infancy. John, the fourth, was killed 
in the civil war. If he had been killed at some other time, 
and in consequence of an accident, the fact would be so 
stated. Nothing more is known of Samuel than that he 
went to Indiana. Noah settled in some county of this state 
beyond the Alleghanies. The maiden name of his wife was 
Eliza J. Merle. She first married an Epps and then a 
Green before marrying Noah. Jemima married an English- 
man named George Bluff. They moved away and were lost 
sight of. Andrew left when a boy and nothing further is 
known of him. Nicholas appears to have married a cousin. 
We shall know more certainly after getting through the Bee 
family. He settled at the mouth of the Seneca. 

The fourth Adam has a son Adam who married Eunice 
Green of the Crabbottom and settled at the village of Sugar 
Grove. He had also two children who died in infancy. 

The fifth Adam has three sons, and evidently all of them 
are now young. The oldest is the sixth Adam, who is mar- 
ried to Cora Bell, and has one child, the seventh Adam. 

We next turn to the 
Line of Noah:— 

1. Leah (John Dee) 

2 girl — dy 

We thus see that we have mention of two children of Noah, 
one of whom, Leah, married in the county, and the other 
died in childhood. There is no posterity in the male line, and 
we pass on to the 
Line of Abel, — 

1. Elizabeth (Nicholas Bee) 

2. Jane (reared)— S. 

3. John— S. 

We now find our conjecture correct The wife of Nicholas 
was his cousin. The other two lived single. But were they 



154 

living at the present time we would suppress the "%" for 
fear our statement might prove incorrect before the book 
could come before the reader. Jane was not a sister to Eliza- 
beth and John, and so far as we know was not formally 
adopted. But as she bore the surname of Bee, we include 
her in the list 

There remains one more parapraph to complete our account 
of the Bee family. 

Unp. 1. Charles (Lucinda ) — 1814. 2. Virginia 

(Joseph Dow) — m. 1825. 

Ch. of Charles- — Henry, Jacob 
These names occur in the records, but no one seems able 
to account for them. So we are left to conjecture whether 
they are members of one or more of the early Bee families, 
whose names have been forgotten by persons living, or 
whether they are of some entirely distinct familv that moved 
away. It will be noticed that the date 1814 is given without 
any explanatory abbreviation. All dates thus given refer to 
the year when when we find mention of this particular per- 
son in the county records or elsewhere. 



CHAPTER III 
Given Names and Surnames* 

The history of the names of people is an interesting matter 
in itself. It throws a world of light on customs, modes of 
thought, and phases of religious belief. Not all the settlers 
of Pendleton were of the same national stock, yet all were of 
the Protestant faith. They were also much alike in manners, 
customs, and political ideals. Accordingly a large share of 
their given names are from a common source. 

The eighteenth century, during the latter half of which 
Pendleton was settled, was a period of religious laxity both 
in Europe and America. Nevertheless the influence of the 
Protestant Reformation was strikmgly apparent in the choice 
of given names. The pioneers of Pendleton as well as their 
posterity for several generations usually gave their boys the 
names of Bible personages. Hence the great number of 
Adams, Jacobs, and Johns. Certain other names, such as 
Ambrose, Christian, and Valentine, are associated with 
church history. Another class of very common names are 
chiefly of German origin, but some of these were much used 
in the British Isles. Among such names are Arnold, Balsor, 
Conrad, Franci?, Fredtriik, George, Henry, Leonard, Lewis, 
Robert. Sylvester, and William. 

Feminine names were not so generally taken from the 
Bible, partly because Biblical characters are more often men 
than women. Among the Scriptural names in greatest favor 
were Delilah, Elizabeth, Esther, Eve, Leah, Magdalena, Mar- 
tha, Mary, Naomi, Rachel, Rebecca, Ruth, and Sarah. Fav- 
orites among the native European names were Barbara, 
Catharine, Christina, Frances, Jane, Phoebe, and Sophia. 

The names in common use were not actually numerous, and 
a favorite one, especially of a parent, would be handed down 
from generation to generation. Thus the Abrahams, Mich- 
aels, Catharines, and Susannahs were almost beyond count- 
ing. Not infrequently, especially among the Germans, a 
double name wou'd be used. A daughter might be named 
Eve Catharine or Ann Elizabeth, and each part of the name 



• In this chapter, particularly with regard to several of the German 
surnames, valuable aid has been given by General John E. Roller of 
Harrisonburg. 



would be kept in sight. Among the sons in a given family 
there might be several Johns, distinguished as John Adam, 
John Michael, and so on. The middle name was more than 
a mere letter. Hence we do not read of John M. Propst, but 
of John Michael Propst. Barbara Jane, however, would 
sometimes be called Barbara and sometimes Jane, and in a 
genealogical search, it is not always possible to tell whether 
the two names refer to the same person. But we rarely 
come across John Jones Smith or Deborah Powell Brown. 

Tne Scriptural names were not always weii chosen. The 
names of some of the most unworthy characters in the Bible 
were in common use. A certain pioneer of this county was 
about to name as on Beelzebub. He gave up the purpose when 
told he was giving his boy one of the names of the devil. 

As the history of the county develops, we lind that while 
there is a strong tendency to hold to the old names, others 
creep in, some of which were not previously in use. Names 
of this class are Anderson, Harvey, and Howard, and they 
occur all over America. Masculine names frequent in Pend- 
leton, but usually of rare occurrence elsewhere, are Amby, 
Hendron, Isom, Kenny, and Pleasant. Miscellaneous femin- 
ine names which now become frequent are Almeda, Angeline, 
Deniza, Lucinda, Mahulda, Malinda, and Sidney. 

Because of local pride, some boys are named Pendleton, 
and because of state pride a large number of girls are named 
Virginia. Early American history supplies such names as 
Washington and Marshall. Later history presents the names 
of Henry Clay, Robert Lee, and Ulysses Grant. Any well 
known peculiar character, like Lorenzo Dow, gives rise to a 
crop of namesakes. 

The fact that we of this twentieth century are living in a 
new age is in no respect more apparent than in the names 
now in favorite use. A given name is less often perpetuat- 
ed in a family. Double names, properly so called, are rather 
less common than formerly, but the use of one middle name 
and sometimes two is the rule and not the exception. The 
variety of given names has greatly increased, choosing is 
done freely, and with little regard to family tradition or 
time-honored usage. That the longer names of the Old 
Testament are less in favor nowadays does not of itself prove 
that our forefathers were more pious than ourselves. It is 
due to a feeling that a short name of pleasing sound is more 
in harmony with the spirit of the age. Fewer childreu are 
named Zachariah or Susannah, but just as many are named 
John, James, and Susan, all of which are Bible names. Other 
names likely to remain standard are Edward, George, Henry, 
Robert, William, Mary, Sarah, Catharine, and Elizabeth. 



157 

Among the favorite feminine names are Emma, Ethel, Evelyn, 
Ida, Lula, Mabel, Maud, and Minnie. 

Along with the general increase in the variety of names 
has come an increase in the unusual or peculiar names. 
Names of this class quickly appear in any genial gical list. 

Surnames have come into being in almost countless ways. 
The number of these in America is immense. When w^e add 
to the more than 40,000 English surnames the others derived 
from Germany, Scotland, Ireland, France, Holland, and 
Wales, we need not wonder that perhaps not less than a 
thousand have from first to last been present on Pendleton 
soil. 

The same surname may come to be written in different 
ways. This fact is not hard to explain. One is apt to as- 
sume that each vowel or consonant element in the language 
has an invariable sound. Dictionary makers proceed as if 
such were the case, but in practice it is not true. Along with 
the recognized sound goes a cluster of unrecognized varia- 
tions,one such cluster sometimes merging into another. This 
actual diversity is due to individual peculiarities of pronuncia- 
tion. It explains why we misunderstand the most common 
words when uttered from the mouths of strangers. The ear 
was formerly the only guide to spelling, and every man with 
some pretension to learning was a law to himself. This was 
largely true in practice until a recent time. It is not so very 
long that the unabridged dictionary has ruled with despotic 
sway. If three pioneers bearing the same surname had 
given their name at different times to the same county clerk, 
it could easily happen that it would have been written down 
in three different ways. So we need not won«^er when we 
find Dice twisted into Tice. Dyche, and Fix, Kile into Geil 
and Coyle, Vaneman into Finneman, and Evick into Awig. 

It is no easy matter to class our pioneer families according 
to their national origin. It is true erough that some namps 
betray their derivation at sight. We need be in no doubt 
that Lee is English, that Campbell is Scotch, that Lewis is 
Welch, that Murphy is Irish, that Mauzy is French, and 
that Kuykendall is Dutch. Nevertheless, there are very 
many names common to England and Scotland, and some are 
co'iimon to all the four crur tries of the Britifh Isles. 

In Pendleton, Smith, so far as known is German. Miller 
is both German and Scotch. Several other names the author 
has not attempted to classify, and some were placed in the 
lists as a matter of strong probability rather than definite 
assurance. 

Even with the German surname'', coming as they do from 
a language not spoken in the British Isles, there is frequent 



uncertainty. This doubt is due to a varipty of causes. For 
instance German spellings were once less uniform than 
they are now. Thus the name Conrad has been spelled in 
German in at least 15 different ways. Then when the early 
German immigrants lanHed at Philadelphia they often changed 
the old name into an English form. To some extent the 
authorities of Pennsylvania • compelled this change. But 
sometimes this step was voluntary. Either the newcomer 
wished to identify himself thoroughly with the people he had 
come among, or. if he had been a Hessian soldier, he wished 
to allay ill feeling by putting away the evidence he had been 
one of those who were so disliked. 

Sometimes a change was the result of a perfectly natural 
process. The newcomer came in contact with English-speak- 
ing people. Now there are both vowel and consonant sounds 
in German which do not occar in English. If any of these 
sounds occurred in his own name, they would as a matter 
of course be disregarded by his English-speaking neighbors. 
They would pronounce his name in their own manner. If the 
sound then approximated some word already familiar to 
them, especially some proper name, they would be very likely 
to put the familiar name in the place of the unfamiliar name. 

Thus the name Michler contains a guttural sound unknown 
in English except in the word hue. Very naturally, the 
American pronounced the ch as in the word chip, and thus 
proceeded to spell the name Mitchler, the change being ac- 
cepted by the persons bearing it. But as the sound was 
then very much like Mitchell, an Irish name very familiar to 
the American ear, it was no long time before Mitchler was 
dropped in favor of Mitchell. 

By the same process, the thick-tongued Beibel, Daup, 
Tschudi, Maurer, Paup, and Schumacher became the clearer 
sounding Bible. Dove, Judy. Mowrey, Pope, and Shoemaker. 
Usually there was more or less change in the p'-onounciation. 
Thus in place of Arbogast. Armentrout, Borrer, Bowman, 
Crummett. Dolly, Harman, Hevener, Hively, Hoover. Ress- 
ner, Lough, Pennybaker, Rader, Simmons, Teter, Tingler, 
Varner, and Yankee, we have Armikast, Hermantrachr, 
Bohrer, Baumann, Kromet, Dahle, Herrman, Heffner, 
Heifel. Huber, Keissner. Loch, Pfennebecker. Roeder, Sie- 
man, Dietrick, Tinkler, Werner, and Jengke.* 



* Some of our people may feel inclined to question this statement, 
inasmuch as they have no knowledge, even traditional, of any other 
spelling of the name than the form now used. In such instances the 
change took place a considerable time since, and the derivation has been 



159 

In a few instances the German word has been translated 
into its English equivalent. Thpre has been no change in 
sense, but an entire change in form. Thus Auge became 
Eye, Stein became Stone, and Puben^aamen became Turnip- 
seed. In several names the spelling is unaltered, while the 
pronunciation has somewhat changed. Some names of this 
class are Halterman, Hammer, and Keister. In other names 
there has been a change in spelling, but not in pronuncia- 
tion, as when Carr, Dice, Kiser, Kline, Kile, Pitsenharger, 
Siule and Sites have taken the place of Karr, Deiss, Reiser, 
Klein. Keil.Pitzenbarger, Seipel, and Seitz. The names Conrad 
and Ruddle are often pronounced among our people Coonrod 
and Riddle. This is because these pronunciations more 
closely approximate the German forms K uhnradt and Ru* ddel. 

A very few names have become clipped. Hahnemann has 
become Hahn and Von Netzelrodt has become Nesselrodt. 

Every surname has had in the first place some particular 
meaning. In Germany the meaning is more usually apparent 
than in America, with our thousands that have lost their 
original forms and therewith lost the original meaning. The 
signification of some of our German names is given below, 
the German spelling, when unlike the American, being put 
in parentheses. 

Alt-Old 

Arbaugh ( Aarbach ) — Waterbrook 

Bowers (Bauer)— Countryman 

Evick (Ewig) -Ever 

Greenawalt (Groenewald) —Greenwood 

Kline (Klein)— Little 

Obaugh (Ohrbach)— Orebrook 

Puffenbarger (Pfaffenbarger) Holder of a Glebe, or Parson= 
age Farm 

Rexroad (Rixroth)— Red King 

Riggleman (Riegelmann) — Railsplitter 

Ritchie (Richter)— Judge 

Shaver (Schaefer) — Shepherd 

lost sight of. Thus in the early records of the Shenandoah Valley, 
Harper appears as Herrber and Herber as well as in its present form. 
It is also to be observed that a wide difference between the foreign and 
the American spellings does not imply a marked difference in pronuncia- 
tion. A given letter does not always have the same 30und in the 
European tongues that it has in English. Even in such extreme instances 
as Tschudi and Jengke, the foreign sound is scarcely to be distinguished 
by the ear from the American forms, Judy and Yankee. A similar re- 
mark is true of Trombeau, Hueber, Kromet and Werner. 



Snider (Schneider) —Taylor 

Sponausrie (Sponaogen) —Squint-eyed 

Whetsell (Wetze))— Whetter 

Wilfons? (Wildfansr)— Wild Tooth 

Zickafoose (Zwickenfus) —Crippled Foot 

The meaning of Fisher, Hammer, Mallow and Stump is 
the same in both languages. 

It may be added that altering the form of a difficult foreign 
surname is a very proper thing to do. It relieve=« the name 
of a strange appearance and sound, and makes for the thor- 
ough Americanization of the persons who bear it. 

Some of our families of German origin bear surnames thor- 
oughly American in form. The number of the'se is not pre- 
cisely known, and hence the general classification of the 
Pendleton names given below is not expected to be quite 
free from error* 



ENGLISH. 




SCOTCH 


Ayers 


Newcomb 


Anderson 


Bell 


Newham 


Armstrong 


Bennett 


Payne 


Barolay 


Bland 


Pennington 


Blakemore 


Blewitt 


Porter 


Bums 


Blizzard 


Powers 


Calhoun 


Burgoyne 


Priest 


Campbell 


Burnett 


Ratliff 


Collett 


Byrd 


Roberson 


Cowger 


Carter 


Saunders 


Cunningham 


Clayton 


Shreve 


Day 


Clifton 


Stonestreet 


Dyer 


Cook 


Stratton 


Gilkeson 


Cox 


Summerfield 


Graham 


Dean 


Taylor 


Guthrie 


Dickenson 


Temple 


Holloway 


Elza 


Thacker 


Johnston 


Hawes 


Todd 


Lair 


Hodges 


Turner 


Lambert 


Hopkins 


Vance 


Masters 


Johnson 


Walker 


McClung 


Kimble 


Ward 


McClure 


Lawrence 


Warner 


McCoy 


Leach 


Waybright 


McDonald 


Lee 


White 


McQuaine 


Marshall 


Whitecotton 


Nelson 


May 


WK)d 


Patton 


Morral 


Wyant 


Simpson 



161 



y 



Skidmore 

Skiles 

Thompson 

GERMAN 

Alt 

Arbaugh 

Arbogast 

Armentrout 

Bible 

Biby 

Bolton 

Borrer 

Bouse 

Bowers 

Bowman 

Carr 

Coatney 

Conrad 

Cool 

Coplinger 

Crigler 

Croushorn 

Crumraett 

Custard 

Dahmer 

Dice 

Dove 

Dunkle 

Kberman 

Eckard 

Evick 

Eye 

Fisher 

Fleisher 

Friend 

Full 

Fultz 

Green aw alt 

Hahn 

HaigUr 

Halterman 

Hammer 

Harman 

Harper 

Harpole 

Hartman 



Hedrick 


Ruleman 


Hevener 


Schmucker 


Hille 


Shaver 


Hiner 


Shoemaker 


Hinkle 


Sibert 


Hiser 


Simmons 


Hively 


Siple 


Homan 


Sites 


Hoover 


Snyder 


Huffman 


Solomon 


Judy 


Si;)onaugle 


Keister 


Stone 


Keplinger 


Strawder 


Kessner 


Stump 


Ketterman 


Swadley 


Kile 


Tetcr 


Kisamore 


Tingler 


Kiaer 


Varner 


Kline 


Waggy 


Lamb 


Wagoner 


Lantz 


Whetsell 


Lough 


Wilfong 


Mallow 


Wimer 


Mick 


Wise 


Miley 


Wolf 


Mitchell 


Yankee 


Moomau 


Yoakum 


Mosev 


Zickafoose 


Mowrey 


IR 


Moyers 


Adam.^on 


Mozer 

Nesselrodt 

Nestrick 


Black 
Bodkin 


Painter 
Peninger 
Pennybaker 
Pickle 


Boggs 
Brady 
Daugherty 
Flinn 


Pitsenbarger 


George 


Plaugher 
Pope 


Grady 
Jordan 


Props t 


Kee 


Puffenbarger 


McAvoy 


Rader 


McGinnis 


Rexroad 


Murphy 


Riggleman 


Phares 


Ritchie 


Raines 


Ruddle 


Roberts 



162 ^ 



Shaw 
Shirk 
Sinnett 

DUTCH. 

Kuykendall 
Vandeventer 
Wees (Waas) 



WELCH. 
Davis 
Howell 
Lewis 
Williams 

SCANDINAVIAN. 
Harold 
Peterson (Petersen) 



FRENCH. 

Capito (Capiteau) 

Cassell 

Champ (Champe) 

Mauzy 

Montony 

Mullenax (Molyneux) 

Trumbo (Trombeau) 



CHAPTER IV 



Index to Names of Pioneers and Sub«Pioneers 



Note.— This list of families is still represented in the 
county and is not extinct. It has been made as complete as the 
information given us would permit. By pioneers we mean 
families that came not later than about 1815. By sub-pio- 
neers we mean families that came not later than the close of 
1861. 



Adatnson 

Alt 

Anderson 

Arbaugh 

Arbogast 

Armentrout 

Armstrong 

Ayers 

Bennett 

Bible 

Black 

Bland 

Blewitt 

Blizzard 

Bodkin 

Boggs 

Bolton 

Borrer 

Bowers 

Brady 

Burgoyne 

Burns 

Byrd 

Calhoun 

Carr 

Caton 

Champ 

Clayton 

Conrad 

Cook 



Cowger 
Cox 

Crigler 

Crummett 

Cunningham 

Dahmer 

Davis 

Day 

Dean 

Dice 

Dickenson 

Dolly 

Dove 

Dunkle 

Dyer 

Eckard 

Evick 

Eye 

Fleisher 

Fultz 

George 

Gilkeson 

Good 

Gragg 

Greenawalt 

Guthrie 

Hal term an 

Hammer 

Harman 

Harold 

Harper 



Hartman 

Hedrick 

Helmick 

Hevener 

Hiner 

Hinkle 

Hiser 

Hively 

Holloway 

Hoover 

Hopkins 

Huffman 

Hyer 

Johnson 

Johnston 

Jordan 

Joseph 

Judy 

Kee 

Keister 

Keplinger 

Kessner 

Ketterman 

Kile 

Kiser 

Kline 

Kimble 

Kisamore 

Kuykendall 

Lamb 



164 



y 



Lambert 


Painter 


Snider 


Landes 


Payne 


Sponaugle 


Lantz 


Pennington 


Stone 


Lawrence 


Pennybacker 


Strawder 


Leach 


Phares 


Stump 


Long 


Pitsenbarger 


Summerfield 


Lough 


Pope 


Swadley 


Mallow 


Priest 


Temple 


Martin 


Propst 


Teter 


Mauzy 


Puffenbarger 


Thacker 


McAvoy 


Raines 


Thompson 


McClure 


Ratliflf 


Tingler 


McCoy 


Rexroad 


Trumbo 


McDonald 


Riggleman 


Vance 


McQuain 


Roberson 


Vandeventer 


Mick 


Ruddle 


Varner 


Miley 


Rymer 


Vint 


Miller 


Saunders 


Waggy 


Mitchell 


Schmucker 


Wagoner 


Moats 


Schrader 


Walker 


Montony 


Shaver 


Ward 


Moomau 


Shaw 


Warner 


Morral 


Shirk 


Waybright 


Mowrey 


Shoemaker 


Wees 


Moyers 


Shreve 


Whitecotton 


Mozer 


Simmons 


Williams 


Mullenax 


Simpson 


Wilfong 


Mumbert 


Sinnett 


Wimer 


Murphy 


Sites 


Wyant 


Nelson 


Skidmore 


Zickafoose 


Nesselrodt 


Skiles 




Nicholas 


Smith 





\^ 



CHAPTER V 

Origin, Arrival, and Location of The Pioneers 

Note. Following each surname are given the following 
particulars : 1. The national origin of the pioneer. 2. His 
place of residence before coming here. 3. The year of his 
arrival. 4. The spot where he settled. 5. His occupation 
if not exclusively a farmer. A question mark (?) means 
that the answer given is involved in some doubt. A star (*) 
after a date means that the date is not necessarily exact, but 
is believed to be not far out of the way. When the star 
follows the word indicating the national origin, as "Ger- 
man,*" it means that the person is German by birth. In 
some instances the foreign form of the name is given in par- 
enthesis. Where there is no mention of origin, prior to 
residence, or location, it is because we have no definite 
knowledge on such point or points. The list given below in- 
cludes several extinct families about whom we have definite 
information. It does not include those families of Highland 
whose contact with Pendleton has been slight since the es- 
tablishment of the line of 1847. Such a date as 1780-90 means 
that the arrival of a pioneer appears to have been later than 
1780, but not later than 1790. Quite possibly a few names 
appear in the list which properly belong a little to the north 
of the northern boundary. C. Dist. means Circleville district, 
but Circleville refers only to Circleville village; and so with 
other names of districts. A very few names have been 
omitted from this list because of an entire want of definite 
knowledge. 

Adamson — Irish* — Randolph County — 1850— Mouth of Sen- 
eca — merchant 
Alt- German (Alt)— Grant?— 1825? -Smokehole 
Anderson — Scotch-Irish — near Woodstock — 1825 "^^ — South 

Fork bottom, 2 miles above Fort Seybert 
Arbaugh -German (Aerbach) — before 1790- C. Dist. 
Armentrout— German (Hermantracht) —Grant— 1820?— M. 

R. Dist. (Brushy Run) 
Ayers— English—Maryland -1800*— M. R. Dist. (2 miles east 

of Brushy Run P. 0.) 
Bell— Scotch-Irish— 1773 - Blackthorn (patent, 113 acres), 
later moved to near Crabbottom 



166 ^ 

Bennett— English— 1767— survey, 70 acres, below Clover 

Lick, North Fork 
Bible— German (Beibel) -Rockingham - 1780-90 - Friend's 

Run 
Black— Irish— Ohio — 1846*— near Kline— physician 
Bland— English— before 1773— west side North Fork Moun- 
tain, C. Dist. 
Blewitt— English — Mary land— 1844 —Franklin— tailor 
Blizzard — English— Rockingham? — 1771 — opposite Fort Sey- 

bert 
Boggs— Irish* -1816— Mouth of Seneca 
Bolton-German— Penn.-1805*— F. Dist. (Trout Run) 
Borrer- German (Bohrer) —Grant— 1790-95— Mill Run 
Bouse — German?— 1810*— west side North Fork, below Cir- 

cleviile 
Bowers — German (Bauer) — Penn. - 1780* —Polly Simmons 

place north of Sugar Grove 
Brady- Irish— Rockingham?— 1850*— Sweedland Valley 
Burgoyne— Irish— Highland ?~ 1800?— M. R. Dist. 
Burnett— Scotch-Irish — Penn.— 1759 — Saunders place, head 

of Blackthorn 
Burns— Scotch— 1835?— west side North Fork Mountain, C. 

Dist. 
Buzzard— German? (Bossert?)— before 1777— West Dry Run 
Calhoun-Scotch-Irish-Penn. -1792* -West Dry Run 
Campbell — Scotch— 1774— Hickory Level, Seneca valley, 150 

acres 
Capito — French (Capiteau) — 1782— 60 acres opposite Franklin 
Carr— Gterman (Karr)— 1773— North Fork Bottom, above 

Boggs's mill 
Cassell— French — 1767— Friend's Run (87 acres, survey) 
Champe— French (Champe)— 1782?— East of North Fork, 

U. D. 
Clayton — English — 1800 — Kline — tanner 
Clifton— English— 1767— west side South Branch, near Ruddle, 

(98 acres) 
Coatney— German ?— Eastern Virginia — 1835*— Franklin — 

tanner 
Collett— Scotch-Irish— 1780*— Buffalo Hills 
Conrad (A)— German— 1753— South Fork Mountain, south- 
west of Fort Seybert 
Conrad (B)— German— 1763— South Branch bottom, 1 1-2 

miles below Ruddle 
Cook— English*~1790*— near Deer Run postoffice 
Cool— German (Kuhl)— 1794*— near Franklin 
Coplinger — German — 1761* — near Byrd's mill 



167 

G>wger— Scoteh-Irish ? — Rockingham ? — 1780* — near Fort 
r,,.^ a Seybert 

Cox— English— before 1790— below Brushy Run postoffice. 
Crigler— German— Madison— 1845* — Franklin — blacksmith 
Croushom— German ?— before 1799— Waggy place near Sugar 

Grove 
Crummett — German (Kromet) — 1787 — Crummett Run 
Cunningham — Scotch-Irish — 1753 — Walnut bottom, North 

Fork (615 acres) 
Custard— German (Kuster) — Rockingham— 1825?* — ^ Reed's 

Creek 
Dahmer — German-~1794* — near Kline (H. L, Dahmer) 
Davis (A) -1763*— Welch-Augusta-South Fork bottom, 1 

mile below Brandywine 
Davis (B)— 1766*— North Fork, Sugar Tree Bottom (77 acres) 
Davis (C) — Welch— Shenandoah — 1835 — Franklin — shoe- 

maker 
Day (A) -Irish -before 1789— Clay Lick, North Fork valley 
Day (B)— Irish— Hampshire— 1800*— head of Trout Run 
Dean— Scotch-Irish— before 1799 — Dean gap. South Fork 

Mountain 
Dice— German (Deiss)— York county, (Penn.)— 1757 — Fort 

Seybert and Friend's Run 
Dickenson— English — Eastern Virginia— 1774 — South Fork 

bottom, below Brandywine (173 acres) 
Dolly— German (Dahle)*— before 1799— west side North 

Fork Mountain (Landes place) 
Dove— German (Daub)— 1810*— S. G. Dist. 
Dunkle— German (Dunkel)— 1753— South Fork Mountain, 

near Fort Seybert 
Dyer— Scotch-Irish— Penn. —1747— Fort Seybert 
Eberman— German— 1761— Canoe Run, North Fork 
Eckard— German— before 1780— Stony Run, S. G. Dist. 
Emick— German — before 1795 — near Dahmer postoffice 
Evick— German (Ewig)— before 1756— South Fork? 
Eye -German (Auge)-Penn.— 1768— Thorn Valley 
Fisher — Gterman?— before 1770? — Upper Tract 
Flinn— Irish - 1794— Blackthorn 
Friend— Scotch-Irish ?— 1769— Friend's Run 
Full— German?— South Fork— 1771 
Fultz— German— 1769— South Mill Creek (67 acres) 
George — Irish — before 1790— near West Dry Run (Way- 

bright place) 
Gilkeson— Scotch-Irish— Augusta— 1850'— Fort Seybert 
Gragg— Scotch-Irish— 1774— north side Seneca (Dolly place) 
Graham— Scotch -Irish— before 1792— Reed's Creek 



168 "^ 

Greenaw alt— German (Groenewald)— 1779 — Greenawald Gap 

near Kline postoffice 
Guthrie--Scotch-Irish~-1825*— South Fork Mountain above 

Oak Flat 
Haigler -German— 1763~Mi 11 Creek (400 acres) 
Halterman— German— Highland— 1810* — Franklin 
Hammer — German* — 1761 — South Branch Bottom, near 

Byrd's mill 
Harman— German— Loudoun- 1790-1800 ~U. Dist. (Philip 

Harold (A)— Danish— Maryland— 1790*— East Dry Run 
Harold (B)— Danish— 1800*— South Fork bottom below Sugar 

Grove 
Harper — German * — 1756*— South Branch 
Harpole— German ?-1763- Mill Creek 
Hartman — German — Lancaster county, Pa. -1795*— Brushy 

Run (M. R. Dist.) 
Hawes — English — 1750*— near Fort Seybert 
Hedrick — German — Rockingham? — 1772*— Homan place be- 
low Ruddle 
Helmick— English?— before 1788— West Dry Run 
Hevener— German (Heffner)— 1755*— South Fork above Oak 

Flat 
Hale— German*-1820*— Franklin 
Hiner— German (Heiner)* — 1774 — head of Whitethorn 
Hinkle— German (Henkel) —North Carolina— 1761 — North 

Fork bottom above Riverton 
Hiser — German (Heiser)—Penn.— 1785*— South Fork Moun- 
tain, 3 miles northwest of Fort Seybert 
Hively— German (Heifel)—Penn.— 1800*— South Fork bot- 
tom, 2 miles above Brandywine — miller 
Holloway — Scotch-Irish— 1800?— above Oak Flat, opposite 

Anderson place 
Hoover — German (Hueber) —1763— South Fork above Bran- 
dywine 
Hopkins— English— Rockingham— 1781— Upper Tract 
Howell— Welch— before 1793— C. Dist? 
Huffman— German— 1784— South Branch (F. Dist?) 
Johnson— English— Penn. —1783*— South Fork 
Johnston— Scotch-Irish —Highland — before 1850 — Franklin 
Jordan— Irish— before 1790— Smith Creek 
Judy— German (Tschudi)— Grant— 1798— Mouth of West Dry 

Run 
Kee — Irish—* 1800— Franklin—merchant 
Keister — German * — before 1757 — Brandywine 
Keplinger — German— Rockingham — 1750* — mouth of Deer 

Run 



169 

Ke»sner— German (Keissner)— 1790*— South Mill Creek 
Ketterman— German— Grant?- 1796*--below Riverton (Wm. 

Bland's) 
Kile — German (Keil)— 1761— above Upper Tract 
Kimble — Scotch-Irish— Grant — 1850* — Smokehole 
Kisamore — German (Keismohr) — before 1799 — U. Dist. 
Kiser— Gennan (Keiser)— Rockingham— 1832*— Sugar Grove 
Kline— German (Klein)— Hampshire— before 1861 — Kline 

postoffice — miller 
Kuykendall— Dutch— Grant— 1858*— Sweedland Valley 
Lair— Scotch-Irish— Rockingham -1808- Fort Seybert 
Lamb— German— before 1790— S. G. Dist. 
Lambert— Scotch-Irish— 1788*— West Dry Run 
Lantz — German — Highland— 1810*— "Gennany" 
Lawrence— English?— before 1790?— C. Dist. 
Leach— Highland — 1825?— ^head of Blackthorn 
Long— Irish— Highland*— 1800*— Franklin 
Lough— German (Loch) — 1772 — Deei- Run (George W. 

Lough's) 
Mallow — German — 1753 — Kline postoffice 
Martin— German?— 1846— M. R. Dist. 
Masters— Scotch-Irish— 1800*— Franklin 
Mauzy — French — Rockingham— 1842* —Smith Creek 
McAvoy — Irish — 1840— Roaring Creek 

McClung — Scotch-Irish — Augusta— 1850* Franklin — mer- 
chant 
McClure— Scotch-Irish —Augusta — 1798* — Franklin — tanner 
McCoy -Scotch-Irish —Augusta — 1795 — Franklin— merchant 
McDonald— Scotch-Irish— Hardy — 1845* — Riverton — miller 
McQuain— Scotch-Irish— 1782*— Blackthorn (Wees place) 
Mick— German— before 1820— C. Dist. 
MUey— Swiss— Highland— 1860* — U. Dist 
Miller (A)— Scotch-Irish— Hardy— 1800*— Fort Seybert 
Miller (B)— German— Penna.— before 1790— Middle Mountain 
Miller (C)— German— 1767— 2 miles below Mouth of Seneca 
Minness — German? — before 1783 — below Circle ville 
Mitchell (A)— German (Michler)— before 1790— South Fork 

Mountain, west of Sugar Grove 
Mitchell (B)— Irish?— 1796* Sweedland Valley 
Moats — German ? — 1 771 —Blackthorn val le y 
Montony— French — Loudoun— before 1827— North Fork, Syl- 

vanus Harper place 
Moomau— French?*— 1820*— Franklin— hatter 
Morral — English?— 1765*— South Fork Mountain (Ulrich 

Conrad place) 
Mouse— German (Maus)— 1769 — 3 miles below Mouth of 
Seneca 



170 ^ 

Mowrey— German (Maurer)— before 1790— South Fork Moun- 
tain 
Moyers —German (Meyer) —Penn?- 1789 — South Branch 

(Sumwalt place) 
Moser— German— 1753— Upper Tract 
Mullenax— French (Molyneux)— before 1785— North Fork, 

above Circleville 
Mumbert Maryland— 1800*— Sweedland— English ? 
Murphy Irish*— 1835* — Circleville — wheelwright 
Nelson—Scotch*— 1771— Sugar Lick, North Fork 
Nesselrodt -German (Von Netzelrodt) 1796* — Sweedland 

Valley (Cyrus Mitchell place) 
Nestrick - German (Kneister) — Rockingham — 1840* — South 

Fork Mountain (Samuel Morral place) 
Newham— English?— Rockingham— 1850*— South Fork, near 

Fort Seybert 
Painter— Gei-man?— Rockingham?— 1790*— Franklin 
Patton— English ?- Penn. —1747- Fort Seybert 
Payne English— East Virginia— 1830*— Buffalo Hills 
Peninger — German* — before 1762— below Mouth of Thorn 
Pennington- English— before 1795— North Fork 
Penny baker - German— Rockingham— 1830*— Franklin— at- 
torney 
Peterson— Swede*— before 1758*— South Fork? 
Phares— Irish - 1781 -Hedrick's Run 
Pickle — German (Bickel)— 1765 — mouth Brushy Fork 
Pitsenbarger — German ( Pitzenbarger) — before 1795 — near 

Dahmer postofRce, Emick place 
Pope— German- (Paup)— 1800*— Sweedland Valley (J. L. 

Pope's) 
Powers — English - Randolph — 1862 — North Fork, above 

Macksville 
Priest — English — Fauquier — 1844 — Franklin — physician 
Propst — German (Brobst)* — 1753— South Fork bottom, two 

miles above Brandywine 
Puffenbarger— German (Pfaffenbarger) —before 1775 — South 

Fork (Mitchell's mill) 
Raines— Irish?— 1795*— Seneca— miller 
Ratliff— English— 1810*— Middle Mountain 
Rexroad— German (Rixroth)*— 1774*— South Fork 
Riggleman — German (Riegelman) — before 1790 — head of 

North Mill Creek 
Roberson— English— 1798*— Trout Run 
Ruddle— German (Rueddel)— Rockingham— 1800*— near Fort 

Seybert 
Ruleman — German (Ruhlmann)— 1756*— South Fork bottom, 
3 miles above Bandywine 



171 

Rymer—English— Highland— 1840*~Circleville 
Saunders — English — Louisa — 1832* — head of Blackthorn (Jo- 
seph Gamble place) 
Schmucker — German— Shenandoah— 1841— Mallow's Run,M. 

R. Dist 
Schrader — German — Highland— before 1850— Thorn valley 
Shaver— German (Schafer)— 1761— Mallow's Run 
Shaw— Irish— 1830*— head of Trout Run 
Shirk— Irish— 1830* -Smokehole 
Shreve — English — Loudoun— 1805*— Smokehole 
Simmons — German (Sieman) * - 1753— Upper South Fork 

bottom 
Simpson — Scotch-Irish — before 1800— Trout Run 
Sinnett— Irish— 1782*— South Fork Mountain (Robert Dick- 
enson place) 
Sites— German (Seitz)— Grant— 1836— Mouth of Seneca 
Skidmore — Scotch-Irish— 1754— Friend's Run 
Skiles — Scotch-Irish — Augusta — 1856* — Byrd's mill 
Smith (A.)— Scotch-Irish— Penn?— 1847— Fort Seybert 
Smith (B.)— German (Schmidt) *— before 1800— North Fork 

Mountain 
Smith (C.)— German?— before 1800— upper South Fork 
Smith (D.)— English?— New York-1800* - ? 
Smith (E.)— Scotch-Irish* -1810*— near Fort Seybert 
Snider— German (Schneider)— before 1800 -Mouth of Stony 

Run 
Sponaugle — Carman (Sponaugen) — Loudoun ? — 179 4* — 

Hunting Ground 
Stone — German — (Stein)— before 1768 — about five miles 

above Brandy wine 
Strawder— German — 1793*— Seneca Valley 
Stump— (German (Stumpf ) —Hardy— 1828— Upper Tract 
Summerfield— English?— before 1790— North Fork near Judy 

gap 
Swadley— German — 1756* —South Fork bottom (Swadley 

nlace) 
Temple— English— Orange— 1820*— Oak Flat P. 0. 
Teter — German (Dietrick) — North Carolina — 1762* — near 

Mouth of Seneca 
Thacker — Scotch-Irish — Rockingham— 1859 — Franklin— tan- 
ner 
Thompson — English— Culpeper— 1814* — Timber Ridge 
Tingler — German— about 1792*— Brushy Run (North Fork) 
Trumbo— French (Trombeau)— Rockingham— 1777— 2 miles 

below Fort Seybert 
Vance— Scotch-Irish*— 1790*— Vance place north of Mouth 
of Seneca 



172 



k/ 



Vandeventer— Dutch— Grant— before 1790 — Smith Creek 
Vaneman — German — 1766 — North Fork 
Varner— German — (Werner) —1791 * — Brushy Run 
Vint— German ?--Penn.— 1791 — Blackthorn valley (Robert 

Vint's place) 
Waggy—German—Va.— 1796*— South Branch, 8 miles above 

Franklin 
Wagoner— German ( Wachner ?) - 1761— ^oppositeFort Seybert 
Walker— English— 1790*— Dry Run 
Wanstaff— Ger'xian? — before 1768 — Sweedland Valley 
Ward— English— 1780* -Blackthorn^ 

Warnei — English — 1780*— west side'South Branch (F. Dist). 
Waybright — English- Highland — 1850* — upper North Fork 
Wees (A)— Irish?— 1795*— Seneca 
Wees (B)Dutch— 1790*— Mill Creek 
Whit^otton - English 1792* near Circleville 

Wilfong— German ( Wildfang) —1766*— Brushy Fork 

Wimer — German (Weimert) —1784— East Dry Run 

Wise— German (Weiss)— before 1787— North Mill Creek and 

Brushy Run (M. R. Dist.) 
Zickafoose— German (Zwickenfus) — 1790* — C. Dist 



CHAPTER VI 

Sketches of Pioneer and Sub-Pioneer Families. 

Adamson. William (Eliza D. Long, Rph, b. 1825)— b Mar. 
15, 1799, d. Sept. 23 1886- native of Guilford, County Down, 
Ireland — moved 1869 to farm 2 miles below Ft. S.- ch— 
1. JohnW. (Mary Alt) -b. 1847, d. 1875. 2. Joseph E.- 

D. 3. Mary S. (Andrev^ J. Trumbo) 4. James L. (Sarah 
A. Cowger) — homestead. 5. William S.— S— Rph, 6. George 
W. (Eliza Cowger)— merchant— Elkins. 7. Samuel L. — 
dy. 8. Emma J. — homestead. 9. Hannah E.— dy. 

Br. of James L. — Lena M., Minnie E. (dy), Jasper H. 

Joseph W. (Julia B. Skidmore)— younger half-brother to 
William— M. S.-ch.- 1. James W. ( Harper). 2. Ed- 
ward (Hannah Kisamore) 3. Albert. 4. John R. (Mary 
Ratchford Way bright) —P. M., Onego. 5. May (Tkr)'= 

Br. of James:— Hettie, Peachie, Grace, Charles, others. 

Br. of John R.:— Nellie, Rosa, Fred, Vernon, Glenn, inf. 

Alt. Jacob (Mary Goodnight)— b. 1797, m. 1827-ch.— 

1. Michael (Martha Johnson) b. 1832. 2. Isaac (Rebecca 
Johnson). 3. Christina (Henry Hedrick). 4, Asher (Mar- 
garet Hedrick, MahalaMcUlty). 5. Letitia (John Hedrick). 

6. Hannah (George W. Borrer, Grant) '\ 

Branchof Michael:— 1. Jacob F. (Catharine Kimble, Grant) 

2. William R. (Ada Rexroad). 3. George W. (Lucinda 
Kimble). 4. Isaac S. (Christina Kimble, Grant). 5. Mary 

E. (George A. Kimble). 6. Rebecca (Joseph A. Kimble). 
7.-9, Esther, Rosa, Delia,— dy. 

Ch. of Jacob F.— Benjamin F., George E., Walter G., 
Osie, Minnie M., Zura, Mary. 

Ch. of William R. — Cora, Emma, Sarah, Oliver, Enoch. 

Branch of Isaac: — 1. Charles A. (Ida Shreve). 2. John 
R. (Alice Judy, Susan Lough)— Rph. 3. Zachariah F. 
(Mary Kimble). 4. Isaac S. (Minnie Kimble) — Grant. 
5. Clarence (Bertha Ward). 6. Susan (Noah Kimble). 

7. Jennie — dy. 8. Savannah (Wesley Kimble). 9. Ann L. 
(Jacob Kimble). 10. Mahala A. (Noah Kimble). 11. Sarah 
(Martin Conrad). 12. Grace (Keyser). 13. Minnie — dy. 

Branchof Acher:--1. Susan. 2. Asa— ^Grant. 3. Rebecca. 

William (Amanda Judy)— b. 1810^— brother to Jacob — ch. — 
Daniel, Jacob, :Martha, John C, Enoch R., Benjamin F. 
All in Grant except Jacob (Rebecca McUlty). 



174 

In this county the Alts have remained near the point of 
first settlement. 

Anderson. William (Rachel E. White, Alice W. White 
Hupp— both of Warm Springs and sisters) ~b. 1788 — ch.— 
1. Mary J.— b. Dec. 27, 1819, d. Nov.l, 1872. 2. David C. 
(Louisa D. Boggs)— b. July 4, 1821, d. Dec. 26, 1891. 3. 
William H.-b. 1823, d. 1845. 4. Junius B. (Margaret 
Boggs)-b. Nov. 19, 1824, d. Aug. 15, 1870. 5. Robert A. - 
d. in Cal 1849. 6. Philip W. (Mary Dyer) -physician— 
Moorefield. By 2d m. -7. Samuel P.— b. Mar. 18, 1836, d. 
June 10, 1904. 

Br. of David C.-l. Frankhn (Lucy McCoy). 2. Alice-d. 
3. William— dy. 4. Rachel— dy. 5. Louisa B. (Arthur B. 
Pugh, Hamp.*)— b. 1859, d. 1896. 

Ch. of Frankhn:— Frank, Herbert. 

Br. of Junius B. -1. Sarah H. (EH A. Cunningham). 2. 
Charles L. (Susan E. Simmons) . 3. WilHam B. (Katharine 
Dyer). 4. Walter C. (Rkm)— dentist. 5. Alice W. 6. Min- 
nie B. (Culpeper) * 7. Lucy H. (Charles A. Headley, Fred- 
rick)*. 

Ch. of Charles P.— Dewey S., Mary V. 

Ch. of William B.— McClure C, Effie H., William. 

Ch. of Walter C— Junius B. 

William, the pioneer, was the son of John, who with his 
brother Robert came from Glasgow, Scotland. Robert went 
to South Carolina, and has decendants in the South. John 
settled at Woodstock, Va., after living awhile in Pennsyl- 
vania. He was a cattle dealer, an occupation that is quite 
hereditary in his descendants, and he never returned from 
his last trip to Baltimore with a drove of stock, the supposi- 
tion being that as he lived when cash was used instead of 
bank checks he met with foul play. William, left a mere 
child, became a drummer in the war of 1812. He was a man 
of scholarship and owned the best library in this county. He 
was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1829. The 
Anderson homestead two miles south of Ft. Seybert, is one 
of the best farms on the South Fork. Charles P. lives on a 
portion of it. In general, the later Andersons have been 
closely identified with the county seat. 

David C. was graduated from Washington College in 1843, 
and took a post graduate course at the University of Vir- 
ginia. He was the most highly educated man who was born 
in Pendleton. He won high honors at both institutions for 
his high scholarship and his superior linguistic ability. Five 
languages in addition to an exceptional mastery of his mother 
tongue were at his control. He read the New Testament in 
the original and was fond of reading discussions in the higher 



175 

mathematics in French. He possessed a graceful and elegant 
literary style, both in prose and poetry. After the comple- 
tion of his studies at the University he was called to the 
chair of modern languages at Franklin and Marshall College, 
Gettysburg, Penn., and filled it very satisfactorily for several 
years. Prior to the war of 1861 he returned to Franklin, and 
during that conflict he was superintendent for the Confeder- 
acy of extensive woolen manufactures in the Valley of Vir- 
ginia. During that service he contracted acute rheumatism 
and from its effects he remained a helpless invalid 23 years. 
While thus so sadly disabled he gave private instruction in 
classical studies. It is said that only his modesty stood in the 
way of the publication by him of writings that would have 
given him high rank as a literateur. He was known to his 
circle of friends for his patience under suffering, the moral 
purity of his life, and his devotion to the church of his choice, 
the Presbyterian. 

Franklin is Cashier of the Bank of Franklin and has large 
interests in cattle. Herbert, clerk in the same bank, took 
the degree of B. A. from the Washington and Lee Univer- 
sity in 1907. William B. is a large landholder and is heavily 
interested in the cattle business. 

Arbaugh. Joseph, representing 2 tithables in 1790, was 
apparently the father of Michael (Jane Nelson) b. 1796, d. 
1866*— Ch.~l. William (Eliza J. Nelson) -b. 1834. 2. Isaac 
(Caroline Nelson). 3. Sarah -S. 4. Jacob (Susan Tingler 
Kimble)— b. 1843. 

Br. of Jacob — 1. William A. (Louisa Lambert). 2. George 
A. (Lula Pennington). 3. Albert (Huldah Lambert). 

4. Edward. 5. Bertha (Elijah Arbogast). 6. Annie. 7. 
Edith (Wilbert Lambert). 

Br. of Jonathan C. — 1. Isaac (Jennie Thompson). 2. 
Alonzo ( Warner). 3. Sarah — d. 4. Grover. 5. Jona- 
than C. (Sidney Porter). 

The Arbaughs are in C. D. There is no family of Isaac in 
P. Cy. 

Armentrout. (A) Daniel H. (Susannah Hinkle)~b. 1799, d. 

1862— n. U. T. below bridge— ch. 1. Jacob (Catharine )— 

b. 1823—0. 2. Amanda J. (Christina Bowers) -b. 1824. 3. 
Elizabeth A. (Martin Haigler). 4. Eliza (Isaac N. Graham). 

5. JohnW. ( )— d. 23 -W. 6. Rebecca (W)*. 7. Mahala 

(James H. Graham). 8. Margaret E. (la).* 9. Jesse C. 
(Sarah J. Kile, Emma J. Clayton)— b. 1840. Jason C— la. 
11. David A. (la.)*. 12-13. Twin girls (dy). 14. Martha -dy. 

Br. of Jesse C. -1. Clara (Benjamin Turner) —Grant. 2. 
Mary S. (Henry C. Oakum, Grant) *. 3. Margaret (William 
Bowers). 4. Florence V. (Harness Kile). 5. Jessie J. 



176 

(Luke Raines)— Rph. 6. Ida (JetsonCarr, Tkr).* T.Nan- 
nie (Reuben P, Blair, Poca).* 8. Lucy (Blaine Hyer, Rph).* 
Hiram (Amanda — -) — b. 1811— cousin to Daniel H.— n. M. 
S.— eh.— 1. John W. (Martha Dolly) -Rph. 2. Christopher 

( Mullenax)— Rph. 3. Aaron (- Miller)— Rph. 4. 

Mary C. (—Harper, 111)* 5. Martha E. (W P. Har- 

per) 6. Isaac (Grant)— homestead. 7. Anne (Jacob Bible) 
8. Susan J. (William H. Boggs). 9. Adina R. (John A. 
Boggs) 10. Nevada. 

(B) George W. (Mary Borrer)— lived in Grant — k. in hay- 
mow, 1858*— family came to M. R. D. 1862*— ch—1. Rebecca 
(Andrew Hedrick) 2. James W. (Cena E. Miller) 3. Samuel 
(Nancv Miller). 4. Isaac— Ind. 5. George — Wash. 6. John. 
7. Meiinda (William Reel, Grant). 8. Nancy (Philip 
Nelson). 

Jacob (Catharine Borrer)— bro. to George W. — ch. — 1. 

Noah W. ( Shreve)— Grant. 2. Sarah E. ( Ressner) 

-b. 1838. 3. Ann R. 4. Agnes H. 5. John A. 6. Eliza T. 7. 
James (Grant)*. 

Unp. 1. Michael (Elizabeth— )— 1788. 2. c—( Eve C. Peter- 
son) 3. Aaron— b. 1802. 

The pioneer Armentrout settled near Petersburg in Grant 
and owned a 3 mile strip of land. 

Ayers. Joseph, native of England, came to Md. probably 
before 1775, and died there in middle age. The widow left 
a son and daughter in Md. and came to M. R. Dist. with the 
two other children, John and Margaret. The descendants of 
John live near Branch and Brushy Run P. O.'s. 

Ch. of Joseph:—!. John (Elizabeth Fall)-m. 1811. 2. 
Martha (William Maloney) — Crow's Ridge— ch.~l son (dy), 
1 dau. 

Line of John:— 1. Henry (Barbara Hedrick). 2. Elijah— 
S-Grant. 3. WiHiam H. H. (Elizabeth Judy) 4. John (Eve 
Mumbert, Naomi George) 5. Benjamin. 6. Isaiah (Mary 
Vanmeter). 7. Hannah (John Shreve). 8. Susan (Aaron 
Shirk). 9. Margaret (Henry Lawrence). 

Branch of Henry:— 1. Elizabeth (Kennison Hill), out. 
2. Margaret— d. 

Branch of William H, H.— 1. Andrew (Sarah E. George). 
2. John M. (Nancy Shreve). 3. William — S—k by lightning 
at 34. 4. Semilda (James E. Shreve). 5. AnnR.— dy. 

Ch. of John M. —William R. (Jennie Borrer), John ifdy), 
Henry (out) , * Rebecca (Jesse Borrer, Grant) * Delia ( Wilbert 
Landes), Andrew J., Harness H., Jeremiah S., Ola W., Cora, 
Carrie 

Branch of John:— 1. Reuben (Margaret Judy) 2. Ann 



177 

(Perry Riggleman). 3. Margaret (Hiram Alt). 4. Clara 
~dy. 

Branch of Isaiah:—!. Elizabeth. 2. John. 3. Lucinda 
(Henry Landes, Grant) * 4. Amby. 

'^Bennett. Joseph (- ) — ch.— 1. Joseph (Hannah 

Sleason)— d. 1810* ^ John (Catharine )— d. 1832.* 

3. William (Lydia — '''^~). 4. Robert. S.James. 6. Henry. 

Family of Joseph: — 1. William (Rebecca McCauley) — b. 

1775.— Lewis, 1797. 2. Jacob (Rachel )— Ind. 3. 

John ( )— n. Cinninnati. 4. Mary E. (Thomas Ben- 
nett)— m.. 1796. 5. Sarah (Thomas McCartney)— m. 1796, 

6. Phoebe. 7. Hannah (Daniel Hacker) -m. 1806. 8, 
Elijah (Barbara Bible)— b. 1795. 

Line of Elijah:— 1. Hannah (John Bennett). 2. George 
(Catharine Cassell) b. 1832, k. 3. Elizabeth (Aaron Ben- 
nett). 4. Henry (Mary Nelson). 5. Barbara (Adonijah 
Lambert). 6. Sarah (George Burns). 7. Jane (Hdy) — W. 
Va. 8. Phoebe (Morgan Raines). 9. Susan (Moses Ben- 
nett). 10. Mary (Salem Ketterman). 

Br. of George:— 1. Junius (Tkr)*. 2.Marcellus (Virginia 
Nelson, Margaret Lambert) — Hunting Ground. 3. Martin 
D. (Susan Bland) — U. D. 4. America (James Calhoun). 5. 
Mary J. (Peter Zickafoose). 6. Sarah C. (Isaac Kile). 

Br. of Henry:— 1. Elijah (Louisa Teter)— Okla. 2. girl 

< ). 

^Family of John:— L' William (Barbara? ). 2. Thomas 

(Eve Bennett)— m. 1796. 3. Elizabeth (Richard Johnson)— 
m. 1807. 
Line of William (5):— 1. Rebecca (Thomas Peninger). 

2. Nancy — Lewis. 3. Margaret ( Raines). 4. John 

(Sarah Raines) — b. 1784. 5. Polly (Richard Pennington), 

(W Joseph (Phoebe Cunningham)— b. 1775, m. 1799— d. 1851. 

7. Jacob (Rachel ). 

""'^^ine of Joseph (1) : — 1. Susannah (George Vandeventer) 
— b. 1795, 2i James (Rebecca Wimer)— b. 1801, d. 1884— 
Eli Bennett's. 3. William (Eva Hedrick)— b. 1804— Big 
Run, 4. Agnes (James Warner) — m. 1824. 5. Jacob (Kate 
Thom.pson) — W. Va. 6. Catharine (Joseph Montony) — m. 

1827, 7. Isaac (Mary Sponaugle)— Lewis. 8. Joseph ( 

Lam.b) — Rph. 9. Moses (Susan Bennett) — b. 1819— Big Run 
mill, 10. Aaron (Elizabeth Bennett) — Philip Sponaugle's. 
11. Henry (Naomi )— W. Va. 12. John (Hannah Ben- 
nett)— Big Run. 13. Martin (Sidney Arbogast)— b. 1823— 
homestead. 14. Amanda M. (Laban Cunningham). 

— -Br. of James: — 1. Mahala (George Lambert), 2. Cathar- 
ine (George A. Phares), 3. Rebecca (John W, Cunningham) 
—Rph. 4. Eli (Mary Simmons)— b. 1835. 5^ James B. 

I»CH 12 



178 

(Mary Hinkle). 6. William C. (Catharine Phares). 7. 
Josiah (Catharine Bennett). 8. Sylvanus (Ellen Judy). 9. 
Adam (Ursula Phares, CoraB. Lambert). 

Ch. of Eli: — George A. (Martha Cunningham), Lafayette, 
Henry, Clay, Kenny. 

Ch. of James B. — 1. Albert — d. 2. Lorenzo D. (Annie 
Phares). 3. Samuel (Julia Nelson) — Okla. 4. Lee (Delia 
Hinkle). 5. Robert (Ostella Pennington). 6. Annie (Leon- 
ard Harper). 7. Ida (John C. Smith). 8. Serinda (William 
Johnson). 

Ch. of Josiah:— Charles (Susan Dean Arbogast), Adam J., 
Annie S. (Peter Bennett) , Rebecca (Jacob Arbogast, Noah 
Lamb). Susan (Esau Arbogast), Elizabeth (Bay Ion Arbogast, 
Abel Way bright), Lura (Walter Moyers). By 2d m. — Anna 
(Thomas Moyers), Julia. 

Ch. of Sylvanus:— Patrick (Margaret Mullenax) — Poca. 
2. Susan P. (William J. Mullenax). 3. Cora A. (Jesse F. 
Lambert). 4. Lottie (Solomon K. Mullenax). 

Ch. of Adam: — Jacob F. (Flora Bennett, Maud Wimer), 
Adam H., Christina (Adam Harper), Philip E. (Margaret L. 
Lambert), Ellis D., Charles (Susan Rymer), William J. (Zula 
Wimer), Don. By 2d m.— Isa D., Rhoda. 

Br. of William:— Nancy, George ( ), John. 

Br. of Moses: — Elijah (Hannah Arbogast), Joseph (k.), 
George (Jane Arbogast), Adam (Martha Bennett), John 
(Mary Vint), Moses (dy), Reuben D. (Emma Vint), Cath- 
arine (Josiah Bennett), Elizabeth (Jesse Vint). 

Ch. of Elijah: — Almeda (Jackson Bennett), Asa (Amy 
Bennett), Harman (Mattie Bennett), Achan (dy). 

Ch. of George: — Amy (Asa Bennett), Frank (Attie Lantz), 
Robert (Matie Arbogast), girl (Mack Kile). 

Ch. of Adam:— Martin ( Arbogast), Lottie (Samuel 

Hedrick), Lathe ( Arbogast), Pinkney, Hayes, Loler, 

Sarah, John, girl (Luther Nelson). 

Ch. of John: — Moses, George (Beattie Sponaugle), Lee 

( Bennett), Osceola? ( Vandeventer), Okey, Daley, 

Mary E. (Lafayette Lambert), Deane (Norman Sponaugle), 
girl. 

Ch. of Reuben: — Isaac (Elizabeth Arbogast), Preston, girl 
(Charles Lambert), girl (Lee Bennett), Esther (Joseph 
Vint), 5 others. 

Br. of Aaron: — Martin (Jane Snider, Rph), Sarah J., 

Sidney (Job Huffman), Frank ( Teter), Amos ( 

Teter), Christina ( Teter). Elizabeth ( ). 

Br. of John: — Elizabeth B. (Nimrod Dove), Daniel (Sarah 
A. Arbogast), Agnes (Salem Teter), Phoebe J. (George 
Cunningham), Jackson (Almeda Bennett), Amby (d.), 



179 

Nimrod ( Mullenax). 

Line of Martin:— Taylor (Agnes Arbogast), Lemuel J. 
(Mary J. Mallenax), Alfred (d.), Minor (Rebecca Arbo- 
gast), Frank (Margaret Eye), Martha E. (Adam Bennett), 
Catharine (W. Scott Calhoun), Danie (James Mullenax), Mil- 
lie (James Mullenax.) 

Unp. 1. Joseph (Mary ) — Harrison, 1804*. 2. James 

(Rebecca )— b. 1801. d. 1884— son of one John. 3. Job 

(Hannah ). 4. William (Anna )— 1790. 

As will be seen the original Bennett connection was quite 
large, but drifted westward with the exception of two 
branches. Those marked "unp." appear to be of the chil- 
dren of Robert. James and Henry. An interesting sketch of 
the emigrated Bennetts will be found in Part HL The first 
Joseph appears to have been the immigrant from Britain, 
and there is a tradition that he reached Virginia by way of 
New Jersey. The present numerous connection in this 
county is chiefly in C. D., especially around the first settle- 
ment at Big Run. 

Bible. Philip ( ) — prQbably related to Adam, who set- 
tled on Dry River, Rkm, in 1773— ch?—. 1. George (Ann E. 
)— d. 1839* 2. Mary (Adam Coplinger)— m. 1810. 

Line of George:— 1. Henry— S.—b. 1789, d. 1859. 2. 
John (Mary E. Skidmore)— b. May 31, 1791, d. Aug. 9. 1875. 
3. Adam — W. Va. 4. Jacob— out. 5. Barbara (Elijah 
Bennett). 6. Elizabeth (William Rexroad). 7. George 

(Margaret Currence). 8. William (Jane? ) — la. 9. 

Philip (Sarah—) b. June 7. 1810, d. Aug 1, 1858— Seneca. 
10. Mary E. (Jesse Hinkle). 11. Samuel (Elizabeth 
Greenawait?)— b. 1815. 12. Susannah ( Patton). 

Br. of John— 1. James (Susannah Miller)— b. Oct .6, 1815. 

2. George (Phoebe Smith). 3. Henry (dy). 4. Eliza- 
beth (Morgan Smith). 5. Rachel (Laban Conrad) — b. Nov. 
1, 1819, d. Feb. 19, 1891 6. Mary A. (Miles Bland).. 

Ch. of James — 1. Polly A. (James Morral). 2. John A. 

3. Phoebe J. (Adam Kisamore). 4. Jacob S. (Annie Ar- 
mentrout) — d. 39. 5. Eva E. (Samuel Harman — Adam Har- 
man). 6. Hannah (Elijah Cooper. Rph)* 7. Benjamin 
F. (Martha E. Phares). 8. Rachel C. (Valentine Cooper, 
Rph)* 9. Henry H. (Sarah E. Phares)— Grant. 10. James 
W. (Ida Morral). 11-12. twins (dy). 

C. of Jacob S.—l. Clara (out)— Tkr. 2. Lottie (Rph)* 
3. Jacob (dy). 4. Winebert. 5. Osa. 

C. of Benjamin F. — boy (dy), Cora, Wilber (Nannie Mal- 
low), Arley, Hardy, Emma (Isom Ketterman), Laura, Jason, 
Walter, Frank, Elizabeth, Frederick. 



C. of James W.— Annie J., Effie M., Homer F., Otis S., A. 
Dayton, James G., Frederick M., Oscar, Zola, Melvin. 

Ch. of George: — 1. Mary J. (Washington Thompson) 2. 
Lenora E. (Samuel Hedrick) 8. Elizabeth (William J. 
Smith. 4. girl (dy). 

Br. of George — 1. John A. (Callie Zickafoose) — out 2. 
Ellen (John Pennington). 3. Phoebe J. (Timothy Simmons). 

Br. of Philip-1. George W. b. 1833. 2. Sarah E. (out). 
8. Martha J. (William Rexroad)— b. 1836, d. 1873. 4. Henry 
J.— S— d. in Rocky Mts. 5, Adam W.— k. 6. Mary M. 
(John Hammer) — b. 1841 u. 7. Deborah C. (Hezekiah Sim- 
mons). 8. James W. (Isabella Nelson). 9. Miles P.— S. 

Ch. of James W. — 1. Miles — d 2. James (Almeda Sim- 
mons) 3. Job (W. Va.)* 4. Joseph (out)* — k. in mill, 

Davis. 5. Flick (Matilda Halterman)— D. 6. 

(Peter Phares). 7. Charles ( Clayton)— W. Va. 

The Bibles of Pdn are now almost exclusively in Timber 
Ridge and below M S. The original homestead was the Isaac 
Simmons farm on Reed's Cr. 

Black. Daniel (Hannah E. Smith) — came from Carrolton, 
0. 1846.*— physician— n. Kline— ch.—l. William H.— dy 2. 
Mary J. (Amby Ward)— b. 1850. D. — 3. Edward E. 
(Minnie Caddis, Grant)— U.D. 4. Frank S. (MacieE.Dunkle) 
— M. R. D. 5. Nancy 6. Belle (Charles A. Hedrick) —D. 
7. John — dy 8. Aaron L. (Dora George) — la. 9. Ada — 
dy. 

Ch. of Edward E.— Ira D., Hendron W., OlaC, Dewitt, 
Claude S., Jessie B., Haven. 

Ch. of Frank S.-John F., Henry C. (d), Eve E., Stella 
H., Charles v., Walter W., Lizzie C, Felicia J., Edward, 
Howard D. (dy) 

Blandc Thomas (Margaret , Rachel Shoulders, m. 

1797)— d. 1826— ch.—l. Henry (Margaret Weirich, Mary 
Dolly)— b. April 25, 1770, d. Mar. 27, 1853— homestead. 2, 
Job (Lewis)*. 3. Elizabeth (Jesse Davis)— m. 1827. 4. 
George — dy. By 2d m. — 5, Job (Lewis)* 6. Enoch (Annie 
Teter, Marv A. Harper — homestead). 7. Rachel (Johnson 
Teter)— b. 1820. d. 1873. 

Line of Henry: — 1. John — 0. 2. Thomas — 0. 3. Solomon 
(Abigail Phares) —0. 4. Silas— 0. 5. Eli (Anne Haigler). 
b. 1797, m. 1824-Riverton. 6. Sidney (Philip Teter). 7. 
Mollie (Solomon Teter). 8. Isabel (Davie Flinn). 9. Henry 
—missionary with Bishop Taylor — Cal. 10. William — Kas. 
11-12. infs (dy). By 2d m— 13. George W. (Margaret Bar- 
net)— b. 1818, d. 1889*.— Seneca. 14. Henry J. (Rkm)— 
preacher — Cal. 15. Zane — preacher and physician — Md. 
16, Duane— d. 17. Jesse -S. 18. Annis— d. 30. 20. Phoebe 



181 

(Zebulon Warner). 21. Lucinda— S, 22. Stewart (Virgin- 
ia Harper)— b. 1839. 23. Asa P. (Ellen Kitchen, Grant— 
Kas.)— b. 1832. 24. James H. (111.)— preacher— 0. 

Br. of Eli:-1. Miles H. (Mary A. Bible)— b. 1828—0. 2. 
William (Mary Teter)— b. 1829~homestead. 3. Amos (Mary 
Hevener)— 0. 4. Lucinda (John W. Dolly). 5. Washington 
(Jennie Whitecotton)— 0. 6. John W.— D. 7. Mary 
(Andrew J. Simpson). 8. Perry— k. 9. James (111.)* 10. 
Franklin (Agnes Clayton)— 111. 

Ch. of William:— 1. Harriet (John Biby)— Okla. 2. Clara 
(Michael Harper). 3. Almeda (Kenny Judy). 4. Strite— 
Cal. 5. Austen— 111. 

Br. of Enoch: — 1. Johnson (Sarah Lawrence). — b. 1829 — 
homestead. 2. Jane (Jesse Way bright). 3. JohnC. (Mary 
Caton) — b. 1835. 4. CJaroline (Elijah Harper, Henry Cun- 
ningham)— Rph. 5. Pleasant D. (Mary Calhoun). 6. Isaac 
(Susan Warner). 7. Phoebe (A. Lough). 8. Elizabeth 
(William Nelson). 9. Ellen (John Warner). By 2d m.— 
10. Mary (Ambrose Smith). 11. Enoch (Mattie Caton). 

Unp. 1. Jacob— 1800. 2. William— 1780. 3. Margaret 
(James Davis) —m. 1818. 4. Susannah (George Raines)— 
m. 1820. 

Blewitt. Samuel (Evelyn Hopper, Shen.-b. 1805, d. 1853) 
son of an English immigrant — came from Md. May 3, 1844 — 
tailor— b. 1804, d. 1873— ch.— 1. Charles J. (Deniza Ham- 
mer)— b. Aug 7, 1831— P. M. at Ruddle. 2. Berkley P.— D. 
3. George W. — d. 4. Samuel L. — d. 5 Amanda — dy. 6. 
James A. (Sarah Thompson)— b. 1848. 

Ch. of Charles J.— 1. Phoebe J.— dy. 2. George R.— dy. 
3. Laura D. 4. Charles H. 5. Delilah C. (Her.dron Dah- 
mer). 6. Arbelia E. (Otto F. Cunningham)— Va. 

Ch. of James A,— 1. Henry. 2. Pendleton ( Lantz). 

3. Grace. 4. Rachel. Others, dy. 

Blizzard. John (Mary C. )— D. 1799— may have 

been the same as the John who v/as living on Smith Cr. 

Rkm, in 1761— ch.— 1. William (Sarah )— 0. 1808*. 2. 

Thomas (Eleanor )— 0. 1808. 3. Burton (Sarah )— 

d. 1839. 4. Elizabeth (John Harrison) 5. Joseph. 6. John 
(Dellany Davis)— m. 1796. 7. Sarah (Christian Borders)— 
m. 1787. Susannah (Roger Dyer. ) 

Line of Burton — 1. Burton (Margaret Wimer). 2. Sam- 
uel (Margaret Hartman) — teacher, 3. James (Margaret 

Wagoner)— m. 1809— W. 1840*. William (Sarah )— W— 

5 Frederick (Mary Campbell)- m. 1818— W, 6. Kate (George 
Mumbert)— b. Sept. 1. 1788, d. Nov. 7, 1881. 7. Hannah— S— 
b. 1796. 8. Ruth (John Mumbert). 9. Sarah— 0. 10. Jesse 
Elizabeth Hartman)— Aug, 7, 1800, d. Nov. 19, 1883. 



182 

Br. of Jesse**— 1. John B. (Rebecca Nelson,* Tabitha 
Lambert) b. Aug. 10, 1821 — n. Riverton. 2. Margaret L. — 
Harper's Ferry. 3. Samuel L. (Margaret Hal terman) — Fin. 
William J. (Piioebe J. Halterman)— Fin. James W. (Hannah 
Nelson) — Grant. 6. Adam W. (Sarah Nelson) 7. Jacob L. 
(Hannah E, Dickenson)— F.D. 8. David K. (Sophia Propst,* 
Jennie Rader)— M.R. D. 10. MaryE. (William Nelson). Mor- 
gan V. (Cynthia V. Propst)— Aug.* 12. Jesse C.—dy 13. 
Hamilton L. (Rebecca Huffman)— b. June 11, 1846. 

C. of John B.— 1. Samuel B. (Susan Bennett)— Rnd. 2. 
Phoebe J. 3. Elizabeth (Samuel Wimer). 4. Jacob L. — dy 5. 
Amanda E. (Jackson White). 6. David K.— dy. 

C. of William J. — 1. Edward — government clerk, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

C. of Adam W\— 1. Elizabeth— d. 2. Isaac W. (Rosa Bolton) 
3. Jacob. 4. Margaret (Robert Propst). 5. James W. 6. John 
L. 7. Susan F. 

C. of of Jacob L.— 1. William W. 2. Margaret L. (Charles 
Evick). 3. Maud V. (Strite Lough). 4. Granville H. (Sarah J. 
Dahmer). 5. Mary J. (Thomas E. Bagby, Aug.*). 6. Lillie E. 
(William L. Hevener). 7. Gertrude M. (Samuel H. Bolton) 
8. Lucy C. (Edward H. Rexroad) 

C. of David K. — William and others. 

C. of Hamilton L.— 1. Wesley-d. Marshall (Rnd)* 3. 
Frederick — Rnd. 

Unp. 1. Catharine (Thomas Dickenson) — m. 1795. 2. Cath- 
arine (John A. Atwell)— m. 1825. 3. Rachel (James Wilson) 
m. I8iy. 

All the earlier connection but Jesse went West, and he re- 
moved to Smith Creek, 1844. Samuel remained awhile at Ft. 
Seybert and taught. The family possessions in that locality 
aggregated about 800 acres. The surviving sons of Jesse are 
the venerable John B. near Riverton and Jacob L. in Propst's 
Gap. 

Boggs. John (Margaret Key) — came with wife from Ire- 
land— b. April 6, 1774, d. Oct. 6, 1858— ch.— 1. Nancy— S.— 
b. 1797, d. 1882. 2 James (Mary W. Dyer)— b. May— 1799, 

d. Jan. 28, 1862. 3. Aaron (Nancy )-b. 1805. 4. Joseph 

(Catharine Partisel) — Mo., early in life. 5. Isabella ( 

Lewis) — Hamp. 6. Catharine (Perry Lawrence, Lewis)* 7. 
John (Elizabeth Carr)— b. July 4, 1815, d. May 14, 1893. 

Br. of James— 1. Louisa D. ( David C. Anderson)— b. 1827. 2. 
Margaret K. (Junius B. Anderson). 3. Sarah A. (Isaac S. 
Welton, Grant)* 4. Edward W. (Hardy)— Fred' k Co. 5. 
Charles D. (Minnie Bryan. Rkm). 6. James C. (Delia Wil- 
son) —Marlington. 7. WiHiam H. (Carrie McCoy)— b. 1845 
—Fin. 



183 

C. of Charles D. — Don, Alexander. 

C. of WiliiamH.— I.William M. (Beatrice Hiner). 2. Hugh 
C. (Annie H. Daugherty). 3. Margie— Grant. 

Br. of John— 1. Joseph F. (Cynthia Trace) — 0. 2. Isaac 
P. (Rachel Morral), 3. Henrietta (John R. Dolly). 4. Aaron 
C. (Martha S. Hedrick)— miller— n. M. M. S. 5. Martin K. 
(KateSkidmore). 6. Willia-iiH. (Susan J. Armentrout) — mer- 
chant, Fin. 7. John A. (Adina R. Armentrout) — Fin. 

C. of Isaac P. — 1. Preston (Gertrude Bowman) — physician 
—Fin. 2. Byron (Kate McCoy)— bank clerk. 3. Mason (Sa- 
rah Priest). 4. Pendleton. 

C. of Aaron C— Maud (John B. Skidmore), Gordon (Elsie 
Byrd), Wilber, Arthur L., Oscar, Warren, Louie, Frank, 
lona, Kate. 

C. of Martin K.— Sylvia. 

C. of William H. — Nora, Lester. 

Bolton. Jacob (Margaret Hartman)— m. 1807— d. 1859. 
ch.— 1. Samuel (S. V.)— Tenn. 2. Mary (John Swadley). 

3. Jacob (Dorothy Cassell). 4. Mahala (James Shaw)— b. 
1826. 5. Nancy (William Fisher) -la. 6. Sarah A. (Jacob 
Cowger) — Ind. 7. John (Mary Cook.) 8. George (Jane 
Guthrie). 

Br. of Jacob**-l. Thomas M. (Del.)* b. 1833. 2. Ma- 
tilda A. (John Hammer). 3. Samuel H. — d. on way to 111. 

4. John A. (Lucy Hiner, Mary J. Swadley) b. 1838— home- 
stead. 5. William P. (Jane Simpson, Annie Cook)— d. 6. 
Sarah A. (Miles Simpson)— b. 1846, d. 

Ch. of John A.-L Huldah F. (John P. Dyer). 2. Isaac 
E. (Ida Dyer)— County and Circuit Clerk — c. — Erma R., 
Russell K., Anna M.. Allen D., Carroll M , Mary L. By 2d 
m. 3. 4. Charles (Baltimore)* 5. Luella. 

Br. of Wilham — 1. J. Lee (Catharine Dickenson). 2. 
Madison (Neb.)* William (0.)* George (out)— Rnd. By 
2d m. 5. Rosa — 0. 

Br. of George — 1. Josephine (James Elyard)— Rkm. 2. 
Rosanna D. (George W. Dickenson). 3. Mary J. (Martin 
Fultz). 4. Rebecca— S. 5. John W. (Sarah Plaugher, An- 
nie Cook, Ada Simmons). 6. Samuel H. (Jane Guthrie, Ger- 
trude Blizzard)— B. D. 

C. of John W.— Several. 

C. of Samuel H. — Enoch B. (Nannie Evick), Osa (Wesley 
Eye), — also minors by 2d m. 

The connection is chiefly in F. D. 

Borrer. (A) Thomas (Eve C. )— exempted 1799— d. 

1810*— ch—1. Andrew (Mary Conover). 2. Thomas. 3. Peter. 
4. Adam. 5. Abraham. 6. Eve (Daniel Clark)— m. 1795. 7. 
Catharine. 8. Elizabeth. 9. Mary (John Ratliff)— m. 1812. 



(B). Charles ( Wees) — d. 1843* — perhaps nephew to 

Thomas— ch.—l. Sarah E. (John Champ)— b. 1783. 2. Jacob 
(W. Va.)*— d. at 92. 3. Elizabeth. 4. Jennie— S.—d. 1906. 
5. Solomon (Magdalena Wise)— b. 1792, d. May 22, 1875. 6. 
Martin (Amarilla Dayton)— b. 1798, d. May 5, 1886. 7. John 
(Sidney Ratliff)— b. 1800. d. 1863. 8. George— Grant. 9. 

Magdalena (Christian Halterman). 10. Phoebe ( Rohr- 

baugh) — Grant. 

Br. of Solomon — 1. George W. (Hannah Alt) — Grant. 2. 
Sampson (dy). 3. Benson (dy). 4. Mary A. (George W. Armen- 
trout)— b. 1816, d. Aug. 17, 1885. 5. Malinda (Daniel Holl- 
oway). 6. Elizabeth (Morgan Lewis) — Kas. 7. Virginia (Har» 
vey Castard) — 0. 8. Manasseh (Julia A, Borrer) — 0. 10. 
Emily (John Greenawalt). 11. Rebecca (Elias Lough, Solo- 
mon Lough). 12. Hannah (Paul Harman). 13. Jemima (Isaac 
Mallow. 

Ch. of George W.— 1. Miles (Didama Stump)— Grant. 2. 
Charles (Jemima Ours, Nancy R. Kessner) — Ind. 3. Henry 

W. (Sarah Riggleman, Grant)* 4. Harman ( Crites, 

Grant) — Md. 5. Adam (Artie Harman). 6. Rebecca — S — Ind. 
7. Mary E. (George W. Westfall, Grant)* 

Br. of Martin— 1. George W. (Sarah A. Miller)— b. 1818, 
d. 1883. 2. Simon ( Mahala Peterson, Mary Judy). 3. Isaac 
(Sarah Carrier)— Ind. 4. Julia A. (Jacob Riggleman) — 0. 
5. Eliza (Abraham Landes, Grant)* 6. Charlotte (Samuel 
Kline). 7. Nimrod— S. 8. Emily M. (Borrer) 

Ch. of George W. — 

Ch. of Simon — 1. Amanda E. (Amby Ours, Grant, W 

W. Dean)— Md. 2. Daniel (Louisa Mowrey)—Rph. 3. William 
(Etta Mowrey). 4. Mary (Amby Ours, Grant) — Davis. 5. 
Alice (John Smith)— Grant. 6. Mahala E. (0.)* By 2nd m. 
7— OlIieF. ( Wees)— 111. 8. inf. (dy). 

Br. of John— 1. William (Mary M. Carrier)— b. 1818— Kas. 

2. John (111.)* 3. Alfred (111.)* 4. Hannah ( Crites)— 

111. 5. Elizabeth ( )— W. 6. Catharine (Jacob Ar- 

mentrout) — Grant. 7. Jesse — d. 
^i«^ Brady. Isaac (Leean Hulver)— b. 1815*, d. 1900— ch.—l. 
Absalom (Amelia Nesselrodt). 2. Levi (Susan Whitecot- 
ton). 3. Erasmus ( Hulver, Lydia Hulver) — n. Manas- 
sas, Va. John (0)*. 5. George W. ( Davis) — Rkm. 6. 

Elizabeth. 7. Jennie. 8. Mary (Laban Dickenson, Benja- 
min Pitsenbarger). 9. Julia A. (0.)* 10. Mattie (Mi- 
chael Propst). 11. Sarah ( Halterman, Rkm)* 12. 

Arilla (Robert Mitchell). 

Unp. 1. John— 1802. 2. Margaret (Samuel Hoover)— m. 
1825. 

The connection is in lower B. D. 



185 

Burgoyne. Thomas (Mary Burnett b. 1799, Nancy D ) 

~b Sept. 9, 1783, d. May 26, 185&— ch.— 1. Washington 
(Ellen Kitchen). 2. Elizabeth A. (Michael C. Stump). By 
2d m.— 3. Margaert L. (Enos Harman)— b. July 16, 1820, 

d. Feb. 22, 1889. 4. Cyrus H.— S. 5. Martha H. ( 

). 6. Isabella G. (Daniel Hiser). 7. Cynthia D. (Ri- 
ley Higgenbotham) — Kas. 8. Emily J. (Noah Harman). 9. 
Henry H. (1. West, 2 Catharine Guthrie). 10. James R. 
(Phoebe J. Hiser) Rph. 11. Amos. 12. Ezra. 12. Thomas 
N. (dy). 

Burns. William (Lydia Helmick)— C. D.— ch.— 1. Nicho- 
las — out. 2. George (Sarah Bennett)— b. 1837. 3. Jemima 
— out. 4. Sophia R. — out. 

Byrd. James W. (Mary A. Hammer) — son of Mounts 
Byrd, English immigrant— b. 1824, d. 1862— millwright— 
built McCoy and Byrd mills— m. Jan. 4, 1849— d. of fever 
while detained by military authority— ch. — 1. Ruhama D. 
2. Clay (Frances Harper)— b 1849. d. 1897— homestead. 3. 
Kate (Morgan G. Trumbo). 4. John W. (Phoebe Hammer 
Meadows)— d. May 15, 1905. 5. Adelaide (George W. Da- 
vis). 

Br. of Clay— 1. Lillian. 2. Luna (Walter Homan, William 
P. Simmons). 3. Cletus D. (Mamie L. Harman)— Gasso- 
way. 4. Otho (Etta Siple). 5. Blanche (Lloyd Hammer). 
6. Arlie. 7. Arbie. 8. Leslie. 9. Richard. 10. Clara (dy). 

Br. of John W.— 1. Elsie (Gordon Boggs). 2. Don (Lura 
Ruddle)— homestead, Ernest R. (Ursula Lough)— Bridge- 
water, Va. 

Calhoun. This family came from the north of Ireland in 
1733, and soon thereafter moved to Augusta, where in 1750, 
James was captain of a troop of horse. William is men- 
tioned in 1752. In the same year Patrick was living on New 
River. He went on to South Carolina, and John C. Calhoun 
the famous statesman, was his son. The Calhouns of Pen- 
dleton are believed to spring from William. 

John (Elizabeth , Mary Schrader, m. 1838)— b. 1765, 

d. 1850— ch.— 1. Mary (Henry Judy)— m. 1810. 2. William 

(Elizabeth Mallett, Sarah Zickafoose) — b. June 2, 

1793, d. Feb. 2, 1873.— homestead. 3. John (Naomi Wil- 
liams)— b. 1796, d. 1854.— homestead. 4. Lavina (Jacob 
Syron, Hid)— m. 1829. 5. Susannah (Solomon Hinkle)— b. 
1803, d. 1827. 

Line of William:— 1. Eli (Elizabeth Mullenax, m. 1834— 
Elizabeth Helmick)— b. Dec. 11, 1815. 2. Aaron (Catharine 
Lambert)— b. 1816, m. 1835, d. 1890. 3. Mahala (Enoch Te- 
ter)— b. 1818, m. 1836. 4. Emily (John Mick)— m. 1814. 5. 
Susannah (Absalom H. Nelson)— b. 1822, m. 1840. 6. Eliza- 



186 

beth (Job Lambert)— b. 1824, m. 1845. 7. Virginia (William 
Rymer). 8. William J. (Upshur)* 9. Martha— dy. 10. 
Jacob (Evelyn West)— Mo. By 2d m.— 11. John C. (Belinda 
Lough). 12. Margaret (Philip Wimer). 13. Lavina N. — d. 

Br. of Eli:— 1. Phoebe (Solomon Hinkle)— b. 1855. 2. 
Ephraim (Ann R. Simmons) — d. in marine service. 3. Ann 
((^^eorge W. Lambert). 4. Allen (Mary K. Vandeventer) — 

Poca. 5. Susan (Albinus Lambert). 6. Jackson ( 

Bowers), Tex, 7. Martha — Tex. James (America Bennett). 
By 2nd m.— 9. Wilson— Rph. 10. Rymer (Ann Judy). 11. 
Rebecca— Hid. m. 1857. 

Br. of Aaron :— 1. Martha (Miles Tingler)— b. 1836. 2. 
Winefred (Edward Mullenax)— m. 1856. 3. Elizabeth S. 
(George Wimer, m. 1858. Henry Mullenax, m. 1865). 4. 
Sarah C. (William Mullenax)— m. 1859. 5. F. Marion (Phoebe 
C. Harper)— b. 1842. 6. William— dy. 7. John W. 0. (Eliza- 
beth Rymer) —Hid. 8. Mary J. (Pleasant D. Bland). 9. Aaron 
F. (Jennie Hinkle)— b. 1849. 10. Marietta— dy. 11. Winfield 
S. (Catharine Bennett)— b. 1852. 

Ch. of F. Marion :— 1. Harrison M. (Virginia C. Mullenax, 
Hid.)— m. 1889. 2. Etta (George R. Lambert). 3. Gilbert 
(Margaret Rexroad). 4. D. Clinton (Christina Mullenax). 

C. of Harrison M:— Camden H.. Alfred R.. Edwin M., M. 
Lillian, Judith (dy), P. Evelyn, Elizabeth E., Harlan M. 

C. of Gilbert: — Hazel (dy), Russell, Tressie. 

C. of D. Clinton :— Bardie (dy.), Charles, Creston M,, 
Archibald. 

Ch. of Aaron F.— Tennyson (d. 14), Annabel (Flick Cun- 
ningham), W. Carlton, Virgil M., Brooks F., Rudolph D., 
Hobart H. 

Ch. of Winfield S.— 1. William C. (Emma S. Graham.) 2. 

Martin D. (R. A. Graham). 3. Dora (dy.) 4. Winnie B. 

(George W. Lough)— Va. 5. Carroll F. 6. Ethel— dy. 7. 
Kate (John Hartman) d. 8. Ruby W.— dy. 9. Frederick C. 
(Mollie Helmick)— Horton. 10. Summers F. 11. Ernest C. 
12. Orion F. 

Br. of John C :— 1. Margaret (Amos Judy). 2. Sarah (End- 
res Hartman). 

Line of John : — 1. Amos S. 2, Catharine (Noah Lambert). 
3. Martha (John W. Lambert). 4. Mary (Joseph Smith, 
W. Va.)— m. 1854. 5. John W.— S. 6. Sidney (Reuben 
George, Grant)*— m. 1842. 

H. Mayberry Calhoun began teaching in the common 
schools of his native county at the age of sixteen and contin- 
ued in this work sixteen terms. In 1895 he became County 
Superintendent, being the first incumbent to hold the office 
four years. In 1898 he began the practice of law at the 



187 

county seat, and still follows the profession. He has served 
a term as Prosecuting Attorney. 

Carr. Jacob appears to have had four sons — 1. Jacob 
(Margaret Mallow)— m. 1796. 2. Thomas. 3. Michael. 4. 
Philip (Kate Mouse)— m. 1798, d. 1800 when his son was 3 
weeks old. 

Line of Philip — Adam (Susannah Trace) — b. 1800 — home- 
stead 

Br.'of Adam— 1. Isaac (Jemima Judy)— b. 1827, d. 1879— 
Grant. 2. Elizabeth (John Boggs). 3. Hannah (Philip Mal- 
low.) 4. Kebecca (Samuel Judy). 5. Phoebe (^David Harman) 
— d. 20. 6. Adam (Melinda Harper). — 7. Susan (Samson 
Smith). 8. John (Phoebe J. Harper)— Grant. 9. Michael. 

Ch. of Adam — 1. Charles A. — d. 2. Alice (Moses Kessner). 
3. Elizabeth (John S. Koby, Grant) * 4. Carrie (Marcellus M. 
Beane, Hardy)* 5. George. 6. infs. (dy). 

Ch. of Isaac— William, Wellington S. (Alice Good), 
Mary, others (dy.) 

Cassell. Valentine ( )— d. 1804— ch.— 1. Chris- 
tina. 2. Mary. 3. Henry ( )— n. C'viile. 4. Pe- 
ter (Elizabeth Gragg)— m. 1794. 5. Valentine (Mary Wil- 
fong) — sold his place to George Bible, 1811. 6. John. 7. 
Eve. 8. George, 9. Jacob. 

Line of Henry: — Adam (Nancy Hartman) — 111., Dorothy 
(Jacob Bolton), Matilda (William Mowrey), Elizabeth A. 
(Jacob Sites), Martha (Elliott Hartman). 

Unp. 1. Jacob (Elizabeth Nelson). 2. Hannah (J Lam- 
bert)— b. 1799, d. 1859. 3. Catharine (Solomon Bennett). 

Br. of 1:— Allen, R. E. Veach, Stewart (k), CuUom ( 

Nelson, Barbara J, Miller), Phoebe J. (Wesley Lambert), 
Mary E. (Emanuel Lambert), Margaret (Esau Nelson), Mary 
A., Catharine (George Bennett). 

Ch. of Cullom:— Loman — Kas., Lillie (William M. Nelson), 
Kate (Alfred Kile). 

Champ. John ( )—d. 1804— ch.—L Amelia. 2. 

Mararet E. (John Kuykendall)— m. 1800. 3. Thomas (Sarah 
Shreve)— b. 1789, m. 1823. -k. at logrolling. 4. John (Sa- 
rah E. Borrer)— b. 1792. 

Br. of Thomas:— 1. Mary E. (Job Cosner)— out. 2. Levi 
(Phoebe Helmick). 3. John. 4. William— froze to death on 
Roaring Plains. 5. Thomas. 6. Amos— S. 7. Sarah— b. 
1833. 8. Christina (Esau Hinkle). 10. Susan. 

Br. of John: — 1. Nimrod — Barbour. 2. Hiram — Barbour. 
3. Martin. 4. Elisha (Elizabeth Carrier)— b. 1826-0. 5. 
Margaret (Jacob Riggleman)— b. 1828. 6. Melinda. 7. Cy- 
rus — reared — (Rachel Rohrbaugh) — b. July 17, 1839. 

Ch. of Cyrus:— R L., Andrew J., Jemima S. (William 



W. Shirk), Eliza F. (Henry J. Judy), Mary B, (Lucian H. 
Dolly), 

The Pioneer Champ is stated to be identical with the Ser= 
geant John Champe, the American soldier who came very 
near kidnapping Benedict Arnold and returning him to the 
American lines. Washington was very desirous of capturing 
the traitor and to this end Champe volunteered to enter the 
camp of the enemy. As a pretended deserter he enlisted in 
the British army, and when his plans were all but perfected 
to capture Arnold the command to which he was attached 
was sent on service at another point. There being no further 
occasion to remain Champe took the first opportunity to ef- 
fect his return. Since he would have been shot if taken by 
the British, Washington sent him to Hampshire county, 
where he would be quite safe from the enemy. In this region 
he remained. He was promised a grant of land but never 
received it and died in poverty. His two sons, both minors, 
were bound to Henry Hoover to learn the trade of tanning. 
Cyrus and his sons are the only male members of the con- 
nection remaining here. 

Clayton. Jacob (Mary Hartman)— b. 1781, d. 1850*— tanner 

— ch.— 1. John ( ). 2. Mary (Jacob Wealthy)— b. 1808. 

3. Jacob (Mary A. Keister, Mary E. Hartman, Julia A. Dice) 
— b. 1809, d. ISyi. 

Br. of John— Henry (b. 1832), Harvey, Clayton, Jesse, 
Samuel. 

Br. of Jacob— 1. boy (dy.) By 2d m.— 2. Martin H. (Pied- 
mont)* 3. Ruhama J. (Samuel Trumbo). 4. Sarah E. (Jonas 
Puffenbarger) — Poca. 5. Leonora (William Goodwin, Poca,)* 
6. James J. (Rachel Range — Shen.)— Rkm. 7. Adam (dy.) 

8. Andrew J.— Poca. 10. Laberta (Henry Miller). By 3d 
m. — 11. Susan (Isaac Wagner). 

Conrad. Jacob came from Canton Berne, Switzerland, in 
1750, and settled here 1763. He was a widower when he left 
Europe. B. 1705, d. Dec. 1, 1775, Ch.— 1. Barbara (Charles 
Hedriek). 2. Elizabeth (George Fisher). 3. Mary. 4. Jacob 
(Hannah Bogard— Barbara Propst)— b. May 11, 1744, d. Jan. 
26, 1829— blacksmith— home. 

Line of Jacob :— 1. Sabina (John Colaw)— b. Oct. 25, 1767. 
2. Frances (Andrew Kile). 3. Barbara (Adam Harper, Jr.) 
— b. Mar. 13, 1770. 4. Jacob (Magdalena Hedriek)— b. April 
12, 1772, d. 1829— miller— U. D. 5. Benjamin (Barbara Hed- 
rick)— Braxton. 6. Mary (George Kile). 7. Peter— Rph. 8. 
Phoebe (Samuel Kile)— b. June 18, 1776. d. Mar. 10, 1808. 

9. Daniel (Margaret Shields)— Braxton, 1806. 10. Annie. 
11. John (Sarah Davis)— Braxton. 12. Ulrich (Sarah Cur- 
rence, Rph.)— Aug. 21, 1786, d. Dec. 10, 1867. 



Br. of Jacob :— 1. Adam— b. 1802. 2. Catharine (Joshua 
Harper). 3. girl (Jesse Vance). 4. girl (John Dice). 5. Mag- 
dalena (Isaac Teter)— m. 1825. 6. Phoebe (Moses Harper). 
6. Barbara (Jacob Bouse). 

Br. of Ulrich: — 1. Samson (Catharine Hammer) — b. Dec, 
24, 1809, d. 1852. 2. Deniza (Isaac Davis). 3. Delilah (Eli 
Hammer). 4. Asenath (John Davis). 5. Laban B. (Rachel 
Bible)— b. Oct. 15. 1817, d. April 1, 1893. 6. Timnah (Jacob 
Hammer). 7. Iscah J. (George Payne). 

Ch, of Samson — 1. Lorenzo D. (Adelaide Hess) — b. 1836, 
d. 3876. 2. Mary A. (William Cowger, Nicholas Bodkin). 3. 
Jacob H. (Mary E. Gilkeson.) 

C. of Lorenzo D. — 1. John W. (Belle Hall)~n. Columbus, 
P. 1. Joseph E. (Jane Eye)— Mo. 3. Lorenzo D. (Clara Eye) 
— Kas. 

C. of Jacob H.— 1. Mary C. (twice m. in Rkm)— Cal. 2. 
James W. (Mary M. Eye)— c— William H., Ruth E., Paul 
F., Jasper H. 3. Virginia F. 4. Albert T. (Elizabeth J. 
Propst).- c— Mary G. (dy), John E. Annie M. James E., 
EllaG. 5. Sarah E. (dy). 

Ch. of Laban B.— 1. John (dy). 2. Samson M. (Phoebe 
J. Ruddle)— c.—Omer (Eulah Harper), Arthur (dy), Frances, 
Lynn. 3. Urbana F. (Isaac T. Hammer) . 

Samson settled n. Ft. S., where Jas. W. and Albert T. re- 
side. 

It is said that when Jacob Sr. came to the South Branch, 
he found on his land a "squaw patch" of about one acre, 
which formed the nucleus of his cleared land, and that there 
was also a cabin that he temporarily made use of. 

Cook. William came from England when 18, lived near 

Deer Run, died near McCoy's mill. His son William ( 

)— b. 1795, d. 1880— lived on A. W. Dyer farm as 

tenant. 

Ch. of William, Jr.— 1. Nicholas (Ann Hartman)— b. 1826. 
2, Jeremiah (Martha Hartman)— Mo. 3. Mary. 4. James 
H. (Phoebe E. Fisher). 5. Ann. 6. John. 7. Martha (Wil- 
liam Bolton), 8. Elizabeth E. (Henry Shaver). 9. Francis 

— S— W, 10. Susan R. 11. William F. (Mary ), 

Pa.— 0. 

Br. of Nicholas. — 1. John (Ann R. Vandeventer) — C. D. 
2. Jacob— S— Kas. 3. George (Calvin Warner). Isaac (Ef- 
fie Warner). 5. Mahala B. (Hendron Lambert). 6. Jane 
(George Judy). 7. Elizabeth? (Perry Phares). 8. Annie 
( Teter)— Rph. 

Ch. of John.-l. Sarah (Walter S. Dunkle). 2. Jessie H. 
— teacher. 3. Hettie B. 

Br. of James H,— 1. George (Susan Hiser, Jennie Walker), 



190 

2. Henry (Rebecca Mallow. ) 3. Laban S. (Ida Masters, Lin- 
nie Bowers). 4. James (0.)* 5. Mary E. (George Mitchell). 
6. Jacob (0.)* 7. Emma J. (William Crigler). 8. Isaac N. 
(Etta Clayton). 9. Charles E. (Lula Crigler)— 0. 10. Mar- 
garet (Rev. William Gilmer) — Rkm. Descendants of Nicholas 
chiefly in C. D. — of James H. chiefly Fin., except Laban S. 
at U. T. 

Unp. 1. Stephen— 1795. 2. Thomas (Margaret )— 

1790 — Reed's Cr. 3. Robert (Rachel )— 1798. 4. 

John ( Simmons) —1808. 5. Eve (George Simmons) — m. 

1796. 6. Joseph (Elizabeth Peterson)— m. 1827. 7. Eliza- 
beth (Christian Harold)— m. 1799. 

It would thus seem that there have been several distinct 
families of Cooks and in different portions of the county. 
One of the migrated Cooks revisited his old home after an 
absence of 62 years. 

Cowger. This family is perhaps descended from Michael 
Cowger who located 900 acres on the Shenandoah river in 1753. 
The members of the first family in Pdn. appear to be 1. 
George (Hannah Hawes)— d.l788. 2. John (Mary E. Propst) 
— m. before 1785. 3. Jacob— S. F., 1782. 4. Michael (Cath- 
arine — — — ). 5. Mary (Abraham Pitsenbarger) — m. 1795. 

Lineof George. — I.Hannah, 2. Henry (EHzabeth ) 

— b. May 13, 1781, d. 1845*— Eye place below Ft. S. 3. John 
(Ruth Heffner) — moved from Sweedland to 0., 1835*. 

Br. of Henry.— 1. Abel (Phoebe Dice)— b. Oct. 31, 1806. 
2. Jacob (Sarah Dice)— b. Feb. 9, 1809. 3. George (Elizabeth 
Jolly)— b. 1812, d. 1891. 4. Jessie (Polly A. Keister)— b. 
June 13. 1814. 5. Noah (Elizabeih Dice)— 0. 6. Job (Aug.) 
— W. 7. Andrew. 8. Hannah E. (Emanuel Trumbo). 9. 
Amelia R. (Solomon R. Judy). 10. Asenath (Noah Wan- 
staff). 11. Sarah 0. (0)*. L2. Rebecca (Michael Bodkin). 
13. Elizabeth (0).* 14. Amelia S. (Isaac Miller)— b. 
1838— W. 

Br. of Abel.— 1. Sarah 0. (0)*. 2. Rebecca (Michael Bod- 
kin). 3. Elizabeth (0).* 4. Amelia S. (Isaac Miller)— b. 
1838— W. 

Br. of Jacob.— 1. William (Mary A. Conrad)— b. 1834. 2. 
Eve E. (Lewis Wagoner). 3. Catharine M. (William C. Mil- 
ler). 4. Noah M. (Sarah C. Trumbo, Sarah A. Trumbo). 5. 
Emanuel. 6. Joha W.— d. 7. Hanry T. (Laura A. Pope). 
8. Mary J. (dy). 

Ch. of William. — 1. Catharine (Samuel Coffman). 2. 
Howard— dy. 3. George. 4. Jacob — S. V. 

Ch. of Noah M.— 1. James (Rkm)— Keyser. 2. Floyd 
(Elizabeth Davis. Hardy)— d.—l c. By 2d m. 3. William. 
4. MaryE. 5. Edith M. 6. girl (dy). 



191 

Ch. of Henry T.—l. Ella E. 2. Preston. 3. L. Myrtle. 

Br. of George.— 1. Henry— b. 1886. 2. Elijah (Susan R. 
Schlosser, Hdy)— b. 1837. 8. Noah— d. 4. Manasseh (Hdy).* 
5. George S. (Hdy).* 6. Pleasant S. (Rkm).* 7. Mary E. 
(Rkm)*-d. 

Ch. of Elijah:— Noah H. (Ira Pope). 2. Grace K. 

Br. of Jessie.— 1. Wm. J. (Josephine Dice)— b. 1839— Rkm 
—3 c. 2. George (Rebecca Wealthy) — Poca. 8. John (Mary 

Heffner). 4. Henry ( Harper)— Cal. 5. Susan (George 

S. Pope). 6. Dorothy (George Hisey). 7. Sarah A. (James 
L. Adamson). 8. Martha (William Bodkin)— la. 9. Louisa 
(Hdy)— d. 10. Margaret (Van Dasher)— Hardy. 11. Ase- 
nath (P S. Cowger)— Rkm. 12. Eliza (George Adam- 
son). 

The present Cowgers are mainly just above and below Ft, 

5. There was once a John in Thorn valley. 

Cox. Warden (Phoebe A. Jefferson)— b. 1823— ch.— 1. 
Emily J. (James W. Iman, Grant). 2. John R. (Mary C. 
Crites, Grant). 8. Amanda E. (A . Wise, Grant)— Min- 
eral. 4. Isaac S. (Annie Wees, Grant) — Mineral. 5. Mary 
E. (Simon Judy, Grant). 6. Annie R. (William H. Monteith, 
Smithfield, Pa.)* 

Unp. 1. Thomas (Margaret )— 1790. 2. Robert. 3. 

Jacob (Elizabeth Wise)— m. 1816. 4. Susan— b. 1776. 5. 
Matthew (Elizabeth Smith)— m. 1824. 6. Elizabeth (Samuel 
Kimble)— m. 1825. 

Br. of Robert: — Sarah (John Bargeroff) — m. 1813. 

This family is close to the Grant line of M. R. D. 

Crigler. Christopher C. (Matilda Halterman)—b. Mar. 27, 
1829, d. Sept. 17, 1872— blacksmith— ch.—l. Mary J. (John 
L. Lukens). 2. John A. 8—6. Samuel, Cyrus, Sarah M., 
Emmaline — dy. 7. Charles (Lucy Puffenbarger) — Davis — d. 
8. Henry (Margaret Richards) — drowned. 9. Upton (Rock- 
bridge, Roanoke)* 10. William (Emma J. Cook) — black- 
smith—Fin. 11. Wade H.,— Fla. 

Ch. of John A. — Florence (Harvey Bowers). 

Ch. of Henry— I.Walter (Va.)* 2. Marv (William Fleming) 
—Fin. 3. Lula (Charles E. Cook). 4. Mattie. 5. Christina. 

6. Boyd. 7. Lucy. 

Ch. of William— Guy, Dick, Mabel, Hazel, Roy. 

Charles was the first settler in Davis, W. Va., and built 
the first house there. John A., hotel man, built the present 
courthouse at Franklin. 

Crummett. Christopher (Ann R. E )— d. 1816*— ch.— 

1. Frederick (Catharine Snider)— b. 1770*,— d. 1825*— home. 

2. Conrad (Susannah Lamb) — m. 1796. S.George (Susannah 
Simmons?)— m. 1799. 4. Flora (Philip Gragg)— m. 1791. 



5. Margaret (John Harold)— m. 1792. 6. Catharine. 7. Re- 
becca. 8. Mary. 9. Rachel (Jacob Propst) — m. 1792. 

Line of Frederick — 1. Jacob (Eleanor Rexroad) — m. 1825 
— homestead. 2. George (Margaret Armstrong) — b. 1787. 
3. Henry (Sarah Hiney, Rkm). 4. Daniel (Sarah Mitchell) 
— b. 1802— W. 4. Joseph (Elizabeth Eye)— b. 1799— W, late. 
5. Susan (John Keister). 

