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Full text of "The history of Pennsylvania, in North America, from the original institution and settlement of that province, under the first proprietor and governor, William Penn, in 1681, till after the year 1742; with an introduction, respecting, the life of W. Penn, prior to the grant of the province, and the religious society of the people called Quakers;--with the first rise of the neighbouring colonies, more particularly of West-New-Jersey, and the settlement of the Dutch and Swedes on Delaware. To which is added, a brief description of the said province, and of the general state, in which it flourished, principally between the years 1760 and 1770 .."

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,|,^,LLEN CouNjy 

n.Hf.k'C LIBF 

3 1833 01144 9409 


Hiilory o f Peiinfylv ania^ 


j^, F R O M T H E 

Ori^al Inflltution and Settlem^^jtof that Province, under 
the fir ft Proprietor And Governor WILLIAM PEN N, 
in i68i, till atV^^ the Year 1742; 



R E 5 1' E C T 1 N O, 

The Ijfe «<( Ww PENN, prior lo the grant of the Province, and the relijnous 
Sockty q( ihc Pcoj>lc cilKil ^uji<:n; — with the firil rife <ii: the neighbouring 
Cotoui''*, more pjrticuhrly of lVcJl-Ntiv-J<frfy, and the Settlement 
o( ihc Dut^b and Swedes on Delaware. 


A brief Defcription of the faid Province, 


General State, in which it flouridicd, principally betwaen the Years 1760 and 1 770. 

^-^k The whole includuig a Variety of Tilings, 

Vfcful and intercftinjr to be Lnown, refpeding that Country in early Time, &c. 

With an APPENDIX. 

Written pnnclpally between the Years 1776 and 1780, 

DUM tjT, TIL rACt VEL BELiO CI.AKUM FIERI LICET." S,il. Culu.'i.-i, 

Ml.VUENU-l KJT llJiC OJ'JNiO."' Cje. Off. 

,/^ VO L U M E U. 

\ Philadelphia : 

I No. 106, Chefnht-J]re:t^ 
"*' .irly^bppofitc to tlie Blink of North America. 




O F 



Qwenior Gookin arrives. — The Proprietor's letter by 
lim to bis friends. — /IJfembly's addrefs to the Go- 
vernor. — Names of the members ofAffembly. — They 
continue their former animofity. — The Governor's 
anfivcr ; to which the Ajj^mbly reply. — T})e Coim- 
ciTs addrefs to the Governor. — The Jjfemb'y dif- 
pkcfed with the Council^ and prcfcnt a remoyi- 
Jlrance of grievances to the Governor. — Evil ten- 
dency of thcfe difputes ; and dangerous effe^ls of 
party fpirit. — The Governor's fpeech to the Af- 
fembly^ co?itaining a military requifition in 1709. 


"OVERNOR GOOKIN, arrived at PM^- ,709. 
delphia^ in the firfl month, March, O. S. The ^-^-^-*-' 
Proprietary, in a letter to his friends, in the pro- ^.'^^ .^™* 

. ^ ^ II,- r r pnctor s 

vince, recommended him, as a perlon or years j charadcr of 
experience and moderation, as well as of good '^"'•j-r'ior 
charader, example find abilities ; and delcended 


\. The History of Pennsylvania. 

1709. of a good fiimily in Irchmd ; and that, having ta- 
"" "^^ ken leave of a mihtary Hfe, and his native coun- 
try, he came with intention, if he found the place 
agreeable to his expectation, to fettle, and fpend 
the remainder of his life and fortune in the pro- 


• This letter, which he fent by Governor Goolin, is as follows, v/z. 
" London, 28th. 7th. month, 1708. 

" n.jr Fr'untL am! Brelhren, 

" MY ancient love, it' you can believe it, reaches to you, as in 
times part, anJ y< ars, that are gone, tvcn, in tiie cli\ine root and prin- 
ciple of love, and lite, that made us near to one another, ahove all worldly 
ciMifiderations ; ^^dKu- our life, I hope, is hid wiih Cluilt, in God, our 
Lather; fo that, when he appears, we fliall alfo appear with him, in 
jjlory ; and in the meantime, throuj;h us, to thofe that love and wait 
for his appearance, as the delire oi nations; that we may glorily God, 
his and our cvtilattinf; I''ather, in our bodies, foids and Ijiirin, in tempo- 
ral and eternal ailnirj; beinj; indeed none of our own ; forafnutch as wc 
are our own, we arc none of the Lord's; a great myllery, but a great 
truth, and of abfulute nccelfity to witnefs, to be of the number of the 
chof n nution, t)ie j)eculiar people, and royal priclUiood of Chrift, and 
his glorious kingdom. 

" Oh! my dear friends, let all below this keep on the left hand; and 
wait to feel thole bkiied things, to inherit right hand; and in faith and 
courage, cry aloud to the Lord, for his rencAving and rcfrtfhing power, 
that may revive and reform his work upon your hearts and minds; and 
our f.umility, meeknefs, patience, fclf-dcnial and charity, with a blame- 
kf-i walkn.g, may jdulrdy ap[uar, and mamfell the work of God upon 
cm- luart>, to ilu'le that are without; whicl> is not only the v.'ay to bring 
up til. IijitMvrs, and ji.ulur in the careiefs ones, to their duty, but fetch 
Ikjuu and Ininj'; in, tlie lUangers, and the very enemies of the bleffed 
truth, to coulefs and acknowledge that God is in you, and for you, of a 

.. " Now, my dear friends, as to outward things, I have fent a new Go- 
vernor, of years and experience; of a quiet, cafy temjier; that, 1 hope, 
will give olTcnce to none ; nor too eafdy put up any, if ofl'ered him, with- 
out hope of amendments 'I'he Queen very graciouily approved of him, 
at lirlt offer, and gave\|lijni her hand to kifs ; and, at laft, being intro- 
duced by the Earl of Gu-Llihin, Lord High Treaiurer of Crcdt JJiiLiin, 
at IViii.lfur, file added, " Sir, J -zi'ljl' yai, a gcoj jouniry, ,nul jLtll Le rvaJy 
tofevuc yon.'l He is i'ober, underilands to cojnniand ami obey, moderate 
\ in his temper, and of what they call a good family : his grandfather. Sir 

' " yiiicfiit Gouiin, having been an early great planter in Inland, in King 
James the firft, and the firft Charles's days; and he intends, if not ill 
treated, to lay hii bones, as well as fubftance among you; having taken 
leave of the\var, and both Enr/,2iiJ and Irelniidto live amongll you ; and 
as he i,, not voluptuous, fo, I hope, he will be an example of thriftinefs. 
In Ihoit, he has inftrtii" ions, as much to the virtue, jiiilice and jieace of 
the counliy, as !■ c;iu>!.-prefs myli. If, or you dt lire, for your comfortable 
living; jiiay, therelore, receive him kindly, and exprcfs it, by a nicdeft 
fublilUnce ; or, rather, j^nvc il me, to give him, or, how you pleafc. 

" The 

The History of Pennsylvania. 

The Aflembly was fitting at the time of his ar- 
rival, and immediately prelbnted him with the fol- 
lowing congratulatory addrefs, viz. 

Tlie Addrefs of the Reprefentatives of the ^'^^^- Tht ^^tm- 
men of the province of Pennfylvimia, in adem- biy's ad- 
bly met, the 9th. day of the month called ;!';[;;; "'^ 
March, 1708-9, prefented to Charles Gookin Ooo^n. 
Efq. by the Queen's royal approbation, Lieu- 
tenant Governor of the laid province, kc. 

" A'Ii7)' it plcafs the Governor^ 
'* ITiVVING this opportunity, we can do no lefs 
than congratulate thy feafonable acccUion to this 
government, and render our mod grateful acknow- 
ledgments to the Queen, for her gracious accep- 
tance of the Proprietary's nomination of thee, to 
fupply his abfence, and to him, for conflituting a 
perfon of fo fair a charafter, furniflied, as we 
hope, with a full refolution, as well as power, to 


*' The Lord Lovdact, Governor of Neiv !?*&(■/, and a promifing one 
indeed, prefTes, and the Admiral's orders, lor failing, art.- gone down; 
the wind fair, and Governor Gookin leaves nie to-morrow. 

" I i-anuftly li.fcTch you to aili.l "J.iyr::! Lo.;.in, and who clfc the 
Tridlits, fur tfie payment of tJic money Ju-re advanced, fliali nominate, 
not oidy to get in, but turn into money, tlie bell you arj able, I 
may come honourable to you, and fpeedily ; which I hope to do, as foon as 
you, and ihel'e friends here, think fit. Let me have thisplcilge of your 
love, ami it iball be a lafting one, to advife and airifl you for the expediting 
the ir.attei ; for be allured, I long to b.- with you ; and, if the Lord 
bring me and mine well there, I hope nt.t t-j return on almoll any terms, 
at lead not without your advice and fatistadion ; for care of you, and 
fettling plantations for my ])oor minors; for planters, God willing, they 
flmll be, in their father's country, rather than great mercharits, in their 
native land; and to vilit friends throughout the continent, at leaft, their 
cldefell bufmefs. 

" In the firll love I leave you and yours, and all the lord's people 
aniunglf you ; my family and affaiis, to the merciful providence and r,r- 
derings of our great and gracious God, that welcomed us, in poor ylme- 
r'ua, with his excellent love aiid prcfence, and will, I hope, once more, 
and renraiu your loving and faithful friend, 


" Herewith comes your fchool charter." 

Note. 'I'liis was the cha^ej of the Friends' public grammar fchool, 
vn Philadelj'hia, btfiire mentioned; tho\igh it was ueither the iirll nor 
VAX of that inllitutioB. 

5 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1709. redrefs the grievances, and remove the opprefTions, 
-^^^'-^^ that this poor province has, for fome time, labour- 
ed under, occafioned by the irregular adminiltra- 
tion of the late Deputy Governor ; who was too 
much influenced by e-vil counfel ; to which the mi- 
feries and confufion of the ftate, and divillons in 
the government, are principally owing. 

" We are ready to reprefent fuch of thofe public 
grievances, as are laid before us, or occur to our 
knowledge, in particular articles, and bring them to 
a proper cxamen ; but, perceiving by thy meifage' 
to the houfe yeflerday, that thou art not ready, at 
this time, to proceed with us to bufinefs, we (hall 
take leave only to mention fome of thofe things, 
of which the public weal of this country loudly 
calls for a molt earneft application and fpeedy re- 

" In the iirfl place, we are to lay before thee, 
that of the /^/y^d' alarm in May, 1706; wherein 
the late Governor was chief actor ; and for which 
he is highly chargeable ; having ihot at the 
Queen's lubjccls, putting many of the inhabitants 
of this town in danger o^ their lives, and forced 
great quantities of powder and lead from the 
owners, and gave it to fuch as wafted it, when he 
knew there was no occahon to ufe it ; whereby he 
deprived the place of what ammunition might be 
ready for thofe, that had freedom to make ufe of 
it, iox tht^ir defence, in cafe of an attack. 

" The next is that notorious ail: of hoflility, 
lie connnittcd by firing fhot at (he Oucen's fubjeds 
palling by JNcivcajlL^ in tlie river, upon their law- 
ful trade, to and from this port. 

" We mention thefc, as they are, in our opi- 
nion, offences of a deep dye, and committed 
againfl the Qiieen's crov, n and dignity, as well as 
agaiidt the peace, and ought to be charged upon 
( him. 

The History of Pennsylvania. 

him, before he departs this province ; but 
method of the profecution againfl him we fubmit 
to thy prudent care and difcretion, and we (liall 
be ready to do what is proper on our parts. 

" That the Treafurer* of the lafl tax has refuf- 
cd to comply with the directions of the Aflembly, 
in paying the pubhc debts, according to the re- 
fpetlive orders drawn upon him, and figned by 
the Speaker ; and that the Colleflors of the faid 
tax, who negleded their duty, in gathering the 
fame, have not been obliged thereunto, according 
as the aft of Aifembly, in that cafe, direds, and 
more particularly the Colleclor of the city and 
county of Philadelphia, 

" That the courts of judicature of this pro- 
vince have been, and are, ereded by ordinances 
of the Governor and Council, againll the advice, 
and without the aflent of the Aflembly ; which 
%ve complain of, as a great opprejjlon and aggriev- 
ance to the people, we reprefent, and deiire the 
fame may be fpeedily redreiTed, and the bill pre- 
pared for the eflabhihing courts, with other ufelul 
bills, ready to be prefented to the Governor, may 
be confidcrcd. 

" We are given to underftand that thou 
brought fome commands from the Qjaeen to this 
government, as well as inftruftions from the Pro- 
prietary, relating to the public, which, with a 
copy of thy commiflion, and the royal approba- 
tion, we defire may be communicated to this 
houfe, at our next meeting, which we intend on 
the twentieth day of the next month, and fliall 
adjourn accordingly, unlefs it be thy pleafure to 
call us fooner ; which we fliall be ready to comply 
with, not only in expectation of a fpeedy redrefs 
of pur grievances, but to fettle by law, how mo- 

* Viz. S. Carpenter, 

8 Thk History of Pennsylvania. 

1709. ney iliall be paid upon contrads made, before the I 
^"""^''^^ new currency of money takes effcd. '^ 

" Signed by order of the Houfe, 

" DAVID LLOYD, Speaker^* | 

Thus, by the AfTembly's very fird addrefs to 
Governor Gookin, were the former aniinofities 
continued ; for the principal and ruh'ng members 
oi the houfe were (lill the fame, who had fo long^ 
been accuflomedto complain of grievances, if not to 
exaggerate, or imagine fomc things of that kind j 
infomuch, that, though they had fuilicient reafoii 
to complain of part of Evans's condurt, in proper 
TheAn-em- tmic and place, yet their manner of mentioning 
biy^ftew fome things under the name of oppre/fmi and griev- 
temper than ^^^<^(^-> and iu demanding, or urging, for others, fuch 
prudence, a mode of fatisfaaion, as the nature of their cafe 
rendered impoffible to obtain in the province, par- 
ticularly thole rcfpecling Eva7is and his admini- 
ftration ; which, perhaps, would have been more 
prudently dropped, with the removal of their caufe, 
feemed to fhew more their temper of mind, than 
prudence : but Evans'& ill or imprudent condud 
luid made fuch deep imprellion on their nn'nds, 
and difpofed them fo much to a difcontented and 
angry difpofition, that in fome of their reprefen- 
tations, they appear not only to have exaggerated 


' • The names of the ATemhers of this Affcmbly, eledled on the fird 

nay of Odobcr, 1708, were, 

For Ph'Lddph.a .ou.ty. B,uh county. _ Qhepr county. 

D.tvid Lloyd, Sp^ai.r, William Paxon, Daniel Wiliiamfon 

Jofeph Wilcox, William Jiiles, Samuel Levis 

John Roberts, Jnlhua Hoopes, Henry Lewis', 

Francis Rawle, Henry Paxon, Richard Hayes 

Jofliua Carpenter, Samuel Larke, J„hn Hoo.l, ' 

f;r;lhth Jones, S;imuel Beaks, Thomas Pearfon 

}r;:nc:s Cooke, l.^ra Croafdale, William JJartra,n, 

J'^hn Looke. Thomas Hiihorn. Daniel Hoope-. 
City ,f PllladAphh. 

Abraham Bi.khy, William Lee. 

The History of Pennsylvania. 9., 

what might truly be called grievances, but cilfo 1709. 
coniphineJ of feme thinjrs as luch, which, in " ^"^^ 
rcalily, and according to the laws and conllitution, 
could not. properly come under that name. 

Ilic Governor's reply to the AlTcmbly's addrefs 
is contained in his firll fpeech to the houfe, on the 
13th of the next month, April, as follows, viz. 

" Ccntlemcn, 

*' It would have proved a much greater fatis- The oo- ' 
fj^ion to me, if at this fird time of my fpeaking ;^™}j,';^ 
to you, 1 had nothing to take notice of, but what Aiicmbiy's 
I myfcli' might have to lay before you ; but your ^^'ireis. 
addrefs, prefcntcd to me in March laft, when you 
fctil mc notice that you were lltting, will, before 
wc proceed to, any other bufinefs, require fome 
anfwcr; in which I will be plain and Ihort, as the 
matter will bear. 

*' I thank you, gentlemen, for your congra- 
tulations, and do allure you, that I come with 
full rcfohilions, on my part, to employ the pov/er, 
with which the Proprietary has thought fit to ho- 
nour me, and her Majedy has gracioufly picafcd 
to approve of, to render the people of this 
government as happy and eafy as is poilible lor 
me, in all thirtgs, that fliall concern their true 
intereii, and be to their real advantage. I have 
enqnired what might be meant by thofe a^grlcv- 
{inccs^ opprejfions and confufioiu^ which you complain 
of, and whatfoever I fhall meet with, that defcrves 
thofe nain^is, Ihall have my ready concurrence 
to remove them, as far as they Ihall appear ; but. 
mud fay, that, I beheve, one elfeclual method to 
free all people from the apprehenfions of griev- 
ances, will be, to lay all former aniinoJities and jea- 
loufies afide, and, for the future, apply themfelves 
to fuch bufmefs as they are concerned in, for. the 
public, with a freedom and opennefs of temper, 
iiuel an unbialled inclination to promote the com- 
VoL. I . [2] mon 

10 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1709. mon good, without any other particular view: if 
*'^^''"*^ we (liould be io fortunate as to take example from 
her Majefty's glorious adminiftration of her domi- 
nions at home, and that of her parliament, we 
fhould not fail of being extremely happy. 

, " As to thofe two pad anions of my im.mediate 
predeceffor, of which you complain, I can only 
inform you, that they were both well known in 
Britain, befcTe I left it ; and that I had no di- 
rections to make any enquiry into them ; and 
that, upon the befl advice I can receive here, I 
find they will not properly fall under my cogni- 
zance, in the ilation I am placed in, and therefore 
cannot think it ht to concern myfelf with them. 

" But I am obliged to obfcrve to you that the 
Council of the province, no\v with me, think 
themfelves very unjufcly treated by the mention 
you have made of them, if they (as it is generally 
underflood) be intended by the evil counfcl, of 
which you have taken notice ; and therefore, will 
take the liberty to vindicate themfelves, as you 
will fee, by their application to me ; to which I 
refer you. 

** The charge againfl tlie Treafurer,* I find, 
is occafioned by his and the Council's underitand- 
'ing the 2B. of Alfembly, by which the money, 
that comes into his hands, has been granted, 
ibmewhat dillerently from what the prcj'cnt and late 
Hovfes of Reprefentatives have done : he pleads 
the law, as his bell diredion ; and you cannot but 
agree, that" it is fit that this alone (I mean the lawj 
ought to determine the matter. As iar as I have 
hitherto been able, 1 have prefled the collection 
of the taxes, and fliall continue the befl of my 
care, until they be finiiiied. 

'^ The niethod of eitablifbing courts, by the 
Governor and Council, was alio well underflood 


* S, Ciirpenter. 

The History OF Pennsylvania. ji. 

m Crrat Britabiy and was npproved of there, as 1709. 
bcinp;: grounded on unqueflionnble powers, grant- "— '~'^^'"^*-' 
cd the Proprietary. The bill formerly propofcd 
by ihe Aflcmbly, for that purpofe, which is now 
before ihe board, has not been allowed of; but 
feeing the prefent eftabliflimenr, which was drawn, I am informed, according to the plan laid 
down in that bill, carries fome inconveniencics 
m\\\ it, and requires an alteration, I Hiall be ready 
to agree to any other reafbnable "bill, that you • . 
fhall hereafter propofe, for fettling courts of judi- 
citurc, in fueh a regular method, as may be a 
lading rule for holding them. 

" 1 have no inflrudions, gentlemen, from her 
Miijcfly, that will concern you; thofe from the 
Praprictary being to myfelf, as occafion offers, 
and where it may be proper, I fhall acquaint you 
with the particulars. I have ordered copies of 
my coniminion, and her Majefly^s approbation, 
to be prepared and delivered to you. 

** I fliould now jiropofe to your ferlous confi- 
deratlon fome other matters of thehighefl import- 
ance, without wliich gcn'ernmcnt cannot long fub- 
fift ; as a due provifion for the fupport of it, and 
for the fecurity of the people ; but what I fnall 
principally rccomniend to you, at this time, is the 
Jailer part of the lad paragraph of your addrefs, 
viz. To ])repare a bill for fettling by lav/, how 
money fliall be paid, upon contrads made, and 
to be mailc, before the, new currency of money 
idkto elfcct : This, as I find, by the great uneafi- 
nefs of the people, is a matter that will require a 
very fpeedy pro\ifion, and, therefore, ho])e you 
will find fuch juft and equal methods for it, as 
neither the debtors, on the one hand, nor credit- 
ors, on the other, may fuiler by the alteration ; 
to v;hich I dcfire you may forthwith proceed, wiih 
as hltle lofs of time as is poifible ; after whieh wc 


12 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1709. may have opportunity to enter into confidcration 
"^-''^"''**' of inch other matters, as may naturally fall before 

TheAfTem- The Govemor's fpcech produced an anfwer 
Scovern- ^^^^^ the AiVembly, on the 14th; in which, be- 
er, &c, fides infifting on what they had before advanced,' 
they difi-inguilhed what they meant, in their ad-' 
dreis, when they laid, " The late Governor icas 
too much influenced by evil counfel^^ by exprelsly 
throwing the whole blame on yanic: Logan, and 
fome other perfons, who were not of the Govern- 
or's council. I'hey moreover promifed to make ^ 
due provifion for the fiipport of government ; and 
agreed to confider and prepare the bill, which the 
Governor recommended, as a very necclTary part 
/ ^f'of their bufmefs ; and then they hoped and expect- 
ed a redrefs of their grievances. 

The following is the Council's addrefs to the 
Governor, in reference, to the evil counfcl, men- 
tioned in the addrefs of the Affembly, and replied 
to in the Governor's fpeech, but, in order of time, 
it precedes the Aflembly's anfvver, viz. 

The Conn- " ^'^ '^^ honourable Charles Gookin, Efq. Lieu- 
cii's iuiJrds tenant Governor of the province of Pemijjlva- 
toti.cGo- j^i^^ ^j^j counties of Newcajile, Kent, and 
Sujfex, on DehrLcarc. 

" May it pleafe the Governor, 

" WE, the members of Council for the faid 
province, who attended the board, during the ad- 
ininilLration of the late Lieutenant Governor, up- 
on viewing the addrefs prefented by the Alfcmbly 
on the 9th day of March lafl, think ourfelves 
obliged to obferve, that, in the firft paragraph of 
it, complaining of aggrievances and vpprcfficus, 
which, they fay, this province has, for fome time, 
laboured under, occafioned by the irregular admi- 
iiillration of the late Deputy Governor, tliey have- 



The History of Pen^^sylvania. i 

thought fit to add thefe words, whoivas too much 1709. 
injluenccd by evil coiinfel ; to whom the miferles '""' * 
nnd confufions of the flate, and divifions in the 
govcminent, are principally owing. 

" It was long, may it pleafe the Governor, 
before we could induce ourfelves to believe, that 
men, fo well acquainted with the charafters of 
mofl of us, in our fcvcral flations, in the country, 
could pollibly intend us by the charge, until, by 
the obfcrvations of others, wc were forced to take 
a nearer notice of the expreliions ; upon which 
we are forry to find, that the word coimfel, as 
there u fed, together with the general conflrudion 
of the fentcnce, feems not to admit of any other 
hitcrprctation, but that to us principally is owing 
whatever the Aflembly has thought fit to complain 
of, or, can reduce, under the general terms they 
have iifed : if they will diHivow any fuch intention, 
we fiiall crave no other fatisfatStion ; but, if not, 
we mult then defire, that they, and all men con- 
cerned in thefe affairs, may know, 

" That, notwithflanding the Proprietary and late 
I/icutenant Governor, according to the eilablifiicd 
rules in all govtrnments whatfoevcr, from the 
molt polite, to the mofl barbarous, nations in the 
world, finding themfelves under a necefhty of hav- 
ing a Council about them, to advife with, in affairs 
of government, have thought fit to choofc us lor 
that fervice, in which, according to our feveral 
folemn engagements, we have acquitted our- 
felves, to the befl of our judgments and abilities, 
yet not one of us receives, or ever expefts, any other 
advantage by it, than the fatisfadion of having 
dilcharged our duties to the country we live in, 
and to advance the profperity and happinefs of it, 
as much as may lie in our power. We have no 
falaries, nor allowance, paid us by the country 
for this, nor offices of profit, to encourage us ; 


14 TiTE History of Pennsylvania. 

1709. what we do is at our own expenfe of time, trou- 
^'■'^■■''■"'*^ ble and charge, and upon our own edates is all 
our dependance, which, giving us as good an in- 
teveft in the country, as others can pretend to, 
and being out of the reach of any pofFible views 
different from the good of the whole, no man, 
without a manifeft violence to his reafon, can ima- 
gine but that we are as much concerned, and, 
therefore, would be as careful to prevent and divert 
any m'lfcries^cotifufions^ or dlvifiom^ that may threat- 
en the province, as any other felt of men what- 
foever ; fo that this charge, from the Alfembly, 
if levelled againft us, is not only unjuil, but will be 
judged, we believe, exceedingly ungrateful, by 
all that impartially confider us, and our circum- 
ftances, among our neighbours. 

" After this general accufation, involving us 
in all things, that have been irregularly conunit- 
ted, or, that any pcrfon can think fo to have 
been, they enumerate four particulars, which 
they call aggrievances. To the two tirfl wc b.ave 
nothing to lay ; and we liope no man can believe, 
that any one of us was fo much as jnivy to them, 
much lefs that we advifid them ; we here folenudy 
declare, each for himfelf, that we did not. The 
other two we acknowledge ourfelves to be con- 
cerned in, and fiiall always juiiify : that is, firfl, 
"i'hat we advifed the Treafurcr to take his direfti- 
ons from the law alone, and without regard to the 
partial order of the affembly to the contrary, to 
make Ms payments in equal portions; which, wc 
hope, cannot be accounted a grievance : and in 
the next. To prevent the greatefl of all pollible 
grievances^ the want of public judice, of which, by 
the meafures taken by the Aflembly of that time, 
the country was long deprived ; we advifed the 
Governor to make uie of the powers, with which 
be was unqueflionably veiled, to open the courts 
again, and to reiiore the courts of jullice to the 

opp relied 

The History of Pennsylvania. 15 

opprefleJ country; which had long languiflied 1709. 
through the want of it, until they could be other- ^-^"'"^^ 
wife cdiibliihed. Men unacquainted with allairs 
of this kind, and who mult take their information 
from others, may be imj)ofed on by perfons of 
dcfien, and believe that to be irregular, which, in 
itfclr, is a mod wholcfome and neceifary a6t ; but 
■wc can, with afTurance, aihrm, that we had full 
fatisfaCtion, from men of the bell abilities, that 
M-hat we advifed and concurred in this matter, was 
regular, jult and legal. 

"' Upon the whole, may it pleafe the Governor, 
though on the one hand, we fliall be exceedingly 
unwilling to have any mifunderllanding with the 
rcprcfcni-uivcs of the people, well knowing it to 
l>c an unhappincfs, that all reafonable meafures 
fljoulJ be taken to prevent; yet, on the other, 
we fliall not, by any contrivances, be diverted 
from difcharging the trufl repofed in us, during 
our continuance, in this Ration, with honour and 
juflice, to the bed of our abihties ; bat, from 
lime to time, fliall offer to the Governor fuch ad- 
vice as we Oiall judge moll conducive to the gene- 
ral go»>d of the province ; in die welfare of which 
\\c are fo nearly concerned, in our feveral private 
intcrcrts ; and in the meantime, hope we may juOIy 
expert to be fecured from calumny and mifrepre- 


■ " With 

The History of Pennsyl 


viZ^t c" ^™' ?'' exception to what is fhid of offices I 
of proht though I enjoy none, as a member od 
Cauncil, I lign this. "^i 


" Pbiladchbia, Jpril 12, lyccj.'* 

n. . 0- tT. ^y ^"y.'r? ^'''''"S ^^''^ f ^^^s reprefentation of ,, 
%^^"^ ^lrH°T. '^'f '^'^^^^^^^h. it produced an ^1 
.L^i.K.'^^'f^ to hmi, by way of anfwcr,^ from the 
Cuu.a]Ac.Houfe. In this they blamed the Council, for 

ieemiiig to apply to themielves, in general, wliat I 
^vas meant by the words, c-vi/ co:o^e/ ; of which, J 
they iaid, they had given their explanation before I 
in their anlwer to the Governor's fpeech.* Thev 
were difpleafed at the Councirs declaring, they 
had not^img to iay refpefting the two pa^ularl 
otLvam s condud mentioned in the AfTembly's 
addre s, .... Ihat ofthefa//e a!ann, in 1706, and 
the ajfuir at Ncwcajik. As to the other two 
points, m regard to the Council', advifmg the 
irealln-er and the Governor, as they acknow- 
Ldged hemlelves to have done; the Affembly 
appeared mcenfed at the Council's prefuming to 

.,n if r' ''. V"' ?^' ^''""^'''^y '^'^''^ office ; 

and hey cenfured them for oppohng the late aI 

embly, m their advice to the Governor, on the 
bi of courts and their allenting, at the fame 
time, to the Governor's ordinance, for carryinrr 
into execution the fame thing, and fo nearly in 

he fame inanner, the faid bill was intended 

cil fhould prefent ^m their words, palronizej inch 
• an addrels, fo oppohte to the views and drift nf 

. .uuie s, 10 oppolite to the views and drift of 
the Houie, and declared, they confidered - - 



.... ^x.uLuc, aiia_ declared, they confidered it as 
nn indignity oilered to them, as well as to the 

late Allembly. 

*■ The Coiinci 

Tiir. History of Pennsylvania. 17 

After this was laid before the Governor, the 1709. 
Aflembly prcfcnted a remonftrance, complaining ,^rT7^ 
of divers particulars, in the province, which tney ^jy pref^ut 
ftilcd ^ricvancei, and requefting his concurrence to ^ mnon- 
remove and redrefs the fame : fome of which ^.He'vances, 
fccm to have been cither trifling, miftaken, or ^c. 
ai^gtavatcd, and to fliew more the temper of the 
liouic, than real grievances ; the reft have already 
been moflly mentioned. 

-' Tlic refentment of David Lloyd, the Speaker, Enmity 
ap;ainll James Logan, and the too ready devotion i7o'ydTnd 
of the Houfe to his humour, are reprefentcd to Logan too 
have had too much place, in fome of thefe tranf- "^'^Jj^'^Jj!''' 
adions. It is fcarcely to be doubted that there thdc pro- 
>vas real occafion, in fome cafes, to complain of ^^|;^"'6'^-' 
grk"vaiicc«, which demanded proper attention ajid 
relief; h\xx.ih^vtordi grievance, was become com- 
mon, and fo often ufed, that its proper applica- 
tion fccms not always to have been fufficiently at- 
tended to ; for it is certain, that by too much in- 
dulging a difpofition and habit of complaint, it 
has fometimes remarkably aflcfted the imagina- 
tions of men, and magnified, in appearance, what 
%vas but fmall, in reality ; and there have been in- 
flances, wherein it has lb far prevailed as to induce 
the mind entirely to miftake one thing for another, 
and to create a firm belief of the abfolute exift- 
cnce of what, in truth, had no being. 

There are but few things, for which an apology Apology 
may not be made, and plaufiblc rcafons given ; for vhc^ ai*. 

* and it may reafonably be alledged that the views ^2^J^. 
' and intentions of fome of thefe AlTemblies, in 

thus' carrying their difagreemcnt with the Execu- 
tive, in fome cafes, to fuch extreme, were good ; 

• and confequently miftake, or excels, in their con- 
du(i\, might be the more excufable : for it is nor 
to be denied that fome good efiA:;£ls to the province, 

' ill reality, rcfultcd from thefe proceedings. ]3e 
Vo:,.II. ■ [3] that 

1 8 The History of P£nnsylvanIx\. 

1709. that as it may, it ought Hkewife to be remembered, 
'TiT^T^ ^hat no wrono- aftion can juflify the intention ; 
not to be nor can any profitable conleqiience alter the nature 
^"'!'''jf'" °^' ?^ unwarrantable dehgn ; and however lauda- V| 
27 ""'^' ^1^5 or juft, the general views of fbme of thele I 
Alfemblieii may be ailed ged to have been, who :| 
carried affairs to fuch extremity, yet it fufficienrly i'| 
appears, that under the allegation oi grievances^ :^^ 
fome of them too much gratified their animofity; 'I 
and that, in part of thefe controverfies, at leaft,. I 
they cannot, in every thing, be fully juflified, -.s 
notwiihlhuiding certain good confequences may 
from them have arifen to the province ; which is 
no certain proof that they might not have been .,1 
the caufe, or means, of preventing greater advan- % 
tages from ariilng to it, befides too much endan-j| 
gering thofe, which they already enjoyed. ' ^ 

They did But wliatevcr were their real motives, they 
not lufTui- feem not to have duly confidered the end, to which 
d"i the tea- ^he uaturc of fuch continued difcontents might 
dency of finally tend, and the confequcnce of renderiup; 

inch dil- , -' ^ r 1 n- 1 1 

putes, &c. '^^^ government niore unealy and diJagreeable to 
I' the IVoprietary, than was really and abiblutely 
necellary : for the difpofal of it to the crown, to 
which, as before hinted, he had fuch Rrong and 
various inducements, at a time, when meafures 
were in agitation lor reducing all the Proprietary 
governments to regal ones, would foon have freed 
him from all his dillicultiea, refpeding the govern- 
ment of the province!^"iind would have effeclually 
enabled him to difcharge all his debts and incum- 
brance?, princi]xUiy occafioned on its account ; 
from which, fo far as appears, he had too much 
reai'on to complain, as he did, of his fmall, inad- 
equate and difcouraging returns ; befides the na- 
ture of thefe difagreements, and continued en- 
deavours \.o diminith his power and intereft in it, 
as appeared in the propofcd bill of courts, and 
the attempts oF the Aifembly to turn his quit-rents 


The History 6p Pennsylvania." 19 

to' the fupport of his Deputy,* were further and' 1709. 
great inducements for him to endeavour to dimi- '^-""^"^'^ 
\nl\} his dilhculty and trouble on its account ; more 
cf|>cdally when it was in his power, in fuch an 
cafy aikl eifedual manner, to accomphfli it ; to 
which it aha appears, by his private letters, yet 
extant in his own hand writing, he was fometimes 
lb much dlfpofed, that had he not fludied what 
he was pcrfuaded was the particular intereft: and 
real good of the province, before his own preca- 
rious gain, and prefent quiet, he would, before 
this time, have put the fame in execution : for it 
wa.s niofl probable, and he appears to have been 
fully of opinion, tliat the inlrabilants of the pro.. 
vinre could not have been advantaged, or beticr- 
rd, by fuch a change of government, in thofe 
time?, but the contrary ; provided they rightly 
underRood their ' prefent privileges, and knew 


• The AiTtmbly, in their adJref;. to Governor, in 6 mo. 1708, 

" Wc know, when the province was granted to the Proprietary, 
hehifl fKtwer, at his pled"virc to convey any part, or parts thereof; and to 
ttfiX nunofM, and to ri;f^rvc hkIi rents, culloni;; and I'crviccs, as he 
fltmtKt think ik ; in purfuancc •vvhertcf, he fuM l.'.iuls to a Rrcut vuhiL-, 
Rtid reXi-rvf J nuts, luflicit-nt, in a moJciate way, to mahiiuin li.n, or /jis 
Lunttr.iKt, anfv.cniblc to thuir llatjon," &.c. 

Anil ifurwardi, in their reply to the Governor's anfwer to the ahoTe, 
Aic (p»rt i.f which fee in tht nutci before, &c.) tlicy again fay, 

•• Vi'hcrf i» the titravaganc c of what wa mentioned on this head ? 
It it, heciufc wc fuid, 'I'Jiai the rents refcrved are fullkitnt, in a mode- 
rate way, to maintjin the Proprietary cr lis Lieutenant, ailfwerahle to 
their ftitioB ? We fee no caufc to d( ch'iic fayijig fo ftill : and what, if wc 
add, 'ihat wc defirc the Tioprietary would l)e content to live upon liis 
rciit»; and that fines, forfeitures, efeheats, and other profits and perqui- 
Ctcj. of goycrnn\ent Ihould be employed for the conimon good, and pul)* 
Jic fcrvice of tiie government, it would not he without precedent ?" &C. 

•* V/c are not willing to fuppofe, when the Proprietary was favoured 
with the royal charter, and by virtue thereof allumed the governnunt 
of tliia province, and entitled hinifelf to royal mines, cfcheats, lines, 
forrcitiirti, and other profits (which, in their nature, are the rights of 
the crown, and, as fuch, ought to be employed for the coinmon gooil) 
that he intended to J,\:i lAmfelf, or lis Beauty, luith t!nfe JeiveL, and not 
hive direded dicni, and other fupjdiei, given for the lupport of govern- 
ment, to he emphtyeil for the good of the public, as revenues of that 
nature ou'l. I to be, but vrc rather conclude, the cdntrary." 

-^ The History ok Pennsylvania. 

^17^ Iioiv to make a proper ufe of them ; for othcrwife 
liberty and privilege become pernicious.* 

But ;ibfolute, or unlimited, perfeftion is not to' 
beexpefted in human nature; and if the wifeft 
councils of men fometimes err, how much more 
may a young Alfembly of honeft, or well mean- 
ing, colonics be reafonably fuppofed liable to mif- 
take their own real interefl, under the mod piau- 
hble views of any, in thus contending for what 
they thought the riglits and privileges of the 
people? who, in a legi/lative capacity, had not 
yet arrived at that maturity of judgment, and 
prudence of aftion, which length of time and 
experience alone can give ? 

After having prefented tlieir remonflrance, the 
Houie adjourned ; and at their next meeting, on 
the hrft day of the fourth month, the Governor 
made them the following /peech, viz. 

ruroo. " The Qiicen, for the good of her fubjefts of 

fpJch to ^^^^ provinces, has fitted out an expedition, with 

,1. Aflcn. great expcnle, for the retaldng of Ne-u,foundbnd, 

^'J- and for the conquefl of Canada, and has entrufled 

Colonel VeU-b with her Majefly's letters to the re- 

Ipedive Governors, and infhuaions to agree on 

proper meafures, for putting her Majelly's defif-ns 

m execution. Bojlon, Rhode IJIand and Conncaicut 

have outdone her Majefty's expeftations ; and I 

hope we ihall not be wanting in our duty. 

" The quota for this province is one hundred and 
hlty men, befides ofhcers, to be vidualled and 
paid, as thole of the other governments ; the 


inJ' ' 1"^' '"'' "T ''I""'" '''"^ Pr:-nc,Te«, or means of render- 
ing thcmklv« h.ppy -un.ler the Proprietmy, by a rrucl.m an.l pror-er 

n . vn but. on the contraiy, too great a mis-nfe of th,(c, dthtr by 
'..n only be or '.aufical in.m a propu' ule oi tj^o^ii. 

Tii2 HisToiiY OF Pennsylvania. 2: 

charge, I fuppofe, will amount to about four 1709. 
thoulancl pounds. ' ^ 

" Perhaps it may fecm dirTicult to raife that 
number of men, in a country \vhere mofl of the 
inliabiiants are obHged, by their principles, not to 
make life of arms ; but, if you will raife, for the 
fiipport of government, the fum demanded, I do 
not doubt getting the number of m.en, whofe 
pruidplcs allow the ufe of tliem, and Commif- 
fjoncrs may be appointed for difpofal of the coun- 
try's money; that the people may be fatisfied, 
that the money is applied to no other ufe, than 
tliis expedition. 

" I umd recommend to you the prefcnt cir- 
cumftar.ces of the three lower counties ; you are 
not now/i^lfih alarmed; Newcq/Uc feems the only 
place, proper to make any defence ; I fmd them 
ready and willing to do any thing, in their power, 
for tne good of the country, and look on them- 
felves as a frontier to you, though a weak one ; and 
if they perifli, in all probability, your dedrutlioii 
%vill not be I'ar off; therefore, in my opinion, it 
is your interell, that they be furnilhed with all 
tilings ncceffary to oppofe the enemy. 

" I have only to add, that, as all private af- 
fairs ought to be poflponed to her Majefly's imme- 
diate fervice, fo it will not confift with my duty 
to hearken to any propofds, or enter into any 
bufmefs whh you, till her Majefly's commands be 
complied with ; and, therefore, defire you will 
give this affair all pofllble difpatch." 


C 22 ) 


Obfcrvaiions en the nature of the Governor's requi- 
fitlon ; and the defign of fettling Fennfylvania by 
the S!S'akers ; who are principled againfi war, — 
The Afjhnblfs conduct ^ on the occafwn ; who vote 
a prcfent to the S^ieen. — The Governor not fitis- 
fed with their offer ; and they adjourn. — Pro- 
ceedings of the next meeting of Affanbly. — They 
agree to augment the fan., voted before to the 
Spleen ; and requcj} the Governor'* s concurrence 
to divers bills. — Further difpute between the Go- 
vernor and Afjembly ; with reafons of the former for % 
not agreeing with the latter ; upon which they re- | 
movjlrate to the Governor^ and are jnuch difpleafed {^ 
with the Secretary., fames Logan, — Proceedings 
between the Governor, and the next Jffembly^ 
confifing principally of the fame Members. — Their . 
proceedings againjl James Logan. — His petition to % 
them. — They are dif appointed in their defign againfi 'i 
him by the Governor. — The Secretary goes to En* ' % 
gland, b'r. 

lyoQ. -A-T cannot be fuppofcd, but that the nnture of 
s^-^,-^^^ this requifilion mult have crtated a dilliculty with 
a people, who, by their rchgious perfuafion, 
were not permitted to bear arms, nor to be aclively, 
or immediately, concerned in promoting military 
if airs ; and iucli, at this time, were the inhabi- 
tants of the province, in gcuerah It may Hkewiic 


The History of Pe 




be here obfervcci, that it does not appear reafona 
ble why this principle of the ^loikers againfl war, '"-^-v-^^ 
and tijc evil confcquences arifmg from it, when , '^"'•'-' ^^' 
duly confulcrcd, fhould be an objection, fo very pi^r^ainS 
material, as feme perfons make it, a"-ainft any "''"'■""' ^** 
claf. or^defcription, of people, in £^ general LtTf 
community, whofe profitable inJuftry, andbenefi- '''^y •'•-■ ^r 
cent condud, in all other refpeds, render them ^"""' ^'" 
^f h much the greater utility, and real benefit to 
im public and common good, even, in this, and 
every other department ; and that more efpecially 
m thefc latter, more improved, or refined ages of 
the world, fmce war is become more a trade, or 
Umlv of a certain clafs of men only, and more 
rdlridcd to, and managed by, a part of the ge- 
f^t^jj community, appropriated to that purpole, 
ito tt j!i"i.« formerly, in the more barbarous flate 
of mank'nd, Nvhen evety one went to war, capa- 
ble of hearing arms, while now it is experienced 
Utai llie far greater part of the people, in all the 
moft avdi^^ed flatcs, are better, or more prcfera- 
biy cinployed, in promoting and procuring the 
ncccfhirjr hipport of the whole community, at 
urge: 11 would be a very great impropriety, to • " 
blame any one member of the human body, 
which IS confined, or appointed to one particular 
olhcc, jor not performing that of another ; for 
which K li neither qualilial, nor intended, by the 
Author ot human nature : the body poliiic con- 
U\U o{ many parts, or members, as well as the 
HHUan ; and their offices, in a well regulated 
1 ate, are as various : wifdom is no lefs requifite Th 
Jliau Itrength ; and the arts of peace, with the "^^ 
labours of the induarious colonift, are, at lead, I'llan.y. 
asnecdfary as tiiole of war; which would foon '''- '•- 
make but a very forry figure, in any nation, with- """'^•''' 
out thole means, which are the eiXttl^ of the for- 
Jner. Can any thinking and reflefting mind be 
lo unacquainted with the excellency of thofe quah- 

icy arc 

re con- 

filtcMt with 


24 The IIis'i'orv of Pennsylvania. 

1709. ties, which didinguifli the rational from the irra-- 
' '^ tioiial creation, as not to be fenfible, that it is 
better by wiiUom, or good pohcy, to prevent war^ ^ 
than by force of arms, and the art mihtary to 
fupport, or only to fufpend it ? lor it is impofli. 
ble, that the application of a thing, by which, in 
reality, that hime thing folely exills, and is kept - 
alive, f]:ould put an end to it," or entirely take 
away its exiftence. War is certainly the greateft ' 
puniflmient in the world, that the Almighty hath 
alligned for the wickcdnefs of the humaji race; 
and it is the departure of mankind from their true 
interefl, and real good alone, which makes it necef- 
' fary ; confequently, as a principle of thinking and 
afting gains ground, or increafes, in the world, 
which approaches nearefl to the Ilandard of truth, 
and takes away the caufe of punifhment, in the 
fame proportion, mufl the neccllity and praQicc 
of this evil decreafe in it. 
Ai.fui'dob- But, of all people thofe appear to have the leafl 
STthe re^^''^n to i^^^^e this objedion a fubjeft of com- 
(^ukcrsof plant againfl the ShuiLn- of FciDifyhania, who, 
i^.nnfyiva- i^^owing thclr^ principle, in this ref])ea:, never- 
tlielcfs, in preference to all the rell of the colonies, 
and, even, to all the reft of the world, which 
were before them, equally free for their choice, 
haye renioved from various dillant parts, and 
fettled them; yet many fuch have been 
known in this province ! But, which is flill more 
remarkable, that people profeifedly of a different 
way of tinnking, in this particular, ihould, in 
greater nun\bers, and much more abundantly, 
. flock into Pcnnjyl'vanla^ from abroad, than into 
any other of the colonies befides ; and yet this has 
been the real cafe here, both in later years, and 
alio in the more early times of the province: 
which certainly fhewed a very dilHnguifliing pre- 
ference, which, in reality, was thereby given to 
the S'^akjfs a:id their principles, iiotv.'ithffanding 


The History of Phnnsylvania. 

the high abfiirdily, which any of thofe people, 
who have thus made Pennfyivama their choice, 
may fjricc have exhibited, by declaiming againft 
ihcin on I His account : lor it cannot be reafonably 
fuppofcd they were ignorant that this country, 
and the government of it, could not polfibiy have 
been granted, at firft, to the ^lakers, on account 
of ihoT Ji^htin^ principles, or that they lliould clc- 
find U with arms, by any who properly knew 
ihcm, notwithllanding they were empowered, or 
crilnidcd, fo to do, if they chofe it ; but, on the 
contmry, for thofe other qualilications, at leall, 
not Icf^i neceffary and beneiicial, for the fupport intention of 
and real happinefs of any country, of which the '''''>'""^ 

K, * ' ^ , ■'. ,, ,, andpovcrn- 

mg :i!iil govern nu-nt, at ihat time, were fully mcnt of 

fcnfiblc the Sluaken were poileired ; becaufe, in a i''-""fyiva- 
imkin^ where fufficlent numbers of fighting men "'''' 
arc not wanting, on occafion, and may, at any 
lime, be liad for money, to defend all parts of its 
dominions, and where no man, by the laws, is 
compelled to fight, who pays his equivalent to the 
fupport of the government, there would be no 
abfolute necefTity, neicher was it intended, in the 
grant of the province, and of the powers of go- 
verning it, under the crown, to take thefe peace- 
able people from that proper attention, which was 
due to i!ie department, in which they were placed, 
for the general si^oo^, in their civil capacity ; nor, on 
that account, to opprefs any one part of the com- 
munity, for the fake of the other's advantage, 

This appears to have been the principal end and 
defign of the Britijh government, at (irft, refpetSl- 
jng this province, notwithllanding thofe demands 
of a imHtary nature, which, either from a miilakcn 
notion of thereby more eifectually fervinc^ the 
public utility, or from other views, different from 
the real nature and original delign of the firfl fet- 
tlen^-nt and conllitution of Pcnnfylvanla, have 

Vol. r. [4] ^ fujce 

i6 The History op Pennsylvania. 

1709. fmce been made from it ; not fufilciently advertlnn- 
\^'^r^^ to the natural, advantageous, and more excellent 
confequences, which abfolutely, and of necellity 
muft always ultimately arife from the principle, 
pradice, induflry, and virtue of fuch a people, 
to the general community, in proportion to the 
fmall number of thofe, who hold this principle, 
Number of as the ^iikcrs do ; a number, which, in all pro- 

v^rilkdy"" ^^'^^1^7' i^' ^^''^ "'^^y j^i^^ge ot" the future by the 
to Lc very paft, from the nature and effect of fuch a princi- 
-mit, ^c. pi^.^ ^g }-^gj^| i^y them, whether viev^'ed in a favour- 
able, or unfavourable light, will never be very 

The Affembly having confidered the Governor's 
fpeech, divers of the Members confulted a num- 
ber of their principal conftituents, and Members 
of Council, being J^/akcrs, on the occafion ;t 
which the Iloufe mentioned, in their addrefs, or 
anlwer to the Governor ; in which they declared, 

*' I'hat were it not, that the raifmg of money 
to hire men to fight (or kill one another) was 
matter of confcience to them, and againft their 
religious principles, they fliould not be wanting, 
according to their abilities, to contribute to thofe 
dehgns." They exprelfed their regard and loyal- 
ty to the Queen, and their prayer for the long 
continuance of her reign, and concluded, " That, 
though they could not, for confcience fake ^ comply 
with the furniihing a fupply for fuch a defence, as 


* Confident with th; intrir^ an.l jirincipl!: cf this favour, or inJuI- 
gence to thi; ^akt-n of Peiii.fyl:h„iiii, in ^reat nieufurc, and with the 
ianic deiign, was that afterwards granted by the Britijh government to 
ilie Ivloiiivin/is ; who have fmce removed into, and fettled in the pro- 
v'nce, &c. By the Hat. 32. Geo. 2, C. 2i^- encouragement is given to 
the Monivi.Tis, to fettle in the plantations in Am.iica, by allowing then\ 
to take x foUmn afnrnw.tlun in lieu of an, and difpenfing with llieir 
not being concerned in miiit.iry itj/'.iirs, on payment of a rule afllUld. 

I The J.Iembers of Council, confulted on this occafion, being all 
i(^/^,,iA/M, and of the ])rin:ipal m'.n ni the province, were, Edward ^hlp- 
peu, Kaniutl Carpenter, Joleph Orowdoii, Caleb I'ully, iiainuei Prelloii, 
Jl,..u Norri^, and J.mie» i.o^^^ni, .^'.c. 

The History of Pennsylvania. 27 

the Governor propofed, yet, in point of gratitude 1709. 
to tiic C)uct:n, for her great and many favours to ii^AfW 
tlicin, tlicy !iad refolved to raife a prefent of /fi'^f i^iy vote a 
hundred pounds;* kc. ^^^"^ "' 

f » the Queen, 

]]y this mode of bufinefs they appear to have j,^^ ^^^^ 
m^idc, or intended, a diRinttion between grant- ncmi fup- 
ing fuppHes for the fupj3ort of government, in ^°J^J'^ *'"^ 
raicral, or, for its mixt purpofes and ufes collec- ment. 
rircly, and that of contributing for the mihtary 
alone ; bcfidei their not being anfwerable for the Being not 
»apph*ci4tiou particularly, or for the duty of the f,'ft,^^r^^^^^^^ 
executive part of the government : whereby it piicaiioni<c 
mav be fuppofcd, tlicy thought they acled confci- 
cntu)Ul1y, according to their religious principles, 
ia o-Hitributing their proportion of what is abfo- 
lurcU* due to the general fupport of government, 
ot fuprcmc authority, according to the practice 
of tlic priniilivc Chriilians ; the benefit and protec- 
tion of which they enjoyed in common with 
others, and as they were not aflively concerned 
cither in dirccling or executing that authority ; 
which was out of their line of duty ; though this 
thfir jnftde ultimately anfwered equally the Go- 
vernor's! rccjuell, or intention. 

To this they added, in their addrefs, " That 
ihcy humbly hoped he would be pleafed to accept 
lhi«, as a icflimony of their unfeigned loyalty, 
and thankful acknowledgment, for her grace 
and clemency towards them, -and the reft of her 
fubjeds ; and though the meannefs of the prefent 
were fuch as was unworthy of the favour of her 
acceptance (which indeed, faid they, was caufed 
not through want of good-will, and loyal afte6lion, 
but by inabilty and poverty, occafioned by great TheAirem- 
loffes, late taxes mifanplied * iowncfs of the ^''>' i''^"-'*^ 

^ ^ ' n 1 Poverty, (5<c. 


• The Arfeniblj', in tluir reply to the Covcrnor's anfwer to this ad- 
rircfs, cxjiref), ia the folloving woul;, they iiKant by wifiijft'uii'.ion 

" Ai;al 

The History of Pennsylvania. | 

flaple commodities of the country, great damp upon 
trade, and their neighbours non-compHance with 
the Queen's proclamation for reducing the coin) 
yet they hoped flie would be gracioully pleafed 
to regard the hearty and cordial affeftions of them, 
her poor fubjeds, inflead of a prefent of value ; 
and to prevent mifapplication thereof, they had 
agreed, that it fliould be accounted part of the 
C)ueen's revenue. 

" They, therefore, humbly entreated the Go- 
vernor to put a candid conftrudion upon their pro-' 
ceedings, and reprefent them favourably to their 
gracious fovereign, the Queen ; to whom they 
truftedthey Ihould ever approve themfelves (though 
poor) her mod loyal and dutiful fubjefts," he. 
'ihe Co- jj^c Governor was diilatisfied with this anfwer, 

content ' principally on account of the fmallnefs of the fum ; 
with tiie Qj^^i jj^ reply, reprcfented the urgent neceflitv of 
&c, their rurther exertmg themlelves, on the occalion. 

But the AfTembly pleaded their poverty and inabi- 
lity, and adhered to their refolve of prefenting the 
Queen wither. 500, requeuing the Governor duly 
to confidcr the nature of fuch a refufal, and of 
his interpofmg between then; and their Sovereign, 
in fuch a cafe. 
He wTgci 'j^j^g Governor a2,ain, in his turn, prefTed their 

them to o ' ^ \. . . 

give a larg- compliance to a more generous contribution, de- 
er fum, c^c. daring, his prefent conduft, in the affair, to be his 
indifpenfible duty, in confequence of the Queen's 
letter ; and of the utmolt importance to them, to 


" And to CNplaln whnt wc mean by mifiipplvin'^ nf tjxes, we niiift; 
acquaint thee, tliat uliout three years ago, a tax was laid on this pro 
vince of tivo pence h.ilf penny per ]iound, and nn inipoll; and excife, up'Mi 
fome j';oods imported and retailed, wliieh was appropriated to certain 
lil'es, -jiz, ii;^ljt Inindrcd pounds, with liall' the impoO, to the lupport ol 
government ; this the late Lieutenant Governor received, with other 
jierqiurites, wliidi ought to he applied to tlie fuppnrt of goveiinrn r.i, 
as the late Afiemiily fignified to him, in A.ugull; laO, \\ hereunto wc refer ; 
the money, lb appropriated, has n(!tivithj}iinJin<y the expr.fs ivrrJf cj /.'\- 
.•:,'.•■, h 'cn kept, (u- ir^^ppHed hy liim ; r.nd he rel\ifcd to ^ivt the l-lt Ax- 
fi.iid'lv .ir\ a^xouat llurco;"/' t^c, 

The History of Pennsylvania. 

fccurc her favour, and difappoint thofe, who dc- 
fircd a difrdution of the preleut government. 

Aficr this feveral mefliiges and anfwers pafTed 
between the Governor and Aflenibly, on the fub- 
jeft, but without any effect ; for the lloufe, being 
dctcmiincd to adhere to their refolve, conchided They ad- 
it to be their opinion, that, as the Governor had hcret.. their 
rcfufcd to give his alVent to their propofal of raifing "'^"^'"'' 
the jf . 500, above mentioned, and to proceed to 
other bufinefs, till it was now too late, in the fea- 
fon, to fit Uiiiger, at prefent, they woukl there- 
fore adjourn, till the Iiarveft was over. 

Of \hh the Governor, Ixing informed, by a 
VrriUcn nicjra;;c fr<»ni ihc iioufe, it produced fur- 
thcT ahcfcaliO.n, or difpute between them; the 
C/wcmor being dctcnnined to proceed to no other 
biili,ncf», till that of the Qi^ieen was firil iffued ; 
and the Iloufc declaring, they would not agree to 
the Governor's propofal of raifmg money, either 
(iircOly, or indireaiy, for the expedition to Ca- 
TtaJijf for the reafons they had given ; yet they 
contiimcd their refolutlon of raifing £. 500, as a 
prefent to the (^leen, and intended to prepare a 
bill for that purpofe, at their next meeting, on 
the 15th day of Augufl next ; to which time they ThcAffci 
adjourned. biyadjc 


'J 'he Governor convened tlie Affembly before 
the time, to wiiich they had adjourned ; and, in 
a fpeech, he told them, " That their enemies. Purport of 
having plundered Lcwijioum, watered in the bay, the oovem 

1 r I 1 •. I ,-.-11 . •'^ or 3 ipecch, 

and lounded it, as they palled along, gave alarmmg &c. 
apprehcnfions of a nearer vifit ; and that he de- 
manded fome provifion to be immediately made, 
in cafe of emergency."—" That the chiefs of 
feveral Indian nations, being in town, a fupply 
was immediately requifile, to make them a fuit- 
iible prefent 5 that the importance of their frlend- 


The History of Pennsylvania. 

/lilp, and tlie eafy terms of maintaining it; 
v/crc fufiicienlly evident;" — " That, of the mo. 
ney, v/hich had been a]-)propriated for that 
life, now nothing remained, for a prefent to 
them; and that, though money could not fo fud- 
denly be raifed, as the cafe required, yet they 
might fmd means to ])rocure credit, fo as that 
they might not go away empty." — " That there 
was no manner of ]rrovif]on for the Governor's 
fupport ; That the Proprietary, on whom the A{- 
fcmbly had too often had expectation, in the cafe, 
had, by his late hard treatment, from fome, 
v/hom he had too far truited, been entirely difa- 
bled (were it in itfelf reafonable) to continue any 
fuch provifion ; confequently their immediate re- 
folution abfolutelv nccelfary to contribute 
what was proper in this point ; otherwife they 
mult expert a cliange that would prove more 

Par;, of the The .AfTcmbly expreffcd their concern for what 
Afic:vi,iy's had happened at Lci^[flo'-jun ; and that the Go- 
an\.cr,c.^. ^^.j.j^Q^ ^^^^^ already acquainted \\q\v far the gene- 
rality of the people of the province could oppofe 
juch an attempt. They admired, that, after fuch 
large Turns, raifed lor the fup]:)ort of government, 
they were notwithiianding left fo unprovided, as 
the Governor had reprefented ; and they earnclfly 
lequelled his aiiillance, to call the late Governor 
and Secretary to account, for the money, which, 
they, fliould have been applied to tlie ufe of 
rhcv p..-.rco ^iit: public. 'J'o the ^T. 500, v.hich they had al- 
i.i ;in;;).Kat rcailv votcd, they agreed to add^^. 300 more, for 
',. '^J,","_ tlie other necefiary cxpenfes, befides f^. 200, to- 
i.r., ,Lsi-. wards the Governor's fupport. '\ hey intimated 
their cxpeftation of his concurrence to rcdrefs 
their gi-ievances, and recommended to his confi- 
dcration a number of bills, prepared by former 
AilendH^.s and agreed to by the prefent ; of 


The History of Pennsylvania. -^t 

which one was for cflabliflilng courts,* kc. to all 1700. 
which tlicy ik-rircd to have his concurrence, or to "^^"^^'^'^^ 
know his objcdions. 

The Ciovcnior, in reply, acknowledged he was Purport of 
made fcnfiblc, that many inhabitants of the pro- |,r-i?i-'?"' 
vlncc could n»)r, in any cafe, bear arms, io he did 
not prop^fc it to them, but only a neceflary fupply 
in money, without engaging any man againlh his 
tc%unis pcrhiarion. 'I'hat, in regard to what they 
hftd Uu\ rcfpctiling Culonti Kvans and the Sirrctary^ 
he could not well underfland it ; the former having 
af^iinncJ, he received only what was dire^lly allow- 
C<l by the AHembly, for his own lupport, and 
thouj^hl himfclf not at all accountable ior it; 
aiv»l thai the Sccrclar)' fjcmeil to admire vv-hat 
flwHti'd iiiducc ihc 1 loufe to name him, upon that 
itKOfton ; there being none of it payable to him, 
btit for his own fervices as an oflicer. That he 
(hankcv! them, for taking his fupport into their 
oonfidcration, hoping future provifion of that 
kind would be made more eafy ; and that he 
would rca(hly agree to any thing, confillent with 
hii duty, and the trufl repofed in him. 

'n»at, rtfpeding the bills, the Proprietary was iiio Oj- 
noi at nil againft eflablifliing courts by law, yet vemor can- 
his in.'lruc\ions would not permit him to agree to .""y'lfiH"'^" 
ihofc p•'i^I^•, in the bill, which broke in, either a-ainit the 
upon his powers in government, or his juft inte- ['oXr^or'* 

rell ; inter Jl.cV. 

• Th.-fc bilLi w.TC about eleven or twelve, in number; their titles 
wrT<, I. lor cfljbliniing courts uf jiiilicuturc, in the province. 2. For 
riRuUting aiul tllablilbing fcis. 3. For confirming patents and grants, 
AU'\ !o f-rcvi nt l^w fuits. 4. For cnipowcrluf; religious focicties, towns, 
&C 10 buy, hold and Jifpofe of l;ind, &e. 5. Of privilei,ye to a fruenian. 
6. 'la oMigc witneflVs to give evidence, and to prevent fahc iwe.iring. 
J. 'lo j.riNe:it the fale of ill tanned leather. 8. That no public houfc 
or inn, within the provhice, be l>ept witbotit licence. 9. Aoainft nie- 
picinjf, and atT.iidi and battery. TO. To prevent difputei, which may 
bcrcifier atilc about dates of conveyances, and other inftrunients and 
writings. II. for the more effeolual railing of levies, in the feveral 
•our.tich of die province, and the city of I'hiladtlphia, and appropriat- 
ing the fdnu-. 12. For the priority of t;he p•Jyme.^t rjf debts, to thr 
iahjljitiiit, of this jirovincc. 


The Histop.y of Pennsylvania, 

rcfl ; why fuch a bill (hoiild interfere with thefc^ , 
he could not fee ; but as he was willing to agree , 
to a bill, for the eafe and fecurity of the people,' 
in that refpetl, properly regulated, and, on his 
part, to do his duty, fo he hoped they would be 
careful to offer him nothing that he could not af- 
fent to, without a violation of his honour and truft, 
kc. he recommended their reviewing the bills, 
paffed by the former Aiftniblies ; and thanked 
them for the provifion, which they had made for 
the Indians : which concluded the fellions. 
ThcAiTcm- The Alfembly, at their next fittinsr, in Aupuft, 
in their notwitiiltandmg the Governor s reconnnendmg 
former dc- tlicm to condu6l their proceedings fo far conform- / 
able to the powers, he had to oblige them, that 
their labours might not be in vain, and his point- 
ing out to them the exceptionable parts of the 
bill of courts, kc. flill remained tenacious of their 
own method, and adhered to their former claims. 
Upon which, at their next meeting, on the 
28th of September, he fent them a written mef- 
fage, which concludes with the. following para- 
Pirr of a " But uow, gcntlcmeu, I mufl be fo plain as to 
from die ^^^' y°^^' ^^^'^^' though I havc been very defirous 
Governor, to fee all thcfe matters brought to a ripenefs, that 
they might actually be paffed into laws, yet, until 
I fee the country as ready to difcharge their duty, 
in providing for my fupport, in the adminiftra- 
tion, independent of any fupply from the Propri- 
etary, who, as I told you before, cannot now 
(were it even reafonable) fpare any part of his eflate 
here, to that purpofe, I Ihall account myfelf very 
unjull to the duty 1 owe myfelf, if I concur in 
any other public acl, in legiilation, though truly 
inclinable to do all, for the advantage of the public, 
that can reafonably be expefted from me : but a 
Governor cannot lie under a greater obligation to 
the people, than they do to him ; nor can that bt- 


The History of Pennsylvania. 35 

accounted a (tcc gift from them, which is but 1709. 
their inUifpcnfible duty; for, at this rime, there is "-^^^^^^^ 
no fuppr>rt for a Governor, in this government, 
hut Vi'hn rnufl be granted by mi acl of an Alfem- 
My. You have told me, that you had voted Jive » 
hunJrtJ p^unJi to tlie Qii^*^") '''-''"f^ hundred pounds 
tn fhc fcrvicc of the pulilic, and two hundred 
f»tynJi 10 mc ; and you have lately informed me, 
tkit vhcn 1 had paffcd the other ads, the Speaker 
ir^uld prefcnt a bill to me, for railing that mo- 
fity» It h pollible when the others were palled, 
9hcSj>e:ikcr might do (o j but, can it, in realbn, bo 
expelled, that, wliile you (hew fo unprecedented 
a.nd unufual dinidencc, on your fide, that you 
-SkmiH not fo much as let mc fee the bill, but in 
JiriiV4Jc» HOT al!o\r, that it Ihould, upon any terms, TheAiTcra- 
ib^ comiauMicaf ed to the Council, with whom I am biy aiiow 
J© t«KjlV% (ihough you cannot but be fenfible j that, JJHJ [^"^^ 
JliOuM i dcfign it^ yet it is not in my power to communi- 
mfs a bill into a law, until the Speaker has lign- "^'''^^Vi'*' 

t • % t . » . r II 1 1 • r rr Council, &c 

ed It) which is ulually done at the time of palling 
it. Could it be expeded, I fay, that I ihould 
pafK all that you dcfired of me, and then depend 
on your prcfenting that bill ? Or, can it be 
thought rcafonable, or, for the fecurity of the 
{mblic^ that 1 /hould pals an aft, for railing and 
atpptving ehht hundred pounds^ for feveral ufes, 
bcltuOt tholc two hundred pounds, laid to be grant- 
ed to me, v-athout taking proper advice upon it, 
of rhofe, whom the difcharge of my duty, as 
Well as my inclinations, obliges me to confult, in 
alt public matters ; nor that I lliould have it in my 
j>owcr to objett to, or alter, any part of the 
wliole bill, after it is prefented ? No^ gentlemen, 
as 1 have no defigns, but what are pkin and ho- 
ncfl, fo I mult expect a fuitable treatment; and, 
therefore, I now defire you faithfully to lay before 
the people, whom you reprefent, and to v/hom 
you are returning, what I have here faid to you ; 
Vol. 11 [5] 'and. 

The History of Pennsylvania. 

and, upon this occafion, affure them from me, that 
unlefs they take care to grant a requifite fupport, 
and in fuch a manner, as is tit to be accepted, I 
not at all think myfelf concerned to attend 

The Go- 
vernor re- 
fufc, fur- 

mikfrhe^s ^^^^ artairs of the public, in legiilation ; and what 
fupported, meafures the Proprietary will find himfelf obliged 
^'^' to take at home, I have formerly fulhciently hint- 

ed to you ; but as I flrall not be wanting, on my 
fide, to concur in any thing, that is reafonable, 
fo I hope, the next time I meet the reprefentatives 
of the people, we ihall have fuch confidence in 
each other, and they will fo far confider their 
duty, and take fuch methods, for effefting bufi- 
nefs, that all things necelfary may be concluded to 
our mutual fatisfaftion, for the true advantage 
and benefit of this province." 

The Go- ^y ^^'^^ plain declaration of the Governor, the 
vcrnor re- Affcmbly cafily perceived, to their great mortifi- 
iiramcJ cution, that, by reafon of the Proprietary's in- 
line any ftrudions, the Governor could not pais any bill, 
i)i!i without ^vithout the advice, or approbation of his Coun- 
the Couu- cil ; which, how reafonable foevcr it might ap- 
cii, c^.c. pear, in itfelf, was deemed to have no foundation 
in the royal charter ; by which the whole power 
of legiilation was underllood to be veiled in the 
Governor, and the reprefentatives of the people. 
This the Iloufe oblcrved in their remondrance to 
the Governor, the next day, declaring, that had 
they known he was fo rellrided, they would nei- 
ther have given hin:i, nor thcmfelves, fo much 
trouble, as they had done : they likewife com- 
plained of fome other m.atii rs, tlmt were not rcdref- 
,j.^^.^ fed : but their greateli refcntment appears, in this 
sivateft re- remoullrance, to be againit the Secretary, 'James 
•u-mdi"' i-Qg^^^ ; :igainll whom is exhibited, in a very an- 
jiimcsLo- gry manner, a long complaint ; reprefenting him 
gan, &c. a^g ^ii^ grand obfiacle of their proceedings ; and, 
that, though they had endeavoured to reduce him' 
within proper bounds, yet, by reafon of his great 



The History of Pennsylvania. 


influence with the Governor and Proprietary, he 1709. 
was now advanced above their power, obftnufled ' — ^'"'^ 
a.!l their public tranfaftions, that did not pleafe 
lum, ircdied the Members of the Houfe with in- 
fuk and abufc, and, in elFcd, was the chief caufe 
of tUdr grievances and calamities. 

In OOobcr next following, the fame Members of The old 
A^Ewitblv were moflly re-elected, and David Lloyd ^n^^mbiy 
»^^n chofen Speaker: to whom the Governor, "£/'" 
m hii rpccch, on the 17th, after having mentioned 
diwr« otlier afiairs, before the former AiTembly, 
unfiniftictJ, and further prefled their making due 
prottfion for the fupixjrt of the lieutenancy of the 
j!^»crnrr.cnr, a duty, which, he faid, was fo in- 
CUiRibct^i uji>t>n them', that without it, no govern- 
aWcol ccmU b^ a being; he thus exprefled him- 

** Gentlemen, you are met for no other end, Part of the 
iban to fcrvc the country, whom you reprefent ; (Governor'!, 
I hope, therefore, you will fludy all pofTible 1"^ aiII- 
means, that may contribute to the real happinefs i^'y- 
f'f that : which, I believe, you will find, may be 
much promoted by improving u good underiland- 
ing !)ctwcen you and me, in our reipeftive fla. 

" I vould not willingly look back upon fome 
of the proceedings of the laff Ploufc, only from 
ihcncc I mull give you a ncceflary caution, to 
dwell lefs, than has been done, on that general 
language of evil counfcl^ or counfellors, generally 
ufed, as an artful method, to ftrike at the coiinfcU 
led ; but, with me, I believe, without occafion ; or, 
that of grievances and oppre/JJons, words, by God's 
blefling, underftood by few, (I find) in this pro- 
vince, who form them not in their own imagina- 
tions ; for I allure you, gentlemen, if we are not 
as happy as the circumftances of the place will 
admit, it lies much in your power to make us fo ; 

^6 The History or Pennsylvania,' 

J 709. of which I hope'yoii will confider, and ufe your 
V'""^''"**^ endeavours accordingly, with a full refolution to 
remove whatever may Hand in the way. 

" I have already faid, that I would not looH 
back to the proceedings of the lail Houfe ; but 
the Secretary has found himfelf fo much aggriev- 
ed by their remonflrance, that he has prelented, 
for my perufal, a long defence ; in which I fliall 
not think, myfelf any further concerned, than to 
obferve to you, that, to my fiirprife, he has 
charged the Speaker of that Houfe with fomq 
proceedings, which, if true, will require your 
confideration, and fome. further meafurcs to be 
taken upon them ; for which reafon, I have or- 
dered him to lay a copy of them before you ; 
and I mull fay, if that reprefentation be well 
grounded, I cannot fee that, under this govern- 
ment, fuch a perlbn can be accounted fit for that 
flation ; but, at prefcnt, I fball no further enquire 
into it, only recommend to you, to proceed with 
diligence, in whatever is incumbent on you, in 
your flaticns, as wpll in this, as in all other matr 
ters, that may concern the welfare of the public, 
and honor of this government, as now eflablilhed.'' 
Thf Af- This the Aflembly anfwered the next day ; teU 

^'n^^nUe^ ^^^^S ^^^ Govemor, that, among other things, 
tht^nc.xt they alfo had under confideration the making pro-.. 
'^='>': vifion for his fupport ; and, after having mads 

fome angry reflecUons againit the Secretary, whom 
they confidered, in great meafure, as the caufe of 
the mifunderltanding between them and the Go- 
vernor, they kk\ :- — " But, may it pleafe the 
oSrln- (^^^''^'riiorj we beg leave to obferve, that the duty 
Aver. incumbent on us, to contribute to this general 
fupport of the liemenancy, is grounded upon a 
condition precedent ; fo that the people, accordT 
\n^ to the fundamental rules of the K'^gHJh go-. 


The History of Pi'-nnsvlvania. 37 

tcrnmcut, are not obliged to contribute to the 1709. 
fuppori ot' that adminillration, ^vhich affords them ^"^^^^ 
no rcdrcb, -when their rights are violated, their 
liberties infringed, and their rcprefentative body 
afifronicd and abulcd : hence It is, that that branch 
i>f the k-j;iflative authority feldom move to give 
luppliat till thdr aggrievanccs are redreffed, aiid 
rquunUion made, lor the imiigmties they meet 
wtth fn>m the other branch of the fame authority. 

" Wc arc very fcnfiblc that the end of our 
mficfiing \& to ferve the country ; and we affure 
the Governor, there fliall be nothing wanting, on 
our partii^ to promote it, and inij^rove a good un- 
ildriiandJnf; be! ween him and us, in our refpedlive 
ilwk»K>: b;U let jooi the language of the repre- 
IcsrirMfva jM" UiC .jxjoplc, about evil counfellors,-' 
l^rin-ixmo and opprtJJioiUi be irkfo'me to the Go- 
vernor j for wc /hall not anfwer the true end of 
oar rotcung, nor difcharge our duty and trufl to 
thofe, thai fcnt us, if we be fdent, and not infifl up- 
on rcdrciling thole things, that are amifs, with a 
rdohition to ufe our endeavours to remove what 
appears to (land in the way. 

** Wc have, with all the application, this fliort 
lime could allow, informed ourfelves of the pro- 
Ctrding"* of the late Aflemblies, and find no jufl: 
grounds for the Governor to fuppofe that their 
coni]>lalnts of evil counfd or coimfdlors have been 
ufcd as methods to llrikc at him; but, we be- 
lieve, it was their care, as we find it to be ours, 
that the Governor may not be impofed on, or 
prevailed with, to adhere to evil coiinfd, and ren- 
der his aclings inconfiftent. 

' " We fuppofe it needlefs to be more exprefs, 
than the late Affembly h^ive been, to demonilrate 
■ what an enemy the Secretary has been to the wel- 
fare of this pi ovijicc \ and hovv abufive he has 


-38 • The History of Pennsylvania. 

1 709. been to the reprefentatives of the people ; fo that' 
V— >, ^w ^yg ^^^ jJq j^q jgl^g ^}-,^j^ repeat the requeft of for. 

mer AflembHes, to have him removed fron\ the 
Governor's Council ; which we doubt not will beM 
a mod elieclual means to improve a good under- 
Handing between thee and us. 

" If the Governor will look back, and duly 
confider the complaints and remonilrances of the 
late AiTemblies, it will appear, ih'dt grievances and 
opprejjhm are words, which are formed upon juft 
complaints ; and for which the country wants re- 
drefs ; fo that what the Governor fuppofes, on 
that head, is not candid towards the reprefentatives 
of the people. i 

" May it pleafe the Governor, whatever might- 
be the occafion, or defign, of the lafl claufe, in- 
thy fpeech, we are of opinion, it was not well 
timed ; for if the Secretary's charge, againft our 
Speaker, had any weight, it fliould have been 
propounded as an objeftion againll the AfTembly's 
choice of him, for Speaker ; but, after thou hadll: 
declared thy approbation of their choice, that 
thou fliouldft be prevailed upon fo far to patronize 
the Secretary's infmuation againft the Speaker, 
as to make it a part of thy fpeech to us, before 
V e had feen, or heard, the charge, we can do no 
lefs than reftnt it, as an indignity offered to this 
Houfe ; for, though we are men, that cannot be 
much meaner in the Governor's eye, than we are 
in our own efteem, yet we muff put him in mind, 
that, fmce the royal charter commits this part of 
the legillative authority to our care, we ought to 
have the regard, due to our itations." 

After this the Governor went to Newcajile ; and 
in the mean time the Aifembly adjourned. On 
their meeting again, about the beginning of No- 
vember, the Secretary, James Logan^ intending 


T!iE History op Pennsylvania. 39 

(or Kn^^bnd, prefcnred to them a petition,* requeil- i yog. 
ing that preparalion might be made for his trial, ^"^J^^"^^^ 
Upon the impeachment of a former Aifembly, in tary petitt 
ihc year 1706. They, therefore, fell upon ^^'^ ^"j'J'f j"^^* 
cafe, and took into confideration his defence ; and iii'"iriJ,i,&c. 
hw charge againll their Speaker, David Lloyd, 


• TU* yttklnn wu a* followi ; 

" T*llw Ifottfc of Rcprcfcntativcs of the province of Pamfylvauli; 
«• tik |<tition of J-tiui I-og^'i, Secretary pf the faid province, 
• 4» owfl humble manner ftrwcth, 

• ttlAT, whefcM the Anirmbly of this province, choftn the firll 
4*f td OdtMr, 17&6, thought fit (as i* well known to you) in the 
«Mi*<i)i4»< I'tlrwjry, in ihc fame ycir, to exhibit to the then Lieutenant 
OunllMiir. c«',JUO «nick» «>f «m|<4chinciii aKuiiifl n»e ; coj)ics of which 
IUKV9 Vm* 'Wiii^lifu^fly «l),ffaW abfoid; Lnd, fincc that time, other 
».«MM<SlK)C7t* 1tat% *;ig U«a ptvfcof<d; anJ upon the prefuniption, that 
14,4V *s*-iil*it»w»» liesMtfes W irBf, divcn appiicatJun* have been made, by 
1^ i*<9l AJS'ffiWf* |J» ih* F«^fc«»t Licuicmm Governor, rcquefting that L 
m^m W fTuwf (id tt<om nt* Council, &.c. , 

• Yn, lb u is may U pkafc the Houfe, that not one of thcfe artt- 
«|r«« Mr <Mnt>l4«nt«, tutire ever, to tliii day, been duly heard, or, at any 
timft fc ffo-nMl, or, ewn, rendered lntrlii<;iblc, as that, according 
IS ifufilKC, 1 mixhth^TC the opfwrtunity of anfwcring them, or I'peaking 
'in HKf «wfti jttftifioKion, DOtwithflandinj; I had, by leveral repeated in- 
QmCWV*, cimtftJy prcffcd to obtain that favour ; by which means, and 
tke crAc»nn»rt, that diver* ptrfons, hijcldy dilliffeded to me, have ufed 
U c»feMnti««e mc, »nMii)g the Inhabitants of the province, I have been 
•n*!!' rtk»«*«fiy iDJurcd atul oppreflVd; now, inafniuch as, for lume 
l>:vs«»tH« t»»fl. it hi* iMcn generally known, that I am fpeeilily to \inder- 
cAc • 'wpIT* fof Orrat Britain, whither the Proprietor'-, atlairs do, at 
t««<c»», swr^cntlf c»U me; and being, by the late Affembly's moll bitter 
|!m..Air«Ke «^iinft me, laid under a greater neceility than ever, to clear 
Iftl^'tf irf \\^ tcreral wnjiift impufationi, that have been thrown on me, 
klS hny yirfffju, to thofc diftant places, to wiiiih I am to repair, and to 
wjiiktfc tl>* AflVniMy'* pap<i shave been fohcitoufly tranfmitted, Ihoultl 
bf (ftfaritnfKkfc^oo, MtODchcve thai thole accufations, without any trial, 
lw« ixmilf iutnt weight in them ; which, upon a trial, nutwithllanding, 
I kite no c*ii(c to doubt, but will totally difappcar : I, therefore, hum- 
Uy btfrc^h this Houfe, that, for rendenng me the relief, that is due to 
ihc great wrong*, I have fuftnined, they would be gracioufly plcafed to 
.irdcr «ll thofe, who have appeared againft me, the fevered and mod 
impLurablc, of my enemies, whoever ihey be, to proceed in profecutiiig- 
Wit, with their utmoft zeal and ardour; that the very worii; of my fail- 
injjt, in public a/Tairs, may be drawn in the mod legible, and 
ctpofed without mercy, to the eyes of ail men; to the end that, in be- 
holding thcin, they may fully know the extent of my crimes; and ihere- 
Mpon regard me, a» I lliall be found to deferve, and not otherwile, 

•' But, becaufc the time of my departure now draws nii^h, I mud, 
therefore, furtiier bcfecch the Houfe, that this profecution may he car- 
ried on, withiji i\\c\i u lime, as is tonfalciit with th.- Ihortnefs 


40 Tii£ History of Pennsylvania. 

1709. mentioned in the Governor's fpeech. They car'i 

^■""'^^""^ ried their refentment lb far, in the affair, that theyj 

They iffue aftually iflued out a warrant to the high Sheriff of 

wnt'to'^^pl .the city and county of Fhiladelphia^ figned by the! 

prehcnj Spcakcr, for apprehending the Secretary, and fori 

tary, ^o' Committing him to the county gaol of Philadelphia^, 

founded on what they thus expreffed, in the faidi 

warrant, viz. " For his offence, in rcfe6li?ig upoHl 

fiiiidry Me?}ibers of this Houfe, in particular ^ and the' 

whole HoJife, in {general, charging the proceedings 

• of this Affembly with unfairiicfs and injultice."* 


of my intended ftay ; and, particularly, that it may not extend beyond 
the twelfth of this inftnnt ; that being the utmolt (as far as I can at pre- 
feiit judge) that I fhall be able to attend it; and, I hope, will jirove 1 
fulHcieiit time, to difpatch all that is neceffary to I'ucli a trial ; wilhin the 
coinpafs of which i'pace, I have been well alfurcd, the Governor will be 
ready, on his part, to hear whatever fhall be ailcdged againll me, and a» 
far as in him lies, give fiieh judgment thereupon, as to julHce (liall be- 
long. And I do further earnedly requeft the Houfc, that they will be 
plcafed to order, that, at fpecdily as may be, I may have full copies of all 
the petitions, that have been exhibited againfl me, to any of the paft 
Afl'endjlics, and that I may be favoured with an opportunity of com- 
paring them with the originals : J'or your fpccial favour in ail which, 
" Your lumible petitioner fliall, as in duty, bound, &c. 

" November the \J1, I709." 

• The' following is a copy of the warrant, or order, h.r spprehending 
the Secretary. 

" At the Affembly Iield at'.thli the 25th day of November, 

" The Houfc of Reprcfeniatives did ycfterday adjudge- yiiwf/ Logan, 
for his f'flVnce, in reflciftiiig upon fiuidry Members of this Houfc in 
particular, and tlio whole Hoi.fe in ger.cral, charging the proceedings of 
tiiis Aflembly with unfairnefs and injuflice. 

" Thcfc are, therefore, in the behalf of the faid Houfc of Reprefen- 
taiives to require and charge thee to attach thi; body of tlie faid "'^jiimc: 
/in-.;//, and liini take iorthwitli into thy cuflody, within tiie county gar. I 
of our lady the c;)ni en, for the county of Philadelphia, under thy charge, 
and him therein fafely to <letain and keep, until Jic fiiall willingly make 
his I'ubmiflion, to the fati^faiition of this Houfe, or of fuch order as 
tliis Houfe (l-.all take for tlie fame, during the continuance of this prefent 
Alfembly ; and this fliall be thy fuflicient warrant in that behall'. 

" Given under my hand, this twenty-iifth day of No- 
vember, 1701^. 

" DAVID LLOYD, A'/ r.7 Ij,-.'' 

" r<; Tdfr E', FSq. Sh.-rif 0/ the 
city .,:d cou.ty ,f Fh.l.J^hur 

The History of Pennsylvania. 41 

But, by 'Si fuperfalcas from tlie Governor, the ex- 1709. 
cciuion tliereor was prevented, to the great dif- '"^'T"'""^ 
jilcafurc of the Affembly; as appears by their ^.g^ffrX^. 
rcfolvct* in" the minutes of the Iloufe ; wherein tcJ by the 
Oiey alTcTt, " That this menfure of the Governor ^;:;''-"'°'-' 
Kif tit ilttinl and arbitrary,* 

The tamper and difpofition of the H'^/ufe now 
vit!irt fach, that, after this, it does not appear 
Jt«y further tranfaftions palled between the Go- 
tustwr and this Alleinbly. 

But ihc Secretary, by rcafon of his uf2ful abili- 
des^ aiu! faithful ferviccs, to the Propriciary, was 

Vol.. ir. [6] fo 

• TlkM! Kf'» «»«^ ii» X XfVsUvi^A of v?hJt the Oovcnior vlircdeil to the 
•liVi^^^ w ilf-Mi «ik2.ft&««i; «r!tidi /unl;cr Jhcw* tlu- extremity of thispro- 

»!(!»«#»<|-^ (M.I:-, . ,-,. ;.' 

^ ^* • CnARLES COOKINy Efyylre, Lieutenant Governor of the 
' "' ' ' ff^yvinat »/ PiMa/yltfjiKi.iy ty». 

* T* /•'* » Jlt^*!, Efqulrc, High ShcrlflT of the city and county of 

• WHf.RKAS, th McjnlxTS chofcn to fcrvc in AlTembJy, for thi» 
ffOWice, »» »pprar» by ccrt;»in rcfolvcs, and divers cxprcllions iifcd by 
tfiwi, 00 iht* occarton, m I am credibly iiifornied, have threatened to 
like. iT!« <:ttilo<ly yjBut /.oj».f/i, Secretary of this province, and a Mein- 
Ik< oi O^iamil fiir the fame; and therel)y woidd prevent his intended 
«,»f»jjt t«i*Jir«li Cr<tit liiit.iH i wliitlier the Proprietor's aflairs do call 
ki*, ia «rliKh he i» now ready to embark, notwithftanding it has ne- 
«*• •j»pfc»fT>! thit my Adcmbly in this province are, in themfelves, 
%'r%t^i wi?h any »u!hority to attacli any perfon, who is not of their own 
ti*aiifr, iwvl mufh kf« t Member of Council -. nor is there any jurifdic- 
imn yet, fir fix trl*l of fuch -a they account olfenders againft them : 
>»h!»ol*riifc'3jUMln»jf, at the lime (.f making the faid relolves, they were 
tm \t%My aa A/tmWy, nor, for the future, can be fuch, until I Ihall 
f« Ciufe to oil thctn, [Ntrto, this is faid on account of their having 
drRp(ic<l their adjcruniment.] Now, to prevent any dilbrder, that may 
«ri(e fnuti fuch undue and irregular proceedings, I do hereby require and 
»Jri<aiy cornmiind you, the faid Sheriff, that you fuffer not the faid 
Jtmtt Lagjit to be any wife molefted by virtue of any order, or pretend- 
ed orJ-.r, of Affembly, whatever ; and, in cafe any of the faid Afftm- 
hlf , or nihcr*, under pretence of any authority derived from them, (liall 
«1teni(X to Btiach, or moleft, the faid yumes Lo^^nn, in his perfon, I do 
hrr .-hy cummand you to oppofe fuch attachment, and that you, by all 
niriiH in your |>o\vcr, take effetSual care that the peace of our fevereign 
Udy, ihc <>utcn, be kept, and all offenders againfl the (ame be oppofed, 
or fiftjuiittcd, as rioters; for whicli this fliall be your fuflicicnt autho- 

" CJiven under ni) hand, and feal of the laid province, at 
Philadilpln.i, 28, (jhi\ i/C^." 

42 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1 709. fo thoroughly fortified in both his and the Govern- 
^■^"'^''^^^ or's efteeni and confidence, that he was above the 
The Sccre- powcr of his Opponents ; he profecuted his voyage 
rrZccdTto' ^^ 'Enghmd ; and u'ith fuch perfeverance and abili- 
Engiami, ty vindicated himfelf, and fo far fucceeded againfl 
roilus^Teir ^^^ violcncc of the oppofition, that he not only 
views, &c, furvived the florm, and continued in his offices, 
but alfo was afterwards Prefident of the province ; 
and difcharged the office with much reputation to 
himfelf and fatisfailion to the public, as will here- 
after appear ; and after a wife recefs of many years, 
from the cumber of public affairs, at lafl, in the 
year 1751, honourably finiflied his days, in a 
happy tranquillity. 


( 43 ) 


Party ffmt endangers the government and conjlliu^ 
ihiu — The Proprietor* s letter to the AJfembly, re- 
J^<^ir,^ their hte tranfielions, — j4n entire new 
Ajmhh clciled in OSlober 1 7 1 o. — Names of the 
Mmhtrt^'^Harnjony betiveen the Go-vernor and 
iUi Apmbly preduSIive of more agreeable and 
Uitir cmftqttcnccs^ isfe. — Proceedings of the 
l^tjliiun in (cnfe(juenre of an exprcfs front 
/,',sr /,;;;/, reaixtd by the Governor y relating 
h *IH (inptdUion a^ijinji Canada, — The S!ueen\' 
ti'fUr 3/" inflru^iotu to him. — The colony thought 
t» i>( eiTT'ratcd in the requifttion ; yet the Affeni- 
hly vite ties thoufand pounds for the ^^een's ufe, 
"■^The next year produces a change in the ylffem- 
Iffy, — The Proprietor, in his letters, de/Jres to 
ferx^c the country, lafe. — The Proprietor agrees to 
dij^ofc of the government to the .^icen ; and is 
feizid ivith an apoplexy. — JVi?ie and rum imported 
in tjl 2.— Settlement of New Garden a fid London 
Gr^r, in Chefier county. — Hamuel Carpenter. — 
The Governor's writ for fnmmoning the Affem- 
hly. — Altercation betiueen them. 


IIILE human nature Is fubjed to Infirmity^ 
and fo lonpf as fome men are wifer and better than 
others, will the actions of mortals, whether good 
or bad, have different conftrudions put upon them, 



4 I 
44 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1709. and be attended with approbation and contradic- 
^^^^ ' tion, ax:cordJng to their believed importance, and- 
• the various mediums, through which they are feen: ' 
' this province appears to have been never entirely 
Party inthc without a difcoutented and murmuring party in it, > 
caTylT ^r^"' ^^^ beginning, or^, at leaft, from very early, 
&c. ' tnnes ; who thought it their duty and interell con- 
flantly to oppofe the Proprietary, in all cafes indif. 
criminatcly, where either his power, or intereft, 
was concerned ; and though frequently but fmall 
and weak, yet they were fufiiciently able to em. 
harrafs the public proceedings, and endanger the ■ 
general trafiquillity, according as time and oppor- 
tunity offered : thefe, for a number of years paft, 
having, by continual complaints of great and nu- 
merous grievances unredreffed, worked up the 
minds. of many well-difpofed perfons, in the pre 
vince,^ into the belief of the reality of more of 
this kind than ever exifted in it, thereby occafion-. 
ed hard thoughts of the Proprietary, and fome- ' 
what of an unworthy treatment, even, from fome 
of his friends ; infomuch, that, for a confidera- 
ble time, they had obtained a majority in the AU 
fembly, and vifibly aclcd in the extreme againfl ,:^ 

The increafe of this oppofition feems principal- 
Panyin- ^X ^° havc arifeii from the Proprietary's abfence, 
ereuicd i.y his not fcciug with his own eyes, and trufting his 
ctor'?:!!!-'" ^^^'^^'^ ^°^' much to deputies ; to which the rature i 
fence, £.c. and necellity of his fituation and circumRances, 1 
in thefe thnes, particularly obliged him; as fully J 
appears by many of his private ktters, during the 
hitter part of his life, largely expreiling his ardent 
and longing defire to live and die in this country j 
conlequenily fome tilings, in his province, were ' 
not in that order, which could have been defired, J 
though lar from being as they were reprefented ; I 
Vv'hich, in fuch a new, young and unexperienced 1 

government, \ 

The History of Pinnsylvania. 45 

government, in a colony compofcd of fiich an 1709. 
heterogeneous inixture of people of different hu- ''•"^^^"^^^ 
mouri!, opinions and interells, and in a land of fo 
great liberty, as this then was, fo much the more 
recjuirciJ the prcfence of an able and conflant 
IwrtJ, to manage and redrcfs ; though, in the 
vMc, compared with others, it was manifeflly 
in a %'cn luppy, thriving and flourifliing condition. 

Ff'pm hence, however, liis adverfarles, and the Amiciuiun- 
«BI<xmJcritc*l party, took occafion to magnify what i^'^«i"^i,^"- 
^M amiT* ; and, as it is an eafy matter to perfuade and'c'onui- 
|»C«pIc* that they are aggrieved, more efpecially ^"tiou, <s.c. 
wJwm under fuch a variety of diflicuUies as is 
<t/«jmon and natural, at lead in fome degree, to 
V»? mrw fcilkmmt of ilds kind, they, therefore, 
bifooaorxl ouri)' of the Uiil-wcaning to join in the 
€fppof\tmtii Vfmch was now carried on with a 
hiS,^ h;md ; though, it is, with great reafon, ap- 
preJicnded, divers of thefe neither defigned, nor 
jEsWi the confcquence, to which their proceedings 
naturally and ultimately tended ; which, at length, 
about this time, produced the following fevere 
and cxpofhdatory letter from the Proprietary to 
the AlVcmbly, viz. 

" London, acfi/j ^th ?no. 17 10. 
" My old Friends, 

" It is a mournful confideration, and the caufe 
of deep alllidion to me, that I am forced, by the ^""^ ^"'™- 
oppreflions and difitppointments, which have fal- L'turlo'ihc 
len to my fliare in this life, to fpeak to the people Afu.nSiy 
of that province, in a language, I once hoped, I '" ^'^"' 
fiiould never have occafion to ufe. But the many 
troubles and oppofitions, that I have met with 
frojn thence, oblige me, in plainnefs and free- 
dom, to expoftulate with you, concerning tlie 
canfes of them. 

'■' When 

46 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1 7 10. " When It pleafed God to open a way for me 
*"""^^'^*^ to fettle that colony, I had reafon to expct!^. a fo- " j 
lid comfort from the fervices, done to many hun- ' 
dreds of people ; and it was no fmall fatisraclion; 
to me, that I have not been difappointed in feeing 
them profper, and growing up to a iiourifliing 
country, blefled with liberty, eafe and plenty, '1 
beyond what many of thenilelves could expect; J 
and wanting nothing to make thenifelves ha])py, 'I 
but what, with a right temper of mind, and piu- 
dent conduft, they might give themfelvec. But, 
alas ! as to my part, inltead of reaping the like 
advantages, fome of the greatefl of my troubles 
have arofe from thence ; the many combats, I 
have engaged in ; the great pains, and incredi- 
ble expenfe, for your welfare and eafe, to the de- 
cay of my former efh\te ; of which fhowever 
fome there would reprefcnt it) I too fenfibly feel 
the efleds ; with the undeferved oppofition, I have 
met with from thence, fmk me into forrow ; 
that, if not fupported by a fuperior hand, might 
have overwhelmed me long ago. And I cannot 
but think it hard meafure, that, while that has 
proved a land of freedom and flourifliing, it 
ihouKl become to me, by whofe means it was 
principally made a country, the caufe of giief, 
trouble and poverty. 

" For this reafon I mud defire you all, even, 
of all profellions and degrees, for although all 
have not been engaged in the meafures, that have 
been taken, yet every man, who has an interell 
there, is, or mufl be, concerned in them, by 
their effeds ; I mufl, therefore, I fay, defire you 
all, in a ferioiis and true weightinefs of mind, to 
confider what you are, or have been, doing ; 
why matters muft be carried on with thefe divifions 
and contentions, and what real caufes have been 
given, on my fide, for that oppofition to me, and 
my interefl, which I have met with j as if I were 


'I'liE History of Pennsylvania. 47 

an enemy, and not a friend, after all I have done 17 10. 
and fpctn, botii here and there: I am fure, I ^-*"^^*-' 
know not of any caufe whaifoever. Were I fen- 
fiblc you really wanted any thing of me, in the 
reblion between us, that would niake you hap- . 
pcr» 1 O^nuld readily grant it, if any reafonable 
jnirt vtHiId fay it were fit for you to demand ; 
|i«oiriiki«l you would alfo take fuch meafures as 
vttis hi fur nic to join with. 

** lii-ftsrc any one family had tranfported them- 
'^hu lh:tl»er, I carneflly endeavoured to form 
, a RKKiel of government, as might make all, 
CO^KirnJcd in it, cafy ; which, ncverthelefs, was 
St '4^ *^ ^^^ altered, as there Ihould be occafion. 
■'^m idtcT 'wc got over, that model appeared, in 
-vfSK. pwi* of ii, to he very inconvenient, if not 
kfsi'xwjli'tthlc ; the numbers of members, both in 
ffic (.Amndl and AfTembly, were much too large; 
hmc other matters alfo proved inconfiftent with 
the King** charter to me ; fo that, according to 
the |H>\ver referved for an alteration, there was a 
jfiaxfTity to make one, in which, if the lower 
crmmics were l^rouglu in, it was well known, at 
that lime, to be on a view of advantage to the 
province itfelf, as well as to the people of thofe 
counties, and to the general fatisfa<L^ion of thofe 
COt^tcnved, without the leall apprehenfion of any 
irtcgularity in the method. 

«* Upon this they had another charter paiTed, 
mmine rontradkcntc ; which I always defired might 
l>c continued, while you yourfelves would keep 
up to it, and put it in practice ; and many there 
know much it was againfl my will, that, upon 
my lafl going over, it was vacated. But after 
this was laid afide (which indeed was begun by 
yourfelves, in Colonel Flctchcrh time) I, accord- 
ing to my engagement, left another, with all the 
privileges, that were found convenient for your 


48 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1 7 10. good government; and, if any part of It has 
'"-'^-^^^ been-, in any cafe, infringed, it was never by my. 
approbation. 1 defired it might be enjoyed fully. 
But though privileges ought to be tenderly pre-> 
ferved, they Ihould not, on the other hand, be 
ailerted, under that name, to a hcentioulhefs : 
the defign of government is to preferve good or- 
der ; -u'hich may be equally broke in upon by the 
turbulent endeavours of the people, as well as the 
overllraining of power, in a Governor. I de- 
figned the people fliould be fccured of an annual 
iixed eledion and AfTcmbly ; and that they fliould 
have the iaine privileges in it, that any other Af- 
fembly has, in- the Queen*s dominions ; among 
all which this is one conflant rule, as in the par- 
liament here, that they fliould fit on their own 
•adjournments ; but to Itrain this expreflion to a 
power, to meet, at all times during the year, 
without the Governor's concurrence, would be 
to diftort government, to break the due propor- 
tion of the parts of it, to eftabliih coiifufion in the 
place of neceflary order, and make the legiflative 
the executive part of government. Yet, for ob- 
taining thi,^ power, I perceive, much time and 
money has been Ipent, and great Itruggles have 
been made, not only for this, but fome other 
things, that cannot, at all, be for the advantage 
of the people to be poifelled of; particularly the 
appoinling of Judges ; becaufe the adminiflration 
miglit, by fuch means, be fo clogged, that it 
would be difficult, if pollible, under our cir- 
cumllances, at fome times, to fupport it. As 
for my own part, as I defire nothing more than 
the tranquillity and profperity of the province and 
government, in all its branches, could I fee that 
any of thefe things, that have been contended for, 
would certainly promote thefe ends, it would be a 
matter of indilference to me how they were fertled. 
But feeing the frame of every government ought 


The History of Pennsylvania. 49 

to be regular in itfelf, well proportioned and fab- 1 7 1 o. 
ordinate, in its parts, and every branch of it in- '*'*''"^''''*^' 
veiled with fulficient power to difcharge its refpec- 
livc duty, for the fupport of the whole, I have 
caiifc 10 believe that nothing could be more de- 
ftru^livc to it, than to take fo much of the pro- 
vifion, and executive part of the government out 
of the Governor's hands, and lodge it in an un- 
certain colle^'tive body ; and more efpecially fmce 
our government is dependent, and I am anfwerable 
io inc crown, if the adminillration fhould fail, 
2nd a flop be put to the courfe of juftice. On 
ihck confjdcrations I cannot think it prudent, in 
iHe l-KOplc, to crave llu-lc powers ; becaufe not 
milf l» bvit thcT thcnifclvcs, would be in danger 
«^ isjf «sei^ hf h ; could I believe oihcrwifc, I 
igilil »0f fee againit granting any thing of this 
Jfefeitlt «fuit were afkcd of ine, with any degree of 
tmamon prudence and civility. But, inftead of 
£l&t!)ng^ caufc to believe, the contentions, that 
bare been raifcd about thefe matters, have pro- 
ceeded only from miftakes of judgment, with an 
camcfi: defire, notwithllanding, at the bottom, 
to ferv'C the public (which, I hope, has (till been 
the inducement of leveral concerned in them) I 
have had but too forrowful a view and fight to 
compliin of the manner, in which I have been 
trcatcil* The attacks on my reputation, the ma- 
ny indignities pat upon me, in papers fent over 
hither, into the hands of thofe who could not be 
cxpcfted to make the moft difcreet and charitable 
ufe of them ; the fecret iniinuations againfl my 
juJlkSy befides the attempt, made upon my eltate ; 
rcfolves pad in the Affemblies, for turning my 
quit-rents^ never fold by mc, to the fupport of 
government ; my lands entered upon, without any 
regular method ; my manors invaded, (under pre- 
tence I had not duly furveyed them) and both thefe 
by perfons principally concerned in thefe attempts 
Vol. 11. [7] againil 

50 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1 710. againfl me here; a right to my overplus land, 
'*^"^^^*' unJLiftly chiimed by the polTellbrs of the tni£l:s, 
in which they are found ; my private ellate con- 
tinually exhaufling, for the fupport of that go- 
A'ernment, both here and there ; and no provifion 
made for it by that country ; to all which I cannot 
but add, the violence, that has been particularly 
fliewn to my Secretary ; of which (though I Ihall, 
by no means, protcd: him in any thing, he can 
be juilly charged with, but fuller him to (land or 
fall by his own aclions) I cannot but thus far take 
notice, that, from all thefe charges, I have fccn, 
or heard of, againft him, I have caufe to believe, 
that had he been as much in oppofition to me, as 
he has been underflood to Hand for me, he might 
have met with a milder treatment from his profe- 
cutors ; and, to think that any man fliould be the 
more expofed there, on my account, and, inftead 
of hnding favour, meet with enmity, for his be- 
ing engaged in my fervice, is a melancholy con- 
fideration ! In ffiort, when I rellccl on all thefe 
heads, of which I have fo much caufe to complain, 
and, at the fame time, think of the hardfhips I, 
and my fufferiug faniily, have been reduced to, 
in no fmall meafure, owing to my endeavours for, 
and difappointments from, that province, I can- 
not but mourn the unhappincfs of my portion, 
dealt to me from thofe, of whom I had reafon to 
expcil much better and different things ; nor can 
I but lament the unhappincfs, that too many of 
them are bringing on themfelvcs, who, inltead 
of ])urfulng tlie amicable ways of peace, love and 
unity, which I, at firll, hoped to hnd in that re- 
tirement, are cherifliing a fpirit of contention and 
o])pofition ; and, blind to their own interefl:, are 
overfetting that foundation, on which your hap- 
pinefs might be built. 

" Friends, the eyes of many are upon you ; the 
pectple of many nations of Europe look on that 


The IIistorv of Pennsylvania. 51 

country, as a UnJ of cafe and quiet, wifliing to 171 o. 
thcmfcjvcs, in vain, tjie fame bleflings, they con- ^-^^^^-^ 
ccivc you piay enjoy : but, to fee tlie ufe you make 
(if them,' i» no Icf* the caufe of furprife to others, 
^hik fud> WUcr complaints and reflecftions are ke:n ■ 
lu ctJSJW (wM\ you, oi' which it is dillicult to'con- 
erivt, orcn, the fcnfe or meaning. Where are 
Kh» ^^r(^<Sy x^lfx'anccsy and opprejjlons, that the 
|4l|K3rt^ lent from thence, fo often fay, you lan- 
gttllll Umkr! while others have caufe to believe, 
|«iSt tuvc liiUicrto h'vfd, or might live, the hap- 
lijusft of ftiiy, in the Qiieen's dominions? 

■ ** I J it f«ch a ^ricrot4S opprcjjlon, that the courts 
'itc<'^»\X\^.\fl:A by my power, founded on the king's 
rlflJ^cTn i*i{hout a law of your making, when 
fttj^'-t fh< fiwne plan you propofe? If this difliurb 
^, Ukc ihc advice of other able lawyers on the 
rnaJn, without tying me up to the opinion of prin- 
<fpul(y one man, whom I cannot think fo very 
fcfTOpcr to dire6l in my affairs (for, I believe, the 
fate Aflcmbly have had but that one lawyer amongfl 
them) and 1 am freely content you fhoukl have 
any law, that, by proper judges, Oiould be found 
fuiiable. Is it your opprejjion that the officers fees 
are not fettled by an acl of Aflenibly ? No man 
can l>c a greater enemy to extortion, than myfelf : 
tdo, tjicrcfore, allow fuch fees as may reafonably 
encourage fit perfons to undertake tiicfe offices, 
and you fhall foon have (and fliould have always 
cheerfully had) mine, and, I hope, my Lieute- 
nant's concurrence and approbation. Is it fuch 
an opprejfion^ that licences for public houfes have 
not been fettled, as has been propofed ? It is a 
certain fign you are ftrangers to opprejfto?i^ and 
know nothing but the name, when you fo highly 
beflow it on matters fo inconfiderable ; but that 
bufmefs, I find, is adjulted. Could I know any 
real opprcjfioriy you he under, that is in my power 
to femedy (and what I willi you would take pro- 

5* The History of Pennsylvania* 

1 7 10. per meafures to remedy, if you truly feel any 
^'^^'^"^^ fuch) I would be as ready, on my part, to remove 
them, as you to defire it; but according to the. 
beft judgment, I can make of the comphiints, I. 
have feen (and you once thought I had a pretty 
good one) I muft, in a deep fenfe of forrow, fay, 
that I fear, the kind hand of Providence, that 
has fo long favoured and protected you, will, by 
the ingratitude of many there to the great mercies 
of God, hitherto {hewn them, be, at length, pro- 
voked to convince them of their unworthinefs ; 
and, by changing the bleffings, that fo little care 
has been taken, by the public, to deferve, into 
calamities, and reduce thofe, that have been fo 
clamorous, and caufclefsly difcontented, to a true, 
but fmarting fenfe of their duty. I write not this, 
•with a defign to include all ; I doubt not, many 
of you have been burdened at, and can, by no 
means, join in the meafures that have been taken ; 
but while fuch things appear under the name of 
an AfTembly, that ought to reprefent the whole, I 
cannot but fpeakmore generally than I would de- 
fire, though I am not unfenfible what methods 
may be ufed to obtain the weight of fuch a 

" I have already been tedious, and fhall now, 
therefore, briefly fay, that the oppofuion, I have 
met \^ith from thence muft, at length, force me 
to confider more clofely of my own private and 
fmking circumf}:;^nces, in relation to that province. 
In the mean time, I defire you all ferioufly to 
weigh what I have wrote, together with your duty 
to yourfelves, to me, and to the world, who have 
their eyes upon you, and are witnefles of my early 
TJnd earned care for you. I muft think there is a 
regard due to me, that has not of late been paid ; 
pray, confider of it fully, and think foberly, what 
you have to defire of me, on the one hand, and 
cuglu to perform to me, on the other ; for, from 


The History of Pennsylvania. s% 

the next AlTcmbly, I (hall expctl to know what 1710. 
you rcfolvc, and what I may depend on. If I ^-^^''^-^ 
muft continue my regards to you, let me be en- 

rto it by a like dilpofuion in you towards me. 
if a plurality, alter this, /liall think they 
owe roc none, or no more, than for fome years I met with, let it, on a fair eledlion, be fo de- 
clared, and 1 fliall then, without further fufpenfc, 
ks^omr Mr hat I have to rely upon. God give you 
hk wifdom and fear, to dircd you, that yet our 
poor country rnay be biefled with peace, love and 
laduAr)', and we may once more meet good friends, 
jwad iivc! fo to the end ; our reladon, in the tru'di, 
liivisg but the fame true intcrell. 

*« 1 am, wjih great truth, and moll fmc^re 
reg»Tc!, fom real Friend, as well as jufl: Proprie- 
i^raaii Governor, 

' " WILLIAM PENN.'' . 

V What reply was made to this letter does not ap- 
pear; but notwithflanding what might have been 
thought deficient, or amifs, on the Proprietary's 
fide, the fcrious nature of it could not but alFecl 
the confidcratc part of the Allembly with more 
regard for the father of their country, now, in 
his declining age, and for his diflicult fjtuation, 
occafioned originally and principally on account of 
it, or, for the real advantage of the colony, than 
they had, for fome time pall, exhibited ; feeing it 
plainly hinted to what their proceedings necelTarily 
tended, and the means, though not expreffed, 
which he liiould foon be obliged to ufe, without 
an immediate alteration of the Aflembly's conduft, 
relative to him and his intereft. The confequence 
thus far appears, that, at the next annual cledion 
of the Members of Allembly, in October, 17 10, 
there was not one of thofe Members returned, 
who ferved in the preceding year, but an entire new An-'L 

new ^'y e'^t^^si 

54 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1710. new Iloufe, of whicli Richard Hill was chofen 
"^^^"^^ Speaker.* 

I'he Governor, In his fpeecli to the Houfe, on 
Pan of tJie the 1 6th oi the month, told them, "That he 
(.ovcinoib jj,j i^Qi; j,jy5j; [[ ^v^3 obvious to every one's under- 

Ij'C'cJl to ^ J ^ 

:h.;n...v ftandinp;, why he could not agree with the lafh 
AiianLiy. ^\ fj;.;-t,|3}y . [^^^,|■^ j^g ]-)£ (ook them to have different 
ftiiiiinenti:, they might promiie themfclves, that 
his ready afTcnt to all bills, drawn up for the pub- 
he goodj would not be wanting; and that, as he 
had often txprelfed his refolution of fettling among 
them, he could have no aims, contrary to the in- 
terelL of the people : that thus a confidence might 
be eftabliflied in each other, he hoped, they would 
cheerfully proceed with their bills, and make fuch 
provifion for the fupport d the government as 
confiUed with the character, that the province 
juflly bore, in all her Majefiy's dominions. ■ He 
concluded with recommending them to difpatch, 
and cautioning them to avoid the expenfe of a 
long lilting ; a practice, that fome former Aflem- 
bhes, by giving way to, hati left a debt upon the 
country, that, perhaps, tliey would not very ealily 
dii charge." 
!!.!iiM!y The luirmony, which fubfifled between the Go- 
(■c v'nuir' ^'^■^^'^^'^ '^"^^ ^'""^^^ Aflembly was productive of much 
an : ci;is a;- more agreeable and fatisfaclory proceedings, and 
'''■'"''■^' '-^''- ialutary eliev^ts, in the public tranfadions of the 


* TIk- tuimes of the 

J.IcniljLTb of tliib AiTcnibly, clcAci on tli>; id 

f Oou.bcr, I 710,' 

F,r PUil,:lAj,hi., ,u:„ify. 

C/./.T .yinily. 

B,.ch count-j. 

r.ihvai'l Farniar, 

Nicholas Pile, 

Abel J.ainy, 

WillLiiu Tniit, 

Jofcph i].ik cr. 

John Chirk, 

iL:\\s^vA y.mts, 

Willi;im Lewis, 

Stoffcid Vanf.ind, 

TlioiiKis Iv^LdLrs, 

John Wood, 

John Hough, 

■J'iit)iii:is ](.iu:s, 

N.ithanirl Ncwlin, 

'I'honiiis Stcvcnlon,! .! Cirt, 

r.}'hrnim Jut! Ion, 

S,.miiel Eaker, 

]M <l:..n Ui:!.ie0.n, 

Caleb Puicy, 

■jtr, mi;-.h^hon' 

J;.:vi.l C U\v-. 

If.zc 'J'uylor. 

\\ illi.nn Lik-s. 


.udJl.ll, j;-i,ic X' 


Thk History oi Pjjnns 


|*orcmmmf, than had been, for Ibnie years bc- 
Jfbfc; and nuny laws were mutually agreed on, 
md p»af!c»! iiuring ilie winter. 

hi jIk fummer of tlic year 1711, Governor lyn. 
Gnllt^ hivinc; received an exprefs from Euzland^ ^ a- ■ 

* /. » ** ... ' n y^ Expedition 

Itipcam^ the cxpcamon agauilt Canadu^ conven- to CanadLi, 
c4 «h«!' AfTcmbly, and acquainted them tlierewith, ^'^' 
SI!*! «he prcfKi rat ions of tbcjiorthern colonies, for 

He rrcomnjcnded them to exert themfelves, 
fvtiabty on the occufion, not to be behind their 
fK4th<:rti neighbours, in anfwering the Queen's 
CTC|iie<Y2!i<^n, and to enable him to raife and fup- 
f*>«t the <iuota C'f n»cn, ali!i;ned this province, or 
tUt^ «h»S xhSTi wouU! raakc an equivalent ; and he 
i»j4 ts«^7rc tlwi Houfc certain papers, with the 
<>*«:iii*ii*iftrtruidkin8 to him, relative to the aliuir ; 
«r?iJch !:ift were as follows : 

" Anne R. 

** Trufly and well-beloved, we greet you well. The 
WhrtMy we have fent our indructions to our Go- Qii-^'i'-'i'^t. 
vcruor* of NiW llrk and N:iu Jerfey^ and of the a.-ua'ons 
Majjchufetts Biiy and Nciu liampjhire, relating '" i'"-' <''^- 
lo an cxjjcdiiion, we defi^,n to make againfl the ^^' 
common enemy, the French^ inhabiting North 
Asmrica. And whcrau^ We have diret^led our 
UMX Governors, ami Vranch Kicholfon^ Efquirc, 
to communicate to you fuch part of our faid in- 
(Irudions, as relates to the province, under your 
command. Our will and plcafure is, that you do 
in all tilings, conform yourfelf to the faid inilruc- 
lions. And wo do hereby command you tc) bi* 
aiding and alTilling in carrying on the faid expedi- 
tion : and, in order thereunto, that you Ak^ meet 
our faiil Governors, and the faid Francis NicLoIfoHy 
at fuch place, and at fueli riiu..% as tliey ihall, for 
that purpofe, fignify imr(^ rou ; and that von put 


5^ The History of Pennsylvania. 

1711. in execution fuch things, as lliall then be refolved 

"""^^ to be a£ted and done, on your part ; in doing of 

which, we do exped you to ufe the utmoll vigour 

and diligence ; and for fo doing this fliall be your 

warrant : So we bid you farewell. 

" Given at our court, at Sf. Jnmes'^ 
the one and thirtieth day of Fe- 
bruary, 1 7 10- II, in the ninth 
year of our reign. 
" By her Majedy's command, 

" H. St. JOHN." 

" To our trufliy and well-beloved, 
the Governor, or Lieutenant Go- 
vernor, or Commander in Chief, 
for the time being, of our pro- 
vince of Fennf-jlvania^ in Ame- 

The congrefs of Governors, or council of war, 
met accordingly at New London^ in Conne6licut^ 
where the feveral quotas, or proportions, expcded 
from each colony, were fixed ; but by reafon of 
the fiiort fpace of time, and great diltance, Go- 
vernor Gooklti could not attend it, nor properly 
reprefent the Hate and ability of the province ; and 
the Aflembly of Pcnnfjlvania thought the colony 
The indi- ovcr-ratcd : for this province particularly was con- 
^"*^^'^°'"-" ftantly at a confiderable expenfc, for the prefer- 
pcnfc to vation of the friendfliip of the Indians, in fuch 
ivmifyiva- manner, as was very important and intcrefting to 
all the neighbouring governments, and the gene- 
ral utility ; they neverthelefs voted two thoujand 
founds^ to be raifed upon tlie inhabitants of the 
province, for the Queen's ufe, by a tax of five 
pence half penny per pound, on eftates, and twenty 
ihillings per head, on fingle freemen : and a bill 
for tliut purpqfe was parted by the Governor. 


Tae History op Pennsylvania. ^'^ 

Jnthc AitcmUy, clcdcd Oaobcr, 171 1, there 1717. 

vru a canfidcrablo cliange of iMcmbers ; and Da- ' ^ 

viJ /MfT^ name iitfain appears among them j but 
lii^ktfJ HiJi WAS cliofen vSpeakcr* 

'n><? Co\?cfnnr, in a fpccch to the Hoiife, this 
Vimcr, txprc(kd. That the Proprietary, in his let- The Pr^ 
tcr$ uy Mm, had fignificd his defire to ferve the i^'"'^'"'' '^"■^ . 
J^5 of (his province, and left it to themfelves, f'V^'h. 
10 thmK on the means, that might befl conduce to p'^^p''^ °^ 
ilmt own^ quiet and interefl : at the fame time, "^^t, ' 
C»l?crin,ij his ready concurrence to any thing of ' ' 
ihit najure, which they Hiould propofe, confift. 
cm miU the honour and intereft of the crown, of 
the Proprictar)-, and of i!ie public welfare ; and 
mwKricndijig to their confidcration, that, as to 
Mttildl, l^c ImJi been al>ove three years engaged in 
tU Af^MTs €»f the province, and almofl fo long ia 
k i tbit what h<r had received from the public, ap- 
Jksat'sJ by the ad* of the lafl Affcmbly j which 
wu hr Ihon of vhat the Proprietary gave him to 
cxjKd; from the people. 

ITic Houfe, in anfwcr, thankfully acknowledged 
tJ«r Pr<?prictary*$ kind regard, and defires to fe'rve 
ibctiJ, vrith the Governor's offered and ready con- 
ctincnce to what (hould contribute to that end. 
, Ihcy promifcd to take care of the Governor's 
fiipporiv and accordingly, afterwards agreed on 
f{i<h provifjon for the. fame, as was to mutual 

The year 171 2 was remarkable for two things, 1712. 
fcfpeaing T'cVi/i/J/v/z;;/^ ; the firft was, an agree- ^, 
mcnt for the fale of the government of it, and the priL/dir- 
tcrritories, to Queen j^/utey by the Proprietary ; P"^"°'"'^* 
the moa_ probable inducements for which have me^Jo" th« 
already, in part, been mentioned: for though a *^'^"i 
'temporary alteration was made the lafl year in the 
Affembly's conduc:1, refpeaing him, yet it appears, 
ili this manner, he thought it mod prudent to ex- 
VoL. II. [8] t,icare " 

58 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1712. tricate himfelf from the debt and difficultiesy In 
''■''~^'''^*^ which the province had too much involved him. 
And Js feiz- The fccond was^ a failure of thole mental facul- 
apJ'piexy" tit^s, in the Proprietary, which, during molt of 
'^':- his life, had ihone fo bright, and been fo benefi- j 

cent to many people, both in Europe and Jlmcrica, 
by means of a diftemper, fuppofed to be an apo- 
plexy ; which deprived him, in part, of his former 
abilities, and rendered - him incapable of public 
bufinefs, and confequently difabled him from exe- 
cuting a furrender of the government, according 
to agreement. 

Governor Gookin^ m his fpeech to the AfTem- 

bly, on the 15th of 0£tober, this year, of which 

Jfaac Norris was Speaker, thus hinted the former 

Purport of of thcfe afiairs, expreifrng. That the Proprietary, 

the Govern- j^ -j letter to a Member of the Council, had fiornilied 

t>r s fiitcch 1 • • . r r i • i • 

lotheAi- his mtentions ot lurrendering the ^^overnment, m 
faubiy. a few months : in confequence ot which he had 
reaion to believe, he Ihould not be continued Go- 
vernor under the crown ; he declared his readinefs 
to ferve them, during the lliort time he fhould 
probably be in the adminiltration ; and he requefl- 
ed them to take elfcclual meafurcs, to have ready, 
when called for, the fum granted by the late Af- 
fembly ; that the debts incurred, on account of 
the Indian treaties, be immediately dilcharged, 
and that the Indians, then in town, be well latis- 
fied; who had propofed, in behalf of the Five 
Natiofis, to eflablifh a free and open trade between 
them, in Pennfyhania, for the future, fie de- 
clared, that, as to himfelf, he had but a melan- 
choly profpecl ; that, after all he could hope for, 
and his adminidration over, he iliould find him- 
felf a great lofer, by coming to Pcnnfylvania ; 
which, as they probably would be the lall Alfem- 
bly, that he Ihould meet, he recommended to their 
ferious confideration, efpccially the cxpenfc of his 

. , The 

T*tt History op P£^:MSYLVANIA. 

. TIk iloufe, in anfwcr, acquainted the Govern- 
<st; I1air» ir bdng inconvenicnr, at that fcafon, for 
ihcm !« iStJttidin AfTcmbly, they intended to ad- ^'^Jp^'J."'^ 
ttmnx^ jmJa^jpoint a committee, to infpedl the pub- bi'y-s an-"' 
iir aciJiOWttll of the province, in the mean time, f^'«"- 
ssnI m |if«|>arc matters for the better difpatch of 
J?(ftfafs> at ihdr next meeting; and recommending 
?lwE <aTc of the Indians to the Governor and Coun- 
^-IV Kcntxlln;; t;o ihc law, in fuch cafes, after the 
O^anrrnoi had Tignified his approbation of their 
jf'Tijij^'^rrJ adjounimcnt, the Houfe accordingly ad- They aj- 

\n Ov1ol>cr, 17 1 3, Jofi'phGrorudon was Speaker 17 ^3- 
«^f %ht. AiTcinbtv; and on the 151!! of tlic month, 
«hr CJ^vomjtsr, m a f|)cech, informed them, Tliat Part of the 
tifcf %iFirctam<3lt waj not yet furrendered, and pro- [^'^^J^^h"""^ * 
bflt^* tveutdf not very fhortly ; that, being dill in- ''"' * 
vdtfd With the proprietary powers, he was ready 
i'^ oic them for the welfare of the people, in all 
ihar nrifonable expectations ; and that, betook 
?hfi opportunity to give the country his thanks for 


jVi*». In thrpvi'ifj To!f« of AflcmMj', thlsytar, appears the follow^ 
i*^ •fOP-'OTr of ihr wine «iid rum, imported into the jirovince, taken 
|»»'(»l t>>iriJi»43 offii-er, aad l.iid hcforo the Houfe, on the 6th of the lath 
fin^ (Ni» )' trTJ-13; which may give fonjc idea of this branch of 
trwiir la «5k [»ro»inr«, a» that time, v;i. 

Mjtrfb, I 71 1. 

Hhrf». J ) } 

Qr CmflcJ 13 > 

from the p!«f of growth 



2 V Elicwlicrc 

]um imported, 1 

ut ani:a. 


5 74 















Grucc BottI 

cs 4 

Xutf. In t!ir yrar 171a, Jolm Low Jon, Jolin Miller, Ivlitlmel I.iglit- 
ffV7t, Jainci Starr, Thonins Game:, and other or f^nlns, fettled 
in Kno CrMn, in CbrjUr county. 'I'he firlt of thcIV, JoL^Lavdo,,, i\\i.A 
a» ASitirJii,^ Philt.ftlhh'tj county, in 17 14. He canu from Jrelamt, about 
the year ctt, was an eniiner.t jiri'ach-^r anionjr tho fakers, truvsllcd 
Uitich in that f .vie?, and wus -nuch clb.-emcd and belovcil. 


60 '^HE History of Pennsylvania! 

1 7 1 4. the care taken for his fupport, in the admini{1;ratioh, 
'""^ "^^ by the laft Affembly, and hoped its continuance, 
David In October 17 14, David Lloyd was again chofeu 

gSpeak- Speaker of the Affembly ; and notwithflanding, 
cr^of the in the beginning of their year, they had feveral feffi- 
ons, yet nothing material was concluded between 
them and the Governor : they, therefore, on the 
26th of the firft month, adjourned themfelves to 
the latter part of September, 171 5; but before 
that time, early in the fpring, the Governor fum-, ■ 
moned them, by the following writ : 

ThcGo- ^' CHARLES GOOKIN, Efquire, Lieutenant, 
■vernor's Qovemor of the province of Pennfyhania, isfc. 

fun'moning " To the Sheriff, &c, 

Viy. ^™' *' Pennfyhania^ ff. 

« WHEREAS the Affembly of this province, 
in the month of March lail, divers matters of the 
greatefl weight and importance before them, which 
required to be difpatched, for the public good an4 
. fafcty, notwithffanding thought fit, without my 
confent or approbation, to adjourn themfelves to 
the latter end of their yearly feffions ; by which 


Names of the Memhtrs of Council prefent, May l6tb, I7I2. 
Edward Shippen, Richard Hill, 

Jofcpli Giowdon, Ifa;ic Ncrris, 

.Samuel Carpciutr, Samuel Prefton, 

'J'homas Story, Jonathan Dickiiifon, 

James Logan, • Robert Aditon. 

In the year 1 713, died Samuel Carpenter, of F/jJl.ideJpLlj, the Trea- 
furer of the province ; and was fuccccded in his office by Samuel Prcllun, 
appointed by the- Allenibly. 

Samuel Carpenter arrived very early in the province, and was one of 
the niofl confiderablc graders and fettK rs in Pcnnfylvania ; where he held, 
for many years, fonie gi' the greatefl oihces in the povcrnmt nt ; and 
throuj^h a great variety of bufincfs he prefervtd the love and cflecin oi a 
large and txtcnfive acquaintance. His great abilities, adlivity and bene- 
volent ddpofition of mind, in divers capacities, hut more particidatly 
among his friends, the i^r^L^rj, are faid to have rendered ar.d di(lin;,uifh- 
fd him as a very iifefnl and valuable member, rot only of that religious 
joricf.v, but alfo oi" the coininiuiity in general. 

The History ov Pi-NNsyLVANiA, 6i 

ir,can», fhc expc^ations of all good people, who 1714, 
dqxrndixl on a fuitable provifion to be then forth- ^-^■"''^*' 
vith rnsdc, to anAvcr the fcveral exigencies of 
the ijovcrnmcftt, bccanic entirely difappointed. 
The gftniJ; mconvcniencles of which mufl Hill con- 
liDUC MRftmcdicd until another Aflcmbly be cho- 
fetj, WihU thev are called together before the time 
<6f cllcjr faid adjournment, Thefe, therefore, are 
(by S^d with the advice of the Council) to require 
SksA commaiwi you, that you forthwith fummon. 
atS the rcprcfcntativcs, chofen in your county, 
hr the faij AfTcmbly, that they meet me, at Pbi- 
iaJtlphh^ the fecond day of May next, to proceed 
to the difpaich of the faid aflairs, and fiich other 
mitlcTi at I may have occahon to lay before them ; 
«mi) ife-iihout dday make return of this writ into 
«Hc St>crttAry*i omcc. 

** Given under my hand and lefTer 
feal of the faid province, at Phi- 
/adelp/jta, the fixteenth day of 
April, Anno Domini 17 15.'* 

The Afiembly met, in purfuance of this writ, 
which appears to throw fome refletlion on the 
manner of their adjournment. Ill humour and m humour 
altercation, which, during the latter part of the i^ttweenthc 
preceding year, had been gaining ground be- an7?hr'^ 
twecn the Governor and the Aflembly, appeared Houfe. 
now again too much to prevail between the dilFer- 
ent branches of the Lcgifiature, 

The Governor addrclTed the Iloufe with a re- 
prehcnfory fpeech, blaming their adjournment to 
near the end of their year, without his confent, vcrnor°' 
or knowledere I their leaviiij: the CTcat exigencies ^^''"■"" ''^* 
oi government unprovided tor ; their being the 
caufe of fo long obftruclion of the adminiftration 
of juflicc, with its confequcnces, by their refufing to 
accommodate the bills, prepared for that purpofe, ♦ 
fo that it might be in liis power to pafs the famp ; 


The History op Pennsylvania. 

1714. ^vhicIl might eafily have been done; and their 
' ^"^'''^-' negleft of making provifion, for his fupport, fo 
immediately necefTary, and juftly due to him, &c. 
TheAfTem- The AfTembly, in their turn, throw the blame 
upon the Governor, for his refufmg to pafs the 
bills, as they had prepared them, to anfwer the 
exigencies of the province, and the fupport of 
the adminiflration. They, notwithflanding, after- 
wards fo far agreed, that the Governor pafled a 
confiderable number of laws before the end of 
the month. 

My throw 
the blame 
on the Go- 
vernor, Set. 

liiit they 
(late mat- 
tens, &k:. 

Notr. In the year T714, Trancii Swain, John Smith, Jofcph Prnnock, 
WilUam Puley, dnd other JFrienJs or i^Utahrt, fettlcil at London Gforc, 
is Chcller County. 




*rk Ajfc^bift addrcfi to the Governor refpedlv.v 
tun:t^'!j^ Vc. in PbUiulclphia^ ivitb his iwf:vcr. 
— An Indian treaty held in Philaddphia^ in 
\Ji$*'-^Tbs Governor intends to go home. — The 
JJitnblft addrcfs to Kin^ George the FirJL — 
Tbi Gixxrnor difngrees luith both the Council and 
AJiirdfli. — jYj//;i7 of the Members of Jffembly 
arJ fyms of the CQuncil. — The AJfembhfs repre- 
Jintjti&n tQ Gsr^erncr Galiny containing a -variety 
if tUft^i^ in iyi6. 


N the fummcr of this year, (17 15) there was 171 ^- 
complaint made in the Houfe, of frequent and — ^^~^:^ 
great tumults, raifed in PhilaJelphia, under the „i''t'uliiu'it.^. 
pretence of fup?x)ning and abeltin^^ of one Francis ^'■^ 
Fbilipst who had been indided for hi^^h eriincs 
and mifdemeanors ; upon wliich the AHcmbly 
prcfcnted to the Governor the following addrcfs, 

" To Charles Gookin, Efq. Lieutenant Gc-vern^r'n^^f^^^^^, 
of the province of Fennfylvanla, ilfc. biy's aj- 

" The addrefs of the reprcfentatives of the freemen o,.vcinor 
of the faid province', in General Adeinbly ^^^^^^"i"'"- 
met, the loth day of June, 1715. 

" May it pkafe the Governor, 

" We v/cre in hopes, tliat the opening of the 
courts of juliice might have been a means to put 
a ifop to thofe tumults, which frequentlv happen- 
ed in this city, fiucG the beginning of uur follion. 

64 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1 7 1 5. fo that our meeting now would have been to crown 
^""""^"""^ our labours with a general fatisfaftion. 

" Butj to ' our great difappointment, we un- 
derftand, by credible information, that fome of 
thofe who occafioned thofe tumults, in order to 
annoy their oppofite pflrty, are now levelling their 
malignity againlt the Magiilrates of this city and 
county, and endeavouring to prevail with the 
Governor to be of opinion, that here is no power 
to bring to trial a certain clergyman, who is 
charged by indiclment, at the King's fuit, for 
committing forniratlon^ againlt the King's peace, 
and the law of this province, hz* 

<' We 

Note. The following Indian tnaty, may Hiew the manner of treating 
witli thefe people about this time; omitting the marks or figures of the 
diffcrtiit belts, which were in the margin of the original, 

" At ». Council :it P/jilai/el/i/jiij, 14th June, 1715. 

" Prefent, the honourable CLarks Oooiin, 1-ieutcnant (iovernor, 

*' Jofeph Growdon, Ridiard Hill, 

Grillith Owen, Ifaac liorns, 

James Logan, Rohcri Aflituii, 

" The chiefs of the Delniuare and !i,huy!liU Iiid'uzns, in a vifit to the 
Covernor, &c met in the court houfe, at PhiUuhl^ina -, S.ijfuoiian being 
their head, and 0[-ejT,!l>, the late Sb.iii-anrfe king, with his companion* 
attending him ; and then opening tlie Cj/umit, with great ceremony of 
tlieir rattles and longs, it was offered by Snjfooiun, the kirig, to the Go- 
vernor and Coi'.ncil, and to all others of the Eti^lijh there tnet ; and af- 
terwards it was alfo offered by him to all his Jndiu.ij ; and then with the 
fame ceremony was put up again. 

" '["hen Sajfaonaii rofe, and fpoke fo the Governor, and faid, " That 
the Caliimit, t\\t bond of peace, which they had carried to all the nation* 
l-ound, they had now brought hither ; that it was a Aire bond and fcal 
of peace anion;^il them, and between them and us; and they defircd, by 
holding un their hands, that the GW c/ //(■.;■!■.-« might be witnefs to it^ 
and that there might be a firm peace between them aud us for ever." 

" To which the Governor anfwered; 

" That he was very glad to fee them retain fo ftrong a fenfe of that 
firm peace, which was fettled between li^illinm J'f/tn, the Founder and 
Chief Governor of this country, at his fir/l coming into it, in behalf of 
himfcir, and all his people, with them and all thei.s; that thty were 
f'.-nfible we had always jirel'erved it I'.nviolated, on our lice ; and were 
glad we had reafon to fay, they had done the fame, on theirs ; that we 
jUfircd nothing nu)re, than that the great CoJ, v.ho made heaven and 
earth, and all living creatures, and who knew the thoughts, and faw 
all i;:e adiuus of men^ to whom theY"a}>]^Hcd., ihould b-.- witncli tf what 


The History or PiiNNsvLVANiAi 

» ** Wc dcfirc the Governor to confiJer, that 
fomicj:H>n» and fuch like offences, which, in 
other pbcc*, may be of cccUrfiaftical connufance, 
are, hr the hws of this province, made triable in 
fl)«i|vurtcr fcilions; and as our laws are, by the 
f07*i clurttt', io be inviolably obferved ; fo the 
Giwatx»r*ild ^fagiflrates are bound in duty to 
oti^ the fame fo be put in execution : therefore 
%«r *?^ of opinion, tliat whoever doth, or fliall, 
»fcs, or endeavour to incenfc, or perfuade, the 
QmaivCfT^ or any other, that the court of quarter 
fciuani, ai by law cflablifhcd, hath no cognizance 
of ihc faid oficnccs, are, and (hall be, deemed 
<mam«:« to the Governor, ani government, of this 

. Vot. It [9J • « And 

•wiw <f»St4 iMMwem ni; and, that thia rcnnval of the fame bond of 
yr*ct c».i;hi be rtcorJcd between them an.l us, fur ever. 

•• W»(h which fjxrrch they cxprcfTcd ihemfelves greatly futisfied. 

•* Stf-faaM added, that lieariiijj of fome murmurs among fome of 
thcmfcivcs, 10 prevent any mifuiiderftiuiding, they came to reucvv thj 
former bond of friendniiji :— Tliat ir^i/ijm Pvnn had, at his firft coming, 
mi4c X clrar and open road, all the way to the InJLas ; [by this meaning 
a friendly ct<mmunicution] that they dcfircd the fame might he kept 
open; and that all obrtructioii.H fiiould be removed; of ^vhioh, on tlicir 
fide, tluy will t-ke care. 

" He then prefcnted a belt of Wampum, and added to the fame effca : 
•' 'rii»_t thry dcfirrd the peace, which had been made, fliould be fo 
firm, that they and we Hiould join hand in hand fo firmly, that nothing, 
even thc^r.-jr/,? r/-.v, fliuuld be able to divide them afunJcr. 

" After tJiis, they, fceming to svait for an anfwer, were defired to pro- 
tccd, and to deliver whit they now had further to lay; and that anfwer* 
and returns, for binding the frit:n<ifliii>, oh our iule, would be mad^- to 
them altogether. 

",->,ian accordingly proceeded and faid. That their late king Skalit- 
ffti dcfired of them that they would take care to keep a pcrfei!:!; 
vrith the Ern^lljb, and that they fliould be joined as one; that the 
fliould be half Eui^'JIJb, and the I'.n^lijh make thtmfclves as half Induuu., 
that they might Uk better be as the fame. 

" Me further added, laying down a fecond belt, That, as the father; 
have been in peace, fo they defired that their children and our children 
flill, as they fhould be born, and come into the world hereafter, might 
be brought up in the fame union ; and thst ic ihonid be cemLmucd between 
their and our pollerlty, from geneiation to generation for ever. 

(56 The History of Pennsylvania, 

1715. " And now, may it pleafe the Governor, to 
^^^^^"^ take fpeedy care, by fuch ways and means, as 
may be effedual, to difcourage and fupprefs the 
faid tumuks, and diiperfe all tumukuous gather, 
ings of peopk', in this city ; and more efpecially 
thole, who iliall endeavour to weaken the hands 
of the Magiftrates, in the diicharge of their duty, 
or fhall fpeak, or aft, in derogation to their autho- 
rity, or fhall, in any wile, attempt to fcreen, or 
refcue the faid malefactor from the courfe of juilice, 


" He added, That, in the lail council, which they held with us, they 
fpokc concerning the fun; by wIk.Io influence they had lived in warnith 
and plenty, from the beginning; that they now dclired the fame happi- 
ncfs might be continued to them with us, in the firmcit peace; and tiiat 
it miglu laft as long as the fun fhould endure : that when any clouds in- 
terpofc between them and the fun, it Lringj coolnefs, and is unplcafant j 
J the fame will be, if any cloud (hould ariie between them and us; and» 

therefore, they defire, if any thing of that kind appear, it may be difll- 
pated, without delay. 

" He laid down a third belt, and continued in the fame ttrain, defiring 
as before, th;rt they nu'ght Hill enjoy the warmth of the fun, and our friend- 
fliip together; that then tluy fliould want no neceffaries of life, but en- 
joying all the comforts of it, with their wives, and might rcpofe tliem- 
ftlves with thcrn in peace and fafcty, without any dillurbancc. 

" This he delivered in behalf of all our lud'ians, on thio fide Sufqur^ 
Lmn-i, who are all concerned with hiin in this treaty; and thi» was uli 
he iiad to lay on thij lubjtd. 

" He then began again, and laying down a bundle of deer fl:ins, faid,- 
That now they would difcourfe of matters of trade bctv/ccn thcni and 
us; thirt hitherto it had been like a houfe with two doors, one for thein, 
the other for the £nirl,Ji; but the goods were placed in tlie dark ; fo that: 
they wtre wholly ignorant how they had been dealt witl^ or how they 
Ihould trade. 

" He repeated the fame, laying down a foeond bundle of fkins, and dt- 
fircd they miglu be informed of the terms, they might trade upon, thar 
if ocealion were, they might, at .aii); time, fend their wives, and l)e out 
of danger of being cheated. 

" He added a third bunille of deer {kins, comjjlaining how hard it wafj 
upon them; for that they knew not Nvhat they were to expeiSl for their 
^oods, and that they could fcarce purchafe ours. 

" Laying down a fourth bundle, being fkins and furs, he defired, that 
we might be as people, eating all of the fame diih, and fo they nilgiif be 
dealt with, as if they were our ovs;i peojjlc. 

" Prcfenting a fifth biiiuile, he faid, that formerly they cxaflly knevif 
the prices both of our gocjds and theiib; but now they varied fo much» 
Uicrc was no uiiderllandiu'^ theui. 


The History of Pennsylvania. 6 

** At xtre have been, and hope, fliall be, Avil- 17 15. 
ImjC ?•» fopport th<: govern tnent, fo we are ear- ^-''""^^ 
ttc'llf c.>n<cn»cxl, that the King's fubjeds may be 
j^fvKc^eltfn^CT ihvadminiltralion ; and lor that end 
UtT 4s* Mil ih:it inon wilt be plcafed to caufe the 
UiK » 10 be <luly put in execution j and to counte- 
f8*mic» amd not difcourage, the Maglflrates and 
isMusffp in \ht difcharge of their duties ; that fo the 
jMpvi'fvk maiy be reduced to their former obedience, 
•fesJ appUtJiiIon lor rcdrefs clfcwhcre prevented. 

** Wc alfo defirc that perfons be commiffionat- 
«*!, and courts called, lor Ipecdy trial of thofe 
cr^nu'nal caufcs now depending." 

To ihti the Governor, by a meflagc, returned 
tW foUowing anfwcr : 

" Gefitkmeny 

• VTTth % fiuh 1>oiKllf , he fjiiJ, That throu^rh this uncertainty, he wore 
liiinlCk£f fotb ra^gtd brtechcs, tliat he was afliamed to Ihew them, and 
tk'fircd jhb inconvcnicncy niiglu be remedied. 

" Offering a fcvcnlh, lie coni])lained tliat tliey were often inip(jfeJ on 
ty the weiglit of our nioncy, wlien tiicy came to fell, tliat we certainly 
knew iKc Y-jliic of tliciri; but they could not underftand ours; and, 
liicrcforc, ild'ired thut lhi» great iuconvcniency mit^lit alfo be remedied. 

" He offered ail eighth, informing, that O/y^i (formerly king of the 
Skjujfji, but now abdicated) lived at a prtat diilance, and entertained 
than wiih viduals and proviCons, when they went that way ; and there- 
fore they dtfircd, that wlirn he fhould come among us, lie might be re- 
ceived a* one of thcmfLlvei, with <he fame opcniiefs, that he received 
from tJiem. 

" Having ended their difcniirfe, they were told, that to-morrow they 
fliould receive anfwcr* to ail tliey faid ; and were, for UiC prcicnt, 
aifniifTcd, ^ 

" Orders were given to the Mfiyor of PbiliiddpLln, If.iac Norrli, and 
the Secretary, to take an account of the prel'ent^, now made, and their 
value ; and that goodj fliould be provided, to be ready in the morning; 
and the faid prefents were found to confift of, 

45 Ra%T l-'allDeer fkins, 

zvt. l^^lh. 

, at 



■S 3 6 

8 Sammcr ditto, 





S:^ Dreffed 





84 Wiiole Foxes, 




6 6 

12 Racoons, 





^ Ordinary Fifliers, - 


3 '• 



21 ir 

6B The History of Pennsylvania. 

'' Gentlemen, 

" The tumults, that have hitherto happened, 
I have immediately endeavoured to quell ; and I 
hope with good eiieft ; the courts are now open- 
ed j the adminiflration of juIHceis rellored ; and 
if any fliould be fo audacious as to oppofe the 
Magillrates, they Ihould not want my countenance 
and alliftance to fupprefs the attempt : I am for- 
ry it ihould be furmifed to the AlTembly by any, 
that thofe who fliew a malignity to the magiltracy 
could have grounds of hope to prevail with me to 
favour them ; on the contrary, they fhall find (if 
there be any fuch) that I fliall exert all the autho- 
pty with which T am invefted, to fupport the 
proprietary powers of government, and the Ma- 
giflrates, in the execution of the laws, and full 
difcharge of their duty. 

" The commilTions, that are not yet iflued, .|g 
will be forthv.'ith expedited." '% 

" At a Council held in Ph\l.v.h-}(:hlT, ijtli June, 1 715. -^^ 

" Preftnt, the lumourahk Cluila Goolitt, ETq. Lieutenant Governor, ' 

(' CrilTuh 0\ve|i, Ifaac Norris, 

]:uucs Lopn, Robert Afhton. 

Ridi.ud liill, 

*' Prcfems havinp; been prepared, according to order, and the Indians 
being met and feated, the Governor ordered the interpreter to iiit'or;ii 
^heni, " Tliat their vifit, opfo frjendly a defign, ^s flill further to (lren^;ih- 
tn tile boiid ()f Peace hetv/evn us, ^vas very accept.ihle ; that we doubted 
not but they wcuild think thenifelvcs, and their eliiidren fioni generation 
to jjenrration, oldij^ed to keepv inviolable tl;oie firm treaties of peace, 
Aviiicli liad been made, and which Ve had kejit, and were rel'olved ever 
to keep film, on our fuie ; and hope none of them have ariy caufe to 
murmur ; if tluy knew of any, they are defircd to mencitju it freely. 

" 'I'hat the great j^.w/r of England, who had, for fo many years, 
re)j:;ntd with great fucccfs, was now dead, and was fiicceeded by a Kin^, 
wjio lias been a great General, in the wars, is a wile King, and haj 
more dominions, tlian any King of Great Britain ever had In fore him; 
that under him, as well they (tlie Indians j as we, his other fubjec^s, may 
live in the lame peace, that we have enjoyed any time before; iliat o\ir 
Proprietary, their Irieud, IVilUam Rnn, is flill liviiig, th.nij.h but weak, 
in iiealth. 

" 'I'lat, a^ to the con, 
yei t](jr is forrv he cannot i 

If;, thry maile contirni 

i,g tr 

ade, t!,e C.o- 

tliein a more entire futi 


on in" it, ai.d 

Tjjt History or Pennsylvania. 69 

y^i'tph Grtm^hn was cliofen iSpeakcr of the Af- 17 15. 
ktalAj^ ckdal in OCiDbcr, 17 15. At the firfl ^ — -^ 
mitUi^^ o( tJm AfPcrnbly, in the fame month, the 
i^nmm h hi» fpcccli, acciuainted them with his vemo^fn, 
flil«iil>iF« of ; ^oing home, in the fpring ; on which tends to' 
XtH.^^»l &!?■ had writ to the Proprietary for his I^J"""'' 
k^Jf^ i^4 10 fomc other pcrfons of note, to pro- 

aj 'im<t!Llf. which ihcy lie under; but tint all traHe ii un- 
"* #*a ^\\<it jJ.c lift ycAr, yielded twice the price, it does 
I^Vi #Si mr !«*<**» ««h«Ji tiicy buy, .ire brought from EngLimt, whi- 
«>» <««<l <M» IfJWl tiK'-T»; yhiX fomttinits a lubit, which is in I'afliion one 
f"^, o!.t*J tU* lU CiU ; a»d iicc«.r.l.n|;iy the Ikins. of which they are 
#!'«1', wjS 1^ «| « l..j;Ker w lr.«.tr vilae. h i, xuc fjnie with all our 
*«.•'w^' '.f^iimr^itr, ».. «»»U* li.ofe vr)jcJ. (hry buy; tlulr only fccurity 
■ri,; ..' ?■ »4V', »« wvAc Wrth «}iv l«,ftcfltA nun, and thofc of the 
>' ' ' i ■ti.iimm^ mA fttfxr thn^tn nh« wiJI give the moft; that thu is 
*<(* i^^K ^Sll tk^ •««[ |«*)Jbcfe^ «wJ Ibty miirt do the faine. 

«• n>« «^A«/»Jt Iku triJ^ been under a league of fricndfhip with os; 
mi 'i^-m^gh hf iv»* nuw left t Jiofc /•..fijrr,, among whom he formerly lived, 
y*« m^ tfwU ftctr Wm the fanie friendlljip as ever j and fhall depend upon 
•hff ftuur front hi-nj »ml that, upon this furthtr recommend ition from 
tWi, *!i »m think Iiimfelf a« one of them, and under the fame bond 
•tfkh ih-mi and, therefore, we defirc, that, as he lives at a great dif- 
em*, •n.l may fee many foreign J>J.^nj, he will, from time to time, 
bfurni ui, 1/ he hears of any thing, which may concern us; and this we 
dtfire.arul (hill cxped and depend on from him, and all hii friends there ; 
U tUh th4t. if they know any tlunj^ now of any late motions to or from 
the finjthward, they would acquaint us. 

" Conrerning wliith, being j,atticularly alked, Oj>.Ju/, anirmcd. he 
luiew willing. 

** 'I'he Governor further ordered, they fliould be told, That all the 
fobcr iiV/,'i very nuuh lamented that they could not guard themfelves 
better aga.nll liquor; that th.-y nindd fend their young men abroad to 
hunt, an.l, at their return, Ihould f.'U their go<,<l< for fuch things as 
■wouhl be of real fcrvicc to them, and not throw it all away for that dc- 
4tru61 ive Jicjuor riv«; which robbed them, not only of their goods, but 
of their lives alfo. 

" All which being delivered together with the prefents, which were 
provided, Fohhuh, in the name of the reft, exprelTed their fatisfadiou 
iiiu iluiiKS, tor the favours now ftiewed them." 


jr^fcnts Wire 

16 Stroud jnatchcoatK at 19/ 


15 4 

10 Duffil ditto 

I cjC) 

5 J 

■ 6 Blankets, 


4 , 

6 Shirts 


1 ir 

50/^ I'ouder, 

4 10 

100 JL Lead and ico 

at jj' each 

2 10 

iiii-tz. Pipes. 


4 6 

31 -4 6 

7<S The History of Pennsylvania. '^ 

1715. cure him the King's licence of cibfence for twelve 
'"•"'^'^-^ months ; this notice he gave them, that they 

might difpatch fuch necelTary bu finely, while he 
was with them, as could not be done without a 
Governor preient, 

17 1 6. C^ucen ^7/^/7(7 having deceafed the lafl year, this 
Ailenibly drew up, and fent to Erigland, the fol- 
lowing addrefs to King George^ on his acceilion 
to the throne, 'vi-z, 

^^ ,^ " To GEORGE, JCinn- of Great Britain, kc, 

riSto' " '^^^^G humble ncMrefs of the reprefentaiivcs of -^ 
King the freemen of the province of Pe/vijyhaniay ;^ 

George. -^ Affembly met, the lirfl of the month ^ 

called May, 1716, 

" Gracious Sovereign, 
*' Though by divers concurring caufes, and 
particularly the great indifpofition of our Pro- 
prietary and Governor in chief of this province,* 
we have been hitherto, to our great trouble, pre- 
vented the opportunity of exprelling to the King 
our fincere joy, for his happy and peaceable ac 
cedlon to the throne of his anceftors, and thcYeby 
jccuring to all his proteftant fubje£fs the full en- 
joyment of their religious and civil rights ; yet 
none could be more fenfible of the great blelling, 
iior exprefs a v^'armer zeal for his fervice, in their 
earljcfl approaches, than, at all times fmce, has 
filled our thankful breads-; and although we had 
not the defired advantage of ex])rci]]ng thefe our 
feniiments, yet we became the eafier under that 
dliappointment, by j;ccoun!ing the majority of 
this province included in that general application, 
made by tlu;ir friend* at Lond'.u, in behalf of the 


* Th.' Prcj-rictory, r? tcfrr,- ct/ervcd. !-.:iJ, \r. tlie ytar 17 12, betn 
fo LitTn-.'ul, as to his'l.i-alth, ( to In- by uii iipoi.k-xy) thut, in ;t 
p.-i':ir ni..::!"iirv.', fr' that time 'rrwuni, la beijuic nn;:i: and morfiucj- 
y: bi'j oi i-iibli>.- blll"n;t.■^^, till his Ji-tli, n\ 171^, 

Till History or P>:knsvlvania. 

nWc comraunify, wherein our thoughts, with 
iJkjf i*rt^ v«rc moft truly rcprefcntcd. 

•* Suc^^Jui been the King's goodncfs, not only 
rtj^'fnltJ In his Tirfl generous royal dtclanuioii, 
*i»«3 r<jH~AtcdJir fincc, from the throne, but more 
j» %-frtallir extrk-d through a moll wile and llta- 
.'" r.w*fr;i3Mi1ration, in purluing every meafure, 
ihii might contribute to ihe I'afcty and hnppincfs of 
m I'^-'opW : in making the laiown laws the invaria- 
hk nvl<f of hi5 goverimunt ; in rcfloring the ho- 
IW^l" ui the Ihiiijh tuition abroad ; and in procur- 
es for hii fuhjcas fuch advantages, in commerce, 
** could fr^rcc be hoped for, after they had been 
ii unhappily given away, that, even, theremoteft 
X^n% of tJu; Kin^'Z^ great dominions feel the be- 
Upk in^ucncc* of his paternal afteaion to the 
wM**, and ar« laid under doubled obligations to 
make (he urmoft returns of gratitude, as well as 
i>be<iicnce, for their happincfs, imder In's aufpicious 

" It Is, therefore, the more furprifmg, that 
there fhouia be any of the BritiJ]} race,\vithin 
Ihat IjLmd, fo loft to all fenfe oF'il.eir own inte- 
rcfl, as well as their engaged duty to a Trince of 
the mod coiifpicuous and mofl confummate virtues, 
as to exprefs the leall uneafy murmurs, much lefs 
to rife in an open and unnatural rebellion ; for 
the fuppreflion of which, by the great wifdom 
and vigilance of the A'/\i^, and his miniflry, and 
laiihfuhiefs of his fervants, we do, with hearts 
full of the fmcereH: gratitutle and ]oy, return our 
nioft^ humble acknowledgments to the Fountain of 
infinite goodnefs and mercy, that has io eminent- 
ly appeared in the fupport of the royal throne, 
tllabliOied on the laiiing foundation of juftice, 
and to the confufion of all the deieftable machi- 
nations, vainly formed againfl it. 

" As 

The History of Pennsylvania. 

" As for us, our known principles are fo eflen- 
tially interwoven with the proteftant interefl of 
Great Britain^ and our greatefl concerns do fo 
entirely depend on the prefer vation of thy perfon, 
and royal iilue, lono- to reign over us, that we 
cannot polfibly feparate our own welfare from the 
indifpenfible duty of fliewing ourfelves with the 
mofl hearty alfctlion, thy loyal and mofl obedient 

" I'hat confufion and difanpointment may at- 
tend all the wicked dc\icc s of thy enemies ; that 
the minds of tliy people may be compofed, and 
univerfally infpired with tlie fame fpirit of love 
and obedience, as that, wherewith we now ap- 
proach thy throne ; and that the watchful provi- 
dence of Almighty God may always attend the 
King, and conhrm the wifdom and juflice of his 
rightful government over us, is the moll fmcere 
and unfeigned defire of the King's humble and 
dutilid i'ubjecls. 

" Signed by order of the Houfe, 

" JOSl'PII GROWDON, Speaker:' 

In October follow ing, Richard Hill was chofen 

Speaker of the new Allembly; during whofe fef- 

fions not much o^ public importance, in a legif- 

lative capacity, for the benefit of the province, 

•I'hc Go- feems to have been tranfacled : — for the Govern- 

vernor dif- or, about this time, appears to have differed, in 

:«{(rc(.s with t- . I'll r • r 

i,„t!, tin; lentunent, not only with the rcprelentatives ot 
Allan!// the people, in his refufing to qualify ^luakers for 
Magiftrates, and in other important alfairs, but 
he alio diiagreed with the Council.* 


* The names of the Meinhers of this. Alfimhly were, 

For PMLiJdpLLi cu.:nty. Ch.f..,- ,s;mly. li^ds county. 

Richurd Hill, .S'/v-j/.-r, D.ivid LldvJ, Jcreniiiih i^iiriglioriir, 

Ila-.ic Norris, |ohn Eluiiltoii, jiin. 'llinnuis Stcvciifon, 

Willl;iin Trent, Henry Hayes, Joliii Soteher, 

JoiiaUuii iJiekiufoii, Jofeph l\i!iiuck, Jufe|'h Di^nd. 


1 iiE History of Pennsylvania. 73 

Uc loJ mK-atcdlf charged the prefent Speaker 1716. 
nf «he Atrcfulily, >vho was then alfo Mayor of the ^^'-^ 
diy <?f Pbik4/!/hhf and yc/w^j /,<5^^^7/2, the Se- 
CTcury t>f ihc province, men in high oHice and 
tmrt, wi:h ilifattec^ioft to the Ki?i^^ ; of which 
llhcv conipbincd 10 the AlTcmbly ; but he rcFufed 
t0 \;V't t\\UcT ihcni or the Houfe any fatisfadtion, 
oy proofs for what he had alTcrted. 

The AiTembly, tlicrefore, declared It their opi- 
tifmj, «hat the faid char|;e was without any 
CTOOndt or reafon to fupport it, and feemed to be 
Intended to render thcfe perfons obnoxious to the 
King and government. 

But tlicfc, and Anne otlier matters of com- 

|>l3mt, more fully appear in the following repre^ 

finiaihn which was prcfented to the Governor, in 

ihc nimh month this year ; and a duplicate of it 

fcni to Great Britain y viz. 


Vol.. If. [10] 

ftr Py,hJM'la county. 

Chr/l.'r courtly. 

Buch co,:r.ty. 

ThoniM Muder., 
Jol'cph R-.limn, 
Ckni-nt l'li:rnllc?.d, 
WilUirn Fiihbuurn. 

Daval ll.irry, 
John y.Mi^, 
Jolin WoircU, 
llcjiry Oburn. 

Jofcpll KilLbrkl-, 
'Jhomus Stackhoule, 
Jolin Swiff, 
Jaines C.iruT. 


;e Roiicli, lJ-:ijaaiin 



A^-nn"- the nan\ci of the Memberi cf Council, about this tune, ap- 
pear to bt;, 

James Logan, v/ho \vas r.lfo Secretary, 

S.mnK-l Pr-fton, Hkrwilc 'J'rcil'urcr, 

Robert Afhtoii, alio Proihoiu>t:u-y of the common picas 

:.t I'liiludelphia, 
Jofiph Gro\vi.h):i. 
C.ilcb Paf y, 
C;.;;r:ih Owtn. 

'I;!'.' ][i-l;;;c=; of x\v: Supreme court v.'orc, 
^iMr.iim TrcTi:, ].-,iv..;ha:i Di(-kitvr..n, .mil Geoi-;^'j P../j;h. 


The History of Pennsylvania. 

17 1 6. '-'■To Charles Gookin, Efq. Lieutenant Govern-' 
^"•"'"^^'^^ Qf qJ the province of Pcnnfylvania^ Iffc. 

'j-heAfTcni- '« A rcprefcntat'ton of the freemen of the faid pro- 
f',u!Jorto ^'^'^c^' "^ General Aflembly met, the third of 

covernor tho ninth month, 1716. 

tjookill. ,^ -. /r • 1 f J r> 

" May It pleafe the Lovernor^ 
*' When our Proprietary and Governor in 
Chief, firfl obtained a grant of this province from 
the crown, and a numerous colony of indullrious 
people fettled therein, we are well aiiured it was 
his inclination, as well as vifible intereft, to ren- 
der them us fafe as pollible, under his adminiftra- 

" And, as liis religious perfuafion, as a dilTen- 
ter from the edablilhed Cburch ot England, was 
well known, and therefore thofe of the fame 
profeffion made a great part of the firfl adventurers 
with him, it cannot be doubted but that he would 
ever think himfclf obliged to provide that they 
fliould enjoy, in Pcnnjylvanla, at leall, equal eafe 
and privileges with any other Englijh fubjeds of 
the lame rank, in any of the King's dominions. 

" Accordingly when necellitated to be abfent 
from us, as he has, ior the moll part been, he 
took eare, from time to time, to appoint fuch 
pcrfons, to be his deputies, in the government, 
in whofe moderation .and tcndcrnefs towards his 
friendi, as well as loyalty to the crown, and juf- 
tice to all its fubjedls, he believed he might confide. 

" When the Governor, 'therefore, firft brought 
over tlie Proprietary's commillion of deputation, 
for the goverinnent, we could not doubt but thai, 
being the Proprietary's choice, and a6ting folely 
by powers, derived from him, he would (ieadily 
purfue the meafures, that had generally been ta- 
ken, from our hrlt fettlement, and endeavour to 
make all the fubjecls of the crown, under the 
Proprietary's government, equallv lecure and eafy. 

^' On 

The IIt(»TORY Of Pi-nnsylvania. 

'* t)a thU cxpc^tion, confirmed by the Pro- ^ 

Rtctar^** Icflcrs of rccoininendation, the Aireni- 
ift, lio: dkmbtmg ihc GoN'crnor's good Intentions 
tai«arii* tHcm^ freely difchargcd what was inciun- 
l5cn« on t^*^n, and it is hoped, in no fmall mea- 
Ifuic, U» \Ik Governor's faiisfadion. 

«* N«>r whilclhc Proprietary's heahh, and for- 
BiMT Al>iii-ics happily continued, iiad the inhabitants 
mmh roifon to colnplain, but that the Governor 
ma^ic the Proprietary's directions, from home, as 
(m U they could be obtained, and the advice of 
lh»,>f^ the Proprietary had Inltnicled here, the 
xiilc (in J' real mealurc) of his condiicl:. In what 
t<UlcJi !o' the Propric'.ary's intercft, or govern- 
nvcji!, 3!jJ to the privileges of ihe people. 

** But whctiier it be now owing to the difcon- 
fjniwncc of thofe orders and direftions, which 
has followed on the late great and melancholy 
cliaiigc, in the Proprietary's health,, or to fome 
unhappy advice from others, or to any new formed 
views, we know not ; but this Houfe of Repre- 
fcnlativcs, foon after their firft meeting, fmding the 
(J.ncrnor had, at length, f > tar loll fight of ihe 
obligatloiis he lay under to his principal and con- 
Hit uent, as to enter on meafures inconfiltent with 
Ins inteielt, and our conltltution, and the liberties 
of thepeojile, we judged it our Indlfpenfible duty to 
apply to the Governor for redrefs ; who declaring 
his opinion to be fuch as would not admit of any, 
we dchrcd, with due fubmillion, that he would 
be pleated to fufler the reaions of that opinion to 
be argued before him ; but fmding, to our trou- 
ble, that all our endeavours were in vain, we 
think ourfclves obliged, in the difcharge of the 
trult repofed in us, fully to reprcfent the fatal 
confequences, as well as the unreafonablenefs, of 
thofe meafures, to the end that a proper relief 
may be obtained -, without which the greater part 


The History of Pennsylvania, 

of the inhabitants of tins province mud be ren- 
dered miferable ; which we humbly otTer, as fol« 
lows : 

" Thofe, who accompanied the Proprietary in 
the fettlement of this colony, being chielly (as 
has already been obferved) of thofe called f^^ia. 
I'cTs, who, lying under fonie hardihips, in their 
native country, becaufe, for confcicnce-fake, they 
cou.ld not comply with the lav/s there, for taking 
oaths, expelled that, by virtue of the powers of 
legiflation, granted by the crown, to the Proprie- 
tary and them, they might, after tlie hazard and 
toil of their removal hither, be capable of enjoy-. 
ing the privileges of Englifli fubjcds, without 
violation of their religious principles, 

" Accordingly the Proprietary and AfTemblies 
provided laws, by which thofe people might bq 
enabled to hold any offices (there being but few 
others at that time, to fill tht;m) or to give evi- 
dence in any cafe whatfoever. 

■ " Some difputes afterwards arifing on this fub^ 
yzCt, the late Queen, by her order, in Council, 
dated the 2 lit of January, 1702, was plealed tq 
extend to this province, the afjirmation allowed to 
tiie S^/ahrSy in Jing!and^ by the fevcnth and 
eighth of William the Third, not only for the pur-i 
pofes intended by that in England, but alio for 
the qualifvcatiori of- Magiilrates and officers ; and 
the lame being from thence applied to other cales, 
this order, on the repeal of our ov/n acls, in a 
great meafure, fupplied what was necelliiry, in 
this point, for the aduriniftratlon of juftice. 

" But the aft of parliament itfelf being near 
its expiialion, it was found necellary, as well on 
thut, as fome other confiderations, to ellabli/h, 
by an acl of the province, the qualifications of 
ofiicers, ;md the manner of giving evidence, by 
nnirmativ^n ; and the Geveinor (npou the .• 

The History of P£NN8ylvania. 

bly*i performing the conditions iiropofed them) 
palVcd a^ts for that, as well as other puipofes, to 
unrwer ihc exigencies of the government. 

" That the faid alFirmation-ads lliould have 
full force, according to the intention of them, of 
fuch importance to the eafe and fecurity of the 
whole province, that it could fcarcely be fuppof- 
cd, any perfon amongd us,' who profelfed, even, 
the niofl flender regard for the people's welfare, 
would attempt to deprive them of the advantages 

" It is, therefore, the more furprifmg, that 
the Governor himfelf (from whofe llation, and 
the trufl rcpofcd in him, by our Proprietary, the 
mod tender concern for the fafcty and well-being 
of all his Majefty's fubjeds, under his care, might 
reafonably be expedted) fliould be the principal, if 
not the firft, perfon, in the government, who 
would render the intention of thofe afts void to 
us, though pafled by himfelf into laws fo lately 
before, by publicly declaring his opinions, in fuch 
manner, as would render the faid ails repugnant 
to the laws of England, and repealed by the a^'t 
of parliament of [he full of his prcfcnt Majefly ; 
in purfuance of .which opinion, he has refufed 
to qualify fuch perfons for offices, that could not 
take the oath, according to the law of England. 

" The confequence of which is, that, as no 
^ahcr in Great Britain^ is qualified, or permit- 
ted, to give evidence, in any criminal caufes, or 
ferve on any juries, or bear any oflfice, or place of 
profit, in the government ; fo, ihould the fame 
hold, in this colony, not only the great number 
of the firfl adventurers, with their dcfcendants, 
of the fame profelfion, are to be wholly excluded 
from having any part, or fliare, in the adminillra- 
tion of juiHce, and die execution of the laws of 
tl'.e cou]iny, (v.'hicl;, as it wonkl be a general in- 


78 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1 7 1 6. conveniency, fo would it throw the burden too hea- 
^"^^'^^ vily on a few of the inhabitants) but, what is of no 
lefs importance, for the lecurity of thofe of other 
profeflions, the greatefl outrages and barbarities, 
ngainft any perfon, may be committed, in the 
face of any number of ^fakers, and the male- 
factors, though brought to trial, mull efcape with 
impunity, for want of legal evidence, if lliat of 
tlie ^luakers is not to be 'fo accounted ; of which 
the Governor cannot forget a very memorable in- 
ftance, when (at a time, that unhappily there was 
no aft of the province, for an njjirmationj but the 
Queen's order was thought fulhcient, duiing that 
interval, for all but capital cafea) it is preiumed a 
murderer efcapcd the fentence, that was due to 
liim, for want of fuch evidence, as was elteemed 
legal, though more than one S^uikcr appeared in 
court, who were v/itnelfes 10 the lacl. 

*' But, befides thefe inconveniencies, however 
great, there remains one further confequence of 
that coniirudlon of the ad, which, perliaps, the 
Governor is not fulTiciently advilcd of; which is, 
lliat, if no S^Mker, in Gj-cjt Britain^ nor the 
Plantatiom^ can bear any olhce, or jilace of pror 
fit, in the government, fome may judge it a natu- 
ral inference, that the Proprietary himfelf is equally 
affetted by it ; and then ail powers derived from 
him, as well thofe lodged in the Governor, by 
his deputation, as the niagillracy and inferior olli- 
cers, fall together, 

" Having thus far poihted out the defiruclive 
confcquences of that oj^niou, Ihould it fully take 
place in this province, we judge it, in the next 
jilace, incumbent on us, in duty to the Governor, 
and tor the difcharge of the trull, rcpoled in u?;, 
by thofe we reprefent, to oiler to the confideration 
of the Governor, and all others concerned, fuch 
rcuknij as iuive occurred to u:-, in our enquiry iiiro 


The History or Pennsylvania. 

this head; which \vc Iiope (with fubmi (lion) will 
render it incnnlcftihly evident that the aflirnration- 
acU of tliii province ;ire in lull force ; and are 
iKuhiT repealed, nor allcdcd by any citl of parli- 
ament, thai hiis c6me to our knowledge ; but that 
ihc C'-vcntor is obliged to take care that the fame 
be ctjumlly, with any other ad, put duly in execu- 

** By the fame royal charter of King Cbcirlcs 
the Second, by which this province, with licence 
10 tranfport an ample colony thereunto, was granted 
tp our Proprietary, and the Governor in Chief, 
the fiid King grants to him and his heirs, &c. pow- 
<;r to uKike laws jointly with the ])eople ; and Ji- 
rc^s tlie force ami limitation of them, in the fol- 
lowing words, as they fland in divers parts of the 
faid charier, but are here colledted, vh. 

" Wc, repofing fpecial trull and confidence in 
the fidelity, wifdom, julHce and provident circum- 
fpedion of the faid William Penn, for us and our 
lieirs and fucccflbrs, do grant free, full and abfo- 
lute power, by virtue of thefe prefents, to him 
and his heirs, and their deputies and lieutenants, 
for the good and hap))y gcu'ernment of the faid 
country, to ortlain, make, enact, and, under his 
and their feals, to publifh any law whatfoever, for 
railing of money, for the public ufes of the faid 
province, or for any other cwd. Sec. by and with 
the advice, aflent and approbation of the freemen 
of the faid country, or the greater part of them, 
or of their delegates, &:c. "and the fame laws duly 
to execute unto and upon all people within the faid 
country, and limits thereof; which laws, io as 
aforefaid to be publifhed, our pleafure is, and fo 
we enjoin, require and command, fliall be moll 
abfolute and available in law : and that all the 
liege people and fubjeds of us, our huirs and 
fucccflbrs, do obferve and keep the fame invioLi- 


lo The History of Pennsylvania. 

1 716. bly in thofe parts, fo far as they concern thctii^ 
"^^'^'^'^^ under the penalties therein exprelfed, or to be ex* 
prelTed. Pro^jidsd ncvertb^lcfs. That the faid laws 
be confonant to reaion, and be not repugnant, or 
contrary, but as near as conveniently may be, 
agreeable to the laws, flatutes and rights of this 
our kingdom of Englajid. And our further will 
and plca/ure is, That the laws for regulating and 
. governing property, within the faid province, a^ 
well for the defcent and enjoyment of lands, as 
likev.'ife for the enjoyment of fucceilion of goods 
and chattels, and likcwil'e felonies, fhall be and 
continue the fame as they Iball be, for the time be- 
ing, by the general courfe of the law, in our king- 
dom of En'^land, until the laid laws fliall be alter- 
ed by the faid William Penn, his heirs and afligns, 
and by the freemen of the faid province, their de- 
legates, or their deputies, or tlic greater part of 
them. And to the end that the faid William Pcnn, 
his heirs, or others, the planters, owners, or in- 
habitants of the faid province, may not, at any 
time hereafter, by mifconltrudion of the powers 
aforefaid, through inadvertency, or defign, depart 
from that faith, and due allegiance, which, by 
the laws of this our realm of England, they, and 
all our fubjefts, in our dominions and territories, 
always owe unto us, our heirs and fucceflbrs, 8:c. 
Our further -will and pleafure is. That a tranfcript 
or duplicate of all laws, which fhall be, as aforefaid, 
made and publiflied, within the faid province, fhall, 
within five years after tlie making thereof, be tranf- 
mitted and delivered to the Piivy Council, for the 
time being, of us, our heirs and fuccelTors ; and if 
any of the faid kuvs, within the fpace of fix months, 
after they firall be i'o, us aforefaid, tranfinitted and 
delivered, be declared by us, our heirs and iuccef- 
fors, in our or their Privy Council, inconfiitent with 
the fovereignty, or lawful prerogative of us, our 
heirs, or fucceflbrs, or contrary to the faith and 


The History of Pennsylvania. 8j 

allegiance due, by the legal government of this 1716. 
rcaltn, from the faid IVilliam Pcnn, or of the plant- ^-^■^''^ 
ers, or inhabitants of this province; and that 
thereupon any of the faid laws fliall be adjudged 
and declared to be void, by us, our heirs or fuc- 
ccflbrs, under our, or their privy fcal, that then, 
and from thenceforth, fuch lavvsi concerning which 
filch judgment and declaration fliall be made, fhall 
become void, otherwife the faid laws, fo tranfmit- 
tcd, fhall remain and (land in full force, according 
to the true intent and meaning thereof; 

** Purfuant to thefe powers, the faid afts of this 
province, for an affirmation, were made and pub- 
iiflicd. And ihougli a confiderable part of the 
five years, limited in the cliarter, is yet unexpired, 
the lame have been duly tranfmitted ; nor have 
: wc heard wiy thing, but that they are, or may be, 
well approved of; having reafon to hope, that 
they contain nothing, for which (according to the 
tenor of the faid royal charter) they ought to be 
declared void ; and, therefore, are of as full force, 
as abfolute and available, and to be obferved and 
kept as inviolably as any law whatfoever, that can 
be ena<fled in this province, and ought accordingly 
to be as duly executed by the Governor, to tha 
full jcxtent thereof^ 

. " But the Governor, in anfwer to a refolution 
of this Iloufe of the i8th of Oaober lafl, which 
was,^ That the royal, charter makes the afts of this 
province mofl abfolute and available in law, until 
repealed by the King, is pleafed to fay, That he 
joins with the Affembly, in this refolve, provided 
the laws are not repugnant to the laws of England ; 
and by the following paragraph, in the fame an- 
fwer, which is. That he allows the laws of the 
province had fettled the qualifications of Magif- 
trates and other officers, until the publication of 
the adt of King George^ relating thereto, he has, 
Vol. II. [II] ' at 

]2 The History of Pennsylvania. 

17 1.5. at laft, thought fit to give fo much under his hand, 
'-""'^''''^ as his opinion, the natural conflruftion whereof is, 
that the faid alliruiation-afts of this province (being 
the fubje^t then in hand) were repugnant to the 
laws of England, and repealed by the laid a<^ of 

" But this we humbly offer, That, if it muft 
be termed repugnant, becaufe it diifers from, or 
is not the fame with, the aft of parliament, then 
the claufe of the royal charter, which grants pow- 
er to the Governor and Alfembly here to alter the 
laws of Engla7ui, for the defcent of lands, enjoy- 
ing eflates, and punifliing felonies, in the province 
(as is above recited from the faid charter) appears 
to be ufelefs and vain. 

" But it is further to be confidered. That, as 
the term repugnant, always implies an abfolute 
oppofition, or contrariety, in matter, it cannot 
be faid that an aft of this province, which ena- 
■ bles thofe, called ^(akers, to ferve in offices, 
upon juries, and to be evidence, in all cafes (the 
circumlfances of the country requiring that it 
ihould be fo) is contrary to an aft of Great Britain, 
which enables them only to give evidence in civil 
cafes ; • thefe two differ, it is true, and fo it was 
certainly confidered and expefted, at the lime of 
the royal grant, that our afts might, in fome mea- 
fure, differ from tho{^c 'in England ; othervvife thofc 
in England would fuflice ; and no fuch power for 
altering them needed to have been granted : on 
the contrary, the aft of this province, purfuant 
to the direftions of that royal charter, is as nearly 
agreeable, as to our conveniency may be, to the 
flatute provided for .^takers, in Great Britain. 

" But the Governor, we preiume, could not 
intend, by his anfwer. That this aft, at the time 
of pailing it, was repugnant to any of the laws 
of il'/2^/^;/it/, : though it cliifcred from them, for in 


The History of Penksylvania. 83 

that, certainly, he could not have given it his fane- 17 16. 
lion ; ic murt, therefore, be meant, that it is be- ^-'~^^^-' 
conK rtfiu^nant only hncc the fuppofed publication 
of \hc Untijb ad, which lie conceives repealed it j 
or, 10 ftmc \\hat can be alledged on that head, in 
\Xi full force, and the plained terms it will bear, 
thai the aft of the firR of king George, entitled, An 
aS ftr making ferpetml an a^l of the fcvenih and 
fixhih years of the reign of bis late Maje/ly, King 
miham the Third, entitled. An aft, That the fo- 
itmsi affirmation and declaration of the people called 
^akrsy fhould be accepted in fie ad of an oath, in 
lli ufuaiform, &c. extcnils to this province that 
ad of King William, by thefe words in the laft 
cbufc of it, \\7., Provided always. That fo much 
oif !hi> lO, a» relates to tlie allirmations to be 
tmAt hy iht people called J^takers, fhall be ex- 
tended to that part of Great Britain, called Scot- 
hnd, for ever, and to the plantations belonging 
to the crown of Great Britain, for five years, &c. 
Therefore, that, as the .^takers are not permit- 
ted, by that a<Sl, in Great Britain, to hold odices, 
ferve on juries, or be evidence in criminal cafes, 
fo, by its being extended to the plantations, they 
nrc as ctle<^hiaily difabled there, and that all acls 
of thi» province, ior qualifying .^takers, ^ in thefe 
cafes,- are, by the fuperior force of this aft of 
parliament, repealed, and made utterly void. 

" But when the language of the aft: itfelf 
comes to be confidered, the whole feeming force 
of this objeftion will, we prefume, entirely difa^- 
pear ; the claufe of limitation, in the feventh and 
eighth of William the Third, is in thefe words : 
" Provided, and be it enaded,That 7iq ^/akcr, or 
reputed f^aker, fhall, by virtue of this a5l, be 
qualified or permitted, to give evidence, in any cri- 
minal caufcs, to ferve on any juries, to bear any of- 
fice, or place of profit, in the government, any thing 
■ in this aft contained to the contrary nct-ivitLftanding:' 


84 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1 716. Upon which we conceive that Brigadier Hunter^. 
^'i*''"^''"*^ Governor, under his Majefty, of the provinces 
of Ne%v Tork and Neiv yerfey, has (in a cafe pa- 
rellel with ours) obferved, in his printed declarati- 
on on that fubjecl, under the tide of, " An anfwer 
to what has been offered, as argument againfl the 
vahdity and force of an ad of Affembly, entitled, , 
An ac;i, that the folemn affirmation and declaratian 
of the people called fakers, he. paifed in the pro- * 
vince of New Jerfey, in the thirteenth year of the 
reign of Queen Anne, to be of fuch force, as to 
be worthy our recital : in which, after he has ob- 
ferved, in general, in the following words : — 
" Into what a woful condition muft the planta- 
tions be plunged, if fuch laws as fliall, by a Legi- 
flature lawfully conflituted by virtue of letters 
patent, under the broad feal, be ena^^-led for the 
good government and eafe of the fubjefts there, 
fliall, by implication, or conftruftion, be deemed 
to be repealed !" &c. he is pleafed to fay, that aft 
of AlTembly is not fo much as, by implication, 
repealed ; for the words of that aft, upon which 
they lay the ftrefs of the argument, are thefe. 
Provided, that no .pinker fljall, by virtue of tins 
ad, be qualified, he. Now I know no pinker, 
continues that gentleman, that pretends he is, or 
can, by virtue of that aft, be qualihed ; but I 
believe every ^aker thinks that he is, or may be, 
qualified by an aft of Affembly, entitled, K\\ aft, 
that the folemn aflirmation and declaration of 
the people called ^/akers, he. palTed in the pro- 
vince, and fent home, he. It is as plain as words 
can make it, that that aft, of the feventh and 
eighth of King WiUiam, has no negative, but upon 
itfelf, ard confequently cannot be alledged in bar 
to any laws already enafted, in the plantations, 
or even fuch as may be enafted ; for, by thefe 
letters patent, which gave a being to this govern- 
ment and i.egiflature, all fuch laws, as Ihall be 


Tat History of Pennsylvania. 85 

<»it\l;t<I S-y the Governor, Council and AlTembly, iyi6. 
uc 4<;<Ujfit 10 !>c in full force, froju the time of "-^"-^"^ 

** fhr Ciine worthy gentleman and Governor 
u f jrtfkl' j»l«af«l, in the laid print, to publilli an 
^T.f^fU4f!it?«i imm the btc C^iecn, in whofe reign 
?hit *,(3t iiaf AiTcmbly was made, directing him to 
f-^fi lfi«h an a£l in r^tw Jc'/fiy ; by which inftruc- 
ii'>«i hrr Majcfty was picaied further to dechire 
fe«-t nil) «Dci pltafure, " That fuch of the people 
CStlkfl ^aierjf as fliall be found capable of ferv- 
mj'(» in her Council, the General Ailembly, and in 
other pbccs of trud and profit, in Ne-w Ji^r/ly, 
aftil a^cortljni^ly be clctlcd, or appointed, to ferve 
jfwrwB, snay* up^n their taking and figning the 
<l?«l»fatiksa of allegiance to her Majcfty, in tlie 
f#ftii, uTcd hff the fame people, in England, to- 
gtihttmth a folcrhn declaration of the true dif- 
char^'C of their refpedh've trufts, be admitted by 
iher Oovcmor to any of the faid places or employ- 
ments.'* And he adds, " That the fame inftruc- 
tioni are, word for word, alfo contained in his 
prcfcnt Majefly's infhuclions to the Governor, 
dated the firft of July, 17 15. By which it ap- 
pears, that both the late (Vieen was, and his pre- 
icnt Majclly is, willing tliat the people called 
^takers, immediately under their government, in 
J^cio Jirfcyy (liould enjoy the full privileges, 
which are craved her«, as due to the people, we 
rcprefent, by their charteral rights, under the 
government of our Proprietary, William Pain, 

" To this we may add what has alfo been ob- 
ferved, on the fame fubjeft, by the Chief Jullice of 
New Jerfey, in his fpeech, delivered at the fupreme 
pourt, in May lafl, at Burlington, which is alfo 
printed ; wherein he clearly gives his opinion in 
la>v, very nearly in the Jame terms, the Governor 

' .' haa 

86 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1716. imd done before, and then proceeds, in thefij 
'^"-"•^^'^^ words, viz. 

" The aiSt of parhament of Great Britain is an 
enlargement of the ^takers privileges to what it 
never was before ; it makes that perpetual to 
them, in England, which before was temporary 
and expired, or near expiring, by its own limita- 
tion, carries the fame into that part of Great 23ri-> 
tain, called Scotland, where it was not before, 
and makes it ]ierpetual there, and into the plan- 
tations, generally, for live years, This does no 
way hinder, but that, by virtue of the ad ol Af-, 
fembly of the province (which is a municipal law 
thereof) the ^takers, or reputed £:uakers, are 
qualified to be of juries and evidence, and bear 
olhces of trufl: and profit, in the government \ 
nor, but that they may be fo quahfied hereafter, 
by any other law, hereafter to be made, for that, 
or the like purpofe, although by virtue of that 
aft of parliament, they are not fo qualified. 

" Having thus h\ Hated this point, we fliall 
now leave it ; but that we are obliged to give the 
fenfe of this Houfe to that })art of the Governor's 
anfwer to our refolves, in which he is plcaled to 
fay, Tlmt though he was of opinion he could 
not be fafe in giving any qualification but an oath, 
yet by a dcdimiis tliey, (the officers and witnefl'es) 
might have been qualified, as the law direfts. 

" On which we mufl humbly obferve, That 
though it may be very certain a dcdimus potcftatcm, 
duly iifucd by tlie Governor, is no lefs fullicient, 
■in law, for at-hniniltering qualifications to any 
ofticer, than the Governor's a£t, in his own per^ 
fon ; which, notwithlbuiding, the Governor has 
not of late, that we know of, condefccndcd to, 
but refufed to admit fuch of thofe called ^takers, 
:if, l^y virtue, of the Proprietary's charter to the 
people, WL'i'e clcded to ferve in certain offices, 


The History of Pennsylvania. 87 

until that more remarkable cafe of the lad quail- 1716. 
fication of the Mayor of Philadelphia ; yet no "— ^■'^''"''•*' 
fuch dcMmus \j\\\ anfwer the exigencies of this 
govermnent, lliould the Governor's opinion ob- 
tain : for IhouUl it be taken for granted, that the 
afrirmalion-a(^"l of this province is adually repealed 
by the ad of parliament, then all fuch qualifica- 
tions will be condrued illegal, whether given by 
himfelf, or other perfons, empowered by him. 
And as the Judges of the fupreme court have ren- 
. dered their reafons to the HouJe, for their not 
proceeding to try the criminals, now in the refpec- 
tive gaols of this province, viz. That they cannot 
think it prudent to proceed^ by virtue of the Govern- 
or's co?niniJJion to them, in oppoftlion to his opinion, in 
fo tender a point, as the lives of his Majejly^s fuh- 
je^ts ;* fo all others muft be dilcouraged in cafes of 
fuch vail confequeiice; for no dedimus v/ill make 
that aft fufficient, that is in itfelf illegal. 

" It has, by this time, we hope, clearly ap- 
peared, from what has been offered. That the 
opinion of the Governor is (with fubmifTion) nei- 
ther founded on law nor reaibn ; but from hence 
wc cairno^: but dcfire the Governor may be in- 
duced more ferioufly and maturely to confider how 
unacco.untable aiid adonilhing it mufl appear to 
mankind, that, while fuch perfons as Governor 
Hunter, who holds his commillion direftly from 
the crown, is accountable to no other principal, 
nor under obligations to any called a Ji^uikcr, as 
u fupcrior, has thought it necellary, in the difcharge 
of his truft, to pubUlh his reafons, in fuch a man- 
ner, for removing milhikes, and allaying the 
diliurbances from thence foinented ; at tlie lame 
time, though fuch an example be fet to us, at no 
greater diftancc, than the other bank of Dcla-zvare, 
our Proprietary, William Pcnn'i Lieutenant, in the 


• The r-iriifs of tliefe Judges wen-, WillUm Trent, fonailiiin Ditk- 

33 The History of Pennsylvania; 

1716. pi-ovlncc of Peimfylvania, fhould be drawn Into 
^-^-^^ 'meafures fo injurious, not only to the intereft of 
his principal, from which he derives his power, 
but to the very being of the conllitution, over 
which he is entruRcd to prefide. We heartily 
wifh we could, by any conllrudion, find other 
caufes, to which thcfe procedures might be im- 
puted, than a formed defign ; but we are juftly 
alarmed at fome other late proceedings ot the Go- 
vernor, which, as they have naturally fallen under 
our notice, we think ourfelves alfo obHged, m du- 
ty, to reprefent : 

" When the Hdufe had chofen their Speaker, 
and the Governor, without any objeaion, ap- 
proved their choice, they proceeded to take the 
ufual qualifications as the law, in that cafe, diretls; 
but upon the rumours, that had been fpread, of 
perfons difiiifeaed to his prefent Majefty, that this 
Houfe might give the utmoll exprellions, they 
could, of their loyalty, they, by a meliagj to the 
Governor, requeltcd to knov/, if befiJes what 
they had taken as ufual, ^ the Governor had any 
direaions from Great Britain, or any other qua- 
lification to offer to the Houfe ; to which, he was 
pleated to anlwer, he had not : the Houfe notwith- 
Handing relolved to neglea no part ot their duty,- 
but to give all the affui'ances of their loyalty, m 
their power, thought fit unanimoufly to take and 
fubfcribe the tefi, called the abjuration, everyone, 
in the way prefcribed to them by the feveral aas 
of parliament, according to their religious periua- 
fions, and then proceeded to the bufinefs before' 

" But being informed tliat the Governor had,^ 
at divers times, and to fundry perfons, charged 
the prefent Mavor of the city of Philadelphia, novV 
Speaker of the' Houfe, as a perfon dilaifeaed to 
his Maiefiy, King George; and that he lurther 


The History of Pennsylvania. 89 

allcdgcJ, tlie only caufe of diUcrence betwixt him 17 16. 
and the faid Mayor, was, becauJe the Governor ^-^'^'^^-^ 
would not agree to proclaim the Pretender, or 
words to the fame etiedt ; the Houfe conceived 
thcmfclves obliged, in duty to his faid Majelty, to 
enquire into the grounds of this heinous charge, 
that, in cafe there ihould be any found, they might 
purge ihemfelves of the fcandal. 

*' Accordingly, having, in a committee of the; 
whole Houfe, taken full proofs, that the Govern- 
or had fo charged the Speaker, and finding, by 
the fame evidence, that he had, in the fame man- 
ner, alio charged James Logan, Secretary of the 
province, they, by a melfage, defired of the Go- 
vernor, that he would be plcafed to lay before the 
Houfe his grounds for thcfe accufations ; but he 
returned no otlier anfwer, than, ^' That he thought 
bimfelf not obliged to render any reafons to the 
Houfe for his accufation, but would do it at the 
board at home ;" and the Membi^rs, fent on the 
melVage, could not perfuade him to give any rea- 
fons here. 

" The Houfe thereupon judged it ftill the more 
hicumbcut on ihem to enquire fully into the mat- 
ter ; and accordingly they, by a written mellage, in- 
formed, the Governor, Thar, being under a deep 
concern, on all occafions, to ihew their loyalty, 
as faithful fulije<tls, to King' George, they could, 
by no means, think themfelves difcharged of their 
duty, without further enquiring into the truth of 
the report, which they had received, and acquaint- 
ed the Governor v^ith, which alfeded their Speak- 
er and awother perfon, bearing confiderable offices 
^nd trults, in the government ; and finding the 
Governor's anfwer- to the lad melfage, concerning 
the fame, not fatlsfaftory, they further acquainted 
him, that the Houfe intended immediately to re- 
folve into a committee, in order to enquire into 

Vol. II. ■ " [12] diat 

' go The History of pENNsvLVANiii. 

1716. that matter, and that the faid committee would 
'^"''^'''^'^ be defirous to receive from the Governor, or any 
other perfon, any information concerning the 
fame, in order to proceed to the extent of what 
is their duty, and purge the Houfe of any Mem- 
ber, or Members thereof, that may appear, or 
ihall be found guilty of diiloyaky to the King, or 
difaffe^lion to his government, under which the 
Iloufe unanimoufly declared themlclves e.Ttremely 
happy, and well fatisfied. 

" But the Governor, though another meilage 
was fent to him, to crave his anfwer, could not 
be prevailed on to give any, but that he had no- 
thing to lay before them ; the Houfe notwith- 
ftanding, -while formed into a committee for that 
purpofc, proceeded to make tlie utmod enquiries, 
in their power ; but could not find the leafl ground 
to fufpeft the perfons charged, or to believe the 
accufations, againfl them, had any manner of 

*' Now what fentiments can be formed of fuch 
a conduft, in a perfon, a6ling in fo exalted a fta- 
tion, the Houfe mulf acknowledge themfelves to 
be at a lofs to dcternu'ne ! But the Houfe would 
confider it, as no fmall happinefs to the whole 
province, could they be alfured that the Govern- 
or had no defign, by his reprefentations to any 
board, at home, to raile a merit to himfelf, on 
the ruin of others ; v^ho, could they be heard 
there, and fully known, might be found as faith- 
ful and loyal, in their ilations, to the prefent efta-' 
blifhment and fucceffion, as any of the King's 
fubjeds whatfoever. 

" Had the Governor believed the Speaker to 
w be fuch a perfon, as he has thought fit to render 

him, it was doubtlefs incumbent on the Govern- 
or to except againfl him, when firfl prefented by the 
Houfe, in that Ilation, or had he fufpetted either 


The History of Pennsylvania, 91 

the Speaker, or any other Member, to be dlfaf- 1716. 
feded to the King, it might be no lefs expefted, ^-'''■~'^"^*-' 
that he (liould have recommended to the Hoiife, 
the farther quahfication of the abjuratioHy as a 
tell to them : but, if the Speaker of the Houfe 
of Reprefentatives of Pennfylvaiiia, and others 
acting in the great trufls, are to be rendered to 
the miniftry, or to any board, as perfons fo no- 
torioufly difaft'edld, as the Governor's charges im- 
ply, and this without the lead proof offered here, 
though fo importunately, and yet dutifully folicit- 
ed, it will force all thinking perfons on apprehen- 
fions, that there is more intended by it, than can 
fafely be acknowledged here, where things and 
perfons are better known, than can pollibly be at 
fuch a dillance, as the other fide of the ocean. 

" Having proceeded to fuch a length, on thefe 
two important fubjedls, we (hould now chule to 
bring this reprefentaUon to a period, but that the 
Governor's written anfwer to another meffage 
from the Houfe exads our notice ; in which he is 
pleafed to fay. That he is given to underlland, 
(for which he thinks fit to quote the language of 
former Aifemblies, and fome of the Council) that 
this Houfe did not defign to make laws, nor raife 
any money this fellion, but upon terms inconfid- 
ent with the Governor's duty and fafety to comply 
with. To which «!:he juflcfl reply we can, at 
prefent, return, is. That this Houfe came toge- 
ther with no other views, than to difcharge their 
duty, in all refpeds, to the bed of their ikill and 
power ; and they have nothing to crave of the 
Governor, but what they firmly believe is not 
only his duty, but for his honour and fafety, to 
grant them : they would willingly have proceed- 
ed to enquire what further laws may be neceflary 
for the well-being of the province, in general, the 
Governor having told us, in his ipeech, That, if 


92 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1 716. -vire fhould have any other bills to offer, that might 
S'T-^'^^'^ |3e Iqj. t}^g intereft and tranquillity of the people, 
he fliould be ready to pals them, and promifed 
hlmfelf, that he would make a return fuitable to 
their circumftances, and the advantages they will 
receive by them : but, in his next written mef-. 
fage, he informed the Iloule, " That he difa.. 
greed from both the Council and Alfembly, in hig 
opinion, upon a point of fuch importance to the 
fecurity, as well as tranquillity of the people, that 
no bill of ours can be of more to us :" the purr 
port of which was, that he declared (in oppofition 
to both Council and Aflcmbly) that one of the 
laft laws, he himfelf had pafled, which moll: near, 
ly alfefted us, was void, and this by conftruftion 
only ; we could not, therefore, fmd any encou- 
ragement from the Governor's propofals to us, to 
think any other bill, we could offer, v/as worth 
the fohciting, and much lefs deferving, a further 

" To this we muff not omit adding, That we 
find judgment was given againlt one Hi/gb Lowdo??, 
^t the court of common pleas, in September laff, 
whereupon the laid Hugh Loivdon, giving way to 
the greateft refentment and rage, vowed revenge, 
at the utmoft hazards, againff the aforefaid Speak-, 
er and Secretary (being two of the Juffices of that; 
court) and having iurniflied himfelf with piffols, 
way-laid them, at their doors, and meeting the 
Speaker, the fame night, he prefented at him a 
pifrol loaden with bullets ; although, by the over- 
ruling hand of Providence, no further mifchief 
cnfued. As this attempt could not but raife a 
horror in the hearts of all good men, we fmd the 
faid Lowdon was bound over to the court, now fit-, 
ting, and indiftments were found againff him, for 
the iamc ; at which the Governor, inffead of pro-. 
ted'ng the Macidrates, in the uifcharge of their 


The History of Pennsylvania. 

trufls, has now thought fit to grant Noli ProfequW, 
in the laid Lowdon^ favour, in tlie fame manner 
he had formerly done, for one Francis Phillips 
(that fcandal to his order) when indided and pro- 
fecuttfd for notorious crimes, after all the neigli- 
bouring clergy had difowned him. Which pro- 
ceedings, as they rendered the adminiflration con- 
temptible, fo we alfo juflly fear they will encou- 
rage ill-minded men to the fame attempts, in hopes 
of the like favour. 

** But, to fum up the whole, we can truly fay, 
we are extremely troubled, that we cannot enjoy 
the fame happinefs, that mofl of our neighbours 
refpeilively do, of feeing our Governor lake fu'h 
meafurcs, as Ihoukl, by an agreeable force, fway 
I he people's inclinations, to render him eafy, in 
all rcfpe<^s ; which can be effecled by no means 
fo powerfully, as firfl rendering them eafy, in the 
enjoyment of thofe privileges, which they have an 
undoubted right to : and we are but too well af- 
fured, that, the only caufe of a failure herein, is 
the Governor's miitake, fmce the Proprietary's 
indifpolition, in the choice of his advifers ; who, 
whatever views they may, at prefent form, will, 
;it length, be found the fole occafion of all the 
difappointments, that may fall to the Governor's 
portion; for, even, though afting by commillion, 
immediately from the crown, he would have the 
fame injured people to deal with." 

Thus far this reprefenration : what follows of 
it is chiefly a number of law cafes, adduced in 
confirmation of the opinion of the Houfe ; which 
rnay be feen at length, in the printed votes of the 
AiVembly of the province. 


( 94 ) 


Governor Gookin takes his lajl leave of the jiffhnbk, 
being fuperfeded by Sir JVil/iam Keith. — Governor 
Keith* s Jirjl fpeech to the Ajjhnhly^ ivith their 
anfwer and his reply. — Governor and Affemhlj 

■ concerned at the great injliix of foreigners. — Dr, 
Griffith Owen. — Addrefs of the Governor and 
Affembly to the King. — Great harmony beticeen 

■ the Governor and Affembly. — William Fcmis death 
and charadery ijc, ,_ 

171 7. JLT doth not appear that Governor Gookin made 
> ^-,^ ^j^y ^.^^^j^ ^^ ^j^.^ rcpreicntation ; but that, in the 
firfl month, 1716-17, by a written meifage to the 
'^2'"?'" J'^f^'-i'*^» he took his lad leave of them, in full af- 
<;.,ukin furance, that he (houUl foon be fuperfeded ; and, 
!''Vr''!' wifliout making any further refledion on them, 
tL Afitm"- f^i* their conducl, he reconimended to their confi- 
i.iy. i.c. deration the charge of his returning to feek ano- 
ther employment ; declaring, that the uncertainty 
of his being provided for at home ; the thoughts 
of what he had left, to ferve the Proprietary and' 
the province, and the difappointments he had met 
with, fo hlled his mind, that they would excufei 
his not i'aying any more. 

'i'he Alfembly gave him two hundred pounds, 

on the occafion ; and on the firlt of May next 

^' ■"■""!; following, he was fuperfeded by Sir William Keith ; 

III Mfi.i-ri who, by fummons, convened the Alfembly, on 

!'^ '•:'^'^' [he I -nil d:;- of the fixili month, i 7 . :-. 

The History of Pennsylvania. 91J 

Sir WiUiam Keith was a man of popular ad Jrefs, 1 7 1 7. 
and acquainted with the art of gaining the affec- ^"7^^ 
tion of the people; which, after"' fo much aherca- am K,'!Ih 
tion and tedious difpute between the Aflembly and 

WJ3 a man 

the two preceding Governors, Evans and Gookin, add.du,&c 
had fo much the more effed, and rendered his ad- " 
minillration both the more acceptable and ufeful 
to the province. The following was his firft fpeech 
to the Alfembly, on the twentiety day of the fixth 
month, Auguft, O. S. 

" Mr. Speaker, and 

" Gentlemen of the AffembJy, 
" Being informed, upon my arrival here, that o„,,ernor 
the feafon of harveit, then at hand, could not Keith-" (h-fi 
well permit you to meet me, in your reprefentative 5|?'^[iy^°^ 
capacity, until that bufy time be over ; I did, out biy/ *'"^" 
of a tender regard for your interefts, then delay 
the fatisfadion 1 (till propofed to myfelf, in meet- 
ing with this prefent Alfembly ; and I will always 
endeavour to make, the rime, you mull neceffarily 
bellow on the public fervice, as eafy and pleaiant 
to yourfelvcs as, I hope, it will be profitable and 
fatisfac'lory to the country in general. 

" If an atfeaionate dellre, to oblige and ferve 
the^ people of this province, can qualify me, in 
tiicir good opinions, for the flation wherein I am 
now placed, I may then expeft that the country's 
and the Governor's intereft will be elicftually efla- 
blidied upon one bottom, as that he, who truly 
wifhes well to either, cannot but find himfelf en- 
gaged to ferve both; and you yourfelves may 
eaiily infer the warmth of my inclinations towards 
the lervicc and profpcrity of this country. 

" Firll, From the expenfive application, laft 
year, by which I carefully, introduced to his royal 
highnels, the Prince of IVales, then Regent, the 
humble addrefs of the Alfembly to the'Kinrr, in 


r)6 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1717. fuch mariner, as freely to obtain his royal high- 
'"-^'^^^^ nefs's moft gracious alTurance, that the people 
called ^lakcrs^ were a body of loyal fubjects, for 
whom the King had great regard ; and that his 
highnefs was forry the King was not then prefent 
to receive lo good an addrxjfs ; but that the ^ui- 
kers might, at all times, depend on his highnei's'.s 
good-will, to ferve them, in any thing, they had 
to afli of his royal father. 

" Then, the diligence, wherewith I obtained, 
at a confidenible charge, the commiflion of Go- 
vernor, without any other certain profpeft, or 
advantage, but only that I fliould be thereby 
enabled more eft'c61ually to ferve you. 

" And, laflly, by the great fatigue I have un- 
dergone, fmce my arrival here, that no opportu- 
nity might be flipped, to encourage virtue, and 
promote the general good of your country ; but 
thefe confi derations are trifles, compared with the 
indifpcnfible obligation, that is of necefTity upon 
you, to fupport the dignity and authority of this 
government, by fuch a reafonable and difcreet 
eflablilhment, as the nature of the thing, and your 
own generolity will direft. 

" And whatfoever you fliall think fit to do, in 
that kind, pray let it no longer bear the undeferved 
and reproachful name of a burden upon the peo- 
ple ; but rather let your Governor be enabled to 
relieve the country from real burdens, by putting 
it ill his power to *dire£t a better oeconomy, and 
more frugal management of fuch taxes, as would 
anfwer the ufes, for which they are intended, if 
not fquandered by the bare-faced partiality and un- 
profitable expenfe of tlie officers appointed to affefs 
and colled the fame. 

" Gentlemen, I doubt not, but you will take 
the firfl opportunity, under a new adminiftration, 
to examine the ftate of your laws, in order to 


The History of Pennsylvani.v. 

revive fome, that are obfolete, or expired ; and 
to make fach alterations and additions, as (liall be 
found neceflary, ibr perfefting the conditution, 
and good order of" government, in this province. 

" For that end, I am, on my part, ready to 
concur with you, in every thing, which you can 
pollibly defire, or exped, from a Governor, who 
cnnfcientioufly intends to obferve, and lleadily 
rcfolves to purfue the duty of his office.'* 

On the twenty-fecond, the Affembly prefented 
him the following addrefs, viz. 

** The addrefs of the of Peniif)ilva7ua^ m TheAfTcni 
Alfembly met, in anfwer to the Governor's biy's^-- 
fpccch of tlie twentieth inflant. S'vcrnul-! 

« May it pleafe the Governor, ^^'"^^'• 

" We ghidly embrace this firft opportunity to 
congratulate the Governor's happy and lafe arri- 
val to us, with an eye to that good Providence, 
which preferved him and his family from pirates ; 
who, at that time, much infefled our coafl ; fome 
of whom (as we are informed) waited v/ith hopes 
of his falling into their hands. 

" This Houfe, maturely confidering the Go- 
vernor's fpcech, fmd themfelves obhged, in duty, 
to make grateful acknowledgments, for the Go- 
vernor's tender regards to the interefl of the pub- . 

" The Governor's aifeftionate defire, to oblige 
and ferve the people of this province, doth, and 
fhall, meet with dutiful returns, in all matters, 
that come before us ; and this Houfe will contri- 
bute all, in their power, to preferve the interefl 
of the Governor and people upon one bottom. 

" And as wc muft acknowledge the people of 
this province to Rand highly obliged to the Go- 
vernor's application and care, in prefenting to th6 

Vol. II. [13] Prince, 

The History or Pennsylvania. j 

■ t 
Prince, then Regent, the humble addrefs of the 
iMlembly of this province, fo we gladly take this 
occafion to contefs the warmth of our hearts, in 
loyalty, duty and atfedion to the King, and roy- 
al family, and entreat the Governor, upon all oc- 
cafions, fo to reprefent us. 

" We cannot but exprefs the pleafure, and 
great fatisfadion of this Houfe, in that the Pro- 
prietary hath been pleafed to place, and his Ma- 
jeily to approve of, fo worthy a gentleman, in 
coiiimiifion over us ; and hope our behaviour, and 
that of all the people of this province, will always 
be fuch as may preferve the good inclinations of 
the Governor to ferve the country ; an indance 
whereof we have in the fatiguing journeys he hath 
taken, in the late hot feafon, to promote the good 
of thofe under his government. 

" As the Governor was pleafed to defer calling 
us, for the fake of harveft, fo v/e crave leave to 
obferve to him, that feed time being juft at hand, 
it will be a great inconveniency to many of the 
Members to Itay long at this feafon, io that we do 
not undertake, at this fitting, to enter upon an 
exaniination of our laws, or any bufinefs that will 
require length of tirr.e, but, depend upon the 
Governor's refolves and good intentions to oblige 
the people, by concurring with any thing, they 
can reafonably dehre, for their fervice. 

" We, on our part, being fully fatisncd, in 
our duty of fu])porlip.g, as far as in us lies, the 
dignity and authority of this government, have at 
this time voted, ntnnnc contradiccnte, that the fum 
oi Jive hundred pounds fliall be given to the Go- 
vernor, and paid out of the firlt public money, 
that fhall arife, by any means, in the treafury ; 
and to make it more certain, are now preparing 
a bill, which will be offered to the Governor, ior 
;iugmenung the public Hock." 


The History of Pj-nnsylvania. 99 

To this addrefs the Governor made the follow- 1717. 
ing rej)ly, viz. v-^->.-— ^ 

" Air. Speaker^ and 

" Gentlemen of the JJfembly, 

" I received a very affedionate addrefs from oovemor 
your Iloufe ; for which I heartily thank you ; and i^eitii'i ic- 
the generous acknowledgment, you have been ^ ^" 
pleated to make of my late endeavours to ferve 
this country, cannot but greatly encourage mc 
diligently to carry on the fame public fervice, in 
all its parts. 

" Your dutiful exprelTions of loyalty and affec- 
tion to the King and royal family, fhall be care- 
fully rcprefented by me to his Alajelty, and his 
fcrvants, in the miniftry ; and while the fpirit of 
unanimity, and fo amiable a temper, with refpect 
to government, is continued and preferved amongft 
you, I will take upon me to fay, that you may be 
firmly alfured of the King's favourable counte- 
nance, and gracious condefcenfion, in all our ap- 
plications to the throne. 

' " Gentlemen, fmce you have obferved to me, 
that it will be inconvenient for you to enter upon 
any bufmefs now, which may detain you from 
your urgent affairs, at this time, in the country, 
1 cannot but condefcend that you may make fuch 
an adjournment, as you think will beft fuit with 
the feafon of the year ; for I Iball flill have a great 
regard to the opinion, as well as the advantage 
and eafe, of fo good an Affembly." 

The AlTembly, elefted in Odober, 17 17, chofe 
Wilitam Trent, Speaker. About which time, the Mmy fo- 
great influx of foreigners,* into the iM-ovincc, '"''-"^'"^•'r- 

created provhicc. 

* Many of the Minnonijl:, &c. appear to have arrived in Painfyhj- 
n'la, about this time, from 'Jtrnian^, &.<:. ' . 

In the liittcr part of the year 17 ry, (Hcd Dr. CtiJJ^th Onufn, of Pijiui- 
^t'fijic. iit; CJ iij to jf^iii^yl j.ii::^ a,:..>>i;g tii early icttkr* ; ,uiJ wan fald 

of foreign- 

loo The History of Pennsylvania, 

created fuch apprehenfions, that Governor Kcith^ 
in his fpeech to the Houfe, after recommending 
their reviling and amending their laws, propoled 
to their confideration, whether fome regulation 
might not be neceflliry, in regard to the unlimited 
"?f!!!l;i^' numbers of thefe foreigners coming without li- 
cence from the King, or leave of the government ? 
On which affair, the Aflembly, in their reply, 
likewife exprefled their concern, with the jealou- 
fies and uneafinefs, raifed in the minds of the in- 
habitants, refpedling the inconveniencies, that 
might attend their icttlement, in too large numr 
bers together, in one place, or promilcuoufly 
among the Indians. They defired the Governor's 
fentiments thereon ; and that he would either ap- 
point a committee of the Council, to join with 
one of the Aflcmbly, on this buhnefs, or other- 
wife, as he thought proper. 

This the Governor approved of; but, as he 
had lately wrote to the Secretary of ftate, on the 
affair, the further confideration of it was, for the 
prcfent, deferred, in expedation of advice frona 
England : and being defired by the AiTembly to 
give them his alliitance, in the reviial of their 
laws, he willingly and obligingly agreed to their 

In the fpring of the year 171 8, Sir WiUuim Keith 
propofed to join with the Houfe, in the Ibllowing 
addrefs to "the King ; which was drawn up by him, 
and laid before the xVn'embly, for their concur- 
rence ; 

to be of great and eminent fervice among them, in divers capacities. 
A<i a ]'reacher among the ^niters he was highly cfteemed, being an ac- 
tive, cxcmjilary, and very ukfui mcinlH-r of tiiat religious ioeiity. In 
the civil dcjiartrnent his merit and abilities raifed him to feveral public 
llations; wherein he aiflcd with judgment and integrity, being long one 
of the Governor's Council, &c. But his pracfticc as a Phyfician, in 
which he was very knowing and eminent, rendered him of Hill greater 
value and importance, in the ])lacc where he lived ; with thefe qiLulities; 
Jie ii. fa'cl lu nave jireferved the f)\iceriry and mecknefs of a true Chrilli- 
iin, and died mueli bekntu by -i Lig': nc<:;u.i!nt.iiicc of p-opk of diiitr- 
Ci;t'h- arid ffiileti^:,. 

The History of Pennsylvania, loi 

rence ; to which, with feme alteration, or amend- 17 iS. 
ment, and an exception to the flyle of it,* they '-^""^^''^ 
acceded ; and it being figned by the Governor, 
and Speaker of the Aflembly, was accordingly 
forwarded to Great Britain^ viz. 

" To the Kind's mcji excellent Maje/ly. 

^* Tlie humble addrcfs and reprefentation of the ^v^idr^f, ,„ 
Governor and General Jjfemul)', of your Ma- the Kin-, 
jelly's province o'i FennJ)lvania^ met, at Fhl- Jj J^nor !i"n.I 
ladelplAa, the day of May, 1718, Ancmbiy. 

*' Klq/l gracious Sovereign, 
" We, your Majefty's mod dutiful and loyal 
fubjeds and fervants, being filled with a dutilul 
and jufl fenfe of that tender care and concern, 
which your Majcfty has, on every occafion, been 
pleafed to cxprefs, for the peace and profperity of 
nil your people, do, with profound humility and 
fubmiflion, prefume to addrefs your facred Majefly, 
in behalf of your Majefly's good fubje6ts, the 
people of this province, v/hom wc have the ho- 
nour, at this time, to reprefent, in a legiflative 

" I\Iay it, therefore, picafe your I\Iajcfl:y to 
know, that, in the year 1681, this colony was 
fettled by a confiderable number of Englijh fub- 
jeds, C2\\tdi ^mkers, under the care, cnc(.Hirage^ ' ' 
pient and direftion of William Penn, Efquire, our 
Proprietary and Governor in Chief, 

" That the perfecution, which, in thofe days, 
prevailed againlt Proteftant dilfenters, in England^ 
was the principal motive and reafon, why the firft 


• The cupLomt peculiar to the Rulers, as a religinuj pL'ople, have 
already been mentioned in the introdiidion ; and, according to one of 
thefc cufloins, I find, in the printed votes of the Afienibly, on this af- 
fair, till iollowinjr obfervation, -viz. " The ftyle of the i';iid addrelslie. 
i:.g in i[\i plMul Unn, fyo::} and ilie majority i.f tlie AllVmbly bein.; ol 
tiie pjjjlc called <^r<iurs, th-' fJouJe eiitireiy u^ace to the mailer anj 
Ji bft.i.-,ce oJ t'.!e fa.d addrcfv.; b t exc.-;>t u,ly u-iainft ("oiv.e par: ..i' it.e 

J03 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1718. fettlers of this country removed their eftates and 

^""^^^^'^^ families hither, \vhere they might quietly and 

peaceably enjoy that innocent liberty of confcience, 

which they conceived to be every man's natural 


" That, by the unwearied application, Induflry 
and expenfe of tlie inhabitants, this colony is now 
increaled to a confiderable body of people, whereof 
the majority continue to remain in the fociety of 
Friends, called .^lakers. 

" That, fuch being the peculiar and diHiinguifh- 
ing circumftance of this, from any other colony, 
under his Majedy's dominions, in Jlir.crka, the 
offices of government mull, of necefTity, be fup- 
plied, and the powers executed, by thofe of the 
^mker's perfuafion, intermixed with fuch others, 
as are to be found here, in the communion of the 
Church of England, and good Proteftant fubje£ls, 
well affeded to your Majefiy, and your govern- 

" That the happy influence of your Majcfly's 
mofl equal and juft adminiftration, every where, 
has perfeclly united our hearts and minds to con- 
tribute (Hir utmoft endeavours, for carrying on 
tlu: bufmeis of the government of this province, 
in fuch manner, as n"iay be mofl agreeable and ac- 
ceptable to your Majefty, and your miniilry, at 

" That, for this end we have laboured, more 
generally of late, to regulate the proceedings, in 
our courts of judicature, as near as polhbly could 
be done, to the conilitutlon and practice of the 
laws of Kngljud. 

" I'hat, from many years experience, we arc 
not convinced that the fokmn ajjirmatiofi al- 
lowed in Greot Brhnin, to the people called S^id- 
A.vv, doili, in all rcli't-cls, and ia every cafe, here, 


The History of Pennsylvania. 103 

anfwer the legal and effential purpofes of an oalh^ 1718. 
but alio the growing condition of this colony, ' — "'""*' 
which brings great numbers of people yearly from 
Europe, to relide among us. 

" The multitude of pirates abroad, and other 
loofc vagrant people, who are daily crowding in, 
to (belter themfelves under the peaceable admini- 
flration of this government ; and the abfolute ne- 
cefTity there is to punifli fuch, as fhall dare to op- 
pofe, and break through, the known laws of 
fociety and humanity, lays us under the greatell 
obligations, with fecurity to our lives, as well as 
the jufl maintenance of your Majefty's royal au- 
thority over us, not to rejcft or defpife, \\\q folemn 
qffirmjfiou, allowed to the f;Jjakcrs ; without 
which, we humbly beg leave to afliire your Ma- 
jefty, judges, juries, nor evidences, futTicient, 
could never yet be found here, in the moll crimi- 
nal and notorious cafes. 

" That formerly, it having been found imprac- 
ticable to keep and preferve the public peace, 
within this government, any other way, than by 
7idim\\.{i\\g\.\\Q folemn afjirmation, in all cafes what- 
locvcr, to have the lanie force and etleiil: in law, 
as an oath, upon a reprefcntation thereof to the 
board of irade^ the late Queen Anne, by an order, 
in council, dated the 21 It of January, 1702-3, 
was plcafed to direct, in the alternative, 'u/s. 
" That all perfons, ading in any judicial, or other, 
offices, within this province of Pennfylvantn, and 
three lower counties upon Delazvare, ftould be 
obliged to take an oath, or, in lieu thereof, the 
folcinn affirmation allowed, in England, to the peo- 
ple called ^lakers, and that, in all their public 
and judicial proceedings, the faid judges and offi- 
cers ffiall be obhged to adminifter the oaths, ap- 
pointed by law, or the faid attellution. 

" That 

104 "i'^E PIisTORY OF Pennsylvania'. 

1 71 8. " That the S!j/akers, m general, having ap- 
'""-^^'^'^ proved themfelves to be an induftrioiis and quiet 
people, moft heartily attached to your Majefty's 
royal perfon and government, your loyal fubjccts 
of that perliiafion, in this province, do humbly hope 
that your JVIajefty will vouchlafe to indulge their 
tender confcicnces, in the cafe of oaths, with the 
fiMne freedom, that has been granted to them by 
your royal predecefTors, and thereby we fliall be 
effectually enabled to perform our refpeftive duties, 
in preferving your Majefly's peace, within the ju- 
rifdidion of this province, and to enforce the ju(t 
regard and obedience, due unto your royal autho- 
rity, as becomes, may it pleafe your Majelly, your 
Majefty's moft loyal, niofl faithful, and moll obe- 
dient fubjefts and fervants." 

This affair of the folenin affirmnUon of the .^z^- 
hers^ appears not to have been fmally fettled, or 
fixed, to the fatisfiiftion of the province, and ac- 
cording to that right, which the inhabitants of it 
thought themfelves juflly entitled to, till the year 
17?.5 ; which will be mentioned hereafter in its 
proper place. 

At the conclufion of this feffion, near the ap- 
proach of harvell. Governor Keith ^ in his fpeech 
The Go- to this Affembly, higlily complimented them, orv 
vernor accouut of tlic Valuable and wholefome laws, 
Aircmbiy, " which (fays he) were compofed with fo much 
*"^- care, by your diligent application, and the great 

temper, and perlcct unanimity, wherewith the 
public affairs had been carried on, through all the 
jxirts of the adnnniflration of the government, 
for the laff twelve months ; which, he further de- 
clared, muft, by that time, have convinced all 
reafonable men, among them, of the many and 
great advantages, that fuch a harmony fecures to 
the commonwealth ; at the fame time affuring 
them of his f.xed refoluticn, according to the ut-. 


The History of Pennsylvania. io^ 

trtoft of his cnpacity, to aft, In every refpea, for 171 8. 
the general good and interelt of the province, ' ^^'"^^ 

On the -^oth day of the 5th month, fjuly) wiiiimi 
1718, at Riijhcomb, near Twyford, in ^'■'^"■^^'^^<?- J^;;';"'^^ 
bamjljire, i\\ England, died the truly honourable ""'' 
Proprietary and' Founder of the province of Penn- 
fykunij, William Pain, aged about feventy-four 
y«rs. He had, in the year 1712, as before men- 
tioned, been fcized with fome fits of the apoplec- 
tic kind ; which, for the lall fix years of his life, 
had fo alTeaed his mental faculties, efpccially his 
memory, as to render him, in great meafure, in- 
capable of public bufinefs; which, with the gra- ^ 
dual decline of his flrength of body, continued 
to increafc, till the lall period of his days : during 
\vhich time, nevcrthelefs, he is faid to have been 
raollly fenfible, intelligent, and, by his behaviour 
and exprelTions, at diiferent times, to thofe, who 
tvcre prefent with him, manifefted, that he re- 
tained, till hi3 death, the happy enjoynient of that 
divine and mental felicity, which refuUed from ■ - ■ 
the nature of his religion, and manner of life. 

Much of his charafter may be feen in the pre- of his d:?.^ 
ceding Iketch of hi;} life, and in this Hlilorlcal ''''"'' ^'^- 
Account of Pennfyhania : a life of univerlal be- 
nevolence, and good adlions, to mankind, in ge- 
neral, both in a religious and civil capacity. But 
the mofl laffing memorial of his great utility to 
the human race is his literary works, iirfl; printed 
in two folio volumes, and his flourifliing and hap- 
py province of Pennfyhania. The former being 
inflruaive, in the paths of virtue, and true feli- 
city, to future generations ; and the latter, an ex- 
cellent example, for furrounding countries, and 
fucceeding ages, to imitate, of the happy cfieds 
of a wife' and generous plan of liberty, and a pru- 
dent religious toleration, aniong a virtuous people, 


Vol. II. [14] 


The History of Pennsylvania! 


1718. As to hlmfelf, I find exprefled of him, by thofcr, 
^■^^""^ who had the beft opportunity of being acquainted 
Particular with his truc character and real merit, That he 
was a perfon endowed with great penetration and 
forethought ; and a mod fincere lover of truth 
and fmcerity (which, in no Imall degree, is alfo 
manifeft from the Ihort Iketch of his hie and tranf- 
adions, given in the preceding part of this work), 
lie had great natural abihties, and much acquired 
knowledge ; which he ever rendered fubfervient 
to the great interefts of religion and virtue. He 
was chafle and circumfpeft, yet pleafant in con- 
verfation ; and of an engaging and obliging dif- 
pofition and behaviour. He exhibited to the 
world a bright and amiable example, wherein the 
moll excellent qualities of the accomplifhed gen- 
tleman, and real Chriitian united; and, in diffe- 
rent countries, ranks and conditions of men, ap- 
peared a finning inflance, that piety and virtue are 
not incompatible with a fine underllanding. 

Befides, being divinely qualified, he was a very 
able and excellent inllrurnent, in the hand of 
divine Providence, in removing much of that 
fuperftitious bigotry and ignorance, which, for 
agcb.-, had overlpread, and, even, till his time, 
remained, in a very remarkable manner, to cover 
the minds of all ranks of people ; and, by intro- 
ducing, in their ftead, efpecially among the higher 
clafs of men, a more liberal, and rational, way 
of thinking, on religious fubjccls ;. and in what 
relates to the bed improvement of the human 
mind, and its trued, and mod lading interell. 

Moreover, aftuated by the fame principles, and 
induced by the fame motives, of univerfal bene- 
volence and improvement, in the condition of the 



human r 

long confpicuous 

Ycrnment, emiucntly 

he has, in the much admired, and 

effefts of his civil polity and go- 

:ilificd to the 



ho VI 


TfrE History of Pp.n^'sylvania, 107 

how happy it is polfible for mankind to live here, 171 8. 
on earth, if the fault is not their own ; a glorious *"^~^'^^^-' 
example, and worthy of all imitation 1 wherein it 
is Tnofl manifeft, that, contrary to the common 
courfe of human affairs, war, violence and injuf- 
tice have, in an extraordinary manner, given way 
to the happy and glorious means of peace, and of 
ChriAian perfeverence in patience, equity and be- 
neficence to mankind ; infomuch, that if the table 
of the golden age was ever verified, or a parad'ifical 
Jlate introduced on earth, in reality, it has been 
univerfally acknowledged, they mult have borne 
the nearcft refemblance to that of Pennfylvania ! 

In his printed works themfclves ?j-e exhibited 
the manner of his writing and the nature of hi 
conipofitions; his flyle is free and fweet, yet 
(Irong and nervous; without affedation, and not 
laboured with a tedious formality of exprelhon .; 
which before had been fo cuflomary and fafhiona- 
ble, ia the nation ; but his periods are generally 
(hort, yet full, flowing and agreeable, that he in- 
fenfibly gains upon his reader; and while he allures 
his attention, he adds profit to delight : but orna- 
ment of I'peech was the leafl part of his fludy ; 
the grand objefls of his concern were the nature 
and importance of his fubjeds ; which, though 
fome of them refpefted particular times, perfons 
and things, were generally the moft interefting, 
that could poflibly employ the attention of the 
human mind. 

Should any perfons be difpofed to cenfure him, ofWiiiiam 
on account of fome of his Lieutenant Governors, P'-""'** Kf^ 
or, the want of ftill further advantages, which, 
they may apprehend, were iji his power to have 
granted the province, it may be obferved. That it 
is not fo much the pofleflion, as the proper ufe, of 
any thing valuable, which renders people happy ; 
and the perverfion thereof caufes their mifery ; 



The History or Pennsylvania; 

that the flate and conditiou of human nature li 
fuch, as will only bear what may be called bleflings 
to a certain degree ; beyond which they become 
the contrary : 

<^ Eft modus in rebus •, fuiit certi tkniquc fines ; ■" 
Ouos ultra, citraque nequit confillere reiflum."* 


In forming a proper judgment of this nature, the 
confideraiions, on both fides of the quellionji 
ouedit to have due weicrlit. 

proportion. ^vr^, Not Only what n)ay be djfirablc and ufe-' 
^'niTn '^^ ful for the governed, but alfo the power, and pro- 
jieccuJry ' p^r rcquifites of government itl'df, ought to be 
ior acaons. J^ly coufidcrcd ; for iio Valuable eifecl can reafon- 
ably be ex])ectedj without the polfelfiou and preferv- 
ation of fuitable power, ability and means, in the ef- 
ficient, to perform it ; thefe, in a limited proprietary 
under the crown, with the terms and obligations, 
upon which they were held of fupcriorpower, ought, 
iii^ aiiioii'i in forming a jull cfHmate, in this cafe, to be com- 
narcj with' P'^^^"^^ with the valuable ^;nd happy elfe-cls, which 
the means, were really experienced, in coniequence of the pow- 
er and authority, withwhichhe M'as, in this rellricled 
capacity, invcded : for there is great and fulficient 
rcafon to fupjioie, that, had he, contrary to what 
he actually did, purfued a conduft, agreeable to, 
the partial interefl of fome, or the contracted 
minds of others •, or, had he afted from views of 
that imprafticable equahty, or ungovernable liberty, 
which the E Utopian imagiiiations of fome fliallow 
projectors, and rafli fchemers, might endeavour 
to promote, v>/ho, by attempting too much, lofe 
all, many would never iiave fo happily experienced, 
nor the woild liave feen, the glorious elfedls of 
Ills excellent managcmvi;nt, for fo long a fpace of 


* 7. r.. " 'J'liere ij a rncfliiini in tliintii, or a certain Lour.dary fixid; 
unbolh hJ.s, i.r out of v.liitii, ilic line of rcdtuntle faiiiiot cxiH-" 


The History of Pennsylvania. . 109 

Secondly^ In forming fuch a decifion, the cla- 171 8. 
jnours 6f Ibme of the provhicial Alfembhes ought ' ■^''""-^ 

^^1 i_ri «.•• ^"ii ,• Clamours of 

not to be the fole criterion, to judge by; parti- f,^,^^^ „f ,,^^ 
cuhirlv, in their contending for more power than, Aficmbiie* 
it is moit m^uiifeffc, was ever intended them, <^iS u^ai Penir 
from llic befl rational principles, judged to be for imiUiken, ' 
their real benefit ; clamours, in great meafare, ^'^' 
cither groundlefs, milhiken, or niagnified, for 
particular purpofes ; and of dangerous, or, at 
lead, of uncertain confequence, both to the Pror 
prietary and themfelves ; and probably impollible for 
him fafely to comply \viih : for it is moit certain, 
that it was not always in his power to do as he 
plcafed ; and his ever being a iViend to rational, 
or true, liberty, was never queftioned ; but he 
very well knew, that power, unduly proportion- 
ed, in the difft^rent parts of government, M'eakens 
its force, fruftrates its defign, and, without pru-' 
^lencc, judgment and unanimity, foon dcRroys 
its own exidence. 

Thirdly, A jufl; and proper eflimate and com- ►p]^^ ^^.^.^^^ 
parifon ihould be made, not only of the reflricled nds oi in. 
power, and over ruled authority of the Proprie- j'f 'con/'^ir^ 
tary, but alfo of the fmalhiel's of his fortune, or the cd with hu 
iiarrownefs of his circumftances, with the great- "";;''"' T^ 

. ^ ability, cic, 

jiefs of his adlions ; his long and ailiduous labour 
and attention, his great expenfe and patience, 
both in efteding and prelerving what he elleftcd, 
in regard to the province, as originating in a jufl 
debt, due to his father, ought not only to have 
due place, in fuch an account, but alfo the nu- 
merous and various aQs of both pubhc and pri- 
vate beneficence, fliould be truly eflimatcd ; in 
which, it is mod certain, he was continually, and 
in an extraordinary manner, engaged for the gene- 
ral and particular good of manldnd, in Europe, be- 
fides his founding the province oi Pcnnfyl-vania, and 
clFciflually providing for luch advantage, freedom 


'iio The History of Pennsylvania. 

, 1718. and profperity of its inhabitants, as no other per- 

*'"^^''"*^ foil, that \vc know of, had done for any country ; 

with the nature and deficiency of his returns 

from thence ;* which, inftead of producing him 

a real benefit, proportionate, or fimilar, to what 

he had done for that province, afford no fmall 

argument in his favour, and as httle honour to fuch 

as may be moll difpoied to cavil, in this refped, 

that, in the latter part of his life, when, it might 

reafonably be thought he ought to have reaped dif- 

Scefiisift- ferent fruits from that department of his labours, 

Aiiemb^ ^^^ ihould havc any real occafion to fay, or h* 

anno 1710. mcnt, as he did, that thofe, which he received from 

thence, were adually the caufe of grief ^ trouble and 

Some of p'^vcrty ! Moreover, hov/ much he flood on his 

wi!ii;im terms with the different intcreffs at court, is a 

Knn's ob- ^ij-cuniilance of no fmall moment ; with the 

flacks to . 1 • • r- 

fanhcr be- changcs \\\ tljc government, at that tnne, m Liu 
li.hcciicc, gland^ efpecially at the revolution : for there, it 
is manifelt, as well as elfewhere, he was not with-- 
out adverfaries ; and thofe not the lead powerful 
iind dangerous. Likewife the difficulties, confe. 
quent on a valt expenfe, was another obflacle in his 
way to fuitlier gootl fervice, and his wonted libe- 
rality ; in which it is well known his great gene- 
rolity, in fettling and encouraging the colony, 
had, in a particular manner, involved him, to [lie 
great reduclion of hi^; private effate, fo liberally, 
and moil evidently fpent for a more public and 
general benefit ; but, it is to be regretted, that 
the ingratitude ot fomr people is too liable to mif- 
conllrue, flight, or undervalue, the kindeft bene- 
ficence, though, in its confequences, to them- 
felves very confidcrable, while they think any mor^ 
may be had. Ikfides, the cmbarraffmcnt of his 


* It ir.ay be noted, thai the great expenfe and trouble, wliieh the 
jr.rovincc cofl William Pci:ii, and for wb.ich hinil.;!!' never receivfd ap 
equivalent, haw, finoe his dc:;th, been amply rtwardet< to his f.iniily, dr 
Itir;, by a vriy <viei;t incrjali; of the income Jrom thence, to his chil- 
•fL\-n .i;-,d polTcriiy. 


The History of Pennsylvania. iii 

private aflfairs, in which, during the latter part of 1718. 
his time, an ungrateful agent is faid to have in- ^-^"^''"*-' 
volved him, was another great difappointment, 
and heavy incumbrance, with which he had to 
ftruggle ; and which rendered the preferving of 
the province, for his pollerity, flill more ditTicult ; 
but, in fome of thefe cafes, his great intereft 
among Iiis friends, the .^lakers^ in England and 
Ireland^ is faid to have been of fingular fervice 
to him. 

As to what few fmall irregularities and defici- Hisabfc... 
cncics, really exided in the government, or ma- moiiiy the 
nagement of the province, unmagnificd by his J^J^^ "^^^ 
advcrfaries, or miltaken friends, which, at any really iimifs 
lime, wameil proper rcdrcfs, or afllilance, they '^'|^^^'^'; i''^ 
were principally owing to his abfence from it ; 
which, it is certain, was very much againd his 
mind, and chiefly occafioned by the neceihty of 
his circuinflances, the imlettlednefs of the go- 
vernment in England, together with the attempts 
of his enemies, and his great beneficence to his 
province, with his fmall and difcouraging returns 
from thence. 

From thefe and funilar confi derations, it will 
be eafy to perceive the nature of Ibme of his dif- 
ficulties, and the obllrutlions to fuch further pub- 
he fervice, as might have been defired, in a per- 
fon of his difpoficion, rank and llation; which may- 
account for part, at leaft, of the exceptionable 
conduct of fome of his Deputy Governors ; for 
whofe office it was no eafy matter to procure pro- suitable <ir- 
per, and, in every refpeft, fuitable pcrfons j as i;"'>' \''*" 
appears in the refignation of Thomas Idoyd ; and, ..afiiy ro br 
in his more than once, even, oifering to the Af- ''•"^' •'''^'^• 
fembly themfelves the choice of naming the l.)c~ 
puty Governor, or his Reprefentati^e, during his 
abfence ! a very remarkable condefcenfion ! which 
Governors, though fo much l^lamed., and doubi- 
• ■ lelV- 

112 • The History OF PehnsylvanL'^. 

1718. lefs feme of them juflly, In feme things ; yet, in fucli 
^"^ "^^ a Hmiled fphere, as they acted in, they were not fa 
Their con- "iiich unjuftifiabje, in their general conduft, as 
iJuci In tiic a partial view of their adminiltration might fug- 
tiounot ro" geil ; which, in the main, there is great realbn to, 
i)iam;ibic as apprehend, would either not have been prudent, 
Jincd.'"'^' ^'"^^^^ o^ poflible, for the Proprietary, in his then 
prefent circumllances, to have contravened, in 
Inch manner, as fome feem to have expected he 
ought to have done ; for the very maintaining^ 
and immediate prelervation of the government,- 
and conlequently oi' the privileges of the province 
itfelf, at that time, undoubtedly depended more 
on much of the fame conduct, which thefe feem 
to have judged fo exceptionable, on the part of 
the Proprietary, or of his Deputy Governors, than 
they appear to have apprehended : inltead of which, 
fuch a change of the government, as would then 
moll probably have been elfccled, either by a re- 
fumption, or dil])ofal, of it, to the crown, (which, 
in confequence of the atteuipts of his and its ene- 
mies, at homCi and alio oi the oppoiition and 
liberties, ufed in the province, againll his long 
finking intertlf there, appeared likely to enfue) 
WiHild, beyond all controverfy, have been of 
much greater importance, and of fuch fatal elle^St 
to what was contended for, in the province, or 
the extenfion of its excellent privileges, in the 
manner defired, and that, even, to the difcon- 
tented party in it, in fome reipefts, as certainly 
The Pro- ought to iilence every attempt of detracfion, and 
tonluda- ^^^^ narrownefs of party Ipirit, againfl fuch exalt- 
bovc the- ed and true merit, and tlie general good conduO: 
power ,.t (-,£ j-j^^, ProprietLiry ; \\ hofe wife counfels, and 

envy iiii.l . . 

dLti^dion, worthy action^;, fo iar tranfceniled anil ovcr-ba- 

•^'^- lanced every little falling, and human weakncfs, 

that could polhbly be alledged againlt him, even, 

by an enemy ; from which no mortal man, on 

earth, i^, at all times, entirely iVee : thcfe, in 


TfiE History of Pennsylvania. 113 

fuch a cafe, (hould not be retained long in our 171 8. 
minds ; but the virtues, and excellent Icrvlces, ^^•"^^^""^^ 
of fuch illuftrious and worthy perfons ought to 
be had in everlafling remembrance : fervices, 
which, being immortal here on earth, crown their 
agents with deathlefs praife, and eternal fehcity ; 
and place them beyond the power of envy and 
detradion ; where, befides that fercnity of mind, 
which arifes from tlie fenfe of a life well fpent, 
their companion in this mortal ftate of exiflence, 
they alio enjoy that glorious eternity, in the hap* 
py manfions above, which Cicero^ in his treatife, 
entitled, Somnium Scipionis, declares to be the 
portion of all true and genuine Patriots : " A 
certain place, in heaven (fays he) is affigned to 
all, who preferve, or allill their country, or in- 
crcafc her glory ; where they are to enjoy an eter- 
nity of happinefs. For nothing is more accepta- 
ble to that God of Gods, who governs the fyftem 
of the world, and directs all human occurrences, 
than . ihofe councils and aifemblies of men, that, 
being united by focial laws, from thence are term* 
ed flates ; of thefe the governors and pre/ervers, 
having proceeded from thence, do thither again 

Vol. II. [15] 

* " Omnibus, qui patriam confervaverint, adjuverint, auxerint, cer- 
ium elte in cjkIo dcfinitum locum, ubi beati jevu fcmpitenio fru;mtur; 
nihil enim eft illi principi Deo, qui omnem hunc munduni regit, quod 
quidem in terra fiat, aceeptius quam concilia caitufquc hominum jure 
fociati, qua; civitates appellantur; haruni reClores & confer vatores hiuc 
profcdi, hue revcrtuntur." Cii:. Somnium S^ftgnii, 

( 114 ) 


Hozu William Petin left his ejlate and property at 
his deceafe, — Part of his lafl ivill. — B>tate of his 
agreement ivitb S^ieen Anne^ for the fale of the 
goveriiment, ^c. — Jonathan Dickinfon. — Govern- 
or and Afcmhlfs condud, on hearing of the Pro* 
prietor's deceafe. — Names of the Members of Af- 
fe?nbly. — The late Proprietor's el deft f on ^ William^ ■ 
claims the go-vernment^ 'isfc. — But afterguards, 
yohn, Thomas^ and Richard Pcnn^ the younger 
, branch of the family^ became the fole Proprietors, 
■ ^c. — Conduct of the Governor and Afembly, re- 
fpe6ting faid claim. — The Indians of Pennfylva^ 
nia attached by fome foreign Indians. — Proceedings 
of the Governor and Affcvibly. — William Trent, -^-^ 
Vincent Caldwell. — William Baldwin. — Governor 
Keith, with the Affemblfs confent, ejlablijljes a 
court of chancery, 'isfe. — Names of the mafters in 
chancery. — The Governor endeavours to prevent 
ill confequenccs among the Indians. — Account of a 
■treaty held by Sir Willia/n Keith, with the Indi- 
fins at Conneftogo, in Pcnnfylvania, in 1721. 

171 8. A liE late Proprietary left his eflate, in En- 
^-^'■^'"^ gland tmd Ireland, amounting to the yearly value 
iiowwii- of ^. 1500 flerling, and upwards, to William 
llrhfs'"" ^^""' ^'^ ^^^^'-^^t furviving fon and heir, by Gu- 
inhiic, &c. liclma Maria, his firft wife, and to the iifue of 


The History of Pennsylvania. 115^ 

that marriage ; which, at the lime of making his 1718. 
hl\. wi/i, in 1712, befides his faid fon JVilliam ' — '^^^ 
Penn, and his daughter- Latitia^ appears to have 
coiififled of three grand children, Gulieima Maria, 
Springctt and William, the children of his fon 
William. He could, therefore, make no provifion, 
out of the faid eftate, for the payment of his 
debts, which were very confiderable ; nor for his 
widow, and his offspring by her ; which are men- 
tioned, in his lad will, to be, Job?!, Thomas, 
Margaret, Richard, and Dennis, all minors. 

' It is obfcrvable that his eftate in Europe, about 
this time, was elteemed of more value, than all 
his projierty in /Imerica, efpecially under its then 
prefent incumbrance (the mortgage of 1708 not 
being yet entirely difcharged*) and as he left it by 
jils lall ivill and tejiament, made on the fixth of 
April, 1/12 ; wherein both the province, and the 
government of it, are left and devifed in the fol- 
lowing manner, viz. 

" My eldefl fon being well provided for by part of tijc 
a fettlement of his mother's, and my father's Proprie- 
eftate, I give and devife the reil of my eflate, in Jvui' L. 
manner following. The government of my pro- 
vince of Penfil-vania and territories thereunto be- 
longing, and powers relating thereunto, I give 
and devife to the mofh honourable, the earl of 
Oxford, and earl Mortimer, and to William, earl 
Powlett, fo called, and their heirs, upon truffc, to 
dlfpofe thereof to the Queen, or any other perfon, 
to the bed advantage they can, to be applied, in 
fuch manner as I fliall hereafter dired. 1 give and 
devife to my dear wife, Hannah Penn, and her 
father Thomas Callozvhill, and to my good friends, 
Margaret Lozvther, my dear fider, and to Gilbert 


* At, or foon after the Proprietary's dercafc, the only furviving', or, 
at iL-aft, adive mortgagees, apnear to liavc Wlu, llttiry Gouldncy, 
Jofliuu Cc(, J.,>bn W'jods, Thninus Oade, and joliu FitlJ. 

ii6 The History OF Pennsylvania. 

171 8. Hcathcote^ phyfician, Samuel Waldenfield^ John 
•""^''^'^ field, and Henry Gouldney, all living in Englandy 
and to my friends, Sdmucl Carpenter, Richard 
Hill, Ifaac Norris, Samuel Prcjion, and "James Lo' 
gan, living in, or near Pen/dvania,* and to their 
heirs, all my lands, tenements and hereditaments, 
whatfoever rents, and other profits, fituate, lying 
and being In Petifdvania, and the territories there- 
unto belonging, or ellewhere in America, upon 
truft, that they (hall fell, and difpofe of, fo much 
thereof, as (liall be fufiicient to pay all my juft 
debts, and from and after payment thereof, fliall 
convey to each of the three children of my fon, 
William Penn, Gulielnia Maria, Springeit and Wil- 
liam, refpe^lively, and to their refpedive heirs, 
10,000 acres of land, in fome proper and benefi- 
cial place, to be fet out by my trullees aforefiiid. 
All the reft of my lands and hereditaments what- 
foever, fituate, lying, or being in America, I will, 
that my faid truftecs fliall convey to and amongft 
my children, which I have by my prefent wife, in 
fuch proportion, and for fuch cltates as my faid 
wife fliall think fit ; Init before fuch conveyance 
fliall be made to my children, I will, that my faid 
truftecs fhall convey to my daughter Aubrey, f 
whom I omitted to name before, 10,000 acres of 
my faid lands, in fuch places, as my faid truftees 
fhall think fit. All my perfonal eftate, In Pen^ 
fdvania, and elfc where, and arrears of rent due 
there, I give to my faid dear wife, whom I make 
my fole executrix, for the equal benefit of her, 
and her children.}." 


* About the fame time, the f<nir following truftees, named in Lis 
, Tc///, weic likewifc deccafcd, -viz. Margaret l.ovvthcr, Sinnucl WiiUtK- 
lield, Gilbert Hcathcote, and Samuel Carpenter. 

f Lxtitia. 

^ In a codicil to hi* tc/V/, in his own hand writinij, it is A'.rtlitr ex* 
prell'ed, as hiliov/s, i'i~. 

'• I'dlllcript, in my own hand, us a I'urthcr tef1imf>r,y of my love to 
my de.-.r wife, I, of my own mind, ^ive u^Uo her, out of the rents of 

The History of Pennsylvania. 117 

IVillinm Pemi^ prior to, or about the time of, 171 8. 
making his lall ivill, had oflercd the government ' — -^--^^ 
ot" Fcnnfyhan'ia for fale to Queen Anne ; to whom He had a- 
'afterwards an agreement was aftually made, for lin^.ffjof 
difpofiiig of the fame, for ^T. 12,000; of which iiu- j^Tovcm- 
fum, on the 9th of September, 171 2, or foon o^l"^.,,^" 
alter, he received one thoufand pounds, in part ATme, &c. 
of payment. But after this, and before a fur- 
render of the laid government was effected, he 
was, by ficknefs, rendered incapable of executing 
the fame ; fo that the government, at the time of 
In*s deceafe. Hill remained to be veiled in the afore*, 
faid earls, in trufl, by virtue of his will, and as 
therein abovemciuioned is e-xpreffed: but it ap- 
pears, that upon his eldeft: fon, and heir at law, 
William Fcnn'% claiming the government of the 
province, aftei his father's death, and upon the 
queflion arifmg, whether, what was, as aforefaid, 
devifed to the laid earls, to be fold, Ihould, as, at 
prefent circumftanced, be accounted part of the 
real, or perfonal, eftate of the teftator, William 
Penn, (the latter, by the will, being the property 
of the widov/) the earls, therefore, declined to tVt^" J'^j^^ 
aft, in their truft, or aflign over the lame, with- K"vcn,- 
out the decree of the court of chancery, for their '.i'-,,'i.\tacT 
indemnity ; which decree, the lords, commiliioners, ^<':. 
of the treafury declared, was ablblutely neceflary, 
with an effectual conveyance to the King, before 
the refidue of the h\^X'£. 12,000 could be paid 
to the executrix Hannah Fcnn* 

. The 

/Imn'ica, viz, Penn/ylvanii, three hundred pounds n year, for her natural 
life; and fur her care and charjje over my chikiren, in tiicir tiliication ; 
of which Jhe knows my mind ; as ali'o, that I defire they may lettle, at 
Jealt, in good part, in Amukj, where I leave them fo good an intered, 
to he for their inlu ritanee from generation to generation ; which the 
Lord prefer ve and profjjer, amen." 

* In tiie bill, afterwards ]>refented in ihaiiccr\, on this ottafion, he- 
fides what is therein meiuioiud, refpeeling oih^r matters, and the mon- 
pa;^re of 1708 ; whereby IViHiam Pam conveyed all, or the greatefl part, 
t)f his faid ertatc, ill J//un\-j, to Uairy (.;oi:/a'uey, of Loi.:h/i, to Jofiuu 

J 1 8 The History or P£NN3ylvania. 

17 1 8. The news of the long expeded death of the 

'-'^^"**^ Proprietary appears not to have reached Pennfyl-. 

i;.'.7/;V.', till after the eledion, and firit fitting of 

th.e xiHeinbly, in (iclober, 1718; of which Af- 

fembly Jonathan Dickinfon was chofen Speaker ;* 


Gff, S'.lva.'itis Grovf, "John IVocJi, of (he fame place, and to Thomas 
Calloivhlll, Thomas OaJc, and ■Jcfcy Fcnnd of Brifo!, und Johr, FlcU 
of London and Tiomai Cuppuge o{ Lamhfoiun, ill JnLuiJ, lind tlitir htirs, 
by v/ay of mortgage, for f^. 6,600, it i» more particularly reprcfentcd, 
or exhibited : 

Fnfl, Tliat the late JV U'uim Penni eldcfl fon, or heir at law, claimed 
the goverimieiit of Pennfyl-uania, •c.t'tcr his lather's dccLdic. 

Second, That before IVillijm Fain made his lafl tc/.V, he had propofed 
and offered his powers of government, and govtrnnunt, of 'the province 
and territories tc be fold and furrendertd to Queen Anne ; and about the 
time of his making his f:iid iviU, fuch propofal was referred to the c(.n- 
fideration of the C. mmiljjoners for trade and iilantations, and the thea 
Attorney (Jentral ; upon whofe report tlierron to the Qiieen, flie refolved 
to accept a fmrender and conveyance tlicnof, fr(>m IVillnit,. Fenn, and 
to ]iKy jiim /j. 12,000, for the liinie, witliiii the fpace of four years, 
from the date of fuch furnnder and conveyance; to which he confeiued. 
In the mean time, while the Attorney Ot neral was preparing the proper 
deeds and inllruments, for tliis pnrpofe, the Qi^een agreed to advance to 
IVilUam Penn £. I,O0O, in part of the faid ^. 1 2,000, v.hich fum of 
^. 1,000, by a v.'arrant, under the (^.ccn's (ign manual, heai ing date, 
at her court, at IVin.lfor i'ujllc, the 9th day of September, 1712, ordering 
the then Lord Hi;:h Trcafurcr to pay tlic fame to IVillijm Fam, he actu- 
ally fnon after received; but before tlie furrendcr was perfeded he was 
tak>rn ill, and became incapable of executing it. 

'] h:rJ, A.. ;o wh:t was di vllVd, in the faid will, to the three carls, it 
is npref; nted, in tlic above mentiomd bill, That they \%ere truiktt there- 
in, only lor the widow ILirtn h Fi/tu, tiie executrix, and rcfiduary legatee, 
of IVJliii,,! Pciin, the tellator's perional eltate ; the agreement, afonl'aid, 
between the ^rm and JVilHatH Pjnn, for fale of the government, 
for £. 12,000, by the Queen's direding the payment of £. l,oco, part 
thereof, to IViHiam Fenn, and his receiving the, in purl'uance of 
liiid direeiirn, being, in part executed., on both Cdcs, whereby all that agreed to be fold, and the mmicy raifed by fuch fale, are made to be 
a jiart of, and to fall into, the perfonal eftatp pf the faid tdlator, W7//;'- 
«« y '71, ill iifj.ed to thefe different claims. 

Fourth, And, that, \ipon the (]uellion, whether, what was, as afore- 
faid, devifed to the faid earls, to be fold, fliculd he accennttd part i\ the 
>..;/, or pn/oniil cii-Mx. ^( the teftutor IVilliuTi: Fcnii, the laid eaflb declined 
to ad, in their truft, or to affign over the fame, without the decree of 
the court of charciry, for their indemnity ; which decree, the lords, com- 
niiiTtoners, of the treafury infifled was ablblutely neciflary, with an 
cffeclual conveyance to the King, before the refidue of the faid ^. 12,000 
touKi be paid to the executrix, Hannah Fcr.n, i;c " 

* ' Didinfon came from 'Jaitui'u.t, with his wife and family, 
in the latter part of the yc.'r l6'yU. lie was, with other paflengcrs, 

The History or Pennsylvania. 

to whom Governor Keith, in his fpeech to the 
Houfe, on his being preicnted to him, for his ap- 
probation, thus expreiled himfelf. 

** Mr. Speaker, 
" Tlie modcfly and candour of your deport- 
ment,^ for many years, in pubHc bufinefs, has, at ^^,l^T 
this time,^in the two molt eminent Ihuions, juit- addrcil'ta 
ly determined the choice both of the city and '^'^ ^i'"''^'-'"' 
country, in general, and this flourifhing city, in 
particular, upon you, fir. 

"And, from this beginning, I promife myfelf, 
that, by your prudent example and condud, they 
will, at lad, be periuaded heartily to unite, in ail 
fuch matters as plainly tend to the honour and 
advantage of the provijice," &c. 

• But when the melancholy account arrived, ^hc Oo 
though it was provided by a law of the province^ vemorT 
that, on the death of the Proprietary, the Lieu- 7"''"'-'^''" 
tenant Governor, for the time being, fhould con- tVe p^p.';'- 
tinue the government, as ufual, till further order, '^ 
from the King, or from the heirs of the faid Pro-' 
prietary, or Governor in Chief, yet Sir IVillam 
Keith immediately thereupon, not only confuked 
the Council, who were unanimoufly of opinion, 
that his continuing the adminiilration of the go- 
vernment, in all its parts, wa;> both warran'tcd 
and direded by the faid law, but he alfo laid the 
minute of the Council thereon, before the Affem- 
bly, at their next meeting, in the loth mo. requeu- 

•n board the famr velTel, in their paffage to Penrf.W.anh, ftipwreckcl iu 
llic gull ol FLnJ^ ; and being driven on ihorc, AnTcred in a very exir wr- 
tl.iiary manner, among tlit Ltdu'.iu, in thut part of yh.n-rku ; of Wliich 
there is extant a particular printed account, entitled, " God's proUtih^ ,• 
frovldcnu man\Jurejl help and d^J^ucc^ &c. written by himfelf. Ho Av;,; 
enc of the peep e called J^,^/v.., a merchant of connderable fortune, 
and poflclTcd a ellate, in Pl.Ld.Iphi,, where he liv.-d after hi. 
arnv;il aforcfaid. He was entruacd with a great fiiare of the adniin:. 
ilrMuon ol juftice, in Pau.fyha.h, being both tho Speakc-r of the Al'- 
fembly, and Chief Jufuce of the province. He bore a <^cn. nd! - .T„od 
tlwailer, was univerlally much beh.ved, aud died iu tbe'^veir j -- 

ftOf iUCati), 

I20 The History of Pennsylvania. 

171 8. ing their fGndments on the fame. The Houfe^ 
'^-^""-''^'^^ after mentioning their deep forrow at the Pro-' 

prietary's death, highly approved of both the 
Council's advice, ^and the Governor's conduct, 
in the affair, and heartily thanked him for his 
care of the public welfare.* 

The heir at It was before hinted, that notwithftanding the 
law Willi- plaiii terms of the late Proprietary's lafl will, his 
jiinr. chims cideft foii, (licu hvlug, ^r heir at law, Wi/Iiam 
the govern- p^nu^ juulor, after his father's deceafe, laid claim 

incnt, &c. , -^ ,-1 • 1 • 1 1 • 

to the government ot the provmce ; which claim 
was continued by his cldefl fon Springett, after 
the death of his father JVilliam Perm, the young- 
er ; who is faid to have died at Liege^ about the 
year 1720. 

1719. The conduft of Governor Keif/j, and the pro- 
vincial AlTembly, refpefting this claim, appears 
by the fpeech of the former to the Houfe, in 
the 3d mo. 1719, with their anfwer, as follows, 

" Gentle?ne)i of the Council, Mr. Speaker, and 
" Gentkmen of the Affembly, 

Tlic Go- " According to my promlfe, I have called you 
vtriiDi's together, in order to acquaint you, that I lately 
thc^AflVm- received a commifiion from the honourable William 
My, on the Pemi, Elq. as our Governor in Chief, with inltruc- 
tions to publifh his acceihon to the government, 
by advice of the Council, in the moft folemii 

manner j 

* Tlie names of all the Mcinbers of this Affcinbly were, 

For PhUaJclpljia county. Chejl^r county, Bucks county, 

Robert Jones, David I.lnycl, William Biles, 

lidward Fisnnar, Richard tiayes, Thomas Stcvenfoii, 

Riehard Hill, Nathaniel Newlin, Jeremiah Langhorne, 

Willinni rilhbourn, John Wright, John Sotcher, 

Ckment Phimfled, James Gibbonj, Joftph IJond, 

Morris VJ orris, Henry Lewis, William Paxton, 

Jonathan Dicknifon,5/.ir. William Lewis, Jofcph Kirkbridc, 

R.'Iatthius HuUloii. Henry Obnrn. John Swift. 

City of Philiullplna, 

Ifracl Puniberton, liaac Norrii. 

The History or Pennsylvania. 


manner; wliich laid commilllon and infln.itflions, 17 19. 
with the niinu'te of Council thereupon, 1 have or- '-"'"''''''^ 
dered to be laid before you. 

" Since that I have' ken the probate of the late 
Proprietary's hift will and teltament, in the hands 
of Mr. Secretary Lo^^an^ whereby the powers of 
government, over this province, feem to be de- 
vifed in trult, after a peculiar manner ; and I am 
told thefq dilferenccs are not likely to be fpeedily 

" Gentlemen, my duty to. the crown unquef- 
donably obliges me, while in this ftation, at all 
times, to ufe my utmoil diligence, in preferving 
the good order and peace of the government, 
and to keep the King's fubje6ts of this colony, 
firm in their ?illegiance, and dutiful obedience, 
to his mod excellent Majefty, and our Sovereign 
Lord King George ; to the end, therefore, that 
this may be done, with the greatefl cheerfulnefs 
and unanimity, and likewife, that all due refpeft 
might be paid to Mr. Penn, and every other 
branch of the late Proprietary's family, I mult 
defire that you will allill me with your opinions 
and advice ; which, I doubt not, will have the 
fame weight with all parties concerned in Britai?i, 
as you may be allured, it will ever have with me. 

" 1 have received a niclFage from the Indian 
Chiefs of Conc/lope, by a letter to Mr. Secretary 
Logan ; which informs us, that our Indian hunters 
had been attacked, near the head o( Po/owmack ri- 
ver, by a confiderable body of fouthern Indians, 
come out to war with the Five Nations^ and the 
Indian fettlcments of Sufquehanna. I'hey have 
killed feveral of our people, and alarmed them all; 
fo that the careful attention und vigilance of this 
government was never more called upon than at 
this junfture; and much will depend upon your 

Vol.. II. [1^3 ujranimou^ 

122 The History of Pennsyl 


llu; G. 

17 19. unanimous and fpeedy refolutions to fupport the 
'*^'"'^'"*" adminifiration, in all its parts." 

To this the Aficmbly returned the following an^ 
fwer, I'iz. 

" To the honourable \YiLLiAn Keith, Efq. Lieute- 
Tiie Af- '^^'^^^ Governor of the province of Pennfy hernia^ Is'c. 


ifvNcrto " The addrefs of the reprefentatives of the free- 
men of the laid province, in Afleinbly met, 
in anfwer to his fpecch of the fcventh inftant. 
" May It pleafe the Governor^ 
" The memory of the honourable William Penn^ 
our late Proprietary and Governor in Chief, be- 
ing dear to us, we cannot but have ajufl and 
due regard to his family, and fliould account it 
our happinefs to be governed by a branch there- 
of, under the mod aufpicious reign of our royal 
Sovereign, King George. 

" And fmce the Governor has been pleafed to 
fliew fo great a regard to the advice of the repre- 
fentative body of the freemen of this province, 
as to confult them, in a matter, which fo highly 
concerns them, we muif acknowledge is a great 
condefccnfion, and an, additional inltance of his 
known affedion to this colony, with kind incli- 
nations to prefcrve the public peace and v/eal of 
this government. 

" The contents of thofe inflruments and writings, 
which the Governor was pleafed to lay before this 
Houfc, brought us under a very deep concern, 
how to allilt him with advice, fuitab}(> lo the pil-- 
fent emergency; for we find the lirli part of the 
Proprictrtry's ivill Jcems to veil a truft in the no- 
ble lords, there named, in order to accompliih 
the (reiiiy of furrender of this government to 
the crown, which was begun by our late Proprie- 

" And 

The History of Pi:nnsvlvania. i^ 

■ " And though that trufb may occafion various 1719. 
opinions in hiw and equity, yet that does not fo ' ~^^ 
much affect us, as the want of afccrtaining the 
terms, which we have been always given to expeft 
would accompany the furrender, in favour of the 
people called ^lakers^ who embarked with the 
faid Proprietary, in the laudable defign of this 
confiderable addition of the Britijl) empire ; and, 
therefore, think it our duty, at this juncture, to 
claim thofe rights and favours, which have been 
promifcd us. 

" The Governor well knows that the prefent 
iidminiilration of this government, fmcc the Pro- 
prietary's deceafe, is fupported by a lav/, confirmed 
by her late Majelty, Queen Anne ; and by virtue 
thereof, is to continue till further order from the 
King, or the heirs of the faid late Proprietary and 
Governor ; and notwithllanding the great regard, 
the Governor has to the commiffion, fent him by 
the faid Proprietary's lieir at law, yet fnice that 
heir feems not, by the aforefaid w/7/, invefted with 
the powers of government ; but the devife thereof, 
made to the faid Lords^ being allowed by his own 
council to be good ; and fmce it doth not appear 
that commillion is attended with tlie neceflary re- 
quifilcs, diretled by afts of parliament, for quali- 
Jicalions of perfons concerned in fuch flations, and 
fecurity of plantation-trade, we conceive it will 
.contribute to the peace of this government, and 
be fafe for the Governor, that he, for the prefent, 
forbear to pubhfli the faid commillion ; and hope 
there will be no juft occafipn given, if the Go- 
vernor fliould wave fuperfeding the powers given 
him by the faid heir at law, until he receive the 
pleafure of the faid truftees, or has the Lord Chan- 
Gellor's decree, for his direction ; the rather, be- 
caufe we underftand that an amicable fuit is depend- 
ing in chancery bjtwixt the executrix, and heir at 
law, in order to fettle bcth their chums to this go- 

124 1'^^E History of Pennsylvania, 

1719. vcrnment. We heurtlly join with the Governor 
""-"^'^^^ in his good relokitions, to preferve the good ordet 
und peace of the government, and loyalty of his 
Majefty's fubjeds, in this colony. 

"As touching the attack lately made upon our 
neighbouring Indians, we hope the Governor hath 
already taken proper meafures in that aft'air, to- 
wards quieting their minds, and will ufe his utmoft 
endeavours to prevent fuch incurfions upon them, 
for the future, by due reprefentations to the neigh- 
bouring governments, and perfuafions to our Indi- 
ans, not to give further provocations, but that they 
will fall in with more peaceable inclinations ; as 
the fame will contribute to their eafe and fafety, 
and obtain the friendfliip and prote6lion of this 
government ; and this Houfe gives the Governor 
alfurance, that the necelTary charges thereof fliall 
be provided for; and that it is their full purpofe, 
to lupport the adminiftration, to the befl of their 

" Sig7ied by order of the Houfc, 


Whether it was in confequence of the above 
mentioned amicable fiiit, which was then depend- 
ing in chancery, between the heir at law, and the 
executrix, Hannah Fenn, or otherwife, the aflair 
The go. of the government appears to have been after- 
vcrnnicnt ^yards fcttlcd in favour of the voun'^er branch of idler- 1 r -1 1 i-n- • • i 

vanis fct- the ramily : W\z diiierent parties, m the mean tmie, 

iicd in fa- mutually agreeing to unite in the ilecell'ary appoint- 

youiij^ler ^ ment^ and management of the government of the 

lirandiof proviucc, till thc ftld fult, difpute, or agreement, 

^^^c, *""' ^' fliould be determined, or decided; fo that not 

only the province itfelf, which, by virtue of the 

late Proprietary's laft ivill, was veiled in his v.idow, 

and other trullecs, for the ufe of her children by 

him, but -alfo the governmejit of it, ai'terwards 

■dcfc ended 

The History of Pennsylvania. 

tlcfcended to 'Johny^ Tho?nas and Richard Pt'/i;?, 
the furviving fons of the younger branch of the 
family, thenceforward the Proprietaries. 

In Oi^ober, 17 19, William Trent* being chofen 
Speaker of the new Aflembly, the Governor pre- 
fentcd them with the royal affent to, and perpetual 
confirmation of, a very important law to the pro- ^ very im- 
vince, which had been palfed by him, in May, Srmer 
1718, entitled,' ** An ah for the advanremcnt of 
jujliccy and tnore certain adminiftration thereof ^ 
The fuccefs of which, he affured them, was chiefly 
owing to the perfed harmony and good correfpond- 
ence, that had hitherto fubiiflcd between him and 
the reprel'cntatives of the people. To whom the 
JIoulc in reply, exprefied their lading obligations 
to the Governor, for his extraordinary diligence, 
in fo fpecdily getting the royal approbation to the 
laid law, for his care and fervices, on other occa- 
fions, and his affcdlion for the inhabitants of the 

In the fprmg of the year 1720, Sir William 1720. 
Keith, in a melfage to the Alfembly, then fitting, 
after mentioning fome other things, made the fol- 
lowing })ropofal, viz. 

" Upon fome reprefentations, that have been 
made to me, that a court of equity, or chancery, J^"i^^'^"rL 
was very much wanted, in this government, I pofcs to 
thought proper to confult the opinions of gentle- ^^f'^^^c * 
men learned in the law, and others of good judg- chancery. 
ment ; who all agree, that neither we, or the 
rcprefentative body of any of his Majefty's colo- 
nies, are invefted with fuflicient powers to ered 


* WnVuim Trent, after this, was Chief Juftice of Ar^-tu J^rfey, and 
had been Sjicaker of the AJTcmbly of tliat province. 

Trenton, upoH Dilaivare, 00 the Jorfey fliorc, about ."^O miles abovC 
PhUaddphia, took its name from him; he being a confiderable trader 
tluTe, wlien the pkiee was firft laid out for a town. He was cfleemcd a» 
ii ;;entkm;ui of refpcftablc chi; ; and died in December, 1 724. 


liy aj;rec 

126 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1720. fuch 3. court, or that the office of Cba?icellor can 
'""""^""^^ be lawfully executed by any perfori whatfoever, 
except him, wlio, by virtue of the great feal of 
EiuiliUid, may be underllood to aft as the King's 
reprefentative, in the place ; but the opinion of 
your Houfe, of what may be with fafety done, for 
your country's fervice, in this cafe, fhall princi- 
pally direct my conduct. " 

To which The Alfembly agreed to the neceffity of fuch a 
court ; only, in their addrefs thereupon, they re- 
queued, that fuch Members of the Council, ax 
had heard the fame caufe, in any inferior court, 
might be exempted from being afliifants in the 
faid court. Hence, from the encouragement, 
given him by the Council and Affembly, Govern- 
or Keith foon a iter wards edablilhcd a court of 
chancery, in Pcrjifjlvanhi^ by the following pi-o- 
clamation, viz. 

The Go- " 1^7 S^i' William Keith, Efq. Governor of the 
^^rnor's province of Pcnnfyl-vauia, and the counties of 

Fiond" Nc-wcaJIle, Kent and SitiJex, upoii DeluiMre, 

" Whereas complaint lias been made, That 
courts of chancer]', or equity, though abfolutely 
neceilary, in the adminiih-ation of juftice, for 
mitigating, in fome caies, the rigour of the laws, 
whofe judgments are tied down to fixed and unal- 
terable rules, and for opening a \\'ay ro the right 
and equity of a caufe, lor which the law cannot, 
in all cafes, make a iViHicient provilion, have, 
not\vith(Lantling, been loo feldom regularly held, 
in this province, in fuch manner as the aggrieved 


Not'-. On the loih of March, 1710, dJe;l Vlncerf CMvtU, of Marl- 
boioiHTo, in CiKfier county, an eminent and hij^hly cftecincd jirtathtr 
amnn;i; t!ie ^'..ilrrs : lie came to l'ut,!fy!vun:j in 16^9, .i:;J rciiiinul u 
j;ocKi cli^ijctir rill his death. 