Br. of Jacob — Jacob (Mahala Simmons) — Ritchie. 

Br. of George— 1. Catharine (James Glass, Rkm) — b. 1818. 

2. Mary (George Miller, Rkm)* 3. Nancy (John Todd, 
Rkm). 4. Elizabeth (Adam Riser). 

Br. of Henry— 1. John Rkm— Hid. 2. Eli (Esther Syron. 
Hid)— b. Sept. 5, 1827— ho^^estpad. 3. Daniel (Mary J. 
Bodkin). 4. Henry (Amanda Dove) — Bath. 5. Delilah 
(Daniel Varner)— b. 1825, d. 1878. 6. Sarah A— S. 7. Lydia 
(Emanuel Wilfong.) 

Ch. of Eli— 1. Jacob (dy). 2. Delilah (Lee Siple, Hid)* 

3. Sarah (Sebastian Bodkin). 4 — 5. Abel, Harrison (dy). 
Ch. of Daniel— 1. Joanna (Hid)* 2. Martha (George Cut- 

shaw, Hid)* 3. Lydia (Harvey Waggy). 4. Elizabeth J. (Geo. 
Lamb)— Hid. 5. Catharine (Emily Puffenbarger)— Hid. 6. 
Addison -S— Hid. 7. Daniel P. (Elizabeth Price, Hid)— c— 
Naomi, Mary, Gayland, Charles, Samuel A. 

Br. of Josebh — 1. Leah (David Simmons) — b. 1830. 2. 
David— d. 3. Noah (Mary J. Simmons)— b. 1833. 4. Mary. 
5. Catharine. 6. Frederick. 7. Elizabeth M. (AmiSchrader). 
3. Josiah (Rkm)— Hid. 

Ch. of Noah— 1. William (Martha Armstrong, Hid)* 2. 
Ruhama (Peter Puffenbarger). 3. Landis. 4. Esther — dy. 
5. Hallie (Terry Puffenbarger. Hid)* 6. Martha E., 7. Carrie. 

Br. of Daniel— 1. Susan (Daniel Varner)— b. 1835. 2. 
Mary. 3. Sarah. 4. Lazarus (Sarah Eckard) — b. 1849— c. — 
Jesse, Keramie. Mary, Emory, John F. 

Unp. Elizabeth (George Varner) — m. 1818, '-•'""' 

The connection rem.ains on and near the original homestead. 

Cunningham. John, James, William, and (Phoebe ), 

pioneers on the North Fork in 1753, were seemingly brothers, 
and are said to have come from Dublin, Ireland, just before 
that time. The families of these three we are not able to 

place, except in the case of James (Margaret ), who 

died 1765. leaving Moses, Hugh, Elizabeth, Jacob, and Isaac. 
Hugh had a son, name unknown. We have mention of James, 
a son of Jacob, and John, a son of Isaac, and of Jacob and 
John having a son each. Another son of one of the pioneers 
was William (Sarah ). 

James (Agnes ?) — b. 1741— captured, 1758, and held 



193 

among the Indians seven years — nearly starved and became 
blind — lived at several places, finally removing to Rph, 

Ch.— 1. Delilah— b. 1792. 2. Daniel E. 3. Eglon (Susan- 
nah Rexroad) — b. 1804. 4. Zei— Upshur. 5. Arnold (Mary 
A. Judy)-b. 1813. d. 1874— C'ville. 

Br. of Eglon.— 1. Mary (Jacob Clayton -b. 1835). 2. John 
( Hinkle. Lewis)* 3. Alfred (Rkm-HM). 4. Sidney— dy. 

Br. of Arnold.— 1. Elizabeth (Adam D. Warner)— b. 1840. 
2. Francis M. 3. Amby (Elizabeth Teter). 4. Eli A. (Sa- 
rah Anderson) — Rph. 

Ch. of Amby. — 1. Luther (Rph) — drummer. 2. Mattie 
(George Bannett). 3. Anna C.-d. 4. Flick (Anna B. Cal- 
houn). 5. Edward (Amanda Vandeventer). 6. Charles A. 
(dy). 7. Mary. 

tFnp. 1. Margaret (Levi Coberly)— m. 1795. 2. Phoebe 
(Jamps Bennett) — m. 1799. 

Another family of Cunninghams was reared on N. F. The 
brothers and sisters were — I. Thomas (Sarah A. Turner). 2. 
Solomon (Catharine J. Lantz)— Ran. 3. Jehu — Braxton. 

4. Margaret— Braxton. 5. Patsy (Enos Helmick). 6. Irene 
(Jessie Davis). 7. Susan (Aaron Turner, George Hughes). 

Ch.of Thomas.— L George W. (Sarah Middleton)—b. 1847. 
2. Henry V. (Sujsan E. Raines). 3 — 4 infs. (dy). 5. Thomas 
— K. 6. Daniel K.— 7. Abraham L. (Pearl Raines). 

Ch. of Solomon. — 1. David (Ninnie Warner). 2. James 
(Mary Ketterman). 3. Levi (Elizaheth Bennett). 4. Abra- 
ham L. (Catharine Hinkle). 5. Absalom M. ( Auvil 

Tkr)— attorney — Elkins. 6. Benjamin Y. ( Dove). 7. 

Solomon (Md)* 8. dau. (Rph). 9. Arthena (J P. Way- 
bright). 10. Delia (Rph)*. 11. Annie (Rph)*. 

Abraham ( Peterson?) of Hardy was killed in the In- 
dian war. His wife was taken captive. Mary, their only 
child, was born during her captivity. She married Isaac 
Hinkb. A later member of the Cunninghams of Hardy was 

John (Keziah ) who lived on the C. N. Judy place near 

U. T. prior to 1833. Several of that connection have inter- 
married with Pendleton families. 

Dahmer. John George Dahmer (Mary E. Hartman. m. 
1796. Nancy Skidmore)— b. April 9, 1775, d. May 10. 1842— 
native of Baden, Germany — Educated there in several lan- 
guages— ch.—l. Sarah (William Light)— b. Feb. 11. 1797— 
III. 2. Rebecca (John Bvrd, Hid)*— m. 1821. 3. George 
(CvnthiaW. Bargerhoff)— b. 1801. d. 1828—0. 4. Colley. 

5. Martin (Sarah Hevener)— b. 1805. d. 1861. 6. James 
(Sarah Bargerhoff)— b. June 7. 1807— 0. Bv 2nd m.— 7. 
Joel (^arah Stump) b. Feb. 11. 1812. d. Nov. 18, 1899. 8. 
Julia A.— b. 1814, d. 1899. 9. Phoebe— b. 1816, d. 1901. 

PCH 13 



194 

Line of Martin— 1. Mary C— S— b. 1829. 2. John (Mary 
A. Hinkle). 3. George (Mary Day). 4. Reuben D. (Sarah 
Hammpr, Sarah C. Hammer). 5. WilHam H. (Mary Mal- 
low)— M». 6. Samson C. (Sarah Hedrick)— Mo. 7. Adam 
S. (Josephene Day). 8. Martha. 9. Jemima A. (New- 
man G. Dunkle). 

Br. of John — 1. Joseph (Ohio — Sarah? Simmons). 2. 
Laura (Minor Hedrick). 3. ( Hevener) — D. 

Br. of George — 1. Pinkney ( Bargoyne). 2. Henry 

(Emma F. Keyser). 3. (John A. Smith). 

Br. of Reuben D.— 1. Edward (0).* 2. Isaac L. (Emma 
Thacker). 3. Hammer M. (Kate Dahmer). 4. Hendron E. 
(Kate Blewitt) — twin to Hammer M. 5. Phoebe (Isaac L. 
Lough). 6. Susan (Isaac N. Ruddle). 

Br. of Adam — Preston. 

Line of Joel — 1. Rebecca (dy). 2. John G. (Eliza Rex- 
road)— b. July 12. 1838. 3. Junius W.— k. by log, 1883. 
4. SarahE— S. 5. DenizaE. (dy). 6. Joel M. (Eliza Kiser, 
Elizabeth Harper). 7. Susan V. (Ananias J. Pitsenbarger). 

Br. of John G.— 1. Joel W. 2. Sarah J. (Granville H. 
Blizzard). 3. John (E-stella Dickenson) — c. — El a V. 

Joel settled a mile N. of Dahmer P. 0. — descendants 
chiefly in same vicinity. Rest of connection chipfly near 
homestead or on river below^ Franklin, except Joel M. who is 
in U. D. A number of the connection have been teachers. 

Miles (Sophie Hammer)— b. April 10. 1835. d. Mar. 14, 
1894— major of militia — B. of E.— n. Kline— ch. — 1. Charles 
E. (Cordelia Mouse) — Grant. 2. Howard J. (Cora Ham- 
mer). 3. Andrews. (Helen Kiser). 4. Kate S. (Hammer 
E. Dahmer)— 0. 5. Effie S. 

Ch. of Howard J. — Arthur B., OlenaC, William H., Emma 
C, Samuel J. 

Ch. of Andrew S. — Clermont L., Mary H., Nora C, Janie 
E. C. E. and H. J., present assessor, are partners in the 
threshing business. 

Davis. (A) Robert (Sarah Dyer Hawes)— m. 1764*— d. 
1818— ch. 1. John (Mary A. Morral)— b. June 10, 1766— m. 
1787— d. July 5, 185 4— homestead. 2. Sarah (John Morral). 
3. Elizabeth (Samuel Morral). 4. Rachel (Samuel Dicken- 
son)— m. 1794. 5. Hester (John Trumbo)— m. 1796. 6. girl 
(Jesse Morrall). 7. Samuel — S. 8. boy — dy (drowned). 

Line of John :— I. Robert (Cynthia Kile). 2. Jane (John 
Dyer)— b. Oct. II, 1794, m. 1811, d. May, 12, 1862. 3. Eliz- 
abeth (Jacob Conrad). 4. John (Asenath Conrad) — b. Oct. 
31. 1805, d. Sept. 24. 1881. 4. Elizabeth (Jacob Smith)— b. 
1810. 5. Isaac L. (Deniza Conrad)— b. 1816, d. 1845. 

Br. of John :— 1. Hendron H.— b. 1840. 2. Elizabeth J. 



195 

(Oliver Armstrong:). Mary, a sister, married Morral. 

Another married William Stephen son, — Fauquier. 3 Laban 
C. (Mattie V. Largent). 4. John C— dy. 5. Sarah C. (Gran- 
ville Dyer). 6. Mary A.-d. 24 7. Ruhama-d. 15. 8. 
Louisa — d. 12. 

Ch. of LabanC— 1. Robert L.— teacher. 2. Dixie P. 
(Hugh W. McClain. Mo.)* 3. Mary A. (Pressley Wood, 
(Mo.)* 4. Virginia L. 

Br. of Isaac L.— 1. John C. (Catharine Simmons)— b. 
1834. d. 1908— Rkm. 2. Addison C. (Eh'zabeth Rexroad) 
D.— 3. Uirich— k. 4. Mary— dy. 5. Timnah D. (Jacob J. Eye) 
—St. Clair Co. Mo. 9. Isaac (Jemima Hedrick)— Fin. 
Mo. 6. Isaac (Jemima Hedrick) — Fin. 

Ch. of Addison C— George W. (Adelaide Byrd)— Elkins, 
Isaac H. (Annie Hammer) — Rkm. 

The following w^ere bros. and ssr. to Robert : — 1. John 
( )— Hdy. 2 William ( )— d. 1773. 3. Mary (—Mor- 
ral. 4. girl (William Stephenson). 

Br. of John :— William (— Seay)— Hdy., James (Ann Mum- 
bert. m. 1817)— Hdy. 

(B). Joseph (Mary Simmons)— m. 1791— apparently son 
of John Davis who settled on No. Fk. in 1766.— Ch.?— 1. 
James (Margaret Bland)— miller on Brushy Run, n. M. S. 
2. Jesse (Elizabeth Bland, Irene Cunningham)— b. 1807, d. 
1884. 3. Others? 

Line of James :— 1. Jethro (Nancy )— b. 1819— out. 

2. Joseph (Phoebe A. Flynn)— b. 1826 W. 3. Job 

(Phoebe Vance)— W. 4. Christina. 5. Elizabeth. 6. Enoch. 
7. James. 8. Phoebe. 9. George (Mary Phares)— out. 10. 
Susan— b. 1833. 11. Aaron (Mary Flinn)— W. 12. Margaret. 

Br. of Jethro : — Joseph, John, Rachel, George. 

Line of Jesse : — Irene, Simeon, Susan, William A., Lucinda, 
Rachel, Job, Sarah, Virginia— by 2d m.— 2 others. 

Another of the same connection was Jesse ( — Arbogast) — 
b. 1819— M. S.— Ch— 1. John-b. 1842— Rph. 2. Lucy— out. 

3. Miles (Susan Lambert)— d. —Tkr. 4. Michael (Jane 
Thompson) — c— Lottie (Amos Davis), Edward. 4 others 
(dy.) 4. Cornelius — Grant. 5. Nicholas (Margaret Hed- 
rick) -Rph. 6. Emily— d. 

William J. (Eliza Wills, b. 1815, d. 1865.)— b. Jan. 4, 
1805, d. Nov. 17, 1865— came from Shen. 1835*— shoemaker- 
Fin.— ch.—L Sarah C. (George W. Dice)— b. 1835. 2. John 
H.— S— d. 3. William W. (Margaret Jordan)— 0. 4. Lavina 
E. (Jefferson T. Carter). 5. Howard W. (Hid)* 6. Mary E. 
(Leander Jordan). 7. James 0. (Mary V. Stauffer, Pa). 8. 
Isaac N. (Isadora, Middletown, Md.)— Washington, D. C. 



196 

Ch. of James 0.— 1. Laura K. 2. Hattie V. 3. W. Lloyd 
(Annie Brill) — c. — Layman. 4. Allen (dy). 5. lola M.— 
teacher. 

Unp. 1. James (Comfort )— 1788 Hdy. 2. James 

(Sirah )—b. before 1784. 3. John (Ann Dunkle)— m. 

1811. 4. Joseph (Mary Simmons)— m. 179L 5. Sarah (Jos- 
eph CutHp)— m. 1820. 6. John (Hannah Dver)— m. 1811. 7. 
Dellanv (John Blizzard)— m. 1726. 8. Jacob— 1797. 9. Wil- 
liam (Elizabeth )— N— F— 1796. 8. 10. Nancy (Rich- 
ard Hughes)— m. 1812. 11. Eleanor (Obed Barclay)— 1819. 
12. Theophilus (Mary Teter)— m. 179L 13. Thomas (Pris- 

cillaPennington)— m. 1792. 14. Samuel (Eliza A. )— b. 

1804. 

The first seven of the above appear to be of the posterity 
of John and possibly also in part of WiUiam. The others 
seem to be of the posterity of the John who settled on the 
North Fork. 

Day. Samuel (Margaret )— W. side N. F., Clay 

Lick— ch? 1. Basil ( )— m. 1794. 2. Ezekiel (Leah 

Payne). 3. Others. 

Ch. of Ezekiel:— 1. Basil (Susannah Lamb) W — . 5. Leon- 
ard (Rachel Harman)—b. 1801. 6. Lewis— S — teacher — Bar- 
bour. 7. Mary A. (William Eagle)— M. R. 8. Rachel— S— 
Braxton. 9. Abigail— S. 10. Tabitha (John Alt. 11. Mor- 
gan (Thankful Rowan, Rph) — carpenter— b. 1. 

Line of Leonard— 1. Sanford (Eliza )— h. 1819. 2. 

Eunice (Jacob Shirk) — Upshur. 3. Solomon (Hannah Har- 
per) — b. 1823 — Upshur. 4 Samson (Helena Harman, Cath- 
arine Waldron) — Tkr. 5. Isaac (Grant)*. 6. Joshua (Chris- 
tina Sites, Phoebe J. Phares) — b. 1^30. 7. Mary (Jacob 
Sites, Joseph Elbon) — Tkr. 8. Aaron (Sarah Phares, Mary 
Price)— Rph— d. 9. Samuel M. 10. Miles (dy). 11. Eliza 
(John H. Miller). 12. Benjamin P. (Elizabeth Harman) — d. 

Br. of Joshua— 1. Minnie V. (Simon H. Dolly). 2. Al- 
bert (Md.) — 111. — Pres. minister. 3. Laura (Frank Corcoran, 
Pa?) — Rph. 4. Jasper — gauger — Martinsburg. 5. John 
(Myra Bricker). 6. Clay — law graduate. 7. Margaret (Rev. 
Newton Anderson) W. Va. 8. Page — mail service. 9. Louise. 
10-11. Infs. (dy). By 2d m — 12. May (Robert Harper). 
18. Pearl (Arthur Lawrence) — Md. 

Br. of Benjamin P. — 1. Viola (Elmer Harper). 2. Hoy. 
3. Okey. 

Line of Morgan— John (b. 1848)— Rph. 

Miles (Bridget ) — came from Hampshire — seems to 

have died at early age — widow m. William Simpson — ch. — 1. 
John (Nancy Holland)— b. Dec. 22, 1785, d. July 16, 1858. 



197 

Line of John — 1. William (Rebecca Day). 2. Nathan 
(Virginia Mowrey)—b. 18U9, d. 1895. 3. Girl (Stewart Hart- 
man). 4. Margaret (Martin Hartman) — m. 1824. 5. Millie 
(Samuel Middieton). 

Br. of William — 1. George (Sarah Puffenbarger). 2. 
Kate. 

Br. of Nathan— 1. Susan (Jacob Good)— b. 1835. 2. 
Sarah A. (William Puffenbarger). 3. Mariha (Isaac Hart- 
man). 4. Nancy M. (d). 5. William. 6. George A.— K. 
7. Mary (George Dahmer)—b. 1844. 8. MahuldaJ. (Green 
B. Dahmer). 9. Addison ( Simmons). 

Unp. 1. Adam— b. June 15, 1818. 2. Elizabeth (—Eye) 
— b. 1775, d. 1860— dau. of Isaac and L— 3. Absalom (Leah 
Teter)— m. 1822. 

Dean. John ( ) — ch. — 1. Samuel (Frances 

Hedrick). b 1803, d. 1880. 2. Jacob. 3. George. 4. Wil- 
liam (Nancy Killingsworth)— m. 1825— W. Va. 5. Lair. 6. 
James. 7. Sarah (John Nay lord) — m. 1824. 8. Hannah 
(John Bryan) — m. 1824. None remained in Pendleton ex- 
cept Samuel. 

Br. of Samuel.— 1. Rebecca (John Morral)— b. 1837. 2. 
Mary S.— S. 3. Elizabeth (Patrick McGinnis). 4. Phoebe J. 
(Moses Mallow). 5. Hannah— S. 6. MoUie— S. 7. Hiram 
(Mary Mowrey). 8. David (Lillian Dickenson). 9. Isaac 
(Jane Greenawalt). 

Ch. of David. — Agatha, Whitmer, Frances, Lane, Vada, 
Theresa, Nellie (dy), Olaf, David (dy). 

Ch. of Isaac. — 1. Strite (Hamp.)* 2. Amos (Margaret 
Getz). 3. Samuel (W).* 4. William (Hamp.)* 5. Fran- 
ces. 6. Mary E. (Hamp.)* 

Dice. John, Mathias, and George, brothers, came from 
York Co., Pa. 

Fam. of John. — Mary A. (George Dice). 

Fam. of Mathias. — (Catharine )— d. 1799 — farm 

willed to George — ch. — 1. George (Catharine Ruleman)— b. 
1763, m. 1791, d. 1801. 2. Mathias (Mary Hevener). 3. Ja- 
cob. 4. Phillip — d. 1801. 5. John. 6. Barbara (Joseph 

Jackson)— m. 1797. 7. Catharine. 8. Mary ( Gum)— 

d. before 1801. 9. Anna (Solomon Harpole)— m. 1792. 10. 

Elizabeth (Justice Ruleman)— m. 1792. 11. Phoebe ( 

Evick?)— b. 1782*. One son m. (Catharine Ruleman). 

Line of George. — 1. Catharine A. (Jacob Wagoner) — b. 
July 6, 1787 d. April 9, 1861. 2. Jacob (Elizabeth Fisher)— 
b. 1801. 3. Elizabeth (George Wagoner)— m. Ibll. 4. Su- 
sannah (Joshua Harman) — m. 1817. 

Br. of Jacob.— 1. Henry ( Harold)— Tenn. 2, Mahala 



198 

(Joseph Bangy)— b. 1824,— la. 3. George W. ( Harold) 

— Tenn. 4. Julia A. (Job Clayton, Jr.— Robert Eye). 5. 
John A. 6. Josephine R. (Jacob Cowger). 7. Susan E. 
(Jacob Lough). 8. Caroline (Jacob Lough). 9. William 
(Eve Mallow)— m. 1804, d. 1830. 

Line of William.— 1. Adam (Sarah Mallow)— b. 1809. 2. 
John (Susannah Wagoner) — home. 3. William (0)*. 4. 
Simeon — S. 5. Phoebe (Abraham Cowger). 6. Malinda 

(Zebulon Smith)— 0. 7. Kate ( Wagoner). 8. EHza- 

beth ( Cowger). 9. Sarah (Jacob Cowger). 

Br. of Adam.— 1. Rebecca E. (Abraham E. Mallow)— b. 
1840, d. 1902. 2. Daniel M. 3. Adam (Eve Lough, Mary 
Dolly Ketterman). 

Ch. of Adam. — Susan (John A. Nelson, Kenney, J. Grant). 

Adam, Sr., was a miller — settled on Timber Ridge, C. D. 
William was willed lands in 0. 

Br. of John.— 1. George W.— b. 1841. 2. Elias W. 3. 
Isaac L. — S. 4. Phoebe A. (Robert Lambert. 5. Sarah 
A. (James Williams). 6. Mary M. (Frank Pope). 

Fam. of George.— w. ( )— d. 1772— estate, $392.- 

28 — ch.— George (Mary A. Dice) — d. 1798 — widow remarried, 
went to 0. — ch. 

Line of George.— 1. John (Mary C. Hinkle)— May 10, 
1788, d. 1836— homestead. 2. Reuben (Eveline E. Fisher)— 
b. Aug. 31, 1789, d. Feb. 4, 1860— home. 3. Phoebe (Elias 
Harper, Teter). 

Br. of John. — 1. Elizabeth A. (Samuel Johnson) — b. Dec. 
15, 1810, d. Feb. 23. 1835. 2. George W. (Frances Beard) 
— b. Feb. 17, 1812, d. Mar. 9, 1900. 3. Mary A.— S. 4. 
Phoebe J. (John M. Jones)— b. Jan. 26, 1815, d. Mar. 23, 
1900. 5. Isaac d. (Mary A. Dice)— b. June 20, 1816. d. Feb. 
8, 1897. 6. Catharine J. (Henry H. Masters)— b. May 24, 
1818, d. Aug. 17, 1861. 7. Hannah (John B. Moomau) b.— 
Aug. 3. 1819, d. June 20, 1864. 8. John C. (Sarah Rozell, 
Baltimore)— b. Nov. 8. 1820, d. April 8, 1892— minister— 5 
son^, never here. 9. Reuben B. (Lucy A.Diggs, Va.) — phy- 
sician — Charlottesville. 

Ch. of Isaac H.-l. Lucy A. (Rkm)*— b. 1849. 2. Eliza- 
beth P.— b. 1852, d. 1893. 3. Mary (Hid)*. 4. William 
(Aug)*. 5. Alice (Hid)*. 6. Charles (Laura Bowers). 

7. Isaac H. (Laura Simmons). 

Br. of Reuben.— 1. Evelyn— b. 1820. 2. John A. (Rkm)*. 

3. Pleasant M. (Aug.)* 4. Jacob G. ( Trumbo). 5. 

George W. (Catharine Davis)— d. 30*. 6. Phoebe (John H. 
Harper) — homestead. 7. Sarah E. (Erasmus Clark, Aug.) 

8. Mary A. (Isaac H. Dice)— b. Nov. 2, 1825, d. Dec. 20, 



199 

1903. By 2nd m.— 9. Franklin H. (Rkm)—W. 10. Catha- 
rine (Jolin Harman, Va.) — d. 

Ch. of Georj^e W. — 1. William (Laura Andrew) — c. — 1. 
Gajrge (Lala Fisher, Hy)— 0. 2. Sneridan. 3. Edith. 4. 
Nancy. 5. William. 

Unp. Elizabeth (George Wagoner)— m. 1791. 

Dickenson. The following appear to be sons of Jacob, who 
moved away about 1800:— 1. John. 2. Jacob. 3. Thomas 
(Catharine Blizzard) — m. 1793. 4. Samuel (Rachel Davis) — 
m. 1794, d. April 20, 1844. All the brothers but Samuel left 
subsequent to 1795. 

Line of Samuel. — 1: — Robert ( Swadley) — b. June 2, 

1795— Barbour, 1850*. 2. Elizabeth (Jacob Wagoner) b. 1798. 

3. Henry (Mary Propst)- b. Aug. 19, 1806, d. 1895. 4. Dor- 
oth (dy). 5. Sarah (Frank Dever. S. V.)*. 6. Hannah (Dan- 
iel C. Scone). 7. Rachel ( )— b. April 19. 1821. 

Br. of Robert:— 1. Jacob (Kate Euritt). 2. Samuel ( 

Euritt.) 3. George W. (Mary Corder). 4. Demetrius— K. 

5. Matilda ( Hall, Carr). 6. Rachel (Barbour)*. 7. 

Harriet (Barbour)*. All the survivors are in Barbour. Ro- 
bert was a teacher and of a scholarly turn. 

Br. of Henry: — 1. Martin (Phoebe J. Hoover, Ida B. Rog- 
ers) — b. 1838. 2. John (Laura Rexroad). 3. Samuel H. 

4. Robert A. (Mary J.? Smith)— Poca. 5. Hannah E. (Ja- 
cob L. Blizzard). 6. Isaac (Eliza Hiner). 7. George W. 
(Rosanna D. Bolton). 8. Laban (Mary Brady). 10. Jacob 
B. (Mary S. Lough). 11. Dorothy M. (Jacob Fultz). 12. 
Eugene A.— S. 

Ch. of John.— Jacob G. (Mary C. Fultz), Mary C. (J. Lee 
Bolton). 

Ch. of Isaac. — Jarrett A. (Texie V. Hammer), Laban A. 
(Nora V. Bowers), Lillian A. (Daniel Dean). 

Ch. of George.— Mary M. (dy), Texie A. (Henry C. 
Propst), Alberta J. (Clarence Hammer). Ida M. (WilHam H. 
Puffenbarger, Jasper C. (dy), Minnie R., Luzerna (dy). 

Ch. of Laban— Isaac H., Lena J., A. Foster. 

Ch. of Jacob B.— Ursula S. (S Plaugher), Julia A. 

(Frank Propst), Lucy J., Adelia. Estella (John Dahmer), 
Ada M. (dy), Preston, CHnton, Webster (dy), Margie G., 
Raymond G., Ivin, Mary H. 

Dolly. John (Kate Linger) — left British army at York- 
town — d. 1847*, very old — had nickname of "Cornyackle"— 
ch.-L Andrew (Su^an Smith) -b. 1793, d. I860*— millern. 
Grant line. 2. (Susannah Bouse) — homestead. 3. George 
W. (Eva Sites)— m. 1825.— D. A. Landis'. 4. Phoebe (John 

Tingler). 5. Mary ( Warner). 6. Girl ( Talbott) 

—W. 



200 

Line of Andrew — 1. Eli ( HoUoway, Grant)* 2. Abi- 

jah (Jemima Michael, Grant)* 3. Sabina— S. 4. John (El- 

mira Goldisen). 5. George (Mary A. Dyer, Mrs. Roby) 

— b. 1823. 6. Mary (Christian Kohrbaugh, Grant)* 7. 
Phoebe — d. 8. Samuel — d. 

Br. of Abijah— 1. John R. (Henrietta Boggs)— n. Onego 
— ch.— 1. Walter (Mary Ritchie). 2. Wilber— clerk. '6. 
Milton. 

Br. of George— 1. Sarah (Amos Dolly) — Grant. 2. 
Jane — d. 

Line of John — 1. Annie J.— d. 2. John W. (Lucinda 
Bland)— b. 1823, d. 1894. 3. Adam B. (Rebecca Talbott, 
Baltimore) — Methodist minister. 4. Solomon B. (Margaret 
Siever, Hid). 5. Andrew J. (Caroline Harper) — Kas. 6. 
Enoch (Elizabeth Hulfman) — Kas. 7. Job (Elizabeth Har- 
per)— d. 8. boy (dy). 9. George W. (Deniza Vance, 111.)*. 
10. Mary (Anderson Elbon). 11. Martha (John W. Armen- 
trout). 

Br. of John W. — 1. William F. — k, engine explosion. 2. 
Annie J. (James B. Harper), 3. Edgar J. (Elizabeth Har- 
per). 4. Carrie E. (Rev. John W. Holliday, N.C.)— Md. 

Br. of Job. — 1. Rebecca A. (Daniel A. Landes). 2. Vir- 
ginia (dy). 3. Wilson H. 4. Florence (Dr. Hugh Kile). 5. 
Nettie (dy). 

Line of George W.— 1. Jacob (Naomi Teter)— b. 1827, d. 
1879. 2. George W. (Phoebe Kisamore)— b. 1836, d. 1907*. 
3. Christina (Willis Thompson). 4. Am by H. (Phoebe Davis, 
Theodosia Hughes, Rachel Hedrick) — Rph. 5. Margaret 

(John K. ). 6. Susan S. (Isaac Kisamore). 7 Isaac 

(Susan Kisamore) — Mary J. (Churchville Thompson). 

Br. of Jacob.— 1. Margaret (dy). 2. Simon P. (Minnie 
Day)— b. 1858. 3. Johnson (Janetta Sites). 4. Job. 5. 
Louisa (Joseph H, Teter). 6. Daniel (Rachel A. Harper). 

Br. of George W. — 1. Jacob. 2. Mary (Josiah Ketterman, 
Adam Dice). 3. Amos (Sarah Dolly) — Grant. 4. Noah 
(Ruhama Mallow). 5. Margaret (Henry C. Mallow). 6. 
Jane (Benjamin Y. Teter). 7. inf, (dy). 8. Josiah (Vir- 
ginia Mallow). 9. Ellen (Lucian H. Ketterman). 10. Ruth 
(John A. Ketterman). IL Ida (UlvssesS. Mallow). 12. Al- 
fred ( Mallow)— Grant. 13. Minor ( Sites). 14. 

Lucian H. (Mary B. Champ). 

Br. of Amby H. — Dorothy (Albert Way bright) , Jasper, and 
Newton (twins), David, Minnie (Henry Vande venter), Ken- 
ny, Amby, Etta (H L. Hoffman), others — none of this 

family here. 

Br. of Isaac. — 1. Hannah ( Long)— Rph. 2. Mary J. 



201 

(Job Harman)— Tkr. 3. Sarah (Amby Harper)— Tkr. 4. 
Etta (Amby Kisamore)— Rph. 5. Henry (dy). 

Dove. Jacob (Susannah Lamb) — b. 1813, d. 1892— son of 
George— ch. — 1. Mordecai (Sarah E. Swadley, Hannah 
Bowers)— b. 1838 — home. 2. Amanda J. (Henry Crum- 
mett). 3. Sarah A. (Elias Wilfong). 4. George W. 5. 
Barbara M. (dy). 6. Louisa (Eli Crummett). 7. Susannah 
(Noah Puffenbarger). 8. Martha F. (James Pitsenbarger). 
9. Eliza E. (Aaron Simmons). 

Br. of Mordecai: — 1. William F. (Jemima Rexroad). 2. 
Jacob H. (Neelie Hoover). 3. John F. (Cora Simmons). 4. 

Harry E. 5. Louisa A. (Rev. A M. Pence)— 6. Robert 

C. (Happy Hoover). 7. Edmund C. 8. Mary E (dy). By 
2nd. m.— 9. Lucinda S. (Harvey Simmons). 10. Arthur A. 
(Aug.)* IL Polly S.—dy. burn. 12. Others (dy). 

Dunkle. William H. (Susannah Hollen — Sarah C. Hiser) 
— b. 18u8, d. 1895— ch.— 1. John J. (Susan L. Hiser) -Tex. 
2. Parthena D. (Leonard Mallow)— d. 3. Margaret E.— d. 

4. Newman G. (Jemima A. Dahmer) — M. R. 5. Lucy A. — 
dy. 6. Joseph F.— dy. By 2d m.— 7. Macie E. (Frank S. 
Black). 8. Luretta J. (Melancthon Mallow). 9. Felicia A. 

(A M. Hevener). 10. Edgar N. (Lucy Dahmer). 11. 

Albert W. (Retta Hiser). 12 Zadie C. 

Ch. of Newman G.— 1. L. Wirt (Elizabeth Eye). 2. Wal- 
ter S. (Sarah Cook)- teacher and photographer, C'ville. 3. 
Wilber W. 4. Wade H. (Lottie Eye) — carpenter. 5. John 
L. 6. boy (dy). 7. Glenn H. 8. Etta M. 9. Roy. 

Dyer. Rog<^r (Hannah ) — ch.— 1. William (Margaret 

)— k. 1758. 2. Hannah (Frederick Keister). 3. Hes- 
ter (Matthew Patton). 4. Sarah (Peter Hawes, Robert Da- 
vis). 5. James (Ann , Jane Ralston, m. 1783 — Jane 

Hall) — b. 1744, d. 1807 — further mention elsewhere — home- 
stead. 

Fam. of William: — Roger (Susannah Blizzard) — b. June 
23, 1754, d. Nov. 19, 1843— (Oak Flat corner). 

Line of Roger:— 1. Margaret— b. Mar. 12, 1777. 2. Ruth 
(Roger Dyer)— b. Nov. 11, 1778, d. 1873. 3. James (Mar- 
garet Dyer)— d. Jan. 22, 1835. 4. Mary (William Hubbard) 
— b. Mar. 18, 178L, d. Dec. 16, 1852. 5. William ( Har- 
ness) -b. Mar. 16, 1783. 6. John D. (Jane Davis)— b. July 15, 
1785, d. Nov. 23, 1852. 7. Hannah (John Davis)— m. 1811— 
Hdy. 8. Elizabeth (Harr^ F. Temple)— b. May 9, 1795. 

Br. of John D.— 1. Rachel (Adam Bodkin). 2. Julia (Eli 
Wagoner)— b. 1815, d. 1851. 3. James M. 4. Elizabeth. 

5. Amanda (George Dyer). 6. Robert N. (Harriet L. Tem- 
ple)— b. Feb. 14, 1822, d. Dec. 23, 1890. 7. Susannah. 8. 
Cynthia (Reuben Wagoner). 9. John D, 10. Isaac H. U, 



202 

Granville (Sarah K. Davis). 12. Mary A. (George Dolly). 
13. Sarah (George Mallow)— b. 1836. 

Ch. of Granville: — Eaton, Charles, Anna, Dolen. 

Fam. of James: — 1. William (Margaret Ruddle) — b. Feb. 
20, 1768. d. Aug. 20, 1859. 2. Zebulon (Rebecca Wagoner, 
Naomi Harrison)— b. Jan. 11, 1773, d. Nov. 18, 1853— Co. 
C k. 3. Roger (Rath Dyer)— b. Dec. 28. 1774. d. Jan. 15, 
1864. 4. Hannab (Cornelius Ruddle). 5. Reuben (Eliza- 
beth Cunningham) — m 1810. 6. James. 7. Benjamin — mil- 
ler—out. 8. Phoebe (Philip Fisher). 9. Elizabeth (Charles? 
Ward)— m. 1797. 10. Girl (Abraham Trumbo). 11. Mat- 
thew (Rebecca Lincoln)— b. Dec. 6. 1786. d. June 23, 1853. 
12. Peachy (Amelia Pendleton)— m. 1818— sold, 1825, to 
James Johnson, 250 acres for $3 000. 13. Boy- b. 1807. 

Line of Zebulon: — 1. Mary W. (James Boggs). 2. Kath- 
arine (George Amos, Rkm)* 3. Rebecca (Dr. A F. 

Newman, R<m)* 4. Sirah (Isaac Pennybaker). 5. Louisa 
(Allen Bryan, Rkm)* 6. John J. (Shen.) — judge — Dubuque, 
la. 7. Andrew W. (Hannah Cunningham. Hdy) — U. T. 8. 
Eimund W. (Susan J. Snodgrass)- b. 1813- la., 1838* 

Br. of Aidrew W.— L Zebulon— b. 1833— k. 2 Charles 
— k. 3. William S. (Margaret Kile)— Kas. 4. Charles E. 
— twin to William S. — k. 5. John A. — dy. 6. Rebecca — dy. 
7. Wilber F. (Louisa M tMechen, Wheeling)— W. 8. Mary 
(Philip W. Anderson) — Kas. 9. John A. W. (Jennie Swit- 
zer) — W. 

Br. of Edmund W. — 1. James Z. — b. 1834, drowned. — la. 
2. Andrew W. (Ann E. Skidmore)— Fin. 3. John W. (la.)* 
4. ElwardO. — k. railroad accident — locomotive engineer — 
is said to have taken the first through passenger train on U. 
P. R. R. 

Ch. of Andrew W. — Susan, Katharine (William B. Ander- 
son), Osceola S. (Anne M. Curry, Grant). 

C. of Osceola S. — Dorothy. 

Line of Roger: — 1. Morgan (Sarah Burns) — b. Sept. 14, 
1809, d. Jan. 13, 1835— Braxton. 2. Zebulon (EHza Harness) 
— Ind. 3. Mary E.— S.— b. April 17, 1813. 4. Susannah L. 
(Joseph Trumbo) — b. 1815. 5. James R. (Hamp.) — Lewis. 
6. Dianna— S. 7. Allen (Martha A. Miller, Susan M. Tem- 
ple)— b. Dec. 20, 1820. 

Br. of Morgan:— 1. Mary L.— b. 1846. 2. Addison C. 

Br. of Allen:— L John P. (Mahala Bolton)— d. 2. Edmund 
K. (Lena McWhorter)— Philippi. 3. Minnie M. (Charles L. 
Switzer, Philippi)* 4. Annie M. (William A. Judy). 5. 
Susan L. (Elias McWhorter, Harrison Co.)* 6. William M. 
(Susan S. Lough)— homestead. 7. Charles W. 8. Ida F. 
(Isaac E. Bolton). 



203 

Ch. of William M.— Nora M., Frederick R., Vernon L., 
William R., Mary G., Annie J., George A., Jasper S,, James 
N., Annie M. 

Roger, the pioneer, was a large and prosperous landowner 
in Hardy and Pendleton. By his will, drawn Feb. 24, 1757, 
he left James his homestead of 620 acres. To Hannah Keis- 
ter he bequeathed 427 acres in Hardy ; to his grandson Roger, 
20 pounds ($66.67); to his wife and executor, dower interest; 
to his five sons and daughters, his personal effects. The 
testators to his will were William Miller, Adam Hider, and 
William Gibson. William was also a substantial citizen. He 
owned a servant, probably a negro, and had 9 horsts and 
colts. The murder of Roger and William and the captivity 
of James and Sarah are elsewhere spoken of. The original 
homesteads remain in the family or connection, and the Dy- 
ers have continued to be among the more wealthy of the 
Pendleton farmers. Zebulon, son of James, lived near Up- 
per Tract, and a few years after the organization of the 
county he became its clerk. The office passed from him to 
Andrew W. and Edmund W., remaining in the Dyer family 
more than 50 years. Tne Dyer connection has been quite 
prominent in Pendleton, both in its own personnel and in its 
intermarriages. 

Eckard. Philip, the pioneer, appears to have had these 
children: 1. Abraham, d. 1817. 2. Philip (Sophia Fleisher), 
m. 1799, d. 1820.* 3. Henry, k. by accident, 1818. 4. Polly 
(Jacob Moyers, Jr.) 5. Elizabeth (George Varner)—b. 1778, 
m. 1798. 

Family of Philip, Jr. — lived at Jacob Eckart's, 3 miles 
above S. G. 1. Abraham (Sarah Fend)- b. 1791. 2. John 
(Catharine Propst)— b. 1793. d. 1853— Rnd. 3. Philip (Bar- 
bara Propst) — 0. 

Family of Henry. 1. Elizabeth (Jacob Mitchell) -b. 1812, 
d. 1878. 

Line of Abraham of Philip: 1. Lucinda— S — b. 1822. 2. 
Valentine (Christina Summers) — b. 1823 — homestead. 3. 
Absalom (Sarah J. Lamb) - b. 1825 — homestead. 4. Barbara 
(John Simmons). 5. Polly (Samuel Snider)— b. 1^07. 6. 
Henry (Upshur).* 7. Abraham (Leean Hoover)— Ritchie. 
8. Elizabeth A. (High.)* 9. Samuel— dy. 

Branch of Absalom: 1. Job (Ruhama Gwinn, Hid.) — b. 
1845. 2. Martha J. (Rolandes Propst)— b. 1846. 3 Jemima 
(Swope Hull, Hid.) — Okla. 4. Lucinda (Job Simmons). 5. 
Koah W. (Phoebe J. Simmons) — teacher. 6. Amanda (Eli 
C. Bodkin, Hid.) 7. Jacob (Jane Smith, Hid.) — homestead. 
8. Isaac (Mollie Will, Hid.)— twin to Jacob. 9. Barbara 



204 

(William P. Simmons). 10. James P. (Barbara Wagoner, 
Hid*). 11. Abraham (Vesta Simmons, Eliza Rexroad, Hid.)* 

Ch. of Noah W. — Arthur (Louie L. Smith), teacher, Lottie 
F., Claudius, Noah W., Janie P., Gratia A., Sarah E. (dy), 
EphraimP., Amanda M., MmnieS., Jesse H., MaryM., Isaac 
F., Elsie F. 

Ch. of Jacob: — Rankin (dy), Sarah C. (Erias Huffman), 
Arthur M., Lucinda, Charles, Elizabeth A., Gertrude (dy), 
Jacob H.. James P., George W. 

Ch. of Isaac:— William A. (Neely Smith), Lillie S., Job, 
Elizabeth O. 

Note — John of Philip, Jr., had Frances and George; Valen- 
tine of Absalom had Christina and Mahala. 

Michael — perhaps really the pioneer, and father of Philip 
(1), — is mentioned as administrator to Mark Miller in 1757 
and as surety to Peter Vaneman. 

The present Eckards live on So. Fk. above S. G. 

Unp.— 1. Philip (Susannah)— b. 1786; ch.— Mary, Levi, 
Susannah. 2. Philip (Elizabeth)— b. 1815.— ch.— Jacob, Wil- 
liam, Catharine. 

Evick. (A). Francis (Margaret ) — d. 1799 — founder 

of Franklin— ch — 1. Francis (Sarah C. Gower, k. by fail on 

stairway)— Franklin. 2. Thomas (Catharine )— m. 

18u5. 3. James (Margaret )— m. 1805. 

(B). George (Eve )-d.— 1800— Straight Cr.— ch. 

— 1. John (Mary )-b. 1780*— Highland Co., 0. 2. 

Adam (Sophia Engleton, b. 1782)— d. 18o5*— gunsmith— Fin. 

3. Christian (Sarah ). 4. George— d. 1814. 5. Sarah 

(Henry Wanstaff). 6. Barbara (John Cool)— m. 1796. 7. 
Catharine (Sebastian Baker) — m. 1797. 

Line of Adam:— 1. Polly— S—b. 1802. 2. William (Eliza- 
beth Barclay)— b. 1803. d. 1886. 3. Eliza ( McNeal). 4. 

Margaret (James Smith) — m. 1825. 5. Hannah ( Sullen- 

barger). 6. Sarah A. — dy. 7. Catharine ( Burgoyne, 

Raines). 8. E izabeth ( Bradshaw) — W. 9. Julia 

(Henry Allison). 10. Melinda (Henry Allison— 2d w.) 11. 

Irene S. ( Jones). 12. John (Sophia Ruleman) — m. 1827. 

13. Samuel— S—b. 1810. 

Br. of John:— 1. Loran D.— b. 1828— W. 

Br. of William:— 1. William C. (Mary Simmons)— b. 1847, 
d. 189y. 2. Louisa (Martin Keister)— b. 1849. 3. James 
(Eliza Skidmore Dyer)— b. 1851. d. 1904. 4. Pleasant (Flor- 
ence Lough) — saddler — Fin. 5. Dice (Sarah Few, Rkm, 
Mary Few, Rkm, Mary B. Bennett, Barbour) — McDowell. 
6. Margaret (John E. Mantz. Md). 7. Etta— dy. 8. Mack 
—Preston Co.)*. 9. Charles (Margaret Blizzard) —n. Fin. 10. 



205 

Oscar— dy. 11. Nora (William Wilfong). 12. Jennie (John 
E. Mantz— 2d w.) 

Ch. of James. — Frank, Grover. 

Ch. of Pleasant. — Olin (Delpha, Bennett, Rph) — Monte- 
rey, Keifer, Ada, Estelle. 

Ch. of Charles.— Nannie. 

Note. — Christian Evick, perhaps father to Francis and 
George, was administrator to Jacob Zorn in 1756. George, 
probably brother to Francis, left Franklin, 1784. His children 
were nearly all minors when he died intestate. 

The Margaret who died 1796 at the alleged age of 103 was 
probably the wife of Christian. 

Eye. Christophers. (Catharine— )—d. Mar. 1797.— ch.—l. 
Christian (Elizabeth Propst)— b. 1775. d. 1860. 2. Jacob 
(Kate Hoover) — m. 1796. 3. Christiana. 4. Frederick 
(Catharine Stone)— b. 1781, m. 1801, d. 18iS4. 5. George 
(Elizabeth Snider)— m. 1803. d. 1811. 6. Elizabeth (Daniel 
Propst). 7. Rachel (Adam Propst)— b. 1789. 8. Mary A. 
(Conrad Varner)— b. 1775? m. 1792. 9. Henry (Mar> Propst) 
— m. 1792. 

Line of Christian: — 1. Jacob (Sarah Swadley) — b. 1798. 
2. Henry (Baibara Emick)— m. 1819— W. 3. Reuben (?) 
— W. 4. William (Letitia Bodkin)— b. 1810, d. 1874. 5. 
Christian (Tacy Wilson). 6. George — dy, drowned. 7. Eliza- 
beth (George Rexroad)— b. 1800. d. 1877. 8. Catharine 
(Daniel Hoover). 9. Mary (John Gragg). 10. Sarah 
(Henry Ruleman). 11. Susannah (Jacob Sinnett) — b. 1809, 
d. 1862. 12. Phoebe (Henry Sinnett). 

Branch of Jacob:— 1. Robert ( — Propst, — Gutherie Bol- 
ton, Julia A. Dice Clayton) — Trout Run. 2. Samuel H. 
(Va.)* 3. Laban (Hannah Mallow)— b. 1829, d. 1909— Oak 
Flat. 4. Mary E. (John M. Ruddle). 5. Sarah E. (Jesee 
A. Hartman). 6. Malinda — S — la. 7. Lavina J. — dy. 8. 
Jacob (Timnah Davis) — Mo. 9. Mahulda (Adam Bodkin). 
10. William. 11. Josephine — dy. 12. inf. 

Ch. of Laban: — 1. Robert H. (Emma Pope) — merchant — 
Oak Flat— ch —Anna R. 2. Scott— d. 3. Jacob L. (Lucile 
Thomas, la.) — New York City. 4. Sarah J. (Joseph Con- 
rad). 5. Cora F. (Lorenzo D. Conrad). 6. Clara E. (Rich- 
ard Stoneburner, Shen )* 7. boy (dy). 

Branch of William:— 1. John J. (Rkm)*— b. 1841. 2. 
William W. (Susan E. Sinnett). 3. Naomi E.— S. 4. 

Christian F. ( Waggy) — Rkm. 5. Benjamin (Barbara 

Rexroad) — b. 1848. 6. Hendron (Louisa McQnain) — Staun- 
ton. 7. David (Sarah Puffenbarger). 8. Ren ben (Jane 
Lough, Su«!an Carver, Hid). 10. Josephine — d. 18. 
Ch. of WiUiam W.— Amanda J. (Jackson L. Pope), Wil- 



206 

liam F. (Mattie Bowers), Lvdia J. (Philip Trumbo), Eliza- 
beth C. (L. Wirt Dankle), Mary M. (James W. Conrad), 
Henrv W., Lottie S. (Wade H. Dunkle), Bertha M. (Walter 
Hedrick). Edna L.. Wade W. 

Ch. of Christian F. Samuel H. ( Rexroad)— Hid. 2. 

Mary A.— dy. 3. Mahlon L.— Hy. 4. Naomi (John Fultz) 

— out. 5. Louisa — out. 6. Phoebe ( Bodkin) — out. 7. 

GeorgeA. (Josephine Sinnett). 

Ch. of Benjamin: — Henry A. (Leah M. Bowers), Mary A., 
(dy), William D. (Julia Lupton, Va.),* Arley T., Dora F. 

Ch. of David:— Miud K. Lydia J., William A. Ida S. 
(George C. Pope), Martha E., Mary J., Benjamin C. 

Ch of Reuben: — Naomi L. ( Todd), Henry 0., Minnie 

E. (Clarence Obaugh), Hattie S., Ivy, Brooks P. 

Line of Frederick:—!. William (Lydia)— b. ISIL 2. 
Elizabeth (Joseph Crumm^tt) — b. 1808. 3. John (Barbara 
Propst)— b. 1812. 4. Christian (Anastasia)— b. 1813. 5. 
Mary (Levi Simmnns) — W. 

Br. of Christian:— Samuel H. (b. 1842), Mary A., Mahlon 
L.. Louisa. 

Unp. 1. Mary (John Miller)— m. 1818. 2. John (Eliza- 
bpth Moyers)— b. 1798, d. 1863*— ch— Elizabeth (b. 1824), 
Mary A., George, Lucinda, Sarah, William, Mary M., 
Amanda, Washington, Emanuel, James M. 3. Sarah (Eli 

Propst— m. 1827. 4. Abel (Sarah )— b. 1816.— ch.— 

William W. (b. 1841), Margaret A., Columbia J., Virginia. 

5. John (Christina )— ch. — Caroline, Harriet, Lavina. 

6. George (Eleanor — )— b. 1805— ch.— Laban (b. 1830), 
Susan E.. Eleanor, JohnM., Reuben. 7. John A.— b. 1835, k. 

Branch of John: -1. Mary M. (Rph.)* 2. Ami (Eunice 
Currence, Rph)* 3. Levi (Sarah C. Barclay)— b. 1842— Buf- 
falo Hills. 4. Lucinda J. (Poca. (* 5. Hannah E. (Joseph 
Elvard)— Rph. 6. Amelia (Amos Huffman). 7. Lewis F. 
— d. 8. Elizabeth (Rph).* 9. Amanda C. 

Clh. of Levi: — 1. Daniel T. (Catharine Hinkle) — Poca. 
2. Noah W. (Agatha? Bennett) -Rph. 3. Henry C. 4. 

William C. ( Teter, Rph)* 5. George H. (Savannah 

Simmons) — Rph. 6. Isaac N. — dv. 7. Jasper G. 8. Da- 
vid F. (Ellen Moyers)— Rph. 9. Martha J.— dy. 10. Han- 
nah M. (Frank Bennett). IL. Phoebe A. ( Teter, Rph). 

12. Minnie A. 13. Mary C. 

Unp.— 1. John (Elizabeth Moyers)— b. 1798, d. 1865.* 
Ch. — John, (Christina.) Abel, (Sarah), Ch. of John.— Caro- 
line, Harriet, Lavina. Ch. of Abel. — William W., Margaret A., 
Columbia J., Virginia. 2. Elizabeth (Reuben Hevener) 
-m. 1828. 3. Sarah (Eli Propst)— m. 1827. 4. John A.- 



207 

b. 1835, d. 1863. 5. George (Eleanor)— b. 1805— ch.— Laban 
(b. 1830), Susan E., Eleanor, John M., Reuben. 

The Eyes are considerably dispersed over the county, par- 
ticularly in the South Fork and South Branch valleys. Chris- 
tian (1) lived on the George Eye place near Dahmer P. 0. 
Laban of Jacob was one of the wealthiest farmers of the 
county. 

Fultz. Joseph (Catharine A. E. Keister)— b. 1817, d. 1879. 
—moved to Martin Fultz place, 1846* — ch. — 1. Susannah. 2. 
Amos (Susan Rexroad) — homestead. 3. John A. (Rkm)*. 4. 
Millie— d. 5. Jacob (Dorothy M. Dickenson). 6. Martin 
(Mary J. Bolton). 7. boy (dy). 8. Elizabeth— Salem. 9. 
Josiah — dy. 10. Harvey G. — d. 

Ch. of Amos : — Mary C. (Granville Dickenson). 

Ch. of Jacob : — 1. Laban, Andrew, girl (dy). 

Ch. of Martin :— John A., Frances E., Frank A., Sarah P., 
Mineola, boy (dy). 

Joseph was son of Jacob, German immigrant to Dry 
River, Rkm. 

George. Henry ( ) appears to have been a son 

of Reuben, a tithable of 1790. Ch.— 1. John (Grant)*. 2. 
James (Grant) — Kas. 3. Reuben (Sidney Calhoun, Hannah 
Simmons). 4. Solomon. 5. William (Phoebe Vanmeter) — 
out. 6. Mary A. (Isaac Vanmeter), Grant*.— k. 1860*. 

Branch of Reuben: — 1. Naomi (John Avers). 2. Mary M. 
(Elias Lambert). By 2d m. 3. Sidney (William Holloway.) 4. 
Anne C. — dy. 5. Sarah E. (Andrew Avers). 6. Elsie 
(George Smith). 7. Noah W. (Susan Ratliff)—d. 8. Susan 
— d. 9. S.xlvanus (Susan H-^lmick) — Grant. 10. Jemima. 
11. Hannah (Abraham L. Hollowav). 12. Enoch (Gram)*. 

Unp. Emanuel (Melinda )— b. 1821. Ch.— Sarah 

E.— b. 1850. 

Gilkeson. James C. (Mary R. Trumbo)— b. July 4, 1811, 
d. Aug. 4, 1896— ch.— 1. Mary E. (Jacob Conrad)— b. 1845. 

2. James A. 3 Henry T. (Margaret Lough)— b. 1847. 4. 
Sarah M.—dy. 5 William E.—dy. 6. Hugh F. (Tll.)-Kansas 
City. 7. Annie M. (Anderson Colaw. Hid). 8. John S.— dy. 
9. Virginia R.—dy. 10. Martha E. (Robert E. Hedrick.) 

Ch. of Henry T.—L John. 2. MaryS. (EdmundT. Miller). 

3. Ida — dy. 4. James — dy (drowned). 5. George S. 6. Wil- 
liam T. — dy. 

Good. (A). The given name of the pioneer is lost. His 
wife was Rebecca Shoemaker. Ch, — 1. Jacob (Eliza Day). 
2. Mosheim. 3. Dorothy (James Simpson). 4. FranciS — S. 

(B). James H. (Anne Louf h) — came from Rkm. to M. S. 
1863— ch.— L Gabriel D. (Zettie McDoralH). 2. Samupl K. 
(Myrtle Thompson). 3. William H. 4. Walter G. 5. Mary 



J. (Solomon C. Hedrick). 6. Sarah F. (John A. Arnold, 
out) —Preston. 7. Emma (Lee Armentrout). 8. Alice 
(Wellington S. Carr). 

Gragg. Thomas ( ) — left a minor daughter, 

Mary, and appears to have had these sons: — 1. Henry. 2. 

William (Mary, )— d. Jan. 24, 17^5. 3. Samuel (Ann 

Black)— m. 1785?. 

A daughter of William was killed by the Indians in 1781. 
Elizabeth (Peter Cassell — m. 1794) was a daughter of Henry. 
The family seems afterward to have moved to the South Fork 
above Sugar Grove. J. Robert and Amby Gragg of that dis- 
trict are present representatives of the family. 

Unp.—l. William, Jr., (Martha Wheaton)—m.- 1791. 2. 
Philip (Flora Crummett)— m. 1791. 3. John (Mary Eye, 
Agnes Rexroad) — m. 1796. 4. Susannah (William Nicholas) 
— m. 1819. 5. Sarah (David Simmons) — m. 1821. 6. Henry 
(Catharine Smith — m. 1820. Zabulon (Sarah Hoover) — m. 
1826. 8. Martha (Thomas Summerfield)— m. 1800. 9. Ruth 
(Solomon Wees)— m. 1814. 10. Catharine (George Sheets) 
— m. 1812. 11. Martin (HannahSimmons). 12. Jane (Mor- 
decai Simmons). John had adaughter Mary (b. 1799, d. 
1881). Phillip had a daughter Catharine (George Sheets— 
m. 1812). Jacob (d. 1855) was a son of Philip. 

Graham. James (Rachel ) — ch. — 1. Isaac (Barbara 

Kile, Lydia A. Kimble)— b. May 12, 1793, d. Nov. 10, 1881— 
local preacher — Brushy Run. 2. Rachel — S. 3. Michael — 
drowned. 4. Hannah — b. 1798. 5. James (Mary A. Davis) 
— b. 1804. 

Branch of Isaac: — 1. Noah (Mary A. Holloway) — b. 
1816— W. 2. Enoch (Sarah Judy)— b. 1818. d. 1863—0. 3. 
Samuel — dy. 4. Phoebe (Daniel Judy). 5. Hannah — dy. 
6. Isaac N. (Eliza A. Armentrout).— b. 1827. 7. Nancv C. 
(George W. Kile).-b. 1828. 8. Adam Y. (W.)* 9. Cyn- 
thia (Zebulon Judy) — Rph. 10. James H. (Mahala S. Ar- 
mentrout)— Grant. 11. Ann R.— dy. 12. ? By 2d m.— 
13. Rebecca (George Kessner). 14. Emma S. (William C. 

Calhoun). 15. R A. (Martin D. Calhoun). 16. John 

A. reared — (Amelia Puffenbarger) — Kline. 

Branch of James: — 1. James (W.)* — U. B. minister. 2. 
Amos (W.)* 3. Kennison (Catharine Custard) — Rph. 4. 
Cook (Daniel Hiser). Rachel (b. 1833), Harrison, and Amos 
are also named as of same family. 

Unp.—l. Mary E. (b. 1838). 2. Samuel J. (b. 1840). 

Greenawalt. George, Sr. and George Jr. walked from 
Penn. to Greenawalt Gap about 1795, and in comnany with 
Conrad Miller. George, Jr. (Barbara Lough, m. 1799— Cath- 
arine Smith)— b. 1775, d. 1866*— ch.— 1. John (Emma Mai- 



209 

low)— unknown since 1865. 2. Adam (Mary A. Sites)— m. 
1829.— gunsmith. 3. George (Eve C. Mallow). 4. Barbara 
( Miller). 

Br. of John :— 1. Solomon ( Hinkle). 2. Georgre (Jos- 
ephine R. Lough). 3. MaryV. (John Walker)— b. 1850. 4. 
Phoebe (Samuel Miller). 

Br. of Adam : — Jacob — S. — D. 

Br. of George : — 1. Noah (Susannah Ressner) — b. 1846. 
2. Sarah (William Hevener). 3. Cena (Levi Getfs Grant) — d. 

Ch. of Noah : — 1. Louisa C. (John C. PownalU, Hamp.)* 

2. William H. 

Unp. — John — purchased 230 acres of Valentine Kile in 1779. 
The Greenawalts remain near the original settlement. 

Guthrie. Page (Frances , b. 1805)— ch.— 1. Wilh'am 

(Sarah Hartman)— Tkr. 2. Elizabeth ( Howdershelt). 

3. Jane (George Bolton). 4. Andrew J. (Sarah Eye, Frances 
Walker). 

Ch. of Andrew J. 1. — (John ) — Prince William. 2. 

Samuel — S. 3. Jane (Henry Walker). 4. Susan ( Hel- 

mick)— W. Va. 

Hammer. George, Balsor, Henry, and Jacob were broth- 
ers and came in 1761 to the Byrd's mi'l bottom. George re- 
mained there, building a loopholed house. Balsor moved 
about 1777 to Cave P. 0., and his log house is yet standing. 
Henry went to Tenn., and Jacob to another part of Va. 

Family of George: — ( Snider, — Susannah Miller)— d. 

April, 1801 — ch. — 1. Jacob — given land in Aug. 2. Susannah. 

3. Elizabeth by 2d m. —4. George (Elizabeth Coplinger)—b. 
Feb. 10. 1781, d. April 16, 1856. 5. Henry (Phoebe Coplinger) 
— b. Feb. 9, 1793, d. Dec. 12. 1827. 

Line of George :— 1. Eli (Delilah Conrad)— b. 1805. 2. Sus- 
annah (Abraham Kile)— b. Oct. 18, 1807. 3. Elizabeth (James 
Ruddle)— b. 1809, d. 1859. 4. Phoebe (Michael Lough). 5. 
Catharine (Samson Conrad, Joel Siple). 6. George (Mary 
Harper) — b. Aug. 4, 1816— ho-aestead. 7. Abel — dy. 8. Ja- 
cob H. (Timnah Conrad— b. Feb. 21, 1821, d. Feb. 9, 1898. 
Mary A. (James W. Byrd)— b. 1823. 

Br. of Eli :— 1. Sarah C. (Reuben D.Dahmer)— b. 1831. 2. 
Denisa (Charles J. Blewitt). 3. Mahala (Henry Roberson). 

4. Phoebe (Miles Dahmer). 5. George W.— S. 6. Mary A.— 
dy. 7. Elias C. (Mattie Hedrick, Mollie Bowers) 8. Isaac T. 
(Arbana Conrad)— b. 1848. 9. Virginia F. (John M. Ruddle). 
10. Abel (Lavina Hedrick). 11—14. infs. (dy.) 

Ch. of Isaac T.— Mollie (WiUiam Bowers), Bessie, Curtis, 
Frederic, Walter, Lester. 
Ch. of Abel, — Jesse, Olive. 
Br. of George :— 1. Sarah J. (Peter Wimer)— b. 1837. 2. 

PCH 14 



210 

Catharine C. (Ambrose Meadows, Andrew Colaw, Hid.)* 3. 
William H. H. (0)* 4. Leonard H. (Sarah T. Harper)— C. D. 
5. George W. (Hannah C. Rymer, Ursula T. Hammer) — b. 
1844. 6. Benjamin S. (Mary E. Harper). 7. Mary M.— dy. 
8. Isaac C. (Margaret Snider) — 0. 9. Phoebe A. (Jacob Ham- 
mer). 10. boy (dy). 11. Hannah E. (David Mallow). 12. 
John C. (Mary M. Mouser. 0)* 13. Ida L. (J. Dice Cowger, 
Charles A. Hedrick)— b. 1861. 

Ch. of Leonard H. — Luther (Esther Way bright), John, 
Sarah (Harper Hinkle), Barbara (Harry Simmons), Marga- 
ret, (Frederick Nelson), Mary. Eva. 

Ch. of George W. — 1. Ora (Howard L. Dahmer). 2. May — 
dy. 3. Lloyd (Blanche Byrd). Ira (Kate Homan) — Tex. 5. 
Ruth (Calvin D. Ruddle.) 6. Edith C. (Clete Phares). 

Ch. of Benjamin S. — 1. Clarence (Alberta Dickenson). 2. 
Forest. 3. Tressie (Martin V. Stutler, out) — Washington, 
D. C. 4. Hurley C. (Nellie Fisher). 

Line of Henry: — 1. John C. (Matilda Bolton, Sarah Rex- 
road. Margaret Bible). 2. Adam (Melinda Wagoner) — la. 
3. Christina (William Lough)— b. 1819, d. 1855. 

Branch of John C: — 1. Deniza (Harry Harold). 2. Sarah 
A. (Jacob Wagoner) , others (dy). 

Family of Balsor: — (Elizabeth Simmons): — 1. Leonarl— S. 
2. George (Elizabeth Daggy, Hid) — homestead. 3. Eliza- 
beth (Isaac Friend)— m. 1812. 4. Marv (Michael Hiv-hO. 

5. Frances (Loftus Pullen, Hid)*— m. 1819. 6. Sarah (Mar- 
tin Moyers)— m. 1804. 7. Kate (Mathias Wolf)— m. 1811—0. 
8;. Margaret (Adam G. Miller)— Hid. 9. Susan ( Rex- 
road). 

Line of George: — 1. Elizabeth (Solomon Rexroad). 2. Mary 

( Mauzy). 3. Susan ( Mauzy). 4. Jacob (Phoebe 

Moyers). — Ritchie. 5. Henry (Catharine Simmons) — Lewis. 

6. Balsor (Mary Simmons) — homestead. 7. John (Elizabeth 
Simmons) — b. 1825. 8. George (Susan Mauzy) twin to John 
—Lewis. 9. Adam D. (Sidney Moyers)— b. 1827.— Lewis. 
10. Samuel (Catharine Moyers) — Hid. 

Branch of Balsor:— 1. Susan F. (Jacob Mallow)— b. 1847. 
2. George D. (Valeria F. Sinnett) — homestead. 3. Rachel E. 
(Austin Moyers). 

Ch. of George D.— 1. Mary J. (Hid)— Poca. 2. Phoebe 
(Howard Rexroad). 3. Martha (Kennie Simmons) — twin to 
Phoebe. 4. Henry D. (Rachel E. Simmons). 5. Elizabeth 
F. (Kennie Judy). 

C. of Henry D.— Mattie E., Leta B., Irvin L. Jessie 0., 
Clarence L. 

Note. Ch. of Ambrose Meadows:— 1. Ambrose ( 

Bell). 2. Mary (David Collom). 3. Phoebe (John W. Byrd). 



211 

Harman. (A). Isaac ( Christina Hinkle, Har- 
per)— d. 1830*.— ch.— 1. Reuben (Christina Miller)— Mo., 
late — b. 1798. 2. Joshua (Annis Dice? Harper, Susannah 
Dice)— m. 1817. 3. Solomon (Elizabeth Harman)— b. 1807— 
out. 4. Jonas (Barbara Harper) — m. 1806. 5. Isaac (Polly 
Harman) — b. 1813. 6. Rachel (Leonard Day). 7. Christina 
(Samuel Harman) m. 1825. 8. Phoebe (Michael Mouse). 

Line of Reuben: — 1. Jonas — Mo. 2. Lydia ( Mal- 
low). 3. Martha (Philip D. Harper). 4. Rebecca (George 
Mallow). 5. girl (Calvin Wimer). H. girl (Cain Phare«). 
7. girl (Laban Eye). 8. Noah— Mo. 9. Thomas (Phobe 

. )— b. 1821. 10. Rachel N. ( Eye)— 

W. 11. Reuben. 

Branch of Thomas: — 1. Lucinda (Reuben F. Helmick) — b. 
1841. 2. Lydia— S. 3. Henry (Barbara J. Harper). 4. Cy- 
rus (Annis? Harman, Jennie Nash Lawrence) — b. 1845. 5. 
Adam {Eve Bible). 6. Reuben— d. 7. Abraham (Caroline 
McDonald). 8. Isaac (Mahala Harman). 9. Elizabeth— S. 
By 2d. m. 10. Mary E. (William W. Mallow. 11. Almeda 

J. ( Miller). 12. Hannah K. (John A. Morral). 13. 

Martha s. (Joseph Bergdall, Grant)*. 14. George (Mary 
Hinkle). 15. John R. (Lizzie Hinkle). 16. Titus. 17. An- 
nie (Wilmer Stonestreet, Grant)*. 18. Kenny (Ettie Mallow) 
— Okla. 19. Myrtie (Harman Bell). 20. Zernie (Hoy Kisa- 
more). 21. Omer (Missouri Harman). 22. Delia. 

Line of Joshua: — 1. Joel (Jane Harman) — 1814. Phoebe 
(Michael Mouse). By 2d. m.— 3. John (Hannah Miller) b. 
1826. 4. Eli (Hannah Harper)— b. 1831. 5. George (Mary 
Smith, Susan Smith) — Grant. 6. Isaac — S. 7. Catharine 
(Jacob Harper)— b. 1835. 8. Mary C. (Joshua Mouse). 9. 
Helena (Samson Day). 

Branch of Joel:— 1. Ann E. (Cyrus Harman)— b. 1845. 
2. Phoebe (David Sites). 3. Mahala (Isaac Harman). 

Branch of John: — 1. Mary (George Teter). 2. Cynthia 
(Henry Harper). 3. Rebecca (Philip H. Harper). 4. John 
(Zprnie Dove). 5. Solon (Amanda Nelson, Teter Mauzy). 
6. Samuel (Martha Lantz)— Grant. 

Branch of Eli:— 1. Kenny ( Kisamore)— Kas. 2. 

George ( Huffman). 

Line of Jonas :-l. Mary E.— b. 1836. 2. Reuben R. 3. 
Emily S. 4. Christian S. 5. James B. 6. Michael A. 7. 
Hannah C— b. 1849. 

Uno.— 1. Noah (Magdalena Mallow)— b. 1798, d. 1863. 
?. Job (Mary Harman) — Mo. 3. Joel (Jane Harman) — b. 
1814. 

Branch of Noah:— 1. Sarah— dy. 2. Moab (Elizabeth 
Lough). 3. Paul (Hannah Borrer). 4. Enos (Margaret L. 



Burgoyne)— b 1833. 5. Henry (Mary Kessner) — k. 6. 
Reuben (C\nthia Custard). 7 Phoebe (Solomon Ratliff). 

Ch. of Moab:— 1. Siloam (Rebecca Mallow)— Tucker. 2. 
Noah (Sarah Nash)— Rph. 3. Cyrom (Sarah Smith)— Da- 
vis. 4. Samuel (Ellen Judy, Grant) — Davis. 5. Hannah 
(Isaac Judy. Grant)* 6. Mary (George Yoakum, Grant)* 

Ch. of Paul:— 1. Samuel W. (Ann Harman). 2. William 
W. (AdaHne D. Lough). 3. Jemima (Nicholas Shreve). 4. 
Boy (dy). 

Ch. of Henry:— .1 If?aac (Sarah C. Miller). 2. Sarah 
A. (Abel R. Ratliff). 3-4. infs (dy). 

Ch. of Reuben:— 1. David -Kas. 2. Mahlon (Ellen Har- 
per). 3. Lucy (Morgan McQuain ( — Upshur). 

Line of Isaac: — 1. Simeon (Margaret Teter) — b. 1835— 
Kas. 2. Elijah (Phoebe J. Harper). 3. Joshua (Sarah 
Teter). 4. Enos (Martha Shirk)— b. 1841. Jacob (Phoebe 
J. Kimble). 5. Phoebe (George W. Ritchie). 6. Elizabeth 
(Benjamin Day). 7. Joel — dy. 

Branch of Elijah:-1. Ulysses S. (Arietta Teter). 2. 
Mary (Minor Hedrick) — Tkr. 3. Cecil. 4. Luther. 5. 
Bertha (Walter Harman). 6. Elon — dy. 

Branch of Joshua: — 1. Frances (Frank Wilson, Va.) — 
Rph. 2. Jane A. ( Currence, Rph).* 

Branch of Jacob:— 1. Ida G.— teacher. 2. Julia M. (Wil- 
liam D. Fitzpatrick, Scotland) — Victoria, B. C. 3. Delia. 
4. J. Vernon (Zella Bland). 5. Walter L. (May Mohler, 
Kevser).* 6. Alvah G. 

(B). George (Jane Redmond)— b. 1776, d. 1851— Hid. 

Ch.— 1. Andrew ( )— 0. 2. Samuel (Christina 

Harman) — b. 1801. 3. Elizabeth (Solomon Harman). 4. 
Nancy (Job Harman). 5. Polly (Isaac Harman) — b. 1809, 
d. 1858. 6. Jane (Joel Harman). 

Lineof Samuel:— L William— (dy). 2. David H. (Cynthia 
J. Hedrick. Joanna Huffman). 3. John H. ( ) — Min- 
eral. 4. Amos (Lucinda Hedrick). 5. Amby — k. 1864. 
6. Isaac (Sarah Hinkle) — 1826. 7. Naomi (George Lar- 
gent, Hamp.) — III. 8. Martha (Adam Mouse). 9. Rebecca 
(Jacob Largent, Hamp.).* 10. Malinda (Robert Vance). 

11. Sarah A. (John K. Nelson). 

Branch of David H.— 1. Charles G. 2. Mary A. (George 
K. Judy). 3. John W. — attorney, Parsons. By 2d m. — 4. 
Carrie — (dy). 5. Carrie (out) — Monongah. 6. Minnie (out) 
— Monongah. 7. Martha (out) — Pa. 8. Linnie (out). — El- 
kins. 9. May— Monongah. 10. Casper— d. 11. David M. 

12. Percy. 13. Jesse. 

Other Unp.— 1 David— (Barbara) -on N. F., 1771. 2. 
John— 1754. 3. Frederick (Elizabeth Ruleman)-m. 18CJ0. 



218 

Harold. (A.). The father of Michael, was an official of 
high position in Denmark, was assassinated in a church. 
About 1750, the widow took the boy to America, he then be- 
ing about five years old and richly clothed. He settled in 
Maryland, moving late in life to East Dry Run, below Rex- 
road P. 0. Ch.— Andrew (Barbara Rexroad)— b. 1778, m. 
1806, d. 1857. 

Line of Andrew: — 1. Daniel (Elizabeth Bowers). 2. John 
(Sarah Rexroad). 3. Benjamin (W.)— Mo. 4. Solomon 
(Sarah Way bright)— Fla. 5. George (Mary A. Wimer) — 
Ritchie. 6. Andrew (Barbara Waybright) — Reed's Creek. 
7. Nellie— (dy). 

Br. of Daniel : — 1. Miles (Catharine Waybright — merchant 
— Hid. 2. Elias (Martha Rexroad) — homestead. 3. Sarah J. 
(Albert T. Newcomb, Va.) 

Ch. of Elias : — Frances (Solomon Ketterman), May berry 
D. (Jennie Wimer). 

Br. of Andrew :— 1. Louisa A. (Jacob Dove)— b. 1844. 2. 
Mary J. (Noah Hedrick)— b. 1845. 3. Solomon (Ruhama 
Hedrick). 4. Amby (Annis Teter)— W. 5. William W.— S. 

-W. 6. Sarah E. (Solomon Lantz). 7. Delia ( Lantz) — 

Horton. 

(B). John ( ), a tithable in 1790 and living 3 miles 

below S. G. appears to have had these ch. — 1. Christian (Eliz- 
abeth Cook) — m. 1799. 2. John (Margaret Crummett) — m. 
1792. 3. Michael (Polly Richards)— m. 1793. 

Peter (Catharine Snider, m. 1826) was a son of Christian. 
Others of the second generation appear to be these : — 1. 
George (Sarah Hoover) — homestead. 2. Jacob— b. 1808. 3. 
Elizabeth (George Wilfong)— m. 1819. 

Br. of George :— 1. Philip M.— S. 2. Laban (Amanda Sim- 
mons)— b. 1828. 3. Daniel (Sarah Hoover)— Hid. 4. John 
T. (Margaret J. McCoy)— b. Aug. 19, 1831, d. Nov. 21, 1904. 
5. Barbara M. 6. Sebastian — S. 

Ch. of Laban :— 1. Wesley. 2. Jacob. 3. Harvey. 4. 
Lucy (Robert Gragg). 5 Barbara (Charles Byers). 6. Sa- 
rah (James Wilfong). 7. Elizabeth (Charles Hartman). 

Ch. of John T.-l. Floyd (Rkm)— 111. 2. Harry (Mary 
Hammer). 3. George (Lucy Leach) — Thorn. 4. Walter. 
5. Martha (John Mallow). 6. Robert (Florence Imen)— 
Bvrd'smill. 7. Jennie (Marshall Bowers). 

Unp.— 1. Solomon (Sarah )— b. 1821. Ch.— Eliza 

(Rev. McNeal), AnnR. (Jacob Moyers)—b. 1847. James 

A. (Jennie Wills), Mattie (Hid)* 2. John— (Sarah )— 

b. 1813. d. 1904. 3. Daniel (Elizabeth )— b. 1812, d. 1892* 

Ch.— Elias (b. 1836). Sarah. 4. Miles (Catharine A. ( 

— b. 1830. 5. Noah (Mary A. -)Ch.— Rachel A. (b. 1844), 



214 

Sarah J., Angeline, James H. 6. Rachel (Christian Smith) 
— b. 1800. 7. Michael (Catharine )— m. 1805. 

Early in the history of the county the surname was spelled 
Harholt. Aaron and Robert Harrald, settled on the Shenan- 
doah river in 1750, may have been related to one of the two 
Harold families of this county. There is no known relation- 
ship between the latter. 

Harper. In 1749 Matthew was constable on the Bull- 
pasture. In 1760 he was living on Christian Cr., and the 
next year he sold a place in Beverly Manor. In 1767 he made 
a five days trip to the South Branch to settle the estate of 
Michael. The belongings of the latter amounted only to 
$12.54, and Matthew's charge for himself and horse was 
$2.92. A neighbor to Michael was Paul Hans. In 1752 the 
two men were bound in the sum of 20 pounds ($66.67) each, 
each person giving one surety. In 1756 Hans bought of 
James Trimble the Christopher Sumwalt place on the Black- 
thorn, but sold it 12 years later and disappears from our 
sight. The wife of Matthew was Margaret and that of Paul 
Hans was Elizabeth. In 1769 Adam entered land between 
East Dry Run and the Crabbottom, and in 1772 Nicholas 
made an entry on the South Branch a liitle below the present 
county line. Adam is said to have come from the river 
Rhine in 1750, but could have been only a boy at that time. 
He served in the Indian war and in 1758 was wounded at Up- 
per Tract. The indications are that Matthew, Michael and 
Hans were brothers, and that Adam and Nicholas were sons 
of Michael. Still other Harpers were Jacob and Philip. The 
former purchased land below Franklin in 1761, and was a 
neighbor to the Hammers, Coplingers, and Conrads. Our 
first mention of Philip is in the same year. He seems to 
have been first around Uppp'r Tract, but soon located on the 
North Fork on th'^ Joshua Day place. He was exempted 
from poll tax in 1788. Jacob was a soldier in the Indian 
war. He was naturalized in 1765, and Philip in 1774. These 
two were probably brothers, and the Eve C., who married 
Matthew Dice, was almost certainly a sister to Philip. It is 
possible that Jacob and Philip were elder brothers to Adam 
and Nicholas. At all events there is little doubt of a rela- 
tionship between all the Harpers who came as pioneers to 
the Valley of Virginia. The loopholed houses of Philip and 
Adam are yet stand mg. The latter when built was next to 
the last dwelling on the South Branch. 

We have entered into thi^ discussion of the early Harpers 
because of the very early arrival of the four pioneers, the 
large number of the connection at the present time, and the 
exceptional difficulty of tracing the lines of descent. 



215 

(A) Jacob ( ). We are unable to designate his 

children with certainty, but they appear to have been some 
or all of the following : — 1. John. 2. William ( ) 

3. Philip (Susan Armentrout). 4. Barbara (James Chris- 
man)— m. 1791. 5. Mary (Jan-es McClure)— m. 1804. 6. 
Jacob (Barbara Wise) — m. 1806. 

(B) Phihp ( )— d. 1798*— ch.— 1. Jacob ( 

) — k. in felling a tree another had lodged against. 2. 

Philip ( ). 3. Adam (Barbara Conrad )—m. 1794. 

4. girls? 

Jacob was a great hunter and trapper. He and his sons 
made powder in "Germany," peduhng the same 50 cents a 
pound. 

Line of Jacob : — 1. Adam (Susannah Fultz) — Tkr. 2. 
Moses (Abigail Hinkle, Phoebe Conrad). 3. Sarah (George 
Teter)— b. 1784. 4. Barbara (Jonas Hartman)— m. 1806. 

5. Mary (Abraham Hmkle)— b. 1784? 6. Melissa. 7. 
Henry (Elizabeth Mouse)— Rph—b. 1778, d. 1850. 8. Chris- 
tina (Jacob Haigler). 9. Nicholas (Sarah Hinkle, Susan 
Skidmore)— b. 1789. 10. Leah (Esau Hinkle)— m. 1819. 
11. Leonard (Phoebe Hinkle)— b. Nov. 6, 1797, d. May 17, 
1870. 

Br. of Moses: — 1. Aaron (Hannah Hedrick) — b. Nov 7, 
1818. 2. Mahala (Preston Wilson, Ireland)— la. 3. Car- 
oline. 4. Moses— b. 1825— S. 5. Margaret— S. 6—8. infs 
(dy). By 2d m.— 9. Susan P. (Noah Harper)— b. 1833. 
10. Jacob C. (Susan McDonald)— b. 1834. 11. Sophia 
(William E. Hedrick). 12. Malinda (Adam Carr). 13. 
Annis. 14. Isom (Elizabeth Helmick) — III. 15. Abraham 
— d. 19. 16. Mary C. 

Ch. of Aaron E. — 1. John W. (Barbara J. Bennett) — b. 
1838. 2. Mary (Ind.) 3. Nancy ( Couch, out)— Chi- 
cago. 4. Jonas — k. 5. Huldah (out) — Ind. 6. Martha 
(out) — Chicago. 7. Noah — la. 

C. of John W. — Joseph M. (Annie Sites), Harness (Martha 
Huffman)— Rph., Elizabeth (A Y. Lambert) — Rph. 

Cc. of Joseph M. — Delmar (Rosa Huffman), Rella, Nola, 
Burrell. 

Br. of Nicholas.— 1. Elias— dy. 2. Sylvanus (Ruth Har- 
per) of Adam — b. 1812, d, 1896— homestead. 3. Malvina A. 
S. (Jacob Teter)— m. 1838. By 2d m.— 4. Amby (Elizabeth 
McClure) -b. 1821— homestead. 5. Eliakum (Cal.)* 6. Su- 
san P. 

Ch. of Sylvanus. — 1. Nicholas M. (Christina Lawrence) -- 
b. 1841— homestead— miller. 2. Sylvanus W. (Elizabeth 

Phares, Ind.)* 3. Adam H. ( Lantz)— Hendricks. 4— 

10. infs (dy). 



216 

C. of Nicholas M.— Carson (Carrie Starks, out), Adam H. 
(Cora Judy), Ambrose A., Wilber, Webster (dy), Emma 
(Walter Coplinger, Grant),* Kate C, Charles, Sylvanus. 

Ch. of Amby.— 1. Eliakum ( Daniels)— Tkr. 2. 

Mary (Grant)* 3. Nicholas A.— unkn. 4. Alice (Va.)* 
5. Charles ( Daniels)— Tkr. 

Br. of Leonard. — 1. Mary (George Hammer) — b. 1818. 
2. Isaac (Sidney Wimer) — k 3. Margaret (George W. Ry- 
mer). 3. Sarah (William Trimble)— b. 1823, d. 1857. 4. 
Hannah H. (John Trimble)— b. 1824, d. 19o5. 5. Jacob (Ca- 
tharine McClure — k. 6. Phoebe J. (Samuel Sullenbarger). 
7. Leonard — dy. 8 Catharine (James Trimble)— b. 1836. 

Ch. of Isaac. — 1. Leonard (Annie Bennett). 2. Henry 
(Annie R. Cook). 3. Jacob (Mary Phares) — Rkm. 4. Isaac 
(Eliza MuUenax). 5 Almeda (Patrick H. Phares). 6. Mary 
(Eli A. L.amberc). 7. Adam (Christina Bennett). 

C. of Henry. — Charles. John, Grace. 

C. of Isaac. — Kf^nny, Sarah. 

Ch. of Jacob.— 1. Phoebe C (Francis M. Priest)— b. 1840, 
d. 1899. 2. Barbara E. (Samuel B. Arbogast). 3. Sarah T. 
(Leonard Harper). 

Ch. of Leonard. — Boyd, Owen (Osa Nelson), Glenn, Mary. 

C. of Owen.— Nellie. 

Line of PhiUp.- 1. Adam (Mary Vance)— b. 1772. d. 1845 

— Isaac Harman's. 2. Peter ( ) — C. A. Hedrick's 

— out. 3. Catharine. 4. Sarah (Samuel Johnson) m. 1800. 
5. Elias (Phoebe Dice)— b. 1792. 6. others. 

Br. of Elias.— L Mary A. (Enoch Bland). 2. Philip D. 
(Martha Harman)— b. 1814. 3. Simeon (Mary A. Rober- 
son). 4. John D. (Phoebe H. Dice)— b. 1818. 5. Phoebe 
(Adam Phares). 6 Eve M. (Samson Sites). 7. Elizabeth (Job 
Miller). 8. Sarah J. (Noah Sites)— b. 1835. 

Ch. of Philip D.— 1. John D. (Susannah Eye, Ellen Sim- 
mons) — Rph. 2. Phoebe J. (Simeon W. Harper). 3. Reu- 
ben W. (Martha Thompson). 4. Elizabeth V. (Martin V. 
Lantz). 5. Catharine— dy. 6. Amby W. (Ellen Judy). 7. 
Pleasant M. (Catharine Mallow)— Hdy. 8. Mary S. (Joseph 
F. Kisamore). 9. Philip H. (Rebecca R. Harman). 

C. of John D. — 1. EHzabeth J. (Christian Solomon) — b. 
1842. 2. Dewitt C— k. 3. Mary E. (Benjamin S. Ham- 
mer) — b. 1845. 4. Frances (Clay Byrd). 5. Carrie— W. 6. 
George W. (W.)* 7. Howard (Mary V. Mullenax)— W. 8. 
John (dy). 

C. of Philip H. — Texie (James A. Kimble), Jason D., Ma- 
son P., Laura E. 

Ch. of Simeon. — 1. John A. (Susan Hammer) — b. 1844. 
2. William P. (Martha Armentrout)— b. 1845. 3. Rebecca 



217 

J. (Henry Harman). 4. Henry F. (Cynthia Harman). 5. 
Sarah C. (Solomon Harman). 6. Susan P. (William R. Kim- 
ble). 7. Simeon (Alice Bland). 8. Eve (Wellington F. 
Kimble). 

C. of John A. — Cora A. (Alvin Dove), Lora C. (James 
Kessner), Retta J. (Frederick Warner). 

C. of William P. -Alvin (Mary Carr). 

C. of Henry F.-Lenora, E valine (Blaine Harper), Bertha 
(Clarence Harman), Iva, Russell H., Warren E. 

C. of Simeon. — Rosa, Lon. 

Line of Adam.— 1. Eli (Phoebe Davis)— b. 1805? 2. 
Levi (Sarah Wees)— b. 1807 ? d. 1865. 3. Joshua (Catha- 
rine Conrad). 4. Adam (Eliza Mullenax) — k. 5. EHzabeth 
(Alexander Wees). 6. Sidney (Amos Wees). 7. Jesse — dy. 

Br. of Eli.— 1. Adam ( Wood)— b. 1835—111. 2. 

James D. (Rebecca Hevener. ) 3. John ( Tingler) — 111. 

4. Phoebe J. (Jethro Davis). 5. Frances (James Adamson). 
6. infs. (dy). 

Ch. of James D. — William ( Dolly), George (Texie 

Mauzy), Kenny ( Kisamore), Arnold (MalindaHedrick), 

Ellis (Dorothy Harper)— Va. 

Br. of Levi. — 1. Mary (Joshua Teter) . 2. Rebecca (John 
D. Payne)— b. 1835. 3. Eve (Alfred George). 4. Simeon W. 
(Phoebe J. Harper). 5. Emily (John Davis). 6. Timnah 
(Laban Teter). 7. Jacob M. (Martha A. Hedrick?) 8. 
George F.— dy. 

Ch. of Simeon W.— P. Miles, George B. (Edna Payne), 
John D., Ida B. 

Ch. of Jacob M.—Eliakum (Rph),* William C, Charles, 
Walter, Lucy, Mary (Lloyd Teter), Delpha. 

Br. of Joshua.— Noah (b. 1831— la.), Christina (Martin 
Judy), Miles, Margaret, Asenath J., Elizabeth, Amos (111.), 
Elias (Mo.) 

(C) Adam (Christina )— b. 1741,* d. 1820— ch.— 1. 

Susannah (Charles Briggs) — m. 1792 — 0. 2. Catharine (Jo- 
seph Briggs) — m. 1794 — 0. 3. Nicholas (Elizabeth Harper). 
4. Jacob (Margaret Harman) — 0. 5. Mary (Henry Sim- 
mons). 6. girl (Adam Mouse). 7. Christina (Jacob Judy). 
8. Sarah (Philip Wimer). 9. Philip (Susannah Fultz)— b. 
1778, d. 1860. 10. Daniel (Kosanna Wise)— m. 1S03. 

Line of Jacob. — 1. Jesse (Phoebe Haigler). By 2dm. — 
2. George (Delia Simpson Clustard) — 0. 3. Susan (Henry 
Cowger). 4. Michael (Clara Bland)— 0. 5. Phoebe— S. 

Br. of Jesse W.— 1. Isaiah-b. 1828, d. 1852— S. 2. Ja- 
cob (Catharine Harman, Elizabeth Mouse). 3. William (El- 
len Hinkle)— la. 4. Mary A. (Job Sites). 5. Hannah (Eli 
Harman, Jonas Kisamore). 6. Peter (Christina Mouse) — 0. 



218 

7. Martin (Catharine Mouse) -n. M. S. 8. Evan C.~S. 9. 
Elijah C. (Margaret Hedrick)— 111. 10. James T.— K. 11. 
Phoebe J. (John Carr). 

Line of Philip.— 1. Mary (Jonas Miller). 2. Elizabeth 
(Michael Mallow). 3. Samuel. 4. Bible? 5. Sol- 
omon (Margaret Teter)— b. 1798, m. 1818. 6. Sarah (Cain 
Morral). 7. Hannah ( Vanmeter). 

Br. of Solomon. — Elijah (b. 1828), Mahala, Josiah, Sam- 
uel, Mary, Enoch. 

(D) Nicholas (Elizabeth Peninger)— d. 1818.— ch.— 1. 
Barbara (William Michael, Bath)*— m. 1793. 2. Henry 
(Elizabeth Mouse)— m. 1799— Poca. 3. Anne E. (Peter 
Lightner, Hid)* — m. 1796. 4. Catharine (Conrad Rexroad, 
Hid)*— b. 1780. 5. Peter (Susannah Simmons)— Mingo 
Flats, Rph. 6. Elizabeth (Nicholas Harper). 7. Susannah 
(Adam Lightner, Hid)— m. 1798. 8. Mary (Henry S wad- 
ley). 9. Sarah (Henry Hevener) — Monroe? 10. George 
(MargaretWimer)— b. 1799, m. 1820, d. 1868*— homestead. 

Line of George. — 1. Nicholas (Margaret Rexroad) — m. 
1812— Geo. W. Harper's. 2 Elizabeth A. (Martin Moy- 
ers) — b. 1832. 3. Lavina A. (Emanuel Simmons). 4. Susan 
(William Hevener). 5. Peter (Sarah J. Sponaugle) — m. — 
Dry Run. 6. Solomon (Anne Way bright)— b. 1829. 7. 
George (Elizabeth J. Arbogast) — b. 1841. 

Br. of Nicholas.— 1. John C. — k. 2. George W. (Anna 
E. Whitecotton). 3. Amby S. (Anna C. Mullenax). 4. 
Phoebe M. (Charles Bennett, Conn.)* 5. Susan J. (Thomas 
Hill, Penn.)* 

Ch. of George W. — Dock A. (Margaret Lambert), Marga- 
ret A., boy (dy). 

Ch. of Amby S.— Nicholas E. (Myrtie Marshall, Hid), Lou 
(Claud Lantz), Mary (James Moyers), Orion (Abbe True, 
Hid), May (Walter Moyers) , AHce, Roy, Charles, Otto. 

Br. of Peter.— 1. Margaret C. (Edward Moyers)— b. 1846. 
2. Henry H. (Sarah E. Propst)— b. 1849. 3. George— dy. 
4. Susan (Philip Sponaugle). 5. Andrew (Mary Fitzwater). 
6. Sarah E. (Tillman E. Propst). 7. Phoebe J. (John A. 
Moyers). 8. Anderson — dy. 10. Elizabeth (Isaac Rexroad). 
11. Emma E. (Ashby C. Moyers). 12. Samuel (Flora A. 
Wees). 13. William A. (Cammie Wees). 14. Carrie — dy. 

Ch. of Henry H. — Edward H. (Alice Lambert), Alice ( 

Beveridge, Hid),* Ella ( Armstrong, Hid),* Maud ( 

Varner), Frank (Emma Rexroad), William (Sarah Propst), 
Isaac ( Pitsenbarger) . 

Ch. of Andrew. — Walter L., Delia (Charles Anderson, 
0.),* Sarah E. (Dowell Knapp, Tkr),* Ollie, John C, Effie 
J., Emma A., Kenny A., Carrie, Esther A., William P., Lura. 



219 

Ch. of Samuel.— William M., Charles T., Daisy N., Mary 
I., Russell S. 

Ch. of William A.— Ethel, Maud, Dillon, Ava. 

Br. of Solomon: — 1. Jennie (George M. Vint). 2. Lucy 
(Amasa S. Nestor, Tkr) * 3. James A. (Hid) -Aug. 4. Solo- 
mon E. ( Gragg)— Hid. 

Br. of George:-!. Geneva (Rkm)*. 2. William M. (Sa- 
rah Tingler, Elizabeth J. Chew, Hid). 3. Howard (Lizzie 
Moyers) — k. by gun exploded by burning building) — Kas. 4. 
Mattie (Frank Allen, Poca.)— Rph. 5. Ida. 

Unp. L Solomon (Margaret Teter)—b. 1798. 2. Eve (Ja- 
cob Miller) -m. 1820. 3. William— b. 1829. 4. Sarah (Cain 
Knicely)— m. 1825. 5. (Catharine ). 

Br. of 5: — 1. Jessie — la. 2. Adam — froze to death, 1846. 
3. Philip (Sarah Hinkle). 4. Phoebe (Isaac Nelson)— la. 
5. Elizabeth (Tobias Raines). 6. Susan (Samuel K. Nelson). 
7. Sarah (Adam Keller). 8. Mary (Adam Judy). 9. Rachel 
(Wellington Holland) — Poca. 

At the present time the Harper connection is most numer- 
ous throughout the length of the North Fork valley, where it 
is represented by the progeny of both Adam and Philip, es- 
pecially the former. The Nicholas group is numerous around 
its original seat on the upper South Branch. The Jacob 
group has apparently disappeared from Pendleton. 

Nicholas, grandson of Philip, built a mill whtre his grand- 
son, Nicholas M. still follows the milling business. He was 
very ingenius, and after observing a chaff-piler at work in 
the Valley of Virginia, he built an entirely efficient and ser- 
viceable threshing machine, and it was the first one in use 
on the North Fork. 

Adam (Catharine ) purchased land on the N. F. 1773. 

He mav have had the name Adam Philip. 

Hartman. (A) Hartman, a resident of Lancaster 

county and a revolutionary soldier, moved to Harper's Ferry. 
The following of his children settled here in 1790-95: 1. 
Henry (Catharine Freshover, Eve Fultz, Elizabeth Wise. m. 
1825)— b. Feb 2, 1776, d. Dec. 5. 1846— Enoch Mozer T)lace. 
2. James — left when young and never heard from. 3. Murtz 
(Elizabeth Cook)— Wm. Skile's. 4. John (Marv Hunter)— 
m. 1795. 5. Daniel (Mary Teller). 6.— J. C. Ruddle's. 7. 
Elizabeth (John G. Dahmer)-m. 1796, d. 1858. 8. Polly 
(Jacob Clayton, Jacob Bolton)— b. 1787, d. 1883. The other 
7 did not come here. 

Line of Henry:— 1. Kate (John Hurler)— Wis. 2-9. infs 
(dv). Bv 21. m. Barbara (Job Mozer)— b. Feb. 2., 1808, d. 
Dec. 3, 1^78. 

Line of Murtz:— 1. James (Elizabeth Lambert). 2. Henry 



220 

(Susannah McMullen)— b. 1806. 3. Mary (Jacob Clayton)— 
b. 1808, d. 1859. 4. Nancy (Adam Cassell). 5. Sarah (Wil- 
liam Guthrie). 6. Susan (Junius Puffenbargrer). 6. William 
(Barbara Puff enbarger)—b. 1820. 7. Ahio (Nancy Guthrie) 
— b. 1823— Mo. 
Br. of James:— William P. (Catharine Lough) — Smith Cr. 

2. Job (Susan Moyers, Mary A. Kline)— b. Mar. 3, 1835. 

3. George (Catharine Rexroad). 4. Mary (George H. Si- 
mons). 5. Murtz — d. 

Ch. of William P.— I. James W. (Carrie Sponaugle). 2. 
John (Octavia Sponaugle). 3. Henry A. 4. Charles E.— 
Seattle. 5. Isaac P. (Lucy Vandeventer). 6. Martha — dy. 
7. Margaret (Col.)*. 8. Susan (William H. Judy). 9. Lucy 

E. (Wilbert Lambert). 

Ch. of Job:— 1. Endres (Sarah E. Calhoun)— Horton. 2. 
Martin N. (Alphia Mullenax) — d. 3. Jasper 0. (Frances 
Lambert). 4 Job K. (Ida Meaton, Penn.) — Horton. 5. 
Lura N. (Zebulon Simmons). 6. Phoebe C. (Reuben Vint) 
— Glady. 7. Melvisa— d. 8. MaudS.— d. 9.— IL boys (dy). 
By 2d m.— Bertha D., Albert E., Joseph B., Beulah E., 
Edna J. 

Ch. of George: — 1. James (Josephine Lambert). 2. Isaac 
(Margaret Lambert). 3. Howard (Mary Dahmer). 4. Eliza 

( ) — Rkm. 5. Susan (Clay Barclay). 6. Deborah 

(Arthur H. White, Rph)*. 7. Lucy (Perry White, Rph)*. 

Branch of Henry:— 1. Ruhama C. 2. Isaac M. (Martha 
Day). 3. Phoebe J. (Amos M. Mozer). 4. Deniza. 5. 
Murtz. 6. Mary G. (Anderson Hartman). 7. Martha (As- 
bury Graham). 8. James E. (Martha Rader) — Reed's Cr. 
9—16. infs. (dy) 

Br. of William: — Susannah (b. 1845), Henry, Noah. 

Line of John: — 1. Elizabeth (Jessie BHzzard) — b. Dec. 15, 
1802, d. Dec. 28, 1888. 2. Eliza (George W. Thompson). 10 
others. 

Line of Daniel:— 1. Elliott (Martha Cassell)— b. 1813— 
Grant. 2. Martin (Margaret Day)— Mich. 3. Stewart (Kate 
Day)— b. 1817-0. 4. John (Esther McQuain)—m. 1819— W. 
5. Job (Ann Thompson). 6. Margaret (Basil Middleton). 
7. Daniel (Ruth Middleton)— Grant. 

(B). Thomas J. (Margaret H. Nestrick)— b. Dec. 28, 1809, 
d. Nov. 4. 1894,— Deer Run— ch. — 1. Jessie A. (Eliza Eye) — 
b. 1836. 2. Isaac L. 3. Ann E. 4. Sarah D.— dy. 5. Benjamin 

F. 6. Jane A. (Christian Shoemaker). 7. Samantha K. 
(William Ruddle). 8. John P.— dy. 

Hedrick. Charles (Barbara Conrad)— d. 1802— Ch.— 1. 
Jacob— S.-d. 1830.* 2. John (Margaret Kile)— m. 1794— d. 
1839. 3. Frederick (Mary E.— d. 1846. 4. Charles (Mary 



221 

Fisher)— b. 1770, m. 1795, (\. 1850. 5. Adam (Catharine 

Judv)— m. 1801. 6. Henry (Mnry )— b. 1776. 7. 

Barbara (Benjamin Conrad) — m. 1794. 8. Magdalena (Ja- 
cob Conrad) — m. 1793. By will Henry was given land in 
Hardy. Frederick had moved to the North Fork before 1802. 

Line of John : — 1. Peter. 2. Elizabeth (Leonard Mallow) 
m. 1819. 3. Adam (Elizabeth Kile)— Buffalo Hills. 4. Chris- 
tina (Abel HelQnck)-b. 1803. 5. Charles ( Hoover). 

6. Justus— W. before 1839. 7. Barbara (Henry Ayers). 8. 
Eve— S. b. 1811. 

Line of Frederick :— 1. Mary (.John Tingler)— m. 1809. 2. 
Elizabeth (Moses Teter)— m. 1817. 3. Susan (John Miller) 
— m. 1819. 4. Phoebe (Abel Hinkle)— m. 182U. 5. Chris- 
tian (Elizabeth Day)— b. 1800. 6. Adam (Jezabel Hinkl^)— 
b. 1803. 7. Annie (Joshua Wood). 8. Eve (William Ben- 
nett). 9. Leonard (Malvina Flinn). 10. Michael (Mary J. 
Pendleton. Margaret Wimer Nelson)— b. 1811, d. 1894. 
11. Martin. 

Br. of Adam :— 1. Lucinda (William Long)— b. 1828. 2. 
Ruhama (Jane Davis). 3. Marion (Polly Flinn) — Rph. 4. 
Isaac R. (Rachel Davis)— b. 1838. 5. May berry C. (Chris- 
tina Arbogast). 6. Andrew J. (Rebecca Hedrick) —Rph 7. 
Adam J. M. 8. Amanda (Ami Raines). 

Br. of Leonard : — 1. John — d. 36. 2. Joseph (Martha 
Barclay)— Rph. 3. Edmund (Mary S. Porter). 4. B. Frank 
(Christina Raines) — Rph. 5. Jane (Martin Raines). 6. 
Martha (Joseph Nelson). 7. Susan (Isaac Bland). 8. Phoebe 
C. ( Judy). 9. R^^becca J. (Edward Thompson). 

Ch. of Edmund : — Olie, Sarah (Tillman Hoover), Opie, 
Lena, Virgil, Percy, Kate. 

Br. of Michael :—l. Solomon (Mahala Teter). 2. Martin 
(Evelyn Nelson) — Rph. 3. Jonas (Mary S. Wimer). 4. 
Adam (Rachel Davis). 5. Michael (Catharine Turner). 6. 
James (Martha Vandeventer). 7. Reuben (Margaret Way- 
bright). 8. Ellen (Noah Whitecotton). 9. Margaret (Nich- 
olas Davis). 10. Elizabeth (William Jordan). 11. Phoebe 
(Jacob Lewis) — Rph. By 2d m. — 12. Henry (Susan Davis, 
Lura Reed). 