In til- n:\f l.-.!lov/;n;>- ycrir, died !l''.!:}j;t BiUzvhi, r.f< coynty, 
■Ml e:'.i;iu'ii; iir:'.cii;r in the f;niie ;t//j ■■'.■-.%! fj-iciy, and in ^rt-t eltcem 

coLirt of 

The History of Pei'Insylvania. 127 

fubjeds might obtain the relief, which by fuch 1720, 
courts ought to be granted. And whereas, the ^-^^^^"^^ 
reprefentatives of the freemen of this province, 
taking the fame into confideration, did, at their 
lafl meeting in Alfembly, requefl: me, that I 
would, wjili the alhftance of the Council, open 
and hold fuch a court of equity, for this province : 
to the end, therefore, that his Majefly's good 
fubjefts may no longer labour under thefe incon- 
veniencies, which are now complained of, 1 have 
thought fit, by and with the advice of the Coun- 
cil, hereby to publifli and declare, that with their 
;ifliftance, I propofe CGod willing) to open and 
hold a court of chancery^ or equity^ fur the pro- 
vince of PcnnfylvarJa, at the court houfe of Phi- 
hdclphiay on Thurfday, the 25th day of this in- 
Aant, Augufl ; from which date the faid court 
will be, and remain, always open, for the rehef 
of the fubje£t, to hear and determine all fuch 
matters, arifmg within this province aforefaid, as 
are regularly cognizable before any court of chan- 
cery, according to the laws and conilituiion of 
that part of Great Britain, called Eni^Iaiid ; and 
his Majelly's Judges of his fupreme c arts, and 
all other, whom it may concern, are required to 
take notice hereof, and to govern themfelves ac- 

" Given at Philadelphia, the tenth day of 
Augufl, in the feventh year of the reign 
of our Sovereign Lord, George, King 
of Great Britain, France and Ireland, 
defender of the faith, annoque Domini 

*' WILLIAM KErni." 

Nott. In the chanccllorfliip of Sir K.'r.h, the f.)i!',%v!r]o- t^kt- 
ions appear to iiivc been midtLrs ui clMiicry, ia:J riioill; Akni'-t.-s of 

tK^ CoUDC'l, -ui^. 

128 The IIistory of Pennsylvania. 

172 1. Of the Affembly, which was ele£led in October* 
^^^'''"*^ this year, Ifliac Norris was Speaker ; and the ufual 
good harmony appears to have continued between 
the diiferent branches of the Legiflature, 

Difagrce, ^^ ^"^^^ already been obfervable, from what paffed 
mcnt a- between the Governor and the Aflernbly, in the 
iXmX ^^^"^^^^"o of the year 1719, that the difagreement 
which happened about that time, between the 
fouthern Indians^ and thofe of Petmfylvania and 
more northward, appeared to demand the atten- 
tion of the government, to prevent further ill 
confequences ; accordingly, in the year 1721, as 
the difpute flill continued, and feemed to increafe 
between them, further endeavours and fuitable 
means were ufed for that falutary purpofe. 

oovernor The Govcmor, in the fpring, made a journey 
]vckh ^oes jj^fQ Virginia, on this occafion ; and alfo held a 
and hSdTa treaty, in Pennfylvania, with the Indians of diife- 
ti-Laty with rent nations, after his return : of which the follow- 

thc Indians, . . . o r ^, • , ^ . 

^^ mg IS an extract, Irom the prmted account of it, 

publilhed at that time, in Philadelphia, entitled, 

" Tlie particulars of an Indian treaty, at Cone/io- 

pc, between his Excellency Sir JVilliam Keith, 

Bart. Governor of Pcnjilvania, and the deputies 

of the Five Nations,'' he. whereby appears the 

method of managing thcfe people at that time, vizi 

Pxtraa " xhe Indian village of ConeJIogoo (fays the ac- 

n'canmf!,f couut) Hcs about feventy miles diflant, almofl di- 

thc tivat/. redly welt of the city ; and the land thereabouts 

being exceeding rich, it is now furrounded with 

divers fme plantations, or farms 3 v/hcre they raife 


Jai:icj Loi;un, Jonathan Diclcinfon, Samuel Prefton, Richard 11:11, 
Anthony Palmer, William Trent, Thomas Muflers, Rolu^rt, 
William Ajhton, John French, Andrew Ilamilion, Henry Brooke, 
\\'illiain Fllh'ujuriie, 'I'homas Gixme, and lE.\jn\ Owen. 

Kotf. Thii, court of chancery, afterwards in Oovernor Gordon's tim;:, 
came to be coufulercd an lb great a luijf mce, that it was, tiierefore, then 
enurel; laid aJJ^-'. 

The IIistory of Pennsylvania. 

quantities of wheat, barley, flax and hemp, with- 
out tile iielp of any dung. 

" The company, who attended the Governor, 
confilled of l)etvveen feventy and eighty horfemen ; 
many of them well armed, &c. 

. " And, at his return from Conejiogoe, he was 
Waited upon, at the upper ferry of Sculhil river, 
by the Mayor and Aldermen of this city, with 
about two hundred horfe, he. 

" On the 5th of July, the Governor arrived at oovemar 
Conejiogoe, about noon ; and in the evening, went Keith's 
to captain Civility's cabbin ; where four deputies Ih^indTans,^ 
of the Five Nations, and a few more of their peo- ^"^ Contile- 
pie, came to fee tlie Governor ; who fpoke to them '^'■''" 
by an interpreter, to the following purpofe, viz. 

" That this being the firft time that the Five 
NationjJ had thought lit to fend any of their Chiefs 
to vifit him, he had come a great way from home 
to bid them welcome ; that he hoped to be better 
acquainted, and hold a further difcourfe, with 
tliem, before he left the place. 

" They anfwered, That they w^re come a long 
way, on purpofe to fee the Governor, and to 
fpeak with him ; that they had heard much of him, 
and would have come here before now ; but that 
the faults, or miflakes, connnitted by fome of 
their young men, hail made them afliamed to fliew 
their faces; but now, that they had feen the Go- 
vcrnor*s face, they were well fatisfied with their 
journey, whether any thing elfe was done, or not. 

" The Governor told them, That to-morrow 
morning he dellgned to fpeak a few words to In.^ 
brothers and children, the Indians of Conejhgoc, 
and their friends, upon Sufquehanna ; and defireii 
.that the deputies (.»f the Five Nations might be pre- 
fent, in council, to hear v/hat is faid to them. 

" Ci'n.'Jhj^je, 
Vol. II. [17] 

The History of p£ 


" Concjlogoe^ July 6th ^ 1721, 
" Prefent, Sir William Keith, Bart. Governor. 
Richard I. Till, Jonathan Dickinfon, 

Caleb Pufey, & Col. John French, Elqrs. 
James Logan, Efquire, Secretary. 

" The Governor fpoke to the Coiicjlogoe Indians, 
as follows, viz. 

" My Brothers and ChUdrcn, 

" So foon as you fent me word, that your near 
friends and relations, the Chiefs of the Five Na- 
(ions, were come to vifit you, I made hafte, and am 
come to fee both you and them, and to alfure all 
the Indians of the continuance of my love to 

" Your old acquaintance and true friend, the 
great William Fcnn^ was a wife man ; and, there- 
fore, he did not approve of wars, among the hi' 
dians, whom he loved ; becaufe it wafted and de- 
flroyed their people ; but always recohimended 
peace to the Indians, as the fureil way to make 
them rich and ftrong, by increafmg their numbers. 

" Some of you can very well remember fmce 
WiUiani Pain, and his friends, came firft to fettle 
among you, in this country : it is but a few years, 
anil like as yefterday, to an old man ; neverthelefs, 
by following that great man's peaceable couiifels, 
this government is now beconie wealthy and pow- 
erful, in great numbers of people. And though 
manynf our iidiabitants are not accuftomed to war, 
and dinike the pradice of men killing one another j 
)Tt you cannot but know, I am able to bring feve- 
ral thoufands into the field, well armed, to defend 
both your people and ours, from being hurt by 
any enemy, that durft attempt to invade us. 

" However, we do not forget that William Pom 
often told us, that the experience of old age, 
which is true wifdom, advifes peace ; and I fay to 


The History OF PI:NNSYLv^\NIA, 131 

you, that the wifcfl man is alfo the bravcfl man : 1721. 
for he f;ift;ly depends on his wifJom ; and there ^'^^^'^^ 
is no true courage \vit:hout it. 

" I have ib great a love for you, my dear bro- 
thers, who live under the protedion of this go- 
vernment, that I cannot futter you to be hurt, no 
more than I would my own children. I am but 
jufl now returned from Virginia ; where I wearied 
inyfelf, in a long journey, both by land and water, 
only to make peace for you, my children, that 
you may fafely hunt in the woods, without danger, 
from Virginia, and the many Indian Nations, that 
are at peace with that government. But the Go- 
vernor of J'irginia expeds, that you will not hunt 
within the great mountains, on the other fide of 
Potowmack river; bein^' a fmall trad of land, 
%yhich he keeps for the Virginia Indians, to hunt 
in : and he promifes that his Indians Ihall not come 
any more on this fide Potczvmack, or behind the 
great mountains this way, to dii'turb your hunting. i 

And this is the condition I have made for you ; 
^vhich I exped you will firmly keep, and not break 
h on any confideration whatfoevcr. 

*' I defire that what I have now faid to you may 
be interpreted to the Chiefs of the Five Nations 
prefent : for as you are a part of thern, they are, 
in like manner, one with us, as you yourfelves 
are ; and, therefore, our counfels muil agree, and 
be made known to one another : for our hearts 
fiiould be open, that we may perfedly fee into 
one another's breads. And that your friends may 
fpeak to me freely, tell them I am willing to for- 
get the mifhakes, which fonie of their young men 
were guilty of, amongfl our people. 1 hope they 
will grow wifer with age, and hearken to the grave 
counfels of their old men ; whofe valour we efleem, 
becaufe they are wife : but the rafhnefs of their 
young men is altor^^ethcr folly." 

" At 

The History op Pennsylvania, 

" At a council held at Coneflogoe, July -jtb, i'j2i. 
" Prefent, Sir William Keith, Bart. Governor. 
Richard Hill, Jonathan Dickinfon, 

Caleb Puley, h Col. John French, Efquires. 
James Log?n, Secretary, with divers gentlemen. 

^innekat's Nation, Ononda^oe's Nation. 

Ghefaont Tannawree 

Awennoot. Skeetowais. 

Cayoogoe* s Nation, 
" Smith, the Ganawcfe Indian, Interpreter froni 
%\\t Mingoe language to the Delaware. 

" John Cartlidge, Efquire, and Mr. James la 

Tort, Interpreters Irom the DeUnuare into Englifli. 

" Ghefaont, in the name, and on the behalf of 

all the Five Nations, delivered himfelf, in fpeaking 

to the Governor, as follows : 

" They were glad to fee the Governor, and 
his Council at this place ; for they had heard much 
of the Governor, in their towns, before they came 
from home; and now they find him to be what 
they had then heard of him, -viz. their friend and 
brother, and the fame as if IVilliam Penn were ftill 
among 11 them. 

" They affure the Governor and Council, that 
they had not forgot William Penfi's treaties with 
them ; and that his advice to them was ftill frefli 
in their memories, 

" Though they cannot Avrite, yet they retain 
every thing, faid in their councils, with all the 
nations they treat with ; and prelerve it as carefully 
in their memories, as if it was coiiimitted, in our 
method, to writing. 

" They complain, that our traders, carrying 
goods and liquors up Sufquchanna river, iometimes 


The History of Pennsylvania. 

meet with their young people, going out to war, 
and treat them unkindly, not only refufing to give 
them a dram of their liquor, but uiethem with ill 
language and call them dogs, kc. 

" They take this unkindly ; becaufe dogs have 
no fcnfe, or underftanding : whereas they are 
men, and think that their brothers fliould not 
compare them to fuch creatures. 

" That fome of our traders calling their young 
men by thefe names, the young men anfwered ; 
" If they were do'gs, they might act as fuch ;'* 
whereupon they feized a cag of liquor, and ran 
away with it." 

A^. Z). This fccms to be told in their artful way, 
to cxcufc fomefmall robberies, that had been coni- 
mitted by their yoqng people. 

'* Then laying down a belt of wampum upon 
the table, he proceeded and faid, 

** That all their diforders arofe from the ufe of 
rum, and flrong fpirits ; which took away their 
fenfe and memory ; that they had no fuch liquors 
among themlelves ; but were hurt ^vilh what we 
furnilhcd them; and thcrcloie iLlired that 210 
more of that ftjrt might be lent among them. 

" He produced a bundle of drcfild ikins and 

" That the Five Nations faithfLilIy remember 
all their ancient treaties ; and now dcfire that the 
chain of friendlhip, between them and us, may 
be made fo ftrong, as that none of the links can 
ever be broken. 

" Prefents another bundle of raw fldns, and 

" That a chain may contraft rufl: with lying, 
find become weaker ; wherefore, he defires it may 


The History of Pennsylvania. 

now be fo well cleaned, as to remain brighter 
and flronger, than ever it was before. 

*' Prefents another parcel of Ikins and fays, 

" That, as, in the firmament, all clouds and 
darknefs are removed from the face of the i'un, fo 
they defire that all the mifunderllandings may be 
fully done away ; fo that when they, who are 
now here, (hall be dead and gone, their whole 
people, with their children and poflerity, may en- 
joy the clear fun-fhine of friendlhip with us for 
ever ; without any thing to interpofe, or obicure it, 

" Prefents another bundle of fkins, and fays, 
" That, looking upon the Governor, as if Wil- 
liam Penn was prefent, they defire, that, in cafe 
any dilbrders lliould hereafter happen between 
their young people and ours, wc would not be too 
hady in refenting any fuch accident, until their 
council and ours can have fome opporiunhy to 
treat amicably upon it; and fo to adjufl all mat- 
ters, as thar th^ friendfliip between us may ftill 
be invi>)lab!y prcfcrved. 

" Pref.iUs a fmall parcel of drefled fkins, and 
dc fires, 

*' That we may row be together as one people ; 
treating one anc'.ier's children kindly and ^ifec- 
tionately, on aii occahons. 

" He proceeds and fays, 

** That they conhder themfelves, in this treaty, 
as the full plenipotentiaries and reprefentati\>^ of 
the Five Nations ; and they look upon liic Go- 
vernor, as the great King of England' f. rei^rfHint- 
ative : and, therefore, they expedl that every 
thing now flipulated will be made abfolutely linn 
and good, on borh fides. 

" Prefents a bundle of bear fkins, and fays, 

" That 

Thk History of Pennsylvania. 

" That having now made a firm league with 
us, as becomes our brothers, they complain that 
they get too little for their Ikins and furs, fo as 
they cannot live by their hunting ; they defire us, 
therefore, to take compafTion on them, and con- 
trive fome way to help them, in that particular. 

'* Prefenting a few furs, he fpeaks only as 
froi\i himfelf, to acquaint the Governor, 

" Tiiat the Five Nations having heard that the 
Governor of Virginia wanted to fpeak with them, 
he himfelf, with fomc of his company, intended 
to })roceed to Virginia, but do not know the way, 
how to get iafe thither. 

" 0\\ the 8th of July, the Governor and his 
Council, at thi lloufe of John Carilidge, Efq. 
near Conc/logoe^ having advifed upon, and pre- 
pared, a proper prefent, in return for that of the 
Indians, and in confirmation of his fpeech, ac- 
cording to cuflom, in fuch cafes, which confided 
of a quantity of flrowd match-coats, gun powder, 
lead, bifcuit, pipes and tobacco, adjourned to 
Conejiogoe the place of treaty.'* 

" At a Council, held at Conc/lcgcc, July 8th, 
1721. P, M. 

" Prefent, the fame as before ; with divers 
gentlemen attending the Governor, and the Chiefs 
ot the Five Nations ; being all feated in council, 
and the prefents laid down be!bre the Indians, the 
Governor fpoke to them, by an interpreter, in 
thefe words : 

" My Friends and Brothers, 

" It is a great fatisfaclion to me, that I havd* 
this opportunity of fpeaking to the valiant and 
wile Five Nations of Indians, whom you tell me, 
you are fully empowered to reprefcat. 

« I 

^1^6 The History of Pennsylvania* . 

1721- " I treat you, therefore, as if all tliefe natldns 
'""^"^''^'^ were here prefent ; and you are to under Handy 
what I now fay, to be agreeable to the mind of 
our great Monarch, George, the King of Engl and ^ 
who bends his care to ellablifli peace amongft all 
the mighty nations of Europe ; unto whom all the 
people, in thel'e parts, are, as it were, but like 
one drop, out of a bucket, fo that what is now 
tranfatifed between us, mull; be laid up, as the- 
words of the whole body of your people and our 
people, to be kept in perpetual remembrance. 

" I am alfo glad to find tliat you remember 
what William Pcnn formerly faid to you. lie was 
a great and a good man : his own people loved him ; 
he loved the Jfidians, and they alfo loved him. He 
was as their faiher ; he would never fuffer them to 
be wronged ; neither would he let his people enter 
upon any lands, until he had firft: purchaied them 
of the Indians. He was jult, and therefore the 
Indians loved him. 

" Though he is now removed from us ; yef 
his children and people, following his example, will 
always take the fame meafures ; fo that his and 
our poRerity will be as a long chain, of which 
lie was the iirll link; and when one link ends^ 
another i'ucceeds, and then another ; being all 
firmly bound together in one ftrong chain, to en- 
dure for ever. 

" He formerly knit the chain of friendfhip 
with you, as the chief of all the Indians, in thefe 
pariT, ; and left this chain (liould grow rufly, you 
now defire it may be fcoured, and made flrong, 
to bind us, as one people, together. We do affure 
you, it is, and has always been, bright on our 
fide ; and fo we will ever keep it. 

" As to your complaint of our traders, that 
they have treated fome of your young men un- 
kindly, I take that to be faid only by way of ex- 


The History of Pennsylvania. 

^life for the follies of your people, thereby en- 
deavourinfjf to perfuade me, that they were pro- 
voked to do what you very well know they did ; 
but, as I told our own Indians, two days ago, I 
am wiriinej to pafs by all thefe things ; you may 
therefore be affured, that our people fhall not of- 
fer any injury to yours ; or, if i know that they 
do, they fhall be feverely puniOied for it. So you 
mud, In like manner, ftridly command your young 
men, that they do not offer any injury to ours. 
For when they pafs through the utmoil fkirts of 
our inhabitants, where there are no people yet 
fettled, but a few traders, they (hould be more 
carelu! of them, as having feparatcd themfelveg 
from the body of their iriends, purely to ferve 
the hUi.ins more commodioufly with what they 

. '* Neverthelefa, if any little diforders fliould^ 
at any time, hereafter arife, we will endeavour 
that it flvill not break, or weaken, the chain of 
frieridfhip between us : to which end, if any of 
yi)ur people take offence, you muff, in that cafe, 
apply to me, or to our chiefs. And when we 
have any cauie to complain, we fliall, as you de- 
fire, apply to your chiefs, by our friends, the 
Conejlo'^oe Indians : but, on both fides, we mult 
labour to prevent every thing of this kind, as 
much as we can. 

" You complain, that our traders come into 
the path of your young men, going out to war, 
i^nd thereby occafion diforders among them ; I 
will, therefore, my friends and brothers, fpeak 
very plainly to you, on this head^ 

" Your young men come down Sufquehanna 
tiver, and take their road through our Indian 
towns and fettleinents, and make a path betv/eeii 
us and the people, again il whom they go out to 
war. Now, you muft know, that the path, this 

Vol. II. [18] way. 

8 The History of Pinnsylvanu. 

i/ir. way, leads them only to the India?is, who are In 
■""^"^ alliance with the EngliJIj ; and firft, to thofe, who 
are in a ftrid league of* friendfhip with the Go- 
vernor of Virginia ; juft as theie, our friends and 
children, who are fettled among us, are in league 
with me and our people. 

" You cannot therefore make war upon the 
Indians^ in league with Virginia^ without weaken- 
ing the chain with the Englijh : for, as we would 
not fufFer thefe, our friends and brothers of Co- 
iitjlogoe^ and upon the river, to be hurt by any 
perlbns, without confidering it, as done to our- 
ielves ; fo the Governor of Virginia looks upon 
the injuries, done to his Indiai;i brothers and 
friends, as if they were done to hiniielf. And 
you very well know, that, though you arc five 
different nations, yet you are but one peopk ; {a 
as that any wrong, done to one nation,, is receiv- 
ed as an injury, done you all. 

" In the fame manner, and much more fo, it 
is with the Englijh^ who are all united under one 
great King, who has more people, in that one 
town, where he lives, than all the Indians^ m 
Nort/j Anicriaj, put together. 

" You arc in league with New Tork, as your 
ancient friends, and neareil neighbours ; and you 
are in league with us, by treaties, often repeated, 
and by a chain, which you have now brightened. 
As, therefore, all the Engli/h are but one people, 
you are actually in league with all the EngliJJj go- 
vernments, and muft equally prefcrve the peace 
with all, as with one government. 

" You pleafed me very much, when you told 
nie, that you were going to treat with the Go- 
vernor of Virginia. Your nations formerly entered 
into a very firm leiigue with that government ; and, 
If you IrAvt; fullered that chain to grow rufly, it is 


The History of Pinnsyi.vania. 


time to fcour it ; and the Five Nations have done 1721 
very wifely to lend you there for that purpofc. ^^^ 

" I do aiTure you, the Governor of Virginia is 
a great and a good man; he loves the Indians^ 
as his children, and {o protefts and defends them ; 
for he is very flrong, having many thpufand 
Chriflian warriors under his command ; whereby 
he is able to affin: all thofe, who are in any league 
of friendfln'p with him. Haften, therefore, my 
friends, to brighten and ftrengthen the chain with 
that great man ; for he defires it, and will receive 
you kindly. He is my great and good friend j 
I have been lately with him ; and fince you fay, 
you are Grangers, I will give you a letter to him' 
to inform him of what we have done, ynd of the 
^ood Mx^Ti of your yifit to him, and this country, 
" My friends and brothers, I told you two 
days ago, that we mufl open our breads to each 
other; I Hiall, therefore, hke your true friend, 
open mine yet further to you, for your good. 
, " You fee that the EngUJh, from a very final! 
people, at firfl, in thcfe parts, are, by peace 
umouglt themfclvcs, become a very great people 
amongil you, far exceeding the number of all the 
Indians^ we know of, 

" But while we are at peace, the huVuvu con- 
tinue to make war upon one another ; and d-flroy 
each other, as if they intended that none of their 
people fliould be left alive j by which means you 
are, from a great people, become a very ftnall 
people ; and yet you will go on to dellroy your- 

*' The Indians of the fouth, though they fpeak 
a different language, yet they are the lame people, 
and inhabit the fame land, with thole of ihe nonh. 
We, therefore, cannot but woiider, h(nv you, 
that are a wile people, fhould take KkVh^ht in pur- 


t^o The History of Pennsylvania. 

172 1, ting an end to your race : the E?igli/Ij, being your 

^— '~^^^-' true friends, labour to prevent tliis- AVe would 

have you ilrong, as a part of ourfelv('3 : for, as 

our llrength is your ftrength, io we wo aid have 

yours to be as our own. 

" I have perfuaded all my brethren, in thefe 
parrs, to confider what is for rheir good ; and not 
to go out any more to war ; but your yourg men, 
as they come this way, endeavour to force them. 
And becaufe they incline to follow the counfels of 
peace, and the good advice of their true friends, 
your people ufe them ill, and ofren prevail with 
thtni to go out, to their own deflrudion. Thus 
ii was, that their town of Cbnejlogoe loft their good 
Kir-g, not long ago ; and thus many have been 
]oft.* Their young childi-en are left without pa- 
rciuG ; their wives without huibands ; the old men, 
contrary to the courle of nature, mourn the death, 
of tlieir young ; the people decay, and grow wea::; 
wc ioie our dear friends, and are alllitted. Ai.d 
this is chiefly owing to your young men. 

" Surely, you cannot propofe to get either 
rlrhe-s «r lofiLllions, by going thus out to war: 
for when ye.u kill a deer, you have the llefh to eat, 
and the Ikiii to fell ; but when you return from 
war, you biing nothing home, but the icalp ol 2, 
dead man j who, perhaps, was hufband to a kind 
wife, and lather to tender children, who never 
wronged you; though, by Ichng him, you have 
robbed them of their help and proiettion ; and, at 
the lame time, got nothing by it. 

" If 1 were not your friend, I would not take 
the trouble of ia\Ing all thefe things to you ; which 
I dehre may be fully related to all your people, 
when you return home, that they may confider iri 
time, what is for their own good. And, alter this, 
if any viil be fo madly deal and blind, as ntither 
to licar nor fee the dani^er before them, but will 

Thh History op Pennsylvania, 3^ 

go out to deftroy, and be dcdroycd, for nothing, 1721 
1 inuit defirc that fuch foolifli young men would '-""^^ 
take another path, and not pafs this way, amonglt 
our people, whofe eyes I have opened ; and they 
have wiiely hearkened to my advice. So that I 
mud tell you plainly, as I am their be(t friend, 
and this government is their protedor, and as a 
fatlkT to them, we will not fulfer them any more 
to go out, as they have done, to their deftrudion. 
I fay again, we will not fuffer it ; for we have the 
couni'el of wifdom amongit us, and know what is 
for their good. For though they are weak, yet they 
are our brethren ; we will therefore take care of 
th-Mi, that they be not mifled with ill counfel. You 
riourn when you lol'e a brother ; we mourn, when ' 

any of them are loft ; to prevent which they fnall 
not be fulfered to go out, as they have done, to 
(dc dellroyed by war. 

** IMy good friends and brothers, I give you the 
fame counfel, and earnelUy defire that you will 
follow it, fnice it will make you a happy people. 
1 give you this advice, bccaufe I am your true 
friend; but I much fear you hearken to otliers, 
\Yho never were, and never will be, your friends. 

" You know very well, that the French have 
been your enemies, from the beginning ; and 
|:hough they made peace v^iih you twenty-two years 
ago, yet, by fubtle pradices, they fiill endeavour 
to enfnare you. They ule arts anil tricks, and tell 
you lies, to deceive you ; and if you would make 
ufe of your own eyes, and not be deluded by their 
jefuits and interpi^eters, you would fee this your- 
felves : for you know they have no goods of any 
value, thefe 'feveral years pall, excej)t what has 
been fent to them from tire En^^iijh of Nczu Tor/:, 
and that is'Uow all over. They give fair fpeeche,-;, 
indead of real ferviccs ; and as, fjr many years, 
ihey attempted to deltroy you in war, fo they now 


o«4* The History of Pennsylvania. 

1721. endeavour to do it in peace; for when they per^ 
'*^'^''^**^ fuade you to go out to war againfl others, it h 
only that you may be deflroyed yourfdves ; which 
we, as your true friends, labour to prevent ; be- 
caufe we v/ould have your numbers increafe, that 
you may grow lirong, and that we may be all 
flrengtliened in friendfliip and peace together. 

" As to what you have faid of trade, I fuppofe 
the great diftance, at which you live from us, has 
prevented all commerce between us and your peo- 
ple. We bcHevc thofe, who go into the woods, and 
Ipend all their time upon it, endeavour to make 
the beft bargains they can, for themfclves ; io, cfn 
your part, you muil take care to make the belt 
bargains you can with them. But we hope our 
traders do not exadl: ; for we think that a llrowd 
coat, or a pound of powder, is now fold for no 
more buck fkins than formerly. Beaver, indeed, 
is not, of late, fo much ufed in Europe; and, 
therefore, does not give fo good a price ; and we 
deal but very little in that commodity. But deer 
fkins fell very well among us ; and I Ihall always 
take care that the Indiam be not wronged. But, ex- 
cept other mcahircs be taken to regulate the Indian 
trade every where, the common method ufed in 
trade v.ill (till be followed; and every man mufl 
take care of himfelf ; for thus I mult do myfelf, 
when I buy any thing from our own people ; if I 
do not give them their price, they will keep it j 
for we are a free people. But if you have any 
further propofiils to make about thefc affairs, I am 
"willing to hear and confidcr them ; for it is my 
defire that the trade be well regulated to your 

" I am fenfibic rum is very hurtful to the Indi- 
ans ; we have made laws, that none fhould l)e car- 
ried amongfl them ; or, if any is, that it flioukl 
be flaved, and tlnown upon the jj^round ; and the 


' The History OF Pennsylvania^ »43 

Indians have been ordered to deflroy all the rum, 1721. 
that comes in their way, but they will not do it 5 '-^"■">''"— ' 
they will have rum ; and when we rel'ufe it, they 
will travel to the neighbouring provinces and fetch 
it ; their own women go to purchafe it, and then 
fell it amongfl their own people, at excefTive rates. 
I would gladly make any laws to prevent this, that 
could be elledual ; but the country is fo wide, the 
woods are fo dark and private, and fo far out of 
my fight, if the Imliam themfelves do not prohi- 
bit their own people, there is no other way to 
prevent it ; for my part, I fliall readily join in any 
meafures, that can be propofed, for fo good a 

" I have now, my friends and brothers, faid 
all, that 1 think can be of fervice, at this time, 
mJ I give you thefe things here laid before you, 
to confirm my words, viz. Five coats, twenty 
pounds of powder, forty pounds of lead, for each 
of the Five Nations ; that is, twenty-five coats, 
one hundred pounds of powder, and two hundred 
pounds of lead, in the whole ; which I defire may 
be delivered to them, with thefe words, in my 
name, and on behalf of this province : I fliall be 
glad to fee often Ibme o^ your chief men, i'cnt in 
the name of all the red ; and defire you v/ill come 
to Philadelphia^ to viflt our families, and our chil- 
dren born there, where we can provide better for 
you, and make you more welcome,; for people 
always receive their friends befl at their own 
houfes. I heartily wifli you well on your journey, 
and good fuccefs in it. And when you return 
home, I defire you will give my very kind love, 
and the love of all our people, to your kings, and 
to all their people. 

" Then the Governor rofe from his chair ; and 
Tfvh<gn he had r^Wcd Ghefcidnty the fpeaker, to him. 

t44 The History or Pennsylvania* 

I J 11. he took a corronatlon medal of the king, and pre- 
^-"^"^''^^ lented it to the Indian in thefe words : 

" That our children, when, we are dead, may 
not forget thcie things, but keep this treaty, be- 
tween us, in perpetual renienibrance, I here deli- 
ver to you a picture, in gold, bearing the image 
of my great mafter, the King of all the Enghjh : 
and when you return home, I charge you to deli- 
ver this piece into the hands of the firfl: man, or 
grcatefl chief of all the Five Nations, whom you 
call Kannygooah to be laid up and kept, as a token 
to our children's children ; that an entire and laft- 
ing friend/hip is now eltablillied for ever, between 
.the EngUJhy in this country, and the great Five 


( '45 ) 


The Governor* i concern io promote the country's bene- 
fit, Iffc, — Anthony Morris. — Proceedings in con^ 
fequence of the barbarous murder of an Indian. — 
Names of fome Members of Council about this 
time. — Divers ufeful lazvs paffed, loith fome of 
iheir titles, 'isfc. — Increafe of law fuits. — Names 
of the Members of Afembly. — Regulation of bread 
and four. — Paper currency fcheme firf introduced 
in I J 21. — Advocated by the Gover?ior, and fa- 
voured by the generality of the people ; but difiked 
by fome. — Sentiments of feveral gentlemen and 
merchants, relating to a paper currency, prefented 
to the Affembly. — Anfwer io thefe fentiments, 'is'c. 
— Governor Keith's judgment, on the fame fub- 
jetl, in writing, to the Afembly. — Reply to the 
anfwer to the above fntimenis, Iffc. 


F the Aflembly, cleded In Oftober, 172 1, 1721. 
Jeremiah Langhorne was Speaker ; to which Af- '—--v--^-' 
fembly, in the winter, the Governor, in his fpeech, Governor 
having intimated the neceffity of their united and ^rlffes^hi- 
diHgent appHcation to reilore the planter's credit, concern i'nd 
without dilcouraoinfT the merchant, by whofc in- fcheme for 

in 1 r ^ ,r cr-i ■ " i , , . the public 

duitry alone, lays he, " Their trade miijl be Jup- goud. 
ported with a fijjicicnt currency of caflj,'' thus fur- 
ther expreifed himfelf : " My mind is fo fully bent 
upon doing this province fome cffeulual fervice, 
that 1 have lately formed the delign of a confider- 
Vol. II. [19] able 

14^ Tun HisToi'vY of Pennsylvania. 

1721. able fettlement aniongfl you, in order to man u- 
"•^-^^^^ facture and confnmc the grain ; for which there 
is, at this time, no profitable market abroad ; and 
although this projecl will doubtlefs, at firft, prove 
very chargeable and cxpcnfive to me, yet, if it 
meets with your approlration, and the good will 
of I lie people, I am well afiured it cannot fail of 
anfwcring my purpofe, to do a real lervice to the 
country, and every interefl and concern of mine 
fiiall ever be built on that bottom," kc. 

I'he houfe was hi-hly plcafcd with the Govern- 
ThcAfTom- or's kiiid regard for the public good ; " liis zeal 
kKVh^^^^^^^ reliore the planter's credit, witli h:s jufl care 
covcir.oi's of the merchant, who, of late, with others equally, 
rc-ard, &c. |^.,^j j^jj under the grcateit difadvantages of want 
of a fudicient cuncncy of cafh, as appeared to 
them, from the melancholy complaints ol tlie peo- 
ple, declaring ihey would readily fitll in with any 
fcheme, that Ihould appear to them conducive to 
a remedy/' They gratefully acknowledged his 
patriotic defign to manufadure and confume the 
grain of the country, and heartily thanked him 
for his good condefcenfion, and repeated offers of 
advice aud alliliancc, lor the public utility. 
fvccccd- " In the fpring of the year 1722, an I/hila?! 
ings re- ^y^s barbaroully killed, witliiu the limits of the 

fiiLc'tin": the . r 1 1 /-->/) n^i ' of provmce, lomevvtiere above Lonejtogoc. 1 ins mur- 
an \vAixn. j^r was fuppofcd to be perpetrated by one or two 


Nots. Anthoti'^ MorrJs of P': L,fi:'.pluj, d:f(i on t'lic I4tli of O^ober, 
17:1, lie cunic over among the fcttleis of /r.// 'J-'f^-y, iihout the year 
Arffiony ^^^,0^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ j^;^ rcfidencc at Biitl,n;,r:on for fcven'.l years. Aftcrwan'.i 
j\Iorns ]^^, removed to PhllaJdphia ; where he refided during tlie remainder of 

his life. He is faid to have been of great fcrvice, anvuig t!ie firfl, or 
early, fcttlers, in divers refpeds, both in a public and private capacity; 
being a preacher aninnjr the 0/.„^v;-j, and a man of Mineral ii;ood efteem 
till his death, for near forty years in the cofintry, £ic. 

His fon Anthony Morrh appears to be a Member cf Affenibly, thii 
fame year; a perlon of good ellcim, charai^cr and uHlity to lii^ toun- 
trv, and in the religious fociety <.f tbe .0;,2,f.)j, e.f whitli he \vai. eltient" 
oi ^ ■.iJu^bk .ukI wleful meii.hcr till hi* d.-.ali, in ll:e yeiiv i;<j2. 


The History of Pennsylvat;ia. 

pcrfons, of the name of CartlU^^e. The Govern- 
or having connni/lloned >/m Lo^.n, and CoJ. 
John Irencb, two of his Council, to p-o to Cone 
Jtogoe to enquire into the alFair, afrer thdr return 
at the requefl of the Afie-.nhly, hud their report' 

to the Governor thereon, exprelTed their u^nloil 
ZTX ''''^^^' ^'^^y g^-atefully aeknow- 
ledged, and highly comn.ended tlie Governor's 
prudent conduft, and Heady adniinid ration of 
JufLice; but more eipecially at that time, on an 
ocGafion of tite greateft importance to the peace 
andfalety of the government, by his empowe ing 
two gentlemen of his Council fo able 'and pru^ 
ron'ln'rVr Vf ^'- e:nergency; - Whole wif. 
conduc (aid they) is very confpicuous IVom their 
report laid before the ]loufe by the Governor-" 
ihat, at the relation of the difmal circum- 
itances they were filled with horror and furprife, 
f ^h'/ k"' ? ^""'l^ continuance of the peace, fnft 
fettled by the honourable Proprietary, im.nn 
Icnn, with the Indiana, any brcacli f:,ou!d b^^ po'v 
made by thofe, under the name <,f Chrljhani, [^ 
the reproach of that name, and dan-T of the 

clll^L'' ^''"' ^''^ ^'" '^''^ i^^^^-- ^^ 

^;hey earneftly requefled the Governor to pcr- 
fift in -his laudable endeavour, to brin- ,h,- a<r 

f^\ ^ T^r" ^'T^^^^'^'^'^ v^'ith ail poDible 
p. d, left by delay of jufiice, the indlanl ^^^ 
be mduced to withdrav/ their aileoiance to tlv^ 
.crown of Great Britain^ and aOe.lion Lm tl ; 
government, and be provoked to do tliemfel. 
julace, in a manner, that mi;.ht be of m-VI ,]■.„ 
gerous conlequence: " That he >vcnild o.^lf' 

^^/, (laid they) .,. they are fomc of (be priurpal 
urhahtants of this go.ernnj, we Lc I Jon 




48 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1723. to doubt but they will be concerned for the good 
""^'■'''^^ of the fame."* 

They further prefled the maintaining the league 
pf friendfhip, firft made by their zvorthy Proprie- 
tary^ as a thing of the greateft importance, that 
could poflibly come before them ; and therefore, 
they unanimoufly recommended the execution of 
flrid juflice, as the beil and moft effeftual means 
for that end ; the want of which, in the appre- 
henfion of that vindidive people, had produced 
jad and fatal confequences to other provinces ; 
they likewife propofed to the Governor's con- 
fideration fome particulars, to be immediately 
done, in the affair ; and mentioned the repeated 
requeft of the Indians^ that Jlrong liquors Ihould 
not be carried, nor fold, among them ; with the 
petition of fundry inhabitants of the province, to 
the fame import ; which the laws hitherto made, 
in that cafe, had not been able to prevent ; they, 
therefore, requefted the advice and afliftance of 
the Governor and Council therein, &c. 

The Governor thanked them for the great fatif- 
fad ion, which they expreffed, with his conduit 
and adniinill ration ; and declared, " That he had 
carefully endeavoured to follow the late honour- 
able Proprietary's Jieps in fuch affairs; to keep 
the natives always in a lively and perfed remem- 
brance of his love to them, and to build all their 
treaties of peace with them, upon the fame prin- 
ciples and maxims of good policy, which he ufed 
and maintained when he was here himfelf." He 
likewife alfured the Houle, that he had, at that 
time, all the probability, w^hich the nature of the 


* Among tlie Meinbers of Council, about this time, appear to Lc, 
Richard Hill, Ifaac Norris, 

Samuel Prcfton, Thomas jMaflcrs, 

Anthony Palmer, AVJlliam Afliiori, 

Robert Afhtoii, Joli:i Prciirh, 

Andrew Hamilton, alfo Atiornty (kncral, 
James Logan, liiicwil'i.* Secretary. 

The History of Pennsylvania. 149 

cafe would admit of, for ft:;tlling matters again 1722. 
with the Indian nations, upon that jull, firm and '^"^'"^ 
friendly foundation, which the Houfe fo earneflly 
defired and recommended to him. lie acknowr 
ledged the infufficiency of the laws, to reftrain 
people from carrying too great quantities of rum, 
and felling it among theJndians, thereby debauch- 
ing and cheating them ; which, he faid, he had 
complained of to former Anemblies. 

Great pains wx-rc taken, in this aflair ; an In- 
dian melfenger, Satcbcccho, was difpatched to tlie 
Five Nations ; the fufpedcd perfons were commit- 
ted to prifon ; and the Governor, wi|h two of 
the Council, met and treated with the Five Ndtio)is, 
at Albany, refpccting it ; befides the prefcnts, 
which were made to the IncUmis. The Five Na- 
tions delired that the Cartlidges Ihoukl not fuH'er • ■ 
death ; and the affair was, at length, amicably 

Among the wholefome lav/s, paffed by the Go- Several 
vernor, this year, for improvintr the produce of '"'''"^^^""^^ 

1 • ■' ,. . * . "^ , ' , laws pafled 

the province, melioratmg its J}aple commodities, th\iycs^, 
then in bad credit, at foreign markets, and for '-'^^• 
other pupofes ; there was one alfo entitled, " An 
aft to prohibit the felling of rum, and (Mhcr 
ftrong liquors, to the Indians, and to prevent 
abufes, that may happen thereby."* 

Jofeph Grozcdon was Speaker of the AfTembly 
eleded in Odober, 1722.! The Governor, in 


* Among tliefc laws were: ift, " An aL^• for rncnuraping tlie ma- 
king good beer, and lor tiic cojilumption ol' jfraiii in the province." 2c5, 
" An ad to prevent the exportation of fluur, not merchantable." 3d, "An 
3(51 for laying a duty on N'i'gyoes imported into tliis province." ^<tli, 
" An adl for encouraging and raifing of hemp, in tliis province," t^c. 

f The names of the Minihers of tliis AfTembly were, 

For Philatiilphht county. L'nds cimnty. Cl,,ftrr county. 

Samuel Carpenter, fenr. JoRph Ornwdou, .S;innKl Lewis, j>mr. 

Vn^ncis Rawie, 'Willlam r.i.\ton, Jofe^^h Peiiiioek, 


15^ The History of Pennsylvania. 

1722. his fpeech to this AfTcmbly, on the firft of the 
'*'*'"^^'"*^ nth month, having palled an encomium on the 
great harmony and unanimity, which had iubfift- 
ed between him and the former Alfembhes, with 
the means, and happy conlequences thereof, took 
occafion thence to recommend to them, among 
other things, that they would dircft their enqui- 
ry, to fmd out, from whence it proceeded, that 
fuch a muhipiicity of expenfive and vexatious law 
fuits had been, of late, commenced in their 
courts, beyond what was ufual, or known, in 
the province before.* 

The Go- " Eecaufe, fays he, if this fisdden change 
vcrnor'sre- fliould appear to arife only from the increafe of 
the'incrrafe ^f'^^^*^ and riclics, it is well; but, if from any 
ofiuw fuits, other caufe whatfoever, I conceive it will be at* 
tended with dangerous confequenccs to the body 
of the people, whom you rcprefent ; and, in 
fiich cafe, it will require your immediate applica*- 
tion." He alfo obferved, " That, for the Jake 
of the M'hole country, who mull live by the pro- 
dud and manufadure of grain, it was abfolutely 
neceffary, that the making good bread and Hour, 


fir rhilddelphiit ctutity. Buds county. Chtjlcr county, 

Matthias Holfton, Williaj-n Biles, David Lewis, 

John Swift, John Sotcher, William Pile, 

Robert Jones, Jol'tphKirkbridc.junr. Daniel Willi^nifon, 

Anthony Morris, (Jtorgc CIcugh, IfracI Taylor, 

Hu<jh Evans, Thoiiias Canby, Natlianicl Nevvlin, 

Benjamin Vining, Tliomu.i Yarcily, Ilaac 'I'a^lor, 

City of PhUaddphij. 

John Keuriky, Charles Read. 

* Rcfpe<5ting tlie article of law fuiLs, which the Governor mentioned 
to tlie Lloufc, the coiniiiitrcc of ^^ricvancLS, on the lanit n'.oiuh, mud^ 
^heir report, aa follows, talun from the p'inied votes: 

" We have examined the SheriiT's docquet, and find tliat, 
From September, 1715, to September, 17 16, the number of r/rits are 43 r» 
From September, 1 7 17, to September, I ; 18, - ^- - 58^', 

From September, 1719, to September, 1720, . . _ 627> 

From September, 1721, to Septcinber, 17 22, - - - 847> 

Iiom iscpttmbcr to Dtcembtr, I7J2, r - r ajC 

The History of Pennsylvania, 

be fo regulated, As to recover their lod credit, in 
the market, in the Wcji- Indies ; upon which their 
v/hole traiTic entirely depended :" He concluded 
with exprcilions of the warmed z:eal, to join with 
ihcm in whatever means fiiould be found necef- 
fary to eafe the preient burdens of the people, 
and to relieve their complaints. 

The Iloufc, in anlwer, as kindly acknowledged 
the Governor's care, and conflant inclinations, 
for the good ind profperity of the province ; and, 
joining with them, in fentiment, relpecling the 
neceflary thmgs, which he recommended to their 
confideration, they undertook the regulation and 
improvement of fome of the law proceedings ; 
efpecially refpedling attachments j and feveral laws 
Avere palled, for thefe purpofes. 

About this time the province appears to have Scheme fof 
been under great difficulties, refpefting the de- ^/^^^^'^g^J.'* 
cay, or difcouragement, of its trade and credit, introduced 
and the want of a fufficient medium, or currency, '"'" ^'.^'^'"' 
of cafli ; for the relief of which divers propofalsT'nh'mo. 
were made; and among the reft, that o^ paper ^r^^- 
money, or paper bills of ercJif, was now intro- 
duced ; which occafioned confidcrable debate, 
between men of dilierent fentiments, refpeding it. 

The Governor was a flrong advocate for a pa- 
per currency, and took great pains to promote it ; 
with whom appeared to join the generality of the 
people- But divers^ who were confidered as 
perfons of mofh property, judgment and weight, 
in the province, did not like the fcheme : but then 
their dillike was chiefly founded on the difliculty 
ot preferving the faid currency from depreciation ; of tlie iu- 
which they faw, had, in general, occalioned mil- troducHfl 
chievous and fraudulent confequences, in other ' 
provinces ; together with fome modes, whicli were 
propofed, of ilTuing and ccjnducling the iiime ; 
io that their oppofition was not fo much entirely 


oi t; 

1^2 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1722. againfl a paper credit, properly guarded and con-- 
'""'^'^'^'^ dufted, as agaiiifl: fraud, or thofe modes of form- 
ing and managing it, which had been fo ruinous in 
other places, or fuch as they judged would be 
equally pernicious, if adopted here. Hence, in 
the nth month this year, when the fcheme was 
under confideration of the AiTembly, If^iac Nor- 
ris and James Logan, in the name and behalf of 
feveral gentlemen and merchants, prefentcd the 
following fentimcnts thereon, in wiiting, to the 
Houfe, viz, ^ 

*' To the honourable Houfe of Reprefentatives of 
the province of Pennfylvania.* 
Sentiments " Being admitted, upon our addrefs to the 
"Lukmcn ^^oLifc, prefented yefterday, to exhibit any further 
and mer- fcutimcnts, iu relation to a paper credit, now vi- 
vhants, &c. ^Qj.^^lly pj.^||-,^ ^Q 1^^ eftablillied by law; we 


* A few days after this the following paper was laid before the 
Houfe, in anlwer to thefe y:v,7;'/;/£-/;/j of fcvn-ctl g.-nthinfn dtij vu-rduuits, in. ■ 
relation to a pajier currency, viz. 

" To the honourable Houfe of Rfprefsntatives of the province of Fcnrt^ 
/).'v.iiiij, in Ad'embly met, the i4th of January, I7ij-2j. . 

" Muy i( plaif th: honourMe Houfe, 

" Wc beg leave to lay before you fome confiderations, in anfwer ta 
the fii'.iments of ac/itL-wen a'ld merchants, in relation to d paj er crc- 
dit which they were admitted to prefent, the tenth inllant. 

" F'irfl, It is but jiift to concede to their notion, that this province is 
dependent on, and derives all iti powero from, Grcnt Britain ,- and that 
it is the highell wifdom, in our I.egiflaturc, to dire(it themfelves by 
the fame prudent meafures, as far as uiir eirtuiJillar.ccs witii theirs may 

" Secondly, It is by them alK.dged, that when the nation was diflreffed 
by war, and their coin generally debafed, yet tiie parliament would not 
advance their currency, on any account; and that they renewed it, at 
the fame finenefs, to jiafs at the former rates; and they have unaltera- 
lly kejit to the fame. And further, x\Ye.\. iiceh>e hundted tlaifand pounds 
m_de good to private perfor.s all their lois, received from exchanging 
their clipped and debafed coin, for tiie new milled money, didivererl 
at par: to which wc fay, that wc Imow (by what authority J'ocver it 
v/as, or is done) that fince, if not tl:en, the Coin hath been (particularly 
the golil) ofieii ralfed and lowered; and that the iivehc hundred ihoufind 
founds did make good all the lofs in the kingilom, for the debafed coin, 
is an aflertion, we doubt not, but there are many, in Great Britaiit 
(und iwme here) can inlorm ihol'c ireialcn-.'^n oth(.rwife. 

" Thndh, 

•'liiii History OF Penns\,i. ^5^ 

accordingly offer the following heads, which miy 1722. 
be fu sported by folid arguments, when the Houie — "'>^'"*^ 
thinks fit to require them. 

" F/r/?, That as this province derives all its Of the in- ■• 
powers from, and is wholly dependent on the 2)^^"^'°",,°^ 
kingdom of Great Britain, it will be the highefl currency. 
Xvifdom in our Legiflature, upon all exigencies, to 
direct thcmfelves by the fame prudent and Juft 
meafures, which the parliaments of that kingdom 
have always purfued, in the like cafes ; In w'loni 
nothing has been more confpicuous than a mofl 
ftrict care, that no fubje*6l fhould lofe by the coin, 
or public credit, of the kingdom. 

Vol. II. [20] « Scrondly^ 

" 7l)'rJ!y, In concurrence with the fentimentg of theft; gentlemen, ir» 
thoir t'urd {)ura;;riph, wi humbly recommend It to our legiflitors, that 
our bills be e.'^ahlifhjd upon lo juft a foundation, that, while in being, 
th:y m;y iVill ontinu: of the fame value with r;al money, according to 
thj rutc«, at which they arc firft ilTued. 

" Fourthly, If thofe bills cannot be procured, where they are to be 
iffued, for a lefs pkdije or fecurlty, than gold, or filver, would be, the 
tafy terms of r.'l'uuling them will not ielT^-n their value; for the llamji 
of authority has its own laws, as unalterable in thenifclves, as thof oZ 
jilt rell, or increafe, are in ufury ; and which, I'uch as are verfcd in thole 
affairs, as carefully cgnfider. 

" ^f''}'' '^'*- '"'■■^^ni-"^ rriiH comnnnly talked of, for lending; out 
fums to be ilifcli ir^ed by anuaal paynicnts, equal to, or nut much exceed- 
iup the intere'l, for a certain number of years, without paying any prin- 
cipal, are not partial and unjuft, nor d^'ftrudive to the public credit ; for 
the pledge feeured is more than an equivalent to the fum received, and 
the intcre.l given 13 not iiiconfiJ. table, even, of the loweft rated fchemes. 
To whom are th:y partial and unjuft, fince no method is propofed, or 
contrived, for an/ particular in in, orineu, excluding others? The bcncQt 
is. to be general ; and though the necelhties of the poor chiefly call for the . 
fuccour, yet it is more withiu the compafs of the rich to be thereby fa- 
voured ; bi-caufe they have plenty of pledges: let them n^, then, complain 
of partiality, or injutlice, through their own negligence. How are fuch 
fchemes d.-ftruAive to public tr-dic, fince the public is capable of yield- 
ing lo in icK relief to a necellitoufi people, without hurting itfelf ? No, 
the defign is lau lable, and gr.-atly becomes oUr gen.Tous /w/r/o//. ''But, 
perhajis, there are fume, that are partial to themfeives, although they 
fcem to fpeuk in defence of the p.iblic, afiTording us room to guefs, they 
would have no money borrowed, but of private perfuis, and begrudge 
the borrowers of the pablic, the gain of nczr t.^iirty />ojnfi, according to 
tlie exqulnte calculation of thofe gentlemen; beeaufe they thunfelveS 
know, that fuch an advantage is not ccjual to the fweet incomes of ufury. 

" Slxt'ily, AM fuch -irij^cfti ar ■ not PKcredingly weak and unjuft ; for 
^hat ram, had h: mj.iey by hmi to lead, would refufe it, on fufficient 

f:curity ? 

154 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1723. " Secondly^ That as, when the nation was mofl 
^'"^ grievoufly diftreircd, in the time of a dangerous 
and expenfive war, by a general debafing of their 
current coin, the parliament would hearken to no 
propofal (though many were made) for relieving, 
the (late, by raifmg the new minted money to a 
higher value; but, under the vaflefl difficulties, 
renewed it, at the fame weight and finenefs, to 
pafs at the former rates ; which they have unalter- 
ably kept to. And further, by the fum of tu^^h^ 
hundred ihoufand pounds^ made good to private 
perfons all the lAfs of exchanging their clipped and 
debafed coin, for the new milled money, which 
was delivered out at a par to them : fo the like 
jullice and prudence requires, that no , further 
alteration, than what the parliament has made 
here, fhould, on any terms, be admitted, in the 
value of our gold and fdvcr, but that it Ilill con- 
tinue, as it now pafles. 

" rhirdly, 

feciirity ? And if lie docs lend it, on fuch fecuiity, wlicfc* can wc fiippofc 
the leiidcr'd lofs to be? Or, wherein is tiic pijiLT crtiiit lefT'ciied, wlieii 
there is more thun its value to lupport it ? 'I'lieir fup])ofinj^ i^ to be lent 
to all, is an aniulenicnt; and the tribunal i* eafy to be erc<fled, to find 
out perfons of worth, from thole that are worth nothing ; and the poor 
(who, they fuy, have as little merit as any) may have a chance to get it 
by labour, by the employers having foinethin;j to pay both to their own^ 
and the poor man's advantage : and thus a way may eafily be found for 
difpcnling the public favours. We prefume to add, to tliefe great and 
rich men (and, therefore, according to their account, fober and induOri- 
oiis men) that we humbly hope a medium, in buliiiefs, will run us from 
the lool'e way of luxury, idlenefs and folly, which often liappens from be- 
ing non-plus' J in a regular diJpatch of alFaii-s, for want of pay, when due. 
" Sc-jstit'jly, This currency, or paper money, will not fall in value, if 
railed on a good foundation, as recommended in the third article. I'hc 
life of filver is alone (jvviiig to the avarice of the poffellibr ; who, know- 
ing there is no other currency (and ihu too, at this time, extremely 
fcarce) they have iinjioled on the i.ecefilties of the people, by advancing- 
it near iicu JhUlln^yi in tlic pound ; but it is not improbable that our bills, 
being always capable of purchaling our country produce, their value bc- 
• hig equal to illver, will again reduce it to its ftaled worth, and be as 
Alti.sfie'.rjry to the kind lender, who, (according to them) relieved the 
biriower in iliflrefs, or iold him land, or goods, at the real value, at 
the time of lending, or fuk. 

" riyhtl.-h, 'I'hofe do not deceive thenifelvis, v, ho, bccaufe gold and 
fil'.Lr may be had, at A'^it' 7't,ii, or other phuek, in exJunge for their 


The History of Pennsylvania. j : 

*' Thirdly, That, as the parliament, as often as 1722. 
they found it neceflary to ilFue bills of credit, ^-"'""^''^ 
called exchequer bills, or notes, took the utmoft 
care, to keep them equal in value with filver, by 
giving the Bank of England, when they fell into any 
difcount, vafl fums of money, to receive thofe 
bills, as their own, and to exchange them with 
ready cafh,' on the demand of the bearer : fo it 
appears abfolutely neceffary, that if bills of credit 
he raifed here, due care fhould be tal^n (fmce wg 
,can have no fuch Imnks, in this ])rovince, as are in 
Europe, whofe rules are to pay down ready money 
for their bills, upon demand) to eftablifli tiiem on 
fo juft a foundation, that, while in being, they 
may (till continue of the fame value v/ith real mo^ 
ney, according to the rates, at \vhich they are at 
firll ifiued. . 

'' Fourthly, 

paper moniry, fuppofe that the one is as frood as tlie other. It is a rc- 
teivcd inaxiin, tii,!t tiie value of any thing is in proportion to what it 
will purchafe : now paper bills will, at this time, and would lormerly, 
purchafc, in Njzu York, goods cheaper than cafli will, ar. P!>i!.uU.^h'ui ; 
and it is obvious that fome other reafon may have occafioned the rife of 
filver and gold there; linee Ave have here advanced, at lead, ^v />,-,■.•■? 
j)tr ounce, on filver, heyoml the rate afeertaincd by aA of ]iarlianienf , 
ivitliout any iiK'h motive as paper money. 

" Thefc hciug premifed on the general lieadf, wliat next folIuM's i'i ijj 
anfwcr to their tiiree conclufive points. 

ift. " If the whole fum ftruck he fo fmall, that it v/ill not anr.ver tin- 
abfolutc and immediate neeeffuies of thole wlio iiave real feturirits w, 
give, it will not (we humbly conceive) be luliicienr to pais I'loni hand 
to hand, for a currency. 'j 

2d. " That which is a Ijenefit to any perfon, for five years, will be i 
further benefit, for a longer term; and, perhaps, the iixing it to a Ihoii 
date may abrid;^e fonie perfons from effciling whit they might acconw 
pliiii for tiicir own good, and the country's advantage, in incirc tim-,-. 
'I'iie ditfiiiulty of exchanging worn out bills lor new, in an ollice to !.j 
tredltd for that purpufc, we doubt not the care and ability of this Af- 
fembly to furniount, and render pratif iccible. And, if our laws can con- 
tinue in force no longer than five years, without the royal approbation, 
yet we prefunie a law fo beneficial to the lu re, i'o concurrent to 
the pradice of neighbouring colonies, and lio ways rtpugnant to tlie 
laws of Eiiglai:J, will, when duly reprel'eiued at home, not want that ap- 

, :,d. " We confide in this, that the wifdom of i)ni honouruhlr Hnuf, 
needs no uir^Jion, in the care tj be tak.-'i, of iiiiViug the/'.iy'.^ ^jiioi^y 



1722. " Fourthly^ That, if thofe bills be ilTued on any 
^■^"^^ cafier terms to the receiver, than gold, or Tilver 
wculd be, if it were to be paid, or lent, out of 
the treafury, by how much ealier thefe terms are, 
by fo much, at leaft, will the bills fall in value y 
for credit has its own laws, as unalterable in tlieni- 
ielves, as thofe of motion, or gravity, are, in na- 
ture, and which, fuch, as are verfed in thei'e 
affairs in Europe^ as carefully confider. 

" Fifthly, That the fchemes mod conimonly 
talked of, loiJending out fums, to be difcharged 
by annual payments, equal fo, or net much ex- 
ceeding, the interell, for a certain number of 
years, without paying any principal, are partial 
?nd unjuft, and would be deflruftive to public 
credit ; bacaufe the confideration given is not an 
equivalent to the fum received. 

" For 

in courfe, and in a jufl manner; for ■>ve eftcem you (ami nut tlxfe gen- 
tlemen pLtitioners) to be proper judges ol' the methods hiilieitu dil'courf- 
ed r.f. 

" Thefe ohfervations, may it pleafe this honourahle HoTife, on tlic 
fentiniciits of thofe g;enllenien, we humbly otlcr to your coniiderution, 
and pray your favourable conltrudion." 

Soon after the preceding anfwer was delivered to the Honfe, it wa§ 
followed by a paper, in reply to it, containirg, the further fcr.timaiti of 
the gentlemen, imrchuiits, &c. on the fame lubjcd , viz. 

" To the honourable Hoiife o/'Reprefcntatives of the province of I'cnrfylvania, 
Further " In the important affair of z. faper credit, now v.nder the coiifidera- 

fentimcnts, tion of your Houfe, it is to be hoped thar all honefl men, t.mcngll us, 
3cc. think of it frona the fame principles, c^nd with the f.,me inclinations, 

v/'z. to promote the true intcrefl and reputation cf this colony. 

" Upon thefe views alone we lately took the liberty to petition your 
honourable Houfe, to be heard ui)on the fubjtd, ard the i.ext day cx- 
iiibited our fentimenti, in writing, drawn into fcvcral hiads, und built, 
on fuch folid foundations of truth, tliat \\c are wlU aflured they cannot 
be fliakcn. 

" Yet, as the opinions of men arc cxtrcnie'y various, and great pains 
have, of late, been taken here, to inllil and flrengthen popular errors, 
on that fubjeifl ; we find divers of thefe drawn uj>, in a jiaper, lately 
prefented to, and received by. the Houfe; containinj';, as it lays, fome 
confideration?, in anfwer to our faid fentimenti, but truly confilHng, in 
a great meafure, of thofe common miftakc), which ha\e vrihappily oc- 
• afioned fuch differences in opinion, even, among the WtU-meaniiig, who, 
wc prcfume, all aim at the public rood. 

" I'hc 

The History of Pennsylvakia. i c 

*' For inftance, flioulJ one hundred pounds be 1722. 
llent out, to be difcharged, by the payment only ^-^^^"^ 
of eight pounds annually, for fixteen years ; were 
fuch an annuity to be bought, according to the 
known rules for purchafing ellates, it v/ould here 
be worth no more than feventy pounds Jixtecn jlnl^ 
lings and three pence, in ready money ; nor is an 
annuity for nine pounds ten fliillings per annum, 
for twelve years, worth more than fcventy-ons 
pounds twelve Jhillings. In cither of thefe cafes, 
the borrower, could he difcharge debts of that 
value with it, thou^^h he were to pay the annuity 
in gold and fdver, would gain near thirty pounds 
by the loan, but no oiher perlbn would tcel the 
lead advantage by it ; now, if no man would let 
out his own money on theie terms, none ou^dit to 
defire it fo of the public ; the credit of which is 
of vaflly greater importance, than any private per- 
fons J becaufe a failure, \\\ that, affe6ls the fortune 
of every individual, in his money, the medium of 
his commerce and deuHng. 

" Sixth!)', 

*' The more clearly, therefore, to manifL-ft thefe popular deceptions, 
»o prevent the unhij'py conl'equenco, that may ^titcjid their obtdiuing 
further place, and more etTeiftually to eflabliAi the truth and certidnty of 
ihofe headi, wc before prcfciitcd, we humWy beg leuve to clltr the fol- 
lowing obfervations, on the fcveral parts of tliat p'.ipcr, with (un\cf„r- 
thir fiiitiments, on the \vhole matter; whieh, v;c hope, will be inter- 
preted according to their true itittntion, that is, to icrve the pubhc, iii 
which we arc all jointly embaikcd. 

" The defign of wliat we then exhibited to the lloufe (as is evIu.'Mt 
from all the parts of it) was not to oppofu a f.tpir ci\-Jtt, but to fliew the 
•langcr of ill concerted fehemes, and to point out, as far as was then 
pr(jper, what we conceived to be the moft eflcdluul niealures, for aii- 
fwering all the juft; ends, propofcd by I'uch a cri d:t. 

*' In the three firft articles was rtpreferited hov^ much it became ut., 
as a government depending on Britain, to copy after the great es;inipl'.s, ■ 
their parliaments have let before \\^; particularly ih^l'e tv\o cafi b of 
keeping our coin conftaatly to the fame rates, and fi •.poniiig the cituit 
of our bills, when iffucd, equivalent to fuch money. 

" To the firft of thefe, thofe, concerned in that paper, are obli-ed 
to concede. 

" To the fecond they anfwer witii a grofs miflalce, and an unhecnm- 
in; iriliin;^: for, it is pohtivel/ true, lli.ic i^a the ;iv:a r-loiiu...icn 

j8 Thk History gf Pennsylvania. 

^22. ^'^ Sixthly, That all fiich projedts are either ex-r 
""^'""'^ ceedingly weak, or unjull; for the paper money 
is to be lent either to all, who fliall defireit, on a 
tender of the fecurity, propofed, or tofome only: 
if to all (as it is natural for all men to defire what 
they may gain by) it will be impradlicable to ftrike 
enough, to anfwer all demands ; or, if it were 
flruck, it would, becaufe of its quantity, become 
of little, or no value j if to a few only, what 
tribunal can be ercfted, to judge and diflinguifh, 
who of the King's fubjedls, are to be admitted to 
the favour, and who to be rejected ? If the poor 
only are to be the objefts, they have not fecurity 
to give, or, if they had, perhaps they hare as lit- 
tle merit as any : commonly people become weaU 
thy by fobriety and induilry, the mof]; ufeful qua- 
lifications in a commonwealth, and poor by luxury, 
idlenefs and folly, What rules then can be found, 
for difpenfmg the public fervours f > 

" Seventhly, 

of the Eaglijh coin, in 1696, there has not been the lead alteration in it ; 
guincai, which, till lately, never were a legal tender, were limited that 
year, that they Ihould not, under ^ penalty, be receive^! at more than 
l-u'enty-Ht'o Jbilliags each. But no fooner did^/nrr, the true lawful mo- 
sey of the kIngdo:n, circulate freely again, which, by the great dili- 
gence of the fcvcral mints, they did, within fix months after ; but the 
people refufed to take them gt more than tiuenty'rODe Jhilllngs and fix pence, 
as formerly; at which rate tliey have conllantly continued, till the niiyes 
ol America, efpecialljr of BrajU, producing much more gold than filver, 
in value, the firfl: has fallen, in Eurapi ; on which, to prevent the ex- 
portation of filver, they are, by a late a(51: of parliament, reduced to 
ituenty-onf JhiUings ; and at that rate, at length, made a legal tender, 
that is, lawful money of the nation. If foreign gold, or filver, be" 
meant, which are only merchandize, and rife, as the demand is for ex- 
])')rtation, thcfe are entirely out of the quefHon. To the other part, 
where they alledge, that the ttvehe hundred thou/and pounds did not make 
good all the lofs, in the kingdom ; we fay, that our information* are as 
good as any can pretend to, in this province. 

" That fum, on large trials, made in the exchequer, of the monies re- 
ceived the year bijfore, was judged fufficient to make good the whole 
lofs; and all,, who brought in their money, within the time limited, 
had it made giDod to them. It is true, fome perfons difaffetfled to tlie go- 
vernment, and others fond of their hoards, forbore, and fuffcred accord-, 
ingty: but the great care of the parliament, and therefore the truth of 
«ur aiTertion, are from hence equally clear. 

• - /.■.■..- , •„ ^j,g 

The History OF Pennsylvania. i5D 

r ^^' Seventhly, That by thefe fchemes, the more 1722. 
the , currency, or paper- money falls in value (by '— "^>^"*^ 
which word falling, is meant the riftng of gold, 
filver, Englifh goods, and all other commodities^ 
in nominal value, which is the certain proof of the 
other's falling) the greater is the borrower's advan^ 
tage ; for the more eafily will he pay his annuity ; 
fo that he may happen, by virtue, of the aft, to 
difcharge, with the value of twenty pounds, a 
debt of one hundred, due to the man, who, per- 
haps, kindly lent him the money, to relieve him 
in diflrefs, or honeftly fold him his land, or goods, 
af their real value, at the time of lending, or fale. 

' • . « Eighthly, 

" The third head, which is the gfeatcft point, of keeping up our hills 
%b the fame value with real money, according to the rates, at which 
they are, at firft, iiTued, is alio conceded, >n general terms; jind the 
juft foundation mentioned, is all that is contended for. 

" But what 18 advanced in the fourth and fifth articles, is the grand 
popular error, that endangers a difappointment, in that great end pro- 
p6fcd. For no ftampof authority can give an intrinlic worth, where 
U really is not. Experience, whofe inflrudtions, even the weakeft may 
reach, will fhew us, that hills of credit have been iffued in no place oii 
this continent, where they have not,'fooner or later, funk below the 
value, at which they were, at firft, made ; and yet they all had as pow- 
erful a ftamp of authority as any we can give. Wc arc now upon put- 
ting iu praiSlice a prujctS of the fame kind; it is, therefore, tlie nior« 
highly incumbent on us, prudently and advifcdly to confuler, in time, 
by what means the inconveniencies, that have attended otlicrs, in theirs, 
may be prevented in our undertaking, 

" The firft remark, we offered, on this he?.d, was from this founda- 
tion, that, if the public; by their terms of iili,iug their bills, ihew they ~ 
eftimate them at lefs than they would real money ; all mankind, but ef- 
pecially the trader, whofe bufinefs it is to exchange his commodity for 
its real value, will naturally be taught to do the fame. The greatnefs 
<)f the fecurity. makes no manner of difference, unlefs the borrower of 
the bills Ihould be obliged, for in « hundred founds lent in them, to repay, 
upon tliat fecurity, the. like fum of gold or filver, and not in the fame 
fpecie ; for fhould one, upon lending any rarity, nf no great intrinfic va- 
Ijie, take a fecurity of one hundred pounds, to have it returned, this would 
hot add to tbe real worth of the thing lent, though it ftiewed, the len- 
tler refolved to have it rcftorcd to him ; or, if a man ftioUld alFign the 
bond of another perfon of dubious credit, for one hundred fiounds due, fur 
the coufideration of fifty founds only, to be paid by the aflignce, in 
twelve months, to the alfignor ; and for the payment of x\i^ fifty puvmU, 
fliouid take a mortgage, or Acuriiy, \wuvth five hundred pohnfls^ this in- 
deed will make tlic debt oi ffty more ccrtuinly good, but will not'jdfi 
hne farthing to the value of the bond afTtgned. in the latne manner, 'if 
^ perfun be pofTeft'ed oi ffty pounJi, in IjUiij gf credit, tliou-ghihere be a ' 
" *'i"' fccuriLf 

l6o 'ixxs:. rlibrORY of Pt.ITNa'Ci.VAWlA. , 

1722. '\ Elghtbl)', That all thofe deceive themfelves, 
^""""'''"^ who, becauie gold and filver may be had at Nev/ 
York, or other places, in exchange for then* pa- 
per money, fuppofe that the one, therefore, is as 
good as the other, unlefs the filver can be had at 
eight jlnllings per ounce, or the gold 2X fix jhillings 
per penny weight, at New Tork^ as they were rated 
at the fir ft flriking of their bills ; but when their 
filv'cr brings from nine to ten fliillings per ounce, 
and their light piftoles pafs at twenty-eight fhiliings, 
or higher, then bills are truly fo much fallen in va- 
lue, as the oihers are advanced. So, in Carolincjy 
filver is to be purchafcd for their bills, but it is at 
thirty jhiUings per ounce, though they were ftruck, 
as is laid, at Jeven Jhillings oidy 1 

" Thefe being premifed as general heads, what 
next follows, is to point out what are conceived to 
be the only means of fupporting the credit of fucli 
a currency, if iflued. 

" //>/, 

■ fecnrity nf «/?^ or l-zvo '.undri.J poumh given for them, in tlie ofilce; h'j the 
bonowcr, at tlie fiift tailing of tliein out, fhould thcfe bills, for tha 
fame n^afons, that have prevailed in Bojlan, and other places,- in the like 
caf:*, fin'rt. in their vuliie, and become worth lefs \\\7i.nfnrtyfounJ}, while 
in thut iHrfcm's hands, the fecurity given will, in no manner, compen- 
fate that lofs to the poffeffor ; for neither he, nor even the public, can 
have any fatlsfaiftion fnm the fecurity ; beraufe, if the borrower re- 
turns the bills again, when due from him, though they fhould not then 
be worth tiuenty ponnJs of that coin, by Mbich they were firfl rated, hi* 
fecurity will be entirely difcharged by the payment. This is mofl evi- 
dent and plain to any man of reafon, who will make ufe of it: but per- 
fons over-run with the common notions, depending on the applaufe of 
fuch as arc ready jirepared to give it to every thing, favouring their own 
opinions, may think it fulhcicnt for anfwcring the moll certain truth, 
barely to deny it, and confide in the numbers, that are to fupport their 
aifertions ; which wc concei\e has been the only motive to thofe perfcns, 
_^ "vvho drew up, or jii-ef-iircJ the paper, nov.- under confidcration ; but 

the unh:tndlo,ne reflj>5lioiis, that arc call, in that part of it, (liall, for 
theprefciit, be waved, and iclerred to the clufe of this, as a more proper 

" In our fifth and fixrh heads we affcrted, that fuch fchemes as were 
then commonly talked of, were partial, weak and unjuft; as they were 
intended to make grants v;ry ben-iicial to the firft borrower, but injuri- 
ous to the others; that all would equally co"et the fame advantage ; 
but that, from the nature of the thing, all could not podlbly partake of it ; 
Unlefj the quantity of the bills v.'ere fo vail us lb render them of little,- 


Tiir. History or Finns ylvania. i6r 

" Firjl, That the whole fiirn flruck be but fniall, 1722. 
rmd ju!t fuillcleiit to pafd from hand to hand, for ^-"'"^''^^''^ 
a currency. 

" Scco?:d!y, That It be not continued for any 
longer time; for the paper will wear out,- and it 
will not be fo eafy to exchange it for new, as fome 
have imagined; which, it is much to be doubted, 
will be found impradicable : befides, the fooner it 
iL^ to expire, the more eafdy will people be fatisiied 
to take it. But further, our laws can continue 
in force no longer than live years, without the 
royal approbation. 

" Thirdly^ That care be taken to force the link- 
ing of it in courfe, and in a jufl manner, by mea- - 
fures, tliat fiiall render it ablblutely necelTary for 
the public to have it funk ; which, it is conceived, 
Vol. II. [21J none 

nr no value. The truth of all which'is fo clear and plnin, that it would 

be littli; Icfs than a mockery to liumiiii rcafori, to offer arguments lor 

fupponing what, it" underllood, is lti|'-cvidti)t. . But this in uov/ tntirj- 

ly nut ol" time, tlie wifdom of tli'j AffLinbly hav"rig admitleil none of 

thfife f:hemes, there guarded againil, and it will be difiicuk to find a '• 

teafon for offurinir that part of the jiaptr to th-. H^uU-, after all the 

votis, that h'.is-e lie.-n paffed on this aiT;'ir, uultf-. it be to i^repi.rc, wiih 

un extrenii- nrulelly, lor .lui'iher pulh, tj ovcrilt all that lian hirher;o 

been voted. 

" Their wiiole anfwerto the feviiith hcr.d is g-rouudcd on another r;r.;:ii' 
millake, in the caufe of the rill of filver amonoil us; which is truly tlius: 
In the year i 709, when the act of p iiliani-nt, for reducing our coin, took 
place, iilvcr was our counnon currency ; gohl beinj^ then but rarely i^^-cn ; 
but as it was judged nectflary (feein;': the ad was filent in it) to m.d:e th;;t 
alfo, as well as iilver, pafj current by weij^ht, at fome determinate r;ite ; 
and being, at that time, worth four pounds an ounce, or four ihi'!iiij;» per 
penny weight, in Britain, it wan advanced in the fame projiortion with Iil- 
ver, ffiz. one third) tojivti /'i.'ii//gt un.l fui:r p::icc per penny wtight; but 
becaufe this fum could jiot be fo divided by twenty-four, as to reiuler it 
pradticable to icclon fnigle grxitis by fi;rthings, v/ithcut a fia6tion, it 
vs'as, by common content, ruifed tofwJhiH-j-.^s unJJh: p::ue, th'j.t a grain 
might be accounted at t-a^o pence thr.i furtbinrs. 'I'his fecming fm;i!l 
difference, with the advance given in Lin^ by the Eaf, IrJ'ui compa- 
ny for Spaniji Jil'^er, wrought fo great a change in our currency, that 
our payments v.ere molfly made In gold, A''izu Tori nnd .Vri.'ain gradu- 
ally txhaufting our filver; infomuch thrit, even, nine or tc:n years ago, 
five per cent, advance \v..3 given, in gnld, in exchange for Hpanijh fd- 
v-r ; though afterv/arils, uiinn a greit.-r ii'iport.ition of tlic lat.'er, this 
^ii'tTvnce, fur foioc tiais, alii-.t.d; Lur ;^ll.l h^^vitig A'l! further fallen ia 


i62 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1722. none of -the methods hitherto difcourfed of will 
-'•*'^^'*' efFedt. Thefe heads, miiy it pleafe the HouFe, arc 
what we have, at prefeiit, humbly to otfer to your 
confideratlon, on this fubje£t." 

- A few days after this was prefented to the Hoiife, 
the Governor alfo dehvered them his fentiments, 
in writing-, on the fame fubjeft, as follows ; 
" Mr. Speaker, and 

" Gentlemen of the AJfemhly^ 

Governor " ^ ^^^^^' ^^ 7°^^ requcft, Very carefully confi- 
Keith'sfcn- dered the relblutions of the Houfe, upon your 
iVroducin" jo^^^i^^ls, relating to public credit ; and alfo fome 
thej.aper thiugs, which, I fuid, havc been otiered to you, 

vunency. ^^^^ ^{^^ O^j^g fubjca. 

" Credit may, no doubt, be compared to the 
mathematics, in fo far as both fcienccs will admit 


yalue, in Britain, the difparity lias again further mcreafcd ; for account- 
ing piccei of eio;ht, mA'j ■iX.Jrjt Jhdlir.^s and four pcn^i '^<:ir oxxnzi, which 
is under a medium for their common price; and gold fit thru pounds 
tlaLtftii fl-i/thi^'s, whicii ij ncir its prcfent, or late value, in Eng/ar.J; an 
ounce of Sp.vujh fllvcr is truly equivalent to/rvenJLillixtj and/ix perur, 

', in gold, at Ji-ut founds tenjhil!in\rs per ounce, ut we rate it. It is thcre- 
'~\ fore, neither aiJ.u!:t, nor Jb.irpini^, that lus occalloncd this advance, in 

the exchanj^e of thcfc two metals, but the eflential dillcrcnce, in their 
intrlniic value, »t the market, to which they arc curried ; which is cf- 
timated by riik-s, that ever will prevail amonj^ competent rcafontrs ob 
tlie bafis of trade ; though fuch, as go beyond their la/l, will meddlt 
•with mittcr* out of their fphere, are uncapable of comprehending them. 
" But, from hence a furc rule may be taken, in relation to paper, 
that by fo much as the value of public bills fmlc, by fo niucli will gold 
and fllvcr rife, in proportion to their intrinfic worth ; as wc find our fll- 
vcr has done, in proportion to our gold ; and the conflant itandard, to 
mcafurc this by, will be the eichanj^c bet^vecn the Englifi colony, where 
they are made current, and Great Britain. From lu-nce the lofi on bills 
is to be cHimated in all placet, wlicre they puis : the eichanp^c in Ncio 
'j'erl-, before tlic bills fell, lux. in I 7 16, wai^v/iy per cent, and in Bojlon, 
not long before; but fincc 1717, the year they uttered their lad great 
quantity of bilk, it arol'c to fixty-Ji'bi per cent, and in Bnjlon, it is now 
nejr ons hundred audffiy per Cent, as in Carciina, it is iromfivttojix centt 
advance on on: hundred pounds furling. 

" The anfwer to the eighth is of a piece with the reft, a prefumptu- 
ous denial of a poficiv* truth, tlut is in itfelf inconteftible ; for the lan- 
j^uaj'-e of tiVJ Ne-w York bill rans thus, i>it. for a bill of tiuenty JbilUncrj ; 
". 'T.'jis kill, ej live ounces ten penny ivtigl t cf pUte, due f.ont the luluny of 
N(-M I'uri IQ iLi pojj^jfor tljerccj, Jl-jU 1,^ equjl, in valu:, to Se-uilL pillar, or 

The History of Pennsylvania. 163 

©f deducing folid conclufions from felf-evident and 1 722. 
clear principles; and yet, by the fubrilly of aii '*'^^"**^ 
artilf, truth, or falfehood, in either of them, is 
often fo wrapped up and involved, that it is loll 
unto, or mifapprehended by the plaineft, and, 
generally fpeaking, much the honelteft part of 

" But the common neceffity, and general inte- 
reft of the whole body of the people, being a fub- 
jecl of importance, on which we ought to fpeak 
plainly, and a6t freely, I (hall, without any pre- 
amble, or difguife whatever, communicate my 
thoughts to you, in the fimpled, and mod intelli- 
gible manner, that I can. 

" Firjf, If it be true, that the riches and pro- 
fperity of this province chiefly depend on the ma- 
nufa61:ure of provifions, .and the exchanging of that 
manufatlure, with other things, to advantage, it 
will alfo be true, that whatever increafes the one, 
and, at the i'ame time, encourages the other, will 


JlfiX/'/o/V.jf^," &c. And yet tint very hill fhall, at this time, purchafe 
very little mure, (if any thing) in pic^'os oi' ti,;ht, th:in t-,i-o o.mi.-i. It 
i», tlifrcforc, iiiukniahly true, thai iwch u hill is not ei.]iiiv.ilcnt to /ti'e 
»««..-/ an.l J /■./// of iiK'h plate; becaufe, Icing i'alk-ii fioni it= flrd in- 
teuileil value, it vvill not"c fo much : an<l it is really liirpriiuig how 
any men, in din-d cnntraJivflion ti' common fcnfr can aniufe thcniitlvci 
and others vrith luch gioimJlefs notions. 'I'he price of goodi at A'liu 
York, whetlier ch.-iprr or dearer, than at PhV.aiLlphi.i, is out of the qucf- 
tion; unlcfs it could be ailedged, that a hill of tz:j:r.ty; JhilLngs will pur- 
chafe as much of thofe poods, »s Ciin he liought will) the real weight of 
tiuo ttiiices and a half of Spnnijb fiKer; wliich the boiJcil uiTertur will 
fcarce venture to affirm. 

" We further beg leave to obfcrve, on their aafvver to the three Lfl 

" Fiift, That to fupply the want of a medium for commerce is the 
honed intention of the propoi'al for Litis of crc.lU, and r.oc to dil'char»e the 
debts of thofe vrho svant means, from the public, to t^ct clear of thcia. 

" Secondly, All bills, bonds, &c. on an rquil fc. urity, arc the more 
valued, the fooiier they become due; and the fooicr public bilk arc to 
fmk, the greater will be their credit. It ii true, tiiat th- longer the 
time it, the more cafr it may feem to the firft burrower; but, in the 
vbolc courfc »f the bills, ;iiier their fccyjid ] zynicat, thi« v/iii but di- 


^^4 TiiK History of Pennsylvania. 

vi7ci_ -^'^^^'^ (^ef^^rve the name of a public good ; and the 
majority of thole, employed in luch manulaaure 
and exchange, have thereby a right to be conii- 
dei ed as the body of the people, v/hom you repre- 

" Secondly, It is evident, that, where there is no 
public debt, and a real value, in lands, to be 

, " pledged, paper money ma)', if there is occafion 
for it, be itruck to advantage, without any rifk at 
ail; for thougli, perhaps, it may contribute to 
hurt fome weak people, in the ill management of 
tlieir jDrivate affairs, yet, while any unfrugal per- 

. fou is lofl to the community, and is fucceeded by 

• one more induftrious than h?, the public cannot 
1 idler by fuch a change. 

Thirdly, If, in the cafe of a paper currency, 
among us, it fiiould liappen to follow (as it may 
be luppofed it will) that filver and gold will be 
kept up for remittances to Great Britain, we fhall 
then have no other means of dealing with one ano- 
ther, but ihe paper: ihould the quantity, there- 

mi.iiih tht-ir credit If chht y«rs U prcf.raMc to /,.., becaufc of tlic 
inuMii ol the tmiL-, the Jumc urt,uintnt iiuiy be urged for/.v/.v^ ur tica,ly. 

*i '\'^'"f'l' '' '' extnmely nianiicrly (^re {rrant) to leave it entirely to 
the- Ailo.iLly, to confuier the manna- of finkin- the bills; but thiscom- 
IJiiUancc, It i3 ooubud, is more owing to r.n iinconccrncdnefs in tbat 
point ^vh.:n,cr whalicr cvrr, tliey fink, povidt.l th.y arc once obtain- 
ed, th;m to uny real modefiy; otherwile, it ^va8 cerudnly a breach of 
that auer the Houfe Jual vot.d both the fum and the time, not to ac- 
quidce in their wifdum, but to Iblicit an enlargement. 

" \\\ pay as great a deference, may it pitaf; the Iiouf^, to (he Icftif- authority, as any ctlurs; yet %ve well know their wifdoni wiU'in- 
ftn.nce them to lend confiantiy an open ear to all r.eeeffary hints from 
^vl.Iunit doors, that may eontntnte tny advantage to the important al- 
Jair,, broiiolit Irom tnne to time, under their confideration. 

" Irom hence it is, that vce Iball yet crave liberty to offer our further 
fei;t,merus noi only in relation to a paper credit, but y;,on fome other 
, points, that uearly conctrn tiie profpcrity of this colo.iy. 

" Such bills, we find, have been iffued in ^;.,fr/W, on two dl/T^rcnt 
foundations; the one has been to laife a large fiim injiie.l.uuly, <,n the 
prertitt.f lutu.e t.xes duties, he. by v.hwh they «ere to be regularly 
luiik in tmie; the other to be lent out cu fecurkics, and to be lunk by 


The History of Pennsvlvania. 

fore, be lefs than is nccelTary to circulate our home 
trade, in its natural courie, usurers and fiiarpers 
would have the fame opportunity as they have nov/, 
to lie at catch for bargains, and make a monopoly 
of trade, by engroffing the current money into 
their hands. 

^ " Fourthly, The very efTjncc and nature of cre- 
dit, as well as the pradice and experience of the 
greateft banks in Europe, direfts all fuch bills to be 
illued at Ibmething lels than the common intereft, 
for that is, in elied, a premium by the public, to 
encourage their circulation : antl whofoever is 
pleafed to fay, that the bank of Aiujlerdam lofes 
credit, by lending money at 1-ivo per cent, or the 
baiiR of England^ by lending money at fuur per 
r£'/7/. lliall Jcarce prevail with me to think the aller- 
tion worthy of any anfwer. 

" Fifthly, I am not of opinion with thofe gen- 
tlemen, who are pleafed to alledge, that the value 
of filver, at New Tork, which, in the month <-.f 
September lafl, was from e'liht JhiUings and //.v 


tlic linrrowers rcnaylncr tli-m into tlir treafury, Thofe of U'-.v Vc^h 
and .V.;.. (.'.,,, y.A.j wu. Iv tlir liill nullu.j, .i!;,'l uf AV-ie /•,. i --i 

ana A'i../.- /,;.../, by ih.- i:c.„ui. 

" In C-.-c/.,;..' thry ^v£r.• cM'gcd, lor the dtf. :i:c of their to'.vii w.\\ 
country, agniall Imiic thicatoiicd invaiio-is, ro rallt ;iri ir.imcnie fun;, fi.r 
{a Ihiiill a colony, vafdy cjicetc'lng the ficcafion.s tlity l,i(l for a cc:iTency, 
cfpecblly finco llicir m >, wliicli f'ori-igiicrs c.-,;nc to cany a'v.iy, will' 
piirchufc m<,a uf tlie };o(),ii tht-y v/unt ; ;incl tlii.s Ami: tlic cr.dlt of'll:c;r 
bills to the low (fate thc-y were <i:.]u-fn"c.l to. In N,-,oYork, rlicir ilrft 
bills, raifed by the fame method, v/-. by anricipatinjr the diilies, by 
>vhich they were to be funk again, Lcpt up their credit ; aii*l, becaufc 
of the certainty of their teriniiiatinir, and the quantity being moderate, 
for a place of fuch larjre ^nd extended cninniercc, they continued cf 
eijual value with their current filv.T, u:nil the year I 7 1 7 , when ; Ley i Jul d 
another large fum, and for a longu- tjnn; u;on v/hieh tl..-ir credit im- 
mediately fell to a difparity with t!:eir real money. 

" Farther to the caftward, their bills bcino- Ifu,ed on V^zv.i on'.y, by 
V/hich metluid they cr.nnot be culled in, with fo luKch ccrtainiy, tluy 
confequtntly fell more than one tb.Ird below the value, at \\\nc\\ th.y 
>vere full llruck ; ar.d the fame may be eTpeded from the liite nieafures 
to happen here; for feeintr very f.w hcrnnvcri. sre found to difel.aro,e 
«-heir murtj;a,^e£ to pivate ptrfo;..-, i.i t^i^ie, ;!i;a accord.n^ to coi;:ra':!.^it 


i6S The History of Pennsylvania. 

1722. pencf to eight /hillings and nins pence, is occafioncd 
'•^''"'''^**^ by their paper ; for, in this province, where there 
never has been any paper yet, fromy^'i;^ to ten per 
cent, has, for feveral years, been given in exchange 
for filver. And as to their computation of gold, 
the gentlemen, perhaps, have not had occafion, 
ot late, to be informed, that the heaviefl pijloles, 
in Tork^ go at no more than twenty -eight jhiUings^ 
and fmaller, or cut gold, at the common ilandard 
value, in that province ; where, it is believed, the 
people could not polhbly carry on half the quantity 
of their prefent trade and bufmefs, without the 
help of paper. 

*' Sixthly, I mufl alfo take leave to differ, in 
opinion, with thofe, who, without enquiry, and 
• by wholcfale, are pleafed to condemn all fchcmcs 
of lending money, to be difcharged by annual pay- 
ments ; for I truly think that method will not only 
fuit the dilfcrcnt circumftances and convenicncy of 


will be eApei9e<l that the piililic, to wliom i\w\\ louJ criei «rc r-uftil, 
for i'uccour to tlic dilln-lTi-il, \\ A[ rather be more indulgent, tliau ri- 
gorous, to tiifir hiiiiiljk I'lif.]. Hants. 

" It will, thrreLrc, be cvitknt, that to keep tip tlic credit of bilh, 
the ijiuntiiy muil be luoJer.iie, fiiul Iliould be lonicwhat under a luftiei- 
tncy for » cireiil.iting; currenry, ib»t we iir.iy, as they do in Neiu Tcri, 
contrive nuaus to I'upply oiuiclves with iv.\\\c i|iii;iitltie» of cafli, which 
is reul treiiliire in n country, wjiilc bills arc no more than borrowing 
from one another without adding; one penny to rtic wealth or llock of 
tlie color.y ; and next, that a certainty of their beinjj funk in a reafona- 
bls tim*, will princiimlly contribute to fupj)0rt that credit. 

" It was obfervcd before, in tlic lall article, prefcnted by U5, to t!ie 
Houfe, that fuch mcafnres oujilu to be taken for tiiis, as Ihall render it 
abfolutely neceflary for the jiublic, that the bills Ihali be funk regularly. 

" It \i therefore, upon the v.iiole, with all due fubmiflion, propofed 
to the confideruiion of the Houfe, whether it may not hi rather rtquifitc 
to tetre.ich the quantity, ialt voted, than to augment it, as fome de- 
fire; confidering that i:n founds of that currency v/ill probably cir- 
culate more and fafter than t^L'cniy or il.iitv of gold or filver ; bccaufe 
the latter has a conftant intrinfic value, while the other, more fubjetl 
to chang;e, and defigntd only for a medium of cominerce, will be more 
1) iliiftcd fn m haiid to hand, to anfwer that pupofe .'' and whether 
the foilciwing methods of applying it may not r«ndcr it xnorc (crviceal^le, 
-ijiz. that, feeing the jiublic is now, by the Treafurer's account, befide* 
fame other fim;6 not y<st fettled, above tii3 thovfanij'ix Litiidnd founds in 


The History of Pennsylvania. 

the people bed, but, in all refpecls, will prove 
the falefl and moft: profitable, as well as equal; and 
my reafons for it, are thefe : 

" ifl. Whatever quantity be iflued, if one fifth, 
fixth, or tenth part, of the fum, according to the 
time, for which it is to lad, mud necelfarily come 
into oflice every year, it may be lent out again, at 
fve per cent, for any time, within the term, to 
fuch perfons as had no place, or opportunity, to 
come into the fird loan : by which means all the 
frightful, odd things, mentioned in the gentle- 
men's dxth obfervation, will prefently vanifli; for 
every man, in this cafe, according to his ability, 
may, if he thinks fit, fliarc in that advantage ; 
which the public moll generoully and prudently 
offers to the necefTitics of the people. 

*' 2ndly, If fo great a fhare of the whole comes 
In yearly to the ofhce, in order to be lent out again, 
it will, in a great meafure, prevent engrolfmg, 


Jdbt, and the fupport, for the enfuinj^ Jfar, is yet to be provided for, a 
fum of al)out three tljoufunJ pouiiJi, to be puid eiit of the bills, tq be funk, 
by an e^cife, or fuch other method ai x.\\c Iloufe ftrjjl belt appro-ve'of, 
for reiuniinj^ tlut, in three, four or five years, us Ihall Lc judged 
moll couvenier.t. 

" That a fum, fufFlrient to finifli the f>r!f)f and -[cot ihiuft ef Phlhde!- 
fhlt, be lent out of the bills of the city and county, to b? returned into 
the treafury, by a yearly tax on the inhabitanta, not cxccrdinij one j'Otny 
fer pound, till the faid fum be difcharj^red ; tlio- prefent taxes of thrtc {.cnci 
per found being too heavy, in thcfe dilHcult ;...ies, for the public to bear. 

" That the reft; be lent out, as is already propofed to the Houfc, en 
good unqueftionablc fecurities, at the intereft agreed on ; but, for the 
better afluring their finking, that all public monies, railed by any taxes, 
cxcifc, or duties whatfoever, be i)uid into the refpeftive treafuric<i only ia 
that fpcfie, to be there funk; and the full viluc of fuch public monies 
lie made good out of the fums, paid in by the borrower?, v\hetlicr in 
coin, paper, or country produce, to anfwer the cuds, for wl-.ich tiie. 
fame vi-as raifed ; by whicii mean* the biiU mufc ncctflarily be funk, and 
the payments be duly made by the borrowers, v/iihout any eicule or fa- 

" That, for the mori cfTedlual fupport of the credit of the biili,/^. 
fence in the found be allowed to the perfon, uho pays them in, as pub- 
lic money, to b? made cood out of the iftUT-il, paid by the borrowi-f. 

6S The History gf Pennsylvania. 

1722. and help tlie circulation confiderably ; it will alfd 
""'^"^ give more frequent opportunity of dircovering 
frauds, and gradually increale the public Itock aiid 
revenue of the bank; and by that means it will 
demonflrably fink the original fum, within the" 
time prefixed ; that is to fay, the paper, at the 
end of that term, will either be found in the office, 
or its value in cafh, ready to pay what fliall then 
happen, by accident, to be yet abroad- 

" ScverJhl)'^ If too great a fecurlty is demanded 
for the loan of public money, I think, it will, in 
a great meafure, fruflrate .the dcfign of relieving 
many of the middling, or m.ofl induftrious, fore 
of the people J wherefore, it is my opinion, that 


*' ThcH; meafures, may it plcafe the Hoiife, it is lidieved, will very" 
much contribute to anl'wer the ]vA\ ci-.ds, jirtipolnd by the bills, -vvillr 
the leafl injury, or lofs, to the rci.civers. 

" Tilt nfle'cflions, in this Lift paper, as well as others, which have 
ir.('i:nrioLifly been rciidercl popular, lliali be aiilV. tr^d, by fluwinn', frotn 
the ftatc of t!ij country, h:)\v deftructive to its true incerell that fpirit is, 
to whith to<> iY.M\y appear to huve r; (ijjncd theniielves, that thole, who 
are lincerely well aileJled to the jniblic, may, with u more dirtinguiih- 
ing judgincnt, cbi'trvc tlie mcaiurcs, by whleh our common intcroft may 
b. nvift efieiaiKiUy promoted; for which end, wc bc^j leave to add the 
follviuing remarks, -jU. 

*' 'I'hat this fmall colony, confiltlnjj, at prefent, only of" three coiin» 
ties, and oi' no extraordin.iry loil, iituate bat on one iide of one navijra- 
ble river; is, therefore, inferior, in natural advantages, to all others 
around us; and having no produce, but what other colonies, more com- 
tiiodioufly fituated, not only rival us in, but, of late, have outdone i;s, 
we cannot, therefore, fqaally flourilh with others, unleCs \*e compcnfate 
rlu-li.- natuKil def .dls;, by I'neh improvements, in induftry, and oiIili gooj 
qualities, as may delerwedly acc^uire Uj a reputation. 

" That the hufliandman and merchant are the principal fupporters cf 
the colony, iVum wliom all other kind;; of buiiiuij, I'lnong us, receive 
thtir encoi:ragcnie!-t ; the one railing' t!;e piodiiee, and the other i sport- 
ing it by r.aviguiion. 

" That, by the common methods of our trade, for want of a vent 
abroad, for our v/heat, and what is mauufadurtd from it, we can never* 
I)-. come confiderablc; and tlierefore it is necefiLry tlr.t the countrynu'.u 
Ib-ould endeuv6ur fcr fome other improvements, and the merchant labour 
to find out new channels for comnere, by puri'uing it 'n al! the branches, 
th.i! may l^'- open to us, in other countries ; for both thtfe v. ill ever, in 
rc.'.iity, lu;\e a u.itur.d d'p:ndence on esch other. 

«' That 

The History of Pennsylvania. 

one half of the vaUie of ground rents may very 
fafely be lent fo (hofe, who arc willing and able to 
give Inch fecurity. 

" Eighthly, If, upon further confideration, you 
find that the fum intended may be iflued to better 
advantage, for a longer time, 1 think the objection, 
that our ads can only fubfilt five years, without 
being approved, is of no weight; for, belides, 
that It would not be very civil, to fuppofe that the 
iegiflative authority here would deliberately go up- 
on any ad of that importance, or indeed, of any 
kmd, which we had the leafl caufe to fufped would 
be difagreeable to his Majclty, or the Jbntiments 
of his miniftry : we know very well, it is in hh 
JMajelty's royal power and prerogative, to repeal 
and make void, at any time, all ads of Alfembly, 
to be made, or palled, in America : and, for mv 
VoL.JI. [22] part, 

^« ThatitJsan unhappincf. to this country, that there are not more 
wealthy mrn m trade, who, by large flock., could force I'uch an extc-nd- 
td commerce, .s m .V... Tort and B^Jhn ; for by thcfe means more 
pmg, and therefore, more workmen and people would be employed: ami 
Lorh a greater cxportatioi. and confumptioii of the country produce to 
the enconnigement of the furmor, would he occafloned by it. ' " 

" 11uit it lu, ever bvcn accounted a great advantage to a country, to 
hare mm m it, who can fupply others with mo„,y, in tJieir neceflitie= 
onfuch terms as the laws approve; for, from fuch opportunities the 
liidullrious and ingenious, who, for want of fomethin- in tiicir hinds 
m.eht he ever tied down to poverty, may find means to raife th MiUclveJ 
(a, many have dune) to fortunes and a capacity of being- extremely ufe- 
nij from hence many have received vaff advantages, by comuafhnff 
bargam,, that othervr.fc they mufl, forever have gone without In 
morr there u nothing more equitable thin that the aitive and induffriou, 
Jhould, for a moderate confideration, the ufe of other men's (forks 
flues^' '^'" ' '"'''"' "^ ^'"' ""' ""^^'"^^'""' """"t employ it them- 

" That the wealth tf a country confift, of the riches of its inh-,hH 
♦ anrs, and the ncher any country is, the better it is for a poor man to 
live m. All thefe Lcmg unqueftionable truths, it is ai aaoai(hi-i- to 
confidcr. while we have fcarce one mat. in the country, that can be'^ac- 
counted nJi, when compared with divers in other colonies ■ while the • 
provmce really fuffer, for want of more men of ability, to promote its 
mtereft and enlarge its commerce; on which great numbers of the 
people have then" dependanee ; while money can fcarce be had on any 
terms, to lend, or borrow, and feLlom ever rould be obtained ,.n loan 
hut by cntrc.ty. and with felicitation; ic U ullonifliin-, wc fay, to c,-' 


*7® The History of Pennsylvania. 

Jj;^2^ pnrt, if I did not, in my confcience, believe that 
the aft, now prcpofed, would be made on fuch 
a rational, juft and equal foot, as would rather 
claim his Majelly's gracious favour, in aflenting to 
it, than render it obnoxious to his impartial juflice, 
I fliould neither have given myfclf nor you this 

' " Gentlemen, thefe arc moft frankly and fin- 
cerely my preent fentiments of the matter befoie 
you ; and, as I do not find myfelf inclined to dif- 
pute, and much lefs to fhew any fliflheis, or 6b- 
flinacy, in an affair of iuch a general concern, I 
fliall very much rely on your diligent circumfpec- 
tion and care, for the good of your country, being 
ilill ready and willing to give you all the alliftancc 
in my power. 


" January 22, 1722-23." 


iider how it h pomble, that there fboiild he any amongft us who in 
ddritcof common fcihl-, will fuircr themicivcs to be mifleJ^into fuch 
a Ipint of m;ilij.n.ty. as, in dired oppofition to the iuterell of tJic 
V'i.o e- to luliilt and ubufc tliofc few, in the place, who are the moll 
c;ip3,)le of promotmj,r that inttrcR ; to return reproaches for what was 
chtu.ned by prayer; an<l under tlie cndcarin- appearance cf popularity 
to flrd.e at the very fuiev.. of a c.amtry'. ILren-rth, and the evident 
nuaris of its profprrity ; in which all woidd, acccrdir.i;- to tlitir ranks 
be more or lefs partakers. "' 

" We hunddy crave the Iloi.fc's excufe for thcfe obfervation^ wh-ch 
the unhappy prevailing humour of the time (as the honourable Houfc 
Ironi the lull, and other applications, ca;;not but be fenlible) has reu- neceirary, for rectifying the diftempercd noionsof the miiruided. 
O,. wmch no better advice (we c<,n.-eivc ) can be recommended to fuch 
pedons, than that of th. apoiUe, viz, « To/J/o-.u ,,/Ur focLi.^s, W..V* 
^^.Ue/or thnr p,a:.c ; to Jl.Jy to L, r^uL-t, an.l /, ,/. tbar oivu^:' &c 

as he has recommended. Rom. xiv eh. 19 ver. i. -pheir. iv ch. 11 ver' 
" Althouf^h it is true, we are, at prefent, very poor, yet love and 
ninty appear not lefs wanting; ;;mong us, than money; and while wc 
ar. appiymg to the Legillaturc for means to ruj.ply the one, if wc could 
be fu h^ppy lis to jom in the other, it would more eliedually render it 
caly to this honourable Houle to provide for our public necef^ities, wb^ch 
iJiat we m.iy, n the carncit delirc of ciidr m^jiljalf-jul fr'cad. " 

( VI ) 


T/je Affemblf.f condiiB: in the cijj'air of a paper cuv- 
rency.—Dr. Douglas, l^c. on paper money, in 
Nciu England. — Further account of the Pennfl- 
vania pap^r currency, till i "] .\(^.--:Governor Keith 

. / <z lover and foUcltor of popularity, violates his 
^ inflrutlions from the Proprietary, which caifes 
: party difpute, &'e. — Reafons given for and agalnjh 
the fame hy the Governor and David Lloyd, on 
one fide, and hy fames Logan, for the Proprie- 
tary family, on the other. — Names of the Members 

\ .cf Jffembly, eleded in 1725; and of fome Mem- 
bers of Council about that time. — The widow 
Penn*s anfwer to the remonftrance of the Affembly 
relating to f aid inflrutlions. — Dlfputes afterwards 
relative to Proprietor* s inflruclions. — Williojn Al- 
len. — Thomas Lightfot. 


N this iraportant affair, the A fTcrnbly proceed- 1723. 
ed with the utmoll: caution and circumlpedion ; ^"'"^^ 
for having both the examples and ©f the T''° ;''^' 
Other colonics berore their eyes, they law the prin- cl.j 
cipal tliin!% which ihcy had to ruard arainfc, was ^^"^^ '" '* 

1 1 ".' . r ~i • 1 Ml -i 1 •'"i 1 • t^on, &c, 

the depreciation oi tneir bills ;* which nothing 


* Dr. D:iH^Lis of B'jfo-i, in his funin\^ry hLflot!c:d aiu! ]ioUtical, ^c. 
oF ths li-li:jh ffUlvniciUs ill North A'lierica, B:i.r.i'i, piMited, 1749; i.i 
his remarks on the paj)er currency in Ne-m Enghml, f.iys, 

" I have o!-,('Tvcd that all our paprr monL-y-:ii jlcinj'; Aircnlili'.'g have hrcu 
I-f;;i0.itiircs of diL'urs, the r.prclhnaiiVLS of p"opl;-, v.iio from inct.j?]- 


if 2 The HrsToKY of PEN^JSYLVAN^A,'^ 

1723. could fo much efTea as nn over-quantltf, defea: of 
w->,-vw folid iecurity, and of proper provifion to recal j 
and cancel them ; fo in this, their firft experiment . 
of the kind, they iflued only ^. 15,000, on fuch / 
terms as appeared mofl likely to be eifedual to -. 
lieep up their credit, and gradually to reduce and ! 
fnik them. For which purpofe the ad;, among 


tancy, idlenefs and profufencfw, have been untlcr a necefTity of mortgao-. 
ing their lands ; lands are a real permanent cflatc ; but the debt, in puiZr 
* currency, by its multiplication, d.-prtciaiej mcire and more ; tlui8 their land 

ellntc, in nominal value, in.reuf^s^ ijod their debt, in nominal value, dc 
creafes ; and the lar^^e quantity of pjfer credit is proportionably in favour 
of the debtors, and to the diladvantage of the creditors, or induftrious, 
frugal part of the colony : this it the wicked myfte:7 of this ini<iuituu] 
fapir currency. 

" A public credit fiaftr currency (fays he) is a great promoter of expedi- 
tions. 1. Thtfe bills, to defray the charge, are foon expedited, but with 
a confcquent dillaut, but certain ruinous tifed:. a. I'his affluence of pa- 
per credit invites, or encourages people to borrow, and run in debt, be- 
yond what they can extricate," &«. ' 

Again the fame author fays, " The colony of Maffachiifdt^ Bay was 
the lead'/rof paper currf*cies, in t!:c Britsjh plantations, and have now, 
at length (1749) carried \.\\\\, fraud to the utmoft, even, beyond A'or/i 
C^/6.';/.j," &c. 

The following tabic of depreciation, &c. in I\L'Jfachufdls, of tkeir faid 
currency, and that of the prefcnt exchange of the other colonjcg, &c. 
with London, ill 1748, arc taken from tlic faixic author, r«s. Dr. Dou^la^, 

*' Table of depreciation, &c. in MafQichufettg. 



■:vith L 


Oni ounce filvsr. 

A D. 170a 


133 per 

cent ll 















































28/ , 





" Prefcnt exchange, 

1748, with London 

of the other colonies," &c 

for/;. 100 llrg. 

New Eng. curry. 


N. Carolina 1 000 




S. Carol 

ina 7JO 




Barbadoes i;,o 


. Jerfey 



170 10 iSio 




St- Cliriflopher* 160 







•gi'»:a 120 to 



The History of Pennsylvania. 173, 

feveral others, was paflecl by tlie Governor, on 1723. 
the lecond day of the hrll month (March) 1722-23. ^^-^^-^ 
But, froiu the advantage, which was foon expert- 'ly^a'^s 
enced by diis emiHion, together with the infuffici- yi!!!,^'^or' 
ency of the fu;n, the government was induced, in ^r-'itvinj; 
the latter end of thefamc year, to emit £. ^0,000/""^'^'^^'^' 
more. On the fatne terms. 

But, that it may appear, with what caution this Further ac- 
province, in early time., advanced in this aftliir, it ^^"I'ntufthe 
may not be improper, in this place, to obferve, ivilyin'^" 
upon a reqiiiluion afterwards from the government^ I'yjmfyiva- 
in Grcai Britjin, in the year 1739, to have the '"''' 
Ihite of tile paper currency, with the rates of paf- 
fmg, buying and felling gold and filver, in the 
Britijlo colonies, from the year 1700, to that time, 
laid before the parliament : the Alfembly of Penn- 
fylvan'ia, therefore, in November 1739, drew up 
and dehvered to Governor Thomas, the following ' 
report, which exhibits the further account of this 
affair, to the faid year, viz. 

" An account of the faveral afts, paffed in the ■ 
province of Pennfylvanla, for creating, or ilfuing, 
paper biHs, or bills of credit, with the account of ' 
thole bills, and the value thereof, in monev of 
Great Britain ; and the provifion mads for finking, 
or difcharglng the fame, together with the filni cX 
bills, that have been fun!:, or difcharged ; alio 
the fum of bills fubfiding, or paffmg in payment, 
at this time, with the amount of the value thereof, 
in money of Great Britain, 

*' In 

Governor Hutchinfon, in his hifiory of MaJJ'.ichufjtts Bay, obfcrve% 
*' In 1702, 6/3 was ei|u.\l to an ounce of filvcr. in 1749, 50/" was 
judged equal to an ouiK:e di filvcr. I faw a live fliilliiig hill, which l,ail 
been ilTucd in l6';o (whan the lint bills of credit, that were ever ifijcd 
in the colonics, were a Ni-ii.' ^;/jj-/./«./ ('xptdition againll the 
French, &c.) and was rism.ilning in 1749, and was tlicn equal to tight 
pence only, in lawful nioiK-y ; and lo retained but about one eigluli of 
its original value — in 1749 hi'ls of credit v/cre aboliihtd ; and un.l, Js 
the evils, which they occailoned, Ihouhl be foi; o:f."n, the govcriiia/j', 
it Hiuil be prt fumed, will never ifl'iie aisy more." 

^174 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1733. . " In the year 1723, two a£ls were palled, for 
'"•-^^'^ creating the firll bills of credit, by which /or/y/i;^ 
thou/and pounds were likiad ; aiid for the'elTeftual 
difcharging, or finking, the faid bills, it was therein 
j^rovided and cnaded, that a real ellate, \n fee 
fimpk\ of double the value of the fuui lent out,, 
iliould be fecured in an office, ere^ed for that 
purpofe ; and that the fums, fo lent out, fhould 
be annually repaid into the office, in fuch equal 
funis, or quotas, as would efFeaually fmk the whole 
capital fuin of foriy-five thoufand pounds^ within 
the time limited by the aforeiaid acls ; winch !uin, 
being computed \\\ fdver, as it was then received, 
and paid, among us, and reduced to y^tr////^ wo//rK 
of Great Britaijiy zmounts to £. 29,090 13 4;* 
but in the year 1726, the fum of £. 6,110 y, 
part of the capital fum oi forty -five thoufand pounds^ 
by virtue of the two aforeiaid adts, being totally 


* With the above rfpr.rt of the flate of the pnpcr curreir-y of Pcnn- 
fylvania w-n likewifc, at the fame time:, tht foliOwir.T ac>;oiint of tJic 
^ r:itcs of gold and filver coin dehvercfl to the Governor, as drawn up by 
the fame committee of the lloiifc, who inaJe the above-faid report, i<;>, 
" An account of the feveral rates of gold and filver coin, and what 
]'riL-e» thty, were accounted, received, taken and purchafod at, and foM 
lor, by the ouxc: ; and what rates gold and filvcr coin, are pui chafed at, 
and fold for, by the ounce, at this time. 

" Froni the year 1 700, to the year 1709, gold was received and paid, 
Mfv! founds Un foilUngs per ounce ; and lilvcr at nine JhiUingi and tiut 
pen.e per ounce. 

" tVom the year 1709 to the year 1710, gold was received and paid, 
at/t/f pounds ten /hillings per oun^e; and fllver at fxjhililngs and ten pence 
i'.il/pjnny per ounce. 

" From the year 1720 to the year 1 72.1, f(old was reccivc-d and paid 
at fvt. pounds t.'.i Jb'Uings per ounce ; and fiJvcr coin was purchafed with 
gold, at/iven fillings and Jive pence per oinice 

" From the year 1 7 23, to the year 1726, gold was purchafcd and 
fold at Jlx po!,-ids fix Jhilli.igs and fix pence per Ounce, and filver at eight 
Jhillings and three pence per ounce. 

" From the year 1726 to the year 1730 gold was purchafcd at /.v 
founds three Jhillings and nine pen.e per ounce, and fliverat eight Jhillings and 
me penny per OUIJCe. 

" From the year 1730 to the year 1738, ^old was purchafcd and fold 

^\ fix fou>:ds riii:ef.illings and thru pence ; and iilvcr Zt eight JbHlirgs and 

uiiie pence per ouace. 

" And 

The History ov Phnnsylvania. 575 

funk and deflroycd, the province found thcmfelves 1723. 
greatly ftraiv^htcned by means thereof, and likely ^-^"^''■^**' 
to become lubject to many difappointments and 
lolles, for want of a fufllcient medium in trade, 
if the remaining quotas, or payments, fhould con- 
tinue to be funk, according to the direction of the 
afts ; therefore, an aft was then pafl'ed for conti- 
nuing the remaining fum of ^. 38,889 15, for, 
and during the term of eight years, by re-emitting, 
or lending out again, the quotas, or fums, to be 
paid in, by the refpedive borrowers, on the fame 
fecurities and provifions, as were dirci^led by the 
former afts. 

" The bills of credit, emitted in the year 1723, 
being thus reduced by the fmking of the aforefaid 
fum, and the inhabitants of the province growing 
exceeding numerous, through the importation of 
foreigners, and others fettling among us ; by 
which means the trade became greatly enlarged ; 
and the difficulties (till increafed, and the province 
found themfelves under the necclTity of making an 
addition' to thole bills of credit ; and accordingly,. 
in the year 1729, the further fum of tbirly i/jou- 
J'and pounds was then created, and ilTued upon the 
fcUUG fecurlty of real effates, m fee funplc^ to be 
mortgaged in double the value of the fum lent ; 
and to be paid in by yearly quotas, and funk and 
deftroyed, as the former a£ls, i)aircd in the year 
1723, had provided and direded in the cafe. 

" In the year 1731, the a6ls, for ilTuing bills 
of credit, pafled in the year 1723, being near ex- 
l)ired, and the annual quotas remaining due, on 


" And now in tliis pn.fcist year I7:';9, pold h y^'-'/cliufcil :mJ fold i::: 
fix pounds nine JliUhif, ,i,u/ three p:nce by the ouncc ; r.iid lilveT ac e''-^ ''I 
JhiUi:i^s andj'tx p.r.ce per ounce. 

' " Submitted to the corrciftion of tlie Iloufc, by 
Iluac l-jdiris, J;;nKi MoirL, 

ThonuK Leech, John Keaiiley, 

Abraham Chapman, ihad Pciiibiitoi'. 
<^. I'h}!.:J:l}!,la, N,-.:i..Lrr 23, 1 730." 

176 Tiis History of Pennsylvania. 

1723. the faid adls, by virtue thereof, being at this time, 
w-N^-'--/ ^Q |jg |-^J-^}^ ^j-jj cieftroyed, which would unavoid- 
ably have involved the merchants, as well as farm- 
ers, in new difficulties, and laid the province un- 
der a necefiity of making new acls of Alicinuly, 
for emitting more bills of credit in lieu thereof, 
an a£l was then paffed for continuing the value and 
currency of thofe bills, for the term of eight years, 
by lending out the fame, as they became due, with 
the fame provifions, and on the fame real iecuri- 
tics, provided for, and directed by, the former 

" The amount of the bills of credit, in the 
prefent year 1739, by virtue of the feveral afore- 
faid acls, amounting only to £. 69,889 15, from 
the daily increafe of the inhabitants, and the con- 
tinued importation of foreigners, among us, being 
found by experience, to fall fiiort of a proper me- 
dium, for negociating our commerce, and for the 
fupport of government, an acl was palled for cre- 
^ating and illuing a farther fum of c/cvcn thonfand 
one hundred atid ten pounds five JJyillhi^s^ and for 
continuing the whole amount of our bills of cre- 
dit, for a Ihort time of years, under the fame real 
fecurities, and M'ith the fame provifions and limi- 
tations, as direfted by the former adls ; by means 
of which additional fum, the whole amount of 
the bills of credit, current in the province, is at 
this im\Q eighty tboufmnl pounds : which fum being 
computed, as now purchafed here, and reduced to 
fierling money of Great Britain^ n»akes/^'. 50,196. 
AVt, nc.twithflanaing merchants and others have 
given ioiv.e advance, to j.urclin'e gold and filvcr, 
v.'c are aihired, from exp^iiente, that ditierence 
arifes only from t!ie bahurce of our trade, with 
Great Britain^ being in our f:uT,ur, by means of 
' the f;ir greater quantity of En^Jllh goods import- 

ed into this province, fiuce 'he creating and iffu- 
ing our bills of credit^ for the adventurers ad- 

The History of Pennsylvania. ij) 

vancing the price of their commodities, and, en- 1723. 
toiiraged by meeting with a ready laic, became '— ^'^^*=' 
great gainers, while wheat. Hour, and all the 
vahiable produce of the province, continued at, 
or near, the nfual prices, and arc, at this time, 
to be purchafed with our bills of credit, as low, 
or lower, than has been almolb ever known, when. 
gold and fdver were the medium of our trade ; 
and all tradefmen, hired fervants, and other la- 
bourers, have always been, and are Hill, paid at 
the fame rates, and no more, for their labour, 
than they formerly received, before the creating, 
or ilfuing, our bills of credit."'' 

In October 1723, David IJoyd was clefted 
Speaker of the Afl'embly, and in the year next 
following WilUam Biles was in the fame oHicc ; 
during which time, the ufual cordiality and har- 
mony appear to have fubfilled between the two 
branches of the Lcgillature. 

The Governor, Sir WiUiam Keith, appears Govcmo;' 
maiiifeflly, not only in his adminiilration, but j-'^'j^'j]. ||f'* 
alfo in his general conduft, to have been a great poimiarii^ri 
follciior of popidarity ; and lie bjth poHeffed and '^'•"' 

Vol. U. [-] pracliled 

• To the abovf account, rcfpct^inr^ tlic p.ip.'r cun-.-n.-y of ]\:-i-ii'y!::Ti'.r, 
it nny be adcled, "J'liat, by auothtfr rqiort of the IloiUc of AiL'ml-ly, 
mude in the year 1749, it ajipciu-s, that no more \vri3 ill'iicfl till the year 
1746; th^t, ia the year 17^5, an art of AlVenibly was paffcJ fur conti- 
'nuino; the currency of the aforcfaiJ /^. 2o,coo for fixtc.-n years; durinij 
the firft ten years wlicreof, the whole Ann to b-e ki;pt up, by Lndin^ our, 
or re-eaiitting, tlie yearly quotai, or payments, aa thty be *anie (hie i 
and after the explrition of ten years, one lixtli part of t\i6 whole fum tn 
be paid in yearly and funk, or deflroyed ; 'I'hat, hi the year 1746, an 
«vil: wj< paffed, giving £. 5,000 to the kinji's life, to l)e finilt in ten 
yearly jji.y meats, of £.500 each; fo that the whole amount of billi 
of credit, current in the province at tliat time (1741;) w.;s only 
£. 85,000 then equal to £. 53,333 6 8 flerlinp; money of GV.-.-/ Biii.iiii .• 
which fiim, in the faid report, is alFerted to be much too final!, to carry 
on the trade of the jirovincc; wlueli, of late years liad very uiuch in- 
creafed; but that nev-rthclufs it was of great ^itility and advantage, ai 
fir a» it went ; that their paynienii at t]iit tiiiio, were made to Gr.;:i 
Jjrithin, chiefly in gold and lilver ; wliieh for feveral year.-s, l\ad paRed 
current in the pro\rinee at ?:fj'G {kt ounce for iilver, and £. 6 5 per ounc« 
for -old, &c. 

^'■f'^ if ^U''^'''^-y, Vol. iv. p-.;g-. Iijj. 

178 The History OF PuNNSYLVATnA. 

1724. pra(3:Ifed thofe arts, which ieldoni fail to pleafc 
'"^"^'"^^ the populace ; which, in pcrlbns of ability are no 
lefs dangerous, in the extreme, to which there. is 
the greatcir. temptation, than they are really ne- 
cefiary, when kept within due bounds, and pro- 
perly tempered, to execute any good and important 
dehgn in public ailairs : this appears to have been 
fo far the cafe, with refpeft ro Governor Keith, that, 
though his exerting hinii'elf, at all events, to pleafe 
thofe he governed, and his harmonizing fo very 
nmch Vv'ith the AlTcmbly, were produdive of di- 
vers advantages, and much benefit to the province, 
yet his views of raifmg and fupporting himfelf 
upon the foundation of popular applaule, carried 
him to fuch an extreme, that, the more firmly to 
cltablifli himlelf in the favour of the people, from 
whom he drew his fupport, lie neglected thofe 
who advanced him to the ftation, which he 
fdled, and broke through the terms, on which he 
had engaged in the government, by rejeding the 
adyice of tlie Council and the Pioprietary*s 
friends, and by acM:uig contraiy to the inllrudions 
Keiihdifrc- of his principal ; the abfolute oblervance of which 
fTaiiuciuins '^'^"'^^ ^^^^ compaJl of his lieutenancy ; this was, 
:<.c. " T/.'iit he Jho'uld piifi no Lnvs, nor tranfad any 

thui^ (-f moment, relating to the public qi/iilrs, with- 
out the aihice and approbation of the CouneiL'* 
This inltrudion, which, on his appointment to 
tljc government, he had obligated himfelf invio- 
lably to obferve, he, now encouraged by the Af- 
fcmbly, held to be illegal, and perfiiled in his not 
■ being bound by any rellraint of that nature.* 

CavLTnor ThIs coudut^l of Govcmor Keith, in the latter 
Kiiiii'scon end of the year 1724, cauled much difpute, in 
I,")'^.J^'|'j';',|.' the j-rrovince, tending unhappily further to divide, 
I'UK-, t^vc. and 

^■^ In the votes of AfTcnibly vol. ii. ]-a^. /]Z'j, amnn;' the Mcmhcrs of 
Council, who, in February 1717-18, uppcar llril to li.ivc rclciiicd, or 
fi;^iiifi.(l the if (iifi"ali=!'iiv5\ion with, Governor 7. ;/,Vs pyying fo httle rc- 
ji,.ir.l ;o thntbiKinl, vcro, J/.i.u- Wi/nh, |}' Li'^ufi, llituard Hill, mi 

Govern or 

The History of Pjixn.'ivlvania. 


and make an incompaliblllty cf intcrells between i72.<. 
the proprietiiries uiiJ the people; which, in reali-' "-^"^^ 
ty, were i'o nearly and intimately coniiedled and 
interwoven, that, in all the public procjedin^:;3, 
they oii<Tht ultimately ever to have been regarded 
as one: the ,mana[;ers, or chief aclors, iu this 
contjovcriy, weVe principally the Governor and 
David Lloyd,- on the one iidc, and on the other, 
James Logan, the Secretary, and agent to the 
Proprietary's family. * 

The Governor, vvith thofc, v/ho oppofid the "n c n,,- 
Proprlctary intereii bJiie-; the more numerous, ■^''■•'•"'■' 

rcrtf'iiis Tor 

and who now, ii[)on thi£ oecalicji, be^an agsiin \a~. Loiukict 
more parlieularly to d!llin<^uilii aiui cnert ilieni- '^--• 
felvcs, advanced, 'J'liat the power of fe^iilation, 
was, by the royal charter, folely and entirely 
vefted in the Proprietary, or in his Deputy, v.ith 
the reprefentatives of the people; that, as the 
• latter, or the delegates of the people, in' their 
legiflative capacity, were lo lar ironi belii"- liable 


* The foliowIiiEr is m cxtra^'l fr-jm (lie \.:f.,uaio,u of rlic wiJow, U^,.- 

tui'j P.-,.'!tu(JuVi.U\or K.-it/.', d.::-d, Lo.:jJ, Al.iy 20, I7U4, ■t;-,. 

" TIic j>uwirsoi"ljglll,iti:;v b..i'i;i, :ii ])i. fc-.:t, lod.^i J I'ol.'ly iu ll:. Co- 
vci-nor ami Aut mil/, without lo nuiL-h as ;i nc^divc rclc.rvcJ to tlu; I'lo- 
prictary, when abllnt, it ii; «t the higlKll. iinj'o' tiuiCL-, i'(;r our liii'.rity, ^ 

as well us for tin', of ihe country, that matLr;; of it;giiiati(/ii iiioiild ]>--i 
currii.d on witli ihz mod niuure ailvifcmcnt and d^lib^ialiui: ; fur it at v . r 
was iiucrivifjd that every new Gove-ruor f.iouki, -wiili an AfFcmlily aiinu.-Jly 
chofen, proceed to nird-.c wliut now laws tlity ihoii'.J tiiiiilc proper, to Ijc 
tranfmittcd Jiriiftly to the liiiij^'s niiniiuis, without a;ry o-Jur (.I.cuk : it' 
lias, thoicforL', been more iurprifnig to lee iliee (from wiioni it ^^ulllll 
liave been Icait cxpcdted) to be the firlt autlior of i'o^rroiis im in- 
vention, whieli entirely tr'.kea off the lecurity, which the Proprietary 
ever Irid, aiul sibfolat.'iy r.rp;ircd i>f Lis fornKr djimtics, " TL::t mll/t..^ 

Jloid.: L.- !i.,i:f,ui.-J !'y the,,;, iLith ai.y Jj/'//,/.>.'y, L.:t tiiii'j t':i j:i;t co.-fun :ii.e 
and jppthkit'ion of h's fi'unJ.s, it Council:" thLrcf(,re, for iuncdycf tli's 
grievkiiee, it it reiiuired, that thou advife witii tir.- Cur-u'J, iij.on ( vcjy 
niectinM-, or adjournini-r. of ijie iMl'ri'l/iy, v-l.ic!) rtq'.. ires any deJiher.i- 
tion, on tli.e (Jovenior'-) part! t';:.: tl'-.iu 1:1: Ic 110 fpitch, lit.r sl-i.d any 
written melta;ce, Init \.-)i^\. i\..M bj firu ; ikhmvliI \n C'i)l;i..'1, if iracl:-" 
cdile, at th-jtiii-.e; and Ir.dl rfli;'. n 1:0 bills to ll..- iioi;!;-, v.-it.h ;.t V\t 
advice of th^ Co'.ineil ; i!,,i- j-ifs a.:/ wb.atevei' inrj a I./.', v\i,!i..i.t li'C 
coiifciit of a niajiaiiy of thai, board; that ili ■ ;-.!..'iU; ,.:' C ;^;::ii I'e ; .•- 
gul.irly kej.'t, a::d Ji'.l.- uf ii j pr.^ C.k; ■ i' br r-. :! ..i-! app-.. ■• ' i 
ai tli; ro.t iiTxt'i;-r, and {liail ahvays ren-.a::i in il;c ii'iiciion Ol il.c 
CkiLof the e..:;!d," .^le. 

i8o The History of Pennsylvania;-' 

1724. to be bound, or reltrained by any inJlrU^llons^. 
^*^^''~''*^ from their conftituents, that then- a<!:ls were ,abib-. 
lutcly binding upon thcni ; fo, neitiier has the 
former, or the Proprietary, any jull authority to 
lay reftriftions upon his Deputy, (whofe acts are 
alio equally binding upon his principal) to hinder 
him from afting, as he pleaied, in conjunction 
with the other part of the legiflature ; and confe- 
quently all inllruclions of this nature were void 
in themfelves ; that, moreover, by the preient 
charter of piivileges, granted by the ProjH'ietary to 
the people, the Council was no part of the legifla- 
ture ; and, therefore, had no right to interfere, in 
a6ls of government, fo as to be a rellraint upon 
the Governor therein.* 


* The following extraiSlt, from \riiat was then ndvanceij on this fide 
of the (]ucilioii, may further l!ievv the nature of the dlfpiue, and of the 
principal arguments uJ'cd, <kc. 

Governor Krllk, in his defence, &c. votes of AffLmhly, vol. ii. pag. 
438, fays, " Whtiefoiv, I ihidl conclude thi« paper with a fliort and 
pbiu flate of the propri. tury right, as well as the j)eop]c's privileges, as 
they are afcertuined and containtd in th;it royJ [;iuiit, \v'hich, witliout 
the unanimou; lonfcHt of all the parfics, or a "legal lupfciture incurred, 
cdiiDot be varied, and then fore all fubfequent charters, commifilons, in- 
flnu'iionj, <5<c. and even ad» of Alknibly, not yet approved of by the 
crown, ■<\hich appear to he inconfiilent xviih the terms <-f the fiid royal 
grant, mult, fo far as they aic fo, be underlloud 10 be void, and of no 

" The royal charter, with refpecl to the Proprietary and tlie people 
jointly,, may be confidcred as the terms, or condition of that bond of 
friendiliip, ind mutuai interefl, entered into between the Proprietary 
and the firfl pnrehalers and fcttlers of this colony, and their heirs i.nd 
efiigins for ever ; and as, in all matters of government, the Proprietary 
is always to he rejrrercnted, either by himfelf, or his Deputy Governor, 
fo is the people to be reprefented by themfelves, or their delegates, law- 
fully chofen »nd ccnvcaed, acenrdhva, to the diredtion of the faid charter ; 
'and thcfe two re])refenration!, from time to time, do, with.nnt the inter 
vcntion of any other [lerfon, or thinp-, evidisntly compufe the whole 
legiilative power, cr General Affemlily uf this provmee. 

" Now all men, who have yet formed to themfeive* any intelligdble 
rdeas of jjovernment, mud know, t'u'.t legdlative power cannot be r>- 
flrained in ads of legiilature, even by its conllitiienis ; for as the nclj of 
the people's reprefentatlves, or delegates, do moll ceif.dnly bind the 
yhole iieople, wdiom tiiey reprefcnt, fo do the acls oi th.e Deputy Go- 
vernor bind his principal, whom he reprefents in a le;;ill,:tivc capacity. ' 

D.iv'ul Lloyil, in his vindication, <5cc. votes of Aflenddy, vol. ii p:i>J. 
rfl4, f-*)'') "' 'I'lie Piopiletor had po-.v.r to nr.'.ke Deputies and Licute- 

The History or Pennsylvania. i8i 

The Pronrietary's fnciids, on the other lumd, 1724. 
alledged the rcaibnablcnefs and jnftice of the ,;^^^_^^^^ 
thing, and the ablblute neceflity ol' lucn a C.oun- a,e ivopri 
cil, or of the Council's having fuch a check on the ctor'^^ 
Deputy Governor, both for the fafety of the 1 ro- ^^^j^^ ^j^^ 
pr^etary, and, even, the further fecurity of the Governor, 
peojile ; befKles the conllant praQice of the fn-fl, or 
late Proprietary, lVWh:m Feun, and its confiiten- 
cy will) the nature of an Enghlh conilitution : — 
Vor, faid they, in all the royal governments, th.e 
GovernoiS arc the King's deputies, or reprelen- 
tatives ; and there is not one of ihcm in America, 
who is not bound by fimilar, and much more ex- 
tenfive inllructions, in reference to their refpeaive 
Councils, notwiihdaiiding their oilicc of deputy, 
and rcpicfentativc capacity ;— That, in the abfeiicc 
of the Proprietary, \vho is fo greatly mtereited in 
vhatevcr concerns the public affairs, for a Lieu- 

n.nt,; in which cafe (as it i. in all other cafe., ^vhcre a Deputy may he 
Lnoinfed) tlie law fays, he has full r«wcr to do ary ad or th>n^, ^vhRh 
hi principal m.y do; and that is fo eflcntially .nodent to a Deputy, 
that a man cannot be a Deputy, to dc a,>y hnglc a^t or tlnng ; nor ca« 
a Deputy have Icfs power than his pr>; and it Ins pnnapal nuLe 
hin. covenant, th.i I, ..iil .C J. ,u,y /.„//,,./..r tlnn^. ^vhK■L tuc pnnc- 
pal !n,iy </», </"• covriunt is leiJ and upii^mmt, i^c. 

Governor K.M again fay., you will underftand from ^yhal is ohfrrv.d, 
that the prefcnt Council of this province cannot legally be under loci o 
be any other than a Coun*il of ilate, to advife. and to be prefent, .u fo- 
Icmn witnefles to the Governor's adions," &c. , . . „. . , . , 

Among the arguments advanced by -Ja.ncs Ug.u, on the other fide of 
the queftion, are the following, -^/~. 

" There is not one word in the whole charter, that direfts the manner 
of palling bills, into laws; it is expreis and abfolutely grants .he Aif.rn- 
blv a po..-er to prepare bills, but without any rellr.cft.on to forb.d he 
prVpanngof any clfe>vhere : and what ie yet more remarkable, m the 
liir dlion of the ftile, the word ad.iu i. left out though commonly 
in all ad. of parliament, and in the ads of, m uthtr places. 
-Ml which clearly fliews that the Proprietary's intention, ni that charter, 
was not to bind up hindelf, nor Lieutenants from advijin^ and c,vJ.U,ng 
with others, in legillation. It alfo further ns refoh,U.n to guard 
i„ the language of the charter, againit thofe, who, a httle before ,1. 
time- hudllamdup, in oppohtion '" '--' -'^ I;- -7:^^' ;;"^ ; g 
to turn his kindeft grants of, to ferve the mdtmdert p. rpo es 
,gahut him. that they mi-ht fron^ ilKnec have nu manner of jail j. e- 

iSfi The History of Pennsylvania. 

1724. tenant and temporary Governor, perhaps, of fome 
v^v-v-**./ ^ij[.^m. country, and with httlc, or no iblid con^ 
neciions, m the province, to be Iclt to aft, ia 
government, entirely as he pleafes, in refpe61; to' 
his principal, without any check whatfoever froni'" 
a Council, compofed of luch of liis friends as are' 
inhabitants of the firit charafter and property iir 
the province, and tlience fo mucli tlie more inter- 
efted in its welfare, v/ar, In fuch an important fla- 
tion, very unfafc not only for the Proprietary, but 
alio unreafonable and un.jud, to expedt it ; and,' 
even, if duly conhdered, lei's fecure to the people 
themfelves ; that, . by the royal charter, " The 
full and abfolute power of legiUation was veiled 
in the Proprietaryy or in his Deputy, with the 
advice, aff'cnt and approbation of the freemen,: 
or their delegates, he. to be aflcmbled for that 
pilrpofe, in iwchfort ^nd for /n, as to the faid Pro- 
prietary and them fhall ieem bed ; but iliac the 
Aifembly, by the f/refcnt charter of privileges, 
agreed on between the Proprietary and people, in 
1701^, are not authorifed to advifc, Ca part re- 

leiicc ;i;-;.iiiifl li!> further procenlinjijs, in t.iliiD'g the hi-fl precaution lie 
(.KuKl, 1(11 Ills, .uul the tomitry's Icciirity, during hii ablLiKt. 

" AiiJ, in orJer to tnis, lie iinmediattly, hy letters patent, under the 
{jvfut led, bciuin^^ tvcu date, witli t!ie charter, i<iz. the «8th of Oiftcher, 
l-Ot, crtabllihed ':; CoancU, tu co:,ful: and ajjljl the ProfTiefary hbvfclf^ tr 
his Liiutenmitif or Deputies, luith the bijl of ihi'ir adwce and co^aijcl, in pub- 
lie affairs, ,inJ matters reLitiit^ to the gwjirnir.ent, and to the piJce, •tfeU-beinr 
andfoftty vf the pc':^,!: thereof; and 1,1 the aijeiice of the Propiidary, or up::i 
ihc Lit'.iicnuut's d.uth, or incapmity, to exercife all and fAgular, the pviucrs 
cf gaienimeiit, ikc. And thc.uj^h he was then about to leave in the lieute- 
nancy, a gtntbnraii of known honour, fmcerity and inte;^rily, viii. 
.'UiJie-zv H:i!/.:'ilicii, yet he obl.,t;ed him, by his iulLrinTrions, as he al'ter- 
■*var<!i> dij, the fuecceJinj'; Goveniors, Colonel L-ii.nis, and Colonel 
Guixin, to ad in all things of luoment, relating- to the public (and furcljr 
none will exclude lce,ifhitioii from that lifl) by the .idviee -dud uppnibntiuu 
of the Cu!j/K-:i J -vihich thof; gentlemen, in thcfc points, a» llriiftly ob- 
I'crvcd. And the prefcnt Oovcrnor (Kciih) may remember that he not 
oii!y received the like iii{liu«l;"l.iui!s with his commilfion, but for foine 
reiioiis, bcR known to thofc who required il, was obliged in the pf naky 
of t,7c ih'.'ifiiid pounds Jitrliirr to obicrvc thciu ; ami, to leave the kfs roor.i 
for dil'i^fite, tli-jy v/eie alfo juit upon record, at his iirlL arrival ; which 
1 incniioii, orilv b^cai..!'^ llicfe precautious arc tli: firll of the kind, I h.ave 
knouH," .^c. ■ 

J.o^ans memorial, -voles, vol. ii. pag. 4^1. 

The History of Pennsylvania. 

quired of the freomen by the royal charter) but 
only to cnatl ; — That, for this purpofe, &c. the 
Council was cfhibliflie J by the Proprietary, William 
Penn, as mofl reafonable, juftand necefiary ; 
which, in its very nature, could not polfibly 'be 
.injurious, but might be, as it had been, in many 
cafes, beneficial to the country, as well as a fecurity 
to the Proprietary himfelf ; and that moreover, it 
was mofl evidently more confonant to the nature 
of an EngUJh conditution. 

The Governor' flrenuoufly maintained the de- '^''= ^'»- 
-bate, and perfifted in his conduct, till he was fa- ^1™°^! hT 
•perfeded in the government by Patrick Gordon^ m J- luix-iici- 
the fummer of the year 1726:* before which ^'^' ^^*"* 
.time, in the month of March preceding, Jaiues 
.Logan, in order to terminate the difpute, prefeat- 
.ed to the Affembly, a paper, in which he thus 
cxpreffed himfelf, viz. 

• " James Logan never alledged that the Council j-m" i o- 
of this province under the prefcnt conftitution, is 2:^'- ^V,'"^ 
a part or its legiilative authority; or, that, as a &c. 


• 'I'lic lunu-s of tilt Alcnibcii of AlTcUibly, cloJicd ii» O.Mohci-, 
"1715, were, A 

For Phil.iJ^lp',! X cot:nty. T>:iikt tsunly. 

Ev-u Owcii 
Matthias llolllon, 
P'ra»ci» Rawlc, 
Anthony Mprris, 
Jolin Swifc, 
Jol) Goodfon, ' 
lldward Farmur, 
I-. C. Spro^lc. 

Willi;im Liles 
yU\\\ IVll, 
Abi;iliain Chapman, 
Chriftiun V:'>'lioriie, 
Matthew li; ;hes, 
liL-njamiu joiite, 
'1 honias \^''atlon. 

'I'homas Ciiaudlcr, 
D.iviJ I.lovd, f^pea 
Williiun Wibb, 
John WrigJu.. 
.Samuel H()Uin?,l\T! 
William Pufey, 
Gcorjjc' Aibton, 
W^iliiam PalVball. 

City of PhUaJ-ll,h;a. 
John Kc:w iL-y, Thoaias Trcfs. 
Note. Abcnf the time of Governor (iofdon'j arrlv.',), in I 
afttrwards, ilic fi/lluwin^- jiamLS appear among tlisl'c of ihc ^ic 
Council, tilz., 

James Lo;Tan, Richard Hill, ifaac Nori's, Samue! rrcIJiy, 
Palmer, Robert Aihton, William lilhbcuriic : 

i). Lloyd, Speaker of the AflMnbly. 
L. Lloyd, R. Hill, R. Aihfun, Jinljes. 
Jc.'bpli tirowiiLH, Att'iriiey Geneial. 

yaiuuel ricllou, Piyviniial "rriat'i.nT, &r. 

184 . TiiF. History of Pennsylvania* 

I'j'li;. Council, they are otherwJfe concerned in ir, thart 
"'"^-'^'^^ in, conjuftion with the Governor, at the board, 
or, in committees, conferences, by his appoint- 
ment and direction ; or, that an aft, paffed by 
the Governor and Alfembly, without the Council, 
is not of as much force, as if it had tlieir concur- 
rence and approbation : but, even, David Lloyd 
himfcif has fully acknowledged their part in it, 
in thefe v/ords of his print, viz. i/jat be never 
knew any fofenfehfs, as to fay, that the Governor 
is excluded (by lav/ or chatter) of having a Coun- 
cil, to advife and alfid, in IcgillaLion ; beyond 
which no man ever allerted thsy have a right, in 
this province. 

" And whether the Proprietary can lay his De- 
puty under reftriftions, is now rendered fully in- 
telligible to every capacity, by the Governor him- 
felf, in reducing the cafe to this narrow point, viz. 
" That the ^rcalejl of Deputies can break their in- 
firiitlions ; and that thsy are liable to be removed 
for it ;'' beyond which the matter will not bear a 
further argument. 

" All other attempts, therefore, to labour thefe 
points, can only tend to continue difiionourable 
difputes, hi the government, and engage the whole 
country in quarrels, that can no otherwife affeft 
it, than by involving it in reproach, and heaping 
provocations on the Proprietary's family." 

By the widow Pcnn's anfwer to the Affembly's 
remonflrance of the 20th of March 1724-5,* on 
this affuir (which ycrnoi:JIrancc is mentioned, but 


* The names of the Members ol" AfTLmlly, cleclcJ hi Oflobcr, 

1724, were, 

For Philadtlphla ceunly. Bi/cis coimly. Chcjl.r county. 

Anthony Morris, ' "Wlllbin Bilw, n/':'aicT, Mofes Key, 

'']ob Goodfnn, Jrreiuiuh Laiighonic, Joft-ph Funnock, 

iviorrit Morris, JoiVj-h Fell, William Wtbb, 

rmncis Ruwle, Clirillnphcr Vauhorne, V^'iliiaiu Pile, 

Johi. LJwift, MatthcA- IIu;j,h(.s, Tlioi^ai Chandler, 

Tpie History of Pennsylv. 


not infcrted, in the printed votes of the Iloufe) 
both the dcfi^n of the Proprietaries, by thefe in- 
flruclions, and alfo die views of the perfons, wlio 
were primarily and principally concerned in thus . 
rcprefenting the fame, as contrary to the charter- 
al rights of the province, arc further intimated, 
•as follows, viz. 

" To the Reprefentatives o/* Pennfylvania, //: 
General AjJenMy met. 

" It gave me no fmall concern, when I received Thcwkiow 
the remonllrance of the 20th of March, 1724-c, ^^""'^''^t- 

' I ' J' ter to the 

firom the late Iloufe of Reprefentatives of the free- AiTcmhiy, 
men of the province of Penfihama, with their '" ^?*^- 
refolurion, that fome part of a private letter of 
indruOions, fcnt by me to the late Deputy Go- 
vernor,* was contrary to the liberties and privi- 
leges, granted by charter to the people of that 
province ; and my concern was the greater, when 
I confidered, that, as their happinefs had ever 
been the peculiar care of my late hulband, in his 
life time, fo the continuance of it has been no lefs 
the defire of myfelf, and the whole iamily, ever 
fmce his death. I purpofed long ere this time to 
have anfwcred that remonftrance, but finding my 
fincere intentions to preferve peace and unanimity, 
in the province, aad been manifelfly perverted, 
to the great difquiet of the people ; and that too 
by thofe, whofe duty it was to have afted another 
part, I was willing to lay hold of a more favourable 
opportunity, (when you might be left to your 
own prudent deliberations, without being influ- 
, enced to niifinterpret the good intentions of the 
Vol. II. [24] family 

For PLilaJrlph'ia county. Buds county, Chjhr cewify. 

Siimucl Hudl'on, Thomas Watloii, T'lilha Ovtuhcll, 

Edward Fannar, Bcnjamhi Jonci, J<''i" i^arry, 

Matthias Ilulllow, Abraham Chaiiman. John Ciofliy. 

City of PljiLuhl/jl/ia. 
"^ Jrhii Kc.uflcy, Thoniaij Trtrfs. 

• This letter was wiiiteii nfier th« appoiiitin«tit of (Jovevaor Corvloii, 

The History of Pennsylvania. 

family towards you) to afluie you, that, if, at 
any time, 1 fall fhort of doing any thing, that 
may advance your interelt and reputation, it muft 
proceed only from my not having it in my power. 
And as to that pait of my letter, which was made 
ufe of to procure that remonftrance, I do acknow- 
ledge it was defigned as a cautionary direction, or 
limitation, upon the aO;ing Governor ; but with- 
out the leall apprchenfion that it could ever have 
been conllrued, by the Alfembly, as any defign 
upon the liberties of the freemen of Fenfdvania : 
becaufe the Council^ according to its conititution, 
either is, or ought to be, comj-jofed of perfons of 
the belt circumilances and abilities, refiding and 
inhabiting within the faid province ; and whofe 
intereil mull, without all doubt, be the fame with 
your own, and that oi the people, whom you re- 
prefent. Nor was this inflruftion any other, but, 
in elTed, the fame with what had ever been given, 
by my late hufoand, your Proprietor, to all his 
Deputy Governoro : and (without mentioning the 
unhappy occafion gi\en, for writing that letter) 
I was the rather induced to renew this inliruclion, 
becaufe by the proceedings of your own Houfe, 
but a few years ago, it appears, the then AlVembly 
exprelfed a very particular concern at the Deputy 
Governor's declining to take the cd-vicc of the 
Council, upon the bills, fenc to him, Irom their 
Houfe, to be palled into laws :* and, therefore, I 
n.:jufl conclude, that, if in this, you had been en- 
tirely left to have followed the refolutions of your 
own judgments, you would liave continued of the 
lame fentimcnts, and have judged it a very nccejd- 
ry hijlrudio)!^ at that time, all circumiiances con- 
fidered ; (but more efpecialiy if you haxl been 
aware of what has happened but too plainly fmce) 
that this very remonlirance was obtained with de- 
figu to wrell the government out of the hands of 


* Governor Gookin, viJ. pag.^i, w;c. 

, The History or Pennsylvania. i8;r 

the Proprietor's family; and by that means, at 1725. 
once, to deprive you of thofe valuable privileges, "-""^^'^ 
fecurcd io you, as well by the royal charter, grant- 
ed to tlie late Proprietor, as by the feveral grants 
and laws, made by him, under the fame ; for the 
prcfervatlon of which you exprefs fo jufl a con- 
cern: and I do allure you, it is not eafy for me 
to fay, whether for your fafety, or my ov/n, I am 
better pleafed that tliis attempt upon the rights of 
our family, and your privileges, has proved un- 
fuccefsful : and, v/ithout faying any more of that 
piece of management, I hope, we fliall, all of us, 
learn to cultivate and maintain fo entire an agree- 
ment, and mutual good imderflanding, as may 
preferve us from ever becoming a prey to defign- 
ing men ; who, it is evident (notwith (landing 
their fair pretences) confider none of us in any 
other light, than to ferve their own cuds and pur- 
pofes, even, though at the expence of all that is 
valuable to us. My age, and. low Hate of health 
make it tedious and diiheult for me to apply my 
thoughts to bufmefs ; ^nd, therefore, I fhall add 
no more, but that the Governor^* appointed by 
my grandinn,! with the concurrence and confent 
of the family, is, for his jnudence, well recom- 
mended to us here, and hath, in charge, Ironi us, 
as much as lies in his power, to do every ihing, 
which he lawfully may, to make you a happy 
people ; which we apprehend to be the furelt way 
to advance the Interelb of our family, in Penfilva- 
jiia, as well as mofl; agreeable to my own Inclina- 
tion and defires. 

<♦ London, 2otb April, 1726." 

To conclude the fubject of the right, lawful- rnrtiirrrair 
nefs, or propriety of Proprietary in(h-u6lions, or r"^^'' »'"■" 
of this kind of reftrictlons, in tliis cafe, though i,,Vu-JS:ou 

ii '^^. 

* Governor Gordon. | Sprlngctt. 

iS8' The History of Pennsylvania.' 

1725. It take us beyond the prefent time, It Is obferva- 
'"^"^'-'^''''^ |)Ie, that the government of Pennfyhania was ab- 
Ibkitely as much the property and eftate of the 
rroprietary, under the crown, as the foil thereof,' 
iind both of them intimately connefted ; confe-' 
quently during the abfence of the Proprietary, 
rules, inflruftions and reflraints from him to his 
Deputies, to act by, refpecting that property be- 
came as proper and neceflary, as the direftions 
from any employer to his agent, whofe a61s are 
obligatory upon his principal, can be juflly fup- 
pofcd to be, notwithftanding which it has been 
long complained and contended In the province, 
fmce that time, " That the power given to the 
Deputy Governors of Pennfylva7ua, by the royal 
charter, of making laws, with the advice and 
confent of the Aflembly, for public ufes, &c. ac- 
cording to their beji difcretion Is taken away by the 
Proprietary Inftrudlions enforced by penal bonds, 
and reflraining the Deputy from the ufe of his hcjl 
difcretion,'' kc. to this the Proprietaries, Thojuas 
and Richard Penn, by their agent, Ferdinand John 
Paris, in November, 1758, thus anfwer : 

Anfwrrof " As loug as InllriK^Uons are couflantly givcH 
the Propri- ^^ every pcrfon entrulled with the c^overnment of 

ctancs on n n i / j i i i f 

tiiis fubjcd any Britijh colony ; (and bonds alio required 
from every fuch perfon, for obfervance of fuch 
inftru6\ions) as long as inftruftions are conflantly 
given to all perfons whatfoever, executing, even, 
the regal government of his Majefty's kingdoms, 
during the royal abfence ; as lung as theie Proprie- 
taries are repeatedly commanded, by the crown, 


Williain Al ^°''- In the Aimmer 1725, A\cd IFillian Allen, the father of IViULim 
Icn obiit. AlUn, who was afterwards Chief Jiiftice of Pennfylvama ; he had been 
an eminent merchant of Philadelphia, a confidcrable pronioicr of the 
trade of the province, and a man of good chaiader and cftutc. 

Thomas '" tbc fame year, 1725, died Thomas Lightfoot, of N.-\u G^nt-n, in 

Li"htfoot. Pinnfylvani.i, in an advanced age: became from Ireland in 1716, v ai 

an tuiinent prcachcf among thp C^Liakers, and iniKh beloved for hb piety 

anf' virtue. 

The History of Pennsylvania. 189 

upon the nomination of eucii rucceflive Lieutenant 1725. 
Governor, to give inftmftions to fuch Lieutenant ; 
and as long as a Lieutenant Governor may, by 
his niilbchaviour (if left entirely to his dilcretion) 
bring ilie Proprietaries ellate and franchifes into 
danger ; fo long the Proprietaries mull contend to 
give indriittions to, and take bonds from, their 
Lieutenant Governors." 


( 19^ ) 


Affirmaiion^ Idc. irjlcad of an oath, cjiahlifbed in 
P;:}vifylvauia. — Forms of the declaration of jidell- 
/)', abjuration and affrniation of the S^/alcrs in 
Penifhania. — S^uakcr's grateful addrefs to the 
ICuvg^ on the occafion. — Coiiduct of the Shakers 
in England on a finnlar affair. — Cu/ioni of the 
S^uakers appearing in courts of jufcice ivith their 
hats on their heads interrupted and rcfored. — 
. Their addrefs to the Gover?ior and his compliance 
icith their requ-e/l, on this occafon. — His too great 
popularity creates fidion in the province, and he is 
fuperfeded in the government by Patrick Gordon, 
in 1726. — Governor Gordon^ s adminiftraiion, — 
Robert Fletcher. — State of I^ennfylvania about 
this time. — lis trade and produce , i:fc. 

^7^5' X IIK Life of xii affirmation, iiidcad of an oath, 
oftheaf- in all cafes, was one of thofe privileges, for the 
firmation enjoyment of wliich Pennfyhvania was iirll fet- 
biiflicdTii tied by the Stinkers ; and which they had cn- 
PciiBfyiva- joyed uninterrupted for above twenty years, with 
the happy clTeCts of the confequence thereof, in 
the province, lint aher the refiunption of the 
government, on the laws being revifed, in 1700 
and 1 70 1, the law refpe^ling the manner of giv- 
ing evidence, with divers others, were remitted to 
Q^ieen jhaw, in Council, in 1705 ; when the faid 
hvvv was repealed ; not with delign to deprive the 
fakers there of the faid privilege, but iolely on 
acccuiU 0^. its making the puniihrnc:nt, for falfe 


I'liE History oi- Pjznnsylvania, 

affirminr;, greater ihrm the law of EiigJmid re- 
quired, lor lallc lu'ciiring ; as appears by the At- 
torney General Northtys opinion thereon. 

I'he repealing of this law occafioned much dif- 
ficulty among the Sluakcrs, in the province j and 
divers attempts were made, from time to time, 
for reviving the aforefaid privilege, but without 
fuccefs, till the year 1725, \f\\t\\ an a6l, pre- 
fcribing the forms of declaration oi fidelity^ abju- 
ftjfionnnd affirmation, inflead of the forms before 
required, having been palled in the province, M'as 
ratified by the King, in Council 5 and thereby 
became perpetual. 

The Puakcrs, in Nl'iu j'crjly, were, for a con- ^nj in 
fiderable time, fubjecl: to fmiilar difficulties, upon >J^\^'>rrc7 
the fame account ; though the equity of their '"''' 
right to an affirmation, in their own form, was as 
old as the conftitution ; and, in h^, the fettle- 
nicnt of the province primarily depended upon 
the enjoyment of that reli-^ious and civil liberty, 


Tlie form of the dtcbratioii oi JiiLHtv, 

" I, A-, B, do fckmnly and IJnccrcly ]iromifc and dcclnrc, that I will 
liC tn.c uud raiild'ul to king C.'cri^; ; and do !blcm:ily, liuitivly and truly * 

pri.lL-U, iiiul dccl.>re, tliut 1 di, from my I'.cjrt, al.lior, dL'ti-!t 
iiitd rruoiinLC, as impious and lic'tvciial, tlmt wicked dudriiic and }/oii- 
tioii, thnc ]iriiiec3, cxcormBun'catcd, i^r dc;)r!vcd, by ths ju^pc, or any 
authority of ific i'te of Jij/n.; nwy I - dqi;ili"d, or murdered hy their 
fubjfds, or any other Nrhatfoevc : ; ^nd I do, 'J:;ic no foreign 
prince, ])trron, j>relate, Hue, or ju.uiitatt:, )u\lh, or ought to have, any 
jjowcr, jiiiirchdjoii, )'upt:ri<irily, j're-cniim-nca, or autliority, c':clciiai1i- 
cal, or fpiritiial ; witiiin the icahn of C'r^::t Briuin, ar the doniinioiu 
thereunto belonging." 

'i']\-c form of the,'on, or the tfilC! <,f ihc oljur^tlnn o:a!,. 

" I, A. B, do folemnly, fincerely and truly iicknowled^^c, piof.-fs, 
trlldy, and dci-larc, thiit kincr Qjor^^- is bwiul and righti"id /■//.•_n of the. 
realm of G,\:it U,:.\ii/i, and ull othr.r* hii do;i;in;o;is and cou;itiiL-s then- 
tnito h:;lon-in^':; and I do foLninly and ftni-crciy declare, that I do be- 
lieve tlie pcrfon pretendinjj to be prince of IV.dcs, during the life of the 
late king J.hvit,, and fincc his dcceafe, prctendii-.jr to be, n'.id taking up- 
on himfelf the llile and title of king of Encrlj„.l, by the n:une of Janus 
thel'hird; or of Sc^Hund, by the natrjc of y..rr.-j- the Ei-hlh; or the 
ilile and title of king of Brituin ; Lata not a.ny right, or title, 
whatiocver to the en.wn of the reium of Grcit Brituin, nor any otlier. 
thi dominions tlicrcuato bclcnj^in^. And I do .-enouusc and rtfuic any 

act, ike. 

192 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1725. of which this was apart; yet means were found' 
'^^"""''^^^ to put a conficlerable interruption to this jufl and 
reafonable privilege ; which, at length, finally 
terminated in the a6l of the fir(t year of George 
the Second ; which a6l was confirmed, and render- 
ed perpetual, by the King in Council, on the 4th 
day of May, 1732. 

Of the af. The AlTembly of the province of Pe}ivJ'ylvama^ 

?^>"^''"" ^^^ ^^^^ y^^^* ^7^S-> ''^^^'■^ ^^^^'^ ^^'~ J?Uifkers,'fi-om 
their yearly meeting, at PhilaJelpbiay feparately, 
to manifeft their gratitude for the royal conhrma- 
tiou of the affirmation ael of Pcnnfylvonla^ ad- 
dreffed the King, on the fubjeft;* the addrefs 
of the latter was, as follows, 'u'l-z, 

" To 

allegiance, or obedience to him ; and I do folcmnly proniife, that I will 
be true and faithful, afid bear true allegiance to king George, and to him 
will be faithful againft; all trail croiig confpirarics and attempts whatfocver, 
■which fliall be made againit his porfon, crown and dignity: and I will 
do my bell endeavour tu difelofe, and make known to king durgc, and 
his fucceifors, all trcafoiis, and traitcrous conlpiracics, which I Ikall 
know to be made againfl: him, or sny of (hem. And I will be true and 
faithful to the fucccliion cf the crown againtl. him, the faid J.:rve<, and 
all other perfons wiiatioever, as the fame is, ar.d flaiuls, fi tiled by an 
act, entitled, An aii didarlng the li^rlts jiui liLer(us of ihcjuhjcti, ami fet- 
tling the fucctjjion of the cto-wn to the lute quesn Anne, a Ad the heim of her 
luJy, hiing Protejlaiit^ ; • and as the fame, by one other a(5t, entitled. An 
aci for tie furtmer lin^it,itioti of the ^'ruitii, aitJ tetter fcuriii^ the rights and 
iihetties of thi fibjeif, is and flands fettled and entailed after the deceafc 
of thefaid late (]uccti, and, for default and ilTiic of the faidlate queen, to 
the late princefs, Suphij, eledrefs and diitchefs dowager of Ihtnnover, 
and the heirs of her body, being l^rotcflants. And all thcle things I do 
plainly and fmcerely acknowledge, promiie and declare, according to the 
cxprefs words, by me fpokcn, and according to the plain and common 
fenfe and underftanding of the fame words, without any equivocation, 
mental evalion, or fccret refervation whatfoevcr. And I do make this 
recognition, acknowledgment, renunciation and proniilc heartily, wil- 
lingly and truly." 

The form of adminiflering the folcnm d^cLir.ition, or ajirmation, was, 
by a qutfftion alked, as follows, iilz. 

" Dofl thou, A. 13, foli-mnly, finccrcly and truly declare and affirm," 
&c. (here the proper worilb are to fueceed, relative to the matter) and 
the affirmant's unlwcr, or allent, is to be cKpiellcd by faying, yea, or 

Lu.os of P.nnfyhani,. 

* 'I'hefc addrefles were delivered to the king by Jfeph Wyeth, fofhua 
Gee and John }'^uu<rh, ^.iLrs ; oiic of whoiu inadg thj following fpcecli 
•a the ©ccafion, viz. 

" M.'y 

TiiK History OF Pennsylvania. 193 

■" '* To our Gracious Sovereign, George, King cf iji^. 
Great Britain, iifc. \-r->^^^ 

'*' The fjumbh addrcfs of his Proteftant fubje(!ils, addivis to 
called S^iakersj ' from their yearly meeting, j'"' ''^"S* 
held at Finladelphia^ in the province of Fenn- 
fyhania, the 21ft day of the 7th month, 

" In an humble fcnfe of the many bleffings • 
and virtues, which flow from the Divine Being, 
difpcnfed to the nations and people, over whom 
lie hath been pleafed to cftablifh fo gracious a 
prince, great, in his goodncfs and love to his 
people, great, in the benignity of his reign, which 
reaches to the moll diftant of his fubjcds, and 
great, in the fight of the nations round about. 

" If i^.ny of the prefent age ihould yet, through 
wantonnefs or wickednefs, flmt their eyes, and 
,.. Vol. II. , [25] not 

r.f ' 

• ..■.". ♦* May it pL-afe the k'tng^ 

" Thefe two addreffei, tranfmittcd to us from PennfyhanLi, arc, one 
from the Aficiubly of thut provinct?, the otlicr from our Friends, called 
iihiuL-ij, hi their private capacity. 

■" 'riiy diitifirl fubjeift'g do, in both tjiefe, exprefs their humble ani 
thankful ackiio-\vL(iuineiits fur the king's jjr.acious goodncfs to tlieni, in 
jfivin^r the faudiou to an aCl of that Airenibly ; whereby they arc 
rcpliceil in a privilege, they had as firJl phuiters of that colony. What 
wc hcjj, is, that ihe king will be gracixjufly pleJied to accept, from U3, 
ihcfc, their dutiful addrclfcs," 

■■'■ ' "The king's anfwcr. 

^ y" I fhall be always plaafcd to do you fervice." 

■ The following extracf^, it taken from " Jn epifrL- of c.iutron t» Fr'u-ndi\ 
in gtncral, relating to the fulemn ajjirmjtisn : irom a meeting at the people 
called i^/jL-rs, held in LonJon, the md of the firll; mouth, 1721-2, and 
is here iiiferted, to (hew, in part, the feiife, and confcicutious fuicerity 
of tliat people, in JEnglaiiJ, on a finiilar occafion, viz. 

" D.jr Friemh and BidLrin, 

" This meeting, tmder a t'/eighty fcnfe of the _(^reat favour, -whic!) it 
?iath plcjfcd the Lord to incline the heart of the king, and thofe in the 
governiucnt, to grant us, by paQln*^ into a law, a fo>»i vf fUcr.ux aj]U-m- 
atio/t, which will remove the eonfcientious fcruplcs, tint many Friende. 
lay under, (and thereby enable all to follow their lawful occupatioi!;-, 
trades, and civil conceiijs, without kt, or hindrance, on any account) 
doth fnid a concern to recommend to all FiimJs, in their quarterly, 
monthly, or partlcMkir uiictrntjs, where llii. law duih, or may extend ; 

" 'ilut 

The History or Pennsylvania. 

not fee, or be thankful for fuch happinef«, ages 
to come will look upon, it with admiration ;' and 
kings nray let before them the example ; pofteri- 
ty may mark it in their annals ; and if ever again 
attempts fhould be made upon true liberty and 
the laws, princes may find the miltake and dilho- 
nour in fuch endeavours, in former times, and 
remark thy reign, as the way to true grandeur. 

" We have great caufe, among the reft of our 
fellow fubjefts, to exprefs our aifcftion and duty 
to our fovcreign, and to be, as v/e truly are, par- 
ticularly thankful for the royal ^(fent to an ad of 
this province, entitled, Jn a^l for ihe prefcriblng 
forms of declaration of fidelity^ abjuration and af- 
firmation, inficad of the forms hcrctofors required in 
fuch cafes. 

" This benevolence of our king, in a matter, 
which io ne;irly touches the conlcience, makes 
deep impreffions on our hearts ; but to the Al- • 
mighty, who lees the-ni, do we carnellly pray for 


" 7 hat tliey, in an efpeciyi manner, have a watchful eye ami ovcrfight 
of their fcviTKl niemhcrs, thut this great favour be uot ahupd, or mifajed^ 
by any profcfling trmh with us. 

" Our blcffcd I.ortl, nnvl Lawgiver, J,^fiu C.Ij,;j, told his dlfciplfj, 
" Te an th: Ught of thi -rtj/.V; a city, t/uii ii fjt en a LiU, c.:t..wt be LiJ." 
And in every agr', ai many as do v/alk i:i obedience to liis gofpel, mufl 
linuvoidaoly be fo ; tls JjHy crofs ,iriJ fJf-Jc:ih:!, Avliioli he doth enjoin, 
(iliufc furc tokens of a (Jliriflian difcijy'.c) arc public mark^, which arc 
eafiiy feen, and readily obftrvcd, by thofc, with whom we have occafion 
of bufinefs, or concern ; and our tranfaciling thereof witli uprightncfs, 
juftiee and moderation will fhcw that we have an awful regard to our 
Lord 'J^fus Chi'iJ}^ whom we acknowledge and declare to be cur great 
Lawgiver and Example. 

" The great end and defi^;!! of the new coveii:\nt, gmce and truth, 
■which is come by him, is to draw men into o!)edience to Ids law, v/rittcn 
iii the heart ; by which only the iulidc can be made clean ; and accord- 
ing to the degrees of obedience to this d;"ine law, which the apoftle 
calls, TA? laiv of thefjArit of life In Cbrljl J.fs, the proper elfcfl thereof 
will ap])ear; that is, th,; itifi.U iiill he waJc clean ulfu. Hereby truth, 
jujlici:, r'luljicoufiufs and clcirily will fhinc forth in the words and aflions 
of Inch ; and then may be truly apj.licd to them tliat faying of CL> ifi ; 
* iity, tliat is ft upon a hill, cannot be hid. 

" Befide the inward engagements of this divine, to fpeak and a(5^ 
accordit^;^- to tnuh, llarc i^, at iliij time, idfo an oiitv.ard engagement, 



the long continuance of his reign, and that an 
increafc of blefhngs may be fliowered down on ' 
his perfon and throne, and tliat his poflerity, may 
be edabliliicd therein." 

The Sliiakcrs of Pemifyhanin^ tliougli this was Their gra- 
thcir indubitable right, as a part of their firfl pnr- j);'^"^),^^^^'^ 
chafe, in the original fettlement, it is plain, look- a,'idrcfs,5c'' 
ed iipmi their being replaced in the enjoyment 
thereof, as a great favour; and fo far were they 
from thinking it unneceffary to exprefs it, that they 
declared it, "their duty thus gratefully to acknow- 
ledge it : which, with their continued care and 
pradice afterwards, not to abufe the fame, fliewed 
as much a difpofition worthy of fuch favour and 
beneficence, on the one hand, as it exhibited, on 
the other, a regard for the juflice and happineis, 
due to that people, in thofe, who were poireHed 
of power : fuch aCfions will ever remain an obli- 
gation on their poderity, (o long as they continue 
in the profelhon of the fame principles, and duly 


which thf government h''.th \i.'u\ upon u$, not only by tlic favour of tiiij 
ai't, hu! illo by the niuniicr, v/hrreiii th-y h.wc conferred it: fur, in 
j!it piCHinble, it is fhi.l; il h m.urfr-l) tkit the f,U p^.pl: ,.i!U :^.ilcr., 
/ jv.' not jhuf.J rj." llLnty auJ i/Ju/^cu:-, nl!..:rcl ihem by Lie. U'lucll t*l- 
tiniony of tlie Legislature coiiccniinj;- the ulc of tiie lait /u'.v.v.v .;-///■),/<;. '/jv, 
upon twenty five yean experience, ought, at l.-ulf, to llir nj) ull fricvli 
fo great watchfuhicli. and care, in the ufe of thi* fuither c^ilc and r*!icf ; 
thai this tcftimoiiy niny be cintiiuied, and tiicicliy cunlinii tlic ;_>^overu- 
ment in their favourable fcntiiucnti eoiu;eiiiing u.. 

" And at this fijjnal in(!uly^en>:c m ly dr iw the c/es and obfervation (u 
many people upon us, it may be c!cpev.'fed, anioiiij tbefe, fonic will look 
on ut with an evil eye, watch for our haltin^j, aiid leek oeealion againil 
lis, upoti any mifufe, or abufe, oi this legal privilc:>;c, -whicli any, piu- 
feffing truth with us, or but bearing the name, fliould fJl into, <t toni- 

" Firfl;, therefore, that thsrc may be no mifufe of th"b favom-, we A^t 
earneflly dclirc and entreat, that tlie J'everal ineetiiigs do advllc and 
exhort FrL-nd:, that they watch agalnft all vexatious ai:d triiiiHj^ caufe» 
of difference; ?ud not, for any fuch caufe, implead, or comuuncc fuits 
of law, upon the encouragement of thisyl/'ivvj/; aljh-n-.ailu.-i, for that would 
certainly be a perverting the good defigii of the govenimcut, in tbo 
granting thereof, and nmfi be uecintri a great iiufuft of this privilejc. 

" Secondly, That thi-re be no ahufcs there(jf coinmitted, v/e do, in 
Kke niUHnei', entreat and JL-llre, that. I'liciids may be Ci.h';itetl and ad- 


ig6 The History of Pennsylvania; 

1725. regard the example of their forefathers, to incite 
w-^.->«^ their circumfpe.!:Hon, in both their religious and 
civil conducl, with all divtifulnefs and lidelity to 
the government ; under which they partake not 
only of the common protection, but aifo enjoy 
fuch particular indulgence. 

The Qua, With the rclforation of the enjoyment of this pri- 
I'^'oft" ^^^'^S'^ ^^ ^^^^ S^uihcrs^ in Pennjylva/iia, may be 
Paring m' mentioned that of another, v'rz. the liberty *of 
courts, in appearing covered, or, with their hats on their 
v/ay, in hccicls, (accordiiig to their ufual cuftom every 
I'cainfyiva- where) in all courts of judicature : which this 
^'^' people, in that province, likewife confidered as 

one of their charteral, or legal and indubitable 
rights, however fmall, trifling, or humourfome, it 
may appear to thofe perfons, who, by their con- 
duct, while, at the fame time, they may thus re- 
prefent, or make light of the ceremony of the 
hat, abfurdly render it an alfair of lb very great 
importance, as fcarcely on any terms whatfoever, 
to bear, or difpcnfe, with an emancipation from 
the ufe of it, in any people ! 


%-ifeJ, when r.ny juft and valuable occafion doth require any to make ufe 
r! tliis .7y//V/.rj//o,v, that fuch Frian!, or FiifnJi, be very coufidcratc, and 
fun; of tlie trutli of what they are about to ajjinn ; for wiiere property, 
or liberty arc concerned, a falfc <ir corrupt evidence is very injurious, 
and may jirovc deflru(5ti\c ; befidc, it ought, on all occafions, to be re- 
membered, that, afilfe -rviliufi foall not L- unJ'un'iJL'cJ, and hu thji fj:c.d:th 
lies pall nul efcupf ; and that the command, thou Jhalt not hear fjlj'i ivltnefs, 
is as well in the gofpel as in the law ; and that all liars fiall. lave their 
part in the lake, iMcb iiirneth ivilli fire ar.d hrimjlar.e. To thefe inward 
obligations, on the coiifcicncc, to truth-i'pealcing, there 13 alfo added the 
outward guanl of pains, penalties aud lorfciturei, to be inilidcd on fuch 
«b fhall lawfully be convided of wilful and corru])t perjury. 

" We cannot omit alfo to remind you, thi^t fliould any, under our 
name, fo far depart from the righteous law of God, as herein to become 
guilty, they .will thereby contract to themfelves perpetual infamy, and 
to the body, whereof tliey may pretend to be members, very j;reat fcan- 
tlal and reproach; and fuch inilanccs repeated might provoke the j^fivern- 
ment to d(i)rive us of this great benefit ; how great would be the load of 
};,iiilt on any, who Ihould be the occafion thereof! 

" Let ir be alfo confidered, that the ground of our petitioning and 
t/heitin,; this further i^-cXc and relief, was a coniciLT-tioua fcruplc, lojw: ir 


The History op Pznksvlvania. 

The inflltiuioii of ix court of chancery, m the 
province, in the year 1720, has been already 
mentioned. At tkis court, in which Sir William 
Keith was Prefident, John Kinfey, a .^uiker 
and u lawyer of eminence, who was afterwards 
Chief Juflice of PcnnfyJvania, was, in the year 
I'] 2^, obliged, in the way of his bufinefs, to at- 
tend J where appearing with his hat on his head, i« intcr- 
iiccording to the ufual maniier of that people, the '''1"*='^' ^<=- 
Prefident ordered it to be taken off; which, was 
accordingly done. l\h friends the ^lakers, took 
the affair under confideration ; and foon after, at 
their quarterly meeting, in Philadelphia, appointed 
a committee to wait on the Governor; and, in a 
refpedful manner, to requelt him to continue the 
privilege, to which the f^akcrs conceived them- 
ielves legally entitled, of appearing in courts, or 
othenuife, in their oiun way, according to their re- 
ligious perfuafion ; an addrefs, being accordingly 
prepared, was preiented to the rrelident. Go- 
vernor Keith ; which, with the entry made there- 

at r.//, at the WinM time to he <:;uihy oi f.ilf .iff.r.-iU-r, and while tlu'v pvv-- 
taul t<i <',n.ii (Luriii of juiiiiy, u. fall Iliurt' in common lionriiv ! It is 
inikal ;.moiiK the highcll lio'iecs of hypocrify, li crime abhorred by 
God and man I &c. 

" To all thefc particulars (feveral of theni hcing here omitted) v--e 
think it neceffary to add, a:ul very carnefHy and tenderly to reconmieud 
to all Friends, that, as much as may he, they tlo avoid all dllputes aud 
differences, with their nei^-hhours; and, us much as pofliblc, /Jio-^.v 
^cjci ivith at', m.n ; ami, in ;i particular manner, vvc do prefs, that all 
tlifpuces and iliiTerences, hetween /"/rV/vi/i, bi; avoided; or, if any do haj)- 
jicn, tlut earncfl endeavours be idtd, by acconmiodation, or eqiiital)!c 
and impartial reference, t(j end th';ni, v^ithoiit going to law ; that To the 
rebuke of the apolHe may not nectffarily be aj>plied to any, " Noiv, 
ihenfijre, ibeit is alterly a Jault a»to>i^ v'', l>. {;•.!! if ^- y: ^o lo LitL' ivitb o'm itiio- 

" Dear I'ricnds, thefe things, in Chriilian concern of mind, wc hnvs 
reprcfented, in order that all may be flirred np to a luanble and faitaful 
walking, not, as knowing that any will I'all ihoit, in the above jvarticj- 
lars, but, beloved, ive arc pn-fuiuUd li:t::r tlii/i^'s ff \u!i ; uiiJ t'jir.vs thjt 
Accompany fuh.iliou, tijuiijj tljus it.,- fj-cjL 

*' Signed by appolii'.menr, :inJ, la !v:ha!f of tli: faid meeting, by 

" KJ'rijAi'.iiN beali::g." 

The Qua- 
kers ad- 
di-cfs to 



Th£ History of Pennsylvania. 
on, by his order, in the court of chancery^ and 

certified by the Rei^jifter, 


" To Sir William Keith, Baronet^ Governor of 
the province of Pennfylvania, hz. 

" The humble addrcfs of the people called fa- 
kers ^ by appointment of their quarterly meetings 
held in Philadelphia, for the city and county, 
2nd of the i\\<\ month, 1725. 

" May a pi cafe the Governor, 

" Having maturely confidered the inconveni- 
cncics and hardihips, which wc arc apprehenfive 
all thofe of our community may be laid under, 
who fliall be required, or obliged, to attend the 
rcfpedive courts of judicature, in this province, 
if they may not be admitted, without firll having 
their hats taken off, from their heads, by an of- 
ficer ; as we under[lii.nd, was the cafe of our friend, 
fohn Kinfey, when the Governor was pleafed to 
command his to be taken ofl", before he could be 
admitted to fpeak, in a cafe depending, at the 
conn o'^ chancery, after that he had declared, that 
he could not, for confciencc, comply with the 
Governor's order to himfelf, to the fame purpofe ; 
which, being altogether new and unprecedented, 
in this province, was the more furprifmg to the 
fpcftatois, and as we conceive (however flight 
fome may account it) has a tendency to the fub- 
verfion of our religious liberties, 

" This province, with the powers of govern- 
ment, was granted by king Charles the Second to 
our Proprietor, who, at the lime of the faid grant, 
was known to dilfent from the national way of 
worfliip, hi divers points, and particularly in that 
part of outward behaviour, of reluung to pay 
unto man the honour, that lie, with all others, 
' of the fame profcilion, believed to be due only to 
the S'.fprc.-r.e Being; and they, on all occafions, 


The History of Pi'Nnsylvania. 199 

have fapported their tcfllmony, ft) far as to be fre- 1725. 
qucntly fubjeded to the infuUs of fucli as required '"^"^''"^^ 
that lioniagc. 

" That I lie principal part of thofe, who accom- 
j)anicd our faid Proprietor, in his firfl fettlcment 
of tliis colony, with others of the fame profelhon, 
who have fince retired into it, jullly conceived, 
tliat, by virtue of faid powers, granted to our 
Proprietor, they fhould have a free and unquef- 
tioned right to the exercifc of their rehgious prin- 
ciples, and their perfuaiion, in the aforementioned 
point, and all others, by which they were diftin- 
guiflied from thofe of other profeliions ; and it 
feems not unreafonablc to conceive an indulgence 
intended by the crown, in gracioufly leaving the 
nioilclling of the government to him and them, 
in fuch manner, as may bell fuit their circum- 
fiances j which appears to have been an early care 
inthe lirft Legiflators, by feveral a6ls, as that for 
liberty of confcience ; and more particularly, by 
a law of the province, palled in the 13th year of 
king Willicuji, chap, xcii, now in force : it is pro- 
vided that, in all courts, all perfom, of all per- 
fuafions, may freely appear, in their gzvh •ii\7y, 
and, ncfcrJing to tbvir oicn f.'iafi'hi; and there 
perfonally 'plead their own caufc, or, It unable, 
by their friends ; which provilion appears to be 
directly intended to guard ag:\infi: all exceptions to 
any perfons "appearing in their ozvn wajy as our 
J'ritud did, at the aforefaid court. 

" N(nv, though no [People can be more ready, 
or willing, in all things ellential, to pay all due 
regard to fuperiors, and honour the courts of juf- 
lice, and thofe who adminider it, yet, in fuch 
points as interfere with our confcientious perfua- 
iion, we have openly and hrmly borne our telli- 
mony, in all countries and places, Y.hcre our lots 
have fallen. 

:oo Th£ History of Pennsylvania. 

1 721;. " We mud, , therefore, crave leave to hope", 
-^"^ from the reafons here humbly offered, that the 
Governor,- when he has fully confidered them, 
will be of opinion with us, that we may juftly 
■ and modeflly claim it, as a right, that ivc,, and 
our frie?ids, fliould at all times, be exculed, in 
the government, from any compliances againfl 
our confcientious perfuafions, and humbly re- 
queil, that he would, for the future, account it 
as fuch to us, thy allured well-wiihing friends. 

" Si;^nc(i l>y appoinimsnt of the /aid meetings » 

" Richard PIill, 
" Richard Hayes, 
" Morris Morris, 
; ■ " Anthony Morris, 

" Evan Evans, 
" John Goodson, 
'• Rowland Ellis, 
, " Reese Thomas, 

" SAhfUEL Preston^ 
'• William Hudson. 
" The \Qth May, 1725." 

•i'l.e Clo- 

vtri.i': ,Tav 
1,11. uitl 

"On confideraiion had of the humble addrefs, 
prefented to the Governor, this day read in open 
Iheii rV- ' court, from the quarterly meeting of the people 
t.a, ^c. called .^hikers, for the city and county of Phila- 
delphia^ it is ordered, that the laid addrefs be fded 
with the Regider, and that it be made a (landing 
rule of the court of chancery^ for the province of 
Pemfylvania^ in all timejo come, that any prac- 
tirioncr of the lavv, or other oilicer, or perfoii 
whatfoevcr, profcfiing himfelf to be one of the peo- 
ple called f^akers^ may and liutll be admitted, if 
they io think fit,, to fpeak, or otherwife oHiciate, 
and apply themfelves, decently unto the faid court, 
witiiout bein;j oblicred to obferve the ufual cere- 
mouy of uncovering their heads, by having their 
hats taken oil", and fuch privilege hereby ordered 


The History of PjiNnsvlvania. 201 

.and granted to iJic people called .%^/v/s,^ flmll, 1725. 
at no liiiuj hereafter, be underftood, or inter- ^^^"^'^ — •' 
preted, as any contempt, or negleft, "of the laid vernorW- 
court, and fhall be taken only as an acil of con-' ^i^r. &o re- 
fcientious liberty, of right, appertaininq; to the ^p^^'^^'"^:^''^ 
religious perlualion ot the laid people, and agree- the o^.a- 
able to their practice, in all civil affairs of hie. '«" "p- 

■ " By Sir William Keith, Chancellor:' '^°""' '-^'^• 

Governor Keith, by his popular behaviour and 
ailminidration, which, in many cafes, had been 
highly beneficial to the province, had fo far inte- • 
refted hiinfclf in the favour of many of the people. Governor 
that upon intelligence of his intended removal from I'^-'ti'much 
tlic government, by the Proprietary family, they withThe 
vere much ilifpleafeil, and petitioned the Affembly i"-'"?'^'- 
to make him a gratuity : they, even", after his re- 
moval,' choie him for a Member of Aflembly, 
and he accepted the office. 

But whatever might have been his inotives for pennfyh^a- 
his popular conduct, in the government, and how »'=^ indei.t- 
far, foever he may be thought reprehenfJ^Je, in nfinafrar'^' 
fludymg to gratify thofe, v/hom he governed, t'o". 
more than was juft and prudent, yet, it is mofl 
certain that the real interen: of the province of 
l^cnnfylvan'ui was much indebted to his care and 
management, while in that office. 

- But after he was fuperfedcd by Patrick Gordon, Hisdi&o- 
in the fummer of the year 1726, he refided fome "curable 
time in the province, ufing all means in his power, &".'''^^' 
to divide the inhabitants, embarrafs the adminiftra- 
tion,^ ajid dillreis i\\'z Proprietary family ; till at 
Vol. II. [26] length, 

* The following is an exrraa: from a paper, which appears to hive 
been written by J.ov.v L.vsan, in the third oj- lourtli year of Governor 
Gbrd0ii adininillration, iji-^. 

*' When the Governor, !aft year, in tlie j^reatcfl emergency, that ever 
was known in tliis province, fuininoned the Aflenibly to meet, and allill 
him, in that (Irait, all the Rej^i-efentativt s of Cheller and Bucks coun- 
ties, and one of PhiLddplAa, duly came, whik eight others, though all 

202- The History of Pennsylvania^ 

1726. length, having, thereby rendered himfelf odious. 
''^^ ' to the peoplf, as he had done before, to the Pro- 
Keith is at pridtant'Sj he, returned to Lngland ; and \i is faid, 
laii rejcekJ iu hift hc died poor, in London^ about the year 
^'/h,Hn'llc ^ 749 • which, though it refleft not much honour 
hui courted on thofe, who fo highly approved of, and loudly 
declared themfelves to have been extraordinarily 
benefited by his public conduft, in the adminiflra- 
lion, if it \va3 in their power to have prevented 
his being in fuch a fituation, is neverthelefs, per- 
haps, an inflance of the general and natural con- 
fcquence and folly of too great a dependance on 
popular favour. 

G°rdo^°'^ P^?/r/V/^ Gordon appears to have firfl met the 

fi'rft meets A^cmhXj oi Pemifylvania, in the beginning of the 

*'j« A^"^"" ^^^^ month, 1726, though he arrived in the pro- 

^' ^'^' vince, with his family, fomc time before. But 

during the fore part of his adminiflration, for 

two or three years, the public tranfadions were 

noi a little diflurbed, or obfiru£led, by the faction 

created by Sir Williiim Keith ; who, as before ob- 

ferved, was chofen a Member of Afiembly, at 

the next eleftion, in Odober, of which Ji^^'/i/ 

Lloyd was Speaker. 

Govcrnw But Govemor Gordonh adminiflration, in gene- 
Cordon's j-^] ^vas diftinpuiihcd with moderation and pru- 

aaminiilra- , , y . ,-,,.■'. 

tioii in ^c- dence, through a great variety of public and 
ncrui, &(,. important tranfadions ; in which a general good 
harmony fubfdled between the different branches 
of the Legiflature ; and, during a happy time of 
general tranquillity, both at home and abroad, 
many wholefomc laws were made, great improve- 
ments carried on, and trade confiderably increaf- 


ill loAvn, at the time, on pretence they wanted otir M.-ml.i-r, oliAInntcly 
and crueliy icfurcd to join them, in hopes of dif:il)hn;r them to make i 
Houfc; iieeaiife the feventcen wanted ouc-ihird of one Mtmber, to 
make tip two-thirds of the whole, (the quorum.) Thofe icvenceeii, how- 
ever, ill compafiion to the difireffed country, proceeded to give the Go- 
vernor the ntceflury afuftance ; yet would do^ more ; and tl>c 
lYcaibly fully confirmed what they had done," MS, 


The History of Pf.nnsylvakia. 203 

'cd ; infomuch that about this time, the niitlior of 1726. 
■a publication, called by yhiderfon, in his hijlor'ical '^■^"'''^'^ 
(IcyIu^I on of commerce, hz. a judicious' trafl, enti- 
tled, " The import mice of the Britijh plant aliom 
in America to tbcfe kingdoms, he. confidered,^' Lon- 
don, printed, 173 1, Ipeaks thus therein of this 
province, viz. 

" That Pennfylva7ua which has not any peculiar state of 
ftaple, (like Carolina, Virginia"dnd Maryland )zx\d. J,'ia"abour 
was begun to be planted fo late as 1680, fliould', thi» time. 
at prefent, have more white inhabitants in it, than . 
all Virginia, Maryland and both the CaroUmis, is * 
extremely remarkable ! And although the young- 
efl: colony, on the continent," [Georgia, &c. 
was not yet planted] " they hare, by far, the 
ftncft capital city of all Britijh America ; and 
the fecond in magnitude. The caufes ufually 
afllgned for this vad increafe of ivhltc people, in 
fo fliort a time, are thefe, viz. firft, their kind 
treatment of the Indians, their neighbours ; here- 
by rendering that province abfoliuely fafe from 
their attempts. Some, indeed, have gone fo far, 
as to alfert, that they are the only Britifi colony 
that have treated the poor native Indians with hu- 
manity : for, that no other Britijh colony admits 
of the evidence of an Indian againfl a white man : 
,:Jior are the complaints of Indians againfl; ivhi/e 
\men duly regarded, in other colonies; wherdry 
thefe. poor people endure the mod cruel treatment, 
from the very word of our own people, without 
hope of redrefs ! And all the Indian wars, in our 
colonies, were occafioncd by fuch means. Se- 
condly, the excellency of PcnnJylvania''A lav.s ; 
whereby property is effedually fccurecl to all hi 


Note. J^oltrt Fhtchcr of Abington, in Pennfyhania, died in A'.i^^aift, Uoltcn 
1726. lie had filled fcveral public llatioiis with liouonr and iiittprity ; Fletvhcf 
and is f.iid to liavc luid a cleur clianidcr, v.'^s much rcTpi.dt:cd hy moii: obiit,. 
Ibrts of people, and made a happy exit, ut laiT:, us Ids deuth-l>vU expre!- 
fioiis, in manufcript, tiftify. His death v.-as accounted a jnc.;t and pv.blie 
lofs, but inortf cfi'eciajly to his fiitnd*, the ^deisj siid bis nclgubours. 

;204 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1726. inhabitants. Thirdly, the unlimited toleration 
^■''''''■''''^'*^ for all manner of religious perfuafions, without 
permitting any claims to ecdcfiajTical poiuer, to 
take place. All men, who are Protellants,. are 
■indifferently eligible to the magiftracy and Legif- 
lature, let their private opijiions be what they 
will, without any religious tell." 

jy«j_ Refpe^ling Pemifyhanla's produft, commerce, 
and benefit to Great Britain, about this time^ 
(1731) the fame author further fays, vi%. 

•^""^^'^^ ?^ " The product of Pennfyhania, for exporta- 
]ioducc'of tion, is wheat, flour,* bilket, barrelled beef and 
pLnnfyiva- pork, bacou, hams, butter, checfe, cyder, ap- 
ij'ior&c. P^*^'-*^' foap, myrtle-wax candles, ftarch, hair-pow- 
der, tanned leather, bees wax, tallow-candles, 
Itrong beer,* linfeed oil, ftrong waters, deer-lkins, 
and other peltry, hemp (which they have encou- 
raged by an additional bounty of three half pence 
per pound weight, over and above what is allowed 
by ad: of parliament) fome little tobacco, lumber 
\_i. e. fawed boards, and timber for building of 
houfes, cyprels wood, fliingles, cafk-ftaves and 
headings, mafts, and other ihip timber] alfo drugs, 
of various forts (as fuifafras, calamus aromaticus, 
fnake-root, &:c.) lallly, (adds oiir author) the 
Pemifyhanians build about 2,000 tons of fliipping 
a year for fale, over ami above what they employ 
in their own trade ; which may be about 6,000 
tons more. They fend great quantities of corn 
to Portugal and Spain, frequently felling their 


■* Governor Gordon in a fpcf tli to the AfTinilily, in the firfl month 
I 731, fays, 

" I have iinckrftood, that wlicn thif colony was young, and had hut 
little experience, it exceeded all its iielghhours, in the fineiiel's 'ol' its 
four and bread, and goodnel's of itd beer ; which are the only produce of 
our gruin ; the regulations, which have already heeu made, in tlie two 
fu-ft, have greatly contributed to their ini]irovemtnt, as well as the rc- 
piition of tlie province; and it will become (he l.ej.'inaturc to continue 
ihtir care and conccni, in a j^oiut of fuch tOJilViiii'.ni.c to the whole 
coi^niiuiiity," tJkc. 

The History of Phnnsylv 


iTiips, as well as cargo ; and th^ produce of both 
is lent thence io4'.n^!and ; where it is always laid 
out i]i goods, and fent home to Pennfylvania," 
" They receive no lefs than, from 4,000 to 6,000 
pidoles from the Dutch ifle of Curacoa alone, for 
provifions and liquors. And they trade to Surinam, 
in the like manner, and to the French part of 
JH/panio/a, 'ds Vi.\[o to tlie other French fugar 
ijiands ; from whence they bring back molailes, 
and alfo fome money. From Jamaica they fome- 
times return with all money and no goods ; be- 
caufe their rum and molailes are lb dear there. 
And all the money they can get, from all parts ; 
as alfo fugar, rice, tar, pitch, ^c. is brought to 
England, to pay foi the manufailures, he. they 
carry home from us ; which (he affirms) has not, 
for many years pafl, been lefs than ^T. 150,000 
per annum. They trade to our provinces of Neu 
England, Virginia, Maryland and Carolina, and 
to all the iflands in the IVcJl Indies, (excepting the 
Spanijh ones) as alfo to the Canarie-s, Madeira and 
the Azores ifles ; likewife to Newfoumlland, iov 
fifh ; which they carry to Spain, Portugal, and 
up the Mcditerranea/i ; and remit the money to 
England; which, one way or other, may amount 
to £. 60,000 yearly ; but without their trade to 
the French and Dutch colonics, in the Wcj^ Indies, 
they could not remit fo much to Englajid ; neither 
cQuld they carry on their trade with the Indians if 
they did not take off the rum and nwla/Jes, as well 
?i?,fugars of thofe colonies, in part of payment of 
ijie cargoes they carry thither." 


■^' '■■" ' * ■( '2o6 y^rhui -iv % 


T/jom^s Penn, one of the Proprietaries, arrives in 
the province from England in 1732. — Jffhnblfs 
addrefs to him, with his anfwer. — Boundaries 
'between Pennfylvania and Maryland agreed on ; 
with a defcriptim of the fame.—Dr. Douglases 
account of this affair, Iffc. — John Penn, the eldefl 
Proprietor arrives in the province in 1734. — The 
Affemhlfs addrefs to him, with his anfwer.— Lord 
Baltimore attempts to obtain of the king the terri- 
tories, and fuch part of Pennfylvania as were 
ftippofed to be within the grant to his anceflors ; 
upon which the Jlffcmbly addrefs the king ; and 
John Penn returns to England. — Affemblfs ad- 
drefs to him, on his departure, with his anfwer. 
— Beath of John Penn and Governor Gordon, 
— Adminiflration of the Council, James Logan, 
Prefident. — Names of fame Members of Council. 
• — Benjamin Eranklin, l^c. — Di/lurbanccs from 
Maryland, on the borders of Pennfylvania. — Ex- 
pences of Indian affairs. — Arrival of Governor 
Thomas. — His admlnijlration. — Part of Andrew 
Hamilton's fpeech to the Affembly, on the caufe of 
Pennfylvania' s prcfperity, at his taking leave of 
the Iloufe, as Speaker, ^c. 

N tlie month of Augiifl 1 732, Thomas Penn, one 
of the Proprietaries from England, iurived in the 

pro^•i^ce : 

The History of Pennsylvania-. 

CO 7' 

province ; where he continued a number of years. 1732. 
On the i5ih of the month the AHembly prefented -^^j^^ 
him with the following addrefs, viz. Penn ar- 

" To the bcnourdb/e Tl\omd.s Penn, Efqiiire, o«<? province, 
of the Proprietaries of the province of Pennfylvania. '^'^• 

" The humble addrsfs of the Reprefentatives TheAfTcm- 
of the freemen of thefaid province, in Ge-^'>''*^'^-. 

U,\ iT 11 ^ drcls to hint 

Alfembly met. &^.^ 

" May it pleafe our honourable Proprietary. 

** At the fame time that we acknowledge the 
goodnefs of Divine Providence in thy prefervation, 
we do mo(t fmcerely congratulate thee upon thy 
fafe arrival into the province of Pennfylvania. 

" Our long and ardent defires to fee one of 
our honourable Proprietaries amongft: us, are now 
fulfilled ; and it is with pleafure we can fay thou 
art arrived at a time, when the government is in 
perfed: tranquillity ; and that there feems to be no 
emulation amongft us, but who fliall, by a peace- 
able and dutiful behaviour, give the befl proof of 
the fenfe, they have of the bleflings, derived to 
us, under our late honourable Proprietary your 
father, whole goodnefs, to his people, defcrves 
ever to be remembered with gratitude and ajj'edion. 

" Be pleafed to accept of our befl wilhes for 
thy health and profperity ; and give us leave to 
fay, as no difcouragements, nor any artifices of 
ill men, have hitherto been able to deter the good 
people of Pennfylvania from a firm adherence to 
your honourable family, fo wc fliall always, to 
the utmoil of our power, fupport and maintain 
that government, under which wc do, with all 
gratitude, acknowledge, we enjoy fo many valu- 
able privileges.'* 

To which the Proprietor returned this anfwer, 

'' That 

2o8 The History of Pennsylvania, 

1732. " That he heartily thanked the lioufe for then' 
""^"'"^ afTedionate adth-efs ; and thac, as he looked upon 
pri'ctor-r ^'''e intercfl' of Poinfyl-vauia, and that of his fa- 
anfwer. Riily, to bc infeparablc, the Houfe might affure 
itfelf, that it fliould be his ftudy to pnrfiie thofe 
meafures, which had rendered the name and go- 
vernment of his father fo grateful to the good 
people of this province.'* 

twcen '" figned by jolin, Thomas and Richard Penn^ the Pro- 
Pennfyiva- taries of Pcnnfylvania^ a commifTion, directed to 
Mir^iand. Govemor Gordo?ij Ifaac Norris^ Samuel Pre/ion, 
james Logan and Andrew Hajiiilton, Efquires, and 
to Ja?nes Steel and Robert Charles, gentlemen, ap- 
pointing them, or any three, or more of them, 
commiirioners, vith full power, on the part of the 
faid Proprietaries, for the aftual running, mark- 
ing and laying out, the boundary lines, between 
both the province and territories of Pemifyhanla 
and Maryland, according to articles of agreement, 
indented, made and concluded upon, the loth of 
May, in the fume year, between Charles, Lord 
Baltimore, the Proprietary of Maryland, and the 
above mentioned Proprietaries of Pennfylvania,* 


■• Dr. Douo^ias, ill hhf:„>:mary of tlie Lrilifli fcttltmcilts, in NcrlL 
AiHiti.j, fpcalis tkus, on tliis fubjcot : ( Dojloii, printed, 1753) '"'~'- 

" As tile controverfy, of long flunding-, concerning- tlic lK.und;irii-s, 
between Lord BaUimon- oi Maryland, :ind the Pan^^ ot Pa,>ifylv.,.iia, 
has made much noil'e; we fliall ini'ert a Ihort abfti-n!:! of tlie fame, for 
the amiifcnicnt of tlie curioii'i," 

l^ord Bahf/Hore's royal grant of Maryhind was about 50 yenrs prior to 
Mr. Fenns j^rant of Pennrylvai>.'ui ; h-ut in B.i/(i/.-oie'= ,';Ta;it there wiis an 
exception of lands belonging to the I):th/j, which are, at prefent, the 
three lower counties upon IJcLivnrf river; when Mr. Fe}i,-i took polTef- 
fioii, he found one Untcb and three SiucJjs congregations. 

Tlie grand difpute was concerning the conHruelion oF Jihe exprelTion 
40 degrees of latitude; il/<(;;i'/./;i7 grant l6;,2, fjys, lu the ^ot/i ih^jne (,f 
latitude, which the Mutylwid fide of tlie queilion cnji(h-ue to be, to 40' 
degrees com plea t •, Peimfylvam.C'i grant, l6Sl,'fay'i,/» /.f;j;7« at the by-htnin^ 
of the AOth J:-r,;i; which the Pav.fyhcnini: fide cnnluue to be jufl afi'er the 
39th degree is compleated ; thus there w:ib a diipiite of the txtcnt of one 
dcjjr;;e of latitude, or 69 Englijb miles. 


Tifii History of Pennsylvania. 209 

.'And an iiircriunenr. of the fame tenor and date, 1732. 
was executed by the foid Lord BaU'unoj-e, direi^led ^—''■^^'"*^ 
■to Sivnnsl Ogle^ Charles Calvert, Pljilemon Lloyd, 
Michael Howard, Richard Bennit, Benjamin Tajkcr 
and Mathew Tilghman Ward, Efquires, appointing 
them, or any fix^ five, four or three of them, 
commiffioncrs, for the fame purpofes, in the part 
of the faid Charles, Lord Baltimore, 
•' la which articles of agreement, ' between the 
faid Proprietaries, pubHlhed in Philadelphia, in 
1 733, refpetling the hmits and boundaries betweefi 
the two provinces, including thofe of the territo- 
ries of Pennfylvania, it is mentioned to the follow- 
ing purport, vi-z. 

Thar u due eafl: and wefl line fliall be drawn Boundaries 
•from the occnn, beginning at cape Hinlopen,- which ^^l'^^^'^^^^ 
lies foiuh of cape Cornelius, upon the eafliern fide Baitimor<f. 
of the Periinfula ; and thence to the weftern fide 
of. the Peninfula, which lies upon Che/apeak bay, 
and as far weitward as the exaft middle of that 
part of the Peninfula, where the faid line is run. 

Vol. IL [27] That 

♦♦ Confidcrin^cr that iTf.irv<'.i«'/ grant was prior, and that the Maryland! 
nM})lo h.ul mul: conU-LTabli: iiuprovcmcnts hy pollVlUoiif , within thit 
tUgree ot l.u'.tuL', the aiTltir was conijnoniifcJ IcLminj^ly in favour of 
MaryhttJ, by a written a.v;rccmcnt, May loih 1731, '^ and that, m tw.) 
calcutlar month* from that date, each party Ihould appoint commilTioners, 
not more than fcvcii, whenof three or more, of eacii fide, may ad, or 
mark out the boundaries aforefaid, to begin, at fiirtlieft, fometimc in 
Oi-lober 1731, and to be completed on, orbci'ore, ajth December, 1733. 
and when fo done, a plan thereof fliall be figned, Icaied and delivered 
by the commifTioncrs and their principals, and Ihall be entered in all the 
public offices in the fevei-al provinces and counties ; and to recommend, 
to the refpeaivd Legillatures, to pafi,an ad for perambulating thefe boun- 
daries, at lead once in three years. 

«' The party dctuulilng to pay to the other party, on demand, /a- 
ihou/j'iJ ilcrling ; accordingly the commilhonsrs refpeitively ap- 
pcarcxl; but, upon ibme diircrences, in opinion, the boumlarles^ were 
not made in the time limited; the failure was in Lord n.i!timon\ fide, 
who alleJged, that he had been deceived in fixing cape Ucnlu^en :o miLs 
fouthwefterlyofthewclterncapeof lUu-.vure bay; whereas cape Ihn- 
lubcn is tJia weftern cape itfelf ; the P,fv.ns afhrra that the weftern c.tpe. 
is cape Cornelius, and cape Hcnlupen is about miles fouthwardly oi ir, 
accocding to the D^itch maps, and defl-riptions, publifheJ about the time. . 
when \akA B.di\:n<Jt, 'AA*\\s*X\\\.'ir4.ur.. 

" Bjoaiilc 

'210 The History of Pennsylvania'. 

. 1732. ■ That from the wellern end of the foid eafl and 
^•^"^^'^^ weft line, in the middle of the Pcmiifida, a ftrait 
line fhall run northward, up the faid Pem?ifula^l\\\ 
it touch the weftern part of the periphery, or 
arch, of u circle, drawn twelve Englijh -ftatute 
miles diftant from Newcaftle, wcftward towards 
Maryland, fo as to make a tangent thereto, and 
there the faid ftrait line fhall end. 

That from the northern end of the laft menti- 
oned ftrait line, drawn northward, a line flrall 
be continued due north, fo far as to that parallel of 
.latitude, which is fifteen Englifli ftatute miles due 
jouth .of the molt fouthern part of the city of 
Philadelphia. , , 

That in the faid parallel of latitude, fifteen miles 
duefouth from Philadelphia, and iVom the north- 

•' Bccaufc of non-performance, the Pgnin, 1735, exhibited a Mil, m 
the chiU'.ury of Brit.iin, itgaiiilt LojiJ Ba'.ti.i.ure, praying- that the 
faid articles m:\y he decreed to AiLfift, and be carried into execution, 
and that .uiy doubts, arifen may be cleared by faid decree. 

" After tedious delay*, at Icn^nh, May 15, 1750, the Lord Chancellor 
decreed ceils of fuit againll Bultln.ure, and that the articlci of Alay loth 
I 732, be carried into execution ; and that before the end of three calju- 
d.irnionths. from May Ijth, two fevcrul proper inftrunients, lor appoint- 
iiio- commlflioiiers, not more than fcven of a fide; any thiee, or more, 
of a fide, may run and mark the boundaries, to begin fonictime in No- 
\ember next, and to be completed on, oi- before, the hift day of April, 
1752, to be figncd, &(;. recorded, <S;c. and enaded. c^c. as per agrci- 
ment of 1732, above related. 

" Lord Chancellor decreed concerning the late difputcs, r. That t!ie 
centre of the circle be fixed in the middle of the town of N^-a-cajUc. 2. 
That the laid circle ought to be a radius of 12 F.?t\;lip miles. 3. That 
tape Henlopen ought to be deemed at the place, laid down in the niaps 
ajiiiexed to the articles of 1732. 

'= 'I'he conniilirioner.='., apjiointcd by each party, met at Neivc.if,!r, No- 
vember I If, 1750; they agreed on a centre in Nci-jcaJJlc, from whence 
»Iie 12 miks radii are to prpceed; but a difpute arofe concerning the 
inenfuration of thefe 12 miles. Lord Bulliujvrt'i comminioncrs allci\;j;ed 
that thefe miles ought to he meafured fuperficially ; the Finns' commifT:- 
uners. alledged, that, confidering the various iuecjiuilhiei of the ground, 
luch radii could not extend equally, confequently, from them no true 
arth of ui circle could be formetl, and infilled upon geometi-ical and 
siUrononiical rnenlination ; thus the proceedings of the comniiflioners 
Hi'pt ; and tl'.cy \\rore to tlieir rcfpedive principals for further indruc- 
fitiiB, rtl.iliiig 10 that point, ai;d adjourned to April 25, 1751." 

The History of Pen 


crn end of the lafl mentioned north and fouth 1732. 
line, c\ line Ihall be run due well acrofs Sufqucbanna '^^'^■^"'^ 
river to the weflern boundary of Pcnnfylvaiiia ; or 
fo far, at prcfent, as is neccffary, which is only 
about twenty iive miles wellward of the faid river, 

. All which lines to be the boundaries between 
the refpcifUve provinces of Maryland and Pennfyl' 
vaniay including the territories of the latter. 

Notwithftandiiig this agreement,' the perform- 
ance was long delayed, or obflructed, by alterca- Boundari-* 
don, or difputes, between (he parlies, about the J^-j^'^'fJfu 
mode of doing it, faid to have been occafioned 1762, '&.. 
principally by the Proprietary of Maryland : in 
confequence of which the inhabitants on the Pcnn- 
fylvania fide, near where the boundary line ought 
long before to have been afcertained and marked 
out, were fometimcs cxpofed to unrcafonable de- 
mands from Maryland claims, and dilligreeable, or 
ill treatment of that government, for want of the 
f.mre : for it was not finally executed till the year 
1762 ; when thcfc fiimilies, or Proprietaries, agreed 
to employ two ingenious mathematicians, Charles 
Ma/on, and Jeremiah Dixon, after their return 
frxjm the cape of Good Uopc ; v.'here they had been 
to.obferve the tranfit of Veniis^ in the year 1761, 
finally to lettle, or mark out the fume ; which 
\yas accordingly pei formed by them ; and (lone pil- 
lars erected, to render the fame more durably 

In Oclober, 1734, John Penn, the eldeft of the The Pro- 
Proprietaries, and a native of Pennfylvania, ar- }'">^-'- 
rived in the province from Fjv^land ; whom the ai-rivdin" 
Aflemhly, on the lOtfi of the month, prcfented t)'^- 1"'-.. 
with the lollowiijg aud.cfs, viz. '"'"^' 

" To ihc honour ahlc John Penn, Efqidrc, cnc of 
the Proprielaries of ihc province (^/Pcnmylvauia, cJ",-. 

" 'i'he 

The History of Pennsylvania; 

The Af. 
ilr«fb to 

" The addrefs of tlie rcprcfcntatives of the free- 
men of the faid province, in General Affein- 
bly met. 
" May it plenfe the Proprietary^ • ' 

" Excited by affedion and gratitude, we chear- 
fully embrace this opportunity of congratulating 
thee on thy jafe arrival to the place of thy nativity. 
When we commemorate the many benefits, be- 
llowed on the inhabitants of this colony, the reli- 
gious and civil liberties, we pofTefs, and to whom 
thefe valuable privileges, under God and the king, 
are owing, we fliould be wanting to ourfelves, 
und them that we reprefent, did we not do juftice 
to the memory of thy worthy anceilor, a man of 
principles truly humane, an advocate for religion 
and liberty. 

" What may we not hope for from the Ton of 
fp great a man, educated under his care, and in- 
fluenced by his example ! May his delcendants in- 
herit his virtues as well as his eftate, and long 
continue a biefling to Pewifylvania, 

*' Signed by order of the Iloi/fe, 

^^ ANDREW HAMILTON, Spe.ikcr,'* 
To which addrefs he returned the following an^ 
fwer, viz, 

*' Gentlemen, 
" I return you my hearty thanks for this alfec^ 
tionate addrefs. The kind regard you exprefs for 
the memory of my father is mofl agreeable to me ; 
and, as it was always his dehre, i'o it is flrongly 
my inclination, to do every thing in my power, 
that can promote the happinefs and profperity of 
this province." 

In the fummer of the year 1735, Governor 
Gordon received accou-nts from England, thiU ap- 
plication had been made to the king by the Lord 
jrettheiow- jJallimore, Proprietor of Maryland, for obtaining a 


The Pro 


Lord Bal- 
timore at- 
tempts to 


The History of Pennsylvania. 215 

grant, or cnnfirmation, of the three lower coun- 173:;. 
ties on DcJaiuarc, and a part of Penufyl-vunia, as "^-^^^^ 
lands within tli« defcriptive part of the charter, 
granted to his anceftors ; and that liis apphcatioii 
had been oppofcd both by a petition, prefented to 
(he hiiip;, l>y Richard Pcnn^ Kfquire, one of the ho- 
nourable Proprietaries of Pennjyhania, and alfd 
by a reprefenration from the people called .^/akers, 
in En^liiTiid^ in behalf of the province and terri- 
tories, ^x. upon which occafion the AiTembly ofTiie Af- 
Vinnfjlvania drew' up an addrefs to the king, in [['"J^'V"^' 
the month of June this year. idn^on the 

• This affair feems to have haflened the return of °^''' '°'' 
the Proprietor 'John Pcnn^ to England ; \\'ho foon 
after thi.s lime left the country j upon which, about 
the middle of September, the Allembly prefented 
him with the following addrefs, viz. 
" To the honourable John Penn, Efquire, one _ of Tht a^- 
the Proprietaries of the. province c/'Pennfylvania. J,'';yJ'jf/f„ 
. " The humble addrefs of the Rcprefentatives -J"''" '■''""' 
or tlie ireemen or the laid province, in p.irti.rc ior 
General Aflembly met. Eu^^hmJ, 

*' May it pkaf the Proprittary, 

" That jull cRceni and grateful fenfe, which 
the people of this province have aUvays rctnincd 
for the memory of thy honourable father, our 
late Proprietary and Governor, raifed in ihcra the 
flrongeft defires to fee fome of the defcendants oi 
that great man among us. 

" As his wife example gave us jufl reafon to 
hope, fo it was cur daily wifhcs, that his virtues, 
;is well as his cflate, might defcend to his polteri- 
ty. And it is with pleafure wc can now fay, it 
was not in vain we promifed ourfelves from thee 
that aiTection and regard, which is natural for a 
^ood man to have for the place of his nativity. 

" That 

214 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1735. "/riiut liumiliiy, jnllicc aiul bfnevoleiic<", 
■^^^ "'^ wliicli Iras appeared in thy conduce, llnce thy ar- 
rival here, has very defervedly gained thee the 
eiteem and alle^lions of the people 5 and we do, 
with truth, lay, thy leaving us at this time, gives 
an univerfal concern to the inhabitants of this pro- 

" May thy voynge be profpcrous, and thy fuc- 
cefs equal to the jiiflnefs of thy caufe ; and may 
we foon have the happinefs of feeing thee return a 
bleliing to thy native country : and give us leave 
to hope, that, thou Vvilt, upon every occafion, 
join thy favourable fentiments towards the people 
of this place, with thofe of thy honourable bro- 
ther, Y/ho, by his flay here, will have frequent 
opportunities of doing what will always endear 
your honourable family to the freemen of Feimfyl- 

To which the Proprietary returned the following 
anfwer, viz. 

*' Gentlemen, 
jo,,„ " I am very fenfible of the concern you exprefs 

p.nn's an- for mc, and am obliged to you i'or this kind ad- 
drefs. I am glad of this opportunity of feeing 
the Reprefentatives of the freemen oi Fcnnfylvania^ 
at my departure ; and you may be afllired I fhall 
make it my particular care to do every thing in my 
power, that may advance the intcrell of this my 
native country." 

"John Fcnn, of whom the inhabitants of Fenn- 
fyhania appear to liave conceived a favourable 
opinion, and great expeftations, never returned ; 
'he. in but died unniairlcd, in Odober, 1746 ; and by his 
174'-., c^--c, ^^,;/^^ left all his part of the province, which con- 
lilied of two Ihares, or half of the v/hole, to his 
brother T/jo::ijs, who, from that time forvvard, 
wiili the youngclt brother Riil\!J-iI, became the 
I'.'le Proprielarie;]. 



Julin Peiin 

The History of Pjinnsylvania. 115 

• Governor Gonlon^ after a prudent and profpcr- 173^.. 
t)us adininiftraiion of about ten years, died in the 'T'^"^ 
fummor 1 736 ; when confequenlly the government Go.doa 
devolved on the Council, James Logan being Prefi- '^'"> ^^^ 
dent; a pcrfon of experience and abihty.* 

Prcfident Logan, during the -time of his Prefi- j.mcs Lo- 
dentfliip, as well as both before and after it, in &^° i''"^''- 
conjundion with the Council, appears to have had cmmcii, * 
occafion, among other things, to exert his abilities, '^'■• 
in the mayagement of Lillian affairs ; among 
which people he had great influence. In which 
time likewife the claims of Maryland upon the 
Pcnufylvanians, who were fettled near the place 
where the boundary line ought to have been mark- 
ed out before this time, and the difLurbanccs 
arifing from the government and people of Ma- 
ryland on that account, gave much uneafmels and 
trouble to divers inhabitants who were fettled 
within the bounds of Pennfylvania ; but in gene- 
ral, during his adminidration, the public affairs 
feem to have been well conducted, for about the 
fpace o\: two years, till the arrival of George' Tho- oovcimok 
ina.s, Kfquire, in the funimer of the year 17^3^ 'I'liom.wur- 
wiio fucccL'ded in ihe siovcrnmeut. Vt'^V'' 

Governor Ttumas appears to have been a man novc-mrr 
of abilities and refokuion, but,- in fomc things, ■i'ii""\-yi 
did not futliciently underftand the nature and gc- tiVn.'csi'.'. " 
nius of the people, over whom he prefided : in 


* Amonp the names of the ^.Tcnibfra of Council, in Fel-.rnary, 1755, 
I fiml, James Logan, Clement r'lninflei'.d, Ralph Afluon, Thomas Orif- 
C:ts, Preitcn, Tlioinas LuiHcnce, Samuel llafcl, Chur!:r9 Rc?.d, 

A'i.v, Dr. Duujrts, m lils '.'uniriiPTV, occ. /".lys, 

. " AI;<jor Gordon died in Oclolicr, I'jO, and Klv. T.n:^jn vm«, i:i 
courfe, Prjfd.-nt, for a ilicrt il.iis; but was Ir. on fuperfcdcd by Colon :l 
'TLurnjs, u |ilintiT of J^i'..:ro. I\Ir. I.o^iiA died iniirli l.Tinentcd, Novem- 
ber, I7?i. AftcT iiiiK' yc Ts '.'ov.Tii'.'icnt, Co!ont:l 'J'Lof.rr rcii^nc^i, lu 
1~A7; iii'J w:i, rucccc;dLd liy y.,/.-,.-y IL.r.i!:^',, K ftulre," cV. 

Note, Jirnjamin Frnnitlii, iiftiTW.m'b the famous I^r. F.-.i/rUin of /*/•/. 
■/adi-Ij>/ji:i, is fiiit mentioned a-; b;in;^ cliofcn clerk to the AiVL-mbly, in 
OJtohcr, 1736; for winch ciiiri.-i:i p"t;t'i;ia-d th-c Ikivfc in fucccfiioa 
Co 'J-/'J''j Qnzvun. 

2i6 The History of PennsylyXniX, 

1738. the forepart of his admmiflration his condudl 
'^-^^'^"^^ feems to have been fatisfaclory to the country j 
but afterwards, the war commencing between En- 
g/a?id and Spain^ about the year 1 740, his manner 
of urging fome military demands, with which the 
Anbmbly, being chielly ^takers, on account of 
their rehgious principles, could not comply, feems 
to have introduced I'o much altercation and difpute 
between them, for fome years, as to render the 
adminillralion dilhgreeable to both, though the 
Aflembiies, at that time, were not aveVfe to grant 
money for the general ufe of the crown ; which 
they then did, at ditferent times, to a confidcrable 

ThnraT' ^"^^ ^^^ "^^^^ ^^^"^ AiTemblv of Fcnnfjlvama in 
fufc meets the fixth month, 1738 ; and in his firlt fpeech to 
^i^ A;'""" the Houie, on the 8th of that month, informed 
them, he had been appointed to the government 
above a year before ; but his embarkation v/as im- 
peded by uncxpeded delays, made by Lord Bal- 
timore' ^ objefting againll the Proprietaries of A'/j/;- 
fjlvania appointing a Governor over the three low.* 
er counties, &c. \7hich objedion, after fome time, 
was difregarded, and his appointment both over 
the province, and the faid counties, approved by 
the king. 
^739- In the fixth month, 1739, the Speaker of the 
Alfembly, Jlndrazu Hcmiilton^ in his fpeech, when 
he took leave of the Houfe, on account of his 
age and infirmides, he. exprefled himfelf in the 
following manner, reipecliing the happy conllitu- 


• Duriiii; thcfc tiiHcs, when F.f:^L-.i,! was at witli Spain, after- 
wards joined by Fra/ia-, tlie .Aflcmbly in 1741, granted for the king'i 
ufe £■ 3,000, iind in 1746, £. .5,000 hiorc, bclidcs fome other payments 
of a limilar nature ; as the indemnifying of nialkrs, v/hufc bound fcr- 
vants had enliflcd, &c. 

Ecfidcs, the cxpcnccs on Imiiaii afTairn, paid out of the provincial flock 
by the I'rcafurer and Truftees cf the loan onite, from the year 1733 to 
1751, v.ere £. 8,366, which ni^hc £■ 464 annually, on an average of 
18 years, during a time of great trancjuillity with them. 

FcUs of 4y;,v.'//v, Vol. A- I-age l^j. 

The History of Pennsylvania. 217 

tion and prc)ri)eiity of Pcnnfyivanta^ in thcfc times, 1 739. 
v'fz. ^~^-^^— / 

" I would beg leave to obferve to you, that it Part of 
Is not to the fertility of oitr foil, and the conimo- ^"''''.'r''^ , 
dioufnefs of our rivers, that we ought chiefly to idi ipeech 
attribute the great progrefs, this province has J.^'^j[|j- '^J'^^ 
made, within fo fmall a compafs of years, in Im- the cauVei 
provements, wealth, trade, and navigation, and '^^J^^""- 
thc extraordinary hicreafe of people, who have p^Jfp"rky, 
been drawn hither, from almoft every country in •-^'^• 
Europe; a progrefs, which much more ancient 
fettlements, on the main of ylmerirn, cannot, at 
prefent, boafl of; no, it is principally, and almoft 
wholly, owing to the excellency of our conflitu- 
tion ; under which we enjoy a greater liiare both 
of civil and religious liberty than any of our neigh- 

" It is our great happlnefs, that, inftcad of 
triennial AfTcmblies, a privilege, which feveral 
other colonies have long endeavoured to obtain, 
oi>rs are annual ; andj for that reafon, as well as 
.bthers, lefs liable to be practifed upon, or cor- 
rupted, either with money or prefents. We fit 
upon our own adiournments, when we pleafe, and 
as loiig as wc think necclfary; and we are not to 
be fent a packinr, in the middle of a debarc, and 
difublcd from reprefenting out jufl grievances 
to our gracious fovereign, if there fliould be oc- 
cafion ; which has often been the fate of Affeiii- 
biles in other places. 

" We have no officers, but what are neccfTary ; 
none but what earn their falaries, and thofe gene- 
rally are cither eleded by the people, or appointed 
by their reprefentatlves. 

" Other provinces fwarm with unncceifary of- 
ficers, nominated by the Governors ; who often, 
make it a main pan of their care to fuppurt thole 
olHccrs, rnofwithfhuiding their opprellions) at all 

Vol. II. . [28] cveiUi. 

2i8 TiiJi History of Pennsylvania, 

1 "JV)' rvcntff. I ho])e it will ever be the wifdoin of our Af- 
"^ ' "^^ Iciiiblieti to create no }.>jrcat offices nor officers, nor 
indeed any oflicer at all, but wliat is really necefr 
lary for the fervice of the country, and to be fure 
to let the people, or their reprefentatives, have, 
at leafl, a fliare in their nomination, or appoint- 
ment. This wall always be a good fecurity againll 
the mifchievous influence of men holding places 
at the plcafure of the Governor. 

" Our foreign trade and flipping are free from 
all impofts, except thofe fmall duties, payable to 
his majefly, by the ftatute laws of Great Britain, 
The taxes which we pay, for carrying on the 
public lervicc, are inconfiderable ; for the fole 
power of raifmg and difpofing of the public mo- 
ney for the fiipport of government, is lodged in 
the Aflembly ; who appoiiit their own Treafurer ; 
and to them alone he is accountable. Other inci- 
dental taxes arc aflefled, colletted and applied by 
perfons annually chofen by the people themfelvcs. 
Such is our happy Hate, as to our civil rights. 

" Nor are we lefs happy,, in the enjoyment 
of a perfec^t freedom, as to religion. By many 
years experience we Imd, that an equality among 
religious focfeties, without diftinguilhing any one 
fed with greater privileges than another, is the 
mofl elTedual method to difcourage hypocrify, 
promote the pradicc of the moral virtues, and pre- 
vent the plagues and mifchiefs, that always attend 
religious fquabbling. 

" This is our conditution ; and this conflitution 
was framed by the wifdom of Mr. Penn, the firlt 
Proprietary and Founder of this province ; whofe 
charter of privileges, to the inhabitants of Pcnn- 
J'yhania, v/ill ever remain a monument of his be- 
nevolence to mankind, and relied more falling 
honour on his defcendants, than the largeft pof- 
fellions. In the framing this government, he re- 
leived 00 powers to hiniftlf, or his heirs, to op- 


The History of Pennsylvania. 

prefs the people, no authority, but what is necef- 
lary for our prote(il:ion, and to hinder us from 
falling into anarchy ; and therefore (fuppofin_c;- we 
could perliiadc ourfelves, that all our obligations 
to our great lawgiver, and his honourable defcend- 
ants, were entirely cancelled, yet) our own inte- 
rdts fliould oblige us carefully to fupport the go- 
vernment, on its prefent foundation, as the only 
means to fecurc to ourfelves and our pofterity, the 
enjoyment of thofe privileges, and the blenlngs 
flowing from fuch a conftitution, under which we 
cannot fail of being happy, if the fault is not our 
own. , 

*' Yet I have obferved, that, in former Aflcm- 
blies there have been men, who have 
fuch a manner, as if they utterly difregarded all 
thofe ineilimable privileges, and (whether from 
private pique and perfonal diilike, or through mif- 
take, I will not determine) have gone great lengths 
jn rirtving our happinefs, in the profecution of fuch 
meafures, as did not at all fquarc v.'Ith the profcf- 
fions, they frequently made, of their love lo our 

*' When I relict!:!; on the fcveral flruggles, which 
many of us, now prefent, have had v.'ith thof." mei, 
in order to refcuethe confHtutionout of their hands, 
which, through their miltakes (if they really v/ere 
iniflajkes) was often brought on the brink of de- 
flruftion, I cannot help cautioning you, in the 
moil earned manner, againfh all perfonal animo- 
fity, in public confultations, as a rock, which, if 
not avoided, the conflitution will, at fome time 
or other, infaUibly fplit upon."* 


* Andrew Hamilton, Efqnire, of PhUiMphli, died in the htter end 
of the fuuuncr 1741. Hi; hud fcrved i:i foveral coii(idna!)li- llutioi;3 
hoth in tho guveniincnt of Pcnnlylvania, and tlic lov/er coiiaties, with 
honour, integrity and ahillty. Hs wus a lawye/ of great note for \\\m\^ 
years; an'4 '.icquircd much repututloii, in iliof lino, pirtiLuIurly hi ^,.,- 
i-'z-Vfaniouj tii.ii, at wVt it 2 ■»;■/, f:c. 

., / ;■• •( 220 ' ): :• ■ :: : ■;^ 


Conduci of Govsrnor Thomas, refpecllng the enlijlin^ 
of indented , or bought fcrvants, for foldicrs, in 
the province, during the %car between England a7id 
Spain, about this time. — Names of the Members 
ef jghnbly. — Speech of John Wright, a Magit 
Jirate of Lancafler county, to the Grand Jury. — ■ 
Affemblfs addrefs to Thomas Penn, on his depart 
iure for England, with his anfwer, in ly^i, '^c, 
< — Memorial of John Wright. — Of Robert Jordan, 
— Riotous election in 1742, with ohfervafions. — . 
bidian affairs well managed in Gover?ior Thomas's 
adminijlration. — He rcfgns the government in 
I'j^.'j. — Names of Members of Council about this 
fi/ji^, — Succeeding adminijlration and Governors^ 
— Memorials of John Kinfey, Ifrael Pcmberton, 
Michael Lightfoot, and John Smith, -^-Conclufion, 

1740. AJ'URING the aclminidration of Governor 
Thomas, it is obferved that the enlijling of indented 
cr bought fervants, for foldiers,* was hrfl permitted 
to be'carried into execution, in the province, be^ 

rances en- 

,,,^i„ fore the aft oH parliament, m that cafe, was made ; 

Lu% fer- which being- diiagrceable and injurious to. niany 

vunts, &c. ^f ^1^^ inhabitants, and contrary to ancient ufage, 

John Wright, one of the people called ^takers, a 


* The number of bought and indented fervants, who were thus takeq 
from their mafters, as appears by the printed votes of the AfT-.i-nhly, 
were about 276; wliufe maflws v^erc compcniated by the y\f[imbly for 
t.'icir Ida fufl:'.:ntJ tlicrcby, to the cimount of about £. 2,jES. 
' 'Die 

The History of Pennsylvania. 221 

worthy Magiftrate of Lancajlcr county, and a 1741. 
Member of Afleinbly for the fame, having fpoke ^-"""''^^^ 
his mind freely againft it, in the Ailembly, was, 
tlierefore, with divers others, difmifl'ed from his 
office, as a Judge, by a new commJHion which 
came out for Lancafher without liis name ; before 
which, having got intelligence of the intention, 
he came to the court, in May, 1741, and took 
his leave thereof, in a valedift.ory fpeech, which was 
printed, and as it is in part indicative of that time, 
and informing in fome cafes, it is here inferted 
below in the notes.* 


The names of the Mrmbcrs of Aficiiibly, cLiRed in Oduber, 17^0, 

ftr PhfhJrlffij (tunty. Bucks county. Cbrjlcr cimul^i. 

Thoiru» J.ecch, J'jfi" Mill, Chandii-r, 

John Kiiifcy, Sjnaicr, Mark Watfftn, Jofcph tldcvcy, 

Kohert Jones, John Watfoii, Jainrs OihUons, 

Ifaac Norrii, Abriliam Chapm:m, \V'illi;iiu Hughes, 

Edward W^drner, Benjiiain Field, .Sa-nucl Levis, 

Jofcpli Trotter, Thoinab Canhy, /h/t. John Owen, 

James Morris, Mahlon Kirkbride, Jercniiaii Starr, 

Owen Evani. Jeremiah Laiighorne. Thomas Tatnall. 

P!iiljdell>hla city. Lancaflcr coiir.ty. 

Ifrael Pcmberton, Tliomas Linlcy, Thomas F.wing, 

JoliM KcarlUy. John Wrij^ht, Antlumy Shaw. 

• " The fpeech of John IVrls^ht, one of the Ma^'^iflrutes of Lancaf..-r 
county, to the court and Grand Jury, on his removal from the conm\if- 
fion of the pc-acc, at the tpiarter felhonti, held at Lj.iuafur., for the faid 
county, in May, J 741. 

- , , , " FMiJltrJ ly o,J^,- of t!.K- Gr.inJJ„ry:' 

" As a new commifiion of the peace, for tliis county, is, 1 fuppofe, Speecli of 
iiov/ to be publilhed, in wiiich my nanu', and fome of my brethren, art-, Joliii 
1 prcfume, left out; I difire your putience and attention a f..w moment!-,, \Vrii;ht, 
while I ^ivc the laft; charjj to the Grand Jury, which I fiiall ever do, ri'ijuire, 
from this place, and take leave of my brctlacii, the Juflices, and my ^^1;. 
friends, the good people of the country, as a Magiilrat;. 

" I have, for upwards of twenty yeais, borne a eomminion of the. 
peace, in Cbejldr and LuiicaJ}cr coimtics, under the rcfp^L^livc Cioverntirs 
of thin province; and have lived in fanuliar fritadH-iiu and j^nod iindi-r- 
flanding with all of them, until of late. 

" About twelve years ago, under the mild imd peaceable aJminifb-a- 
tlon of Governor Gordon, 1 was one of tiiolc, who were iiiftrumtnta! in 
procuring this part of the province to be ere.5lcd into a fci-aratc county, 
and have contributed, according to my fmall ability, to have rule aail 
order c.labliihed and prcfjrvtd'anionga us. I have always attended the 
touri'i oi" judiciture; exc<-pl when v,'..m of !:ei-'.hh, .tr the ilrvict of n.y 


222 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1 741. Thomas Pemi, one of the Propiielanes,' being' 
The I'lo^' ^bout to return to England^ the Affeinbly, in the 
..liLioi ■ fixth month, 1741, prefented him with the fol- 
pJr goa>g lowing addref^, viz. ,^ 

((u Vu- ■■ ■'''.■* 

.;LaiJi " May it pleafe the Proprietary, ;'' 

'riu: Af- " Gratitude to the firfl Founder of our prefent 

iemWy\.-.d- jiappy couditution, the regard paid to his merit, 

th,- urtt and the hopes of continued obhgations from his 

^""'- deiceridant;:, united the dcfires of many of the 

inhaltitaii^s of this province to fee one of them, 

at leal):, fettled within it : this was evident in the 

joy, v^hich difcovered itfelf in the minds of all 

forts and degrees of men, on thy arrival among us. 

" In tranfafting of public affairs (as in thofe, 
which are private) a diverhty of fenliments may 
have appeared, fomctimes among ourfelves, fome- 
times perhaps with our Proprietaries ; and yet, as 


country, in fomc otlier fintion, required my nbfencc ; and it has been my 
lot rcpcMtcdly to give the i.h:.rgij to tlic guntknicn of the Grand Jury, 
from tliis pbcf. 

" I am now an old man ; too old, if both opportnnity aiid inclination 
/lioidd inviK (vvhiih I am \\x.\\ afliircd never will) ever to take the hui- 
den upon nic ay,ai:i ; und, therefore, am willing to make you ;i few ub- 
Icrvatious on jiowcr and government, and the prefent poflurc of afiau» 

" I flialt p.'fs over the ori>.', of the F.ri'^l'Jb conflitution ;' the feverul 
Htps and gnidatii.ns, by wjucji it has rofe to (he ))urity and perfeclion, 
it is at this day ; the many attempts, which have been made to invade it, 
and the blood and treafure, which have been Ipent, in defence of that 
conflitution, and thofe liberties, which render the EinAiJh nation fcj fa- 
mous througl'.out tlic woild. 

" And, firil, I obferve to you. g.-ntl-»i:'n of th Grin.l Jury, that the 
privilege of trisls, by jun.-s, is counted (Jdcr than the E'lgiyh goterii- 
loent, and was not unl-.nown to the ancient Britons ; juries are looked 
upon as an cffential ftlirjty to f.nirlijb fiibjetSts ; and are put iu the firlt 
rank among r-t;>J'fi liberties; the reafon given is this; becaufe no man's 
life fliall be tou'chtd, for any crime (out of parliament) unlefs he be 
thought guilty by two feveral jk/vVj ; and thefe juries, bJng fubftantial 
men, taken, -from tin;e to time, out of the neighbourhood ol the pcifi.ii 
aecufed, cannot be fiqipofed to be bialed ; whereas, i: is obfervable, that 
Judges are made by prerogalivc; and niany have been prei. rrtd by cci- 
iiipt minifter.-, of Ihtc ; and may be fo a -ain ; and fi'ch ;>dva!;eed as will 
lerve a prefmt turn, xi±:v tlian thofe of ir.or: ini.-rity, u:ij fKiili in the 

Tii£ History of Pennsylvania. 523 

our (llircTcnt fentimcnts have been the rcfult of 1741. 
honed inhuls, whofe dctermiirations (though pof- ^*-'"'>^""*-' 
fibly milhikcn) were intended for the public good, 
it ought nor, nor hath, erafed thofe ties of grati- 
tude, which we defire may ever remain between 
the defcendants of our late worthy Proprietary, 
and the freemen of this province. 

" The welfare of the inhabitants of this colony, 
and that of our Proprietary family, feem to us 
mutually to depend on each other, and therefore, 
it is not to be wondered at, that we are fo defirous 
of their refidence among us : it being reafonabls 
to think, wc arc moil fecure from any attempts 
on our liberties, when the adminiilraiion of go- 
vernment, and the management of the public af- 
fairs of the province, arc under the immediate in- 
fpeftion of thofe, whofe internft it is to preferve 
our conftitution from any encroachments. 

" Thefe 

•' "Juries art of two kinds, and are commonly diftinguifhed V<y CmnJ 
and ^'ctit Juru's ; llu; foriuer, which you are, have larger poAcr rh;m 
the other, aa very plainly appears by the ouallficatiot!, which you ];:iv» 
taken. Your power extends to all c<lTc:;icGi within the coiiiuy ; and your 
Kll'irt- is priiuipully conccincd iii two thiny^s, /ir.-f.-it.yi.'ji:^ anil i,!.'-.i,.:>er!s ; 
lli-w dilVciincc oi which is tliis, the firii i;-, when you, ol' your o^v•n 
kiio\vle%l^e, or enquiry, taki; lujticc ol' [duv: cirencc, crime, or miifaiici-, 
to thr injury of the pui>lic, which you think o\ight to be punilhcd, of 
removed, and };ivf notice to the court, in v/ritin;];l)ricfly, of the nature 
of the t]un;!f, and the perfop.'s naiui2 and place : this h called a fi\/l-'it.-iurt, 
aud differ.* fro;n an i/tj:.ln.n.\ in thcfc two rcfpedls; fuft, in tiiai. it in 
Jiot draun up in form: wIicccm inJiJj'innh Aire g-ncrally druv.a up atul 
prcftntedto you, by tlic AttriDiey Oeneral and tlic witneffes qu,di!\' t to 
attend you; and when you liavo examined thcni, you either ii!,''j:jl; tliaE 
IX. M A true bill ; or, tliat it does not appear, to you, fulnclcnt gronndu 
f ,r the accufation, that the perfou's life, cAate, or reput.iticn, fhould be 
hrouglit in qucftion ; all whicli is uudcrllood, hy ind'j.'fi:^.^ t\\z vioiA I^hu- 
T.inut. From hence it appears that yon are a])pointed, as well to ba 
jfUirdlans of the lives, liberties, edate-i, and even, rcpatarions of tha 
innocent, as to be a means of ])rinj;;rig o.'fcr.ders to jullice. And, as 
you are eudued with a fullicient portion of unaerftandij;y.-, to know whaf.' 
ofiences are rc/'/-</c«/.(y/i' by you, Ilhall not enumerate tliem ; liavimj al- 
ready faid, they are ;jcncra!ly under your notice; ; but ffjall ra'Iw^r rc:com- 
nieiid to you, and your lucccffors, a Ih-ady car_-, both for the fecuriiy of 
the innocent (for by you malicious profecuiions m;.y be cropped in bud) 
and for bringing offenders to the jullice of tlu- law ; liiat by th.eir public 
Ihame and fuffeiiiig-, d-.ey and Hthcvi u\.\y be dv'teried from ihz like of- 
fsvicts, for th." fu;wrr. • . 

-' 'J 'he 

Th£ History of Pennsylvania. 

" Thefe confiderations, as we are informed the 
Proprietary is determined to leave us, afford not 
the moil pleafmg rcfledions j but, as v/e prefume, 
the affairs of the family render it neceffary, and 
are in hopes, that either he himfelf, or fome other 
of our Proprietaries, will, in a little time, return, 
it behoves us to acquiefce under it. Whatever 
little • differences in opinion may have happened, 
we hope the Proprietaries will believe the freemen 
of this province retain that regLird, which i:, due 
to them ; and would be glad of any proper opportu- 
nity of demonflrating it : and fuch is our confi- 
dence in the Proprietary family, that, if any at- 
tempt fhall be made to the prejudice of thofe 
rights (which under our gracious king, we now 
happily enjoy) they will to the utmoil of their 
power, oppofe it, and thereby lay us under like 
obligations for the continuance of thofe privileges, 
which we readily own are due to their worthy an- 
ceffor, for bellowing them. 

" As 

" The oITice of a civil Magifirate, or Juftice of the Peace, h an uffice 
of liigh tiuft, and ouglu to he i vocutid with ;;reat care, circunifj^ftion, 
am] good confcicncr. Maj^illraics may be loolicd ujion ag Miniftcrs un- 
d'^r (ioJ, iiivedrd wiih Conic branches of power, for the public benefit, 
v!-. To be a terror luul fcourge to fv.-t then, and a praife to tlicni who 
li'i -zt'tll ; ;iiid wliilf they liad livcj excuiphry of this, and in their public 
aClioni, have this principally in view, diftriliiirin» jnPicc impartially, 
v^'ith clean hniids iind pure heart?, tlieir poll is truly honourable, and 
tl)t y arc highly woithy of regard. Eut if tliey unhappily deviate from 
this rule, if they aie found in the pradlice of tliofe crimes, which they 
onj^lit to punifli and fupprefs, if they pervert juftiee for bribes, and op- 
prif'i the poor and iiniocent, they, tb.crcfore render thcnifelves liighly 
unworthy of an office of fo great a trull. 

" T was always a friend to power, well knowing tint good and whole- 
fonie laws, duly executed, arc fo far fir.m being a rtfiraint upon true 
liberty, that they are oidy as regulating fpiing? to tiie palliocs, and pro- 
d\i(5Uve of it; and our worthy Founder, and firft Proprieior tells us, 
" 'That he canipcfed his frame of t^oiterr.wriit ivith a viezu to fi:pport foicer in 
reiiennce tv/ih tie people, and to fcure the people fior/i the alife of poiuer :' 
and thefe two -tre generally oblervcd to attend each other, as caufes and 
their cfieiSls. And a noted profefTor of the law, in this province, fomc 
ye.n-8 ago, when he efpoufed the eaule of lil)crty, and loaded with age 
and infirmities, took a long journey in defence of it, has thefe words on 
•jiower : " It >?'ny jnfh ^^ ' oi'-p^irsd to a great tioer, ivhlch, luhile iept tuithin 
due Louii.h, is buh bcuuiiful ,ii:d vfefttl ; Lid iihen it o-jeiforvs its ln.nls, it is 
then too i/apcticnis to be fiiri:t?!eu ; it bears di^'an all (rfiti '/, and liings defltiic 
ii'^ii iiiid tlfthitlon ivkere it cQi.'ies,^' 

TiiR History of Pennsylvania. 

• " As the wellare of this province hatli fo near 
a dependance on tliat of our Proprietary ianiily, 
our intereit ami duty enjoin our particular concern 
for them ; give us leave, therefore, on this occa- 
fion, to exprefs our hearty defires for thy profper- 
ous voyage, and fafe return among us.'* 

To this addrefs the Proprietary anfwered, as 
follows : 

" Gentle?nen^ 

■ *' I thank you for the regard fliewn to my fa- Tiioma* 
mily, in this addrefs, and for your good wiflies J^vl^^to'^K 
for my profperous voyage. Aircmbiy'* 

" As I am very fare both my brothers and 
myfelf have the true intereil: of the inhabitants of 
this province very mach at heart, you may red 
affured, we will oppole any attempts that may be 
made on tlieir juft rights, which we think it is our 
indifpenfible duty to fupport. 
. Vol. II. [29] " The 

i *' If, then, tliefe are the ill cfTodls of lawlefs power, every vvif;- man 
rught to hf on ]•!» j^iiard, to prLVfiit them, by kecpinjj up tlie banks of 
liberty, and common right, the only ])uhvark ngainll it. 

■ " It was in dcftncc and fupport of this oreat bulwark, at^ainfl the at- 
tempt* of power, under a )u\i^ncc of fcrvinj^- Jiis nKijclh, bur uoiu- ii« 
fuch a in:Miner as, 1 apprehend, cannot be fu])pofed was ever intcmlL-d, 
or expeCUd, by our moll j>raciou3 fovereign ; whofe dillinguilhinji- i-ha- 
raAer is, to protect; and not to o|ipn:fs; and v/liatever Innden tiie ne- 
cefTity of thi times re'cpiires to be iaiil on the fubjeJls under his immedi- 
ate and jufl admiuilhation, it. laid e(pially and impartially; I fay, it Avas to 
the oppofition, (,'ivtn by llie Ib.ufc of R.f'i:f,'iit.itii<es, to the nianmr, in 

> which diefe attempts were made, anvi tli*.- jufl concern and diflike (hew- 
ed thereto, that we may impute fclie late eliang-es, made in the cunmiif- 
fions of the peace, throu^'hout the province, whatever othci pretences 
they may be glofled with. 

. " For this caufe, my friends and country-men, for the caufc of En- 
glijb libirty, for ftanding in the civil defence of right and propejty, arc 
we difmilVcd ; and I n joice, and am heartily glad, that I have been one 
cf thofc, who are thought worthy of difpleafure. 

" And now, to conclude, I t:ike my leave, in the words of a Judre 
in Jfraely " H.ri I am, luitiufs mniinjl v,v ; tvljoin havt: I d.-fr.uuicd ; 
(ivbom Liiie I opprrjul ; or, of %ulajc Lands l.i-v.- I r.\-i-v.-J .my L Ujc; to 
Hind my eyes ihenivith ? And I -zuill re/lore it." 

" May the Prince of Peace, who is the Kinjr of kings, prcted die 
people of this province, fiom domtdie foes and fureign enemies! is my 
hearty dcfiie ; and fo I bid you all farewell." 



The History of Pennsylvania. 


Ptiin be- 
come! the 
chief Pro- 
prittor, &iL 

" The affairs of my family now call me to E?i- 
gland ; and I cannot, at our parting, better evi- 
dence my regard for you, than to recommend it 
to you to aft, in your llatioUj as good fubje6);s to 
the king, really fenfible of the benefits, you en- 
joy, under his mild and equal adminiflration ; and 
that you will take fuch meafures for the defence 
of this province, as the prefent pollure of affairs 
abroad require, in which you will have all the af- 
fiftance from the Governor, that can be expected 
from a gentleman in his ftation, who has no view, 
but the king's honour, and the fecurity of your 

" AuguJI; 20, I 741.'* ■ 

Thomas Pam^ after this, on the deatli of his 
brother John, in 1746, became the principal Pro- 
prietor, and poflefled of three fourths of the pro- 
■ vince. He lived the longed of the three brothers ; 


of John 

Refpecfting tliis fame John IVri^ht, it may be further obfcrvcc!, in this 
place, th:u ht ditid iibout the yi;ir 1751, in Lancjfttr county, where ho 
had lived, in tlie tighty-founh )car of his aj^e. 

It is recorded of him, " That he was born in the year 1667, in Laif 
c.ijlirr, in EntrJ.nid, of religious atul reputable parents ; ivho were among 
the early profelTors of the rlo6lrincs held by the jx-ople called ^jkns, 
and lived and died hijj^hly eftecmed members of tliat community. Ha 
was educated witii a view to the pr:ti5lice of phyfic ; but he declined pur- 
fuing if; and entered into trade, till the year 1714; when he removed 
with his family, into Petiiifyhania, well reconunended by certificate, 
from liis friends, the i^ialers, in that part f>f J'.n^rluoJ, both as to hij 
moral charafter, and as a preacher, in the fociety ; with whom they had, 
for many years, lived in lirid amity. 

" Soon after his fettlcment in the province, his principles and conduct 
recommended hini to tlie notice cf the public : he was a Reprcfentativc 
to the Ceneral .Virenably, Uir ChiJ}a- county, and many year* one fur 
Laiicafcr county. In his Ihition as a Judta^c, for the lalt county, he wai 
noted for a prompt, honcfl plainntfs, and candour, and an inllexible in- 
tegrity ; one indance of which appears in the caufe and manner of hii 
dil'million from that oftice, in 1 741, as above mentioned. 

" He continued to attend the AfTemblies, till broken health, and an 
advanced age, rendered luch attendance difficult, and fometimes impraiili- 
cablc ; although the people among whom he lived, from a long ex]5eri» 
cnce of his Rrvices, and regard to him, would not be prevailed nu by 
himfelf, or his family, to name another in hi-: Head, for that Uation; 
kut continued to return liii name till he died. 

•' Throi;th 


Tpie History of Pr.NNsvLVANiA. 227 

but he appears never to have been very popular, 1742. 
in the province : he is faid, in general, to have ' — ^^^^ 
concluded himielf rather too much relervcd to- 
wards the people, and too nearly attached to cer- 
tain views, for his private intereft, in reference to 
the province j which arc things oppofite to popu- 
larity. Befides, the imprudence of fome perfons in 
the province, in order to flievv their diflike at fome 
part of his condufl:, which did not pleafe them, 
tended to create and increafe a fimilar difpofition, 
where the contrary ought the more to have been 
cultivated and cheriflied ; but, in general, he was 
a perfon of a worthy character, and of moderate 

In the lifth year of Governor Thomas^ & atlmini- a riotom 
flration, in Oftober, 1742, at the annual election 
for the Members of AlTembly, in Philadelphia^ 
happened fuch an inftance of the unwarrantable 
efFeft of party fpirit, as, at that time, made a 
lafting impreflion on the minds of many of the 

The greatefl bleffings, when perverted to wrong BLffintrt 
purpofcs become the grearell curfes to mankind ; ""y ^^ 
and the very fourccs of happinels and profperity, Jo cSfU"' 
by milbke and abufe, arc changed into the caufes ^'^^ 


" Througli every ftation in life, his good will to mankind, his love 
,of peace and good order, and his endeavours to give theni a permanent 
footing, in his neighbourhood, and in the country, in general, were 
known to he his delight an<l ftudy : hij I'enfe of religion, and tlis tcfti- 
mony he bore to it, were free from intemperate zeal, yet carneft, and 
attended with life and fpirit, influenced by the love of (Jod, and bene- 
volence to his whole creation ; fuch he contiinie<l, witii his underllaading 
clear, his mind calm, chearful and rcii^^ned, to the ailv.uictd period of 
old age, v.htn lie expired without a groan." 

On the lyth of Odober, 1742, died Robert JorJjn of PI/iLd.lpljlj ; Ueaih and 
a perfon of note, and an eminent preacher, among the ^/jiers ; in memorial 
which fcrvicc he had travelled much in divers countries: accounts fay of „f }>.„bert 
him, that he was juflly eAeeined and beloved, not ojily by thofe of Irs Jordan. 
own religious fociety, but alfo by others, both of higli aiul low rank, 
^vho had the plcafure of his acquaintance: that lie \v:is gtiierovis in ]ii» 
fentimcnts, free and connnunicative, yet very circumfpcd, in bis ((lu- 
vcrfation and behaviour; and carried with him throu;;li life, the e\«IuCJU 
cbaradeiiAi. 5 of a good man, and a miniller cf Cla-ill, 

228 • The History 3f Pennsylvania'. 

1742. of infelicity, and the moil pernicious evils ; even, 
'""^ "^ liberty itfelf, th^^Ji which nothing is more dcfiruble, 
when carried beyond a certain point, degenerates 
into licentioufnefs ; and, from its effeds, pro- 
ducing the worft kind of tyranny, is, of all evils, 
frequently rendered the moll deftrudive to the 
human race ; for, as one beaft of prey devours 
another, fo men, whatever relined notions they 
may otherwife poifefs, or pretend to, when re- 
itrained neither by law nor confcience, are more 
pernicious, and that often to their ov/n fpecies, 
than the worft of lavages, or, even, the molt ra- 
venous of the brutal kind ! It is thus that men 
originally, by their own adions and depravity, 
lofe that true liberty, to which they would other- 
wife be entitled ; and the human fpecies is thereby 
brought into valfalage to their own lolly. Too 
great liberty is the caufe of too great reflraint up- 
on it ; and every extreme is the foarce of the con- 
trary ; may this never be the cafe of Pcnnfylva- 
nla ! 
Librrtyhiid Libcrt]', which had long been confpiciious in the 
'''"TiliVum province', and of v.hich the early inhabitants had, 
kinds oi' in general, io long iliewed themfelves worthy, by 
Hnf ivi- ^^^^^ making an improper ufe of it, had drawn 
m::,"&cr great numbers of varicjus forts of people into the 
country ; many of whom were perlbns of very 
difii^rent principles and manners from thofe of the 
generality of the more early fettlers, and many of 
their fucceiTors and defcendants. Hence, in fuc- 
ceeding years, certain fymptoms of an approach- 
ing change, in this valuable blefling, began to grow 
more and more confpicuous, through the forma- 
tion and increafe of party, among many pf the 
later inhabitants, joined and indigated by divers^ 
• others-, and, in their eleclions for Members of 
yVflembly, to foment the fpirit of oj^pcifition againlt 
\\\Qo!diiturc/}y and the defenders of the el]al)li(h- 
cd coniHtulion of the province, a'ld the d«.v:end- 


The IIistop.y of Pi^nnsylvania. 229 

ants of the early fcttlers, \vho were principally 1742. 
concerned lor its prcfervution, being chielly .%j- '-^-^'^-^^ 
kcrs^ to ii iiigher degree, than had ever been 
known before. • ■ . , 

The mod remarkable and unwarrantable in- Aun.unt of 
ftance of this nature, that I find on record, in ^''-' '"'"V" 

1742, cf.c. 

this province, was this, which I have mentioned, 
In the year 1 742 ; when a large number of lailors, 
from the fliipping in the river Delaware, during 
the time of elet^ilion (not benig any way interelled, 
or, of right, concerned therein) armed with clubs, 
fuddenly and unexpectedly appeared, in a tumul- 
'tuous manner, aiid formed a /m', at die place of 
eledion, knocking d.oww a great number of the 
people, both Magillrates, Conilables and others, 
worthy and reputable inhabitants, who oppoied 
them ; and, by violence having cleared the ground, 
feveral of the people were carried off, as dead ! 

This was repeatedly done, upon the return of 
the eledors ; till, at la(t, many of the inhabitants, 
being enraged, took meafures to force them into 
their fliips, and near fifty of them into prifon ; 
but they were fooii dilehargjd : for it afterwards occafioned 
aptK'ared, iliac ihcv \y-\^\ been i^rlvately employed, ''>' p^""^ 
m this Avorl-:, by Ionic parly leaders ; it bemg llien 
in time of war, when eoniequently party fpirit, 
which is fo nearly allied to it, and, in tlie ex- 
treme, ends in the fame, Avas encouraged to make 
greater eilbris, to dillradit the pubhc proceedings, 
and under this Governor's adminillration, by more 
ways than one, to divert the eftabliflied form of 
the conflitution, from its peaceable order and coiirfe^ 
into that of its oppofite nature ; in which an in- 
creafmg party here, fmce that time, though gene- 
rally under the moft fpecious and plauhble pre- 
tences, have ever appeared to take delight : for 
change is grateful to the human race ; and, proba- 
bly, no government of maul.ind k, ;U ail times, 

en I ire! y 

2^9 The History of Pennsylv.^nia. 

1743. entirely free from fliftious fpirits ; and a large 
^"""^""^"^ number will always be found, ef])ecially where 
much liberty abounds, which is only proper foi: 
the wife and good, whofe intereft, as well as plea- 
fure, it will ever be to favour revolutionai confe- 

Of Go- During Governor Thomas* $, adminiflration, the 

vfrnor ^ J/idLiH alfairs, fecm moilly to have been well ma- 
idminirtni- nagcd, and harmony continued with that people ; 
ticn. which has always been a matter of great impor- 

tance, as well as expence to this province.* But, 
as before obferved, his ardour, in preffing fome 
things of a military nature, appears to have in- 
troduced unprofitable altercation between him and 
the Alfembly, during part of his adminiflration ; 
which naturally tends to difappointment and dif- 
like, between parties of fuch oppofite and fixed 
principles, and lb very different views of advancing 
the public utility, as thofe of Governor Thonmsy 
and the Aflemblics of Pennfylvania were, at that 
Governor ^J'T^c ) ^^"^^ aftcrwards, for divers years before his 
Thomas ic- refignation, which was in the fummer of the year 
1747, a much better undcrftanding exifled be- 
tween them, 

* Amnnji; the names of Membcri of Council (wlio with the Govern- 
or, always had the cliief management oi LiJiun affairs) in the year 1 742, 
I find, 

James Loj^an, Samuel Prcilon, 

Clement Pkimftcd, 'I'hdmas Law retire, 

Samuel naUeil, Ralph Afhton, 

Abraham 'i'aylor, Robert StrettLJl. 

Nots. In November, 1 747, Anthony Polnur being Prefuknt, 1 find 
mentioned of the Members of Council, 

Thomas Lawrence, Samuel Ilafrell, 

William Till, Abraham, 

Robert Strettell, Eciiiamin Shoemaker, 

jofeiih Turner, William Logan. 

Thomas Hojilunfon, 
In July, 1749, the honourable James Hamilton 'lelng Governor. 
'J liomar, Lawrence, Samuel Hafiell, 1 

Abvaliam 'I'aylor, P.obcrt SirettLll, 

]5'Mia;.ii« Shnenrakor, Jofejih Turner, }> Council. 
'J iior.ia, Moi.kinloii, William Logan, 

Ricliard Peters, J 

figns the 
ment in 

The History of Pennsylvani-a^^ 


' In confeqiience of Governor Thontas's. refigna- 1748. 
tion, the adniiniftnition, as ufual, devolved on ^— '"^''""■*-' 
the Council, Anthony Palmer being Prcfidcnt, till 
November, 1748 ; when 'James Hamilton, oi' Fenn- Governor 
fylvania, arrived Governor from England ; a gen- ^rrivt-s'Sc. 
tleman of confiderable fortune in the province, '" 1748. 
and well efleemed by the people : he was the fon 
of Andrew Hamiltony before mentioned as a law- 
yer of note, in Philadelphia ; and who likewife 
had held feveral eminent public offices, in the go- 
vernment, with reputation. 

Governor Hamilton continued till his refignation ooTemor 
in October, 1754; when he was fucceeded, in ^^"'J"'^*^' 
the government, by Robert Hunter Morris of New 
Jerfey, fon of Lewis Morris v/ho had been Go- 
vernor of that province. 


Kot:. In May, 1 750, died at Bur-lhigton, in jrejl Jir/.y, of an apo- Death and 
pledlic fit, Join Kiiifcy of PLitud.-lphiu. He was m eminent lawyer; nieniorialof 
and, during the lad feven years of his life, Chief Juflicc of FennfyLux- J<'hii Kin- 
ttia\ wliieh ftation he hekl with an unblemiflicd intci^rity ; and with fo ley, &c. 
much ro)mtation, that, even, the rhief part of the hjwcr courts fvillovvcd 
liiin there. He had been many years a Member and Speaker of the 
Afleinbly of Neiv Jerfcy ; where he diftinguiflied himfelf with fo much 
teal and true patriiitifm, as greatly endeared him to the people of 
province. On iiis removal to }'f.i'Kt.Lif,h:.i, in 1 7 30, he foou ihufji'. into 
the AlTtnilily there; of which he was Speaker durinn- the hid t;,i ye;.is 
of his life fucctfTivcly ; except a month, or tv.o, when lie, b.einir (.n an 
cmbaffy to au Indian treaty, held at Albany, John IVrigbt, hcicre men- 
tioned, officiated in his ftcad. 

He had very much pradice and fuccefs in the law, and was, for fume 
time, Attonicy Gimral, Ids long experience and great ability, in tiie n;a- 
aagement of public aflairs, his ikill in the laws, and readincfs for com- 
municating his knowledge therein, often v/ithout fee or reward, and his 
tcndernefs to his frien(is, the people called ^tdtr.u by wliom he wj* 
defcrvcdiy efleemed a valuable member, in their religious focicty, with 
the cxeicife of many civil and focial virtues, arc laid to have rendered 
his hfe very ufcful and valuable, and hib death much lumcuted, as a 
great and univerfal lofb to thefe provinces. 

Ifr.iel Pi-nL-rton, of Philadelphia, died on the 19th of Jan;iary, I75^> Ifrarl Pem- 
in tiie 6yth year of his ago. He was the Ion of Poiru-ns PenhnUn, one ijcnon. 
of the frd, or very earfy, fcttlers'of Pmufylvnuia, and many years an 
honourable Member of tiic provincial Council, in the early time of the 
province. 'I'his his fon Jfruil was born in Pau.fylvi.nia, in i6tl4; he 
was many years one of the moft confiderable merchants of PLulaJ.'lph'ni i 
and a rcprcfcntutive for that city, in General Allenddy, nineteen year* 
tbcteflively. He was one t'f the peojilc talltd i^</j/.n ,- i.nd atccunts 

232 The History of Pennsylvania. 

1756. . In the year 1756, William Denny from Erighmd^ 
■wliiil^ Succeeded Governor Morris; and continued in 
Denny Go- the adniiniflration till 1759: ^t \vhich time he 
vcrnor, "c. ^^^^ fuccccded by James HmuiUon, lecond time 

And Tames ^ . ■' ^ . , •,! 

Hamilton a ^o^'*-'i'noi- 5 who contnuied till 1 763. 

fecond time Jj^ 


of liiin fay, that he was a man of a Calni, even and cbearful difpofitioii 
of mind; which, hcing improved by an early acquaintance with the 
principles of the religion ^vhich he profefitd, rendered his whole life an 
inftriiililive example oi' the (.,«r.-/jV</;; virtues : that he was much helovtd 
and crieemi.d by his friemls the ^l^.iLrs, for his many and long; continued 
good lervices, in that fociety, and nniverfally refpecled hy all others of 
his acquaintance, for his Heady conduCi, manly behaviour, open finccri- 
ty, and quiet, iiiofTcnfive life and converfaiion, prefcrriiij^;- a conqdiance 
with his known Chrijluin duty before all other conlMierations; that he 
Avas generous, charitable and humane ; and among the firil: in molt pub- 
lic contributions, and aifts of real beneficence. 

Michael M'uhad L':ghtf),ot 01 Fh'iLuhlphld, died in December, 1754. He came 

IJghtfoot. frO"l IiflaiiJ, and fettled in Nciv GanL/i, Cbtjler county, in Pcnnfylva- 

riij, about the year 1 7 1-2. He was an eminent preacher among the 
^uLts ; and travelled much in that capacity, in divers countries, both 
in £«?-&/)£• and Ai/urku ; being highly eiteemcd by thofe of his own re- 
ligious Ibciety, as a bright and exemplary gofiiel niiniflcr, and of great 
fcrvicc iu that vocation : in general, lie is iiiid to have been a man of an 
amiable and unblcmiflicd character. After lie removed to FIALuL-lpbLi, 
during the lalt eleven years of his life, he held the oilice of provincial 
Treafurer for Pcn:ify.-i>.iiua ; \\liicli he dilciiargcd witli much honour and 

John Smith -John Snutb of Durlbiyion, in New Jcify, fun of RicLnd Sti.iib, for- 
merly of the lame place, and brother of Suf.ri.rl Sm!t/j, author of the 
hillory of that province, (of a family orir;inally from Toii/oin; In £n- 
^'7.1././; ditil on tile ;6th day of the third month, 1 771, in tlie 49th year 
of bis age. As he was a iierlVm of an amiable charaiiler, good example, 
and })ul)lk utility, not only in the province of Avi:' j'^ij<y, but alio in 
that of 2'i.:iifylviUi'uty it may, therefore, not be improper, in this ]dace, 
to mention rcljx'cling him ; that, l)eing brouglu up to mrjrcaiitile aliairs, 
he lived feveral years in FLiLulAp}''ui as a merehai;!;, Intvin;;- manied Uan- 
nnh, the daughter of 'James Lor,,ii, El'.juire, a wom:in cl goo.-l : ml ;ini- 
able qualities; by whom he had i'everal children A[i-.i- h^v d .,;;i, in 
the year 1762, he retired to Biiriin^to/i, the ])lace of hii birth ; Iiuving 
been a very iifeful and valuable member of I'ociety, and fer^'cd feveral 
years in the provincial Alfcmbly of Pcn.ifylvtir/ia, v.-ilh good ability, re- 
putation and integrity; beiides, being niuch eng'ged in ib.c affairs of hi* 
own religious commtmity of the jieojile calle>l ^i.:L-rj, in PhU.'if.lphia ; 
by whom he was highly efteemed and beloved, for his goo.ifciiie, liberal 
and generous fentiments, agreeahk: and inllruvilive ronveriution, bis ex- 
tenfive abilities, and generally beneficent life, an-.i kind iervices ; v. hicli 
were fo very confideruble, as to have lafling imp.nliions, on tl.e niiiuls 
of his friends and acquaintances, in that city, and to lender his nitmury 
clear to many. 

After his removal to 7?,v)7///q/o;;, lie was appointed, by ;,v.;/.. ',(//■« f from 
the king, one of th.e Co,.'/ial for A'-:v J-.rJy ,- in \vhich idlice he conti- 
nued to be ulVful to tlie public ; and, iit the l:tmc time, particidurly f. r- 


cond tuna 

Tiiji History oi- Pennsylvania* 23'3 

In the year ijC)'}^^ John Pemt, foil of Richard 1763. 
Pciuh one of the Proprietaries, fucceedeJ Go- ' — "C"*^ 
vernor Hanullon^ m the admnnitration, and con- oi Govern* 
tinned till 1771 ; \vhen tlie government devolved o"- 
on the Council, James Hamilton being Prefident, 
for a (hort time ; till in the latter part of the fame 
year, Rlchnrd Penn^ brother ^of Jolm Penn^ ar- ^^^^^^^ 
rived from En^Imul, invefted with the powers of vemor.'^ 

Richard Pctvi was fuperfeded in the adminiftra- 
tioii by his brother Johti Penn, who now, after J"'^" ^^"^* 
his father's death, in 1771, became a Proprietary, g, 
and fecond time Governor of the province, in the 
latter part of the year. 

Vol. II. [30] 


ylceable in his own religious fucicty, till the time of his ficknefs and 

: He wa« endowed with great conciliating abllkie* ; and the preferva- 
hoa of peace and concord, among mankind, was much the lubjcd of 
hij attention and delight. 

lie wa» en^ajrlng, open, friendly and undefigning, in his addrefs and 
bch.iyiour ; of .i ciiearfui and hencvolent dii'pofition of mind ; well fkillcd 
La the Uwi of Ins country; and M-'iy ready, gcncious and fcrviccuble, 
in giving hii advice und allillance. 

In hij religious c!i»r.ii5ler, he exhibited an excellent example of true 
pradlical Cbripian'iy, free from all alf'edation and nanownefs of mind* 
He w«8, in fcveral relation,!, one of the bed of neighbours and of men. 

., He had a turn to literature, and though lie was not favoured with 
rtluch of a learned education, yet, as he was a pcrfon uf gooil natural 
parts, much reading, and converfed with all .ranlcs cf men, in his own 
country, he writ fcveral pieces, to good advantage, on diilerent, but 
generally the mofl: inrerefling fubjeds, of a religious, moral and civil 
nature; fouK of which have been publilhcd for general benefit. 