Ch. of Solomon : — Mary E. (William Vandeventer), Mar- 
tha E. (Charles Long), (ieorgeW. (Annie Harper). Rebecca 
J. (Edward Thompson), Samuel H. (Laura E., Gettie L. 
(Lloyd Hinkle). 

Ch. of Jonas :— ^Ida (Patrick Raines), Rebecca (Charles 
Thompson), Franci^^ (Harness Sites), Lafayette (Annie Hel- 
mick), David E., Charles. William, Artie, Alpha, Bertha. 

Ch. of Michael ; — Florence, Jennie (Andrew Hedrick), 



222 

George (Bertha Simmons) — Rph.. Robert ( Waybright), 

Mary (Henry Hedrick). William, Thomas. 

Ch. of James : — Christina (Charles Vandeventer), Minor, 

Leonard ( ) — Va.. Henry ( ) — Va., Lura (Amos 

Pennington). Charles. William, Sarah, Martha, Frank, Eiia- 
kum, John. 2 others m. 

Ch. of Reuben. — Annie, Phoebe (Dentis Yoakum), Mary, 
Abn], James. 2 others. 

Line of Charles : — 1. Solomon (Martha Armstrong) b. 
Junp 6. 1798, d. July 15, 1873. 2. Jonas (Cynthia Kile Davis). 

3. MRrtin (Mattie Holloway)— b. 1803. 4. Elihu (Lucinda 
Shreve). 5. Zebulon (Melinda Kimble)— b. 1806. 6. Han- 
nah (Aaron Harper). 7. Rebecca (William Shreve.) 8. Eliz- 
abeth ( Hartman.) 9. Lucinda (Absalom Long). 10. 

Dorothy? ( Lev^^is)— W. 11. Philip (Nancy Shreve)— 

Ind. 

Br. of Solomon : — 1. Cynthia J. (David Harmer) — b. 1841, 
d. 1869* 2. Louisa B. (William Powers, Amos Harman, 
William Powers). 3. Mary A. (Peter McDonald). 4. Wil- 
liam E. (Sophia Harper) — b. 1845 — n. Macksville. 5. Nancy 
M. (George W. Powers). 6. Solomon H. (Elizabeth Judy). 
7. Martha S. (Aaron Boggs). 8. Charles A. (Annie Judy, 
Belle Blar^k. Ida Hammer) — n. Macksville. 9. Robert E.— 
reared — (Martha E. Gilkeson). 

Ch. of William E.— 1. Delzina A. (Peter Hinkle)— Tkr. 2. 
Solomon C (Marv Good). 3. Carrie L. (Arthur Armentrout, 
Hid)* 4. W. Scott (Lura Harman)— Rph. 5. Floyd A. 
(Matie Nelson). 6. Howard (C'arissa Corder. Tkr., Rena 
Harman) — merchant — Tkr. 7. Melinda (Arnold Harper). 

Ch. of Solomon H. — Nellie, Isom, Berl, and Earl— the lat- 
ter twins. 

Ch. of Charles A.— 1. Olie L., 2. Kate ( Beane, 

Hardv)* 3. Ella ( Boyd)— Washington D. C. By 2nd 

m. — Gertrude. Bv 3d. — Glenn. 

Ch. of Robert E.— Mary G., Robert H., Margaret, Re- 
becca, Annie. 

Br. of Martin : — 1. Clark (Rebecca Hedrick). 2. Andrew 
(Rebecca Armentrout). 3. Charles L. (Amanda J. Hedrick). 

4. Jemima (W.)* 

Ch. of Charles L. — 1. Cynthia A. (George Judy) — Keyser. 
2. Blanche C. (Edward Powers, Hardy)* 3. Martha S.—dy. 
4. Zebulon S.— d. 24. 5. Samuel L. (Rose Sharlev, Va.)— 
Davis. 6. Phoebe J. (Henrv Pone). 7. Sarah C. (William 
Biroh, Cumberland)* 8. Marv M. (Charles Shobe, Grant)* 
9. Charlps E. (Phoebe Yoakum). 10. Vernor P. 

Ch. of Clark :— Cora (Anton S. Miley). 

Br. of Elihu:— L James (Rph)* 2. Polly A. (Rph) * 3. 



223 

Rebecca (Clark Hedrick). 4. Armeda (Jacob Harper). 5. 
Catharine (Rph)* 6. Jonas ( — d.) 

Br. of Zebulon : — 1. Amanda J. (Charles L. Hedrick). 2. 
Mary (James Kimble). 3. Hannah C. — dy. 

Line of Adam : — 1. Zebulon — S — b. 1805. 2, Jesse (Sarah 
Wimer)— b. 1809. 3. Sarah— S. 4. Barbara (Samuel Hed- 
rick). 5. Reuben (Eleanor Pennington)— b. 1812, d. 1894. 
6. Martin (Martha Pennington). 7. Daniel (Mary Rober- 
son Lambert) — b. 1819. 8. Samuel — S. 

Br. of Jesse :—l. Albert W. (Mary Hedrick). 2. Har- 
rison (Frances Wimer). 3. Frances (Elias Hammer.) 

Br. of Reuben : — Lenora, William P. (Christina Smith), 
James (Lucy Smith), Christina C. (David W. Hedrick). Syl- 
vester (d.). Minor (Laura Dahmer), Susan, George W. (mur- 
dered in civil war at 14.) 

Ch. of William P. — 1. Harry (Laura Simmons) — Rph. 2. 
James F. (Oakland). 3. Taylor ( Stump). 4. Mark- 
drowned. 5. Okey. 6. Ernest. 7. Edward. 8. Isaac. 

Ch. of James: — Ada (Samuel Smith), Margaret (Elmer 
Lambert), Maud, Minnie, John (Frances Hedrick), William, 
Russell. 

Ch. of Minor: — Mary A., William, Kate, Isa. 

Br. of Daniel:— 1. Noah (Mary Harold). 2. Mary J. 
(Calvin Wimer). 3. Jenina (Isaac Davis). 4. Lavina (Abel 
Hammer) — twin to Jenina. By 2d m. — 5. Isaac (Hannah 
Harter). 6. Garnett. 7. Roy. 

Line of Hpnry : — 1. Frances (Samuel Dean). 2. William 
(Barbara Waldron) — b. 1798. 3. George— out. 4. Samuel 

(Barbara Hedrick, Hannah Lough). 5. Henry ( , 

Jane Lamb). 6. Susan (Felix Hinkle). 7. Barbara (Nathan 
Hinkle). 8. Peter— S—b. 1812. 9. Zebulon (Magdalena 
Kessner?). 10. Jacob. 

Br. of John : — 1. Louisa (Joel Hiser). 2. Mary A. (Daniel 
H. Acrey, Joseph Ryman). 3. Elizabeth (Aaron Sites). 4. 
Adam (Melinda KHne)— W. 

Unp.— 1. Elizabeth— b. 1812, d. 1878. 2. Eli (Abigail) — 
b. 1799. 3. Rebecca (James Bennett— b. 1807. 4. Lewis 
(Hannah ). 5. Elizabeth (b. 1812, d. 1878.) 

Helmick. Philip ( )— ch?— 1. Jacob (Sarah 

Teter)— m. 1794, d. I860.* 2. Adam (Sarah? Teter)— m. 
1805, d. 1845.* 3. Abraham? (Barbara Miller). 4. Philip 
(Sarah Williams)— b. 1795. 5. Uriah (Phoebe J. Helmick) 
— b. 1800. 

Line of Adam: — Nathaniel. Abel, Cornelius, Moses, Anne, 
Elizabeth, Elihu. Adam lived in the Harman hills. His sons 
went West about 1850, and it is said they became well to do. 

Line of Abraham:— Margaret (b. 1828), Cain (b. 1833). 



224 

Line of Philip: — 1. Solomon ( Johnson) — Cal. 2. 

Joshua (Kuykendall)— Md. 3. Philip. 4. William (Eliza- 
beth Thompson)— Fin. 5. Mary-b. 1834. 6. Miranda J. 
7. John (Elizabeth Smith Smith)— b. 1819— Upshur. 8. 
Sarah E. 9. Jacob. 

Line of Uriah:— Sarah, Mary E. (b. 1848). 

Unp. 1. Anthony (Abigail Prine?)— b. 1794?— ch.— Sarah, 
Jesse, Sarah A., Dorcas, Phoebe J., John G. (out), Noah C. 
(Mary Lougrh) — Rph, Cornelius, (Leah — ). C. of Cornehus: 
— Martha (b. 1837), Jason, Simeon, Isaac, James B.,John C. 

2. Enos (Martha Cunningrham, Wilfong)— b. 1825— 

nephew to Anthony — ch. — Zebedee (dy), Absalom (Upshur)*, 
Delilah (Upshur)*, Susan (Joseph White), Benoni, Benja- 
min F. (Lucinda Harman), Enoch B. (Mary C. Lough), 

Aaron ( Taylor) — 0. By 2d m. — Columbus ( Taylor) 

— Keyser, Matthew ( ) — Rph. 

Ch. of Enos.— 1. Mary (Jacob Full). 2. Margaret ( 

Howell)— b. 1828. 3. Mathias (Mary Lantz, Wilfong). 

4. Cain— S— b. 1833. 5. John (Susan ). 

C. of Mathias.— 1. George E. (Phoebe Summerfield)— b. 
1853. 2. John W. (Phoebe J. Way bright). 3. Elizabeth 
(Philip M. Helmick)— all three in Tkr. 

Ch. of Benjamin F.— William R. (Susan E. Helmick), Re- 
becca J. (George A. Kimble), Thomas S., Thaddeus (Rosetta 
Helmick), Mary E. (Frederick C. Calhoun), Martha E., 
Sheridan C. 

Ch. of Enoch B. — Susan C. (William R. Helmick). George 
E. (ThirsaE. Guthrie, Md.), Rosetta (Thaddeus Helmick), 
Lemuel M. (Agatha Griff ord, Grant), 2 girls (dy). 

Other Unp.— 1. Abraham (Barbara Miller). 2. Mahala 
— b. 1835. 3. Washington (Regamia Moyers). Lydia (Wil- 
liam Burns). 4. Jeremiah (Sarah Eagle) — m. 1825. 

Hille. John Frederick (Mary Hurdpsburk, Md., b. 1769, 
d. 1839)— b. Jan. 27. 1754 at Brandenburg, Prussia, d. Mar. 
28. 1815— ch.— 1. Godfrey— b. 1787, d. 1836. 2. George— d. 
25. 3. Frederick — dy. 4. Henry (Margaret Johnson) — b. 
Feb. 16, 1794— Fin. 5. Elizabeth (Campbell Masters)— b. 
June 19, 1797, d. Oct. 16, 1850. 6. William— d. 37. 7. 
Nancv. 8. Mary. 9. Frederick— b. Oct. 22, 1810. d. Jan. 
12. 1850. 

Hevener. (A.) The first name we find is William, ap- 
pointed road overseer in 1756. He appears to have lived on 
the original Hevener farm beginning a mile below Brandy- 
wine. He is then lost sight of, and may have been one of 
the killed at Fort Seybert. The next is Nicholas (Elizabeth 

) who died in 1769, his will being attested by Matthew 

Patton, Robert Davis, and James Stephenson. He owned a 



225 

wagon and copper tubs. Peter, who settled in the Crab- 
bottom, «and represented 3 tithables in 1790. appears to have 
been a brother, and both were very Hkely sons of William. 

Ch. of Nicholas :— 1. Jacob ( )— d. 1810— above 

B'wine. 2. Frederick (Rachel )— exempted, 1790— d. 

1817 — homestead. 3. Catharine. 4. girl— Ruth? (John 
Cowger)— d. 1803.* 

Line of Jacob :— 1. Mary (John Propst)— m. 1805. 2. Daniel 
(Jane McQuain, m, 1812. 3. Michael. 4. Peter. 5. Samuel. 
6. Nicholas (Mary— Sophie?— Propst)— m. 1795. 7. Adam 
(Catharine ) 8. John. 

Br. of Adam :— George (Annis )— b. 1806. 2. Reuben 

(Elizabeth Eye)— m. 1828. 3. Adam. 4. Barbara. 5. Susan- 
nah (Abraham Snider)— m. 1827. 6. Mary. 7. Ann. 

Line of Frederick:— 1. Jacob (Callie Swad'ey)— m. 1795, 
d. 1810.— C— B. 2. William. 3. Georpre (Eve C. Propst)— b. 
1784, d. 1872. 3. Catharine (Patrick Sinnett). 4. Elizabeth 
(Nicholas Swadley). 5. Mary (Mathias Dice). 6. Barbara 
(George Swadley)— d. 1817. 

Br. of George :— 1. Daniel (Julia A. Shaver) -b. 1801— M. 
R. 2. George (Christina Dolly.)— U. D. 3. William (Belinda 
McMullen)— Hardy. 4. Henry (Martha Miller)— 0. 5. John 
(Sarah McMullen)— M. R. D. 6. Jacob (Millie Keister)— b. 
1822— M. R. D. 7. Elizabeth (Frederick Hiser). 8. Sarah 
(Martin Dahmer). 9. Mary A.— S.-h. 1838. 

Ch. of Daniel :— 1. George— k. 2. Susannah (John Swad- 
ley). 3. Catharine (Wesley Graham). 4. Daniel— k. 5. 
Jacob 6. John. 7. Mary (Miles Bland). 8. Julia A.— S. 
9. Eiza (Jacob Harper. 0.)*. 

Ch. of George :-l. William ( Dolly)— 2. Adam (Rph)* 

3. Mary A. 4.-5. girls. 

Ch. of John:— 1. Anderson A. (Mahala M. Lough, Alice 
Dunkle)— merchant— Deer Run P. 0. 2. James A. (Susan 
Miller, Virginia Moser). 3. Rebecca A. (William Day). 4. 
Mary A. (Jacob Swadley)— Tex. 5. Martha R. (John R. 
Hartman). 

C. of Anderson N. — 1. Hannah V. (Joseph Hevener) — El- 
kins. 2. George B. (Virginia Simmons.) 3. Gertrude. 4. 
Minnie M. 5. Otta C. 6. Audrey. 

C. of James A. — Asper, Vernon, Marvin, Esther, Fannie 
v.. Ada. 2 other girls. 

Ch. of Jacob:— 1. James D. (Mary Jordan). 2. William M. 
(Sarah Greenawalt). 3. girl— dy. 4. Mary C. (Newton 
Miller). 

Unp. 1. Elizabeth (Adam Hull)— m. 1812. 2. Thomas 
(Barbara )—ch.— Sarah (b. 1805. d. 1878). 3 Frede- 
rick (Elizabeth ) —ch.— Catharine (b. 1799, d. 1853). 

PCH16 



226 

4. Lewis — Parkersburg". 5. Elizabeth (Frederick Hiser) — m. 
1824. 6. Eizabeth (Henry Hoover)— m. 1800? 7. Amos. 

8. Henry (Christina )— b. 1815. 9. John of D . b. 

1793. 10. Margaret (John Rexroad)— m. 1791. 

(B). Christian (Mary Propst)— b. 1801— below S. G.— ch. 

1. Zebulon (Bath)*. 2. John (W. Va.)*. 3. Frederick (W. 
Va.)*— b. 1833. 4. Samuel— S. 5. William H. (Jane Rex- 
road, Marv Rexroad) — b. 1844 — homestead. 6. Elizabeth 
(Samuel H. Propst). 7. Christina — S. 8. Leah (Joseph 
Bodkin). 9. Hester A. (Grant)*. 10. Mary F. (David 
Mitchell). 

Ch. of William H. — Lenora (Samuel Propst). Christina M. 
(Robert A. Propst), Sarah C. (Sylvester Hoover), Jennie 
(Charles Pitsenbarger), Edward, Cora B. (Terry Pitsenbar- 
ger), Mary A., Annie, Bertha. 

(C). Cutlip Heffner (Catharine )— voter, 1799— d. 

1833 — Sweedland — related to the Heveners— ch. — 1. John 
(Ruth Keister)-m. 1807. 2. Cutlip. 3. Susannah. 4. Je- 
mima. 5. Catharine (George Mumbert) — m. 1810. 6. Jacob. 

7. Peter. 8. Mary ( Kessner). 9. Elizabeth ( 

Barter) . 

Hiner. John (Magdalena Burner)— b. 1740*, d. 1815— na- 
tive of near Hamburg, Germany — homestead still in family 
— farm bisected by Pendleton Highland line — purcha.>«ed the 
same in Nov. 1774. Harman and Benjamin were in the Vir- 
ginia legislature. Heirlooms of the family are a German 
psalmbook, date 1699, and a ready reference book in German 
belonging to the pioneer. Ch. 1. Esther (John Syron, Hid)* 

2. Jacob (Sarah McCoy, m. 1799, Johnson?)— d. 1860-65— 

homestead. 3. Joseph (Jane Armstrong). 4. John (Rachel 
Hoover) — Lid. 5. Alexander (Harriet Blagg) — Hid. 6. 
Harmon (Jemima McCoy) -b. 1782. d. 1842. m. 1805. 7. Jane 
— S. 8. Mary (John Blagg, Hid)*. 9. Agnes (Jared Arm- 
strong, Hid)*. 10. Magdalena (Joseph Gamble) — Ind. IL 
Elizabeth (James Armstrong) 

Line of Jacob:— L inf (dy). 2. Marv A. Bath)*. S.Wil- 
liam (Martha Kee). 4. Jacob (Rachel Todd)— la. 5. The- 
resa — d. By 2d m, 6. Joseph (Margaret Rexroad). 7. 

Bailey (Joanna Vint, ). 8. Samuel (Elizabeth 

Fieisher). 9. Sarah — S. 10. Nancy (Henry Fleisher). 

Br. of Bailev; — 1. William M. — Methodist preacher — Ky — 
b. 1842. 2. Martha J.— dy. 3. Frederick B.—dy. 

Br. of Samuel: — 1. Robert K. (Caroline Stone). 2. Nannie 
— S.— Rkm. 3. Hester (Oliver M. Hiner). 4. Virginia 
(George Armstrong)— Fauquier. 5. Kate (John Miller) — 
Roanoke. 6. Minnie (John Smith) — Rkm. 

Line of Joseph: — 1. Magdalena (Joel Siple). 2. Nancy 



227 

(Kee Hively). 3. Margaret (Wesley Wilson, Hid)*. 4. 
Samuel (Christina Michael, Aug.) — Upshur— a grandson, C. 
E. Hiner, is sheriff of Upshur. 5. Mahala (George Siple). 
6. Joseph (Mahilda Armstrong, Hid). 7. William (Elizabeth 
Sanger. Aug.) — homestead. 8. Amanda?— S. 

Br. of Joseph: — 1. James ( Eddings) — Moorefield. 2. 

John E. (Cora Wilson. Hid)*. 3. Alice K. (Henry Arm- 
strong, Hid)*. 4. Joseph L. (Dora Hevener) — Hid. 

Br. of George:— 1. Sarah — S. 2. JaredA. (Rebecca Judy) 
—Hid. 

Line of Harmon: — 1. Josiah (Lydia Siple, Hannah Rex- 
road)— b. Oct. 12. 1807. d. Jan. 14, 1862— Hid. 2. Benjamin 
(Mary Sibert, Mary Hansell)— b. Aug. 26, 1809. 3 John 
(Margaret Si bert, Mary J. Gray)— b. 1811, d. 1876. 4. Mar- 
tha (Samuel C. Eagle, Hid)*. 5. Lueinda (Henry Sibert, 
Hid)*. 6. William (Katharine Kee)— b. Aug. 28, 1822 d. 
Oct. 30, 1862. 7. Elzabeth M. (John Bird, Hid)*— d. 1900. 

Br. of Josiah : — Lucy, Sarah; by 2nd m. — Mary, Thomas 
J., Josiah. None married or living in Pendleton. Josiah is 
professor in Business College of Louisville. Ky. 

Br. of Benjamin : — 1. Jemima— S. 2. Margaret (John H. 
Hansell)— b. 1838. 3. Harmon (Louisa F. Harrison). 4. J. 
Ridgley— S. 5. John J. (Margaret Jones, Hid)* By 2d m. 
— 6. Polly. 7. Helen. 8. Elizabeth. 9. Bertie. 10. Lucy. 
11. William. 

Ch. of Harmon :— Benjamin H. (Maud McClunp). 2. Ar- 
thur R. (Elizabeth J. Saunders). 3. Beatrice (William M. 
Boggs). 4. Marv L. (Dr. W. W. Monroe). 5. Louie E. 

C. of Benjamin H.— Ralph M.. Helen R. 

C. of Artnur. R.— Mabel P., May L., Frank S. 

Br. of John :— 1. Mary (John C. Saunders). By 2d m.— 
2. James K. P. (Aug)* 3. Jemima. 4. Amelia. 5. Carrie. 6. 
Robert (Hid). 7. Lucy. This 2nd family is resident in Aug. 

Br. of William :—l. Eskridge (Hid.)— Fauquier— b. 1848. 
2. Oliver M. (Hester Hiner) — Fauquier. 3. James M. Aug. — ) 
twice). 4. Harmon (Ella Kile) — Kas. 5. Margaret (William 
Vint— Hid). 

Benjamin H. Hiner taught in the public schools from 1886 
to 1890, and then pursued a law course at the University of 
Virginia, studying under the veteran practitioner. Professor 
Minor, and graduating in 1892. He received the nomination 
to the office of Prosecuting Attorney before his admission to 
the bar in the following year. This office he held 8 years, or 
until 1901. In 1908 he was a candidate for Congress, and 
though defeated he ran 200 votes ahead of his ticket in Pen- 
dleton and over 1500 votes in the district. Mr. Hiner is an 
active attorney and has large exterior interests. 



228 

HInkle. The first of the family in America was the Rev. 
Anthony Jacob Henkel, a "hof prediger. " — preacher to a royal 
court, -^who came from Frankfort on the Main to Montgom- 
ery county, Penn., arriving in 1717. He was killed by a fall 
from his horse in 1728. His son Justus, or Yost, went to N. 
C., and thence in 1761 to the North Fork, settling a little 
above Harper's mill. 

Ch. of Justus ( ).— 1. Marv (N. C.)* 2. Jacob 

(Barbara Teter)— Hardy. 3. Rebecca (Paul Teter). 4. Cath- 
arine (N. C.)*. 5. Mary A. (GeorgeTeter). 6. Maagdlena 
(John Skidmore). 7. Abraham (Mary C. Teter)— d. 1815* 

8. Susannah (Philip? Teter). 9. Hannah ( Johnson). 

10. Elizabeth ( Ruleman). 11. Justus (Christian 

Teter)— 1795. 12. Isaac (Mary Cunningham)— m. 1781.— 
Judy gap. 

Family of Jacob : — 1, Moses (Margaret ) 2. Joseph 

(Jane Eberman)— Hdy. 3. Paul (Elizabeth )— b. in 

N. C. 1754, d. 1825— minister. 4. Hannah -burned at Ft. 
S. 5. others? 

Line of Moses : — 1. Jesse (Barbara Moser, Charlotte 
Hively)— b. Julv 19. 1780. at U. T., d. Oct. 19, 1821. 2. Sol- 
omon ( ). 3. Joel 4. Eli. 5. Silas— 0., 1816. 6. Mary. 

7. Elizabeth. 8. Moses — Loudoun. 9. Samson. 10. Lemuel 
— Ind? 11. Benjamin— Ind?. 

Br. of Solomon:— 1. Samuel G. ( )— b. 1810, d. 

1863. The late Dr. C. C. Henkle, of New Market, was a 
grandson. 2. others? 

Br. of Jessie: — 1. Susannah (Daniel H. Armentrout) — 
b. April 4, 1804, d. Aug. 13. 1849. 2. Christina (Samuel 
Harman). 3. Jacob. 4 others?. 

Family of Justus : — 1. George. 2. Jacob. 3. Mary (George 
Ketterman). 4. Elias. 5. Christina. 6. Abraham (Mary 
Cooper). 7. Mollie. These probably left soon after the 
death of the father, who lived on the homestead. 

Familyof Abraham : — 1. Elizabeth. 2. Susannah. 3. Cath- 
arine. 4. Justus (Elizabeth Judy). 5. Leonard (Mary Cun- 
ningham). 6. Jones (Catharine Cooper). 7. Isaac — S. — 
teacher— b 1781. 8. Michael (Sarah Judy).— b. 1774, m. 
1796, d. 1852*— "Germany." 9. Phoebe (Joseph Lantz)— m. 
1811. 10. Abraham (Mary Harper)— b. 1795— la. 

Line of Michael : — 1. Joab (Mary Lawrence) — b. Nov. 27, 
1796. 2. Esau (Lelah Harper)— b. Mar. 9. 1798. 3. Abigail 
(Moses Harper)— b. Oct. 1. 1800. 4. Abel (Phoebe Hedrick) 
— b. 1802. 5. Delilah (Isaac Phares)— b. 1805* 6. Jpzabel 
(Adam Hedrick) -b. Sept. 22, 1809, d. 1895. 8. Cain (Sidney 
Phares)— d. 1895. 

Br. of Joab. — 1. Wesley (Melinda Phares). 2. Enos (Susan 



229 

Phares) — Ind. 3. Boyd (1 — Ind. — 2. — Catharine Lawrence) 
— b. 1821. 4. Michael (Elizabeth Lawrence). 5. Ruhama 
(Solomon Hinkle)— b. 1828. 6. Ehzabeth (Adam Hinkle) — 
b. 1833. 7. Sarah (Ind)* 8. Lorenzo D. (Mary Teter)-b. 
1838. 9. William (Sidney Vandeventer)— Ind. 

Ch. of Wesley:—!. Catharine (Robert L. Nelson)— b. 1842 

— Rph. 2. Mary (James B. Bennett). 3. Margaret (S 

B. Arbogast). 4. George W.— D. 5. Jacob T. (Elizabeth 
Phares)— b. 1850— Ind. 6. Sarah (John Hinkle)— Ind. 7. 
Susannah (Ind)*. 

Br. of Esau:— 1. Martha E. (Wilh'am Harper)— m. 1855— W. 

2. Emma (Jacob E. Phares)— Rkm. 3. Mary (William P. 
Haigler)— m. 184ii— W. 4. Sarah. 5. Michael (Elizabeth 
Raines, Harriet Ketterman). 6. Abraham (la.)*. 7. Isaac 
(Sarah Raines) — W. 8. Amby (Anna High, Lizzie Harvey, 
AnnaSchooley). 

Ch. of Michael:— 1. Sarah R.—b. 1849. 2. Jacob (la.)— Cal. 

3. Jane — Kas. 4. Martha (Robert W. Phares). 5. Annie 
(Dr. W. W. Dear) — Parsons. 6. Jennie (Aaron F. Calhoun). 
7. Mary W. (Samuel P. Priest)— b. 1848. 8. Carrie (Ed- 
mund B. Wimer). 9. Charles ( ). By 2d m.— 10. 

Bruce. 11. Wallace. 12. Margaret ( Mallow). 13. 

A. ni*fl.h Jim 1 4 T^fj sf* 

Br. of Abel:-1. Sarah (Philip Harper). 2. Hannah (Wil- 
liam Thompson). 3. Mahala (Edward (Ilaton, John Thomp- 
son). 4. Phoebe J. (William Sheets)— b.— 1838- Aug. 5. 
Elizabeth (James Thompson). 6. Abel P. (Talitha Thomp- 
son). 7. (IJaleb (Elizabeth Vandeventer) — Braxton. 8. De- 
hlah (Eh Harper)— Mo. 

Ch. of Abel P.— Mary E. (Miles Thompson), Annie J., 
Kenny (Alice Nelson). 

Br. of Cain:— 1. So omon P. (Ruhama Hinkle)— b. 1832. 
2. Michael S. k. 3. Mary (John Dahmer). 4. Jacob P. 
(Honensia McDonald)— b. 1846. 5. Adam. 6. Elizabeth 
(Dr. B. Y. Smith) — Tenn. 7. Sarah (Isaac Harman). 

Ch. of Solomon P.:— 1. Sidney— dy. 2. Delia (Lee Ben- 
nett). 3. Arissa (Branson McDonald). 4. James (Annie 
Painter). 5. Lorenzo D. (Elizabeth Sites, Etta Lantz). 

C. of James: — Charles (Mary Bennett), Benjamm Y., 
Delia, Frank. 

C. of Lorenzo D. — Cora, Ora. Omer, Ella, Earl, Lena. 

Family of Isaac :— 1. Jesse— S.—b. 1783. 2. John (Mary 
Parsons)— Mo. 3. William (Jane Parsons)— W., 1831. 4. 
Adam (Sarah Haigler) — out. 5. Solomon (Susannah Cal- 
houn). 6. Catharine (Martin Judy). 7. Phoebe (Leonard 
Harper)— m. 1816. 8. Mary C. (John Dice). 9. Hannah 
(Henry Jones)— b. 1790, m. 1821. 



230 

Unp. 1. Christian— b. 1780* 2. Joseph— 1797— ch. of 

Isaac. 3. Isaac (Susannah ) — same as preceding?. 4. 

Nicholas H. (Elizabeth Raines). 5. Elizabeth (Levi Trumbo) 
— m. 18 il. 6. Elizabeth (John Wolf)— m. 1793. 7. Israel 

(Amelia ) — b. 1821. 8. Barbara A. —b. 1781. 9. 

Jesse (Mary E. Bible)— b. 1819. — ch.— Isaac (b. 1839), 
George W. (frozen to death in civil war), Mary E., Sarah C. 
(Adam C. Vandeventer), Phoebe J. 

The several Hinkles near the line of Grant and Hardy are 
apparently of the family of Jacob. 

Of the four brothers of Justus, Sr., Jacob settled at U. T. 
The others settled on the N. F., where they and their chil- 
dren were very extensive landholders. The Hinkle connec- 
tion has furnished an unusual number of men who have been 
prominent and successful in the professions and in business 
life. It was one of the most conspicuous families in Pendle- 
ton during the early years of the countv. 

Hiser. Charles (Mary Miller)— d. 1830*— Ch.— 1. Charles 
(Phoebe Lough)— b. 1798. d. 1858— homestead. 2. Margaret 
(John Steel). 3. Mary (John Mumbert). 4. Molly (Henry 

Puffenberger). 5. George ( Propst) — Nicholas. 6. 

Adam ( Warner) — 0. 7. Frederick (Elizabeth Heve- 

ner — b. October 20, 18 j2, d. April 15, 1858 — n. homestead. 

Line of Charles : — 1. Joel (Louisa Hedrick)— b. 1826 — 
Neb. 2. Susannah (Josiah Lough). 3. Sarah (Solomon 
Lough). 4. John (Louisa Payne) — Rkm. 5. Noah (Susan 
Ritchie, Rkm)* 6. Mary C. (Stephen Rodecap, Rkm)*— b. 
1846. 

Br. of Noah : — Emma (Charles Siple) — others in Rkm. 

Line of Frederick : — 1. Daniel — k. 2. Frederick (Lavina 
Trumbo) — father's homestead. 3. Jonathan (Ellen Judy, 
Jane Landes) — Grant. 4. William? (Cook Graham, Isabel 
Burgoyne). 5. Mary E. (George A. Lough). 6. Sarah C. 
(William H. Dunkle). 7. Phoebe J. (James Burgoyne). 8. 
Susan L. (John J. Dunkle). 

Br. of Frederick : — 1. Susan E. (George Cook). 2. John 
W. (Naomi Day). 3—4. infs (dy). 5. Martha— S. 6. J. Lee 
(Hettie Wilson, 0.) — Morgantown. 7. George A. (Ida D. 
Lough) — Morgantown. 8. Elijah C. (Laura S. Burgoyne) — 
homestead. 9. Josephine M. (Rkm)*. 

Ch. of Elijah C— Charles 0., Ella F., Dora T., Leroy. 

Hively. Michael (Mary M. Propst)— b. 1779— moved to 
T. A. Hively place — ch — 1. David (Eunice Puffenbergpr) — 
b. 1814, d. 1882. 2. John (Nancy Shank, S. V.). 3. Eliza- 
beth C. (Jacob Probst)— b. 18a3, d. 1883. 4. Dorothy (Henry 
Propst). 5. Sarah (Peter Mitchell). 

Br. of David:— 1. William E. (Eliza Waggy, Nancy Kiser) 



231 

— b. Oct. 2. 1838, d. Mar. 31, 1904. 2. James F. (Rkm)— W. 

Va. 3. David ( Rexroad)— W. Va. 4. Tillman A. 

(Louie Rexroad). 5. Wesley (la.)*. 6. Sarah A. (Andrew 
J. Keister). 7. Margaret (Samuel Bodkin). 8. Catharine 
(Jacob Propst). 

Ch. of William E.— Wesley (W)*. By 2d m.— infs (dy). 

Line of John (Susan ) — brother to Michael — ch. — 1. 

Amos W.— S— b. 1823—0. 2. Charlotte (Jesse Hinkle)— m. 
1818. 3. Kee W. (Nancy )— b. 1811, d. 1853. 

John was a potter and lived in Hively's gap. 

Holloway. Lewis (Hannah ) — an old man in 1840 — 

Ch — 1. Martha M. (Martin Hedrick)— b. 1812, d. 1862. 2. 

John— W. 3. William ( Knicely). 4. Margaret— S. 

5. Daniel (Malinda Borrer). 

Unp.— 1. Evelyn (George W. Masters). 2. William (Sid- 
ney George). 3. Abraham L. (Hannah George). 

Hopkins. John (Elizabeth Baxter, sister to Dr. Baxter of 
Lexington) — d. 1842 — wealthy farmer — Ch. — 1. John (Phoebe 
Dyer)— m. 1825— Mo. 184U* 2. Thomas (Eunice Cunning- 
ham) — m. 1819 -went to Mo. with John. 3. Lucinda (Daniel 
Armentrout). 4. Mary — dy. 5. Joseph — dy. 6. George — 
dy. 7. Cyrus (Susan E. Johnson, Jane Ralston Hopkins) — 
b. Jan 17, 1814 — homestead. 

Br. of Cyrus :— 1. William (Sarah S. Kile)— b. Sept. 6, 
1837. 2. Mattie H. (James H. Daugherty). 3. John E. 
(Frances Harper) — physician. By 2d m. — Charles D. (Mo)* 
-b. 1866. 

Ch. of William :— 1. Thomas B.— dy. 2. Mary S. (Brax- 
ton)* 3. John E. 4. Willie E. (Frank M. Kidd, Braxton)* 

Ch. of John E. — Sarah, John J., William B., Lester H., 
others (dy). 

Huffman. (A) Christopher (Catharine ) was here 

in 1784. In 1796 he bought 110 acres of John Mullenax on 
west side of So. Br. His sister Elizabeth married Jonathan 

Teter in 1807. Ch. of Christopher :— 1. Solomon ( 

Bonner, )— n. Dolly S. H. 2. George (Mary 

A. Snider)— b. Dec. 8, 1806, d. June 1, 1894— .M. R. D. 3. 
Laban ( ). 

Br. of George : — 1. Sarah C. (Nicodemus Shreve). 2. 
Mary E. 3. George E. 4. Joanna (David Harman) — out. 5. 
Enoch— W. 6. (Noah Simmons.) 

Laban had a son Joseph, who lived at Seneca, and he a son 
Job. Albert, son of Job, lives near Dolly S. H. 

(B) Bargett (Mary E. )— d. 1803*— Little Fork— 

ch. — 1. Michael (Susannah Summers) — m. 1805 — Sweed- 
land. 2 Mary (John Warner)— m. 1793. 3. William. 4. 
John. 5. Susannah. 6. Catharine. 



232 

Unp. 1. Leonard— 1799. 2. John— d. 1826. 

Hoover. Sebastian bought 200 acres of Robert Green in 
1763, bat was perhaps hving here before that time. He was 
killed in 1780 during the tory disturbances. Postle Hoover 
was at the same time a neighbor to Robert Davis. They 
were perhaps brothers, and doubtless related to Michael (Bar- 
bara ) who was living on Linville in Rkm. in 1765. The 

wife of Sebastian was Susannah . Whether the fol- 
lowing group were wholly the children of Sebastian, or in 
part of Postle also, we do not know. 

1. George (Ann M. )— b. 1763. d. 1798*. 2. Sebas- 
tian ( )— d. 1808. 3. Thomas (Barbara )— 

b. 1758*, d. 1838. 4. Peter (Mary , d. 1826)— d. 1807. 

5. Michael (Susannah ) — d. 1842*. 6. Catharine (Jacob 

Eye) -m. 1796. 7. Jacob (Susannah Snider)— m. 1803? 8. 
Lawrence (Eve ) — B— T. 9. Nicholas (Margaret 

Line of George: — 1. Paul. 2. Jacob (Martha ) — 

Rph. 3. Joseph — Harrison. 4. Isaac. 5. George (Hannah 
Keister?)— m. 1810. 6. Susannah (Sebastian Hoover?). 7. 
Mary. 8. Barbara (John Waggy?)— m.? 1800?. 

Line of Peter:— 1. William (Barbara Propst)—m. 1806. 2. 
John— b. 1789. 3. Samuel-b. 1792— Hid. 

Br. of William: — 1. William (Susan Brenneman, Cus- 
tard Mallow). 2. Daniel (Kate Eye, Elizabeth Shank, Rkm). 
3. Joel (Ddlilah Simmons) — Poca. 4. Sarah (Benjamin Rex- 
road). 5. Susan — S. 6. Lavina (Samuel Propst). 

Ch. of William: — 1. Sarah A. (John C. Joseph, Rkm)*. 
2. Margaret (Valeniine Swadley). 3. Isaac (Margaret 
Propst)— Rkm. 4. William (Mary J. Rexroad). 5. Edward 
(Vista Kiser). By 2d m. — 6. Paul (Sarah Simmons). 7. 
Philbert (Margaret Pope). 8. Neelie ( Dove). 9. Louie. 

Cn. of Daniel: — 1. Phoebe (Martin Dickenson). 2. Susan 

( Brenneman). 3. Cornelius — S. By 2nd m. — 4. Martin 

(Amanda Rexroad). 5. Adam (Ruhama Simmons). 6. John 
(Catharine Simmons). 7. Robert (Louisa Dever) — out. 8. 
Jackson (Elizabeth J. Varner). 9. Amanda (Morgan 
Propst). 10. Polly A. (Jackson W. Propst). 11. Daniel 
(Elizabeth Propst). 

Line of Michael:— 1. Mary. 2. Rachel. 3. John. 4. Se- 
bastian (Mary Jones)— m. 1811. 5. George ( , 

Susan Schrader Snider) — b. 1801 — Barbour, late. 6. Michael 
(Mary Bodkin?)— m. 1821— out. 7. Thomas (Barbara Sim- 
mons) — m. 1811 — out. 

Br. of George: — 1. George (Barbour). 2. William (Leah 
Snider)— b. 1825, d. 19u9?. 3. Sarah (George? Propst). 4. 
Polly (John Bowers). By 2d m.— 5. Reuben— k. 6. Mary 



2S3 

A. (Robert Vint). 7. John L. ( Wimer) -Gilmer. 8. 

Barbara A. (Daniel Propst). 

Ch. of William:—!. William A. (Catharine Shrader)— West 
Dry Run. 2. Noah (Caroline Gay, Poca.). 3. Samuel (Mar- 
tha Armstrong, Hid)*. 4. Martin (Poca.)— W. 5. Polly— Dd. 
6. Jacob— d. 16. 

C. of William A.— Noah (Dorothy Murphy)— D. 

Ch. of Noah: — ch — Leah (Levi Gay, Poca.). Patrick (Sa- 
villa Kee), Jacob, French, Norval, Elizabeth, Joseph, Max, 
Florence, James. 

Line of Jacob: — 1. Catharine (Jacob Snider) — m. 1805. 2. 
Eli (Phoebe )— b. 1801, d. 1850*. 

Line of Nicholas: — 1. Sebastian (Susannah Simmons) — b. 
1777, d. 1860— ch.— Elias (Naomi Gragg-, Kate Sinnett)— b. 
182y. 2. Susannah (Rkm)*. 

Br. of Elias: — 1. Daniel — dy. 2. Sarah (Charles He vener). 
3. Josephine (Pleasant Kiser, Jr.)— Neb. 4. James — S. By 
2d m.— 5. Laura J. (William Siple). 6. Marshall (Luella 
Simmons). 7. Howard (Martha F. Eye). 8. Phoebe (Wil- 
liam N. Pitsenbarger). 9. Henry H. — dy. 

Ch. of Marshall:— Harvey R., Dora J., Mary F. 

Ch. of Howard:— Cora, Henry A., Arthur R., Myrtie J., 
William N., Iva C. 

Unp.— 1. Elizabeth (George Sivey)— m. 1804. 2. Henry 

(Elizabeth )— b. 1782*. 3. Sarah (Zebulon Gragg) — 

m. 1826. 4. J (Nancy ) — ch. — 1. Catharine (John 

Reed)— b. 1818. d. 1898. 5. Mary A. (Philip Wimer)— m. 1819. 
6. John (Mary Hoover)— m. Ib21. 7. Thomas (Bart ai a Sim- 
mons) — m. 1811. 8. Sebastian (Susannah Colaw) — m. 1811. 
9. Catharine (Isaac Smith) — m. 1809. 10. Benjamin (Chris- 
tina )-b. 1810*. 11. Joel (Matilda )— b. 1824. 

12. Solomon (Catharine )— b. 1817. Samuel (Margaret 

Brady)— b. 1805. 

One of the early Hoovers, whose name is forgotten, but 
was probably Thomas, lived a while on the North Fork. Ch. — 

1. John— k. 2. Thomas— old in 1840. 3. Ines (Sarah ) 

— b. 1790— ch.— John (b. 1829), Sarah A., Margaret, Lavina, 
Catharine (John Reed) — m. 1818, d. 1898. One girl married 
George Rexroad, another married another Rexroad. In the 
war of 1812, Ines was commended by his colonel for his 
fidelity as a sentinel. 

Johnson. Joseph (Martha House, Penn.) — parents Eng- 
lish — m. late in life — ch. — 1. Samuel (Sarah Harper)— m. 
1800— 0. 2. Jehu (Mary Greiner,-S— F. 3. Margaret 
(Oliver McCoy)— m. 1797. 4. James (Mary A. Fisher, of 
Dr. Jacob Fisher of Germany)— b. 1781, d. 1845. 

Line of Jehu :— 1. Samuel (Elizabeth A. Dice). 2. Jacob 



234 

— S— Fla. 3. Elizabeth (John Bean, Hdy)— m. 1821,— Peters- 
burg. 4. Margaret (Henry Hille). 5. Catharine (Frederick 
Moomau). 6. Felicia G. (Jacob F. Johnson) — b. Dec. 21. 
1814, d. Nov. 15, 1856. 

Br. of Samuel :— 1. John D. (Isabel Mantz, Fred'k City, 
Md.)— b. 1833. d. 1891— phvsician. 2. Jehu H. (Phoebe Sim- 
mons)— Ind. 3. George W.— Mo. 4. Jacob G.— S. 5. Ed- 
mund S. — S. 6. James W. (Elizabeth Raines). 7. Isaac C. 
(Hannah C. Jones). 8. Mary C. (George W. Keys, Alexan- 
dria) * 

Ch. of John D.— 1. Florence— dy. 2. Charles— dy. 3. Sam- 
uel B. (Catharine Snively, Penn.) — physician and druggist 
—Fin. 

C. of Samuel B. — Edmund S., Catharine K., Cornelia. 

Ch. of James W.—l. Homer (Rph)* 2. C>aude— Rph. 

Ch. of Isaac C— 1. Mary (Rev. J. A. Rood, Nova 

Scotia)— Md. 2. boy (dy). 3. girl (dy). 

Line of James : — 1. Jacob F. (Felicia G. Johnson, Clarissa 
Maupin, Rkm., m. 18^9)- b. July 24, 1809, d. Sept. 7, 1887. 
2. Martha H. (John Cunningham, Hdy)— Mo. 3. William 
B. (Margaret Kee)— Mo. 4. Susan E. (Cyrus Hopkins). 5. 
Margaret M. (Herbert Dyer) — W. 6. George F. (Sarah Snod- 
grass, Hdy) — Tex. 7. Caroline M. (Josiah Wright, England) 
—Mo. 8. JehuB. (Ann Cardwell. Mo.)* 9. Mary A. H. 
(Andrew J. Rankin, Aug.)— b. 1830— Tex. 

Br. of Jacob F.— 1. Jane— dy. 2. James W. (Mary H. 
Jones)— b. Oct. 26, 1838, d. Dec— 1908. 3. Jehu B.— S.-k. 
4. Susan E. (Oscar Dyer, George Hobb, Mo.)* 5. John S.— 
dy. 6. Howard H. (Susan Burns, Hdy., Elizabeth E. Neale, 
Keyser)— b. 1846. 8. Samaria C— dy. 9. Henry C— dy. By 
2d m.— 10. Tyre E. H. (Frederick Moomau). 11. Charles 

M. ( Johnson) — Mo. 12. Delius 0. (Louise Latta, 

Cal.)* 13. Patrick H. 14. Lynn (dy). 15. Arthur W. (Effie 
Terry, Mo.)* 

Ch. of James W.— Mary H. (Rev. William C. Hagan, Va.)* 

Joseph, the pioneer, exchanged his large estate on the 
Susquehanna for Continental scrip. This act proved his loy- 
alty to his country, but was doubtless the cause of much 
financial loss. In Pendleton he was a citizen of distinction 
and of public service. James, his son, made a prospecting 
tour into what was then the Northwest Territory, but re- 
turned and was a large and well-to-do landowner. He was a 
justice, a legislator, and in 1829, a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention. Jacob F. was of unusual ability, and was 
characterized by integrity, thrift, decision of character, and 
firmness of purpose. As justice, legislator, and surveyor, he 
was in his day the best known citizen of the county, and 



285 

transacted more business for his neighbors than any other 
professional man. In 1860 he was worth about $15,000, and 
owned two well stocked farms. But the close of the war 
found him in severely straightened circumstances. Having 
invested in his capacity of fiduciary the money of a ward in 
Confederate scrip, the courts compelled him to make good the 
loss. He had a good common school education, and saw to it 
that his children did not lack for proper instruction. He sent 
his two sightless sons to an institution for the blind, and em- 
ployed a governess for the children at home. 

The careers of the blind brothers, James W., and Howard 
H., afford interesting examples of success under very un- 
favorable conditions. Both were blind from their birth. The 
elder was taught at home to read from books in raised let- 
ters. At the age of 10 he was sent to the institution for the 
blind at Staunton, and remained there 7 yeais. His father 
had decided that he should be a teacher, and at 17 he began 
his career by teaching a successful summer school on the 
South Fork. He remamed to the end a teacher of common 
schools, often supplementing the puplic term with a sub- 
scription term. From 1878 to 1894 he was an institute in- 
structor. He was painstaking and thorough in his methods, 
and at the time of his decease he was doubtless the senior 
public school teacher in West Virginia, excepting only A. B. 
Phipps of Mercer county. 

Howard H. had the advantage of a more thorough prepara- 
tion. He studied at Staunton till 1861, and the school then 
closing, he studed wnth his biother and at New Market. In 
1865 he joined his brother in conducting a classical sch' ol at 
Franklin. After the war he resumed his ftudies at Staun- 
ton, and in 1867 entered regularly upon an educational career. 
In 1869 he canvassed West Virginia in behalf of a state school 
for the blind, speaking often from the platform, and with so 
much success that his application to the Legislature in 1870 
received favorable consideration. The institution at Romney 
is the result of his efforts, and as a teacher he has now been 
identified with it almost 40 years. Prof. Johnson is a man of 
broad scholarship. In 1877 he received the degree of Master 
of Arts from the Polytechnic Institute of New Market. He 
has five children : Leila B., William T., Howard H., and by 
last marriage, Lucie N.. and George N. 

Note. The wife of Dr. Jacob Fisher was a Burns, and 
was related to Robert Burns, the poet. 

Johnston. John, the father of Mortimer, came from the 
north of Ire'and when a boy, settled at Doe Hill, and married 
Mary Wilfong. 

Mortimer (Catharine A. Will, Caroline Pennington) — b. 



2S6 

1816, d. 1885*.— lived at Fin. and C'ville— lost a leg in Wil- 
derness battle — constable and notary — ch. — 1. John H. — dy. 

2. James W. (Sarah C. Phares)— b. 1840, d. 1897— n. C'ville. 

3. Washington M. 4. Norval L. (Hannah Arbogast) — Rph. 
By 2d m. — 5. Markwood S. (Sarah E. Bennett. Janet Ben- 
nett)— b. 1848— Hendricks. 6. Samson R. (Ellen Thomson). 
7. S. Yancey (Mo.)*. 8. Catharine E.— Rph. 9. Mary E.— 
Rph. 10. Alice C. (Solomon Bennett) — 0. 11. Lucy L. — 
Rph. 12. Charity C. 

Br. of James W.—l. Mary M. (Sylvester G. Judy). 2. 
Cora A. (John W. Hetzel, Rkm)— Rph. 3. William W. (Se- 
linda 0. Bennett)— n. C'ville. 4. Tallahassee (Martin Judy) 
— Poca. 5. Opie A. (Ratie Lambert). 6. Robert B. (Eva 
Cook)— Ind. 

Ch. of William W.— Robert J., Dessie A., Ida J., Margie 
M., Evenly n, John W. 

Ch. of Opie A. — George, Grace. 

Jordan. John (Annie Jordan)— b. 1770*. d. 1851*— ch.— 
1. William (Susannah Lewis)— b. 1804. 2. Harvey (S. V.) 
—Hid. 3. Thomas (Bath)*. 4. John (Hid) -Lewis?. 5. 

James ( ) — Lewis?. 6. Andrew (Hid)*— Lewis?. 

7. Samson (Hid)*— Lewis?. 8. Elizabeth ( Murphy). 

9. Jane? ( Wilson). 10. Rachel (Jesse Lambert). 11. 

others?. 

Line of William: — 1. Andrew J. (S. V.)— 0. 2. Samson 
M. (Margaret Nelson, Phoebe Parsons, Tkr)— b. Feb. 8. 1831. 
3. Melissa A. 4. Sarah L. (William Harper). 5. Eliza A. 
(William Rexroad, Willis Thompson). 

Br. of Samson M:—L Eliza A. (NimFezzell)— 0. 2. Mar- 
garet (Barney Davis) — 0. 3. Alice (Bert King)— 0. 4. 
Nola (Otie Ross)— 0. 5. Mary (Eugene Hedrick, Claude 
Wyatt)— Rph. 6. Charles (0).— Minn. 7. Edward J. (0.) 
—Boston. 8. WiHiam L. (Elizabeth Davis)— 0. 

Andrew (Lettie ) — d. 1818 — brother to John — ch. — 

WilHam, John, Andrew, Elizabeth, Isabel, Lettie. 

Judy. Henry (Barbara ) — son of Martin, who in 

1763 bought land on Mill Cr, a little below the Pendleton line. 
Henry purchased in 17^8 46 acres of Joseph Bennett. In 179L 
he bought 160 acres of Mary Cunningham Ward, widow of 
Sylvester Ward, paying therefor $1667. Ch. — 1. Henry 
(Elizabeth Teter, m. 1795— Mary Calhoun, m. 1810— Nancy 
Summers, d. 1847). 2. Martin (Catharine Hinkle)— b. 1778, 
d. 1853. 3. others?. 

Line of Henry: — 1. Nathan — Kanawha Co. 2. Solomon — 

unkn. 3. Sarah (Philip Bible). 4. (Henry Wimer). By 

2d m. — 5. Amos (Ursula Summers) — Judy bridge. 6. John 
(Mary Lambert)— Smith Cr. 7. Elizabeth ( Givens)— 



237 

Kanawha Co. 8. Mary A. (Arnold Cunningham). 9. Abi- 
gail (William Raines). 10. Malvina (George Lambert). 

Br. of Amos:— 1. Rosanna (Allen Colaw, Hid)*. 2. Vir- 
ginia (John Hinkle). 3. America (Jonas Colaw, Hid)*. 4. 
Sinclair (Susan Harper). 5. Martin (Missouri Hiile) — Cal. 
6. Adam (Mollie Hinkle) -Harrison. 7. Marcellus— S. 8. 
Henry (Sarah E. Mauzy). 9. Allen (Amanda White. Nancy 
Varner)— Hid. 10. Howard (Cal)*. 11—12, infs (dy). 

Ch. of Sinclair:— 1. James S. (Hid)— Staunton. 2. Mar- 
garet A. (Hid)— Neb. 

Ch. of Henry:— 1. Zadie W. (Lewis Moyers). 2. Kenny 
(Lizzie Hammer). 3. Lizzie (Charles P. Moyers). 4. Grace 
A. (Leonard K. Simmons). 5. Henry H. 6. James E. 7. 
Charles — dy. 

Br. of John:— 1. Elizabeths. (George W. Sponaugle). 2. 
George A. (Margaret C. Calhoun.) 3. William H. (Rachel L. 
Lambert, Susan C. Hartman, Maud V. Kline) — Smith Cr. 

4. girl — dy. 5. Job D. — dy. 6. Sylvester G. (Moll e Johnson, 
Ettie Bennett) -Ft. S. 7. Mattie L. (Daniel T. Lambert). 

Ch. of George A:— Bertha M., Myrtie E., Ella C, Still- 
man W., George R.. Clyde. Oscar V. 

Ch. of William H.— Serena P. (Okey J. Mauzy). Winton W. 
(Beatrice Warner), Charles E. (Ella B. Kline). Emory B. 
(Ada Moyers)— Mt. Solon. Lura C. (Charles E. Moyers), 
Willim A. (Ona Lambert), John S. (Carrie E. Rpxroad). By 
2d m.— Iva D.. Early T.. Omer C, Ethel (dy), Joseph W., 
Nellie C. By 3d m.— Mary 0., Martin C. 

Ch. of Sylvester G.— Viola, Ezra, Mary: by 2d m. — Doro- 
thy, Boyd, girl, 2 boys (dy). 

Line of Martin: — 1. Adam (Mary Hinkle) — b. Nov. 12, 
1805, d. Feb. 27, 1871— homestead. 2. Sidney (John Mc- 
Clure)— b. 1806. 3. Polly— S.—b. 1807. d. 1833. 

Br. of Adam: — 1. Isaac — S. 2. Martin (Christina Harper) 
—b. 183L d. 1885— homestead. 3. MahalaM.— d. 27. 4 Su- 
san C. (John Mullenax). 5. Eizabeth A. (William H. H. 
Ayers). 6. Phoebe J. 7. Adam H. 8. Sidney E. (Sylvanus 
Bennett, Stewart Raines) — b 1847. 

Ch. of Martin: — 1. Adam H. (Rhua Phares, Jenetta Mul- 
lenax) — Col. 2. Noah H. (Annie Phares) — physician — Rph. 
3. Isaac N. (Catharine Hedrick). 4. Mary C. (Noah Phares). 

5. Jacob K. (^usan Phares, Almeda Bland). 6. Martha A. 
(Solomon P. Mauzy). 7. George B. M. (Annie Tingler). 8. 
Ulysses G. (Lucy Mauzy). 9. Ida P. 10. Charlotta. 11. 
Carrie — dy. 12. Pitman F. (Pearl Thompson). 13. Osceola 
-dy. 

(B). Other posterity of the original Judy family has set- 
tled or intermarried in Bethel and Mill Run. 



238 

Unp. 1. Isaac (Mary ). 2 Jacob (Christina ). 

— b. 1784*. 3. Mary (Adam Coplinerer)— m. 1825. 4. Mar- 
garet (George Fall)— m. 1820. 5 Mirtin (Mary Crow?)— 
m. 1816. 6. Catharine (Adam Hedrick)— m. 1801. 7. James 

— b. 1794. d. 1832. 8. George (Clara )— b. 1793, d. 

1875. 9. Amanda (Wil!i?m A t)— b. 1814, d. 18£6. 10. Ma- 
hala (Isaac Teter)— b, 1819, d. 1882. 11. George of Nicho- 
las ( ). 12. George of ? ( ). 13. Bar- 
bara (Uriah Phares) — m. 1816. 

Br. of Jacob. — Sidney. Amanda (Wilh'am Alt) — b. 1814. d. 
1896. 3. Malinda. 4. Mahala (Isaac Teter) —b. 1819, d. 1882. 
5. Sarah. 6. Elizabeth. 7. Elien. 8. Mary. 

Br. of I-^aac:— Phoebe ( Jndy)— b. 1823, d. 1891. 

Br. of George of Nicholas: — John (b. 1836), Nancy, Mary, 
Elijah, David, Ellen, George. 

Br. of George of ?:— 1. Daniel (Phoebe Graham). 2. Ma- 

nasseh ( ). 3. Isaac (Rebecca ) — b. 1821, 

d. 1897. 

Ch. of Daniel:— Charles N. (Denisa A. J. Kile)— U. T.— 
ch.— Susan E., John A.. Lela M. (k. lightning at 17), Charles 
W.. Nellie M., Joseph C. 

Ch. of Manasseh:— William A. (Annie F. Dyer).— Ft. S. 

C. of William A.— Lula G. 

Kee. Aaron (Catharine Beath) — m 1799 — ch. — 1. John 
(Lewis)* 2. James B. (Sarah A. McCoy)— b. 1803, d. 1878. 
3. Joseph (111.)* 4 Margaret. 5. girl — d. 

Br. of James B. — 1. Margaret (William Johnson). 2. Cath- 
arine (William Hiner). 3. Jefferson M. (Louisa Pierson, 
Mo.)* 4. James W. (Mary C. Arbogast. Hid)* 

Ch. of James W.— Maud M. (Charles Mallow). Margaret J. 
(William Kiser), Sarah, William A., John M., Mary, James 
B. (dy). 

Aaron was a merchant at Franklin. In 1813 he was in 
partnership with Charles McCreary and James Boggs. James, 
a single brother, came with him from Ireland and spent his 
last years with John Boggs. 

Keplinger. Jesse ( , Phoebe Dunkle) — ch.— 1. 

Frank (Martha Hartman). 2. Laban (Sarah Whetsell). 3. 

Joseph— Rph. 4. David — W. 5. Lee. 6. Barbara (Rkm). By 

2d m.— 7. William— Rkm. 8. John ( Barter)- Hdy. 9. 

Jackson. 

Kessner. John (Margaret Mallow?) — ch? — 1. Solomon 

(Christina )— b. 1785. 2. John (Eve Wise)— m. 1813. 

3. George (Laverna )— b. 1789. 4. Philip (Marv ) 

— b. 1795. 5. Daniel (Sarah )— b. 1805. 6. Samuel 

(Catharine )— b. 1806. 7. Noah (Rebecca )— b. 

1817. 



239 

Line of Solomon :— 1. Job— b. 1826— S. 2. Mary— S. 3. 
Harvey (Sarah Halterman. Nancy Rexroad). 4. Hannah R. 
(Hezekiah Borrer) — b. 1833. 5. Solon- on — out. 6. Daniel 
( Shreve?)— Grant. 7. Margaret — out. 8. Isaac. 

Line of George :— 1. Noah (Rebecca Stump, Hannah Ress- 
ner). 2 Didama (Michael Stump). 3. George P.— b. 1839. k. 

Line of Philip :— 1. Simeon (Elizabeth Stump)— b. 1837 — 
Grant. 2. Hannah (Wesley Yanke\ ). 3. Catharine (Michael 
Ratchford, Grant)* 4. Reuben (Elizabeth Simpson). 5. Re- 
becca (Hugh Ratchford, Grant). 6. Mary (John West fall)— 
Grant. 7. Michael— d. 8. Philip (Dianna Siever)- Rkm. 

Line of Daniel : — 1. Sophia (Johnathan Ressner) — b. 1835 
— Hdy. 2. Elizabeth (George Hink'e). 3. Anne (Jefferson 
Westfall). 4. Anne (Andrew J. Whetsell). 5. Margaret 
(Jacob Crider)— W. 6. Jacob (Letitia Borrer, Catharine Rig- 
gleman)— b. 1843. 

Line of Samuel : — 1. Benjamin H. (Barbara Mallow, Cath- 
arine Simmons)— b. 182?^. 2. Jonathan (Sophia Ressner) 3. 
Sarah. 4 Elizabeth A. 5. Ruhama. 6. Samuel— b. 1839. 

Line of Noah :—L Christopher C.—b. 1839— k. 2. Alfred 
— k. 3. VanBuren (Sarah Hedrick)— b. 1844. 4. Didama 
(Isaac Riggleman). 5. Rebecca (Noah Greenawalt). By 2d 
m. — 6. America. 7. Jane (Emanuel Ressner). 8. Cora. 

Unp. 1. Adam ( , Hannah Fultz). 2. Ambrose 

— b. 1817. 3. Margaret (Edward Robinson) -m. 1799. 4. 

Benjamin (Elizabeth Hill— m. 1795. 5. Paul ( ) 6. 

John ( ). 

Ch. of Adam :— 1. Margaret ( Shaver). By 2d m— 2. 

George (Lavina Trumbo). 3. Paul (Margaret Mallow) — b. 
1789. d. 1878. 4. Andrew-d. 5. Philip (Mary Hevener)— d. 
3888. 6. Solomon (Christina Peterson). 7. Benjamin (El- 
izabeth Coffman)— Ind. 8. Daniel (Sarah Retterman). 9. 
Samuel (Catharine Bargarhoff). 10. Elizabeth (Michael Coff- 
man)— Ind. 11. Mary (John Miller.) 

C. of Paul :— Margaret (George Lough), Catharine (Jacob 
Miller), Mollie (Zebulon Hedrick). 

C. of John : — Absalom (Letitia Blizzard), Su^an (Henry 
Riggleman), Mary (Henry Harman), Hannah (Gideon Berg- 
dall). 

Kei'ster. Frederick (Hannah Dyer)— b. 1730.* d. after 

1814— homestead. John D. Reister's— ch. — 1. James ( ) 

— b. 1756,* d. June 12, 1834. 2-5. girl^. 6. Mary (Ga- 
briel Rile)— m. 1797. 7. Frederick (Ann E. Propst. m 1791 
— Malinda Grim)— b. 1774, d. 1791— homestead. 8. George 
(Susannah Peck, Mary A. Jordan)— b. Feb 13, 1777, d. July 
18, 1854. 

Line of James:— 1. James (Susan Swadley)— d. 1849. 2. 



240 

Ruth (John Hevener)— m. 1807. 3. Hannah (George Hoover) 
—1810. 4. Jane. 2. Mary (Samuel Findiey)— out. 6. Eliz- 
abeth (Philip H. Heltzel)— Poca. 

Br. of James: — 1. Henry (Eliza Allen. Albermarle — Eliz- 
abeth Custard Mallow Hoover)— b. Dec. 24. 1838. d. May 22, 
1901. 2. Amelia (Jacob Hevener)— b. 1830, d. IfeJ.l. 3. 
Naomi (Samuel Sandy. Rkm)— b. 1832, d. 1897.* 4. Eliza- 
beth (David H. Weaver, Kkm). 5. Asenath— S. 6. Isaac 
(Mary KHne Byerly)— Aug. 7. James (Elizabeth Good)— 
Rkm. 

Ch. of Henry:— 1. Eugene (Christina L. Smith)— b. Dec. 
27, 1850— carpenter— U. T. 2. Franklin P. (Phoebe J. Sim- 
mons). 3. Josepihne (Daniel Brenneman. 0. 4. Amelia. 

5. Susan L. (Samuel Plaugher)— 0. 6. James — b. 1858— 
W. Va. 7. Sarah J. (Geori^e Bowers). 8. Isaac (Sarah 
Roby, Grant)— Tkr. 9. Henry L. (Julia McGraw, Miss.)* 
10. Edmund D.— b. 1864— Va. 11. David M. 

C. of Eutrene: — 1. J. Claude (Clarissa Ward, Harrison) — 
Oklahoma City. 2. Harry S. 3. Gertrude V. — teacher. 4. 
Glenn A. 5. Annie V. 6. Luther S. 7. Walter L. 8. Les- 
lie A. 

C. of Franklin P.— 1. Henry F. 2. Wilbur F. 3. Frances 
(Lucian E. Bowers). 4. Carrie (Florence Bowers). 5. 
Clinton L. (Wash.)* 6. Mary E. 

Line of Frederick: — L John (Susan Crummett). 2. Han- 
nah (John Miller). 3. Christina ( Kampfer, Daggs) 

— Ind. By 2nd m.— 4. Bird D. (Carrie Everly)— d. 1875. 

Line of George: — 1. William (Elizabeth Bowman) — la. 
2. Geor^re (Sarah Prop^t)— m. 1824— Doddridge. 3. Jacob 
(Bath)— Mason. 4. John D. (Elizabeth Bodkin)— b. 1815— 
homestead. 5. Polly A. (Jesse Cowger)— b. 1821. d. 1896. 

6. Susan (George Hoover). 7. Mar^'^aret (George Dean). 
8. Sarah (G' brier).* 9. Elizabeth (Jacob Bowman). 10. 
Hannah (Silas Hinton. Rkm) — m. 1826 — la. 11. Hester 
(Jeremiah Jordan, Hid).* 12. inf— dy. By 2d m.— 13. 
James K. P. — d. 14. Jesse — d. 15. Martin (Louisa Evick) 
— b. 1848. 16. Mary A. (Samuel P. Nelson, Hopkins Teter) 
— b. 1849. 17. Benjamin— D. 18. Solomon (Sarah Lough) 
—Wash. 

Br. of John D. — 1. Andrew J. (Sarah A. Hively, Huldah 
Armstrong)— b. 1840 — homestead. 2. Susannah D. — d. 3. 
Sa.ah A. E.— d. 4. John D. (Mary S. Trumbo)— b 1840— 

homestead. 5. William (Elizabeth Simmons, Smith) — 

Rkm. 6. Hannah (Arthur A. Hahn). 

Ch. of Andrew J. — Coca (Joseph Simpson), Harry, Mary 
(Melvin Guyer). Mattie (Clay Shiflett). 

Ch. of John D. — 1. Walter (Lena Weaver) — Huntington. 



241 

2. Emma (Tared M. Smith). 3. Bowman ( Ma ttie Nichol- 
son). 4. Myra. 5. Elmer (Mary Hoover, Hid). 

The village of Brandy wine stands on a part of the Kei'^ter 
homestead. Frederick, Jr., was a famous hunter. When he 
had secured a considerable amount of prame in the Shenan- 
doah Mtn. he would build a signal fire on the High Knob, 
that the smoke might be understood at his home as a signal 
from him. John D., present representative in State Legis- 
lature and energetic farmer, lives on a part of the original 
tract 

Ketterman. George F. (Mollie Hinkle)— b. 1770,* d. 1846* 
— bought 240 acres of Isaac Hinkle, Wm. Bland place below 
Riverton— ch.— 1. Justus— W. 1835*. 2. Stoeffel— W. 1835*. 

3. Solomon ( Helmick). 4. Jacob (Mary A. Arbogast) 

— b. 1800, d. 1875. 5. Sarah (Joseph Arbogast)— m. 1820. 

6. Edie (Michael Arbogast). 7. Abbe (Eli Hedrick). 8. 
Christina (John Turner). 

Line of Jacob: — 1. Sabina (Abraham Flinn). 2. Esau 

(Elsie Way bright). 3. John ( Full, Hdy; Stump, 

Hdy; Linthicnm)— 111. 4. Salem (Mary Bennett)— b. 

Dec. 21, 1824. 5. Miles— dy. 6. Nicholas ( Teter)— W. 

7. Joseph— b. 1842, k. 

Br. of Salem:— I. Mary J. (W)*. 2. Hannah H. (Michael 
Hinkle). 3. John (W)— Kas. 4. Marv (James Cunningham). 
5. Laura V. (Philip Sponaugle). 6. Pendleton C. (W)*. 7. 
Robert — W. 8. Frank (Florence Arbogast)— Elkins. 

(B). Daniel ( )— ch.— L Daniel (Barbara Alt) 

— m. 1825—2. others?. 

Line of Daniel:— 1. Elizabeth A. ( Waybright, Harvey 

Simmons) — Hid. 2. Mordecai (Elizabeth Summprfield, 
Rph)*. 3. William W. (Malvina Hoover) — homestead. 4. 
Josiah (Sarah A. Hoover, Mary Dolly) — U. B. minister. 5. 
Cornelius (Elizabeth Davis)— k. 6. Michael— k. 7. Charles 
— d. 

Br. of William W:— I. Daniel — dy. 2. Jane — dy. 3. Mary 

A. (George Phares). 4. John A. (Rath Dolly). 5. Lucian 
H. (Ellen Dolly). 6. Ida (Charles McDonald). 7. I^aac— 
dy. 8 Ira W. (Lucy Martin)— Rhp. 9. Stella (John A. 
Kisamore). 10. Lottie— dy. 11—12. infs (dv). 13. Parlet 

B. (Laura Kisamore) — Rph. 14. Laura (William Roby, 
Grant)*. 15. Zernie (Marvin Carr) — Rph. 

Ch. of John C. — Gustava, Hendron, Lona, inf. (dy), Cla- 
rissa, Grace, Anderson. 

Ch. of Lucian H. — Isom (Emma Bible), Bertha, Glossie, 
Elva, Marchie, Robert. 

Br. of Josiah:— Benjamin (d), Ellen (David Nelson), Wll- 
PCH16 



242 

Ham, George (Sarah Vance), Lydia ( Lambert), Oliver 

(Maud Helmick)— Rph. 

George F. and Daniel were brothers, and they had two 
older brothers in the Revolution. Daniel, Jr. was a U. B. 
preacher. Lucian H. is an ovprseer of the poor. The con- 
nection is chiefly on Timber Ridge. 

Kile. 1. Valentine ( ) — bought 230 acres of James 

Trimble in 1761— d. 1766— executors, George Kile, George 
Hamm<^r, — appraisers, Michael Mallow, Jonas Friend. George 
Dice, Jacob Harper — family went to 0. 2. Gabriel, (Rebecca 

) — was living on county farm place before 1766. 3. 

George (Hannah Bogart?)— here, 1761— d. 1794. 4. Jacob 

(Margaret ) — d. 1810. The foregoiner were brothers 

with the possible exception of Valentine. They were neigh- 
bors and came from Rockingham. 

Line of Gabriel :— 1. Catharine (Richard Wilson)— m. 1792. 

2. Andrew (Frances ) — m. 1794. 3. Gabriel (Mary 

Keister)- m. 1797. 4. Joseph (Sophia Fisher)— m. 1799. 5. 
Henry (Susannah Colaw) — m. 18o6. 6. Jacob (Barbara Co- 
law)— m. 1810. 

Line of George :— 1. George (Mary Conrad)— b. 1775*. 2. 

Jacob (Margaret )— b. 1777* 3. John. 4. Catharine 

(Nicholas Hahn) — m. 1797. 5. Barbara (Jacob Fisher)— m. 
1796. 6. Mary. 7. Hannah. 

Br. of George : — 1. Absalom (Marv Currence, Rph) — b. 
June 12, 1797. 2. Elizabeth (Adam Hedrick)— b. 1800. 3. 
Abraham (Mary Swadley, Susannah Hammer) — b. May 6, 
1802, H. Feb. 18, 1854. 4. Zebnlon (Mary Hevener)— b. July 
27, 1804. d. Feb. 18, 1854. 5. George— b. 1806— S. 6. John— 
S-b. 1812. 

Ch. of Absalom: — 1. Jonathan C. (Ellen Rexroad Bowers, 
N. O— Rph. 2. George H. (Rebecca Haigler)— b. 1885— 
Kas. 3. Sarah J. (Jesse C. Armentrout)— b. 1836— Rph. 4. 
William -S—0. 5. John R.— S— b. 1840. 6. Andrew A. (Re- 
becca Bowers)— Tkr. 7. Nancv C. (David Judy, III.)* 8. 
Mary M. (Adam Kimble)— b. 1847. 

Ch. of Abraham : — 1. George W. (Nancv G. Graham). 2. 
Abel L. (Delilah Smith)— Aug. 3. John W. (Sarah Payne) 
—Aug. 4. infs (dy). 

C. of Gporge W.— Isaac W. (Hannah Kimble). 2. James 
(Hannah Snider) — 0. 3. Abraham N. (Jemima Kimble, Ida 
Dav, Grant)* 4. William (0.)* 5. Jacob (Sarah Kimble). 6. 
U'ysses S. G. (Mary E. Mallow). 7. Andrew J.— Rkm. 8 
Mary S. (John W. Kimble). 9. Susan R.— dy. 

Ch. of Zebulon:— 1. Isaac T. (Henrietta S^hmucker) — b. 
1838— surveyor. 2. Mary E. (George T. Wilson, Aug.)*. 3. 



243 

Margaret C. (William S. Dyer). 4. Sarah S. (William J. 
Ho;»kins, Frank Fisher, Braxton). 5. Barbara D. (William 
H. Judy). 6. DenisaA. J. (Charles N. Judy). 7. Eliza E. 
(Harmon Hiner). 

C. of Isaac T.— 1. George Z. (dy). 2. John N. (dy). 3. Da- 
vid W. — physician — Louisville. Ky— D. 4. Estella L. (J 

M. Sites). 

Line of Jacob:— Henry, Mary (William? Miller), Jacob 
(Catharine ), George, Ulrich. 

Unp. Absalom (Mary )-b. 1788. 2. Samuel (Phoebe 

Conrad)— m. 1797. 3. Martin— 1779. 4. Samuel (Nancy 
)— b. 1772, d. 1834. 

Line of Samuel: — Barbara ( Graham), Adam. 

Kimble. Alfred ( )— son of Adam of Grant Co. 

— k.— ch.— 1. Alfred (Phoebe Shirk). 2. Abraham (Eve 
Full). 3. William W. (Frances McDonald). 4. Nicholas 
(Susan Shreve)— W. 5. Adam— d. 6. Malinda (Zebulon 
Hedrick). 7. Elizabeth (Henry Jud}). 8. Pamela (Jesse 
Stump)— 0. 

Br. of Alfred:— Hannah R. (Henry C. Hedrick), Gabriel 0. 
(Martha Lantz), Noah (Mahala Alt), William W. (Savannah 

B. Alt), Jacob (Laura Bowers), Hadie J. (John Shreve), Je- 
mima (Abraham Kile), Virginia, India B., Sarah (Jacob 
Kile). 

Br. of Abraham: — Jason (Annie Alt), Salem (Minnie Alt), 
Mahala, Amanda (I-^aac Graham). 

Br. of William W.— John (Mary S. Kile), Arthur ( 

Hedrick), Edward, boy (dy). 

Ump. 1. George (Mary Miller)— m. 1802. 2. Sarah (Eliz- 
abeth Cox)— m. 1825. 3. Arnold (Mary E. Riggleman)— k. 

Kisamore. Jesse (Mary Speelman)— b. 1805, d. 1880*— 
ch.— 1. Jacob (Det'a Bland)— b. 1831. 2. Isaac (Susan 
Dolly). 3. John (Margaret Dolly)— b. 1834. 4. Mary A. 
(Isaac Dolly). 5. Phoebe C. (George W. Dolly). 6. Adam 

(Phoebe J. Bible) -b. 1840. 7. Jonas (H Harper) Har- 

man — Rph. 8. Catharine (Jacob Lewis. Grant). 9. Joab 
(Mary Harper)— out. 10. Johnson S. (Jane Hedrick). 11. 
Edith (Markwood Hedrick).— b. 1851* 

Br. of Jacob:— 1. Dorothy (David Huffman). 2. Mary 
(Elias Sites). 3. Margaret (Miles Vance). 4. Sarah J. 
(Peter Harper). 5. Hannah— W. 6. Ettie (Kenny Har- 
man). 7. Ursula (Jacob Dav)— twin to Ettie. 8. William 
— d. 22. 9. Oliver G. 10. Hayes (Eve Way bright)— home- 
stead. IL Zernie (Walter Brill.) 

Br. of Isaac: — George W. (Eliza J. Day), Isaiah H. (Mary 

C. Mallow), John A. (Stella Ketterman), Jesse B. (Laura 



244 

Turner) , Columbus (MolliV Mallow), Albert (Carrie Smith) 
— Rph., Mary J. (Abel M. Nelson). 

Ch. of Geoige W. — Annie (Am^y Hedrick), Jason. 

Ch. of Isaiah:— Walter A. (Rph)*, Cora A. (Joseph P. Mal- 
low). Z^ttie C. Frances A., James M. Ora H., 

Ch. of John A.— Riley E., Gary. Ola, Rosa, Dora. 

Ch. of Jesse B. — Vernie, Carrie, Theodore. 

Ch. ot"" Columbus : — Austin, girl. 

Br. of John: — Adim (Alice Summerfield), Martin (d), Ja- 
cob (Elizabeth Hed»ick). Amby (Rph)*, Josiah (Hannah 
Morral). Christina (Scott Miller). 

Br. of Adam: — Florence (Grant)*, Oscar, Kenny, (Julia 
Morral). 

Unp.— 1. Bernard -d. 1803*. 2 Margaret (Edward Rob- 
inson)— oi. 1799. 3. Mary (John Keller)— m. 1810. Bernard 
was probably the pioneer and father of Jpsse. 

Kiser. William (Barbara Wise, Rkm. dau. of Adama Bar- 
b-ira. b. 1793. d. 1858) -son of Jacob (Elizabeth)- b. 1786, 
d. 1853— ch:— 1. David (VTarv A. Bowers)— b 1814. 2. John 
(Marv Pro(.st) -b. Feb. 18. 1816 d. Dec. 9, 1898. 3. Mary A. 
(Henry Rpxro^d) — Hid. 4. Adam (Elizabeth Crummett). 
5. Elizabeth (Auefusta Rexroad). 6. Sarah (Jo-eph Rex- 
road)— Hid. 7. James H. (Harriet Propst)— Neb. 1860*. 8. 
Susan (Adam Wa^srv)— b Jan. 19. 1831, d. Feb. 23. 1907. 9. 
Jacob— dv. 10. Danipl (Philip J. Bowers)— b. 1833. d. 1905. 

Br. of David:- 1. William C. (MaryM. Siple)— b. 1838. 2. 
Edward H. (?) — Ausr. 3. John F. — Lutheran preacher — b. 
1843. 4. Adam (Urbana Malcomb, Hid)*. 5. Barbara- 
out. 6. Jacob — Aug 7. Marshall ( Jordan) — Aug. 8. 

Eliza— out. 9. James (Hid)*. 

Ch. of William C. — 1. Ambrose V. (Delia Harman) — Hamp. 
2. Martha J.— dy. 3. George L. (Maud Thacker).— Rkm. 4. 
Mary H. (Andrew J. Dahmer). 5. Bertie M. (Robert J. 
Lough). 6. Elizabeth C. (Clay Hammer). 7. John M.— 
merchant. 8. Dora I. (G. Howard Bodkin). 9. Carrie A. 
10. William H. (Marearet Kee). IL EmmaF. (Henry Dah- 
mer). 12. Aud S. (Frances Homan). 

Ch. of Adam:— David A.. George L.. Mary, Allie (d), Mar- 
garet ( Malcomb, Hid)*, Rosa, John, Beulah, Elizabeth. 

Line of John: — 1. Jacob — dy. 2 Harrison — miller. 3. 
Daniel (Louisa Stone). 4. Harvey — k. 5. Elizabeth J. 
(Amos Bowers). 6. Marshall — dy. 7. Thomas W. — drowned. 
8. Mary J. (Silvester Mitchell). 7. James P. — merchant. 

Ch. of Daniel: — 1. C. Truman (Jennie Rexroad. 2. Frank 
S. (Maroraret R-^xroad) — Rkm. 3. Hannah (Thomas L. Man- 
ning, Cal.) — Rkm. 4. Cora (Henry Bodkin)— Va. 5. Pres- 
ton. 6. Mattie. 8. Ollie (twin to Mattie). 8. Harry. 



245 

Line of Adam:— 1. Martha (William Propst). 2. Nancy 
(William Hively, Andrew 0. Propst). 3. Georjie. 4. Adam 
(Louisa Snider). 5. Amanda. 6. Eliza (Mark Propst). 7. 
Mary (Henry H. Puttenbarger). 8. Laban. 

Line of Daniel:—! — 2. boys— dy. 3. Vista J. (Edward 
Hoover). 4. Timnah J.— dy. 5. Daniel W. 6. J. William 
(Vista Lough)— Fin. 7. Regina. 8. George E.—dy. 

Ch. of J. William:— William L., Evelyn, Ray P. 

Kline. Samuel J. (Rachel Arnold, Hamp. — Charlotte Bor- 
rer)— b. 1818, d. 1906-ch.— 1. John S. (Jennie Bowman)— 
out. 2. William D. (Mullie Vest, Hamp.)— 111. 3. Daniel 
E.— d. 4. Melissa B. (Adam Hedrick). 5. Lucy N. (William 
Arnold, Hamp.) — out. 6. Sarah F. (Isaac Leatherman, 
Hamp.)— out. 7. Nancy— dy. By 2d m.— 8. Mary A. (Job 
Hartman). 9. Julia E.— Osceola. 10. Maud V. (William H. 
Judy.) 11. Ella (Zebulon Judy). 12. Edward (Eliza Propst) 
— C'ville. 13. Otterbein (Caddie Nelsoa)— Hambieton. 

Kuykendall. Washington (Hannah E. Muinbert)— b. 1795*. 
d.l865*— ch — 1. Rachel R. (Jacob Shaver). 2. Susan L. 
(George Simon, H.iy)*. 3. Sarah J. (Jacob Hinkle, Hdy*). 

4. William L. (Mary Shirk, Rosa Wilson). 5. George W. 
(Dorathy S. Hinkle. Hdv). 6. Elizabeth C. 

Ch. of William L.— Bertha R. (d), William W., George D. 
C, Gleason A. (d). 

Ch. of George W. — Ada E., Oscar L., James E., John H., 
Edward R., Mollie E. By 2d m.— Robert L. (dy), Calvin H. 

Unp.— L Richard (Mary Leach)— m. 1827. 2. Elizabeth 
(Michael Westf all)— m. 1825. 3. John (Elizabeth Champ) — 
m. 1800. 

Lamb. Michael N. (Barbara )— b. 1785, d. 1859*— ch. 

— 1. Henry (Jane Hoover) — W. 2. Noah (Matilda Hively. Den- 
iza Hoover) — 1812, d. 1875. 3. Susannah (Jacob Dove) — b. 

1815, d. 1888. 4. Eliza (Philip Wiifong). 5. Christina ( 

Eckard). 6. Mary (George Barclay). 7. Elizabeth (Jonas 
Mitchell)— b. 1830. d. 1875. 

Br. of Noih— William ( Mullen)— k. 2. Isaac M. D. 

— k. 3. Jemima S. (Elias Wimer). 4. Noah W. (Susannah 
Wimer, Mary A. Zickafoose)— Rkm. 5. Lucy (William Spon- 
augle). By 2d m.— 6. Martha (Henry Lough). 7. James 
M. (Sarah Coakley, Rkm)* 8. Ruhama— d. 9. John (Alice 
Spon^ugle)— Rkm. 10. Sarah (Rkm)*. IL Jacob (Kate 
Smith, Rtim)* 12. Mary (Frank Landes). 13. Harmon 
(Rkm)*. 14. Preston. 

Unp. 1. Joseph— 1790. 2. Jacob — 1802. 3. Susannah 
(Ba^sil Day)— m. 1794. 4. John (Mary )— b. 1822. 

5. Harvey (Amanda )— b. 1^27. 

Ch. of John :— William (b. 1842), Mary C, Nathaniel. 



m 

Ch. of Harvey:— Mary E.— b. 1859. 

Lambert. (A). John (Elizabeth )— d. 1804. -ch. 

— 1. John (Nancy ). 2. James (Margaret ). 3. 

Mathias (Hannah ). 4. George (Nellie Johnson) — d. 

1840*. All these except George were of tithable age in 1790. 

Line of John:— 1. John (Hannah Cassell)—b. 1798, d. 1862. 
2. Harvey ( ). 3. Arnold. 4. Mary. 

Br. of John:— 1. Adonijah (Barbara Bennett) — Rph. 2. John 

C. ( Upshur)— b. 1825. 3. Jacob ( Nicholas)— b. 

1829— Upshur. 4. Solomon ( )— W. Va.; 4 of his 

boys were k. in a mme. 5. Sarah A. — S. 6. Hannah (Ben- 
jamin Lantz). 7. Samuel A. (Mary Helmick)—Poca. 8. Al- 

binus (Susan Calhoun, , n. head of Big Run.)— b. 

1842. 9. James B. A.— dy. 10. Phoebe (William Vandeven- 
ter). .11 Nancy (Isaac Murphy). 

Ch. of Albinus:— 1. Elizabeth A. (Stewart Raines). 2. 
Mahala P. (Jacob Arbogast). 3. Philbert— dy. 4. Cadden 
(Cluetta Lambert). 5. Statten — Poca. 6. Albinus — dy. 
7. Mary H. (Edward White, Rph)*. 8. Lucretia (Robert 
Smith, Rph)*. 9. Ira (Zella Painter, Rph)*— Poca. 10—11. 
infs (dy). 

Line of George: — 1. Job (Sarah Strawder, Elizabeth Cal- 
houn)— b. 1812. 2. Elizabeth (James Hartman). 3. Eiias 
(Angeline Calhoun, Miranda Johnson Helmick) — b. 1816. 4. 
Arnold (Sarah C. Zickafoose)— b. 1818. 5. George (Mahala 
Bennett). 6. Noah (Catharine Calhoun). 7. Mary (John 
Judy). 8. John (Susan Helmick)— b. 1827, d. 1907. 9. Har- 
vey (Margaret J. Moyers)— b. 1829. 

Br. of Job — 1. George W. (Annie Calhoun, Delilah Nelson) 
— b. 1838. 2. Nathan (Ada Teter, Ind.)* 3. William T. 
(Una Teter)— W. By 2d m.— 4. Aaron (Phoebe Mick, Mar- 
garet George) — b. 1845. 5. Margaret J. (Amby Lambert) 
6—7. twin infs (dy). 8. Job— dy. 9. Taylor J. (W. Va). 
10. Phoebe A. — dy. 11. Elizabeth (Wesley C. Vande venter). 
12. Catharine (Solomon Mick). 

Ch. of George W. — 1. Margaret A. (Francis Lambert, Grant 
Warner?), 2. (Levi Elizabeth Mullenax). 3. Jay (Frances I. 
Teter, Annetta Lambert). 4. Solomon K. (Ellen Cunning- 
ham). 5. Hester A. (Minor Vandeventer). 6. infs (dy.) 
By 2d m.— 7. Gilbert (Pearlie Mullenax Lambert) — k. in 
woods. 8. Follen (Ardena Mullenax). 9. Okey— S. 10. 
George L (Susan Arbogast) — Rph. 11. Zernie (Bennie M. 
Bennett). 12. Edith (Berry Chew, Hid)* 13. Otie (A. 
Jackson Helmick). 

C. of Eli— Otis. 

C. of Jay;— Noah B., George E., Margaret A., Coetta, 



Eli, Clay, Ray, Dora, Mabel, Mary and Martha (twins), 3 
infs (dy). 

C. of Gilbert: — Clarence, Nora, Clifford, Bertie. 

C. of Follen :— Gustavus, George, Roy. Russell. 

Ch. of William T.—l. Laura (Minor H. Lambert). 2. 
Pearlie (A. Jackson Helmick). 3. McCallett (Lula Arbo- 
gast). 4. Rumsay (Leola Bennett) — Okla. 

Ch. of Aaron : — Aldine (Benjamin Eckard), James B. 
(Mary Simmons), Cloetta (Cadden Lambert). 

Br. of Arnold: — Elias (Elizabeth Murphy). William 
(Amelia S. Murphy). George K. (Ettie Calhoun), Richard 
M. (Annie J. Nelson Warner), Kenton D. (Catharine George), 
Ashby (d), Margaret (Isaac S. Hartman), Annis (d), Ellen 
(Cain Lambert). 

Br. of Noah : — 1. B. Frank (Hannah Vandeventer). 2. 
John A. (Pearlie MuUenax). 3. James B. (Phoebe Zicka- 
foose) — Poca. 4. Susan (Charles Layman, Rkm)* 5. Mary 
J. (Amby Lambert). 6. Catharine (Albinus Lambert). 7. 
Angeline (Samuel Lambert). 

Br. of George :— 1. Phoebe J.— dy. 2. James C. (Eliza- 
beth J. Phares)— b. 1843. 3. Amby H. (Margaret Lambert, 
Mary J. Lambert)— Rkm. 4. Louisa S. 5. Eli A. (Mary 
Harper) — merchant— C'ville. 6. Martha E.— k. accident. 
7. Lemuel D. (H). 8. Samuel L. (d). 9. Minor H. (Laura 
Lambert. Nettie Gaines, Rkm)* 10. Rebecca (Perry Lam- 
bert). 11. Mary E. 12. Josephine (James Hartman). 

Ch. of James C— 1. Alvah L.— Okla. 2. Walter A. (OUie 
J. Hinkle)— teacher. 3. Claude J. 4. Violetta. 5. Gilbert 
M. (Harriet Vandeventer). 6. Myrtie (Ezra P. Hinkle) — d. 
22. 7. George R.— dy. 

Ch. of Eli A.— 1. Gertrude— d. 2. Chloe (Allen Nelson). 
3. Ona (William A. Judy). 4. Nola. 

Br. of John : — Anderson N. (Lucy A. Vandeventer) — b 
1847. 2. Harvev (Emma Thompson). 3. Sarah E. (Rkm 
— W. Va. 4. Mary (William T. Lambert). 5. Margaret. 
6. William P. (Rebecca C. Lambert). 7. AngeHne (John 
W. Nelson) — Poca. 8. Annetta (Jay Lambert). 9. Alex- 
ander — Poca. 10. John H. (Callie Bennett)— Poca. 11. 
Isom H. (Mary E. Phares Bennett). 12. Huldah (Albert 
Arbaugh). 13. Robert (Sylvia Mullenax)—Rph. 

Ch. of Anderson N.— Calhe (John K. Mick), Wilbert (Eda 
Arbaugh), Kenzie, Garber (Ada Lambert), Lura (Stine L. 
Jones, Nicholas)*, John. 

Ch. of Harvey:— James F. (Ethel Harman). Elmer ( 

), Edward (Jane Lantz), Nettie, Ora. Mason. 

Ch. of William P.— Oscar (d). Arthur, Ada, (Garber Lam- 
bert), Eva, Edner B., Zoe, Arlena. 



248 

Br. of Harvey:— 1. Cain (Sarah E. Lambert)— b. 1850. 2. 
Arnold (Rebecca Wimer) — Neb. 3. Robert (Jennie Wimer). 
4. Levi B. (Hester A. Hinkle) — Neb. 5. James P. — Neb. 
6. Isaac (Alice Wilfong). 7. Mary (Isaac Murphy). 8. 
Martha (John R. Murphy). 9. Rebecca A. (Edward Harper). 
10. Frances— dy. 11. Sarah M.— dy. 

Ch. of Cain: — Albertus (Phoebe J. Nelson), Christina. Pat- 
rick (Josephine Eye), Lafayette (Mary E. Bennett), Lonnie 
(Mattie Simmons), Kenny C. (Peariie E. Moyers), Ashby, 
Robert, Jennie, C, Margaret, Lula (Claude Simmons), Do- 
sha (dy). 

Ch. of Isaac: — Arnold, Mary, Luther, John, Ernest, Ray- 
mond, Olan G., Lena, Etta, Martha, Grace. 

Ch. of Robert:— Charles (Cora Eye), Margaret ( 

Harper) . 

C. of Charles:— Robert M., Roy, Ivy J. 

(B). John ( )— ch— 1. Jesse (Rachel L. Jordan) 

— b. Nov. 2, 1799, d. Sept. 4, 1859— Friend's Run. 2. Caleb 

(Catharine )— b. 1801, d. 1851— below C'ville. 3. 

James (Jennie Nelson) — U. B. preacher, also teacher. 4. 
George (Amanda M. Judy)— b. 1810— Smith Cr. 5. Sarah 
( Mullenax?). 6. Susannah (Adam Carr). 

Line of Jesse:— L Obadiah (Polly Nelson)b.— 1830— k. 2. 
Catharine J. (Daniel Nelson), 3. Frances B. (Eli Tasker, 
Hamp. — Eli Miller, Hamp.) — Aug. 4. Jesse (Jane Nelson) — 
b. 1836— k. 5. John (Phoebe A. Moyers). 6. Jane (Felicia 
Nelson)— Rph. 7. Jemima (Bushrod Coberly) — Rph. 8. 
Samuel (Susan J. Smith) — Poca. 9. Ann (Hugh Nare) — 
Kkm. 10. Felicia J. (Jott Nelson)— b. 1846—111. 11. boy— 
dy. 12. William T. — reared— (Mary Lambert). 

Br. of Jesse:— Jesse (Rph)*, Charles (Frances Halterman), 
Margaret (Rph)*. Mary A. ( Gillespie)— Tkr. 

Lineof Caleb:— 1. Lebanon W. ( )— b. 1828. 2. 

Morgan ( )— b. 1830. 3. Mary M. ( ). 

4. John W. ( )-b. 1837. 5. Lucinda ( ). 

Line of George:— 1. Solomon ( )— b. 1833. 2. 

William A. ( )— b. 1837. 3. Mary A. ( ). 

4. John J. ( ). 5. Winifred ( ). 6. 

Sarah C. ( ). 7. Eliza J. ( ). 

Br. of William T.— Hugh H. (Anne Murphy), Walter L. 
(Florence Nelson), James C, William C, Fleda B. (dy), 
Sadie C. (dy). 

Br. of John:— 1. Louisa J. (Newton Murphy). 3. Ro- 
sanna— d. 24. 3. Mary M. (William Leonard)— Tkr. 4. 
Hendron (Mahala B. Cook)— Tkr. 5. Dean (Ida Arbogast). 
6. Rebecca (Sylvanus L. Lambert). 7. Wilbert (Lucy ij. 



249 

Hartman). 8. Susan F. (James Carrico, Marion)— Tkr. 9. 
Laura A. — dy. 

Ch. of Dean:— William E., Don J., Merlie A., Effie A., 
Margie E., Ratie S., Emmert V., Richard, boy (dy). 

Ch. of Wilbert:— Levy S., Ernest J.. William 0. 

Unp. 1. Daniel- b. 1762. 2. John— 1790. Three Johns are 
mentioned in that year. 

Landis. Jesse (Christina Kimble) — b. Feb. 10, 1801», d. 
Mar. — , 1894— ch. — L Daniel A. (America R. Dolly)— sur- 
veyor— Dolly S. H. 2. Sarah E. (Samuel Riggleman). 3. 
Mary J. (Jonathan Hiser). 4. Hannah C. (Adam H. Judy) 
— Grant. 5. Jesse F. (Mary Lamb)— Alexandria, Va. 6. 
John W. (Rachel Baker. Rph)— Davis. 7. Henry C— N. Y. 
8. Emily S. (William W. Dunkle). 

Ch. of Daniel A.— 1. Nettie F. (Wilson Thompson, Rph)— 
Tkr. 2. Minnie E. (Isaac C. Smith). 3. Oscar W. 4. Jen- 
nie S. (Pendleton Lawrence). 5. Charles J. (Freda Judy). 
6. Zella S. 

Lantz. Joseph (Phoebe Hinkle)—m. 1811— ch.—l. Abra- 
ham— S—W. 2. Levi (Elizabeth Ritenour, Mary J. Thomp- 
son). 3. Joseph H. (Catharine Andrews, Alleghany Co. — 
Ellen Lawrence). 4. Daniel— S — twin to Joseph H. 

Br. of Levi: — 1. Sarah J. (Saul Cunningham) — Job. 2. 
Emma (John Thompson) -Rph. 3. Margaret (Samuel 
Gragg, Hid)* 4. Almira (John Engle)— Rph. 5. Catharine 
(Hyder McDonald )Keyser. 6. Lula (William Snider, Hid— 
John D. Keller)--Hendricks. 7. John (Elizabeth Gragg) — 
Rph. 8. Abraham (Delia Harold) — Horton. 9. George— d. 
10. Saul C. (Sarah Harold). 11. Noah— dy. By 2d m. 12. 

Charles K. ( Racey)— Poca. 13. Carrie E. (Lorenzo 

Hinkle). 14. Levi J. (Cenah Mallow). 15. Alonzo (Laura 
McDonald). 16. Isaac (Carrie Lawrence). 17. Samuel 
(Lottie Hinkle, Mrs. Bolton)— Horton. 

Br. of Joseph H.— 1. Margaret— d. 2. Eliza J. (Daniel 
Auvil, Anderson Elbon) — Junior. 3. Ruth (Jehu Teter). 4. 
Elizabeth (Harness Harper). 5. Dianna (Anderson Law- 
rence). 6. Sarah E. (Jacob Teter). 7. Jennie— d. 8. Jo- 
seph H.— dy. 9. Martha (Samuel G. Harman)— Grant. 10. 
Martin V. (Mary Mallow, Elizabeth V. Harper) — b. April 4, 
1837, d. April 10, 1907. 11. Joseph 0. 12. Ada— dy. 

Ch. of Martin V.— 1. Joseph H. (Annie Kimble, Susan 
Judy, Georgia Devar, Poca.— Ella B. Cleek, Bath)— Poca. 
2. Martha C. (G- — A. Kimble). 3. Addie— dy. 4. Philip 
H. (Minnie E. Harman). 5. Solon K. (Alice Teter). 6. 

John H. (L. Geraldine Dever). 7. Margaret M. (E B. 

Mongold). 8. Charles A. (Bessie A. Harman). 9. Wal- 
ter— dy. 



250 

Lawrence. Jonas (Christina Wimer) — d. 1865* — ch. — 1. 
Anderson (Diana Lantz). 2. William (Jennie Nash, Va. ) — 
drowned. 3. Jonas? — d. 4. Ellen (Joseph Lantz). 5. Mary 
(Clark Harman). 6. Jane (Ind)*. 7. Sarah (Johnson 

Bland). 8. Christina (Isaac Portner). 9. ( Mul- 

lenax). 11. Catharine ( Hinkle, Ind.)* 

Br. of Josiah:-l. Josiah (Sarah C. Phares)— b. 1822. d. 
1902*. 2. Christina (Miles Harper). 3. Selinda (Lafayette 
Nelson). 4. William C. (Eda Huff man) - "Germany". 5. 
George W. (Maud Porter)— Md. 6. Ambrose (Mary Harper) 
— W. Va. 7. Roberts. (Lottie Warner). 8. Wesley -dy. 9. 
Philip P. (Ind)*. 10. Martha F. (Adam Harper)— Tkr. 

Ch. of William C— Sarah C, Robert T., Russell, Mabel 
(twin to Russell). 

Br. of Anderson: — 1. Adam H. (Lottie Burns). 2. Alon- 
zo (Orpha Hinkle. Rosa Nelson). 3. Floyd (Lottie Calhoun, 
Minnie Simmons.) 4. Pendleton (Virginia S. Landes). 6. 
Carrie (Isaac Lantz). 6. Susan (Henry Day, Tkr)*. 7. 
Lena C. (Clark Delaney, out)— Tkr. 8. Oscar M. 9. Julia. 
10. Sarah. 11. Parent. 

Br. of William:— 1. Arthur L. (Pearl Day)— Md. 2. Eda 
(John Mallow.) 3. Frank. 

Unp. 1. William (Elizabeth Friend?)— b. 1769— here, 1820. 

2. Rebecca (Allen H. Nelson). 3. Sarah (Philip Phares)— 
1820. 

Ch. of William:— 1. Felicia— b. 1802. 2. Patsy— b. 1805. 

3. Rebecca (Allen H. Nelson?)— b. 1807. 4. Sarah— b. 1809. 
5. Jacob — b. 1812. 6 — 8. names unknown. 

Leach. James (Sarah Skidmore Hyer) — b. 1805 — ch. — 1. 
John— b. 1830. 2. Elijah. 3. Rachel A.— S. 4. Marshall 
(Frances Deverick — homestead — b. 1837. 5. Robert — d. 6. 
Sarah 0— d. 7. Margaret. 8. Edward 0. (Naomi Sim- 
mons) -b. 1846— S. G. D. 

Ch. of Marshall: — girl (dy), Virginia (Robert Vint), Mary, 
Arthur (Huldah Pitsenbarger), Letitia, Sarah. 

Long George W. (Winifred Wilfong) — b. 1798 — reared 
by Daniel Capito — ch. — 1. Abel (Eliza Vance Harper)— b. 
1822— Rph. 1850* 2. Absalom (Lucinda Hedrick, Elizabeth 
Vancp)— Rph. late. 3. William (Lucinda Hedrick)—b. 1828. 

4. Elizabeth — S. 5. Amanda (Jehu Cunningham). 6. Anne 
(Jehu Wilfong)— b. 1841. 7. Martha (Adam Hedrick)— 
Rph. 

Br. of Absalom:— 1. Charles F. (Martha Hedrick)— Rph. 
2. Lorenzo D. (Armeda Butcher)— Tkr. 3. Mary E. (Wil- 
liam W. Way bright). 4. Hannah S. (Jehu B. Wilfong). 

Br. of William:—!. Mary E. 2. Columbus ( Wilfong, 



251 

Estello Burns)— Rph. 3. Addison (Callie E. Arbogast). 4. 
George S. 

Unp. 1. John— tithable in 1800. 2. Mary A. (Samuel 
Burnett)— 1792. 

Ch. of John:— John— b. 1811. 

Lough. Adam (Barbara )— d. 1789.— ch.— 1. Eliza- 
beth (John Miller)— m. 1992. 2. Catharine (George Teter). 

3. Barbara (George Greenawalt)— m. 1799. 4. Adam (Eliz- 
abeth )— b. 1781. 5. George (Barbara )— b. 

1785. 6. Conrad (Catharine Mallow, m. 1809, Barbara Sites, 
b. 1797). 7. John (Sarah Harpole)— d. 1853. 

Line of Adam:— 1. Isaac (Elizabeth Mallow)— b. 1801. 2. 
Abraham (Esther Propst)— b. 1803. 3. Elizabeth— b. 1806— 
S. 4. Hannah— S. 5. Magdalena— b. 1815. d. 1888— S. 6. 
Catharine — S. 

Br. of Isaac:— 1. Reuben (Philippine Mallow)— b. 1828. 2. 

MaRdalena (Aug)*. 3. Solomon ( Hiser, Rebecca 

Borrer). 