234 T^iE History of Pennsylvania'. 


THUS far appears the manner of the rife, cole* 
nization, increafe and happy eltabliilnnent of the 
liourilhing province of Pemifyhania ; which, by 
means of the very remarkable induftry, honefty, 
moderation, and good policy of the hrfl and early 
colonifts and their fucceffors, from a wildernefs, 
became as a fruitful field, and a very valuable 
and important addition to the Britifli interefl in 
America, without any expence to the parent 

The enjoyment of that rational freedom of* 
thinking, and religious worffiip, with a juil and 
equal participation of natural and civil rights, 
\vhich, in the populoufnefs, and general polity of 
Europe, fecmed to be either too much lofl, or, 
at leall, too partially diflributed, was the compact 
of fettlement ; and the reiloration and fruition of 
that peace and tranquillity, which the wickednefs 
and folly of the liuman race had fo much baniih- 
cd from the world, by the more elfedual encou- 
ragement and promotion of primitive truth and 
fmiplicity, in the aftlons and manners of men, 
in a way, that feemed bell to thole concerned, 
and fo far as the flate of human nature would ad- 
mit, were the chief views and motives to the un- 

That thefe were the real principles, upon which 
the conllitutlon and government oi Fennfylvania 
were primarily fjunded, it is fulltciently known 
and manifeft, from the bed documents, and con- 
firnied by a feries of molt certain fatls, as given, 
though defedively, in the preceding hiftory, and 

' in 

'* Tliis being- \\rIttL'n iil)Oiit tficyrar 1778 cr 1779, in a time of great 
conlulioi), and uiiCLTtuhiiy, in iliis p.'.rt of Aiucr'n.i, aliudc:, 
ill tilt tui'/.Ii'iloii, tu li ^irub..LL', or ypjj.>rciit luturc clians^c, &c. 

The History of Pjinnsyi^vania. 235 

In the following view of the general ftate of the 
province, between the years 1 760 and 1770 : that 
Its great and rapid increafe, its happy and flou- 
vilhing Condition fince, down to the prefcnt time, 
have lieen principally owing to the inlluence o[ 
thcfe fame principles, in degree ftill prevailing, 
future time will further, and more fidly demon- 
flrate, whenever the unhappy reverfe tliereof ihall 
take place ; which nowfeems to be faft approach- 
ing : by whole contrary elfeds will then Itill more 
clearly appear, in contrafi, both the caufe and 
means of the extraordinary, and fo long con.tinued 
profperily, and unparalled felicir/, for which tliis 
province has been long fo jufLly lamed, above all 
-other countries, at leaii, in yhr.criai^ if not in the 
■whole world: a fhite, in fome refped, fo nearly 
rcfcmbling that of ihok fit urn uni times, in I/a/y, 
which, we are told formerly produced the golden 
age, and fo far aclually realizing ancient fable, 
that to its inhabitants, perhaps, before any other 
people, on the furface of the globe, might parti- 
cularly, and with great propriety, have been ap- 
plied the exclamation of the poet Virgil, 

" l'clici.'s nlmiuin fu.i fi boiin norinr, Agvlcolco !'' 
ac> well as that of Milton, refpc6ling the flare of 
the tirft parents of mankind, 

« and, O ! yet Inppieft, if ye feck 

No happier ftate, ami know 10 know no more." 

But all things have their time ; and both king, 
doms and empires, as well as fmaller ftates, and 
particular perfons, muft die ; " Jinis ac ab origine 
pendct ;" yet folly often fliortens their duration, 
as wifdom and virtue prolong their more happy 
exiflence : and we may plainly fee men frequently 
and greedily embrace the former, for the latter, 
and with great zeal and conhdence often purfuc 
their, own mifery, under a hrong perfualiou of 
the contrary : for, a^; the human body, when in 


2^6 The History of Pennsylvania, 

Its mofl; plethoric Hate, and in the greatefl appear, 
ance of health and vigour, is often then moll in, 
danger, or nearcft a ludden change, fo the late 
and prefent extraordinary profperity, the increa- 
fing, flourifliing and happy Itate of this country, 
at prefent, above others, may probably be a prog- 
noilic, or fign, of its being in a more critical fitu- 
Ution and danger. 

For fo long as the fatal delufion, which, we 
are told, originally rendered mankind unhappy, flill 
continues, though in different degrees, and various 
appearances, to except entirely from its baneful 
influence no part of the human race, every con- 
dition, in this world, will be fubjeft to muta- 
blUty ; but then the remedy has ever been equal 
to the difeafe; for the Creator and Supporter of 
the world, whofe peculiar attribute it is, to pro^ 
duce good out of evil, has placed within the power 
and choice of mankind, thofe means of recovery 
from all evil, which are, at leall, adequate to the 
nature and extent of it ; and fometimes places 
fpecial examples before the eyes of the human 
race, like this of Pennfylvania^ to fliew them the 
abfolute pofllbility of a flill luperior blifs, and 
more exalted felicity, than is commonly experi- 
enced in the world, not only in an individual, but 
alfo in a coUeftive, or national, and more univerfal 


Province of Pennfylvania, 

AND oil' THE 

State in which it flourifhed, chiefly between tlie years 
1760 and 1770 : 


I. A general ch-fiy'iptkn cf the f-M nnil face cf the country, ivith the 
mojl coii/iJeral'le mountains and rivers, loth in t'mt and the adja^ 
cent provinces i including fomething oj the nature of the iventhert 
and peculiarity of the fafons, Id'c. 

|I. Of the chorogrnphy, prcfent produce, trade, improvements, inha^ 
bit ants, Philadelphia, other towns, and the internal police of the 

JII. Of the Indians, or Aborigines, cf rcnifylvania and its vicinity^ 

IV. Of the religious fate of the province. 

To give a full and minute account of every particular, 
which might properly be ranged under thefe feveral heads, 
would exceed the bounds of my prefent intention, which 
is only to exhibit a fliort and comprehenfive view of fuch 
parts thereof as truth and candour may be able to furnifli 
from certain knowledge, and fuch information as may be 
beft depended on, with fuch brief obfervailons as jiiay 
naturally and properly arife from the fubjcd.^^, in a fum- 
iDary manner. 

2j8 General State of Fennfylvania^ 


Thefcafom and temperature of the iceather. — iV^-i 
iure of the land and foil ^ Id'c. — Face of the coun- 
try in general ; as the mount a uu^ vallies, plainsy 
rivers, and creeks, Is'c. 

Seafonsand JL HAT grccUcr degree of ficciiy in the tempe- 
K'nnf iva- I'^^ture of the air, which preyails more on conti- 
m- ' nents, than iflands, or Imaller tra<3:s of hmd, fui*- 
rounded by water, is obfervable in Pennfyhania. 
For the weather, round the year, is much dryer 
here, than in Great Britain, notwithftanding the 
more violent changes, in this country, when they 
happen. The winters are longer and more fevere ; 
the funimers hotter and dryer; the fprings very 
lliort ; the autumn long and mild ; but notwitli- 
flanding the length and fevcrity of the winters, 
they are generally more clear, agreeable and heal- 
ihv, than in England; but the lummcrs lefs lb, 
by rcafon of their great heat and fudden clianges ; 
which caufe dyfenteries, lingering and putrid fe- 
vers, with other dangerous diftempers, in the latter 
part of fummcr, ^^c. 
n-mpfra- The temperature of the air, and the nature of 
the weather, are much governed by the j)articular 
and variable winds, wiiich prevail moit in the dif- 
ferent feafons : fome of which have a very remark- 
able and fudden influence thereon, efpecially thofe 
In wiiUer ; which, during that part of the year, 
bhnv more from tlic well-northerly, than irom 
any other quarter. Thele v/inds Icldom fivil to 
produce a clear fl<y, and a remarkable fiuirp coKl, 
even, in every fv.afon of the )'ear ; as tli'ife fi-om 


tui-c (if the 
air, & 

hclivccn ihe Tears 1760 and 1770. 239 

Ihe fonth-wefterly arc cliflinguinied for producing 
hazinefs iuul warmth or heat in lunim-jr. But the 
eallcrii winds are frequent, and as much obferved 
to bring on hazinefs, fogs, or clouds, and wet or 
feilh'ng weather, as the former are, for their re- 
fpcdive cold and heat, with their pecuhar drynefs ; 
and lliey are obferved in later years to be more 
common and prevalent than formerly reprefented 
to have been. 

Hence that temperature of the feafons, which Hxtrcmcs 
is more peculiar to the infular, than to the conti- cliJ",vi"h 
nental parts of the world, and fo remarkable in tiieir conk- 
Great Britain^ is not experienced here, by reafon 'jl'j"'""' 
of the heats and colds being more intenfe, and 
fudden, olten occafioned by the quick and uncer- 
tain fliifu'ng of the wind ; which have a furprifing 
elfecl on vegetation, and zYirn on animal life itfelf, 
both to accelerate, and fometimes increafe them, 
as well as to fliorten their duration : for, as the 
vegetables are drawn up in a rapid manner (like 
plants under glafTes, or in a very warm expofure, 
in colder climates) by the great and fudden heats, 
in the beginning of fummer ; whereby the very 
ground, more elpecially that which is higlier than 
the rell, and moll expofed to the fun, and parch- 
ing dry winds, appears frequently, in a fliort time, 
to be exhaultcd of its virtue and goodnefs, or 
deprived of that frudifying quality, which nou- 
rifhes plants and herbage : fo they are often as 
fuddenly cut down by the fucceeding frofls, or de- 
llroyed by the fevere cold, or want of moiflure. 
And notwithftanding the fpring commences at 
Philadelphia near a month later than about London, 
yet the harvefl in Pennfylvania is a month earlier 
than in England ; which renders that icaion very 
fliort in the former. 

Violent guds of thunder, wind \\m\ rain, are 
frequent in the v/arm feafons, with ilidLicn cold 


^4"o C^rictal BtalM '/ Vcttnfj'fvania, 

after them, and a nortli weft wind ; which more' 
often are comequent upon the intenfe heats. The ' 
fnows are frequently very deep, in winter, and 
the frofls fo intenfe, that it has not been very un- 
common for the large river Delaiuare, even, v/here 
it is near a 'mile broad, to be frozen over in one 
night, fo as to bear people walking upon the ice 
in the morning ; which river fometimes, in the 
winter feafon, for feveral weeks together, even, 
oppofite to Philadelphia^ is as much frequented 
with loaded carriages of all forts, bringing country 
produce upon the ice to the city, as any part of 
terra Jinna.* 

Duration of ^j-^^-^ experience demonftrates that the tcnder- 

aninial and ^ ,- ^ • , n -, . , , , 

vegetuhie nels ot a texture, either or the annual or vegetable 
'/f'"^'""" kind, formed and nouriflied under fo ereat a de- 

iylvania, o 

Ice. grea 

* Thomas Makin, before mentioned, in Jiis D^firiptlo Psnfilvam^^ 
anno 1729, fpeuks in the following manner, on the lltuation and tem- 
perature of Peunfylvania, i/Zi. 

" Zonre terra Aibcfl alternre, uLi veris & .xftas 

Autunuii gL'lidx funt hycniifque vices. 
Hlc tcr quinque dies nunicrat longiiTimuij licras, 

Cum fol in cancro fidcrc tranfit iter. 
Hk tiinen int<rrdum ^laci.ilii fiigora brunix 

lit calor R;llivus vi\ tolcranda pren\unt. 
Sa'po fed immodicuin boreale refrigerat ;i;fluni 

I'lamen, & aufiralls luicigat anra geUi. 
\\\c adco inconflans eft, & varlabile ca;lum, 

Una ut non rare eft a:ftub hyemfque die 
Sa;)e prior quamvis nitido fit fole ferenii 

Poftcra fit niultis inibribus atra dies. 
Vis adeo iiiterduni venti violenta nientij, 

Ut multa in fylvis fternitur arbor liurni." 
" Cum fera fxvit hiems glacie fluvialis & \\\\A\ 

Atque lattt tcllus iindeque tcdla nive ; 
Circumelufa ratis, ii non foret aneliora, fixa eft, 

Dum rigidum folvat mitior aura gelu. 
Jit quamvis boreas gelido bacchatur ah ardo, 

Inturbata tanien fluniinis unda fikt. 
Ufque adeo interdum fuit hk durabllc; frigus. 

Trans fluvium vidi planftra onerata veiii. 
Hlc tamtn interdum tolius tempore hrum:^ 

Navibus h:ni amnis pervia ])ra:bet iter : « 

Cymbaque remigio vclo;:, veloque frequenter 

Advehit & revthit qua via ducit onus. 
Ufque adeo inccrta eft, hk' & variabilis aura 

Altcrnafqiic vices frigus i; ccllus lu-bct." 


I't'tivccii the 7^ears 1760 and ijjo. .241 

gVee of heat, as predominates here in Aiinmcr, is 
not fo well able to bear thefe great changes, as it 
would otherwife be ; for ftrangers, who remove 
liither from colder, or more northern latitudes, are 
.obferved generally to bear them better, at lirfl, 
than tlie natives of the country, or fuch as have 
lived long in it ; and the lives of both animals 
imd vegetables, as they moftly arrive fooner at 
maturity, are generally of ihorter duration, than 
'in fome of the more northern, or temperate cli- 
mates ; hence, in wintel-, every green thing of 
the gramineous kind appears to be entirely dead ; 
and that beautiful verdure, which, in England^ 
remains to adorn the ground round the year, is 
not to be {^t\\ here, in that feafon ; and the efledl 
of thefe great and fudden changes, even, in the 
Vol. II. [31] human. 

" Beneath the temp'rate zone the land doth He, 
Where heat and cold a grateful change I'upply. 
'I'o fifteen hours cxtend^s the longcll day, 
M''heii fol in cancer points his fervid ray. 
Vet here the winter feafon is fcvcre ; 
And fummcr's heat 'm difTicuit to bear: 
But Wfflcrn winds oft cool the fcorcliint^ ray, 
And fouthcrn breezes warm the v/inter's day. 
Yet oft tho' warm and fair the day bt},Mni, 
CNiKI llorms urife before the fating' fun : 
Nay, oft fo (iiiick the cln'n^e, fo great its pow'r, 
A» fuminer's heat, and wiiUer, in an luiur ! 
So violent the wind, ili.n ofc the ground 
Wit!) rooted trees is covcr'd wide and round!" 
" When llorniy winter whitens all below, 
When woods and plains are hid in ice and fiiowj 
The Ihips with icy chains are anchor'd fall, 
'I'ill tbe diir<jlving fpring return at lad; 

Tho' boreas rage, and i\ormy tcmpcds blow, ''■ 

'J'he flreanis arc iilent and not feen to flow; 
.Someti)ncs the ice I'o flrong and firm is found, 
i'ha: waggons pals as on the iblid ground. 
iJut yet fo temp'rate arc fomc winters here, 
That in the llreams no icy chains appear ; 
A\u\ all the fe.ifon boats and fhipping may 
With oar and fail divide the licpiid way; 
lio various and uncertain is the 
I'lT hcjt and cold extrunc, in iiale ti;nc," t\c. 

ihc hnd 

242 ■ General State of Pennfylvania, 

human fpecies itfelf, in various r'efpeQs, is, in 
proportion, no lefs conlpicuous, in this country.* 
i^ztMTc of In a province of ^o large extent as tliat of Pe7in^ 
f)u-vania, the nature and quahty of the hind and 
' Ibil muft confequently be various ; yet much more 
of a hmihirity, in this refpeft, runs through the 
whole of it, at lead, fo fiir as at prefent cuhivated, 
than is to be found in the fame extent, any where 
in Engh'jul. 

If the hmds be divided into three parts, or 
kinds, according to the prefent appHcaiion, ufe 
and fuitablenefs of them, viz. grazing, arable and 
barren, or leajl nfeful, the fird is but a very fmall 
proportion ; and there is not much, that may 
properly be called very rich, or good grafs land, 
in it (I mean fo far as at prefent improved) when 
compared with that of fome other countries, ex- 
cepting near rivers, creeks, and runs of water; 
where in the vallies, and fuch low places as arc 
eniiched by the Hoods and walhing down of the 
foil, from the hills and uplands, and longed retain 
moiflure,. the land is the molt fei tile, and com- 
monly appropriated to grafs : but then thefc places 
generally are more unhealthy, being very fubjed 
to agues, intermittent and ilovv fevers, while in 
the more elevated, poor ami barren fituations, 
which are lefs prohtable to the cultivator, the in- 

* Dr. Do-.igLis, in hi-, funini.iry hillorical and political, t^c. of the 
BrhyL R'ttlautiits in ^L;.,iii\i, b< foic niciitionLd, (iliicTves, 

" As Nciv EryLiiJWti ill the leewiird of the WiiKrIy extLi-dtd coii- 
lMH:;n of Nuitb Arj^rii.i, th.e winds (iK-in^^; ocjurLdly wciterly) j. lading- 
«(':iti;:u;dly uhnifv this v.d) tivd of land, nw.c'n hcitL-d in funuiicr, \\\A 
iiiii'.Ii (oulcu, or froxc-n, iI^^\il;tcr, occafjoii the coiiiitiy to he rniith liot- 
ter iii l'i;ii)n)cr, and much cooler in winter, than in Ginai litiLiiii: reci- 
jTocj-Liuiis, hilt not to,, ;:re fukilury to tlie cor.flitution, where 
ilij tranfitiont, are gradual; thus we may oliferve in nature, tliat frr tiie' 
henclil of the earth's prodii-e, the:e i:, a reciprocal ion of fuinnier and 
winter, day and night, &c In C(.i!i trl.s where the f^ali-nsare upon the 
CAtremes, in fununiT and wintu-, as in Ntiu £ng!ui:.l, conflitiitions do 
not wear ■well, iniaUigons. to iIil- tin'her and plank of a fl.ip betvein 
wind and water. I.o;:j^evity i.ji-'c:.:-: ni"ftly in yhnd coi.iifrics, wheie, 
with a fmai! liiitude, or vari.,;iou, tlie lci:!peratiue of the air continue* 
riailv theh'.nie, i-.o 

bctiuccn ihc 7\\irs lyGo and lyyo. : 

habitants moflly enjoy a clearer air, and better 
flate of health. 

The fecond fort of land, '.-vhich is far the i^re-\t- 
cfl part of what is, at prefenr, improved, is rather 
of a poor, fliallow, or iniddJinj^' kind of foil ; 
but, u^ much of it is of a llrong, clayey, or 
loamy nature, and in fome places abounds with 
limcltone, it is moftly very capable of improve- 
ment, even after it has been much worn out by 
had management, and is, for the moil j'.:nr, very 
fuitabie for grain ; to whicli u!"e it i^ <;!jicnv ap- 
plied, i'o far back in the country as impio\ement 
has hitherto advanced. 

Of the third kind of land, in the province, 
U'hich is of very little, or no value, it is diilicult 
to afccrtain the quantity ; but, in divers places of 
the more remote and mountainous parts, no fmall 
proportion of the land is fo broken, ftony, rocky, 
or barren, as to be either from its prefent fituation, 
not worth improving, or othervvife entirely incapa- 
ble of culture ; fome places fcarcely producin*^- 
any tree, or vegetable, whatever ; and others, at 
befl-, only thofe of the mod dwarfilh, or ilirubby 

Kirc of ibc couiu'ry, lUQiir.tdins^ rivers, i:j\'. 

All the land fituatcd fouth-Vv'cihvard of liudfonh s-e Le- 
er l^orth River, to the north boundary of Caro- T^-vims-a 
Una, in latitude 36 j, may be divided into dilfe- ''"'' ^ '' 
rent and regular flages ; in which the hrlt objed 
to be obferved, is a remarkable r'lef or vein of 
rocks, of the /^7/,('y, ox ift.nglafiY\\\i\, arifing gene- 
rally a little higher than the adjoining land, and 
extending from Ntw Tork city fouth-wefterly, by 
the lower falls of Delaware, at Treniui ; by thole 
of Schuylkill, a little above Philadelphia ; of Suf- 
quchanna, a few miles above tlie head ol Chefapeak 
bay; and of Giinpoivdar and Paiapfeo rivers, iji • 
Maryland ; o^ Pj-u.uack, kapahanii.'.,':.;^ c.nd j' 


C44 General State of Pcnnfylvania, 

River, in Virginia ; and of Roanoak in North Ca- « 

This is fuppofed to have been a former mari- 
time boundary of this part of yJmerica, and forms • 
a very reguhir curve. Tlie lan*^ between this rief 
and the fea, from the Nave/ink hills, near Sbrciuf- 
lunj, in Eajl yer/ly, fouth well ward along the 
Lower whole coalt, may be denominated the Lower 
Plains. Plains ; which confifls of foil, walhcd down from 
abo^e, and of fand, accumulated from the ocean. 

Where thefe plains are not penetrated by rivers, 
they are white fea land, about twenty feet deep, 
and entirely barren. But the borders of the ri- 
vers, which defcend from the uplands, are rendered 
fertile by the foil waflred down by the floods, and 
mixed with the land, gathered from the fea : the 
fubllratum of lea mud, Ihells, and other foreign 
fubjeds, are a fuflicient conhrmation of this fuppo- 

Hence for forty or fifty miles inland from the fea 
Ihore, excepting as above, all the fpace from the 
Navcfinks to Cape Florida, is entirely barren, where 
the walli, from the upland, has nc^t enriched the 
borders of the rivers ; or where Ibme ponds, or 
deiiles, have not furniflied proper fupport lor the 
growth of white cedars. 
Vein of There is commonly a vein of clay feaward of the 

ti-'y. ^c. jjifjgiaf Rief-, from three to four miles wide ; which 
is a coarfe fdlcr^ earth ; and, with a proper 
mixture of loam, is excellently well adapted lor 
bricks: at, or near, which vein of clay, that part 
of Pennfyhania, which is nearelt the fea, or froni 
about Trenton, on Delaware, to the borders of 
Maryland, in general commences ; and Philadel- 
phia is partly fnuated upon it. 

From this rief of rocks, over which all the ri- 
vers fall, (as before inentioi^eu) to that ch'ain ol; 
broken hi'ls, connnonly called the Siu.'h M-^io.- 


hct'wcen the Tears 1760 and 1770. 245 

iain^ there is a fpnce of very uneven ground, ex- 
tending, in diflerent places, lifty, lixty, or feventy 
miles, and rifing fenfibly on advancing further in- 
land ; which fpace may be denominated tlie upland. The uphnd 
M'his confids of veins of diflerent kinds of foil and ^'""" 
fubflrata, for fome fcores of miles in length ; and, 
in fome places it is overlaid v/Ith little chains of 
hills. I'he declivity of the whole gives a great 
rapidity to the (treams of water ; where the vio, 
lent gufts of wind and rain, to which the climate, 
in hot feafons, is very fubjeft, liave v/allied,' or 
wore, it much into gullies, and carried down the 
foil, to enrich the borders of the rivers, in the 
lo^ucr plains. Thefe deep inequalities render much 
of the country not eafily capable of culture; 
whereby it is likewife impoverilhed, by reaibil of 
the almofl continual walhing away of the richer 
mould, that covers the furface. 

The ^Quth Mountain is not in ridges, like the ^muh 
Endlefs Mountains^ fo called, but iii hnall, broken, ^^"""'-^"' 
fteep, , ftony hills ; nor does it run with fo much 
regularity. In fome places it gradually dlminifnes 
to nothing, not appearing again for fome miles ; 
and, inolhers, it fprcads Icvcral miles in breadth, 
between the Soutl) Mountain^ and the high chain 
of the Endlefs Mountains, (often for dilLin61:ion, 
called the North A-'huntain, and in fome places, 
the Kittatinni and PcquclinJ there is a valley of 
pretty even good land, from eight to ten or twenty 
miles wide, Ayhich is perhaps fome of the belt 
land, if not the mofl confiderable quantity of it, 
that the E?iglijh at prefcnt, (about the year 1753, 
Wfien mod of thefe obfervations, on the face of 
the country, were made and publhhed by Lcivis 
Evans of Philadelphia J are pollelled of, or have 
improved; it runs through Neio yerjly, Pennfyl- 
vania, Maryland, Vir/niia ; and is e\'e)"y v.liere 
enriched with limeflone. 



Genet-al Slate of Pennfjhania, 

Mouniins, '^^^ Jirullefs Moimtcilm, which is the Indian 

' name tranilated, and expreffivc of their unknown 
extent, are the next in order, and n.ake the/..r//. 
A^gc. 1 hey are not confufedly fcattered, in lofty 
peaks, over-topping one another, but ftretch in 
long uniform ndges, fcarce half a mile perpendi- 
cular, m any place, above the intermediafe vallies 
in fome places, as towards the Kaafs-Ki/I moun! 
tains, near the head of De/azaare river, in New 
3.r/^ governnicnt, and the head ^F Roamak, in 
he fouth xveft part of Virgn.a, they appear to 
tcrmmate; but, m a httle Ipace, the/fpi\!ad out 
agam mto new branches, apparently as extenhve 
asbetore. _ 1 he further chain, ov J //c^emiy rid^r^ 
of mountams, keeps moitly on a parallel with the 
J/wg/a/s Rtcf and terminates in a rough, flony 
pkice, at the head of Roanoak and Nvzv River on 
the borders of Virginia, and Carolina. Th<, more 
ealterly chams as they run further fouthward, 
rend, or iprcad themfelves more and more wef- ^1 
teriy; v.-h^Td,y xht vphnid mid neb valley, befi^re I 
mentioned, are fo nmch wider in VirgL, than ^^ 
further north; and which caufes them to meet 
and m^erlect the Allegenny mount.^iins. 

Some chains of thefe mountains are <'m^Aii nar 
row ndges; as the Kittatinui ; fome fpread two 
or three miles broad, on the top ; others fteep on 
onehde, and extend with a long Hope, on the 
other ; and the ffeeper they are, the more rocky • 
but they are every where woody, xvhere the foil is 
proper and fufHcient to fupport the trees. ^J o. 
wards the further ridges, north eailward, the " 
mountams confift of rich land ; and in fbme places 
they are only as large as broad banks, three oi- 
four mijes acrofs. In the way to Ohio, by Franks 
fown, m Fcnnfylvania, being pad: the Alhxewiy 
mounuuns, the ground is rough, in many pbces 
I.av.r.i f ^' contim.cs lo to the river. Near thi. pLuv the 
H.ij, <^c. /-7-a7v///.//!prings ircm ihe mountain^ a,,.! cori 


hd-iveen the Tears 1760 and 1770. ^ 247 

tinucs, thouj^'h not lan^c, in a very reguLir chain, 
it is thouj';iH, to the Otuifioto mountain, or the 
font hern branches of the OIjIq. Vox though the 
yj/k^cnny is the mofl wederly, on the wc;lt branch 
of Supiuthiinnu river, in Fennfylvama^ yet it is far 
Ironi bcinfr fo in Virginia. Except the further 
ridges, hift mentioned, there is but little good 
li'.iid in the moimtains ; and not one-tenth part is 
capable of culture ; but what fmall quantity there Not much 
is, confifts of extreme rich foil, in lawns on the k^'"^^ '^'-'^ 
river fides ; being fo much rich mud fubfided nluVmaius 
there, and commonly gathered above falls^ for- <-"-■• 
merly in drowned lands, and now drained, by 
the rivers wearing channels through the rocks. 

To the north wcllward of the Endlcfs Mountains 
is a country of vail extent, and, in a manner, as 
high as the mountains themfelves. The abrupt 
termination thereof, near the fea level, as, on the 
wefl: fide of HaJjhi's, or Nortb river, below Al- 
bany, appears like a very high mountain. For Ui)^!^ 
Kaats-Kil/s, though of more lofty llaturc than any ^"^^"'■'• 
other mountains, in thefe parts of Jnicrica, are 
but the continuation of the plains, on the top ; 
and the clilTs of them, in the front, they repr>j- 
fcni towards Ki/uLr/jook. Thefe upper plains con- 
lid of extraordinary rich land, and extend from 
the M(il>ocks river through the country of the Con- 
federate^ or .S/.v Nation, Indians. Their ternn'na- 
tion 'northward is at a little dillance from lake On- 
iario, near latitude 43" ; but where it is weft ward 
is unknown ; for thofe moft extenfive plains of 
0/jio are part of them, which continue to widen, 
as they extend further v/eflward, even far beyond 
the AIi//j//Jppi ; and their boundary fouthward is a 
little chain of broken hills, about ten or iiftcvn 
miles fouih of the river Ohio. 

The Dc'LiiC'rc and Su/quehaiina, rivers Oi Pcnn- oi' ti-..- t'lJ-; 
fylv.utia, at, or near their heiid;, approiich, as is '"■ ''^^',;;.'"'' 

248 General State of Pennfyhania, 

fuppofed, within Icfs than thirty or forty miles 
of Hudfon's, or New York river ; and fo near to 
the former docs the tide flow up the lad menti- 
oned river ; whereas the Delaware runs, perhaps, 
about one hundred and fifty miles, and the SuJ- 
qucbanna, probably, near two hundred miles, 
down their channels, before they meet the tide ; 
which phenomenon is eafily explained, when it is 
confidcred, tliat the Dchnvdre and Siifqiiehanna 
have their lieads in thefe plains, and Hudfon's, or 
North River, has the tide at the foot, or bottom 
of them. 

The flat country, lozver plains^ which lies be- 
tween the falls and the fea, is, for the mod party 
well watered with beautiful bays, rivers and creeks, 
Salt marfh- navigable for all forts of velfels. All the creeks 
cs, &c. ^j^ Delaware bay, the verges of the founds, which 
extend along the fea coalt:, and fome creeks in 
Virginia, and towards the head of Che/apeak bay, 
on the weft fide, are bordered with fait niarfjes ; 
fome a mile or two wide. 

Thofe parts of New Jer/ly, Pennfylvania, Ma- 
o/th"hHP n^^^^^^-> ''^^^^ Virginia, between the Ifinglafs Vein, 
country, and the North Mountain, flope towards the fea 
^'^- with great declivity ; whereby the rivers and rivu- 

lets have great rapidity, and are excellently well 
adapted for all forts of mills, turned by water; a 
great advantage to fome of thcfe middle colonies, 
where bread and Hour are the iiaple of commerce. 
In the Endltfs Mountains the rivers are generally 
flony and rapid ; and, in I'ome places, where in- 
terrupted with riefs of rocks, not yet worn to the 
level, they fall in cataracts ; and above fuch places 
they are generally dead and flow, or fprcad in 
ponds, and drown the furrounding lands. In the 
elevated flats, which form the country of the Con- 
federate, or 5/.V Nation, Indians, and on the Oljio, 
the rivers are generally eafy in their currents ; and 
as that country is ci vi;it extent, they are large 


between the Tears 1760 and 1770. ^249 

and excellently accominodated for inland navi- 

■ Part of the eafl: end of lake Erie is faid to be i.akc die, 
within the bounds of Pennfyhania ; it being fup- '^'■• 
pofed to be rather fouth of, or within, the 421.1 
degree of north latitude, and between four and 

five degrees of longitude well from Philadelphia. 
It is a beautiful fre(h water lake ; is laid to have 
a fine fandy fhore on the north, as well as in many 
places on the other fides of it, efpecially towards 
the fouth, eafl part, bordering on Pennfyhania. 
The weather and temperature of the air is ac- 
counted more moderate there, than at lake Ontario, 
(at whofe eafl end is Of%vego^ in latitude 43" 1 7' N.) 
tind the other great lakes; which are all fituated 
further north; it e.ctends perhaps tv/o hundred «« Car- 
fiud fifty miles eafi: and well, and near fixty or ^'.[^l" JJ^'^" 
feveuty north and fouth ; it communicates with 
the lake Ontario, on the north eafl part of it, by 
the (Iraitsand catarad: of Niagara ; and on the north 
wefl:, with the lake Huron, by a ilvait called by 
the French Detroit, palfable by large veffjhi. 

The water, or ftraits of Niagara,- at the place ^^faii-' and 
of the famous and (lupendous fall, or catara6l, Tl^'^^ 
of that name, is faid to run frciui S. S. E. to N. " 
N. W. where the rocks, which form the great 
fall, extend in a femicircle one thoudmd and eighty 
feet acrofs it. This/7// is alTerted to be one hun- 
dred and thirty-feven feet perpendicular ; and to 
be fometimes heard at the di fiance of fifteen 
leagues : mofl of the water, which runs from 
thefe large lakes, on the N. W. viz. Lake Superior, srt- p. 
Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, znd Lake L/ie, pailes |'';'"''^"'''' 
this /^//, in its way to Lake Ontario, and from 
thence to the river St. Lawrence. 

■ Hudfon's, or North River, at whofe entrance Hu. 'fou's 
(lands the city of Nezo l^ork, in north latitude 40" "" "■■'^'' 
42' i, has the tide and a good d'jptli of water, for ' 

. Vol. II. [32] . Hoops, 

liver, Sic, 

250 Guvieral State of Pennfylvanla't ' 

iloops, to Albany^ near one hundred and fifty 
miles, into the upland, in a north direction ; and 
opens communication with the i'nhmd parts of the 
continent, of very great importance ; while all 
the rivers fouth-weftward, as before obferved, are 
navigable by fea velTels in the lower fats only. 

Delaware Delaware river, which divides Fcnnfylvama from 
I^ew Jerfey, from its head, in latitude about 42"-^ 
north, down to Trenton falls, with all its curves 
and windings, forms a general courfe nearly north 
and fouth, but a little weflward, of above one 
hundred and fifty miles ; and in that fpace is faid 
to have fourteen confiderable rfts, principally 
below Eafon, in Northampton county ; yet all pafl- 
able at times, in the long flat boats, ufed in the 
navigation of thefe parts ; fome of them carrying 
from five to fix hundred bulhtls of wheat. The 
worll rifts, or thole cdXlcd falls, are fourteen miles 
above Eqfton ; and from thence, in different places, 
for the fpace of thirty miles, down to Trenton; 
yet thefe are all furmounted mfrjhes, or in foods, 
by the boats, as far as from the Ivlejifnls.* 

we{i_ ^ The welt branch of Delaware, called the Lebi, 
which goes olf at F.afon, and waters the county 
of Northampton, is but inconfiderable, compared 
with the north eaft branch, already defcribed. 
lu-om Trenton, where the river meets the tide, to 
Philadelphia, the Delaware runs about thirty miles, 
navigable for fea veflels j and from Philadelphia 
to the fea, it is above one hundred miles, along 
the courfe of the river and bay ; iirft, in a fouth 
\\ci\, and then in a fouth eail diredlon ; the river 
is near a mile broad at the city of Philadelphia. 

I Scnlkil is a fme branch of the Delazvare ; In- 

^^'^- to which it falls about four miles below Philadel- 
phia ; 

** The north ftatlon point, on the tall fulc of Ddaiuare, from which 
tlie line, which diviflcs the govcrmncnt of Nc-iu Tuil- from Ni'iv 'J^rjly, 
ij ilrii'.vn, tv) H,htfon&, or Niiu Tin-/., rivcr, io in aunh latitude 41'' 40', 
and .iLuve tlic Tvltnclinkb. 

fu.uich of 

hctiveen the Tears 1760 and 1770. 25 

phia ; and up which the title (lows about five miles 
above the city, to the falls •, three or four miles 
above which falls are others ; all paiTiible with 
large boats, in freflies, down to the city. From 
thefe falls to Reading, in the county of Berks, for 
forty or fifty miles into the interior parts of the 
province, through the counties of Philadelphia 
and Berks, it forms a fine gliding ftream, cafily 
fet againfl, or overcome, with poles ; as the bot- 
tom is generally even ; and in moderate feafons, 
will furnidi fifteen or fixteen inches of water, at 
leaft, in the flialloweft places, all the way : it is 
capable of much improvement, for the advantage 
of both town and country.* 

There are befides a confiderable number of na- 
vigable fireams, or creeks, which run into the 
Delaware, both on the Jcrfey and Pemfylvania 
fides of it, both above and below Philadelphia ; 
which aiford an eafy conveyance of country pro- 
duce to that city ; but, in general, they are navi- 
"•able only with fmall veflels, for a fhort diftance 
into the country. 

Delaiuare bay is fald to be fixty miles long, from Deian-art 
the capes to the entrance of the river at Bombay ^^y> ^"'■ 
Hook ; and lb wide in fome places, that a fhip, in 
the middle of it, cannot be i'een from the land- 
It opens into the Jltlantic Ocean fouth eafl, between 
cape Ilinlopen on the weft, and cape May, on the 
eaft ; thefe capes are about eighteen miles diftant 
from each other; the former in the territories oi 
Pennfylvania, and the latter in New Jerfey. Of 
the Itreams, which empty into this bay, Maurice 
river, in Nezu Jerfey, is accounted one of the 
largeft ; and is faid to be navigable for velfels of 
one hundred tons fifteen miles, and for fliallops, 
or fmall veflels, ten miles further, 


• Or Sihuil-Kill (i. e. hldJen cr.--!:, or c!unncl) called alfo SlonlUH -, 
fn<\ by the native Indians, Munijimi, u^coniiiig lo an old tjwedini M.^, 

252 ■ General State of Pennfyhania, '■ 

This bay and river are faid to have been named ; 
from the title oi—WeJi, Lord de la war. Governor- 't \ 
of Vh'g/nia, about the year 161 1 ; but the Indian ,,• 
name, according to an old Swedifh manulcript,- r 

was Poutaxat. j 

Kufqua. Sufquahanna river rifes beyond the north bouru 

kmna river ,|.^j.y q{ Pamfylvmiia, from two fmall lakes, in • 
about 43° north latitude, and eaflward of Phila- 
dclpbia, in the govenmient of New 7ork ; it runs 
thence a confiderable way fouthward, and then i 
fomh wefhvard, in a very crooked, or winding 
courfe, into the interior parts of Pennfyhania ; . 
then turning eaflward, it continues in a foutli eafl 
• diredion, till it enters Maryland ; whence, pro- 
ceeding a few miles, within that province, it after- 
wards falls into the upper part, or head, of Che- 
fapeak bay, after a courfe of, perhaps, about two 
hundred and fifty miles, being above a mile wide 
in fome places near its mouth ; but much of it 
fliallow, in proportion to ns, breadth. It is navi- 
gable for ca7iocs quite from the lakes, at the head 
of it, to the falls of Conewago, in York, county. 
There are no falls in the upper part of the river, 
till about three miles below IVioniing, in Norihum- 
hrland cownty ; but from thence to Concivago there 
are feveraL The falls of Ccncwago are the worft j 
and below thcfe are leveral others. By reafon of 
thefe lalls this large river has no continued inland 
navigation to near its mouth ; nor for fea veffels 
above miles from the head of the bay. 

The mofl confiderable branches of the Sifqua^ 
hanna are Oivege, Tohiccon or Cayuga, Scnajhe, or 
Weft Branch, funiata, Swatara, Concwago, and Co- 
dor us, which waters Torktown; and Comjtogo, which 
runs by, or near, Lancnjtcr, Tohiccon promiJes well 
for a good navigation with canoes, to near the head 


Note. Owege is in north latltiulc 41° 55'. 

Miainokin ne;ir the juiu'-'l ion of the liaft and Wcfl 13ranchi;s of Suf- " 
qiichaniia, is in Idtitu.ic .JO"' 40'. 

between ihc Tears 1760 and 1770. 253 

Qi Alkgcnny river; it being a large and gentle 
ftream. I'he Wc/l Branch is laid to be fliallow 
and rapid, but has fcarce any falls in it: yuniata, 
which runs through Cumberland county, is laid to 
be a fine navigable dream for a great diftance. 

The large and beautiful bay of Cbefupsak may chefapeak 
properly be called the bay of Sufquabanna^ though ''^>'' ^'^■ 
all the large rivers of Maryland and Virginia like- 
wife empty themfelves into it. This bay is faid to 
be near one hundred leagues in length, to the fea ; 
and in fome places near twenty miles broad, inter- 
fperfed with iflands, and navigable for large ihips, 
the whole length of it. 

Between this bay and that of Delaware, is fitu- PcninfaU 
ate the pcninfula, which is compofed of the three [j^'^"" 
lower counties on Delaware^ or the territories of &.c. 
Pennfylvania, on the eaft, and part of Maryland, 
on the weft and fouth, with that part of Virginia, 
on the moft fouthern part of it, which is called 
Accomac, hz. 

The length of this psmnfida north and fouth, 
from the moft fouthern point of cape Charles, in 
latitude about 37" \i' to the \\<i'\\\ oi Chefapeak 
bay, near latitude 39" 35', is probably about one 
hundred and feventy miL'S ; its breadth near Lew- 
iftown, or cape Hinlopen, is about feventy miles ; 
but from thence it dccreafes in breadth both north- 
ward and fouthward ; fo that oppofite to Reedy 
IJland, or near the head of Chejapeak, it is only 
about twenty-five miles broad. 

The many navigable waters, or creeks, on each ^^Ji^f ^'jj"^ 
fide of \\\\% peninfula, which run into their refpec- See Lewis 
live bays, on the eaft and weft, are of en-eat ad- '-^-'"^^'^ 
vantage here j lome or which are deicribcd, as 
follows : 

Large floops may pafs to ^nrrw Hill, on Foko- 
moke river, or creek, which runs into the lower 
part of Chcfabeak bay j the porlaije iii iive miles 


254 : General State of Pcnnfyhania; ' ■ \ 

from thence to Sincpuxcn found, on the fea, whero ; 
ihips may come. Vt 

Shallops may go up Nantlcoke river, from the '\ 
lower part of the fame bay, near twenty miles .1 
into the Delazvare counties ; the portage from* 1 
thence to Indian river, which runs into the fea be- 
low Lewis Toztm^ is about thirteen miles, and to 
Broad Creek twelve. ;. , 

Choptank^ in Maryland^ is navigable for fhal-' 
lops to the bridge, about fix or {ttvtn miles within 
the Delaware counties ; and the portage to Motber-> 
kill^ which runs into the middle of Delaware bay, • 
is fifteen miles. ■; 

From Chejler or Newton^ river, in the fame^ ' 
province, to Salijhury^ on Duck creek, which runs' 
into the Delaware, below Reedy IJhind, the port- 
age is thirteen miles : and from Saffdfras river 
there is another portage to the fame place, thir- 
teen miles alfo. 

From Frederick town to Saflafras river, in Ma- 
rylandy where good fliips may come, there is a 
portage to CafitwelFs bridge, on Jpoqunniny, which 
runs into Delaware near Reedy IJland, fourteen 
miles. , 

From Bohemia river, in the fame province, 
where large flats, or fmall Ihallops may come, the 
portage to Cantwell's bridge, being low ground, 
is only eight miles.* All thefe creeks, which 
run into the Delaware, will receive large fliallops, 
but no larger vefl'els. 

chrifteen FroiTi the head of I'^Jk river, where Ihallops 
and Bran- j^^y Qomc from the uDpcr part of Chefapeak bay, 
creeks, <?cc, in 

* N. B. This is much frequented ; and as the grnund, in this place, is very 
low, fo that a canal may he cafily niade here at a fniall cxiicncc, in 
])roportion to the certain and great advantage, vvhicli mipjit arifc ; whcrehy 
a nav;i;ublc ctimmimicatioti to PhlLiJclph'ui, from iMaryiai:J and I'ir^ima, 
with the wedern parts of Fetuif^hanLi, mi^ht ))e tfitClcd witiiout j(oin'^ 
ro fea; which luidouhtedly would rail'e ti;e value of the lands In A^ir. 
f>myi)ici's, and advance their commercial intcrcil ly increafni"- the n l.i- 
-ets for thi-ir produce, and j;,ivhig- a f^^riny to iridullry, 6^c. 

heiivccn the Years lyGo and 1770. 255 

In Maryland, the portage is twelve miles to Chrlf- 
teen bridge, in Ncwcajlle county ; from which. 
place Chriileen creek, is navigable, by the fouth 
fide of Ullmin^ton, to Delaware river; and is 
capable of fea velTcls of above one hundred tons 
burden feveral miles above IVilmin^ton ; a little be- 
low which place before it enters the Delaware, it 
is joined by the Brandywlne ; a creek, which has 
its courfe on the north fide of Wilmington, diftant 
about a mile from Chrifteen, and extends into 
the interior parts of Chefter county, in Pcnnfylva- 
nia. This creek is not navigable above the rocks, 
or falls, two or three miles didant from its mouth, 
imd nearly oppofite to Wilmington, where it has 
a good bridge over it, on the road to Philadelphia, 
dillant about twenty-feven miles ; but this {Ireani 
is not the lefs ufeful, in this corn country, for the 
many excellent grift mills, fituated upon the fides Br'an.iy- 
of it, efpecially near Wilmington, called the Bran- wine, &c. 
dywine mills ; where the tide, with convenient 
shipping, come up to the very doors of divers of 

• This creek and that of Wi/Jahiccon, which runs ah.i (.f 
into Sculkil, a little above PhilaJilphij, are no- ^Vl^uluc- 
ted for the bell:, and moll numerous grid mills, """ 
either in this province, or any other part of Bri- 
tiJJj jlmcrica, within the fame extent of country ; 
and which, perhaps, are not inferior in quality to 
any in the world. 

Potowmack river, which runs into Chefapcak Pc^kuv- 
bay, and divides Maryland from Virginia, is very ""'■'' '"'"^'' 
broad, and navigable for large fliips, as far as 
Alexandria, about perhaps one hundred miles 
from the bay ; and is likely in future to become 
a very important, if not the fole water carriage 
from the country about the head of Ohio, to the 
©cean, in this part of America. 


256 ■ General State of Fennfylvania^ 

fni oZ Allegenny river takes its rife near latitude 42^ 
rivers. Rortliward of Penufylvania, and about two or 
three degrees of longitude weft from Philadelphia ; 
afterwards it runs many miles within that pro- 
vince, firft foutli-weflerly to Venango, and thea 
more foutherly to Pitljhiirg, where being joined 
by the Monongahcla, a very large ftream, it thence 
takes the name of Ohio, and turning wefterly pro- 
ceeds to the Mlffj/Jippi. But both thefe names, 
Allegenny and Ohio, originally fignify the fame 
thing, in dillerent Indian languages ; Ohio in the 
Seneca, and Allegenny, in the Delaware Indian 
Frederick language, hgnifies the Fine, or Fair River ; and 
rrf'yr" ^^^ ^^^^'^^ Hream, from its head, to its jundion 
with the Mijfijjippi, was fo denominated by thefe re- 
fpeclive Indian nations. 

When the winter fnows thaw, in the fpriag, 
this river is faid to rife, in fome places, more than 
twenty feet perpendicular ; but fcarce ever over- 
flows its high banks. It keeps a great uniformity 
of breadth, gradually increafmg from two or three 
furlongs, at Fittjburg, to near a mile ; and flill 
growing fo much larger before it reaches the M//1 
Jlffipph that its breadth, depth and eafy current 
are fuppofed to equal thofe of any river in Europe^ 
except the Danube. 


Note. Shanoppin's towrl, an Indian fettlemcni on the Alle^em-^, near 
Pitljhuig, is faid to be in north latitude- 40° 26' and is fujipoied to be 
about five dcgrt.cs of longitude weft from the Ddaivarc at hinLuldplAa, 
the extent of Fttuifyhania eall and wefi:. 

The north eaft branch of the All.'^c.ny is faid to interlock with thr 
Caiuga brunch of SufqucL^iniui. 

between the 'Tears 1760 (ind 1770. 2^7 

i-ii -I 


The chcro^^raphy^ — dhifion into counties^ — principal 
toxvns, — produce and chief Ji a pie of the country^ 
•with its great increafe and variety. — Trade and 

. commerce. — Prefent inhabiia?2fs ; their great in- 
creafe, tffc. — City of Philadelphia. — Other con- 
fidcrahle towns, ^c. — Internal police, and courts 
of Judicature in Pennfylvania, with the public of- 

'. Jiccrs in 1772. 

AVING thus far given a general account of 
the foil, face of the country, mountains, rivers, 
$:c. hefides the geographical defcription of the 
prc)vincc, in refpedl to its fituation and extent, as 
expreiled in the royal charter, and in the difputc 
between Penn and Baltimore, in the preceding 
hilfory, by which its real extent, norili and fouth, 
appears to be no more than about one liundrcd 
and fifty-feven miles, inflead of two hundred and 
eight, as intended by charter, and about two 
hundred and fjxty call: and welt, it may be proper, 
in the next place, to exhibit a fKctcIi of the di- 
vifions, into which the I'ettlctl or improved and 
located part of it is formed, t<.c. 

The fettled, and located part oF Pennfylvania, 
which, perhaps, is near two-thirds of the pro- 
vince, is now divided into eleven counties ; and each 
of theie again is fubdivided into a number of town- 
Ihips. The counties fituated between the rivers Numi.cT 
Delaware and Sufquahanna are called, the counties -'"'^ n-""^'* 
of Philadelphia, Bucks, Che/ter, Lancafhr, Berks, "[.3 •""""' 
and Northampton ; the counties on the weit lide of Pcimyiva- 

VoL. i!. [^yf\ Sufquahann.i "'•'' 

258 General State of Peiinfylvania, . 

Siifqiiahanna are tliofe of 7^crk^ Cumberland^ Bed- 
ford^ and Wejimorcland ; which is the Mi elh- 
bhflied, and extends weftward as far as Pittjhur^^ 
inclufive, or to the weilern boundary of the pro- 
vince ; which boundary, though not yet abfo- 
lutely fixed, is fuppofed to be fo far weft, at leaft, 
or near that place: thefe, with the county of 
Northumberland, fituated on both fides of Sufqua- 
hanna, northward, and upon the forks of that 
river, are all the counties, which are yet afcer- 
tained : but the more northern, and north weft 
parts of Pcnnfylvania, being not yet taken up, or 
purcliafed from the Indians, remain flill in their 
polfeflion, though they are here luppofcd to be 
included in the exterior back counties. 

The three fnll mentioned counties of FhlladeU 
phia, Bucks and Chtjlcr, with thole of Ncwcajlle^ 
lient and Suffex, on Dchnvare (which laft are al- 
ready defcribed in another place) were laid out 
and named by the Proprietary William Pcmi, in 
conjunction with the hrft and early purchafers, 
when he was the lirlt lime in the country. The 
boundaries, or diviiion lines, of the three former, 
are laid to have been fixed according to his mind, 
or direction, fignified to fome of his friends, before 
he left the province, and afterwards confirmed by 
the provincial Council, on the firlt day of the 
fecond month, 1685.* 


* " At a council held at PhUadelph'ia firft of fecond month, i68i', 
prefcnt, Thomas Holme, Prclidcnt, and nine others: tliu line of fcpara- 
tion between the counties of PlAlallphia and y/r./'i, and of Philadelphia 
and Clcjl.r^ were now conlirnied, a<cordii:f'; to rlie Propiietary's inten- 
tion, fignified to I'onie of his friends while Ik re. 

" The county of Ch-Jlcr was to begin at the mouth, or entrance of 
Bou^h Cid; upon Dclaivart river, beinn- the u^yn- end of TcneLiim illund ; 
and fo up that creek, dividing the faid illand fi(im the land of Aiulrciv 
Jjooiie and company ; from thence along the feveral couries thereof, to a 
h'.rge creek, called Mill-end ; from thence, along the feveral courfes of 
the fuid creek, to a wcft-fouth-wefl line; which line divides the liberty 
lands of PLiLiiirlphia from feveral trads of land, belonging to the IVJJb 
and other inhabitants; and from ti.ence ealt-north-eaft, by a line of 
m.ul.ed trees one luuKhcd and twenty pejchcs, more or ki'b ; from tluiice 


hctivccn the Tears 1760 and ij^o. 250 

^ The foiith eafl boundary of thcfe three conn- Bonndaries 
ties IS the river JMnvarc ; which river likewife is ''|,;';. 
the north eaft limit of Bi/ch county, as the circu- o^PhL 
Jar hne, drawn twelve miles dilhtnt from Ncivaif. ;l^'^f "' 
i/e northward and wefhvard from the river Dc/a. cheL! 
ware, with part of the north boundary of Mary- 
land, is that of the county of Chc/icr, on the 
fouth. They are now Iwunded on the weft, and 
north weft, by the counties of LancaJJer, Berks and 

^ Thefe three counties, of which PhUadelphia'i^ 
m the middle, Bucks on the north eaft, and Chcf- 
ter on the fouth weft of it, extend about feventy 
miles in length, north eaft, from the i^v/^/ri-Aw/ Their fitu- 
line, to the Dehiioarc, on the upper, or north eaft '"'""'' ^'' 
•fide of Bucks county, and about forty miles in 
breadth, north weftward from the Delaware, at 
Philadelphia, to their north weft boundary, which 
has nearly a north eaft, and louth weft direilion. 
Chejier county is confiderably the largeft of the 
three ; Bucks is fmaller than that of Philadelphia, 
but there is not much difference in the fize and 


n..ria-„ortl,-n-e(l by /^.n,.^/;,../ tounllnp on. ihouf.nd prrclu-.. more or 
l.--.i; iro;a iheiice caft-nonh-c.ill by the land b.loimiuj^- to 7./.; //„..,- 
/vny. one h.H.hed raid t.n perches, more nr Ids; from thcfuc north. 
north-weft ],y the land of J.!.: E:kl.,, eight hundred an.l eio-hty per. 
o '■■?:.,"'"'' " , '= *"'■"'" ''"-■'"-"'^ co<itinuin- laid cwirfe to the bounds oi 
h.ulkd river ; ^rhIcll faid Scuflcil river afterward to be the natural hound.. 

" Thu- line between Buch and PLlUUpLh, counties was more particu- 
larly let forth in a prr.claniation, agresd on at a council, held the eiphih 
of the lecond month, this year, TLomas Lloyd, Prefideut. 

" To ])egin at the mouth of PodqucJ^ng creek, on Delaware river, and 
to go up tnence along the faid creek, and by the fcyeral courfes thereof 
to a fonth Weil and nor:h eaft line; which laid line divides the land be- 
longing to y,/.//. GV.m/.w and company, from .V.../.^,.,v.;,/.„ tov.nllup • 
from thence by a hue of marked trees, along tiie faid line one hundr d 
and twenty perches, more or kfs; from thence north well by a line ol 
marked trees; whicli faid line, in part, divided the land, belon.Mn,. to 
/..r^.,,M _.;/.,,, Iron. Southampton and //'. r.v/.V.r towi>i]ups, coniinn.. 
jng laid hne fo tar as ilic laid county ih-.dl extend." A^S. 

NuU^ Adjoining, or near, the lower fidj of Pmi ., iV ,r creel ( i •!,,* 
fide of the D^l-^..ue,\. an elevated piece of „oa,;.i, fi id t<, luiu-'i.: n 
firft mtended for the fituation of the cicy, tlllm-.turer co,,', •.•! ' - 
tcrmnicd tl.. p!ac- I'or that purp.,{^ where l'!:l!.uLl:.l.-^ n^w Ih.uiL. iSi'i. 

-<5o ^ ^ ■ General State' of Tenvfylvanid^ 

CKtent of thefe two counties, though .the ktter \ 
contains many more inhabitants than any other 
county in the pvovince, on account of the cityof 
Philadelphia being within its hmits. The capitals 
of the other two counties are the old borough I 
towns of Bri/lol in Burks, and Chejier in Chejier 
county ; both fituated on the river Delaware ; \\\t 
former about twenty miles north eail, and thelat- 
ter fifteen miles fouth weft from Philadelphia, be- 
ing noted for feveral good inns, for the accommo- 
dation and entertainuient of travellers ; but they 
both have appeared in late years, to be on the 
decline ; and the county courts, for Bucks county, 
have for fome years pad, been held at Neiutoivn, 
in the faid county. 

ij^ncaacr Laitcajier Qowwij, \\hich before was the north 
county, ike. ^^^{Y p.^j.^. Qf ChLjlcr coLiuty, was edabliflied by law, 
in the year 1739; bounded by Ocloraro creek, 
which numing into Sufquaharma, divides it from 
Chejier county, and by part of the Maryland line, \ 
on the iouth ; and on the eaftward, by a line run- 
ning from the north branch of the faid creek, 
north eallerly, to the river Sculkil : it is now 
limited at about fi.xty miles in length north welt and 
fouth ealt, and in breadth north eafl and fouth 
Well, about thirty miles ; having the river Sufqiia- 
hanna on the fouth welt and north weft, ami the 
county of Berks on the north call of it. Its ca- 
pital is the borough of Lancajler, lituated about 
one mile Irom Cone/logo creek, vhich runs into Stf- 
quahann'a river. It is about fixty-fix miles weft from 
Philadelphia, and confifts of about fevcn lumdied 
dwelling houfes, belidcs other buildings ; but this 
county contains feveral other confiderable towns. 
Yoikcoun- 7h-k county, on the well fide of Sufquahanua, 

ty, tu. 

vas efiablinied by huv in 17.19 ; when it was fej)a- 
ratetl Irom L^/.-r.-y/jr county, and bounded nc^iih- 
•ward and weft\\'ard by a line run from t}i:j river 
SiOqiL:haiuia, along the ri:'ge cf the South Moun- 

bctwcdi the Tears ijGo and 1770. 261 

tain, till it interfcds the Maryland line ; foiuli- 
ward by the faid Maryland line ; and ealhvard by 
the river S uf qua h anna ; which divides it Ironi Lan- 
cader couniy. This county is ahnofl of a trian- 
gular form ; whofe longell fide, next Maryland^ 
is about fixty miles ; the other two fides about 
fifty miles each. It now has C?/;;//'^/-//?/?^ county 
on the north weft. Its cupiial is Tork town, con- 
taining about four hundred dwelling houfes, fitu- 
ated on Codorus creek, which runs into Sufquu- 
hanna^ and is about eighty-fix miles welt ward 
from Fhilddclpbia. 

Cumberland county, wellward of ^iifquahanna^ Cumbcr- 
and north-weflward of the county of I'^ork^ was di- J-'"^'^tuua- 
vided from Lancajlcr county, and ellablinied by law '^' 
in 1 749 ; then bounded northward and weftward by 
the line, or boundary, of the province, and eaft- 
ward partly by the river Sufquahanna, which divides 
it from Lancajlcr county ; and by the county of 
Tork^ and the Maryland line, or boundary on the 
fouth ; it now has Bedford county, on rlie weft, 
and part of 'Northumberland o^vi'dxt iiorLh of it. 
It is of an irregular hgure extending about fcvcnty 
miles in length uortii a;id fouth, and in breadth 
eafl and v/c(t about hfty in t!ie broadcft, and x.\\'^\\- 
ty miles in the narroweit j:>art. Its chief town, 
CarliJJe, is about one hundred and twenty miles 
-north-north-welt from Philadelphia^ iituated near 
Conedogivinet creek ; which runs into Sufquahanna : 
it is a good town, but not fo large as 7^ork, or 


Berks county, wliich before was included in Bjikscun- 
the north part of the counties of Philadelphia^ ^y> ^''■■• 
Chejler and Lancajler, was eftablillied by law in 
1752 ; being then bounded and divided from thefe 
counties by a line at the diftance of ten nn'les 
fouth welt from the weflern bank of the river 
Seulkil, oppofite to the mouih cn a creek, c:il!('d 
AL.ioearv; thence north v.''..ii to the cxtremi'v r,i' 

<262 General State of Fennfylvanui; \ 

the province; and fouth caR', fill it interfe^s th(? 
line of Chcjlcr county ; then by a right line, crof- 
iing tlie river Scidkil, to the upper, or north weft- 
ward, line of M'Cif/r^ manor; then along the 
faid line to the extremity tliereof ; and continuing 
the fame courfe to the line dividing Philadelphia 
and Bucks counties ; then along the iliid line north 
v/elf to the extent of the county aforefaid. 

This county, at prcfcnt, has that of Lancq/Ier, 
on the fouth weft, Northumberland on the north 
weft, Northampton on the north eaft, and thole of 
Philadelphia and Chejler on the fouth eaft. It k 
about lifty miles long north well and fouth eail, 
and thirty broad north eafl and fouth weft. Its 
principal town is Reading, fituatcd on, or near, 
the river Sculkil, abcmt fifty-fix miles north weft 
from Philadelphia. " In the year 1751 it con^ 
tained one hundred and thirty dwelling houfes, 
befides ftables and other buildings, one hundred 
and lix familit'S, three hundred and feventy-eight 
inhabitants, though about two years before it had 
not above one Iioufe in it." It is now near three 
times as large, and contains about as many houfes, 
^c. as TorL 

Kortiuunp. . ^^(^''''^i^'i/'-on couuty, which before was included 
1..1. cuuiity, in the north v/elt part of Bucks county, was d'u 
^'''- vidcd from it, and eftal)lifhed by law in 1752 : it 

was then bounded and feparatcd from the laid coun- 
ty of Bucks, by the upper, or north weftward line 
of Durham trat^t, to the upper corner thereof; 
then by a right line fouth wefterly, to the line di- 
viding Philadelphia and Bucks counties, and then 
by that line to the extremity of the province. 
])ut this county, at prefent, has that of Northum- 
berland on the north welt, and Berks on tlie' 
Iburh weft of it ; and it is bounded by the Dela- 
li'are, on the fouth eaft and north eaft. Ii ex^ 
tends in length, north eaft and fouth weft about 
fevcnty miles, and is perhaps forty miles broad, 


hcKvccn the Tears lybo and I'j'jo. 263 

north weft and fouth eiilh Eajion is its capital 
town, fitLmted in the forks of Delaware^ about 
fixty miles north from Philadelphia, 
■ The other three are frontier counties, in the 
back parts of the province, next the Indians : 
they were laid out but very lately, and, as yet, 
are but thinly inhabited, and httle improved, be- 
ing the mo(t remote from the capital of the pro- 

The natural, or original produce of Pennfylva- Pioduce of 
nuiy in regard to animals and vegetables, or trees ^^^'/""'y'^''' 
imd fruits, as well as the original inhabirants, he. 
has already, in part, been mentioned, in Willi a?n 
Fenn's account of them, in the preceding hiflory : 
maize, or Indian corn, is an original ; and jlrazv- 
h'rries, with grapes, of various khids, grow natu- 
ral in the woods, as well as midberrics, kc. Deer, 
among the quadrupeds, and wild turkeys, among 
the winged tribe, were formerly very plentiful, 
but now fcarce, kc. 

But mofl kinds of European grain and fruits, 
as well as domeltic, or tame animals, have been 
naturalized here; fome of the fruits have been 
meliorated by the change, while others degene- 
rate. But the i)rincipal ftaple of Pennfylvania 
and its vicinity, is wheat, flour, rye, Indian corn, 
kc. which will appear in the following account 
of exports from the port (jf Phrladelphia, where 
the trade of the province principally centers. 

The ground abounds with iron ore, in many 
places, as well as with tnarble and limcjione, kc. 
in others ; from the former of which, great quan- 
tities ot pig and bar iron, callings, &;c. are made 
both for exportation and home ufe. But the v/ocds 
have hitherto been Hill more remarkable for their 
abundance of timber, not only for liome coiifump- 
tion, and fill p building, but alio for the various 
articles, exported under the name of lumber, kc. 


2 64 •■ General State of Pennfylvmia^ 

m •vvhich It is faid there are above feventeen diffe- 
rent ipccies, or varieties, of oak alone, he ■ ♦ 

Produce It is fuppofed that, at leafl:, two-thirds, if not 

andrtypic threc-fourths, of the cleared, or improved lands^" 
fyivada." at, this time, are arable. The foil, in general, bd- 
ing naturally more adapted for grain, than grafs ; 
wheat, rye and Indian corn fuit it well. Other 
grain, as barley, oats, kc being here moflly of 
inferior quality to thofe of fome other parts of the 
world, are more feldom railed in very confiderable 
quantity, in this province : Indin?i corn and huck- 
li'heat fupplying the ufe of thefe in divers refpeds^ 
The country abounds with excellent mills, 
turnetl by water, for various pnrpofes, but chiefly 
for grinding of grain ; for which it is well adapted, 
by reafon of its uneven furfacc, many hills, rivu- 
lets, or creeks, fo that generally more, flour and 
bread, in latter years, have been exported from 
hence, than wheat, or grain, unmanufadiired : 
befides, the quantity of tlaxfeed annually raifed 
here, and fliipped to Ireland^ has been very con- 
fiderable ; as well as that of Z'<7/v£'//t(r/j!»orX', to the 
WeJ} Indies^ and markets, &c. 

It* iiicrcaff, The gradual increafe of a part only of tlie prin* 
cipal flaple of Pennfylvania, appears by the follow-* 
ing account of the annual value of wheat, flour 
and llaxfeed alone exported from the port of Phi^ 
ladclphia in the years mentioned, taken from the 
journals of AiTembly and other authentic docu- 
ments, ^oh. 

In 173 1, when wheat was 2/6 per bufhel, and 
Ikixfeed about ^ylii f. 62,584 o i 

In 1749, when wheat was 5/3 per bufliel, and 
flaxleed about lofo'^ /\ 148,104 4 11 

In 1750, when wheat was 4/* per bufhel, and 
flaxfeed about lof J\ 155,174 19 6 



hclivccn the Tears 1760 and 1770. ' 265 

In 1 75 1, when wheat WHS 3/*io per bufhcl, and 
fiaxfced about 6/0 i- /,'. 187,457 11 i 

In 1765, when wheat was $fi per bufiicl, and 
flaxlccd about 5/3 ^. 4225614 o o 

In 1772,* when wheat was ^fS per bufiiel, and 
flaxfced about Sy £^, 571,050 o o 

In which account it is manifeft that the value 
of thefe exports was nearly trebled every twenty 

Tlic export from Philadelphia in 1774^ in grain, 
fiour and bread alone, was computed to be equal to 
about 2,170,000 bufliels; of which 140,000 bufliels 
confilled of Indian corn, the wliole at iive fliillings 
per bufliel, amoimts to £. 542,500, in value ; 
and if the quantity of flaxfced was equal to that of 
the next preceding year, it would make the whole 
value amount to above ^. 600,000, in thefe par- 
ticular articles alone, at a very moderate compu- 
/ Vol. it. [34] • The 

• Hec the exports of the two lail years further on inpaje 269 and 271. 
In 1772, the flour alone coiilUlcd of 282,872 barrels, averatjiiig; about 
a Cwt. each, licre computed at lit budicls jht barrel. Uut if the flour 
br illiiu.itcJ ut ic/pcr Cwt. the value of rhat one article alone will b^ 
/• 5''5>74-4> exi^luiive r)f the other articles of bread, wheat and flaxljsd, 
which, with the Indian corn cX]Hirtt-d that year, will make the wliole 
amount, in thefe articles, above £. 700,000, in 1772. 

...^ote. The quantity of grain, flour and bread only (iutliiding- I'tJi.m 
corn) exported from BiHlJh Amenc.i, in the year I 774, as publiihed 111 
the P.'nnfylvMiu journal of July 5th, 1775, when reduced to bufiiels, 
amounted to about five millions and an ludi, proportioned nearly, n» 
follows : 

From Virginia above - - 1, 000,000 buflielj. 

Maryland near - - 600,000 

Philidclphia above - - 2,100,000 

NuW Vork mar - - 1,500,000 

C>ucbec - - - 350,000 

ToLid 5,5jO,oco buflicls. 

■ If may be fnrtlier noted, that the quai.tliy of corn exported from /i/,~ 
ji^anJ, u])on an aviTuo;e of 19 yfar,"., precedinp; I765, accori'.Ing; to the 
accounts laid to he laid before the parll.unent, and pre!trvcd in the trads 
on corn trade, is 730,000 quartcih, or ^,^..■^,0,000 hulhels v-hich, at 
£. X l{, 3./. 1-2 fteiling per ipLirttr, aniouiitsto £. ■;■;(<,■] 10 iltrlini^' per 

" By 


c66 General State of Pennfyhania^ 

nrafsiunds, xhc graft lands in the firft fettled, or old coun- \ 
tics, are but a fmall proportion, and are chiedy 
lituated on the fides of rivers, creeks and rivulets, 
or moid places, where, at times, they are partly 
ovcrllowed, being- moflly very rich, and produce 
abundimce, but of a rapid growth. Of this kind are 
the large quantities of fine low meadows, near and 
about Philadelphia ; which, being fecured by banks 
from the tides and floods of the Delaware, and 
the creeks which run into it (by which they were 
formerly overflowed, and rendered ulelels) are of 
very great and extraordinary advantage to that 

. Large orchards of apple-trees are propagated in 
alniolt every plantation ; which every where pro- 
duce great quantities of fine, large, well flavoured 
fruit ; and in Ibme places peaches are fo common 
and plentiiul, that the country people feed their 
hoirs with them ; likewife cherries, ol' various 
Liquors kinds, are no lefs abundant and good. But, though 
cycler is the common drink of this counlry, and 
very plentiiul and eafy to be jncjcured, yet it is j 
not made by the inhabitants to fuch perfedion as 
it is capable of l^ciides, Lijhon and Madeira 
wines, among the higher rank, and IVe/t India j 
rum and I'pirits are much drank, in mixture, by j 
(he people in general. And fometimes a kind of 
weak beverage is ufed, made of a mixture of mo- 


" By the bcft rilciil;iti'iiis, tlif corn which is cxjiortcd Is only ahcutt 
the (ix aiul thirtieth part of wJiat is i.nlc-d in tlic itution, lur an average 
ol' the lalt lixty-ciyht years. 

Tresis nn trade, '^c. page I44. 

" Fii i]ii^ year 17^0 ^ver•J e\porti.'(l 1,500, Z?,0 (|ir.irtcrs <.f coin from 
Kn<.'lan(l, or aiiove twtlve iiiillioiis ol htilhols ; wliicli (]iiaiitity CMCcds 
that of tiic llu-.i oiK-tudftii part. 

" 'i"lie export is hire one tliirty-fecoiicl part of tlic confiimptioii, and 
o'm: thirty-third part of the i^-owth, iiiciiKiiiiT^ the feed, and near onc- 
tliird of the feed itfeif, fuppoiiuj^ it only one-tenth of the growth. 

" 'I'lie import hath heen one five hunrhcd and one and feventieth part 
C)f the confiiniption, and onc-ei^jliteenth ]>art of the export, and never 
cjualitd but a very fmall part of the growtli," <Scc. 

Umvcjfd //Jd^uziric/or DiCLinbci., I 776. 

hctiuccn the Tears ijCo and ijyo. 267 

lafles, &:c, which is called molalTcs beer. Malt 
h'quor, which ainong the fuit Ibttlers, was niord 
comni(3n, is made in feme ol the princi])al towns, 
in final! quantity. It has long been at times more 
or iefs an article of exportation from PhiUuh![)liid. 
And the ufe of tea, coiice and chocolate, he. is 
very common. 

• But the liquors of the native growlli and pro- and provi- 
diice of the country, exclufive of what are im- *'""'> '■"''• 
ported from abroad, arc, in general, but mean, 
dr fcarce and inferior, compared with ilie provi- 
fions, which are good and plentiful. This Jeems 
to arife, at leaft, in parr, fro)n too much neglect 
in this particular, occafioned by gettiiig rum and. 
fpiiita \\x fuch exceeding low rates from the flV// 
Indies, which has rendered malt liquor, though more 
M'holefome, and profitable for the country, lei's 
iilcd than formerly, in the early time of the pro- 
vince, in proportion to the number of people, 
not\vithli:anding it is fo great a grain country. 

Befidcs, though grapes grow fpontaneoufly, in 
great variety and abundance, almofi everv where in 
the woods, t^T. being natural to the countrv, ar.d 
laudalde i".t..Mni)ts have been made in making wine 
from fiicm, yet not much has hitherto been done 
in it to very conliderable advantage. Ami a.s nud- 
berry trees are no lels plentiful and natural to the 
foil than, the ^777/)c? vir.e, i'o Jdk has already been 
attempted in Penn/ykhniia and New Jerfey wiili 
much promifing fuccefs. 

It is not my intention, as before mentioned, 
to give a minute, but only a general account of 
the liate of the province, at the time fpeciiied, io 
1 fhall obferve the fame conduct in regard to its 'rra.ic ;ii-i 
trade and produce, kc. which as exhibited in page i;'^""-""' 
265, has manifoiiiy trebled in value every late 
twenty years; yet, not to mention the particulars 
of its furprifmg increafe, many and great impio ve- 


268 General State of PenuJ]'hama^ 

ment^ and manufli6lLirt"s, nov/ here commenced^ 
and carrying on, elpecially in and about PhiladeU' 
phia, where many fugar houfes have been lately, 
ereded, and large quantities of excellent loaf fu.-- 
gar are made to great perfection; which before ^ 
was all imported ; and glafs is now (about the . 
■ year 1770) manufachired in its vicinity, k.c. it 
may be proper to give, at leaft, fome idea of them 
in later years, by inferting the following account: 
and eftimate, as it was publiflied, in the Penn- 
*^"!'y"'''»y5''^iw///^7 cln-onicle, in March, ijGj, of the parti- 
poru'o/ culars of one year's exports, from the port of 
i^cnniyiva- Philadelphia, of the produd" and manufadure of 
the province and its neighbourhood," viz. 


* NoU. Ill tlic fame year, the exporCi frrm Nc-.i' Tori were faid to lie 
15,981 tons uiul livc-cight^, cornj>utcd yf jT. aji,i;3J, cxclufive ai above 

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\ I. 

lyo General State of Pennfylvama, 

" Befides logwood, fuflic, mahogany, naval- 
ftpres, rice, and fundry other articles oi European, 
Wcji India, and North America?! produce, ex- 
ported from hence ; exclufive of cordage, for die 
life of new veifels, he. provifions for fhips' ute, 
Itaves for dunnage, and many other hnall articles." 

©leat in- But thc annual increafe of the trade and pro. 
'hrlrdc ^^^'^» ^^^' about the year 1775, was fo great, that 
t)f Pciiniyi- it was fuppofed, by the belt ludges, they doubled, 
vaiua, &c. ^^^ IcaR, during thefe laft ten years ; infonmch 
that all the exports of every kind to Great Britain, 
and other markets, were computed at near 
£. 1,200,000, or above £. 700,000 fterling, va- 
lue per annum, upon an average of three years, 
ending December, 1773 ; after which time, for the 
two next fucceeding years, they continued IlIII 
greatly to increafe : and the imports from Great 
Jintain alone, in manufa(Stures, and other mer- 
chandize, into the port of Philadelphia (exclufivb 
of thofe from thc Wejl Indies, he. in rum, fugar, 
molalfes, &c. which were very great) at above 
£. 600,000 ilerling per annum, upon the fame 
average, at the fame time. 

An account of the former of which, taking 
into confideration the large home confumption of 


Ncfr. In tlie votes of AITemlily, vol. iv, ^>np-e 271, is fvtiiljitcit the 
•:r;id(iul iiu-ri'iile, and llerlin<^ value, of thc whole c.x])orts from huf^Lnd 
(extliiilvc of linen, &.c. from ScoiLiml auA In-Undj to Fetinfyl-vanin, in thc 
following- years, as, 

111 thc year 172^ they amouiitcif to - ' £• I5>992 19 4 

173'T - ' - 48,595 7 5 

17)7 ... 58,6yo 6 7 

17-41 - - - 75.29.5 3 4 

1747 - - - ^82,404 17 7 

1751 -, - - 1-0,917 15 I 

In another account, laid fo lie no li fs at'thentic, <iiid taken Iroiu the 

Ciiltoni Hor.fc hooks, the exports and iinjiorts Ironi and to Enttland ex- 

clulivc of SiotLm.i, &c. to and from P,-n/:fylviiiua, in value of p<;und5 

Ucrling, appear to be, 

r.xfjoit.i. h:ip:,rtT. 

In the y-ar 17^.1 /;. 206,1.;.; - - £. 3^.'^V9 

1762 2X4,152 - 38,22;-} 

176.5 4.^5, lyi - - :-,(-^A!'^ 

I -^'4 .'.''3,,U>? - - a-:,i.ri 

i/^i 327.3^4 - - i^si^if 


hi-tivecti the Tears i'^Co (uul I'ljo. 

the funic and other articles, in this populous pro- 
vince and its vicinity, Jit the rame time, may fur- 
nifh a general idea of its trade and produce, he. viz. 

" y//; .V'.-jj.-r^;ute an,t Valuation 0/ tie Exports from the port of Pluladcl- 
).liia, //•!,« _5</. tf 'Jiiuuary, i77I, ta Stb of January, 1774, xiith the 
^i^-hUtr «f VtJJ'Ai and tuiiiiii^e etnployeJ thi:ri\n,iiiimially ilifl':nguijhid, &C, 





No. fquarc rij^ged vefTels, 




No lloops jmtl Ichooncrs, 




yX-nmiiit of tonn.igc, 




B irnls of flour, 




U.irrcl* of bread, - - 




BtiHids of wheat, 




IJuOicIs Iiifiian corn, 




lijrrtls beef and purk. 




liarriils of hams, 




Tons of iron. 

2,35 ^i 



BaiTcIs of tar, - 




Barrels of pitch, - 




B.MTcls turpentine, 




Ai. fci t plnnl: and board, 




]VI. Itavis and licading, 



5.114 I 

Ai. )u)ops, 




M. niwi};lc9, 




No. ^vah1ut logs, - 




Feet of mahogany, - 




'J'ons lignum vita;, 


42 i 


Chdls (leer ikinn, - 


J 64 


Tons of logwood, 


425 i 


Pounds ol furs, 




'i'ons put aflies, 




Cw't. brown fugar, 



2,57 s 

I'ound. loaf fu.Lr.,r. - 




GalUms inol.vflLi, - 

5:, 6 1 1 



Caiions nnn, - 




'fun, of NMue, 




Tons of oil. 




Barrels of tilTi, 

5,1 :« 



Bulllels fl .xfecd, 




Pounds bees wait. 




Boxes fperniaLcti eandlcs. 

6;-: 3 



BiKCs tallow ditto, 




Boxfs foap. 




Keg5 of lard, 




B-.xcs cliocobte. 




Cwt. coif.-e. 




Bi.i-hcis f.dt, - 




Pounds coiion wool. 




B irrc-is of b;vr, 




Pounds of leather, 




Posinds of rice. 




K.-sof Iharch, 




bterliu^^ value 

annually c 




17 73- 

;C.63r,^,?4 14 loi C--' 

5 4. 254 4 2 


^iS 13 l\ 

'J'liL- av^fige fuiu i» 


17 6] ft'- 



Places of 
trade with 
' Ilia, &c. 

General State of Pennfylvanict^ 

The principal piirt of thefc exports, which, by 
the merchants of Philadflphia, Lire fent to Great 
Britain, Ireland, the Wejl India ijlands. New En* 
^la?id, but of late years more to PoriugaL, Spain, 
up tlie Jlruits, and other places, is carried in their 
own fliippin'.-^, built here ; which is frequently fold 
with the cargoes : the produce of all which is 
fure to centre in Great Britain, in pay for the ma- 
nufadurcs and merchandize imported here from 


Note. The barrels of flour mentioned in the precediqn; aggregate, &c. 
averaged about two hundred each : tlicy are fincc by luw fixed at one 
hundrcil and three quarters caeh ; hence the average number of the faid 
barrels of flour, for thele three years, is about 306,000 of our prcfent 
barrels; and in 1 7 71 the export was above 325,000 of the fame Itind of 
barrels, &c. 

NoU. The following; i? an cftiniate, or value, of all the exports and 
imports, from and into Great liiituin, (Sec. and all its feverai continental 
governments, or colonic*, in ylmrrie.i, refpciflively dllliiiguifhed, as taken 
from the Fenn£yl -.ui/ii.i ]ourivd\, of September 7lh, 1774; which is there 
laid to be on an average of tlircc years; which years wc moil probably 
thofe mentioned in the preceding agrcgate, &c. viz. 

Amount of coiniKoifities exported from 

Imported into Great Britain^ l^c. 

Great Briluin to 


Hudfon's Bay, - £. 


Labrador, - - £. 49,000 

Newfoundland, from 15n- 

Iludloii's Jiay, - ■29,000 

. tain and Ireland, 


Newfouudland, - 345,000 



Canada, '- - 105,000 

Nova Scotia, <■ 


Nova' Scotia, - - 38,000 

New England, - 


New J-.ngland, - 3 70,500 

Connecticut, Rhode Ifland, 

Connecticut, Rhode Ifland, 

and New H.iniplhirc, 


and New Hampfliire, 114,500 

New York, 


New York, - - 526,000 

Philadelphia, - 

6 1 r, 000 

Philadelphia to Great Bri- 

Virjrinia and Maryland, 


tain and other markets, 705,500 

North Carolina, 


Virga. & Alarld. to do. 1,040,000 

South Carolina, - 


North Carolina to do. 6^,350 



South Carolina to do. 395,666 



Georiria to do. - - 74,200 

St. Augulllne, 


Penfacola, - * 63,0(0 


,3 70,.;oc 

£• 3>9i 7.706 

Note. How far this account may be depended on, I fliall not pre- 
tend to fay, feeing fome parts of it, at leall, fctm to be very imperleift ; 
for in the fame journal for July 5th, I775, tlie quantity of wheat alone 
exported from ^lebec, in the year 1774, is faid to be three hundred and 
iifty thoufand bulhels (but fuppofed by Uimt to Iiave been much more) 
no other exports froiii thence b-ir:j>; iiuntioned ; fo that in the expiat 
from Canada the great fur and il'.in lia Jc of that country appears not to 
be properly noticed, &c. 

between the 7'^ears 1760 aiul 1770. 273 

thence ; except perhaps what is returned hither in 
wines of Lijhou^ Madeira, Canary, or We/lern 
Jjlands, Wc/i India produce, with ^;// and other 
neceffaries, for the ufe of the country, and con- 
fumed in the province and its neighbourhood. 

The prefent inhabitants of Pennfyhania, excUi- iniiuLitam^ 
five of the few Indians, Hill remaining in the re- 
mote, or back parts, of it, confift mofily of fuch 
people as have removed thither from Europe, and 
of their deicendants ; and dill many of them have 
connexions there ; hence they are generally ia 
the pradiice of the cuftoms and manners of the 
different countries, from which they originally 
came, according to their rank in life. Of thofe 
which conflitute the dilferent religious focieties, 
fuch as appear to be lead known, and molt re- 
markable, either have been already, or will here- 
after, be mentioned in the proper place. 

Befides the great numbers of the firfl and early 
colonifts, as well as fmce, from Great Britain, 
and the large importations of people from Ireland 
into this province, both in early and latter times, 
thofe from Germany have been fo great, that it is Gtmunj, 
fuppofcd near one-third, at lead, of the inhabi- '^^■ 
tants, at this time, confids of the lad, and their 
deicendants: the counties oiLancaJier, 'York, Berks, 
and Northampton being principally fettled by them, 
and they are very numerous, even, in the city 
and county of Philadelphia, as well as in the 

In the fummer of the year 1749, twenty-five 
fail of large Ihips arrived with German pallengers 
alone : which brought about twelve thoul'and iouls, 
fomc of the diips about fix hundred each ; ajid in 
feveral other years near the fame number of thefe 
people arrived annually ; and in fome years near 
as many annually from Ireland. By an exa£l ac- 
count uf all the fliips and padengers annuallv. 

Vol. IL l^^s^ ^vhich 

^74 Genera! St die of Peunfyhania, 

which have arrived at Philadelphia, with Germans 
alone, nearly from the firli; fcLtlement of the jiro. 
vince, lih about the year 1776, when their iii^. 
portalion ceafed, the number of the latter appears 
to be about thirty-nine thoufand ; and their inter- 
nal increafe has been very great. Ciimberlaml 
county IS moflly fettled by the /r//6, who abound 
through the wliole province. The Germans feem 
^ more adapted for agriculture, and the improvement 

of a wildernefs, and the Irijh for^rade, &c. The 
former foon get eflates in this country, where in- 
duftry and parfnnony are the chief requifites to 
procure them, &c. 

Negro.,. The Negroes, or black people, it is fuppofed, 

are lefs numerous in Pcmfjlvania and New Jerfey, 
than in moit of tlie otlier 'colonics, in proportion 
to the number of other inhabitant:^ ; the Legilla- 
ture,-at diilerent time.-, having ufed the bLfUn- 
deavours in their pov/cr, to difcourage and |)re. 
vent the impolitic and hihuman practice of the 
introducliouor imporiarion, of them; Ci j^.raclice, 
which has hmg prevailed in this }art of the v/orld' 
both in its nature and manner, wet only the great 
opprobrium of Chrillianity, but even the ihameful 
diigrace of human nature itfelf ! 

But there is another clafs of people, v/liofe 
Kiuf'-nL ^^'^''"''^^1"^ ^'^'^'C' "^ I'^it^er years, have annually fo 
c^nm- jj-^^,^,]j increafed as apparently to portend confe- 
t]uene»es no lefs dangerous and u:5happy to the 
])ublic gooti, in lome refpeds, than \'lioie lafl 
mentioned, aj tliey are more c:ipal)]e of it, and 
ihofe very conrequ.'iiees maniielily a pre.'cnt ad- 
yanla'Te to tliem ; 1 mean luch .is f^e from juflice, 
in ctlier counnie;;, and convids iicni G;\v// 7J/7. 
hiin and Ireland; \v];o iVcquently hinl tlic way 
hither, after they are landed in 01 her places, to 
the no Ihiall detriment of the hnw^'w p.-it of the 
communiLyj bcfidcs the dai.t-erous conleqiienccs, 



betzvccn the 7'cnrs lyCo and lyyo, 27^ 

wliich may juflly be cirerulerl from i'o lar[';c, and 
long continued coliciftion of fuch kind of people 
togerher ; which at prcfent fcems to demand the 
public aitcnrion more than it has done. 

About the year 1759, or fometime before, the 
number of families in the province was computed ^'^""•."^'" '>' 
at t\\-enty thoufand, by a very moderate compula- Ik.'.""' "'"''' 
tion J* and confidering the very great increafe, di- ,|^, 

vers ways, fmce that time, the whole number of 
people in t^ ennfylvania ^ about the year 1770, may 
probably be near two hundred thoufand, at lead, 
or fomewherc between two and three lumdred 

For the number of taxabler,, from time to time, jVimibrr- 
m the province, as appears by the ta:: bool:s, and and iaci-^riifc- 
journals of Alfcmbly, may be pretty nearly afcer- ^'/■'•■■'•'^''■^ 
tained : and it is probable, by tlieje accounts, 
that, in the year 1731, they did not exceed nine 
or ten thouland at mc^fi ; in 1751, they were 
about tv/enty-one thoufand; and in 1771, be- 
tween thirty-nine and forty thouland ; nearly 
doubling every twenty years; fo compaling- the 


' Sfu " An h\l^oy-j.:l rsvl^iv of the co::/}:!,ti''t .:■'.! •^■.^,:,,n>nnt of P.-,,:- 
J^ylvj'iiii," <^c. Loniloii, ]irintLd in 1759, in lia .u.])riii!i.\ ; wiiltui 
againft tlie Proprictirits, i'ic. 

' This is the lowcfl; or mod: moticrnte on tliat 1 find ; for other- 
wife, as publiihed in B'^nj-.tinin Miirtin's general jiiu^^azine, <Scc. fnr July, 
1755, their number is then alfcrtcd to have been 250,000, wiiich in 
J 775, twenty years after, being- doubl-d, would make 500,'jdo, tkc. 

K^olr. In tlie following; account of the taxables, from time to time, iii 
the different counties, taken from the tax l>ooks and vote* of AlVeniilv, 
it is to be obferved, that tlie frontier comuics iifualiy paid no taxes f r 
feveral years after they were inUituted (in b'.ftcr y-ars on account ff In- 
dian diihirbances, i>.c.) and thcrtforufo^-iieof them are not here incki.l(d. 

I. City and county of Philadelphia, in 17:0 contained - I,ty5 

The city i6 ?4'^ . 
Coumy .!^i/ j"" ^'^"^ 
'I'he city -^7 fl "7 . 
Conn'/ 6/0,1 ^"^-^ 


City of 
pliia ill 

General State of Pennfylvania^ \ 

Increafe of the whole twenty thouliind families, 
with the frefli immigrants, which were very numer* 
ous, in the limie proportion, and allowing feven 
perlbns to a flimily, they would, in 1770, amount 
to about two hundred and hfty thoufand ; the tax- 
iibles being, by this computation, nearly one in 
fix, rendered fo numerous by rcafon of the poll- 
tax, &c. And the three lower counties of IS^ew- 
cajilc,^ Kent and Suffex on Delaware might probably 
contain between twenty and thirty thoufand more. 
I'he city of Fhiladclphia, which has been fo 
much, and defervedly admired for its excellent 
plan, the regularity of its Ilreets, and its great 
and rapid increafe and improvement, it is fup- 



%. Bucks county in 









- 3.177 

3. Cheiler county In 







1 75 J 







- 5,484 

4 I.ancafter county in w . 

- T738 











5. York county in ■• 






- 2,052, 





4,4 i6 

6. Cumberland county in . 

- 1749 








- 6.5il 

7. Berks county in 







S. Northampton county in 






- 2,7.;3 

r Not!. The town of I.ancafter in 1752, being about twenty years old, 
contained three hundred and eleven taxablcs. 

Not.-. The land tax of eighteen pence In the pound, in 1771, anuMwitpd 
to about £. 27,600, and the cxcife, in the lame year, £. 5,000; of 
whK-Ji the city and county of IMiiladelphia i)aid about /.". /^,oou. 

betivcen the Tears 1760 ^wr/ 1770. o.'j'j 

pofed, for foveral years lafl pad, has been aiir^- 
mented with above two hundred new dwelling 
houfes annually, including the I'uburbs north and 
fouth of it, along the fide of the river DcUiioarc ; 
where its buildings now extend about two miles 
ill lengtli; but it is not built, perhaps, much 
above lialf a mile wellwurd from the river, along 
High-Jlrcet^ in the middle, or broadeft part of it. 
' The houfes ' are moflly built of brick, and co- 
vered with fhingles of cedar, very uniform, plain 
and neat ; though both good marble, and other 
ftorie, are procured, within fikeen miles from the 
city, by water carriage, and by land near the 
fame diflance. They are moftly three Itorici 
high, befides the garrets and cellars, more (Spe- 
cially in the interior parts of the town j and inr 
the moft part it is well paved, watered, lighted, 
and cleaned ; and the general fuel is wood. But 
too much of a fnnilarity is faid, by fome, to pre- 
vail in the Itrudure of this city ; and the eye is 
jiot deHghted with that variety here, which fome- 
times is obfervable in fmaller places. 

The number of houfes erefted upon the plan 
of the city, exclufive of public buildings, Ih-rcs, L','.'f'.rind 
work-houfes, ^Vc. in December, 1769, were three ini'^'jitauts. 
thoufmd three hundred and eighteen ; thofe of 
the northern fuburbs, five hundred and fifty-three ; 
and in the fouthern fuburbs, fix hundred and 
three ; in all four thoufand four hundred and {<z- 
venty-four dwelling houfes ; which, at the moih 
moderate computation, being multiplied by fix, 
gives twenty-fix thoufand eight hundred and forty- 
Ibur inhabitants ; but they were fuppofed to ave- 
rage nearer 'iz^tn to a family, which makes thirty- 
one thoufand three hundred and eighteen, in the city 
and fuburbs c>{ Philadelphia at that time, when it was 
not above eighty-fevcn ye:u-s old ; and for the next!''- 

278 General State of Pennfylvania, 

following four or five years, It continued to in- 
creafe with ilill p;reater aunrmcntation,* 

As to the original plan of the city, which has 
already been defcrlbed in another place, though 
moft of it is ftill retained in the late improvements, 
yet, In fome parts of it, the intention of the great 
Founder Is faid to be departed from ; and it is too 
much cut up Into fmall and confmed fpaces, by 
Somemu- narrovv^ lanes and alleys, not fuitable for the heat 
con'vcnicn'. ^^ ^^6 climatc, nor proper for the health of the in- 
ces, and habitants ; for the benefit of whom, in crowded ci- 
abufcs, £cc. ^i^g^ ,^g much frcc and open air is rcquifite as can 
polfibly be obtained. Befides, along the water fide, 
where there ought to be a wide public llreet, or 
quay, continued the whole front of the city, for 
th-i free and uninterrupted u^q of the citizens ; be- 
. fides wharves, extending further into the v/ater, and 
other convenient fpace, for (hipping and landing 
of merchandize, and properly accomodating the 
general trade, kc. private perfons are permitted 
to build and place obltrudtions clofe to the ri- 
ver. Add to thele, the principal ftreet in the city 
is fnameluliy obftru^ted by a court-boiife in the 
middle of the moll crowded part of it, and by 
other buildings ercded for butchers fhambles, and 
holding a market ; now long experienced to be 
the moll inconvenient and improper place that 
could be appropriated for that purpofe in fuch a 
crowded and incrcaling city, as well as contrary 


* The gradual iucrrafe of the duelliiin: l;oufcs in tliis riiy and fuhurb;;, 
a* different times, in hitcr years, wiicn they were numbered, appears by 
tlie following; account, •viz. 

Ill the year 1749 tliey amounted to - - 2,076 

I75.> - - - 2,,^oo 

1760 . ■ . 2,960 

I7f'9 - - - 4,474 

1777 - - - 5.r''0 

Nttf. Above a year before thr. I.'.fl pnrii-d, Imilditijr jn Pi:i!;idelphia, 
by rtnfon of u particular circumil.iiJCf, beii:;; hitcrrupied, had oilirely 

hclwcen the Tears \^Go and vj'jo. 279 

tp the onginul inrcjition,wliichderigned all the pub- 
. lie (Ireeis for high ways without obiirii(5tion, or in- 
•terriijMJon ; ^tJKMigh in early time, it might have 
been otherwire, in regard to conveniency, when the 
place \yas ihiail, and the people few. Thcfe in- 
conveniences., and abufes, not to fay public nui- 
fances, and impediments to the ildubrity of the 
city, with their growing confequences, if it con- 
tinues to increafe as it has done, and they not re- 
moved, and better provifion made, future time 
will indoubtedly be more fenfible of.* 

The public buildings in this city, at this time, p,, ,■ 
are moitly plam, yet lome of them elegant ; but, i.uiidmgs. 
m general, they are adapted more for real ufe and ^''• 
conveniency, than ornament. The Jlate-houfe, 
where ihtGeneml y'lfcmbly, and Supreme Cour.\ of 
the provmce, are held, is a plain, but elegant and 
fpacious edifice, for the time in which it was 
built, about the year 1732 : it Hands on the fouth 
fide of Chefnut-Jlreet ; and with its wings and ap- 
pendages, on each fide of it, occupies the whole 
extent of a fquare of near four hundred feet, be- 
tween Fifth and Sixtb-Jireets from DcUnuarc. Tlic 
frifon and -.ujrk houje^ at the corner of H:^f-/:rest 
and Third-Jlreet, are Itrong and fpacious buildings, 
but have nothing very remarkable in their archi- 

Of houfcs for worfliip, that of the Epifiopal'urns, 
Church of England, m Second flreet, called ^H^-!"' 
Chri/lh Church, k hooked upon as tlie mofi; ele- ' "'' 

gant J 

* The health and conveniency of large cities are of the prcnteft im- 
portunes, iuul above all calculation of cxpencc, &c. An eiili'i-nvnunr of 
the hmits of this city north and fouth, with a more proper Jivili-jn into 
re-ular ward., f.,r us better gov. rnnient and regulation, merit public 
attention : and a liirthcr provifion of fuitable and convenient o,Kn i.nd 
vacant Ip ices of ground, for public buildings, market places, .rave yard, 
pubhc, fp .c:ous, a,ry walks planted with trees and fenced in, and rro-' 
teaed Ir.nn all nuiLnces, in every part of the city-plan and vicinity, for 
the greater ronveniency and heulthin Is of th>- propk- are in-on.r tJ;.. 
furUi-r miprovemfnts to be wi filed for ;_too muclwiesl..dc.i in early 
time, ui Weil us iii later years, i\.c. 


2 8o General Slate of Pennfylvmiia, 

gant ; tlie reft are generally more adapted for ufc 
-and conveniency, than Ihew. The ^luakers have 
four hoLifes for public worfliip in the city; of 
which they conftantly, at the appointed times for 
worfliip, occupy three ; the fourth is ufed on par- 
ticular occafions. The ii/)//2o/>^///V/7;.f have three; 
the Prefoyteriansj four ; the Ba^tijh^ one ; the 
Moravians^ one ; the Roman Catholies^ two ; the 
Mctbodyis, one ; the German Lutherans^ two ; 
and the German Calvinijls, one; likewife the 
Swedtjh Lutherans, one, in the lower fuburbs, at 

Schools and Bcfidcs the Humerous private yc/^oo/x, for the 
fcminaries education of youth, in this city, there are two 
o^jannng, p^ji^iJcy^^;//;/^^^/,?^ of learning, incorporated by char- 
ter, and provided with funds ; the firft, in order 
of time, is that of the ^takers, already mentioned 
in another place ; incorporated by the hrlt Pro- 
prietor, Wi/liam Penn ; the corporation confifts 
of fifteen perfons, chofen by thenifelves ; they 
liave their montlily meetings, for the care and 
management of the imlitulion ; and their regular 
vihtations of the various fchools, under their di- 
rc61ion and notice,* 

Ikfides the fchools in other parts of the city 
and county of Philadelphia, under their care, they 
have a convenient and handfome building, ele- 
gantly fituated, in the eaft fide of Fourth-Jircct, 
near Chcfnui-Jlreet ; where, befides rending and 
■writing, are taught granuuar and the languages^ 
with the molt ufeful parts of 'mathematical learning, 
ill diirereiit apartments, under their proper mailers; 
\vlicre alio is kept a library, for the ufe of the 
inilitution ; but this feminary, in I'onie refpcfts, 
has not been improved, or auvanccu, according 
to tlie ori'rinal intention, or to 'as incat utility as 
it is capable of. 


* The iil:i.:,':n-s have one fJinol in t!ie city Ij^fiJcs ihcfs iiuJcr their 
ciiiv, ut Ui^ir luk o.jiciicc, for tc.;thii'ij i\'^'^ t,i/.'../.7; uJiJy. 

I'iiz^'ccn the years 1760 and I'jjo. 281 

Tliefccond is tlie Cullc'i^^e iiml Academy o{ Phila- college and 
dclphia, of a 'much later (landing, and not exilling Anuiemyof 
us inch, bcForc the year 1749; but greatly im- ^.I'^i'^^ ' " 
proved of late years; and is Hkely, if its prefent 
prudent management be ccntiijued, to become 
hereafter, the mod confiderable of the kind, per- 
haps, in Britijh /Imerica : the corporation cohfiib 
of twenty-four members, called ''rnijlees ; they 
have a large commodious building, on the well 
fide of Fourlb-Jlreet, near Midberry-Jlrccty where 
the different branches of learning and fcience are 
taught, in the various parts of the infiitulion. 

In this city are eretfled two large and elegant 
edifices, for charitable ufes, but not yet compleat- p.nnfylva. 
ed; the Pennfyhama Hojpital, and the Hoitfe ^"jjj' ^^|.''''" 
Employ me II I for the poor of Phihidelphia ; it is fup- 
pofed there are not other two inllitutions of the 
kind equal to them, in any of the Britijh colonies 
in ylniarica, for (he number of perfons annually 
relieved, the fpacious, convenient and healthy 
accommodations, and general good management, 
in every department ; in the former, which had 
its firfl rife fo late as in the year 1751, there have 
been cm-ed and relieved ^above four hundred per- 
fons annually J' and in the latter, which is of 

Vol. II. [36] hill 

* ExtraL^; from the (tate of thi aL-rouiUs of the Pci::ij\!variiii Hofrntul, 
as adjuilcd hy tlic inaiiajjirs, from rlic votes of AiVcnibly, uud infcncd 
ill the Pcniifylviiii:a chioiiicle ill J.uuiiiry, 1768, -uiz. 

" From an tixwii lid of the name* and cafes of the patients, it appears, 
there have betu four hundred and fifty-eiyht poor difeafed jierfons ad- 
mitted into the hofpital, within the year ending the 4th of the ^tli ' 
month (May) i-,i>-/; of wiioni fifty nine were liinaticb, or other ini- 
feuppy ohjcds, deprived of right reafon. 

And there iuvt b^en dilcharijtd, cured . . 27.; 

relieved . . lf> 

for irrcindarity . , 1 1 

' ;it their own reqiiell: . ^ (t 

at the requeft of Uuir fiictids <i 

died . . . __3 7_ 

lU-mahi in the lioufc . (oj 

Houfc for 
the poor, 


General State of Pennfylvaiiia, 

ilill later ftanding, about four hundred indigent 
people, and hclplefs objefts of charity have been 
conlUmtly provided with fuitable employment, or 
comfortable living and acconnnodations. I'he ma- 
nagers of thefe iniUtutions are annually chofen by 
the contributors, according to afts of Aifembly,^ 
by which they are incorporated : both of them 
were (irft promoted chleOy by the ^lakcrs^ and 
' . ftill continue under the management principally of 
the fame people. 

Other indi- There are other inflitutlons and companies, in 
tutiuiib, cVc. this city, formed either for the good order and 
fecurity of it, or other patriotic purpofes ; as, that 
for the infurance of houfcs from lofs by firs ; with a 
i\\\Vi\)dtx oifre coinpanies^ or affociations, to prevent 
and extinguilh hre in it : the focicty for the relief of 
poor and dijlreffed niajlers offjips, their Tjidozvs and 
children ; the American philofophical focieiy, kc. for 
promoting ufeful knowledge ; the library coiupany 
of Philadelphia ; the focicty for proniolinv; the cul- 
ture of fdk, &:c. 

citycorpo- The Corporation of the city itfclf, for its inter- 
iRtion, &L-. j-j^j government and police, has been already 
mentioned, in the account of its original inllitu- 
tion by the fnft Proprietor JVillia?n Pem^ m 1701. 
It conlilfs of a Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen, and 
Common Council, by the name of, " The Mayor 
and Commonalty of the city of Philadelphia," &c. 
They are chofen by the corporation ; imd the 
number of Aldermen and Conunon Council-men 
is not limifed : the nature, conflltution, power 
and oflice of the corporation are deleribcd in the 
city charter in the appendix. 


" And divers had niedjcines and viilts of the phyHciari, n^ ovt-ba' 
Halts, whcic calcs were not proj^cr, or lictcfiary, to aumit tli.iii into the 

bclwcen thj Tears 1760 and 1770. 28 

•Befick'i the city of PhihideJphiii^ there are fe- 
veral confideriihlc towns in the province, excUifiv'e 
of tlie capimls oF tlic counties, ah-cady mentioncLl ; 
fonie of which have their ftated market days, and 
regular markets for provifionj, &c. 
■ Gerniantown^ in Philadelphia county, about fix. 
miles north of the city, with which it is neiu-Iy 
coeval, and noted for its nianufafture o'i Jhckhigs^ 
by the German fettlers and their defcendants, who 
principally inhabit it, confill^] chielly of one ftreet, 
feveraf miles in length, diflcrent parts of it ha- 
ving different names, irregularly built of itone, 
dug out of the ground where the houfes Hand ; 
in a high and healthy fitualion, with did ances, or 
vacant i'paces, in fome places, between the 
houfes; it alfords a pleafant retreat in fummer to 
divers inhabitants of Pliiladelphia ; and contains 
more houfes and people than any other town in 
the province, Philadelphia and Lancafter excepted. 

Wilmington^ m NewcaJIlc county, which ap- 
pears to be no older than about thirty or forty filming. 

/■ \ • -r\7 ■ I J I I ■ ton. 

years (anno 1772} is now next to rhtladclphia^ 
in trade and populoufnefs, on or near the Dchi- 
luare ; and in late years, has far exceeded Nc-zu'- 
cq/lle, which has long fcemingly been on the de- 

N'olf. "Wilmington was firfl laid out, for a town, and fettled principally 
by the J^.jIctj-, Lc. of whom, in the year 1718, I fnul, JVillicim ShlpL-y, 
yojfJ.n:a Way, Thomas JVef, JDcvul F.nis, J-f.ffj thzus, E.hvaul Tatnal, 
and Others, had a religious meeting fixed here, MS. 

The large numbers of Europeans, which have flocked into Pennfyl- 
vanii, who had been ufed to towns, efpctially from G.-rmauy, (ccin to 
have been one caul'e of fo many conliderable towns fuddenly llarting up 
in tliis province of Lite years; but they are lefs .ndajjled to agricultui:il 
employment, tlian to that of inaniifaifburing; hence they generally here 
either foon derline, or ceale to increafe ; except upon navigable waters, 
and fupported by foreign trade, or manui'uiiLuring, oic. 

Leb.tnan in I.ancnller county (as well as many other towns in tlie jmo- 
vjnce) is now in a very jlourilliiiig llatc ; it was laiil out about tlie year 
1759, and now ia 1772, is faid to contain above two hi:!;dnd i^ood 
dwelling houfes, many of tiiern lan«e, and well built of ftone, dug <nit of 
the groiiud where they Hand, and piiuci|i.dly inhabited by G\r/.:.i.i , 

^84 Gen era! State of Pcnnfyhania, 

cline, though tlie court:,, &c. are (1111 held at the 
latter place ; from which it is only fix miles dif- 
taiit, northward, and about twenty-eight fouth 
"wefl from PhliadeJphia. It is fituatcd on an ele- 
vated and hilly deciivity, defcending to Chri/ieen 
creek ; which lb far, at lealt, is navigable for vef- \ 
fels of two himdred tons burden, and runs into 
the Dehzvat'c: at a hnall diftance ; from whence, 
to a fpcdator, pafling on the faid river, this town, 
by reafon of its particular and elevated fiLuatioii^ 
exhibits a pleafant appearance. 

Of the internal Police, and Courts of Judicature 
/■;/ Pennfylvania. 

The nature and manner of the government, by 
a Governor and provincial Aficmbly, as expreflcd 
in the lafl charter of privileges, given in the year' 
1 70 1, with the powers granled 10 the Proprietary, 
Vi'iUiani Pcnn^ in the royal charter of 1681, upon 
which the former is founded, have already been 
mentioned, in the preceding hillory ; arid, there- 
fore, in this place, need no repetition. Accord- 
ing to which cliarter of privileges, there are two 
negatives in the Legillature; that ol tlie Governor, 
jmd that of the Alfembly, or Reprcfentatives of 
the people. 

covernor's I'he Counc'il^ as bcforc obferved, are no part of 
Councii,&c ^l^g Legillature, otherwife than by adviling the 
Governor, in his negative, &c. they are cljoien by 
the Proprietary, or Governor, and are properly 
called the Governor's Council. The a^ts of legilla- 
ture run thus, in the prefidency of a Deputy Go- 
vernor, who is appointed by the Proprietary, with 
the royal approbation, viz.- " Pe it ena^fLci by the 

honourable Ffqiiire, Lieutenant Goverhor of 

the province of Pennfylvania, and of the counties of 
J\ewcafile, Kent and Su/Jcx, on Dehncare river ; 
by and %vith the confeni of the Rcprifcniaiives of //■(- 


heiiucni the Tears 1760 and 1770. ^%s 

'freemen of f aid province, in General AlJ'emhly met.** 
The Govel■nor^s lalary, which is a free gift, or in 
tlie power of the people, was never permanently 
fixed by law; hut of late years, has generally 
been about ;^. 1,000 currency per annum, befides 
the perquifites, which amounted to a conhdcra- 
ble fum. 

The Affemhly, by charter, is elc(^ed on the firll 
day of Oclober annually, by the freeholders, in P'-ovinciia 
each county. The qualihcations, by law, for an '' "■'" ^' 
eleftor and elected, is a freeman, refidcnt in the 
county, for two years, at leait, having fifty acres 
of land, well feated, or otlierways worth, in real 
or pcrfonal eflate, or both jointly, the value of 
fifty pounds currency ; which, if required, muft 
be declared on oath or affirmation. IJut the num- 
ber of the members, and mode of elections, are 
fixed, altered and regulated by ad of Alfembly, 
purfuant to the powers granted by the laid charter. 
They have far many years, before the lall frontier 
counties were added, or till about the year 1771, 
confined of about thirty-fix; of which number, 
the city of P/jiladelphla returned two ; each of 
the oldeft counties, of Pbihuhlphia, Bufks and 
Coe/rj/-, eight ; that of Lancajkr four ; and the 
later (and in thole times, much thinner inhabited) 
counties of 'York, Ciunhcrland, Berks and North- 
ampton, returned the refl. 

The Sherijf's and Coroners are ufually ele<^e'-^;,„r;ira and 
at the fame time with the Reprefentatives, by ' 
county eledions ; the people eleft two for each 
office ; out of which the Governor chufes one ; 
who, in the fame manner, may be re-elected 
for tliree years running ; but after three year.;, 
cannot be re-elefted, imlcfs after the intervention 
of three years out of office ; and then lie is capa- 
ble of a new eleclion. 



206 . General State of Pemfylvania, 

c^unij ""i'l^c Coimty Connnijfioners, for managing of the 

cmimrfli- publlc affairs of their reipeQive counties, are 
aSoi's! tlirec, and the A/fcffcrs arc fix, in and for each. 
county; of the Luter the whole number is annu. 
ally chofcn, at the fame time, with the Afjembly^ 
Sheriffs and Coroners, according to a6t of Affenw 
hly ; the former, or the Commiffioners, continue in 
oilice for three years ; of whom, one, or the oldeft 
Commiffioncr, i.^ changed, or goes out, and ano- 
ther is elected in his place every year, in each 

juria. Juries are all returned by the Sberiff, excepting 

in particular cafes, but not often ; there may be a 
Jlvuck jury, by conlent of parties ; and that muft 
be in the prefencc of the Judges, the Sheriff and 
the parties. 

jufiices of Jujiices of the Peace are all of the Governor's 
appointing, and fit in garter Sefjiom, conforma- 
ble to the laws and inftitutions of England. 

The Regi/ter General is appointed and commifli- 
ccmraL o'^cd by the Governor, according to a^l of Alfem- 
bly, for the probate of zuills, and granting letters 
of adminifc ration. Hi* authority extends all over 
the province ; b\it is executed by a Deputy, in 
each refpeclive county, except at Philadelphia / 
where he is obliged to refide himfelf. 
Courts of "I'l-ie power of eflablifliing all the Courts of Judi- 
jiiauatuu. ^,^i^,j.^^ jj^ Pcnnfylvania, was granted, by the royal 
charter, to the Proprietary. They were accord- 
ingly, for fome time, ereded and held by ordi- 
nances of the Governor and Council ; but they 
were afterwards eitablilhed by laws of the province. 

The Courts of "Judicature, for the adminiflration 
of juftice, as eftabhihcd by law, within the pro- 
vince, confill of, 

I. The Supreme Court of Pennfyhania, held in 
Philadelphia, twice every year, by any two of the 



hcHuceji theTears ij6o and I'j'jo. 2 3/ 

tliree JuRiccs, or Judges, of the faid court. Of 
thele Judges, wlio are commiflloned by the Go- 
vernor Icverally, by di/lind patents, one is diftin- 
guiflied, in his commiflion, by the name of Chief 
jfujlke ; the others, by that ol fecond and. tlj'ird 
judge, or Jultice ; and none of them can fit judi- 
cially in any inferior court : every of which Juf- 
tices liaving full power to iffue forth writs of ha- 
beas corpiu, certiorari and lurits of error. Sec. 

This court is empowered to hear and determine Ui power, 
all ciiufes, by writ of the fame court, removed "^'^• 
from the courts of Stuart cr Se/fions, and Common 
Pleas, in the feveral counties, and from the city 
court : to rcvcrfe, or affirm, the judgments of 
the inferior courts : to examine and punifii all ■ 
officers of courts, for default, &c. to award pro- 
eels lor levying fmes : and if occafion require, to 
go the circuit twice every year, to try the idiics in 
fad, in the counties, from whence the caufe v/as 
removed : the Judges of this court have power to 
deliver the jails of perfons, committed for trcafon, 
murder, and other felonies of death ; and to hear 
£ind determine all fuch felonies, committed in the 
out parts of the province, by a jury of the city of 
Philadelphia ; efpecially felonies committed by In- 
dians, he. But from the final fentence of lliis 
court, as well as from that of the Courts cf Ad- 
'viirahj, and all other couris, within the province, 
is referved the right of appeal to Great Britain. 

1. The Court of General ^tarter SeJJions cf the Court oi 
Peace and Gaol Delivery, held in each county, four [;^ 
times in a year, by any three, or more, of the J aflices, 
nomijuued and authorized by the Governor; and 
fpecial, or private, feflions, as often as occaiion 
requires, purfuant to their commiiiions, ^yLc. any 
of which Juflices has power in or out of feliions, 
to take all maimer of recognizances, c^vc. 

. J. Th. 


2S8 General Stafe of Pennfylvanid^ ' 

Court of 3. 7he County Court of Common Pleas, held 

Common four tiiTies auiuially, at the fame places, in each' 
county where the S^^iartsr Sc//ions arc kept, by^ 
at leaA, three of the Juftices thereof, commiirioned 
by the Governor; who are empowered to hear 
and determine all pleas, fuits and caufes, civil,! 
pcrfonal, real and mixt, &c. 

The Judges of the Conmion Plcns are the Jufllces 
of the Peace in each refpective county : when tho 
Si^uarter Seffions are hnillied, they continue to fit 
(in more of the counties) in quality of the Judges 
of Common Picas, by commifiion from the Go- 
orpfiins' 4. The Orphans' Court, held by the Ju Rices of 
the Smarter S.^/fions, in each county, in the fame 
week, in which the fcffions are held ; or, at any- 
other time as they fee occafion. 

They are empowered io call to account any 
perfon, who is entrufted with, or any wile account- 
able for, any eftate, belonging to any orphan, or 
perfon under age ; (and even adminiltrators of 
inteflate ellates) to oblige the Regilier General, 
or his Deputies, to tranhnit to their court, copies 
of fuch writings, as relate to ellates of orphans, 
or minors ; to oblige adminiflrators to give better 
fecurity ; and upon neglecl thereof, or if the ad- 
miniilrator has imbezzled the dccedant's diate, 
by their fentence to revoke his letter of admini- 
ftration ; to oblige as well an executrix, that h 
married to another hulband, wiiliout fecuring the 
minors portions, as alio all other executors, to give 
fecurity for the paynient, or delivery, of the le- 
gacies, or fliares or eliates belonging to minors, 
and for their maintenance and education : to ad- 
mit minors to chule guardians, and to appoint 
guardians for fuch as, by the cojunion laiv, are un- 
capable of chufmg ; to direct the putting out w/- 
nors apprentices : to itnd their atluchments, for 



bciuren the Tears ijCq and 1770. 289 

contciii])t, and ii)rce objdicnce to their orders, 
by imprifonnicnt, or lequcftratiou oi \\xndi ;md 
^goods: finnlly, to fettle the accounls of ailinini- 
llrators, and to make dlfhibution of the furpluf- 
agc of tlie cflate; and to fettle and difcharge the 
accotiiifvS of bonds of gtiardians, and other pcr- 
fons, ciUrufled with minors' cliates. 

, 5. The Mayor's Court, held in Pbiladelphin^ by Mayor's 
the Mayor, Recorder, and, at lead, two Alder- *^"""- 
men of the city, quarterly, by charter, for hear- 
ing and determining all crimes and offences, com- 
mitted in the faid city : but the power of hearing 
and determining all felonies of death is', by law, 
veiled in the Judges of the Supreme Court. 

Be^lde^ thde are the Court of Admiralty, for Admiralty 
the province or Pennfylvania, and the counties of Courts. 
Nezucii/tlc, Kent and Suffex, on Delaware; and 
the Court of Admiralty, in calc of appeals, for 
the provinces of New Terk, New Jerfcy, Penn- 
fyhuama, ' Maryland, and Virginia ; lield in Plu~ 
ladclpb'a only, agreeable to the direftion in the 
judges' commiirion. 


The courts for the rcfpeclive counties are held, "^^i'^'-^ t''= 

1, at PlAladclphia, for tlie county o'i PhihjdeJphia ; 'arJi^ZI 

2, ^t Newtown ^ for that oi Bucks ; 3, at C/'.yAv, i'^-'^. 
for the county of Chejier ; 4, at Laiiiuyler, for 
that of Lancajler ; 5, at Turkiown, lor the county 

of 7"ork ; 6, at Carlijle, for the county of Cum^ 
herland ; 7, iM Reading, for the county of ii^W-^ ; 
8, at Eajlon for the county of Northampton ; 9, at 
Bedford, for Bedford coumy \ 10, at iV'i^^vr;', for 
Iv ortb umber la nd couiWiy ■, and 11, vX Pi/jburg^ lor 

In the year 1772, in tlie adminillravion of Pd:eb' 
ard Penn, Govenior under the Prr^prictarics Tb^:- 
mas and John Penn, ihe ollices, in the 
province of Pennfylvania, \/erehcId, as follows: 

. Mtmbirs ■ 
■ Vol. it. Uj-\ 

^9° General State of Pennfyhania, 

Officers of ^'lemhcKs of iJjc Proprietaries' and Governor'' s, 

J^"^^'-"- ^ Council. 

in i;;.. James Hamilton, Benjamin Chew . .' ^ 

joleph Turner, Thomas Cad^vallader, i 

Wi ham Logan, James Tilghman, 

Richard Peters, Andrew Allen, 

Lynford Lardner, Edward Shippen, junior. 

Provincial Secretary, and 7 . ^ , ^, 

' - Clerk of the Council, j J^'^^P'^ Shippen, junr. 

Speaker of the Houfe 1 ^ . 

of Aflembly, j M^T^i Galloway, ') 

Clerk of the AfTembly, Charles Moore, 
J reafurer of the province, Owen Jones 
Ag-cnt for the province, ? ,, . . 

in Great Britain, \ Benjamin Franklin. 

Judges of the Supreme Court. 

William Allen, Chief Juftice, 

John Lawrence, Second Judoe 

Thomas Willing, Third Judge. ' 

Prothonotary of the ^ „ 

Supreme Court, <Scc. 5 -^^'-'^^'^^^^ Shippen, junr. 
Attorney General, Andrew Allen, 

Regiller General, c^-c. Benjamin Chew, 
iVLilter of the rolls, kz. William Parr. 

Proprietaries' officers for land affairs, ^r. 
Secretary of the land office, James Tilohman, 
Receiver General and keep- 7 ^ , 

er of the great leal, j Edmund Phyfick, 
Auditor General, Richard Ilorklev 

.Surveyor General, John Lukciis. " ' 

. Principal officers for the cufloms, for the port f rhl- 

^*^"^'^^"^ John P;ittcr<on, 

Comptroller, '/achariah l(.:<-d, 

r-ava) ofiicL-r, Richard Ih.J.kv, 

i5urveyor and fearcher, Duvid DrLnn..., ;' d, ^:-c. 


hetivecn the Tain 1 760 and 1 770. 
Court of Admiralty for the province of PauM. 

w'"' "' ',",";"''' "^' ^'■""•'J^/''. Kent and 
Owz/fA-, upon Ddawnre. 

("cljje, Julwartl Shippen, junior, 
iygi ter, Ru,harcl Peters, junior, 
Mar/lial, Judiili Fouike. 
Court of Admiralty, in cafe of appeal., for the 
provntcesof jV.«, Tork, Ne^a j/rL Penn/wZ 
»/</, Man/and, md Virgimn. ■'•^"^"'W'"- 

Cormniflary, Honourable Jared Intrerfol 

iguy .o,nn..nary, ,ames B^dlJ! ' 

Deputy Renifler ^",'''1' "?7' 

Mai, and Servant at Mace, ^1^:^^^:!:;,,, 

About this time the number of Aldermen for 

i^^ns, and the Common Council of thirty fii-.^ 



Gcnc}\il State of Pninfylvan'ui, 


T/jc I/hliih'is. — Vnccrtainly of their &ri\!^i/i. — Boun- 
chrics if the Six N,!ti'j.'!s, •luiib their dependent 
cies, and the Indians an Ohio^ 'iffe. — Aecciint of 
the S::-: Natior.s^ their cifonis and properties^ Iffc. 
— Of t':'fe of Pennfy'varda ; their n'tieral turn 
cf ?jd:id, rropenffies, cvjloms and habits. — 
Speech of an Indian ehicf in mfeer to a Sicedijh 
hdjfonary. — Their religious f^nfe of tie Deity. — 
Conrad I'/d/er's hotter on the fubjcel. — Account of 
fome rel'ficus Indians in 1760, 'is'c. — Infratdion 
f the peace bei-ieeen the Indians and the people of 
Pennjyivania, about the year 175-J. — Mafacreof 
the Cone/hgoe Indians, 'zd'c. — Catfes of the In- 
dian, lear. — Means f the eifuing peace in lyC^. 


S to the origin of the Indians, or aboriginal 
tVor'tiie"" inlvabitcUirs of ylnu'riea, in general, there is no- 
oiisiiiotthc thiiig on record, but mere modern conjetf ure ; 
^"'^""'''^'''" which varies according to the diiferent opinions 
and fancies of thofe, who have thought and writ 
on the fu])ject, and endeavoured lo account for 
the iirfl ])CopHnr- of ih^at continent. It is, per- 
jiaps, as improbable for a people, Vslio ha\ e not 
the knowledge 01 letters, to derive tlieir origijinl 
from thofe, wlio were porfeifed of that uIUliI and 
neceflary Icience, and not to retain it anrong thtni- 
felves aftei wards, a;^ it would be nugatory to pre- 
tend to give an accour.t there*. 1, without the 
means, abfolutely ncce!lavy lur i-iij-pole ? 
Therefore, without laying any tiling of their ori- 


hct-ivscn 1 1.' J Tears ijGo and 1770. 29; 

pnal, or troaViiiii';- the reader with conjectures, 
liow this counrry lirit began to be inhabitetl by 
m-Ankiiul, let it. llilTice here to obJerve, in p-eneral, i'™->^i^'y 
that, thcfe people appear to form a diliiiicl; Ipecies d^jcKs <.f 
of the human race, as well as the Negroes, and fome '"•"^i-in'J- 
other kinds of people, in the v/orld : this is f^o 
manifeflly viflble, from an entire uniformity, 
among them, oF cerLalu marlis and charafters, 
pj^ to their perfons and features, tirit they 
are thereby as fufiicieiiily didinguiflied from all 
the relti oi marikind, inio a dillcreiit, or dillinft 
fp.::^js, or variety, of rational beings, as the va- 
rious fpecies of fome of the particular genera of 
the irrational animafj and plants are charaderized 
by their refpedive and peculiar properties and 

TJie Inelians, called the Six Nations, have held Tl.-sixN 
fovereigiUy over all the Indians, both in this and '"" 
the neighbouring province/,, for a long feries oi 
years ; and as a fimilarity of their cufcoms pre- 
vails much among thole, who are fubject to them, 
fo previous to an account of the Indians of Venn- 
Jyl'vania and Neiu Jei-fev, as they were foimd and 
obferved bv tiie firii; -.mvl cariy European or I'.,'!:;//Jh 
fcLllers ameag ihjin, whole defcriplion or (■•b!er- 
vation, may be moll depended on, as nearclL the 
truth, it may be proper to fay fometinng further 
refpeding thefe nailons, though ihey have not, at 
prefent, their reiidcuce v.iLhin tiie liiaito of thcle 

1'he Six Nations firil entered into an alliance 

with the I\jei;/i/h, on t; 

iC Cnpt 

uve of Neiu Olr': 

iVoin ihe /)■'.,■,;', in iGC>. 

,; ; wl.i 

IS'A h.s ren^arkabiy 

co:ui!Uicd ever iiiu-e. '! 

'i '.' lii.i 

:is of th'jir hind-, 

or country, inelede;: a! 

i tile I 

nation.; and tribes, 

* Dr. Ih;jr!,< of r "..,, ]v. },:, ; 
at^ovipiiiiil /.•/■.'■•,!.-,.f arc ;,;;;., '.-y r.:..! 
i.TiMiy orlicTS; h:\\: !-.,v,v.-v,r if iy,.iv 
lir;.'r(j|);.:rvv.iio:; j;i.,iti m», t:.;it tii 



294 General Stale of Pcnufyhanla^ \ 

which were fubject to them, either by conquefl,, 

or otherwile ; they extended from the Icuth part of 

extent of j^],^ Champlaii'U in hititude 44°, on tlie north of 

tlRir tern- .._ ,, -f i i j r ^ ;• 

tones, &c. ^ew 1 ork government, to the borders or Larolma, 
in latitude 36^, comprehending all Fennfylvania^ 
and the adjacent countries. The Six ISIations 
themfelves are feated between the 42d and 43d 
degree of north huitude, north eaflward of Pcnn-> 
fyhvania, within the bounds of New Tork govern^, 
ment, and on the rivers which run into lake On- 

Mumicr of The Jiulums generally bound their countries, or 
the'ir'coun- territories, by large wide fpaces of land, not by 


lines, or marks. Their numbers are fmall, in pro- 
portion to the land they polTefs. They fix their 
towns commonly on the borders of great rivers, 
on account of the rich lawns, for planting their 
corn : the intermediate ground they referve for 
hunting; which equally ferves them for that pur- 
pofe and a frontier. 
ATamicr of Their natious and tribes are generally diftin- 
tiiTir'lmi- giiiihed and denominated by the names of the ri- 
onsaiid vers and creeks, or oiher noted places, of their 
'ri.'i... rcfidcnce ; which original names they commonly 
ftill continue to retain after their removal to other 
places. The tribes, which compofed their nations, 
were frequently in proportion to the number and 
importance of the creeks, that ran into the rivers 
which bore their nations. The Ddawares fo cal- 
led from tlie river Delaware, by the Englifli, but 
by themfelves in their own language, Lencleiioppes, 
or the original people, confilled of the A[j]inpiiik 
(Stony creek) Indians ; Rankolu;s, (Lamikas, or 
ChicbequaasJ Min^^ocs, Andnjlakcu ; (Chrijiecn 
creek, near Wibningion) l\kjhaminics, in Bucks 
county ; Shackamaxons, about Kcnfington, iiear 
' PhUiulclpbia ; Mantn., or J'ro'r liiJi-jns, about 
Ijifrli/.'^/i^, and a LVLck of zlvj.'i i.ainL', in Glouc-jUy 


heHveen the Tears 1760 mid 1770. 295 

county, which runs out of Jerfcy into the Dcla^ 
ivare^ a Htrle below Philadelphia, kc. 

Since the conqaeft and fubjeftion of divers of Th-ir 
the Indian nations and tribes, by the Six AW/Wr, '^'''l":^'''" "^^ 
particuhirly a^ter the F/uropeans became acquainted ^k^^!'^ ^'' 
"with them, (during- which time they appear to 
have been continually decreafmg in number) many 
of their places of rehdeiice have been changed for 
others, by the diredion and order of their con- 
querors, or fuperiors ; efpeclally to make room 
for the fettlement of the Europeans, kc. Hence, 
after the Sufcjuaha^mocks were exterminated, the 
upper parts of the river Sufquahanna were allotted 
to the Nanticokes, from the ealtern lliore of Ma- 
ryland ; to the Tuteloes, from Meherin river, in 
the fouth of I'ir^inia ; and to the Dclawares, 
amon^- which laft are included the Mene/inks, 
from above the forks of Deknvare, and the Mau- 
des, or Salem Indians, &cc. and as the country be- 
comes more inhabited by Europeans and their de- 
fcendanrs, the Indians move flill further back into 
the wildernefs, &c. 

Among the mofl noted nations, which fome- M.^tcd na- 
times loi-mcily inhabited Ise-iu Jerfey, and the ''""[ '°''' 
iirll, or moll early fettled parts of Pcnnfylvania, Ncw^jc?i\y 
are laid to have been the Narralicon'^s^ on the ^'"^ ^'^'"•'- 
north fide oi Rariton river, the Capiiinajjes, the 
Gaeheos, the Munfeys, the Poniptons, and fome of 
the Five Nations, before the fixth was added ; 
which was that of the Tufcororas, on account of 
a fnnilarity in their language to that of the Vive 
Nations, indicating them to have been originally 
of the fame ftock, &c. 

The Indians on Ohio chiefly confiH; of the hun- N;ai..iM <..» 
ters of the feveral nations round, under the pro- 'J.|;' ^^'''"' 
tedion or fubjection of the 67.v Nations, :is, the 



The Six 
greatly di- 

hillury of 
the five 

General SUitc of Pcmifyhanla, 

Delawarcx^ Sha'wmicffe, WiU'nus (called by the 
French, IlionoisJ and their own feveral nations,* hn. 

The Six 'Naiions, fonictinics called Mingos, and 
Confederates, as their n-.i^ie denotes, called by the 
Daich, Maqiiaas, or Mah.ikuafe, and by the 
French, Jrciuois, were k) greatly diniinilhed in the 
the year iJSJ-, that tliey were then fuppofed to 
confiil only of alunit twelve liundred fighting 
men. " They conlid (fays Colden in his lihlory 
of them) of lo numy tribes, or nations, joined 
together by league, or confederacy, like the Urn- 
ted Provinces, and without any fupcrioi-ity of one 
over the other. This union has continued lo long, 
that the Chrijlians know nothing of the original of 


• The following fummary of tlie Induiti Nations, &.c. wcflward of 
the Ohio, is cxtraC:lcd from an account or compntation, faij to liave heen 
iii.ule by thcmlVlves, and by Gcor^^c Crof't in, Deputy of Sir William 
Johnfon, A<>xnt for InJiun afl^.iirs, dtlivi;rcd to General Stai.wii: about 
the year 175 <;. 

I. Diluiv 


3. Ch.cla^V 

4. J.azui, 

On the Ohio, Beaver Creek, and") 
oilier brr.nches of Ohio; and V 
on Sufqiiahanna, ^;c. J 

River 6V;</.'!7, a branch of OLia :"l 
400 niik-s Kelow i'itlli'.irj;. 3 

MifTillippi, above Mew, 

Ohio, iVoni it-: niciitk te.v.-ar^I-j "J 

Fi,Uh„r ; 





Minillippi, abov. 

the nioiul 



aes. On the; Wabafli, 




Llianic Riv.-r, 




liead of V/^baPa, 


lFu\^,Jut.<, Fo;t de 'rroir, and Cli.-iMindc-i, c^c. 

Ottn.-ra:, Chehuiias, I'r.lwAHdi-Jics, MtH'^mii^s. i.l' :Vwr-'\ 
i.-ys, nati(ilis conl'.derale, bl.e the E]\ Kaiiel.;,, ci: !^ 
the w-'ll l:de of l.akc j:iL-, parti) in iigal of iort ; 
de Troil, J 

Nottcivvulj:-:, (called by the A.w/', Lr u;i u"] 
river |iaire!]el with tin: M-J^li'lf', in ^^ e;'-ei.My !> 
of 2,000 miles t.vitnt; ii.iiULiuus e.ill^.l \'. 






Th: r,c,.h 

■■,J x..^.'./; /■; 


1?. Mufi^ 

bciiveen the Tears 1760 and 1770. 297 

It. The people in it are known by the names of, 
Mohawks, Oncydocs, Onondagocs, Cayugas, Senekas, 
and Tufcaroras* 

" Each of thefe nations is again divided into '^^ 
three tribes, or famihes, who diitinguilli theni- 
felves by three different arms, or enfigns, viz. 

Vol. II. [38] the 



il. Mufquaki::s; On the Mlftjj:ppi, 

13. Sa(^:if:y, ' Lower .li.wii the MifTiffippi, 

14. IVeLiri'rs, Lower dow.i the river, <&c. thefe 

three niolUy ilelboy.-d by the 

15. On.ifoyj, called hy tlic French Le ?ra:,J Zu^; on White | ^^^^^ 

Creek, a branch of the Milliilipiii, J 

16. Lin.cays, AliffifTippi, I.OOO 
■17. I\r;fury, Mifllilippi, oppofite the 7;;o;;o;j country, 400 

18. Kcl:oj>os, about 2o miles beyond Fort de Troit, 600 

The whole number of fighting men in thefe nations at that time 23,409 

In which account the following are not included, viz. 

CL^roh-^s, to the fouthward, fighting men fujipofed near 1,500 

CV«/j, or Chicufu] near as many, ^>5<^^ 

Ml/igoej, or Five Nations, with the feveral fmall tribes,"^ 

incorporated among them, as the N^ntiioLcs, Mcn^^fmh, S 

&c. amounting to above J 



If the flighting men be computed at on; in five of all-^ ^ ,^ 

tlie inhabltantJ.Vuis account will make the whole uuinbir j 

Befidek, " In an iullc.rical account, printed in Pliihdelphia, of thi 
expedition againll the Ot>,o Indians, in 1764, under the to:iiniund of 

Colonel Bouquet, there is a liR of tile InJ:an nations of Can.Ju and J.or.. 

f.ana faid to be from good authority, and that the aceounc may be de- 
pended on, fo far as a matter of this kind can be brou^^ht near the truth ; 
ill which it is aiterted, there are fifty-fix thoufand five hund-ed and eighty 
fighting men, of iuch Indian, as the Frauh were connect d w.tli, in 
Canada and Louijiancr MS. 

If the reft of the inhabitants in th-fe countries be computed in th« 
fame proportion a^ above, they v.'ill amount to i2;,<^oo. 

* " The Jr.Uans, fituated nortliward of Pcnnfylvania, or betw en 
thence and th; Like,, &c. have been orlicrwife defcribed liiice, as conlift- 
ing of ihrse Uag,:(s ; the Fiaidas, MubaiuL! and Ono.Jj^oes, wlio aie call- 
ed the fathers, compoie the firft .■ the Oncyda!, Cayn-a,, '/^jjiaroias, Nun- 
iiicifi and Con-yi (which ar.; united into one tribe) and the ■fut.^lo.'s, com- 
pofc the fecond league; and liicfe two Icagu. s make un what is called 
• he Six Nations i tlic third L-aguc is formed of the Clnhjhui!:i, (or DA.i- 
-X'aus] the ll^a.-iuni, the Mi.nfiys, MJ/a.u,:} snd /i'./'^i.'njo.'." 


C9S ' General State of Pennfyhnn'ia, 

the torto'ife^ the bear, and the wolf; and the 
facbews, or o/</ wc;?, of thefe famiUes, put this 
enlign, or mark, of their family, to every public 
paper, when they fign it. 
Govern- " Each of thefe nations 13 an abfolute republic, 

and is governed, in all public alFairs, by its or/n" 
fdchcius^ or old men ; the authority of thefe rulers 
is gained by, and confilh wholly in, the opinion 
the red of the natives have of their wifdom and 
integrity. They never execute their refoluiions 
by force, upon any of their people. Honour and 
elteem are their principal rewards ; as Ihame, and 
being defpiied, their punifiiments. They have cer- 
tain cultoms, which they obferve, in their public 
tranlaclions, with other nations, and in their pri- 
vate affairs among themfelves ; wldch it is fcanda- 
lous for any among them not to obferve ; and 
thefe always draw after them either public or 
private refcntmcnt, whenever they are broken. 

" Their leaders and captains, In like manner, 
obtain their authority by the general opinion of 
their courage and conduct, and lofe it by a failure 
in thefe virtues. 

". Their great men, both fichcms and captains , 

are generally poorer than the common people; 

for they alfect to give away and dihribute all the 

prefents and plunder, they get in their treaties, 

and in war, fo as to leave nothing to themfelves. 

Tlicre is not a man in the miniilry of the 

Thiirfiec ^'"'''''-' ^^^t'lons, wlio lias gained his ofllce otherwife, 

umiiiuU- than by merit; there is not the leafl falary, or 

lirt-^'^ivc ^''""y ^^^^"^ ^^ profit, annexed to any office, to tempt 

tlie covetous or fordid ; but, on the contrary, 

every unworthy aclion is unavoidably attended 

' with the forfeiture ot their commiifion ; for their 

authority is only the elleem of the people, and 

ceafes the moment that elteem is loll. Here we 

fee the natural origin of all power and authority. 

hctiveen the Tears 1760 and 177c. 299 

among a free people ; and whatever artificial pow- 
er, or fovereignty, any man may have acquired, 
by the laws and conllitution of a counrry, his real 
power will be ever much greater, or lels, in pro- 
portion to the efteem the people have of him.* 

*' Tiie Five Nations think themfelves, by nature, rhcW higi 
fuperior to the reft of mankind, and call rhem- 7,eu!i'''vi 
felves O?iguc-bonive, that is, men furpajfing all others, ^z. 
This opinion, which they take care to inculcate 
into their children, gives them that courage, 
which has been 'io terrible to all the nations of 
North America ; and they have taken fuch care to 
imprefs the fame opinion of their people on all 
their neighbours, that, on all cccafion:', they -)\c\A 
the molt fubmiliive obedience to them." " 'J'he 
Tufraroras, after the war iliey had with the people 
of Carolina, fled to the Five Nations, and are now 
incorporated with them ; fo that they now pro-- 
perly indeed confifl of Six Nations. 

" There is one vice, which all the Indians liave niunkm- 
fallen into, fnjce their acquaintance with the Chrif- 11,^1.^10"^ 
tians ; of which they could not be guilty before Indians, & 
that time, that is, drunLjnncfs. It is (trange how 
all the Indian nations, and ahnoft every pcrfon 
aniong them, male and female, are infatuated with 
the love of Ji rang drink ; tliey know no bounds to 
their defire, while they can fv/allow it down ; and 
then indeed, the greateR man among theni fcarcely 
deferves the name of a brute. 

" They never have been taught to conquer any. 
paffion, but by fome contrary paffion ; and the 
traders, with whom they chiefly converfe, are fo 
far from giving them any abhorrence of this vice, 
that they encourage it all they can, not only for 


* " All affairs, w'hiv;li concern the general inti.TL-.1, arc dcttrmiiird 
in a great uflciiibly of the chiefs of caoh canton, iiniiually litlrl, at,0/wj- 
(f.7j", th; center of their country, (in r.orih la:;tufl. .[i° SS )■ l^J'^n emer- 
gencies they ail Icjiaratcly; but ugthinj can bind tli« league, hur ihc 
volj; III the g'.nci-ul cojivcr.'Jon." 

300 General State of Pennfyhania, 

the profit of the hquor they fell, but that they 
may have an opportunity to impofe upon them, 
And this, as they chieily drink fpirits, has de- 
flroyed greater numbers, than all their wars and 
dileafes put together. 
Thchiaory " As to the hiflory of the Five Nations,'' (fays 
Nadonf.Z ^'"'^^■'i in his hiftory of Nezv-l^orkJ " before their 
fcurc, &c. acquaintance with the Europeans^ it is wrapt up 
in the darknefs of antiquity. It is faid that their 
firft refidence was in the country about Mo7it- 
real ;* and that the fuperior flrength of the Adi^ 
rondacks^ whom the French call Algonquins, drove 
them into their prefent poflellions, lying on the 
fouth fide of the Mohazuks river, and the great 
lake Ontario. Towards the clofe of thofe difputes, 
which continued for a great feries of years, the 
Confederates gained advantages over the Adiron- 
Jacks, and Itruck a general terror into all the In- 
dians. The Hurons, on the north fide of lake 
Erie, and the Cat Indians, on the fouth fide were 
totally conquered and difperlcd. I'he French, 
\vlio lettled in Canada, in 1603, took umbrage 
at this fuccefs, and began a war with them, which 
had well nigh ruined their new colony. 

Their Ian- " As to thc httguagc of thefe people (fays the 
gauge, &c. fame author) except the Tufcaroras, all the Six Na- 
tions fpeak a language radically the fame. It is ve- 
ry mafculine and fonorous, abounding with guttu- 
rals, and flrong afpirations, but without labials.f 


* yiUi Marie, in the iflc of Mont-rial, in tke river St. Lawrence, is 
in north latitude 45° %f. 

f " Tliey have but few radical wonls ; but they compnund their words 
witliout end ; by this their language becomes luilicisntly cojuous, and 
leaves room for a good deal of art, to plcafc a delicate car. Sonietiniei 
one word, among them, includes an entire definition of a thing; for ex- 
:inipL-, they call wine, Oneharadeli-hoengtleragherie, ab to fay, < l-yuur 
viuch of thc jnhi: of the gr:if>i. 'J'he Words exprcffing things, lately come 
to their knowledge, arc all compounds: they have no labials in their 
language; nor can they pronounce jicrfeiftly any wgid, v.iicrcin there i^ 
a labial ; and when one cnJtJvouri to teach them to pronounce llulc 


between the Tears 1760 and 1770. 301 

Its folemn, grave tone is owing to tlie geiierofity of 
its feet, as may be obfirvcd in the ibllowing tranf- 
iation of the Lorc/'s Prayer ; in which is diftin- 
guilhed the titne of every fyllable, by tlie com- 
mon marlvs, ufed in profody. 
The Lord's Prayer, in the language of the Six 
Nation Indians. 
Soungwauncha, caurbunkyruigi, tchfcetriroan, Paternof- 
faulwoneyoufh'i, efa, fawaneyou, okcttauhfela, J^'j^ j'^^^*! 
ehneauwoiing, na, caurbunkyaiiga, nvigh, won- jrmge. 
■fliauga, neattewehnefalaug:!, taugw2iunautoronb- 
antoiighfick, toantangwelcewheyouiLaang, che- 
neeyetit, chaquatautaleywheyoudaimna, toiigh- 
fau, taCigwauffarcnch, tawantottciiaugalough- 
tonngga, nafawne, fachedutaugwafs, cbntehla- 
lohaunzaikaw, efa, fawaiincybu, efa, frdh-AUtztu, 
cfd, foungwafoung, chenneauhaungwa, auwe'n. 

" The extraordinary length of Jndian word?, 
and the guttural afpirations neceilary in pronounc- 
ing them, render the fpeech extremely rough and 
difncuk. The verbs never change in their ternii- 
nations, as in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew ; but 
all their variations are prefixed. A flrange tranf- 
j)ofitiou of fyllables of diilerent words, £A^vV//;.■.? 
gratia, is very common in the Indian tongue ; of 
which I will give an in{tanc(? : ogilla, figniiies/rt-, 
and cawaunnd, great, but inftead of joining the 
adjeftlve and fubllantive, to fay great fire, cd- 
v/dunna ogilla, both words would be blended into 
this one, co-gdla-wdunnd. 

" The dialed of the Oneydos is foftcr than tirat 
of the other nations, and the reafon is, b:.:caa!e 
they have more vowels, and often fupply theplac'! 

worcls, thpy tfll one, tlicy rliirik it riaicnlous, tlni"- tlicy nvfl lliut 
lips to fjicak. 'Muir hni:,uaxe abuuiuU v;ith .nuuir^h, ii'ul C u~n,, ..^.i- 
rations; theCc make it very l.,:ior:;u? ^uJ Ijoi.1 ; .;.!i their (p<;Lch,.i r.!,..Ki.a 
with metsphorn, attcr tlie niii.Kci- ■^i tiic euilciii natn-r.b.'J 

(JiVir,:or CJ,!.n, li^- 

302 General State of Pcnnfyhaniay ■ 

of harfli letters with liquids. Inftead of i<I, they ''j 
always ufc L. Rebecca would be pronounced Le^-- 

qitecca. ' 

Their art " The art of public fpeaking is in high efteeiiii . 

and method among the Indians, and much Itudied. I'hcy are; 

fpcikiiig'', extremely fond of method, and difpleafed with; 

*'^c. an irregular harrangue, becaufe it is difficult to 

be remembered. When they anfwer, they repeat: 
the whole, reducing it into ftricl order. Their " 
fpeeches are fiiort, and the fenfe conveyed in 
itrong metaphors. In converi'arion ihey are 
fprightly, but folemn and ferious in their rnef- 
fages relating to public affairs. Their fpeakers 
deliver themfelves with furprihng force, and great 
propriety of gellure. The fiercenefs of their 
countenances, the (lowing blanket, elevated tone, 
naked arm, and ered llature, with a half circle 
of auditors feated on the ground, cannot but im- 
prefs on the mind a lively idea of the ancient 
orators of Greece and Rome. 

Bcin^and <t j^[ f[^^. claufe of cvcry important part of a 

ivLiptw,, fpeech, ratifying an old covenant, or creating a 

^'^- new one, a belt is generally given, to perpetuate 

the remembrance of tlie tranfa£lion. Thefe belts 
are about four inches wide, and thirty in length. | 
They confilt of ilrings of conque-ihell beads faft-"; 
ened together.* >.- 

Of the Indians of Pennfylvania and Nciu ferfey. 
rilE Indians of Pennfylvania and 'New Jerfey^ 
ptwi'iyiva- like the Six Nations^ oblerved the greateft deco- 
rum in their councils and public tranfadions, and 


Indi'-tiis of 
Ilia ami 
New Jtrfcy 

• Thefc Li,iHs, which pafs for money, are called hythe Indians, IVam- 
f)iim, raid by the Duich^ Sfiuant. Six beads were formerly valued at 
a (lyver (one penny (Urling.) 'J'herc are always fcvtral poor families at 
AHj'iiiy, wholujipoic theiiUelves by coining this cafh for the traders." Hid. 
'J'hey treafured thefe belts, when delivered to tliein in tn 


d kept tlu-in as records of the nation, to h^ve recourfc to U)>()ii 
future eont;lU; which cerLiru'iiy, at faid treaties, l)cin)j omitted, all 
th.'y f„id j.aifed fur nothing." ,i'/,;/.'.'/j //^f,,j sf }\'c:v J->J'^ji. 

hctiveen the Tears 1760 and 1770. 305 

in all their difcourfcs and converfation ; their lan- 
guage, hke theirs, being lofty and fententious : 
very ieldom, or never, more than two held a dif- Smith'shir- 
courie at one and the fame time, in any one com- j^J'^jcrfey 
pany, though never fo large ; in which they never 
interrupted or contradicted each other, while 
fpeaking, but always waited in filence till he, that 
was fpeaking, had finiflied what he had to fay, 
before an anfwer Avas returned, or any other 
fpeech attempted ; all the reft remaining in pro- 
found filence till their turn, without either mur- 
mur or whifper. 

As to their perfons, they are generally more Their per- 
upright and ftrait, in their limbs, than Europcam f"'"> '^'^• 
are ; their bodies ftrong, but more adapted to 
endure hardfliips than to fuftain labour : they are 
very rarely crooked or deformed. Their features 
are regular ; their countenances fometimes fierce, 
in common rather refembhng Je^i's than Chnjli* 
am ; the colour of their (kin, a tawney, reddidi 
brown, or copper colour : they all have long, 
flrait, black hair on their head§, which they 
greafe, and make it fliine, with bear's tat, efpc- 
cially the women, who tie it behind in a large 
knot, and fometimes in a bag. They are hardy, 
lean, and fqualid, and the whole manner of their 
lives uniform. They fometimes paint, or llreak, 
their faces with black, when in mourning ; but 
with red, when their affairs go well. It is faid, 
they have no beards, but whether it be fo univer- 
fally or not, among them, it is certain they have 
an averlion to hairs growing oij their faces ; for 
they always pull them out by the roots, when any 
appear, &c. 

Though they are niuch given to mirth, yet they TiK-irnmc 
are fometimes grave, even to fadnefs, upon com- >■•»} '^"' ^^ 

1 r r ' n mi niiiiil unj 

mon, and more lo upon Icrious occafions. Ihey lovc oi u- 
<ire very generous and liberal of what they have ; t-rty, .^^c. 
not eafily provoked to anger j nor foou'appeafed 


304 General State of Perifi/yhdnta,'' 

when inceiifed. But liberty, in the fulled efxtenF^ 
is their ruling paflion ; to this every other confider^ 
ation is i'ubfervicnt. Their children are fo trained 
up, as to cherifli this difpolition to the utmofl; they 
are very much indulged, feldom chaflifed with 
blows, and but rarely reproved, or checked. They 
leave their children's faults for their own reafon to 
correct, when they are grown up ; which, they 
fay, cannot be very great, before it arrives at feme 
degree of maturity. They abhor what appear^ to 
have a flavifli motive to a6b'on, as inconfillent with 
their notion of freedom and independency ; even 
flrong and importunate perfuafion is indufirioufly 
avoided by them, as bordering too much on depeh*. 
dency, and a l^ind of violence offered to the will } 
they dread flavery more than death. They never 
. liked to be afked their judgment twice upon the 
fame thing. 

Their cuf- Thclr property was little, and their anxiety to 
toms, cm- increafe it v/as lefs;* their intercoarfe naturally 
pioynunts, f^.^^ ^^^j unfettered with ceremony. No ideas of 
ftate and grandeur ; no homage of wealth, officCj 
birth, or learning ; no pride of houfe, habit, or 
furniture ; very little emulation of any kind, to 
interrupt ; thefc common caufes of the violation 
and preventions of frienddiips had no place with 
them. They were conftant and Ready in their at- 
tachments to each other, and, in many inflances, 
far exceeded what might be expeded. Their 
chief employment was hunting, lilliing and fowl- 
ing ; making canoes, bowls, and other earthen 
ward ; in all which they were ingenious, confider- 
ing the means ufed. Their women's bufmefs 
principally confided of planting Indiiincorn, parch- 
ing, or roailing it, pounding- it tv) meal, in mor- 
tars, or breaking it betv/een (tones, making bread, 


* *• An Indian, in anfwer to this queflion, " What did the iL-hitc.peo- 
ph mciiti by tbc ivorJ, (wvctouj'nefs ? was told by aitotiicr ])crfon, 'TLat it 
f-n'ijied a Ifiri of more than a nuia kuJ ncid of; That h afran^;e t/j'hg, re- 
]j1icJ the Jndiiiii. 

between the Tears 1760 a?id 177c. 305 

and drefTiiig- vi6liials. They alfo made mats, 
Vopes, hats, and bafkcts (feme very ingenioiifly) of 
wild hemp, and roots, or fplits of trees. Befides 
thefe and their toil of hunting, they had but few 
exercife.s to fatigue them ; and this they fweetened 
with frequently meeting in companies, to feaft, 
dance, and make merry ; in fliort, a life of dil]i- 
pation and eafe, of uncertainty and want, of ap- 
petite, fatiety, indolence, and fleep, feemed to be 
the fum of their character, and the funimit, to 
;Which their wiflies afpired." 

In their cuftoms and employments, they were 
very loving to one another, taking great care of 
each other in ficknefs, while hopes of life remained, 
but afterwards fometimes remifs. If a company 
of them came to a ChriJ}ian\ houfe, and the maf- 
ter of it gave victuals to one of them, and none 
to the relf, that one divided what was given him 
into equal Ihares among his companions. If Chrif- 
t'lans vifited them, they ferved them hril, with 
the befl of their victuals. Their times of eating 
were commonly the morning and evening ; their 
feats and tables, the ground. They lived much 
on mahc^ or hullan corn, roafted in the a(he^, 
fometimes beaten and boiled with water, called 
hominc : they all;) made an agreeable cake of the 
ground corn, and raifed beans and peas ; but the 
woods and rivers afforded them the chief part of 
. their provifions. 

They were great obfervers of the ivecjther, by 
the moon ; they delighted in fine clothjs ; and 
were uneafy and impatient, in ficknefs, for a re- 
medy : for which they commonly drank a decoc- 
tion of roots, in fpring water ; forbearing Helh 
aiieat, excepting of the female only, when in fuch 
. cal'e they ufed any. They were naturally rcfervcd, 
apt to refent, to conceal their refentments, and 
retain them long ; but they were libcial and ge- 

VoL. H. [39] . nerous. 

3o6 GencrnI Stais of Pennfyl-vanla^ 

neroLis, kind and aflable to the EngliJJj. They 
were pundual in their bargains ; and oblerved ■ 
tliis, fo much in others, that it was very dillicuh 
for a perfoii, who had once failed in this particu- 
lar, to get any dealings with them aiierwards: 
they were llrid obfervers of property ; yet, to 
tlie laft degree, thoughllefs and inadlve in ac- 
quiring or keeping it. They did julliee to one 
another, for crimes among themfelves, in a man- 
lier peculiar to them ; even murder \]\n^\i be 
atone tl by fealls, and prefents of ivampuni : the 
j^/riee of a woman killed was twice as much as 
that of a man ; becaufe, laid ihcy, Jhf bred chiU 
drciiy which mm could not do. "When fober, they 
rarely quarrelled among thenifelves. They lived 
to fixty, feventy, and eighty years, and n\ore, bcr 
fore nrm was introduced among them, but feldom 
fo long afterwards. 

Their houlcs, or ivigzvams, were fomctimes 
hoiiL's, many together, in towns ; but niolily moveable, 
tircfb, &e. j^j^j occafionally fixed near i'pringo, ov other wa- 
ters, for conveniency of huniing, fdhiug, balket- 
makhig, kc. built of poles, laid on forked flicks 
fixed in the ground, with bark, ilags, or bullies, 
on the top and fides ; having an opening to the 
fouih, and their fire in the middle. In the night 
they llcpt on the ground, M'ith their feet towards 
the'tire. Their cloathing was a coarfe blanket, or 
ikin, thrown over their flioulders, which covered 
to the knee, and a piece of tlie fame t'wd round 
their legs ; with part of a deer fkin fewed round 
their feet, for Ihoes. When a company tiavelled 
i!^n v^'Tr^', . too-ether, they generally lollowcd each other, in 
i^c. a row fingly, and in lileiice ; fcarcely ever two 

being feen abrealf, or by the fide of each other: 
the man went before with his bow and arrow ; the 
wonvan follou'ed alter, not uncommonly with a 
child on her back, and uilier burdens befidcs ; 
the woman generally carrying the 'luggage. 


heHvecn the Tl-ars 1760 and 1770. 307 

Their young men nvarricd at fixtcen or feven- Their m.u-- 
teen years of age, if before that lime they had j^'.-'i^^' 
given a fufficient proof of their manhood, by a blai'i'."^"' 
large return of fluns. The girls married at about 
thirteen or fourteen, but refided wiih their mo- 
thers, for foiire years after marriage, tp, boe the 
ground, beur burdens, &c. The young vyoinen 
were originally very modeft, but dilliiiguiflied 
themfelves, when at a marriageable Ifate, or age, 
with a kind of worked mats, or red, or blue bays, 
interfperied with fmall rows of wiiitc and black 
wampum^ put round tlie hcaJ, down to near the 
middle of the forehead. Both the young and old 
women were highly ollended at indecent expref- 
fions, urdefs corrupted with (trong liquor. Their 
marriage ceremon,y was fonietimcs thus : — the re- 
lations and friends being prefent, the bridegroom 
delivered a hone to the bride, and. (he gave him an 
ear of Indian corn ; meaning, that he was to pro- 
vide fiedt Tiv^cit^ eind file, bread. It was not unu- 
fual, notu'ithlfanding, to change their mates upon 
difagreement ; the children went with the party 
that loved them moll, the expence being of no 
jnoiuent to either ; but in cafe of diliercnce, or 
difagreement, on this head, the man was allowed 
'the tirlt choice, when the children were divided, 
or wlien there was but one ; but, for the molt 
part, agreeable to the Indian rule, in fuch cafes, 
partw! fcqiijtur venireni^ the children, or young, 
go with the mother ; which is as reafonable among 
them, as among cattle, fmce the whole burdeii 
of bringing up falls, on her. They comnujnly j^^^^^,,^^ 
walhed their children in cold water, as fuon as nun: .if 
borii ; and to make their liwrbs flrait, they tied ''';'' ^;"'' 
tliem to a board, and hung them on their backs, 
when they travelled. Their children ufually walked 
alone at nine months old. From tlieir infiincy 
they were formed with care to endu.e hardllii;);;, 


5o8 General State of Pennfylvaniay . 

to bear derifion, and even blows, patiently-i-at , 
lead, with a compofed countenance. . wu? 

Their Anall knowledge of numbers appeared iii 

their manner of counting, which was by tens^ 

Their fiiLiii ^^^^ j^ ^^^^ ttvi?,. three tens, four tens, &:c. but 

and ingenu^ ' ' ' . i r- 

ityinfome whcn the nuHiber was above their comprehennon, 
things, &c. thgy pointed to the ftars, to the hairs of their 
head, he. and they kept reckoning of time by 
moons. Their ingenuity appeared in feveral of 
their mechanic inventions and ])erformances ; as, 
in their manner of pointing their arrows, with a 
fharp, flinty (lone ; and in their making of their 
axes, of the fame materials, for cutting their 
wood ; which are often found, and dug up in th^ 
fields, with other kinds of their implements. They 
got fire by rubbing certain pieces of wood together 
of different forts, turning the end of a hard piec^ 
upon the fide of one which was foft and dry. By 
the means of fire and their ftone axes, they felled 
large tree^, and afterwards fcooped them into 
bowls and other utcnfils. They were very fludious 
in obferving the virtues of roots and herbs, by 
M'hich they ufually cured themfelves of difeafes, 
both by outward and inward applications ; bcfides 
which they frequently ufed fweating and the cold 
Their go- Their government, in thefe parts, was monar-, 
chical and fuccellive, or hereditary ; but moftly on 
the mother's fide, to prevent i\ fpurious iffue ; 
that is, the children of him who reigns will not 
fucceed, but his brother by the mother, or the 


* Their manner of y^i.-^j.'///;!- the patient war, firft, to inclufc him ijt 
a narrow calihin, in die midft ol which was a red hot flont- ; this ining 
Ireqiiently wetted v/itli water, made a warm vapour; with wJRich and 
his own I'weat, the patient hting lufficiently wet, was imn\cfi'at(]y, in 
this conihti(jn, hrouglit to the iiearcft creek, or river, and jdiinged i?it(> 
ic. 'I'his was repeated as often as was tliought neceilary ; and li-nietinies 
v^as laid to liave performed great cures; but at other times killed the pa- 
tient, nolwithllandiun- the hardy nature-; of the J^iJi^ms, eipeciidly ir 
ihr /■■?,<// ^(px, and oUki: £uroj>eu/i difcail-s. 


hstiucen ihc Tears 1760 and 1770. 309 

children of his fifler : whofe fons were to reign ; 
and after them, the male children of her daugh- 
ters ; for no women inherited. 

Notwithftanding this mode of fucceflion of their 
kings, yet, for extraordinary reafons, it was fome- 
times altered ; of which appears an inflance in 
S. Smith\ hiflory of New Jerfey, in the cafe of 
the old khig Ockanickon, who died at Burlinpon, 
in that province, about the year 1681 : before his 
death he altered the fucceihon ; and inllead of 
Sbeoppy and Swampis^ who, in regular order, were 
to have fucceeded him, he, for reafons in his 
fpeech there given, appointed his brother's fon, 
Jahkurfue, to fucceed him, giving him fome ex- 
cellent advice on the occafion. This king, as 
there related, foon after this, made a good and 
pious exit ; and his remains were interred in the 
^lahW burying ground, at that place, being at- 
tended to the grave with folenniity by the Indians^ 
in their manner, and with great refpeft by many 
of the EngJiJh fettlers ; to whom he had been a 
true friend. 

That formality, which, in the F.uropean flyle, ^^^ ^^^^^ 
or acceptation of the term, conlHtutes what is rciigicu, 
commonly called religion, feems to have made but '^^■• 
little appearance among them, though probably 
they had fome cufloms no lefs irrational ana ridi- 
culous, in the eye of rcafon ; but they were ac- 
quainted with the principle of jullice and truth ; 
which, by their condud, they demonftrated, in a 
high degree, fo far as the moft judicious among the 
firft and early Englifli fettlers obferved, and inform 
us. And it were to be wiflied that what notions 
they had of a Deity, and their aftions relative to 
their ^uty to him, had not, in part, been milVc- 
prefented by any ; who, by attempting to give an 
account of what they did not, or could iiot, fully 
underfland, have fupplicd that deficiency wiih 


jTO General State of Pcnnfyhania,'-- ' 

conjc6l"uves, perhaps \viihoiit defign ofmifrcprc- 
fentailoii, and thereby, iu Ibme things, dilguiied,, 
or obfcured, what, was really known refpcding 
fome of them, in this cafe. 

The Tiiai- ^^ ^^ ^^^"^^ known ihcy were very much averfe'tb 
ans aveiie EiiropcaH religion and cuftoms, unlefs in fucK 
an cSomT ^^'""^S^ ^^^ ^^^^>' could Comprehend, and clearly un- 
&c. ' ' deriland were for their real benefit ; yet, in this, 
fometimes their pailions prevailed over their bettei: 
underllauuing ; inllance, their drunkennefs, Sec. 
But though the hoped and defired fuccefs did not 
fo fully attend tlie labours bcftovvcd on them, and 
the n'teans ufed, both by Williaiii Pcnii hirnfeU", in 
perfon, and by divers others of the niore pious 
and early fettlers, whofe good example was very 
remarkable, with the later endeavours fmce con- 
tinued, to inform the judgment of the India f]s, 
in thefe provinces, in religious affairs, to acquaint 
them with the principles and advantage of Cbrif- 
iitinity, to reftiain them from fonre things, ac- 
knowledged by themfelves to be manifellly perni- 
cious, particularly from abufmg themfelves with 
Jlrong liquor^ by law, as well as advice, kc f(j 
much as might reafonabiy have been widied, or 
t'xpeded ; yet thcfe very labours and means were 
far from being ufelefs, or entirely without good 
elfecl : for the confequcnce declared that the In- 
clians^ in general, were fenlible of the kind regard 
paid them, and of the good intended therel^y j 
wliich ihey Ihewed and proved by their future 
conduft, and fteady Iriendfliip; as appears in the 
preceding hiltory, though they generally refufed, 
in a Ibrmal manner, to etnbrace European /nim/urs, 
/•cli'jion and ct^hiions : '• kor, L'-overned bv their 
a. Smith, ovv'n cufioms, and not by hl\^'s, creeds, £nC. they 
greatly revered thofe of their anccfiors, and fol- 
lowed tliejn fo implicitly, that a new il:r,ught, or 
adJun, fuldum took place among lI:lii\'' 


bctiveen the Tears 1 760 and 1770. 311- 

■ They iire thought (fays William Pctm) to liavc Scc wiiii- 
beh'eved hi a God aiid immortahty ; and lecincd to ='"1 P^nu's 
aim at a public worfhlp : in ))erforming this, they thriu'dia'iis. 
fometinies latin fcveral circles, one within ano- 
ther: the aftion confiilcd of flnging, jumping, 
lliouting, and dancing ; which they are jaid to 
have ufed, moftly as a tradition from their anccf- 
tors, rL:ither than from any knowledge, or enquiry 
(if their own into the feriou^ parts of its origin. 

They faid the great King, who made them, 
dwelt in a glorious country to the fouthward ; 
and that the fpirits of the bell fliould go thither, 
and live again. Their nloft folemn tvordiip was 
a facrilice of the fn^ fruits ; in which they burned 
the firft and fatted buck, and leaded together 
upon what elfe they had colknSted. In this Jacri- 
fice they broke no bones of any creature, which 
they ate ; but after they had done, they gathered 
them together, and burned them very carefully. 
They diilinguifiied between a good and evil 
M'dnetta^ or Spirit ; worlhipping tlife foilirer fol* 
the good, they hoped ; and, it is faid, fome of 
them, the latter, that they might afilicted 
with the r-T/V, which they feared ; {o •flavll'hiy 
dark are ibme of them reprelcnted t6 have been 
in their underdandings ! But whether this lad b^ 
true, in a general feiife, or peculiar only to fome 
parts, it was certainly not the cafe at all among 
the Indians within the limits of th.efe provinces, 
or, at lead, very fnuch concealed from the hrd 
and early fetilers of them. 

But in late years it is lefs to be admired that the i7,-;,ron, for 
Indians^ in thefe provinces, and their vicinity, »^<ii|;'J'a;s' 
have ihewn fo little regard to the Chriftian religi;)!!, c'lS'"-"' 
but rather treated it, as well as its profclToiT,, with v.w^, i.e. 
contempt and abhorrence, when it is duly con- 
fidered what kind of Chrijlians thole generally 
iire, with whom they modly deal and converfe'; 

3 * ^ General State of Pennfyhama, 

as, the Indian traders, and mod of the inhabitants 
of the back counties of this and the neighbouring 
t^rovmces, who have chielly reprefented the pro- 
felforo of Chn/tianitv among them, for many' 
years!* viz. fuch of the lowed rank, and leaft 
mtormed, of mankind, who have flowed in from 
Germany, Ireland, and the jails of Great Britain, 
and fettled next them, as well as thofe, who flee 
from juftice m the fettled, or better inhabited parts 
of the country, and retire among them, that 
they might be out of the reach of the laws, &c 
the lead qualified to exhibit flivourable ideas of' 
this kind ; but it is moil certain they have done 
the contrary ; infomuch that, it were to be wiflied 
the caufe of the late unhappy Indian war within 
the limits of thefe provinces, did not take its rife 
m no fmall degree, from the want of common 
Jultice, in the condud of too many of thefe peo- 
pie towards them : for notwithilanding the general 
Ignorance of the Indian, in many things, efpeci- 
ally of European arts and inventions, yet m things 


Ml! V'^l'^^' '''.*r'"" '.''' ^-"•'^"■^ =""^ ^''= '^"^""". 'n later years efpccl- 
illy, ha, ba-n moflly <„. by the vilcft, and n.oft abandon.d p r of 
the co,„num,ty : the L.Jians have lo„jr had but very little opportunity to 
converlcwuh any other kind of Cfrillians beild/s thef,- , ii? ^ a 
among the. : fro,„ the hves and c.Ja .ll '^^[^f:.^:'/^^ 

printed ,n Z,W.„, ,n 175^;. a, one caufe, amonj. others of tL fift that commenced with them in P../,/...,;., ^^bout the ^ ar 7^4 
;: '"•^'rV''^7'\"r'-^'^'-'l' - ^ ^vouW be too fl,ocking^to lefcriJe 
the con.iud and behay.our of the traders, when an>on^ the 7, W ar^,! 

our /Wv ,rI...o. that when Mr. S.:yr..t, a in iV^^/^W^l/ 
took a journe/, .n 1 74X. to the ,S7.„..,.yJ, ,nd fome other trib bvmt "n 

bciivicn i he Tears 1760 and ijyo. 3 1 

of this kliid they rely more on experience, than 
the()ry ; ;iiul they niolily ibnneil their jiidgmenr 
of I lie'iJh,-QV' Europeans, and of" their rel.r^ion 
and ci[/lo/}!Sy nol from the words, -but from the 
■dcWoivi -dad- Miaiiners of tliofe, with whom they 
nioit coiiverfed and tranfacli^d bufiiicfSi* 
■ Vol. ir. • [40] For, 

* 'J'!!-; followinv;- h:is Ik-cii piinted in Pciiiifylva>:lj, as a genuine fpeech 
rf an A/''.;// ,.'ii./ in that |>r()vniL-e; iiut whctlier it he rcuUy Co, or not, 
it ctr(a;nly contain^ iir^^iinicntt, wliici' have been iiftd hy fome of tl'd'c 
))e(>pli", aiul, in this piuce, may fefve, i:i part, to ^>;ivc ii»ne iJi.i of their 
I'entiii.ciitj on the fuoje^.^!; : it ii thus firll i.uroduc>;J, -uiz. 

■ " In, or iihoiit the year of our I^un!, 1710, a S-wd-fi M'/JTionary 
preached a fernion, at an Lid'uin treaty, iicld ac^.-jrof in Pennfylvdniu ; 
in wliiih lernion lie fee forth ori'in.:!j:r:, the necetlity of a ALiliator ; 
and en.leavoin.-d, hy crtain arj'unicMits, to inchice tiie Infiaiis toemhiacc 
the Cl'i'jih.iu lAr/wa. AfuT he )i ui cikLJ Ins difcourle, one of the 
</;< ciji -f", made w fp.cch in reply to ihc fermon ; and tlie difcourfea, on 
"botli lides, were made known' iiy interpreters. 'Se\\i: M'lJJ'ton iry^ upon 
his return to i>ivrj-n, piddiflicd his fermon, ^md tlie Iiuliun's anIWer. 
ilaviiiir wri/tc the-n in Latin, he dedicattJ tlient to the univerlity of 
Upf::!, and leqifefted them to furnifh him with arjruiuents, to confute 
iiich llrong real'onin;^ of the InJiuns. 'I'lu- fpsicij, iranllatcd from 
the J.atin, is us follows," in:c. 

*< Aj/^j.j-f/j delivered by an In.Uan chief, in reply to a f.=rnion, preacb.ed by 
u y>iii^d]jL M', in oidti' lo convert the J/i.:,uj:s to tlie C.L,:jh..,i 

" Since the fubjcft of ids (the JMitlionary' ,) errand is to pevfuade us 
10 cmbrave a ucw dn.irine. in-rii.ip!. it in i) rioi \ • aniifs, bfi' wc oiic-r 
lijin the nafwns, why we e.imu.i coini>lv w.ih hib r>'.pu ll, to ac.pi.iiut 
bim wul' liie );-iounds and piiuL.j.kjui tli.iL l^li^^ioii, k\ hica lie w uulJ 
Jiuve lib abandun. 

'' OiM- forffathers were imder a ffronp; perfuafiun, as \\f are, that fho''e, 
who ae't v.xll, in this life, (iiail be resvurded in th.- next, aci;ordui;r trj 
the dej^ree of their virtue: ;tnd on the other hand, that ihofe, \\ h.i 
bi.have wiekt'dly here, will imdcrj/o fueh punillmients hereafter, us are 
propf>ri.ionatr to the crimes they weie I'uilty of This hath been con- 
- Ilantly and invariably received and iicl<no\vled^';ed for a truth, titrouyji 
every liu:cefiivc generation of our anccltors. It conlcl not liave tal:ea 
it!i rifi; from fable; for human liftion, liowever artfully and pluufihlv 
coiariv-d. can never jMin crrdir lotu;, anion;;- any jJtople, wb.-ic free 
cnouiry IS allov^id; wliiili was m-ver d. ill il by our imciUors , \%lu., 
on tlie contrary, lluiUjdu it iheficrcd, inviolable, natural rij- lit of eveiv 
man, to examine and jiul^^e for hinifeif. 'J'lieretore \ve think it evident 
that our notimi, concerniiijj future rewards and puinfhmcnis, w;n eith.-r 
repealed iinnicdi.uelv from heavcii, to fome of our forefathers, and from 
r*hem delceiuled to us, or, that it was iniplanteil in eaeli of ns, at our 
creKtion, by the (Jrearor of all tuiiij.;s. Wliarcvcr the inetltods inijclit 
have been, v/hereby God hatii been pleafed to make known to us his 
will, and jjive us .1 kuowled^jc of cur dutj', it ii« ihil; m c.r icn.^, u 

3 1 4 General Statj of Powfvhanla, 

For, however i;';nor;int and in'crfc to European 
a'l'uuL'o? i;c''"^^'i''^^'f» 't"^l v.'iiys of thinking/, on rcliij^ious, 
a f.)iiL<,f iiibjed'^, the Indians^ m genera!, n>i;^ht appear to, 
huci-eU ^^''^'^ been, )'(.!, as in all other nations of nian- 
i^iun. ' kind, it is moit certain there were fonie among 
tlii^ni of a more exalted v/ay of thinking, and en- 

. " Nliw \vc dcfire to jiropoff to him r.iine fi.-w qucftlonti. Docs ht be- 
lleve that our forLratJRr.-,, ni-ii, cnihiciit IV.r their piety, conlhint and 
^■iTin ill the iiiii-iuit of viiiuc, h.)puij!- thereby to nu-i it evfrluftiiiii- liaji- 
Vuvl = , wcve all .;,",;■,,//' ]vot. h(; ihinic thi't wc, %v!ni arc tlur.r zealous 
imic.turs, in ;;-.h)>1 work-, and iiiiUicnccJ by ihc lain^ ia;:;iv(.s as t'lcy 
\\ L-re, tarnolily Liid.avouriii;;, with the j.rreatell; cinruml'pcL'liioii, to traij 
the paths of intcjrrity, are m a ftate of d.tmuj.tkn? If tl'.cl'e be bib fciui- 
nients, they are I'urely U3 impious astlicy urc bolil and durlpg. 

" In tlie r.pyt place, we beo- that he would explain hiinfclf inore par- 
ticularly coiKcrning the reudulkn he tullis of. If he aduiita no other, 
than V. hat is contained in iiis wriiun loch, the contrary is evident, from 
what has been flawn before: but, if he fays, God lias revealed hindVlf 
to us, but not fuliicient fi;r our falvatiun ; then, we ail:, to what jmrpofe 
lliotild he have revealed hiiufelf to us in any wife? It is clear, that a 
r^vc'-ition, inlniiiciei:t to lave, cannot put us in a better condition, thau 
we fluvuld be in, without any revelation at adl. Wt cannot conceive 
that God ihouht jioint out to us the end, we ought to aim at, witliout 
openin;r to us the way to arrive at that er:d. But, fuppoling our uiider- 
llandinj;;3 to be fo far iliuiuinatcd, a: to know it to be <<ur duty to p|;afo 
God, who yet hath Ijft u.> u::der an in ap i,;ity of doing it, will this 
M:jj:enaiy, tlurcfore, conclude that we flK.ll be elcntally damned? Will 
be take upon him to pronounce damnation ag-aii,ft \m, for uot doin;^ ihofc 
tliliij;s, whi.h he biiufelf :iv.l;f.o'.vltdgcs -A ere inipdhble by us to be done ? 
It is our o])Inion that evrry i» pofilflVd of fuHicieiit ' nowledge for 
}iis falvation. The Alivi'ty, for any thli,g we I.ikav, luay bave'Vont- 
inuiiieatal the knowledge of l.imfclf to a diifereiit race of p^u])le, in a 
dllforent manner. 

" Some fay, they have the will of Cod in irrin,ig ; be it fo ; their 
yrvcd.ilk); has no advantage above ours; fincc both lault be equally fufii- 
eienttolUve; otherwife the end of the revelation would be fruKrated. 
liefidei,, if they be both true, tlicy nuifl be the fame in fubftauce; and 
tiie difiercnce can only lie in the mode of conm\unieatioJi He tells us 
there arc many ))recepts in his lurittm revvLtiuii, which we are entirely 
ignorant i>i But thcfc luiillcn commands can only be defigncd for thofe, 
who have the turiiinj^s ; they cannot poilibly regard us. Ifad the Al- 
■ -Ji'd.ty tjiought fo much knowledge neceffary to .mr fahalion, bis good- 
nefs would not long have di.feried the communication of it to u» : and to 
fay, that, in a matter fo necellary, he could not, at one and the fame 
lime, equally reveal himfelf to all mankind, is nothing lef-. than an abfo- 
lute denial of bis ouinipoteure. \'/ithout doubt he can m.,ke liis v.'ill 
manifiil, without the hcl]) of any IrjJ.-, or the adiihmee ol any iwuiiji 
.■.■:.iii whatever. 

" We fnall, in tlic next place, confider the arguments, which arife 
from a conluleration of Providcn.-.-. If wr arc tbt work of God, (vvhieli 
1 prtfumc will not be denied) it follov/i from thence, that wc arc under 


heticecn the Tears lyGo and 1770. 315 

Uglitcned undevflandings, who, notwithflandliv^ 
the great abliirdilics, among the gencrahty, v/ci c 
not without Ibme degree of a juft fenfc and ac- 
knowledgment of the providential care and rci-aril 
ol the Alm'tghty Creator over the huni:in race, 
both in a general and particular capacity, and, 
even, ol divine grace and in'hience on ihe hinnan 
mind, and tliat independent of foreign ii;forniation, 
or inliruclion : of this their imnicdinie fenfe arui 
underllanding of mental ohjecbi, wliich, i;^ molt 
nianilclt, many ol ihcm p>.)!-lL!lcd, evgn of the 
higheil: iiatiire, are very tijindnlh-Litive ; befules, 
part, at leall, of tlicir traditions, from tlieir an- 
cellors, whole prinu: ori.dn d, lo f.i.r ;is it is founded 
in trulli, iiiult; nccL-i'i'niiy liavc [\\\\. arilen from the 
divine Litclligence, though commuriicated in dif- 
ferent degree to diiferent parts of the human race, 


the circ aiul protcdtlon of C,^y\ -. for, it cannot tic fLii);.(;re(l tliat tlic 
7J;/7v fnoiiM ali:wulon his own crc.Utii-ci, a;iJ he utterly rtgiirdk-fs of 
tlitir welfare. 'I'heii, to fay, tl;ut the A!:;iij^hty hath permitted us to 
rturjin in a fatal error, thrcuij^h fo many age*., is to reprLfciit h.'m as a 
tyrant: liow is itconfiftini \vj(li ja/tice, to for.-c life- ujam a race of 
mortals, witlioiit their ci);if;nr, aihl then (.',.'«« thc:fi e.'.-i/u.'.'y, witliout 
c\i-." (ip-ui!;;.^ fo them a door of falvaiion f Our coiun juioiis of the "V.j- 
<■;..., f;.,/,in'!u.l.!f ; and wc tlnuk tli.a ihofe, ^^ ho (each oihrrvvile, 
do littL- 1. fs than h!.,j]:L.>:^. .A'j.ain, it is throiioh the care and goodncfs 
of tiic ^I'rn- ''jty, that from the l)ei';iniiin{; of time, tlirough many gene- 
r.'tions, to tnis day, our nam.; has Ijcen prcfeiv^d, iinhlotted out by ene- 
mies, 'iiuredueed to nothin;)-. ijy the fame care we now enjoy our lives ; 
are furnilheil v/ith the neccifary means of preferving thofe lives, Eut all 
ihefe things are trifling, compared witli our falvutioii. 

" Tliercfore, fiiiee God hath heen fo careful of us, in matters of little 
confeipicnee, it would he ahl'urd to affirm, that he has neglei'^cJ us, in 
cafes of the greateft importance. Admit, that he huth forfaken us, yet 
it could not have heen v/ithout a jult caiife. Let ii-, fujjpofe, that an 
hi-in-jiis ci-'ii.'iL- was committed by one of our aiicefiors, like to that, which 
■we are told, huppeiuil anion^- anorhcr race of people; in fuch cale, CJcd 
V'ould c.-rtainly puniih the ,rimi,iiil, but would never involve us, who 
arc innocent, in liis guilt. Thofe who tliiiili otherwife nuift make the 
A!.'iurh:'y a very ivbinfictl, ili-natvr-.d b.ii.g. Once more, are the Cljiijri.uis 
more virtuous .' or, rathir, are tliey not more vicious, than we are ? If 
fo, liow came it to pal's, tiiat they ;.re the O'^ieU^ o'' Go.!', hciitfjccnce, 
whilj we are neglecl.d.'' i)oes th.e Deity ctaalr \..^ f.i.oui:. witliout rca- 
Jbn, and v.-iih fu aiuch i;artlaii;y r In a wcr 1, \.-j lii.d th..- Cl.i'jli.^ns nuiJi 
mar; depraved, in their morals, ii'i.ui ourfelv>j; c.A ■'.i. judge of il.,.;'r 
dodriiie by ths ('■..■./.■.rC of iLlf I'i.ku" 

3 1 6' Ccueral Slafe c/ Fcnnfihiviia, 

nnd tliou^^h nuicli of fiicii tradition may be mixt 
with iiiKiniiiation and abllirdity. 

Religion of The followjnc^ letter of Conrad JVdJlr to a friend, 
tiie iiKimn.. yefpeaino- tl-ie /.7<//,7;m-, on tb.i? fiibjca, h inform- 
ino-. The auiJior was bcnii in Ccrniany, and' was 
many years Ind'uin interpreter for the [>rovince ; 
and eonlequeinly was well acqiunnted with thefe 
l)e(.jde: he was hif^ddy eileemed by both the En- 
^Jijh ami hul'uins, as a ]>erJon of integrity, (kill 
ami ability, in the difcha;;rc of divers important 
trulls, which had been connniited V^ him by both 
parties, for a lono- leries of years : tiie letter rranf- 
lared irom tlie Gcnuan lanouage, is thus exprelltd, 


" E/lccnicd rrlcmf, 

Conrad " I wi'^f^* ^his, in Compliance wiili thy rcqutfl, 

Wcifcrs to give thee an account of what 1 have obierved 
fj.cdi<.g it. 'iniong the Indians, m relation to tlieir belief and 
conhdence in a Divine ijV/'/v^, according to the 
oblcrvations I have made, from 171.-J, hi tlic time 
of my youth, to this day, (about tlie year 1746). 
" If, by the word religion, people mean an af- 
fcnt to certain creeds, ()r the obfervance of a let of 
religions duties ; as, appointed prayers, lingings, 
preaching, baptifm, kc. or, even, Idcalhenijh 
ivorjhip, then it may be faid, the Five Natio?is, and 
their neighbours, have no religion. Eur, if, by 
religion, we mean an attraclion of the foul to God, 
wherice proceeds a conhdence in, and hunger af- 
ter, the kncAvledge of him, then tliis people muft 
be allov/ed to have fom.e ledgion among them, not- 
withlbmding their iomx'times favage deportment. 
ViiY v/e iind among them ibme tracls of a confi- 
dence in Cod alone; and, even, fomeiimes, 
tliough but leldom, a vocal calling upon him: I 
fliall idve one or two inflances of this, that iidl 
under my ov.n obfervati(;n. 

hcl-.vccn ihc Tears lyGo and 1770. 317 

, " 111 the year 1737, I was lent, the firfl tunp, 
to Ononda^n^ at the defire of the Governor of 
Virginia. 1 depiirted in the latter end of February, 
very unexpectedly, for a journey of hve hundred 
Engliflj miles, through a wildernels, where there 
was neither road nor path, and at fuch a time of 
the year, when creatures (animals) could not be 
met with, for food. There were with me a Dutch- 
vwn and tliree Indiafu. vVtier we Iiad gone one 
hundred and fifty miles on our journey, we came 
to a narrov/ valley, about half a mile broad, and 
thirty lon-:^ ; both fides of which were encornpaf- 
fed with liijTh mountains ; on which the I'now laid 
about three feet deep : in it ran a Itream of water, 
alfo about three feet deep ; which vvas fo crooked, 
that it kept a continued winding courfe riom one 
lide of the valley to the other. In order to avoid 
wading f(3 often through the water, we endea- 
voured to pais along on the flope of the moun- 
tain ; the fnow being three feet deep, and fo hard 
frozen, on the top, that we could walk upon it : 
but we were obliged to make holes in the Inow 
with our hatchets, that our feet might not flip 
{■own the mountain ; and thus we crept on. It 
j^.appcned that the old biaiaa'^ foot Hip! ; niid tlij 
root oi' a tree, by wliich he held, bicaking, lie 
Hid down the mountain, as from the r;xjl- ot a 
lioufe ; but happily he was (lopped in his fall, by 
the ftring, which- fallened his pack, hitching on the 
ftump of a fmall tree. The other two Indians 
could not go to his aid, but our Dalrb f;jlkr.v-ri a- 
veiler did ; yet not without vifible danger ol his 
own life. I alfo could not put a foot forward, 
till I was helped ; after this we took the fir'l oppor- 
tunity to defccnd into the vali^y ; wiiich v.^)^ not 
till after we had laboured liard for half an hour 
, with hands and feet. Ilavii-,;i; ol)!'crvcd :\ tree ly- 
ing diredly o'rf, i'nnu Vv'licrethe l/i/ia'i lell, v/heu 
we Were got into the valley ag:iin, we \v_Mit back 


3 1 8 General Slate of Fcnnfyhvanla, > 

about one hundred paces, where we faw, that if 
the Indian had llipt lour or live paces further, he 
would have fallen over a rock, one hundred feet 
perpendicular, upon craggy pieces of rocks below, 
■^i'he Indian was afionifhed, and turned quite pale ; 
tlien wiih out-flretched arms, and great earnefl:- 
nefs he fpoke thefe words : " / ihank the great 
Lord and Governor of this ivorld^ in that he has 
had mercy upon me^ and has been willing that I 
fjjould live longer.''' Which words I, at that time, 
put down in my journal : this happened on the 
25th of March, 1737. 

" In the 9th of April following, while we were 
yet on our journey, I found myfelf extremely \'.'eak, 
through the fatigue of fo long a journey, with the 
cold and hunger, which I had iuUered; there having 
fallen a frclh fnow about twenty inches deep, and 
we being yet three days journey from OnondagOy 
in a frightful wildernefs ; my Ipirit failed, my bo- 
dy trembled and ihook ; I thought I fliould fall 
down and die ; I Ilept alide, and lat down under 
a tree, expediting there to die. My companions 
foon mifled me ; the Indians came back, antl found 
nie fitting there. They remained awhile hlent ; 
at lad, the old Indian faiil, " My dear companion, 
thou hall hitherto encouraged us, wilt thou now 
quite give up ? remember that evil days are better 
than good days : for when we fuller much, we do 
not lin ; fm will be driven out of us by fuiTering : 
but good days caufe men to hn ; and God cannot 
extend his mercy to them ; but contrarywilb, 
when it goeth evil with us, God hath companion 
upon us." Thefe words made me alhamed ; I 
role up, and travelled as well as I could. 

" The next year I went another journ.ey tn 
Onond^/go^ in company with "fofchh ^ixinhcnherg 
and two others. It h;i)>pencd il:;it an InJian ciiine 
to LIS in the evening, who had luiilier (liocs, Wnck- 

bct'wan the Tears 1700 mtd 1770. 319 

tugs, flilrt, gun, knife, nor hatchet ; in ;i word, 
he h;\d nothing but an old torn blanket, and Ibnie 
rags. Upon enquiring whither he was going, he 
anl'wered to Onoudago. I knew him, and aiked 
liim how he could undertalce a journey ol' three 
hundred miles fo naked and unprovided, having 
no provifions, nor any arms, to kill creatures, for 
his fuflenunce ? He anfwered, he had been among 
encmio;, and liad been obliged to fave himfelf by 
flight ; and fo had loll all. This was true, in 
parr ; for he had difpofed of fome of his things 
among the Irijh^ lor Itrong liquors. Upon fur- 
ther talk, he told me very chearfuUy ; '' That 
God fed every thing, which had life, even, the 
rattle fnakc itfelf, though it v/as a bad creature ; 
and that God would alfo provide, in fuch a man- 
ner, that he Hrould get alive to Onondngo ; he 
knew for certain that he Ihould go thither ; that 
it was vifible God was with the Indians^ in the 
wildernefs 5 btcaufe they ahvays cad their care 
upon him ; but that, contrary to this, the Euro- 
peans always carried bread with them." He was 
an Onondiuo Indian ; his name was Onontcvj-keta ; 
the next day wc- travelled in company ; and the 
day iollowing I pKjvitlcd him with a knife, halelict, 
flint, and tinder, alfo lliocs and ftockings, and 
fent him betore me, to give notice to the council 
at Ononda;^0y that I was coming ; which he truly 
performed, being got thither three days befLire us. 

" Two years ago I was fent by the Governor to 
Shamr'kin^ on account of • he unhappy death of John 
JlrmJlron\!^, the Indian trader, (about 1744). After 
I had performed my errand, there was a feaft pre- 
pared ; to which the Governor's merfengers were 
invited : there were about one hundred })erfons prc- 
fent, to whom, after we had, in great filence, devour- 
ed a fat bear, the eldei'l of the chiefs made a fpeech, 
in which he faid, " That, by a great misfortune, 
three of their brethren, the white men, had been 


320- ■ Gsneral State of Pennfyhania, 

killed by an Indian ; that neverthelefs the fun Wan 
not let, (meaning there was no war) ; it had only 
been foniewhat darkened by a fmall cloud, \ihich 
was now done away ; he that had done evil was 
like to be puniflied, and the land to remain in 
peace : tlicrcFore he exliorted his people to thank- 
fulncfs to God ; and thereupon he began to fing 
with an awful folemnity, but without exprefllnsr 
any words ; the others accompanied him with tlieii: 
voices : aher they had done, the fame Indian\ 
with great earneltnefs, or fervour, fpoke thefe 
words; " ''I hanks, thanks, be Jo ihcc, thou ^reat 
Lord of the world, in that thou hajt again caufed 
thefuntofjinc, and hiijt difpcrfed the dark cloud; 
— the Indians are thine," 

. f One more inflance may be mcndoned on this 

Account "■"/-,•,-, I'll I 

iomeriiigi- lubjecu, wnicli has come under m.y own obferva^ 
S"'" ^^^^^ '"-^^^"^ perfonal knowledge. In the fummer of 
the year 1760, a number of religious Indiajis paid 
a viht to the S^iakcrs in Philadjtphia, on a icligir 
ous account. They were moilly o'i the Minufing 
tribe, and came from a town called Muhackloofingy 
o\- Wyalujing, on, or near the eait branch of Suf- 
quahanna river, in Pennfyl-vania, about two hun- 
dred miles north Avellward from the city. Their 
chief man, whom the reil of the company ILyled 
their minifler, was named Pa[)anehung, or Papon- 
nan ; and their interpreter, ^"Jub Chi I la-way, an In- 

On their arrival, they wailed on Governor Ha- 
milton, to pay him their velpeds, and to deliver 
three priibners, wlioni they had redeemed ; hav- 
ing thendelves ablolutely refufed to join with die 
other . Indians, in the iavage war, which raged 
about that time ; though their vilit was principally 
on a dillerent account. 

They had a public conference with llie Govern-- 
or, in the Itute-lioufc, on the occiiiiun, in the 

ous in( 
in 1760, 

hii-iveen the Tcnrs 1760 and lyjd 321 

prefence of mciiiy citizens ; wherein Papoinmn ex- 
prelied the defign of their vifit was principally to 
the Shfakcrs, on a religious account ; that they 
defired to do juftice, to love God, and to live in 
])eace ; requelling, at the fame time, that none of 
his company fhould be permitted to have any fpl- 
rituous liquors, &c. lie refufed the prefents, offer- 
ed by tile Governor, and gave him the reafons ; 
further faying : " I think on God, who made us ; 
I want to be inflrucled in his worfliip and fervice ; 
I am a great lover of peace, and have never been 
concerned in war affairs ; I have a fmcere remem- 
brance of the oliifneiu/Jhip betv.'ccn the Iiid'ums and 
your forcf if l/jtrs J and iliall ever obferve it." After , 
mentioning lome other things, and expreHing 
himfclf furiher on the view, or defign, of their vi- 
fit, on a religious account, he faici, " Though 
what he had mentioned refpeiting religious aifairji 
might appear trivial to fome, wlio thought differ- 
ent from him, yet he was fixed in Ids mi)id re^ 
fpeding them ; that their young men agreed with 
him, and wanted to love God, and to defdt from 
their former bad courfe of life ;" further declaring, 
" T am glad I have an opportunity of mentioning 
thcie leveral aliairs in the prefcnce of fuch a large 
auditory of young and old people; the great God 
obferves all that palfes in our hearts, and hears 
all that we fay one to another,^' c^c. The notes, 
&c. on the occahon, were taken Irom the inter- 
preter by Secretary Pinters. 

He then fmillied with a folemn aft of public 
thankfgiving and prayer to Goil, with great devo- 
tion and energy, in the Imlian A/;/ 1;//,. '-^i^ (not being 
ablf" to fpeak nor underitand Kn\^Hl!jJ. Tile un- 
ufualnefy, fi.rce and found of the h>'/i(7/i 'anyji^igc, 
on fuch an occidion, v/ith the manJiviL ^^ireat hn- 
ccrity, fervo'ar ,iud concern of the ipeakci-, feemcd 
to linke the ■^vimic' au(.!ir(»ry in an u.ncomnKiii 
manner, as well a.s liie hu'iuns ih.tiiilelves j wifo, 

Voj.. II. [41] ail 

322 • General S>i ate cf Fennfjlvamcty . 

all the while, behaved with a gravity and deport- 
ment becoming the occafion, and appeared to 
imite heartily with him, in his devotion. 

They were kindly treated by the Governor, and 
remained in town afterwards feveral days, vifiting 
and conferring with divers of the Friends^ or ^a- 
kers, and attending their religious meetings, while 
they ftaid ; who behaved towards them in a kind, 
hofpltable and friendly manner. They repeatedly 
exprefled their great dillike and abhorrence of 
war, as arifing from a bad fi)irit, admiring that 
tlie Chri/lians were fuch great warriors, rather 
than lovers and cultivators of peace, kc. They 
kept themfclves entirely from flrong liquor, and 
imiformly obferved a Ibber, orderly and comn:iend- 
able behaviour, often exprefling their fatisfactiou 
with what they heard from the Friends. 

From the account, they gave of themfclves, 
they had been of this mind for feveral years be- 
fore this time ; and, as far as appeared, and was 
underflood by tliofe they vifitcd, principally from 
an immediate fenfe of divhie goodnefs, manifeited 
in their minds, without any inflrumental means, 
preaching, or information from other pcrfons ; 
yet, it was but lately, that in a more efpecial 
manner they had been thus difpofed, and tliat Pa~ 
■pounan had been induced to preach among them ; 
in which fervice he was afterwards joined by two or 
three other Indians. They appeared very earnefl 
and fmcere in promoting true piety ; which they re- 
prefented, according to their apprehenfjon of it, 
to be the ellect of an internal operation of the di- 
vine inlkience on the mind ; whereby it became 
changed from a bad to a good fl;ite : this they em- 
phatically expreffed by the heart hcLOinlr.g ftj't^ and 
jUled zi'itb good, &ic. 

The interpreter gave the following account of 
FapiiacLun'j's change, or convcrfion, viz. " lie 


beHueen the Tears 1760 and ijjo. 

was formerly a drunken man ; but the death of 
his father bringing forrow over his mind, he fell 
into a thoughtful, melancholic ftate ; in which his 
eyes were turned to behold the earth, and confidcr 
the things which are thereon ; from feeing the 
folly and wickednefs, which prevailed, his forrow 
increafed 5 and it was given him to believe, there 
was a great power, which had created all thefe 
things. Upon which his mind was turned from 
beholding this lower world, to look tov/ards him, 
who had created it ; and ftrong defires were raifed 
in his heart after the further knowledge of his 
Creator : neverthelcfs the Almi;^h!y was not yet 
pleafed to be found, or known, by him. But 
his defires increafmg, he forfook the town, and 
.went into the woods, in great bitterncfs of fpirit. 
He was miffed by the other Indians^ who feared 
fome cafualty might have happened to him, but 
after iearching for him, he was not found. At 
the end of iive days it pleafed God to appear to 
him, to his comfort ; and to give him a fight not 
only of his own inward (late, but alfo an acquaint- 
iuice, or knowledge, into the works of nature : fo 
that he apprehended a feiife was given him of tlie 
virtues and natures of feveral herbs, roots, j)lants, 
trees, with the diiierent relation they had one to 
another ; and he was made fenfiblc that man ftood 
in the nearefl: relation to God, of any part of tlie 
creation. It was at this lime that he was more 
• particularly made fenfible of his duty to God. 
He came home rejoicing, and endeavoured to put 
in praclice what he apprehended was required of 
him," kc. 

Thele Indians made a fecond vifit to the ^hta- 
kcrs in the next following fummer, on the fainc 
account, and behaved in the fame regular and be^ 
coming manner as before. 'J^hev maintained an 
orderly public worfhip, in tlieir way, at fiat^.l 
times : at ioviii^ of which th-y were viiitJd by Icver^d 


324 General Si ale of Fennfjlvama^ 

of the Friends. Papunehung^ their chief preacher,, 
in his difcourfes, at Inch times, principally ad-i 
vilcd and exhorted theni to circumfpection, and. 
brotherly love, in their conduct ; that it might be 
manifcfl they retained a true fenfe of their Crea-i 
tor's goodnefs and favour continued to them ; and' 
in his public prayers and addrelles to his PtTaker, 
lie acknovv'ledged, and returned thanks for, his; 
mercy, in Hill alfording them a fenfe of his coni- 
palhon and loving kindncls, requeuing a continu- 
ance and incrcaie thereof; that they might jointly 
knov/, in th.e end, a place of relt, where love 
would prevail and have the dominion. When 
they were not diiperjcd, as in their hunting feafon, 
it appeared, they conftantly met in this manner, 
in the morning, before fim rife, and In the even- 
ing, after fun-Vet. 

The purport of more of Papunehung's cxpref- 
fions \va:;, " That it v:is an affair of naicli for- 
vow to him, that men ihould ri]akc fo bad ul'i^ of 
the breath of life, which God had brcatfed into 
them; wvm uhich ought conrinualiy to be im- 
proved to his honour, and the mutual beneiit 
ol mankiiul ; that it was not veil to ipeak of 
things, which related to the Alv.iighiy^ only from 
the root of the tongue; (meaning, in a iuperfi- 
cial, or infenfiblc, manner) but, in order that 
fuch Vsords Ihould be good, they mull proceed 
iVom the good piinclple in the heart ; iliat lie had, 
lor many years, felt llie good fpirit in his heart ; 
but, wanting to try and prove it, in order to come 
to fome certainty, he remained in an unitttled 
ilate, till about iour years ago, wlien he received 
an alfuranci, that this love was good, and that he 
needed no further enquiry about Itf \ aiid beiiig 
paft all doubt, that this was tlie right way, he 
had endeavoured to walk fteadily therein ftnce 
that time ; this fpirit was a jpirit of love ; and 
that it was his daily prayer, that it mioht continu- 

hchvsen the Tears 1760 and 1770. 325 

ally abide with him. That when he felt it preva- 
lent in his heart, he was ib direded, as to fpcak 
what was right, and prevented from faying any 
wrong thing ; that by rcafon of men not keeping 
to this love, which their Maker hath given them, 
in their hearts, the evil fpirit gets poUcilion there, 
and deftroys all that is good in them ; and tliis is 
the caufe why men diflike one another, grow an- 
gry with, and endeavour to kill, one another ; 
but when we follow the leadings of the good fpi- 
rit, it caufes our hearts to be tender, to love one 
another, to look upon all mankind as one, and l"o 
to become as one family," &c. 

That flrict amity between the Indians and the firfl 
and early Englifl:) fettlers of Pcnnfylvania and New 
Jerfey, and their fuccelTors, for above feventy years, 
with the means of fixing and preferving that friend- 
fliip, have already been occafionally mentioned in 
the courfeof the preceding liifiory. It was about 
the year 1754, when a very dilFerent conduct be- q^^^_^ 
gan to exhibit itfelf, in fome of the Indians, fitu- i.icncement 
ated north welhvard of the fettled jiarts of Femi- i,'^,,'/,'',']""!^ 
fylvanid, very contrarv to what bclore had been I,■.^4, '>^'-- 
the uuiuirm practice of tliat people, in this pro- 

Iloflilitics commenced: and many of the fron- 
tier inhabitants fuffered, in confeqnence of a i:i- 
vage war. The alfair was confidered as very ex- 
traordinary, and caufed much fpecuiation in fucli 
perfons, as were but little acquainted Vv-ith the na- 
ture and management of Indian alFair.^, about that 
time, in the province ; tliat. thefe people, who 
had ever fiiewed thcmfelves kind and Iteady friends 


N'otf. Bcfuics Pahiiiiehiing and his company, there were fome oth-T 
fober, rcliirioiifly difpofcd IiuUiiiis, who tanie to Ph}lii.Ll:<l'ij ulioiit ttiis 
time, from a place ubout ilfty miles above IVyjlnf'.'!;^ ; of thefe;/ 
Curt'n, of the N-iiiii^oke tribe, was one. He Iiad formerly been addloltd 
to flrun^ hcjuor, but was now rt formed by nit;;ins of Piifiiiurhtinj^\ iiii- 
niflry, bicomc a fobi.r muu, and :if>.Lr fome timr, a prt-ichcr uniun<!, iiis 

326 General State of Pcnufyhama^ • 

to the Englifi^ for fucli a long fcries of years, as 
ever fincc their firll arrival in the country, lliould 
now become their enemies, and join with the 
French againft them : and many, who had been 
continually flocking into the province, in later 
years, having from their inexperience and igno- 
rance, too defpicablc an opinion of that people, 
and treating them accordingly, were by this con- 
duel fooliflily enraged agalnit the whole fpecies 
indifcriminately ; infomuch that, in the latter part 
of the year 1763, calling to their aid themadnefs 
of the wildcil enthufiaim, with which, under 
pretence of religion, certain moft furious zealots, 
among the i)reachers of a numerous feet, in the 
]irovhice, could infpire their hearers, to cover 
their barbarity, a number of, not improperly nam- 
ed, armed dcmi-fava^cs^ inhabitants of Lancafter 
county, principally from the townfliips of Pax-^ 
tang and Donnegal, and their neighbourhood, 
committed the moft horrible mafjacre^ that ever 
was heard of in this, or perhaps, any other pro- 
^ ince, w ith iuipunity ! * and under the notion of 


*■ The following entiad is token from nn «uthentic publication, 
piinteJ at that time in FhiLt.htplLi, entitled, " A narrjlivi of the Lt^ 
{.■.'iijficrcfj, in Ltincdjler (ouitty, oj' u tiumbcr of Indians, J'ritnJs of tLis firo-^ 

" Thcfc Indians were tlie remains of a tribe of the Sis: I^.itio/is, fet- 
tled at CoinfiojTOf, and thciiee culled ComJJcgai: On the full arri-. 
val of tlic Eii'^lijb in Pcnnfyhaniu, meffengers from this tribe came to 
welcome them, \vith prefcnts of vrnifon, corn Sil\d ft: ins ; ;\nd the v/hole 
tribe entered into a treaty of friendlhip f.ith the firft; l-'rojirietary H'ilHant 
fain; ivhich ivas ia Lif as L.ny a^ the f.n fauU fim, or tie ivutas run 
into the rivers. 

" This treaty has been fince fretjnenlly renewed, and the chain Lrlght- 
emd, us they exprefs it, from time to time. It has never been viol.ucd, 
on their part, or ours, till now. As their lands, by degrees, were moltly 
purchafed, and the fcttlement of the •!:'A/'t/><s//t began to furround ilum, 
the I'reprielor aflliriied tliL'm lands ov.xhc manor of V.ouiP,o/o:, which they 
might not part with; there they have lived many years, in fiimdfip 
with their ii.<hit£ n.ighbvurs, who loved them for tlisir peaceable, inoft'enr 
Cvc hchavioiir. 

" It has alwayt been obferved, that Lid'.um, fettled in the nei^'hluiur- 
koi.M of -iibnc /v./'.'f, do liyt iiicrw,!!'.-, but diniliiilh tc/;.tj.;i.-l]y. 'i his 


hcliceenthe Tears I'jGo and ijjo. 527 

extirpating the Heathen from the earth, as Joflnia Maff.cre of 
did of old, that thefe faints might poirefs the land ''^^^ Co.ic- 
alone, they murdered the remains of a whole tribe anf"&-J',''^' 
of peacealjle, inolfenfive, helplefs Indians^ who 
were Bntijh fubjeds^ young and old, men, wo- 
men and children, fituated on Conejlogoc manov^ 
: ■ in 

tribe accordinjjly went on dimirlfliing, till there remained in their town, 
on the niiinor, but twenty pcri'ous, -viz., fcven men, live women and eight 
children, boys and girls. 

" Of thefe Shd'a.'s wns a very old man, having afTifted at the fecond 
treaty, held with them by ATr. Pam, in 1701 ; and ever fince continued 
a' faithful friend to the Englijh ; he is faid to have been an cxcccdincj good 
man, confidcring his education, being naturally of a mofl kind, bene- 
volent temper. 

" This little fociety continued the cuftom they had begun, when 
more numerous, of addreffing every new Govt>n»r, and every d.fcend.mi 
of the firil Pivhrictary, Welcoming him to the province, afluring him of 
their fidelity, and praying a continuance of that favour and protection, 
which thoy had hithertu experienced. They had accordingly fent up an 
addrcfs of this kind to our prefent Governor (Join P:r.n, Efquire) oil 
his arrival; but the fame was fcarce delivered when the unfortunate ca- 
taflrojihe happened, which we are about to relate. 

" On Wcdnefday, the 14th of December, 1763, fifty-feven men, 
from fome of our frontier townfhips, who had projected the dcflrudiou 
of this little connnonwcalth, came all well mounted, and armed with 
fire-locks, hangers and hatcliets, having travelled througii the country 
in the night to Couifo^^os mani<r. Tliere they liuTounded the fmall vil- 
lage of huts, and jult at br.nk of day, broke in upon them alt 
ut once. Only three nun, two wouun, aii.l .1 young Ihjv were found 
at liome ; the reU bvdngout among tlie neighbouring -.lA.Vf /.■(//•/.-; lonij 
to fell their balkets, hrooins and bov.da, thty mar.ufa«flured, ami other* 
on other occafions. Thefe jioor defencelefs creatures were imivediately 
fired upon, llabbed and hi.tchcted to death ! The good SL-luus, anum'j' 
the red, cut to pieces in his bed I Ail of them were/t<7//.-./, and other- 
wife horribly mangle J. Then their huts were fet on fire, and moll of 
them burnt down. 

" The Magiflrates of I.ctnc.}J\cr fent out to colleifl the remaining ///. 
d'lans, brought them into the town, for their better fecurity againft any 
furtlier attempt ; and, it is f.iid, condoled v/ith them, on the misfortune, 
that had h'.ippened, took them by tbe hand, ^.nA proiniJlJ them frotulkn. 

" Tliey were i)ut into the work-houfe, a ilroiig liuilding, as the place 
of grealelt iafety. 

" Thefe cruel men again afTembled therafelves; and hearing that the 
remaining fourteen Indians were in the work-houfe at L^mcajhr, tiiey 
fuddenly lippcaretl before that town on the tventy-fevcnth of DoCiiahtr, 
Fiity of them armed as before, dii'mounting, went direiflly to the work- 
houfe, and by violence broke ojjcn the door, and entered with tlic utmoll 
fury in their countenance^. V/hen the poor wretches law tliey had nu 
protcilion nigh, nor could pollibly efeape, and bein-j without the leait 


3,28 General State of Pcnnfyhania, 

in the (iime county ; \vherc they had been placed 
by the government, in former time j and had 
ever fmce continued in ftrift and inviolable friend- 
fhip with the Euglijh ; being then far within the fet- 
tled parts of the province, and entirely innocent, as 
to the war : of whom mention has already been 
made, in the preceding hidory, refpeding their 


v/capon of (k-fciice, they dl/ided tlicir little familie?, the children cling* 
iiijr to their parcuts; ihcy Lll on tliLir I'accs, i>rotcltcd their innocence, 
declared their lave to the F.n^lijh, an<l that, in their whole lives, they 
had never done them injury ; and in this poilure, they all received tha 
hiitchct ! Men, women and children, were every one inhumanly mur- 
dered in cold blood ! 

" The barbarous men, who committed the atrocious fadt, in defiance 
of government, of all laws himv.m and divine, and, to the eternal dif- 
gracc of their country and eulour, then mounted their horfes, huzzaed^ 
ill triumph, as if they ha>l gained a vidory, and rode ofT uiimoleftcd L 

" The bodies of the murdered were then brought out, and expoftd 
iii the flreet, till a hole couKl he made in the earth, to reTcive and cover 
thtm. But the wicktdncfs taniiot be covered, and the guilt will lie on 
the whole land, till juflice is done on the 7mn\Li:)-s. Ihc bluuJ of the 
innocent luill ciy to hcavm for lU'.i^L-uinr. / 

, " Notwilhftanding the ])roelamations and endeavours of the Governofj 
on the occafion, &c, [contiimeb the narrative] " The murderers having 
given out fuch threateiiings ag.iinfl: thul'e th;:t difipproved their proceed- 
ings, that the whole country Lemj to he in terror, and no one duril 
i'peak what he knows; cveu, the letters from thence are unflgned, in 
which any dillike is expreffed of the rioters. 

" But it feems thefc people (being chiefly Prefbyterians) think they 
have a better jullifieation — nothing kfs than the ii'orJ of (JoJ. With the 
fcriptures in tluir hands and mouths they can ftt at nought that expref* 
Lommand, " •T/jou fou/t ,lo no munkr^' and juflify their wickednefs by 
the command given Jofjuj, to deilroy the lleuil^n ! Horrid pcrverfion 
of fcripture and of rthgion ! to father the worll of crimes on the Gui 
of Uv: ilnJ ^c'./.e^ / 

« The faith of tliis government has been frequently given to thofe fn- 
tfhiiu, but that did uot avail tliein \>i\\.\i pc-ople ',vhu dfff ,ill iiovanm^ni^' 

So far had the infec^lion fpread, wlii.h caiifed ihiiae'lion, and fo much 
had fear feizcd the mind, of the pewpi,', or pcih.ajis b.jth, that neither 
the printer nor the wrier ui tl^^ luMieitioii, tiujugh fujipof. il to be 
as nearly conncded as i-i.:i,i;,n a. id Jl.d! wire at tluu time, and men of 
the firft charader in their v/ay, .lid nut iiuirt either their names, or 
places of abode, in it I 

It was printed while the infurgents v. ere preparing to advance toward* 
PLiULIphia ; or on their way thi.lier : it appeared to .have fomc effed, 
in preventing the threatened coiiri:(pieiices, by exciting an exerticn of 
endeavours, ii^ tiie citizens, for that purpofe; and being a relation of 
real fads, though writ in a hurry, it was never anfwertj or toiitiadideil. 

bct-wccn the Tears lyC'-i aiul 1770. 329 

h'fl conipiift with iVilliani Penn, m the year 1701 ; 
and in the treaties held with them fmce by Go- 
vernor Ki'iil), kc. 

" The bloody fcene was compleated in the 
town of La?ic(tjier itfelf ; where the remainder of 
the tribe, which had efcaped the lirft flaughter, 
taking refuge, declaring their innocence, and cry- 
ing for mercy and protection, were through tlie 
connivance, if not the encouragement, of the 
Cbi'ijlian-profc/fing Magillratcs, and other princi- 
pal perfoas of ttiat town, all inhumanly butcliered, 
in cold blood, even Infants at the bread, by the 
fame party of armed ruffians, at mid-day, without 
oppofition, or the leaft molefbation ! — to the lall- 
ing infamy of the inhabitants of that place, who 
had power fufficient to prevent it 1" 

With hands imbrued in innocent blood, and 
taking courage from their unoppofed fuccefs and 
cruelty, the infurgents nov/ greatly increaied in 
number, and proceeded towards Philadelphia, 
with avowed intention to cvit off a party of inno- 
cent and friendly Indians there ; confiding of thofe 
of IVyala/ing, before mentioned, and fome others ; 
who h.ul ihrown themfelves under the protection 
of the governn\ent, to th- number oi' about one 
hundred and forty. By their conducf, they ap- 
peared to depend on the fecret alii (lance of a num- 
ber of their brethren, the fame kind of faints, in 
that city ; who, afterv/ards, by many of them 
advocating their caufe and proceedings, with other 
{trong lymptoms, appeared to have been, cither, 
in fome manner, privately connected with the):i, 
or concerted and directed the whole tragical and 
bloody infurre6tion. 

This lawlefs bandllti advanced, in many hun- 
dreds, armed, as far as Gerniantozvn, wJihin about 
fix miles of the city, threatening death and jlaugh- 
ter to all, who ihould dare to oppofe them j and. 

Vol. 11. [4: I in 

General State of Penn/yhania^ 

in all probability, they would have- efFecled tlieir 
bloody purpofe, had they not met with fuch a pro- 
per and vigorous oppolition from the government, 
and the inhabitants of Fhiladelph'ui^ as they fecni- 
ed not to expetl ; v/hich put a itop to their career. 
But fo far was the contagion fpread, and fo deeply 
had the fpirit of lacHon infected the minds of ma- 
ny, that the weaknefs of the government was not 
able to punilii thefe murderers, nor to challife the 
infurgents ! a forrowful prefagc of an approaching 
change in that happy conllitution, which had fo 
long afforded a peaceable afylum to the unjuftly 
opprefled and dilireflcd, by means of the great 
influx and increafe of fuch kind of people into 
it, of later years, as experience has abundantly 
demonRratcd a rod of iron is more proper to 
rule, than fuch a mild ellablifliment, as is better 
adapted to promote the profperity of the virtuous 
and good, than pro})erly to challife the molt pro- 
fligate of mankind ; more calculated to make men 
happy, than to punilh the wicked and ungoverna- 
ble, according to their demerits. 

But there were many in the province, who very 
well knew the caufe of this revolt of the Indians, 
and of the forrowful confcquences of it ; which, 
it was not in their power, at that time, to prevent. 
The management of Indian affairs was put into 
new hands ; and after the death of James Logan,"" 
if not fome time before, a very different conduci 
was too much pracliied towards that people, from 
that which formerly had never failed to gain and 
preferve their friendfliip and alliance. 

The Puakcrs, whom the Indians regarded from 
the beginning, above any other people in the pro- 
vince, were excluded from the Proprietary agency, 
to v^hich the management of their affairs was 


' 'Jji/:.i Loaan, who illcd in 1 75 1, \va'j the l'ro|jrii.n:-.ry'b Secretary, 
:'iul principal ^Vgeut, or couiniiiiioiicr, I'ur 1-nd a.'r.iivi, l"i>r iic.w I'orty 

hct'ivcen the Tears 1760 and 1770. 331 

chiefly committed ; though they were, for llie 
above reafon, of all peribns the mod proper to be 
concerned, or to ad, in it. 

But there were feveral caufes, which ^(-hiiiiii- (_..,„,r ^ of 
ftered to the unhappy rupture; which may be fcen, ti.c v^^Xvmx 
as mentioned in a treatifc, publilhed in London^ in '^••""' '-^^^•^"' 
171^9, wuM^iwmPcnnfylviUiia^ entitled, '■^ An en- 
quiry into the caiifes of the alienation of the Delaioare 
and Shawanef Indians, from the Britifj intenf," 
Sec. And, in the whole, it is certain they had been 
too much neglected ; of which the French, then 
at war with the Englijh, made their advantage. 

The principal cauTes of the quarrel and aliena- 
tion of thcle Indians were aUcrtcd to be, 

7'7/-//, The abufes committed in the Indian 
trade ; which luid been, more or lefs, of long- 
continuance, and very didicuit to be properly regu- 
lated, or redrelfed ; though doubtlefs a great part 
of them might have been better guarded againfi, 
and prevented, than they really were.* 


* Governor Thomas, in a ineiTagc to the /ifTcmbly of Ptnufylyjui.;, in 
17^4, fay^, " 1 eniindt Init he aiiprehcnlivc thut t!ie I.iJian truc'ic,:is it is 
mn\ i-.une.l on, will ii.Nolvi us in fiune f;it,il (ji'.jrn! with the /.-..'....vj. 
Our tr.Kleis, in ileli.ince of the hiws, carry ipiriiiumf lii]uors iunon^ 
ihein, and t.ike the adv:unjji-e of tlicir iiicniinate app; tit.- for it, tj efieat 
them of theii-y?7'/;j-, ami their iv.impu:!!, wliich is tlieir money, anJ oltcii 
(lehaucli tluir wives into the harg-ain. Is it to be wondered at, tiien, if, 
%vhcn they recover fioni their drunken fit, tliey fnould take f'onic f-virt: 
revenges,? If lam rightly informed, the hkc ahufes of the tradtn; in 
,V. 70 En^laui, were the principal caufcs of the I,uUait wars there ; and 
at length obliged the government to take the trade into tlieir'^own 
hands, Thiii is a matter, that well deferves your attention, and pcrliaf.'^, 
will loon require your imitation." 

The author o{ the enqiii,y into the caufe of the alienation of liie I/iJuin, 
tiLc. above uientiontd, further obferves on this part, " It would be too 
Ihocking to dtfcribe the condiiJl:, and behaviour of the tradas, wli'-u 
anioiij^ the InJium^ and endlefs to enumerate the abufe.s, the Ini'.in.': hai! 
Jeccived and borne froni them, fnr a feries of years, luiil.e it to f.iy 
that feveral of the tribes were, at hill:, weary of bearing," 6<c. 

At a treaty, h.eld with t)ie OHo T„li<v:<, at CarHh; in I'^n:^y!,:.,mu, iiy 
Commiflinners, ajjpointcd by Governor ILimllion, in ilit year I'y^, tla- 
former f::y, 

" Erodicr Onis (wliich m.'anb /'.■.•, tlie nam.' ^"-iven by them to tin; 
GoTcriiort ul reitnjylvani't) j-oiir traders uow brin^- icarcc any th::ig but 

GeneraJ Stifle of Pennfyhanun, ' 

Scfonoly, Their being, as they iiifiilecl in later 
years, unJLiftiy depiived, or ciilpollcircci, of part 
of their hinds.* 


rum WA\f..vjt ; tlir-y bring but littl-; p(>w>lcr niiil l-';ul, and other vuluatlc 
5;o(m1s. I'hi* ruin ruins us. \Vc h;g j'ou wouM j'lcwmt its coming in 
lurli quantities, by r.yiilatin;;; the traders. Wc never uudcrllood the 
Ir.'.dc \\M:i to be lor TiA'^y and jlo:.>-. We defirc it may l»c forbiddtn, 
and none Told in the onnitry ; but that, il' the Ird'ur.s will have 
any, they may go amonji^ the inhabitants, and deal \vith them for it. 
When thel'e ichijl-y tnuhii come, they brin?; thirty or forty r-,_.^s, and put 
lbc;n <i.,v/n before us, and make iii drink ; and get all tue fkins, tluit 
ihou'il -o lo I'.uy the d'.lts, we have ecmriich'd for jurds, bui;n;hL of 
ilie Ian tiadu' ; ajid by theie means we no: e.nly ruin ourlllves, but thtfui 
too. Tliefc wiclct'i iihijly f.::a !, wWw tb.ey h;ivi, once <(Ot the IriJijns'm 
liquor, make them fell tbeir very clothes from dieir b.-'.elw. In fliort, if 
this prnirtiee be cotitinned wc muil; be inevitably vuined : wc moll tani- 
ciHy, therefore, bi.!ceeli y^u to remedy it." 

In the ro|-(-rr of ili (e Comiuinioner:! to the Governor, on tlieir 
rflurn fii.m li.- ;.eu) , l,.;} conclude as !ol!o\'."=, ■viz. 

" Tim;,, ii;a) il i,l af. ll,e ' ;ov\ rniir, \ve liave j.Wven a full and jufl: ac- 
conni of «, '.r j r^.eceiini'j ., ai.d \'. e hi ]a oar ciuiu.i v.i'l maet v.itli his 
apjir-obaiion. iJiit, in jullice lo ij.rie /■•', ,-/j-, and liic' ])romil(s -w e nvaile 
ih'in, v.'r eair-i t >.lofe our lepon without takh,;; notice, that the qnan- 
tili-s of Ihon- rqaor;, M-[ u, tliele /;.•.',./«, in' ibe j.hcis of their reli- 
la'.rihjr feafon, from ;-li jiarts of the cnanties, 
cai'ed, of k'tT, to ;'.n inconceivable dcr-roc, fo 
:.. r, :,ii.,ua:ly i;:id r lb.' face of ]i.^u>T^, that 
:if-i,.t« , .•].(.,: \ i a.ul \:..W\v.r, y hen Ivber, 
nnd untraetahie ard lodi Ii!i\ ..i,-, in ili-ir bqaor, al'.-.ay^ quarrrllin;^-, and 
often murderiiig one another ; th.^it tli,. tisdcis ar-j under l.o l)on^!^, nor 
oive any feciirity for their obferv'ance of the lawr, aiid the'i tiioil be- 
haviour ; and by their own inicmperancc, nnfair ilcaiinjr .i-hI irr.guL- 
rities, will, il is to be feared, entirely eflrange ;he a!iecl-!ior;s of the In- 
Jhim from tin- lin^^lij^i, deprive thcra of tlicir natiir«i ilrenjjth and afli- 
vity, aiui oblige them either to aijaiidoii their c\j!:ni:y i r i'ubmit to any 
lerni'-, be thf y ever io inireufonable, from the I'l: '.:>. '7/ •■? ./■//j, may 
if oleafe the tioveiiior, arc of ib inlerdfin[>- a nature, thai v,-e ilall Ibind 
cxcuied in reecmmendin;;-, in the nioft ciirntf}. nraniie.-, th: ihj '.ur.diU- jl.itc 
of iIk/.- Iu,lhir.i, and tlie heavy difcouraj^cmeiits, undir which i.ur com- 
ni-irec with tlu-m, at j-.r, lent, lal)onrs, to ihe C:i,vernor's raoff ferious 
confideraiion, that fmue j^ood and fpecdy rc^utJi•.■^ may be nrovidcd, be- 
fore it be too l.ite. 

" i.S.\.-\(J i\'(JRKlS, 
" November r, 175;,.'" " liFNjAAlIN il^.ANfCLLV 

'I'he General Aflembly of the jiroyince, in February, 1754, in a m.f- 
faj:;c to the Governor, lament the ftate of the Jn.lir.n trade, in ternu; liiisi- 
lar to this report, and took lome meafiires to remedy it, i^c. 

■iVav;/.., ^a. A'ol. 4, pa-c P.S;. 


e, and 

I'.' the 

;v. r< 

,V,/y., .'.,.,.„;, 

, have 
r.n,r / 


are tb..r,l>^ 

W,: :, 

* As the Proprietary by patent, w:;s ahfoli;fc Prep::e'a:-, in 
b.nv of the province, all other pcrlbn'^ \vei c precluded jiom p'.eci 
lands of the Lhliiins, withi.i itb limits, Ike, 

hct'ivccn ihc Tears 1760 and ijjo. 

Thirdly, The deiuli of \Vcehual}\ or Wcknhe- 
Inb, the Delaware chief, who was hanged in 
Nciv Jcrfey, many years ago, which they could 
not forget, and lay, it was only for accidentally 
killing a. man.* 


In the minutes of cnnfcrrcnce, hclil \vir!i the Tn.Tm:! by (>ovcrn'V 
JDcniiy, &c. at Edjhn'm Pci:nfyhiu!iLi, ill November, 17,5''', upon tht (Jo- 
vennr's rcqueftiiig of the Luliatis, to know the cuiife of their iiiuiifiru 1:^, 
and hoftile coniiud, T.e.lyufcoig, Icing, or chief, of the Ihlaiv.u.u -.m i 
•vvho then.- repreftnted four nutionfl, mentioned fcverid ; amonjr wiiieli 
were the in(lij,-:\tions of the Fr.-nch ; ;ii)d the /// I'f.h^f, or i>ncvjnrt-s, they 
had fuftVrcd botli in rcnfsl-.'ania and Xciv Jnfey. When the Governor 
defired to be informed wjiat thefe jrric-z-j-ui-j were, Tudyu/.i/n^ rc])lied, 
" I have not far to go for an inllanee ; this very (';rouiid, tliat is under 
me, (llrikinjr it with his foot) was my hind and inheritanci?; and is ta- 
ken from me byy>.;«..'; when I fay this ground, I in< an ail the land, ly- 
ing between Tol/iccon creek and /K/6w/,v,;, o;i th-; river Hrfnuuhan.i.i. I 
have not only been fervcd fo in this governmeni, bur the fame thinjj 
lias been Ai>\\<i to me, as to leveral trads in Nciu "Jnfy, over the river." 
'I'he Covernor aiked him, what he meant hy fraud'' Teenynfmn.r an- 
fwered, " When one man had formerly liberty to jnirehafe lands, and 
. Jie took the deed from the Indians for it, and then dies; after his death 
his children forge a deed like the true one, witii the fame Iniliun nani^s 
to it; and iherel)y take lands from the LiJr.uu which they never fold; 
this \i fraud : alfo, when one king has land beyond the rivi;r, and another 
king has land on this fide, both bouiukd by rivirs, mountain^ and fi<riii;:;-,, 
\vhich cannot he moved; and tht I'l uprietaries, greedy to purclutfii 
lands, buy of one king what belongs to another; this likewife isy (,.■■.■./." 

Then the Governor afkcd Tfrr/y/zA '"'.?-, whether he had been ferve.I 
fo ? He anfuered, " r.-; ; 1 have hern ferved fo in this province; all tl.f 
land extciiduig from 'TJ:.:^:i, ovir the great mountain, to /(V.-. a-, h.iS 
been taken from me hy fr.iiid : for wIku I agreed to fell land to ua- 
fill Propnetury, by the courfc of the riv.r, tW yuim^r Pr'.pri.l.i, i.-^ came, 
and got it run by a Jlruh io.nfe, by the eompafs, atid hy that means, 
took in double the (Quantity, intended to be fold," &c. 

* S. Smithy In his hiftory of Kctu J^-rf-y, gives the following very 
different account of this affair, -viz. 

" Tiic fa(5l was, this JVcflquehela was en Indlmi of great note and ac- 
count, both among the Chrifians and Indians, of the tribe that rci'ided 
about Souib River, (near Shrttijhury in Eujl JnfyJ, v/here lie lived 
with a talle much above the common rank of Ihdlni.s, having an extrn- 
five farm, cattle, horfes, negroes, and raifcd large croj)s of wheat; and 
was fo far E.-i^li/h, in his furniture, as to have a houfe \\ell provided \sh)\ 
feather beds, calico curtains, &c. He frequently dimd with governors, 
and great men, and behaved well, &c. but his neighbour, cajitain 'jJ-.i 
Lcoii:;rd, having purchafed a cedar fwamp of other /y 'f.: u, to v.bicli he 
laid claini, and Leonard refufing to taKC it on hi> lidii, 1„ nieiitcd it 
hiy,hly, and threatened that he would Ihoi.r him; vlinl. h.- ucordingly 

took an oj)porinnity of doing, ii; thefpring, 17:0, \.inl.- J T./was, in 

yie Jay time, walkiiig in his '^tirdui, '>r i^.t Id- o'\n l-.tadV, ;'.( Scuili 



334 General State of Pennfyl-vanla, 

Fourthly, The iinpriibnmeiit of fome Sbaivanefe 
warriors, m Carolina, in time of peace ; where 
the chief man of the party tlicd. 


I'liver Bforef.ilJ ; for \\ luV-li In. had a legal trial, and was executed fur adu- 
a) murder." 

lUit the Indi.ins fif the .<>/x Kat'ion^^ at u meeting in L,uu\ifnr, witli 
iiovcrnor J)ciiny, 3cc. May l'j\\\, 1757, lay thii?, 

" Rrotliers, funic years ago, in the Jfrfiys, one of the Iicad men of 
the DfLiivai,! h.ul hceii out a huuuny;. On his retnrn, he called to fee a 
j^fntlcnian, a ^rcat friend of his, one uf your people ; whom he found in the 
fielil ; when the gi r.tleii\an faw him, iie came to meet him. It \\ us rainy 
•vvei'.ther, and the .Dila-ziuire chief lud his ^un und..r his arm; they met 
at a fence, and as they reached out their hands to each other, the Uchi- 
Tf./rc's g;un went olT, hy accident, and fhot hinj dead. He was very 
much grieved, went to the houfe, and told the gentleman's wife what 
had happened ; and faid, he was willing to die, and did not chufe to live 
after his friend. She immediately i'ent for a number of the inhabitants: 
^^■lle^ they were gathered, fome laid, it was an accident, and could not 
he helped ; hut thcgreatcft iiiimher were for hanging him; and he was 
taken by the .SherilF, and carried to Amboy, where he was tried and 

" There was another misfortune that happened : A party of Shaivw 
tiefj, who were going to war againfl their enemies, in their way through 
C,uoli/ui, called at a houfc, not Aifjn idling any harm, as they were among 
ll'.cir friends : a number of the inhabitants role, and took them pril'oncrs, 
on accoimt of fome iwifchief which was done there about that time ; fuf- 
peciling them to be the jieople ^vho Iiad done the miiehicf; and carried 
them to Cljinljloifii, and jnit them in prifc/ii, where the chief man, 
called Tie I'liJ,-, died. 'I'he relations of thefe people wci'e nruch exaf- 
jierattcl ag.tiull you, our brotliers, the F./iy/iJo, on acciunt of the ill treat- 
ment you gave liieir friends; and hu^'e been continually fpiriting up their 
nations to take revenge. 

" Brothers, you defired us to open our hearts, and inform you of every 
thing wc know, that might give rife to the quarrel between ycjii and 
our nephews and brothers; — That, in former times, our forefather* 
concpu red the D^L^ivaiws, and put petticoats on them ; a long time after 
fhit, they lived among you, our brothers ; hut, upon fome dillerence 
between you ami them, we thought proper to remove them, gi^'ing them 
lands to plant and hunt on, at IV^omin^r ami Ju/ihit,/, on Sufjiuihuiinj ; 
but you, covetous of land, made jilantatiuns there, and fpoiled their 
hunting grounds ; they then complained to us, and wc looked over tliufe 
lands, and found their complaints to be true. 

" At this time they carried on a cori-efjiondence with the Fi\iuIj ; by 
which means the I'lfiub bi came acquaiiUed with all the eaufcs of com- 
plaint they had againfl you ; and as your people were daily increafing 
thiir fettlemelits, by thefe means you dr()ve them back into the arms of 
the FirnJj ; and they took the advantage of fpiriting them up againfl 
you, hy telling them, " Cb'd.lrni, you fee, and We liave often told you, 
hri-.v the Rnytijh, your brothers, would fcrve you ; they plant all the 
coiiMtry, and drive you back; fo that, in a little timr, you will have no : it is not fo with us; though wc build trading houfcs on ji.ur land, 
We do not plant it ; wc have our provifiuiia frcni over the great water." 

" We 

hct'ivcc}! ihe Tacirs lyCo n?hi ly/c. 335 

■ Fiflb/v, The infligations of the French; who 
made aii artful ufe of their complaints, or difcon- 
tents, kc. to incite them againll the Englijh in the 
late war, &c. 

Thcfc were the chief caufes, though there were 
others, alledged botli by the Dc/divares, the Sbaw- 
a?icfe, and the Six Nations^ in the divers trealks, 
held with them, by the government of Pennfylva' 
nia, in dillerent parts of the province, between 
the years 1755 and 1763: wherein, as they are 
printed, may be feen, in part, as well as in the 
ciefinilive treaty of Colonel Bradjireet with them, Caufcs ana 
hc-AT Icilce Erie, in 1764, how a reconciliation was i"^|:''|,\'.",. ^ 
efletled: 1 fay, in /rnrt ; for the .Quakers, who, 176,? and 
as before obferved, had the lead fliare in thefe ^"^•^■ 
public tranfaftions, as to appearance, being, con- 
trary to ancient cuflom, excluded from the Pro- 
prietary agency, by which all treaties and public 
tranfaciions with them, in the province, were di- 
reded and managed, more efpecially refpecling 
land affairs; which appeared to be the principal 
caufe of the quarrel, were nevertlielefs, in fa^f, 
the prime movers of the peace, and the hrll and 
chief promoters of redrefling the bidlaus' wrongs, 
or complaints, lb far as in them lay, in their re- 
ftrifted capacity : they formed a fociety among 
themfelves, particularly for that good purpofe, 
called The friendly ajfociation, for gaining ami pre- 
ferring peace with the Indi.ins, by pacific meafurcs ;"' 
conftituted truftees, and had a treafurer ; and by 
a voluntary contribution among themfelves, of 


" We liavr opened our hearts, and toM you what conipljints we liavj 
heard, that tlicy luul agaiiift you; and our advice tu you is, that you 
fend for the St/n-cas and tlum ; treat them kindly, and rather give the in 
Jbinc part ol' their fiekls back again, than ailll-r with tlieni. It ii iu 
your 1)0 wcr to fettle all the diilerLUC^ witli tlieni, if youpleafe." 

Ali.iulc's vf Ir.Jkui l',:atla. 

* See their printed ^iddrefs to Goviiiior D:i>r^, &;.. ia 1757, in the 
Appendix, No 7. 

33*5 General State of Pennsylvania, ■ 

many thoufand pciahh, to which divers well difpofed 
perfons, among the more reHgiousG£'r;//^;;j-, liberally 
contributed (an expenfe, whicli ought to have 
been, cither from a dili'ercnt quarter, or, at leaft, 
of a more general, and public nature) which, 
with the Governor's confcnt, or approbation, firft 
had, they applied in fuch prudent manner, by 
prefents, and redrelling their grievances, together 
Avith their way o^ friendly behaviour and fincerit)\ 
which the Indians had long experienced, they dif- 
pofed them to hearken to terms of peace and re- 
conciliation, made way for the fucceeding treaties, 
with their recovery and return from the Freiich 
interefl, kc. which afterwards enfued ; as, in part, 
appears in the aforefaid treatife, or enquiry, hz. 
as well as in the printed Indian treaties ; and in the 
journah of Chriflian Frederick Poji ; which la(t, 
as they are fomewhat curious and informing in the 
nature of Indian ■ aifairs, are, therefore, inferted 
in the appendix. f 

For, to pretend to conquer thofe favages, when 
imited in oj^pofition, by a regular army, in the 
woods, without fomething of this nature, would 
be as abfurd as the attempt of the giants, m the | 
I'able, to etledt, by wtTi-y^/r/zi;/'/', what would more \ 
proj^erly and only be attainable by the means of | 
luifdom and good policy ; according to the fpeech of , 
the Scythian Ambaifador to Alexander the Great ; ' 
and the truth of the Roman adage, " parum ft 
helium foris, Jiifi fit confdium domi,''\ in its fuUeit 
extent, is no lefs applicable, in dealing with this 
peo])le, than it was formerly experienced to be, 
by the greateft conquerors and rulers of the world, 
in their management of other nations. 


I Jicc Appencllt, No. 8 and 9. 

\ I, E. " War abroAtl U to little piirpofc, unlcfs ])iuili;nt nieufurcs arc 
f^ikcii ut hoiv.v." Ci.\rj, 

hcHvcen the Tears 1760 and 1770. ^''^J 

:'''T'"'^'''" ' ''pAiiT^ IV. 

Religious Jlatc of Pennfyhaii'uu-— Variety and bar- 

many of the religious fe&s in the province. — Their 

proportion in Philadelphia. — Mennonifls^ — Dunk- 

ards, — Stvenclf ciders J — Moravians. — Conclufion, 

, ; — Thomas Mahins account of Pennfylvania, in 

■ a Latin Poem, in 1729, addrcffid to J. Logan. 



T has already been obferved that the civil con- 
flitution of Pemfylvania was originally founded on 
fuch a generous plan of liberty, that the freedom ^^ 
allowed by it, of thinking on religious fubj efts, and hhcny unc 
of ivorjhippijig the Almighty, according to the bell pe"J|'ii"[y3. 
of men's underftandings, without being deprived niu's im- 
pither of their natural rights, as men, or of their F"^'-''"'^"'' 
civil liberties, as fubjefts of government, on that 
account, has not a little contributed to the great 
and rapid increafe and profperity of the province, 
above any other of the Brili/h colonies in Ameri- 
ca ; ami, in proportion to its age, and other cirr 
cum (lances, rendered it far fuperior, in real wbrth 
and importance ; fo, in giving an account of its 
general (late, after the conclulion of the war, in 
1761, Ibme reprefentation, at lead, of the various 
religious focieties, or feds, of which its inhabitants 
moftly confiit, bccome^s proper and nece(rary. 

There is a greater nuuibcr of different religious ^:,„.. 
focieties in this province, than, perhaps, in any ''-^'^.s 
other, throughout the Britijh dominions befides ; ^i""'^^^'''*' 
and in regard to difputes, on religious fubjefts, 
and the confequences of an univerlal toleration of 
all the varieties; of opinion, in religion, though fo 
widely different, and i'o contrary and oppolite to 

Vol II. ■ [43] one' 


nus (if 

CT. of 

33S Gent r ill St (lie of Pcnnfyhanla, 

one another, clfew here much dreaded, it is appre- 
Iiendcd there is not more real harmony any where 
known, in llii.^ rerjKcr, even, under the moil def- 
j-iolic hici\:ril/us^ than in Pcnnlyix-iiii'u:. Here are 
the S^hiktry, who v\'er.r' princij^aily theiirll iettl,crs,- 
^^^^^^ and, in ejled, th.e makers of th.e province; and 

wlio, in general, are already delciibed, in the 
hiircihiclion :* The EhifcopaUcms^ accoixiinn- to the 
manner oT the (",hurc!i ot Kiv^land ; and the Gd-r- 
luan and SztrJ://) Luihcr.-us : llie Prcjhyicnunsmx^ 
Imlepcndants, of various kinds, or lects ; and tlie 
German Cal-vinijls : The Church of Rome and the 
Jews : The Baptijls of different kinds ; with thofe 
among the Germans, called Menmiiif.s, and Diink- 
ardsj or Dwnplers ; the Moravians and Sivenckf el- 
ders ; hciidcs {he yll}i^ri^incs cf ylmeriea, kc. 
Thcii-har- All thcfe, for a conhderable feries oi- years, 
mony:in.i h'lve, in i^cncral, Jrom the example t)f the S'ra- 

concord one , , ^ • i • 11 1 ,- ,- \' 

vvithar.o- '^'-■'"•S ^vho wcrc providentially the caule ol that 


erty, which tliey all there enjuy, and who ap- 
jxar never to I.ave perkeuttd a.ny other peojde, 
for relii^ion, maintained fiich harmony and con- 
cord among- themfeives, as approaches nearer to 
that uiii'cerfid love and chariiy, which Chriji'uinity 
teaches, and which its votaries, in general, profels, 
at leaft, in theory, than has ever been known to 
arill- from any contrary condiid:, or intolerant au- 
thority, lb predominant in many other countries. 

For, notwitliilanding their feeinin;^-fo extremely 
to differ one from another, iji religicyus fentiments 
a'.vd cuiu-nM ; and lliat Jume of tiieir opinions and 
{^radices doul)llcis are very abfurd, and j^robably 
more or lels U) imdcr e\ery prolellion, or form ; 


' 'J'he ni;nibcr of icli;;ioiT-i vilit > fr';rii the prcarlicrs cf foe 
ill C,::n BnUan, mid oriier pl.Hc.-.iri K,-,-^pc', Init (.-ludly from i-»>„„., 
in tlic iciviLc of tlic I oijic!, to this cuiii.liy, ai;d tiuir fociciy in ^i.vX;;'.,., 
bemccn the years 1661, u:ul 1771, -m ^ Ly their o/.n itcids] 
v;;s Libout i;,:; txclufive of thi.I.-, v.I'.o, E:„of.: h:A 
yl:..'!L.i, I'.iid truvclkd ill thut ItiviL^; v. !io were ir.ui.'V, c;c. 


-ttjtd in 

hcl'ivccn the Tears 1760 and 177c. 33v^ 

ill which an ubfohue uniformitv is not to be ex- „ .,. 
pected, m the human race ; neither is ic more rea- i.fmin.i, 
ibnable to be fo, than that men fnoukl all be ^i"'j;"^,'J'"|' ''^ 
one and the fame fize, age, nndcrll.andint;- and c;i- „>,t i,j ['.' 
pacity ; yet by the conflitution of the civil govern- ^-^p^^^t^J, 
ment, as they are not here permitted to opprelV, one '''" 
another, on that account, fo, in o'cneral, amonf*;. 
th* more thiukino- and intelligent, in every feci, 
or ioLlety, a hrm peruiafion feems to prevail, that 
they all h.ave one and the fame thing, ba^^jiinefs^ in 
viev/ ; and that their dillercnce arife.s from opinion 
and cu'lom only, refpeCiing the moije of obtaining 
it ; v/liich notion In:; J'lich a t.-ndcr.icy to ni'x't r:Ue 
and temper tiieir way of tiiijiiuiig on /.jligions 
matters, a;^, in grc;it mL-'ifirc to orcafion tliat /:,'/•- 
iKarancc anel charity, whicli appear^; in their cov- 
dul.t to each otlier ; a farer Ciiaraccerifuc of true 
'ChrijlianUj', and bc/l Philofophy, than tlie practice 
of many, who make great profjiilon of lupjrior 
attainments of fcience a'ld knowledge, and v/ho 
flicw much greater zeal for what they elLcem to be 
truth, ;ind place more ilrefs on opinion, creeds, 
or belief;, than in practice and charity, tliani.i to 
be found in Peiinf\'!':!. 

The /^'.//.;v, in the ciLy of Ph//.^J:hh'j, coni-^.^,,,. 
pofe, pr(;i>ably, about one ieve:uii part of it:^; inh;i- CLuk-r;, 
bitant.^. The rell of that fociety at r.rcfcnt Iiave ■■'"'■ 
their reiklence principally in the fr.ii, (n* older 
counties en PhiLidclphia, Pi^chs, Chersr^ A^zc'- 
rq/IP, kc. and ill the year 1770, they had Ijctv/een 
lixty and feventy meeting houfe;;, for divine v/or- 
fhip, in the province, :r.l lower counties on De/c.'- 
•7.:'.7r;'. But of late rhey have been muc'a exceeJed 
in number by other foviJeties, complexly tak'-n, 
ihoug!; they gener.dly are eil;eemed among tiie 
wealthien., an I moll. Uibfiantial of the inhabiLaUi^:. 

The Chure'j :f KnyPt.d has ke/era! ;>l:.c::- of 
v/orflup in ihe ciry, a;; beiorj m.-ition-d, iu ihe 



General State cf Pennfylvanla, 

Of tha iiii- defcrip'tion of it and its public edifices ; (page 279) l 
fcrcntnii- j^nd alfo in divers other parts of the province ;i 
ti«"^&c."" ^»d the German Lutherans have large congregati. 
ons in Pbihidclpbia^ Lancajlcr^ <kc. but the Prefi 
byterians and Indcpendants are fuppofed, by far, 
to be more numerous than ^my other particular 
religious fociety, taking in the Dutch, or German 
Calvinifts ; feveral of the back counties being 
principally peopled by them ; they have flowed in, 
of late years, from the north of Irc/afid, in very 
large numbers, befides their great internal increaie 
and Hill greater induflry, than that of many others, 
to make profelytes.* 

The Roman Catholifs have a chapel in Phihidd- 
ph'ia, and another at Lancajter ; a number among 
the Germans are alio of that community. The 
^fews are but few, and thofe chiefly in the citj^ 
The Englijh Baptijls are net very numerous iiP 
Pennjylvanui ; they have a meeting houfc in the 


* The proportion, wliith tlic number of e;icli religious fdcicty, in 
rhiladelplii.i, lic.irs to each other, may, in I'onie nianiier, appear from 
the number of burials, in each of tlieni annually, taken from tlic printed 
bills of mortality, for the following ten years A:(:refiivtly, I'tz. 

1 •.•.;<■., 








J 7 73 



2i7j 107 




160 I'.^j 




SiiaHJh Uuh. 

3Jl 2 8 










I2j' ICi 


83 12.^ 










K9 151 










27 fb 






Ciernuin I^tiih. 




icJi 212 





5 3 



38 Si 




6 2 

jS C.athvins 


26 .52 




J 3 




220I 160 

2TO i8r 








';6| J. 09 

^4 ^7 









1 8.58 


1 1 60 


No/:-. In the year 17.^9, according: to llm i'.'id bills of mcriarty, ] lii.t- 
»d annually, were 1 406 fuiicraK in FLilLiiUlphiu, of whicli thofe in Cljiijl 
Cl.'unh parifa only were 272 ; of whoni ic6 died of the fmall j.ox (llirec 
only iiuuulated) cf tlie ^mters 171 ; of otlier focieties 490; oi flraii^crs 
516; of Negroes 147 ; in all 1406. Inercaie of funerals that yer.r (S48. 

Which great mortality that year, as wrll as in ibme other years, yiw 
pears to have arifen princij-.aily from the Jiuall p>ix, before i:.:j^Lii;iti< 11 
iiad taken nuicli place, and wa^. ib well nodcrflood as (ince ; whidi dii- 
tenipcr, that ytar, in propi.rtien tothcl'ewho died of it in Chrifr C'hiiitii 
paiilli, mull have carried off, in the whole, Lciv.ccn j aiid L'^\., <>.c. 

between the l^ears lyCo and 1770. 341 

city, and foine others in different parts of the 
country : they appear, in general, cfpecially of 
late years, to differ very little, both in principle 
and praftice, from the Prejhyterians, fave in thofe 
of bapti/hi only.* ,: r.,,- ... 

It has already been mentioned that fome Ger^ Great num- 
??iafis very early fettled in Pennfjhania ; but that ber of ocr- 
afterwards they flocked into it, in much greater "^'"'^' '^'^' 
numbers ; infomuch that, of late years, it is fup- 
pofed near one-third part of the inhabitants of 
the province c<MifiIled of thefe people, and of their 
defcendants. They have moffly been of th.e lower 
rank, but very induitrious, ufcful, and well adapt- 
ed for the improvement of a wilderneis, under 
proper government and relfriclion. 

I'hcre are feveral different profeHIons of religion 
jimong them, in the province ; fonie of which ap- 
pear more remarkable than others, for a fimplicity 
of manners, and lefs known to many ; of fuch, 
therefore, I fliall more particularly give fuch brief 
account, as partly I fmd of them, and partly ac- 
cording to my own obfervation : firlt, 

Of the Minmui/h. 
THE ]\Iennon}/!s of Pc-nup/lvauia take their 

• of til" 

name from Me/nio Simon, of the Nelhcrla)hls, one jM^niioniRi 
of the leaders of that fociety or fedt of the Bap- 
lyh, in the fixteenth century; who* took their 
rif^ in Germany foon after, or about, the time of 
the reformation. Bui, it is faid, they themfelves 
derive the origin of their religious profeffion and 


* Merman EthvanU, ill his printed account of the Bjp:'','h of Ptnr.fyl- 
van'ia, in I 770, divides thcni into 7V//.';/7j and Gi-rnnin; of tlic former he 
makes about 650 families, and 3252 jjerfons, at iive to a family (fiip- 
pofmg every family to be tol.dly compofed of Bnptifls) v/ho have jS 
mectinjr hoafcs : the Gum.un he divides ini't Dj.r/.arJj znd J'.Ir/uyj„i//i ; 
wiiich Ice under their proper heads, 

Xi,tf. He n-. dies their whole number, both apd B I'j^f j,i\mou'.'.\ 
Nut!, 'i'hofc called Scv^ath Day i'..o,'^;;, ^rc almo^L cxliiKt, iJ^c. 

342 . General State of Peiwjyhania, 

prafticG from th;it of the Chrijlian Churcli, . in 
Thelfalonia, in the time of the Apoftles, &c, 

Among- the articles of tlieir faith, in which 
they appear to be very rigid, ufmg great plainnefs 
in fpecch and drefs, are, in fubllance, the follow- 
ing, n^lz. 

Some arti- ^' ^f ^^^^^' They confefs one oTily God, Fatlicr, 
cks of their Son and Holy Gholt. 

2. Of Baptifni. They confefs A/7/)/'//;yn'nto faith j 
but no infill! baptifnu 

3. Tliey confefs an cuclhirf}., to be kept with 
common bread and wine, in remembrance of the 
fufferings and death of Chrif. 

4. Of Marriage, I'hey confefs a wedlock, of 
two beiie\'ing perfons ; and 120 cxtcriial marriage 
ceremony, liy pmnihment of excommunication, hz, 

5. Of taking Oaths. They confefs that no Cbrif- 
iian may take an oath ; or, in hi.^ evidence go be- 
yond yea and nay, tliough he have the truth on 
his fide; but mull rather chufe to die, 

6. Of bearing ylrniu l^o Cii-yiian muft, in 
any wife, withiland v/ith arms, or take the fv.ord, 

They f\v their churcli has always from the be- 
chiim to an- ginning (though under almolt cominual opprellion 
tiqiiity.thcy .jj^tj pcrfccution) infilled on the above coni(.i]i(;ii, 

have fiiPfcr- . , ^ ^i • i « p ^i ^' r 

cAmw\x ^^"th many other articles, even, Irom the time or 
I'Lifccution, the Apolllcs ; from which the violence of pcrfccu- 
tion and death, which at dilferent times they en-, never could compel them to depart ; in- 
(lancing the ten perfi^cutions, till 310 years after 
Cbrif; and afterwards till the year 1210, cSv'c. 
when great numbers of them fullered deaih, 
chiefiy in Europe, for not admitting infant baptifm ; 
but only a baptifm into their faith, in their own 
nu)de, and likev.ilc for reiVifmg to take an oatJj and 
bear ar:i:i ; and for ai'licrliit-- to other'arlicKs oi: 


heHceen the Tcan 1760 and 1770. 343 

their ' faith ; for which they faflered fuch heavy 
pcrfecLitions, that rhey were reduced to a fmall 
number, till the time of the reformaiion, \vlien, 
from th'.-, year 1520 to 1530, they began to flou- 
riili ag:iin, to the no fmall mortification of the 
Romijh cLT\!^y ; who gave them the name of Jlna- 
baptijls ; and ufed their endeavours, fird, by per- 
fuafion, to draw them over, and then by :i terri- 
ble perfecution, throughout all tlie emperor's do- ■Y\y,y.^^^ 
minions, by baniflimcnts, prifons, torture, and pci r.-cuicd 
death, in various modes; all which they encoun- '■''^"'"^""'^' 
tered, and fulfered with inflexible ibrlitude, ra- 
ther than depart from their tenets. That this 
perfecution began in 1524, and continued about 
one hundred years. Of which they give many 
cruel inftances, particularly in Aujiria^ at llcm- 
horn^ and in the Palatinate about Alfom ; v/here, 
in the year 1529, feveral hundreds of ihem were, 
in a fhort time, by the count P.tlut'uis, executed 
\vjjirj and/»w/v/. And after tin's they fulfered in 'y;;^^ 
Siuitzer'and ; particularly at Jnricb and Bcr/i ; i^ r.v.i 
w'-jre feveral of their teachers were belieaded ; of '•"■^' -■ 
whom one lla/lebacher is mentioned thus to have 
fuffered at the latter place ; and many of them avj 
faid to have been Itarved to death by luu.igc!'. > 

'rhouj!;h thefe Mcnnonyis of Ptr.ufylvjjiid aj^jiear ...j^^, .^, 
to be a fpecies or itvt, of thole who went under .ii;,„ 1) 
the general name of i).;y-///2f, or ^7;;. :/%/■///?..• foi-- '^''''|.'':J^' 
merly in Gcnnany and ilie ?wt/:t:r!j/ic-'s, yet, in .v"." 
both iheir writings and pracllcc, they feem lilghb/ 
lo dilapprove or reprobaij and comlcmn, the wild 
actions and extravagances, done at M:inJ}ci\ he. 
by thefe people in 1533, in oppofition to thi ma- 
giftracy and government ; in coufeque^vcc of which 
many tlioufands of jK-rlons lofl their lives, \\\ dif- 
ferent parts ()[" CiT/r.diiy. 

' They moreover fay, that in thefeventeenlh centu- 
ry, thev fulfered fevere perfecuti(jn hi ^Jici-zfriand^ 



344 Central Slate of PcnnfyhanuJ^- '■ 

They AifHrr aiid ionie other places ; and that in the year 1670, ; 
again in fome of thcir Ibciety were chained top;ether, and 
hiui, &c. fent to the galhes, on account of their rdigion; 
others fliipped and banillicd their country, being 
branded with the qiark of a bear (the arms of 
the canton) : that, in the year 17 10, a barge, full 
of thefe prifoners, was carried down the Rb'me^ 
to be tranfported beyond the fea ; but when they 
came to Holland, the government of that repubiip 
declared, they would have no fuch prifoners in their 
country ; and they fet the^n all at liberty. \ 

Many of thefe people, who were difperfed in 
divers parts of the German provinces, efpecially in 
the Palatinate, and places adjacent, having met 
together, entered into conditions, and, by paying 
They ob- a great tribute, they obtained an exemption from 
tain a tern- taking oailjs, from bcar'mg arms, and from having 
lief, &L-. their cbilJren baptifed ; and gained the liberty of 
upholding public -worjlyip, in their own way : but 
notwithftanding this, they were- groisly impofed 
upon and abufed, for the exercife of their confci- ■ 
ences ; being, in time of war, obliged to have 
their houfes filled with wicked crews of foldiers, 
and to endure many other grievances and diftrelfes. 
'J'hefe things caufed their looking out for another 
country ; and, in time, a way was opened for 
their removal to Pcnnfyhania. 

William Penn, both in perfon and writing, pub- 
wiiiiam liflied in Germany, firil gave them information that 

Pcnn ill- ^1 iM c c • • r, ^ t 

ft.rmsihem ^'^^^e was liberty cl conlcience m Pcnnfyhania ; 
of Pcnnfyi- aud that every one might live there without mo- 
▼ania, Jvc. j^ij-.^f^Qj^^ Souic of them about the year 1698, 
others in 1706, 1709 and 171 1, partly for confci- 
ence fake, and partly for their temporal intereft, re- 
moved thither ; where they fay, they found their 
expeftation fully anfwered, enjoying liberty of 
confcience, according to their dehre, with the be- 
nefits of a plentiful country. With this they ac- 

belzcccn'the Tears ijGo cuid ijjo. 345 

qimlnted their friends in Germany ; m confequence . 

of. which many of thcin, in the year 17 17, &c. 

removed to Fcnnfyhania. 

• The Memicni/is are fettled chiefly near Lancajier^ 

and in fome parts of the neighbouring counties, /''i'^"" F* 

Tney arc a fober, induflrious people, of good eco- <icnce and 

nomv, found morals, and very ulcful members g^n^'aii^iia- 

r 1 1 • J r r J radcr. 

or the general community; and are luppoied to 
confifl of feveral thoiifand perfons, within the 
province.* Their articles of faith, refpecling 
qaths and loar^ are founded on the fame principles, 
as thofe of the ^lakers, m thefe points, viz. the 
plain and abfolute prohibition thereof, as under- 
flood by them, in the New Te/Iament. 

. . . Of the Dunkards^ or Dumpfers. 

■ THOSE people, 'n\ Psnnfylvania, called Dun- 
hards:, Tiinkers, or Dimiplers, are another fpccies of 
German Baptijis. They are Angular in fome of their D.inkardj 
Opinions and cufloms ; and perhaps more fo in j^'^'^^"^'"* 
their manner of living, and perfonal appearance, 
than any others of that name in the province, 
particularly thofe who refide at a place, called by 
them, Epbmla, in Lnm-ajhr county. 

They alfo hold it not becoming a follower of Thdr opi- 
ye/us Chr'ijl to hear arms, or fight ; ^becaufe, fay H^i"i",gai,d 
they, their true mafter has forbid his difciples to fwcariug. 
rejiji evil ; and bccaufe he alfo told them, not to 
fwear at all, they will by no means iake an oath ; 
but adhere clofe to his advice, in the allirmation 
of yea and nay. 

Vol. II. [44] 

, * Morgan Ed'.vards, in his account before mentioned, ranks the it f.-/^- 
riotii/!s among the liaptifls of Fiitiifjh^iiiia ; he fays, tlicy Jjavc there 4» 
meeting hoiifes, and confifl of 4050 peifoni ; that tlicy derive their narnc 
■from that of Mcnni Simcn, a native of IVitmars, born in 1505 ; that 
they have, in this province, and fome other places, deviated from tlic 
pradicc of Mc/tno, in the modi of their Li^tifni, by detliniwg that of 
^Z'"^. &c. 

34^ • General State of Pennfyhania, ' 

Of the on- -^^ ^^ ^^^^'^' ongin, they allow of no other, than 
^\n of the that, which was made by Jejm himfelf, when he 
i3unkaids, ^^..^g baptilecl by John in Jordan. They have a 
great eiteeni lor the l^eiv Tejiament, valuing it 
higher than the other books ; and when they are 
alked about the articles of their faith, they fay, 
they know of no others but what are contained 
in this book ; and therefore can give none. 

and of their ^^^ "^"^j °^' collediou of thcir prefent fociety 

j.rdLiit fo- they feem to date about the year 1705 ; many of 

citty, &c. [\^^.^^ ^^£j.£ educated among the German Calvinijis, 

but left them, and, on account of their religious 

way of thinking and praftice, feveral being ba- 

niflied from their homes, and otherwife perfecuted, 

they reforted to Szcarzenan, in the county of 

]VitgcnJlccn and Crcyfield, in the dutchy of C/eves, 

belonging to the king of Prujfia ; where they had 

liberty of ?necting, without being difturbed. To 

thefe places they collected from feveral parts ; as 

from Swiizerhimi, Strajlurg^ the Palatinate^ Sile- 

Jla, kc. 

The af -They agreed on their exterior form of religion 

lunie thtir at Szvarze?ian aforefaid ; the manner of their bap- 

J"'''"'"^ tijhi of immcrfton, or plunging into water (from 

''^"'' " whence the name Dumpier, in their language) 

inflead of the vulgar method of fprinl'li?ig, was 

eftabliflied among them ; as being not only more 

confident with that, which C/jriJl himfelt fuffered 

from jfo/jn the Baptijl, but alfo more agreeable to 

the practice of many of the primitive Cbri/lians, < 

They hold what is called the Eucbari/i, in com- 
S'hnid- niemoration of rlie futferings of Chri/t, at night, 
in- the cu- as, they fay, Chr'i/i himlelf kept it ; zuajhing, at 
''''"'"^' ^'- the fame Umc one another's feet, agreeable to his 
example and command. They meet together to 
worfliip on the firfl day of the week, in confi- 
dence of his promife, who faid, " Where tzvo or 
three arc gathered together^ in my name, there am I 


between the Tears 1760 and 1770. 347 

in the ?md/i of them :" but thofe at Ephrata keep 
the feventh day of the week, iox fabbath : they pro- 
fefs a fpiritual worfhip ; and they have been re- 
markable, at the place lafl mentioned, for their 
fine fmging at their devotion. They fay, they 
have fuifered great perfecution in Europe; ^^i^^^JrlT'^ 
which they give particular accounts ; and as ap- perfecution, 
pears in a manufcript, from which part of this ac- *'^'"'' 
count of them is taken. 

They removed from the places before menti- when they 
oned into Pennfylvania^ chiefly between the years p"I,"f^i'|,^'^' 
17 1 8 and 1734; a few of them lUU remaining at nui, 
Creyjield in ¥ 

They are a quiet, inoffenfive people, not nu- -j^j^^.j^. ^j^^^ 
merous,* and feemingly, at prefent, on the de- r.irttr, i^n- 
cline, efpecially at Ephrata before mentioned ; '^'^'^'-''' ''"''' 
where they have a kind of a monajlry, about fif- 
teen miles diflant from Lancajlcr^ and fixty miles 
^veft north weft from Philadelphia. 

Here more particularly they drefs in a kind of .j-j^^^^;^ ^^^^^ 
uniform, confifling of a triangular, or round, and miinncr 
white, nnd Ibmetimes grey cloth, or linen, cap, on ^'^^''-jj"*^' 
the head, a little fmiilar to a bpnnet ; with a loofe i-:piu,ua. 
garment of the fame flulf and colour, hanging 
over them ; in imitation of the fafnion of the 
eaflern Chri/iians formerly. They wear their 
beards, and have a folemn fteady pace, when they 
walk, keeping right forward with their eyes fixtd 
on the ground, and do not ufually turn to give 
an anfwer, when afked a queflion. Their burying 
place here they call the Valley of Achor ; and hero 
it has been their cuftom to live on a ciMnmon ftock, 
compof^fd of the fruits of all their labours, and 
the gifts of fuch as join them. They eat no flefh, 
drink no wine, ufe no tobacco, nor fleep on beds, 


• Morgan EdivirJs aforefaid, ranks thtfe people alfo amonj^ the B.if- 
t'ljls of Pentifyl-uania I and nijkcs lluin Ciiufift of 411; laiiiilics, 2'Ji;5 puT- 
foii-i, -It 5 to a family; and 4 meeting hoafci, in diiTcr.ut parts of tlic 

348 ■ General State of Perwfylvnma, . 

ill this place, as other people do ; and the men and 
women live in different apartments, or, in feparate • 
large houfes, containing many diilintl apartments ; \ 
and it has been their practice, for thofe of each 
houfe, to meet every two hours, both day and: 
night, to join in prayer ; but, it u faid, they have . 
lately abated of this rigour. 

'J'heir whole metliod in this place feems to be a 
kind of monajllc lifc^ much according to its orr-' 
ginal fmiplicity ; and if any of them marry ^ after 
they come hither, fuch are not permitted to live 
longer here, but flill remain members of the foci- 
ety ; and, in general, another of their cuftoms is, 
to receive no intcrefl for money lent, on pain of 
exconununication, hz. 

Of the Siver.dflJcrs, 
SwencWcl- ITIE people, who bear the name of Swcnck' 
'^''"' ficlcrs, in Pcwfyhan'u;, are lo called Irom Cafpar 
Swenckfcld^ of O/Jh^s; ; who, at the time of die 
reformation, in tlie iixtouli century, a teach- 
vid. God- ^^ ^^ note. He was born in Silcfia^ and of noble 
fried Ar- birili. Thc fccf, which hc gathered, was from 
!!r the ^'^" ^^'^ beginning tolerated, under fevcral of the Gcr- 
churdi. vhvi eniperors, in their arcb-dukcdom of Silefui^ efpe- 
cially the principalities of Taur and Li^nltZy for 
about two hundred years luccefhvcly, and in feve- 
ral ciher places, though not without envy of the 
Romtjh clergy, who inltigated fome of the inferior 
Magidrates fo much to dillrels them' about the 
years 1 590 and 1 650, as to caufe what they thought 
u pretty fevere periecution. After this they en- 
joyed peace till the reign of the emperor Charlss 
the Sixth. But about the year 1725, through the 
inltigation of the clergy, they were again molefted j 
wherefore, defpairing of obtaining the continua- 
tion of their former tranquillity, in tliat country, 
for which they hud endeavoured in vain, nioii of 


between the Tears 1760 mid 1770. 349 

tKem, after frequent citations, Li])pearing before the Much ha- 
clerg:"vs arrcfts and imprlfonments, heavy fines and '''•^'^ ^"-i 
penalties, threats and menaces, taknig away then' iaGa-manf 
children to catechife, and inllrud them in the 
Ro/nnn Catholic do(!:h'ins, conflituting Roman Ca- 
tholic executors, for the widows, and guardians 
for orphans, and many other hard proceedings^ 
which they endured, found tliemfelves obh"ged to 
leave tlieir real eflates and habitations behind them, 
and ernif^rate to fome other country. 

They found a place of flielter in Upper Lufatia^ 
in Saxony, under the Senate of Gorlitz : as alfo 
unexjiededly under Count Zinzindorfy which they 
enjoyed about eight years ; after w hich this tolera- • 
lion was difcontinucd. 

Thc7 then enquired for another place of fafcty, 
under fome of the Protellant princes of Germany, 
but upon confidering the great uncertainty of the 
long continuance of any toleration there, and hav- 
ing got intelligence of the province of Pennfylva- 
n'uiy and of the privileges there enjoyed, &c. they 
refolved to remove thither. Some of them came 
over in the year 1733, but the greateft part in 
1734, and fome families afterwards.* 


* T'le followinp; tranflatlon of iiii Lil'ul of llie kinj of Pi-ijfia, to 
recall thcfe people i:ito his doriuniojis, Jiidicjtcs the importance and uti- 
lity they were thought to be ot Lo iiiti country, viz, 

" E D 1 c 'r, * 

" Concerning the rcre(l;'.b!i/hment and collociition of the fo-ctillcJ 
ticbiocndfeldluiii, ill Silcj'ia, and othur provinces of his roy^l nii- 

" Be iLtu Scclowltz, the 8;/j cLy cf March, 1 745. 

" Wc, Fre,hrhh, by the grace of God, king of I'luijfia, uuarc'r^ra-v, cf 

Brandenburg^ arch-chainutrkiin and chStur of the holy liomatt cmjiirc, £vc. 