Ch. of Rueben: — 1. Abraham R. (Bertha Fleming. Rkm). 
2. Beraiah J. (Emma Ressner). 3. Calvin Z. (Ollie Propst). 

4. Hannah E. (Robert Thompson) — Grant. 
C. of Abraham R.— George E., Ralph R. 

C. of Beraiah: — Isa M., John P., Grace, Byron C, Loy E. 

C. of Calvin Z.— Clarence P.. Ella. 

Ch. of Solomon:— Elizabeth (Noah Hinkle,) Louisa (Aug)*, 

Mancy ( Mowery, Aug)*. By 2d m. — George (Minnie 

Calhoun), Emma. 

Br. of Abraham. — 1. Josiah (Susannah Hiser. Martha Rex- 
road). 2. Jeremiah (Elizabeth Mallow). 3. Sophia— S. 

Ch. of Josiah: — 1. Mary S. (Jacob Dickenson). 2. Jose- 
phine R. (George Greenawalt). 3. Lucinda C. (Rkm)*. 4. 
Sarah J. (Asbury Moyers). 5. Abraham — dy. By 2d m. — 6. 
Walter. 7. Cora M. 

Ch. of Jeremiah: — Isaac (Phoebe Dahmer). 

Line of Geo ge:— 1. William (Elizabeth Halterman) — b. 
Oct. 28, 1807. d. April 12, 1861. 2. Rueben (W)*. 3. Philip. 
(W)*. 4. othrs?-W. 

Br. of William.— Catharine (William P. Hartman). 2. John 
A,— d. 23. 3. Henry (Martha J. Lamb). 4. Hannah— dy. 

5. Virlinda C. (John C. Calhoun, John J. Lamb). 6. James 
W. (Margaret Simmons)— b Feb. 21. 1845. 

Ch. of James W.-l. Charles— b. 1869. 2. Carrie E. (Ho- 
mer Miller) — Moorefield 3. Wilber (Margaret Simpson). 4. 
Edward (Greenfield, 0.)*. 5. Mary E.— d. 6. Lucy— dy. 
7. Howard (Harriet Glover, Rkm). 8. Alice. 9. Lillie C. 
(Homer Glass, Rkm)*. 10. Daniel W. 

Line of Conrad:— 1. Adam (Sarah )b. 1816, d. Ifc54. 



252 

2. George. 3. Conrad (Mary )— b. 1820, d. 1855. 4. 

Daniel. 5. Eve. 6. Elizabeth. 7. Hannah. 8. Susan. 9. 
Sarah. By 2d m.— 10. George, Josiah, Jeremiah, Sophia. 

Br, of Adam: — George (b. 1843), Mary, Hannah, Isaac. 

Line of John: — 1. Zebulon (Dorcas Alexander, out) — W. 

Va. 2. John ( Minnick, Zirkle. Magdalena White) 

— W. Va. 3. Jacob (Melissa White)— W. Va. 4. Nash A. 
(Nancy Cook)— b. 1825— W. Va. 5. Elias (Dorcas Wees)- 
W. Va. 6. William (Christina Hammer, Martha Payne) — D. 
1861-W. Va. 7. Michael (Phoebe Hammer, Martha Payne). 
8. Adam H. (Naomi Eye). 9. George A. (Elizabeth Hiser). 
10. Phoebe (Charles Hiser). 11. Polly (Laban Smith). 

Br. of Michael— 1. Abel M.— b. 1834— out. 2. John W. 
— out. 3. Jacob H. (Carrie Dice, Susan Dice). 4. Ander- 
son N. — out. 5. Mary J. (Susan Hammer). 6. Sarah C. 

Br. of Adam H.— 1. Noah (Mary Eye)— Wash. 2. Lucy 
A. — S. 3. Sarah (Solomon Keister). 4. Jane (Reuben 
Eye). 5. Isaphene (Luther Mowrey). 6. Mary E. (Ami 
Simmons). 7. Carrie B. (Charles G. Harman). 

Br. of George A. — 1. Phoebe V. (Erasmus Samuels). 2. 
Margaret (Henry Gilkeson). 3. Nancy (William Largent) — 
Mo. 4. Susan S. (William Dyer). 5. Ida D. (George Hi- 
ser). 6. William S. (Maud V. Blizzard). 7. Robert J. 
(Maud Kiser)— Elkton. 

Ch. of William S.— Myra L., Mamie A , Alvin C, Mabel 
C. George L., Archibald S., Arley P. 

Br. of William— 1. James (Effie Simmons)— W. Va. 2. 
John (0.)* 3. George-S— U. 4. Jane. 5. Phoebe. 6. 
Melissa (Isaac N. Fisher). 7. Rebpcca (Ashby M. Lukens). 
8. Florence (Pleasant Evick). 9. Vista (J. Wilham Kiser). 
10, Alice (Aug.)* IL Hannah (Aug.)* 

Unp. Eve (Daniel )— m. 1816. 2. Margaret (Nicho- 
las Butcher)— m. 1805. 3. Sarah— b. 1785, d. 1858. 4. Pe- 
ter (Emily ). 5. Margaret (Jacob Sites)— m. 1792. 

6. Hannah (Abraham Sites — m. 1802. 7. John (Hannah 
)— d. 1851. 8. Eve (Daniel )— m. 1816. 

Ch. of Peter:— Rebecca ( Cunningham)— b. 1788, d. 

1854. 

Mallow. Michael (Mary )— 1773— ch.— 1. Adam 

(Sarah )— 0. 2. George (Rebecca ). 3. Thomas 

— d. 1801*. 4. Michael— b. 1755*. 5. girl— dy. 6. Henry 
(Magdalena )— b. 1799, d. 1834. 

Family of Adam:— 1. Margaret (Jacob Carr)— m. 1796. 
2. Eve (William Dice)— b. Jan. 6, 1777, d. May 4, 18H2. 

Family of George:— Barbara (Peter Daggy) — m. 1787. 

Family of Henry:— 1. George (Catharine Bush) — b. Oct. 
1, 1781, d. July 5, 1853. 2. Margaret (Paul Kessner)— b. 



253 

1783, d. 1873. 3. Sarah C. (ConradLough)— m. 1809. 4. Cath- 
arine (Joseph Ketterman, Grant*). 5. Anna M. — S. 6. 
Leonard (Elizabeth Hedrick)— m. 1819. 7. Michael (Eliza- 
beth Harper)— b. 1794, d. 1870*. 8. Henry (Susannah Berg- 
dall)— b. 1796. 

Line of George: — 1. Reuben (Lydia Harman)— b. 1808. 2. 
Amos (Phoebe Mouse)— b. 1810— W. 8. Michael (Mary 
Wise)— b 1814. 4. Georgre (Rebecca Harman)— b. 1816. 5. 
Sarah (Adam Dice) — b. 1819. 6. Daniel (Josephine Trumbo) 
— b. 1826, k. 1864. 

Br. of Reuben: — 1. Simeon (Annie Mallow) — b. 1836, d. 
1889. 2. Abraham B. (Rebecca E. Dice)— b. 1843. d. 1906*. 

Ch. of Simeon:— I. Isaac S. (Mary F. Dove). 2. William 
W. (Mary C. Harman). 3. Henry C. (Margaret Dolly). 4. 
Michael C. — d. 5. Mary C. (Isaac Kisamore). 6. Lydia V. 
(Josiah Dolly). 7. Sarah J. (Isaiah Sites)— d. 20. 

C. of Isaac S.— Gertrude V. ( Mauzy), Retta, boy (dy), 

girl (dy). 

C. of William W. — Harman H. (teacher), Nannie (Wilber 
Bible), Ermie, Mary. 

C. of Henry C. — 1 Zella (Simeon Mallow), Zadie, Bertie 
(E'ijah F. Nelson). Alvin. Harr. Roviva M. 

Ch. of Abraham: — 1. Sarah C. (James Payne). 2. Ulys- 
ses G. (Ida Dolly). 3. Tryphena A. (Robert Nelson). 4. 
Jane (Isaac Mallow). 5. John S. (Ida Mallow). 6. Etta 
(Kenny Harman) — Okla. 7. RoUa (Delpha Morral). 

Br. of Michael :—l. Mahala (Solon Hinkle). 2. Anna 
(Simeon H. Mallow). 3. Cena (Isaac Judy). 4. Rebecca 
(Silon Harman). 5. Sarah. 6. Mary J. (Simeon H. Mallow). 
7. Ruhama (Noah Dolly). 8. Catharine (Job Nelson). 9. 
Abraham (Catharine Judy, Phoebe WaybnVht). 10. William 
H. (Sarah Riggleman). 11. Benjamin F. (Rosanna Nelson). 

Br. of Georere : — 1. Isaac. 2. George W. (Sarah Reed). 
3. Daniel B. (Rebecca Lough). 4. Rebecca J. (Ii^aac Miller). 
5. Martha A. (William Phares). 6. Catharine (Pleasant M. 
Harper). 

Line of Leonard : — 1. Adam (Mrs. Magdalena Rohrbaugh, 
Grant)— b. 1820. 2. Amy (George Hahn, Rkm). 3. Henry 

( Trumbo Mallow)— b. 1823. 4. John (Eliza Rexroad). 

5. Margaret (Solomon Rexroad) — b 1826. 6. Magdalena — 
d. 7. Jacob (Susan L. Hammer) — b. 1829. 8. Barbara 
(Benjamin Kessner)— b. 1831. 9. Eve (Michael Hinkle, 
Grant)* 10. Phoebe (Reuben Lough)— b. 1836. 11. Joel 
— dv. 12. Elizabeth (Jeremiah Lough). 

Br. of Adam :— Phoebe, Lavina C. (William C. Ward). 

Br. of John :— Leonard (d), George (d), Elizabeth (d), 
Mary A. ( Dahmer)— Mont, Melancthon (Jennie Dun- 



264 

kle), Jacob M. (Jennie Judv), Jeremiah C. (Annie Hammer). 

Line of Michael:—!. Eve C. (George Greenawalt)— b. 
1815. d. 1898. 2. Noah (Elizabeth Judy)— b. 1825— Mo. 3. 
Philip (Hannah Carr — b. 1828. 4. Susannah (Isaac Alt). 
5. Samuel (Mrs. Phoebe Bible) — b. 18:i4. 6 Moses (Jane 
Dean)— b. 1835, d. 7. Christina (Noah Hink'e)— b. 1839. 

Br. of Philip : — David (Hannah Hammer). Supan E. (d), 
Louisa C, Ann R., Mary A. (William W. Hevener), John A. 
(Mattie M. Harold), Charles (Maud E. Kee). 

Br. of Isaac: — Ann R. (Henry M. Cook), A. Manasseh 
(Neelie Lough), Mary E. (Ulysses S. G. Kile), others (dy). 

Br. of Moses: — George W., Samuel J. (Edna Thacker), 
Evan P., Preston H. (d). Martha E. (d), Myrtle S., William E. 

Line of Henry :— 1. Paul (Elizabeth Custard)— b. 1832, k. 
1864. 2 Hiram. 3. Hannah (Laban Eye)— b. 1836. 4. inf 
(dv). 5. George H. ( Dyer)— Va. 

Br. of Paul:- L William. 2. infs (dy). 

Unp. 1. Emma (John Greenawalt) -b. 1823, d. 1898. 

At the time of the attack on the Upper Tract settlement, 
Michael, the pioneer, was absent from home and thus escaped 
injury. The wife and two children were captured. One of 
the latter, an infant girl, was placed by the Indians on a rock 
in Greenawalt gap and the mother told not to look behind her 
on penalty of being scalped. She never saw the child again. 
The other was a boy, who was restored some years later and 
identified by the father only by a mark on his thumb. The 
mother was also restored. Michael was a prominent man 
among the early settlers and a w«rll-to do farmer. The items 
enumerated in the sale of his property cover five columns. 
Michael, Jr.. was bound to John Bright to learn the tanning 
trade in 1777. and was to have 10 pounds on coming of age. 
Henry was willed lands in Ohio and left his lands near Upper 
Tract to his son George, who, however, settled on Timber 
Ridge in the North Fork valley. His posterity remain chiefly 
in this locality, the other branches of the Mallow family re- 
maining on Mallow's and Poage's runs. Reuben, son of 
George, was a teacher, using both English and German in his 
instruction. 

Martin. Adam (Susan E. Rexroad Mallow) — m. 1865 — ch. 
— 1. Anderson A. (Florence R. Kelso, Hamp.) — editor and 
photographer — Fin. 2. William L. (Julianna Propst — S. G. 
D. 3. Perry C. (Mary M. Siple)— B. D. 4. Parthena M. 
5. Robert P. (Ivy RudHle) — Harrisonburg. 

Ch.-of Anderson M.— Dana C, Gladys C, H. Wilda, 
Eula A. William L. has 1 child and Perry C. has 6. 

Adam had a brother Anderson who married West and set- 
tled in California. 



256 

Masters. Richard (Isabella )—ch.— Campbell (Eliz- 
abeth Hille)— b. Nov. 2, 1783, d. July 29, 1858. 

Br. of Campbell:— 1. Mary. 2. Henry H. (Catharine 
Dice)— b. Aug. 19, 1815, d. Jan. 9. 1892. 3. George W. 
(Evelyn Holliday)— b. 1817. 4. Isabel (John Rogers).— d. 
1819. d. 1879. 5. Charles H. (Eleanora Miller)— b. 1821. d. 
1848. 6. James (Isabella Masters), 7 Andrew (Sarah 
Jones). 8. Robert C. (Margaret Jones). 9. John F.— S. 
10. Eh'zabeth C— S. 11. William E.— b. 1833, d. 1906— S. 

Ch. of Henry H.— 1. Mary E.— d. 20. 2. Hannah C. 
(Thomas W. Bowman)— b. Nov. 26. 1847, d. May 30, 1909. 
3. Henry C. (Mattie Jones, Ky)— b. 1850— Dallas, Tex.— c. 
— Catharine. Charles, John, Dorothy, Richard, George, Ger- 
trude, Mary, Martha, Henry. 4. Alice (James B. Vaughan) 
— b. 1854, d. 1887— Va. 5. John D. (Jessie Miles, Hdy)— 
Sherman. Tex. — c. — Ruth H., John M., Jessie. 

The Masters were English merchants at Liverpool. They 
traded with their own ships to the East Indies, but losing 
vessels the family divided, a part coming to New York. 
Richard, of the American branch, moved to Lewisburg, W. 
Va., but lost his land because of a prior claim. He died in 
Warren Co., Ky. His wife was Isabella, daughter of Lord 
Campbell of Scotland. Andrew McCIellan of Penn., uncle 
to Gen. George B. McCIellan. married Hannah, sister to Camp- 
bell Masters. Henry H. Masters was born poor, studied in 
the old field schools, and learned the trade of carpenter. 
Having a strong intellect and will power, he became a very 
successful lawyer. As a delegate to the Secession Conven- 
tion of 1861 he opposed secession despite entreaty and threat, 
but acquiesced in the will of the majority. He fed many sol- 
diers at his home in Franklin, and after the return of peace 
he bent his energies to allay the bitterness of the war feeling 
and to reinvest the Southern people with citizenship. He 
resumed the practice of law. and under a special act he was 
almost unanimously chosen judge of the county court in 1879. 
He presided over this body until the court was abolished by 
a constitutional amendment. Having amassed a compe- 
tency, he retired from active life. He was a great reader, a 
great lover of poetry, and having a retentive memory, was 
able to quote numerous po^ms. In statecraft his model was 
Clay, in the militnry art, Bonaparte; in the field of poetry, 
Byron. 

Mauzy. Michael (Grace Laird) — b. Sept. 4, 1776, d. Jan. 
3. 1848.— 1. Henry— b. 1808. 2. David (Mary Hammer)— b. 
1810— Hid. 3. Mrgaret— dy. 4. Ruhama. 5. Michael. 6. 
James L. (Malinda Phares) — b. 1815. 7. Thomas. 8. Joseph 
(Susan Hammer). 9. Elizabeth— dy. 10. Sarah (Abraham 



256 

Way bright)— b. 1821. 11. Charles. 12. Susan (George 
Hammf^r). 13. Richard. 

Br. of David:— Minnie (d), Grace, Sarah, George, Michael, 
David, Charles, Whitfield (dy), Mary (Henry Simmons). 

Br. of James L: — 1. Sarah E. (Henry Judy). 2. James C. 
(Marv J. Judy). 3. Solomon P. (Alice Judy)— Tkr. 4. Ja- 
cob (Sarah E. Teter). 5. Michael (Alice Phares, Lela Har- 
per). 6. Grace (Jospph Smith). By 2d m. — 7. Edward 
(Valeria Moyers). 8. Charles (Maud Kline)— D. 30. 9. 
Okey L. (Irene Judy). 10. Susan— dy. 11, Lucy (Grant 
Judv). 12. Nancy (Charles Vandeventer). 13. Boy. 

Richard, Thomas, Charles, and Michael, sons of the pio- 
neer, never resided in Pendleton. The pioneer came late in 
life from Mount Sidney and bought the Adam Vandeventer 
place on Smith Creek, but later moved to the Henry Judy 
place at the Judy bridge. The family has given two sheriffs 
to Pendleton. 

McAvoy. John (Eliza )— b. 1820. d. 1858— ch—1. 

Edgar W. (Mary S. Helmick)— Roaring Cr, 2, Joseph (Mar- 
garet Simmons) — Roaring Cr, 3, John (Grant)* 

Ch. of Edgar W.— Minnie, Eston, Austin, Gustava, Mollie, 
Ma?on. 

Ch. of Joseph : — Joseph H., Simon, inf (dy). 

McClung. 2 sons of William (Rachel V, Gwin) of Clover 
Cr. settled in Pendleton : — 1. Daniel G. (Sarah A. Maupin) 
— b. Feb 16. 1824. d. Mar. 3, 1901, 2. Silas B. (Nancy J. 
Lemon)— b. 1832— U. T. 

Br. of Daniel G.— 1. Tvree M. (Roberta Maupin)— Ind. 2. 
William W. (Emma E, Littell)— editor— Salem. 3. Marshall 
G. (Elizabeth S. Simmons Koiner) — attorney— Salem. 4. 
John L. — Tenn. 5. Maude B. (Benjamin H. Hiner). 

Br. of Silas B.— L Rachel V, (P A. Switzer)— 

Phil'a. 2 Warren C. 3. Clarence R. 4. Josie L. — teacher. 
5. Henry P. (Sarah J. Bond). 6. Edgar N. 

Daniel G. was a merchant more than 40 years. During the 
civil war he conducted a merchantile house at Richmond, 
supplying the Confederate army with uniforms. He then re- 
turned and or(Tanized the Farmer's Bank, of which he was 
president. T^ ree M. and John L, are Presbyterian minis- 
ters, Henry P. and Edgar N. are salesmen in the city of New 
York. 

McClure. John (Elizabeth McCoy)— b. 1777, d. 1858— ch. 
— 1. John (Sidney Judy)— b. Dec. 5, d. Mar. 19, 1888. 2. 
Elizabeth— d. 

Br. of John:— 1. Elizabeth (Amby Harper)— b. 1829. 2. 
Catharine J. (Jacob Harper) — b. 1833. 3. John (Rebecca 



257 

J. Skidmore)— merchant and stock dealer— Fin. 4. William 
— b. 1846, k. 1864. 

Unp. Michael (Mary )— d. 1804.— Fin. Ch— Cath- 
arine (Thomas Wood) — m. 1800. 

McCoy. John (Sarah Oliver, d. 1807)*— ch.— 1. Robert— 
b. 1761, d. 1850— Ind. 2. Elizabeth (John McClure)— b. 
1763, d. 1842. 3. Oliver (Margaret Johnson)— b. 1765, d. 
1828. 4. Jane (William Gamble)— m. 1792— Ind. 5. William 
(Elizabeth Harrison)— b. Sept. 20, 1768, d. Aug. 19, 1835. 6. 
John (Catharine Williams)— b. 1770. d. 1811. 7. Benjamin 
(Margaret Jones, Hid) *— b. 1772. 8. Sarah (Jacob Hiner) 
— b. 1774, m. 1799. 9. Joseph (Margaret Harvey— b. 1776, 
d. 1850— Mo. 10. Jemima (Harmon Hiner)— b. 1779, d. 

1860. 11. James (Elizabeth , 0.)*— b. 1782, d. 1858 

-0 

Line of Oliver :— 1. Martha— b. 1802, d. 1859. 2. Jefferson 
(Jennie Ruddle) 3. Sarah A. (James B. Kee). 4. Mortimer 
(Virginia Stillings, G'brier)— b. 1811. 

Line of William :— 1. Matilda ( Cunningham, Hdy)* 

— b. July 4, 1801, d. July 21. 1843. 2. John-b. 1803, d. July 
21, 1823. 3. Caroline (William McCoy)— b. April 22, 1804, 
d. Mar. 7, 1830. 

Line of Benjamin :— 1. John (Lydia Eagle)— m. 1824. 2. 
Oliver— S. 3. Henry ( )— Hid. 4. William (Car- 
oline McCoy, Mary J. Moomau)— b. Feb. 1800, d. Jan. 28, 
1886. 

Br. of William :— 1. William— b. 1830, d. 1861— S. By 2d 
m.— 2. Margaret C. 3. Caroline H. (William H. Boggs). 4. 
Mary V. (William A. Campbell). 5. John (Martha Price). 
6. Benjamin. 7. Pendleton (Catharine McMechen— Moore- 
field. 8. Lucy (Franklin Anderson). 9. Alice V. (Charles 
Chamberlain) — W. 

Ch. of John :— Catharine P. (Byron Boggs), William, Geo. 
P., Richard C, Courtland, John, Mary (dy), Alice V. 

William, father of the pioneer, came from Scotland. His 
other son, James went to North Carolina. There were sev- 
eral daughters, whose names we do not possess. Sarah Ol- 
iver was a daughter of Aaron, an immigrant from Holland, 
who married a daughter of Col. Harrison of Rockingham. 
John settled at Doe Hill. He commanded a company in the 
French and Indian war. His son Robert marched on foot to 
join the army of Greene in North Carolina. He took part in 
the battle of Guilford in 1781 and returned in safety. John, 
Jr. , was slain at Tippecanoe in 1811. The only sons to locate 
in Pendleton were Oliver and William, the former settling on 
the South Branch near Byrd's mill. He there built a brick 

PCH17 



house which is still occupied. He was a justice and other- 
wise prominent in the early annals of the county. 

General William McCoy became a merchant at Franklin 
and was a large landholder in both Pendleton and Highland. 
He purchased the Peninger and the Ulrich Conrad selections 
at and below the mouth of the Thorn, and gave much of his 
care and attention to this well-stocked farm. His promi- 
nence as a public man in his own county caused him to be 
elected to Congress in 1811, and to be returned for eleven 
consecutive terms. When he went to Washington the na- 
tional capital was a far remove from the fine city it has re- 
cently become. The straggling town of only 9000 people was 
threaded by unpaved and muddy streets. The long period of 
22 years of service was not only a compliment to the ability 
of General McCoy, but it was also a compliment to his county, 
Pendleton being the most remote in his district and the least 
populous and wealthy. In Congress he was a man of influ- 
ence. He was a trusted friend of President Jackson, and for 
many years he held the important post of chairman of the 
Committee on Ways and Means. He was also a member of 
the Constitutional Convention of 1829. His Congressional 
career was brought to a close by a stroke of paralysis. In 
person he was tall and spare with a commanding figure. His 
wife was a kinswoman to President William H. Harrison and 
also to Professor Gessner Harrison of the University of Vir- 
ginia. 

William, son of Benjamin, was born at Doe Hill, and came 
to Franklin as a youth to assist in his uncle's business. Later, 
as an attorney, he represented the extensive land interests of 
Joseph and Benjamin Chambers. He was able and efficient 
and of uncompromising honor and integrity. He was a justice 
and deputy sheriff and served his county in the legislature. 
He could have succeeded his uncle in congress, but preferred 
a private life. For many years he was a ruling elder in the 
Presbyterian church. His oldest son, Captain William, was 
also a lawyer, and he lost his life in the Confederate service. 
John, a younger son, succeeded to the occupancy of the 
family estate and has several times been chosen to the 
legislature of West Virginia. His oldest son, William, has 
also served in the legislature and is at present Prosecuting 
Attorney. His oldest sister, Margaret C, is an artist in 
landscape and portrait painting and has studied and worked 
in the city of New York. 

McDonald. Anthony (Harriet Stonebraker)— b. 1817, d. 
1874— ch—1. Peter (Elizabeth Hedrick)-W. 2. Ann M. 
(Jacob Phares)— b. 1839. 3. Valentine M. (Elizabeth Har- 
per). 4. Mary R. 5. Susan (Jacob Harper). 6. Bronson 



259 

(Arissa Hinkle)— b. 1846. 7. Hortensia (Jacob Hinkle). 8. 
Seymour (Mary J. Nelson). 9. Sarah J.— dy. 10. Hider 
(Catharine Lantz)— Keyser. 11. Caroline (Abraham Har- 
man). 12. James— dy. 13. Elmira (John Cooper, Rph)*. 
14. Henrietta (Robert Phares). 15. Getta L. (Asa Cooper, 
Rph)— b. 1864. 

Unp. Archibald (Elizabeth )— 1803. 

McQuain. Alexander (Mary Bodkin) — ch. — 1. Duncan 
(Martha Rymer, Catharine Fox)— b. 1783, d. 1862. 2. John 
(Cynthia Vint, Sarah Schrader) — homestead. 3. William — 
dy. 4. Alexander— W. 5. John — Rph. 6. Hugh— Gilmer. 
7. Elizabeth (William Vint). 8. Thomas (Margaret Vint)— 
b. 1791. 10. Jane (Daniel Hevener). 11. Esther (John 
Hartman)— 111. 12. Isabella (James Smith)— m. 1811— Hid. 

Line of Duncan:— 1. George (Aug)*. 2. Nancy (Henry 
Propst). 3. Alexander (Nellie Rexroad) — Lewis. 4. Thomas 
(Sarah Stone). By 2d m.— 5. Elizabeth— d. 6. Jane (Aug. ) *. 
7. Catharine— d. 1862. 8. Mary (John Vint)— 111. 9. Mar- 
tha (Aug.)*. 10. Margaret— d. 1883. 11. Amanda (Dun- 
can Wees). 12. William F. 13. John M. (Ida Masters, Hid.) 
-B.— T. 

Br. of John M. — Robert W., Margaret (John Pitsenbar- 
ger), Samuel, John, Charles, Kate (Pleasant Propst), Nancy, 
Ida M., Jane, Elizabeth, inf (dy). 

Line of Thomas:— 1. Martha (John Propst)— b. 1839. 2. 

Malinda ( Keister, Peter Hyer)— b. 1842. 3. Mahulda 

(David Rader). 4. Minerva (John Rader)—b. 1846. 5. Una 
(John Wagoner, Hid). 6. Morgan (W)*. 

Duncan received a land grant for his services in the war 
of 1812. Mary Bodkin was not of the Bodkin family of High- 
land. Thomas, son of Alexander, was murdered on his way 
to the Shenandoah to purchase land. William F. is a veteran 
teacher. 

Mick. (A) Sampson (Jane )— removed to Tkr — 

ch. — Solomon (Catharine Lambert), John (k. civil war), 
"Bud" (W. Va.), Phoebe (Aaron Lambert). 

Ch. of Solomon: — Lizeddie (Turley Bennett), John K. 
(Callie Lambert) . Pearlie (Kennie Wanless), Ada (Phares 
May), Virginia, Margaret (Solomon C. Mullenax), others. 

(B) Mathias (Lavina Vande venter) — brother to Samson 
— removed to Tkr. 

Unp. 1. Edmund (Mary Collett)— m. 1797. 2. Keziah 
(George Helmick). 3. Mathias (Lucy Powers)— m. 1797. 

4. Mathias (Christina R. )— m. 1792. 5. John (Emily 

Calhoun)— m. 1814. 

Ch. of Edmund:— Charles (Sarah Murphy)— m. 1821— W. 

Miley. Joshua (Sarah White Rexroad, Hid)— ch.— 1. 



260 

John (Phoebe A. Miller)— Miley Gap. 2. Anton S. (Cora 
Hedrick). 3. Henry. 4. Mary (Isaac Lough). 5. Hannah 
S. (Solon Miller). 6. Henrietta (John W. Raines). T.Mar- 
garet (Simeon Sites). 8. Elisha ( Sites). 

Miller. (A) Anthony ( )— d. 1840, at advanced 

age — ch. — Isaac (Margaret Lair) — went to 0. before 1828. 

Br. of Isaac:— 1. John (Sarah Shirk, Penn.)— b. 1806, d. 
1839 — Ft. S. place. • 2 — 7. Lair, Isaac, Jacob, Elizabeth, 
Mary, Catharine, — went to 0. 

Ch. of John:— 1. Martha A. (Allen Dyer). 2. Wesley C. 
(Phoebe A. Wagoner)— la., 1857. 3. William C. (Catharine 
M. Cowger) — b. 1838 — homestead. 

C. of William C— 1. Sarah E. 2. John W. (Kate S. Hi- 
ner). 3. Jacob C. 4. Edmund T. (Mary Gilkeson) — mer- 
chant— Ft. S. 

(B) John ( )— d. 1819*— ch.— 1. Juliana. 2. 

Mathias— d. 1807. 3. Magdalena. 4. George (Sarah ) 

— N-F. 5. John (Elizabeth Lough)— m. 1792— homestead. 6. 

Conrad ( )— out. 7. Mary (Charles Hiser). 8. Eve 

( Huffman). 9. Elizabeth (Nicholas Bargerhoff). 10. 

Margaret ( King). 11. Catharine (Henry Wees?) — 

m. 1799? 

Line of George :— 1. John G. (Mary A. )— b. 1787. 

2. Samuel— S. 3. George (Mary A. Fisher)— b. 1810. 4. 
Adam G. (Mary Hammer) — Poca. 

Br. of John G.— Eve— S— b. 1821, d. 1895. 

Line of John : — 1. Adam (Barbara Propst) — m. 1820 — 
Poca. 2. John (Susannah Hedrick). 

Br. of John : — 1. Silas (Hannah Ketterman) — 111. 2. Amos 
(Eliza Wimer). 3. Job (Eliza Harper). 4. Sarah A. (George 
Borrer). 5. Hannah — S. 6. Isaac (Millie Cowger, Margaret 
Rodecap, Rkm) — Ind. 7. Melinda J. (David Mowrey). 

Ch. of Job :— Mary J. (Ind.)*, John W. (Ind).* 

(C) Thomas ( )—Ch?— George (Kate )— d. 

1829— -homestead. 2 others). 

Line of George : — 1. Jonas (Mary Harper) — b. 1793, m. 

1818. 2. Jacob. 3. Thomas. 4. George (Susannah ). 

5. Mary ( Hinkle). 6. Christina (Samuel Harman). 

7. Elizabeth ( Carr). 8. Phoebe ( Miller). 

Br. of Jonas : — 1. Samuel (Sarah C. Lough, Phoebe Green- 
await) — homestead. 2. George (Phoebe Lough, Susan 
Lough). 3. Isaac (Rebecca J. Mallow). 4. Thomas— S. 
5. William H.— b. 1821, drowned 1859. 6. Philip— dy. 7. 
Sarah (Adam Lough). 8. Rebecca (Henry Bergdall, Grant)* 
9. Hannah (John A. Harman). 

Ch. of Samuel, by wd. wm. — Emma, Radie. 

Ch. of George:— John W. (Eliza J. George)— Tkr. 2. So- 



' 261 

Ion P. (Hannah Miley)— Tkr. 3. Joseph A. (Almeda J. 
Harman). 4. Phoebe A. (John Miley). 

Unp. 1. John S. (Susannah Hedrick)— b. 1792. 2. Ste- 
phen (Rachel )— d. 1799— S.-F. 3. Adam G. (Mary 

Hammer)— m. 1819. 4. Abraham (Mary Trader)— m. 1802. 

5. Abraham (Sarah ) — b. before 1784. 6. Charles 

(Elizabeth )— b. before 1784. 7. Daniel (Esther Kis- 

amore)— m. 1805. 8. F (Catharine )— b. 1770, d. 

185y). 9. George (Christina Naigley)— m. 1809. 10. Jacob 

(Susan ). 11. Jacob (Elizabeth Peterson) — m. 1800 — 

b. in Penn. 12. Leonard (Susannah ) — b. before 1784. 

13. Margaret (Jacob Varner) — m. 1817. 14. Mary (George 
Kimble)— m. 1802. 15. Mary (David Flinn)— m. 1796. 16. 

Michael (Barbara )— b. before 1774. 17. (Ann 

Wood)— m. 1797. 18. Peter— on S.-B, 1753. 19. Valentine 

(Susannah )— 1789. 20. William (Mary )— 1796. 

21. Mary (Caleb Smith)— m. 1795. 22. Thomas— 1789— ch.— 
Mary (Michael Tingler)-m. 1792. 23. Christina (Reuben 
Hammer)— b. 1790. 

Line of John S. — Amos (Eliza Wimer) — Walnut bottom. 

Br. of Amos: — John H. (Roberta C. Clayton), Sarah C. 
(Isaac Harman), Martha S. (James A. Hevener), Cena A. 
(James W. Armentrout), Benjamin F. (Amanda J. Hartman), 
Nancy M. (Samuel G. Armentrout), boy (dy). 

Line of Stephen:— George, Absalom. 

Line of Jacob (Susan): — Susan (Jane Bible). 

Line of Jacob (Elizabeth): — David (Eleanor ) — b. 

in Penn., 1780, d. 1858. 

The name Miller is one of the few v^hich occurs every- 
where. It is not specially common in Pendleton in our time, 
yet from the early days of settlement has been represented 
by several distinct and now more or less extinct family 
groups. It is therefore practically hopeless to attempt a 
thorough going classification. Doubtless the first Miller to 
settle in Pendleton was Mark, who died in 1757. His admin- 
istrator was Peter Vaneman, whose sureties were Jacob Sey- 
bert and Michael Eckard. A John who lived opposite the 
Hoover mill above Brandy wine was a deserter from the army 
of Cornwallis. 

Mitchell. (A) John (Elizabeth )— b. 1775, d. 1853 

— ch. — 1. Ann (Jacob Snider). 2. Mary (David Reed — Va. 
3. William (Amelia May) — W. 4. Jesse (Sarah Nesselrodt). 
5. Leonard (Mary E. Hartman, Lydia Fitz water) —b. 1818. 
d. 1897. 6. John (Dorothy Fitzwater)— b. 1815, d. 1888. 

Br. of Jesse : — 1. Cyrus (Priscilla Shaver, Nessel- 
rodt). 2. Rachel (Silas Hottinger Shaver). 3. Robert (Ar- 



262 

ilia Brady). 4. Nathan (Frances Nesselrodt, Rebecca Rat- 
liff). 5. Albert (Mary Pope), 
Br. of Leonard : — Jennie (George Hoover, Abraham (- 



Hoover), Jackson, Polly A., Martha (Benjamin Long), Mary 
(Charles Hartman), Charles, Lucinda, Howard, Lura. 

Br. of John:-l. Elizabeth (Philip Riggleman)— Rkm. 2. 
Abiathar (Susan Plaugher) — homestead. 3. Joshua (Aug)* 
4. Eliza (James Nesselrodt) 5. Mary R. (William S. Nessel- 
rodt. 6. Jackson (Hannah Mowrey). 

Unp. Ann C. (Balsor Shaver)— b. 1792. 

This family of Mitchells remain around the original settle- 
ment. 

(B) Peter ( )—ch.— George (Christina Propst) 

— b. 1776, d. 1856. 

Line of George : — 1. Mary (Christian Puff enbarger). 2. 
Jacob (Abigail Rexroad, Elizabeth Eckard) — b. 1805— n. 

homestead. 3. George ( Sheets) — Ind. 4. Leonard 

(Elizabeth Rexroad)— b. 1811, d. 1881— homestead. 5. Sarah 
(Daniel Crummett). 6. Peter (Sarah Hively, Anne Waggy, 
Leah Propst) — b. 1815 — homestead. 7. Susannah (Philip 
Wimer). 8. Christina (Haigler Eye). 9. Rachel— S. 10. 
Jonas (Elizabeth Lamb, Amanda Bodkin). 

Br. of Jacob — 1. Benjamin (Hannah M. Swadley, Naomi 
Simmons) — Mitchell mill. 2. Emanuel (Margaret Arm- 
strong — Hid. 3. George W. (Eliza Snider) — Stony Run. By 
2dm. — 4. Abel (Elizabeth Waggy)— Aug. 5. Henry. 6. 
William — k. 7. Elizabeth A. (James Sinnett). 8. Lavina 
A. 9. Angeline — dy. 

Ch. of Benjamin :— 1. Eliza A.— dy. 2. Mary E. (Jacob 
A. Mitchell). 3. Jacob F. (Leah Rexroad, Florence Propst). 
4. Samuel P. (Jennie F. Hoover). 5. Frank (Ella V. Mitch- 
ell, Aug. 6. William M. (Ida M. Propst). 7. Estella (Oliver 
Sinnett). 8. Martha J. (William H. Puff enbarger— 0. 9. 
Sarah V. By 2d m.— 10. James H. 

C. of Jacob F.— Elizabeth, Tyra P., Margaret E., Minnie 
F. (dy), others (dy): by 2d m.— Leon L., Ora D., Byron J., 
OnaS., EdnaM. 

C. of Samuel P.— boy (dy), Fred G., William F., Myrtie E., 
Lottie E., Harvey B., Hugh. 

C. of Frank:— Eva E., Eulah F., Flora J., Walter. 

C. of William M.— Lula M., Benjamin H., Lena M., Sarah 
v., Ernest L., Mary E., Stella P. 

Ch. of George W.— 1. Emanuel ( Wilfong, Mina Sim- 
mons) — homestead. 2. Sarah J. (George Baker). 3. Syl- 
vester (Mary J. Kiser). 4. George F. (Jane Wilson, Hid). 

C. ofEmanuelr-ElizaM. (Tillman Puff enbarger), Gilbert, 



263 

Sarah J., Joseph L., Regina (d), Myra, Marvin, Luerma, 
Camden, others (dy). 

C. of Sylvester .—James C. (d.), Lepha A., 6 (dy). 

C. of George F.— Richard F., Eulah M. (dy), H. Blanche. 

Line of Leonard: — 1. Laban (Louisa Rexroad). 2. Jacob 
(Christina Simmons). 3. Samuel (Clara M. Propst). 4. Se- 
neal. 5. Mary. 6. Susannah (John W. Propst). 

Br. of Laban: — William A., Lloyd (dy), Jacob H., Richard 
W., Mary E. 

Br. of Jacob:— Claude, Ada E., Pierce E., Nora M. 

Br. of Samuel:— Tarry G., Charles B. (dy), Albert, Dora M. 

Line of Peter: — 1. David (Mary F. He vener). 2. Jeremiah 
(AmandaEye). 3. Christina (Harrison Pitsenbarger). 4. Lena. 

Br. of David: — Sarah J. (Abraham Propst), Louisa A. 
(Henry L. Sinnett), Philip A. (Christina Mitchell), Tillman 
H. (d), John L (Mary F. Hoover), Robert P. (Dora G. Eye), 
Hannah E. N. (John D. Hoover). 

Line of Jonas:— 1. George S. (Etta Cook)— M. R. D. 2. 
Jacob A. (Mary E. Mitchell). 3. William H. (Polly A. Sim- 
mons). 4. John F. (Catharine Propst). 5. Jesse C. (Lottie 
M. Eye) — homestead. 6. Hannah (George Crummett). 7. 
Louisa (Miles Eye). 8. Martha S. (Washington Hyer). 9. 
Christina (Philip A. Mitchell). 

Moats. Jacob (Elizabeth ) — exempt, 1789* — ch. — 1. 

Jacob. 2. George (Eve Stone) — m. 1792. 3. Adam. 4. John 
(Elizabeth Pitsenbarger)— 0. before 1825. 5. Michael (Eliz- 
abeth ). 6. Barbara. 7. Elizabeth (John Wamsley)— 

Barbour. 

Line of George: — Christina (John Shrader) — m. 1812. 2. 
Peter (Rachel Gragg)-m. 1814. 

Montony. Joseph (Catharine Bennett) — ch. — 1. Mary J. 
(William Slaton,Poca.) 2. Phoebe (Josiah Ralston, Hid)* 3. 
Charity A. — dy. 4. Margaret (George Bible, John S. Cur- 
rence. Rph)*. 5. Joseph V. (Jane Murphy)— 0. 6. Theo- 
dore G. (Edith J. Nelson)— Tkr. 7. Robert W. (Mary M. 
Vandeventer)— b. 1842. 8. MelvinaB. (Luke Settles, Rph)*. 
9. Emily C. (George A. Smith)— Rph. 10. Noah (Malinda 
Smith). 11. Mary E.— dy. 

Br. of Robert W.—l. A M.i(Nettie A. Roby)— Whit- 

mer. 2. Decatur (Gettice Harper) — physician — Harman. 3. 

Jacob (Ella M. Lambert)— Harman. 4. Lora C. (W A. 

Summerfield)— Harman. 5. W. Scott (Jennie Harper)— Har- 
man. 6. Texie J. (T N. Shreve) — Gassaway — D. 

Joseph had a sister Mary (Samson Pennington, m. 1828). 
They were the only children of Albert, who came from France 
and settled in Loudoun. The widow came to Randolph with 
a subsequent husband. 



264 

Moomau. Frederick (Catharine Johnson — b. April 1, 
1796. d. Jaly 5, 1845— Fin— ch.—l. John B. (Hannah H. 
Dice)— b. May 1, 1821, d. June 24, 1864. 2. Mary J. (Wil- 
liam McCoy)— b. 1823. 3. Caroline H. (John W. Gilmore)— 
Tex. 4. Jacob G.— b. 1827, d. 1861. 5. George W. (Kate 
Baker, Grant)* 6. Catharine J.— d. 7. 'Samuel J. (W.)*— 
b. 1834— Cal. 8. James P. (Nancy J. Arbogast)— b. 1837— 
physician— Poca. 

Br. of John B. — 1. Dice (Keyser)* — wagonmaker — b. 
1849, d. 1907. 2. William B. (Aug.)*— b. 1850, d. 1896. 3. 
Scott (W.)— Kas. 4. Mollie (Milton Swink, Rockbridge)* 

5. Catharine. 6. Elizabeth (L. A. Orndorff, Shen.)* 

7. Points— dy. 8. Frederick (Ettie Johnson)— physician — 
Fin. 9. John H. (Elizabeth Pendleton, Albemarle)*— drug- 
gist — Charlottesville. 

Ch. of Frederick :— Glenn., Lynn. 

John B. Moomau completed the military and law courses of 
the Virginia Military Institute, graduating in 1845. He or- 
ganized a company for the Confederate service and became 
its captain. In 1863 he was prosecuting attorney. For 
greater security in the troublous times of war, the family 
went temporarily to Staunton, where his wife died in 1864, 
and he at almost the same time in Charlottesville. The 
county court of Pendleton gave this tribute to Captain Moo- 
mau. "An able, efficient, and patriotic officer, a high- 
minded and chivalrous gentleman, and an agreeable, fair, 
and courteous practitioner." 

The pioneer Moomau was one of the three brothers who 
came from France with the Huguenots who gave up home 
and country for the sake of their religion. 
-^ Morral. Samuel? (Marv Davis)— d. before 1790— ch.—l. 
John (Sarah Davis)— m. 1785, d. 1795. 2. Samuel (Elizabeth 
Davis). 3.' William (Elizabeth Conrad)— m. 1797. 4. Jason 
( Harold)— 0. 5. James— will drawn 1795. 

Line of John :—l. Hannah ( Nestrick). 2. Mary— S. 

— b. 1789. 3. Sarah— S—b. 1791, d. 1860. 

Line of Samuel :— 1. Abel (Jane Painter)— 0? 2. Lair D. 

( Harper). 3. Samuel— W. 4. John— Tex. 

:~i.ine of William :— Cain (Sarah Harper)— b. 1804, d. 1870* 
— N-F-ch — K James (Polly A. Bible)— b. — n. M. S. 
2. Samuel (Mary F. Mouse)— Barbour. 3. John (Rebecca 
Dean)— b. 1830. 4. Philip (Sarah A. Harper).. 5. Susan— 
d. 6. Amos (Mary Barclay). 7. Rachel (L-^aac P. Boggs— 
b. 1846. 

Br. of John :— 1. Samuel C. (Susan C. Raines). 2. Benja- 
min F. 3. Evan J.— twin to Benjamin F. 4. David A. 5. 



265 

— . Phoebe J. (James P. Davis). 6. Mary (Joseph A. Huff- 
man). 7. Ida B. (William Bible). 8. Emma— d. 9. John 
W. (Nancy Lanham, Upshur) — Elkins. 10. Anne (Benjamin 
W. Cooper, Rph)* 

Br. of Amos: — Sarah A. (John Kisamore, Rph)* 2. Jasper 
(MoUie Hevener, Rph)* 3. Elizabeth (George Hevener, 
Rph)* 4—5. boys— dy, 

"^ Br. of James: — John A. (Rebecca Harman), Amos (Ettie 
Long), Cain (Maud Arbogast), Phoebe J. (Elijah Vance), 
Sarah C. (Wesley Vance), Hannah (Josiah Kisamore), Clark 
(Cora Hartman). " 

Line of Jason : — Robert, William, Jesse (Mary Davis). 

Unp. 1. Mary A. (John Davis)— d. 1828. 2. John (Cath- 
arine Miller)— m. 1824. 

The older Morrals left the South Fork early in the last cen- 
tury. William sold to John Evick in 1801. Lair D. was 
county clerk of Barbour. 

Mowrey. George ( ) — ch? — 1. Henry (Catha- 
rine Sheets) — m. 1796. 2, George (Elizabeth Puffenbarger) 
— m. 1804 — Crun-imett's Run. 3. Leonard (Susan Knicely) — 
below Oak Flat. 4. Susan— b. 1785. 5. Rachel (Anthony 
N. Mowrey). 

Br. of Leonard: — 1. William (Matilda Cassell, Josephine 
Mitchell?). 2. Anthony (Rachel Mowrey). 3. Jenny (Na- 
than Day)— b. 1805. 4. Kate— d. 5. George— d. 

Ch. of William:— 1. Mahala J. 2. Sarah A.— S. 3. Henry 
— k. 4. John (W.)* 5. David (Malinda Miller)— Ind. 6. 
Mary E. (Harmon Dean). 7. Marshall (Ind.)* 

Br. of Anthony N.— 1. Barbara— b. 1838. 2. Rebecca 
(Adam Clayton). 3, Leonard ( Harman, Cynthia Cus- 
tard)— b. 1842. 4. John M. (Md.)*— k. 5. George 6. 
Abel (Rachel Malcolm)— Rph. 7. Delilah J. (John Graham). 
8. Allen— dy. 

(B) John ( )— ch. — John (Nannie Dean) — m. 

1811. 

(C) David C. (Margaret Shreve) — ch. — Oliver, Samuel J., 
Dayton, Jesse, Grace E. (dy), Isom, inf (dy). 

Moyers. Peter ( )— d. 1795— ch.— 1. Peter— k. 

by powder explosion 1804. 2. George. 3. Martin (Sarah 
Hammer)— m. 1804, d. 1840— Hid. 4. Philin (Christina 
Lemon)— m. 1805. 5. Lewis (Mary Rexroad)-b. 1790. 6. 
Jacob (Kate Rexroad— d. 1850)* 

Line of Martin :— Elizabeth (Jotham Prine), Polly (Joseph 

Lane), Catharine (Jesse P. ) Frances (Salisbury Trumbo), 

Margaret, Susan, James, Samuel. 

Line of Lewis :— 1. Lewis (JuHaR. Propst)-b.l829— B— T. 
2. Martin (Elizabeth Harper— )b. 1827— S—B. 3. James 



266 

( Rexroad(— Ritchie. 4. Peter (Sarah Moyers— b. 1833 

—Ritchie. 5. Harmon (Melinda Simmons) — W. — T. 6. Sam- 
uel (Mary A. Simmons)— W — T. 7. Sidney (Adam Hammer) 
— Ritchie. 8. Sarah (Peter Simmons) . 

Br. of Lewis: — Calvin (Lucinda J. Rexroad), Martha (Wil- 
liam Waggy), Lewis, (Margaret Pi tsenbarger), James (dy), 
John (Phoebe Harper), Marshall (Dora Michael), William 
(Carrie Propst,) Pinkney (k. by lightning), Jennie (Wesley 
Sinnett), Floyd (Florence Sinnett). 

Ch. of Calvin :—Verdie, David L., Nettie E., Roy L., 
Homer G. 

Ch. of John : — Kenny (teacher). 

Ch. of Marshall : — Ida, Cora, Phoebe, Sarah, Mattie, 
James, Edward, Lee, Oscar (boy dy). 

Br. of Martin :— Martin— 1. Samuel (Ida Moyers). 2. Peter 
J. (Alice Simmons). 3. Phoebe J. (Jasper Simmons). 4. 
Marion (Florence Simmons). 5. William L. (Zadie Judy) — 
Moyers Gap. ^7^8'inf (dy.) 

Br. of Harmon :— Valeria J. (b. 1842), Martha, Marshall, 
Mary E., (b. 1848). 

Br. of Samuel : — Addison (b. 1840), Catharine, Sidney, 
Morgan, Mahala (b. 1850). 

Line of Jacob : — 1. Cain (Rebecca Simmons)— b. Nov. 10, 
1810. 2. Marian— b. 1812— S. 3. Margaret— dy. 4. Henry 
(Sarah Eye)-b. Mar. 10, 1816. 5. Millie (Elijah Taylor, 
Va.)— Pa. 6. Levi (Delilah Smith)— b. 1822, d. 1895. 7. 
Phoebe — S. 8. Julia A. (George Simmons). 9. Solomon 
(Elizabeth Simmons). 10. Kate (Samuel Hammer). 11. 
Harmon (Sarah A. Smith, Annie Harper). 12. Elizabeth 
(Henry Varner). 13. Washington (Sarah Zickafoose). 

Br. of Cain : — Susan (Job Hartman) — b. 1833. 2. Leah 
(Emanuel Simmons). 3. Peyton. 4. Phoebe A. (John Lam- 
bert). 5. Margaret (Harvey Lambert). 

Br. of Henry:— 1. George W. (Mary Rexroad)— b. 1848. 

2. Jacob (Rebecca Harold, Simmons) —Rph. 3. Reuben 

(Lucy Smith) — Poca. 4. Markwood (Annie Way bright) — 
Hunting Ground. 5. Addison (Addie Zickafoose, Susan Nel- 
son). 6. Charles (Mary Kile)— Rhp. 7. Mary (Calvin Bar- 
clay). 8. Ellen (Ephraim Way bright). 9. Zadie (Edward 
Monness). 10. Regamia (Washington Helmick). 11. Aman- 
da (Aaron Rexroad). 

Br. of Levi: — John (Jennie Ruddle), Alberta, Conrad (Sa- 
rah Nelson), Charles (Lura Judy), Lucy (James Moyers), 
Mattie (Samuel Richard), Valeria (Edward Mauzy), Virginia. 

Br. of Solomon:— James E. (Lucy Moyers) — merchant — 
Fin. 2. John (Mary Zickafoose). 3. William (Mollie Sim- 
mons). 4. Timothy (Phoebe Bible) . 5. Ashby (Sarah Lough, 



267 

Emma Harper). 6. MaryJ. (JohnWilfong). 7. Sarah— dy. 

Br. of Washington: — Mollie (David Varner), Lucy (Charles 
Sponaugle), Ida (William Jefferson, Shen. Val.). 

Children of James E. — Luna (Emory McGlaughlin). 

Unp. 1. Jacob— 1774. 2. Charlotte (John Fisher)— m. 
1810. 3. Jacob, Jr. (Polly Eckard)— m. 1827. 4. Mary 
(George Michael)— m. 1827. 5. John (Phoebe Varner)— m. 
1825. 

The Moyers connection is rather solidly massed along the 
upper South Branch and the Thorn valleys and includes some 
very industrious farmers. 

Mozer. Job (Barbara Hartman) — b. Nov. 9, 1811, d. Aug. 
10, 1872— ch.— 1. Morgan A.— S. 2. Mahala J. — S. 3. 
Amos M. (Phoebe J. Hartman)— b. Oct. 30, 1831, d. July 3, 
1908. 

Br. of Amos M.— 1. Enoch G. 2. Rebecca E. (George W. 
Kessner) . 8. Virginia E. (James A. Hevener) . 4. Mary A. 
(George A. Lough). 

Mullenax. (A) James (Mary Arbogast, m. 1785, Mary 

Yeager, m. 1795)— d. 1816— ch.— 1. Abraham ( Kile). 

By 2d m. — 2. William (Christina Vance, m. 1814— Nancy 
A. Murphy, m. 1825). 3. Jacob (Hannah Armentrout) — m. 
1814. 4. George (Elizabeth Lambert)— m. 1817. 

Line of Abraham: — 1. Conrad (Mary Dove) — W. 2. 
James (Pamela Murphy)— b. 1806, d. 1858. 3. Salathiel 
((Catharine Grimes, m. 1829, Margaret Mullenax, m. 1881). 
4. Abraham (Mary E. Mullenax). 5; Solomon ( Nel- 
son?)— Lewis? 6. Jacob (Margaret Nelson?)— b. 1827?— 
Lewis? 7. Elizabeth (Eli Calhoun)— m. 1834. 8. Margaret 
(Robert J. Nelson). 9. Mary— d. 

Br. of James:— 1. John W. (Mary C. Judy)— m. 1852. 2. 
William (Elizabeth Nelson)— m. 1847. 3. Benjamin (Catha- 
rine Schrader) — W. 4. James (Susan Nelson, Elizabeth 
Phares, m. 1854) — Kas. 5. Sarah A. (Jacob Nelson). 

Ch. of John W. — MaryJ. (Lemuel J. Bennett), Isaac J. 
(Rosetta Mullenax), John A,, Thomas J. (Virginia Dove), 
Harness (dy), Martin (Rachel Teter), Virginia (Alonzo J. 
Gibson, Rph)*, Phoebe E. (Christopher Armentrout), Eliz- 
abeth (Eli Lambert, Charles Lantz, Rph)* Edward (Lottie 
Bible), Alpha (Martin Hartman). 

Nearly all the ch. of John W. settled in Rph. 

C. of Isaac J.— Viola, Strickler J. (dy), Ada J. (Walter S. 
Brown, N. H.), Phoebe A. (dy), Levi (Curtis Fox), Etta, 
Mattie, John W., Bishop M., Charles E. V., Elva L. 

Br. of Salathiel:— 1. Abraham (Mary E. Mullenax)— W. 
2. Charity M. (Noah Teter)— m. 1855. 3. Catharine (Abra- 



ham Helmick, Tkr)* 4. Isaac (Lucinda Teter, Tkr)* 5. 
Jacob (Ann R. Simmons Calhoun). 

Line of William:— 1. Elizabeth (Abel Long, Rph)*. 2. 
Ruhama (Nathan Wimer) — m. 1844. 3. Joseph (Abigail 
Phares)— b. 1814, m. 1840. 4. Edward (Winifred Calhoun, 
(MaryMowrey). 5. William (Sarah Calhoun)— m. 1859. 6. 
Henry (Elizabeth Vance Wimer). 7. Christina (Daniel Way- 
bright)— m. 1848. 8. Mary (Solomon Vance)— m. 1852. 9. 
Lucinda (Adam Gun, Hid)*. 10. Abraham— k. by fall at 15*. 
11. Susan (Henry Wyant). 12. James (Susan Lawrence 
Bland). 13. Martha— S. 

Br. of Joseph: — Conrad (b. 1842), George A., Sarah C. 

Br. of Edward: — Annie C. (Amby Harper), Elizabeth (Jef- 
ferson D. Rexroad. Hid)*, Mary J. (Matthew Potter, Hid), 
William J. (Annie Way bright), James E. (Sarah E. Moyers), 
Martha D. (Sylvester Nelson), Emma (Norval High), girl 
(dy). William (Mary Mowrey). By 2d m. — Claude, John 

E. (Nora Rexroad)— Manassas, Ernest (Nettie Simmons) — 
Manassas. 

Ch. of James E.— Maud E., LultolE., Edith E., Lula M., 
Elizabeth, Arley, Roland, Mabel (dy). 

Line of Jacob: — 1. George (Sarah Simmons). 2. John 
(Rachel Rexroad) — m. 1837. 3. Catharine (George Vande- 
venter) — Va. 

Line of George: — 1. James (Phoebe Zickafoose) — m. 1842. 
2. Mary (Lewis Rexroad, Ritchie)*. 3. Oliver (Christina 
Chew, Hid). 4. Melinda (Noah Rexroad, Ritchie)*. 5. 
Martha (Daniel Way bright). 6. Cassandra (James W. Chew, 
Hid)*. 7. Lucinda (David Kinkead, Hid)*. 

Br. of James: — Asbury (dy), George (Susan Colaw), Green 
B. (Ida Taylor), Osborne (Ritchie Co.)*. 

Br. of Oliver: — Clark (Sarah Fitzwater, Hid), Mary (Isaac 
Way bright) . 

(B). Samuel (Chairity Colaw) — Jackson's River — ch.— 
1. William (Margaret Bird, Hid). 2. Mary E. (Abraham 
Mullenax). 3. Margaret (SalathielMullenax). 4. Mary — d. 
5. Samuel (Matilda Wimer)— b. 1816, d. 1879— C. D. 

Br. of Samuel: — Mary J. (B. Frank Nelson), Sylvanus W. 
(Susan M. Fleisher, Hid), Sarah E. (Amos Nelson), Sidney 

F. (William Nelson), Lucy A. (Philip P. Nelson), Matilda 
M. (dy), Arbelia (Samuel Nelson), Eliza V. (Isaac Harper); 
by 2d m. — Robert (Kate Sponaugle), Pearlie (John A. Lam- 
bert, Gilbert Lambert). 

Ch. of Sylvanus W.— Josie E. (Charles Phares), Ottie (dy), 
Cora B., Frances 0., Jessie, Nora B., Beulah, Jenifer. 

Unp. 1 John (Mary Mongold)— m. 1800, d. 1815*— ch.— 
Jane ( — Cartwright), James, Archibald. All went West. 



269 

Mumbert Jacob (Margaret )— d. 1815 — ch. — 1. 

George (Catharine Heffner, m. 1810, Catharine Blizzard) — 
b. 1785, d. 1870— Sweedland. 2. Anna (James Davis)— m. 
1817. 3. Elizabeth (Jacob Wise?)— m. 1819. 4. Mary (Thom- 
as Harrison)— m. 1817. 5. John (Mary Hiser)— m. 1818. 6. 
Catharine. 

Br. of George :—l. John (Ruth Blizzard). 2. Jacob 
(Grant)* 3. Aaron— d. 4. Joseph (G'brier)* 5. Nathan 
(Hannah Rosen barger, Shen). 6. Jesse — k. 7. Margaret. 
8. Mary (Mortimer Davis). By 2d m.— 9. William— k. 10. 
Sarah A. (Grant)* 

Ch. of John :— Joseph W. (b. 1836, k). Hannah E. (Wash- 
ington Kuykendall) — b. 1838. Letitia J., Sarah C. George 
W. (Martha Mumbert), Jesse P. (Asenath Nesselrodt, Polly 
May). 

C. of George W.— Benjamin (Va)*, Joseph A., Charles (d) 
Dewitt (d). 

C. of Jesse P. — Rebecca (Charles Nesselrodt), Rosa, 
Grover E. 

Ch. of Nathan : — Martha (George Mumbert), Rebecca 
(John Trumbo), Joseph (Sarah A. Free). 

Murphy. Walter ( Poston, Md.)— N— F.— ch.— 1. 

Sarah (Henry George). 2. Pamela (James Mullenax). 3. 
boy ( ). 

The son left a child, Isaiah (who was reared by Walter). 

Isaiah (Elizabeth Strawder, Nancy Lambert)— b. May 25. 
1815, d. Feb 11, 1902— carpenter and wheelright— C'ville— 
ch.— By 2d m.— 1. Logan J. 2. Sarad E. (Elias Lambert). 
3. Emilias (William C. Lambert, Solomon Hinkle). 4. 
Eliza J. 5. Warwick N. (Louisa J. Moyers)— Fin. 6. John 
R. (Martha S. Lambert). 7. Mowney V. James B. Way- 
bright). 8. Isaac J. (Mary E. Lambert)— homestead. 9. 
Una H.— dy. 

Br. of Warwick N.—l. Cain (Susan Hedrick). 2. Mollie 

(Green B. Vandeventer). 3. Nancy— dy. 4. Isaiah ( 

). 5. Phoebe A. -d. 6. John. 7. Grover. 

Br. of John R.— Delia, Bennie (Vadie Mullenax), Laura 
(Eli A. Lambert), Forsie (James B. Way bright), John (dy), 
Lettie, Eva, 3 others (dy). 

Br. of Isaac J.— Dorothy (Noah S. Hoover), Okey (d), 
Anne (Hugh H. Lambert), Bertha (Arthur Rexroad), Mich- 
ael (dy), Veda (Jay Bennett), J. Peyton, Margaret, Isaac E. 
Forrest, 2 boys (dy). 

Unp. 1. Gabriel— 1788. 2. John (Anna? Daggs)— m. 

1803. 3. Sarah (Charles Mick) -m. 1821. 4. (Elizabeth 

J. ). 5. Anne (William Mullenax)— m. 1825. 

Ch. of 4.— Logan J. (b. 1848). Sarah E., Mary S. 



270 

Nelson. (A) Thomas (Martha )— ch? — John (Sarah 

Stearns) — no own brother — when over 60 rode to Ky. to visit 
his half brother and sister, — old in 1794. 

Fam. of John :— 1. John ( )— 0. after 1795— 

grew rich. 2. Isaac (Elizabeth McCartney, Hid, m. 1799— 
Kate Pennington, m. 1827— b. 1773, d. 1850— Benham Nel- 
son's. 3. William (Margaret McCartney, sister to Elizabeth) 
— Ind. 4. Absalom (Jennie McCartney, another sister) — 
Jacob Nelson's. 5. Benham (Susannah Wilfong) — d. Nor- 
folk, 1813* 6. Elijah (Mary M. Kinkead)— Henry Judy's 
— drowned in Judy ford, 1845* 7. Solomon. 8. Jonathan 
(Hannah Harrar, Ky) — Dry Run. 9. Winnie (Thomas Sum- 

erfield). 10. girl ( Wyatt). 11. girl ( Sum- 

merfield). 12. Benjamin (Delpha Arbaugh) — 0. 13. Han- 
nah (Joseph Mallow)— m. 1821. 

Line of Isaac: — 1. Jesse (Susannah Wilfong)— m. 1821 — 
111. 2. Daniel (Eliza Nelson, Catharine Lambert). 8. Sol- 

lomon( Cunningham) — Little Kanawha. 4. Susan (James 

Lambert) — Tkr. 5. Hannah ( Lambert) — Little Kan- 
awha. By 2d m.— 6. Elijah (Hannah Nelson, Catharine 
Wilfong)— Rph. 7. Job (Amanda Wilfong)— b. 1819, d. 1894. 

8. William ( Summerfield, Rph. — Sidney Jordan, Mary 

E. Blizzard)— Hid. 9. Isaac J. (Susan Porter). 10. Eve 
(Jacob Vande venter). 11. Sarah (Wesley Blizzard). 12, 
Prudence (Joseph Arbogast) . 13. Rhua (Robert Nelson. 0. 
John Turner). 14. Mary (Obadiah Lambert, Daniel Hed- 
rick). 

Br. of Daniel :— 1. Samuel P. (Felicia Lambert, Mary A. 

Keister) — Kline. 2. Elizabeth (James Lambert. 3. 

Jane (Jesse Lambert). 4. Ellen (John White, Rph). 5. 

Morrison ( )~0. 6. Elijah (Rph)*, 7. Eli— S— F. 

8. Daniel — Va. 9 others. 

Br. of Elijah :—l. Jane (Conrad Taylor)— Rph. 2. Evelyn 
(Martin Hedrick). 3. Samuel K. (Elizabeth King, Upshur) 
— Rph. By 2d m. — 4. Lucinda (John Smith, Rph). 5. Ed- 
ward (Mrs. Pirkey, Va)— Rph. 6. Mary S. (Rph). 

Br. of Job: — 1. Jacob W. (Huldah Raines). 2. Isabel 
(James W. Bible). 3. Stewart (Mary E. Wilfong). 4. 
Mary J. (Seymour McDonald). 5. Sarah E. (Isaac J.Nelson) 
—Rph. 6. Joseph W. (Martha A. Hedrick). 7. Susan E. 
(Martin Vandeventer). 8. Janetta (Caleb Sheets, Rkm)* 

Ch. of Jacob W. — Walter (Lottie Warner), Howard 
(Mamie Nelson), Lottie Pinkney, Caddie (Otterbein Kline). 

Ch. of Stewart : — Jacob (d), Charles C. (Lora L. Nelson, 
Cora V. Stoutermire), Maud (Jonathan Nelson), Juha, Mamie 
(Howard Nelson). Ernest, Clifton P. (d). 

Ch. of Joseph W.— Otterbein (dy), Claudius (Una Stump) 



271 

— Rph, Minnie (Elmer Ketterman), Solon, Martin, Grover 
(dy), Garnett, Gordon, Herman. 

Br. of William :— By 2d m:— 1. Adam— b. 1850. 2. Rachel 
(George Simmons). 3. others — Hid, Poca, etc. 

Br. of Isaac J. — Amanda (Adonijah Jordan, Rph), Job, 
(Catharine Mallow, Rph), Sarah J. (Ada Sponauffle), Hester 
(William Jordan, Rph)*, Rosanna (Benjamin Mallow, Rph)* 
Jacob L. (Rena Lantz). 

Line of Absalom :— 1. Abel (Sarah S. Nelson)— b.'. 1808. d. 
1878. 2. Sarah d. 28. 3. Amanda (John Turner). 4. Eliz- 
abeth (Samuel Bonner) — Tkr. 5. Eliza (Jacob Wilfong). 

Br. of Abel : — Elizabeth (William Arbaugh), Hannah C. 
(Isaac Arbaugh), Jonathan (Virginia Wilfong), Absalom 
(Margaret Wimer) — k, Elijah (Elizabeth Thompson), Benham 
(Elizabeth Thompson), William (EUzabeth Bland), Virginia 
(Marcellus Bennett). 5— dy. 

C. of Benham:— 1. Edna J. (Coy Nelson). 2. Clay C. 
(Lillie M. Hinkle)— Ind. 3. Allen H. (Chloe Lambert). 4. 
Arthur. 5. inf.— dy 

Line of Elijah : — 1. Samuel K. (Susan Harper) — b. 1811. 

2. John ( Harman). 3. Elijah (Margaret Jordan.) 4. 

Solomon (Mary MuUenax). 5. Jonathan — drowned with 
father. 6. Jacob (Sarah Mullenax). 7. Susan (Elijah Nel- 
son). 8. Jennie (Joseph Nelson). 9. Sarah (Daniel Nel- 
son). 10. Elizabeth (William Mullenax). 11. Margaret 
(Jacob Mullenax, Samson Jordan.) 12. Mary. By 2d m. — 
13. Lucinda (John Smith, Rph)* 14. Edward (Mrs. Pirkey, 
Va)— Rph. 15. MaryS. (Rph)* 

Line of Jonathan : — 1. Sarah (Abel Nelson). 2. Allen H. 
(Rebecca Lawrence)— b. Dec. 29, 1813, d. 189— 3. Absa- 
lom H. (Susan Calhoun)— b. 1816, k. 186— 4. Elizabeth 
(Jacob Cassell) . 5. Jonathan (Elizabeth Wilfong) — Ark. 6. 

Robert J. (Margaret Mullenax, Jane Rexroad, Hinkle) — 

b. 1823, d. 1905. 

Br. of Allen H. — 1. Susan (James Mullenax). 2. Robert 
L. (Catharine Hinkle)— Clarksburg. 3. B. Franklin (Jane 
Mullenax, Jane Hinkle, Sarah Sponaugle). 4. Elizabeth 
5 Amos L. (Ellen Mullenax, Ellen Marshall)— Dry Run. 6. 
H. Scott (Christian Lantz)— Beverley. 7. Philip P. (Lucy 
Mullenax). 

Ch. of B. Franklin :— By 2d m.—Julia(Samuel Bennett): By 
3d m.— Cordelia (Philip H. Kisamore). Martha S. (Pleas- 
ant Kisamore). Bertie (Johnson Teter). Laura R. (dy), 
Henry H., Jason E. (d), Lula E. (dy), Margaret V. 

Ch. of Amos L.— Z M. (Sarah Judy), Ora A. (dy), 

Lucy (0 Z. Teter Rph)* Clen, Osie, (Owen Harper). 

Ch. of Philip P.— Dosia (Robert Warner), Merle (teacher), 



272 

Frederick (Margraret Hammer), Kate (Wilber Warner), Ma- 
bel, Paul (Jane Way bright), Margie. 

Br. of Absalom H.— Emily J. (Joseph Warner)— b. 1845, 
Hannah V. (Peter Warner), Sarah (Elbridge Hinkle), Mar- 
garet (Amby Rexroad), Martha (Frank Thompson), L. Rob- 
ert (dy), James M. (Lavina Hinkle), William (Frances Mul- 
lenax, Lillie Cassell), Jonathan (Maud Nelson), Stewart 
(Mary J. Hinkle)., Mary S. (Adam Moyers). 

Ch. of James M.— Elizabeth S., Effie L. 

Ch. of William : — Vernon, Myrtle. 

Ch. of Jonathan — Madie Eva, otehrs. 

Ch. of Steward .-—Edward, Ettie, May, Ada. 

Br. of Robert J. — 1. Alexander. 2. Leander — dy. 3. John 
(Angle Lambert) — Poca. 4. Joanna — Kas. 5. Mary A. 
(Columbus Bonner, Rph)* 6. Rosetta— dy. 7. Lafayette 

(Christina Lawrence). 8. Eliakum ( Harper, , 

Kas.)* 9. Hugh Wimer, 111.)* By 2d m.— 10. Hoy 

(Edna J. Nelson). IL Varley. 12. Phoebe (Bert Lambert). 
13. Florence (Howard Arbogast, Lloyd Lambert). 

(B) Absalom C. (Elizabeth Helmick)— b. 1824— ch.— 1. 
Edith (Theodore G. Montony). 2. Delilah (Va)* 3. Abel 
(Rachel Turner). 4. Jehu (Rph)-Tkr. 5. Ellen (Samson 
Mick). 6. Irene(Va.)* 7. Absalom ( Ketterman)— Tkr. 

Nesselrodt. Frederick (Elizabeth Fullmer)— b. 1746, d. 
1835 — ch.— 1. Lewis (Shen.)*. 2. Samuel (Shen.)*. 3. 

Philip (Catharine Hartman, Coffman) — b. 1797. 4. 

Elizabeth (John Mitchell). 5. Mary (Hdy)*. 6. John (Sa- 
rah ) — Aug. 7. Frederick (Lydia Yankee) — m. 1812. 

8. George — Aug. 9. Solomon (Asenath Yankee) — b. 1802. 

Br. of Philip:— 1. Margaret— b. 1831. 2. Phoebe (Reuben 
Riggleman, Hdy)*. 3. Mary (Jacob Ritchie. Rkm)*. 4. 
Sarah (Jesse Mitchell)— b. 1837. 5. Ann. 6. John— Keyser. 
7. Margaret. 8. Jacob— k. By 2d m.— 9. Simeon H. 10. 
Susan (Benjamin Mitchell) — Mo. 11. Peter (Susan Simmons). 
12. Charles B. (Martha Shaver). 13. Hannah (Rkm)*. 

Br. of Frederick: — 1. William (Rachel Turner). 2. Noah 
— W. 3. Job-Shen. 4. others?. 

Ch. of William. — 1. Jackson (Susan S. Shaver). 2. Alice 
(Henry Nesselrodt). 3. Benjamin F. (Eva F. Dove)— Ft. S. 
4. James (Eliza Mitchell)— Hamp. 5. Sarah J. (William 
Kuykendall). 

C. of Benjamin F.— Noah J., Rhoda V., Frances L., John 
F., Gilbert. Effie E., Leslie F., Carroll E. 

Br. of Solomon:— Amos W. (Eliza Mitchell)— b. 1839.— W. 
2. Judith R. (Daniel R. Hartman). 3. Mary E. 4. Sarah 
(Shen.)*. 5. William S. (Mary R. Mitchell). 6. Amelia W. 
(Absalom Brady). 




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278 

Ch. ofWilliamS.— Williams., MahalaS. (Albert E. Smith), 
Mary D. E. 

Painter. (A.) John (Sarah )— ch?— 1. John (Eliza- 
beth Sailor)— m. 1799. 2 others. 

Br. of John jr?— 1. John (Barbara )— Trout Run. 2. 

Jane (Abel Morral)— m. 1826. 

(B.) Jacob (Sidney Phares)— m. b. 1822* d. 1895— from 
Rkm— N— F— ch.— 1. Thomas J. (Cora J. Smith)— S.—B. 2. 
William A. (Cella Judy)— Tkr. 3. Anne (James Hinkle). 
4. John (Belle Vance, Rosanna Harper). 5. Eliza — dy. 6. 
Noah (Catharine Sites)— Seneca. 7. Edward— d. 8. Frank 
(W)*— la. 9. Isaac (W)— la. 10. James ( Mallow, Isa- 
bel Hedrick). 

Unp. Reese— 1801. 

Ch. of Thomas J.— Eva K. (dy), Charles 0.. Jessie W., 
Walter S., Thomas W., Nellie C. 

Payne. Thomas F. (Mary A. Lough)— b. 1810* d. 1880*— 
ch— 1. George W. (Christina Elyard)— Mo. 2. William (W)* 
3. James V. (Catharine Elyard)— S—F. 4. Solomon S. 
(Rannie Blagg, Va.) — 0. 5. Louisa F. (John Hiser. 6. 
Martha J. (William H. Lough). 7. Susan H. (James Skid- 
more, John Kiser). 8. Mary M. — Fin. 9. America L. 

Ch. of James V. — Christina, Annie ( Guthrie), Dora, 

Mary, Ella, William C. 

(B.) John D. (Rebecca Harper) — of Va. — came before 1860 
— N — F.— ch. — Robert (Phoebe Lewis), Susan (Frank Davis), 
Edna (George B. Harper), Jacob (dy). 

Unp. George (Jane Conrad). 

Pennington. Richard (Eleanor )— 1792— C— D— ch.— 

1. Richard (Mary Bennett). 2. Priscilla (Thomas Davis) 
— m. 1792. 3? Barbara— 1798. 4? William (Christina 
Mace)— m. 1814— b. 1802, d. 1891— C'ville. 

Line of Richard: — 1. Samson (Mary Montony) — b. 1802, 
d. 1891— C'ville. 2. Ellen (Adam Hedrick.) 3. Vinson 
(Rph).* 4. John (Rph).* 5. Solomon (Rph).* 6. Jesse 
(Fayette).* 7. married daughters (out). 

Br. of Samson: — 1. Solomon ( Davis, Rkm) — Va. 2. 

Samson (Emma J.Porter). 3. Almira (Peter Arbogast)— 
Grant. 4. Mary (Philip Phares). 5. Charity (Nathaniel 
Sponaugle). 

Ch. of Samson: — Dyer (Rebecca A. Ketterman, Julia Van- 
deventer, Barbara J. Bennett) — shoemaker — C'ville. 2. 
Sarah A. (Sylvanus Vandeventer). 3. Letcher — dy. 

C. of Dyer:— Lula (George Arbaugh), Ostella (Robert B. 
Bennett), Ola S. (Ota K. Judy). By 2d m.— Ora S. 

Unp. Priscilla (Thomas Whitecotton), 

PCH 18 



274 

Pennybacker. Isaac S. ( )— b. Sep. 6, 1805, 

d. Jan 12, 1847,— ch.— 1. Isaac S. (Susan Funk, Rkm)— Fin. 
2. Edmund S. ( Van Pelt, Rkm)— Washington, D. C. 

Br. of Isaac S. — Annie (Newton Neff, Rkm), Mary L., 
William (Eve Davis), Preston (Bessie Lambert), Thomas, 
Kate, Courtney, Minnie. 

Isaac S., Sr. was an attorney and judge, and died while 
serving as United States senator from Va. Edmund S. was an 
attorney and editor prior to his removal from Franklin. 

Phares. 1. Solomon (Elizabeth Vandeventer) — b. Jan 27, 
1780, d. Nov. 24, 1862. 2. Elizabeth (Joel Teter)— b. 1784, 
d. 1869. 3. Johnson— 0. 4. Elijah (Elizabeth Thompson) 
— m. 1810— Ind. 5. Uriah (Barbara Judy)— m. 1816. 6. 

Ambrose (Kate Wimer, ). 7. Robert (Susan 

Wimer)— b. 1796. 8. Rebecca (Nathaniel Strother)— m. 
1819. 9. Isaac (Delilah Hinkle)— m. 1820. 

Line of Solomon: — Jacob (Sarah , Annie McDonald 

Teter)— b. 1812. 2. Washington— k. 3. Adam (Phoebe 
Harper)— b. May 22, 1818, d. Mar. 7, 1907— homestead. 4. 
Noah (Kate Phares) — Mo. 5. Solomon (Mary A. Bouse) — 
b. 1824. 6. Sylvanus (Sarah Vandeventer). 7. Sidney 
(Cain Hinkle). 8. Elizabeth (Laban Teter). 9. Selinda 
(James Mauzy). 

Br. of Adam: — Elizabeth (James Mullenax) — b. 1842, John 
(Eve Teter)— Okla., Phoebe J. (Joshua Day), Sarah C. 
(Clark Bennett), Eli P. (Elizabeth Cook), Mary S. (dy), Sid- 
ney E., Adam H. (Rebecca Simmons). Louisa (Leonard 
Propst), Melissa A. (Isaacs. Strawder,) — Kas., Jacob K. (d.) 

Ch. of Adam H.— Charles B. (Lucy E. Mullenax). 

Line of Ambrose: — 1. Robert B. (Sarah Phares) — b. 1821. 

2. Philip (Sarah Lawrence)— b. 1823. 3. Adonijah ( 

Wimer, Hid) -la. 4. George W. ( Teter)— Ind. 5. Se- 
linda (Wesley Hinkle). 6. Susan (Enos Hinkle). 7. Kate 
(Josiah Lawrence). 8. Elizabeth A. (Philip Sponaugle). 9. 
Sarah ? — d. 

Br. of Robert B. : — 1. Ambrose B. (Susan Phares). 2. 
Robert (Martha Hinkle). 3. Noah (Mary Judy)— Kas. 4. 
Solomon (Alice Harper)— Poca. 5. Samuel (Emily Teter) — 
Tex. 6. Susan (Kenny Judy). 7. Jacob— Kas. 

Ch. of Ambrose B.— Tirah M. (Cora Grady), Fletcher, 
Maud. 

Ch. of Robert: — Blanche (Luther Gaines), Bessie (Clay 
Teter), Curtis (in Va.), Ernest (in 0.). 

Ch. of Samuel: — William (Bertha Bland), Eve ( Lam- 
bert, Poca.)* 

Br. of Philip :— 1. Ambrose— d. 2. Sarah C. (James W. 
Johnston). 3. Elizabeth M. (Jacob Hinkle)— Ind. 4. Ursula 



275 

(Adam Bennett). 5. Ruhama D. (Adam H. Judy, George 
W. Helmick). 6. Annie R. (Noah H. Judy, Rymer Calhoun). 

Line of Robert : — 1. George A. (Catharine Bennett). 2. 
Abigail (Joseph Mullenax). 3. Kate (Noah Phares). 4. 
Margaret (George Fraley). 5. Philip A. (Elizabeth Judy)— 
S. V. 6. Jacob (Emily Hinkle)— S. V. 7. Robert (Phoebe 
J. Way bright)— Neb. 8. Susan (Samuel Woods— S. V.) 

Br. of George A. — Abigail (George Simmons Jr). Eliza- 
beth J. (James C. Lambert), Susannah (Ambrose B. Phares), 
Catharine (William H. Rymer), Patrick H. (Almeda Harper), 
Benjamin (Eliza Hinkle), Rebecca A. (Michael Mauzy), Mar- 
tha (dy), Mary (Jacob Harper). 

Ch. of Patrick H.— Roy, May. 

Ch. of Benjamin : — Cleta, Martha, Beulah, Margie. 

Line of Isaac :— Miloway (Catharine )— b. 1828 — W. 

2. Cullom. 3. Sarah (Aaron Day). 4. William (Martha A. 
Mallow)— b. 1839. 5. Sidney (Jacob Painter). 6. Mary 
( Davis). 7. Martha (John Rexroad)— b. 1845. 

Unp. 1. Robert (Susannah Morris) —m. 1795— Leading Cr. 
2. John— 1781. 3. Sarah (Paul Teter)— m. 1826. 4. Chris- 
tina (Reuben Teter)— m. 1807. 5. William (Martha A. Mal- 
low. 6. Margaret (Eber Teter)— b. 1813, d. 1889— Ind. 
7. Elizabeth (Eli Teter)— m. 1834. 8. George N. (Mary 

Teter)— b. 1815, d. 1861— Ind. 9. Robert ( )— ch. 

— Catharine (Noah Phares) — Miloway. 

Pitsenbarger. Abraham (Mary Cowger— m. 1795— ch.— 1. 
John (Rachel Propst)— b. 1797— homestead. 2. Jacob (Cath- 
arine Simmons) -b. 1800- la. after 1850. 3. Peter. 4. 
Abraham. 5. William. 6. Elizabeth (Nicholas)* 

Abraham Sr. and all his family but John and Jacob went 
to Nicholas. 

Line of John : — 1. George W. (Sidney Waggy) — b. 1824. 
2. John (Elizabeth Propst— b. 1828. 3. Elizabeth E.— dy. 4. 
Abraham. 5. Harrison (Christina Mitchell, Margaret Rex- 
road)— b. 1834— B—T. 6. Sarah.— S. 7. Benjamin (Phoebe 
J. Propst). 8. Rachel A.— d. 

Br. of George W.— Valeria (William Wimer), John. Har- 
rison (Hannah Rexroad), Sarah (Wesley Wimer), Rachel 
(Wellington Peck), Benjamin (Mary Dickenson), Sidney 
(John Shrader). 

Br. of John : — Ananias J. (Susan V. Dahmer) , Abel H. 

( Propst)— 0., Josephine (Frank Fultz), James M. 

(Frances Dove), Rachel (Anderson Propst), Jane, John A. 
(Mary A. Propst), Clemm A. (Clara Eye), Columbia C. 
(Philip Rader), Charles W. (Jennie Hevener). 

Br. of Harrison :— Elizabeth A., Amanda M. (Lewis Moy- 
ers), William P., John W., James H. (Elizabeth J. Propst), 



276 

Huldah M. (Arthur L. Leach), Peter 0., Christina (Isaac 
Bowers). By 2d m.— Florence, Albert. 

Br. of Benjamin :— Martha F. (George 0. Simmons), Wil- 
liam M. (Phoebe M. Hoover), John (Margaret McQuain), 
Louisa (Ambrose Rexroad), Mary A. (Hid)*, James P. 
(Amanda J. Simmons), Chapman (Emma Holt, (Hid)*, 

Ch. of William M.— James H., Janie F., William 0., Ben- 
jamin C Vesta, Theodore, Myrtie C. 

Unp. 1. Jacob (Margaret Butcher)— m. 1792. 2. Eliza- 
beth (John Moats)— m. 1792. 

The pioneer Pitsenbarger bought the Nicholas Emick 
farm. 

Pope. Peter (Tabitha? Yoakum)— ch.—l. John (Jemima 
Randall, b. 1789, d. 1857)— b. June 29, 1791, d. May 24, 1867— 
homestead. 2. Kate (Jacob Wanstaff) . 

Line of John :— Amelia— b. 1817, d. 1854. 2. Peter (Mar- 
garet Brake)— b. 1818— homestead. 3. Jacob R. (Hdy)*— b. 
1821, d. 1854. 4. John W. (Asenath Randall). 5. Ruth T. 
(Wesley T. Newham, Rkm)— b. 1826. 6. Mary C. (Hdy)* 
7. Erasmus A. (Rebecca Bailey, Hdy. , Rebecca Co wger, 0) 
— la. 8. Henry W. (Ann R. Brake) — part of homestead. 9. 
Harvey D. (0.)* 10. George L. (Susan Cowger)—b. April 
30, 1839— n. Ft. S. 11. William A. (Elizabeth Hertzler, 0.) 
—Hdy. 

Br. of Peter :—l. Margaret J. (James Temple). 2. Leon- 
ard M. (Vesta Trumbo)— merchant— Doe Hill. 3. Martha 
R. (Rkm)* 4. Emeline (Robert Eye). 5. Jackson L. (Am- 
anda Eye) — homestead. 

Ch. of Jackson L.— Mattie S., Forrest, William M., Elva 
L., Harry. 

Br. of Henry W.— 1. Laura A. (Henry T. Cowger). 2. 
Melissa J. 3. Margaret A. (Philbert Hoover). 4. Nettie. 
5. IraS. (Nora Cowger). 6. Stella S. 7. Carson W. (Emma 
Belt, Md.)— Washington, D. C. 8. Fletcher L.— teacher, 
law graduate. 

Br. of George L.— 1. William F. (Mary Dice)— Rkm. 2. 
Martha A. (George Christ, Rkm)* 3. Alvin L. (Jane Trum- 
bo). 4. John F. (Carrie Simpson) — Rkm. 5. Sarah M. 
(William Propst). 6. Jesse D. (Mabel White, out). 7. L. 
Texie— dy. 8. Mary J. (Aldine Mitchell). 9. Henry C. 
(Sarah J. Hedrick)— Davis. 10. George E. (Ida Eye.) IL 
Dora. 

Powers. William (Louisa B. Hedrick Harman) — of Rph — 
n. Macksville — ch. — 1. Charles (Rosa Harper) — Hdy. 2. 

Edward (Blanch Hedrick)— Hdy. 3. Annie ( Willis, 

Hdy)* 4-5. infs (dy). 



277 

George W. (Nancy M. Hedrick)-~bro. to William— N—F— 
ch. Delpha. 

Priest. James H. (Sarah Bader, Shen., b. 1814, d. 1885)— 
b. Aug. 29, 1809, d. Jan. 21, 1877— ch.— 1. Samuel P. (Mary 
Hinkle)— Fin. 2. Mary M. 3. Rebecca J. (Lewis Karrikoff, 
Rkm)— Hid. 4. Thomas H. 5. Frances M. (Phoebe C. 
Harper)— b. 1840, d. 1899. 6. James A. (MaryDinkle, Rkm). 
7. Julia C. 8. Sarah F. 

Ch. of Samuel P. — Sarah (Mason Boggs), Eva (Charles 
Sites— Kas., Paul R. (Kate Hopkins), Robert, Kate (Roy 
Campbell). 

Propst. John M. (Catharine E. )— exempted 1774, 

d. 1785— ch.— 1. Philip— d. 2. Daniel (Sophia Coplinger)— 

d. 1780*— Dickenson Mtn. 3. Leonard (Catharine )— 

d. 1822* — n. homestead. 4. Frederick (Barbara ) — d. 

1801.— Winfield Propst's. 5. Michael (Mary C. Rexroad)— 
neighbor to Daniel— d. 1829. 6. Catharine E. (John Miller). 
7. Elizabeth (John Cowger)-m. 1785. 8. Mary E. (Henry 
Huffman). 9. Henry (Mary Crummett, Barbara Eye, m. 
1797)— b. 1779*, d. 1863*, at 94— but these dates are prob- 
ably of another Henry. 

Family of Daniel : — 1. Ann E. (Frederick Keister)— m. 

1793. 2. Henry ( Propst). 3. John ( Coplinger?). 

4. Barbara (William Hoover). 5. Eva C. (George Hevener)— 
b. 1782. 

Line of Henry : — Henry (Barbara Eye) — m. 1797, d. 
1820, Daniel (Helena? Propst), William (Lucinda Eye), Sol- 
omon, Sarah, Barbara (b. 1803, d. 1890), Polly (Henry 
Propst), Sophia E. (b. 1810, d. 1890). 

Line of John: — Mary (Henry Dickenson), Dorothy (John 
P. Daggy), Levi, (?) James (Martha Kiser). 

Family of Leonard :— 1. Barbara (John Peninger)— m. 
1787. 2. Leonard (Elizabeth Ward)— m. 1797. 3. Christian 
(Polly McGlaughlin)— m. 1797. 4. Christina). 5. George 

(M ) 6. Mary ( Hevener). 7. Annis (Eli 

Keister). 8. John (Elizabeth Eye). 9. Sarah (Samuel Pul- 
len)— m. 1826. 

Line of George :— 1? Mary (William Propst)— b. 1785, d. 

1859. 2. George ( )— b. 1806. 3. Jacob (Matilda 

)— b. 1808. 

Br. of George :— Rachel (b. 1832), Samuel, Elizabeth, 
Daniel, George A. 

Br. of Jacob :— Caroline (b. 1838), Joseph, Henrietta, Geo. 
W., Sarah M., Mahulda. 

Family of Frederick :— 1. Catharine (James McQuain)— 
m. 1793. 2. Sophia (Nicholas Hevener) —m. 1795. 3. Jacob 
(Rachel Crummett)- m. 1792. 4 John (Margaret Naile)— 



278 

m. 1795— W. Va. 5. Henry (Mary Propst, Rkm)— m. 1796, 
d. 1820. 6. Mary (Henry Propst). 7. Christina (George 
Mitchell)— m. 1800. 8. William (Mary Propst)— b. 1780* d. 
1806— Braxton. 9. George F. (Elizabeth Propst)— b. 1782?, 
d. 1860. 10. Michael (Mary Rexroad)— b. 1782, d. 1853. 11. 
Daniel (Sophia Eye)— b. 1785, d. 1850. 

Line of Jacob :— 1. Jacob (Esther Wagoner)— m. 1820— wid. 
and family went to Tenn. 2. Reuben (Sidney Hoover)— b. 
1797, d. 1859. 3. John J. (Elizabeth Propst)— b. 1806. 4. 
Lewis (Christina Bowers)— b. 1808, d. 1868. 5. William 
(Eliza Swadley, Malinda Rexroad)— b. Nov. 28, 1811, d. Nov. 
28, 1887— captain. 6. Elizabeth (Samuel Hevener). 7. Bar- 
bara (Lewis Wagoner)— m. 1818). 8. Sarah (George 
Propst). 9. Mary (Valentine Swadley)— b. 1806. 10. Henry 
(Susannah Propst?)-b. 1814, d. 1898-Aug. 

Br. of John J.— Chapman (b. 1831). Laban H. (Magda- 
lena Propst)— b. 1833, Reuben H., Philip, Henry D., Valen- 
tine P., Robert (Martha Blizzard), Lavina R. 

Ch. of Laban H.— Harvey (Alice Simmons), Harriet 
(Frank Nicholson), Catharine (Floyd Mitchell), Florence (Ja- 
cob Mitchell), PhiHp (Ida Propst). 

Br. of Lewis :— 1. Rachel S.— d. of burn at 10* 2. Mahul- 
da (la)* 3. Margaret H. (IsaacHoover)— b. 1844. 4. Jacob 
W. (Polly A. Hoover). 5. Naomi. 6. Hannah S. 7. An- 
derson. 8. Letcher— left at 14. 9. Sarah A. (W.)* 

Br. of William :— Edward H. (Lydia Propst)— b. 1838— la. 
By 2d m.— Joanna (WiUiam Martin), Margaret (Jacob 
Propst), Sabina (Zachariah Bowers), Polly A., Jacob, 2 infs 
(dy). 

Line of George F.—l. Leonard. 2. George (Sarah Propst) 
— b. 1800, d. 1861. 3. John (Sarah Stoutermoyer, Aug.)— b. 
1801. 4. Henry (Susan Propst). 5. Jonas (Susan Propst). 
5. William (Sarah Bowers)— b. 1807, k. by log 1860. 7. Ja- 
cob (Lizzie McGlaughlin) — b. 1814. 8. EHzabeth (Jacob 
Stoutermoyer, bro. to Sarah) — Aug.* 9. Daniel (Mary 
Propst)— b. 1820, d. 1897. 

Br. of John :— Elizabeth (John Pitsenbarger)— b. 1832, 
Julia A. (Lewis Moyers). 

Br. of Henry : — Elizabeth (Ang Dever), Joshua (Phoebe 
Rexroad), Nellie (William Metheny), Amelia (William Eye). 
Eliza (Jacob Miller) — Rkm, Sarah (Noah Propst), Susan. 

Br. of Jonas : — Cena, Naomi, Appalina. 

Br. of William : — Jonas. 

Br. of Jacob: — Ami (Polly Eye), Laban (Rkm)*, Jonas 
(Sarah Nelson) — Rkm., Margaret, Angeline (Wesley Cave) 
—Rkm*, Sarah A. ( Price, Rkm)*. 

Br. of Daniel :— Elizabeth J., Hannah, George L. (Sarah 



279 

Simmons), Leonard S. (Louisa Phares), Conrad, Frank, Ed- 
ward H. (Dorothy M. Bowers). 

Line of Daniel : — 1. William (Christina Wag-gy)— b. 1817 
— Dahmer P. 0. 2. Elias (Sarah Eye)— la., 1870* 3. Daniel 
(Lavina Swadley)— b. 1825. 4. Frances (Daniel C. Stone). 
5. Barbara— d. 6. Melinda (Mark Swadley). 7. Polly (John 
Kiser). 8. Sarah (George Propst). 9. Elizabeth (John 
Propst). 10. Alice (Jonn Waggy). 

Br. of William : — Lewis (Henrietta Propst) — b. 1839 — 
homestead, Harrison (dy), Rolandes (Martha Eckard), Wil- 
liam W. (Catharine Simmons), John W. (Susan Mitchell), 
Phoebe J. (Benjamin Pitsenbarger), Malinda (d), Frances 
(Frank Eye), Martha J. (Solomon Simmons). 

Ch. of Lewis. — Clara M. (Samuel Mitchell), Joseph H. 
(Barbara Sponaugle), Malinda F. (Ephraim A. Wimer), 
Lewis M. (Mary Simmons), John T. (Amelia Propst) — Hid, 
Lavina L. (John Propst), Jacob A. (Magdalena Propst), Wil- 
liam B. (Emma J. Wimer), Hendron (Frances Propst), 
Cleveland (Rebecca Hedrick), Albert T. 

Ch. of William : — Pleasant (Kate McQuain), Harrison 
(Attie E. Newcomb), Robert (Hid) — Poca, Charles, Mary 
A. (John Pitsenbarger), Sylvester. 

Br. of Michael :— 1. Adam (Hid)— W. 2. Michael (Hid) 
— W. 3. Henry (Mary Propst). 4. William— b. 1807, d. 
1860. 5. Allie (Daniel Propst). 6. Barbara (Joshua Bod- 
kin). 7. Frances (Eli Hoover). 8. Leah (Peter Mithcell). 
9. Annie (Adam Hoover) — la. 

Br. of Henry : — Henry (Dorothy Hively), Sarah, Daniel 
(Allie Propst), Sophia, Barbara, George (Phoebe Bowers), 
Solomon (b. 1829, d. 1860), William (Lucinda Eye), Mary 
(Henry Propst). 

Ch. of Henry :— Mary M. (Lewis H. Propst), Susannah 
(Michael Bowers), Hannah M. (Seneal Rexroad), 2 infs (dy). 

Ch. of Daniel : — Henry N. (Rachel Dickenson), Mary, De- 
lilah (John Eye), Michael S., Daniel F. (Barbara M. Hoover) 
— shoemaker, Frances, Sophia (Cain Blizzard), Helena, Bar- 
bara. 

Br. of George: — Lucy A., Henry H. ( ), David 

D., Sarah. 

Br. of Adam: — Levi (Kate Eckard), Jacob (Jane Vint)— 
Aug., Appaline (George Propst), Barbara (John Eye), Mary 
(Daniel Propst)— b. 1827. 

Ch. of Levi: — Jacob ( Varner), Henry H. ( 

Schmucker), William A.— k., Mary, F., Sarah E., Elizabeth, 
Eunice, (Washington Bodkin). 

Family of Michael:— John M. (E ), Catharine 



280 

(Sebastian? Rader), Elizabeth ( Wood), Barbara (John 

Miller)— m. 1787. 

Line of John M:— Susannah (Henry Propst)— b. 1814, d. 
1898, Elizabeth. 

Family of Henry: — 1. David (Magdalena Wagoner)— b. 
1782, d. 1861— Robert Eye's. 2. Samuel (Aug.)* 3. Jack- 
son. 4. Joseph (Hld)*-b. 1792, d. 1872. 5. Elizabeth. By 
2d m.— 6. Jonas— unkn. 7. Jacob (Kate E. Hively) — home- 
stead. 8. John (Elizabeth Hoover)— b. 1803, d. 1876. 9. 
George (Sarah Propst, Sarah Hoover). 10. Barbara. 11. 
Mary. 12. Elizabeth. 

Line of David:— Mary (Henry Propst)— b. 1801, d. 1876. 
2. Sophia C. 3. Esther (Abraham Lough)— b. 1815, d. 1898. 

Line of John:— 1. Noah (Susannah Bright)— b. 1835— 
homestead. 2. William L. (Sarah Eye). 3. Valentine — k. 
4. Abel — k. 5. Sarah — d. 6. Samson — d. 7. Helena — dy. 
8. Martin (Melinda Whistleman Joseph) — 0. 9. Morgan 
(Amanda Hoover) . 10. John A. 11 — 12. girls — dy. 

Br. of William L. — Isaac (Octavia Bowers), Perry (dy), 
Amanda (dy). 

Ch. of Isaac: — Jasper, 3 infs (dy). 

Unp. 1. George Peter ( )— d. 1792. 2. Dan- 
iel (Mary Streve)— m. 1799. 3. John (Mary Hevener)— m. 
1803. 4. Sarah (George Keister). 5. Randall— b. 1815. 6. 

Justus (Elizabeth ) — b. 1804. 7. Levi (Catharine 

)— b. 1808. 8. Gabriel ( ). 9. Daniel (Ann 

E. Hawes)— m. 1804, d. 1846. 10. George (Appaline Eye) 
— m. 1792. 11. Henry (Nancy McQuain)— m. 1792. 12. 
Jacob M. (Mary Rexroad?)— b. 1782, d. 1861. 13. John 
(Mary Hevener). 14. Barbara (Jacob Conrad) — m. 1808. 

15. Barbara (Jacob Miller)— m. 1820. 16. James (R 

). 

Ch. of 1: — Eve (Jacob Bushong), others. 

Ch. of 2:— EUzabeth (John Propst, Jr.)— b. 1809, d. 1860. 

Ch. of 16:— Reuben (Sidney )— b. 1798, d. 1859. 

Ch. of Gabriel:— George (Sarah )— b. 1808. 

The pioneer Propst willed 100 acres to his son Henry and 
20 pounds ($66.67) to each of his three daughters. His son 
Philip was the first person to be buried in the yard of the 
oldest church in Pendleton. The inventory of the property 
of Frederick, who died in 1801, amounted to $2,321.80. The 
sons mostly remained around the original homestead, the 
locality being known as "Propstburg". The dispersion of 
the family has been chiefly southward and westward, the 
connection being especially numerous between the upper 
courses of the South Branch and South Fork. The family 
furnished more soldiers to the Confederate army than any 



281 

other in the county. Jacob and his son John J. were noted 
powder-makers in their day, and the product was considered 
of superior quality. The remains of one of the old mills is 
on the farm of Laban H. Propst. The Propst connection 
seem to fall within the lineage of John Michael, but some of 
the earlier dates do not appear harmonious. It may be that 
not all his sons are enumerated in his will, or that members 
of another and kindred family have mingled with the local 
stock. 

Puffenbarger. George (Elizabeth )— d. 1822— ch.— 

1. Peter (Sarah Pickle)— b. 1776, d. 1850. 2. Esther (Dan- 
iel Rexroad). 3. George ( Rexroad). 4. Christian 

(Mary Mitchell). 5. Elizabeth (George Mowrey)— m. 1804. 

6. John (Sarah ). 7. Susannah (George Todd) — m. 

1813. 8. Henry (Mary E. Hiser)— b. 1791, d. 1858. 9. Sa- 
rah? ( Wagoner)— b. 1784, d. 1869. 

Line of Peter: — 1. Henry (Frances Stone, Mary M. Eck- 

ard). 2. Joshua ( Martin)— Aug. 3. Adam— Hid. 4. 

Fry (Sarah E. )— b. 1823. 5. Daniel (Susannah Sni- 
der). 6. Charlotte ( Gragg, Hid)* 7. Elizabeth— S. 

8. Christian (Louisa )— Lewis. 9. Sarah (Jonathan 

Smith)— b. 1829. 10. Benjamin (Mary A. Hoover, Barbara 
Huffman)— b. 1836. 

Br. of Henry:— 1. Noah (Ann Dove). 2. Elizabeth 
(Hid)* 3. Harriet (Mordecai Simmons). 4. Amanda (Am- 
brose Lough) — Aug. 5. Amelia (John Graham) . 6. others. 

Ch. of Noah:— Margaret (Martin Smith), Mary (d), Riley, 

girl ( Snider), Amy (Early Wilfong), William (dy), 

Ada. 

Br. of Fry:— 1. Amos (Amanda Simmons)— b. 1847. 2. 
Valeria S. (Noah Simmons). 3. Benjamin F. (Mary M. Sni- 
der). 4. Peter P. (Ruhama Crummett). 5. James (Eliza 
Hartman)— Rkm. 6. Pleasant. 7. Abraham (Susannah 
Simmons)— Bath. 8. Caroline (John Wilfong). 9. Mary J. 
(William Wilfong). 10. Catharine (Martin Simmons). 

Ch. of Benjamin F.— William H. (Mattie Mitchell), Pearlie, 
Melvin, Sylvester, (d), James C. (d), Nettie E. (d), Eliza J. 
(d), Laura (Luther Sibert), Rebecca L. (David Simmons), 
Tillman (Donna Mitchell). 

Ch. of Amos:— Mattie, Sarah (Frank Rexroad), Emma, 
Etta, Peter H. (Sarah Todd), William, James (Christina 
Simmons). 

Ch. of Peter P.— Elizabeth J., Elva, Estelle, Alice, Gran- 
ville, Jane (d). 

Br. of Benjamin:— John F. (Annie Moats), George, boy 
(dy), Elizabeth (Wesley Puffenbarger), Louisa (Josephine 
Smith), Etta (d). 