" Be it known to all to whom thcfc prcfcntr. may come : luljercat wc 
do hold nothing to he more contrary to the nature and reafon, and the 
principLrs of th« Chujlir.n ftligion, t!i;ni the lorciii;^- of the fnbjccU' cijr.- 
fcienri-j, ami to j)erlccute them, aliout any olliri' dlflcuting doe'irJDrs, 
which do not cmicrrn the fiindi^menijl ] riiitiplc-s of tlie ilhni'.uiit rthgioi. ; 
fp we ha\c !i:..ll g),.ciouJly rufclvcd ilie fa-tcUlcd , ^vi.() 


ir opi- 

nion on 
oath* and 
war, &.C. 


350 General State of Pennfyhania, '. 

In regard to oat/js and war, they agree with the 
Mefinonyis, and give the fame reafons, as they aiid, 
the ^inkers, m thel'e refpefts : they fay, they have « 
been much mifreprefented, and charged with ne«; 
gle6ling the ufe of i\\&facrcd fcriptures, and thofet 
reHgious ceremonies, CcxWcdi facra?ncnts. The firlt 
of which charges they deny, as entirely untrue; 
their difufe of the fecond, they fay, hath not, nor 
doth happen from contempt, but merely from con- 
fcientious motives. They, and their founder,' 
Schivenckfeldius, are charged with fundry other ' 
things, which, they fay, will appear entirely un- 
true to any, who will be at the trouble of fearching ^ 
the theological works, left by him. * 

Refidence Thcfc pcople are not numerous in the province, 
and chuiac- they arc fettled chiefly in the county of Berks, and 
are an induflrious, frugal people, of exemplary 
morals, and a general good character. 


were exiled, out of an imprudent zeal of rclif^Ion, to the irreparable da- 
mage of the commerce and country, again to recall them, into our fove- 
reign dutiby cf Nah.-r Siltfu. Wc liave, therefore, tliought fit to af- 
furc all thofc, by thefc prefents, who confefs tiicmfelves to be of the 
faid doiflriue, ujioii our royal word, tli:tt they Ihali and may fafely re- 
turn, not only into our fovercign dutcljy of Nitier Silijia, but alio into 
all our provinces, peaceably to live and trade there ; fince we do not on- 
ly receive tlitin into our f)' cial jjrotedion, but alfo will give them all 
jicceilary I'upply, for the pruiuoting of tlieir commerce ; and to all them, 
who, feveral years ago, were deprived of their habitations and effeds, 
in our country of Sitefm, in cafe they are not paid for by the new poffcf- 
fors, they (hall he rellorcd without any reward. Such as will I'ettle in 
our villages fliall have farms alligned them, and care be taken to meet 
with good employment; and they that will fix tiieir abode in towns, 
fhall, be fides feveral ordinary free years, have places afligned them gra- 
tis, to the building of their houfcs: for v;hich purpofe they only need to 
aj)ply to our military and domaincn chajnbers. We do, therefore, com- 
mand our fupeiior colleges of juflicc and finance, as alfo all mediate 
j)rlmes, lords, magillrates, &~c. carefully to obfervc the fame In wit- 
nefs whereof, we have figncd this prcfent Edia, with our hand, and 
caufed our royal feal to be affixed. 


" Count of Munehan. (L. S.J 

« Done at Sutowtz, 

M.nch 8/.!/, 1743." 

hei'Wccn the Tears 1760 and 1770. 351 

Of //;^ Unltas Fratrum, or United Brethren, co?n' 
monly called Moravians. 

IT is faid, the firfl emigration of the Moravi- 
ajiSf from Moravia, a country adjacent to Bobe- ^j-'fhe'^M'o- 
7?iia, from which they were named, was with a avians in 
view of p-oinc to Pennfylvania, for the fake of an n"'"'"S 

^ V • r • -I 1 1- • . their coun- 

unmterrupted enjoyment or civil and rehgious pri- try, &c, 
vileges ; but, having found a phice of retreat, in 
Upper LnfiUia, which they thought would be 
agreeable to their minds, they, for a time, fixed 
their refidence there. 

After this, in the year 1733, the colony of 
Georgia was talked of in Holland ; which induced 
their ordinary. Count Zinzindorf, to correfpond 
with the Englijh refident, at Copenhagen, upon 
that fubjed ; in confequcnce of which the Brethren 
concluded to fend fome of their people thither ; 
and agreed with the trujiees, among other things, 
that they jhould he exempted from taking an oath^ 
and bearijig arms. But afterwards, perceiving that 
this gave umbrage to fome perfons, from whom 
they did not exped: it, they refolved to purfue 
their former intention, and to go to Pennfylvania, 
which they accordingly performed, in the years Ti,ne of 
1739 and 1740; where, applying themfelves to ^''^'r rc- 
agriculture, they have fince made confiderable TtlZ^ul- 
fettlements, efpecially on the weftern branch ofuw. 
Delaware river, called Lehi, in Northampton 
county, at aplace'namcd by them, Bethlehem, with 
the circuirijaceiit villages and farms of Nazarethy 
Guadcnthal, Friedenjhal, and el fe where. 

Their fettlements about Bethlehem, thougli fo _ 
lately begun, ar? fupei-ior, in fome refpeds, to l\^^Zml' 
any in the province. Here their excellent iki II, about Bcti 

Icheni, &.( 


jnduftry, regular management and economy ha 
been very conlpicuous and remarkable. The 
town itfelf, is pleaiantly fituated upon a hill, or 


.352 . »v Gejieral State of Eennfyhdnlay 

elevated ground, on the t north fide of i\\Q Lehly 
with a fine defcent to the river. It con fids of 
private houles, improved and ornamented by di- 
vers hirge and Ipacious buildings,' of a more pub- 
lic, or general kind, for the uie of the fociety, 
which are called quoir houfcs : thefe are diftindly 
appropriated for the ufe of the different parts of 
their community,, at that place j as, for the chil- 
dren, fingle men, fingle women, widows, and 
widowers, &:c. fepiirated in thefe large houfes ; be^ 
fides the congregational //;;;, which has been reputed 
one of the belt in Pcnnfylvania^ for the entertain- 
ment of ftrangers, &c. 

Ciiftoms They are very method!. al in their cuftoms, and 

and ccono- 


exhibit great fldll and perfcverancc in what they 
undertake ; aiming in common life, to make them- 
felves agreeable, to avoid fmgularity, and to ap- 
prove themfelves honeft, in the hearts of all peo- 
ple ; though in part of their drefs, efpecially the 
female fex, in thefe places, they appear to ufe a 
particular, plain uniform ; and their mode of 
language, or difccurfc, feems to be fomewhat 
aflcded, or peculiar to themfelves. 

They have, from time to time, received ' fuc- 

cours from Europe^ and are now increafed to a 

confiderable number. Befidcs thefe fettlements, 

they have a meeting houfe in Philadelphia^ and 

Their othfr ^"^'^^c^* ^^ Laucajlcr^ befides their fine fettlement 

fetticmcnts, at L//2, in Lancaflcr county. They have likeu'ife 

*"^- made fettlements in the government of 'New Tork 

and 'New Jafey, and on the river Da)>, which 

runs into the Roanoake^ in North Carolina. 

In Pennfylvania^ at prefent, the Moravians, or 
United Brethren, confift of a mixture oi fome 
Jingli/h, and other people, from diilrrcnt coun- 
tries, befides Germans and aborigines of ji?nerlca ; 
for they likewife have a number of the hidlans, 
in the province, under their care and tuition. 


beHueen ihc Tears 1 7 60 and 1770. 353 

' They ufe great variety of muf,c^ at their devo- 
tion ; and have ilrong piclurcfque reprelentations 
of ChnJc'''o pallion, he. in their phice of worfliip, 
iii Bethlehem ; and, as a remarkable policy feeins to 
run through their whole fyltem, whereby it ap- Remarka- 
pears, in Ibme cafes, adapted to operate, in the fjj'^tif ;|.'7r 
ilrongelt manner, on the human pailions ; fo, in tan, i^c. 
the more civil part of their conllitution and tranf- 

iadtions, in this province, an admirable order and 
economy, to mofe than common perfection, has 

■ been very confpicuous. 

But their method of educating their children 
and youth, to anfwer the end defigncd, has been ^^fXlT"^ 
more fo ; and perhaps, exceeded by no other peo- youth, 
pie in the province : an affair of very great im- 
portance, in whatever view we take it : the low- 
ed, or mod ignorant and uninformed part of the 
rational creation, perhaps, doth not excel the 
mod knowing and fagacious of the brutal kind, 
fo much as one part of the human fpecies exceeds 
the other, in fuperior knowledge, wildom and fe- 
licity, by means of an early and good education, 
a v.'ife and virtuous inditution of youth, in its 
mod extenfive acceptation ? For, though God has 
given talents to men, yet it is in their power to 
improve or debafe them, and to apply them to 
proper or improper objefts, by the means which 
God has given ; and how much this depends on 
education, information and early habit, is fuffici- 
ently manifeft to fuch as are enough acquainted 
with the fubjeft, and with mankind. 

As to the religious tenets, or creed, of the P^'f "f 
Moravians, they acknowledge the Bible to be lnu,'/^e'. 
their only rule, * " In the moit fnnple fenfe, and 
in every refpccl ; and that fo perfetlly, that v/hile * vid. a 
difputants are folicitous to feek and find, or make, !'°']\'',''JI|i^| 
that to be fenfe there, which they have her,rd, the --^i-. 
Brethren receive all, according to the letter ; nav, 

Vol. II. [45] . all 

354 General State of- Pennfyhania, • 

nil thLit is written therein is truth to them, even, 
that part, which is looked upon by others, as 
contradictory, without being firft explained." 

'rheir bilhops, teachers, &c. by an eilablifhed 
rule, at Hated times, every week, wafli the feet 
oi" all, they call to the Lord's Supper; in per- 
forming which they are methodical, and ule a 
particular ceremony, &c. But their zeal and in- 
'j'heir great dullry for propagating the gofpcl in foreign na- 

tions, which never heard it before, has been very 
remarkable and extraordinary for thel'e latter 
times, &c. 

oftheori- They date their religion, as moft religious foci- 
};in or their eties do, from the firlt eRablifhment of true reli- 
&c!''""' t^^^^ "^ '•^'^ world, in general terms. 'I'hey do 
I'lot pretend to any warrantable account of their 
origin ; having, as tliey imagine, the fate of molt 
other inftitutions ; that is, to be loft in uncertainty ; 
but, that their congregation flourilked in the 15th 
century, at Litz^ i. e. fifty years before the refor- 
mation, and was then a Sclavonian congregation, 
which fprung from the old Bulgarian Chrijlians ; 
that George Fodebrad^ regent of Bohemia^ who, 
as thOy fay, partly from his own motion and love, 
and partly at the intercellion of the arch-bilhop of 
Prague, being in tlie like circLunlhmces with liim, 
clhi])Iinied at Litz, on the borders of Bohemia, a 
congregation, to lerve God in quictnefs and peace, 
without being fo eafy a prey to the Roman CaiLo- 
lies ; to whom the king and primate of the realm 
'Avere outwardly gone over. This tlicy did \o 
r.mch the rather, as thofe Brethren ditlcred from 
' the Tahoritcs, in the principle of defending reli- 

gion by the force of anus ; profefiing prayer, in 
ipiritual things, to be the befl weapon of Chrif- 
iians, agaiull their enemies. 

Ji'Soi- '-^'^^y ^^^ ^'"^^ originally to have confided of 
iVfiaaicc, fcattercd Bohemians wwA Moravians : but the Wal- 


heHveen the Tears 1760 and ij'jo. 355 

denfcsj as they imagine, taking refuge among 
them, learned their language, and, in a while, be- 
came lofl in their nation ; that, gaining ground, 
they became a people, confiderable enough to be 
denominated a national^ or more properly, a gene- 
ral church ; for it confiltcd of fubjefts, under fe- 
veral diiFerent princes ; that they fought protec- 
tion, and gained fettlements, in Poland^ England, 
Frujjia^ Wcrtemburg, and Saxony ; that Poland^ 
by degrees, became their chief refidence ; that, 
in England, the Walloons, Germans, nay, all fo- 
reign Protedants, were difpofed by Edward the 
Sixth, under their bifliop, yohn a Lafco, as fu- 
perintendant of all foreign Proteftants ; that in 
time, it becoming too tedious to diilinguifh them 
by the diiFerent names of the countries, to which 
they belonged, they ailumed the general name 
of Unitas Fratruin, or United Brethren, compre- 
hending 4il their dilTerent divifions, under that 

By this name they v/ere acknowledged by Great 
Britain in the year 1737 and 1739 ; and by feve- 
ral other nations and ftates about the lame time. 
In the latter of which years they received a general 
toleration, by an ad of the Britijh parliament, en- 
couraging them to fettle in the American planta- i'',J.'^"'^/'7, 
tioiis, c^^c. by allowing them to take ^.fjlemn af- i\^Tiw^u^^ 
firmation, inliead of an oath, and difj-)enfing y/IlIi 1; '•'^-'"i'-';''. 
their not being concerned in military affairs, ou '^'* 
payment of a rate alfeired, hQ, 


35^ Genci'al State of Pennfyhantay' ' 

• ■ ■ ■ • ■•:.•■•: ^uljii ., 


Condufion AS it IS not my intention to fay any thihg fuN* 
i-efpcciing ther, refpe(5ling the more generally well known' 
reiigmi;s° forms of tlic other religious focieties, in the pro; 
opinions, vince, which, at dilferent times, have refult'e^ 
from a variety of opinion, on the fubjeft of reliT 
gion, 1 Ihall, therefore, only obferve, that, fo 
long as different degrees of light and knowledge 
arc communicated to men, while cuftom and edu- 
cation vary among them, and while the capacity 
and opportunity to receive inflrudion arc unequal 
iUid various in individuals, according to their dif- 
ferent abilities and fituations in the world, fo lon^ 
it cannot reafouably be expected that all people 
fhould ice or think exactly alike, or poffefs an unil 
fornvity of underflanding, in objeds merely intcl- 
le6hial, more efpccially Juch as are only known to 
exifl; in opinion, or belief: for as our bodies dif- 
fer in fliape, I'ize and capacity, and vary in theif 
properties ajid qualities, io is it in relped to the 
minds of men ; which are as various as the flowers 
of the field ; and, when duly confidercd, have 
no lefs real beauty, in their variety : it is as un- 
reafonable to expetf , or attempt, an abfolute uni- 
formity of the one as o'i the other ; and compul- 
fion, in fuch cafe, would be no lefs tyrannical and 
ablurd, than ihq ufe of Prorru/it^s's bed; for the 
nature of all fefts, in religion, is to keep up the 

But, as wifdom is better than flrength, and the 
caufe above the effed, fo the power of reafon and 
perlualion alone, on the intelligent and rational 
mind, is the mofl adequate and proper to redify 
the erroneous, or lefs informed underftanding, 
in objefts entirely of a mental or intelleftual na- 
ture ; in which a difference of thinking may not 
be inconfilteiit with reafon and truth ; for pe/baps, 


between the Tears lyGo auJ 1770. ^57 

•as light and knowledge increafe and advance 
■among mankind, the greater will be the variety 
of fentiment ? Which, lb long as it is free, may 
have the more efPettual tendency to difcufs and 
difcriminate truth from error, and that not incom- 
patible with an unity of principle, even, in reli- 
gious fubjefts ; provided that men, inftead of 
wickedly making religion an engine of power, 
for one part of the community to opprefs the 
other, would keep within the bounds of mental 
purfuits only, in their pretenfions to things of 
this kind, and clear of all felfifh and ambitious 
views, artifice, and party-defign ; this has ever 
been inftanccd in the wifeil and mod civilized na- 
tions, and in the progrefs of arts and fciences. 
For, though the firil principles of things are but 
few, and thcfe all ultimately terminate in unity, yet 
like the rays of light, from the folar luminaryi, 
which rcfled an infinite variety of appearances, and 
fo much the more, the lefs they are obfcured and ob- 
ftrufted, fo the greater the diverfity of eire<ft from 
thefe principles, the more is the eternal wifdonl 
difplayed, in any one part of the creation. 

In regard to the final iifue ot the various opini- 
ons of a religious nature, among mankind, witli 
their Creator, and of the many ditlerent culloms 
'arifing from them, (than thelowcll and mofl abfurd 
of which, as well as the mod rational and fublime, 
perhaps, nothing fliews more the weaknefs of the 
human race, and its abfolute dependance on a 
Superior Bein^J why may we not conclude, 
that, as a perfon of fuperior wifdom and fagacity, 
or of better information than others, fometimes 
obfervcs and confiders the difagrcemcnts and dil- 
putes, between perfons of dliferent judgment, or 
education, and inferior knowledge, but of fin- 
cere mind and intention, whether in the lov/ and 
common aii'airs of life, or on tb.ines of a fuperior 

• " and 

3-58 • General State of Pcnnfyhania^^'. 

and mental nature, on which they feem fo widely I 
to differ in opinion, that, by their manner ot ma- 
naging their arguments, or difpiltes, they would 
probably never agree ; nay, inflead of uniting, 
Ibmetimes their oppofition of fentiment may render 
them lo much the more pofitive and tenacious of 
their different opinions, as to become highly in- 
cenfed againft each other (which is often the cafe 
with the more ignorant) becaufe they do not un- 
dcrltand the fubjctis of difpute all alike ; yet, by his 
greater penetration and undcrffanding of the affair 
in difpuie, he plainly perceives they all mean, or in- 
tend, the fame thing, in the main ; and their views 
all center to one point, or what appears to them right, 
(though if left to themfelves they would probably 
never agree) that they all are proportionably right ; 
and, when properly underftood, difi'er only cither 
in circumllantials, or on account of their various 
degrees of underftanding and conception, or ac- 
cording to fucli information as each is poffeffed 
of, or by reafon of the different mediums of edu- 
cation and cuftom, through which they fee ; whence 
he may pity tlieir ignorance, and perhaps blame 
their animofity, which arifes from it ; but cannot 
juflly cenfure them for any thing, that is providenti- 
ally out of their ])Owcr : {o^ who will deny that the 
great Creator of mankind, who fees and knows 
all things, looks down upon his creatures, whom 
he has proportionably endowed with reafon^ and 
the proper means of anfwering the end of their 
exillence, and, in his great wifdoni^ beholds how 
zealous they are to pleafe him, and obtain felicity ; 
which they all aim at, according to the different 
degrees of knowledge, capacity and ability ailbrd- 
cd them ? 1 fay, who will venture to deny, not- 
withllanding their great difparily, dilagreement, 
feeming inconfiffency, and the many contrary cuf- 
toms, ufed by men, for that purpofe (divers of 
vJiich to one another, and not without reafon, 


between the T^ears 1760 and 1770. 359 

may appear very abfiird and improper for the end 
defigned thereby) ; that in liis ivifJoni ajui mercy, 
vi'hich are over all his works, he commiferates all, 
as the mod wife, affetlionate and true parent of 
his ojj'spriny^ ? For, according to the divine model 
above, it is in degree here below ; as wifdom 
(which is the real fint of the Almighty) prevails, 
igncrance vanifnes ; and as that fuperior happinefs, 
and true Chriflian charity, which are the confe- 
quences of the former, gain ground, among men, 
in the fame proportion mult mankind neceff.nily 
approach to, or partake of, the fuprcrne love 
and perleftion ; which ever take place of all vio- 
lence, cruelty and wrath, the infernal dregs, and 
genuine olFspring of the latter ; whofe habitation 
is only in the regions of darkncfs and forrow, the 
reward of falfe conception and error ; which ne- 
ver can be the fituation of the pcrledly haj^py, 
tlie end of all true religion. 


.^6o Defcriptio Pcnnfylvanicz, anno 1729,-, 

Exfrat^ from iivo JJjort Latin poems ^ infcribed fg 
James Logan, Efqidre, by Thomas Makin ; one 
of which is dated 1728, the other 1729; the 
former if entitled, " Encomium Pennfylvanise ;" 
the latter, which is here principally j-etained, 
" In laudes Penfilvaniai poema, feu, defcriptio 
Vtn{i\\'2im?'i'.'^ found among James Logan'j ^j- 
pers, . 7nany years after his difeafe : they feem io 
have been written chiejiy for amifcment in his old 
age, b'r. 

Descriptio Pennsylvani^e, anno 1729. 

Hxc habet, & regio memorabile nomen, habebit 

AiK^lior au(Sloris tcnipus in omne fui j 
Qui fuit illuftri proavorum ftcmmatc natus, 

Scd virtute niapis nobilis ipfe fua. 
Prxcipue illullrem fua fc fapientia fecit; V 

Vixit apud claros dignus lionore viros : 
Qui quanivis obiit, tanicn ufque nienit^ria vivet; 

Norninis attjue fui fama pereniiis crit. 
Semer honos nomenquc fuum laudefquc nianebunt, 

Hujus, qui terrce nobi'is au6lor erat. 
H:ec fua Proprictas -, hinc Pcntifylvatiiu primuni, 

Hiiec fuit ex domini nomine did\a fui. 
Rcgc fibi C^irolo concclla liiifque Secitndo, 

Pro Claris nieritis ollicioquc patris. 

TjOwx. terra fidjcd altcrna.-, ubi vcris Sc a; II as, 

Autumni gelidx' funt blcmifque vices. 
Ilic ter quinquc dies numcrat longilEmus Iioras, 

Cum fol iii cancro fidere tranllt iter. 
IIic tanien intcrdum glaciali. frigora brum.\: 

Et calor a.'iUvus vix toleranda preniunt. 
Svepe fed imniodicum borccde relvigcrat xftuni 

Flamen, S: auftralis niitigat aura gelu. 
Hie adeo inconllans e(l, & variabile c;.e!um, 

Una ut non raro efl vtitus hicmfque die. 
Sxpe prior quamvis nitido lit lule lerena, 

Po(lera fit multis imbribus atra dies. 
Vis adeo interdum venti violenta ruentis, 

Ut multa in iylvis llcrnitui' arbor luimi. 

I lane 

Dtfcr'ipt'ion of Pcmifyhama, aiino ijii). 3G 

•s' Note, Thomas Mahin appears to have been one of tlic 
mod eavly Icttlers in the province of Per.t:J'ylvnma from 
■^— for, in the year 1689, he was fecond mufler [Geoygi 
Ktlth being the.firlt) of tlic Friends' pnblic gram-nar 
fthool, in Philach-lphui ; which v/as the firfl: of the kind in 
t]ie province^ and inftituted about that time. He was fome- 
times clerk of the Provincial Allcmbly •, which, in early 
time, was long lield in the Friends' meeting houfe. The 
Eii^HJh vcrfion is made by the tranfcriber, 11. T. 

A Description or Peniisyivania, anno 1729. 

larll, ]^f/uifylviinui'i memorable name, 
From Finn, the J'\)under of tlie country, came ; 
Sprung from a worthy and illuilrious race, 
15ut more ennobled by liis virtuous ways. 
Higli in edeem among the great he Itood •, 
His wifdom made hinr lovely, great anil good. 
Tho' he be laid to die, he will furvive ; 
'i'in-o' future time his memory fhall live : 
This wife Proprietory in love and praife, 
Shall grow and flourifli to the end of days. 
With juit proprletyy to future fame, 
Fair Ptiinjjl'jania ihall record his name." 
This, CJ.\:r!:s the Second liiil, at fu it command, 
And fir his's merits gave the Luut : 
JUit his liigli virtue did its value raile 
'J'o future glory, and to balling praife. 

Beneath the temp'rate zone the country lies, 
And heat and cohl with grateful change fupplies. 
'Jo fifteen liours extends the longcll day, 
When fol in cancer points his fervid ray : 
Yet here tlie v/inter feafon is fcvere •, 
And hunnier's heat is dLiheult to bear, 
iiut wcdern wimls oft cool the fcorching ray, 
And fouthern breezes warm the winter's ilay. 
Yet oft, tho' warm and fair the day begun, 
Cold itorni;, arifc before the fetting fun : 
Nay, ofi lo quick the change, lb great its pow'r. 
As funnncr's heat, and wititer, in an houu ! 
So violent the wind, that oit the ground 
With ro.;tetl iretL' is cover'd wide and round. 

v.... II. r_i6j ATiv.gc 

3^:2 Defer] pt'ic Pt'iinfyhania;, anno 1729. 

Hanc fera gens Iiuli teiTain tenucre coloni •, 

Moribus at nunc efl mitior ufque bonis ; 
Pacis anians, Anglis concordi f.ederc jundi; 

Cura qiiibus pacfh.un non violare fiilcni. 
Ill fiighmt. rixas, & noxia femina litis, 

Et leges ultro Juftltiamque colunt. 
Hi ipcrnuiit artes, durum fugiuntquc labovem j 

llos vacuos cuvis libera vita juvat. 
Hi venatores fylvas & tefqua frequentant, 

Qu'.iercntes ubi fit prx'da reperta fera; •, 
Unde fibi pelles, epulxque parantur incmptx ; 
, Utile lunt pelles, mcrx pretiofa bonuai. 
Devia rura diu longe lateque pererrant, 

Et bene nota libi femper ubique via cfl. 
Durior interea exeveet vigilantia nuptas ; 

Oflicium quibus eft farra parare domi. 
H;e bajulant fafces graves humerifque pufillis, 

Et longum faciunt nunc patienter iter ; 
Nunc findunt lignum, ililbque ex viminc corbes 

Texunt ; has urget fedulus ufque labor: 
Nunc hve corna legunt, & humi nafcentia fr.igra 

Nunc pifces capiunt infiiliis & aves. 
I:uioram juvenes ullum gultare liquorem 

Nou licet (exemplar nobile) pr:vter aquani. 
Mollibus in leclis Indi requielcere nolunt, 

Nunc humus eft leiitus, nunc fibi nuda tcges. 
Pellibus anti(}uo, qui more fuere ferinis 

Iniluti, nunc eft gaufape veftis iis. 
.Semper & incedunt capitis velainine nudi, 

8ed futic pelles crura pedefque tegunt, 
Et quamvis cutis eft fufeic color omnibus idem, 

Eorma decora tamen corporis eftque vigor. 
Hi lenocinium fugiunt & feorta pudici ; 

Fvedcra conjugii non violare folent. 
Hos docet ore loqui facilis natura difcrto ; 

] Jngu:e gvande loquens eft idioma fu'.e. 
O gens liulonnn^ vos terque quaterque bcati ! 

Nulla quibus requiem follicitudo vetat ! 

Non regio \\-xc Inclos armis fubigendo tenetr.r •, 
■'led eerta emptori conditione data eft, 

Vivitur hie igitur tuto ^\nt niilitis ufu j 
Et iibi fecurus propria quifque tenet. 

Hic locus eft multis felix, ubi fedibus aptis, 
,Sor:j optata dedit, non fuie pace frui. 


Defcr'iptlon of Fcnnfyl'vania^ anno 1729. 363 

A favagc Indian race here firfl was known ; 
But niikler now, in life and manners, grown. 
To fricndlliip's laws they faithfully adhere j 
And love the Engl'ip with a mind fmccre. 
Of jars and baneful flrife tliey fluni tlie caufe ; 
And pra£life juftice uncompcH'd by laws. 
A life oi cafe, and void of care, they cliufe ; 
But labour, and the toilfome arts, refufe'. 
Thro' woods and forefts wiile, they hunting ftrny, 
In fearch of beafls, their iiuich beloved piey. 
Their Ikins, for cloaths, their flefh, for food is fouglu \ 
Warm raiment, and delicious food, unbought. 
Thro' devious wilds, and woody deferts, tlicy 
Oft wander far, but never lofe their way. 

But more laborious in domcftic care. 
The female fex their corn and bread prepare •, 
Long journeys tliefe, in patience, pcrAn-ere \ 
And heavy loads upon their bodies bear. 
With unremitted labor, too, the fame 
Their wooden veflels make, and bafKCts frame. 
Wild fruits and ftrawberries by them are fought ; 
And fiih and fowl by various methods caught. 
All ftronger drink than water from the lake, 
The Indian youth forbidden arc to take. 
No feather bed, nor eafy couch they keep •, 
Upon the ground, or fhaggy fkin they lleep. 
For cloatlung, hrft warm ikin. they uiil poHcf^; 
lint nou'coarfe linen hides their nakcdnefs. 
AVlicre'er they go their heads are alv/avs bare \ 
But Ikins upon their feet and legs they wear. 
Tho' brown, or copper colour, marks them ail, 
Yet are their bodies proper, ilrait aiul tall. 
Ciiaile in tlieir lives, unlawful lufls they Oy ; 
Scarce ever known to break the marriage tie. 
AVith native eloquence their fpeech aboumls, 
Untaught, with ligurcs grand, and lofty founds. 
C) happy Indians ! blefs'd with joy and peace; 
No future cares of life diflurb your cafe ! 

On juft and equal terms the land was gaiu'd, 
No force of arms has any right obtain'd : 
Tis here without the ufe of arms, alone, 
The bkfs'd inhabitant enjoys liis own ; 
ir.^rc, many, to tlieir wifli, in peace enjoy 
T.i.i:- lianpy lot:'., and njiliing dotJi annoy. 


;64 Defer tpilo Pejw/yhnnia, anno 1729. 

DIra fed infolix, lieu ! b-lla Nov Anglia fenfit, 
Indis qu;e Icmper gens nialiHda fuit. 

Scd fcmel hie rumor nieiulax clamavit, ad aniinj 

Iiicola cui niinium crcdulus omnis erat. nialefana die fuit afta, tragcedia quridain, 

Cum convenerunt undique turha frcciueiis : 
Scilicet ut major fieret eommotus in uvbe, 

Notior & nuiltis rumor ubique foret ; 
Ufque adeo fuit hae confufus in urbe tumukus, 

Ut neque tune leges, orcio nee tdlus erat, 
Hie removerc fua init.inti pn^pcrabat ab l>o(Le, 

Ille nihil eoiUra julht ab urbe vchi. 
Sed quodcunque fihi voluit dementia talis 

]-l;ec damno multis eil memoranda dies : 
Vefpere fed tandem fuit lioc flratagema reteiSlum ; 

Fabula tune iltam fmiit wctA diem. 

I'evtilis l)ic frugum tellus, optataque rerum 

Uiibus humanis copla femper adefl:. 
Hie bene cultus ager littis ornatur ariilis, 

Et folito melTis tempore fervet opus, 
(^•.evls fylva feris, & pifeibus amiiis abundat ; 

h'ertque fuurn fruciftus qucelibet arbor onus. 
Hie oviumque gveges erraiit, armenta boumque, 

Errat & hie proles multiplicata fuum. 
Hie faliunt damce, lepores, celerefque feiuri, 

(Qiice funt immunis prrcda cuique ferx) 
Hie latet in fylvis urfus, panthera, lupufquc, 

Q^i pecus iimoeuum fepe vorare folent. 
Hie habitat latebrafi furto notilhma vulpcs ; 

Callida qu;e prxnlam no^le dieque eapit, 
Rarior at nune ha:c proles inimica futura eft, 

Qu'.e fegetive noeent, lanigerove gregi. 
Lex fuit hie ctenem tales bene cauta neeandi, 

Erret ut in fylvis tutius omne peeus. 
Amphibia liie & non defunt animalia quiedam, 

Terra quibus vitam pr'.ebet & unda parem ; 
IMerx t]uorum pelles tantum venalis habctur •, 

Utile non aliquod turpe eadaver habel. 
Hie avis ell quxdam duici celeberrima voce, 

(,)ux variare fonos ufc|ue caneiulo folet. 
Hie avis eil qviajdam minima & puielierrima plumis; 

Sugcrc qua- llorcs ufque volando foler. 
Undc- i\;g;im riuife.e in morcrn propjr,;rc vicKtur, 

T.M'.quan; won oeuhs afpieienda diu. 


Defer ipiion of 'Pennfylvan'uii anno 1729, 365 

But fad Nc^v Englamr^ difT'rcnt coiuluc^ fliowM 
Wlvat dire clleds from iiijuvM Indians i'low'd | 

Yet once to anns faJfe n<i/ir,r filled here j 
To wliich the vulgar. n\o(l inclined were. 
'Twas on a certain day the plot began ; 
Deluded crowds together madly ran : 
By artful means the Rratagem was laid, 
And great commotion thrp' the city m.ide •, 
iSo wild the tumult and lb great tlie fear, 
No law nor order was obferved there : 
While from th' approaching foe to hallie away, 
One urg'd, anotlier orders gave, to (lay. 
This itrange aflair, whatever was dcfign'd, 
For lofs to many, will be kept in mind. 
Theev'ning did the plot's defign betray ; 
The farce was eutled M'lth the cloring day. 

This fruitful land all plenty dotli proihicc ; 
And never fails to anfwer Iruman ufe. 
Here yellow Ceres loads the joyful iields ; 
And golilen crops the happy harvelt yields. 
With beafls tlie woods, with fifli tlie flreams abnnnd ; 
Tire bending trees with plenteous fruits are crownM. ; 

Here Hocks and herds in llow'ry pailurcs dray •, 
'^rheir num'rous yoimg around them feed and play. 
The fijuirrels, rabbits, and the timiil deer 
To bealls of prev are yet expofctl here : 
'.riie lv.;r, the paiuher, aiul the wolf (f'v<nir 
Th' innocuous lloeks, which Iclikiin aie Id lire. 
Here dwells the crcdty fox, which, night and <ijy, 
Invents his wile.-;, to catch th' ui'.\s nry ])rcy. 
But now thefe noxious bealls, v/hich nnuli annoy 
''.rhe growing grain, and teuilcr llocks dcflroy, 
Are by a law diminilh'd, with their breed, 
And in the woods more fafe the cattle (vcd. 
Amphibious animals here too are found •, 
Which both in water live, and on tlie jMoirid ; 
Thefe for their Ikins alone are ever pri/'d, 
And lofe their lives; their carcafe is defi/i.^'d. 
Tis here the inocking bin! extends liis tlnoat. 
And imitates tlie birds of ev'ry niHc ^ 
'Tis here the fnvalU-ft of the fe^^tlicr'd train, 
The hi/niinhip- h'/nl, fVc(|ncnts the llow'ry pi, 'in. 
Its motion (juick iecri'is to cl;;t'( liic rvr; 
It now a liird ajipvavs, a.-d iio'.v a i!y. 

. The 

^C6 Defcripilo Pennfylvan'ic<:, anno 1729. 

Hie avis eft qux-dam rubro formofa colore, 

Gutture qua: plumis ell niaculata nigris. 
Hie avis efl repctens, Whip, IFJnpj 7^/7/, voce jocofa;' 

Qux tola verno tempore nofbe canit 
Hie tk aves ali;^, quotquot generantur ab ovis, 

Scribere jam quarum iiomina inane foret. 
Innumcrx" volitare folent hie l\tpe columba: •, 

Uiide frequens multls obvia pra^da datur. 

Hie aeftate folet tanquani acre gaudeat alto, 
Tollcre fc ex fummis fa:pe acipenfcr aquis. 

Qui lalit ac relilit toties, (mirabile vifu) 
111 cyrnbas ingens pra^da aliquando cadit. 

Regius liie pifeis minlme pretious habetur j 
Rarior ell at ubi, carior ell & ibi. 

Foflbres varias liic invenere fodinas ; 

Unde mctalla patent, qua: latuere diu. 
Floribus hie fylvx variis ornantur & herbis ; 

In quibus & virtus h medicina latet. 
Hie mulVve quxdam tanquam lampyrades alls, 

jliRiva nitidis undeque no(Slc volant. 
Hie lapis eft (Magncsj quo non pretiofior ullus, 

Per latuni nautis, qui mare monftrat iter. 
Hie lapides linum* pars airmdlare videtur, 

Chia: non exufta eft, nee fit in igne minor 

Sed merx prxcipue, regio quam prx-bet emendam, 

Eft venale quidem fcinper ubique bonvmi : 
JSeilicet omne bi)num Cercris quod copia pr.ebet •, 

Q^odque onus hie multis navibus ellc folet. 
llujus fama loei multos alieunde voeavit, 

Libertas quibus eft dulcis amorque lueri. 
Hue alieni^^en-.c veniunt, venientque quotannis, 

Omnibus ufcjue adeo libera terra placet. 

Ccnfibus liie nemo nimium vexatur iniquis ; 

IJnufquilque rei pro ratione licet. 
Hie venntori fylvas licet ire per omnes •, 

Quamque capit prxdam vendicat clle fuam. 
Omnibus hie etiam capicndi copia pifecs, 

Rctibus aut hamis ipiollbet amnc datur. 
Qiialis in lluropa concefla licentia non eft, 

Commoda ubi curit quifque tenere fua. 


* AibcUus. 

Dcfcrlpiion of Pemifylvania, amm \^2(). 367 

The various ivoodpechrs liere charm the fight ; 
Of mingled red, of beauteous black and white. 
Here's ivhip-pcr-will ; a bird, whofe fanci'd name 
From its nodurnal note imagin'd, came. 
Here, in the fall, large flocks of pigeons fly, 
So num'rous, that they darken all tlie fky. 
Here other birds of ev'ry kind appear, 
Whole names would be too long to mention liere. 

. Large flurgcons num'rous crowd tlie Delaware ; 

Which, in warm weatlier, leap into the air ; 

So high, that (flrange to tell 1) they often fly 

Into the boats, which on the river ply ! 

That royal fifli is little valu'd here ; 

But where more fcarce, 'tis more eflcem'd and dear. 

Here num'rous mines of many kinds arc found, 
And precious metals, trealurcd in the ground. 
Tiie verdant woods, roots, herbs, and How'rs produce, 
For many virtues fam'd for human ufe. 
Here infeds are, which many much admire, 
Whofe plumes in fummer ev'nings fhine like fire. 
Here too the magnet's found, whofe wond'rous pow'r 
Dircds the feamen to each diftant fliore. 
Here is the ftone-like flax* of wond'rous fame, :, ■ 

For not confuming in the burning flame ! 

But the cliief produce of this happy land 
Is always good, and ever in demand : 
And bouiucous Ceres' rich redundant ftores 
Are Ihipp'il abroad to many diltant ih.ores. 
lis fame to diltant regions far has U-,v.:ad, 
And fome for peace, and fome for prufit, led ; 
Born in remotefl climes, to fettle here. 
They leave their lyative foil, and all that's dear 5 
And flill will flock from far, here to be free ; 
Such povv'rful charms has lovely liberty ! 

Here liigh unecpial taxes have no place ; 
A juit proportion ev'ry perfon pays. 
Th' cxtenfive woods abound with various game, 
Where all inay freely take, and ufe the fanie. 
In ev'ry flowing flream, all perfons may 
Take plenteous Fiili, and freely ufe the prey. 
Such pri\ liege in Europe is unknown; 
Where ev'ry man is bounded with his own. 


* Albelhis. 

S^^ ^cfcnf4to Pcnnf)'haniiz^ anno i^n^i . 

Per maris hue primum vencre pericla Brhantii .- 

Deinde alii patriam clclcrucrc iuani. 

Ailvcniuiit multi, Genmma & H'lhcnuca proles, . .:,A'^ 

C^uos hue Ix-pe nimis navis oiiufla vehit. . . ,-. ;.u/, 

llaiic terram fibi non acfjuilivcrc Bniuimi ; . . „,/, 

Si licet externis omnibus ciTc locum. v, 

Scd quanto lit agri major eultura quotannis, . .(! 

riiiic taiito rcrum eopla major erit. ; ../• 

Avborihus IcilRs tellurem fcin'clit anitcr ; ■■ 'r 

Nalcitur hinc fparfo iemine Uvta leges. 
Duleis aqu:e per rura lluunt hic undique fontcs, 

llnde peeus gaudet pinguo levarc iitim. 
Florida limolx liuut hie prata paludcs ; 

Tcrrii ferax ell, qua: nuper erenius erat. 
Legillatorcs, eledli ad jura quotannis, 

Conveniunt quoties eonflituenda libet. 
Publiea noftra Talus x-quo moderamine leguni 

Servatur •, leges dant que cUique fuum. 
Q^ilque fao mcritas hic dat pro crimine p:enas ; 

J.ex parcit nullis intcmcrata reis; 
Atque Magidratus jullc redeque gerendi 

Quique poteftatem jufque miniltcr habet. 
Sed licet imprimis ideo lex ipfa llatuta eft, 

Puniat ut vitium, juftitiamquc colat ; 
lieu ! quoties virtus legis et)rrumpitur auro. 

Pauperis &, quovis judice, caufa perit ! 
FJoipi ir, an fdeam ? fi quundo pceunia def.t, 

Lex perit, Sc r.ihili juitus liabetur inops ! 
Si tibi lis fuerit cum quovis aurea dante 

Plurima (crede mihi) munera, vidhis eris ! 
^'Irca cum Daiiacn inclufam turris haberet, 

Semper ut infelix innuba virgo foret •, 
Quam facile tegulas prorumperet aunnis imbcr ! 

()|iid non vis auri vir>eit, amorque Jovisf 
Non ergo mirum elt liominum fi vendcre leges 
Auri non a-quus pcdcnM eogat amor. 

Cum fera fxvit hiems glacie, lluvialis ^^c unda, 

Atque latct tellus undique tccta nive •, 
Cireumclufa ratis, {\ no;i lurct ;i;iclu)ra, lixa ell, 

Dum rigidum fulvat mitior aura gelu. 
Et quamvis Boreas gelido bacchatur ab arcio, 

Inturbata tamen lluminis unda filet. 
Ludcre jam ceflat fummis aeipenfer ab undis, 

Atque alii pifccs ima profunda pciuut. 


Deferiptlon of Pennfyhama, anno ij2^i "^6^} 

*Twas hither firfb tl\e Briti/Jj crofs'd the main -, 

Thencv many others left their native plain : 

Hihr/iia's fons forllike their native home j 

And from Gcrmantu crowded veflcls comci 

Not for themfelVes alone tlie Bnt'ip care ; 

Since ev'ry ftrangcr may partake a fFiare. 

1 [cncc itill more culture lliall the foil receive ; 

And ev'ry year increafing plenty give. 

Clcar'd from the woods, more fruitful lands they gain % 

And yellow Ceres loads the extended plain. 

Here bubbling fountains llow thro' ev'ry mead ; 

Where ilocks and herds delight to drink and feed. 

The marfliy grounds improv'd ricli meadows yield j 

The wildcrnefs is made a fruitful fieldi 

The Lcgiflators, chofen ev'ry yeai*, 
Proceed to att, as iliall to them appean 
Here jull adminiltration of the laws 
Make public good, and private right one caufei 
All crimes are puniih'd, as their natures are \ 
The laws unwredetl no offenders fpare. 
All civil magiflrates have pow'r and trull. 
To ad:!:, in oilice, what is right and juft. 

Tho' fnll: it was tli' intention of the lawdi 
To punidt vice, and favour virtue's caufe j 
Yet, by the pow'r of gold how oft is loll 
The poor man's caufe, and facreil juftice croll ! 
Nay, may it not be faiil, for curled gold, 
Jjoth huv ami juitice oft are to be fold ! 
If with the rich, to law a poor nvan go, 
Believe me, he Ihall have an overthrow ! 
For Danne fair had Hill rcmain'd a maid. 
And in the brazen tow'r fccurely ftaiti, 
H id not the pow'r of goKl unbarr'd the chain j 
What cannot gold and pow'rful love* obtam ! 
What wonder then, if love of gold compel 
The minds of men the right of law to fed t 

When ftormy winter whitens all belov/, 
When woods and plains are clad in ice and fno\V, 
'I'he fhips with icy chtiins are anchor'd faft. 
Till the diflblving fpring return at lad ; 
Tlio' borcas rage, and itormy tempells blow. 
The dreams are ^\\cni, anil not iccn to llow ; 
The fiih then near tlie furface ceafe to play, 
And to the bottom fafely hiake their way. 

Vol. If. f47] Euf 


37^ Defcti^tio Pefwfyl-vmiia^ anno 1729. . 

Seel glacie rupta* lino piftator & hamo, * cy feda. 

Ex alto pifces purgitc fape capit. 
Ufque adeo iuterdum fuit Lie durabiic frlgus. 

Trans flavlum vidi plauftra oncrata vein. 
Hic tamcn intcrdum tutius tempore brumx 

Navibus h;vc amnis pervia prvcbetiter: 
Cyjnbaque renrigio velox, veloque frequenter 

Advehit & revehit qua via ducit onus. ' . 

UAjue adeo incerta eft Iiic ^ vai;iabi]is aura, . , , 

Alternafque vices frigus & ccflus habet. 
Pulchr.-i duos inter fita flat Philnclelphia- xi\qs\ 

Inter quos tluo funt millia longa vix. 
Dclaivar hic major, S>culhll minor illc vocatur ; 

bulls & Suevis notus uterque diu. 
-^ulibus ornatur multis urbs limitc longo, 

Quie parva emieuit tempore magna brevi. J 

II'ic plateas menfor fpatiis delineat asquis, 'i 

Et domui redo eft ordinc junda domus. 
Qunique facra; hac x-des una numerantur in urbe, 

Altera non etiam diftat ab urbe procul. 
Ex quibus una alias eft qu;c fupereminet omnes ; 

Cujus nondum ingens pcrfK-iatuv opus. . .- 

Pr.ecinit hic f.:cros divina.melodia plalmos : ' 

Et vox totius fuceinit inde chori. 
Elevct hoc honiinum mentcs, & nuilccat aures, 

Scd cor devotum pfallit in aure Dei. 
rjufis huic pofita eft excelfx' firma future 

Turris, ubi dicunt -.vra f'onora fore. 
]l!c in gymnuliis lingux docentur ,?c artes 

Ingennx-; multis dodor t^ ipfe ful. 
. l''na kliola hic alias etiam fupereminet omncs 

]io:,!,i,io tv qu-.e docct ore loqui. 
I!iL- ipatiof-i* domus tantiu bene convenit urbi, * or , 

In (jua quotidie venditur omne penus. fpcciofa. 

]!iijus ,S; e fummis majori voce quotannis 

Elcdus pnetor regulus urbis adeft. 
] He pcrrus midtis ftatio eft bene nota carinis, 

Cuivo ubi dcnte tenax anchora moulct humuni. 
Iljc niercatur.v: faciunt plcrique periclum ; 

C^uifque fibi lucrum quarit ubicjuc kuim. 
Artiiices adfimt etiam, quos cxigit ufus, 

Qui fell' cxcercent qualibct arte fua. 
^■\vM:\ p;,'r hos pendent onmos infignia vicos, 

<.Ki'h! veiiale donium monilrat habere mcium. 

♦ Nunc 

Befcrlptlon of Pcnnfyhanla, anno 1729. 371 

But yet thro' holes, which in tlie ice are made, 

With hook and hne goes on the fiiher's trade. 

Sometimes the ice fo itrong and firm we know, 

That loaded waggons on the rivers go ! ' 

But yet fo temp'rate are fomc winters here, 

That in the itreams no bars of ice appear ; 

And all the feafon boats and Ihipping may, 

With oar and fail divide the liquid way, 

So various and uncertain is the clime, ^ 

For heat and cold extreme, in little time ! 

Fair Philadelphia next is rifing feen, 
Between two rivers plac'd, two miles between ; 
Tlie Delaimre and Sn/lkil, new to fame. 

Both ancient dreams, yet of a modern name. . • ■ . . 

The city, form'd upon a beauteous plan, ". 

Has many houfcs built, tho' late began ; .,' 

Redangular the (Ireets, diredt and fair-, 
And retlilinear all the ranges are. ■• . 

Five houfes here for facred ufe arc known, 
Another ftands not far without the town. ■ ' ^ 

Of thefc appears one in a grander (tyle; '''■ 

But yet unliniHi'd is the lofty pile. .' 

Here pfalms divine melodious accents raife, . i ■ : .' 
And choral fymphony fweet fongs of praiie j ' ' 
To raife the mind, and footh the pious car ; 
But God devoted minds doth always hear. 
A lofty tow'r is founded on this ground. 
For future bells to make a diitanl found. 
Here fchools, for learning, and for arts, are fcen , 
In which to many I've .1 teacher been : 
But one, in teaching, doth the reft excel, 
To know and fpeak the Greek and Latin well. 
Jlere too, one fpacious building we behold, 
Where all provifions brought are daily fold -, ' 
From whofe Ingh ftcps too, loudly is procUiim'd 
Tlie annual Magiftrate, the Mayor nam'd. 

Here, in fafe harbour, num'rcus vcHels moor. 
At anchor fome, and fome along the fliorc. 
In commerce many crofs the ftormy main^ 
To diftant countries, in purfuit of gain. 
All neccflary trades here g'jt employ, 
And ufeful arts, v/lneh largr rewards enjoy. 
Here figns, thro' all. the il;iits, -rcliu:'-, iii view. 
Where entertainment may be h.'.d, to fi:e',r. 

^ The 

Nunc fub nave canuilt hibres encomia villi • - - 

Nautre ; nvmc tutos aucliora iixa tenet : 
Nunc lub fole fitim gaudent reftingucre ficcam, • '- i 

Necloreum rorem, ficcus ut ipfe bibit. . ;7^* 

Nunc & fonte libet puros liaurirc liquorc!;, 'I 

(Vni pvetio nullo node dieque fluunt. 
Vinea cum patina Ixtis fiorente corymbis, 

Indicat liofpitium fcmper adelTe bonum. 
Scribere fed nimis eft infignia nomina cunda, 

Quie jam defcripfi fint nieminifle fatis. 
Providus in morcm formiccc alimenta rcponit 

Rufticus hiberni frigoris ufque mcmor. 
yl^^ilivo reputans quodumque labore lucratur, 

Qux mox infequitur, longa vorabit hyems. 
Stramine tcda rcplct CercaHbus horvea donis 

Impiger, & curat condere quicquid habet : 
Dcfpicit exoticas que dapes, veftelque fuperbas, 

Contentus modicis vivcre pace fuig. 
Efuriens dulces cpulas depromit incmptas, 

Et proprio veflis vellere tcxta placet. 
Pavva luunilirque domus, latos qu?E profpicit agros, 

Parta vtl empta, Tibifullicit atque fuis, ; 

Utilis eft i!!i, ^\ non opulenta fujiella ; 

Res fapicns omnes utilitate probat. 
O ! mihi {\ liceat fylvas liabitaie beatas, 

Et modico vittu, non fine pace, frui. , , 



Bcfcr'iption of PeriJifylvania, anno iJ2C). 373 

The merry failors, wliile tiiey land tlicir warcG, 
The praifc of Bacchus fing, and cafe their cares ; 
Yet (d'ten from the fpring the draught is foiiglit, 
Which here to all doth freely flow unbought ; 
But where fair ivy crowns the flowing bov/1, 
There ilwells the large, tlvs hofjiitable foul. 
More things, at prefent, I forbear to name •, 
liccaufe too long ^ — thefe are enough for fame. 
(Except the country fvvains' dillinguifli'd praife 
Demand tlic notice of nsy olofing lays). 

The farmer, provident, amidft his cares, 
pqr winter, like the prudent ant, prepares ; 
Foreknowing, all that fummer doth produce, 
Is only for confuming winter's vSc. 
He fdls his barns and cellars with good cheer, 
Againil that dreary feafon of the year. 
He fcorns exotic foods, and g;iudy drefs, 
Content to live on homely fare, in peace ; 
Sweet to his tafte his unbought dainties are ; 
And his own home-fpun he delights to wear. 
His lowly dwelling views his large domain, 
Improv'd in, where peace and plenty reign. 
Plain furniture, but ufeful, he doth chufc ; 
And wifely values ev'ry thing for ufe. 
In thefe bled fhades may I (lelight to be ; 
Here little is enough, wiiii peace, for nic. 




Hiftory of Pennfylvania. 



No. I. Certain Co7h!iliom, or Concejfwns^ hi 1681. 

II. William Penn's .Frame of Government and La-ivs. 

iffc. publijhed in 1682. 

III. The Charter of 1683. 

IV. The Charter of 1696. 

V. Addrefs of the AJembly to William Penn, with hi 

anfwer^ in 1701. 

VI. Charter of the City of Philadelphia, in 1701. 

No. I. 

Ctrtahi conditions, or concefiioas, agreed upon by William Penu 
Proprietary and Governor of the province of Fen.'ifylva/iia, ur 
thofc luho are the adventurers and purchajers in the fame provinc 
the eleventh of July, one thoufand fix hundred and eighty-one. 

HAT fo foon as it plcafctli Coil tliat tlu; abovcfuid pciTo 
arrive there, a ccrr-.iin quantity of liuitl, or gvoiuitl plat, Ihall 
laid out, for a large town or city, in the moll convenient plac 
upon the river, for health and navigation ; and every •{■(urehu* 
and adventurer fhall, hy lot, have fo much hmd therein as v 
anfwcr to the proportion, vhich he hath bought, or taken i 


2 APPENDIX. Part I. 

upon rent : but it is to be noted, that the furveyors fliall confider 
what roacls or liigh-ways will be neceflary to the cities, towns, or 
througli the lands. Great roads from city to city not. to contain 
lefs \h\w\ forty feet, in bi'eadth> (hall be; laid out and declared to 
be for higli-v/.iys, before the dividend of acres be laid out for tlie 
purchafer, niul the like obfcrvation to be had for the flreets in the 
towns and cities, that tliere may be convenient roads and ftreets 
preferved, not to be encroached upon by any planter or builder, 
t!:at none may buijd irregularly to the damage of another. In 
this, ci/J}o)ii govtTus. 

II. That tlie land In the town be laid out togetlier after the pro- 
portion o[ /(7i thoiifand acres of the whole country, that is, two 
hundred acres, if the place will bear it : however, that the pro- 
portion be by lot^ and entire, fo as \\\o{tt that defire to be toge- 
tlier, efpecially thofc that are, by the catalogue, laid together,, 
may be fo had together both in tlie town and country. 

III. Tliat, wlicn the country lots are laid out, every purchafer, 
from otie thoi/fatnl^ to ten thonjiind acres. Or more, not to have! 
above one thoufand acres together, unlefs in three years they plant * 
a family upon every thoufand :icxcs \ but that all fuch as purchafe 
together, lie together; and, if as many as eomjily with this Con- 
dition, that tlic wliole be laid out togetlier. 

IV. Tliat, M'hcrc any nnmbcr of purchafers, more or lefs, 
whofe number of acres amounts to f:'e or ten t!>c!f,.i:d acres, de- 
Jire to fit together in a lot, or tuwiiihip, tlicy Ihall have their lot, 
or townlhip, calV together, iii fuch places as have convenient har- 
bt'MV.s, or n.«\igablc rivers attending it, if fuch tan be founds 
and in cafe any one or more purciiafers "plant not according to 
agreement, in this concefiion, to the prejudice of others of the 
fame townfhip, upon complaint thereof made to the Governor, 
or his Deputy, with allillance, they may award (if they fee caufe) 
that the complaining purchafer may, paying the furvey money, " 
and purchafe money, and intereil thereof, be entitled, enrolled 
and lawfully invelheil, in the lands (o not feated. 

V. That the proportion of lands, that (IkiII he laid out in the 
firft great town, or city, for every pUrchafcr, fliall be after the 
proportion of ten acres lor every fve hundred acres purchafed, if 
the place will allow it. 

VI. That notwithitanding there be r.o mention made, in the fe- 
vf-ral deetls made to the purciiafers ; yet the faiil IVilliani Penn 
does accord and declare, that all rivers, rivulets, woods, and un- 
derwoods, waters, watercourfes, quarrie?, mines, and minerals, 


Part I. APPENDIX. 3 

.(except mines royal) fliall be freely and fully enjoyed, and wholly 
by the purcliafers, into whofe lot they fall. 

■ VII. Tiiat, for every fift\j acres, that fliall be allotted to a fer- 
vaut, at the end of hij Service, his quit-rent fnall be tiuo Jljillings 
per annum, and the mailer, or owner of the fervant, v/lienhc 
Ihall take up the ot\\cx fifty acres^ his quit-rent, (hall he four JJj'tl- 
liriirs by the year, or, if the mailer of the fervant (by reafon in 
the indentures he is lb obliged to do) allot out to the {crv?.ntffy 
acres in his own divifion, the faid mailer ihall have, on demand, 
allotted him, fronl the Governor, the o/ii; hu/idfid acres, at the 
chief vent of lix Ihillings per annum. 

VIII. And, for the encouragement of fuch as are ingenious and 
"willing to fearch out gold and iilver niines in this province, it ii 
hereby agreed, that they have liberty to bore and dig in any man's 
property, fully paying the damage done ; and in cafe a difcovery 
fliovdd be made, that tlie difcovercr have one-ffth, the owner of 
the foil (if not the difcoverer) a tenth parr, the Governor tiuj- 

ffhs, and the rcll to the public treafury, faving to the king the 
Ihare referved by patent. 

IX. In every hti/tdred thoufand acres, tlie Governor and Proprie- 
tary, by lot, refcrveth ten to himfclf, what Pii.dl lie but in one 

X. That every man fliall be bound to plant, or man, fo much 
of his Hiare of land as fliall be fct out and furveycd, within three 
years alter it is fo fet out and furveycd, or elfe it Ihall be lawful 
for new comers to be fettled tliereupon, paying to them their fur- 
vey money, .uul they go up higher lor their Ibarcs. 

XI. There (hall be no buying and felling, be it with an Jnd'uui^ 
or one among another, of any goods to be exported, but what 
fliall be performed in public market, when fuch places fliall be 
fet apart, or crec'l:cd, where they fliall pafs the public fl:amp, cr 
mark. If bad ware, and prized as good, or deceitful in propor- 
tion or weight, to forfeit the value, as if good and full weiglit 
and proportion, to tlie public treafury of this province, whether 
it be the merchandize of the IiuUan^ or that of the planters. 

XIT. And forafmuch, as it is ufual with the planters to over- 
reach the poor natives of the country, in trade, by gootls not be- 
ing good of the kind, or dcbafed with m.ixtures, v/ith which they 
are fenfdily aggrieved, it is agreed, whatever is fold to tlie Indians^ 
in confideration of their furs, (hall be fold in the market place, 
and there fuffcr the tell, wlicther good or bad -, if good, to pafs ; 
if not good, not to be fold for good, that the natives may not bt 
;Abufed, nor provoked. 

Vol. 11. [^8] XIII. Thai 

4 APPENDIX. Part I. 

XIII. That no man fluill, by any ways or means, in word, cr 
deed, affront, or wrong dny Jmlia>iy but he (liall incur the fame 
penalty of tlie law, as if he iiaJ committed it againil his fellpw 
planter, and if any I/uUan flvall abufe, in word, or deed, any 
planter of this province, that he fhall not be his own judge upon 
the Indiiuiy but he Ihall make his complaint to the Governor of tlie 
province, or liis Lieutenant, or Deputy, or fome inferior Magillrate 
near him, who Ihall, to the utmoil of his power, take care with 
the king of tlie faid Indian^ that all reafonable latisfadiou be made 
to the faid injured planter. 

XIV. That all diilerences, between the planters and the natives, 
fliall alfo be ended by tiuclvf men, that is, by fix planters and fix 
natives ; that fo we may live friendly together as much as in us 
lieth, preventing all occafions of heart-burnings and mifchief. 

XV. That the Indians fliall have liberty to do all things relating 
to improvement of their ground, and providing fullenanc-e for their 
families, that any of the planters fliall enjoy. 

XVI. That the laws, as to flanders, drunkennefs, fwearing, 
curfing, pride in apparel, trefpafles, diflrefles, replevins, weights, 
and meafures, fhall be the fame as in England^ till altered by law 
in this province. 

XVII. That all fliall mark their hogs, flieep and other cattle, 
and what are not marked within thnc mouths after it is in tJieir 
poiTeihon, be it young or old, it iluill be forfeited to the Governor, 
that fo people may be compelled to avoid the occafions of much 
ihife between planters. 

• XVill. That, in clearing the ground, care be taken to leave ow 
acre of trees for cvery/w acres cleared, efpecially to prcferve oak 
and mulberries, for lilk and fhipping. 

XIX. That all fliip-mafters fliall give an account of their coun- 
tries, names, fliips, owners, freiglits and palTengers, to an ofhcer 
to be appointed for that purpofe, which fliall be regiibcred within 
two days after their arrival, and if they Ihall refufe fo to do, that 
then none prefume to trade with them, upon forfeiture thereof; 
anil that fueh nial!;crs be looked upon as having an evil intention 
to the province. 

XX. That no pcrfon leave tlie province, without publication 
being maile thereof, in tlie maiket place, three weeks before, and 
a certificate from fome Julllee of the i'eace, of his clearnefs with 
his neighbours and thofe he dealt with, fo far as fuch an allurancc 
can be attained and given: and if a.ny mailer of a fiiip fli.iH, con- 
trary hereunto, receive and canya\vjy any perfan, that liaih not 



Part I. 


given tlial public notice, the faid mafter flrall be liable to nil debts 
owing by the faid perfon, fo fccretly tranfported from the province. 

.' Laf'/\\ That tliefe are to be added to, or corre6l:ed, by and with 
the coiifcnt of the parties hereunto fubfcribed. 


Sealed ami ihTivered in I 
the pftfaice of f 

Sealed a fid delivered in the"^ 
prefdtiec of all the Propri- I 
eto) x, nuho have hereunto i 
fubfcribed, except Thomas r 
Farrinhorrough andJol:n j 
Coodfony in prefence of J 

William Boelham, 
Harbert Springet, 
Thomas Prudyard. 

Hugh Chamberlen, 
R. Murray, 
Harbert Springet, 
Humphry South, 
TiiOMAs Barker, 
Samuel Jobson, 
JoHxM JosEiMi Moore, 
William Powel, 
Richard Davie, 
Griffith Jones, 
Hugh Lamue, 
Thomas Farrinborrouch, 
John Goodson. 

No. IL 

57.'t' frame of the graernmcfit of the province of Pcnfilvania, in 
America : together luiih certain laws agreed upon in England, by 
the Governor and divers fremen of the aforefaid province. 'To bif 
further explained and confirmed there^ by the frf provincial Coun^ 
cily that fall be held, if they fee meet. 

The preface. 

HEN the great and wife God had made tlie world, of all 
his creatures, it pleafed him to chufc man his Deputy to rule it ; 
and to fit him for fo great a cliarge and truft, he did not only 
qualify him with ilcili and power, but with integrity to ufe tlieni 
jullly. Tliis native goodnefs was equally his honour anil his hap- 
pincfs ; and whiHt he Hood liere, all went well •, there was no 
need of coercive or compulfivc means; the precept of divine love 


6 APPENDIX. EartI;". 

and truth, in hlsbofom, was tl'e guide and keeper of Lis innoccncy. 
But luft prevailing againft ciutyj made a lamentable breach upon 
it i and the law, tiuit before had no power over inm, took place 
upon liim, and his difobedieut pt.ftcriiy, that fuch as would not 
live conformable to the holy law witiun, fhould fall under the 
reproof and correftion of the jult law 'v. ithout, in a judicial ad- 

This tlie Apoftle teaches in divers of liis cpiflles: " The law 
(fays he) was aUL'd b.'cauie oi trnid;,reflion :" In another place, 
«' Knowiin^ t^uit tliC law was not made for the vighteous man ;. . 
but for the difobedicnt antl mvjodly, for funiers, for unholy and 
prophane, for )nurderers, for v,'l;..rv.niongcrs, for tliem that defile 
themfelves witli mankind, and for mandealers, for lyers, for per- 
jured perfonH," &c. but this is not all, he opens and carries the 
matter of ::!;ovennnent a little furilh-r : " .Let every foul be fub- 
je6t to the biidier powers •, f ( v l\v:\:. is no power but of G^d. The 
powers that be are ordained of Cioif : v.holcever therefore refiReth 
tlie power, rciifteth the ordinance of GW. For rulers are not a 
terror to o,ood works, but to evil : wilt tbou t])cn not be afraid of 
the power ? do that which is good, and tiiuu ihalt liave praife of 
the fame." " He is the miiiillcr of God to t'iee for good." 
« Wherefore ye mult iieeds be fubjea, not only for wratli, but 
for confcience fake." 

'J'his fettles the divine right of government b.-yond c>:c option, 
:ind that lor two ends: hrll, to t;.rri'y ^vil iloers ; i';Co':diy, to 
cherifli thofe that do r/cU ; which gives governm'jnt a life beyond 
corruption, and makes it as durable in tlie world, ar, gnoil men 
Should be. 80 that government feems to nrc a nar'j of rvligion it- 
felf, a thing facred in its inllitution an;l en:'. Kor, if it docs not 
dire<n:ly remove the caufe, it crulbes the eir'-tts of evil, and is as 
fuch, (though a lower, yet) an emanation of th.e fame Divine Ponv- 
cr, tliat is both author and objeift of pure reiigijn 5 the dilTercnce 
lying here, that the one is more Iree and mental, the other more 
corporal and eompulfive in its operations : but that is only to evil 
doers; government itfelf being otherwife as capable of kindnefs, 
goodnefs and charity, as a more private ibciety. 'Jb.ey weakly 
err, that think there is no other ufe of government, than correc- 
tion, which is tlic coarfeft part of it : daily experience tells us, 
that the care and regulation of many other afl'airs, more foft, and 
daily neeeflary, niake up mucli the greatefl part of government ; 
and which muft have followetl the peopling of the v/orld, had 
Adam never fell, and will continue aniOMg men, on earth, under 
the highcll attainments they may arrive at, by the comir.g of the 


Part T, APPENDIX. 7 

hlcfled Second Arhvu, the Lord, from heaven. Thus much of go- 
vernment in general, as to its rife and end, 

■•■ For pavtieular/r<7W('x and mode's, it will become mc to fay little; 
a'nd comparatively I will fay notliing. Iily reafons are : — 
r FirJJj That the 3ge is too nice and diflicult for it; there being 
liothing tire v/its of men are more bufy and divided upon. It is 
true, they fcem to aj.^ree to the erd, to ^vit, hapoinefs ; but, in. 
the meana, they diifer, as to d'.viiic, fo to this liuman felicity ; 
and the caufc is nuich the fame, not always want of light and 
knowledge, but want of ufrng them rightly. Men fide v/ith their 
paflions againft their reafon, and their finifler interefts have fo 
ilrong a bias upon their minds, that they lean to them againll the. 
good of tlie things they know. 

Sero/idly, I do not hud z model in the world, that time, place, 
and fome fnigular emergences l)ave not necefiarily altered ; nor is 
it eafy to frame a civil government, that ilull ferve all places alike. 

Thirdly, I ki;ow what is faid by tiie fevcral admirers of inoriar' 
chyy arijlocyacy and danornicy, wliich iU'e the rule of one, a few,, 
and many, and arc the three connnon ideas of government, when 
men ilifci.)urre on the fubjccSt. But I chufe to folve the controverfy 
with this fmall diftinclion, and it belongs to all three : Afiy govern- 
ment is free to the people under it (v/hatcver be the frame) luhere the. 
laivs rule, and the people are a part)^ lo ihofe hiius, and more than this 
is tyranny, oligarchy, or confufion. 

But, laflly, when al' is faid, there is hardly one frame of go- 
vernment in the world fo ill ddigned by its firft founders, that, 
in good iramls, M'ould not do v>ell enough ; and Rory tells us, the 
bell, in ill ones, can ilo nothing that is great or good ; witnefs 
the jfeivi/h and Roman Hates. Goverimicnts, like clocks, go from 
the motion men give them ; and as governments are made and 
moved by men, fo by lliem they are ruined too. Wherefore go- 
vernments rather depend upon men, than men upon governments. 
Let men be good, and the government cannot be bad ; if it be 
JH, they will cure it. But, if men be bad, let the govenmient 
be never fo good, they will endeavour to warp and fpoil it to 
their turn. 

I know fome fay, let us have good laws, and no matter for the 
men that execute them: but let them confider, that thciugh gcjod laws 
do well, good men do better : for good laws mav want good men, 
and be aboliflied or cv.ulcd by ill men ; Inn con ! men vvdll never 
want good laws, nor fuiT-.r ill oties. It is tr-.i.-, good laws liave 
fome awe upon ill miniilers, bur that i^ where they b.ave net povicr 
to efcape or iibolihi th.m, and iIk" pccp'f; arc gjncrrdly wWq rnd 

good : 


good : but a loofe and depraved people (winch Is to the queftion) 
iove laws and an adminjllration like tliemfelves. That, therefore, • 
which makes a good conititution, muil keep it, viz. men of wif- 
tlom and virtue, qualities, that bccaufe they defcend not with 
worldly inheritances, mull be carefully propagated by a virtuous 
education of youth ; for whicli after ages will owe more to the 
care and pruilencc of founders, anil the fucceihve magiftracy, 
than to their parents, for their private patrimonies. 

Thefe conhderations of the weight of government, and the 
nice and various opinions about it, made it uneafy to me to think 
of publifliing the enfuing frame and conditional laws, forcfceing 
both tlie cenfurcs, they will meet with, from men of differing 
liumours ai\d engagements, and the occafion they may give of dif- 
courfe beyond my defign. 

But, next to the power of necefhty, (whicii is a folicitor, that 
will take no denial) this induced me to a compliance, that wc have 
(with reverence to Cod, and good confcience to men) to the bed 
of our Ikill, contrived and compofcd the frame and la^vs of this 
government, to the great i:.\\<\ ot all government, viz. To fupport 
fioiuer in rfveri'iice ivith the people, and to fccu-re the people from the 
ohitfe of poivcr ; that they may be free by their jult obedience, and 
the nrjgillrjtes honourable, for their jult aumlniilration : for liberty 
without obedience is confufion, and obcilience without libeity is 
flavery. To carry this cvcnnefs is partly owing to the conliitution, 
and partly to the magillracy : where cither of thefe fail, govern- 
ment will be fubjedl: to convulfions *, but where both are >,vanting, 
it muil: be totally fubvertcd: tlien where both meet, tlie government; 
is like to endure. A\'hic]\ I lunnbly pray and hope God will pleafq 
to make the lot of this of Fenfilvaiiia. Amen. 


The frame, &c. 

TO all people, to whom tliefe prefents fhall come. Whereas 
king Charles the Second, by his letters patents, under tlie great 
feal of Erigla/jd, for the confideration therein mentioned, hath 
been gracioully pleafed to give and grant unto me jrHlinin Petin 
(by the name of WilHani Fcnn, Efijuire, fon and jieir of Sir /F/7- 
liam Penn deceafed) and to my heirs and alhgns forever, all that 
tradl of land, or province, called Penflvania, in America, with 
divers great powers, preheminences, royalties, jurifdidtidiui, and 
authorities, neceflary fur the well-being and government thereof; 
Now know ye, that for the well-being and government of t!,e 


Part I. APPENDIX. 9 

hid province, and for die encounigeincnt of all the freemen and 
planters, that may be therein concerned, in purfuance of the pow- 
crs aforementioned, I, the faid lVillla})i Fetm, have declared, 
granted and cunfirmed, and by thcfe prefents, for me, my heirs 
and alKgns, do declai-e, grant and conlirm unto all the freemen, 
plaritera and adventurers of, in and to the faid province, thefe 
liberties, franeliifes and properties, to be held, enjoyed and kdpt 
' by the freemen, planters and inhabitants of the faid province of 
Ftiifihaiila for ever. 

Jnipr'imis. That the government of this province Hiall, accord- 
ing to the povi^ers of the patent, confilt of the (iovcrnor and free- 
men of the faid province, in form of a provincial Council and 
General AHembly, by whom all laws fiiall be made, ofTieevs cho- 
fen, ami public ailairs tranfadled, as is hereafter refpetliyely de- 
clared, that is to fay — 

II. That the freemen of the faid province fliall, on the twenti- 
eth day of the twelfth month, whicli fliall be in this prefent year 
one thcui'and fix hundred eighty and two, meet and allemble in 
fome fit place, of which timely notice jhall be before hand given 
by the Governor or his Deputy ; and then, and there, ihall chufe 
otit o[ t\\cm{c\\ts fi'venty-tivo perfons of moil note for their wif- 
dom, virtue and ability, who fliall meet, on tlie tenth day of the 
firfl; month next enfuing, and always be called, and adl as, the 
provincial Council of the faid province. 

III. That, at the firft choice of fuch provincial Council, one- 
third part of the fiid provincial Council lliall be chofen to ferve 
for three year5, then next enfuing-, one-third part, for two, years 
then next enfuing ; and one-third part, for one year then next 
enfuing fuch eledion, and no longer ; and that the faid third part 
fliall go out accordingly : and on the twentieth day of tlie twelfth 
month, as aforefaid, yearly for ever afterwards, the freemen of 
tlic faid province fliall, in like manner, meet and afl'emble together, 
and then chufe twenty-four perfons, being one-third of the faid 
number, to ferve in provincial Council for three years : it bein;^ 
intended, that one-third part of the whole provincial Council 
(always confiding, and to confill, of feventy-two perfons, as afore- 
ffid) falling off yearly, it ihall be yearly fupplied by fuch new yearly 
ele£lions, as aforefaid ; and that no one perfon fliall continue 

. therein longer than three years : and, in cafe any member Ihall 
cleceafe before the lalt eleciion during his time, that tlien at the 
next ele<flion enfuing his deceafe, another ihall be chofen to 
fupply his place, for the remaining time, he was to liave ferveil, 
and no lunger. 

IV. Tliat, 


lo APPENDIX. .PartT- 

IV. Tliatj after the firft: feven years, every one of the. faid 
third parts, that gocth yearly ofl", fhall be uiicapable of being eho- 
Icn again for one wliole year following : that io all may be futed 
for government, and have experience of the care and burden of it^ 

V. That the provincial Council, in all cafes and matters of 
-moment, as their arguing upon bills to be paffed into lavs, creft- 

ing courts of jufUce, giving judgment upon criminals impeached, 
and choice of olhcers, in fuch manner as is lierein after menti- 
oned ; not lefs than two-thirds of the whole provincial Council 
fliall make a qiiorinn ,• and that the confent and approbation of >. 
two-thirds of fuch qujnnn iliall be had in all fuch cafes and mat- % 
ters of moment. Ami moreover that, in all cafes and matters of ,| 
Icfier moment, twenty-four Members of the faid provincial Coun- 1 
oil fhall make a quonnn^ the m.ijority of which twenty-four Ihall, . | 
and may, always determine in fuch cafes and caufes of leflbr mo- ' 

VI. That, in this provmcial Council, the Governor, or his De- i 
puty, (hall or may, always prelide, and have a treble voice; and '% 
the faid provincial Council ihall always contiiuie, and ht upon its 
own adjournments and committees. 

VII. That the Governor and provincial Council fliall prepare 
and propofe to the General Allembly, hereafter mentioned, all 
bills, which they (hall, at any time, think fit to be paiVed into 
laws, within the faid province ; which bills fliall be publKhcd and 
aflixed to die mod notetl places, in the inlinbitcd parts thereof, thirty 
days before the meeting of the General Allembly, in order to the 
palling them into laws, or rejecting of them, as the General Af- 
iembly Ihall fee meet. 

VIII. That the Governor and provincial Council fludl take care, 
that all laws, Itatutes and ordinances, which (hall at any time be 
made witiiin the faid province, be duly and diligently executed. 

IX. Tliat the Governor and provincial Council fliall, at all 
times, have tlie care of the peace and lafety of the province, and 
that nothing be by any pcrfon attenipted to the fubverfion of this 
frame of government. 

X. That the Governor and provincial Council fliall, at all times, 
fettle and order the fltuation of all cities, ports, and market 
towns in every county, modelling th-jreiu all public buildings, 
itreets and market places, and fliall appoint all necefi'ary roads, and 
high-ways in the province. 

XT. That the Governor and Provincial fliall, at all times, have 
power to infpe(i~t tlic manaijenicnt of the public treafury, and 


IPartl appendix. 

1 1 

^unifli thbfc wlio Ihall convert any p-.irt thereor to ;iny other ufe, 
than M'Jiat hath bctwi agreed upon by the Governor, provuicial 
•Coir.icil and Ccineral AHemblv. 

■ '' Xil. That the Governor and provincial Council, fii.dl erciSl and 
order all pubHc fehools, and encouraj^^c and reward the authors of 
•iireful feleKces and laUilable inventions in the laid province, 

■ Xlll. That) for llie better management of tlie powers and truft 
hforefaid, tlie provincial Council Ihall, from time to time, divide 
itfelf into four diltiniil and proper committees, for rhc more cafy 
adminiflration of tlie a'Tairs of Uie province, which Jivides the fe- 
yeiity-tv/Q iiito four eighteens, every one of which eighteens fhall 
coniittof fix out of each of the three orders, or yearly elections, 
each of wliich fliall have a ilillinft portion of bufmefs, as fol- 
loweth : i'V/y/j a commattee of plantations, to fituate and fettle 
cities, ports, and market towns, and high-ways, and to hear and 
decide all fuits and cbntrovcrfies relating to planr.itions. Scrof:(f/yy 
A committee of juftice and fafety, to fecure the peace of the 
province, and puniih tlie mal-admiiiiilratldn of tliofe wlio fubvert 
juilice, to the prrjetlice of the public, or private, intereil. 
Thirdis^y A committee of trade and trcafury, who iliall regulate 
all trade and commerce,- according to law, encourage manufac- 
hire ami country growth, and defray tlie public charge of tlie 
prcwince. And, V'mri'bl)'^ A committee of manners, education 
ami arts, that all wicked and fcandalous living may be prevciited, 
and that youth may be fucccHively trained up in virtue and ufeful 
knowleilge and arts: \\\c quorutn of each of which c(;mmittees be- 
ing hx, thar is, tv.'o out of e:\c;i ot the tlirce orders, or yearly 
clciMions, as aK-refaiil, m.tke a coidlanc and (lamling Council ()i 
tivcntj-f^ur, wliich v/ill liave tin: power of the provincial Council, 
being the quorum of it, in ;dl cafes not excepted iii the lifth arti- 
cle •, and in the faid committees, and ilanaing Ctnincil of the 
province, the Governor, or his Deputy, Hull, or m.ty prefivie, as 
aforefaid ; and in the abfence of the Governur, ur his Deputy, if 
no one is by either ot them appointeil, the faid committees or 
Council Ihall appoint a Profident for that time, and not otherwlfe •, 
and wliat ihdl be refdlved at fuch committees, ihall b^ reported 
to the faid Council of the province, and (hall be by tliem refolved 
and confintied before t'le fame flvall be put in execution ; and tliat 
thefe rcfpe^i^ive committees Ihrill not fit at one 
except in cafes of necellity. 

XIV. And, to the end tlr.u all lawsprepar 
and provincial Cniiicil aioi'daid, raay yel h.iv( 
furrence cd' tlie fieemen ef the province, it i 

■ Vol. II. [40 I 


1 the 1 

ame ' 



ly the 




e more full 






And conrirmcd, tliat, at the time and place or places, for the cliolcs 
of a provincial Council, as aforcfaid, the faid freemen D.all yearly 
cluiie Members to ferve in a General AlTembly, as tlieir reprcfcnt- 
atives, not exceeding two hundred perfons, \vholl-iall yearly meet, 
on the twentieth day of tl;e fecond month, which fhall Be m the 
year one thoufand fix hundred eighty and three following, in tlic 
capital towti, or city, of the faid province, where, dufing eight 
days, the feveral Members may freely confer wiih One another; 
and, if any of them fee meet, with a committee of tlie provincial 
Council (confftlng of three out of eacli of the four committees 
aforefaid, being twelve in all) which fliall be, at that time, pxiv-* 
pofely appointed to receive from any of them propofals, for the 
alterations or amendment of any of the faid propofed and pro- 
nndgated bills : and on the ninth day from their fo meeting, the 
faid General AHcmbly, after reading over the propofed bills by 
tlie Clerk of the provincial Council, and the occ;;fionsand motives 
for them being opened by the Governor or his Deputy, fliall give 
tlicir alhrmaiive or negative, which to them feemetli beft, in fuch 
manner as herein after is exprefled. But not lefs than two-th.irds 
lliall make a quoriirn in the p.ifling of laws, and choice of fuch 
olhcers as arc by them to be clK^fcn. 

XV. That the laws fo prepared and propofed, as aforefaid, 
that are allented to by tlic General Aflembly, ihall be enrolled as 
laws of tlic province, witli this llile : /)'v the Govfnr.r^ li'ifh the 
cffciit mid iipprohntij/i of the JyecDieii hi proviiuial Coufuil and General 

XX'I., for tlie cllablillnnent of tV.e government and laws 
of this province, and to the eiul there may be an univerfal fatis- 
faellon in the laying of the fundamentals thereof ; the General 
Anembly fliall, or may, for tlie firll year, confiil of all the free- 
tnen of and in the faid province ; and ever after it fhall be yeaily 
chofcn, as aforefaid ; which number of t\^'o liundrcd fliall be en- 
larged as the country fliall incrcafe in people, fo as it do not ex- 
ceed five hundred, at any time ; the appointment and proportion- 
ing of which, as alfo the laying and methodizing of the choice of 
the provincial Council and General Affcmbly, in future times, 
moll equally to the divifions of thii hundreds and counties, which 
the country fliall hereafter be divided into, fliall be in the power 
of the provincial Council to propofe, and the General Aflembly 
to refolvc. 

XVII. That the Governor and the provincial Council fliall 
crCiSt, from lime to time, Handing courts of jiidice, in fuch 
places xvA number as they fliall judge convenient for tlie good 
government of the faid province. And that the provincial Coun- 

Part I. APPENDIX. i^ 

cll fliall, on the thirteenth day of the firfl montli, yearly, cleft 
and prclent to the Governor, or his Deputy, a double -number of 
perfons, to ferve for Judges, Treafurers, Miillers of Rolls, within 
t!ie f;;id province, for the year next enluing ; and the freemen of 
ill-; f.'.id province, in the county courts, when they (hall be creel- 
ed, .nni till then, in the General Allcmbly, (liall, on the three 
v.iul t. renticth day of the fccond month, yearly, elcft and prefcnt 
to Li'iv- (.jiir.ernor, or his Dcjiuty, a double nun.ber of perlons, to 
ferv. f; r Sheriil's, Julliees of the Peace, and Coroners, for tlie 
yj-.u- iiexr enfuing ; cut of whicli rel"pe6live eleftions and pre- 
icrr-in^Mci, the Governor or his Deputy fliall noniinate and coni- 
jniiy..:i:uv t.he proper number for each oilice, tlie third day after 
til'; f'Ki r/rcfeotments, or elfe the iirft nunied in fuch prefentment, 
for cicli oiilce, (liall (land and ferve for that ojlice the year cii- 

XMII. But forafmuch as tlie prefcnt condition of the province 
j-oquires fonie immediate fettlement, and admits not of fo quick 
a ri.:volution of olHcers ; and to the end the fa id province m.ty, 
vita all convenient fpeed, be well ordered and fettled, I, Jfl/Iiaiii 
Pe-:,i, do therefore think fit to nominate and appoint fuch perfons 
for ju"ij--;cs, Treafurers, Mailers of the Rolls, ShtriiTs, Julllces 
pi vlxc Pe-'xe, and Coroners, as are mofh fitly qualified for thofe 
employments *, to whom I Ihall make and grant conmiilhons h)r 
the faid oiljees, refpecflively, to hold to them, to whom the fuiie 
Ihall be granted, for fo long time as every fuch perfon fliall well 
behave himfelf in the oflice, or place, to him refpedlively granted, 
and no UKiecr, And upon the dcceafe or difplacing of any of 
the faid olliccj-b', the Jucce.eiling olhcer, or olhccis, fiiall be cholln, 
as au)rcfaid. 

XIX. That the General Aflembly (liall conthnic fo long as may 
be needful to impeach criminals, fit to be there impeached, to 
pafs bills into laws, that they ^\ti]\ thjnk f\t to pafs into laws, and 
till fuch time as the Governor and provincial Council fliall declare 
th 't they have nothing further to propofe unto them, for their 
alleJit and approljation : aiid that decliraiion fli.dl be a difmifs to 
the General Ailembly for that lime -, winch Ciener.d AHembly 
iliall be, notvvlthftanding, cipable of airembling to^rether upon 
the fummons of the Council, .it ntiy time ilui'r.g \h\\\ 
vcar, if the faid provincial Council Ih.iU fee occaiion ior tliLir io 

XX. That all the elcftions of members, or reprcfeiitatlves of 
the people, to ferve in Comicil and Cieiieva] Anlnibly, 
jnd all qncflious to be dcter:nined |;v hotli, or c'tlicr uf th.-ui, 

til. it 

14 APPENDIX. PartT^ 

that relate to pafTing of bills Into hw5, to the cliolce of oiriccrs, 
to impeachments by the General AfTi-MTibly, and judgment of crimi- 
nals upon fuch impcaeh.mcins by the provincial Council, and to 
all other cafes by them refpctftively judged of importance, Ihall be re-j 
folved and determined by the ballot •, and unlefs on fudden and 
indifpenfible occafions, no bufmefs in provincial Council, or it^ 
refpetlive committees, ihall be fmally determined the fame day 
tliat it is moved. 

XXI. That, at all times, when, and fo often as it fliall happen 
that the Governor fliall, or may, be an infant, under the. age of 
one and twenty years, and no guardians, or commilTioners, are 
appointed, in \vriting, by the fatlicr of tlie faid infant, or that 
fuch guardians, or commillioners, fliall be deceafeil ; that during 
fuch minority, the provincial Council Ihall, from time to time, as 
they fhall fee meet, conilitute and appoint guardians, or conmiif- 
fioners, not exceeding three; one of wliich three {hall prcfide a^ 
deputy, anil chief guardian, during fuch minority, and ihall have 
and execute, witli the confcnt of tlic other tvi'o, all the power of 
a Governor, in all the public ailairs and concerns of the faid pron 

XXII. That, as often as any day of tlie inonth, mentioned Ii^ 
any article of this charter, fliall fall u]K)n the firft day of the week, 
commonly culled the Lord's J^^yt the bufmefs appointed for that 
day, fliall be deferred till the next day, unlefs in calc of emergency. 

XXIII. That no acl;, law, or ordinance whatfoever, fhall, at 
any time hereafter, be made or done by the Governor of thi.^ 
province, h's heirs, or alligns, or by the freemen in tlie provin- 
cial Council, or the General Alfenibly, to alter, change, or dimi- 
iiifli the foym, or eflcdl, of this charter, or any part, or claufc 
there6f, or contrary to the true intent and meaning thereof, with- 
out the cdnfent of the Governor, his heirs, or afhgns, and fiv 
parts of feven of the f;iid freemen in provincial Council and Ge- 
neral Afl'embly. 

XXIV. And laftly, that I, the faid JVi//iaw Pain,- for myfcif, 
'my heirs and alFigns, liave fol'emnly declared, granted and con- 
firmed, and do hereby folcmnly declare, grant and conhrm, that 
neither I, my heirs, nor adigns, fhall procure or do any thing or 
thit}g.s, whereby the liberties, in this charter contained and expref- 
fed, fhall be infringed or broken ; and if any thing be procured 
by any perfon or perfons contrary to thcfe premiks, it ihall be 
held of no force or efKcft. In witncfs whereof, I, the i'aid JV//7/- 
(•ni Prn/i, ha\'e unto this prefent charter of liberties let my hand 

a, id 

Part I. APPENDIX, 15 

^nd broad feal, tliis five and twentieth day of tlie fecond month, 
i'ulgarly called April, in tlie year of opr Lord one thoufand fix 
|rundrcd and eighty-two. 


Laws agreed upon in EngLi/id, is'c. 

I. That the cliarter of Uberties, declared, granted and confirm- 
jcd the iive and t\\'cnticth day of the fecond montli, called April, 
1682, b.fore divers witnCiTes, by IViU'inm Perm, Governor and 
chief Proprietor of Peiiftlvama, to all the freemen and planters of 
the faid j)rovince, is hereby declared an(l approved, and Ihall be 
for ever held for fundamental in the government thereof, accord- 
pg to the limitations mentioned in the faid charter. 

IL That every inhabitant in the faid province, tirat is or flrall 
be, a ptirchnfer of one Iiundred acres of land, or up\\^ards, his 
heirs and affigns, and every perfon who flial! have paid his paflage, 
and taken U]i one Imndred acres of land, at one penny an acre, 
pnd have cultivated ten acres thereof, and cyery perfon, that hatli 
been a fervant, or bor.ds-man, and is free by his fervice, that fliall 
have taken up Iiis fifty acres of land, and cultivated twenty thereof, 
nnd every inhabitant, artificer, or other refulent in the fait! pro- 
vince, that pays fcot and lot to the government ; flrall be deemed 
and accounted a freeman of tlie faid province : and every fuch 
perfon fhall, and may, be capable of clec^ting, or being ele(^ed, 
Tcprefenlatives of the people, in proviiicial Council, or General 
/Vliembly, in tlie fiid jnovince, 

in. '^Iiat all cledions of members, or reprefentatives of the 
people and freemen of the province of Penjihanla, to ferve in 
provincial Council, or General Aflemblyj to be heltl within the 
faid province, fliall be free and vol-.mtary : and that the elector, 
tliat Ihall receive any rcv/ard or gift, in meat, drink, monies, or 
otherwife, Ihall forfeit hi^ right to eled ; and fuch perfon as 
ihall diredly or indirecT:ly give, promife, or bellov/ any fuuli 
reward as aforefaid, to be elected, fhall forfeit his eliM^ioii, and 
be thereby incapable to ferve as aforefaid : and tlie pfovincird 
Council and General Afl'embly fliall be the folc juilges of the regu- 
larity, or irregularity of the eledions of their own rcfpecitivc 

IV. That no money or goods fii dl be raifvd '.;i)-;n, or paid 
by, any of the p.-ople of this pr-nmcc' by w.w lA \n\b]\c tav 
cuflom or contributii)ii, but l)\- a 1 ;w, for th.'.t pu-.-}/.-:"j );r.uij; aii-. 
\yhocver Ihail levy, coUeol, ( r p.iy any moiicv or g- .>»!-, eojiir.n'^ 

there unto 

i6 APPENDIX. PartT. 

thereunto, fliall be held a public enemy to the province, and a 
betrayer of the liberties of the people thereof. 

V. That all courts ihall be open, and juftice llr.dl neither be 
fold, denied nor delayed. 

yi. Tliat, in all courts all pcrfons of all pcrfuafions may freely 
appear ia their own way, and according to their own manner, and 
there perfoirally plead tlicir own caufe themfelvcs ; or, if luiable, 
by their friend : and the firll proeefs lliall be the exhibition of the 
complaint in court, fourteen days before the trial ; and tliat tho 
party, complained againll, may be fitted for the fame, he or flic 
Ihall be fummoned, no lefs ihan ten days before, and a copy of 
the complaint delivered him or her, at his or lier dwelling houfe. 
Ikit before the complaint of any perfon be received, he Ihall fo- 
lemnly declare in court, that he believes, ip his cpnfeience, his 
caufe is ju(l. 

VII. That all pleadings, proceHl-s and records in courts, fhall 
be lliort, and in Englijh^ and in an ordinary and plain charadler, 
that they may be underilood, and juftice fpeedily adminiftered. 

VIII. Tliat all trials fliall be by twelve men, and as near as 
maybe, peers or equals, and of the neighbourhood, and men without 
jult exception; in cafes of life, there Ihall be fii'il twenty-four re- 
turned by the Shcrlfl's, for a grand inquell, of whom twelve, at 
leafl, fliall lind the complaint to be true ; and then the twelve 
men, or peers, to be likewife returned by the SheriiT, fliall have 
the final judgment. But reafonabic challenges fliall be always yd-i 
niitteil againll the faiil tw^elvc men, or any of them. 

IX. That all fees in all cafes fliall be modcratv*, and fettled by 
the provincial Cf)uncll, and General Aflemhiy, aiul be hung up 
in a table iii evpry refpetlive court ; and wholbever fliall be con- 
vi(flcd of taking more, iiiall pay two-fold, and be difmifled his 
employment ; one moiety of which fliaU go to tlic party wronged. 

X. That all prifons ihall be worlv-lioufes, for felcns, vagrants, 
and loofe and idle pcrfons; wdiereof one fliall be in every county. 

XI. Thit all priibncrs fliall be bailable by fufricient furetics, 
unlcfs for oirences, m here the proof is evident, or the prc- 
fumption great. 

XII. Tliat all perfons wrongfully iniprifoned, or profeeuled at 
law, fliall have tluuMe d.unagts againlt tlic infornicr, or piole- 

XIII. Tiiat all prifons fliall be free, ai to fetrs, food and lodging. 

XIV. TlwU; 

Part I. APPENDIX. <J7 

XIV. Tliat all luiuls 'and goods iliall be liable to pay debts, ex- 
cept where iliere Is legal iflue, and then all the goods, and one- 
third of r^ic land oidy. 

XV. That all wills, in writing, attefted by two witncHes, fliall 
be of tiie fame force, as to lands, as other eonveyanees, being 1(!- 
gaily p.roved within forty days, either within or without the faid 

XVI. That fcven years quiet poflefTion finll give an unqueflion- 
. able right, except in cafes of infants, lunatics, married women, 

or perfons beyond the leas. 

XVII. That all briberies and extortions wliatfocver fliall be (C' 
verely puniflied. 

XV^III. Tiiat all fines flvall be moderate, and faring men's con- 
tenements, mcrchandi;:e, or wainage. 

XIX. all marriages (not forbidden by tlie law of God, as 
10 nearnefs of blood and alnnity by marriage) fliall be encouraged ; 
but the parents, or guardians, fliall be lird confulted, and the 
marriage fliall be puhliflied before it be folemnizcd ; and it fliall 
be f(jlenirii'/ed by taking one another as hulband and wife, before 
creilible witncfles ; and a certificate of the w'hole, under the hands 
of parlies and witnefles, ihall be brought to tlie proper regiilcv of 
that county, and fliall be rcgiftered in liis office. 

XX. And, to prevent frauds and vexatious fuits witiiin the f lid 
province, that all charters, gifts, grants, anil conveyances of land' 
(except loafes for a year or under) and all !/ilis, b(;nd.;, and fpv'ci- 
alties above live pounds, and not under tl^ree nh''.ul'r>, in u'.e in tl'.i 
laid province, fli dl be enrolled, or regiilcred in (lie pub-iL. (.nr:!- 
nient ollice of the laid province, liie fn.iic of two n'miihs 
next' after tlie making thereof, elfc to be void in law, a;ul a!! 
deeds, grants, and conveyances of land (oeepr a*; afofeGiii,!) wiihiii 
the faid province, and made out of tlie fiiil province,! he e^i- 
rollcd or regillered,-as aforefaid, wiiliiu Iix months ne\c ahcr the 
making tliereof, and Jlttlin.g and conilit'uing an cnrolnieni olfu • 
or regiflry within the laid province, elie to he Void in li.v/ .igainii: 
all perfons m hatfoevcr. ' 

XXI. That all dcfacers or corrlipter;^ of c]>arter-;, ciff, gianli, 
bonds, bills, vviils, contracls, aiui convcyaiicJi, ov l!:.;l] de- 
face or fallify any cnvohnent, regillry or record, within tiiis pio- 
vinoe, fliall make ilouhle fitivfaction for the fanie •, half v. liCveof 
fliall go lo ihe jLUly wvonged, and tliey Il'..iil be dii'nv.iiud oi a!' 
places of trull, and be publicly liif-^'a'jed as faiie own. 

S XVH. That 

1^ A Pi' END IX. Part!. 

XXII. That there fliall be a regiftcr for birtlis, iiiarriages, bu- 
rials, wills, and letters of adminillration, diftindt from tlie otlier 

XXIII. That there fliail be a regifter for all fervants, where 
their names, time, wages, and days of payment Ihall be n^giilcred. 

XXIV. That all lands and goods of felons flialt be liable, ta 
make fatisfadtion to the party wronged twic'e the value ; and for 
want of lands or goods, the felons Ihall be bondmen to work in 
the common prifon, or v/ork-houfe, or otherwife, till the party' 
injured be fatisfieil. • 

XXV. That the e dates of capital oflenders, as traitors and 
murderers, Ihall go, one-thinj to tlie next of kin to the fulferer, 
and the remainder to the next of kin to the criminal. 

XXVI. That all witneil'es, coming, or calleil, to teflify their 
knowledge in or to any matter or thing, in any court, or before 
^ny lawful autliority, witliin the futl province, Ihall tlierc give ojr 
deliver in their evidence, or teftimony, by folemnly promifnig to 
fpeak the truth, the whole truth, and tiothing but the truth, to 
the matter, or thing in queftion. And in cafe any perfon (a 
called to evidence, i!« dl be convicted of wilftd falfehood, fuch 
perfon (hall fuffer and undergo fuch damage or penalty, as the 
perfon, or perfons, againlb whom he or Ihe bore falfe witnefsy 
did, or fiiould, undergo; and fliall alfo make fatisfad ion to the 
party wronged, and be publicly expofcd as a falfe Nvitnefs, never 
to be credited in any court, .or before any Magiflrate, in the faid 

XXVII. And, to tlie cntl that all oflicers chofen to fer\'e witJiin 
this province, may, \vith more care and diligence, anfwer the 
trud repofed in tliem, it is agreed, that no fiich perfon ihall en- 
joy more than one public oihce, at one time. 

XXVIII. That all children, within this province, of the age 
of twelve years, ihall be taught fome ufeful L.MvIe or Ikill, to the 
end none may be idle, but the poor may work to live, and the* 
rich, if they become poor, may not want. 

XXIX. That fervants be not kept longer than their time, and 
fuch as are careful, be both jultly and kindly ufed in their fervice, 
and put in lifting equipage at the expiration tliereof, according to 

XXX. T'hat all fcandalous and malicious reporters, liackbiters^ 
defamers and fpreaders of falfe news, whether againil Magi Urates, 
or private peribns, Ihall bt accordingly fevercly piiniDied, as ene- 
ftiies to the peace and coucovd of tliis proviiiee. 

:S^XXI. Tha^^ 


XXXr. I^hat, lor the encourage nK-nt of the i>lnnters and trad- 
ers in" this province, who arc hrcorporatcd into a focicty, the p:x^ 
tcut\rnn>tca to them by jr.V/i.m Fe.n, Governor of tlic iaul pro- 
Vhicc" h hereby ratified and conhrmed. 

XXXIl. * 

'■XX^'^I That ?11 faftors or correfpondcnts in the faid pro^ 
Vhi^'M^-clnging their employers, Ihall n^ke ^^'^'^ 
one-th.ird ov.t, to their faid en.ployers : and mcafe o. th- I- 
of any fueh fader or corrcfpondent, the committee o^ ^'-^^ ^^^f 
take Lc to fccure fo mueh of the deeeafed party s eftate as be- 
longs to his faid refpeaive employers. 

XVKIY. That all Treafuvers, Judge., ISIafters of the Rolls, 
Sl^rins, Judices tf the I'eaee, and otl:^ "^^'^".^1^^ 
^vhatfoever, relating to courts, or trials ot eaufes, or any other 
fcvie-- in hegoreniment; and all Members elee^ed to ferve n 
pi^vi^eial CouSeil and General Allembly, and dl that have lag 
I -W\ fuch Members, ihall be inch as proiels lauh m J'Ju^ 
Chrill, and that are not cbnviaed of ill fame, or nniober and cni- 
honeft eonverfition, and that are of tvventy-one years ^^^^' 
lead; and that ail fuch fo qualihed, Ih.all be capable of the la.A 
feveral employments and privileges, as aforelaul. 

XXXV. That all perfons living in this province, vA^o confefs 
and aci.ncw!ed.e th^ on. Ahnigl.y and etcr.Ki .c.l u, be Uk. 
(^■c U'.r Ui.lM.lder and Ruler of tiie wo.ld ; and hold tlicm- 
iJ- c-.\.''h .d m eoniVience to live p.a.eably ■.u^^ >dUy n. civd iu-, ihail, in no way., be or prej:ul:oed ^-;^->"'^ - 
giuu.; pcrlnafion, or ^raaiee, in ni.U.ers ol lanh and ^vo h . 
nor ih^n thev be compelled, at any tnne, to freouent or nuantam 
any vcligl^jus wurlhip, place or nnnilUy xvnal;,:v.T. 

XVICYL That, according :o the g.od exami^lc of tlie priniitlve 
Chriiliuis, and the cafe ot tlie creation, every frd day ot il.c 
weeV, c.hcd the Lord's day, people (Ik.I) ablbun rom their com- 
n.on iiaily labour, that thJy may the bettor d.fpoie themfeivcs to 
\vovihip God according to their un.k'rilandirgs. 

XK^VIl. 'iliat asa carelefi and corrupt adminiaration of jni^ 
tie-- 'draws the wrath of God upon m.glllrates, lo the vvdd- 
ncli, ..nd loo;;:nas of the pe.pje provek. d.e nuhgnaUon ot Go. 
«sr.di,lt a country: iherefore, that all luch oUence. agandtUKl 
OS, fv.earin., curhng, lying, pro.hane talking, drunkenness 
drinhinK of healths, obi^ene word., incelt, iodomy, rapes, 
VoLril. [5^ J 

20 APPENDIX. Part I. 

doni, fornication, and other unclcannefs (not to be repeated) all 
treafons, niifprifions, murders, dneli^, felony, fedition, maims, 
foreeable entries, and other violenees, to tlie perfons aiid eftute^ 
of the inhabitants within this province; all prizes, flage-plays, 
cards, dice, Maygamcs, gamellcrf, mafques, revels, bull-baitings, 
cock-fightings, bear-baitings, and the like, which excite the peo- 
ple to rudenefs, cruelty, loofenefs, and irreligion, fliall be refpcc- 
tively difeouraged, and feverely puniflied, according to the ap- 
pointment of tJie Governor and freemen in provincial Council and 
General AHenibly ; as alfo all proceedings contrary to thefe laws, 
that are not here made exprefsly penal. 

XXXVIII. That a copy of tliefe laws iball be hung up In tlie 
provincial Council, anil in public courts of juflice : and '..'icy 
ihall be read yearly at the opening of eveiy provincial Council and 
General Allemhly, and court of judicc; and their affent Ihall be 
teftihed, by their Handing up after the reading thereof. 

XXXIX. That there fliall be, at no time, any alteration of 
any of thefe laws, without the confent of the Governor, his 
heirs, or aihgns, and fix parts of feven of the freemen, met in 
provincial Council and General AiTembly. 

XL. That all other matters and things not liercin provided for, 
which fliall, and may, concern the public jullice, peace or fafety 
of the faid province ; and the railing and impofing taxes, culloms, 
duties, or other charges whatfoever, Ihall be, and are, lierehy re- 
ferred to the order, prudence and determination of the Governor 
and freemen, in provincial Council anil (general Allembly, to bo 
held, from time to time, in the fiid province. 

Signed anil fealed by the Governor and freemen aforefald, 
the fifth day of tlie third month, called ALiy, one thouland 
fix hundred and eiglity-two. 

No. III. 

PartL appendix. '^^ 

No. TIL 

rhe Frame of the Government of the Province of Penniyl- 
vanla ami Territories thereunto annexed, in Aawvica. 

Jo .// perfjns, to whom thcfe prcfents may come. 1683. 
jn'ereas, kin/ CW/.. the Second, by his letters patents, .j .„,.,,,, 
unacv the gr.!^t ieal of En.lamI bearing date t^lounU 
day of Maich, in the thirty and thnxl year of the Uu', 
ior divert confiderations therein nnentioned, J^-' ''^. ;V^ 
rraciouily pleated to give and grant unto me, U >//mm 
S(b- the nanre of Jrm,m Penn, Elqun-e ion and 
hc^r of Sm- ir./Ii.m Penn, deccafcd) and to my hens and 
.pV-ns t..- <v.r, all that trad of land, or provmce, 
ca." d i v/;/vv/vv.;./, in Jmerien, with divers great powers, 
p henuuenaes, royalties, jurillliaions and ", 
^;V':V.-y for the well-being and government thereof 
An.' -Iherens, the king's dcareft brother W., duke of 
r -Vand JuJn^^&cc. ty his deeds of leollment under 
his hand and fe'al, duly perfcfted, bearn.g date he ou 
:a twentieth day of Auguif, one thouland f.x uuub-ed 
ci.^rty and two, did grant unto mc, my heirs and aihgns, 
iftl ,t tvaa of land, lying and being trom twelve mdes 

;l.vthward of Av..,//A, upon j^^';!----'-^;; J f;^;';;^ 

,a to Cape lllnlopen, upon the laid nvei and ba) ol 
i.V/.,..;v fouthward, togetiier with ail royah,es, ran- 
chlles, duties, jtnifdiaions, liberties and privileges tKeic- 
unto belonging. 

Now know v., That for tlic well-being and good go- 
vernment of 'the faid province and ^^^^^'^^;''^'^'^ 
annexed, and for the encouragement of all f-^<^^^ 
.nd planters, that may be therem concerned, nipuu- 
ancp of the rights and powers aforementioned, I, the aul 
milia,n Pen,, have declared, o,-anted, and conhnnuU 
and bv thefe prefents, for me, my heirs and aihgns, do 
d la e grant and confirm unto all the treemen, plant- 
e^s and ^venturers of, in and to the l^dd provmce and 
t.niluri.s thereof, thef: liberties, fianclnic. ^-^- Fj'P-; 
ti.'s fo far as in me lieth, to be held, enjoyed . md .4 t 
];;!.< iVecmen, planter, and advc.t.vcv.ut ^ui. m the 

22 A P P K N D I X. Part I, 

fMd province of P,;j;^yfva;,u,, and tc-rrltorics thereunto 
annexed, for ever. 

Number of ^'^P^y'l'iSy That the iT^n-crnment of this province an^ 
Counciland^'^^rntones thereof, fliall, from time to time, according 
AJllinbly, tothe powers of the patent and deeds of feofihient afore- 
faid, confiftof the Proprietary and Governor, and free- 
men of the faid province and territories thereof, in form 
of provincial Council and General Anembly ; which 
provnicial Council Oiall confdl of ei.c^hteen perfons, bc- 
, mg three out of each county, and which AflcniLly fl-.plj 
confilt of thirty-fix i)erfons, beinp: fix out of cacli coun- 
ty, men of moll note for their virtue, wifdom and rbi- 
Jity; by whom all laws Ihall be made, oJhccrs cliofcn, 
nn(l public aHairs tranfadled, as is hereafter limited and 

M.xSion. H. There being iluee perfons already cliofen for every 

rrgulated. rcfpcaivc county of iliis province and territories thereof 
to lervc in the provincial Council, one of them for tliree 
years ; one for two years, and one for one year ; and 
one ol them to go off yearly, in every county; that on 
the tenth day of tlie lirft month yearly, for ever after, I 
the freemen of the faid province and territories thereof, j 
Ihall meet together, in the mofr. convenient place, in 
every county of thi:; province and territories thereof, : 
then and there to chufe one perfon, qualified as afore- ' 
faid, in every county, being one-third of the number to 
f. l^^'''^ '" provincial Council, for three years ; it bein<T 

intended, that one-third of tlie whole provincial Coun- 
cil, conliiting and to confift of eighteen perfons, falling 
on yearly, it Ihall be yearly fupplicd with fuch yearly 
elections, as jiforcfaid -, and that one perfon Ihai'l not 
continue in longer than three years; and in cafe any 
mendKr fhall deceafe before the Lift elAflion, chiring his 
time, that then, at the next eleftion enfuing his deceafe, 
another Jhall be chofen to fupply his place for tlie remain- 
ing time he was to have ferved, and no lon-^er. 

notaticn r • V',' •'9'''^' ''^'^''' ^^'^ ^'"^ ^'■'■''" V^^'^^-"' ^^'^ry one of the 
'' ■ faul third pans, that goeth yearly off, fliall be incapable 
of being chofen again for one v.'hole year following, that 
io all that arc capable and qualified, as aforefaid, may 
be fitted for government, and have a Ihare of the cure 
r.nd burden of it. 

rV. Thai 

Part T. APPENDIX. 33 

• , IV. That the provincial CeuncU in all cafes and mat- ^^^^^,^^ 
.tPrs of moment, vxs their arguing upon bills to be pailed ^-^^^^^^ 
into law.-;, or proceedings about erediiig of courts of 
jufticc, fitting in judgment upon criminals impeached, 
and ilioicc oi' olFicjrs, in fucli manner as is herein after 
CApvciied, not Icfs than two-tliirds of the wholc^ fliall 
make a r^inrum ,- and that, the confcnt and approbation of 
.two-thivc!s of that quorum flrall be liad in all fuch cafes, 
or matters, of moment: aiuj that, in all caf.-s and mat- 
ters of kfil-r moment, one-third of the whole ihall make 
'a quorum, the niajority of which iliall and may always 
determine in fuch cafes and cnufcs of kfler moment. 

V. That the Governor .md provincial Council Hiall h^ve ^^.^^^ ^^ ^^^ 
the power of preparing and pnipofrng to the Ailembly, prepared, 
hereafter mention-d, all bills, which they (Irall fee need- ^c. 
ful, and that Ihall, at any time, be pail into laws, withia 
the faid province and territories t!:creof, which bills fliall 
be publilhcd and aflixed to the moft noted place, in 
every county of this proyince and territories thereof, 
twenty days before the meeting of the Ailembly, in or- 
der to pailing them into laws. 

VI. That the Governor and piovinclalCouncil fliall take ^■''^^^'^' 
care that all laws, ifatutes and ordinances, which fliall, cX'r.Z 
at any time, be made within the faid province and terri- and Coun- 
tories, be duly antl diligentlj executed, cil. 

VII. That the Governcn- and provincial Council (hall, ^^ ^^^. ,,f ^j,.. 
at all limes, have the care of the peace and filVt)' of this ^ ^■,,,,,^ ,1,. 
province and territories theveofj and that nothing be, ty, i;c. 

by any perfon, attempted, to the fubverfion of this franie 
of government. 

VIII. That the Governor and provincial Council fliall, AppoiTitIng 
nt all times fettle and order tlie fitustion of all cities, ;"! ''"'^"^^^ 
and market towns, in every county, modelling therein ^^'^'_'"^"' 
all public buildings, ilreets and market places ; and fliall ^ 
appoint all neceflary roads and liighways, in this province 

and territories thereof. 

IX. Tjiat the Governor and provincial Council flial!, inrpclin^; 
.'It all times, have power to infpedl the m:niagement of tlu T.c-. 
the public trcafury, and punifli thofe wlio fliall convrat '"'"')'• 
any part thereof to any other ufe, than what hatli been 
agreed upon by the Governor, provincial Council antl 

X. That 


ii4 APPENDIX. Part I. 

X. tlic Governor and provincial Council fliall 

IchJoi"'^ "^ '^''^*-'- ^"^' order all public ftliools, and encourage and 
reward tlie authors of ulcful Iciences and laudable iaven- 
tiuns in the faid province and territories thereof. 
Oiie-thiid Xr, That one-third part of the provincial Council, 
of the refiding Math the Governor, from time to time, flhiU with 
■wuh'thc ""^'^ Governor have the care of the management of pub- 
Govcrnpr, }"'^' :>*'"^iii's, relating to the peace, jullicc, treafury and 
&c. improvement of tlie province and territories, aiul to ihp 

good cuueation of youth, and fobrlety of tlie maimers 
of the; inhabitants therein, as aforel'aid. 
Fcftrii^lion XII. That the Governor, or his Deputy, fliall always 
ol Uk Co- pivfide in the provincial Council, and lie fliall, at 
luwcy '&^c. ^''"' ''"^^'5 tliLTcin perform any public acifl of ftate whatfo- 
ever, tlut fliall, or may, relate unto the jullicc, trade, 
treafury, or fafety of tlic province and territories afore- 
faid, but by and" with the advice and conferit of tlie pro- 
vincial Council thereof. 

XHI. And to the end tliat all bills jirepared aiu! agreed 
hied ^y ^''^ Governor and provincial Council, as aforcfald, may 
yet have the more iuU concurrence of the freemen of 
ll'c provhice and territories tlieicof, it is declared, 
granted and ctinrirmcd, that, at the time and ])Iace in 
every county for the choice of o:ic pjrfon to ferve in 
provincial Council, as aforefald, tiie refpe<!:iivc Members 
tliercoi, at ihelr fald m.eeling, Ihail yearly chufe out 
ot Lhemlei\('s fi.v perfons of mofl note, for virtue, wif- 
dom and abdity, to ferve in Aflembly, as their repre- 
lenl.uives, who lliall yearly meet on the tenth day of 
the third month, in the capital town or city of the faid 
province, unlei's the Ciovernor and provincial Council 
ihall thini-: lit to appoint another jilace to meet in, where, 
during ei;;ht days, the feveral Members may confer freely 
\\ith. (Mie anotlitri ;uul if any of them fee meet, M'iih a 
coimniuee ol the prtivincul Council, which Ihall be, at 
tluil time, purpotely appoiiuctl, to receive from any 
of tliem propofals for ihe alieratlons, or amendment-,, 
cf any of the faid propoled anJ promulgated bills-, and, 
u\\ th.e nin-di day [loui their fo meeeting, the fiid Ai- 
ieii'My, alter their reading over the propofed bills, by 
the CK.ik *)!' tiie provincial Couiicil, and the oee;lioii!> 
ar.d luitives for tiiem being cpened bv the (.-'<;\\rii' r ov 
his i;epiiiy; ih.ilJ, iipcu the (j^l■.llion l-yjilmpui, give 


Part I, APPE N D I X. C5 

then- affirmative or negative, whioh to them fccmeth 
bcil, in fiicli manner as is hereafter cxjivclleil : but not 
lefs rlvjn two ihirds Ihall make a quoniDi m iJie paihng of 
all bills into laws, and ehoice of fuch oflieers as are by 
tliejn to be ehofen. 

. XIV. That the laws fo prepared and propofed, as afore- 
faid, that are aflented to by the AlTenibly, Ihall be enrolled jj\'^,,_ 
as laws of this province and territories thereof, with 
this Itilc, B; the Ciovir/ior, -ivith ike ajfoit nnd approhatijn 
of the frcLiiun in provim'uil Conned and /iljcmhl^ inet^ and 
from hencefoi-th the meetings, fdlions, acts, and pro- 
ceedings of the Governor, provincial Council and Af- 
fembly, Ihall be fliled and called, The nierthig, fffions 
and proceedings of the Genercd ^dfinbrf f the provinee f 
Penufylviinitij nnd the territories tl:er,.!;nto belonging. 

- XV. And that tlic reprefentatives of the people in ^^ , . 
provincial Council and Aliembly, nv.iy, in after ages, Rei)icifiit- 
bear fome proportion with the iiicivafe and multiplying luivcs to h.: 
of the people, the number of fucii reprefentatives of -'''"'■^■^' '^'^'^• 
the people may be, from time to time, increafed and en- 
larged, fo as at no time, the number exceed feventy-two 
for the pro\'iaeial Council, and two hundred for tlie Af- 
fembly *, the appmntment and proportion of which num- 
ber, as alfo the laying and methodizing of the choice of 
fuch reprefentatives in future time, mofl: equally to the 
divifiou of the country, or number of the inhabitants, 
is left to the Gover.ior and provincial C.Mincil io propofe, 
and the Alli-mbly to refolve, lo that tlic of pi(^- 
portlou be (Iridly obfervcil, both in the ehcicc of ti'e 
Council and the rcfpec^live commiLtees tliereof, v:^. one 
third to go (\i\\ and come in yearly. 

■ XVI. That from and after the death t)f this prefent pou t> i.f 
Governor, the provincial Council ihall, together v/iih jMlia, .'vc. 
the fucceedliig Governor, eredl, from time to time, 
llaiuiing courts of juflice, in fuch places and number as 
they fliall judge convenient for the good goveri-sment cf 
the faid province and territories thereof-, and that the 
provincial Council lliall, on the thirlcenth day of the k- 
cond month then next enfuing, elect and prefent to th.e 
Governor, or his Deputy, a ilouble number of p-crfoii;, 
to f( rve for Judges, Treafurers, and Mailers of the l-lolis, 
within the faid province and territories, to continue i"o 
long as tliey Ihall well behave theinfel', es, in thofe capa- 

2(5 APPENDIX. Part I; 

cities n-Tpeclively •, and the freemen of the faid province, 
in an Alienibly met on the thirtL-enth clay of the tlilrd 
month, yearly, ihall clcO: and then prcfiut to the GoJ 
vcrnor, or his Deputy, a double number of perfons to ferve 
for Sherifls, Juitiees of the PeacC;, and Coroners, for the 
year next enfuing ; cut of wliicli refpe6Uve eledlions and 
prefentments, tlie Governor, or Ids Deputy, lliall nomi- 
nate and commilhonate the proper nundjer for eaeh of- 
iiee, the third day after the fair! relpecfive prefentments; ot 
elfe tlie firfl named in fueh prefentrnrnt, for eaeh olficc, 
as uforefaid, Ihall Hand and ferve in that olliee, the time 
before refpe£lively limited -, ami in cafe of deatli or de-f 
fault, fuch vacancy fliall be fupplicd by tlie Governor' 
and provincial Council in manner aforefaid. 

Cbntum- XVII. That the AHembly fliall continue fo long atf 
ance of the may be needfid to impeach criminals, lit to be there im- 
Allcmbly. peached, to pafs fuch bills into laws as are propofed icr 
them, which they ihall think fit to pafs into laws, and 
till fuch time as the (joveinor and provincial Council 
fhall declare, that th.ey have nothing further to propofe unto 
them, for their afll^nt and approbation, -jLud that declara- 
tion lliall be a difmifs to the Ailembly, for that time; 
v/hich Aflembly Ihall be, notwic}iilaruii:;e;, capable of af- 
fcmbling together, upon the fummons of the Governor 
and provincial Council, at any time, during that year^ 
if the Governor and provincial Council Ih.dl fee occafioa 
for their I'o aiiemblin;^. 
Manner of XVIlt. 'That all the elcfftlons of members, or repre- 
YotiD^r^ .?*.t.. f^^ntatives of the people to ferve in provincial Council and 
Aillmbly, and all queitions to be determined by both^ 
or either of them, that relute to clioice of ciHcevs, and 
all, or any other peribnal matters, fiudl be refolved or 
determined by the ba/Ioly and id! things relating to the 
preparing and pafling of bills into laws, fhall be openly 
declared and refolved by the vote. 
Guardi-.ins XIX. That, at all times, when the Proprietary and 
to l)c a)!- Governor fhall haiinen to be an, and under the 

iiointcd jy 

thiCoiuRi!, ^ge of cue and twenty ye;irs, anrl no guardians or colli- 
de miihoners are appointed in writing, by the father of the 
' l^aid infant, or that fueh guardian fhall be deceafcd, that 
during fuclr minority, the provincial Council fhall, from 
time to time, as tlicy ihall fjc meet, conilitute and ap- 
point guardians and tomniilhoncrs, i;ot exceeding three, 


pAivrt. APPENDIX. ay 

one of which flrall prcfule as deputy, and cliief guardian, 
during fucli minority, and ilnll have and execute, with 
the conleiit of one of the otliev two, all the power of a 
Governor, in all public aiVairs and concerns of the faitl 
province and territories thereof, according to charter; 
whiclx faid guardian fo appointed, (hall alfo have the 
care and overfight of the ellate of the laid niinor, and 
he yearly accountable and reiponfible for tlie lame to the 
provincial Council, and the provincial Council to the mi- 
nor, when of age, or to the next heir, in cafe of the mi- 
nor's death, for the truft before exprelled. 

XX. That as often as any days of the month menti- Pulilic bufi- 
ofied in any article of this charter, fhall fall upon the j;^^''^;;^^^^ ^a 
fail day of the week, commonly called the LorcFs day, ^j^^. i,„rd'5 
tlie bulincfs appointed for that day, fliall be deferred un- day, &c. 
til the next day, unlefs in cafes of emergency. 

XXI. And, for tlie fatisfaftion and encouragement of Aliens* 
all aliens, 1 do give and grant, that, if any alien, who dL.tcs to 
is, or Avail be a purchafer, or who doth, or Ihall,^ inliabit J^jJ^j;',';';'^^^ 
in tliis province or territories thereof, fhall deeea'.e at any ^;;.'^._ 
time before he can well be naturalized, his right and inte- 

I'ell therein fliall notwitliilanding defcend to his wife and 
children, or other his relations, be he tellate, or intef- 
tate, according to the laws of this province and terri- 
tories thereof, in fuch cafes provided, in ais free and 
ample manner, to all intents and purpofes, as if the laid 
alien had been naturalized. 

XXII. And that the inhabitant;^ of this province and Privilege oi 
territories thereof may be accommodated with Inch food lunumg, 
and fullenanee, as God, in his providence, hath iVeely ■'• 
aHbrded, I do rdlb further grant to the inhamtantD of 

this province and territories thereof, liberty to fowl and 
hunt upon the lands they hold, and all other lands tliereia 
not inelofed j and to (ilh, in all waters in die faid lands, 
and in all rivers aiul rivulets in, and belonging to, this 
province and territories thereof, with liberty to draw his 
or their fifli on fiiore on any man's lands, to as it be net 
to the detriment, or annoyance of the owner tliercof, 
except fuch lands as do lie upon inland rivulets that are 
not boatable, or which arc, or may be hereafter creeled 
into manors. 

XXIIL And that all tlie inhabitants of this province ^^^^'J"^' 
und territories thereof, purehafers ov others, „,..,m^.j_ 

Vol. JI. LS'] "'"^y"^^- 


may have the lafl worldly pledge of my good and kind 
intentions to them and theirs, I do give, grant and con- 
firm to all and every one of them, full and quiet poflef- 
fion of their refpeftive lands, to which they have any 
lawful or equitable claim, faving only fuch rents and fer- 
vices for the fame, as are, or cuilomarily ought to be, 
rcferved to me, my heirs or aHigns. 
Charter XXIV. That , no aft, law, or ordinance whatfoever, 

bir tT'^' ^^''^'' ^* ^"^ *™^ hereafter, be made or done by the 
' *■ ■ Proprietary and Governor of this province, and territo- 
ries thereunto belonging, his heirs or alhgns, or by the 
freemen in provincial Council or Aflrmbly, to alter, 
change or diminifli the form or effeft of this charter, or 
any part or claufe thereof, contrary to the true intent 
and meaning thereof, witliout the confent of the Pro- 
prietary and Governor, his heirs or alhgns, and fix parts 
of fcven of the faid freemen in provincial Council and 
Aflembly met. 

Confirma- ^^^ • ^"^' ^'^^^'y' I' ^^"^ ^''i'^ IFi/Ihwi Pemi, Propric- 

tion. tary ami Ciovernor of the province of Pftififylvaiiin, and 

territories thereunto belonging, for me, my heirs and af- 
figns, have folemnly declared, granted and confirmed, 
and do hereby folemnly declare, grant and confirm, tliat 
neither I, my heirs nor afligns, Ihall procure, or do, 
any thing or things, whereby the liberties, in this char- 
ter contained and exprefied, Ihall be infringed or broken: 
.'ind if any thing be procured, by any perfon or perfons, 
contrary to thefe premifes, it Ihall be held of no force 
or efledl. In witnefs whereof, I, the fuid WUltam Pm/i^ 
at Philadelphia, in Pciinfylvania, have unto this prefcnt 
cliarter of liberties fct my Iiand and broad feal, this fe- 
cond day of tlie fecond month, in the year of our Lord 
one thoufand fix hundred eighty and three, being the i^vc 
and thirtieth year of the king, and the third year of my 


'J'his witiiln chaitcr, winch we have diflinftly heard 
read and thankfully received, ihall be by us inviolably 
kept, at Philadtlphia, the fecond day of the fecond 
month, one thoufiml (w hundred eighty and three. 

The Meiiihers of the provimiul Council prej[ut, 
William Markham, William Clark, 

Jehn ]\Jnll, William Dilci^, 


Part I. 

William Halgc, 
Chvilloplier Taylor, 
John Simcock, 
William Clayton, 
Francis Whittwel, 
Thomas Holme, 


James Harrifon, 
John Richartlfon, 
Philip Thomas Lenniar, 

Si'cr. Gov. 
Richard Ingclo, C/. Coi//t, 


The Members of 

Cafparus Harman, 
John Darby, 
Benjamin AVilliams, 
William Gucll, 
Valentine IloUingiwortli, 
Jam?s Boyd en, 
Bemiony Bifhop, 
John Beazor, 
John Harding, 
Andrews Bringllon, 
Simon Irons, 
John Wood, 
John Curtis, 
Daniel Brown, 
William Futchcr, 
John Kipfhaven, 
Alexaiuler Molelline, 
Robert Bracy, fenior, 
Thomas Bracy, 
William Yardly, 
lohn HalVmgs, 
Robert Wade, 

the AJfeinbly prcfentj 

Tliomas FlaOald, 

John Hart, 

Robert Hall, 

Robert Bcdwell, 

V/illiam Simfmore, 

Samuel Darke, 

Robert Lucas, 

James Williams, 

John Blunfton, 

John Songhurlt, 

John Hill, 

Nicholas Wain, 

Thomas Fitzwater, 

Jolin Clows, 

Tuke Watfon, 

Joieph Phipps, 

Dennis Rotchford, 

John Brinklair, 

Henry Bowman, 

Curnclius Verlidofe, 

John Southwoith, (,7. Synod. 

Some of the inhabitants cf Philadelphia prefe/it^ 

William Howell, Henry Lewis, 

Jidmund Warner, Samuel Miles, 

No. IV. 

APPEiNDIX. Part!. ^'^ 

No. IV. 

The Friirne of Govcnimcni cf the Province of Peimfylvan'n 
and the ten-'itories thereunto I'ehngi/ig, p'lf-'if h Covenir^r , 
IMaikham, Ncvejnher 7, l6y6. 

1606. ^ ^ IIEREAS the Lite king Charles the Second, hi. 
tlie three ;.ikI thirtieth year of liis reign, hy letters pa-- 
9thmo.7th. tent under th.e great feal of England^ did, for the con-, 
fiderations therein mentioned, grant unto JVil/iniii Pen>iy , 
liis heirs and affigns, for ever, this colony, or trart of 
land, thereby eredjng the fame into a province, called 
Pennfylvoiia, and conftituting him, the faid IViliinnt 
Penny abfolute Proprietary thereof, veiling him, his De- 
puties and Lieutenant?, u'ith divers great powers, pre- 
eminences, royalties, jurifdic^jons and authorities, ne-' 
ceflary for the well-being and good government of tlie 
faid province. And whereas the late duke of Torh and. 
Albany, Ike. for valuable confiderations, did grant unto 
the faid William Pinny liis heirs and alhgns, all that tratl of 
land which hath been cafl, or divided into three coun-. 
ties, now. called Neiueajlley Kenty find Sr/J/ix, togetlier 
with all royalties, franchifcs, duties, jurifdidions, liber- 
tics and privileges thereunto belonging ; which lafl men- 
tioned tracft being intended as a beneiieial and rcquifite 
addition to tlie territory of the faid Proprietary, he, the. 
fiid Proprietary and Governor, at the requclt of the 
freemen of the faid three counties, by tlicir deputies, in 
AfTembly met, with the reprefentatives of the freemen 
of the faid province at Che/hry alias Uplandy on the fixth 
day of the tenth month, 1682, did (with the advice and 
coiifent of the Members of th.e fiid Anembly) enad, 
that the faid three counties (liould be annexed to the pro- 
vince of Pennfslvaniay as the proper territories thereof : 
;md whereas king Willidm and the late queen Alary, over 
England, Ike. by their letters patent and commilhon, un- 
der the great feal of England, dated tlie twenty-iiril day 
of 06lober, in th.e fourth year of their reign, haviivj, 
(for the reafons therein mentioned) taken the goveriimeni; 
of tliis faid province and territories into'their liandsj an.l 
under their care ani! prot^tflion., did think fit tu Loiiili- 

Part I, APPENDIX. 31 

tute Benjamin FLirhcr, Governor of New York, to be 
their Captain General, and Governor in Chief, over this 
province and country. And wlicreas alfo the faid k\ug 
and queen afterwards, by their letters patent, under the 
great feal of Etiglafid^ dated the twentieth day of Au- 
guft, in the iixth year of their reign, have thought fit, 
jupon the humble application of the faid William Penny 
to reftore them to tlie adminidration of the government 
of the faid province and territories; and that fo niueh of 
their faid commiiRon as ilitl conlHlute the fliid Benjamin' 
Fleichi'r^ tluir Captain General and Governor in Chief 
of the faid province of Pa:nf\lvania^ country of Neiu- 
cajllef and the territories and trafts of land d.ependiog 
thereupon, in America, togetiicr with all the poucrs ami 
•.luthori'Lics thereby granted for the ruling and governin^^ 
flieir faid province and country, fliould, from the publi-- 
cation of the faid lafl recited letters patent, ceafe, deter- 
mine and become void ; and accordingly the fame arc 
hereby declared void •, whereupon the faid TnUiam Pcnn 
did commifrionate his kinfman, IVi'iiam Markham, (Go- 
vernor under him, with directions to acl according to 
the know:) laws and ufages of this government. 

Now forafmuch as the former frame of government, .. 
modelled by . \\€t of, fettlement, and charter of libert'.e^i, /pvoinud. 
is not de<;med, in all refpcdis, fuitably accommoilated to 
our prefent circumftajiccs, thertiore it is unanimonfly 
defired that it may be cnatled. And be it enacfted by the 
Govenu)r afort'faid, v.'itli the advice and ccnfent of th^ 
reprefeutatives qf the freemen of the faid province and 
territories, in Aflembly met, aiid by the authority of 
the fame, that this government Ihall, from time to time, 
confift of. the Governor, or his Deputy, or Deputies, • 
and the freemen of the faid provmce, and territories 
thereof, in form of a Council and AlTembly ; which. 
Council and AU'embly fliall be men of mod note for 
virtue, wifdont and ability; and {lull, from and after 
the tenth day of the firlt month next, conlifi: of two per- 
fons out of each of the counties of this government, to 
ferve as the people's reprefentativcs in Coun.cll; ami u[ 
four perfons out of each of the faid counties, to fevve 
as their reprefentatives in Aficmbly ; for die ele£ling of 
vv'hlch reprefentativcs, it fliall and may be lawful to and 
for all the freemen of this province auJ territories afore- 
faid, to meet together on the tjnih d:iy of the fnii: moiirli 

32 APPENDIX. Part ^ 

yciirly hereafter, in the moft convenient and ufual place 
for eledion, within the refpe£live counties, then and 
there to chufe their fiiid reprefcntatives as aforefaid, who 
fliall meet on the tenth day of the third month yearly, in 
the capital town of the faid province, unlefs the Go- 
vernor iuid Council fliall think fit to appoint another 

Qiialifica- And^ to the end it may he known who thofe are, in tliis 
tioji of province and territories, who ought to have right of, or 
cltclors. to be deemed freemen, to chufe, or be chofen, to ferve in 
Council and AlTembly, as aforefaid, Be it enabled by the 
authority aforefaid, That no inhabitant of tliis province 
or territories, flvall have right of eledling, or being 
elefted as aforefaid, unlefs they be free denizens of tliis 
government, and are of the age of twenty-one years, 
or upwards, and have fifty acres of land, ten acres where- 
of being fcated and cleared, or be otherwife worth jift^ 
pounds^ lawful money of this government, clear eftate, 
and have been refident within this government for the 
fl)acc of two years next before fuch eleflion. 