282 

Ch. of John F.— Mary M., Susan, LydiaP., Annie C, John 
F., James R., Albert H. 

Br. of Daniel: — Daniel (Valeria Hoover), Washington 
(Phoebe J. Snider), Maria (Josiah Moats). 

Ch. of Daniel: — Sarah (Wesley Simmons), John, Lavina, 
Nora, Lon. 

Ch. of Washington: — Lula, Ella. 

Line of Henry:— Mary (b. 1818), Zebedee, George J., Wil- 
liam (b. 1831), Jacob, Eliza, Sarah, Cain. 

Unp. 1. Henry (Frances )— b. 1822*. 2. Dorothy 

(Edward D. Ruddle). 3. Eunice (David Hively). 4. Phihp 

(Barbara A. )— b. Feb. 9, 1811, d. Oct. 28, 1885. 5. 

James (Elizabeth )— b. 1819. 6. Margaret. 7. Sarah 

( Wagoner)— b. 1784, d. 1869. 

Ch. of 2: — Samuel (Elizabeth Hoover, Hid)*, Joshua (Louisa 
Varner) — Lewis, Sarah (d), Mary (Jonathan Varner) — Tkr, 
William (Frances Simmons) — b. 1847, Mallow Run, Solomon 
(Polly A. Smith). 

Ch. of William:— 1. Mary E. (Clinton Leach, Mass.) 2. 
Stephen H. (Elizabeth Crummett) — Lutheran preacher, Va. 
3. WilHam J. (Daisy Puffenbarger). 

C. of Solomon: — George, Henry, Estella, others. 

Ch of 4:— Sidney P. (b. 1845), George P. 

Ch. of 5:-Mary M. (b. 1844), Martha J., Sarah L., Mary C. 

(B). Samuel (Susan Stone) — b. 1820*. — ch. — L Elijah 
(Amanda Bowers)— b. 1842. 2. Mary E. (Addison P. Todd). 
3. Martha A. (Henry Hoover). 4. Elizabeth (Lewis Waggy). 
— b. 1848. 5. Nellie (Benjamin Bodkin)— Rph. 6. EHza 
(Taylor Bodkin)— Rkm. 7. John (Timnah Kiser)— B-T. 8. 
Thomas J. (Sarah F. Wilfong). 9. Hannah (John A. Snider). 
10. Sarah (Daniel Eye). 11. George (Lizzie Rexroad, Em- 
ma Stone). 

Ch. of Elijah: — John (Delia Propst), Jacob S. (Lou 
Mitchell), Mary (Rkm)*, Margaret, Harry, Susan, Jane (d), 
Cora (William Eye). 

Ch. of Thomas J.— Pearlie E., Cleda, Eliza, Ruth, Shirley, 
Margie, Gertrude, Mary, Caddie (dy), Arthur (dy). 

Ch. of George:— James D. ( ), William 0., Mattie 

(P Smith), Susan, Minnie, Effie, Frank, Jasper. 

Raines. James (Frances Thompson)— b. 1776*, d. 1858— 
ch.— 1. George (Susannah Bland)— b. Dec. 20, 1794, d. Nov. 
7, 1856, m. 1820— n. Riverton. 2. Reuben (Margaret Mal- 
colm, Rph)— Hdy. William (Abigail Judy ) -b. 1803— C'ville. 
3. Gabriel (Margaret Lawrence)— Tkr. 4. Nancy (James 

Whitecotton). 5. EUzabeth ( Malcolm). 6. Barnet 

(Susannah Tingler)— m. 1819. 

Br. of George :— 1. Tobias (Elizabeth Harper) . 2. Mor- 



283 

gan (Phoebe Bennett, Jennie Wilfong Nelson) — b. Mar. 5, 
1821 — Big Run. 3. Eunice (William Leach). 4. Isaac 
(Mary Harman)— 111. 5. Elizabeth (Michael H. Hinkle). 6. 
Mahala (Jacob FHnn). 7. Huldah (Jacob Stagle)— 111. 8. 
George (111.)* 9. Mary (Peter Wimer). 10. Susan (John 
Borrer). 11. Sidney (Noah Stagle)— 111. Sarah (111)* 12. 
Jacob (111.)* 

Ch. of Tobias:—!. Mary C. (Isaac Wimer). 2. Sarah 

Isaac Hinkle). 3. Susan (Miles Tingler). 4. Martin ( 

Hedrick) — k. by tree. 5. Ellice (William Vandeventer). 6. 
Rachel (James Clayton). 7. Christina (B — Hedrick) 8. 
Virginia (John Thompson). 

C. of Martin : — Patrick (Ida Hedrick, Laura Lambert), 
Kenny (Annie Nelson), Jack ( Bland), Edward, How- 
ard, Lottie (Norman Sponaugle), girl : all in Rph. 

Ch. of Morgan : — 1. Stewart (Ellen Judy Bennett, Lizzie 
Nelson, Elizabeth A. Lambert)— b. 1847. 2. Huldah (Jacob 
Nelson). 3. Elizabeth (Wilham Johnson). 4. Amanda A. 
— dy. 5. Harriet (James B. Dove). 6. James (Annie Eaton, 
la.)* 7. Watson (Delia Bland). 8— 9 boys (dy). 

C. of Stewart:— 4 (dy). By 2d m.— Peachie (W A. 

Vint), Edward. By 3d m.— Lillie (Adam Collins, Poca)*, 
Sylvia, Kenny, Fred, Walter, Kate, Martha, and Marshall 
(twins). 

C. of Watson : — Sarah (Grover Warner), Phoebe J. (Grover 
Teter), Alice (Beach Lambert), Retta, Reddie, Robert, 
Frank. 

Br. of Barnet :— 1. B. Ami (Amanda Hedrick). 2. Felix 
— W. 3. Adam (Catharine Turner) —d. 1860* 4. Catharine 
(John Wimer). 5. Mehnda (Reuben Vance). 

Ch. of B. Ami :— Miles (Eliza A. Barclay), Martha (George 
Lough), Joseph F. (Phoebe E. Sites), Frances (Abraham 
Helmick), Susan C. (Samuel C. Morral), Phoebe J. (William 
F. Kimble). 

C. of Miles : — Carrie (Kenny Hedrick) ,Ida, Cena, Gertrude 
(John A. Sites), Pearl (Abraham L. Cunningham), Hazen. 

C. of Joseph F. — William G. (Rosa Thompson)— Rph, Mar- 
tin L. (Hester Biby), Ora G., John G., Ralph, Henry C, 
Brinton, Curtis, Denver, Zernie (dy), Fannie B. (dy). 

Ch. of Adam: — 1. Susan E. (Henry V. Cunningham). 2. 
John W. (Henrietta Miley)— Tkr. 3. Sarah (dy). 4. Vir- 
ginia (Evan C. Vance). 

Ratliff. William (Malinda Yankee, Rkm)— ch.— 1. Solo- 
mon (Phoebe Harman)— b. 1833, d. 1874. 2. Elizabeth (Jacob 
Reel, Hdy).* 3. Mary E. (Elijah Whetsell, Rkm).* 4. 
Susan R. (Noah W. George). 5. AbelR. (Sarah C. Harman) 



284 

—merchant— Grant. 6. Jacob P. (Minnie Barton, Rkm).* 
7—11. infs (dy). 

Ch. of Abel R.— Mary E. (Jacob Mangold), William V. 
(Virginia Riggleman), Kenny H. 

Unp. John (Mary Borrer) — m. 1812. 2. Cynthia (John 
Borrer)— m. 1811. 

Rexroad. Zachariah (Catharine )— d. 1799— ch.— 1. 

George (Margaret Hevener)— b. 1760,* m. 1791, d. 1852. 2. 
Zachariah (Catharine Propst)— b. 1762, d. 1848. 3. Henry 
(Catharine E. ) — D. early. 4. Leonard (Elizabeth Cop- 
linger) — m. 1791. 5. John. 6. Mary (John Gragg) — m. 
1796. 7. Dorothy A. ( ). 8. Christian. 9. Bar- 
bara (Jacob Peninger) — m. 1813. 

Line of George: — 1. Peter (Elizabeth Snider, Lucinda Mc- 
Coy)— b. 1799, d. 1862. 2. Henry (Mary A. Kiser)— b. 1806, d. 
1886. 3. David (Lucinda Wagoner)— b. 1818. 4. Joseph (Sa- 
rah Kiser)— Hid. 5. William (Polly Hoover, Martha J., Bible 
Stone, Elizabeth H. Todd)— b. 1823— W—T. 6. George W. 
(Eliza Hoover, Christina Hoover) — Upshur. 7. Eleanor 
(Jacob Crummett). 8. Abigail (Jacob Mitchell). 9. Agnes 
(John Gragg). 10. Elizabeth (Solomon Simmons). 11. 
Mary (Jacob Crummett). 12. Martha (Anthony Switzer) — 
111. 13. Magdalena (John Eye)— d. 1852. 

Br. of Peter: — Hannah (Hid),* Sarah (John Hammer), 
Abraham (unkn); by 2d m.— Mimie, Oliver. 

Br. of Henry:— 1. Eliza (John Dahmer). 2. Addison 
(Amelia Waggy). 3. Marshall (Josephine Stone, Grant) — 
Hid. 4. Mary A. (William Hevener). 5. Amanda (Thomas 
H. Harrison). 6. Barbara C. (Benjamin Eye). 7. Martha 
J. — d. 8. Morgan (Leah Simmons) — S — F. 

Br. of David: — Louisa, Martha, Mimie (William Dove), Isa- 
phene (Calvin Moyers), Hannah, Hendron (EHzabeth Wil- 
fong), David (Phoebe Summers, Minnie Summers), Harry, 
Lucy, Mattie. 

Br. of William: — Elizabeth H. (George Puffenbarger) , 
Hannah C. (Harrison Pitsenbarger), Mary J. (Joseph Moyers), 
Valeria (Jacob Mitchell), Emma, John J., Nancy R. (Harry 
Stone), George H., Jared N., Lula B. 

Line of Zachariah: — Kate (Jacob Moyers) — b. 1787, d. 
1873. 2. Jacob (Mary Moyers)— b. 1789, d. 1861— B-T. 3. 
Maria. 4. Samuel (Elizabeth Bible) — b. 1794 — homestead. 
5. Barbara (Henry Eye). 6. George (Elizabeth Eye) — b. 
1799, d. 1878— n. Brandywine. 7. Solomon (Elizabeth Ham- 
mer) -b. 1803, d. 1856. 8. Henry— b. 1808, d. 1894— S. 

Br. of Jacob:— 1. Henry (Susan Moyers, Leah Propst) —B-T, 
2. Solomon (Mary A. Rexroad)— S-B. 3. Ami — k. by tree. 
4. Emanuel (Mary A. Propst)— S-B. 5. Harmon (Mary Rex- 



2SS 

road)— S-B. 6. Mary A. (Nathaniel Rexroad). 7. Nariel— 
drowned. 8. Abel — dy. 

Ch. of Henry: — Aaron, Mary J. (William Sinnett). 

Ch. of Solomon:—!. Elizabeth— S. 2. Savannah L. (Dice 
Simmons). 3. Tillman F. (Sarah C. Simmons) — homestead. 
4. Albert H. (Phoebe Hammer) — homestead. 

C. of Tillman F.— Arthur H. (dy), Lena M. 

C. of Albert H.— Lillie M., 2 boys (dy). 

Ch. of Emanuel:— Nariel (Joseph Varner), Mary A. (Solo- 
mon Rexroad), Savannah (Robert Lambert), Huldah, Abel, 
Valeria (d). 

Ch. of Harmon: — Jacob (k), Louisa (John Dickenson), Solo- 
mon, Mary (George Moyers), Sullivan, Granville (Ritchie)* 
by 2d m. — Mattie (Jacob Sinnett), inf (dy). '• 

Br. of Samuel: — Susan (John Cassell), Jacob, Laban, Seneal 
(k. by tree, I860*), Samuel, Catharine (Harmon Rexroad), 
Melinda (William Propst), Elizabeth (Leonard Mitchell), 
Mary (Solomon Rexroad), Eve, Indiana, Nathaniel (Mary 
Rexroad). 

Ch. of Nathaniel:— Ami (k.), Henry (Amanda Propst), 
Seneal (Margaret Propst), Susan (Amos Fultz), Mary (Ben- 
jamin Propst), Harrison (Mary Wimer), Javan, Edward 
(Mattie Moyers). 

Br. of Solomon:—!. Zachariah (Eliza Roberts) —homestead. 
2. Jacob— S. 3. George— d. !6. 4. Solomon (Mary Rexroad 
—homestead. 5. Phoebe— S. 

Ch. of Zachariah: — Margaret (Harrison Pitsenbarger) , 
Isaac (Elizabeth Harper), Zachariah (Alice Simmons). 

C. of Isaac:— Cora (Emory Wees), Effie, Emma, (Frank 
Harper)— twin to Effie, Carrie (John Judy), Vernie. 

C. of Zachariah: — Paul (Carney Hevener), Kate, William 
(Charleston)*, Ada (d), Charles, Mattie, Mabel, Vernon, 
Julia, 4 infs (dy). 

Br. of George.—!. Augustus (Elizabeth Riser) , 2. Dennis 
(Magdalena Snider). 3. Solomon (Magdalena Mallow). 4. 
William (Frances Turner) . 5. George M. (Millie Swadley)— 
homestead. 6. Washington— S. 7. Mahulda (Peter Swad- 
ley). 8. Eliza (John Mallow, Adam Martin). 9. Sarah E. 
(Addison C. Davis). !0. Phoebe M. (Joshua Propst). !1. 
Lavina (Addison Simmons). 

Ch. of Augustus:— Hugh (Christina Snider), Jane (Wil- 
liam Hevener), Barbara (Harvey Hoover), Sarah (Eli Jo- 
seph), Martha (William Nicholson, Rkm)*. 

Ch. of Dennis:— Jacob (Jane? Waggy), George C. ( 

Propst, , Rkm)*, S (Nancy Plaugher), God- 
frey (Mary Waggy), Ruhama, Amanda J. (Martin Hoover), 



286 

Josephine ( Snider), Magdalena ( Snider, same as 

preceding-). 

Ch. of Solomon: — Henry (Sarah Newham), Martha ( 

Lough), Louisa (David Hively), Mary (Poca.)*, Eliza (Jo- 
seph He d rick). 

Ch. of William:— Elizabeth (Rkm), Henry, James, Noah 
(Rkm), Ashby, Virinda (Rkm), Basha, Lizzie: all in Rkm. 

Ch. of George M.— Edward H. (Kate Hively, Lucy Bliz- 
zard), Jacob F. (Sarah Puff enbarger) , Valentine P. (Mary 
Trumbo), John F. (Nora Eye)— Hid, George W. (Carrie 
Propst), Mary J. (William Hoover), Louisa L. (Tillman 
Hively), Margaret H. (Frank Kiser), Sarah V. (Truman Ri- 
ser, (Martha M. (Lee Bodkin), Mary A. (Rkm)*. 

(B) George W. (Eliza J. Hoover, Christina Hoover) — b. 
1821 — preacher — Seneca— ch. — Mary E. (Upshur)*, John A. 
(Martha Phares), Barbara (in Rph), Sarah, Benjamin (in S. 

v.). 

Ch. of John A.— Ambrose, Charles, George W., Benja- 
min, Minnie, Maud. 

Unp. 1. George (Elizabeth ). 2. Christiana (Geo. 

Wimer) — m. 1825. 3 Margaret (Jacob Armentrout) — m. 
1807. 4. Leonard (Barbara Rexroad)— m. 1827. 5. Samuel 
(Susannah Waybright)— m 1816. 6. Elizabeth (George 
Halterman)— m. 1820. 7. Frances (Thomas Hoover) — m. 

1821. 8. George (Barbara ). 9. Zachariah ( ). 

10. Conrad (Catharine Harper)— b. 17^3*. 

Ch. of 1: -Conrad (Elizabeth )— b. 1774. d. 1861— 

Dry Run. Peter (Lucinda )— b. 1799, d. 1862. 

Ch. of 9:— Barbara. (Andrew Harold, m. 1806), Mary (Mi- 
chael Propst, m. 1805), Susannah (Daniel Stone, m. 1815), 
Barbara? (Jacob Peninger, m. 1813). 

Ch. of 8: — Susannah (Eglon Cunningham, m. 1827). 

Ch. of 10:— Henry, Mahala. 

Zachariah, the pioneer, arrived in the Valley of Virginia 
in 1762, coming to the South Fork 12 years later. There was 
a later settlement on the South Branch on fine bottom land 
still in the family. 

Riggleman. Henry (Susan Ressner) — b. 1824. d. 1894 — 
ch.— Mary E. (Arnold Rimble), John (Sarah E. Miller), Isaac 
(Didana Ressner), Sarah C. (William Riggleman), Samuel 
G. (Sarah Landes). Rebecca J. (Noah Ressner) , Harvey (dy), 
Hannah D. (dy), Enoch S. (Eliza C. Ressner). 

Hiram (Rebecca Landes, Millie Ressner) — cousin to Henry 
— several children. 

Unp. Jacob (Margaret Champ). 

In 1790 * 'Riggleman 's cabin" was a well known landmark 
at the head of North Mill Creek. 



287 

Roberson. Edward (Margaret Kessner)— m. 1799— ch. — 
John (Nancy Ingmire)— b. 1800, d. 1869— Trout Run. 2. 
Sarah A. (John Warner, Lewis)*— b. 1804, d. 1885. 3. 
Elizabeth (John Baker)— Fin. 4. Mary (John Keller)— Sen- 
eca. 5. Susan (Kisamore Carr) — 0. 6. Henry (Sarah Skid- 
more) — W. Va. 

Br. of John: — 1. Elizabeth. 2. Susan. 3. John (Sarah 
Dahmer, Caroline Siple) — b. 1833. 4. Henry (Mahala Ham- 
mer)— b. 1835. 5. Margaret (John E. Stoffer, Penna.)— W. 
6. Mary (James Violet, Hdy)*. 7. Louisa — dy. 8. Phoebe 
(Isaac Flinn, William Guthrie). 

Ch. of John:— 1. Isaac (Alice TeterLantz)— Reed's Cr. 2. 
Catharine — dy. By 2d m. — 3. George. 4. Ashford (Eliza 
Sites)— Rph. 5. William— Rph. 

Ch. of Henry:— Isaac N., Virginia D., Mack C. 

Unp. 1. William H.— 1788. 2. Elizabeth (Peter )— 

1798. 3. Christian , 1788. 

Ruddle. Cornelius (Hannah Dyer)— b. 1780, d. 1876— ch. 
1. James D. (Elizabeth Hammer, Jane Payne)— b. 1809, d. 
1894— n. Ruddle P. 0. 2. Reuben (Jessie? Bolden)— Gilmer. 

3. Polly (Roger Dyer). 4. Jennie (Jefferson McCoy). 

Br. of James D. — 1. William G. (Samantha Hartman). 2. 
Edmund D. (Dorothy Puffenbarger)— b. May 31, 1835, d. 
Nov. 3, 1894. 3. Isaac C. (Mary Skidmore)— tanner— Fin. 

4. Abel M. (Mary C. Dahmer) . 5. John M. (Virginia F. 
Hammer). 6. James H. (Caroline Homan) — Kas. 7. An- 
derson N.— S. 8. Mary C. (Frank Homan). 9. Henry M. 
(Mary S. Hedrick). By 2d m.-lO. Charles C. (Mary J. 
Smith). 11. Harness (Cora Dove)— N.— F. 12. Phoebe 
(Mathias Conrad). 13. Margaret (Edward Hartman). 14. 
Frank — k. by gun. 15. Hannah (Charles Simmons). 

Ch. of Isaac C. — Harry, Camden, Fillmore, Early (Allie 
Carter), Mattie, Robert (Nannie Patch). 

Ch. of John M.— Mary E. (Barclay Smith), Calvin D., Al- 
meda F. (Almeda Simmons), Lela G., Carrie B., Phoebe C. 
(Robert Swadley), James F., John P., Aud B., (George E. 

Ch. of Henry C— Lura C. (Don Byrd), Maud D., Clara E., 
Ona D., Ott F., Otho C. (dy). 

Ch. of Charles B. — Arley (dy), Olin, Kenny, Lester, Don, 
Nellie. 

John (Mary ) of Rkm. had these other children be- 
sides Cornelius: 2. Isaac (Deborah Nestrick), William ( 

), Mary (William Dyer)— b. 1776, d. 1861. Isaac and 

William did not live here. The following son of Isaac was 
reared by his maternal grandmother on South Fork Mtn. — 

John M. (Mary E. Eye)— b. 1830— upper Trout Run— ch. 
1. William P. (Carrie Ruddle). 2. Isaac (Susan Dahmer)— 



288 

sheriff. 3. Sarah — la. 4. Alice. 5. Jennie (John Moyers). 
6. Emily (Jacob Cowger)— S. V. 7. Maud (Floyd Simmons) 
-Hdy. 

Ch. of William P.— Roma. 

Ch. of Isaac N. — Claude, Whitney, Say lor, Reta, Roy, Dick, 
John, Dottie, boy. 

Br. of William:— Carrie (William P. Ruddle). 

Rymer. Thomas (Annie Waybrigfht) — m. 1810 — merchant 
at C'ville — ch. — 1. George (Margaret Harper) — Wm. H. Ry- 
mer's. 2 others. 

Br. of George W. — Phoebe A. (Solomon Newman, Hid)*, 
Mary J. (S C. Beveridge. Hid)*, Ellen (Andrew T. New- 
man, Hid)*, Hannah C. ( (George W. Hammer), Elizabeth 
(John A. Calhoun), George (d. 24), William H. (Catharine 
Phares), Jacob H. (Susan Hinkle). 

Ch. of Jacob H. — Matie (William Simmons), Clyde (Sarah 
Calhoun), Sudie (Charles Bennett). 

Thomas was the grandson of George, a soldier of the Revo- 
lution, b. 1750, d. after 1840. 

Saunders. Edward T. (Margaret Eagle, Hid)— b. 1799, d. 
1873— ch.— 1. John C. (Mary M. Hiner— homestead. 2. 
Louisa J. (John P. Rymer, Aug.)*. 3. Mary E. 

Ch. of John C— Margaret 0., Elizabeth G. (Arthur Hiner), 
Martha (d). 

Edward T. was a bricklayer by trade. He was a consta- 
ble of Pendleton. 

Schmucker. George (Sarah Hahn, b. 1807, d. 1900— b. 
Feb. 16, 1807. d. Aug. 10, 1886— settled on Mallow's Run, 
1841— ch.— 1. Henrietta J. (Isaac T. Kile). 2. Mary E. 
(Stephen H. Thacker). 3. Samuel L.— S. 4. William M. 
(W. Va.)— merchant, 0. 5. Jacob N. (Ky). 6. George M. 
(0.)* 7. Martha (dy). 8. Hannah R. (John S. Harman). 

Rev. George Schmucker was born near Woodstock, gradu- 
ated at Gettysburg in 1835, and was licensed to preach the 
same year. He came to Pendleton as the result of a visit by 
his father, the Rev. John N. Schmucker. The grandfather ' 
John C, came from Hesse Darmstadt in 1785. The family' 
however, is of Swiss origin. George M. is also a Lutheran' 
preacher. He graduated at Columbus, 0. 

Schrader. Jacob (Mary Simmons — Jack Mtn — ch?— 1. 
Henry (Nancy Knapp, Poca.)* 2. Jacob (Phoebe Mowrey) 
— b. 1812. 3. Sarah (John McQuain). 4. Mary (Rkm).* 

5. Christian (Sarah Rexroad)— b. 1817. 6. Susan ( 

Hoover). 7. Peter (Jane Knapp. Poca.) 

Br. of Jacob: — Uriah (Ritchie),* Ami ( Crummett)— 

homestead, Eliza ( Gragg), David (Ritchie),* Benjamin. 

Ch. of Ami:— John ( Pitsenbarger), Phoebe J. (Amby 



289 

Rexroad), Hannah (Prank? Eye), Minnie (Kemp Rexroad). 

Br. of (Christian : — Catharine ( Hoover), Solomon (d). 

Br. of Peter:— 1. William— d. war. 2. Ezra— k. 3. Mary 
(Poca)*. 4. Washington— d. 5. Martha— d. 6. Margaret 
(Dice Lantz). 7. Catharine (Hid)*. 8. Robert (Minnie 
Simmons) — Buffalo Hills. 

Unp. 1. Henry— 1803. 2. Nicholas (Verona )— 

1790. 3. John (Christiana Moats)— m. 1812. 
^ Shaver. Paul ( )— d. 177—, ch?— 1. Christo- 
pher (Mary Wanstaff)— m. 1804. 2. Jacob (Mary Tarr)— m. 

1799. 3. Christian. 4. John (Catharine N. )— m. 

1803. 5. Balsor (Ann C. Mitchell)— b. 1792— Sweedland. 

Line of Balsor:— 1. Alexander M. (Sarah )— b. 1818 

— Ind. 2. Isabella — out. 3. John. 4. Simon (Anna B. Si- 
mon, Hdy)— b. 1825, d. 1880— homestead. 5. Ephraim (S. 
V.)— Ind. 6. Eliza ( Imon)— W. 

Br. of Simon:— 1. Anna C. (Hdy)*— b. 1847. 2. Mary V. 
(Hdy)*. 3. Michael S. (Rachel Mitchell). 4. Priscilla (Cy- 
rus Mitchell). 5. Sarah S. E. (Andrew J. Nesselrodt). 6. 
Ephraim B. J. (Rachel Kuykendall)— Va. 7. Martha G. 
( (Charles B. Nesselrodt). 8. John C. (Minnie M. Hartman) 
— homestead. 9. Edmund C. (Ind.) — 0. 

Ch. of Michael S.— Addie J. Simon J., Ettie, Sarah A. 

Unp. 1. Barnabas (Mary )— b. 1814. 2. Henry 

(Elizabeth Cook). 

Shaw. John (Elizabeth Bolton)— b. 1807. d. 1875— ch— 1. 
John W. (Mary Williams) — Fin — expressman. 2. Frances 
(William Skiles). 3. Ann (James S. Trumbo). 4. Rebecca 
(James Skiles)— d. 1879. 

Ch. of John W.— Otis, Cecil. 

Shirk. Henry (Rebecca Vanmeter) — b. 1800* — son of 
Henry, an Irish immigrant — ch. — 1. George (111.)* — b. 1831. 
2. Phoebe (Alfred Kimble). 3. Amos (Lucinda Vanmeter), — 

Smokehole— b. 1839. 4. Elijah ( Nelson)— Rph. 5. Joab 

(Una Harman) — Upshur. 6. Solomon (Mary Full) — Grant. 
7. Aaron (Susan Ay ers) — Rph. 8. Enos (111.)*. 9. Jesse — 
S. 10. William (dy). 11. Lucinda (Adam Kimble). 12. 
Sarah (John A. Kimble, Isaac Harman). 13 Eliza (Samson 
Day)— W. Va. 

Ch. of Amos:— William W. (Susan J. Champ) — homestead, 
Sarah E. (John Kimble, Grant)*, Mary (John Self, Grant)*, 
Martha J., Ida S. (d), Cora A. (d), Helena, George, Rebecca, 
Osborn. 

Shreve. John (Eliza Piatt, Loudoun) — ch. — 1. Daniel — b. 
1795. 2. John P. (Hannah Ayers)—m. 1827. 3. William 
(Rebecca Hedrick)— k. 1864*. 4. James— S. 5. Amos (Mary 
Arbogast?). 6. Jane~S.~b. 1802. 7. Mary (John? Long) 

PCH 19 



290 

—Milwaukee. 8. Lucinda (Elihu Hedrick). 9. Eliza (Jesse 
Vanmeter)— m. 1825. 10. Nancy (Philip Hedrick)— m. 1819. 
11. Benjamin W. (Lucinda McUlty)—b. 1822, d. 1906. 

Br. of Daniel:— Hiram W.—b. 1832—111. 2. Samson P. 3. 
Mary E.— W. Va. 4. Daniel Y. (Mary Kimble)— Smokehole. 

5. Phoebe E. 6. Mahala E. 7. Cvrus H. (Emily Holloway) 
— Md. 8. Theresa. 9. Julia A. (George Eagle). 10. Caro- 
lina (George Hill). 11. Lucinda (David Vanmeter). 12. 
girl. 

Br. of William:— Wesley (Mary Harper), Clark, Zachariah, 
Kenny, Jane, Louisa, Ann J. The family moved to Ind. 

Br. of Amos: — 1. Nicodemus (Catharine Huffman). 2. 
Benjamin (Hannah Ketterman) — Md. 3. Jesse (Eliza Ar- 
mentrout)— Md. 4. Rebecca. 5. Nancy (John E. Ayres). 

6. Edith J. (Adam Hedrick). 

Br. of Benjamin W. :— 1. Ann J. (Sam H. Nelson— b. 1846. 
2. Matilda C— dy. 3. Mary E.— D. 4. Emily C. (Calvin 
Kimble). 5. James F. (Samilda Ayers)— Rph. 6. John W. 
(Hadie J. Kimble)— Brushy Run. 7. Benjamin F, (Sarah 
Judy). 8. Andrew B. (Joanna Shreve). 9. Noah A.— d. 

Ch. of James E.— William H. (Delia Teter), James A. 
(Delia Vanmeter) , Cora (Blaine Teter), Sarah. 

Ch. of John W.— William B. (in Nicholas), Alvin, Eva M., 
Annie (d), John B., Isom H., Ewart C. 

Ch. of Benjamin F. — Ira, Clemens, Ettie. 

Ch. of Andrew B. — Austin, Emma, Floda, Minnie. 

Unp. Jacob— 1800. 

John, the pioneer, was a nephew of Joseph, who visited 
the South Branch in 1769, and took up land in Pendleton and 
Grant, and also Randolph on land warrants. He died west 
of the Alleghanies. The connection in this county is in the 
north of Mill Run. 

Simmons. (A) Leonard (Mary A. )— came before 

1768 to S-F— d. 1808— ch.— 1. Elizabeth (Balsor Hammer). 

>^ 2. Henry (Susan )— b. Oct. 12, 1760, d. Sept. 7, 1825 

i — homestead. 3. Leonard (Catharine ). 4. William 

— b. 1774, d. 1815. 5. George (Mary Wimer)— b. Jan. 27, 
1779— Dry Run. 

Line of Henry : — 1. Leonard (Mary Mifford) — m. 1805 — 
W. Va. 2. Jonas — Lewis. 3. Peter (Sarah Moyers) — 
Cave P. 0. 4. Henry (Rachel Simmons)— b. July 3, 1798, 

d. Aug. 17, 1868 — homestead. 5. William (Margaret ) 

— b. 1800— Hammer mill. 6. Abraham (Nancy ) — b. 

1815?— Lewis. 

Br. of Henry :—l. John (Barbara )— b. 1818— out? 

2. Mary (Balsor Hammer). 3. Melinda (Harmon Moyers). 
4. Leah (John Bowers). 5. Elizabeth (John Hammer). 6. 



291 

Phoebe (Zebulon Johnson). 7. Timothy (Deborah Bible). 8. 
Emanuel (Eleanor A. Harper). 9. Henry (Mary Mauzy)— 
b. Sept. 9, 1835— homestead. 10. Jeremiah (Valeria Hi lie). 

Ch. of John :— Louisa J. (b. 1839), Sarah A., Daniel, Mary 
M., Lucinda E. 

Ch. of Timothy :— 1. John ( Jordan)— Friend's Run. 

2. Susan ( Moyers). 3. Minnie (Robert Schrader). 

Ch. of Emanuel: — Delia (Taswell Fitz water)— 0., Lucy 
(George Colaw, Hid)*, Etta (D), Jennie (Creede Fitzwater) 
— 0., Jasper (Almeda Mowrey, Phoebe Moyers), Harvey 
(Eliza Simmons). 

Ch. of Henry :— 1. Charles W. (Annie Walls)— G' brier. 
2. Edgar (Ardena Vint). 3. William (Amanda J. Simmons) 
—Aug. 4. Alice (Peter Moyers). 5. Kenny (Martha Ham- 
mer). 6. Harry (Barbara Hammer). 7. Dice C. (Lucy Rex- 
road). 8. Arthur. 9. Glenn (Alice Judy). 10. Florence 
(Maria Moyers). 11. Sarah C. (Floyd Rexroad). 

Ch. of Jeremiah : — Zadie ( Hille). 

Line of George :—l. Henry E. ( )— b. 1816— 

Panther Knob. 2. Mary A. 3. Sarah A. 4. Margaret J. (Wil- 
liam Nicholas) — b. 1826. 5. Catharine (William Rexroad). 
6. — — (Joshua Nicholas). 

Br. of Henry E.— Mary C. (Eli Bennett), Sarah A. (dy), 
Ann R. (Harness Phares), George F. (Abigail Phares) — b. 
1851, Christina (Jacob Mitchell), boy. 

Ch. of George F.— Clay (Effie M. Fox, Hid).— homestead. 

C. of Clay :— Luther E., Arley C, Ethel B., Isa, Ralph. 

(B) John N. (Margaret )— exempted 1790— ch?— 

1. John (Rebecca ). 2? George (Eve Cook)— m. 1796, 

d. 1810 — Wilfong church— tailor. 3. Leonard— Hid? 4. 
Michael. 5. Mark. 6. others? 

It is not known whether Leonard and John were brothers. 
Our knowledge of the posterity of the latter is too indefinite 
to present otherwise than in more or less disconnected groups. 

Line of John :— 1. John (Margaret Wimer)— b. 1774, d. 
1837* 2. others? 

Br. of John— 1. Frederick (Elizabeth Rexroad)— b. 1793, 
d. 1874 — S. H. Bolton's. 2. Benjamin (Rachel Dickenson 
Propst?). 3. David (Sarah Gragg)—m. 1821. 4. Amanda. 

5. Daniel (Elizabeth )-b. Oct. 4, 1800, d. Dec. 5. 

1881. 6. William. 7. Joseph? 8. Philip (Mary Maurer). 
9. Sophia. 10. Eli. 11. Sarah. 12. Rebecca (Cain Moyers) 
—b. 1808, d. 1875. 13. Emanuel. 14. John (Sophia C. ). 

Ch. of Frederick :— 1. Benjamin (Mollie Snider)— b. 1818 
— Hawes Run. 2. William (Sarah Bodkin). 3. Frederick 
(Mary A. Hoover). 4. John (Virginia Simmons) —Braxton. 
5. Addison (Mary Elyard). 6. David ( Hoover) — Har- 



292 

mai). 7. Daniel (Olive Hoover)— Hamp. 8. Frances (John 
H. Miller). 9. Matilda (Joel Hoover)— Harman. 10. Sarah 

(A Thompson)— Harmon. 11. Barbara (Michael Larab). 

12. Susan (Philip Eckard). 13. Emanuel— k. 

C. of Benjamin :— 1. Sylvester (Martha M. Propst)— home- 
stead. 2. Kuhama S. (Adam Hoover). 3. Elizabeth J.— S. 
4. Martha— d. 

Cc. of Sylvester :— Granville D., Oliver (dy), Olive, Emma, 
Polly A.. Lona (dy), Bertha M. 

C. of Frederick :— William F. (Laura G. Hoover), Susan E. 
(Charles P. Anderson), Eli C, Henry B., Harvey S. (Carrie 
Snider), Charles E. (Grace Harold), Robert H. (Jane Har- 
old), James T. (Verdie Simmons), Arthur L., Victor H., 
Jennie (James Harold), Carrie C, (Isaiah Murphy), Fernan- 
do C, 1 other. 

Ch. of Daniel:— Mary (b. 1825), Joel, Amos, Elizabeth. 

Ch. of Joseph :— Sabina (Eli Wilfong), Mary (Nicholas 
Wimer), Sarah (Joseph Simmons), Samuel (Sarah Wilfong), 
Joseph (Frances Wilfong), William (Christina Smith), Eli 

(Mahala A. Simmons, Kate Simmons) , Jonas ( Hedrick) 

— Okla. 

C. of Samuel .—Elias (Elizabeth Simmons), Hannah (Sam- 
uel Puffenbarger) , Naomi (Benjamin Mitchell). 

Cc. of Elias :—l. Emanuel F. (HannahBowers)— S. G. 2. 
Elijah (Mahulda Wilfong), Ami ( Lough), Joshua (Mar- 
garet Lambert), Harrison (d), EHza C. (Joseph Wilfong), 
Esther (dy), Mary J. 

Ccc. of Emanuel F.— Emory F. 

C. of William :— Sarah (b. 1844), John, Julia A. 

C. of Joseph —Samuel (Millie Snider), Elizabeth (John 

A. Snider), Valentine ( Swadley, Mineral)* Joseph 

(Mattie Bodkin), Hannah (Martin Gragg) , Margaret (George 
Smith,) Amanda (Laban Harold), Mordecai (Jane Gragg). 

Ccc. of Samuel '.—Calvin (Emma Bowers V-Rph., Albert 
(FrancesHinkle)— Hid., Amanda J. (William Simmons), Eliza 
(Harry Simmons), Ursula, Ohve (Kenny Rexroad), 2 boys 
(dy). 

Ccc. of Joseph :— Lillie (David Wilfong), Lillie, 3 others 
(d). 

Ccc. of Mordecai : — John (Jennie Simmons), Moses, Riley, 
Carrie, girl (Marshall Hoover), girl. 

Ch. of Philip :— David (Leah Crummett), William (Amanda 
Pitsenbarger, Mary Eckard), Job (Lucinda Eckard), Mar- 
garet (Marshall Smith), Jane (Noah Crummett), Amanda 
(Amos Puffenbarger), Melinda (Isaac Waggy). 

C. of David:— Mary J. (Sylvester Simmons), CaroHne 
(Abraham Armstrong, Hid), Hannah (Riley Armstrong), 



293 

Aaron (Emma Dove), Jemima (Emanuel Mitchell), 
Noah (Mary Hale, Aug.)*, Susannah (Abraham Puffenbar- 
ger, Aug.)*, Harvey (Lucinda Dove), Louisa (Erasmus Sim- 
mons), David (Elizabeth Puff enbarger), William F. (Aug.)*, 
Cora (John Dove), Martha (dy). 

Cc. of Harvey:— Guy, Homer M., Lou, Emma, Edmund 
H., Cora A., Hannah L., Elsie F. 

Cc. of David :— Mary E., Otho F. 

Ch. of John :— Ephraim (b. 1831), Rachel, John, Catharine, 
George A. 

Line of George : — 1. Jacob R. (Magdalena ) — b. 

1779, d. 1861. 2? Leonard ( )— m. 1799. 3. Susannah 

(George Crummett). 4. Elizabeth. 5? Mary M. (John 
Smith)— m. 1794. 6. Margaret. 

Br. of Jacob R. — 1. Lavina (Christian Puffenbarger). 2. 
Susan (Solomon Carr) — b. 1835. 3. Polly (Cain Arbogast). 
4. Emanuel (Sarah Propst, Leah Moyers) — Smith Cr. 5. 
John (Polly Simmons) — Rph. 6. James (Catharine Wilfong). 
7. Nariel (Hannah Barclay, Poca.)* 8. Ami — Lewis. 9. 
Lewis (Nellie Simmons) — Hid. 

Ch. of Emanuel :— 2 girls (dy) ; by 2d m.— Charles E. (P— 
—Lambert), Price, Rebecca E. (d). 

C. of Charles E. — Ezra, Annie R., Lizzie, Frank, Sarah, 
Arthur W. (dy), Elsie (dy). 

Ch. of James : — Alice (Zachariah Rexroad), Oscar (Nor- 
folk)*, Zebulon (Lura N. Hartman), Zora (Va)*, Edward 
( Simmons), Mollie ( Day), Mattie (Lonnie Lam- 
bert), Samuel, Charles. 

Unp. 1. Michael (Mary Waggy)— b. 1810. 2. Rachel 
(Henry Simmons) — m. 1788, d. 1869. 3. Joseph (Frances — 

)-b. 1818. 4. Solomon— d. 1831. 5. Solomon (Mary 

A. )— b. 1814. 6. Mary (Joseph Davis)— m. 1791. 7. 

George (Margaret Sheets?)— m. 1800. 8. Mark (Sarah 
Smith)— m. 1810. 9. George (Elizabeth Jones)— m. 1827. 
10. H^nry (Catharine Snider) — m. 1805. 11. Henry (Susan- 
nah Baldwin)— m. 182L 12. Joseph (Nancy )— 1812. 

13. ? 14. John (Ann Stone)— m. 1812. 15. An- 
drew (Barbara )— b. 1811, d. 1875. 16. Rachel (David 

Gum)— m. 1825. 17. David (Elizabeth )— b. 1816. 18. 

William (Phoebe )-b. 1822. 19. David (Susan ) 

-b. 1823. 20. Jacob ( ) 

Ch. of 1 -.—Mary (John Simmons)— b. 1835, George (Mary 
E. Hartman), Jeremiah (Catharine Helmick) — Poca, Eliza- 
beth (Michael Hoover, Jacob Hoover), Eleanor (Lewis Sim- 
mons), Elijah (Eliza Simpson), Addison (Susan Harper, 

Gum, Hid)* 

C. of George H.— Mary E. (William Moyers), Frances 



294 

(Cantor Lambert), Sebaldis (Delia Lambert), Alice (Floyd 
Warner), George A. (Mary L. Propst), Luetta (Harry Hed- 
rick), Jenina (Harry Simpson), Savannah (Frank Eye), 
Claude (Luna Lambert). 

Cc. of Sebaldis:— Eva, Price, Millie, Mary, Jesse, Zenie, 
Early L. 

Cc. of George A.— EfRe M., Daniel M., Henry H., Mary 
v., Okey L., Martha A., Mary V. 

Cc. of Claude: — Oscar, Edward. 

Ch. of 3:— Samuel (b. 1840), Elizabeth, Valentine, Morde- 
cai, Amanda. 

Ch. of 5.— Hezekiah (b. 1836), Sidney, Martin, Melinda, 
Mary, Catharine. Marshall, Susan. 

Ch. of 13:— Margaret (b. 1804), Daniel (b. 1816), Mary 
(b. 1819.) 

Ch. of 20:— Daniel (Sarah? Gragg) Joseph (Frances Sim- 
mons). 

C. of Daniel:— Amos (Hannah Simmons) — d. 1863*, Noah 
(d), EHzabeth (Elias Simmons), Polly (Solomon Stone), 
infs (dy). 

Cc. of Amos: — Edward H. (Lavina Bowers), William ( 

Hinkle), Samuel (Polly Bowers). 

The Simmons connection is very numerous, is widely dis- 
persed over the county, and does not seem to admit of a com- 
plete classification. As in the case of the Propst family, the 
dates pertaining to the earlier members are troublesome and 
there is no longer any authoritative court of appeal. 

Simpson. Allen (Susannah ) — ch? — 1. John — b. 

1784.* 2. William (Nancy Holland Day)— b. 1790.* 3. Abel 
(Mary A. Hartman)— Trout Run— b. 1801? d. 1857. 4. Kate 
( ). 5. others? 

Br. of William:— Emily A. (b. 1833), Andrew J., Solomon 
F., John L., Robert W., William A. 

Br. of Abel:-1. William— b. 1829— W. 2. Amos (Susan 
Cook, Hannah Hiner). 3. James (Dorothy Good) — Barbour. 
4. Miles (Sarah A. Bolton). 5. Michael— k. 6. Susan 
(WilHam Simmons). 7. Eliza (Elijah Simmons). 8. Eliza- 
beth (Reuben Kessner). 9. Noah. 

Ch. of Amos (by 2d m. ) :— 1. Joseph L. (Cora D. Keister). 
2. Charles E. (Margaret Siple)— Fin. 3. John W.— carpen- 
ter — Washington, D. C. 4. James A. (Dora Hoover). 5. 
Fillmore H., Carrie (John F. Hope), Mollie (Howard W. 
Simpson), Margaret (Wilbert Lough). 

Ch. of Miles:— Howard W. (Mollie Simmons), Floyd ( 

Simmons), Harry ( Simmons), Clyde, Lottie, Daisy, 

Delia (d), 1 other. 
-^ Sinnett. Patrick (Catharine He vener) — served Con- 



295 

rad 4 years as a redemptioner — ch. — 1. Henry (Catharine 
Fleisher)— b. June 4, 1783, d. Sept. 19, 1854. 2. Abel— Ritchie. 

3. George ( Rexroad) — Ritchie. 4. Herman — Ritchie. 

5. Elizabeth ( Drake) — Ritchie, 6. Catharine (Henry 

Propst). 7. Jacob (Susannah Eye)— b. 1815* — n. Dahmer 
P. 0. 

Br. of Jacob:— 1. William (Mary J. Rexroad, Anna E. 
Mitchell, Eliza Mitchell)— b. 1885— homestead. 2. Henry 
(Mary C. Moyers)— B-T. 3. Amanda C. (William Simmons). 

4. Elizabeth (William Eye). 5. Jacob. 6. Juha A. 7. 
Catharine. 8 — 9. twins (dy). 

Ch. of William:— 1. Henry M. 2. Jacob A. (Martha Rex- 
road). By 2d m.— 3. Lee (Louise M. Mitchell). 4. Abel (Sa- 
rah Simmons) — Hid. 5. Wesley (Jennie Moyers) — Aug. 6. J. 
Frank (Huldah V. Propst)— Horton. 7. Emanuel— d. 23. 8. 
Amanda C. (John Fultz) . 9. Lavina A. 10. Harriet (Har- 
rison Rexroad). 11. Valeria (Jasper Propst). 

C. of Jacob A.— Paul W., Charles, Ettie, Henry, 2 others. 

Ch. of Lee: -William A., David C, Eliza F. 

Br. of Henry: — Catharine (Eli Hoover)— b. 1842, Valeria, 
(George Hammer) , Phoebe J. (Lewis Eye), Naomi (Laban 
Bowers, Benjamin Bodkin), Josephine (George Eye), Harri- 
son (dy). 

Siple. Joel (Mary M. Hiner)— ch.— 1. George (Poca)* 2. 
Caroline (John Roberson). 3. Jane (Robert Wolfenbarger, 
Poca.)— 111. 4. William (Mary Lough)— k. 5. Mary (Jo- 
seph Armstrong, Hid)*. 6. John (111.)* 7. Abraham (Hid 
— Albemarle)*. 8. Hannah (Lough Wagoner)— Bridgewa- 
ter. 9. Josiah H. (Rachel Beaver, Aug. )— B. D. 10. Sam- 
uel (Sarah Armstrong, Hid, Sarah Smith)— M. R. D. 11. 
J. Madison (Poca.)* 12. twin girls (dy). 

Ch. of Josiah H.— Charles (Emma Hiser, Rkm), Annie, 
Augusta V. (Rkm)*, Mary M. (Perry Martin), Minnie, 
Theodore (twin to Minnie), Maud. 

Ch. of Samuel:— Lee (111.)*, Maud (Hid)*, William (111.)*; 
by 2d m. — Mary M. (Charles E. Simpson), Cora (William 
Wagoner), Preston T., Cosmos (Carrie Wagoner) — Mineral, 
Lena (Hugh Kimble), John (in U. S. A.), Etta M. (Otho 
Byrd), Edward L. 

Joel was a grandson of Conrad, who came from Penna. to 
New Market. He himself settled in Highland in 1834 and 
on the Andrew Dyer farm in Mill Run in 1862. Corporal 
John was a guard at San Francisco during the days follow- 
ing the earthquake. 

Unp. George (Mahala )"b. 1797*— ch.— Conrad 

(b. 1834), Joseph, George, Ambrose, Christina, Magdalena, 
Jane. 



296 

(B) William (Laura J. Hoover)— S-F—ch.— Delia (Early 
C. Snider), Phoebe J. 

Sites. Jacob (Margaret Lough, m. 1792, — Catharine Hin- 
kle)— b. 1769, d. 1854— ch.— 1. Jacob— Mo. 2. Adam (Edith 
Teter)— b. 1803. 3. John. 4. Barbara. 5. Elizabeth. 6. 
Margaret— S. 7. Eve (George Dolly)— m. 1825. By 2d m. 
— 8. Samson (Eve Harper) — b. — homestead. 9. William 
(Dorothy Edmund) — n. homestead. 

Br. of Adam: — 1. Johnson (Ann Adamson) — b. 1826. 2. 
Jacob (Mary Day). 3. Job (Polly A. Harper)— b. 1830. 4. 
Noah (Jane Harper). 5. Adam ( Simmons). 6. Chris- 
tina (Joshua Day)— b. 1888. 7. Sarah E. 

Ch. of Johnson: — 1. Hannah (dy). 2. Mary J. (George 
Harper). 3. Margaret (George W. Eagle). 4. Jacob (Nora 
Harper) — Martinsburg. 5. William (Baltimore).* 6. Joseph 
(Rose Largent)- Phil'a. 7. John M. (Estella F. Kile)— 
Martinsburg. 8. James (Susan E. Judy)— U. T. 

C. of James:— Nida L., Johnson, Joseph, Mabel, Ella, Ber- 
tha, Mildred. 

Ch. of Jacob:— 2 dau.— W. Va. 

Ch. of Job:— Perry (Mary S. Mallow), John A. (Gertrude 
Raines), Isaiah (Sarah J. Mallovv^), Christina (Jacob Lewis), 
Kate (Noah Painter), Elizabeth (Lorenzo Hinkle), 2 girls 
(dy). 

Ch. of Noah: — John W. ( Harper), Adam H. (Frances 

Hedrick), Simeon (Margaret Miley), William ( Huffman). 

Ch. of Adam: — 2 dau. — out. 

Br. of Samson:— Elizabeth (George Shirk), Jacob W. (dy), 
Elias C. (Mary Kisamore), John W. (Ellen Hedrick), Phoebe 
C. (Joseph Raines), Mary S. (George Thompson), Virginia 

(dy), Hannah C. (dy), Elisha H. ( Robinson)— Rph, 

Anna A. (Joseph M. Harper), Delia (Stewart Bland), Jen- 
etta (Johnson Dolly). 

Bro. to Jacob, the pioneer: — 1. Abraham (Hannah Lough) 
— m. 1802. 2. Daniel (Susannah Miller) -m. 1824. 

Aaron (EUzabeth Hedrick)— n.U. T. — son of John of Grant 
County. 

Unp. 1. Gerhard— 1795.* 2. R (Charles Hedrick) 

— m. 1795.* 3. Mary A. (Adam Greeenawalt)— m. 1829. 

SkUes. Michael (Mary E. McCoy)— b. 1828, k. 1862— car- 
penter— from Augusta. — ch. — 1. Rebecca J. (111.)* 2. Wil- 
liam (Frances V. Shaw)— S-F Mtn. 3. James M. (Rebecca 
Shaw) — Sweedland. 

Ch. of James M.— Byron, Carl. 

Skidmore. (A). John (Magdalena Hinkle)— d. 1809— ch. 
— 1. James (Rachel Nestrick). 2. Hannah (Charles Rogers) 
— m. 1796— W. Va. 3. John (Hannah )— m. 1791. 4. 



297 

Levi (Nancy ). 5. Elijah (Eleanor Westf all)— b. Jan. 

9, 1775, d. Aug. 21, 1815— N-F. 6. Andrew (Elizabeth Stone- 
street— )N-F. 7. Susannah (Nicholas Harper). 8. Phoebe 
(Alexander Taylor) —m. 1791. 9. Nancy (John G. Dahmer) 

— d. 1857. 10. Rachel— S. 11. Mary ( Samuels). 12. 

Isaac (Mary Benson)— drowned — homestead. 13. Edith — 
W. Va. 

Line of James:— 1. Samuel. 2. Jesse (Elizabeth Leach)— 
Onego. 3. Mary E. (John Bible). 4. Phoebe (John? Haig- 
ler). 5. Sarah ( Hiner). 

Line of Elijah.— 1. Mary (Henry Smith) -b. 1795*, d. 188L 
2. Hannah (Elisha Stonestreet)— 111. 3. Ellen (Christina 
Smith). 

Line of Andrew:— Margaret (George W. Bland)— b. 1818. 

2. dau. (George Bennett). 3. Martha (Reuben W. Harper). 
4. Julia A. (Joseph Adamson)— b. 1833. 

(B). Joseph (Elizabeth )— d. 1810— ch.— 1. James 

(MoUie Lough)— homestead. 2. Catharine (Philip Fisher). 

3. Samuel (Elizabeth )— Ky., 1821. 4. Joseph. 5. 

Barbara. 6. Sarah (Peter Hyer)— m. 1825. 

Line of James: — 1. Joseph (Emiranda Butt)— b. Nov. 22, 
1812, Mo. 1840*. 2. James (Catharine Halterman)— b. 18 14, 
d. 1870. 3. Elizabeth (111.)— Mo. 1840*. 4. Rebecca (Ga- 
briel Skidmore)— Mo. 1840*. 5. Adam (dy). 

Br. of James:— 1. Mary M. (Isaac C. Ruddel)— b. 1841. 2. 
Joseph C. (Barbara E. Beveridge, Hid.)— saddler— Fin. 3. 
Rebecca J. (John McClure). 4. Eliza A. (Andrew Dyer, 
James Evick). 

Ch. of Joseph C— Mary C. (Martin K. Boggs), John B. 
(Maud Boggs), Rebecca M., James W. 

C. of John B. —Leo, Lester, Richard. 

Unp. 1. Elijah— 1758. 2. Joseph (Ann )— d. 1779. 

3. James (Sarah )— 1774. 4. Conrad— 1788. 5. Eliza- 
beth (David Hull)— m. 1798. 6. Eve (Robert Chenoweth)— 
m. 1811. 7. Richard (Eliza Lewis)— m. 1819. 8. Amelia 
(Henry Halterman)— m. 1812. 9. Sarah (Henry Robinson) 
— m. 1810. 10. Elijah (Eleanor Westf all)— m. 1793. 11. 
Samuel ( )— d. 1802. 12. Nancy (David Summer- 
field). 13. ( ). 

Ch. of 2:— Samuel, Joseph (b. 1770*), Thomas (Eleanor 
)— b. 1772. 

Ch. of 11:— Marcellus A. (b. 1839*), Calvin A., Ann R., 
r i*9,n CI s A. 

Ch, of 13:— John (b. Aug. 27, 1795). Richard (b, 1797), 
Christian (b. 1809). 

John and Joseph— (A) and (B)— were brothers. Those 
marked "unp." were evidently related, but the points of con- 



298 

nection have been lost sight of. It would appear that there 
were several pioneer brothers. The original settlement was 
around Ruddle, then known as Skidmore's Mill Run. The 
family was prominent and influential in the pioneer days. 

Smith. The remark made of the Millers will apply equally 
well to the Smiths. They are not exceptionally common at 
the present time; but in the early days were quite numerous, 
appearing to represent several distinct group families settled 
in all parts of the county. At this late day the tangle of 
names does not seem capable of being reduced to order. 

(A) John ( )— Ft. S., 1747— ch?— 1. Johannes 

( ). 2. Peter (Mary ). 3. others? 

Line of Johannes: — 1. John (Margaret Pool) — d. 1807 — 
N-F Mtn. 2. others? 

Br. of John:-l. Henry (Mary Skidmore)— b. 1789, d. 
1888— below M. S. 2. John (Christina Dolly)— m. 1804— d. 
at New Orleans. 3. Christian (Ellen M. Skidmore, Susan 
)— Tkr. 4. Jacob (Elizabeth Davis)— Grant. 5. Su- 
san (Andrew Dolly). 6. Elizabeth (William Cunningham). 
7. Isaac? (Mary Harper). 8. Hendron? (Lydia Bonnifield, 

Swisher, (irant)*. 9. Calvin? (Lydia Rinehart, Grant)* 

10. Mary? (George Harman). 11. Elizabeth? (George Har- 
man, same). 

Br. of Henry:— 1. Aaron W. (111.)* 2. Samson (Susan Carr, 
Grant)*. 3. Hannah (Daniel Black)— b. 1827. 4. Ellen M. 
( Wood). 

Br. of Christian:— Martha E. (Grant) *-b. 1836. 2. others? 

(B) William (Phoebe Fisher)— of Ireland— m. 1811— n. 
Ft. S.-ch.— 1. Laban (Polly E. Lough)— b. 1819, d. 186L 

2. William (Caroline Johnson, Tenn., Adaline Temple) — la. 

3. Sophia (Adam Wagoner). 4. Elizabeth (W)* 5. John 
(Carohne Dyer)— 0. 6. Jared M. (Elizabeth Bible)— b. 
1816*. 7. Zebulon (Malinda Dice)— b. 1827*— 0. 8. Phoebe 
J. (George Bible). 

Br. of Laban: — 1. Pendleton (Mahala Parsons) — Cal. 2. 
Mary (Job Parsons). 3-9. infs (dy). 

Br. of Jared M.— Hannah S. (George W. Smith), Phoebe 
J. (d. 23). 

(C) John (Mary S. Simmons) -m. 1794, d. 1838?— S-F, 
above Crummett's Run— ch. — 1. Jacob (Barbara Gragg) — 
b. 1798. 2. Christian (Susan Crummett)— b. 1808— Hid. 3. 
Henry (Elizabeth Bowers) — Hid. 4. Daniel (Mollie Bow- 
ers). 5. Joseph (Polly Simmons) — Hid. 6. Peter (Barbara 
Jordan) — homestead. 7. John (Jane Jordan). 8. Sarah 
(James Armstrong, out) *. 

Br. of Jacob: — Jacob (k), Jonathan (in Hid), David, 
Mary A., Henry (in Hid). 



299 

Br. of Daniel:— Delilah (Levi Moyers), Mary A. (b. 1831), 
William F. (Phoebe Lough)— b. 1834, Peter H. (Eh'zabeth 
Nelson), Sarah A. (Harman Moyers), Daniel C. (Lavina 
Haigler), Christina (Charles Bowers), John A. (dy). 

Ch. of William F.— John C. (Ida Bennett), Christina L. 
(Eugene Keister). 

Ch. of Peter H:— 1. Palsor C. (Caddie Bowers)— Rkm. 2. 
William J. (Elizabeth Bible). 3. John K. (dy). 4. Mary J. 
(Charles Ruddle). 5. Florence (Jacob F. Hinkle). 6. Jo- 
seph H. (IdaTeter)— Rph. 7. Jared B. (IdaWaggy). 

(D) Nathan (Mahulda Smith) -b. 1821*— S. G. D.— ch. 
—1. George W. (Hannah S. Smith)— Reed's Cr. 2. Chris- 
tina C. (WilHam B. Hedrick)— b. 1847. 3. Ambrose (Mollie 
Bland). 4. Sarah A. (Samuel Siple). 5. William— W. 6. 
Edward— d. 7. Isaac (Minnie Landes). 8. John— unkn. 
9. Josiah (Grace Mauzy). 10. Lucy (James Hedrick). 

Ch. of George W.— William B. (Minnie Ruddle), Jared M. 
(Emma Keister), Stella E. (Josephus Simmons), Cora 
(Thomas J. Painter) . 

Ch. of Ambrose: — Charles (Sarah Grady), Samuel (Ada 
Hedrick), WilHam, John, (Lena Edward Mauzy), Fred, Mar- 
gie, Grover, Virginia, Susan. 

Ch. of Isaac: — 3 minors. 

Ch. of Josiah:— Minnie, James, Sarah, Foster, Michael, 
Bessie, 1 other. 

Unp. 1. Andrew— d. 1762 — executor, Henry Peninger. 2. 
Abraham— S-B— 1774, will, 1791. 3. Frederick (Catharine 
Simmons)— m. 1791. 4. Abigail (Adam Conrad)— m. 1803. 

5. James (Margaret Evick)— 1790. 6. William (Nancy , 

b. 1774, d. 1860). 7. William (Priscilla Wilson) -m. 1798. 
8. Robert (Mary Davis) -m. 1825. 9. Elizabeth (Daniel 
Callahan)— m. 1799. 10. Isaac (Catharine Hoover)— m. 

1809. 11. Abraham (Mary Steel)— m. 1799. 12. John (Mary 
Roby)— m. 1793. 13. Jacob (Catharine Thorn)— m. 1803. 
14. Martha (Abraham Wees). 15. Jonas (Margaret Mc- 

Cabe)— m. 1818. 16. Willaim ( )— ch. Hannah 

(John Lough) — m. 1805. 17. Catharine (Henry Gragg)— m. 
1820. 18. Loveless (Elizabeth Tarr)— m. 1810. 19. Henry 

(Christina ) — ch? Susannah (Nicholas Emick, m. 1795). 

20. James (Isabella McQuain)— m. 1811. 21. Caleb (Mary 
Miller)— m. 1795-U. T. 22. Sarah (Mark Simmons)— m. 
1804. 23. Charles— of Md. 24. Michael (Sarah Smith)— m. 

1810. 25. John G. (Susannah ). 26. Adam (Mary— 

)— b. 1805*— ch.— Susannah (b. 1830), Daniel, Cynthia, 

George W. 

Snider. John (Catharine Pickle)— d. 1798— ch.—l. Susan 
—Rkm. 2. George (Magdalena Wilfong)— m. 1799— home- 



300 

stead. 3. Joseph~S. 4. Henry-b. 1776, d. 1856— S. 5. 
Frederick (Mary Simmons? — W. early. 6. Christian (Rachel 
Harold)— b. 1784, d. 1863. 7. John ( Simmons). 

Line of George: — 1. Henry (Susan ). 2. Noah (Eliza- 
beth Mowrey?)— Lewis. 8. Samuel (Polly Eckard)— Hid. 
4. George (Mary Gragg). 5. Sophia (Jacob Teaford, Aug. ) * 
— m. 1820. 

Br. of Henry: — Samuel (Susan Rader), Martin (Rkm),* 
Leah (William Hoover). 

Br. of George:— Naomi (Valentine Eckard)— b. 1839, Wil- 
liam A. (Hid),* Benjamin (Mary Helmick, Rph), Christina 

(H. Rexroad), Daniel (Caroline Lee?), Magdalena (Frank 

Puffenbarger) . 

Line of Christian :— Molly (Benjamin Simmons), Nelly 
(Emanuel Simmons), Elizabeth (Fry Puffenbarger), Susannah 
(Daniel Puffenbarger), Catharine, Hannah (dy), Maria (Ja- 
cob Waggy), John A. (Louisa Simmons, Malinda Simmons, 
Elizabeth Simmons) — homestead, Eliza (Washington Mitch- 
ell), Millie (Samuel Simmons). 

Br. of John A.— 1. William (Hid)*. 2. James D. (Hid)*: 
by 2dm. — 3. Marshall (Alice Puffenbarger). 4. Solomon H. 
(Hid)— Neb. 5. Sidney — Neb. 6. Hendron— d. 18. 7. 
Mary C. (Aug)*. 8. John F. (Eve L. Mitchell, Aug.— Mary 
C. Stoutermoyer, Aug.)*. 9. Ami A.— d. 18. By 3d m.— 
Harry — teacher. 

Unp. 1. Abraham — 1795. 2. Abraham (Susannah Hev- 
ener)— m. 1827. 3. Elizabeth (George Eye)— m. 1803. 4. 
Jacob (Catharine Hoover) — m. 1805, d. 1833. 5. Frederick— 

d. 1797. 6. Henry— d. 1796. 7. Adam (Mary ). 8. 

John (Eliza ). 9. Catharine (Henry Simmons) — m. 

1805. 

Ch. of 7:— Amos (Catharine )— b. 1821, d. 1879. 

Ch. of 8:— Daniel (Lucinda )— b. 1792, d. 1873. 

Sponaugle. Balsor ( )— ch.— 1. Jacob (Eliza- 
beth Arbogast)— b. 1798— C. D. 2. John (Barbara Wimer) 
— S. B. 3. William (Maria Way bright) —W. early. 4. Su- 
san — S. 5. Polly (Isaac Bennett). 

Peter, a single brother, came with Balsor. 

Line of Jacob:— I. William (Minerva Fleisher)— b. 1820, d. 
1895*— Doddridge, late. 2. Jacob (RoxannaKetterman). 3. 
Gteorge (Ursula Thompson)— b. 1824. 4. Jesse (Abigail Straw- 
der)— Doddridge. 5. Lewis (Mary A. Teter). 6. Catharine 
(Joel Teter). 7. Mary (Jacob Wimer). 8. Elizabeth (Henry 
Teter). 9. Hannah (HezekiahTingler)—b. 1838. 10. Sarah 
(Zebulon Tingler). 

Br. of William:— 1. George W. (Elizabeth S. Judy)— b. 
1844— Smith Cr. 2. Kate (Columbus Thompson). 3. Mattie 



301 

(John Louck, Rph.)*. 4. Lucy (James C. Teter)— Tkr. 5. 
Martha (Doddridge)*. 6. William (Lucy Lamb, Mary Din kle, 
Rkm)— Doddridge. 7. John (Belle? Cunningham)— Tkr. 8. 
Adam (Rebecca Ketterman, Sarah Nelson)~C. D. 9. Ha- 
man (Lottie White, Rph)*. 10. Perry (Rebecca Kile) — Rph. 
11. Levi ( Pennington). 

Ch. of George W.—Serilda C. (Robert E. Mullenax), Car- 
rie E. (James W. Hartman), Minerva (John C. Hartman), 
William 0. (Emma Warner), Green J. (Frances E. Bland), 
Mary P. (Herman Evick), Martha L. (Solomon Warner), 
Savannah E. (Whitney D. Simmons). George A. 

Br. of Lewis: — 1. Solomon (Sarah Elsey)— Rph. 2. Wil- 
son. 3. Norman (Denie Bennett)— Hunting Ground. 4. 
CeHa (Ashby Warner). 5. Susan (Martin Raines). 6. Alice 
(Joel Teter)— Rph. 7. Claddie (Rph). 

Br. of Jacob: — Ashby (Catharine Mullenax), Gilbert (Anne 
Mallow), Flora, Letcher, Harmon H. (Etta B. Warner), 
Perry (d). 

Line of John:— 1. Nathaniel (Charity Pennington) — b. 1826 
— F. D. 2. Philip (Elizabeth A. Phares)— Poca. 3. Amos 
(Mary Pitsenbarger, Mary Chew)— b. 1838— S. B. 4. Nich- 
olas. S.William. 6. Margaret (William Bowers). 7. Sarah 
(Cornelius Whitecotton). 8. Polly (John Lamb). 9. Catha- 
rine (Andrew Wimer, Hid. ) . 

Br. of Nathaniel:— 1. Nathaniel -Hid. 2. John— Hid. 3. 
Charles (Lucy Moyers)—Durbin. 4. Jacob — Clover Hill. 5. 
Barbara. 6. Mary. 7. Selinda. 8. Valeria. 9. Rebecca 
(Howard Propst). 

Br. of Philip:— 1. Philip P. (Laura V. Ketterman)— C. D. 2. 
Ambrose (Dianna Thompson) — U. D. 3. Sylvanus. 4. Sarah 
(B. Franklin Nelson). 5. Margaret (Penn.)*. 6. Phoebe 
( Lamb)— W. 7. Amanda. 8. Elizabeth (Amos White- 
cotton). 9. Annie (Penn.). 10. Selinda (Charles Bland). 

Ch. of Philip P.— 1. Clyde (Mary E. Bland)— merchant— 
C'ville. 2. Clara E. (Arthur D. Calhoun). 3. Robert. 4. 
Bessie (Tilden McDonald). 5. Mary (Byron Biby). 6. Don. 
7. Brooks. 8. Earl. 9—11. infs (dy). 

Ch. of Ambrose: — 4 minors. 

Br. of Amos: — Philip (Susan Harper), William P. (Mary 
Propst), Joshua (Sarah Whitecotton), Amos (Pearlina J. 
Bowers), Sarah (Frank Halterman), Susan, Barbara (George 
Whitecotton), Rachel E. 

The sons of Amos are in Highland. 

Stone. Henry (Susannah Zorn), — d. 1810 — ch. — 1. 

Peter (Mary A. Waggy)— m. 1810. 2. Christian (Mary 
Smith)— m. 1792, d. 1822. 

Line of Christian: — 1. Jacob (Hannah Trurabo) — b. 1805, 



302 

d. 1886. 2. Daniel C. (Hannah Dickenson, Sarah Propst)— 
b, 1812, d. 1875. 3. Mary. 4. Catharine (Jacob Hevener). 
5. Sarah (John Swadley). 

Br. of Jacob: — Hendron H. (S), Elizabeth (S), Louisa 
(Daniel Kiser). 

Br. of Daniel C. — Mary A. (David Snider), Josephine 
(George M. Rexroad), 4 infs (dy). By 2d m.— John M. 
(Emma C. Moyers), Elizabeth (JohnObaugh), Sarah (Robert 
Hiner). 

Ch. of John M.— Henry A. (Nancy R. Rexroad), John B., 
Mary E., Florence (dy).^ 

Line of Peter: — 1. Ann (John Simmons). 2. Daniel (Su- 
san Rexroad)— b. 1790, d. 1860. 3. others? 

Br. of Daniel:— 1. Solomon (Eleanor Janes, Hid*) — m. 1818. 

2. Daniel (Martha J. Bible), 3. George W. (dy). 4. Lucinda 
(John Simmons). 5. Polly (Solomon Simmons). 6. Malinda 
(Levi Simmons). 7. Susan (Samuel Puffenbarger). 8. Ma- 
tilda (John Casey) — W. 9. Elizabeth (John Simmons) — W. 
10. Nellie (James Stunkard). 

Ch. of Daniel: — Sarah (Daniel Rexroad), James (unkn). 

Unp. 1. Eve (George Moats)— m. 1792. 2. Sebastian 

(Catharine ) — 1789. 3. Catharine (Frederick Eye) — 

m. 1801. 4. Robert— 1800. 5. Moses (Elizabeth Syron)— m. 
1820. 6. Henry (Mary Wilfong)— m. 1820. 

With the exception of Daniel, Jr., the Stones left the 
county some time ago. 

Strawder. Unp. 1. Jacob — 1793. 2. Christopher — on 

Seneca, 1797. 3. John— 1800. 4. Nathan (Rebecca ) 

— ch.— Isaac~b. 1825, d. 1869. Mary— b. 1837, d. 1877. 

Stump. Flem (Joanna Southerly, Hdy)— b. 1827, d. 1861* 
—from Hdy, 1858— ch.— Michael C. (Julia A. Swadley), 
Sarah C. (Abraham Shirk, Hdy)*, Annie (Anderson Sim- 
mons), Cynthia (Elijah Shirk, Hdy)*. 

Ch. of Michael C. — Una J., Texie A., Alice R., Emma, 
Warnie, Nellie, 4 infs (dy). 

Unp. 1. Leonard— 1799. 2. Sarah (Joel Dahmer)— b. 
1811— dau, of Jesse. 

Summerfield. Joseph (Winnie Nelson) — d. 1833 — had lost 
right hand by gunshot wound— ch. — Thomas (Martha Gragg, 
Annie Raines)— m. 1800— Rph. 2. Elizabeth ( White). 

3. Sarah (Joseph Roy). 4. Mary (Adam Snider). 5. Mar- 
garet (Abraham Wolford). 6. Jesse. 

Br. of Thomas :— Joseph (Julia Wimer, Rph, Elizabeth 
Fansler, Rph)— b. 1823— n. Onego—ch.— Harriet (dy), Re- 
becca (Daniel Nelson), Christina (Barbour)*, Emily (dy), 
Beauregard (dy), John (d), Jacob (Sidney Conrad). 

Ch. of Jacob '—6. 



Swadley. Mark ( )— d. 1774— ch.— 1. Henry 

( )— m. 1775. 2. Nicholas (Elizabeth )— W. 

3. Benjamin. 4. others? 

Family of Henry:— 1. George (Barbara Peninger, 

Propst, m. 1817)— b. Aug. 7, 1776, m. 1799. 2. Catharine 
(Jacob Hevener)— b. 1778. 3. Anna M. 4. Henry (Mary 
Benson)— b.;Oct. 1781, 10, d. 1845. 5. Maria— b. 1783. 6. 
Peltiah. 

One daughter married Gillespie — went W. 

Line of George:— 1. Susannah (James Keister) — b. Feb. 2, 
1801. 2. Valentine (Mary Propst)— b. . Mar. 14, 1804. 3. 
Amelia (Abraham Kile)— b. 1806. 4. Elizabeth (Robert 
Dickenson)— b. 1808. 5. Hannah (Adam Bible)— Tex. 6. 

William (Margaret Pence, Rkm)— Hid. 7. Henry ( 

Rodecap) — Tenn. 

Br. of Valentine:— 1. Jacob (Barbara Harold)— b. 1829. 2. 
Hannah N. (Benjamin Mitchell)— b. 1831. 3. Eliza J. 4. 
Sarah E. (Mordecai Dove). 5. Amelia (George M. Rexroad). 
6. George. 7. Valentine (Margaret Hoover) — b. 1846. 
i- Ch. of Valentine : — Harry F., Eliza J. (Pendleton Bovvers), 
Clara N., Mary A. (William H. Eye), William C. (Lucinda 
Rexroad), Terry L. (Eve Hahn), Edwin V., Isaac E. 

Line of Henry:— 1. Sarah (Jacob Eye)— b. 1801* 2. John 
(Sarah Stone, Mary Bolton, Susannah Hevener)— b. Jan 9, 

1803. 3. Naomi ( Hevener)— b. 1806. 4. Hettie ( 

Riggleman)— b. 1810. 5. Eliza (William Propst). 6. Jacob 
(Susan Fox, Hid)*. 7. Nicholas (Poca.)* 8. Peter (Mahala 
Rexroad) — Grant. 9. Marx (Melinda Propst) — homestead. 
10. Mary (Poca)* 11. Lavina (Daniel Propst). 12—13. infs 
(dy). 

Br. of John (by 2d m.):— Jemima, M.— b. 1839. By 3d. 
m. — Henry W. — k., Jacob N. ( ), Mary J. 

Family of Nicholas :— 1 Mary (b. 1783, d. 1858. 2. others? 

The original homestead is still in the family. 

Temple. Harry F. (Elizabeth Dyer)- b. May 19, 1795, d. 
Feb. 17, 1868— ch.— 1. Adaline F. D. (John Smith)— Tenn. 

2. Joseph H. (Sarah A. Bruffey, out) — b. 1828— preacher. 

3. James M. (Sarah E. Davis, Margaret J. Pope)— b. 1832 
— homestead. 4. Susan M. (Allen Dyer). 

Ch. of James M.— Charles E. (dy). By 2d m— Mary L., 
Harry F. (Virginia Davis), Ora E., Flossie F. 

Harry F. Temple 'was a native of Orange who taught in 
Highland and then at Frankhn. Besides being a teacher of 
superior ability, he was a surveyor and of such mechanical 
aptitude as to make his own surveying instruments. His 
strong mental qualities caused him to fignre prominently in 
the public life of the county. 



304 

Teter. George ( ) came from Wurtemburg, Ger- 
many, and settled on Dutchman's Creek, near Salisbury, N. 
C. Owing to Indian troubles he removed to the N. F. soon 
after 1760. Ch.— 1. George (Annie M. Hinkle)— d. before 
1790. 2. Paul (Rebecca Hinkle)— d. 1764. 3. Philip (Susannah 
Hinkle). 4. Barbara (Jacob Hinkle). 5. others? 

Executors to Paul: — George Teter, Moses Ellsworth. Ap- 
praisers: — Justus Hinkle, Robert Minness, Jacob Carr. 

Line of George: — 1. Paul. 2. Jacob — Rph. 3. Joseph 
(Mary ) — Harrison. 4. Isaac (Mahala Judy). 5. Su- 
sannah. 6. Mary. 7. Barbara (Joseph Walker ?—m. 1800?). 
8. George (Sarah Harper)— b. 1784, d. 1855— Tetersburg, Ind. 

Line of Paul:— 1. George (Mary A. Hinkle). 2. EHza- 
beth (Abraham Kettle, Rph, m. 1794). 3. Philip (Sidney 
Bland, m. 1826?). 4. Leah (Absalom Day). 5. Isaac 

(Frances Fisher, m. 1795)— d. 1800. 6. Paul (Amy ) 

— d. 1796. 7. Mary. 8. Nathan. 

Line of Philip:— 1. Moses (Edith Teter, Elizabeth Hedrick) 
— b. 1774, d. 1857. 2. Joel (Elizabeth Phares)— b. Nov. 16, 
1778, m. 1800, d. Mar. 30, 1858. 3. Sarah (Jacob Helmick, 
m. 1794). 4. Elizabeth (Henry Judy, m. 1795). 5. Samuel 

(Catharine Huffman)— d. 1854. 6. Hannah ( Graham). 

7. Jonathan (Elizabeth Huffman, m. 1807)— W. 8. Reuben 

( Sites, Christina Phares, m. 1807)— W. 9. John (W)* 

10. Rebecca. 11. Benjamin— W. 

Line of George :— 1. Mary (Uriah Shoulders)— m. 1790. 2. 

Philip ( )— d. 1816. 3. George (Sarah Harper)— 

m. 1805— Tetersburg, Ind. 4. Christina (Justus Hinkle). 5. 
others? 

Ch. of Joel:--l. PhiHp (Sidney Bland)— b. 1801*. 2. 
Solomon (Mollie Bland)— b. 1802*. 3. Mary (Henry Judy). 
4. Johnson (Rachel Bland) —b. 1806. 5. Elizabeth. 6. Reu- 
ben (Margaret McGlaughlin)— b. 1810. 7. Enoch (Mahala 
Calhoun, Upshur)— b. 1812. 8. Isaac (Mahala Judy). 9. 
Amy (Enoch Bland). 

C. of Philip:— Mary E. (Cain Arbogast)— b. 1829, Jane 
(Solomon Nicholas), Isabel (d. 74), Rebecca (Noah Warner) , 
Salem (Agnes Bennett)— W., Noah (Margaret Mullenax), 

Balaam (Jane Warner), Zane Z. ( Teter) — W., Adam 

(d)., Minerva, Lucinda. 

Cc. of Noah: — James A. (Corinda Jordan, Christina , 

Nettie Lamb), Ina (Jay Lambert), others. 

Cc. of Balaam:— 1. Harrison (Emma Harold) — Kas. 2. 
Patrick (Martha Bland). Bethana (Wm. Cassell)— Kas. 4. 

Charity (E Newcomb?). 5. Priscilla (Peter Hevener)— 

Kas. 6. Mollie (Wilson Hinkle)— Kas. 7. Kenny— Kas. 8. 
Ellen (Jasper Teter)— Kas. 



305 

C. of Solomon:— Minerva (b. 1825), Henry (Elizabeth A. 
SponauRle), Joel (Catharine Sponauprle)— b. 1829, d. 1910, 
Perry (Mary C. Strawder), John (Leah Sponaugle). Thomas 
(dy), Mary A. (Lewis Sponaugle), Leah (George Barclay), 
Elizabeth J. (dy). 

Cc. of Joel : — Martha (dy), Margaret (dy), Jennie (Isaac 
Teter), Elizabeth (John Warner), Ruth (James Wimer), 
Savannah (Samuel Smith), Delia ( Jonas E. Hodkin). 

C. of Johnson:— 1. Naomi (Jacob Dolly)— b. 1831. 2. 

Margaret ( Harman). 3. Caleb ( Hoover) — 111. 4. 

Sarah (Joshua Harman) — b. 1835. 5. Eunice (Taylor Lam- 
bert). 6. Cyrus ( Harper)— b. 1837. 7. Jane ( 

Harman). 8. Mary (William Bland). 9. Annis (Andrew J. 
Wilson). 10. Isaac (Elizabeth Teter). IL Adam (Ellen 
Nelson). 12. Elizabeth (Amby Cunningham). 13. Martha 
(dy). 14. Louisa (Elijah Bennett). 15. Eve (John Phares) 
— Okla. 16. Johnson (Barbara J. Raines). 17. Job— Kas. 

C. of Reuben :— 1. Jehu (Ruth Lantz)— b. 1835— Teter ton. 
2. Laban (Timnah Harper) — Germany. 3. Ruth ( Har- 
man) — Md. 4. John (Jane Harman, Tkr)* 5. David K. 
(Christina Bennett) — Germany. 6. George (Mary Harman^ 
— Reed's Cr. 7. Rebecca (Benjamin F. Bennett). 8. Virginia 
(Job Davis). 9. Jacob (Sarah Lantz). 10. Elizabeth (Amos 
Bennett). 11. Reuben (Mary Harman, Ann Harman) — Tkr. 

Cc. of Jehu: — David K. (Alice Harman), Joseph (Louisa 
Dolly), Floyd ( Teter), Lee ( Sites), (Jos- 
eph Biby). Zernie. 

Cc. of Laban :— Lettie (Ulysses S. Harman), Sarah (Elia- 
kum Way bright). 

Cc. of David K.— Elmer G. (Almeda Wimer), Omar L. 
(Lucy Nelson). Henry C. (Bessie Phares, Bessie Bland), 
Mary (Albert Thompson), Martha, Texie (John W. Ritchie). 

Cc. of George: — (jharles G. (Christina Harper), Oliver H. 
(Zadie? Hammer), James M. (ZadieMauzy) — physician, Alice 
(Solon Lantz, Isaac Roberson), Ida (Joseph Smith). 

C. of Enoch : — William (b. 1837), Amos, Amy, Samuel, 
Jane, Sarah E. 

Br. of George :—Eber (Margaret Phares)— b. 1806, Eliza- 
beth (Samuel C. Shortle), Eli (Elizabeth Phares. Elizabeth 
Harman), Sarah (Jacob Phares), George (Ind)*, Jacob 
(Melvina A. S. Harper), Mary ((George N. Phares), Ebal 
(Ind)* Asa (Ind)*, Mahlon (Ind)*. Nearly all this family 
settled in Ind. 

Unp. 1. John— 1788. 2. Magdalena— 1803. 3. Michael 

— d. 1796. 4. Joseph (Mary ). 5. Barbara (Joseph 

Walker)— m. 1800. 6. James— voter, 1801. 5. Mary (Sam- 
uel Rodman)— m. 1796. 7. Sarah (AdamHelmick)— m. 1805. 

PCH 20 



806 

8. Christian— exempt 1780. 9. Margaret (Solomon Harper— 
m. 1818. 10. Rebecca- b. 1782* 

Thacker. Stephen H. ( , Mary E. Schmucker) 

— b. 1834— ch.— 1. Emma S. (Isaac Dahmer). 2. Maud E. 
(George L. Kiser). 3. George W. (Rebecca Dean)— S. V. 
4—5. boys (dy). 6. Robert L. (Georgia Shackleford, Md.). 
7. Edna M. (Samuel Mallow). 

Robert L. was graduated in 1898 from the Dental Depart- 
ment of the University of Maryland, winning a gold medal 
for the highest grades on final examination that had been 
made in the history of the university. He located at once in 
Franklin. 

Thompson. 1. John (Julia A. Pierce, Va.) — b. 1787. 2. 
William (Annis Hinkle, Va.)— b. 1790*. Brothers from Cul- 
peper, 1814*, the first settling east af C'ville, the latter on 
Timber Ridge. 

Line of John:— James (Elizabeth Hinkle), Elizabeth 
(William Helmick), Joel (Rebecca Thompson), William (Sa- 
rah Simmons), Hannah (dy), Phoebe (William Simmons), 

John (Mahala ). James, Elizabeth, and Joel were born 

in Virginia, the first (about) 1810*. 

Br. of James:— 1. John (Emily Lantz)— Rph. 2. Salem 
(Elizabeth Johnson)— 0. 3. Sarah (Sylvanus Huffman). 4. 

Perry. 5. Jacob (Mary Wimer). 6. Emory ( Lambert), 

Ann (Ambrose Sponaugle), Robert (Grant)*, Charles (Mar- 
tha Wimer) . 

Br. of Joel:— Columbus (Catharine Sponaugle) — b. 1843. 

Br. of William: — Amos (Alice Clayton), Martin (Sarah 
Nelson), Adam (Jane Clayton), Miles (Sidney Teter), Isaac 
(d), Phoebe J. (d), Polly A. (d), Ursula (d). 

Br. of John: — Talitha, Elizabeth, Jane. One m. James 
Thompson. 

(B). Amos (Mary Hedrick)— b. 1838— ch.— Martha S. 
(Sylvanus? Wimer), Charles (Rebecca Hedrick), Adam H. 
(Delia Phares), Cora (Tiberias Wimer), Albert (Mary Teter), 
Radie (Albert Wimer), Warnie. 

Line of William: — John, Church ville (Mary J. Dolly) — b. 
1824*, William (Hannah Hinkle), Willis (Christiana Dolly), 
Phoebe, Annis (Job Hartman). 

Br. of Church ville :~John W. (Susan Clayton)— b. 1850, 
Martha (Newton Harman), Susannah (Nimrod Dove), Wil- 
liam (Martha A. Mallow), Church ville (Rebecca Mallow), 
Jennie (Eliakum Dove), Catharine, Amby (Delpha Payne). 

Br. of William: — John (Jennie Raines), Phoebe J., Annis 

(William Warner), Ellen (Samson Johnson), James ( 

Thompson), Benjamin, Joseph ( Grady), Abraham, 

George ( Hedrick) , Delilah. 



307 

Br. of Willis:— Elizabeth (Michael Davis), Jane (Benham 
Nelson), Edward (Rebecca J. Helmick). 

Ch. of Edward: — Alba, Ada, Attie, Densie, Okey, Arthur, 
Mason, Edna, Vesta. 

Unp. Cornelius — 1790. 2. Moses (Margaret Service) — m. 
1798. Elizabeth (Elijah Phares)— b. 1780, m. 1810. 

Tingler. Michael (Mary Miller)— m. 1792— ch?.— 1. John 
(Phoebe Dolly)— m. 1817. 2. Michael (Catharine Baker)— 
m. 1818. 3. Susannah (Barnett Raines) — m. 1819. 4. others? 

Unp. 1. John (Mary Hedrick)— m. 1809. 2. Elias (Fel- 
icia )— b. 1811. 3. Enos (Sarah Harper)— b. 1815* 

Ch. of Elias:— 1. Harvey (b. 1830), Miles (Martha Cal- 
houn, Susan Raines) — b. 1832 — Rph. 3. Susan. 4. Rebecca. 

5. Zebadiah ( ). 6. Hezekiah. 7. Enos. 8. Jacob 

—Rph. 9. Ruhama-S. 10. Willis (b. 1848). 11. Rebecca J. 
( Kimble). 

C. of Miles:— Sarah (Marion A. Harper), Felicia (John 
Sponaugle) : several by 2d m. 

C. of Zebediah: — Miles, Jacob, Kenny, Elizabeth J. 

Ch. of Enos: — Mary, Susan, Lucinda, Catharine, Sarah J. 

The family of Enos went West. 

Todd. John (Maria Whitemore, Nancy Crummett) — ch. 
—1. Addison P. (Mary E. Puffenbarger). 2. John H.— W. 
Va. 3. Robert N.—S. 4. WilHam (W)— Penna. 5. Eliza- 
beth (William Rexroad). 6. Frank (Belle Brown, Gilmer) — 
Spencer. 

Br. of Addison P.— Mary D., John W. (Rkm)*, Nannie 
M. (Aug.)*, Effie S. (Arthur Cook), Sarah E. (Peter H. 
Puffenbarger), Samuel L. (Eve M. Moyers), Gertrude (Rob- 
ert D. Propst), Louisa, Maud F. (Ira Wilfong). 

Ch. of Samuel L. — Elsie. 

Unp. George (Susannah Puffenbarger) — m. 1813. 

Trumbo. (A). George (Margaret )— b. 1750*, d. 

1830.— ch.— 1. Ephraim (Hanging Rock, 0.)*. 2. George 
(0)*. 3. Abraham (111)*. 4. Jacob (W)*. 5. Michael (Re- 
becca Williams). 6. Andrew (Mary , Md.)— b. 1777, 

d. 1851. 7. Levi (Elizabeth Hinkle)— b. 1790, d. 1868. 8. 
Lavina (George Kessner). 9. Polly (Henry Pringle) — m. 
1798— W. 10. William (Susan L. Dyer)— b. Jan. 5, 1797, d. 
April 27, 1853. 

Greorge was a large landholder below Ft. S. and was indus- 
trious and thrifty. He divided the homestead among the four 
sons. who chose to remain and gave money to the four who 
chose to go West. Andrew moved to Texas late in life. 

Line of Michael:— 1. Thornton (Susan Miller, — , 

Mo*)— b. 1817. 2. Andrew J. (Mary S. Adamson) -Rkm. 



308 

3. Lydia (Au?.)— Mo. 4. Margaret (Robert Fultz, Shen.)*. 
5. others (d). 

Line of Andrew:— 1. Salisbury (Frances Moyers) — b. 1807 
—Tex. 2. Malinda(Hld)*. 3. Polly (James Gilkeson). 4. 
Susan (Hdy)*. 5. Margaret (William Dyer). 

Line of Levi: — Ambrose, Moses, Jesse, Silas, Martha, 
(Rkm)— b. 1823, Joseph (Eva Hinkle): all went to Clarke 
Co., Mo. 

Line of William: — 1. Samuel (Mary Wanstaff, Rebecca J. 
Clayton) — b. July 1. 1821. 2. Emanuel (Hannah Cowger, 

, Marion Co.. 0.)*. 3. Elijah (Sarah J. Barkdale, 

Grant)— b. 1824. 4. Hezekiah (dy). 5. Anna (Silas R. 
Gray, Hdy)*. 6. Lavina (Frederick Hiser)— b. 1828. 7. Jo- 
sephine (Daniel Mallow). 8. Caroline (Jacob Hmkle) — 0. 
9. Ruhama (John Judy). 10. Susannah — S. 11. Mary 
(George E. Wagoner)— b. 1836. 12. George (Emmeline Dil- 
linger, Shen.)— b. Mir. 1, 1840— homestead. 

Br. of Simuel :— Jacob (d), Catharine (d. 15), Reuben 
(d. 16), John W. (Rebecca Mumbert), Rebecca (dy), Jef- 
ferson (dy), Noah (Martha J. Dove)— Hdy, Jennie (James 
Skiles): by 2d m.— William C. (III.)*, George S. (in Rkm), 
Laberta (William Bean, Shen), Susan L. (Rkm)*, Sarah A. 
(d. 12). 

Ch. of John W:— Noah J., Dewitt J. (D. 22), Floyd W., 
George C. (Martha J. Smith,) Mary (dy), William H., 
James E. 

Br. of Elijah: — 1. Jacob (Lavina Dasher, Margaret Ma- 
thias. Hdy)*. George W. (Ruhama Davis) — Fauquier, Sarah 
A. (Noah Cowger), Josephine (Frank Wagoner), Mary 
(Pleasant Rexroad). 

Br. of George : — Philip W. (Lydia J. Eye), Benjamin Y. 
(dy), MaryS. (Dasher May). 

John (Esther Davis) — son of Jacob brother to George — 
came 1812 to Jane W. Trumbo's— d. 1818— ch.— 1. Malinda 
(Wayne Taylor)— 0. 2. Davis— 0. 3. Sarah (Hiram Tay- 
lor)— Grant. 4. Hannah (Jacob Stone)— b. May 13. 1802. d. 
April 25, 1895. 5. Jacob (Susan L. Dyer)— b. 1806, d. 1893 
— homestead. 6. Elizabeth (Adam Vande venter) — Ind. 7. 

Dorothy ( Roberts)— Mo. 8. Samson— 0. 9. Hendron 

(Eliza Dyer)— la. 

Br. of Jacob:— 1. John D. (Grant, Madison)— Fauquier. 
2. James S. (Virginia Keister, Ann Shaw)— homestead. 3. 
Morgan G. (Mary C. Byrd)— merchant— Brandy wine. 4. 
Mary S. (John D. Keister). 5. Viola (Leonard M. Pope). 
6—7. girls (dy). 

Ch. of James S.— Bertha ( Michael)— Albemarle, Wade 

H., girl (dy); by 2d m.— J. Owen, Chloe, EllaS., Frances L., 



809 

Homer, Herman. 

Ch. of Morgan G.— Ord B. (d.), Lon D. (merchant), 
Grover C. (dentist), Cleda, Shirley, Beulah. 

Turner. Aaron (Susan )— b. 1820*— ch.— Margaret 

(b. 1844), Malinda, Charles. 

Unp. Catharine (Jacob Hevener)— m. 1818. 

Vance. John ( )— d. 1827— ch.— 1. Robert (— 

)—b. 1780— Morral place. 2. Hiram (Phoebe Skid- 
more)— b. 1796.— 111., late. 3. Solomon (Rachel Davis)— 111. 
1845.* 4. John— Roaring C. 5. Nancy— S. 6. Mary (Adam 
Harper). 

Br. of Hiram A.— 1. JohnA. (MahalaHedrick). 2. Reu- 
ben (Melinda Raines)— b. 1823. 3 Wilson (Mary ) — 

111. 4. Solomon (Mary Mullenax)— b. 1825. 5. Levi (Mary 
J. Bucbbee)— III. 6. Elias (Dorothy Mitchell)— 111. 7. Hiram 
— S. 8. Ehjah (Mary J. Harman)— Mo. 9. EHzabeth (Jesse 
Davis, Jr., Absalom Long). 10. Perry (Jane Way bright)— 111. 
n. Nancy (111)*— b. 1841. 

Ch. of John A.— 1. Reuben (Lucy Barclay, Jane A. Har- 
man Currence). 2. Enos S. (Anne Cooper, Rph— Margaret 
Raines)— Rph. 3. Jesse M. (Margaret Kisamore)— Tkr. 4. 
JohnW. (Phoebe C. Site3)—Rph. 5. Martha E. 6. Phoebe 
J. (George B. Harper). 7. Elizabeth (Sylvanus Reed). 8. 
Sarah (George W. Ketterman). 

Ch. of Reuben:— Messalina C. (Noah Hartman), Elizabeth 
(John S. Painter), Elijah (Phoebe J. Morral), Syjvester (Sa- 
rah F. Morral), Isaac P. (Ellen Arbogast), Rebecca"J. (George 
B. Burns). 

C. of Elijah:— Walter, Zernie, Omer, Ora, Warren, Mamie, 
Russell, Nola. 

C. of Sylvester:— Mason, Arthur, Jason, EfRie, Alston, 
Annie, Dennis, Denver, Clara. 

C. of Isaac P. — Ira, Lillian, Isom, Lemuel, Rebecca J., 
Harley, Clinton, Nathan, Dora, Lora, Clara (dy). 

Ch. of Solomon:— Edward H., William P. (Mahala C. Har- 
per, Esther Teter, Rph)*, Levi (Mary S. Hartman, Mary A. 
Lewis), JohnA. (Cora Mullenax, Rph), Evan C. (Virginia 
Raines), Phoebe C. (Andrew J. Smith), Martha (George W. 
Roy, Rph*), George B. (Polly Long), Martin K. (Eve Sites). 

C. of Levi:— Robert (Rosa Davis), Henry C, Wilber (Rph)*, 
Stella (Edward Nelson, Rph)*, Arnold, Asa, Clarence. 

C. of John A.— Cletis, Effie, Maud, Ergel. 

C. of Evan C— Lora (Adam L. Arbogast), Alice (Clay 
Huffman), Bertha, Mary J. (Sheridan Long), Adam H., 
Ralph, Vernie, Nannie, John, Texie. 

C. of George B. — Alvin, Blanche, Delmar. 

C. of Martin K.— Sylvia, Bessie, Charles, Myrtle, Alpha. 



310 

Unp. 1. Isaac ( )— b. 1809*— ch.— Barbara (b. 

1838), Franklin, Sylvanus, Pleasant, Deniza, David, Jesse, 

Catharine, Robert. 2. Gideon ( )— b. 1815*— ch. 

— George) b. 1820, Joseph, John, Robert. 

Vandevenler. Jacob (Mary )— b. at sea?— sold 

George Full place, 1805 — lived on Peter Mauzy place, Smith 
Or.- d. 1815— ch.— 1. Isaac (Mary Peterson)— m. 1796— n. 
Smokehole— Ind. 2. Eve (Jacob Conrad) —m. 1797. 3?. Peter 
(Margaret Link)— Conor Run— W. 4? George (Susan- 
nah Pennington?)— m. 1792. 5. Susannah (WilHam Baker) 
— m. 1806. 

Barnabas— father to Jacob?— exempt, 1790. 

Line? of Peter :— 1. William— d. 1847. 2. Adam (Eliza- 
beth Trumbo)—m. 1820— W. 3. Henry (Elizabeth Cowger) 
— m. 1821— W. 4. Molly— S—S-F Mtn. 

Line of George : — 1. George (Susan Bennett) — b. 1790, d. 
1864— W. Dry Run. 2?. Elizabeth (Andrew Fleisher)—m. 
1825. 3. others? 

Br. of George :— 1. William : — 1 (Phoebe Lambert) — b. 
1824— homestead. 2. Henry (Rachel Helmick). 3. Isaac — k. 

4. Mary A. (Noah Simmons, ) — Tkr. 5. Rebecca 

(Richard Pennington, John Glass) — Timber Ridge. 6. La- 
vina (Mathias Helmick). 

Ch. of William :— W. Clark (Sarah E. Lambert)— b. 1849 
homestead, George W. (Mattie Helmick) — Smith Cr. 3. 
Lucy A. (Anderson Lambert). 4. Hannah N. (Frank Lam- 
bert). 

C. of W. Clark :— Aldine (dy). Green B. (Molly Murphy), 
Isaac H. (Armeda Lambert), Albert (Alice Pullen, Hid), 
Cornelia A. (William Lambert), William (Grosie Warner), 
Annis (Edward Nelson), Hettie (Hilbert Lambert), Wesley 
(dy), Don. J. 

C. of George W. — Lucy (Anderson Lambert), Marvin 
(Margaret Lambert), Clarence, Ellis, Rebecca, Alonzo, Mattie, 
Julia, George, Elmer. 

Ch. of Henry: — Charles (Rebecca Rexroad), Ephraim 
(Alice Howdenshelt) , Minor (Esther J. Lambert), Sarah J., 
Elizabeth (Isaac Pennington), Eliza (Minor Mullenax?), 
James (Lucinda Arbogast), Martha (James Hedrick), 1 more. 

According to one account the following were the children 
of Jacob, but the list is more probably that of an Adam, Sr. 
—Adam, William (Mary Coberly), George, Christian, John 

(Sarah )— 0., Lewis, Elizabeth (Solomon Phares)— b. 

1787, Eve (Jacob Conrad). 

Line of William: — Emanuel Lambert place — ch. — 1. Re- 
becca— S. 2. Isaac C. (Ind)* 3. Elizabeth (Svlvanus Bouce) 
— W. 4. Jacob (Eve Nelson). 5. Sidney (William Hinkle) 



311 

6. Sarah (Sylvanus Phares). 7. William— S—Rph. 8. Adam 
C. (Mary E. Hinkle)— b. 1836— C'ville. 

Ch. of Adam C— Ann R. (John Cook, Henry Harper). 

Br. of Jacob:— 1. Isaac (Rph)* 2. William P. (Ellen 
Raines)— Rph. 3. Mary (Robert W. Montony). 4. Martin 
(Ellen Nelson). 5. Adam (Sarah Carroll, Rebecca J. Kimble). 
6. Charles L. (Nancy Mauzy). 7. Elizabeth (Sylvester 
Raines)— Rph. 8. Sylvanus (Sarah Pennington). 

Unp. Elizabeth (Caleb Hinkle). 

Varner. Adam (Christina R. ) — ch? — 1. Conrad 

(Mary A. Eye)— m. 1792— S-F. 2. Jane. 3. George (Elizabeth 

Eckard)-m. 1798. 4. John (Mary )— d. 1822. 5. 

Catharine (Michael Harold)— m. 1805. 6. Abraham (Eliza- 
beth ). 7. Jacob. 

Unp. 1. George (Elizabeth Crummett)-b. 1799, m. 1821. 

2. George— b. 1785, d. 1857. 3. Daniel (Delilah Crummett). 

4. Solomon (Catharine E. Wilfong)— m. 1826. 5. Jacob 
(Margaret Miller)— m. 1817. 6. Regina (Jacob Wilfong)— 
m. 1800. 

Line of 1:— Joseph (Sarah C. Glass, Aug.)*— b. 1827. 2. 

Christian (Nellie Simmons) — homestead. 3. Henry ( 

, Elizabeth Moyers)— Hid. 4. Philip (Elizabeth Wil- 
fong) — Brushy Fork. 5. Elizabeth. 

Br. of Joseph: — Mary J. (Nariel Rexroad), David (Mollie 
E. Moyers)— S-B, Martha L. (Samuel Crummett, Hid.)*, 
Martin J. (in W.), 2 boys (dy). 

Ch. of David: — Margaret, Richard, twin girls. 

Br. of Christian:— Martin (Mary Eckard), Job (Delilah 
Simmons), Joel (Mary Foley), Rachel (David Foley, Rkm)*. 

Br. of Philip:— William (Kate Bodkin, Hid)*— b. 1847, 
Rachel (Henry Hoover), Sarah (Israel Hoover)— b. 1850, 
EHzabeth (Peter Michael, Hid)*, Kate (Peter Michael, the 
same), Christina (Martin Bodkin, Hid)*, Louisa (Joshua 
Puff enbarger) , Polly (Valentine Smith), David, Margaret? 
(Emanuel Smith), Daniel, Jonathan, PhiHp. 

Vint. William (Jane Jordan?— d. 1843*) -d. 1821— ch.— 1. 
Elizabeth (John Bodkin)— m. 1798. 2. William (EHzabeth 
Bodkin, Nancy McQuain Sammonds, Pa.)— b. 1786, d. 1861. 

3. Cynthia (John McQuain). 4. Jane (James Jones, Hid) *. 

5. John (Delilah Bodkin). 6. Margaret— b. 1798, d. 1881. 
Line of William: — 1. George W. ( Johns)— Upshur. 2. 

Angeline ( ) — 111. 3. Joshua (Ardena Sammonds) 

— b. July 17, 1819, d. July 2, 1889— Robert Vint's. 4. Mar- 
garet (George Carroll) — Hid. 5. Polly (James HartmanJ. 

6. William H. (Sarah Beveridge, Hid, Susan Bennett) — Tim- 
ber Ridge. 7. John (Mary McQuain)— 111. By 2d m.— 8. 



312 

Benaiah (Lucy Christ, Aug.)* 9. Joshua— twin to Benaiah 
—(Elizabeth Speck, Pa.)* 

Br. of Joshua:— 1. Osborn H.— k. 2. Wilham (Margaret 
Hiner)— Hid. 3. George M. (Virginia Harper)— Kkm. 4. 
Robert (Mary A. Hoover, Virginia Leach)— homestead. 5. 
Amanda J. (James Biagg, Hid)*. 6. Urania (Robert Rals- 
ton, Hid)*. 7. Nancy C. (Aug.)*. 8. Elizabeth (Thomas 
Dilfard, Poca., George Kessler, Poca.)*. 11. Martin A, 

(John Dorr, 111.)*. 10. Sarah ( Baker, Aug)*. 11. 

Mary L. (Kas.)*. 11. Phoebe A. (William Frader). 13. 
Walter H. (Ida Geiger, Poca.)*. 14. Hunter D. (Sarah 
Gragg, Hid)— Harman. 

Ch. of Robert:— Sarah F., Reuben H. (Phoebe Hartman) — 
Glady, Ardena S. (Edward Simmons), Emma 0. (Sydney 
Wade, Hid), Noah and Samuel (twins): by 2d m.— Ethel L., 
Sarah R. 

Br. of William H. — Jesse (Elizabeth Bennett), Mary (John 
W. Bennett), Nancy, Margaret, Emma, 4 infs (dy). 

Ch. of Jesse: — Isaac (Maud Nelson), Joseph (Vesta Ben- 
nett), Andrew (Peachie Raines), Lee, P (Minor Elza), 

Louisa (Robert Sponaugle). 

Line of John:— L William (Elizabeth McQuain)— Hid. 2. 

Thomas ( ) — 111. 3. Joanna (Bailey Hiner). 4. 

Jane (Jacob Propst). 5. Margaret (Thomas McQuain). 6. 
Cynthia (David Johns, Hid)*. 7. Lucinda (Washington 
John, Hid., William Burns, Hid.)*. 8. John (Susan Michael, 
Aug., Martha Bishop, Hid.)*. 9. Morgan (Sarah Michael, 
Aug.) — Kas. 

Unp. Henry-1795. 

Waggy. Abraham ( )— ch.— 1. Elizabeth. 2. 

Mary A. (Peter Stone)— m. 1810. 3. John (Alice Propst) — 
b. 1816— n. S. G. 4. Abraham. 5. Isaac (Sarah Propst) 
— b. 1810.* 6. Jacob. 7. Henry. 8. Christina (William 
Propst.* 9. Eleanor (Michael Summers?) 

Br. of John :— Adam (Susan Kiser)— b. May 20, 1831, d. 
Jan. 24, 19U6— n. homestead. 2. William (Elizabeth Puifen- 
barger) — homestead. 3. Solomon. 4. Ehza (William Hively). 
5. Daniel (Mahala Moyers)— n. Mitchell P. 0. 6. Amelia 
(Addison Rexroad). 7. Elizabeth (Abel Mitchell). 8 Mary 
E. (George C. Puffenbarger) . 

Ch. of Adam :— William (Martha Moyers), Douglass 
(Neb)*, Harvey (Lydia Crummett), John K. (dy), Barbara 
J. (Frank Eye), Martha J. (David Smith), Louisa (So. Dako- 
ta)*, Carrie (().)*, Eliza (Amos Bowers), Birdie (d.), Nora 
(Hid), Cora (Pomeroy, 0.)* 

Ch. of William :— Pleasant (dy.), Marshall, William E. 
George, Edward, Martha A. (Edward Simmons), Minnie. 



313 

Ch. of Daniel :— Ambrose (Annie Hoover), Harmon (Ollie 
Hoover), Jacob (Nina Propst) — Tkr., Perry (Lula Pitsen- 
barger). Early (i-ucy Gragg), Hendron (Ella Mitchell), 
Amanda (dy), Millie (George Snider), Susan, Caddie, Flor- 
ence (William Simmons). 

Unp. 1. Philip (MargaretPeck)— m. 1797. 2. John (Bar- 
bara Hoover) — m.1800. 3. Isaac (Elizabeth Croushorn) — b. 
1791, m. 1813, d. 1859. 4. Jasper— voter, 1801. 

Wagoner. Ludovick, or Lewis, (Margaret ) — d. 

1789— ch.— 1. Lewis (Barbara Wortmiller)—b. 1765 — home- 
stead, Jas. W. Conrad's. 2. The other two sons died at sea 
and the daughters did not locate here. 

Line of Lewis:— 1. Magdalena (David Propst)— b. 1781, d. 
1861. 2. George (Elizabeth Dice)--b. 1787, m. 1811— Frank 
Wagoner's. 3. Margaret (James Blizzard) — m. 1809. 4. 
Lewis (Barbara Propst) — m. 1818— G' brier. 5. Jacob (Eliza- 
beth Dickenson)— m. 1819— homestead. 6. Henry (Elizabeth 
Armentrout)— Tenn. — 1845*. 7. Adam (Sophia Smith)— 
Tenn. 8. Esther (Jacob Propst)— m. 1820. 9. Elizabeth 
(WilHam Propst). 

Br. of George:— 1. Eli (Julia A. Dyer). 2. Jacob (Catha- 
rine Dice)— b. 1816— la. 3. William (Dorothy Nestrick)— S- 
F. Mtn. 4. Susannah (John Dice). 5. Ruben (Cynthia 
Dyer)— b. 1324. 6. Lewis (Elizabeth Cowger). 7. George 
(MaryTrumbo). 8. Henry— S. 9. Phoebe A. (Wesley Mil- 
ler) — la. 

Ch. of Eli:— Jane (John Lough)— b. 1839. 

Ch. of William:— Adam (Jane Lough), Deborah (William 
Lough), William L. (Anna Siple), Jacob P. (Sarah Hammer). 

Ch. of Reuben: — Frank (Josephine Trumbo). 

Ch. of George:— 1. James W. (Ida Moon, Md.)— Keyser. 
2. George E. (Hannah S. Ketterman) — Keyser. 3. John D. 
(dy. 19). 3. Sarah A. E. (Jacob A. Hinkle, Grant)— Hdy. 
5. Caroline. 6. MollieB. (Reuben Puff enbarger). 7. Phoebe 
E. (Frank L. Smith, Hdy). 

Br. of Jacob:— Lucinda (David Rexroad) — b. 1818, Malinda 
(Adam Hammer), Edward, Robert L., Anna, Hirara P., Ja- 
cob S. All these went to Ind. after 1850. 

Walker. George (Sarah )— d. 1810— ch.— John, 

Phoebe, William, Elizabeth. 

Unp. 1. Charles— 1790. 2. Joseph (Barbara Teter)— m. 
1800— ward of Moses Hinkle. 3. Francis— 1796. 4. Mary— 
1796. 5. John— 1798. 6. Eugene— d. 1810. 7. John (Mary 
V. Greenawalt). 

Ward. William (Martha Burgovne)— b. May 5, 1805, d. 
Feb. 17, 1897— ch.— 1. Amby (Annabel Whetsell, Mary E. 
Black)— b. 1852— Poage's Run. 2. Nancy. 3. John— 111. 4, 



314 

William C. (Lavina Mallow)— merchant. 5. Charles S. (El- 
len Nash)— Tkr. 

Ch. of Amby:— Esther (dy), Charles (dy), Edith H., Mary 
E. By 2d m. — Glenn S., infant. 

Ch. of William C— Mary M. (Henry Rader), Bertha (Clar- 
ence Alt), Ella (Taylor Day), Nancy, Lawton, Bessie, 

Wanier. Ch. of :— 1. Zebedee (Phoebe Bland)— b. 

1807, d. 1891. 2. Solomon (Priscilla Smith)— b. 1808, d. 

1886. 3. John ( Robinett) — Lewis. 4. James (Agnes 

Bennett)— m. 1824— W. Va. 5. George ( )— Fay- 
ette. 6. Catharine (Isaac White, Rph)* 7. Elizabeth (James 

Huffman). 8. Polly (Riley McCloud, Rph)* 9. Susan ( 

McCloud, Rph)*. 

Br. of Zebedee: — 1. Amos — b. 1836— Riverton. 2. Adam 
D. (Elizabeth Cunningham). 3. Zane. 4. Mary J. (James 

Sheres, Rph)*. 5. James H. ( Thompson) — Ind. 6. 

JohnW. (Ellen Bland). 7. Anna S. (Isaac Bland). 8. Wil- 
liam P. (Annis Thompson). 9. Melissa (Job Harper. ) 

Ch. of Adam D. — Eli A. (Annie Jones, Penn.) — hotel, 
C'ville, Ninnie (David S. Cunningham), Carrie (Lawrence 
Justice, Md), Lottie (Robert B. Lawrence), Mattie, Bessie 
(Scovel Vandeventer), Albert (Attie Lambert). 

Ch. of JohnW. -Samuel (Elizabeth Teter). Grover C. (Sa- 
rah Raines), Esther ( Cleek, Bath), Texie (Jasper Hin- 

kle). Pearl, Mintie, Jennie, Kenny. 

Ch. of William P. -Frank (Zola Bland), Fred (Retta J. 
Harper), Lena (Rph)*, Blanche. 

Br. of Solomon:— Joseph (Emily J. Nelson), Peter S. (Han- 
nah V. Nelson), Elizabeth A. (Jacob Arbogast), Mary J. 
(Balaam Teter), Noah (Rebecca Teter). Pascal (Christina 

Strawder, , 0., Alice Sponaugle, 

0.)*, John (Elizabeth Teter). 

Ch. of Joseph: — McKendree (Annie J. Nelson), Ashby 
(Celia Sponaugle), Absalom, Solomon (Mattie Sponaugle), 

Floyd ( Waybright, Simmons), Pascal (teacher), 

Allen, Octavia (Calvin Snider). Hid*, Dora, Emma, (Okey 
Sponaugle), Frances (Michael Waybright). 

Ch. of Peter S. — Margaret (Amos Hinkle), James B., Gar- 
net Z. ( Helmick), Madison D. (MeHnda Helmick), EHz- 

abeth A. (Hage Bodkin), Beatta (Milton Judy), Lizetta 
(Preston Thompson), William (Grace Harper). 

Ch. of Noah:— LuellaF. (Jacob Arbogast), Amby H., CalHe 
(Greorge Cook), Elizabeth J. (WilHam A. Mullenax), John 
(Ina Waybright). Pet (Laura Mullenax), Mary E. (Charles 
Judy), Etta B. (Harmon H Sponaugle), (Jertrude A. (John 
Judy), Charles C., Catharine D. 



315 

Ch. of Pascal. — Solomon G. (0)*, Annie (Ambrose Teter), 
Isaac G. (Margaret A. Lambert), Anderson D. (Tkr)*: by 
2d m.— Truman, Blanche, Cleveland: by 3d m.— Mary C.: by 
4th m. — Sarah, Cora, Joseph. 

Ch. of John:— 1. Okey (Anna Turner, Grant). 2. Walter 
(Jennie Mauzy). 3 Alvah (Margaret Mauzy). 4. Blanche 
(Charles Teter). 5. Flick (Lelia M. Bowers)— Co. Supt. 
6. Glenn (Edith Teter)— Kas. 7. Chloe (Kenny Tingler). 

Waybright. Daniel (Rachel Arbogast)—C—B—b. 17^1, d. 
1879— ch.— 1. Jesse (Hester Arbogast, Jane Bland)— b. 1817, 
k. 1864— N-F. 2. Daniel (Christina Mullenax)— Seneca. 3. 
John. 4. Nathan. 5. Eli. 6. Miles. 7. Martha (William 
Hinkle). 8. EHzabeth (William Hinkle, the same). 

Br. of Jesse :— Henry T. (dy). By 2d m.— 2. Isaac (Eliz- 
beth Mullenax, Ellen Arbogast) — Rph. 3. James B. (Laura 
V. Murphy) — n. homestead. 4. Alva (Susan Arbogast) . 5. 
Susan. 6. Mary E. (Floyd Calhoun). 

Ch. of James B. — Ollie, (Floyd Warner), Nannie (William 
J. Mullenax), Ira (Ettie Rexroad), Michael (Frances War- 
ner), Esther (Luther Hammer), Jesse (Attie Rexroad), 
Sarah, Jane (Paul Nelson), Sadie. 

Ch. of Alvah :— Sophia (Ezra Hinkle), Theodore, Troy, 
Clarence, Amy, Sudie, Elsie, Nona (d), 3 (dy). 

Br. of Daniel : — Columbus, Mary J., Albert, William, Hen- 
ry, Margaret. 

Whitecotton. James (Nancy Raines) — sold farm E. of 
C'ville to Philip Phares — ch. —1. Cornelius (Sarah Sponaugle) 
—Barbour. 2. Noah (Ellen Hedrick— Buffalo Hills). 3. 
Mordecai (Mary A. Kile)— b. 1821— Mo. 4. Salem (Eliza J. 
Conrad)— b. 1822— Mo. 5. Wayne— S. 6. James (Hid)— 
W. Va. 7. William (Mary Mowrey)— n. Cave P. 0. 8. 
Polly (JacobPeck, Hid)*. 

Br. of Noah : — Perry (Florence Graham) — U. T., Charles 
(Ann Flinn)— N-F Mtn., George, Elizabeth (Vinton Pen- 
nington). 

Ch. of Charles :— Pearl, Kate, Maud (Isaac Pennington). 

Br. of William :-l. Solomon (Hid)* 2. Margaret (Hid) 

— Glady. 3. Eliza (George W. Harper). 4. Mary ( Puf- 

fenbarger. Hid)* 5. William E. (Alice Peck). 6. Sarah 
(Joshua Sponaugle). 7. Jemima (Job Bishop, out) — Conn. 
8. James. 

Ch. of William E.— Howard M. 

Wafong. Michael (Sophia )— d. 1808— ch.— 1. Ja- 
cob (Regina Varner)— b. 1774*, m. 1800, d. 1838— Job Hart- 
man's, Smith Cr. 2. Mary (Valentine Cassell). 3. Magda- 
lena (George Snider)— m. 1799. 4. George. 5. John. 6. 



816 

Barbara (Lewis Stultz) -m. 1792. 7. Henry (Mary E. Sim- 
mons)— m. 1791— d. 1840.* 

Lineof Jacob:— 1. Elizabeth. 2. Henry. 8. George. 4. 
Polly. 5. Sarah. 6. Susannah (Jesse Nelson)— m. 1821. 

7. John. 8. Adam. 9. Jacob ( ) — Seneca. 

10. Noah. 11. Abel (Elizabeth Waggy) -Upshur. 12. Eli 
(Amanda Miller) — k. 13. Amanda (Job Nelson). 14. Zebu- 
Ion (Elizabeth Swartz, Va.) — b. 1823— Braxton. 15. Cath- 
arine (John Eckard?)— m. 1825. 

Br. of Zebulon: — Barbara C. (James Simmons), Mary E. 
(Stewart Nelson), John W. (Mary J. Moyers, Susan Snider) 

-b. 1848— Smith Cr., Janetta ( Teter)— 111., Zebulon K. 

—111., Christina (dy). 

Ch. of John W. — Lula A. (Isaac Lambert), Elizabeth C. 

( ), Florence (Rkm)— N. J., boy (dy); by 2d m.— 

William P., John C, Campbell. 

Line of Henry:— 1. Elizabeth E. (Solomon Varner) — b. 
1804. d. 1888. 2. Sarah (Samuel Smimons)— b. 1812, d. 1894. 
3. Joseph (Lavina Simmons) — b. 1814. 4. Eii (Lavina Sim- 
mons?) — b. 1817. 5. Michael ( Simmons) — out. 6. Ja- 
cob (Eliza? ). 7. Daniel ( Moyers) -out. S.Bar- 
bara (Samuel Bodkin). 9. George (Elizabeth Harold?) — out. 

Br. of Joseph:— Philip (Eliza J. Lamb)— b. 1835-Hld. 2. 
Susan (John Whistleman, Hid).* 3. Joseph (Sarah Sim- 
mons). 4. Emanuel (Lydia? Crummett) — Hid. 5. David. 
6. Elias (Sarah Dove). 7. John (Caroline Puffenbarger) — 
b. 1847 — homestead. 8. Catharine (Emanuel Varner). 9. 
Susan (Hendron Rexroad). 10. Joanna (Washing! on Sim- 
mons). 11. Hendron (d). 

Ch. of Philip: — George W. (Mary J. Puff enbarger) , Joseph 
H. (Eliza J. Simmons), David 0. (Lillie Simmons), Sarah F. 
(Andrew J. Puffenbarger). 

Ch. of Joseph: — Henry W. (Nora Evick), Huldah (Ejijah 
Simmons), Deniza (Edward Moyers). 

Ch. of Elias:— Ambrose (Hid),* William F. (Kate Wees)— 
Mont, Elizabeth J. (George Wanamaker, Lutheran preacher). 
Laura F. (Albert Eckard), Kenny (Aug.),* James H. (Sarah 
Harold). Sarah M. (Aug.),* Philip C. 

Br. of Jacob:— Abel (b. 1830). Jane, Allen, John, Eliza- 
beth, Sarah, Rachel, Amanda, William. 

Unp. 1. Jacob (Margaret Wilfong)— m. 1819. 2. Mary 

(Henry Stone)— m. 1820. 3. Martin (Eve , b. 1794)— 

b. 1788— ch.— Samuel, Ann. 

Williams. Henry (Melinda Keister)— of Ky— b. 1837* d. 
1895.*— miller— ch.-l. James E. (Sarah A. Dice)— S-F. 2. 
Mary C. (John W. Shaw). 3. Sarah (John Reed, G'brier)* 



317 

4. Isaac (Mary Brown, G'brier)— Okla. 5. Jane (Letcher 
Hiner, Hid)* 

Ch. of James E. — Robert (— : — Lough), Cleta, Elmer. 

Wimer. Philip ( )— Dry Run— ch.— 1. Eliza- 
beth (Henry Simmons). 2. Catharine (Ambrose Phares). 
3. Susan (Robert Phares). 4. Barbara (John Sponaugle). 

5. Margaret (George Harper). 6. Henry ( Judy. 

Hedrick)— C— B. 7. Philip (Mary Hoover of Germany)— C. 
D. 8. George (Christina Rexroad). 

Line of Henry :— 1 W. 2 Philip (Mary C. ). 

3. Andrew( SponaugIe(. 4. Cornelius( Waybright). 

5. Henry (Elizabeth Wimer). 6. (Amos Miller). 

7. ( Hedrick). 

Line of Philip :—l. William Qnd)* 2. Peter (Sarah 
Strawder, Ellen Kile)— W. 3. Ephraim (Ellen Harold)— 
Hid. 4. Jacob (Margaret Wimer). 5. Aaron (Elizabeth 
Simmons)— Kas. 6. Matilda (Samuel Mullenax). 7. Sidney 
(Thomas Higgins. Ireland)- Ritchie. 8. Mary A. (George 
Harold). 9. Lucinda (Isaac Strawder). 

Br. of Jacob :— Charles (Ella Harper), Fleetwood (Maude 
Hinkle), Jane (Gponre R. Lambert), Alice (Aug)*, Ambrose 
( Nestor), (Emma L B. Waybright, Hid)* 

Ch. of Fleetwood :— Ethel, Zura. 

Line of George :— Emanuel (Sidney Waybright, Hid)*, 
Nicholas (Hid)*, George (Elizabeth Calhoun), Solomon (dy), 
Benjamin (k), Margaret (Jacob Wimer), Catharine (Adam 
Phares), Sarah (Wesley Simmons, S L Wills), Eliza- 
beth (Henry Wimer). 

Zickafoose. Unp. 1. Peter (Catharine )— d. 1814. 

2. Elias (Sarah E. )— d. 18 1 4. 3. Isaac— 1803. 4. 

Samson (Sarah Simmons) — 1814. 5. Susannah (Rudolph 
Buzzard)— m. 1797. 6. Frances (Miles Western)— m. 1811. 
7. Elizabeth (Moses Arbogast)— m. 1819. 8. Henry (Bar- 
bara Simmons) — m. 1825. 9, George (Catharine Zickafoose) 
— m. 1800. 10. Elias ( ). 

Br. of 10:— 1. Gerrge (Elizabeth Wimer)— b. 1827. 2. Mary 
(Ban Lambert). 3. Samson— d. 4. Martha? (Arnold Lam- 
bert). 5. (William Rexroad). 

Br. of 4:— Sarah (Washington Moyers), Mary (John Moy- 
ers), Phoebe (James B. Lambert), Clark (Susan Wimer)— 
Neb., Martha J. 

Br. of 9.— Emanuel (d), Jeremiah (d), Elias (d), Peter 
(Mary J. Bennett), Abel, Thomas (d), Mary A. (Washington 
Lamb), Margaret (Joseph Bodkin), Anna (d), Mary E. 
(George W. Sponaugle). 



CHAPTER VII 
Certain Extinct Families 

In this chapter are mentioned families resident in Pendleton 
a considerable period, but no longer represented in the male 
line. 

Baker. Unp. — Sebastian (Catharine Evick, m. 1797), 
James (Mary Wade, m. 1800), Samuel— 1800, William (Su- 
sannah Vandeventer, m. 1806), Jacob — 1803, Catharine 
(Michael Tinkler, m. 1818), John— b. 1800. 

Barclay. Obed (Eleanor Davis, m. 1819)— Friend's Run— 
ch.— 1. Elizabeth (William Evick). 2. Polly. 3. Martha 
(Washington Rexroad, Hid)*. 4. Caroline (James Mauzy). 6. 

George (Mary )— W. 7. Washington — S. 7. Henry 

(Rkm)*. 8. WilHam— S. 9. Sarah— reared -(Levi Eye). 

Br. of George:— Mary (Amos Morral), Calvin (Mary Moy- 
ers), Lucy (Reuben Vance). 

Bargerhoff. Nicholas ( ) — b. 1756, wounded at 

Brandywine, 1777, d. after 1820 — n. Greenawalt gap — came 
after 1800— ch.— 1. Sarah (James Dahmer)— b. 1796. 2. 
Cynthia W. (George Dahmer). 3. Margaret (David McMul- 
len)— m. 1812. 4—5. girls. 

Unp. Robert ( ) — ch. — 1. John (Sarah Cox, m. 

1812) . 2. Nicholas (Elizabeth )— sold to Conrad Lough, 

1831. 3. William (Barbara )-1825. 

Bogard. Anthony (Ann )— d. 1763 - S-F?— ex- 
ecutor, Abraham Westfall; appraisers, Gabriel Pickens, Adam 
Rutherford, John Davis. James Dyer: — ch? — Hannah (Jacob 
Conrad)— b. 1743, d. 1808. 

Bouce. Frederick (Barbara Conrad) — n. C'villle — m. 1811. 

Unp. 1. Sylvanus (Elizabeth Vandeventer) — W. 2. Su- 
sannah (John Dolly). 3. John (Barbara Hedrick). 

Briggs. Joseph ( ) — Reed's Cr.— ch— Mary— b. 

1777. 

Butcher. Also spelled Boucher — probably French — Deer 
Run. Valentine ( )— d. 1773— ch?— 1. Nicholas- 
executor. 2. Valentine (Margaret Teter)— N-F. 3. Eliza- 
beth (George Fisher, m. 1794. ) 4. Anna (Michael )— 

1803. 5. Margaret (Jacob Pitsenbarger, m. 1792). 

Unp. Michael— d. 1775*. Pulsor-1773. 

Buzzard. German? (Bossert?)~l. Peter ( ) — 

d. 1777— from Penna.— estate appraised by Henry Stone, 



319 

Charles Powers, Robert Davis,— value, $207.75 2. Reuben 

(Susannah ). 3. Rudolph (Susannah Zickafoose, m. 

1797). 4. Lewis (Mollie )— Brushy Run, 1822. 5. 

Henry ( ) — Dry Run. 

Campbell. Samuel (Sarah ) — 1802. 2. Alexander 

(Rachel ) — d. 1^45 — ch. — Thomas, A. Hanson, Laura 

H., James B., Benjamin B., Samuel B. (Jane Woods, m. 
1828), Azariah, Mittor. 

Capito. Daniel (Nancy ) — merchant of Franklin — 

drowned in Dry Fork on way to Beverly, 1826* — ch. — 1. Isa- 
bella (Andrew H. Byrd). 2. Catharine ( Hamilton). 3. 

Daniel (Jerusha ). 4. Sophia (John H. Cravens). 5. 

George — Jefferson Co. Ind. 6. Peter — Ind. 7. Julia A. 
(Henry Steenbeck). 8. John. 

Daniel was a successful man of business and large land- 
holder. He used to ride from Mouth of Seneca to Beverly in 
a single day. Peter was a merchant at the former point. 

Clifton. William (Barbara Wanstaff ) — exempted, 

1790— ch? — Edith )—Rph.— bequeathed land by 

Jacob Conrad. 

Coatney. Edward J. (Nancy D )— b. 1813, d. 1889 

— Fin — tanner. 

Collett. Thomas ( )— Buffalo Hills— ch?— 

Gabriel — constable, 1788. 

Conrad. Ulrich (Sarah )— exempted, 1789— d. 1801* 

— S-F. Mtn., later Mouth of Thorn— miller— ch.—l. Ulrich 

(Elizabeth ), Elizabeth (John Sumwalt), Barbara (Paul 

Harpole, m. 1793). In 18 — , Ulrich, Jr., sold the homestead 
for $12,000. 

Unp. 1. Jacob (Eve Vandeventer, m. 1797). 2. George 
(Dorothy Batt, m. 1797). 3. Elizabeth (William Morral, m. 
1797). 4. John (Barbara Wanstaff, m. 1792). 5. Adam 
(Abigail Smith, m. 1803)— Smith Cr. 6. John (Sarah 

Davis, m. 1792). 7. Hans ( )-k. by Indians, 

1758) — executors, Ulrich Conrad, John Dunkle. 8. Jacob (Ab- 
igail ) — ch. — Barbara (Frederick Bouce, m. 1811). 

These "unp." would seem in part at least to be the pos- 
terity of Hans, unless Ulrich had other children than those 
named in his will. Hans is said to have been a brother to 
Ulrich, Sr. 

Coplinger. 1. Samuel (Dorothy )— d. 1769— estate 

$118.41, appraised by Francis Evick, George Hammer, Jacob 
Peterson; administrators, George Hammer, George Dice. 2. 

George ( )— d. 1773— estate, $282.50— ch.—l. George 

(Elizabeth )— b. 1745, d. 1829. 2. John. 3—4. sons. 

Br. of George:— George ( )— Thorny meadow. 2. 

Adam (Mary Bible, m. 1810.). 3. others? 



320 

Unp. 1. John (Barbara Reger, m. 1772)* 2. Henry (Bar- 
bara Harpole. m. 1785). 3. Adam (Catharine )— 1802. 4. 

Susannah (Absalom Fisher, m. 1803). 5. Jacob (Sarah 



— ). 6. Adam (Mary Judy). 7. Catharine (George Ham- 
mer)— b. 178 L, d. 1847. 8. Elizabeth (Leonard Rexroad, m. 
1791). 9. Phoebe (Henry Hammer)— b. 1796, d. 1858. 

Custard. Arnold (Bridget ) — located 105 acres in 

Brock's Gap, 1750.— d. 1759— ch?— 1. Paul. 2. Conrad— d. 

1772?. 3. George ( )— Reed's Cr., then Grant Cc- 

said to have been 104 years old. 

Ch. of George :— 1. George— 0- 2. Straud— 0. 3. Har- 
vey (Virginia Borer) — 0. 4. Gabriel — d. 5. Lucinda (Reu- 
ben Harman, Leonard Mowrey), Elizabeth (Paul Mallow), 
Catharine (Kennison Graham), Joanna (Martin Landes), 
Delilah (Hezekiah Rexroad). Susannah Custard Lair was a 
dau. of Paul. 

Daggy. John P. (Dorothea Propst) — teacher and Lutheran 
preacher. — B. D., moved to 0. 

Unp. 1. Casper— d. 1804. 2. Jacob— d. 1813. 

Dunkle. Johh( )— d. 1809.— ch.— 1. John (Margaret. 

)— d. 1814*. 2. George ( )— d. 1805* 3. Jacob 

(Eleanor ). 4. Michael (Mary ). 5. others? 

Line of John: — George, John, William, Samuel, Margaret, 
Mary (Michael Harpole, m. 1792), Sarah, Ann (John Davis?), 
Barbara (a minor, 1813). 

Line of George:— George (to 0.), Jacob (to Penna.), John 

(Elizabeth )— d. 1801, Mary ( Gragg), Elizabeth 

( Hoover), Barbara ( Hoover). 

Br. of John: — John, Elizabeth. 

George. Jr., owned 160 acres on the site of Columbus, 0., 
but through the dishonesty of the lawyer to whom he remitted 
money for taxes, the land was allowed to become delinquent 
and was bought in by him. The early Dunkles owned valua- 
JDle tracts on the SB. and S-F., but one of them sold his own 
interest for a shotpouch and canoe. 

Eberman. 1. Jacob (Barbara ) — S — B — exempt, 

1780— ch.— Jacob (Charlotte Watts, m. 1991)— N—F. 2. 
John— d. 1776. 3. Michael— bro. and executor to John. Ch. 

of John:— Mary, Michael (Jane )— sold land on Seneca, 

1775. 

Emick. Henry (Catharine )— d. 1834— n. Dahmer 

P. 0.— ch?— 1. Nicholas (Susannah Smith, m. 1795). 2. 
John (Catharine Bowers, m. 1814). 3. Barbara (Henry Eye, 
m. 1819). 4. Jacob— sold to Abraham Pitsenbarger. 5. 
Elizabeth (Peter Pitsenbarger. m. 1730). 

Fisher. 1. George (Elizabeth Conrad )~S—F Mtn, n. Wm. 
Eye's— from Hdy—ch.— Philip (Catharine ), John 



dZJi 

(Ann Miller)— d. 1845, Charles (Eunice ), George 

(Elizabeth Butcher, m. 1794). 

Line of John:— 1. (Elizabeth N. Moyers)— b. 1798. 2. 
Phoebe (William Smith, m. 1811). 3. Elizabeth (Jacob 
Dice). 4. Zebulon— 0. 5. William (Nancy Bolton)— b. 
1808*— Cedar Falls, la. 6. Frances (Isaac Teter, m. 1795). 
7. Mary (Charles Hedrick, b. 1776). 

Br. of John:— Mary A. (George Miller), Millie (Israel Hin- 
kle), Jefferson (toTenn.), Phoebe E. (James Cook), Susan 
J. (dy). 

Br. of William:— Jacob B., Laban, Harrison, Sarah A., 
Phoebe J., Louis M., Pamela, Frances, William, Napoleon. 

(B). Jacob ( )— ch. Mary (Lewis Wanstaff, m. 

1792). 

(C). PhiHp ( )—ch.— Sophia (Joseph Kile)— b. 

1777. 

Unp. 1. Michael (Ann Butcher, m. 1803). 2. Michael 
(Mary Fisher, m. 1800). 3. Mary (Michael Fisher). 4. Eve- 
lyn E. (Reuben Dice, m. 1811). 5. Absalom (Susannah 
Coplinger, m. 1803). 

Flinn. George ( )— B— T, 1794— ch?— 1. Edward- 
bought of Barbara Bush Skidmore, 1821, n. Dolly, S. H. 3. 
David (Mary Miller, m. 1796)— shared in same purchase. 4. 
Samuel (Elizabeth )— sold to Adam Hedrick, 1829. 

Line of David : — Abraham (Sabina Ketterman),— W. Va., 

David (Isabel Bland), Malvina (Leonard Hedrick), 

(Joseph Davis), Mary (Marion Hedrick). 

Friend. Jacob (Elizabeth )— Friend's Run— d. 1818 

— ch. — 1. Elizabeth (William Lawrence, m. 1791). 2. Israel 
( )— sold in 1825, 189 acres at $1546. 3. Cath- 
arine. 4. Jonas. 5. Jacob. 6. Thomas. 7. Jonathan. 8. 
Margaret. 

Unp. 1. Isaac (Elizabeth Hammer, m. 1812). 2. Joseph 
—in Rph, 1789. 3. James— N—F. 

Full. 1. Andrew— S—F, 1771. 2. George (Catharine 

)-d. 1836— hatter— n. Branch P. O.—ch.— George 

(Margaret Judy), b. 1796, Jacob (Christina Smith, Grant, Mary 

Helmick), Elizabeth (John Ayers, m. 1811), Susannah ( 

Ketterman, Grant),* girl ( Collins) — Poca. 

Br. of George: — Aaron (Catharine Shreve, Polly 

Shreve), Nicodemus (111),* Jason (d), Mary (Solomon Shirk, 
Grant),* Amanda (Henry Kimble, Grant).* 

Br. of Jacob: -William (d. 26) ; by 2d m.— Elizabeth (Dan- 
iel H. Peterson), Malinda (Benjamin Simmons), Margaret 
(George Simmons), Frances (John Landes, Grant)*, Malinda 
(John Ketterman, Grant) *, Eve (Abraham Kimble, Grant) *. 

PCH 21 



822 

Jacob lived at the Branch ferry. The will of George, Sr., 
left "100 pounds pork yearly to widow.'* 

Good. (Rebecca Shoemaker) — Deer Run — ch. — Jacob 

(Eliza Day), Mosheim, Dorothy (James Simpson), Francis. 

Haigler. 1. Sebastian— Mill Cr., 1763. 2. William ( 

) — of Penn. — at Martin Harper's place, 1790. 3. John 

—1760. 

Br. of William:— Phoebe (Martin Harper), Jehu (S), Mar- 
tin (S), John (Phoebe Skidmore)— Kas., Anna (Eli Bland), 
Christina (Jonathan Nelson), Elizabeth (Jesse Buckbee)— 
Roaring Cr. 

Ch. of John: — Elijah (0)*, James, J. Morgan, Rebecca, 
Lucinda, (Jehu Judy), Rebecca, (George H. Kile), Lavina 
M. (b. 1842). 

Harpole. 1. Adam (Sarah? ). 2. Nicholas (Mar- 
garet ) — d. 1800— ch. — Adam, Paul (Barbara Conrad, 

m. 1793), Elizabeth, Susannah, Margaret, Hannah ( 

)— d. before 1800, Magdalena (Philip Fitchthorn, m. 

1794), Solomon (Anna C. Dice). 

Unp. Michael (Mary Dunkle, m. 1792). 

Hawes. Peter (Sarah Dyer)— d. 1760* — ch. — Hannah 
(George Cowger, Jacob Trumbo). 

Hille. John Frederick (Mary Hurdesburk, Md., b. 1769, d. 
1839)— b. Jan. 27, 1754 at Brandenburg, Prussia, d. Mar. 28. 
1815— ch.— 1. Godfrey— b. 1787, d. 1836. 2. George— d. 25. 
3. Frederick— dy. 4. Henry (Margaret Johnson) — b. Feb. 16, 
1794— Fin. 5. Elizabeth (Campbell Masters)— b. June 19, 
1797, d. Oct. 16, 1850. 6. William— d. 37. 7. Nancy. 8. 
Mary. 9. Frederick— b. Oct. 22, 1810, d. Jan. 12, 1850. 

Howell. 1. Peter— 1789. 2. Jeremiah (Mary E. Warner, 
m. 1789) — stepson of Richard Johnson. 

Johnson. 1. Andrew (Ellen )— d. 1795— n. M.S., east 

side — prominent citizen. 2. Richard (Nancy Howell?) — d. 
1804-N-F? 3. Bartholomew— d. 1796— N-F? 

Unp. 1. Phares (Sarah , m. 1810). 2. Matthew 

(Catharine Wolfe, m. 1810). 3. Jesse (Elizabeth , m. 

1798). 4. George ( , m. 1803). 5. John (1798). 

6. Eleanor (Valentine Bird, m. 1800). 

Lair. 1. Joseph— 1782. 2. Ferdinand (Susannah Custard) 
— of Rkm— bought Ft. S. place of Thomas Blizzard (101 
acres) for $1666.67 — son of Mathias — wife a dau. of Paul 
Custard — ch. — Margaret (Isaac Miller). 

McMuIIen. Duncan ( ) — bought Turnipseed 

place, S— F Mtn, 1802, paying $226.67 for 100 acres— d. 1810 
— ch.— 1. John Polly (Lukens, Penn.)— old man in 1840. 2. 
David (Margaret Bargerhoff, m. 1812). 



328 

Ch. of David:— 1. Sarah (John Hevener)— b. 1818, d. of 
rattlesnake bite 1853. 2. others? 

Minness. Robert ( )— n. C'ville before 1783— 

on S— F, 1757?— sold to Abraham Nelson, 1816— ch. ?— John 
(Mary ). 

Moser. 1. Peter (Elizabeth )— d. by Indians, 1758. 

2. Adam ( ). 3. Andrew — 1750. 4. George — d. 

1761 — admrs: — Philip Harper, Michael Mallow, Peter Vane- 
man— estate. $366.24. 

Line of Adam: — 1. Adam ( ). 2. others? 

Br. of Adam: — 1. Solomon. 2. George. 3. Jacob. 4. 
Peter— S. 5. girl (Philip Harper). 6. Barbara (Jesse Hin- 
kle)— b. Mar 16, 1779, d. Jan. 14, 1855. 

Peter's cabin was the first dwelling on U. T. hill. His 
bros. went W. 

Adam, Jr. sold 315 acres in 1814 to John Cunningham for 
$6000. 

Mouse. Daniel ( ) — 3 miles below M. S., d. 

1761 — ch. — Daniel (Eve ), Catharine. These being 

minors became wards of Ephraim? Eaton. 

Line of Daniel:— 1. Michael— d. 1817.* 2. Rebecca— S— 

lower Yoakum place. 4. Daniel M. ( ) — ch. — 1? 

William (Mary Wise). 2. Kate (Philip Carr, m. 1798). 3. 
Michael (Phoebe Harman)— b. 1802?, d. 1879— homestead. 

Br. of Michael : — Christina (Peter Harper), Elizabeth (Ja- 
cob H. Harper), Rebecca (Adam Yoakum), Adam (Martha 
Harman) — Rkm, Catharine (Martin H. Harper), Mahala 
(Joseph Harman), Michael H. (Mary Largent) — Mo., Daniel 
(Martha Simpson) — Okla., Joel (Laura Johnson, Rph)*, 4 
infs (dy). 

(B) George ( )— d. 1758— admr. — Frederick 

Mouse; appraisers, Ephraim Love, Daniel Love, Andrew 
Johnson — ch. — Elizabeth (b. 1751) chose John Dunkle as 
guardian. 

Nestrick. Frederick (Hannah Morral) — of Rkm — Samuel 
Morral place — ch. — John (S), Deborah (Isaac Ruddle), Mar- 
garet H. (Thomas J. Hartman), Dorothy (William Wag- 
oner), Sarah (S). 

Patterson. James (Ann E. ) — came before 1788 — 

Trout Run — merchant, militia captain, and prominent citi- 
zen. 

Unp. Samuel— d. 1750. 2. Baptist— N-F? 

Patton. 1. Matthew (Hester Dyer)— Ft. S.— came 1747— 
ch?— Ann (David Harrison, m. 1784). 2. John, Jr., (Agnes? 

)-bro. to Matthew?— went to N. C. before 1775. 3. 

Samuel— 1753. 

Pendleton. Nathaniel (Hannah )— Swisher's gap, 



324 

S-FMtn— sold to Samuel B. Hall, 1814— ch?— Amelia (Peachie 
Dyer, m. 1818). 

Peninger. Henry ( )— d. 1815— ch.— William, 

John (Barbara Propst, m. 1787), Henry ( ), Eliz- 
abeth (Nicholas Harper), Catharine, Mary, Barbara (George 
Swadley), AnnaE., Susannah (Henry Paulsel, m. 1798 — Ky). 

Henry, Jr., had a son John. Another grandson was 
Henry. 

Unp. Jacob (Barbara Rexroad, m. 1813), William (Chris- 
tina Mouse, m. 1814). 

The homestead of 168 acres was sold in 1826 to Gen. Mc- 
Coy for $1500. A Peter Peninger was settled on the Shen- 
andoah river in 1771. 

Peterson. 1. Jacob ( )— Mill Cr. 2. Michael 

( )_d. 1766— U. T.—ch?- William (Mary , 

d. 1792)— sold farm on Skidmore's Run, 1795. 

Br. of William: — Elizabeth — (S), Christina (Solomon Ress- 
ner). 

Unp. 1. John and Jacob — bought 370 acres at head of 
Seneca, 1793. 2. Adam (Susannah Miller, m. 1792). 3. 
Elizabeth (Joseph Cook, m. 1827). 4. Mary (Isaac Vande- 

venter, m. 1796). 5. Michael (Mary ) — Roaring Spring 

gap. 6. James (Mary )— 1794. 

The wife of Jacob and 6 children were taken by Indians. 
Michael was perhaps a brother, and some or all of the un- 
placed names appear to be his children. 

(B) Ch. of ? 1. Daniel (Elizabeth Full)-b. 1814, d. 

1897. 2. Mahala (Simon Borrer). 3. Noah (dy). 

Pickle. 1. Jacob— mouth of Brushy Fork, 1765. 2. Henry 

(Catharine )— S-F, 1775— exempt, 1790. 3. Christian 

(Catharine ) — above Trout Rock, 1791. 

Unp. 1. Christian (Mary Peck, m. 1794). 2. Mary 
(George Sibert, m. 1791). 3. Catharine (John Snider). 

Roberts. John (Nancy )— at Fin, 1791*— removed 

to Penna. 1803— had farm on N-F— ch?— Mary (Moses 
Moore, m. 1793). 

Ruleman. Jacob (Margaret )—d. 1772— estate $673.- 

33, appraised by Henry Stone, John Skidmore, George Kile 

—ch.— Christian ( )— d. 1824. 2. Henry ( 

). 3. Justus ( )— assigned. 1791.* 4. others? 

Line of Christian :~Mary, Justus (Elizabeth Dice, m. 

1792), Catharine ( Dice), Christian (Mary E. Fleisher)— 

b. 1766, d. 1854, Mollie( Hoover) , Sarah ( Simmons), 

Christina ( Bowers), Margaret ( Simmons). 

Br. of Christian :— Conrad (S), Helena (James Rader), Ja- 
cob (Elizabeth Smith, Delilah Bodkin, Frances Lilly), Chris- 



325 

tian (Christina Smith), Henry (Sarah Eye)— b. 1815, Phoebe 
(Joseph Shaver), Sophia (John Evick). 

Shoulders. Conrad (Rachel )— d. 1797— ch?— Uriah 

(Mary Teter), Rachel (Thomas Bland, m. 1797). 

Sumwalt. 1. George (Mary )—S—B, 1772.— sold to 

Peter Moyers, 1789. 2. Christopher— 1773. 3. John (Eliza- 
beth Conrad). 

Wanstaff. (Barbara )— d. before 1792 

— ch.— 1. Barbara (John Conrad, m, 1792). 2. Henry (Sarah 
Evick, m. 1792. 3. Lewis (Mary Fisher)— b. 1768, m. 1792) 
— reared by Lewis Wagoner). 

Line of Lewis :— 1. Jacob (Catharine Pope) — b. April 11, 
1793, d. June 22, 1897— Sweedland. 2. Mary (Christopher 
Shaver, m. 1804). 3. others? 

Br. of Jacob :— 1. Noah (Asenath Cowger)— Kas. 2. John 
(Hdy)— Mo. 3. Jacob— d. 4. Peter P.- b. 1826, d. 1904— 

5. 5. Rebecca (Charles Dasher). 6. Susan— b. 1820, d. 
1905— S. 7. Mary ( Trumbo). 

Ward. 1. William (Sarah Peterson, m. 1787). 2. Charles 

( ^ jn. 1797). 3. Sylvester (Mary Cunningham)— 

went to Rph, 1788* 

Warner. 1. Adam ( )— 1790. 2. John (Ann 

, d. 1801)— on West S— B, 1780— d. 1800— ch.— Sarah 

(William Beveridge, m. 1800), Catharine, Mary A. (Jeremiah 
Howell, m. 1793), Jane, John (Mary Huffman, m. 1793) 
Millie, Ann (Anthony Prine, m. 1791), James— a preacher. 

Westfall. 1. Abraham— d. 1766. 2. John— admr to Abra- 
ham. 3. Isaac— sold to James Dyer. 

Wise. Br. of Martin :— Eve (John Kessner, m. 1813), 

Mary ( Peterson), Magdalena (Solomon Borrer, m. 1817?) 

Elizabeth (Jonas Miller), Margaret (S). 

(L) Jacob ( )—ch.-L Eve (Martin Wise). 2. 

Martin (Margaret Fultz). 3. Susannah (Joseph Peterson, m. 
1800). 4. Elizabeth (Henry Hartman)— b. Mar. 4, 1788, d. 
April 10, 1839. 5. Elizabeth? (Jacob Cox, m. 1816). 

(2) Sebastian ( )— ch.— 1. Abraham— S. 2. Mar- 
tin (Eve Wise). 3. Jacob (Margaret Mum bert)— Grant. 4. 
John ( )— Ind. 5. Hannah (Jacob Colaw, m. 1811). 

6. Rosanna (Jesse Harper). 7. Mary (William Mouse). 
(3.) Adam (Barbara )—ch.— Martin (Margaret Fultz) 

—Brushy Run. 2. Mary (Michael Mallow). 3. Henry (Cath- 
arine Miller, m. 1799). 

Wood. 1. Isaac— Brushy Run, N-F— 1790. 2. Thomas 
— Hedrick Run, 1815. 3. James— B—T, 1772. 4. Joshua 

(Jane )— No. Mill Cr., also Fin— sold to Jacob Greiner 

1817. 5. Anne (Michael Miller, m. 1797). 6. Joel (Eliza- 
beth Miller, m. 1797). 7. Joshua (Anne Hedrick). 



CHAPTER VIII 

Other Elxtinct Families 

The following list is of pioneers not on the list of tithables 
for 1790, and who, with the few exceptions indicated appear 
to have been living here prior to 1802. Still other names ap- 
pear in the lists of surveys, patents, and purchases. 



Amiss, George W. * — Fin. 

Askins, James. 

Barrett, Isaac (Susannah). 

Blankenship, John. 

Blickendon, Charles— N-F. 

Blatt, William— Fin. 

Breakiron, Edward. 

Bright, John— tanner, 1777. 

Brown, Israel. 

Callahan, Chas. (Mary Stew- 
art, m. 1791)— N-F. 

Callahan, John- N-F., 1794. 

Cocke, Thomas (Margaret) — 
Buffalo Hills. 

Cocke, Robert— 1795. 

Coffman, Michael and Jacob 
— S-F. 

Cooper, John. 

Cosner, Adam. 

Cow, Christian, Trout Run, 
1794. 

Cozad, Jacob (Sarah) *— 
Poage's Run, 1842. 

Daggs, Hezekiah— Fin, 1816. 

Evans, Abraham. 

Ewbank, Joseph — Fin. 

Fitchthorne, Philip— Fin. 

Gandy, John. 

Gassoway, Thomas. 

Gillespie, Jacob (Elizabeth) 
-S-F. 

Gordan, John. 

Greer, John. 

Grose, Samuel — 1810. 

Guthrie, George (Nancy)— 



filed bond as Baptist preacher 
1792— lived at Stratton*s mill. 

Hard way, George (Susan)— 
d. 1815.* 

Harness, George. 

Harris, James. 

Hartly, Hugh. 

Higgins, Thomas. 

Hill, David— Sweedland, 1771. 

Hodum, John — Walnut Bot- 
tom, 1809. 

Hoshaw, Lawrence — Poage's 
Run. 

Hynecker, Christian (Nancy) 
— N— F-d. 1802. 

James, Jesse. 

Keller, Christopher. 

Kelly, George. 

Killingsworth, R i c h a r d — n. 
Moyer's gap. 

Knapp, Moses 

Knicely, Anthony— M.S., 1792. 

Lee, James. 

Letterson, Charles. 

Lezard, George. 

Lountz, Jacob. 

Lowther, Uriah. 

Markle, George. 

Matson, Joseph. 

McCartney, Andrew. 

McKinley, Peter— 1789. 

McWhorter, David. 

Meeker, John (Sarah). 

Mifford, John. 

Mitchell, John (Margaret)— 



827 



exempt, 1790, d. 1803— west 

N— F. 
Montford, Jacob. 
Naile, Thomas. 
Oliver, Samuel— N—F. 
Paulsel, Henry— B—T. 
Posh, Lewis. 
Pringle, Henry (Mary Trum- 

bo, m.l798.) 
Pritt, William. 
Ray, Joseph— N—F above M.S 



Roundtree, Noah— d. 1770. 

Shroyers, Samuel. 

Steel, John— Fin. 

Stump, Leonard. 

Sweet, James. 

Tarr, Conrad (Barbara). 

Troxall, John (North Mill Cr.) 

Vanscoy, Aaron (Hannah 

Sleason Bennett, m. 1814). 
Wilson, C h a r 1 e s— S— F— d. 

1756. 



CHAPTER IX 

Recent Families 

In this chapter are mentioned families who have located 
here since 1861 and still remain. Following the name are 
given the previous residence and year of arrival where known. 
Where the name is starred the newcomer has married in Pen- 
dleton. 

Baker, George*— Germany— 1876— S. G. D. 
Biby, Joseph (Margaret Teter*— Hid— 1885*— U. D— ch. Hes- 
ter (Martin L. Raines), Francis. 
Blakemore, Noel B.— Aug. 1885— S. G. D. 
Bowman, Thomas J. (Hannah C. Masters)*— b. April 20, 1847, 

d. Dec. 29, 1906— Shen.— member of Co. I, 23d W. 

Va. Inf. — several wounds — came Ft. S., 1870* — ch. 

— 1. Gertrude (Dr. Preston Boggs). 2. Ernest 

(Effie Harness, Hdy)— merchant— Fin. 3. Walter 

M. (Jesse D. Wilson — merchant — Fin. 4. Claude 

M. — merchant. 5. Thomas J. 
In 1871, after a trip West and after clerking for William 
Fultz near Fort Seybert, Mr. Bowman came to Franklin as a 
clerk in the store of Anderson Boggs and Co. After a few 
years he became a partner and was at length the senior mem- 
ber of the house of Bowman and McClure. His business 
activities were chiefly those of a careful and very successful 
merchant. He never sought political preferment, but for 
many years was a prominent, public-spirited and useful citi- 
zen. He was a member of the board of directors of the bank 
in Franklin. As a member of the M. E. C. S. he was zeal- 
ous and diligent, being a steward, and in the Sunday school 
a teacher and treasurer. He came to Franklin penniless, but 
left his family in easy circumstances. 
Butcher, George W.— U. D. 
Campbell, William A. (Mary V. McCoy) *— Hid— 1880— Fin 

— ch.— Roy L. (Kate Priest), Carrie M. (M. S. 

Hodges, Mineral). 
Carter, Jefferson T. (LavinaE. Davis)*— Ky 1883— Fin— J.P. 

Cunningham, William H. ( Vanmeter, Grant) — Hdy 

n. U. T. — farmer and stockdealer. 

Darnell, John C. (Harriet W. Reed, Upshur)— Fin. Mr. 

Darnell has been in every state and territory of the 

Union and in Canada and Mexico as well. At the 

World's Fair in 1904 he received a gold medal on a 



floral design in silk needle work and sold the speci- 
men to a silk manufacturer for $750. He retains 
other specimens of his remarkable skill, one of 
which, representing a dish of strawberries in life- 
like colors, it took 400 hours to make. He is now in 
horticultural work. He is a son of Col. M. A. Dar- 
nell, of the 10th W. Va. Vol. Inf. One brother is 
postmaster at Buckhannon, and another was super- 
intendent of the State Reform School for Boys. His 
wife is a grandniece to Admiral Semmes of the Con- 
federate navy, and Semmes Read, lieut. in the U. 
S. navy. 
Dasher, George W.— Hdy— 1880— Sweedland. 
Daugherty, James H. (Mattie H. Hopkins)*— Hdy 1868— Fin 
hotel— ch. — Morris B., Susan H., Annie H. 
(Hugh C.Boggs), Sarah T., Mary R., William H. 
(Lenora Biby), James H. 
Dove, Abel (Catharine A. Fulk—Rkm— 1870*— Miles P. 0. 
— ch.— John C. (in Rph), Martha (Noah Trumbo). 
Eva (Frank Nesselrodt), Sarah (Hdy)*, Lottie (John 
Yankee), Benjamin W. (Rebecca Shirk, Hdy), William 
E. (Sarah Shirk, Bessie Dove) Nettie V. (Rkm)* 
Fisher, Isaac N. (Melissa Lough)*— Aug. — Fin — jailor. 
Fleming, J. William (Mary Crigler)— Rkm 1888— Fin. 
Fultz, FrankP.— Rkm— 1879. 
Grady, George W. — Rkm. 

Harrison, (1) Louisa E. (Harmon Hiner)* (2) Thomas H. 
(AmandaRexroad)*— S.G.— J. P. (3) George W. 
(Harriet J. Chilton, King and Queen) — Fin — mer- 
chant — ch. — George W., May E., Virginia H., Hazel 
B.. Clarence C. The foregoing are of the family of 
Thomas C. who went from Surry to Upshur, 1859, 
and died there. The family refuged to Augusta, 
arriving here 1871 
Hodges, M. S. (Carrie M. Campbell) *—Keyser— 1902— grad- 
uated from Ohio Wesleyan University, 1899, with 
degree of A. B. — received degree of L. L. B. from 
West Virginia University, 1801 — attorney — Fin. — 
Holmes, George W. (Mrs. Emma Hobbs, 0.)— U. T.— son of 

Alpha of N. H., who lived in Pdn, 1844-52. 
Homan, Frank D. (Mary C. Ruddle)*— Rkm— 1873— M. R.D. 
— ch. — John, William, Walter (d), Howard, Frances 
(Aud S. Kiser), Carrie, Kate, Elizabeth, (jla 

Leach, Flavell ( )— Mass— 1884*— d. 1901— M.R.D. 

—ch.— Clinton W. (Mary E. Puffenbarger).* Ch. 
of Clinton W.— Wilber W., Charles S., Lester M., 
Frances E. 



330 

Lee, Charles E. (Lucy H. Richards, Rkm)— Frederick Co.— 
1867*— Fin— carpenter— ch.—Myrtie A., Elver C. Came 
with his mother, widow of Andrew J., k. in action, 
1862. 
Lewis, Jacob— Grant — N-F. 

" David M.—Grant-1903— Fin— barber. 
Marshall, John A. (Mary Arbogast, Hid)— 1875— Fin— ch.— 
1. W. Bernard. 2. Lillie (Wm. E. Wilson). 3. 
Minor K. 4. Alice. 

May, J. F. — Va.— 1870- Sweedland — ch.— Dasher L. 

Trumbo. 
McGinnis, Patrick (Elizabeth Dean)*— M. R. D.—ch.— Ar- 
thur P. (Amelia Spitzer) , Elizabeth (Robert Reed, 
Grant)* 
McLaughlin, E. J.— Rkm— 1896. 
Minnick, — Rkm— Hawes Run. 
Mongold, Jacob P.— Grant— M. R. D. 

Newcomb, Albert T. (Jane Harold)*— Charlotte— 1864-Rex- 
road P. 0., ch. — Attie E. (Harrison Propst), 
Robert E. (Charity M. Teter), Pinckney D. (Min- 
nie Pitsenbarger) , Peachie (Rachel Blewitt), ch. 
of Robert E.— Don T., Flota M., Goldie J., Olive 
M., Dick T.— Ch. of Pinckney D.— LephaM., Ar- 
[ nie, Rannie, Lewis, Ina, Tressie, Raymond R. , 1 
other. 
Peck, W. G.— Hid— 1875. 

Plaugher, Jacob — Rkm? — 1870* — n. Brandy wine. 
Rader, John F. (Minerva McQuain)*— Rkm— Reed's Cr.— 
ch. — Morgan (Georgia Doyle, Va.)— Rph, Henry 
(Mattie Carr) — Rph, William (Laura B. Pen- 
nington), Martha J. (Sanford Collins, Grant) *, Mary 
( WashingtonCollins, Grant, ) Ida (Jackson McManus) 
— Davis. Henry (Catharine Hoover)* — bro. to John F. 
Ritchie, George W. (Phoebe Harman) *- Rkm— 1862*— U. D. 
— ch. — Irvin (Etta Harper), John (Texie Teter), 
Charles, Cena, Polly (Walter Dolly), Cornelia. 
Seymour, Aaron— Grant. 

Sibert, William M. (Elizabeth Hahn)—Shen.— Brandy wine 
—retired Lutheran preacher — ch. — John (d), Ger- 
trude (d), Estella, Loy. Rev. William M. is great- 
grandson to a brother of Capt. Jacob Seybert. 

Solomon, G. C. K. ( Harper) — Rkm — Brandywine. 

Southerly, Benjamin F. — Rkm. 
Stonestreet, Wilmer S,— Grant— U. D. 
Taylor, Edward— Rkm— S. G. D. 
Thomas, Michael— Rkm.— B. D. 



331 

Whetsell, Andrew J. (AnnieKessner)*—Rkm.— Shenandoah 
Mtn,B.D.—ch.— William (Etta Dove, Rkm), James 
(KateRiggleman), Sarah (George Smith), America 
(Levi Siever), George (dy). Belle (Noah Siever), 
Delia (Van Hinkle), Joseph (Ettie Smith Snider). 

Ch. of Elijah ( )— bro. to Andrew J. 

who came 1880* — Anne B. (Amby Ward), Ida 

(William Cook), Edna (Ezra Cook), Esther ( 

Way bright), Margaret (LabanKeplinger), Charles 
B. (Annie Cook), Albert M., Ola., 2 infs (dy). 

White, Thomas J. ( )— C. D. 

Yankee, J. P.— Rkm.— 1895. 

Yoakum, Eston and Daniel, sons of Adam (Rebecca Mouse) 
— Mouse place, U. D. 



CHAPTER X 
Highland Families 

About one-half of Highland county was a part of Pendle- 
ton prior to 1847. In this chapter we present some account 
of the pioneer families of that portion, including branches 
which have continued to be identified with Pendleton. 

Arbogast. Michael (Mary ) — German — came to C — 

B, 1772— d. 1812— ch?— 1. John (Hannah )— d. 1821. 

2. Joseph— d. 1820. 3. Adam (Margaret ). 4. David 

(Elizabeth ). 5. Peter. 

Line of John: — John, Jonathan, Joseph (Sarah Ketterman, 
m. 1820), Moses (Elizabeth Zickafoose, m. 1819), Adam, 
Rachel, Rebecca (Mathias Way bright)— b. 1791, d. 1879, 
Mary. 

Br. of Joseph:— 1. Elemuel, George (b. 1832), Cain (Mary 
A. Teter), Elial, Sylvanus (Jemima Bennett), Isaac, Hannah 
(Elijah Bennett), Mary (S), Jacob, Sarah A., Susan, Sidney 
(Martin Bennett). 

Ch. of Cain:— 1. Isaac N. (Sarah A. Waybright), Poca. 
2. Ellen (Isaac Waybright), Lucinda (James Vandeven- 
ter), Susan (Alvah Waybright), Esau ( ), Jacob 

Ch. of Sylvanus: — Lee (Rachel Simmons) — Tkr, Abbe (d), 
Susan (dy), Christina (Charles Mauzy, Hid),* Naomi (dy), 
Howard (Florence Nelson), Ida (dy), Phoebe (Albert Lamb), 
Janetta (Harry Crigler), Nannie A., Paul (Christina Ben- 
nett) . 

Line of Adam: — 1. Susannah (John Lumford?) — m. 1804. 
2. others? 

Unp. — 1. Henry (Elizabeth ) — ch. — Levi, George, 

Benjamin, Henry, Andrew, Nellie, Rebecca, Mary, Phoebe, 
Sophia, Nancy, Elizabeth, Catharine. 2. Eleanor (Jonas 

Lantz, m. 1810). 3. Samuel (Susan ) — ch. — Lucinda 

(b. 1838), Isaac, Martin, Angeline, William. 4. Michael 
(Mary A. )—ch.— Francis (b. 1848), Emily C. 

Armstrong. James and Robert settled 1 mile below Doe 

Hill in 1759. Ch. of ? 1. John (Agnes Erwin)— d. 

1821*. 2. William (Elizabeth Erwin)— d. 1814. 3. Amos— 
1799. 4. others? 

Line of John:— 1. Thomas— Upshur. 2. Samuel (Mary 
Taylor). 3. James (Elizabeth Hiner)— m. 1819— Ind. 4. 
Mary (John Bodkin). 5. Nancy (John Knicely) — m. 1827. 



338 

6. Jared (Martha Wilson)— m. 1820. 7. Jane (Samuel Wilson) 
— b. 1787, d. 1857. 8. Margaret (George Crummett). 

Br. of Samuel:— Eli ( ), others? 

Ch. of Eli:— 1. J. Riley (Hannah Simmons)— S. G. D.— 12 
ch. 2. Wesley (Gertrude Propst)— B-T— 1 ch. 

Line of William: — John (Mary Wilson) — Lewis, Jared 
(Martha Wilson) — homestead, William (Eleanor Wilson) — 
homestead, James (Maria Hiner)— Ind., Jane (Samuel Wil- 
son, m. 1819), Elizabeth (John Douglas), George (Christina 
Propst) . 

Beath. Joseph ( )— d. 1801. 

Benson. George ( )— Anglen's Run, Cowpas- 

ture, 1770.— ch.?— 1. William R. B-T. , 1826. 2. Mary (Henry 
Swadley)— m. 1800*. 

Bird. John ( ) — ch. ? — 1. Valentine (Eleanor 

Johnson)— m. 1800. 2. Jacob (Elizabeth Yeager)— m. 1816. 
3. John (Margaret Dahmer)— m. 182L 4. Andrew H.— 1829. 

Line of John? — Adam, William, Frederick, John, David. 

Line of Jacob: — John, Jacob. 

Black. Samuel ( )— settled on Straight Or., 

1762— ch.?— 1. Samuel (Mary Parker)— m. 1797. 2. Mary 
(Jacob Hurhng)— m. 1798. Either Samuel, Sr., or Samuel, 
Jr. , lived some time at Franklin after 1788. 

Unp. John— k.? 1758. Matthew— d. 1759. 

Bodkin. Richard was constable on the Cowpasture in 1749 

and Hved on the Bullpasture before 1764. John (Mary ) 

was on the Bullpasture by 1768. 

Line of John :— William (Elizabeth Bodkin, m. 1793), Mary 

( McCandless), Lettice (William? Jordan), Jane, John 

(b. 1770*). 

Unp. 1. Charles ( ) — ch. — Margaret (James 

Bodkin), Elizabeth (William Bodkin). Hugh - 1790. 3. 
Rachel (Thomas Douglas). 4. John (Elizabeth Vint)— m. 

1798: ch.— Lottie (William Eye). 5. James ( )— 

ch.— Sarah ( Varner)— m. 1791. 6. James (Mary Mc- 

Crea)— m. 1806. 7. Margaret (Joseph McCoy)— m. 1796. 8. 
John (Jane Curry)— m. 1811. 9. Mary (Michael Hoover)— m. 
1821. 

Line of 4:— 1. William— out. 2. John (Mary Armstrong). 
3. Joshua (Barbara Propst— b. 1808— S. G. D. 4. James 
(Sarah Hoover)— S. G. D. 5. Samuel (Barbara Wilfong). 
6. Lottie (William Eye). 7. Elizabeth (Joshua Keister). 
8. other sons. 

Br. of James: — 1. James (Ruhama Bowers, Dolly McCrea) 
— d.— High. 2. Alia (Ida M. Simmons). 3. Sebastian (Sa- 
rah Crummett). 4. Harvey (Florence Bodkin, Eliza Sim- 
mons). 5. William. 6. John. (Lucy McCrea). 7. Elizabeth 



334 

(Eli Armstrong, High.)*. 8. Susan (William Armstrong, 
High.)*. 

Br. of Joshua. — 1. 

C. of Alia.— Martin, Carrie V., Cora, Mattie, Howard, 
others. 

C. of Sebastian.— Saylor (d), George, Kenny E., Berlin, 
Minnie S. (Henry Simmons), Esther R., Sarah A., Annie. 

C. of Harvey. — Margie, Clement, Harvey C. 

C. of John. — Sidney, Dacey J., others. 

Br. of Joshua: — 1. Delilah (Jacob Ruleman) — b. 1837, d. 
2. John A. 3. William H. 4. Michael. 5. Mary M. (Jo- 
seph Simmons)— b. 1844. 6. Henry B. 7. Nicodemus. 8. 
Joshua W. 

Colaw. John (Sabina Conrad) — b. 1765* — eh.— 1. Jacob 
( )— b. 1790. 2. others? 

Dinwiddle. Robert ( ) — head of Jackson's 

River— 1781. 

Douglas. John ( )— on Bullpasture, 1773 — ch? 

—1. James (Mary Erwin)— 1792. 2. Thomas (Rachel Bod- 
kin). 

Duffield. Robert (Isabella ) — bought of John Bod- 
kin on Newfoundland Cr. 1762— Hved n. John McCoy, 1784. 

Erwin. James — Bullpasture Mtn, 1783. George Erwin — 
head of Bullpasture, same time. 

Fleisher. Henry (Catharine ) — here in 1767 — d. 

1821 — owned S-B. bottom 2 miles up from line of Pdn. — ch. ? 

—1. Conrad (Elizabeth )— d. 1797. 2. Peter ( 

). 3. Pulsor. 4. Sophia (Philip Eckard)-m. 1799. 

5. Elizabeth (Martin Lipe)— m. 1784. 6. William (Margaret 
Heckert)— m. 1781. 

Line of Conrad:— Catharine (Henry Sinnett, m. 1806), Eliz- 
abeth: these were left infants on the death of their father; 
Catharine was a ward of Isaac Hinkle. 

Line of Henry?. — Conrad, Henry (Hannah Jones?), Benja- 
min (Sarah ), George, Andrew (Elizabeth Vandeven- 

ter, m. 1825), Elizabeth (Edward Janes?), Barbara (Michael 
Hammer) . 

Br. of Andrew: — Solomon (Eliza J. Snider), Susan (An- 
drew Way bright). 

Ch. of Solomon:— 1. John S. (Jennie Gum)— F. D. 2. 
Orion (Arbela Colaw). 3. Clara (Edward Siever). 4. Ella 
(William Arbogast). 5. Arbelon — d. 6. Harris C. (Mary 
M. Hull)— Kas. 7. Susan (Sylvanus Mullenax). 8. Charles 
T. (Sarah E. Nicholas)— F. D. 9. William E. (Annie M. 
Nicholas ) — homestead. 10. Paul — d. 11. Austin ( Mary 
Wagoner, Mary Gum). 12. Finnie. 

Andrew was a Confederate captain. His homestead on the 



335 

South Branch is at the county boundary, the house being just 
within the Virginia line. 

Line of Peter: — perhaps bro. to Henry, Sr.— 1. John ( — — 

)— d. 1801. 2. Peter. 3. Conrad. 4. Pulsor. 5. 

Elizabeth (Christian Ruleman)— m. 1799. 6. Barbara. 

Gall. George— 1790. — ch.?— John (Margaret )— 

Jackson's River. 

Gum. John and Isaac in C-B., 1772— ch. of Isaac:— Mary 
(Jacob Sibert, m. 1798.) 

Unp. 1. Jacob (Dorothy )— d. 1820. 2. (Mary 

Dice, d. 1801)— ch.— 3. 

Ch. of Jacob:— Adam (Susannah Lantz, m. 1820), Mary 
(William Fleisher), Nellie, Jacob, Jesse. 

Hidy. John and Jacob in C-D., 1812. 

Hull. Peter ( ) —below C-B. , 1773— same as Col- 
onel Peter Hull?-ch.— 1. Henry ( )— Ft. S. 2. 

Jacob. 

Janes. 1. William— Straight Cr. 2. Henry ( ) 

Straight Cr.— d. 1804. 

Jones. Unp. 1. Henry— 1802. 2. William— 1782? 3. 

Henry (Hannah Hinkle, m. 1821). 4. James (Mary , 

m. 1808). 5. Elizabeth— minor, 1802. 6. Hannah (Henry 
Fleisher, m. 1817). 7. Samuel (Margaret Malcomb, m. 
1827). 8. Margaret (Benjamin McCoy, m. 1799). 9. 
Thomas (Mary Euritt) -Fin— moved to Hid, 1814*. 

Br. of Thomas: — Margaret (Thomas J. Hartman), John 
M. (Phoebe J. Dice)— b. Mar. 24, 1811, d. May 24, 1888— Fin.: 
also Decatur, Jackson, Henry, Samuel, Mary A. 

Ch. of John M.— Charles P. (Hid), Mary H. (James W. 
Johnson), Jane A. (John W. Wilson), Hannah C. (Isaac C. 
Johnson), Thomas 0. (Rkm),* John (Loudon), Margaret 
(Asbury Smith) — Poca., Sarah. 

Lantz. Bernard ( )— B— B, 1774— ch?— 1. Jo- 
seph (Susannah )— d. 1818.* 2. George (Mary ) 

— d. 1802. 3. Nicholas (Barbara ). 4. others? 

Line of Joseph: — Jonas, Benjamin, Joseph (Phoebe Hin- 
kle, m. 1811), Susannah (Conrad Crummett, m. 1796), Mary, 
Catharine, Barbara. 

See Chapter VI for posterity of Joseph, Jr. 

Leach. John ( )— bought on Bullpasture Mtn 

of David Bell, 1796— d. 1834— ch.— Robert, John, James (Sarah 
Skidmore Hyer), Margaret, Letitia, Mary (Richard Kuyken- 
dall, m. 1827), Isabella (James Campbell, m. 1807), Eleanor 
(Thomas Morton, m. 1810), Jane, Dorothy, Elizabeth. 

See Chapter VI for posterity of James. 

Lewis. George ( )— C-B., 1752— ch. ?— James, 



336 

John, Robert. Ch. of Robert:— Jane (Peter Hurling, m. 
1796). 

Unp. 1. Jonathan (Elizabeth Feede, m. 1803). 2. Nicholas 

( Cook) — n. Fin. — ch. — Susannah (William Jordan). 3. 

Eliza (Richard Skidmore, m. 1819). 4. Eleanor — wife of ? 

— b. 1761. 5. Morgan (Elizabeth )— ch.- Solomon H. 

(b. 1746) Ann I., George W., Minerva M. 

Lipe. 1. Martha (Elizabeth Fleisher, m. 1781). 2. Abra- 
ham. 

Lockridge. Robert ( )— 1800. 

Malcomb. Joseph ( ) — on Bullpasture, 1758. 

Morton. Edward (Sarah )— b. 1764*, d. after 1840 

— of Penna. — head of Cowpasture — family moved to Stroud's 
Cr. Webster Co., after 1850. 

Naigley. George — head of S-B.— bought of Michael Arbo- 
gast, 1773. 

Nicholas. George (Barbara ) — d. 1780— ch. ? — Fran- 
cis (Catharine Waybright, m. 1800), Catharine (Josephine 
Wagoner, m. 1794), William (Susannah Gragg, m. 1819). 

Br. of William:— Addison (Mary A. Hoover)— C. D., Wil- 
liam (Margaret Simmons)— C. D., Joshua (Susan ), 

Melinda A. (Solomon Lambert). 

Ch. of Addison:— Mahnda (b. 1844), Benjamin, Andrew, 
Harry, Pattie, inf (dy). 

Ch. of William: — John (Louisa Arbogast), Amby, Lucinda, 
Mary A. 

Ch. of,John:-GroverC., Robert, Florney (Hid.)*, Alice, 
Nellie, George, Walter. 

Peck. Garrett ( )— Straight Cr.— 1790. 

Pullen. Loftus ( ) — Cowpasture — 1758. 

Redmond. Samuel ( )— Bullpasture — 1770. 

Roby. Aquilla (Catharine ) — Jackson's River— d. 

1800*. 

Sheets. George (- )—ch?— George (Catharine 

Gragg, m. 1812), Catharine (Henry Mowrey, m. 1796). 

Sibert. Ch. of Jacob Seybert : — 1. Nicnolas — S. 2. Eliza- 
beth ( Janes). 3. Catharine. 4. Margaret (James Janes). 

5. George ( Mance). 6. George (Mary Pickle, m. 1791. 

Br. of George : — Elizabeth (Henry Arbogast), 

(Jacob Wimer) (Christian Rexroad) Catharine (James 

Trimble). 

Unp. 1. Philip-d. 1806. 2. George— exempted 1790). 3. 

Henry (Rachel )— d. 1795. 4. Henry (Sarah Gum, m. 

1809). 5. Jacob (Mary Gum, m. 1798). 6. Mary (John 
Fleisher, m. 1805). 7. James (Ruth Jones, m. 1799). 

See also page 42. 




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337 

Slavin. John ( )— Head Jackson's River— d. 

1781. 

Sitlington. John ( ) — Cowpasture, 1774. 

Summers, Paul ( )— 1779. 

Wagoner, Christina (Catharine )— C— B, 1772— d. 

1798*— 1. Michael. 2? Joseph (Catharine Nicholas). 3? 

Adam (Catharine ). 4? Catharine (John Hidy, m. 

1809). 5? Henry (Barbara Lantz, m. 1816). 

Wilson. Samuel (Anna ) — head Bullpasture, 1773— 

ch?— James (Ameha )— d. 1810. 

Line of James : — Elizabeth, Martha (Jacob Armstrong, m. 
1820?), Eleanor, William, Ralph, Isaac, James (Rachel Bliz- 
zard m. 1819?), George, Samuel (Sarah Morton, m. 1820), 
Eli, Elizabeth, Martha (Jared Armstrong, m. 1820?), Elias. 

Br. of William :— Louisa (b. 1834), Andrew J. (on N— F), 
Lucinda (Allen Deverick, Hid) * 

Br. of James : — Henrietta — b. 1844. 

Unp. 1. William— d. 1802. 2. Richard (Mary ). 3. 

Jesse (Rachel )— 1808. 4. Charles— 1791. 5. Eli B.— 

cousin to James. 6. Malcomb— 1802. 7. Thomas (Margaret 
Morton, m. 1819). 8. Joseph — 1790. Priscilla (William 
Smith, m. 1798). 10. Andrew (Elizabeth )-1806. 



PCH 22 



PART III 
SECTION 1 



MISCELLANEY 

Edmund Pendleton 

Edmund Pendleton, in whose honor this county was named, 
was born on a plantation in Caroline county, Virginia, 
Sept. 6, 1721. He was himself a planter, but attained great 
eminence in his profession of the law. He was a member of 
the House of Burgesses from 1752 until the breaking out of 
the Revolution in 1775. As a member of the Virginia com- 
mittee to protest against the Stamp Act, he took a strong yet 
canservative ground. After the flight of Lord Dunmore, the 
royal governor, he was President of the Committee on Pub- 
lic Safety. As such he was virtually at the head of the state 
government from Aug. 17, 1775, until July 5, 1776. He was then 
succeeded by Patrick Henry, the first governor under Amer- 
ican independence. In the same year he presided over the 
convention which framed the first state constitution, and he 
drew the declaration of Virginia in favor of American inde- 
pendence. In connection with Thomas Jefferson and George 
Wythe, he revised the laws of the state in order to harmon- 
ize them with the altered condition of affairs. As President 
of the Court of Chancery, he was at the head of the state ju- 
diciary from 1779 until 1795. He was also president of the 
Virginia convention that ratified the Federal Constitution. He 
died Oct. 23, 1803, aged 82 years. "Taken all in all," says 
Jefferson, "he was the ablest man in debate I ever met." 

Settlers Before 1760. 

The following pioneers arrived before or during the period 
of the Indian war. The time of arrival is also given. A 
date with a star means the person was living here in the year 
named, the precise year of arrival not being known. 

Alkire, Henry-1752* Keister, Frederick— 1757*. 

Bogard, Anthony—? Mallow, Michael— 1753. 

Bright, Samuel— 1754. Miller, Mark— 1757*. 

Burner, Abraham — about Moser, Peter— 1753. - 
1745. Moser, Andrew— 1750. 



339 



Burnett, William— 1759. 
Conrad, Ulrich— 1753. 
Cunningham, James — 1753. 
Cunningham, John — 1753. 
Cunningham, William — 1753. 
Davis, John— 1753. 
Dice, Mathias— 1757. 
Dunkle. John— 1753. 
Dyer, Roger— 1747. 
Dyer, William— 1747. 
Eckard, Michael— 1754. 
Evick, Christian— 1756*. 
Freeze, Michael— 1753. 
Goodman, Jacob— 1753. 
Gragg, William— 1757*. 
Harper, Hans — 1756. 
Harper, Philip— 1758*. 
Harper, Adam— 1758*. 
Hawes, Peter— 1750. 
Hevener, William— 1756*. 



Osborn, Jeremiah— 1752*. 
Patton, Matthew— 1747. 
Patton, John, Jr.,— 1747 
Peterson, Jacob* — 1758* 
Propst. Michael -1753. 
Reed, Peter -1752*. 
Ruleman, Jacob— 1756*. 
Scott, Benjamin — 1753. 
Seybert, Jacob — 1753. 
Simmons, Michael— 1753. 
Simmons, Leonard — 1753?. 
Skidmore, Joseph — 1754. 
Smith, John— 1747. 
Stephenson, William— 1747. 
Swadley, Mark— 1756*. 
Vaneman, Peter — 1754. 
Westfall, Abraham— 1752*. 
Westfall, John— 1752. 
Wilson, Charles— 1756.* 
Zorn, Jacob -1756*. 



Naturalizations of Pendleton Pioneers Before the Revolution 

The records of Augusta state that the individuals named 
below "produced a certificate of their having received the 
sacrament, and took the usual oaths to his majesty's person 
and government, subscribed the abjuration oath and test, 
which is ordered to be certified in order to their obtaining 
warrants of naturalization." Since the name of Henry 
Peninger occurs twice, his naturalization does not seem to 
have been perfected in 1762. 



1762. 

Ulrich Conrad. 
John Dunkle. 
George Hammer. 
Nicholas Hevener. 
Sebastian Hoover. 
Frederick Keister. 
Gabriel Kile. 
Michael Mallow. 
Henry Peninger. 
Henry Pickle. 
Michael Propst. 
Henry Stone. 
Mark Swadley. 
Lewis Wagoner. 



1763. 
Neorge Coplinger. 
Leonard Simmons. 
Gicholas Simmons. 

1764. 
Valentine Kile. 
Jacob Peterson. 

1765. 
Jacob Harper. 

1773. 
Michael Hoover. 

1774. 
Jacob Eberman. 
Philip Harper. 
Henry Peninger. 



340 



Form of Colonial Land Patent 



George the Third, by the Grace of God of Great Britain, 
France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, etc. To 
all to whom these Presents shall come. Greeting : Know ye 
that for divers good causes and considerations, but more 

especially for and in Consideration of the sum of of 

good and Lawful Money for our Use paid to our Receiver 
General of our Revenues in this our Colony and Dominion of 
Virginia, We have Given, Granted, and Confirmed and by 
these Presents for us our Heirs and Successors Do Give, 
Grant, and Confirm unto one certain tract or par- 
cel of Land lying and being in the County of Augusta. (Here 
follows a description of boundaries and location). With 
all Woods, Under Woods, Swamps, Marshes, Cowgrounds, 
Meadows, Feedings, and his due Share of All Veins, Mines, 
and Quarries, as well discovered as not not discovered within 
the Bounds aforesaid, and being Part of the said Quantity 

of Acres of Land, and the Rivers, Waters, and Water 

Courses therein contained, together with the Privileges of 
Hunting, Hawking, Fishing, Feeding, and all other Profits. 
Commodities, Hereditaments, whatsoever to the same or any 
Part thereof belonging or in any wise appertaining : To 
have, hold, Possess, and Enjoy the said Tract or Parcel of 
Land, and all other the bef oresaid Premises and every Part 
thereof, with their and every of their Appurtenances unto 

the said , heirs and Assigns forever : To the 

only Use and Behoof of him the said , his Heirs 

and Assigns forever : To be held of us our Heirs and Succes- 
sors as of our Manor of East Greenwich in the County of 
Kent, in free and common Soccage and not in Capite or by 
Knightly Service : Yielding and Paying unto us, our Heirs 
and Successors, for every Fifty Acres of Land, and propor- 
tionably for a greater or lesser Quantity than Fifty Acres, 
the Fee Rent of one Shilling yearly, to be paid upon the 
Feast of St. Michael the Archangel, and also Cultivating and 
Improving three Acres, part of every fifty of the Tract 
above mentioned, within three Years after the Date of these 
Presents : Provided always that if three Years of the said 
Fee Rent shall at any time be in Arrears or Unpaid, or if the 

said , his Heirs and Assigns do not within the 

Space of three Years next coming after the Date of these 
Presents Cultivate and Improve three Acres, part of ever 
Fifty of the Tract above mentioned, Then the Estate hereby 
Granted shall Cease and be Utterly Determined, and there- 
after it may and shall be lawful to grant the same Lands and 
Premises with the Appurtenances unto such other Person 



3£t 

or Persons as We our Heirs and Successors shall think fit. 
In Witness whereof we have Caused these our Letters-Patent 

to be made. Witness our Trusty and well-beloved , 

Governor- General of our said Colony and Dominion at Wil- 
liamsburg, Under the Seal of said Colony the Day of 

, One Thousand and , In the Year of our 

Reign. 
Signature of the royal governor 



The original of the above was signed in 1761 by Lord Bot- 
etourt and was issued in favor of Jacob Harper. The print- 
ing on the parchment is unpunctuated, and after the custom 
of that day it is full of capital letters. ' 'Free and common 
socage" was when land was held through certain and honor- 
able service, as by fealty to the king and the payment of a 
nominal sum of money. The tenant "in capite" held his 
title immediately from the king, as in the case of nobles and 
knights. The feast of St. Michael is Sept. 29, and in a lib- 
eral sense it referred to the fall of the year. "Lady-Day," 
spoken of on page 69, is Mar. 25. 

Form of Indenture to an Apprenticeship. 

(As filled out for use, proper names being suppressed.) 

THIS INDENTURE Witnesseth, That I. J-R— , an Over- 
seer of the poor for Rockingham, by an order from the said 
court to me to and by these Presents to bind G— M — to learn 
his Art, Trade and Mystery of a Waggoner, to serve the said 
C — P— from the Day of the Date hereof, for, and during, 
and unto the full End and Term of Thirteen Years and Nine 
Months, during all which Term, the said Apprentice his said 
Master faithfully shall serve, his secrets keep, his lawful 
commands at all Times readily Obey: He shall do no dam- 
age to his said Master, nor see it to be done by others, with- 
out giving notice thereof to his said Master: He shall not 
waste his Master's Goods, nor lend them unlawfully to any: 
He shall not commit Fornication, nor commit Matrimony with- 
in the said Term. At Cards, Dice, or any other unlawful 
Game, he shall not play, whereby his Master may have Dam- 
age. With his own Goods, nor the Goods of others, without 
License from his Master, he shall not buy nor sell. He shall 
not absent himself Day or Night from his said Master's Ser- 
vice, without his Leave, nor haunt Alehouses, Taverns, or 
Playhouses, but in all things behave himself as a faithful Ap- 
prentice ought to do, during the said Term. And the said 
Master shall use the utmost of his Endeavors to teach, or 
cause to be taught or instructed, the said Apprentice in the 
Trade or Mystery of a Waggonmaker, and the said Master to 



342 

teach him to Read and Write and Cipher as far as the Rule 
of Three, and at the Expiration is to give over to the said 

G M Six Pounds ($20), and procure or provide for 

him sufficient Meat, Drink, Clothes, Washing, and Lodging, 
fitting for an Apprentice, during said Term of Thirteen 
Years and Nine Months. And for the true Performance of 
all and singular the Covenants and Agreements aforesaid, 
the Parties bind themselves, each unto the other, firmly by 
these Presents. In witness whereof, the said Parties have 
interchangeably set their Hands and Seals hereunto. Dated 
the Ninth Day of February, in the Year of our Lord One 
Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty-Nine, and in the Year 
of the Commonwealth the Fourteenth. 

An Emancipation Paper 

(Form used by a lady of Crabbottom). 

Know all men by these presents, that I, A B , of 

the County of Pendleton and State of Virginia, being the 

owner and possessor of a negro man named C (otherwise 

C D ), for divers causes and consideration me there- 
unto moving, do and by these presents doth set free the said 

negro C , slave to all intents and purposes, and by these 

presents do forever quit claim to said negro C , who is 

hereby forever set free and emancipated by me, or my heirs 

or assigns, over the person and property of the said C , 

and he is hereby declared by me (so far as in my power to do) 
as free to all intents and purposes as if born free. In testi- 
mony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 
day of , 1825. 

Form of Marriage Bond 

Know all men by these presents, that we, John M and 

Stephen E , are held and firmly bound unto Henry Lee, 

Esq., Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia for the 
time being, and his successors, in the sum of fifty pounds 
($166.67) to which payment well and truly to be made we 
bind ourselves, our heirs, jointly and severally, firmly by 
these presents, and sealed with our seals and dated this 14th 
day of April, 1792. 

The condition of the above obligation is such that whereas 
there is a marriage suddenly intended to be solemized be- 
tween the above bound John M and Elizabeth P , both 

of this county, now should there be no lawful cause to ob- 
struct the said marriage, and no damage ensue by issuing a 



343 

license therefor, then the above obligation to be void, else to 
remain in full force. 
Dated and delivered in presence of 



Authorization for an Ordinary 

(Following bond of 50 pounds, dated Dec. 8, 1795, Robert 
Burnett being surety). 

The condition of the above obligation is such that whereas 
the above bound Joseph Johnson hath obtained a license to 
keep an ordinary in the town of Frankford and county of Pen- 
dleton; if therefore the said Joseph Johnson doth constantly 
find and provide in his ordinary good, wholesome, and cleanly 
lodgings, and diet for travelers, and stablage, and fodder and 
provender, or pasturage, as the season requires, for their 
horses, for and during one year, and shall not suffer or per- 
mit any unlawful gaming in his house, nor on the Sabbath 
day suffer any person to tipple or drink more than is nec- 
essary. 

Washington's Visit to Pendleton 

Washington may have touched the border of this county 
while surveying for Fairfax in 1748. If so, his only visit 
was in 1784, while on his return from a business trip to the 
Monongahela valley in Pennsylvania. At Old Fields, Hardy 
county, he was the guest of Colonel Abraham Site, Sept. 27-8. 
While there he was visited by Colonel Joseph Neville and 
other prominent pioneers. On the 29th, he traveled up the 
South Fork about 24 miles, took dinner at one Rudiborts (Rad- 
abaugh?) and then followed a branch (Rough Run?) about 
four miles. He speaks of the path as very confined and 
rocky, and leading up a very steep point of the mountain. 
Eight miles of climbing brought him to one Fitzwater in 
Brock's Gap. Meanwhile he had sent his nephew Bushrod 
Washington, up the valley to get some knowledge of the 
communication between Jackson's River and the "green 
Brier." This must have taken the nephew directly up the 
South Fork, and it would have been he instead of the general 
whom a Puffenbarger tradition says dined with that fam- 
ily, then Hving at Mitchell's mill. 

The Lincolns of Rockingham 

Rebecca Lincoln, who married Matthew Dyer, was related 
to the war president. The family is of New England origin 



344 

and its pioneer settlement in Rockingham was on Linville 
Creek. In 1785 there is mention of John, a deputy surveyor, 
and of Jacob, a constable and deputy sheriff. In 1782 a 
Thomas Lincoln was married to Elizabeth Kessner. The 
father of the president was also Thomas, and he was born in 
Rockingham. In 1781 he went with his father Abraham to 
Kentucky, where the parent was killed from ambush by an 
Indian in 1786, the Indian being promptly shot dead from the 
cabin window by a son about twelve years old. He was per- 
haps the same Abraham who is mentioned in the Rockingham 
records about 1780. 

Pendleton Journalism 

The first newspaper in this county was the Mountain News, 
appearing about 1873 and published by Calvert and Campbell. 
It had a brief history and was not followed by another until 

, when the Pendleton News was started by J. E. 

Pennybacker. Failing in the purchase of this paper, the 
South Branch Review was launched in February, 1894, by 
B. H. Hiner, Prosecuting Attorney, and J. H. Simmons, 
Sheriff. In November of the same year the News was con- 
solidated with the Review. A little later the Review passed 
into the hands of Anderson A. Martin, the present editor and 
proprietor. The equipment of the office is much above what 
is usually seen in a town of the class of Franklin and is one 
of the best county offices in the state. It includes a type- 
setting machine and other modern appliances. In 1896 G. M. 
Jordan and G. L. Kiser started the Pendleton Advocate, 
which continued but a few months, when the plant was sold 
and removed to Moorefield. 

The Masonic Order in Franklin 

Franklin Lodge, A. F. and A. M. , was chartered by the 
Grand Lodge of Virginia, Dec. 11, 1828. It made no returns 
after 1830, and then became extinct. Undoubtedly it was 
the first organization in Pendleton of any secret society. The 
following were the officers and members in 1830: 

Master, John Cravens; Senior Warden, William S. Nay lor; 
Junior Warden, William Hull; Secretary, James Boggs; Treas- 
urer, James Johnsor); Steward, Michael Newman; Tyler, 
Campbell Masters; Past Master, Thomas Kinkead; Master 
Masons, Henry Hull, Samuel Wood; Fellow Crafts, John 
Hull, Thomas J. North ; Apprentices, William Harness, John 
Haigler; Removal, John Henkel; Withdrawn, Harry F. Tem- 
ple, E. C. McDonald. 

Pendleton Lodge, also of the Masonic Order, was granted 
a dispensation, Mar. 17, 1871, Thomas J. Bowman being the 



845 

first Master. The lodge remained active until 1878, its 
regular meeting being on the first and third Saturdays of 
each month. The following were the officers and members 
in 1876: 

Master, Isaac P. Boggs; Senior Warden, Thomas H. Priest; 
Junior Warden, William A. Elbon; Secretary, Thomas J. 
Bowman; Treasurer, James H. Priest; Senior Deacon, James 
H. Daugherty; Junior Deacon, Samuel L. Schmucker; Tyler, 
Samuel P. Priest; Members:— Samuel B. Arbogast, George 
A. Blakemore, John H. Elbon, George W. Hammer, Cyrus 
Hopkins, Jacob R. Hinkle, Andrew A. Kile, Francis M. Priest, 
William H. Purkey. 

Law, Order, and Charities. 

The only capitol punishment inflicted in Pendleton by the 
civil authority was the execution of William Hutson, referred 
to on page 99. During the last twenty years there have 
been three instances of the taking of human life. In one 
case the man perpetrating the act was sent to the State Pri- 
son. In another he was cleared, and in the third, only a 
light punishment was deemed necessary. There is at pres- 
ent but one prisoner in the State Penitentiary from this 
county, and there are no minors in either of the Reform 
Schools. The indictments in the circuit courts are very 
largely for what are termed the minor offenses. Burglary, 
in particular, is very infrequent. In short the record of the 
county in criminality is decidedly above the average of West 
Virginia counties. 

Pendleton has three persons in the Home for incurables at 
Huntington, and four in the Hospital for the Insane at Wes- 
ton. 

Franklin in 1844 

There was no footbridge and no road ran up the river on 
the west bank. The crossing was at the ford just above the 
suspension bridge. Proceeding up the main street from the 
ford, one passed on the right the homes of Mrs. Naomi Dyer 
and Campbell Masters, the blacksmith shop of David Lower- 
man, the store of Gen. James Boggs, the Capito building, the 
tavern of Dice and Johnson, and a dwelling owned by the 
said firm; also Scott's blacksmith shop, the house of E. W. 
Dyer, a house later owned by Charles Masters, and finally 
the house and tailor shop of William Hammer, standing about 
where the Methodist church is now. Mrs. Harrison lived 
where James E. Moyers does now, and the Boggs store is 
now the People's store. 

Going back to the river and coming up the left side of the 



346 

street one first came to the Moomau house and hatter shop, 
now the property of W. M. Boggs. Above, on the corner 
next the courthouse square was the store of Dr. A. M. New- 
man, and behind it was the house of William McCoy, the 
main portion of which was recently torn down. In the corner 
of the courthouse ground next the Newman store was Hille's 
saddler shop. The jail and courthouse stood on their present 
locations. A building occupied by Gen. Boggs as a leather 
house occupied the site of the bank. From the corner where 
now is the store of Bowman and McClure a long building 
known as the "penitentiary" extended toward the river. It 
was occupied by several parties for living, working and office 
purposes. Henry Halterman lived in the brick house beyond 
the alley, and his saddler shop was in the rear. This brick 
house was built in 1817. Next came the store of Dyer and 
Whaley, an office building known as ''Congress Hall," and on 
the next block were the blacksmith shop of William Lough, 
the gunsmith shop of William Evick, and the house of Jacob 
Greiner. In the corner, just beyond the next alley, was the 
house of J. Baker. A little farther yet was the shoeshop of 
George Dreppert, standing somewhat farther to the north 
than the Hammer place. 

Coming back to the leather house and turning into the 
Smith Creek road a tinner's shop and the house of Erasmus 
Clark were found to lie just beyond the leather house. The 
only other building on the right side of the street was the 
Lukens house, then occupied by Dr. Newman as a residence. 
Opposite him was John Seymour, and near the corner be- 
yond, opposite where is now the Presbyterian church was the 
home of William Evick. Below Evick toward the river was 
the Boggs tannery. At the entrance to the Smith Creek road 
were William Davis, a shoemaker, on the McClure lot, and 
across the way was David Miller a wagoner and wheelright. 

Passing northward down the back street, the first building 
was the union church in the open lot between the McClure 
and Calhoun residences and standing well back from the road. 
Next and on the same side, were the house and shop of 
James Skidmore, a saddler, and the house of William J. 
Blizzard. On the right, opposite these houses were two 
small dwellings, one of them built out of the old log school- 
house. The remaining houses were also on the right. These 
were the tailor shop of Samuel Blewitt, the brick tannery and 
the house of John McClure, and finally, on the corner behind 
the Greiner house was the Cobb house used as negro quar- 
ters. Up the hillside from McClure's was the schoolhouse, 
and in the hollow beyond was the home of Gen. Boggs. 

Several of the structures of that day still remain, but more 



347 

have been removed. The log house was still prevalent, and 
its type is still to be seen in the two log houses yet standing 
on the back street. 

At this time Franklin as a designated town was just fifty 
years old. It had been laid out fifty-six years before, and 
the first home of Francis Evick, Sr., if then standing, pos- 
sessed an age of just about seventy-five years. 

County Buildings 

In creating a new county the old Virgina practice was to 
require the first county court to secure at the earliest practi- 
cable moment two acres of ground and erect thereon a court- 
house, a jail, and such other adjuncts as were deemed neces- 
sary. In conformity thereto, the court sitting at Seraiah 
Stratton's in June, 1788, appointed John Skidmore, William 
Patton, and James Cunningham to supervise the speedy erec- 
tion of county buildings at "Frankford." 

The courthouse was to be 22 by 23 feet in the clear, and 
constructed of good hewn logs, the chinks between the logs 
being filled with stone and pointed with lime. Under the 
sills was to be a stone wall a foot high. The two floors were to 
be 10 feet apart, and there was to be a half-story of 5 feet 
above the joists. The shingles were to be two feet and nine 
inches long, lapped, and laid fourteen inches to the weather. 
Of the three windows in the lower story, each was to have 
twelve lights of eight by ten inch glass, and to be provided 
with shutters. The upper story was to have on each side two 
windows of the same dimensions. The stone chimney was to 
contain a fireplace six feet broad. The platform for the jus- 
tices was to be two feet eight inches high, with stairs up 
each side and a good rail and bannisters in front. The wall 
in the rear of the platform was to be lined with plank. The 
two doors were to be six feet six inches high and three feet 
three inches broad. A box was to be provided for the sheriff. 
There was to be a stairway to the upper floor ivhich was ap- 
parently intended as a jury room. 

The "goal" was to be twelve by sixteen feet, one storied, 
and divided into two rooms of equal size. The logs for the 
wall were to be ten inches square with dovetailed ends and 
the crevices pointed with lime and sand. The lower floor 
was to consist of round split logs resting on sills. An upper 
floor, or rather ceiling, was to consist of split logs set face 
downward and their ends let into the wall. Two round logs 
were to be placed above. The roof was to be lap-shingled 
like that of the courthouse. In the debtor's room was to be 
a large grated window, and grates were also to be set in the 



348 

middle of the small stone chimney. In connection with the 
jail, pillory and stocks were to be provided. 

It is very evident that the designers of the massive little 
building intended to encourage the persons placed in it to re- 
main there. But in May, 1796. a new jail was ordered. This 
was to be sixteen by twenty feet. The stone wall, two feet 
thick, was to go eighteen inches below the ground and to rise 
thirteen feet above. The two lower rooms of equal size were 
to be separated by a stone wall fifteen inches thick. The first 
story was to be seven and a half feet high. There were to 
be nine sleepers covered with an equal number of planks 
three inches thick. The nine "joice" above were to be three 
by nine inches, and were likewise to be covered with three 
inch plank. The three doors were to be of two inch plank. 
Each of the four windows was to contain six lights of eight 
by ten inch glass. The stairway was to be on the outside. 
The walls were to be lined with plank going two inches below 
the lower floor. 

Some of the squared logs of the original county buildings 
are said to be still in existence, having been built into the 
wall of a stable. 

In May, 1801, a clerk's office was authorized. This was 
to be fourteen by eighteen feet on the ground and nine feet 
high, the walls being of brick resting on a stone foundation 
coming two feet above the ground. Underneath the brick 
floor was to be a bed of clay or sand brought up level with 
the top of the stone work. There was to be a joint-shingled 
roof, a fireplace four feet broad, a paneled door, and three 
twelve-light windows. But on further consideration, the 
court decided on a floor of joist and plank. The wall was to 
be plastered below and the upper floor overlaid with brick. 
Oliver McCoy and Peter Johnson were to let out the contract, 
and the building was to be completed by December of the 
same year. 

In 1815 there was an appropriation of $30 for a Franklin 
stove for the clerk's office. 

In 1810 a new and stronger jail was ordered. The stone 
wall was to go three feet below the surface and rise five feet 
above, and in front was to be twenty-seven inches thick. 
The story was to be of ten feet, with a partition wall nine 
inches thick. The sleepers were to be nine inches square 
and set close together. The stairway was to be inside. The 
following year the jail was reordered, and the county levy in- 
creased by $918.33 to complete the building. In 1820 there 
was an appropriation of $100 to repair the jail and to erect 
pillory, stocks, and whipping post. In 1838 an addition to the 
jail was ordered. The new part was to be of brick, twenty- 



349 

four by twenty-eight feet on the ground, and with walls 
thirteen inches thick. 

This jail was burned by the Home Guards in 1864 and a 
new brick building was put up after the close of the war. 
This in turn was destroyed by fire — in 1905 — and the present 
modern building erected. 

In 1816 a courthouse of brick was ordered and appears to 
have been completed the following year at an expense of 
$3250. In 1840 a bell for this building was authorized. In 
1824 the public square had been ordered inclosed, and again 
it was decreed that stocks and whipping post should be set 
up. The next year it was ordered that no liquor should be 
brought into the courthouse on election days, damage having 
been done. 

Prior to 1865 it was the practice to increase the poll tax to 
a degree sufficient to provide the necessary funds for putting 
up a public building. If the burden was large it was dis- 
tributed over two or more years. A similar method was re- 
sorted to in 1882, when a county levy of $1000 a year for six 
years was decided upon for the building of the present court- 
house. The contract was let in 1889 to John A. Crigler 
for $7900. 

A School of 1830. 

The venerable John B. Blizzard — born in 1821 — tells of an 
old field school in Sweedland valley, three miles from Fort 
Seybert. 

The interior of the small, rude log building was more sug- 
gestive of a stable than a house, the floor being not of 
puncheons but of the bare earth itself. There was an hour 
of noon intermission, but no other recesses. The books used 
were the English Reader, the Dilworth and the "blueback" 
(Webster) spellers, and Pike's Arithmetic. The speller was 
used also as a reader. The Testament was not much em- 
ployed. Pike's Arithmetic taught the colonial system of cur- 
rency. Later an arithmetic was introduced which used the 
Federal system of dollars and cents. There were few slates 
and no blackboard. A prominent feature in the routine of 
every day consisted in "licking the kids." For this purpose a 
stock of hickory gads was kept continually on hand. Locking 
out the teacher to compel a treat was sometimes tried, but 
not always successfully, so far as the sort of treat desired 
was concerned. There was always a treat, and it was often 
of hickory; not of nuts, but a warming and invigorating ap- 
plication of a limber sprout. 



350 

The Bennetts of Other West Virginia Counties 

Judge William George Bennett of Weston supplies an ac- 
count of the Bennetts of Braxton, Gilmer, Greenbrier, Lewis, 
Nicholas, Preston, and Randolph counties; all appearing to 
be posterity of the Joseph, Sr., who settled on the North 
Fork in 1767. The account is of peculiar interest as present- 
ing a connected statement of an emigrated branch of the 
Pendleton pioneers, and exhibiting the prominence to which 
individuals thereof have risen under the favoring influence of 
broader opportunity. 

William Bennett left Pendleton in 1797 and bought of Colo- 
nel George Jackson, a farm at Walkersville on the West 
Fork of the Monongahela. He did not himself aspire to any 
office, but seems to have been a man of superior quality. He 
reared a family of five sons and seven daughters, and reared 
them well. All the twelve were well educated, and in part 
this result is doubtless attributable to James McCauley, his 
wife's father, who lived with him in Lewis. McCauley had 
been a captain in the British navy and spoke seven languages 
fluently. The daughters married into the Spriggs, Alkire, 
McCray, Keith, Anderson, and Holt families. Two of them 
married brothers of the name of Holt. These were brothers 
to the father of Supreme Judge Homer Holt and grand- 
father of John H. Holt, recently Democratic nominee for 
governor of this state. Jonathan M., James, David, Joseph 
and William, Jr., the five sons of William Bennett were 
prominent citizens of Lewis and three served in the Legisla- 
ture. The youngest child of Jonathan M. was the first 
prosecuting attorney of Gilmer, a member of The Virginia 
Legislature from Lewis, member of the Senate of West Vir- 
ginia, Auditor of Virginia, and one of the Commissioners ap- 
pointed by this state to settle the debt question with Virginia. 
He married a daughter of Captain George W. Jackson, a rela- 
tive of Stonewall Jackson. William G., the oldest of the 
two sons and two daughters, has twice been elected Judge 
of the Eleventh Circuit, serving as a Democrat in a Republi- 
can circuit. He was Circuit Judge 16 years and was Demo- 
cratic nominee for the Supreme Bench. Louis, his brother 
has been principal of the Glenville Normal School, mem- 
ber of the Legislature, Speaker of the House, and Demo- 
cratic nominee for Governor in 1908. One sister married Dr. 
Fleming Howell, of Clarksburg, and the other married a son 
of ex-Governor Bowie of Maryland. 