Solemn af- And wlicreas divers perfons within this government, 
lirination cannot, for confcience fake, take an oath, upon any ac- 
iiiflea.l of ^.Q^j,j,- whatfoever, Be it therefore enabled by the autho- 
rity aforefaid, That all and every fuch perfon and per- 
fons, being, at any time hereafter, required, upon any 
lawful occafion, to give evidence, or take an oath, in 
any cafe whatfuever, fliall, inflead of fwearing, be per- 
mitted to make his, or their folcmn alhrmation, atteft, 
or dcclariition, which flrall be adjudged, and is hereby 
enacted and declared to be of the fame force and efiedl, 
to all intents and purpofes whatfoever, as if they had 
taken an oath •, and in cafe any fuch perfon or perfons 
fliall be lawfully convicfbed of having willully and cor- 
ruptly afln-med, or <.leclared any matter or thing, ujion 
hw\\ folemn afiirm.ition or atteil, fliall incur the fame 
penalties and forfeitures, as by the laws and ftatutes of 
Eiii^^land arc provided againil perffms convicted of wilful 
?A\^ corrupt perjury. 

DcJiratitni And be it further enacfled by the authority aforefaid, 
of olHccrs, rpj^,^j_ ,^,j j^^.j.c„,^3 ^^,|^o ii^^^ii 1^^. hereafter either clewed to 
ferve in Council and Aficmbly, or connninionated or ;ip- 
jiointcd to be judges, Jullice:;, Maiters of the Rolls, 
iShciifts, Coroners, ami all other officers cl It.ite and 
trull, within this governmerit, \\'lio confcientiouny 


Part I. APPENDIX. 33 

icruple to take an oath, but when lawfully required, 
will make and fubfcribe the declaration and profcllion of 
their Chrillian belief, according to the late adft of parli- 
ament, made in the firfl: year of king William^ and the 
late queen Mary, entitled, An adl for exempting tlieir 
majelties' Proteilant fubjefls, didenting from the Church 
of England y from the penalty of certain laws, fliall be 
adjudged, and are hereby declared to be qualified to a<fl 
in their faid refpe6live olRces and places, and thereupon 
the feveral oihcers herein mentioned, fiiall, inftead of 
an oath make their folemn affirmation or declaration in 
manner and form following j that is to fay, 

The form of Judges' and Juftlces' attcft fliall be in 
thefe words, viz. 

TIiou flialt folemly promife, tliat as Judge, or Juftice, FoniT; of 
according to the Governor's commilfion to thee directed, "'•''^•■^^ •''" 
thou flialt do equal right to the poor and rieli, to tlic 
bcfl: of thy knowledge and power, according to law, 
and after the ufages and conilitutions of this govcrn- 
rntjnl •, thou ihalt not be of council of any nnttL'r or 
caufe depending before thee, but flialt well and tiiily ilo 
thy olFice in every refpeft, according to the bell oi ih\f 

The form of the atteftsto be taken by the "M.^.fiiers ol 
the Rolls, Secretaries, Clerks, and lueh liLe oiiiecT.s 
lli.ill be thus, luz. 

Thou flialt well and faithfully execute ihe oiTiL-e of, 
Sec. according to the befl: of thy (kill and knowledge •, 
taking fuch fees only, as thou oughtell to vccjivc by 
the laws of this government. 

The form of the Shcrllls' anil Coroners' attcfl, fliall 
be in thefe words, viz. 

Thou flialt folemnly promife, that thou wilt well and 
truly fcrvc the King and Governor in the ofliee of the 
SheriiV (or Coroner) of the county of, &e. aiul pi\:ferve 
tiie King and Governor's rights, as iar foiiu ::s th>u 
caiiil, or mayeH ; thou flialt truly ferve, and return, ail 
the writs and precepts to thee dire6led ; thou fliall. take 
no baililT, nor deputy, but fuch as thou will anfwer for-, 
tiiou flialt receive no writs, except from fuch Jiulges 
and Juflices, who, by the laws of this government, have 
authority to ifllie and diredl writs unto thee ; and tliou 
ihalt di' gently and truly do ami accoiiiplilh all tldiU'.; 


34 A P P E IT D I X. ' Part t; 

appevtalnhig to thy offieL', after the befl of thy wit and 
power, both for the Kitig and Governor's profit,- arid 
good of the inhabitants within the faid county, taking 
fuch fees only as tliou oughtefl to take by the la<\'3 of 
this government, and not otherwife. 

The form of a Conftablc's attefl fliall be this, vh. 

Tliou flialt folcnndy proniifg, well and duly, accord-' 
ing to the bcft of thy underflanding, to execute the- 
oliice of a Conllable for the town (or county) of P. for 
tliis cnfuing year, or until anotlier be atteftcd in thy 
room, or thou fhalt be legally difcharged thereof.' 

The form of the Grand Inqueft's attcfls fliall be in 
thefe words, viz^ 

Thou fhalt diligently enquire, and true prefentment 
make, of all fuch matters and things as fliall be given 
thee in charge, or come to thy knowledge, touching 
this prefent fervice ; the King's counfel, thy fellows, 
and thy own, thou flvalt keep fecret, and in all things 
thou ilialt prefent the tiuth, and norliing but the truth, 
to the belt of thy knowledge. 

This being given to the Foreman, the reft of tlie In- 
quefl fhall be attelted tlius, by three Jit a time, viz. 

The fame attcflation tliat your Foreman hath taken 
on his part, you will well and truly keep on your parts. 

The form of the attcil to be given to the Traverfe 
Jury, by four at a lime, Ihall he thus, viz. 

You folemnly promife, that you will well and truly 
try the ifllte of traverfe between the lont the King, and 
A. B. whom you have in charge, according to your evt- 

/ In civil caufes thus, viz. 

You folemnly promife that you will well and truly 
try the ifl'ue between A. li. plaintitV, and C. 1). defend- 
ant, accortling to your evidence. 

Trovided always, and it is hereby intended, that no 
pcrfon fhall be, by this acl, excufcd from fv/earing, who, 
by the ads of parliament, for tnule ai,d navigation, are, 
or ihall be required to take an oath. 
Ekclions And^ that elections may not be corruptly managed, 

regu atcc . ^^^ which the good of the government fo much depi nds. 
Be it further cnaded by tljc autlioiity afoielaid, That 



A V P K N D 1 A. 

all elections of the laid rcj-ircfciitativcs fliall be ficc^ :i!iil 
: Voluntary, and that the electors, who ihuU receive any 
reward, or ^ift, lor giving his vote, flrall forfeit l\is right 
.to elect for that year; ajid fuclr pevfbn or perfons, as 
flvall give, or proniife, any fuch reward to be eleflcd, or 
that flvall offer to lerve for nothing, or .for lefs wage^ 
than thi: law prefcvibos, fliall be thereby rendered incr.- 
pable to ferve in Council, or AlTenibly, for that year; 
and the rcprefcntatives fo chofen, either for Council or 
Aflembly, ihall yield tjieir attendance accordingly, and 
be the fole judges of tlie regularity, or irregul.u-ity of 
the . elections of their refpedlive Members : and if any 
[lerfon, or perfons, chofen to fervc in Council, or Aflem- 
bly, fliail be wilfully abfent from the fervice he or they 
lire fo chofen to attend, or be deceafed, or rendered in- 
capable, then, and in all fuch cafes, it flrall be lawful 
for the Governor, within ten days after knowledge of 
the fame, to iflue forth a writ to the fSheritr of the 
county, for which the faid perfon, or ],xirfcrtT\ were clio- 
fen, immediately to fummons tlie freemen of the f.une 
to elecl another member in the i-oom of fuch abfent, de- 
ceafed, or incapable perfon or perfons ; and in cafe any 
iSIierilV flial! mifbehave himfelf, in ihc management of 
rmy of the faid elecftions, he Ihall be punilhed accord- 
ingly, at the difcretion of the Governor and Council, for 
the beiiig. 

r>e it further enacted by the authority aforefaid, Tint Rcpilntiou 
every member now chofen, or hereafter to be cliofen, by «f Affan 
the freemen as aforefaitl, to ferve in Council, and tire \.^ 
Speaker of tlie AlTembly, Ihall be allowed live (hillings 
by tlie day, during his and tl>eir attendance ; and every 
Member of Aflembly lliall be allowed four fhillings by 
the day, during his attendance on the fervice of the Al- 
fembly ; and tliat every Member of Council and Aflem- 
bly lliall be allowed towards their travelling charges after 
tlie rate of two pence each mile, both going to, and 
coming from, llie j)lace, where the Council and Aflem-* 
My is, or Ihall bcj held ; all which fiuns ilrali be paid 
yearly out ol the countylevies, by the county receivers 

And be it further enacled by the authority aforefaid, novernor 
That the Governor, or his Deputy, Ihall always prefide 
i:i the Council, and that lie llvall, at no time, perform '" Cou««i, 
: VoL.-H. [S'^'} . . .".tny 




Part I; 

f ifficers to 
give Iccu- 


Powers of 
and Coiin- 

In preferv- 
in-r the 



jiny public aft of flate whatToever, that fllall, or fnay 
relate unto the juitice, trcafury or traile of tlie province 
and territories, but by and with the advice and confent 
of the Council thereof, or major part of them that {lialj 
be prefent. 

And be It further enadcJ by the authority aforefaid, 
That all the Sheriffs and Clerks of the refpedive coun- 
tics of the faid province, and territories, who are, or 
iliall be, commiHionated, fhall give good and fufiicient 
fecurity to the Governor, for anfwering tlic king and his 
people, in matters relating to the faid offices refpedHvely. 

And be it further enabled by the autliorlty aforefaid, 
That the Council, m all cafes and matters of moment, 
as about ereaing cottrts of juftice, fitting in judgment 
upon perfons impeached, and upon bills and other mat- 
ters, that may be, from time to time, prefemed by the 
AHcmbly, not lefs than two-thirds iliall make a quorum t 
and that the confent and approbation of the majority of 
that quorum fliall be had in all fuch cafes and matters of 
moment ; and tiiat in cafes of lefs moment, not lefs than 
one-third of the whole fhall make a quorum ; tlie majority ■ 
of wJueh fliall, and may, always determine in all fuch mat- 
ters of Icffer moment, as are not above fpecified : and in 
cale the Governor's power Ihall hereafter happen to he 
in the Council, a rrefident ihall then be cliufen out of 
thcmlelves by two-tliirds, or t]:e major part of them v 
wJuch Profident fliall therein prefide. 

Be it further ena^ed by the authority aforefaid. That 
the Governor ami Council fhall take care that all the 
laws, ■ f}.atutes and ordinances, which fhall at any time 
be made within the faid province and territories, be duly 
and diligently executed. 

Be it further tlie authority aforefaid, That 
the Governor and Council fliall, yt all times, have the 
care of the peace of this province and territories tliereof, 
and that nothing be, by any perfons, attempted to the 
fubverfion of this fmwe of gova-iu)u-nt. 

And be it further enaacd by the authority aforefaid. 
That the Governor and Council, for the time being, 
fhall, at all times, fettle and order the fituation of all 
cities, and market towns, modelling therein all public 
buildings, ftreets and market places ; and fhall 
9II public lauding places, of the towns of lliis province 


Part I. APPENDIX. 37 

anJ territories : and if any man's property fhall be judged 

by the Governor and Council to be commodious for fuch 

l.uuling place, in the faid towns, and tbat the fame be i-a"^''"?*! 

by them appointed as fuch, that the owner fliall have 

fuch reafon.ible fatisfadlic^n given him for the fame as 

the Governor and Council fhall fee meet, to be paid by 

the faid refpe(^Hve towns. 

• Be it further enafted by the authority aforefaid, Thnt 
the Governor and Council fhall, at all times, have power Trcafury, 
to infpecT: the management of the public treafury, and 
punifh thofc who Ihall convert a]iy part thereof to any 
other ufe, tlran what hath been agreed upon by the Qo-; 
ycrnor. Council and Aflembly. 

Be it further enabled by the autliority aforefaid, That pu^.n^ 
|;he Governor and Council fhall ereft and order all pub- iiourcs, &c. 
he houfes, and encourage and rev/ard the authors of 
ufeful fciences and laudable inventions in the faid pro- 
vince, and territoi"ies thereof. 

And be it further ena<fled by tlie authority aforefaid, 
That the Governor and Councd fliall, from time to time, ^ ^^ ^j,.^ 
have the care of the management of all public affairs, ciucatiwi,' 
relating to ihe peace, fafcty, juflicc, treafury, trade, &v. 
and improvement of the province and territories, and to 
the good education of yoi{th, and fobriety of the man- 
ners of the ijihabltantg therein, as aforefaid. 

And be it furtlier enn(fted by the authority aforefaid, 
That tlie veprcfcntatives of the freemen, wiien met in po-.vfr of 
Aflcmbly, iliall have power to prepare and propofc to tlic AfTcnj- 
the Governor and Council all f\ich bills as they or the ^'y' ^•''' 
major part of them, fl^U, at any time, fee needful to 
be parted into laws, within the faid province and terri- 

Provided always, That nothing herein contained fLall 
debar the Governor and Council from recommending to 
the Aflembly all fuch bills as they fliall think fit to be 
palled into laws j and that the Council and Aflembly 
may, upon occafiun, confer together in committees, 
when deliredj all wliicli propofed and prepared bills, or . 
fuch of tliem, as the Governor, witlr the advice of the 
Council, fhall, in open Ailembly, declare Iiis ailcnt unto, 
faall be the laws of this province and territories thereof, 
anil publilhcd accordingly, witlr this flile. By ihe Cuvein- ^^\\^. ^f the- 
»>/•, ivlth ihe njpnt and approhalLn -j ihc fiwiiw/i in (i.'Jiirrl l.r.v:, &^. 


35 A P P E N D I X; Part Iti 

Jljpmhly IV. d ; n true trnnfcript, or cluplicate whereof^ 
•(liall bd tranfinittcd to the king's privy council, for the 
time being, according to the faid late king's Ictterspa-. 

! Adjourn- •^"'^ ^^ ^*^ further cnnttcd by ihe autliority aforefaldj 

I mciiib, c^c. Tliat the Aflenibly. (li;dl Ct upon tjieir own adjournjTieuts,' 

j \\\\<\ committees, and continue, in order to prepare and 

j propole bills, redrefs grievances, and impeach criminals, 

or fuch perfons as they Ihall think fit to l:-^ tliere impeacli- 
i ed, until the Governor and Council, for the time being,' 

i iliall difmifs them-, which Adembly fliall, notwithiland- 

hig fucli difmifs, be capable of Aflemblijig together up-i 

on fummons of the Governor and Council, at any timv; 

during that year j two-thirds of wliich Aflembly, in all 

cafes, Ihall make a quorum. 

"Majority to And be it enafted by the authority afurefaid, That all 
deiermiuf. e]e(n;ions of reprefeittatives for Council and AlTembly, 
and all queitions to be determined by them, ihall be by 
the major part of votes. 

Lord's day. ^^ '^^ further enafted by the authority aforefaid, That 
as oft as any days of the month, mentioned in any arti- 
cle of this aft, Ihall fall upon the fnft day of the week, 
commonly called ilie Lord's day, the bulinefs appointee^ 
for that day, fliall be deferred till the next day, unlefs in 
cafes of emergency. 

Be it further cnaftcd by the authority aforefaid, That 
Al-ni l-iiia-,^'^ any alien, who is, or Ihall be a purchafer of lands, or 
to dcfce'iul, ^v^*^ doth, or ihall inhabit in this province, or territories 
^c, , thereof, ihall deceafe at any time before he can well be 
denizifed, his right and interell therein ilvall notwith- 
ilanding defcend to his wife and children, or other, his 
relations, be he tedate, or intcftate, according to th^ 
laws, of t])is province and territories thereof, in fuch 
cafes proviiled, in as free and ample manner, to all in- 
tents and purpofes, us if the iaid alien had been deni- 

And that the people may be accommodated witli fuch 
fo(Kl and fuilenance as ( Jod, in his providence, hath freely 
J.ilicrty to afiorded, Ik it enadled by the authority afor* faid, That 
fiflijhur.t, ^1,^. ijihabitajits of this province and territories tliereof, 
iliall have liberty to lilh and hunt, tipon the lands they 
liold, or all other lands therein, not inclofed, ami to iiih 
in all waters in the laid laiids, and in r.ll rivers and rivu- 

Part I; APPENDIX. . .39 

lets, in and belonging to this province and territories 
thereof, with liberty to draw his, or their fifh upon any 
man's hmd, fo as it be not to the detriment or annoyance 
of the owner thereof, except fuch lands ai, do lie upo;r • • ^ 
iriland rivulets, that are not boatable, or which hereafter 
may be erected into manors. 

' Be it furtlicr enaftcd by tlie autliority aforcfaid. That . 
all inhabitants of this province and tirritories, whether ('^f.^j"* . 
purchafcrs, or otliers, and cNcry one of rliem, fliall have 
full and quiet enjoyment of their refpcciive lands and 
tenements, to which they have any lawful or equitable 
claim, faving only fuch rents'and lervices for the f:^.me, 
as are, or c\iltomarily ought to be, rcfervcd to the lord, 
or lords of the fee thereof, refpedLively. 

Be it further enabled by tlie autliority aforefaid, That 
no adt, law, or ordinance wliatfoever, fludl, at any time '^"''•^''^^"''^ 
hereafter, be niaile or done, by the Ciovcrnor of this |° ^^ ? j-^*^* 
province, anil territories thereunto belonging, or by tlie 5^^. 
freemen, in Council, or Ailembly, to alter, change or 
diminifli the form and effeft of this adl, or anypait, or 
claufe thereof, contrary to the true intent and meaning 
thereof, without the confent of the Governor, for the 
time being, and fix parts of feven of the faid freemen, 
in Council, and Aflembly met. This ad to contiime, 
and be in force, until the faid Proprietary fliall fignify 
his pleafure to the cor.trary, by fomc inllrumeiit, under 
his liand and fcal, ialhat belr.df. 

Provided alv/ayb, an.! i; is hereby enacded, That nei- 
ther . this a<5l, nor any oidier acl, or acts ^\■hatfoevel•5 viT''"7r^' 
(hall preclude, or debar tlie inhabitants of this jnovinee lervcd. 
and territories,, fiom claiming, having and enjoying 
any ot tlie rights, privileges and" immunities, which 
the faid Ih-o^jrietary, for himfelf, his heirs, and alligns, 
did formerly grant, ' or v/liieh of righi belong unto 
them, the falil inhabitants, by viitue of any law, cliar- 
ter or grants wliatfoever, any tiling herein contained tq 

he eonrravv nutv.-irliflandii; 

No. V, 


No. V. 

The AJih-ifs of the AJfenihly to the Proprietary'^ conctr^iui^ p'op^ftv^ 
Stpt ember 20, 1701. 

May it pleafc the Governor ^ 


E, the veprefentatiyes of tlie freemen of tlie province and 
territories, in Ailenibly met, having taken into ferious confidera* 
tion feme articles concerning our privileges in property, incited by 
fin addrefs to this lioufe from the inhabitants of this place, and 
encouraged by thyfclf, in fetting forth thy care of us, and pro* 
niifes of compliance therewith, do humbly oiler the following 
heads for confu-mation, requeitlng they may be granted the pco-j 
pie of the province and territories, and afcertained to them in a 

I. Imprimis, That, in cafe tlie Proprietary go for England^ due 
care be taken that lie be reprefented here by perfons of integrity, 
and cnnfidcrable known ellates, who may have full power and 
authority, not only to grant and conra-m lands, &:c. as if he were 
porfonally prefent, but alfo to make fatisfadlion to thofe who have 
fliort, a;, well as receive wliat may be due from tliofe who have 
too much over meafurc, according to former ;igreement. 

IT. That before the Proprietary go for England^ he grant us 
fuch an inllrument as may abfolutcly feciire and defend us in our 
eilatcs and properties, from hlmrelf, his heirs and aihgns, for 
ever, or any claiming under him, them, or any of them, as alfo 
to clear all Indian purchafes and others. 

III. That, whereas there hath been great delay in the confirm* 
atlon of land, and granting of patents, due care maybe taken by 
the Proprietary, that no fuch delays may bp for the future ; and 
that the ten acres in the hundred may be allowed, according to 
the Proprietary's engagements. 

IV. That no Surveyoi', Secretary, or any other officer under 
the Proprietary, prcfume to exa£l or take any fees, but what were, 
are, or Ihall be allowed by the laws of this province, under feverq 

V. That no perfon, or perfons, fliall, or may, at any time 
liereafttr, be liable to anfwer any complaint, matter or tiling v/hat- 
focver, relating to property, befurc the Governor, or liis Council, 
or ill any otlier place, but in the ordinary courts of iuillcc. 

^ VI, That 

Part I. APPENDIX. 41 

: VI. That the ancient records made before the Proprietary's firfl 
arrival here, be lodged in fuch hands as the Aflembly Iball judge 
to be moil lit. 

. VII. That a patent ofTice, and all aflual Surveyors thereby emi 
J)loyed, may be modelled, according to the law of Jmnaica^ and 
fuch fecurity taken, as may render the peof)le's intcrcft fafo. 

VIII. That, whereas tlie Proprietary formerly gave the pur- 
chafers an e\pe6lation of a certain trac'l of land, which is fincc 
laid out, about two miles long, and one mile brond, whereon to 
build the town of Ph'ilndciplna^ and that the fame ihould b*^ a free 
gift ; which lince has been clogged with divers rents and referva- 
tions contrary to the firlt defign and grant, and to the great dilfa- 
tisfaftiini of the inhabitants: we defire the Governoi: to take it 
into confideration, and make them eafy therein. 

IX. That the land, lying back of tliat part of the town already 
built, remain for common, and that no leafes for the future, to 
make Inclofuics to the damage of the public, until fuch time as 
the refpedlive ovvners fliall be ready to build or improve thereon j 
and that the iflands and ilats near the town, be left to the inhabi- 
tants of this town to get their winter fodder. 

■ X. That the ftreets of the town be regulated and bounded, and 
that the ends of the ftreets on Delaware and Sculkil be unlimited, 
and left free to be extended on the river as the inhabitants ihall 
fee meet ; and that public landing places at the Blue Anchor ancl 
riH.'iy Pot houfe be confirmed free to the inhabitants of this town, 
not infringing any man's property. 

XI. That the Juflices may have the liccnfmg and regulating of- 
dinaries and drinking houfcs, as in En^laiuly and as by thy letter, 
dated November 5, 1697, did order. 

XII. That the letters of feoflment ""or the foil of the three 
lower counties, from the Duke of 2l,.i, be recorded in the terri- 

, XIII. That all lands, in the faid counties not yet taken tip, 
tnay be dilpufcd of at the old rent, of a bulhel of wheat a hun- 

XiV. That tiie: thoufand acres of lanil, formerly promifed by 
the Covei..or to the town of Nevjcajlle, for common, be laid out 
and ])at.nt«.u for that ule. 

XV. That the bank lots at Neiucajlle be granted to thofe that 
have the front lots, to low-water mark } or fo far as they may im- 
prove, at a buflicl of wheat a lot, 

XVI. That 


; XVt. That all the bay marflics be hid out for common, except 
fuoh as are already granted. . ,1 

XVIL Tliat all patents hereafier to be granted to the territories,^ 
be on the fame conditions, as the warrants or grants were obtained. 

- XVIII. That the divifion lines between the counties of N^wraftle 
and Chejier be afcertained, allowing the boUnds accor/ling to the 
Proprietary's letters patent from the' king. 

XIX. That the twenty-fecond article in the old charter, con-V 
ifcerning filhing and fowling, be confirnE^ed. • 

XX. Tliat the inhabitants or poniilbrs of land may have liberty 
to purchafe off their quit-rents, as formerly promifcd. 

- XXI. That the bill of property palled at NfwcnJ/r, iyoo, be in-« 
ferted in the charter, with fuch amendments as fhall be agreed onj 

Sig/ied by onh'r of the I-Ioupj ■ ' _ 

i JOSEPH GROWDON, %//•«•: 

^he a/ifwer of the Proprietary and Governor to the precedl'ig adJref 
of the AJJ'tmhly, head hy head. . ' ■' 

To the firft I flrall appoint thofe, in whom I can confide, whofe 
powers fhall be fuflicient and pujjlic for the fecurity of all con.«' 
cerned ; and I hope they fhall be of honeft characl:er, v/ithout 
juft exception, to do that which is right between you and me. , 

II. Much of it is included in my aiifwer to the firfl ; howevery 
I am willing to execute a public inftrument, or charter to fecure 
you in yoin- properties, according to purchafe, and the law of 
projicrty made lately at NeivcnlJU-y excejuingfome covrcdions, or 
amendments, abfolutely neceftary, therein. 

III. I know of no wilful delays, and jhall ufe my end.envnurs to 
prevent any for the future, and am very w illing ro •.!lio\A' the Xi:.w 
acres per cent, for the ends propofed by the law, aiid not oiherwlfe. 

IV. I am willing that reafonablc fees to olhcers fliall be afcer- 
tained by law, or their fervices left to a qiicuttnu nunilt ■ for \ 
jiope you do not think they fhould be maintained at my'chargc. 

V. I know of no pevfon, that has been obliged to anf\ver be- 
fore the Ciovernor and Council, in fuch cafes-, but 1 conceive 
that difputes about unconfmcd properties mult lie before the Pro- 
prietary, though not before his Council, as judges. 

VI. The records concern me, as well as tiie people, and are^ 
or fhall be, in the hands of men of good Fame, and to keep theni 
only during good behaviour j but thofe of this county of Phla- 
' deliMay 

1»ART T; A P P E N D I X. 4^ 

'icl^hia, thtit clilclly concern the people, are In lb great diforderi 
by razure;;, blots and interlineations, that you would il^j v/ell to 
i.Uc fomc n.tthod in time, for their re<Sliiication. 

VII. If tl^e jjifiaira law will improve oiir regiildtion, as it doth 
augment the fees, I am content we copy iifter it. 

':: Vlir. You are under a miftake, in fa(fl •, 1 have tied you to no- 
thing, in tlie allotment of the city, which the firft purchafers, 

• then prefent, did not readily feem to comply with, and I am forry 
to hild their i^imes to fuch an addrefs, as that prefented to you, 

.\vho have got double lots, by my re-aplotment of the city, froni 
fifty to one hundred and two feet front lots ; and if they are wlUin|^ 

.to refund the fifty-two feet, I fliall, as you defire, be eafy in the 
ijuit-rents, although this matter folely refers to the Hrll purchafers, 

'and to me as Proprietary. 

IX. You are under a mifiipprehenfion, to tliink that a fourth 
part of tlie land, laid out for a city, belongs to any body but my- 
fclf, it being rcferved for fiich as were not hrli purchafers, who 
might want to build in future time ; and when I reiledl upon the 
great abufe, done in my abfence, by deilroying of my timber and 
wood, and how the land is over-run with brufli, to the injury and 
difcredit of the town, it is fmall encouragetnent to grant your re- 
(luefl ; however, I am content that feme land be laid out for the ac- 
commodation of the town, till inhabitants prefent to fettle it under 
regulations that fliall be thought mofl: conducing to tlie end de- 
hred, about which, I Oiall confult with thofe perfons chiefly con- 
cerned therein j and for the rell of the ninth article, about the 
jllantls, I know not which you mean, nor on what terms defired, 
it being an ludependant property fiom the to\v'n, ii ilot from the 

X. About the ends of fl:reets, and other public landing? of tliis 
town, I am v/illiug to grant the ends of itreets, when and whcrt: 
iniprovetl, and the other according to yoiir requcft. 

X[. I am contented that no licences Le grantetl to any ordinary 
keepers, but fuch as the Jtillices fliall recommend, nor fuffcr tlicm 
loiiger, than the Magillrates iin;l they behave well. 

XII. I do not underlland it •, for I had no letters of feoffment, 
but deeds, which were recorded by Ephrahn Hjrmati^ at Nrwrnj'-^ 
tky and by John ]Vijl^ to the belt of my memory, at Nlj> 
Torhf and fince confirmed by tlie order of Council, for the line, as 
well as otherv.'ife, and a moll formal pofn.'iho}! a:id obedience given 
me in purfuance thereof. 

Vol. IL [53] XIII. 1 thinit 

44 APPENDIX. Part t. 

me gives to ouier men s .i 
yet \n difbuvie for that ^ 

ord Ballimcrey prom i fed I 
the minutes of Council, q 

XIII. I think this nn unreafonahle •article, either to limit me ir. 
that which is my own, or to deprive me of the benefit (.f raifuij^ 
in proportion to the advantage, which time gives to men's 
properties; and the rather, becaufe I am 
fong and expenfive controverfy with the Lor 
to he defrayed by the public, as appears by 

XIV. I allow it, according to what I lately expreffed at Neio* .; 
cnJlUy and it is not my fault it has not been done fooner. 

' XV. According to their own propofals, at Netvcajlle, I flrall 
gratify their delire, viz. that the fame revert to me, after a cer- 
tain time, if not imprbved. 

XVI. This I take for a high impofition ; Iiowever, I am willing 
that they all lye in common and free, until otherwife difpofed of, 
and fliali grant the fame from time to time, in reafonable pc rtions, 
and upon reafonable terms, efpecially to fuch as fhall engage to 
drain and improve the fame ; having always a regard to back in- 
habitants, for their accommodations. 

. XVII. I cannot well underltand it; therefore it mufl be ex-3 

XVIII. It is my own inclination, and I dcfire and expecfl; the 
reprefentatives of NcwcnJlL- and Cliefler fortliwith, or befoie tliey 
leave the town, to attend me about the time and method of do- 
ing it. 

XIX. They fliall have liberty to fifli, fowl and hunt, upon theif 
own lands, and upon all other lands are mine untaken up. 

XX. If it fhould be my lot to lofe n public fupport, I mull: de- 
jiend upon my rents for a fupply; and therefore nuift not eafily 
part with them ; and many years are elapled lince I made that 
otTer, that mms not excepted. ! 

XXI. I agree that the law of property, made at NeiVL-rJIli;, flrall : 
be infcrtcd in the charter, with requifite amendments. j 


No. VL 

Part I. APPENDIX. 45 

No. VI. 

The Charter of the City of PhUachlpVia. 

ILL! AM PENN, Proprietary and Governor I7o^ 
of the province of Pennfxhaiua, Sec. to all, to whom' Otilbr. 25. 
thefe prefcnts {juill com;, lends meeting. 

K/n'iu >>■, That at the humbk requeft of the inhabit- l'li'la<iel- 

ants and f :tt!ers of this town of Philadelphia, bein^ fome P''" 'T'"' 
' r 1 r ,\ 1 1 1 ,- • 1 • , • poratcd at 

pi th3 luit adventurers and purchalcrs withm this pro- the rcqiRft 
yince, for tlieir encouragement, and for the more imme- of thcinha- 
(diate and entire government of the faid town, and better ^"t'*"". 
regulation of trade therein, I have, by virtue of the 
Kinsr'r, liters patents, under the great feal of Etiglatidy 
crf^Llcd the faid town into a borough, and by thefc prc- 
fents do eredl the faid town and borough of Philadelphia 
Into a r//)', which faid city Ihall extend tl>e limits and 
bounds, as it is laid out between Delaware and Sfhtiylhill. ^'^""'l*- 

And I do, for me, my heirs and alTigns, grant and 
ordain, that the ftreets of the faid city ihall for ever 
continue, as they are now laid out and regelated j and Street* to 

that the end of each (treet, extending into the river De- <"':»/"""■='» 
r . ^ ^ ^ _ o '^ . laid out [)e- 

lawarey fliall be and continue tree for the ufc and fervice fore c'';c. 
of the faid city, and the inhabitants thereof ; who may 
improve the fame lor the bcdt advantage of the city, and 
pulld wharves {o far out into the river tiicre, as the 
Mayor, Aldermen, and Connnon Council, lierein after 
mentioned, (Ijall fee meet. 

■ And I dq nominate Pltlward Shippen, to be the prefent Firll May- 
Mayor, who fliall fo contimie until another be chofen, <^r, 
as is herein after directed. 

And 1 do hereby alfign and name Thomas Story, to be Recorder. 
the prefent Recorder, to do and execute all things, wliii.h 
unto the oilice of Recorder of the laid city doth or m;.'.y 

And I do appoint Thomas Farmer to be the prefent Sheriff and 
Sherilf, and Robert AJIacii to bj the prefent Town-clerk ^'l'"''- 
and Clerk of the peace, and Clerk of the court and 




Part L 



ing claufe. 

Power to 
)iold lands, 

And to fell 
and dil'pofc 
of the lame 

And 1 (Jo hereby name, cnnflltnte and appoint '^opua 

Carpfntffy Gnjj'uh Jo/ics, Anthaiy Jlforris, Jofifh WilcoXi 
Nathan St anbury^ Charles Rfad\ T/x/niar Majlerx, and 
Jl'^jIIiat/i Carter, citizens and inliabilants of tlie faid city, 
to be the prcfcut Aldermen of tlie faid city of Fhiladcl- 

And I do alfo nominate and appoint John Parfons^ 
IVilluyn Hiirlfo/i, WilHam t,eey Nehemiah ylUen, Thomas 
Pafchall, John Biicld^ junr. Edw(jrd Smoitty Samuel Buch- 
hy,, James Atl in/on, Penteey/J Trague, Francis Cook, and' 
Henry Badcocke, to be the twelve prcfent Common Coun- 
cil-men of the faid city. 

And I do by thefe prefents, for me, my heirs an(l 
fnccelTors, give, gpnt and declare, that the faid Mayor, 
Recorder, Aldermen, and Common Council-nK'n, for 
ihe time being, and they, winch hereafter Ihall be May- 
or, Recorder, Aldermen, and Common Council-men, 
within the faid city, and their fucceflbrs for ever hereaf- 
ter be, and fliall be, by virtue of thefe prefents, one 
body corporate and politic in deed, and by the name of 
the Mayor and Commonalty of the city of Philadelphia, 
in the province of Pennfyhania : and tliem by the name 
of Mayor and Commonalty of the city of Philadelphia, 
one body politic and corporate in deed and in name, 1 
do, for me, my heirs and fucccfibrs, fully create, con- 
llitute and confirm, by tliefe prefents; and that by the 
name of Mayor and Commonally of the city of Phila- 
l.idelphia^ be, and jit all times hereafter fliall be, pcrfons 
able and capable, in law, to have, get, receive and pof- 
fefs lands and tenements, rents, liberties, jurifdidions, 
franthifes, and hereditaments, to them and tlieir fuccef- 
fors, in fee fimple, or for term of life, lives, years, or 
otherwife ; and alfo goods, chattels, and other things of 
what nature, kind or quality foever, 

And alfo to give, grant, Ictt, fell, and alTign the fame 
lands, tenements, hereditaments, goods, chattels, and 
to do and execute all other things about the fame, by the 
name aforefaid ; and alfo that they be, and fhall be for 
ever hereafter perfons able and capable in law, to fue 
and be fued, plead and be .impleaded, anfwer and he 
anfwered unto, defend and be defended, in all or any 
the courts and other places, and before any judges, Jul- 
tices and other perfons whatfoever within the laid pro- 
vince, in all m.mncr of atflions, fuits, ccmplair.ts, j!e;>i., 


Part I. ^^^ '^ A P P E N D I X. 47 

caufes, nncl matters whatfoever, and of M'hat nature or 
kind foever. 

And that it fiiall and may be lawful to and for the faid 
Mayor and Commonalty of the faid city of Philadelphia, 
and their fucceHbrs, for ever hereafter, to liave and ufe „ . 
one common feal, for the feaUng of all bufinefles touch- 
ing the faid corporation, ajid the fame, from time to 
,time, at their will and pleafure to change or alter. 

; And I do, for me, my heirs and fucccflbrs, give, and powtr of 
by thefe prefents, grant full power and authority unto clmfing a 
the Mayor, Recorder and Common Council of the faid j'^^^yor 
city of Philadelphia, or any five or more of the Aldermen, ^^'^'''y* 
and nine or more of the Common Council-men, the 
Mayor and Recorder for the time being, or either of 
them being prefent, on the fird third day of the week, 
in the eighth month yearly for ever liereafter, publicly 
to meet at a convenient room or place within the faid 
city, to be by them appointed for that purpofe, and then 
and there nominate, elect and chufe one of the Alder- 
men to be Mayor for that enfuing year. 

And rJfo tq add to the number of Alderrnen and Com- And of 
mon Council-men, fuch and fo many of thofe, tliat by -''^'''f't? '« 
virtue of thefe prefents flrajl be admitted freemen of the b^r"^ &."'"" 
faid city, from time to time, as they the faid Pylayor, 
Aldermen and Common Council fliall fee occafion. 

And that fuch perfon, vho flrall be eleded Mayor, as p^j ^ to 
aforcfald, Iball witliin three clays next after fucli elct^liion, i)c iiualiflcd 
be prefented before the Governor of this province or liis '"foie the 
Deputy for the time being, and there (hall fubfcribe the *'^"^'^■■""^• 
declarations arid profefTion of his Chrillian belief, ac- 
cording to the late a6l of parliament made in the firft 
year of king William's reign, intitled, " An a6t for ex- 
empting tlieir majefties' fubjedls, diflenting from the 
Church of England, from the penalty of certain laws ;" 
and then and there the Mayor fo prefented, Ihall make 
liis folemn allirmation and engagernent for the due execu- 
tion of his oilice. 

And that the Recorder, ShcriiT, Aldermen, and Com- Rfcnrr!c-r, 
mon Council-men, and all other ollicers of the faid city, '^'"■4"«'' 

before they, or any of them fliall be adniitted to execute ' 

their refpeclive olliccs, lliall nial-.e •.•jui 'ubfcribe t])e fait 
declarations and profcflion ;\Knt:f.i!i!, bi-fore t'.e iM;:y'> 
for f:he time being, and at tJic lanvi lime, P.i.-.ll \\: ,'.:t,:ti ;■- 

Ik'd !, fore 

48 APPENDIX, Part I, 

fof the flue execution of their qfRces refpei^ively -, which 
declarations, proniifes and attp(lations, the Maypr of tlic 
laid city for the time being, is hereby empowered to take 
and adminider accordingly. 

Mayor Re- ^"'^ *^^^*- ^^^^ Mayor, Recorder and Aldermen of the 
eorder and' f'dd city, for the time being, fhall be Juftices of the 
Aldermen, ^eace, and Juftices of 0\cr and Tennltwr ; and ^re 
a" ■^^" hereby impowered to act within the faid city and liberties 
* • ■ thereof accordingly, a^ fully and amply as any Jufticeor 
Juftices of the Peace, or Oyer and Terminer, can or 
may do, within the faid province. 
To h^vc And tliat they, or any four or more of them (whereof 

rower to tlie Mayor and Recorder of ^he faid city, for the time 
enquire into being, iludl be two) Ihall and may for ever hereafter 
all cripics, liavc power aiid authority, by virtue of thcfe prefents, 
^e- to hear and enquire into all, and all manner of, trcafons, 

murders, manflaughters, and all manner of felonies and 
other crimes and oflences, capital and criminal, whatfo- 
ever, according to the laws of this province, and of the 
kingdom of EngldncI, with po^yer aifo to hear and deter-« 
mine all petty larcenies, routs, riots, unlavvfid afTembliesj 
and to try and punifli all peribns that fliall be convidled 
for drunkennefs, fwearing, fcolding, breaking the peace, 
or fuch like offences, which are by the laws of this pro- 
vince to be puniOied by fine, imj^rifoiuiient or whipping ; 
•with power alfo to award proccfs againft all rioters and 
breakers of the peace, and to bind them, and all other 
ortcnders, and perfons of evil fame, to the peace or good 
behaviour, as aiiy Juftice or Juftices of the Peace can 
do, without being accountable to me or my heirs, for 
any fines or amerciaments to be impofed for the faid 
oflences, or any of them. 
To hold a And I do licreby impower tliem, or any four of them 
""" "'/^" (wliereof the Mayor and Recorder, for the time being, 
tcrly.'^'ic'c.' ^'''*^' ^^^ two) with the city Sheriff, and town Clerk, to 
hold and keep a court of record quarterly, or oftener, 
if they fee occafion, for tlie enquiring, hearing and de- 
termining of the pleas and matters aforelaid ; and upon 
their own view, or after a legal procetlure in fome of 
thofe courts, to caufe all nuifanccs and encroaclnnents 
in tlie ftreets of the faid city to be removed, and punifli 
the ]r,irtics concerned, as the law and ufage, in luch 
cafcs;, fli.'Jl require. 


Part I. APPENDIX. 49 

■ And I do by thefe prefents afiign and appoint, thaf 
the prefent Mayor, Recorder and Aldermen herein be- 
fore mentioned, be the prefent Jufticcs of the TeacCj 
and Oyer and Terminer, within the faid city ; and that 
they, and all others, that fliall be Mayors, Recorder.-i 
and Aldermen of the faid city, for the time being, fliall 
have full power and authority, and are hereby empow- 
ered and autiiorized, without any further or -.ther com- 
milTion, to be Jultices of the Peace, and of 'Oyer and 
Terminer, within the faid city for ever; and fliall alfo Mayor and 
be Jufticcs of the Peace, and the Mayor and Recorder Recorder to 
Ihall be of the quorum of the Jullices of the County ^'^ "^ f'^' 

„ ^ ^ ,. ,1- y-N 1 rii • I quorum ot 

Courts, Quarter .Sellions, Oyer and 1. ermmer, and ^^^^ ^-^^^^^ 
Gaol Delivery, in the faid county of Phihuklph'ui ; and courts, &o. 
fliall have full power to award procefs, bind to the peace 
or behaviour, or commit to prlfon, for any matter or 
caufe arifing without the faid city, and within the body 
of the afore faid county, as occafion fliall require ; and 
to caufe calendars to be made of fuch prifoners, whichi 
together with all recognizances, and examinations taken 
before them for or concerning any matter or caufe not 
determinable by them, Ihall be duly returned to the 
Judges or Jullices of the faid county, in their rcfpe£\ivc • 
courts, wliere the fame fliall be cognizable. 

And that it may be lawful to and for the faid ^Tayor .p,, ^^^^^ ., 
and Commonalty, and their fucceilors, when tliey fee tniul and 
Dccafion, to erect a gaol or prifon and court-houfc with- oourt-houfc 
in the f.)id city. 

And that the Mayor and Recorder, for the time being, -yo tik.- vc- 
fliall have, and by thefe prefents, have power to take to.Mii/nr;n 
recognizance of debts t'.icre according to the llatute of ^*/'''^^'' 
merchants, and of action burnel ; and to ule and aflix 
the common feal thereupon, and to all certilicates con- 
cerning the lame. 

And that it fliall be lav/ful to and for tlic Mayor of And to ar- 
the faid city, for the time being, for ever hereafter to r'>i"t^ t:ik. 
nominate, and, from time to time, to appoint the Clerk j^|_^'"' ^ ^'" 
of the market, who fliall have aflize of bread, wine, 
beer, wood and other things ; and to do, execute, and 
perform all things belonging to the Clerk of the market 
\<-ithin the faid city. 

And I will that the Coroners, to be chofcn by the or Coro- 
tounty of FhUcuh'll'hlii for the time being, fliall be Coro- ner'*, isc. 

50 APPEND, -IX. PARl^hl 

nef of the faiJ city and liberties thereof; but thnt the 
freemen, and inhabitants of the faitl city fliall, from iimi; 
to time, as often as oceafion may be, have ei^ual Jiberty. 
witli the inhabitants of the faid county, to recommend 
or chufe perfons to ferve in the refpedivc capacities of 
Coroners and Slicritls for the coiinty ox PhliaJcthhin' 
who Ihall refidc within the faid city. 

Water Bill- "^'^^^ ^' ' *^ ^'^^ SherilF of the faid city and county, for 
lift; &c. tlie time "being, lliall be the Water Bailiff, Avho liialj, , 
and may, execute and perform all things belongin(r. to 
the ollice of Waiter Bailitf", upon Dcldtuare n\x\\ and all 
. other navigable rivers and creeks witliin the faid province: ' 

Power to .^"^^ "^ ^■'^^'^ *1^^ Mayor of the faid city, for the time 
remove the being, fliall, during the time of his mayoralty, milhe-. 
Mayor, &c. have himfelf, or mifgovern in that olhce, I do liereb/ 
impo\Ver the Recorder, Aldermen and Ccmmon Coun^^ 
cil-men, or five of the Adermen, and nine of the Com-.' 
mon Council-mefi of tlie fard city of PhiLnlelnhiay iot 
the liime being, to remove fueh j\rayoi- front hi,/(jirice of 
mayoralty, and in fuch cafe, or in cafe ot tlie death of' 
the faid Mayor, for the time being, that then another, 
fit perfon fliall, within four days next after fuch deatli 
or removal, be chofen in manner as above difcfted for 
eledlng of Mayors, in the place of him lb dead or re- 

ridcft Al- And left there fnould be a failure of jufticc or "-overn-: 
ad'TM?- '^^"'"^ '" ^'^'^ **''''^ '■^^^' "^ ^^^'■'^^ interval, 1 do hereby ap- '^' P*''"'^' ^''^^ ^^^^' '-'^'•^'^^ Alderman, for the time teing, 
ihall take upon him the office of a Mayor the^e, and 
fliall exercife the fame till another Mayor be, chofen a5 
aforefaid; and in cafe of the difability of fuch eldeft' 
Alderman, then the next in feniority, fliall take upon 
liim the faid olhcc of Mayor, to exercife the fame as 

Power to And ill cafe the Recorder, or any. of the Aldermen 

remove the or Common Council-men of, or belonging to, the fard 
Recorder, ^-ify^ f^^ the time being, fliall miibehave himfelf, or 
tlienlfclves in their refpedive offices and places, they 
fliall be removed, and others ciiofen in their Head, in 
manner following, that is to fay, the Recorder for th-^ 
time being, may be removed (for his milbehaviour) by 
the Mayor and two-thirds of the Aldermen and Com- 
mon Council-mcu refpcctivcly ; and in cafe of fucli re- 

Part I. A P F E N D IXi 51 

moval, or of tlie death of the Recorder, then to chufe 
r.notlier fit perfoii, Ikilled in the law, to be the Recorder 
rller'e;, and fo to continue during pleafure as aforefaid. 

,And the Alderman fo milTjehaving himfelf maybe re- 
moved by the Mayor, Recorder and nine of the Alder- ^i i,i^.r„,eni 
men and Common Council-men; and in cafe of fuch £.c. 
reniovalj orcUath, then within four days after, to chufe 
a lit pcrlbn or pcrfons to ftinply fuch vacanclc^l ; and the 
Common Council-men, Conllables and Clerk of the .. . 

market, for miilu-haviour, fliall be removed, and others 
chofdn, as is dircdi^ed in the cafe of Aldermeni 

■' And I do alfo, for me and my fuccellbrs, by ihefe 
prffents, grant to the faid Mayor and Commonalty, and PenaUi'csort 
iheir futcellbr.s, that, if any of the citizens of the faid ''.'^^"""!| '^ 
city ihall be hereafter nominated, elcrted and chofcn to 
the office of Mayor, Aldermen and Common Council- 
men, as aforcfaid, and having notice of his, or their 
election, lliall refufe to undertake and execute that of- 
fice, to which he is io cliofen, that then, and fo often, 
it Ihall, and may, be lawful for the Mayor and Recorder, 
Aldermen ami Common Council-men, or the major part 
of tlie Aldermen and Common Council-men, fm- the 
time being, according to their difcretion, to impofe fucli 
moderate fines upon fuch refufers, fo as the Mayor's line 
exceed not Jhrty poinnlsy the Alderman's yZ-i-:^ niul thirty 
pounds, and Common Council-men f-wr/if\> pounds^ and 
other olFicfis proportionably to be levied by dhirefs ancl 
file, bv warrant under the common k-.J, or by other 
lawful ways, to the ufe ot the l,iid eorpor.ition. 

And in fucli cafes it fiiall be law In 1 to cluife other;ij 
to fupply the defetls of fuch refufers, in manner as H 
above ilirecfed for elections. 

And tliat it fliall and nray be lawful to and for the 
Mayor, Recorder, anil at leail, three Akieriiu'd for the 
time being, from time to time, fo often as they Ihall 
lind occulion, lo fummon a Coimnoit CotmcU of the laid 

And that no Altembly, or meeting of ihe f'.id citi/'en*:; '^ (^.^,^,_ 
Ihall be deem(fd or aceonmed a Connnon C^nmeil, unlefs iimn Comi- 
.ihe faid Mayor and lii-corJcr, aiul at lealt ihree of tlic i:l.^'l'^t, 
Ahlermcn, (or ilie time b>.inir, and nine of the Ccjm--- "^"^^ 
liion Colnu;il-nien, he ijrc:lent. 

Vol. [{. • 1:5.1] • Aiui 

52 APPENDIX. Part I. 

' And alfo that tlic laid INIayor, Recorder and Common 
Power to Council-men, for the time beine, froin time to time, at 

add lo their , . ^ ' ^ •,/!■,, . . ^ . 

number, thCir Common Council, Ihall have power to admu fuch, 
and fo many freemen into their corporation and fociety ' 
as iliey fliall think ht. 

^ , And to make (and tliey may make, ordain, conllitute, 

luv^r^md '""'^ cftablifh) fuch and fo many good and reafonahb 
ordiniiiiccs ^''^^'^> Ordinances and confutations (not repugnant to the 
&c. laws of England and this government) as to tlie greater- 

part of them, at fuch Common Council airembled (wh.'re 
the Mayor and Recorder, for tlie time being, are to ho 
always prefent) ihall feem neceflary and convenient fur 
the government of the faid city. 

And the fame laws, ordinances, Orders, and ccnftitu- 
To execute tion fo to be made, to put in ufe and execution accord- 
thcm, &.C. ingly, by the proper oihcers of the faid city •, and at 

their pleafurc to revoke, alter and make anew, as occu- 

lion iliall require. 

And alfo impofe fucli mulds and amerciaments upon 

pofcmiili'-'ls ^^^^ breakers of fuch laws and ordinances, as to them, 

&c. in their difcretion, fliall be thought reafonable ; which 

nndcls, as alfo all other fines and amerciaments, to be 

fet, or impofed, by virtue of the powers granted, ihall 

be levied, as above is direcled in cafe ol lines, to the ufe 

of the fiid corpor.uion, without rendering any account 

thereof to mc, my heirs and fucceflbrs ; with power, to 

the Conunon Council aforefaid, to mitigate, remit or re* 

leafe inch fines and multls, upon the iubmilhon of the 

parties. Provided akrnys, tliat no pcrfon, or paribus, 

liereafter, fliall have right of eledling or being elected, 

xirk by virtue of theie prefents, to any oihce or place judi- 

elciit or be cial or minillerial, nor ihall be admitted iVeemen of tin} 

ek6ied,&.c. faid city, unlcfs they be free denizens of this province, 

and are of the age of twenty-one years or upwards, and 

are iiihabitants of the faid city, and have an ellate of 

inheritance or frceliold therein, or are worth JiJ}y pounds 

in money or other ilock, and have been refnient in the 

faid city for the fpace of two years, or fhall purchafe 

their freedom of the Mayor and Commonalty aforefaid. 

And I do further grant to the fait! Mayor and Com- 

^J,y5^ monalty of the faid city of Philadilph'ui^ that they 

and their fuccellors Ihall, ;uid may for ever hereafter 

hold and keep witiiin the iVdd city, in every week of the 



year, two market days, the one upon the fourth cla^ of 
the waek, and the other on the fcventh day'of the week, 
in fuch p!aee or places^ as is, Ihall, or may be appointed 
for that purpofe, by the faid Commonaky, or their fuc- 
jceflbrs, from time to time. 

And alfo two fairs therein every year, the one of them Two f.iir», 
to begin on the fixteenth day of tlie third month, called 
May, yearly, and fo to be held in and about the mjirket 
place, and eontinue for that day and two days next foU 
lowing ; and the otlier of the faid fairs to be held in the 
aforefaid j-I.icc on the fixteenth day of the ninth monthj 
yearly, and for tsvo days next after. 

And I do, for me, my heiro and alfigns, by virtue of 
the king's f.-tteis patent, make, ered and conilitute the Pliil«i'i'--1- 
faid city oi FhiUclphia to be a port or harbour for dif- J^J"^/"" ' 
charging and u!ilading of goods and merchandize out of port. 
fhips, bo us and other vellels, and for lading and {hip- 
ping them in, or upon fuch and (o niany places, keys and 
wi.avfts tlierc, as by the hlayor, Aldermen and Com- 
nion Council of the faid city, Ihall, from time to time, 
be thought mod expedient, for the accommodation and 
fervicj of the olhc^rs of the cufioms, in the management 
of the king's affairs, and prefcrvation of his dL(ties, as 
well as for the conveniency of trade, • 

Anil I do ordain ?.tul declare, that the faid port, or 
harbour, ihall be called the port of Fh'.huldph'ia^ and Extent of 
Ihall extend and be accounted to extend into all fuch the port, 
creeks, rivers and places within this provir.ce, and Ifudl 
have io many wharlls, keys, 1 nrdlng places, and mem- 
bers belonging thereto, for landing and (liipping of 
goods, as the faid Mayor, Aldermen and Common 
Council, for the time being, with the approbation of the 
chief olficcr or ofhcers of the king's cuiloms, dial!, from 
•time to time, think fit to appoint. 

And 1 do alfo ordain, that the landing places now and j.^nding 
hcretofure ufed at the Penny-pot-houfe and IMne Anchor, phccs, ike. 
fiving to all perfons their jull and legal riglitsj and pro- 
perties, in the land fo to be open ; as alfo the fwamp be- 
tween Budd\ buildings and the S-'nety-litl, fl-\all bo left 
open and common for the ufe a d fervice of the faid city 
and all others, with liberty to dig docks, and make har- .. , 

hours for fhips and vellels, in all, or any part of the 
fa: J hvamp. 


54 APPENDIX. PARfri:! 

And I do hereby grant, tliat all the vacant landAvithin 
Vacant l,'.nd ^^^^ bounds and limits of the faid city fliall remain open, 
to remain as a free common, or pallure, for the ule of the inhabN 
ppen.for tants of the faid city, until the fame Ih all be gradually 
yd Uirc,&c. j-,j|^gn jj^^ [^ order to build or improve thereon, and not 
otiierwifc. Provided always, that nothing herein con- 
tained, fliall debar nie, or my licirs, in t'lme to come, 
from fencing in all the vacant lands, tbat lie between 
the center meeting houfe and the Schuylkill, which I in- 
tend fliall bp divided from the land by me allotted for 
Delmvare fide, by a Itrait line along the broad ilreet fron^ 
JEd-wavd Sluppe/i's land, through the center fquare by 
Daniel Pc^gs land; nor Ihall the fencing, or taking in 
of any of the flreets, happening to be within that iii- 
clofurcon Schuylkill^ be deemed or adjudged to be an en- 
N croachmept, where it fliall not interfere, or flop any of 

tlie flreets, or paflages, leading to any of the houfea 
JDuilt, or to be built, on that fide, any thing herein con^ 
tained to the contrary notwithltanding. 

"To^^""- And I do grant, that this prefent charter fliall, in all 
vor of the ^^^^''^^ o^ I'^w and cquity be conltruetl and taken moft 
cprporatioi:. favourably and beneficially for the faid corporation. 

la witncfs whereof, I have liercunto fct my Jiand, and 
caufcd my great feal to be ailixed, dated at Philadclphiu^ th;j 
Pate. five and twentieth day of Oil:l:ober, anno l^omini one thou- 

fand feven hundred and one, and in the thirteenth year of 
the reign of king inilinw the 'fhird, over England, i:cc. 
qnd the one and twentieth year of my government. 




Hiftory of Pennfylvania, 



No. VII. Friendly Ajjociation's Addrefs to Governor Dcnny^ 

VIII. and IX. Chrljlian Frederick PojPs 'Journal among 
the Indians , iffc. 1758. 

No. VII. 

'70 William Denny, Ffquiir, Licutauin! Govcnior and ('.-yiiviuvnlfr 
HI C/.'i.fof //.'f pfo-rjh-c' r/' Pciuilylv.un.i, o;'-'. 

The yLldrcfs of the Truftees and Treiilurcr of llie /'V/V/zJ/y .-///j- 
iiation^ for regaining :;n(l prcfcrving peace willi the Lulij^/ihy 
pacifie nieafure'ti, 

RcfpicJfull^f On wethy 

T .. 

-fi- IIy\ L on confulLTation ot the anfwer given bjr the Governor 
to our oiler of eontribuling towards tlie expence of llie cnfiiing 
treaty wiih the liuhans, we apprehiend it to be neeelVary to lav be- 
fore him a true ilate of tlie motives, wliieh induced us lo ufe 
our enck-avours to promote a reconciliation with them -, of the 
. maimer, in ^\•hil■ll we proceeded before and fnce tlie (iovcrnor's 
arrival in this province, and of fonie reaibiis we have for dcliiiii-j, 
10 fee that the grounds of their complair.ts arc curerudv ai.d im"- 
partially ciU|U!rcd into a:ul conruleved, and fueh nu-afuve.: riiifiuJ, 



for fatisfying them as the prcfcnt melanclioly circumflanccs of this 
province inmicdiiucly require: and wc doubt not, if the Governor 
will be pleated to attend to, and impartially confider, what \v6 {hall 
oiler, he M'ill be fully eonviaced that our conduft hath been con»' 
fillent with the profeilioii, wc make, of acting on thofe principles, 
ot tearing God, huuouving the king, and promoting peace among 

Vit, therefore, beg ]ea\« to inform the Governor, that foon 
after the firfl accounts were brought of the mifchief done by the 
Lu/iti/iSy on the frontiers of Virginia ^ fome of the people called 
^lahcrs, refding in F/ji.WlelpJ:iir, ferioufly confidering the fatal 
confecjuences of luHng that intercft and triendfliip our predeceflbrs 
had obtained, by tlieir uprigli^ dealing nnd hofpitable treatment of 
the InditiNSy in the hrit ■ fettlenient of this province'; and appre- 
hending the general negle£f of them, which had, for fornix time, 
been obvif>us, wouKI terminate to (he public difadvantage, deter- 
mined to improve e\'ery future opportunity of miinifefting fome 
regard to them •, ami feveral companies, of //W/rt///, of different 
tribes, coming to t.his city on divers occafions, they were vifited 
by fome of us, itivited to our houfes, and on their going away, 
prefented with fome fmall matters, neceil'ary for them, in their 
way of living •, and the grateful manner \\\ v/hich they received 
thcfe inflanccs of regard, and the lively remembrance, they ap- 
peared to retain, of the fricndOiip, which fubfiffed between their 
anceflors, and *Jk" firit feitlers of this province, afforded us real 
fatisfadlion, and fome grou.nds to hope (^\w good intentions would 
not be difappointed. 

During tlie following winter, the freqvient mehmclioly ac- 
counts of the barbaii us nnuders, connnitted by the Lulians, on 
the wcflern anil norihcrn frontiers of this province, filled the 
minds of pcoj)le in genera), \\'ith a fpirit of indignation and re- 
fentment againfl them, and no opport\^nity prefented of publicly 
manifelVmg the earnefl: concern we had, to ufc our utmcfl endea- 
vours, in n maimer confiflent with our peaceable principles, to 
prevciit the impending defolation ; the calamity became general, 
and every one w;;s deeply interefletl in the mcafnres taken for en- 
quiring into tlie caufes, which induced our ancient fleaily friends 
to become our en.-mies: yet this being the proper bulinefs of 
thofe then concerned in the adminifhation of the govcrjiment, 
we waited the event of tlicir proceedings, ha\ing jull grounds to 
hope, that the knowle<lge fome of them lr,:d of feveral matters, 
which might ])robahly liave contributed to this unhappy rupture,* 


• Thefc were priiiteu Lo:h in the gitzcUcs jnd in ilrJr minutes. 

Part IL A P P E N D I X. si 

together with the rcpeatcJ applications of the Afleiri'oly of the 
province, v/oukl have excited them to purfue every rr.tional liie- 
thod of maldng fuch an enquiry, and obtaining an anucahle ad- 
juftnient of all differences with thefe Indians^ and of thereby 
averting the melancholy confequences . of continuing to expofe 
them immediately to the artifices of the French^ who would not 
fail to take advantage of our mifunderftunding with them : but 
the fpring of anqtlier year returned, and tJie public remained un- 
acquainted with fuch mcafures being purfued -, great military 
preparations were indeed made and forts erccled in many parts cf 
the frontiers, but the defolation and dilhefs of the province in- 
creafed, and the fanguine expectations of the people, who had, 
at urfl:, hoped by thefe means to defend iliernfclves, were remark- 
ably difappointed. Governor Morris^ neverthelefs, determining 
to ilTue a declaration of war againft the l)tlaii.h:i\s and Shiiivantfey 
many of the people called ^uihos refiding in PJAl.ulc-phiay met 
together and prelented an addrcfs to him, carneiUy befjeching, 
" That every meafure which luul been purfued, and wiiatever 
remained poilible to be done, to prevent (o lamentable an extre- 
mity, miglit be ftricflly and impartially reviewed and confulcred ; 
that full enquiry might be made, whether fame apprc]K;nrions tliefe 
hnUaris had conceived of a deviation iiom the integrity of con-> 
dudl towards them, confpicuous in the *?Lxi\. ellabliihment, nnght 
not unhappily have contributed, in fome degree, to tlie altera, ion 
cf their condudl towards us-, that full tinx- might be allowed 
for cheie l/idians, who remained well alTcdled towards us, to ufc 
and report the eBec^t of their endeavours to reconcile our enemie-i 
to us, and that, by the Governor's care, to guard aj\-^.init involv- 
ing the innocent with the guilty. Inch cLar demon illations of 
Chriitian tendernefs miglit be given, as might tend to the engag- 
ing other ncij/libouring l/idiam in the dehrable work of r^i'h;riug 
peace and tranquillity j and, at the fame time, olfering, thougli 
a much larger part of their eftates flrould be necellary, than the 
heavieR taxes of a war could be expedited to require, by voluntary 
grants chearfully to contribute towards the obtaining peu-e, in 
tlie fame manner as tlie unhappy experience of ieveral of the noil 
martial neighbouring colonies had, after long and blooity \,'ars, 
tellified it mud at lall, if ever, be obtained." 

Governor Alorns was pleafed to give a civil anfwcr to this ad- 
drefs -, but thought it neceOary to proceed immei lately to a decla- 
ration of war : a few days after which, fome cf us liaving the 
oj)portunity of a tree conference with Conrad iriifi-.-y \\ho had, 
as pro\incl:d interpreter, been long concerned in public tranfac- 
tion.s with tlie Indums ,• «e were thereby conhrmcd in our appve- 


58 A. P P E N D I Xi Part Illi 

henfions, that Tome difllitisfaction, refpecting tlieir lands', hntl" 
tended to the ahcnating their frieiulfhip from us; and that he 
thouglit the only method, to fave tlie province from ruin, was ta 
endeaveur for a peace with rhem, by pac'ifu meaftircs ; and the 
next clay a Delaware Ltdlaiiy from tlie jU-rJeys, was fent to one of 
us, with a letter from Conrad ireijl-r^ recommending him, as a- 
perfon wortliy of fome notice from us, and fit to he employed on 
a meifage to the Delaivares^ when an opportunity of fending one 
could be obtained ; and there being, at that time, a number of 
the Ch'ufs of tlie .SV.v Nation Indians in town, fome of us thought 
it neceflary to take fome friendly notice of them ; but being de- 
termineil to avoitl giving any occafion of otTonce, before wc had 
any converiation with them, two of us waited on Governor Jllor' ■ 
ris, and informed him, " That as he hail ifiued his declaration ■ 
of war, we thought it our duty to acquiefce therein •, but, as 
there were fome friendly Indians in town, we ^\'ere difpofed to 
take fome notice ot them, a.nd to endeavour, by a friendly conver- 
fation, to manifell our good difpofition towards them, and engage, 
their good olhces on any occaiion, which might be improved for 
the public welfare; and we, at the failie time, aflured the Go-"-, 
vernor if any thing ihould occur, M'hich had a profpetl of tend- 
ing to the public intcrcit, or might be worthy of ins notice, he 
ihould be fully acqiuiintcd therewith." The Governor cxpreflld 
Ills approbation of our defign, ami gave us full liberty to profeJ 
cute our intentions, and the next day fome of thefe hidian C/:iifsy 
with Conrad irciftr and y'l/jdrciu Alontoiir, the provincial interpre- 
ters, anil D. ClaiiSy General John/sn's Secretary, dined at one uf 
our houfes ; and after dinner, had fome converfation on the happy 
hate of tiic firll fettlers of this province, and the unhappy rup- 
ture, which had. lately happened. 

The free and hearty acknowledgments of pleaftire and gratitude, 
from thele Indians^ fully evidenced their gootl difpofition towards 
us, and induced Conrad Iffifcr to declare, he had not lately heard 
them exprefs themfelves with [o much opeimefs, and earneflly to 
urge our improving this opportunity ; and, in order to it, lie advifed 
the calling together as many of our ancient men, of the furvivor,^- 
tif the liril fettlers, as we could colledt, and to give the I/uiians 
another meeting, in which the fubllance of that converfation 
might be repeated, and enforced on their ininds, by prtfentiiig; 
them with a belt of tuanipiim. 

Governor jiforr/j- was immediately im'"ormcd of wliat had jKifild ; 
and as there appeared fome profpecl: of iniproving this difpolition 
of the Indians to the public benefit, he was aifured, that if he 
would advife and diredl the manner of proceeding, nothijig mc^re 

t'ART II. A V P E N 1) I X. 


was (Icfircd Ly us tliaii under his iliretlion to proceed tliercin, in 
fuch manner as would be niort agreeable to him, moll circdually 
anlwer the purpofe intended, and denKmftvatc that we did not iK^l 
from views of private advantage thereby : and kit the dilTcvenccs 
then fubfilling, between him and the Airembly, about tlie raifing- 
money tor the public ferviees, Ihould difcourage, or retanl his en- 
gaging therein 5 he was told, that whatever fum of money ihoulil 
be wanting, even, to the amount of £. 5,000, he Hiould he im- 
mediately fupplied with, and by every part of our condudt, Ihould 
find our hearty concern for the public welfare to be our principal 

Our purpofes appeared acceptable to the Governor; about 
twenty of usj with the fame interpreters, had two confcrcnce.T 
With the Iniiuiiis • and the molt material parts of what they faid 
were immediately communicated to the Governor; and the pro- 
pofal-'' of fending three meflengers to the Dclazujrt's and Sbaiva- 
mfe being approved oi by him, the necedary provifion was made 
for their feulng out, and proper company provided, for their fare 
conduct through the improved part of the province ; and when 
they were ready to proceed on their journey, the Governor bein'^ 
waited on for the pafles,, and requelted to dlredl what fignal they 
fhould give, on their return, to dlftinguini them from enemies ; 
while the palles lay before him ready to lie hgned, he fuddeniv 
appeared to change liis intentions, and (ignihed his refolution to 
confult his Council, on the occafion. Tlie minutes of our con-* 
verfation with thefe hid'ninsy being exa'mined and figned by the 
three interpreters, were immediately, after this, delivered to tl:e 
(Governor; and, iiis Council being lunuiioncd, we were informcc', 
tliey foon agreed, that, as he Jiad fo lately declared war, anv ul- 
fers of peace from him woidd be unfcafonable, and that the me- 
thod lirll propofed of the meflengers going with fuch initruQions, 
as they had received from their own chhjj^ was nioit lit to be pin- 
fued. The next day the liuitnn chirfs fetling out in the itage boat: 
for New Torkf after they were gone, the mellengers reiV.feil to p:r- 
form the fervice they had undertaken, and the day following, tlic 
Governor, in confe(|uence of fome inteliigeuce received from the 
(Governor of New Tork, concluded to lend the njeilengers in his 
ov»-n name. 

To prevent any mifreprefentatlons of our conduct, as well fi;i 
to engage the friendthip of geiulemen, irom whom we h.opecj to 
receive more hearty aHutanee, than we had irom thofe, on Nvhoni 

Vol. II. [ss] , "*\'<^ 

* This w.u nndz by tlic I;iJi;in Chi;/:, uikI Uie nuiT'.>^c lo W from thvic tu \Vr. 


we had liitlicrtodependecl, copies of tlie minutes of our converfailoiis 
Avitli the Indians, and their aufwers, were immediately fcnt to thc 
Guvevnor t'f Nfw Toti\ and to General Johnfotiy and an earliell 
application for their aihllance, in engaging tiie Imi'uins of thc Six 
Nci/ions to promote the rcltoratlon of peace, with an ofl'er of 
chearfuily defraying the expences theveol', Governor Hardy was 
fo kind as to ff.nd fuch an anfwer as evidenced his hearty concern 
lor the pnhlie welfare ^ and laid us under fcnfihle obligations', 
and we never reteiveil the leail hint, from General ''Juhnfoiiy of 
his difapprobation of any part of our conduit therein. Under thefii 
tnxumlt.mces, we had rcafon to aiipreliend that our intention was 
approvcil of, and the fpeedy return of the meirengers with an 
agreeable anfwer, conhrmed us in a refulution tocontinne our en- 
ilcavours to engage as many of our fcllow-fubjeils, as polfible, 
to concur with us tlrercin. 

'J'he mcifengers being lent the fecond time, on tlieir return 
brought with them the I/idi.ut /.a'^, Tct'd'yiifamg, and Unne of liis 
people, to Eajhii, and repeatedly informed us of the neceflity of 
cur perfonal attendance there, and manifell thereby, and by 
contributing towards the expences of a fuitable prcfent, the fni- 
cerity of our profelFions of regard to them ; and t!\ey were not 
wihing to go back to the India/ij, without us. 

We, therefore, being informed that Governor Morris had re- 
folved to meet them at Enjlo)!,' that the provincial treafury was 
exhaulled, and that the I'ropi ietaries' agents refufed to contribute 
towards tlie nectirary expences, aiui apj)eared avcrfe to the pro- 
motion of thefe pacific mcojin-ts^ a ct)nlidcrable number of ui 
thought it neceilary to enter into <i fubfcription, towards raifmg a 
fund, to fupply the deficiency of wliat ouglit, in jullice, to be 
contributed by the Proprietaries, on this oecalion ; and a confuler- 
able fum was immediately fubferibed, and Governor jMcrris in- 
formed of our inclination to attenil the trcity, and to make fome 
rcddition to the prefent provided at the public cxpence. From the 
tiinc of the fnlt meffengers arriving ■;\t^l\uiogoii^ the hollilities on 
our northern frontiers ceafed, and a Hop being put to the cruel 
(jcvadatlons that had been committed, an acceptable refplte was 
obt.uned for our illftrefled fellow fubjecfs, which aiforded us real 
pleafure and fatlsfacHon ; fo tliat all tlie malicious calunmies and 
afptrfions (which then were uttered) were not fuihcient to divert 
us from the ileady profecution of our purpofe. Governor Morns 
being at EaJIon lome time betore us, Inmicdiately after our arrival 
there, fonic of us waited on him, lu repeal our defucs of promot- 
* The votes of Afluubly ^irove it. 

Part II. APPENDIX. 61 

Ing the public iDterefl:, and contributing any aiTidance in our 
•power, in fucli manner as might be molt agreeable to liini ; he re- 
ceived us civilly, and expreiled his approbation of our deiign. 
At the Governor's lodgings we iirlt faw Tecihu filing the Dflaivare 
chief, to whom we were before utterly Grangers : on- our coming 
in he immediately exprelTed his regard for, p.nd confidence in, the 
^lalers * and declared, " He would not ju'oceed to any bufiuefs, 
unlefs we were prefent •," and confirmed it fo evidently by his lub- 
fequent coiuluft, at that time, and the cnfuing treaty, that we 
could not, witbout unjuftifiable n?gle6l of our duty, tleeline con- 
tributing our utmoft endeavours to imprave this difpoiition to the 
interefl of uur country, fo far as we might be able to do it, eou- 
fiflent with our refpecfive llations in life. 

Governor Jllorris was afterwards plcafcd to accept of the pre- 
fent provided by tis, and to deliver it to the liuliajis, in our Jiame. 

After the conclufion of tlus treaty, (--overnor Morris thoiiglit 
it nceeir,'.ry to fend CapC. Ncu)rajllc on a melhige to tlie I'uli.insy 
at or near lort Johrify?! : but before he v/as fet out, Governor LK/i/i- 
arrived, anil fucceeded in tlie go^'c^rnjuent of this pvoviiice, and 
we alM'ays apprehemled, tluit, in his name, and by his authority, 
Capt. Nfiui-ii/tL- went on that men'age, as we never ir,t;rrfered there- 
in, in any manner whatever, and were jiot informed.tlre particular 
bufinefs he was charged wdth. On Captain Neiucojjlc'^ retin-u, Ave 
found by converfing with him, ]ie had given fome ofienee to (Ge- 
neral Johnf:iiy aiul \ve havp (ince had caufe to apprehend f i hat 
fome gentlemen in higher jl.itions, have been inlorme(.i, that wt; 
liad lent tW-nw/Ilc' on this n)etj'.ige, and given hi.n matt;'rs in 
charge, ti) be privately traiifacled with the ].'h!:,:;is, al'ter \i \v.\> 
kiuAvn to us that the king had, by a fpeeial eommiliion, antho- 
rized Sir WiHuun Jobnjln to negotiate all matters of a publje con- 
cern with vhem ; but as we had not given any ocealiou fer fiich a 
charge, nor were any way concerned in lending that mellage, it 
afl'ords us a particular pleafure, that the Governor has given us 
fo favourable an opportunity of clearing ourfelvcs from this imjult 
cenfure, and we hope that this ingenuous account of our conduct, 
in the courfe of this builnefs before the Governor's arrival, will 
lully evince that we proceeded therein on juil: motives, and with 
the regard due from us to the CJovernor of this jirovince. 

It is well known to the Governor, t]iat on his arri\-al here, 
fom.c of us waited on him, and one of us alhtred hhn of" our iiii- 


* Tl'J-i v;is in t!ie liearln;^ of 


+ Froin the 3irc')\iii': ^iv^n by 


rey cf K.yr ■.''.-, it i» tnrjliy.'u 

il.-.- j: 

i^,- Gcv.r.. ..• l>i;-yiy ! juibKili 

.-.! ill 

Fn-i <.r /„■ 

62 APPENDIX. Part 11; 

.cere dcfire to proceed In contributing our afTidance towards tli« 
rclloration of peace, in a manner nioli agreeable to Inni, and con- 
fillent with our charadlers and IVations. lie was then plcafcd to 
dechire his approbation of our purpofe ; and when we waited oj] 
liim with our addrcfs, before the fccond treaty of Enjloii, tlie Go- 
vernor, by Ids anfwer,* declared his approbation of oiir pro- 
ceedings, and his being v/illing to receive tlie pvcfent v/e prepared, 
and invited us to attend the treaty : we had reafon to conclude, 
that our condu^l: theye had given tlie Governor uo occafion of 
offence ; as, alter tlie bufniefs \vas iiniflied, on our acknowledging 
Ills integrity and candour in the ]iublic tranf.uilions there jf he 
gave us inch an anl\\'er as fully exjirciled his being well pleafed 
with us 5 and the Secretary ;nul Provincial Interpreter very libe- 
rally ileclarcd th.cir fatisfaCiioii and approbation of our comlud ; 
and the latter fully tefhifijd that we had thereby evidently pro- 
moted the public intereil, and been inflrumental in bringing the 
bufinefs io far toxyards t!ie dclired ilTuc. 

From tiiattime till the late treaty at La.icnjlcr, we know of no 
part of our proceedings, which couhl difpleafe the Governor, un- 
jefs our application to the Secretary, for an infpetlion of t;ie re-r 
cords, in his ofTice, liad that uncxpeflcd efled. Left that flioulc| 
be the cafe, and the intention and manner of that application be 
mifreprefcntcd by any of the Proprietaries' Agents, and otlicrs en- 
gaged with them in the meafurcs, winch Iiave contributed to the 
prefent mdiappy circumftances of this jirovince, we think it neccf- 
fary to inform the Governor, that this province was fettled on 
terms very diircrent from molt of the colonies -, tlie firtl ad- 
venturers were men C)f fubllance and reputation, who purchafed 
tlic lands of the Projirietor ; and as lie obliged himfelf, aiul his 
heirs, by an exprcfs covenant, contained in their original deeds, 
<' To clear the land from all titles, claims, or demands of the Indian 
riatives, or any other perfons whatfoever ;" tliey agreed to pay an 
annual (]uit-rent, more tlian fufhcient to cr.ablc liim to f;itisfy the 
Indians^ and obtain a peaceable poflcllion of the land ; and during 
the lives of our hrft Proprietor, and the hrft fcttlers, we believe' 
this was faithfully performed, and {o large a balance rcr.iaineil, 
towards making further pin-chales, as the leitlement of the coun- 
try increaled, tliat any attempt to elude tlie original intention and 
agreement of honeilly purchafnig the land of the people, who 
liad a native right in it, will be cvlv coi:idemned b\- all iiiipavti.d 
und honefl men. 


* Tliii r.iif'.v-r wab in v.■i■itill|^ 

I lit- thanknl lis fcr our cmpai'.r, .U'.i iliiu h,' \..,;r.;a,-l n j v/rr.- i!i ■:■ •, m-A !!::i! 
].is coiuliict ^\:l•. Lirivfaiilory tri lis, :i:;d ;lut li- iliouKl z'.'i}..-:.\.niv ro ao: !o i.:-.un .:'i -. ,- 
lalloiif, as til <i lorvr uur L!l,(;in, i.\.-. 

^ Part IT, APPENDIX. 6^ 

■■ At the fecond treaty, at Eti/Ion, tlie Governor, by his candid 
and ingenuous treatment ol" the Iiiduins (as the Jllob/iwh fincc 
aptly cxprcfll'd it) "Put his hand mtoTtfdyif/rr/ng'iihofom, and was 
fo fucccfsful as to draw out the lecret •, v/hich nr-ither Sir Wilham 
Johnlon, nor the Six Na/Lvis could do." From that time it wna 
generally known, that one caufc of the alienation of their friend- 
Ihip wd$ fome injuilice tlieyhad received, or fuppofed to be done 
them, in the purchafes and running out of their lands. Tliey 
^complainetl of divers kinds of frnuds, wliicli l)ad been committed, 
repeatedly urged, tliat an impartial oiquiry ihould be made into 
J:he grounds of their complaints, by fearching all our records, and 
by t!ie llroiig iviutives of a regard to our temporal and eternal in- 
terell, urged the Cioverp.or to give liberty to all perfons and friends 
to fcarch into tiiofc matters. Thus v.e thouglit ourfelves under 
the (IrcinjKlt obligations to make all the encjuiry in our po\vcr, 
into the true llnte of the Jiidian el;iims, whether or not fuclr care 
liad been tidscn to purchafe, and p.iy them for tlic lands, as tlie 
Proprietaries' AgeiUs had conitantly aflerted. The right many of 
ns who hold large trails of land under the fn-O. fettlcr:o, the (Go- 
vernor's repeated declarations, both in public and private, that 
thofe matters Ihould be horicllly and fully enquired into, and the 
Indiiins' injunftions that this Ihould be done, not only by the per- 
fons thus complained of, or their Agents, but by others likewife 
interelted therein, united in engaging our particular attention, and 
gave us a reafpnable profpeCl of meeting with the Governor's ap- 
probation ; and though the .Secretary refufed to permit us to pro- 
ceed therein, by }nfpe(Q:ing the records in his oiliee, we Itill liad 
caufe to tliink om- farther applicatimi to the neceflary and import- 
;int concern ol reg. lining peace, \;as not coiuraiy to tiie (Govern- 
or's inclination, as on our informing him of our intention to at- 
tend the treaty at Linicnjier, and our wlilingnefs to contribute to- 
wards the expenfes of the prefent, to be given to the //;//;V;/;j- there, 
the Governor with the utmoil readinefs exprefled his ajiprobation 
of our propolal J and we arc _ not confeious of having, at that 
treaty, or (ince, given the leafi; occafion for the alteration of his 
conduefl towards us ; which from the anfwer now received, and 
the converfation confequent thereon, we have occafion to obferve. 
We have no views inconfillent with the honcnir of our gracious 
king, and the interell of our cotnury, both which we iineercly 
entlcavour to promote; v/e have heartily defired that peojile of 
every denomination, in the province, would unite m the fanu: 
good purpofe, and particularly in thi;; bul-inefs, that the f.nne liai--- 
mony and good umlcrltanding, winch fublil'icd belv.Mtn the iirli 
fettlers of the j)ruviii.:e and the netive;, niighr be revived ..ed 

:;iel:ilai:'. J 

64 APPENDIX. Part II. 

maintained, and vvc h.U'C liappily fiiccecded with fcvcral religious 
iocietics, wlio liave raifed funds, and arc ready to ripply them to- 
wards rcftorlng peace : and, if the complaints of the Iiulians ap- 
pear to be juft, and the Proprietaries ar.d their Agents ihould re- 
i\.\{c to make tliem fuch fatisfaftion as, in Juilice, they ought to 
have, ratlier than tlif lives of our fellow-fubjccls fliould be facrv- 
heed, their properties deRroyed, and fo large a part of the king's 
dominions laid walhc, they will freely join with us, in contributing 
towanis the fatisfying fuch jull claims of the I'luwin^-, or at lealt, 
to pacify them, till the immediate autliority of the king, of whofe 
jnftice and patcrn il care we have not the Icatl: doubt, can be in- 
terpofeil, and jiiltice, equity and mjrcy be again rcflored and 
maintained amonglt us. 

And, if we are nov>- fo haj^py as tf) convinc" the (lovernrn- of 
the integrity of our intentioiis and concbiel, we Ihall have reafon 
to hope, he will concur with us, in taking the firll opportunity 
of convincing the nobleman he lias named, that it mull be from 
fome unjuit rcprefentations, that lie was iiuluced to think, -<' We 
had prefumed to treat with foreign princes, or by adling as medi- 
ators, between the government and yn independent people, in- 
vaded the king's prerogative royal." We apprehend, our iluty to 
(jod and the king has engaged us in this bufinefsi ^"d fome of 
the good elTecls thereof have already appeared ; w^, tlierefore, 
now again offer the Governor, to contribute fomcthing confldera- 
ble towards tlie prefent neceilary to be made to the J/x/iu/iSy at the 
cnfuing treaty, and by our perfonal attendance to improve the 
confidence aiul good opinion theie people have of us, to the pub- 
lic benefit. 

Sliould the Governor perfift in refufmg to accept our prefent, 
we allure him, w.; 11k;11 not, by any part of our condu^l:, give any 
jult oceafion to charge us with a diiVefpec'lful conducl towards 
liim, and wc defire our attemlance, at the treaty, may not be con- 
fulered as fuch. The bufinefs to be tranficHied tliere is of fo much 
confequence to the livrs, liberties, and properties of the peo]de 
of tins province, that Ihould we omit to attend then", and depend 
on the Governor and the King's Agent, receiving all their infur- 
niation, on this important oecafion, from the l^roprietaries' Agents 
and others, who have, for fLime years palt, been concerned in the 
tranfafting Lni'iaii alhiirs, we fliould be deficient of our duty, as 
ilhrijTiatis and K;)vJ':Jh\)un^ denominations, we hold more dear to 
us, than any other titles, or appellaiions, wlratfoe\er. 

Zi<iiwJ o'- .'vAv/;; end h u/'A^;/;.'y,//.v/ of the jVul rrnij.^s 
.vu! -J ;v,.///;v.-, by 

A V, ]•: I. ] A M E S, Clc:!:. 
PhrudJphhi, I'.r 14A6 of ,:.c Jlvc::ih ;;;:„//•, 1757. 

Part II. APPEND IX, 65 

No. VIII. 

rU firft juiirnJ of Chviftian Frederick f^olt, fvovi PhlLulelplila to 
the Ohio, oil a iiiejpige from the go'oenimcnt is/" Penniylvai)ia to 
the Deh\vai-e, Shawanefe, uiul Mingo Indians, fettled there, and 
fonuL'rly in alliance iv'ith the Englifh •, in order to prevail on them to 
'wiihdrniv from the French interejl ; in the year 175 8. London^ 
printed for John ll-^ilhicy is'c. I 7 59; nvith the notes, ks'c. 


II-IRISTIAN FREDERICK POST was a plain, lioneft, re- 
ligiouily diipoled German, and one of" the jNioravian brethren ; who, 
from a confcientious opinion of duty, formerly had lived among 
riic Mohiccon Indians, with a view to eoniert them to Chri/Uiinity. 

He had married twice among them, and lived with tliem feven- 
teen years. It v/as a dangerous undertaking •, and though he was 
an illiterate perfon, and' his narrative feemingly urtleia ami un- 
couth, yet being a man of hneerity, acquainted with the Jndinn 
manners, and the importance of the affair, at that time, being 
very intcrefling, the Indian cultom of treating on public allairs 
may thereby partly appear, and be entertaining. The event fhewecl 
the propriety of ufing reafon, and friendly treatment, or true po- 
licy, towards the Indians, in preference to force, or violence, 
when it may be <lone : the former of which had (o long bjcn fuc- 
cef;if\illy iifed by ihe more early Icttlers of Pcnnfylvnnia, and tlie 
latter fo lately attended w ith unluijipy confctjuenecs, <^c. 

Tin: JOURNAL, 2^c. 

July the 15th, 1758. — This tlay 1 received orders from his ho- 
nour, the (governor, to fet out on my intended journey, and pro- 
ceeded as far as German Town, wlicre I found all the Indians 
,drunk.* JKillamegichen returned to Philadelphia, for a horle, that 
was promifed him. 

■ loth. This day I waited for the laid IVillamcinchn till near 

noon, and when lie came, Ijcing very drunk,* he could proceed 
no further, fo that I left him, ;md v.ent to /V<7M/><w.| 

* All IiJiaas ;irtf cAccHivc toiiJ of niiri, and v/ill be cliuril; whjiicvrr tJic-y c ;ii 

vAt ;:. 

•J- T.'ic M-jriv/uii Bret]iicii'»-Lu],ru-. 

^S APPENDIX. Part If. 

July 17th. I arrived at Bdhlchem, and prepared formy journey. 

• 181I1. I read over both the hdl treaties, tliat at-A'/T/Zs//, and 

Xhwt At Philadelphia^^ and nuidc niyfelf acquainted with tJic particu- 
lars of each. 

19th. AVith niuclidilTiculty I perfuaded the Indians to leave 

Bethlehem^ and travelled tluti day no further than Hayi\^ liaving 
a hard ihowcr of rain. 

2cth. Arrived at fort AUm. 

2iit. I called my company together, to 'enow if we flioultl 

proceed. They complained they wore Tick, and mult reft that day. 
This day, I think, Tecdjufcnng laid many obftacles in my way, and 
was very much againil my proceeding: he faid, lie was afraid I 
ftiould never return ; and that the Indians would kill me. About 
dinner time two Indians arrived from iryoniing, v.-itli an account 
that 'Tct'dyufcimg^ fon, Hans Jacob, was returned, and brought 
news from the French and Allegheny Indians. 1'eeuy:ijcung tiien 
called a Council, and propofed that I fliouid only go to Jf^yoniing, 
and return, with the meifage his fon had brought, to Philadelphia, 
I made anfwer, that it was too late, that he fhould have propofed 
that in Philadelphia ,• for that tlie v/ritings containing my orderi 
were lb drawn, as obliged me to go, tliough I lliould lofe my life. 

22d. I defired my companiuns ti» prepare to let out, upon 

which Teedyufcimg callcil them all together in the fort, and pro- 
tefled againlt my going. His reafons were, tliat he was afraid 
the Indians would kill me, or the French get me \ and if that 
ihould be tlie cafe lie ihouUl be very forry, and did not know what 
lie Ihould do. I gave fm- anfwer, " that I did not know what 
to think of their condudf. It is plain, faid I, that tlie French hnvq 
■A public road* to your towns, ytt you will not let your own llelh 
and blood, the Fnglijh, come near them; which is very hard: 
ami if that be the cafe, the French mull, be your mailers." I ail- 
deil, that, if I died in the uiulertaking, it would be as much for 
the Indians as the F/igli/lj, and that I hoped my journey woulil be 
of this advantage, that it would be the means of fiving the lives 
of many lunulreds of the India/is : therefore, I was relolved to go 
forward, taking my life in my hand, as one ready to part with it for 
their good. Immediately after I had Ipoken thus, three role up 
and offered to go with me the nearell way ; and we concluded to 
go through the inhabitants, under the Blue mountains to fort Ai/" 
g:!jlcii on SiiJ'quakanna ; where we arrived the 25th. 

It gave me great pain to obferve many plantations deferted and 
laid wafte ; and I could not but relied on the dilirefs, the poor 

* An Ii.iliitii cxprtniou meaujnij frcs iidmllTion, 


.Part!!. APPENDIX. 6y 

owners muil be drove to, who once lived in plenty ; and I prayed 
the Lord to reilore peace and proi'perity to the dillreflcd. 

' ■ At fort Augiijla we were entertained very kindly, liad our horfcs 
fhod, and one being lame, we exchanged for another. Here we 
received, by huYinns from DlahogOy"^ the difagrecable nexvs that our 

.army was, as they faid, entirely cut off at Ticondcroga^ which dif- 
couraged one of ray companions, J. appopet tinges fon, lo much, 
that he would proceed no further. Shaniuhi/i Daniel here alked me, 
if I thought he lliould be fatisfied for his trouble in going with 
me. I told him every body, that did any fervice for the province, 
I thought, would be paid. • 

27th. They furniihed us liere with every necelTiiry for our 

journey, .and we fet out with good courage. After we roile about 
ten miles, we were caught in a liard guit of \\\m. 

28th. We came to JVeheiponally where the road turns off 

for Jf^ycifiif.'g, and flept this night at ^itenajlia'wakee. 

29th. We croffed the Stifqtiahan/m over the Big IJland. My 

companions were now very fearful, and this night went a great 
way out of the road, to ileep witiiout fire, but could not lleep for 
the mufquetoes and vermin. 

30th & 3i{t. We M'ere glad it was day, that we miglit fet 

out. We got upon the mountains, and had heavy rains all night. 
The heavens alone were our covering, and we accepted of all that 
was poured down from thenc*. 

Augujl I ft. We faw three hoops f on a bufli ; to one of them 
there remained l\)me long white hair. Our hovfes left us, 1 fuppofe, 
not being fond of tlie dry food on the mountains : with a good 
deal of trouble we found them again. We flept this night on the 
fame mountain. 

2d. We came acrofs feveral places wliere two poles, painted 

red, were ftuck in the ground by the Imlians, to which they tye 
tlie prifoncrs, when they ftop at niglit, in their return from their 
ineurfions. We arrived this niglit at Shingrnnuhee^ where was 
another of the iame polls. It u a difagrecable and melancholy 
light, to fee the means they make ufe of, according to their fuvage 
way, to diitrefs othcr.s. 

-3d. We came to a part of a river called Tol'CLOy over the 

mountains, a very bad road. 

Vol. II. [56] Ji/gii/I .\ih. 

■An Indian fettltnienf towards the heads of Sufquahanna. 
3 I ittlr l,ooy>s on which tl*e /W/.//ir [n-'Uh and drvif* tlic raw fcalpi. 

65 APPENDIX. Part II. 

Atigiifl 4th. We loft one of our horfes, and with mucli dif- 
ficulty foaiul him, but were detained a whole day on that account, 

I had inucli converlation with Pifqtiettimen * of which I think to 
inform niyfclf fuiiher when I get to my journey's end. 

5t]i. We fet out early this day, and made a good long flretch, 

croifnig the big river Tohtco, and lodged between two mountains. 
I had the misfortune to lofe my pocket book with three pounds 
five fliillingSjf and fundry other things. What writings it con- 
tained were illegible to any body but myfclf. 

-6i:h. We palled all the mountains, and the big river, ]Vr(]m~ 

nvauchs^ and croflcd a fine meadow two miles in length, where 
we {Icpt that night, having norhing to eat. 

7th. We came in fight of fort Venango^ belonging to the 

French^ lituate betw'een two mountains, in a fork of the Ohio river. 
I prayed the Lord to blind them, as he did the enemies of Z,(S/and 
Eli/Jjiiy that I miglit pafs unknown. When we arrived, the fort 
being on the other fide of the river, we hallooed, and deli red them 
to fetch us over ; which they were afraid to do ; but lliewed us a 
place where we might ford. AVc llept that night within half gun 
ihot of the fort. 

--— — 8th. This morning I hunted for my liorfc, round the fort, 
withiir ton yards of it. 'fhe Lord heard my prayer, and I pafied 
unknown till we liad mounted our horfc> to go ofi', when two 
I'viih-hmcn e.imc to take leave of tlie Ind'uuis^ anil were much fur- 
prifed at feeing me, but faid nothing. 

By wliat I could learn of iV/'yvr/wwu'//, and the Indians^ who 
went into the lort, the garrifon confiiled of only lix men, and an 
olficer blind of one eye. They enquired much of the Lidiaiis 
concerning the Englifj^ whether they knew of any party cojuing 
to attack them, of which they were very apprehenlive. 

9th. Heavy rains all night and day: we flept on fwampy 


10th. We imagined wt were near KuJJjhuJljkce ,- and having- 

travelled tliree miles, we met three Frenchmen^ wiio appeared vCf 
ry fiiy of us, but faid nothing more than to enquire, whetlier wc 
knew of any Englijh coming againfl fort Veiiatigo. 

After we travelled two miles farther, we met with an Indian^ 
and one that I took to be a runagade Englijh Lidiati trader ; he 
fpokc good Er.glijhy was very curious in examining every thing, 


* An LiJij" Chief, that travelled witli him. 

f The moijcj of Fe'ii/yhjnia, being paper, i« chiefly caxrictl in pocket boak«. 

Part II. APPENDIX. 6.) 

particularly the filver medal about Pilquitumen's neck, lla ap- 
peared by his countenance to be guilty. \'v'"e enquired of them 
where we were, and found we were loll, and within twenty miles 
of fort Duqtujne. We ftruck out of the road to the right, an«l 
flept between two mountains-, and being deftitute of food, two 
went to hunt, and the others to feek a road, but to no purpofe. 

1 ith. We went to tlie place were they had killed two deers, 

and Pifijuetiiincn and I roafted tlie meat. Two went to limit for 
the road, to know which way we fliould go : one came back, and 
had found a road; the other loft himfelf. 

1 2th. The rcfl; of us hunted for him, but in v:iin ; {o, as wc 

could not find him, we concluded to let oil', leaving fuch m.irks, 
that, if lie returned, he might know whicli way to follow us ; 
and we left him fome meat. We came to the river Corjaquuihipof:, 
where was an old hidian town. We were then fifteen miles from 

There we ftopt, and fent forv/ard P'ifquelumen with four firings 
of n.vamp\iin to apprize the town of our coming,* with this mcil'.igc : 

" Brother,f thy brethren are come a great way, and want to 
fee thee, at thy fire, to fnioak that gMcl tohacco,\ which our good 
grandfathers ufed to finoak. Turn thy eyes once more upon that 
road, by which I came.ij I bring th^e words of great confequence 
from the Governor, and people of Pc-fiiifylvaniu^ and from the 
king of E/i;rla>ul. Now I defire thee to call all the kings and 
captains from all the towns, that none may bernifTing. I ilo not 
defirc lliat my words may be hid, or fpoken under cover. 1 M^ant 
to fpeak loud, that all the huliaiis may hear me, I hope thou wilt 
bring me on the road, and lead me into the town. I blind the 
French, that they may not fee me, and ftop their ears, that they 
may not hear the great news I bring you." 

About noon we met fome'inifi', that ufcd to live at JF^'O- 
ming. They knew me, and received me very kindly. I faluted 
them, and aflured them the government of Pennf'^lvania wiflied 
them well, and wifiied to live in peace and friendlhip with them. 
Before we came to the town, two men came to meet us and lead 


* Acconliiig to the rules of Imliun palittn-fs, yon miift iirver go into a town with- 
out lending a previous meirajre to dtnoto your arrival, or, fLmding at a dillaiicc from 
tlic town, and halloo, ng till Ionic cuiuc out, to conduct you in. Othcrwife you are 
tiiouglu as ruin as ivhite men. 

f When the peopk of a town, or of a nation, arc addieiTtd, the Julians alvvayj 
life the fiajjular number. 

\ I. E. To confer in a friendly manner. 

§ /. E. Call to mind our anciirnt friendly intercourfe. 


70 APPENDn:., ' PartIL 

us iiu King Beaver flicwed us a large Jioufc to lodge in.* The peo- 
ple foon came ;uid Ihook hands with us. The number was about 
<ixty young able men. Soon after king BiUivcr came and told his 
people, "Boys, hearken, we fwt here without ever expecting 
again Xo fee our bretliren the Kiiglilh -, but now one of them is 
brought before you, that you may fee your brethren, the Engl\p^ 
with your own eyes ; and 1 wifli yini may take it into conlideration." 
Afterwards he turned to me and faid, 

" Brcnher, I am very glad to fee you, 1 never thought M'C 
fhould have had the opportunity to fee one another more; but 
now I ani very glad, and thank CIchI, u'ho has brouglit you to us. 
it is a great fatisfatlion to me." i laid, " Brc<ther, I rejoiee in 
my he.irt, I thank GotI, who has brought me to you. I bring 
you joyful news from the (;iovernor and people (;f Powf^^lniima^ 
and from your chiklren, the Friends .-j- and, as I have words of 
great confequence I will lay them before you, when '.:11 the kings 
and captains are called together from the other towns. I wifli 
tiiere may not be u man of them milRng, but that they nray be all 
liere to hear." 

■ In the evening king Beaver came again, and told me, they had 
held a council, and fent out to all their towns, hut it would take', 
live days before they could all come together. I thanked him for 
his care. Ten captains came and fainted me. One laid t.) tlie 
others •, " We never expeded to U e our brethren the Hi'g^'p again, 
but now God has grr.ntctl us once niove to ihake hands with them» 
which we will not forget." They fat by niy till nndnight. 

l.]th. 'i"hc people crowded to my houfe \ it was full. AVe 

Irad puuii talk. DtLware Cuc^rgc laid, he had not llept all night, 
lo much liad he been engaged on account of my coming. 1 he 
Frcfu-h c.une, and would fpeak with me. There were then fifteen 
of tliem b\iilding lioufes for the linlums. The captain is gone 
•.\\\.]\ [ifuen to another town, lie can ipeak the Indittn tongiie 
well. . 'I he liitlinns fay he is a cu-nning fox; that they g>-t a great 
ileal of goods fvum the 7'V,v/.',j .■ and that the French chMth the 
luuums Lvcry y>Mr, men, woiuen and clilldren, and give llieni as 
much po*\>ler and a.s tiiey v. an. 

— . — [i;lh. Ih'iii'cr king was inlermed, that J iwdy Jiii'![^ had 
fiid he had tuvncil the Jiatchet agaiidl the J ■')■<;."./.■, by aia'iee ol 
the yl!!>}i.i«:y linl'nuis ; this he blamed, a,; they had iu\cr Km hlui 
fuch .idviee. Init being informed it v/as liis (;W!i iloing, witliout 
any perfuafion of the Governor, he was eafy qn liead. Di- 


♦ F.vcry J.i.r^ii, town lias a large cabbiu for tiic fntcriainmciit of Riai^^cio l.^' Uic 
piii,]io li.)fi>iuiii!y. 

I 'riijt is. 'ic i^aLm, for ulioni thi.' Ltluuu li.ivc a particular n'jard. 

PaItIL appendix. ji 

lanua^e i3«///.7 prepared a dinner, to wliicli he invited, and all 
the kivgs and captains ; and when I came, he faid, " Brother, 
we arc- as glad to fee you among us, as if we dined with the Go- 
v'irnor and people in Philadelphia.. Wo have though.t a great deal 
fmce you have b_^en here. We never thought fo raucli before."* 
I thanked them for their kind reception ; I faid, it was fomething 
•great, th.v^ God had fpared our lives, to fee one another again, 
m the old brother-like love and fricndlhip. Th.ere were in all 
thirteen, %vho dined together. 

...In the evening they danced at my fire, lird t\\c men, and then 
t|ie women, till after midnight. 

• On the i6lh, the king and tlie captains called on me privately. 
They wanted to hear what Teethujl-ung had faid of them, and beg- 
ged me to takf out the waitings. I read to them what Teedyufcitng 
had faid, and told them, as Tccdyifciing had faid lie would fpeak 
fo loud, that all at JUighciiy, and beyond, Ihould hear it, I would 
conceal nothing from tliem. They laid, tliey nevi r fent any fueh 
advice (as abov^e nientioned) to lifdyifupnr, nor ever fent a mcf- 
fage at all to the govermnent ; and now the I'rciich were Ivere, 
their captain would come to hear, and tliis would make dillurhance. 
I then told their) I v/quld read the rell, and leave out that part, 
and they might tell the kings aiu' captains of it, when tliey came 

17th. Early this morning they called all the people toge- 
ther t.) clean the place, where they intended to hokl the council, 
it being in the midiUe of the town. Kujlhujhhcc is divided into 
iour towns, each at a tii(laiu-e from the cithers-, and the whole 
confills cd about ninety houlcs, ami two hundred able warriors. 

About noon two public mefiengcrs airived from the Indians at 
fort Duqinj'it'J and the other towns. They brought tliree large 
b.lis and two bundles of Itvings jf there came \\ ilh tJiem a French 
captain, and fifteen men. The two nuflengers inlilled that I 
livndd go v.'ith them to fort Dt/qiuJ/ic ; th;;t there were Indians of 
liglit nations, who wanted to hear me ; that if 1 brought good news, 
they inclined to leave ofl' war, ami live in friendrii;[) with the En- 
vi'ij.j. a'jjve meliengers being Jm/ia/i e;;pt.a:;s, were very 


' 'I'li.i: i.,, v.c ]u ,K oil your coiir;ii;j_- ;i5 a niattcr of iniport:uKc, i: cr.^^raj^t 6 our i-t- 


t ■riicfp h,"lts ami firiivrs an- maJc of Oicll-bcaJs ca'.Ld ■,ru.:,j: w. -{hv i,:.mpL.m 
'i':\-s'i, among the 7/;..'.-;;m, as iiiniK-y ; ol" it ihcy alio make tiuMii.clilaLi's, liiacckts, 
atKloth.T ornainciits. B.-ltb ?ini\ Itrinjri of it are ufcd in a!! puljlij lu-gotiations; ;•.) 
ficli liilr. or ilriii^c rJ^-''<? '^ comictiUil a iiuiri^rtf, fpedi, u\ put of a fivttli, to he 

<khvir,-a vvkI, a l.di hy the lacihiij^a-, v.x fpuuL-r 'l-h.-f; l>,.,u all", i'.rvc f<,r rccor.i.. 
hJuii vvoi-l...J \w.h ^1^ .r.s, coa:..,;.J of b^ad. of diflVi.iit , ..h...., .u ..Jut ll:c ui.- 

72 APPENDIX. Part/- IT. 

furly. Wlien I went to fhake hands with one of them, he ga\,*e mc 
Ills little linger ; the other witlulrew his hand entirely ; upon '/hich 
I appeared as Itout as eitherj anil withdrew my hand as qiiick as 
I coidd. Their rudenefs to me was taken very ill by the oth er cap- 
tains, who treated them in the lame manner in their tu xn. 

I told tliem my order was to go to the Ir.dum towns, V.ing5 and 
captains, and not to the French ,- that the EngUp we/e at war 
with the French, hut not with thofe Indians^ who with' ire w from 
the French, and would be at peace with the EngljJJj. 

King Beaver invited me to his houfe to dinner, am'J afterwards 
he invited the French captain, and faid before the Frc/nhnian, that 
the Indians were very proud to fee one of their brothers, the Ffi- 
g/'j^J, among tt'em ; at v/hich the 7''/v/;r/j captain app :ared low fpi- 
riced, and fecmed to eat his dinner with very little appetite. 

In the afternoon the Indian kings and captains c.dled me afide, 
and dehrcd me to read them the writings tliat I had. FirlL I read 
part of the Fajlon treaty to tliem; but they prefentjy flopped me, 
:\\\i\ would not hear it ; I tlien began with the aviicles of p^-ace 
made with the Lidinns there. They ilojiped me a-^ain, and faid, 
they had nothing to fay to any treaty, or league, of peace, made 
at FiiJIon^ nor had any thing to do with '^ludjujiving ,• tliat, if I 
liad nothing to fay to tliem from the government^ or Governor, 
tliey wouUl have iiothing to fay to me-, and farther faid, they had 
hitherto been at war with the 7:,",-;j /■//'-, and had never expc<!^lctl to 
be at peace with them again ; and that there were fix of tiieir men 
now gone to war againil them with other hidians ,- that had there 
been peace between us, thofe men Ihould not have gone to war. f 
then Jhewed ihcm the bells and ilrings from the Uovernor ; and 
I hey again told me to lay afule Tecd\ufcungy anil the peace made 
by him-, for tliat they had nothiiig to do with it.* I defired 
liiem to fuller me to produce my papers, and I v/ould read what 
I Ii id to lay to them. 

-1 8ih. D.dvwi^re George is very ac1:ive in endeavouring to ella- 

bliih a peace. 1 believe he is in earnelL Hitherto they have all 
treated me kiniUy. 

In the aftn-iioon, nil thi£ kings and captains were called together, 
and lent for nie to their tcm-icij. King Beaver fuil: addrefled him- 
ielf to tiie c.'n'tains ; and atterwards Ipoke to nie, us loUows : 

" Brother, 

- 1"he peace iv.i\A: wilh T.\:fyi.fti'/if, was l'(ir the 1) !.i-,l\iii:s, £<c. cjn Sufr/jaih.iniu only, 
ar.diliil not in.:iu(.L- rjic I'l.' on tlu' 0/jio ; tli-.y Iiavinjr no diiiiitics ai tlii; treaty. But 
lie }i;i'l prniiiiKti t., /.■,u'/.> to ih-'ViU th«t i<, h\,d iiuJliiiucri to them, auj ciiUcavour 10 

lir/w thcin iiito tl.- pcici-, wlikli he yccoriliii^^ly did. 

Part II. APPENDIX. 73 

"" Brother, youluve been here now five days by our fire.* We 
, h^ve fent to all the knigs and captains, dcfiring tliem to come to our 
!■ /ire and hear the good news you brought. Yeilerday they fcnt 
two captauis to acquaint us, they were glad to hear our Englljh bro- 
ther was come among us, and were defirous to hear the good 
news he brought •, and fince there are a great many nations that 
went to fee our brother, they have invited us to their fire, that 
they may hear us all. Now, brother, we have but onp great fire ; 
fo, brother, by this firing we will take you in our arms, and de- 
liver you into the arms of the otiier kings, and when we have 
called all the nations there, we will hear the good news, you have 
brought." Delivers four firings. 

King Reaver, SLiiigas, ami Delaware Gccrge, fpoke as follows: 

" Brother, we alone cannot make a peace ; it wouki be of no 
fjgnification ; for, as all the Indiatis, from tlie fun-rife to the fun- 
fet, are united in a body, it is necefiary that the whole Ihouki 
join in the peace, or it can be no peace ; and we can aflure you, 
all the Indians, a great way from this, even beyond the lakes, ares 
defirous of, and wifir for a peace with the Etigljh, and have defired 
" us, as we are the ncarefi: of kin, if we fee the Englijh incline to 
a pcace^ to hold it fall." 

On the 19th, all the people gatliered togetlier, men, women, 
and children ; and king Beaver delired me to read to them the news 
I had brought, and told me that all the able men would go with 
me to the ether town. I complied with liis defire, and they ap- 
•pcared very mucli pleafed at every thing, till I came to that part 
refpeifting the prifoners. 'fliis they dilhked ; for, they fiiy, it 
appears very odil and unreafonable that \\e lliould demand priion- 
crs before there is an eihiblilhcii peace ; fuch an unreafonable tle- 
mantl makes us appear as it we wanted brains. 

20th. We fet out from Kiijuhiphce, for Satilonh ; my com- 
pany coniilhed of twenty-five horfemen and fifteen foot. We ar- 
rived at Satikoiiky in the afternoon, llie people of trie town were 
much difturbed at my coining, and received me in a very rough 
m.inner. They furrounded me with drawn knives in their hands, 
in fuch a manner, that 1 Could hardly get along ; running up 
againll me, with their breafls opv-n, as if they wanted fome pre- 
tence to kill me. I faw by their countenances they fought my 
death. Their faces were quite diilorted with rage, and lliey went 
fo far as to fay, I fiiould not live long ; but fome Indians, witli 
\vhom I was formerly acquainted, coming up, ami f •.luting mirin 
,a friendly manner, their behaviuur to uic waj quickly changed. 


* A fire, in piililic aff-iiri, fijnilijj, ainon^ the }nd!.i,n-, a courjoil. 


APPENDIX. . Part if. 

On the 2 ill:, they fenr Menengcvs to Fort Duquefne, to let them 
know I was there, and invited tliem to their fire. In the •after- 
noon, I rcail them all my meihige, cthe Fretuh captain being pre- 
fent ; for he Hill continued with us : upon which they were more 
kind to me. In the evening, fifteen more arrived here from Kujh- 
kujhhe. The men here now about one huntlred and twenty. 

2 2d. Arriveil about twenty Slvnun/iffe and M'wgos. I reail 

to them the mellage ; at which they feemed well pleafed. Then 
the two Icings came to me, and fpoke in the following manner : 

*' Brotlier, we, the Sha'ivatirfi- and Allngos, have heard your 
mcdage ; the medenger we lent to Fort Duqiiefncy is returned, and 
tells U!?, there are eight iliflerent nations there, who want to hear 
your melTage •, we will condu(fl: you tliere, and let both the Indians 
and Fn/ich hear what our brothers, the Engiiih, have to fay." 

I protefLcd againll going to Fort Duqucfne, but all in vain \ for 
they infilled on niy going, and faid that I need not feartlie Fremhy 
for they would carry mc in their bofoms, i. e. engage for my 

23d. We fet off for Fort Duquef/ie, and went 110 farther 

tliis night than Log's town, where I met with four Hhtinvatu-fe^ 
who lived in Jfyoini/ig when I did. They received me very kindly, 
and called the prifoners to Ihake hands with me, as their country- 
man, and gave me leave to go into every houfe to fee them, which 
was done in no other town befides. 

24th. They called to mc, and defired that I would write 

to the general for them. The jealoufy natural to the Indmtts is 
not tc be dcfcribed; for lliough they wanted me to write for 
them, tl;cy were afraid I would, at the fime time, give other 
information, and this perplexed them. 

AVe continued our journey to the fort ; and arrived in fight,- on 
this fide the river, in the afternoon, and all the Im//u/i chiefs 
innnediately.came over ; they called me into tlie middle, and king 
Bunnr prcfented me to tliem, and find, " Here is our Eru'lijh 
brotlier, who has brouglit great news." Two of them rofe up 
and figniiietl they were glad to fee me. But an old deaf Onondago 
Iiulidii rofe uj) and fignified his dilpleafure. Tliis IndidH is much 
didiked by tlie others; he had heard notliing yet, that had pafleil, ' 
lie has lived here a great while, and conilantly lives in the fort, and 
is mightily attached to the h'lanh ; lie fpoke us follows, to the i);-- 

" 1 c1q 

Part If. A P P E N D IX. j^ 

" I ilo not tliis Siva;ii!o,l- ;* it may be that you kno"\r liini. 
{, the SLaiviuiife^ aiul our father|- ilo not know liim. J Hand licre 
(( his foot) as a man on his ov/n ground \X therefore, I, 
the Shaicar.tfi and my father do not like that a Sivaiuioch conie on 
our ground." Tlien tliure wai; fdence awhile, till tlic jiipc went 
rouml ;S after that \v as over, owe of the Dc'lavjares \o[^ \\\), anil 
fpoke in opnofition to him th.'.t fpoke lait, and delivered himfclf 
as follows : 

" 'n^at man fpeaks not as a •, lie endeavours to frighten 
U"^, by faying this ground is liis ; he dreams j he -.ind his lather 
li.ive eertainly drank too mueh lic|uor ; they are ihuuk •, pray let 
them go to fleep till they be fober. Tou i\o not know wlvat your 
own nation does, at home-, how much they have to fay to the 
Swannod'C You arc quite rotten^ You ftink,|| You do no- 
thing but fmoke y(3ur pipe here. Goto lleep witli your father, 
and when you are fober we will fpeak to you." 

After this the French demanded me of tlic Inchnns. They faid 
it was a cultoni among the white people wheii a meflenger eame, 
even if it tlie Governor, to blind his eyes, and lead into 
the fort, to a prifon, or private room. They, with fome of the 
Indians infilled very much on my being fent into the fort, but to 
no piupofe ; for the other Indians f liil to the French ; " It may 
be a rule among you, but we have brought liim here, that all the 
Indians miglit fee him, and hear what our brothers the Englifli 
have to fay, anil we will not fuller him to be blinded and carried 
into the fori." Tlie French Hill infilled on my being delivered to 
them ; but tlie hidinns tlelircd tliem, to let them he;vr no more 
about i'. -, but to fend them one Innidred loaves of bread ; for th^y 
were hungry. 

x^\.\\. Tills morning early iliey fent us over a large bid- 

loek, and ,dl the Lidian ehief; eamc over again, and eounfelled a 
great de;d among themfelves •, then the Deln-ivare^ that handled 
the old ili.'al 0/iondago Indian fo roughly yederikiy, adthxlletl him- 
felf to Jiim, in iliis manner; ^' I iu)pe, to day, you are fober. I 

Vol.. JI. fs;] am 

• /. E. 'J' r.iij^li.liman. 

\ Ejr Ltlur, thfj txpif-ru tliC V'/r/jii. 

t I5y !, h:' lure uieuns, I, the Six N.-tiu:,; , nf ■». li;i li tli." 0?.(,n..^;_p» 'j :.rc M'.e ( f tlr 
rrcuttlb. 'J'his wj^, tLi-rcfoit-, a claim v\' ihi- (>l lu lavil ., ,il, b j<.|-vi - lu l! t. Imj. 
'bJatiors, i-tckilivc i^f tiu Pdu-.iur.s, v.l.on the) U,i\ lahcil w. 11101.'^ 

<} The J'l.l'icns fir.dlLL- ill tlieir touiicils. 

y Tlua !•<, ill' iVi'tiiiuiits you fj.jTiC, yrc ■-.'ui.Iivr tc d.w ^i-riij;.iy 


76 APPENDIX. r.iRTlI. ^' 

nin certain you tliil iK^t know what yuu ia'ul yellcrday. You cii- 
(UnvoiniNl ti) lVi;^'!tt;n us; but know, iul' are iioiv men, and not f(,/ 
fafjiy iri^^htciR-cl. You laid ionictlnnp; ycllerday (jf tlie S/.tiiiuturfc ; 
ic<i hcvc Vv hat they have fcnt you," (pi-ijc/ilin^ bhn 'ivhh a Ln'^f nil 
cf tuLuru.) 

Then tiW old deaf huhaii vofe up, and acknowledged he had 
Ik'l-ii id thcwion;',-, he iaid, that he had u.iw il.juid hunfclf^* and 
lioped tliey xwuiid forgive Idni. 

'i'hen th.; Dehtware delivered the nieflage, that was iLUt by liic 
tiha'nhinrfr, w hi; h wa.s, " That lliey lioped the JX-ldiutires, &c. 
would be llroiig,|- in what they \v'eie uiulertaking ; tliat they were 
extremely prcnid to liear luch good news from their broihers, the 
Jif:\J'i!j ; til, it whatever contracts lliey made with the li/i^JyJjy the 
''v!'./>;r,?y/,'/" \; ould agree 10; tliat they were their brotheis, and 
that lliey loved them." 

'Y\\c }')\ /:./.■> whiipered to tlic Indiins, as I imagined, t(j iafifl on 
my delivering what 1 hail to lay, on the (oilier lide of the water. 
Which tliey did to no purjxjfe, for my company Hill infilled on a 
hearing; on iliis fule the water, 'i'he iiii'luins cioH'ed the river to 
louncii V. iili thiir iuithfrs.\ l\Iy company deHretl to know wlie- 
ther they would he,u- me or no. This afteinoon three lunidrcil 
iHUic'dniiis arrived at the fort, and re[)ortetl tluit hx luauh'cd nK)ie 
were foon to follow tliem, wu^ iorly batloes l.ulen with ainunition. 
.Some of my party tlenrcti me ntit to illr Ironi the live; {ox that the- 
I'rvihh liail oiiered a great reward lor my it. dp, a)ul tliat th.erc 
were feveral parties tnit on that jiuipole. Aeeorilingly 1 llucic 
e. nlboilly .; 1 dole to the lire, as if I had been chaineil there. 

i(a\\. Tlie lhii'\ins, with a great nrany of tlie I'reneh oPIcerSj. 

came over te; lu\n- v«hat 1 liad to fay. 'i'he olficers brought witli 
them a table, pens, ink and paper. 1 fpoke in tlic mitUlle of tb.eni 
with a free cunfeience, and perceived by the k)ok t/t the l'i\iirh^ 
tiiey v.cre not plealed with what I faitl ; tlie particulars (jf whieli 
were as fuIio\\'s ; I fpoke iii the n.nne of the government and peo- 
ple of ]\tjilvania. 

«< !>rethreu at Allegheny, We leave a long time deured to fee 
iiiul from you; you kiu)\v tiie r(»ad was cjuire llopi ; and wc 
i.ivl not know how to come through. ^Ve have lent niariy menen- 
• :ij to ve.u ; but we (.livl not lie. a' of you; nov/ we are very glad 

' 1 luiL I.., lu h.ul cK.mfeca I.i* ofr>.ii(ivc fciinmciUi,. 

I 'iK.a u, liuatl..') %v.Hi;>; act vi-orouily. 

Part II. 

A P P !•: 11 D I X. 


we hnvc fouiiil nn opening to come and fee yon, nnd to fpc-.'-k 
will! yo\i, and to hear ymrr true niiiul and rcfolution. V/e raluce 
yon very iieavtily.'' A llring, No. i, 

" lircrhreii nt A'lcgluny, Take notice of wliat I iay. Yon 
know that the bad fpirit has broinrlit lomcthing bct\v<-en ns, 
has ]:(:pt ns at a diilance one from another; 1 now, by tlii,; belt, 
take every thmjf (nit of the way, th.'.t the bad fpn-it lias 
between ns, and all the jealouiy and fearfnliiefs we hail of vwc. 
another, and \vdntever elfe the b.'.d fpirit might have poijbned 
your heart and mlml with, that notliin;,!; oi it may be Irll. More- 
over let ns look up to God, and beg l.-r his a{iill;mre, tiiat he may 
put into our hearts pleah s liini, and jinn <is eJoi'e in that bro- 
therly love and friendlliip, whieh our gr.imii\^lliers had. AVe alllire 
you ot our love towards you." A heir oi eleven rows.' 

" Brotiir:r3 at Allegheny, Hearken lo wiiat i f :y •, v/e biM^nn to 
hear of you from ll'dicin, ;^!:ih'i.u!:^ \\\\o relunieil hoin Aiti'i].h-:r:. 
We heard you but a lligh.t eonfufial :;eeount of us; aiui di I 
not know ot tlie jK'aee, wc made tx'/elve months, in liiijloiu 
It was then agreed, that rlie large belt of peaee fhouid be lent to 
yoti at Ailfghf/iy. As thefe our two old Irieiuls fn in AUrJ.^cuy^ 
who are known to mam' here, tound :in (^jieidiij'; to eome to 
our conned lire, to fee with tlieir ov.-n eyes, to lit w iih ns 1.k\; to 
face, to he;n- with their own ears, every thing that lias bet n tranl- 
nctcd between us; it gives me .md all tlie people of t'le provinee 
great pleafure to fee them among ns. And! allure all my |)r,:t!ireii 
at At'/i-^j/.>:'i\\ that nothing would pleafe me, and all the neojde of 
• the p^(^\i:l■■e iKti.r, tlian to fe»; oiu- countrymen t\\^- ])r/jn\>rrs 
well ieltl'-il among us." A belt. 

" Hearke!!, my brel'aren at yJ//r<^/.'t7/y. When we beg;i!i to mr.kc' 
peaee with the Dda-ivarrs, twelve monilis ago, in behalf of ten 
other nations, we ojiencd a road, and cleared the bullies from the 
blood, .md gathered all the bones, on both fides, together; and 
when we Ind brought tliem togetiicr, in one Iieap, we could lind 
MO place to bury them : \ye would not Inny them as mir gr iinlfa- 
thersdid. They buried tiiem under ground, where tlrry may be lound 
a;';ain. AVe prayed to (Ind, tint he woidd have merry nii us, and 
take all thefe bones away from ns, aiul hide th.em, they miglm 
never Iv found any mon" ; aiul take Irom hotli fiJes all the reniein- 
br.mce;f them out of our h.ent and mind. An^l wc liave a iirm 
eoiifid 'n-e, that (Ind will be pleafed to take a'l the b;-,nes and 
li'tL- tliem fro!n us, tiKit they may never be remeirhaed bv ns, 
\vhde v/e live, nor our children,, nor gr.nid cldldren, lierea.ftrr. 
'Tiic h.njehet was bu\l'?'l on b.rt.'i \\'\-., aii.l large o{ p'eaec 


A P P I' M I) I X. 

Part II. 

cxcliani^cil. Since \vc liave cleareJ every tliinp; from llie lieaU, ami 
taken every iniii^;; out of the way, now, my hreiliren i\t Alh'iihoiyy 
every one that hears me, if you will join with us, in th/,;t brotherly 
love and friendihip, v/Iileh our grand-la.thers had, we af/ure you, 
ihat all pafl oilenees fli.dl be forgotten, and never more talked of 
by us, our children and grand children hereait'.r. "^Ihis belt al- 
lures you of our (incerily, and honcli and upright licart tov.'ards' 
you." A belt of ieven rows. 

" Hearken, brethren at .•///,;(7.r;;v. 1 have lold you that we 
really made peace v/ith p.irt of youi nation, twelve month.-, pad-, 
[ now by lliisbelt open the road from ^-i!!.[ihtii\ \o our ccunril hre, 
v/here your jTr.nulfatlr.'vs k-pt p;ood councils with us, that all may 
p.afs without ino'ei'.ation or dan;,!er. You mull be feni'lb!,-, that 
unlcfs a rcKul be kept open, people at \ariance can never eenve to- 
j;;ether to make up tlieir dilferences. ]Mefleii;,;ers arc nee in all na- 
tions tliroii'ik'.'ut tlie world, by a particular to!;en. Nov.-, bre- 
thren at yll.'ii^/:i;/y, 1 dehre you will join v/ith me in keeping the 
road open, \\m\ let us know in what nranner we m.iy come free to 
you, and v, h.;L the ttd.en Ihull be. I jnin lioth my hamls to yours, 
and will do all m my power to keep the road open." A belt ol 
(even rows. 

'•' Now, brethren at A!!i-^J>e>i\'^ Hear what I f.;y. Kvery one 
that lays h.old of this belt o'i ], 1 proelaim. peace to tliem from the 
l.iivjijh nation, and let yen ku^.w that ihe :- king oi Ergland 
does not incniie to liave war w itii the Luiums ,- but he wants to live 
in peace and love witli iluni, if they v.'lll lay down the Iiatehet, leave od' w ar ;i;;ain(l h.iin.'' 

" We love von farther, we let you know that tlie great king of 
El, inland has lent a great lunnber of warriors into this country, not 
to go to war againlL the I/idiaiis, in their towns, no, not at all; thefe 
warriois arc going agahifl the lueiuh ,■ they .ne on the n)arcli to the 
Ohio, to revenge tl\e blood they have Ihtd. And by this belt I 
t, you by fb.e liand, and lead you at a dillance from the Frcmh^ 
for your own I'.dcts', that your legs m.iy not be flained with blood. 
Come awav i n this fule of the motuitain, where we ma.y oitener 
converfe together, auvl where your own iLlh and blood lives. AVe 
look upon ve.u as our countrymen, thr.r fprimg out of the fame 
ground wnn us j we lliink, therefere, that it is our duty to take 
care of yi)u, and we in brotherly love advife you to come aw.iy 
with yeur wliole nation, ;md as many of yi'ur triend:; as you can 
gvt to fullo.-.- )OU. \\'e i\o not co.iu" to hurt you, wc love you, 
therefore wc do not cdl yon to v/arj x\\.\ \\'U may bellain ; wh; i 1;(- 
iiefit will it be to yvu tu go lo war viih your own iklh and Liecd ? 

Part IT. APPENDIX. 79 

I AVe wifii you may live without fc:iv or d.ingcr v/ith your worncn 
luul children." The large peace belt, 

<' Brethren, I have alniotl finlHied v/liat I ];ad to fay, and licpc 
it will be to your fatisfacSlion ; r.iy \vi(h is, that we may jf-ia ch le 
together in that old brotherly love and friendfliip, wldeh our 
^rrandfathers had •, ib that all the nations may hear and fee us, and 
have tlic beiieiit (;f it ; ar.d il" you have any unearmefs, or eoiu- 
plaint, in your heart and mind, do not keep it to yourrdf. Wc 
Invc oD-i'ei tlie roai.1 to the council hre, thercrore, mv brethren, 
convj and aec|nai!it the (Jovernur with it; you will be readily 
heaid, and full julliee will be done you." A belt. 

" Brethren, One thing I mull: bring to your remembrance. 
You k:io\Vj it any body kifes a little child, or feme body takes it 
from liim, he cannot be cafy, he will think on his child by day 
and night-, fmce our llelh and blood is in captivity, in the 1/uUan 
tov/ns, we deiire you will rejoice tlie coun.try's heart, and bring 
them to me ; 1 fhall flreteli out my arms to receive you kindly." 
A firing. 

After I lind done, I left my belts and firings flill before tliem. 
The Dt'lcvivarts took thenr all up, and laid them before the AUn- 
^Gds :^ upon v/lueh they rofe up, and fpoke as follows: 

*« Chitii^ What I have heard pleafes me well •, I do not know 
why I go to war againll the Englljh, Noques^ what do you tliink .'* 
You mult be ftrong. I did not begin the war, therefore, 1 have 
little to fay •, but whatever you a.gree to, I will (\o the fame." 
Tlu'U he addvJlld himfelf to the S/::i^iui;!^J}, and laid, " You 
brougiit the liitchet to us Irom ilie rrah'!:, and pcrfnaded us to 
flrike our broLhcri the Kn^dijh ; you may confider (laying llie belts, 
tkc before them) wlierefore you have done this." 

The Shanuanefe acknowledged they received the hatchet from tlie 
Frc-i^-h, who perfuaded them to flrike the Englijh ,- that tliey would 
now lend the belts to all the Imlians^ and in twelve days would 
meet again. 

Prefent at this council, three hundred Frrrirh and Indians, 
They all tof)k leave, and went over again to the fort, but my com- 
panions, wliu were aboiit feventy in nun'iber. 

Shainckin Daniel, wlio came witli me, went over to the fort by 
himfelt, (which my coUipanions difipproved of ) antl ci/imrfUed 
with the Ciovernor ; who pi-efeiited liim with a laced and liat, 
a blanket, liiiris, riblions, ;i new gim, pov.\ler, lend, t:'-;c. AViien 
he retur-;ed he v/as quite changed, and iV/ul, " .See here, you 


' Tie fAi N::;cn«. 

A P P K N I) I X. 

Part II. 

fools, wiiat tlic /Vi.vT.o Iravc p;iven mc. I war, in Philndlphia^ ar*! 
never nw ivcd a {iirthiivj; ;'' aiu!, (lirecciti!!; liimi"'.'!i' vo nic, he iHid, 
" Tl:c l',n-;lilli ww f^uils, n-id lo arc ycHi." In il.'.Mt. lie beb;iveil 
in n very j'V' lu!, faiu-y \\\k\ impcrinus p.ianner. Tic niithev luiJ", 
" TI)C A// ■.'VvMK'/er ),n\j tlic Lniuuis any povv-tlcr, and tfi.n ihc i-nruh 
would Irivc }Mvf!i Jiini a horfcli^.ad, if ];C would Iravc lalccn it ; fee 
th-at youn'r mm th._>r.', he wa:'. in J-'iji'r-lclphht \v.\A never y;<i'c -.niy 
tliin;.;; • { n'i!! ta.I;c liim over to the D.^ii/:, and get forae cioath.iug 
for jiini." 

Three I'lJlnn.': iiifornicd me, tiiat a.s icon nstlie Fi\'i!:': got over, 
thev ea!li d, a e^ unci, v/ith :heir own J/u!:,'>ij, anioni:!; v«-hcm there 
happened aeei''e:'t;:ily !;> be a I)c'!i>iv,i'-j captain, wh.o was privately 
invited by ci:i'- cf liis aequ;ii'; t(^ hear VA'liat tlic I'r^neh. had 
to fay; an.d. when they were alTemlded, the Frui.h fpoivC, as fol- 
io v»-,s : 

" ]\Iy ci'iiKlren, nov/ we are aione, licarlccn to wlia.t T have to 
fay. I jievecivc llie IJi'iawnn'^ arc wavering; they incline to tlie 
EagHp.', and will be fntliful to \\^ no longer. Now all their chiefs 
arc here, ae-d but a liandiul, let u'-, cut them oih, and tlien v/e 
fliall be troubled v/itli them v.o longer." Then tlie "Tti^r.i.K nn- 
fwered, " No, we cannot do this tiling ; for tlicagh there is but 
;i haiulful here, the Dr^nrmrcnc a flrong people, and are Ipread 
lo a great tliilance, ;nul \\'hatever they a.gree to nuilt be." 

This aft- rno(^n, in C(^uneil, on tlie otJier iidc of the liver, tlie 
I'n::.h infilled tiiat I nniil be delivercil up to tlicm, and tl'.it it 
Mas 11'.. r l.iwl'ul forme ti>j':n away; which oce-.tfioncd a c,uarrel be- 
tween tie ni and the /,•/,,'/<;..■'■, \A\o innncdiately cariu- away and 
crolied. tl.M; i-l\i_r to me; and lonv of them let mo knov/ tlia.t 7;,.'- 
//.r/had rtxei'/etl a ILring fi\)m the l-raub, to leave me there ; but It 
v:?::, {o no jHirpof.^, for they would not gi\'e tlieir c(Milent; and 
tiien agreed tliat 1 ib.ould fet oil' before tlay the next murning. 

;\nii tool; anothier ro:ul, that v.-e might not be feen ; the m;un body 
. t(dd nii;, thry would llay l)ehindi, to knciw wdktlier tlie I'lOKn 
i\'i,nld :n.a've an attempt to t.d;-: me by b ree ; t;n;t 'f th.ev did, 
they, tiic /•/.'.'. '.'/r, w\ndd ende i\ '-"en- to prexcnt their crof mg tb.; 
river, anil coming feeretly npo;i me. juil as I fet oiTtlic /•/(;/.■•,:'> 
lired ait their grer.t gun'^, it Iv.irg Sumlay (i Cou;ile<l nniL'eje'-) 
;rnd eor.ciuded they did tl'.e lame every Salb.nln W :- jiaiied 
tln-oui^Ii three S.{;i--7f<i;-rf' tcw:is; the Jrui,':r: appe.ocd v^-y p'-. '"1 
ti^i fee rae r; turn, :nul we arrived ab;^:e.t i:i;;ht at ."^'.t'' ev,', w]i;-e 
tlrcy were 'i! wile \'cvy glad t:) \<:c me returm I bv I n<';t: with 
tlie lv;o eapt .!!:■•, \» ho treated mc fo unci', illy Ijcfove 5 ili' v i\ i" 


Part II. 

A P P E N D 1 :(. 

received nv- vcvy kindly, and accepted of \\\y, and p.]-)(ilo- 
f'gi/ed for tiicir former rude In-huviour. Their naracii are K/uL^Ne