James married a Miss Clark, a descendant of one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. One of his sons 



351 

was a cadet of West Point. The other was elected county 
clerk of Lewis for three successive terms. 

The eldest sons of David went to Missouri, where their 
children are prominent as educators, physicians, and wealthy 
farmers. The sons of William and Joseph have also been 
successful. It is said of William that at the age of 82 he 
could jump off his feet and crack his heels together three 
times before he came back to the floor. He left 245 living 
descendants. His sons and daughters wrote a beautiful 
hand and were excellent spellers and grammarians. Letters 
written by them nearly a century ago are couched in excel- 
lent language and display an unusual stock of general in- 
formation. 

In Lewis are also descendants of John a brother to William, 
Sr., and in both Upshur and Lewis are other Bennetts who 
claim relationship and who are superior citizens. One of the 
Upshur Bennetts, a well-to-do-man, was recorder of that 
county shortly after the war. His son, principal of the 
State Normal School at Fairmont, is a prominent educator. 
Many of the other Bennetts of the same county took to 
preaching and served worthily in their respective churches. 

The Pendleton branch settling in Preston produced E. A. 
Bennett, at one time Auditor of this state. From the Ben- 
netts settling in Nicholas came the present judge of the 
Fayette-Greenbrier circuit. Of the branch settling in Gilmer, 

N M. was a prominent lawyer and in his day a rich man. 

M. G. Bennett went to the Legislature from Gilmer and Cal- 
houn. The present prosecuting attorney of Gilmer is C. M. 
Bennett. Several preachers have sprung from the Gilmer 
Bennetts and several very successful physicians from the 
Nicholas branch. 



SECTION 2 



STATISTICAL 

Population of Pendleton in Each Census Year 

1790 2,452 I860 6,164 

1800 3,962 1870 6.455 

l82^:: :::4;846 '''' ^'^22 

1830 6,271 ^890 8,711 

1840 6,940 1900 9,167 

1850 5, 795 1910— about 9. 400 

Population of Franklin, 1900 205. 

The rapid increase from 1790 to 1800 is partly due to the 
enlargement of the county in 1796. The seeming decrease 
between 1840 and 1850 is due to the portion taken off to help 
form the county of Highland. 

Postoffices 

(Offices having a daily mail are marked with a (*). Money 
order offices are in black-faced type). 

Box, Union District. Mouth of Seneca*, Union Dis- 

Branch, Mill Run District. trict. 

Brandy wine*. Bethel District. Mullenax, Circleville District. 
Brushy Run*. Mill Run Dis- Nome, Circleville District. 
^ trict. , ,. _. . Oak Flat*, Bethel District. 

Cave. Fianklin District. Onega*, Union District. 

Circleville*, Circleville Dis- Rexroad, Franklin District. 

met. r\' 4. ■ 4. Riverton*, Union District. 

Creek, M^.l Run District, Ruddle*, Franklin District. 

Dahmer, Franklin District. simoda. Union District. 
Deer Run, Mill Run District g^^^h Mill Creek, Mill Run 
Dry Run, Circleville District. ■n;Q+T,,-r.t 
Fort Seybert, Bethel District. ci ^'^^"^^- ^ ^^ ^ 

Franklin*, Franklin District. Sugar Grove*, Sugar Grove 
Ketterman, Mill Run District. l^istrict. 
Key*, Union District. Teterton, Union District. 

Kline, Mill Run District. Thorn, Sugar Grove District. 



i 



353 



Macksville*, Union District. Tressel, Sugar Grove District. 
Miles, Bethel District. Upper Tract*, Mill Run Dis- 

Mitchell, Sugar Grove Dis- trict. 
trict. Ziegler, Franklin District. 



Slaveholders in 1860 



Owners. 



No. of Slaves. 



Owners. 



No. of Slaves. 



Anderson, David C. 3 

Anderson, William (estate) 7 



Kile, Mary 9 

Kile, Susannah 8 

Mauzy, James L. 1 

McClung. David G. 2 

McCoy, William Sr. 9 

McCoy, William Jr. 5 

Moyers, Lev^^is 1 

Phares, Robert 1 

Priest, James H. 2 

Rexroad, Jacob 1 

Ruddle, James D. 1 

Ruleman, Christian 1 

Ruleman, Jacob 2 

Samuels, Larkin 7 

Simmons, Edv^ard T. 3 

Simmons, Henry 1 

Simmons, Michael 1 

Siple, George 6 

Smedley, Peter 1 

Smith, Henry 3 

Smith, Jacob 1 

Stone, Jacob 5 

Stone, David C. 1 

Trumbo, Jacob 1 

Wanstaff, Peter 2 

Prices for Entertainment at Ordinaries 

Until near the middle of the last century the prices charged 
by ordinaries, as houses of public entertainment were then 
usually called, were fixed by the county court. It was a 
breach of the law to charge more than the authorized price. 



Boggs, Aaron 


5 


Boggs, James 


17 


Coatney, Edward J. 


1 


Cunningham, Jane A. 


7 


Davis, John 


3 


Dice, Reuben B. 


5 


Dice, George W. 


1 


Dyer, Andrew W. 


19 


Dyer, Jane 


1 


Dyer, Margaret 


6 


Dyer, Roger 


4 


Dyer, William F. 


1 


Harden, Comfort 


14 


Harold, John T. 


1 


Harper, Leonard 


2 


Harper, George 


1 


Hedrick, Adam (estate) 


7 


Hedrick, Cynthia 


10 


Hiner, Benjamin 


3 


Hinkle, Michael 


4 


Hopkins, Cyrus 


7 


Johnson, Jacob F. 


2 


Johnson, Samuel 


5 


Kile, George 


7 



1746 
Hot diet 
Cold diet 

Bed with clean sheets 
Stabling and fodder 
Rum per gallon 

PCH 23 



$ 



.12i 
.08 
.04 
.08 
1.50 



Feather bed and clean 

sheets 6.00 

Corn or oats per gal. 6.00 
Stablage and hay per 

night 8.00 

Pasturage per night 5.00 



354 



Whiskey per gallon 

1763 
Hot diet 
Servant's hot diet 

In this year mention 
is made as to whether 
boiled or unboiled cider 
shall be served at meals. 
1773 

Common hot diet 

Common hot diet with- 
out beer 

Lodging with clean 
sheet and feather bed 

Stabling for 24 hours 
with good hay 

Stabling for 12 hours 
with good hay 

Corn or oats per gallon 

Liquors are graded in 
21 prices 

1781 



1.00 

.12 J 
.lOh 



.21 
.17 

.08 
.17 



Cider per quart 
Wine per gallon 
Rye whiskey per gal. 

The above startling 
prices were due to the 
worthlessness of the 
Continental paper mon- 
ey. Later in the same 
year the following 
prices were charged : 
Hot dinner 
Strong beer or cider, 

per quart 
Pasturage per night 
Rye whiskey per gal. 



5.00 

160.00 

80.00 



Hot dinner 
Cold dinner 



$ 



1782 

Hot breakfast 
.10 Cold breakfast 
• 08 Bed with clean sheets 
Stabling and hay per 

night 
Corn, per gallon 
12.00 Oats per gallon 
10.00 Pasturage per night 



30.00 

12.00 

12.00 

199.00 



.17 
.11 

.12i 

.14 

.m 

.08 
.124 



1785. 



Hot dinner with usual "bear or cyder," 
Cold dinner with usual "bear or cyder," 
Hot breakfast with usual "bear or cyder," 
Cold breakfast with usual "bear or cyder," 



.25 

.17 
.21 

.17 



1790. 1796. 1797. 1813. 1824. 



Breakfast or supper, 
Dinner, 
Cold supper. 
Corn or oats per gallon, 
Lodging per night, 
Pasturage per night, 
Stablage and hay per 
night. 
Liquor per gallon, 
Liquor per half pint. 
Cider, per quart, 



.17 
.22 
.12i 
.11 

.08 
.08 

.17 



.21 
.25 
.17 

.m 



.22 

.33 



.12 

.27 h 



.25 
.371 



.83— $2.33 
.17 



.12 .25 



.08 



.124—25 



Year. 


Tithes. 


1757, 


$ .80, 


1758, 


.93, 


1768, 


.13, 


1774, 


.40, 


1778, 


2.50, 


1779, 


6.00, 


1780, 


40.00, 


1781, 


.50, 



355 

Levies, Taxes, Salaries, and Fines 

(Levies under Augusta and Rockingham). 

Amt. Levied. 

$ 1,498.40 

1,293.60 

468.60 

1,138.00 

3,550.00 

8,220.00 

57,833.33 

725.00 

The levies for 1778-1780 were in depreciated paper money. 
Levies Since Organization of Pendleton 

The amount of levy is not obtainable in every instance 
from the county records as preserved, but the figures given 
below are with little doubt a close approximation, — with re- 
spect to the averages. 

For the period, 1788-1803, the average levy was $330.09, 
the rate per capita varying from 37 cents to $1.33. The 
lowest levy was $141 and the highest was $572. 

For the period, 1804-1818, the average levy was $932.12, 
the rate per capita varying from 50 cents to $2. 50. The lowest 
levy was $352.25 and the highest was $3,147.07. The last 
named amount assessed in 1817, was in part for the building 
of a new courthouse. 

For the period, 1819-1833, the average levy was $574.66, the 
rate per capita varying from 33 cents to 70 cents. The lowest 
levy was $417.21 and the highest was $706.17. 

For the period, 1834-1845, the average levy was $609.45, the 
rate per capita varying from 21 cents to 55 cents. The lowest 
levy was $439.41 and the highest was $927.79. 

For the period, 1846-1864, the average levy was $784.88, the 
rate per capita varying from 45 cents to 80 cents. The lowest 
levy (1852) was $498.72 and highest, excepting that of 1864, 
was $1,045.71 (in 1855). The levy for 1864 was $5,203.50. 

Salaries 

In 1790 the Commissioner of the Revenue estimated 23^ days 
as the necessary time for performing his duties. He was 
paid one dollar a day. In 1802 the estimate was for 41 days 
time, and in 1805, 50 days. In 1812 there were two commis- 
sioners and they were paid $75 each. In 1818 they were paid 
$150 each. 

In 1807 and thereabout, the Clerk of the Court and the 



366 

Prosecuting Attorney were paid $60 each. In 1841 the allow- 
ance to the jailor was $40. In 1873 the salary of the County 
Clerk was $200 and that of the Circuit Clerk was $135. The 
Prosecuting Attorney was paid $240, the sheriif, $175, and 
the Jailor, $40. In 1883 the combined clerkship salary was 
$350. The Prosecuting Attorney was paid $230, and the 
Sheriff, $200. In 1900 the salary of the Prosecuting Attorney 
was raised to $250, the other salaries remaining unchanged. 
The assessors were paid each $200. 

Fees 

(The following fees were allowed to the Sheriff in 1819). 

Hanging, $5.25 

Arrest, .63 

Putting a person in the pillory, .52 

Putting a person in the stocks, .21 

Putting a person in the jail, ,42 

Whipping a free man, .42 
Whipping a slave over 21 (paid by the 

master and made good by the servant, .42 

Selling a servant, .42 
Allowance per day for keeping a debtor in 

jail .21 
A Constable was allowed 4 cents a mile for taking out of 
the county a non-resident likely to become a public charge. 

Fines 

In 1790 a certain resident was fined $133.50 for assault and 
battery. In the same year the greatest and least fines for 
libel were $120 and $6.68. 

(The following fines were in force in 1801). 

Killing a deer between Jan. 1, and Aug. 1, $ 5 
Seining fish between May 15, and Aug. 15, 10 
Firing woods, 30 

A sheep-killing dog was cured of his bad habit by treating 
him the same as he did the sheep. 

Taxes 

1793. 1800. 

Land per $100 $ .25 $ .14J 
Slave above the age of 12 and 

not exempted, .27 .44 

Horses, including studs, .06 .12 

Ordinary license, 6.67 12.00 



357 

Stage wagons and phagtons, 

per wheel, .84 

Other wagons, per wheel, 1.25 

Two-wheeled carts, .43 
Lot and house in town, per 

$100 rental value, 1.33 1.56 

License to retail 15.00 

Peddler's license (general), 20.00 

Peddler's license (in county), .25 

The amount of land tax in Pendleton in 1790 was $244.56. 
In 1834 the tax on land, slaves, horses, carriages, and licenses 
was $1,090.98. 

Witness Fees 

A witness fee in 1799 was 53 cents and the mileage al- 
lowance was 3 cents. 

Bounties on Predatory Animals. 

By Act of Assembly 1769, "each person required to give in 
the tithe of his or her family shall yearly before returning 
such list produce per tithe the heads of five squirrels or 
Crows." In making the county levy the county was given 
credit for each scalp in the sum of one pound of tobacco 
(3 1-3 cents). This act applied to Augusta county. It was in 
force three years and was reenacted another three years. 

By Act of Assembly, 1796, applying to Pendleton and sev- 
enteen other counties, "Every free male tithable shall pro- 
duce to a justice of the peace on or before Dec. 1, (of 1797 
and 1798) six scalps of squirrels or crows for every tithe 
listed or given in by such free male person in each of the 
said years; failing, he shall pay three cents for each scalp he 
shall fail to produce, to be levied in the county levy and paid 
to those persons who shall produce a greater number, in pro- 
portion to the excess." 

Whether or not the above laws were effective in this county 
is not clearly apparent, but the very first county court offered 
a bounty of one pound ($3.33) on every grown wolf. In 
1796 the bounty was $4 for a wolf over six months in age 
and $2 for a younger one. In 1802 the bounty was raised to $8, 
and by 1819 it had been lowered to $6. In 1874 $10 was paid 
for a half-grown wolf and $2 and $1 for cubs. Soon after- 
ward the bounty on the grown animal was $35. At this rate 
A. W. Roby was paid for killing two wolves in 1889 and 
Thomas A. Payne for killing a single one in 1892. The last 
record of the payment of wolf bounties was to S. P. Dolly and 



358 



Jacob Arbogast in 1896 for the killing of two wolves. The 
animal is now thought to be extinct in Pendleton. 

In 1834 the bounty on a fox was $1.50 for a grown an- 
imal, and half that sum for a small one. By 1874 the bounty 
on a young fox had been reduced to 50 cents, and a few years 
later the respective bounties had been reduced to 75 and 40 
aents. In 1874 the bounty for a grown wildcat was a dollar, 
end for a young animal 50 cents. More than 20 years ago a 
bounty of one dollar was offered on eagles, and in 1906 a 
bounty of 25 cents was put into effect against all hawks ex- 
cept bird-hawks. 

In 1850 there was paid out of the county treasury $129 for 
2 wolves, 59 wildcats, and 17 gray foxes. In 1859 the num- 
bers of wildcats and foxes were respectively 70 and 30; in 
1877, 83, and 74; in 1881, 48 and 54; in 1899, 39 and 39; and 
in 1903, 49 and 37. In 1894 bounties were paid on 6 eagles. 

Items from Day-Book of a Merchant of Franklin in 1820 

Flannel, per yard $ 
Cotton per yard 
Figured Muslin per yd 
Irish Linen per yd 
Calico per yd 
Ribbon per yd 
Domestic Muslin per 

yd 
Cotton Yarn No. 6 

per lb 
Spun Cotton per lb., 
Silk per skein 
Wool Stockings per pr. 
Cotton Stockings per 

pair 
Buttons per doz 
Buttons (shirt) per doz 
Common Shoes per pr 
Small Shoes per pr 
Pumps per pr 
Large Shoes per pr 
Suspenders per pr 
Thread Socks per pr 
Pins per paper 
Cravat Handkerchiefs 
Gloves per pr 
Worsted Stockings, pr, 
Vest Pattern 



.374 


Beeswax per lb. $ 


.01 


.074 


Paper per quire 


.50 


1.25 


Slate Pencil 


.02 


.50 


German Hymn Book 


L25 


.094 


Butt Hinges per pr. 


.374 


.10 


Screws per doz. 


.161 




Latches per doz. 


.25 


.25 


Pocket Knife 


.374 


.144 


Pocket Book 


.33 




Window Glass, pane 


.144 


.16§ 


Ornamented Comb 


.374 


.02 


Iron per lb. 


.08 


.83 


Gun Lock 


1.124 




Gunfiints per doz. 


.50 


.75 


Andirons per pr. 


3.00 


.25 


Handsaw 


2.00 


.75 


Lead per lb. 


.04 


1.50 


Butter Plate 


.04 


.56 


Comb 


.124 


1.75 


Tin pan 


.374 


1.50 


Razor Strop 


.58 


.374 


Looking Glass 


.25 


.75 


Half-Pint Tumbler 


.124 


.25 


Snuffers 


.374 


.874 


Pinf'Jugg" 


.10 


.124 


Milk Crocks 


.161 


1.25 


Dutch Oven 


2.25 


1.00 


Knitting Pins, per set 


.75 



Wool "Hatt" 
Shawl 

Black Silk Hdkf 
Small Silk Hdkf 
Woman's Saddle 
Colored Morocco Slip- 
pers 
Sugar, per lb 
Imperial Tea per lb 
Salt per bu. 
Butter per lb. 
Tallow per lb 
Pepper per lb. 
Allspice per lb. 
Ginger per lb. 
Cloves per oz. 



1.00 

2.00 

.87^ 

.25 

13.25 

1.50 
.06 

5.00 

2.00 
.03 
.02 
.50 
.50 

1.00 
.12* 



Needles per doz. 
Tobacco per lb. 
Gunpowder per lb 
Ginseng per lb 
Sealing Wafers per box 
Madder per lb. 
Indigo per oz. 
Turkey Red per oz. 
Cambric per yd. 
Blue Cups and Saucers 

per set 
File 

Pasteboard 
Teaspoons, per set 
Beef per lb. 
Nutmeg — one 



359 

.02 
.13 

.m 

.33 
.12 J 
.66 
.12^ 
.15 
1.00 

.75 

.22 

.12i 

.25 

.04 

.12i 



Church Buildings and Ministers. 



The first church edifice of the Lutherans was a round-log 
structure standing a few yards southeast of the present 
church, which lies on the left bank of the South Fork, two 
miles above Brandywine. Prior to the recollection of people 
now living, the original building was succeeded by one of 
hewed logs, and this in turn by the present frame building. 
The first resident pastor was the Rev. Peter Michler (Mit- 
chell), who died June 23, 1812, and was buried in the church- 
yard. He lived a half-mile south in the vacant house within 
the great bend of the river. Mitchell was followed by J. B. 
Reimenschneider, who served more than 20 years. After 
brief pastorates by H. Wetzel and Daniel and Jacob Sherer, 
George Schmucker came in 1841. He was followed in 1876 
by Arthur A. Hahn,ithe present pastor. 

The United Brethren Church first appeared on the North 
Fork. In first gained foothold on the South Branch about 
1850, and at Upper Tract, where a congregation gathered at 
the old log Methodist church which once stood just above the 
burial ground to the east of the pike and on the lane leading 
to the residence of C. N. Judy. 

Pastors of Presbyterian church at Franklin: R. H. Fleming, 
John A. Preston, L. H. Paul, W. C. Hagan, J. Spencer Smith, 
Ivanhoe Robertson, S. S. Oliver, Lacey. 

Pastors of Upper Tract Circuit, Methodist Episcopal 
Church: (Baltimore Conference)— James H. Howard, 1873-6, 
Edwards. Fort, 1876-7, L. D. Herron, 1877-80, J. R. Perdew, 
1880-1, J. H. Jones, 1881-2, James W. Howard, 1882-5, (Vir- 
ginia Conference)— Howard Wade, 1885-6, L. S. Huffman, 



360 



1886-8, G. S. Weiford, 1888-91, G. P. Hanna, 1891-3. (West 
Virginia Conference) -S. L. Gilmer, 1893-5, C. M. M. Fultz, 
1896-8. E. W. Feltner, 1898-9, W. A. Sharp, 1899-1904, W. S. 
Brown, 1904, J. D. Dickey, 1904-7, P. W. Schrader, 1907—. 
After some years a portion of the work was made into the 
Circle ville circuit. 



Church of the Brethren 




Methodist (M. E. C. S.) 


5 


(Dunkard) 


6 


Presbyterian 


3 


Disciples (Christian) 


2 


Methodist Episcopal and 




Latter Day Saints (Mor- 




United Brethren 


2 


mon) 


1 


Methodist Episcopal and 




Lutheran 


7 


Methodist Epis. South 


1 


Mennonite 


2 


United Brethren and 




Methodist (M. E.) 
Union 


4 
1 


Church of the Brethren 


1 



The persons in the following list were ministers in this 
county in the years indicated. Where the name of the de- 
nomination is not given, they were so far as known of the 
Methodist Episcopal and United Brethren churches. 



Ferdinand Lair 1800 

Moses Hinkle, Lutheran 1801 

Valentine Bowers 1802 

John Bennett 1807 

George Guthrie, Baptist 1808 

Otho Wade 1809 

Samuel Montgomery 1810 

Gerard Morgan 1813 

Robert Bolton 1814 



Ezra Grover 1817 

S. P. V. Gillespie 1817 

Jesse Hinkle 1818 

John Watson 1819 

Daniel Sherer 1819 

Robert Boyd 1820 

James Watts 1820 

W. N. Scott 1822 

Nathan Euritt 1823 



In our next list are names of preachers of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, 1824-32, with the year of appointment. 



Richard Armstrong 1824 

Samuel Bryson 1824 

Harvey Sawyers 1825 

William Huston 1826 

P. D. Lipscomb 1826 

Nathaniel Pendleton 1827 

Samuel Ellis 1828 

W. N. Scott 1828 

W. S. Kepler 1829 

The present list is of preachers on Franklin Circuit regu- 
larly appointed by bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

1833— E. R. Veitch and J. W. Cullom. 
1834— E. R. Veitch and J. M. Anderson. 



Robert Carter 1829 

B. F. Tallman (P. E.) 1829 

James Reed 1830 

Alexander Foreman 1830 

R. Slavin 1831 

John P. Daggy 1831 

N. P. Cunningham 1832 

S. Zickafoose 1832 



361 

1835— James Green and John Lynn. 

1836— Francis Mills and John Lynn. 

1837— Francis Mills and Thomas J. Dwyerly. 

1838— Stephen Smith and Wesley Rosh. 

1839 — Stephen Smith and Thomas H. Monroe. 

1840 — James Clark and Thomas J. Harden. 

1840 — James Clark and Thomas J. Harden. 

1842— T. H. Bucey and J. L. Gilbert and T. Brey. 

1843— T. H. Bucey and W. Taylor and A. Bland. 

1844 — Nathaniel Fisk and Lemuel Waters. 

1945 — Nathaniel Fisk and Henry Huffman. 

1846— John W. Osborn and Joseph W. Hedges. 

1847— John W. Osburn and John Dosh. 

1848— W. H. Laney and James W. Wolf. 

1849— James Clark and W. C. Steel. 

1850— James Clark and M. L. Hawley. 

1851— John Start and J. M. Lemon. 

1852— John Start and J. W. Ewan. 

1853— W. Champion and P. S. E. Sixes. 

1854 — P. P. Wirgman and Joseph H. Temple. 

1855— John W. Kelly and Harrison McNemar. 

1856— John W. Kelly and W. Thomas. 

1857— Robert Smith and S. H. Cummings and S. B. Dolly. 

1858— Robert Smith and J. F. Bean. 

1859— James Beatty and Samuel Waugh. 

1860— James Beatty and S. F. Butt. 

1861-4— Samuel H. Griffith, L. W. Haslip, andS. B. Dolly. 

1865 — Joseph Crickenbarger. 

1866-Thomas Briley and L. W. Haslip. 

1867- S. H. Griffith and Milton Taylor assisted by Ste- 
phen Smith. 
In 1868 the Baltimore Conference separted, there being 
henceforward one such conference in the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church and one in the Methodist Episcopal Church South. 
The following names are the preachers on the Franklin cir- 
cuit since the division. 

1868— S. H. Griffith and W. H. Mason assisted by Ste- 
phen Smith. 

1869 -Thomas Hildebrand and 0. C. Bell. 

1872— S. R. Snapp. 

1875— J. C. Sedwick and W. E. Wolf. 

1878— Leonidas Butt and Blackston. 

1880— Leonidas Butt and Porterfield. 

1882— Luke Markwood. 

1883— W. E. Wolf. 

1884— C. E. Simmons. 

1886— F. T. Griffith. 



362 



1888— S. S. Tory. 
1890— J. F. Baggs. 
1891— S. Townsend. 
1894— W. M. Waters. 
1898— J. H. Schooley. 
1902— J. H. Dills. 
1903— J. Alexander Rood. 
1904— W. N. Wagner. 
1908— H. L. Myerly. 

Presiding Elders of Franklin Circuit. 

1858-62- Eldredge R. Veitch. 1886-90— S. G. Ferguson. 



1862-6— James Thomas 
1870-4— S. Griffith. 
1874-8— J. C. Dice. 
1878-82-P. H. Whisner. 
1882-6— Rumsey Smithson 



1890-4— G. T. Tyler. 
1894-8— G. H. Zimmerman, 
1898-1902— B. F. Ball. 
1902-6— G. T. Williams. 



1886-90— W. G. Hammond. 1906-10— W. E. Wolf. 
County Officials Before 1865 

The county order-books do not as a rule tell when an official 
was chosen. In many instances he is mentioned only inci- 
dentally. The following lists are not always complete or per- 
fect, but are the best that could be done with the various 
records accessible in the courthouse. The first date opposite 
each name is the year when the person is first named in the 
records. The second date is the year of decease, so far as 
such date is known. A date with a star indicates the year of 
commission. 

Justices Under the Constitutions of 1776 and 1829 

Amiss, Geo. W. 
Arbogast, Emanuel 
Armstrong, Abel H. 
Boggs, James 
Boggs, John Jr. 
Campbell, James B. 
Conrad, Adam 
Cunninham, John 
Davis, Robert 1788*- 
Dice, George W. 
Dyer, James 1788*- 
Dyer, William 
Dyer, Andrew W. 
Fleisher, Benjamin 
Hansel, Benoni 



1822 


Johnson, Jehu 


1800 


1843 


Johnson, John 


1800 


1843 


Johnson, Jacob F. 


1849 


1842 


Jones, Thomas 


1831 


1843 


Judy, Adam 


1828 


1831 


Kee, James B. 


1831 


1800 


Kiser, John 


1846 


1800 


Masters, Campbell 


1837 


1818 


McCoy, Oliver 


1800 


1837 


McCoy, William 


1825 


■1807 


Newman, A. M. 


1849 


1807 


Patterson, James 


1788* 


1828 


Patton, Matthew 


1788* 


1820 


Phares, Robert 


1843 


1840 


Reed, James 


1797 



363 



Hedrick, Solomon 1846 

Hinkle, Moses 1788* 

Hinkle, Isaac 1788* 

Hinkle, Jesse 1807 

Hinkle, Michael 1825 

Hoover, Jacob 1800 

Hopkins, John 1797 

Hopkins, Cyrus 1845 

Hull, Henry 1807 

Hull, Peter 1825 

Johnson, George F. 1846 



Sibert, Nicholas 1800 

Sittlington, Adam 1807 

Sitlington, John 1807 

Skidmore, James 1788* 

Skidmore, John 1788* 

Slavin, John 1797 

Stephenson, James 1797 

Stone, Jacob 1837 

Temple, Harry F. 1825 

Wilson, Thomas 1797 

Wilson, John G. 1849 



(In this list the second date is when the justice ceases to be 
mentioned in the record). 
Anderson, Sam. P. 1861 Lough, George A. 1852—1861 



Boggs, James 
Bond, John S. 
Bowers, Chris. S. 
Coatney, Edw'dJ. 
Day, Samson 
Dice, Reuben 
Dolly, John W. 
Dove. Jacob 



1852—1862 Lough, William H. 1861 

1852-9 Malcomb, Nicholas 1856 

1856 Mallow, Michael Jr. 1852—1860 
1852-6 McCoy, William 1852—1860 
1860-1 Nelson, Joseph 1857-8 

1852-9 Nelson, Ab'm. H. 1857—1860 
1860-64 Propst, William 1857—1860 
1852-1864 Puffenbarger, Sam. 1852-1864 



Dyer, Andrew W. 1857—1865 Raines, William 1852—1860 

Dyer, William F. 1852—1864 Saunders, Edwd T. 1852-6 

Harding, Jas. A. 1857—1862 Simpson, William 1857—1860 

Harman, Solomon 1852—1860 Siple, George 1857—1860 

Harman, George 1852-3 Sites, Adam 1857—1860 

Harold, Daniel 1862-5 Sites, Johnson 1852-6 

Hedrick, Solomon 1857—1860 Smith, Ben. Y. 1852-6 

Hiner, Benjamin 1861-5 Smith, Laban 1852-6 

1852-6 Temple, Harry F. 1855—1864 

1860-1 Teter, Isaac 1852—1863 

1857—1863 Trumbo, Jacob 1852—1864 

1852-3 Trumbo, Salisbury 1852—1864 

1852 Wagoner, Wm. D. 1860-3 

1857—1860 Waybright, Jesse 1857—1863 

1852—1864 Wilson, John C. 1861-2 
1852-6 



Hinkle, Nicholas 
Hiser, Jonathan 
Hopkins, Cyrus 
Johnson, Geo. F. 
Keister, John 
Keister, Henry 
Kiser, John 
Lambert, Elias 



Robert Davis 
James Dyer 
Peter Hull 
Robert Burnett] 
William Gragg 
Jacob Conrad 



Sheriffs 

1788—1803-4 William Dyer 1825 

1794 John Sitlington 1826 

1798—1821 Henry Hull 1828—1831 

1799 Thomas Kinkead 1833 

1800 James Johnson 1835 
1804 Benjamin Fleisher 1839 



364 

William McCoy 1807 James Boggs 1843 

John Cunningham 1816 Michael Hinkle 1852 

Harmon Hiner 1817—1819 John M. Jones 1854 

and 1838 Robert Phares 1856 
Jesse Hinkle 1822-4—1845-7 

County Clerks 

Garvin Hamilton 1788 Andrew W. Dyer 

Abraham Smith 1797 Edmund Dyer 

Zebuloon Dyer 1803 

Surveyor* 

Isaac Hinkle 1788 Jacob F. Johnson 1838 

James Skidmore 1821 

Commissioners of the Revenue 

James Dyer 1790 Jacob F. Johnson 1851-8 

George W. Amiss 1822 Campbell Masters 1850 

James Johnson 1834—1851 J. E. Wilson 1850 

William Dyer 1843 George F. Johnson 1850 

Adam Judy 1847 George W. Bible 1850 

Laban Smith 1858 

Attorneys 

(Those marked with a star are known to have held the office 
of Prosecuting Attorney. ) 

Samuel Reed 1788 John Brown 1813 

Archibald Stewart 1790 James G. Gamble 1816 

William Naylor 1803 Joseph Pendleton* 1822 

Samuel Harper 1805 I. S. Pennybacker 1831 

Thomas Griggs 1805 H. H. Masters* 1856—1860 

Robert Gray 1813 Daniel M. Auvil* 1861 

George Mays 1813 John B. Moomau* 1863 

County Officials Under West Virginia 

County Commissioners 

1872—1881 

Coatney, Edward J. Kile, Isaac T. 1874-81 

(President, 1881) 1872-81 Riser, John 1878-81 

Cowger, Noah M. 1872-81 Lambert, Elias 1872-81 

Daugherty, James H. 1872-81 McDonald, Peter 1877-81 

Dolly, J. W. 1875 Nelson, Solomon K. 1872-80 

Dove, Jacob 1872-81 Pennybacker, Isaac S. 1881 

Hiner, Benjamin Propst, William 1877-80 

(President) 1872-81 Siple, George D. 1877-82 



365 

Johnston, Mortimer 1872-81 Teter, George 1872-82 

Jones, John M. 1874-6 Vance, Reuben 1874-81 

Keister, Henry 1872-8 

1882— Jacob Hinkle (Pres. ) , Joshua Day, Martin Judy, James 
M. Temple. 

1884-6— Martin Moyers, Lewis Moyers, George Teter, Leon- 
ard Harper, John R. Dolly. 

1888— William C. Kiser, (Pres.), George D. Siple, Peter P. 
Wanstaff, Jacob Mallow, Joshua Day, Jacob Hinkle. 

1891 — James S. Trumbo, Henry Sinnett, Abraham N. Kile, 
John M. Ruddle, John A. Harper, Sylvanus Mullenax. 

1893— Leonard Harper (Pres. ) , John T. Harold, Henry Sin- 
nett, Jr., George Teter, Isaac E. Bolton, Joshua Day. 

1895— Jacob Hinkle— 4 year term, James P. Kiser— 2 year 
term, Eugene Keister— 6 year term. 

1899— Peter McDonald succeeded to Hinkle. 

1901— William B. Anderson succeeded to Keister. 

1903- James S. Trumbo (Pres.), Jacob Mitchell, William 
Day, William B. Anderson, Noah Kimble, George W. 
Waybright. 

1905— J. C. Mallow, James L. Pope, Elijah Puffenbarger, 
William B. Anderson, Jacob W. Day. 

1907— Wilham M. Boggs (Pres.), John P. Kiser, Henry F. 
Swadley, Leonard Harper, Simon P. Dolly, Laban C. 
Davis. 

1909— Leonard Harper, Laban C. Davis, Thomas J. Painter, 
George A. Hiner, Elijah Puffenbarger, Simon P. Dolly. 

Recorder 



County and Circuit Clerk :— John S. Bond, 1873-7; Robert 
L. Nelson, 187—; Andrew W. Dyer, 187—18—; Isaac P. 
Boggs, 187-1889; James H. Daugherty, 1889-95; Isaac E. 
Bolton, 1895 . 

Sheriff :-John Boggs (1865-9), Joshua Day (1869-73), John 
P. Boggs (1873-77), George McQuain (1877-81) , Franklin An- 
derson (1881-5), John W. Byrd (1885-9), Morgan G. Trumbo 
(1889-93), Jesse H. Simmons (1893-7), Michael Mauzy 
(1897—1901), George W. Davis (1901-5). Okey J. Mauzy 
(1905-9), Isaac N. Ruddle (1909) 

Prosecuting Attorney :— William H. Flick, Henry H. Mas- 
ters, A. S. Norment, J. Edward Pennybacker, Eli A. Cun- 
ningham (1881-9), J. Edward Pennybacker (1889-93) Benja- 
min H. Hiner (1893-1901), Harrison M. Calhoun (1901-9), 
William McCoy (1909 ) 

County Superintendents :— James W. Johnson (1865), 

Hoover (1866-7), William H. Arbogast (1867-71), Andrew W. 
Dyer (1871-3), J. Edward Pennybacker (1873-5), William F. 



366 

McQuain (1875-9), James W. Johnson (1879-81), John W. 
Biby (1881-3), John A. Harman (1883-5), George W. Davis 
(1885-9), William F. McQuain (1889-91), Joseph H. Lantz 
(1891-3), George W. Grady (1893-5), Harrison M. Calhoun 
(1895-9), George A. Hiner (1899-1903), Walter S. Dunkle 

(1903-7), Flick Warner (1907 ) 

Mr. Johnson did not serve at his first election, owing to 
some irregularity, and Mr. Hoover was chosen at a special 
election in the early summer of 1866. Until 1895 the term of 
office was two years. 

The School Districts of 1846 

As established by a County Order of Oct. 8. It was the 
first recorded division of Pendleton into school districts, and 
was done in compliance with an Act of Assembly establishing 
public schools. 

1 — Bullpasture valley. 

2 — Cowpasture valley. 

3— South Fork valley to Riser's mill (Sugar Grove). 

4— To wagon road from South Branch to Riser's mill. 
(This is not very exphcit. ) 

5— South Fork and Blackthorn from Propst's Gap to Riser's 
mill and the Bullpasture road. 

6 — Franklin and South Fork from Propst's Gap down to 
the road from the Dice schoolhouse through Conrad's Gap to 
South Branch. 

7 — South Fork and valley from the Dice schoolhouse to the 
Hardy line. 

8 — Section of county between settlements on South Fork 
and South Branch below road through Conrad's Gap down to 
Hardy line. 

9 — South Branch from Ulrich Conrad's, the Smoke Hole, 
North and South Mill creeks down to Hardy line. 

10 — North Fork and tributaries from Hardy line to Retter- 
man's Gap. 

11 — South Branch from Franklin to Conrad's, Buffalo Hill 
Gap, and North Fork from Retterman's Gap to the Roaring 
Spring Gap. 

12 — North Fork and tributaries from the Roaring Spring 
Gap to head of said Fork. 

13— South Branch and tributary waters from Franklin to 
mouth of Stright Creek. 

14— Straight Creek and Crabbottom up to John Rexroad's 
mill. 

15 — Crabbottom from Rexroad's mill up Jackson's river 
and tributaries to county line. 



367 

The commissioners appointed for these districts were as 
follows: — 1. Peter Hull. 2. Thomas Jones. 3. Benoni Han- 
sel. 4. Josiah Hiner. 5. William McCoy. 6. Harry F. 
Temple. 7. William H. Dyer. 8. Cyrus Hopkins. 9. An- 
drew W. Dyer. 10. John Boggs. 11. Jacob F. Johnson. 12. 
James Boggs. 13. James B. Kee. 14. Emanuel Arbogast. 
15. John Bird. 



School Statistics 




1840. 


Common schools 
Pupils not at public 

charge 
Pupils at public charge 
Pupils, total 
Persons over 20 who 


12 can read and write 2,702 

Persons over 20 who 
164 cannot read and 
71 write 1,167 
235 Percentage of illite- 
racy 30 




1856. 


Common schools 
Indigent pupils 
Indigent pupils sent 

to school 
Average number days 

attendance of in- 


31 digents 36 
715 Paid for tuition of in- 
digents $660.77 
453 Average paid for 

each pupil 1.40 




1860. 


Teachers 44 School income from 
Pupils 780 other sources $2,250 
School income from Total School income 3,450 
public funds $1,200 




1870. 


Teachers, male 
Teachers, female 
Teachers, total 


47 Pupils 2,250 
8 School income $10,103 
55 




1872. 


Frame schoolhouses 27 
Log schoolhouses 31 
Total number built during the year 3 
Value of school property $10,990.00 
Enrollment 2,375 
Pupils attending school.— boys 962 

—girls 760 
—total 1,682 



368 



Daily average 

Teachers, males 

Teachers, females 

Average monthly salary 

Average number of months taught 

Average age of pupils 

First grade certificates 

Second grade certificates 

Third grade certificates 

Fourth grade certificates 

Fifth grade certificates 

Schools open 7 months 

Schools open 5 months 

Schools open 4 months 

Schools open less than 4 months 

Number of school officers — Clerks 

— Commissioners 
— Trustees 

Number of visits by officers 

Tov^nship levies $4, 

State school fund 3, 

Cost of schools 6, 



1,534 

60 

4 

$30.90 

3.32 

12i 

1 

6 

16 

21 

6 

1 

2 

35 

20 

6 

18 

81 

301 

954.55 

172.46 

724.08 



Teachers in 1872 



Arbogast, H. W. 
Armentrout, Christopher 
Baxter, H. Lee 
Baxter, Jacob C. 
Biby, John W. 
Blakemore, E. V. 
Blakemore, William C. 
Bland, James H. 
Boggs, Henrietta 
Bond, John S. 
Castleman, A. Kate 
Cooper, H. C. 
Covington, J. H. 
Cowger, Manasseh 
Cowger, William J. 
Dahmer, John G. 
Day, Benjamin F. 
Dolly, John W. 
Dove, Mordecai 
Dunkle, John 
Dyer, Isaac W. 
Fishback, L. C. 
Hahn, Arthur A. 



Hildebrand, G. 
Hiner, William N. 
Hiser, Jonathan 
Huffman, Robert H. 
Judy, Charles N. 
King, H. C. 
Lambert, E. A. 
Masters, John F. 
Nelson, Lafayette 
Nelson, Solomon K. 
Newham, W. T. 
Pope, Henry W. 
Rexroad, George W. 
Roudebush, John 
Samuels, E. A. 
Samuels. Z. T. 
Schmucker, W. M. 
Sullenbarger, Jay 
Todd, Fillmore 
Todd, A. P. 
Vint, George M. 
Ward, Martha H. 
Westmoreland, M. A. 



369 



Harman, Jacob Wheeler, N. 

Harman, Samuel Wood, S. M. 

1908-9 

Graded schools 5 

Ungraded schools 97 

Male teachers 75 

Female teachers 26 

State and first grade certificates 19 

School enumeration 3,197 

Average enrollment 2,583 

Average attendance 1,756 
Cost of schools $25,521.86 

Schoolhouses, total 97 

Schoolhouses, log 8 

School libraries 22 

Volumes in school libraries 1,382 
Teachers with a record of 10 or more 

years of service 17 

Number of School graduates 49 

Average age of pupils 11 
Cost of schools per capita, based on 

enumeration $7.98 
Cost of schools per capita, based on enrollment $9.87 
Cost of schools per capita, based on attendance $14.53 

Abstracts from Census Reports 

Census of 1840 



Horses and mules 


3,867 Liquor mf'd gal. 


6,548 


Cattle 




14,161 Powder mills 


4 


Sheep 




20,793 Gunpowder lb. 


1,100 


Swine 




12,777 Glove factories 


3 


Poultry 




4,385 Gristmills 


31 


Corn, bu. 




130,010 Sawmills 


46 


Wheat, bu. 




65,725 Capital invested in 




Oats, bu. 




54, 168 manufacturing 


$28,451 


Rye, bu. 




35,547 Men above 90 


5 


Buckwheat, bu. 




8,189 Men above 70 


47 


Potatoes, bu. 




35,645 Women above 90 


3 


Hay, tons. 




6,838 Women above 70 


59 


Hemp and flax. 


tons 


11 Slaves 


462 


Wool, lb. 




28,341 Free colored 


35 


Sugar, lb. 




112,151 Employed in farming 




Ginseng, lb. 




89 persons 


2,092 


Dairy products. 


value $15,891 Employ'd in commerce. 




Orchard prod, value 


$5,514 persons 


11 



PCH 24 



370 



Homemade goods 
Machinery mf *d 
Distilleries 



$18,769 Employed in trade and 
$1,450 manufacturing 
44 



Census of 1850 



White males 
White females 
Colored males — Slave 
Colored females — Slave 
Colored males — Free 
Colored females— Free 
Total slave 
Total free colored 



2,807 Marriages 
2,635 Deaths— white 
169 Deaths — colored 
153 Idiots 
18 Insane 
13 Blind 
322 Deaf and dumb 
31 



158 



110 
41 
3 
19 
5 
2 
4 



Census of 1860 

White males over 21 and not exempt from taxa- 
tion 1,168 
Slaves 134 
Free colored 12 
Real estate $1,064,994 
Personal property 523,324 
Total real and personal 1,588,318 
Tithes- white .80 
Tithes— slave 1.20 
State tax 7,257.00 
Poor tax 1.400 
Water tax .35 
Farms, cash value 1,638,242 
Farm implements and machinery 47,534 
Value of livestock 574,033 
Value of animals slaughtered 45,306 
Value of homemade manufactures 14,601 
Land improved — acres 71,680 
Land unimproved — acres 292,749 
Usual wage of farm hand with board — 

per month 10.00 

Usual wage of day laborer with board .50 

Usual wage of day laborer without board .75 

Usual wage of carpenter per day without 

board .50 

Board per week to laborers 1.50 

Female domestics per week with board 1.00 

Pianos and harps 4 Sheep 11,440 

Clocks 550 Swine 5,702 

Watches 107 Wool lb. 102,254 

Stage coaches and Cheese lb. 3,529 



371 



pleasure carriages 


38 Butter lb. 


102.254 


Flouring mills 


10 Flax lb. 


4,493 


Distilleries 


3 Sugar lb. 


59,861 


Sawmills 


12 Honey lb. 


8.505 


Tanneries 


4 Molasses gal. 


3,496 


Carding mills 


3 Flaxseed— bu. 


397 


Blacksmiths 


4 Buckwheat, bu. 


18,794 


Cabinet makers 


2 Wheat— usual aver- 




Plow and wagon mak- 


age bu. 


50,000 


er, 


Rye — usual average 




Chopping mill 


11 bushels 


30,000 


Hatter 


I Corn — usual average 




Horses 


o roA bushels 
' : Oats — usual average 


200,000 


Mule 


1 bushels 


25.000 


Cattle 


9,866 Hay— tons 


3,932 


Leading Farmer* of 1860 




Anderson, William — 


Mallow, Paul 




estate, 


$25,000 McCoy, William Sr.— 




Boggs, James 


estate 


$36,000 


Carr, Adam L. 


McCoy, William Jr.— 




Dyer, Andrew W.— 


estate. 


20,000 


estate 


58,500 Phares, Robert 




Harper, Amby 


Phares, Robert B. 




Harper, George 


Propst, Joseph 




Harper, Moses 


Rexroad, Jacob 




Harper, Sylvanus 


Ruddle, James D. 




Hinkle, Wesley 


Saunders, Edward S. 




Hopkins, Cyrus 


Simmons, Henry 




Johnson, Jacob F. 


Siple, George 




Judy, Adam— estate, 


20,000 Stone, Jacob 




Kile, Mary 






Persons Payi 


ing Above $20 in Taxes in 1860 




Anderson, William (estate) Hinkle, Michael Sr. 




Alt, Isaac 


Johnson, Samuel 




Boggs, Aaron 


McClure, John (estate) 


Boggs, James 


McCoy, William 




Carr, Adam ' 


Nestrick, Hannah 




Dyer, Andrew W. 


Saunders, Edward T. 




Dyer, Rebecca 


Siple, George 




Dyer, William F. 


Smith, Jacob 




Graham, Isaac 


Smith, Henry 




Harper, Leonard 


Stone, Daniel C, 




Hiner, Benjamin 







872 





Census of 1870 




Dwellings 


1,036 Real estate 


$1,085,807 


Farms 


563 Personal property 


489,143 


Farm wages per 


Real and personal 




month 


$ 12.00 per assessor 


1,574,950 


Day labor less board 


1.00 Real and personal 




Day labor with b'd. 


.75 true valuation 


2,099,033 


Carpenter with b'd. 


1.50 Total taxes 


18,527 


Board to laborer 


Paupers, white 


43 


per week 


1.75 Paupers, colored 


3 


Female domestic per 


Pauper, total 


46 


week 


2.75 Pauper cost 


1,862 



Pendleton Legislators 

In General Assembly of Virginia 

Sessions of 1789-91— William Patton and Peter Hull, Sr. 
Session of 1792 — William Patton and Jacob Conrad. 
Session of 1793 — Jacob Conrad and Robert Davis. 
Session of 1794— Oliver McCoy and Peter Hull, Sr. 
Session of 1795 — Jacob Conrad and Peter Hull, Sr. 
Session of 1796 — Robert Davis and Peter Hull, Sr. 
Session of 1797-8— James Reed and Peter Hull, Sr. 
Sessions of 1798— 1803— William McCoy and Jacob Hull, Sr. 
Session of 1803-4— William McCoy and Peter Hull, Sr. 
Session of 1804-5— John Davis and Peter Hull, Sr. 
Session of 1805-6 — John Davis and Nathaniel Pendleton. 
Session of 1806-7 — John Davis and Roger Dyer. 
Session of 1807-8— Peter Hull, Jr. and Isaac Hinkle. 
Sessions of 1808-10— Peter Hull, Jr. and John Davis. 
Session of 1810-11— Peter Hull Jr, John Fisher. 
Sessions of 1811-13— Peter Hull Jr. and Robert P. Flannagan. 
Sessions of 1813-15 — Peter Hull Jr. and Nathaniel Pendleton. 
Session of 1815-16 — Peter Hull Jr. and John Hopkins. 
Session of 1816-17 — Jesse Hinkle and Harmon V. Given 

(Gwinn?) 
Session of 1817-18— Jesse Hinkle and John Hopkins 
Session of 1818-19 — John Hopkins and John Cunningham. 
Sessions of 1819-21 — Thomas Jones and James Johnson. 
Session of 1821-22 — Thomas Jones and John Dice. 
Session of 1822-23 — Thomas Jones and John Hopkins 
Session of 1823-4 — Thomas Jones and John Dice. 
Session of 1821^-5 — Harmon Hiner and John Dice. 
Session of 1825-6 — Harmon Hiner and Jacob Greiner. 
Session of 1826-7 — John Dice and Jacob Greiner. 
Session of 1827-8 — John Dice and Thomas Jones. 
Session of 1828-9— Thomas Jones and Reuben Dice. 



873 

Session of 1829-30— Harmon Hiner and Benjamin McCoy. 

Sessions of 1830-33 — Harmon Hiner. 

Sessions of 1833-5 — Thomas Jones. 

Sessions of 1835-9— William McCoy (2) 

Sessions of 1839-42 — Harmon Hiner. 

Sessions of 1842-4 — John Bird. 

Sessions of 1844-6— Benjamin Hiner. 

Session of 1846-7 — Anderson M. Newman. 

Sessions of 1847-8— George W. Dice. 

Sessions of 1848-50— Benjamin Hiner. 

Sessions of 1850-60— James B. Kee. 

Session of 1861-2— James Boggs (resigned) ; Reuben B. Dice 

elected to fill vacancy. 
Session of 1863-4— Edward T. Saunders. 

In Legislature of West Virginia 

Sessions of 1863-5— John Boggs. 

Session of 1866— Abraham Hinkle. 

Session of 1867 — Jonathan Hiser. 

Session of 1868 — William Adamson. 

Sessions of 1869-70— William H. Mauzy, H. H. Flick. 

Session of 1871— John Boggs. 

Session of 1872— James L. Mauzy. 

Session of 1873— Jacob F. Johnson. 

Session of 1875— George A. Blakemore. 

Sessions of 1887-9— Edward Pennybacker. 

Session of 1881— Joshua Day. 

Session of 1883— J. Edward Pennybacker. 

Session of 1885— Jacob Hinkle. 

Session of 1887 — John J. Hiner. 

Session of 1889— George A. Blakemore. 

Session of 1891— William C. Kiser. 

Session of 1893— Peter Harper. 

Session of 1895— William H. Boggs. 

Sessions of 1897-1901— John McCoy. 

Session of 1903— Morgan G. Trumbo. 

Session of 1905— George L. Kiser. 

Session of 1907— William McCoy. 

Session of 1909 — John D. Keister. 

Members of Virginia Conventions 

Constitutional Convention of 1829-30— William McCoy. 
Constitutional Convention of 1850-51— Anderson M. Newmen. 
Secession Convention of 1861 — Henry H. Masters. 

Members West Virginia Conventions 

Constitutional Convention of 1861 — John L. Boggs. 
Constitutional Convention of 1872— Charles D. Boggs. 



374 



Pendleton Men in the Professions 

(Names not native to the county are starred). 

Ministers — Not Including LoceJ Preachers 



Dice, John C— M. E. C. S. 

(P. E.) 
Dolly, Solomon— M. E. C. S. 
Dolly, Adam— M. E C. S. 
Eye, William D. 
Graham, Isaac. 
Hahn, Arthur A — Lutheran. 
Hiner, W. Marshall — M. E. 

C. S. 
Jones, John— M. E. C. S. 
Ketterman, Daniel— U. B. 
Kiser, John F. — Lutheran. 
Lambert, Oakey D. 
Lambert, James — U. B. 
Lambert, Eli— M. E. 
Lambert, Thomas J. 
Lambert, Elmer. 
Lambert, Christopher C. 
McAvoy, Edgar W.—Dunkard. 



Moyers, Kenton— U. B. 
Nelson, John K. - U. B. 
(P. E.). 

Pope , George E.— M. E. C. S. 

Pope, Jesse D.— M. E. C. S. 

Puffenbarger, Stephen H. — 
Lutheran. 

Rexroad, Henry — Lutheran. 

Rexroad, George— U. B. 

Schmucker George* — Luthe- 
ran. 

Sibert, William M.*— Luthe- 
ran. 

Sites, W. A.— M. E. C. S. 

Van de venter, Albert — M. E. 
C. S. 

Vandeventer Isaac H, — M. 
E. C. S. 



Attorneys 

Calhoun, Harrison, M. 
Cunningham, Eli A. 
Cunningham, Absalom M.— 

Elkins. 
Day, Clay. 

Dyer, John J. — la. (Judge). 
Dyer, William F. 
Harman, J. W i 1 1 i a m — Par- 
sons. 
Hiner, Benjamin H.* 
Hodges, M. S.* 

Physicians and Dentists 



Keister, J. Claude— Okla- 
homa City. 

Masters, Henry H. — de- 
ceased. 

McClung, J. L. — Roanoke. 

McClung, M. G.— Roanoke. 

McCoy, William, deceased. 

McCoy, William, prosecuting 
attorney. 

Moomau, John B., deceased. 



Anderson, Walton C. — dec'd. 
Black, Daniel* — deceased. 
Boggs, Charles D. 
Boggs, Preston — Franklin. 
Bowers, Harvey — Sugar (Jr. 
Dice, Reuben. 
Dove, William. 
Dyer, Osceola S.— Franklin. 



Judy, W. J. 
Kile, David W. 
Kile, E. H. 
Lambert, J. L. 
McCoy, George P, 
Montony, Decatur. 
Moomau, John H. — deceased. 
Moomau, Frederick— Fin. 



375 

Harper, Robert. Priest, Francis M.*— dec'd. 
Hinkle, J. E. Siple, William H. 
Hopkins, John E.— deceased. Sites, James M.— Martins- 
Johnson, John D. jjyj.j- 
Johnson, Isaac C. — Franklin, m . t n/r t>- 
Johnson, Samuel B.— Fin. ^eter, J. M.— Riverton. 
Judy, William H. Thacker, Robert L.— Frank- 
Judy, Noah H. lin. 

County Finances 

The assessed valuation of real and personal property in 
Pendleton for 1909 was $4,417,734. 

The average rate of taxation is about 80 cents on per hun- 
dred dollars. The yearly expense of conducting the various 
affairs of the county is about $30,000. 

The present salaries of the county officials are as follows: 
Sheriff, $25; County and Circuit Clerk, $850; Prosecuting At- 
torney, $250; Assessor, including two assistants, $1600; 
County Superintendent, $750; Jailor, $40. 

Surveys and Patents Prior to 1788 

All tracts are to be understood as surveys unless the letter 
P — for patent, or patented, — is found in the description. 
The number of acres is followed by the name of the grantee, 
then by the location, and then by date of patent or transfer. 

Granted in 1746 

2643-Robert Green— Ft. -S- P. 
2464— Robert Green— U-T— P. 

350— Robert Green-S-B— P. 

370— Robert Green— —P. 

1747 

1470— Robert Green— S-F— P. 
1080— Robert Green— -P. 
660— Robert Green— S-B— P.— sold 1763, to Conrad and 

Skidmore. 
1650— Robert Green— Mill Cr.— 1763, to Haigler, Harpole, 

Judy, Patton, Wise. 
750— Robert Green— S-F Cr.— P,— 1750— to Hawes. 
600— Robert Green— S-F Cr.— P,— 1763, to Hoover, Rule- 
man, Zorn. 
330-Robert Green— S-F Cr.— P. 

1753 
240— Conrad, Ulrich— n. Deer Run P. 0. -P, 1761. 



376 

50— Conrad, Ulrich— Deer Run— P, 1757. 
150— Cunningham, John— Walnut Bottom, N-F— P, 1762. 
225— Cunningham, James— Walnut Bottom, N-F— P, 1762. 
240— Cunningham, William— Walnut Bottom, N-F— P, 1762. 

60— Davis, John— east of S-F. 
120 — Dunkle, John — upper Deer Run— P, 1761. 

50— Dyer, Roger— east S-F— P, 1770. 

73— Dyer, William— Road Lick, S-F. 

72— Freeze, Michael— just below U-T— P, 1757. 
118— Goodman, Jacob — n. Ulrich Conrad. 
140— Hawes, Henry— n. Miles P. 0. 
470— Mallow, Michael— Kline— P, 1761. 

25— Moser, Peter— U-T.— P, 1757. 
190-Moser, Peter— Reed's Cr.— P, 1769. 

54— Patton, John— S weed land— P, 1757. 

40— Patton, Matthew— west of Ft.-S.— P, 1770. 
110— Propst, Michael — n. Propst's church. 
200— Scott, Benjamin — n. the Cunninghams. 

88— Seybert, Jacob— n. Dean's gap— P, 1757. 

35— Sherler? Fred'k— Little Walnut bottom, Mill Cr.— P, 
1757, by Fred'k Keister. 

60— Simmons, Nicholas— S-F. Mtn— P, 1770. 
450— Trimble, James— Saunders farm— P, 1758— sold to Wm. 

Burnett, 1759. 
100— Trimble, James— B-T.—P, 1761. 
200— Trimble, James— B-T.— 1761. 
180— Trimble, James— B-T— P, 1756— sold to Hans Harper 

same year. 
160 — Trimble, James — n. Jno. Cunningham. 

1754 

150— Bright, Samuel— B-T— P, 1758. 
180 — Skid more, Joseph — n. Friend's Run. 
140— Trimble, James— W-T—P, 1761. 
130— Trimble, James— above Trout Rock, S-B, Samuel Mey- 
ers place— P, 1761. 
180 — Vaneman, Peter— Hedrick's Run. 

1757 

200 — Parsons, James— mouth, E. Dry Run — P, by Ephraim 

Richardson, 1763. 
200 — Parsons, Thomas, Jr. —above Trout Rock. 

1761 

65— Bush, George— S-F? 
54— Bush, George— S-F? 
137— Eberman, Jacob— N-F?— P, 1771. 



877 

60— Ellsworth, Moses— Germany—P. 1765. 

40 — Harper, Jacob — Trout Run. 

40— Harrison, Daniel and Jos. Skidmore— M. S.— P. 1767, 

by Paul Teter. 
116— Harrison, Daniel and Jos. Skidmore — 1 mile below M. 

S.— P, 1767 by Jacob Eberman. 
104— Harrison, Daniel and Joseph Skidmore— 2 miles below 

M-S. 
156 — Harrison, Daniel and Joseph Skidmore — 3 miles below 

M-S. 
47 — Harrison, Daniel and Joseph Skidmore — 4 miles below 

M-S. 
64— Harrison, Daniel and Joseph Skidmore — 5 miles below 

M-S. 
82 — Harrison, Daniel and Joseph Skidmore. 
55 — Harrison, Daniel and Joseph Skidmore— Tower bottom, 

below M-S. 
62 — Harrison, Daniel and Joseph Skidmore — Great Clover 

lick, N-F— P, 1768 by Andrew Johnson. 
97 — Harrison, Daniel and Joseph Skidmore— Little Walnut 

bottom— N-F— P, 1767 by Jos. Skidmore. 
20 — Harrison, Daniel and Joseph Skidmore — N-F. 
98— Harrison, Daniel and Joseph Skidmore— n. Deep Spring, 

N-F. 
220— Hinkle, Justus— head Deep Spring— P, 1765. 
135 — Hoover, Sebastian — S-F. 
67 — Keister, Frederick— n. his home — P, 1769. 
69— Peterson, Jacob— No. Mill! Creek, n. Co. line-P, 1775. 
162— Poage, Jno.— B-T forks— P, 1771. 
70— Scott, Benj.— N-F— P. 

200— Shaver, Paul— Mallow's Run, n. S-B— P, 1765. 
54— Skidmore, Jos.— Lick Run— P, 1767. 
54— Smith, Peter— S-F— P, 1767. 
142— Smith, Abraham and John Skidmore — Poage's Run— 

P, 1764. 
130-Swadley, Mark— B-T— P, 1769. 
100— Trimble— above Trout Rock, Sam'l Moyers— P. 

1762 

150— Cunningham, Jno. Jr.— N-F— P. 

44— Dunkle, Jno.— opposite Ft. S.— P, 1766. 
229— Hornbarries — Friend's Run, n. mouth. 
196 — Patterson, Margaret— Trout Run. 

12— Peninger, Henry— S-B— P, 1769. 

60— Peterson, Jacob— n. Ft. S. 
150— Skidmore, Joseph-S-B n. Byrd's mill— P, 1767. 



378 

47--Wagoner, Lewis— n. Ft. S.— P, 1766. 

1764 

? — Smith, Abraham— above Shaver— 

1765 

294 — Alkire, Maurice— above Shaver — P. 
87— Cassell, Valentine— upper Friend's Run— P, 1775. 
60— Ellsworth, Moses— Deep Spring, N-F. 
44— Hoover, Postle- S-F— P. 
65— Hoover, Postle— S-F— P. 
57— Hoover, Sebastian— S-F— P, 1769. 
1700— Jones, Gabriel and 5 others— crest S-F Mtn— P, 1766 

by Thos. Lewis. 
131— Peninger, Henry— n. S-B. 
70 — Pickle, Jacob — mouth Brushy Fork. 
16— Simmons, Nicholas— S-F, n. home— P, 1770 by George 

Simmons. 
110— Smith, Peter— n. Swadley— (in 1765?) 

1766 

55— Bogart, Cornelius— S-B— P, 1773. 
6— Conrad, Ulrich— mouth of Thorn— P, 1770 by Ulrich 
Conrad, Jr. 

45— Crow, Wm— head B-T. 

77— Davis, Jno.— Sugar Tree bottom, N-F. 

12— Kile, Gabriel— S-B, n. home. 

65 — Lucas, 

75— Peninger, Henry — beginning at Trout Rock. 

70 — Penninger, Henry — west of S-B. 

65— Peterson, Michael— Stony Lick, N-F. 

97— Powers-Charles— Friend's Run— P, 1771. 

60-Propst, Michael— S-F Mtn— P. 

19— Skidmore, Jos.— S-B, in a "bent"— P, 1781. 
130— Smith, Mary— Mill Creek. 
128— Vaneman, Peter— S-B— P, 1772. 
Ill— Wilfong, Michael— head B-T. 

1767. 

70— Bennett, Joseph— N-F, below Clover Lick— P, 1772. 

98 — Clifton, Wm. — west of S-B n. Jacob Conrad. 

60 — Cunningham, Moses — Carr's Cr. n. home. 

40— Cunningham, James— N-F — Black Oak Bottom. 
171— Eberman, Jacob— N-F— P, 1772. 

98 — Eberman, Jacob — n. Mallow. 

54 — Eberman, Jacob — n. Mallow. 

26— Eberman, William-S-B— P, 1771 (of 23 A). 
142— Eberman and Andrew Johnson— north side Seneca. 



879; ^ 



50— Fleisher, Henry— S-B. 

33— Harper, Jacob— S-B— P. 

67— Hinkle, Justus— head Deep Spring— P, 1775. 
142 — Johnson, Andrew. 
200— Miller, Thos.— 4 miles below M. S.— P, 1769. 

27— Morris, Daniel— east of N-F. 
284-Poage, Jno.— n. U-T.— P, 1769. 

23— Ryan, Jno.— N-F. 
200— Simmons, Leonard— 2 miles below M-S— P. 
152— Teter, George -Timber Ridge— P. 
120— Teter, George— N-F Bottom— P, 1775. 

53— Teter, Paul— below M-S— P, 1775 by Philip Teter. 
136— Vaneman, Peter— N-F. 

1767 

33— Thompson, Moses— below Deep Spring. 

1768 

37— Eye, Christopher— B-T—P, 1770. 

62 — Johnson, Andrew — n. Great Clover Lick, above Circle- 

ville-P. 
72-Mallow, Michael— n. Deer Run P. 0.— P, 1770. 
70— Miller, Henry— Dry Run-P. 

1769 

69 — Buzzard, Henry — Mill Cr. n. Jacob Peterson. 
242— Dice, George— Friend's Run— P, 1771. 
160— Evick, Francis and George— Fin— P, 1771. 
20— Friend, Jacob— Friend's Run. 
~> 67— Fultz, Geo.— So. Mill Cr. above Little Walnut Bottom. 
126— Harper, Adam — n. head Dry Run. 
19— Hevener, Frederick— west S-F— P, 1771. 
131— Kile, Geo.— west S-B. 
114— Mallow, Michael— Mallow's Run— P, 1770. 
?— Mouse, Daniel— 3 miles below M-S. 
? — Shreve, Joseph. 
Smith, Charles— S-B. 

1770 

52— Propst, Henry— No. Mill Cr. n. J. Peterson. 
70— Clifton, Wm.— east S-B— P, by Jno. Skidmore, 1792. 
60— Evick, Francis— S-B. , opposite Dice— P. 
50 — Fleisher, Henry — Canoe Run — P. 
60— Simmons, Nicholas — S-F, opposite Pickle— P, by 
Michael Simmons, 1783. 



1771 

135— Bennett, Jno.— Grassy bottom, N-F— P, 1773. 

28— Blizzard— east S-F. 

33— Brush, Michael— No. Mill Cr. 
126— Bumgardner, Godfrey— east N-F— P, 1773. 

52— Buzzard, Henry— No. Mill Cr. 

39— Cape, Frederick— S-F. 
180— Conrad, Jacob— east S-B— P. 

83— Cunningham, Wm— N-F— P, 1773. 
150— Cunningham, Wm— N-F— P, 1773. 
127— Cunningham, Jno— N-F. 
148 — Eberman, Michael and Andrew Johnson— north side 

Seneca — P. 
357— Ellsworth, Moses— above Deep Spring— P, 1773 by An- 
drew Johnson. 
215— Ellsworth, Jacob— N-F— P, 1773. 

39— Ewell, Christian— S-F Mtn. 
. 400 — Fowler, Jas. — Thorny meadow— P. 
-> 81— Fultz, Andrew— east S-F— P, 1775. 

50— Ham, Jacob— N-F. 
125— Harman, David— Sugar Lick Run— P. 1781— sold to 

Thos. Bland, 1789. 
195— Hevener ? David— N-F. 

61— Hurst, Geo. -So. Mill Cr. 

53 — Moats, Jacob — east S-F. 

90— Nelson. Jacob?— Sugar Lick, N-F. 

72— Propst, Michael— S-F— P, 1775. 
110-Reel, David— No. Mill Cr.— P, 1773. 
170— Skidmore, John— N-F— P, 1775. 
237— Skid more, John— Reed's Cr. 1775. 

48 — Springstone, Jacob 

33 — Summerville, Thos. — Hedrick Run. 
118— Teter, Philip— above head Deep Spring— P, 1775. 
123 — Thompson, Moses — below head Deep Spring 

IL— Vaneman, Peter— Tom's Run, S-B— P, 1775. 
131— Wagoner, Lewis— S-F. 

68— Waldron, Geo.— Clay Lick, S-B? 

23— Welch, Geo. -N-F, below Stony Lick— P. 

50 — Wilfong, Michael— Brushy Fork. 

61— Wilmoth, Thos.— Hedrick Run. 

1772 

46— Bennett, Jas.— Grassy Bottom, N-F— P. 
50— Dunkle, John— east S-F— P, 1784. 
30— Eye, Christopher— B-T. 
93 — Fleisher, Peter— S-B, n. Nicholas Harper. 



8^ 

36— Harper, Nicholas— east S-B— P, 1781. 

Kole, Peter— Mallow's Run. 

33— Lough, Adam— above Switzer's gap. 
550— Poage, Jno.— east S-B— P, 1781. 

69— Stone, Henry— B-T. 
236— Sumwalt, Geo.— S-B. 
130— Wood, James— B-T. 

1773 
185— Bailey, Jos.— B-T. 
113— Bell, David-B-T— P, 1780. 

48— Briggs, Jos.— Reed's Cr. 

53— Carr, Jacob— N-F. 

85— Cunningham, Wm.— east N-F. 

Cunningham, Jas.— west N-F. 

41 — Davis, Robert— east S-F. 
145— Douglas, Jno.— B-T. 

17— Gougle, Andrew— Reed's Cr.— P, 1787. 

33— Gradenberg, Jasper— east S-B. 
200 — Gragg, Wm. — north side Seneca. 

80— Mitscaw, Nicholas— S-F Mtn. 

50-Moser, Adam— S-B— P, 1784. 

92— Murphy, Hugh and Jacob Conrad— No. Mill Cr. 

98— Peninger, Henry— west S-B— P, 1784. 

53— Rexroad. Geo.— S-F Mtn. 
162— Smith, Chas.— S-F— P, 1780. 

90— Stone, Henry— B-T, n. Eye. 

73— Stone, Henry— S-F. 
376— Taylor, David— B-T. 
236— Trace, Jacob— SB— P. 

13— Teter, Paul— N-F. 

1774. 

25— Bennett, Jos.— mouth W. Dry Run— sold to Henry 

Judy, 1791. 
150— Campbell, Thos.— Seneca. 
510— Davidson, Josiah— S-F— P, 1787. 
312— Davis, Robert— Sweedland 
173— Dickenson, Jacob— S-F, n. Davidson. 

64— Gragg, Wm.— Seneca. 
150— Matthews David— n. Roaring Cr., 

1775 

180— Eye, Christopher- B-T. 
150— Gamewell, Jos.— B-T.— P. 
100— Gamewell, Jos.— B.-T— P. 
83— Glassprenard, Fred'k— Rough Run— P. 



882 

30— Johnson, Andrew— N-F— P. 
184— Mathews, David— east N-F— P. 

37— Mouse, Daniel— east N-F— P. 
150— Pickle, Henry— east S-F. 

35— Puffenbarger, Geo.— west S-F. 

83— Simmons, Geo.— west S-F. 

50— Simmons, Nicholas — n. S-F. 
160-Slack, Randall— B-T. 
110?— Smith, Peter— S-F, n. home. 
115— Smith, Abraham— head W. Dry Run-P. 

65— Smith, Peter— west S-F— P. 

74— Stephenson, Robt.— west S-F. 

69— Stone, Henry— B-T— 
137— Vaneman, Peter— Smith Cr.— P. 

70-Wilfong, Michael— S-F— P. 

1777 
58— Dyer, Roger— Ft-S—P, 1785. 

1780 

Bell, David— B-T— P. 

95— Cowger, Jno— B-T— sold to Henry Huffman, 1793. 

17 — Douglass, Jos. — P. 

58— Douglas, Jos.— P. 
1320— Heth, Wm.— Hunting Ground— P. 
170— Hogg, Jno.— B-T-P. 

90— Hopkins, Jas. —Hampshire line— P, 1781 — sold to Geo. 
Kile, 1789. 

76— Poage, Jno.— So. Mill Or., White Walnut Bottom -P. 
400 — Poage, Jno. and John Skidmore — S-B. 

39— Poage, Jno. and John Skidmore — S-B. 
162— Smith, Chas.— S-F?— P. 
160-Stratton, Seraiah— S-B. 
110— Stratton, Seraiah — head Reed's Cr. 

82 — Stratton, Seraiah — east S-B. 
413 — Whetsell, Christopher— Pine Cabin Lick. 

1781 

127— Bennett, Jos.— east N-F— P. 

85 — Hinkle, Isaac— Sugar Lick Gap — P. 
107— Poage. Jno.— B-T— P. 

88— Sinnett, Patrick— B-T— P. 

63— Skidmore. John— east SB— P. 
160— William Ward— B-T— P. 

35— William Ward— B-T— P. 



888 



1782 
-Bell, John and Jas.— B-T— P. 



140— Bodkin, Jno.— B-T— P. 

44— Conrad, Jacob— east S-B— P, 1787. 

Cowger, Jacob— Broad Run, S-F— P, 1787— (entered, 

1771). 
100— Eberman. Jacob— N-F—P, 1787— (entered, 1771). 
150— Eckard, Abraham— S-F— P, 1787 by Philip Eckard. 

58— Eckard, Philip— S-F— P. 
150— Gamble, Wm-head B-T— P. 
212— Propst, Leonard— S-F. 
150-Wilson, Chas.-B-T— P. 

1783 

48— Bland, Thos.— N-F. 
100 — Bumgardner, Godfrey— n. C'ville. 
173— Byrne, Jno.— n. Ft. S. 

27— Cassell, Valentine— N-F Mtn— entered, 1778. 
103— Eckard, Philip— S-F Mtn— entered, 1778. 

69— Friend, Joseph— Friend's Run— P, 1787— entered, 1772. 
166 — Gougle, Andrew— Hedrick's Run— entered, 1772. 

33— Minniss, Robt— N-F. 

25— Propst, Fred'k— S-F. 

92— Propst, Henry— S-F. 

58— Ruleman, Christian— west S-F— P, 1787— entered, 1775. 

47— Ruleman, Christian— P, 1786. 

26 — Simmons, Leonard — above Trout Rock — P. 

86 — Simmons, Leonard — S-B— P. 

30 — Simmons, Leonard — n. home— P. 

37 — Simmons, Leonard — Bakeoven Run, S-B — P. 

83— Summerville. Jos.— S-F— entered, 1775. 

70— Terrell, Peter— N-F, Buffalo Bottom— entered, 1772. 

1784 

46 — Conrad, Jacob— n. home — P. 
180 — Conrad, Jacob — n. home — P. 

Fleisher, Palsor— So. Br. of S-F— P. 

237— Harper, Nicholas— E. Dry Run— P. 
162— Kershing, Jno.— S-F— P. 
212— Molten? Jas.— E. Br. of S-B— P. 

32— Morral, Wm.— N-F— P. 

98— Smith, Jno. Sr.— n. Wilmoth— P, 1785. 

50— Stout, Geo.— E. S-B— P. 
270— Varner, Adam— Brushy Fork — P. 
146 — Whiteman, Henry — Brushy Fork — P. 
154— Wimer, Jacob— E. Dry Run— P. 



:884 



1785 



92— Burgess, Jacob— Lick Run, S-B. 
129 — Dyer, Roger— n. home. 

33— Evick, Francis, n. home. 
188 — Hinkle, Isaac — head of Seneca. 
154— Hogg, Jas.— B-T. 

46 — Hoover, Postle— n. home 
8— Nelson, Jno.— N-F— P, 1787. 
197— Nelson, Jno.— N-F- Black Lick. 

58— Patton, Matthew— n. home— P, 1787. 
100— Rex road, Zachariah— S-F. 

35— Smith, Robert— N-F. 

63— Stone, Henry— S-F— P, 1787, 
153— Teter, Geo.— Timber Ridge— P, 1787. 

1786 

— Bush, Michael — Reed's Cr. 

— Bush, Leonard — S-B 
170— Collett, Thos.— Buffalo Hills. 
493— Erwin, Edward— B-T. 

60— Hedrick, Chas.— S.B, n. home— P, 1787. 
162— Lough, George— P, 1787. 
100 — Phares, Jno. — Hedrick's Run. 

70 — Skidmore, Jas.— Hedrick's Run. 
130— Wilmoth, Thos.— N-F Mtn. 

1787 

123— Briggs, Jos.— Reed's Or.— P. 
Burger, Jacob — P. 

40— Bush, Michael— P. 

13— Bush, Michael— P. 
170-Coplinger, Adam— S-F. Mtn— P. 

87 — Crummett, Christopher, — Crummett Run— P. 
173— Dyer, Jas.— Picken's Run— P. 
200— Eaton, Thos.— S-B. at the "arm"-P. 
150— Eckard. Philip— S-F— P. 

33— Evick, Francis— east S-B— P. 
118— Evick, Francis — above home — P. 

82— Eye, Henry -S.B— P. 

19— Friend, Jacob— S-B— P. 

78— Friend, Jacob— S-B— P. 

20— Friend, Jacob— S-B—P. 
103— Hammer, Balsor— S-B— P. 
125— Harman, David— Sugar Run, N-F— P. 
128— Hoover, Lawrence— B-T— P. 

55— Kile, Geo.— west— S-B.— P. 



138— Lough, Adam— head of Deer Run.— P. 

1764 —Davis, Robt. from Matthew Patton 

(S-R). $250.00 

-> 1764 35— Fultz, George, from Fred'k Keister (n. 

Deer Run P. 0.). 66.67 

1765 200 — Harper, Adam from Ephraim Richard- 

son (Parson, patent of 1757). 106.67 

1768 104 — Harper, Adam from Lenonard Sim- 

mons (2 miles below M. S.). 133.33 

1769 3J— Stone, Wagoner, Swadley, and Rule- 

man, trustees of Lutheran church, 
from Michael Propst (part of 415 
acre place). .83 

1770 150— Bennett, Jno. from Jno. Skidmore (Mud 

Lick, N.-F.). 76.67 

1770? 210— Blizzard, Jno. from Nicholas Seybert 

(Patton place). 667.67 

1770? 100— Harper, Philip from Benj. Scott (N-F.). 333.83 
.1772 100— Dunkle, Geo. from Jno. Dunkle 16.67 

1772 137— Davis, Jas. from J. Eberman (Canoe 

Run, S-F). 166.67 

1772 200— Mallow. Michael from Geo. Shaver (Sha- 
ver homestead). 150.00 

1772 43i— Skidmore, Thos. from Jos. Skidmore 

(S-B.). 33.33 

1773 71 — Harper, Adam from Jacob Eberman, Jr. 

(N-F.). 166.67 

1774 150— Wamslev, Jno. from Peter Vaneman 

(W. Dry Run). 300.00 

1774 200 — Harper, Nicholas from Harper Adam 

(mouth of E. Dry Run). ? 

1774 83— Wagoner, Lewis from F. Glassprenard 

(Sweedland). 16.67 

1775 40 Simmons, Geo. from Nicholas Simmons 

(S-F.). 133.33 

1776 44— Powers, Chas. from Jonas Friend. 350.00 

1777 6-Conrad, Ulrich, Jr. from Ulrich, Sr. 

(mouth of Thorn). 6.67 

1778 200— Conrad Ulrich, Jr. from Jas. Trimble's 

(Branch of Thorn), heirs. 566.67 

1784 317— Evick, Geo. from Nicholas Seybert, 

(Straight Creek), 4L00 

1785 82— Buzzard, Henry, from Matthew Patton, 

(West Dry Run). 333.33 

44— Nail, Wm.— Cook's Cr., S-F.— P. 
42— Patton, Matthew— N-F.— P. 

PC„H 25 



92— Propst, Henry— west S-F— P. 
70— Retzel, Jas.— S-B-P. 
47— Root, Jacob— S-F— P. 
91— Simmons, Mark— S-B, n. Hammer— P. 
180- Simmons, Leonard— S-B— P. 
70 — Skidmore, Jas.— head of Hedrick Run. 

Some Conveyances Prior to 1788 

By Wood, Green, and Russell 

(Date, acreage, purchaser, location, and price are given in 
consecutive order) . 

1747 190— Dyer, Roger (from 2643 acre survey). $27.50 

1747 350— Dyer, Wm. (from 2643 acre survey). ? 
1747 210— Pat ton, Jno., Jr. (from 2643 acre 

survey). 27.50 
1747 453— Patton, Jno., Jr. (from 2643 acre 

survey). 60.83 
1774 157— Patton, Matthew (from 2643 acre 

survey). 20.83 

1774 300— Smith, Jno. (from 2643 acre survey). 40.83 

1750 750— Hawes. Peter (from 750 acre survey). 75.83 

1750 620— Dyer, Roger (from 2643 acre survey). ? 

1753 330— Davis, Jno. ? 

1761 116— Bush, Geo. (from 1470 acre survey). 133.33 

176 L 278— Conrad, Ulrich 185.33 

1761 114— Coplinger, Geo. (from 350 acre survey). 64.50 

1761 44— Friend. Jonas (from 350 acre survey). 29.17 

1761 114— Hammer, Geo. (from 370 acre survey). 65.17 

1761 96— Harper, Jacob (from 370 acre survey). 54.22 
1761 256— Keister, Fred'k. (from 1470 acre 

survey). 213.33 

1761 220— Osborn, Jeremiah 138.33 

1761 168— Peninger, Henry 39.30 
1761 327— Patton, Matthew (from 1470 acre 

survey). 250.00 
1761 415— Propst, Micheal (from 1470 acre 

survey). 100.00 

1761 400— Roreback, Jno. (from 2464 acre survey) . 166. 67 
1761 440— Rutherford, Adam (from 2364 acre 

survey). 160.00 

1761 203— Skidmore, Jos. (from 660 acre survey). 169.17 

1761 131— Smith. Andrew. 59.00 

1761 470— Swadley, Mark (from 1470 acre survey) . 91. 67 

1761 131-Wilson, Chas. 66.50 

1763 457— Conrad, Jacob (from 660 acre survey). 300.00 



887 

1763 400— Haigler, Sebastian (from 1650 acre 

survey). 100.00 

1763 195— Harpole, Nicholas (from 1650 acre 

survey). 50.00 

1763 200— Hoover, Sebastian (from 600 acre 

survey). 50.00 

1763 367— Judy, Martin (from 1650 acre survey). 90.00 

1763 407— Patton. Matthew (from 1650 acre 

survey). 100.00 

1763 200— Ruleman, Jacob (from 600 acre survey). 50.00 
1763 200 — Ruleman, Jacob and Catharine Zorn 

(from 600 acre survey). 53.33 

1763 145— Simmons, Nicholas (from 600 acre 

survey). 36.67 

1763 203— Skidmore, Jos. and Gabriel Kile (from 

660 acre survey). ? 

By Other Persons 

1756 180— Harper, Hans from Jas. Trimble 
(B-T.).— sold to Wm. Martin, 1765, 
for $80; resold bv Martin to Christo- 
pher Sum wait, 1773, for $83.33; re- 
sell by Sum wait to Hugh Bodkin 
1779, for $166.67. $ 43.33 

1759 450— Burnett, Wm. from Jas. Trimble (Saun- 
ders farm). 116.67 

1761 160— Cunningham, Mary of James Trimble 

(Walnut bottom, N-F.). 40.83 

1761 275— Stroud, Adam from Peter Hawes 
(Hawes place)— sold to Sebastian 
Hoover, 1769, for $80. 66.67 

1763 200— Cunningham, Jno., Jr. from Jno., Sr. 

(Thorny Br.). 66.67 

A List of Tithables for 1790 

This list was taken by James Dyer and John Poage. Dyer's 
district was the South Fork and the lower half of the South 
Branch. Poage had the remainder of the county. Facts as 
to residence, etc., are given, where known, in the case of 
names not appearing in Part II. An isolated figure follow- 
ing a name refers to the number of tithables in the household, 
and where names in brackets follow the figure, these are the 
persons — other than the head of the family — who are believed 
to be the tithables in question. Persons known to have lived 
in the portion of the county which is now a part of High- 
land are marked "Hid." Other abbreviations are explained 



S88 



in Part II. A tithable was any male over the age of 16, or 
any widow who was the head of a family. 



Alkire, John 
Alkire, Michael. 
Arbaugh, Joseph— 2. 
Arbogast, Adam — Hid. 
Arbogast, David — Hid. 
Arbogast, John — Hid. 
Arbogast, Michael, Sr.— Hid. 
Arbogast, Michael, Jr. — Hid. 
Bart, Lewis. 
Bennett, John. 
Bennett, Joseph. 
Bennett, William. 
Benson, Jacob — Hid. 
Berger, Jacob. 
Berger, Peter. 
Bible, George. 
Bible, Philip. 
Bland, John. 
Bland, Thomas. 
Bland, William. 
Blizzard, Burton, 
Blizzard, Catharine. 
Blizzard, John. 
Blizzard, Joseph. 
Blizzard, Thomas. 
Blizzard, William. 
Blunt, Cyrus. 
Blunt, Readon. 
. Bonar, Thomas — Hid. 
Bodkin, Hugh— Hid. 
Bragg, Joseph— B-T. 
Briggs, Charles. 
Briggs, John. 
Briggs, Joseph. 
Bumgardner, Frederick.— n. 

C'ville. 
Bumgardner, George — C'ville. 
Bush, Lewis— S-F. 
Bush, Leonard — went to 0. 
Bush, Michael— S-F. 
Butcher, Nicholas. 
Buzzard, Henry. 
Carpenter, Conrad — Hid. 
Carpenter, John — Hid. 



Carper, Abraham (Amelia) — 

sold to Collett, 1792. 
Carper, Jacob. 
Carr, Michael. 
Carr, Thomas. 
Cassell, Peter. 
Cassell, Valentine — 2. 
Clark, Daniel— Judy gap, 

N-F. 
Clifton, John. 
Clifton, William. 
Clunin? John— 2. 
Coberly, Isaac — east N-F. 
Colaw, John — Hid. 
Collett, Thomas. 
Conn, Michael (Mary) — No. 

Mill Cr. -sold 1792. 
Conrad, Jaoob. 
Conrad, Ulrich, Sr. 
Conrad, Ulrich, Jr. — 3 

(Adam? George?). 
Coplinger, Adam. 
Coplinger, George. 
Coplinger, Henry. 
Coplinger, Jacob. 
Cortner, Adam. 
Cortner, Anthony. 
Cortner, John. 
Cox, Thomas. 
Crow, William— head B-T. 
Crummett, Christian — 2. 
Crummett, Frederick. 
Cunningham, James, Sr. 
Cunningham, James, Jr. 
Cunningham, John. 
Cushholtz, Andrew — Reed'sCr. 
Danser, Christopher. 
Davis, Robert — 2 (Samuel). 
Davis, John. 
Day, Samuel. 
Dice, George. 
Dice, Mathias. 
Dickenson, Jacob. 
Dickenson, John. 



889 

Dickenson, Samuel. Hamilton, Garvin, 

Dickenson, Thomas. Hammer, Balsor. 

Dunkle, George — 3 (George? Hammer, George. 

Jacob?). Hanshaw, Lawrence. 

Dunkle, John— 2 (Michael?) Harold, John. 
Dyer, James — 7 (William, Ze- Harold, Michael, Sr. 

buion, Roger, and others). Harold, Michael, Jr. 
Dyer, Roger— 3. Harper, Adam. 

Eaton, John. Harper, Adam (2d). 

Eberman, Michael. Harper, Henry. 

Eberman, William. Harper, Jacob. 

Eckard, Abraham. Harper, John. 

Eckard, Philip. Harper, Nicholas. 

Elsey, Abraham. Harper, Phihp. 

Evick, Francis— 2 (Francis, Harper, William. 

Jr.) — also 3 slaves. Harpole, Adam — 3 (Michael, 

Evick, George. ?). 

Eye, Christopher. Harpole, Nicholas — 2 (Paul). 

Fansler, Henry. Harpole, Sarah. 

Farrel, Peter — 2. Hailer, James. 

Fisher, Charles. Hailer, Robert. 

Fisher, George. Hedges, Stephen. 

Fisher, Jacob. Hedrick, Charles — 4 (Jacob, 

Fisher, John. John, Charles). 

Fisher, Philip— 2. Hedrick, Frederick. 

Fleisher, Conrad — Hid. Heimicker, Christian. 

Fleisher, Henry — Hid. Helmick, Jacob. 

Flint, George. Henry, John. 

Friend, Jacob. Herring, William. 

Full, Lewis. Hevener, Frederick — 2 (Ja- 

-^ Fultz, Philip. cob). 

Gamble, Isabel— 2— Saunder's Hevener, Jacob— 3. 

place. Hevener, Peter — 3 — Hid. 

George, Reuben. Hicks, William. 

Gess, Henry. Hill, John -So. Mill Cr. 

Gillespie, Jacob (Elizabeth) — Hiner, John. 

S-F., above Brandy wine. Hinkle, Abraham. 
Gillespie, Thomas. Hinkle, Isaac. 

Gragg, Henry — 3 (William? Hinkle, Justus. 

Philip?). Hinkle, Moses. 

Gragg, Samuel. Hooton, Ephraim — Smokehole? 

Gragg, William. Hoover, George. 

Gum, Isaac — 2 — Hid. Hoover, Jacob. 

Gum, Jacob — 2 — Hid. Hoover, Lawrence. 

Gum, John— Hid. Hoover, Michael. 

Hall, Thomas— 3. Hoover, Peter. 

Halterman, Charles— Hid. Hoover, Sebastian. 



390 



Hopkins, John. 

Houck, Henry — Dahmer P.O. 

House, Jacob. 

Hutson, David — S-B. 

Hutson, John — S-B. 

Hutson, Thomas— S-B. 

Huffman, Henry. 

Hull, David— Hid. 

Hull, John— Hid. 

Hull, Thomas— Hid. 

Janes, James— Hid. 

Janes, William— Hid. 

Johnson, Andrew — 2. 

Johnson. Richard. 

Jordan, Andrew. 

Kerr, Jacob. 

Keister, Frederick. 

Keister, James. 

Kile, Gabriel— 4. _ 

Kile, Gabriel, Jr. — 

Kile, George, Sr. — 4. 

Kile, George, Jr. 

Kile, Jacob, Sr.— 2. 

Kile. Jacob, Jr. 

Kitts, George. 

Lambert, James. 

Lambert, John, Sr. 

Lambert, John (3d). 

Lantz, Joseph — Hid. 

Lawrence, William. 

Leach, Thomas. 

Legate, Francis. 

Legate, George. 

Legate, John. 

Leiger? Martin — 2. 

Leiger? Lewis. 

Leopard, Martin~B-T, 

Lewis, John. 

Lough, Adam. 

Lough, George. 

Lowther, Ruth. 

Lynch, Peter. 

Lyon, Henry. 

Mallow, Adam. 

Mallow, George. 

Mallow, Henry. 

Mason, Adam— 3. 



Maurer, Daniel — ^3. 

McCall, James. 

McClure, Michael. 

McElwain, Thomas. 

McMakin, John. 

McQuain, Alexander. 

Meaiman, Andrew. 

Michael, John— Hid. 

Mick, Mathias. 

Miller, George. 

Miller, Jacob. 

Miller, John. 

Miller, Leonard. 

Miller, Mathias. 

Miller, Michael. 

Miller, Stephen— 2. 

Minniss, Robert. 

Mise, Peter. 

Mitchell, John— N-F. 

Mitchell, Peter— S-F. 

Moats, Jacob — 3. 

Moon, Benjamin. 

Moore, Benjamin. 

Moore, David. 

Moore, Jonathan. 

Morral, John. 

Morral, Mary. 

Morral, Samuel. 

Morris, John — W. Dry Run. 

Mowrey, George. 

Mullenax, Archibald. 

Mullenax, James. 

Naigley, George— N-F. 

Nelson, John. 

Nicholas, George — 2. 

Painter, John. 

Patterson, James (Ann E.) 

Patterson, Joseph. 

Patton, Matthew. 

Patton, William. 

Peck, Garrett— 4— Straight Cr 

Pedro, Leonard. 

Pendleton, Richard — 3. 

Pendleton, William. 

Pennington, Henry, Sr. 

Pennington, Henry Jr. 

Pennington, Joshua. 



8^ 

Peterson, Michael — 2. Simmons, John. 

Peterson, William. Simmons, Leonard, Sr, 

Phares, John. Simmons, Leonard, Jr. 

Phares, Johnson. Simmons, Leonard (3d). 

Phares, Robert. Simmons, Mark. 

Pickle, Henry — exempt. Simmons, Nicholas. 

Pickle, Christian. Simpson, Allen. 

Piper, James— No. Mill Cr. Sims, James— Hid. 
Poa^e, Robert — 3. Snively ? Patrick. 

Prine, Anthony. Skidmore, James. 

Prine, Henry. Skidmore, John — 2. 

Propst, Catharine. Skidmore, John (2d). 

Propst, Frederick — 4 — (Ja- Skidmore, Joseph. 

cob, John, Henry). Skidmore, Samuel. 

Propst, Henry. Smalley, Benjamin — Hid? 

Propst, Leonard. ' Smalley, John — Hid? 

Propst, Michael. Smith, Christian. 

Propst, Sophia. Smith, Frederick. 

Puffenbarger, George. Smith, Henry— 2. 

Quickie, Adam. Smith, Henry (2d). 

Radabaugh, Henry — Dry Run Smith, John. 
Rease, James. Smith, John (2d). 

Redmond, Samuel — Hid. Smith, John (3d). 

Retzel, George (Barbara)— Snider, Jacob. 

sold to Jacob Conrad, 1792. Snider, John. 
Rexroad, Zachariah, Sr. Spinner, John. 

Rexroad, Zachariah, Jr. Straley, Christian— 2. 

Rexroad, Gteorge. Stratton, Seraiah— 2. 

Richard, Samuel — B u ff a 1 oStone, Christian. 

Hills. Stone, Henry— 3. 

Robinett, Edward— (same as Stone, Peter. 

Robinson). Stotler, John— Harper's Gap 

Robinett, McKenny. Summerfield, Joseph. 

Root, Jacob — S-F. Sumwalt, John. 

Ruleman, Christian — 3 (Chris- Swadley, Benjamin, 

tian, Justus). Swadley, Henry. 

Ruleman, Henry — 2. Swadley, Nicholas. 

*Rye, Joseph (same as Ray). Teter, Abraham. 
Schrader, Nicholas. Teter, George. 

Shields, Peter. Teter, Paul. 

Shall, John. Teter, Philip. 

Shall, Peter. Thompson, Neal— N-F? 

Sibert, George. Toops, John (Christina)— 

Sibert, Henry. Buffalo meadow— sold, 1800 

Simmons, George. Trumbo, George — 2. 

Simmons, Henry. Vandeventer, Barnabas, 



392 



Vandeventer, Jacob. 
Vandeventer, Peter. 
Vaneman, Peter. 
Wagoner, Adam. 
Wagoner, Christian, Sr. — 

Hid. 
Wagoner, Christian, Jr. 
Wagoner, Lewis — 2. 
Waldron, Charles — C 1 a y 

Lick, N-F. 
Waldron, Philip— Clay Lick 

N-F. 
Walker, Charles. 
Walker, George. 
Wamsley, Joseph— W. Dry 

Run. 
Wanstaff, Henry. 
Wanstaff, Lewis. 
Ward, William. 
Warner, Adam — 2 — (John). 
Warrick, John. 
Waugh, James, 
Waybright, James. 
Way bright, Michael. 
Wees, John. 



Werry?, Peter. 

Wise, Jacob. 

Wise, Martin. 

Wise, Sebastian. 

Wheating, Benjamin. 

Whetsell, Christopher. 

White, Ebenezer. 

Witeman, Henry. 

Wilfong, Jacob. 

Wilfong, Michael— 2. 

Wilkenson, George — N-F. 

Wilson, Joseph — Hid. 

Wimer, Jacob. 

Wimer, Philip. 

Wolf, John. 

Wolf, Philip. 

Wood, Isaac — 3. 

Wood, James, Sr. 

Wood, James, Jr. 

Wood, James. 

Wortmiller, John — S w e e d- 

land. 
Yeager, George. 
Yost, Henry. 



SECTION III 



MILITARY 

Supplies for Military Use 

Claims made by the following citizens of Pendleton were 
certified in a Court of Augusta, Aug. 18, 1775. They appear 
to be a result of the Dunmore War of 1794. 



Bennett, William. 
Conrad, Ulrich. 
Cowger, George. 
Cunningham, James. 
Davis, Robert. 
Eberman, Jacob. 
Ellsworth, Moses. 
Fleisher, Peter. 
Friend, Jonas. 
Hammer, George. 
Harper, Nicholas. 
Harpole, Nicholas. 
Hinkle, Jacob. 
Hoover, Sebastian. 

Supplies for Military Use, 1 792 

Claims were rendered in 1782 by citizens of Pendleton for 
supplies furnished the American army in the Revolution. 
The items most often mentioned are "diets," beef, bacon, 
oats, coarse linen, and horse hire. The persons presenting 
such claims are given below. See also page 64. 



Hull, Peter, 
Judy, Martin. 
Moser, Adam. 
Patterson, James. 
Patton, Matthew. 
Peterson, Jacob. 
Richardson, Ephraim. 
Ruleman, Henry. 
Skidmore, Ann. 
Stephenson, John. 
Teter, Paul. 
Vaneman, Peter. 
Wise, John. 



Blizzard, Thomas. 
Collett, Thomas. 
Conrad, Ulrich. 
Coplinger, George. 
Cowger, Michael. 
Cunningham, William. 
Davis, John. 
Davis, Robert. 
Dice, Mathias. 
Dunkle, George. 
Dunkle, John. 



Harpole, Michael. 
Hedrick, Charles. 
Hevener, Francis. 
Hevener, Jacob. 
Hinkle, Abraham. 
Hinkle, Justus. 
Hoover, Sebastian. 
Johnson, Andrew. 
Keister, Frederick. 
Kile, Gabriel. 
Kile, George. 



394 

Dyer, James. Mallow, George. 

Dyer, Roger. Minniss, Robert. 

Ellsworth, Moses. Nelson, John. 

Evick, Francis. Patton, Matihew. 

Evick, George. Skidmore, Jtmes. 

Friend, Jacob. Skidmore, Samuel. 

Gragg, William. Stone, Henry. 

Hamilton, Garvin. Swadley, Henry. 

Harman, David. Teter, George. 

Harper, Jacob. Teter, Paul. 

Harper, Philip. Wagoner, Lewis. 

A Declaration of 1820 

Declaration of Nicholas Bargerhoff in 1820. He states that 
he is 54 years old; that in the battle of Brandy wine he re- 
ceived a buckshot wound in the right arm; that his farm is 
poor and his wife infirm; that he has five daughters between 
the ages of 24 and 11 years and able to work. 

150 acres of stony mountain land $200.00 

2 little poor horses 60.00 

1 cow, under execution 14.00 

2 cows 20.00 
1 heifer 6.00 
5 sheep and four lambs 9.00 
1 hog .75 
4 hens, 1 cock, 5 young chickens .50 
1 table 1.00 
1 dresser .17 
4 old spoons .25 
1 pewter plate .20 
1 pewter dish .50 
1 large iron pot 2.00 
1 iron kettle "crack'd" 1.00 

1 handsaw .50 

2 old pod augers .50 
2 old sickles 1.00 
2 old tin cups without handles .20 
1 steelyard with one hook lost and the 

weight tied with string .33 

1 old axe, 1 old bridle 1.17 

$321.56 
Indebtedness 125.21 



Net value of estate $196.35 



395 

Citizens Elxempted from Military Service in 1794 by 
Reason of Physical Infirmity. 

Bland, Thomas. Mick, Mathias. 

Blizzard, Thomas. Miller, George. 

Bush, Lewis. Nelson, John. 

Conn, Michael. Parker, Thomas. 

Conrad, Jacob. Patterson, William. 

Cophnger, George. Peninger, Henry. 

Evick, George. Radabaugh, Henry. 

Fisher, Philip. Root, Jacob. 

Fultz, Philip. Shaw, Peter. 

Hill, John. Stone, John. 

Lambert, John. Wilson, James. 

Life, Martin. Wolf, Philip. 
McKinley, Peter. 

Militia Districts, Companies, and Officers 

Districts of 1794 

Patton's — South Fork up to Henry Swadley's. 

Hoover's — South Fork from Swadley's up to Michael Hoover's 

and John Harold's, and including John Conrad 

and Jacob Moats on Blackthorn and Nicholas 

Emick on South Fork mountain. 

McCoy's — From above Michael Hoover's to Alexander Mc- 

Quain's and thence to the Bath line. 
Jones' — From Balsor Hammer's on South Branch across to 
the mouth of west fork of Dry Run, including the 
head of North Fork. 
Hopkins' — From Jacob Conrad's on South Branch to Hardy 

Hne, including Graham. 
Gragg's — From mouth of West Dry Run to Hardy line. 
Patterson's — From Charles Hedrick's up South Branch to the 
Hne of Janes' company. 

Militia Companies as Ordered by the First County Court (1788) and 
the Officers Assigned to Them. 

Upper North Fork Company — Captain, William Eberman; 
Lieutenant, Thomas Carpenter; Ensign, George Wilke- 
son. 

Lower North Fork Company— Captain, William Gragg; Lieu- 
tenant, Thomas Gillespie; Ensign, . 

Middle Branch Company— Captain, James Patterson; Lieu- 
tenant, Abraham Carper; Ensign, Adam Harper. 

Lower South Branch Company — Captain, James Skidmore; 
Lieutenant, George Lough; Ensign, John Cunningham. 



/ 



396 

Upper South Fork Company — Captain, Jacob Hoover; Lieu> 
tenant, Gillespie; Ensign, Thomas Hoover. 

Lower South Fork Company— Captain, Roger Dyer; Lieuten- 
ant, William Patton; Ensign, William Dyer. 

Crabbottom Company — Captain, Adam Hull; Lieutenant, 
William Janes; Ensign, Jacob Gum. 

Officers of the Forty-Sixth Regiment in 1793. 

Colonel, Peter Hull. 

Major First Battalion, Henry Fleisher. 

Major Second Battalion, Roger Dyer. 

Company Officers of First Battalion — Captains : James 
Patterson, Jacob Hoover, William Janes, Robert Mc- 
Coy. Lieutenants : Adam Harper, Thomas Hoover, 
Adam Arbogast, John Armstrong. Ensigns : George 
Dice, William Ward, Jacob Hull, Paul Summers. 

Company Officers of Second Battalion — Captains : William 
Gragg, Isaac Hinkle, William Patton, Adam Mason. 
Lieutenants : Samuel Ruleman, Johnson Phares, Wil- 
liam Dyer, John Cunningham. Ensigns : Samuel 
Day, John Legate, James Keister, Henry Wallace. 

Later Officers with the Dates of Commission. 

Colonels— Jesse Hinkle (1820), Samuel Johnson (1846). 

Lieutenant Colonels — Christian Ruleman (1820), William 
Fleisher (1827). 

Majors— William Dyer (1820), Samuel Johnson (1846). 

Captains — William Dyer (17%), Thomas Hoover (1797), 
Samuel Johnson (1802), William Simmons (1827), Ja- 
cob F. Johnson (1832). 

Lieutenants— James Keister (1796), Oliver McCoy (1800), 
Frederick Keister (1800), Jacob Hiner (1803), Jesse 
Hinkle (1803). 

Ensigns— Oh ver McCoy (1795), Jacob Carr, Jr. (1796), Eli- 
babb Wilson (1796), George Swadley (1799), Valen- 
tine Bird (1800). Zachariah Rexroad (1800), Jehu 
Johnson (1800), Joseph McCoy (1802), Benjamin Con- 
rad (1803). 
In 1804 Adam Conrad was commissioned captain of a troop 

of cavalry in the Third Regiment, Third Division. 

William was Brigadier General for the district which in- 
cluded this county and was succeeded by James Boggs. 

Muster Rolls of Pendleton Militia, Sept. 6, 1794 

Capt. William Patton's Company 

Atchison, Silas. Hevener, Nicholas. 



897 



Blizzard, Burton. 
Blizzard, William. 
Coffman, Michael. 
Cowger, Michael. 
Davis, John. 
Dice, George. 
Dice, Jacob. 
Dice, Philip. 
Dickenson, Samuel. 
Dunkle, John, Sr. 
Dunkle, John, Jr. 
Dunkle, George. 
Dunkle, Jacob. 
Dyer, James. 
Dyer, John. 
Dyer, Roger. 
Dyer, Zebulon. 
Fisher, Charles. 
Fisher, Jacob. 
Fisher, John. 
Fisher, Philip. 
Franklin, George. 
Hall, John. 
Harpole, Daniel. 
Harpole, Michael. 
Hevener, Adam, 
Hevener, Jacob. 



Hiser, Charles. 
Hoover, Jacob. 
House, Jacob. 
House, John. 
Janes, Henry. 
Keister, Frederick. 
Keister, George. 
Miller, Daniel. 
Miller, John. 
Miller, William. 
Mitchell, Jacob. 
Morral, James. 
Morral, John. 
Morral, Samuel. 
Propst, Christian. 
Propst, George. 
Propst, Henry. 
Propst, John. 
Rexroad, Leonard. 
Simpson, William. 
Smith, William. 
Trumbo, Adrew. 
Turnipseed. Jacob. 
Wanstaff, Lewis. 
Whitecotton, James. 
Wortmiller, George. 
Wortmiller, John. 



Capt. Jacob Hoover's Company 



Conrad, John, 
Cowger, John. 
Crummett, Conrad. 
Crummett, Frederick. 
Eckard, Philip. 
Eckard, William. 
Elsey, Thomas. 
Emick, Henry. 
Emick, Nicholas. 
Garner, John. 
Harold, Christian. 
Harold, John. 
Harold, Michael. 
Hoover, George. 
Hoover, Lawrence. 
Hoover, Michael. 
Huffman, Henry. 



Propst, George. 
Propst, Jacob. 
Propst, Leonard. 
Puffenbarger, George. 
Ruleman, Christian. 
Ruleman, Joseph. 
Sibert, Philip. 
Simmons, John, Sr. 
Simmons, John, Jr. 
Simmons, Leonard. 
Simmons, Leonard. 
Simmons, Michael. 
Smith, Frederick. 
Smith, John. 
Smith, William. 
Snider, Jacob. 
Stone, Christian. 



898 



Huffman, Michael. 
Howe, Henry. 
Howe, Jacob. 
Kelly, George. 
Kow, Christian. 
Mick, Mathias. 
Moats, George. 
Moats, John. 
Pitsenbarger, Jacob. 



Stone, Peter. 
Swadley, Henry. 
Vance, Abraham. 
Varner, George. 

Varner, . 

Warner, Conrad. 
Whiteman, Henry. 
Wilfong, Henry. 
Wilfong, Jacob. 



Capt. Robert McCoy's Company 



Blagg, Samuel. 
Bodkin, James. 
Bodkin, John. 
Bodkin, John. 
Bodkin, John. 
Bodkin, William. 
Burnett, Henry. 
Burnett, Robert. 
Burnett, Samuel. 
Chesling. John, Jr. 
Curry, James. 
Davis, John. 
Deverick, Thomas. 
Douglas, James. 
DufReld, Abraham. 
DufReld, Isaac. 
Duffield, John. 
DufReld, Robert. 
Duffield, Thomas. 
Dunn, Aaron. 
Fox, John. 
Gamble, John. 
Gamble, William. 
Harris, William. 
Hiner, Jacob. 
Johns, Jeremiah. 
Jones, Henry. 
Jones, John. 
Jordan, Andrew. 
Lamb, Henry. 
Lamb, Jacob. 
Lamb, Nicholas. 
Lamb, William. 
Lewis, Jonathan. 



Lewis Joseph. 
Long, William. 
Mai comb, Alexander. 
Malcomb, James. 
Malcomb, John. 
Malcomb, Joseph, Jr. 
Malcomb Robert. 
McCoy, Benjamin. 
McCoy, John. 
McCrea, James. 
McCrea, John. 
McCrea, Robert, Jr. 
McQuain, Alexander. 
Morton, Edward. 
Mowrey, George, Sr. 
Mowrey, George, Jr. 
Mowrey, Henry. 
Neal, John. 
Neal, Thomas. 
Parker. Thomas, 
Scott, John. 
Sheets, George. 
Simms, James. 
Smith, Caleb. 
Smith, William. 
Syron, John. 
Varner, Jacob. 
Vint, William. 
Whiteman, Henry. 
Wilson, James. 
Wilson, Elibabb. 
Wood, James. 
Wood, John. 



899 



Capt. William Jane*' Company 



Arbogast, David. 
Arbogast, George. 
Arbogast, Henry. 
Arbogast, John. 
Arbogast, Michael. 
Arbogast, Peter. 
Beveridge, David. 
Buzzard, Michael. 
Coovert, Peter. 
Eagan, John. 
Fleisher, Conrad. 
Fleisher, Palsor. 
Fox, Michael. 
George, Reuben. 
Gragg, John. 
Gragg. Philip. 
Gum, Abraham, 
Gum, Jacob. 
Halterman. Charles. 
Hammer. Balsor. 
Harper, Adam. 
Huffman, Christian. 
Hull, Adam. 
Hull, George, 
Jones, James. 
Kitts, George. 
Lambert, John. 
Life, Martin, Jr. 
Lightner, Andrew. 
Lightner, Peter. 
McMahan, John. 
Michael, William. 
Moore, David. 



Markle (?) George. 
MuUenax, Archibald. 
Mullenax, James. 
Murray, Edward. 
Peck, John. 
Peck, Jacob. 
Peck, Michael. 
Radabaugh. Henry. 
Rexroad, George. 
Rexroad, John. 
Richards, Basil. 
Rymer, George. 
Sibert, Jacob. 
Simmons, Henry. 
Simpson, Alexander, 
Smalley, Benjamin. 
Smith, William. 
Swadley, Nicholas. 
Thomas, John. 
Thomas, Richard. 
Waggoner, Christian. 
Waggoner, Joseph. 
Waggoner, Michael. 
Walker, Joseph. 
Wamsley, Joseph. 
Waybright, Martin. 
Waybright, Michael. 
White, John. 
Whiteman, William. 
Williams, Robert. 
Wimer Henry. 
Wimer, Jacob. 
Wimer, Philip. 



CapL J. Hopkins' Company. 



Alkire, John. 
Alkire, Peter. 
Alt, Adam. 
Briggs, Joseph. 
Briggs, Samuel. 
Bush, John. 
Bush, Leonard. 
Butcher. Nicholas, Sr. 
Butcher, Nicholas, Jr. 
Colaw, Abraham. 



Kile, Samuel. 
Lough, George. 
Lowner, George. 
Lowner, Uriah. 
Lynch, Peter. 
Mallow, Adam. 
Miller, Conrad. 
Miller, George. 
Miller, John. 
Moser, Adam, Sr. 



400 



Colaw, Jacob. 

Colep, John. 

Conrad, Benjamin. 

Davis, Theophilus. 

Feigh thorn (?) Philip. 
"^Fultz, George. 
^Fultz, Philip. 

Graham, James. 

Green await, George. 

Harpole, Solomon. 

Hill. John. 

Kessner, Adam. 

Kessner, Wendall. 

Kile, Andrew. 

Kile, George, Sr. 

Kile, George, Jr. 

Kile, George. 

Kile, Jacob, Sr. 

Kile, Jacob, Jr. 

Kile, Oliver. 



Moser, Adam, Jr. 
Piper, James. 
Skidmore, Elijah. 
Skidmore, James. 
Skidmore, John. 
Smith, John, Sr. 
Smith, John, Jr. 
Troxal, John. 
Vandeventer, Isaac. 
Waldron, George. 
Waldron, Philip. 
Westfall, Isaac. 
Williams, Joseph. 
Wilson, Richard. 
Wise, Martin. 
Wise, Sebastian. 
Wyant, Henry. 
Fisher, George. 
Fisher, Jacob. 



Capt. William Gragg's Company. 



Barer, Andrew. 
Bennett, James. 
Bennett, John. 
Bennett, Thomas. 
Bennett, William Sr. 
Bennett, William, Jr. 
Bland, Henry. 
Briggs, John. 
Callahan, John. 
Carr, Jacob. 
Coberly Isaac. 
Coar, Philip. 
Cunningham, James. 
Cunningham, John. 
Cunninorham, William. 
Davis, Thomas. 
Day, Basil. 
Day, Ezekiel. 
DolDbins, James. 
Dolly, John. 
Ferrill, Peter. 
Full, Lewis. 
Harman, Isaac. 
Harper, Adam. 



Holder, Thomas. 
Ketterman, George. 
Legate, Francis. 
Miller, George. 
Miller, Jacob. 
Miller, Leonard. 
Mitchell. John. 
Mouse, Adam. 
Mouse, Daniel. 
Mouse, Michael. 
Nageley, George. 
Nelson, John. 
Nelson, William. 
Pennington, Richard. 
Peterson, Adam. 
Peterson, William. 
Ray, William. 
Root, Jacob. 
Stotler, John. 
Teter, Abraham. 
Teter, Isaac. 
Teter, John. 
Teter, Joseph. 
Teter, Paul. 



401 



Harper, Jacob. 
Harper, Philip. 
Hedrick, Frederick. 
Helmick, Jacob. 
Hinkle, Michael. 
Hinkle, Isaac. 
Hinkle, Justus. 
Hinkle, Michael. 
Hinkle, Michael. 



Bible, George. 
Capito, Daniel. 
Cassell, John. 
Cassell, Peter. 
Clifton, John. 
Collett, Thomas. 
Conrad. Adam. 
Conrad, George. 
Conrad, Jacob. 
Coplinger, Adam. 
Cowen, Henry. 
Cowen, John. 
Cox, Thomas. 
Croushorn, Jacob. 
Davis, WilHam. 
Evick, Adam. 
Evick, John. 
Eulett, James. 
Field, Zachariah. 
Flinn, George. 
Friend, Jacob. 
Friend. Jonathan. 
S* Fultz, Nicholas. 
Gamble, John. 
Gragg, Adam. 
Gragg. Philip. 
Hall, Davie. 
Hartman, John. 
Hedrick, Charles. 
Hedrick, John. 



Capt. 



Teter, Samuel. 
Tingler, Michael. 
Waugh, Samuel. 
Wees, George. 
Whitecotton, George. 
Wiser, Solomon. 
Wolf, Jacob. 
Wood, Daniel. 
Wood, John. 

Patterson's Company 

Hinkle, Joseph. 
Howell, Jeremiah. 
Johnson, John. 
Keller, Christopher. 
Lawrence, William. 
Mallow, Jacob. 
Morral, William. 
Moyers, George. 
Moyers, Peter. 
Patterson, Baptist. 
Penninger, John. 
Pichtal, John. 
Prine, Anthony. 
Rexroad, George. 
Rexroad, Zachariah. 
Ryan, Joseph. 
Sinnett, Patrick. 
Smith, Abraham. 
Stall, William. 
Thompson, Moses. 
Vandeventer, Bernard. 
Vandeventer, George. 
Vandeventer, Jacob. 
Wage, John. 
Wagoner, Adam. 
Wanstaff, Henry. 
Windling, Charles. 
Wise, Henry. 
Wooden, Jonathan. 
Wyatt, Edmund. 



Pendletonians in Military Service Between 1775 and ISGl*^ 

The number of Pendleton pioneers who served in the Con- 
tinental army during the Revolution, or in the militia service, 



* This county furnished no organized command for the Mexican war, 
but there were probably a few natives of Pendleton among the soldiers. 



402 

was undoubtedly very considerable, but our present knowl- 
edge in the matter is exceedingly incomplete. No record of 
the number appears to have been preserved, even in the ar- 
chives of Augusta and Rockingham. The following men are 
known to have been in the American service. 

Bargerhoff, Nicholas. Mallow, Henry. 

Bible, George. McQuain, Alexander. 

Davis, Robert — Major. Rexroad, Zachariah. 

Hamilton, Garvin. Rexroad, Henry. 

Huffman, Henry. Teter Philip. 

Keister, James. Vance, John. 

Lawrence, William. Stratton, Seraiah — Captain. 

In 1840, the following Revolutionary pensioners were living 
in this county. Their ages are also given: 

Charles Borrer— 83, Thomas (7) Deverick, Sr.— 78, Michael 
Eagle— 79, Michael Hoover-88, Thomas Kiiikead— 76, Wil- 
liam Lawrence— 73, Edward Morton — 76, Zachariah Rexroad, 
Jr.— 79, George Rymer, Sr.— 90, Eli B. Wilson— 84. 

In 1794 an army of 15.000 men, under the command of 
Governor Henry Lee of Virginia, was sent to put down the 
Whiskey Insurrection in Pennsylvania. Pendleton furnished 
at least one company, and it was commanded by Captain 
James Patterson. It was ordered that the names of the 
company be put on record, and this was probably done but 
the list is not known to be in existence. 

During the war of 1812, Captain Jesse Hinkle led a company 
of Pendleton troops to Norfolk. The following are the only 
names of Pendleton men in that war of whom we have any 
knowledge: 

Bolton, Jacob. Keister, Frederick. 

Calhoun, William. Lamb, Michael. 

Hevener, George. McQuain, Duncan. 

Hinkle, Jesse — Captain. Nelson, Benham. 

Hoover Ines. Vandeventer, George. 

Pendletonians in the War of 1861 — Federal and State 

Service* 

Pendleton did not contribute an organized command for the 
Federal Army in the War Between the States. But several 
men enlisted in West Virginia regiments, or in regiments from 
other states. The following are such of their names as have 
been furnished to us : 

* No command was raised in this county for the war with Spain in 
1898, and no native of Pendleton is known to have enlisted elsewhere. 
M. S. Hodges served in Company K, Fourth Ohio. 



403 



Calhoun, Jacob. 

Day, Samuel M. — died in Salisbury prison. 

Day, George — died in service. 

Hinkle, Abraham. 

Ketterman, Nicholas — served in an Illinois regiment. 

Miller, John A. — private of Co. I, Seventh West Virginia 
Infantry. 

Montony, Goliday. 

Shreve, Cyrus H. 

In the north of the county the men sympathizing with the 
Federal cause and resisting enlistment in the Confederate 
service formed themselves into armed organizations. They 
became state troops under the government of West Virginia, 
but were not in the Federal service. The companies of 
Captain Boggs and Captain Mallow were accredited to Pen- 
dleton. Other Pendleton men served in the companies of 
Captain Bond and Captain Snider but the former company 
was more properly a Hardy command and the latter was 
chiefly composed of Randolph men. Not being put in posses- 
sion of the muster rolls of those companies, we are not able 
to present a full list of the Pendleton men who served in 
them. 

Roster of Pendleton Home Guards 

Muster Roll (April 30, 1865— May 31, 1865) of Captain John 
Bogers' Company of Pendleton Scouts, called into the Service 
of West Virginia by Governor Boreman. Place of enrollment 
Mouth of Seneca. Time of enlistment, one year. 



Name. Rank. 

Boggs, John Capt. 

Phares, William Lieut. 

Boggs, Isaac P. 1st Ser. 

Miller, John 2d Ser. 

Vance, Reuben 1st Corp. 

Helmick, Noah C. 2d Corp, 

Mallow, Abraham B. 3d Corp. 

Davis, Jesse Jr., 4th Corp. 

Bible, Jacob Private 

Buckbee, James 
Burns, Kennison 
Carr, John 
Champ, Amos, 
Champ, Thomas 
Clayton, Samuel 
Davis, Miles 
Davis, Enoch 



Date of Enrollment 

and Muster. 
May 1, 1864. 

7 

May 1. 

June 1. 

June. 

June. 

May 1. 

May. 

June 1. 

May 1. 

Dec. 1. 

May 1. 

May, absent, sick. 

May. 

May. 

May. 

May. 



404 



Davis, Aaron 
Davis, Job 
Davis, Jethro, Sr. 
Davis, Jethro, Jr. 
Day, Aaron 
Day, Benjamin P. 
Dice, Daniel M. 
Dolly, Amby H. 
Dolly, Isaac I. 
Flinn, John 
George, James 
Harman, Cyrus 
Harman, Jacob 
Harman, Henry 
Harper, William P. 
Harper, John A. 
Hedrick, Adam 
Huffman, Christian 
Ketterman, J. G. 
Ketterman, William W. 
Kisamore, Adam J. 
Kisamore, Jonas 
Lough, George 
Mallow, Simon H. 
Miller, Isaac H. 
Mouse, Adam 
Mullenax, James P. 
Payne, John D. 
Phares. Miloway 
Shirk, George 
Teter, David A. 
Teter, George 
Teter, John 
Vance, John A. 
Vance, Solomon 
Vance, Perry 



Private May. 

May. 

Sept. 1. 

May 1. 

May. 

May. 

May. 

May. 

June 1. 

July 1. 
" May 1, absent, sick. 

Dec. 1. 
" May 1, absent, sick. 

'* June 1, absent, sick. 

** May 1, absent, sick. 

May. 

June 1. 
" May 1, absent, sick. 

May. 

May. 

May. 

May. 

May. 

May. 

May. 
" June 1, absent, sick. 

May. 

May 1. 

June 1. 

May 1. 

May. 
** May, absent, sick. 

" May, absent, sick. 

May 1. 
May. 
May. 
June 1. 



Waybright, Daniel 
Wilfong. H. A. 

Muster Roll (Dec. 31, 1864-Mar. 31, 1865) of Captain 
Michael Mallow's Company of Pendleton Scouts. Date of 
enrollment and muster, July 1, 1864. Final discharge, Mar. 
31, 1865. Place of enrollment. Brushy Run. Period of en- 
listment, one year. 

Name. Rank. Kimble, Adam Private 

Mallow, Michael Capt. Kimble, John S. 
Hiser, Jonathan Lieut. Kimble, Henry " 



406 



Shreve, Daniel G. 
Cook, N. L. 
Mallow, A. W. 
Kessner, Van B. 
Lough, Daniel 
Mallow, Moses 
Borrer, Simon 
Kessner, Jacob 
Hedrick, George B. 
Self, William 
Ayers, Isaiah 
Crider, Jacob 
Dean, Hiram 
Greenawalt, Noah 
Harman, Moab 
Harman, Paul 
Hedrick, Henry C. 
Judy, Isaac 
Kessner, John H. 
Kessner, William 
Ketterman, Jesse 
Kimble, Alfred 



1st Ser. Kimble, William W. Private 

2d Ser. Kimble, David 

3d Ser. Kimble, Nicodemus " 

4th Ser. Kimble, Abraham " 

1st Corp. Lough, George " 

2d Corp. Lough, Josiah P. 

3d Corp. Lough, Reuben M. 

4th Corp. Mallow, Noah 

5th Corp. Mallow, Samuel 

6th Corp. Mallow, Isaac " 

Private Mallow, William H. " 
Mallow, Jacob 
Ratliff, Solomon Y. 
Riggleman, John " 

Shreve, Clark ^ 
Shreve, WesleyJ 
Shreve, Charles W. 
Shreve, Benjamin " 

Simmons, Jonas " 

Vanmeter, Daniel *' 

Vanmeter, Henry ** 

Whetsell, Andrew J. 



In addition to the Pendletonians in the two companies above 
named there were others in the companies of Capt. John A. 
Snider and Capt. John S. Bond. The former company was 
mainly of Randolph men and the latter mainly of citizens of 
what is now Grant. Not having been furnished the muster 
rolls of these companies we are unable to give an exact list of 
the Pendletonians enrolled in them. The following are some 
of the names: 



Alt, Jacob. 
Arbogast, George. 
Bennett, Daniel. 
Bennett, EHjah. 
Bond, John S. — Captain. 
Halterman, Joseph. 
Harman, Eli — k. 
Harman, Joshua — k. 
Harper, John W. 
Harper, Jonas — k. 
Harper, Perry — k. 
Harper, Evan— k. 
Helmick, Mathias. 



Helmick, Abraham. 
Helmick. William. 
Helmick, Pleasant. 
Mick, Sampson. 
Mick, John — executed. 
Propst, Morgan. 
Rexroad, George M. 
Snider, John A. — Captain. 
Teter, William— k. 
Teter, Isaac. 
Tingler, Enos. 
Way bright, Columbus. 



406 

Some Account of Confederate Regiments Containing Pen- 
dleton Men 

The Pendleton regiment of State Militia — the Forty- Sixth 
— was commanded at the outbreak of the war by Col. Jehu F. 
Johnson. It was called out in the spring of 1861, and saw a 
brief term of service under Stonewall Jackson in the lower 
extremity of the South Branch valley. It was soon disbanded, 
the members generally enlisting in the volunteer regiments 
of the Confederate service. 

The Franklin Guards were a volunteer company of militia, 
and were organized not later than the spring of 1859. One 
of the lieutenants was quite vexed that the command was not 
called out at the time of the John Brown raid at Harper's 
Ferry. They uniformed themselves in a dark blue suit with 
black hat and a plume, and were furnished with arms by the 
state. They were a picked body of men 110 strong. Under 
Capt. John B. Moomau, they marched about May 10, 1861, to 
join the force under Porterfield at Grafton. A second com- 
pany of the same nature was the Pendleton Rifles, organized 
at High town from members of the militia regiment. Under 
Capt. David C. Anderson, it marched May 18, also to join 
Porterfield. These companies were at first a part of Reger's 
Battalion, and were present at Philippi. At the time of the 
fighting around Beverly, the Rifles were at Laurel Hill and 
were not engaged. The Guards were at Rich Mountain, where 
many of them were captured. They were paroled at Beverly, 
and exchanged the following year. As distinct commands 
these companies went out of existence, becoming companies 
F and K of the 31st Infantry, and upon a reorganization the 
following spring they became E and K of the 25th. 

In addition to these companies of the 25th, C, F, I, and K 
of the 62d Infantry, and the equivalent of one full company 
of the 18th Cavalry, were quite wholly from this county. 
There were also some Pendleton men in the 14th and 31st 
Infantry, the 7th Cavalry, McNeill's Rangers, and the Pen- 
dleton Reserves. Two persons are known to have been trans- 
ferred to a North Carolina regiment. 

What was left of the two companies with the army of Gar- 
nett acompanied the retreat of his force to the Northwestern 
turnpike, and thence up the South Branch to Monterey. 
They took part in the actions on the Greenbrier under Gen- 
eral Lee and at Camp Alleghany under Edward Johnson. 
Meanwhile Captain Anderson had resigned and was succeeded 
by Captain Wilson Harper, who remained with the 25th to the 
close of the war, rising to the rank of major. 

The active service of the 25th began the next May. At the 



407 

battle of McDowell it suffered severely. As a part of Jack- 
son's army it took a full share in the very energetic move- 
ments of that general during the remainder of the year. It 
followed him to Richmond and was in four or five of the bat- 
tles of the Peninsula. After Sharpsburg, where its loss was 
heavy, the Pendleton company being nearly used up, it rested 
and recruited. At the close of the next April it left the en- 
trenchments on the Rappahannock for a campaign of about 
five weeks under Imboden. It penetrated beyond the AUe- 
ghanies to Weston, Sutton, and Summerville, rejoining the 
army of Lee at the close of the fight at Brandy Station, and 
taking part in the engagements around Winchester. At Get- 
tysburg it was in Johnson's division of E well's corps, and in 
the assault on the Federal right. Company K lost ten men out 
of eighteen, two being killed. After undergoing losses at the 
Wilderness, the regiment was almost annihilated by capture in 
Hancock's attack on the Bloodly Angle. It is said that the reg- 
iment opened the Battle of the Wilderness, the men doing the 
first firing being Adam Bible, L. C. andH. H. Davis, Isaac D. 
Hinkle, James Spencer, and Josiah H. Siple. It was one of 
the commands surrendered at Appomattox on the historic day 
of April 9, 1865. The names and dates of all the actions wherein 
the regiment took part are as follows: (1861), Philippi, June, 
3; Camp Alleghany, Dec. 13; (1862), McDowell, May 8, Front 
Royal, May 23, Newtown, May 24, Winchester, May 25, Cross 
Keys, June 8, Port Republic June 9, Peninsula, June 26 — July 
1, Cedar Mountain. Aug. 9, Manassas, Aug. 29-30, Chantilly, 
Sept. 1, Harper's Ferry, Sept. 14-15, Sharpsburg, Sept. 18, 
Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, (1864), Brandy Station, June 10, 
Winchester, June 14, Gettysburg, July 1-3, Mine Run, Nov. — , 
(1864), Wilderness, May 5-6, Spottsylvania, May 8-12, Cold 
Harbor, June 1. Subsequent to this date we are without de- 
tailed information. On a new flag presented the regiment in 
the winter of 1862-3 are the names of 14 engagements. 

The 62d Infantry was organized at Warm Springs toward 
the latter part of 1862, and being composed of men who had 
already seen service, it was at once a veteran command. The 
next April it was moved to Camp Washington, where the 
Staunton and Parkersburg Pike begins its eastern ascent of 
Shenandoah Mountain. With the 25th and 31st Infantry, the 
18th Cavalry, White's Battalion, and McClenahan's Battery, 
it formed under Imboden the Northwest Brigade of the Army 
of Northern Virginia. It now made the dash across the Alle- 
ghanies already spoken of in our account of the 25th. At 
Weston a handsome battleflag was presented by some ladies of 
that town with the stipulation that the flag be neither surren- 
dered nor dishonored. This condition was fulfilled, although 



408 

the banner was seven times brought to the earth at New Mar- 
ket. A suitable speech of acceptance was made by the colonel. 

On its return the 62d took part in the Gettysburg campaign. 
In that great battle it was not actively engaged, being posted 
in the rear on the left to guard against a flank movement. At 
Williamsport it helped to cover Lee's retreat across the Poto- 
mac, and in the action at that place it lost 75 men. It was 
thereafter employed in guarding 4,000 Federal prisoners who 
were marched to Staunton. It now became a mounted regi- 
ment and was equipped with Enfield rifles. In time of action 
every fourth man was detailed to take charge of the horses. 
The subsequent service of the regiment was mainly in the 
Valley. In the winter of 1863-4 it marched to Covington 
over an icy road, and the next May it took a prominent part 
in the battle of New Market. 

After that event the regiment was never recruited to any- 
thing like its former strength. It was soon forwarded with- 
out its mounts to reinforce Lee on the North Anna. At Tot- 
opotomy creek it was complimented for a daring advance, 
whereby it drove back a skirmish line of sharpshooters whose 
fire had been very annoying. The charge was efl^ected with 
little loss and with the capture of some prisoners. After the 
battle of Cold Harbor, in which the regiment was engaged, 
the 62d marched with Early to the relief of Lynchburg, and 
then into Maryland to the vicinity of Washington. From first 
to last it was in at least 34 actions. At the time of the sur- 
render of Lee it was lying at Lynchburg. Colonel Smith was 
then in command of the whole brigade and moved to Danville 
for the purpose of joining the army of Johnston in North 
Carolina. Headed off by Stoneman, he crossed the Blue 
Ridge to Fincastle, where on April 15th, the 62d, then num- 
bering only about 45 men, was disbanded. Company I was 
represented only by its captain. The commander had told the 
men to reassemble at Staunton May 15th, to continue the 
resistance as a guerilla war, but owing to the example and 
influence of General Lee this purpose was never carried out. 

The 18th Cavalry of Imboden's brigade was organized about 
June, 1862, and its service was chiefly in the Valley. There 
was an occasional movement beyond the Blue Ridge and the 
Alleghanies. It shared in the battles of Gettysburg, Wil- 
liamsport, Monocacy, Fisher's Hill, Cedar Creek, Piedmont, 
and Waynesboro. It was also in three actions at Winches- 
ter and two at Kernstown, and its most severe engagement 
was that of Piedmont. During Sheridan's Valley campaign 
it was almost continually under fire for six weeks. A day or 
two before the battle of New Market, in which it was also 
present, it captured a force of Federal cavalry that had been 



409 

driven into a cove of Massanutten Mountain. When Lee sur- 
rendered the regiment was east of the Blue Ridge. To avoid 
its own surrender and capture it disbanded and its members 
scattered. 

During the war a considerable number of Pendleton soldiers 
were held as prisoners, especially in Camp Chase. A veteran 
who was there nearly a year speaks of the prison as containing 
a number of weather- boarded houses, somewhat open to the 
air, yet not uncomfortably cold except during severe weather. 
The prisoners were supplied with straw and blankets and good 
bunks. There was generally enough to eat, but there was an 
excess of salt pork in the ration. The yard contained but three 
acres, and the prison being usually full, there was insufficient 
room for exercise. The sickness in the camp was chiefly the 
result of an unbalanced diet and of contagious diseases, like 
measles and smallpox. The treatment of prisoners by guards 
was considerate when the latter were men from the front, 
but none too kind when of boys who had not seen actual service. 

An inspection of the roster shows that of the 732 men listed 
therein, 82 were killed in action or from ambush, or were mor- 
tally wounded. 53 others died in service, and 21 more in Fed- 
eral prisons, making a death-roll of 156, or more than 21 per 
cent. This total would be slightly increased by the names over- 
looked or forgotten. Those mentioned as wounded are 39, and 
some of these were wounded more than once. But it is obvious 
that the actual number of the wounded would be vastly 
greater. 218 are known as having died since the war, and the 
number of survivors, March 1, 1900, appears to be 358. 

The history of these commands and the story told in the 
roster of their names shows beyond cavil that the men fur- 
nished by Pendleton County to the Confederate army were 
soldiers of sterling quality, that they saw hard service, and 
that they followed the fortunes of their cause with a stead- 
fastness which goes with a deep conception of patriotic duty. 

General James Boggs, commander of the Militia brigade 
containing the Pendleton regiment, went to the front with 
his men in the spring of 1861, but his health failing, he re- 
turned home and died the following winter. The man en- 
listing from this county who rose to the highest rank in the 
regular service was Major Wilson Harper of the 25th. He 
was wounded in the shoulder at the wilderness. His parole 
at Appomattox reads as follows : Paroled Prisoner's Pass— 
"Appomattox Court House, Va., April 10, 1865. The Bearer, 
Wilson Harper, Major of 25th Regiment of Va. Infantry, a 
paroled prisoner of the Army of Northern Virginia, has per- 
mission to go to his home, and there remain undisturbed, 
(signed) T. V. Williams, Col. Comd'g Brig.'* 



410 

The Battle of New Market 

The battle of New Market was fought on the showery 15th 
of May, 1864, between 4, 100 Confederates under Breckenridge 
and 5,300 Federals under Sigel.* Though superior in numbers 
and artillery the Federal force was so badly handled as to 
invite the defeat that followed. Breckenridge formed his 
line of battle to the south of the town and on both sides of 
the Valley Turnpike. The 62d Virginia was present, having 
been temporarily attached to Wharton's brigade, which was 
placed in the lead. The 51st was on Wharton's left and the 
62d on the Shirley hill at the right, thus placing it a little 
west of the turnpike. McClenahan'sbatterry was 150 yards 
to the rear. In echelon to the right of Wharton was the sec- 
ond line, the 22d being on its right and somewhat to the rear 
of the 62d and Derrick's battalion being on the right. In 
reserve was the cadet corps from the Virginia Military Insti- 
tute, and on the right of the Cadets was Edgar's battalion. 

The 18th and 23d were east of the turnpike and formed the 
extreme right of the Southern army. 

The engagement opened with an artillery duel between 
McClenahan's battery and a Federal battery stationed in the 
north of the village, the Confederate guns firing over the posi- 
tion of the 62d. After a cannonade of half an hour the South- 
ern army advanced, the 62d moving down the Shirley hill into 
the hollow through which now now runs the road to the rail- 
road.depot. This movement was executed under a heavy fire 
from the Federal guns, the regiment coming into line from 
east of the Stirewalt house west to Indian hollow. A con- 
tinued advance drove back the battery upon Sigel's main line, 
which extended from near the Federal monument to the river 
bluff north of the Bushong house. The 62d had advanced 
through open ground and more rapidly than the 51st, which 
had to press forward through underbrush and along a rocky 
slope. The lead of the former regiment concentrated upon 
itself a murderous fire which was rapidly thinning its num- 
bers. To await the arrival of the 51st, Colonel Smith of the 
62d drew back his men to the ravine running east from the 
Bushong house to the turnpike, reforming along the line of 
the orchard fence at the rear of Bushhong's yard. 

Attached to the regiment for this day was a company of 
Missourians under Captain C. H. Woodson. During the retro- 
grade movement the Federals pushed forward a four gun 
battery whose fire infiladed the position of the 62d. Wood- 
son, whose company was at the left and 100 yards east of the 

* These figures are authentic. 



411 

house, moved forward his men to the northeast corner of the 
orchard and almost silenced the battery, though with the loss 
of nearly all his command. 

The second Confederate line, under Echols, was now ordered 
to move 400 yards in the rear of Wharton and come to his 
support. Edgar's battalion was thus brought to the left of 
the 51st, while the Cadets, moving more rapidly, came in on 
the left of the 62d, this bringing them in front of Kleiser's 
battery, the fire of which inflicted considerable damage and 
caused a momentary faltering. But in the final charge of 
the Confederates, the lead of the 62d caused this regiment to 
outflank the battery and predetermine its seizure by the Ca- 
dets. Sigel's line was thrown into confusion and he retreated 
across the river burning the bridge behind him. 

The total loss of the 62d in this bloody hour and a half was 
241 men out of a total of about 500. A detail of 60 men under 
Captain C. D. Boggs had been stationed at Timberville, and did 
not reach the battlefield until the action was about over. The 
Missourians lost 6 killed and 54 wounded out of a total of 65. 

The participation of the youthful Cadets was a spectacular 
event, calculated to enlist the sympathy and admiration of the 
people of the Valley, and to cause these boys to stand very 
prominent in the lime light of subsequent narratives of the 
battle. As soldiers in ther first action the Cadets acquitted 
themselves nobly, and they lost about 50 of their number. 
Yet their good behaviour should not be allowed to dim the 
luster of a veteran regiment which moved in advance of them 
and persisted in the victorious advance, notwithstanding a 
loss of half its numbers. Its casualties in fact were much 
larger than those of any other command in the Southern force. 

Roster of Men in the Confederate Service 

(Compiled by H. M. Calhoun, Franklin, W. Va.) 

Each man is listed in the command in which he last served 
and of the rank he held at the expiration of his service. No 
one is included who left the Confederate service to enter the 
military service of the United States or the State of West 
Virginia. Where no mention is made of command or of rank 
the soldier was a private or the rank is unknown. Companies 
are indicated by letter and regiments by number. All regi- 
ments are Virginia regiments unless otherwise indicated. 
When the word "Militia" is used, the 46th Regiment of Vir- 
ginia is referred to, and the person mentioned was in actual 
Confederate service. Manner and place of death are given 
where known. Mention is also made where known of per- 
sons who were wounded or taken prisoner, but in probably 



412 

a large majority of cases these facts could not be ascertained. 
Where the place of residence is given, the person was living 
Mar. 1, 1910. "D." used alone, means "died since the 
war." Mention of Elmira, Camp Chase, or Fort Delaware, 
in connection with the name of a person, means that he was 
confined at least one term in one of these Federal prisons. 

To secure the results presented in this roster involved a 
great amount of time spent in correspondence and inter- 
viewing. The utmost care has been taken to make the list 
complete and accurate. But it was necessary to span a period 
of 45 or 49 years, and to say nothing of various inaccuracies, 
there may yet be a few names overlooked or forgotten. But 
it is believed that all has been accomplished that could with 
any reason be expected. 

Anderson, David C, Captain, "Pendleton Riflemen," D. 
Anderson, Samuel P., F, 62, D. 

Armstrong, Oliver F., 62, Midland, Va. 

Arbaugh, Isaac, C, 62, Circleville, W. Va. 

Arbaugh, William, C, 62, Circleville, W. Va. 

Arbogast, Cain, Militia, D. 

Arbogast, Eliol, Mihtia, D. 

Arbogast, Isaac, C, 62, Maryland. 

Arbogast, Jacob, C, 62, Franklin, W. Va. 

Arbogast, Joseph, Militia, Circleville, W. Va. 

Arbogast, Martin V., C, 62, Randolph County, W. Va. 

Arbogast, Peter, C, 62, Grant County, W. Va. 

Arbogast, Samuel B. , A, 18, Fauquier County, Va. 

Arbogast, William, E, 25 D in Ft. Delaware Prison. 

Arbogast, Sylvanus, C, 62, D. 

Armentrout, J. Clark, A, Pendleton Reserves, Ruddle, W. Va. 
Barclay, Henry, K, 62, Crabbottom, Va. 

Barclay, Washington, K, 62, D. in Texas. 

Bennett, Eli, C, 62, Circleville, W. Va., Camp Chase. 

Bennett, Geo. W., C, 62, Nome, W. Va. 

Bennett, Geo. J., Militia, C, near Riverton, W. Va. 

Bennett, Henry, McNeill's Rangers, D. 

Bennett, James B., C, 62, D. 

Bennett, Joseph K., C, 62, k. New Market, Va. 

Bennett, Josiah, C, 62, D. 

Bennett, William C, C, 62, Circleville, W. Va. 

Bible, Adam W., E, 25, died in service. 

Bible, James W., F, 62, lost arm in Rockingham Co., Va., D. 
Bible, Miles, A, Pendleton Reserves, West. 

Blakemore, Geo. A., "Franklin Guards," Staunton, Va. 

Bland, B. Frank, A, 18, West. 

Bland, Isaac N., A, 18, Riverton, W. Va. 



»'' 



418 



Bland, James S., A, 18, Leroy, 111. 

Bland, James B., C, 62, k. at Washington, D. C, Early's Raid. 



Bland, John A., K, 25, 
Bland, Johnson, C, 62, 
Bland, Adam, E, 25, 
Bland, Perry, unattached, 
Bland, Miles, E, 25, 
Bland, Pleasant D., A, 18, 
Bland, Stewart D., A, 18, 
Bland, Wm., Lieut, A, 18, 



D. 

D. 

died in service. 

killed near Riverton, W. Va. 

Ohio. 
Riverton, W. Va. 
Louisville, Ky. 
Riverton, W. Va., lost leg. 



Blewitt, Chas. J., 3d Lieut., E, 25, Ruddle, W. Va. 

Blewitt. Geo. K., "Dick," IstSerg't. E, 25, D. 

Blizzard, D. K., I, 62, Upper Tract, W. Va. 

Blizzard, Hamilton A., Pendleton Reserves, Riverton, W. Va. 
Blizzard, Jacob Lee, E, 25, Franklin, W. Va. 

Blizzard, John, Militia, Riverton, W. Va., D. 

Blizzard, Morgan, I, 62, W. New Market, Augusta Co., Va. 
~ D. 



Blizzard, Samuel J., F, 62. 

Blizzard, Adam Wesley, E, 25, 

Blizzard, William J., E, 25, 

Bodkin, Adam, Serg't., K, 62, 

Bodkin, William H., K, 62, 

Bodkin, Josiah, F, 62, 

Bodkin, Eli, K, 62, 

Bodkin, James M., K, 62, 

Bodkin, Michael, K, 62, 

Bodkin, Henry B., K, 62, 

Bodkin, Nicholas, A, Pendleton Reserves, Ft. Seybert, W. Va 

Boggs, Edward, W., Capt, E, 25, lost arm at Rich Mt'n., D 



Brandywine W. Va. 

D. 

Iowa. 

Maquota, Iowa. 

Franklin, W. Va. 

Maquota, Iowa. 

D. 

Harmon, W. Va. 

Red Creek, W. Va. 



Boggs, J. Chapman, E, 18, 

Boggs, William H., E, 18, 

Boggs, Charles D., Capt, F, 62. 

Boggs, James, Brigadier Gen. Militia, 

Bolton, John A., K, 62, 

Bolton, William P., F. 25, 

Bowers, Valentine, E, 25, 

Bowers, John, K, 62, 

Bowers, John Sr., C, 62, 

Bowers, Michael E., Lieut. K, 25, 

Bowers, Amos A., Pendleton Reserves, Sugar Grove, W. Va. 

Bowers, Philander, I, 52, Fort Seybert, W. Va. 

Buckbee, James B., K, 25, died in service. 

Burns, George W., K, 25, Riverton, W. Va. 

Calhoun, Allen, C, 52, Boyer, W. Va. 

Calhoun, Ephraim, C, 62, died in service. 

Calhoun, F. Marion, Serg't, C, 62, Dry Run, W. Va. 

Calhoun, John C, 1st Lieut I, 63, killed at Williamsport, Md. 



D. 

Franklin, W. Va. 

wounded, D. 

died, 1862. 

Franklin. W. Va. 

wounded, D. 

died in service. 

Sugar Grove, W. Va. 

D. 

Franklin, W. Va. 



414 

Calhoun, John W., E, 25, wounded at McDowell, Va., D. 
Carickoff, Lewis A., K, 62, Monterey, Va. 

Cassel, R. E. Veach, C, 62, died in Camp Chase. 

Cassel, Allen, C, 25, D. 

Cassel, Cullom, C, 62, D. 

Cassel, Stewart, unattached, killed near Riverton, W. Va. 
Caton, Henry, K, 62, Franklin, W. Va. 

Champ, Cyrus, K, 25, Mouth of Seneca, W. Va. 

Clayton, Adam, K, 62. 

Clayton, Harvey, B. 62, D. 

Clayton, Jacob, B, 62, Upper Tract, W. Va. 

Clayton, Martin, K, 25, Maryland. 

Conrad, Jacob H., I, 62, D. 

Cowger, Elijah, I, 62, Fort Seybert, W. Va. 

Cowger, Emanuel D., Drum Major, E, 25, killed at Antietam. 
Cowger, Henry, I, 62, D. 

Cowger, Noah, I, 62, D. 

Cowger, Manassas, I, 62, Peru, W. Va. 

Cowger, William J., K, 62, Rushville, Va. 

Crigler, Columbus, Militia, D. 

Crigler, John A., F, 62, D. 

Cunningham, W. Alfred, A, 18, Monterey, Va. 

Cunningham, F. Marion, C, 62, D. 

Cunningham, John, A, 18, Jane Lew, W. Va. 

Cunningham, Henry G., A, 18, Job, W. Va. 

Custer, Joseph, F, 62, died in Camp Chase, Jan. 4, 1865. 
Dahmer, John G., K, 62, Ass't. Q. M., Imboden's Brigade, 

Franklin, W. Va. 
Dahmer, John C, E. 25, wounded at Rich Mountain, D. 

Dahmer, Miles, E, 25, wounded at McDowell, D. 

Dahmer, Reuben D., I, 62, Franklin, W. Va. 

Dahmer, Sampson D., K, 25, West. 

Dahmer, J. Washington. K, 62, Camp Chase, D. 

Davis, Addison C, E, 25, died in the service, of diptheria. 
Davis, Allen, K, 31, died in Camp Case. 

Davis, Hendren H., E, 25, Brandy wine, W. Va. 

Davis, Laban C, E, 25, W. McDowell, Gettysburg, Slaughter 

Mtn., Brandy wine, W. Va. 
Davis, J. Conrad, F, 62, Serg't., D. 

Davis, Robert F., A, Pendleton Reserves, Charlottesville, Va. 
Davis, Ulrey, K. 62, killed at New Market. 

Davis, W. W., E, 25, Dayton, Ohio. 

Davis, John, E, 25, died of fever in service. 

Day, Amos, K, 62, killed at Strasburg, Va. 

Day, William, K, 62, Rockingham Co., Va. 

Dice, Elias W., I, 62, killed at Williamsport, Md. 

Dice, Isaac H., E, 25, D. 



415 

Dice, William (of John) K, 62, D. 

Dice, Geo. W., Jr., E, 25, died in service. 

Dice, Franklin H., E, 25, Fifer. Oklahoma. 

Dice, John A., Militia, died first year of war at Moorefield. 
Dice, William, E, 25, died in service. 

Dickenson, Adam, E, 25, lost arm at Antietam, Durbin, W.Va. 
Dickenson, Isaac, K, 62, Brandywine, W. Va. 

Dickenson, Samuel, E, 25, died in Prison, Elmira, N. Y. 
Dickenson, John C, E. 25, Brandywine, W. Va. 

Dickenson, Martin, K, 62, Franklin, W. Va. 

Dickenson, G. Washington, A, Pendleton Reserves, 2, Serg't, 

Franklin, W. Va. 
Dolly, Job, A, 18, D. 

Dolly, J. Wesley, Militia, Camp Chase. 

Dove, Geo. W., K, 62, died in service. 

Dove, Nimrod, C, 62, D. 

Dunkle, John J., Capt. K, 25, succeeded Harper, D. Texas, 

Ft. Delaware. 
Dyer, Charles E., E, 25 killed at McDowell, May 8, 1862. 
Dyer, Granville, J., K, 62, 2d Serg't. D. 

Dyer, John D., K, 62, Ohio. 

Dyer, John A. W., F, 62, J). 

Dyer, W. Striet, 2nd Lieut. E, 25, wounded at McDowell, 

Kansas. 
Dyer, Robert N., McNeill's Rangers, D. 

Dyer, Zebulon, E, 25, killed at Allehgany Mt'n., Dec. 1861. 
Dyer, Andy W., H, 7 Cavalry, D. 

Eckard, Job, Pickett's Division, Highland Co., Va. 

Elbon, Frank, A, 18, West. 

Elbon, W. Anderson, K, 25, D. 

Elyard, Josiah, E, 25, wounded at Sharpsburg, D. 

Eye, Ammi, E, 25, D. 

Eye, C, Frank, I, 62, Rockingham Co., Va. 

Eye, Jacob, K, 62, West. 

Eye, John Ad., K, 62, killed at Williamsport, Md. 

Eye, John, K, 61, wounded at Williamsport, West. 

Eye, Levi, I, 62, Ruddle, W. Va. 

Eye, William Marks, K, 62, died in Camp Chase. 

Eye, John J., I, 62, D. 

Eye, Robert, Sr., Militia, Oak Flat, W. Va. 

Eye, William, K, 62, D. 

Eye, Samuel H., I, 62, Crabbottom, Va. 



416 

Eye, William W., I, 62, Deer Run, W. Va. 

Eye, Malon L., E, 31, Thorn, W. Va. 

Eye, Washington, A, Reserves, Brandy wine, W. Va. 

Ferguson, Edward, A, Reserves. 

Fleisher, Solomon, Capt. D, 62, D. 

Flynn, Job, C, 62, D. 

Fowler, Charles, I, 62. 

Freeland, William, F, 62, Corporal, k. at Beverley. 

Fultz, Amos, K,62, Brandy wine, W. Va. 

Fultz, Joseph, A, Pendleton Reserves, D. 

Gilkeson, James, A, Pendleton Reserves, Fort Seybert, W.Va. 

Good, Jacob, K, 62, killed at Williamsport. 

Good, Mushine, K, 62. 

Graham, Kennison, K, 25, D. 

Grogg, Amos, K, 62, killed at Williamsport. 

Grogg. Henry, G, 62, D. 

Grogg, Washington, G, 62, killed at New Market. 

Grogg, Martin, A, Pendleton Reserves, D. 

Hahn, Jacob L., A, Pendleton Reserves, Brandywine, W. Va. 

Halterman, Cyrus, C, 62, D. 

Halterman, Solomon, F, 62, D. 

Halterman, Willis, F, 62, West Virginia. 

Hammer, Benjamin S., F, 62, Franklin, W. Va. 

Hammer, Elias, Sr., Militia, D. 

Hammer, Elias, F, 62, Ruddle, W. Va. 

Hammer, Geo. W., Sr., E, 25, died in service. 

Hammer, George, Militia, D. 

Hammer, Geo. W., F, 62, 2d Corp'l., Franklin, W. Va., Camp 
Chase. 

Hammer, Isaac D. , K, 62, wounded at New Market, Frank- 
lin, W. Va. 

Hammer, Isaac T. , A, Pendleton Reserves, D. 

Hammer, Leonard H., E, 25, D. 

Hammer, William H., E. 25, Ohio. 

Hammer, Howard, K, 26, killed at Fisher's Hill. 

Harding, Minor, A, 18, killed in battle. 

Harmon, John, E, 25, D. 

Harter, Peter, K, 25, killed at Gettysburg. 

Harter, Hiram, G, 18, D. 

Harold, Laban, 2d Corp'l, K, 62, D. 

Harold, Elias, C, 62, died in service. 

Harold, John T., I, 18, D. 



417 

Harold, Miles, Pendleton Riflemen, D. 

Harold, Daniel H., K, 62, D. 

Harper, Aaron, K, 25, D. 

Harper, Dewitt C, A, 18 Cav., k. n. Macksville. 

Harper, George, C, 62, Cave, W. Va. D. 

Harper, Geo. W., C, 62, Cave, W. Va. 

Harper, Harness, Militia, Hendricks, W. Va. 

Harper, Isora, A, 18, Farmers City, 111. 

Harper, Ezekeil, unattached. 
Harper, Jacob, C, 62, Lieut., died at Harrisonburg, of fever 

in service. 
Harper, Isaac, Militia, died during war. 

Harper, John C, C, 62, D. 

Harper, William, scout, unattached, killed on Upper North 

Fork. 
Harper, William, K, 25, Hardy Co. W. Va. 

Harper, Philip, Militia, Camp Chase, D. 

Harper, Miles, A, 18, Riverton, W. Va. 

Harper, Solomon, C, 62, D. 

Harper, Wilson, Lieut., Capt., K, 25, later Maj., 25, Reg't, 

Broadway, Va. 
Hartman, Benjamin F., E, 25, Franklin, W. Va. 

Hartman, Daniel, K, 25. 

Hartman, Isaac L,, E, 25, killed at McDowell. 

Hartman, Jesse A., E, 25, D. 

Hartman, Job. C, 62, Franklin. W. Va. 

Hartman, Moritz, K, 62, died in service. 

Hartman, William Perry, C, 62, D. 

Hartman, John, F, 62, killed in battle, 1864. 

Hedrick, Adam, F, 62, D. 

Hedrick, Andrew, K, 25, Brushy Run, W. Va. 

Hedrick, Charles, A, Pendleton Reserves, D. 

Hedrick, Clark, K, 25, Onego, W. Va. 

Hedrick, Sylvanus, E, 25, killed at Port Republic. 

Hedrick, W. Edmund, A, 18, Macksville, W. Va. 

Hedrick, Noah, K, 25, died in service. 

Hedrick, Henry, E, 25, lost leg at Port Republic, D. 

Hedrick, James (of Henry) E, 25, died of fever in Staunton, 

in service. 
Hedrick, James, 2d Corp'l., A, Reserves, Ruddle, W. Va. 
Hedrick, James, (of Ale) I, 62, wounded, Horton, W. Va. 
Hedrick, A. Washington, A, Pendleton Reserves, Ruddle, 

W. Va. 
Hedrick, William, E, 25, Upper Tract, W. Va. 

Hedrick, John, A, Reserves. D. 

Helmick, Jonathan, K, 25, D. 

Helmick, Josiah, Militia, D. 

PCH 27 



418 

Hess, James K., McNeill's Rangers, P, died in Illinois. 

Hevener, A. Moffett, F, 62, Deer Run, W. Va. 

Hevener, Amos, I, 62, Hampshire Co., W. Va. 

Hevener, Daniel, Lieut., I 62, killed at Williamsport. 

Hevener, Charles W., Pendleton Riflemen, Ruddle, W. Va. 
Hevener, George, F, 62, killed at New Market. 

Hevener, Samuel, K, 62, wounded at Williamsport, D. 

Hevener, William L., K, 62, Sugar Grove, W. Va. 

Hill, Frederick, A, Pendleton Reserves. 
Hill, Kennison, A, Pendleton Reserves. 
Hiner, Harmon, F. 62, later Capt., A, Reserves, w. on North 

Fork, D. 
Hiner, William, (of H. ) Militia, died in service. 

Hiner, William, (of Jacob) F, 25, , Missouri. 

Hiner, James, K. P., A, Pendleton Reserves, Doe Hill, Va. 
Hiner, Charles, A, Reserves, 3d Serg't. 
Hiner, W. Marshall, in Methodist Ministry. 

Hinkle, Adam J., C, 62, wounded at McDowell, Goldsmith, 
Indiana. 

Hinkle, Geo. W., F, 62, Froze to death, Feb. 17, 1864, scouting. 

Hinkle, Isaac V. (of Esau) A, 18, D. Illinois. 

Hinkle. John C, 62, Camp Chase, D. 

Hinkle, Michael, 1st licit. F 25 killed at Gettysburg. 

Hinkle, Perry, A, 18, D. 

Hinkle, Solomon, (of Sol.) 3d Lieut. C, 62, D. 

Hinkle, William, C, 62, wounded, D. 

Hinkle, Jesse. K, 25, D. 

Hinkle, Isaac D. (of Jesse) F, 25, D. 

Hiser, Daniel, K, 62, killed at New Market. 

Hiser, Frederick, F, 62, Deer Run, W. Va. 

Hiser, John, K, 62, W. Berry's Ferry, D, from wound. 

Hiser, Noah, K, 62, Rockingham Co., Va. 

Hiser, William C, K, 25 killed 2d Battle Manassas. 

Hi vely, James F., F, 62, Frost, W. Va. 

Hively, William E. K, 62. D. 

Hoover, Anthony, A., Pendleton Reserves, D. 

Hoover. George, K, 62, Ritchie, C, W. Va. 

Hoover, Henry, K, 62, Sugar Grove, W. Va. 

Hoover, Henry, F, 62, Sugar Grove, W. Va., Blacksmith. 

Hoover, John L., K, 62, wounded at New Market, Ritchie 
Co., W. Va. 

Hoover, Noah D., K, 62, Iowa. 

Hoover, Reuben, K, 62, killed at New Market. 

Hoover, Thomas. K, 62, died in service. 

Hoover, Adam, A, Pendleton Reserves, Brandywine, W. Va. 

Hoover, William, 4th Corp'l. K 62, D. 

Hoover, William A. K, 62, Dry Run, W. Va. 



419 

Hopkins, John J., E, 14, D. 

Hopkins, William, E, 18, D. 

Huffman, Job, C, 62, D, 

Huffman, Henry, K, 62, West. 

Hyer, Peter, J., G, 18, died at Soldier's Home, Richmond, 
Va. 

Johns, David, A, 18, killed at Charlestown. 

Johnson, James W. , A, Pendleton Reserves, Circleville, W. 
Va. 

Johnson, Edmund S., F, 62, D. 

Johnson, George W., E, 25, D. 

Johnson, Jacob G., E, 25, D. 

Johnson, Jehu H., Capt. Co. E, 25, Missouri. 

Johnson, John D., "Franklin Guards," D. 

Johnston, W. Milton, E, 25, killed at Cross Keys. 

Johnston, James W., F, 62, D. 

Johnston, Mortimer, E. 25, lost leg at Wilderness, D. 

Jones, Charles P., E, 18, Monterey, Va. 

Jordan, Sampson, C, 62, Franklin, W. Va. 

Jordan, Jackson, C, 62, D. 

Judy, Adam, A, Pendleton Reserves, Melford, W. Va. 

Judy, Harness, C, 62, killed near Moorefield. 

Judy, Martin, Sr., C, 62, D. 

Judy, Martin V., E, 25, California. 

Judy, St. Clair, C, 62, died in Camp Chase. 

Kee, James W., Lieut, "Franklin Guard." Franklin, W.Va. 

Keister, A. Jackson, 4th Serg't., K, 62, Brandywine, W. Va. 

Keister, Henry, Sr., 1st Lieut, K, 62, D. 

Keister, John D., K, 62, wounded at Williamsport, Brandy- 
wine, W. Va. 

Keister, Jesse, K, 62, died in service. 

Keister, Martin V., A, Pendleton Reserves, Brandywine, 
W. Va. 

Keister, Solomon G., A, Pendleton Reserves, West. 

Keister, William C, K, 62, Rockingham Co., Va. 

Keplinger, John I, 62, Camp Chase, Mathias, W. Va. 

Keplinger , I, 62. 

Ketterman, Michael, K, 62, killed at McDowell. 

Ketterman, Esau, E, 25, D. 

Ketterman, Salem, Militia, Riverton, W. Va. 

Ketterman, Nicodemus, K, 25, Illinois. 

Ketterman, Joseph, K, 25, killed at Gettysburg. 

Kile, Adam A., 1st Serg't, F, 62, Job, W. Va. 

Kile, Geo. Homan, 3d Serg't, F, 62, also Lieut., Reserves, D. 

Kile, Isaac, K, 25, D. 

Kile, John Riley, K, 25, Upper Tract, W. Va. 

Kile, Jonathan C. , E, 25, wounded at McDowell, D. 



\/ 



D. 

D, West. 

Headwaters, Va. 

D. 

D. 



420 

Kile, Thomas, Militia, 

Kile, William C, 4th CorpM., F, 62, 

Kiser, Adam, K, 62, 

Kiser, Daniel, Sr., I, 62, 

Kiser, Daniel, Jr., K, 62, 3rd Serg't, 

Kiser, Harrison, K., 62, wounded at New Market, Sugar 

Grove, W. Va. 
Kiser, Harvey, K, 62, killed at New Market. 

Kiser, John F., E, 25, lost leg at Cross Keys, Virginia. 

Kiser, William C, Serg't., K, 62, Ruddle, W. Va. 

Kline, John, F, 62, West. 

Kuykendall, Washington, I, 62, D. 

Lantz, Abraham, A, 18, Horton, W. Va. 

Lantz, John, A, 18, D. 

Lantz, Joseph H., Capt. North Fork Co. Militia, Camp 
Chase, D. 

killed at Gettysburg. 
D. 
died during war. 
Circleville, W. Va. 
D. 
Dry Run, W. Va. 
Randolph Co., W. Va. 
killed during war. 
D. 
D. 
D. 
D. 
D. 
killed near Franklin, W. Va. 
Arbovale, W. Va. 
D. 
Franklin, W. Va. 
New Port News, Va. 
D. 
D. 
D. 
D. 
Lawrence, Jonas, A, 18. 
Lawrence, Josiah, K, 25, D. 

Leach, Elijah S., B, 31, D. 

Leach, E. Osborne, A, Pendleton Reserves, D. 

Leach, Robert D., B, 31, Serg't. D. 

Leach, John M., B, 31, killed at Port Republic. 

Linthicum, John, E, 25, killed at Antietam. 

Lough, Geo. A., K, 62, D. 

Lough, Geo. H., A, Pendleton Reserves, wounded, D. 



Lamb, William P., K, 25, 
Lamb, John, K, 25, 
Lamb, Isaac, K, 25, 
Lambert, Anderson N., H, 62, 
Lambert, George W., C, 62, 
Lambert, James C, C, 62, 
Lambert, James B., C, 62, 
Lambert, Jesse, C, 62, 
Lambert, John W., C, 62, 
Lambert, John, Jr., C, 62, 
Lambert, Lebanion, Militia, 
Lambert, Nathan, C, 62, 
Lambert, Noah, Militia, 
Lambert, Obidiah, C, 62, 
Lambert, Samuel K., C, 62, 
Lambert, Adonijah, Militia, 
Lambert, Solomon, H, 62, 
Lambert, Amby H., H, 62, 
Lambert, William T., C. 62, 
Lambert, John J., E, 25, 
Lawrence, Anderson, K, 25, 
Lawrence, William G., C, 62, 



421 

Lough, Henry, F, 62, D. 

Lough, Jacob H., 2d Lieut, K, 62, Fort Seybert, W. Va. 

Lough, James W., F, 62, Franklin, W. Va. 

Lough, John W., E, 25, D. 

Lough, John W., K, 62, Appleton City, Mo. 

Lough, Anderson, A, Pendleton Reserves. Corp'l. 

Lukens, John L., F, 62, D. 

Mallow, Geo. H., K, 62, Albemarle Co., Va. 

Mallow, Paul, K, 62, killed at New Market, Lieut. 

Martin, Adam, K, 62, wounded at Strasburg, Va., Deer 
Run, W. Va. 

Masters, Charles F., K, 25, Edom, Va. 

Masters, John F., F, 62, D. 

Masters, WiHiam E., F, 62, D. 

Masters, Samuel, 1st Serg't., A, Pendleton Reserves, Mo. 

McClung, Silas B., C, 14, Upper Tract W. Va. 

McClure, John, F, 62, Franklin, W. Va. 

McClure, William, E, 18, killed at Lynchburg, June 18, 1864. 

McCoy, Mortimer, F, 62, died November, 1864. 

McCoy, William, Capt., E, 25, died of measles, succeeded by 
Boggs. 

McDonald, Peter, D, 25, Lieut., Macksville, W. Va. 

McDonald, Seymour, A, Pendleton Reserves, Macksville, 
West Va. 

McGinnis, Pat, McNeill's Rangers, D. 

McMullen, Stuart H., K, 62. 

McMullen, William W., K, 62, 

McQuain, Madison, G, 18, D. 

Miller, Amos, Militia, D. 

Miller, Isaac, A, 18, 

Miller, Job, Militia, Upper Tract W. Va. 

Milloway, Augustus, K, 62, killed at New Market. 

Mitchell, Henry, K, 62, killed at New Market. 

Mitchell, Benj., Lieut, A, Pendleton Reserves, D. 

Mitchell, Abel, E, 25, wounded at Alleghany Mtn, Rocking- 
ham Co. 

Mitchell, William, E, 25, killed at Cross Keys. 

Moats, Wellington, I, 62, died in Camp Chase. 

Moats, Josiah, I, 62, Sugar Grove, W. Va. 

Moats, Jones, I, 62, D. 

Moomau, Jacob, E, 25, died in service. 

Moomau, John B., Capt Co. C, 62, died during war. 

Morton, Edward, K, 62, killed at Williamsport. 

Mowrey, David, F, 62, Indiana. 

Mowrey, Henry, A, Pendleton Reserves, killed near Macks- 
ville, W. Va. 

Mowrey, John, F, 62, Indiana. 



422 



Moyers, George Wash., C, 62, Cave, W. Va. 

Moyers, Harman, 2nd. Lieut., A, Pendleton Reserves, D. 



killed at Port Republic. 

killed at Rich Mountain. 

D. 

killed at Beverley, W. Va. 



West Virginia. 

killed at New Market. 

D. 

D. 

Tucker Co,. W. Va. 

Tucker Co., W. Va. 

D. 

D. 

Onego, W. Va. 

Randolph, W. Va. 

D. 



Moyers, Howard, E, 31, 

Moyers, Morgan, E, 31, 

Moyers, Cain, Militia, 

Moyers, Peyton, F, 62, 

Moyers, Solomon, 

Moyers, Warden, C, 62, 

Moyers, Marshall, K, 62, 

Mullenax, Edward, C, 62, 

Mullenax, Henry, H, 62, 

Mullenax, Isaac, C, 62, 

Mullenax, Jacob, C, 62, 

Mullenax, William, Sr., C, 62, 

Mullenax, William (of Wm.) C, 62, 

Montony, Robert, C, 62, 

Montony, VanBuren, C, 62, 

Mumbert, George, K, 25. 

Mumbert, Henry, K, 25, 

Mumbert, Joseph W., Color Bearer, K, 25, killed at Cedar 

Mountain. 
Mumbert, William, K, 25, died in service. 

Mumbert, Nathan, K, 25, killed at Slaughter Mountain. 

Murphy, John, E, 25, killed at Cross Keys. 

Murphy, Isaiah, Militia, D. 

Murphy, Logan, Capt. Jonas Chew's Co., Highland Home 

Guards, died in war. 
Nelson, Absalom H. , Capt. Co. C, 62, shot from ambush near 

Harmon, W. Va. 
Nelson, Absalom, C, 62, died in Camp Chase. 

Nelson, Benham, C, 62, Circleville, W. Va. 

Nelson, Columbus, C, 62, West. 

Nelson, Elijah, Militia, D. 

Nelson, Elijah, (of Abel) A, 18, D. 

Nelson, Isaac J., A, Pendleton Reserves, Randolph County, 

W. Va. 
Nelson, Jacob, C, 62, 
Nelson, Jonathan, C 62, 
Nelson, Samuel (of Daniel) C, 62., 
Nelson, Samuel P., C, 62, 
Nelson, Geo. Wash., C, 62, 
Nelson, Samuel K., C, 62, 
Nelson, B. Frank, K, 25, 
Nelson, Sol. K., 1st. Lieut, C, 62, 
Nelson, Anderson, A, Pendleton Reserves, 
Nesselrodt, Amos, K, 25. 
Nesselrodt, James E., 25, died in prison. 



West. 
D. 

Grant Co. W. Va 

Kansas. 

Whitmer, W. Va. 

Riverton, W. Va. 

Grant Co., W. Va. 

Kansas. 



428 

-"^esselrodt, Jacob, K, 25, (?) killed in battle. 

Nicholas, Joshua, C, 62, D. 

North, C. David, F, 62, Yates City, Iowa. 

Painter, Jacob, B, 62, D. 

Payne, James Sr., K, 62, D. 

Payne, James, F, 62, Rockingham. 

Payne, Geo. W., Serg't. F, 62, Missouri. 

Payne, Henry H., E, 62, Pocahontas Co., W. Va. 

Payne, Solomon, K, 62, West. 

Pennington, Reuben, A, Pendleton Reserves. 

Pennington, Richard, F, 62, Moorefield, W. Va. 

Pennington, Sampson, C, 62, died in Federal Prison. 

Pennington, Solomon, K, 25, Rockbridge Co. 

Pennington, Vinson, A, Pendleton Reserves. 

Phares, Jacob, K, 25, Clover Hill, Va. 

Phares, John, C, 62, Oklahoma. 

Phares, Philip, Jr., E. 25, Charleston, W. Va. 

Phares, Sylvanus, C, 62. D. 

Phares, Washington, K, 25, killed at Laurel Hill. 

Pitzenbarger, Harrison, E, 25, Thorn, W. Va. 

Pitzenbarger, Abraham, E, 25 ( ?) killed in battle 

Pope, Geo. E., I, 62, Fort Seybert, W. Va. 

Porter, Isaac v.. A, 18, Indiana. 

Powers, George, A, 18. Riverton, W. Va. 

Powers, William, A, 18, Hardy Co., W. Va. 

Powers, Thomas, unattached, killed near Riverton, W. Va. 

Priest, Francis M., 1st Lieut., C, 62, D. 

Priest, James A., F, 62, wounded at New Market, Franklin, 
W. Va. 

Priest, Samuel P., 1st Serg't, wounded at Manassas, Frank- 
lin, W. Va. 

Priest, Thomas H., 5th Serg't, F, 62, Franklin, W. Va. 

Propst, Joshua, A, Pendleton Reserves, Brandywine W. Va. 

Propst, Amos, Drum Major, E, 25, killed at Petersburg, Va. 

Propst, Daniel, K, 62, wounded at Williamsport, Upshire Co., 
W. Va. 

Propst, Geo. Ad., E, 25, died in hospital at Richmond, Va. 

Propst, Daniel F., E, 25, wounded at McDowell, in prison 
at Ft. Delaware, Elmira, Franklin, W. Va. 

Propst, Sylvanus, E, 25, died during war. 

Propst, David, K, 62, Mitchell, W. Va. 

Propst, David D., K, 62, died in service. 

Propst, Benjamin, D, 62, wounded at Winchester, Mitchell, 
W. Va. 

Propst, Jonas, K, 62, died in hospital in Staunton, during 
service. 

Propst, Amos, E, 25, killed at Mine Run. 



424 



Propst, Henry H., K, 62, died at Strasburg, in service. 

Propst, James, K, 62, D. 

Propst, Jeremiah (of Henry) B, 31, D. 

Propst, John D., K, 62, died at Camp Washington, Augusta 
Co., Va. 



Propst, Joel, E, 25, 
Propst, Lewis, D, 62, 
Propst, Joseph, K. 62, 
Propst, Joseph, K, 62, 
Propst, Joseph, E, 25, 
Propst, Laban H., K, 62, 
Propst, ..Samuel, H., K, 62, 
Propst, H. D., K, 62, 
Propst, Absalom, E, 25, 
Propst, Philip, K, 62, 



Propst, William R., I, 62, 

Propst, Harrison, H., 1st Lieut, E, 25, 

Propst, William W., A, Pendleton Reserves, 

Propst, Ami, K, 62, 

Propst, William, K, 62, 

Propst, John, E, 25, 

Propst, Valentine, E, 25, 

Propst, Abel, Militia, 

Propst, Hervey, D, 62, 

Propst, William Ad., K, 62. 

Puffinbarger, Christian, K, 25, 

PufRnbarger, Geo. C, A, Pendleton Reserves, Sugar Grove, 

West Va. 
Puffinbarger, Joshua, A, Pendleton Reserves. 
Puffinbarger, William, A, Pendleton Reserves, Upper Tract, 

West Va. 



died in hospital, in service. 

Mitchell, W. Va. 

D. 

killed at Beverly. 

killed at McDowell. 

Brandy wine, W. Va. 

D. 

died in service. 

Brandywine, W. Va. 

died in service. 

died in service. 

Arkansas. 

Mitchell. 

died in service. 

D. 

W. Va. 

W. Va. 

died in service. 

Iowa. 

D. 

D. 



Puffinbarger, Zebulon, F, 62, 
Puffinbarger, Samuel, K, 62, 
Puffinbarger, William, K, 25, 
Puffinbarger, Joshua, K, 62. 
Puffinbarger, Benjamin, K, 62, 
Rader, Henry P., F, 62, 
Rader, James B., K, 62, 
Rader, Philip Y., B, 62, 
Rader, David H., K, 62, 
Rader, John F., K, 62, 
Raines, Tobias, Militia, 
Raines, Joseph, C, 62, 
Raines, William, C, 62, 
Rexroad, Aaron, Sr., E, 25, 
Rexroad, G. Marshall, K, 62, 
Rexroad, Adam, K, 62, 25. 



Camp Chase, D. 

Camp Chase, Palo Alto, Va. 

died in Camp Chase. 

Palo Alto, Va. 

Upper Tract, W. Va. 

died in Camp Chase. 

D. 

Highland Co., Va. 

Upper Tract, W. Va. 

died in Camp Chase. 

Randolph Co., W. Va. 

Randolph Co., W. Va. 

Franklin, W. Va. 

Crabbottom, Va. 



426 

Rexroad, Addison, K, 62, D. 

Rexroad, Hendron, A, Pendleton Reserves, Doe Hill, Va. 
Rexroad, Jonas, K, 62, D. 

Rexroad, Henry, Jr., E, 25, Franklin, W. Va. 

Rexroad, Jacob, of H., E, 25, killed at McDowell. 

Rexroad, Samuel, E, 25, died in service. 

Rexroad, Laban, K, 31, D. 

Rexroad, Ami, K, 62, killed at Williamsport. 

Rexroad, Nariel, 26, D. 

Rexroad, Solomon, C, 62, Cave, W. Va. 

Rexroad, Augustus, Militia, D. 

Rexroad, Washington, C, 62, Crabbottom, Va. 

Riggleman, Joshua, F, 62, killed at Green Spring, W. Va., 

July 4, 1864. 
Roberson, Henry, F, 62, Ruddle, W. Va. 

Roberson, John W., G, 18, D. 

Rogers, John, McCIannahan's Battery. 
Ruddle. Abel M., F. 62, wounded at Washington, D. C, 

Camp Chase, D. 

Ruddle, Isaac C, 2nd Lieut. F, 62, Franklin, W. Va. 

Ruddle, James H., F, 62, Elmira (N. Y.) Prison. Kansas. 
Ruddle, John M., Sr., K, 62, wounded at Washington, D. C, 

Franklin, W. Va. 
Ruddle, John M., Jr., F, 62, 2d Corp'l, Camp Chase, Ruddle, 

West Va 
Ruddle, William G., 2d Serg't F, 62, Deer Run, W. Va. 

Ruddle, Edward D., F, 62, D. 

Ruleman, Henry Donahue, K, 62, Illinois. 

Rymel, John P., — . 18, Missouri. 

Schmucker, J. Nicholas, K, 25, died of fever during service. 
Schmucker, Samuel L., K, 25, Upper Tract, W. Va. 

Schrader, William H., E, 26, Tucker County, W. Va. 

Schrader, Ammi, K, 25, D. 

Schrader, Ezra, K, 25, killed at Gettysburg. 

Schrader, Solomon, C, 62, died of fever in Harrisonburg, in 

service. 
Schrader, David, K, 25, D. 

Schrader, Henry, K, 25, D. 

Sheets, William, A, 25, Stokesville, Va. 

Shaver, Samuel L., F, 62, D. 

Shaw, James, K, 62, D. 

Shears, James H., E, 25, Tucker County, W. Va. 

Shottiger, William, McNeill's Rangers, killed at Beverly, 

W. Va. 
Simmons, H. Adam, E, 25, Franklin, W. Va. 

Simmons, Emanuel, K, 62, killed at Williamsport. 

Simmons, Benjamin, A, Pendleton Reserves. 



426 

Simmons, John, K, 25, Grant Co., W. Va. 

Simmons, Emanuel A., C, 62, D. 

Simmons, George W., C, 62, D. 

Simmons, Harrison, Militia, Franklin, W. Va. 

Simmons, Henry, E, 25, Cave, W. Va. 

Simmons, Noah W., K, 25, D. 

Simmons, William, K, 62. 

Simmons, James, F, 62, D. 

Simmons, Geo. Wash., K, 25. 

Simmons, Jeremiah, E, 25, died in service of diphtheria. 

Simmons, Jeremiah, Osceola, W. Va. 

Simmons, John, K, 62, died in Federal prison. 

Simmons, Josiah, F, 62, Franklin, W. Va. 

Simmons, James R. , K, 62, Braxton Co. , W. Va. 

Simmons, Lewis, F, 62, Braxton Co., W. Va. 

Simmons, Hezekiah, K, 62, Hightown W. Va. 

Simmons, Mordecai, A, Pendleton Reserves, Sugar Grove, 
W. Va. 

Simmons, Martin (of Sol) K, 62, D. 

Simmons, Noah, W. K, 62, D. 

Simmons, W. F., K, 62, Sugar Grove, W. Va. 

Simmons, Sylvester, Corp'l., A, Pendleton Reserves, Brandy- 
wine, W. Va. 

Simmons, Adam, A Pendleton Reserves. 

Simmons, G. Wesley, 2d Lieut, C, 62, died in service of 
small pox. 

Simmons, Hendron, A, Reserves, Doe Hill, Va. 

Simpson, Amos, 5 Serg't, K, 62, Franklin, W. Va. 

Simpson, James B., K, 25, Barbour County, W. Va. 

Simpson, Michael, K, 62, killed at Strasburg, Va. 

Simpson, Miles, K, 62, Franklin, W. Va. 

Sinnett, William, K, 62, Sugar Grove, W. Va. 

Sinnett, Henry, Jr., E, 25, D. 

Siple, Joseph, G, 18, Doe Hill, Va. 

Siple, Geo. D. , E, 18, wounded at New Market, Augusta 
County, W. Va. 

Siple, Ambrose, Franklin Guard, died in service of diphtheria. 

Siple, Conrad, Franklin Guard, died in service of diphtheria. 

Siple, Josiah H., E, 25, Camp Chase, Fort Seybert, W. Va. 

Siple, Samuel, G, 18, wounded at New Market, Deer Run, 
West Va. 

Siple, William, Militia, killed at Greenland Gap, Grant 
Co., W. Va. 

Sites, William, Sr., Militia, died in Camp Chase. 

Sites, William, Jr., E. 25, killed at New Creek, W. Va. 

Skidmore, Joseph C, E, 25, Franklin, W. Va. 

Skiles, Michael, E, 25. killed at McDowell. 



427 

Smith, Ami, I, 62, Sugar Grove, W. Va. 

Smith, W. Ambrose, A, Pendleton Reserves, Riverton, W. Va. 
Smith, Geo. Wash., E, 25, Ruddle, W. Va. 

Smith, G. W. (of Adam) A, Pendleton Reserves. 
Smith, Conrad, E, 25, D. 

Smith, Nathan, C., K, 62, D. 

Smith, Daniel C., K, 62, D. 

Smith, Peter H., K, 62, Ruddle, W. Va. 

Smith, Jno.W.,3d Lieut. F, 62, died in Harrisonburg, in service 
Stone, Miles, K, 62, Highland Co., Va. 

Stone, Hendron H., 3d Lieut. K, 62, D. 

Stone, John A., K, 62, D. 

Summerfield, Wilson, C, 62, killed near Macksville, W. Va. 
Swadley, Henry W., A, Pendleton Reserves, killed near 

Macksville, W. Va. 
Swadley, Jacob, K, 62, Brandywine, W. Va. 

Swadley, Valentine, A, Pendleton Reserves, D. 

Switzer, David, F, 62, Barbour Co., W. Va. 

Sponaugle, Amos, C, 62, Cave, W. Va. 

Sponaugle, Geo. W., E, 25, FrankHn, West Va. 

Sponaugle, William, Militia, D. 

Sponaugle, Henry, F, 62, D. 

Sponaugle, Jesse, Militia, D. 

Sponaugle, Jacob, C, 62, died in service. 

Sponaugle, George, A, 18, Lewis County, W. Va. 

Sponaugle, Samuel, F, 62, W. Va. 

Sponaugle, Nicholas, C, 62, died in Federal prison. 

Sponaugle, Lewis, C, 62, D. 

Sponaugle, Philip, Militia, D. 

Sponaugle, William, C, 62, died in Federal prison. 

Taylor, Emanuel, C, 62, D. 

Temple, James M., McNeill's Rangers, D. 

Teter, Amos, A, 18, Upshur Co., W. Va. 

Teter, Balaam, C, 62, Kansas. 

Teter, Cyrus, C, 62, D. 

Teter, Eli P., C, 62, D. 

Teter, Noah, Militia, Circleville, W. Va. 

Teter, Samuel, C, 62, died in service in Harrisonburg, Va. 
Teter, Salem, C, 62, D. 

Thompson, Amos, C, 62, Rivertown, W. Va. 

Thompson, William, Militia, Riverton, W. Va. 

Thompson, John, Militia, Riverton, W. Va. 
Thompson, John, (of James) A, 18, Harmon, W. Va. 

Thompson, Salem, A, 18, Ohio. 

Thompson, Willis, Militia, died in Camp Chase. 

Tingler, Jacob, C, 62, ' Randolph Co., W. Va. 

Tingler, Miles, Militia, D. 



428 

Trumbo, A. Jackson, K, 26, Rockingham Co., Va. 

Trumbo, Elijah, I, 62, D. 

Trumbo, J. Sylvester, 1st Serg't., K, 62, Brandy wine, W. Va. 
Trumbo, John D., K, 62, Virginia. 

Trumbo, Morgan G., McNeill's Rangers, D. 

Trumbo, George, I, 62, Fort Seybert, W. Va. 

Trumbo, Samuel, Drummer, I, 62, D. 

Vandevander, Adam C., C, 62, Circleville, W. Va. 

Vandevander, Isaac, C, 62, killed at Williamsport. 

Vandevander, Jacob, C, 62, D. 

Vandevander, Isaac C., C, 62, Randolph Co., W. Va. 

Vandevander, William, C, 62, Circleville, W. Va. 

Varner, William, I, 25, Illinois. 

Varner, Daniel, K, 62, D. 

Vint, Esau, G, 18, Augusta Co., Va. 

Vint, William Hudson, C, 62, wounded at Williamsport and 

New Market, D. 

Vint, William, G, 18, Doe Hill, Va. 

Vint, Hamilton, K, 62, killed near McDowell. 

Vint, John, G, 62, moved to Illinois, D. 

Vint, Geo. M., G. 18, Bridgewater, Va. 

Waggoner, J. Adam, K, 25, Fort Seybert, W. Va. 

Waggoner, Geo. D., I, 62,, Miles, W. Va. 

Waggoner, Lewis B., I, 62, D. 

Waldron, Noah, K, 25, died during war in service. 

Walker, Edward, K, 62, Oak Flat, W. Va. 

Warner, Amos B., C, 62, Riverton, W. Va. 

Warner, Adam B.,A, 18, Circleville, W. Va. 

Warner, James, A, 18, , Indiana. 

Warner, John W., A, Pendleton Reserves, Circleville, W. Va. 
Warner, Noah, C, 62, Nome, W. Va. 

Warner, Peter S., Serg't, C, 62, D. 

Warner, Zane B., A, 18, Riverton, W. Va. 

Waybright, Churchville, H, 62, Dunlevie, W. Va. 

Waybright, Jesse, Militia, shot from ambush, at home, and 

killed. 
Waybright, Morgan, C, 62, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Waybright, Nathan, C, 62, died in service. 

Wees, Duncan, A, 18, Thorn, W. Va. 

Wilfong, Eli ,K, 62, killed at New Market. 

Wilfong, Elias, A, Pendleton Reserves, Sugar Grove, W. Va. 
Wilson, A. Jackson, 2d Serg't., E, 25, Riverton, W. Va. 

Wilson, Geo. T., E, 25, West. 

Wilson, John E., Militia, Camp Chase, D. 

Wilson, Noah, I, 62, died in Federal prison. 

Wilson, Charles, D. 

Wimer, Aaron, C, 62, West. 



429 

Wimer, Abel, E, 25, wounded at McDowell, Nome, W. Va. 
Wimer, Benjamin, C, 62, D. 

Wimer, Ephraim, Lieut. I, 62, wounded New Market, Camp 

Chase. D. 

Wimer, Elias, E, 25, Nebraska. 

Wimer, Henry (of Geo.), E, 25, Kansas. 

Wimer, Jacob, C, 62, Crabbottom, Va. 

Wimer, George, C, 62, killed at Williamsport. 

Wimer, William, D, 62, D. 

Wimer, George, D, 62, D. 

Wimer, Nathan, C, 62, D. 

Wimer, Joseph, C, 62, Boyer, W. Va. 

Zickafoose, George, Militia, D. 

The following is a list of Confederates, who, either during 
the Civil War, or immediately thereafter, made Pendleton 
County their adopted home. 

Acrey, D. H., — Alabama, D. 

Blakemore, Noel B., I, 5, Sugar Grove, W. Va. 

Bowman, Thomas J., I, 23, D. 

Campbell, William A., A, 20, Franklin, W. Va. 

Carter, J. Frank, C, 62 Georgia, Washington Artillery, 

wounded three times, Franklin, W. Va. 

Daugherty, James H., Capt, B, 11th Cavalry, lost leg at 

Sangster Station. 
Goodman, James, 12 Georgia, D. 

Hahn, Arthur A., Marcus' Battery, Artillery, Brandywine, 

W. Va. 
Marshall, John A., D. 

May, Josiah F., H, 12 Cavalry, Stonewall Brigade, Miles, 

W. Va. 
Newcomb, Albert T., I, 44, Rexroad, W, Va. 

Pennybacker, Isaac S., H, 7, wounded at Greenland Gap, W. 

Va., Franklin, W. Va. 
Pennybacker, J. Ed., McNeill's Rangers, Washington, D. C. 
Ridgeway, Amos, D. 

Solomon, G. C. K., Bridgewater Greys, 5 Calvary, Brandy- 
wine, W. Va. 
Williams, John S., wounded, Jackson's Cavalry, Fort Seybert, 

W. Va. 
Wyant, Henry, D. 



APPENDIX 



Brief Sketch of the Author of This History 

Oren F. Morton is a native of Maine, but in early boyhood 
he accompanied his parents to what was then the frontier 
state of Nebraska and there grew to manhood on a prairie 
farm. His three brothers and his future brother-in-law, all 
much older than himself, were soldiers in the Army of the 
Potomac, and one brother was wounded at Gettysburg. He 
spent five years at the University of Nebraska, graduating 
with the degree of Bachelor of Letters. Two years later the 
family removed to Virginia. In early life and on a few occa- 
sions afterward, Mr. Morton taught in public and private 
schools, but not as a professional teacher. For several years 
he carried on a woodworking business, but a severe hurt and 
a falling market compelled his withdrawal, and since 1894 he 
has lived among the Appalachian highlands. 

In 1899-1900. he was employed on the compilation of 
"Hyde's Digest of the West Virginia Reports." In the latter 
year appeared the first of his own books, entitle d Under the 
Cotton woods, " being a sketch of pioneer life on the prairie. 
This volume was followed by two stories of West Virginia 
life, "Winning or Losing ?" and "Land of the Laurel," and 
by "Pioneers of Preston County," an historical work. The 
last named is as yet unpublished by the party for whom it 
was written. Through his own efforts he sold nearly 2,000 
of his books, visiting nearly every county of West Virginia 
and meeting a large number of its public and professional 
men. His travels include thirty other states and two of the 
provinces of Canada. He has been a member of the Amer- 
ican Geographic Society. 

In the spring of 1908 he left Preston county of this state, 
which for twelve years had been his nominal home, and after 
a tour through the Southwestern and Gulf states, made a so- 
journ in the northeast of Georgia. The next April he came 
to this county for the purpose of writing its history. The 
impression here formed of Mr. Morton is thus stated by a 
citizen of the county : 

"I have known him a number of years, quite intimately 
since he has been engaged on the history of our county, and 
from such acquaintance I find him a man of culture, educa- 
tion, and irreproachable character. His work on our local 



431 

history, with which I have kept in close touch, has been ef- 
ficient, thorough, systematic, comprehensive, painstaking; 
in short, of such character as to lead me confidently to be- 
lieve that the work will be highly meritorious, and also that 
it will prove invaluable to the people of Pentleton, or to any 
others interested in the history of the county or its people." 

SIDELIGHTS ON HISTORICAL SUBJECTS 

Introductory Note : — The history of any county is 
woven into the history of the state and also the nation of which 
it is a part. Local history cannot therefore be thoroughly 
understood without a knowledge of state and national history. 
The articles which follow do not apply exclusively to Pendle- 
ton County. They are placed in this volume to add to and 
widen the presentation of American and state history which 
is given in the usual textbooks and in books for general read- 
ing. These articles are at times somewhat philosophical, 
but it is believed they will repay a careful attention. Their 
first appearance is in this volume. They were written by 
the author of the book. He alone is responsible for the con- 
clusions given. These conclusions have been drawn from 
extended observation in a number of states, North, West, 
and South, and from contact with different classes of the 
American people. 

The Meaning of History 

The course which history assumes at any given time is not 
governed by chance. It is not chance that rules the universe. 
History is a thing of life and not a skeleton of dry bones. 

The people of today are the makers of the history of today. 
The people of any preceding age have had the same interest 
in life that we ourselves possess. They moved in response 
to the forces of their own time and worked out a chapter in 
the history of the past, just as we ourselves are preparing a 
chapter in the history of the future. Since humun nature is 
fundamentally the same in all times and in all places, their 
thoughts ran along the same general lines as our own 
thoughts. Sometimes they succeeded better than we are 
doing, and sometimes they did not do so well. No age enjoys 
a monopoly of all wisdom. 

The stream of history is the result of a blending of three 
forces. One force works through the laws of physiography, 
giving history a local color corresponding to the physical as- 
pects of each given region. The indoor civilization of bleak 
Iceland is not the outdoor civilization of torrid India. The 



civilization of showery Japan is not the civilization of rain- 
less Egypt. 

The second force lies in man himself. Every person is a 
unit in some particular nation, after much the same manner 
as each leaf of a tree is a part of that tree. And as the 
leaves are never precisely alike, so neither are any two indi- 
viduals ever precisely alike. A world with all its inhabitants 
of one uniform type would not be worth living in. We give 
recognition to this fact of individual divergence from the 
average type whenever we say of a given person that he is 
"odd" or "queer." Nevertheless the degrees of divergence 
are not so broad that a community fails to exhibit a marked 
concert of action. Otherwise it could not hold together. 
Mankind in the mass thus unites in a common voice. This 
voice is the second force of which we' are speaking. We may 
call it the Folk-Soul. For instance, it often declares in favor 
of experienced teachers for its public school. People call 
this general opinion "public sentiment." Public sentiment 
is unwritten law, and it is the only enduring source of writ- 
ten laws and other public regulations. 

Nature — external nature — is the factor in history below 
man. Another factor, as we have seen, is man himself. 
There is still a third factor, and it is above man. We may 
call this third force the World-Spirit. It is nothing less than 
the voice of the Ruler of the Universe, working upon the 
nations of the earth according to his own purpose. People 
recognize its existence whenever they use the expression, 
"spirit of the times." They somehow feel that it is a power 
from without which works through man yet is independent 
of man. They feel its presence, but they cannot satisfacto- 
rily trace the source to any particular member of the com- 
munity. 

The nation resisting the spirit of the times is in a losing 
fight. The triumph of its banner would be a setback to the 
broader interests of civilization. The downfall of the ban- 
ner may not at the time seem a beneficent act to the people 
arrayed beneath it. Later on it is found that substantial 
good is springing out of what at the first seemed little else 
than evil. A good illustration is found in the recent war in 
South Africa. A handful of farming people were arrayed 
against the might of the British Empire. It took more sol- 
diers to overcome their resistance than there were men, 
women, and children of the white race in the two Dutch re- 
publics. Their long and gallant defense called out the sym- 
pathy of the world. In the conduct of the war England 
reaped neither honor nor glory. The crusade was to all out- 
ward appearances inspired by commercial greed and ambi- 



^3 

tion. Cecil Rhodes, the milh'onaire who seemed to inspire 
the attack was neither admired nor applauded. Yet within 
the few years that have since rolled away the two little 
nations have become component states of a great federal 
republic. The union of the white colonies of South Africa 
was better for them all. The easy-going-, conservative Boers 
were devoted to their pastoral life, yet they were resisting 
the spirit of the times and went down before it. Sordid, 
selfish commercialism, a thing unlovely in itself, was never- 
theless the agency through which a bundle of petty states 
was welded into a strong and more efficient nation ; a self- 
governing and federal republic notwithstanding it is a ward 
of monarchical England. 

In the workings of public sentiment we find a good illus- 
tration of the difference between the public leader and the 
crank reformer. The crowd listens to the public leader, be- 
cause he is giving expression to the thoughts of his listeners 
and giving these thoughts a working edge. Yet his opponents 
make him a scapegoat. They overlook the fact that he is not 
speaking for himself alone and is powerless without the 
willing support of his adherents. Men always await the ap- 
pearance of a leader and look up to him when they have found 
him, because of the instinct that an army with a real leader 
is far more effective than a leaderless mob. On the contrary 
the crank reformer digs out of his own fancy a scheme for 
social betterment. The scheme falls flat, except with men 
of his own kind, because it has no power to awake a respon- 
sive chord in the minds of his normal fellow-beings. The 
one person is in touch with the people he lives among and 
the other is not. People therefore call the one man ' 'prac- 
tical" and the other "mpractical. " 

The mission of history is to enable the men of the hour to 
avoid the errors of their forefathers and to correct the other 
errors they are about to fall into. It asserts the duty of 
making at least a little advance in the march of a genuine civ- 
ilization. The ways in which this end may be achieved are 
almost beyond counting. In view of what has taken place 
during the lifetime of our older people, we of this opening 
decade of the twentieth century may think we are already 
near the top of the pinnacle of achievement. Yet there are 
many more steps between us and the actual summit. All 
things which dazzle the eye are not pure gold. 

Local history conveys an insufficient message when it stops 
short with telling us that a certain settler came from a cer- 
tain place a century ago, settled a certain farm, and reared 
a family of seven sons and seven daughters. Those of the 
posterity of the pioneer who are at all able to use their 

PCH 28 



484 

thinking powers, and have the will and desire to look 
beyond the family fireside, will wish to know their 
ancestor as a person of flesh and blood and not as the 
unsubstantial embodiment of a few air-dry facts. They 
will wish to know how the pioneer toiled, how he clothed 
and housed himself, what opinions he held, what sort of 
neighborhood he lived in, and the general peculiarities of 
the period in which he lived. If they now reflect on what 
they learn they become broader-minded citizens. 

The narrow wave-circles set in motion by a pebble tossed 
into a pool grow constantly wider. In like manner the field 
of local history broadens into that of the nation itself. A 
patriotic feeling of a substantial sort does not discover a 
barbed wire fence in the border-line of the county or in the 
border-line of the state. The county helps to interpret the 
nation and the nation helps to interpret the county. The 
person who spells country without an R is behind the times. 

America an Old World 

A visitor to our Atlantic seaboard ten or even five centuries 
before the coming of early European navigators would not have 
found the Indian tribes living just where they were in 1607. 
Nation had been pushing against nation in America the same 
as anywhere else. Solitudes had become peopled, and peo- 
pled districts had again become solitudes. For instance there 
is at Moundsville, W. Va., an artificial hill an acre in extent 
and originally 75 feet high. When the white settlers were 
exploring this region, this great mound lay hidden in a dense 
forest and was discovered only by accident. It is not to be 
supposed that it was built in a jungle, but rather in a large 
cleared space. Again, the settlers of the Shenandoah Valley 
found therein a prairie a half million acres in extent. This 
open tract was kept in existence only by annual burnings. 
But when was so large an opening created ? It is easy to 
say this prairie was the result of a gradual process, and for 
the purpose of attracting the deer and the buffalo. But why 
was not a large part of the Atlantic slope thus cleared of 
wood ? 

People have been asking where the Indian came from, and 
how long he has been here in America. A convincing answer 
to these questions has never yet been forthcoming. The one 
point not open to argument is that he has lived on this con- 
tinent a length of time that makes the voyage of Columbus 
seem as but an affair of yesterday. The first dry land to rise 
above the universal ocean in geologic time was in the east of 
North America. The burden of proof is on the claim that the 



436 

human race is older in the Eastern Continent than in the 
Western. As a practical question we may safely say that 
mankind has dwelt here as long as there. * 

Books have been written to exploit some rather wild and 
fantastic views respecting ancient America. These views 
are scarcely more startling than some of the conclusions of 
recent investigation. It used to be assumed that our conti- 
nent was peopled by way of the narrow Bering strait. That 
it was just as easy for people to cross in the contrary direc- 
tion was not taken into account. But that the movement of 
population has been from America to Asia, and not from Asia 
to America, is the opinion based on a long and careful in- 
vestigating tour of scientific observers. 

Civilization has nowhere developed without agriculture, 
and agriculture is exceedingly conservative. Tillage of the 
soil began so very long ago that within strictly historic times 
there is no record of the domesticating of any important 
food plant. Of such of these plants as have become seedless 
through the effect of long continued cultivation, every one 
with the doubtful exception of the breadfruit tree — a plant 
related to the osage orange — is native to America. Further- 
more, the domesticated plants of this continent are more 
numerous than those of the other hemisphere. Some of 
these have starchy roots from which meal may be made. 
Even in the case of Indian corn the natives obtained meal by 
grating, in the same way as with a raw edible root. 

The natives of the Eastern hemisphere were the first to 
domesticate the horse, the ox, and the sheep. But the na- 
tives of the Western were the first to lay the real foundations 
of agriculture. It was in tropic America that the first 
primitive civilization could arise. When this early and crude 
culture gained efficiency it produced the cities whose remark- 
able ruins are found in Yucatan and Peru. There is proof 
that it crossed the Pacific, notwithstanding the immense 
breadth of that ocean. The cocoanut supplies one of the 
evidences. The palm which yields this nut grows wild in 
tropical America, but nowhere else. Though found in all 
other warm coast lands, it is there a domesticated tree, as 
incapable as the wheat plant of shifting for itself any length 
of time. It used to be thought this tree became scattered 
over the torrid zone through the floating of the nuts in the 

* Some may imagine this to be contrary to what is told in the Bible, 
But Moses lived in a comparatively civilized age. In the book of Genesis 
he is describing the world as it was known to him. As for the Garden of 
Eden the location of it is involved in extreme uncertainty. 



436 

ocean currents. But the long soaking in sea water destroys 
the germinating power of the nuts. 

When this wave of primitive civilization reached the Per- 
sian gulf, as there is in fact tradition that it did, it created 
among the people of that region a necessity for new food 
plants. They domesticated wheat and other cereals, and 
with the great help afforded by their tamed animals they 
were enabled to improve on what they received. Further 
advance was made by utilizing bronze and then iron. Thus 
arose the Chaldean civilization, the earliest with which his- 
tory is on anything like familiar terms. The progress of 
still more improved types was toward the west, and when 
the ships of Columbus arrived at the West Indies, civilization 
had completed its circuit of the globe. 

The gradual crossing of the Pacific in prehistoric times is 
not so preposterous as it may at first sight appear. The 
Polynesians of the eighteenth century were a rude people and 
had neither chart nor compass. Yet they are known to have 
made roundtrip voyages as long as that of Columbus, himself. 
As for the Atlantic, that ocean is only 1500 miles wide near 
its center. It is hardly to be supposed that sixteen of the 
Greek and Roman writers would speak of land in the west 
which no one had ever seen. One of these writers, a very 
practical man, said that a few days sail with a fair wind at 
one's back would carry a ship to the hidden continent. He 
declared that future generations would wonder why they 
themselves did not make the effort. It was only supersti- 
tion that made the mariners of Southern Europe afraid of 
the Atlantic. As soon as the way was once shown, they be- 
gan coming in vessels so small and frail that a modern sailor 
would be almost afraid of them. 

As the early civilization journeyed around the earth, it 
scattered along its pathway a common store of folklore tales, 
curious myths, and the legend of an ocean encompassing the 
globe. Otherwise, the problems relating to the dawn of his- 
tory yield to no satisfactory explanation. 

Our continent is a "new world" only in a very limited 
sense. It has been too much the habit to measure all things 
American by a European yardstick, and to assume an essen- 
tial superiority in things European. Even in its smaller size 
there is scarcely any inferiority in America. Mile for mile 
the Western continent is more productive than the Eastern. 
As for the loose statement that the European stock degen- 
erates in America, it has been shown by competent authority 
to be without foundation in fact. The hospital records of 
the war of 1861 showed that the American soldier had more 



487 

vitality and endurance than the European and recovered 
more readily from wounds. 

The United States has the most fortunate position for a 
great nation of any country on earth. If now the past of 
the American continent has been far less a blank page than 
we have been taught to suppose, a better knowledge of the 
matter should be a sound reason for a still greater pride in 
our country. 

We close this paper with a paragraph by a recent investi- 
gator. His words apply to an exceedingly remote past. 
They may sound extravagant, and possibly the enthusiasm 
of the writer has carried him a little too far. But his seem- 
ing extravagance in statement is because of our natural sur- 
prise in finding open to our view an unsuspected chapter of 
early history. 

"From this treasure house (the ruins of Yucatan) comes 
the key to a thousand problems that have vexed scholars and 
tormented theologians, and a knowledge of astronomy and 
mathematics that has dictated the chronologies and cosmog- 
onies of Europe. These people had a regular calendar; they 
had measured the earth; there is a strong presumption that 
they had the mariner's compass; that they were great navi- 
gators and merchants; they gave us an alphabet from which 
our own has come; they preceded England as the mistress of 
the seas; they made our land the granary of the world while 
Egypt was savage and the ancestors of our (European) race 
had neither clothes, weapons, nor habitations." 

The Men Who Settled the Thirteen Colonies 

The founders of the British-American colonies were of the 
Germanic and Celtic branches of the European race. The 
former includes the English, the Lowland Scotch, the Dutch, 
the Scandinavians, the Germans, and the German Swiss. 
The latter includes the French, the native Irish, the Highland 
Scotch, and the Welch. The former branch is more patient, 
persistent, orderly and cool-blooded. The latter branch is 
more turbulent, but of warmer, keener, and more artistic 
sensibilities. 

Ten centuries before America was known, the ancestors of 
the English and the Lowland Scotch were dwelling on the 
eastern shore of the North Sea. They were a people rude 
and warlike, and there was in fact some similarity between 
their mode of life and that of the Indian. They lived in 
villages, each village governing itself and being surrounded 
by woodland and meadow held in common. These fierce 
heathens set a high value on civil liberty, and they had the 



German virtues of simplicity, sincerity, truthfulness, and 
regard for women. 

They sailed in their pirate ships to the British Isles, where 
they burned, plundered, and massacred, driving what few they 
spared of the native Celts into the mountains of Wales and 
Scotland. They at length colonized that part of Ireland 
which lies around Dublin. These later immigrants, who may 
be called the Saxon Irish, mingled very little with the Celtic 
Irish, yet they grew away from the English, just as the 
Enghsh at once proceeded to grow away from the Germans. 

In England the invaders became known as ihe English 
people. They embraced Christianity, grew more civilized 
and less warlike, and in time lost some of their early freedom 
through the encroachments of the kings and the nobility. 
After a few centuries they were harried by Scandinavian 
pirates, just as they in turn had harried the Britons. They 
put into their prayer-book the petition; "From the fury of 
the Northmen, good Lord, deliver us." Many of these sea- 
rovers settled in the country, and being closely akin to the 
English the two peoples soon became one. Another portion 
of the Northmen settled on the shore of France, adopted the 
French language and civilization, and became known as 
Normans. They were intellectual, adventurous, domineering, 
and had a genius for government. In the eleventh century 
they conquered and ruled England, but in two or three cen- 
turies they had become blended with the English. 

Because of this intermixture of stocks and of isolation on 
an island, the Englishman acquired a type of his own. He is 
earnest, brave, dignified, and strong-willed. He is also in- 
dustrious, enterprising, persistent, and a lover of order. His 
piratical ancestry makes him overbearing toward those he 
can bully, and rather grasping in matters of trade or the 
acquisition of land. 

The earlier inhabitants they crowded out maintained a foot- 
hold in the mountains of Wales and thus became known as 
the Welch. After sometime they lost their independence but 
not their liberties, and became industrious and prosperous. 
The Highland Scotch were a cluster of disorderly clans, not 
fond of steady work, and for a long while much given to 
fighting and the stealing of cattle. Ireland was for five cen- 
turies the most enlightened country of the British Isles. Her 
schools were thronged with students, her scholars were held 
in high esteem, and her missionaries were active and zealous. 
But the religious difference between the Irish and their 
English conquerors has since given the fair island an unhappy 
history. 

The French are a highly gifted people and the most artistic 



439 

of the Europeans. Their influence on the civilization of 
Europe has been profound. Toward the close of the seven- 
teenth century a bigoted king undertook to crush out all dif- 
ference in religious belief. A half million of the French 
Protestants found a refuge in England and Prussia. They 
were the most progressive and intellectual of the French people 
and were the mainstay of French industry and commerce. 
Many of these Huguenots, as they were called, came to 
America, especially to New England and South Carolina. 
They were not clannish, and they rapidly fused with the Eng- 
lish colonists. The fusion of the two elements has gone far 
to cause the American to differ from the Englishman. The 
Huguenot was less austere in disposition, more active in 
mind, more intense in his affections, more chivalrous to 
woman, more flexible and hospitable to men and ideas, and 
more keen and enterprising in matters of business. 

In the seventeenth century Holland was the first commer- 
cial country in Europe. Though rivals of the English in 
commerce and industry, the Dutch are a kindred people, and 
have been in full sympathy with them in religious belief. 
They have also been progressive in religious and political 
matters. 

Germany was at this time a very loose collection of despotic 
monarchies. It was repeatedly devastated by civil and re- 
ligious wars. At the command of the same bigot who drove 
the Huguenots from Franc